The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume II (A.D. 476-1461) [2/2, Complete and Unabridged]

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The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume II (A.D. 476-1461) [2/2, Complete and Unabridged]

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THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

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THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE »»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»>>»^»>»»»»»»»»»»»» BY

EDWARD GIBBON

VOLUME (a.

D

II

476-1461)

»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»» BENNtlT

A

CERT



DONALD

S

KLOPFER

THE MODERN LIBRARY NEW YORK

»»>»»»»»»»»»»»»»»>»»»» NOTE

A publisher's"

ON THIS EDITION OF THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE For many years the editors of The Modern Lihrary were determined that

The immediate

one

day on

the

new “Giant” format

Tolstoy's

their

WAR.

must Le included

this book

list.

success

of

(introduced first with

AND PEACE



provided the means of offering

193*^

it

Icttt

public

to the

complete in two volumes.

Like list,

so

many

other

this edition

titles

on the Modern Library

of the decline

OF the ROMAN EMPIRE in

is

AND

the least expensive

any language and in any country in

As

to the

adequacy of

its

text

editors rest their case in the

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and format,

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Manufactured in

Bound for THE

the United States

modern

ofAmerica

library

by H. Wolff

CONTENTS PAGE

CHAP.

XXXV7I.

and Effects of the Monastic Life— roNVERSTON of the Barbarians to

Origin, Progress,

—Persecution of —Extinction of

Christumty and Arianism THE Vandais in Africa Arianism (305-712 a.d.)

XXXVIII. Reign and Conversion of Clovis

i



His Victories OVER Tin .\lIMANNI. BuRGUNDIANS, AND VlSIGOTIIS E.ST ABI ISHMI NT OF THE FRENCH MONARCHY IN Gaul ^Lavas of the Barbarians State or the Romans The Visigoths of Spain— Conquests of Britain by the Saxons (449-582 A.D.)





37

XXXIX. Zeno and «

.\nastasr*s, Emperors of the East Birth, Education, and First Exploits of Tufodorictih Ostraigoth is Invasion and y oNQUi ST of Itai The Gothic Kingdom of C

— — Italy — State of im West— itary and G()vernmf.nt —Thl Sinvtor Botthius C il

ivil

— Lvst

.\cts

and Death of Theodoric (455-

52b A.D.)

98



XL. Elevation

of Justin thf Eldfr Reign of Justinian 1 The Empress Theodora II. Factions of the Circus, and Sedition of C oNSTANflNOPIE^III. TrADE AND M ANUFACTURF or SlI K IV. FiNANCI'S and Taxfs V.



.

Edifices of Justinian Fortifications and



—Church of

St.

Sophia

Fronthrs or the Eastern Empire Abolition or the Schoois of .\thins and the Consuiship of Rome (482-



128

565 a.d.)



XLI. Conquest of Justinian in the West (.^haracter AND First Campaigns of Belisarius He inV

CONTENTS

vi

PAGB

CHAP.

VADES AND '&UBDUES THE VaNDAE KINGDOM OF The Gothic War is Triumph Africa He recovers Sicily, Naples, and Rome Siege of Rome by the Goths Their Retreat and Losses Surrender of Ravenna Glory









of



Belts ARius

Misfortunes (522-620 XLII.



Domestic Shame and

lire

182

a.d.)



the Barbaric Worid Establishment OF THE Lombards on thi Danube Tribes AND Inroads of the Sclavonians Origin, Empirt, AND Embassies of the Turks -The Fiigiit of iHE Avars Chosroi s T or Nush-

Si ate of





iRVAN,

King of

— —

.

Pi rsia

is

Pkospi roUs Ri u.n

AND Wars aaith the Romans orLazicWar (500-582 ad) XLIII.

