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By Robert William English A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Education

The Pennsylvania state College The Graduate School Department of Industrial Education June 1950 APPROVED:

S. LewlffhBmdrr Heai Department of Industrial Education

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sincere thanks are hereby expressed to the many persons whose cumulative and combined efforts have resulted in the development of this study. The author wishes to express his appreciation to his dissertation committee:

Professor s. Lewis Land, Chairman,

professor John F.

Priese, Professor Irwin Rowntree, rrofessor

Palmer 0. Weaver,

and Professor Mary Jane Wyland.

Appreciation is especially due to those who developed the educational programs and the buildings of the schools from which the primary

data of this study were obtained.

The co­

operation of the Interviewees, from w h o m these data

were ob­

tained, was a tribute to those factors which have given their schools excellent programs of vocational-industrial and vo­ cational-technical education. The participation of members of the staff of the New York state Education Department is gratefully acknowledged. The contributions of A. K.

Getman, Frank P. Johnson, Don Essex,

and William N. Fenninger were especially helpful. The constant encouragement of my wife, Margaret Catherine English,

is gratefully acknowledged.

Robert W. English

ii *? ■*rf r~ ■- ->



I s T O P ILLUSTRATIONS.......................................


chapter I.



The P r o b l e m ................................. 1 Limitations 01 the s t u d y ................... 1 Need for the study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Probable Values of the s t u d y ............... 4 Definitions .................................... Plan of Developing and Presenting Material. • II.

REVIEW OP R e l a t e d

l i t e r a t u r e .................

4 5


Early American Papers on School Buildings . . Guides for Specific Curricular A r e a s ...... 12 rubllcations of Associations, societies and M a n u f a c t u r e r s .......................... 15 Recent Books on School Build i n g s .......... 16 Planning G r i d e s .................... University and state Department Publications. Industrial Education Building G u i d e s ...... 21 Itemized Review by T o p i c s ................. 24 Planning Procedures...................... 24 General Considerations .................... Sizes and Shapes of S h o p s ............... 29 Flexibility. ................................ Layout of Floor S p a c e ................... 35 services In S h o p s ........................ 38 Auxiliary Rooms and Facilities ........... F l o o r s ................................... 41 Acoustics in S h o p s ...................... 42 seeing with Comfort and Efficiency . . . . Heating and Ventilation................. 49




17 19

27 33 40 45

Chapter III.



One: Two: Three: Pour:

survey of Related Literature . . Limitations of the Problem . • • selection of Research Methods. . Developing and Validating Inquiry F o r m • ................ Five: Selection of Schools to be studied and personnel to be Interviewed....................... six: collection of D a t a on "Existent" and "Desired" Building F a c i l i t i e s ....................... Seven: Summary of Data and Their Statistical Treatments ......... Eight: Statement of Desirable F a c i l i t i e s ....................... Nine: The Accredited J u r y .............. Ten: Developing Recommendations Approved by Jury Judgnents . . . Eleven: The Planning Guide ..............

THE NEW YORK PLANNING GUIDE FOn INDUSTRIAL e d u c a t i o n b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s .................. Title P a g e ..................................... personnel of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds ......................... Table of C o n t e n t s .............................. p r e f a c e ......................................... Introduction..................................... Types of Industrial E d u c a t i o n ................ Vooational-Educatlon. VocationalIndustrial Education. VocationalTechnical. Education. Adult Education. Industrial Arts Education. Planning Procedures ........................... School Officials' Responsibilities General Considerations......................... Location of School Sites* Location of Shops in Building Wings. Location of Shops in Separate Buildings. Relative Location of Shops. Special Classrooms. Floor Level Locations of Shops. Elevators. Safety. Sizes and Shapes of S h o p s ..................... Sizes of Shops. Shapes of Shops. Ceiling Heights. Mezzanines. Pupil-Teacher Ratios. Determining the Number of Shops. iv

52 52 54 56 57 59 64 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 74 76 77

80 81


Chapter F l e x i b i l i t y ....................................... rartitlons. Fenestration. Electric Services. Electric Power, electric Lighting Circuits. Layout of Floor s p a c e ............................ ■spacing of Equipment. Open Floor Space. Doorways. Location of Benches. LecturePlanning Areas. Projection-Aids Area. Shop Storage. Tool storage Panels, chalkboards. Bulletin Boards. Services in S h o p s .............................. Electrio Outlets. Power Capacity. Electric Control Panels. Oas. Water. Drinking Fountain. Compressed Air. Fire Extinguisher. Auxiliary Booms and Facilities.................. Offices. Belated Subjeots Classroom. Belated Science Laboratories. Toolrooms. Supply Storage. Lockers. Project and Product Storage. Finishing Booms. Toilets. Wash Booms. Display Centers. Corridor Gates. F l o o r s ........................................... Floor Loads. Machinery Mounting, shop Floors. Abrasive Floor Areas. Floor Drains. Acoustics in Shops .............................. seeing with Comfort and Efficiency ............. Daylight Sources. Daylight Shading and Deflection. Window sill Heights. Levels of Illumination. Glare. Recommended Beflectances and Colors. Heating and Ventilating ....................... Zoning, special Heating Problems. Ventilation. Bibliography (of New York G u i d e ).............. Begents of The University of the State of New Y o r k ......................................... V.

SUMMABY OF DATA COLLECTED IN VISITS TO PKOGRAMS OF VOCATIONAL-INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONALTECHNICAL EDUCATION IN GREATER NEW YORK a TATE . Introduction.................................... General considerations......................... Accessibility of Buildings, shop Locations Floor Level Locations. Elevator Service. Shop Sizes and S h a p e s ......................... Ceiling Heights. Mezzanines. Open Shop Areas. Shapes of Shops. Pupil Enrolment. Square Footage Per rupil. F l e x i b i l i t y .................................... Partitions. Fenestration. Electrical services. Lighting Controls. v

rage 90





113 114

120 123 125

126 126 127 129



Page Layout of Equipment, Floor space, and Services in S h o p s ......................... .. Spacing of Equipment. Open Areas in Shops. Doorways* storage space Within Shops. Machinery Mounting. Bench Locations. Electric Control Panels. Electric Current Capacity. Gas capacity. Water. Compressed Air. Drinking Fountains. Fire Extinguisher. First Aid Kits. Waste Containers. Planning Areas. rroJection-AIds Area. Chalkboards. Bulletin Boards. Tool Storage Panels. Project Storage. Auxiliary Rooms and Facilities ........... • • Offices for Administrators and Supervisors. Offices for Teachers. Supply Storage. Tool Rooms* storage for Evening School. The Shop classroom. The Shop Library. Storage for Audio-Visual Instructional Materials. Locker Rooms. Toilets. Wash Rooms. Finishing Room. Display Centers. Floors and Floor Coverings.................... Floor Loads. Flooring Materials. Abrasive Floor Surfaces. Floor Drainage. Audio-Visual Comfort and efficiency . . • • . Acoustics in Shops. Daylight Illumination. Window Shading and Daylight Reflection. Illumination Intensities. Types of Fixtures. Special Lighting. Glare, colors. Heating and Ventilating ....................... Adequacy of Heat. Ventilating Systems. Dust, smoke, and Fumes. Recommendations for Building Planning Procedures. . . . • ...........................


THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE NEW YORK G U I D E .................................... Types of Industrial Education ................ Planning rrocedures ........................... General considerations......................... Location of School ^ites. Location of Shops in Building Wings. Relative Location of Shops. Location of Shops in Separate Buildings. Floor Level Locations of Shops. Safety. sizes and Shapes of S h o p s ............. . . . Sizes, shapes of Shops, celling Heights. Determining the Number of Shops, spaceeatio Formala. vi



149 151


159 161 162 163 163



Chapter F l e x i b i l i t y ................................ Layout of Floor Space ................... Aisle Widths. Dorways. Lecture-Planning Areas. A Projectlon-Aids Area. Shop Storage. Tool Storage Panels. Ch alk boa rds . Services in S h o o s ......................... Electric Outlets. Power Capacity. Electric Control Panels. Auxiliary Rooms and Fac ili tie s ............ Offices. Related Subjects Classrooms. Toolrooms. Storage for Supplies, Projects, and Products. Lockers, Clean-up Washing Facilities. F l o o r s ...................................... Floor Loads. Shop Floor Materials. Acoustics in S h o p s ......................... Visual Comfort and Efficiency ........... Heating and Ventilating .................. VII. SUMMARY OF PERTINENT PRINCIPLES IN THIS PLANNING- GUIDE, RECOMMENDATIONS OF OTHER STUDIES NEEDED, AND CONCLUSIONS..............

1?6 176

179 180

182 183 18L 188


Statements of Pertinent Principles. . . . Recommended Studies ....................... Co ncl usi on ..................................

189 19^ 195

A P P E N D I X ................................................


I. Graduate Student Seminar Personnel Assisting in Delimiting Research Problem on Shop Building P l a n n i n g ............................. II. Inquiry Form Regarding Building Facilities for Industrial and Technical Education in High Schools in New York S t a t e ............. III. School Selection Committee .................. IV. Schools of New York State Area Suoplying Data of This S t u d y ........................... V. Vocational Teachers and Administrators Interviewed in Local Schools ................ VI. The Accredited Jury Pe rso nne l............... B I B L I O G R A P H Y ...........................................


196 197 207 208 210 222 22L



Page Spaces Recommended for Open Shop Areas In Vocational-Industrial and VocationalTechnical S h o p s ...............................


Recommended Number of VocationalIndustrial Shops for a Comprehensive High School .........................................



Recommended shop F l o o r s ....................... Ill


Recommended Levels of Artificial Illumination. ............................119


Construction Dates of School Buildings V i s i t e d ......................................... 162


Average Sizes of Existent School Shops.


Average sizes of Shops in Some Specific Curricular A r e a s ................................ 168


Sizes of Open Shop Areas per student.


shapes of S h o p s .................................169


Recommended Number of Classrooms per School for Comprehensive High S c h o o l s ................ 172


Desirable heroentage Ratios for Floor space Distribution in Comprehensive High Schools.


. •

. . .






Page Ploor Plan of a School-House Proposed by W. A. Alcott in 1 8 5 1 .............


Ground-Plan of a Village School-House as Proposed by the Oensors of the American Institute of Instruction in 1 8 5 1 ....................................


Map Showing Location of Schools V i s i t e d ................................



CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Problem The planning of physical facilities for housing p r o ­ grams of vocational-industrial and vocational-technical education is a perplexing problem for school administrators, architects, supervisors, and teachers.

Standardization is

lacking in this planning; but, although it intensifies the problem,

such a lack is essential if the planning is to be


Dynamic programs cannot be housed in identical,

or in static, facilities. It is the purpose of this study to determine as objec­ tively as possible the characteristics of well planned industrial education plants and to formulate a guide for school m e n and architects who plan buildings for industrial and technical education.

This guide is intended to facil­

itate the coordination of the work of educators and architects. In the process of construction of any school building, educa­ tional planning should always function in advance of architectural designing. Limitations of the Study The data of this study were obtained primarily from secondary schools but it was not limited to specific grade levels.

It was considered that the subject content of voca1

2 tional-Industrial and vocational-technical programs Imposes sufficient grade placement.

Basic determinants of building

facilities are considered £o be the nature of the activities to be taught and the equipment needed to teach those activ­ ities rather than a consideration of the chronological ages of the trainees involved. This study has been limited to building facilities used exclusively by industrial education students.

It has not in­

cluded parts of school plants used by vocational-industrial and vocational-technical students and also used by students majoring in general education curricula.

For example,

gymnasiums and auditoriums are used by industrial education students but have been assumed to be beyond the limits of this study. It is recognized that the equipment to be used in shops and laboratories is a dominant factor in planning physical features of shop buildings, but detailed problems of equipment selection have been assumed to be beyond the scope of this study. Because of the length and the complexity of the in­ quiry f orm used, a personal visit to schools seemed the only practical method of obtaining desired information.


method necessarily limited the geographic area and the number of schools that could be included. The study has been limited to educational, rather than architectural, aspects of the planning of facilities.

3 Need for the Study In view of the tremendous backlog of school plant n e e d s , variously estimated at from seven billions^ to fifteen billions2 of dollars,

there has been "an appalling

lack of research"®in school plant planning.

Among the

specific functional problems which Ray L. Hamon, Chief of the School Housing Section of the United States Office of E d u c a ­ tion, mentioned in 1948 as needing study was the problem of "shops for trade and Industrial education."4 Recently published manuals of school plant planning for New York City®, Oklahoma City®, Cincinnati^, and other cities indicate that guides for planning are of significant assistance to school administrators and to architects.


evidence that general treatises on schoolhouse planning are inadequate for the problems of planning for special programs, it has been indicated that "the well-planned vocational high school provides facilities to meet the objectives of general education plus those for training in an industrial field area. ^•William C. Bruce, "school Building Construction in 1948," American School Board Jour n a l . CXVI (January, 1948), p. 54. ^Wilfred P. Clapp, "The Need for Plant Research," American School and University. X A (1948-49), p. 30. ®Ray L. Hamon, "Needed Research in the School Plant Field," Review of Educational Research. XVIII (February, 1948), 4I b l d . 5

N. L. Engelhardt and others, Manual of School Planning (New York City: Board of Education,~T947). ^"Manual of School Plant Planning" (Oklahoma City: Board of Education, 1946). 7 Manual for Architects (Cincinnati: Board of Education. 1947).

It is not a traditional h i g h school plus shops, or shops plus classrooms, but an integrated whole to prepare its students for social, personal, and vocational competency. Probable Values of the Study The data assembled and discussed in this study should prove useful to 1.

All school men who have the problem of developing an educational program which involves construction or remodeling of school plants that will include facilities for industrial education;


Boards of education concerned with plant construc­ tion or improvement involving industrial or techni cal education;


Educational specialists and school building consultants employed to aid in the development of school plants;


Architects responsible for designing plant facil­ ities for industrial or technical education; and


State departments of education and divisions of schoolhouse planning. Definitions

Definitions of terms used in this study are generally given at points where it is thought that they are needed. Throughout the study the term Guide is used to mean a -*-N. L. Engelhardt and others, o£. c l t .» p. xv.

5 statement of principles and objectives for planning school facilities; the term Comprehensive High School means a secondary school which includes programs of general education, college preparatory programs,

and vocational programs.

Plan of Developing and Presenting Material The plan of developing the recommendations contained in this guide is considered so Important that an entire chap­ ter ( C h a p t e r III) has been devoted t o the subject.

The order

of treatment is as follows: Chapter II is a review of significantly related liter­ ature.

Chapter III is a discussion of the procedures used in

developing the guide.

Chapter IV is A Planning Guide for

Vocational-Industrial and Vocational-Technical Building Facilities for Comprehensive H i g h Schools as it was developed by an accredited jury and published by The University of the State of New York.

Chapter V is a summary of data relative

to facilities in schools visited i n greater New York State collected to serve as a basis for the G u i d e .

Chapter VI is

a discussion of differences between facilities existent in schools visited, facilities desired by 124 interviewees w&o are teachers and administrators in those schools, and facili­ ties recommended by the accredited jury.

Chapter VII is a

summary of the entire study and a statement of conclusions and recommendations.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OP RELATED LITERATURE Emphasis on the planning phase of school building has been dominant In the literature of education periodicals since 1945*

The cessation of all non-essential building activities

during World War II, coupled w i t h twenty-four hour utilization of facilities for war-job training,

increased needs for build­

ings and focused attention on the inadequacies of buildings. Some attention has been directed to the importance of planning buildings so that they will function as educational tools which can be effective in implementing the learning process. Early American Papers on School Buildings The ’’pioneer” publication on planning and construction of school buildings in the United States was an essay by Dr. William A. Alcott of Hartford.^"

It was the prize essay

resulting from a premium offered by the American Institute of Instruction in 1830.

It was published in the proceedings of

the Institute in 1831 together w i t h a "Plan for a Village School-house” which had been devised by a committee of the Directors of the Institute.** ^Henry Barnard, School Architecture or Contributions to the Improvement of School-houses in the United States (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1850), p. 64. 2 Ibid. 6

Plate I Is a print of the floor plan of the schoolhouse proposed by Alcott.

The censors of the American In­

stitute of Instruction considered Alcott*s plan, with its individual desks and 18-inch aisles,

too great a departure

from current practice and recommended the plan shown as Plate II which provided for Individual seats w i t h 1 0 - inch or 12-inch backs but with desks against each other.


plan also proposed high windows so that pupils could not be distracted by looking outdoors. In 1833, a "Report on School-houses" was prepared by the Rev. G. B. Perry and published by the Essex County Teacher*s Association.

This was

• a searching and

vigorous exposition of the evils resulting from the defec­ tive construction and arrangements of school-houses,

as they

were at that date almost universally found." In 1838, Horace Mann submitted a "Report on Schoolhouses" as a supplement to his "First Annual Report as Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education."


ing to Henry Barnard, who was then commissioner of public schools in Rhode Island, Mann discussed "the whole subject of school architecture with great fullness and ability."* Mann recommends that aisle width between rows of desks be eighteen inches.

Previous to this date, and for many years

after this date, It was common practice to provide multi­ directional seating on benches at flat desks of one height 1I b i d . , p. 64.



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Rii i D ! I H D € H D C W -P-

A. Alcott, ’A n t.1 e l onstr'iction of Ac: ■"ol-Houses, 11 ... . v. ^xxuubu, i.ectnre3 Delivered before tiie American Institute of In­ struction In Boston, August, 1 8 5 1 . (Boston: Hilliard, Gra^’, Li't tl e and ./ilkins, 1332) , pT 258.



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^Tlme Saver Standards, p. 353. ^Benbow,

op. c i t ., p. 61.

^National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, Guide for Planning School Plants (1949), p. 159.

45 shop noises at their source.

It recommends segregation or

shops from quiet activities and some acoustical treatment of shop ceilings for absorption.

West Virginia standards

suggest isolation or acoustical treatment.'*' Standards states tial.

Time Saver

that "sound and vibration control is essen­

In the general shop,

treatment providing fifty per

cent sound absorption is currently considered advisable.


California specifications suggest that "noisy school shops such as auto body and fender and diesel engines should be located so that they do not disturb other school activities. This does not m e a n Isolation." In 1954, William L. Hunter recommended soundproofing floor,


and an Iowa committee

ceiling, and foundations


machines. Much of the literature on noise In shops is concerned primarily with protecting non-shop activities of the school from noises that originate in shops.

An Ohio State University

study by E. B. Berglund and W. R. Fiedler points out that "shop noises cause articulation and hearing difficulties, Interfere with pupil thinking, contribute to accidents, make teacher control of discipline more difficult, and reduce ^■West Virginia Council on Schoolhouse Construction, op. c i t ., p. 53. 2 Time Saver Standards, p* 349. ^Benbow, op. cit., p. 48. ^W. L. Hunter, "Principles of Shop Planning", Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, XXII (February, 1934), p • 33 •

44 efficiency of adjacent classrooms . 1,1

They believe that when

the noise rises to 90 or 95 decibels an instructor must shout to be heard.

To prevent the occurrence of such a condition

n the noise levels of school shops should be controlled to a maximum of 75 decibels."^

To obtain optimum quiet "a

guiding principle to employ i s : decrease the number of decibels at the source. Increase the coefficient of sound absorption, and insulate to prevent transmission ......... Donald Maley studied acoustics in school shops and in 1947 reported that 11the analysis of acoustical problems in a plant is not one of merely applying a few layers of ab­ sorbent materials on the walls and ceilings, but is one that requires close analysis and fine calculation if the proper re­ turns are to be realized from the money and time expended . " 4 As an argument in favor of locating heavy shops at ground levels, he notes the fact that machine shops, wood shops, and graphic arts shops produce high levels of vibration and noise.® He further suggests that "all laboratories should be ceiled with a material of a high coefficient of absorption— not less than 50 per cent."®

It Is suggested that rubber,

•*-E. B. Berglund and W. R. Fiedler, "School Shop Noises; An Investigation of Their Nature, Effects, and R e ­ duction" (Columbus: Ohio State University, 1933), p. 85. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid.,

p. 90.

4Donald Maley, "Acoustics in Industrial Arts Shops," Master's thesis (College Park: University of Maryland,1947),p.106. 5 Ibid.,

p. 107.

6Ibid., p. 110.

4b cork, or steel springs can effectively be used as sound insulators, under various conditions for vibration producing machines.


He reports that V e m Knudsen


has found

"concrete slabs and hollow clay tile can provide reduction factors from 55 to 60 decibels.” Seeing with Comfort and Efficiency In 1955, August F. Suhling reported an experimental study which he conducted in the printing shops of the Isaac Delgado Central Trades School of New Orleans, Louisiana.* Having students perform exercises under illuminations of 5, 5, 12, 17, and 25 footcandles he noted no significant effect on motor learning by variations of Intensities.®


a 30 minute test during which each student was required to tie up type and pull two proofs on a jumbled-word exercise, he reported that there was a positive trend in increased pro­ duction with increased light intensity.® In a report of lighting conditions in school drafting 7 rooms In the Chicago area In 1935 George McAfee said that 1 I b i d ..

p. 104.

^Vern 0 . Knudsen, Architectural Acoustics (^ew York: John Wiley 8c Sons, 1932), p. 316. sMaley, op. cit., p. 119. *A. F. Suhling, ”The Efficiency of Student Printers In Hand Composition Under Various Light Intensities", M a s t e r ’s thesis (Ames: Iowa State College, 1935). 5 I b i d .,

p. 39.

® Ibld.. p. 40. ?G. ii. McAfee, "Lighting Conditions in Fifty School Drafting Rooms of the Chicago A r e a ” , Master's thesis (Ames: Iowa State College, 1935).

lighting--both natural and artificial— was generally inade­ quate as compared with the recommendations of authorities on lighting.

In the fifty drafting rooms f or which he obtained

data, he found that (1) the low reflection factors of black­ boards greatly reduced light within six feet of the board;


the presence of pupils lowers natural light intensities on the work planes between eight and nine footcandles;

(3) some

drafting rooms had Intensities as low as four footcandles; (4) the window glass area of the fifty rooms was 25,6 per cent of the floor area;

(5) the average height of window tops from

the floor was eleven feet seven Inches; and (6) daylight illu­ mination in the drafting rooms visited averaged, on clear days from 17.73 footcandles

to 30,79 footcandles In light and dark


areas of r o o m s ,

C. W, Rawlins,^ In 1940, experimented In Ohio schools, in an effort to determine ideal lighting intensities for Indus trial arts shops.

