The Dead of the Irish Revolution 0300123825, 9780300123821

The first comprehensive account to record and analyze all deaths arising from the Irish revolution between 1916 and 1921

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The Dead of the Irish Revolution
 0300123825, 9780300123821

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THE DEAD OF THE IRISH REVOLUTION

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THE DEAD OF THE IRISH REVOLUTION

Eunan O’Halpin and Daithí Ó Corráin

YALE UNIVERSIT Y PRESS NEW HAVEN AND LONDON iii

Copyright © 2020 Eunan O’Halpin and Daithí Ó Corráin Introduction © 2020 Eunan O’Halpin Original charts by Peter Connell All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press) without written permission from the publishers. For information about this and other Yale University Press publications, please contact: U.S. Office: [email protected]   yalebooks.com Europe Office: [email protected]   yalebooks.co.uk Set in Minion Pro by IDSUK (DataConnection) Ltd Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall Library of Congress Control Number: 2020943257 ISBN 978-0-300-12382-1 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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EO’H In memory of Keith Jeffery (1952–2016) DÓC In memory of Donnchadh Ó Corráin (1942–2017) Clare Frances Murphy (1947–2018)

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CONTENTS

Acknowledgements  viii List of Abbreviations  xii List of Tables and Charts  xvi Map of Ireland  xvii Introduction by Eunan O’Halpin  1 1916 25 1917 102 1918 104 1919 107 1920 119 1921 268 Tables and Charts  543 Appendix: 1919–21 British Military Deaths Through Misadventure Not Individually Discussed in Text  549 Notes  557 Bibliography  660 Index of Fatalities  675 General Index  696

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study has been a long time in the making.

EUNAN O’HALPIN That it has finally come to completion is due to the following people: Dr Eve Morrison, who continually pressed me to develop an unwieldy first draft, who re-engineered the database on which the text is based, and who has encouraged me at every turn; Robert Towers, Yale University Press’s Irish representative, who has exercised extraordinary patience, and who has read through the final manuscript, identifying countless points which needed attention; Dr Daithí Ó Corráin, who did the lion’s share of the initial research and drafting as a postdoctoral fellow from 2003 to 2007, and who read the recast entries at very short notice over Christmas 2019; my friend Mark Seaman in London, who has provided much hospitality, encouragement and counsel over many years; and the successive Yale managing editors Robert Baldock and Heather McCallum, who have put up with long delays. A meeting with Heather in May 2019 was crucial in spurring me finally to reduce the text by about 35 per cent, bringing it to a manageable size and the project to completion. I must also particularly thank Trinity colleagues Dr Ciaran Wallace, who devised the invaluable fatality referencing system, and Dr Peter Connell, who created the charts and graphs. The study originated in a proposal to the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences, covering the years 2003 to 2006. This is gratefully acknowledged. But the sum I had sought was, it transpired, insufficient to meet all the research costs involved, particularly in terms of research posts; the amount granted was even less adequate. The consequence was that money had to be found from other sources to pay for research travel and equipment and for part-time research assistance, and also that much of the research completed since 2006 has been carried out on the margins of other funded projects, including that supported in 2006/7 by the TCD Association and Trust, which covered a salary for an additional year, and which is gratefully acknowledged here. I must record special thanks to professors Peter Daly and John Kennedy and their surgical, nursing and support colleagues in St James’s Hospital for looking after me so well since December 2002. I had no idea then that I would still be here to bring this exercise to completion.

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Acknowledgements

DAITHÍ Ó CORRÁIN While some of those who died during the Irish Revolution are well known, most are not even recalled in historical footnotes. Yet they too have a story just as compelling or harrowing. Recovering those individual stories became, for me, a great quest that continued after funding for the project ceased. I am very grateful to the following close friends and family who supported me in this endeavour over many years: Dr Sinéad Boyce, Dr Patricia Burke, Seán Casey, Bernadette Fagan, Paul Griffin, Dr Gerard Hanley, Paul Hawkins, Belinda Lynch, Johnny Lynch, Clare Murphy, Kevin Murphy, Máire and Lisa Ní Iarlaithe, Professor Donnchadh Ó Corráin and Joseph Sheehy. The indefatigable Dr Tadhg-Iarla Curran, Dr Aogán Ó hIarlaithe and Chris Farrell deserve special mention for helping me comb newspapers with enthusiasm and good humour. As always, my largest debts are to those at home in Kerry and in Dublin: to my sister Aoife; my brothers Éanna and Tadhg-Iarla; my parents Esther and Teddy; and the cherished Ailís, Brían and Íde for supporting me in countless ways. Buíochas ó chroí libh. We owe thanks to a host of librarians, archivists, support staff and volunteer workers in the various Irish, British and American institutions listed in the bibliography, without whose help this project could not have been completed. For reasons of space we cannot acknowledge them all individually here, but we must especially thank Seamus Helferty, Kate Manning and Orna Somerville of the UCD Archives, successive officers commanding the Military Archives of Ireland – commandants Victor Laing, Stephen Mac Eoin and Daniel Ayotis – and Pat Brennan and Cécile Chemin of the Military Service Pensions project. Many other people, including some who have since passed away, merit thanks for help given in myriad ways to the project since 2003. What follows is an extensive though inevitably incomplete list: Richard Abbott, Dr Gearóid Barry, Kevin Barry, Seán and Ann Barry, Professor Terry Barry, Professor Ruth Barton, Dr Charles Benson, Hubert Bermingham, Dr Andy Bielenberg, Tom Brace, Dr Ciara Breathnach, Colm Brennan, Dr Niamh Brennan, Pat Brennan (of Cootehill), Regina Brereton, Bridget Brew, Damien Burke, Gerald and Mary Burke, Fr Patrick Burke, Dr Patrick Callan, Jim Carr, Bríd Clancy, Dr Joseph Clarke, Dr Marie Coleman, Dr Peter Collins, Mervyn Colville, Mary Conefrey, Seán Crean, Peter Crocker, Professor Mike Cronin, Dr Catriona Crowe, Geoffrey Crump, Dr Seamus Cullen, John Curran, Jean Cusack, C. D. Darroch, Pat Dawson, Liam Deasy, Colin Delaney, Eilín de Paor, Aoife Doherty, Eimear Doherty, Professor Anne Dolan, Dr Alison Donnelly, Colonel E. D. Doyle, Peter Druckers, Malachaí Duddy, Most Reverend Joseph Duffy, Laura Dunican, Con Dunne, Martin Dwan, Major T. J. D. Farrington, Brian Feeney, Jim Fitzgerald, Dr Thomas Earls Fitzgerald, Brian Fitzpatrick, Professor David Fitzpatrick, Professor Roy Foster, Seamus Fox, Dr Louise Fuller, Nicholas Furlong, Ronan Gallagher, Frank Gallon, Fr Anthony Gaughan, Áine Gleeson, Brendan Griffin TD, John, Mary and Sinéad Griffin, Professor Thomas Hachey, Dr Donal Hall, Dr Tim Hands, Dr Brian Hanley, Ken Hannigan, Dr Peter Harbison, Jim Harkins, Professor Peter Hart, Dr Gianna Hegarty, Tom Hennigan, James Herlihy, Paul Hickey, Mary Higgins, Seán Hogan, C.G.O. Hogg, Dr Susan Hood, Ian Hook, Cliff Housley, Dr Brian Hughes, Dr Leah Hunnewell, Dharragh Hunt, Dr Liam Irwin, Professor Keith Jeffery, Robert Jenkins, Dr Katherine Johnson, Sinéad Joy, Christopher Jupp, Peter Keane, Michael Keane, J. P. Kelliher, Professor James Kelly, Dr Michael Kennedy, Cora Killeen, Kathryn Knutson, Dr Georgina Laragy, Séamus Leahy, Dr David Lloyd, Seán Looney, Billy Loughman, Professor

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Acknowledgements

Mary Anne Lyons, Michael Lynch, Dr Patrick McCarthy, Dr Tomás Mac Conmara, Dr Philip McConway, George McCullough, Ultan McDonagh, Dr Tony McElligott, Michael McEvilly, Professor Fearghal McGarry, Dr Deirdre McMahon, Professor Ciarán Mac Murchaidh, Marcus Mac Ruairí, Dr Martin Maguire, Dr Eoin Magennis, Jim Maher, Inspector Paul Maher, David Maley, Dr Denis G. Marnane, Dr Jane Maxwell, Gareth Mears, Jacqueline Minchinton, Madeline Molyneaux, Janis Morrissey, Eamonn and Helen Moynihan, John Moynihan, Caroline Mullan, Dr Gerald Murphy, Imelda Murphy, Oliver Murphy, Pat and Lar Murphy, Monsignor Raymond Murray, Dr Samantha Newberry, Treasa Ní Uiginn, Professor Kevin B. Nowlan, Dr Gillian O’Brien, Robert O’Brien, Lorcan Ó Broin, Dr John O’Callaghan, Daithí Ó Ceallaigh, Gregory O’Connor, Cormac Ó Corcoráin, Donnchadh Ó Donncha, Julie O’Donoghue, Dr Micheál Ó Fathartaigh, Michael O’Gorman, Anthony and May O’Halpin, Fr Aodh O’Halpin, Barry O’Halpin, Conn O’Halpin, Dr Margaret Ó hÓgartaigh, Professor Jane Ohlmeyer, Stephen O’Kane, Dr Pádraig Ó Liatháin, Dr Kate O’Malley, Joseph O’Neill, Colonel Terry O’Neill, Michael O’Rahilly, Ruth O’Rahilly, John O’Riordan, Ted O’Riordan, Dr Pádraig Óg Ó Ruairc, Seán Ó Súilleabháin, Dr Kevin O’Sullivan, Dr Alan Power, Tom Prendeville, Dr Niamh Puirséil, Dermot Quinn, Mike Rafter, Dr Peter Rigney, Maryalice Ryan, Lia Santry, Dr Brendan Scott, Albert Siggins, Cathy Smart, Mark Smith, David Stanley, Brian Stewart, Roger Sweetman SC, Anne-Marie Tarpey, Kelly Thompson, Tom Toomey, Professor Charles ‘CMG’ Townshend, Jesse Tumblin, Michael Twomey, Dr Úna Uí Bheirn, Dr W.E. Vaughan, Fr Kieran Waldron, Anne Walsh, Mary Walsh, Dr Fionnuala Walsh and Dr Simon Workman. We thank the following institutions and holders of copyright for access to and permission to quote from collections of papers: Amgueddfa, The Royal Welch Fusiliers Regimental Museum, Gwynedd; Bedfordshire County Council Archives and Records Service, Luton; Blackrock College Archives, Dublin; the Bodleian Library; the British Library; the Church of England Record Centre, Lambeth Palace Library; CIÉ Archives, Dublin; Columbia University Library, New York; the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office; Cork City and County Archives (formerly the Cork Archives Institute); the Director of the National Archives of Ireland; the Director of the National Archives of Scotland; the Director of the National Library of Ireland; the Director of the National Library of Scotland; Dublin City Library; the Essex Regiment Museum, Chelmsford; the Glasgow Police Museum; the Glasnevin Trust; the Highlands Regiments Museum, Fort George; the Irish Railway Records Society Archives; the Keeper of the National Archives, London; the Keeper of the Public Records of Northern Ireland; Kerry County Library; the Kings Own Scottish Borderers, Home Headquarters, Berwick-upon-Tweed; Leitrim County Library; the Librarian, NUI Galway; the Librarian, Trinity College Dublin; the Librarian, University College Dublin; Lincolnshire County Council; Louth County Council Archives; the Master, Fellows and Scholars of Churchill College in the University of Cambridge; the Military Archives of Ireland; the Monaghan County Museum; the Museum of the Queen’s Lancashire Regiment, Preston; Northampton Museum and Art Gallery; Oxford & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry Regimental Archives, Oxford; the Queen’s Own Royal West Kent Regiment Museum, Kent; the Regimental Museum of the Border Regiment, Cumbria; Representative Church Body Library, Dublin; the Royal Artillery Historical Trust, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich; the Royal College of Physicians, Dublin; the Royal Engineers Museum, Kent; the Royal Hampshire Regiment Trust, Winchester; the Royal Logistics Corps Museum, Camberley; the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, London; the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers (Royal Warwickshire) Museum, Warwick; St Luke’s, Cork; the

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Acknowledgements

South Wales Borderers’ Museum, Powys; the Tameside Local Studies & Archives Centre, Ashton-under-Lyne; the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum, London; the Trustees of the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College London; the Trustees of the National Army Museum, London; Westminster Diocesan Archives, London; and the Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters’ Regimental Museum, Nottingham. We thank Dr Matthew Stout of the School of History and Geography at DCU for producing a map of Ireland. Finally, we want especially to thank Charley Chapman for her patient and meticulous work on a complicated typescript, and our editor Rachael Lonsdale and her Yale University Press colleagues for seeing the book into print. June 2020

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ABBREVIATIONS

ADRIC AOH ASU BMH BNL Cadet CAC CB CC CCCA CCON Cd CE CFR CI CMG CMHC CoE CoI CSORP CT CWGC DCCR 1916–27 DCLA DCLI DCM DD DEM DGC DI DJ DMP

Auxiliary Division Royal Irish Constabulary Ancient Order of Hibernians Active Service Unit Bureau of Military History Belfast News Letter Temporary Cadet Churchill Archives Centre Catholic Bulletin Clare Champion Cork City and County Archives Cork Constitution Command Paper Cork Examiner Cork Fatalities Register County Inspector, RIC Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George Central Military Hospital Cork Church of England Church of Ireland Chief Secretary’s Office Registered Papers Connaught Telegraph Commonwealth War Graves Commission Dublin City Coroner’s Register, 1916–27 Dublin City Library and Archive Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry Distinguished Conduct Medal Dundalk Democrat Dublin Evening Mail Dean’s Grange Cemetery, Dublin District Inspector Derry Journal Dublin Metropolitan Police

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Abbreviations

DÓC DSC DSO EH EOH FJ FT GAA GC GHQ GMC GNR GOC GOC in C GPO GS&WR ICA ICD II IN IRA IRB IRFU IRRSA IT ITGWU IV IWM JP JSH KCL KFS KGVH KN KOYLI KP LFS LL LP MAI MC MCM Mercer’s MGC MGWR

Daithí Ó Corráin Distinguished Service Cross Distinguished Service Order Evening Herald Eunan O’Halpin Freeman’s Journal Fermanagh Times Gaelic Athletic Association Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin General Headquarters (IRA) Grangegorman Military Cemetery Great Northern Railway General Officer Commanding General Officer Commanding in Chief (Ireland) General Post Office Great Southern and Western Railway Irish Citizen Army Irish Catholic Directory Irish Independent Irish News Irish Republican Army Irish Republican Brotherhood Irish Rugby Football Union Irish Railway Records Society Archives Irish Times Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union Irish Volunteers Imperial War Museum Justice of the Peace Jervis Street Hospital, Dublin King’s College London Kerry’s Fighting Story King George V [military] Hospital, Dublin Kerry News King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry Kilkenny People Limerick’s Fighting Story Limerick Leader Last Post Military Archives of Ireland Military Cross Monaghan County Museum Mercer’s Hospital, Dublin Machine-Gun Corps Midland & Great Western Railway

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Abbreviations

MHD MIHB MJC MM MMH MP MSPC MTP NAI NEP NLI NMHD NUI NW O/C PRONI RAF RAMC RASC RC RCBL RCDH RCFS RCPI RD RDC RDF RDFA RE RFA RFC RGA RH RHCK RIC RIF RIR Rising RM RMA RMLI RRF RVC RVHB SA

Meath Hospital, Dublin Mater Infirmorum Hospital, Belfast Mount Jerome Cemetery, Dublin Military Medal Mater Misericordia Hospital, Dublin Mulcahy Papers Military Service Pensions Collection Moss [Maurice] Twomey Papers National Archives of Ireland Nottingham Evening Post National Library of Ireland National Maternity Hospital, Dublin National University of Ireland Northern Whig Officer Commanding Public Record Office of Northern Ireland Royal Air Force Royal Army Medical Corps Royal Army Service Corps Roman Catholic Representative Church Body Library, Dublin Royal City of Dublin Hospital Rebel Cork’s Fighting Story Royal College of Physicians of Ireland Related deaths Rural District Council Royal Dublin Fusiliers Royal Dublin Fusiliers Association Royal Engineers Royal Field Artillery Royal Flying Corps Royal Garrison Artillery Roscommon Herald Royal Hospital Cemetery Kilmainham Royal Irish Constabulary Royal Irish Fusiliers Royal Irish Regiment 1916 Rising Resident Magistrate Royal Marine Artillery Royal Marine Light Infantry Royal Regiment of Fusiliers Rebellion (Victims’) Committee Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast See also

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Abbreviations

SDU South Dublin Union SFC St Finbarr’s Cemetery, Cork SFRH Sinn Féin Rebellion Handbook SFTH Shot for failing to halt when ordered SJ Society of Jesus SPDH Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital, Dublin SVH St Vincent’s Hospital, Dublin SWATE Shot while attempting to escape SWB South Wales Borderers TCD Trinity College Dublin TD Teacha Dála TNA The National Archives, London TS Tipperary Star UCC University College Cork UCD University College Dublin UCDAD University College Dublin Archives Department USC Ulster Special Constabulary UVF Ulster Volunteer Force WFM Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regimental Museum WIT Weekly Irish Times WP Western People YMCA Young Men’s Christian Association † Denotes people who died as a result of political violence after 31 December 1921

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TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLES

Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7.

1916 Fatalities by Category 1917–21 Fatalities by County 1917–21 Fatalities by Category of Person Killed 1917–21 Responsibility for Fatalities 1917–21 Overall Fatalities by Cause 1917–21 Shot by Crown Forces While Attempting to Escape 1917–21 Shot by Crown Forces for Failing to Halt When Challenged

543 543 544 544 544 544 544

CHARTS

Chart 1. Chart 2. Chart 3. Chart 4a. Chart 4b. Chart 4c. Chart 4d.

1916–21 Fatalities per 10,000 Population (1911) 1917–21 Fatalities per 10,000 Population (1911) 1917–21 Total Fatalities, Combatants and Civilians 1917–21 Antrim Fatalities 1917–21 Cork Fatalities 1917–21 Dublin Fatalities 1917–21 Tipperary Fatalities

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545 546 547 548 548 548 548

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INTRODUCTION BY EUNAN O’HALPIN

The object of this book is to determine, as accurately as possible, how many people died as a consequence of Irish political violence between April 1916 and 31 December 1921. The work also seeks to identify their backgrounds, why they died and who was directly responsible for their deaths. In addition, it should facilitate the study of trends in fatal violence across Ireland and within counties. I say fatal violence because many more people received wounds or injuries – physical, psychological, or both – which impaired them for the rest of their lives. These are not recorded here. The cut-off date means that the study does not include people who died after 31 December 1921 of wounds, injuries or illness received on or before that day. In ambition, approach and organisation, the book reflects the influence of the extraordinary Lost Lives study covering deaths arising during the more recent Northern Ireland Troubles from 1968 onwards.1 I conceived of this exercise in 2002 partly on the basis that it was high time to bring certainty to an elementary question: how many people died as a result of Irish-related political violence between 1916 and 1921? The book builds on the work of others. In turn, future researchers will add material, contest interpretations, and note omissions and errors. This is part and parcel both of academic and what might be termed communal histories. Every effort has been made to be accurate and complete, although pressure of space in this study has meant that detail and contextualisation has had to be cut to a minimum. Preliminary findings were published in 2012, with a total of 2,141 fatalities for the years 1917 to 1921. Since then, further research drawing on an increasing range of resources, and on the ongoing work of other researchers, has produced an additional 205 fatalities. Decisions to exclude certain individual deaths may have been wrong. It is clear, for example, that there was an arguable case for putting in twenty-five-year-old civilian George Shannon, shot by a friend handling someone else’s gun at a party in Belfast on Christmas Eve 1921, although the circumstances were accepted by an inquest jury as accidental, non-political and non-sectarian, just as Mary Jane Garland, whose heart attack her family attributed to her shock at seeing IRA men near her Monaghan home in 1921, might have been included although her death was recorded as natural.2

DEATH AS A MEASURE OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE Death is not an accurate index of the level of political turmoil or its impact on people and society across the island of Ireland between April 1916 and December 1921. The number who died as a result of Irish political violence is less than 10 per cent of those Irish who died serving

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in the Great War. The influenza epidemics that ravaged Ireland in 1918–19 killed between six and eight times as many people as are accounted for in this study.3 The 504 deaths we estimate were caused by the 1916 Rising is exceeded by those that occurred in a single act of war in Irish waters: I recently viewed a plaque in Winchester College commemorating the death of fifteenyear-old Alfred King (of the Harmsworth publishing family) when travelling back to school on the Leinster, torpedoed on 10 October 1918 off Kingstown (from 1920, Dún Laoghaire), one of the 568 people who reportedly perished that day. All those who died in those calamities left relatives and friends who grieved for them and remembered them. This study focuses solely on fatalities in a conflict which involved four main sets of protagonists – civilians, rebels collectively termed ‘Irish military’, police and the British army – but other forces were also involved in nine-county Ulster, where some of the violence was attributable to the partisan Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) formed in November 1920, to loyalist paramilitaries and civilians, and to nationalists who were not republicans. In counties such as Wicklow, Fermanagh, Kildare, Tyrone and Queen’s County (hereafter Laois) where there were very few fatalities directly attributable to political violence, there was, nevertheless, plenty of disruption, destruction and terror: two of the eleven Laois deaths were the responsibility of off-duty Black and Tans breaking into homes, as were two of the eleven Wicklow deaths. Three of the more notorious ‘sacks’ of towns by police, at Balbriggan, Trim and Tubbercurry, happened in areas where relatively speaking there had been little separatist violence and few fatalities. Notwithstanding the rueful observation of one Cavan battalion O/C – ‘He feels we did very little in the fight for freedom and would not agree to have our efforts published’ – within that county, where there were only twelve fatalities and where the IRA killed not a single British soldier, the IRA, Crown forces, the AOH and armed loyalist groups were all active, and all intimidated sections of the general population.4 In Carlow, where four of the thirteen fatalities were alleged civilian spies, it was much the same. The conduct of the belligerents clearly affected relatively peaceable as well as relatively violent areas, and in a range of ways. The British government, which had made such justified propaganda against Hunnish barbarism when German forces destroyed the great library of Leuven in 1914, sat unperturbed while its forces burned a succession of municipal libraries along with local creameries, town halls, shops and private dwellings across Ireland in 1920 and 1921. Nor did the government at Westminster worry about killings by Crown forces: in September 1920 Sir Henry Wilson, chief of the imperial general staff and diehard Ulster unionist, wrote of his discomfort after a conversation with Secretary of State for War Winston Churchill and General Hugh Tudor, the ‘police adviser’ sent to Dublin in May 1920. Tudor ‘made it very clear that the Police and Black and Tans and the 100 Intelligence Officers are all carrying out reprisal murders’. Wilson was ‘glad that I am in no way responsible for Tudor and that I have protested for months against this method of out-terrorizing the terrorists’.5 But terror continued to form one prong of Prime Minister David Lloyd George’s Irish policy until the summer of 1921, the others being to consolidate six-county Ulster, and to strike an acceptable deal on dominion home rule lines with Sinn Féin covering the rest of Ireland.6 One Cork unionist in November 1920 relayed as fact the story that in London’s Carlton Club, a bastion of reactionary opinion, ‘there is a little coterie the members of which have formed themselves into an Anti-Sinn Fein Society, and they are paying huge rewards for the murder of leading Sinn Feiners’.7 Whatever the reliability of such vague talk, it is abundantly clear that both Prime Minister Lloyd George and Winston Churchill, successively secretary of state for war (January 1919 to February 1921) and for the colonies (February 1921 to October 1922), endorsed the

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gratuitous terrorising of nationalist Ireland throughout 1920 as a suitable means of bringing the rebels to heel. The government’s condonation of ‘reprisals’, and implicit support for unlawful killing by Crown forces, appalled Randall Davidson, who as archbishop of Canterbury was a pillar of the British constitution. In May 1920 he noted privately that ‘the worst sore in our body politic is Ireland. That is a mere platitude, but the sore grows worse every day.’ On 2 November he launched a public attack in the House of Lords on the policy of reprisals, and was surprised at the support he received. In February 1921 he returned to the charge, with the implicit support of Buckingham Palace: the king’s private secretary and closest counsellor Lord Stamfordham was ‘at first distinctly averse to my raising the question . . . But as we talked, he came around to my view.’8 British public opinion, fuelled by courageous reporting from Ireland rather than duplicitous rebel propaganda, as was sometimes claimed, was a significant factor. It may not have influenced the conduct of Crown forces in Ireland, but it certainly increased pressure for a settlement with nationalist Ireland once the new Ulster’s interests had been secured.9 An accurate picture of who died where, why and by whose hand is a necessary starting point for holistic research on and analysis of Irish society in those years and in the following decades, focusing on the general population and on the Irish question in British politics and shifting away from preoccupation with armed conflict, its practitioners and its victims. The chronology and pattern of fatalities remains significant, not only at national level but between and within counties. Escalation and reduction of violence varied from one place to another in ways which local sources and local memory can be particularly important in explaining. Inevitably in a study such as this, local context and local interpretations of particular acts are sometimes absent: what is recorded as a single killing may have an intricate local back story or, often, competing stories, rationalisations and explanations. Contrasting explanations for the death of Tipperary farm labourer John Buckley (29Jun1921/2), a killing linked to that of my great-uncle Paddy Moloney (1May1921/9), illustrate this. Fatalities are significant not only for where and when they happened, but for whom they affected. Just as the Great War wrought bereavement across Ireland, so the struggle for independence hit families everywhere – in particular, many policeman from quiet counties from which only a handful of politically related deaths came in these years. The three combatant groups responsible for most deaths – police of all kinds, British military, and Irish Volunteers/IRA – adopted somewhat different approaches in different areas at different times. For example, it is clear that in Cork and in Tipperary, the RIC – not newly recruited ‘Black and Tans’, but regular policemen using their local knowledge – resorted quite early to what were termed ‘murder gang’ tactics, carrying out targeted killings anonymously in the spring of 1920. In other counties such as Antrim, Roscommon, Galway and Louth, where ‘murder gangs’ emerged, they did so rather later in the conflict. Why was that?

SOURCES FOR THIS STUDY Writing about the Irish Revolution, particularly from the perspectives of those who fought for independence, has become much better informed in the last two decades. This is largely because of the release of two major collections of state records: the Bureau of Military History (BMH) collection made available in 2003, and from 2014 the first tranches of the Military Service Pensions Collection (MSPC). These provide an astonishing wealth of new material, casting much fresh light on individuals, particular incidents, and on the conflict as a whole. The BMH initiative, and pensions legislation, undoubtedly encouraged even reticent veterans

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to record their memories. The BMH provided a safe repository for recollections, since the statements would not be released during the donor’s lifetime.10 The labyrinthine workings of the military service pensions legislation necessitated the provision of very detailed confidential individual accounts of revolutionary activity supported by referees and, where necessary, by medical evidence, which no one expected would ever be open to scrutiny. Both have been superbly curated by the Military Archives of Ireland (MAI). The MAI and National Archives of Ireland (NAI) also hold significant material in various series of administrative records which are augmented by annual releases, and the National Library of Ireland (NLI) has important collections such as the Liam Deasy and Piaras Béaslaí papers. The NAI’s 1901 and 1911 census databases are extremely useful. Important material is also held in The National Archives (TNA) in London and in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI) in Belfast, the latter including not only documents relating specifically to the northern counties, but internees’ records. These also carry a lot of evidence pertaining to violence in what became independent Ireland. UCD Archives (UCDAD) hold an unsurpassed collection of private records relating to the Irish Revolution, and other institutions such as the Cork City and County Archives (CCCA) have much relevant material. In addition, private collections of papers and other records continue to come to light around the country. For example, the Con Casey papers in Kerry County Library, the Marron and Thomas Brennan papers in Monaghan County Museum, the Joseph Murray papers in Donegal County Library, the Father Louis O’Kane papers and recorded interviews in Armagh, the Leitrim County Library’s oral history collection in Ballinamore, and the Carty and Loughnane papers in NUI Galway have the particular merit of local resonance; very often they also complement collections held elsewhere. For the British military, in addition to public archives, regimental museums, seldom consulted by Irish historians, are very useful. Local and county histories such as those by Hogan and Marnane on Tipperary, Toomey on Limerick, McCarthy on Waterford and McDermott and Parkinson on Belfast are particularly valuable, reflecting considerable non-partisan research and scholarship in addition to contributing vital local and regional contextual insights. Two particularly useful and reliable web resources have also been developed: the Cork Fatalities Register (CFR) by University College Cork, and the Cairo Gang website by an individual researcher in Britain. The growing mass of Irish material has rebalanced research on the era. Hitherto, the availability in TNA of many of the records of the last decade of British rule in Ireland, and of the Crown forces in Ireland, naturally led researchers to London. This resulted in classic studies such as Townshend’s The British Campaign in Ireland (1975), which remains, more than forty years after publication, by far the best work on British security strategy, and Hart’s groundbreaking The IRA and its Enemies (1998), which combined records from British and Irish archives with, controversially, material from interviews he conducted and excerpts from interview recordings to which he listened. In more recent times, Kautt, Leeson and Sheehan have produced significant analyses of military and police organisation and tactics in Ireland using both British and Irish-held records, while Hughes has written an important study of how communities in some areas experienced and attempted to resist IRA pressure. The Atlas of the Irish Revolution (2017) provides an invaluable interdisciplinary overview. Because a lot of the BMH and MSPC records have been placed online, they facilitate research on localities and incidents by people not only in Ireland but across the world. But they have also had an unintended consequence. The natural growth of interest in the history of the independence era which occurred as Ireland entered the ‘decade of commemorations’

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in 2013 has resulted in an increased focus on the small minority of Irish people directly involved in political violence, and an overshadowing neglect of other important lines of inquiry and reflection. It has also strengthened the study of the county as the unit of reference. The ongoing Lyons–Ó Corráin The Irish Revolution, 1912–23 series of county histories offers comprehensive studies of politics, economics and society during the revolutionary era, but some other local-focused studies which make use of recently released sources are underpinned by a kind of defensive county patriotism, and a neurosis about ‘revisionism’ as an incipient pro-British virus infecting and distorting Irish historical writing. Of the three main cohorts of armed actors – British military, Irish military, and police of all kinds – the latter are the best served in terms of detailed authoritative research on their composition and their fate. Jim Herlihy’s volumes on the RIC and the DMP provide an invaluable point of reference for this study, as does Richard Abbott’s painstaking analysis of police fatalities between 1919 and 1921. There is a range of published memoirs, some celebrated and some obscure, some bombastic and self-promoting, such as Dan Breen’s My Fight for Irish Freedom and Tom Barry’s Guerilla Days in Ireland, others including Ernie O’Malley’s outstanding On Another Man’s Wound and Todd Andrews’s Dublin Made Me more reflective and analytical, and some such as Jeremiah Murphy’s fascinating When Youth Was Mine focusing on individual experience of conflict in the wider context of the author’s community and heartland.11 Whatever the issues, and there are many, with sources such as the BMH and MSPC, and GHQ records (to be found in the Mulcahy Papers in UCD), memoirs, news coverage, oral histories and local stories, they provide a rich basis for research. British military records in TNA and elsewhere, by contrast, are terse at official level. Nevertheless, unit histories, the surviving papers of military courts of inquiry and courts martial, and some private collections of papers of soldiers who served in Ireland are important. The Foulkes papers in King’s College London provide a tantalizing glimpse of the sophisticated use for intelligence purposes of a huge tranche of GHQ records seized in Dublin in October 1920, although that captured cache and the thousands of cross-referenced epitomes drawn from it seem to have disappeared. But there are very few British personal accounts of action in Ireland, and still fewer in which individual military combatants reflect on what they experienced, and on where, why and in what circumstances they inflicted death or saw it visited upon their comrades. The same is true for the police. The only significant DMP memoir is The Spy in the Castle by David Neligan, a key IRA informant. The regular RIC were in the front line from 1916 onwards, but accounts of their personal experiences are hard to come by. John M. Regan’s memoirs, Brewer’s The Royal Irish Constabulary: An Oral History and, from a different perspective, Constable Jeremiah Mee’s recollections are probably the most useful. Douglas V. Duff ’s Sword for Hire is, mainly by default, of some interest as a colourful though unreliable account of a Black and Tan’s time in Ireland.12 Available TNA records such as monthly RIC County Inspector (CI) reports are limited in what they convey about the actualities of the conflict. This is also the case for the ‘Black and Tans’ and Auxiliaries thrown into the struggle in 1920, who earned and deserved particular collective notoriety. If many of them reflected on their experiences, and on the rights and wrongs of the killings, destruction and looting in which they were involved, I have yet to find anything substantial. Whereas many Volunteers described their experiences of killing, some enthusiastically, some cautiously and some whose pride was balanced by regret, with few exceptions the

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Crown’s servants kept their memories to themselves. This is also the case for Ulster loyalists, including members of the USC. There is simply no accessible vein of individual reflection on violence performed, whether within the law or not. In contrast to ambushes, abductions and killings by the rebels, for which generally a range of accounts ranging from the boastful to the unapologetic to the reflective to the remorseful can be found, no one in a police ‘murder gang’ who dragged a youth from his bed and shot him, or who gunned down men who had surrendered, appears to have left any personal accounts, self-justifying or otherwise. This may be a reflection of the phenomenon noted among Great War veterans of ‘a reluctance, a moral fastidiousness’ about describing ‘close-range’ killing.13 Even if we set aside the BMH and the MSPC archives – in each of which veterans could be more frank because they believed their accounts of killing would not appear during their lifetimes, or, in the case of the pensions records, at all – there does not appear to be comparable traditions of telling and retelling, remembering and explaining encounters and actions within unionism generally as there are within nationalist/republican communities. Witness contrasting accounts of the fate of Constable Joseph Plumb, mortally wounded on the Fermanagh border on 6 April 1922. The USC’s sympathetic historian Sir Arthur Hezlet simply states that ‘he was killed’, whereas a republican narrative claimed that, after his comrades abandoned him to die, it was left to his IRA killers to comfort him: He said ‘he had nothing against them’, that he had a wife and family in London and couldn’t get much work of any good and he came over to see would he earn a couple of pound [sic]. Wouldn’t you have pity for him? He was a Sergeant Plumb, and the only decent man [there] was among them, but he shook hands with them all in their turn before he died. Poor man, I see his name on a plaque of all who died for the King in the courthouse in Enniskillen.14

THE CHALLENGE OF NEW EVIDENCE There are often competing local narratives about individual incidents and deaths. Readers may be offended by accounts of killings given here in which ancestors were in some way involved. If that happens it is unfortunate but understandable. New evidence constantly comes to light which may qualify or contradict family or communal narratives. While drafting this introduction in October 2019, I saw for the first time the pension records of my grandfather Hugh Halpenny (1890–1943). A son of an RIC man and nephew of two others, he had a chequered career in Down between 1916 and 1922, being at one time O/C of the East Down portion of the Belfast Brigade, in jail from January to December 1921, and later a divisional officer. Séamus Woods, O/C Belfast Brigade, described him as ‘the pioneer of the Sinn Féin and Vol[unteer] movement in Co Down’. Like many northern IRA officers, he came south in 1922 and never returned, joining An Garda Síochána. His pension file cast an uncomfortable light on one incident in his IRA career, of which I had heard only a diluted version. This was the wounding in Downpatrick in 1920 of a Church of Ireland clergyman, the Revd T. G. Wilkinson, mistaken for a policeman and shot on Halpenny’s orders during a raid to burn the income tax office. The account I heard decades ago from my father and uncles indicated only an unintended wounding, whereas in his interview with the pension board Halpenny correctly stated that Wilkinson never recovered, and died in 1922.15 As it happens, all my grandparents were active republicans, three of them becoming senior in their roles (the exception, my grandmother Annie Rice, was only born in 1905). My maternal

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grandfather James Moloney (1896–1981) was an officer of the 4th Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, from 1920 to 1922, and later director of communications on Liam Lynch’s GHQ staff. Ernie O’Malley described him as ‘always eager to fight’ and ‘the best officer’ in the battalion other than the O/C.16 A quiet, undemonstrative man, he only ever spoke to me about his brother Paddy (1May1921/9), killed in 1921, when I asked him directly towards the end of his life. By contrast, his wife – my dynamic grandmother Kathy (Kitby), eldest sister of Kevin Barry (1Nov1920/5) – seldom spoke to her grandchildren about any person or event other than her dead brother.17 Jim Moloney’s pension records indicate that as battalion intelligence officer he assembled the information upon which various fatal attacks on military and police were based, and presumably he also oversaw the investigation of alleged spies who may then have been killed. IRA accounts of his brother’s death explain that when Paddy died he was, most unusually for an IRA man in combat, wearing ‘an IRA’ officer’s uniform. This was because the previous day he had been involved in a court martial which had sentenced a local labourer, a father of ten children living in a two-roomed cottage, to death as a spy. In seeking the truth, be careful what you wish for.18

DEATHS WITHIN IRELAND: THE COUNTY AS THE UNIT OF RECORD This study uses the historic county as the geographical unit for counting the dead. In comparative and analytical terms it is not an ideal measure: counties vary widely in size, in population, in degree of urbanisation, in topography, in denominational composition and in history. Furthermore, many Crown, rebel and loyalist activities crossed county boundaries. In a few cases, furthermore, larger centres such as Dublin or Cork attracted a slight premium of fatalities in that people wounded elsewhere died in their hospitals: examples are Volunteer Thomas Brett (18Jun1920/1) and RIC Constable Albert Moore (19Jun1921/5), fatally wounded in Tipperary and Cavan respectively but who died in Dublin. But the county was the primary unit by which administration was exercised by both the state, including the courts system and policing, and its separatist enemies. Furthermore, by the early twentieth century it had, partly through the growth of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), become a recognised focus of identity and loyalty for Irish people. Recent research exercises, notably the invaluable Cork Fatalities Register (CFR), use the county, and I take the same approach. For convenience I use the modern names Laois and Offaly for what were then Queen’s County and King’s County respectively. Chart 2 (p. 546) compares the extent of fatalities by reference to county population. Measurement by county obscures the concentration of violence within urban centres: in Antrim, Dublin and Derry fatalities were overwhelmingly in the respective cities of Belfast, Dublin and Derry. Rural areas of those counties were barely touched by fatal violence. Explaining marked disparities in the level of fatalities between counties is not straightforward. Charts 4 a–d (p. 548) provide a breakdown of fatalities between 1917 and 1921 in the four counties which experienced the highest number: Cork (557), Dublin (360), Antrim (232) and Tipperary (158). The variable performance of the IRA in a range of counties was rigorously explored many years ago by Joost Augusteijn, and this study has nothing to add to his findings except more questions.19 Some counties with a recent history of rural violence linked to land issues, such as Clare, were again markedly violent during the 1917–21 era. Others such as Laois (Queen’s County), a hotbed during the Land War of the 1880s, were, as measured by fatalities, extremely quiet between 1917 and 1921, even when allowance is made for population size as reported in the 1911 census. The neighbouring predominantly rural counties of Galway and Roscommon had almost the same number of fatalities – sixty-five

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versus sixty-two – yet in 1911 Galway’s population was almost twice the size (183,000 against 94,000). Adjusted for size of population (Chart 2), Roscommon had 6.6 deaths per 10,000 of population, Galway only 3.6. Outside Antrim (overwhelmingly in Belfast city) and Londonderry (overwhelmingly in Derry city), the counties which in 1921 became the bitterly divided Northern Ireland saw very few deaths. Why was that?

EXPLAINING CROWN VIOLENCE Explaining Crown violence is not straightforward. It would be wrong to regard it simply as an inevitable response to terrible provocation: The Times in September 1919 portentously forgave the ‘not unnatural’ response of soldiers who looted shops and homes in Fermoy following the ‘brutal attack upon a party of soldiers at the church door’, the so-called ‘Wesleyan Raid’ (7Sep1919/1), in which the IRA killed a soldier.20 What is striking about recourse to targeted killings by Crown forces is how early and how widespread it was, even in areas which were relatively quiet. Insufficient attention has been paid to the development of British secur­ity policy in 1919–20, even where the evidence has long been available, particularly in Townshend’s work. In terms of this study, the licence accorded to Crown forces to fire in effect without warning was extraordinary, and was responsible for about 14 per cent of all civilian deaths. In addition, many of the 209 people killed in riots were shot by Crown forces, although in individual instances it is often difficult to assign responsibility.

DEATHS IN 1916, AND FROM 1917 TO 1921 We have enumerated 2,850 deaths in total between April 1916 and December 1921. There are compelling reasons for separating consideration of deaths which occurred during or immediately after the 1916 Rising, and those which followed over the next five years to December 1921. These include the relative intensity of the two phases, and the fact that the fighting during the Rising was confined almost entirely to inner-city Dublin. The overall impact of the two phases of conflict are reflected in Chart 1 (fatalities 1916–21) and Chart 2 (fatalities 1917– 21) (pp. 545–6). In Chart 1, the county that carried by far the most fatalities per 10,000 population is Dublin; in Chart 2, which excludes 1916 deaths, the county that suffered most is Cork. This study records 504 people who died as a result of Irish political violence in 1916, almost all of them (95 per cent) in Dublin and almost all during Easter Week itself, a daily average of seventy over seven days of concentrated and sustained violence. In the remainder of that year there were just twenty-three fatalities, including sixteen executions (one, Roger Casement’s, in Britain) (Table 1, p. 543). The very different patterns of fatality in 1916 from those seen during the War of Independence can be explained partly by the nature of the fighting, which was mainly within the two canals encircling inner-city Dublin. As compared with the fatal violence experienced between 1919 and 1921, there are four marked differences: a) there is no evidence of any policy of targeted killing by the rebels of individual policemen, officials or judicial figures, and there is no evidence that Crown forces sought to kill persons whom they regarded as key rebels, other than through judicial processes; b) there is no evidence, either during or in the aftermath of the Rising, of a hunt for and execution of possible informers, although as was clear even from the quickly published evidence of the royal commission on the rebellion, a good deal of information had reached Dublin Castle about aspects of the rebels’ organisation, tactics and plans before the outbreak; c) there was no

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hint of any sectarian background to any deaths; and d) there was a much higher proportion of female fatalities (11 per cent) in 1916 than in later years (4 per cent), due to the concentration of conflict in densely populated areas where combatants and civilians intermingled. We should note one further contrast: whereas 1920 and 1921 were to witness ferocious sectarian violence in parts of Ulster, nothing happened there during and immediately after the Rising. This is rather extraordinary. Denis McCullough recalled that Pearse and Connolly emphasised that his orders were, ‘You will fire no shot in Ulster. We will deal with Ulster subsequently.’21 But neither Pearse, nor Connolly, nor McCullough had any control over Northern loyalist opinion. The Belfast Irish Volunteers may have kept their powder dry, dumping their arms and sheepishly taking the train back from Cookstown to Belfast, but that does not explain why, confronted with the news of a German-backed rebellion in Dublin and the sight of would-be rebels returning to the city, Belfast loyalists did not attack nationalist areas as they had done before and were to do with such ferocity in the future. With the exception of Duffy’s Children of the Rising, there has been little discussion of the majority of the 276 civilian deaths of 1916. These were, clearly, largely attributable to the military in consequence of their vastly greater firepower, particularly machine guns and artillery. But it was the rebels who chose a densely populated area as their battleground, who turned the South Dublin Union, the city’s largest hospital and care facility, into a bastion, and who evicted homeless men from the Mendicity Institute. They share responsibility for the civilian deaths that ensued. Pearse explicitly rooted the eventual decision to surrender in the desire to prevent further civilian deaths. If the perils of crossfire and bombardment for civilians were so obvious by 30 April, why had the rebel leadership not anticipated them beforehand when choosing their battleground?22 The rebels of 1916 won accolades for a clean fight even from British prime minister Asquith, but this requires qualification. So too does Roy Foster’s observation that ‘the actual fighting, particularly in the latter stages of the Anglo-Irish War . . . was often undertaken by people from a somewhat different background, owing allegiance to more straightforwardly Fenian and rural-agitation traditions’.23 The big differences between 1916 and 1919–21 arose not within the separatist camp, but among their opponents. First, as noted above, in 1916 there was a complete absence of loyalist mobilisation and violence; it was to be otherwise in 1920–21. Second, from early in 1920, when the first temporary police were introduced, the British government embarked on a policy of indiscriminate brutalisation of nationalist Ireland. Within the revolutionary leadership, what changed significantly was not so much the people in charge, but the strategy and tactics adopted, particularly by Richard Mulcahy, Cathal Brugha and Michael Collins, all of whom were 1916 men. It was they who oversaw the wave of assassinations on Bloody Sunday 1920, that exercise in systematic ruthlessness against officers and gentlemen which so shocked the British elite (it is hard to believe that the killing of a dozen hapless corporals and privates in their beds would have had remotely the same impact). The adapted methods of fighting in 1919–21 were as heartily embraced by university students such as Ernie O’Malley, Bobby Bonfield, Seán Dowling, George Plunkett, Jim O’Donovan and Hugo MacNeill as they were by successful leaders who emerged in rural Ireland such as Mick Brennan in Clare, Jim Leahy in Tipperary, Eoin O’Duffy in Monaghan, Donnchadh O’Hannigan in Limerick and Liam Deasy, Seán Hegarty and Tom Barry in Cork. The first three killings by the ICA were deliberate cold-blooded shootings of two unarmed policemen (24Apr1916/1 and 2) and of a harmless civilian (24Apr1916/3). Such brutality, of course, paled by comparison with what was later done by Crown forces. Four captured

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civilians (25Apr1916/11) were, notoriously, killed by or on the orders of Corkman Captain John Bowen-Colthurst, actions for which he was ultimately convicted of murder; the North King Street shootings of thirteen civilian men and youths, after hours in captivity, were, by contrast, excused by the GOC in Ireland, General Sir John Maxwell, as arising from the soldiers’ experience of bloody street-fighting against rebels indistinguishable from civilians. While some soldiers undoubtedly ‘saw red’, he wrote, it was difficult to determine who among those found in the buildings ‘were or had been firing on the troops’ (29Apr1916/26), although that should not have mattered once they had been captured unarmed. A young officer stationed near Capel Street Bridge claimed that most rebels ‘were in civilian clothes, established in a network of narrow streets’: ‘several of my men’ said that ‘the front . . . was bliss compared with Dublin, simply because you knew out there where the enemy were’.24 The military’s default assumption that all civilian males were suspect and liable to be shot on the spot presumably explains the acquittal by a court martial of a nervy sergeant responsible for the killing after arrest in the Guinness Brewery of two conscientious workmen and two officers dressed in civilian clothes (29Apr1916/3), and the lack of fuss about the unilateral killing of a Volunteer not involved in the Rising in whose house a weapon was found (28Apr1916/32). Outside Dublin, the circumstances in which fatalities arose were more akin to those to come between 1919 and 1921: attacks on police barracks and on convoys at Ashbourne and Athenry; the shooting of three RIC officers, two of them unarmed, by men resisting arrest in Cork and in Tipperary; and, in the first instance of what was to become a marked and disturbing aspect of killings by Crown forces, the shooting of one Volunteer in Cork as he attempted to evade arrest (4May1916/5). In ending our discussion of 1916, we should note that that outbreak was, proportionately, rather more damaging to civilians than was the violence of the 1919–21 era. Of the 504 fatalities linked to the Rising identified in Table 1, 276 (55 per cent) were civilians. Between 1919 and 1921, the corresponding figure was 918 (39 per cent). In both phases, Crown forces were responsible for considerably more civilian deaths than were the rebels, but for some specific fatalities it is difficult to attribute responsibility. When overall deaths are calculated from 1916 to 1921, Dublin experienced by far the greatest number (835) (Chart 1, p. 545). Between 1917 and 1921, Cork saw by far the most fatalities (557), followed by Dublin (360), Antrim (232) and Tipperary (158) (Table 2, p. 543). As Charts 4 a–d show (p. 548), Antrim stands out for the extrarordinarily high proportion of civilian fatalities (85 per cent), reflecting a pattern of intense intercommunal violence not seen elsewhere. We have enumerated 2,346 deaths between January 1917 and December 1921 (Table 2). Fatalities occurred in every county, although the distribution of death was very uneven between counties and over time. There were also a handful of deaths in Britain and India. Note that we provide individual accounts for only 2,253 deaths between 1917 and 1921. An additional ninety-three British military deaths occurring between 1919 and 1921, accidental or self-inflicted, have recently been identified by David Grant’s remarkable Cairo Gang website using ‘Soldiers’ Effects’ records opened to research in 2018. These figures have been included in the overall analysis and a list is provided in Appendix 1 (pp. 549–56).

CLASSIFICATION OF AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR FATALITIES, 1917–21 It is relatively easy to classify fatalities by cohort; it is very difficult to be precise in allocating responsibility for all violent deaths (Table 4, p. 544). This problem is particularly acute regarding

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intercommunal violence in Belfast, but it also arises where mixed parties of police and military were involved in killing. The overall breakdown of fatalities by county is enumerated in Table 2 (p. 543), and in Chart 3 by combatants versus civilians (p. 547). We provide a narrative of each of these deaths, save (as mentioned above) for the British military fatalities recently reported by the Cairo Gang website. As enumerated in Table 4 (p. 544), ‘Undetermined’ (176, or 8 per cent) is a rather unsatisfactory catch-all category: 104 of these killings across Ireland were the responsibility either of Crown forces or of the IRA, but we cannot be sure of which; and the balance of 72 fatalities were probably not the work of any of the recognised combatants, but of civilians. Most such killings by civilians arose in Belfast and Derry, mainly through gunfire. It is tempting, but methodologically dubious, to assign likely responsibility by the religion of the victim or by the direction from which a fatal shot was reportedly fired: bullets often missed their intended targets or ricocheted randomly. Loyalist civilians in Belfast and Derry were definitely responsible for thirty-two of these seventy-two killings, and probably for more. Nationalist civilians in those cities were responsible for a considerable but undetermined number of these deaths. As enumerated in Table 5 (p. 544), the most striking aspects of this analysis are, perhaps, that ambushes – the classic motif of the War of Independence – account for just over a fifth (22 per cent) of fatalities; that assassinations/executions count for a slightly higher proportion (23 per cent); that, between them, shot for failing to halt and shot while attempting to escape, which are categories of killing carried out exclusively by Crown forces, account for 9 per cent of all deaths, including 14 per cent of all civilian deaths; and that deaths by misadventure account for 16 per cent of all fatalities, including an extraordinary 44 per cent of all British military deaths. Almost all Volunteers killed between 1917 and 1921 were Irish-born. By contrast, 188 police of all kinds (36 per cent) were born elsewhere, most of these being Black and Tans or Auxiliaries recruited in 1920 or 1921.

MISADVENTURE AND SUICIDE Deaths under these headings are reported for all four cohorts of fatalities. This has had a huge impact upon the military figure. Put together with the deaths listed in the narrative, the figures show that half of all military deaths in Ireland between 1919 and 1921 which may be related to the conflict were through misadventure (44 per cent) and suicide. We have to be careful in interpreting these figures: most such deaths arose from accidental shootings, mainly due to sloppiness in handling weapons. Most of the twenty-four military suicides reported, mainly among Great War veterans, appear not to relate to specifically Irish issues or experience. The simplest explanation for the proliferation of accidental shootings is that, although in theory a battle-hardened, professional army, most soldiers in Ireland were inexperienced youths who, unlike their Irish opponents, always had loaded weapons with them: early in 1920 the chief of the imperial general staff privately described the majority of troops then in Ireland as ‘wholly untrained raw children’.25 The British army’s Record of the Rebellion in Ireland noted the poor quality of new recruits, compounded by a shortage of NCOs: ‘The greatest difficulty was found in selecting suitable individuals for promotion to the ranks of corporal or sergeant.’ Things were no better in the commissioned ranks: ‘The standard of efficiency of officers generally was not a high one’ by the spring of 1920. While the rebels ‘grew in power during the spring and summer of 1920’, the ‘general military efficiency of the units in Ireland was diminishing’.26 11

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Fifty-two police fatalities (10 per cent) were attributable to misadventure – mainly accidental shootings – and eighteen (4 per cent) to suicide, of whom some were Great War veterans. Of Irish military deaths, sixty-seven (14 per cent) were attributable to misadventure. Until the Truce, the IRA very seldom had access to motor transport, and so lost no Volunteers in traffic accidents. The main causes of Volunteer deaths through misadventure were shootings (5 per cent), followed by accidental explosions (3 per cent), the greatest such disaster occurring in Wexford, where five Volunteers died in a single incident while preparing bombs (12Oct1920/7). Seventy-nine civilian deaths (9 per cent) arose from misadventure, and three through the suicide of men in mortal fear of the IRA. Forty-one arose from accidents involving Crown forces’ vehicles. It could be argued that such data should be excluded from the overall figures, yet recklessly driven police and military vehicles were part and parcel of the terror experienced by the civilian population, on roads where mechanical transport was still something of a novelty both for people and for horses and ponies drawing carts and traps.

FEMALE FATALITIES, 1917–21 Almost none of the ninety-eight females (4 per cent) killed were deliberately targeted. The most notorious killing by Crown forces, the shooting of Mrs Ellen Quinn in Galway (1Nov1920/6), resulted from reckless firing from a moving vehicle, to which Black and Tans were much prone, rather than from an aimed shot. The IRA killed at least three women as spies – Mary Lindsay (11Mar1921/9), Bridget Noble (15Mar1921/8) and Kate Carroll (17Apr1921/7) – in each case accompanied by a welter of contradictory statements, recollections and evasions. A wellinformed Cork parish history describes the killing of another woman near Carrigtwohill, but, even if this was so, her identity and the circumstances cannot be ascertained and so she is not included.27 The IRA were responsible for twenty-one female deaths through misadventure, mainly during attacks on Crown forces, or, as Dorothy Macardle carefully put it in her classic apologia The Irish Republic, because foolishly they were in the company of police or military.28 In the case of Eliza Blake (15May1921/10), it is hard to believe that the attacking Volunteers did not notice that a woman sitting in an open-top motor car stopped at a closed gate was heavily pregnant. Winifred Barrington (14May1921/16) also died in a vehicle alongside her RIC companion – IRA explanations vary, though when berated by a woman survivor one Volunteer riposted that ‘only for the bitch being in bad company’ she would not have died. Josephine McGowan of Cumann na mBan died some days after being struck during a police baton charge (29Sep1918/1). Margaret Keogh of Cumann na mBan (12Jul1921/2) was fatally wounded late at night by a bullet which may have accidentally exploded while she was moving a cache of ammunition. Other women died defending their homes or their male companions: mother of thirteen Ellen Morris when Volunteers attempted to rob her house of cash (14Feb1920/2); Elizabeth Scales when Volunteers attacked her policeman companion (26Dec1920/1); Englishwoman Emily Freeman when she and her soldier husband mistook an Auxiliary raiding party for the IRA (1Feb1921/5); and fifteen-year-old Bridget Dillon after she emptied a pot from an upstairs window upon IRA raiders the night before the Truce (10Jul1921/2). In three instances where young women died while in the company of policemen – Sarah Fitzpatrick (3Feb1921/18), Anne Dixon (24May1921/3) and Kathleen Kelleher (3Jul1921/1) – there was strong official suspicion that their companions had deliberately killed them and, at 12

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least by comparison with how killings of male civilians by Crown forces were handled, some efforts were made to investigate. In the case of the elderly Mary Maher (16Dec1920/5), killed by a hammer blow to the head, a soldier was tried for murder; in two others, those of Kate Maher (21Dec1920/2), who was also subjected to an appalling sexual assault, and Bessy Carberry (27Oct1920/1), strangled in a Dublin alleyway, prosecutions failed to identify the soldiers responsible. It was much the same in the case of the pregnant single woman Mary Fahey, last seen arguing with a young male neighbour (19May1921/9): the RIC maintained they could not build a case because the obvious suspect and putative father of her unborn child was a Sinn Féiner. There were very few female fatalities outside Belfast (Antrim), where intercommunal violence resulted in twenty-six female deaths (27 per cent of all female deaths). Crown forces were responsible for killing some women and girls, for example eight-year-old Annie O’Neill (13Nov1920/4), as well as for the deaths of female pedestrians as already discussed. The IRA’s use of grenades, or ‘bombs’, in street attacks resulted in a handful of female deaths, as did firing at police, soldiers or targeted civilians on crowded streets: such an attack in Dublin killed twelve-year-old Hannah Keegan, a silk weaver’s daughter, as she walked home carrying ‘a parcel containing sugar and green peas’ (24Mar1921/5). The following day one of her killers, ‘Gus’ Murphy, was himself shot not a mile away by a drunken soldier who was attempting to rob him (25Mar1921/4). Murphy’s case illustrates another point: some Volunteers died at the hands of Crown forces who were unaware that they were IRA men. In general, females were not regarded as legitimate targets for any of the contending forces. The deliberate killing of women even as spies aroused criticism within the revolutionary movement and caused particular unease in GHQ.

SECTARIAN KILLINGS Other than in intercommunal violence in Derry in 1920 and in Belfast in 1920 and 1921, it is impossible to assign sectarian or ethnic motives as the primary reason for individual killings between 1916 and 1921 in most areas. Killings were, nevertheless, often interpreted as sectarian by the community that suffered the loss. IRA attacks on USC could be presented simply as assaults on Crown forces: this was how the Monaghan IRA justified its killing of two USC sergeants and the burning of their homes in Rosslea, County Fermanagh (22Mar1921/2), an event also explained as retaliation for the burning of nationalist homes in the area by USC and loyalists, which in turn was prompted by the IRA’s earlier wounding of a prominent USC man. It is important not to jump to conclusions: a killing by unidentified men that at first glance appeared ethnic if not directly sectarian – that of Catholic shopkeeper Francis Donnelly, shot by the YMCA in Tyrone (9May1921/8) – turned out to be the IRA’s doing. The shooting and robbery of a well-to-do Protestant, Freemason and Orangeman in Dublin was almost certainly the work of ill-disciplined Crown forces while supposedly enforcing a night-time curfew (21Nov1920/29). The murder by raiders of a prominent farmer, JP and synodsman of the Church of Ireland in Wicklow, known to be particularly friendly with the local police, bore all the hallmarks of a sectarian/agrarian IRA attack, yet the killers were two newly arrived Black and Tans (2Feb1921/1). Outside Dublin, some Protestant civilians were the victims of IRA attacks and killings. Some killings done under IRA cover seem to have been rooted largely in agrarian grievances, such as that of Shawe-Taylor (3Mar1920/1) in Galway and those of George Frend (4Jan1921/1), Robert Stone (16Apr1921/1) and Crossley Boyle (14Jun1921/1) in Tipperary. It is notable that 13

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a civilian ‘anti-Sinn Fein society’ spy ring in Cork, several of whose presumed members were killed in 1920/1, was believed to be organised through the Protestant YMCA (29Nov1920/5). Elsewhere in County Cork a number of Protestant men were killed as spies, including two essentially for refusing to be intimidated by IRA demands for contributions towards an arms levy (19Feb1921/3). The question of the motivation for killings of Protestant civilians by the IRA, particularly in Cork, has become caught up in the wider war of words and innuendo about ‘revisionism’, by which is meant in Irish discourse the alleged distortion of evidence and analysis relating to the independence struggle undertaken to discredit contemporary Irish republicanism. The key point is that a community suffering such killings and disappearances may naturally have interpreted them through a denominational and ethnic prism, whatever the local IRA’s stated rationale at the time or subsequently. Most interdenominational killings of civilians by combatants had multiple roots. Refusal to contribute to an arms levy and subsequent failed negotiations eventually cost the Protestant farmer John Harrison of Leitrim his life (21Apr1921/1); the only other alleged spy killed in that county was also a Protestant farmer (30Mar1921/6). These deaths not unnaturally terrified Leitrim’s Protestant community. In Ulster counties, interdenominational killings often begot retaliation on sectarian lines. The early-morning abduction and shooting of four young Catholic men outside Newry (6Jul1921/1) was probably a reprisal for IRA attacks on the RIC and USC, although those killed were most likely not active Volunteers. It resulted in one immediate reprisal killing of a Protestant civilian (9Jul1921/2), whom the IRA claimed they had only wished to hold prisoner lest he alert the USC patrol they had planned to attack, and led indirectly to the notori­ous Altnaveigh massacre of 17 June 1922. The Monaghan IRA’s disastrously mismanaged ‘general raid for arms’ on Protestant and AOH farms (1Sep1920/1) inflamed intra-nationalist and sectarian feeling in that county, and led six months later to the reprisal shooting of father and son William and Robert Fleming, an act widely accepted even among Monaghan republicans as unjustified and sectarian in character and impact (29Mar1921/1). In Offaly, the killing of two men of the Pearson family (30Jun1921/5) remains controversial: they had defied the local IRA by firing on Volunteers cutting trees on their land, and were held to be friendly with Crown forces. The IRA maintained there was no sectarian (or agrarian) factor in their deaths, but the rest of the Pearson family left Ireland. The same happened in Longford after the killing of the Protestant farmer William Charters (22Jan1921/1) and a Protestant neighbour, despite a grandiloquent assurance by the local IRA commander that the killings were not sectarian. Only three clergymen were deliberately killed in 1920 and 1921. Two Catholic priests were shot, Canon Magner in broad daylight by an Auxiliary afterwards deemed insane (15Dec1920/3), and Father Griffin abducted and secretly buried, again by Auxiliaries (15Nov1920/2). One retired Protestant minister, Canon Finlay, was killed during an arson attack on his Cavan home in what appeared to be an act of personal spite by a Volunteer who was all but disowned by his comrades and excoriated by his parish priest (12Jun1921/4). In Cork, Father James O’Callaghan (15May1921/7), killed by a ‘murder gang’, was clearly not the intended target of the raid on the home of a prominent Sinn Féin political figure.

THE KILLING OF ‘SPIES’, ‘INFORMERS’, EX-SERVICEMEN AND OFFICIALS One of the most controversial aspects of the separatist campaign was the treatment of alleged civilian spies and informers. This remains a difficult topic, and one shrouded in confusion. 14

INTRODUCTION BY EUNAN O’HALPIN

The term ‘spy’ is applied here exclusively to civilians, rather than, for example, to military officers operating in plainclothes or under civilian cover, or to soldiers who were believed to be posing as deserters to collect information, who fell into IRA hands and were killed, or to policemen whether on or off duty. Thus, all but one of those killed on the morning of Bloody Sunday 1920 are categorised as military or police deaths, rather than as ‘spies’. Such distinctions were often blurred in accounts of the detection and liquidation of people attempting to secure information on the separatist movement. It was not until February 1920 that the first alleged civilian ‘spy’, Harry Quinlisk (18Feb1920/1), was captured and killed. Quinlisk, like J. C. Byrne (2Mar1920/1), appears to have been a British penetration agent, of whom we know that at least 100 were deployed in Ireland in 1920–21. As argued in detail elsewhere, many of the 184 civilians whom the IRA definitely killed as spies – 20 per cent of all civilian fatalities – may not have been involved in intentional passing of information to Crown forces. This is scarcely a tendentious finding: as early as 1947 the state’s Bureau of Military History came to broadly the same conclusion.29 In total at least 661 ex-servicemen were killed, 29 per cent of all male fatalities (2,248). These include 484 combatants (19 Volunteers, 243 police, and 222 Great War veterans who had re-enlisted in the British army) and 177 civilians. Of the latter, eighty-four (47 per cent) were killed as spies by the IRA (sixty-eight Catholics, nine Protestants, and seven whose religion is unknown). The remaining ninety-three (53 per cent) were killed, mainly by Crown forces, for a variety of reasons, including alleged rioting and failure to halt. The IRA seldom targeted the judiciary or officials concerned with the administration of the law. The assassination of Resident Magistrate (RM) Millings in Westport in Mayo in March 1919 (30Mar1919/1), an unsanctioned local initiative akin to the Soloheadbeg ambush (21Jan1919/1), did not presage a concerted campaign against the paid judiciary. Only one other RM, Alan Lendrum in Clare, was killed, most likely after an exchange of fire as the IRA attempted to kidnap him (22Sep1920/2). A third RM killed an attacker outside Tralee (11May1920/1), and retired RM Alan Bell was assassinated in March 1920 (26Mar1920/1). But no senior judicial figures were successfully attacked, and nor were any of the key Dublin Castle officials concerned with security policy. This provides an interesting contrast with GHQ’s clinical campaign against the DMP’s handful of political crime specialists in Dublin in 1919–20. A few part-time officials such as servers of civil bills and fisheries inspectors were victims of targeted killing as spies in rural Ireland. Their deaths were probably linked to the unpopularity of their roles locally, and suspicion of their contacts with the police and courts. Comparable minor functionaries such as rate collectors were not singled out for attack in the larger towns and cities.

KILLING OF PRISONERS AFTER SURRENDER OR CAPTURE The killing of prisoners where fighting resumed after an apparent surrender was an acknowledged phenomenon: to give an Irish example, the war diary of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers (RDF) 6th Battalion in France recorded how, as the Great War drew to a close, an enemy surrender was broken by machine-gun fire: ‘Needless to say the prisoners in [our] possession were promptly dispatched to another world.’30 On occasion in 1920 and 1921 in Ireland, similar killings undoubtedly occurred in the heat of the moment, or in fear that an apparent surrender was a ruse de guerre; this is sometimes offered as an explanation for what happened 15

THE DEAD OF THE IRISH REVOLUTION

in the Kilmichael ambush (28Nov1920/1).31 The killing of surrendered soldiers ‘at the moment of capture’, whether in anger, for expediency or even to dispose of the wounded, was a recognised feature of the Great War, a practice which all belligerents condemned when inflicted upon their troops, and routinely denied when their men were responsible.32 There are well-documented and credible instances, such as at Clonmult (20Feb1921/6), Kerry Pike (23Mar1921/1) and Clonturk Park, Dublin (9Feb1921/6), where Crown forces killed IRA and civilian prisoners after surrender or in cold blood. In his memoirs the head of police intelligence General Winter effectively applauded such action in the case of the IRA’s Louis Darcy (24Mar1921/3), shot while supposedly trying to escape at the precise spot where an RIC constable had been killed. The same Auxiliary company was responsible for the especially brutal killing and concealment after death of the Loughnane brothers (27Nov1920/1) and of Michael Tolan (14Apr1921/5), all of whom supposedly had escaped from custody and disappeared. Other prisoners were also killed in highly suspicious circumstances while in secure custody, such as in Tipperary (30May1921/2). Most notoriously, the senior Dublin Brigade officers Dick McKee and Peadar Clancy were killed by Auxiliaries while prisoners in Dublin Castle (22Nov1920/7). Of all IRA fatalities, forty-one (8 per cent) were shot while allegedly attempting to escape, an explanatory category which had already achieved notoriety internationally, and thirty-four (7 per cent) for failing to halt.33 Adding to that fifty-two (11 per cent) who were probably killed in cold blood, this indicates that at least 26 per cent of all IRA deaths inflicted by Crown forces transgressed the generally accepted rules for combatants at that time. Sir Henry Wilson deplored such indiscipline and as early as April 1920 argued that the best way to put an end to such unauthorised murders by Crown forces was to prepare public lists of prominent Sinn Féiners ‘and shoot by roster’ in districts where the IRA mounted attacks.34 The IRA also killed prisoners after capture. Broadly speaking, these occurrences can be broken down into six categories as follows. First there was the killing of alleged civilian spies, sometimes, though not always, after a ‘court martial’ at which the accused almost never had representation – if indeed he or she even knew of proceedings – and where the judges were usually the captors or their immediate superiors. Second was the killing of police (26Apr1921/3), military (19Jun1921/1) or civilian (11Mar1921/9) prisoners treated as hostages in reprisal for the legal execution of Volunteers. Third was the killing of soldiers presenting themselves as deserters, who were suspected of gathering information; these sometimes had the formality of an impromptu court martial, sometimes not.35 Fourth was the killing of police captured by chance, sometimes while off-duty as were two constables near Nenagh (15May1921/14 and 15) and one in Roscommon (23May1921/7). In those three cases the fatalities, all young Irishmen, had been out courting local girls, which may have been an additional unspoken determining factor. The fifth category is that of the killing of policemen who had surrendered in good faith after a confrontation. This is what happened in Limerick in the aftermath of the East Limerick IRA’s remarkably successful Dromkeen operation (3Feb1921/5), a seldom discussed incident which stands comparison with the Kilmichael ambush; other examples occurred in Waterford (19Mar1921/3), in Mayo (23Mar1921/7) and in Sligo (19Apr1921/7). Three captured policemen escaped that fate in Kerry only because the IRA commander, Seán Moylan, according to the prosecutor in his court martial, told his men that ‘if you shoot them I will shoot you’ (28Jan1921/1). The IRA killed 128 policemen, accounting for 24 per cent of all police deaths after capture or when unarmed. The sixth category of IRA killings was where wounded enemies were ‘finished off ’ while helpless

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INTRODUCTION BY EUNAN O’HALPIN

(e.g. 13Apr1921/4 and 3May1921/2), a type of killing also attributed to Crown forces (e.g. 6Mar1921/5). There is controversy about the killings of wounded Auxiliaries at Kilmichael (28Nov1920/1), although such instances pale by comparison with the IRA’s removal from hospital and killing of wounded civilians recovering from attempted assassinations in Cork and in Dublin (20Feb1921/3 and 21May1921/3). We have identified seventy-four soldiers (18 per cent) killed by the IRA after surrender, or while off-duty and unarmed. There were probably more. The military authorities assumed that any deserters in Ireland not tracked down had succeeded in escaping: the reality was that a number fell into IRA hands, of whom some were killed and their remains disposed of. This problem is discussed further below.

MISSING BODIES? The problem of unidentified fatalities in Ireland is not comparable in scale with those of other conflicts where the remains of many of the fallen were never identified. During the 1916 Rising, even where artillery and fire destroyed remains – see, e.g., Thomas Weafer (26Apr1916/63) – almost every person killed or missing could be accounted for. The police forces and the military had robust procedures for recording information about their own fatalities (with the exception of deserters). At the height of the campaign, furthermore, GHQ’s ‘General Order No. 21’ enjoined battalion and brigade commanders to compile and forward precise records of ‘Volunteers killed in action or otherwise’, together with notes on any ‘special services’ performed and family details. During the Truce, systematic efforts were made to catalogue the rebel dead, and in subsequent decades the implementation of service pensions legislation stimulated further efforts to list all deaths.36 But what Drew Gilpin Faust, writing of the American Civil War, terms ‘Naming’ – the systematic reporting of fatalities and the location of their remains, in the interests both of their relatives and of the cause for which they had fought – remains problematic in the cases of at least 100 dead between 1920 and 1921.37 This study has definitely identified 101 IRA killings of civilians, police and British military where long-term concealment was attempted, 56 of these occurring in Cork. Only rarely were concealed remains discovered or handed over before the close of 1921. Various confidential statements by Cork IRA veterans in the decades following the conflict identify a number of locations used repeatedly for incarceration, execution and secret burial. Martin Corry TD claimed that ‘some 27 ennemy [sic] spies & Intelligence Officers were captured . . . and duly executed’ before the Truce by his E (Knockraha) Company alone, and it is likely that an unascertainable additional number of people – alleged civilian spies, British soldiers and at least two policemen or former policemen – were killed and their remains concealed by the Cork IRA up to the summer of 1922.38 We can be sure about Private Anderson (26Oct1921/1) and ex-RIC man Thomas Williams,† and there is strong reason to believe that there were others.39 The so-called ‘Governor’ of ‘Sing Sing’, the graveyard crypt at Kilquane near the village of Knockraha where Corry’s men held prisoners serving sentence or awaiting execution, claimed to the pensions board that over 150 people passed through his hands between 1919 and 1921, including 23 British soldiers ‘and about 50 spies’. A senior Cork IRA figure told Ernie O’Malley he believed that about ninety people were secretly buried in that area.40 The Cork No. 1 Brigade killed and hid more alleged civilian spies, as well as captured military and police, than did any other IRA formation within or beyond the county in 1920–21, 17

THE DEAD OF THE IRISH REVOLUTION

and in that county as a whole about 14 per cent of all known deaths were of civilian spies (in Dublin, the equivalent figure for civilian spies was 5 per cent, and in Antrim, the third most violent county, not a single alleged civilian spy was killed or ‘disappeared’). We must ask why. There were sometimes sound reasons for concealing a killing by secretly disposing of the remains. It reduced the possibility of reprisals in a district, destroyed evidence, and in many cases – particularly those of civilians and of soldiers captured in the act of deserting – left open the question of what had happened to people who had disappeared. In some cases, no great efforts were made to conceal killing indefinitely; in many others, concealment was plainly intended to be permanent. To take one key example, the 2nd Battalion, Cameron Highlanders based in Queenstown (now Cobh) was an aggressive unit responsible for indiscriminate firing at civilians and for some assassinations by night – see 9May1921/2 – and its men adopted an abrasive and contemptuous attitude towards the general public: its monthly journal for October 1920 noted how all Camerons involved in ‘searches remark on the dirt in which the Irish, even those of a comparatively affluent class, live. The insect life in their houses is particularly vigorous and a second and intimate search is required on return to quarters.’41 The unit recorded twenty-two deserters while based in Cork in 1920–1. It is likely that, while some of these managed to slip away back into civilian life in Britain undetected, others were captured and killed. Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin, by then a lecturer in Irish in University College Cork, wrote in 1942 of his involvement in the ‘capture and execution of [two] Cameron buckos’ at the Cork No. 1 Brigade’s secret burial ground at the Ray, near Knockraha, in the early summer of 1921, a credible claim supported by his senior officers.42 Ó Cuilleanáin’s two Camerons have not been included in this study due to lack of corroborating archival evidence, but there are better-documented instances where soldiers whom the army recorded as deserters at large had in fact been captured, killed and secretly buried, such as Watt (30Sep1920/3), Mullett and two companions (22Feb1921/7) in Clare, and Unknown (23May1921/9) and Carson and two companions (5Jun1921/5) in Cork. The Cork No. 1 Brigade continued to intercept and to imprison deserters after the Truce, such as Welshman Sydney Smith. Whether he managed to rejoin his wife and three children in Bridgend is not known.43 The army’s presumption that many soldiers who went missing while off-duty were deserters who got clean away led to difficulties in the identification of soldiers whose remains were later uncovered: see, e.g., Mottley (4Jun1921/9), and Unknown Smith or Smyth (30Jun1921/8). Crown forces very seldom attempted to conceal the remains of people whom they had killed illicitly. They had no need, however dubious the circumstances, because the chances of investigation and prosecution were so remote. Notable exceptions were Griffin (15Nov1920/2), the Loughnane brothers (27Nov1920/1) and Tolan (14Apr1921/5), all the work of a single Auxiliary company. Crown forces also occasionally attempted to conceal responsibility by attaching notes indicating the dead person was an IRA victim, or, as in the case of Cork Lord Mayor Tomás MacCurtain (20Mar1920/1), in one Cork unionist’s eyes ‘a remarkable & very upright man’, by spreading the rumour that he had been killed by his IRA subordinates for being insufficiently aggressive.44

DEATHS DURING INTERCOMMUNAL AND OTHER RIOTS One hundred and ninety-five civilians (21 per cent) died in intercommunal violence, the great majority in Belfast in 1920 and 1921. In many of these cases it is impossible to be certain of responsibility for individual fatalities, because up to six discrete armed groups – loyalist 18

INTRODUCTION BY EUNAN O’HALPIN

paramilitaries and civilians, nationalist civilians, the IRA, military and police (including USC) – were involved. It is clear that in Belfast the military did not generally distinguish between contending groups of rioters or curfew breakers on political lines: they would fire impartially on crowds failing to disperse, or on curfew breakers or on anyone who failed to halt when ordered to do so, or in response to fire aimed at them. The USC, loyalists, IRA and other armed nationalists, all groups with greater local knowledge, were more selective in their targeting. While it can reasonably be argued that the majority of these civilian deaths arose from intercommunal sectarian violence, in many instances it is uncertain whether a fatality was specifically targeted on grounds of religion, or was even the intended target of the bullet or bomb that killed her or him. In Lisburn in 1920, and in Belfast in 1920 and 1921, loyalists responded ferociously to isolated IRA assassinations of police – just eighteen policemen, including USC and Harbour Police, died in Belfast in 1920 and 1921, and no soldiers perished at rebel hands. This begs questions, not least about how anti-nationalist violence was planned, led and contained from 1919 to 1923, and was later recalled, explained and commemorated within loyalist communities. It is an important historiographical gap.

SHOT WHILE ATTEMPTING TO ESCAPE (SWATE) AND SHOT FOR FAILING TO HALT WHEN ORDERED (SFTH) These categories are based on the conclusions of inquests and of military courts of inquiry into fatalities attributable to Crown forces. SWATE was offered as an explanation in fifty-four (5 per cent) of all killings by Crown forces (Table 6, p. 544). SFTH was the official explanation in 155 (14 per cent) of all killings by Crown Forces (Table 7, p. 544). Taken together, these two categories of killing demonstrate that Crown forces were operating with extraordinarily lax rules of engagement. The consequence was not only that at least seventy-five IRA Volunteers were killed in these highly questionable circumstances, along with seven soldiers and two police mistakenly shot by sentries, but that 124 civilians (14 per cent of total civilian fatalities) also died. Of these a dozen were believed to have simply been deaf or unable to hear or to comprehend repeated orders to halt (if indeed these had been given). More broadly, a breakdown of the 1,096 killings for which Crown forces were responsible shows that 32 per cent were self-inflicted Crown forces fatalities (misadventure and suicide). Of the remaining killings by Crown forces, analysis indicates that 52 per cent could be categorised as dubious, i.e. on a spectrum running from a clear possibility of recklessness on the part of Crown forces, such as the forty-one civilian deaths in traffic accidents, to intentional cold-blooded killing of individuals. POST-TRUCE REVENGE AND OTHER KILLING Two trends predominate in fatalities between the Truce of 11 July 1921 and the end of that year. The most significant is that most deaths occurred in Belfast as the result of intercommunal conflict and of Crown forces’ interventions against rioters. We should also note a number of what appear to be revenge killings by Volunteers of former opponents, and one killing of a Volunteer (16Dec1921/2). The RIC man believed responsible was himself killed a few days later (14Dec1921/2). But, outside Belfast, the country was surprisingly quiet between the Truce and the end of 1921. The early months of 1922, a different story, are not covered in this study. 19

THE DEAD OF THE IRISH REVOLUTION

THE IMPACT OF LOSS AND OF KILLING A striking feature of the rebel and British military dead, and of their killers, is their youth. Most soldiers, and most Volunteers, were in their late teens or early twenties when they died or when they killed. The regular police dead were older, though many of the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries brought in to bolster the RIC from early 1920 onwards were, although ex-servicemen, only in their early twenties. This study provides only passing glimpses of the impact of personal loss arising from political violence on family, friends and communities; equally, it touches only indirectly on the question of how killing people affected those who did it. The MSPC records in particular have increased awareness of the mental health difficulties of some rebel veterans responsible for deaths, including well-known figures such as Ernie O’Malley and Charles Dalton, both of whom wrote accounts of the conflict.45 But so far as we know most revolutionary killers did not need, or at any rate did not seek, medical help for psychological or psychiatric conditions arising from their experiences: an eminent instance is Seán Lemass (1900–71), who, as emerged during research for this study, accidentally shot his two-year-old brother Herbert in January 1916, and later took part in the killing of an unarmed British officer on Bloody Sunday (21Nov1920/11). Lemass appeared to cope with his memories both of killing and of loss – his brother Noel was abducted, murdered and buried by government agents just weeks after the Civil War ended in 1923 – partly by simply refusing to speak about them.46 It may be that police and military involved in violence in Ireland took much the same approach. I know of no indications of particular recorded stress among Crown forces who served in Ireland, as distinct from the psychological and emotional difficulties which many Great War veterans were known to encounter. RIC men received relatively generous pension terms on the disbandment of the force. Police veterans therefore had no particular incentive to chronicle their activities while serving or to list their post-service difficulties, although some police families did apply for support from British funds provided for Irish loyalists who experienced difficulties after the Truce.47 Very few policemen or soldiers afterwards spoke or wrote about violence they had seen or in which they had been participants. For the rebels, it was different. For many surviving veterans, and the families of those who had died in the fight, there were practical reasons – pensions for service and for wounds and disabilities, medals, the importance for election candidates of having a ‘fighting record’ – to make something of their experiences during the succeeding decades. Joanna Bourke rightly warns of the limitations of all fighters’ stories of inflicting death and of seeing death inflicted: ‘Inevitably, fantasy pervades all the narratives.’48 But the many IRA personal accounts of fatal political violence, however flawed, partial, partisan, self-justifying and self-glorifying some may be, are of far greater value than the eerie personal silence that generally surrounds killing not only by the military and the regular police forces, but by the USC and loyalist civilians between 1916 and 1921.

CONCLUSION Finding out precisely who died, how, and at whose hands between 1916 and 1921 has been a mammoth task. It has also uncovered surprising patterns of fatal violence. What most distinguishes 1916 from later years are the high proportion of civilian casualties and, within that

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INTRODUCTION BY EUNAN O’HALPIN

category, of female deaths; the absence of any sectarian element in killings; and the absence of targeted killings – other than by execution following courts martial of the leaders of the rebellion – by either Crown forces or the rebels. What also distinguishes 1916 from 1919–21 is the absence of Ulster loyalist action against the Catholic minority during and after the Rising, in contrast to the considerable violence from 1920 onwards of which the Catholic civilian population were the main targets and the community which lost most people. In the years from 1917 to 1921, a striking feature of rebel violence is that civilians involved in the administration of justice and of local affairs were so seldom targeted: no judges, only a handful of magistrates, no senior local government officials. This sets the Irish case apart from comparable nationalist revolutions, where government functionaries were singled out for attack as elements of campaigns to destroy the administrative capacity and practical authority of the state. Hare-brained plans to mount a campaign of political assassinations in RIC did not come to fruition up to December 1921, while the IRA’s ambitious programme of sabotage in Britain and of retribution against the families of Black and Tans and Auxiliaries was largely ineffective and served to expose some of their important support and supply chains for the war in Ireland.49 In Ireland, the IRA’s primary targets between 1919 and 1921 were the RIC, the British army and, to a lesser extent, alleged spies and informers among the civilian population. Protestants and loyalists were never nominated as targets for attack by GHQ or by the underground Dáil government. With the exceptions of Monaghan, Armagh, Cork and, to a lesser extent, Tipperary, where there were also agrarian subtexts, there is almost no evidence of any explicit sectarian or communal intent in fatal attacks involving Protestant civilians up to December 1921. In Antrim (Belfast) and Londonderry, furthermore, the IRA’s acts of sectarian violence were largely a reaction to sectarian attacks on nationalist communities. It does not follow that an absence of sectarian intent was perceived as such by the communities whose members were killed. The Crown’s exercise of fatal violence also throws up interesting questions. Ireland was not a far-flung colonial holding but a part of the United Kingdom. Despite London’s nod and wink at ‘reprisal’ killings, a well-organised Dáil government press campaign, courageous coverage by British and American newspapers and reasonable discipline within the military were significant factors which weighed against thoroughgoing slaughter both of rebels and of civilians. Yet we must note the astonishing absence of due process regarding Crown forces’ killings, not just those in the heat of battle or its immediate aftermath, but also those which occurred when prisoners were in custody. It raises the question of how colonial subjects in distant parts of the empire, where rules of engagement were even more lax and where independent press scrutiny was almost non-existent, fared in the unsettled years after the Great War. The Amritsar massacre in the Punjab on 13 April 1919 offers some parallels with the Croke Park shootings on 21 November 1920 (21Nov1920/16), not in scale but in character and in the manner in which London initially attempted to brush aside criticism of the murderous conduct of British forces firing without warning upon a mass of helpless, unarmed civilians. It is equally important to recognise how different the scale, nature and consequence of revolt in Ireland was to that in the colonies. The contemporaneous Malabar rebellion (in British parlance ‘Moplah revolt’) in south-western India, which ran from August 1921 to the early weeks of 1922, provides one useful comparator: in his classic study of Imperial Policing, the Irish general Sir Charles Gwynn carefully calculated British and Indian military fatalities, including at least two Irish-born soldiers of the Leinster

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Regiment, as 137; his ‘approximate’ estimate of rebel fatalities was 2,300. He offered no figures for civilian deaths. In Ireland for 1917–21 the comparable figures are 491 rebels (21 per cent), 936 Crown forces (40 per cent) and 919 civilians (39 per cent). For even the most ardent separatists, proximity to the imperial metropole had its benefits.50

HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANISED The Dead of the Irish Revolution is organised chronologically, and within days by the time when death occurred. Narratives of individual actions and fatalities vary greatly in depth. The entries are a mixture of the bald and the extensive. We have avoided replication of biographical and other information easily available elsewhere, but details such as place of birth, religion, places of service and so on are reported to an extent. The level of information available varies between individuals. Civilian deaths are the least well served: in Dublin in 1916, and in Belfast in 1920 and 1921, there is often little more to go on than cursory newspaper reports, together with the painstaking work of other researchers such as Duffy, Parkinson and McDermott. For all categories of death, there is a marked imbalance between the breadth and depth of accounts of deaths from rebel and from Crown sources. The figures are analysed without reference to the wider populations of combatants and civilians to which their subjects belonged. While we can use the 1911 census as a baseline for populations by county, the absolute numbers involved are very small. For example, in Cavan the 1911 census reports 91,173, and we have identified just twelve deaths between 1917 and 1921, or 1.3 deaths per 10,000. It is not practical to compare any two categories of death – say, military and IRA – save as absolute numbers because the actual size of each cohort at the time is unknown. IRA numbers grew considerably after the Truce in July 1921, and it would be unwise to treat the membership rolls produced in the 1930s as an accurate representation of its order of battle during the years of active conflict. In 1941 Dan Breen and General Liam Tobin, notable figures in the War of Independence and one-time Civil War enemies but with a shared sense of grievance about aspects of the new Ireland, concluded that a maximum of 500–1,000 Volunteers were ‘on active service’ between 1916 and 1921.51 To save space we have generally excluded accounts of funerals of fatalities, which, while often formulaic – ‘the largest seen in the district for many years’ is a staple of press reports – were important. Republicans and Crown forces naturally used funerals of their fallen for wider political purposes, but note that such proceedings also carry traces of other sentiments: an illustration arises in Monaghan where in 2010 a gravedigger told me that his father would describe how ‘thousands’ of AOH men had travelled ‘from all over Ireland’ in 1921 to mourn a young member killed by the IRA (9Mar1921/3). We have included place of burial where we have that information. Where possible we have included compensation accorded to relatives of fatalities, whether awarded by courts or by the British or Irish states. The question of dependents’ awards rumbled on in independent Ireland for decades, to an extent inadvertently monetizing memory of the fallen: as late as 1953, the law was extended to allow close relatives, mainly siblings, of those killed fighting for independence between 1916 and 1923 to claim dependency, a measure which while compassionate in intent begged the question of how such dependents had coped in the intervening three decades. It also, perhaps, had the consequence of keeping the memory of the fallen fresh in the minds of the bereaved.

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INTRODUCTION BY EUNAN O’HALPIN

The following describes the arrangement and composition of the individual entries in the book.

ARRANGEMENT OF CHAPTERS Chapters are organised by year, from 1916 to 1921. CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER, DATING AND TIME, AND REFERENCE NUMBERS The presentation of entries is determined by year, month, date and time of death (in so far as that can be determined). Where no definite time of death is known for an entry, that entry is placed following those on that day for which the times of death are known. Time of death is given by reference to the twenty-four-hour clock using Greenwich Mean Time. No allowance is made for local time, although this varied significantly across Ireland. Entries are listed by the day on which death took place, rather than on the day when a fatal wound or injury or illness was incurred. Furthermore, deaths are assigned to the county in which they occurred, even if the fatal wound, injury or illness was incurred elsewhere. Each fatality has been assigned a unique reference number in brackets after the name, as follows: day/month/year/ordering of that death within that day, with the highest number being the latest. This facilitates easy cross-referencing of linked fatalities. Each entry carries the name of the fatality, followed by their unique identifier. Where a death is in some way linked to another, a cross-reference is given. Cross-references are of two kinds: the prefix RD (related death) is used to reference a related death, e.g. that of another individual or individuals arising from the same incident, or a tit-for-tat killing; the prefix SA (see also) is used to reference an associated but not directly linked fatality. THE STRUCTURE OF THE FATALITY ENTRY At the top of each entry the full name of each fatality appears in bold, followed by the reference number. Discrepancies in spellings of names often arise. The authors have chosen those which seem appropriate by reference to relevant official documentation. Where the symbol † follows a name in an entry, it indicates that the person concerned subsequently died as a result of Irish political violence in 1922 or 1923. The first italicised line of each entry gives the assignation to the force to which the person belonged, if a combatant (see below). If a civilian, no assignation is given. Where known, and in the following order, the age, occupation, marital status if married or widowed, number of children and religion of each fatality are given. In many cases of non-Catholic fatalities, it has not been possible to distinguish between denominations and so Protestant is the default category. The second italicised line of each entry records place of actual death by county. In the interests of saving space, abbreviations are used extensively in entries and footnotes. These are listed alphabetically under Abbreviations at pp. xii–xv above. Some are in common usage, others have been created for this study. Fatality Classification The first italicised line denotes the category of fatality as follows: British military fatalities are listed by the regiment or corps in which they served where known Police fatalities are listed by the relevant force

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THE DEAD OF THE IRISH REVOLUTION

Irish military fatalities are listed by the relevant organisation All other fatalities are civilian by default. Occupation This is a somewhat hit-and-miss category. Individuals may have had a number of occupations during their lifetimes. Very often, furthermore, different authorities use different terms to describe the same occupation. For someone living in rural Ireland, ‘labourer’ was generally – though not invariably – conterminous with ‘agricultural labourer’, but most such labourers also worked as general labourers. Where a fatality had served in the armed forces, this is noted as ‘ex-serviceman’. This also appears in the headers for serving soldiers who had re-enlisted in the military following the cessation of their initial service. For RIC fatalities, which form the great majority of police entries, the previous occupation recorded is that entered in the RIC General Register. Place Names and Spellings For historical accuracy, the place names in use in the 1916–21 period have generally been cited throughout. In some cases, the official names have since changed. In rural Ireland, it was often the case that a locality was known colloquially by a different name than its official designation. This was so even at the level of townland. Difficulties also arise in the spelling of localities, even in official documents. Queenstown (Cobh) and Maryborough (Portlaoise) have been retained in the entries, whereas in deference to contemporary usage, King’s County and Queen’s County have been replaced by Offaly and Laois respectively. Kingstown is used until 1920 when it became Dún Laoghaire. Spellings of Surnames and Given Names These present considerable difficulties. Some arise from the anglicisation of Gaelic names over time, and some from the reverse process. Names are as presented in official documentation where available – although this in itself can be problematic. As an example, official records relating to Eunan O’Halpin’s grandfather Hugh Halpenny carry five different iterations of his family name: Halfpenny (as in the 1911 census), Hugh Halpenny, Hugh Halpin, Hugh O’Halpin and Aodh Ó hAilpín. In the military service pensions records most applicants defaulted to an English-language version of their names. This is the case for both given names and surnames. Notes and Referencing Primary sources precede newspaper sources, which are arranged by date rather than title. For secondary sources, author surnames and short titles have generally been used throughout the text. To save space, a number of standard works which are extensively cited are represented in footnotes by author name in bold, e.g. Marnane is used for Denis G. Marnane, The 3rd Brigade: A History of the Volunteers/IRA in South Tipperary, 1913–1921 (Thurles, 2018). The author’s surname is in bold in the corresponding alphabetical entry in the bibliography. Where more than one work by the author appears in the bibliography, the work to which the bold author name refers is also given in bold.

24

1916 21 APRIL 1916

Keating and Sheehan were recovered by fishermen the following day. Monaghan’s corpse was only found on a nearby island on 30 October. After the Rising, McInerney was arrested and interned in Frongoch. An inquest jury returned a verdict of ‘death by drowning’, recommending that a chain be placed across the entrance to the quay. Buried Keelavarnogue Cemetery, Cahirciveen, Kerry. In 1925 his widowed mother Nora received a gratuity of £75. In 1957 an unmarried sister failed in a claim for a dependent’s allowance. A monument was erected at Ballykissane, and a second was unveiled in 2016.1 RD: Monaghan (21Apr1916/2), Sheehan (21Apr1916/3). SA: Casement (3Aug1916/1), Mac Diarmada (12May1916/1)

Cornelius Keating (21Apr1916/1) IV, 22, Wireless operator, RC Ballykissane, Killorglin, Kerry ‘Con’ Keating, a farmer’s son from Renard, Cahirciveen, Kerry, studied agriculture at the Glasnevin Model Farm, then trained as a wireless operator in the Atlantic College in Cahirciveen. Denis Daly recalled that about mid-April 1916 he and Keating discussed with Seán Mac Diarmada and Michael Collins† setting up a radio transmitter at Ballyard, Tralee, using equipment stolen from the Atlantic College. Men would seize the equipment and give it to Tralee Volunteers. The intention apparently was to contact the German arms ship Aud, although in fact it did not have a radio. Alternatively, the plan may have been to radio the German submarine U-19, expected with Roger Casement and two others. Daly led a party consisting of Keating, Dan Sheehan, Charlie Monaghan and Colm Ó Lochlainn. They took a train to Killarney, and were collected by two motor cars sent from Limerick on ‘a very wet bad night’. Tom McInerney drove Sheehan, Monaghan and Keating, with the others in Sam Windrim’s car. Only Windrim’s car made it to Cahirciveen; as Keating was the only wireless expert, the mission was abandoned. Daly returned to Dublin and only found out what had happened from the Sunday Independent. He fought in the GPO. McInerney’s car was stopped by an RIC man outside Killorglin, but Keating scared him off with a revolver. Crossing the bridge over the River Laune, the car drove on towards Ballykissane Pier instead of veering left at the church. McInerney asked if they were on the right road: perhaps shaken by the encounter with the police, Keating said yes. The car drove straight off the pier at about 21:45, overturning in the water. McInerney managed to escape. His three passengers were drowned. The bodies of

Charles Monaghan2 (21Apr1916/2) IV, 37, Mechanic, RC Ballykissane, Killorglin, Kerry See Keating (21Apr1916/1). ‘Charlie’ Monaghan from Ballymacarett attended the CBS on Oxford Street, Belfast. At eighteen, he went to Dublin, later spending a year in the US. A machinist, Monaghan also had a motor car business. A member of the GAA and the Gaelic League, he lived in Fairview, Dublin. Buried Dromavalla Cemetery, Killorglin, Kerry.3 Daniel (Dómhnall) Sheehan (21Apr1916/3) IV, 30, Bookkeeper, RC Ballykissane, Killorglin, Kerry See Keating (21Apr1916/1). Sheehan, from Ballintubrid, Newcastle West, Limerick, was a bookkeeper in the Savoy Hotel in London until the outbreak of war. Cis Sheehan (Mrs Michael Cremen), a Cumann na mBan organiser, recalled ‘a very quiet, reserved man with fiery red hair’ attending Irish classes. The last time she saw him he passed her a note during a class stating, ‘I am off to Dublin.’ There he worked in the post office. He joined

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1916

the Kimmage Garrison, consisting of men from Liverpool, London, Manchester and Glasgow who had returned to Ireland to avoid conscription. Buried Dromavalla Cemetery, Killorglin, Kerry. In 1927 his father Martin secured a gratuity of £150.4

Michael Lahiff (24Apr1916/2) DMP (11047), 28, RC MHD From Kilmurry, Clare, Lahiff had been a constable in B Division (125B) for five years, stationed in Great Brunswick Street. Michael Mallin of the ICA led thirty-six men to occupy St Stephen’s Green. Many people were enjoying the fine weather when Mallin’s unit ordered everyone to leave and secured the gates. Lahiff, unarmed, was on duty at St Stephen’s Green West. When he refused to leave his post he was shot three times. Max Caulfield wrote that one of the killers was Mallin’s second-in-command, Constance Markievicz, who supposedly ‘shouted . . . delightedly: “I shot him!”’. This is disputed by other writers. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: A. h. 177). His father Michael secured a gratuity of £75.8s.0d.6 SA: Mallin (8May1916/4)

24 APRIL 1916 James O’Brien (24Apr1916/1) DMP (9862), 45, RC Upper Yard, Dublin Castle From Kilfergus, Glin, Limerick, O’Brien was a constable with twenty-one years of service. Unarmed, he was on duty at the Cork Hill entrance to the upper yard of Dublin Castle. William Oman of the ICA recalled marching from Liberty Hall to City Hall under the command of Seán Connolly. At about midday, they approached the Castle. A watching journalist saw O’Brien ‘confront them with his hand up and thought he was telling them: “Now, boys, you shouldn’t be here at all.”’ Oman said O’Brien ‘made towards the main gate to close it. Seán Connolly brought his rifle to the “present” and fired. The policeman fell.’ Hit in the head, O’Brien was the first fatality shot in the Rising. Six ICA men rushed the guardroom and captured and tied up a party of soldiers. The Castle had not been reconnoitred beforehand, and Connolly was probably unaware that it was virtually undefended. Hearing the commotion, Major Price, the Irish Command intelligence officer, came down into the Castle yard and opened fire with his pistol. He was joined by a handful of troops. His action, which evidently deterred the rebels from pressing home their attack, won him the DSO. One ICA veteran, William Halpin, afterwards told a relative that the men were initially stupefied when Connolly shot O’Brien without warning, and later confronted him. Halpin maintained that, in order to reassert his authority, Connolly acted with reckless bravado, needlessly exposing himself to the gunfire which killed him. Buried Ballybeg, Glin, Limerick. His sister Johanna secured a gratuity of £85.16s.0d.5 SA: Connolly (24Apr1916/39)

John Herbert Armstrong (24Apr1916/3) 42, Range-setter, Married with three children, RC SVH Armstrong and his wife Annie of 2 Great Longford Street were walking along Earlsfort Terrace when ordered to halt by ICA insurgents under Captain Richard McCormick, who were attempting to occupy Harcourt Street Railway Station and to barricade both ends of Hatch Street. Frank Robbins, in charge of building the barricades, recalled that ‘a civilian was, unfortunately, shot for refusing to aid in the work’. Douglas Hyde, future president of Ireland, recalled that a Miss Boland telephoned for an ambulance. Armstrong later died. Buried GC. His widow and children secured £300 compensation from the RVC.7 Arthur James Scarlett (24Apr1916/4) 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (6297), 31, Married, CoE Upper Ormond Quay, Dublin Private Scarlett enlisted in his home city of London. Volunteers occupied the Four Courts and erected barricades in the surrounding area running up to North King Street. Private H. C.

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24 April 1916

Hannant (12th Lancers) described how his squadron were detailed to escort ammunition wagons from the North Wall to the Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park. They passed Liberty Hall and O’Connell Bridge and on to Bachelor’s Walk unmolested. Hannant recalled that Private Scarlett was shot dead from a barricade near the Four Courts; other Lancers were wounded. Some of the startled Lancers galloped up Church Street firing volleys. At the corner of North Brunswick Street, one Lancer was killed and a child fatally wounded. A tailor was also shot and later died. The main body of Lancers went into Charles Street, a narrow thoroughfare parallel to Chancery Place, and took cover in the Collier Dispensary. There they remained until rescued on 27 April by soldiers using an improvised armoured car. Lieutenant Hunter died in the Collier Dispensary on 26 April. Buried GMC (CE. 627).8 RD: Foster (24Apr1916/6), Harris (24Apr 1916/7), Hunter (26Apr1916/53), Shepherd (24Apr1916/5)

Quay. Professor George O’Neill SJ recalled ‘a respectable Jew tailor from Ormond Quay, shot through the entrails’ when he ignored an order to halt on Capel Street Bridge. Buried Jewish cemetery, Dolphin’s Barn, Dublin.11 Oscar Bentley (24Apr1916/8) 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (7022) Sackville Street, Dublin From Welshpool, Montgomeryshire, Private Bentley lived in Blackpool. At about 13:00 a party of Lancers from Marlborough Barracks moved along Sackville Street. Samuel B. Reede, a law clerk, recalled: ‘the 5th Lancers passed down towards the city as if they thought it was an ordinary street riot, and just as the foremost got to Nelson’s Pillar one was wounded and another killed outright and two horses [were] killed.’ In fact, three Lancers were killed and a fourth fatally wounded by firing from the GPO. The toll might have been higher had the rebels obeyed orders to hold fire until the Lancers had passed the building. As a second volley was fired, the remaining Lancers retreated to the Parnell Monument. Dr J. C. O’Carroll, then a medical student in Jervis Street Hospital, recalled that the first casualties received were the Lancers shot opposite the GPO. W. J. Brennan-Whitmore, who later commanded the Volunteer position in North Earl Street, said the encounter ‘put great heart into all the men and a great deal of the tension of waiting was eased’. Buried RHKC (Coll. Grave).12 RD: Cordwell (24Apr1916/11), Headland (24Apr1916/9), Hughes (24Apr1916/10)

H. Shepherd (24Apr1916/5) Reserve Cavalry Regiment (16125), RC Church Street, Dublin See Scarlett (24Apr1916/4). Sergeant Shepherd was from Bristol. Buried GMC (RC. 486).9 Seán (John) Francis Foster (24Apr1916/6) 3, Child, RC Church Street, Dublin See Scarlett (24Apr1916/4). Seán was son of John and Catherine Foster of 18 Manor Place. On Easter Monday Mrs Foster was out for a walk with her two children in a pram. As they passed Father Matthew Hall, Seán was shot in the side of the head. He was probably the ‘fine little boy’ carried ‘apparently dead, blood coming out his ear’ by Father George O’Neill into the Richmond Hospital. Buried GC (Garden Section: Z. f. 95.5). Mrs Foster received £10 burial expenses from the RVC.10

James David Arthur Headland (24Apr1916/9) 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (5165), 20, CoE Sackville Street, Dublin See Bentley (24Apr1916/8). Corporal Headland lived in Tollington Park, Islington, London. Buried GMC (CE. 624).13 Frederick John Hughes (24Apr1916/10) 12th (Prince of Wales’s Royal) Lancers (8227), 20, CoE Sackville Street, Dublin See Bentley (24Apr1916/8). Private Hughes was from Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey. Buried GMC (CE. 812).14

Abraham Harris (24Apr1916/7) 48, Tailor, Married with four children, Jewish Richmond Hospital, Dublin Harris, also known as Aaron Abrahamson, of Portobello, had a business on Lower Ormond

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1916

the Ship Street gate at about 14:00. For the next two days, the Mendicity Institute was subjected to intense fire. The Dublin Fusiliers suffered a number of fatalities as they attempted to cross the Liffey. Some civilians died in the crossfire. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: S. h. 20.5–21).17 RD: Brennan (24Apr1916/14), Connolly (26Apr1916/45), Fahey (25Apr1916/20), Kearns (25Apr1916/23), Thompson (24Apr 1916/15). SA: Ceannt (8May1916/1), Connolly (12May1916/2), Heuston (8May 1916/3)

Herbert John Cordwell (24Apr1916/11) 2nd Reserve Cavalry Regiment (24522), CoE Sackville Street, Dublin See Bentley (24Apr1916/8). Private Cordwell, from Northall, Buckinghamshire, lived in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire. Buried GMC (CE. 635).15 Florence Shiels (24Apr1916/12) 27, Charwoman, Married, Protestant JSH Shiels, living at 45.3 Jervis Street with her labourer husband Walter, was fatally wounded on North King Street. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: R. a. 38).16

Francis A. Brennan (24Apr1916/14) RDF (25244), 18, Clerk, RC Adelaide Hospital, Dublin See Neilan (24Apr1916/13). Private Brennan was one of seven children of Charles and Eliza Brennan of 24 Usher’s Island. He had been a Land Commission clerk before enlisting in the 10th Battalion. Buried GMC (RC. 468).18

Gerald Aloysius Neilan (24Apr1916/13) RDF, 34, RC Arran Quay, Dublin Neilan, son of the late John Neilan, JP, of Mount Harold Terrace, Dublin, was educated at Clongowes Wood College. Severely wounded during the Boer War while serving with the Sherwood Foresters, he also served in China before retiring. In December 1914, he joined the Northumberland Fusiliers as a captain, later becoming a musketry instructor. In February 1916, he transferred to the RDF as a bombing instructor. A low turnout of Volunteers on Easter Monday meant that the rebels had to improvise. Because Éamonn Ceannt’s 4th Battalion was unable to occupy Kingsbridge Station, James Connolly ordered Seán Heuston to seize the Mendicity Institute at Usher’s Island instead, to disrupt troop movements from the Royal Barracks on the opposite quay. At midday, Heuston and some sixteen Volunteers fortified the Mendicity Institute and placed marksmen at the windows, which commanded a view of the quays and the Royal Barracks. A short time later, 130 men of the RDF marched along Albert Quay and Ellis Quay in fours en route to Dublin Castle. The Volunteers opened fire when the soldiers were midway between Ellis Street and Blackhall Place. Neilan was killed. The soldiers sought cover behind an abandoned tram, the quay wall and in side streets. They reached Queen Street, rushed across Queen Street Bridge, and entered Dublin Castle by

John A. Thompson (24Apr1916/15) RDF (24923), 19, Student, CoI Dublin Castle See Neilan (24Apr1916/13). Private Thompson, from Drumany, Fermanagh, was a student at Trinity College Dublin before enlisting in the 10th Battalion.19 He was killed by a shot to the chest. Buried Derrylin, Fermanagh.20 Seán (John) Owens (24Apr1916/16) IV, 24, Artificial limb maker, RC Mount Brown, Dublin Owens was one of eight children of Jeremiah and Margaret Owens of 1 Coombe. Comprising fifty-two acres, the South Dublin Union was the largest site occupied by the Volunteers on 24 April and an important link in the chain of insurgent positions. It was held by a small party of the 4th Battalion, under Éamonn Ceannt, with outposts at Watkins Brewery on Ardee Street, Jameson’s Distillery on Marrowbone Lane and Roe’s Distillery in Mount Brown. Ceannt was greatly handicapped by a shortage of men. The main Volunteer stronghold was in the

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24 April 1916

James’s Street block of buildings. A detachment at the Rialto entrance and another section of five men in McCaffrey’s Estate, an area of open fields at the junction of Mount Brown and Brookfield Road, were to prevent a possible military advance from Richmond Barracks via Old Kilmainham and Mount Brown. Other detachments covered the canal wall at the rear of the Union, the eastern boundary wall facing the city, and various strategically placed buildings within the complex such as Hospitals 2–3. At about 12:40, a hundred men of the RIR in Richmond Barracks, commanded by Major Holmes, were dispatched to Dublin Castle via Kilmainham. A twenty-man section on Brookfield Road came under fire, suffering three casualties. When reinforcements arrived, two companies were sent along Brookfield Road to outflank the rebels. One attacked the rear of the complex, while the other assaulted the James’s Street entrance. A machine gun in the nearby Royal Hospital, Kilmainham (the headquarters of the British command) provided supporting fire. Joseph Doolan recalled that ‘some sniping occurred, causing our first casualty, Seán Owens being killed . . . where the Corporation houses now stand in Mount Brown’. There followed an unremitting fight over several hours with fatalities on both sides. The Volunteers at the Rialto Gate occupied a long corrugated iron shed, the walls of which were easily perforated by British fire. John Traynor was killed by a bullet which came through the wall during a heavy volley. A small gate was forced open, and some soldiers scaled the 9-foot walls. Lieutenant Alan Ramsay was shot in the head as he led an assault on the Rialto gate. Captain Alfred Warmington was shot in the head as he led a second charge through the gate. The handful of Volunteers opposing the attack were soon obliged to surrender and the southern portion of the Union complex was overrun by 15:30. Volunteers in the fields at Mount Brown came under machine-gun fire from the Royal Hospital. As they tried to retreat to Hospitals 2–3, Richard O’Reilly, Brendan Donnellan and James Quinn were killed. James

Coughlan recalled that Lieutenant W. T. Cosgrave wanted two men for special duty. McDowell and Coughlan volunteered and were ordered to report to Cathal Brugha,† vice-O/C, who instructed them to help bring in wounded from the field to the west of the Nurses’ Home. Assisted by two inmates, McDowell and Coughlan came under heavy fire. McDowell was shot dead. Nurse Margaret Kehoe was killed at about 13:30 at the bottom of the stone staircase in Hospital 2, whether by military or rebels is unclear. By dusk the military had driven the insurgents from the women’s hospital to Ceannt’s headquarters in the night nurses’ home. The RIR history records two officers and five men killed, and one officer and six men wounded. Owens’s body ‘remained in the field until Tuesday evening’. Widowed in 1922, his mother Margaret secured a £150 gratuity in 1926 after an intervention by President Cosgrave, who ‘knew the case to be one of particular hardship’.21 RD: Brennan (24Apr1916/19), Carr (24Apr 1916/20), Donnellan (24Apr1916/22), Duffy (24Apr1916/21), Kehoe (24Apr1916/26), McDowell (24Apr1916/25), O’Reilly (24Apr 1916/23), Phillips (25Apr1916/28), Quinn (24Apr1916/24), Ramsay (24Apr1916/27), Traynor (24Apr1916/17), Treacy (24Apr1916 /28), Warmington (24Apr1916/18), Young (25Apr1916/30). SA: Ceannt (8May1916/1) John Joseph Traynor (24Apr1916/17) IV, 18, Messenger, RC Rialto Gate, SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Traynor, of 3 Shannon Terrace, was a ‘very active member’ of the Volunteers. A Guinness employee, he was a crack shot. Buried GC (Dublin Section: V. §. 22.5). His mother Sarah received about £70 from the National Aid Fund up to 1918, and in 1926 secured a gratuity of £26.22 Alfred Ernest Warmington (24Apr1916/18) RIR, 38, Railway clerk, CoI Rialto Gate, SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Warmington, only son of Alfred Warmington, manager of

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1916

the Munster and Leinster Bank in Naas, Kildare, he served during the Boer War with the Cape Mounted Rifles and Thornycroft’s Mounted Infantry, fighting in the Battle of Spion Kop and at the relief of Ladysmith. In September 1911, Warmington was appointed as a strike-breaking GS&WR porter at Kingsbridge Station, Dublin. In May 1913 he moved to Maryborough as an office messenger at 20s. a week. In 1914 Warmington was gazetted captain to the RIR and served in France. In March 1916, he returned from Flanders, and was stationed in Richmond Barracks. Buried GMC (CE. Officers. 45).23

Richard O’Reilly (24Apr1916/23) IV, 20, RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). O’Reilly was one of five children of Mary O’Reilly of Newmarket, Dublin. Two brothers served in the British army, one dying in France. His brother John also fought in the South Dublin Union. Buried GC.29 James Quinn30 (24Apr1916/24) IV, 42, House painter, Married with four children, RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Quinn, of 2 Hammond Street, was a member of the Columcille Hurling Club. His widow Marcella, an office cleaner in ‘straitened circumstances’, received £1 a week from the National Aid Fund before a final payment of £400. She later secured a yearly pension of £90 ‘during widowhood’. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: E. a. 38).31

John Brennan (24Apr1916/19) RIR (9952), RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Corporal Brennan, son of Mary Maddock of Ballinaboola, Kilkenny, enlisted in Kilkenny. Albert Desborough recalled that a party making their way into the city realised that a corporal was missing. This was probably Brennan. Buried GMC (RC. 722).24

William McDowell (24Apr1916/25) IV, 49, House painter, Married with seven children, RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). McDowell lived at 10 Merchant’s Quay. His wife Charlotte received limited support from the National Aid Fund, before receiving a yearly pension of £90, and £24 for each of her two youngest children, in 1924. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: C. o. 130).32

Michael Carr (24Apr1916/20) RIR (9852), RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Private Carr, from Mulhuddart, enlisted in Dublin. Buried RHKC (Coll. Grave).25 James Duffy (24Apr1916/21) RIR (9947), RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Private Duffy, from Kildare, enlisted at Limerick. Buried RHCK (Coll. Grave).26

Margaret Kehoe33 (24Apr1916/26) 49, Nurse, RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Nurse Kehoe, from Leighlinbridge, Carlow, lived in house 10, South Dublin Union. Buried Ballinabrannagh, Carlow.34

Brendan Donnellan27 (24Apr1916/22) IV, 18, Draper’s assistant, RC SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Donnellan, from Athenry Road, Loughrea, Galway, worked for Gorevan Brothers, Camden Street, where he lived. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. o. 26.5). His sisters ultimately secured dependents’ allowances.28

Alan Livingstone Ramsay (24Apr1916/27) RIR, c. 25, Nurseryman, CoI SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). From Ballsbridge, Ramsay attended St Andrew’s College from 1900 until 1908 and then Trinity College Dublin. At Christmas 1914 he went to Flanders with the RIR. When wounded a few months

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24 April 1916

later, he held the rank of temporary captain. Buried MJC (C 2/3). He is commemorated on memorials in the grounds of St Mary’s Church, Donnybrook and St Andrew’s Church, Booterstown.35

Laurence Kelly (24Apr1916/30) c. 50, Labourer, Married with four children, RC MHD See Warbrook (24Apr1916/29). Kelly and his wife Catherine lived at 1.1 Lower Clanbrassil Street. According to a DMP report, a man named Kelly from Clanbrassil Street was shot by a rebel on New Street. This may be the person whom Vinnie Byrne recalled among a group of ‘soldiers wives and . . . imperialistic people’ who was ‘very aggressive. He tried to take the rifle off one of our party’, and was shot. Buried GC (Dublin Section: U. §. 42.5). His widow and children secured £300 compensation from the RVC.38

Thomas Treacy (24Apr1916/28) RIR (11162) SDU See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Private Treacy, from Tipperary, enlisted in Clonmel. Buried RHCK (Coll. Grave).36 Eleanor Warbrook (24Apr1916/29) 15, Shop assistant, CoI MHD Eleanor was one of eight children of Thomas and Bridget Warbrook of 7 Fumbally Lane. Her father was an iron merchant and van driver. The 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, under Thomas MacDonagh, occupied Jacob’s biscuit factory on Bishop Street. Situated in a warren of narrow streets, this building was about halfway between Dublin Castle to the north and Portobello Barracks to the south. It was probably occupied to disrupt troop movements from the south and west of the city. Outposts were established and barricades erected in Blackpitts, Kevin Street and Fumbally Lane. The expected major assault on Jacob’s never came. Instead the area around Bishop Street was the focus of low-intensity sniping throughout Easter Week which resulted in a number of civilian fatalities. Eleanor was shot in the neck when she went to fetch a younger sister between 18:00 and 19:00 on 24 April and later died. The account in WO 35/69 claimed that three women witnessed the girl being shot by a rebel in uniform on Fumbally Lane. No BMH references to this shooting were found. Residents threw missiles, attacked the barricades and verbally abused the Volunteers. Michael Walker recalled that ‘a man ran from a hostile crowd with the intention of disarming the Volunteer. This man was shot and bayoneted, I believe fatally.’ This may have been Laurence Kelly. Buried MJC (A. 276. 68). The RVC awarded Eleanor’s parents £50.37 RD: Kelly (24Apr1916/30), Pierce (29Apr 1916/64). SA: MacDonagh (3May1916/3)

Christopher Cathcart (24Apr1916/31) 10, Schoolboy, RC Portobello Barracks, Rathmines, Dublin Christopher was one of nine children of coachbuilder Patrick and Julia Cathcart of 28.3 Charlemont Street. At around 13:50, one hundred members of the RIR under Captain Rodwell left Portobello Barracks to reach Dublin Castle via Camden Street. They were fired on by members of the ICA from Davy’s public house, overlooking Portobello Bridge. Christopher was killed near Portobello Barracks. The rebels abandoned their position in Davy’s and the military picket continued until held up at the junction of Wexford Street and Cuffe Street by an ambush party from Jacob’s Factory. Lieutenant James Calvert was shot in the head and killed.39 Buried GC (Dublin Section: C. §. 40.5). The RVC awarded Christopher’s parents £50.40 RD: Calvert (24Apr1916/32), Wilson (24Apr 1916/33) James Howard Calvert (24Apr1916/32) RIR, 20, Methodist Junction of Cuffe Street and Wexford Street, Dublin See Cathcart (24Apr1916/31). Lieutenant Calvert was from Lurgan, Armagh. Temporarily buried in the grounds of the Meath Hospital on 26 April, his father ‘discovered . . . the coffin was covered by only a few inches of earth with some thorn bushes thrown on top. . . . Had he been interred in a

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proper place where we could have erected a stone to his memory we would not have brought his remains to Lurgan.’ Buried Seagoe Cemetery, Armagh. His father sought £19.4.6 burial costs. The army paid £2.3.6, the estimated cost of reburial in a Dublin cemetery.41

command area and Volunteers were posted to defend it, the stone archways providing excellent cover. Ennis, on leave over Easter, had been visiting his mother at 23 Queen’s Square. At about 15:00, he was hit while walking along Grand Canal Street and cried: ‘Oh, I am shot.’ Joseph Travers ‘was warned to leave him and go away or else I would get the same’. Ultimately, ‘a man called Joseph Doran picked up the body, under fire, and ran up to the [Sir Patrick Dun’s] Hospital with it over his shoulder’. Buried DGC (W. U2. 25).45

David Wilson (24Apr1916/33) RIR (5852), Protestant Adelaide Hospital, Dublin See Cathcart (24Apr1916/31). Rifleman Wilson, from Armagh, enlisted in Glasgow. Buried MJC (A. 275. 12). His remains were, reportedly, not positively identified.42

Reginald Francis Clery (24Apr1916/36) Irish Association of Volunteer Training Corps, 23, Solicitor’s apprentice, RC Northumberland Road, Dublin Corporal ‘Reggie’ Clery, from Dublin, was an outstanding student at Belvedere College, where he played on the 1910 senior cup rugby team. He was within a few weeks of qualification as a solicitor. The Volunteer Training Corps, composed of part-time reservists, mostly professional men and those above military age, was about 120-strong. The 1st (Dublin) Battalion companies included the IRFU Corps, the St Andrew’s Corps, the Dublin Veterans’ Corps, the Glasnevin Corps and the City and Railway Corps, based at Beggars Bush Barracks. Its members were nicknamed ‘The Gorgeous Wrecks’ because their armbands carried the initials G. R. (Georgius Rex). Michael Malone commanded a section of C Company at Mount Street Bridge. His men occupied Clanwilliam House, on the city side of the Grand Canal, which dominated Mount Street Bridge and Northumberland Road, as well as St Stephen’s Hall and a primary school on Northumberland Road, and No. 25 at the corner of Northumberland Road and Haddington Road. At about 15:00, Major George Harris, adjutant of the Dublin University OTC and O/C 1st (Dublin) Battalion Volunteer Training Corps, received orders to return from manoeuvres in the Dublin mountains to Beggars Bush Barracks due to the Rising. Harris set off with one group, and his secondin-command Francis Browning with another. Learning that Ballsbridge was not held by

John Kiely (24Apr1916/34) IV, 30, Printer, Married, RC GPO, Sackville Street, Dublin43 ‘Jack’ Kiely lived in Ballyboden. Fergus de Búrca, of E Company, 4th Battalion, of which Patrick Pearse was captain, recalled how Volunteers climbed in through a side window on the Prince’s Street side of the GPO, two comrades helping each man on to the window ledge. Kiely fell mortally wounded. He died around midnight, the company’s first fatality: ‘It has never been ascertained whether the shot that killed him came from . . . one of our own men.’ Charles Donnelly, his brother-in-law, claimed Kiely was shot by a British officer firing from a window in the Metropole Hotel. His widow Susanna later received a yearly pension of £90. Buried DGC (Z3. 70. N).44 SA: Pearse (3May1916/1) Peter Ennis (24Apr1916/35) Scots Guards (10404), 33 Grand Canal Street, Dublin Guardsman Ennis, from Dublin, enlisted in Glasgow and was stationed in Wellington Barracks, London. The Evening Herald reported that he had been wounded at Loos. The 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers, under Éamon de Valera, seized Boland’s Bakery on Grand Canal Street, with outlying outposts covering a large area. These included Boland’s Mill on Ringsend Road, Westland Row Railway Station, Ringsend Distillery and Grand Canal Street Bridge. The railway line ran through de Valera’s

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rebels, he led his men back via Shelbourne Road. As they turned on to Haddington Road, they came under fire from the railway embankment on Bath Avenue. Clery was the only fatality. The corps carried unserviceable rifles and wore uniform.46 About eighty men scaled the walls of Beggars Bush Barracks. The smaller section under Browning attempted to reach the barracks via Northumberland Road. At about 17:00, this group came under heavy fire from No. 25 Northumberland Road. Two were killed outright, Browning was mortally wounded, and seven others hit.47 Only a few reached the barracks. The majority took shelter in nearby houses and, after obtaining civilian clothing, made their way home that night. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: B. i. 240). Clery’s family later received compensation under a Treasury scheme for the relatives and dependents of civilians killed and wounded.48 RD: Browning (26Apr1916/41), Gibbs (24Apr1916/37), Harborne (24Apr1916/38). SA: Malone (26Apr1916/24)

the adjoining buildings overlooking the Castle gate but not the complex itself, although it was only garrisoned by a skeleton force. This miscalculation formed, in Charles Townshend’s words, ‘one of the central . . . mysteries’ of the Rising. After Connolly killed the unarmed Constable James O’Brien, an act which apparently shocked some of his men, small ICA detachments took over the Daily Express office at 38–40 Parliament Street and Henry & James outfitters at 1–3 Parliament Street. Connolly entered City Hall from Exchange Court with ten men and kept up fire on Dublin Castle. The military took steps to secure and reinforce Dublin Castle. About 130 members of the RDF reached the Castle at around 14:00. They were joined by fifty RIR from Portobello Barracks. Almost ninety men of the RIR from Richmond Barracks arrived shortly after 21:30. That night Colonel Kennard, Dublin garrison commander, had approximately 300 troops at his disposal. His counterattack was swift and successful. By the early hours of Easter Wednesday, the ICA’s positions in City Hall and Parliament Street were retaken. The first target for troops in Dublin Castle was Connolly’s position in City Hall, which was subjected to continuous machine-gun and sniper fire. Connolly and two comrades were killed, as were a number of soldiers and some civilians in the vicinity. Matthew Connolly recalled that his brother Seán refused to let him dress a minor arm wound during the evening. Some time later Seán was shot, apparently as he hoisted a tricolour. Dr Kathleen Lynn, ICA medical officer, and Helena Molony ‘noticed Seán Connolly coming towards us, walking upright, although we had been advised to crouch and take cover as much as possible. We suddenly saw him fall mortally wounded. . . . He died almost immediately.’ Jane Shanahan of the ICA described how ‘a sniper . . . got Seán in the shoulder. He was so badly wounded he only lived about 5 minutes.’ Jack O’Reilly, Connolly’s second-in-command, was killed soon afterwards. As fire grew more intense, Matthew Connolly watched fellow insurgents on the

John Henry Gibbs (24Apr1916/37) Irish Association of Volunteer Training Corps, 55, Civil servant, Married, CoI Northumberland Road, Dublin See Clery (24Apr1916/36). Private Gibbs lived at 58 Belgrave Square, Rathmines. Buried MJC (C. 104).49 Thomas Harborne (24Apr1916/38) Irish Association of Volunteer Training Corps, 47, Clerk, Married with four children, RC Northumberland Road, Dublin See Clery (24Apr1916/36). Private Harborne lived at 6 Ignatius Avenue, Drumcondra.50 Seán (John) Connolly (24Apr1916/39) ICA, 33, Local government official, Married with three children, RC City Hall, Dame Street, Dublin Connolly, of 108 Philipsburgh Avenue, joined the ICA on its formation. He appeared in productions with the Abbey Theatre and the National Players. His brothers Joe and Matthew and his sister Katie also took part in the Rising. Captain Connolly led an ICA party to Dublin Castle to seize the guardroom and

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roof of the Henry & James building directing civilians on the street to go home. While so engaged, his friend Charles Darcy was hit by fire from the clock tower of Dublin Castle. Buried GC (South Section: G. b. 67). In 1923 Connolly’s widow wrote that ‘I took instantly the full brunt and risk of the consequences in asserting in the public press on behalf of those women who put patriotism first, their adhesion . . . to the Treaty.’ This had ‘deprived me of the regular source of income from the Concert platform on which, in part, I depended to bring up my children’, augmenting ‘the slender salary which I earn as a school attendance officer’. In 1924 she secured a pension of £162, to fall to £90 once all her children came of age, together with educational fees.51 RD: Byrne (24Apr1916/40), Darcy (24Apr 1916/41), Doyle (24Apr1916/42), Mulhern (24Apr1916/43), Mulvey (24Apr1916/44), Nolan (24Apr1916/45), O’Reilly (24Apr 1916/46). SA: O’Brien (24Apr1916/1)

Moses Doyle (24Apr1916/42) 14,54 Schoolboy, RC Little Ship Street, Dublin See Connolly (24Apr1916/39). Doyle, one of five children of Patrick and Mary Doyle of 7 Whitefriar Street, was shot while on an errand. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: K. a. 37.5). The RVC awarded the boy’s father £25.55 John Mulhern (24Apr1916/43) RIR (5797), 40, Married with children, RC Dublin Castle See Connolly (24Apr1916/39). Rifleman Mulhern, from Carrick-on-Shannon, Leitrim, enlisted in Dublin. His wife Annie lived at 3 Stephen’s Place, Lower Mount Street. Buried DGC (W. L. 49).56 James Arthur Mulvey57 (24Apr1916/44) Army Service Corps (M2/050797), Protestant Dublin Castle See Connolly (24Apr1916/39). Private Mulvey, from Leeds, lived at Wealdstone, Middlesex. Buried GMC (CE. 636).58

Louis James Byrne (24Apr1916/40) ICA, 46, Cabinet-maker, Married with five children, RC City Hall, Dame Street, Dublin See Connolly (24Apr1916/39). Byrne, of 23 Summerhill, joined the ICA in June 1915 and was ‘a good reliable soldier’. His widow Kathleen received £387 from the National Aid Fund up to 1921, and £1 monthly thereafter from the White Cross. She eventually secured a yearly pension of £90, with £24 for each of her five children. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot).52

John Nolan (24Apr1916/45) RIR (8692), 20, RC Dublin Castle See Connolly (24Apr1916/39). Rifleman Nolan, a son of Mrs M. Nolan of 48 Power’s Court, Lower Mount Street, enlisted in Dublin. Father James Burke identified him because his nose still bore the marks of a bite received from a horse while on leave a short time before. Buried GMC (RC. 485).59 John (Seán) O’Reilly (24Apr1916/46) ICA, 28, Carrier, RC City Hall, Dame Street, Dublin See Connolly (24Apr1916/39). ‘Jack’ O’Reilly, of 12 Lower Gardiner Street, renowned as a man of great physique, was second-incommand of the City Hall garrison. When Connolly was killed, he assumed command but was himself killed by machine-gun fire at around 19:00 ‘when attempting to get down from the roof . . . through a skylight’. A dependent sister received a gratuity of £100 in 1924. She and two unemployed brothers had ‘a bitter struggle’ to make ends meet: in 1940 she wrote that ‘we have received desperate

Charles Darcy (24Apr1916/41) ICA, 15, Porter, RC Henry & James Building, Parliament Street, Dublin See Connolly (24Apr1916/39). Darcy, one of six children of James and Elizabeth Darcy of 4 Kane’s Court, earned 10s.1d. weekly with Pims of George’s Street. Joining the ICA on its formation, he was a ‘very efficient young soldier’. His mother Elizabeth, widowed in 1922, eventually secured a dependent’s pension. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot).53

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treatement’. In 1942 Richard Mulcahy TD asked an official to ‘find a loop-hole’ and, ‘if nothing can be done . . . to exorcise the spirit of expectancy that possesses her’. In 1953 an incapacitated brother secured a yearly dependent’s allowance of £125. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: W. j. 121).60

leaving the village was shot through the lung by a .303 bullet.