—The Golchian



240

Rebeliions of Africa Restoration of the xiss and RiGothic Kingdom by Totila covery of Rome Final Conquest of Italy BY Narses Extinction of thl Osiko(,oths Defeat of ihl Franks and Aiimanm I^ST









Victory, Disgrace, and

—Deaih

Death of Bu-isarus

and Character of Justinian Comet, Earthquakes, and Plague (531-594 281

a.d.)



XLIV. Idea of hie Roman Jurisprudence ni Laws OF the Kings Thi Twelve Tabus of ihe Decemvirs Ihe Laws of the Peopi l The Decrees of the Sfnate Thf Edicts or thf: Magistraiis and F3 mpiroks Althority of THE Civilians -Codl, Pandicts, Noalls, and Institutes of Justinian: I. Rights of Persons II. Rights of Things III. Private Injuries and Actions IV. Crimes and Punishments (527-565 a.d.)















XLV. Reign of the younger Justin



Embassy of the Avars Their Settlement on the Danuhf, CoNQUFST of Italy by the Lombards \dopTioN AND Reign of Tiberius Of Maurice Staie of Italy under the Lombards and the







322

CONTENTS CHAP.

VAOB

Exarchs Of Ravenna—^Distress of Rome Character and Pontificate of Gregory the First (565-643

a.d.)

383

XLVI. Revolutions of Persia after the Death of Chosroes or Nusuirvan His Son Hormouz, a Tyrant, is^ deposed Usurpation of Bahram Flight and Restoration of Chosroes II. His Gratitude to thl Rom\ns The Ciiagan OF THE Avars Revolt of the Army against Maurk'l ^H is Di \th ^Tyranny of Phocas

















Elevaiion of Heraclius The Persian War Chosrois subdues Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor Siei.e or Constantinople by the Persians and .\v\rs Persian Expeditions







Triumph of Hiracuvs (570-

Victories and 642 A.D.)

413

XLVIl. Tiif.oiOGicAL History of the Doctrine of the Incarnation The Hi.aian and Divine XalURL or Christ Enmity of thi Patriarchs OF Alexandria and Constantinople St. Cyril and Xi_storius Third General Council OF Ephesus Heresy of Eutyches Fourth Glniral Councii of Chalcedon ClAIl. AND LcCILSIASTICAL DiSCORD TnTOI FRANCE 01 Justinian Thf Turfe Chapters Thi Monothiiite Controa’ersy State of THE Orient ai, cts I. The Nfstorians II.















.‘^i

The

J Acoiin

i

>



lANS (412-1(132

A D.)

XLVin. Plan of the

The M ARONiTr.s IV. The Copts and .\byssin-

HI.

Tin .\rminians

V.



459

last two (quarto] cession and Charactirs of perors OF Constantinople, OF Hekaciius to the Latin 1185 A n )



Voiumes Sucthf Grefk Emfrom thf Time Conquest (641-

XLIX. Introduction, Worship, and Ptrsecution of Images — Revoit of Itaiy^ and Rome—Temporal Dominion of the Popfs— Conquest OF Italy by the Franks Establishment



519

CONTENTS

viii

PACE

CHAP.

OF Images-«-Charactes and Coronation of Charlemagne Restoration and Decay of THE Roman Empire in the West Independence OF Italy Constitution of the







Germanic Body (726-1378 L.

Description of Ar.\bia ANq its Inhabitants Birth, Character, and Doctrine of Mohammed He preaches at Mecca Flhs to Mfdina Propagates his Religion by the Savord Voluntary or reluctant Submission OF THE Arabs ^H is Death and Successors The Ci aims and Fortunes of Ali and his Discendants (569-680 a.d.)



— — —

LI.

578

a.d.)



The Conquest of

634

Persia, Sa'ria, Egypt, Africa,



AND Spain, by the Arabs or Saracens Empire OF the Caiipus. or Successors of MoHAMMiD tate of the Christians, etc.,



UNDI R THEIR CiOVERNMINT (63 2-7 1 8 LII,

The Tavo

Siegi s of

709

A.D.)