He also studied the reaction of students to

shop lighting which was In accord with recommendations of lighting authorities. In sixteen curricular areas of industrial arts he allowed students to control, by adjusting a rheostat,


intensity of Illumination each desired on various work-tasks. He found that,

on the average,

the students used in his ex­

periment desired from 20 per cent to 330 per cent more light

1Ibid., p. 64. ^C. W. Rawlins, "The Status of Lighting In Some School Shops In O h i o ” , M a s t e r ’s thesis (Athens: Ohio University, 1940), p. 2.

47 on typical work-tasks than the minima recommended by illu­ minating engineers for those same seeing tasks.^ p In 1943* Mays and Casberg thought that shops should never be allowed to have less than twelve to fifteen foot­ candles of illumination on work surfaces and drawing rooms should have eighteen to twenty-five footcandles on their table tops.

In 1946,

the National Council on Schoolhouse Construc­

tion Indicated their belief that ’’Intensities of from twenty to forty foot-candles are practically available and are considered to satisfy visual requirements In a balanced-brightness en­ vironment.”^ At the annual meeting of the National Council on Schoolhouse Construction in 1946, Charles D.( Gibson, of Cali­ f o r n i a ’s Division of Schoolhouse planning,

said In part:

...•.the understandings of the requirements for a com­ fortable and efficient environment for seeing which have become common knowledge since 1938 far overshadow all common knowledge in this field prior to 1938. In effect the story as told prior to very recent years, and indeed, the one still told most frequently today, has been and Is stated in terms of quantities of light. We have been devoting practically our entire thought to how much light we have, when the problem really is, how well can 'we see and at what cost in terms of human resources. This Council, in 1949, broadened Its recommendations in terms of visual comfort and efficiency and now emphasizes the importance ^I b l d ., p. 78. ^Mays and Casberg, op. cit., p. 23. ^National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, for Planning School Plants (1940), p. 63. 4 Ibid., p. 21.


of a brightness-balanced environment, A New York State Education Department committee,


studying this problem, recommends twenty footcandles of gen­ eral illumination--on the work--for shops and laboratories.^ They call attention to the fact that initial intensities soon diminish by 25 per cent; therefore,

installations must be one-

third higher than intensities which are to be maintained in service. The American Standard Practice for School Lighting


discusses the problem broadly and makes many recommendations for achieving optimum seeing conditions.

They recommend

thirty footcandles of general illumination maintained on the work in shops and laboratories. Luckiesh has pointed out that illumination on verti­ cal surfaces, at table heights, from general overhead light sources will approximate only .3 to .55 of the illumination 4 on a horizontal plane at the same location. This may have important implication for local lighting. In reporting a study of lighting in thirty-three industrial arts laboratories and twenty-nine academic classlNew York State Education Department, Visual Comfort and Efficiency in School Buildings (Albany: University of the State of tfew York, 1948), p. 12. ^American Standards Association, American Standard .Practice for School Lighting (New York: Illuminating Engineering Society, 1948). 5 Ibid., p. 13. ^Matthew Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, "Brightness-Contrasts in Seeing", Transactions of the Illuminating E n ­ gineering Society, Vol. JLvaIV, No. 6 (June, 1939), p. 584.

49 rooms in Texas in 1947, Robert E. Schlortt suggests that proper lighting combines light colored furnishings, highly reflective ceilings and walls, diffusion of daylight,


artificial illumination sufficient to offset the l a c k of natural light.^ Time Saver Standards


reports that many State codes

call for glass areas equal to 16 to 20 per cent of floor areas, but they add that “where State regulations permit, reliance is increasingly being placed on artificial sources for the con­ stant high-level light usually required.” California's guide

calls for full advantage to be

taken of natural light but specifies that artificial, lighting in shops should produce thirty to forty footcandles on the work.

In view of the above,

it Is interesting to note that

most of the shop layouts of this California study call for window sills at a height of seven feet. Heating and Ventilation The Industrial Arts in the Modern School directs attention to the importance of ventilation to health, noting that a minimum air movement of 2,200 cubic feet per minute is necessary to remove metal dust, and 1,500 cubic feet per 1 r . E. Schlortt, "A Study of Classroom Lighting” , Master's thesis (San Marcoa, Texas: Southwest Texas State Teachers College, 1947). ^Tlme Saver Standards, p. 351. ^Benbow, op. cit., p. 59.

50 minute for lint.'*’ California’s guide recommends mechanical ventilation 2


in most shop areas. Both California's guide and New York's 4 Bulletin specify temperatures of sixty-eight degrees main­ tained in shops at sixty inches above the floor and both recommend that the maximum air temperature gradient from floor to sixty inches above floor should not exceed five de­ grees and should preferably be not over three degrees.


Crites calls for a maximum gradient of two degrees between the 5

breathing line and the floor.

The New York State Commis­

s i o n e r ’s Regulations on Heating and Ventilation provide that "air movement in zones of occupancy shall not exceed twentyfive linear feet per minute."® In contrast to the above it is interesting to note that in 1832 authorities believed that school buildings should have "holes or windows In the roof for ventilation"^; ^-Illinois State Board for Vocational Education, Industrial Arts in the Modern School, p. 29. 2Benbow, op. cit., p. 60. 5 Ibld.. p. 61. ^New York State Education Department, Heating and Ventilating Recommendations for New Y o r k State Schools (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1948), p. 17. ®Koy Crites, "A Study in Design for an Industrial Arts Building," Master's thesis (Los Angeles: University of California, 1943), p. 252. ft

New York State Education Department, Heating and Ventilating Recommendations for New York State Schools (Albany: University of the State of ^ e w York, 1948), p. 17. ?W. A. Alcott, "construction of School-Houses", Lectures Delivered Before the American Institute of Instruction (Boston: Hilliard, G r a y , Little and Wilkins, 1832), p. 250.

’’there ought to be a therometer in every school room and the heat

produced by a wood stove

regulated to 55 or 60

degrees"1 ; and that "air is supposed to be rendered unfit for healthy respiration at the rate of a gallon a minute, g or about a hogshead an hour."

W i l l i a m Woodbridge, "On the Construction of SchoolRooms", Lectures Delivered Before the American Institute of Instruction (Boston: Hilliard, Gray, Little and Wilkins, 1832), p. 250. 2Alcott, op* cit., p* 252.

CHAPTER III METHOD OF PROCEDURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANNING GUIDE FOR VOCATIONAL-INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL BUILDING FACILITIES FOR COMrREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOLS The procedure involved in the development of this study may be considered one of the most important parts of the dissertation.

For this reason it is considered appro­

priate to describe this procedure in a separate chapter. The following steps were involved: literature;

(1) Survey of

(2) Limitations of the problem;

(3) Selec­

tion of research methods (inquiry by visitation, observation, and interview; use of an accredited jury); of an inquiry form;

(4) Development

(5) selection of schools to be studied;

(6) Collection of data on "existent11 and "desired" building facilities;

(7) Summary of data and their statistical

treatments (summary form); facilities;

(8) statement of "desirable"

(9) selection of accredited jury;

(1) De­

veloping recommendations of facilities approved by Jury judgments; and (11) The planning guide. Step One:

Survey of Related Literature

Although the literature of this subject has been studied by this investigator for several years,

its intimate

review, in relation to this study, began with a search of

bibliography of school shop planning.

This was followed by

scanning articles and books or chapters of books which apr peared related and by a careful study of those considered to be significantly related. In order to provide some historic background for the problem some attention has been given to early publications on planning and building school houses in the United States. Many articles in yearbooks and journals were studied. books have chapters which are significantly related. of all masters'

theses and doctors'

Many Titles

dissertations in in­

dustrial education as listed in the files of the Department of Industrial Education of The .Pennsylvania State College, in the United States Office of Education,

and in the A m e r ­

ican Vocational Association's annotated bibliography Studies in Industrial Education^,

were carefully studied.

Only two publications were found in the form of guides on the subject of school shop planning. and California guides.

These were the Ohio

Their content has been summarized as

part of the preceding chapter.

The Ohio guide is limited to

Industrial arts shop planning.

The California guide is in­

tended for both Industrial arts and vocational-Industrial education and it was prepared for use in California. Ten master's theses which contributed directly to certain sections o f this study were borrowed from libraries and studied.

They were listed In the bibliography and their

^•National Association of Industrial Teacher Trainers, Studies in Industrial Education (Washington, D. c.: American Vocational Association, 1 9 4 y ), 160 pp.

54 contents are discussed under related literature. theses were written at:


University of California, Los Angeles,

1943; Iowa State, 1935; University of Maryland, 1947; Ohio State University, 1933 and 1940; University of Pittsburgh, 1937; Southwest Texas State Teachers College,

1947; Wayne

University, 1948; and West Virginia University, 1947. chapter II is a review of related literature, ceding the appendices


there is a bibliography of signif­

icantly related books and articles. Step Two:

Limitations of the Problem

In July 1948, a graduate seminar at The Pennsylvania state College

(Industrial Education,

550c* assisted in d e ­

limiting the subject of shop planning as a research problem. The personnel of this group Included graduate students who were related subjects teachers, vocational-industrial sub­ jects teachers,

teacher trainers, vocational supervisors, and

vocational directors from Alabama, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina.^ This seminar group agreed that this problem could be more adequately treated at this time by the development of guiding principles than by attempting to develop evaluative criteria for shops or establishing building standards.


further agreed that such a study should be limited to indus­ trial education building facilities rather than buildings and equipment or school plants.

They were divided in their

^■Por the n a m e s and positions of the members of this group, see Appendix I.

55 opinions as to whether the study should include industrial arts, vocational-industrial education,

and technical educa­

tion or be limited to one or two of these areas*

The seminar

members were also divided in their opinions as to the desir­ ability of limiting the study to a specified grade level. The term "guide" rather than "standards" was chosen for this study primarily for the reasons discussed in Chapter II under "planning guides."

The differentiation which

the National Council on Schoolhouse construction makes between these terms h a s been accepted here.

It Is further recognized

that "standards" are relatively fixed rules which need some power for their enforcement.

M. W. Brown^ reports thirty-

five states are regulated by standards governing schoolbuildings; eighteen of them by statutes and twenty-two by agencies.

Thirteen states have no regulations controling min­

imum standards. It is assumed here that a "guide" does not have author­ ity corresponding to a "standard" but that it has much wider prospective applicability.

Brown considered that his data

warranted the conclusion that codes of state agencies are more nearly adequate than those established by legislative enactment because the latter standards come too slowly and are too static. N. L. Engelhardt has said


that regulations have been

W. Brown, Standards for School Plant Construction Established bv State Requirements (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1946), 167 pp. o N. L. Engelhardt, "The Impact of the rfar Upon School Building Planning," American School and University (1942), pp. 13-20.

56 of great value in overcoming indifference and stupidity in school building construction but that they have tended to freeze building concepts into fixed moulds. This study is limited to building facilities for vocational-industrial and vocational-technical education rather than school plants or buildings and equipment.


is limited to comprehensive high schools because they were considered to be most in need of such a guide in New York State at this time. Because of the complexity and comprehensiveness of the data desired, a personal visit seemed the only practical method of securing the information.

This me t h o d necessarily

limited the number of schools that could be included. Step Three:

Selection of Research Methods

Research methods involved in this study include: (1) the use of an inquiry form;

(2) the collection of factual

data by personal visitation in shops through observations and measurements (directed observation with Instrumental control); (3) the collection of opinion by personal interview; and (4) the u s e of an accredited jury. Criteria for the selection of schools to be studied were developed by the u s e of a school selection committee. Thirty schools were visited and data regarding existent facilities were secured by observations and quantitative and qualitative measurements.

Teachers, supervisors,

and admin­

istrators were Interviewed to secure Information regarding existent facilities and opinions relative to desired

57 facilities*

On subjects regarding which data available from

schools studied were considered inadequate, recommendations were based upon other research studies modified, or approved, by jury opinion.

For example, a lack of understanding of

what constitutes a balanced lighted environment and good seeing conditions was very general in the schools visited, and there was a general expression of dissatisfaction with existent amounts of illumination.

Because the study of New

York area schools did not provide an adequate basis for recommendations on visual comfort and efficiency other re­ search studies were used. A n inquiry form was used to guide observations and interviews and for recording data obtained during school visits. A n accredited jury was used to modify recommendations based on statistical data in terms of what should be recom­ mended practice for New Y o r k in 1950.

These recommendations

constitute Chapter IV of this study and are being published by the Division of School Buildings and Grounds of The University of the State of New Y o r k as A Planning Guide for Vocational-Industrial and Vocational-Technical Building Facilities for Comprehensive High Schools. Step Four:

Developing and Validating the Inquiry Form

Since many of the data pertinent to this study are subjective opinion, it was considered that a questionnaire, designed to collect data by mail, would be Inadequate.


was, however, considered that observations and interviews

regarding existent and desired facilities in selected schools needed guidance which could be provided by an in­ quiry form.

It was also considered that a uniform method

of recording data was necessary in order that some factors could be summarised by statistical analyses. A copy of the inquiry form, Appendix II.

as used, is found in

The form was developed and subsequently modi­

fied by a committee composed of the following representatives of the New Y o r k State Education Department; Assistant Com­ missioner for Vocational Education; Director of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds; Director of the Division of Industrial and Technical Education; Chief of the Bureau of Trade and Technical Education; and, four Supervisors.


men met at two sessions to study the form item by item and analyze Its content and total coverage.

It was unanimously

approved by them. The form was validated by a pilot study during which It was used in a visit to six shops In two schools.


major check on Its adequacy was its use In interviews with 124 vocational teachers, 27 schools visited.

supervisors, and administrators In

Among these Interviewees were several

administrators who have had major responsibilities for the planning and the construction of many millions of dollars worth of buildings for vocational-industrial education* This form proved adequate for directing attention to the factors these men considered pertinent and adequate for recording the data obtained.

59 Apparently the chief weakness of the form la its ex­ cessive length.

Approximately one hour was required to make

out each copy of it.

A few items were comparatively irrel­

evant to the m a j o r problem involved.

For example items "Bg,

Machine work stations” , and "Bg, Bench work stations” , in the section on "Size and Dimensions of Shops" applied only to machine shops and might better have been omitted from the form. One attempt was made to have two teachers fill out this form with the help of their supervisor.

The resultant

data were uninterpretable and were excluded from this study. As a questionnaire this form would be entirely inadequate. As a guide and record form to be used by an inquirer it is considered satisfactory. Step Five:

Selection of Schools to be Studied and Personnel to be Interviewed

School Selection Committee.--Requisites for serving on the selection committee were: 1.

Acquaintance with physical facilities of schools conducting vocational-Industrial and vocationaltechnical programs In the New York State region.


Acquaintance with the qualifications and expe­ rience of teachers and administrators of schools being considered for selection to be studied.


Acquaintance with the relative quality of the ed­ ucational programs conducted by schools offering vocational-industrial and vocational-technical training.

60 These requisites seemed to indicate that the personnel responsible for the supervision of vocational-industrial and vocational-technical education at the State level were the best qualified persons to constitute the committee to select schools.

In addition to their personal qualifications,


were the o n l y persons acquainted with requisite records (supervisors’ reports) relative to quality of New Yor k p r o ­ grams.

For a list of t h e m embers of this committee, see

Appendix III. All selections made by this committee were reviewed and approved by the Director of the Division of Industrial and Technical Education and by the Director of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds. Criteria for Selection of Schools.--The selection of schools was not for the purpose of evaluating their p r o ­ grams or their buildings, but for the purpose of studying good buildings in order to learn how buildings could be made better.

Schools selected were distributed in such a manner,

curricularly and geographically, 1.

as to include:

Staff members professionally competent and ex­ perienced In planning shops and/or buildings for vocational-industrial and/or vocational-technical education.


Good building facilities for the vocational education programs being offered.


A good quality program of vocational-industrial and/or vocational-technical education.


Vocational-industrial day-school programs for boys.

61 5.

Vocational-Industrial day-school programs for girls.


Vocational-technical programs.


Evening trade extension programs.


Apprenticeship programs.


Comprehensive high school with small vocational departments

(10 per cent, or less, of school

enrolment). 10.

Comprehensive h i g h school with medium sized d e ­ partments .


Comprehensive high school with large vocational departments

(25 per cent, or more, of school

enrolment). 12.

Small (enrolment under 400), medium, and large (enrolment over 1,000) vocational schools.


Schools located in major industrial areas of New York State.


Schools located in western,

in central,

and in

eastern sections of New York State. 15.

Schools located in metropolitan New York City.


Out of state vocational-Indus trial schools.

Schools Selected.--From the one hundred twenty-two schools conducting programs of vocational-Industrial and vocational-technical education in New York State,^ this committee selected twenty-six to be visited.

Four schools

in New Jersey and Pennsylvania were also selected. lflDirectory of New York State Vocational-Industrial and Technical Schools” (Albany: State Education Department, December 20, 1948), 113 pp.


62 Thirty schools in fourteen cities were visited. seven were studied and data collected.


The cumulative enrol­

ment of these schools in 1947-48 was approximately twenty-three thousand vocational students enrolled from communities totaling more than eleven million population.

These schools employed

approximately one thousand vocational teachers and administra­ tors In 1948-49.

In obtaining the data of this study,


hundred twenty-four teachers and administrators were inter­ viewed. The map on the following page shows the location of schools

Included In this study.

For a list of these schools

see Appendix IV. In addition to the schools visited, blue prints of proposed buildings for vocational-Industrial and vocationaltechnical education were studied for four cities, which, in July 1949, had plans on the drawing board or buildings under construction. Interviewee Selection.— Personnel to be interviewed were suggested by the Chief of the Bureau of Trade and Technical Education or by the chief administrative officer responsible for vocational education in each local school system. This policy resulted in pre-visitation contacts with assistant superintendents of schools or other designated school officials in each city visited, by the Chief of Trade and Technical Education or by the Director of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds.

Such contacts were made by

a Palls


•Batavia Buffalo

* Utica Syracuse Auburn

Schenectady* Albany*








(shoving cities where schools were studied) Bloomfield* f* Bayonne Philadelphia -t

letter or by telephone.

They resulted in excellent cooper­

ation and scheduling of adequate time for interviews with those persons considered by each local administration to be best qualified to contribute to the problems involved. For a list of local school personnel interviewed,


Appendix V. Step Six:

Collection of Data on "Kxistent" and "Desired" Building Facilities

As can be noted from the inquiry form (Appendix II), provision was made for a record of facilities now existent and facilities desired by teachers and administrators on eighty different items.

In the six weeks spent studying

schools from one to eight hours were spent in each school studied and from one to five inquiry forms filled out at each school or immediately following each school visit. Step Seven:

Summary of Data and Their Statistical Treatments

Chapter V is a summary of the data of this study.


was prepared by a detailed study and analysis following the visitations of schools for the collection of data.


making of this summary chapter was facilitated by the use of a data summary form specially prepared for the purpose. The left column of this form has its eighty-four rows sequentially identified in three digit numbers.

The first

two digits of each number represent the number assigned to the school while the third digit is a number assigned to a specific shop.

65 The top row of this 72" x 42" form is divided into one hundred twenty-three vertical columns. each column is a letter and a number.

At the head of

The letters repre­

sent sections of data corresponding to the inquiry form sections: of Shop;

(A) General Considerations;

(B) size and Dimensions

(C) Flexibility and Expansibility;

Floor space;

(D) Layout of

(s) Auxiliary Rooms and Facilities;

(G) Audio-Visual Comfort and Efficiency;

(F) Floors;

(H) Ventilating and

Heating; and (J) Procedures of Planning Buildings.


number at the top of each double column represents an item number within its section of data.

Appropriate columns are

double in order to provide for a record of "existent" and "desired" data. Statistical treatments of various data items differed in accordance with the nature of the item and the quantity and nature of the data acquired.

For example,

shop areas

were studied by computing square footage of different types of shops as to range, mode, median, standard deviation.

quartiles, mean,


Separate calculations were made for

"existent" and "desired" sizes of shops. Step Eight:

Statement of Desirable Facilities

A statement of what this investigator considered "de­ sirable" facility recommendations constituted the first draft of the guide which is Chapter IV.

This statement is not repro­

duced as part of the dissertation because of the extent of duplication between it and the final draft of the bulletin as it is being published by New York State.

The final draft is

66 included here as Chapter IV, modified only in the form of footnotes.

chapter VI points out how this final draft of

the bulletin differs from recommendations as they would have been if not modified by jury opinion. Step Nine:

The Accredited Jury

In New York State, every Board of Education for a school district having a population under fifty thousand persons must have their building plans approved by the Director of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds of the State Education Department before they can contract for the construction of a school building.

Many larger districts,

although not required to do so, submit their plans for in­ spection and criticism.

Appropriate to the point, also,


the fact that it is the policy of the Division of School 3uildin;;s and Grounds not to approve plans for the construction of any building woich included shops for vocational-industrial and/or vocational-technical education without having those plans checked by representative personnel of the Division of Industrial and Technical Education and certified by the director of that division as being in conformity with approved practice. bince these divisions will administer the policies based on the planning guide,

it was considered that the p e r­

sonnel of these divisions should constitute the jury to de­ termine the content of the guide.

The premise on which this

decision was based was the assumption that those who are ex­ pected to administer policies should approve the principles upon which those policies are based. The manner in which this jury worked is described In Step Ten.

The personnel of this jury is listed In Appendix

VI. Step Ten:

Developing Recommendations Approved by Jury Judgments

In accordance with the plan of operation reported in Step Wine, Dr. A. K. Getraan, Assistant Commissioner of Voca­ tional Education, New York State Education Department, specified that every recommendation In the Guide should be approved by the Director of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds and by the Director of the Division of Industrial and Technical Education.

Every recommendation contained in

Chapter IV was submitted to the directors of both divisions. In cases where there were differences of opinion, individual and group conferences were held and modifications of recom­ mendations were made until approval of each item was conceded by both divisions. In the p rocess of developing the final draft of the Guide (Chapter IV), numerous individual conferences were held with jurymen and with other resource personnel who acted as consultants whenever requested. Recommendations regarding projection aids facilities were discussed with and approved by Ward C. Bowen, Chief of the Burearj of Radio and Visual Aids In the New York State

68 .education Department.

Recommendations of floors were dis­

cussed with Clifford Flathers, Secretary of New York State Dormitory Authority and former state supervisor of industrial education. Preparatory to the final approval of the manuscript of the Guide, each juryman who was a member of the staff of the Division of Industrial and Technical Education read the proposed version in its entirety, following which reading those seven men spent three days carefully studying each recommendation as to content and phraseology.


additions, and deletions were made until the script had unan­ imous approval of that group. The Guide was then retyped and given a similar study, followed by minor modifications and approval by the jury personnel of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds. Step Eleven:

The Planning Guide

The final manuscript of the Guide (Chapter IV) as It was prepared for printing was approved by the Assistant Commissioner for Vocational Education.