McHugh believed that McGee’s death was accidental: ‘His death . . . was regretted sincerely by all in charge of the Volunteers. It was not our policy to shoot defenceless prisoners without good or sufficient reasons. Every night from this on, whilst we were together that man was prayed for by the whole company.’ Similarly, Donal O’Hannigan suggested that Dunville moved as if to draw a revolver and so was shot, McGee coming into the line of fire. MacEntee told the pensions board in 1945:

William Edgar Moy James (24Apr1916/47) Glamorgan Yeomanry (2424), 17, Protestant Richmond Hospital, Dublin Private James enlisted at Bridgend. He was fatally wounded on the first day of the Rising in unknown circumstances. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 37.5).61

as I turned . . . the officer of the Irish Guards . . . who was up to that keeping his hands up, dropped his hand towards his pocket and as he did so a shot rang out which wounded him and killed [McGee] . . . I could not see, it was not my business to establish who fired the shot, but certainly I gathered from what I heard at my own trial that the police mentioned that they were in a position to produce good witnesses who would testify that Paddy McHugh was the man who fired the shot.

Charles McGee (24Apr1916/48) RIC (66908), 23, Fisherman, RC Louth Infirmary, Dundalk, Louth McGee, from Donegal, joined the RIC on 1 November 1912, stationed in Castlebellingham. He was shot in confused circumstances. An inquest heard that at around 19:30 eight cars carrying Volunteers, travelling from the Dundalk direction, stopped in Castlebellingham. Acting Sergeant Patrick Kiernan and Constable Patrick Donovan were captured and held near their barracks. When McGee, recalled by Irish Volunteer Seán MacEntee, a future government minister, as ‘a tall, fine looking fellow, of rather a tougher spirit than his comrades’, arrived on his bicycle, he too was captured and dispatches taken from him. A motor car containing Second Lieutenant Robert Dunville of the Grenadier Guards and his driver was also stopped and the occupants placed with the captured policemen. A Volunteer shot out the tyres. Patrick McHugh was guarding Dunville, whom he thought was reaching for a gun. McHugh warned him, then:

Warrants were issued for Paddy Hughes and Paddy McHugh, but neither was captured. MacEntee, Frank Martin, Denis Leahy and James Sally were tried by court martial in Richmond Barracks on charges of murdering McGee, attempting to murder Dunville, and engaging in armed rebellion. All four pleaded not guilty. MacEntee, Martin and Leahy were sentenced to death, commuted to penal servitude for life for MacEntee and ten years for Martin and Leahy. Sally was sentenced to penal servitude for ten years with five years remitted. Hugh Quinn of Loughinisland, Down later claimed involvement in the shooting.62 John Murray (24Apr1916/49) 40, Coachman, Married with six children, RC Bow Street, Dublin Murray, of 28 Empress Terrace, North Circular Road, was shot while returning from Fairyhouse races. Buried GC (Dublin Section: I. §. 32.5). His widow Mary secured £275 compensation from the RVC.63

I called no more but fired, and, to my amazement, the RIC man at the other end of the line of prisoners fell. Another shot then rang out and I called for a ceasefire. What happened has never been fully explained. The RIC man . . . was killed by a charge of buckshot fired from a shotgun and the staff officer who fell to the ground as we were

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Windows were sandbagged and a guard placed on the roof. Patrick Pearse sent Keogh from the GPO to Kimmage to summon reinforcements and extra ammunition. On his return journey by bicycle at around 00:30, Keogh was shot on Grafton Street, opposite the house of the Provost of Trinity College. Two companions were wounded but escaped to Suffolk Street. At about 04:15, his body, ‘a small black hole in its temple’, was brought into the Provost’s house where, according to Elsie Mahaffy, the provost’s daughter, it remained for three days. Joly recalled: ‘He looked quite young; one might almost call him a boy. The handsome waxen face was on one side concealed in blood.’ Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot). Keogh’s mother and two sisters were later awarded limited support as dependents.68 SA: Pearse (3May1916/1)

Charles O’Gorman (24Apr1916/50) Reserve Cavalry Regiment (13057), Protestant Mercer’s O’Gorman, from Limerick, lived in London. He enlisted in Dublin and was a shoeing smith. Buried GMC (CE. 641).64 Guy Vickery Pinfield (24Apr1916/51) 8th (King’s Royal Irish) Hussars, 21, Protestant Dublin Castle Lieutenant Pinfield was fatally wounded outside the gates of Dublin Castle. Hannah Sheehy Skeffington recalled that her husband Francis and a chemist went to his aid despite heavy crossfire. Soldiers eventually dragged the lieutenant inside the gate. Buried GMC (Grave 67).65 SA: Sheehy Skeffington (26Apr1916/7) Alexander Kean (24Apr1916/52) 30, Clerk, Married with three children, CoI St Stephen’s Green, Dublin Employed by Clery & Co., Kean lived at 28 George’s Place. He was shot dead while passing through St Stephen’s Green. His widow Catherine and children secured £269 from the RVC.66

John Francis Adams (25Apr1916/2) ICA, 38, Warehouseman, Married with one child, RC St Stephen’s Green, Dublin Adams and his wife Mary lived at 109 Cork Street. He joined the ICA on its formation. The ICA’s inability to secure the Shelbourne Hotel on the northern side of St Stephen’s Green proved costly. Michael Mallin’s order to dig and occupy trenches at the entrances to the Green compounded problems. In the early hours of 25 April, forty soldiers made their way unchallenged from Dublin Castle along Kildare Street, establishing themselves on the roof of the Shelbourne Hotel and the United Services Club. From about 04:00, they maintained sustained machine-gun and rifle fire on the insurgents’ positions. Adams was hit in the liver and killed. Three comrades also died. James Stephens recalled seeing four bodies inside the railings of the Green. At around 07:00, most of the rebels abandoned the Green and occupied the Royal College of Surgeons. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: P. l. 281). In 1924 Adams’s widow Margaret secured a yearly allowances of £90, with £24 for her daughter Sheila.69

Unknown O’Toole (24Apr1916/53) 14, Schoolboy, Dublin A youth was dead from gunshot wounds on arrival at the Adelaide Hospital. Other than his surname, he was never identified. His reported age and status are taken from his death certificate. Buried GC.67

25 APRIL 1916 Gerald Keogh (25Apr1916/1) IV, 21, Shoe salesman, RC Upper Grafton Street, Dublin Keogh, educated at Synge Street CBS and St Enda’s College, Rathfarnham, served in the Fianna before joining the Volunteers. Two of his brothers also fought. When the Rising began, Joseph Marshall, the chief steward of Trinity College, had the front gates locked. He also invited soldiers on leave in Dublin to reinforce the Dublin University OTC. A total of forty-four men, including New Zealanders, Australians and South Africans, garrisoned Trinity College.

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RD: Clarke (25Apr1916/3), Corcoran (25Apr 1916/4), Fox (25Apr1916/5). SA: Mallin (8May1916/4)

Frank Robbins recalled Patrick Fox saying to him outside Liberty Hall on 24 April: ‘Here is my lad. Take him with you for the ICA. I am too old for the job.’ According to the Republican Soldiers’ Casualty Committee, James had just ‘got a cup of tea and brought it into the shrubbery to drink when fire was opened from two directions’. Caulfield stated that Fox was hit as he made a dash for the railings. In 1923 Fox’s father wrote to ‘Dear Joe’ [McGrath, minister for industry and commerce], seeking assistance. Army intelligence reported that James had been an Irish Volunteer, but had fought with the ICA after his father ‘went home’. On appeal he received a gratuity, but told President Cosgrave in 1926 that ‘the £50 awarded was poor compensation for the loss of my poor boy. . . . When I was going out with my boy in 1916 I little thought that it would come to poverty, if we escaped the bullets.’ He sought Cosgrave’s help in securing work for his surviving son, though after de Valera’s election in 1932 he wrote that ‘I gave my services & money to help the cause from the early days of the Parnell movement’, and ‘could not & would not accept employment from the Cosgrave people’. Despite supporting representations, no further award was made. Buried Knockmark Cemetery, Drumree, Meath.74

Philip Clarke (25Apr1916/3) ICA, 40, Carter, Married with nine children, RC St Stephen’s Green, Dublin See Adams (25Apr1916/2). ‘Phil’ Clarke, from Meath, lived on Cork Street. Employed by Parkes & Sons ‘for 24 years’, he ‘bore an excellent character’. A founder member of the ICA, he was a labour activist and a friend of James Connolly. T. O’Donoghue recalled that at dawn his party were attempting to remove the chains on the Kildare Street gate of St Stephen’s Green to reinforce the barricade beside the Shelbourne Hotel. Seeing movement at a hotel window, he ordered his men to retreat. Clarke was shot. His brother James also described his death.70 Clarke’s eldest son Thomas, a boy of fifteen, had gone out with his father on Easter Monday but was sent home. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: B. i. 284). In 1924 Monica Clarke received a yearly allowance of £90, together with £24 each for five of her children.71 SA: Connolly (12May1916/2) James Corcoran (25Apr1916/4) ICA, 33, Labourer, Married with three children, RC St Stephen’s Green, Dublin See Adams (25Apr1916/2). Corcoran, from Wexford,72 joined the ICA in 1915. Although ‘very quiet and reticent . . . Captain Mallin had a very good opinion of him’. Corcoran was hit in a trench on the eastern side of St Stephen’s Green by machine-gun fire. Buried GC (South Section: Q. 40.5). In 1924 his widow secured a yearly allowance of £90, with £24 for each of three children.73

William Francis Burke (25Apr1916/6) IV, 19, RC SDU Frank ‘Gobben’ Burke, the son of Thomas and Brigid Burke of 174 James’s Street, was a halfbrother of W. T. Cosgrave, then adjutant in the South Dublin Union garrison and future president of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State. Peadar Doyle recalled how Burke was shot through the throat while on lookout. Decades later, Cosgrave told the BMH of the loss of ‘one of the best Volunteers in the battalion, energetic, untiring and devoted to his comrades . . . my recollection is that I did not post sentries’. He did not mention their family link. Throughout the day, the military attempted to capture the remaining buildings in the South Dublin Union. Buried Golden Bridge Cemetery, Inchicore.75

James Fox (25Apr1916/5) ICA, 18, Grocer’s assistant, RC St Stephen’s Green North, Dublin See Adams (25Apr1916/2). Fox, from Drumree, Meath, lived at 74 Thomas Street in Dublin, and attended Marino CBS. He worked for the Maypole Dairy.

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military doctor decided not to move the wounded man, who died next morning. Buried St Mary’s Hospital, Phoenix Park.78

Richard Waters (25Apr1916/7) 49, Bank manager, CoI Mount Street Bridge, Dublin Waters, of ‘The Recess’, Monkstown, worked in the Bank of Ireland on College Green. He was a passenger in a car driven by Captain Scovell RAMC near Mount Street Bridge, ‘not challenged or asked to stop’ before coming under fire from Volunteers. Buried DGC (O. 75. SW). The RVC awarded £252 to Waters’s sister.76

Ernest Cavanagh79 (25Apr1916/9) 32, Commercial clerk, RC Liberty Hall, Beresford Place, Dublin Cavanagh, of 30 Oxford Road, was the cartoonist for the Workers’ Republic. Maeve Cavanagh-McDowell, of the ICA, stated that her brother was not in either the Volunteers or the ICA:

George Playfair77 (25Apr1916/8) 23, Civil servant, CoE Park Place, Islandbridge, Dublin Playfair, one of six children of George Robert and Georgina Playfair, was an Inland Revenue clerk. The family lived in the Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park, where his father had been commander before going to France. The IRB’s Military Council had ordered Paddy Daly, who had made a study of the fort’s layout and routine while working there as a tradesman, to blow it up. His group assembled at Liberty Hall at 11:00. They pretended to be a football team, passing a ball among themselves as they approached the sentry at about 12:15. He was rushed and disarmed, while Daly and two others held up the occupants of the guardroom, together with Mrs Playfair, two sons and daughter. But the explosives store was locked and the key could not be found. The Volunteers seized rifles and ammunition, and placed explosives in the small arms store and other rooms. Daly released his captives and warned them to leave the premises immediately. A number of small explosions took place, but the raid had failed in its primary aim of destroying the fort. Garry Holohan recalled that as the Volunteers left towards the Chapelizod Road in a hackney car, one of the Playfair sons was seen speaking to a policeman directing traffic. He then ran towards Islandbridge Barracks. Holohan pursued him on a bicycle. Playfair had just reached the house of Mrs E. Higgins at Park Place, where he asked to use the telephone, when Holohan ‘shot him from the gate’. Mrs Higgins later deposed that a ‘rough looking man’ fired three shots. A

Ernest went down town and went up the steps of Liberty Hall thinking some of the ICA might be there . . . as he went up the steps he was killed – riddled with bullets fired by soldiers in the Custom House. He had told my sister . . . at breakfast that he could not sleep all night.

Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 38).80 Patrick Brosnan (25Apr1916/10) RIF (15231), 51, RIC pensioner, Married with children, RC Dublin Castle From Dunmanway, Cork, Brosnan joined the RIC (51727) on 28 April 1886, allocated to Westmeath. He subsequently served in Kerry, Limerick and Meath. Promoted to sergeant in 1896 and to head constable in 1908, Brosnan was pensioned on 1 September 1911. On the outbreak of war, he enlisted in the RIF, serving as a sergeant-major and musketry instructor in Donegal. Brosnan took leave to see his wife Lucy and children in Dublin. He was due to return to Buncrana on 25 April but offered his services to the military in Dublin Castle. It appears that during the afternoon, Brosnan saw a rebel taking aim at a soldier. He disarmed the man, saving the soldier’s life. Dressed in plain clothes, Brosnan was shot by another soldier who mistook him for a rebel. Buried GMC (RC. 477).81 Margaret Nolan (25Apr1916/11) 29, Confectioner, RC MMH ‘Maggie’ Nolan, daughter of Anne Nolan of 6.2 Lower Wellington Street, was a forewoman in Jacob’s Factory on Bishop Street.

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Shot in Phibsborough, she died at 18:00. Buried GC (Dublin Section: D. c. 24.5). The RVC awarded her mother £50.82

Buried GC (Dublin Section: I. §. 48.5). His widow Agnes secured £234 from the RVC.87 Edward Cosgrave (25Apr1916/16) 45, Porter, Married with seven children, RC Sackville Street, Dublin Cosgrave, of 65 Lower Dominick Street, was shot while looking for his brother. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: D. c. 30). His widow Mary and dependent children were awarded £156 by the RVC.88

James Joseph Coade (25Apr1916/12) 19, Cycle mechanic, RC Lower Rathmines Road, Dublin Coade was one of nine children of John Joseph and Mary Jane Coade of 28 Upper Mount Pleasant Avenue. After leaving a sodality meeting in Mary Immaculate Church, he and Laurence Byrne encountered a patrol on Rathmines Road led by Captain J. C. Bowen-Colthurst of the RIR. He questioned them, warning that martial law had been declared. Witnesses at the commission into the deaths of Francis Sheehy Skeffington, Thomas Dickson and Patrick McIntyre stated that Bowen-Colthurst shot Coade without provocation at about 22:30. His body was taken to the Portobello Barracks mortuary. Father Francis O’Loughlin, curate in Rathmines and chaplain in Portobello Barracks, informed Coade’s father, who identified his son’s body on 28 April. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: C. h. 214).83 SA: Dickson (26Apr1916/8), McIntyre (26Apr 1916/9), Sheehy Skeffington (26Apr1916/7)

Edward Joseph Costello (25Apr1916/17) IV, 27, Married with one child, RC JSH Costello received head wounds in the Church Street area. His widow Anne wrote from Lurgan, Armagh, ‘that as unhappy relations had arisen between us he had been living apart from me’ and had not contributed anything: ‘I never took proceedings against him’ and ‘always looked forward to the day to his returning to live with me’. She secured yearly compensation of £90, and £24 yearly for her daughter. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 38).89 Joseph Cullen (25Apr1916/18) RIF (G/1015), Protestant Dublin Private Cullen, from Belfast, enlisted in the RIR (4550) before joining the RIF. He died in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (CE. 610).90

Alice Bambrick84 (25Apr1916/13) 44, Housewife, Married with three children, RC Rotunda Hospital, Dublin A labourer’s wife, Alice Bambrick lived at 8 Willet Place, Lower Rutland Street. Shot in the liver on Cavendish Row, she later died. Buried GC (Dublin Section: O. §. 20.5). Her husband was awarded £25 by the RVC.85

Moses Dunne (25Apr1916/19) 37, Plasterer, Married with one child, RC South King Street, Dublin Dunne, of 36 Wexford Street, was shot on South King Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: B. §. 47.5). His widow Bridget received £293 from the RVC.91

Henry Hildebrand Bond (25Apr1916/14) 33, Clockmaker, CoI JSH Originally from Dundalk, Louth, Bond was believed to have been shot on Dame Lane. Buried MJC (A. 405. 85). The RVC awarded Bond’s mother £300.86

Peter Fahey (25Apr1916/20) 23, Tailor, Married with one child, RC Usher’s Island, Dublin See Neilan (24Apr1916/13). Fahey, of 18 Usher’s Island, was killed when a bullet came through a window. Buried GC (Dublin Section: Q. §. 45.5). His widow Catherine and child secured £250 compensation from the RVC.92

Joseph Casey (25Apr1916/15) 32, Carter, Married, RC Beresford Place, Dublin Casey, living at 65A Townsend Street, was shot while returning home from Fairyhouse races.

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Green and was sniped. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: H. l. 20). His dependents secured £300 compensation from the RVC.98

Patrick Harris (25Apr1916/21) 40, Labourer, Married with four children, RC MMH Harris, of 23 Marlborough Place, was shot in the head on Eden Quay. Buried GC. His widow Teresa and children secured £300 compensation from the RVC.93

Joseph O’Flaherty (25Apr1916/26) RIC pensioner, RC Pembroke Road, Dublin O’Flaherty, living on Northumberland Road, had been head constable in charge of Antrim Road RIC Barracks, Belfast from 1893 until he retired in 1912. He was reportedly shot through the eye by a sniper while at the door of a house on Pembroke Road. Buried DGC.99

Johanna Kearns (25Apr1916/22) 49, Married, RC Merchant’s Quay, Dublin See Neilan (24Apr1916/13). Johanna, wife of Michael Kearns of 3 Gray Street, was probably killed in crossfire near the Mendicity Institute. Buried DGC (G. 2. 25 W).94

Harry Phillips (25Apr1916/27) RIR (8379), 20 Royal Hospital Kilmainham, Dublin See Owens (24Apr1916/17). Private Phillips, from Whitminster, Gloucestershire, stationed at Richmond Barracks, died from wounds sustained the previous day at the South Dublin Union. Buried RHKC (O. R. Grd).100

Denis Kelly (25Apr1916/23) 43, Ticket checker, Married with three children, RC JSH Kelly, from Kildare, lived at 13 South Dock Street. He joined the GS&WR on 25 July 1895, working at the North Wall, where he was wounded. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 37.5). His widow Esther and one child secured £201 compensation from the RVC.95

Prudence Vantree101 (25Apr1916/28) 68, Caretaker’s wife, Married with one child, CoI Werburgh Street, Dublin Prudence, wife of Abraham Vantree, was shot upstairs at her home, 22.1 Werburgh Street. Buried MJC (A. 276. 80).102

James J. Kelly (25Apr1916/24) Fianna Éireann, 15, Fitter’s apprentice, RC MMH Kelly was one of six children of Francis, a brass-finisher, and Teresa Kelly of 205 Phibsborough Road. A newspaper reported that Kelly, shot in the head at Blacquiere Bridge, died soon afterwards. A DMP report said that his brother claimed he was ‘shot for refusing to join the rebels’. He is commemorated by a plaque set into the pavement at Doyle’s Corner, Phibsborough. Buried GC (Dublin Section: B. §. 10.5).96

Edward Walsh (25Apr1916/29) Hibernian Rifles, 43, Carter, Married with two children, RC Exchange Hotel, Parliament Street, Dublin103 ‘Ned’ Walsh lived at 8 Lower Dominick Street with his wife Ellen and children. Edward Kelly recalled how the Hibernian Rifles were formed in Skipper’s Alley as a military wing of the AOH, armed with rifles taken from the National Volunteers. The force numbered about fifty. About a month before the Rising, they joined forces with the Volunteers. Walsh was the only Hibernian Rifles member to be killed. Thomas F. Byrne told the BMH that he and a number of Volunteers and Hibernian Rifles were ordered to go from the GPO to occupy a house in Parliament Street across from City Hall, which was held by the military. Byrne led his men across the Liffey and up an alleyway

Edward Murphy (25Apr1916/25) 42, Court crier, Married with five children, RC Mercer’s Murphy, from Kildare, lived at 19 Upper Pembroke Street.97 A DMP report stated he was ‘shot by rebels who were in possession of Stephens Green’ on 24 April, and died next day. It was reported that Murphy, crier for Judge Lenihan, raised his hand to salute a friend near the Unionist Club on St Stephen’s

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behind the Exchange Hotel. They entered a wallpaper and paint premises, then broke through into the Exchange Hotel. With a clear view of City Hall, Byrne’s party were able to pin down soldiers from the rooftop of the hotel, shielding themselves with large rolls of wallpaper. Walsh was killed.104 John Hanratty of the ICA recalled that in 1945 Walsh’s son told him that he was with his father when this happened and was afterwards sent home. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: R. a. 37.5). His widow Ellen, who bore a third child, Edward Pearse, seven months after her husband’s death, died in 1929. She secured a £24 yearly allowance for each child.105

John Kirwan (25Apr1916/34) 15, Labourer, RC Sackville Street, Dublin The youngest of thirteen children of John, a stoker, and Anne Kirwan, living at 3 Lower Erne Place, Great Brunswick Street. John junior worked with McNeill’s Saw Mills, Great Brunswick Street. According to family descendants, Kirwan was shot dead on Sackville Street while on an errand to buy a toy elephant in Elverys for his infant sister. His death certificate recorded that he had been shot in the throat. Mrs Kirwan placed a newspaper advert seeking information on her missing son. The RVC made a compassionate grant of £50 as his father had joined the Royal Navy during the war.111

Sidney Leonard Young (25Apr1916/30) RIR (8419), 23, Protestant RHK, Dublin See Owens (24Apr1916/16). Private Young, from Small Heath, Birmingham, died from wounds sustained the previous day at the South Dublin Union. Buried GMC (CE: 806).106

Myles White (25Apr1916/35) 35, Shop assistant, RC St Stephen’s Green, Dublin White left his home at 7 Lennox Street during the morning and was not seen alive again. The DMP believed he was one of three unidentified men killed in St Stephen’s Green North who were removed by Corporation ambulance to Mercer’s Hospital. His father James secured £156 from the RVC.112

William Fox (25Apr1916/31) 13, Draper’s assistant, RC JSH Fox, of 6 Holy Cross Avenue, was fatally wounded after leaving 11:00 Mass at Marlborough Street en route to work. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 38). His mother Alice secured £50 from the RVC.107

Mary Lawlor (25Apr1916/36) 53, Caretaker, RC Dame Street, Dublin Mary Lawlor, caretaker at 1 Dame Street, was killed in her bedroom when a bullet came through the window. Her niece Mary Josephine Lawlor secured a compassionate grant of £50 from the RVC.113

Philip Walsh (25Apr1916/32) 11, Schoolboy Mercer’s Philip, of 10 Hacketts Court, was wounded in the vicinity of St Stephen’s Green while seeking bread. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 37.5). His mother Ellen secured £50 from the RVC.108

26 APRIL 1916 Henry Hare (26Apr1916/1) RDF (6745), 40, Married with two children, RC Parliament Street, Dublin Sergeant Hare enlisted in his home town of Dublin. His wife Rosanna lived at 109 Cupar Street, Belfast. An RDF detachment, under the command of Second Lieutenant F. O’Neill, attacked the Daily Express office at 38–40 Parliament Street, under covering fire from City Hall. Journalist F. A. McKenzie wrote that ‘the battle was

Christopher Connor109 (25Apr1916/33) 20, Engineer’s apprentice, RC 40 Merrion Square, Dublin Connor, of 31 Strandville Avenue, shot when he went to help a wounded civilian on Lower Mount Street, died in an emergency hospital. Buried GC (Dublin Section: M. §. 42.5). His father Christopher secured £25 from the RVC.110

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neither short nor easy’. The RDF lost some men in fighting which continued overnight until the building was captured. Hare was shot dead. Buried GMC (Grave 482).114 RD: Coxon (26Apr1916/2), Geoghegan (26Apr 1916/3), Lucas (26Apr1916/4), Watchorn (26Apr1916/5)

and marched to Carnmore, about three miles from Galway. Liam Mellows† ordered them to join Larry Lardner and his company in Athenry. At about 05:00, a convoy of thirteen cars approached from the Galway direction. These were RIC and military under the command of Colonel Bodkin and DI Heard. The Volunteers opened fire on the convoy, which halted about 100 yards away. The Crown forces replied, tried to rush the Volunteer position, and were beaten back. Constable Whelan was shot in the head and killed outright. The engagement lasted about thirty minutes, after which the Volunteers withdrew. Buried Bohermore Cemetery, Galway.119

Richard Coxon (26Apr1916/2) RDF (22164), RC Parliament Street, Dublin See Hare (26Apr1916/1). Private Coxon, from Murton, Durham, enlisted at Sunderland in the RFA (66612) before transferring to the RDF. Buried GMC (RC. 479).115 George Geoghegan (26Apr1916/3) ICA, 35, Railway employee, Married with three children, RC Parliament Street, Dublin See Hare (26Apr1916/1). Geoghegan, from Kildare, lived on Cork Street, worked at Inchicore Railway Works, and played the clarinet in the St James’s Band and the Transport Union band. Joining the ICA on its formation, ‘a good steady man’, he was shot through the head during heavy crossfire in the early hours. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot).116

Francis Joseph Christopher Sheehy Skeffington (26Apr1916/7) 37, Journalist, Married with one child120 Portobello Barracks, Rathmines, Dublin Sheehy Skeffington, from Bailieborough, Cavan, was son of Dr Joseph Bartholomew and Rose Skeffington. In 1902 he graduated from the Royal University with an MA. The following year he married his classmate Hannah Sheehy and added her surname to his own. They lived at 11 Grosvenor Place. Sheehy Skeffington became a well-known journalist, pacifist and supporter of women’s emancipation. In 1912, Sheehy Skeffington became editor of the Irish Citizen with James Cousins, and was also a regular contributor to the Manchester Guardian and L’Humanité. In May 1915, Sheehy Skeffington delivered a lecture denouncing the mooted introduction of conscription in Ireland, for which he was arrested and charged under DORA. Tried and sentenced to six months’ hard labour plus a £50 fine or a further six months in prison, he went on hunger strike on 7 June 1915 and was released a week later under the ‘Cat and Mouse’ Act.121 Julia Hughes recalled that on the night of 25 April she saw Sheehy Skeffington distributing leaflets near Portobello Bridge: ‘There was nothing on the leaflet of a political nature that could justify his arrest. It was advising the people against looting.’ As he walked home at around 20:00, he was arrested near Portobello Bridge and taken to Portobello

Francis Lucas (26Apr1916/4) RDF (17687), 41, RC Parliament Street, Dublin See Hare (26Apr1916/1). Private Lucas was from Leeds. Buried GMC (RC. 480).117 Abraham Watchorn (26Apr1916/5) RDF (25026), 21, CoI Parliament Street, Dublin See Hare (26Apr1916/1). Private Watchorn, son of Abraham Watchorn of Williamstown, Rathvilly, Carlow, lived in Wicklow. Buried GMC (CE. 625).118 Patrick Whelan (26Apr1916/6) RIC (63409), 34, Farmer, RC Carnmore, Claregalway, Galway From Kilkenny, Whelan joined the RIC in 1907, allocated to Galway. Brian Molloy recalled that during Easter Week his Irish Volunteer company mobilised

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Barracks, where he was questioned by the 3rd Battalion adjutant, RIR. It appears that orders were received to detain him. Sometime between 22:00 and 23:00, Captain J. C. Bowen-Colthurst, in command of a party of twenty-five men of the RIR detailed to occupy Alderman James J. Kelly’s tobacco shop at the corner of Camden Street and Harrington Street, took Sheehy Skeffington along as a hostage. Sheehy Skeffington witnessed BowenColthurst shoot James Coade. BowenColthurst then led a section to Kelly’s shop, where Thomas Dickson, Patrick McIntyre and two other men were arrested. Dickson and McIntyre were taken to Portobello Barracks, where Sheehy Skeffington was returned to his cell. Shortly after 10:00 on 26 April, BowenColthurst told Sergeant John Aldridge that he wished to speak to McIntyre, Dickson and Sheehy Skeffington in the yard. When the prisoners were assembled, Bowen-Colthurst had them shot without warning by seven members of the guard. Death was instantaneous in the case of Dickson and McIntyre but Sheehy Skeffington needed a second shot to finish him off. In a written statement later that day, Bowen-Colthurst maintained: ‘As I considered that there was a reasonable chance of the prisoners making their escape and knowing the three prisoners (from the correspondence captured on them the previous evening) to be dangerous characters, I called upon the Guard to fire upon them which they did with effect.’ Bowen-Colthurst remained at large until 6 May when, thanks to pressure by a fellow officer, Sir Francis Vane, he was placed under arrest. He was found guilty but insane by a court martial in Richmond Barracks on 6 and 7 June. Detained in Broadmoor Lunatic Asylum for two years, he secured conditional release and later immigrated to Canada, where he died in 1965. A royal commission into the circumstances of the three murders sat between 23 and 31 August 1916. It took evidence from thirty-eight witnesses, though not Bowen-Colthurst. The commission found that Sheehy Skeffington was not involved in the Rising and that ‘the shooting of unarmed and unresisting civilians without trial

constitutes the offence of murder, whether martial law had been proclaimed or not’. Buried GC (South Section: Z. 2. 18). Hannah Sheehy Skeffington refused to accept compensation.122 RD: Dickson (26Apr1916/8), McIntyre (26Apr1916/9). SA: Coade (25Apr1916/12) Thomas Dickson (26Apr1916/8) 31, Journalist, RC Portobello Barracks, Rathmines, Dublin See Sheehy Skeffington (26Apr1916/7). Dickson, from Scotland, lived at 12 Harrington Street. Editor of a small newspaper, the Eye-Opener, he had no subversive connections. According to Hannah Sheehy Skeffington, he was disabled. Buried GC (Garden Section: V. §. 78).123 Patrick James McIntyre (26Apr1916/9) 36, Journalist, RC Portobello Barracks, Rathmines, Dublin See Sheehy Skeffington (26Apr1916/7). McIntyre, of 21 Fownes Street, was editor of The Searchlight, a loyalist paper, and an opponent of James Larkin. Hannah Sheehy Skeffington suggested that the military confused McIntyre’s paper with The Spark, a Volunteer organ. Buried DGC (K2. 18. W).124 John Donnelly (26Apr1916/10) 44, Labourer, RC Cavendish Row, Dublin Donnelly, of 8 Lower Gloucester Street, was shot at 11:20. His father Edward received £75 from the RVC. Buried GC (Dublin Section: N. §. 41.5).125 Peter Wilson (26Apr1916/11) IV, 40 (c. 37), Labourer, RC Mendicity Institute, Usher’s Island, Dublin ‘Cooty’ Wilson from Swords, Dublin, was a member of 5th (Fingal) Battalion, Dublin Brigade. Thomas Peppard recalled that on 25 April twenty members of the battalion were ordered to reinforce units fighting in the city. They reported to the GPO. Some were sent to the garrison at Kelly’s on Bachelor’s Walk. Another party, which included Peppard and Wilson, reinforced

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Seán Heuston’s overwhelmingly outnumbered garrison in the Mendicity Institute. James Crenigan recalled the fight in the Mendicity Institute, which by midday on 26 April was ‘just plastered with machine-gun and rifle fire, and we seemed to be surrounded as we were being fired on from all sides’. Trapped and practically overrun, Heuston opted to surrender. One Volunteer went into the yard with a white flag. James Brennan recorded that Wilson was shot dead from the tower of the old Anchor Brewery as they made for the back gate in Island Street. Wilson is commemorated on a plaque at Bridge Street, Swords.126 SA: Heuston (8May1916/3)

The original plan for the Rising had envisaged that Volunteers at Kingstown and Blackrock would attack military reinforcements arriving by sea. But these units did not mobilise. Consequently, troops landing at Kingstown met no opposition until they reached Northumberland Road, where a section of C Company had taken up positions covering the approaches to Mount Street Bridge. George Reynolds, Richard Murphy, Jimmy Doyle, Patrick Doyle, Willie Ronan and Tom and James Walsh occupied the three-storey Clanwilliam House, on the city side of the Grand Canal, which dominated Mount Street Bridge and Northumberland Road. Three men occupied St Stephen’s Hall on Northumberland Road and three others the school opposite. Michael Malone and Jim (Séamus) Grace held 25 Northumberland Road, the corner house on Haddington Road which commanded the front gate of Beggars Bush Barracks as well as offering the first sight of soldiers arriving from Kingstown. The engagement at Mount Street Bridge occasioned the largest number of British casualties of the Rising. Twenty-eight members of the 2/7th and 2/8th were killed or subsequently died of their wounds, and about 135 were wounded.127 Four Volunteers died, and a number of civilians were killed by crossfire or sniper fire. Colonel Maconchy set up headquarters in Pembroke Town Hall. Lieutenant-Colonel Cecil Fane’s 2/7th Battalion came under fire shortly after midday at the junction of Northumberland Road and Pembroke Road. Without any machine guns, Fane advanced with C Company, taking Dietrichsen with him. They came under heavy and accurate fire from Malone and Grace. Dietrichsen was mortally wounded and Fane was hit in the arm. Lieutenant Hawken was killed as C Company attempted to reach Baggot Street Bridge along Haddington Road. An attempt to rush No. 25 was driven back with considerable losses. Captain A. A. Dickson, a friend and comrade of Hawken, recalled that they ‘advanced by rushes with some cover from trees . . . with bullets of all sorts chipping pavements and gate-posts’. Dickson’s own life was saved when a bullet lodged in his field

Frederick Christian Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment), 33, Barrister, Married with two children Northumberland Road, Dublin Dietrichsen, from Essex, was a successful barrister on the Midland circuit, living at 5 Weston Terrace, Nottingham. Commissioned in November 1914, he was a captain and adjutant of the 2/7th Battalion. His wife Beatrice Mitchell, from Blackrock, Dublin, had returned to Ireland with their children for fear of Zeppelin raids. Only hours before his death, she briefly saw her husband after he landed with his battalion. On the night of 25 April, four battalions of the Sherwood Foresters, under the command of Colonel E. W. S. K. Maconchy, left Liverpool and reached Kingstown (Dún Laoghaire) early the following morning. These were second line battalions, largely composed of raw recruits with little more than three months’ service and no combat experience. Critically, as it would prove, their Lewis guns were delayed in Liverpool. The brigade was divided into two columns. The 2/5th and 2/6th were to march by the inland route, via Dolphin’s Barn, to the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, while the 2/7th supported by the 2/8th was to take the coastal route via Ballsbridge and proceed via Northumberland Road to Trinity College. Fierce opposition was encountered at Mount Street Bridge.

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service pocket book. Other troops attempted to work around Beggars Bush Barracks to the right but came under fire from the railway embankment, where Volunteers from Boland’s Bakery had taken up position. Quartermaster Sergeant Gamble was shot dead. The 2/7th was caught in a devastating crossfire from No. 25 and Clanwilliam House, and sniper fire from the railway embankment and Grand Canal Street Bridge. The Sherwood Foresters spent some hours trying to capture No. 25. Snipers fired from the belfry of Haddington Road Church which overlooked Malone’s post. Despite being dazed from the constant explosions, Malone and Grace held out until about 17:00 when they prepared for a last stand on the stairs by fixing bayonets. When a storming party broke into the house on the middle floor, the two Volunteers were separated. Malone was killed. Grace hid in the kitchen, which was barricaded, and after some hours escaped into the back garden but was arrested the following evening. The Volunteers in the parochial hall surrendered at about 18:00. The losses sustained by the beleaguered 2/7th were such that it had to be relieved by the 2/8th Battalion, with orders to storm the schoolhouse at all costs. When the schoolhouse was taken, it proved to be empty. At around 18:00, B Company advanced, coming under intense fire. Its commander, Lieutenant Harold Daffen and Second Lieutenant Montague Browne got across the bridge but were then killed. Thomas and James Walsh recalled that after successfully repelling two efforts by soldiers to rush the bridge, neither Dick Murphy nor Paddy Doyle said anything. Both had been killed while firing from a middle window. Led by Captain Arthur Quibell, troops finally crossed the bridge and stormed Clanwilliam House. Company Sergeant-Major Dixey was killed. The Volunteers had fought for nine hours until their ammunition was almost exhausted and the building was on fire. Reynolds issued an order to retreat, but was fatally wounded as he left. At about 21:00, Willie Ronan, the Walsh brothers and Jimmy Doyle broke through the back door and crossed several other gardens until they reached safety. Only

a portion of one body was ever found in the ruins of Clanwilliam House. The Sherwood Foresters halted about 200 yards along Mount Street and consolidated their position. On 27 April, relieved by the South Staffordshire Regiment, the Sherwood Foresters marched to the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham. They lost four more men in the vicinity of the South Dublin Union. Buried DGC (K2. 66 S.). In January 1917 Dietrichsen was mentioned in dispatches for distinguished service.128 RD: Andrews (27Apr1916/49), Barks (26Apr 1916/31), Blissett (26Apr1916/14), Bradford (5May1916/2), Browne (30Apr1916/1), Daffen (26Apr1916/32), Davenport (28May 1916/1), Dixey (27Apr1916/12), Dixon (26Apr 1916/15), Doyle (26Apr1916/37), Elliott (26Apr1916/16), Farnsworth (26Apr1916/ 17), Forth (27Apr1916/16), Gamble (26Apr 1916/18), Goss (26Apr1916/19), Hawken (26Apr1916/13), Hayter (28Apr1916/41), Holbrook (26Apr1916/20), Holland (26Apr 1916/33), Hosford (26Apr1916/34), Hoyle (26Apr1916/21), Jeffs (26Apr1916/22), Kitchen (26Apr1916/35), Lang (26Apr1916 /23), Malone (26Apr1916/24), Miller (26Apr 1916/25), Murphy (26Apr1916/36), Perry (26Apr1916/26), Reynolds (26Apr1916/38), Rodgers (27Apr1916/42), Sibley (26Apr 1916/27), Tunnicliffe (26Apr1916/29), Wood (17May1916/1), Wyld (26Apr1916/30) William Victor Hawken (26Apr1916/13) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment), 31, Protestant Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Hawken, of 12 Chichester Street, Westminster, London, was commissioned into the Sherwood Foresters in January 1916 in the 2/7th Battalion. Buried St George’s (Hanover Square) Anglican Cemetery, Hanwell, Middlesex (H 4365).129 J. S. Blissett130 (26Apr1916/14) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5592), 22 Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Blissett was from Kirton Lindsey, Lincolnshire. Buried DGC (T1. 85. SW).131

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Sneinton, Nottingham. Buried GMC (CE. 631).137

C. T. Dixon (26Apr1916/15) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5532), CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Dixon of the 2/7th Battalion was from Beeston, Nottingham. Buried GMC (CE. 630).132

Charles Hoyle (26Apr1916/21) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (6081), 33, Married, CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Corporal Hoyle of the 2/7th Battalion was from Huddersfield. His wife Sarah lived at Beeston Hill, Leeds. He served with the West Yorkshire Regiment (2406) before enlisting in the Sherwood Foresters. Buried GMC (CE. 632).138

Alfred Goddard Elliott (26Apr1916/16) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5480), 23 Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Elliott of the 2/7th Battalion was from Sneinton Oak, Nottingham. Buried Nottingham Church Cemetery (Oak. 3010).133

Percival Jeffs (26Apr1916/22) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (4709), 19 Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Jeffs of the 2/7th Battalion was from Bulwell, Nottingham. Buried Nottingham General Cemetery (8387 C).139

Ernest Farnsworth (26Apr1916/17) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (2961) Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Farnsworth of the 2/7th Battalion was from Nottingham. Buried Nottingham General Cemetery (4/3772).134

William Lang (26Apr1916/23) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (3290) Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Lang of the 2/7th Battalion was from Nottingham. Buried DGC.140

Robert Gamble (26Apr1916/18) RIR (8833), 28, Married, CoI Shelbourne Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Company quartermaster sergeant Gamble, from Dublin, was twice wounded in France. Stationed in Beggars Bush Barracks, he ‘was shot dead, under the right eye’. Buried Bungay Anglican Cemetery, Suffolk (S. 39).135

Michael Malone (26Apr1916/24) IV, 28, Carpenter, RC 25 Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Malone was a lieutenant in C Company, and reportedly de Valera’s aide-de-camp. He had a reputation as a crack shot. Malone was under no illusions. At a battalion council meeting on 21 April, he said to Joe O’Connor: ‘Well, Joe, it’s pretty close to hand. I know you’ll come through, but I won’t.’ Buried GC (South Section: R. 40.5).141

Joseph Goss (26Apr1916/19) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (3080), 25 Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Goss of the 2/7th Battalion was from Nottingham. Buried New Basford Cemetery, Nottingham (S. I. 2).136

Thomas H. Miller (26Apr1916/25) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5664), 21, CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Miller of the 2/7th Battalion, was from Chatham, Kent. Buried GMC (CE. 618).142

Arthur Holbrook (26Apr1916/20) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5605), 22, CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Holbrook of the 2/7th Battalion was from

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Percy Claude Perry (26Apr1916/26) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment), 33, Lace Manufacturer, Married Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Lieutenant Perry, from Nottingham, married Hilda Baxter six weeks before his death. A noted sportsman, he worked in the family lacemaking business prior to enlisting as a private. He was commissioned in March 1915 in the 7th Battalion. Buried Nottingham General Cemetery (1231).143

Walter Astle Tunnicliffe (26Apr1916/29) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5555), 22 RCDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Tunnicliffe of the 2/7th Battalion was from Long Eaton, Nottinghamshire. Tunnicliffe, hit in the back of the head, had been recommended for a commission. The NEP carried an account of events by J. F. Cronin, president of Preston Irish Literary Society, who was in Dublin during the Rising. Cronin observed a girl venturing into the fire-swept streets to assist wounded soldiers. In one instance, she used her apron to staunch a young soldier’s wounds, whom the Long Eaton Advertiser suggested was Tunnicliffe. Buried Long Eaton Cemetery, Nottinghamshire (B. 1448).147

A. Sibley144 (26Apr1916/27) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (3308), CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Sibley of the 2/7th Battalion was from Beeston, Nottingham. Buried GMC (CE. 633).145

George Wyld (26Apr1916/30) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5430),148 20, CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Wyld of the 2/7th Battalion was from Ripley, Derbyshire. Buried GMC (CE 619).149

Holden Stodart (26Apr1916/28) 33, Clerk, Married with one child, Presbyterian Northumberland Road, Dublin The youngest son of Dr Thomas A. and Melissa Stodart of Northumberland Road, Stodart, educated at the High School, Dublin, held a ‘responsible position’ in the Guinness Brewery, and lived at ‘Winona’, Victoria Villas, Blackrock. He was corps superintendent of the St John Ambulance Brigade for Dublin. As senior ambulance officer in Dublin he contacted the military authorities to organise medical centres throughout the city. H. W. G. Smith recalled being informed that at about 15:15, Stodart had left the RCDH with a stretcher party. Shortly afterwards, two men stated that Stodart ‘had been killed by a volley fired from a house by the rebels whilst trying to get to a wounded man’ on Northumberland Road. Buried MJC (B. 182. 18). A ward in the Duke of Connaught Hospital, Bray, Wicklow, was named the Holden Stodart Memorial Ward. His widow and child were granted a pension by the War Office equivalent to that of a lieutenant killed in action.146

George William Barks (26Apr1916/31) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (2793), 19, Protestant Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). LanceCorporal Barks, of the 2/8th Battalion, was from Balderton, Nottinghamshire. Buried St Giles Churchyard, Balderton, Nottinghamshire (P. 19).150 Harold Charles Daffen (26Apr1916/32) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment), 23, CoE Mount Street Bridge, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Lieutenant Daffen, from Worksop, Nottinghamshire, served in the 2/8th Battalion. He was mentioned in dispatches (London Gazette 25 January 1917). Buried GMC (CE. Officers. 4). He is commemorated on a memorial plate in King Edward School, Nottinghamshire.151

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Dublin Laundry Company. He was a member of the Gaelic League. Doyle joined the Volunteers on their inception and was musketry instructor. His body was believed burnt. He is commemorated with a plaque in Milltown.157

Luke Holland (26Apr1916/33) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (4136), 22, CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Holland of the 2/8th Battalion was from Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire. Buried GMC (CE. 629).152

George Reynolds (26Apr1916/38) IV, Silversmith, RC Clanwilliam House, Lower Mount Street, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). From Ringsend, Reynolds was an ecclesiastical and general silversmith. Joining the Volunteers in 1915, he was a section commander. His body was believed burnt. A block of flats in Irishtown was named in his memory.158

Joseph C. Hosford (26Apr1916/34) Irish Association of Volunteer Training Corps, 51, Mercantile clerk, Married with one child, Presbyterian Beggars Bush Barracks, Haddington Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Hosford lived in Belgrave Square with his wife Georgina Barbara. He had worked for Brooks, Thomas & Co. Ltd for thirty-six years and was in charge of the colour department. He was killed in the barrack room of Beggars Bush when a bullet shattered the window glass, mortally wounding him. Buried GMC. Unlike ‘Gorgeous Wrecks’ killed on 24 April, Hosford’s compensation case was straightforward because he died while under military orders.153

William Barter (26Apr1916/39) 23, Carter, Married with two children, RC MMH Barter lived at 14 Elliott Place and worked for Messrs McFerran & Guildford, builders merchants. From early morning on 26 April, BrigadierGeneral W. H. M. Lowe, who had assumed operational command the previous day, concentrated on cordoning the main rebel positions, in particular the GPO and the Four Courts. Liberty Hall, mistakenly believed to be occupied, was shelled by HMS Helga, supported by two eighteen-pounder guns positioned near Butt Bridge. Members of Trinity College’s OTC in civilian clothes had helped to dig up the street for the trails of the guns that morning. Machine-guns were also mounted on the roof of Trinity College, on the tower of Tara Street Fire Station, on the Customs House and on the roof of Jervis Street Hospital. They swept Westmoreland Street and Sackville Street with a barrage of fire. Unsurprisingly, there were several civilian fatalities during the day, including Barter, mortally wounded as he passed Brookes Lane. Buried GC (Dublin Section: J. §. 45.5). His dependents received £150 compensation from the RVC.159 RD: Blayney (26Apr1916/40), Byrne (26Apr1916/42), Costello (26Apr1916/46), Cunningham (26Apr1916/49), Heeney (26Apr 1916/51), McCormack (26Apr1916/56)

Alfred James Kitchen (26Apr1916/35) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (2855), 23, Protestant Northumberland Road, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Kitchen of the 2/8th Battalion was from Muzaffarpur, India, the son of Alfred James senior of 19 Smith Street, Balderton, Newark. Buried St Giles Churchyard, Balderton, Nottinghamshire (P. 17).154 Richard Murphy155 (26Apr1916/36) IV, 24, Tailor, Engaged, RC Clanwilliam House, Lower Mount Street, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). ‘Dick’ Murphy from South William Street was to have been married during Easter Week 1916. His body was believed burnt.156 Patrick Doyle (26Apr1916/37) IV, 36, Manager, Married with five children, RC Clanwilliam House, Lower Mount Street, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Doyle lived in Milltown, where he was manager of the

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James Blayney (26Apr1916/40) 63, Nightwatchman, Married with four children, RC Store Street, Dublin See Barter (26Apr1916/39). Originally from Meath, Blayney lived with his wife Julia at 18 Seville Place Cottages. He was shot crossing O’Connell Bridge between 19:00 and 20:00 as he went towards work on Poolbeg Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: U. §. 37.5).160

James Cavanagh (26Apr1916/44) RIR (213) Dublin Castle164 From Monaghan, Private Cavanagh enlisted in Glasgow in the Royal Irish Rifles (8357) before joining the RIR. He died in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (CE. 811).165 William Connolly (26Apr1916/45) 37, Van driver, RC Usher’s Quay, Dublin See Neilan (24Apr1916/13). Connolly was shot at his hall door at 27.9 Usher’s Quay. His widowed mother Alice received £195 from the RVC. Buried GC (Garden Section: I. f. 675).166

Francis Henry Browning (26Apr1916/41) Irish Association of Volunteer Training Corps, 47, Barrister, Married with one child, CoI RCDH See Clery (24Apr1916/36). ‘Chicken’ Browning attended Trinity College, was called to the bar in 1891, and a year later joined the Land Commission. He and his wife lived at 17 Herbert Park, Donnybrook, with their only child, Jeffrey. Browning was an accomplished cricketer and rugby player. In 1914, when president of the IRFU, he established ‘The Pals’, a company of rugby enthusiasts attached to the 7th Battalion, RDF, and also the IRFU Volunteer Corps, with headquarters at Lansdowne Road. He was sub-commandant 1st (Dublin) Battalion, Volunteer Training Corps (the ‘Gorgeous Wrecks’). He died from wounds sustained on 24 April. Buried DGC (V. 27. S).161

John Costello (26Apr1916/46) 32, Labourer, Married with two children, RC Parnell Street, Dublin See Barter (26Apr1916/39). Costello, of 9 Wall’s Square,167 was shot while going for bread. Buried GC (Dublin Section: W. §. 26.5). His widow Margaret and children received £300 from the RVC.168 John (Seán) Costello (26Apr1916/47) IV, 22, RC SPDH Lieutenant Costello, from Athlone, Westmeath, joined the Volunteers in 1914. He was wounded on Grand Canal Street while carrying dispatches to Boland’s Bakery. Buried DGC.169

Edward Byrne (26Apr1916/42) 22, Labourer, Married with one child, RC Moore Street, Dublin See Barter (26Apr1916/39). Byrne, of 30 C Corporation Buildings, Foley Street, was killed in the vicinity of Moore Street. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: J. a. 38). His widow Elizabeth and child received £234 compensation from the RVC.162

John Cromien (26Apr1916/48) IV, 23, Brewery worker, RC Prussia Street, Dublin ‘Jack’ Cromien lived with his mother at 13 Fingal Place, working in the Guinness Brewery. Cromien was at Punchestown races on Easter Monday, returning to Dublin the following day. He was on his way to join his Volunteer company on North Brunswick Street. His death was described by his girlfriend Margaret Morris, who wrote that a disabled man named Bob Archer said a kneeling soldier had fired at him as he looked around a corner, but instead hit Jack: ‘He had his brown scapulars around his neck, some loose small money, a photo [of Margaret] in

Patrick Byrne (26Apr1916/43) 42, Carpenter, Married with one son, RC South Lotts Road, Dublin Byrne, his wife Teresa, and son lived at 1 O’Brien’s Place. He was shot in the chest while going to his mother’s home at 12 South Lotts Road. Buried GC (Garden Section: Y. §. 167.5). His widow and child received £234 compensation from the RVC.163

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his breast pocket, and an automatic gun. He wore a fawn dust-coat, collar turned up, and soft hat.’ Eleven years later she married his brother Thomas. Another brother, Paddy, an RDF private, died at Ypres on 23 October 1918, aged twenty. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: N. i. 298.5).170

he asked O’Callaghan to identify himself. O’Callaghan then said: ‘I’ll give you my card’, drew a revolver and fired, wounding Rourke in the abdomen. O’Callaghan told the pensions board that ‘the other fellow made for the door and he stood in the doorway and he was fumbling with his tunic and I ran after him and he still kept going. He was about 25 or 30 yards from the door and I shot him through the head.’ Rourke died in Tipperary Union Hospital at 01:15 on 27 April.174 O’Callaghan eventually escaped to the US, becoming involved in IRA arms procurement. Dan Breen wrote that ‘O’Callaghan saved the name of Tipp[erary] by his actions during that famous week’. Buried Castletownbere.175 RD: Rourke (27Apr1916/1)

James Cunningham (26Apr1916/49) 42, Labourer, RC City Quay, Dublin See Barter (26Apr1916/39). Cunningham, of 61 Townsend Street, was shot. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. a. 38).171 John Doyle (26Apr1916/50) Fianna Éireann, 16, Labourer, RC MMH Doyle, of 25 Summerhill, was shot in the lung. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: R. a. 38).172

Godfrey Jackson Hunter (26Apr1916/53) 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers, 26, Protestant Church Street, Dublin See Scarlett (24Apr1916/4). Lieutenant Hunter was attached to the 6th Reserve Regiment of Cavalry. Buried GMC (Grave 65).176

Robert Patrick Heeney (26Apr1916/51) 32, Cattle dealer, RC MMH See Barter (26Apr1916/39). Heeney, from Meath, lived at 15 North Great George’s Street. He was shot on Sackville Street while helping a wounded man. Buried GC. His father received £300 from the RVC.173

Henry Knowles (26Apr1916/54) 40, Tailor, Married with two children, RC Little Mary Street, Dublin Knowles, of 6.6 Essex Street West, was shot. Buried GC (Dublin Section: I. §. 47.5). His widow Arabella secured £273 compensation from the RVC.177

John Hurley (26Apr1916/52) RIC (67150), 23, Gardener, RC Monour, Kilross, Galbally, Tipperary From Castletownbere, Cork, Hurley joined the RIC on 3 March 1913, allocated to Tipperary. He had recently transferred to Lisvernane. The RIC sought Michael O’Callaghan, a creamery manager and Volunteer who lived on Henry Street, Tipperary town, who ‘under the influence of drink’ had fired a shot at 23:00 on 25 April at a group of youths harassing him, wounding one. O’Callaghan barricaded himself in his house, but then slipped away to Peter Hennessy’s farm in Monour. Sergeant Thomas Rourke and Constable Hurley from Lisvernane Barracks went, unarmed, to Hennessy’s house on the afternoon of 26 April. The sergeant entered the house while Hurley remained at the door. In his dying declaration Rourke recorded that he got no response when

Patrick Martin (26Apr1916/55) 42, Labourer, Married with four children, RC Marlborough Street, Dublin Martin, of 22 Lower Gardiner Street, was shot nearby. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: L. a. 38). His wife Emily and children secured £150 compensation from the RVC.178 James McCormack (26Apr1916/56) ICA, c. 38, Racecourse clerk, Married with four children, RC Beresford Place, Dublin See Barter (26Apr1916/39). From Gormanston, Meath, McCormack lived at 14 Millmount Avenue with his wife Teresa. He was killed at Beresford Place. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot).179

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26 April 1916

Edward McGaley (26Apr1916/57) 57, Labourer, Married with five children, RC Corporation Markets, Mary’s Lane, Dublin McGaley, of 4 Lower Bridge Street, was shot while seeking food. Buried GC (Dublin Section: J. §. 33.5). His widow Sarah received £195 from the RVC.180

Patrick Ryan (26Apr1916/61) 14, Schoolboy, RC Richmond Hospital, Dublin Patrick, one of three children of James Ryan, a soldier, and Frances Ryan of 2 Sitric Place, was fatally wounded on Queen Street while fetching bread. His mother received £10 burial expenses from the RVC. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: V. f. 54).184

Christopher Moore (26Apr1916/58) Prince of Wales’s Leinster Regiment (Royal Canadians) (2496), 28, RC Great Brunswick Street, Dublin From Dublin, Private Moore was apparently killed while in a detachment which relieved the Trinity College OTC during the afternoon. Buried GMC (RC. 723).181

Vincent Paul Simpson (26Apr1916/62) 23, Compositor, RC MMH A printer’s son, Simpson, of Enniskerry Road, was shot in the liver on Berkeley Road. Being deaf, he had not understood a soldier’s order to halt. Buried GC (Dublin Section: F. §. 30.5). His parents received £150 from the RVC.185

M. C. O’Connor (26Apr1916/59) 29, Schoolteacher, RC Phoenix Park, Dublin From Ballyhahill, Limerick, O’Connor taught in St Kieran’s College, Kilkenny. Visiting Dublin over Easter, he died when he and two friends were fired on in the People’s Park. Buried Kilfergus Churchyard, Glin, Limerick.182

Thomas Joseph Weafer (26Apr1916/63) IV, 35, Upholsterer, Married with one child, RC Hibernian Bank, Sackville Street, Dublin Captain ‘Tom’ Weafer from Enniscorthy, Wexford, lived on the North Circular Road. He joined the Volunteers on their foundation. Volunteers under Weafer occupied the Hibernian Bank at the corner of Abbey Street and Sackville Street. Fearing an attack from Amiens Street Railway Station, Weafer organised a barricade using large rolls of newsprint from the Irish Times paper store opposite Wynn’s Hotel. Áine Heron described how Weafer ‘had all the manager’s furniture carried down to the basement so that it would not be damaged’. William Daly, responsible for a wireless station rigged nearby to broadcast news of the Rising, said, ‘I saw a shadow pass a window in the Hibernian Bank, heard a thud and the words “My Jesus mercy” – it was Capt Weafer.’ The Volunteers had to evacuate the building under artillery bombardment. On 27 April, fire destroyed most of the street. Weafer’s remains were never recovered. Immediately after the Rising, Margaret English met Weafer’s widow Margaret while distributing emergency aid: ‘I did not tell her he was dead.’ Margaret received ‘in or about £350’ from the National Aid Fund in 1917. In 1924 a Garda described her ‘in very poor circumstances’, depending on her brother, a

Frederick Ryan (26Apr1916/60) ICA, 23, Sawyer, RC Harcourt Street, Dublin ‘Fred’ Ryan, one of five children of Theresa Ryan of 4 High Street, served in Fianna Éireann before joining the ICA. Michael Mallin permitted Margaret Skinnider, a Glasgow schoolteacher of Irish descent, and Joe Connolly, a brother of Seán Connolly, to throw hand bombs into the Shelbourne Hotel. A preliminary attack was mounted on houses in Harcourt Street, in hopes of starting a fire that would spread to the Russell Hotel, occupied by the military. The party came under fired as they left the Royal College of Surgeons, fatally wounding Ryan and seriously wounding Skinnider in the back. William Partridge carried her to safety in the College of Surgeons. Ryan’s body was recovered next day by the fire brigade. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. a. 38).183 SA: Connolly (24Apr1916/39), Mallin (8May 1916/4)

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‘herd on a farm’ in Galway. She secured £90 yearly, and her daughter Mary Elizabeth £24. Weafer’s father Patrick, also in hard circumstances, failed in an application for a dependent’s allowance in 1936. In 1937 a plaque was unveiled in Weafer’s memory.186

James Hogan (26Apr1916/68) 27, Carter, Married with three children, RC Earl Street, Dublin Hogan, of 31 Upper Rutland Street, was shot while seeking milk. Buried GC (Dublin Section C. §. 47.5). His dependents secured £215 compensation from the RVC.191

Patrick Whelan (26Apr1916/64) IV, 23, Carpenter, RC Boland’s Bakery, Grand Canal Street, Dublin Joseph O’Byrne, O/C Boland’s Bakery Garrison, described firing from an upperfloor window. Whelan ‘was fatally wounded beside me, being shot . . . just below the eye. He expired in about a minute.’ His comrades buried him ‘in a rough coffin . . . under a large heap of clinkers in the yard . . . I read some prayers, we said the Rosary and performed our sad task about mid-day on Friday, taking cover as well as possible from the showers of splinters and ricocheting bullets.’ Buried GC (South Section: C. b. 103). A block of flats in Ringsend carries his name.187

Denis Dorgan (26Apr1916/69) 58, Hotel porter, Married with five children, RC Sackville Street, Dublin From Cork, Dorgan, of 12 Henrietta Street, was shot dead near Nelson’s Pillar. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Y. §. 38). His dependents received £150 from the RVC.192 Julia Condron (26Apr1916/70) 44, Married with two children, RC Summerhill, Dublin Julia Condron, from Offaly, lived at 56 Summerhill. She was hit in the face by a bullet which came through a window. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: R. k. 176). Her husband Robert secured £150 from the RVC.193

Richard Butler (26Apr1916/65) 45, Insurance agent, Married, RC People’s Gardens, Phoenix Park, Dublin Butler, of 10 Woodgate Street, London, was spending Easter with his brother Roderick, of 79 Iveagh Buildings. He was killed in the People’s Gardens in the Phoenix Park during an engagement between military and Volunteers. Buried GC (Dublin Section: V. §. 41.5).188

Clement Courtney (26Apr1916/71) 58, Fitter, Married, Methodist Marlborough Street, Dublin From Armagh, Courtney, of 24 York Street, was shot en route to work. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: D. b. 64.5). His widow Mary secured £254 compensation from the RVC.194

John Byrne (26Apr1916/66) 60, Watchmaker, Married with children, RC JSH Byrne had a shop on Fownes Street, and lived at 68 Shelbourne Road. His widow Catherine received £300 from the RVC. Buried GC (Garden Section: T. e. 188).189

James Frazer (26Apr1916/72) 41, Lithographer, Married with three children, Presbyterian Gardiner Street, Dublin From Belfast, Frazer, of Caledon Road, was shot dead on his way to work. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 37.5). His widow Bridget and children secured £293 compensation from the RVC.195

John William Humphreys (26Apr1916/67) RDF (19222), 29, RC Mercer’s Corporal Humphreys, from Dublin, was returning unarmed from leave about noon on 25 April when he was shot in the head on Westmoreland Street, dying next day. Buried GMC (RC. 484).190

James Jessop (26Apr1916/73) 17, Porter, CoI Marlborough Street, Dublin At his father’s behest James, of 3 Upper Gloucester Street, went for coal on Waterford Street. He was shot in the head. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 37.5). His father Joseph secured £50 from the RVC.196

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Park, where he was shot. She secured £50 from the RVC.202

Andrew McDonnell (26Apr1916/74) Ex-serviceman, 31, Married with two children, RC SPDH McDonnell, of 10 Denzille Street, was wounded at Mount Street Bridge en route to Beggars Bush Barracks to inquire about his brother, an RDF soldier. His widow Mary Anne and children secured £218 compensation from the RVC.197

John Mooney (26Apr1916/80) 47, Butcher, ex-serviceman, Married with two children, RC Ryder’s Row, Dublin Mooney, of 6 Little Ship Street, worked for Christopher Mooney of 7 Redmond’s Hill. At about 16:30 he was shot dead at the corner of Ryder’s Row and Parnell Street. His widow Margaret secured £300 from the RVC.203

Thomas Meleady (26Apr1916/75) 45, Watchman, RC JSH Meleady, of 5 Dominick Place, was shot near the Parnell monument while en route to feed animals in Fairview. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 38). His widow Sarah secured £187 from the RVC.198

Harriet McCabe (26Apr1916/81) 48, Domestic servant, Widowed with three children, RC Upper Gloucester Street, Dublin A labourer’s widow of 34 Marlborough Street, she was shot while returning with bread and milk. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. a. 37.5). Each of her two teenage daughters received £25 from the RVC.204

Patrick O’Grady (26Apr1916/76) 35, Handyman, Married with six children, RC Charles Street, Dublin O’Grady, of 28 East Arran Street, was shot dead while seeking food for his family. His widow Anne secured £265 compensation from the RVC.199

Elizabeth Quirke (26Apr1916/82) 22, Married, Clothes dealer, RC Abbey Street Upper, Dublin Elizabeth Quirke died from wounds received near her home, 116 Upper Abbey Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: G. §. 30.5). Her husband Peter, a butcher’s porter, secured £117 from the RVC.205

Absalom Scherzinger (26Apr1916/77) 68, Clockmaker, Married with one child, RC RCDH Scherzinger was shot in the neck by soldiers on Lower Mount Street as he returned to his home at 84 Haddington Road with potatoes. His wife Kate secured £234 from the RVC.200

Robert Johnston (26Apr1916/83) 73, Carpenter, Widowed, CoI Butt Bridge, Dublin Johnston, of 18 Denzille Lane, was shot dead while going to work in Summerhill. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 37.5). His daughter secured £31 from the RVC.206

John Doyle (26Apr1916/78) 20, Shop assistant MMH One of eight children of Joseph, a plasterer, and Elizabeth, of 25 Summerhill, Doyle worked for Bardini ice cream manufacturer on Talbot Street. Shot while going to work, he died some hours later. His mother secured £140 from the RVC.201

27 APRIL 1916 Thomas F. Rourke (27Apr1916/1) RIC (56214), 42, Railway clerk, Married with one child, CoI Union Hospital, Tipperary, Tipperary See Hurley (26Apr1916/52). From Cork, Rourke joined the RIC on 2 January 1894, serving in Kerry, Cork and the RIC Reserve before transfer to Tipperary in 1913. Promoted to sergeant in 1914, he was in charge of Lisvernane RIC Barracks. He died at 01:15. Buried Clonbeg Cemetery, Aherlow, Tipperary.

Thomas Green (26Apr1916/79) 50, Labourer, RC Phoenix Park, Dublin Green’s sister Katherine Plunkett described how he left 2 Lisburn Street to visit a friend in Kilmainham. He went via the Phoenix

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His widow secured a yearly pension of £50, with £6.5s.0d. annually for his child.207

skull’. Buried Kill o’ the Grange Cemetery, Dublin.210

Harold Barratt (27Apr1916/2) South Staffordshire Regiment (4821), 19, Shop assistant, CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin Private Barratt, of 2/6th Battalion, was from Wolverhampton. The 2/5th and 2/6th Battalions, South Staffordshire Regiment, arrived in Kingstown (Dún Laoghaire) after daybreak. At 20:30 orders were received to move towards Dublin. At 02:15 on 27 April they were detailed to take over from the Sherwood Foresters on Mount Street, Percy Place, Northumberland Road, Warrington Place and Herbert Place. The area remained hazardous as Volunteers, under Captain Joseph O’Connor, sniped constantly from the railway workshops close to Grand Canal Quay Bridge. Barratt was one of the regiment’s first fatalities.208 Private H. J. Davies recalled that at about 07:00, ‘the bullet entered his head in his eye and it made a terrible hole’. Later on Charles Hyland, a dentist, was shot as he looked out of his back door. The previous day he had donned his surgeon’s coat and rendered assistance to the wounded at Mount Street Bridge. Throughout the day, the regiment returned fire. In the afternoon, a light gun borrowed from the Helga was used to shell Boland’s Bakery. The Volunteers in the railway works held out until the surrender order was received. Their only fatality was Joseph Byrne. Towards evening, Sergeant Fletcher was shot while visiting a South Staffordshire post on a roof. The 2/6th were eventually relieved by 2/6th Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment on 28 April. Buried GMC (CE. 614). He is commemorated on the Wolverhampton war memorial.209 RD: Byrne (27Apr1916/3), Fletcher (27Apr 1916/47), Hyland (27Apr1916/4), Stillman (27Apr1916/5)

Charles James Hyland (27Apr1916/4) 29, Dentist, Married with one child, RC Percy Place, Dublin See Barratt (27Apr1916/2). Hyland, son of Charles Hyland, manager of the Gaiety Theatre, lived at 3 Percy Place. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: A. h. 149.5). His widow Kathleen received a pension of £97.16s.5d. from the RVC.211 John J. Stillman (27Apr1916/5) 35, Clerk, Married with four children, RC Grand Canal Street, Dublin See Barratt (27Apr1916/2). Stillman and his wife Anne lived at 9 High Street. Superintendent of the Independent Newspapers branch office on High Street, he was shot near Mount Street Bridge just after leaving his mother’s house seeking food. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: A. l. 195). His dependents received £300 from the RVC.212 George William Barnett213 (27Apr1916/6) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (4628), 23 Rialto, Dublin Private Barnett, from Loughborough, Leicestershire, was in the 2/8th Battalion. On the morning of 27 April, the 2/7th and 2/8th Battalions, Sherwood Foresters received orders to regroup and proceed to the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, via Dolphin’s Barn and Rialto Bridge. Little opposition was expected as other battalions had crossed Rialto Bridge without difficulty. Lieutenant W. C. Oates described how his men came under fire at Rialto Street at the rear of the South Dublin Union at about 14:15 from rebels in the South Dublin Union and an outpost in Jameson’s Distillery on Marrowbone Lane. Two privates were killed rushing a well-defended barricade. At least three patients also died in fierce exchanges. Rialto Bridge was finally crossed at about 21:45 and the battalion reached the Royal Hospital at 22:15. Cathal Brugha† was seriously wounded during the fighting. This was the last significant action at the South Dublin Union before the surrender on 30 April.

Joseph Byrne (27Apr1916/3) IV, 32, Married with two children, RC Railway Works, Grand Canal Street, Dublin See Barratt (27Apr1916/2). From Wicklow, Byrne ‘got a bullet wound in the base of the

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Buried RHKC (Coll. Grave).214 RD: Brown (28Apr1916/23), Chapman (27Apr 1916/7), Fennell (27Apr1916/54), Reilly (28Apr1916/51), Warner (27Apr1916/8)

Newark, Nottinghamshire, was a Sunday school teacher and a member of the United Works’ Band before enlisting in September 1914. Buried Newark-Upon-Trent Cemetery, Nottinghamshire (C. B. ‘U’ 252). In January 1917, he was posthumously mentioned in dispatches.221

Thomas Henry Chapman (27Apr1916/7) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (3493), Gamekeeper Rialto, Dublin See Barnett (27Apr1916/6). Lance-Corporal Chapman of 2/8th Battalion was from Southwell, Nottinghamshire. Buried RHKC.215

Joseph Donohoe (27Apr1916/13) 19, Grocer’s assistant, RC Marlborough Street, Dublin Donohoe was shot at his home, 97 Marlborough Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: N. §. 24.5). His father received £25 from the RVC.222

Arthur Warner216 (27Apr1916/8) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (4643), 20 Rialto, Dublin See Barnett (27Apr1916/6). Private Warner of the 2/8th Battalion was from Mansfield, Nottinghamshire. Buried RHKC (O.R. Grd).217

Jeremiah Farrell (27Apr1916/14) 48, Labourer, RC George’s Quay, Dublin Farrell, of 20 City Quay, was shot. His nephew Joseph Cashell reported his death. Buried GC (Dublin Section: C. §. 12.5).223

Bridget Allen (27Apr1916/9) 16, Factory hand, RC Arran Quay, Dublin Bridget Allen, of 27 Arran Quay, was shot through the window of her home. Buried GC (Dublin Section: A. §. 48.5). Her mother received £50 from the RVC.218

Patrick Fetherstone (27Apr1916/15) 12, Schoolboy, RC JSH Patrick, son of Anne and Patrick Fetherstone of 1 Long Lane, Dorset Street, died from leg wounds. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: I. a. 38). His father received £25 from the RVC.224

James Byrne (27Apr1916/10) IV, 19, RC Mercer’s Lieutenant Byrne was shot through a window while on a hurried visit to his widowed mother. Buried DGC.219

John Robert Forth (27Apr1916/16) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (3434), Methodist RCDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Forth of the 2/8th Battalion was from Worksop, Nottinghamshire. Buried GMC (Wes. 45).225

Jane Costello (27Apr1916/11) 23, Typist, RC Seville Place, Dublin Jane Costello, from Glenfield, Kilmallock, Limerick, lived at 113 Seville Place, and was a shorthand writer and typist. During a lull in the firing, she reportedly went to her bedroom window and was shot through the lungs. Buried GC (Dublin Section: M. §. 14.5).220

William James Halliday (27Apr1916/17) 23, Painter, Protestant Dolphin’s Barn, Dublin Halliday was visiting from Belfast when shot dead in Dolphin’s Barn while walking along the canal. His father was awarded £150 by the RVC. Buried MJC (A. 267. 5).226

Henry Charles Dixey (27Apr1916/12) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (2454), 22, Pattern maker, Methodist RCDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Dixey, a company sergeant in the 2/8th Battalion from

William Frith (27Apr1916/18) DMP (10175), 38, Protestant DMP Station, Store Street, Dublin From Clara, Offaly, Frith was a constable in C Division, DMP (174 C) with seventeen years’

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service. He was hit in the head in his bedroom at Store Street Station by a stray bullet. Buried MJC (A. 411. 48). His mother Frances secured a gratuity of £30 and a yearly pension of £15.227

John Reynolds recalled that at about 09:00 Volunteers under Peadar Clancy observed ‘about 20 soldiers in Indian file along the south side of the river by Usher’s Quay. The first . . . was allowed to reach the corner of Bridge Street when the Volunteers opened fire. Several . . . were shot dead.’ Buried GMC (CE. 648). He was posthumously mentioned in dispatches in January 1917.231 SA: Clancy (22Nov1920/7)

Patrick Joseph Geraghty (27Apr1916/19) 39, Slater, Married with four children, RC North Dublin Union Geraghty lived at 64 Lower Dominick Street. He and Dominic Donohue were killed in the belfry of the North Dublin Union’s Bedford Asylum. Father Aloysius recalled that after nightfall the two ‘had gone to the top of the clock tower to see the fires . . . and both were killed by military snipers from Broadstone’. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: Z. l. 289). His widow Esther and dependents secured £300 compensation from the RVC.228 RD: Donohue (27Apr1916/38)

Jane Kane (27Apr1916/22) 40, Cook, Married, RC MMH Jane Kane, of 109 Amiens Street, was fatally wounded nearby. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: I. a. 37.5).232 Mary Kenny (27Apr1916/23) 63, Widowed, RC Upper Buckingham Street, Dublin Mary Kenny, a labourer’s widow, was killed in her bedroom at 18 Upper Buckingham Street by machine-gun fire. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: J. a. 37.5). Her daughter was awarded £34 by the RVC.233

Seán (John) Healy (27Apr1916/20) Fianna Éireann, 15, Plumber’s apprentice, RC MMH Seán, one of ten children of Christopher and Helena Healy of 188 Phibsborough Road, was apprenticed to his father. Healy went to Jacob’s Factory on Bishop Street on 25 April, and was given a message to carry to Volunteers at Phibsborough Bridge. He was hit during heavy fire. A nurse recalled treating him ‘with his brain hanging all over his forehead’. He died two days later, one of the youngest insurgent fatalities. He is commemorated on a plaque inset into the pavement at Doyle’s Corner, Phibsborough. Buried GC (Garden Section: V. b. 100). His family received £20 towards funeral costs from the National Aid Association. In 1924 his father, ‘in straitened circumstances’ due to illness, received a gratuity of £100.229

Francis William White Knox (27Apr1916/24) Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (27861), 37, Clerk, CoI Gardiner Street, Dublin Private Knox, from Delgany, Wicklow, of the 12th (Reserve) Battalion, died when a grenade he was holding exploded prematurely. His body was brought to Enniskillen, Fermanagh. The authorities were initially unable to locate next of kin. Buried Breandrum Cemetery, Enniskillen (5. 172). The following week, the Fermanagh Times reported that, by chance, a 12th Battalion officer met Knox’s sister Isabella on Gardiner Street after the area was cleared of rebels and disclosed her brother’s fate.234

Henry Meyrick Hewitt (27Apr1916/21) King Edward’s Horse (1474), 42, Protestant Usher’s Quay, Dublin Corporal Hewitt of the 2nd King Edward’s Horse, son of Lieutenant-General E. O. Hewitt, lived in Devonport. He was reportedly wounded several times while involved in clearing the neighbourhood of Thomas Street, Cork Hill, Dame Street, South Great George’s Street, Parliament Street and the quays.230

Mary Lennon (27Apr1916/25) 64, Domestic servant, Widowed with two children, RC Foley Street, Dublin Mary Lennon of 43.2 Corporation Buildings was shot on a third-floor balcony. Buried GC (Dublin Section: W. §. 30.5).235

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(St Paul’s Section: K. a. 38). His widow Catherine and dependents secured £191 compensation from the RVC.240

Peadar (Peter) Macken (27Apr1916/26) IV, c. 42, Baker, Married with four children, RC Boland’s Bakery, Grand Canal Street, Dublin Macken, from Drogheda, Louth, lived at 13 Nassau Place. He was active in the Gaelic League and in Labour circles, and for a time was a Dublin Corporation alderman. An unnamed Volunteer whom he reprimanded for talking incessantly, most likely Edward Ennis, shot him and was in turn shot by a sentry. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: I. §. 32.5). Clarence Street was renamed Macken Street. His sister Teresa secured a dependent’s allowance of £1 per week.236 SA: Ennis (29Apr1916/49)

John McElveny (27Apr1916/31) 56, Carpenter, Married, Protestant City Quay, Dublin McElveny, of 15 Verschoyle Place, was shot while visiting his employer. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: K. a. 37.5).241 Robert MacKenzie (27Apr1916/32) 41, Provisions merchant, Married with three children, CoI MMH MacKenzie, a survivor from the torpedoed liner Lusitania in 1915, was mortally wounded during the evening by machine-gun bullets which came through the window of his Cavendish Row provisions store. His widow Bertha and children secured £500 from the RVC.242

William Maguire (27Apr1916/27) 37, Baker, Married with two children, RC Talbot Street, Dublin Maguire worked in O’Rourke’s Bakery on Store Street and lived at 92 Marlborough Street. He was killed while engaged in ambulance work. Buried GC (Dublin Section: V. §. 37.5). His widow Mary and family received £300 from the RVC.237

Michael McKillop (27Apr1916/33) 34, Labourer, Married, RC Waterford Street, Dublin McKillop, of 22 Lower Gardiner Street, was shot nearby. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: I. a. 37.5). His widow Margaret secured £234 compensation from the RVC.243

John Mallon (27Apr1916/28) 29, House painter, Married with three children, RC Mary Street, Dublin Mallon lived at 96 Upper Dorset Street. He was shot. Buried GC (Dublin Section: W. §. 40.5). His widow Jane and children received £298 from the RVC.238

James McLoughlin (27Apr1916/34) 52, Builder, Married, RC Railway Street, Dublin McLoughlin, of 113 Lower Gardiner Street, was killed while repairing a house. Buried MJC (A. 276. 77). His widow Charlotte secured £300 compensation from the RVC.244

Alexander McClelland (27Apr1916/29) RIR (7610), 18, Soldier, CoI St Stephen’s Green, Dublin Rifleman McClelland, of Balligan, Down, served in a machine-gun section. Caulfield recounted how a sniper in the Shelbourne Hotel, disguised in a maid’s uniform, enjoyed considerable success until shot. This may have been McClelland. Buried Grey Abbey Cemetery, Down.239

John Megan (27Apr1916/35) 68, Labourer, Married, RC Lower Gardiner Street, Dublin Megan, of 90 Gardiner Street, was killed while going to work. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: I. a. 38). His widow Kate secured £150 from the RVC.245

James McCormack (27Apr1916/30) 40, Labourer, Married with three children, RC Corporation Street, Dublin McCormack, of 44B Corporation Buildings, was killed when a bullet came through a back room between 14:00 and 15:00. Buried GC

William Mulraney (27Apr1916/36) 8th (King’s Royal Irish) Hussars (5422), RC Dublin Private Mulraney, from Dublin, died in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (RC. 481).246

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Annie Myers (27Apr1916/37) 57, Boarding house keeper, Protestant North Earl Street, Dublin A Scotswoman, Annie Myers, living with her sister Agnes at 13 North Earl Street, was killed during heavy bombardment of Sackville Street and adjoining streets. Buried MJC (B. 369. 53).247

Mary Redmond (27Apr1916/41) 16, Dealer, RC Mary’s Abbey, Dublin Mary, of 8 Mary’s Alley, was in the hallway when a bullet pierced her lung and heart. Buried GC (Dublin Section: O. §. 26.5). Her mother Alice secured £50 from the RVC.251

Dominic Thomas Donohue (27Apr1916/38) 22, Clerk, RC North Dublin Union See Geraghty (27Apr1916/19). Donohue lived at 4 North Brunswick Street. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: U. h. 314.5).248

Harold Rodgers (27Apr1916/42) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (3814), CoE RCDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Rodgers of the 2/8th Battalion was from Whitwell, Derbyshire. Buried GMC (CE. 617).252

Thomas Joseph O’Reilly (27Apr1916/39) ICA, 21, Electrician, RC GPO, Sackville Street, Dublin O’Reilly, an apprentice with Dublin Corporation, of 43 Geraldine Street, was president of the Paviors’ Society and trustee of the John Dillon branch of the Irish National Foresters. He died of abdominal wounds received on 25 April – his mother’s compensation claim stated he was shot in the GPO, whereas in 1924 army intelligence said he was hit while carrying a dispatch from ‘City Hall to Liberty Hall . . . for James Connolly’. Two of his brothers also fought, and the family ‘during the Tan times done [sic] some very good work for us’. His mother Mary received £104 from the National Aid Fund, and a gratuity of £75 in 1924. In 1960 his brother Patrick, also in receipt of a military service pension, was refused a dependent relative’s award: he had earlier observed that ‘had I thought that you had to be an advanced pauper, I would not have made application, this stigma seems to be a ritual’. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: V. b. 22).249

George Percy Sainsbury (27Apr1916/43) 9, Schoolboy, CoI South Circular Road, Dublin George, of 54 Haroldville Terrace, was shot through the window by military. His brother was wounded but survived. Buried MJC (C. 130). His father Arthur secured £25 from the RVC.253 Alfred Tyler (27Apr1916/44) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (4905), 22, CoE Dublin Castle Private Tyler of the 2/6th Battalion was from Exton, Rutland, Leicestershire. Archie Bennett recorded that the 2/6th spent the night of 26 April in the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham. At 12:30 next day, the battalion proceeded towards Dublin Castle. Improvised armoured vehicles ferried troops towards Capel Street and Parnell Street. Three soldiers were wounded, probably including Tyler. He was the battalion’s only fatality. Buried GMC (CE. 645).254

Clarence Osborne (27Apr1916/40) 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (4130), CoE North King Street, Dublin Lance-Corporal Osborne of the 5th Battalion, from Brighton, Sussex, had previously been wounded in France. Buried GMC (CE. 808).250

William Walker (27Apr1916/45) 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (2743), CoE North King Street, Dublin Private Walker, who enlisted in his home town of Glasgow, was fatally wounded. Buried GMC (CE. 622).255

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front door at night. His widow’s appeal for assistance to the GS&WR Traffic and Works Committee was declined on 2 June 1916. She later received £300 from the RVC.261

Austin Joseph Walton (27Apr1916/46) Reserve Cavalry Regiment (18506), 35, Married, CoE Usher’s Quay, Dublin Lance-Corporal Walton, from Maidenhead, Berkshire, died in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (CE. 623).256

John Joseph Fennell (27Apr1916/51) 39, Van driver, RC SDU See Barnett (27Apr1916/6). Fennell, a patient, died when a grenade was thrown through a window. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: M. a. 38).262

John Henry Fletcher (27Apr1916/47) South Staffordshire Regiment (3608), 23, Married with one child, CoE Northumberland Road, Dublin See Barratt (27Apr1916/2). Sergeant Fletcher of 2/6th Battalion lived with his wife Hannah at 6 Dean Street, Wolverhampton. Buried GMC (CE. 616).257

Joseph Geraghty (27Apr1916/52) 31, Ex-soldier, RC Cole’s Lane, Dublin Geraghty, invalided in action, of 16 Middle Gardiner Street, was shot when he left his home. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. a. 38). His father Joseph secured £150 from the RVC.263

Martin O’Leary (27Apr1916/48) 60, Labourer, Married with eight children, RC Mary’s Lane, Dublin From Wexford, O’Leary, of 13 Dorset Row, was shot while returning home from work in the Guinness Brewery. His son-in-law and three of his sons were soldiers, one of whom, George, was killed in 1914. His widow Marcella received £203 from the RVC.258

Charles Kavanagh (27Apr1916/53) 15, Messenger, RC Children’s Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin Kavanagh, son of a labourer of 4 North King Street, was shot in the abdomen on 26 April while doing an errand. He died next day following an operation. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: T. a. 37.5). His father Denis secured £50 from the RVC.264

Christopher Andrews259 (27Apr1916/49) 14, Messenger, RC SPDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). A labourer’s son living at 8 Stephen’s Place, Christopher was wounded while giving water to a wounded soldier, and died next day. His mother Maria received £150 from the RVC. Buried GC (Dublin Section: W. §. 14.5).260

Michael Leahy (27Apr1916/54) 62, Bank porter, Married with one child, RC George’s Hill, Dublin Leahy, from Limerick, was shot. Working at the Provincial Bank in College Green, he ‘insisted on returning to his home’ at 3 King’s Inn’s Quay nightly ‘as he had an invalid wife’. Buried GC (Dublin Section: U. §. 20.5).265

William Moore (27Apr1916/50) 45, Railway official, Married with one child JSH Moore, from Cavan, lived in Limerick as district auditor of the GS&WR. He had twenty-five years’ service. Arriving in Dublin on Easter Monday evening with his family en route to Limerick after a holiday in Belfast, they stayed with a friend in Fairview due to the disturbances. Moore was struck in the chest by a bullet which came through the

George Cahill (27Apr1916/55) 38, Nightwatchman, RC Railway Street, Dublin Cahill, of 26 Upper Gloucester Street was shot between 10:00 and 11:00 while going to his sister’s house. The DMP reported that his body lay in the street for several days. His sister secured £39 from the RVC.266

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John Dunphy (27Apr1916/56) 28, Joiner, RC Aungier Street, Dublin Dunphy, of 1 Charlemont Villas, was shot as he went to obtain a pass from the military. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 37.5). His father received an annuity of £30 from the RVC.267

Roseanne Heffernan (27Apr1916/62) 55, Boarding house owner, Widowed with four children, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin Mrs Heffernan, struck in the head by a bullet that came through her window on 25 April, died two days later. Her daughters Roseanne and Julia secured a compassionate award of £78 from the RVC.273

Paul Feeney (27Apr1916/57) 42, Labourer, RC Parnell Street, Dublin Feeney was on his way home when shot, dying next day. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 37.5). His brother received £25 from the RVC.268

Owen Donnelly (27Apr1916/63) 53, Labourer, ex-serviceman, Married with six children, RC Kilmainham, Dublin Originally from Tyrone, Donnelly, of 15 Allingham Buildings, South Summer Street, was employed in the Army Ordinance Depot at Islandbridge Barracks. He was shot near the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, as he returned from work. His dependents secured £264 from the RVC.274

William Lionel Sweny (27Apr1916/58) 13, Schoolboy, CoI Dublin William, the son of Frederick William Sweny, a pharmacist of 1 Lincoln Place immortalised by James Joyce, was killed near Mount Street Bridge.269

Bridget Mulvaney (27Apr1916/64) 19, Domestic servant Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin Employed by Harry Dumbleton of 45 Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, where she also lived. She was killed at about 08:30 when a bullet came through a front room window. Her mother Margaret secured a compassionate grant of £25 from the RVC.275

Patrick Travers (27Apr1916/59) 43, Fish dealer, RC Chancery Place Travers left his home at 23 Railway Street with bread for his sister Mrs Mary Gaynor, a widow who lived at 56 Cook Street. He was shot dead near Chancery Place. His two sisters secured £78 between them from the RVC.270

Francis Salmon (27Apr1916/65) 17, Sales assistant, RC Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin From Straffan, Kildare, son of Maurice and Margaret Salmon, Francis worked for Austin M. Smyth, 50 Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, a wine and spirit merchant. He was shot dead while knocking on the door of his employer’s house. His father secured a compassionate grant of £50 from the RVC.276

Philip Dolan (27Apr1916/60) 30, Porter, RC St Michan’s Street, Dublin He was shot dead as he returned home to 18 Chancery Street, having visited the Anglesea fruit market to see if there was work. His sister Esther Farrell secured £150 from the RVC.271

William Finnegan (27Apr1916/66) 43, Labourer, Married, RC Foley Street, Dublin Finnegan, of 48 Marlborough Street, was fatally wounded while going to see his father. His body lay in the street for several days. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 38). His widow Elizabeth secured £202 compensation from the RVC.277

Patrick Green (27Apr1916/61) 52, Carter, Married with children Grattan Street, Dublin Green, employed by Bolands of Ringsend, died when a bullet was fired into his home, killing him instantly. His widow Bridget secured £164 from the RVC.272

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28 APRIL 1916

divided into four sections. They left Finglas at about midday on 25 April and camped at Killeek. On 26 April, they made for Swords, where the RIC barracks surrendered without a fight. The post office telephone was put out of commission. Donabate RIC Barracks was the next to surrender, with one policeman slightly wounded. The next morning the Volunteers arrived at Garristown to find that the police had withdrawn to the safety of Balbriggan. The post office telephone was destroyed. On the morning of 28 April, orders were received to cut the railway line at Batterstown and to take Ashbourne RIC Barracks nearby. At about 12:00, as the RIC at Ashbourne were about to surrender, a motorised police patrol – fifty-five-strong in seventeen cars – approached from the Slane direction, under CI Gray. RIC constable Eugene Bratton recalled that he drove DI Harry Smyth. At Kilmoon, a man told Smyth that the rebels were ‘all along the road’. Bratton was unable to get his car to the front to inform Gray, who occupied the lead vehicle. At Ashbourne, the police cavalcade halted about 150 yards from the crossroads: ‘The police took cover on both sides of the road. Dr [Richard] Hayes ordered rapid fire. A very heavy fire was returned on us.’ Mulcahy ordered an attack and led a flanking manoeuvre. Bernard McAllister remembered him shouting: ‘ “Drive them out of it.”: the police were acting like rabbits being driven from a ditch before a shooting party. We . . . decimated them with our fire. Some took cover under the cars but were visible to us there.’ The first fatality was Sergeant Shanagher, shot through the heart. Gray, severely wounded, died on 10 May. His second-in-command, DI Smyth, was killed, probably by Frank Lawless. The RIC in the barracks surrendered when they saw their comrades on the road capitulate. The Volunteers captured about ninety-six weapons. A man asked to collect the dead policemen counted eight loaded on to his cart. The wounded were tended to by Dr Hayes. Civilians Gerald Hogan and James O’Carroll, returning to Dublin from a holiday, drove into

Christopher Miller (28Apr1916/1) RIC (63620), 29, Farmer SDU Miller, from Limerick, joined the RIC on 15 January 1908, allocated to Kerry. He later served in Armagh before transfer to Belfast. At Easter 1916, Constable Miller was attending a school of instruction in Portobello Barracks, Dublin. He participated in the attack on the South Dublin Union. The RIC General Register notes he was ‘killed on duty during [the] “Sinn Féin” Rising’. James Kenny told the BMH that ‘one of the military tried to force the door [of the Nurses Quarters] and was shot by Ceannt. The man wore khaki pants but the rest of his uniform, including his peak cap was of the RIC pattern’. This was probably Miller.278 SA: Ceannt (8May1916/1) John Shanagher (28Apr1916/2) RIC (54677),279 48, RC Ashbourne, Meath From Strokestown, Shanagher joined the RIC in 1891, allocated to Meath, where he spent most of his career apart from periodic service in the RIC Reserve and at the RIC Depot. Promoted to sergeant in 1907, he was stationed in Navan. The 5th (Fingal) Battalion, Dublin Brigade Irish Volunteers, mobilised at Knocksedan in north Dublin, under Thomas Ashe. On 24 April, Volunteers attempted to destroy the Rogerstown railway bridge, an important link between Dublin and Belfast. The main body received orders to move to Finglas to hold the main road and to engage any British military officers returning from the Fairyhouse races. None appeared. On orders from James Connolly, twenty men were sent as reinforcements into the city on 25 April. Ashe now had about forty men and a few stragglers from the city. These included Richard Mulcahy, who had been sent on an abortive sabotage mission to Howth Junction. Despite its numerical weakness, as Charles Townshend observed, the Fingal Battalion had the priceless attribute of mobility, as all who turned out had bicycles. They were

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the ambush: McAllister claimed that ‘the police . . . shot both of them’. Dublin Castle maintained that they were killed by rebels who thought they were ‘police reinforcements’. Albert Keep, whose vehicle had been commandeered by the police, was shot by Volunteers. His leg was later amputated, and he died on 5 May. Volunteer John Crenigan was shot through the heart at Hamilton Hill, and Tommy Rafferty, hit when he stood up to see where the police were, died that night. Buried Strokestown. Shanagher’s brother and sister applied for compensation but could not prove financial dependency.280 RD: Carroll (28Apr1916/3), Cleary (28Apr 1916/4), Crenigan (28Apr1916/5), Gormley (28Apr1916/6), Gray (10May1916/1), Hickey (28Apr1916/7), Hogan (28Apr1916/8), Keep (5May1916/3), McHale (28Apr1916/9), Rafferty (29Apr1916/2), Smyth (28Apr1916 /10), Young (28Apr1916/11). SA: Ashe (25Sep1917/1), Connolly (12May1916/2)

that John, ‘being my eldest boy . . . was next help to his father in helping to support family’, contributing his entire weekly wage of 30/-. She disputed a once-off dependent’s award of £40 in 1924: ‘No one will blame me in getting a TD to ask a question in the Dáil as I am seeking to get fair play for my family.’ In 1931 she told General Mulcahy that ‘myself and my husband are old and unable to work, and my boys are on the scatter’. A year later she secured an additional £60. Buried Killossory, Kilsallaghan, Dublin. In 1959 Crenigan was commemorated on a memorial in Ashbourne.283 James Gormley (28Apr1916/6) RIC (66800), 25, Farmer, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). From Sligo, Constable Gormley joined the RIC on 2 September 1912, stationed in Longwood.284 James Hickey (28Apr1916/7) RIC (54582), 49, Fisherman, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). From Kilkenny, Hickey joined the RIC on 17 September 1890, serving in Armagh till transfer to Meath in December 1905. Promoted to sergeant in 1907, he was demoted to constable in 1911, stationed in Kells. Buried Navan, Meath.285

James Joseph Carroll (28Apr1916/3) 24, Plumber, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). Carroll’s father Patrick was chief of the Kingstown (Dún Laoghaire) fire brigade. Buried DGC (A. 7. W). His widowed sister Bridget Kelly secured £179 for herself and her two children from the RVC.281

Gerald St John Hogan (28Apr1916/8) 26, Munitions worker, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). Hogan, of 9 Summerhill, Kingstown (Dún Laoghaire), Dublin, was working in Birkenhead. Buried DGC (A. 6. W). His mother secured £192 from the RVC.286

James Cleary (28Apr1916/4) RIC (64900), 28, Farmer, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). From Tuam, Galway, Constable Cleary joined the RIC on 28 July 1909, stationed in Moynalty. Buried Tuam.282

Richard McHale (28Apr1916/9) RIC (67072), 22, No prior employment, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). From Galway, Constable McHale joined the RIC on 3 February 1913, stationed in Crossakiel. Buried Navan, Meath. His father Michael, an RIC pensioner, secured £30 government compensation and £20 from the Irish Police and Constabulary Recognition Fund.287

John Crenigan (28Apr1916/5) IV, 21, Tram worker, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). From Roganstown, Swords, Dublin, Crenigan and his brother James were members of the 5th (Fingal) Battalion, Dublin Brigade. James learned of his brother’s death while in Mountjoy Prison. His mother Annie wrote

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yearly pension of £90, with £24 for each of her four children and £35 for educational expenses.290

Henry Smyth (28Apr1916/10) RIC (59040), 41, Ex-serviceman, Married with four children, Protestant Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). ‘Harry’ Smyth from Hertfordshire became a DI on 2 October 1899. He was posted to Navan in 1911. Buried Ardbracken Cemetery, Navan, Meath. His widow secured a pension of £100 and £25 annually for each child.288

Malachy Brennan (28Apr1916/13) 44, Labourer, Married with seven children, RC Capel Street, Dublin Brennan, of 85 Capel Street, worked for Cartons poultry agents of 17 Halston Street. He was shot at the door of his wife’s shop. Buried GC (Dublin Section: V. §. 13.5). His widow and five younger children secured £250 compensation from the RVC.291

John Young (28Apr1916/11) RIC (58036), 42, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). From Cavan, Young joined the RIC on 16 November 1896, serving in Down, Armagh, Belfast and Galway before transfer to Meath in 1909. Stationed in Killyon, he was promoted to sergeant in 1913. Buried Navan, Meath. His widow secured a pension of £50 and each of his children £6.5s.0d. annually.289

Frederick William Robert Burke (28Apr1916/14) RDF (25692), 21, CoE Henry Street, Dublin Lance-Sergeant Burke, born in Quetta, Baluchistan, the son of Major John Burke of Twickenham, served in the 10th Battalion. Lieutenant Chalmers of the RDF stated that, during the evacuation of the GPO on 28 April, he and about sixteen other prisoners were taken outside at about 18:00, lined up two deep and told to run or be shot: the Volunteers ‘used us as a screen from the troops’ fire’. He was wounded in the thigh and recalled that an RDF private ‘was also shot dead beside me’. This was probably Burke. Buried GMC (CE. 642). In January 1917, he was posthumously mentioned in dispatches for distinguished service.292

Thomas Allen (28Apr1916/12) IV, 30, Shoemaker, Married with four children, RC Richmond Hospital, Dublin Allen, from Hill of Down, Kilglass, Meath, lived at 19½ Monck Place, Dublin. He earned £3 weekly in Winstanley shoe factory. Promoted to lieutenant on 24 April, Allen commanded a post in the Four Courts overlooking Hammond Lane. On 27 April the military shelled the Chancery Street end of the Four Courts. A frontal assault was expected. Seán Kennedy recalled that, by midday, the British had got the range of their position on the roof, making it untenable. They retreated to the first-floor landing overlooking Hammond Lane. Kennedy, Allen and Volunteer Seán O’Carroll remained there until midday on Friday when a bullet came through the window of the Public Record Office, grazing O’Carroll’s elbow and striking Allen in the chest. Buried GC. In January 1917 his body was exhumed and reinterred at Kilglass Cemetery, Longwood, Moyvalley, Meath. In 1924, when she was receiving just £6 a month in support from the White Cross Society, his widow secured a

Bridget McKane (28Apr1916/15) 15, Boxmaker, RC Henry Place, Dublin Bridget McKane lived at 10 Henry Place. Séamus Scully, whose father owned a shop at No. 31 Moore Street, described how, following the evacuation of the GPO, a group of Volunteers and their wounded reached Henry Place and moved into a yard fronting McKane’s cottage. Bridget’s father, who was holding a baby, was shot several times through the door. One bullet passed through his shoulder and hit Bridget in the head. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: R. a. 37.5). Her father secured £25 compassionate award from the RVC.293

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Moore Street when fire was opened. . . . Men were falling everywhere but we still continued at the double. When I was about 30 or 40 yards from the barricade there was no one left standing in front of me.’ Patrick Rankin recalled that, as Macken passed him:

Robert Glaister (28Apr1916/16) Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (1907EA), 44, Married with one child Amiens Street, Dublin Glaister is listed by the CWGC as an artificer on HMS Colleen. His wife Harriet lived at Skinburness, Silloth. Private Henry Joseph Wyatt of the 6th Battalion, Royal Irish Lancers, was convicted by a court martial in Richmond Barracks on 14 June 1916 of the manslaughter of Glaister, who was staying at the Northern Hotel, Amiens Street, en route to England. When he and the hotel proprietor W. F. Gray went for a walk, Private Wyatt, on sentry duty near Amiens Street Station, challenged them to halt. Wyatt pressed a rifle against Glaister’s chest. Thinking that the soldier was joking, Glaister tried to push the weapon away and was shot in the arm. As Gray and Glaister ran back to the hotel, Wyatt fired a second shot, which missed, and then a third, killing Glaister. Wyatt received a fiveyear sentence. Buried GC (Dublin Section: L. §. 41.5).294

he shouted ‘Oh my God’ and fell in my path. I caught him in my arms, but he was dead in a minute, shot in the centre of the forehead. I . . . said a short prayer. The enemy . . . could just as easily have got me, as they took the man in uniform to be an officer so they picked him off.