Const ant i.nopi e by the

.\r.\bs

— Thlir Ina’asion of France, and Defeat by War of the OaiC'hari Marti — MIADES AND AbBASSIDIS —LlaRNI.NG OF THE I

Arabs

s

— Luxura'

I

('ivii.

of

a

he C ai iphs— N

av

En-

ai

terprises ON Crete, Skti a', and Rome — Decay' AND DiATSION of THE EaIPIKL OF THI (' ALIPHS Defeats and Victories of the Greek E.m-



PERORS (668-1055 LIII.

780

A.D.)

State of the Eastern Empire in the





Tenth

Century Exient and J>ivision Weaitii AND Rf.VENUI PALACI OF CoNSTANTINOPl E Titles and Olfict s Pride and Poaver of the Emperors Tactics of tiii Greeks, Arabs, AND Franks xiss of the Latin Tongui Studies and Solitude of the Greeks (733-



988

A.D.)





839





LIV. Origin and Doctrine of the Paulicians Their • I’ersecution by the Greek Empi rors RrvoLT IN Armenia, ftc. Transplantation -



CONTENTS CHAP.

ix

page



INTO Thrace Propagajion in the West The Seeds, Character, and Consequences of the Reformation (660-1200 a.d.)

LV.



The Bulgarians

Origin, Migrations, and SetTLEMI NT OF THE HUNGARIANS TlIElR INROADS IN THI E^.ST AND WeST ThE MONARCHY OF Russia Gi ograpiiy and Trade Wars of the Russians against the Greek Empire Conversion or the Barbarians (640-1100 a.d.)



LVI.



893

The

Saracens, Franks, and Greeks, in Italy First Adventures and Settiement of the Normans C'haractfr and Conquists of Robiri Guiscard. Duke or Apulia Deliverance of .SiciiA' by his Broiiier Roger Victories or Robert over the Emperors of the East and West Roger, King or Sicily, INVADES .\FRICA AND GrEECL ThI EaIPEROR







Mamil CoMNiNus —Wars

AND Normans (840-1204 LVII.

879

A





of the Greeks

—Extinction of the Normans

D

922

)



The Turks

of the Housi of Seljuk Their against AIaumud. Conqueror of Hinijostan Togrui subdues Persia, and

Rivolt



PROIH'TS THE CaIIPHS DlEEAT AND C APiiviiA or THE Iamperok Rom anus Diogi nfs BA \ip .\rsi an Power and Macnificfnce of ]VIalik .Shaii C0NQUI.ST or Asia Minor and Sari A State and Oppression of Jirusalem (0S0-II52 A.D.)





LVIIl.



968

Numbers of the First Crusade Characters or the Latin Princes Their ^Iarch 10 Const ANTiNopi r oiica of the Grli.k Empi kor .\i 1 .XIUS C\)nqui,st of Nice, .\ntioch. and Jerlsaiiai, BA the Franks Df liver ANCl OF THE Hoi Y SePUI CURE GOD-

Origin and







FREY OF Bouiuon. First King or jb'RUSALEM (10QS-1369 a.d.)

995

CONTENTS

X CHAP

LIX. Preservation

— — Crus ades— Richard

PAGE

the Greek Empire ^Numbers, Passage, and Eveni of the Second and Third Crusades St. Bernard Reign of Saladin in Egypt and S\ri\ His Conquest



of

Jerus ai

I

M —Nav vl



THE First or Engi and Popi Innoci nt the Third; and thi Fourth und Finn Crusadfs The Emperor Frederic ihf Sicond Louis THE Ninth of France, and the ta\o easi







Crusades Expuesion of thi Latins or Franks hy the Mamaiukes (1001-1517 ad) 1047



LX. Schism of the Grfeks and Latins State or Const ANT iNoPEi lvoet oi lai Buigarians Isaac \ngills di throned da his Brothir Aiexius Origin of the Foirth Crusade Aeliance of the Frincii and Vtmtians with the Son of Isaac— in ir Navvi Expedition to CONSIANTINOPIE ThE TWO Sieges and Final Conquest of the Cit\