It was approved and

Its preface was written by the directors of the Division of Indsutrial and Technical Education and of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds. of Publications,

It was edited by the Bureau

Charles F. Probes,



as follows,

is a copy of the manuscript

of the ruide as it was aonroved for o-’blication by the Division of School Buildinps and Grounds aru1 the Division of Industrial and Technical Education of The University of the State of New York. Footnotes are here listed at the foot of each page while in the New York publication footnote index n um ­ bers throughout the text of the bulletin are followed by a colon and a page number.

The dootnote Index numbers in the

New York Guide refer to numbered items In the bibliography listed at the end of the G u i d e .

The pagination of this

chapter has been changed from that of the New York Guide in order to conform with the pape numbering tion as a whole.

of this disserta­

The table of contents in this chapter

refers to pare numbers of the dissertation.



THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK The State Education Department Division of School Buildings and Grounds Albany 1



Don L. Essex, Director W. K. Wilson, Supervisor Frank C. Gilson, Architect Burton A. Stllson, Engineer



TABLE OP CONTENTS Page P R E F A C E ................................................. 74 INTRODUCTION............................................ 76 TYP e s OF INDUSTRIAL E D U C A T I O N ........................ 77 Vocational-Educatlon............................... 77 Vocational-Industrial Education ............. . 7 7 Vocational-Technical Education....................78 Adult E d u c a t i o n ................................... 78 Industrial Arts Education ...................... 79 PLANNING P k OCE u UR l o



school O f f i c i a l s ’ Responsibilities............... 80 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS................................. 81 Location of School Sites ..........................81 Location of Shops in Building W i n g s ............82 Location of Shops In Separate Buildings . . . . 83 Relative Location of Shops ........................ 83 Special Classrooms................................. 84 Floor Level Locations of S h o p s ................... 84 E l e v a t o r s .......................................... 85 S a f e t y ...............................................85 SIZES AND SHAPES CF S H O P S .............................86 Sizes of S h o p s ..................................... 86 Shapes of S h o p s ................................... 87 Ceiling Heights .................................. 88 Mezzanines .......................................... 88 Pupil-Teacher R a t i o s ............................... 89 Determining the Number of S h o p s ................. 89 F L E X I B I L I T Y ............................................ 90 Partitions. . . . - . .......................... 90 Fenestration ........................................ 92 Electric Services ............................... 92 Electric P o w e r ..................................... 93 Electric Lighting Circuits........................ 93 LAYOUT OF FLOOR S P A C E ................................... 93 Spacing of E q u i p m e n t ............................... 93 Open Floor S p a c e ................................... 94 D o o r w a y s ............................................ 95 Location of Benches................................. 96 Lecture-Planning Areas ........................... 96 Projection Aids A r e a ............................... 97

73 rag© Shop S t o r a g e ....................................... 97 Tool Storage Panels ................................ 98 Chalkboards......................................... 99 Bulletin Boards .................................... 99 SERVICES IN S H O P S ....................................... 99 Electric Outlets ................................ 99 Power C a p a c i t y ................................... 100 Electric Control Pan e l s .......................... 101 G a s ................................................. 102 W a t e r .............................................. 102 Drinking Fountain................................. 102 Compressed A i r ................................... 102 Fire Extinguisher................................. 103 AUXILIARY ROOMS AND F A C I L I T I E S ...................... 103 Offices............................................ 103 Related Subjects Classrooms...................... 103 Related Science Laboratories .................. 104 Toolrooms.......................................... 105 Supply Storage .................................. 105 Lockers ............................................ 107 Project and Product Storage. ...........107 Finishing R o o m s ................................... 107 Toilets............................................ 108 Wash R o o m s ...................................... 108 Display Centers...................... 108 Corridor Gates .................................. 109 F L O O R S ................................................. 109 Floor Loads. ............................... 109 Machinery Mounting ............................. 110 shop Floors. .............................110 Abrasive Floor Areas ........................... Ill Floor D r a i n s ......................................113 ACOUSTICS IN S H O P S ................................... 113 SEEING WITH COMFORT AND E F F I C I E N C Y ................. 114 Daylight Sources ................................ 115 Daylight Shading and Deflection ................. 116 Window Sill H e i g h t s .............................117 Levels of Illumination . . . . . .............. 117 Glare .............................................. 113 Recommended Reflectances and Colors........... 119 HEATING AND VENTILATING............................... 120 Z o n i n g .......................................... 120 Special Heating Problems ...................... 120 Ventilation........................................ 121 B I B L I O G R A P H Y .......................................... 123 PERSONNEL OF THE UNIVSttoITY OF THE STATE OF NEW Y O R K ................................. 125

PREFAB This pamphlet, which is one or a series, has been prepared to assist architects and school officials in the planning and construction of vocational shop and labora­ tory facilities in comprehensive high schools.


standards should also be useful in connection with the planning of separate trade and technical school buildings. Many of the present buildings which house vocationalindustrial and technical programs have been converted from other uses and do not always reflect best practice.


ommendations in this bulletin are based on satisfactory present practices and on the judgment of specialists in v o ­ cational school construction. The Division of School Buildings and Grounds and the Division of Industrial and Technical Education have cooper­ ated in producing this planning guide.

Preparation of the

report was done by Robert yV. English, assistant professor of industrial education at Southern Illinois University. Since 1929 Mr. English has been a teacher, a state super­ visor and a teacher-trainer of industrial education.


order to study existent facilities and those desired by teachers and administrators, he visited shops and labora­ tories in 30 schools of 16 cities in New York, New Jersey,


75 Pennsylvania and Maryland.

Using an inquiry form prepared

by h i m with the assistance of the two cooperating Divisions, he collected approximately 5000 Items of data which served as a basis for the development of suggested standards for vocational shops,


auxiliary rooms and services.

If the needs for vocational-industrial education on the part of boys and girls in the secondary schools of New York State are fully met, It will require a considerable ex­ pansion of facilities.

One of the important purposes of

this publication is to furnish Information and data to p e r ­ sons responsible for the development of school plans, which Include provisions for trade and technical education. Special acknowledgement Is made to the staff members of the two Divisions for the technical advice they have given and for the assistance they have rendered In editing the com­ pleted report.

Appreciation Is expressed to the m a n y teach­

ers and school officials who have drawn upon their expe­ rience to furnish authentic data and opinions. Don L. Hissex Director, Division of School Buildings and Grounds Prank P. Johnstofi Acting Director, Division of Industrial and Technical Education

Introduction The use of the term "standard" has been avoided because that word has frequently carried a connotation of relative rigidity— a "rule" or "law" always to be followed. However,

those who are responsible for this bulletin are in

agreement that principles of good planning exist and should be followed.

This guide is for the use of those who have

responsibility for planning vocational-industrial and voca­ tional-technical education building facilities with perti­ nent facts considered by specialists as basic in the deter­ mination of desirable practices. This bulletin has no ready-made answers for shop planning.

Some formulas have been developed for estimating

the number of classrooms and recommendable areas of shops. Some tables of summary of important factors follow.


they are not mathematical formulas designed to meet the needs of every community.

They are tables and recommenda­

tions based on averages and therefore not designed for a specific situation.

School buildings, on the other hand,

need to be planned for specific situations existent, and for situations predicted as accurately as possible.



Types of Industrial Education Hie following definitions and discussions are Intended for architects and others who are not familiar with these problems* Vocational-Education Vocational education is that portion of every p e r s o n ’s total education which Is primarily concerned with the devel­ opment of employability* Vocational-Industrial Education Vocational-industrial education is that type of voca­ tional education which is for advantageous entrance to, and advancement in, highly skilled trades* Vocational-Industrial education programs which qualify for federal aid require that the pupils spend at least thirty clock hours per week in school.

"Each six-hour school day

is divided as follows in respect to subjects of instruction: General and Related Technical Subjects....*180 minutes Trade Shop Work on a Useful or Productive B a s i s .........................................*180 minutes Bie content and extent of the relative or technical subjects in each trade and industrial field shall be based on need as shown by an analysis of the occupation*^iNew York State Education Dept., Day and Evening Industrial Education: Handbook 47, ( A l b a n y ! T h e University ot the State of New York, 1949), p. 4*

78 Administratively, pupils

this means that only two groups of

(two classes) can be housed in a vocational-indus­

trial shop in a six-hour day. Vocational-Technical Education Vocational-technical education is that type of voca­ tional education which is for advantageous entrance to and advancement in technical occupations. When "skills” are the dominant factor to be taught the program is vocational-industrial education.

When technical

information is a factor of relatively greater importance, and/or requires more time than teaching manipulative skills, the program is vocational-technical education. The scheduling of vocational-technical courses permit four groups of pupils per day in a given shop space.


is due to the fact that vocational-technical pupils are en­ rolled in shop courses for only 90 minutes per day. Shop spaces recommended for vocational-Industrial p r o ­ grams will be satisfactory for vocational-technical programs. Equipment for those spaces may be somewhat different.


any case, equipment specifications should be based on course of study analyses. Adult Education Vocational-Industrial shop courses are generally among the school's offerings of greatest demand in adult education programs.

This fact has several implications for buildings.

For example:

to avoid unnecessary duplication of facilities,

*9 the equipment of shops should be selected In anticipation of the requirements of supplementary training for upgrading employed workers as well as the needs for pre-employment training;

separate control of the heating supplied for areas

most likely to be used at night, from those least likely to be used, Is highly desirable; corridor gates, which limit access to certain areas of a building, may be desirable;


lumination In shops should be adequate for efficient opera­ tion without any dayllgit.

Some of these factors will be

discussed In detail later* Industrial Arts Education Industrial arts Is not vocational education. general eduoatlon along Industrial lines* with the needs of all pupils In school*

It Is

It Is concerned Some Industrial

arts experiences should precede all vocational-industrial specialization*

It Is concerned with the development of an

interest In shopwork and the consumer values which are learned In shops*

It is concerned with guidance--helping

boys and girls discover their interests, their abilities, and their inabilities.

Its other objectives Include the

development of avocational Interests and an understanding of and insight into Industry. Although there are similarities between industrial arts education and vocational-industrial education, their basic differences are sufficiently great and of such Import­ ance as to make a separate treatment of their physical facilities desirable.

For this reason,

this bulletin Is

80 making no recommendations for industrial arts. Planning Procedures The following steps should be taken in planning build­ ing facilities for vocational-Industrial and vocationaltechnical education in order that they will be adequate for individual communities. School O f f i c i a l s 1 Responsibilities If the school has a vocational director, the superin­ tendent will probably assign the responsibility for these tasks to him. Teachers, supervisors, and advisory commit­ tees should participate in this planning. 1.

Determine curricular areas to be taught. Ifcls should involve occupational and community surveys. See New York State Bulletin, No. 1284, "Community Surveys for Vocational-Industrial Education",^ January 1945. See, also, "Administra­ tive Procedures in Planning School Buildings"® which is a 1950 bulletin of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds.


Estimate anticipated enrolments. An estimate of potential enrolments (every pupil who might be interested) is but one factor. Another factor is the desirable enrolment limits based upon annual hiring of new employees in oc­ cupations to be taught.


Determine number of shops to be n e e d e d . For specific suggestions on this point, see Table



lNew York State Education Dept., Community Surveys for Vocational-Industrial Education: Bulletin No. 1284 (Albany: The university of the State of New York, 1945). ®New York State Education Dept*, School Building Projects: A Guide for Administrative Procedures Involved (Albany: University of State of New Ifork, 1950).

ei 4.

Develop courses of study. These should be topical outlines made from occupa­ tional analyses.


Plan the equipment to be installed In each shop. Use courses of study for determining equipment required•


Determine shop sizes. Sizes should be based on required equipment. This will necessitate layout of a scaled floor plan.


Estimate auxiliary space n e e d e d . See section on "Auxiliary Rooms and Facilities".


Plan built-in equipment. The architect should be advised as to the functions of built-in equipment and, in some cases, sketches should be furnished.


Assist architect. The vocational director, or the person delegated by the superintendent, should assist the architect by providing answers to all questions of detail regarding shop instructional activities. It is re­ commended that local school officials discuss their vocational education problems with the Division of Industrial and Technical Education, State Education Department, Albany, before any plans are drawn. General Considerations Location of School Sites

Factors concerned with the location of school sites are generally beyond the scope of this bulletin.

It may,

however, be appropriate to question the practice, apparent in some places, of locating schools which teach vocationalindustrial curricula in dominantly industrial areas.


practice cannot be Justified unless such a location best

82 serves the needs of all pupils in the school. Schools should be located "central” to their student population.

Determination of what constitutes "central"

must, however, factors.

consider transportation as well as geographic

Locations, peripheral to population centers fre­

quently may be justified.

Advantages gained by a peripheral

location may include availability of more campus space and cheaper land values which enables a given amount of money to purchase better physical education, recreation, and athletic facilities.

In general,

the location of a school away from

crowded business and industrial areas is conducive to opti­ mum learning. For the accommodation of evening school programs one very important physical feature in site choice is that there must be adequate space and provision for the parking of cars. Experiences indicate that adults have not objected to peri­ pheral locations but that lack of parking facilities has been a definite deterrent to attendance. Location of Shops in Building Wings It is recommended that the location of shops, in com­ prehensive high schools, should be in separate wings of the building from classrooms for other school subjects.


suggestion is not made because of any intrinsic differences in student characteristics or differences in educative value of shop courses.

The primary factor is the basic differ­

ences in space requirements for adequately housing shop and

83 classroom programs,

shop areas should be at least thirty

feet In width and for some types of activities should be forty feet or greater.

Classroom widths of twenty-two or

twenty-three feet are generally recommended.

This desirable

differential in room widths emphasises the architectural practicability of placing shops In separate wings.

The de­

sirability of separating noisy school activities from quiet ones m a y also be a good reason for placing shops in separate wings. Location of Shops in Separate Buildings If a school's campus is composed of several build­ ings , all types of shops should be located in one building rather than shop wings. When a separate building is planned for housing shops, care should be taken to make such a building an integral part of the total educational plant. Some school officials believe that separate shop buildings contribute to alienating vocational students from the rest of the school. Relative Location of Shops Relative location of shops in accordance with the nature of their basic activities is highly important.


is to say, when two or more closely related shops, for ex­ ample,

two machine shops, or an electric laboratory, an

electric construction shop, and a radio shop, are part of a

QA s c h o o l ^ program, each other*

It is desirable that they be adjacent to

Automotive mechanics is more closely related to

aviation, voiding, machine shop, and electric equipment main­ tenance than it is to building trades, cablnetmaking, or drafting and should be located accordingly.


chemistry is more closely related to other science labora­ tories than it is to most vocational-industrial shop activi­ ties and should be located near the other chemistry labora­ tories. Special Classrooms Special classrooms are not required for the general education subjects studied by vocational students.

It is

desirable that vocational students not be segregated from other students in English,

social sciences, et. cet.

Floor Level Locations of Shops Floor level preference for the location of shops is the first floor.

It is especially important that "heavy"

shops be so located.

Automotive shops do work on "live"

cars, and therefore "drive In" accessibility is mandatory. The delivery of lumber and other bulky materials to wood­ working shops make driveway access highly desirable. "Light" shops, such as drafting, beauty culture, power sewing machine operation, and radio repair need not be on ground floor locations. New school buildings should not be designed to house any instructional activity in basement spaces.

8£ Elevators Elevators for freight are needed In all multi-story school buildings.

Such a service Is especially important

for "medium” or "heavy" shops located above the first floor. When a building is equipped with elevators they should be located so that loading platforms with canopies are easily accessible for truck deliveries and pick-ups.


should be located so that corridors provide access to all areas of each floor with a minimum of disturbance to class­ room and shop activities. Safety No section of this bulletin has been specifically de­ voted to a discussion of safety.

An effort has been made

to consider safety factors in all recommendations.


Safety Education-*- presents an excellent discussion of safety problems and their administration.

In its chapter on "Shop

Layout"^, primary considerations includes

adequate student

work apace, aisle space, machine locations, Isolation of hazardous Jobs, location of switches, and lighting.

^New York State Education Dept., Shop Safety Educa­ tion (Albany: Bureau of Vocational Curriculum development, TJnTversity of the State of New York, 1949).

2Ibid.■ p. 31.

86 Sizes and Shapes of Shops Sizes of Shops The sizes of shops will vary in accordance with the program planned for their utilization.

No rule of thumb

should be used in determining the size of a shop.


should be arrived at only after analyses have been made of the content of the courses to be taught, of the machines and equipment needed,

and a floor plan layout.

No other

approach to the problem of determining shop sizes is justi­ fiable.

The following suggestions of shop sizes are based

upon averages for certain activities that have been found by experience to be satisfactory.

These averages should be

used only as a basis of checking the reasonableness of space allotments. These recommendations represent a compromise between what is existent in acceptable programs in New York State and what is desired by teachers and administrators.


are recommendations for comprehensive high schools in New York State in 1949.

Other geographic areas and future

years will desirably result in the development of different recommendations.

In some communities larger shops can be

justified. Attention is called to the fact that no shop can be classified arbitrarily as being "heavy1', "medium", or "light" without some knowledge of the content of the courses to be taught and the character of the equipment.

For example, an

electric laboratory, Involving the generation of power,

97 might be a "heavy" shop; electric construction might require a "medium" shop; while radio work might necessitate only a "light" shop. TABLE 1 SPACES RECOMMENDED FOR Ori,N SHOP AREA IN VOCATIONAL-INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL SHOPS--(20 PUPILS) A.

"Heavy" shops (for example: automotive, aviation, car­ pentry, cabinet making and millwork, or machine shop). Shop

sq. ft. per pupil

Desirable Average Minimum B.

150 120 100

open shop area

3000 2400 2000

"Medium" shops (for example: beauty culture, printing, or trade dressmaking). Shop

Sq. ft. per pupil

Desirable Average Minimum o.

Sa. ft. total

120 90 75

Sq. ft. per pupil

Desirable Average Minimum

open shop area

2400 1800 2500

"Light" shops (for example: sewing-machine operation). Shop

Sq. ft. total


drafting, nursing, Sq. ft. total

75 60 50

or power

open shop area

1500 2100 1000

Shapes of Shops The shape of shops is


Any shape which does

not allow an instructor visibility of the entire area at all times should be avoided.

The shape of shops should

range from square to a ratio of length to width of not more than 2:1.

In terms of shop sizes this means that a shop of

88 2,400 sq. ft. might desirably be 40* x 60*, 1,200 sq. ft. might desirably be 30' x 4 0 f, and 3,000 sq. ft. might be 50» x 60*. A "bowling alley** shaped shop is virtually Impossible to layout for effective operation and safety.

There is a

definite trend toward shops which are nearly square because they permit effective equipment layouts and efficient apace utilization. Ceiling Heights Ceiling heights should not be less than 11 feet. teen foot heights are frequently desirable.


In courses such

as carpentry, heights should be adequate to provide for the use of full-sized materials. heights In excess of 12 feet.

Aviation shops require ceiling A foundry should have a ceil­

ing height of approximately 30 feet.

Consideration should

be given to the need for 24-feet heights for areas of shops in which some types of building trades activities are con­ ducted. Mezzanines Mezzanines, or balconies, In shops are not generally desirable.

If such are planned they should be used only

for storage and easy accessibility to them Is exceedingly important.

Their use is not recommended unless they are

accessible by stairways without excessive rise.

Pupil-Teacher Ratios In general, twenty pupils per teacher should be consi­ dered maximum desirable load for shop or laboratory courses in vocational-industrial or vocational-technical education. Determining the Number of Shops The following table of recommendations relative to the number of vocational-industrial shops for comprehensive high schools are based on the assumption that shops will be planned to accommodate 20 pupils per teacher, that only one teacher will occupy a shop at one time, and that two threehour classes per day will be held in a shop.

Thus 40 day-

school pupils, per shop, can be accommodated in a 6-hour school day. It is not recommended that a shop be designed to accom­ modate 40 or 60 pupils with two or three teachers.

The floor

space for which each teacher is responsible should be separ­ ated from adjacent spaces by full partitions. Table No. 2

should never be used as the only basis for

determining the number of shops needed by a school.


should be done by an analysis of training needed as deter­ mined by a community survey of employment,

employment prac­

tices, labor availability, labor-employer-school relations, and other pertinent factors.

It Is Intended to serve only

as a check on the adequacy of plans. rolment potentials.

It considers only en­

More than the number of shops suggested

by Table No. 2 may sometimes be justified.

For example:

9Q training needs may justify establishing or continuing a shop when enrolment in that curricular area is less than 40 pupils.

In such cases the basic assumption in the design

of the table--that a shop cares for 40 pupils--ia fallacious and the recommended number of shops will bs too low to care for the vocational education needs in that school. No attempfchas been made to allow, in this table, for an adult-education day school shop program.

Instead, it is

suggested that shops needed for day school should be ade­ quate in size, and should be adequately equipped, for adults in night school programs.

to care

When adult education

needs are sufficiently different from those cared for by day school shops as to demand different types of physical facili­ ties, plans should be made accordingly for additional shops. Flexibility In the study of schools referred to In the preface, one feature of building planning on which there was unani­ mity among school administrators was a desire for maximum flexibility in sohool construction.

Some administrators

have expressed the opinion that rigidity of construction has been a deterrent to needed curricular changes. Partitions One of the prime factors of flexibility is the type of partitions which are used In school buildings.

Full parti­

tions, extending to the ceiling, are recommended for divid­ ing floor space between areas occupied by different teachers.




% of Total Enrolment Expected to be in Vocational-Industrial Curricula 60% 50% . 40% 5 (5% " 10# 20% 5# — r Total Number of Shops (9) (7) (8) (6) (5) (2) (3) (4)






1 or 2


















1 1 or 2










23 .





























Assuming that only one teacher will teach In any shop at any one time and that one shop will accommodate two classes of 20 each, per day: No. of shops = £ °c,-ln4t0»nr°l»-n*

Sample Interpretation: In a comprehensive high school having a^ of 1500 pupils (col. 1, row 4), when 25# school enrolment (col. 5) Is majoring In curricula, 10 shops (col. 5, row 4) will

enrolment of the total voc. - Ind. be required.

92 Partial partitions may sometimes be justified for dividing floor space within a shop area.

Partitions should be non­

load bearing in so far as possible.

Cross partitions should

be movable with relatively little disturbance to a building structure in order to permit a rearrangement of floor spaces when required.

Steel partitions, with and without sections

containing glass windows, have been found highly satisfactory. Fenestration The fenestration of a building affects its flexibility by making it practicable, or difficult, tions.

to move cross parti­

Continuous, industrial type, windows are recommended.

They should be designed on a module which permits partitions to be moved.

Such a module in window construction would

permit partitions to be placed between module units without disturbing the outside appearance of a building.


arranged in a line could then be readjusted in length as desired.