Volunteers Coyle, O’Connor and Shortis were likewise killed. The O’Rahilly, wounded, managed to cross Moore Street to a shop doorway at the entry to Moore Lane, where he was hit again. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot). In 1925 his father John secured a dependent’s gratuity of £75. Despite strong representations by Senator Margaret Pearse in 1932 and 1934 – ‘the man is now ill, & very old . . . his son went out with our little band from Rathfarnham . . . on Easter Monday 1916’, and ‘even a little help . . . would give him some comfort in his last days’ – John Macken was found ineligible for further support. Francis Macken’s sister Margaret, a Cumann na mBan veteran, eventually secured a dependent’s allowance of £125.295 RD: Coyle (28Apr1916/18), O’Connor (28Apr1916/19), The O’Rahilly (29Apr 1916/1), Shortis (28Apr1916/20). SA: Pearse (3May1916/1)

Francis Macken (28Apr1916/17) IV, 28, Barber, RC Moore Street, Dublin ‘Frank’ Macken, from York Street, had a hairdressing business in Rathfarnham and came regularly to St Enda’s College. According to Feargus de Búrca, ‘He was a great little soldier and, as section commander . . . always gave the commands in Irish.’ By the afternoon of 28 April, direct artillery hits on the GPO had caused several fires. By evening the upper floors were collapsing, forcing the insurgents to abandon their position. Patrick Pearse sent out groups of men to try to reach Messrs Williams & Woods’ soap factory at 204 Parnell Street where they were to make a last stand and, if possible, escape. The O’Rahilly volunteered to lead the first party. Slipping out the side door of the GPO, they moved along Henry Street. The O’Rahilly divided the party in two at the junction with Moore Street. Denis Daly described how ‘the north end of Moore Street was strongly barricaded and manned with machine-guns and rifles’ by Sherwood Foresters: ‘We hadn’t advanced very far along

Henry Coyle (28Apr1916/18) IV, 27, Slater, Married with one child, RC Moore Street, Dublin See Macken (28Apr1916/17). ‘Harry’ Coyle, of 32 Leinster Avenue, North Strand, was described as an ‘active Volunteer for a good period before Rising’. Thomas Leahy of the ICA recalled that Coyle was shot by a sniper while trying to open a shop door. He reputedly died in the arms of The O’Rahilly. Coyle’s son, born after his death, was named Henry O’Rahilly Coyle. Buried GC (Dublin Section: D. §. 45.5). His family secured support from the National Aid Fund, and

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from 1918 received the interest on £250 capital. In 1924 his widow Alice (Coughlin), who remarried in 1920, received a remarriage gratuity of £120 and £24 yearly for her son.296

Rosealie Venn made an unsuccessful application for a dependent’s allowance. He is commemorated on a plaque in Ballybunion.298 John Brennan (28Apr1916/21) 45, Van driver, Married with two children, RC Adelaide Hospital, Dublin Brennan, of Great Longford Street, was fatally wounded on Aungier Street while feeding horses. Buried GC (Dublin Section: I. §. 40.5). His widow Mary secured £150 compensation from the RVC.299

Patrick O’Connor (28Apr1916/19) IV, 33, Civil servant, RC Moore Street, Dublin See Macken (28Apr1916/17). O’Connor, from Rathmore, Kerry, was appointed to the GPO in London after taking first place in a civil service clerical examination. While there he became involved in the GAA and the Gaelic League. He also joined the Volunteers, becoming a captain. He was transferred to Dublin after twelve years. At Easter 1916, O’Connor was in Rathmore attending the funeral of his brother Denis when he heard that a Rising had commenced. O’Connor’s niece recalled that he told his father: ‘I’ll never again see my little grey home in the west.’ He first went to Cork to meet Florrie O’Donoghue, his first cousin, and then to Dublin where he joined the GPO garrison. Throughout Easter Week, he was involved in tunnelling through buildings to make lines of communication. One source suggests O’Connor died while reconnoitring Cathedral Place. Other accounts indicate that he was killed in the party which The O’Rahilly led from the GPO. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot). He is commemorated on a monument in the Square in Rathmore.297

Harold Brindley (28Apr1916/22) North Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales’s) (5628), CoE Lower Mount Street, Dublin Private Brindley of the 2/5th Battalion enlisted in his home town of Burslem, Staffordshire. On the night of 26–7 April, his unit was on Lower Mount Street en route to Dublin Castle. It is unclear whether Brindley was killed outright or died from wounds on 28 April, one of only two fatalities suffered by his regiment. Buried GMC (CE. 620).300 George Brown (28Apr1916/23) 58, Tinsmith, RC SDU See Barnett (27Apr1916/6). Brown, living in the South Dublin Union, died from gunshot wounds. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: I. a. 37.5).301 Mary Anne Brunswick (28Apr1916/24) 15, Schoolgirl, RC MMH Mary Anne, one of six children of John and Mary Anne Brunswick of 58.3 Lower Wellington Street, died from wounds received while doing an errand. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: R. a. 38). Her father secured £50 from the RVC.302

Patrick Shortis (28Apr1916/20) IV, 22, Wireless operator, RC Moore Street, Dublin See Macken (28Apr1916/17). Lieutenant ‘Paddy’ Shortis, from Ballybunion, Kerry, attended St Brendan’s Seminary, Killarney and later All Hallows College, Dublin. Foreswearing his clerical studies, he enrolled in the Atlantic wireless college in Cahirciveen, securing first place in the Marconi Institute examinations. He worked in London before coming to Dublin in January 1916, probably to avoid conscription, using the alias ‘Patrick Browne’. He lived in O’Connell Villas, Ballybough Road. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot). His widowed sister

Christina Caffrey (28Apr1916/25) 2, RC North Dublin Union Christina, the daughter of Sarah and Joseph Caffrey of 27 Corporation Buildings, was shot in the spine while in her mother’s arms in her home. She was the youngest confirmed

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victim of the Rising. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: O. a. 38). Her mother was awarded £25 by the RVC.303

U. §. 26.5). Her husband John secured £50 from the RVC.309 Charles Love Crockett (28Apr1916/31) Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, 19, Presbyterian Dublin Crockett, from Templemore Park, Londonderry, had been a member of the Queen’s University Belfast OTC. Enlisting in the 10th Battalion, he was subsequently commissioned in the 12th (Reserve) Battalion. Lieutenant Crockett was reportedly challenged by a sentry who, failing to identify him as an officer, shot him when he failed to answer. Buried Derry City Cemetery (I. A. 34). At his family’s request there was no military funeral.310

James Cashman (28Apr1916/26) 34, Chauffeur, RC Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin Cashman, living at Rosemount, Dundrum, with his brother John, was killed on Sir John Rogerson’s Quay. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: J. a. 37.5).304 Thomas Coghlan (28Apr1916/27) 49, Labourer, Widowed, RC Dublin Coghlan, of 155 North Strand, was shot in unknown circumstances. Buried GC (Dublin Section: C. §. 24.5).305

Patrick Derrick (28Apr1916/32) IV, 24, Bootmaker, RC 22 Eustace Street, Dublin Derrick, a Volunteer since 1914, obeyed MacNeill’s countermanding order. A military search party arrested his family in their home, took him out the back and shot him. The army’s version was that soldiers engaged in house-clearing operations found Derrick armed with a rifle and bayonet. They had orders that any ‘Sinn Féiners caught red-handed were to be shot’. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: B. j. 331). His married sister Elizabeth failed to secure a dependent’s allowance as Patrick ‘was not engaged in military service’ when murdered.311

Charles Carrigan306 (28Apr1916/28) IV, 34, Tailor, RC JSH Carrigan, of 65 Eglinton Street, Glasgow, eldest of six children of Belfast parents, moved to Dublin in 1915, living at 28 North Frederick Street. He was in the Kimmage Garrison, comprised of men from Liverpool, London, Manchester and Glasgow who had returned to Ireland to avoid conscription and/or to fight in the Rising. Seriously wounded on Henry Street, he soon died. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 37.5). His mother and sister later secured dependent’s allowances.307 Thomas Kearse Cowley (28Apr1916/29) 66, Accountant, Widowed with one daughter, Plymouth Brethren Abbey Street, Dublin Cowley, from Surrey, lived at 93 Haddington Road, and was secretary of the Christian Union on Abbey Street, where he was shot by soldiers. Buried MJC (C. 159. 2). His daughter secured £195 from the RVC.308

Thomas Donnelly (28Apr1916/33) 52, Cabinet maker, Married, RC North Cumberland Street, Dublin Donnelly, of 35 North Cumberland Street, died when a bullet came through the window. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: K. a. 38). His widow Elizabeth secured £203 compensation from the RVC.312

Julia Crawford (28Apr1916/30) 20, Riveter’s wife, Married, RC Irvine Crescent, Dublin Julia Crawford was reportedly shot dead while sitting by the fire in her home, 7 Irvine Crescent. Buried GC (Dublin Section:

John Doyle (28Apr1916/34) 37, Van driver, Married with three children, RC Moore Lane, Dublin Doyle was shot while feeding his employer’s horses in Moore Lane across from his home at 16 Moore Street. Buried GC (St Paul’s

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Section: N. a. 38). His dependents secured £195 compensation from the RVC.313

Elizabeth Hanratty (28Apr1916/40) 28, Butcher’s wife, Married, RC Moore Street, Dublin Elizabeth Hanratty, from Meath, was shot through the window of her mother-in-law’s home at 39 Moore Street, one of many females to die during the Rising. John Lowe, later a well-known actor [John Loder], was visiting his father General Lowe, commanding British forces in Dublin, for Easter. He recalled that, although orders stipulated that ‘on no account was anyone under any circumstances . . . to shoot at a woman . . . I’m afraid a lot of them did get shot and that was the most awful sight I ever saw during the whole war, a woman lying shot in the street with her skirts bunched up around her shoulders. It was a terrible sight.’ Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Y. §. 35). Her husband Robert secured £25 from the RVC.320

Richard Dunlea (28Apr1916/35) 48, Commercial clerk, RC Marlborough Street, Dublin From Cork, Dunlea, lodging at 88 Marlborough Street, died from wounds inflicted in unknown circumstances. Buried GC (Dublin Section: H § 40.5).314 Arthur Ferris (28Apr1916/36) 33, Labourer, Married with one child, RC Lower Kevin Street, Dublin Ferris, from Laois, living at 22 Lower Kevin Street, was shot at his sister’s door while bringing her bread. Buried GC (Dublin Section: O. §. 39.5). His widow Lizzie and child secured £215 compensation from the RVC.315 Patrick Friel (28Apr1916/37) 58, Nightwatchman, Married with five children, RC Capel Street, Dublin From Donegal, Friel, of 17 St Joseph’s Villas, was shot going to work. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: I. a. 37.5). His widow Margaret secured £193 compensation from the RVC.316

Charles Hayter (28Apr1916/41) 78, Retired grocer, Married with five children, CoI SPDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Hayter, from Scotland, living at 1.2 Canal House, Northumberland Road, died from wounds received while feeding animals nearby. Buried MJC (A. 275. 7). His widow Mary Ann secured £150 from the RVC.321

George Gray (28Apr1916/38) RDF, 22, Student, CoE Broadstone Railway Station, Dublin Gray, from Newcastle upon Tyne, studied dentistry before being commissioned as a lieutenant. On the afternoon of 25 April, the 4th Battalion, his unit, arrived in Dublin from Templemore and occupied Broadstone Railway Station. He was shot by Volunteers firing from houses near the corner of North Brunswick Street. Buried GMC (CE. 46).317

Morgan Hayes (28Apr1916/42) 45, Cooper, Married, RC Mary’s Lane, Dublin Hayes, from Limerick, living at 8 Christchurch Place, was shot while returning from work. Buried GC (Dublin Section: O. §. 30.5). His widow Catherine secured £300 from the RVC.322 Thomas Moran Jozé (28Apr1916/43) 62, Chemist, CoI Arran Quay, Dublin From Mayo, Jozé was a well-known pharmacist with shops on Dame Street and at 38 Arran Quay, where he lived. He was shot dead by insurgents while returning home. Reportedly deaf, he may not have heard a challenge to halt. Buried MJC (C. 113/134).323

John Hanna (28Apr1916/39) RIR (6774), RC Dublin Rifleman Hanna, from Downpatrick, Down, enlisted at Newtownards.318 He died in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (RC. 711).319

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(Dublin Section: I. §. 40.5). His widow Mary secured £172 compensation from the RVC.328

John Meagher (28Apr1916/44) 57, Commercial clerk, Widowed, RC JSH From Tipperary, the 1911 census lists Meagher as a boarder at 12.2 Langrishe Place. He died of wounds. Buried GC (Dublin Section: O. §. 43.5).324

Thomas Reilly (28Apr1916/49) 63, Labourer, RC SDU See Barnett (27Apr1916/6). Reilly, a patient, died from gunshot wounds. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: M. a. 38).329

Julia Frances Merna (28Apr1916/45) 75, Widowed, RC Great Charles Street, Dublin Julia Merna was fatally wounded near her home, 32 Great Charles Street. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: R. a. 38).325

Bridget Stewart (28Apr1916/50) 11, Schoolgirl, RC RCDH Bridget, one of six children of labourer Charles and his wife Maria of 3 Pembroke Place, died from wounds. Buried DGC (N3. 25. W).330

William Mullen (28Apr1916/46) 9, Schoolboy, RC Moore Street, Dublin William, son of Richard and Eliza Mullen of 8 Moore Place, was shot when the family were compelled by fire to leave their home. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: O. a. 37.5). His father secured £25 from the RVC.326

William West (28Apr1916/51) 52, Labourer, ex-soldier, Married with three children, RC MMH West, of 16 Belvedere Place, was shot on Dorset Street while looking for bread and tobacco. Buried GC (Dublin Section: R. §. 33.5). His widow Jane secured £187 from the RVC.331

Michael Mulvihill (28Apr1916/47) IV, 37, Civil servant, RC Moore Street, Dublin Mulvihill, from Ballyduff, Kerry, joined the Volunteers while a civil service clerk in London. Among his comrades were Michael Collins,† Denis Daly (later a Kerry TD), Austin Kennan (Mulvihill’s brother-in-law) and Patrick O’Connor. Shortly before Easter 1916, Mulvihill was called up for military service. He instead travelled to Dublin, joining members of the Kimmage Garrison in the GPO on 24 April. They were stationed on the roof, remaining together until 27 April when their position became untenable. Kennan followed The O’Rahilly into Moore Street and survived. Nothing is known of Mulvihill’s final movements. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot). His mother and a sister subsequently secured dependents’ awards.327 SA: O’Connor (28Apr1916/19)

Christopher Whelan (28Apr1916/52) 15, Messenger, RC North Great George’s Street, Dublin Whelan, son of Lawrence and Mary Whelan of 30.1 North Great George’s Street, was shot when a bullet came through the window. Buried GC (Garden Section: F. 72.5). His father secured £50 from the RVC.332 William Thomas Percy Wright (28Apr1916/53) South Staffordshire Regiment (4985), Protestant North King Street, Dublin Private Wright, from Cradley Heath, Staffordshire, served in the 2/6th Battalion. The 2/6th Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment, suffered the most fatalities of any army unit in Dublin other than the Sherwood Foresters. Most occurred in fierce fighting, much of it in darkness, along North King Street from the evening of 28 April until the following afternoon. Their commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Taylor, on

John O’Reilly (28Apr1916/48) 51, Labourer, Married, RC Capel Street, Dublin O’Reilly lived at 75 Capel Street, where he was shot through a window. Buried GC

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10 May gave a problematic account of these operations to a court of inquiry into the deaths of Peter Lawless, Patrick Hoey, James Finegan and James McCartney. At 16:50 on 28 April, Taylor received orders to bring his battalion from Trinity College to Capel Street to hold a line extending from the junction of Parnell Street and Capel Street to North King Street as far as Queen Street, where he was to link up with the 2/5th Battalion. Assisted by an armoured car, an advance party of the 2/6th overcame limited opposition to reach the junction of North King Street and Capel Street at about 18:30. Taylor occupied Bolton Street Technical School as his command post. Barricades and effective sniper fire from Volunteers in Moore’s Coach Factory on North Brunswick Street impeded progress. By 22:00, the 2/6th had only reached Halston Street, where opposition became stiffer still. Private Wright was one of the first fatalities. In an effort to outflank the barricades, soldiers broke into houses along the street and tunnelled through their walls. This led to the cold-blooded killing of thirteen civilians, discussed under the entry for Michael Hughes (29Apr1916/26) below. It took the military some hours to reach Linenhall Street, where they were held up by heavy fire from a stout barricade at No. 27 North King Street. There was a second barricade on Coleraine Street. Volunteer Patrick Kelly described how, in the early hours of 29 April, ‘a sudden rush by the enemy across King Street was met by fierce fire from us. About seven men made the dash up the street; only two minus rifles returned and they were shot as they tried to get across our barricade.’ This was one of several unsuccessful assaults. Liam O’Doherty recalled hearing a British officer giving:

and Church Street. As the soldiers advanced . . . they had a rifle in one hand and held their equipment on their backs with the other. Immediately we started to fire on them they turned everywhere and ran down the side street . . . right into the barricade on this street. I do not know if any . . . escaped, but when the British authorities afterwards stated that their casualties in this area were particularly heavy it is quite understandable. It would be difficult to find a similar example of such downright stupidity.

The centre of Volunteer resistance was a public house called ‘Reilly’s Fort’ at the corner of North King Street and Church Street. Michael O’Flanagan recalled that at about 04:00 Lieutenant Collins called a conference. He pointed out that if the British made a frontal assault the Volunteers would be unable to resist owing to scarcity of ammunition. O’Flanagan suggested that additional supplies and grenades be taken from Father Matthew Hall on Church Street. Volunteers Delamere and Patrick O’Flanagan (Michael’s brother) put themselves forward for this dangerous task. They reached Church Street under covering fire. At about 05:00, they returned under heavy fire. Delamere managed to enter ‘Reilly’s Fort’, but O’Flanagan was caught by machine-gun fire. His body was dragged into ‘Reilly’s Fort’, still bearing a number of slings of ammunition and two home-made grenades. There were other Volunteer fatalities. John Dwan, hit in the head at a barricade, died the following day. Patrick Kelly recalled that a hail of bullets came through Moore’s Coach Factory, mortally wounding Patrick Farrell and Peter Manning. Phil Walsh was killed in action in North Brunswick Street. At about 08:00, C Company, 2/6th Battalion, under Captain R. M. Sheppard, captured the North King Street barricades for the loss of thirteen men killed or wounded. By about 11:00 the military held the lower portion of the street. By 16:00, most Volunteers had fallen back to the Four Courts, where Ned Daly obeyed the surrender order. One unit under Paddy Holahan had lost contact with the Four Courts, and held out until 30 April.

instructions . . . in such a loud voice that we could hear everything that was said and prepared accordingly. We also passed the information to the men who were at our barricades further down Church Street who passed it on to a further barricade in a narrow street between North King Street Post Office (where the British section was)

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Buried GMC (CE. 644).333 RD: Banks (29Apr1916/7), Banting (29Apr 1916/8), Barratt (29Apr1916/9), Bourne (29Apr1916/11), Bowcott (29Apr1916/12), Chick (29Apr1916/13), Cobbold (29Apr 1916/14), Collins (29Apr1916/15), Dwan (30Apr1916/6), Farrell (29Apr1916/16), Fox (29Apr1916/17), Humphries (29Apr1916/18), Jobber (29Apr1916/19), Manning (29Apr 1916/20), O’Flanagan (29Apr1916/21), Speed (29Apr1916/23), Tempest (29Apr1916/24), Walsh (29Apr1916/25). SA: Daly (4May 1916/1), Finegan (29Apr1916/33), Hoey (29Apr1916/34), Lawless (29Apr1916/35), McCartney (29Apr1916/36)

his grandson, died next day. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: P. k. 296). His daughter secured £300 from the RVC.337 Francis Curley (28Apr1916/58) 52, Watchman, Married, RC JSH Curley lived at 16 Green Street. Shot on Nelson Lane on his way to work, he died next day. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. a. 38). His widow Margaret secured £162 compensation from the RVC.338 Patrick Stephenson (28Apr1916/59) 49, Undertaker, Married with five children, RC Marlborough Street, Dublin Stephenson, of 76.3 Lower Gloucester Street, manager of an undertaker’s, was shot in the head at the door of his employer’s premises at 66 Marlborough Street. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: K. h. 166). His widow Alice and children secured £300 compensation from the RVC.339

William Watson (28Apr1916/54) 61, Caretaker, Married, CoI JSH Watson, from Laois, lived on Swift’s Row and was caretaker of No. 55 Middle Abbey Street. Struck by a bullet which came through the window as he descended the stairs, he died that night. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 37.5). His widow Elizabeth secured £273 compensation from the RVC.334

Patrick Kelly (28Apr1916/60) 13, Schoolboy Lower Rutland Street, Dublin Kelly, of 24 B Block, Buckingham Buildings, was shot in the mouth while looking for bread. His father Patrick secured £50 from the RVC.340

Michael Glynn (28Apr1916/55) 57, Nightwatchman, Married, RC Mercer’s Shot near his home, 24C Corporation Buildings, while going to work on 27 April, Glynn died next day. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. a. 38). His widow Mary received £150 from the RVC.335

Michael McCabe (28Apr1916/61) 67, Casual labourer, Widowed Richmond Hospital, Dublin McCabe, of 62 B Block, Corporation Buildings, Corporation Place, wounded on Bow Street on 27 April while returning home, died next day. His daughter Teresa secured £150 compensation from the RVC.341

Patrick Ivers (28Apr1916/56) 14, Newsboy MMH Ivers, of 14 Cumberland Street, sent out for milk, was shot scaling a wall trying to reach home on 27 April. He died next day. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 38). His father Michael received £50 from the RVC.336

John H. McNamara (28Apr1916/62) 12, Schoolboy, RC Mercer’s McNamara, of 45 York Street, died from head wounds as he looked for his younger brother on Grafton Street. Buried MJC. His mother Lucy secured £25 from the RVC.342

Richard Clarke (28Apr1916/57) 70, Shoemaker, Widowed with two children, RC JSH Clarke, of 61 Beresford Road, shot on Abbey Street on 27 April while searching for

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29 APRIL 1916

Thomas Reilly (28Apr1916/63) 24, Storeman, Married with one child Cole’s Lane, Dublin Reilly, of Cole’s Lane, was shot on his return from the Rotunda hospital, where he sought a doctor for his wife. His widow Mary Ann secured £203 from the RVC.343

Michael Joseph Rahilly (The O’Rahilly) (29Apr1916/1) IV, 41, Merchant, Married with five children, RC Moore Lane, Dublin See Macken (28Apr1916/17). Rahilly was born in Ballylongford, Kerry, only son of Richard Rahilly, a prosperous merchant, and Ellen Mangan. Rahilly attended Clongowes Wood College, and briefly studied medicine at the Royal University. His father died while convalescing after tuberculosis in 1896, and the family business fell to Rahilly. From about 1899, Rahilly became an enthusiastic separatist, associating with Arthur Griffith† and contributing to the United Irishman and its successor Sinn Féin. He married Nancy (‘Nannie’) Browne of Philadelphia. They had five children, and lived at 40 Herbert Park. He began to style himself ‘The O’Rahilly’ from about 1909. He took part in the meeting in Wynn’s Hotel on 11 November 1913 which planned the inaugural Irish Volunteers Rotunda rally of 25 November. He became director of arms. Within the Volunteer executive, The O’Rahilly opposed the Rising. He was one of those dispatched by MacNeill on 22 April to countermand the manoeuvres outside Dublin, driving through the night to Limerick bearing the message ‘Volunteers completely deceived. All orders for special action are hereby cancelled and on no account will action be taken. [signed] Eoin MacNeill.’ He returned to Dublin the following evening. On the morning of 24 April, Desmond FitzGerald told him that fresh manoeuvres had been ordered. Realising that insurrection was unavoidable, The O’Rahilly decided to fight: ‘I have helped to wind up the clock, and must be there to hear it strike.’ He drove to Liberty Hall with his sister Anna. His car was used to carry arms to the GPO via the rear entrance on Prince’s Street, where it would later become part of a barricade. Throughout the following days, The O’Rahilly fought in the GPO, before leading Volunteers in a fatal dash along Moore Street, hoping to

Margaret Carrick (28Apr1916/64) 36, Housekeeper, RC SPDH Margaret Carrick lived at 45 Eblana Villas with her engine driver father James. Shot at the corner of Great Clarence Street and Hogan Avenue while out for provisions, she died on admission to Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital. Her brother John secured a compassionate grant of £25 from the RVC.344 Eugene Lynch (28Apr1916/65) 8, Schoolboy, RC Inchicore, Dublin Son of Anna Maria Lynch of 28 St Vincent St, Goldenbridge, Inchicore, Eugene was shot in the back while playing with other children near Richmond Barracks on the evening of 27 April, dying next day. His mother secured a compassionate grant of £25.345 Charles William Morgan (28Apr1916/66) 21, Clerk, CoI Great Charles Street, Dublin From Donegal, the son of George Morgan, a civil bills officer, and Elizabeth, he lived at 27 Great Charles Street. On the afternoon of 28 April he was sitting at the table in the front room reading a book when a bullet came through the window and killed him instantly. His father was awarded £75 by the RVC.346 Joseph Murray (28Apr1916/67) 14, Schoolboy, RC Upper Bridge Street, Dublin Son of John Murray, a labourer of 14 St Augustine Street, he was shot dead at around 13:00 while on an errand. His father secured a compassionate grant of £25 from the RVC.347

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reach the Williams & Woods soap factory. Hit, he crawled over to Moore Lane, and was hit again. Tom Crimmins heard him ‘say a few prayers and then . . . “God help you, Poor Ireland”’. Crimmins crawled over to him, but The O’Rahilly ordered him to look after himself. The O’Rahilly managed to scribble a final note to his wife:

where he married. Invalided home from France, he joined the 2nd King Edward’s Horse (Cavalry Special Reserve) in December 1915. Lieutenant Lucas had been offered the adjutancy of his regiment just before his death. Two soldiers and two Guinness Brewery employees were shot on the night of 28–9 April in circumstances which showed an NCO at best panic-stricken, at worst a callous killer. Captain Charles McNamara was ordered to occupy the malthouse on Robert Street on 28 April, with instructions not to return fire unless actually attacked. At 23:00, another officer was detailed to take Lucas and seven men to relieve McNamara. The latter later deposed that he handed over command to Lucas and explained the orders. There was no one else in the building except three watchmen who carried lights when on their rounds. Company Quartermaster Sergeant Robert Flood, 5th Battalion, RDF, led a security detail within the brewery. McNamara said later that he believed it possible that, in the dark, Flood may not have seen Lucas’s rank, and mistook him and Guinness employee William Rice for rebels – because Flood arrested the men, and decided to kill them. Lucas asked permission to say his prayers. Flood ordered his men to fire first at Lucas and then at Rice. Captain A. R. Rotheram of the 10th Reserve Cavalry stated that at about 02:00 Lieutenant Worsley-Worswick and Guinness employee Cecil Dockeray, who were elsewhere in the brewery, told him that a telephone message from the malthouse had come through saying William Rice was being held prisoner. Rotheram instructed Worsley-Worswick to do nothing until morning. However, he and Dockeray evidently went to investigate. At around 03:30, Sergeant Flood reported to Rotheram that he had shot two men in the malthouse, and that he thought the malthouse was full of insurgents. Rotheram found the bodies of Worsley-Worthwick and Dockeray on the third floor of the malthouse. On 12 June, Flood faced a court martial at Richmond Barracks on a charge of murdering Lucas and Rice. He was acquitted. Buried GMC (Grave 66).350

Written after I was shot – Darling Nancy I was shot leading a rush up Moore St & took refuge in a doorway.    While I was there I heard the men pointing out where I was & made a bolt for the laneway I am in now.    I got more than one bullet I think. Tons and tons of love dear to you & the boys & to Nell and Anna [sisters]. It was a good fight anyhow. Please deliver this to Nannie O Rahilly, 40 Herbert Park, Dublin. Goodbye Darling.

Marcus Bourke suggested he possibly survived until the next morning, whereas O’Rahilly’s son Aodogán maintained he died within hours. He was the only member of the Provisional Committee of the Irish Volunteers to be killed in action. Buried GC republican plot (South Section: T. d. 35). In 1937, a plaque was unveiled on Moore Street. Moore Lane was renamed O’Rahilly Parade.348 Thomas Rafferty (29Apr1916/2) IV, 22, RC Ashbourne, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). ‘Tommy’ Rafferty, a son of James Rafferty of Lusk, Dublin, a well-known piper and hurler, was a member of the 5th (Fingal) Battalion, Dublin Brigade. Buried Lusk Cemetery. In 1959, he was commemorated on a memorial in Ashbourne. His mother later secured a dependent’s award.349 Algernon Lucas (29Apr1916/3) King Edward’s Horse, 37, Married with children, Protestant Guinness Malthouse, Robert Street, Dublin Lucas, a Cambridge graduate, immigrated to Canada as a schoolmaster but made his fortune in the stock exchange in Montreal,

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RD: Dockeray (29Apr1916/4), Rice (29Apr 1916/5), Worsley-Worswick (29Apr1916/6)

John S. Barratt356 (29Apr1916/9) South Staffordshire Regiment (4276), 48, Married, CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Barratt, a corporal in the 2/6th Battalion, enlisted in his home town of Wolverhampton, where his wife Selina lived at 29 Art Street. Buried GMC (CE. 638). He is commemorated on the Wolverhampton war memorial. In January 1917, he was posthumously mentioned in dispatches for distinguished service during the Rising.357

Cecil Eustace Dockeray (29Apr1916/4) 43, Clerk, Married with two children, CoI Guinness Malthouse, Robert Street, Dublin See Lucas (29Apr1916/3). Dockeray lived at 4 Warwick Terrace, Leeson Park. He had worked in the Guinness Brewery for twentyfour years. Buried MJC (B. 182. 27). His widow Violet secured a yearly pension of £78 and a lump sum of £750.351 William John Rice (29Apr1916/5) 35, Clerk, Married, Protestant Guinness Malthouse, Robert Street, Dublin See Lucas (29Apr1916/3). Rice, of Sandford Terrace, had worked at the Guinness Brewery for sixteen years, and was on duty as night clerk. Buried in the family vault, MJC (C. 62). His widow secured a yearly pension of £68.6s.8d. and a lump sum of £500.352

John Beirnes (29Apr1916/10) 50, Drayman, Married with five children, RC Coleraine Street, Dublin Beirnes, of 80 Church Street, had been a drayman for many years in Monks’ Bakery. His wife Elizabeth Beirnes stated that during Easter Week she was warned of the dangers of remaining in Church Street and on 28 April sought shelter in the North Dublin Union. Her husband remained behind. However, after his house was occupied by Volunteers he went to Coleraine Street and stayed with Larry Fox, the bakery yardman. At about 07:30, as the two men set out to tend to the bakery horses, Beirnes was shot in the head. Ellen Walsh and Elizabeth Beirnes believed he was shot by soldiers from the window of Dunne’s butcher shop, the only house covering the street. Buried GC (South Section: R 40.5). His dependents secured £199 compensation from the RVC.358 RD: O’Neill (29Apr1916/22)

Basil Henry Worsley-Worswick (29Apr1916/6) King Edward’s Horse, 35, RC Guinness Malthouse, Robert Street, Dublin See Lucas (29Apr1916/3). Lieutenant Worsley-Worswick, the son of Major William Worsley-Worswick of Normanton Hall, Leicestershire, enlisted in August 1914, serving in France before being commissioned in September 1915. He was stationed in the Curragh. Buried GMC (Grave 5).353 Arthur Banks (29Apr1916/7) South Staffordshire Regiment (5082), 24, CoE 172 North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Banks of the 2/6th Battalion, son of Isaac and Sarah Jane Banks of 21 Victoria Road, Wednesfield, Staffordshire, enlisted at Wolverhampton. Buried GMC (CE. 628). He is commemorated on the Wednesfield war memorial.354

Harold Bourne (29Apr1916/11) South Staffordshire Regiment (5024), 24, CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Bourne of the 2/6th Battalion, the son of John and Alice Bourne of the post office, Sedgley, Staffordshire, enlisted at Wolverhampton. Buried GMC (CE. 612).359

Frederick Charles Banting (29Apr1916/8) South Staffordshire Regiment (3736), CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Banting was from Wolverhampton, where he enlisted as a private in the 2/6th Battalion. Buried GMC (CE. 612).355

John Reginald Bowcott (29Apr1916/12) South Staffordshire Regiment (4804), 19, CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Bowcott of the 2/6th Battalion was son of Mrs Louise

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Bowcott of Wolverhampton, where he enlisted. Buried GMC (CE. 612). He is named on the Wolverhampton war memorial.360

William Henry Humphries (29Apr1916/18) South Staffordshire Regiment (5154), 19, CoE North King Street, Dublin366 See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Humphries of the 2/6th Battalion was the son of Benjamin and Martha Humphries of Mansfield, Staffordshire. Buried GMC (CE. 650).367

James Chick (29Apr1916/13) South Staffordshire Regiment (5035), CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Chick of the 2/6th Battalion, from Wombourne, Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, enlisted at Wolverhampton. Buried GMC (CE. 639). He is commemorated on the Wombourne war memorial.361

Francis Jobber (29Apr1916/19) South Staffordshire Regiment (5076), 26, Married, Protestant North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private ‘Frank’ Jobber of the 2/6th Battalion was youngest son of Harry Barton and Florence Jobber of Willenhall, Staffordshire, where he enlisted. His wife Florence Maria lived at 428 Wolverhampton Road, Walsall. Buried GMC (CE. 612), he is commemorated on the Willenhall war memorial.368

Arthur Elias Cobbold (29Apr1916/14) Army Service Corps (M/2148822), 23, CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Cobbold of the 615th Mechanised Transport Company enlisted in his home town of Blandford, Dorset. Buried GMC (CE. 613).362 Thomas Albert Collins (29Apr1916/15) South Staffordshire Regiment, CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Collins of the 2nd/6th Battalion enlisted in Wolverhampton. Buried GMC (CE. 647).363

Peter Paul Manning (29Apr1916/20) IV, c. 25, Paper ruler, RC Moore’s Coach Factory, North Brunswick Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Manning lived with his widowed mother and sisters at 4 Broadstone Avenue. He was fatally wounded in the shop above Moore’s Coach Factory on North Brunswick Street. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: K. j. 243). One sister later received a dependent’s allowance.369

Patrick Farrell (29Apr1916/16) IV, 19, Plasterer, RC North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Farrell, of 169 Parnell Street, had reportedly been inactive since the Volunteer movement split in 1914, but joined the fighting during Easter Week. Michael O’Flanagan said Farrell was killed by a British sniper. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot). His mother and a sister subsequently secured dependents’ allowances.364

Patrick Joseph O’Flanagan (29Apr1916/21) IV, 24, Married with three children, RC ‘Reilly’s Fort’, North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). O’Flanagan, whose parents Christopher and Eliza Flanagan owned a poultry shop at 30½ Moore Street, was one of four brothers who fought during the Rising. He was shot through the neck. His widow Mary O’Hanlon, who remarried in 1918, received £150 from the National Aid Association, with £320 being held in trust for her children, before securing a dependent’s award of £72 yearly in 1924. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot).370

Ernest Fox (29Apr1916/17) South Staffordshire Regiment (5073), CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Fox of the 2/6th Battalion, from Willenhall, Staffordshire, enlisted at Wolverhampton. Buried GMC (CE. 649). He is commemorated on the Willenhall war memorial.365

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Thirteen civilians were killed in cold blood as the military tightened its cordon around North King Street. Nine men died on the south side of the street in houses which formed a block between Ann Street and Beresford Street, and four on the northern side of North King Street in No. 27. General Sir John Maxwell later admitted that some soldiers ‘saw red’ but defended their actions:

William O’Neill (29Apr1916/22) 17, Van man, RC Constitution Hill, Dublin William was the son of John, a labourer, and Alice O’Neill of 93 Upper Church Street. His sister Ellen was married to John Walsh, killed on 29 April. According to Ellen Walsh, William was shot in the early morning on Constitution Hill, by soldiers firing from the window of Dunne’s butcher shop. He and another man had gone to look at the body of John Beirnes, fearing this might be that of his father. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: I. h. 146). His father received £50 from the RCV.371 SA: Beirnes (29Apr1916/10), Walsh (29Apr 1916/27)

The struggle was in many cases of a houseto-house character . . . sniping was continuous and very persistent . . . it was often extremely difficult to distinguish between those who were or had been firing upon the troops and those who had for various reasons chosen to remain on the scene of the fighting.

Bert Speed (29Apr1916/23) South Staffordshire Regiment (3946), CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Private Speed of the 2/6th Battalion enlisted in his home town of Wolverhampton, Staffordshire. Buried GMC (CE. 637).372

In a letter to the chief secretary on 19 July 1916, Sarah Hughes described how during Easter Week she gave shelter to eighteen people, including John Walsh, his wife and three children. At about 05:00 on 29 April, a party of eleven members of 2/6th Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment, under Corporal Bullock, broke into No. 172. Sarah told them that there were no rebels in the house. The soldiers ordered everyone to put their hands up, and searched the occupants and then the rooms. When John Walsh and Michael Hughes were searched, one soldier allegedly said, ‘Give those Irish pigs an ounce of lead.’ The women and children were herded into a cellar. Walsh and Hughes were taken upstairs. Ellen Walsh could make out someone begging for mercy. However, the noise of firing outside made it impossible to determine when the men upstairs were shot. The military then tunnelled through the walls into the adjoining houses. In the afternoon, Sarah Hughes found Sergeant Banks lying wounded, and summoned his comrades to help him. She later saw Patrick Walsh’s body by the fireplace in the drawing room. When she asked where her husband was, she was told that he had been taken to a detention barracks, but at about 22:00 she found him dead upstairs, shot in the head. Jewellery which he was safeguarding for her was missing. On 27 May, a court

David Percival Tempest (29Apr1916/24) South Staffordshire Regiment (889), CoE North King Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Company Quartermaster Sergeant Tempest of the 2/6th Battalion, from Liverpool, enlisted at Wolverhampton. Buried GMC (CE. 626).373 Philip Walsh (29Apr1916/25) IV, 28, Gilder, RC North Brunswick Street, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). ‘Phil’ Walsh of 43 Manor Street, a member of the Croke Football Club, was a signalling sergeant. Patrick J. Kelly recalled that Volunteers on North King Street wondered why their comrades in ‘Reilly’s Fort’ had ceased firing. Three men, commanded by Walsh, went to reconnoitre. Walsh was shot in the yard of a chemist’s shop. Buried GC (Dublin Section: F. §. 24.5).374 Michael Hughes (29Apr1916/26) 34, Shopkeeper, Married with three children, RC 172 North King Street, Dublin Hughes and his wife Sarah, of 172 North King Street, had opened a small provisions shop only two days before the Rising.

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of inquiry found there was no evidence to show that Hughes and Walsh were killed by soldiers. Kate Ennis explained that she and her husband occupied rooms on the top floor of the three-storey house, No. 174. Michael Smith had two rooms on the first floor and Michael Nunan’s sister kept a newsagent’s and tobacconist shop on the ground floor. On the morning of 29 April, all the residents, with the exception of Smith and Nunan’s sister, were in a parlour at the back of the shop. At about 06:00, soldiers burst in and demanded to know how many men were in the building. They searched the house, thrusting bayonets through beds. Nunan and Ennis were ordered upstairs. Kate Ennis and Anne Fennell were locked into the parlour. As her husband was led away, Kate Ennis clung to him. According to Anne Fennell, one of the soldiers pushed her aside, put a bayonet to her head and shouted, ‘Keep quiet, you bloody bitch.’ At about 08:00, George Ennis staggered downstairs and fell through the parlour door, shot in the chest. He told his wife that he did not know why the soldiers shot him. He asked for a priest and, just before he died at 08:20, said that he forgave his killers. The military left and did not return until 18:00, when Anne Fennell and Kate Ennis were released. They found Nunan lying upstairs, shot in the head. Anne Fennell described him as ‘a very quiet, inoffensive young man’. Thomas Hickey, his son Christy and Peter Connolly were taken from Hickey’s shop at 168 North King Street, led through No. 169, which was a tenement, and killed in No. 170, a disused house. Kate Kelly, Mrs Hickey’s maid, stated that as soldiers arrived at about 18:45 on 28 April, Hickey and Connolly were chatting. The latter had come to move two mirrors. Unable to return home due to heavy firing, Connolly stayed for the night. At about 06:00 on 29 April, they heard the noise of drilling at the wall. Several soldiers came through a breach from No. 169 and held the occupants prisoner. At around 10:00, they were escorted into No. 170. Kate Kelly was kept in a front room from where she heard Christy Hickey plead for his father’s life

before shots rang out. When Mrs Connolly saw her husband’s body the following day it bore several gashes to the neck and head, which, she believed, were bayonet wounds. It is unclear if Connolly had been involved in the Rising. At a secret court of inquiry, two police witnesses claimed that he had been seen on the roofs of houses in North King Street, allegedly directing rebels towards Anne Street. The final set of killings took place in the Louth Dairy, 27 North King Street. Peter Lawless, his mother and her two tenants were present along with James McCartney, his wife and child, who were family friends. At about 08:30, Lawless opened the door to a party of troops. A sergeant apparently refused to believe assurances that there were no insurgents in the building and took the men prisoner. The women were taken to a house in Linenhall Street. Returning that evening, Mrs Lawless found her son dead on an upstairs landing where she had last seen him. James Finegan and Patrick Hoey were also dead, as was James McCartney, found in a sitting position against a wall. Mrs McCartney claimed that her husband’s watch and other valuables had been stolen. A court of inquiry into these deaths was held on 10 May, but none of the witnesses were able to recognise any of the soldiers. Police witnesses deposed that Lawless, McCartney, Finegan and Hoey were not Volunteers. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: W. e. 41).375 RD: Connolly (29Apr1916/30), Ennis (29Apr 1916/28), Finegan (29Apr1916/33), Hickey (29Apr1916/31), Hickey (29Apr1916/32), Hoey (29Apr1916/34), Lawless (29Apr1916 /35), McCartney (29Apr1916/36), Nunan (29Apr1916/29), Walsh (29Apr1916/27). SA: Banks (29Apr1916/7) John Walsh (29Apr1916/27) 34, Cattle drover, ex-serviceman, Married with three children, RC 172 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Walsh, a Boer War veteran, lived with his wife Ellen at 93 Upper Church Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: G. §. 47.5).376

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George Ennis (29Apr1916/28) 49, Coachbuilder, Married, RC 174 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Ennis worked in Moore’s Coach Factory. He lived with his wife Kate at 174 North King Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: K. §. 49.5).377

Patrick Hoey (29Apr1916/34) 28, Van driver, RC 27 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Hoey lived at 27 North King Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: Q. §. 40.5).383 Peter (Peadar) Joseph Lawless (29Apr1916/35) 21, Motor mechanic, RC 27 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Lawless, from New York, lived with his mother Brigid, who owned the Louth Dairy at 27 North King Street. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: F. h. 104.5).384

Michael Nunan (29Apr1916/29) 34, Tobacconist, RC 174 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Nunan, formerly a Corporation messenger, helped his Limerick-born mother Elizabeth run her shop at 174 North King Street. Buried GC (South Section: P. a. 64.5).378

James McCartney (29Apr1916/36) 36, Manager, Married with one child, RC 27 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). McCartney was manager of Gallagher’s tobacco store at 24 Dame Street, and lived at 16 Exchange Place with his wife Mary and their three-week-old child. Buried GC (Dublin Section: V. §. 49.5).385

Peter Connolly (29Apr1916/30) IV, 39, Carrier, General dealer, Married with seven children, RC 170 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Connolly, of 164 North King Street, was a Volunteer but reportedly took no part in the Rising. He worked for Fenlon’s in Mary’s Lane, and owned a small hardware shop at 164 North King Street.379

Patrick Bealin (29Apr1916/37) 24, Vintner, RC 177 North King Street, Dublin From Castlecomer, Kilkenny, Bealin moved to Dublin in August 1915 and worked in Mary O’Rourke’s licensed premises at 177 North King Street. Bealin allegedly acted as a dispatch carrier for the Volunteers. On 29 April, soldiers shot and buried him in the cellar. On 10 May, the bodies of Bealin and James Healy were disinterred. At an inquest at the City Morgue, Mary O’Rourke deposed that at midnight on 28 April she, her three children, the cook and Bealin took refuge in the cellar of 177 North King Street. A military party entered and soldiers searched Bealin and Mary O’Rourke’s thirteen-year-old son and then ordered everyone upstairs. Sometime later, Bealin was taken away. Mrs Roseanna Knowles of 23 Lurgan Street claimed a soldier told her he had not wanted to shoot Bealin, but eventually took him upstairs and killed him. Medical evidence showed that the fatal rounds were fired from some distance.

Christopher Hickey (29Apr1916/31) 16, Butcher’s assistant, RC 170 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). ‘Christy’ was son of Thomas and Teresa Hickey of 168 North King Street. Buried with his father at DGC (P3. 28. W).380 RD: Hickey (29Apr1916/32) Thomas Hickey (29Apr1916/32) 41, Butcher, Married with children, RC 170 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Hickey lived above his shop at 168 North King Street. Buried with his son at DGC (P3. 28. W).381 James Finegan (29Apr1916/33) 40, Van driver, RC 27 North King Street, Dublin See Hughes (29Apr1916/26). Finegan lived at 27 North King Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: Q. §. 40.5).382

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No soldiers gave evidence. The military authorities later stated that Bealin had been armed with a revolver given to him by Mary O’Rourke to ward off looters, a fact that had not been disclosed at the inquest. The jury found that Bealin was ‘an unarmed and unoffending prisoner . . . the explanation given by the military authorities is very unsatisfactory, and we believe that if the military authorities had any inclination they could produce the officer in charge’. By contrast, General Maxwell blamed ‘those resisting His Majesty’s troops in the execution of their duty’. A similar verdict was returned in the case of James Healy, who had been on his way to work when detained. This inquest occasioned much public outcry. Buried Castlecomer Cemetery, Kilkenny.386 RD: Healy (29Apr1916/38)

Jane Caldwell (29Apr1916/41) 23, Seamstress, Married, RC Store Street, Dublin Jane Caldwell of 58 Foley Street was shot while trying to buy bread at Rourke’s bakery. Buried GC (Dublin Section: W. §. 30.5). Her husband Edward secured £50 from the RVC.390 Mary Anne Cole (29Apr1916/42) 38, Domestic servant, Married, RC Upper Gloucester Street, Dublin Mary Anne Cole was shot in the head by a bullet which came through the window as she got out of bed at 14 Upper Gloucester Street. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. a. 37.5). Her father secured £25 from the RVC.391 Mary Anne Corrigan (29Apr1916/43) 34, Dealer, Widowed, RC MHD Mary Anne Corrigan of 8 Engine Alley was killed in unknown circumstances. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: G. a. 37.5).392

James Patrick Healy (29Apr1916/38) 42, Clerk, Married with four children, RC 177 North King Street, Dublin See Bealin (29Apr1916/37). Healy had worked in Jameson’s Distillery, Bow Lane, for fourteen years. He and his wife Catherine, of 143 Church Street, stayed at 7 Little Green Street after fighting broke out. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: O. b. 7).387

Margaret Daly (29Apr1916/44) 70, Housekeeper, Widowed, RC Queen Street, Dublin Margaret Daly was killed in her home, 57.6 Queen Street, by a stray bullet. Buried GC (Dublin Section: J. §. 49.5). Her daughter secured £10 burial expenses from the RVC.393

Percival Havelock Acheson (29Apr1916/39) Army Service Corps, 58, Retired, Married with one child, CoE Dublin Acheson was commissioned on 4 December 1878. He retired as a major on 31 July 1895. He and his wife Charlotte lived at Ive-leBawn, Fermoy, Cork. Acheson was killed in unknown circumstances while taking part in the suppression of the Rising. Buried Church of Ireland Churchyard, Castlehyde, Cork.388

Patrick Dignam (29Apr1916/45) 51, Van driver, Married with six children, RC Lower Ormond Quay, Dublin Dignam, of 22 Lower Ormond Quay, had worked for Sir Joseph Downes’s Bakery for twenty-one years, and was secretary to the A. M. Sullivan branch of the National Foresters. He was shot near the metal (Grattan) bridge on Lower Ormond Quay on the way to work. Buried GC (Dublin Section: D. §. 28.5). His widow Maria and dependents secured £273 compensation from the RVC.394

Bridget Barry (29Apr1916/40) 36, Seamstress, Married, RC Lower Dominick Street, Dublin Bridget was hit in the head by a bullet which came through the window of her home at 44 Lower Dominick Street. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: Y. k. 328). Her husband Patrick secured £50 from the RVC.389

Robert Dillon (29Apr1916/46) 55, Poulterer, Married with one child, RC Moore Street, Dublin From Kerry, Dillon, of 8 Moore Street, owned a fruit shop at 6 and 6A Moore Street. He was

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very active in the St Vincent de Paul charity. He was shot as he attempted to flee his burning premises with his wife, who was wounded, and daughter. Séamus Scully recalled that the Carroll family in No. 49 used a rope to drag the Dillons into their shop. The Irish Independent reported that he was most likely dead when brought to the Rotunda Hospital. James Ryan, then a medical officer with the Volunteers and afterwards a government minister, described how when he evacuated the GPO on 29 April, he saw:

Tuesday at Boland’s Bakery. ‘While suffering from overstrain [he] was shot dead in an encounter with a sentry’ near the railway line: first aid man Seán Byrne saw his remains lying ‘in a railway carriage’. Ennis’s sister Sarah Rogers subsequently failed to secure a dependent’s award. Ennis may be the unnamed unhinged Volunteer who shot Peadar Macken (27Apr1916/27) before being killed in turn by a comrade, although the stated date of death differs. Buried GC (Dublin Section: A. §. 24.5).400

a sight I shall never forget. Lying dead on the opposite footpath of Moore Street with white flags in their hands were three elderly men. It seems that when they feared the fires would soon reach their homes they decided to take the chance of walking out carrying white flags. But they were cut down by the British machine-guns.

Daniel Glennon (29Apr1916/50) 62, Porter, Widowed, RC East Arran Street, Dublin Glennon, of 99.3 Upper Church Street, was shot on East Arran Street as he went towards his son’s house. Buried GC (Garden Section: W. 82.5). His son George secured £10 funeral expenses from the RVC.401

Buried GC (Garden Section: M. e. 133.5). His widow Ellen secured £300 from the RVC.395

William Gregg (29Apr1916/51) 62, Bottle blower, Married with three children, RC RCDH Gregg, a Scot, lived at 135 Stella Gardens, Irishtown. He died of gunshot wounds inflicted while buying tobacco in Ringsend. Buried DGC (S3. 34. W). His widow Mary secured £150 from the RVC.402

Cornelius Duggan (29Apr1916/47) RIR (3/5470), 23, RC MHD Rifleman Duggan, son of Bridget Duggan of Calhame, Annagry, Donegal,396 enlisted in Glasgow. He died from wounds. Buried RHKC.397

Thomas Harrison (29Apr1916/52) Army Service Corps (M2/156059), Protestant Dublin Castle From Salford, Lancashire, Private Harrison enlisted at Grove Park in the 615th Mechanised Transport Company. He was killed in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (CE. 646).403

Edward Dunne (29Apr1916/48) 38, Dairyman, Married with three children, RC Grangegorman, Dublin Dunne lived at 91.3 North King Street. He was shot dead outside 14 Grangegorman as he returned from delivering milk. Buried GC (Dublin Section: H. §. 43.5). His widow Jane and children secured £179 compensation from the RVC.398

William Joseph Heavey (29Apr1916/53) 34, Grocer, RC MMH From Roscommon, Heavey lived at 57 Moore Street. Although carrying a white flag, he was shot dead as he and his sister fled his burning premises. Buried GC (Dublin Section: O. §. 48.5). His sister Mary Anne secured £300 compensation from the RVC.404

Edward Ennis (29Apr1916/49) IV, c. 31,399 Chimney cleaner, RC Grand Canal Street, Dublin Ennis lived with his parents at 5 Dromard Avenue. Away at the Punchestown races on 24 April, he joined comrades on Easter

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John (Seán) Bernard Howard (29Apr1916/54) IV, 17, Fitter’s apprentice, RC Richmond Hospital, Dublin Howard, eldest of twelve children of George and Annie Howard of 26 Temple Cottages, Broadstone, was a boy clerk in London for a year before taking a Land Commission post in Dublin in 1915 to avoid conscription. In early 1916, he became an apprentice in Dublin Corporation. He was a member of the Dublin Brigade and the Fianna Éireann Pipers’ Band. Éamon Morkan stated Howard was wounded manning a barricade on Church Street, dying that evening. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: N. l. 308.5). His mother Annie was unable to secure a dependent’s allowance because of her husband’s level of income; a sister who subsequently applied was also refused because she had never been a dependent, being only two at the time of her brother’s death.405

was seriously injured. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 37.5). His widow Elizabeth and children secured £300 compensation from the RVC.407

John (Seán) Hurley (29Apr1916/55) IV, 29, Draper, RC Father Matthew Hall, Church Street, Dublin Hurley, from Drinagh, Cork, joined the Gaelic League and GAA, and was sworn into the IRB, while working at Harrods in London. He was honorary treasurer of the Irish Volunteers in London before returning to Dublin to work in the wholesale drapery trade. Shot in the Four Courts area, he died in Church Street. Christine O’Gorman (née Hayes), a nurse in the Red Cross station in Father Matthew Hall, recalled how he was buried unidentified. Some weeks later, a London woman friend came to Dublin to make inquiries, and Christine recognised Hurley from a photograph. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: 1916 Plot). His widowed mother subsequently received a dependent’s gratuity of £100.406

James Moore (29Apr1916/59) 29, Corporation labourer, Married with two children, RC Little Britain Street, Dublin Moore, of 124 Church Street, was shot by soldiers at the door of his mother’s home. Buried GC (Dublin Section: R. §. 39.5). His widow Mary and children secured £215 from the RVC.410

Wilfred Llewellyn (29Apr1916/57) Pembroke Yeomanry (4954), 17, Protestant Mercer’s From Llanstadwell, Wales, Private Llewellyn, who enlisted at Haverfordwest, was killed in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (CE. 640).408 Patrick McManus (29Apr1916/58) 60, Corporation pensioner, Married with five children, RC Moore Street, Dublin From Meath, McManus, of 12 Moore Street, was shot dead while crossing the street after Volunteers who had tunnelled into his house told everyone to leave. Buried GC (Dublin Section: D. §. 30.5). His widow Bridget secured £156 from the RVC.409

Nathaniel Morton411 (29Apr1916/60) RIR (250), 18, Presbyterian Dublin Castle Lance-Corporal Morton, one of six children of James and Sarah Morton of 22 Woodvale Street, Belfast, died in unknown circumstances. Buried GMC (Pres. 96).412 Mary Morris (29Apr1916/61) 27, Domestic servant, RC Upper Mount Street, Dublin Mary Morris was fatally wounded when a bullet came through the window of her employer’s house at 31 Upper Mount Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: K. §. 29.5). Her mother secured £54 from the RVC.413

Christopher Jordan (29Apr1916/56) 45, Plumber, Married with six children, RC Grant’s Row Jordan lived at 5 Grant’s Row, where he was shot through a window. His son James

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GC. His widow Kathleen and child secured £234 compensation from the RVC.416

Seán (John) James O’Grady (29Apr1916/62) IV, 27, Porter, Married, RC Adelaide Hospital, Dublin O’Grady lived on Ormond Quay, and was a Volunteer. Seán Murphy recorded that Thomas MacDonagh dispatched a small cycle party under Dan O’Riordan from Jacob’s Factory towards Mount Street Bridge to draw British fire away from Boland’s Bakery. This came under considerable fire from the direction of Holles Street. As they returned to Jacob’s, the party was warned by people on Cuffe Street about troops at the top of Grafton Street. Some Volunteers went by Cuffe Street while the remainder cycled along St Stephen’s Green West and turned on to York Street. O’Grady was wounded in the stomach at the corner of York Street by a soldier firing from Sibley’s bookshop on Grafton Street. Taken back to Jacob’s and then to the Adelaide Hospital, he later died. According to Murphy and Michael Walker, O’Grady was the only fatality of the Jacob’s garrison. O’Grady’s brother Charles also fought during the Rising. Buried St James’s Churchyard, James’s Street, Dublin. In 1925 his widow Josephine, ‘a loyal supporter of the State’, received a dependent’s yearly pension of £90, and a ‘first remarriage gratuity’ of £120 in 1932.414 SA: MacDonagh (3May1916/3)

Mary Timmins (29Apr1916/65) 39, Charwoman, Married with six children, RC Harmony Row, Dublin Mary Timmins, of 4 Harmony Row, was shot in the head as she left home to buy food. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: Q. a. 38). Her husband John secured £50 from the RVC.417 Arthur Charles Smith (29Apr1916/66) 4th (Queen’s Own) Hussars (2373), Protestant College Green, Dublin From Maldon, Essex, Private Smith enlisted at Colchester. He was shot near Trinity College. Buried GMC (CE. 807). He is commemorated by a plaque in Trinity College.418 Arthur Neill Weekes (29Apr1916/67) ICA, 30, Chef GPO, Sackville Street, Dublin The Republican Soldiers’ Casualty Committee described Arthur Weekes as a Germanborn chef working in the Shelbourne Hotel, whereas the Last Post claimed he was from Norwich. Max Caulfield termed him a Londoner. Weekes, who apparently belonged to the German Communist Party and the Irish Socialist Party, joined the ICA in November 1915 and was a ‘thoroughly good soldier’. Charles Saurin made several references to a Londoner named ‘Neale’ in the ICA garrison in the Metropole Hotel in Sackville Street. ‘Neale’ wore no uniform and had a German rifle. He had taken part in the attempted destruction of the Great Northern viaduct in Fairview on Easter Monday, and displayed considerable bravery during heavy firing on 26 and 27 April. When the hotel became untenable, Oscar Traynor led his garrison into the yard of the GPO. There ‘some projectile struck and exploded the contents of Andy Furlong’s right-hand pouch. It contained revolver ammunition which went off like shrapnel’, wounding Furlong, Saurin and ‘Neale’. Saurin believed that ‘Neale’ died next day as he was being taken to Dublin Castle.419

Thomas Pentony (29Apr1916/63) 48, Storeman, Married with four children, RC North Cumberland Street, Dublin Pentony, of 34.4 North Cumberland Street, was hit in the heart and killed when a bullet came through his upstairs window. Buried GC (Dublin Section: Q. §. 49.5). His widow Cecelia and family secured £265 compensation from the RVC.415 George Pierce (29Apr1916/64) 20, Vanman, Married with one child, RC MHD See Warbrook (24Apr1916/30). Pierce, of 38 South Earl Street, died from wounds inflicted while seeking bread in Kevin Street. Buried

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Daniel Whelan (29Apr1916/68) 33, Labourer, RC MMH Whelan lived at 122 Parnell Street. According to Charles Macauley, Whelan died of gas gangrene as a result of compound fracture of the left leg, possibly caused by a bullet wound. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 37.5). His father William secured £150 from the RVC.420

James Brady (29Apr1916/72) Married, RC North King Street, Dublin Brady, of 3 Bow Street, was shot while going to buy food. His widow Mary Anne secured £195 compensation from the RVC.424 John Dawson (29Apr1916/73) 27, Blacksmith, Married with three children, RC NMHD Dawson, of 23 Marlborough Place, was shot on Townsend Street when he left home to buy bread, dying next day. His pregnant widow Elizabeth and dependents secured £164 compensation from the RVC.425

Robert Hall (29Apr1916/69) 29, Ironmonger, CoI 40 Merrion Square, Dublin Hall, shot by troops outside his home, 3 Serpentine Avenue, died that evening in a temporary hospital. Buried MJC (B. 367. 68).421

Edward C. Varnals (29Apr1916/74) 42, Factory worker, Married with two children, CoI NMHD Varnals, from Offaly, of 12 Holles Street, was shot nearby while seeking bread for his family. His widow Annie and children secured £234 compensation from the RVC.426

John Murphy (29Apr1916/70) 61, Spirit grocer, Married, RC Moore Street, Dublin Murphy, of Delgany, Wicklow, chairman of Rathdown No. 2 Rural Council since 1908, was also a JP, a member of Wicklow County Council and of Rathdown Board of Guardians. When the Rising began, he remained in the pub which he managed with his brother Thomas at 42 Henry Street, probably to guard against looters. As the military closed in on the GPO, they ordered residents to leave before bombardment commenced. Robert O’Beirne, a teacher, was in Murphy’s premises. The two left, but Murphy sought to return to fetch something. They were allegedly warned to turn back. When Murphy persisted, both were shot dead. Buried GC (South Section: G. c. 55). The RVC granted his wife an annual pension of £60.422 RD: O’Beirne (29Apr1916/71)

John O’Duffy (29Apr1916/75) 82, Dentist, Married with children, RC JSH O’Duffy lived at 54 Rutland Square. In 1919 his son Eimar, later a well-known writer and journalist, published The Wasted Island, a sceptical literary treatment of the Rising.427 Wounded near Henry Street on 27 April as he went to buy a newspaper, he died two days later. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: G. h. 142.5). His widow Elizabeth secured £300 from the RVC.428 Georgina Murphy (29Apr1916/76) 56, Widowed with 4 children, CoI MMH Georgina Murphy, an ex-soldier’s widow of 10 Leo Street, wounded on 27 April when a bullet came through her back window, died two days later. Her son secured £25 from the RVC.429

Robert F. O’Beirne (29Apr1916/71) 51, National school teacher, RC Henry Street, Dublin See Murphy (29Apr1916/70). From Sligo, O’Beirne had taught for eighteen years in Ballinaclash, Rathdrum, Wicklow. He was to attend a Teachers’ Congress in Cork as the Rathdrum delegate.423

John Henry Cooke (29Apr1916/77) 54, Accountant, Married with three children, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin Cooke worked in the Military Barracks, Birr, Offaly. He was visiting Dublin on 24 April.

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While in a taxi driving from Kingsbridge along the quays he was wounded in the back when two officers stopped the vehicle, drawing rebel fire. His dependent adult children secured compassionate grants from the RVC.430

Thomas Doyle (30Apr1916/5) 50, Labourer, Married, RC Redmond’s Hill, Dublin Doyle, of 12 Upper Mercer Street, worked for Jacob’s. He was shot as he returned home, having bought tobacco. Buried GC (Dublin Section: T. §. 48.5). His widow Ellen secured £228 by the RVC.437

30 APRIL 1916 Montague Bernard Browne (30Apr1916/1) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment), 39, Protestant RCDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Lieutenant Browne, son of Mary and Reverend S. B. Browne of North Collingham, enlisted at Nottingham in September 1914 before being commissioned in the 2/8th Battalion. His younger brother Percy was killed in France in August 1915. Browne died from wounds received on 26 April during the fighting at Mount Street Bridge. Buried DGC (TI. 85. SW). He is commemorated at St Mary’s Church, Plumtree, Nottingham.431

John S. Dwan (30Apr1916/6) IV, 24, Labourer, RC Drumcondra Hospital, Whitworth Road, Dublin See Wright (28Apr1916/53). Dwan lived with his parents at 1.5 Lower Gardiner Street, and worked in the Inchicore railway works. He had joined the Volunteers on their formation. Wounded at the junction of St Michan’s Street and Chancery Street on 29 April, he died next day. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: L. i. 330).438 Patrick Fennell (30Apr1916/7) 33, Porter, RC Mercer’s Fennell, of 13 Portobello Road, worked at the City of Dublin Working Man’s Club. He died from wounds. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: Q. h. 143.5). His mother Kate secured £179 from the RVC.439

James Byrne (30Apr1916/2) RDF (18259), 19, Soldier, RC Upper Earl Street, Dublin From Dublin, where he enlisted, Byrne was a private in the 12th (Depot) Battalion. On home leave while convalescent,432 he was shot in the head while sitting in civilian clothes at a window. He was due to depart Dublin next day. Buried GMC (RC. 483).433

Thomas Foran (30Apr1916/8) 28, Foreman, Married with two children, RC Patrick Street, Dublin Foran worked in Jacob’s Biscuit Factory. He was shot in the head in his bedroom at 22 Patrick Street. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: N. h. 264). His dependents secured £300 from the RVC.440

James Hamlet Cornwell (30Apr1916/3) North Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales’s) (3818), 24, Brewery worker, CoE Dublin Cornwell, a lance-sergeant in the 2/6th Battalion from Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, was a noted tenor. The Burton Observer reported that he died about four hours after being shot in the lung.434 Buried GMC (CE. 821).435

Neville Nicholas Fryday (30Apr1916/9) Canadian Infantry (140229), 17, Soldier, CoI Mercer’s Private Fryday of the 75th Battalion, Central Ontario Regiment, from Milestone, Thurles, Tipperary, the son of William and Elizabeth Fryday of Mill House, Shankill, Dublin, died of wounds. Buried MJC (A. 276. 101).441

J. Coyle (30Apr1916/4) RIR (6427) MHD Company Quartermaster Sergeant J. Coyle DCM, from Middlesbrough, died in unknown circumstances. Buried RHKC.436

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fatally wounded in Ringsend while walking during a lull in firing. Buried GC (Dublin Section: B. §. 21.5). Her father secured £50 from the RVC.446

Mary Kelly (30Apr1916/10) 12, Schoolgirl, RC Townsend Street Mary, daughter of Joseph Kelly of 128 Townsend Street, was shot at the junction of Townsend and Lombard streets. Buried DGC (A2. 9. W). Her father secured £25 from the RVC.442

George Synnot (30Apr1916/15) 58, Clerk, Married with two children, CoI RCDH An ex-RIC man from Westmeath, Synnot lived at 98 Haddington Road. He was shot at about 11:00 while going to purchase food and tobacco. The O/C Garrison Battalion, RIR, reported he was hit in the stomach and shoulders by shots fired, probably by insurgents, from the railway bridge on Bath Avenue. Attended by a Captain Beveridge in Beggars Bush Barracks, he died that night. He may be the old man described by W. G. Smith as killed while seeking a loaf of bread for his daughter. Buried DGC (R. 96. SW). His widow Agnes secured £300 from the RVC.447

Raphael McLoughlin (30Apr1916/11) 62, Grocer’s assistant, RC Pleasant Street, Dublin McLoughlin was shot near his home at 27 John Street, Blackpitts. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: V. c. 30).443 James Power (30Apr1916/12) 70, Pensioner, Widowed, RC MMH Power lived with his son’s family at 8 Buckingham Place. He died of a lung wound sustained on 27 April when he went to buy bread. Buried GC (Dublin Section: V. b. 18.5). No RVC award was made.444

Rosanna Taaffe (30Apr1916/16) 43, Vegetable dealer, Widowed with three children, RC Mercer’s Rosanna Taaffe of 26 Corporation Street died in her bedroom when a bullet came through the window. Buried GC (the Dublin Section: F. §. 49.5). Her son James secured £50 from the RVC.448

Philip Addison Purser (30Apr1916/13) Army Service Corps, 20, CoI Dublin Castle Purser’s father William was secretary of the Scottish Widows’ Fund Society, Westmoreland Street. The SFRH lists him as having served in Trinity College OTC. On the outbreak of war, he was attached to the Duke of Cambridge’s Hussars. In October 1914, he was commissioned in the Army Service Corps. Sent to Flanders in February 1915, he was invalided home within months, but subsequently returned to duty. In early April 1916, Purser became acting adjutant, Army Service Corps, at the Curragh. When the Rising took place, he carried dispatches to Dublin. Though held up, he managed to deliver them. Shot on the evening of 29 April while returning from Kingstown (Dún Laoghaire), he died the following day. Buried GMC (Grave 68).445

Margaret Mary Veale (30Apr1916/17) 13, Schoolgirl, RC RCDH Margaret was one of seven children of John, a commercial clerk, and Mary Jane Veale of 103 Haddington Road. Áine O’Rahilly, sister of The O’Rahilly, who taught her Irish, said she was shot by a soldier ‘who aimed at her as she stood at her window in Haddington Road’. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: G. h. 76).449 SA: The O’Rahilly (29Apr1916/1) James Byrne (30Apr1916/18) 9, Schoolboy, RC Mercer’s James was the only son of William, a labourer, and Mary Byrne of 11.5 Stephen Street. Buried GC.450

Elizabeth Smyth (30Apr1916/14) 19, Shop assistant, RC RCDH Elizabeth, one of six children of Peter Smyth, a coal labourer, of 5.1 Sandwith Place, was

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William Carrick (30Apr1916/19) 15, RC SPDH William Carrick’s body was brought to Deansgrange Cemetery for burial without a recorded address. The 1911 census lists one William Carrick, the ten-year-old son of Thomas and Katrina Carrick of Beef Row in St Michan’s Parish, which was at the heart of the fighting along the north quays.451

Joseph Maguire (30Apr1916/26) Dublin Maguire died in unknown circumstances. The 1916 Rebellion Handbook stated that his body was brought from Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital to Deansgrange Cemetery for burial without a recorded address.458 William Mallen (30Apr1916/27) Dublin Mallen, of 5 Moore Place, died in unknown circumstances.459

Unknown Corbin (30Apr1916/20) JSH Corbin is listed by the Freeman’s Journal and the SFRH as among the dead at Jervis Street Hospital. He could not be traced. Buried GC.452

William McDonnell (30Apr1916/28) Dublin McDonnell, of 3 Upper Sackville Street, died in unknown circumstances.460

John Creevan [or Craven?] (30Apr1916/21) RC MMH Creevan, from Dublin, died in unknown circumstances. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 38).453

Kathleen O’Brien (30Apr1916/29) 3 months, Infant Dublin Kathleen, of 53 Corporation Street, died in unknown circumstances, possibly unrelated to the Rising.461

John Flynn (30Apr1916/22) 63, St Stephen’s Green, Dublin In Deansgrange, Bateson suggests Flynn, of Dodder View, may have died in St Stephen’s Green. Buried DGC.454

John O’Callaghan (30Apr1916/30) St Stephen’s Green South, Dublin O’Callaghan was reportedly killed on St Stephen’s Green. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. a. 38).462

John Kenyon (30Apr1916/23) SVH Kenyon, who reportedly lived in Mountpleasant Square, died in unknown circumstances. The SFRH stated that his body was brought from St Vincent’s Hospital to DGC for burial.455

David Swords (30Apr1916/31) Dublin The SFRH stated that Swords’s body was brought to DGC for burial without a recorded address.463

Michael Keogh (30Apr1916/24) NMHD Keogh died of wounds. Buried GC.456

Anne Walsh (30Apr1916/32) Dublin No address was found for Anne/Kate Walsh. Buried DGC.464

John Loughlin (30Apr1916/25) Dublin Loughlin died in unknown circumstances. The SFRH stated that his body was brought from Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital to Deansgrange Cemetery for burial without a recorded address.457

Robert Woodcock465 (30Apr1916/33) 38, Grocer, RC SVH Woodcock, from Kilkenny, a grocer of 45 Thomas Street, died in unknown circumstances. Buried DGC.466

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sought food for his family. Buried DGC (T3. 36. W). His widow Kathleen and children secured £273 compensation from the RVC.472

Stephen Patrick Doyle (30Apr1916/34) 50, Carpenter, Married, RC Mercer’s Doyle, of 27 Wellington Quay, died two days after being shot through a window. Buried GC (Dublin Section: K. §. 42.5). His widow Kate secured £273 compensation from the RVC.467

Mary Cunningham (1May1916/3) 62, Fish dealer, RC Dublin Castle Hospital Mary Cunningham, living at 6 Chancery Street with her sister Elizabeth O’Connor and her family, died of wounds suffered when a bullet came through the window of her niece’s Capel Street home. Buried GC (Dublin Section: F. §. 22.5). Her sister secured £152 from the RVC.473

Elizabeth Moran (30Apr1916/35) 31, Housewife, Married with five children NMHD Mrs Moran was wounded in the hip when a bullet came through the window of 2 Hamilton Row. She died next day. Her husband and children secured £150 from the RVC.468

John Doyle (1May1916/4) 20, Painter, RC 104 South Lotts Road, Dublin Seán O’Shea recalled how Doyle, his neighbour, wounded in the stomach in the vicinity of Mount Street, was apparently refused admission to Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital. He died at home ‘after considerable agony’, as the family were afraid to call a doctor. Buried DGC (E1. 30. W).474

Christopher Tynan (30Apr1916/36) 75, OAP, Widowed with children, CoI MMH Originally from Laois, Tynan, a retired commercial traveller living at 8 Hardwicke Place, died two days after he was shot on Dorset Street on 28 April.469 John Hoey (30Apr1916/37) Civilian, Soldier, Dublin An ex-serviceman living on Ryder’s Row, Hoey died in unknown circumstances. His body was taken to the City Morgue. Buried GC, Dublin (St Paul’s Section: J. a. 38).470

Alfred Ellis (1May1916/5) RDF (21735), 19 JSH Private Ellis, son of Alfred and Sarah Jane Ellis of Leeds, Yorkshire, had served in the RFA (97706) before joining the RDF. Buried DGC (S1. 85. SW).475

1 MAY 1916 John Ballantyne (1May1916/1) 79, Foreman joiner, Married with five children, Presbyterian 40 Merrion Square, Dublin From Scotland, Ballantyne lived at 1.3 Glencullen Terrace, East Wall. Shot while seeking bread, he died in an emergency hospital. Buried MJC (B. 367. 93). His widow Eliza and daughter secured £300 from the RVC.471

Patrick Leen (1May1916/6) 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (16095), 22, Accountant, RC MHD Leen, one of five sons of Daniel and Margaret Leen of Abbeyfeale, Limerick, was Rockwell College rugby captain and fullback on the Munster Schools team, and later studied at and played rugby for Blackrock College.476 An assistant accountant with Dublin Corporation, he enlisted in the Royal Irish Lancers, and was in training. His four brothers joined the Congregation of the Holy Spirit (Holy Ghost Fathers). P. B. Kenny recalled that on 24 April ‘Paddy’ Leen, on leave, had intended to take a train home that afternoon. They were having a drink when

Andrew Christopher Cunningham (1May1916/2) IV, 24, Silk weaver, Married with two children, RC Ringsend Park, Dublin Cunningham, of 77 Pembroke Cottages, and a member of the Volunteers since 1913, was shot by the military on Ringsend Road as he

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news of the Rising reached them. Leen reported for duty in Portobello Barracks. Towards the end of the week, he was accidentally shot in the knee by a comrade. Septic poisoning necessitated the amputation of his leg in the Meath Hospital, where he died. Buried RHKC.477

Loos in France. Her surviving children received £150 from the RVC.482 Alice Neil (1May1916/12) 44, Housewife, Married with three children, CoI Adelaide Hospital, Dublin Alice Neil was shot near her home at 70 Aungier Street while seeking provisions on 28 April, dying three days later. Buried MJC (A. 276. 80). Her husband Herbert secured £10 for burial expenses from the RVC.483

Laurence Mulligan (1May1916/7) 19, Shop assistant, RC Children’s Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin Mulligan, of Williamstown, Westmeath, died from wounds inflicted on 26 April as he left his workplace on Lower Abbey Street. Buried GC (Dublin Section: B. §. 29.5). His father Andrew secured £25 from the RVC.478

Edmund O’Grady (1May1916/13) 25, Clerk, RC MMH O’Grady, of 2 Lower Sheriff Street, died from wounds received on 28 April while looking out the window. Buried GC (Dublin Section: M. §. 46.5). His sister secured £25 from the RVC.484

Joseph O’Donoghue (1May1916/8) 42, Draper’s manager, RC Cross Guns Bridge, Glasnevin, Dublin O’Donoghue, of 31 Cabra Park, was shot at Cross Guns Bridge. Buried GC (Dublin Section: T. §. 29.5).479

Joseph Clarke (1May1916/14) 72, Labourer, Married with one child, RC SPDH From Meath, Clarke lived at 25 Grattan Street. Shot on 30 April when trying to get home, he died the following day. Buried DGC. His widow Margaret secured £150 compensation from the RVC.485

Christopher Redmond (1May1916/9) 22, Packer, Married with one child, RC SVH ‘Christy’ Redmond of 2 Clare Lane was wounded on 29 April as he returned from his mother’s home. Buried GC (Dublin Section: R. §. 29.5). His wife Catherine and child secured £155 compensation from the RVC.480

2 MAY 1916 William Nelson Rowe (2May1916/1) RIC (52673), 49, Clerk, Married with five children, CoI Castlelyons, Cork From Wexford, Rowe joined the RIC on 12 September 1887, allocated to Cork. Promoted to sergeant in 1898, he became a head constable in 1915, stationed in Fermoy. Constable Frank King described how, at around 03:45 on 2 May, a police patrol from Fermoy, under Rowe’s command, arrived at the Kents’ home in two trucks. Rowe knocked on the door, stating his business: ‘Almost immediately there was a very loud and defiant answer. I believe the words spoken were: “We will not surrender until we leave some of you dead.” This answer was followed almost immediately by a shot.’ Rowe’s head was almost blown off by a shotgun blast. William Kent

Sarah Whelan (1May1916/10) 28, Stoker’s wife, Married with two children, RC NMHD Whelan, of 16 Great Clarence Street, died of wounds. Buried GC (Dublin Section: A. §. 27.5).481 Margaret Naylor (1May1916/11) 35, Married with three children, RC SVH Joseph O’Byrne and Seán O’Shea recalled how a Mrs Naylor from Ringsend was carrying bread on 29 April when shot by a soldier near the Barrow Street railway bridge. This was most likely Margaret Naylor of 14 Stephen’s Place. Her husband, Private John Naylor of the RDF, was killed the same day at

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claimed that he had been asleep when the police arrived, and that the RIC fired the first volley. A gun battle ensued. Military reinforcements from Fermoy arrived at around 06:00, and the Kents surrendered. Thomas and William were immediately handcuffed. Richard, a well-known athlete, attempted to escape by jumping over a nearby hedge. Fired on, he was severely wounded in the back. He and David, who was wounded in the side, were removed to Fermoy Military Hospital, where Richard died on 4 May. Thomas and William were tried by court martial at Cork Detention Barracks, charged with ‘armed rebellion’. King gave evidence that William Kent was ‘a quiet inoffensive type’ who had taken no part in ‘Sinn Féin activities’. He was acquitted but Tom was convicted and was executed in Cork Detention Barracks on 9 May. David was also sentenced to death, later commuted to five years imprisonment, by court martial. Rowe’s widow secured a yearly pension of £50, with £6.5s.0d. annually to each child.486 RD: Kent (4May1916/5), Kent (9May1916/2)

James Gibney (2May1916/5) 5, Schoolboy, RC North Dublin Union James, a labourer’s son of 16 Henrietta Place, reportedly died from concussion received during an artillery bombardment. Buried GC, Dublin (St Paul’s Section: O. a. 38).490 Christopher Higgins (2May1916/6) 26, Horse clipper, RC JSH Higgins, of 40 Jervis Street, died from wounds. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: K. a. 38).491 James McCullough (2May1916/7) RIR (3728), 38, Married, CoE Dublin Castle Rifleman McCullough, from the East Indies, enlisted in Belfast. He died from wounds. Buried GMC (CE. 810).492 Albert Newland (2May1916/8) 12th (Prince of Wales Royal) Lancers (5937), CoE Dublin Castle Private Newland, from Poplar, London, died from wounds. Buried GMC (CE. 809).493

James Blundell (2May1916/2) 12th (Prince of Wales Royal) Lancers (6976), CoE JSH From Christchurch, Lancashire, Private Blundell died from wounds. Buried GMC (CE. 643).487

Elizabeth Wilkinson (2May1916/9) 60, Schoolteacher, CoI Adelaide Hospital Elizabeth Wilkinson of 4 Woodstock Gardens, died from wounds received while shopping in Ranelagh on 29 April. Buried MJC (A. 410. 21). Her sister secured £10 burial expenses from the RVC.494

Julia Brunell (2May1916/3) 24, Waitress, RC SPDH On 27 April Julia, one of three daughters of Julia Brunell of 6.2 South Cumberland Street, was shot in the lungs while in her room at 2 Grattan Street, dying five days later. Buried GC (Dublin Section: E. §. 46.5).488

3 MAY 1916 Patrick Henry Pearse (Pádraig Mac Piarais) (3May1916/1) IV, 36, Schoolmaster, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin Pearse, from Dublin, was son of James Pearse, an English monumental sculptor, and Margaret Brady. An ardent participant in the Gaelic revival, Pearse’s preoccupations were for years primarily cultural. In 1912, he publicly supported Home Rule while threatening revolution if it was not granted. Between 1912 and 1914 he became convinced that revolutionary violence was a necessity.

Catherine Davis (2May1916/4) 59, Baker’s wife, Married with no surviving children, RC MMH Catherine, of 6 Stratford Row, Summerhill, died of gunshot wounds received on 29 April while washing clothes. Buried GC (Dublin Section: D. §. 30.5).489

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Pearse was a key speaker at the Rotunda Rink meeting which launched the Irish Volunteers on 25 November 1913. He joined the IRB soon afterwards. Following the Volunteer split after John Redmond’s pledge of support for the war in September 1914, Pearse became director of organisation. In May 1915, with Plunkett and Ceannt, he became a member of the IRB’s military committee, established to plan an insurrection. This later became the Military Council. Supported by Thomas Clarke, Pearse became the public face of the separatist movement. On 1 August 1915, he delivered a defiant oration at the graveside of the Fenian Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa. In 1916, Pearse published a number of pamphlets justifying a military uprising. He was involved in the planning of the Kerry arms landing, and played a key role in convincing James Connolly and the ICA not to mount a separate insurrection. He helped conceal the Military Council’s plans from the Volunteers chief of staff Eoin MacNeill. Styled commandant-in-chief of the army of the Irish Republic and president of the provisional government, Pearse read out the Proclamation of the Irish Republic, much of which he had drafted, in front of the GPO at 12:45 on Easter Monday. Coming under unceasing bombardment as the week progressed, the garrison evacuated the GPO on 28 April. The following morning the rebel leaders decided to capitulate. At 14:30, Pearse surrendered to Brigadier-General William Lowe at the junction of Moore Street and Parnell Street. General Lowe’s son John escorted Pearse to Kilmainham Jail:

this’ and he took off his sort of Australian type hat . . . and he took out the badge and he said ‘here, keep this as a momento [sic]’.

Tried by court marital on 2 May, Pearse was prisoner number one in proceedings presided over by Brigadier-General C. G. Blackadder. He said he had surrendered unconditionally to avoid ‘the slaughter of the civilian population’ and appealed for his followers to be spared. Sentenced to death, he was shot in Kilmainham Jail between 03:30 and 04:00, and buried in an unmarked grave at Arbour Hill. He wrote to his mother: ‘This is the death I should have asked for if God had given me the choice of all deaths – to die a soldier’s death for Ireland and for freedom. We have done right. People will say hard things of us now, but later on will praise us.’ Great Brunswick Street, where he was born, was later renamed Pearse Street.495 SA: Ceannt (8May1916/1), Clarke (3May 1916/2), Connolly (12May1916/2), Plunkett (4May1916/4) Thomas James Clarke (3May1916/2) IV, 58, Tobacconist, Married with three children, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin ‘Tom’ Clarke, born on the Isle of Wight, was son of James Clarke, a Royal Artillery bombardier, and Mary Palmer. In 1865, his father was posted to the Ulster Militia in Dungannon, Tyrone, where Tom attended St Patrick’s National School. In 1880, he immigrated to New York. He joined Clan na Gael, and undertook a dynamiting mission in England in 1883. Arrested in Birmingham, he was sentenced to penal servitude for life. The harsh prison regime permanently undermined his health. Released in 1898, he went to Dublin to live with his mother and sister. The following year, he met John Daly’s niece Kathleen; they married in New York on 16 July 1901. Clarke worked on the Gaelic American, becoming a naturalised US citizen in 1905, but in 1907 returned to Dublin. He opened tobacconist shops on Amiens Street and Parnell Street which became centres of republican activity.

There was Pearse, a priest and myself and he was talking to the priest and giving him his rings and his crucifix and everything else . . . when we got to Kilmainham gates he wasn’t finished so I said to the driver go on driving . . . when I saw he [Pearse] was finished I said ‘All right drive into the jail’. . . . Just before Pearse got out he turned . . . and he said ‘Young man that was a very fine gesture you just made and I want to thank you but I’ve nothing I can give you except

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Clarke played a prominent role in reviving the IRB. He supported Seán Mac Diarmada in a struggle which saw younger men gain the ascendancy. Clarke resurrected the annual march to Wolfe Tone’s grave at Bodenstown, and encouraged Patrick Pearse. In 1913, he joined the IRB’s Supreme Council. In 1915, he organised the large public funeral for Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa. Clarke later joined the Military Council set up in May 1915 to plan an insurrection. Despite Eoin MacNeill’s order cancelling the Easter weekend mobilisation, Clarke argued strenuously that the Rising should proceed. He declined to style himself president, but was the first of the seven signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic. He fought in the GPO. Clarke was ‘clear elated’ that Ireland had risen in arms, and opposed the decision to surrender. Sentenced to death on 2 May following a court martial at Richmond Barracks, Clarke told his wife: ‘I am to be shot at dawn. I’m glad it’s a soldier’s death I’m getting. I’ve had enough of imprisonment.’ He was unaware that she was pregnant, though she later miscarried. He was shot in Kilmainham Jail between 03:30 and 04:00, and was buried at Arbour Hill.496 SA: Mac Diarmada (12May1916/1), Pearse (3May1916/1)

the Irish Theatre on Hardwicke Street, which produced Irish and foreign plays rejected by the Abbey Theatre. Literature in Ireland, his PhD thesis, was published after his death, and James Stephens edited The Poetical Works of Thomas MacDonagh (1916). MacDonagh joined the provisional committee of the Irish Volunteers in November 1913. He helped to organise the Howth gun running in July 1914 and the O’Donovan Rossa funeral in August 1915. After the Volunteer split, he became director of training. MacDonagh was only co-opted to the Military Council a fortnight before the Rising. A signatory of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic, he commanded the Jacob’s Biscuit Factory garrison on Bishop Street, seemingly with the mission of disrupting troop movements. An ineffective commander almost unhinged by emotional strain, MacDonagh was fortunate that Major John MacBride had some military expertise. He was initially reluctant to comply with Pearse’s order to surrender, arguing that Pearse’s status as a prisoner invalidated his command. Only after meeting BrigadierGeneral William Lowe in St Patrick’s Park did he surrender. Sentenced to death by a court martial in Richmond Barracks on 2 May, he stated, ‘You would all be proud to die for Britain, your imperial patron, and I am proud and happy to die for Ireland, my glorious fatherland.’ He was shot in Kilmainham Jail between 03:30 and 04:00. Buried Arbour Hill.497 SA: MacBride (5May1916/1), Pearse (3May 1916/1), Plunkett (4May1916/4)

Thomas Stanislaus MacDonagh (3May1916/3) IV, 38, University lecturer, Married with two children, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin MacDonagh, from Cloughjordan, Tipperary, attended Rockwell College. Abandoning plans to become a priest, he taught in St Kieran’s College, Kilkenny. In 1908 Pearse invited him to help found St Enda’s school. After studying literature and philosophy in Paris, in 1911 he was appointed lecturer in English literature at UCD, and in 1912 married Muriel Gifford, a solicitor’s daughter. They had two children, Donagh and Barbara. After Muriel drowned in July 1917, her children were raised by their uncle John MacDonagh. In 1914 MacDonagh was joint-founder with Joseph Plunkett and Edward Martyn of

Margaret McGuinness (3May1916/4) 50, Labourer’s wife, Widowed, RC Dublin Kildare-born Margaret McGuinness, of 27 Pembroke Cottages, died in unknown circumstances. Buried DGC (T3. 92. N).498

4 MAY 1916 John Edward Daly (4May1916/1) IV, 25, Shop assistant, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin ‘Ned’ Daly, from Frederick Street (now O’Curry Street), Limerick, worked in Glasgow

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and Limerick before moving to Dublin in 1912. His father participated in the 1867 Fenian Rising and his uncle John Daly was a prominent IRB man. Daly’s sister Kathleen married Tom Clarke. While working for Clarke, Daly joined the Volunteers, playing a leading role in the Howth gun-running in July 1914. He was elected O/C 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, in 1915 when working for May Roberts and Company Ltd. Daly commanded the Four Courts garrison. Its key task was to prevent the deployment of troops from the Royal Barracks. Sentenced to death by a court martial at Richmond Barracks on 3 May, he was shot in Kilmainham Jail between 04:00 and 04:30, the youngest of those executed. Buried Arbour Hill.499 SA: Clarke (3May1916/2)

in 1918. O’Hanrahan was a founder member of the Irish Volunteers, of which he became quartermaster-general. In 1916, he and his brother Henry worked in Volunteer headquarters at 2 Dawson Street. His sisters Áine, Máire and Eily were in Cumann na mBan. O’Hanrahan served under Thomas MacDonagh in Jacob’s Factory. Condemned to death by a court martial in Richmond Barracks on 3 May, he was shot between 04:00 and 04:30. Henry was also sentenced to death, later commuted to life imprisonment. Buried Arbour Hill.501 SA: MacDonagh (3May1916/3) Joseph Mary Plunkett (4May1916/4) IV, 28, Poet, Married, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin Plunkett, eldest son of Count George Noble Plunkett, the director of the National Museum, attended Belvedere College and Stonyhurst College in Lancashire, where he was said to have acquired some military training through the OTC. Returning to Dublin at the age of twenty, he was taught Irish by Thomas MacDonagh. After contracting tuberculosis, Plunkett spent several months in the Mediterranean and in Algeria in 1910–11. While abroad, his first collection of poems, The Circle and the Sword, was published. Plunkett helped MacDonagh and Edward Martyn to establish the Theatre of Ireland to produce new Irish plays. He also edited The Irish Review. Elected to the provisional committee of the Irish Volunteers in 1913, in 1915 the IRB military committee sent him to Germany to assist Roger Casement to secure German support for a rising. His poor health afforded a convenient reason for his continental journey. After returning to Ireland, he went to the US to inform Clan na Gael, the American wing of the IRB, about the planned Rising. Plunkett was the youngest of the Proclamation signatories. Although recuperating from an operation, he served in the GPO alongside his brothers George and John. Desmond FitzGerald recalled that Plunkett ‘looked appallingly ill’. On 3 May he was sentenced to death by a court martial in Richmond Barracks. So too

William James Pearse (4May1916/2) IV, 35, Sculptor, art teacher, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin ‘Willie’ Pearse attended the National College of Art from 1901 to 1909. He spent short spells at the Kensington School of Art and in Paris. Keenly interested in drama and in the Gaelic League, he carried on the family monumental sculpture business until the company was dissolved in 1910. He then taught art in St Enda’s, his brother Patrick’s school. An IRB man and captain E Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, he spent most of the Rising as his brother’s aide-de-camp. Sentenced to death by a court martial in Richmond Barracks on 3 May, the only one of those executed to enter a ‘guilty’ plea, he was shot in Kilmainham between 04:00 and 04:30. Buried Arbour Hill.500 SA: Pearse (3May1916/1) Michael O’Hanrahan (4May1916/3) IV, 39, Journalist, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin O’Hanrahan, from New Ross, Wexford, was brought up in Carlow. His father Richard participated in the Fenian Rising of 1867. Moving to Dublin, he contributed freelance articles to various journals. His published works include A Swordsman of the Brigade, a heroic novel published in 1914, and When the Normans Came, published posthumously

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were his brothers, but their sentences were commuted. Plunkett was due to marry Grace Gifford, sister-in-law of Thomas MacDonagh, on Easter Sunday 23 April in a double ceremony with his sister Geraldine and Tom Dillon. However, the Rising intervened. At 20:00 on 3 May, only hours before his execution, he and Grace were married by Father Eugene McCarthy in Kilmainham Jail chapel. Plunkett was shot between 04:00 and 04:30. Buried Arbour Hill. Grace Plunkett, who wrote that it was ‘impossible to exist on the proceeds’ of her work as an artist, received a yearly pension of £90, later increased to £180. Two of his sisters secured awards under subsequent legislation.502 SA: Casement (3Aug1916/1), MacDonagh (3May1916/3)

Lenehan’s public house’ at Hanlon’s Corner. Buried GC (Dublin Section: N. §. 43.5). His widow Bridget and youngest child secured £183 compensation from the RVC.506

5 MAY 1916 John MacBride (5May1916/1) IV, 47, Water bailiff, Separated with one child, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin MacBride, from Westport, began but soon abandoned medical studies in Dublin. In 1895, he immigrated to South Africa. He persuaded Arthur Griffith† to join him there in 1897, where they arranged centenary celebrations of the 1798 Rising. MacBride helped to organise an Irish Brigade to fight alongside the Boers against British rule. He reached the rank of major and was wounded. In 1902 he went to Paris, where he met Maud Gonne, whom he married on 21 February 1903. They had one child, Seán, before obtaining a judicial separation in September 1905. Almost penniless and battling alcoholism, in 1910 he became a Dublin Corporation water bailiff, and joined Sinn Féin. He sat on the Supreme Council of the revitalised IRB before being displaced by Seán Mac Diarmada. He was not involved in planning the Rising and was not in the Volunteers. MacBride only joined the rebellion by chance, but was made second-in-command to the inexperienced Thomas MacDonagh in Jacob’s Factory on Bishop Street. He helped fortify the building and supervised the placing of snipers. Jacob’s remained on the periphery of the conflict. On 4 May, MacBride was convicted by court martial at Richmond Barracks. He sought a soldier’s death facing his executioners, but was blindfolded and his hands were bound. At 03:47, he was shot in Kilmainham Jail. MacBride reportedly said, with supreme indifference: ‘Fire away, I’ve been looking down the barrels of rifles all my life.’ The economist Thomas Kettle (1890–1916), himself soon to die fighting in France, termed this ‘a lie, but a magnificent lie. He had been looking down the necks

Richard Kent (4May1916/5) IV, 44, Farmer, RC Military Hospital, Fermoy, Cork See Rowe (2May1916/1). ‘Dick’ Kent, a wellknown athlete, was one of nine children of David Kent and Mary Rice of Bawnard House, Castlelyons. All the Kent sons were active Volunteers. Buried St Nicholas’s churchyard, Castlelyons.503 Samuel Long (4May1916/6) 44, Coal porter, Married with four children, RC SPDH Long, of 25 Great Clarence Street, died from wounds received on 29 April when he went to find food for his family. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: I. a. 38). His widow Mary and children secured £215 compensation from the RVC.504 Charles Saunders (4May1916/7) South Staffordshire Regiment (4953) JSH From Brierley Hill, Staffordshire, Private Saunders of the 2/6th Battalion died from wounds. Buried DGC (SW. S1. 85).505 Timothy Spellman (4May1916/8) 68, Labourer, Married with eight children, RC Richmond Hospital, Dublin From Tipperary, Spellman, of 62 Arbour Hill, was wounded on 27 April when shot ‘at

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of porter bottles all his life.’ Buried Arbour Hill. In 1933 his estranged widow Maud Gonne MacBride secured a widow’s pension. In 1963 President Éamon de Valera unveiled a bronze plaque at MacBride’s Westport birthplace.507 SA: Mac Diarmada (12May1916/1), MacDonagh (3May1916/3)

John Henry Sherwood (5May1916/5) South Staffordshire Regiment (4841), Protestant Dublin Castle From Bolton, Private Sherwood enlisted at Bilston in Staffordshire. Buried GMC (CE. 615).512

6 MAY 1916 Francis Keegan (6May1916/1) 60, Labourer, Married with four children, RC North Dublin Union From Longford, Keegan, of 28 Upper Ormond Quay, died from leg wounds received on 29 April at his hall door. Buried GC (Dublin Section: C. §. 30.5). His widow Margaret secured £150 from the RVC.513

James Horace Bradford508 (5May1916/2) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (5617), 19, Bricklayer RHK, Dublin See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Bradford, from Alfreton, Derbyshire, enlisted in the Royal Engineers, and transferred to the 2/7th Battalion. He died of lung wounds received on 26 April. Buried RHKC.509

7 MAY 1916 Catherine Murphy (7May1916/1) 68, Widowed with children, RC North Dublin Union Catherine Murphy, a policeman’s widow of 63 Railway Street, reportedly died of injuries caused when she was trampled. Buried GC (Dublin Section: F. §. 41.5).514

Albert Keep (5May1916/3) 29, Chauffeur, Married with one child, CoE MHD See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). From England, Keep was chauffeur of the Marquis of Conyngham of Slane Castle. His car had been commandeered by the police. His dependents secured an ex-gratia payment of £300.510

8 MAY 1916 Éamonn Ceannt (Edward Thomas Kent) (8May1916/1) IV, 34, Clerk, Married with one child, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin Ceannt, from Ballymoe, Galway, one of seven children of an RIC officer from Tipperary, was schooled in Ardee and Drogheda, before the family moved to Dublin. In 1898 he became a Corporation clerk. He was later elected chairman of the Dublin Municipal Officers’ Association. He was a noted piper. In 1914 he became a member of the IRB’s Supreme Council. A founder member of the Irish Volunteers, he took part in the Howth and Kilcoole gun-running. Along with Pearse and Plunkett, Ceannt formed the IRB’s Military Council, which often met in his home. A signatory of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic, as O/C 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, he occupied the South Dublin Union and Marrowbone Lane Distillery, with Cathal Brugha† as his vice-O/C. His force held out against superior numbers until he received

Richard Patrick O’Carroll (5May1916/4) IV, 40, Trade unionist, Married with seven children, RC Military Hospital, Portobello Barracks, Dublin ‘Dick’ O’Carroll and his wife Anne Esther lived at 49 Cuffe Street. Secretary of the Ancient Guild of Incorporated Brick and Stonelayers’ Union, he had been a Labour councillor on Dublin Corporation for nine years, was a member of the South Dublin Board of Guardians and an Irish Volunteer. On 26 April, when driving through Camden Street, O’Carroll was pulled from his motorcycle by Captain J. C. Bowen-Colthurst, dragged into a yard and shot. Left lying on the street, he was taken by a bread van to hospital, dying nine days later. In 1924, his widow, ‘a very respectable woman and a strong supporter of the present government . . . in poor circumstances’, secured a yearly pension of £90, with £24 for each child. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: V. b. 7).511

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news of Pearse’s surrender order. Initially unwilling to comply, Ceannt eventually obeyed. Sentenced to death by a court martial in Richmond Barracks on 4 May, he was shot in Kilmainham Jail between 03:45 and 04:05. Buried Arbour Hill. His widow eventually received a yearly pension of £90, later increased to £180, with additional support for her son. To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Rising in 1966, Galway Railway Station was renamed Éamonn Ceannt Station.515 SA: Mac Diarmada (12May1916/1), MacDonagh (3May1916/3), Pearse (3May 1916/1), Plunkett (4May1916/4)

Barracks. On 4 May, he was sentenced to death by a court martial at Richmond Barracks. He was shot in Kilmainham between 03:45 and 04:05. Buried Arbour Hill. On the fiftieth anniversary of the Rising, Kingsbridge Station was renamed Heuston Station. In 1924 his mother secured a dependent’s pension, as subsequently did his sister.518 Michael Mallin (8May1916/4) ICA, 41, Soldier, Silk weaver, Married with five children, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin Mallin, from Dublin, joined the Royal Scots Fusiliers as a band boy. After twelve years’ service, seven in India, he returned to Dublin in 1902. Apprenticed in Atkinson’s poplin factory, he became a silk weaver and secretary of the Silk Weavers’ Union. In 1903, Mallin married Agnes (Úna) Hickey, a Fenian’s daughter, living at her shop on Francis Street. During a weavers’ strike in 1913, Mallin became friendly with James Connolly, later joining the ICA. He published articles on military strategy in the Workers’ Republic and instructed the ICA in guerrilla tactics. Mallin commanded about seventy-seven men at St Stephen’s Green, with Constance Markievicz as his second-in-command. His disposition of his men was puzzling, particularly given his military experience. Sentenced to death on 5 May by court martial in Richmond Barracks, he was shot in Kilmainham Jail between 03:45 and 04:05. Buried at Arbour Hill. Michael T. Soughley recalled that Mallin’s widow Úna was heavily pregnant – her son was born shortly afterwards – and ‘never thought of a sentence of death’. In 1924 she secured an annual pension of £90, with £24 for each child, and educational fees. One daughter also ultimately received a dependent’s allowance. On the fiftieth anniversary of the Rising, Dún Laoghaire station was renamed Mallin Station.519 SA: James Connolly (12May1916/2)

Cornelius Bernard Colbert (8May1916/2) IV, 26, Bookkeeper, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin ‘Con’ Colbert, from Castlemahon parish, Limerick, was tenth of thirteen children. After his mother’s death, his sister Catherine brought him to Dublin. A bookkeeper in Kennedy’s Bakery, he became prominent in the Fianna Éireann, and a drill instructor at St Enda’s School. He later joined the Volunteers. An IRB man, he acted as Thomas Clarke’s bodyguard leading up to the Rising. Colbert fought at Watkins’ Brewery and Jameson’s Distillery on Marrowbone Lane. Sentenced to death by a court martial at Richmond Barracks on 4 May, Colbert was shot in Kilmainham Jail between 03:45 and 04:05. Buried Arbour Hill. In 1955 his sister Elizabeth secured a dependent’s allowance, as did another sibling in 1963. In 1966 Limerick railway station was named after him.516 SA: Clarke (3May1916/2) John (Seán) J. Heuston (8May1916/3) IV, 25, Railway servant, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin ‘Seán’ Heuston, from Limerick,517 was a GS&WR clerk. He moved to Dublin in 1913, commanded a Fianna sluagh (company), and later became director of training. An IRB man, he took part in the Howth gun-running, being responsible for transport. Heuston was in command in the Mendicity Institute on Usher’s Island, tasked to delay troops advancing along the quays from the Royal

Felix Joseph Watters (8May1916/5) 63, RC Priest SVH Watters, from Dundalk, Louth, joined the Society of Mary in 1872. In 1884 he went to

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New Zealand, where he founded the College of St Patrick in Wellington. Returning to Ireland in 1902, he became president of the Catholic University School, Dublin. He was shot as he left the presbytery on St Mary’s Road. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: B. h. 7).520

as the Richmond Hospital was full. He died of pneumonia. His wife Sarah and children secured £156 compensation from the RVC.524 Christopher Lawler (9May1916/4) 42, Grocer’s porter, RC JSH Lawler, of 6 Halston Street, died from wounds received when a bullet came through a rear window on 29 April. Buried GC (Dublin Section: K. §. 35.5). His sister Margaret Lawless secured £155 compensation from the RVC.525

John O’Connor (8May1916/6) 17, Grocer’s assistant, RC Mercer’s O’Connor, of 1 Emerald Street, was shot nearby while looking for a neighbour’s child. His mother Julia secured £150 compensation from the RVC.521

10 MAY 1916 Alexander Gray (10May1916/1) RIC, 57, Widowed, CoI Infirmary, Navan, Meath See Shanagher (28Apr1916/2). Gray, from Tyrone, son of Reverend Alexander Gray, joined the RIC as a cadet in 1880, and in 1883 was posted as a DI to Dingle, Kerry. His role in an affray there was recalled by Peig Sayers in her autobiography. He served in many other counties, reaching the rank of CI in 1907. He was transferred to Meath in 1912. He died from wounds received at Ashbourne. Buried Lucan, Dublin.526

9 MAY 1916 John Kealy (9May1916/1) Merchant, RC Upper John Street, Kilkenny Kealy, of Upper John Street, Kilkenny, was a member of the Gaelic League. Thirty men arrested the previous day were marched to Kilkenny railway station bound for Richmond Barracks in Dublin. Kealy, who was in poor health, collapsed and died.522 Thomas Kent (9May1916/2) IV, 51, Farmer, RC Military Detention Barracks, Cork See Rowe (2May1916/1). ‘Tom’ Kent, from Castlelyons, Cork, spent some time in the United States, becoming well known in Irish circles in Boston. In 1899 he returned home for health reasons, and became involved in land agitation: along with four of his brothers, he was arrested and imprisoned for a time. He also joined the Gaelic League. The Kents were among the first to join the Volunteers in 1913. He was imprisoned in 1915 for opposing wartime recruitment. Buried Cork Detention Barracks. On the fiftieth anniversary of the Rising, Glanmire railway station in Cork was renamed Kent Station.523

James Crawford Neil (10May1916/2) 29, Librarian, Engaged, Presbyterian JSH Neil, from Dublin, educated at St Andrew’s College, joined the National Library in 1902. A cultural nationalist who published poems, essays and reviews in journals such as Irish Review, he also became involved in musical and theatrical networks. He had planned to marry the actress Máire Nic Shiubhlaigh (Mary Walker) in June 1916. On the evening of 25 April, Neil, returning home along the north quays, was shot in the spine by a looter whom he disturbed. Buried MJC (B. 367. 82). His mother secured £156 from the RVC.527

Francis Finlay (9May1916/3) 42, Labourer, Married with two children, RC New Lisburn Street, Dublin On 26 April, Finlay, of 3 New Lisburn Street, volunteered to bring coal to Chapel House on North Anne Street where people were sheltering. Shot in the back, he was nursed at home

11 MAY 1916 James Joseph Walsh (11May1916/1) 19, Newsboy, RC JSH Walsh, of 14 Upper Kevin Street, died over two weeks after being shot in both legs

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on Talbot Street on 25 April. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: O. l. 145). His mother Bridget secured £50 from the RVC.528

impression is left that Seán MacDermott, with his ease of manner, his great knowledge of the IRB and the Volunteers . . . and his obvious talent for revolutionary conspiracy, made a remarkable individual contribution to the moulding of the IRB into an instrument of active revolution.’ Denis McCullough, then chairman of the IRB Supreme Council, stated that, coming up to Easter Week, Mac Diarmada ‘had control of all matters connected with the Rising’. Despite the capture of the German arms ship Aud, Mac Diarmada was determined that the Rising should still go ahead. He was the second signatory of the Proclamation of the Republic. On 9 May, he was sentenced to death by a court martial at Richmond Barracks. Detective Daniel Hoey identified him. In a final letter to his family, Mac Diarmada wrote, ‘The cause for which I die has been re-baptised during the past week by the blood of as good men as ever trod God’s earth and should I not feel justly proud to be numbered among them.’ Shot in Kilmainham Jail at 03:45, he was buried at Arbour Hill. Gloucester Street was renamed in his memory, and a statute was unveiled in Kiltyclogher on 12 May 1940.531 SA: Clarke (3May1916/2), Hoey (12Sep 1919/1)

Catherine Clinton (11May1916/2) 53, Seamstress, Widowed MMH Mrs Clinton was shot in the eye in her bedroom at 17 Aldborough Square, the military being responsible. Taken to hospital by military ambulance, she died a fortnight later. Her sister secured £55 from the RVC.529

12 MAY 1916 Seán Mac Diarmada (John Joseph MacDermott) (12May1916/1) IV, 32, Newspaper manager, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin Mac Diarmada, from Laughty Barr,530 between Kiltyclogher and Glenfarne, Leitrim, was one of ten children. In 1903, his cousin secured him work in Edinburgh. He returned to Leitrim in 1904, studying bookkeeping and Irish by night. In 1905–6 he was a tram conductor in Belfast until dismissed for smoking on duty. While there he met Bulmer Hobson and joined the Dungannon Club. He also joined Arthur Griffith’s† Sinn Féin and the IRB. In 1907, Hobson and Denis McCullough employed him as an organiser for the Dungannon IRB. He organised the unsuccessful Sinn Féin campaign of Charles J. Dolan in the 1908 North Leitrim by-election. Mac Diarmada was recruited by Thomas Clarke as a full-time IRB organiser. In 1910 he became secretary of the IRB Supreme Council and manager of Irish Freedom. Although rendered lame by polio contracted in 1911, he continued his IRB work and in 1913 was closely involved in the founding of the Volunteers. Sentenced in June 1915 to four months’ imprisonment with hard labour for making anti-recruiting speeches, on release he became manager of Nationality, a new IRB newspaper edited by Arthur Griffith. Mac Diarmada was closely involved in the IRB Military Council’s preparations for an insurrection. Kevin B. Nowlan stated, ‘The

James Connolly (12May1916/2) ICA, 47, Trade unionist, Married with seven children, RC Kilmainham Jail, Dublin Connolly, born in Cowgate, Edinburgh, held various jobs before falsifying his age and joining the army in 1882, serving mostly in Ireland until he deserted in 1889 and returned to Scotland. In 1890, he married Lillie Reynolds, whom he had first met while in Dublin. Connolly became a casual labourer for Edinburgh Corporation. He joined the Scottish Socialist Federation in 1890 and the Independent Labour Party in 1893. In 1896, the Dublin Socialist Club employed him as an organiser. He established the Irish Socialist Republican Party (ISRP), one of its central tenets being that Irish nationalism and socialism were complementary. In 1903 he immigrated to the US. In

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1905 he was a co-founder of the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World, two years later he founded the Irish Socialist Federation, and in 1909 he worked for the Socialist Party of America. Connolly returned to Ireland in 1910, publishing Labour in Irish History. In 1911, he became Ulster organiser of James Larkin’s ITGWU, and in 1912 founded the Independent Labour Party. He succeeded Larkin as general secretary of the ITGWU and editor of the Irish Worker in 1914. He was also commander of the ICA, established by Jack White in response to police violence during the 1913 lock-out. Connolly committed his movement against the Allies when the war broke out in 1914. The IRB Military Council, fearful that the ICA might rise independently, inducted him into the IRB. A signatory of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic, he exercised overall military command of the Volunteers and ICA, based in the GPO. On 27 April, he received serious leg and ankle wounds. Dr John Doyle, medical officer, performed an operation with the assistance of a prisoner, Captain John O’Mahony of the Indian Medical Service. After the surrender, Connolly was taken to the hospital in Dublin Castle. On 9 May, Connolly was sentenced to death by a court martial at Richmond Barracks. He was shot in the early hours, while propped in a chair in Kilmainham Jail, the last of the fifteen executions. Buried in Arbour Hill. The shooting of a wounded man caused public outcry. In 1924 his widow Lillie received a yearly pension initially of £90, with £24 for each of her children and educational fees. In 1966, the fiftieth anniversary of the Rising, Amiens Street Station was renamed Connolly Station. In 1996, on the eightieth anniversary, President Mary Robinson unveiled a statue of Connolly opposite Liberty Hall.532

of Surgeons: ‘Murray casually threw himself down on a bed and somehow a bullet hit him in the face.’ One eye was removed in hospital, where he died three weeks later. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: F. i. 265). His sister Jenny failed to secure a dependent’s award.533

14 MAY 1916 Mary Connolly (14May1916/1) 23, Fish dealer’s wife, Married, RC MMH Mary Connolly, of 4 North Richmond Street, was wounded in the leg while sitting in her kitchen on 28 April. Buried GC (Dublin Section: W. §. 13.5). Her husband Michael secured £50 from the RVC.534 Kate Lennon (14May1916/2) 55, Labourer’s wife, Married, RC MMH Kate Lennon, of 23 Hardwicke Street, was shot on Gloucester Street on 27 April while out on an errand. Her leg was later amputated. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: G. a. 37.5). Her daughter secured £10 burial expenses from the RVC.535

15 MAY 1916 James Allan (15May1916/1) King Edward’s Horse (1293), Soldier, Presbyterian Carrick-on-Shannon, Leitrim Private Allan was stationed in Longford. He is the only 1st Battalion fatality noted in the regimental history during service in Longford. While on night sentry duty, Allan fell into the River Shannon and was drowned. Head Constable Boyle stated that he heard cries for help from the Shannon at about midnight. A post-mortem examination found that Allen’s stomach contained only stale beer. Buried Longford Presbyterian Churchyard. He is commemorated at GMC.536

13 MAY 1916

16 MAY 1916

Daniel Joseph Murray (13May1916/1) IV, 31, Bookbinder, RC SVH ‘Dan’ Murray lived with his mother Mary at 35 Lower Mount Pleasant Avenue. The ICA’s Rose Hackett recalled how Volunteers were handling rifles they had found in the College

John Charlesworth (16May1916/1) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (2863), Protestant Killaloe, Clare Private Charlesworth enlisted in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire. On 16 May, the battalion

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arrived by train in Killaloe, Clare. Troops were billeted in an empty hotel beside the River Shannon, which was in flood. Three men disobeyed orders by taking out a boat. This was swiftly carried downstream, striking a bridge and capsizing. One man held on to the bridge until rescued; the others were swept away. Two fishermen succeeded in saving and resuscitating one soldier, but Charlesworth disappeared. His body was recovered eight days later. Soldiers Died in the Great War records him as dying ‘at sea’. Buried St Flannan’s Cathedral, Killaloe.537

Andrew Golding (19May1916/1) 35, Coal porter, Married with one child, RC North Dublin Union Golding, of 5 Longford Street, was wounded on 27 April at Custom House Bridge while going to work. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: C. a. 37.5). His dependents secured £234 from the RVC.540

23 MAY 1916 John McCarthy (23May1916/1) 55, Groom, Married, RC MHD McCarthy, of 46 John Dillon Street, was shot on 30 April on Montagu Street as he went to visit his son. Buried DGC. His widow Julia secured £203 compensation from the RVC.541

17 MAY 1916 Albert Edward Wood (17May1916/1) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (4031), 18, Soldier, Protestant RCDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Wood of 2/8th Battalion, from New Balderton, Nottinghamshire, died from wounds received on 26 April at Mount Street Bridge. Buried St Giles Churchyard, Balderton.538

28 MAY 1916 Ernest Davenport (28May1916/1) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment), 20 RCDH See Dietrichsen (26Apr1916/12). Private Davenport of the 2/8th Battalion, from Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, died from wounds received on 26 April at Mount Street Bridge. Buried Mansfield Cemetery, Nottingham Road (B. 1318).542

Michael Kavanagh (17May1916/2) 35, Carter, Married with seven children, RC SVH From Prosperous, Kildare, Kavanagh, of 43 Queen’s Square, was conveying luggage to the Shelbourne Hotel on 24 April. His lorry was seized by ICA men to make a barricade and Kavanagh was shot in the head when he went to retrieve it. W. G. Smith of the St John Ambulance Brigade, heard an order to halt and saw:

30 MAY 1916 John Farrelly (30May1916/1) 35, Labourer, RC Mercer’s Farrelly, of 3 Monk’s Cottages, Lower Sherriff Street, was shot on 26 April on George’s Quay en route to work. Buried GC (Dublin Section: H. §. 19.5). His mother Catherine secured £150 from the RVC.543

[a] man dragging a lorry across the road by the shafts at whom the command was directed. He took no notice and I heard two shots and saw bullets flick up the dust at his feet; at this, he dropped the shafts . . . and ran across . . . apparently to remonstrate with the men who fired, who were crouching just inside the railing with levelled rifles and as he came to the chains a shot rang out and he threw up his hands and fell in a heap.

2 JUNE 1916 Daniel Doyle (2Jun1916/1) 46, Furniture dealer, Married with three children, RC JSH Doyle lived at his furniture store at 27 Upper Liffey Street. Shot on 28 April while going to feed his horse on Dominick Lane, he died

Kavanagh lingered on until 17 May. Buried Ballinafagh, Kildare. His widow secured £300 from the RVC.539

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from his wounds. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section: V. j. 121). His widow Mary and children secured £380 from the RVC.544

Walter Eric Scott (5Jul1916/1) 8, Schoolboy, RC Mercer’s Walter, of 3 Irvine Crescent, one of six children, was shot in the head on 28 April as he went to buy bread. Two operations failed to save him. Buried GC (South Section: N. b. 54). His mother Annie secured £25 from the RVC.549

7 JUNE 1916 Ellen O’Connor (7Jun1916/1) 50, Flower seller, Married, RC SDU Ellen O’Connor of Meath Street, shot on O’Connell Bridge on 26 April, died of wounds. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: V. a. 39.5). Her husband Michael secured £156 from the RVC.545

6 JULY 1916 James Delooze (6Jul1916/1) RIF (15554), 40, RC KGVH Private Delooze, of Warrington, Lancashire, initially enlisted in the Lancashire Fusiliers (5890) before changing regiments. A colleague accidentally shot him through the liver at a rifle range in Skerries. Buried Warrington Cemetery (C. RC. 228A).550

10 JUNE 1916 Christina Purcell (10Jun1916/1) 30, Labourer’s wife, Married with five children, RC SVH Christina Purcell, of 37 Wentworth Place, died from wounds received in unknown circumstances. Buried GC (Dublin Section: J. §. 17.5).546

29 JULY 1916 Joseph Smyth (29Jul1916/1) 52, Coach painter, Widowed with three children North Dublin Union Smith, of 14 Hammond Lane, was knocked down by a crowd on Sackville Street on 24 April and never recovered from his injuries. His three daughters secured £133 from the RVC.551

15 JUNE 1916 James Connor (15Jun1916/1) 36, Owner of a lime works, Married with six children MHD On the night of 24 April, Connor, from Milford, Carlow, drove some munitions workers from Carlow to Dublin because all trains were cancelled. On his return journey next day, he was wounded when fired on in the vicinity of St Stephen’s Green. Before he died on 15 June, he said that he had heard no warning before being shot. His widow Eleanor secured a yearly pension of £43.6s.8d. and a £50 gratuity for her children.547

3 AUGUST 1916 Roger David Casement (3Aug1916/1) IV, 51, Consular official, RC Pentonville Prison, London Casement, born in Sandycove, Dublin, was raised by his uncle John Casement near Ballycastle, Antrim. His fate aroused controversy then and since for three reasons: his outstanding reputation as a champion of the rights of indigenous peoples in Africa and South America; his open disavowal of British rule in Ireland, which led him to campaign openly during the Great War for German victory in hopes that this would lead to Irish independence; and attempts by British officials to discredit

17 JUNE 1916 Patrick Nealon (17Jun1916/1) 61, Labourer, RC SPDH Nealon, of 77 Bride Street, died from wounds received on Bath Avenue on 29 April. Buried GC (Dublin Section: M. §. 21.5). His brother secured burial expenses of £10 from the RVC.548

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him by circulating disputed evidence of his homosexuality. Casement was a shipping clerk in Liverpool before becoming a customs official in the Gulf of Guinea in 1892. Three years later, he was appointed consul at Delagoa Bay in Portuguese East Africa. Further consular work followed in Congo and the French Congo. In June 1902, the Foreign Office instructed him to investigate alleged Belgian misgovernment in the Congo. His report, published in 1904, catalogued appalling abuses. It was instrumental in King Leopold relinquishing his holdings in Africa: from 1908 the Belgian parliament took over the administration of what became the Belgian Congo. Casement secured a CMG in 1905. This was a highly unusual honour for a junior consular official. In 1906, Casement was appointed consul in Santos, Brazil, and in 1908 was promoted to consul-general in Rio de Janeiro. At the Foreign Office’s behest, he produced a damning report on the enslavement and horrendous abuse of indigenous tribes by commercial rubber interests in the Putamayo region of the Amazon, and was rewarded with a knighthood in 1911, again an unusual distinction for a relatively junior consular official. Throughout his consular career, Casement regularly returned to Ireland and his interest in nationalism and the Irish language deepened. In 1913, he resigned on pension on grounds of ill-health, joining the provisional committee of the Irish Volunteers. In July 1914, he went to the US to raise support for the Volunteers. With the onset of war, he travelled to Germany and there tried to induce Irish prisoners of war to join an Irish Brigade to fight alongside Germany for Irish freedom. He was also involved in efforts to procure German arms, though he was opposed to the rebellion, judging the circumstances inopportune. In April 1916 he travelled by submarine to Ireland. Casement and his companions Robert Monteith and Daniel Bailey came ashore at Banna Strand in the early hours of 21 April, but he was quickly arrested. Taken to London, he was imprisoned in Brixton Prison, and placed on trial on 26 June.