(697-1204

LXI.

ad)

1082

Partition or the Empire ba the Fri nch and V lNETIANS IlVE LaTIN LmPIRORS Or THE Houses of Flanders and Coertenaa Their Wars against the Buk.arians and Grieks— Wl AKNESS AND PoVERTA OF TUT LaTIN EMPIRI Recovery of Constantinopi i by the









Greeks General Conslqufncls Crusadfs (1020-1261 ad) LXII.

or

thf

mg

The Greek Emperors or Nice and Constanti-



nople Ei evation and RriGN or Michai e Pala;oiogls His Faise Union with thf Pope and the Latin Church Hostiil Dfstgns of Charles of .\njou Revoit 01 Sicily Revoiutions and present Stati of Athens (1204-1456 a.d ) tis2



LXITI.

— —

Civil Wars, and

Ruin of the Greek Empihf Reigns of Andronicus the Elder and Younger, and John Pal,eologus Regency,



CONTENTS

zi

PAGE

CHAP.

Revolt, Reign, and Abdication of John Canstablishment of a Genoese TAcuzENE Colony at Pera or Galata (1282-1391 a.d.) 1179



LXIV. CONQUF-STS OF ZlNGIS KhAN AND THE MOGULS FROM CiiiNV TO Poland Escape of Constantinople AND THE Greeks Origin of the Ottom\n Turks in Bitiiynia Reigns and Victories or Otiim\n, Okchan, Ami rath the Foundation First, and IJajazet the First



— — —

AND I’ROGRESS of IIIL 1 URKISII ilONARCIIY IN AND Europe Danger of ConstantiNOPiE AND Till. Greek Empire (1206-1425



.\siA

1201

A.D.)

LXV. Elevation of Timour or Tamerlane to the Throne or Samarcand His Conquests in Persia. Georgia. Tart ary. Russia, India, Syria, andAnatoiia His Turkish War Defeat AND Captivity or Bajazft Dfath of Timour— Civil, War of the Sons of Bajazet — Ristokaiion of thf Turkish Monarchy iiY Mohammed the First Siege of Constant inople BY Amurath the Second (1361-







1451

LXVI.

1231

A.D.)

OF THE FIaSTI RN EmPERORS TO THE to the West of Joii.n the First, Manuei, and John the Second. I’ai T 01 OGUS Union or the Greek .and Latin C'huruihs promotid by tih Council or Bash, and concludid at Ff.rrara and Fiorence Statu or Literature at Co.nItS RlATVAI IN ItAI.V BY THE STANTINOPLI Greek Fi'citiyes Curiosity and Emulation OF the Latins (1339-1500 a.d.) 1264

.\PPI U'ATIONS

Popes

—Visits









LXVII. Schism or the Greeks and Latins Reign and Character of .Vmi'rath thi SEaiNo rusade OF Ladislaus,

— —

King of Hungary

Defeat and Death (1421-1467

a.d.)

is

1304

CONTENTS

xii

PAGE

CHAP

LX VIII.

Reign ^nd Ch'vpactes of Mohammed the Second Siege, Assault, and Final Conquest of eATH OP CoNSTANTINOPI E li \ THE TuSkS Constantine Pmxoiogus Servitude of the Greiks Extinction or the Roman Empire IN THL East Consternation of Europe Conquests and Di ath of Mohammed the Second (1451-1481 ad ) 1325











LXIX. State of Rome from the Twelfth CenturyTemporal Dominion or the Popes Seditions OF THE CiTV POLITICAI HeRLSY OP \HN 01 D OF Brescia Restoration of the Ruhhlic The Senators Pride of the Romans Their Wars Thiy are diprutd or the Eifction AND Presence or the Popes, who rktirt to Avignon The Juniin XoniE Families or Rome Feud of the Coionna and Ursini

