Shifting of partitions and the resultant transfer

of floor space from one shop to another should help care for fluctuation in enrolment and for differentials in floor space requirements by different curricular areas. Electric Services Electric wiring, and other services, stalled in cross partitions.

should not be in­

Electric outlets on cross walls

should be supplied through conduits, or metal moldings, placed on the face of the walls in order to facilitate the movement of partitions when desired.

Electric Power Electric power supplied to machines in shops and labora­ tories through overhead buss ducts contributes to flexibility. If power supply lines are to be installed in the floors of shops,

it is recommended that fiber ducts or Q-type floors

be given consideration.

(A Q-type floor is cellular hollow-

steel construction providing a series of raceways for elec­ tric w i r i n g . ) Electric Lighting Circuits Circuits should be so planned that lights of any given shop areas are controlled within that shop.

Areas of control

should be small and should parallel windows so that the lights on the dark side of the room are separately controlled from the lights nearest the windows. Layout of Floor Space Spacing of Equipment The best approach to this problem is to have experi­ enced teachers plan the location of all equipment In accor­ dance with Its function In the teaching process.

The follow­

ing generalizations can be justified: 1. Machine and other equipment should be arranged in accordance with operations to be taught and placed In proper relation to other equipment.

For example:

in a woodworking shop the location of lumber storage will determine the placement of certain machines.

94 a. Gleaning of floors around machines Is mads easier If a clear space exists through 360° around each machine but the space required to do this Is not always justified. 3. When machines are placed back to back In order to save floor space* care should be taken that such an arrangement does not interfere with their operation. 4 . Crowding of machines is never justified if it makes the shop less safe for students. 5. The placement of machines, for which daylight is highly desirable, at an oblique angle to windows is frequently justified but may require more floor space than other types of arrangements. 6» Aisle widths of three feet should be considered minimum.

Major traffic aisles should not be less

than four feet. 7» The painting of aisle lines, and of machine zones, on the shop floors is an effective contribution to safety. Open Floor Space Some open floor space is highly desirable in most shops. In automotive shops work Is done on "live" cars; It is there­ fore recommended that at least fifty percent of the floor space should be open.

Where tool cribs in shops are to be

used, clearance of floor space from the tool crib window should not be less than six feet.

Advanced carpentry shops


should have approximately fifty percent of their floor space without benches or machines.

In cabinet shops ade­

quate space should be available for assembly. Doorways Doorways for outside access to shops such as automo­ tive and building trades, should generally be 10 or 12 feet wide and 10 feet high and of an overhead type.

If student

access Is frequently to be gained from outside the building, a three-foot door in the outside wall should be provided. Such doors should be equipped with panic bolt hardware.


floor plan of each s h o p ^ utilization should determine door locations.

It is generally recommended that automotive

shops have at least two large overhead doors adjacent to each other on the long side of the shop and located approxi­ mately seven feet from one end of the shop.

One general

rule is that doors shall never be in the corner of a room but shall be far enough away from a perpendicular wall to permit maximum utilization of all wall space.

The recommend­

ed minimum distance of any door from a perpendicular wall, w h i c h might be used for a bench location,

is seven feet.

In addition to floor space utilization,

the number and

location of doorways should provide for adequate means of escape In case of an emergency.

Large shops should have at

least two exits sufficiently removed from each other so as to assure availability of one of them at any time. Storerooms for lumber and other heavy supplies should have access directly from driveways and should be equipped

96 with doors suitable for the admission of the types of mater­ ials to be received.

This may mean 6-foot wide double doors

or doors of an overhead type. Doors from corridors into shop areas will be dependent upon other access to a shop area.

If the shop is accessible

directly to the outside of the building with large doors for deliveries,

then single three-foot corridor doors are gen­

erally adequate.

When a shop has no accessibility other than

through a corridor,

it will need to have a 6-foot wide double

door. Location of Benches This is a problem which should, where practicable, be left to the discretion of the teacher who Is going to occupy a given shop.

Where it is desirable to locate benches in

such a position as to secure maximum daylight,

their loca­

tion with their long axes perpendicular to windows will usually provide a better light than their location parallel to windows.

If, in order to save floor space, benches are

placed parallel to walls, attention is directed to the Im­ portance of studying the need for special lighting over them.

This need exists for benches which are under windows

as well as benches arranged along blank walls. Lecture-Planning Areas Lecture-planning areas in shops are not desirable un­ less part time use of an adjacent classroom is not available.

97 Some shops will not need either a lecture-planning area or an adjacent classroom.

This negative recommendation is made

because of the limited use of such a space in a well managed shop. Projection Aids Area Recent developments in the production and distribution of audio-visual aids projection materials now make it desir­ able that a projection aids area be provided in many shops. The provision of such an arrangement would be for the in­ struction of small groups of students and would not take the place of audio-visual rooms which can be darkened for the showing of visual aids to entire classes or larger groups. This projection aids area can be provided in any section of the shop which is relatively dark and has as much as nine square feet of blank wall space at a height suitable for a projection screen.

Modern projection equipment can be used

satisfactorily with a properly painted wall as a screen; however,

a roll-a-way beaded screen is most satisfactory. Shop Storage

It is of vital importance that every shop be provided with adequate storage space. including supplies,

The planning of all storage,

tools, and projects, must precede the

layout of shops. In all shops, full advantage should be taken of storage space available under shop benches.

When such space is

98 fully utilized, by built-in shelves, cabinets, or drawers, attention should be given to ntoe space” being provided under the working edge of every bench.

If a bench top does

not extend at least 4 inches beyond the base of the bench, a toe space 4 inches deep and 6 inches high is recommended. For ease in cleaning, all cabinets should extend to the floor. If movable storage cabinets are favored for the type of Instructional materials Involved, an analysis of the storage problem should be made to determine the number and types of cabinets needed.

Adequate wall space should be anticipated

for their location. Tool Storage Panels Panels for tools, located In areas of a shop where those particular tools are most used, are recommended. example:


It has been found to be practicable to have the

tools most frequently used in the operation of an engine lathe mounted on a tool-outlined, open, panel board immedi­ ately adjacent to the lathe.

Tools used most frequently at

bench work stations should be stored on panel boards very near to those benches.

An Identifying color scheme may be

used to mark tools that belong to each panel board In the shop. When security of tools is an item of major concern, It Is suggested that panel cabinets be designed of a type which can be locked when tools are not being used.


cabinets with Insides of doors serving as tool panels have

9ft been found practicable. Chalkboards It is recommended that a minimum of thirty-six square feet of chalkboard space should be provided in each shop. Consideration of a board more highly reflective than slate blackboard is recommended.

Dark green colored chalkboards

are being found very satisfactory. feet of chalkboard is inadequate,

When thirty-six square it is suggested that verti­

cal sliding panels or book-type chalkboards be considered. Bulletin Boards Bulletin boards should be provided in all shops.


is suggested that a minimum of thirty-two square feet of tack board be provided.

One preferred location for such

display space is adjacent to exit doors to corridors.


sideration should be given to providing adequate light on all display board space.

Additional bulletin board space

may be provided by mounting tack boards on cabinet doors. For some types of displays, book-type display panels, verti­ cally hinged in an effective location, are very satisfactory. Services in Shops Electric Outlets Double convenience electric outlets for 110-volt cur­ rent should be located at eight-foot intervals on all shop walls.

These outlets should,

generally, be at a height of

100 forty-eight inches in order that electric appliances can be plugged in above bench height. location of outlets.

Safety factors affect the

For example:

safety demands that out­

lets should not be placed in the immediate vicinity of wash basins. Power Capacity Electric power capacity in shops can be recommended only in terms of the utilization planned for specific spaces. Anticipated power capacity should be calculated by estimating the maximum instantaneous load for every shop. "Heavy shops should be wired for 220-volt, 3-phase current and, for the sake of flexibility, wired to care for a peak load of at least 40 kilowatts.

This will necessitate

100 ampere service to the panel board of all heavy shops.


few shops, electric welding for example, will require in excess of this capacity. Current capacity anticipated for all shops should take into consideration the connected load and the diversity fac­ tor.

It is highly desirable in an electric laboratory that

lines be sufficiently heavy to provide for a very small voltage drop.

Electric laboratories should have a DC gen­

erator or rectifier,

capable of producing at least 15 kilo­

watts of direct current. Electric current for "medium" shops may sometimes be only 110-volt service but flexibility of curricular assign­ ments to shop areas will be Increased If 220-volt service

100. is available to all shops. vided with 25 kilowatts.

"Medium" shops should be pro­ In the case of an electric machine

laboratory, at least 40-kilowatt capacity should be provided even though the shop might be housed in a "medium" unit of floor space. The service for most "light" shops should be 220-110 volts,

single-phase 3 wire.

Some "light" shops, radio for

example, may require equipment which operates most effi­ ciently on 220-volt, 3 phase current. Electric Control Panels

of each wall.

The control panel for the electric

light and power

shop should be located in the shop

on the corridor

The panel should be mounted flush with the wall and

equipped with a door which can be locked.

This panel should

be of a remote control type with a red pilot light.


buttons, for the master switch, should be provided at at least two points within each shop.

Location of these "off"

buttons should be planned at points most conveniently reached by the instructor.

In order to assure maximum safety in the

operation of the shop, as many individual circuits should be provided as feasible, preferably one for each major Item of power equipment. In the case of electric laboratories, should be near the center of corridor walls

switch boards

in order to re­

duce installation costs and to minimize voltage drop.

102 Gas Gas used for heating units will not be required in all shops. needed,

For those shop activities in which gas heat is

anticipated capacities will vary greatly.


shops may require only a one-half inch line, while others, with large gas ovens or furnaces, may need service requiring a two-inch line.

It is suggested that a computation be made

of estimated demand requirements of equipment anticipated. Water Hot and cold water should be available in all shops. (See "Wash Rooms" in section on "Auxiliary Rooms and Facili­ ties" .) In those shops where water Is an instructional mate­ rial, an analysis should be m a d e of the conditions under which it Is used, and an estimate made of volume needed.


an analysis Is necessary in order to determine types of sinks needed, desirable sink locations, and sizes of service lines needed. Drinking Fountain A drinking fountain should be provided in every shop. Although it should be located near the wash-up sink, it is recommended that it be a separate unit rather than a combi­ nation fixture. Compressed Air Compressed air should be accessible to all shops, centrally located compressors have generally been found more

H025 satisfactory than individual compressors.

Since compressed

air may not be needed by all shops, it is suggested that air lines be provided from the compressor to all shops and that the service be tapped only when its use is anticipated. Fire Extinguisher Some type of a fire extinguisher should be provided for every shop.

Building planning should anticipate the

type of extinguisher to be used and provide a space for its installation.

A recessed wall area is the most satisfactory

location. Auxiliary Rooms and Facilities All shop programs require some auxiliary rooms. These should be planned at the same time as the rest of the shop.

The number and kind of auxiliary spaces depend on the

nature of the instructional materials and activities. should include:


offices, related subjects classrooms,

projectionaids facilities, related science laboratories,


rooms, supply storage sooms, finishing rooms, locker rooms, toilets, and wash rooms. Offices Offices for vocational directors and supervisors should be located central to the activities of the shops. They should also be convenient to building entrances accessible to the public. Related Subjects Classrooms

loi The classrooms used for teaching related subjects should be conveniently located with respect to the shops.


study of the total program needs to be made in order to d e ­ termine the number of such rooms required to provide for shop theory and related subjects.

The 1 ights of such

classrooms should be controlled by 3-way or 4-way switches permitting them to be turned on and off near each entrance and in the center of the rear of the room.

Double conven­

ience outlets should be provided in front and rear walls. Such rooms should be adequately equipped for darkening sufficiently to show any common projection aids, including opaque materials. It is suggested that this type of room be placed b e ­ tween shops when practicable.

When not needed for vocational

subjects, such rooms can be used for other classes. Related Science Laboratories In small comprehensive high schools,

the science

rooms used for general science, or physics and chemistry may be planned to meet the needs of related science, pro­ vided attention is given to such needs in the selection of equipment. In any school building which provides 4 or more vocational shops,

it is suggested that at least one room

should be specifically planned for a related science laboratory.

If such a laboratory is not used full time for

related science it can be utilized by other science classes.

105 The related science laboratory might well be located as part of the science suite. Toolrooms Toolrooms,

so designed as to require a full time

attendant for issuance and security of tools, are not recommended.

It is doubted that the practice of using the

toolroom as one training station in a school shop can be justified.

When toolrooms are planned,

their location

should be such as to minimize student travel to and from their work stations.

The location of the toolroom Is a

factor which should be given careful consideration in shop layout.

The use of panel boards in toolrooms is p r e ­

ferred to keeping tools in drawers. Minimizing the use of toolrooms can be accomplished by the use of tool storage panels in open shop areas.


"Tool Storage Panels" in section on "Layout of Floor Space".) When the character of shop equipment is such as to require particular care

(for example:

meters and other

delicate instruments for an electric shop) special storage and issuance rooms should be provided. Supply Storage One of the most frequently neglected factors In shop planning is adequate provision for storage.


space requirements vary so greatly in accordance with the nature of the shop's activities and materials of Instruction

106 that no specific recommendation of amount of space is being made.

In general, metal trades require less cubage for

storage than do woodworking trades or upholstery. It Is recommended that adequate central storage be provided to care for some of the materials of all shops.


this Is done, no auxiliary storage will be needed for some Individual shops but cabinets within the floor space of cer­ tain shops can accommodate all needs. Supplies immediately available for issuance to stucents should usually be kept separated from reserve supplies. The former may be kept within the shop area; the latter should be kept In an auxiliary room. Some analyses of storage facilities Indicate that, for a diversified shop program adequate storage requires auxiliary floor space totaling approximately 10 per cent to the total floor space of all shops. The one unalterable recommendation regarding storage is that details of such spaces should be designed for the type of materials to be stored and space required should be determined by an analysis of t h e m a t e r i a l s of Instruction for each shop.

Such space should be properly located In respect

to receiving materials and dispensing them to shops. If an extensive night school program is operated, using the same shops and equipment as the day school program, It is desirable to provide separate supply storage.

This is

especially important If accounting procedures, purchasing, and issuance of supolies require a separation of day school and night school records.

107 Lockers Individual lockers, adequate in size for personal shop tools, books, and shop clothes should be provided for every student, including those in evening classes. rooms are not recommended.


Lockers should, preferably, be

located in the shop areas, in alcoves which permit super­ vision by the teacher.

In some shops personal lockers will

be adequate for partiallyvcompleted trainee work. Project and Product Storage In vocational shops students do work "on a useful or productive basis'’.

Such student work, while In the process

of completion, may require storage. Only by an analysis of course of study outlines, and an estimate of the size, shape, and cubage likely to require storage at any one time, can adequate storage space be planned.

In some instances, an

auxiliary room may be required for such storage. Finishing Rooms In connection with cabinet making and mill work a finishing room is actually a part of the shop.

It is dis­

cussed as an auxiliary room because the problems of finishing are such as to require that it be separated from other areas. Such a room should be dust proof. system Is recommended.

An Independent exhaust

Special attention is called to the need

of high levels of Illumination on vertical as well as horlz ontal surfac e s . Spray booths require special lighting and ventilation.

108 They are required in such shops as painting and decorating, cabinet making, and automotive body shops. Toilets Toilet facilities should be located so that they are easily accessible to students in shops. Wash Rooms Clean-up washing facilities should provide at least four fixtures per shop.

More than four wash stations may be

needed in foundries and other shops where the nature of the work results in pupils being especially dirty at the end of the shop periods. Wash rooms separated from the shop are not recom­ mended.

The use of wash-up facilities in locker alcoves is

difficult to supervise in that their major use comes at a time when an instructor has numerous other responsibilities. It is suggested that fixtures be located along shop walls, so that clean-up activities can be kept in sight by the teacher, from any point in the shop. Sinks of a rectangular or a half-circular type are considered satisfactory.

Sinks In open areas, permitting 360°

accessibility, may be satisfactory but require considerable space.

Hot and cold water mixing type faucets are recommended. Display Centers Every school should be provided with In-the-wall,

shelved, and lighted display cabinets for students' work and other materials of general Interest,

since such displays are

109 a part of good public relations, it Is suggested that some of them be located in foyers and main corridors.


such display cases near to school's trophy case is contributive to their receiving attention.

Shelves should be ad­

justable and removable. Where practicable, be from the back.

access to display cases should

Proper lighting is important.

Display cases in corridors near shops and in certain shops can be very effectively used. Corridor Gates In order to limit the accessibility to certain sec­ tions of school buildings, corridor gates are frequently desirable.

Locations of such gates should be anticipated in

order that corridor walls can be designed with necessary re­ cessed areas.

One very satisfactory gate is an overhead

roll-a-way type which can be pulled down to the floor when needed and key-locked Into its closed position. Floors Floor Loads Attention Is called to the fact that some shops hare equipment which will constitute rather heavy concentrated loads.

Anticipated equipment for shops should be planned

before shop floors are designed.

Not only must heavy equip­

ment be moved to its Intended locations buti flexibility of a school's program changes, from year to year, may make It desirable to place heavy Items of equipment In locations not

no anticipated at the time of building construction.


of some equipment may cause vibration problems which affect floor loads.

These factors should be given consideration in

the design of the building. Machinery Mounting Types of machines used in shops of comprehensive high schools are usually not heavy enough to involve serious mounting problems.

In diesel engine shops, and for some

machines in printing shops, attention Is invited to the prob­ lem of vibration.

Some machines may need to be mounted on

special bases with vibration absorbent pads.

Certain items

of equipment need to be anchored into the basic floor struc­ ture through the finished floor.

Sometimes it will be de­

sirable to design and construct machine mountings independent of finished floors and before the finished flooring is laid. Shop Floors Factors to be considered in choosing shop floors Include:

(1) wearing qualities of floor material;

cleaning ease of material;


(5) maintenance i n service;


use of acids and solvents and the resulting need for Im­ pervious materials; and (5) extent and type of personnel and material movement on the shop floor. Table 3 shows recommended materials for shop floors. Concrete is the most frequently used shop floor. is satisfactory In most shop areas and preferred material for a few.

The chief objection to concrete is Its lack of

resilience, its tendency to dust,

and its relatively high



Some Vocational-Industrial & Vocational-Technical Shops Auto Mechanics Aviation Baking and Cooking


Types of Flooring Asphalt End Grain Tile Wood Block Concrete



1 1 1 Terrasso or Quarry Tile



S Beauty Culture 1 Brick Laying S Cabinet Making and Mil Iwork 1 la S Carpentry S Drafting 1 S Electricity S lb Foundry 1 S S Machine Shop 1 S Painting and Decorating S Pattern Making, Wood s 1 or Metal Porrer Sewing Machine S S 1 S Printing s s Radio S 1 Refrigeration Servicing s Science, Related S 1 s S Sheet Metal Tailoring s S Upholstering 1 s 1 Welding a Portion of shop space used for molding and furnaces to b Note: Types of floor rated "I" are considered first choice. satisfactory.




S S Dirt





S Rubber Tile







Rubber Tile

be dirt floor. Those rated "Sn are considered to be ill

112 porosity which makes It difficult to clean thoroughly.


concrete floors are desired, care should be taken to have specifications written so as to secure a smooth, non-dusting finished surface.

Hardener color topping for concrete Is

available In a variety of oolors within a recommendable range of reflection factors.

This topping Is an Integral part of

the concrete floor, has a very low porosity, dusting finish.

and takes a non­

It Is much harder and cleans better than

other concrete finishes. End grain wood block floors, laid on a mastic base over concrete with provision made for expansion, have been found *ery satisfactory In some places.

Home of them have

the objectionable feature of being very dark.

If used where

metal fillings or chips fall onto them, they impregnate rather easily.

They cannot be satisfactorily washed.

End grain wood

block floors are available in natural wood finishes. Asphalt tiles now on the market are worthy of consid­ eration provided their limitations, as well as their ad­ vantages, are studied In relation to each shop's activities. Oolors of this product are an index to Its asphalt content and Its service qualities.

Dark colors of tile (types A and

B) have a high asphalt content, are highly resilient, relative ly soft, and easily damaged by grease and acids*

Light colors

(types o and D) have a low asphalt content, are very hard, and are relatively Impervious to grease and volatile oils. Plastic t^le floor coverings have qualities worthy of investigation.

113 Abrasive Floor Areas Areas of a shop floor where machine operators stand while at w o r k should have an abrasive surface*

The size and location

of such areas will be dependent upon the nature of the foot movements required by the operators.


a variety saw

or jointer in a cabinet shop should have such an area. found suitable for this include:


an abrasive, non-skid, sub­

stance that can be painted or troweled onto any floor or, ribbed rubber mats oemented to the floor. Floor Drains In every shop where the instructional activity is of such a nature as to make it desirable to clean the floors by scrubbing them, floor drains may be desirable. shops always need drains.


It is suggested that drains be lo­

cated approximately ten feet from the outside doors.


much of the maintenance work done on cars requires smooth level floors, the slope of floors toward drains should be very slight. Acoustics in Shops Smoothly finished, easily cleaned, wall and ceiling surfaces,

such as are desirable for shops, contribute to poor

acoustical conditions.

Suoh factors indicate the desirability

of acoustical treatment. Segregation of shops from other school activities fre­ quently is justified, activity,

in part, beoause shop work is a noisy

since noise in schools is objectionable, it seems

logical to control it at its source and to use acoustical treatment where practicable.

The experience of industrial

114 organizations Indicates that worker productivity, morale, and efficiency are appreciably influenced by noise. Only if it is a necessary economy, should shops be constructed without acoustical treatment. an acoustical engineer is recommended.

The counsel of

The possibility

that acoustical treatment of ceilings may be cheaper than finishing and painting the underneath side of floor slabs should be investigated. Isolation of shops will reduce the noise transmitted to other school areas.

Only noise control and absorption

can help to make them quieter.

Contributing to sound con­

trol, it has been suggested that "motors should be mounted on sound insulating bases";1 flexible connections should be used to reduce transmission of sound through ducts; and, In some instances,

segregated positive ventilating facilities

should be provided for noisy units so that they may be used without opening windows and increasing the transfer of sounds to other rooms.

Best results in applying sound a b ­

sorbing materials "are obtained when such materials are applied according to acoustical engineering patterns."^ Seeing with Comfort and Efficiency Attention Is invited to "Visual Comfort and ^National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, Guide for the Planning of School Plants (1949), Published by the Council, available from W. D. McClurkin, secretary, Peabody College, Nashville, Tennessee, p. 160. 2 Ibid.

Efficiency in School Buildings,"1 published by the Division of Buildings and Grounds in 1948.

It is the intent of this

discussion merely to direct attention to some factors of lighting that apply to school shops which may not apply in the lighting of other areas of school buildings. The emphasis is not on how much illumination is needed but rather on how well can pupils see.