On 29 June, Casement was convicted of high treason. Next day he was stripped of his knighthood. An appeal against his conviction was rejected. An international campaign for a reprieve was damaged by the leaking of extracts from his ‘black diaries’, containing graphic accounts of homosexual encounters. After his arrest Casement indicated that he wished to convert to Catholicism, but Cardinal Bourne of Westminster thought his stated reason – that he wished to belong to the religion of the majority of Irishmen, and to be ‘confirmed only by an Irish Bishop’ – problematic. Bourne was also mindful that his reception into the Catholic Church ‘might arouse anti-Catholic feeling’ and become part of the debate about a reprieve (which Bourne anticipated would eventually issue). Furthermore, Bourne had heard ‘on the highest authority that his moral life had been deplorable and that proof . . . might be produced at the trial . . . [and] the only safe course was to allow time to elapse in order to obtain sufficient proof of the sincerity and valid grounds of his wish to become a Catholic’. After Casement’s conviction, ‘two priests with ample faculties were sent to receive his abjuration and to reconcile him to the Church’. Casement was hanged on 3 August. Exhumed from Pentonville, his remains were returned to Ireland and interred after a state funeral on 1 March 1965. The authenticity of the ‘black diaries’ occasioned bitter controversy, inspiring various convoluted forgery theories. Forensic test results published in 2002 strongly indicated, as a mass of other evidence also suggested, that these were genuine. Sexuality is no litmus test for patriotism. Buried GC.552

4 AUGUST 1916 Patrick Reynolds (4Aug1916/1) 20, Journalist, RC Mercer’s Reynolds, of 5 Greenfield Place, shot as he passed Cork Hill on 24 April, died of his wounds. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section:

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C. c. 18). His mother secured £117 compensation from the RVC.553

30 SEPTEMBER 1916 Jack O’Reilly (30Sep1916/1) IV, 35, Civil engineer, RC Infirmary, Tralee, Kerry O’Reilly, a builder’s son from Tralee, Kerry, became a technical instructor before going to New Zealand, where he qualified as an engineer. He travelled widely in Australasia before returning to Ireland, becoming principal of the Ballinasloe Technical School, Galway. Arrested in Ballinasloe after the Rising and held in Wandsworth and Frongoch, he contracted ‘pernicious anaemia’. Released in July, he died in Tralee. Buried Rath Cemetery, Tralee.554

18 NOVEMBER 1916 Hedley Wilkins Jewell (18Nov1916/1) Leicestershire Regiment (4954) Fermoy, Cork Private Jewell of the 2/5th Battalion, from Appleby Magna, Leicestershire, accidentally drowned along with a colleague in the River Blackwater, then in flood. Buried Fermoy Military Cemetery.555 RD: Smith (18Nov1916/2) Bertie Smith (18Nov1916/2) Leicestershire Regiment (2596) Fermoy, Cork See Jewell (18Nov1916/1). Corporal Smith of the 2/5th Battalion lived in North Luffenham, Rutlandshire. Buried Fermoy Military Cemetery.556

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1917 24 JANUARY 1917 Christopher Brady (24Jan1917/1) ICA, 27, Packaging porter, RC Foley Street, Dublin Brady, imprisoned in Wandsworth and Frongoch after the Rising, was released due to ill-health in November 1916. He died at home from pneumonia. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: J. i. 243.5).1

20 MARCH 1917 Martin Byrne (20Mar1917/1) RIR, 56, Married, RC Malahide, Dublin Lance-Corporal Byrne, from Thurles, on guard duty at Malahide Railway Bridge, was hit by a train in stormy weather.2

8 MAY 1917 Bernard Ward (8May1917/1) IV, 27, Carpenter, RC Dublin Ward, from Monaghan, lived in Rialto and was a member of the 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade. Imprisoned after the Rising in Wandsworth, he died from prison-related illness. Buried Latlurcan Cemetery, Monaghan.3

11 JUNE 1917 John Mills (11Jun1917/1) DMP (9300), 51, Married with three children, Protestant JSH From Dysart, Westmeath, Mills joined the DMP in 1886. He became a sergeant in 1901, station sergeant in 1908 and inspector in 1916. After arresting Cathal Brugha† for addressing an illegal public meeting in Beresford Place, Mills was struck with a hurley by Éamonn Murray of Fianna Éireann, later to become a Garda officer himself: ‘I killed the man.’ He died at 04:00 from a fractured skull. Frank Daly was ‘very sorry for Inspector Mills. I was present. . . . I never could find out who had done that.’ Mills had

interrupted Daly’s interrogation after the Rising to tell the inquisitor ‘what a good boy I was’. Buried MJC (Grave 57A. 296).4

24 JUNE 1917 Abraham Allen (24Jun1917/1) 25, Labourer, Married with children, CoI North Infirmary, Cork Tom Crofts recalled how, during disturbances following demonstrations to welcome home released 1916 prisoners, ‘we shelled’ the police ‘with stones’, and revolvers were fired. A police bayonet charge and military fire inflicted a number of injuries between 21:00 and midnight. Nine civilians and five policemen were wounded, including DI Oswald Swanzy. At 22:00 Allen of 374 Blarney Street appealed to Ellen McCarthy: ‘Have mercy on me ma’am, I’m dying.’5 A bayonet cut had severed the femoral artery.6 SA: Swanzy (22Aug1920/1)

3 JULY 1917 George Versey (3Jul1917/1) RFA, 17, CoE KGVH Gunner Versey was accidentally shot in Marlborough Barracks by Corporal Sedingham. Buried GMC (CE. 666).7

12 JULY 1917 Daniel Scanlon (12Jul1917/1) IV, 25, Hotelier, RC Ballybunion, Kerry During celebrations on 11 July following Éamon de Valera’s by-election victory in east Clare, police fired shots over the crowd to prevent them rushing the RIC barracks. Shot in the abdomen about 22:00, Scanlon died in the family’s hotel at 05:00, the first Volunteer fatality in north Kerry. Constable Lyons was tried for murder, but acquitted. Buried republican plot, Killehenny Cemetery. Scanlon’s sister secured a £50 gratuity.8

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26 JULY 1917

25 SEPTEMBER 1917

William Partridge (26Jul1917/1) ICA, 43, Trade unionist engineer, married with children, RC Ballaghadereen, Roscommon The Sligo-born son of a train driver, Partridge was a devout convert to Catholicism, and a radical socialist. A one-time Corporation councillor, he became a union official after losing his railway job for protesting at the preferential promotion of Protestants. Sent to Kerry to oversee the planned landing of weapons from the Aud, he returned to Dublin in time for the Rising, fortifying the spirits of the rebels occupying the College of Surgeons by nightly recitations of the Rosary. Countess Markievicz, who spoke at his graveside, attributed to him her decision to convert to Catholicism. He died two months after release from Lewes on medical grounds. He left four children, three by his second wife Mary Hamilton (m. 22 April 1909), including his daughter Constance, born seven months after his death. Mary’s initial dependent’s application was found inadmissible, although the pensions board accepted that ‘death . . . was due to prison treatment’ and recommended the family for support. President Cosgrave arranged a special interim payment before the pensions legislation was amended. Mary was eventually awarded support for herself and her children, and the state met her daughter’s school fees at Loreto College, St Stephen’s Green. Buried Kilcommon graveyard, Ballaghadereen. He is commemorated on a plaque at his home, 3 Patriot’s Terrace, Brookfield Road.9

Thomas Ashe (Tomás Ághas) (25Sep1917/1) IV, 32, Schoolteacher, RC MMH From Kinard, Lispole, Kerry, Ashe was principal of Corduff National School near Lusk, Dublin. A committed separatist, Gaelic speaker, IRB man and O/C 5th (Fingal) Battalion, Dublin Brigade, his unit was alone in adopting guerrilla tactics during the Rising, raiding police barracks, cutting communications and keeping on the move. Its defeat of a large force of RIC at Ashbourne on 28 April was the only real offensive success of the Rising (see Shanagher (28Apr1916/2)). Sentenced to death by court martial, Ashe’s penalty was commuted to penal servitude for life. Released from Lewes in June 1917 in a misguided conciliatory gesture, Ashe became president of the IRB’s supreme council. Jailed in Mountjoy for a seditious speech, he and others went on hunger strike for political status on 20 September. A jury found that he died just five days later due to ‘heart failure and congestion of the lungs . . . caused by [being] left to lie on the cold floor for fifty hours and then subjected to forcible feeding in his weak condition after hunger strike’. They denounced ‘mechanical feeding as an inhuman operation’, condemned the Dublin Castle authorities and defended hunger striking as ‘a protest against . . . being treated as criminals’. Police reported that Ashe’s death ‘evoked demonstrations of sympathy on the part of Nationalists’ across Ireland and ‘has given a fresh impetus to the Sinn Féin movement’. In 1924 his father Gregory secured a gratuity of £150. Buried GC. Michael Collins† delivered a graveside oration.11

29 SEPTEMBER 1917

16 SEPTEMBER 1917 Martin Hansberry (16Sep1917/1) IV, RC Moyode, Athenry, Galway Hansberry, from Rahard, Athenry, imprisoned after the Rising, accidentally shot himself crossing a hedge while drilling. Buried Athenry.10

Thomas Joseph Stokes (29Sep1917/1) IV, 24, Painter, RC Enniscorthy, Wexford Stokes, imprisoned after the Rising in Stafford, Knutsford and Wandsworth before transfer to Frongoch, was released on Christmas Eve 1916 due to prison-related illness. Buried St Aidan’s Cathedral cemetery.12

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28 MARCH 19185

George Sheehan (4Jan1918/1) 78, Army pensioner, Married with children, RC Workhouse Infirmary, Nenagh, Tipperary Sheehan, of Cooleen, Silvermines, was an ex-soldier with twenty-two years’ service. His soldier son Henry was home on furlough with his rifle. At around 20:00, three masked men entered the family home, threatening Sheehan’s wife Mary. After a struggle, her husband was shot in the throat and abdomen. Seán Gaynor, later O/C Tipperary No. 1 Brigade IRA, recalled that he used the captured rifle. Brothers William and John O’Brien, both teachers, were acquitted after two inconclusive trials. Their brother Patrick later told Ernie O’Malley that he had killed Sheehan. Mary Sheehan secured £500 compensation.1

Thomas Russell (28Mar1918/1) IV, 22, National school teacher, RC St Joseph’s Hospital, Kilrush, Clare From Dingle, Kerry, Russell was a Gaelic League teacher and a Volunteer in the Clare Brigade. A detachment of the Welsh Regiment in Kilrush adopted an abrasive attitude towards Sinn Féin supporters. On 24 March, soldiers unexpectedly interrupted the weekly meeting of the Carrigaholt Sinn Féin club. Military witnesses afterwards claimed the ‘quiet but panicky’ crowd surged towards the front door, some people being accidentally pressed up against soldiers’ bayonets. Russell was treated for a bayonet wound before being removed to hospital next day, where he died. Buried Kilmalkedar, Dingle, Kerry. In 1922 his parents received a weekly allowance of 15s.6

26 JANUARY 1918 John F. Hickey (26Jan1918/1) RIR, 51, RC Glanmire terminus, Cork Private Hickey ‘received terrible injuries’ when struck by an engine while on guard duty. Buried Millstreet graveyard.2

1 MARCH 1918 John Ryan (1Mar1918/1) IV, 23, Labourer, RC Infirmary, Ennis, Clare After a cattle drive on 24 February at Manus, about five miles from Ennis, Volunteers clashed with the RIC. Sergeant O’Mara stated that he and five officers from Castlefergus RIC Barracks were confronted by about one hundred men, some carrying hurleys. One apparently shouted: ‘There are only six of them there, we will kill . . . them and take the barracks afterwards.’ O’Mara gave the order to fire. Ryan, of Crossagh, was hit in the neck and spine.3 Buried Clonlohan, Newmarket-on-Fergus. A commemorative cross was erected in the 1930s. His mother Mary secured a £75 gratuity.4

13 APRIL 1918 John Browne (13Apr1918/1) IV, 25, Farmer’s son, RC Gortatlea, Tralee, Kerry In what could arguably be termed the opening clash of the War of Independence, Volunteers under Tom McEllistrim raided the RIC Barracks at Gortatlea around 21:00. The idea was to capture weapons and avoid shooting. Constables Considine and Denning were easily subdued, but two policemen on patrol returned unexpectedly and opened fire. Browne was shot in the temple, and Laide mortally wounded in the stomach. All four policemen secured the constabulary medal, and Sergeant Boyle and Constable Fallon were promoted. About a month later, McEllistrim and John Cronin attempted to kill them, wounding Fallon in the shoulder. Martial law was declared in Tralee for three weeks. Cronin and McEllistrim evaded arrest. However, Robert Browne and Maurice Carmody were charged with attempted murder. As late as May 1922, anti-Treaty IRA forces occupying the Four Courts

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maintained a watch on Sergeant Boyle with a view to killing him. Browne and Laide were buried side by side at Rath Cemetery, Tralee.7 RD: Laide (14Apr1918/1). SA: Browne (8Feb 1921/2)

14 APRIL 1918 Richard Laide (14Apr1918/1) IV, 29, Farmer’s son, RC Infirmary, Tralee, Kerry See Browne (13Apr1918/1). ‘Dick’ Laide served in the Ballymacelligott Company. His mother secured a £25 gratuity.8

4 JUNE 1918 Patrick Duffy (4Jun1918/1) RC Carrigartha, Castleblayney, Monaghan An inquest heard how at about 03:00 Duffy, of Main Street, Castleblayney, while drunk, argued with a sentry and tried to disarm him near Carrigartha Military Camp. The soldier, wounded on the arm, shot Duffy, whom he also bayoneted. A doctor stated that Duffy might have been on the ground when shot. Buried St Mary’s Cemetery, Castleblayney.9

22 JULY 1918 Séamus Courtney (22Jul1918/1) Fianna Éireann, 21, RC Mountnicholas, Gortatlea, Tralee, Kerry Courtney, of 95 Hibernian Buildings, Cork, never recovered from the effects of hunger strike while serving three months imprisonment for illegal drilling in 1917, dying in his aunt’s home. Buried Monkstown, Cork.10

12 SEPTEMBER 1918 Séamus Rafter (12Sep1918/1) IV, 44, Businessman, RC Enniscorthy, Wexford From Coolree, Ballindaggan, Wexford, Rafter and his brother ran a business at Slaney Place, Enniscorthy. He was O/C A (Enniscorthy) Company and vice-O/C Wexford Brigade. A death sentence imposed after the Rising was commuted to penal servitude for five years. He was jailed in Dartmoor, and later in Lewes, Maidstone and Pentonville, before release in

1917. He died from burns received on 27 August while manufacturing munitions at his premises. This was ‘a severe blow to the Volunteer movement in Wexford’. Thomas Sinnott believed ‘his death disorganised the whole thing. Everything fell through after that – we were all caught after that.’ Buried Ballindaggan Churchyard. A statue was later erected in Abbey Square, Enniscorthy. His sister Johanna failed to secure a dependent’s allowance.11

29 SEPTEMBER 1918 Josephine McGowan (29Sep1918/1) Cumann na mBan, 20, Weaver, RC Dolphin’s Barn, Dublin Josephine McGowan served in the Marrowbone Lane garrison during the 1916 Rising, after which she was detained for a time. While her death certificate records her cause of death as ‘pneumonia’, she had reportedly been badly beaten about the head in a DMP baton charge some days earlier during a women’s protest against the detention of Irish political prisoners in Britain during which stones were allegedly thrown at the DMP. Maureen Duggan and Evelyn O’Brien were afterwards jailed after refusing to pay fines imposed. In 1953 she was posthumously awarded a 1917–21 medal with bar.12

2 NOVEMBER 1918 William Staines (2Nov1918/1) IV, 20, Engineering student, RC Church Avenue, Rialto, Dublin From Roscommon, Staines joined Fianna Éireann in 1908 and the Volunteers in 1913. Awarded a Corporation scholarship in 1915, he studied engineering at UCD. Staines received serious head wounds in the Mendicity Institute on 26 April 1916, losing a piece of his skull when a British grenade which he was attempting to throw back exploded. His mother failed in a claim for a dependent’s allowance, the pensions board deciding that his death arose directly from influenza and septicaemia and not from his wounds. His elder brother Michael, a significant figure in the revolutionary movement, in 1922 was the founding commissioner of

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An Garda Síochána. Another brother, John, died when the British submarine L55 was sunk in combat with Bolshevik warships in the Gulf of Finland in 1919 (the crew’s remains were recovered by the Soviets and returned to Portsmouth for burial in 1928).13

8 NOVEMBER 1918 John Moriarty (8Nov1918/1) RIC (64065), 31, Farmer, RC Eyeries, Cork From Kerry, Constable Moriarty joined the RIC on 6 July 1908, allocated to Cork. At about 18:45 Moriarty and Sergeant John Phelan were wheeling their bicycles back towards Eyeries from Castletownbere Petty Sessions, when Phelan, some distance behind Moriarty, heard the cry: ‘Hands up.’ Phelan, fearing an ambush, fired his revolver, hitting Moriarty in the back. It transpired that the challenge had come from Sergeant O’Connell, RIC, who was with a patrol of soldiers sheltering from the rain along the roadside. Buried Killarney, Kerry. The RIC Inspector General recommended a gratuity of £50 for his parents.14

29 NOVEMBER 1918 Joseph Reid15 (29Nov1918/1) Fianna Éireann, 18, RC North Infirmary, Cork Reid, son of an ex-serviceman, lived with his mother and three brothers at 43 Harbour Row, Queenstown (Cobh), Cork. Before his death, he explained that he had been cleaning his revolver when it went off. Buried Ticknock Cemetery. A housing estate in Cobh was named after him.16

Christian Brothers’ novitiate. He later became an insurance agent. He founded the Swords Company, of which he was captain, and was also adjutant 5th (Fingal) Battalion, taking part in the Howth gun-running in July 1914. At Easter 1916, Coleman fought in the Mendicity Institution. A death sentence was commuted to three years penal servitude. Incarcerated in Dartmoor and Lewes. Released in June 1917, he returned to activism, being imprisoned for illegal drilling, and later detained during the ‘German Plot’ scare in May 1918. He never recovered from the effects of a hunger strike. He died from pneumonia contracted in Usk. Buried GC. In 1924 his widowed mother Mary secured a gratuity of £60, and a sister later received a dependent’s allowance.18 He is commemorated on a Fingal 1916 memorial in Lusk.

17 DECEMBER 1918 Anthony Herron (17Dec1918/1) 57, Farmer, Married with six children, RC Glenties, Donegal Herron, from Lackley, Glenties, was returning home from an Irish Parliamentary Party rally in Glenties on 12 December when overtaken by Sinn Féin supporters. Before his death he described how he saw John Ward point his arm towards him. Then ‘a shot struck me in the throat’. He died of ‘septic pneumonia’. Ward initially denied any part, but at his trial pleaded guilty to manslaughter, explaining that ‘he bought the revolver in Omagh [Tyrone] for £5’. He ‘promised to give it to the police’. As he had been in detention for seven months, he was released and bound over to keep the peace.19

7 DECEMBER 191817 Richard Coleman (7Dec1918/1) IV, 28, Insurance agent, RC Usk, England Coleman, from Swords, Dublin, worked for the MGWR in Cavan before entering the

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1919 15 JANUARY 1919 Elizabeth Dunne (15Jan1919/1) 8, Schoolgirl, RC MMH Elizabeth, of 11 Dorset Avenue, died from a fractured skull after being struck by an RAF tender driven by Private Charles Hopper.1

20 JANUARY 1919 Daniel Joseph McGandy (20Jan1919/1) IRA, 19, Postman, RC Derry For some time ‘Dan’ McGandy, ‘a strong, well-built young man’ from the Waterside, had been helping Michael Sheerin, who had been pilfering a stock of grenade casings in Craig’s engineering works, by carrying these off in his postman’s bag. On 19 January he failed to attend a rendezvous with Sheerin. Next day his coat, revolver and post bag were found on the quay outside Craig’s; a week later his body was recovered from the River Foyle. Liam Brady suggested that McGandy was thrown into the river during a struggle with two soldiers on guard on the quay. Other IRA sources stated he was attacked by police. Gerald Loughrey recalled that ‘we were pretty well convinced that he had lost his life on account of unofficial hostile action’. The body of Private Arthur Henderson, who disappeared while on leave the same night, was recovered drowned in March. The two deaths were not publicly linked at the time. His father secured a £50 gratuity.2 RD: Henderson (20Jan1919/2) Arthur Alexander Henderson (20Jan1919/2) Royal Army Service Corps, 38, Carter, Married, Protestant Derry See McGandy (20Jan1919/1). Henderson, from Donegal, formerly of the Royal Irish

Rifles, enlisted in December 1914. His wife Annie Maude lived at 5 Belleview Terrace, Derry.3

21 JANUARY 1919 James McDonnell (21Jan1919/1) RIC (50616), 57, Farmer, Widowed with six children, RC Soloheadbeg, Tipperary From Belmullet, Mayo, McDonnell joined the RIC on 18 October 1882, serving in Wexford, the RIC Reserve and Wexford again before transfer to Tipperary town in 1891. Paddy O’Dwyer recalled the Soloheadbeg ambush. Seán Hogan, Dan Breen and Seán Treacy decided to seize a consignment of gelignite due to arrive at Soloheadbeg quarry from the military barracks in Tipperary town. Armed with revolvers, the IRA party waited several days at a prearranged position near the quarry entrance. The cart arrived at about 12:30. There is a conflict of evidence about the ambushers’ intentions. It was generally held that they planned to disarm the policemen, whereas Tadhg Crowe maintained that they had decided to shed enemy blood. Treacy apparently issued a challenge, and the two constables were shot when they reached for their weapons. The gelignite and detonators were safely removed. Coincidentally, this attack took place on the day that Dáil Éireann, composed of Sinn Féin representatives – styled TDs – elected as MPs in the General Election of December 1918, met in the Mansion House in Dublin and proclaimed itself the legitimate parliament of the Irish Republic. Among them was P. J. Moloney, TD for South Tipperary, EOH’s great grandfather, whose Tipperary pharmacy was reportedly ‘Brigade Headquarters at the time’.4 Buried St Michael’s Cemetery, Tipperary. McDonnell’s dependents secured £1,500 compensation.5 RD: O’Connell (21Jan1919/2). SA: Treacy (14Oct1920/3)

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Patrick O’Connell (21Jan1919/2) RIC (61889), 36, Farmer, RC Soloheadbeg, Tipperary See McDonnell (21Jan1919/1). O’Connell, from Clonmoyle, Coachford, Cork, joined the RIC on 1 June 1906, serving in Galway, Tipperary and Offaly before posting to Tipperary town in 1916. Buried Coachford. His father secured £200 compensation.6

24 FEBRUARY 1919

David McKay (3Feb1919/1) RMLI, 40 Rocky Island, Haulbowline, Cork The CFR records the self-inflicted death by revolver shot of Colour-Sergeant McKay, who had survived the sinking of his ship at the Battle of Jutland in 1916, and who held the French Croix de Guerre.7

Patrick Casey (24Feb1919/1) IRA, 23, Farmer, RC Kenmare Road (near Mangerton), Killarney, Kerry Casey was captain Black Valley Company, 4th Battalion, Kerry No. 2 Brigade. Maurice Horgan claimed that Casey, unarmed, and Jerome Griffin, carrying a shotgun, went to meet a gamekeeper from the Kenmare Estate, John Lyne, whom they thought would surrender his rifle, at a place known locally as ‘Lump of Beef ’. Lyne refused and Casey wrestled with him, still believing that the struggle was make-believe. He was shot in the chest. Griffin then fired, wounding Lyne in both thighs. After this incident, the military took custody of all rifles on the Kenmare Estate.10

11 FEBRUARY 1919

28 FEBRUARY 1919

3 FEBRUARY 1919

James N. Down (11Feb1919/1) 35, RC North Fever Hospital, Cork The CFR records that Down, of Gardiner’s Hill, Cork, died of injuries following a drunken brawl with ex-soldiers in Patrick Street on 1 February.8

Thomas Meehan (28Feb1919/1) 80, Old age pensioner, Married, RC JSH Meehan, of 14 Great Longford Street, died from shock after a military vehicle struck him.11

1 MARCH 1919

13 FEBRUARY 1919 Patrick Gavin (13Feb1919/1) 45, Agricultural labourer, RC Brownstown, Curragh, Kildare From Maddenstown, the Curragh, Gavin worked for Joseph Moore of Tully East. He was driving a cow to Newbridge Fair when challenged by a sentry at Brownstown pumping station, Curragh Camp at about 05:30. Sergeant Arthur Jones of The Duke of Wellington’s Regiment told an inquest that at 06:00 he had heard Private Arthur Gay shout: ‘Guard turn out.’ Gay claimed that he fired, after issuing three challenges, because Gavin was about to attack him with a stick. The jury found that death was due to a bullet wound in the heart, and decried the use of inexperienced soldiers as sentries. Charged with causing Gavin’s death, Gay was acquitted after Sergeant Jones reiterated his inquest evidence.9

William Thomas Wilson (1Mar1919/1) King Edward’s Horse, 39 Military Barracks, Kilkenny Trooper Wilson shot himself.12

6 MARCH 1919 Pierce McCan (6Mar1919/1) IV, 36, Farmer, Engaged, RC Nursing home, Gloucester, Gloucestershire From New Ross, Wexford, McCan was brigade O/C Irish Volunteers for Tipperary. Interned in Knutsford Prison after the Rising, upon release he resumed revolutionary activities. Arrested again during the ‘German Plot’ round-up in May 1918, he was deported to Usk and then transferred to Gloucester. While in prison he was elected Sinn Féin MP for Tipperary East in the December 1918 General Election. McCan contracted influenza on 25 February. Moved to a nursing

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home, he made satisfactory progress until his condition dramatically worsened and he died. Buried Dualla, Cashel, Tipperary.13

10 MARCH 1919 William Edward Smith (10Mar1919/1) Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders, 26 Ballyvonaire Military Camp, Buttevant, Cork The CFR lists Private Smith as dying from an accidentally inflicted gunshot wound to the head.14

11 MARCH 1919 Alfred Pearson (11Mar1919/1) 48, Ex-serviceman, draughtsman, Married with children, CoI 146 Richmond Road, Drumcondra, Dublin Pearson, of 146 Richmond Road, Drumcondra, was manager of Harrisons’ monumental works on Richmond Road. Living separately from his wife, he was described, surprisingly, as a Sinn Féiner. He owned two or three rifles, as well as some antiquated pistols and a sword. Two women whom Pearson had invited home for some food from a nearby pub stressed that, whatever Pearson might have had in mind, they were respectable ladies. They described a considerable altercation between Pearson and raiders on an upstairs landing. They were held downstairs, where one pleaded: ‘I am a Sinn Feiner. Don’t shoot me, for mercy’s sake.’ Some of the youthful raiders were in quasi-military (presumably Fianna Éireann) uniform. A DMP constable heard a shot and then saw about six people rush through Pearson’s garden. Pearson staggered out and collapsed, covered in blood. As well as a bullet wound, he had numerous abrasions, suggesting a struggle. Buried MJC (9. A. 387).15

15 MARCH 1919 Harry Harrison (15Mar1919/1) East Yorkshire Regiment, 19 Westmeath Harrison, from Walsall, was killed accidentally in unknown circumstances. Buried Ballyglass Cemetery.16

20 MARCH 1919 Ashley Elliott Herbert Fetherstonhaugh (20Mar1919/1) 14th (King’s) Hussars, 33, Army Officer,17 Married, CoI Leemount, Carrigrohane, Cork Major Fetherstonhaugh, from Bracklin, Westmeath, had married Janet Gordon only a few days before he was in a motor car travelling to Victoria Barracks, Cork, which was hit by an oncoming train at Leemount railway level crossing. The driver was thrown clear. Buried Rathconnell Churchyard, Westmeath.18

30 MARCH 1919 John Charles Milling (30Mar1919/1) 46, Magistrate, Married with three children, CoI Newport Road, Westport, Mayo ‘Jack’ Milling, from Glasson, Westmeath, joined the RIC as a DI in 1894, serving in Derrygonnelly, Ballyshannon and Ballymena before transfer to Belfast in 1908. He wrote The RIC ABC or Police Duties in Relation to Acts of Parliament. Appointed resident magistrate for the Castlebar district in Mayo on 2 January 1915, he lived in Westport. Milling had received numerous threatening letters since 1916, and was considered for transfer in the early months of 1919. At about 23:00 on 29 March, Milling was shot through his drawing room window as he went to put the clock on summer time. One bullet him hit in the abdomen, another passed through his wife’s hair. He died at about 22:00 the following night. A rumour that Milling was shot by an RIC DI involved with Mrs Milling was dismissed by locals, who maintained Milling was killed because of his indiscreet remark in the Railway Hotel that he would deal severely with Joe Ring,† leader of the Westport Volunteers, scheduled to appear before him. Volunteers Joe Gill, Joe Walsh and Joe Ruddy took part in the shooting which, Thomas Hevey believed, was orchestrated by the IRB. Westport was declared a special military area on 1 April, restrictions remaining in place until 1 June. Despite intense police and military activity, no one was charged with Milling’s murder. Buried Church of Ireland

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Cemetery, Westport. His widow Elizabeth, sister and youngest son each secured £2,000 compensation. The family subsequently left Westport, settling in Armagh.19

6 APRIL 1919 Martin O’Brien (6Apr1919/1) RIC (62375), 35, Farmer, Married with one child, RC Union Hospital, Limerick From Tipperary, Constable O’Brien joined the RIC on 18 February 1907, stationed in Caherconlish, Limerick. O’Brien spent three weeks with other RIC men and a prison officer guarding Bobby Byrne, an IRA officer on hunger strike in hospital. Michael Stack recalled how five Volunteers attempted to disarm the police. Things went awry. After Constable Spillane fired at Byrne, Stack shot him in the spine. When O’Brien struggled free, Stack killed him. Byrne was taken in a horse-drawn carriage about three miles to Meelick, Clare, where a neck wound was discovered. He died at about 20:30. His body was found by the authorities next day. Buried Birr, Offaly. O’Brien’s widow Abina secured £1,200 compensation.20 RD: Byrne (6Apr1919/2) Robert J. Byrne (6Apr1919/2) IRA, 28, RC Meelick, Clare See O’Brien (6 Apr1919/1). ‘Bobby’ Byrne, a member of the Trades and Labour Council, was adjutant 2nd (Limerick City) Battalion, Mid Limerick Brigade. Michael Stack regarded Byrne’s rescue as ‘really the start of IRA activities in Limerick city’. The day following Byrne’s enormous funeral, Limerick was declared a special military area. Buried Mount St Lawrence Cemetery.21

11 APRIL 1919 John Sheehan (11Apr1919/1) 54, Stoker, Widowed with two children, RC MHD Sheehan, of 3 Albert Place, died of heart failure. He had been hit by an RAF lorry on 22 February while dismounting from a

trap at Drimnagh. Buried GC (St Patrick’s Section).22

29 APRIL 1919 Charles Bernard Kirk (29Apr1919/1) Somerset Light Infantry (44458), 35 Hollywood, Down Kirk was awaiting permission to travel home as his wife Annie was seriously ill. A bugler came in, picked up Kirk’s rifle and discharged it, hitting him in the back. Buried New Basford Cemetery, Nottingham (GS 16).23 William Grant (29Apr1919/2) c. 29, Labourer, RC Waterford Grant lived in Harrington’s Lane. A supporter of the local MP Captain William Redmond, an inquest jury recorded that he suffered severe head injuries on 7 April during a fight with Sinn Féin supporters and died on 29 April.24

4 MAY 1919 Stephen Lehane (4May1919/1) IV, Groom, 21, RC Mallow, Cork The CFR records the accidental shooting of Lehane, a labourer’s son of 2 Humes Lane, Mallow, by his friend and comrade Daniel Hassett as he examined an old revolver at the Short Castle paddock beside Cleeves’ condensed milk factory. After sending for a priest, Hassett reported the incident to the RIC.25

11 MAY 1919 Michael Walsh (11May1919/1) IRA, Fisherman, RC Ballingoul, Ring, Dungarvan, Waterford On 25 April a party of naval ratings from a gunboat off Ballingoul, Ring, became obstreperous in Walsh’s sister’s pub. She sent him for help to the RIC barracks. Constable McCarthy, mistaking Walsh for an attacker, shot him in the neck.26 He was said to be the first Volunteer killed in Waterford, albeit slain in very confused circumstances. McCarthy was subsequently dismissed. Buried Ring.27

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13 May 1919

13 MAY 1919 Michael Enright (13May1919/1) RIC (62005), 35, Clerk, RC Knocklong Railway Station, Limerick Constable Enright was the first fatality of the Knocklong engagement. A teacher’s son from Ballyneety, Limerick, he joined the RIC on 1 August 1906, allocated to Tipperary. Seán Treacy led a party of Volunteers to release Seán Hogan, who was being sent by train to Cork, where political prisoners in Munster were generally detained. Hogan was guarded by Sergeant Peter Wallace and constables Reilly, Ring and Enright. Treacy, Ned O’Brien, Jim Scanlon and Seán Lynch boarded the train at Knocklong Station. O’Brien killed Enright, apparently because he had put a gun to Hogan’s neck. Wallace knocked Treacy’s gun from him and they fought hand to hand. Wallace, a powerful man, shot Treacy in the throat before the latter wrenched his revolver from him and shot him twice. The sergeant subsequently died in Kilmallock Union Hospital. The shooting brought Dan Breen and Séamus Robinson, on guard outside the station, running to the platform. Breen was seriously wounded in the lung and right arm. The IRA party escaped, and Hogan’s handcuffs were cut on a local butcher’s block. Enright’s parents secured £455 compensation. Michael Murphy, Edmond Foley and Patrick Maher were subsequently tried by a military court on murder charges. Murphy was acquitted, but Foley and Maher were sentenced to death and were hanged in Mountjoy Jail on 7 June 1921.28 RD: Wallace (14May1919/1). SA: Foley (7Jun 1921/4), Maher (7Jun1921/5), Treacy (14Oct 1920/3)

14 MAY 1919 Peter Wallace (14May1919/1) RIC (56438), 46, Postman, Married, RC Union Hospital, Kilmallock, Limerick See Enright (13May1919/1). From Roscommon, Wallace joined the RIC on 16 May 1894, serving in Wexford and Offaly before transfer to Tipperary in 1909 and

promotion to sergeant in 1918. Buried Curraghroe, Roscommon.29

20 MAY 1919 Michael (Micheál) Tobin (20May1919/1) IRA, 29, Draper’s assistant, RC Mercy Hospital, Cork Tobin, from Ballineen, lived in Cork city. Seán O’Connell recalled bomb-making at the rear of Andy Hearne’s boot shop on Grattan Street. On 28 April, 28 pounds of gunpowder, used for blasting in quarries, was ground into a fine powder to fill cartridges for ‘tin can’ bombs. Receiving word of an imminent police raid, Volunteers O’Connell, Tobin and Dick Murphy ‘decided to shift it and were packing it into Tin Boxes and whatever happened the thing went off and we were all burned’. They were taken to hospital. On 5 May the police discovered 262 partially prepared bombs concealed under floorboards, as well as a canister containing loose gelignite. On 17 May, Volunteers removed Murphy and O’Connell from the North Infirmary lest they be arrested (O’Connell took three months to recover). Tobin died there. Buried Ballineen, Cork.30

7 JUNE 1919 Patrick McNiff (7Jun1919/1) Labour Corps (2G/2452), 28, RC KGVH Private McNiff, stationed in Wellington Barracks, Dublin, had previously been in the RIR (329681). He left his sister’s house at 22:00 on 6 June to return to barracks. Although sober, he was shot by sentry Private Frederick Hughes when he failed to report to the guardroom. He died at 00:15 from abdominal and chest wounds. An inquest jury exonerated Hughes. Buried GMC (RC 672).31 Matthew Murphy (7Jun1919/2) 21, Commercial traveller, RC Infirmary, Dundalk, Louth Murphy, son of Frank Murphy of St Mary’s Road, Dundalk, was a commercial traveller with Messrs P. J. Carroll and Co. Tobacco Manufacturers. He was in a motor car driving

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1919

south into Dundalk which passed by a military picket at New Inn set up in response to a series of arms raids. The driver apparently did not hear a challenge and drove on; a soldier fired a round which passed through the windscreen, wounding Murphy in the thigh. He died in hospital. Buried Castletown Cemetery, Newry. His father secured £240 compensation.32

23 JUNE 1919 Michael Hunt (23Jun1919/1) RIC (55727), 45, Farmer, Married with five children, RC Liberty Square, Thurles, Tipperary From Sligo, Hunt joined the RIC on 2 January 1893, allocated to Offaly. He subsequently served in Longford and Tipperary. Promoted to sergeant in April 1901, and to head constable in 1907, in 1911 Hunt became a DI (3rd class), a notable achievement for a Catholic recruited as a constable, and was stationed in Thurles. He was regarded as particularly hostile towards the Volunteers and Sinn Féin supporters, and it was decided to shoot him as he returned from the Thurles races. At about 17:30, as Hunt reached the Square, Jim and Tommy Stapleton and Jim Murphy shot him three times from behind. He died almost immediately. Twelve-year-old Dan Maher was wounded in the knee. Hunt’s companions ran for their barracks. An inquest jury returned a verdict of wilful murder only after what the RIC termed ‘considerable hesitation’ and ‘a grudging expression of sympathy’. A proclamation issued on 4 July under the Criminal Law & Procedure Act suppressed Sinn Féin, the Irish Volunteers, the Gaelic League and Cumann na mBan. When Dr John Harty, Catholic archbishop of Cashel, condemned the killing but also deplored what he termed the provocative action of the government, and asked that ‘the military domination of Ireland cease at once’, the dead man’s son Captain Michael Hunt walked out of Thurles cathedral. Buried Passlands Cemetery, Monasterevin, Sligo. His widow secured £5,025 in compensation.33

24 JUNE 1919 R. J. Phillips (24Jun1919/1) Royal Welsh Fusiliers,34 24 New Barracks, Limerick Corporal Phillips, a gymnasium instructor, was shot through the neck around 10:30 when Second Lieutenant Harman Douglas Bastick accidentally discharged an automatic pistol he was clearing. Bastick was acquitted of negligence by a court martial. Buried Penycefn Cemetery, Trawsfynydd, Wales.35

1 JULY 1919 Patrick Studdert (1Jul1919/1) 56, Farmer, fisherman, Married with nine children, RC St Joseph’s Hospital, Kilrush, Clare Studdert lived in Kilkee. At about 16:00 on 30 June, he was in a field near his boathouse, and close to the fence of a military camp. Being deaf, he did not hear several warnings from sentries of the Scottish Horse, and was shot once in the back of the head by Sergeant Wolseley. He died during the early hours following an operation. His widow Kate secured £400 compensation, but in 1933 failed in a dependent’s claim to the Department of Defence as Studdert was deemed not to have been a Volunteer.36 Buried Kilkee, Clare.37

7 JULY 1919 George Caygill (7Jul1919/1) 106th Squadron, RAF, 33 Fermoy Military Aerodrome Private Caygill shot himself with a revolver while temporarily insane, reportedly depressed at delay in his discharge from service. Buried Bedale, North Yorkshire.38

15 JULY 1919 Kathleen O’Grady (15Jul1919/1) 5, Schoolgirl, RC MHD Kathleen, of 19 South Richmond Street, died from a fractured skull after she was struck by a motor car driven by Corporal George Troughton which hit a pillar box while trying to avoid her. An inquest jury exonerated Troughton.39

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21 JULY 1919 Donald Lawrence (21Jul1919/1) MGC, 34, Steelworker Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork The CFR states that Lawrence, from Norwich, shot himself in the head because he was facing disciplinary proceedings. An inquest jury determined that he was suffering from temporary insanity.40

4 AUGUST 1919 Michael James Murphy (4Aug1919/1) RIC (69587), 20, Farmer, RC Ballyvranneen, Illaunbaun, Clare Murphy, a policeman’s son from Westmeath, joined the RIC on 3 December 1918, stationed in Derrymore. Constable Murphy and Sergeant John Riordan were cycling from Ennistymon to the police protection hut at Illaunbaun at about 22:00 when ambushed at ‘Eighty-One Cross’ by Martin Devitt, ‘Tosser’ Neylon and Séamus Connolly of the Mid Clare Brigade. It was almost dusk when the police appeared, cycling abreast. When Devitt ordered ‘hands up’, the policemen opened fire. Riordan wounded Devitt severely in the chest. Neylon killed Murphy outright and severely wounded Riordan, who died next day in Ennistymon Union Hospital after making a deathbed statement, stating that he shot one attacker. He reportedly wrote ‘shot by three assassins; wounded them’ in his prayer book before collapsing. The IRA seized the policemen’s bicycles and revolvers. Buried Aughavas Cemetery, Leitrim. Murphy and Riordan were the first RIC men to be killed in Clare during the War of Independence. Murphy’s father Cornelius secured £240 compensation.41 RD: Riordan (5Aug1919/1). SA: Devitt (24Feb1920/1)

twice, the reserve in Galway, and Laois, before transfer to Clare in 1917 and promotion to sergeant in 1918. Riordan had lived for some years in the Ennistymon district, where his brother also served in the RIC. Buried at Kilnamartyra, Macroom. His brother William failed in a compensation claim.42

14 AUGUST 1919 Francis Murphy (14Aug1919/1) Fianna Éireann, 15, Shop assistant, RC Glann, Ennistymon, Clare Murphy, one of eleven children of John Murphy, a prominent member of the Gaelic League and formerly a local councillor, lived in Glann, outside Ennistymon. He served in Fianna Éireann. On 13 August, he was reading by the fire when, just after midnight, several shots were fired from outside. His sister Agnes found him lying dead in a pool of blood at 00:30. She ‘said a little prayer in his ear before shouting out that he was dead’. The military claimed that all troops ‘on the night in question have been accounted for’. W. E. Wylie, the law adviser to the Irish government, urged that an inquiry be held because there was strong evidence of prior misbehaviour by troops in the district while enforcing a ban on lights after 22:00. Buried Ennistymon.43

22 AUGUST 1919 Timothy Murphy (22Aug1919/1) RIC (64361), 33, Farmer, RC Union Hospital, Ennistymon, Clare From Cork, Constable Murphy joined the RIC on 16 September 1908, allocated to Clare, stationed in Liscannor. Murphy’s revolver discharged when he accidentally knocked it off a shelf while making his bed. He died next day at 15:30.44

5 AUGUST 1919

24 AUGUST 1919

John Riordan (5Aug1919/1) RIC (57242), 45, Labourer, Widowed, RC Union Hospital, Ennistymon, Clare See Murphy (4Aug1919/1). Riordan, from Kilnamartyra, Macroom, Cork, joined the RIC on 15 October 1895, serving in Meath

James Albert Williams (24Aug1919/1) RGA, 30 Fort Carlisle, Cork The CFR records that Gunner Williams was shot when Gunner Ruttledge inadvertently discharged his weapon while on parade.45

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2 SEPTEMBER 1919 Philip Brady (2Sep1919/1) RIC (54833), 48, Farmer, Married with six children, RC Carrigahorig, Borrisokane, Tipperary From Cavan, Brady joined the RIC in 1891, serving in Galway and Fermanagh. Promoted to sergeant in 1911, Brady had only been stationed in Lorrha, Tipperary, since 5 June, having arrived from Enniskillen on temporary duty. Shortly before midnight, he was in a three-man cycle patrol ambushed while returning to Lorrha RIC Barracks. The attackers – Felix Cronin, Jack and Michael Joyce, James Carroll, Tim Haugh, William Bouchier and Martin Needham – were all Volunteers of the Lorrha Company. They fired from behind roadside shrubbery. Brady, shot in the chest, was killed outright. Constable Foley was seriously wounded. Constable McCormack returned fire. The attacking party soon ran out of ammunition and withdrew. John Joe Madden, a Volunteer who had taken no part in the ambush, was acquitted of Brady’s murder at the Dublin Assizes. Buried Kiloughter, Redhills, Cavan.46

7 SEPTEMBER 1919 William Jones (7Sep1919/1) King’s (Shropshire Light Infantry), 20, Protestant Walkers Row,47 Fermoy, Cork From Carmarthen, South Wales, Private Jones was stationed in Fermoy. Liam Lynch,† O/C Cork No. 2 Brigade, planned to disarm a military party which attended the Methodist chapel on Walker’s Row each Sunday. About thirty IRA men armed with revolvers and shotguns were to rush and disarm the soldiers when the order ‘hands up’ was given. IRA sources state that fire was opened only because soldiers initially refused to surrender their weapons. Jones was killed, and three others wounded. Lynch, shot in the shoulder, spent six weeks recovering in Rathgormack, Waterford. Thirteen rifles and ammunition were removed by motor car. The incident became known as the ‘Wesleyan raid’. Between 150 and 200 members of the King’s (Shropshire Light Infantry) and the RFA

wrecked or looted over 50 shops in Fermoy the following night in retaliation, at an estimated cost of £3,000. Eight local men were subsequently arrested in connection with the murder. Some went on hunger strike in Cork Prison and one, Michael Fitzgerald, died. Jones’s body was returned to Wales.48 SA: Fitzgerald (17Oct1920/3)

8 SEPTEMBER 1919 Patrick Smyth (8Sep1919/1) DMP (9816), 51, Married with seven children, RC MMH From Drumard, Longford, Smyth was a detective-sergeant in the political crime section of G Division and had twenty-eight years’ service. Five members of the Squad waited several nights near his home before they shot him. This was their first assassination and their .38 revolvers proved insufficiently powerful. Although severely wounded when attacked on 30 July when he alighted from a tram at Drumcondra Bridge, he managed to reach his own front door at 51 Millmount Avenue before collapsing. His son and daughter helped him inside. Smyth had previously been threatened by Michael Collins† in an attempt to make him drop charges against a Sinn Féiner. In a deathbed deposition, Smyth stated: I was coming home soon after 23:00 . . . I saw four or five men against the dead wall and a bicycle resting against the kerbstone. Just as I turned the corner into Millmount Avenue I was shot in the back. I turned around and said: ‘You cowards’, and three of them fired again with revolvers at me and one bullet entered my leg . . . they pursued me to within about fifteen yards of my own door and kept firing at me all the time . . . I shouted for assistance but no one came to me except my own son. I had no revolver myself and I am glad now I had not one as I might have shot some of them when I turned around after the first shot, as I would not like to have done that.

Smyth was the first detective killed by the Squad. Buried GC. His widow secured £3,650 compensation, including £2,450 to be divided between her seven children.49

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9 SEPTEMBER 1919 Brian Crowley (9Sep1919/1) 23, Clerk, RC Patrick Street, Cork From Dunkettle, Glanmire, Cork, Crowley worked for Michael Ryan of King Street, Cork. At about 17:10, he died of a fractured skull when his bicycle was hit on Patrick Street by a military lorry. Buried SFC.50

12 SEPTEMBER 1919 Daniel Hoey (12Sep1919/1) DMP (11007), 31, RC Townsend Street, Dublin From Rhode, Offaly, Hoey joined the DMP in 1910 and was a detective-constable in G Division. Due shortly to take up duty with the Special Branch at Scotland Yard, Hoey was killed on Townsend Street at about 22:00, apparently by the IRA’s Mick McDonnell, after leaving the Central Police Station on Brunswick Street. Earlier that day Dáil Éireann had been declared illegal and Sinn Féin headquarters at 6 Harcourt Street had been raided by police, who almost captured Michael Collins.† Some sources claimed that Hoey led the raid and that Collins, or members of the Squad themselves, reacted by having him shot. Éamon Ó Duibhir stated: A bit of relief to us . . . was the shooting . . . of Detective Hoey. . . . He knew all the crowd from the countryside pretty well and he was a slimy snake with a long career of villainy against his own countrymen before his life was terminated. He was one of those who picked out the prisoners for court martial and execution immediately after the Rising.

Tipperary military hutments. Buried St Mary’s Churchyard, Norton, Durham (K. 1. 12).52

4 OCTOBER 1919 Michael Crowley (4Oct1919/1) 40, Farmer, Married, RC Skibbereen Union Hospital, Skibbereen, Cork An inquest jury on 7 October recorded Crowley’s death from injuries sustained on 15 August when a horse-drawn trap in which he and three others were riding was struck by a military lorry on a road outside Skibbereen.53

19 OCTOBER 1919 Michael Downing (19Oct1919/1) DMP (11346), 24, RC Mercer’s Constable Downing, from Castletownbere, Cork, had three years’ DMP service, stationed in Chancery Lane. James Flood and Patrick Egan told an inquest jury how they had seen three men on High Street shortly before 02:00. A shot was fired, and Downing cried ‘I am shot.’ Egan and Flood went to his assistance. Constable Neary was later honoured by the Red Cross for giving blood in an attempt to save Downing’s life. He died at 19:00. Patrick Egan of the 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, recalled that Downing had challenged Volunteers moving boxes of explosives from one dump to another. Buried Adrigole, Cork. His parents ultimately secured £500 compensation, with £100 for his sister Helena.54

30 OCTOBER 1919

Buried Rhode. His parents secured £700 compensation, with ‘£100 to Kate, for whose instruction as a nurse he intended to pay’, and £250 between three other sisters.51

15 SEPTEMBER 1919 William M. Booth (15Sep1919/1) Yorkshire Regiment (60488), 24, CoE Tipperary, Tipperary Private Booth, from Norton, Durham, died at about 13:30 when accidentally shot by Private Pagan with a revolver in Hut 12 of the

Edward N. Perry (30Oct1919/1) Welsh55 Regiment, 29 North Dublin Union, Dublin Lance-Corporal Perry of the Welsh Regiment, stationed at the North Dublin Union Rest Camp, shot himself while handling an officer’s revolver in the Armourer’s Office.56

31 OCTOBER 1919 William Agar (31Oct1919/1) RIC (63198), 37, Labourer, Married, CoI Ballivor RIC Barracks, Meath From Tullow, Carlow, Agar joined the RIC on 15 October 1907, serving in Galway and

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Belfast before transfer to Meath in 1913. He was stationed in Ballivor, having just transferred from Navan. An IRA plan to trick their way into RIC barracks at Lismullin and Ballivor was partially successful at Ballivor. When Agar, who was barracks orderly, answered a knock on a side door at around 22:10, three masked men – Paddy Mooney, Pat Fay and Stephen Sherry – tried to push in. Agar attempted to close the door, and a shot was fired. The bullet ricocheted and passed through Agar’s body before finally embedding itself in the sixth step of the stairs. He staggered into the dayroom, where Sergeant McDermott and constables Shannon and Leonard were seated. His only words were: ‘Oh, I’m shot.’ The raiders rushed the rear door, and seized a revolver, five rifles and some ammunition. Sergeant Shannon fired at them through the dayroom door as they left. Agar was the first policeman to be killed in a barracks raid. Buried Rathvilly. Agar’s widow Florence and his newly born child each secured £1,000 compensation, and his seventy-four year-old mother £100.57

police station in Brunswick Street . . . when fire was opened on him. He went down on his side, falling to the right slightly. Then he turned towards the left and raised himself a little on his right knee and said: ‘Oh God, what did I do to deserve this?’ The detective then drew his gun and fired.

The IRA men dispersed. Barton died a short time later, the fourth DMP man to be killed in 1919. It was reported that he had recently uncovered an IRA arms dump and arrested a suspected killer of Constable Downing. Frank Robbins of the ICA recalled him as ‘exceedingly officious and obnoxious’ following the Rising. Barton’s DMP colleague (and IRA informant) David Neligan described him thus: ‘Cadaverous, immensely tall with weird clothes and farmer’s boots he looked like a Rustic from an Abbey play. Anyone would take him for a simpleton’ but Barton ‘was easily the best detective in these islands’. Buried old cemetery, Keel, Kerry. His mother, to whom he had given £40 annually, secured £450 compensation, with £50 for his sister.58 SA: Downing (19Oct1919/1)

29 NOVEMBER 1919 John Barton (29Nov1919/1) DMP (10497), 39, RC Mercer’s From Firies, Kerry, Barton joined the DMP in 1903, and rose to become a detectivesergeant in G Division. Commended for his conduct during the Rising, he secured the King’s Police Medal in February 1917. Frank Henderson recalled that Barton had ignored IRA threats. Vinnie Byrne of the Squad recalled he told Mick McDonnell he would shoot Barton, as the detective had raided his home. Byrne, McDonnell, Slattery and Keogh met at College Green and subsequently spotted Barton on Grafton Street shortly after 18:00. They were later joined by Paddy Daly, Joe Leonard and Ben Barrett. Byrne recalled: It was a race to see whose party would get Barton first . . . Barton got as far as the Crampton monument and was in the act of stepping off the path to cross over to the

11 DECEMBER 1919 Jane Violet Pearson (11Dec1919/1) 15, Schoolgirl, CoI South Circular Road, Dublin Violet, daughter of John and Charlotte Pearson of 105 South Circular Road, was knocked off her bicycle and killed by a military lorry being towed by another vehicle. Buried MJC.59

14 DECEMBER 1919 Edward Bolger (14Dec1919/1) RIC (54668), 47, Married with four children, RC RIC Barracks, Kilbrittain, Cork Constable Bolger, the first RIC man killed in an attack in Cork since 1916, was from Kilkenny. Joining the RIC on 2 January 1891, he served in Tipperary before transfer to Kilbrittain in 1900. His children ranged from seventeen to seven years old. He was shot at around 18:30 from a laneway by two men while going unarmed from

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his lodgings in Kilbrittain to his barracks. Other policemen on duty returned fire before taking Bolger into the barracks, where he soon died. His CI described him as ‘a zealous constable and most active in the suppression of Sinn Féin and the Irish Volunteers’. Bolger had been involved in search-and-arrest operations locally, and was the main witness at the trial in November 1918 of seven men, during which a riot developed outside the courthouse. These were released two days before Bolger’s killing. Peter Hart noted that Bolger had ‘a reputation as a “political” and a brutal officer: a declared enemy of the Volunteers’. Jack Fitzgerald, whom Bolger had arrested and beaten up, recalled IRA policy was that ‘we would only be allowed to shoot bad RIC men’. He acknowledged an element of revenge: ‘In practice, however, the ones shot were ones people didn’t like.’60

17 DECEMBER 1919 John Mahon (17Dec1919/1) IRA, 25, Labourer, RC Briskil, Newtownforbes, Longford John Mahon, of Ballagh, Newtownforbes, was shot in the head by his friend Peter Nolan, who was examining a revolver in the Sinn Féin hall in Briskil, Longford, where about twenty young men had assembled. Nolan was arrested, taken before a special court in Drumlish and released on bail. It was claimed that the IRA ‘got at the magistrates before the trial with the result that Nolan was released’. Buried family burial ground, Newtownforbes.61

19 DECEMBER 1919 Martin Savage (19Dec1919/1) IRA, 21, Grocer’s assistant, RC Ashtown, Dublin Savage died when the IRA tried to kill the lord lieutenant Field Marshal Lord French, an action which if successful would have created a sensation. Instead, when the jittery chief secretary for Ireland gave news of the attack, prime minister Lloyd George simply remarked, ‘They are bad shots.’ From Streamstown, Ballisodare, Sligo, Savage had worked in Dublin since 1915 for

William Kirk of 137 North Strand Road. Imprisoned in Knutsford and Frongoch following the Rising, after release in 1917 he became quartermaster in the reorganised D Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade. An earlier assassination plan scheduled for Armistice day had been abandoned. Dan Breen and Seán Hogan intended to kill French as he drove from Ashtown Station to the Viceregal Lodge. Savage was apparently a late addition to the ambush party of about a dozen Volunteers, mainly members of the Squad. They first warned off a DMP constable, shooting him in the foot when he refused to leave. During the attack on the five-vehicle convoy, two policemen were wounded, as was Breen. Vinnie Byrne recalled: ‘The next thing Savage said “I’m hit” and down he went.’ Medical evidence indicated that ‘he was shot in the jaw. The bullet passed through his head.’ The detonation ring of a grenade was found still attached to his finger. James J. O’Connor, then a special constable, said a detective told him that as Savage ‘lay on the road a soldier went over and kicked the corpse. Lord French got out of his car and ordered the man away, saying: “That young man is a soldier just as you are; leave his body alone.”’ An eyewitness told the press that ‘his body bears ghastly marks of laceration, apparently from the effects of a bomb exploding near him, or while in the act of being thrown. A part of his side is blown away, and the mouth and upper part of his face is fearfully gashed and torn.’ Buried Corhownagh. A memorial was erected at Ashtown Cross in 1948. His father secured a dependent’s gratuity.62

26 DECEMBER 1919 William James Murtagh (26Dec1919/1) RIC (68983), 21, Shop assistant, RC Clonoulty, Cashel, Tipperary From Knockcroghery, Roscommon, son of a former policeman, Constable Murtagh joined the RIC on 1 February 1917, allocated to Donegal. By 1919 he was stationed in Clonoulty, Tipperary. Constable Michael Twomey was carrying his rifle over his left arm in the kitchen when it discharged.

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Murtagh, seriously wounded in the head, died at about midday. The IRA’s Michael Davern recalled that about three weeks before this Murtagh had tried to intervene when Davern was being beaten up by the police. Buried Clonoulty parish cemetery.63 Harry Corless (26Dec1919/2) RE Victoria Barracks, Cork Corless, a corporal in a special signals company, fell from a high window in Victoria Barracks. He ‘had had a few drinks, but was not drunk’. An RIC sergeant said he believed Corless had overbalanced while sitting on the window sill. Buried New Wortley Cemetery, Leeds (‘C’: 2577).64

28 DECEMBER 1919 Frederick Boast (28Dec1919/1) Prince of Wales’s Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment), 20, Army officer, CoE Phoenix Park, Dublin Son of Major Sydney Thomas Boast MC, DCM, of Orford, Warrington, Lieutenant Boast served in France before his posting to Dublin. At about 02:25, soldiers thought they heard shots. Lawrence Kennedy, deaf in one ear, was shot when he failed to halt when challenged at about 02:30. So too was Boast: an inquest jury ruled he was ‘accidentally

killed by . . . one of his own party’. Buried GMC (CE. Officers. 41).65 RD: Kennedy (28Dec1919/2) Lawrence Kennedy (28Dec1919/2) c. 46, Agricultural labourer, RC Phoenix Park, Dublin See Boast (28Dec1919/1). Kennedy, of Carpenterstown, Castleknock, Dublin, worked in Monks Bakery, Dublin.66

29 DECEMBER 1919 Joseph Heap (29Dec1919/1) Border Regiment (52676), 17, CoE Aerodrome, Castlebar, Mayo Private Heap was accidentally shot in the head while on sentry duty by his old school friend Private Partington. Buried St Cross Churchyard, Clayton, Manchester (I. 3).67

31 DECEMBER 1919 Maurice Keough (31Dec1919/1) RIC (64005), 32, Labourer, Married, RC Union Hospital, Killarney, Kerry From Limerick, Constable Keough joined the RIC on 15 September 1908, allocated to Kerry. On 24 December, he was accidentally shot in Killarney by Constable Egan as they went to quell fighting between soldiers and civilians at Casey’s pub. Keough’s widow Hannah secured a special RIC allowance of £77.68

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1920 19 JANUARY 1920 Michael Darcy (19Jan1920/1) IRA, 22, RC Cooraclare, Clare When Constable Costigan was removing family furniture from Cooraclare, where the RIC barracks had recently been closed, the IRA ambushed the Ennis police lorry and its cycle escort of five policemen outside Cooraclare village. The police returned fire, and the IRA withdrew. Art O’Donnell, O/C West Clare Brigade, recalled the ‘disastrous consequences’: Darcy, of the Cooraclare Company, ‘while being pursued . . . attempted to cross the Doonbeg River . . . and was drowned.’ In 1921, the IRA executed his brother Patrick Darcy. Buried Kilmacduane, Cooraclare.1 SA: Darcy (17Jun1921/3)

21 JANUARY 1920 William Charles Forbes Redmond (21Jan1920/1) DMP (57951), 47, previously RIC, exserviceman, Married with two children, CoI Harcourt Street, Dublin Son of a Newry timber merchant, Redmond became an RIC DI in 1896. During the war, he fought with the RIR, rising to the rank of major before rejoining the police. On 1 January, he was transferred to the DMP from the RIC in Belfast, to rejuvenate the Criminal Investigation Department. David Neligan recalled ‘a neatly-built man of about forty, nattily dressed and wearing a bowler. He looked more like a stockbroker than a policeman.’ The IRA learned that Redmond was staying in the Standard Hotel on Harcourt Street because secure quarters in Dublin Castle were not ready. ‘One thing and another upset the shooting for a few days’, but eventually an IRA party succeeded in trailing Redmond from Dublin Castle to St Stephen’s Green, where he dismissed his armed escort. At 18:10, as Redmond reached the corner of

Montague Street, Paddy Daly shot him under the ear and Tom Keogh in the back, severing his spinal cord. Buried MJC (Plot C. 39). His widow Ethel secured £4,650 compensation and his two daughters £2,000 each. Initially deemed ineligible for a widow’s pension, she eventually secured £120 a year as from January 1952.2

22 JANUARY 1920 Luke Finnegan (22Jan1920/1) RIC (65234), 29, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin Finnegan, from Dunmore, Galway, joined the RIC on 28 March 1910, serving in Limerick and Tipperary, moving to Thurles in 1918. James Leahy recalled that Constable Finnegan knew everyone as he had administered the wartime sugar ration, and was believed to be drawing up a list of IRA suspects. Finnegan, unarmed, was shot near his home in the Mall at around 22:15 by Jim Leahy, Jerry Ryan, Mick Small and Jerry McCarthy of Tipperary No. 2 Brigade. Wounded in the abdomen, he staggered home, crying out: ‘Oh, Mary I am shot.’ Removed by train to Dublin, he died at 23:30 after an operation. In reprisal police wrecked fourteen houses belonging to prominent Sinn Féiners. Twelve compensation claims were subsequently lodged. A girl who had gone to Finnegan’s assistance received death threats. Buried Ballinlough, Roscommon.3

c. JANUARY 1920 Joseph Gibbs (Jan1920/1) Soldier Vicinity of Tydavet, Monaghan Patrick Corrigan of Monaghan recounted how:

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The Tans dropped off young men . . . who posed as IRA men. In January 1920 one of these came to our district. He stayed in a vacant house and asked after the IRA . . . I

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smelt a rat . . . We found papers on him showing that he was a British soldier . . . Joseph Gibbs. We shot and buried him on a hillside.

Such actions, Corrigan maintained, ‘had the effect of keeping “our own weak ones” right’. Gibbs was not listed as missing by Crown forces, suggesting he was a deserter. It is also possible this was the ‘spy’ reported killed in January 1921.4

2 FEBRUARY 1920 Richard O’Dwyer (2Feb1920/1) 38, Publican, Married, RC Roches Street, Limerick From Tipperary, O’Dwyer was hit in the head by a stray bullet at around 22:20 at the counter of his pub on Roches Street as the IRA’s Michael Stack and Tim Murphy exchanged shots with soldiers following disturbances at the junction of Roches Street and Catherine Street. On Sarsfield Street, Lena Johnson, hit in the abdomen, was carried into the Shannon Rowing Club by members who heard her screams. She died the following night. Buried Kilpatrick, Tipperary.5 RD: Johnson (3Feb1920/1)

3 FEBRUARY 1920 Lena Johnson (3Feb1920/1) 23, Usherette, Engaged, RC Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick See O’Dwyer (2Feb1920/1). ‘Lena’ (Elenia) Johnson from Thomondgate, daughter of Francis and Bridget Johnson, was an usherette in the Coliseum Picture Palace, and an ITGWU member. Buried Mount St Lawrence Cemetery.6 James Arthur Barnes (3Feb1920/2) The Welch Regiment (84561), 19 KGVH Son of Joseph and Mary Jane Barnes of Ardwick, Manchester, Private Barnes was stationed in Arklow military barracks. Severely wounded when Private Bennett accidentally discharged his rifle while unloading, he died next day after an operation. Buried Phillips Park Cemetery, Manchester (I. N.C. 1175).7

James Ward (6Feb1920/1) 50, Caretaker, Married with two children, RC Menlo, Castlegar, Galway Ward worked for Sir Thomas Blake of Menlo Castle, and lived on the grounds. At about 18:00, he was chatting at his door with his son Malachy and a neighbour when shot from behind a nearby wall. Ward died almost immediately, and Malachy was hit in the face by pellets. Ward had been fired on twice previously. Five men were later arrested. Ward’s widow Julia secured £700 compensation and his children £400 each.8

8 FEBRUARY 1920 Edward J. Mulholland (8Feb1920/1) RIC (61695), 32, CoI Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin Constable Mulholland, from Limerick, joined the RIC on 15 February 1906, serving in Waterford and Belfast, before transfer in January 1920 to Moyne RIC Barracks, Tipperary. Constable Bernard Danagher, in unloading his revolver, accidentally shot him in the back. Taken to hospital in Dublin, he died next day.9 The RIC later disciplined Danagher for gross carelessness. Buried Church of Ireland Cemetery, Westport.10 Patrick Thornton (8Feb1920/2) 31, Ex-serviceman, labourer, RC Infirmary, Galway From Loughaunbeg, Spiddal, Thornton was invalided out of the Connaught Rangers in November 1915. He returned to Spiddal at the end of 1919. At around 22:00 on 2 February, he and his brother Martin were walking home from Watters’ pub when accosted by twelve men, Patrick being beaten and shot in the hip. He died six days later at 13:00 after an operation on a perforated bowel. Five neighbours were remanded on murder charges.11

9 FEBRUARY 1920 Benjamin Charles Shreeve (9Feb1920/1) RFA, 22 Cahir Military Barracks, Tipperary Lance-Corporal Shreeve, from Norwich, died when a comrade accidentally discharged a rifle. Buried Cahir military plot.12

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12 FEBRUARY 1920 Michael Neenan (12Feb1920/1) RIC (62412), 32, Farmer, RC RIC Barracks, Allihies, Cork From Kilmihil, Clare, Neenan joined the RIC on 4 March 1907, stationed in Allihies. Allihies RIC Barracks was attacked by about forty Volunteers of Cork No. 3 Brigade. RIC reports suggest the objective was to capture gelignite. An explosion blew a hole in the gable wall, killing Constable Neenan. The IRA opened heavy fire through the breach, but the police resisted stoutly. After almost five hours, the raiders withdrew. The barracks was evacuated the next day. Buried Ennis, Clare. Neenan was posthumously awarded the constabulary medal.13 Séamus (Jim) O’Brien (12Feb1920/2) IRA, 25, Shopkeeper, Married with one child, RC Market Square, Rathdrum, Wicklow From Morriscastle, Kilmuckridge, Wexford, O’Brien was a grocer’s assistant in Enniscorthy. Interned for nine months in Frongoch following the Rising, he later moved to Rathdrum, establishing a business with Seán Walshe in Market Square. O’Brien became O/C 5th Battalion East Wicklow Brigade. At about 23:00, five Volunteers fired on two RIC on the main street. Constable John Mulligan was wounded in the shoulder. They returned fire, killing O’Brien, in the first violent incident in Rathdrum during the War of Independence. Buried Ballyvaldon Churchyard. A memorial plaque was erected over the door of Rathdrum Post Office. His widow Kate failed to secure compensation in 1922 as she had remarried, but obtained £24 annually for her daughter Margaret.14

14 FEBRUARY 1920 Ella C. Wood (14Feb1920/1) CoE Soldiers’ Home, Buttevant, Cork The CFR records how Ella C. Wood, sister of the English-born supervisor of the soldiers’ home, died when arsonists set fire to the wooden building without warning. Witnesses

said that she had returned to her room for something after the alarm was raised around 06:00. A doctor said that ‘the whole body was burned, with the exception of a small portion of the back of the skull and a portion of the brain’.15 Ellen Morris (14Feb1920/2) 61, Housewife, Married with thirteen children, RC Glentire Hill, The Ballagh, Wexford At around 21:00 William Morris was in his shoemaker’s workshop when armed and masked men burst in. He initially thought it was a joke. Ellen, polishing boots in the kitchen, ordered the raiders out. One, John Lacey, fired a warning shot into the ceiling, whereupon Ellen went into the scullery: ‘She raised the spade to hit me’ and he inadvertently fired again, killing her. In July, Lacey pleaded guilty to manslaughter, claiming he had fired in ‘an unconscious, impulsive act’. Lacey received just eighteen months imprisonment with hard labour; the other raiders captured pleaded guilty to unlawful assembly, receiving six months. T. D. Sinnott, O/C North Wexford Brigade, recalled: ‘She was shot by fellows raiding for arms. I was courtmartialled, and reduced in the ranks for three months.’ Peter O’Dwyer, who joined the Garda Síochána in 1922, claimed his men acted precipitately before he arrived. Prime Minister Lloyd George gleefully instanced this case as one where men ‘turned King’s witness in order to save their own lives . . . a boy of 17 who . . . went to the house but the woman there beat him off with a spade and he shot her. He was caught and in terror confessed the whole plot.’ Buried Oulart.16

18 FEBRUARY 1920 Harry Timothy Quinlisk (18Feb1920/1) 25, Ex-serviceman, RC Tory Top Road, Ballyphehane, Cork Son of a former RIC sergeant, Quinlisk had become a prisoner of war while a corporal in the RIR. He subsequently joined Casement’s ill-fated Irish Brigade. Discharged in England in June 1919 for ‘misconduct’, Quinlisk went to Dublin, where he met Michael Collins.†17

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Peter Hart states that Collins initially helped Quinlisk, securing him a job with New Ireland Assurance, but tired of him and offered him money to leave the country. Quinlisk then attempted to betray Collins, who was tipped off by his DMP informant Ned Broy. Quinlisk was lured to Cork, where Mick Murphy, O/C 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, thought him suspicious. He went to a meeting on the promise of £10 if he would show the IRA how to assemble and operate a Hotchkiss machine gun. Taken about two miles outside the city, Murphy ordered Quinlisk to put his hands up. Protesting his innocence, Quinlisk was searched for weapons and documents. Murphy and two comrades then shot him. Murphy fired a final shot through Quinlisk’s forehead: newspapers reported nine shots in all were fired. Murphy recalled his victim as ‘a tall, fair, athletic-looking lad who had a good Irish accent’. A subsequent mail raid recovered a letter from Quinlisk addressed to the RIC, which claimed he had made contact with a prominent Cork IRA officer (Murphy) and that Collins was in Clonakilty. Discovered by a herdsman, Quinlisk’s body was taken to the City Morgue. The RIC advanced the theory that Quinlisk had been shot for some infringement of Sinn Féin regulations. Initially buried unidentified at Cork Union burial ground, about a fortnight later his father took the remains to Waterford.18

20 FEBRUARY 1920 John M. Walsh (20Feb1920/1) DMP (10536), 38, Pawnbroker’s assistant, RC Grafton Street, Dublin A railway signalman’s son from Wexford, Walsh had about thirteen years of DMP service. At about 01:40, two constables on College Green exchanged fire with two youthful gunmen who approached from O’Connell Bridge. On Grafton Street shortly afterwards, a Volunteer shot Walsh in the chest, killing him, and wounded Dunleavy in the stomach. Buried Galbally, Ballyhogue, Wexford. His father secured £350 compensation, his elder sister £100 and his younger sister £50.19

Michael Ensko (20Feb1920/2) 74, Shoemaker, Widowed, RC Infirmary, Ennis, Clare Ensko died six days after being hit by a military lorry at about 13:30 on 14 February near his home. A witness said he shouted at the driver before he was struck.20

24 FEBRUARY 1920 Martin Devitt (24Feb1920/1) IRA, 20, Shop assistant, RC Crowe’s Bridge, Inagh, Clare A shop assistant in his home town of Ennistymon, Devitt, vice-O/C Mid Clare Brigade, had been wounded in the ‘Eighty One Cross’ ambush the previous August when two policemen had been killed. When police seized weapons which the IRA had just stolen in raids, Devitt resolved to have revenge by capturing police guns. He set an ambush to attack two RIC men patrolling on bicycles, not realising two other police (Murphy and Riordan) were coming. In an engagement lasting almost two hours, Devitt was ‘shot through the head’. ‘Tosser’ Neylon mourned his loss: he was ‘utterly fearless, strictly honest and very resourceful’. Michael Brennan said that, after his death, ‘you’ll find a big blank . . . for a long time in that area’. The police recovered his secretly buried body and returned it to the family after an inquest. Devitt’s two sisters, one severely disabled, secured dependents’ gratuities, initially of £30 and £60 each. They sought more: ‘The relatives of the men who fell to his rifle’ – a reference to compensation secured by the families of the two RIC officers he had helped kill – ‘have been amply provided for while the dependents of one of Ireland’s greatest soldiers have nothing to fall back on but the Co[unty] Home.’ Buried Clouna, Ennistymon.21 SA: Murphy (4Aug1919/1), Riordan (5Aug 1919/1)

29 FEBRUARY 1920 William H. Newman (29Feb1920/1) Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) (123987), 19 Military Hospital, Queenstown (Cobh), Cork From Nottingham, Private Newman was stationed in Queenstown. A five-man party

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returning from escorting a consignment of gelignite for blasting at Rushbrooke was held up and disarmed at Bunker Hill, outside Queenstown, between 00:00 and 01:00, by Volunteers under John P. O’Connell, captain Cobh Company, Cork No. 1 Brigade. When Newman tried to run he was shot in the neck, dying next day. Buried Nottingham General Cemetery (03280. A).22 SA: O’Connell (29May1921/6)

and there was not a quiver on him. . . . Tom Cullen . . . collected all his luggage. From it we discovered he was in charge of a group here . . . but when we went for them they . . . had left on the mail boat that night.

Byrne’s remains were identified by his widow Mary. Buried Romford Cemetery, Essex. The funeral time was kept secret and only the family attended.26

2 MARCH 1920 John Charles Byrne23 (2Mar1920/1) Secret Service(?), 36, Ex-serviceman, Married, Protestant Ballymun Road, Dublin Byrne, son of a London china-shop manager, was discharged on medical grounds after war service in Greece. David Neligan claimed that Byrne was the son of an RIC DI from Newcastle West, Limerick. His wife lived in Romford, Essex. Byrne used several aliases, the most frequent being ‘John Jameson’, representing Keith Prowse & Co., a piano company. He stayed at the Granville Hotel on Upper O’Connell Street. Byrne had been recruited during the war by A2, a domestic surveillance unit formed to counter leftist subversion. When an undercover agent in socialist and radical circles, he became acquainted with Art O’Brien, Michael Collins’s key London contact.24 Through him he met Collins in November 1919, and they discussed plans to secure weapons. Byrne came under the suspicion of GHQ Intelligence. He did not realise his peril and continued to contact republicans in both London and Dublin. He returned to Dublin for the last time on 28 February. On 2 March,25 Paddy Daly and Joe Dowling of the Squad called on Byrne, told him Collins wished to see him and took him by tram to the back entrance of the Albert College in Ballymun, where Daly: told him that we were satisfied he was a spy, that he was going to die, and that if he wanted to say any prayers he could do so. The spy jumped to attention immediately and said: ‘You are right. God bless the King. I would love to die for him.’ He saluted

3 MARCH 1920 Francis Manly Shawe-Taylor (3Mar1920/1) 51, Grazier, Married with two children, CoI Cashla, Athenry, Galway Shawe-Taylor, from Ardrahan, Galway, lived in Moorpark, and was a JP and extensive grazier. His brother Captain John ShaweTaylor played a prominent part in the evolution of the 1903 land act. Francis Shawe-Taylor had incurred local resentment on issues including land redistribution and the creation of a right of way across a landlord’s field for Mass goers, on which local Volunteers had approached him. At around 05:45 he left Athenry in his motor car for a fair in Galway, accompanied by his driver. At about 06:00 at Cashla, a donkey cart and gate blocked the road. When they got out to clear the obstruction, Shawe-Taylor was hit in the head and face by a volley of shotgun fire from behind a wall and died almost immediately. No one was convicted of the killing, though it was widely believed that local IRA men were involved. Buried Athenry. His widow secured £3,000 compensation and her two sons £6,000 each.27

5 MARCH 1920 Martin Cullinane (5Mar1920/1) 48, Farmer, Married with four children, RC Ardskea More, Corofin, Galway Cullinane, from Cummer, Tuam, Galway, was visiting Patrick Lardner at Ardskea More when, at about 21:30, five armed and masked men raided the house looking for weapons. Two waited in the kitchen; others searched

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the building. A sixth man outside appeared very nervous, and fired when Cullinane moved from his chair to make room for the searchers. The raiders left quickly without saying anything. A search by police failed to uncover any clues. Cullinane died from chest wounds at 00:30. Buried Lackagh Cemetery, Turloughmore. His widow Catherine secured £350 compensation and each of his four children £200.28 John Martin Heanue (5Mar1920/2) RIC (69188), 24, Pawnbroker’s assistant, RC Military Hospital, Tipperary From Tullycross, Galway, Heanue joined the RIC on 1 August 1917, stationed in Dovea, Tipperary. Jim Stapleton, Paddy O’Brien and Jim Larkin of Tipperary No. 2 Brigade were in Fanning’s pub in The Ragg when constables Heanue and Flaherty came in and ordered groceries. The assistant was ‘in the act of counting the eggs’ when the IRA opened fire. Heanue was wounded as he attempted to vault over the counter. Initially his shoulder wound was not considered life threatening, but he died in Tipperary Military Hospital next day. Flaherty, who returned fire, was uninjured. Buried Cashel, Galway.29

9 MARCH 1920 Thomas Ryan (9Mar1920/1) RIC (60822), 40, Farmer, Married with three children,30 RC RIC Barracks, Hugginstown, Kilkenny From Limerick, Constable Ryan joined the RIC on 1 July 1902, serving in Waterford and in the RIC Reserve, before transfer to Hugginstown, Kilkenny in 1909. In the Kilkenny Brigade’s first major operation, Hugginstown RIC Barracks was attacked at around 23:30 on 8 March by about thirtysix Volunteers. When the barracks’ roof was breached by bombs, the RIC surrendered, handing over six rifles, some revolvers and ammunition. Ryan’s right arm was shattered and an artery severed. A priest and doctor attended him before he died at about 06:00. Buried Butlerstown Cemetery, Waterford.31

10 MARCH 1920 George Neazer (10Mar1920/1) RIC (59800), 42, Farmer, Married with two children, CoI Rathkeale, Limerick From Ballycahane, Pallaskenry, Limerick, Neazer joined the RIC on 17 September 1900, allocated to Kerry. Commended for conspicuous service in the suppression of the Rising in Tralee, he was promoted to sergeant in 1918 and transferred to Lixnaw, Kerry. Thomas Wallace of the ASU West Limerick Brigade claimed that Neazer had made himself ‘obnoxious in Tralee and word was sent on for him to be dealt with’. Neazer and Constable Doyle were attacked in the coffee room of Ward’s Hotel. They locked the door when they sensed danger, but a Volunteer drove it in. Neazer fired one shot before he was killed. Doyle received five wounds; left for dead, he recovered. Buried Castletown, Pallaskenry, Limerick. His widow Rebecca secured a special RIC allowance of £96.13s.9d.32

11 MARCH 1920 Timothy Scully (11Mar1920/1) RIC (49471), 64, Farmer, Married, RC Glanmire, Cork From Adrigole, Cork, Scully joined the RIC on 19 June 1882, allocated to Tipperary. He was transferred to Cork in November 1900, stationed in Glanmire. At about 22:00 Volunteers of the Riverstown company, Cork No. 1 Brigade, confronted an RIC patrol. By their account Constable Scully resisted, and was then shot. The RIC said that three constables sheltering from a rainstorm were fired on without warning. Scully returned fire before being hit in the heart. His last words were: ‘I am done for.’ Buried Skibbereen. His widow Mary secured £1,600 compensation, and a special RIC allowance of £84.11s.8d.33 James Alexander Bruce (11Mar1920/2) Naval Rating, 39 Queenstown (Cobh), Cork The CFR reports that Leading Seaman Bruce, from Wigton, accidentally drowned while

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serving on the sloop HMS Poppy. Buried Sleepy Hillocks Cemetery, Montrose, Forfarshire.34

16 MARCH 1920 James Rocke (16Mar1920/1) RIC (67945), 26, Farmer, RC Toomevara, Tipperary From Killimor, Ballinasloe, Galway, Rocke joined the RIC on 15 July 1914 and served in Cork before transfer to Tipperary in 1918, stationed first in Borrisoleigh and from 23 February 1920 in Toomevara. John Hackett of Tipperary No. 1 Brigade recalled that he and other Volunteers sought permission to attack the RIC in Toomevara, but were refused. Nevertheless, they went ahead with a plan to target policemen attending devotions during Lent. Armed with revolvers and in disguise, at 19:30 Hackett and Paddy Whelehan followed constables Rocke and Healy from the church gates, and each then shot one policeman. Before he died in the barracks at 23:15,35 Rocke forgave his killer and asked that all his possessions go to his mother. Healy also died that night. Hackett, Whelehan and nine others were later arrested, but were never brought to trial. Buried Killimor, Galway.36 RD: Healy (17Mar1920/1)

17 MARCH 1920 Charles Healy (17Mar1920/1) RIC (69198), 25, Farmer, RC Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick See Rocke (16Mar1920/1). Healy, from Glengarriff, Cork, joined the RIC on 1 August 1917, stationed in Toomevara. Described by his CI as ‘one of the most excellent constables’, he sent his family £10 a month. His father secured £780 compensation, his two sisters £600 each and his brother £20.37 Cornelius Kelly (17Mar1920/2) 35, Caretaker, Married with one child, RC Caherdaniel, Kerry Kelly was caretaker of the Caherdaniel courthouse. He stored six police bicycles, despite IRA warnings, after the RIC barracks was abandoned. His wife described how ‘I was

combing my child’s hair’ when six men rushed in: ‘I told them not to frighten the child.’ They shot Kelly and stole the bicycles.38

19 MARCH 1920 Joseph Murtagh (19Mar1920/1) RIC (57783), 46, Farmer, Widowed with three children, RC Pope’s Quay, Cork From Westmeath, Murtagh joined the RIC on 1 June 1896, serving in Waterford and Kerry before transfer in 1908 to Sunday’s Well Barracks, Cork. Constable Murtagh was shot dead at 22:30 as he walked along Pope’s Quay in civilian clothes by Christy MacSwiney and another Volunteer. Pa Murray stated that Murtagh was shot because he used brutal methods while interrogating Volunteer Martin Condon. Buried Lismore, Waterford, beside his late wife. His three teenage children, in the care of their uncle James Hartnett, a journalist from Lismore, each secured £1,000 compensation.39 Michael Fahy (19Mar1920/2) IRA, 25, RC Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick From Kilkee, Clare, Fahy was captain Kilkee Company, West Clare Brigade. Recalled as ‘our most energetic and prominent officer’, Fahy shot himself accidentally in the thigh. Brought to hospital, where he was placed under arrest, he died shortly afterwards.40 Buried Kilkee.41

20 MARCH 1920 Tomás MacCurtain (20Mar1920/1) IRA, 36, Clerk, Married with children, RC 40 Thomas Davis Street, Cork MacCurtain, from Ballyknockane, Cork, worked for the Cork Steam Packet Company and later in Mack’s Mills. Commander of the Cork Brigade in 1916, he knew nothing of the planned insurrection until Holy Thursday, and afterwards received conflicting orders. Consequently Cork did not rise. After the Rising he was interned in Wakefield, Frongoch and Reading before release at Christmas 1916.

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In 1920, MacCurtain was O/C Cork No. 1 Brigade and the elected lord mayor of Cork, the first Republican to hold this office. Following the killing of Constable Joseph Murtagh, at 02:00 on 20 March a party of RIC under District Inspector Oswald Swanzy left King Street Barracks for MacCurtain’s house on Thomas Davis Street. The police, some with blackened faces, held up Eilís MacCurtain at the door, while two ran upstairs, called MacCurtain from bed and shot him on the landing. Public opinion was outraged at what was evidently a murder by police (although one Cork unionist believed a rumour that this ‘remarkable & very upright man’ had been killed by wilder spirits with the Cork IRA). Swanzy was secretly transferred to Lisburn, where he was shot on 22 August, an assassination which sparked major anti-Catholic rioting there and in Belfast. Two years later the Cork IRA abducted, killed and buried a youth named Parsons,† recalled by one of his executioners as ‘a small rat of a fellow . . . only captured (in Crosshaven, in a tent?) during Truce’, who supposedly confessed that he had watched MacCurtain’s house for Swanzy, as well as ex-RIC constable Michael Williams† whom they believed were implicated in MacCurtain’s murder.42 SA: Murtagh (19Mar1920/1), Swanzy (22Aug 1920/1)

21 MARCH 1920 Thomas Charles Evans (21Mar1920/1) RE, 39 KGVH Sergeant Evans, from Guildford, a signaller enlisted in 1909, was accidentally shot in the head in Marlborough Barracks. Buried GMC.43

22 MARCH 1920 (Mary) Ellen Hendrick44 (22Mar1920/1) 17, Domestic servant, RC Portobello Bridge, Dublin Ellen, of 9 Garden Lane, off Francis Street, worked in Rathmines. Soldiers returning from the Theatre Royal singing God Save the King attracted a hostile crowd near the canal. Troops from the nearby barracks came

to their comrades’ assistance. There was a conflict of evidence as to whether rioters fired – one soldier allegedly being hit in the chest – before the military replied. Ellen, standing on the Rathmines side of Portobello Bridge, ran but was hit in the chest. Michael Cullen, shot in the back, also died. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: D. a. 71).45 RD: Cullen (22Mar1920/2) Michael C. Cullen (22Mar1920/2) 23, Labourer, RC Portobello Bridge, Dublin See Hendrick (22Mar1920/1). Cullen lived with his parents Michael and Mary at 30 Charlemont Mall. Buried Glencullen, Dublin.46

23 MARCH 1920 Frederick James Hale (23Mar1920/1) Rifle Brigade, 17 Dublin Rifleman Hale, from Ashford, Kent, was accidentally killed. Buried Ashford Cemetery.47

24 MARCH 1920 Bryan Fergus Molloy48 (24Mar1920/1) RASC (ES/59087), 24, RC Mercer’s Private Molloy of 1st Supply Company was a clerk at GHQ, Royal Barracks, Parkgate Street. He was believed to be working for Colonel Hill Dillon, an intelligence officer whose Irish intelligence career extended into the Second World War. Molloy made contact with IRA intelligence, and Michael Collins† ordered him killed. Mick McDonnell and Tom Keogh† were detailed to shoot Molloy, with Joe Guilfoyle and Dolan providing cover. On 24 March, Molloy was to meet Tobin at Café Cairo on Grafton Street; the latter deliberately failed to show up. When Molloy tired of waiting, he walked along Wicklow Street, followed by the IRA party. Just before 19:00, he was shot at the junction of South William Street and Wicklow Street. Two women came to his assistance. Molloy died shortly afterwards in hospital. David Neligan claimed he later saw lists of Sinn Féin suspects which detectives had found in

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Molloy’s clothes. The chief secretary for Ireland later denied that Molloy was working undercover. Buried GMC (RC. 701). The Freeman’s Journal reported that no relatives could be traced.49

Constable Heanue. Buried Holycross Abbey, Tipperary.51 SA: Heanue (5Mar1920/2)

26 MARCH 1920

Denis J. Crowley (27Mar1920/2) 23, Ex-serviceman, Married with two children, RC Moanroe, Newcastle West, Limerick Crowley was from Mitchelstown, Cork. Following the rescue of Seán Hogan at Knocklong in May 1919, Séamus Robinson, Dan Breen, Seán Hogan and Seán Treacy arrived in the West Limerick Brigade area. Michael Sheehy recalled that around February 1920 a suspicious stranger attempted to insinuate himself into IRA circles. He had ‘a small insignificant little frosty jaw on him, a typical ex-soldier’. He was executed in a field at Moanroe, near Newcastle West. His body was found blindfolded, shot in the head, chest and hands, in which were clasped rosary beads.52 Buried Newcastle West workhouse cemetery. Alice Crowley of Cappoquin, whose husband Denis had been a serial deserter from the Royal Service Corps and the Royal Munster Fusiliers under the name Byrne, succeeded in having the body exhumed on 21 May 1920, but could not identify it. The military authorities concluded that Crowley had deserted, and they stopped her separation allowance. She appealed for assistance to the Lismore Board of Guardians.53 SA: Treacy (14Oct1920/3)

Alan Bell (26Mar1920/1) 62, Resident magistrate, Married, CoI Simmonscourt Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin From Banagher, Offaly, son of a Church of Ireland rector, Bell joined the RIC as a cadet in 1879, serving as a DI. He played a prominent role in dealing with disorder during the Land War. In 1898, he became a resident magistrate, serving in Claremorris, Lurgan and Portadown. Retired, Bell had been advising Dublin Castle on security issues for some months, and was investigating the failed assassination attempt on Lord French in which Martin Savage was killed. In March he began investigating dealings between Irish banks and Sinn Féin. He travelled by tram every morning from his Monkstown home to his office, having refused police protection and accommodation in Dublin Castle. At the corner of Ailesbury Road four men boarded the tram, sat beside Bell and asked him his name: then ‘Mick McDonnell caught Bell by the shoulder and said: “We want you.” I know he resisted.’ After dragging him onto the platform at Simmonscourt Road, Tobin and McDonnell shot him at point-blank range at about 09:30. Death was instantaneous. Buried DGC Cemetery. His widow Ellen secured £5,000 compensation. A school copybook in which Bell kept notes of his enquiries is in the National Archives in London.50

27 MARCH 1920 James McCarthy (27Mar1920/1) IRA, 27, Baker, RC Fianna Road, Thurles, Tipperary McCarthy, of Fianna Road, Thurles, of the 1st Battalion, Tipperary No. 2 Brigade, answered the door at about 01:30. Shot in the chest, he died within minutes. Three policemen dressed in black were responsible. James Leahy, O/C Tipperary No. 2 Brigade, said this killing was a reprisal for the shooting of

c. 27 MARCH 1920

30 MARCH 1920 Thomas A. O’Dwyer (30Mar1920/1) IRA, 21, Publican, RC Bouladuff, Thurles, Tipperary O’Dwyer lived with his widowed sister, her daughter and his invalid uncle. He was lieutenant D (The Ragg) Company, Tipperary No. 2 Brigade. At around 01:30, a party of masked RIC from Thurles raided O’Dwyer’s house, shooting him in the presence of his sister. O’Dwyer had been seen talking to Jim Stapleton and his companions a short time before they killed Constable Heanue on 4 March. Sergeant Anthony Foody, who allegedly led the raid, was killed in July

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1921 in a revenge shooting. Buried Drom, Templemore, Tipperary. A commemorative plaque was placed near Bouladuff Post Office.54 RD: Heanue (5Mar1920/2), Foody (7Jul1921/1) Walter Payne Hopkins (30Mar1920/2) RFA (290768), 19 Fermoy The CFR reports that Gunner Hopkins, from Patchway, Bristol, was cut in two by a train at Pike Boreen Bridge, Fermoy. Buried St Mary’s Churchyard, Almondsbury.55

c. 3 APRIL 1920 John Byrne (3Apr1920/1) IRA, RC RIC Barracks, Luggacurren, Laois Byrne, from Gracefield, Ballylinan, died from burns during the partial destruction of the abandoned Luggacurren RIC barracks. Petrol tins were found nearby.56 Another Volunteer was injured.57

7 APRIL 1920 James McKay (7Apr1920/1) RE, 33 Bere Island, Cork The CFR records the accidental drowning of Sapper McKay, stationed on Bere Island. Buried Ballinakilla Churchyard, Castletownbere.58

9 APRIL 1920 William Finn (9Apr1920/1) RIC (69209), 23, Farmer, RC Lackamore Wood, Newport, Tipperary From Castlerea, Roscommon, Finn joined the RIC on 4 September 1917, and had been stationed in Rearcross since August 1919. Constables Finn, Daniel McCarthy and Thomas P. Byrne were cycling from Rearcross to Newport Petty Sessions at about 10:30 when ambushed at Lackamore Wood, midway between Newport and Rearcross, by a dozen Volunteers. Two policemen were cycling abreast, the third a few yards behind. Finn and McCarthy were hit in the head and killed outright. Byrne, hit in the shoulder, fell off his bicycle, threw himself over a fence and after emptying his revolver at the attackers escaped to Rearcross Barracks, about three

and a half miles away. Buried Castlerea, Roscommon.59 RD: McCarthy (9Apr1920/2) Daniel McCarthy (9Apr1920/2) RIC (67704), 25, Farmer, RC Lackamore Wood, Newport, Tipperary See Finn (9Apr1920/1). Constable McCarthy, from Waterville, Kerry, joined the RIC on 16 February 1914. He had been stationed in Kilcommon for about two months. A comrade reported his dying words to his killers: ‘Oh stop! Stop!’ Buried Waterville.60 Patrick Morrissey (9Apr1920/3) IRA, 40, Farmer, RC North Infirmary, Cork The CFR records the death from gunshot wounds received in a raid on a house at Pilmore near Youghal of Volunteer Patrick Morrissey of Lady’s Bridge. He was treated under an assumed name.61

14 APRIL 1920 Henry Kells (14Apr1920/1) DMP (10119), 42, Married, CoI Upper Camden Street, Dublin From Drumlane, Cavan, Kells served in B Division, DMP and had twenty-two years police service. He lived at 7 Pleasants Street, and was a Mason (Lodge 227). He had recently been promoted to detectiveconstable. At about 09:30, Kells was shot dead by Hugo MacNeill and Tom Keogh† of the Squad near the corner of Upper Camden Street and Pleasants Street. One bullet passed through his windpipe. Death was instantaneous. Buried MJC. His widow Louisa secured £1,750 compensation.62 Patrick Lavin (14Apr1920/2) RIC (59924), 39, Farmer, ex-serviceman, RC RIC Depot, Phoenix Park, Dublin Lavin, from Roscommon, joined the RIC in 1901, serving in Cork, in the Reserve and then as an instructor at the RIC Depot. ‘Of splendid physique’, he was wounded with the Grenadier Guards in France, and was a drill instructor at Caterham before rejoining the RIC, resuming as a drill instructor at the RIC depot. At 10:00 he was found dead in his

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room. He had shot himself through the mouth with a rifle. Colleagues said he had seemed in good spirits immediately beforehand. On a previous occasion, when a term as drill instructor was up, he had resigned, returning ‘after an absence of some months’. Buried GC.63 Patrick Hennessy (14Apr1920/3) IRA, 30, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Main Street, Miltown Malbay, Clare ‘Pat’ Hennessy, a well-known Clare footballer, farmed a smallholding in Miltown Malbay. After three weeks on hunger strike in Wormwood Scrubs, sixty Sinn Féin prisoners interned weeks earlier were released. A mixed party of military and police under Sergeant Hampson approached a celebratory crowd around a bonfire. He ordered them to disperse and simultaneously opened fire, causing a stampede. Firing was directed up Church Street, Ballard Road and Main Street, killing three people and wounding nine. Hennessy was shot through the chest outside Dan Clancy’s on Main Street. Jack O’Loughlin and Tom O’Leary died on Ballard Road. Edward Lynch stated that Hennessy and O’Loughlin were Volunteers, but O’Leary, an ex-serviceman, was ‘a most inoffensive individual who belonged to no organisation’.64 Crown forces were later confined to barracks. Following the funerals the civilian population in north and west Clare became very hostile to the RIC, refusing to serve them food or fuel. The police responded by commandeering their requirements.65 RD: O’Leary (14Apr1920/4), O’Loughlin (14Apr1920/5) Thomas O’Leary (14Apr1920/4) 38, Ex-serviceman, Married with ten children, RC Ballard Road, Miltown Malbay, Clare See Hennessy (14Apr1920/3).66 John O’Loughlin (14Apr1920/5) IRA, 28, Tailor, RC Ballard Road, Miltown Malbay, Clare See Hennessy (14Apr1920/3). O’Loughlin lived on the Ennistymon Road.67

15 APRIL 1920 Patrick Foley (15Apr1920/1) RIC (70111), 25, Ex-serviceman, RC Camp, Kerry From Annascaul, Kerry, Foley served with the Royal Munster Fusiliers and the Irish Guards, and was a prisoner of war in Germany. He joined the RIC on 21 January 1920, stationed in Kilkerrin RIC Barracks, Ballinasloe. Constable Foley was home on leave, when arrested by the IRA as he was leaving Moriarty’s Hotel. Foley was believed to be collecting intelligence: Patrick Curran, later a Garda himself, observed him drinking with a suspicious character ‘in a certain pub in Annascaul’. Documents were allegedly found on him listing local IRA officers and prominent Sinn Féiners, many of these his relatives. Tadhg Kennedy, intelligence officer Kerry No. 1 Brigade, recalled that ‘the poor lad was a relative of mine’, and added that Foley’s brother Mick served in the Inch Company. Foley was held captive in a shed. Convicted by an IRA court martial, he was shot at Camp. He was found, his hands tied behind his back, bearing twenty-six wounds inflicted at close range, in a creamery yard.68

16 APRIL 1920 Patrick Finnerty (16Apr1920/1) RIC (56458), 50, Labourer, RC MMH From Clonkeen, Athenry, Galway, Finnerty joined the RIC on 15 December 1894, serving in Leitrim, Galway, Tipperary and the RIC Reserve. Promoted to sergeant in 1912, in 1913 he was transferred to Balbriggan, Dublin. On the night of 14 April a crowd sang songs around a bonfire on Clonard Hill to mark the release of hunger strikers. Led by Thomas Lawless, they then returned to Balbriggan. Sergeant Finnerty and four constables followed them. Near Clonard Street he was wounded in the back and abdomen by two shots. He had apparently received a threatening letter a short time beforehand. The night being dark and wet, the crowd did not notice the incident. He

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died after an operation at 08:30. Buried Clonkeen burial ground, Athenry. His mother and sister Delia each secured £250 compensation.69

17 APRIL 1920 Thomas Mulholland (17Apr1920/1) IRA, 28, Porter, yardman, RC Louth Infirmary, Dundalk, Louth The police termed Mulholland, from Balrobin, Louth, a prominent Sinn Féiner. Interned in Frongoch after the Rising, he was quartermaster of C (Dundalk) Company, North Louth Battalion. On 16 April, the IRA in Dundalk made two attempts to disarm policemen. At about 22:30, constables Gormley and Walker were on patrol at Seatown Place when five men approached, overwhelmed them and stole their weapons. About half an hour later, three policemen were attacked on Bridge Street by about fifteen men carrying revolvers and sticks. Constables Meade and Quinn were knocked down. Sergeant Bustard, seeing a masked man rush at him, called on him to halt and fired a shot over his head. He then fired two further shots which dispersed the attackers. Mulholland, wounded in the left lung, died at 00:15.70 Buried Castletown Cemetery, Dundalk. A memorial stone marks the spot where he was shot, and a terrace of houses in Dundalk was named in his memory.71

18 APRIL 1920 Patrick J. Carroll (18Apr1920/1) RIC (58743), 43, Railway clerk, RC Kilmihil, Clare From Dublin, Carroll joined the RIC on 1 September 1899, allocated to Kerry. He subsequently served in Armagh until October 1919, when he was transferred to Clare. Promoted to sergeant on 1 March 1918, he was stationed in Kilmihil. Volunteers of the West Clare Brigade attacked a party of police after 11:00 Mass, just outside the church gates. Carroll was killed in the first burst of revolver fire, and Constable Collins wounded in the back. Constable Patrick Martyn retreated through

the congregation, and shot the pursuing John Breen in the forehead. Police reports stated that two civilians named Higgins and McMahon were wounded. The military in Kilmihil were quickly on the scene, and took Breen’s body to his uncle’s house in the village. Carroll was posthumously awarded the constabulary medal. His father Cornelius secured £1,000 compensation.72 RD: Breen (18Apr1920/2) John (Seán) Breen (18Apr1920/2) IRA, 22, Farmer’s son, RC Kilmihil, Clare See Carroll (18Apr1920/1). Breen, a farmer’s son, had been imprisoned for illegal drilling. Buried Kilmihil graveyard.73 Daniel Neville (18Apr1920/3) IRA, 24, Farmer’s son, RC Pallaskenry, Limerick Neville was a lieutenant in D (Ballysteen) Company, West Limerick Brigade. He was shot during a struggle with Peter Switzer, whose house in Moig, Pallaskenry, the IRA were raiding for arms, and died next day. Buried Castletown, Pallaskenry. He is commemorated on a monument in Newcastle West.74

19 APRIL 1920 Bird Everton75 (19Apr1920/1) Dorsetshire Regiment, 30, Married Ebrington Barracks, Derry Lieutenant Everton, from the Isle of Wight, was crushed to death between two armoured cars. Buried Londonderry City Cemetery (SB. 613).76 Christopher Duckworth (19Apr1920/2) Lancashire Fusiliers (71783), 22 KGVH Private Duckworth, from Blackburn, accidentally shot while on duty outside Mountjoy Prison, died on admission to hospital. Buried Blackburn (E. N.C. 3643).77 Francis Curran (19Apr1920/3) 68, Farmer, Married with eight children, RC Aughalough, Aughavas, Leitrim Curran lived in Augharan, Aughavas, with his large family. He was shot on the road at

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Aughalough by two masked men while returning from work. Michael McKiernan was warned off by the gunmen but returned. Curran asked for a priest, but died before one arrived. On 21 April an inquest jury found he was killed by unknown persons. At Carrickon-Shannon Quarter Sessions in March 1921, Curran’s widow Margaret secured £250 compensation, as did each of his children under age.78

20 APRIL 1920 Laurence Dalton (20Apr1920/1) DMP (11194), 26, RC MMH ‘Larry’ Dalton, from Monagea, Limerick, served in B Division, DMP for six years. He had only been a G Division detectiveconstable a short time. Joseph Dolan of GHQ intelligence said Dalton watched the trains at Broadstone Station, the terminus of the MGWR. Mick McDonnell, Tom Keogh† and Jim Slattery were detailed to kill him. Detective-constables Dalton and Spencer were on their way to Broadstone when attacked at 12:45 on Mountjoy Street. Dalton, who returned fire, reportedly cried out ‘let me alone’ when hit, but received three further shots. Four men were seen running away. Wounded in the abdomen and legs, Dalton died at 15:30 after an operation. David Neligan described him as ‘a charming fellow of mild disposition, he had never raised a finger against Sinn Féin’. His death was ‘one of the tragedies of the time’. Buried Ardagh Cemetery, Limerick.79

24 APRIL 1920 Michael McCarthy (24Apr1920/1) DMP (11286), 29, Farmer’s son, RC CMHC McCarthy, from Lackenalooha, Clonakilty, Cork, had five years’ DMP service. On 22 April, Constable McCarthy was home on leave, working on his brother-in-law’s farm at Lackenalooha. At around 15:00, he was struck in the leg by shots from the roadside. He ran, pursued by two men. He fell, and was shot in the stomach. McCarthy refused to identify his assailants before dying.80

25 APRIL 1920 Cornelius Crean (25Apr1920/1) RIC (55059), 48, Farmer, Married with one child, RC Ballinspittle, Cork From Annascaul, Kerry, Crean joined the RIC on 1 June 1891, serving in Galway, the RIC Reserve and Belfast, before transfer in 1906 to Cork. Promoted to sergeant on 1 March 1912, he was stationed in Innishannon. He was a brother of Tom Crean, the Antarctic explorer. At about 17:00, Crean and constables McGoldrick and Power were ambushed near Upton railway station by members of Crosspound Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade, under Charlie Hurley ‘at about 3 or 4 yards’ range’ with shotguns. Crean and McGoldrick were killed outright. Power returned fire and ‘got away while we were re-loading’. Buried Cork city.81 RD: McGoldrick (25Apr1920/2). SA: Hurley (19Mar1921/2) Patrick McGoldrick (25Apr1920/2) RIC (48684), 59, Farmer, Married, RC Ballinspittle, Cork See Crean (25Apr1920/1). Constable McGoldrick, from Cavan, joined the RIC on 21 February 1882, serving in Waterford and Cork. He was stationed in Innishannon for almost twenty-five years. Buried Waterford.82

26 APRIL 1920 Philip Dowling (26Apr1920/1) 27, Railway porter, RC Arklow, Wicklow Dowling, son of an RIC man, served in the RIC from 1910 until dismissed in 1916. Living with his parents in Ferrybank, Arklow, he was a porter at Woodenbridge Railway Station. Two brothers served in the RIC, of whom Michael was killed in March 1921. Following disturbances as a crowd celebrated the release of hunger striker Andrew Holt from Mountjoy, at about 21:00 a party of about eighteen soldiers, described by the police as ‘excited’, marched through Arklow. A shot was fired, and three volleys were discharged towards Main Street. Dowling,

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walking on Bridge Street, was wounded in the stomach. He died half an hour later in a nearby house. A soldier was reportedly accidentally shot by a comrade. A strong military picket was dispatched to restore order. Buried new cemetery, Arklow.83 SA: Dowling (22Mar1921/9)

shotguns: McKenna was killed and the two constables wounded. Two police revolvers were captured, but Constable Rabbitt held on to his carbine.85 SA: Walsh (12May1921/3)

27 APRIL 1920

Robert F. Bishop (6May1920/1) 6th Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers) (D/8761), Protestant Infirmary, Galway Private Porteous unloaded four bullets from another soldier’s weapon in the guardroom in Athenry, Galway. He then squeezed the trigger, discharging a shot that wounded Sergeant Bishop MM, who died that night. Buried New Cemetery, Bohermore, Galway (Prot. K. 15. 23).86

Francis H. Quinn (27Apr1920/1) Royal Welch Fusiliers (24698), 19, RC Wolfe Tone Street, Limerick From Folkestone, Kent, Private Quinn was stationed in New Barracks, Limerick. On 26 April privates Quinn and Roberts, who had returned from patrol, joined a fracas around 22:15 between civilians and a crowd of soldiers. Both sides threw stones, and Volunteers of 1st (Limerick City) Battalion, Mid Limerick Brigade, fired some shots. A military witness said that a man concealed behind a tree shot Quinn in the head. The crowd then dispersed. Quinn died in a nearby house early next morning. Buried Wrexham Cemetery, Denbighshire (B. 537). His father secured £300 compensation.84

3 MAY 1920 Francis McKenna (3May1920/1) RIC (58789), 39, Married with three children, RC Gale Bridge, Ballydonoghue, Kerry From Waterford, McKenna joined the RIC on 15 March 1899, serving in Kilkenny and Cork before transfer to Kerry in 1906. As a detective stationed in Tralee, he was involved in the arrest of Roger Casement in April 1916. Promoted to sergeant in 1918, early in 1920 he was transferred to Ballylongford. McKenna and constables Patrick Colgan and Michael Rabbitt were cycling back from Listowel Quarter Sessions to Ballylongford when held up at Gale Bridge, about two miles from Listowel, by Paddy Walsh, Mick Galvin, Patrick Corridan, John Walsh and a man named Ahern, of the Tullamore Company, attached to Listowel Battalion, Kerry No. 1 Brigade. Edmond J. Walsh maintained that when challenged one policeman drew his revolver. The IRA opened fire with

6 MAY 1920

9 MAY 1920 Francis Aidan Gleeson (9May1920/1) IRA, 25, Clerk, RC MMH ‘Frank’ Gleeson, from Liverpool, joined the Irish Volunteers in 1915. A one-time Liverpool University student, he assumed the name Redmond in 1918 to avoid conscription. Living at 34 Cadogan Road, he served in F Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade. Discharged from Mountjoy on 18 March, he and his brother Martin were rearrested at the prison gates and sentenced to three months imprisonment for possession of firearms. After nine days on hunger strike, they and other prisoners were released on 14 April and admitted to hospital. Discharged on 3 May, Frank was readmitted three days later, and died two days after an operation from ‘toxaemia following nephritis and acute appendicitis’. Buried GC.87 John Edward Brady (9May1920/2) RIC (55744), 50, Footman, Married, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin From Bray, Wicklow, Brady joined the RIC on 16 January 1893, serving in Belfast and the RIC Reserve. Promoted to sergeant in 1913, he was in charge of Rush RIC Barracks, Dublin. Wounded in both legs in the early hours of 29 April during an abortive attack

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on Rush RIC Barracks by the Naul Battalion, Fingal Brigade, Brady died from cardiac failure and bronchial pneumonia following an operation. Buried MJC (A. 396. 30). His widow Margaret secured a special RIC allowance of £72.88 William Lehane (9May1920/3) Farmer, Married with children, RC Mercy Hospital, Cork Armed and masked men called to Lehane’s house at Ardgroom, Cork, in the early morning, seeking ‘the boss’. He pleaded with them, but they shot him in the thigh. He cried, ‘Oh Lord I am killed’, before receiving a second shot. His daughter Mary Ellen described how medical help took eight hours to arrive. There was ongoing friction with an evicted tenant, and Lehane had previously received a malicious damages award for damage to his crops, but this was an IRA operation.89

10 MAY 1920 Mark Clinton (10May1920/1) IRA, 24, Farmer’s son, RC Rosemount, Moynalty, Meath90 Clinton lived on his father Joseph’s farm in Cormeen in north Meath. Involved in the Gaelic League and the IRA, his death featured prominently in Meath BMH statements. At about 18:00, Joseph heard shots from where Mark was harrowing a field of oats. He found two horses dead and Mark severely wounded. He refused to name his five assailants, and forgave them. He died shortly afterwards in Phil Smith’s house. Joseph secured £400 compensation. Seán Boylan, O/C Meath Brigade, named Clinton’s killer as an ex-serviceman named Gordon, while another ex-serviceman named McGovern shot the horses. Both were apparently paid by William Rogers, a former policeman in South Africa, who intended to frighten Clinton over the land dispute. RIC reports support this. Gordon was arrested for possession of arms and ammunition without a permit, but later released and advised to flee. Boylan’s men captured him in a pub near the railway station. Imprisoned in an old

rectory in Salestown, Gordon gave the names of seven associates. These were arrested by the IRA and held for several weeks. GHQ appointed a court to try Gordon. Dublin Brigade officers acted as judges. Séamus O’Higgins prosecuted and Séamus Cogan defended Gordon, who confessed, admitted two other attempted murders, and was sentenced to death. GHQ in consultation with the Dáil government ordered a retrial a fortnight later, which produced the same outcome. GHQ left Boylan to settle Gordon’s fate; he decided to kill him. A Presbyterian clergyman, Reverend Irwin, ministered to Gordon before he was shot at Castlefarm, Dunboyne. His body was dumped in a nearby quarry. His accomplice McGovern was ordered to leave Ireland for life; other gang members were expelled for periods ranging from three to fifteen years. Buried Moybolgue Graveyard, Cavan.91 RD: Gordon (1Jun1920/1). SA: Cogan (22Jul 1920/1) William Brick (10May1920/2) RIC (64151), 32, Postman, RC Ahawadda Cross, Timoleague, Cork From Tralee, Kerry, Brick joined the RIC on 13 July 1908, stationed in Butlerstown, Cork. Michael Coleman, Barryroe Company, recalled how the IRA drove cattle off a loyalist’s lands to draw out the RIC. A four-man cycle patrol from Butlerstown Barracks was attacked at around 07:00 by eleven Volunteers under Charlie Hurley, brigade O/C, concealed behind a fence at Ahawadda Cross. Constables Brick and Dunne were killed outright: Jerome O’Hea ‘was responsible for one of them’. Although badly wounded, Flynn continued to fire until shot dead as he crawled for cover about 100 yards away. Hurley pursued Grimsdale, but ‘he turned up a by-road and we thought it dangerous to follow him’. Flynn and Dunne had participated in the successful defence of Timoleague Barracks the previous February, Grimsdale being wounded. Brick’s mother secured £100 compensation, and his brother £600.92 RD: Dunne (10May1920/5), Flynn (10May 1920/3). SA: Hurley (19Mar1921/2)

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John Flynn (10May1920/3) RIC (56899), 51, Farmer, Married with six children, RC Ahawadda Cross, Timoleague, Cork See Brick (10May1920/2). From Kildysart, Clare, Flynn joined the RIC on 1 April 1895, serving in Leitrim and Cork. Promoted to sergeant in 1916, he was in charge of Butlerstown RIC Barracks. He had been awarded the constabulary medal on 16 March 1920 for his part in the defence of Timoleague RIC Barracks. His widow Annie secured a special RIC allowance of £72.93 Patrick McDonnell (10May1920/4) RIC (55303), 49, Farmer, Married, RC Goulds Cross, Cashel, Tipperary McDonnell, from Dromore, Tyrone, joined the RIC on 15 March 1892, serving in Roscommon and Cavan. Promoted to sergeant in 1918, he was stationed in Cootehill, Cavan, but on temporary duty in Tipperary. He had been due to leave on 5 May but was retained due to an injury to another sergeant. His brother John was also a policeman. A colleague described him as ‘the quietest man I ever met’. At 13:00, he and Constable Hayes were walking from the railway station at Goulds Cross to Clonoulty RIC Hut. Four armed men, including ‘John Ryan . . . the son of the schoolmaster from Turaheen . . . and Ned Reilly’ challenged them. Hayes testified that Ryan ‘said to me, “Why don’t you put up your hands?” Then there was a general fusillade of shots. I bolted down the road . . . When I got about 60 or 70 yards . . . I turned round and saw Sergt McDonnell running towards me and falling. I discharged my revolver at Ryan and then at Reilly’, who had taken the sergeant’s gun. This attack was carried out by Ned O’Reilly of Glenough and other Volunteers from D (Rossmore) Company, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. McDonnell’s widow Mary secured £2,600 compensation. She later sought £5,000 from the British government.94 Edward Dunne (10May1920/5) RIC (62633), 40, Farmer, Married, RC Ahawadda Cross, Timoleague, Cork See Brick (10May1920/2). Dunne, from Maryborough (Portlaoise), Laois, joined the

RIC on 21 May 1907, serving in Tipperary and Waterford before transfer to Cork in 1915. He was awarded the constabulary medal on 16 March 1920 for his part in the defence of Timoleague RIC Barracks. Buried Raheen Cemetery, Maryborough. His widow Bridget secured a special RIC allowance of £55.6s.11d.95

11 MAY 1920 Michael Nolan (11May1920/1) IRA, 25, Agricultural labourer, RC Ballymacandrew, Ardfert, Kerry Nolan, from Ardfert, died after a bungled attack. Captain E. M. P. Wynne RM was driving from Tralee to the Petty Sessions court at Causeway in a hired horse and jaunting-car, when ‘about eight men, masked and armed, jumped over a hedge, cried “Hands Up”, and fired six or seven shots’. The horse shied. Wynne jumped off the car, and fired five shots from his revolver: ‘One man dropped on the road. He saw two others stagger. When Wynne shouted “Come on, you cowards”’, the attackers dithered, then fled. When Wynne returned with police, it was clear that a body had been dragged away through the fields. A week later, Wynne said he was ‘most truly sorry for the relatives and friends of the men who lost their lives’. Wynne was withdrawn from Tralee. In September, a van carrying his furniture, consigned to London from his former home, was destroyed by fire by members of the Fianna in Tralee Railway Station. Nolan is commemorated on a plaque in Ardfert. His father secured a £50 gratuity.96

12 MAY 1920 William James McCabe (12May1920/1) 42,97 Gardener, Baptist Strathmore Road, Killiney, Dublin McCabe, from Kilcock, Kildare, was head gardener for the Right Hon. Laurence Waldron. He and his sister lived in a gate lodge. At about 22:00 he left Joseph Coyle’s house on Strathmore Road. Shortly afterwards, there were three or four gunshots. Coyle saw two men running away. McCabe had been shot in the head. That night the

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IRA burned Ballybrack RIC Barracks nearby. Several civilians were held up by patrols in the wake of the attack: the Irish Independent suggested that possibly McCabe was shot for failing to answer a challenge. Buried Sallins, Kildare. His father Robert secured £500 compensation.98 Denis Garvey (12May1920/2) RIC (56861), 47, Labourer, Married with eight children, RC Lower Road, Cork From Killarney, Kerry, Garvey joined the RIC on 2 January 1895, serving in Limerick, the RIC Reserve and Cork. Promoted to sergeant in 1918, he was stationed in Lower Road Barracks, Cork. Pa Murray maintained that Garvey and Constable Daniel Harrington took part in the murder of Tomás MacCurtain. Terence MacSwiney eventually gave Murray instructions to kill them. Murray and Martin Donovan shot Garvey and Harrington as their tram drew up at about 22:30. Constable Patrick Doyle was seriously wounded. The three policemen had been on night duty. Buried Aghadoe Cemetery, Killarney.99 RD: Harrington (12May1920/3). SA: MacCurtain (20Mar1920/1), MacSwiney (25Oct1920/3) Daniel Harrington (12May1920/3) RIC (59401), 44, Farmer, RC Lower Road, Cork See Garvey (12May1920/2). Harrington, from Cork, joined the RIC on 23 January 1900, stationed in Lower Road Barracks, Cork. His sister Margaret secured £300 compensation.100

13 MAY 1920 John Matthews (13May1920/1) The Buffs (East Kent Regiment), 57, married Cork Park, Cork The CFR recounts how Matthews, from St Helen’s, Lancashire, a military clerk in 6th Division headquarters at Victoria Barracks, was found drowned in a pond in Cork Park, with possible marks of violence on his body. A post-mortem found he had drowned accidentally: he had reportedly been severely shocked by the death of a brother.101

14 MAY 1920 Thomas Dunne (14May1920/1) IRA, 22, Grocer’s assistant, RC MMH Dunne, a farmer’s son of Ballasize, Wicklow, was a lieutenant in the 6th Battalion, Dublin Brigade. Patrick Brennan recalled how on 12 May the IRA destroyed the evacuated Kill-o-the-Grange RIC Barracks. At about 20:00 Volunteers used straw sprinkled with petrol to set the building on fire. Dunne and Pat Meaney suffered severe burns. Dunne died in hospital from broncopneumonia. Meaney died on 21 May. They are commemorated on a memorial plaque in Dún Laoghaire.102 RD: Meaney (21May1920/1)

15 MAY 1920 Denis Moroney103 (15May1920/1) RIC (59644), 40, Farmer, Married, RC Metropole Hotel, Derry From Tulla, Clare, Moroney joined the RIC on 2 July 1900, serving in Cavan, Mayo and Belfast before being promoted to sergeant in 1912 and transferred to Derry on 29 June 1912. In November 1919 he took charge of the Crimes Special Department in Derry. Moroney lived at 16 Grove Place, Derry. Disorder and violence began to mount in Derry from April onward. When some republican prisoners were transferred to the city jail in mid-April, nationalists and unionists clashed. On 18 April, shots were fired into the nationalist Bogside, and police charged a nationalist crowd. The situation deteriorated rapidly over the following two months. Growing fear among working-class unionists led to the reorganisation of the UVF in the city. In mid-June, renewed conflict claimed many lives. At about 21:30, rioting ‘of the fiercest character’ broke out between nationalists from the Bridge Street area and unionists from Fountain Street. Police from Ferryquay made a charge down Bridge Street and were met with a hail of stones, bottles and bricks. Detective-Sergeant Moroney chased rioters towards the quay, along with four detectives

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and men in uniform. Hit in the chest by revolver shots, he died within minutes in the Metropole Hotel. Liam A. Brady denied IRA responsibility, whereas the Derry City battalion later claimed that Moroney was killed by Volunteers McCallion, Keenan and McCauley. Buried in Clare.104 James Dalton (15May1920/2) IRA, 49, Clerk, Married with thirteen children, RC Clare Street, Limerick ‘Jim’ Dalton of 5 Clare Street was a clerk in the Municipal Electric Lighting Department. An all-round sportsman, he once held the Irish lightweight boxing title. He also trained the Limerick hurling team which won the 1918 All-Ireland Championship. In 1896, he had been president of the first Trades Union Congress held in Limerick. He played a prominent part in Sinn Féin by-elections campaigns in North Roscommon and East Clare in 1917. Dalton was a captain in the 1st Limerick City Battalion. At 18:00 he was shot by three or four men as he left a pub. Felled by the first volley, he was hit again as he tried to rise. Six-yearold Eileen Horne was wounded in the leg. A few weeks beforehand, the top of one of Dalton’s fingers had been shot off, and walls around the city were painted in large letters: ‘A bullet is waiting for Dalton the spy.’ Dalton had been spotted one night leaving a detective’s home on Ellen Street. Accused of informing, he was acquitted in a court martial presided over by Cahir Davitt, although the court criticised his indiscretion. Éamon Dore deprecated this shooting and regretted that he himself got ‘much notoriety because of it’. Richard O’Connell recalled that Martin Barry and other members of the 2nd Limerick City Battalion were suspected. Barry was later arrested by the IRB, but no hard evidence was found. The leading Volunteer Dan Breen later wrote that Dalton had been framed to protect the wrongdoing of senior officers, and Frank Thornton of GHQ intelligence recalled that after a week’s investigation he and Joseph Dolan established that:

Dalton as an intelligence officer . . . was only doing his duty as such and had contacted certain enemy agents, i.e. ‘G’ men and had met them fairly frequently and had secured some very valuable information. . . . we were able to prove conclusively . . . that Dalton’s name was completely clear.