(800-1500

ad)

1564



LXX. Character and Coronation of Petrarch Restoration of Tin Friidom and Govirnmfnt of Rome by the Tribi ne Rien/i is Viktufs and Vicrs, His Expuision and Diath RfTURN of the Popis eroai \vignon Grpat Schism of the Wist Rfinion or the Latin Church Last Struggiis of Roman Liberta





— Statutfs THE Ecci

of

— Romi —Finai





Settiement of

esiasticai State (1504-1590

ad)

1400

LXXI. Prospect of thl Ruins of Rome in iiil tiFteenth Cintura Four ('\rsrs 01 Decaa AND Destruction Exampi of the Coi iseum

—Renovation

— —

i



of thi Cita ('onc/usion of the whole W ork ( 1 532-1430 ad) 1438

THE

HISTORY OF THE DECLINE AND

F.\LL

OF THE

ROMAN KMPIRE CHAPTER XXXVn Prooyfss,

Ifrua

The



to /

niid



of Ihr Monastir Life Cowersion of the and .fruiiustn- I\rsciulton of the Vandals m nanism amoni; tlu Ihirhartans

hffi'cts

( hrtsliaiiil\

titnelwn of

. I

indissoluble connection of civil

[lelled

and encouraged me to

and

ecclesiastical affairs

has com-

relate the progress, the persecutions, the

establishment, the divisions, the final triumph, and the gradual corruption I have purpo.sely delated the consideration of two religious events interesting in the study of human nature, and important of Christianity. in the decline

and

fall

of the

Roman

empire.

I.

The

institution of the

monastic life.’ and II. The conversion of the northern barbarians. I. Piospenty and peace introduced the distinction of the vulgar and the Ascetic Christ latisr The loose and imperfect practice of religion The prince or magistrate, the satisfied the conscience of the multitude. soldier or merchant, reconciled their fervent real and implicit faith with the exercise of their profession, the pursuit of their interest, and the indulgence of their passions; but the Ascetics, who obeved and abused the rigicl precepts of the Ciospel, were inspired by the savage enthusiasm which represents man as a criminal, and God as a tyrant. They seriously renounced the business and the pleasures of the age. abjured the use ’ The origin ni the monastic institution has hien lahononsK discussed by Thoniassiii i lliseiphne de I’l'nlise. tom i p I4i()-I4_’f> and Heljot (Hist, des Ordres Mofi.istKiucs, tom. p I-Wil. These authors .ttc \er> learned and tolerablj- honest, and Ihcir dilbreiut of opinion sliows the niliject in ds full extent Yet the c.iutious Protcst.uit, who distrusts ni.i Popisli guiilcs, may consult the seventh hook of Piiigh.mi's Christian -Viituiuities ’See Puseh. Demon st rat. K\.iiigel tl. i. p _’o, ai. edit. Gr.cc Uoh Stephani, Pans, tS4sl In his Kcclcsiastical Historv, published twelve \ears after the Demonstration, rvusehius (1 ii c 17) asserts the Christianity of the Therapeut.e, hut he appears ignorant that a similar institution was actually )

i

revived in Egypt. I

a

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF

of wine, of flesh, and of marriage; chastised their body, mortified their affections, and embraced a life of misery, as the price of eternal happiness. In the reign of Consfantine the Ascetics fled from a profane and degenerate world to perpetual solitude or religious society. Like the first Christians of Jerusalem, they resigned the use or the property of their temporal possessions, established regulai communities of the same sex and a similar disposition; and assumed the names of Hermits, Monks, and Anachorcts, cxpressi\e of their lonely retreat in a natural or artificial desert. They soon acquired the respect of the world, which they despised, and the loudest applause was bestowed on this Divine Philosophy,* which surpas