This focuses

attention on the importance of creating a balanced bright­ ness environment which will produce visual efficiency and comfort. Unique features of shops, which make their lighting problem different, include:

floor spaces wider than usual

class room widths; pupil work stations facing many different directions i n the shop; and visual tasks of multitudinous degrees of difficulty Including many tasks on angular and vertical surfaces. Daylight Sources As Important as daylight Is In providing a good seeing environment, Its maximum utilization in most school shops may have to be sacrificed in favor of other factors. One-third or more of the occupied time of many shops Is at night. Floor areas of 2,000 square feet and more are de­ sirable with shop widths of 30 feet or more.

With unilateral

lighting, such widths preclude the practical achievement of the usual daylight requirements. 1New York State Education Department, Visual Comfort and Efficiency in School Buildings (Albany: University of the State of New^York, 1948).

116 Multi-lateral daylighting Is practicable for many shops If attention Is given to the problem of eliminating shadows and to maintaining a balanced brightness environ­ ment,

The very nature of instructional activities in shops

is such that pupils are not limited to specifically assigned positions all facing one direction. Conventional skylights are not generally recommended. The use of clerestory windows is encouraged on one side of bilaterally dayllghted floor spaces. In case elaborate or expensive schemes of dayllghtlng are contemplated, it is suggested that their merit be eval­ uated with full cognizance of the fact that, no matter how well shops are dayllghted, artificial illumination will need to be adequate for efficient seeing in evening vocational classes. Daylight Shading and Deflection Hie prob l e m of shading visual tasks from direct sun­ light is no less important in shops than in classrooms.


is somewhat more difficult because air laden dust is fre­ quently more prevalent in shop areas and discourages the use of Venetian blinds and pull shades. Deflection of daylight to ceilings has proven an effective means of Increasing the amount of illumination which reaches the side of a room farthest from windows.


need for floor widths of 40 feet or more make deflection more important in shop lighting than in classroom lighting.

117 The two factors of shading needs and deflection needs combine to suggest the consideration of diredtional glass block for outside shop walls. Window Sill Heights It is suggested that the height of window sills In shops should approximate 48 Inches. The height of classroom sills are recommended in accordance with the eye-level of seated pupils.

Eye-level of

pupils working in shops is determined by their positions at pupil stations--generally standing at machines and benches. The "top light" from windows contributes most to daylighting interiors.

The glass should extend as near to the

ceiling as possible. Levels

of Illumination

One dominant factor which has been mentioned earlier is repeated for the sake

of emphasis.


be adequate for effective and com­

in all shops should

Artificial illumina­

fortable vision at night. It must be emphasized that the important consideration In shop Illumination Is that recommended footcandle levels be maintained in service and that the Illumination desired must be on the w o r k .

Cognizance should be taken of the fact that

such tasks as reading the 64th inch graduations on a scale, or reading the micrometer, are not visual tasks to be per­ formed on a horizontal surface at bench height.

Such visual

tasks must frequently be performed with precision measuring Instruments on a vertical plane.

118 This section is making no attempt to analyze the visual problems of shop work.

The purpose here is to point

out the need for the analysis of visual problems before planning the lighting desirable for any given shop activity. It will be noted that Table 4 contains recommended initial and maintained levels of illumination. level Is the one which is Important.

The maintained

All types of electric

lamps lose some of their initial intensities rather rapidly at first.

The maintained level of illumination approximates

three-fourths of the initial level.

This means that initial

installations should be one-third higher than recommended maintained levels. Glare •’Glare Is defined as any brightness within the field of vision, of such character as to cause discomfort, annoy­ ance, interfere with vision or eye fatigue."^-

There is

particular need for an analysis of the problems of glare in lighting shops. Special lighting required to bring recommended levels of illumination to the location of some critical visual tasks create brightness differences of such a nature as to neces­ sitate careful shading of these local sources.

For example:

the visual tasks involved in performing precision work on a machine may demand localized Illumination.

In providing such

supplementary light, care must be taken to shade the bulb from the visual field of all workers In that vicinity. llbid., p. 10.



Minimum Maintained Footcandles of Gen'l Illumination

Minimum Initial Footcandles of G e n ’l Illumination

Shops, laboratories--on the work



Classrooms--on desks, tables, chalk, and dis­ play boards



Offices--on desks



Sewing rooms, drafting rooms, art rooms, and other rooms where fine detail work Is to be done--on the work



Locker rooms and toilets



Storage rooms



Recommended Reflectances and Colors The problem of how much light can be secured on the work from any given source is very closely allied with color and light reflection.

Attention should be given to the se­

lection of a highly reflective, diffusing, paint for those parts of machines which could be used to reflect light on critical visual tasks. If surfaces surrounding the graduations on scales, or dials, on certain machines are painted with a highly re­ flective paint the graduations are much more easily read than


120 when these same machines are painted with a dark color. For example:

the universal milling machine has graduations

under its table that enables its operator to make a direct reading of the angle at which the work is being set in re­ lation to the milling cutter.

This dial is shaded from the

overhead general illumination by the table and the saddle of the milling machine.

In shops with adequate general illumi­

nation this visual task may be sufficiently illuminated if the surrounding areas of the machine are finished with a paint having a high reflection factor. Heating and Ventilating Attention is directed to Heating and Ventilating Recommendations for New York State Schools^- which was devel­ oped by a committee and consultants and was published in 1948. This section will discuss only problems which apply to shops and laboratories. Zoning The prevalence of night school programs in vocation­ al-industrial and technical education make it desirable that the control of heat in the shop wing of a building be de­ signed and located so as to permit heating It independently of the rest of the building. Special Heating Problems ^New York State Education Department, Heating and Ventilating Recommendations for New York State Schools (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1948).

121 In automotive repair and maintenance shops and other shops where students frequently work on the floors, the de­ sirability of radiant floor panel heating should be investi­ gated.

A combination of floor panel heating and the use of

suspended unit heaters may be practicable.

The design

operative temperature should be 68° at 60 inches above the floor. Regulations of the Commissioner of Education provide that: "Maximum fiir temperature gradient from floor to 60 Inches above floor shall not exceed 5° and preferably shall not exceed 3°." "Air movements in zones of occupancy shall not ex­ ceed 25 linear feet per minute." Ventilation The general problem of ventilating shops is compa­ rable to ventilating other areas.

In addition, special

ventilating problems occur in several shops and special equip­ ment will be needed to exhaust noxious odors, dust, fumes, and gases. Specific areas which may require exhaust hoods in­ clude heat treating furnaces, welding booths and tables, paint spray booths, joint wiping areas of plumbing shops, and titration cabinets of chemistry laboratories. The collection and disposal of the dust produced by grinding equipment In machine shops is a special problem that 1Ibid. , p. 41.

122 must be considered. floor. dust.

Grinders should be grouped on the shop

Some grinders have attachments for collecting their In the event they are not so eqriipped, provision

should be made for a unit system. In cabinet making and millwork installations, all major woodworking equipment may need to be supplied with dust and shaving collectors operated by a suction system. expensive equipment and its need should be justified.

This Is Some

provision must be made for sawdust and shaving disposal in all woodworking shops. In every shop where Internal combustion engines are run,

special ventilation must be adequate for removing carbon

monoxide gas.

Such ventilation systems must be completely

separated from those serving other parts of the building. Flexible tubes will need to be provided from engine exhausts to overhead or under-floor ducts.

123 BIBLIOGRAPHY (of New York Guide) 1.

American School Buildings. Twenty-Seventh Yearbook. Washington, D. C. : American Association of School Administrators, 1949.


American Standard Practice for School Lighting-. ASA-A23.1-1948. New York City: American Standards Association, 1948.


California Shop Planning Committee. ’’Suggested Guide for the Housing and Layout of School Shops". Sacramento: Bureau of Trade and Indsutrial Education, California State Department of Education, 1948. (Mimeographed).


Community Surveys for Vocational-Industrial Education, Bulletin No. 1 2 8 4 . Albany: The University of the state of New York, 1945.


Day and Evening Industrial Education, Handbook No. 4 7 . Albany: The University of the State of New York, February, 1949.


Heating and Ventilating Recommendations for New York State Schools. Albany: Division of School Buildings and Grounds, The University of the state of New York, 1948.


Housing the Audio-Visual Program. Albany: Division of School Buildings and Grounds* 5he University of the state of New York, 1948.


National Council on Schoolhouse Construction. Guide for the Planning of School Plants, 1949. Published by the Council; available from W. D. McClurkin, Peabody College, Nashville, Tennessee.


Planning the Agricultural and Industrial Arts Shops f o r Central Rural Schools. A l b a n y : Division of School Buildings and Grounds, The University of the State of New York, 1948.


Planning the Science Facilities for Central Schools. Albany: Division of School Buildings and Grounds * The University of the State of New York, 1950.

124 11.

"Recommendations on School Facilities, Equipment, and supplies." Detroit: Report of Automotive IndustryVocational Education Conference on Public School Automotive Instruction, 1948. (Mimeographed).


School Building Pro.lects: A Guide for Administrative Procedures Involved. Albany: Division of School Buildings and Grounds, The University of the State of New York, 1950.


Shop Safety Education. Albany: Bureau of Vocational Curriculum Development, The University of the State of New York, 1949.


Visual Comfort and Efficiency in School Buildings. Albany: Division of School Buildings and Grounds, The University of the State of New York, 1947.



THE UNIVERSITY OP THE STATE OP NEW YORK Regents of the University with years when terms expire 1957 1952 1951 1954 1953 1958 1960 1950 1959 1955 1961 1956 1962

William J. Wallin A.M., LL . D . ,Chancellor. . .Yonkers John P. Myers A.B., D.Sc., Vice Chancellor. .Plattsburg .......... Troy Wm. Leland Thompson A.B., LL.D.. George Hopkins Bond Ph.M., LL.B., LL.D. . . .Syracuse W. Kings land Macy A.B., L L . D ................. Islip E dward R. E astman L L . D . . . . ............... Freeville Welles V. Moot A.B., L L . B .....................Buffalo Mrs. Caroline Werner Gannett L.H.D., LL.D. . .Rochester Roger W. Straus LItt. B., L.H.D., D.H.L.. . .New York George L. HInman A.B., L L . B ................... Binghamton Dominick P. Maurillo A.B., M . D ............... Brooklyn John P. Brosnan A.M., J.D., L L . D ............. New York Jacob L. Holtzmann LL.B., L L . D ............... Brooklyn

President o f the University and Commissioner of Education Francis T. Spaulding A.M., Ed.D., LL.D., Lltt.D. Deputy Commissioner of Education Lewis A. Wilson D.Sc., LL.D. Associate commissioner for Elementary and Secondary Education Harry V. Gilson M.A., in Ed. Assistant Commissioner for Vocational Education Arthur K. Getman B.S., D.Sc. Director, Division of Industrial and Technical Education Frank P. Johnston B.S., M.S. Chief, Bureau of Trade and Technical Education William N. Fenninger Ph.B., M. A.

CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF DATA COLLECTED IN VISITS TO PROGRAMS OF VOCATIONAL-INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN GREATER NEW YORK STATE Introduction In May* 1949, a study was authorized by Assistant Commissioner A. K. Getman, who Is in charge of Vocational Education for the New York State Education Department. The purpose of this study was to obtain data to serve as a basis for the preparation of a bulletin of recommenda­ tions relative to shop and laboratory facilities for vocational-Industrial and vocational-technical departments of comprehensive high schools in New York State.


study was made^ by the author working for the Division of Industrial and Technical Education with the cooperation of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds. The shops for which data were recorded in this study include those developing employability in the following occupational areas: motive mechanics,

air-conditioning, commercial art, auto­

aviation trades, baking, beauty culture,

drafting, electricity, industrial chemistry, machinists and ^-For a list of schools involved see Appendix V. 126

127 machine tool operators, plumbing, printing, needle trades, nursing, painting and decorating, sheetmetal work, tailoring, upholstering, and woodworking trades. A.

General Considerations

A-l Accessibility of Buildings Accessibility of the schools involved was generally recorded as "central to population."

Where schools were

peripheral to their population, administrators generally ex­ pressed the opinion that the population of their area was shifting toward their school.

In a few instances the schools

have been located so as to be central to the concentration of the occupations being taught rather than central to the pop­ ulation of the school district. A-2 Shop Locations Shop locations favored by administrators in almost all instances were in separate wings of a vocational building or of a comprehensive high school building rather than immedi­ ately adjacent to spaces used for offices, academic class­ rooms, libraries, or other school functions. ment seems to be preferred for two reasons:

This arrange­ first, in order

to isolate the noise of the shops from quieter activities; and second, because the demands of shop floor space generally require a wider unit of construction than is commonly de­ signed in classroom buildings. A-3 Floor Level Locations Floor level preference for the location of shops

128 generally favored the ground floor.

A decided preference was

expressed for avoiding basement shops.

In the case of ’’light

shops such as drafting, beauty culture, needle trades, and radio repair, no special preference for the first floor level was indicated.

First floor level location was thought to be

particularly important for such shops as automotive mechanics aviation, machine shop, and woodworking.

In connection with

this item it is interesting to note that all types of shops were found at floor levels ranging from basement to the fourth floor.

This appears to be a recognition of the fact

that school location and available campus area within any given city has taken precedence over the desirability of single story construction for school shops. A-4 Elevator Service In all schools where shops were not located at the ground level, elevators were existent or very much desired in order to handle the freight of the school.

The opinion was

generally expressed that elevators for personnel are needed in buildings of three-story construction or higher. In several Instances the location of the freight ele­ vator of a building left much to be desired; for example, in two large buildings studied the freight elevators cut Into the floor area of trade shops on every floor level.


pants of several rooms on each floor had access to the ele­ vator only through shops.

As a consequence deliveries and

shipments to and from such rooms interrupted the educational activity of those shops.

129 In general, a strong preference was expressed for loading platforms at truck bed height for delivery and shipments. B.

Shop Sizes and Shapes B-2 Ceiling Heights

Ceiling heights in schools show considerable vari­ ation.

They range from six feet to twenty-four feet.

Approximately two-thirds of the shops visited have ceiling heights of twelve feet.

The next most frequently occurring

ceiling height is fourteen feet.

Most frequently desired

ceiling heights were also twelve and fourteen feet with some expression of preference for ceiling heights up to twentyfour feet for classes housing the building trades.


in excess of twelve feet were desired for certain types of automotive shops and in some aviation shops. It was suggested that celling heights be lowered to ten feet,

as an economy measure.

That suggestion may have

merit but it was not favored by a majority of the school men interviewed.

They seemed to feel that adequate ventilation

necessitated twelve foot minimum ceilings but generally ad­ mitted that they would have no objection to ten-foot ceilings, for many shops, if ventilation were adequate for the activities involved. B-3 Mezzanines Mezzanines in shop areas are existent in relatively few 3hops and utilization of mezzanines was generally not

130 approved.

Where mezzanines are being used the opinion was

frequently expressed that they were not desired and that they tended to become dead storage space and to collect junk. One exception to this was the case of school Number 18 of this study which used the upper portion of all tool cribs as a balcony for storage.

Access to this balcony on a steep

angular stairway rather than on a vertical ladder made its use practicable. B-4 Open Shop Areas For purposes of this study shops were classified as heavy, medium,

or light.

Heavy shops include air-condition­

ing, automotive, aviation, baking, machine shop, painting and decorating, plumbing, upholstering, and wood shop. shops include commercial art, beauty culture, istry, electricity, printing,

sheetmetal work,


industrial chem­ and tailoring.

Ligjht shops Include drafting, needle trades, nursing, and re­ lated science laboratories. Areas of shops visited show a very wide range, ex­ tending from 414 square feet per teacher in one needle trades shop, used concurrently by three teachers and three student groups, to 4,200 square feet per teacher in one machine shop with one teacher.

Desired areas ranged in size from 828 to

4,800 square feet per teacher.

The mean average existent area

for heavy shops is 1,921 square feet per teacher; for medium shops, 1,518 square feet per teacher; and for light shops, 900 square feet per teacher.

Desired means for these same shop

groupings were expressed as 2,385 square feet, 1,600 square feet

131 and 1,120 square feet.

The mean for all existent shops is

1,625 square feet per teacher and the mean expressed for de­ sired areas Is 2,045 square feet.

Approximately 68 per cent

of the 107 persons interviewed on this question expressed a desire for shop areas between 1,251 square feet and 2,839 square feet. The data of this section relative to areas of shops were grouped and the following computations were made.


existent shops, the mode was 1,600 square feet in a modal group of 1,400 to 1,900 square feet. square feet, Q feet.


The median was 1,600

being 1,027 square feet and 0 , 2,111 square


The standard deviation was 808 square feet.

Based on

these calculations it is estimated that 68 per cent of the existent shops have areas between 863 square feet and 2,479 square feet. For shops desired by the administrators and teachers interviewed the mode was 2,200 square feet in a modal group of 2,000 to 2,400 square feet. feet, with feet.

The median is 2,115 square

being 1,400 square feet and

2,367 square

The mean average computed on grouped data is 2,064

square feet.

The standard deviation is 796 square feet.


is therefore estimated that 68 per cent of this group of inter­ viewees would like shop areas between 1,268 square feet and 2,860 square feet. B-5 Shapes of Shops The shape of shops Included In this study varied greatly.

It ranged from square to exceedingly elongated(bowl-

lng alley) shops.

The narrowest shop was 20 feet; the widest,

1.32 60 feet.

The m e a n average ratio, length to width, of ex­

istent shops was 2.02:1; with a range of

from 1:1 to 4.8:1.

The desired mean average ratio expressed

by teachers and


ministrators interviewed was 1.57:1 with a range of from 1:1 to 2.9:1.

eighty-two per cent of those expressing opin­

ions desire a ratio of 2:1 or less. Converted to shop size,

this means that the desired

size for large shops is 40' x 6 0 ’; for medium

shops, 38*


50'; and for small shops, 3 0 ’ x 40'. B-6 Pupil Enrolment Pupil enrolment was found to range from 10 students to 35 students per teacher, and expressed desire for student en­ rolment ranged from 14 to 30 students per teacher.

The mean

average of students per teacher, or teacher loa$, existent in in this school study was 23; for 56 teachers in New York State outside of New York City it was 20; for 15 teachers in other states, 25; and for 20 teachers in New York City, 30.


pressed desires for student-teacher load in these same areas were 18, 23, and 27.

Desired student-teacher load, for an

average of 83 teachers and administrators expressing an opinion, was 21.

These data were accumulated from 91 class­

room situations involving 2,082 students. B-7 Square Footage Per Pupil In terms of square footage per pupil for shop work the existent average in 88 shops studied was found to be 77 square feet per student.

The desired space requested by these same

133 persons for teaching the same activities was 112 square feet per student. It is probably more significant to express these areas per student in terms of types of shop3 on the basis of the previous designation of shops as "heavy,” "medium," or "light."

The mean averages found were:

existent for "heavy"

shops, 92 square feet per student; desired for "heavy" shops, 142 square feet per student; existent for "medium" shops, 74 square feet per student; desired for "medium" shops, 83 square feet per student; existent for "light" shops, 33 square feet per student; and desired for "light" shops, 48 square feet per student. G.


Opinions expressed by teachers in this study reflected very little concern in regard to the desirability of flexi­ bility in a building.

On the other hand,

opinions expressed

by administrators indicated very real concern over the prob­ lem of flexibility in order that rigidity of construction might not freeze curricula into a school’s program beyond the time of that community’s need for said curricula. C-l Partitions One of the prime factors of flexibility is the type of partitions which are used In school structures.

While a unan­

imous voice of all persons expressing an opinion favored full partitions between shop areas occupied by students of each teacher,

administrators would have,

to the greatest extent

possible, all partitions non-bearing.

This would permit a

134 rearrangement of floor space when curricular modification seemed to dictate that such action was desirable,


steel partitions, with and without sections containing glass windows, were found in only one school but were "desired" by several schools. C-2 Fenestration The fenestration of a building effects its flexibility by making it practicable, or difficult, titions.

to move cross par­

(Daylight is summarized in Section G of this unit.)

Preference was general for continuous, industrial type, windows, designed on a module which permits partitions to be moved.

The suggestion was made that the module should be an

interval of 10 feet.

This would permit partitions to be

placed between units of windows without disturbing window structure.

Such a plan would permit great flexibility of

movement of cross partitions so that shops arranged in a line along a building could be readjusted in length as de­ sired. Partition movement might be desirable at times to meet enrolment problems by changing floor areas in adjacent shops.

Two adjacent shops of 30' x 50' might be changed to

one measuring 30' x 40* and one, 30' x 60'; or adjacent shops of 30' x 50' might accommodate shifting enrolments by allowing the 30' x 40' shop to borrow 30' x 10' from the larger shop, thus reversing their sizes with far less movement of equipment than would be required in moving all machines from one shop to another.

135 C-3 Jtlectrlcal Services As far as electrical services affecting flexibility are concerned,

opinions reflect the desire to "keep wiring

out of cross partitions.” walls,

If outlets are needed on cross

they should be supplied through conduits placed on

the face of the walls in order to facilitate their movement when desired.

(hlectrical outlets and electric power capac­

ity are discussed in Section D . ) Conduit in floors existed more frequently than any other method of power supply and was generally favored. this Instance teachers, generally,


seemed to favor the Im­

proved appearance gained by having power supplied up through the floor rather than down through conduit even at the ex­ pense of increasing flexibility possible by overhead buss ducts.

Q-floors and fiber duct floors are relatively ex­

pensive as compared to other methods of supplying electric current, but a few administrators indicated that they believe them to be worth their cost.

Overhead buss ducts supplying

power through conduits down to machines increase flexibility as compared to power through conduit in floors. C-4 Lighting Controls Without exception, persons interviewed favored the planning of electric circuits so that lights on the dark side of the room, away from windows,

could be turned on separately

from the lights nearest the windows.

This lateral plan exists

in about two-thirds of the shops visited with the result that

136 30 to

50 per cent of the lights in many rooms frequently burn

when they are not needed.

No automatic

(photo electric)

switches were encountered in this study. Layout of Equipment, Floor S p a c e . and Services in Shops D-l Spacing of Equipment The spacing of equipment follows no pattern which can easily be summarized.

The following generalizations seem

justified: 1.

It is not desirable to crowd machines by placing them back to back in order to save space.


In general, It is desirable to have machines so arranged that a clear space exists through 360° around each machine.


Machines should be arranged In accordance with relative functions.


The placement of the long axts of lathes and other machines for which daylight is highly de­ sirable at an angle of approximately 60°


windowed walls was generally favored, provided floor space was available. 5.

For the movement of traffic to a tool room or to and from major classroom areas, an aisle width of 48 inches is considered minimum.


The painting of aisle lines and of machine zones on shop floors is "an effective contribution to safety."