Buried Mount St Lawrence Cemetery. His widow initially secured a gratuity and ultimately a widow’s military service pension. A 1917–21 service medal was also awarded.105

16 MAY 1920 Bernard Doherty106 (16May1920/1) 21, Ex-serviceman, sawmill worker, RC Linenhall Street, Derry ‘Barney’ Doherty, son of James Doherty of Ann Street, had been gassed and wounded during the war. His only brother had been killed at Gallipoli. Rioting broke out following the killing of Denis Moroney. During a lull, Doherty went to see a girl home and was hit by a bullet fired most likely by a loyalist from between Ferryquay Gate and Market Street. He staggered back to New Market Street before collapsing on Linenhall Street. He died from chest wounds after midnight in a nearby house.107 SA: Moroney (15May1920/1)

19 MAY 1920 Kieran Dunphy108 (19May1920/1) RIC (65998), 31, Farmer, RC Upper Mallow Street, Limerick From Cullohill, Rathdowney, Laois, Dunphy joined the RIC on 4 July 1911, allocated to Mayo. He enlisted in the Leinster Regiment on 25 May 1916, rejoined the RIC on 18 October 1919 and was promoted to sergeant in 1919. From March 1920 he was stationed in Ballincurra RIC Barracks, Limerick. At around 17:30 Sergeants Dunphy and Patrick Hearty were attacked as they left the surgery of Dr John Roberts by Volunteers of B Company, 2nd Battalion, Mid Limerick Brigade. Dunphy, shot in the head, was killed outright. Hearty, wounded in the leg, returned fire before being hit in the jaw. Removed to Dublin, he died on 22 June. In

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follow-up search operations, various properties were destroyed by Crown forces.109 Buried Durrow Cemetery, Laois. His sisters Bridget and Mary Eileen each secured £700 compensation.110 RD: Hearty (22Jun1920/4). James Saunders (19May1920/2) 35, Dock labourer, ex-serviceman, Widowed with two children, RC Ellen Street, Limerick Following the shooting of Sergeant Dunphy, police ran amok in Limerick, discharging their weapons indiscriminately in what the RIC claimed was return fire. Around 23:00 police fired volleys near Charlotte Quay, Bridge Street and Patrick Street. Saunders was fatally wounded.111 Other civilians were also hit. Several bombs were thrown, setting fire to various premises. Buried Mount St Lawrence Cemetery.112 SA: Dunphy (19May1920/1)

20 MAY 1920 Arthur Bowes (20May1920/1) Yorkshire Regiment (66896), 18, Protestant Military Barracks, Tipperary, Tipperary From Durham, Private Bowes was stationed in Tipperary Military Barracks. At about 22:00 his friend Private Bowens inadvertently shot him in the neck as soldiers going on duty loaded their rifles. Buried St Mary’s Churchyard, Tipperary.113

21 MAY 1920 Patrick Meaney (21May1920/1) IRA, RC MMH See Dunne (14May1920/1). ‘Paddy’ Meaney was quartermaster 6th Battalion, Dublin Brigade.114

23 MAY 1920 Peter Kelly (23May1920/1) Farmer’s son, Married with one child, RC Aghagad, Castlecoote, Roscommon At about 02:00 twelve masked men burst into Kelly’s house and shot him dead in the kitchen, despite his cries of ‘mercy’.

The Kellys had taken part in cattle drives on disputed land held by Tom Geraghty, and had received a warning letter. The Irish Independent stated the dispute was over a small piece of marshy ground of little value. The jury found that Kelly’s death was caused by a gunshot wound deliberately inflicted by some person or persons unknown. Kelly’s widow secured £1,200 compensation.115

27 MAY 1920 Joseph Clarkson (27May1920/1) King’s Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment) (51979), 19, RC Phoenix Park, Dublin Private Clarkson, stationed in Richmond Barracks, was on guard duty at the Chief Secretary’s Lodge in Phoenix Park when Private James McGaw, while changing a magazine, accidentally shot him. Buried Ince-in-Makerfield Cemetery, Lancashire (B. R.C. 159).116

28 MAY 1920 Thomas Kane117 (28May1920/1) RIC (55093), 41, Married with eight children, RC RIC Barracks, Kilmallock, Limerick From Meath, son of a head constable, Kane joined the RIC on 16 July 1891, posted to Tyrone. He also served in the RIC Reserve and Limerick, before another stint in the Reserve, after which he returned to Limerick. He resigned in 1909 to join the Imperial Yeomanry, later rejoining. Sergeant Kane was transferred from the RIC Reserve to Kilmallock the day before his death. Kilmallock RIC Barracks, heavily sandbagged and fitted with steel shutters, was regarded as the best fortified barracks in Munster. Seán Wall, brigadier East Limerick, led a major attack. All roads, byroads and railway lines around the town were rendered impassable. At around 02:00 five IRA sections attacked in turn. Heavy weights were dropped from an adjoining roof on to the barracks roof to break the slates, followed by petrol bombs.

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The IRA’s Liam Scully was shot in the neck. Sergeant Kane and Constable Morton were killed. By 05:00 the barracks roof had fallen in. The police continued a stubborn resistance, holding out in a rear portion which had not caught fire. The fight ended around 08:00. Scully died in a motor car near Bruree. Only two police escaped injury. Sergeant Tobias O’Sullivan, in charge on the night of the attack, was struck in the chest, but a pocket book saved his life. He was immediately promoted to head constable and given a gratuity of £50. Buried GC. Kane was awarded a posthumous constabulary medal.118 RD: Morton (28May1920/2), Scully (28May 1920/3). SA: O’Sullivan (20Jan1921/2), Wall (6May1921/5) Joseph P. Morton (28May1920/2) RIC (54291), 39, Married with seven children, RC RIC Barracks, Kilmallock, Limerick See Kane (28May1920/1). From Dublin, Morton joined the RIC on 14 April 1890, serving in Meath and Tipperary before transfer to Kilmallock in 1898. Morton’s widow Mary Agnes secured £3,800 compensation. He was posthumously awarded the constabulary medal.119 Liam Scully (28May1920/3) IRA, Schoolteacher, RC Vicinity of Bruree, Limerick See Kane (28May1920/1). Scully, from Glencar, Kerry, a captain in the East Limerick Brigade, lived in Ballyhahill. Buried Templeglantine, Limerick, he is commemorated on monuments at Newcastle West and Murroe, Limerick.120

29 MAY 1920 Thomas Sheridan (29May1920/1) IRA, 23, Farmer’s son, RC MMH ‘Tom’ Sheridan lived with his uncles Thomas and Patrick Delaney in Drumrooskey. Seán Sheridan of the Drumbrade Company, Ballinagh Battalion, recalled that Volunteers attempted to disarm two RIC officers at

08:30. Sergeant G. Johnson fired, hitting Tom. The sergeant was wounded before surrendering. The police were disarmed. This was the first such encounter between the IRA and police in Cavan. Sheridan was carried away by his comrades, and later moved in a horse and trap and then by motor car to the Columcille area of Longford. That night he was admitted to hospital in the guise of ‘Thomas Murphy’ from Kilkenny. He died from toxaemia and abdominal wounds: his parents arrived too late to see him alive. Buried Ballinagh Cemetery. A memorial cross marks the location where he was shot. His mother subsequently received a dependent’s gratuity of £40.121

31 MAY 1920 Peter Miller (31May1920/1) East Lancashire Regiment (51983), 18, RC Dingle, Kerry Son of William and Mary Miller of New Cross, Manchester, Private Miller is recorded as accidentally shot while on duty in Dingle. Buried St Joseph’s Roman Catholic Cemetery, Moston, Lancashire (M. 536).122

1 JUNE 1920 William Gordon (1Jun1920/1) Ex-serviceman, Protestant Castlefarm, Dunboyne, Meath See Clinton (10May1920/1).123

6 JUNE 1920 Peter Charles McCreesh (6Jun1920/1) 28, Farmer’s son, RC Cullyhanna, Armagh From Aughanduff, five miles from Cullyhanna, McCreesh and his brother attended an aeraíocht on the outskirts of Cullyhanna. Sergeant Holland, Constable Rossdale and Constable Rafferty sat on a wall watching proceedings. As the gathering concluded at about 20:00 five men confronted the police, one shouting ‘Hands up!’ Fire was opened and the police replied. Holland, wounded in the abdomen, returned fire. Rossdale was wounded, and Rafferty found

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shelter in a nearby house. McCreesh, who was sitting on a ditch nearby, was shot in the back and lung as he tried to move away when the firing began. Another man named Donnelly was slightly wounded. Buried Mullaghbawn Cemetery, Armagh.124 RD: Holland (9Jun1920/1)

8 JUNE 1920 James McConnell (8Jun1920/1) 60, Linen weaver, married with children, CoI Lurgan, Armagh McConnell was killed in Victoria Street when a Mills bomb, which a recently demobilised ex-soldier named George Baxter was displaying, exploded. Baxter lost his hand; three other men were wounded. It is unclear whether this incident had any political or paramilitary significance.125

9 JUNE 1920 Timothy Holland (9Jun1920/1) RIC (60721), 42,126 Farmer, Married with five children, RC Louth Infirmary, Dundalk, Louth See McCreesh (6Jun1920/1). Holland, from Dunmanway, Cork, joined the RIC on 1 May 1902 and served in Mayo and Belfast before transfer to Armagh in 1911. Promoted to sergeant in 1918, he was in charge of Crossmaglen RIC Barracks. Two brothers served in the DMP and RIC respectively. In his dying message to his wife, Holland forgave the man who shot him. Buried Milltown Cemetery. His widow secured £4,000 compensation.127

11 JUNE 1920 Patrick Carroll128 (11Jun1920/1) RIC (62341), 38, Labourer, RC Railway Hotel, Parnell Street, Limerick From Ballina, Mayo, Carroll joined the RIC on 17 January 1907, allocated to Tipperary. He had only recently transferred to Limerick city to take up detective duties. He and Constable Norman J. Cruise were in plain clothes in the Railway Hotel at about 15:15 when Volunteer Patrick Naughton,† by chance visiting the bar, opened fire with a revolver, killing Carroll outright. Carroll’s

sister Bridget secured £1,100 compensation and his niece Mary Kate, a minor, £340.129

12 JUNE 1920 Thomas King (12Jun1920/1) RIC (69878), 26, Naval rating, RC Snave, Glengarriff, Cork From Roundstone, Galway, King had served as a stoker at the Battle of Jutland. He joined the RIC on 1 October 1919, stationed in Glengarriff. He was shot, unarmed and in civilian clothes, while returning to barracks from eight hours leave in Bantry, apparently having attended confession, by an IRA party under Ted O’Sullivan. King was said to be implicated in the murder of Thomas O’Dwyer of Tipperary. Although wounded, he reached a nearby farmhouse, hiding in a cupboard until discovered, when he was dragged into a yard, thrown on a manure heap and killed lest he identify his attackers. King’s mother secured £800 compensation.130 SA: O’Dwyer (30Mar1920/1) Cyril Constable (12Jun1920/2) MGC (Infantry) (189359), 18 Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick Lance-Corporal Constable, stationed in Bruff, Limerick, died of groin and arm wounds received on 11 June in a ‘friendly fire’ incident at around 00:30 after a mixed patrol came to the aid of three RIC officers attacked by a dozen IRA men. Buried Nottingham General Cemetery (2970. CC).131

13 JUNE 1920 Herbert Thompson (13Jun1920/1) 6th Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers) (D/36279), 23, Protestant Earls Island, Galway At about 00:45 privates Thompson and Cairns attempted to re-enter their billets covertly in an old jute factory at Earls Island, and were fired on after ignoring a sentry’s challenges. Thompson, from Newcastle upon Tyne, was killed outright; Cairns, wounded in the neck, died in the county infirmary.132 Buried New Cemetery, Bohermore, Galway (Prot. K. 15. 22).133 RD: Cairns (13Jun1920/2)

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James M. Cairns (13Jun1920/2) 6th Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers) (D/36579), RC Military Hospital, Earls Island, Galway See Thompson (13Jun1920/1). Private Cairns was from Newcastle upon Tyne. Buried New Cemetery, Bohermore, Galway (RC. B. 3. 11).134 Edward Stratton (13Jun1920/3) 17th Lancers, 17, Trooper Ballincollig, Cork Stratton, from London, was accidentally shot dead by a comrade at Ballincollig Cavalry Barracks. Buried Ballincollig military cemetery.135

15 JUNE 1920 Percival Samuel Lea Wilson (15Jun1920/1) RIC (65448), 33, Married, CoE Knockmullen, Gorey, Wexford From Kent, Wilson was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford. He joined the RIC on 3 August 1910. He had been stationed as a district inspector in Gorey since 1917, having previously served in Charleville, Cork. In 1915 Wilson joined the army as a musketry instructor. Promoted from lieutenant to captain, he served with the RIR. Following an accident, Wilson rejoined the RIC in 1917. During the Rising, Wilson, in Dublin on temporary duty, was in charge of about 250 prisoners at the Rotunda and allegedly mistreated Tom Clarke, forcibly straightening Clarke’s damaged arm when removing his coat and reopening the wound: Éamon Dore recalled that ‘A comrade of mine . . . who was lying beside me on the grass swore that “if that fellow lives through the war – meaning the 1914–18 war – I will search for him and kill him for this.” He and four others kept that promise.’ The comrade was Liam Tobin. Wilson was shot dead at 09:45 while returning home after buying a newspaper. The operation was supervised by Dublin IRA officers Frank Thorton and Liam Tobin. Joseph McMahon and John ‘Waxer’ Whelan were also involved. The RIC reported that

‘the murderers drove away laughing’ after the shooting, the first RIC fatality in Wexford. In gratitude for their support following her bereavement, Wilson’s widow Monica later presented the Irish Jesuit community with a religious painting. In 1993 this was definitively identified as Caravaggio’s lost masterpiece The Taking of Christ, now in the National Gallery of Ireland. Buried Putney Vale Cemetery, London, beside his father.136 SA: Clarke (3May1916/2), McMahon (15Aug 1920/3) Pierce Doogue (15Jun1920/2) RIC (60412), 42, Farmer, RC Belmullet, Mayo From Laois, Doogue joined the RIC on 1 October 1901. Initially allocated to Mayo, thereafter he served in Roscommon, Mayo a second time and Wicklow, before returning to Mayo in 1914, stationed in Ballycroy. Constable Doogue was on one-day leave at the Belmullet Fair. At around 21:00, he was found unconscious on his back outside Murphy’s pub on Main Street, with his head in the water channel near the kerb, after an altercation between RIC men and a drunken crowd. Michael Henry, then O/C 6th Battalion, North Mayo Brigade, later claimed that the IRA killed him, thinking him a plain-clothes detective. But his death was recorded as arising from dislocation of the neck caused by falling while drunk. No one had seen him assaulted. Buried Laois.137 Daniel Fitzgerald (15Jun1920/3) 28, Married, RC Leitrim Street, Cork Fitzgerald, of Wallace Avenue, Cork, was hit by one of two military lorries travelling close together at night.138

17 JUNE 1920 John J. Campion (17Jun1920/1) RIC (59524), 41, Farmer, RC Granard, Longford From Borris-in-Ossory, Laois, Campion joined the RIC on 16 May 1900, serving in

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Mayo and Belfast before transfer to Longford in 1911. Promoted to sergeant in 1913, he was stationed in Granard. He was pumping a bicycle tyre in the barracks at around 13:00 when his loaded revolver fell, discharging when it hit the flagstone. Shot through his wrist and heart, he died within minutes.139

18 JUNE 1920 Thomas Brett (18Jun1920/1) IRA, 25, Farmer’s son, RC MMH From Ballycahill, Thurles, Tipperary, Brett was an officer in the Drombane Company, Tipperary No. 2 Brigade. On 7 June Brett and a few comrades attempted to hold up an army officer from Nenagh, Lieutenant R. Gillespie, who was on a motorcycle. Brett, the only Volunteer armed, was hit several times. Gillespie, wounded in the thigh, rode off towards Thurles before colliding with a cow. A passing military lorry rescued him. Brought to Dublin with hip and thigh wounds, despite an operation Brett died of toxaemia around 08:30. Buried Drombane.140 Patrick Loughran (18Jun1920/2) IRA, 28, General dealer, RC RVHB Loughran, from Dungannon, Tyrone, was in an IRA party which attempted to trick their way into the RIC Barracks in Cookstown, Tyrone. The twelve-strong garrison opened fire, severely wounding and capturing Loughran. He died at 15:30 after an abdominal operation. Buried Dungannon. His mother secured a £75 gratuity.141

19 JUNE 1920 James McVeigh (19Jun1920/1) 60, Married with three children, RC Long Tower Street, Derry McVeigh lived at 27 Walker’s Square, Derry. His three sons fought in the war, one dying in France. His was the first death in a renewed bout of sectarian killing in Derry. He was shot in the neck when walking with his son-in-law up Long Tower Street towards Bishop’s Gate, allegedly by a loyalist named

Rankin firing from Fountain Street. Carried on a shutter to the City Infirmary at 21:00, he was pronounced dead. Rankin, a gasworks plumber, was acquitted of murder on 3 December 1920. On 19 June Thomas Farren of Long Tower Street died about 23:45, shot at his front door. About the same time Orangemen, led by a former army sergeant, marched along London Street and Bishop Street firing shots. As he entered the Diamond Hotel, Edward Price received two abdominal wounds, dying within minutes. The same loyalist group killed Thomas McLaughlin, one of three men going to the quays to ship a horse to Scotland: when McLaughlin stopped to look around, he was wounded by a shot from Butcher Street, lined with armed men. A woman who went to his aid was wounded. Next day, James Doherty, also Catholic, was killed. A semblance of order was restored by Crown forces on the evening of 20 June, by which time five people had been killed by loyalists. The same claims were made by the Derry Journal, the Derry People and Donegal News and the Irish Independent. Over the next two days, four other men died in violent circumstances, and Catholics were driven from their homes in unionist-dominated districts. After the president of St Columb’s College asked the local IRA to take over the building lest it be destroyed by the UVF, this became the scene of intense gunfire. The IRA were forced to withdraw when troops of the Norfolk Regiment arrived by special train on 23 June at Foyle Road Station, a destroyer was stationed on the Foyle opposite the Guildhall, and martial law was declared in the city. By 9 July, twenty people had died.142 RD: Doherty (20Jun1920/1), Farren (19Jun 1920/2), McLaughlin (19Jun1920/4), Mallet (24Jun1920/5), Price (19Jun1920/3)143 Thomas Farren (19Jun1920/2) 27, Fowl dealer, RC Long Tower Street, Derry See McVeigh (19Jun1920/1). Farren, of 17 Long Tower Street, was disabled, having a short leg.144

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Edward Andrew Price (19Jun1920/3) 45, Protestant Diamond Hotel, Derry See McVeigh (19Jun1920/1) Price, a Canadian war veteran of the Ambulance Corps, visiting Derry to see his brother, stayed at the Diamond Hotel.145 He was an Orangeman (Loyal Orange Lodge 858). Buried Derry City Cemetery. In July a special meeting of the City of Derry Grand Lodge of the Orange Order passed a vote of sympathy to Price’s brother Albert, a merchant on Shipquay Street.146 Thomas McLaughlin (19Jun1920/4) RC Butcher Gate, Derry See McVeigh (19Jun1920/1). McLaughlin lived at 7 Thomas Street.147

20 JUNE 1920 James Doherty (20Jun1920/1) 32, French polisher, RC Long Tower Street, Derry See McVeigh (19Jun1920/1). Doherty lived at 12 Tyreconnell Street. He had been talking with Janie O’Kane at the door of the house where Thomas Farren was being waked at about 05:25, when she saw a woman on Fountain Street pointing them out to a young gunman. Doherty fell, shouting that he was wounded, and died within minutes. Another shot was fired before the police arrived.148

21 JUNE 1920 David Brennan (21Jun1920/1) IRA, Farrier, RC Drumcollogher, Limerick ‘Dave’ Brennan from Broadford, Limerick, second lieutenant Broadford Company, West Limerick Brigade, was trapped inside Drumcollogher courthouse after petrol ignited prematurely. Police later found his charred remains, and a considerable quantity of burned clothing nearby.149 Volunteer Pat Buckley died hours later, and Volunteer William Danaher the next day. On 21 October 1921, the remains of the three were reinterred in Killagholehane Cemetery, Broadford, Limerick. They are

commemorated on a monument in Newcastle West. His father secured a gratuity of £50, later increased to £75.150 RD: Buckley (21Jun1920/2), Danaher (22Jun 1920/2) Patrick Buckley (21Jun1920/2) IRA, RC Drumcollogher, Limerick See Brennan (21Jun1920/1). Buckley came from Drumcollogher.151 Howard McKay (21Jun1920/3) 33, Farmer, CoI Junction of Lone Moor Road & Letterkenny Road, Derry Howard, son of Marshall McKay, governor of the Apprentice Boys of Derry, was captured on the Letterkenny road at about 14:00 by an armed group who brought him into the showgrounds. The caretaker of the Foyle Hill Hospital intervened, shouting, ‘Do not shoot.’ He was assured the group only intended to scare their captive. McKay was searched and then led out of the show grounds. The youngest captor, perhaps only fourteen or fifteen years old, left last. The caretaker then heard a shot. McKay’s corpse lay face down in a water channel until almost 18:00, when a passing hearse was commandeered. The following month a special meeting of the City of Derry Grand Lodge of the Orange Order passed a vote of sympathy. McKay’s father secured £500 compensation.152 James Brett (21Jun1920/4) RIC (54026), 50, Farmer, Married with four children, RC Clonee Wood, Bantry, Cork From Waterford, Constable Brett joined the RIC on 10 October 1889, serving in Mayo and Kerry before transfer to Cork. The constable was well known, having served in Timoleague, Leap and Dunmanway, and Bantry for eight years. At around 19:15 Sergeant Driscoll and four constables from Bantry were cycling towards their barracks, after serving jury papers. Fired on by Volunteers of the 5th (Bantry) Battalion, Brett was killed and Driscoll slightly wounded in the head. The other

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police returned fire. DI John Regan recalled Brett as ‘a big, quiet, inoffensive policeman, known as the sugar king, as he had been responsible for sugar coupons during the war. I had never heard of his being active against the IRA in any way.’ Mossy Donegan stated that the RIC engaged in drunken reprisals in Bantry that night during which Cornelius Crowley, a disabled boy, was shot in bed. Houses were burned and a bomb was thrown into Donegan’s home. Press reports indicated that this in fact took place on 25 June. Two months later, Donegan had the policeman responsible for shooting Crowley, Constable Haugh, killed. Brett’s widow secured £4,500 compensation.153 SA: Crowley (25Jun1920/1), Haugh (25Aug 1920/1) John Gallagher (21Jun1920/5) 19, Apprentice shipyard riveter, RC City Infirmary, Derry Gallagher, of 8 Pennyburn Terrace, one of a family of thirteen, was described by the Derry Journal as ‘a sober boy’. His father told an inquest that his dying son had described being accosted by five civilians near Queen Street at around 23:30 as he returned from the Picture Palace with a companion. One ran after Gallagher and shot him twice in the stomach. He crawled to the Great James Street infirmary. Gallagher’s father secured £120 compensation.154

22 JUNE 1920 William O’Kane (22Jun1920/1) 25, Railway ganger, RC Duke Street, Derry O’Kane, of 38 Upper Violet Street, Waterside, was walking to work with Patrick McLoone at about 06:45 on Spencer Road when James Gray produced a revolver and ordered them to turn around, asking them, ‘What are you?’ McLoone asked if he meant occupation to which Gray replied, ‘You know well what I mean.’ When McLoone and O’Kane said they were Catholic, Gray fired but missed. As they ran towards the bridge, Gray fired another five rounds, hitting O’Kane. As he lay dying in a house on Duke Street, O’Kane told his brother

that he had been shot by ‘Gray of Benvarden, the fellow with the one arm’. Constable Clarke and Dr Stevenson also heard this. In total, six witnesses claimed Gray was responsible. On 2 December, a Belfast jury took just seventeen minutes to find Gray ‘not guilty’. Unionist witnesses gave alibi evidence.155 William Danaher (22Jun1920/2) IRA, Agricultural labourer, RC Newmarket, Cork See Brennan (21Jun1920/1). Danaher was from Broadford. Buried Killagholehane Cemetery, Broadford. His father secured a £75 gratuity.156 Patrick J. Plunkett (22Jun1920/3) Commercial traveller, Married with four children, RC Bishop Street, Derry A Dubliner, Plunkett lived in Belfast, and was the Northern Ireland representative of Planter’s Margarine Company, Manchester. While in Derry on business he lodged with Robert Kennedy at 45 Lower Bennett Street. He was killed by a sniper at about 20:30, having left a friend’s house to return to his lodgings nearby. The Derry Journal reported that he had sent his wife a telegram assuring her that he was safe. His corpse lay in the street for two days. Buried Milltown Cemetery.157 Patrick Hearty (22Jun1920/4) RIC (54232), 53, Farmer, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin See Dunphy (19May1920/1). From Creggan, Armagh, Hearty joined the RIC on 24 February 1890, stationed in Ballinacurra RIC Barracks, Limerick. He was promoted to sergeant in 1908. Admitted to hospital on 20 May, Hearty died on 22 June of heart failure and bronchial pneumonia following gunshot wounds. Five family members shared compensation of £1,450.158

23 JUNE 1920 Peter Campbell (23Jun1920/1) Youth, RC Fish Lane, Derry Campbell, from Dungiven, Tyrone, was being rowed across the Foyle at around 14:15 with

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five others when hit in the head close to the landing stage by a bullet fired from the Waterside direction.159 William Rankin (23Jun1920/2) 56, Bricklayer, Married with children, CoI Workhouse Infirmary, Glendermott Road, Derry Rankin, of 6 Barrack Street, was shot in the chest by a sniper on Barrack Street shortly after leaving his father-in-law’s house to feed horses in the GNR stables, falling into the arms of Mary Pollock. He died at around 18:30.160 Margaret Mills (23Jun1920/3) Married, Presbyterian 30 Ferguson Street, Derry Margaret Mills of 6 Orchard Row, Derry, was shot in the chest by a sniper while walking along Ferguson Street during the evening. She died a few minutes later in Albert Duff ’s house.161

24 JUNE 1920 George Caldwell (24Jun1920/1) 13,162 Schoolboy, RC Nazareth House, Great James Street, Derry Caldwell, an orphan living in Nazareth House, run by the Sisters of Nazareth, died at about 13:15 in the dormitory, which faced Foyle Road, when hit by a stray bullet from a service rifle.163 Augustus Austin (24Jun1920/2) 27, Ex-serviceman, boot worker, Married with three children, RC Union Street, Waterside, Derry From Newcastle upon Tyne, Austin was a convert to Catholicism. He lived in a house on Cross Street owned by a Protestant who was warned by letter to evict the ‘turncoat’. Driven out by a mob, Austin and his family took refuge in the house of John Mulhern. At around 18:15 Austin and his brother-in-law ventured out to get food. He was shot through the heart by a sniper, possibly firing from Bond Street, at the corner of Union Street. His widow secured £750 compensation, with £250 for each of her three children.164

John McKinney (24Jun1920/3) 60, Labourer, Widowed, RC City Infirmary, Derry ‘Jack’ McKinney lived on Cross Street, Derry. A servant girl saw him walking along the otherwise deserted Clooney Terrace when shots rang out and he fell, wounded in the neck. Florence O’Sullivan went to his assistance. A priest administered the last rites.165 Robert McLaughlin (24Jun1920/4) 28, Barber, Married, RC Bishop Street, Derry Robert McLaughlin was shot while going to see if relatives were safe, a bullet passing through his neck and out through his eye. His body lay in Bishop Street for some hours.166 Patrick Mallet (24Jun1920/5) 25, Shipyard worker, RC City Infirmary, Derry See McVeigh (19Jun1920/1). Mallet lived at 14 Deanery Street. He was hit in the abdomen shortly after 23:00 on 19 June, when walking up Long Tower Street by a shot from the direction of Fountain Street.167

25 JUNE 1920 Cornelius Crowley (25Jun1920/1) 20, RC Barrack Road, Bantry, Cork ‘Con’ Crowley was brother of a prominent Sinn Féiner and a local councillor. Following the killing of Constable Brett, a series of raids were staged on the houses of Sinn Féiners in the early hours of 25 June. At around 01:30 four masked men rushed into the Crowley home. They shot the ‘deformed and delicate’ Con in his bedroom. Buried Abbey graveyard, Bantry.168 SA: Brett (21Jun1920/4) Michael Horan (25Jun1920/2) RIC (61494), 38, Farmer, RC Tipperary From Boyle, Roscommon, Horan joined the RIC on 22 November 1905, serving in Tyrone, Sligo and Tyrone again. He was stationed in Beragh village. He was shot dead while on temporary duty.169

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27 JUNE 1920

1 JULY 1920

Joseph McGlinchey (27Jun1920/1) 16, RC City Infirmary, Derry McGlinchey, son of James McGlinchey of 1 Nelson Street, commander of the Irish Volunteers in Derry, died of head wounds received when shot in the head on Long Tower Street around 05:15 on 21 June, possibly while attempting to remove a Union Jack from a lamp post. The shot came from the Fountain Street direction. McGlinchey’s father secured £150 compensation.170

Samuel Perrott (1Jul1920/1) RIC (54065), 39, Farmer, Married with six children, Methodist Donegall Pass RIC Barracks, Belfast From Bandon, Cork, Perrott joined the RIC on 25 October 1899, serving in Kerry and the RIC Reserve before transferring to Belfast in 1898. Promoted to detective-sergeant in 1911, in 1918 he became a head constable, serving in Galway until returning to Donegall Pass Barracks in Belfast. He was one of the city’s best-known policemen. The Irish News reported that Perrott was seriously injured by a stone on Utility Street when a crowd on Sandy Row confronted police. His widow secured £750 compensation.174

29 JUNE 1920 James Dobbyn (29Jun1920/1) 32, Carter, Married with one child, Protestant City Infirmary, Derry Dobbyn, of 7 York Street, was attacked by six men near the GNR station at 05:30 while on his way to work in what appeared to be a sectarian attack. At 06:10 the station nightwatchman heard moaning. He and two others found Dobbyn near the quayside, entirely covered in mud except for his head and one arm. They lifted him into a boat. He had a gunshot wound, a broken back and scalp wounds. He said he did not know his assailants, some of whom were masked, and to whom he had offered no provocation.171 Hugh McFeely and Robert Doyle, labourers from Bridge Street, were twice tried for this killing in Belfast. On each occasion the jury could not agree a verdict, and they were released in June 1921. Mrs Dobbyn gave birth in August but the baby only lived for six weeks, and she herself died in November. The guardian of Dobbyn’s eight-year-old daughter Lily Eileen Dobbyn secured £1,000 compensation.172

30 JUNE 1920 Eliza Moore (30Jun1920/1) 55, Married with children, Presbyterian Workhouse Infirmary, Glendermott Road, Derry Eliza Moore died from chest, neck and shoulder gunshot wounds received at around 07:30 on 24 June when she answered the door at 105 Bishop Street.173

Patrick Smyth (1Jul1920/2) Connaught Rangers, RC Jalandar, Punjab, India Private Smyth, who enlisted in 1914, was killed during unsuccessful attempts by mutineers led by Private James Daly (2Nov1920/4) to seize control of the armoury at Solon camp. Peter Sears also died. Soldiers in a detachment of the Connaught Rangers, stationed at Solon hill-station, refused to obey orders after news reached them on 29 June of a mutiny the previous day by other members of the battalion at Jullundur, about two hundred miles distant. They were outraged at accounts of British repression in Ireland which reached them via newspapers and letters. After negotiation, a chaplain persuaded them to surrender their unloaded weapons. At around midnight, James Daly, executed in November for his role, led about fifty men armed with sticks and bayonets towards the magazine. The men, some of whom had been drinking, were challenged by Lieutenant O’Brien, commanding a picket of troops, who fired revolver shots over their heads. One of these probably struck Smyth, said to be an unlucky onlooker: speaking in 1982, a comrade recalled ‘poor auld Smyth, he had nothing to do with it, he was away on a drunken tear and he only came back the night of the mutiny and he was at the back of the crowd and he

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was shot’. Private Sears, who rushed forward carrying a bayonet, refused to halt and was shot dead. His comrades then withdrew to their accommodation, where they were arrested next morning without incident. Despite evidence indicating that Smyth was a bystander accidentally killed, British authorities refused to pay compensation. His sister eventually received a small Irish pension under legislation passed in 1935. On 30 October 1970, the remains of Smyth, Sears and Daly were flown to Dublin. Smyth and Sears were reinterred next day in GC.175 RD: Sears (1Jul1920/3), Daly (2Nov1920/4) Peter Sears (1Jul1920/3) Connaught Rangers, 19, RC Jalandar, Punjab, India See Smyth (1Jul1920/2). Sears, who enlisted during the Great War, was from the Neale, Mayo. William Entwistle (1Jul1920/4) RMLI, 23 Castletownbere, Cork The CFR lists the death through an unexplained gunshot wound of Private Entwistle, of Sheffield, who enlisted in 1915. Buried St Finian’s Cemetery, Castletownbere.176

2 JULY 1920 Robert Tobin (2Jul1920/1) RIC (57569), 45, Married with six children, RC Newtown Cross, Dualla, Tipperary Tobin, a police sergeant’s son from Wexford, joined the RIC on 2 February 1896, serving in Dublin, Tipperary and Galway before returning to Tipperary in April 1903. Stationed in Ballinure, he was promoted to sergeant in 1918. Tommy O’Donovan led an attack on an RIC party at Newtown Cross, midway between Dualla and Ballinure. At around 16:30, the RIC party arrived at the crossroads, unexpectedly cycling in extended order. The first policeman challenged dismounted and shouted: ‘Don’t shoot.’ But Tobin and Constable Brady opened fire. O’Donovan and Burke killed Tobin and hit Brady, an ex-serviceman who despite severe abdominal wounds recovered Tobin’s revolver and haversack, which contained the

month’s pay for the Ballinure station, and escaped on his bicycle. He was later awarded the constabulary medal. Buried Killenaule, Tipperary. Tobin’s widow secured £4,600 compensation.177 SA: O’Donovan (31Oct1920/5)

4 JULY 1920 Richard Lumley (4Jul1920/1) 60, Labourer, RC Holycross, Tipperary ‘Dick’ Lumley from Cork lived in Rearcross, Tipperary. On 3 July he left work at the Abbey Hotel, Holycross, to attend the wake of Miss Anastasia Stakelum, a local publican. Standing by the bridge in the early hours of 4 July, he was riddled with bullets by a military party coming to the aid of Holycross RIC Barracks which the IRA had attacked. Jim Leahy, O/C Tipperary No. 2 Brigade, said that soldiers shot Lumley without warning. A Dublin Castle report asserted that he was in a group which had attacked Crown forces. Buried Holycross Abbey.178 Michael Small (4Jul1920/2) IRA, 33, Farmer, RC Shevry, Upperchurch, Thurles, Tipperary From Gortnacran, Borrisoleigh, Tipperary, Small was captain Borrisoleigh (C) Company, Tipperary No. 2 Brigade. He was in a section of Volunteers waiting in ambush for a police ration lorry. As the target did not arrive when expected, Small was permitted to return home to attend early Mass and milk his cows. He had not gone far when the lorry appeared. His comrades ignored instructions and opened fire prematurely. Small was spotted as he crossed a field and was shot dead. Buried Ileigh Churchyard, Borrisoleigh.179 Patrick Grant (4Jul1920/3) Farmer, RC Mullaghbawn, Armagh John Grant, captain Mullaghbawn Company, recalled the shooting dead of his cousin, Patrick, by the RIC: ‘His only offence . . . was the natural instinct to evade the danger of capture by a band of undisciplined ruffians wearing government uniform.’180

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5 JULY 1920 James Dunne (5Jul1920/1) 42, Miller, RC Ferns, Wexford Dunne,181 from Ballintray, Courtown Harbour, worked for D. V. Bolger, Milltown Mills, Ferns. He and James Deacon, a blacksmith, were in Thomas Dunbar’s pub. At about 21:45, Constable Henry Lenihan, newly arrived in Ferns, challenged Dunne to a fight. The latter told Lenihan to mind his own business. Lenihan apparently drew his revolver and fired two shots, one striking the ground and the other the ceiling. Dunne then left to avoid further trouble. Lenihan, nicknamed ‘the red [haired] policeman’, followed him. They fought. Lenihan was knocked down, got up, and fired four shots at Dunne. Lenihan was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to seven years penal servitude. Buried St Michael’s Cemetery, Gorey.182 James William Henry Parfitt183 (5Jul1920/2) Worcestershire Regiment (73326), 18, CoE KGVH From Pensnett, Staffordshire, Private Parfitt, stationed in Portobello Barracks, was accidentally shot by Private J. T. Webb. Buried St Mark’s Churchyard, Pensnett, Staffordshire.184

7 JULY 1920 Thomas Foster (7Jul1920/1) RIC (71433), Ex-serviceman, 31, Married, Protestant Foster, from London, joined the RIC in May 1920. He shot himself with his revolver in unknown circumstances. A jury concluded that he killed himself while ‘temporarily insane’.185

8 JULY 1920 Thomas Feery (8Jul1920/1) 60, Labourer, RC Ballycommon, Tullamore, Offaly Feery, originally from Westmeath, lived in Ballycommon. Sergeant Noel Greenfield, King’s (Shropshire Light Infantry), led a party searching for men who had earlier disarmed a soldier. He knocked at Feery’s

house and, hearing no answer, shot the lock off. He found Feery wounded inside. Buried Ballycommon Graveyard.186

9 JULY 1920 William John Penson-Harris (9Jul1920/1) RFA, 26, CoE Fermoy Military Hospital, Cork The CFR describes how Lance-Sergeant Penson-Harris inadvertently discharged a Very pistol while on patrol on 28 June, causing severe burns to his leg, leading to his eventual death from acute septicaemia. Buried St Andrew’s Churchyard, Great Rollright, Oxfordshire.187

c. 10 JULY 1920 Michael Kennedy188 (10Jul1920/1) IRA, Ex-serviceman, RC Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick From Bank Place, Nenagh, Tipperary, Kennedy served in 1st (Nenagh) Battalion, Tipperary No. 1 Brigade. During an attack on Borrisoleigh RIC Barracks around midnight on 26 June, Kennedy was detailed to break holes in the roof. He was hit in the leg by a shot from his own side. Dr Louis Courtney had him admitted to Barrington’s Hospital under the name ‘Gleeson’.189 Buried Kilbarron, Nenagh, Tipperary.190

11 JULY 1920 Alexander Will (11Jul1920/1) RIC (70974), 24, Agricultural labourer, exserviceman, Presbyterian Rathmore, Kerry From Forfar, Scotland, Will joined the RIC on 30 March 1920, stationed in Rathmore. Manus Moynihan, captain E (Rathmore) Company, recalled a surprise attack on Rathmore RIC Barracks. An ambitious scheme to refit an antique cannon was abandoned in favour of using a hod to drop a mine over the steel shutters that protected the barrack windows. The resulting explosion killed Will, but the garrison held out. Buried Aberdeen. Will was posthumously awarded the constabulary medal. His mother Jane secured £1,000 compensation.191

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Mary Anne Ward (11Jul1920/2) 61, Married with children, CoI Cat Fort, Cork The CFR records how, as Mary Anne Ward and her caretaker husband were forced from their accommodation in the decrepit barracks known as Cat Fort by an IRA party, she collapsed from heart failure. The raiders helped carry her to a nearby premises, but nothing could be done.192

12 JULY 1920 John Godfrey Stokes (12Jul1920/1) RIC (71609), 21, Ex-serviceman, RC Rearcross RIC Barracks, Tipperary From Newry, Down, Stokes served with the RIR in France and Belgium. On demobilisation, he joined the RIC on 31 May 1920, posted to Rearcross, Tipperary. He was the first defence of barracks sergeant killed by the IRA. A large IRA party mounted a sustained attack on Rearcross RIC Barracks, which had been well prepared under Stokes’s direction. He was shot dead as he attempted to close the door to the raiders. The attack ended at about 06:00: although the barracks was destroyed, the garrison held out in an adjacent building. Buried St Mary’s Old Chapel Cemetery, Newry.193

13 JULY 1920 John Dwyer (13Jul1920/1) 48, Caretaker, Married, RC Annesgrove, Drumbane, Tipperary Dwyer was caretaker for W. P. Hanly of Lanespark, Thurles. He was shot dead at his gate at about 06:00 after searching for his employer’s cattle.194 His ‘terrified wife and children, who were getting dressed at the time, ran out on hearing the shots but saw nobody’. Ellen Dwyer deposed that there had been trouble over an eviction. Her husband had received threatening letters, and people were warned not to associate with him. A newspaper report was headed ‘Terrible sequel to land agitation’. Éamon Ó Duibhir of Tipperary No. 3 Brigade later remarked: ‘If it were members of the IRA shot him, they did so without orders, and it simply meant that they were growing up with the notion that they could act on their own

and regardless of national direction.’ Hanly, unable to find a replacement caretaker, instead sold the lands.195 Michael Lenihan (13Jul1920/2) RIC (63592), 34, Clerk, RC Kilmore Cross, Dingle, Kerry From Cork, Lenihan joined the RIC on 4 January 1908, serving in Limerick and Tipperary before being posted to Dingle in 1919. DI Fallon, Lenihan and two other constables were ambushed at Kilmore Cross, where the road from Brandon formed a T-junction with the Tralee to Dingle road. When the police tender came abreast of the ambush site twelve Volunteers opened fire. Constables Lenihan and Roche were killed in the first volley. Fallon tried to run towards Brandon but was captured. The IRA carried off some Mills bombs, four rifles, a revolver and a quantity of ammunition. Buried MJC.196 RD: Roche (13Jul1920/3) George Roche (13Jul1920/3) RIC (62449), 32, Farmer, RC Kilmore Cross, Dingle, Kerry See Lenihan (13Jul1920/2). From Clare, Constable Roche joined the RIC on 18 March 1907, serving in Tipperary and from 1917 in Dingle. Buried Clare.197 Patrick Fahy (13Jul1920/4) RIC (69396), 25, Farmer, RC Foynes, Limerick From Rathmore, Galway, Fahy joined the RIC on 2 April 1918, stationed in Foynes. Constable Fahy, who had submitted his resignation, died from abdominal wounds at around 20:00, after a party of six RIC men were attacked at Loughill, between Glin and Foynes, by the West Limerick Brigade.198 When the police arrived in Foynes with their dying comrade they ran amok, firing shots throughout the village.199

14 JULY 1920 Martin Clarke (14Jul1920/1) RIC (64977), 31, RC Moneen, Roscommon, Roscommon From Cork, Clarke joined the RIC on 20 September 1909, stationed in Mount Talbot, Roscommon.

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Clarke was one of two constables who travelled from Lanesboro for duty at Roscommon Assizes on 11 July, as the tallest policemen in each barracks were required to form a guard of honour for the judge. Michael Ryan, O/C 3rd Battalion, Longford Brigade, said that ‘Kearney, the policeman in the Barracks, told me about them coming. . . . It was never intended to shoot them.’ When constables Clarke and Macken passed the house in which the IRA were sheltering, they were ordered to halt. But they cycled hard past the ambush position. The Volunteers fired. Clarke fell off his bicycle into the ditch. He encouraged Macken to ‘Let them have it’ till his ammunition ran out. Clarke died a few minutes later. Macken hid in a nearby house, where the IRA found him. He then grabbed a captor’s shotgun, which went off. Macken fell, feigned death, and later returned to Lanesboro. The IRA captured two rifles and ammunition. They hid the bicycles in the Shannon, recovering them later for use. Buried Ballygar, Galway.200

17 JULY 1920 Gerald Bryce Ferguson Smyth (17Jul1920/1) RIC, 34, Army officer, CoI Cork Club, South Mall, Cork Smyth, born in Dalhousie, Punjab, son of George Smyth of Milltown House, Banbridge, Down, was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Commissioned in the Royal Engineers on 29 July 1905, he fought in France, losing his left arm at Givenchy in September 1914. Promoted to captain, he fought at the Battle of the Somme and other major engagements, securing a DSO and Bar. In October 1918 he was promoted to temporary brigadier-general. He was wounded five times in total. In June 1920 the new police adviser General Tudor appointed him divisional police commissioner for Munster. On 19 June, Smyth infamously addressed police in Listowel, Kerry, prompting Constable Jeremiah Mee to place his revolver on the table and refuse to do his duty after Smyth had said:

You may make mistakes occasionally and innocent persons may be shot, but this cannot be helped and you are bound to get the right persons sometimes. The more you shoot, the better I will like you, and I assure you that no policeman will get into trouble for shooting any man.

Smyth had only just returned from explaining himself to the Irish Office in London when he was killed in the Cork County Club by Seán Culhane, Cork No. 1 Brigade. Buried Newry Road, Banbridge, Down. His funeral sparked violent attacks on nationalists in Banbridge, Dromore and Belfast. On 12 October his younger brother George died in a shootout with Dan Breen and Seán Treacy at ‘Fernside’ in Drumcondra, Dublin.201 SA: Mitchell (23Jul1920/1), Smyth (12Oct 1920/1), Treacy (14Oct1920/3) James F. Masterson (17Jul1920/2) RIC (62862), 35, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Sweep’s Cross, Newcastle West, Limerick From Leitrim, Constable Masterson joined the RIC on 2 September 1907, serving in Armagh, Galway, and Newcastle West, Limerick. Jeremiah Kiely recalled the killing of this ‘particularly obnoxious RIC man’, who died while travelling on leave to Galway by motor car. His driver staged a series of breakdowns to give members of the Newcastle West Battalion an opportunity to kill Masterson, who was in civilian clothes and unarmed. The driver was then tied to a tree to disguise his complicity. Reidy recalled trouble over this killing because it transpired that Masterson was an IRA intelligence source. The following night, police burned the Carnegie Library in Newcastle West and partially destroyed the creamery. Masterson’s widow Delia secured £4,249 compensation, of which £1,200 was for the benefit of her children.202

18 JULY 1920 James Burke (18Jul1920/1) 40, Ex-serviceman, labourer, RC North Main Street, Cork Burke worked in a chemical plant. The shooting of Divisional Commissioner Smyth

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on 17 July precipitated intense security activity. After Burke and two companions had a ‘drunken squabble’ with two off-duty officers, a detachment of soldiers attacked and bayoneted Burke on North Main Street. Troops turned out at 21:30 and several civilians, military and police were hurt in street clashes. John O’Brien, a Volunteer, was killed by machine-gun fire on King [now MacCurtain] Street while going to help a woman. Members of the Cork branch of the Demobilised Soldiers and Sailors Federation were among almost five thousand exservicemen and others in Burke’s funeral cortège to St Joseph’s Cemetery, Ballyphehane, Cork.203 RD: O’Brien (18Jul1920/2). SA: Smyth (17Jul1920/1) John P. O’Brien (18Jul1920/2) IRA, 18, Messenger, RC King [now MacCurtain] Street, Cork See Burke (18Jul1920/1). ‘Jackie’ O’Brien was an orphan living with his aunt at 8 Green Lane, Blackpool. A GS&WR messenger, he served in 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade. Buried SFC, Cork.204

19 JULY 1920 James Burke (19Jul1920/1) RIC (66147), 28, RC Gallagh, Brownsgrove, Tuam, Galway From Limerick, Burke joined the RIC on 10 October 1911, serving in Roscommon, Clare and Kerry before transfer to Galway, stationed in Dunmore. Twenty Volunteers under Michael (Con) Fogarty, O/C North Galway Brigade, ambushed Dunmore police as they returned from the Galway Assizes. The police van stopped at a tree trunk blocking the road. Fogarty claimed that the police opened fire when called on to surrender, whereas the Irish Independent reported that constables Burke and Carey were mortally wounded when they left their vehicle to clear the obstruction. Burke, shot in the head, died instantly. Wounded in the chest, Carey

died on the roadside. Sergeant Beatty and Constable Brennan returned fire, but surrendered after about ten minutes. Blindfolded, they were ordered to walk back to Tuam. The Tuam RIC burned parts of the town in reprisal, and claims for damages amounting to almost £73,000 were subsequently lodged. The police believed that Michael Hoade, James Kirwin and William Walsh were involved in this ambush. All three were killed while supposedly evading arrest in January 1921. Buried Clonoghill Cemetery, Birr, Offaly.205 RD: Carey (19Jul1920/2). SA: Hoade (22Jan1921/7), Kirwin (22Jan1921/6), Walsh (22Jan1921/5) Patrick Carey (19Jul1920/2) RIC (66045), 29, Farmer, RC Gallagh, Brownsgrove, Tuam, Galway See Burke (19Jul1920/1). From Skibbereen, Cork, Carey joined the RIC on 17 July 1911, stationed in Dunmore, Galway. Buried Caheragh, Skibbereen.206

c. 19 JULY 1920 Thomas Hannon207 (19Jul1920/3) RIC,208 37, RIC pensioner, farmer, Married with five children, RC Ballyduff, Philipstown [Daingean], Offaly Hannon, from Offaly, was a postman before joining the RIC on 15 December 1905 (No. 61547), stationed in Meath. He resigned in 1915 to run a farm. He became a special constable in 1916, stationed in Clonbulloge. Hannon left the barracks alone at about 10:30, unarmed and in civilian clothes. He never returned; searches proved fruitless. His bicycle and overcoat were found on the roadside. He was held captive for some time before being shot. Among his killers were Charles Mallin, Michael Fennelly and John Hickey of the Offaly No. 1 Brigade. It was alleged that Crown forces killed Thomas McKeever in reprisal. A year later Hannon’s badly decomposed body was found in a bog at Ballyduff. His hands bound and a sack tied

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around his neck, he had been shot in the head.209 SA: McKeever (20May1921/2)

21 JULY 1920 James Osmund Airy (21Jul1920/1) Manchester Regiment, 36, Army officer, Married, Protestant Ballyvourney, Cork Airy, from Birmingham, was educated at Repton School and Sandhurst. One BMH witness claimed that Airy had just come to Macroom from Fermoy, where ‘a short time previous [sic] he had criminally assaulted a girl coming home from school . . . the authorities were of the opinion that he had been killed . . . by the Fermoy IRA for that offence’. At Coolavokig, about four miles outside Macroom, a rations lorry carrying Airy and eight other soldiers was ambushed by about thirty Volunteers who had lain in position for three days. Firing from both sides of the road, they wounded four soldiers, among them Airy and Private E. F. Barlow (64159). Driver Ball, although also wounded, was able to bring the lorry through the ambush while soldiers returned fire. Although its fuel tank was pierced by a bullet and ran dry outside the village, the lorry was recovered by the military. Airy died at 18:00 from abdominal wounds.210 Private Barlow succumbed to his wounds on 2 August. Buried Cork Military Cemetery. His widow Gladys Maud secured £7,000 compensation.211 RD: Barlow (2Aug1920/1) Michael Conway (21Jul1920/2) IRA, 22, Baker, RC Ennistymon, Clare Conway lived with his parents in Caherlohan near Ennistymon. He had reportedly booked a passage to the US. At about 22:30, Conway was among about a dozen young men who attempted to disarm two officers. One was knocked to the ground but recovered, and both officers then fired. Conway was shot through the back of the head and killed outright. James McMahon was wounded. Conway’s brother, an Oblate Father home

on holiday, gave him the last rites. Buried Killilagh, Clare.212 Thomas McDonnell (21Jul1920/3) IRA, 27, Agricultural labourer, RC Corracunna Cross, Mitchelstown, Cork Police claimed that at about 22:30 a lorry containing soldiers was fired at by a party of men with five girls at Corracunna Cross, outside Mitchelstown. The military replied, killing McDonnell, shot through the neck and spine, and Dan McGrath, shot through the head. The Cork Examiner gave a very different account: unarmed young people were amusing themselves with dancing and cards when attacked by the military, who drove off after firing about fifty shots. Buried Glanworth, Cork.213 RD: McGrath (21Jul1920/4) Daniel McGrath (21Jul1920/4) IRA, 18, Agricultural labourer, RC Corracunna Cross, Mitchelstown, Cork See McDonnell (21Jul1920/3). Buried Kilbehenny, Limerick.214 Francis Finnegan (21Jul1920/5) 40, Foundry worker, RC Kashmir Road, Belfast Finnegan, of Lower Clonard Road, Belfast, worked in Travers’ Foundry. There were widespread disturbances in Belfast during July, fuelled by press coverage of increasing IRA violence in Munster and Connacht and the killing in Cork city of G. B. F. Smyth, police commissioner for Munster. In reaction to the mass expulsion of Catholic shipyard workers, and widespread attacks on Catholic property (particularly pubs), trams taking Protestant workers home were attacked by crowds throwing paving stones in Cromac Street. Loyalists then gathered in the Donegall Pass area and a riot ensued. As darkness fell there was intermittent gunfire. Further disturbances broke out across Belfast. Finnegan was killed on Kashmir Road by a ricochet after troops fired. The military claimed that they were responding to sniping. Buried Milltown Cemetery.215 RD: Devlin (21Jul1920/7), Noade (21Jul 1920/6). SA: Smyth (17Jul1920/1)

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Margaret Noade (21Jul1920/6) 27, Married, RC Bond Street, Belfast See Finnegan (21Jul1920/5). ‘Maggie’ Noade, of 3 Anderson Street, was fatally wounded when a policeman stumbled, accidentally discharging his revolver. Buried Milltown Cemetery.216 Bernard Devlin (21Jul1920/7) 18, Ex-serviceman, RC MIHB See Finnegan (21Jul1920/5). Devlin, of 39 Alexandra Street, was reportedly returning from a greyhound race meeting. Buried Milltown Cemetery.217 Thomas Robert Armstrong (21Jul1920/8) RIC (53611), 56, Farmer, Married with eleven children, Presbyterian Ballina, Mayo From Cavan, Armstrong joined the RIC on 13 February 1889, posted to Galway. He was transferred to Ballina in 1898. Sergeant Armstrong and three constables were returning to barracks at 23:35 when challenged by an IRA group which had intended to disarm them. Constable Barnes opened fire. The Volunteers responded, killing Armstrong and wounding Constable Regan. Buried Protestant cemetery, Ballina. His widow secured £4,500 compensation.218

22 JULY 1920 James (Séamus) Cogan (22Jul1920/1) IRA, 26, Farmer, RC Oldcastle, Meath Cogan, O/C 5th (Stonefield) Battalion, Meath Brigade, lived in Clonsilla. He and others arrested John Farrelly, a suspected cattle thief. In the early hours, their commandeered motor car ran into a military checkpoint. A short exchange of firing ensued. Cogan, hit in the head, died instantly. Although wounded in the hand, the driver managed to retain control for a short distance before the car ran into a field. Harry Sheridan and the prisoner Farrelly were also wounded. The military later found Cogan’s body in a nearby house. A Dáil publication instanced Cogan’s death and the release of his prisoner as evidence of

an unholy British alliance ‘with the criminal classes’, a ‘nihilist expedient for destroying law and order’.219 Buried Ballinlough.220 Henry Hennessy (22Jul1920/2) 48, Factory hand, RC Kashmir Road, Belfast Rioting resumed in Belfast. Six Catholics and four Protestants were killed. Hennessy, of 22 Ardilea Street, died as he returned from work at Mackies Foundry. A loyalist sniper was thought responsible. The military claimed that Clonard Monastery was being used by snipers. Father Michael Morgan was walking along a corridor at around 18:15 when struck in the throat by a bullet from a Lewis gun. At about 18:30, John Downey was shot dead after leaving home to visit his sister on Kashmir Road. In the vicinity of Cupar Street, Alexander McGovan, William Godfrey and William Dunning were killed at around 19:00. As James Conn went to help lift Dunning’s body, a soldier shot him. Machine-gun fire killed Thomas Robinson at the corner of Kashmir Road and fatally wounded Joseph Giles on Bombay Street. John Joseph McCartney, wounded on Kashmir Road, died two days later.221 RD: Conn (22Jul1920/7), Downey (22Jul 1920/4), Dunning (22Jul1920/9), Giles (22Jul 1920/12), Godfrey (22Jul1920/11), McCartney (24Jul1920/2), McGovan (22Jul1920/10), Morgan (22Jul1920/8), Robinson (22Jul 1920/6) William John Sterritt (22Jul1920/3) 18, Presbyterian Banbridge, Down During rioting in Banbridge, a crowd beset the home of Daniel Monaghan, a prominent Sinn Féiner. He and his sons James and Donald fired at the attackers. Minnie Shields, aged about twenty, was wounded in the shoulder. Sterritt was shot in the head. The three Monaghans were arrested after a two-hour siege. Their premises was wrecked, and some pubs looted. The Monaghans were later acquitted of discharging firearms endangering military and police, but fined for possessing firearms and ammunition.222

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John Downey223 (22Jul1920/4) 20, RC Kashmir Road, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). Buried Milltown Cemetery.224 James Stewart (22Jul1920/5) 18, Apprentice engineer, Protestant Newtownards Road, Belfast Stewart, from Clydebank, Scotland, was staying with relatives on Frome Street. He was shot dead while walking down the Newtownards Road with his cousin. Nellie McGregor and John Doyle were fatally wounded.225 RD: Doyle (10Aug1920/2), McGregor (25Jul 1920/4) Thomas Robinson (22Jul1920/6) 33, Married, RC Kashmir Road, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). Robinson and his wife Catherine lived at 6 Kane Street. Hit in the head at the corner of Clonard Gardens and Kashmir Road by fire from a military Lewis gun, he died quickly. Buried Milltown Cemetery.226 James Albert Conn (22Jul1920/7) 33, Married, CoI Cupar Street, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). Conn and his wife Agnes lived at 47 James Street. He was killed by the military.227 Michael Morgan (22Jul1920/8) 28, Clergyman, RC Clonard Monastery, Clonard Gardens, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). Morgan, a Redemptorist monk, was a son of James Morgan of Drumavaddy, Cavan. He had lived in Clonard Monastery since 1919.228 William Dunning (22Jul1920/9) 23, Ex-serviceman, Married, Methodist Cupar Street, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). Dunning, once of the RIR, of 76 Bellevue Street, was shot by the military at the junction of Kashmir Road and Cupar Street.229

Alexander McGovan230 (22Jul1920/10) 25, Married, Protestant Bombay Street, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). McGovan and his wife Mary lived at 5 Tralee Street. Buried Belfast City Cemetery.231 William Godfrey (22Jul1920/11) 46, Widowed, Protestant Cupar Street, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). Godfrey lived on Argyle Street.232 Joseph Giles (22Jul1920/12) 19, Ex-serviceman, RC Bombay Street, Belfast See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). Giles lived at 11 Kashmir Road. Buried Milltown Cemetery.233 Albert McAuley (22Jul1920/13) 19, RC Eliza Street, Belfast A well-known greyhound trainer, McAuley, from Stanfield Street, was standing in Eliza Street when shot after troops fired on stone-throwing youths. Buried Milltown Cemetery.234

23 JULY 1920 Wesley Mitchell (23Jul1920/1) 30, CoI Dromore, Down When a police patrol discharged their revolvers to disperse a crowd of rioters attacking Catholic homes, Mitchell was shot dead.235 SA: Smyth (17Jul1920/1) William McCune (23Jul1920/2) 39, Ex-serviceman, Protestant Newtownards Road, Belfast McCune, of 22 Clonallen Street, who had spent sixteen years in the army, was shot when soldiers guarding the convent of the Sisters of the Cross and Passion opened fire on a crowd attempting to burn down the building. At least twelve people were wounded, three fatally.236 RD: Houston (12Aug1920/1), Weston (23Jul 1920/3)

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Mary Ann Weston (23Jul1920/3) 29, Mill worker, Presbyterian RVHB See McCune (23Jul1920/2). Mary Ann Weston of 24 Welland Street was carried into her neighbour Andrew Kirkland’s house at about 22:20, shot in the back.237

Charles Burdett Yates (24Jul1920/3) RMLI, 24 Ballyvaughan Coastguard Station, Clare Corporal Cleaver, from Coventry, enlisted in 1914. He was murdered by Private Helmore, who was sentenced to death, later commuted to life imprisonment, in February 1921. Buried Coventry.241

William McGrath (23Jul1920/4) 30, Ex-serviceman, dockyard labourer, Married with three children, RC Mercy Hospital, Cork McGrath, who had lost part of one hand serving in the Leinster Regiment, lived at 12 Coach Street. His youngest child was only a few days old. On 18 July, he was shot for no reason from a military vehicle near North Gate Bridge, Cork. His widow secured £1,500 compensation, and each of his children £300.238

John Crowley (24Jul1920/4) Ex-serviceman, RC Vicinity of Bandon, Cork The CFR states that Crowley, of Lissagroom near Upton, was kidnapped by the IRA on 10 July, executed by the Knockavilla company of the Bandon Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade, on 24 July, and his remains concealed. He was alleged to have given information concerning the Upton ambush while under interrogation.242

24 JULY 1920

25 JULY 1920

Daniel McGee (24Jul1920/1) 34, Body-maker, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin McGee, of 20 Inchicore Road, was cycling eastwards along Victoria Quay during the afternoon when struck by a military motor car travelling westwards. The vehicle was carrying Sir Warren Fisher, permanent secretary to the Treasury, and his colleague Sir Malcolm Ramsay, in Dublin to discuss the reform of Dublin Castle. They drove McGee to Dr Steevens’ Hospital, where he was pronounced dead from head injuries. On 26 July Fisher and Ramsay told an inquest that the vehicle was travelling at a moderate speed, that there was plenty of road space, and that before the collision the cyclist’s front wheel appeared to get stuck in a tramline as he pulled out to pass a parked vehicle, making a collision unavoidable.239

William Mulhern243 (25Jul1920/1) RIC (61051), 39, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Bandon, Cork From Knockmore, Mayo, Mulhern joined the RIC on 15 October 1902. He served twice in Limerick, in Roscommon, in Monaghan, in the RIC Reserve, and in Cork. Promoted to detective-sergeant in 1913, he had been stationed in Bandon for a few months. Mulhern, chief RIC intelligence officer for west Cork, had received several threatening letters, and had survived one assassination attempt in March. The IRA shot him at 08:30 in the porch of the Catholic Church. Mulhern, anticipating assassination, had arranged to be buried in Skibbereen. His widow secured £2,000 compensation, his two children £1,800 each and his mother £100.244 RD: Maddox (27Jul1920/1)

John Joseph McCartney (24Jul1920/2) 36, Painter, Married with one child, RC RVHB See Hennessy (22Jul1920/2). McCartney, of 41 Lucknow Street, was shot by the military on Kashmir Road. Buried Milltown Cemetery.240

Charles Brown (25Jul1920/2) HM Coastguard (166914), 44, Married, Protestant Ballycrovane Coastguard Station, Eyeries, Cork Brown, a coastguardsman (Grade 2) from Dover, was stationed in Ballycrovane, Cork. An IRA party under Liam O’Dwyer attacked

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the station. Entering on the ground floor, O’Dwyer ordered Petty Officer Brown to put his hands up. Brown’s wife Caroline begged him not to fight but he reached for his revolver. Chief Officer Snewin then opened fire. A fight ensued which ended when O’Dwyer killed both coastguards – his dramatic account of these killings contrasts with his silence about his role in the execution in March 1921 of Brigid Noble. The remaining eight coastguards surrendered. The IRA captured seven thousand rounds of ammunition, twelve rifles, six Webley revolvers and various stores. Buried Linthorpe Cemetery, Middlesbrough (D. U. 4819). His widow secured £4,000 compensation.245 RD: Snewin (25Jul1920/3). SA: Noble (15Mar 1921/8) Philip Snewin (25Jul1920/3) HM Coastguard, 51, Married with children Ballycrovane Coastguard Station, Eyeries, Cork See Brown (25Jul1920/2). Chief Officer Snewin joined in 1885. Buried Scarborough.246 Nellie McGregor247 (25Jul1920/4) 20, Presbyterian RVHB See Stewart (22Jul1920/5). Nellie McGregor of 30 Frome Street was walking on the Newtownards Road between 21:30 and 22:30 on 23 July when hit by a shot from a military lorry on Bryson Street. She died at 21:10.248

26 JULY 1920 David Dunbar (26Jul1920/1) 20, Ex-serviceman, taxi driver, Methodist Northumberland Street, Belfast Dunbar, of 64 Silvio Street, severely wounded in France, was invalided out, becoming an Ulster Taxicab Company driver. He was returning to the garage at about 03:00 when challenged by a military patrol. Engine noise may have prevented him from hearing this. He drove on, but had to halt at a barbed-wire barricade. A machine-gunner shot him dead. Military witnesses claimed he had attempted to run away when challenged, but his brother stated that, as a result of his injuries, he could hardly walk, let alone run.249

27 JULY 1920 Thomas Maddox (27Jul1920/1) Essex Regiment (52203), 29, Married with children Bandon, Cork Maddox, a war veteran, was a lance-corporal in D Company, stationed in Cork. Following the killing of Detective-Sergeant William Mulhern on 25 July, the IRA put a guard on the home of Seán Buckley, intelligence officer Cork No. 3 Brigade. At 00:30, Michael Doyle and John Coveney fired on Maddox and Major A. E. Percival as these approached stealthily, possibly intending to capture or kill Buckley. Percival recalled how ‘a shot rang out’ in the darkness: Maddox ‘fell dead, shot through the head by a fellow with a shot-gun loaded with slugs’. Buried Chiswick Old Cemetery, London. His widow secured £2,000 compensation.250 SA: Mulhern (25Jul1920/1)

28 JULY 1920 James Murray (28Jul1920/1) RIC (69939), 26, Ex-serviceman, RC Clonakilty, Cork From Laois, Murray served with the Irish Guards before joining the RIC on 4 November 1919, posted to Clonakilty. James (‘Spud’) Murphy said the IRA decided to assassinate the constable after he fired on two unarmed civilians. At 22:10 on 27 July, Murray was shot in the head by Murphy and three other Volunteers as he entered Fitzgerald’s grocery shop on Main Street. He died at 02:00. Buried Stradbally, Laois. His mother secured £800 compensation and his sister £200.251 William Henry Ridgeway252 (28Jul1920/2) East Lancashire Regiment (53975), 18, Methodist Ballymullen Barracks, Tralee, Kerry Private Ridgeway, from Macclesfield, Cheshire, was examining a hand grenade in the square of Ballymullen Barracks at about 18:00 when it exploded. Buried St Peter’s Churchyard, Prestbury, Macclesfield, Cheshire (3. 12).253

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29 JULY 1920 Walter Oakley (29Jul1920/1) RIC (71636), 20, Ex-serviceman Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick A former Royal Marine, Oakley, from Essex, joined the RIC on 11 June 1920, stationed in Limerick. At about 16:30 on 24 July, constables Oakley, Albert Jones and William Jones were returning to Frederick Street Barracks when they were rushed by ten men in a laneway. These fired at point-blank range. Oakley and William Jones were wounded, and a bullet apparently glanced off the clasp of Albert Jones’s braces. This attack was carried out by a party of E Company, 2nd (Limerick City) Battalion, Mid Limerick Brigade, under William Barrett. Oakley died from kidney wounds. Two ex-servicemen were later tried in Dublin for Oakley’s murder and acquitted. On their return to Limerick in two parties they were held up by masked men, believed to be police. Michael Blake, a brother of Patrick Blake, who had stood trial, and James O’Neill, the second man tried, were killed. Buried West Ham, London.254 SA: Blake (20Nov1920/1), O’Neill (20Nov 1920/2) Patrick Duggan (29Jul1920/2) 10, Schoolboy, RC Bruree, Limerick A patrol of ten soldiers and two police cycling from Bruree to Kilmallock was ambushed by the newly formed East Limerick Brigade ASU under O/C Donnchadh O’Hannigan. One of the patrol, Private Rodgers, was mortally wounded. O’Hannigan could not press home the attack for fear of wounding an elderly couple in whose house the patrol barricaded themselves. Rodgers died on 4 August. The mixed patrol returned to Bruree, carrying out reprisals leading to two deaths. Patrick, a labourer’s son, was killed by a ricochet while entering the back lane to his house.255 Thomas Harris, an epileptic, was having supper when soldiers entered his home and shot him. An official report claimed that both deaths were caused by crossfire. Houses were also attacked and looted.

At Patrick’s funeral at Athlacca near Kilmallock, four schoolmates shouldered his coffin barefoot to his grave.256 RD: Harris (29Jul1920/3), Rodgers (4Aug 1920/2) Thomas Harris (29Jul1920/3) 33, Boxmaker, RC Bruree, Limerick See Duggan (29Jul1920/2). Buried Bruree.257

30 JULY 1920 Francis H. Brooke (30Jul1920/1) 69, Ex-serviceman, businessman, Married with three children, CoI Westland Row Railway Station, Dublin ‘Frank’ Brooke was a prominent businessman, and chairman of the Dublin and SouthEastern Railway Company. From Fermanagh, between 1865 and 1877 he was a Royal Navy officer. As an Irish Privy Councillor, he was a signatory of the order proclaiming Dáil Éireann illegal. He was a member of the viceroy’s advisory council established in 1919, and a close friend of the lord lieutenant Lord French, who termed his death ‘a terrible tragedy. . . . He was one of the shining lights of the Irish Turf.’ Arthur Tennison Cotton described how he was talking with Brooke in his office on the upper floor of Westland Row Station when men burst in and fired a volley of shots, hitting Brooke. They left, but one returned, firing more shots at Brooke. Cotton hid under a table and was unharmed. A postmortem examination revealed that Brooke received five bullet wounds. He normally had police protection, but had sent away the detective. According to Paddy Daly, O/C the Squad, ‘there were no definite plans made to shoot him [Brooke]. Tom Keogh† and some other members of the Squad happened to come across him and took advantage of the opportunity to eliminate him’, but it is more likely that the killing of so prominent a figure was planned: what else would bring a group of specialist gunmen upstairs in a railway station? Peter Hart termed Brooke’s killing the ‘only outright political assassination’ of the War of Independence. Buried Shillelagh

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Cemetery, Wicklow. His widow secured £9,500 compensation.258 Daniel Verey Bayliss (30Jul1920/2) Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry (27862), 18 Oola, Limerick Bayliss, from Oxford, enlisted in the 43rd band as a boy in 1916. A private in A Company, he was part of the escort for the daily police mail run between Limerick and Cork. The Crossley tender had halted at Pallasgreen RIC Barracks to pick up General Lucas, who had escaped after a month in IRA captivity. No. 1 ASU, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, ambushed the tender at Oola on the Tipperary to Limerick road (intelligence for this operation was collated by the 4th Battalion’s intelligence officer, James Moloney, EOH’s grandfather). The road was blocked by carts and ‘about 50 Sinn Feiners’ opened fire from behind a wall. Privates Bayliss and Parker were killed before the IRA withdrew. Buried Rose Hill Cemetery, Oxford (I. 1. 37). His mother Minnie secured £240 compensation.259 RD: Parker (30Jul1920/3) George B. Parker (30Jul1920/3) Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry (47297), 20 Oola, Limerick See Bayliss (30Jul1920/2). Lance-Corporal Parker of A Company had served in Mesopotamia and north Russia. Buried High Wycombe Cemetery (Grave 158). His mother Daisy secured £240 compensation.260 John O’Sullivan (30Jul1920/4) Watchman, Married with six children, RC Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick O’Sullivan, from Thomondgate, lived on Davis Street, Limerick. He was badly injured at 01:50 on 21 July when the adjacent building, home of Volunteer Michael Hartney, was blown up in an unofficial reprisal following the death of G. B. F. Smyth, in whose death Hartney was wrongly believed to have been involved. Pulled from the debris, O’Sullivan died at 21:00.261 SA: Smyth (17Jul1920/1)

31 JULY 1920 John Ahern (31Jul1920/1) 45, Ex-serviceman, RC Cork At around 09:00 Ahern, a brain-damaged veteran living with his mother and sister in Coole East, Whites Cross, Cork, walked into an ambush on a military mail escort. A bullet severed his femoral artery.262 James Mulcahy (31Jul1920/2) 41, Ex-serviceman, labourer, RC Nicker, Pallasgreen, Limerick Mulcahy, of Nicker, spent nineteen years in the RFA. He was one of four men fired on as they fled from a military raid on Gleeson’s pub, allegedly for failing to halt. An RIC report stated that Mulcahy was deaf from his artillery service and so would not have heard any such command.263

c. JULY 1920 Unknown Crowley (Jul1920/1) Ex-serviceman Vicinity of Bandon, Cork Frank Neville recalled the execution of Crowley, who had allegedly informed on members of the IRA party which had ambushed RIC men Cornelius Crean and Patrick McGoldrick. He had apparently received £20 for this information.264 SA: Crean (25Apr1920/1), McGoldrick (25Apr1920/2)

1 AUGUST 1920 Patrick Daly (1Aug1920/1) 22, Agricultural labourer, RC Clonmore, Dromcollogher, Limerick Daniel Doody recalled a would-be informer named Daly:

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Fancying himself badly treated . . . over wages, he wrote a letter of complaint to the DI and said in it he could give information. . . . That he was a spy was discovered by chance when an ex-army man, Ryan, was given a letter from Daly by mistake. . . . Daly was offering to give the names of all the IRA company captains in the district and of those who had taken part in the attack on Kilmallock Barracks.

1920

Patrick Ahern gave an alternative version, saying he found Daly’s letter requesting £500 for information when he raided Newcastle West Post Office. Doody acted as IRA court martial defence counsel for Daly, arguing that being young he had not realised the seriousness of his actions. But Daly’s intercepted letter had stated: ‘If this is found out I won’t live twentyfour hours.’ Father Thomas Wall, curate in Broadford, heard Daly’s confession before he was shot. At about 08:30 on 1 August, Daly’s body was found, shot in the head, near Drumcollogher by a youth taking milk to the creamery. An attached label read: ‘Spy’. His pockets contained an ITGWU membership card.265

2 AUGUST 1920 Ernest F. Barlow266 (2Aug1920/1) Manchester Regiment (64159), 26, Fireman CMHC See Airy (21Jul1920/1). From Oldham, Private Barlow enlisted in April 1918. Buried Crompton Cemetery, Shaw (Church. 8418).267

4 AUGUST 1920 J. Connelly268 (4Aug1920/1) Royal Scots (65529) Kilmihil, Clare Private Connelly accidentally shot himself with a revolver while on duty. Buried Shanakyle Graveyard, Kilrush, Clare.269 William R. Rodgers (4Aug1920/2) MGC (Infantry) (189230), 17 Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick See Duggan (29Jul1920/2). Buried Yardley Cemetery, Birmingham (C. 24989). His mother Emily secured £240 compensation.270 Alfred George Stonnell (4Aug1920/3) Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry Union Workhouse, Limerick Private Stonnell, who had war service in Mesopotamia, picked up another soldier’s loaded rifle, which discharged. He died instantly of head wounds. Buried King’s Island Military Cemetery, Limerick (Grave 91).271

5 AUGUST 1920 H. C. J. Jerrum (5Aug1920/1) Hampshire Regiment, 20 CMHC Private Jerrum, from Southsea, Hampshire, was accidentally shot by a sentry. Buried Kingston Cemetery, Portsmouth.272

7 AUGUST 1920 Ernest S. Watkins (7Aug1920/1) RIC (71756), 29, Engineer, ex-serviceman, Married Military Hospital, Fermoy, Cork Watkins, from Monmouth, immigrated to Canada, where he enlisted in 1914. He joined the RIC on 29 June 1920, serving in Limerick before transfer to Kildorrery, Cork. Constable Watkins was in a six-member RIC foot patrol ambushed near Kildorrery by the ASU East Limerick Brigade. All six policemen were hit. Two wounded policemen were captured and then released. Donnchadh O’Hannigan maintained that these retraced their steps months later and killed Denis O’Donnell. Watkins later died in Fermoy Military Hospital – one Volunteer made the colourful claim that he got drunk and tore off his bandages, causing his own death. His widow Elizabeth Jessie secured £2,850 compensation.273 SA: O’Donnell (24Nov1920/5)

8 AUGUST 1920 William Alfred Bricknell (8Aug1920/1) 15th (The King’s) Hussars (52233), 18 Workhouse, Dunshaughlin, Meath Lance-Corporal Bricknell, from Oxford, accidentally shot himself in the chest when he poked at tufts of briars with his rifle butt while hunting for rabbits in the workhouse grounds. Buried Rose Hill Cemetery, Oxford (A3. 302).274

9 AUGUST 1920 Charles Leonard Burke (9Aug1920/1) The Queen’s (Royal West Surrey Regiment), 21, RC Ebrington Barracks, Derry Private Burke, son of Albert Edward and Ada Grace Burke of Westminster, London, was

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‘skylarking’ with Private Mattia. Burke challenged Mattia to ‘pull the trigger’ of an empty rifle. Mattia shot his friend in the forehead. Lance-Corporal Andrews, responsible for ensuring that weapons were unloaded, was arrested. Buried All Saints Cemetery, Nunhead, London (Screen Wall. 40. 25979).275

hounds’, was walking with another man near Keating’s Cross around 20:00 when a cyclist passed who had failed to halt for a police patrol nearby. The patrol fired one shot, hitting Hartnett in the chest. The fugitive dismounted and escaped.282

Matthew Park (9Aug1920/2) 7, Schoolboy, Protestant Belfast On 14 August, an inquest jury found that Matthew Park, of 60 Lawther Street, accidentally shot himself with his stepfather’s revolver.276

Reginald Radcliffe (11Aug1920/1) 57, Grazier, Married with two children, CoI Hurdlestown, Kells, Meath Mary Kelly, a governess, described how on 12 August, between 22:00 and 23:00, six or seven masked men came to Radcliffe’s home seeking weapons. Radcliffe collapsed in the hall and died. Buried Martry Cemetery, Kells. His widow secured £3,000 compensation, and his two children £1,000 each.283

10 AUGUST 1920 Thomas Farrelly277 (10Aug1920/1) 20,278 Van driver, RC Mary’s Lane, Dublin Farrelly lived with his widowed mother and sister at 30 Mary’s Lane. During the night of 9 August bonfires were lit to celebrate the anticipated arrival of Daniel Mannix, the Cork-born Catholic archbishop of Melbourne and advocate of Irish independence. A crowd around a dying bonfire at the junction of Greek Street and Mary’s Lane was singing songs; around 01:00 a curfew patrol ordered them to disperse, afterwards firing five rounds. Farrelly, reportedly running towards his house, was hit in the chest and killed outright, while Thomas Clarke was wounded. Several civilians stated that the patrol had not been seen because the street lamps had been extinguished, and that soldiers fired without warning. Buried GC.279 John Doyle280 (10Aug1920/2) 24, Labourer, CoI RVHB See Stewart (22Jul1920/5). Doyle, of 11 Prim Street, was wounded by the military on 22 July.281 William Hartnett (10Aug1920/3) 55, Labourer, Widowed with children, RC Emly, Tipperary Hartnett, an inoffensive widower with a large family living near Emly railway station, ‘in charge of the deer van of the Black and Tan

11 AUGUST 1920

12 AUGUST 1920 Susan Houston (12Aug1920/1) 15, Presbyterian RVHB284 See McCune (23Jul1920/2). Susan died at 07:30, from head wounds received on 23 July.285

14 AUGUST 1920 A. E. Nunn (14Aug1920/1) MGC (Infantry) (185267), 20, Protestant Drominagh, Derrinagree, Cork Private Nunn, from Chesterfield, Derbyshire, was stationed in Kanturk. On the evening of 13 August, an RAF aircraft flying from Fermoy to Ballybunion made a forced landing at Drominagh, seven miles from Kanturk. The aircraft was undamaged. Twelve soldiers from Kanturk mounted guard. An IRA party had planned to rush the guard, destroy the aircraft and steal its machine gun, but a Volunteer precipitately shot Nunn dead from long range, initiating a brief exchange of fire after which the IRA withdrew. Buried St John’s Churchyard, Newbold, Chesterfield, Derbyshire.286 Patrick Lynch (14Aug1920/2) 49, Harness maker, RC Hospital, Limerick Lynch lived on Main Street. He was ordered into the street by a military patrol which had

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earlier searched his house, and was marched barefoot to the fairgreen, deserted because of the military curfew. Shot six times in the head and body, he died instantly. Police reports claimed that he had tried to escape. Although robbery was a likely motive – Lynch had £50 in his house – Bill Kelly suggested that Lynch’s killers mistook him for the solicitor John Aloysius Lynch, later killed by Crown forces in Dublin. Another possibility is that he was mistaken for Ned Lynch, a battalion commander in the East Limerick Brigade, who worked in Hospital. O’Sullivan stated that the Hospital Company revenged Lynch by shooting Constable Cyril Brewer on 5 July 1921.287 SA: Brewer (6Jul1921/5), Lynch (22Sep1920/1)

himself!’ Buried Midleton Union burial ground.288 SA: O’Sullivan (28Apr1921/3)

John Coughlan (14Aug1920/3) Married with children, RC Queenstown (Cobh), Cork In early September, a cart was found on the shoreline at low tide at Ballybrannigan beach in east Cork. Bound with wire to the axle by the arms and legs were the badly decomposed remains of a man. The cause of death was assumed to be drowning. This was John Coughlan, listed by Gerard Murphy as killed in unknown circumstances on 14 August 1920, arrested by the Queenstown (Cobh) IRA because his daughters were prostitutes consorting with British soldiers. One version maintains that, after admitting during interrogation at Aghada that he was also a paid informer, he was brought back to Cobh and deliberately drowned. But Mick Leahy claimed the IRA had decided to release Coughlan, only to find that he had hanged himself in panic. They tied the body to the axle of a cart which was then thrown into the sea. One of those involved, Patrick O’Sullivan, was himself killed in 1921 after capture at Clonmult. Leahy broke into the Macroom morgue: ‘We moved along from corpse to corpse with a flash lamp . . . when we pulled back the cloth we found that the crabs had got hold of his face and that there was nothing of it left. A month later we got evidence that this man had been a spy, and that’s why he hanged

Cyril Henry Nathan (15Aug1920/2) RIC (71627), 19, Clerk, ex-serviceman, Protestant Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick From London, Nathan joined the RIC on 11 June 1920, stationed in Boherbuoy Barracks, Limerick. According to LFS, Volunteers were preparing an ambush near the People’s Park when two policemen unexpectedly appeared and were seized and disarmed. Shortly afterwards more police and military arrived and opened fire. Constable Nathan was apparently hit on Edward Street.291

15 AUGUST 1920 Francis McNiece (15Aug1920/1) 21, Farmer’s son, RC Maghery Hotel, Maghery, Armagh McNiece, of Ardress, Loughgall, Armagh, was shot while travelling in a motor car fired on, most likely by the UVF, as it carried people home from a sports meeting. Francis Donaghy, shot through the lung, died two days later. J. J. Murray suggested the UVF were responsible.289 Buried Tartaraghan Cemetery, Loughgall, Armagh.290 RD: Donaghy (17Aug1920/2)

Joseph McMahon (15Aug1920/3) IRA, Coachbuilder, RC Oldtown, Cavan McMahon, from Kilmaley, Clare, a real ‘live wire’ in the Kilkenny IRA, was a signalling and explosives instructor. He participated in the Hugginstown RIC Barracks attack in which Constable Thomas Ryan died. McMahon subsequently went on the run. For a time he was an explosives instructor around Enniscorthy, Wexford. Seán Whelan told the BMH that McMahon was ‘action, action, action’, being involved in the killing of DI Lea Wilson, after which he went to Cavan. Using the alias McCarthy, he was demonstrating grenades292 to Volunteers at Moynehall when a home-made ‘tail bomb’ exploded. Patrick Roche, intelligence officer

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Cavan Battalion, lost part of his arm. Buried Kilmaley, Clare.293 SA: Ryan (9Mar1920/1), Wilson (15Jun 1920/1)

16 AUGUST 1920 Patrick Clancy (16Aug1920/1) IRA, 19, Creamery manager, Engaged, RC Derrygalun,294 Kanturk, Cork Clancy, from Kilfinnane, Limerick, had recently become O/C ASU Cork No. 2 Brigade. Clancy and Jack O’Connell were resting at O’Connell’s home in Derrygalun, about three miles south-west of Kanturk, after two nights guarding the town against reprisals following the killing of Private Nunn. A party of military and police arrived. Clancy and O’Connell decided to run for it. Clancy was fatally wounded while climbing a fence. O’Connell was shot dead. It was rumoured that an ex-serviceman’s daughter had reported their whereabouts. Buried Kilfinnane, Limerick. Commemorated on a monument at Murroe.295 RD: O’Connell (16Aug1920/2). SA: Nunn (14Aug1920/1) Jack O’Connell (16Aug1920/2) IRA, Draper’s assistant, RC Derrygalun, Kanturk, Cork See Clancy (16Aug1920/1). From Kanturk, O’Connell was acting O/C of the 5th (Kanturk) Battalion, Cork No. 2 Brigade. Buried Dromtariff, Cork.296 William Harding Wilson (16Aug1920/3) RIC (50239), 60, Married with four children, Methodist Patrick Street, Templemore, Tipperary From Ballycumber, Offaly, Wilson joined the RIC on 16 September 1882, serving in Kerry, Wexford, twice in the RIC Depot, Drogheda, Meath, Kerry again, Cork and Tipperary. Promoted to sergeant in 1895, to head constable in 1901 and to DI in 1910, Wilson had taken temporary charge in Thurles following the killing of DI Michael Hunt. He led the party which killed Michael Small at Shevry on 4 July 1920. IRA officers decided to shoot him at any cost. Jim Leahy, O/C Tipperary No. 2 Brigade, brought a group of

Volunteers into Templemore: ‘We waited three or four days to get him.’ As Wilson, in civilian clothes, walked along Patrick Street at around 18:45, Jim Stapleton stepped out from Fogarty’s pub and shot him through the nape of the neck. Police and military wrecked several shops and houses and the town hall. Creameries in Castleiney, Killeen and Loughmore were also destroyed. During the burning of the town hall, Lieutenant-Colonel Sidney Herbert Beattie of the Northamptonshire Regiment was injured and a soldier killed in confused circumstances. Beattie later died. Northamptonshire Regiment records indicated that Lance-Corporal H. J. Fuggle was accidentally burned to death, but gives the wrong date. Buried St Mary’s Cemetery, Templemore. His widow secured £7,300 compensation.297 RD: Beattie (19Aug1920/1), Fuggle (16Aug 1920/4). SA: Hunt (23Jun1919/1), Small (4Jul1920/2) Herbert John Fuggle (16Aug1920/4) Northamptonshire Regiment (10629), 18 Templemore, Tipperary See Wilson (16Aug1920/3). Lance-Corporal Fuggle, from Market Harborough, Leicestershire, was stationed in Richmond Barracks, Templemore. Buried Northampton Road Cemetery, Market Harborough.298 Edward Paget299 (16Aug1920/5) 43, Ex-serviceman, builder’s labourer, Married with seven children, RC Union Hospital, Limerick Paget, once of the RIR, lived on Carroll’s Row. Severely beaten by police in the People’s Park, Limerick, during disturbances following the death of Constable Nathan (15Aug1920/2), he collapsed at home, dying the following night. His youngest child, Nancy, was born after his death. Buried Mount St Lawrence Cemetery.300

17 AUGUST 1920 Andrew Hayes (17Aug1920/1) 37, Carpenter, RC Military Hospital, Tipperary, Tipperary Hayes died from a gunshot wound, initially not thought life-threatening, received on

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31 July when police in Tipperary town shot at another man on O’Connell Street.301 Francis Donaghy (17Aug1920/2) RC Armagh See McNiece (15Aug1920/1). Donaghy reportedly died from wounds sustained in the same incident.302

18 AUGUST 1920 Frederick C. Sharman (18Aug1920/1) RFA, 30, Army officer Knockanure, Ballyvourney, Cork From St Neots, Huntingdonshire, Sharman served in the ranks for six years, before transferring to the Army Reserve on 17 May 1914. Commissioned in 1917, he became an acting captain. Sharman was attached to the Manchester Regiment, based in Ballincollig, Cork. Patrick J. Lynch, captain Ballyvourney Company, Cork No. 1 Brigade, described how at Knockanure the Ballyvourney Company ambushed a cycle patrol delivering provisions to Ballyvourney. The military tried to cycle through. Sharman, commanding the patrol, was killed and four soldiers wounded. After thirty minutes, the survivors surrendered. Eleven rifles, one revolver, twelve bicycles and ammunition were captured. Buried St Neots Cemetery (C. 1811).303

19 AUGUST 1920 Sidney Herbert Beattie (19Aug1920/1) Northamptonshire Regiment, 32, Army officer, Presbyterian Military Hospital, Templemore, Tipperary See Wilson (16Aug1920/3). LieutenantColonel Beattie, a one-time medical student from Dublin, son of Sir Andrew Beattie, was commissioned on 3 May 1911. Promoted to captain in 1915, he won the MC. Buried Dublin.304 Patrick Kennedy (19Aug1920/2) IRA, 28, Farmer, RC Gurteen,305 Annascaul, Kerry Kennedy, of the Annascaul Company, was killed by a mixed patrol of the East Lancashire Regiment and police while crossing a field.

Patrick Houlihan suggested that Kennedy may have been recognised, whereas Kennedy’s brother Tadhg believed ‘they were really after another fellow that day’. The IRA killed an ex-policeman named Jasper in reprisal. Buried Annascaul.306 SA: Jasper (29Oct1920/2)

20 AUGUST 1920 James Duffy (20Aug1920/1) RIC (69645), 21, Farmer, RC Boston, Galway From Mayo, Constable Duffy joined the RIC on 4 March 1919, stationed first in Clare and then in Boston. At about 22:30 a six-man patrol was mistaken for the IRA by police in a lorry travelling from Corofin. Duffy was killed outright by a revolver shot to the heart. The RIC General Register recorded his death as accidental. He had sent £6 each month to his parents, who had ten other children.307 Joseph Goodreid (20Aug1920/2) SWB, 18 Cottage Hospital, Drogheda, Louth Private Goodreid died from pneumonia following wounds inflicted in Millmount Barracks, Drogheda, on 18 July when Private Burrowes discharged a shot from Goodreid’s rifle, mistaking it for his own unloaded weapon, as they came off guard duty.308 James Herlihy (20Aug1920/3) Ex-serviceman, RC Farmers Cross, Cork Jeremiah Keating, intelligence officer 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, described how raids on the houses of several local IRA men, including that of Connie Neenan, suggested an informer was at work. Suspicion fell on Herlihy after a confidential clerk in the military barracks named Conroy said Herlihy had ‘given information’. Patrick Collins, O/C G Company, Cork No. 1 Brigade, knew Herlihy ‘very well’, and asked him ‘why he gave us away . . . He said he could give no reason why he did it, but added that he had given the military a wrong address in my [Collins] own case’, which turned out to be true. He was shot and buried in the Farmers

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Cross district, where Cork Airport now stands, by men from G Company. A year later, Herlihy’s brother sought information from President de Valera: ‘Without precipitating publicity . . . With the exception of myself, his family believes he is alive, and any sudden realisation to the contrary would, I fear, be disastrous.’ The Cork IRA were, uncharacteristically in the case of missing victims, willing to help: ‘This man’s relatives are alright.’ John was told his brother’s fate though not his burial place.309

21 AUGUST 1920 Thomas Martin Craddock (21Aug1920/1) RIC (56968), 43, Engaged, RC King (now Pearse) Street, Athlone, Westmeath From Donegal, Craddock joined the RIC on 15 June 1895, posted to Donegal. He subsequently served in the RIC Reserve, Belfast, Westmeath, and the Reserve again before transfer to Westmeath on 1 April 1905. Promoted to sergeant in 1912, he was stationed in Athlone in the Crime Special Headquarters at Fry Place. GHQ ordered him killed. Several attempts were made before Craddock was attacked just after midnight on 21 August, as he and a constable left the Comrade of the Great War Club on King Street. Severely wounded in the shoulder and abdomen, he died about thirty minutes later. His companion escaped. Among his four Athlone Brigade killers was ex-serviceman James Tormey. Craddock was accorded a military funeral in Ballinasloe, where ‘the people generally closed their houses and joined in the funeral cortège in large numbers’. At Mullingar Quarter Sessions in October 1920, his mother Elizabeth secured £1,200 compensation, his niece Elizabeth Leddy £1,500, and his sister Emily £250. Craddock’s fiancée, a Miss Fox, had her claim dismissed.310 SA: Tormey (2Feb1921/7) Daniel Maunsell (21Aug1920/2) RIC (55061), 49, Farmer, Married with children, RC Inchigeelagh, Cork From Tralee, Kerry, Maunsell joined the RIC on 1 June 1891, serving in Galway and

from 1893 in Cork. Promoted to sergeant in 1911, he was stationed in Inchigeelagh. Remembered as ‘an honest man’, he was shot in Inchigeelagh at about 21:10, possibly by Mick Seán Rua O’Sullivan and Ted Quinlan, son of an RIC man, of E (Inchigeelagh) Company, in Inchigeelagh. The parish priest was reportedly removed by his bishop for failing to control his flock. Maunsell’s widow did not long survive him and their children were raised by relatives. In July 2010, descendants of Maunsell and of his killers attended a commemorative Mass in Inchigeelagh.311 Martin Foley (21Aug1920/3) RIC (64007), 33, Labourer, RC Merlin Park, Galway From Castlerea, Roscommon, Foley joined the RIC on 3 July 1908, allocated to Galway. He had served in Oranmore for about five years. Constable Foley was in a cycle patrol bringing dispatches from Oranmore to Galway ambushed at about 12:30 at the Red Bridge, some distance from Renmore Barracks, by sixteen members of Galway No. 1 Brigade. The IRA opened fire prematurely. Foley, hit in the head, died immediately. Two other policemen were wounded, while the others escaped to Renmore Barracks. At midnight on 21 August the police in Oranmore ran amok, firing shots and damaging two pubs. Buried Castlerea.312 John Hanlon313 (21Aug1920/4) RIC (64249), 33, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Moore Street, Kilrush, Clare From Kerry, Hanlon joined the RIC on 20 July 1908. He was transferred from Cork to Clare in 1915 as a detectiveconstable, stationed in Kilrush. The West Clare brigade council decided to kill him. Two attempts were made before Bill Haugh happened to see Hanlon going into Walsh’s pub on Moore Street around 16:30 and followed him, shooting him in the head. Haugh then escaped by bicycle. Hanlon’s widow Hanna Agnes secured £3,900 compensation, and a special RIC allowance of £47.6s.0d.314

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Patrick Haverty (21Aug1920/5) RIC (60160), 40, Herdsman, RC Greenhills, Kill, Kildare From Lawrencetown, Galway, Constable Haverty joined the RIC on 1 May 1901, serving in Kildare, Cork and twice in the RIC Reserve before returning to Kildare in 1912. Haverty was first stationed in Kilteel, and then in Kill. He was in a four-man cycle patrol ambushed at 22:30 at Greenhills, Kill on the main Dublin–Naas road while on their way to take up guard duty at the home of RIC CI K. L. Supple, in Naas. The attack, the first of its kind in Kildare, was carried out by thirty-three members of the Kill Company, under Thomas Harris, 2nd Kildare Battalion O/C. Sergeant Patrick O’Reilly was severely wounded. Haverty, shot through the chest, died almost immediately. The ambush lasted about twenty minutes. Weapons and ammunition were captured. O’Reilly died in hospital on 31 August. Buried Galway.315 RD: O’Reilly (31Aug1920/2)

22 AUGUST 1920 Oswald Ross Swanzy (22Aug1920/1) RIC (61367), 39, CoI Market Square, Lisburn, Antrim From Castleblayney, Swanzy joined the RIC on 28 February 1905. He was DI in Cork city north from January 1916 until May 1920, when secretly transferred to Lisburn following the shooting of Tomás MacCurtain on 20 March, a killing for which the IRA believed him responsible. Culhane and Dick Murphy of Cork No. 1 Brigade were sent to Lisburn to kill Swanzy. Assisted by Belfast IRA men, at about 13:00 Culhane shot Swanzy, using MacCurtain’s pistol, at the entrance to the Northern Bank as he returned from church to his home on Railway Street: ‘I got him behind the ear, which is as good a place as any.’ A large crowd chased the IRA party, who made a successful, if narrow, getaway after a wheel fell off a vehicle in which the police attempted a pursuit. Seán Leonard, who had driven the gunmen from Belfast to Lisburn, was convicted of murder by a military court and sentenced to

death, but this was commuted to twelve years penal servitude. He was released during the Truce. Serious rioting in Lisburn lasted for three days. Hundreds of nationalist homes and businesses were destroyed. There was also renewed rioting in Belfast. Buried MJC (Plot C. 108). In April 1921 a commemorative plaque was unveiled in Lisburn Cathedral.316 SA: MacCurtain (20Mar1920/1) Michael Galvin (22Aug1920/2) IRA, Farmer, Married with children, RC Kilmurry, Cork ‘Mick’ Galvin was quartermaster of Kilmurry Company. At 11:30 all available Volunteers from the Kilmurry–Crookstown area were mobilised to ambush a police party returning from Inchigeelagh following investigation of the shooting of Sergeant Maunsell. Many Volunteers were at Sunday Mass, so only a few were in position when the police lorry appeared. It was halted by a cart blocking the road. The police dismounted, took cover and returned fire. After an hour the IRA were forced to withdraw. Several policemen were wounded (though none killed, despite later claims). Galvin was shot through the heart. Galvin’s brother, Fr (later Bishop) Edward Galvin, was co-founder in 1916 of the Maynooth Mission to China (now the Missionary Society of St Columban). Buried Kilmurry. His widow Annie and son John eventually secured military service dependents’ allowances.317 SA: Maunsell (21Aug1920/2) Thomas Smyth Brennan (22Aug1920/3) RIC (59297), 42, Farmer, Married, RC Distillery Lane, Dundalk, Louth From Tubbercurry, Sligo, Constable Brennan joined the RIC on 16 January 1900, serving in Wexford, Mayo, Kildare, Belfast and Quay Street Station, Dundalk. At about 16:15 a patrol of one sergeant and three constables was fired at, apparently by a Fianna Éireann party, on Jocelyn Street. Brennan was killed and constables Isdell and Witherden wounded.318 Buried Tubbercurry. His widow Kate secured £1,500 compensation.319

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24 AUGUST 1920 John McNamara (24Aug1920/1) RIC (68892), 24, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Glengarriff, Cork From Crusheen, Clare, McNamara joined the RIC on 5 December 1916, stationed in Glengarriff. He was awarded the constabulary medal. At around 20:00, McNamara was shot dead320 and Constable Cleary was wounded while leaving O’Shea’s pub. A third constable escaped upstairs. McNamara’s widow secured £600 compensation with an additional £150 for each of his two children.321 Joseph Evans (24Aug1920/2) MGC (Infantry), 19 (181848) Charleville, Cork Private Evans, from Stratford, Essex, was accidentally shot on 23 August322 in a building near Charleville police barracks occupied by the military. Buried Holy Cross Cemetery, Charleville.323

25 AUGUST 1920 Matthew Haugh (25Aug1920/1) RIC (68052), 25, Farmer, RC Chapel Street, Bantry, Cork From Ballyea, Ennis, Clare, Haugh joined the RIC on 10 September 1914, stationed in Bantry. Maurice Donegan, then O/C Bantry Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade, believed Haugh had been responsible for the shooting of Cornelius Crowley, a disabled boy, and ordered him killed. Haugh was shot dead when a police party was ambushed on Chapel Street at 13:45 by Ralph Keyes, captain Bantry Company, John Keohane and Cornelius O’Sullivan of the Bantry Battalion. Buried Clare.324 SA: Crowley (25Jun1920/1) James McCartney (25Aug1920/2) 19, Rope worker, CoI Dee Street, Belfast McCartney, the son of Samuel McCartney, a carter, lived at 1 Frome Street. Following the Oswald Swanzy shooting in Lisburn on 22 August, severe rioting broke out in Belfast.

Disturbances lasted for almost ten days and a curfew was imposed on 30 August. Several people were killed. According to police reports, on the evening of 25 August a mixed patrol of military and police was stoned and fired on in the Dee Street area. The military returned fire. McCartney, wounded in the back, died at about 23:30. Ethel Burrowes, shot in the abdomen, died the following day. Several houses were burned and looted.325 RD: Burrowes (26Aug1920/4). SA: Swanzy (22Aug1920/1)

26 AUGUST 1920 James Munnelly (26Aug1920/1) RIC (66662), 30, Farmer, RC Infirmary, Omagh, Tyrone From Ballycastle, Mayo, Munnelly joined the RIC on 1 July 1912, stationed in Drumquin, Tyrone. The RIC Barracks was attacked by members of the Letterkenny Company, Donegal No. 2 Brigade, on a fair day. Posing as cattle dealers, the IRA party approached the barracks at about 10:00. On answering the door, Constable Munnelly, the barrack orderly, was shot in the head by James McMonagle. Sergeant Bradley was wounded but managed to throw a grenade, which dispersed the attackers. Munnelly died about eight hours later. Buried Ballycastle.326 William J. Potter (26Aug1920/2) RIC (61150), 36, CoI Knockcroghery, Roscommon From Turlough, Castlebar, Mayo, the son of an RIC man, Constable Potter joined the RIC on 2 March 1903. He was cycling from Roscommon town to Kiltoom with Constable Michael McMahon. After leaving a pub in Knockcroghery at around 21:00, they were ambushed at a railway crossing by Volunteers of the Knockcroghery Company, South Roscommon Brigade. McMahon stated that two men rushed out, firing two shots before shouting ‘hands up’. More shots were then fired. The policemen attempted to cycle away, but Potter, shot through the right lung, died within minutes. The IRA maintained fire was opened only because

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the police failed to halt. This attack did not have battalion or brigade sanction. Buried Turlough Cemetery, Castlebar. His mother secured £700 compensation.327 John Hynes (26Aug1920/3) 76, Labourer, Widowed with children, RC Shanagolden, Limerick Constables Huckerby and Hall went from Foynes to Shanagolden seeking medical attention, but were set upon by armed men who made them walk from the village in their bare feet before being released. A large body of police later returned to Shanagolden. They fired indiscriminately. Hynes was killed sheltering in a ditch. The creamery, Henry Reidy’s shop, John Dore’s pub and the Carnegie Library were set on fire. Lord Monteagle wrote to the Irish Times to dispute a Castle statement that police came under fire: Hynes was a ‘most harmless .  .  . Pensioner’, and ‘though a Catholic . . . the sexton of the Protestant church’. James Collins, captain Abbeyfeale Company, said the IRA decided to kill Huckerby, believed to have shot Hynes. But this plan was scrapped. On 22 September, Huckerby killed Jeremiah Healy and Patrick Harnett in cold blood in Abbeyfeale. In December, the RIC shot Volunteer Timothy Madigan in Shanagolden, again apparently on foot of the indignity heaped on Huckerby and Hall in August.328 SA: Hartnett (22Sep1920/8), Healy (22Sep 1920/9), Madigan (28Dec1920/1) Ethel Mary Burrowes (26Aug1920/4) 16, Rope worker, CoI RVHB See McCartney (25Aug1920/2). Ethel, daughter of Alexander Burrowes, a tramway motorman, lived on Bright Street.329 Francis McCann (26Aug1920/5) 52,330 Labourer, RC Young’s Row, Seaforde Street, Belfast McCann, of 38 Chemical Street, died at about 22:15 when the military fired into Seaforde Street during disturbances between Catholic residents and Protestant shipyard workers.331

John Kelly (26Aug1920/6) Manchester Regiment (3512795332), 29, Seaman Military Barracks, Ballincollig, Cork From Liverpool, Private Kelly served with the Sherwood Foresters (43681) before joining the Manchester Regiment. Discharged in France on 14 March 1919, he re-enlisted next day, stationed in Ballincollig, where he died from unspecified accidental wounds.333 Buried Cork Military Cemetery.334

27 AUGUST 1920 Georgina Rice (27Aug1920/1) 24, Dressmaker, CoI Dundalk, Louth Georgina, eldest child of William Rice, a groom and gardener of Ardee, Louth, had lived in Thomas Craig’s drapery in Market Square for four years, along with a dozen other staff. At around 02:30 a fire began at the front of the shop (and also, according to one report, at the rear, ‘as if a fire bomb had been thrown in’). The Ulster Bank, the post office and Melville’s drapery in the square were also set alight. Georgina roused her fellow workers, most of whom escaped through a back window and gangway into an adjoining wine merchant’s, or by jumping from windows, or by ladders put up by the military and town fire brigades. Her charred remains, and those of Alexander Alderdyce and Elizabeth Wilson, were found downstairs near the front door. The fire destroyed Craig’s, McGorisk’s and the Ulster Bank, while the ground floor of the post office and Melville’s was saved. Despite being on the run, the local IRA commander James McGuill forced his way onto the platform at a protest meeting. He made a ‘fiery’ speech claiming that exsoldiers had produced a list of Protestant premises which they proposed to attack in reprisal for attacks on Catholic areas in Lisburn and Belfast. He said that he ‘threatened them with a gun . . . but for his timely action, half-a-dozen Protestant houses would have been burned down’, and he remarked that if Crown forces would leave the town, the IRA would ensure the safety of all

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sections of the community. He told the BMH that he had also warned these men that the IRA would kill anyone who took action against Protestants. A later IRA investigation identified three suspects, imbued with the ideas of ‘the Russian Revolutionaries’, who left the area after the blaze. But, as he told the BMH, there remained strong suspicions in Dundalk and surrounding areas that IRA elements were responsible. He believed that his public intervention, while necessary, was misrepresented by the press as almost an indirect admission of responsibility and led to long-term difficulties. Following a service in St Nicholas Parish Church, where she was in the choir and the Girls Friendly Society, Georgina was buried in Ardee.335 RD: Alderdyce (27Aug1920/2), Wilson (27Aug1920/3) Alexander Alderdyce (27Aug1920/2) 15, Draper’s assistant, CoI Dundalk, Louth See Rice (27Aug1920/1). Alderdyce, son of George Alderdyce of Drogheda, had worked in Craig’s for four months. Buried Dundalk. Elizabeth Wilson (27Aug1920/3) Milliner, 36, Presbyterian Dundalk, Louth See Rice (27Aug1920/1). From Ballynure, Antrim, Elizabeth had worked in Craig’s for twenty years. Buried Dundalk. John Mullan (27Aug1920/4) RIC (70256), 25, Ex-serviceman, shipyard stager, naval rating, RC Drumlish, Longford From Tyrone, Constable Mullan joined the RIC on 3 February 1920, stationed in Drumlish, Longford. At about 09:30, a four-man patrol escorting the mail car from Drumlish to Ballinamuck with pension money was attacked by ten masked men concealed behind a wall at Gaigue. Patrick Kiernan, then quartermaster North Longford Battalion, recalled strict orders not to fire unless the police refused to surrender. During the struggle, Mullan was killed by a shot in the neck. Constables Brogan, King and Reidy

were wounded. Mullan was posthumously awarded the constabulary medal.336 Charles Edward Hall (27Aug1920/5) RASC (M/45295), 19, CoE Whiterock,337 Churchtown North, Cork Private Hall served in the 1155th Mechanised Transport Company, stationed in Cork. A military party consisting of one officer and seven other ranks of the Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders was fired on at 16:00 as it drove through Churchtown by an IRA party. The first volley struck Driver Hall, Lieutenant Begg (45295) and Private H. Winterton (34702). Although mortally wounded, Hall managed to drive the Garford car past the ambush position, but it then ran into a wall. Soldiers under Sergeant ‘Ginger’ Carse engaged the IRA while Hall was lifted into the back of the car, which was driven back to barracks. Hall died three-quarters of an hour later. Begg was awarded an MBE for his conduct, and Carse was officially commended. Buried Wirksworth Cemetery, Derbyshire (C. of E. 532).338 John (Seán) Buckley (27Aug1920/6) 26, RC CMHC Buckley, of Ballyedmond, Midleton, was secretary of the Midleton branch of Sinn Féin.339 He and his brother Bartholomew were arrested by the military. They were brought to Midleton Barracks, and later handcuffed together and put in a military lorry. According to press and police reports, while being conveyed to Cork, they attempted to escape and when fired on were wounded, John mortally. Buried Midleton.340 Francis Alfred Day (27Aug1920/7) SWB (57671),341 19 KGVH From Birmingham, Private Day was stationed in Dollymount Camp, Dublin. He died from a gunshot wound accidentally inflicted the previous day by Private Roberts at Gormanston aerodrome. Buried Witton Cemetery, Birmingham (Screen Wall. 47. 08652).342

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28 AUGUST 1920 Harry Francis Chads (28Aug1920/1) Border Regiment, 29 Castlebar Aerodrome, Mayo From Buckinghamshire, Chads was commissioned on 9 March 1910, rising to major by 1919, and won the MC. He died while a passenger in an aircraft which crashed near Castlebar Aerodrome.343 Terence Burns (28Aug1920/2) 39, Labourer, Married with children, RC RVHB Burns, who was disabled, of 17 Massereene Street, died after an operation on his thigh. He had been shot when, hearing shooting, he went to look for his children.344 Patrick Gilmore (28Aug1920/3) 25, Telephone wireless erector, ex-serviceman, Married with two children, RC Townsend Street, Belfast Gilmore, living at 22B Campbell’s Row, had been wounded in France. Gilmore and Robert Lynch were killed by a single volley fired by military in an attempt to separate two rioting groups.345 RD: Lynch (28Aug1920/4) Robert Lynch (28Aug1920/4) 20, RC Townsend Street, Belfast See Gilmore (28Aug1920/3). Lynch lived at 20 Massereene Street.346 George Hamilton Johnston (28Aug1920/5) 70, Landowner, CoI Eden House, Ardara, Glenties, Donegal Johnston owned a large estate at Ardara, sat on the Glenties Board of Guardians and was a JP. An advocate of dominion home rule, keenly interested in country sports, he was reportedly very popular although a rake said to have fathered several children by local women. At around 22:00, he was in his home, Eden House, when two IRA men burst in looking for weapons. Johnston rose from his chair and made a motion as if to push away one of the intruders, whom he recognised. The gunman accidentally discharged his weapon upwards at close range, shooting Johnston through the

chin. He died instantly, and local lore suggested that his moustache ended up stuck to the ceiling. The gun with which he was shot is said still to be held in the area.347

29 AUGUST 1920 William John Cassidy (29Aug1920/1) 25, Spirit grocer, RC Glenpark Street, Belfast Cassidy, from Londonderry, lived at 42 Glenpark Street. Catholics in the Marrowbone district attacked the homes of Protestant textile workers, apparently in revenge for the burning of nationalist homes in Lisburn. Fierce rioting left five Catholics and one Protestant dead. A seventh victim, Charles O’Neill, died a fortnight later. The military eventually fired to disperse the rioters. Cassidy was shot in the chest and killed at about 01:15, along with five others, by a single burst from a Hotchkiss machine gun.348 RD: Kinney (29Aug1920/5), Moan (29Aug 1920/2), Murray (29Aug1920/3), O’Neill (10Sep1920/1), Orr (30Aug1920/1), Toner (29Aug1920/4) Owen Moan (29Aug1920/2) 16, Labourer, RC Glenview Street, Belfast See Cassidy (29Aug1920/1). Moan, of 36 Glenview Street, was shot in the heart at about 01:30.349 John Leo Murray (29Aug1920/3) 19, RC Glenpark Street, Belfast See Cassidy (29Aug1920/1). He was fatally wounded in the abdomen.350 Thomas Toner (29Aug1920/4) 19, Labourer, RC Glenpark Street, Belfast See Cassidy (29Aug1920/1). Toner, of 89 Ardilea Street, was shot dead on Glenpark Street.351 Henry Kinney (29Aug1920/5) 47, Packer, Married with children, RC MIHB See Cassidy (29Aug1920/1). Kinney, of 120 Ardilea Street, was fatally wounded in the chest.352

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Timothy Fitzgerald (29Aug1920/6) IRA, 18, RC Brinny, Bandon, Cork At about 18:30, a military patrol from Bandon surprised a party of around thirty Volunteers near Brinny, about four miles from Bandon. Fitzgerald, a lieutenant in the Farnivane Company, was killed and another Volunteer captured. Charles O’Donoghue, assistant adjutant Bandon Battalion, recalled how in January 1921 the IRA abducted and killed Daniel Lynch, whom they believed had betrayed them. Fitzgerald was the first IRA fatality in west Cork. Buried Kilbrogan Cemetery, Bandon.353 RD: Lynch (21Jan1921/4) George Walker (29Aug1920/7) 36, Ex-serviceman, boatman, Married with six children, CoE Military Hospital, Queenstown (Cobh), Cork Walker, from Liverpool, lived in Queenstown and worked on a harbour launch. Soldiers rioted in Queenstown following the ambush on 27 August during which C. E. Hall was killed, smashing almost every shop window. In the early hours of 29 August, Walker was fatally wounded, having allegedly failed to halt when challenged. Buried Ballymore Cemetery.354 SA: Hall (27Aug1920/5)

30 AUGUST 1920 Grace Orr (30Aug1920/1) 23, Spinner, Presbyterian MIHB See Cassidy (29Aug1920/1). Wounded at Ewart Row, Grace Orr died at about 01:30 after an operation.355 John Coard (30Aug1920/2) 25, Driller, Married, CoI RVHB Coard, of 11 Lawther Street, was a driller in the Workman and Clark Shipyard. His wife Sarah was pregnant. Wounded on Henry Street when the military fired to quell disturbances, he later died, one of six fatalities.356 RD: Colville (30Aug1920/4), Hobson (30Aug 1920/5), McAlpine (30Aug1920/6), McLean

(30Aug1920/8), Mullan (30Aug1920/3), Thompson (30Aug1920/7) William Mullan (30Aug1920/3) 18, Shipwright, Protestant Henry Street, Belfast See Coard (30Aug1920/2). Mullan, of 100 Upper Meadow Street, was shot by an IRA gunman on a tram in Henry Street.357 Samuel Colville (30Aug1920/4) 18, Riveter, Presbyterian Molyneux Street, Belfast See Coard (30Aug1920/2). Colville’s mother Martha said she saw her son fall wounded on Molyneux Street when shots were fired by snipers, not by the military.358 Henry Alfred Hobson (30Aug1920/5) 16, Shipyard worker, CoI RVHB See Coard (30Aug1920/2). Hobson, a keen soccer player with Distillery F.C., was shot during disturbances in the Millfield area, probably by IRA gunmen.359 Robert McAlpine (30Aug1920/6) 11, Messenger, Presbyterian Great George’s Street, Belfast See Coard (30Aug1920/2). Robert, a son of Emanuel McAlpine of 35 Little York Street, was shot at about 13:00 while trying to stop the looting of a pub.360 John Thompson (30Aug1920/7) 18, Driver, Protestant RVHB See Coard (30Aug1920/2). Thompson, of 3 Henry Street, shot in the Great George’s Street area, died at 13:00.361 Adam McLean (30Aug1920/8) 26, Plater’s mate, Married with two children RVHB See Coard (30Aug1920/2). Annie McLean, of 20 Southwell Street, described how, as she and her husband were standing on Southwell Street at around 15:30, he was hit by four shots fired by the military.362

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Paul Chapman (30Aug1920/9) 31, Labourer, Married with two children, CoI Union Infirmary, Lisburn Road, Belfast Chapman lived at 161 Matilda Street. He was among a crowd fired on by the military when they refused to disperse during rioting in the Sandy Row area. Wounded in the arm and abdomen, he died at about 23:00. Robert Seymour died on 12 September.363 RD: Seymour (12Sep1920/2)

Frederick Saye (31Aug1920/5) 26, Engineer, ex-serviceman, CoI Bankmore Street, Belfast A Royal Irish Fusilier veteran living at 62 Donegall Pass, Saye was shot after curfew after ignoring challenges and running away from Henry McDevitt’s pub, which was in flames. It is unclear whether he was an arsonist or had been attempting to put the fire out.370

31 AUGUST 1920

James Ayton Jamieson (31Aug1920/6) Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) (3234829) Linfield Road, Belfast Private Jamieson, stationed in Royal Victoria Barracks, was accidentally shot at about 23:00 by a comrade on Linfield Road after firing a shot himself. Buried Riddrie Park Cemetery, Glasgow (A. 7881).371

James Cromie (31Aug1920/1) 35,364 Ex-serviceman, dock labourer, Married with five children, RC Dufferin Dock, Belfast Cromie, a Royal Navy veteran, and his wife Katherine lived at 65 Trafalgar Street. Cromie was killed in the Dufferin Dock by a bullet which ricocheted off a wall, striking him in the chest, when revolver shots were fired during rioting. Buried Milltown Cemetery.365 Patrick O’Reilly366 (31Aug1920/2) RIC (56526), 48, Farmer, Married with children, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin See Haverty (21Aug1920/5). From Fivealley, Birr, Offaly, O’Reilly joined the RIC on 16 July 1894, posted to Meath and in 1907 to Dublin. Promoted to sergeant in 1913, he was due to retire in September 1920. He died of septic pneumonia following gunshot wounds. Buried Esker, Tullamore, Offaly.367 Edward Burns (31Aug1920/3) Labourer, 65, Married, RC Earl Street, Belfast Burns, from Tyrone, of 65 Grove Street, was shot by a loyalist gunman who rushed into Earl Street. In October 1920, George Dilworth was charged with the murder.368 Thomas McMahon (31Aug1920/4) 69, Farmer, RC Aughafin, Clones, Monaghan McMahon died following a blow from a sharp instrument received on the evening of 29 August, apparently inflicted by a man named Leslie during a political row.369

James Lonergan (31Aug1920/7) 33, Farmer’s son, RC Tinalira, Dungarvan, Waterford James, son of William Lonergan, a farmer from Tinalira, was dragged from his home at about midnight by between twenty and thirty armed and masked men. They shot him in the yard. His father and brother were beaten. The police said the killing arose from an agrarian grievance ‘of many years standing’.372 James Gordon373 (31Aug1920/8) Civilian, RC Knockraha, Cork From Kiltyclogher, Leitrim, Gordon was said to be an RIC agent who moved from station to station, in each case resulting in the killing of a prominent Sinn Féin supporter. He was allegedly implicated in the shooting of Thomas O’Dwyer of The Ragg, Tipperary. Volunteers of E Company, 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, arrested a very drunk man at Penrose Quay following a tip-off from a suspicious publican. After perusing Gordon’s notebook, Seán Hegarty, O/C Cork No. 1 Brigade, ordered his execution. This was delayed until a priest could be found. Gordon was eventually taken to Knockraha, the Cork No. 1 Brigade’s favoured killing

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ground seven miles east of the city, shot, and his remains buried in a nearby bog.374 SA: O’Dwyer (30Mar1920/1)

1 SEPTEMBER 1920 Bernard Marron (1Sep1920/1) IRA, 25, Carpenter, RC Corcreeghagh, Monaghan ‘Barney’ Marron, from Ardragh, Carrickmacross, served in the Corduff Company, Monaghan Brigade which carried out a general raid for arms on the night of 31 August. In the northern areas, members of the AOH and Protestants, ‘aware that the raid was to take place’, put up considerable resistance, whereas in south Monaghan there was little trouble. Only a few rifles, several pistols and some shotguns were captured, at considerable cost – four confirmed IRA fatalities, and several woundings.375 James Mulligan characterised the raid as ‘partly a failure’. Another IRA veteran, Charlie O’Neill, recalled: ‘To me it seemed a silly order as it would only alert Protestants & put them on the defensive.’ It engendered a spate of reprisals and counterreprisals in the following months, including sectarian murders. As a county where comparatively few fatalities occurred, and where Crown forces lost only a handful of men in a few engagements, Monaghan stands out for the high proportion of civilians – AOH and Protestant – killed by the IRA. Marron, severely wounded leading a raid on James McCaul’s farm, died in the early hours of 1 September at Corcreeghagh, two miles from Shercock, Cavan. The IRA reportedly shot McCaul in the chest about a fortnight later in reprisal, while his son Patrick was ordered to leave the country. Buried Raferagh Cemetery. His brother Patrick,† killed on 24 May 1922, was interred in the same grave, marked with a Celtic cross.376 RD: Keenan (20Sep1920/10), McKenna (1Sep1920/3), O’Reilly (1Sep1920/2) Peter O’Reilly (1Sep1920/2) IRA, RC Drum, Monaghan O’Reilly served in the Rockcorry Company, Monaghan Brigade. John McGahey, a

Rockcorry Volunteer, recalled raids on about a dozen unionist houses by eighteen members of the Rockcorry Company. Towards morning, O’Reilly broke down the door of the Crawford home near Drum, but was seriously wounded by a shotgun blast, fired by whom is unclear. Using a garden gate as a stretcher, his comrades carried him some distance until they met Father Edward Quigley, parish priest of Rockcorry, and Dr W. Canning. O’Reilly died before the last rites could be administered. Buried Edergole Churchyard, Rockcorry.377 Patrick Joseph McKenna (1Sep1920/3) IRA, Woodturner, RC Castleblayney, Monaghan From Church Street, Castleblayney, McKenna was fatally wounded at the farm of William Fleming at Drumgarra. Six months later the IRA killed William and Robert Fleming in reprisal, an act which some republican veterans characterised as vindictive and sectarian. Buried St Mary’s Church, Castleblayney, Monaghan. His father ultimately received a dependent’s gratuity of £50.378 SA: Fleming (29Mar1921/1), Fleming (29Mar 1921/2) Thomas Maher (1Sep1920/4) 53, Water bailiff, farmer, Married, RC Knockgraffon, Cahir, Tipperary Maher lived with his wife Ellen in Knockgraffon, Cahir. At about 03:00, he answered his door. Although carrying a shotgun, he was ordered to put his hands up, then killed by a revolver shot to the chest. His wife saw two men running away. The RIC thought this a botched arms raid.379 John O’Brien (1Sep1920/5) 45, Married, RC Park Street, Belfast O’Brien, of 9 Kildare Street, was shot in the head on Park Street around 08:00, either by a sniper, or by the military while returning fire.380 Edward Murphy (1Sep1920/6) RIC (69231), 24, Farmer, RC Ratra Crossroads, Tibohine, Roscommon From Knock, Mayo, Constable Murphy joined the RIC on 2 October 1917, posted

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first to Leitrim and in February 1920 to Ballaghadereen, Roscommon. About thirty men of the South Sligo Brigade IRA ambushed a five-man RIC group cycling to Frenchpark at Ratra Crossroads. One section fired prematurely, fatally wounding Constable Martin McCarthy but allowing his comrades to take cover and fight back. Thomas McDonagh killed Murphy, but was then shot dead himself. The IRA withdrew, and the RIC dragged McDonagh’s body through the streets of Ballaghaderreen before handing it over to relatives. That night, several Ballaghadereen premises were destroyed in reprisal. Murphy’s parents William and Kate later secured £800 compensation.381 RD: McCarthy (2Sep1920/2), McDonagh (1Sep1920/7) Thomas McDonagh (1Sep1920/7) IRA, 20, Stereotyper, Engaged, RC Ratra Crossroads, Tibohine, Roscommon See Murphy (1Sep1920/6). Born in the United States, McDonagh was brought back to Ireland and raised by his grandmother and uncle on a farm at Cloonloo, Sligo. Buried Temple Ronain, Sligo. He is commemorated on a monument at Shankill, Roscommon.382 James A. Cowser383 (1Sep1920/8) 37, Sawyer, Married with one child, Protestant Cliftonpark Avenue, Belfast Cowser lived at 7 Benwell Street with his wife Elizabeth and their child. He had lost his nose during the Boer War. He was shot by police on Cliftonpark Avenue, allegedly while one of a loyalist group chasing a Catholic.384 Henry McCann (1Sep1920/9) 30, Carter, RC Brown Street, Belfast McCann, of 34 Wall Street, was shot dead on Brown Street, probably by a loyalist sniper. Buried Milltown Cemetery.385 Thomas Maxwell (1Sep1920/10) 38, Well sinker, Married, CoI RVHB Maxwell, of 61 North Boundary Street, died from a leg wound received the previous day

when the military fired to disperse a crowd on Old Lodge Road.386

2 SEPTEMBER 1920 Thomas Boyd (2Sep1920/1) 45, Ex-serviceman, labourer, Married with four children, Presbyterian RVHB Boyd, of 11 Northland Street, was wounded in the throat on Louden Street when police clashed with a mob.387 Martin McCarthy (2Sep1920/2) RIC (66580), 28, Farmer, RC Ratra Crossroads, Roscommon See Murphy (1Sep1920/6). McCarthy, from Clare, joined the RIC on 15 May 1912, stationed in Ballaghaderreen.388 Frederick Hobbs (2Sep1920/3) 30, Ex-serviceman, Married with one child, RC RVHB Hobbs, of 26 Boundary Street, shot in the head by a loyalist gunman as he helped to move furniture, died next day.389 William James McMurty (2Sep1920/4) 18, Shipyard worker, CoI RVHB McMurty, of 13 Derry Street, died the day after he was wounded during a riot, most likely by IRA or other nationalist gunmen.390 Patrick Seery (2Sep1920/5) IRA, 36, RC MMD ‘Paddy’ Seery from Cloneyheigue, Ballinagore, Westmeath, was a captain in Offaly No. 2 Brigade. He died from wounds received on 2 June, when Volunteers from local companies attacked the RIC Barracks at Clara, Offaly. The attack was abandoned at around 03:00.391 Timothy Folan, an RIC constable awarded a constabulary medal following the attack, believed Seery had been accidentally wounded by his own side. Colun also recalled how locals called to the barracks after the attack, bringing bottles of whiskey and other comforts. Buried Meedin Graveyard, Tyrrellspass, Westmeath. Two of his siblings later failed to secure dependents’ allowances.392

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3 SEPTEMBER 1920 Neil Kerr (3Sep1920/1) IRA, 24, Sailor, RC Thomas Ashe Sinn Féin Club, 93 Scotland Road, Liverpool From Pigeon House Road, Dublin, Kerr lived at 6 Florida Street, Liverpool. A fireman on a US ocean liner, after the Rising he was imprisoned in Knutsford and Frongoch. He, his brother Tom and father Neil senior were key IRA arms smugglers. One account says Tom Kerr was examining a .45 automatic, part of an arms consignment, in the cellar of 93 Scotland Road. He pressed the trigger, shooting his brother dead. Another version has it that Neil Kerr accidentally shot himself. Buried GC.393 William McDowell (3Sep1920/2) 50, Motor driver, Married, CoI Knocknagor, Laurencetown, Down McDowell was driving William McConville from a bank in Banbridge, where he had collected £1,308 for wages for Messrs Dunbar, McMaster and Co. They were held up at Knocknagor. McDowell was later found dead on the road; the money was missing. McConville was suspected of tipping off the robbers, whose motives may have been mercenary rather than political. In December 1920 William Conlon, Frank O’Boyle, Hugh Rogers and McConville were tried for murder, but the jury could not agree. In April 1921 they were arraigned before a general court martial, where Rogers, a chauffeur from Sixmilecross, Tyrone, was sentenced to death, later commuted to life imprisonment. An appeal on the grounds that he should not have been court martialled, having already faced a civil court, failed.394 Essie McDowell lost an action seeking £3,000 compensation.395

c. 3 SEPTEMBER 1920 William Kenny (3 Sep1920/3) Ex-serviceman, RC Ballyogan, Graiguenamanagh, Kilkenny Kenny was from Harristown, Graiguenamanagh. Michael O’Carroll claimed that Kenny ‘consorted’ with newly arrived soldiers, ‘gave them information and

accompanied them on their raids’. On 27 August Volunteers of A Company captured Kenny. He reportedly carried a ticket to Canada and a good sum of money. Held for a week in Graiguenamanagh, he was sentenced to death by IRA court martial. Father David Gorry ministered to him before he was blindfolded, bound and gagged, and drowned in the River Barrow – apparently for fear that gunshots might have been heard at a nearby military post. It also meant his disappearance would be a mystery. Two months later his body was washed up three miles downriver. Three Volunteers had the gruesome task of attaching weights to the decomposed corpse and sinking it for a second time. His family left the area.396

4 SEPTEMBER 1920 Charles Harold (4Sep1920/1) British Military, Protestant Military Hospital, Victoria Barracks, Belfast Private Harold died from injuries received during earlier disturbances.397 Percy Harold Charles Turner (4 Sep1920/2) The Queen’s Regiment, 27, Married, one child Military Hospital, Victoria Barracks, Belfast Acting-Sergeant Turner, from Surrey, died from a leg wound. His second child Phyllis was born five months later.398

5 SEPTEMBER 1920 William Hegarty (5Sep1920/1) IRA, 30, Farmer, RC Ballymakeera, Cork ‘Liam’ Hegarty, quartermaster Ballyvourney Company, 8th Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, and a local man Dan Healy approached a military lorry which had apparently broken down and been abandoned. Hegarty was shot by soldiers concealed inside and, apparently, finished off at close range by a shot to the head. This incident occurred near the home of Michael Lynch whose youngest son, also Michael, was shot near his gate and died about three hours later. The lorry was then driven away to Cork. Buried Kilgarvan,

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Kerry. Commemorated on a monument in The Square, Macroom.399 RD: Lynch (5Sep1920/2) Michael Lynch (5Sep1920/2) 22, RC Ballymakeera, Cork See Hegarty (5Sep1920/1). Lynch lived in Ballymakeera. One brother was an RIC man, another an ex-serviceman. The Cork Examiner stated that Lynch was not a Sinn Féin supporter. Buried Kilgarvan, Kerry. He is commemorated on a plaque in Ballyvourney.400 Thomas Moriarty (5Sep1920/3) Fianna Éireann, 17, Farmer’s son,401 RC Cloghane, Kerry Two policeman brothers named Granville were home on leave at Cloghane to bury a relative. They were in a neighbour’s house when a party of men sought them. They escaped through the back door. One version had it that Moriarty helped them attempt to escape, another that he was a local Fianna scout whom his comrades accidentally shot in the back. He was buried by the IRA next day. The Granvilles were captured but later released. Moriarty’s father secured £120 compensation, and later a dependent’s award.402

8 SEPTEMBER 1920 Timothy Delaney (8Sep1920/1) RIC (65728), 30, Signalman, Married with one child, RC Tullow, Carlow From Mountrath, Laois, Delaney worked with the GS&WR before joining the RIC on 15 February 1911, allocated to Clare. First stationed in Clare, in September 1915 he was transferred to Carlow. Delaney was in a four-man RIC patrol ambushed as it returned to Tullow RIC Barracks at about 22:20 by Volunteers of the 3rd Battalion, Carlow Brigade. When challenged, the police apparently opened fire. Constables Delaney and John Gaughan were killed outright. Constable O’Halloran was wounded in the arm and Sergeant Warrington, who was in charge,

escaped with minor injuries. The surviving policemen ran to their barracks nearby. The Wicklow People reported that Delaney and Gaughan had already tendered their resignations, and that a letter of acceptance of Gaughan’s resignation reached Tullow RIC Barracks the morning after his death. Delaney’s widow Mary secured £1,500 compensation, with £2,000 for his daughter Mary Margaret.403 RD: Gaughan (8Sep1920/2) John Gaughan (8Sep1920/2) RIC (64181), 34, Irish teacher, RC Tullow, Carlow See Delaney (8Sep1920/1). From Belmullet, Constable Gaughan joined the RIC in 1908, stationed in Wicklow and later in Tullow, Carlow. His father Richard secured £760 compensation.404

9 SEPTEMBER 1920 Edward Krumm (9Sep1920/1) RIC (72372), 25, Ex-serviceman, electrical engineer, CoE Infirmary, Galway From Middlesex, Krumm enlisted in 1914. Demobilized in August 1919, he joined the RIC on 10 August 1920. Initially stationed in Dunmore as a driver, he was transferred to Eglinton Street Barracks, Galway. At about 23:45 on 8 September he left Baker’s Hotel in Eyre Square to collect newspapers from the midnight train. Krumm was in civilian clothes, fuelling rumours that he was engaged in intelligence work. Galway Volunteers were also at the station to meet a comrade carrying a case of arms and ammunition. As Krumm was leaving the station, Volunteers ‘tried to disarm him by grappling with him’, but he managed to draw his revolver and shoot Seán Mulvoy in the side of the head. Krumm was then shot. He died almost immediately, Mulvoy two hours later. At around 02:30 police from Eglinton Street Barracks fired several volleys around Galway and set fire to a house on Prospect Hill. At about 04:20, police called at Charles Burbidge’s house. Séamus Quirke, a lodger, was taken, barefoot, his rosary beads in his

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hands, about 300 yards. Shot ten times and left for dead, he struggled back to his lodgings where Father Michael Griffin administered the last rites. Krumm’s mother Edith secured £2,100 compensation.405 RD: Mulvoy (9Sep1920/2), Quirke (9Sep 1920/3). SA: Griffin (15Nov1920/2) Jack (Seán) Mulvoy (9Sep1920/2) IRA, 20, Shop assistant, RC Infirmary, Galway See Krumm (9Sep1920/1). Mulvoy, of Bohermore, Galway, worked for Messrs Corbett & Co. Buried Teampaill, Renmore, Galway. Seán Mulvoy Road commemorates him.406 Séamus Quirke (9Sep1920/3) IRA, 23, Shop assistant, RC The Docks, Galway See Krumm (9Sep1920/1). From Cork, Quirke worked at Jeremiah O’Donovan’s watch-making and jewellery shop, and was adjutant A Company, 1st Battalion, Galway No. 1 Brigade. Buried SFC, Cork. A road in Galway was named in his memory.407 Edward Morley (9Sep1920/4) RIC (71418), 21,408 Ex-serviceman, Protestant Clonbullogue, Offaly Constable Morley, from Surrey, joined the RIC on 14 May 1920, and in July was posted to Clonbullogue. After breakfast he went to his room and shot himself through the mouth with a rifle.409

10 SEPTEMBER 1920 Charles O’Neill (10Sep1920/1) Spirit grocer, 40, RC MIHB See Cassidy (29Aug1920/1). O’Neill was from Glenpark Street.410

11 SEPTEMBER 1920 Patrick Gill (11Sep1920/1) 50, Farmer, RC Drumsna, Leitrim Gill, from Corlara, Leitrim, was going to a wake with his sister Lizzie and a neighbour.

Around 22:00, they encountered police and soldiers of the East Yorkshire Regiment. Gill was shot in the abdomen when he failed to answer a challenge. He died nearby. His companions said they had heard only one challenge to halt. Whether he was a Volunteer is unclear. Buried Drumsna, Leitrim.411 John Toner (11Sep1920/2) 51,412 Carter, Widowed with two children, RC Newtownards Road, Belfast Toner, of 29 Cable Street, was going home twenty minutes after curfew when called on to halt several times, before being shot by a patrol of the Prince Albert’s (Somerset Light Infantry). Wounded in the left shoulder and chest, he soon died. Samuel Toner said that his brother, who had gone out to buy groceries, was hard of hearing, having worked in the shipyards on Queen’s Island for thirty years.413

12 SEPTEMBER 1920 Frank Basil Catchpole (12Sep1920/1) Norfolk Regiment (5765260), 22, Protestant Cavan Private Catchpole, of Woodton, Bungay, Norfolk, was killed when Private Constable discharged a rifle while cleaning it in Cavan. Constable was charged with murder. Buried All Saints Churchyard, Woodton, Norfolk.414 Robert Seymour (12Sep1920/2) 33, Grocer, Presbyterian Union Infirmary, Lisburn Road, Belfast See Chapman (30Aug1920/9). Seymour died from wounds received when shot by troops on 30 August as he lifted a box outside his grocery at 186 Sandy Row.415

14 SEPTEMBER 1920 James Connolly (14Sep1920/1) 70, Married, RC Unshinagh, Kinlough, Leitrim At about 04:30, the Connolly house was raided by police and military looking for James junior, captain Kinlough Company, Donegal Brigade. James Connolly senior said James was in Manorhamilton, though in fact he had returned late and was in his room. A shot was fired, possibly accidentally,

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wounding James senior. Soldiers lifted him onto a bed while help was sought. He died at around 17:00. His son was arrested.416 Michael Glavey (14Sep1920/2) IRA, 36, Tailor, Engaged, RC Ballinlough, Roscommon Glavey, from Clooncan, Ballinlough, was a well-known sportsman, and a lieutenant in the Ballinlough Company, South Roscommon Brigade. On 11 September, Ballinlough Barracks was closed and its men transferred to Castlerea. The IRA went to burn the building. Unknown to them, soldiers of the 9th Lancers had been dropped off at Cashlieve Wood. They returned to Ballinlough Barracks surreptitiously on foot and lay in ambush. Glavey was shot in front of the building, and died within minutes. Pat Glynn was killed while climbing a ladder to bore a hole in the roof. Michael J. Keane was also killed. Other Volunteers escaped. Buried Ballyhaunis, Mayo. Commemorated on a monument at Loughglinn, Roscommon. Michael Glavey’s GAA Club in Ballinlough is named in his memory. His mother and sister each received a £50 gratuity.417 RD: Glynn (14Sep1920/3), Keane (14Sep 1920/4) Patrick Glynn (14Sep1920/3) IRA, 28, Agricultural labourer, carpenter, RC Ballinlough, Roscommon See Glavey (14Sep1920/2). From Aghaderry, Loughglinn, Glynn was O/C 1st (Castlerea) Battalion, South Roscommon Brigade. Buried Kilrudane Cemetery, Loughglinn. Commemorated on a monument at Loughglinn. His father secured a £150 gratuity.418 Michael J. Keane (14Sep1920/4) IRA, 24, Farmer, RC Ballinlough, Roscommon See Glavey (14Sep1920/2). Keane, from Clooncrim, Ballinlough, was second lieutenant Ballinlough Company, South Roscommon Brigade. Buried Granlahan Cemetery, Ballinlough. Commemorated on a monument at Loughglinn. His father secured a £75 gratuity.419

William Carroll (14Sep1920/5) RIC, 26, Farmer, RC Douglas, Cork The CFR records that Constable William Carroll (67944), from Galway, who joined the RIC on 15 July 1914, allocated to Cork East Riding, was driving a timber lorry commandeered at gunpoint, when thrown through the windscreen when it hit a telegraph pole in Douglas after speeding and zigzagging. Two other policemen were injured. Some onlookers said all three policemen appeared to be drunk.420

15 SEPTEMBER 1920 John O’Callaghan (15Sep1920/1) 29, Ex-serviceman, clerk Farmer’s Cross, Cork O’Callaghan, a clerk in Victoria Barracks, was kidnapped by Patrick Collins and Jeremiah Keating. Held for some hours, he attempted to flee but was tripped up and recaptured. Driven out to the Farmer’s Cross area, shot and buried, his remains were never recovered. Patrick Collins, captain G Company, 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, asserted that the ‘brigade had ample evidence that this man [O’Callaghan] was conveying information’. Collins appeared to confuse the date of this killing with that of Stephen O’Callaghan, shot on Anderson’s Quay on 29 April 1920.421 SA: Callaghan (30Apr1920/3)

17 SEPTEMBER 1920 Joseph Athy (17Sep1920/1) 22, Road worker,422 RC St Bride’s Nursing Home, Galway Athy, from Maree, Oranmore, Galway, was fatally wounded at 18:30 when shots were fired from behind a hedge into a cart carrying three labourers. He died next day. The police suggested that the men were unpopular because they took road contracts previously held by locals under ‘the direct labour system’. The Last Post stated that Athy was murdered by police, as did Thomas Newell, lieutenant Castlegar Company. At Galway Quarter Sessions in July 1921, Patrick Burke swore that one of the men who shot at him was in uniform. Buried Kilcaimin Cemetery, Oranmore.423

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18 SEPTEMBER 1920 Terence Patrick Wheatley (18Sep1920/1) RIC,424 25, RAF, Married Louth Infirmary, Dundalk, Louth Wheatley, a Dublin comedian’s son, was stationed in Anne Street Barracks, Dundalk, as a driver. He died of abdominal wounds received at about 02:45 on 16 September, when he was out of his barracks without permission. A search of his pockets yielded twelve silk handkerchiefs stolen from J. D. Melville’s drapery after the constable had smashed the plate glass window. Other witnesses deposed that they heard an argument before shots were fired. A threatening note addressed to Wheatley, which it was suggested he may have written himself, was also found: Poblacht na hÉireann – To Driver Wheatley RIC Take warning, relinquish your present occupation and leave Ireland within one month from this date or the sentence of death already passed on you will be carried out. Signed by the Commandant Louth Area IRA, 02/09/1920.

Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Dowdallshill. His widow secured £1,200 compensation.425 Robert John Clout (18Sep1920/2) Prince Consort’s Own (Rifle Brigade) (6908971), 18 Finner Camp, Ballyshannon, Donegal Lance-Corporal Clout was accidentally shot through the throat by a soldier of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment. Buried Clapham Cemetery, Kent (HH. 1147).426

19 SEPTEMBER 1920 Seán Doyle (19Sep1920/1) IRA, 19, Fitter, RC Kilmashogue, Dublin Doyle, of 159 Emmet Road, served in 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade. An explosives demonstration was held at Kilmashogue mountain, frequently used for IRA training purposes. Although a warning was received the night before of possible Crown forces activity, Rory O’Connor,† director of

engineering, stuck to the plan. O’Connor, chief of staff Dick Mulcahy and others were observing tests of the munitions when they heard a fusillade of shots. Two IRA companies preparing to march to the top of a hill nearby had been challenged by a large group of Auxiliaries behind the wall of St Columba’s College. Doyle was shot dead while attempting to throw a grenade. IRA officers believed the Auxiliaries had been in position since the previous night, whereas the Auxiliary commander testified said they deployed only at 10:00. Forty-three men were arrested. Buried Esker Cemetery, Lucan, Dublin.427

20 SEPTEMBER 1920 James D. Mathers (20Sep1920/1) Blacksmith’s apprentice, CoI RVHB Mathers, of 8 Hartley Street, died at 02:00 of wounds received during rioting on 30 August.428 Albert Sweeney (20Sep1920/2) King’s Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment) (3703223) 33, Married KGVH Sergeant ‘Bertie’ Sweeney was stationed in Kilbride Camp, Dublin. His wife lived in Lancaster, Lancashire. He and Sergeant Thomas Downton intervened when the highly decorated Sergeant George Pollington DCM MM, Worcestershire Regiment, who had been drinking prodigiously, announced his intention of shooting May Fitzpatrick, who had stayed with him in Richmond Barracks for two days after he invited her to attend a dance there. A soldier hid one rifle, but Pollington went out and found another weapon. Returning, he aimed at Fitzpatrick but hit Sweeney. Downton then stepped in front of her, crying: ‘If you shoot her you shoot me.’ Pollington killed him, and wounded another NCO. May Fitzpatrick escaped by jumping out of a window just as Pollington fired again. Pollington, described by one former officer as the bravest man he had ever met, had won a DCM at the Somme, and an MM and Bar at Loos and Arras. Twice wounded and once buried alive, he had been discharged

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with shell shock in 1918, but had re-enlisted in 1919. He was found guilty but insane at a court martial on 9 and 10 November 1920. The prosecuting counsel was Captain S. Newberry, himself destined for assassination on ‘Bloody Sunday’.429 Buried Lancaster Cemetery (M. CE.41).430 RD: Downton (20Sep1920/3) Thomas Downton (20Sep1920/3) Worcestershire Regiment, 29, Married KGVH See Sweeney (20Sep1920/2). Sergeant Downton, a ‘bosom’ friend of Pollington’s, was stationed in Richmond Barracks. His wife Annie lived in Benwell, Newcastle upon Tyne. Buried St John’s Westgate and Elsgate Cemetery, Newcastle upon Tyne (D. U. 229).431 Harold Washington (20Sep1920/4) The Duke of Wellington’s Regiment, 15  432 Upper Church Street, Dublin Private Washington was stationed in Collinstown Aerodrome, Dublin. Born in Salford on 24 October 1904, he had enlisted under age: the army recorded him as nineteen. An older brother had been killed in the Great War. Sixteen Volunteers of H Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade and some members of G Company mobilised to disarm a military rations party which travelled from Collinstown Camp twice a week to collect bread from Monks’ Bakery on Upper Church Street. The IRA were in position at 09:00 sharp with the exception of Kevin Barry, a medical student, who was ten minutes late because he had gone to UCD to enquire about a repeat examination set for that afternoon. Because of his late arrival, Barry was issued with an unfamiliar automatic. Although a coveted weapon, the Mauser had a tendency to jam when loaded with Parabellum rounds from different batches. The lorry, which did not arrive until 11:00, carried one driver, an unarmed NCO, two unarmed privates to carry the bread and six armed members of the Duke of Wellington’s (Regiment). Barry’s court martial heard that at around 11:00 five civilians ordered the military to put their hands up and fired almost simultaneously.

O/C Séamus Kavanagh later recalled that one of his men ran out, probably due to anxiety, shouted hands up and fired a round. Seán O’Neill gave a slightly different version of events, stating that when the soldiers realised that they were being covered by only one Volunteer they grabbed their rifles and an exchange of fire ensued. The shootout lasted for about three minutes. Bullets pierced the hats and clothing of some of the IRA men. Washington was killed outright, shot through the chin, and privates Humphries and Whitehead were hit in the abdomen. The IRA dispersed without capturing any arms and without any withdrawal signal. Barry’s comrades then realised that he was missing. Captured under the lorry, where he had sheltered while trying to clear a jam in his gun, he was subsequently court martialled and hanged for shooting Whitehead. Humphries and Whitehead were brought to hospital. Whitehead’s ‘bowel was perforated in three places . . . it is the most dangerous wound any man can have’, and his abdominal cavity was ‘full of blood, clotted blood’, which a surgeon ‘roughly removed by the hand’. He died that day. Humphries, wounded behind the right hip, died a day later. Buried Weaste Cemetery Salford, Lancashire (G. 1454).433 RD: Humphries (21Sep1920/3), Whitehead (20Sep1920/5). SA: Barry (1Nov1920/5), McKee (22Nov1920/9) Marshall Whitehead (20Sep1920/5) The Duke of Wellington’s Regiment (4603629),434 20 KGVH See Washington (20Sep1920/4). Private White­ head, an only son from Halifax, enlisted in October 1918. He was stationed in Collinstown Camp. His funeral cortège in Halifax passed through streets ‘thronged with people’. Buried Stoney Royd Cemetery, Halifax.435 John A. Denham (20Sep1920/6) RIC (72222), 23, Labourer, ex-serviceman, Protestant RIC Barracks, Glenbower, Tipperary From the Isle of Wight, Constable Denham joined the RIC on 3 August 1920, stationed in

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Glenbower. Accidentally shot by a comrade, he died at 15:20.436 Peter Burke (20Sep1920/7) RIC (62175), 36, Farmer, RC Balbriggan, Dublin From Boyounagh, Glenamaddy, Galway, Burke joined the RIC on 15 October 1896, serving in Antrim, Tipperary and Kerry before transfer to the RIC Reserve in 1916. Promoted to sergeant in 1918 and to head constable in 1919, as an instructor at the Phoenix Park RIC depot, he was reportedly promoted to DI on the day of his death and also awarded the constabulary medal. His brother William was a police sergeant in Balbriggan. The brothers were in Smyth’s pub in Balbriggan at 21:30 while en route to Gormanston, three miles away. Thinking that a group of Auxiliaries who had earlier been refused service were making trouble, William Corcoran and Michael Rock, O/C Naul Battalion, Fingal Brigade, entered through the back door with their weapons drawn. Rock ordered the brothers to clear out, but ‘instead of doing so they made a rush at me and I had no option but to fire. I shot one of the head constables dead and wounded the other.’ News of the shooting reached Gormanston Camp. An estimated 200 Auxiliaries and RIC regulars descended on Balbriggan. Four pubs, a hosiery factory and nine private houses were set on fire. A further thirty houses, mostly on Clonard Street, were vandalised. Claims amounting to £160,000 were later lodged for damages caused by what became known as ‘the sack of Balbriggan’. According to Rock, ‘Jack’ Straw, an ex-serviceman, ‘guided the Tans around the town and pointed out . . . the houses to burn’. The IRA subsequently killed him. At around 01:00 on 21 September, the homes of Volunteers James Lawless and John Gibbons were raided. They were taken to Balbriggan RIC Barracks, where the local RIC reportedly stated that neither had been involved in the earlier killing. After several hours of abuse, they were bayoneted and shot on Quay Street. Their extensively wounded bodies were

discovered at 06:00. Buried Glenamaddy, Galway.437 RD: Gibbons (21Sep1920/1), Lawless (21Sep 1920/2). SA: Straw (21Sep1920/4) James Donohoe (20Sep1920/8) RIC (66183), 29, Farmer, RC Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick From Monaghan, Constable Donohoe joined the RIC on 18 October 1911, posted to Donegal, then Belfast, and in June 1920 to Abbeyfeale, Limerick. James Collins, captain Abbeyfeale Company, West Limerick Brigade, recalled how fifty Volunteers lay in wait for an RIC patrol just outside Abbeyfeale. One Volunteer accidentally broke a branch and when Constable Mahony went to investigate he was mortally wounded. Donohoe was also shot. The other police took cover in a nearby presbytery, and brought Father David Fitzgerald and Father John Carr out to attend to Mahony. He was placed on a cart which the police pushed to the barracks, accompanied by the two priests. Donohoe died at 23:00. Buried Carrickmacross. His father James secured £450 compensation.438 RD: Mahony (20Sep1920/9) John Mahony (20Sep1920/9) RIC (68276), 26, Postman, RC Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick See Donoghue (20Sep1920/8). From Castletownsend, Cork, Mahony joined the RIC on 1 April 1915, stationed in Abbeyfeale. According to Séamus de Róiste, ‘But for the presence of the two priests, section No. 1 and No. 2 could easily have wiped out the patrol on its return.’439 It was later said that he had been an IRA informant. Buried Castletownsend. His father Daniel secured £720 compensation and his fifteen-year-old brother £300.440 SA: Finn (30Mar1921/3)

c. 20 SEPTEMBER 1920 Owen Keenan (20Sep1920/10) IRA, RC Dublin Hospital Keenan, wounded at Gortnanan, Three­ milehouse, during the Monaghan IRA’s

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disastrous general raid for arms on 31 August, died in Dublin about three weeks later.441 Buried Corcaghan Cemetery, Monaghan.442

Dublin. A Celtic cross was erected in 1941, and a plaque placed on the bridge over the Bracken River in memory of them both.444

James Doyle (20Sep1920/11) 34, Agricultural labourer, Married with seven children, RC Knockroe, Rathanna, Borris, Carlow Doyle, from Templeshambo, Enniscorthy, Wexford, was a munitions worker in England during the war. A ‘quiet, inoffensive man’, he lived at Tomgarrow, Ballycarney, Enniscorthy, working for a Mrs Whitty. His children ranged in age from eleven years to four months. Micheál Ó Ciardubháin (Michael Kirwan), adjutant 1st Battalion, North Wexford Brigade, and Seán Whelan, O/C ASU North Wexford Brigade, said they had seen proof he was an informer. Doyle was drinking tea with his wife on 19 September when the IRA’s James Whelan and Tom Roche arrived in British officers’ uniforms. Doyle supposedly offered information on the local Volunteers. Taken away, next night he was sentenced to death by a court martial presided over by Phil Lennon, O/C North Wexford Brigade. Father Aidan McCormack, curate Kiltealy, administered spiritual aid. Doyle was shot at Knockroe on the Wexford–Carlow border, about thirteen miles from his home (Michael Kirwan told the Pensions Board that he ‘arranged for trap for spy James Doyle’, while James Whelan said he ‘was on the execution’). Shot in the head and body, his corpse ‘was partly covered with sheaves of corn’. An attached label read: ‘Spies and Informers Beware’. Doyle’s brother identified him on 24 September. Buried Templeshambo. His widow secured £300 compensation and his children a total of £900.443

James Lawless (21Sep1920/2) IRA, 40,445 Barber, Married with eight children, RC Balbriggan, Dublin See Burke (20Sep1920/7). Lawless, from Dublin, lived on Bridge Street, Balbriggan. Lawless was buried at Balscadden, Dublin, in the same grave as John Gibbons. A plaque commemorating them was placed on the bridge over the Bracken River.446

21 SEPTEMBER 1920 John Gibbons (21Sep1920/1) IRA, c. 29, Dairyman, farmer, RC Balbriggan, Dublin See Burke (20Sep1920/7). Gibbons lived on Skerries Road, Balbriggan, with his widowed mother Rose. Gibbons and James Lawless were buried in the same grave at Balscadden,

Thomas Humphries (21Sep1920/3) The Duke of Wellington’s Regiment (460264), 19 KGVH See Washington (20Sep1920/4). Private Humphries, of West Bowling, Bradford, was stationed at Collinstown Camp, Dublin. Buried Bowling Cemetery, Bradford (U. 335).447

c. 21 SEPTEMBER 1920 William ‘Jack’ Straw448 (21Sep1920/4) Ex-serviceman, labourer, 30 Bettyville, Ballyboughal, Dublin Straw, twice wounded while with the Argyll and Southern Highlanders in Palestine and Mesopotamia, was reported missing on 21 September: ‘It was common talk in and around Balbriggan’ that he had been ‘chased out of Skerries by two men armed with revolvers’. This was probably the ‘spy’ whom Thomasina Weston of Cumann na mBan believed she detected near Balbriggan. Thomas Peppard, intelligence officer Fingal Brigade, recalled: ‘We were very anxious to pick up this man. . . . He was court-martialled and shot’ for his role in the sack of Balbriggan. On 21 October his corpse was found in a ditch at Bettyville Wood after heavy rain had washed away some soil. Among his killers were Bartholomew Weston and Richard Kelly of the 2nd Battalion. Peppard said Straw was the only spy executed in the Fingal Brigade area, although at least one other such killing was attempted in Malahide in 1920. The RIC reported that Straw had not

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been an informer, whereas J. V. Lawless heard that he had ‘admitted’ he was a British agent and ‘died bravely’. Thomas Rafferty and Charles Donnelly, labourers who gave evidence at the court of inquiry, were each accorded one day’s wages (7 shillings).449

22 SEPTEMBER 1920 John Aloysius Lynch (22Sep1920/1) 40, Solicitor’s clerk, RC Royal Exchange Hotel, Parliament Street, Dublin ‘Jack’ Lynch, of Bulgaden, Kilmallock, Limerick, may have been a marked man both because of his Sinn Féin activities and because his employer’s firm had acted for defendants charged with the murders of two policemen at Knocklong in May 1919. He was honorary secretary of the Limerick Sinn Féin executive and a county councillor. Lynch may also, as Florrie O’Donoghue and David Neligan suggested, have been mistaken for Liam Lynch.† Bill Kelly suggested that Lynch’s killing was authorised by Captain G. T. Baggallay, himself to die at IRA hands on ‘Bloody Sunday’. At about 03:00 intelligence officers shot Lynch in his hotel room. They claimed he fired first, whereas the Irish Bulletin maintained that Lynch was unarmed, and GHQ instructed that this point be ‘made strongly’ to press correspondents. Kelly maintained that Lieutenant Henry James Angliss, also killed on Bloody Sunday, was one of ten raiders involved. Buried Kilmallock, Limerick.450 SA: Angliss (21Nov1920/7), Baggallay (21Nov 1920/6), Enright (13May1919/1), Lynch (16Nov1920/1), Wallace (14May1919/1) Alan Cain Lendrum (22Sep1920/2) 34, Magistrate, CoI Caherfennick, Doonbeg, Clare From Kilskeery, Tyrone, Lendrum was commissioned in the 3rd (Reserve) Battalion, the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, on 2 December 1914. He served in France and Flanders, with the 16th Irish Division and the 36th Ulster Division. Wounded four times, he won an MC in 1918 and a bar on 15 February 1919. He had been resident

magistrate at Kilkee, Clare, since 31 March 1920. At around 10:00, Lendrum left Kilkee to attend Ennistymon Petty Sessions. When James Neylon, James Griffin, Patrick Boland and James McGrath, D (Doonbeg) Company, West Clare Brigade, attempted to seize his Ford motor car, Lendrum opened fire with two guns which he always carried, but was mortally wounded. His car was later dismantled and dumped in Coolough lake. Police and military found evidence of the attack near Doonbeg. It was presumed that Lendrum had been kidnapped and killed. Sir Arthur Hezlet claimed that Lendrum was buried up to his neck in sand for the tide to come in to drown him, and his body then thrown on a manure heap. The IRA maintained that Lendrum died in an outhouse, and that his corpse was taken away eight miles, ‘weighted and sunk off low-water mark that night’. Yet an autopsy revealed that Lendrum had drowned, giving some currency to the belief that he had still been alive when placed on the beach. David Joseph Conroy stated that parish priest Canon Patrick Glynn persuaded the 5th Battalion to return Lendrum’s body, and so averted widespread reprisals. On 1 October his corpse was left in a crude coffin near Kilmurry railway station. Buried Kilskeery Church of Ireland Churchyard. His father George secured £850 compensation and £300 for the loss of his son’s car.451 Reginald Hardman (22Sep1920/3) RIC (71746), 21, Gold ring maker, exserviceman, Protestant Rineen, Miltown Malbay, Clare From Highbury, London, Hardman was wounded and gassed while in the Royal Artillery. He joined the RIC as a driver on 29 June 1920, stationed in Miltown Malbay. About forty Volunteers of the 4th Battalion, Mid Clare Brigade, under Ignatius O’Neill, took position between 06:00 and 07:00 at Rineen. An RIC lorry heading towards Ennistymon came under concentrated fire. Constable Hardman, the driver, was killed by the first volley along with constables Hodnett, Kelly and Maguire. Constable Harte escaped

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from the tender and, under the cover of a wall, managed to get about 300 yards before he was killed near the railway line. Sergeant Hynes, seriously wounded, died two days later. The lorry was set on fire. Shortly afterwards a military party from Ennistymon approached and opened fire, but the IRA got clear. During this exchange, John Keane, an elderly man working in a field, was wounded in the leg. He died in Ennistymon Workhouse on 1 October.452 Buried Islington Cemetery, East Finchley, London. His parents secured £100 compensation.453 RD: Harte (22Sep1920/7), Hodnett (22Sep 1920/4), Hynes (24Sep1920/1), Keane (1Oct 1920/2), Kelly (22Sep1920/5), Maguire (22Sep 1920/6). SA: Lehane (23Sep1920/1), Lehane (27Oct1920/4), Lendrum (22Sep1920/2) John Hodnett (22Sep1920/4) RIC (66278), 31, Farmer, RC Rineen, Miltown Malbay, Clare See Hardman (22Sep1920/3). From Cork, Hodnett joined the RIC on 14 December 1911, serving in Westmeath before transfer to Ennistymon in 1916. His mother Mary secured £445 compensation.454 Michael Kelly (22Sep1920/5) RIC (63544), 32, Farmer, RC Rineen, Miltown Malbay, Clare See Hardman (22Sep1920/3). From Roscommon, Kelly joined the RIC on 2 December 1907, serving in Westmeath before transfer to Ennistymon. His sister Kate Forde secured £315 compensation.455 John Maguire (22Sep1920/6) RIC (69743), 20, Farmer, RC Rineen, Miltown Malbay, Clare See Hardman (22Sep1920/3). From Claremorris, Mayo, Maguire joined the RIC on 3 June 1919, stationed in Ennistymon. His parents, brothers and sisters secured £410 compensation.456 Michael Harte (22Sep1920/7) RIC (66362), 28, Farmer, RC Rineen, Miltown Malbay, Clare See Hardman (22Sep1920/3). From Sligo, Harte joined the RIC on 24 January 1912,

stationed in Westmeath. In 1917 he was transferred to Ennistymon. His father secured £25 compensation and his mother £150.457 Patrick J. Hartnett (22Sep1920/8) 25, Postman, RC Castleisland Road, Abbeyfeale, Limerick Hartnett, a postman, lived with his father. Between 18:30 and 19:00 three gunshots were heard in Abbeyfeale. Hartnett and Jeremiah Healy were later found dead, shot in the head, in a field outside the town. They had last been seen alive at 18:30. Healy had just left work, and Hartnett his home. James Collins, captain Abbeyfeale Company, West Limerick Brigade, believed the killer was Thomas Huckerby, a Black and Tan, who had told his DI that he fired because the men looked suspicious. Huckerby was subsequently transferred to Cork. Neither victim had any connection with the IRA. Buried Abbeyfeale.458 RD: Healy (22Sep1920/9) Jeremiah Healy (22Sep1920/9) 18, Blacksmith’s apprentice, RC Castleisland Road, Abbeyfeale, Limerick See Hartnett (22Sep1920/8). Buried Abbeyfeale.459 Thomas Connole (22Sep1920/10) Married with two children,460 RC Ennistymon, Clare The Rineen ambush provoked widespread police reprisals in the villages of Ennistymon, Lahinch and Miltown Malbay. Uniformed men set fire to seven houses in Miltown Malbay, six in Lahinch and five in Ennistymon. There were also fatalities. Helena Connole described how the police ordered everyone out of her house, shot her husband dead in front of her and their young children, and then set their home on fire, throwing the body into the flames. His charred remains were found next day. She secured £2,200 and her children £2,525. Michael Linnane described how at around 05:00, his son Patrick was shot in the temple and killed outright while helping to fight a fire in a neighbour’s house.461 RD: Linnane (22Sep1920/11)

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Patrick J. Linnane (22Sep1920/11) 21, RC Ennistymon, Clare See Connole (22Sep1920/10). His father Michael secured £2,000 compensation. Buried Miltown Malbay.462 Joseph Sammon463 (22Sep1920/12) 36, Farmer, Married with one child, RC Lahinch, Clare Sammon, from Feakle, Clare, visiting a friend in Lahinch, was shot dead by police when he ran out of the house he was staying in. Buried Ennistymon. His widow Mary secured £1,280 with £500 for their child.464 Charles Christopher Grieve (22Sep1920/13) Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders, 38, Protestant CMHC Major Grieve joined the Cameron Highlanders in 1900, serving in Malta and South Africa. Twice invalided home from France, where two of his brothers were killed, he was appointed adjutant, 2nd Battalion, in 1919. He died after an ‘accidental fall’, having ‘suffered ill-health for some time’. Buried Cork Military Cemetery. His father later presented the 2nd Battalion officers’ mess with a dirk and documents including the original ‘Commission as Secretary of War’ of Fox-Maule Ramsay, the Earl of Dalhousie, who was largely blamed for the military deficiencies exposed during the Crimean War.465

23 SEPTEMBER 1920 Patrick Lehane466 (23Sep1920/1) IRA, RC Lahinch, Clare ‘Pake’ Lehane of the 4th Battalion, Mid Clare Brigade, had fought in the Rineen ambush the previous day. Asleep in a secret room in the attic of Flanagan’s in Lahinch when RIC men set the building alight, he died in the blaze. T. S. McDonagh found his charred remains next day. Some hours before this, Lehane’s home was raided: his father Daniel was shot. His brother Captain Donal Lehane was to die on 27 September 1922 in an

exchange with anti-Treaty forces at Killorglin, Kerry.467 SA: Lehane (27Oct1920/4)

24 SEPTEMBER 1920 Michael J. Hynes (24Sep1920/1) RIC (66009), 29, Farmer, RC Infirmary, Ennis, Clare See Hardman (22Sep1920/3). From Athlone, Roscommon, Hynes joined the RIC on 17 July 1911, serving in Carlow before promotion to sergeant and transfer to Ennistymon in February 1920. Buried Drum, Athlone. His father John secured £324 compensation.468 Henry Owen (24Sep1920/2) Royal Welch Fusiliers (4180426), 29, Protestant Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick Private ‘Harry’ Owen, of Nantwich, Cheshire, was stationed in Limerick. Accidentally shot with a revolver by a comrade at New Barracks, he died early next day. Buried All Saints Church Cemetery, Nantwich (East 3. 439).469

25 SEPTEMBER 1920 Michael Brogan (25Sep1920/1) RIC (61507), 41, Herdsman, RC Broadford, Clare From Attymon, Galway, Constable Brogan joined the RIC on 28 November 1905, serving in Kilkenny and Roscommon before his transfer in 1919 first to Ennis and then Broadford. Michael Brennan, O/C East Clare Brigade, received reports that RIC were drinking in Will O’Brien’s pub in Broadford, and that two Black and Tans were out with girls. At around 21:00 his party saw five RIC men leave O’Brien’s. When they came within a few yards, Brennan opened fire. Brogan was shot dead and Constable Brennan seriously wounded. Buried Loughrea, Galway. His father Thomas secured £300 compensation.470 Thomas Leonard (25Sep1920/2) RIC (62331), 35, Farmer, Married with three children, RC Broadway, Falls Road, Belfast From Knockcroghery, Roscommon, Constable Leonard joined the RIC on 16 January 1907,

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serving in Armagh, before transfer to Springfield Road Barracks, Belfast. Three of his brothers also served in the RIC. He lived at 22 Rodden Street. Leonard and Constable Thomas Carroll were on beat duty at Broadway on the Falls Road. At about 23:30 two Volunteers from B Company, 1st Battalion, Belfast Brigade, killed Leonard and seriously wounded Carroll. Around the same time, constables Farrell and Kerin were fired at by four men at the corner of Barrack Street and Mill Road. Farrell was wounded but not seriously. Roger McCorley said that these attacks were for the purpose of disarming police. Likewise, Thomas McNally, quartermaster Belfast Brigade, claimed that the policemen were shot only when they refused to surrender their weapons. Leonard was the first RIC man to be killed in Belfast. That night three Catholics were shot dead in reprisal. Buried Knockcroghery. His dependents secured £3,500 compensation.471 RD: Trodden (26Sep1920/1)

26 SEPTEMBER 1920 Edward Trodden (26Sep1920/1) IRA, 45,472 Barber, Married, RC Falls Road, Belfast ‘Ned’ Trodden, whose home and premises at 68 Falls Road where regularly used for IRB meetings, was described as an ‘active’ Volunteer in the Belfast Brigade. Following the Constable Leonard killing, three Catholics were assassinated in the early hours by members of the RIC and USC, allegedly led by DI Harrison. Trodden was the first. His son Eddie answered the door at 02:15 to uniformed men with blackened faces. They shot Ned Trodden in the head outside his house. At around 05:30, Seán McFadden, a Sinn Féin supporter, was shot dead nearby, as was Seán Gaynor. Thomas McNally, quartermaster Belfast Brigade, suggested that the police probably sought Gaynor’s betterknown brother Liam. In November, the chief secretary for Ireland told the Commons that Gaynor was shot while resisting arrest and that Trodden and McFadden were killed by unknown men. Buried Milltown Cemetery.

His sons secured £500 compensation, but his sister Elizabeth later failed in an application for a dependent’s award.473 RD: Gaynor (26Sep1920/3), McFadden (26Sep1920/2). SA: Leonard (25Sep1920/2) John (Seán) McFadden (26Sep1920/2) IRA, 24, RC Springfield Road, Belfast See Trodden (26Sep1920/1). McFadden was shot in the hall of 54 Springfield Road. He and his brother were apparently ‘associated with the IRA’s intelligence branch’. Buried Milltown Cemetery.474 Seán Gaynor (26Sep1920/3) IRA, 24, Plumber, RC Springfield Road, Belfast See Trodden (26Sep1920/1). The youngest of four sons, Gaynor lived in the family home at 236 Springfield Road. His father served with the RIR for twenty-five years after quitting the RIC during an eviction. A brother served during the war. Gaynor was a member of B Company, 1st Battalion. Shot dead in his bed, ‘the bullet passed through his body and went through the ceiling of the kitchen. His mother in her demented grief went to the nearest RIC barracks and accused the police of being murderers’. She described how a gunman ‘put a gun to her neck’, demanding a candle. She heard ‘Hands up’ from upstairs, and her son replying, ‘I have my hands up.’ She then heard a thud, but no shot. She found her son’s room ‘in a terrible state from blood and brain matter, and her son was lying partly on his side and face’. The departing assailants shouted, ‘That’s the stuff to give them . . . We’ll get the other one too.’ Buried Milltown Cemetery. His parents secured £400 compensation.475

27 SEPTEMBER 1920 Martin Morgan (27Sep1920/1) RIC (58174), 44, Farmer, ex-serviceman, Married with two children City Infirmary, John’s Hill, Waterford From Galway, Morgan joined the RIC on 16 May 1898, stationed in Tipperary. He enlisted in the South Irish Horse on 28 April 1916, rejoining the RIC in 1918, posted to

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Lemybrien, Waterford. He was promoted to sergeant in 1919.476 Seán Tobin recalled how an IRA party were getting into position for an ambush when a police cycle party arrived. Morgan was severely wounded, and another constable captured. The remaining five RIC men escaped. Fearing the arrival of another patrol, the IRA released their prisoner and withdrew. Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Clonmel, Tipperary.477 SA: Keating (19Mar1921/17)

28 SEPTEMBER 1920 William G. Gibbs (28Sep1920/1) 17th (Duke of Cambridge’s Own) Lancers (312181), 22 Military Barracks, Mallow, Cork Gibbs was senior sergeant in C Squadron, posted to Mallow from Buttevant in June 1920. Every morning most of the troops took their horses out for exercise, leaving a small detail to clean the stables. At around 10:00 the ASU Cork No. 2 Brigade, under visiting GHQ officer Ernie O’Malley, seized the guardroom. Gibbs resisted and was shot. The IRA collected all the weapons in the barracks, including two Hotchkiss guns, about thirty rifles and a large quantity of ammunition. An attempt to burn the barracks failed. Reprisals saw shops, the creamery and Mallow Town Hall destroyed. Two women who took shelter overnight in the grounds of St Mary’s Church, Hannah O’Connell and Mary Quirke, soon died, O’Connell from illness, Quirke after she became mentally unhinged. Six men sentenced to death for the murder of Sergeant Gibbs were released after the Treaty. Buried Bedford Cemetery, Bedfordshire (K/3.3).478 RD: O’Connell (15Oct1920/4), Quirke (8Nov 1920/5). SA: McCarthy (22Nov1920/10), McCreery (15May1921/11) Edward James O’Brien (28Sep1920/2) 25, Chauffeur, Married, RC Jigginstown, Naas, Kildare Edward O’Brien, a newly married collector of accounts for Shelbourne Motor Sales Company of St Stephen’s Green, lived at 14 Synnott Place, Dublin. He won an OBE for

his ambulance work during the Rising. At around 19:00, his motorcycle collided with a speeding police vehicle in the Curragh district. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: M. h. 302).479 Frederick Blair (28Sep1920/3) 44, Ex-serviceman, tailor, Married with four children, CoE MIHB A veteran of the Boer War and the Great War, living at 69 Louisa Street, Blair was a prominent Orangeman and UVF drill instructor. Between 21:00 and 22:00, serious rioting and shooting broke out in the Marrowbone district. Blair and John Lawther were fatally wounded by sniper fire. Buried Belfast City Cemetery.480 RD: Lawther (29Sep1920/8)

29 SEPTEMBER 1920 Edward A. Noonan (29Sep1920/1) RIC (70978), 26, Electrician, ex-serviceman, Married with three children, RC Killoskehane, Borrisoleigh, Tipperary From Galway, Noonan, severely wounded during the war, joined the RIC on 30 March 1920, posted to Kerry. In June he was transferred to Golden in Tipperary. Constables Noonan and Flood were killed, and Constable Ferris wounded, when about a dozen Volunteers of the Borrisoleigh Company under Jim Stapleton fired from behind a hedge on a cycle patrol which travelled regularly between Barnane and Borrisoleigh RIC posts. A fourth policeman escaped. Noonan’s widow, ‘a very young woman’ whose voice was ‘barely audible when she gave evidence’, told a court that her first husband had died in the war, leaving her with two children. She and Noonan also had a son. She secured £2,300 compensation, with £2,700 to be shared by the children.481 RD: Flood (29Sep1920/2) Terence Flood (29Sep1920/2) RIC (64194), 35, Labourer, Married, RC Killoskehane, Borrisoleigh, Tipperary See Noonan (29Sep1920/1). From Drumsna, Leitrim, Constable Flood joined the RIC on 16 July 1908, serving in Fermanagh. By 1920,

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he was stationed in Golden, Tipperary. His widow secured £600 compensation.482 Denis P. Maguire483 (29Sep1920/3) RIC (57625), 45, Married with seven children Infirmary, Tullamore, Offaly From Killyon, Offaly, the son of an RIC sergeant, Maguire joined the RIC on 1 April 1896, serving first in Kilkenny and from 1904 in Offaly. Promoted to sergeant in 1914, he was in charge of Shannonbridge RIC Barracks. In the early hours of 21 September, he was in a mixed patrol of police and soldiers searching houses in the Ferbane district, sitting on a window sill chatting with James Claffey, whose house was being searched and who had been taken into custody. A shot discharged from outside the house passed through the back window, the bedroom and then through the front window, hitting Maguire in the right eye. The IRA later claimed responsibility. He died at 23:00.484 Buried Clonminch Catholic cemetery. His widow secured £1,000 compensation and each of his children £500.485 John Downey (29Sep1920/4) RIC (63680), 35, Farmer, Married with one child, RC O’Briensbridge,486 Clare From Cork, Downey joined the RIC on 24 March 1908. He resigned in May 1913, but soon rejoined, stationed in O’Briensbridge, Clare. Constable Downey had indicated his intention to resign shortly before his death. Michael Brennan, brigade O/C, and four men entered O’Briensbridge to attack Black and Tans. Close to midnight in John Ryan’s pub, beside the RIC barracks, they saw three policemen’s caps. Brennan entered, killing Downey with a shot in the chest. Constable John O’Keeffe, shot in the stomach as he tried to reach the back door through the kitchen, died about two hours later. The publican’s sixteen-year-old daughter, who was tending bar, was hit in the ankle. Buried St Joseph’s Cemetery, Ballyphehane, Cork. Downey’s widow Margaret secured £4,908 compensation.487 RD: O’Keeffe (30Sep1920/1). SA: Gildea (16Nov1920/3), McMahon (16Nov1920/4), Rodgers (16Nov1920/5)

James Shields (29Sep1920/5) 19, Window cleaner, RC Falls Road, Belfast Shields, William Teer, Robert Gordon and Thomas Barkley, all Catholics, were shot during disturbances in the Falls Road area. Gordon’s brother James stated that a military lorry came up North Howard Street and fired on bystanders for five or six minutes without provocation. Shields and Teer were killed outright. Gordon and Barkley were severely wounded. Gordon died that night, and Barkley on 2 October.488 RD: Barkley (2Oct1920/1), Gordon (29Sep 1920/7), Teer (29Sep1920/6) William Teer (29Sep1920/6) 30, Tailor’s cutter Falls Road, Belfast See Shields (29Sep1920/5).489 Robert Gordon (29Sep1920/7) 18, Storeman, RC MIHB See Shields (29Sep1920/5). Gordon, of 80 Falls Road, worked for a publican.490 John Lawther (29Sep1920/8) 19, Shipyard worker, Protestant Belfast See Blair (28Sep1920/3). Lawther, of 20 Everton Street, died a day after being shot as he returned from work.491

30 SEPTEMBER 1920 John Thomas O’Keeffe (30Sep1920/1) RIC (67115), 30, Tea agent, RC492 O’Briensbridge, Clare See Downey (29Sep1920/4). From Clare, O’Keeffe joined the RIC on 17 February 1913, posted to Wexford. In 1916, he was transferred to O’Briensbridge, Clare. His mother Mary secured £1,560 compensation.493 James Joseph Brady (30Sep1920/2) RIC (70381), 21, Ex-serviceman, RC Tubbercurry, Sligo From Dublin, son of Captain Louis Brady, former Dublin harbour master, Brady served with the Irish Guards before joining the RIC as a DI on 23 February 1920, stationed in

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Tubbercurry, Sligo. Three IRA sections under Frank Carty, Michael O’Hara and Charles Gildea, lay in ambush at Chaffpool for Crown forces investigating an earlier mail car raid. Brady had been in Sligo and was returning to Tubbercurry in a Crossley tender with six other policemen. At around 17:30, the IRA fired on the vehicle as it reached Leitrim Hill. Mortally wounded, Brady was given the last rites in Tubbercurry by Father Felix Burke and died in the RIC barracks at about 20:30. As Liam Swords noted, Brady was dead before the Western People announced his transfer from Monaghan to Tubbercurry on 2 October. Towards midnight four military lorries entered Tubbercurry. Those on board opened fire and ransacked the town while calling on Sinn Féin supporters to come out and fight them like men. The Leitrim Observer reported that compensation claims totalled £107,900. Buried GC (South Section: T. e. 7). His father secured £2,000 compensation.494

c. SEPTEMBER 1920 John Watt (30Sep1920/3) British Military Mount Town Bog, Geevagh, Sligo John Watt, claiming to have deserted from a military detachment in Drumboe, contacted the IRA in the Conway’s Cross–Geevagh area. An IRA court martial in Gleann Hall comprising Tom Deignan, M. J. Marren, Alec McCabe and Tom O’Donnell sentenced him to death as a spy. Executed and buried in Mount Town Bog, Geevagh, by John Costello and others, his remains were discovered by turf cutters on 2 June 1962. He had been shot in the head. A newspaper report that he had been a Black and Tan attached to Boyle Barracks is not confirmed by RIC records or other research. Watt’s remains were reinterred at Carrick an Teampall Graveyard, Conway’s Cross.495

Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade. Arrested at night on 30 September at Maulskinlahane by soldiers and taken to Bandon Military Barracks, he was supposedly released. On 16 October, his partly decomposed body was discovered covered with earth and leaves in Castle Bernard Park. Buried Kilbrogan Cemetery, Bandon.496 John (Seán) Keane (1Oct1920/2) 80, Farmer, Married, RC Ennistymon Workhouse, Clare See Hardman (22Sep1920/3). Keane lived near Dromin Hill, Rineen, Ennistymon. The army denied responsibility for his death, caused by a ‘dum-dum’ bullet.497 Samuel Richard Shannon (1Oct1920/3) 24, Farmer’s son, CoI Lissaclarig, Aghadown, Skibbereen The CFR describes how Shannon was shot outside his house after he and his father had driven off an IRA raid using only sticks. He died two weeks later from abdominal wounds. His father had already sold the family farm. Buried Aghadown. His father secured £5,000 compensation.498

2 OCTOBER 1920 Thomas Barkley (2Oct1920/1) 32, Moulder, RC MIHB See Shields (29Sep1920/5). Barkley, a soldier’s brother, lived at 38 Rumania Street.499

1 OCTOBER 1920

Hugh Conway (2Oct1920/2) 28, General labourer, RC Cullen, Tipperary500 Conway lived in Cullen. He was drinking in Quinlan’s pub when soldiers ordered all present to leave and to move up the road. Shots were allegedly fired to hasten them and Conway was killed. The army’s own account in WO 35/89 indicates this was unjustified, but efforts to trace those responsible proved fruitless.501

John Connolly (1Oct1920/1) IRA, 25, RC Castle Bernard Park, Bandon, Cork From Boyle Street, Bandon, Connolly was an ITGWU member and lieutenant, Bandon

John O’Hanlon (2Oct1920/3) 34, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Lackagh, Turloughmore, Galway At about 23:00, O’Hanlon, secretary of the local Sinn Féin club, was at home with his

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wife, infant children and parents. O’Hanlon ran out the back while his father William answered a knock on the door. Two men with revolvers entered, one wearing a policeman’s long coat, the other in civilian dress. They first asked who lived there, and then why John had run away. As they searched the house, two shots were heard outside. The men left. William O’Hanlon saw about fourteen men outside. At about 06:00, he found his son’s body behind the house, shot through the forehead. His clothes had been searched and his penknife, pipe and string left on his chest. The police maintained that O’Hanlon was twice ordered to halt before being fired on. Buried Turloughmore.502 Alfred John Wicks (2Oct1920/4) 10th Hussars, 19 Ennis, Clare Wicks, from Oxford, who enlisted in May 1919, was killed in a training accident in Ennis. Buried Buttevant, Cork.503

3 OCTOBER 1920 Clarence Victor Chave (3Oct1920/1) RIC (72072), 24, Tailor, ex-serviceman CMHC From Sheerness, Kent, Chave joined the RIC on 27 July 1920, stationed in Empress Place RIC Barracks, Cork. At about 00:30, four constables were fired on from a shop window on Patrick Street. Chave, wounded in the shoulder, died at 02:30. Chave’s mother Sarah Ann secured £1,200 compensation.504

5 OCTOBER 1920 Horace St Clair L’Amie (5Oct1920/1) The Duke of Wellington’s (Regiment), 23, Army Officer, CoE Collinstown Aerodrome, Dublin From Bridgwater, Somerset, Lieutenant L’Amie was commissioned in the Duke of Wellington’s (Regiment) on 11 August 1915. He was intelligence officer at Collinstown aerodrome. Three soldiers heard a shot. L’Amie fell, hit in the side, having apparently shot himself. Buried GMC (CE. Officers 44).505

6 OCTOBER 1920 Patrick Thompson (6Oct1920/1) 29, Cattle dealer, farmer, RC Finea, Westmeath William Fagan said that he and Thompson, a ‘very popular’ cattle dealer from Lisnageeragh, Longford, had been drinking in Mrs O’Connor’s pub in Finea, before leaving at 21:55. As he crossed the street, Fagan heard three shots. Publican Patrick Fitzgerald deposed that Constable Henry Corbett, stationed in Kilnaleek, drank a whiskey and two pints of porter in his pub before going out to enquire about turf. After a few minutes the constable returned in an agitated condition, taking another drink before departing. Shots were heard a short time later. Thompson’s body was discovered at 07:00 next day. In March 1921 Corbett was acquitted of murder when it transpired that the following day he had gone to Dublin Castle and made a statement that he had fired at IRA men whom he feared were about to attack him. Additional evidence was given about IRA threats.506

7 OCTOBER 1920 John Clifford (7Oct1920/1) 17, Labourer, RC City Infirmary, Derry Clifford lived with his widowed mother Lizzie at 19 Sugarhouse Lane, Derry. His only brother was killed during the war. According to police reports, at 22:40 on 6 October a curfew patrol challenged Clifford on Sugarhouse Lane three times. He ran away and was shot in the abdomen. He died at 09:00. Friends stated that this ‘young inoffensive youth’ had been on his way to a friend’s house before the 22:30 curfew and that only one challenge was issued. Lizzie Clifford told an inquest that she and her son left a neighbour’s house at 22:25. On the doorstep John said: ‘I am shot’, after which she heard an order to halt. James Clifford, a cousin and himself an ex-serviceman, stated that he heard a shot at 22:28. Buried Ardmore Cemetery, Derry.507

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William Stanley (7Oct1920/2) RIC (58371), 45, Farmer, Married with four children Feakle, Clare From Cork, Stanley joined the RIC on 2 August 1898, serving in Limerick. In 1908 he was transferred to Clare, stationed in Feakle. He was in a six-man patrol attacked at 11:30 while going to collect mail at the post office, one mile outside Feakle, by the ASU 6th Battalion, East Clare Brigade. Stanley was killed by Volunteers firing from the first floor of the post office.508 Sergeant Francis Doherty was mortally wounded. The other police retreated to their barracks. Crown forces burned various buildings that night including the post office and the adjoining houses used during the ambush. Stanley’s widow Ellen secured £5,160 compensation.509 RD: Doherty (7Oct1920/3) Francis Doherty (7Oct1920/3) RIC (57303), 46, Farmer, RC Feakle, Clare See Stanley (7Oct1920/2). From Mohill, Leitrim, Doherty joined the RIC on 15 November 1895, allocated to Clare, stationed in Feakle. He was promoted to sergeant in 1913. His brother secured £600 compensation and his sister £252.510

8 OCTOBER 1920 Gordon John Squibb (8Oct1920/1) Hampshire Regiment (5487222), 17, Labourer, Baptist Barrack Street, Cork Son of Mr and Mrs F. Squibb of Wroxall, Isle of Wight, Private Squibb attested at Winchester on 19 February 1920 and was stationed in Cork. He was the first member of his battalion killed in action in Ireland. At about 09:45, Mick Murphy, O/C 2nd Battalion, and Tadhg O’Sullivan lobbed grenades at a lorry carrying an NCO and six men at the junction of Barrack Street and Cove Street. IRA covering parties also fired. Peter Kearney recalled that because ‘they were armed with rifles’ the attack ‘was not quite successful. We had to retreat after the first big volley.’ Squibb took the full force of

the explosion as he tried to pick up the bomb. Privates A. Russell and J. Bailet were wounded. The remainder of the escort drove off their attackers. Buried Niton Baptist Churchyard, Isle of Wight.511

9 OCTOBER 1920 Gurth Alwyn Richardson (9Oct1920/1) RAF, 30 Newcestown, Bandon, Cork From Norwich, Richardson was a flight lieutenant in the RAF wireless section in Bandon. Seán Hales, O/C Bandon Battalion, and colleagues improvised an ambush on two roads near Newcestown Cross to attack two military tenders. The IRA line extended over about 100 yards. The first vehicle, fired on at about 23:30, drove on a short distance before crashing into a fence. Those soldiers not hit took cover under their vehicle. Soldiers from the second lorry attempted to outflank the IRA position. The engagement was broken off after a sharp exchange of fire in the dark. Richardson was killed. Lieutenant Robertson of the Essex Regiment, wounded in the stomach, died on 13 October.512 Buried Norwich. His mother secured £3,000 compensation.513 RD: Robertson (13Oct1920/4)

11 OCTOBER 1920 E. W. Cowin514 (11Oct1920/1) RASC (EMT/44943), 28, CoE Ballydrocane, Kanturk, Cork Private Cowin, from Douglas, Isle of Man, served in the 1155th Mechanised Transport Company, RASC. Volunteers of the Kiskeam and Kingwilliamstown companies linked up with members of the ASU Cork No. 2 Brigade under Liam Lynch† and Ernie O’Malley, and men from nearby companies, for an ambush at Ballydrocane. They were in position by 08:00, armed with rifles, shotguns and a Hotchkiss gun captured the previous month in Mallow Military Barracks. One party was to block the road with a cart; the rest were in extended formation north of the road. At around 10:00, one tender drove into the ambush site. Although three vehicles

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had been expected, fire was opened. Cowin, the driver, was killed in the opening volley. His lorry collided with the cart and then ran into the fence. Soldiers took cover underneath their vehicle and returned fire, but surrendered after a burst of fire from the Hotchkiss gun. Eight rifles, two revolvers and a few hundred rounds of ammunition were captured. The lorry was set on fire.515 Buried St Runius’s Churchyard, Marown, Isle of Man (F. 14). Cowin’s mother Elizabeth secured £1,000 compensation.516 Maurice Griffin (11Oct1920/2) RC South Infirmary, Cork The Cork Examiner reported how, during military checks in the city on 10 October, Griffin, from Market Street, failed to halt when challenged. Shot in the back, he died next day.517

12 OCTOBER 1920 George Osbert Stirling Smyth (12Oct1920/1) RFA, 30, Army Officer, CoI ‘Fernside’, 6 Church Avenue, Drumcondra, Dublin From Banbridge, Down, Smyth was commissioned and gazetted to the RFA on 23 December 1909. Promoted to captain in 1915, by 1920 he was a brevet-major, holding the DSO and the MC. Smyth was a younger brother of Gerard Bryce Ferguson Smyth, police commissioner for Munster, killed in Cork on 17 July 1920. He was appointed to the Dublin District Force with eleven handpicked intelligence officers. Smyth had been tracking the movements of Dan Breen and Seán Treacy in Dublin. When GHQ warned James Fleming, whose Drumcondra home was frequently used by Tipperary Volunteers, of impending police raids, Fleming persuaded his neighbour Professor John Carolan to accommodate Breen and Treacy on 11 October in his house, ‘Fernside’. Smyth and a party of troops raided ‘Fernside’ between 01:00 and 02:00. Before answering the door, Carolan woke Breen and

Treacy. A gun battle ensued. Treacy and Breen fired from the stairs landing and killed Major Smyth and Captain White Purcell, wounding other soldiers. Fire was returned. Carolan, hit in the neck, died on 28 October. Breen was seriously wounded but both he and Treacy managed to escape through a bedroom window. Treacy was killed in Talbot Street two days later. Buried Banbridge Cemetery, Newry Road, Banbridge, Down.518 RD: Carolan (28Oct1920/5), White (12Oct 1920/2). SA: Smyth (17Jul1920/1), Treacy (14Oct1920/3) A. White519 (12Oct1920/2) East Surrey Regiment, Army Officer ‘Fernside’ 6 Church Avenue, Drumcondra, Dublin See Smyth (12Oct1920/1). Captain White won the DSO while serving in the East Surrey Regiment, before becoming an intelligence officer in Dublin. His mother secured £3,000 compensation.520 John Crawford (12Oct1920/3) RIC (67464), 29, Farmer, RC Ballinderry, Four Mile House, Roscommon From Miltown Malbay, Clare, Crawford joined the RIC on 18 August 1913, stationed in Roscommon town.521 He was one of eight policemen travelling in a tender towards Ballaghadereen which was attacked at about 08:30 at Ballinderry, Four Mile House, by about fifteen Volunteers from the 2nd and 3rd battalions, South Roscommon Brigade. The tender drove through the ambush and on to Strokestown. Frank Simons commended the police driver, Constable Joyce: ‘I was speaking to him after the Truce came . . . he was a remarkably good man, he escaped another night too.’ The IRA had no idea of enemy casualties. Constables Crawford and Michael Kenny were killed outright. Constable Francis Gallagher died that afternoon and Sergeant Martin O’Connor on 15 October.522 Constable O’Rahilly was also seriously wounded.523 Buried New Cemetery, Roscommon.524 RD: Gallagher (12Oct1920/6), Kenny (12Oct 1920/4), O’Connor (15Oct1920/3)

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Michael Kenny (12Oct1920/4) RIC (63217), 38, Asylum attendant, Married with one child, RC Ballinderry, Four Mile House, Roscommon See Crawford (12Oct1920/3). Constable Kenny, from Clare, joined the RIC on 16 October 1907, serving in Mayo before transfer to Roscommon town on 1 February 1920. His widow secured £5,000 compensation.525 William James Anderson (12Oct1920/5) ADRIC (73033), 28, Army officer, Protestant Beggars Bush Barracks, Haddington Road, Dublin From Antrim, Cadet Anderson joined the Auxiliary Division RIC on 6 September 1920 (auxiliary number 463) after war service as a lieutenant in the Manchester Regiment. At about 09:30, a cadet picked up a revolver, jokingly ordered him to put his hands up and shot him in the chest. His last words were, ‘Don’t blame the man that did it.’526 Francis Gallagher (12Oct1920/6) RIC (70351), 30, Riveter, ex-serviceman, RC Strokestown, Roscommon See Crawford (12Oct1920/3). From Donegal, Constable Gallagher joined the RIC on 16 February 1920, stationed in Roscommon town. His father secured £500 compensation.527 Michael Fitzgerald (12Oct1920/7) IRA, 18, Farmer, RC St Kierans, Saltmills, Wexford Fitzgerald, from St Kierans, was a section commander in the Ballycullane Company, South Wexford Brigade. Explosives seized during raids on Hook Lighthouse and elsewhere were stored in a disused house employed for bomb-making by the Ballycullane Company. Consignments of bombs were sent in butter boxes to Dublin and Cork. Fourteen Volunteers were preparing for an attack on Foulksmills RIC Barracks. In a room illuminated by candles, explosives in open buckets were being packed into 6-inch lengths of engine piping when a blue flame filled the room and within seconds a powerful explosion blew the roof off. Michael Fitzgerald and Martin Roche were killed instantly, Robert Walsh and James 528

Gleeson soon afterwards. Jimmy Byrne died next morning. Nine others were injured. The last rites were administered by two local curates. The bodies of Gleeson, Walsh and Roche were brought to their own homes. Buried Ballycullane graveyard, New Ross. The fourteen Volunteers are commemorated on a memorial erected in 1970 at Crosstown Cemetery. A recent ballad begins: Many years have gone by but we’ll not forget Our fourteen gallant heroes who are all now dead For each year we all gather to pray for their souls Where their monument is standing at St Kearns’ shore.529

RD: Byrne (13Oct1920/3), Gleeson (12Oct 1920/10), Roche (12Oct1920/8), Walsh (12Oct1920/9) Martin Roche (12Oct1920/8) IRA, 28,530 Farmer, RC St Kierans, Saltmills, Wexford See Fitzgerald (12Oct1920/7). From Saltmills, Roche was a section commander in the St Leonard’s Company. Buried Tintern Abbey, Wexford.531 Robert Walsh (12Oct1920/9) IRA, 27, Farmer, RC St Kierans, Saltmills, Wexford See Fitzgerald (12Oct1920/7). Buried Ballycullane graveyard, New Ross.532 James Gleeson (12Oct1920/10) IRA, 26, Farmer, RC St Kierans, Saltmills, Wexford See Fitzgerald (12Oct1920/7). Buried Poulfur, Fethard, Wexford.533

13 OCTOBER 1920 James M. Mahoney (13Oct1920/1) 25, Watchmaker Skibbereen, Cork Mahoney, an itinerant watchmaker reportedly of ‘weak intellect’, used the alias ‘John Hawkes’. Mahoney, who two months earlier had been arrested by Sinn Féin police for selling two watches given to him for repair, was arrested

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again, this time for spying. However, he escaped and reported the incident to the military. This led to ‘wholesale raids’ in the Skibbereen Battalion area. Jeremiah Keating, intelligence officer 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, recalled the execution of a spy named ‘Hawkes’, unmasked when a letter delivered in error apparently reached the IRA. After spending the night in Skibbereen Workhouse, Mahoney was attacked as he left at about 10:30. He cried out ‘Mercy’, was knocked down and shot in the head by a masked man (Denis Coakley), dying shortly after the last rites were administered.534 Michael Kelly (13Oct1920/2) 37, Garage owner, RC Glaslough Street, Monaghan, Monaghan Kelly, of Glaslough Street, Monaghan, was said to be a Volunteer. At about 23:10 on 12 October, Kelly and his brother were fired on as they drove homewards. Michael was shot in the lung and left arm, and he died next day at 21:30. Police reports stated that the UVF disliked motor cars travelling in certain districts at night and suggested Kelly was shot during an arms raid which had been violently ‘repulsed’. Several IRA statements maintained that Kelly was shot by Orangemen, or that the real target was a priest whom the brothers had driven home. Fearghal McGarry suggested that Kelly was shot in reprisal for the IRA’s general arms raid of 31 August 1920. Buried Latlurcan Cemetery, Monaghan town.535 James Byrne (13Oct1920/3) IRA, 23,536 Labourer,537 RC St Kierans, Saltmills, Wexford See Fitzgerald (12Oct1920/7). Volunteer Byrne, from Duncormick, joined the St Leonard’s Company in 1919 due to a change in residence. Buried Rathangan Old Cemetery.538 Robert Douglas Finch Robertson (13Oct1920/4) Essex Regiment, 25, Army officer, Married with one child CMHC See Richardson (9Oct1920/1). Lieutenant Robertson, from Southsea, Hampshire, won

an MC during the war. He was stationed in Cork. Buried Fulford Cemetery, York (I. A. 31).539

14 OCTOBER 1920 William (Liam) O’Connell (14Oct1920/1) IRA, 19, Railway labourer, RC Phibsborough, Dublin ‘Liam’ O’Connell from Glantane, Cork, served in D Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade. Bernard C. Byrne recalled an attack on an armoured car which called at the Munster & Leinster Bank at Doyle’s Corner to collect soldiers’ pay. Initially opposed as too dangerous, Brigadier Dick McKee eventually sanctioned it. The vehicle was attacked at around 14:30. Byrne attempted to jam the vehicle’s shutters open. As he did so, another Volunteer fired prematurely. The armoured car’s machine-gunner opened fire. O’Connell, struck in the head, died instantly. Byrne was able to fire into the car through the shutter, silencing the machine gun; it was subsequently rumoured, wrongly, that several soldiers were killed. Buried Glantane, Cork.540 SA: McKee (22Nov1920/9) Gilbert Arthur Price (14Oct1920/2) Tank Corps, 25, Army officer 94 Talbot Street, Dublin Price was from Lewisham, Kent. The Republican Outfitters at 94 Talbot Street, which was under frequent observation, was raided by soldiers in an armoured car and two lorries at about 16:00. Seán Treacy had been meeting Peadar Clancy and Dick McKee in the shop. In the confusion Treacy took McKee’s bicycle, which was too big for him. Two plain-clothes intelligence men – Lieutenant Price and Sergeant Francis Christian – knocked him off and grappled with him. Treacy managed to draw his revolver and fire at a third man who came to assist them. Treacy then got Price between himself and the window of Speidel’s Pork Shop. He shot Price in the stomach, killing him outright, but was in turn shot in

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the head. A burst of machine-gun fire from the armoured car then wounded Christian, killed Patrick Carroll, a seventeen-yearold messenger, and mortally wounded Joseph Corringham. Sergeant Christian later received compensation of £1,250 at Dublin City Sessions. Buried Ladywell Cemetery, Lewisham, London (D. 1111 A.D).541 RD: Carroll (14Oct1920/4), Corringham (14Oct1920/5), Treacy (14Oct1920/3). SA: Clancy (22Nov1920/7), McKee (22Nov1920/9) Seán Allis Treacy (14Oct1920/3) IRA, 25, Farmer, Engaged, RC Talbot Street, Dublin See Price (14Oct1920/2). From Soloheadbeg, Tipperary, Tipperary, Tracey was sworn into the IRB in 1913 and joined the Irish Volunteers the following year. He was released after a hunger strike in Mountjoy Prison in 1918, becoming vice-O/C Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, participating in the Soloheadbeg ambush on 21 January 1919, the rescue of Seán Hogan at Knocklong in May, and the attack on Lord French at Ashtown in December 1919. In 1920, Treacy returned to Tipperary, participating in attacks on Hollyford, Rearcross and Drangan RIC Barracks. In September he again went to Dublin. Treacy and Dan Breen narrowly escaped capture in the home of Professor John Carolan in Drumcondra on 12 October. He was due shortly to wed Mai Quigley, a music teacher. Buried Kilfeakle Cemetery, Tipperary. In 1937 the National Graves Association unveiled a plaque where he was killed. His mother Bridget secured a dependent’s allowance.542 SA: Carolan (28Oct1920/5) Patrick Carroll (14Oct1920/4) 17,543 Messenger, RC Talbot Street, Dublin See Price (14Oct1920/2). Carroll, of 3 Royal Canal Terrace, worked for the Talbot Street branch of Messrs W. & A. Gilbey Wine Stores. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: X. j. 300.5). His father Patrick secured £150 compensation.544

Joseph Corringham545 (14Oct1920/5) 52, Newsagent, Tobacconist, Married with three children, CoI JSH See Price (14Oct1920/2). English-born, Corringham, of 15 Lower Gardiner Street, was a newsagent and tobacconist on Eden Quay.546 Jeremiah Herlihy547 (14Oct1920/6) IRA, 33, Agricultural labourer, RC Mosaplier Private Hospital, Dyke Parade, Cork Tim Herlihy, O/C 3rd (Ovens) Battalion Cork No. 1 Brigade, stated that Herlihy was O/C Signals, 3rd Battalion. Michael Foley, vice-O/C 3rd Battalion, described how for three days his unit had lain fruitlessly in ambush for a weekly military supply convoy at the Chetwynd Railway Viaduct between Cork and Bandon. Returning on 4 October, they found themselves surrounded but escaped and retreated in small groups towards Ballincollig. They claimed they were ‘sold’ by an informer. Herlihy, a scout, stayed in position too long. He may have been captured before being shot. Wounded in the throat, he rolled down an incline and was left for dead. A woman found him that evening. Taken to the Union Hospital on the Douglas Road, and afterwards moved to the Mosaplier Private Hospital, he died nine days later.548 Buried in his native Carrigadrohid, where he was accorded a military funeral. His mother Johanna secured a £100 gratuity.549 Joseph Cotter (14Oct1920/7) 27, Ex-serviceman, clerk, RC Boreenmanna Road, Cork Cotter lived in the Hibernian Buildings, Cork, and was a clerk at the RASC Office in Victoria Barracks, Cork. He was last seen alive at around 21:30 on 13 October, walking a young woman home towards Douglas. On 15 October, children at play found his body in a disused quarry on Boreenmanna Road, with face, head and neck wounds. He had been shot by the IRA, supposedly after he had volunteered information to a Volunteer dressed as a military chaplain.550

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15 OCTOBER 1920 James Lehane (15Oct1920/1) Labourer, Married, RC Ballymakeera, Cork Lehane was from Ballymakeera, Cork. Daniel Harrington, 8th (Ballyvourney) Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, recalled that eight lorries of military and police arrived in Ballyvourney shooting at random and rounded up every man. Black and Tans arrested Lehane in the blacksmith’s house. According to Harrington, when the police ascertained Lehane’s name, they shot him several times. His body was recovered with his pipe in one hand and a penknife in the other. Harrington believed Lehane was probably shot in error for a Volunteer of the same name. Feeney gave a different account, stating that the Auxiliaries fired their weapons indiscriminately around Ballyvourney, killing Lehane. BMH statements incorrectly placed his death in November 1920. Some unsubstantiated accounts implicated Cadet Cecil Guthrie, who later escaped from the Kilmichael ambush but was subsequently captured and killed. Buried Ballymakeera. He is commemorated on a plaque in Ballyvourney.551 SA: Guthrie (29Nov1920/7) Matthew Furlong (15Oct1920/2) IRA, 28, Barman, Engaged, RC MMH ‘Matt’ Furlong, from Wexford town, was an engineering apprentice before moving to Dublin, living at 70 Seville Place. He was to have married in November 1920. Furlong served in D Company, 2nd Battalion, working in the Dublin Brigade munitions factory under Michael Lynch. Lynch gave Furlong a sketch of a trench mortar with instructions to manufacture one. On a Sunday morning in mid-October, Furlong, McHugh, Peadar Clancy, Tom Young and Seán O’Sullivan went to test the prototype in Meath. When a live round failed to discharge, Furlong, a ‘very strong willed man’, insisted on investigating. He accidentally tripped the firing mechanism and was severely wounded by the consequent explosion. His left leg was amputated, to no avail. Patrick McHugh regarded

the ‘loss of Matt Furlong’ and the prototype as ‘a severe blow to [the] Dublin Brigade and IRA generally’, as an effective mortar ‘would have given the war an entirely new aspect’. Buried Wexford. His mother Alice later received a £100 dependent’s gratuity.552 SA: Clancy (22Nov1920/7) Martin G. O’Connor (15Oct1920/3) RIC (51713), 53, Married with children, RC Strokestown, Roscommon See Crawford (12Oct1920/3). From Sligo, O’Connor joined the RIC on 13 July 1886, allocated to Mayo, where he married on 17 August 1898. He was transferred to Roscommon town on 1 October 1898 as a sergeant. Buried Achill, Mayo. At Roscommon Quarter Sessions in February 1921, his dependents secured £7,000 compensation. The court heard that ‘all the children got scholarships’, due to their father’s encouragement.553 Hannah O’Connell (15Oct1920/4) 23, Housewife, one child, RC Mallow, Cork The CFR records the death of the young mother Hannah O’Connell, a locomotive fireman’s wife, from illness contracted when she and her infant daughter took shelter in the grounds of St Mary’s Catholic Church as soldiers ran amok during the night of 28 September.554 SA: Gibbs (28Sep1920/1), Quirke (8Nov 1920/5)

16 OCTOBER 1920 Peter O’Carroll (16Oct1920/1) 62, Shopkeeper, Married with seven children, RC Manor Street, Dublin O’Carroll and his wife Annie lived in their shop on Manor Street. At about 02:00 he was shot in the head and killed instantly when he answered his door to a raiding party. His sons were on the run. A note attached to his clothes reportedly read: ‘Traitor to Ireland – shot by the IRA.’ His wife Annie, who heard no shot, found her husband lying in a pool of blood. His premises had been raided several

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times and he had been warned, ‘We shall come back again soon and if they [O’Carroll’s sons] are not here it will be worse for you.’ David Neligan claimed that O’Carroll was killed by members of F Company, Auxiliary Division RIC. A few days previously he had refused to serve a stranger, recognising him as one of a party which had previously raided his house. O’Carroll’s fourteen-year-old son Gerard was seized by police, who wanted him to identify his father’s remains. After a scuffle his mother rescued him. Peter’s daughter Mary Lawlor, of Cumann na mBan, later received a pension for her 1916 service. Buried GC.555 William Robinson (16Oct1920/2) 26, Dealer, ex-serviceman, Married with three children, CoI JSH Robinson, a ‘well-known member of the Jacobs football team’, and his wife Christina lived at 28 Stafford Street. Just before midnight on 15 October, he was at the corner of Mary Street and Capel Street with two other civilians and an RASC soldier. Two men, one wearing ‘a black velour hat, a navy blue suit and a soft collar’, accosted them and asked Robinson if he was a Sinn Féiner. Robinson jokingly said he would show them proof, and crossed the road with them. They then fired four shots at him and ran away up Little Mary Street, pursued by two of Robinson’s companions, who lost sight of them near the Bridewell. Shot in the ankle and stomach, he was tended to by Father Sheehan of the Pro-Cathedral. He died between 19:00 and 20:00. Buried GC (Garden Section: R. §. 61).556 John Flaherty (16Oct1920/3) RIC (57717), 43, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Bishop’s Gate, Derry From Athleague, Roscommon, Constable Flaherty joined the RIC on 8 May 1896, serving in Leitrim and Down before transfer to Derry in 1914. He lived on Stanley’s Walk. His brother was also an RIC man. Flaherty and Constable Dykes were on beat duty at

Bishop’s Gate when fired on at 22:00. Flaherty was hit in the left breast. Liam A. Brady denied this shooting was the work of the IRA. Joost Augusteijn suggested the killer was a unionist trying to rescue a friend who had been arrested. Flaherty’s widow and two children secured £2,200 compensation.557 John Gibson (16Oct1920/4) 55, Riveter, CoI Marrowbone, Belfast Gibson, of 10 Byron Place, was killed outright in crossfire as police and military attempted to quell clashes between nationalist and loyalist groups in the Marrowbone district. William Mitchell was fatally wounded. In addition, while getting his children to safety Matthew McMaster was crushed by an armoured car, reportedly on its way to protect the Sacred Heart Church on Oldpark Road, and died early the next day.558 RD: McMaster (17Oct1920/1), Mitchell (16Oct1920/5) William J. Mitchell (16Oct1920/5) 25, CoI RVHB See Gibson (16Oct1920/4). Mitchell lived at 26 Downing Street, Belfast.559

c. 16 OCTOBER 1920 Patrick W. Joyce (16Oct1920/6) 52, National school teacher, Married with four children, RC Knockferry, Galway Joyce, from Lisheennageeha, Headford, Galway, became principal of Barna National School in 1901. A former president of the Galway branch of the Irish National Teachers’ Organisation, he wrote to the press on teachers’ grievances. The Connacht Tribune described him as a politically inactive constitutional nationalist. At about 23:30, he was kidnapped from his home by masked men. Notices were posted warning of reprisals if Joyce was not returned safely by Sunday 17 October. Mícheál Ó Droighneáin, O/C East Connemara Brigade, described how postmen had uncovered letters incriminating Joyce. Before arresting and interrogating

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him, Ó Droighneáin arranged for a priest ‘to be rowed across the lake from Kylebeg to Knockferry, and from thence to our rendezvous, which was a little disused cabin’. There: We lit the place with candles. The court consisted of three of my highest officers, and I prosecuted. I produced all the letters that had been intercepted, and much material in his own handwriting. He denied that he had been communicating with the British authorities, but feebly. He was convicted of spying. . . . The priest was then brought to him, and heard his Confession, and he received the Holy Viaticum.

Shot, Joyce’s body was buried and never found. Mary Leech, sister of the priest who ministered to him, recalled the incident in her BMH statement.560

17 OCTOBER 1920 Matthew McMaster (17Oct1920/1) 34, Labourer, Married with children, Presbyterian RVHB See Gibson (16Oct1920/4). McMaster, of 107 Conlig Street, Belfast, died of a fractured spine in the early hours.561 Daniel Roche (17Oct1920/2) RIC (59912), 45, Coachman, Married, RC Little Strand Street, Dublin From Cork, Roche joined the RIC on 15 November 1900, serving in Mayo, Roscommon and Tipperary town. Promoted to sergeant on 1 August 1920, he transferred to Golden, Tipperary. He was one of two policemen brought to Dublin to identify the body of Seán Treacy, killed on Talbot Street on 14 October. Joseph Dolan of GHQ Intelligence recalled that David Neligan passed on information about Roche’s movements on 17 October. Tom Keogh,† Jim Slattery, Frank Thornton and Dolan were told to kill him. Neligan was to take a handkerchief from his pocket and wave it to identify Roche. In his autobiography, however, Neligan claimed he had not realised that Roche would be assassinated. At about 15:00, he stopped to chat with Roche and another

policeman, named Fitzgerald, at the corner of Capel Street and Little Strand Street. Dolan said he fired six bullets into Roche and that Keogh and Slattery also shot him. Press reports suggested that Roche managed to run along Capel Street before being shot in the face at the corner of Little Strand Street, where he collapsed and died almost immediately. Two civilians were wounded.562 SA: Treacy (14Oct1920/3) Michael Fitzgerald (17Oct1920/3) IRA, 39, Mill worker, Engaged, RC Cork Prison, Cork Fitzgerald, from Ballyoran, Castlelyons, worked at Clondulane Mill and was secretary of its ITGWU branch. In 1919 he became O/C 1st (Fermoy) Battalion, Cork No. 2 Brigade. He was arrested in connection with the ‘Wesleyan raid’ in Fermoy on 7 September 1919, and was awaiting trial in Cork on a capital charge. He acted as O/C prisoners in jail. He was one of eleven men who went on hunger strike on 10 August 1920. He died after sixty-seven days. Patrick Ahern, then intelligence officer 1st (Fermoy) Battalion, Cork No. 2 Brigade, recalled that he posed as Fitzgerald’s brother and obtained a pass to spend the night of 17 October in the prison. At 20:30, three nuns and a priest came to the cell and began to recite the rosary. At about 21:00, a nun told Ahern that Fitzgerald was dead. The authorities refused Fitzgerald permission to marry his fiancée days before his death. Buried Kilcrumper, Cork.563 SA: Jones (7Sep1919/1) Henry Kelly564 (17Oct1920/4) IRA, 27, Barman, RC Frederick Street North, Dublin From Ballygawley, Sligo, Kelly worked in Timothy Grogan’s pub at North Wall. He served in D Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade and was a 1916 veteran. A group of Volunteers assembled in Banba Hall, Rutland Square in preparation for an armed patrol in Sackville Street. They were spotted, and a lorry of Auxiliaries arrived. Most of the Volunteers escaped, but Kelly was not so fortunate. When he attempted to

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flee through the back door, gun in hand, he ran into a party of soldiers. Kelly wounded one soldier before a second crushed his skull and killed him with a rifle butt. He was then shot in the forehead. A second man, Thomas O’Rourke, was killed nearby. Buried Kilross Cemetery, Ballygawley, Sligo.565 RD: O’Rourke (18Oct1920/4)

18 OCTOBER 1920 John Lougheed566 (18Oct1920/1) RIC (65478), 36, Farmer, Methodist RIC Barracks, Ruan, Clare From Sligo, Lougheed joined the RIC on 25 August 1910, stationed in Ruan. With the aid of a sympathetic constable, Bill Carroll, who afterwards joined the IRA, the Mid Clare Brigade sneaked into Ruan RIC Barracks and confronted most of the fourteen-man garrison in their dormitories. Lougheed resisted and was killed. The barracks was destroyed. Lougheed’s parents secured £200 compensation.567 Patrick Doyle (18Oct1920/2) IRA, 20, Farmer, RC Ballinagare, Castlerea, Roscommon Doyle, from Drummin, Ballinagare, served in Ballinagare Company, South Roscommon Brigade. His sister Bina Kelly recalled how she, her two children and her brother were in Doyle’s house when four lorries containing fifteen uniformed men stopped outside. Two men armed with rifles ordered Doyle, who had been reading a newspaper, out the back. Shortly afterwards, there was a shot and she heard Patrick: ‘I am done.’ The Leitrim Observer stated that Doyle’s captors initially let him off after threatening him, but returned, took him outside, put him against a wall and shot him.568 Buried Kilcorkey, Castlerea, Roscommon. He is commemorated on a monument at Shankill. His father Michael secured £800 compensation and his sister Mary Kate £400.569 Richard Hinds (18Oct1920/3) SWB (3903259), 24, RC Dollymount Camp, Dublin From Blaina, Monmouthshire, Corporal Hinds fell from a military lorry at Clontarf.

Buried Penyrheol Cemetery, Caerphilly (R.C. E. 52).570 Thomas O’Rourke571 (18Oct1920/4) 24, Labourer, RC MMH See Kelly (17Oct1920/4). O’Rourke and his widowed mother Josephine lived at 5 Peter Street. Reportedly a bystander during trouble at the Banba Hall, he was shot in the lung and died next day. Buried GC (Garden Section: U. f. 89.5).572 Edward Turner (18Oct1920/5) 24, Ex-serviceman, RC Military Barracks, Mallow, Cork The CFR recounts how Edward Turner, a farm labourer’s son of 6 Bridge Street, Mallow, was mortally wounded in the buttocks when troops opened fire on civilians, supposedly in response to shots fired at them.573

19 OCTOBER 1920 Michael S. Walsh (19Oct1920/1) 40, Publican, Married with eight children, RC Long Walk, Galway From Headford, Galway, Walsh owned the Old Malt House on High Street, Galway, and was a Headford UDC councillor. Shortly before 22:00, five partially disguised men wearing civilian clothes and waterproof coats, armed with revolvers, ordered the pub to be cleared and closed the door. The shop assistant Patrick Meenaghan was instructed to remove the light bulb. The men raided the till. As Walsh took a cup of rum, a raider said, ‘It is no good, it is only going to waste; you will be dead within an hour.’ He was refused permission to see a priest. One man accused Walsh of shooting a lot of policemen. Walsh replied: ‘If I were as free of everything as the shooting of police, I would be alright. I do not know of any police being shot in Galway.’ Four men took Walsh outside. The fifth told Meenaghan that they were English secret servicemen and knew what they were doing. Walsh was shot in the head on Long Walk at about 22:20. IRA sources believed a Black and Tan named Miller and two others were responsible. The

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men returned to the pub and warned Meenaghan he would be killed if he spoke of what had occurred. He told Mrs Walsh. Two priests searched in vain for Walsh’s body that night. The next morning, men going to work saw a submerged body, which was recovered. Buried New Cemetery, Galway. His widow Agnes secured £390 for damage to her premises.574 SA: Joyce (16Oct1920/6) Edward O’Dwyer (19Oct1920/2) IRA, 26, Farmer, RC Ballydavid, Bansha, Tipperary ‘Ned’ and Francis O’Dwyer of Ballydavid, Bansha, Tipperary, were Volunteers in 4th Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. Police raided the O’Dwyer farm in the Glen of Aherlow at the foot of the Galtee Mountains, probably looking for Jerry, the eldest brother, the local Volunteer company captain. He hid under his parents’ bed. Ned was shot in the body and Frank in the head in front of their sister Kate, a Cumann na mBan captain. She later told the press seven or eight men in military uniform were responsible. These murders might have been in reprisal for Jerry O’Dwyer’s action in preventing the local school principal, a policeman’s wife, from opening her school on the day of Seán Treacy’s funeral. Edmond Grogan told the BMH that a Black and Tan named Chelster [sic] was shot in Bansha in retribution for his part in these killings. This was Joseph Shelsher. According to Brian Shanahan, Constable John Nutley was killed in Bansha for the same reason. Buried Bansha. The brothers are commemorated on a roadside plaque near what was their family farm. This also commemorates republicans Dinny Lacey† and Paddy McDonagh,† who died in February 1923 in a fight with Free State troops in fields behind the O’Dwyer home.575 RD: O’Dwyer (19Oct1920/3). SA: Shelsher (1Jul1921/7), Treacy (14Oct1920/3) Francis O’Dwyer (19Oct1920/3) IRA, 30, Farmer, RC Ballydavid, Bansha, Tipperary See O’Dwyer (19Oct1920/2).576

21 OCTOBER 1920 Michael O’Dwyer (21Oct1920/1) 39, Farmer, Married, RC Baldonnell Aerodrome, Dublin O’Dwyer, of Newton Park, Wicklow, was travelling by motorcycle to visit his brother Frank at Lynchpark, carrying a priest as a sidecar passenger. They were hit from behind by a military mail lorry coming from the Curragh. The two injured men were taken to the nearby Baldonnell Aerodrome, where O’Dwyer died of head injuries. Buried DGC.577 Charles Lynch (21Oct1920/2) 75, Farmer, Married, RC Miltown Malbay, Clare Lynch lived in Breaffy North, Miltown Malbay, Clare. Members of his family saw off two unarmed Royal Scots soldiers who tried to force their way into the family home claiming that they were searching for arms. One of the soldiers returned with six comrades and a Constable Madill, claiming he had been assaulted. Charles Lynch was shot in his doorway, supposedly as the military replied to shots aimed at them. On 9 March 1921 the chief secretary for Ireland told the House of Commons that Lynch had been accidentally shot. Edward Lynch maintained that LanceCorporal McPherson killed his father without provocation or warning. The party went off firing indiscriminately, and raided several houses. One of Lynch’s neighbours had a narrow escape when a policeman prevented him from being shot. Buried Miltown Malbay, Clare.578

22 OCTOBER 1920 William Alfred Dixon (22Oct1920/1) Suffolk Regiment, 38, Army officer, Married with one child Annagh Beg, Ballinhassig, Cork Dixon, from Dover, won an MC as a lieutenant in the Suffolk Regiment. He was stationed in Bandon. Two lorries containing soldiers and naval ratings escorting the mail were travelling from Bandon to Cork when ambushed at Annagh Beg, Ballinhassig, by the ASU Cork

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No. 3 Brigade under Tom Barry. The first lorry rushed through the ambush position unscathed because a landmine failed to detonate. However, the second was halted by Barry’s section. After a gunfight, the military surrendered. The IRA believed that five soldiers were killed. In fact, only Lieutenant Dixon, in command of the party, and Private Reid of the Essex Regiment were killed outright. The wounded included Sergeant Bennett, who died next day. Buried Dover. His wife Ellen secured £5,500 compensation and his fifteen-year-old daughter £3,500.579 RD: Bennett (23Oct1920/1), Reid (22Oct 1920/2) Charles William Reid (22Oct1920/2) Essex Regiment (5998619), 18, Baptist Annagh Beg, Ballinhassig, Cork See Dixon (22Oct1920/1). Private Reid, from Twickenham, enlisted on 26 March 1919, was stationed in Bandon. Buried Earlsfield Cemetery, Wandsworth, London (B.20.511).580 Harry Biggs (22Oct1920/3) RIC (73983), 23, Motor driver, ex-serviceman581 Parkwood, Offaly Biggs, from London, an ex-serviceman and former policeman, joined the RIC on 8 October 1920, attached to the motor transport division at Gormanston Camp, Meath. Three police lorries travelling from Gormanston to Ballinasloe, Galway, were ambushed at Parkwood, Offaly, between Kilbeggan and Moate, by eleven members of the ASU, Athlone Brigade, under Jim Tormey.582 The ‘original plan had been for the attackers to seize the lorries, arms and ammunition, don the occupants’ uniforms and attempt to bluff their way into the barracks at Moate’. One lorry was expected but three appeared. Biggs, driving the first lorry, was shot dead as planned. The other vehicles halted and their occupants began to shoot wildly. Heavily outnumbered and low on ammunition, the IRA withdrew. When the police party arrived in Athlone in two vehicles at about 20:45, two shots were fired from Mardyke Street. The police returned fire. During the exchange, Michael

Burke, a civilian returning home, was severely wounded. He died five days later. Biggs’s mother, Mrs Mary Cuffe of Euston, London, secured £650 compensation.583 RD: Burke (27Oct1920/3). SA: Tormey (2Feb1921/7) Bertie Rippingale (22Oct1920/4) RIC (71838), 25, Labourer, ex-serviceman, Protestant CMHC From Essex, Constable Rippingale joined the RIC on 6 July 1920, stationed in Leap, Cork. He was one of three policemen ambushed on 21 October while returning to Leap RIC Barracks at Glandore, about seven miles from Skibbereen, by five Volunteers of the Leap Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade, armed with shotguns. Rippingale died the next day, and Constable Albert Rundle after an operation on 4 November.584 RD: Rundle (4Nov1920/5)

23 OCTOBER 1920 Thomas Arthur Bennett585 (23Oct1920/1) RASC (M/32520), 26, CoE CMHC See Dixon (22Oct1920/1). Bennett, from Gravesend, Kent, attested in London on 16 May 1913. He served in 1155th Mechanised Transport Company attached to the Essex Regiment. Buried Saints Peter and Paul Churchyard, Shorne, Kent.586 Edward Meade (23Oct1920/2) 45, Ex-serviceman, clerk, RC CMHC Meade of Father Matthew Quay, Cork, an army clerk, had soldiered mainly in Italy. He was passing a lorry of soldiers at Victoria Barracks when a rifle was accidentally discharged, hitting him in the head.587

24 OCTOBER 1920 James McCormack (24Oct1920/1) 32, Shop assistant, RC Richmond Hospital, Dublin McCormack lived with his cousin John Farrell at 101 North Brunswick Street, and was an assistant in Farrell’s fish and chip shop

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next door. At about 21:15 on 23 October, two men entered the shop. One ordered McCormack to put his hands up, then shot him in the chest. He died at 03:00. Dublin Castle claimed the IRA shot him for disobeying orders not to serve the military. This was denied by Farrell’s wife.588 Thomas Egan (24Oct1920/2) 51, Publican, farmer, Married with eight children, RC Cashla, Athenry, Galway Egan had a pub, but farming was his main livelihood. The Connacht Tribune reported that he had no political interests. He married in 1900. Egan’s wife Margaret answered the door around 22:30. Men in police uniforms entered, grabbing Egan. Margaret went between then, but the men fired over her shoulder at her husband, hitting him in the head. When she shouted for her children, a shotgun was placed in her mouth. The raiders left, one of them imitating Margaret’s cries. In March Egan’s cart had been used to block the road prior to the shooting of Frank M. Shawe-Taylor. The police suggested that Egan was killed by the IRA lest he give information about that killing. Republican sources more plausibly claimed that he was murdered by Crown forces. Margaret Egan secured £700 compensation, with £200 each for the four eldest children, and £300 each for the younger four.589 SA: Shawe-Taylor (3Mar1920/1)

25 OCTOBER 1920 Michael Ryan (25Oct1920/1) IRA, 27, Farmer, RC Curraghduff, Upperchurch, Tipperary Ryan was the local Sinn Féin court registrar and a lieutenant in the Upperchurch Company, Tipperary No. 2 Brigade. At about 00:30, his sister Margaret answered the door to two men, one masked, who claimed to be secret service agents. They sought Michael, who was ill with pneumonia. Believing that he would not be harmed, Ryan said to let them into his room. Margaret was pushed out. She then heard four shots.