137 D-5 Open Areas in Shops Open floor space is highly desirable in most shops and is essential to some activities.

In automotive shops it is

generally considered that 75 per cent of the floor space should be open.

Vdhere tool cribs in shops were used,

clearances of

floor space from the tool crib door were found to vary from 4 feet to 10 feet, a minimum of 6 feet being generally favored. In cabinet shops a desire was expressed for "adequate space to assemble furniture being made."

Many interviewees expressed a

desire for approximately two-thirds of the floor space of a carpentry shop to be "open." D-6 Doorways Double doorways from corridors into shops are gener­ ally favored.

For most shops one double 3' x 7 ’ door seems to

be considered adequate.

For "light" shops one 3* x 7' or one

3#' x 7 1 door is adequate.

In two Instances a desire was ex­

pressed for a movable transom bar above a 7-foot door In order to provide height clearance for the entry or removal of large equipment or projects constructed In the shop. Essential for automotive shops and desirable for most first-floor shops is a large outside door.

In the case of

automotive shops the most favored is an overhead roll-a-way type of door measuring 10' x 1 0 ’.

The question ofplacement of

outside doors in automotive shops seems to be a debatable issue.

The major determining factor is the movement of cars

into and out of the shop.

It is generally considered de­

sirable to have two outside doors on one long side of an

automobile shop rather than doors In the ends of the shop. Closely related to the matter of entry to the automotive shop is the problem of movement of ’’dead" equipment.

For this p u r ­

pose an overhead monorail is desirable and should be placed from a point near one outside door to all areas of the shop where it is needed.

Where work is expected to be done on

trucks or buses a doorway larger than 1 0 ’ x 10' may be required D-7 Storage Space Within Shops For storage within shops,

cabinets are generally fa­

vored over other methods of storing.

(Storage rooms are dis­

cussed in Section E . )

Open shelving for storage within shop

areas is not favored.

In order to accommodate storage cab­

inets, a shop should have adequate blank wall space.


should be designed for the storage of the particular type of supplies and equipment which each shop is to store.

In gen­

eral, a preference was expressed for cabinets with glass doors.

The opinion was expressed that space under tables and

work benches was not generally well utilized and should be used for the storage of student projects. excellently designed cabinets.

School No. B6 used

Seven feet high and 24 Inches

deep, these cabinets extend across one end and along half of one side of the room.

They are accessible by double 18-inch

doors inside of which are provided small drawers, removable boxes, or open shelves in accordance with the nature of the material to be stored therein. D-8 Machinery Mounting The problem of mounting machinery is minimized in

isy single-story construction.

In multi-story construction,

electric laboratories equipped with motors of more than one horsepower capacity had such motors Isolated from the floor by some absorbent pads. Large printing presses, when not located on the ground floor, were mounted on cork bases.

With the ex­

ception of diesel engine shops machinery mounting seems to be considered "no problem.11

All diesel engine shops encountered

were on the ground floor, each machine generally being mounted on a "bed plate" to minimize its vibratory disturbances. D-9 Bench Locations Bench locations within shops were too diversified to permit a summary.

They differed greatly according to type of

shop and according to choice of instructor In any given type of shop. D-10 Llectric Control Panels Not all shops visited had control panels for electric light and power. in the shop.

One shop had no light control buttons with­

There was a unanimous opinion that every shop

should have a control panel and a master switch controlling all the equipment In that shop.

In addition to the control

panel, opinion generally favors "off" buttons for cutting the power supply of the entire shop.

These buttons should be lo­

cated in positions which can be easily reached by the in­ structor at any time. D-12 Electric Current Capacity Electric power capacity In shops varies greatly.


14 u shops were generally found to be wired with both llOv and 220v, 3-phase service.

One city, which seems to be typical

in its power demand, provides 26.5 Hr in all machine shops. That city assumed a 70 per cent maximum load factor and is providing for a peak kilowatt demand of 13.84 KW at 220v, 3-phase, 60 cycles. desirable,

No generalization for this factor seems

since power for each shop must be planned in ac­

cordance with the anticipated demand of the activities of that shop.

One bakery visited was equipped with two electric ovens

operating on a demand of 18 KW and 24 K'N at 240v, phase,


i^hops designated as ,flight" in this study generally

are supplied with only llOv service.

Maximum power demands in

machine shops were found to range from 20 Hr to 100 Hr. D-13 Gas Capacity No generalization is adequate to cover the problems of use of gas in school shops.

Nine shops among those stud­

ied were equipped with some type of gas burners ranging from bunson burners and soldering furnaces to large heat-treating furnaces, supplied by gas lines ranging from three-eighths of an inch to three inches in diameter. D-14 Water Sufficient water lines are desired to supply each shop with washing facilities and a drinking fountain.

The size of

pipes necessary for furnishing water to shops is dependent on the nature o f the shop and the quantity of water used.


case water is an instructional supply, a careful estimate should be made of anticipated demand for it.

141 D-15 uompressed Air Compressed, air is desired in some schools for use in all types of shops.

In general,

central compressors seem to

be desired rather than individual compressors for each shop or activity,

dome teachers of electrical work express no de­

sire for compressed air, but in one case an electric shop ’ teacher used compressed air with a pressure of from 80 to 150 pounds per square inch.

It appears that compressed air should

be made available to all shops and that outlets should be p r o ­ vided in those shops where teachers wish to use it. D-16 Drinking Fountains Drinking fountains of a bubbler type should be sup­ plied in all shops.

In all shops provided with fountains

teachers were satisfied.

In all but one case studied where

drinking fountains were not In shops,

teachers expressed a de­

sire for them. D-17 Fire Extinguisher £>ome type of fire extinguisher was provided in each shop visited.

The type desirable depends upon the nature of

the shop activity.

It should be chosen In accordance with

local fire-protection and fire-control regulations. D-18 First Aid Kits First aid kits are generally available in all school shops visited.

The extent of their use varied in accordance

with the medical and nursing service otherwise supplied by schools.

142 D-19 Waste containers Refuse containers were found in all shops.

For the

deposit of oily rags and similar waste materials, a metal container with a foot-pedal-operated lid is generally pro­ vided.

This container should be of a type consistent with

fire-control regulations. D-20 Planning Areas A planning or lecture area equipped with tablet arm­ chairs was found to be existent in approximately one-fourth of the shops visited.

A large majority of the teachers in­

terviewed expressed a desire for 3uch an area, if they could not have an adjacent theory room available for similar pur­ poses . D-22 Frojection-Aids Area The question of providing a projection-aids area within the floor space of each shop was raised with all teachers.

Only three schools provided such areas, but a large

minority of teachers expressed a desire for such a facility. D-23 chalkboards The utilization of chalkboard space in shops varies greatly.

The variance seems to occur with no pattern of


so far as type of shop is concerned but differs

according to teachers and their methods of presentation. Chalkboard space provided in shops was found to vary from 12 square feet to 240 square feet, averaging 37 square feet. Chalkboard space desired was found to vary from none to 150

143 square feet.

The desired mean average was *47 square feet.

Book type chalkboards were In use in several shops and were favored where used.

Black chalkboard was found in

all but one of the schools visited in this study. D-24 Bulletin Boards What has been said about the utilization of chalk­ boards applies similarly to the use of bulletin boards. Existent bulletin board space in shops visited varies from none to 72 square feet, while the expressed desire for bul­ letin board space varies from 12 to 1 5 0 square feet. general,


teachers seem to desire more bulletin board space

than they have: existent space averages 23 square feet; de­ sired space averages 32 square feet. The location is somewhat dependent upon the nature of the bulletin board areas.

Immediately adjacent to entrance

and exit doors are preferred positions.

An expressed desire

for bulletin board surfaces on cabinet doors was quite common. D-25 Tool Storage Panels The question of utilization of tool storage panels continues to be a highly debatable one.

Several schools

visited had recently adopted panel boards to replace or to supplement tool rooms. tool panels,

Some strong objection to the use of

except when used In tool rooms, was expressed

by a few teachers.

Such objection seemed to exist only in

the case of teachers who had not issued tools from panels. The principal objection to the use of tool panels seemed to

144 b© that they did not provide adequate security for tools. Schools visited showed no evidence that this is true. D-26 Project Storage Project storage for student work in process of con­ struction is a problem of concern to many teachers. eralization can be made here.

No gen­

Shops where production work

with school materials is the principal activity present a different problem from that of shops where students work pri­ marily on individual projects.

One suggestion which appears

practicable is that the activity of every shop should be ana­ lyzed and storage facilities planned which are considered to be adequate for the type of storage E.

Auxiliary Rooms and

required. Facilities

E-l Offices for Administrators and Supervisors Offices for vocational directors and supervisors were provided in most of the schools visited, but the type of office and its location varied considerably.


offices should be located so that they are accessible to the public.

Supervisory offices should be located so that they

are central to the activities of the shops. E-2 Offices for Teachers Offices for teachers were adjacent to approximately 8 per cent of the shops visited.

In all cases where such an

arrangement existed, it was favored

by teachers and adminis­


the teachers interviewed

Approximately one-half of

expressed a desire for a small office immediately adjacent to

145 their shops and separated from them b y glazed partitions. Private offices for teachers were not favored by a majority of all interviewees.

Administrators Interviewed

generally expressed the opinion that the desk space needed by teachers should be provided only within the floor area of the shop. E-3 Supply Storage Supply-storage rooms are desired for all shops.


desirable size of such rooms varies greatly in accordance with the nature of the shop activities and the materials of Instruction.

Desired supply storage facilities, beyond the

area of a shop, should approximate 10 per cent of the open floor space of the shop.

In all cases, material of Instruc­

tion should be analyzed and storage space planned accordingly. E-4 Tool Rooms The use of tool rooms seems to be declining in favor of tool storage panels locked.)

(frequently of a nature that can be

In two-thirds of the shops for which data were re­

corded on this factor,

tool rooms are provided; and, with the

exception of one city, a tool room services but one shop. The location of such tool rooms varies, with no particular pattern.

The center of a side wall seems generally favored

but admittedly requires more floor space than the corner of a shop.

Where tool rooms are used, the job of tool-room

keeper is generally considered to be one training station; and students,

on a rotating schedule, are taught to take care of

issuance and some maintenance of tools.

146 In the schools of one city visited,

tool rooms were

located between shops wherever possible and planned to serv­ ice two or more shops.

Paid tool room attendants were hired

by the board of education to work in these tool rooms and were responsible for issuance, security,

and some of the

maintenance of tools. E-6 Storage for evening School The problem of separate "lock-up space" for evening school instructors appears to follow no pattern.

Some school

systems consider that provision of separate spaces is a good idea, while others have preferred making all facilities equal­ ly available to day school and evening school instructors. The only regularity of pattern on this problem seems to be In the belief that individual locker space for personal property should be provided for all teachers. E-7 The Shop Classroom A plan of providing classrooms immediately adjacent to shops, with a glass partitioned wall between the shop and classroom, was found in a few schools.

A desire for such a

facility was expressed by many teachers and some administra­ tors.

In general, administrators interviewed on this point

appeared to consider such a facility "nice but unnedessary" and of secondary Importance to a good program. E-8 The Shop Library Shop libraries were found in a very few schools, where they were combined with adjacent classrooms or lecture-planning

147 areas within a shop.

A more common practice is to have ref­

erence books needed for shop instruction in a bookcase near the instructor’s desk and available to students at all times. This latter policy, combined with availability of a school library in the building, appears to be favored. E-9 Storage for Audio-Visual Instructional Materials The problem of providing storage for audio-visual equipment and projection materials, models, and mock-ups seems to be of very little concern to shop teachers.


ently such aids are not being used much, or the centralized responsibility for them has cared for the problem so well that teachers have found no need to be concerned. E-ll Locker Rooms The problem of locker and dressing rooms for shop students is one for which there has rarely been a satis­ factory solution.

The policy most frequently approved appears

to be providing individual locker storage and dressing room space within the area of the shop or in a room Immediately adjacent to the shop. E-12 Toilets The only commonly expressed desire regarding toilets to be used by shop students was that they be near the shop and at least on the same floor and In the same wing with the shops in which students were enrolled. E-13 Wash Rooms

14b It is desired that washing facilities be provided in each shop.

The "existent” type most frequently approved was

a rectangular sink designed to be installed against a wall. Sinks designed for installation in an open floor area where students wash on opposite sides of the sink, facing each other, were universally disapproved as requiring too much floor space and being conducive to "horse play."


lar wash basins with foot control (preferably segmented con­ trol) are favored. E-14 Finishing Room The nature of some shops Is such as to require a finishing room separated from the main area of the shop.

In a

cabinet making shop, for example, where finishing is a part of an occupation being taught, such a room Is necessary and should be located Immediately adjacent to the cabinet shop. In automotive body repair,

the finishing room will probably be

a spray booth. E-15 Display Centers Display centers, for the exhibit of student work or other materials of special Interest, should be provided. Corridor locations for such displays are highly favored.


most common location for display cases seems to be In central corridors near main entrances.

There was considerable ex­

pression of desire for display cases built into corridor walls near all shops.

Where practicable, such display cases should

be accessible from the rear. properly lighted.

In all instances they should be

149 F.

Floors and Floor coverings F-l Floor Loads

Calculating necessary strength of floors to support specified loads is an engineering problem.

Designating the

machinery and equipment which is planned for a particular floor location is assumed to be an educational specification. In this study very little data relative to floor loads has been accumulated because school men contacted seemed to know very little about the load capacity of their buildings.


buildings, for which data were available, have been designed for anticipated loads of from 125 pounds per square foot to 300 pounds per square foot.

Two hundred fifty pounds per square

foot was the most commonly designated specification for floor load capacity in shops. The data obtained from these school visits are inade­ quate to serve as a basis for recommendation for shop floors. Such recommendation should be based upon research which tests qualities of floor coverings of materials acceptable for activities conducted in school shops.

A study was made by the

Carnegie Foundation of materials f o r flooring.

It was re­

ported as a master's thesis1 by Paul McGrath in 1933. F-2 Flooring Materials Floor surfaces in the shops of schools visited, In the 1-Paul L. McGrath, "The Choice of Floors for School Buildings" Master's thesis (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh, 1933).

150 order of frequency in which they occurred, were: ished concrete,

(2) maple,

(3) end-grain wood,

(1) fin­

(4) asphalt

tile, and (5) linoleum. Interviewees suggested that no floor-covering recom­ mendations seem desirable except in relation to the type of activity which is going to be conducted; for example,


crete seems to be the most satisfactory material in use for auto mechanics shop floors, while linoleum is generally p r e ­ ferred in rooms where beauty culture or drafting is taught. It was suggested that recommendations regarding flooring for specific shop activities be prepared In tabular form. F-4 Abrasive Floor Surfaces Some abrasive material applied over floor coverings is considered to be desirable for small areas of floor space within certain shops.

The areas most commonly considered to

need such coverings are those Immediately adjacent to certain woodworking machines where the operators stand while at work. The size of the area involved is dependent upon the nature of the foot movements required of the operators.


materials in use for this purpose In their order of desira­ bility appear to be: 1.

An abrasive plastic paint such as Ferrox


Ribbed rubber carpeting glued to the floor


Asphalt roofing fastened to the floor with an adhesive and edged with some type of metal stripping.

151 F-5 Floor Drainage Drainage of shop floors appears to be a problem only In automotive shops.

Consensus of opinion seems to favor

two drains in such shops, located near outside doors.


is suggested that the slope of floors toward drains be very slight except within a distance of 10 feet, more or less, from each drain. G.

Audio-Visual Comfort and Efficiency G-l Acoustics in Shops

Acoustical treatment of ceilings and walls of shops seems to be favored in principle but rarely followed in practice.

The reason most frequently given for lack of acous­

tical treatment was that it is "too expensive."

(There is

some evidence that acoustical tile on ceilings may be no more expensive than a painted concrete slab ceiling.)

In the

seven shops visited which had ceilings covered with acoustical plaster or acousticated celotex, all the teachers involved strongly approved of such acoustication.

In 53 shops visited

where no acoustical treatments have been given to ceilings or walls, ten teachers expressed a desire for some such treatment. G-2 Daylight Illumination One shop visited had no provision for daylight.

In other

shops, daylight was supplied through glass areas ranging from 5 to 31 per cent o f their floor spaces. found to both these extremes.

Some objection was

Opinion In general favored

152 some daylight but looked with disfavor upon the glare which accompanied maximal use of daylight with inadequate shading of clear glass windows.

A unilateral source of daylight is

the most commonly existent and very little objection was found to such a plan when accompanied by sufficient arti­ ficial illumination to provide good seeing conditions. Lack of understanding of what constitutes a balancedlighted environment and good seeing conditions was rather appalling.

No summary of this study of lighting in schools

visited can be useful as a basis for recommendations.


school men who appeared to be best informed on the problems of light and seeing suggested that the recommendations of the Illuminating Engineering Society and the American Insti­ tute of Architects bo followed in school lighting. Teachers in schools In which skylights In ceilings were used reported a division of opinion relative to their desirability. however,

In general,

they were enthusiastic about them;

some teachers strongly objected to skylights as eon-

tributive to a serious heating problem and as a source of un­ controllable glare. G-3 Window Shading and Daylight Reflection Window shading and light reflection, as a method of daylight control, do not appear to have been given much at­ tention in the schools visited.

The most frequently used

shades are ecru in color, of the roller type, and adjustable separately for the upper and lower halves of windows.


tian blinds were found in beauty culture and needle trades

153 classrooms.

They were strongly approved where used and de­

sired by teachers of other vocational activities where the nature o f the work done In the shop did not result In ex­ cessive amounts of dust in the air.

There was no evidence

that the problem of reflecting daylight to ceiling surfaces had been studied in the schools visited. Translucent glass or glass brick was favored by sever­ al teachers and administrators,

where either of these materi­

als is used it was not considered necessary to provide shades. There was an expression of opinion in favor of a combination of translucent and clear glass.

Where the outside environ­

ment which might be visible from the windows of a classroom was considered to be contributive to better learning condi­ tions, teachers were insistent that some clear glass be pro­ vided. Where classrooms were without windows, or had windows entirely of translucent glass or glass brick walls, some teachers have objected to the feeling of being cloistered. Ventilation is closely allied to the problem of daylighting. In almost all schools visited outside air from windows ap­ peared to be the chief source of ventilation during mild weather. G--4 Illumination Intensities Illumination in school shops was found to vary greatly In very few instances did the artificial illumination provide adequate light in accordance with recommendations of the National council on Schoolhouse construction, whose recommenda

154 tion Is conservative as compared with the recommendations of the Illuminating .Engineering Society or the American Insti­ tute of Architects. In a few instances, footcandle meter readings were taken at night in schools visited.

In other instances foot-

candle meter readings were taken during dayligit and arti­ ficial Illumination was estimated.

General artificial il­

lumination in work areas of shops was found to vary on a horizontal plane, at desk height, from 3 Ft; to 50 Fo.


little attention seems to have been paid to the importance of light on other than horizontal planes. the critical seeing tasks,

Inasmuch as many of

involved in shop work, are in

positions other than on a horizontal plane, attention is called to the importance of special lighting. Teachers in machine shops which did not have special lighting on each machine, sire for such lighting.

in most instances expressed a de­ The type of lamp most commonly

favored for individual machines was an incandescent, adjust­ able, goose-neck type fixture.

In order that a balanced

brightness environment might be approached, care must be taken that these individual lights are properly shaded so that ex­ posed bulbs do not come into the visual field of any workers in the shop. For automotive shops where body painting is done it is particularly Important that lighting be concentrated on verti­ cal planes.

One apparently satisfactory method of doing this

155 was found to be that of directing special flood lights from at least four directions onto the area under a spray booth hood. In the problem of lighting school shops it appears to be particularly important that an analysis be made of the seeing tasks involved and of the problems of glare as well as illumination. G-5 Types of fixtures The type of fixture most frequently found in shops was Incandescent in nature.

Fluorescent lights were the stated

preference of a large majority of the interviewees.


much as requests for high levels of Illumination were general (30 FC general illumination being the most frequent request), It appears probable that some type of cold light Is the most logical answer.

Teachers and administrators acquainted with

recent research In lighting expressed the opinion that cold cathode ray tubular lighting might be superior to presently available fluorescent lamps. G-6 Special Lighting Special lighting problems occur in almost all Indus­ trial and technical shops.

Since illuminating engineers seem

unable to reach an agreement on the most satisfactory way to provide adequate illumination for special seeing tasks,

It is

not surprising to find a gre^t diversity of opinion on the question of how much Is enough illumination and what should be the character of the lighting source.

There is consistent

156 agreement that special lighting is required for inspection areas, all types of grinding machines, tables.

and special layout

In all classes of work where critical seeing tasks

occur within an area shaded by some part of a machine from receiving full advantage of the general illumination of the room,

special lighting was considered to be necessary. The only recommendation made by interviewees with re­

spect to special lighting is that the special seeing tasks of each shop be analyzed. G-7 Glare Glare seemed to be considered as "no problem" by most of the teachers who were interviewed.

There appears to be

little or no recognition of the actual degree to which certain types of surface glare make seeing difficult and tiring.


though no record was made of shop conditions where glare was a prominent problem, numerous situations were noted.


on relatively critical seeing tasks while facing a window of clear glass, thus having the object worked upon back-lighted while the critical seeing was on the shaded side of the ob­ ject, was a common situation; and there appeared to be no recognition of the existence of a high brightness ratio created by such a working


One other frequently occurring

situation conducive to glare is the placing of a light over work slightly in front of the worker and at such an angle with the work surface that the reflected glare from the surface is directly in the eyes of the worker.

It appears probable that

If teachers generally understood the nature and effect of

15V glare a major portion of It might be eliminated by careful attention to positions of workers relative to sources of Illuminati o n . G-8 dolors Vocational-industrial and vocational-technical teach­ ers seem not to have concerned themselves as much as teachers of industrial arts with the problem of color dynamics.


fications of the color dynamic scheme recommended by the Pittsburgh Paint and Varnish Company has had a limited ac­ ceptance In the shops visited.

A scheme of color dynamics

recommended by the DuPont Corporation has had an enthusiastic acceptance In a few shops visited. Attention to color as a contributive factor in providing good seeing conditions appears to be increasing.

This is par­

ticularly true as indicated by expressed desires for light ceilings and light colored upper aide walls.

Only a small

percentage of the shops visited had machines and other equip­ ment painted in colors other than those which had been provided by the factory.

The personnel involved In shops where schemes

of color dynamics have been adopted are generally enthusiastic about the results.

In only one instance was a situation noted

where a teacher, after trying a scheme of color dynamics, had recommended that his machines be repainted in their original factory gray.

^ H.