Severely wounded in the chest, Ryan died within minutes. They then called to the Stapleton farm in Finaghy, two miles away, seeking Jim Stapleton, who was not at home. In the same townland, they encountered Jeremiah and James Kinnane, who were ordered to kneel down but fled. Although fired on they managed to escape over a fence, despite Jeremiah being wounded. At about 03:30, the raiders called to William Gleeson, of Moher, Upperchurch, seeking his son James. After an angry exchange, Gleeson’s son Willie called out from his bed to shoot him instead of his father. He was taken outside in his nightshirt. His body was found with four bullet wounds about 200 yards from the house. James Leahy, O/C Tipperary No. 2 Brigade, described the raiders as the Thurles police ‘murder gang’. Buried Drom, Templemore, Tipperary.590 RD: Gleeson (25Oct1920/2) William Gleeson (25Oct1920/2) IRA, 18, Farmer’s son, RC Moher, Upperchurch, Tipperary See Ryan (25Oct1920/1). From Moher, Upperchurch, Gleeson was a Volunteer in the Upperchurch Company, Tipperary No. 2 Brigade. Buried Upperchurch. His sister Kate ultimately secured a dependent’s allowance of £125.591 Terence MacSwiney (25Oct1920/3) IRA, 41, Lecturer, Married with one child, RC Brixton Prison, London MacSwiney, from Crookstown, Cork, became a clerk in 1894. After graduating from the Royal University in 1907, he taught business methods at Cork Municipal School of Commerce. President of the Cork branch of the Gaelic League, he wrote a play, The Revolutionist, several volumes of poetry and a political tract entitled The Principles of Freedom. He married the wealthy Muriel Murphy in 1917. Their only child, Maura, was born a year later. MacSwiney helped to organise the Irish Volunteers, becoming chairman of the Cork executive. Shortly before the Rising, he joined the IRB. Due to conflicting orders and

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indecisive leadership, the Cork Volunteers did nothing during the Rising. MacSwiney was severely criticised for deciding afterwards that Cork Volunteers should surrender their arms. Interned in Frongoch and in Reading, after release in December 1916 he resumed his Volunteer activities, and later became O/C Cork No. 1 Brigade. In the December 1918 general election, MacSwiney was returned unopposed as Sinn Féin representative for Cork Mid constituency. According to his widow, ‘He did not want this; he did not like politics although in those days the Sinn Féin politics were clean.’ On 30 March 1920, he was elected lord mayor of Cork in succession to the murdered Tomás MacCurtain. Arrested on 12 August at City Hall after a meeting of the brigade staff, he went on hunger strike. Sentenced to two years for making seditious speeches, he was incarcerated in Brixton Prison in an unoccupied hospital ward. MacSwiney’s protest captured the attention of the world. He died at 05:40 on the seventy-fourth day of his strike. Buried SFC, Cork.592 GHQ issued orders for reprisal shootings throughout the country. SA: MacCurtain (20Mar1920/1) Patrick Perry (25Oct1920/4) RIC (56270), 51, married with ten children, RC Moneygold, Grange, Sligo From Ballivor, Meath, Perry joined the RIC on 16 January 1894, allocated to Sligo. Promoted to sergeant in 1909, he was transferred from Bunnanadden to Cliffoney 1913. He led an eight-man RIC patrol attacked as they cycled from Cliffoney along the Sligo to Donegal road at around 11:30 by about thirty Volunteers under Liam Pilkington and James Devins, in an ambush organised by Nurse Linda Kearns. Shot in the mouth, Perry was killed outright, as were constables Keown and Laffey in single file behind him. Three others were wounded, of whom Constable Lynch died that evening in Sligo Infirmary.593 The ambushing party captured the police weapons, which were recovered six days later when police stopped a motor car carrying Kearns, Devins and others. The lorry bearing

the coffins of the dead policemen carried a banner stating: ‘Sinn Féin victory. Three widows and 17 orphans.’ Extensive reprisals took place. Buried Boyle, Roscommon. His dependents secured £9,000 compensation.594 RD: Keown (25Oct1920/5), Laffey (25Oct 1920/6), Lynch (25Oct1920/10) Patrick Keown (25Oct1920/5) RIC (69697), 25, Farmer, ex-serviceman, RC Moneygold, Grange, Sligo See Perry (25Oct1920/4). From Fermanagh, Keown joined the RIC on 3 June 1920, stationed in Cliffoney. Buried Belleek, Fermanagh. His next of kin secured £2,000 compensation.595 Patrick Laffey (25Oct1920/6) RIC (60083), 41, Farmer, Married with five children, RC Moneygold, Grange, Sligo See Perry (25Oct1920/4). From Attymon, Galway, Laffey joined the RIC on 18 March 1901, serving twice in Limerick and once in Galway before transfer to Cliffoney. Buried Attymon, Galway. His wife and children secured £7,000 compensation.596 Joseph McLeod (25Oct1920/7) 25, Labourer, Protestant Foundry Street, Belfast McLeod, of 45 Church Street East, who had lost his job in a rope works due to the curfew order in Belfast, was shot dead at about 13:45 by Henry McGraw during disturbances near the railway gate on Foundry Street. Witnesses at an inquiry stated that McGraw shouted ‘up the rebels’, was the ‘ringleader’ of a Nationalist crowd, and had been throwing stones.597 Philip Breen (25Oct1920/8) IRA, 24, Publican’s son, RC Main Street, Tempo, Fermanagh The 4th Battalion, Fermanagh Brigade, carried out a raid on Tempo RIC Barracks. There was some collusion: two policemen took sick leave, and a third arranged to be captured while on patrol with a Black and Tan and detained until the raid was over. James J. Smyth, adjutant Lisnaskea Battalion, recalled ‘a fight from the outset; a fight to get

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in and a fight to get out’. At around 20:00, three Volunteers entered the barracks via the unlocked back door. Only Sergeant Samuel Lucas and Constable Bannon were inside. Lucas went to investigate, was disarmed, and ordered into the yard. He struggled with one of the raiders and was seriously wounded. Other raiders apparently shouted, ‘Shoot him, Shoot him.’ Reverend Thomas H. Scanlon, rector in Tempo, was twice fired on as he tended to Lucas, who died on 4 November. The main IRA party took weapons from the barracks. However, the shooting alerted members of the local UVF, who opened fire. Breen had avoided direct participation for fear of being recognised, instead working in his father’s pub. At about 20:15, while standing on Main Street with five other men, he was shot dead, and John Bogue from Tempo was wounded in the arm by two UVF gunmen. The IRA later attempted to kill one of these, a postman named Potter. Although they failed, he died shortly afterwards. The other gunman was never definitely identified. Breen’s father Bernard maintained that Philip had been shot by civilians. He did not want any revenge or reprisals but believed that eventually the perpetrators would be identified. Bernard Breen was angered at the dependent’s gratuity of £30 initially awarded: ‘It is an insult to me and to the dead.’ There was some sympathy in his case, but as he had not been wholly dependent on his son the amount was not increased. When he eventually accepted the award in 1931, the local RUC provided verification of his signature. Buried Tempo Churchyard, Fermanagh.598 RD: Lucas (4Nov1920/2)

was delayed, and he went on hunger strike. He died at 20:35 on 25 October after seventysix days, two days longer than the fast of Terence MacSwiney. His was the second such death in Cork Prison. Buried SFC, Cork. A road was named in his memory in Ballyphehane.599 SA: Fitzgerald (17Oct1920/3), MacSwiney (25Oct1920/3)

Joseph Murphy (25Oct1920/9) IRA, 24, Council employee, RC Cork Prison, Cork Murphy, born in Massachusetts, USA, his family returned to Ireland when he was three. His family lived on Lower Pouladuff Road. Educated at Togher National School, he worked for Cork County Council, was a keen hurler, and served in 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade. Arrested on 15 July 1920 on a charge of possessing a Mills bomb, his trial

James Power (25Oct1920/12) IRA, RC Kill, Waterford From Carrigeen, Kill, 10 miles from Waterford City, Power served in E Company, 3rd Battalion, East Waterford Brigade. After an unsuccessful IRA attack on 18 September 1920, Kill RIC Barracks was evacuated. On 22 October Constable Cullen602 returned on leave to see his sick child. Eight Volunteers under Andrew Kirwan raided the Cullen

Patrick Lynch (25Oct1920/10) RIC (63750), 33, Farmer’s son, Married with two children, RC Infirmary, Sligo, Sligo See Perry (25Oct1920/4). From Cavan, Lynch joined the RIC on 23 April 1908, serving in Galway and from 1916 in Cliffoney, Sligo. Buried Bailieborough. His family secured £6,000 compensation.600 Michael Flynn (25Oct1920/11) 34, RC Mountjoy Prison, Dublin Flynn, of Glenidan, Collinstown, Westmeath, was listed as an active Volunteer in the Moss Twomey Papers, but other sources indicate he ‘was not active either in Sinn Féin or the IRA’. In late October, the IRA briefly kidnapped magistrates Scott Moore and G. P. Hyde en route to the petty sessions at Castlepollard. On 18 October, eight people, including Flynn, who was in poor health, were arrested. Detained in a military camp for some days before transfer to Mountjoy Prison, Flynn died three days later. The Moss Twomey Papers record: ‘Death was due to exposure in open lorry and bad treatment from RIC.’ Buried Fore, Collinstown, Westmeath.601

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home intending to capture his equipment and uniform. When Cullen refused to answer a knock, Kirwan fired a revolver shot at the roof and others attacked the door with a hatchet. The resourceful Cullen went upstairs, threw a grenade out of the window and then escaped through fields to Tramore. James Power, a newly enrolled Volunteer, was badly wounded, and died three days later. In order to avoid trouble with the authorities, his relatives said that he had succumbed to pneumonia. Buried Kill.603

26 OCTOBER 1920 Thomas Henry Moore (26Oct1920/1) 22, Farmer, Presbyterian Sackville Street, Derry Moore, from Glebe, Clondermott, had been escorted safely through various curfew checkpoints by soldiers while driving a dog cart to fetch a veterinary surgeon. At 13:00 he was shot outside Victoria Police Barracks for failing to halt: it seemed likely that his horse’s hooves had drowned out the sentry’s challenge.604 Martin Counihan (26Oct1920/2) 53, Process server, Married with six children, RC Bodyke, Clare Counihan, a county court process server, was from Lower Feakle, Clare. Four of his children were in the US but two daughters, aged twelve and nine, still lived at home. Thomas Tuohy, vice-O/C 6th Battalion, East Clare Brigade, recalled that following the Feakle ambush on 7 October, Counihan allegedly collected information for the RIC. A week later, four Volunteers digging potatoes at Annagh, Feakle, saw Counihan and his daughter in a pony and trap bringing turf home from Ballynahinch bog. They fashioned masks out of an apron and captured Counihan. Touhy presided at a court martial at which Counihan ‘admitted to having given information but adopted a defiant attitude saying that he would again notify the police of any IRA activity. He was sentenced and shot that night.’ Although Counihan received two shotgun blasts and one revolver bullet,

he survived long enough to drag himself to a pub in Bodyke a mile away. Attended by a local priest, he died later that night. Four houses including Tuohy’s were burned in reprisal. Counihan’s widow secured £1,000 compensation and his daughters Norah and Catherine £580 each.605

27 OCTOBER 1920 Elizabeth Carberry (27Oct1920/1) 28, RC Dame Lane, Dublin ‘Bessie’ Carberry of 8 Vicar Street was observed by neighbours and passers-by talking with a soldier in a laneway off Dame Street at various times from 23:15 on 26 October. When Hannah Rigley passed the pair, they were arguing. Neighbours heard Bessie saying, ‘For ---- sake give me a drop of that’ and ‘I could identify you by your nose’, and at another point the soldier saying, ‘I’ll punch the head off you.’ There were sounds of a scuffle around 01:00, and the soldier ran off. Soon afterwards a Mrs Eustace found Bessie Carberry’s body, and summoned the police, who found a cap badge lying nearby. Bessie Carberry died from suffocation. There were bruises on the jaw, mouth and scalp, on both forearms and on the right thigh, and her windpipe ‘showed signs of congestion’. Lance-Corporal Alfred Hadley of the King’s Own Lancashire Regiment was tried before a court martial on 16 and 17 January 1921. When found in a dishevelled state by a military patrol, Hadley claimed to have been assaulted and chased by civilians. He was missing his cap badge, but so was another soldier who had returned to Richmond Barracks. The court dismissed the charges on the basis of insufficient evidence, without even hearing Hadley’s defence.606 John Terence Sherlock (27Oct1920/2) IRA, 22, Agricultural labourer, RC Skerries, Dublin Sherlock lived with his father Michael, a farm labourer, and mother Jane at 7 Cabra Terrace, Skerries, Dublin. Two of his brothers were ex-servicemen. Sherlock was a captain

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in the 1st Battalion, Fingal Brigade. At around 02:00 armed men came to Sherlock’s house, took him into a nearby field and shot him five times. His father found his body in a ditch. Michael Rock, O/C Naul Battalion, Fingal Brigade, termed this ‘an act of blackguardism and provocation on the part of the Tans. There was no incident whatsoever in Skerries that would have given the Tans any excuse for this outrage.’ Buried Holmpatrick Cemetery, Skerries. A memorial was erected on the Golf Links Road, and he is also commemorated on a memorial in Holmpatrick Cemetery.607 Michael Burke (27Oct1920/3) Married with three children, RC St Vincent’s Hospital, Athlone, Westmeath See Biggs (22Oct1920/3). Burke, of Dublin Gate Street, Athlone, is listed by the Last Post as a Volunteer, but several BMH witnesses describe him as a civilian. The Westmeath Examiner termed him an active supporter of the constitutional movement who for the previous twenty years had participated on local public boards. A jury found that Burke died on 27 October from a bullet wound to the head unlawfully fired by Crown forces. Burke’s funeral in St Mary’s Church was attended by thousands. Buried Cornamagh Cemetery, Athlone. At Athlone Quarter Sessions in April 1921, his widow Esther secured £1,500 compensation.608 Daniel Lehane (27Oct1920/4) 65, Farmer, Married, RC Cregg, Lahinch, Clare Lehane lived with his wife in Cregg, Lahinch, Clare. Taken from his home and shot in the head and neck by the police in the early hours of 23 September, he lingered for a month. The police had been searching for his son Patrick,609 a participant in the Rineen ambush, who died in a fire in Lahinch that morning. Lehane’s house was set on fire. His fourteen-year-old son Jimmy would also have been shot but for the intervention of a military officer. Lehane was subsequently operated on in Ennistymon Hospital before being discharged after a fortnight. The family would give the RIC no information, and his

corpse was not made available for a court of inquiry. Lehane’s widow Margaret stated that her husband died from wounds. She secured £2,250 compensation for the destruction of her house. Buried Miltown Malbay, Clare.610 SA: Lehane (23Sep1920/1) Michael Scanlon (27Oct1920/5) IRA, Primary school teacher, RC Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick Donnchadh O’Hannigan, vice-brigadier East Limerick Brigade and O/C brigade ASU, recalled that Tadhg Crowley, adjutant ASU, and Michael Scanlon, O/C 4th (Kilmallock) Battalion, East Limerick Brigade, were arrested in Laurencestown outside Kilmallock. They were taken to William Street Barracks, Limerick. Scanlon jumped off the lorry as it halted and hid in the cellar of a house on Thomas Street. John Regan, then an RIC DI in Limerick, wrote that, while searching a house on a tip-off, an army sergeant shot Scanlon. He died a short time later. Buried Castle Jane Cemetery, Limerick. He is commemorated by a plaque on Thomas Street and on a monument at Murroe.611

28 OCTOBER 1920 Purcell R. Bowen (28Oct1920/1) General List, 29, Army officer, Protestant Lincoln Place, Dublin Bowen, one of thirteen children of a Carmarthenshire farmer, contemplated becoming a clergyman, but enlisted as a private in the RASC. Later commissioned, he won the MC, and was transferred to the RAF, being awarded the DFC. After demobilisation in June 1920, he came to Dublin, staying at 28 Upper Fitzwilliam Street. The Saturday Record, reporting accounts from the English press, stated that Bowen played rugby with Bective Rangers and described himself as agent for a Welsh coal firm. On the night of 27 October, Bowen was shot in a lane off Lincoln Place. His body was discovered at 06:45, with a bullet in the spine. Bowen was probably targeted as a suspected intelligence officer, although no IRA material about him has been found. Buried Abergele,

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Wales. His father Josiah secured £1,000 compensation.612

Templemore, Tipperary. Buried Woodlands Cemetery, Gillingham, Kent (F. B. 80).615

T. Crummey (28Oct1920/2) Northamptonshire Regiment (5875693), 18, RC Thomastown, Golden, Tipperary From Nenagh, Tipperary, Private Crummey or Crummy was stationed in Richmond Barracks,613 Templemore, Tipperary. The ASU 3rd Tipperary Brigade, awaiting a police patrol, instead encountered a military lorry. Privates Crummey and F. A. Short and LanceCorporal William Henry Hobbs of the Royal Engineers were killed. Lieutenant Parker of the Royal Engineers and five soldiers were wounded. The Northamptonshire Regiment record book maintained that the attackers were eventually driven off, whereas IRA sources indicate that the IRA only withdrew on hearing another lorry approach. The ASU’s James Kilmartin recalled that Lieutenant Parker held off ‘our whole force single-handed . . . He stood in the middle of the road blazing away with his pistols at any puffs or flash that appeared from any of our shots and whether any of our shots hit him I do not know but he was being fired at from everywhere without apparent effect.’ Parker secured the MBE, and a Corporal Goodes a certificate for gallant conduct. Various premises in Tipperary town were wrecked following the Thomastown ambush. Claims amounting to £6,400 were later lodged for the damage caused. Intelligence for the IRA attack had been gathered by Jim Moloney (EOH’s grandfather). Buried St Michael’s Cemetery, Tipperary (E. H. 111).614 RD: Hobbs (28Oct1920/3), Short (28Oct 1920/4)

Frank Arthur Short (28Oct1920/4) Northamptonshire Regiment (5875915), 18616 Thomastown, Golden, Tipperary See Crummey (28Oct1920/2). Private Short was stationed in Richmond Barracks, Templemore, Tipperary. Buried London Road Cemetery, Kettering, Northamptonshire.

William Henry Hobbs (28Oct1920/3) RE (1852907), 22, Ex-serviceman Thomastown, Golden, Tipperary See Crummey (28Oct1920/2). From Gillingham, Kent, Hobbs joined the Royal Engineers as a bugler and after surviving the retreat from Mons returned to Chatham as a sapper, later serving in Hong Kong and Sierra Leone. Lance-Corporal Hobbs’s planned demobilisation was deferred. He was stationed in Richmond Barracks,

John Carolan (28Oct1920/5) Lecturer, 47, Married with two children, RC MMH See Smyth (12Oct1920/1). From Sligo, the census describes Carolan as a professor in the ‘science and art of teaching’ (teaching practice) at St Patrick’s College, Drumcondra. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: V. c. 85).617

29 OCTOBER 1920 Francis B. Warren (29Oct1920/1) 70, Retired printer and publisher, RC Inchicore, Dublin Between 19:00 and 20:00, Warren opened his door in Hollybrook, Inchicore, to three armed and masked men who entered and shot him. The Warrens had given information which led to the discovery of a quantity of arms and ammunition near their home in December 1919. Police believed this explained the killing.618 Godfrey W. Jasper (29Oct1920/2) 31, Ex-serviceman, policeman, Married Carrahane Strand, Ardfert, Kerry From Shropshire, Jasper joined the RIC (71738) on 29 June 1920, stationed in Limerick. This is a confusing case. The RIC General Register recorded that Constable Jasper was dismissed from the force on 29 August 1920, but he was still in Kerry when taken off a train at Tralee by members of the 1st Battalion, 1st Kerry Brigade, IRA, in September. Tadhg Kennedy recalled that a soldier known as ‘Ginger George’, subsequently transferred to another regiment, and a Black and Tan named Jasper were believed responsible for his brother’s death

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on 19 August. The Ardfert Company, 1st Kerry Brigade, held Jasper a prisoner for about five weeks, believing him to have been ‘doing Intelligence work’. Despite Kennedy’s protests, he was executed on 29 October and buried (either at Carrahane Strand or the nearby Banna Strand). Kennedy said that when Jasper’s remains were subsequently exposed by the tide he had them sent to England for burial. He also certified the execution so that Jasper’s wife and family could claim compensation.619 SA: Kennedy (19Aug1920/2)

c. 29 OCTOBER 1920 Bernard Loftus Brown (29Oct1920/3) RGA, 24, Army officer Laharn, Rusheen, Cork From West Norwood, London, Lieutenant Brown was educated at Dulwich College and the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. Commissioned in the Royal Artillery on 22 April 1915, he was a battalion adjutant from 30 April 1919 until 27 May 1919, with the rank of acting captain, and secured the MC. Brown served in the 26th Heavy Battery, 7th Brigade, stationed in Fermoy, Cork. Lieutenants Brown and David Alfred Rutherford were kidnapped between 29 October and 1 November while driving by motorcycle from Fermoy to Killarney on three days’ leave. A soldier remarked, ‘They don’t look much like civilians,’ as although in civilian clothes they had ‘military haversacks’ and officers’ bedding. Charles Browne, adjutant 7th (Macroom) Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, said they were captured by the Coachford Company and transferred to E (Kilmichael) Company for interrogation. Shot as spies, they were buried at Laharn, Rusheen. In March 1921 Brown’s Sunbeam motorcycle and sidecar were discovered in a shed of a farmer named Casey at Killeens, five miles from Cork city. Three Casey brothers were arrested. A soldier told an inquiry that ‘Mr Brown was often occupied in operations against Sinn Feiners, with patrols or with one man or by himself. . . . I know of his being out more than once at night in the Battery trap’, and

‘The Irish Rebellion in the 6th Divisional Area’ stated that the two officers had occasionally carried out intelligence work. Brown and Rutherford were presumed dead under authority of War Office letter 45/Gen. No. 2557 dated 29 November 1921, which stated that Sinn Féin had confirmed through Art O’Brien that Lieutenant B. L. Brown, Lieutenant D. A. Rutherford, Captain M. H. W. Green, Captain S. Chambers and Lieutenant W. S. Watts had been killed. Their remains were not recovered. Mabel Brown appealed to Michael Collins† several times between November 1921 and May 1922 for information about her son’s death and place of burial. She was particularly anxious to recover his pocket book and any last message it might have contained. Collins could only return Brown’s watch and camera.620 RD: Rutherford (29Oct1920/4) David Alfred Rutherford (29Oct1920/4) RGA, 22, Army officer Laharn, Rusheen, Cork See Brown (29Oct1920/3). Rutherford, from Bushey, Hertfordshire, was commissioned in the Royal Artillery on 10 April 1916. He won the MC on 18 June 1917 and a bar on 26 July 1918. In Cork he served in the 115th Siege Battery, 7th Brigade.621

30 OCTOBER 1920 Timothy Horan (30Oct1920/1) RIC (60534), 40, Farmer, Married with three children, RC Castledaly, Kilchreest, Loughrea, Galway From Kerry, Constable Horan joined the RIC on 3 March 1902, serving in Roscommon and Cork before transfer to Kilchreest, Galway. At 12:00 a cycle patrol of one sergeant and four constables was ambushed between Kilchreest and Peterswell by about thirty Volunteers under Thomas McInerney, O/C South Galway Brigade. Horan appears to have been killed as he pursued his attackers. Daniel Ryan recalled that the IRA’s plan was to capture the policemen’s weapons without killing them. Five farmhouses in the Castledaly and Kilchreest districts were

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destroyed in reprisal. Peter J. Moylan and Michael Callanan of Crannagh, Loughrea, defended by Tim Healy KC, were acquitted of Horan’s murder on 31 March 1921. Buried Glenbeigh, Kerry. His widow Margaret secured £1,000 compensation and each of his three children £600.622 G. Robertson (30Oct1920/2) Royal Scots (3044595) Connolly, Clare Private Robertson, stationed in Ennis, Clare, was last seen alive on 30 October. Military authorities believed he had been kidnapped and killed. Despite extensive searches no trace was found. Robertson was the unnamed soldier mentioned by Edward Lynch, who had been involved in events which culminated in the shooting of Lynch’s father Charles by a Corporal McPherson of the Royal Scots. According to Lynch, about a week after that killing McPherson was placed under military arrest in Miltown Malbay, but he and his guard deserted. Both were subsequently captured by the IRA in the Connolly district. Lynch was notified and went to see the prisoners. While Lynch consulted the battalion officers, McPherson escaped, having tricked his Volunteer guard into handing over his revolver. Robertson was not so lucky: he was ‘shot and buried in a bog in the Connolly area where the body still lies’.623 SA: Lynch (21Oct1920/2)

31 OCTOBER 1920 Philip St John Howlett Kelleher (31Oct1920/1) RIC (71645), 23, Army officer, RC Greville Arms Hotel, Granard, Longford From Macroom, one of twelve children of Dr Jeremiah Kelleher, Kelleher was educated at Castleknock College, Dublin. He won an MC while a lieutenant in the Leinster Regiment. He became an RIC DI on 7 August 1920, stationed in Granard, where he became a ‘bitter opponent of the Volunteer movement’. Orders were received to eliminate him. At around 21:30 Kelleher was in the bar of the Greville Arms Hotel, unarmed and in civilian

clothes. Two Volunteers entered and shot him in the chest with revolvers at pointblank range. The presence in Granard of a section of Seán Mac Eoin’s ASU saved the town from being burned in reprisal by Crown forces on 2 November. However, after the IRA withdrew an estimated £295,000 of damage was inflicted. Buried Millstreet, Cork. Less than a month later, it fell to his father to perform autopsies on the sixteen Auxiliary cadets killed in the Kilmichael ambush near Macroom. His father secured £3,000 compensation.624 Albert F. Caseley (31Oct1920/2) RIC (71924), 24, Ex-serviceman Bansha,625 Killorglin, Kerry From Kent, Caseley lived in Brixton, London. He joined the RIC on 16 July 1920, stationed in Killorglin. Constables Caseley and Evans were shot dead at around 22:00 about half a mile from Killorglin, while returning from leave in civilian clothes, by Volunteers from the Listry Company, Kerry No. 2 Brigade. The constables had been seeing two girls home. Reprisals followed in Killorglin, during which Denis M. O’Sullivan was taken from his home in the Square, beaten and shot four times. Buried Lambeth Cemetery, Tooting, London. Caseley’s dependents secured £3,000 compensation.626 RD: Evans (31Oct1920/3) John Herbert Evans627 (31Oct1920/3) RIC (71269), 22, Telegraphic operator, RAF pilot, Presbyterian Bansha, Killorglin, Kerry See Caseley (31Oct1920/2). From Belfast, Evans joined the RIC on 23 April 1920, stationed in Galway, before transfer to Killorglin. Buried Dundonald Cemetery, Belfast. William Madden (31Oct1920/4) RIC (65081), 30, RC CMHC From Tipperary, Constable Madden joined the RIC on 8 December 1909, posted to Abbeydorney, Kerry. At around 22:00, two IRA sections under Michael Pierce, captain

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Ballyheigue Company, and Paddy Sheehan shot two RIC men and a Black and Tan as they left Harty’s pub in Abbeydorney. Madden was killed and Constable Gorbey was seriously wounded. Buried Newcastle West, Limerick. His mother secured £1,000 compensation, and a sister £500.628 RD: Gorbey (6Nov1920/2) Thomas O’Donovan (31Oct1920/5) IRA, 24, Apprentice motor mechanic, RC Main Street, Killenaule, Tipperary O’Donovan, from Glengoole, Thurles, Tipperary, was interned in Frongoch after the Rising. After release, he was arrested several times. Living in Drangan, Tipperary, he was O/C 7th Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, in RIC eyes, a ‘prominent Tipperary desperado’. O’Donovan was determined to kill Lieutenant Hooton,629 commanding the military detachment in Killenaule, in Connell’s pub. O’Donovan and his men waited across the street. Hooten and a Sergeant Davies approached. What followed is unclear – one IRA source said that O’Donovan was ambushed, another that he had been drinking whiskey beforehand – but Davies killed O’Donovan while he was in the act of drawing his Colt automatic. Another Volunteer was wounded but escaped. The O/C of Tipperary No. 3 Brigade was in no doubt that O’Donovan: had to do things that perhaps crossed the border into foolhardiness so as to get his men shamed into showing some spirit. I may say . . . that it is not personal cowardice on behalf of the officers but the fear of their property . . . we should make the terror behind greater than the terror in front by shooting all really bad cases . . . now that something in the nature of a crisis is on us we require to show sternness.

GHQ replied that all convicted deserters should be publicly named, and ‘all recommendations to death penalty’ must be ‘referred to Headquarters’. Hooton and Davies secured an MBE and an OBE respectively. Buried Glengoole. A plaque commemorated him on Main Street, Killenaule.630

SA: Clancy (19Nov1920/1), Sadlier (13Jun 1921/6) James Donaldson (31Oct1920/6) 19, CoI Monaghan Donaldson was on his way to church when accidentally shot through the heart by a neighbour, said to be a fellow UVF member, as they examined a revolver.631

1 NOVEMBER 1920 George Morgan (1Nov1920/1) RIC (70802), 23, Grocer’s assistant, RC Ballyduff, Kerry From Mayo, Constable Morgan joined the RIC on 22 March 1920, stationed in Ballyduff. He was one of three policemen ambushed at around 01:00 by about twenty Volunteers of the Ballyduff and Lixnaw companies as they came through the village. He was shot dead; although wounded, constables Dolan and Reidy were able to reach their barracks. The attack was mounted to avenge the death of Terence MacSwiney. Buried Longford.632 SA: MacSwiney (25Oct1920/3) Ernest Bright (1Nov1920/2) RIC (71848), 34, Presser, ex-serviceman Blennerville, Tralee, Kerry From London, Bright joined the RIC on 9 July 1920, stationed in Tralee. Paddy Cahill, O/C Kerry No. 1 Brigade, instructed the Tralee Battalion to carry out reprisals for Terence MacSwiney. Bright and Constable Patrick Waters were captured on New Street and killed on Cahill’s orders in the early hours of 1 November by members of B (Strand Street) Company. They were buried in slob land near the beach at Blennerville, not, as rumour suggested, thrown live into the Tralee Gas Works furnace.633 The RIC General Register recorded them as ‘kidnapped and presumed murdered’. A wave of reprisals followed. Tralee Town Hall and several shops were burned down, and there was indiscriminate shooting. John Conway was shot dead on Rock Street as he left home to attend devotions, 1 November being a holy day. Tommy Wall, an ex-

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serviceman, was ordered to put his hands up while standing in the Mall. Beaten about the head with a rifle butt, he was told to run. Shot in the back, he died on 3 November.634 RD: Conway (1Nov1920/8), Wall (3Nov 1920/3), Waters (1Nov1920/3). SA: MacSwiney (25Oct1920/3) Patrick Waters (1Nov1920/3) RIC (69079), 24, Farmer, RC Blennerville, Tralee, Kerry See Bright (1Nov1920/2). Waters, from Spiddal, Galway, joined the RIC on 17 April 1917, stationed in Tralee. It was said that for many years his brother took a fortnight off work to search for his remains. Henry Cronin (1Nov1920/4) RIC (56371), 47, Labourer, Married with children, RC Infirmary, Tullamore, Offaly From Cork, Cronin joined the RIC on 2 April 1894, serving in Roscommon and Offaly. Promoted to sergeant in 1912, he had been stationed in Tullamore since 1916. He was shot and wounded in the chest, stomach and arm near his home on Henry Street, Tullamore, while returning to the barracks on the night of 31 October. His wife found her husband collapsed, saying, ‘I’m shot.’ He died at 04:00, leaving a young family. Various premises were wrecked in reprisal. Cronin was popular and was regarded as a competent and decent RIC officer. Buried Clonminch Cemetery, Tullamore.635 Kevin Gerard Barry (1Nov1920/5) IRA, 18, Student, RC Mountjoy Prison, Dublin Although born in Dublin, where his mother Mary ran a dairy, Barry spent his early years on the family farm in Tombeagh, Hacketstown, Carlow. He attended Rathvilly National School in Carlow, and later St Mary’s College in Dublin, before transferring in 1916 to Belvedere College. In 1917, he and his friend Frank Flood joined C Company, Dublin Brigade, of which Flood’s brother Seán was O/C. By 1920 he was a somewhat wayward medical student in UCD. Due to increasing numbers, a new H Company was

formed with Seán Kavanagh as O/C and Barry as commander No. 2 Section. While visiting Carlow he had seen action with the Rathvilly Company, taking part in a raid on John Redmond’s former home at Aughavannagh, Wicklow, and in an exchange of fire with a clergyman during an abortive raid for arms on the Church of Ireland rectory in Tullow, Carlow. On 20 September, H Company launched a botched arms raid on a military ration party outside Monks’ Bakery, Upper Church Street, Dublin. Private Harold Washington was killed outright, while privates Humphries and Whitehead died of their wounds. Unaware that his comrades had withdrawn, Barry was sheltering under a military lorry trying to clear a blockage in his automatic when he was captured. He was badly roughed up after arrest, treatment later branded as ‘torture’, although he made little of it, only providing a very measured account on GHQ instructions in a sworn affidavit two days before his execution. Tried by court martial, he refused to recognise the court, insouciantly reading a newspaper during proceedings. He simply replied ‘No’ when asked if he had any questions of each witness, but evidently grew irritated, telling the presiding officer, ‘Don’t bother asking me that question any more, I am not interested in the proceedings.’ A bullet from his automatic was linked to Whitehead’s death. He was sentenced to death on 20 October. Frantic efforts were made to secure a reprieve. Two escape plans fell through. He was hanged at 08:00, the first such execution during the War of Independence. Hundreds had gathered outside the prison. Barry remained calm and humorous in the face of death. The day before his execution, his mother, brother Mick and eldest sister Kitby – EOH’s grandmother – visited to say goodbye. He reportedly wrote to a fellow student that he forgave all his enemies, but that he ‘had nothing to forgive in the case of his Black and Tan guards and his warder, all of whom had been most kind’. Jesuit scholastic Thomas Counihan, who had taught him in Belvedere and who saw him the night before his death, wrote afterwards that

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Barry’s death was a turning point. A rumour gained currency that he had to be dragged to the gallows, whereas contemporary records suggest the contrary: a Dublin Castle press officer noted a report from the prison that, having ‘talked sport mainly’ with his warders during his last hours, Barry ‘went to his death with callous composure’. What finer epitaph could an enemy offer? Buried Mountjoy. In October 2001, his remains were exhumed and reinterred in GC after a state funeral, along with those of eight other Volunteers executed in Mountjoy in 1920 and 1921. A ninth Volunteer was reinterred in Ballylanders, Limerick.636 SA: Humphries (21Sep1920/3), Washington (20Sep1920/4), Whitehead (20Sep1920/5) Eileen (Ellen) Quinn (1Nov1920/6) 23, Farmer’s wife, Married with three children, RC Kiltartan, Gort, Galway Eileen Quinn (née Gilligan) and her husband Malachy lived in Kiltartan, Gort. At around 14:45, she was sitting on a wall outside her house holding her nine-month-old baby when she was hit in the groin, probably by a shot from a passing police tender. She staggered to her door, handed her child to a servant and collapsed. Henry O’Mara, O/C 6th Battalion, East Clare Brigade, claimed that a police lorry from the direction of Gort:

close. He was so fond of his wife, “she could play every musical instrument”.’ Police on the lorry claimed they had seen no woman near the roadside, and stated that as a precaution against ambushes they often fired shots in the air when approaching wooded areas or dangerous bends. It was suggested that Eileen Quinn was wounded by a ricochet. Buried Kiltartan Cemetery. A compensation claim was dismissed in October 1921, but the Treasury subsequently sanctioned an ex gratia payment. Her death, a gift for republican propagandists, was evoked in W. B. Yeats’s poem ‘Reprisals’: Where may new-married women sit And suckle children now?637

SA: Blake (15May1921/10) Albert Leigh (1Nov1920/7) Hampshire Regiment (5485478),638 23, Groom, CoE Pilltown Cross, Waterford Private Leigh attested at Southampton on 13 June 1916. Stationed in Cork, he was killed when a party of eleven soldiers from the musketry depot in Youghal were ambushed at Pilltown Cross on the main Dungarvan to Youghal road. The IRA provided ‘a dray to enable the British to take away their wounded’ to Youghal Military Barracks. Buried St Mary’s Churchyard, Broughton, Hampshire.639

slackened speed and a shot was fired. Then one man knelt down, steadied his rifle and taking every precaution so as not to miss, fired deliberately at Mrs Quinn and mortally wounded her. As she fell . . . all the occupants of it, save one, cheered the dastardly deed.

John Conway (1Nov1920/8) 57, Painter, Married with six children, RC Rock Street, Tralee, Kerry See Bright (1Nov1920/2). Conway lived on Rock Street. Buried Rath Cemetery, Tralee.

It seems more likely that she was hit by chance, as Black and Tans on the lorry, who were apparently drunk, had been firing randomly and indiscriminately as they passed through the district. Despite the attentions of two doctors, Eileen Quinn died at 22:45. A few days later her bereaved husband visited their near neighbour Lady Augusta Gregory, ‘looking dreadfully worn and changed and his nerves broken, he could hardly speak. . . . He believes they shot her on purpose – they came so

Seán (John) Houlihan (1Nov1920/9) IRA, 30, Farmer’s son, RC Ballyduff, Kerry Houlihan served in 3rd (Lixnaw) Battalion, Kerry No. 1 Brigade. Eight lorries of police arrived at the Houlihan house in Ballyduff in response to the killing of Constable Morgan. Seán was pulled from his bed, placed against a ditch, shot several times and bayoneted. His parents were forced to watch. Their hay shed was burned, and other houses looted and set on fire. During indiscriminate shooting a

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girl named Sheehy was wounded. Houlihan’s father secured £150 compensation in 1924, but further applications from his mother and brother James were unsuccessful. The latter, a county councillor, resigned his chairmanship of the local Fianna Fáil cumann in February 1934 in protest. Buried Rahela, Ballyduff.640 SA: Morgan (1Nov1920/1) Peter Cooney (1Nov1920/10) RIC (60641), 45, Farmer, Married with two children, RC Breaghy Crossroads, Ballinalee, Longford From Sligo, Cooney joined the RIC on 1 April 1902, serving in Galway, and in Ballinalee and Granard in Longford. According to his killer, Frank Davis, Longford Brigade, Cooney was ‘a noted detective who was wont to go around dressed in women’s clothes and other forms of disguise IRA-hunting . . . Michael Collins† . . . ordered that he be shot’, but ‘for some time we had no idea of where he was’. Cooney was returning to duty in civilian clothes after visiting his family when he was shot at Breaghy Crossroads near Ballinalee at about 14:00, allegedly carrying coded dispatches containing the names of Longford IRA men.641 Alfred George Bell (1Nov1920/11) 17th Lancers (Duke of Cambridge’s Own) (313829) Buttevant, Cork Private Bell, of Shoreditch, London, accidentally shot himself with a revolver. Buried Islington Cemetery, London (Screen Wall. M. 20986).642

c. 1 NOVEMBER 1920 Edward Canning (1Nov1920/12) Ex-serviceman, RC Roscommon Reported missing on 1 November, he was executed as a spy by the IRA. His body was not recovered.643

2 NOVEMBER 1920 Sidney G. Larkin644 (2Nov1920/1) RIC (71468), 22, Footman, ex-serviceman Auburn, Athlone, Westmeath From London, Constable Larkin joined the RIC on 25 May 1920, posted to Leitrim. At

around 09:30 a party of ten police travelling from Carrick-on-Shannon to Athlone in two Crossley cars was ambushed by twenty-five Athlone Brigade Volunteers, mainly armed with shotguns. This was part of general IRA reprisals following the death of Terence MacSwiney. Larkin, driving the first lorry, was shot in the chest. The police returned fire and some attackers were seen to fall. The RIC found James Finn’s body in a nearby house, apparently killed by a police bullet.645 RD: Finn (2Nov1920/2). SA: MacSwiney (25Oct1920/3) James (Séamus) Finn (2Nov1920/2) IRA, 21, Farmer’s son, RC Auburn, Athlone, Westmeath See Larkin (2Nov1920/1). Finn, of Killeenbrack, Streamstown, Westmeath, served in the 3rd Battalion, Athlone Brigade. Buried Killare, Westmeath. William Michael Maxwell (2Nov1920/3) RIC (71234), 24, Postman, ex-serviceman, RC Cloughjordan, Tipperary From Ballynahinch, Down, Maxwell joined the RIC after demobilisation from the Irish Guards on 23 April 1920, stationed in Cloughjordan. At around 21:00 Joe O’Brien, Bill Kelly, Bill Meagher and Paddy Whelehan entered Tooher’s hotel bar. Maxwell attempted to draw his gun but was shot dead.646 Another policeman escaped. Buried Ballynahinch.647 James Daly (2Nov1920/4) Connaught Rangers, 21, RC Dagshai Barracks, Punjab See Smyth (1Jul1920/2). Daly, from Tyrrellspass, Westmeath, re-enlisted in the Connaught Rangers, in which his brother was already serving, on 4 April 1919, having been wounded in France while serving in the RIR. He was executed for his part in the disturbances at Solon hill-station on 29–30 June. Thirteen others so sentenced were later reprieved, but Daly was not as he was ‘the ringleader throughout’. Also, sparing his life would make it impossible to maintain discipline among Indian troops, and would have

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‘disastrous consequences on the Indian Army’. His commanding officer and a chaplain wrote that ‘the boy met his death like a brave soldier, and ‘his last moment was marked by coolness and greatness of soul’. Buried Dagshai Cemetery. In 1970 he was reinterred in Geoghegan Graveyard, Westmeath.648

home, where a police party shot him dead. This was probably a reprisal for the Four Mile House ambush of 12 October in which four policemen died.650 Conry had not taken part. Buried Ballinderry Old Cemetery, Fourmilehouse, Roscommon.651 SA: Crawford (12Oct1920/3)

3 NOVEMBER 1920

Thomas Wall (3Nov1920/3) 25, Ex-serviceman, RC Infirmary, Tralee, Kerry See Bright (1Nov1920/2). ‘Tommy’ Wall, an ex-serviceman, had fought in France.652

Patrick Fallon (3Nov1920/1) RIC (55021), 49, Farmer, Widowed with three daughters, RC RIC Barracks, Ballymote, Sligo Fallon, from Tuam, Galway, joined the RIC on 1 May 1891, serving in Donegal and Sligo. Promoted to sergeant in 1912, he had been stationed in Ballymote for about five years. He was due for promotion to head constable. Tom Brehony and Thady McGowan thought Fallon:

4 NOVEMBER 1920

Although there was disagreement at a battalion meeting on 1 November, Pat Coleman and Jim Molloy went ahead. They shot Fallon, on duty at Ballymote Fair, at around 14:00 as he returned unarmed from his lodgings on Mill Street to the barracks. At about 20:00, six lorries of soldiers arrived in Ballymote. The creamery, a bakery and a house were burned down. Other houses were damaged. Michael Gray of Ballinlough, who had not been involved in Fallon’s killing, was nevertheless convicted of it in June 1921. Buried Ballymote.649

Henry James Hambleton (4Nov1920/1) Northamptonshire Regiment, 26, Army officer Casey’s Cross, Knockalton Upper, Nenagh, Tipperary Hambleton, commissioned on 15 August 1914 in the Northamptonshire Regiment, was a battalion intelligence officer, stationed in Templemore. Edward O’Leary termed him ‘an extremely bad pill’. At about 16:00 an IRA party in wait at Casey’s Cross fired at Hambleton, who fell off his motorcycle and was killed. His regimental record book commented, ‘There is no doubt that this was done owing to Lt. Hambleton’s activities as intelligence officer at Nenagh.’ Nenagh Creamery was burned in reprisal that night, together with a printing office and a pub. John O’Brien and Thomas O’Brien, both Volunteers of the Nenagh Company but not related, and a workman of Cleary’s named Phil Cruise were arrested. On the way to Nenagh, the O’Briens were bayoneted to death.653 Cruise was released after a fortnight. Buried Devonshire.654 RD: O’Brien (4Nov1920/3), O’Brien (4Nov 1920/4). SA: Starr (1May1921/11)

John Conry (3Nov1920/2) IRA, 32, Stonemason, Married with one child, RC Rathconnor, Four Mile House, Roscommon Conry, of Rathconnor, Four Mile House, served in the 2nd Battalion, South Roscommon Brigade. Although apparently tipped off about a possible raid, he stayed at

Samuel Wilfred Lucas (4Nov1920/2) RIC (58083), 47, Bread server, Married with one child, Presbyterian RVHB See Breen (25Oct1920/8). From Tyrone, Lucas joined the RIC on 1 March 1898, serving in Donegal and from 1916 Fermanagh. Promoted to sergeant in 1917, he was stationed in Tempo.

a very dangerous enemy. . . . He had gone out of his way . . . to harry men who were active and on the run. This man’s daughter was also actively engaged in doing intelligence work. . . . When Sergeant Fallon’s anti-IRA activities had become notorious, orders were issued for his execution.

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Wounded during an IRA attack on Tempo RIC Barracks on 25 October, he died from septic poisoning at 17:45. Buried Cloveneden Cemetery, Loughgall, Armagh. His widow secured £3,500 compensation, and his twoyear-old son £1,000.655 John O’Brien (4Nov1920/3) IRA, RC Nenagh, Tipperary See Hambleton (4Nov1920/1). O’Brien, born in the US, son of John O’Brien, licensed vintner, Nenagh, served in Nenagh Company, Tipperary No. 1 Brigade. Buried Lisboney Cemetery, Nenagh.656 Thomas O’Brien (4Nov1920/4) IRA, Carpenter, RC Nenagh, Tipperary See Hambledon (4Nov1920/1). Thomas O’Brien lived with his brother and sisters at the convent lodge in Nenagh. He served in Nenagh Company, Tipperary No. 1 Brigade. Buried Monsea Cemetery, Nenagh.657 Albert E. Rundle (4Nov1920/5) RIC (71830), 26, Rubber worker, ex-serviceman, Married CMHC See Rippingale (22Oct1920/4). Rundle, from London, joined the RIC on 6 July 1920, stationed in Leap, Cork. His family secured £4,000 compensation.658 John McLean (4Nov1920/6) Protestant Belfast McLean, of Glenallen Street, died of injuries sustained during earlier disturbances.659

5 NOVEMBER 1920 Thomas Archer (5Nov1920/1) IRA, 17, Agricultural labourer, RC Causeway, Kerry Archer was from Kilflynn, Tralee, Kerry. At around 04:30 the Ardfert battalion ASU and Volunteers from Causeway and Ballyheigue companies occupied houses near Causeway RIC Barracks. They particularly hoped to kill Sergeant McGrath, responsible for burning

local farmhouses. At 09:30, a retired RIC sergeant named Patrick Roche, resident in Causeway for some years, passed by and saw a Volunteer through the window. A short time later, all the police withdrew to barracks and the streets were cleared. Scouts reported police reinforcements arriving from Tralee, Listowel and Abbeydorney. The IRA fought their way out of the town. Archer, a scout, was killed.660 Michael McGuire, a local man, was later captured and shot dead. Buried Ardfert.661 SA: McGuire (5Nov1920/3), Roche (1Mar 1921/8) Teresa O’Connell (5Nov1920/2) 15, RC North Commons, Ardfert, Kerry Teresa O’Connell, ‘the daughter of a buttermaker’, was shot dead on her doorstep as a party of the Ardfert Battalion was assembling for an ambush. Lieutenant J. R. Chalker, East Lancashire Regiment, subsequently stated that on entering Ardfert a mixed patrol of military and police came under fire, which they returned. Two Volunteers were captured. Michael McGuire, a shopkeeper, was arrested and taken to Causeway, where he was shot dead by the police outside their barracks. He had supplied paraffin for the burning of Ardfert RIC Barracks some time before. The deaths of Teresa O’Connell and Michael McGuire as well as those of Michael Brosnan and John Cantillon, three days later, were not officially reported. There was some confusion in official circles as to whether a court of inquiry should have been held, and in January 1921 the Chief Secretary’s Office decided that it would serve ‘no good purpose’. A report by DI Reilly in December 1920 stated that a party of military and police, in search of persons suspected of involvement in an ambush the previous week, had been shot at. Fire was returned. It only emerged some days later that Teresa O’Connell, who was 500 yards away, had been killed, allegedly in consequence of ‘a wager between two Black and Tans as to which of them could shoot the best’.662 RD: McGuire (5Nov1920/3). SA: Brosnan (8Nov1920/1), Cantillon (8Nov1920/2)

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Michael McGuire (5Nov1920/3) 55, Shopkeeper, Married with seven children, RC Causeway, Kerry See O’Connell (5Nov1920/2). McGuire, a former rural district councillor, owned a provisions store in Ardfert. One BMH statement asserts that he was killed ‘in a ball alley’. Buried Ardfert.663 William George King (5Nov1920/4) Hampshire Regiment (5485574), 22, Groom, CoE Youghal, Cork Private King, from Andover, Hampshire, attested in Belgium on 27 January 1919. At 23:00, a picket sent to break up trouble between off-duty soldiers and civilians came under fire near Bradfield’s barber shop, into which the troops forced an entry. King was shot by a man who was in turn wounded. At the same time, the IRA attacked the RIC barracks. The military picket attempted to outflank the attackers, who dispersed. A civilian was severely wounded. Press suggestions that troops exchanged fire with the RIC were emphatically denied. Buried St Mary’s Churchyard, Liss, Hampshire.664

6 NOVEMBER 1920

cemetery, Carrick-on-Suir, Tipperary, on 9 November.666

c. 6 NOVEMBER 1920 Christopher McEvoy (6Nov1920/3) IRA, RC Portrane Asylum, Dublin McEvoy, of 73 Gloucester Street, served in the 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade. Patrick Kearney recalled that following an unsuccessful ambush an IRA party were walking back to Parnell Square when one of the Cotter brothers from Drumcondra threw a bomb at a passing police tender. McEvoy was wounded in an ensuing exchange of fire. Secretly removed from Jervis Street Hospital to Portrane Asylum that night, he died shortly afterwards.667

7 NOVEMBER 1920 Thomas Joseph Walsh (7Nov1920/1) RIC, Ex-serviceman, mechanic, 27, RC Vicinity of Blarney, Cork The CFR details how Constable Walsh, a Dubliner who joined the RIC in November 1919, was captured by the IRA at Blarney on 6 November. He escaped under cover of fog, but was recaptured, killed and buried early next day. His remains were never recovered.668

William Mulcahy (6Nov1920/1) Blacksmith, RC Bachelor’s Quay, Cork Mulcahy, from Evergreen Street, worked for Messrs McBride. At around 22:10 a military patrol enforcing the curfew ordered men at Bachelor’s Quay near North Gate Bridge to halt. Some ran, and were fired on. Mulcahy died from a chest wound. Buried SFC, Cork.665

James Joseph O’Keeffe (7Nov1920/2) 42, Commercial traveller, RC SPDH O’Keeffe, from Cork, lived at 6 Stamer Street. At around 19:00, he was knocked down on Clare Street by an Auxiliary Division motor car, dying soon afterwards. Buried GC.669

Robert Gorbey (6Nov1920/2) RIC (70996), 23, Manservant, ex-serviceman, CoI CMHC See Madden (31Oct1920/4). Gorbey, from Waterford, joined the RIC on 6 April 1920, allocated to Kerry. He was awarded the constabulary medal. Buried Protestant

Michael Brosnan (8Nov1920/1) IRA, 30, Agricultural labourer, RC Ardfert, Kerry From Castleisland, Kerry, Brosnan served in the Ardfert Company, Kerry No. 1 Brigade. Patrick Sheehan recalled how a police patrol arrested Brosnan, John Cantillon and Maurice McElligott. At around 16:30, they were taken

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into a field and ordered to run. Brosnan and Cantillon were shot dead when they did so. McElligott refused to run, and escaped after a severe beating. Buried Ardfert.670 RD: Cantillon (8Nov1920/2) John Cantillon (8Nov1920/2) IRA, 24, Agricultural labourer, RC Ardfert, Kerry See Brosnan (8Nov1920/1). Cantillon served in the Ardfert Company, Kerry No. 1 Brigade. Buried Ardfert. His father secured a £50 gratuity. 671 Hugh Kearns (8Nov1920/3) RIC (63613), 35, Farmer, Widowed with three children, RC City Infirmary, Derry From Scotstown, Monaghan, Kearns joined the RIC on 15 January 1908, serving in Donegal and from 1913 in Derry. Of exceptionally fine physique, he was a good athlete. The circumstances surrounding his death are unclear. Constables Kearns and Short, who were in plain clothes during disturbances, were shot and critically wounded; Kearns died two days later. They may have been in a party of RIC men engaged in burning houses of Sinn Féin supporters on Foyle Street. Buried Scotstown, Monaghan.672 Percy Vincent Starling (8Nov1920/4) RMA, 26, Married, Protestant Naval Hospital, Queenstown (Cobh), Cork Gunner Starling (RMA/13560) was one of three marines accidentally shot by a comrade at Union Hall at 08:30 on 5 November. Evacuated to Queenstown by boat, he was, reportedly, less than three weeks married. Buried Cobh Old Church Cemetery (C.26.60).673 Mary Quirke (8Nov1920/5) 49, Widowed with children, RC Mallow The CFR records the death of Mary Quirke, widow of a butcher and mother of fourteen children, who never recovered after she took refuge in the grounds of St Mary’s Church, Mallow, on 28 September as troops ran amok.674

RD: Gibbs (28Sep1920/1), O’Connell (15Oct 1920/4)

9 NOVEMBER 1920 Archibald Turner (9Nov1920/1) RIC (71552), 28, Labourer, ex-serviceman Ballybrack, Firies, Kerry Constable Turner, from Kent, served with the Welsh Regiment before joining the RIC on 4 June 1920, stationed in Farranfore, Kerry. Tom McEllistrim, O/C Firies Battalion, Kerry No. 2 Brigade, with men of the Ballymacelligott ASU, halted a train at Ballybrack Station, posting a man in the cab to prevent it from moving until the operation was completed. The two constables, regarded as particularly aggressive, were pulled onto the platform, disarmed and shot by McEllistrim and Bill Diggins. Turner died shortly afterwards, Woods a week later. Local houses were burned in reprisal. Buried Kent. His mother secured £1,000 compensation.675 RD: Woods (15Nov1920/1) Denis Ring (9Nov1920/2) IRA, 23, Farmer’s son Killeendooling, Midleton, Cork The CFR describes how Ring shot himself in the abdomen while cleaning a revolver, dying a few days later. His father deceived the authorities, reporting the cause of death as wounds caused by falling on the prong of a hay fork.676

10 NOVEMBER 1920 Christopher Lucey (10Nov1920/1) IRA, Student, RC Tooreenduff, Ballingeary, Cork Lucey, a UCC student and former pupil of Mungret College, was a section commander in B Company, 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade. Arrested while attending a training camp in Glandore and sentenced to two years in Mountjoy, he went on the run after release following the June 1920 hunger strike. Police reports stated he was killed in an exchange of fire with Auxiliaries searching houses in the Tooreenduff area at about 12:00. Buried SFC. A monument was erected at Tooreenduff, between Ballingeary and Gougane Barra.677

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Francis Hoffman (10Nov1920/2) IRA, 21, Farmer, CoI Farmers Bridge, Tralee, Kerry Hoffman, of Farmers Bridge near Tralee, was described by Tom McEllistrim as an active Volunteer. There was considerable police activity after the shootings on 9 November of constables Turner and Woods, with various arrests and houses burned in reprisal. A police convoy returning to Tralee encountered Hoffman at Farmers Bridge. The Irish Independent reported that he was bayoneted before being shot. Lieutenant N. C. Buckton, East Lancashire Regiment, stated that a mixed patrol of troops and RIC stopped Hoffman and Patrick O’Connor on a cart. Two policemen searched them without finding anything suspicious. As the patrol was moving off, Constable E. Johnson inadvertently discharged a shot, killing Hoffman. Although a court of inquiry exonerated Johnson, ColonelCommandant Cumming, commanding the British military’s Kerry Brigade, considered Johnson culpable through negligence. He was acquitted of manslaughter at Tralee Petty Sessions on 3 January 1921. Buried Ballyseedy, Tralee. A memorial was erected at Farmers Bridge.678 SA: Cumming (5Mar1921/1), Turner (9Nov 1920/1), Woods (15Nov1920/1) Robert James Muir (10Nov1920/3) RMLI, 36, married with two children Kenmare, Kerry Corporal Muir, 6th Battalion, stationed at Blackwater Coastguard Station, a Scot who had served since 1902, died when he discharged his fowling piece while clubbing a wounded rabbit with the butt. Buried Plymouth Old Cemetery.679

12 NOVEMBER 1920 Patrick Herlihy (12Nov1920/1) 19, Creamery employee, RC Ballydwyer, Ballymacelligott, Kerry Herlihy, from Ballydwyer, had recently passed Department of Agriculture qualifying exams for assistant manager. It is unclear whether he was a Volunteer. Tom McEllistrim described how a large convoy of police trav-

elling from Tralee to Castleisland stopped at Ballydwyer Creamery at around 12:00. Members of the Ballymacelligott ASU who happened to be nearby ran for it and were fired on. Herlihy and John McMahon were killed and two others wounded.680 RD: McMahon (12Nov1920/2) John McMahon (12Nov1920/2) 31, Farmer, Married, RC Ballydwyer, Ballymacelligott, Kerry See Herlihy (12Nov1920/1). Ballymacelligott.681

Buried

Daniel O’Brien (12Nov1920/3) RIC (65199), 33, Farmer, RC Riverstown, Cork From Mountprospect, Cork, O’Brien joined the RIC on 24 February 1910, serving in Carlow, Limerick and Tuckey Street, Cork. At about 17:35 he was fatally injured through falling from a lorry which swerved to avoid a farm cart near Riverstown.682

13 NOVEMBER 1920 Jeremiah O’Leary (13Nov1920/1) RIC (65367), 30, Labourer, RC Lisvernane, Glen of Aherlow, Tipperary Constable O’Leary, from Kilbrittain, Cork, joined the RIC on 15 January 1910, serving in Galway and from 1917 in Tipperary town. His uncle Sergeant Daniel Roche had recently been killed in Dublin. He was in a lorry carrying an eight-man police patrol from Tipperary Barracks which visited various smaller outlying stations. The patrol left Emly at about 12:30 and went towards Bansha. A volley was fired at about 12:45 as the tender passed Lisvernane (Lisnagaul), about two and a half miles from Bansha. No one was hit, but the lorry’s steering gear was disabled and it swerved into a ditch. The constables jumped out and returned fire for about twenty-five minutes until they ran out of ammunition. The ambush was carried out by No. 1 ASU Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, under Dinny Lacey.† O’Leary was killed. Constable Patrick Mackessy, who was horribly burned under the lorry when petrol caught fire, was mortally wounded, and constables Charles Buntrock and John Miller were severely

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wounded. Buntrock died at 20:45 that night and Miller at 18:15 next day. Press reports stated that the IRA commander ‘called twice on his companions to cease firing before the order was obeyed’. The policemen were disarmed and the lorry set on fire. Buntrock’s brother, also an RIC constable, was captured and held by the IRA for some hours. He later identified Patrick Harrington, Michael Mullally and Thomas Walsh, and they were arrested. Various premises in Tipperary town were burned in reprisal, including the pharmacy and home of P. J. Moloney TD whose son Jim – EOH’s grandfather – had assembled the intelligence for the ambush. O’Leary’s mother secured £1,000 compensation.683 RD: Buntrock (13Nov1920/3), Mackessy (13Nov1920/2), Miller (14Nov1920/1). SA: Roche (17Oct1920/2) Patrick Mackessy (13Nov1920/2) RIC (62820), 35, Farmer, Married with three children, RC Lisvernane, Glen of Aherlow, Tipperary See O’Leary (13Nov1920/1). From Kerry, Constable Mackessy joined the RIC on 26 August 1907, serving in Clare before transfer to Tipperary town in 1913. Buried Abbey Cemetery, Ballydonoghue, Kerry. His widow and three children secured £5,000 compensation.684 Charles William Buntrock (13Nov1920/3) RIC (74436), 27, Boilermaker’s helper, exserviceman, Married with two children Military Hospital, Tipperary, Tipperary See O’Leary (13Nov1920/1). Constable Buntrock, from Essex, joined the RIC on 15 October 1920, stationed in Tipperary town. His widow secured £1,545 compensation, and each of his two children £1,552. She later secured additional compensation of £2,542.6s.8d. from the British government.685 Annie O’Neill (13Nov1920/4) 8, Schoolgirl, RC Charlemont Street, Dublin Annie lived at 22 Charlemont Street. At around 17:00, a military lorry drew up at

Charlemont Place. A group on the corner immediately dispersed although ordered to halt: one later told a reporter that ‘he had no particular reason for running away, but when he saw others running, he ran too’. An officer gave chase and fired. A bullet hit Annie O’Neill in the chest, passed through her body and struck her playmate, Teresa Kavanagh, aged six and a half. Mrs O’Neill rushed out: ‘I . . . picked up my little girl and brought her into the house I thought she was alive and put her standing up, but she fell at my feet.’ Soldiers took the two girls to hospital, but Annie was already dead. A solicitor representing Mrs O’Neill was excluded, along with the press, from a court of inquiry on 15 November. Buried Kill O’ the Grange Cemetery, Dublin.686

14 NOVEMBER 1920 John Thomas Miller (14Nov1920/1) RIC (71096), 22, Teacher, CoI Military Hospital, Tipperary town, Tipperary See O’Leary (13Nov1920/1). Constable Miller, from Wicklow, joined the RIC on 22 April 1920, stationed in Tipperary town. Miller’s mother secured £1,500 compensation.687

15 NOVEMBER 1920 James Thomas Woods (15Nov1920/1) RIC (70264), 29, Ex-serviceman, Protestant Killarney, Kerry See Turner (9Nov1920/1). Woods, from Lancashire, served with the Grenadier Guards before joining the RIC on 3 February 1920, posted to Farranfore, Kerry. He reportedly died at 09:00. Buried New Cemetery,688 Killarney. His mother secured £1,500 compensation.689

c. 15 NOVEMBER 1920 Michael J. Griffin (15Nov1920/2) 28, Clergyman, RC Lenaboy Castle, Taylor’s Hill, Galway Griffin, from Gurteen, Ballinasloe, Galway, ordained in 1917, was on loan to the Galway diocese, in Rahoon parish. An ardent Gaelic Leaguer, during the 1918 general election he supported Pádraic Ó Máille, the Sinn Féin candidate for Galway-Connemara.

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Griffin left his home at 2 Montpellier Terrace at around 23:30. Mary Leech recalled that her brother Father John O’Meehan believed he had been hunted by a party of Black and Tans. Failing to find him, they instead called to Griffin’s house, where a youth in civilian clothes told the housekeeper that a priest was needed urgently. Captain Joseph Taylor, staff captain Galway Brigade, suggested that this man was William Joyce (later to achieve notoriety as the Nazi radio propagandist ‘Lord Haw Haw’), who was believed to be a police tout. Griffin’s disappearance was reported on 15 November. On the evening of 20 November, coat tails were noticed in boggy land near the roadside at Cloughscoiltia (Cloughskella), outside Barna. Griffin had been shot in the head. His biographer noted that the shooting had evidently taken place elsewhere, and a post-mortem examination showed he had died some days earlier. Griffin was possibly killed as a reprisal for the shooting of the alleged informer Patrick W. Joyce and his body deliberately left near Barna close to the school where Joyce had taught. The RIC also connected his death to an unspecified ‘prominent part’ Griffin had allegedly played in Joyce’s death. Louis O’Dea, a Galway solicitor, claimed that Griffin was shot at the Auxiliaries’ base in Colonel O’Hara’s house. An implausible countervailing rumour was that Griffin had been shot by the IRA at the behest of the Church authorities because he was having an affair with a farmer’s daughter, on whose land his body was buried. An official later described a conversation in the early 1930s in the Valuation Office in Dublin, during which a man named Morris, believed to have formerly been a Black and Tan or Auxiliary, claimed, ‘That bastard got what he deserved, and there was another man too we were looking for, and he’d have got the same if we’d found him.’ On 28 May 1922 ex-RIC constable Thomas Greer† and his father ex-sergeant James Greer† were murdered at their home in Cootehall, Roscommon, reportedly because Thomas was wrongly believed to have been implicated in Griffin’s death. Buried St Brendan’s Cathedral, Loughrea. In November 1922, a

monument was erected at Cloughscoiltia, and another at the graveside. A church in his native Gurteen was built in his memory, in 1937 a road connecting Wolfe Tone Bridge and the Salthill Road was named after him, and in 1948 the Father Griffin Gaelic Football Club was founded in Claddagh, Galway.690 SA: Joyce (16Oct1920/6)

16 NOVEMBER 1920 Patrick Lynch (16Nov1920/1) 46, Labourer, Married, RC Infirmary, Cashel, Tipperary Lynch lived with his wife of three weeks in Golden. On the night of 14 November shots were fired in the village; there had earlier been an attack on police in nearby Bansha. Mrs Lynch said that at around 20:30 they had heard shooting outside. When they thought it was all over, they went out, and saw police shouting at the corner. They ran back towards their house, chased by police. Wounded as they reached the back door, Patrick died at 06:30. RIC witnesses gave a different account. They claimed they had been searching for a stranger wearing a trench coat and felt hat. Later they were fired on, and saw men crouching in a laneway. These ran away when challenged. The next morning they learned that Lynch had been wounded. Buried Golden.691 Michael Egan (16Nov1920/2) 24, Caretaker, RC Killaloe, Clare Egan, from Tuamgraney, Clare, was arrested in his house with three Volunteers of the Scarriff Battalion, East Clare Brigade, by an Auxiliary party which achieved surprise by travelling quietly by boat from Killaloe. First taken to the Lakeside Hotel in Killaloe, which had been recently occupied by Auxiliaries, they were reportedly tortured for hours before being shot dead in the middle of the bridge across the Shannon. Locals heard shots between 23:00 and midnight. Next morning there were large pools of blood and brain matter on Killaloe Bridge. The

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Auxiliaries maintained the Volunteers were shot while attempting to evade arrest. Buried Scarriff.692 RD: Gildea (16Nov1920/3), McMahon (16Nov1920/4), Rodgers (16Nov1920/5)

recalled how two British intelligence officers were captured, tried, executed and secretly buried in the Rusheen Company area. On 26 September 1921, the IRA confirmed this.697 RD: Mitchell (16Nov1920/7)

Martin Gildea693 (16Nov1920/3) IRA, 27, Shop assistant, RC Killaloe, Clare See Egan (16Nov1920/2). Gildea, from Ashbrook, New Inn, Ballinasloe, Galway, was a foreman for a Mr Sparling in Scarriff, Clare. An officer in the 4th (Scarriff) Battalion, East Clare Brigade, he served in the ASU. Buried Scarriff.694

Lionel Ralph Mitchell (16Nov1920/7) ADRIC (72848), 23, Ex-serviceman Rusheen, Macroom, Cork See Agnew (16Nov1920/6). Mitchell, from Somerset, won the DCM and became a lieutenant in the Princess Charlotte of Wales’s (Royal Berkshire Regiment). Joining the Auxiliary Division on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 298), he was a section leader in C Company, stationed in Macroom. His parents secured £800 compensation.698

Michael McMahon (16Nov1920/4) IRA, 26, Shop assistant, RC Killaloe, Clare See Egan (16Nov1920/2). ‘Brud’ McMahon, from Scarriff, Clare, was an officer in the 4th (Scarriff) Battalion, East Clare Brigade, and served in the ASU. Buried Scarriff.695 Alfred Rodgers (16Nov1920/5) IRA, 22, Shop assistant, RC Killaloe, Clare See Egan (16Nov1920/2). ‘Alfie’ Rodgers, from Scarriff, Clare, educated at Mungret College, was an officer in the 4th (Scarriff) Battalion, East Clare Brigade, and served in the ASU. The Mungret Annual described ‘his fine address, his gay and compelling personality’, which made him ‘the natural leader of the young men of his native town’. Buried Scarriff.696 Bertram Agnew (16Nov1920/6) ADRIC (72842), 24, Naval officer Rusheen, Macroom, Cork From Lancashire, former naval reservist Lieutenant Agnew joined the Auxiliary Division on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 370). He was an intelligence officer in C Company, stationed in Macroom. On leave in Cork city, he and Lionel Mitchell were last seen driving towards the South Mall at about 09:15. Both cadets were reported missing and eventually struck off the Auxiliary Division register. Ned Neville, O/C Rusheen Company, Cork No. 1 Brigade,

17 NOVEMBER 1920 James O’Donoghue699 (17Nov1920/1) RIC (58216), 46, Farmer, Married with children, RC White Street, Cork O’Donoghue, from Cahirciveen, Kerry, joined the RIC on 1 June 1898, serving in Sligo, Kilkenny, and in the RIC Reserve, before transfer to Cork in 1903. Promoted to sergeant in 1919, he was stationed in Tuckey Street RIC Barracks, Cork. Regarded as an even-handed and competent officer, he was to have been promoted to head constable the week after he was killed. O’Donoghue was shot three times as he walked along White Street from his home in Tower Street towards his barracks. According to Leo Buckley, the killers were Tommy Healy and Willie Joe O’Brien of G Company, 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade. Peter Hart has written that Healy’s brother Charlie, O’Brien and Justin O’Connor were responsible. Later that night, men in police uniforms killed James Coleman, Patrick Hanley and Eugene O’Connell. Three others were wounded, including Charlie Healy. Why O’Donoghue was shot is a puzzle: a week afterwards, the Cork IRA apologised in writing. Bishop Cohalan wrote that ‘a few roughs who had some grievance against the policeman’ were believed responsible. Buried Keelavarnogue Cemetery, Cahirciveen. O’Donoghue’s widow

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Mary Frances secured £2,500 compensation and each of his children £1,500.700 RD: Coleman (18Nov1920/3), Hanley (18Nov 1920/1), O’Connell (18Nov1920/2)

18 NOVEMBER 1920 Patrick Hanley (18Nov1920/1) Fianna Éireann, 17, Labourer, RC 2 Broad Street, Cork Hanley lived with his widowed mother and sister. The shooting of Sergeant James O’Donoghue provoked reprisals, most likely carried out by RIC men. Three people were killed and a number wounded in the early hours of 18 November. Leo Buckley heard lorries pull up at the corner of Sheares Street at about midnight. Soldiers cordoned off the entire area from North Main Street to the Mardyke. From his room, Buckley could see the back of a house on Broad Street. He observed two men wearing RIC caps, great coats and motor goggles enter a room on the first floor and fire at the people in bed. The raiders then went up to the second floor and into the back room. He remembered distinctly hearing a boy shouting: ‘Oh God, sir, don’t shoot me.’ Both men opened fire, killing Hanley. Buckley suggested Hanley might have been mistaken for Tommy Healy, one of O’Donoghue’s killers. Eugene O’Connell was shot dead in 7 Broad Lane, the home of his brother-inlaw Willie O’Brien, believed to be involved in O’Donoghue’s killing. O’Brien’s younger brother was wounded. At 13 North Mall, a third killing took place. Margaret Coleman told a court of inquiry how at about 03:15 her husband James opened the door. A tall man in an overcoat and a cap, like a policeman’s, shot him twice. A police report stated that ‘Coleman was very popular, and a great friend of the police, having from time to time supplied them with refreshments . . . he was cautioned by the Sinn Féiners (about six weeks ago) but he still continued to supply them: this would appear to be the motive for the crime.’ The Chief Secretary’s Office was dissatisfied with inquiries into these killings. G. G. Whiskard pointed out that in all three cases,

houses were broken into by a tall man in a coat and cap similar to that of a policeman. What struck Whiskard was that on the evidence the only possible verdict was murder by a police officer. He asked why no attempt was made, when a court of inquiry was investigating Coleman’s death, to produce rebuttals to Mrs Coleman’s damning evidence. Leo Buckley suspected that an informer had identified Hanley and O’Connell to the police. He believed only four people knew who participated in killing O’Donoghue: Healy, O’Brien, Dick Murphy (captain G Company) and himself. Murphy was very friendly with Denis ‘Din Din’ Donovan of Barrack Street, who was eventually shot as a spy in April 1921. Buried SFC.701 RD: Coleman (18Nov1920/3), O’Connell (18Nov1920/2). SA: Donovan (9Apr1921/5), O’Donoghue (17Nov1920/1) Eugene O’Connell (18Nov1920/2) Ex-serviceman,702 Married with one child, RC 7 Broad Lane, Cork703 See Hanley (18Nov1920/1). O’Connell, formerly of the Munster Fusiliers, lived with his wife Lizzie. Buried St Joseph’s Cemetery, Ballyphehane, Cork.704 James Coleman (18Nov1920/3) 45, Vintner, Married with two children, RC 13 North Mall, Cork See Hanley (18Nov1920/1). Coleman, a publican, was treasurer of the Cork Industrial Development Association and a Chamber of Commerce member. He had no Sinn Féin links. Peter Hart stated that Coleman had complained to the military authorities about rowdy temporary constables in his pub. Buried SFC.705 A. W. Spackman (18Nov1920/4) Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry (5373641706), 17, CoE Cratloe, Clare From Twyford, Berkshire, Private Spackman enlisted in April 1920, serving in Limerick. At about 16:00 on 17 November an aeroplane flying from Ennis to Limerick made a forced landing near Cratloe. A platoon of

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C Company mounted guard. About fourteen Volunteers of the 4th Battalion, East Clare Brigade, moved into position nearby, in hopes of overrunning the guard and stealing the aircraft’s machine gun. They opened fire, killing Spackman and wounding Private M. F. Robins. The military replied with machine-gun fire, obliging the IRA to withdraw. Buried St Peter’s Church Cemetery, Knowl Hill, Berkshire. His parents secured £300 compensation.707 RD: Robins (2Mar1921/4)

19 NOVEMBER 1920 Patrick Clancy (19Nov1920/1) IRA, 19, Storeman, RC Newtown, Drangan, Tipperary From Ballylusky, Drangan, Tipperary, Clancy was lieutenant A Company, 7th Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. He had been wounded but escaped during the exchange in Killenaule in which Thomas O’Donovan was killed. Thomas O’Carroll recalled that against his advice Clancy carried a loaded police carbine when he went to visit his parents. A military patrol from Killenaule noticed a youngster flashing a lamp in a farmyard at New Line, Newtown, Drangan. Clancy and two companions, Byrne and Maloney, were arrested. O’Carroll suggested that Lieutenant Litchfield shot Clancy dead out of hand. Byrne and Maloney were imprisoned until after the signing of the Treaty. Lieutenant Edward R. Litchfield, 1st Lincolnshire Regiment later stated that he led a ten man patrol to meet a party of the Lincolnshire Regiment at Mullinahone. Near Drangan, he saw what appeared to be signalling nearby. He investigated, arresting Clancy outside Hickey’s house in possession of a carbine. While being searched Clancy supposedly reached for a pistol in his pocket, whereupon Litchfield shot him.708 Buried Magoury, Drangan. His brother Martin was killed in action in March 1921. Another brother, Laurence, led the Free State army patrol which killed the anti-Treaty IRA chief of staff Liam Lynch† on 10 April 1923. A memorial to the brothers was erected in Drangan.709 SA: Clancy (6Mar1921/5), O’Donovan (31Oct 1920/5)

20 NOVEMBER 1920 Michael Blake (20Nov1920/1) 36, Ex-serviceman, clerk, Married with three children, RC Grange Crossroad, Boher, Limerick Blake, of Rosbrien Road, Limerick, worked in New Barracks, Limerick. Patrick Blake and James O’Neill, described by the RIC as ‘ex-soldiers of the paid assassin type’, were charged with the murder of Constable Oakley in July 1920. Following acquittal by court martial in Dublin, they and their families headed home. When the party arrived at Limerick Junction station at 19:35, the police procured a motor car for John Blake and his sons Patrick and Michael to complete the final leg of their journey. During the drive, Patrick Blake swapped places with his brother. Masked men stopped the vehicle at a crossroads beyond New Pallas Barracks, and fired two shots, killing Michael and slightly wounding the driver. Patrick, rather than Michael, was probably the intended target. James O’Neill, his mother and other relatives travelled separately in a charabanc (motor coach). About five or six miles beyond New Pallas Barracks, their vehicle was halted by masked men. James O’Neill was ordered out and the others told to drive on. Several witnesses recalled that two Ford motor cars, without lights, later overtook them. Between 20:45 and 21:00 a witness heard five shots in the vicinity of Grange Crossroads. O’Neill’s body was found, face downwards and blindfolded, near Grange Crossroads at 00:40 by Head Constable Thomas Hannon. Kitty O’Neill deposed that during the journey home her brother had said he would have to leave Limerick for fear of being shot. Buried Mount St Lawrence Cemetery.710 His widow secured £1,800 compensation.711 RD: O’Neill (20Nov1920/2). SA: Oakley (29Jul1920/1) James O’Neill (20Nov1920/2) 23, Ex-serviceman, RC Grange Crossroad, Boher, Limerick See Blake (20Nov1920/1). O’Neill, from Rosbrien, Limerick, lived in Prospect View,

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Limerick. Buried Mount St Lawrence Cemetery.712 His mother Winifred secured £320 compensation.713 Joseph Thompson (20Nov1920/3) Manchester Regiment, 32, Teacher, Presbyterian Model Farm Road, Cork The Armagh-born son of a Belfast grain merchant, and formerly a teacher at Methodist College, Thompson was commissioned in November 1914, and promoted to captain in 1917. He was an intelligence officer, stationed in Ballincollig, Cork. He left Ballincollig by motorcycle during the afternoon to deliver a parcel to a house near Macroom. Although he failed to return that night, because he was an intelligence officer often out and about not much notice was taken initially. Captured at Carrigrohane, Thompson was shot near the Model Farm Road by Leo Murphy, D. O’Mahoney and J. Murray (later to become a Garda). The IRA took his revolver and motorcycle. According to Herlihy, Thompson had previously treated Murphy’s mother roughly during a house raid, possibly contributing to her premature death. On 22 November, his body was found, blindfolded, in a turnip field at Ballinaspigmore, between Carrigrohane and Cork. He had been shot seven times in the head and twice in the body. Buried Belfast City Cemetery (C. 763).714 SA: Murphy (27Jun1921/5) John McSwiggan (20Nov1920/4) 24, Postman, RC The Diamond, Magherafelt, Londonderry McSwiggan was shot at the Diamond by a soldier, apparently accidentally, who was searching for a group of civilians who had earlier accosted three officers.715

21 NOVEMBER 1920 Peter Ashmun Ames716 (21Nov1920/1) Secret Service(?), 32, Army officer, RC 38 Upper Mount Street, Dublin Ames, born in Pennsylvania, USA, was a lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards prior to appointment as an intelligence officer in

Dublin. It remains unclear whether he was attached to a military or a civilian intelligence organisation, as a number were operating. The concerted shooting of suspected British intelligence officers on the morning of 21 November was one of the most notorious episodes of the War of Independence. Writers have long differed on the practical impact of the killings – Bowden and Coogan arguing that it was an almost mortal blow, others such as McMahon, O’Halpin and Townshend that they shook up the British and resulted in the systematic reorganisation, systemisation and enhancement of intelligence activities against the IRA. The attacks had a marked impact both in Ireland and in Britain, where there was particular shock both at the manner of the killings of unarmed men in their bedrooms and at the loss of so many officers. Some of those killed that morning were involved in intelligence work; others were, as Michael Collins† himself put it, ‘just regular officers’, while one was the hapless landlord of an IRA target. Other suspect officers and civilians targeted for death across Dublin escaped because their would-be assassins could not find them. The killings were planned to coincide with a series of sabotage attacks in Liverpool, London and Manchester. On 1 November Ernie O’Malley, a GHQ organiser then in Tipperary, had indiscreetly noted: ‘England to go up in lumps. Also intelligence officers in Dublin’, in papers seized in June 1921 by Crown forces. As Michael Ó Laoghaire of Liverpool put it, reprisals in England for burnings in Ireland were considered ‘very appropriate as we believed an eye for an eye’. Only some arson attacks materialised, because plans for Manchester and Liverpool had been captured when the office of IRA chief of staff Richard Mulcahy was raided. Peter Hart has written that ‘neither the “hush-hush men” nor their superiors had anticipated such attacks – no G man or spy had ever been killed at home – and so they had taken no precautions’ (although DMP detectives Patrick Smyth and William Redmond had been shot outside their dwellings). Frank Thornton of GHQ intelligence compiled a

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target list: ‘Great care was exercised . . . and the cabinet and army council had to be satisfied that they were actually employed on secret service work here . . . before they would agree to their execution’, yet mistakes were obviously made. Four battalions of the Dublin Brigade were engaged, and eight lodging houses were targeted. The shootings were scheduled for 09:00. The killings of Ames and George Bennett in 38 Upper Mount Street are described here. Twelve others were killed as follows: Captain William Newberry in 92 Lower Baggot Street; Leonard Wilde and Captain Patrick McCormack in the Gresham Hotel; Lieutenant Geoffrey Baggallay in 119 Lower Baggot Street; Lieutenant Henry Angliss in 22 Lower Mount Street; Sergeant John Fitzgerald in 28 Earlsfort Terrace; Donald MacLean and Thomas Smith, MacLean’s hapless landlord, in 117 Morehampton Road; Major Charles Dowling, Captain L. Price and Colonel Hugh Montgomery in 28 Upper Pembroke Street. Two Auxiliaries – cadets Frank Garniss and Cecil Morris – were killed at 16 Northumberland Road, bringing the total killed to sixteen. Frank Saurin, GHQ intelligence officer, and Vinny Byrne of the Squad described the shootings at 38 Upper Mount Street. Saurin, detailed to shoot lieutenants Ames and Bennett, arranged to meet Byrne outside St Andrew’s Church on Westland Row at 08:00 on Sunday. Byrne was in charge of ten Volunteers, including a first-aid man. A maid admitted Byrne’s party to No. 38 Upper Mount Street. Bennett was captured and brought into Ames’s room, where Byrne said he shot them both (although Albert Rutherford, another experienced if more reticent Volunteer, stated that ‘he took him [Ames] down’). The party came under fire as they left the house, but reached the South Quays unscathed, and crossed the Liffey in a rowing boat. Saurin captured Ames’s notebook, which showed that the British used agents or ‘touts’ to identify suspects just as the IRA did. Just before the shooting, a military dispatch rider knocked on the front door and was placed under guard. He was released and, according to Byrne, later testified against

Patrick Moran, claiming that he had been present. Moran was found guilty and hanged. The bodies of ten of those officers killed on Bloody Sunday reached Euston Station on 26 November. Seven were brought to Westminster Abbey and three to Westminster Cathedral for services before being handed over to relatives. On 21 November 1921, a memorial service was held in Dublin in the Royal Hospital Chapel. The service also commemorated all officers and other ranks killed on service in Ireland. Buried St Mary’s Cemetery, Kensal Green, London (2628. N. E.).717 RD: Bennett (21Nov1920/2). SA: Angliss (21Nov1920/7), Baggallay (21Nov1920/6), Dowling (21Nov1920/11), Fitzgerald (21 Nov1920/8), Garniss (21Nov1920/13), McCormack (21Nov1920/5), MacLean (21Nov1920/9), Montgomery (9Dec1920/1), Moran (14Mar1921/2), Morris (21Nov 1920/14), Newberry (21Nov1920/3), Price (21Nov1920/12), Redmond (21Jan1920/1), Smith (21Nov1920/10), Smyth (8Sep1919/1), Wilde (21Nov1920/4) George Bennett (21Nov1920/2) Special List, Army officer, RC 38 Upper Mount Street, Dublin See Ames (21Nov1920/1). From London, Bennett was educated at Sherborne School, Dorset, and Magdalen College, Oxford. On the outbreak of the war, he joined the RASC and later worked in intelligence in neutral Holland. A convert to Catholicism, after demobilisation he was recalled for intelligence service in Ireland. Buried St Mary’s Catholic Cemetery, Kensal Green, London (2623. N. E.).718 William Frederick Newberry (21Nov1920/3) The Queen’s (Royal West Surrey Regiment), 45, Barrister, Married with one child 92 Lower Baggot Street, Dublin Newberry, from London, was educated at Cheltenham College, the Royal Naval College Greenwich, and at Gray’s Inn, London. Newberry left the army in 1912 and went to Canada. Rejoining the army in 1914, he was employed on court martial work.

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Jim Stapleton, then lieutenant B Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, described how at Baggot Street Bridge at 08:30 he met Joe Leonard, in charge of five members of B Company, including Jack Stafford and Hugo MacNeill. They went to 92 Lower Baggot Street and gained entrance through the front door. Newberry occupied the ground floor flat. The IRA hammered on the front parlour door, which was opened a little before the occupant tried to close it again. One of the IRA men jammed his foot in the door, while the others fired shots through it. Newberry, who was in night clothes, was hit several times as he tried to escape through the window: ‘The man’s wife was standing in a corner . . . and was in a terrified and hysterical condition.’ The operation lasted about fifteen minutes. Buried St Pancras Cemetery, London. His widow secured £3,200 compensation.719 Leonard Aidan Wilde (21Nov1920/4) 35, Ex-serviceman, consular official, RC Gresham Hotel, 20–22 Sackville Street Upper, Dublin Lieutenant Wilde, from Reading, was allegedly an intelligence officer posing as a commercial traveller. A one-time Benedictine novice and soldier invalided out from the Sherwood Foresters in France, he had subsequently had a chequered career, which seems to have involved both secret work in Spain while a temporary consul, and dishonesty, culminating in dismissal from his post.720 D Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade was given the task of assassinating three guests in the Gresham Hotel. Three groups were each assigned a target by Paddy Moran, company O/C. Nicholas Leonard stated that the whole operation could have ended in disaster: William Hogan ‘failed to carry out the duties assigned him and neglected to issue the necessary orders to those in his charge, thereby endangering the success of the operation not to mention the casualties likely to be incurred . . . through any confusion’. The head porter guided the IRA to Patrick McCormack’s room. In the corridor James Cahill saw ‘a man of foreign appearance come to a bedroom door. I had a hunch

that he might be one of the other two intelligence officers.’ Cahill covered him with his revolver and asked his name. Wilde promptly replied: ‘Alan Wilde, British intelligence officer, just back from Spain.’ Kilkelly’s group, which had been assigned to deal with Wilde, came along and fired, killing him instantly. Cahill believed that being newly arrived in Dublin, Wilde probably mistook the IRA for a British raiding party. Cahill claimed that McCormack fired at him before he and Nicholas Leonard shot him in his bedroom. A hotel porter gave a somewhat different account: around 08:45 about seven armed men arrived seeking the register. They ordered him to take them to rooms 14, 15 and 24. Room 14, occupied by Wilde, was locked. However, a few words were spoken through it before shots were fired. The men then went into Room 24, which was unlocked. McCormack, who was reading a racing newspaper in bed, was shot five times. The whole operation lasted no longer than fifteen minutes. Room 15 was unoccupied. The court brought a verdict of wilful murder against some person or persons unknown. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: P. c. 87).721 RD: McCormack (21Nov1920/5). SA: Moran (14Mar1921/2) Patrick Francis McCormack (21Nov1920/5) 47, Ex-serviceman, veterinary surgeon, Married with one child, RC Gresham Hotel, 20–22 Sackville Street Upper, Dublin See Wilde (21Nov1920/4). McCormack, from Castlebar, a bishop’s nephew and a relative of Michael Davitt, founder of the Land League, was educated at Castleknock College, Trinity College Dublin and the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. He practised in his native Castlebar, and was keenly interested in racing and hunting. Commissioned in the Royal Army Veterinary Corps in 1917, McCormack served in Egypt in the Remount Department. He retired in 1920, working on commission for the Irish Bloodstock Agency. According to James Doyle, manager of the Gresham

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Hotel, he had been a guest since September and had purchased some racehorses: ‘There would appear to have been grave doubt as to his being associated with British Intelligence. While he was here I never saw him receiving any guests. He slept well into the afternoon and only got up early when a race meeting was on.’ Michael Collins† remarked to IRA chief of staff Richard Mulcahy that, as in the case of several others killed that morning, ‘we had no evidence that he was a Secret Service Agent’. Buried GC (South Section: V. a. 37). His widow Mollie secured £4,500 compensation, his child £2,000 and his mother £750.722 Geoffrey Thomas Baggallay (21Nov1920/6) 29, Army officer, Engaged 119 Lower Baggot Street, Dublin From London, Baggallay attended Merchant Taylors School in Middlesex. Commissioned in the South Wales Borderers, he lost a leg in 1917 while serving with the MGC. He worked as a court martial officer before becoming a prosecutor under the Restoration of Order in Ireland Regulations. Michael Noyk, the Sinn Féin solicitor, claimed that Baggallay was connected with the Kevin Barry case. Given his previous army legal role, and his conspicuous disability, it seems unlikely that he discharged any covert duties. When the IRA entered Baggallay’s bedroom, he apparently tried to escape through the window but was shot before he reached it. Patrick McCrae stated that the ‘job was completed in the space of a few minutes’. James Boyce, James McNamara, Michael Tobin and Thomas Whelan were arrested for the shooting. Only Whelan was convicted: he was hanged in Mountjoy.723 SA: Barry (1Nov1920/5), Whelan (14Mar 1921/3) Henry James Angliss (‘Patrick McMahon’) (21Nov1920/7) 28, Army officer, Married, RC 22 Lower Mount Street, Dublin Angliss, from Enniskillen, Fermanagh, enlisted at Colchester on 27 November 1910. He won a DCM in 1917, and was commissioned in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. He

retired in March 1920, but was recalled for special service on 16 August, operating in Dublin under the alias ‘Patrick McMahon’.724 He was shot dead at 09:00. Charles Dalton, GHQ intelligence officer, stated that Angliss had aroused the suspicion of Seán Hyde, a veterinary student living next door. Frank Teeling, William Conway, Edward Potter and Daniel Healy were tried for this murder in City Hall. Although Conway produced alibi evidence, he, Potter and Teeling were convicted. Conway and Potter were later reprieved, while Teeling escaped from prison. Buried Earlsfield Cemetery, Wandsworth (F. 18. 25). His widow Ellen Catherine Maud secured £3,750 compensation.725 John Fitzgerald (21Nov1920/8) RIC (71614), 22, RAF officer, RC 28 Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin Fitzgerald, a doctor’s son from Tipperary, was educated at Blackrock College, Dublin. In 1915 he joined the RIR. Wounded at the Somme, he subsequently became a pilot, crashing behind enemy lines in 1917, was wounded and captured, escaped and was recaptured. He later served with the RAF in Russia, being mentioned in dispatches. He joined the RIC on 1 June 1920 as a defence of barracks sergeant, serving in Clare, where he was kidnapped by the IRA, who attempted to shoot him with his own revolver, which misfired. He was then dragged into a field, his arm being dislocated, put against a wall and fired at. Feigning death, he fell to the ground. Later he recovered sufficiently to be able to escape. Fitzgerald was in Dublin for surgery to his arm, and had recently been discharged from hospital. Kit Farrell, of A Company, 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, recalled being asked by Mick Kennedy to go on a job to shoot a British agent. The IRA group under Paddy Byrne assembled at the junction of Hatch Street and Harcourt Street at 08:45. At 09:00 they were admitted by a maid. They apparently sought a Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzpatrick. The maid replied that only a Captain Fitzgerald lived in the house. Three men shot Fitzgerald four times in his room at point-blank range, twice in the forehead, once in the heart and once in

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the wrist. It appears that he was not the intended target. Buried GC (South Section: A. c. 64). Fitzgerald’s representatives secured £2,220 compensation.726 Donald Lewis MacLean727 (21Nov1920/9) 31, Ex-soldier, policeman, Married with one child, CoE 117 Morehampton Road, Dublin MacLean, from Ayrshire, was a policeman before enlisting in the Scots Guards on 22 June 1915. Commissioned in the 6th Rifle Brigade in 1917, he resigned in March 1920, but was re-employed as an intelligence officer and sent to Ireland. He and his wife stayed at 117 Morehampton Road, where his landlord Thomas Henry Smith also lived. Maclean had aroused the suspicions of the Mid Clare Brigade the previous month, he and a Captain Collis being arrested in Lisdoonvarna while posing as commercial travellers and held for about a fortnight. They were then released on condition that they leave the country immediately. Three men were shot in No. 117 when eight men rushed in and opened fire. A DMP man found John Caldow, the landlord’s brother-in-law, severely wounded on a landing, though he recovered; in another room MacLean was dead and Thomas Smith lay dying under a bed frame. One of the ‘firing party’, James Paul Norton, arrested on another operation in 1921 and sentenced to ten years in Dartmoor, emerged with ‘mental trouble’ from which he never recovered. Buried GMC (CE Officers 47).728 RD: Smith (21Nov1920/10) Thomas Herbert Smith (21Nov1920/10) 47, Boarding house owner, Married with three children, CoI 117 Morehampton Road, Dublin See MacLean (21Nov1920/9). Buried MJC (Plot C 91).729

Commissioned in the Grenadier Guards on 9 September 1911, he was wounded in France in November 1914. Promoted to captain in 1915, he was wounded twice more. After the war, he served in Germany. He resigned in April 1919, but on 30 September 1920 was remobilised and sent to Ireland with the rank of major. He was reportedly awaiting demobilisation when killed. Joseph O’Carroll, of C Company, 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, recalled that about thirty IRA men went to 28 Upper Pembroke Street, under Paddy Flanagan, O/C ASU Dublin Brigade. Future Taoiseach Seán Lemass told the military pensions board that ‘I was in charge of the company’ that day, a claim supported by his brigade O/C Frank Henderson. Evelyn Flanagan of Cumann na mBan had ‘kept the secret papers for the identification of these [8] officers for 10 days beforehand’. The caretaker, who may have been complicit, was kept under guard. The IRA party, among them James Doyle, one of four Volunteer survivors of the battle of Mount Street in 1916, filed through and questioned the various occupants. They sought Major Dowling and Major Crookshanks. Dowling and Captain Price occupied rooms on the second floor. The IRA men knocked on Dowling’s door, entered and shot him. This brought other officers to their doors. Price was fatally wounded at the bottom of the stairs. Colonel Woodcock, Colonel Montgomery, Captain Keenlyside, all members of the Lancashire Fusiliers, and Lieutenant Murray of the Royal Scots were wounded. Woodcock’s wife Caroline left an account. She stated that four secret service men were staying in the house, but that her husband was not one of them:

Charles Milne Cholmeley Dowling (21Nov1920/11) 29, Army officer, CoE 28 Upper Pembroke Street, Dublin ‘Chummy’ Dowling, from London, was educated at Rugby School and Sandhurst.

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There were great splashes of blood on the walls, floor and stairs, bits of plaster were lying about, and on the walls were the marks of innumerable bullets. Fortunately, the murderers had been so panic-stricken themselves and their hands so shaky that their firing had been wild in the extreme, and to this fact my husband and Captain Keenlyside, who was shot in the jaw and both arms, owed their lives.

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Of the wounded, Montgomery died on 9 December. Buried Kensal Green Cemetery (All Souls), Harrow Road, London.730 RD: Price (21Nov1920/12), Montgomery (9Dec1920/1)

in the Middlesex Regiment and the MGC. He joined the Auxiliary Division on 18 October 1920 (auxiliary number 756). Buried Bandon Hill Cemetery, Croydon. His widow secured £2,500 compensation.733

Leonard Price (21Nov1920/12) RE, 35, Army officer, Protestant 28 Upper Pembroke Street, Dublin See Dowling (21Nov1920/11). Captain Price, from Shanklin, Isle of Wright, was commissioned in the field in the Middlesex Regiment. Twice mentioned in dispatches and awarded the MC, he was demobilised in 1919. He was recalled for service as an intelligence officer, while nominally attached to the Royal Engineers. Buried Sandown– Shanklin Cemetery, Shanklin (1946).731

Thomas Patrick Lyons (21Nov1920/15) 28, Blacksmith, RC Knappagh, Westport, Mayo Lyons was from Knappagh. At around 15:00, a cycle patrol of twenty-five members of the Border Regiment, under Lieutenant A. F. Gear, RGA, was engaged in search operations south of Westport. The advance party ordered a man in a field off the Knappagh Road to halt and approach. Instead he ran away. A soldier fired two shots without orders: the second killed Thomas Lyons. A police witness stated that Lyons was on good terms with them, having once assisted a wounded constable. Lieutenant Gear deposed that a document found on Lyons read: ‘You, Thomas Lyons, are hereby directed to join the Company of Irish Volunteers most convenient to your district. Failing which strong action may be taken. By order.’734

Francis Garniss (21Nov1920/13) ADRIC (79177), 34, Army officer, Married with two children 16 Northumberland Road, Dublin From Yorkshire, Garniss enlisted in 1903 and was later a reservist in the RGA. He reenlisted in 1914, becoming a sergeant in the West Yorkshire Regiment. Commissioned in the Leicester Regiment, he was wounded in France in July 1918. He joined the Auxiliary Division as a cadet on 18 October 1920 (auxiliary number 755). A maid in 22 Lower Mount Street called for help to a passing party of Auxiliaries from Beggars Bush Barracks en route to the railway station. Some Auxiliaries entered the house, with Garniss and Morris being dispatched for reinforcements. However, they were stopped by the IRA on Mount Street Bridge at about 09:20. After questioning, they were shot in the garden of a house on Northumberland Road, the first Auxiliaries to die on active duty. Buried Hull. His widow Lilly secured £1,000 compensation, and each of his two children £750.732 RD: Morris (21Nov1920/14) Cecil A. Morris (21Nov1920/14) ADRIC (79106), 24, Army officer, Married, CoE 16 Northumberland Road, Dublin See Garniss (21Nov1920/13). Lieutenant Morris, from Croydon, served during the war

Michael Hogan (21Nov1920/16) IRA, 24, Farmer, RC Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin ‘Mick’ Hogan, from Ninemilehouse, Tipperary, was captain Grangemockler Company, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. A large crowd attended a Gaelic football match between Tipperary and Dublin at Croke Park, staged in aid of the Republican Prisoners’ Dependents’ Fund. It started at 15:15. About twenty minutes later, a large force of RIC ‘Black and Tans’, military and Auxiliaries descended on the ground to conduct search operations. Shots were fired and amid chaotic scenes fourteen people were killed or later died; about eighty others were injured. Crown forces were clearly responsible for the catastrophe.735 There is no convincing evidence to support official claims that the first shots fired in the ground came from unidentified gunmen. Civilian eyewitnesses all concurred that the police fired on the crowd without provocation, claims supported by a British Labour Party

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delegation nine days later, and by a contemporary police report. Most of the fatalities occurred at the canal end of the ground. The Croke Park tragedy was a bungled search and arrest operation by Crown forces, rather than a calculated reprisal for the earlier IRA killings of officers as is often asserted. It seems only the RIC present fired, not the Auxiliaries or the military. Major E. L. Mills, adjutant Auxiliary Division, wrote an account of the incident which, oddly enough, was not submitted as evidence at any of the subsequent courts of inquiry. Mills commanded a mixed force of RIC and Auxiliaries from Beggars Bush detailed to hold up and search people attending Croke Park. A contingent of soldiers was also deployed. Mills travelled in a car behind the RIC vehicles, leading the Auxiliaries. As the convoy of thirteen tenders approached the railway bridge near the south-west corner of Croke Park, he heard men in the lorry ahead shouting that there was an ambush. Mills stopped his vehicle and went to see what was happening. He heard a considerable amount of rifle fire. His report suggested that the RIC fired without orders or reason, although some police witnesses claimed they had come under fire from the direction of the entrance to the ground. There is no indication that the police fire was returned by anyone in the crowd. Mills tried to stop the shooting, and for this was later commended by the coroner. He recalled seeing six dead bodies, including two children and a woman, and four wounded people. Mills commented: ‘I did not see any need for any firing at all and the indiscriminate firing absolutely spoilt any chance of getting hold of any people in possession of arms. The men of the Auxiliary Division did not fire.’ Thomas Ryan, then acting O/C 5th Battalion Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, gave a player’s perspective. Play was concentrated around the Dublin goal, where Tipperary had been awarded a penalty, when there was a burst of gunfire. The spectators stampeded. Most of the players also fled towards the sideline. Six, however, all Volunteers with some training, threw themselves to the

ground. Two then got up, and ran for the fencing surrounding the pitch. One by one, the four others followed suit. Hogan, hit as he ran, died within minutes in Ryan’s arms. Ryan escaped on to Clonliffe Road. Shortly afterwards Auxiliaries entered the house where he was sheltering and threatened to shoot him. He was knocked down and his clothes ripped off him leaving him naked. An officer appeared and instructed the Auxiliaries to bring him back into Croke Park, where he and the remaining players were lined up against the railway embankment until all the people left in the ground had been searched. Ryan described how the players’ clothes in the dressing room were searched and their money stolen. Nothing incriminating was found and they were released. Two sets of courts of inquiry were held: one at the Mater Hospital, and the second at Jervis Street Hospital. The findings differed somewhat. On 23 November, a court of inquiry was held into the death of Jane Boyle at the Mater Hospital. Dr Robert Vincent Monahan, house surgeon, deposed that death was caused by gunshot wounds. There followed a separate inquiry into the deaths of four people later identified as John William Scott, James Matthews, Patrick O’Dowd and Jeremiah O’Leary. The first three were dead on admission. Scott suffered a bullet wound to the back, Matthews a severe wound to the leg and O’Dowd a wound to the face. Dr Monahan said that death in each case was caused by gunshot wounds. Ten-year-old Jeremiah O’Leary, the youngest victim, died from two gunshot wounds to the head at about 17:00. On 24 November, a court of inquiry at Drumcondra Hospital into the death of eleven-year-old William Robinson heard John Joseph Byrne state that at about 16:55 on 21 November an RIC man told him to take a wounded boy to hospital. Dr Henry Stokes stated that William Robinson died on the morning of 23 November from a wound to the chest. On 27 November, a court of inquiry at the Mater Hospital heard that Thomas Hogan was admitted at about 16:00 on 21 November, bleeding profusely. His right shoulder was

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shattered. On 22 November Hogan’s right arm was amputated, but gangrene set in and he died at 12:30 on 26 November. On 8 December, the court found that the wounds suffered by Scott, O’Dowd, O’Leary, Robinson, Boyle and Hogan were: inflicted . . . while the said deceased persons were spectators at a football match . . . by a mixed force of RIC, Auxiliary Police and Military. The court finds that the firing was started by civilians unknown, either as a warning of the raid or with the intention of creating a panic. The court further finds that the injuries on the deceased persons were inflicted by rifle or revolver fire fired by members of the RIC from the Canal Bridge and the Canal Bridge gates of Croke Park Football Ground; and by civilians in the football ground; that some of the RIC fired over the heads of the crowd and that others fired into the crowd at certain persons who they believed were attempting to evade arrest. Further that the firing by the RIC was carried out without orders and was in excess of what was necessitated. . . . The court further finds that no firing was carried out by the Auxiliary Police or by the military except that the military in an armoured car fired a burst of fire into the air to stop the crowd from breaking through.

On 23 November, inquiries were held into the deaths of James Burke, Michael Feery, Michael Hogan, James Teehan and Joseph Traynor. The court determined that Burke died in Croke Park as a result of shock and heart failure. Sergeant Timothy Maher, DMP, found him dead in the north-eastern corner of the ground. Dr William Hanway, house surgeon, stated that a post-mortem on Feery, who was dead on admission, revealed two large gashes on his legs. He had died of shock and haemorrhage. The inquiry into Michael Hogan’s death returned a verdict of death due to shock and haemorrhage. Hanway deposed that Teehan was dead on admission, due to shock and heart failure. Dr Patrick J. Cassin, house surgeon, stated that Traynor was admitted on the evening of 21 November in a state of collapse and

died about one hour later. A post-mortem examination revealed he had been shot in the back and death was due to shock and haemorrhage. On 24 November, a court of inquiry at Jervis Street Hospital into the deaths of Daniel Carroll and Thomas Ryan heard that Carroll died at about 10:00 on 23 November following an operation on a thigh wound. Hanway deposed that Ryan died about two hours after admission with an abdominal wound. On 8 December, the court found in similar terms to the earlier one held at the Mater Hospital, concluding that ‘in order to prevent certain civilians escaping from the football ground, without orders, an indiscriminate and excessive fire was opened by the RIC from the Canal Bridge. That certain civilians opened fire at the RIC who were at the time near the Canal Entrance gate. This fire was returned by the members of the RIC.’ Thirty-five witnesses gave evidence. Not one corroborated a Dublin Castle report that thirty revolvers had been found at the ground. It may have been the case that the first shot was accidentally discharged by one of the police in his haste to enter the ground. Buried Grangemockler. A monument was erected in Grangemockler, and in 1924 a stand in Croke Park was named after him. The reconstructed Hogan Stand carries a memorial plaque for all the dead.736 RD: Boyle (21Nov1920/17), Burke (21Nov 1920/18), Carroll (23Nov1920/5), Feery (21Nov1920/19), Hogan (26Nov1920/7), Matthews (21Nov1920/20), O’Dowd (21Nov 1920/21), O’Leary (21Nov1920/24), Robinson (23Nov1920/4), Ryan (21Nov1920/25), Scott (21Nov1920/23), Teehan (21Nov1920/22), Traynor (21Nov1920/26) Jane Boyle (21Nov1920/17) 26, Shop assistant, Engaged, RC Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Jane Boyle, of 18 Lennox Street, worked for a pork butcher. She was due to marry Daniel Byron the week after her death. Buried GC (Dublin Section: B. §. 48.5).737

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James Burke (21Nov1920/18) 44, Launderer, Married with five children, RC Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Burke and his wife Annie lived in Windy Arbour. Buried Churchtown.738

her two daughters, prayed for him as he bled profusely, dying about three-quarters of an hour later. The military took the body outside. It lay in the avenue for some time, and Mrs Colman covered him with a blanket. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: P. h. 74.5).747

Michael Feery739 (21Nov1920/19) c. 44, Ex-serviceman, Married, RC Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Feery, of 1 Smith’s Cottages, Gardiner Place, had served with the RIF, the Royal Engineers and the Royal Marines. Bridget Feery said that her husband had been mainly unemployed since discharge in 1919. Buried GC.740

Jeremiah O’Leary748 (21Nov1920/24) 10, Schoolboy, RC Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Jeremiah O’Leary was son of Jerome and Ellen O’Leary of 69 Blessington Street. His father, a retired quartermaster sergeant employed as a military clerk, was wounded by gunmen in Mountjoy Square on 28 June 1921, telling an onlooker: ‘I’m shot. My God. I have done nothing to anybody.’ Buried GC (Garden Section: Z. a. 151).749

James Matthews (21Nov1920/20) 48, Labourer, Married, RC Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Matthews and his wife Kate lived at 32 North Cumberland Street. Buried GC (Garden Section: X. e. 224).741 Patrick O’Dowd (21Nov1920/21) 60,742 Builder’s labourer, Married with children, RC743 Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). O’Dowd and his wife Julia lived at 18 Buckingham Street. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: S. d. 13).744 James Teehan745 (21Nov1920/22) 26, Barman, RC Croke Park, Jones’s Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Teehan, from Tipperary, lived with his employer at 5 Green Street. Buried Thurles.746 John William Scott (21Nov1920/23) 14, Schoolboy, RC 37 St James’s Avenue, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). ‘Billy’ Scott, eldest child of John Scott of 15 Fitzroy Avenue, lived adjacent to Croke Park. He attended St Patrick’s School, Drumcondra. He watched the match with a friend named Daly. Wounded in the chest, he was taken into Mrs Colman’s house at 37 St James’s Avenue. She placed him on a table, and, with

Thomas Ryan750 (21Nov1920/25) 27, Gas company labourer, Married, RC JSH See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Ryan, originally from Enniscorthy, Wexford, lived with his wife Mary at 56 Viking Road. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: D. c. 86).751 Joseph Traynor (21Nov1920/26) 21, Labourer, RC JSH See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Traynor lived in Ballymount, Clondalkin.752 Austin Francis Cowley753 (21Nov1920/27) 67, Journalist, RC Union Hospital, Navan, Meath Cowley, only son of the late master of the Navan workhouse, had ‘received a splendid education and was highly cultured in every way’. Employed by Campbells wine merchants in Dublin before turning to journalism, he was ‘a well-known hunting correspondent’, although deaf and a patient at the workhouse infirmary. At about 18:20 Private John Stride, South Wales Borderers, on sentry duty at Navan Workhouse, challenged Cowley three times. Cowley took no notice and Stride fired a round in accordance with standing instructions. Buried New Cemetery, Navan.754

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Harry Clement Jays (21Nov1920/28) RIC (70194), 22, Waiter, ex-serviceman Leap, Cork Constable Jays, from Hampshire, joined the RIC on 30 January 1920, stationed in Leap. Constable Bertie Ernest Mills described how at about 21:00 he and Jays were walking towards the police barracks. As they passed the road to Glandore, he heard the call ‘ready fire’. The constables returned fire. Jays ran down the Glandore Road while Mills, wounded in the arm and leg, returned to barracks to raise the alarm. A patrol later found Jays’s body on the Glandore Road, shot in the heart. His killers were Volunteers of the Leap Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade.755 William Henry West Barnett (21Nov1920/29) 35, Chandler, Married, CoI Mountjoy Square, Dublin Barnett, of 339 North Circular Road, owned a wholesale and retail chandlery business, and was a Freemason and an Orangeman. His wife Lucy stated that her husband sometimes slept at his premises at 106 Summerhill and was going there when he was killed. About 23:40 a woman saw a man with a dog crossing near the junction of Mountjoy Square and Belvedere Place. He was challenged by two uniformed men in a hackney car, who fired on him. He fell on his back and groaned. They searched the body and left, but returned for a time while a Doctor McCullagh tended to the victim. Various witnesses gave similar accounts. The Irish Independent reported that Barnett’s silver watch had been stolen. Buried MJC.756 Arthur Boundary757 (21Nov1920/30) Soldier Victoria Barracks, Belfast According to Kenna, Boundary died from injuries sustained during earlier disturbances.758 Henry E. Spenle (21Nov1920/31) ADRIC, Ex-serviceman KGVH Spenle, also reported as ‘Lieutenant Spenleigh’ and as ‘Captain Spendle’, joined the Auxiliary Division on 21 September 1920 (auxiliary

number 614). He shot himself in the head in his bedroom in Dublin Castle during the afternoon, dying after an operation that evening. While he had suffered from ‘deep depression’ since the war, the morning’s killings had undoubtedly ‘preyed on his mind’. A verdict of suicide was returned. Other sources claim that he was involved in secret service work and was shaken by the deaths of comrades similarly engaged. His remains were returned to Britain in company with those of others killed on ‘Bloody Sunday’ morning, though his fate was explained simply with the phrases ‘who died’ and ‘who died a natural death’.759

22 NOVEMBER 1920 John McCann (22Nov1920/1) IRA, 33, Labourer, Married with two children, RC Quay Road, Rush, Dublin Nicknamed ‘The Rover’, ‘Jack’ McCann from Rush was a council road worker. Imprisoned in Knutsford after the Rising, when he had fought at Ashbourne, he had reportedly ceased to be active following his marriage in 1918. He is, however, listed as a lieutenant on an IRA monument in Rush. His children were aged two years and fourteen months. At around 02:00, a group of men took McCann away from the house of his mother-in-law Mary Cosgrave. His body was found next morning in a field 100 yards away. Two other houses were similarly visited and inquiries made for young men, who fortunately were away. Buried Rush Graveyard, Dublin. A monument was erected in Rush. McCann is also commemorated on a memorial in Holmpatrick Cemetery, Skerries.760 Michael O’Reilly (22Nov1920/2) 16, Messenger, RC JSH Michael O’Reilly, son of Michael and Margaret O’Reilly of 36 Temple Bar, was walking with his brother George along Capel Street at about 18:30 when someone shouted ‘Up the rebels’ as a military lorry passed. It stopped, a shot was fired and Michael fell, dying shortly afterwards. It later emerged

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that Private Hampton of the Duke of Edinburgh’s (Wiltshire Regiment) accidentally discharged his rifle at the junction of Capel Street and Great Britain Street at about 19:50 while using it to press back some civilians. The general officer commanding the Dublin District recommended that compensation of £150 should be paid as an act of grace to O’Reilly’s parents. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: T. c. 87).761 Edmond Carmody (22Nov1920/3) IRA, 27, Farmer, RC Ballylongford, Kerry ‘Eddie’ Carmody from Cuss, Newtownsandes (Moyvane), was a lieutenant in the 6th Battalion, Kerry No. 1 Brigade. On the run, he and other Volunteers were surprised by police around 20:30 in Ballylongford. He fled, but was shot and wounded. His friend Brian O’Grady claimed he was then placed against a wall and shot dead. Earlier that day a large party of police under DI Tobias O’Sullivan had arrived in Ballylongford, searching O’Grady’s house for arms. They also burned down Collins’ creamery and timber yard, a pub and hardware store, and some houses. O’Grady recalled being: in a cold rage at the fact that Eddie’s death was, in part, due to the order from headquarters at the time which forbade us to carry arms. We had the men and sufficient arms to put a fright on the Tans, and Eddie Carmody would not then have been murdered so cruelly as we stood helplessly by.

Buried Murher Graveyard, Newtownsandes (Moyvane). Sergeant John Maher was shot dead in Ballybunion in reprisal in December 1921.762 SA: Maher (13Dec1921/1), O’Sullivan (20Jan 1921/2) Patrick Driscoll (22Nov1920/4) RIC (65954), 31, Farmer, RC Dromoland Castle, Newmarket-on-Fergus, Clare From Ballydehob, Cork, Constable Driscoll joined the RIC on 16 May 1911, stationed in Ennis, Clare. He died when a Crossley tender returning from Limerick crashed into a gate leading into Dromoland Castle at an awkward

bend in the road. Constables Michael Fleming and Edward Roper were also killed. Roper, the driver, had been warned about the possibility of ambushes and so might have driven too fast on a dangerous road.763 RD: Fleming (22Nov1920/6), Roper (22Nov 1920/5) Edward Roper (22Nov1920/5) RIC (71496), 25, Ex-serviceman, Protestant Dromoland Castle, Newmarket-on-Fergus, Clare See Driscoll (22Nov1920/4). Constable Roper, from Hampshire, joined the RIC on 28 May 1920, stationed in Ennis, Clare.764 Michael Fleming (22Nov1920/6) RIC (70213), 31, Ex-serviceman, Married with one child, RC Dromoland Castle, Newmarket-on-Fergus, Clare See Driscoll (22Nov1920/4). Constable Fleming, from Laois, a former sergeant-major in the Irish Guards, joined the RIC on 30 January 1920, stationed in Ennis, Clare. Buried Warley, Essex. The prime minister reportedly intervened to ensure the prompt removal of his remains. The Treasury granted his widow an annual pension of £60.13s.4d. and an annual allowance to his son of £12.2s.8d. until he attained the age of sixteen.765 Peadar Clancy (22Nov1920/7) IRA, 32, Draper, RC Dublin Castle, Dublin Clancy, from Cranny, Kilrush, Clare, comanaged the Republican Outfitters on Talbot Street, Dublin, a popular IRA meeting place. Sentenced to death after the Rising, he was released in 1917. Clancy was director of munitions at the time of his death. Clancy and Dick McKee, O/C Dublin Brigade, arrived separately on Saturday night 20 November at 36 Gloucester Street, home of John Fitzpatrick, an auctioneer’s assistant and captain on the Dublin Brigade staff. McKee thought he had been shadowed by a ‘man with a trilby hat & light coat’. They discussed leaving, but McKee ‘was very sick’ and Clancy would not go without him. At around 01:00 on 21 November, Auxiliaries raided the house. McKee and Fitzpatrick

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managed to burn brigade papers before the patrol broke down the door. In a written account completed on 25 January 1922, Fitzpatrick recalled how he claimed his guests were brothers named Bonfield, to which an Auxiliary replied: ‘You are a fucking liar. One is the notorious P. Clancy & the other the notorious R. McKee.’ McKee, Clancy and Fitzpatrick were taken to Dublin Castle, where they met Conor Clune among other prisoners rounded up. They were held in part of the guardroom, behind a sandbagged partition. McKee, Clancy and Clune were held back while the other prisoners were moved to Beggars Bush Barracks – Peter Young, another prisoner, thought Clune was selected in error as he resembled Fitzpatrick and wore similar clothes. As Fitzpatrick said goodbye, ‘McKee said to me “if you get through give my love to my mother, sisters, brothers & all the boys”. He looked very pale & sad.’ Clancy just ‘smiled goodbye’. Clancy, McKee and Clune were interrogated by British personnel led by Captain Hardy. Dublin Castle stated that they were shot while trying to escape on the morning of 22 November, but medical examination revealed broken bones and abrasions consistent with prolonged assaults, and bullet wounds to the head and body. Fitzpatrick was later singled out in Beggar’s Bush by ‘a tall young fellow, good-looking, with a stiff leg’, who said: ‘I am after putting three bulletts [sic] through your two fucking Sinn Fein pals’ hearts and I am coming back to do the same to you in a few minutes.’ Fitzpatrick was shown the three bodies in an effort to make him identify them (each corpse was already correctly labelled): McKee’s ‘face was battered up a lot. He had big marks all around his face. Some marks looked as if pieces of flesh was knocked out of them. He had bayonet wound in side & his fingers were all cut where he had grabbed Bayonette [sic].’ Clancy’s ‘face looked as if it had got a good beating. His forehead was marked over the eye. Also it stuck out well over his face & it looked as if it was burnt. His face was all yellow.’ Dr Richard Hayes gave Michael Collins† a report on the ‘partially mutilated bodies’.