Heating and Ventilating

Attention Is directed to New York State's Division of

158 School Building and Grounds Bulletin No. 28845 on Heating and Ventilating Recommendations for New York State Schools. There has been no attempt to make a detailed study of heat­ ing or ventilating equipment.

This survey has merely made

an effort to discover problems of heating and ventilating which seem peculiar to shops and laboratories as contrasted to other portions of school buildings. H-l Adequacy of Heat With regard to the problem of adequacy of heat in school shops, concern was frequently expressed about a high differential of heat on or near the floor of a shop as com­ pared with the temperature at 48 inches above the floor. This problem is of special concern in automotive shops where students are frequently working on crawlers under cars.


teachers who called attention to this problem seem to feel that an increase of air circulation within the shop would greatly improve the condition.

One approach to the problem

of heating automotive shops, which seems to be meeting with considerable success, is that of supplementing wall or floor type radiators with suspended Indus trial-type space heaters hung near the ceiling.

Several teachers of auto mechanics

expressed a desire for radiant heat with pipes in the shop floor. H-2 Ventilating Systems Ventilating systems in shops visited seemed to be generally inadequate even in the shop areas where noxious fumes were not common.

The practice most commonly noted was

15 y that of having shops a part of a general ventilating system which serviced an entire school building. This practice appears to be undesirable.

Interviewees believed that it

would be desirable to provide a separate ventilating system for each shop wing and in some instances for each individual shop. H-3 Dust, Smoke, and Fumes Some of the areas where the problem of exhausting of dust,

smoke, or fumes needs special attention include:

ternal combustion engine shops--automotive,


aviation, and

diesel; heat treating areas--in science laboratories or machine shops; plumbing shops--for wiping joints; Industrial chemistry laboratories; metal grinders; woodworking machines; bakeries; and kitchens.

In some Instances each shop or a

certain area within a shop may require its own ventilating system directly vented through the outside wall or through the roof of the building. J.


Recommendations for Building Planning Procedures

Teachers and administrators contacted in all schools visited were exceedingly cooperative and helpful.

With very

few exceptions they evidenced a sincere interest in the prob­ lems of planning facilities for vocational-industrial educa­ tion.

In answer to the question of "how should building

facilities be planned?" a consensus of opinion seems to be: All persons concerned with vocational-technical and voca­ tional-industrial education should cooperate in planning

building facilities.

Such facilities should be designed

to make the optimum contribution in training for employ­ ability in the occupational fields where training i3 most needed.

Teachers should always have an important part in

planning school buildings.





IN THE NEW YORK GUIDE A careful examination of the data discussed in the preceding chapter reveals a rather wide disparity between the existent and desired shop facilities in the schools visited* ity.

Several factors have contributed to this dispar­

It is believed that two of the primary ones are (l)

utilization of converted facilities and (2) difficulty of anticipating character and extent of housing needs several years in advance. In most cases teachers interviewed indicated a desire for more space than they now have In their shops.


views with 21 vocational machine shop instructors, however, revealed that existent space ia 2009 square feet while de­ sired space Is 1916 square feet. This chapter is concerned primarily with a comparison of facilities desired by the 124 local teachers, supervisors, and administrators and facilities recommended by the accred­ ited jury and made a part of the New York Guide (ohapter IV). When desired and recommended facilities are substan­ tially the same they will not be discussed in this chapter. Where desired facilities are not consistent with recommended


162 facilities, an explanation has been made of the differences. For example, many instructors interviewed desired offices immediately adjacent to their shops and some of the local supervisors and administrators conceded that such a plan is desirable.

Offices were not recommended because the accred­

ited jury considered that New York schools, in view of the total facilities needed in 1949, frequently cannot justify the cost of the space required to provide such offices. The remaining part of this chapter follows the same organizational pattern as the two preceding chapters and will reconcile differences between desired and recommended facilities.

It will also present some materials which should

be in a building guide but were left out of the New York Guide because it supplements and is supplemented by other re­ cent publications of TheUniversity The following table


shows dates

State of New York. of construction of

buildings or dates of major remodeling of buildings to create school shops. TABLE 5 CONSTRUCTION DATES OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS VISITED Date Buildings Were Constructed Or Remodeled

Number of Schools

Before 1926 .......................4 ±926-1930 3 1931-1935 7 1936-1940 8 1941-1945 1 1946-1948 4 Types of Industrial Education

163 The discussion of types of industrial education was included in the Guide because it was considered by the accredited Jury that much of the use of this Guide will be by architects and others who are not familiar with these curricular areas.

The Guide will be sent to vocational-

industrial divisions and divisions of school buildings of State education Departments in all states and territories of the United States and will be sent on request to any architect or school administrator.

The definitions and gen­

eralizations contained in this section of the Guide were formulated by and agreed upon by the industrial and technical education representatives on the jury. Planning Procedures Item "J" of the inquiry form called for comments and recommendations regarding building planning procedures. Interviews with local instructors,


and admin­

istrators revealed very little useful data on this point. Opinion of interviewees was in general agreement that teach­ ers "had much to contribute," "should participate," and "want to help plan"; but there were very few positive suggestions on procedure.

Therefore the section of the Guide which is

concerned with planning procedures was formulated by this investigator and revised by and approved by the accredited Jury. General Considerations Location of School sites

164 In Instances where schools visited were located in dominantly industrial areas, Interviewees generally ex­ pressed dissatisfaction with their location.

Both the inter­

viewees and the jury emphasized the importance of -adequate parking facilities adjacent to shop buildings and accessibil­ ity by public transportation in choosing school sites. Location of Shops In Building Wings The Jury concurred with interviewees In a desire to locate shops in separate wings or separate buildings from other school activities.

While interviewees emphasized noise

isolation as the dominant factor for this practice,

the jury

emphasized the basic differences in space requirements be­ tween shops and classrooms as the primary basis of their rec­ ommendation.

In every one of the cases studied where existent

shops were housed in areas converted from spaces originally designed for classrooms, dissatisfaction was expressed with the limitation of shop widths. Relative Location of Shops Both jurymen and interviewees believed that shops in­ volving closely related activities should be adjacent or con­ veniently near to each other. Location of Shops In Separate Buildings The accredited jury and Interviewees felt that build­ ing planning and curricular organization contribute to causing vocational students to feel themselves an integral part of the total student body rather than a segregated group.

This de­

165 sire for unity was considered by some as an argument against separate buildings for school shops. Floor Level Locations of Shops In every case where existent shops were located in basements there was an objection voiced and the desire was expressed for first floor locations.

The jury was more in­

sistent an the desirability of first floor locations than were the interviewees.

This difference in emphasis is

probably accounted for by the fact that recommendations in the Guide are for facilities in comprehensive high schools, while many of the interviewees were in vocational schools. Lince comprehensive high schools are generally in urban areas, where land values near population centers are not excessive, buildings.

it seems practicable to recommend one-story In metropolitan areas where land values are very

high near population centers,

a compromise may be necessary

between a choice of site involving serious transportation problems and a multi-story building. Safety The inquiry form contained no section on safety in shops because it was felt by the jury that safety is a con­ sideration in planning many facilities and not a subject appropriate to treatment as a separate section.

shop safety

Education, referred to in Chapter IV, calls attention to many factors considered of primary concern In 'making the

166 school shop a safe place to work Sizes and Shapes of Shop 3 Sizes Kecomraendations of shop sizes, as contained in the ^ew York Guide, were a compromise in variances of opinions among individual jury members.

In general the concessions

regarding size recommendations were made by the personnel of the Division of School Building and Grounds on the assumption that space required for teaching could best be estimated by representatives of the Division of Industrial and Technical Education. There was insistence by jurymen that shop sizes should be based upon space requirements for safe and efficient op­ eration of machines and equipment needed for efficient teach­ ing of courses to be taught In each shop and that no arbitrary classification of shops as heavy, medium, or light should be the determinant of their sizes. The reader is referred to the discussion of shop areas in Chapter V for a summary of shop sizes existent In schools visited and desired by interviewees in those schools. The following tables were developed from these same data.


most instances the space which the accredited jury recommended was larger than the desired space as represented by an aver­ age of expressed opinions by interviewees.

This seems to be

explainable by the fact that the jury wished to make its rec­ ommendations adequate to provide for those schools financially capable and desirous of providing the best possible program

167 facilities.

There was evidence, too, that members of the

accredited jury had a much broader vision of the potential uses of space than did the average interviewee. Range of planning vision, on the part of teachers and administrators, experiences.

seems to be largely conditioned by their

The statement made by one Jury member that "the

more space teachers get the more they want" is probably not true.

In machine shops visited the average of existent

space per shop was 85 square feet greater than the average desired space.

The greatest disparity between existent and

desired shop space was in the case of one air conditioning shop now housed in 880 square feet.

F o r the program which

this instructor is developing he considers that he will need 4000 square feet. TABLE 6 AVERAGE SIZES OP EXISTENT SCHOOL SHOES

square P eet of Open Shop Area Type of Shop Existent















Light All shops




square Rootare in Open Shoo Areas Shop Auto Mechanics Woodworking Machine printing electricity Beauty Culture Needle Trades Drafting Nursing



1878 1785 2000 1693 1553 1315 852 910 640

2710 2620 1915 1665 1553 1487 1194 1067 960

Recommended 2400-3000 2000-3000 1800-2400 1800-2400 1200-3000 1500-1800 1200-1800 1200-1500 1200-1500


Number of Square Feet Per student Type of Shop Existent















All Shops




Shapes of Shops Recommended shapes and length-to-wldth ratios are consistent with desired shapes and ratios.

The only incon­

sistencies noted were accounted for primarily by the excep­ tional cases where shops had been converted from spaces

169 originally intended as classrooms or as basement storage. Ceiling Heights The recommendation approving shop ceiling heights as low as eleven feet originated with the jury personnel of the Division of School Buildings and Grounds and is based on the fact that they consider that a height of eleven feet will provide adequate cubage to permit proper ventilation and lighting.

Interviewees and jurymen were consistent in rec­

ommending that ceilings should exceed a height of eleven feet whenever instructional materials to be used were of such a nature as to indicate the need for such heights. TABLE 9 SHAPES OF SHOPS

Ratios of Length to Width* 4.0 3.6 3.1 2.6 2.1 1.6 1.1


4.8 3.9 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0


Frequency of cases .encountered Existent Desired No. Per cent No. Per Cent 1 1 3 4 19 31 18 3

1.3 1.3 3.7 5.0 23.7 38.6 22.5 3.7

1 12 24 39 6

1.2 14.6 29.3 47.6 7.3






*Mean average rations: Existent shops* 2.02:1 Desired shops, 1.57:1 Recommended In Guide--ranging from square to 2:1 Determining the Number of Shops In the data collected at the schools visited there was

170 nothing significant with respect to the number of shops a school should have.


jury was unanimous in its opinion

that such a problem should be determined by an analysis of need for training and an analysis of trainee availability. The table in Chapter IV on Recommended Number of Shops is based on arithmetic calculations of space required for an a r ­ bitrarily assumed number of students per class and for various estimated percentages of a school’s total enrolment expected to be in vocational-industrial curricula. In the process of developing Tables 10 and 11 of this chapter, careful examination was made of studies by William K. 1 2 Wilson and H. M. Sheffield. Wilson developed a method of determining the number of classrooms needed for a high school. Using these criteria with modifications approved by William K. Wilson the following space-ratio formula was developed: Space-Ratio Formula (Desirable ratio of total classroom space to vocational-industrial shop space) Assumptions accepted as desirable: W i l s o n ’s formula, modified for comprehensive high schools with part of enrolment i n vocational-industrial curricula. ^"William K. Wilson, ’’Techniques for Getting up a Schedule of Recitation Rooms for wew York High Schools of 400 enrolment or Less,” Doctoral dissertation (columbus: The Ohio State University, 1953). %I. M . Sheffield, "ulass sizes and Their Relation to School Building Planning in High S chools of More Than 200 Enrolment, M a s t e r ’s thesis (Albany: New York state College for Teachers, 1938). This is an extension of Wilson's dissertation.

171 * -

xE 2 _j_ 20

\1) Nc s No. of non-specialized classrooms ~

10 P When E = school’s total enrolment x = % of school1s to tal enrolment In vocational-Industrial curricula r = number of periods in school day (2) H a a Number of vocational-Industrial shops z xE 40 (3) 690 square feet is a desirable average size for classrooms (4) 2000 square feet is a desirable average size for vocational-industrial shops Then, when P r 6 Co



z Hatio of classroom area •_ .• T V-I shop area

•0 * tO 1






(7) it. - .69(Sii - x d +■ 276 °» - " ' xr'h -----Prom the reciprocal of the preceding space-ratio formula

Table 11 was developed.

Table 11 is not suggested

as the sole instrument to be used in determing floor space needed. It is suggested that this table can be useful as a supplement to and a check on floor space allocation In planning for classrooms and for shops.


Per dent of Total School Enrolment Expected to be in Vocal ;ionalIndustrial Ourricu! .a

Total School Enrolment





Number of Noil-Epec: Lai ol Lssrooias (4) (7) (5) (6) (8) (3) (2)






































































When E Is between 50 and 400:


When E Is between 400 and 3000:


Nc z number of non-special rooms needed e r total school enrolment x -* # of total school enrolment majoring In vocationalindustrial curricula p = number of class periods per day Above table based on assumption that P r 6 Sample Interpretation: In a comprehensive high school haying an enrolment of 1500 students (col. 1, row 4), when 25# of the total school enrolment (col. 5) is majoring in vocational-indus­ trial curricula, 25 non-specialized classrooms (col. 5, row 4) will be needed.


t'er cent of Tot*i! school Enrolment Expec ted to be in Vocat Lonal-Industrial ourricul.a





S hop Space to Ola ssrooni Space


Perce]nt. fta


20$ o o
























86.3 104.






o 7 .8

79.5 102.








84.2 108.

133 «







86.9 111.








89.5 114.








90.1 116.






_ (2)




- 10U /recommended total floor space for c | vocational-industrial shops____________________ I recommended total floor space for non-special Vized classrooms

Sample Interpretation: When 30$ of the enrolment (col. 6) of a comprehensive high school of 1500 students (row 4) is majoring in voca­ tional-industrial curricula, the floor space needed for shops is approximately 13o$ (col.6, row 4) of the space needed for non-specialized classrooms. Applications of this percentage ratio table have been made to some existent sbhooxs. The Industrial High School of Troy, New York, now has under construction 20,500 square feet of vocational in-

174 dustrial shop space.

Their existent non-specialized class­

room space is approximately 25,000 square feet.


present enrolment of vocational-industrial pupils (162) is 11.5 per cent of their school enrolment of 1596 pupils.

If the

recommendation contained in Table 11 is valid, and if Troy has adequate non-specialized classroom space, their new shops will be adequate to allow them approximately to double their shop enrolment. In 1948-49 Jamestown High School enrolled 1,541 stu­ dents with 75 of them (4.9 per cent) industrial courses.

taking vocational-

Their 57 non-specialized classrooms have

a total area of 34,098 square feet.

Their three vocational-

industrial shops have an area of 6,456 square feet, or 18.9 per cent of the classroom floor space.

Referring to Table 11

it can be noted that if 5 per cent of 1500 students are en­ rolled in vocational-industrial curricula,

the vocational-

industrial shop floor 3pace should be 19.6 per cent of the classroom space. At Lockport, New York, present plans call for pro­ viding 13,344 square feet of vocational-industrial shop space and 15,269 square feet of classroom space. space to classroom space, as proposed,

The ratio of shop

is 87 per cent.

According to Table 11, an 87 per cent ratio of total shop space to ttotal classroom space for a school of 1,000 pupils should accommodate 22 per cent of the school's enrolment, or 220 pupils.

In 1948-49 Lockport enrolled 902 pupils with

6.6 per cent of them (60 pupils) industrial curricula.

enrolled in vocational-

Within the limits of reliability of

175 Table 11, the administration of Lockport is now preparing physical facilities adequate approximately to quadruple their vocati onal-Industri al enrolment. Building plans have been made for a Senior High School at Mt. Vernon, Hew York, of shop space.

to provide 27,592 square feet

This space is to be divided into 10 shops and

13 teacher units.

Assuming the maximum capacity Is accepted

as 40 students per teacher unit, this arrangement would pro­ vide for 520 pupils.

If these 520 pupils are to be 50 per

cent of the sc h o o l ’s total enrolment,

the total space needed

for non-specialized classrooms averaging 950 square feet each would be 44 per cent

(the reciprocal of 228 per cent

shown In the table) of the shop space.

If these 520 pupils

were assumed to represent 25 per cent of an anticipated en­ rolment of 2,080 students,

24,800 square feet of floor space

(the reciprocal of 111 per cent multiplied by the total shop space) would be needed for non-specialized classrooms. The reliability of Table 11 has not been adequately checked but such data as this study has provided tend to indicate that it might be profitably used by men planning school building facilities which include space for vocationalindustrial education. The accredited jury studied this table but decided that it would not be advisable to make it a part of the Hew York Guide.

The supervisor of the Division of School Buildings and

Grounds suggested that it would be very helpful to their of­ fice.

The decision to omit it from the Guide was based on

an apprehension that its reliability might be overestimated

176 and It therefore might be used as the determinant for space rather than as a check on other estimates. Flexibility Recommendations and desires expressed regarding flexibility (Chapter IV) were so nearly the same as to merit no special comment.

Existent facilities are not so flexible

as administrators of programs have found desirable. Layout of Floor .apace Aisle Widths The only conflict between desired and recommended spacing of equipment was in regard to aisle widths. disparity here was slight.


Interviewees considered that

spaces used as aisles between machines might sometimes justi­ fy as little as a 26-inch width.

The accredited jury be ­

lieves that 36 inches snould be the minimum. Doorways With respect to doorways an interesting difference in emphasis existed among the members of the accredited jury. Staff members of the Division of Industrial and Technical Education were concerned with doorway locations and sizes as serving instructional functions of shops--their ability to accommodate equipment and supplies.

The personnel of the

Division of School Buildings and Grounds were primarily con­ cerned with doors as entrances and exits for students and were Insistent that all doors be equipped with panic hardware

177 and that In large shops at least two doors be provided suffi­ ciently distant from each other as to provde an exit in any emergency. Lecture-rlanning Areas The recommendation that no lecture-planning area be provided within the open shop area is contrary to the ex­ pressed opinion of interviewees and to the existent practice in many schools.

This conflict is largely one of philosophy.

The accredited jury believes that shop teachers should teach theory at shop work stations or to very small groups of stu­ dents assembled about the machine which involves the practical application of the theory being taught.

Some members of the

jury believe that provision of a lecture area is an over­ encouragement to emphasis on theory as separated from its application.

The decision not to recommend such an area was

not a unanimous one.

Part time use of an adjacent classroom

was recommended. A Projection-Aids Area Although a projection-aids area within the floor space of a shop was found existent in only three schools visited and desired by only a minority of interviewees, it was recommended.

The jury considered that the need for such

aids is very great and that their prospective utilization is sufficient to Justify their being provided.

The Ghief of

the Bureau of Radio and Visual Aids of The New York State Education Department pointed out that spaces below or between

178 windows on outside walls might be satisfactorily used for such projection. Shop Storage In decrying the inadequacy of facilities, inter­ viewees most frequently complained that they did not have enough storage space.

The vital problem in respect to stor­

age is not so much one of space as a matter of economic uti­ lization of cubage available for storage.

In numerous

instances the cubage available seemed to be poorly used. There is evidence that experimental studies need to be made and recommendations developed for plans of storing supplies, tools, and projects used in various curricular areas.

One large city has developed a standardized cabinet

which may be economically produced in quantity because it Is built on a standard module.

It can be fitted with shelves,

boxes, or drawers of various sizes. Tool Storage lanels The accredited jury members were unanimous in their recommendation of tool panels.

They did not believe that

it was necessary to compromise a plan of utilization for tools with security of tools.

In several instances Instructors re­

ported having been opposed to open panels and favorable to tool rooms until they tried open panels.

In no school visited

were there objections raised to the use of tool panels, except by men who had not tried using them.

One auto mechanic^1

instructor reported that he reluctantly changed from a locked tool room with an attendant, to a plan using open panels and

179 had lost; only one pair of pliers in a year's teaching under his new plan. Chalkboards Dark green chalkboards were recommended.

With very

few exceptions, all schools visited were equipped with slate blackboards.

The accredited jury did not recommend black

chalkboards because of their low light reflection factors and their resultant detraction from a balanced lighted en­ vironment. Services in Shops Electric Outlets Electric outlets for 110-volt current in schools viaited were located with no consistent pattern.


desired that outlets should be spaced on all shop walls at intervals not greater than ten feet.

The jury recommended

double-convenience outlets at eight-foot intervals. Power Capacity Very few of the interviewees had any record of their peak-demand load, or of their power capacity, by shops.


accredited jury therefore based its recommendations for this item on the opinions of its technical education members who have had experience in planning shops of New York's technical institutes. Electric Control Eanels Although control panels did not exist in all shops

180 visited, interviewees were unanimous in their opinion that every shop should have its own panel and that safety demands that each shop must have its own master switch.

The accred­

ited jury initiated the idea that control panels should be on inside corridor walls. Auxiliary Rooms and Facilities Eloor plans developed by a California committee to supplement their guide for the planning of school shops^ recommend auxiliary spaces that total 38 per cent o f the floor spaces which they have recommended as open areas of shops. New York's accredited jury has made no percentage recommenda­ tion on this item. Existent auxiliary rooms in the schools visited approximated 10 per cent of the open shop areas.


in most instances considered their storage spaces as inadequate.

The accredited jury recommended considering specific

functions to be served by auxiliary rooms and that an analysis be made of each s h o p ’s activities in terms of needs for aux­ iliary spaces. Offices Only 8 per cent of shops visited had offices for teachers.

Approximately 50 per cent of teachers interviewed

expressed a desire for an office.

The jury concluded that

^-California State Education department, "The Housing and Layout of School Shops" (Sacramento: Bureau of Trade and Industrial Education, California State Education Department, 1 9 4 a ).

18± space Tor a teacher’s office could not generally be Justified in a comprehensive high school. Related subjects classrooms classrooms immediately adjacent to shops were existent in a few schools and desired by many of the teachers inter­ viewed.

Ihe accredited jury thought that such a facility

could not generally be Justified in comprehensive high schools if its use shops.

was restricted to students in adjacent

The jury recommended that classrooms for related

subjects be "conveniently located with respect to shops" and used for shop theory by shop teachers when such utilization could be justified. Toolrooms Although toolrooms existed in two-thirds of the shops visited,

the accredited jury did not recommend them and doubted

the justification of considering the toolroom as a training station. Storage for Supplies, Projects, and Products The data obtained by school visits in this study failed to include detailed measurements of spaces used for storage.

It is estimated that storage space approximated

5 per cent of the open area of shops.

The major recommenda­

tion of the jury, with respect to storage, was that a careful analysis be made of the materials to be used in instruction and of the physical products which will require storage be­ fore, during, and after being used as tools of learning for

182 students.

It was considered that only b y such analyses could

the p r o p e r type of storage spaces be planned. Lockers flans for locker utilization were usually not in con­ formity with those desired by interviewees.

In schools where

lockers were in shops, teachers resented the space which they required and their use by students at times when the students using them were not in the shop class.

In schools where lock­

ers were outside the open shop area, teachers reported that supervision of students was a problem. The accredited jury was very insistent in its recommen­ dation that every student should have his own locker and that it be located in a shop area easily supervised by the teacher. Clean-up Washing Facilities Washing facilities were not existent in all 3hops but were desired by all interviewees.

T h e j u r y ’s recommendation

was that one washing station should be provided for every five students in a shop and that washing stations be located along a shop wall visible by the teacher from any position in the sho p. Floors Floor Loads Lxistent shops were found to have been designed for floor-load capacities varying from 125 pounds per square foot to 300 pounds per square foot.

Interviewees knew very littxe

about the floor-load capacities of their buildings.

183 The accredited jury considered that the question of floor-loads per square foot was an engineering problem.


recommended that school men should be responsible for fur­ nishing architects with estimated weights of anticipated equipment. Shop Floor Materials Recommendation of materials for shop floors could not be derived from the study of existent floors in schools visited,

experiences of interviewees had generally been

limited to so few shops and so few materials that their de­ sires seem to have but little validity as criteria for recommendations. The recommendations of shop floors contained in Chapter IV are the compromised judgments of the members of the accredited jury. Acoustics in Shops oases have been reported where building contractors volunteered to put acoustical tile on ceilings formed by concrete slabs rather than to finish and paint such ceilings. They considered that the cost of supplying and applying acoustical tile over cast slab ceilings was less than forming and finishing slabs smooth enough to paint and painting them. No known research is available to support this theory, but the jury considered it of sufficient importance to suggest the investigation of comparative costs of painted ceiling slabs and of acoustical tile on concrete ceilings.

184 Interviewees all considered that reduction of noise in shops is desirable, but very few of them had any specific suggestions for meeting the problem.

Considering that they

had no reliable basis for specific recommendations, the accredited jury merely suggested the counsel of an acoustical engineer. Visual Comfort and .efficiency Because the Division of School Buildings and Grounds of the New York ^tate education Department had recently pub­ lished a bulletin on visual comfort and efficiency, uhapter IV treats the subject only briefly.

It seems desirable to

supplement that treatment in this chapter and to call atten­ tion to some points of emphasis and some conflicts in Inter­ pretation among researchers in this Important field. As a basis for the recommendations in this G u i d e , the data on existent facilities and the recorded opinion of interviewees seem to lack reliability.

V/hile a few inter­

viewees were well informed on the subject of lighting, a large majority of them indicated, by their response to ques­ tions,

that they had little or no conception of what was

meant by a baianced-brightness environment.

Most of them had

never measured the illumination in their shops, were not at all conscious of the problems of glare, and were unacquainted with basic research which has been done on light, vision, and seeing.

The accredited jury itself was divided on some as­

pects of the subject as Indeed are Illuminating engineers. This section of Chapter IV represents a compromise by the

185 jury members of some of their opinions. Agreement was general by jury members on utilization of daylight,

control of glare, and brightness-balance.


major differences in opinion occurred in evaluating the dif­ ficulty of visual tasks involved in shop work and in recom­ mended levels of illumination.

The personnel of the ac­

credited jury representing the Division of School Buildings and Grounds have given much more attention to problems of lighting than have jurymen from the Division of Industrial and Technical Education;

therefore, compromises favored the

opinions of the former. Nothing was said in the Guide about recommended brightness-differences.

It was assumed that this was ade­

quately covered by New York's Visual domfort and Efficiency in School Buildings.^

It seems appropriate to point out here

that in the field of vision and seeing, emphasis tends to be placed less on how much Illumination is needed than on how well can students see.

The recent emphasis is on brightness-

contrasts, brightness-ratios,

and brightness-differences,

with especial stress on brightness-balance.


among illuminating engineers agree that brightness-difference within the central visual field (the task) should be kept as high as possible, while the brightness-differences between the central field and the surrounding and peripheral fields should ^New York Etate education Department, Visual domfort and lifflclency in School Buildings (Albany: University of the it ate of" New York, 1948).

186 be kept low.:l Three factors should be emphasized here:


recommended levels of illumination are to be on the work and maintained in service: (2) in order to have relative uniformity of illumination from general light sources re­ flection factors must be taken into consideration; and (3) illumination should be adequate for efficient seeing by pu ­ pils of as low a visual acuity as is acceptable to the occupation for which training is to be given. Authorities agree that their recommendations of illu­ mination in footcandles are to be interpreted as "on the work."


authority has pointed out to the satisfaction of

all members of the accredited jury that many of the visual tasks,

especially the critical tasks, are frequently on ver­

tical surfaces where the illumination from general lighting sources is rarely greater than 50 per cent of the illumina­ tion on a horizontal surface at the same location. In a study made in 1939, huckiesh and Moss reported that, in a large drafting room illuminated by an indirect system,

the ratio of vertical illumination to that on the

horizontal work-plane varied from 0.30 to 0.55.


At the insistence of some members of the accredited jury the New York Guide has a footnote to Its table of ilWLd., p. 9. ^Matthew Luckiesh and I’rank K. Moss, "Brightnes3uontrasts in Seeing," Transactions of the Illuminating .engineering society (June, 1939), p. 584.

187 "recommended Levels of Illumination."

This note calls atten­

tion to the fact that when levels of illumination are spec­ ified as "on the work," higher levels than are recommended on a horizontal plane at the site of the work may be necessary if the illumination supplied by a general overhead source is to provide adequate brightness for critical visual tasks which are not on a horizontal surface. In a measurement of horizontal and vertical components of illumination levels with a footcandle meter in three shops of Southern Illinois University, 0.25, and 0.315.

the ratios found were 0.30,

A situation apparent in this study, but

which has not been reported in other research,

is the rela­

tively low vertical component of artificial Illumination on the sides of the rooms next to the windows. on this factor is indicated as desirable.

Further research The Implication is

that, becaxise large windows have very low reflection factors when it is dark outside,

the location of luminaires in rooms

to be used at night should be made after taking cognizance of side wall reflectances.

This means that a line of fixtures

nearest a glazed wall should probably be nearer to the wall than half the distance from the nearest line of fixtures. This situation is further emphasized by the fact that the darkest areas of these same rooms at night, as measured on a horizontal plane at bench height, were near the windows. Relative to the factor of variance of visual acuity of different students and its effect on lighting recommenda­ tions, Luckiesh has pointed out that to provide the same visibility level of any task for a person of moderately sub­

18d normal vision requires ten times the level of footcandles of illumination needed for a person of normal vision.^


implication of this may be that minimum acceptable levels of visual acuity required by various occupations need be con­ sidered not only in selection of trainees but also as a factor in recommending levels of illumination at student training stations in school shops. Heating and Ventilating The accredited jury members representing the D i v i ­ sion of Industrial and Technical Education considered themselves incompetent to originate recommendations on this subject.

They did however direct attention to certain spe­

cific problems such as the need for warm floors in automotive shops and the prevalence of dust and of noxious odors in other shops. since the Division of School Buildings and Grounds had recently published a bulletin on heating and ventilating schools and had revised the soramissioner1s Regulations on the subject, recommendations contained there were accepted for this Guide.

^Matthew Luckiesh, "Footcandle Levels," Reprint of a paper presented at the National Technical Conference of the Illumination Engineers Society (September 15-19, 1947), p. 14.


These opinions were based

on the cumulative experience of Jury members and on data ob­ tained from 124 interviewees in 2? schools.

These inter­

viewees were selected from faculties totaling more than 1000 teachers and 2 3 , 0 0 0 pupils. Summary materials ordinarily found in final chapters of dissertations have been Included in Chapter IV. In many resoects Chapter IV is the conclusion of this study since it constitutes the New York Gulae. summarization seems desirable.


In parenthesis, following

each statement, is the number of the page in Chapter IV where each principle is discussed in greater detail. 1.

School officials have the responsibility for furnishing to their architects much of the basic data needed for designing school build­ ings so that they can be effective tools of teaching. Teachers, students, and lay leaders should contribute to the planning of buildings. (o0)


School sites should generally be central to their student population in order to serve best the needs of all the oupils in the school. Adequacy of narking facilities is an important factor in the choice of a site. (81)


190 3.

Industrial education shops should be in sep­ arate wings of school buildings away from classrooms for non-shop subjects. (82)


Shops should preferably be located at grade level (first floor) in school buildings. Ko instructional activities should be housed in basement spaces. (84)


Safety factors should be a primary considera­ tion In all planning of school buildings. (85)


Sizes of shops should be determined by anal­ ysis of the content of courses to be taught In them and by a study of the space requirements of equipment needed for teaching anticipated courses. The open shop areas needed for effec­ tive teaching In vocational-industrial and vocational-technical shops and laboratories may reasonably vary from 50 to 150 square feet per pupil and may occasionally exceed the larger figure. (86-87)


Shops should be rectangular in shape and the length of a shop should not exceed twice its width. (87)


Minimum ceiling heights should be eleven feet. The nature of instructional equipment and instructional activities may demand much greater minimum ceiling heights for some shops. (88)


Mezzanines in open shop areas are not generally desirable. They may be recommended for some types of storage spaces. (88)


Twenty pupils per teacher should generally be considered the maximum desirable load for vo­ cational-industrial and vocational-technical courses. (89)


The determination of the number of shops needed by a school should be based on an analysis of training needs as determined by a survey of community employment, employment practices, labor availability, labor-employer-school re­ lations, and trainee availability. (89-91)


It is recommended that the floor space for which each teacher is responsible be separated from adjacent spaces by full partitions. (90)


Flexibility In school construction is highly de-

191 sirable but the needs of the current educational program should not be compromised seriously to achieve it. (90-93) 14.

It is desirable to have all cross partitions non­ load-bearing. (92)


continuous fenestration is recommended on a mod­ ule which facilitates movement of partitions. (92)


Electric power supply should be as flexible as is practical. (93)


Safety factors should be given special attention in locating machines and other equipment in shop floor-space layout. (94)


Major traffic aisles in shops should not be less than 48 Inches wide. Minimum aisle width should not be less than 36 inches. (94)


Instructional activities analyzed for an estimate needed. (94)

for all shops should be of open floor spaces


Doorways for driveway access to shops generally should be of an overhead type 10 or 12 feet wide and 10 feet high. (95)


When a shop has no accessibility except through a corridor, it should have a double door 6 feet wide. (96)


Lecture-planning areas within shops are not gener­ ally recommended. (96)


irojection-aids areas should be provided within shops. (97)


Planning of all storage should precede the layout of a shop (97)


Tool storage panels, within open shop areas, are recommended. (98)


ohallcboard, of a type more highly light reflec­ tive than slate, is recommended. Thirty-six square feet should be the minimum per shop. (99)


Bulletin boards should be provided in all shops. (99)


Electric outlets for 110-volt current should be

192 provided at eight foot intervals on all shop walls. (99) 29.

Electric power capacity for most shops should vary between 25 kilowatts and 4U kilowatts as an anticipated peak load. (100)


Control panels for electric light and power should be located on the corridor wall of each shop. Kemote control 11off" buttons should be located at at least two points within each shop. (101)


Estimates of demand for gas heat in each shop should be made by shop teachers and/or super­ visors. (102)


A drinking fountain should be provided in every shop. (102)


compressed air should be accessible to all shops. (102)


Space should be planned for the installation of a fire extinguisher in every shop. (103)


Offices for vocational directors and supervisors should be provided and located central to shop activities and conveniently accessible to the public. (lOo)


Classrooms for related subjects should be lo­ cated conveniently with respect to shops. ouch rooms should be adequately equipped for audio­ visual projection aids. (104)


Toolrooms, so designed as to require the full time of an attendant for issuance and security of tools, are not recommended. (10b)


central storage, within a school, should be pro­ vided to care for some of the materials of all shops. (106)


Storage spaces for supplies should be designed for the type of materials to be stored. apace requirements should be determined by an analysis of the materials of instruction used in each shop. (106)


An individual locker should be provided for every shop student. (107)


Toilet facilities should be located so that they

193 are easily accessible to students In shops.



Clean-up washing facilities should provide at least four fixtures, or a half circular unit, per shop. (108)


xvvery school should be provided with in-a-wail, shelved, and lighted display cabinets. (108,l0y)


Corridor gates are frequently desirable in order to limit the accessibility of certain sections of school buildings. (10'd)


ohop floors should be designed by architects in accordance with equipment loads anticipated. Both dead weight and vibratory operating loads must be estimated. (10y, 110)


Flooring materials should be selected on a basis of the demands of instructional activities. (110-1 1 2 )


Noise in shops should be controlled at its source by reduction and absorption. Its trans­ mission should be controlled by acoustical treatment of walls and ceilings. The counsel of an acoustical engineer is recommended. (115, 114)


The major emphasis in lighting should be on creating and maintaining a balanced-brightness environment which is conducive to visual com­ fort and efficiency. (114-120)


Multi-directional sources of daylight should be encouraged provided glare is controlled. (115-116)


Regardless of the adequacy of daylight, artifi­ cial illumination in all shops shoxild be adequate for efficient seeing in evening classes. (116)


Artificial illumination of from 10 to 30 footcandles is recommended varying in accordance with the difficulty of the visual tasks involved. This illumination should be on the work and maintained in service. (117-119)


The design operative temperature in shops should be 68 degrees at 60 inches above the floor. Maximum air temperature gradient from the floor to 60 inches above the floor should not exceed 5°. Air movement in zones of occupancy should not exceed 25 linear feet per minute. (121)

194 53*

Heating controls should be designed with cogni­ zance of the probability of night school pro­ grams in Industrial education. (120)


Ventilating systems for shops should be com­ pletely separated from those serving other sections of school buildings. An analysis of instructional activities should be made to anticipate the needs for special ventilating equipment. (121-122) Recommended Studies

Problems, the study of which could contribute to improved school buildings for Industrial education, Include: 1.

The determination of amount and types of storage

spaces needed for various curricular areas; 2.

The determination of equipment needed for teaching

specific curricular areas of industrial education.


technique for doing this b y experimental research was de­ veloped by Walter Klehm^ in 1937); 3.

Measurement and control of noise in shops.

studies might include sources,


(1) reduction of noises at their

(2) absorption of noises at their sources, and (3)

control of transmission of noises; 4.

Determination of the effects of various conditions

of lighting on effective learning and on visual comfort; and 5.

Determination of colors to be recommended for

shops and equipment and their contributions to learning en­ vironments. W a l t e r A. Klehm, "A Method of Determining Equipment Requirements in Industrial Arts Based Upon Teaching Objectives," Doctoral dissertation (Columbia: University of Missouri, 1937).

195 C inclusion Attention ia called to the fact that this study was to develop a guide for vocational-industrial and vocatlonaltecnnical building facilities for comprehensive high schools. It is intended for New York schools.

It is not Intended to

apply to all types of Industrial education programs every­ where.

To the extent that other schools have problems

comparable to those of comprehensive high schools In New York State,

this guide may be helpful to those who plan school

buildings. This study has been made to establish guiding prin­ ciples for planning school buildings which can make programs of vocational-industrial and vocational-technical education more effective— principles that can result in buildings being constructed as better tools for teaching.




RESEARCH P p OBL-Liu OK SliCr BUILDING V A L U I N G July 1948 The Pennsylvania state college Industrial Education 550V Professor S. .Lewis Land 1.

Miles K o s tenbauder, Vocational Director Milton, Pennsylvania


Robert W. English, Industrial Teacher Trainer Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois


John Preet, Graduate Student The Pennsylvania State College state College, Pennsylvania


Raymond Hughey, Vocational Supervisor Greenville, South Carolina


Edward Jacobs, Vocational Director ulearfield, Pennsylvania


Ward Myers, Vocational Director Muncie, Pennsylvania


Thomas Robinson, Industrial Teacher Trainer state Teachers oollege Montgomery, Alabama


ArTENDIX II THE JNIVYmioiTY Gi1' THE wiAiT GY Nxm* YOiih The State Education Department Albany 1, New York Inquiry Form Regarding Building Facilities For Industrial and Technical education in High Schools in New York State Name of S c h o o l ____________________Date______________ Address_____________________________ rersons reporting data: Name_______________________________ Position_________

The Industrial and Technical Frofraia: (A general statement regarding curricula included; grade level; number of shops and laboratories; date of con­ struction of shoos; number of students enrolled, by shops, annually for last five years)

Kegaraing each item of inquiry, information is desired as to the existing facility, its adequacy in the opinion of teachers and administrators, and suggestions for Improving said facility if it were being; built new today. I.Iany of the following items will need to be reported separately for each shop. When supplementary comment is desirable, beyond limits of space provided, attach additional sheets and ref­ erence by section and item number.


General Gonsideration 1.

Accessibility of building: (a) Eor day school (b) Eor adult classes

ahop location relative to other school facilities (separate building, wing, etc.)


cihop location by floor level (basement, 1st, 2nd, etc.)


Elevator service (if above 1st floor)


Accessibility for deliver; of supplies and equipment (shop door at truck bed height)

ciize and Dimensions of Shop 1.

il&me of shop (separate listing for each shop)


Geiling heights


Mezzanines (how are they used)

.axistent Desired

Iy9 .u.xistent



Wo. of sq. ft. In shop area


ohape and dimensions floor work area


Maximum number of students using shop at any time


isq. ft. per student (4*6)


Machine work stations


Bench work stations


of shop

flexibility and -expansibility 1.

Partitions (bearing or ncnbearing; full or partial; m ov a bl e )


Fenestration pattern (unilat­ eral, sawtooth, continuous, glass brick)


ri.Loctric services (in walls or floor, Q. floors, in ceilings, etc. )


200 Existent



Lighting controls (by area within shops)


Ventilation of areas


Heating (sections of build­ ings separately controlled)


dabinets, lockers, within shop


Available space for expansion of shop area


Layout of Equipment, Floor b p a c e , and Services, in Shons 1.

Placement and spacinr of machines (back to back, angular, etc.)


Aisle widths (tyne of aisles)


Danger zones and guard rails


Instructor's desk (in office or in shop)


201 ■ttxiatent 5.


Open spaces (£) For student work (b) For traffic (near en­ trances and tool rooms issue counters)


Size, number, and location of doorways


storage space within shop area (lumber racks, steel racks, etc . )


Machinery mounting (to avoid excess vibration, provide toe space, facilitate cleaning, etc . )


Desired location of benches (along walls, under windows, near machines)


Location of control panels for power and 1 ight


Outlets for portable electric equipment


electric capacity (type and size of service lines; single phase, 3 phase, 220V, 440V, etc. )


202 insistent 15.

Gas capacity




oompressed air (central vs individual compressors)


Drinking fountain in shop


Fire extinguisher


Elrst aid kit.


Refuse containers


Planning areas


Lecture area


rrojection-aids area (for small groups in »hcp)


Chalkboards (how much)


Bulletin boards much)

(where, how



iixistent 25.

Tool storage panels


Project storage facilities (for day school, for night school)

Auxiliary Rooms and facilities (desirable inter-relation of locations) 1.

Director's and supervisor's offices


Teacher's office (separate room and glassed partition, or in shop)


supply-storage room (for each shop, accessibility for deliv­ ery, accessibility to shop)


Toolrooms (for each shop, to serve several shops)


Instrument rooms (for storage of special or delicate equip­ ment )


Separate lock-up space for evening instructors



The shop classroom (size, location, equipment)


The shop library


Storage of audio-visual equipment


storage of models and mock-ups


Locker rooms and dressing rooms


Toilets (location)


.hoe Lianuf acturing and Nepalr Central Nigh School of Needle Trades New York, New York Donald M. Kidd Director of Vocational .education Board of Education Syracuse, New York

a. 0. Kohl Assistant Principal Bole Vocational and Technical School Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Karl E. Krura Vocational director West High School Auburn, New York Martin i . Kuehn, Principal Technical High School Buffalo, New York Anne Kuhn Trade Millinery Instructor Central High School of Needle Trades New York, New York Edward 11. Lan£, principal Smith Technical and Industrial School Syracuse, Lev/ York John 13. Lilly Assistant Superintendent of Schools Binghamton, New York Kenneth Loomis Mechanical Drawing Instructor V/est High School Auburn, New York Y/illiam J. Lyons Baking Instructor smerson Vocational Hirh School Buffalo, :'e>v York Herbert M. I.Iapes Director of Vocational Education public Schools Albany, New York Thomas 0. Marshall Administrative Assistant Essex County Vocational School Newark, New Jersey Rexford C. Metzler Refrigeration Instructor Smith Technical and Industrial School Syracuse, New York

217 i'1rank Miccio Machine Shop Instructor McKee Vocational and Technical High School Staten Island, New York Pletcher r. Miller Consultant cl Apprentice Training Board of Education KoChester, New York Harry H. Yontpomery, Head i.iachine Shop Department Edison Technical High School Rochester, New York Ruf us h. Morrison Carpentry Instructor Essex County Vocational and Technical Hi ph. School Bloorafield, Hew Jersey Nelson J. Murbach Acting Principal Metal Trades Vocational School Batavia, New York Helen K. Nies Pood Trades Instructor Girls Vocational HI,rh School Buffalo, Hew York James Nolan Auto Mechanics Instructor Iroctor High School TTtica, Hew York Edward B. nowak Evening School Principal Emerson Vocational Hi^h School Buffalo, New York

Ann Olmsted Pirst Assistant, Needle Trades Sarah J. Hale Vocational High School Brooklyn, New York Marion Panzarella Related Science Instructor Jamestown High School Jamestown, New York

Albert H. rape, Instructor Machine Drawing and He sipn Technical III; h School Buffalo, hew York James J. Farkes Fainting and Decorating Instructor imerson Vocational high School Buffalo, lew York Louis J. Feople First Assistant Llectrical Trades Woodrow Wilson Vocational High School Jamaica, Dew York George Figott Associate Superintendent of Schools and Director of Buildings Hew York, Hew York John Bollock, Jr. Automobile mechanics Instructor hcKee Vocational and Technical high School Staten Island, Hew York xl.

J. Boor Frinting Instructor Technical a^d Vocational High School Bayonne, Hew Jersey Raymond A. grosser superintendent of Vocational education Buffalo, Hew York

Frederick 0. L. Haab, Frlncioai haul Revere Trade ichool Hochester, Lev/ York G. h. Hath Hew York Trade school b06 xLast 67th Street wew York, Hew York William