Pat McCrae of the Squad recalled that ‘Dick McKee and Peadar Clancy were great personalities idolised next to Michael Collins by all men of the Dublin Brigade.’ Lance-Corporal John Ryan, believed to have tracked Clancy, was shot dead on 5 February 1921. Buried GC (South New Section: R. d. 35.5). After independence, Islandbridge Barracks was renamed Clancy Barracks. Clancy’s mother and sister later received dependents’ gratuities. A lock of his hair found among the effects of Kathy Barry, eldest sister of Kevin Barry, was returned to the Clancy family in 2012.766 RD: Clune (22Nov1920/8), McKee (22Nov 1920/9). SA: Ryan (5Feb1921/1) Conor Clune (22Nov1920/8) 27, Manager, RC Dublin Castle See Clancy (22Nov1920/7). Clune, from Quin, Clare, was a nephew of Archbishop Patrick Joseph Clune of Perth, Australia, who was responsible for an unsuccessful peace initiative following Bloody Sunday. Involved in the Gaelic League, he joined the Irish Volunteers shortly after their formation, but it is unclear whether he was ever active. He was manager of the cooperative society at Raheen, Clare. Clune had come to Dublin on 19 November to have the society’s accounts audited. He had been a spectator at Croke Park on 21 November. Afterwards he went to Vaughans’ Hotel, where he was arrested by Auxiliaries. Buried Quin Abbey, Clare.767 Richard McKee (22Nov1920/9) IRA, 27, Compositor, RC Dublin Castle See Clancy (22Nov1920/7). ‘Dick’ McKee, from Dublin, joined the Irish Volunteers, becoming captain G Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, fought in Jacob’s Factory under Thomas MacDonagh during the Rising, and was interned in Knutsford and Frongoch. Released in August 1916, McKee set to work reorganising the Irish Volunteers. In 1918 he became O/C Dublin Brigade. During 1919 and early 1920, the brigade greatly intensified its activities, with raids for arms, seizures of mail and the burning

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of income tax offices. In June 1920 he and Peadar Clancy were sent to Derry during sectarian rioting to help restore order. On 14 October, McKee had a narrow escape when the Republican Outfitters was raided and Seán Treacy was shot dead. His comrade Liam Archer recalled that, shortly before his death, McKee remarked, ‘Well if we Clatther [sic] them hard enough we might get Dominion Home Rule.’ Buried GC. His close friend Michael Collins† came out of hiding to shoulder the coffin. After independence, Marlborough Barracks was renamed McKee Barracks.768 SA: MacDonagh (3May1916/3), Treacy (14Oct1920/3) Patrick McCarthy (22Nov1920/10) IRA, 25, Cow testing supervisor, RC Upper Mill Lane, Millstreet, Cork ‘Paddy’ McCarthy, from Meelin, Newmarket, lived with an aunt in Freemount. Twice imprisoned in 1918 and in 1919 (when he escaped from Strangeways Prison, Manchester), he went on the run, joining the ASU Cork No. 2 Brigade. He was also quartermaster Newmarket Battalion. The ASU and local Volunteers took up positions in Millstreet after dark, expecting Black and Tan activity. Someone dashed past the end of Mill Lane, firing a shot which killed McCarthy outright.769 The IRA unsuccessfully pursued two Black and Tans. Daniel Browne of the ASU recalled: ‘Poor Paddy McCarthy – my boyhood friend and comrade – was shot dead.’ One policeman was reported wounded. Buried Kilcorcoran Cemetery, Cork. His brother secured a £25 gratuity.770 John J. Kearney (22Nov1920/11) RIC (52729), 51, Married with two children, RC Newry, Down Kearney, from Westmeath, joined the RIC on 13 November 1889, serving in Cavan, Antrim, Cavan for a second term, and Armagh. Promoted to sergeant in 1907 and to head constable in 1916, he was transferred to Clare and then to Newry, Down. He was scheduled for promotion to DI. The Frontier Sentinel said Kearney had the reputation of ‘having acted discreetly and of having

shown great consideration to prisoners’, whereas Patrick Casey recalled Kearney as particularly aggressive. It was decided to kill him. At about 20:15 on 21 November, he was shot as he left devotions in the Dominican Church near Needham Street, getting ‘what he richly deserved’ and dying next day. Kearney’s widow secured £5,400 compensation.771

c. 22 NOVEMBER 1920 Stewart Chambers (22Nov1920/12) The King’s (Liverpool Regiment), 29, Army officer, Married Farran, Cork Chambers, from Coatbridge, Lanarkshire, was a pre-war reservist recalled in 1914. Commissioned in the King’s on 9 October 1918, he was a temporary captain and education officer with the 1st Battalion. Mick Murphy, O/C 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, recalled how 2nd Battalion Volunteers held up a train at Waterfall Railway Station on 15 November in order to capture Chambers, Lieutenant M. H. W. Green and Lieutenant W. S. Watts, believed to be intelligence officers. Murphy said they were ‘shot there and then’, whereas Michael O’Regan said they were held prisoner for about a week in the Farran Company area, and then killed on the instructions of brigade O/C Seán Hegarty. Mick Leahy said Chambers was ‘supposed to have pulled the finger nails off Tom Hales’ during interrogation of the Cork No. 3 Brigade O/C in July 1920. Buried in the Aherla Company area, the bodies were never recovered.772 Replying to a parliamentary question, Winston Churchill, secretary of state for war, suggested Chambers was kidnapped because he was the principal witness against a Father O’Donnell, an Australian army chaplain arrested in October 1919 for seditious speeches. The History of the 6th Division offered a different explanation, claiming that Green and Chambers had witnessed a murder at Ballybrack in Kerry shortly before their deaths, but suggested no reason for the killing of Watts. On 29 November 1921, the three officers were presumed dead under authority of

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War Office letter 45/Gen. No./2557. This adduced a statement by Sinn Féin, issued through Art O’Brien, that a number of officers previously reported missing in Ireland had been ‘executed’. These were: Lieutenant B. L. Brown, Lieutenant D. A. Rutherford, Captain M. H. W. Green, Captain S. Chambers and Lieutenant W. S. Watts. Chambers is commemorated on the Hollybrook Memorial in Southampton.773 RD: Green (22Nov1920/13), Watts (22Nov 1920/14) Montague William Henry Green (22Nov1920/13) Lincolnshire Regiment, Army officer, Married with one child Farran, Cork See Chambers (22Nov1920/12). The IRA evidently mistook Green, a lieutenant in the Army Education Corps, for another officer of that name involved in torturing Tom Hales, O/C Cork No. 3 Brigade, in July 1920. He is commemorated on the Hollybrook Memorial in Southampton. His widow secured £3,500 compensation, as did his child.774 William Spalding Watts (22Nov1920/14) RE, Army officer, Married with one child Farran, Cork See Chambers (22Nov1920/12). Watts, an electrical engineer, was a lieutenant in 33rd Fortress Company, stationed in Victoria Barracks, Cork. His duties were apparently confined to ‘electric lighting’. In its April 1921 number, The Sapper ‘regretted that nothing has yet been heard of Lieutenant W. S. Watts . . . although there are reports that the whole of those with whom he was taken were killed’. Watts is commemorated on the Hollybrook Memorial in Southampton. His widow Mabel and child secured £4,000 compensation.775

23 NOVEMBER 1920 William Cullinane (23Nov1920/1) 21, Clerical student, RC Mercer’s Cullinane, from Claregalway, Galway, lived at 103 Lower Baggot Street. He was shot when

Auxiliaries intercepted a party of civilians in organised formation at Lincoln Place. These scattered in all directions, and three shots were fired in the air to halt them. The police had orders to search every male civilian. During this operation people emerged from Mass at St Andrew’s Church on Westland Row. Males among them were searched, as were about a dozen men who had been rounded up from the Nassau Street end of Lincoln Place. As nothing was found, they were ordered to go home. They began to run and were joined by others from nearby doorways. Auxiliaries fired about six shots without a direct instruction: apparently they were obeying a general order to wound any person attempting to evade arrest, avoid being searched or escape from custody. Three civilians were wounded. James Conlan, evidently fearing he would be killed, said he was a former soldier and had only joined the IRA because otherwise he would not have been able to obtain work. Another, who was wounded in the ankle, stated that he had been forced to join the IRA under intimidation. The third man, Cullinane, was too badly wounded to speak. All were admitted to hospital. Before he died, Cullinane told Father P. P. O’Dwyer that he and his companions were searched by Auxiliaries at Lincoln Place and some of them were then told to run. He said a policeman held him and shot him in the side. He died at 16:15. Conlan subsequently developed gangrene. Despite an operation, he died at 18:35 on 29 November. Buried Lacheny, Claregalway.776 RD: Conlan (29Nov1920/3) Edward Mehigan (23Nov1920/2) IRA, 30, RC Mercy Hospital, Cork Mehigan, of 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, lived at 35 Friar’s Walk. Five 2nd Battalion Volunteers were chatting at the corner of Princes Street and Patrick Street after a meeting in the Thomas Ashe Hall, when a Black and Tan in civilian clothes threw a grenade. The explosion caused the deaths of Paddy Trahey, vice-O/C 2nd Battalion; Patrick O’Donoghue, quartermaster 2nd Battalion; and Mehigan. The

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other Volunteers were wounded. The RIC noted an explosion at about 20:55. Mehigan and Patrick O’Donoghue, admitted to the Mercy Hospital at 21:15 unconscious and bleeding profusely, died just before midnight.777 Mehigan, O’Donoghue and Trahey were given a joint funeral in St Finbarr’s South Church. Buried SFC.778 RD: O’Donoghue (23Nov1920/3), Trahey (24Nov1920/6) Patrick O’Donoghue (23Nov1920/3) IRA, 31, French polisher, Married with one child, RC Mercy Hospital Cork See Mehigan (23Nov1920/2). O’Donoghue lived on St Brigid Street. Buried SFC, Cork. His widow Mary secured a yearly allowance of £90 and his daughter £24.779 William Robinson (23Nov1920/4) 11, Schoolboy, RC Drumcondra Hospital, Whitworth Road, Dublin See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). William was son of Christopher Robinson, a labourer of 15 Little Britain Street. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: B. c. 86).780 Daniel Carroll (23Nov1920/5) 30, Bar manager, RC JSH See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Carroll, from Templederry, Tipperary, was a bar manager for Martin Kennedy of James Street. It was customary for bar employees to have every fourth Sunday off, and Carroll spent his in Croke Park. Mary Carroll said her brother’s only interests outside his work were Gaelic games. Their brother Joseph had served in France with 20th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry. Buried GC (St Bridget’s Section: G. h. 31.5).781

c. 23 NOVEMBER 1920 Bernard Ward (23Nov1920/6) RC Roscommon Kidnapped by the IRA on 23 November and described as a ‘habitual visitor to the police barracks in Roscommon’, he was

drowned by the IRA. His body was never recovered.782

24 NOVEMBER 1920 Patrick Flynn (24Nov1920/1) IRA, 23, Farmer’s son, RC Tarmon, Castlerea, Roscommon ‘Paddy’ Flynn from Tarmon, Castlerea, Roscommon, helped farm his father’s 12acre holding. Adjutant South Roscommon Brigade, his home had been destroyed by Crown forces on 2 October. Flynn was shot in bed when the house of his neighbour John Monaghan was raided and set on fire in the early hours by unidentified Crown forces.783 Buried Castlerea. He is commemorated on a monument at Loughglinn. His father Frank secured £800 compensation.784 Michael Moran (24Nov1920/2) IRA, 27, Farmer, RC Earls Island, Galway Moran, O/C Tuam Battalion, lived with his widowed mother Margaret at Carrowmoneen, Tuam, Galway. Arrested for a second time and taken to Galway, he was being escorted by police from Eglinton Street Barracks to Earls Island when, according to the Auxiliary officer in command, the escort paused to disperse a crowd of civilians by the wall of University College Galway. Moran attempted to escape and was shot dead. Buried New Cemetery, Tuam.785 Thomas Dillon (24Nov1920/3) RIC (68998), 25, Farmer, RC Infirmary Road, Dublin Dillon, from Roscommon, joined the RIC on 1 February 1917, serving in Wexford until transfer in March 1920 to the RIC Reserve. He was with a picket of eight soldiers at the junction of Infirmary Road and North Circular Road, Dublin. At around 21:30, a tram stopped at the terminus near the gates of the Phoenix Park. Passengers were challenged to put up their hands as they alighted. Shots were fired, and Dillon was found dead on Infirmary Road. Lance-Corporal Turner, shot in the head, also died.786 RD: Turner (24Nov1920/4)

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William Turner (24Nov1920/4) 15th (The King’s) Hussars (537303), 18 Infirmary Road, Dublin See Dillon (24Nov1920/3). Lance-Corporal Turner was from Northwood, Hanley, Staffordshire. Buried Hanley Cemetery, Shelton, Stoke-on-Trent (281. 80).787 Denis O’Donnell (24Nov1920/5) 36, Tailor, RC Meadstown, Kildorrery, Cork O’Donnell lived with his father and five siblings. He had a thriving tailoring business. Constables Wood, Coe and Grey from Kildorrery RIC Barracks searched James Dwaine’s house, apparently on foot of reports of wanted men in the area. Denis O’Donnell was found in the house and ordered out of bed. While the constables were searching the bedroom, O’Donnell tried to run out. Wood and Grey killed him. Donnchadh O’Hannigan, O/C ASU East Limerick Brigade, suggested that this was a revenge shooting for an ambush in Kildorrery on 7 August 1920, which saw the death of Constable Ernest Watkins. O’Hannigan maintained that two policemen whom he had captured and then released returned to the cottage and shot O’Donnell. Buried Farrihy Churchyard, Kildorrery.788 SA: Watkins (7Aug1920/1) Patrick Trahey (24Nov1920/6) IRA, 29, Clerk, Married with one child, RC South Infirmary, Cork See Mehigan (23Nov1920/2). Trahey, Vice O/C 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, lived on Friar’s Walk. His widow Catherine secured a £90 annual allowance, and his daughter £24.789

25 NOVEMBER 1920 Martin Lyons (25Nov1920/1) 50, Ex-serviceman, labourer, RC Ballynamuddagh, Moate, Westmeath Lyons, a veteran of both the Boer War and the Great War, lived in Patrick Galvin’s house in Ballynamuddagh. At around 03:00 he was ordered outside and told to say an act of contrition before being shot several times at close range with a revolver. He died at

about 07:00. Galvin later told Sergeant Austin O’Toole that Lyons had had a bitter dispute with Michael Johnston. Also, ‘the boys around did not like him and . . . they suspected him of going to the RIC Barracks and giving information’.790 Thomas Doyle (25Nov1920/2) 22, Machinist, RC 3 Dolphin’s Barn Street, Dublin Doyle, of 3 Dolphin’s Barn Street, worked for the City Woollen Mills, Cork Street. At about 18:30 a military patrol went to arrest two suspects. Doyle was shot, supposedly after failing to halt when challenged as he climbed over a garden wall: his family said he was washing himself in the yard after a day’s work. A bullet pierced his right lung and entered his heart. Buried GC (St Paul’s Section: N. c. 87).791

26 NOVEMBER 1920 Denis Christopher Morrissey (26Nov1920/1) IRA, 17, Coachbuilder, RC No. 1 Watercourse Road, Blackpool, Cork Morrissey lived on Commons Road. He and William Mulcahy, members of 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, died following an explosion in their employer’s workshop on Watercourse Road at about 09:30. The two inexperienced Volunteers had evidently tampered with a bomb, causing it to detonate. The police subsequently uncovered ammunition, an unexploded bomb and a trench helmet in the workshop. Buried SFC.792 RD: Mulcahy (26Nov1920/2) William Mulcahy (26Nov1920/2) IRA, 22, Coachbuilder, RC North Infirmary, Cork See Morrissey (26Nov1920/1). Mulcahy lived at 22 Watercourse Road. Buried SFC. His mother secured a £85 gratuity.793 Walter Spencer Gammon794 (26Nov1920/3) The Buffs (East Kent Regiment) (6278154), 29, Shop assistant Labbacallee, Glanworth, Cork From Ramsgate, Kent, Private Gammon attested at Canterbury in 1909. He served in

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France, and re-enlisted for twenty-one years in the Buffs. Tom Barry and nine members of the ASU Cork No. 3 Brigade, supported by local Volunteers armed with shotguns, lay in ambush spread out over about 70 yards along the top of a steep hill on the western side of the Glanworth–Fermoy road, awaiting two military lorries. These were about 150 yards apart. Fire was opened on the first lorry, causing it to crash. Soldiers returned fire. The second vehicle was able to change direction at a crossroads, and so avoid the ambush. Gammon and Corporal Hall were killed, and other soldiers wounded.795 Buried St Lawrence Cemetery, Ramsgate (LB. 53). His parents secured £750 compensation.796 RD: Hall (26Nov1920/4) Ernest A. Hall (26Nov1920/4) The Buffs (East Kent Regiment) (6278145),797 27, Musician, Married Labbacallee, Glanworth, Cork See Gammon (26Nov1920/3). Hall, from Blackrock, Stalybridge, Lancashire, attested at Aldershot in 1908. He served in France, won the DCM, re-enlisted for twenty-one years, and was an acting corporal. Buried Streatham Cemetery, London (F. 598). His widow secured a weekly pension of 21s.8d. from 28 December 1920.798 Denis Carey (26Nov1920/5) IRA, 32, Shop manager, RC Workhouse Infirmary, Nenagh, Tipperary Carey, from Kilnaneave, Killeen, Tipperary, was manager of McCurtain’s hardware shop on Castle Street,799 Nenagh, where he also lodged. He was a lieutenant 1st Battalion, Tipperary No. 1 Brigade. Maureen McCurtain answered the door at about 00:30 to four armed men, one wearing a farm overcoat, soft cap and khaki mask. They took Denis Carey and Jim Moore away. Moore managed to escape. Carey, shot three times, struggled to Michael Geaney’s house. He died at 21:00, after describing a brutal interrogation about recent attacks on Crown forces. The IRA believed Carey was killed by RIC constables Keane and Moore. Buried

Kilnaneave Cemetery. His mother secured a £50 gratuity.800 Mortimer Duggan (26Nov1920/6) 28, Teacher, RC Broadford, Limerick Duggan lived and taught in Broadford. At about 22:00, lorries were heard outside Timothy Riordan’s pub in Broadford. Some men who were playing cards inside, including Duggan, rushed out of the back door into fields. They ignored orders to halt and Duggan was shot. He is commemorated as a Volunteer on a monument in Newcastle West, Limerick.801 Thomas Hogan (26Nov1920/7) IRA, 19, Mechanic, RC MMH See Hogan (21Nov1920/16). Hogan, from Kilmallock, Limerick, lived at 24 St James’s Terrace, Dublin. His death brought the death toll from the Croke Park disaster to fourteen. Buried Kilmallock.802

27 NOVEMBER 1920 Patrick Loughnane (27Nov1920/1) IRA, Farmer, RC Drumharsna, Ardrahan, Galway ‘Pat’ Loughnane and his brother Harry worked their large farm at Shanaglish, Beagh, where they lived with their widowed mother and four siblings. Pat was president of the Beagh Sinn Féin club, a Volunteer in the Beagh Company and an IRB man. Harry captained the Beagh senior hurling team. They took part in an ambush at Castledaly on 30 October 1920 in which Constable Timothy Horan was killed. On 26 November, sixteen or so neighbours were engaged in threshing on the Loughnane farm. At around 15:00 Auxiliaries surrounded the farm. The Loughnanes were arrested and brought to Gort RIC Barracks. En route, Michael Carroll was also arrested. He afterwards said he and the Loughnanes were badly beaten in the lorry. The abuse continued in the RIC barracks. The Auxiliaries then set off with the Loughnanes for their headquarters at Drumharsna Castle, about six miles

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north of Gort. It is said that they dragged the Loughnanes behind their lorry at Crann Mór. At 23:00, the Loughnanes were taken from Drumharsna to Moy O’Hynes Wood, shot and left for dead. Two days later the Auxiliaries returned and took the bodies to Owenbristy,803 where they attempted to burn them; this did not work, and the ground proved too rocky to bury them, so the corpses were dumped in a muddy pond. Next day Auxiliaries from Drumharsna told Mrs Loughnane that her sons had escaped from custody. Their badly charred bodies were discovered on 4 December.804 In both cases, there was extensive fracturing of the skull, and they were virtually unrecognisable. Their sister Nora identified them. On 4 December, the commanding officer of the Auxiliary company based at Lenaboy, Taylor’s Hill, Galway, told Nora that her brothers were among eight suspects who had escaped and were thought to have headed south. Buried Shanaglish Churchyard. Gruesome photographs of their open coffins were taken to show the condition of the bodies. A memorial cross was erected in Shanaglish Churchyard, and a cross was placed on the Kinvara to Ardrahan road near the spot where the bodies were burned.805 RD: Loughnane (27Nov1920/2). SA: Horan (30Oct1920/1) Henry Loughnane (27Nov1920/2) IRA, 22, Farmer, RC Drumharsna, Ardrahan, Galway See Loughnane (27Nov1920/1). Henry, a Volunteer in Beagh Company, was goalkeeper for the Beagh hurling team and secretary of the local Sinn Féin club.806 William Heffernan (27Nov1920/3) IRA, 22, Chauffeur, RC Castlemartyr, Cork ‘Liam’ Heffernan, from Knockmore, Conna, Cork, was a chauffeur for the Commercial Hotel in Midleton, and served in B Company, 4th Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade. He drove three battalion officers to Castlemartyr for fruitless negotiations with two constables about a scheme to let the IRA slip into the RIC barracks unopposed. As they sat in the motor

car afterwards they were questioned by two RIC men. In an exchange of fire, Constable Timothy Quinn was killed by Joseph Aherne, and Heffernan was fatally wounded by Sergeant Curley. He managed to drive the car a short distance before collapsing. Buried Knockmourne Cemetery, Conna. A monument was erected in Castlemartyr on 23 May 1971.807 RD: Quinn (28Nov1920/20)

28 NOVEMBER 1920 Frederick Hugo (28Nov1920/1) ADRIC (79333), 40, Army officer Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork Cadet Hugo, from London, won an MC and OBE during wartime service with the Royal Engineers and the Indian Army, achieving the rank of major. Joining the RIC on 22 October 1920808 (auxiliary number 820), he served in C Company, stationed in Macroom.809 From the location of his body, he was probably first to die. In impact, if not in execution, Kilmichael became the most celebrated IRA ambush of the War of Independence. The Dromkeen ambush of 3 February 1921 was a more clinical operation, resulting in eleven police deaths without any IRA fatalities, but that engagement is seldom discussed. Sixteen Crown forces, three Volunteers and an Auxiliary who escaped only to be captured and killed the next day, died. One badly wounded Auxiliary lived to tell the tale. The ambush has remained controversial, due to contemporary and later disputes about aspects of the engagement and wider debate about historical ‘revisionism’. In his celebrated memoir Guerilla Days in Ireland, Tom Barry, O/C ASU, maintained that a ‘false surrender’ caused the deaths of his three men, leading him to refuse to accept further attempts at capitulation by the surviving Auxiliaries. Contemporary British sources, on the other hand, alleged a massacre of wounded and defenceless men, some of whose bodies were mutilated after death. British claims of a massacre are exaggerated, though some Auxiliaries were almost

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certainly shot after surrendering. It is also unlikely, however, that the three IRA men who were killed or fatally wounded in the attack died directly as a result of a false surrender, as Barry claimed in his 1949 memoir. All three Volunteer fatalities were in the second section. Michael McCarthy and Jim O’Sullivan were most likely hit during the early exchanges of fire, and Patrick Deasy was probably shot after the action by an Auxiliary thought to be dead. In his analysis of Kilmichael published in 1998, Peter Hart drew on recorded interviews with Jack O’Sullivan and Ned Young carried out by Fr John Chisholm in 1969, another recorded interview with Jack O’Sullivan, and his own interviews with Ned Young and Willie Chambers (in November 1989), the latter of whom claimed to have been an unarmed scout at the ambush. Hart’s refusal to name some of these individuals on grounds of confidentiality led to accusations that he had fabricated evidence, although the interviewees have since all been identified by Dr Eve Morrison. Hart’s research notes, now available in Memorial University in Newfoundland, show conclusively that Hart interviewed everyone he said he did, although the canard that his claimed interview with Ned Young postdated Young’s death remains in circulation. In reality, Hart’s interview with Young took place over a year before he died. Morrison also demonstrates that the dispute about Kilmichael reflected wider divisions among West Cork IRA veterans about Barry’s claims to primacy, his propensity to downplay or ignore the contributions of others, and his tendency to attribute the deaths of some men under his command to their inexperience rather than to any possible failings or miscalculations of his own (see the entries for Joseph Begley and Patrick O’Driscoll regarding other controversies). That Barry was sometimes prone to vary his recollections is clear from his military service pensions records. The ambush site was on an S-shaped curve in Shanacashelgneeves. The ASU built a protective wall of loose stones at the west (Macroom) side of a high rock just north of

the road. Barry, an ex-serviceman, dispersed the ASU in sections along both sides of the ambush site. They waited from 08:00 until 16:00, when scouts reported the approach of two lorries. Seventeen members of C Company, Auxiliary Division under DI F. W. Crake, and a Black and Tan named Poole, were searching for a wanted man near Dunmanway. According to Timothy Keohane, Barry ordered that the leading lorry be allowed pass the first IRA sections, to be attacked at the far end of the ambush position where Barry, wearing a British helmet, stood on the road. The lorry slowed down and he threw a bomb, killing the driver and Crake. The lorry lurched into a ditch and the seven cadets in the back had little time to react before being killed or wounded. On seeing the unfolding ambush, the second lorry attempted to turn around but became stuck. The cadets on board took cover and returned fire, hitting Mick McCarthy in the head and Jim O’Sullivan in the jaw. Michael O’Driscoll of the ASU said of O’Sullivan: ‘As far as I could judge a bullet struck his rifle and part of the bolt was driven into his face. Michael McCarthy our section commander was also killed.’ Other evidence indicates that, although mortally wounded, McCarthy actually died on the way to Buttimer’s farm in Gortroe, to which he and the other Volunteer casualties were brought by their comrades. Statements made decades later to the BMH, and other accounts of the ambush, are unclear as to what happened next. Jack Hennessy of the ASU recalled:

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Our orders were to fix bayonets and charge on to the road when we heard three blasts of the O/C’s whistle. I heard the three blasts and got up from my position, shouting ‘hands up’. At the same time, one of the Auxies about five yards from me drew his revolver. He had thrown down his rifle. I . . . shot him dead. I got back to cover, where I remained for a few minutes firing at living and dead Auxies on the road. The Column O/C sounded his whistle again. Nearly all the Auxies had been wiped out. When I reached the road a wounded Auxie moved his hand towards his revolver. I put

28 November 1920

my bayonet through him under the ribs. Another Auxie tried to pull on John Lordan, who was too near to use his bayonet and he struck the Auxie with the butt of his rifle. The butt broke on the Auxie’s skull. . . . During the action the driver of the lorry which we had attacked . . . appears to have taken cover under the lorry. While I sat on the roadside a party of our men was ordered to collect the arms, ammunition and papers of the Auxies and pull the bodies clear of the lorries. While this was being done one of our men, Sonny Dave Crowley, shouted . . . that an Auxie was running away across country. He was the driver . . . who had slipped out from cover while our men were engaged taking the stuff of the other Auxies.

The escaper was Cecil Guthrie. According to Charles Brown, he got to within two miles of Macroom before being captured next day by two unarmed members of K Company. He was handed over to Cornelius Kelliher, O/C Tarelton Company, 1st Cork Brigade, and killed. His body was buried in Annahala Bog, south of Macroom. Timothy Keohane stated that ‘Tom Barry . . . called on the enemy to surrender and some of them put up their hands, but when our party were moving on to the road the Auxiliaries again opened fire. Two of our men were wounded’, including Pat Deasy. Barry then apparently ordered an all-out attack. A military court of inquiry at Macroom concluded that three of the Auxiliaries were shot at point-blank range, and that most ‘were murdered after being wounded’. A number bore wounds in the axila (armpit), suggesting that they had been shot with their hands up. Cadet H. F. Forde survived being clubbed and shot in the head. Although unable to give evidence, he afterwards provided a brief but graphic account of the ambush which supported the claim that some of the Auxiliaries were killed after surrender or as they lay wounded and helpless. This would not have been a unique occurrence, as there are various instances before and after Kilmichael where the IRA, the police and the military killed wounded

or surrendered captives after combat: see William Hegarty, Michael Desmond, Michael Joseph Hickey. The term ‘false surrender’ is something of a misnomer. It is clear from IRA accounts that the Auxiliaries who survived the initial attack had no opportunity, even had they wished, to confer about their situation or to concert any collective plan to deceive the IRA. On the other hand, Jack Hennessey’s BMH account describes an Auxiliary throwing down his rifle but then reaching for his gun before John Lordan smashed his head. Jack O’Sullivan also told Father Chisholm that when he was beseeched for help by a wounded Auxiliary, he asked Barry what to do: ‘Finish him’ was the answer, so he shot him in the head. The IRA captured eighteen rifles and about thirty revolvers. The ASU moved away crosscountry. Pat Deasy died in Buttimer’s farmhouse. According to Cornelius Kelliher, the three IRA fatalities were buried in a bog in roughly made coffins before proper interment in Castletownkenneigh. Buried All Saints Church, Surrey. His father Thomas secured £1,000 compensation.810 RD: Barnes (28Nov1920/18), Bayley (28Nov 1920/2), Bradshaw (28Nov1920/3), Crake (28Nov1920/4), Deasy (28Nov1920/19), Gleave (28Nov1920/5), Graham (28Nov 1920/6), Guthrie (29Nov1920/7), HooperJones (28Nov1920/7), Jones (28Nov1920/8), Lucas (28Nov1920/9), McCarthy (28Nov 1920/10), O’Sullivan (28Nov1920/11), Pallister (28Nov1920/12), Pearson (28Nov 1920/13), Poole (28Nov1920/14), Taylor (28Nov1920/15), Wainwright (28Nov1920/ 16), Webster (28Nov1920/17). SA: Begley (2Dec1920/2), Desmond (20Feb1921/6), Hegarty (5Sep1920/1), Hickey (19Mar 1921/3), O’Driscoll (7Feb1921/2) Cyril Dunstan Wakefield Bayley (28Nov1920/2) ADRIC (72843), 22, RAF Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Bayley, from Lancashire, joined the RIC on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 328) and served in C Company, stationed in Macroom. Buried

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Southern Cemetery, Manchester. Relatives secured £500 compensation.811 Leonard Douglas Bradshaw (28Nov1920/3) ADRIC (72847), 24, Army officer Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Bradshaw, from Blackburn, Lancashire, joined the RFA at sixteen, being commissioned two years later. He joined the RIC on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 297) and served in C Company, stationed in Macroom. His mother Edith secured £1,000 compensation.812 Francis William Crake (28Nov1920/4) ADRIC (72473), 27, Army officer, Married, CoE Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). DI Crake, from Newcastle upon Tyne, first served in the 11th Reserve Regiment of Cavalry before enlisting (16957) in the Hampshire Regiment in 1915. Commissioned in the Bedfordshire Regiment in 1917, he won an MC. Crake joined the RIC on 14 August 1920, and served in C Company, stationed in Macroom. Buried Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne. His widow Guinivere, mother and sister secured £4,000 compensation.813 James Chubb Gleave (28Nov1920/5) ADRIC (72825), 21, RAF Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Gleave, from Worcester, won an MC during war service. He joined the Auxiliary Division on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 266), and served in C Company, stationed in Macroom. Buried Wye, Ashford, Kent. His mother Kate secured £1,500 compensation.814 Philip Noel Graham (28Nov1920/6) ADRIC (72813), 31, Army officer Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Graham, from Abingdon, Berkshire, was mentioned in dispatches as a captain in the Northumberland Fusiliers. He joined the RIC on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 274), and on 3 October was promoted to section leader

C Company, stationed in Macroom. Buried Abingdon. His father Thomas secured £600 compensation.815 J. W. Hooper-Jones816 (28Nov1920/7) ADRIC (72307), 27, Army officer Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet HooperJones, from Hampshire, was a lieutenant in the Northumberland Fusiliers before joining the RIC on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 413). He served in C Company, stationed in Macroom. Buried Holcombe. His father Albert secured £1,500 compensation.817 Albert George James Jones (28Nov1920/8) ADRIC (72818), 33, Army officer Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Jones, from Northamptonshire, served as a lieutenant in the Shropshire Regiment. He joined the Auxiliary Division on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 268), serving in C Company, stationed in Macroom. His sister Edith Anne Jones secured £1,000 in compensation.818 Ernest William Henry Lucas (28Nov1920/9) ADRIC (72845), 31, Army officer, Married with one child Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Lucas, from Sussex, served in the Royal Sussex Regiment before joining the RIC on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 292) serving in C Company, stationed in Macroom. Lucas’s widow Gladys Emma and child secured £4,000 compensation.819 Michael McCarthy (28Nov1920/10) IRA, 25, Cooper, RC Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). McCarthy, from Dunmanway, Cork, worked with his father in Dunmanway. He served periods of imprisonment in 1917 and again in 1918. In June 1919, he was elected vice-O/C 3rd (Dunmanway) Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade. Arrested in March 1920, he was imprisoned in Belfast Jail before transfer to Wormwood Scrubs, where he participated in a hunger strike securing a

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general release of prisoners. In October, he joined the ASU Cork No. 3 Brigade. Buried Castletownkenneigh Cemetery, Cork. A terrace of houses in Dunmanway was named in his memory. His father Daniel secured a £150 gratuity, although a Garda report stated that he appeared ‘comfortable’.820 James O’Sullivan (28Nov1920/11) IRA, 23, Farmer, RC Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). O’Sullivan, from Knockawaddra, Rossmore, was lieutenant E (Kilmeen) Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade and the brigade ASU. Buried Castletownkenneigh, Cork. His mother Mary secured a gratuity of £100.821 William Andrew Pallister (28Nov1920/12) ADRIC (71615), 25, Army officer, Married with one child Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Pallister, from Yorkshire, was demobilised as a captain in the Prince of Wales’s Own (West Yorkshire Regiment). He joined the RIC on 21 October 1920 (auxiliary number 822), as a Cadet in C Company, stationed in Macroom. Buried Burngreave Cemetery, Sheffield. His widow Annie secured £4,000 compensation.822 Henry Oliver Pearson (28Nov1920/13) ADRIC (71615), 21, Railway clerk, army officer, Protestant Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Pearson, a schoolteacher’s son from Tanfield, Yorkshire, enlisted in the Yorkshire Regiment in 1914, and was commissioned as a lieutenant in 1918. He joined the Auxiliary Division on 25 October as a Cadet in C Company, stationed in Macroom. His representatives secured £1,500 compensation.823 Arthur Frederick Poole (28Nov1920/14) RIC (73356), 21, Motor fitter, ex-serviceman Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Constable Poole, from London, joined the RIC on 24 September, stationed in Macroom. Buried

Kensal Green Cemetery, London. His father George secured £500 compensation.824 Frank Taylor (28Nov1920/15) ADRIC (72824), 22, RAF Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Taylor, from Gillingham, Kent, joined the RIC on 17 August (auxiliary number 331), serving in C Company, stationed in Macroom. His father Frederick secured £1,000 compensation.825 Christopher Herbert Wainwright (28Nov1920/16) ADRIC (72850), 36, Army officer, Married with two children Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Wainwright, from Lancashire, formerly a captain in the RDF and the RIR, joined the RIC on 17 August (auxiliary number 330) as a Cadet in C Company, stationed in Macroom.826 Benjamin D. Webster (28Nov1920/17) ADRIC (79332), 30, Army officer, Married with one child Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Webster, from Lanarkshire, joined the RIC on 21 October827 (auxiliary number 832), after wartime service as a lieutenant in the Black Watch, and was a Cadet in C Company, stationed in Macroom. His widow Ethel, of Redcliffe, Ayrshire, secured £4,000 compensation.828 William Thomas Barnes (28Nov1920/18) ADRIC (72849), 26, Army officer, CoE Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Barnes, from Surrey, enlisted in 1914 and was later commissioned in the field. In 1918 he transferred to the RAF. He joined the Auxiliary Division on 17 August (auxiliary number 269), serving in C Company, newly stationed in Macroom. His father Thomas secured £1,000 compensation in January 1921.829 Patrick Deasy (28Nov1920/19) IRA, 16, RC Gortroe, Kilmichael, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). ‘Pat’ Deasy from Kilmacsimon Quay, Bandon, the youngest of

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six boys and a brother of Liam Deasy, adjutant Cork No. 3 Brigade, attended Ballinadee National School. He was O/C Signals, 1st (Bandon) Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade. Deasy suffered abdominal wounds at Kilmichael. Brought on a door to Buttimer’s of Gortroe about half a mile from the ambush site, he died at 22:00. Buried Castletownkenneigh Cemetery, Cork. A memorial cross was erected in Gortroe bog, where he had been temporarily interred.830 Timothy J. Quinn (28Nov1920/20) RIC (62234), 34, Married, RC CMHC See Heffernan (27Nov1920/3). Quinn, from Tipperary, joined the RIC on 15 November 1906, serving in Galway and Meath before transfer to Cork in 1909, stationed in Castlemartyr.831 William Joseph Ward (28Nov1920/21) 19, Labourer, RC Parliament Street, Liverpool Ward lived on Upper Harrington Street, Liverpool. GHQ documents detailing plans for arson attacks in Liverpool, timed to coincide with the Bloody Sunday assassinations, had been captured in Dublin. Nonetheless, the Liverpool attacks went ahead. Seventeen cotton warehouses and lumberyards were targeted. Ward, returning from a Catholic mission, noticed two men acting suspiciously in a warehouse doorway. He ran for a policeman. When he returned with a constable, a man with a revolver shot him in the heart.832 Thomas Downing (28Nov1920/22) Ex-serviceman, telephonist, Married, RC Knockraha, Cork Downing was kidnapped on 24 November while going to a meeting of the Cork branch of the Federation of Demobilised Sailors and Soldiers. He was executed and buried at the Cork No. 1 Brigade’s killing field at the Ray, Knockraha, six miles north-east of the city. Two days later a notice was posted around the city and also published in the Cork Examiner:

kidnapping in cork notice If Mr Downey [sic] is not returned to his home within 56 hours, Cork citizens prepare especially Sinn Féiners Signed black and tans

This threat, which some argue indicates that Downing was involved with the police, went unheeded.833 Frederick Arthur Bundy (28Nov1920/23) Somerset Light Infantry, 16 Belfast, Antrim Bundy, from Bath, was accidentally shot in the stomach in his quarters by a comrade while cleaning a weapon. Buried Bath.834

29 NOVEMBER 1920 Martin Walsh (29Nov1920/1) 62, Labourer, RC Asylum, Ennis, Clare Walsh, from Killanena, Feakle, Clare,835 was a long term ‘liberty-patient’ in the Ennis Asylum, having been admitted on 18 August 1895. Regarded as quiet and harmless, he had a habit of running to work. Private James Arthur, Royal Scots, on guard duty at about 07:30, challenged three men leaving the asylum to halt several times. He fired, killing Walsh.836 Maurice Quirke (29Nov1920/2) RIC (63192), 34, Farmer, Married with three children, RC Walsh’s Hotel, Cappoquin, Waterford From Kerry, Constable Quirke joined the RIC on 15 October 1907, serving in Galway before transfer to Cappoquin, Waterford, in 1915. George Lennon and Mick Mansfield of the West Waterford Brigade ASU had intended to kill the local DI, but did not find him where expected in Walsh’s Hotel. Instead they shot Quirke, fearing he had noticed their car, at around 20:40. Buried Kilnanare Old Burial Ground, Firies, Kerry. His widow Anne secured £1,600 compensation, and his three children £2,400.837

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James Conlan (29Nov1920/3) IRA, 27, Ex-serviceman, cinematograph operator, RC Mercer’s See Cullinane (23Nov1920/1). Conlan lived at 35 North Great George’s Street. Buried GC (South Section: T. a. 25.5).838 Denis O’Sullivan (29Nov1920/4) Agricultural labourer, RC Coolderrihy, Kilmichael, Macroom, Cork ‘Denny’ O’Sullivan worked for James Cronin of Cooldaniel, Toames, Cork. Two members of Crown forces took him outside a pub at Coolderrihy and shot him. Some houses had been burned earlier that day in reprisal for the Kilmichael ambush. Buried Old Cemetery, Moneycusker, Kilmichael. He is commemorated by a plaque on the wall of the pub, now renamed ‘The Kilmichael Bar’.839 James Blemens (29Nov1920/5) 55, Civil servant, Married with children, CoI Cork Blemens, from Dublin, lived on Blackrock Road, Cork. Described as a popular inspector of horticulture and bee-keeping with the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, he and his son Frederick were casualties of the spy frenzy which gripped the Cork city IRA between November 1920 and March 1921, resulting in the killing of a number of suspected spies and informers. IRA accounts of these killings allege that Cork loyalists and Protestants developed a sophisticated information-gathering network and were in league with Crown forces. Dispassionate analysis suggests that informers were neither so ubiquitous nor so organised as the Cork IRA maintained, and that some of those killed were not involved in any way with loyalist spy rings, if such existed, or in anti-republican activities. Blemens was kidnapped from his home; his son Frederick had been abducted earlier that day. Neither was seen again. According to Mick Murphy, ‘These two were members of the senior spy section in the YMCA [Young Men’s Christian Association]. Their names were given to me by Parsons.[†] We

also had information about them from letters captured by our lads in raids on postmen for mails.’ Murphy told Ernie O’Malley that, when questioned, ‘Fred’ Blemens said, ‘I don’t know anything but the old man might know something.’ His father, shot while ‘dead drunk’, told them nothing. They were buried in Carroll’s Bog. Connie Neenan recalled that ‘the Blemens had a good pair of shoes and the lads took the shoes off them’. In November 1921 Seán O’Hegarty informed GHQ of the fact and date of their executions. The Cork press claimed that neither man had any political connections.840 RD: Blemens (29Nov1920/6) Frederick Blemens (29Nov1920/6) 31, Shop assistant, CoI Cork See Blemens (29Nov1920/5). Cecil J. Guthrie (29Nov1920/7) ADRIC (72863), 21, RAF, Married, Protestant Dromcarra, Macroom, Cork See Hugo (28Nov1920/1). Cadet Guthrie, a solicitor’s son from Fyfe, joined the RIC on 17 August 1920 (auxiliary number 294), stationed in Macroom. Guthrie was commissioned into the RFC in 1916, giving his year of birth as 1892. He served as a pilot and instructor in the Middle East and in the Third Afghan War of 1919, when he was mentioned in dispatches. In 1920 he married Irene Peach, a nurse whom he had met in India. She moved with him to Macroom. In January 1921 she gave birth there to a daughter, placing a notice in the Irish Independent: ‘Cecil. Little Dorothy arrived safely. Irene’. She never remarried, and apparently wore his pilot’s wings day and night. Dorothy died only in 2011. Guthrie, who had escaped from the Kilmichael ambush the previous day, was captured by Volunteers near Macroom after he tried to commandeer a vehicle. It was rumoured that he was beaten to death, rather than shot, because he was believed to have been involved in the shooting of a bystander in Ballyvourney some days previously. By that account, he died screaming, while his killer subsequently died of ‘lockjaw’ (tetanus),

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a fate interpreted locally as a punishment for his unnecessary cruelty. Guthrie was initially buried in Annahala Bog, south of Macroom. During the Truce Tom Barry, who had led the IRA at Kilmichael and was now the senior IRA liaison officer for Cork, informed the British that Guthrie had been killed shortly after the main engagement about 700 yards from the ambush site and that the whereabouts of the remains were unknown. This was misleading. Guthrie’s body was eventually located by the Garda Síochána in 1926, after they arrested Timothy Mullane. He had secured £1 from Guthrie’s father in Scotland through sending a letter saying he knew where Guthrie was buried and had his leggings, but had then failed to send on the promised information and material. Guthrie was reinterred at the Church of Ireland graveyard in Inchigeelagh, as his father did not want to recover the remains until their identity was confirmed. His widow secured £5,200 compensation.841

30 NOVEMBER 1920 Seán (John) O’Carroll (30Nov1920/1) IRA, 25, Irish teacher, RC Station Street, Ardee, Louth O’Carroll, from Dublin, was raised in Belfast and became a machinist. About two years before his death, he was appointed as Irish teacher for Ardee and district. He became a captain in the 3rd Battalion, Louth Brigade. At about 01:15, uniformed men took him from his lodgings on Market Street, shooting him three times. He died at about 04:30. At around 02:00, armed men, some in khaki clothing, took Patrick Tierney from his home on Tisdale Street and shot him dead. Buried Milltown Cemetery. O’Carroll’s mother secured £250 compensation. Station Street, Ardee was renamed in memory of him. A monument was erected on the Drogheda Road, Ardee.842 RD: Tierney (30Nov1920/2) Patrick Tierney (30Nov1920/2) IRA, 26, Butcher, farmer’s son, RC Tisdale Street, Ardee, Louth See O’Carroll (30Nov1920/1). Buried Ballypousta Cemetery, Ardee. His parents

John and Brigid secured £250 compensation. Tisdale Street was renamed in memory of him. A monument was erected on the Drogheda Road, Ardee. His stepmother secured £250 compensation, but was ruled ineligible for a dependent’s award.843 William McCarthy (30Nov1920/3) RIC (66903), 27, Post office clerk, exserviceman, RC Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin McCarthy, from Rathmore, Kerry, joined the RIC in 1912, allocated to Kilkenny. He enlisted in the Leinster Regiment in May 1916, rejoining the police in April 1919. Promoted to sergeant in January 1920, he was attached to the RIC Depot. He was in a Lancia tender being towed by another vehicle around 04:15 near Julianstown, Louth. As they hit a bump in the road, the driver saw a flash. McCarthy, whose Lee-Metford carbine had discharged, told him: ‘Stop the car. I’m hit.’ He died at 10:00 from a single wound.844 James Joseph Malynn (30Nov1920/4) RIC (67903), 31, Policeman, Married, RC Main Street, Moate, Westmeath From Cork, Malynn joined the RIC on 1 July 1914, having previously been a policeman in Hull. He served in Limerick, before transfer to Westmeath in July 1915. His brother Bernard was also in the RIC. Severely wounded in the spine during an IRA attack on Baltinglass RIC Barracks, Wicklow, on 24 January 1920, he was operated on in Mercer’s Hospital. He secured £3,000 compensation, with a further £100 for medical expenses and nursing attendance, and £35 for special removal expenses. Brought home to his wife Theresa in Moate, he died at 19:50.845

c. NOVEMBER–DECEMBER 1920 Unknown Brady (Nov–Dec1920/1) Printer Tory Top Lane, Ballyphehane, Cork Charles Brown, adjutant 7th (Macroom) Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, said that a printer from Dublin named Brady came

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under suspicion in September 1920: while drinking with Auxiliaries in the Market Bar, Macroom, he reportedly told them that a nearby house was an IRA billet. The 7th Battalion deported Brady to Britain. However, he returned to Cork. Shadowed one night after he left Union Quay RIC Barracks, he was captured and shot dead at Tory Top Lane, Cork.846 Peter O’Dwyer (Nov/Dec1920/2) IRA, RC County Tipperary O’Dwyer was section leader Clonoulty Company, 3rd Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. Michael Davern told the BMH of O’Dwyer’s death – ‘one of our best men’ – apparently during the autumn of 1920, but did not give a date or circumstances. Buried Ballintemple, Dundrum, Tipperary. He is commemorated in St Michael’s Cemetery, Tipperary.847

1 DECEMBER 1920 Nicholas Francis-de-Sales Prendergast (1Dec1920/1) 44, Ex-serviceman, teacher, Married with two children, RC Fermoy, Cork Prendergast, from Rochestown, New Ross, Wexford, at one time a Christian Brother, subsequently taught at St Colman’s College, Fermoy, Cork. In 1914 he became an army recruiter, then joined the Leinster Regiment and served in France and Italy, being commissioned in the field for gallantry. He was invalided home and demobilised in 1919. His second wife owned the Blackwater Vale Hotel on King Street (now MacCurtain Street), Fermoy. At about 21:30 members of the Auxiliary Division staying in the Royal Hotel got into a heated argument in the bar with Prendergast, who often had a drink there. One Auxiliary accused him of belonging to the IRA. He retorted that the IRA were his greatest enemies but that he was an Irishman. Auxiliaries then dragged him outside, apparently with the intention of frightening him. He was beaten with revolver butts and

thrown into the River Blackwater, which was in flood. According to James Coss, then intelligence officer Fermoy Company, 1st Battalion, Auxiliaries then set fire to three shops in the town, throwing one man into the river who managed to reach the riverbank. Prendergast’s decomposed body was recovered at Clondulane on 5 January 1921. His teeth had been broken, and it was thought this may have caused him to asphyxiate. Cadets A. K. Watson and E. S. Radford were subsequently arrested and charged with murder. Prendergast’s widow secured £3,500 compensation and each of his children £1,500.848 Carl Johannsen (1Dec1920/2) 25, Seaman South Infirmary, Cork Johannsen, just paid off by the SS Tonjeir of Haugesund in Norway, was found lying shot in the abdomen on the quay at Cork’s Custom House Dock at 04:00. He died that evening. Groups of armed and masked men had been setting fires to premises in the city centre, and it is possible that he encountered them.849 Thomas Keighery (1Dec1920/3) RIC (60977), 41, Farmer, Married with one child, RC Kilcarn, Navan, Meath From Aughrim, Galway, Keighery joined the RIC on 16 September 1902. He served in Donegal, Cavan, the RIC Reserve and Dublin before transfer to Dunshaughlin, Meath, in December 1915. Commended for conspicuous service during the Rising, he was promoted to sergeant in 1919, serving first in Robinstown and then in Navan. He died when, on a dark, wet night, an RIC patrol challenged military vehicles just outside Navan. When these failed to halt, a warning shot was fired. Soldiers in the vehicles, assuming they were under attack, replied. Keighery was hit and soon died. A civilian was slightly hurt. Buried Aughrim, Galway. His widow Margaret secured an annual pension of £80.3s.4d. together with an allowance of £16.0s.8d. for her child until the age of sixteen.850

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W. Parsons (1Dec1920/4) Devonshire Regiment (5609973), 28, Engaged Clonmel, Tipperary Private Parsons, of Kingsbridge, Devon, fell into the River Suir, which was in flood. Sergeant Lyons dived in and rescued another soldier, but Parsons drowned, his body being recovered the following month. Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Waterford Road, Clonmel (8. N. 12).851

2 DECEMBER 1920 Mark Scally (2Dec1920/1) 3, Child, RC Collooney, Sligo Mark, son of Thomas Scally, was eating sweets between 17:30 and 18:00 near a table where his father’s lodger Constable Michael Finnan left his weapon as he hung his coat. Mark must somehow have discharged the gun. He died at 23:00 from a head wound.852 Joseph Begley (2Dec1920/2) IRA, 25, Plasterer, RC Bandon, Cork Begley, of Castle Street, was section commander Bandon Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade. At about 19:15, he and two comrades were challenged by an Essex Regiment patrol under Major R. Neave, as they went to meet a supposed military informer. There had reportedly been an unsuccessful ambush of police at Brinny. They ran, and one, Begley, fired at pursuing soldiers, who shot him in the head. Company Sergeant-Major H. Benton found a revolver and ammunition on him. James O’Donoghue and John Galvin also suffered fatal head wounds. IRA accounts agree that the Volunteers were lured into a trap. The net issues in dispute are: i) whether Tom Barry was foolish to sanction a meeting with a British soldier supposedly willing to give information; ii) whether the three Volunteers were impetuous in proceeding to the rendezvous after Barry had twice been unable to join them; and iii) whether they had gone unarmed. In Guerilla Days in Ireland, Barry wrote that he was to meet Galvin, who would accompany him to interview a Sergeant

Taylor. Taylor’s brother was in IRA hands, and had written to the sergeant urging him to sell information. Barry believed Taylor the deserter ‘was a spy’, but thought the IRA might still make use of him. Others believed that Taylor had written to his sergeant brother in good faith, but that his letter fell into the wrong hands in Bandon military barracks. A reply proposing a clandestine meeting at Laurel Walk on the outskirts of Bandon duly reached Barry via a cover address. But Barry suddenly fell ill before he could get to Bandon or send an order postponing the operation. He speculated that ‘in all probability Jim O’Donoghue and Joe Begley were about to turn back since John Galvin had specific instructions to come alone’ when attacked. Barry claimed they were unarmed, and were killed by Major A. E. Percival.853 Galvin’s brother Miah challenged this account, stating that John had been armed (as the military reported). Stephen Buckley also maintained that a rendezvous arranged for a fortnight earlier had fallen through due to Barry’s non-appearance: ‘We learned later that Tom had had a mild heart attack.’ But this earlier cancellation might also have been the occasion recalled by Patrick Holland, who ‘drove T[om] B[arry] . . . to Ahiohill on [the] way to Bandon’: ‘B got drunk at Slatterys. Sent word to postpone opp[eration] to some other night.’ When, on 2 December, Barry again failed to arrive, Galvin and two comrades went ahead. Miah Galvin’s ‘personal recollection’ was that, ‘I would have accompanied my brother . . . but a fourth gun was not available.’ Similarly, as Stephen Buckley’s revolver had been given to Joe Begley, Buckley decided he would eat before taking another route to Laurel Walk. En route, Buckley and a friend encountered ‘four or five men in civvies. We told them we had dates at the Lovers’ Walk which was a short distance. . . . At first I thought they were Barry’s men.’ Initially allowed to proceed, the two were then told to go back towards town. Shortly afterwards they heard shots. Their three comrades ‘didn’t have a chance to fight’. In 1948 Flor Begley, Joseph’s brother, wrote that Barry’s published account

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was self-serving and misleading. Begley also said the three Volunteers were armed. Barry subsequently had Taylor and the second deserter – Watling – shot at Kilbree, Clonakilty, although some of their captors believed that Taylor was not a spy and not responsible for the Bandon disaster. Corporal A. E. Cooper of the Essex Regiment arrived in Bandon military barracks from Kinsale the next day: ‘The barracks . . . were in a most dilapidated condition, and resembled one of those dirty old French farms. In the hospital were three civilians, who had been shot the night before.’ Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Bandon.854 RD: Galvin (2Dec1920/3), O’Donoghue (2Dec1920/4), Taylor (31Dec1920/5), Watling (31Dec1920/6)

challenged on the Shercock to Ballybay road at Corgreagh Crossroads by two men dressed in long coats with belts, who flashed a light on them and ordered them to go home. Shortly afterwards, a shot was fired, apparently by Thomas D’Arcy of Corhelshinagh, Castleblayney, wounding O’Brien. Despite two operations, he died of septicaemia. It was believed locally that O’Brien was shot because he recognised IRA men outside a safe house and called out their names. In June 1922, the AOH secretary claimed that O’Brien and Arthur Treanor were shot because they refused to join or support the IRA. O’Brien’s father secured £125 compensation. A cross was erected beside St Patrick’s Catholic Church, Bawn, Monaghan.855 SA: Treanor (25Jun1921/1)

John Galvin (2Dec1920/3) IRA, 19, Carpenter, RC Bandon, Cork See Begley (2Dec1920/2). Galvin, from South Main Street, was captain Bandon Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade. His relative Father (later Bishop) Edward Galvin, co-founder of the Missionary Society of St Colomban, left Ireland for China that autumn. Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Bandon.

William Bell (2Dec1920/6) 19, RC Belfast Bell, of 100 Broom Street, died of injuries received during earlier disturbances.856

James J. O’Donoghue (2Dec1920/4) IRA, 19, Clerk, RC Bandon, Cork See Begley (2Dec1920/2). O’Donoghue, of Shannon Street, was first lieutenant Bandon Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade. Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Bandon. Michael O’Brien (2Dec1920/5) 24, Sawmill worker, RC MMH O’Brien, one of nine children, of Drumod, Shantonagh, Castleblayney, Monaghan, and his father Patrick were AOH men. There had been bitter rows with local Sinn Féiners. Patrick O’Brien was elected councillor in the Clones No. 1 Rural District, ignoring IRA warnings not to stand. He received several warning notices. On 13 November, sometime after 21:00, Michael O’Brien and three others were

3 DECEMBER 1920 Maurice Prendiville (3Dec1920/1) RIC (57219), 46, Farmer, Married with six children, RC Main Street, Youghal, Cork From Listowel, Kerry, Prendiville joined the RIC on 8 October 1895 serving in Monaghan, Belfast and Limerick before transfer to Cork in 1906. Promoted to sergeant in 1918, he was reduced to constable on 25 April 1919. He had been stationed in Youghal for two years. Prendiville, two other constables and a sergeant left Youghal RIC Barracks on patrol at 10:15. They were also to deliver pension money to a retired RIC man in a nearby townland. While crossing the Youghal metal bridge, Prendiville was hit in the stomach by rifle fire from Volunteers of the 3rd Battalion, West Waterford Brigade. Removed by trap to Youghal – Captain Douglas Wimberley of the Cameron Highlanders later claimed that ‘the man was just left to die in the street. I and one or two others were left to carry him, a dying man, into a local chemist’s shop’ – Prendiville died in Torrens’ Chemist

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Shop at 18:30, despite the attentions of doctors Murphy and Orpin. Buried Kilsinon Cemetery, Listowel.857 William Mullan (3Dec1920/2) 50, Tailor, RC Belfast Mullan, of 99 Urney Street, died of injuries sustained during earlier disturbances.858

4 DECEMBER 1920 Michael Joseph Howley (4Dec1920/1) IRA, 25, Farmer, RC KGVH ‘Joe’ Howley, from Oranmore, Galway, was jailed in Dartmoor following the Rising. Released in 1917, he later became O/C Galway No. 1 Brigade (Mid-Galway). His mother Mary wrote that ‘he made a good lot’ from ‘trading with cattle & sheep’. Howley took the train to Dublin, probably to enquire about an expected consignment of arms. It was believed locally that a Sergeant Healy, stationed in Oranmore, subsequently promoted to DI and transferred, followed Howley and identified him. Two detectives challenged Howley as he left the 18:20 Galway train. They claimed they told him to put his hands up and only fired when they thought he was trying to draw a gun. P. J. Mullins, who accompanied Howley, gave a very different account in 1925: ‘As we were crossing the bridge outside the Broadstone [station]’, Mullins ‘saw the figures of four or five men behind us in a half circle, and saw one figure . . . jam a gun . . . into Howley’s head. Simultaneously I heard shots. “I ducked” . . . I ran towards Dominick Street’, and ‘looked back. I saw Howley lying on the ground, a girl or some woman kneeling beside him raising his head and putting a [rosary] beads in his hands.’ He died after an operation around midnight. Buried Oranmore. A monument was erected in 1947.859 Terence McNulty (4Dec1920/2) 62, Labourer, Married with children, RC Kings Bridge, Dublin McNulty, who lived in Mill Street, was run over by a military vehicle travelling towards Parkgate Street at Kings Bridge, when he

stepped out suddenly from behind a tram. Although the driver sounded his horn and braked immediately, the vehicle hit McNulty. One passenger ‘felt . . . a distinct bump of the hind wheels as if we had gone over the body’. Buried GC.860

5 DECEMBER 1920 Hedley A. Balls (5Dec1920/1) ADRIC (72875), 29, Army officer Sallymount Avenue, Leeson Park, Dublin Balls, from Suffolk, joined the Auxiliary Division on 20 August 1920 (auxiliary number 281) after demobilisation as a lieutenant in the MGC. He was shot in an exchange of fire on Sallymount Avenue at about 02:30 when James Byrne escaped from a house that was being searched. Buried Lowestoft, Suffolk. His representatives secured £5,000 compensation.861 Thomas Rooney (5Dec1920/2) 26, Ex-serviceman, compositor, RC East Port, Ballyshannon, Donegal Rooney, once of the RIR, worked for the Donegal Democrat. Lieutenant G. A. Austee, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment, led a four-man patrol which challenged two men around 00:10. One halted, but Rooney did not, and was shot. A Mrs Keane was about to bolt her door when Rooney pushed it open, crying, ‘Oh Mrs Keane I am shot’, dying in the hall. Buried Ballyshannon.862 Thomas Hand (5Dec1920/3) IRA, 44, Quarry labourer, Married with four children, RC Baltrasna, Balbriggan, Dublin Hand, from Skerries, Dublin, served in the Fingal Brigade. Secretary of his local ITGWU branch, he had been interned following the Rising. At about 01:30 several men in police uniforms forced the door of his mother’s house. They initially seized Hand’s disabled brother before returning and seizing Hand, shooting him in the head and neck as his family watched. Buried Baldungan Graveyard, Skerries, Dublin. A monument was erected near where he died; a street in Skerries was named after him. He is also commemorated on a memorial in Holmpatrick Cemetery, Skerries.863

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6 DECEMBER 1920 Thomas Curtin (6Dec1920/1) 46, Farmer, Married, RC Craggaknock, Doonbeg, Clare Lieutenant A. W. Tuffield, Royal Scots, led a mixed patrol to raid a Sinn Féin court at Craggaknock. About a dozen people fled from the building, and after a warning volley were fired on. Hit, Curtin died from head wounds at about 19:00. Buried Kilrush, Clare.864

7 DECEMBER 1920 John Fleming (7Dec1920/1) 36, Ex-serviceman, Married, RC North Infirmary, Cork Fleming, of 17 Cattle Market Avenue, and his brother Patrick were walking along the Lower Glanmire Road at about 16:15 when three lorries, containing about twelve RIC, sped past them. Shots were fired. John, wounded in the abdomen, died at about 20:00 on the operating table. From the position of the entrance and exit wounds, it appeared likely that the shots came from some high point near the road. There was apparently no ‘trustworthy evidence to show who fired the shots’. His widow secured £900 compensation and a brother £400.865 Denis Regan (7Dec1920/2) 21, Agricultural labourer, RC Timoleague Road, Clonakilty, Cork Regan, from Castlefreke, Clonakilty, worked for Denis Flynn of Gaggin, Bandon, Cork, where both were arrested by the military. Flynn was taken to Bandon and subsequently released. Regan was found dead on the Clonakilty to Timoleague road with a bullet wound to the head. Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Bandon. His father acknowledged that he had been ‘kindly and sympathetically treated’ by the Clonakilty RIC.866

8 DECEMBER 1920 Bernard Reilly (8Dec1920/1) IRA, 18, General servant, RC Dunboyne, Meath Reilly, a blacksmith’s son, was a captain in the 1st (Dunboyne) Battalion, Meath Brigade. He

was shot at around 00:10 by a Volunteer from another section who did not recognise his accent, as an IRA party lay in ambush in a cemetery for a Crown forces raiding party. Father Patrick Kelly, curate in Dunboyne, ministered to Reilly. Father Kelly subsequently refused to identify anyone involved. This led to an exchange of correspondence between the GOC in Ireland, Sir Nevil Macready, the Catholic primate Cardinal Logue, and the Bishop of Meath, Lawrence Gaughran. The latter argued that if a priest were compelled to name people who sought help in such circumstances, ‘the attendance for the dying would be seriously imperilled’. Buried Dunboyne.867 Michael J. Murphy (8Dec1920/2) 22, Post office employee, RC Paul Street, Cork Murphy, of 18 Tower Street, who worked in the South Mall telephone exchange, was shot once in the chest as he left St Peter’s and St Paul’s Church at about 21:00. Auxiliaries had opened fire nearby shortly beforehand, allegedly in response to a gun attack: it is possible that Murphy was hit by a stray bullet. His stepfather said that he ‘had no troubles of any sort and was quite cheerful when I last saw him’.868 Michael John McLean (8Dec1920/3) IRA, 18, Farmer’s son, RC Gaggin, Bandon, Cork McLean, from Lowertown, Schull, Cork, was a lieutenant in Leamcon Company, Cork No. 3 Brigade, and served in the brigade ASU. A Volunteer fired prematurely as an IRA party lay in ambush for a police lorry at Gaggin, enabling the vehicle to speed through unscathed. The police dismounted and exchanged fire with the IRA before driving on to Bandon. The IRA withdrew, but McLean, who had injured his foot, remained in a local house. Frank Neville said that a military party returned, captured McLean and killed him. The military maintained that McLean was found dead near the original ambush site. Buried St Patrick’s Cemetery, Bandon. His sister Mary Ellen was

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unsuccessful in a pension application in 1924.869 Harriet K. Meara (8Dec1920/4) 75, CoI Grand Parade, Cork Harriet Meara, of 1 Wellington Avenue, College Road, was crossing Grand Parade in Cork city when hit by a lorry carrying Auxiliaries. She received only a superficial scalp wound as she fell, but died within minutes, possibly from shock. She was slightly deaf.870

9 DECEMBER 1920 Hugh Ferguson Montgomery (9Dec1920/1) RMLI, 40, Army officer, Married KGVH Colonel Montgomery entered the Royal Marines in 1896, rising through the ranks. He served in the Admiralty from 1914 to 1915, and in France from 1915 to 1919, where he won the DSO, was mentioned in dispatches six times and secured the CMG. He was a close relative of the future Field Marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, also serving in Ireland in 1920. He had been a patient since Bloody Sunday, 21 November 1920, when shot in 28 Upper Pembroke Street. Buried Brompton Cemetery, London. His widow Ethel secured £8,000 compensation.871 Arthur Michael Atkins (9Dec1920/2) 17th (Duke of Cambridge’s Own) Lancers (312581), Ex-serviceman, Married, RC Galway A Boer War veteran and former prisoner of war in Germany, Sergeant-Major Atkins was stationed in Earls Island, Galway, as squadron quartermaster of B Squadron, after transfer from the 12th Lancers (Canterbury). He may have slipped while crossing a pontoon bridge spanning the River Corrib. On 29 January 1921, children playing at the rear of Campbells Mills discovered his badly decomposed body floating in the mill race. Buried Bohermore Cemetery, Galway (R.C. B. 2. 26).872

10 DECEMBER 1920 Robert Charles Cambridge (10Dec1920/1) RFA (1032133) (previously 292095), 19, Carman Deerpark, Castlelyons, Cork Gunner Cambridge attested in Surrey on 6 May 1919. The ASU 1st (Fermoy) Battalion ambushed a military lorry near Leary’s Cross. After a prolonged exchange of fire, Cambridge was killed and eight soldiers were captured, disarmed and released. Buried Kingston-upon-Thames Cemetery, Surrey (C ‘C’ 3972).873 William Owens (10Dec1920/2) IRA, 24, Shop assistant, RC Shankill, Dublin ‘Willie’ Owens, from Shanganagh, worked in the hardware department of Messrs Griffin and Sons, Bray. His headstone terms him section commander A Company, 1st Battalion, South Wexford Brigade. He was hit in the head during a Cheshire Regiment raid on Shankhill Sinn Féin Club at 22:00, after a soldier inadvertently fired a shot when, hearing a scuffle, he turned quickly. Buried St Peter’s Cemetery, Little Bray, Wicklow. His mother secured a £75 gratuity.874 William John Hayes (10Dec1920/3) West Riding Regiment, 21 Collinstown Camp, Dublin Bandsman Hayes, from London, died of wounds sustained when a lorry which failed to halt when challenged was fired on by a sentry at Collinstown Camp on 8 December.875 Sarah Medalie (10Dec1920/4) Housewife, 53, Jewish 23 Tuckey Street, Cork The CFR records how, when a military search party unexpectedly appeared in her bedroom, Mrs Medalie exclaimed, ‘We are Jews . . . and have nothing to do with the political movement.’ Then she cried out, ‘Oh my heart.’ The military drove her son to fetch a doctor, but she soon died. Her husband described how ‘they came up the stairs in the dark and gave us all a fright’.876

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11 DECEMBER 1920 Spencer R. Chapman (11Dec1920/1) ADRIC (77834), 27, Stock jobber, exserviceman CMHC After demobilisation from the London Regiment, Surrey-born Cadet Chapman joined the Auxiliary Division RIC on 12 September 1920 (auxiliary number 495). Seán Healy described how the IRA ambushed two lorries of Auxiliaries which left Victoria Barracks at 20:00. Six Volunteers armed with revolvers and Mills bombs attacked at Dillons Cross. A bomb exploded in one of the lorries, killing Chapman and wounding several others. This attack provoked widespread reprisals which left most of Cork city centre in flames. Between 21:30 and 04:00, the City Hall, the Carnegie Library and eighteen business premises on Patrick Street were set on fire. Damage was estimated at £3,000,000. Crown forces sped around in lorries, discharging their weapons at random. At Dublin Hill on the north side, Cornelius and Jeremiah Delaney were shot in their beds by unknown men. Jeremiah was killed outright; Cornelius died around midday on 18 December in the Mercy Hospital. On 20 December, Head Constable James Dunne told an inquiry at Victoria Barracks that Jeremiah Delaney was a Volunteer. A separate inquiry into the death of Cornelius was held on 29 December. The dead men’s father Daniel Delaney refused to give evidence in either case. The court found that it had no evidence as to the time and circumstances of Jeremiah’s death, while Cornelius Delaney was killed by some person or persons unknown.877 RD: Delaney (12Dec1920/1), Delaney (18Dec 1920/1) James Lawlor878 (11Dec1920/2) 35, Engine driver, RC Main Street, Lismore, Waterford Lawlor, from Inchicore, Dublin, worked for the GS&WR, and had been based in Lismore for about a year. He was shot at 21:10 after failing to halt when challenged three

times by Private C. Redman on Main Street, Lismore. Buried New Cemetery, Lismore.879

12 DECEMBER 1920 Jeremiah Delaney (12Dec1920/1) IRA, 26, Farmer’s son, RC Dublin Hill, Kilbarry, Cork See Chapman (11Dec1920/1). Delaney, from Dublin Hill, Kilbarry, Cork, was second lieutenant F Company, 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade. Buried SFC. Mary Jane O’Callaghan, sister of the Delaney brothers, made an application under the Army Pensions Act but it is unclear if an award was made.880 John O’Brien (12Dec1920/2) IRA, 15, RC Cloyne, Cork O’Brien, of Spittal Street, Cloyne, was in an IRA party engaged by soldiers of the Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders travelling from Cloyne to Midleton in three lorries. One soldier was severely wounded; O’Brien was shot in the lungs, and two other Volunteers captured.881 George Horgan (12Dec1920/3) 22, Ex-serviceman, RC Blackpool, Cork Horgan, reportedly on ‘friendly terms with the military and police . . . used frequently to speak with them’, was kidnapped by an IRA group from his home on 9 December. A notice appeared in the press next day stating, ‘If G. Horgan is not returned by 4 o’clock today (Friday) 10th December, rebels of Cork beware as one man and one shop shall disappear for each hour after the given time.’ He was killed and buried at Lakelands, Blackrock. It is said his remains were returned to his family after the Civil War. In January 1922 his mother secured £900 compensation. This may be the Horgan whose death was described by IRA officer Stan Barry: ‘He was between tears and acts of contrition before we shot him, and we buried him then and there. Nobody knew where he was buried and nobody but ourselves knew that he had been shot.’882

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Vivian Reddecliffe (12Dec1920/4) 22, Naval rating Castletownbere, Cork The CFR records the accidental death through drowning of Ordinary Seaman Vivian Reddecliffe.883

13 DECEMBER 1920 Frederick Taylor (13Dec1920/1) RIC (74612), 18, Ex-serviceman, handyman, RC Ballinalee, Longford From Newcastle upon Tyne, Taylor joined the RIC on 19 October 1920, stationed in Ballinalee. The garrison consisted of twentyseven constables and four sergeants. The ASU North Longford Brigade attacked Ballinalee RIC Barracks at 02:00, blowing up the gable wall. Next day Constable Walker described to an inquiry in Longford how an explosion blew in part of one wall outside the room he shared with Constable Taylor. A second explosion blew Taylor out of his bed, killing him almost immediately. The IRA withdrew around 07:00. At 10:00, a relief party arrived in Ballinalee. Half the village was set on fire in reprisal. Buried Newcastle upon Tyne. His father secured £1,200 compensation.884 William Canning (13Dec1920/2) IRA, 19, Draper’s assistant, RC Egyptian Arch, Newry, Down ‘Bill’ Canning, from Ballymaclare, Magilligan Point, Londonderry, lived at 64 Hill Street, Newry, and worked for Cahill Brothers. He served in the 1st Battalion, 2nd (Newry) Brigade. An ambush at the Egyptian Arch outside Newry went badly wrong: when the IRA opened fire from the bridge parapet on a party of the Kings Royal Rifle Corps obstructed by a barricade, the military responded with ferocious rifle and machine-gun fire, killing Canning and wounding three others. The military later found a corpse, described as ‘clean shaven’ with ‘dark curly hair’, still holding a revolver: he had been ‘shot through the neck and forehead’. They also captured the badly wounded John O’Hare, who died on 5 October 1921. Lieutenant Butler, in charge of the military party, was awarded an MBE.

The IRA carried the severely wounded Peter Shields seven or eight miles crosscountry to the Charity Fathers’ Monastery in Omeath, Louth, where he later died. Buried St Aidan’s Cemetery, Magilligan Point.885 RD: O’Hare (5Oct1921/1), Shields (25Dec 1920/1) John Joseph Hickey (13Dec1920/3) 26, RC RCDH Hickey, of 112 Cross Avenue, Dún Laoghaire, listed in some accounts as a Volunteer, was walking towards the city when accosted by two strangers at Elm Park. One asked Hickey why he had his hands in his pockets: ‘Before a reply could be offered, a shot was fired.’ He died after an operation. Buried DGC.886

14 DECEMBER 1920 John O’Connor (14Dec1920/1) 45, Farmer, Married with seven children, RC Three Gneeves, Currow, Kerry O’Connor, of Glandaeagh, Currow, was among a number of men taken into custody by a mixed patrol of police and military as he left Killeentierna Presbytery. The Cork Examiner reported that a summons to a Sinn Féin court was found on him. Others similarly arrested were taken to Currow. At about 13:00, all except O’Connor were released. The patrol fired shots at random and set fire to a hay shed. At around 15:00 O’Connor was found lying on the road with a severely broken leg – the thigh bone was protruding through his trousers. He had been thrown from a lorry and shot. Taken by donkey cart to a house for help, O’Connor was then shot dead in the kitchen by a policeman and a man in civilian clothes.887 His killing caused outrage in the parish and led many young men to join the IRA. Buried Kilsarcon Cemetery, Currow. His wife secured £4,000 compensation.888 Thomas O’Loughlin (14Dec1920/2) IRA, 27, Farmer, RC Union Infirmary, Thurles, Tipperary ‘Tom’ O’Loughlin from Killinan, Thurles, was playing cards at Michael Leahy’s home

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at Mullaunbrack. At about 20:00, Leahy answered the door to a man dressed in a grey suit and hat who entered and opened fire. O’Loughlin was hit as he tried to climb over a gate in the back yard. James Leahy, O/C Tipperary No. 2 Brigade, said that this was the work of a police murder gang led by Sergeant Eugene Igoe. Buried Killinan.889 John (Seán) Riordan (14Dec1920/3) IRA, 24, Commerical traveller, Ex-serviceman, RC Union Hospital, Kilmallock, Limerick Riordan, from Ballintober, Kilfinane, Limerick, of ASU East Limerick Brigade, ‘not long out of the British Army’, had been a sergeant major. The ASU East Limerick Brigade under Donnchadh O’Hanningan prepared an ambush at the Cross of the Tree on the Garryspillane to Knocklong road on 10 December, hoping to kill Lieutenant Browne, an intelligence officer, who had evaded several assassination attempts. Alerted by an accidental shot, Crown forces took cover and fought O’Hannigan’s men for about fifteen minutes. Browne received an MBE for his part in the fight. Despite being outnumbered, Riordan covered the ASU’s retreat. Wounded in the abdomen, possibly by grenade fragments, he was the only IRA casualty. He died after an operation. Buried Kilfinane, and commemorated on a monument at Murroe.890

15 DECEMBER 1920 John J. McGowan (15Dec1920/1) IRA, 26, Labourer, RC Rathkeery, Frenchpark, Roscommon ‘Johnnie’ McGowan from Portaghard, Frenchpark, Roscommon, was captain Tibohine Company, East Mayo Brigade. He was staying at Patrick Dwyer’s house at Rathkeery. At 04:00, there was knocking on the door. Three masked men entered and shot McGowan in the kitchen. He ‘struggled to his feet, called for a priest’, and died soon afterwards. IRA sources said the killers were Auxiliaries from Boyle. Buried Tibohine. A Celtic cross was erected near where he died.

He is also commemorated on a monument at Shankill.891 Timothy (Tadhg) Crowley (15Dec1920/2) 24, Farmer’s son,892 RC Ballyhalwick, Dunmanway, Cork Crowley, of Behagullane, Dunmanway, was stopped outside Dunmanway at around 13:30 by two lorries of Auxiliaries en route to Cork for the funeral of their comrade Spencer Chapman. Cadet Sergeant Vernon Harte, in command, beat Crowley up and then shot him. When Canon Thomas Magner, parish priest of Dunmanway, happened on the scene, Harte ordered him to kneel on the road and killed him. Harte was arrested, and was later found guilty of homicide but insane. Buried Dunmanway.893 RD: Magner (15Dec1920/3). SA: Chapman (11Dec1920/1) Thomas J. Magner (15Dec1920/3) 73, Clergyman, RC Ballyhalwick, Dunmanway, Cork See Crowley (15Dec1920/2). Magner, from Ovens, Cork, was educated at the diocesan seminary and at the Irish College in Paris, where he was ordained in 1876. On 21 April 1907 he was appointed parish priest of Dunmanway. Buried St Patrick’s Church, Dunmanway.894 J. J. Collopy (15Dec1920/4) IRA Limerick Collopy, severely injured at an abandoned RIC barracks on 3 April during the IRA’s concerted arson attacks on abandoned police premises, eventually died in Limerick. He is commemorated by a small roadside cross at Castletroy, just north of Limerick city.895 James Kennedy (15 Dec1920/5) 53, RC Rathkeale, Limerick Kennedy was killed when a car carrying Captain John Mackintosh, B Company, Auxiliary Division RIC, swerved to avoid some dogs and mounted the footpath in Rathkeale.896

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16 DECEMBER 1920 Patrick J. Halford (16Dec1920/1) RIC (70628), 28, Clerk, ex-serviceman, RC Kilcommon, Tipperary From Meath, Halford joined the RIC on 8 March 1920, stationed in Kilcommon. The ASU Tipperary No. 1 Brigade ambushed an eight-man patrol en route to collect mail. Four constables were killed in the encounter and three wounded. Halford’s father secured £250 compensation.897 RD: Harden (16Dec1920/2), Palmer (16Dec 1920/3), Smith (16Dec1920/4) Ernest F. Harden (16Dec1920/2) RIC (73877), 21, Labourer, Protestant Kilcommon, Tipperary See Halford (16Dec1920/1). Constable Harden, from Essex, joined the RIC on 5 October 1920, stationed in Kilcommon.898 Albert H. Palmer (16Dec1920/3) RIC (72263), 24, Labourer, ex-serviceman, Married with children Kilcommon, Tipperary See Halford (16Dec1920/1). From Farnham, Surrey, Constable Palmer joined the RIC on 4 August 1920, stationed in Kilcommon. Palmer’s widow secured £2,400 compensation and his children £3,000.899 Arthur Smith (16Dec1920/4) RIC (73844), 22, Carman, ex-serviceman, Married with children Kilcommon, Tipperary See Halford (16Dec1920/1). Constable Smith, from London, joined the RIC on 5 October 1920, stationed in Kilcommon. His widow secured £2,700 compensation and his children £3,000.900 Mary Maher (16Dec1920/5) 60, Shopkeeper, Widowed with children, RC Main Street, Templemore, Tipperary Mary Maher, of Main Street, Templemore, was found by police on 13 December lying semi-conscious on her kitchen floor with a fractured skull. She died three days later. Her injuries were caused by a blunt instrument, probably a government hammer

found in the kitchen. Private A. O’Brien, Northamptonshire Regiment, who reportedly told a lance-corporal that ‘it was he and his missus’ who ‘done the old girl in down town’, was arrested and returned for trial on a charge of murder the following month.901 Robert Keeley902 (16Dec1920/6) RASC (T/32565), 26, Horse driver, Married with two children KGVH Keeley, from Summerhill, Dublin, served with the RASC (T/32565) in France from 1914 to 1915 and then with the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. He reenlisted in Dublin on 26 July 1919 in the Horse Transport Company. On the night of 15 December, civilians attacked Keeley and two companions on Corporation Street. Struck on the head by a bottle, he died next day. Buried GC (Garden Section. I. a. 113).903

17 DECEMBER 1920 Michael Edmonds (17Dec1920/1) 32, Fitter, Married with two children, RC Tipperary, Tipperary Edmonds, of 30 O’Connell Road, Tipperary, worked in the local casein factory. Taken from his home by armed and masked men at 01:00, his body was subsequently found, shot in the head, at a place known locally as Cup and Saucer Hill. He was most likely killed by Auxiliaries. Buried St Michael’s Cemetery, Tipperary.904 Leonard Ellis (17Dec1920/2) Lincolnshire Regiment (4793006), 27, CoE Glenacurrane, Limerick905 Ellis, from Monks Road, Lincoln, was stationed in Tipperary. About forty Volunteers under Donnchadh O’Hannigan, O/C ASU East Limerick Brigade, set an ambush in the Glenacurrane Valley on the Mitchelstown to Tipperary road. Spread out on high ground over a distance of about 200 yards, the IRA detained several civilians en route to a party being held nearby by the retired General Franks. The IRA deployed a captured Hotchkiss gun.

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A military party in a Crossley tender and a touring car were halted by an obstruction, and a tree was then felled to prevent them reversing. As the touring car approached the bend, Dick Willis and Leo O’Callaghan opened fire with the Hotchkiss gun. Troops in the lorry took cover and returned fire. Sergeant Ellis, who was in command, and Private Minchin were killed. Buried St Swithin’s Cemetery, Lincoln, Lincolnshire.906 RD: Minchin (17Dec1920/3) Joseph Minchin (17Dec1920/3) Lincolnshire Regiment (4794312), 17 Glenacurrane, Limerick See Ellis (17Dec1920/2). Private Minchin was stationed in Tipperary. His father was killed in France in 1917.907 Philip John O’Sullivan (17Dec1920/4) RIC (72019), 23, Solicitor, Engaged, RC JSH O’Sullivan, from Skibbereen, was son of Florence O’Sullivan, a journalist and the founder of the Southern Star, and Margaret Barry. He won an MC while a lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve, later qualifying as a solicitor. He joined the RIC on 21 July 1920, becoming a DI on 1 October, attached to the assistant inspector general’s office at Dublin Castle. According to Joe Leonard of the Squad, O’Sullivan ‘was too good at decoding’, so it was decided to kill him. O’Sullivan had just met his fiancée Alice Moore at 18:10 when he fell wounded outside 29 Henry Street. She thought that a shot had come from two men whom she had seen staring at them from the doorway of McDowell’s Jewellers. She was tending to her fiancé and had just turned him around when a man ran up and, after struggling with her, shot O’Sullivan again. He died shortly afterwards. Buried GC (South Section: S. a. 27.5). His father secured £1,500 compensation, his mother £500 and Alice Moore £1,500.908 Peter Shannon (17Dec1920/5) RIC (62069), 36, Farmer, Widowed with two children, RC Swanlinbar, Cavan From Mantua, Roscommon, Constable Shannon joined the RIC on 3 September

1906, stationed in Swanlinbar. His brother was also a policeman. A patrol under Sergeant Morahan came under fire at the north end of Swanlinbar village. Shannon jumped over a wall but was severely wounded in the head, dying in Agnes Fee’s cottage at about 22:00. He was posthumously awarded the constabulary medal. The RIC inspector general reported with some satisfaction that the family of the Leonard brothers, believed to have taken part in Shannon’s killing, had since encountered misfortune of almost biblical proportions: two sisters ‘who up to the time of the ambush had been perfectly healthy pined away and died. The father and mother were also stricken and are not expected to recover.’ Locals ‘believe that this is a result of the Priest’s warning that neither the murderers nor their relatives could expect any luck either in this world or in the next’. As guardian of Shannon’s young children, his sister Ellen Flynn secured £2,000 compensation.909

18 DECEMBER 1920 Cornelius Delaney (18Dec1920/1) IRA, 28, Farmer’s son, RC Mercy Hospital, Cork See Chapman (11Dec1920/1). ‘Con’ Delaney of Dublin Hill, Kilbarry, was lieutenant F Company, 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade. Buried SFC.910 William Delaney (18Dec1920/2) IRA, 28, Blacksmith, RC Kilfeacle, Tipperary ‘Bill’ Delaney from Dulla and James Looby of Dualla Company, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, were arrested by a military party who took them in a Crossley tender from Tipperary towards Cashel. On reaching Kilfeacle at about 18:00, a Ford motor car accompanying the tender broke down. While it was being pushed up the hill, Delaney and Looby allegedly attempted to escape. The escort opened fire, killing both men. The following night, Crown forces raided a house where James’s brother Laurence happened to be visiting. On hearing his name, they took him outside and shot him

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dead. Buried Dualla. In 1958 his sister Bridget secured a dependent’s allowance of £125: ‘I was only a girl when I had to face the Tans in Tipperary barricks [sic] to pick out my brother’s body.’911 RD: Looby (18Dec1920/3), Looby (19Dec 1920/3) James Looby (18Dec1920/3) IRA, 24, Labourer, RC Kilfeacle, Tipperary See Delaney (18Dec1920/2). Looby, from Ballyowen, Cashel, Tipperary, served in Dualla Company, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. Buried Dualla. As his father Laurence secured £325 compensation, he was deemed ineligible for a dependent’s award.912

19 DECEMBER 1920 Michael Walton (19Dec1920/1) 19, Farmer, RC Clonbealy, Newport, Tipperary After a party of about twenty Auxiliaries were attacked near Walton’s home in Rossaguile, Newport, two men were seen jumping into a cart and driving off at about 13:15. When they ignored an order to halt, fire was opened. Walton was killed outright, and Patrick O’Connor died shortly afterwards. It is unclear whether they had been involved in the attack. Private J. O’Connor of the Royal Munster Fusiliers, through his commanding officer in Cairo, wrote to the War Office, pointing out that his brother Patrick worked on the family farm to support his aged parents, and that neither of those killed were Sinn Féiners. Buried Killoscully Graveyard, Newport.913 RD: O’Connor (19Dec1920/2) Patrick O’Connor (19Dec1920/2) 17,914 Agricultural labourer, RC Clonbealy, Newport, Tipperary See Walton (19Dec1920/1). O’Connor lived in Fiddane, Newport.915 Laurence Looby (19Dec1920/3) IRA, 19, Agricultural labourer, RC Ballysheehan, Cahir, Tipperary See Delaney (18Dec1920/2). Looby, from Dualla, Tipperary, was reportedly adjutant

of D (Dualla) Company, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. Buried Dualla. As his father secured £325 compensation, he was deemed ineligible for a dependent’s award.916

20 DECEMBER 1920 James Whelan (20Dec1920/1) 27, Vintner, Married, RC Ballyroan, Laois At around 03:00 Rita McDonnell was woken by a knock on the front door, answered by her son-in-law James Whelan. Two armed masked men, dressed in dark coats and grey caps, entered, shouting, ‘Your money or your life.’ Rita McDonnell heard five revolver shots on the landing, after which she saw the men cycle away. Whelan had grabbed one raider’s police revolver, later produced in evidence, and was shot by the second intruder. Patrick McDonnell was shot in the lung when he went to Whelan’s aid. The two gunmen were quickly identified as constables J. H. Coburn and John Reeves. Sentenced to death by a court martial on 18 June 1921, their sentences were later commuted to life imprisonment. Incarcerated in Dartmoor, they were released on 8 May 1922 under the terms of the Treaty, being warned that ‘it would be unsafe for them to return to Ireland’.917 Buried Ballyouskill Graveyard, Ballyragget, Kilkenny. Thomas Walsh (20Dec1920/2) RIC (58465), 40, RC Ahanure, Callan, Kilkenny From Cork, Walsh joined the RIC on 1 October 1898, serving in Roscommon and Westmeath before transfer to Kilkenny in September 1900, stationed in John Street, Kilkenny. He was promoted to sergeant on 1 August 1920. Following an inconclusive engagement with a mixed cycle patrol, Volunteers from the 7th and 8th Battalions, Kilkenny Brigade, captured some bicycles. Paddy Ryan and Tom Maher, on two of the captured machines, ran into another mixed cycle patrol about two miles from Callan. They escaped into an adjoining field. Private Squibb cycled ahead

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to cut them off. Coming abreast of them, he opened fire. Ryan replied, hitting Squibb in the right eye. Ryan and Maher escaped through a wood at Trenchmore. Police reinforcements from Kilkenny in a Crossley tender passed soldiers of the Devonshire Regiment. A few minutes afterwards, there was an exchange of fire between the two groups. Sergeant Walsh was killed in the lorry. Buried Ballyragget, Kilkenny. During the funeral a civilian named Margaret Ryan was mortally wounded.918 SA: Ryan (23Dec1920/1) John Hynan (20Dec1920/3) 56, Ex-serviceman, RC Emly, Tipperary Hynan was from Emly. Constable Andrew McKinlay was walking towards Father John Connery’s house at about 17:30 when Hynan attacked him, striking him repeatedly with a stick. McKinlay fired several warning shots and Hynan appears to have been killed by a ricochet. The circumstances suggest that Hynan’s assault was attributable to drunkenness or mental instability, not politics.919 James Walsh (20Dec1920/4) 53, Shopkeeper, farmer, RC Danescastle, Carrig-on-Bannow, Wexford Walsh rented rooms above his shop as accommodation for RIC men stationed in Carrigon-Bannow Barracks. The IRA brought gelignite on a pony and trap to destroy it. Davy Sears, in command, entered Walsh’s shop at around 19:00, pretending that he wanted to buy cigarettes: I was attacked by this man at once. He jumped on me . . . a big strong man. We fell back out through the door. My men scattered and I suppose if I had kept my head . . . I would have knocked him out by hitting him on the head . . . I thought the police were coming out, so I shot him.

The IRA abandoned the operation, leaving a donkey nearby carrying 100 pounds of gelignite. Buried Ambrosetown, 23 December. His brother Richard secured £5 compensation with £400 for his nephew John.920

21 DECEMBER 1920 Patrick Tarrant (21Dec1920/1) 19, Trainee creamery manager, RC GPO, Oliver Plunkett Street, Cork Tarrant was from Ballintemple, Cork. Constables Edward Taylor DCM and J. H. Every were in the GPO at around 19:00, on private business, in civilian clothes, when Tarrant appeared from inside the office carrying a revolver, sprang onto the counter and jumped down among the public. He shouted, ‘Hands up or I’ll shoot.’ Every rushed at Tarrant, shouting, ‘Put that bloody thing down.’ Tarrant fired three shots. Despite being hit in the hip, Every fired twice, hitting Tarrant in the chest and leg. Taylor told an inquiry at Victoria Barracks on 24 December that Tarrant ‘had a moustache which . . . I found to be false’. Three other masked men carrying a canvas bag fired shots before running out through the back of the building. Tarrant’s father explained that ‘I am a commercial traveller and my business takes me from home a good deal. I heard my son was connected with the Volunteer movement.’ Buried SFC, Cork.921 Kate Maher (21Dec1920/2) 45, Servant, One child, RC Dundrum, Tipperary Kate Maher, an unmarried farm servant with one daughter, had been drinking with soldiers of the Lincolnshire Regiment in Norah Hennessey’s pub in Dundrum. Acting on a complaint, an RIC patrol found her and seven drunken soldiers behind the premises. They attempted to herd the soldiers back to their barracks. There they realised that some were missing. They later found Kate Maher, ‘her clothes . . . much disturbed’, lying barely alive behind a building. Her body bore marks ‘of considerable violence’: the back of her skull had been smashed by ‘some blunt instrument’, and she had ‘a lacerated wound in the vagina from which she was bleeding profusely’. A few feet away lay Private Thomas Bennett, ‘drunk and insensible’. She died some hours later. Under questioning from Bennett at a military court of inquiry in Dundrum on

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23 December, an RIC constable agreed that Kate Maher was ‘known locally as a woman of dissolute habits’. The court returned an open verdict. On 5 January 1921 the GOC in C General Macready wrote that ‘there is little doubt that the death of this woman was caused through ill-treatment at the hands of soldiers . . . the affair is most discreditable to the Military and to the . . . Lincolnshire Regiment’. At his court martial for murder in Cork on 16 July 1921, Bennett claimed he had seen Kate Maher go off with other soldiers. His counsel asked why another suspected soldier had been suddenly drafted out to serve in Russia. Bennett was acquitted.922

22 DECEMBER 1920 Timothy O’Donovan (22Dec1920/1) 31, Ex-serviceman, labourer, Married, RC Mercy Hospital, Cork O’Donovan, of No. 1 St Paul’s Avenue, was employed by Daniel Neal, fowl dealer. He was found lying wounded in a tobacconist shop at about 19:15 on 21 December, just after an attempted robbery at the nearby GPO during which Patrick Tarrant was shot dead by police. It is unclear whether Donovan was a bystander or had been involved in the crime. He died from abdominal wounds at about 03:00.923 SA: Tarrant (21Dec1920/1) Michael McNamara (22Dec1920/2) IRA, 28, Farmer, RC Darragh, Ennis, Clare McNamara was captain Doonbeg Company, West Clare Brigade. Michael Russell recalled how between 01:00 and 02:00 on 20 or 21 December 1920, Crown forces from Kilrush captured McNamara and William Shanahan in Doonbeg. They were taken to Kilrush RIC Barracks. A day or so after arrest, they were removed to Ennis by an escort of Royal Scots. McNamara, whom IRA sources said had been badly mistreated, was shot dead in disputed circumstances: the military said that he died when one of his escort accidentally discharged his rifle when their vehicle went over a bump.

BMH statements by Chambers and Russell described how William Shanahan suffered ‘most inhuman treatment. The unfortunate man, bereft of several of his finger and toe nails and with nearly every bone in his body broken, was left lying in a prison cell in Ennis Gaol for the most part of a week before death came to his relief.’ An entirely different version was offered by the military: Company Sergeant-Major W. Strath stated that Shanahan was handed over to him in good health at Ennis Gaol by an escort at 12:00 on 22 December. At 19:45 Strath, who was alone on duty, escorted Shanahan to the latrine. At some point Shanahan struck him in the right eye and tried to escape down the stairs. Strath caught him and, as they struggled, shot him in the head. Patrick Darcy, alleged to have informed on McNamara and Shanahan, was killed in Doonbeg in June 1921. Buried Doonbeg, Clare.924 RD: Shanahan (22Dec1920/3). SA: Darcy (17Jun1921/3) William Shanahan (22Dec1920/3) IRA, 26, Farmer’s son, RC Ennis Gaol, Clare See McNamara (22Dec1920/2). ‘Willie’ Shanahan, of the 3rd Battalion, West Clare Brigade, was chief of the Republican police. His father Patrick made an unsuccessful application under the Military Pension Acts.925 William Jones (22Dec1920/4) RIC (62330), 37, Miller, Married with three children, RC Newtownbarry, Wexford From Castleconnell, Limerick, Jones joined the RIC on 1 May 1907. Stationed in Newtownbarry since June 1918, he had previously served in Enniscorthy. At about 20:15, constables Jones and Martin Daly were in a private room of a pub drinking port. When Jones went to question three suspiciouslooking men outside, Ned Murphy of the ASU North Wexford Brigade shot him in the chest at point-blank range. Buried Castleconnell, Limerick.926

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Laurence McDonagh (22Dec1920/5) 36, Farmer, fisherman, RC Inishmore, Galway McDonagh lived in Mainistir, Inishmore. On the night of 18 December, a mixed party of military and police dropped men off at Kilmurvy, on the Connemara side of the island at about 02:00, before coming in to land at Kilronan. Almost every house from Kilmurvy to Kilronan was searched. Thirteen islanders were arrested and detained until the end of February 1921. McDonagh was the only fatality. Lieutenant W. W. Honeywood, 17th Lancers, said McDonagh, who was found shot in the right lung and paralysed in the lower body, was one of a number fired on for failing to halt when challenged during a military sweep. The Connacht Tribune reported that McDonagh had simply failed to understand the military’s orders. Father S. J. Walsh, parish priest of Kilronan, sought £120 in compensation for McDonagh’s family, twice securing meetings with the GOC in C Sir Nevil Macready. Without acknowledging liability, in April he authorised an ex gratia payment of £50, the largest amount he could sanction. Macready undertook to do his best to secure an additional £70 if the priest ensured that disturbances on the island ceased. Ultimately, Father Walsh was sent an ex gratia payment of £120 for the McDonagh family on 10 November 1921.927

23 DECEMBER 1920 Margaret Ryan (23Dec1920/1) 36, Grocer, Married, RC Infirmary, Callan, Kilkenny Margaret Ryan lived on Bridge Street, Callan. At around 17:30 on 21 December her husband Michael heard shots. He found her in agony in her bedroom, wounded in the abdomen. Jim Maher suggested that she had been letting a customer out of her shop when a shot rang out. Despite an operation, she died. A court of inquiry ruled that she was shot by a .45 revolver bullet fired from motor cars carrying J Company, Auxiliary Division, which were following the remains of the

late Sergeant Thomas Walsh. There were two further military investigations, neither of which produced adequate explanations for Margaret’s death.928 SA: Walsh (20Dec1920/2) Andrew Moynihan (23Dec1920/2) 43, Farmer, Married with four children, RC Castleisland to Tralee Road, Kerry Moynihan, a small farmer from Gneeveguilla, Kerry, was arrested at around 14:00 by a party of Auxiliaries when found in possession of a receipt for £1 paid to the IRA in July 1920. The Auxiliaries let him off the lorry to relieve himself. He supposedly attempted to escape, failed to halt, and was shot three times. The Last Post stated that Moynihan was tied to a lorry and dragged along the road till he died. John Scannell, captain A (Anablaha) Company, Kerry No. 2 Brigade, claimed that Moynihan was a Volunteer killed in reprisal for an earlier train hold-up near Rathmore. The death was the subject of parliamentary questions on 10 March and 11 April 1921. He is commemorated on a monument in Rathmore, though not listed as a Volunteer.929 William Gaffney (23Dec1920/3) RIC (63877), 35, Creamery manager, Married, RC Mullaghslin, Carrickmore, Tyrone From Manorhamilton, Leitrim, Gaffney joined the RIC on 15 June 1908, serving in Roscommon and Galway before transfer to Tyrone in 1917. His brother was also a policeman. Gaffney, a passenger and guide in a motor car which overturned at around 18:00 at a sharp bend near Mullaghslin, died of a broken neck. Buried Manorhamilton. His widow secured a pension of £39.930

24 DECEMBER 1920 Joseph Mullan (24Dec1920/1) 23, RC Killucan, Cookstown, Tyrone Mullan expected trouble. He apparently confronted raiders at about 01:00 in a field, saying not to enter his home because his parents were frail. He was then shot. Patrick

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McKenna, captain Dunamore Company, Dungannon Battalion, said Mullan, a former Volunteer, was shot because he fired a shotgun at an IRA party carrying out raids against poteen distillers. Mullan’s father Michael secured £150 compensation.931 John Leen (24Dec1920/2) IRA (Kerry No. 2 Brigade), 26, Farmer, RC Ballydwyer, Ballymacelligott, Kerry Leen, an IRA captain from Rathanny, Tralee and Maurice Reidy were having a Christmas drink in a friend’s house which was raided by Auxiliaries at about 19:45. Major John A. MacKinnon claimed that as he entered, he heard a misfire and immediately ordered two men at a table to put their hands up. One drew a revolver. MacKinnon shot Maurice Reidy in the face and John Leen through the head just as he attempted to fire a second shot. Bessie Cahill, who was present, claimed that, whereas Leen was shot instantly, the unarmed Reidy was allowed to pray before being killed. An Auxiliary refused an order to kill Reidy, so MacKinnon ‘retorted “I will finish the job myself ”’, shooting him in the head. The two bodies were then dragged out of the house, which was set on fire. MacKinnon then, bizarrely, gave the owner a lift to fetch a priest who came and anointed the remains. Buried with Reidy, Rath Cemetery, Tralee. His father secured a £75 gratuity.932 RD: Reidy (24Dec1920/3). SA: MacKinnon (15Apr1921/1) Maurice Reidy (24Dec1920/3) IRA (Ballymacelligott Company), 26, Farmer, RC Ballydwyer, Ballymacelligott, Kerry See Leen (24Dec1920/2). Mossie Reidy, from Ballymacelligott, was a renowned weight thrower. Thomas Walsh (24Dec1920/4) East Lancashire Regiment (3379127), 19, Tripe dresser, RC Kilquane, Headford, Killarney, Kerry From Blackburn, Walsh enlisted at Preston on 22 February 1920. He was accidentally shot dead while on duty in Kilquane. Buried Blackburn Cemetery (RC. 2399).933

Jack Evans (24Dec1920/5) 1st South Lancashire Regiment (3644803), 25, CoE Royal Hospital Kilmainham, Dublin Private Evans, from Farnborough, Hampshire, an officer’s orderly, was killed by a sentry near the Tower Gate of the Royal Hospital in Kilmainham after failing to heed a challenge and warning shot. He was in civilian clothes. Buried GMC (CE 819).934

25 DECEMBER 1920 Peter Shields (25Dec1920/1) IRA, Married with two children, 21, RC Omeath, Louth See Canning (13Dec1920/2). From Newry, Shields played in the ‘John Mitchel’ (Newry) Fife and Drum Band. An officer of the 2nd (Newry) Brigade, he died from ‘numerous bomb wounds’ received twelve days earlier during the ‘Egyptian Arch’ ambush. Secretly buried near Omeath, ten months later he was reinterred in St Mary’s Old Chapel Cemetery, Newry. His widow Ellen and children Jack and Lucy later received dependents’ awards.935 Benjamin Swain (25Dec1920/2) King’s Royal Rifle Corps (6840399), 21 Infirmary, Downpatrick, Down From Sussex, Rifleman Swain was stationed in Ballykinlar, Down. He and comrades were discussing revolvers when Rifleman Shipway accidentally discharged one, mortally wounding Swain. Buried Hastings Cemetery (L. D. F25).936 Alfred Glazebrook (25Dec1920/3) 23, Naval rating Queenstown (Cobh), Cork The CFR describes how Leading Signalman Glazebrook of the sloop HMS Heather choked on his food. Both his brothers had died in the Great War.937

26 DECEMBER 1920 Elizabeth Scales (26Dec1920/1) 19, Clerk, CoI St Alphonsus Street, Limerick At about 19:00 Elizabeth Scales and Constable George Richardson were accosted by four

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men as they left church. Richardson tried to draw his revolver. A struggle ensued during which Elizabeth came between the men, crying out, ‘Don’t shoot him.’ Richardson then fled, and heard a shot. He returned with fellow officers to find Elizabeth slumped in a doorway. Hit in the right breast, she died very quickly. Buried St Mary’s Cathedral Cemetery.938 James Hickey (26Dec1920/2) IRA, 25, Draper’s assistant, RC Military Barracks, Tipperary, Tipperary Hickey, from Knocknagoshel, Kerry, lived and worked at 31 Main Street, Tipperary. Captain B Company, 4th Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, he was detained on 21 December in Tipperary Barracks. Sergeant Frederick Woods, Lincolnshire Regiment, stated that at about 15:00 Hickey rushed at him, attempting to seize his rifle. Woods bayoneted Hickey in the chest. IRA veterans maintained that Hickey had fallen ill and become delirious: ‘The sergeant shouted at him to stop, then the sergeant bayonetted him and killed him.’ Buried Dysert, Castleisland, Kerry.939 Michael J. McAuliffe (26Dec1920/3) 28, Farmer’s son, RC Dysert, Lixnaw, Kerry McAuliffe was shot in the thigh near Lixnaw Post Office at around 16:00 on 12 December while attending a neighbour’s funeral. He died of erysipelas (a bacterial infection). Press reports suggested that he was accidentally shot by police. Buried Dysert, Lixnaw.940

27 DECEMBER 1920 John Quinlan (27Dec1920/1) IRA, 33, Motor driver, Married, RC Cahirguillamore House, Bruff, Limerick Born in the US, Quinn lived in Grange, Kilmallock, Limerick, and was lieutenant Grange Company, East Limerick Brigade. He was one of five Volunteers to die due to a major security failure. The 3rd Battalion

council organised a fund-raising dance at Cahirguillamore House, the unoccupied residence of Lord Guillamore. A cover story was circulated. Everyone actually invited was told to go to a particular crossroads, from where they would be further directed. Nonetheless, Crown forces received accurate information about the dance, possibly through an innocent slip by the mother of one Volunteer. Approximately two hundred attended. At 00:30 on 27 December, a shot was heard but was initially discounted as a false alarm. At about 01:00 a mixed patrol of military and police took sentries by surprise. Daniel Sheehan, carrying a rifle behind the house, was fired on and mortally wounded. John Quinlan failed to heed a challenge, was fired on and died instantly. Martin Conway, wounded, was tracked by a police bloodhound which he shot before himself being killed. Henry Wade died of wounds. Edward Moloney shot Constable Alfred Hodgsden before being killed himself.941 Women were released at around 08:00, and at 11:00 all the men – 138 according to reports – were taken to Limerick Jail. Most were tried before a court martial and imprisoned in Portland and Dartmoor prisons. This disaster, involving the death or capture ‘of most of the blackguards for miles around’, broke the back of the Bruff Battalion. Quinlan, Conway, Moloney, Sheehan and Wade were buried at Grange, Kilmallock, Limerick. Quinlan is commemorated on a monument at Murroe.942 RD: Conway (27Dec1920/4), Hodgsden (27Dec1920/2), Moloney (27Dec1920/3), Sheehan (27Dec1920/9), Wade (27Dec1920/8) Alfred C. Hodgsden (27Dec1920/2) RIC (75225), 32, Ex-serviceman Cahirguillamore House, Bruff, Limerick See Quinlan (27Dec1920/1). Constable Hodgsden, from London and once of the London Fire Brigade, joined the RIC on 5 November 1920, stationed in Bruff. Buried Crystal Palace District Cemetery, London. His father Frederick secured £1,150 compensation.943

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Edward Moloney (27Dec1920/3) IRA, 25, Labourer, RC Cahirguillamore House, Bruff, Limerick See Quinlan (27Dec1920/1). Moloney, from Grange, served in Grange Company, East Limerick Brigade. Martin Conway (27Dec1920/4) IRA, 30, Farmer’s son, RC Cahirguillamore House, Bruff, Limerick See Quinlan (27Dec1920/1). Conway, from Holycross, Bruff, captain of his local company, is commemorated on a monument at Murroe. Patrick McCann (27Dec1920/5) RIC (70598), 30, Ex-serviceman, RC RIC Barracks, Cappamore, Limerick From Castlebar, Mayo, Constable McCann joined the RIC on 8 March 1920, stationed in Cappamore. As barracks orderly on duty, he had a loaded revolver. At around 01:00 Constable Martin Morris (69235) inadvertently discharged it while chatting with other officers. Shot in the face, McCann died at 02:30. Buried Cappamore.944 Patrick O’Brien (27Dec1920/6) 38, Hardware merchant, RC Clonbeg, Glen of Aherlow, Tipperary O’Brien was spending Christmas at Longford, Glen of Aherlow. Walking in stormy weather on the night of 26 December, and possibly drunk, he and another man did not hear a challenge from a Green Howards sentry, who fired. O’Brien, shot through the back, was mortally wounded. He died at around 03:00. Although wounded in the knee, his companion managed to slip away. Buried Bansha, Tipperary.945 William Muir (27Dec1920/7) RIC (73036), 30, Stonemason, ex-serviceman, Married RIC Barracks, Ballylongford, Kerry From Edinburgh, Muir joined the RIC on 8 September 1920, stationed in Ballylongford. He cut his throat in the washroom at around 10:00. Sergeant McNamara deposed that some weeks before Muir had been kidnapped by the IRA and held for three

days. He returned in ‘a shaky and nervous condition . . . he has been very silent and would only speak when spoken to’. John Ahern recalled that two policemen had been captured by the Ballylongford Company. The military threatened to raze Ballylongford to the ground if the men were not freed within forty-eight hours. Brian O’Grady recalled a delay because the local IRA insisted on written orders to release their prisoner.946 Henry Wade (27Dec1920/8) IRA, 21, Labourer, RC Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick See Quinlan (27Dec1920/1). From Ballyneety, Limerick, Wade served in Ballyneety Company, Mid Limerick Brigade. His father secured a gratuity of £40, and in 1953 his mother Mary secured an annual allowance.947 Daniel Sheehan (27Dec1920/9) IRA, 25, Labourer, RC Military Hospital, New Barracks, Limerick See Quinlan (27Dec1920/1). Sheehan, from Grange, served in Grange Company, East Limerick Brigade. Isaac James Rea (27Dec1920/10) RIC (70130), 20, Farmer’s son, CoI CMHC From Durrus, Bantry, Cork, Rae joined the RIC on 13 January 1920, stationed in Cappoquin. He was hit in the back when he and Sergeant Patrick Walsh were fired upon on Main Street by four Volunteers of the Waterford No. 2 Brigade from a slowly moving motor car. A woman was also hit. Buried Durrus.948 Joseph Morrison (27Dec1920/11) Protestant Belfast Morrison, of 19 Boyne Square, died of injuries sustained during earlier disturbances.949

28 DECEMBER 1920 Timothy B. Madigan (28Dec1920/1) IRA, 24, Farmer, RC Clashganniff House, Shanagolden, Limerick Madigan, of Clashganniff House, Shanagolden, was captain Shanagolden Company, West

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Limerick Brigade, described in the Mungret Annual as a ‘model of earnest faith, industry and kindness’. At around 15:30, an RIC patrol arrested Timothy’s brother William, and then went to his home. Timothy, working in the haggard, was called on to halt and was shot when he failed to stop. This was evidently a further reprisal for the roughing up of two RIC constables in August. Buried Knockpatrick, Limerick. He is commemorated on monuments at Newcastle West and Murroe, Limerick.950 Michael Smith (28Dec1920/2) RC Belleek, Newtownhamilton, Armagh John Grant, captain Mullaghbawn Company, recalled that following an attack on Camlough RIC Barracks, Smith was shot in Belleek by a USC party, supposedly for failing to halt when challenged to do so. His brother Patrick was arrested for possession of dum-dum bullets.951 Joseph Doherty (28Dec1920/3) IRA, RC Boleran, Garvagh, Londonderry As police vehicles drew up outside a Sinn Féin dance held at Boleran School near Garvagh, they were fired on. The RIC replied, killing Doherty. He was found about 15 yards from the schoolhouse with a bullet wound to the right temple.952

29 DECEMBER 1920 Martin Mullin (29Dec1920/1) RIC (48593), 61, Labourer, Married with four children, RC Main Street, Midleton, Cork From Roscommon, Mullin joined the RIC on 29 June 1882, serving in Waterford and Tipperary. Promoted to sergeant in 1907, he retired in 1910. Mullin was stationed in Midleton as a special constable, apparently without a new RIC number. Joseph Aherne, vice-O/C 4th Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, recalled a carefully planned attack on one of the nightly police patrols in the town. Sixteen men of the ASU, 4th Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, took part at about 21:45. Mullin was killed, and constables Thorpe and Dray subsequently

died. Buried Clashmore, Waterford. The families of the three dead policemen secured a total of £10,250 compensation.953 RD: Dray (31Dec1920/2), Thorpe (30Dec 1920/2)

30 DECEMBER 1920 William Slattery (30Dec1920/1) IRA, 25, Farmer, RC Military Hospital, Tipperary, Tipperary Slattery, from Emly, was a captain in the 3rd Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade. A police patrol under DI Gallogly arrived at Emly searching for Daniel Quirke and William Slattery, both on the run. Slattery was arrested. Gallogly believed Slattery had taken part in an attack on police and military at Emly in June 1920: ‘I know many of his relatives – notably his father & uncle have always discouraged violence, but had no control over the deceased.’ At about 13:20, as the tender slowed down at Roseborough, Slattery apparently jumped out and attempted to scale a wall bordering the road. Shot, he afterwards died in hospital (although locals maintained that he was killed outright and that his body was dragged behind the lorry to Tipperary). Slattery’s capture was blamed on Paddy O’Gorman, a cattle dealer, arrangements for whose execution on 15 March 1921 were interrupted by a military patrol, resulting in his escape and the death of Volunteer James ‘Ned’ Crawford. O’Gorman was subsequently recaptured, shot and left for dead by the IRA, but he survived and ‘disappeared to England’, later securing £1,100 compensation. Buried Grange, Kilmallock, Limerick. Commemorated on a monument at Murroe, his family maintained he was murdered. His mother Mary failed to secure a dependent’s award, his father having previously received a £100 gratuity.954 SA: Crawford (25Mar1921/3) Arthur Thorpe (30Dec1920/2) RIC (76333), 23, Fitter’s mate, ex-serviceman, Protestant CMHC See Mullin (29Dec1920/1). Thorpe, from Middlesex, was stationed in Midleton, Cork.

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His parents secured £350 compensation. Buried London.955

c. 30 DECEMBER 1920 James Blagriff (30Dec1920/3) 45, Ex-serviceman, agricultural labourer, Married with children, RC Ballykeeran, Athlone, Westmeath Blagriff worked for Simon Whelan of Glasson. Twice wounded while in the RFA, he had a weekly pension of 12s.6d. Abducted from his employer’s farm on 30 December, his body was found next day by police in a bog ‘in a kneeling position with his hands clasped’, a piece of cardboard with the word ‘Spy’ around his neck. His widow Anne said that a month previously Patrick Killin, who lived in a separate part of the same building, had blamed her husband when the military raided his quarters, which had been used for Sinn Féin meetings. Frank O’Connor, captain Coosan Company, claimed that while drunk Blagriff confided in his employer that he planned to join the police, adding that he knew most of the local IRA. Blagriff denied this to his IRA captors. His execution was sanctioned by Séamus O’Meara, O/C Athlone Brigade. Michael McCormack, adjutant Drumraney Battalion, said he was ‘never satisfied’ that Blagriff was fairly condemned. The Last Post, perhaps reflecting local IRA embarrassment at the dubious circumstances, wrongly claimed that the RIC shot Blagriff.956

31 DECEMBER 1920 Richard Leonard (31Dec1920/1) IRA, 26, School attendance officer, insurance agent, RC Ballybrood, Caherconlish, Limerick Leonard served in Ballybricken Company, Mid Limerick Brigade. His O/C Morgan Portley recalled that ‘the murder gang’ mounted an early-morning raid on Michael Hannon’s house in Ballybrood. They ordered Leonard outside and shot him. Mary Hannon deposed that she was in bed about midnight on 30 December. Her husband admitted three armed officers and a driver who asked where the McMahon

house was. Hannon said he would show them and went upstairs to get dressed. Davis followed him. He found Leonard fully dressed and accused him of being a Sinn Féiner. Major Gray decided to take Leonard to Bruff. What followed is unclear, but Leonard was shot and fatally wounded by Captain W. Davis, Northumberland Fusiliers, attached to the MGC, supposedly while attempting to escape. This cock and bull story disturbed even the military authorities. The three officers involved had apparently been on a drunken ramble, returning to their billets almost five hours late, claiming they had got lost, without even mentioning that they had killed someone. Colonel-Commandant Cameron, com­ mand­ing the 18th Infantry Brigade, had the officers arrested on 2 January 1921 on a charge of murder: Gray and Davis must have been ‘to a certain extent under the influence of drink . . . when they arrived at the Hannon house’: There seems no reason why under ordinary circumstances, Leonard should have made a dash for liberty, knowing what the risks would be. I think he must have been affected by his treatment when arrested. After leaving Ballybrood, the officers, instead of returning to Bruff, went to Caherconlish, which lies in exactly the opposite direction. There is no pretence of their going there on duty and the proceeding seems highly irregular.

In March 1921, an army legal officer told the under secretary at Dublin Castle that, as the judge advocate general advised that Davis could not be prosecuted for killing Leonard, the GOC had asked the Army Council to have him removed from the army. Buried Hospital, Limerick. He is commemorated on a monument at Caherconlish.957 Ernest Dray (31Dec1920/2) RIC (71631), 21, Ex-serviceman, Protestant CMHC See Mullin (29Dec1920/1). From Kent, Constable Dray joined the RIC on 11 June 1920, stationed in Limerick and Midleton, Cork. He died of wounds at 17:30. He was

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posthumously awarded the constabulary medal. Buried London.958 Reuben George Lockyer (31Dec1920/3) King’s Liverpool Regiment, 20 Skibbereen, Cork Private Lockyer accidentally shot himself during a night search at Mohona, Skibbereen. Three men were arrested after troops came under fire during the operation. Buried Anfield Cemetery, Liverpool.959 Unknown Maher (31Dec1920/4) Ex-serviceman, RC Carricknaughton, Athlone, Westmeath Seamus O’Meara and Patrick Lennon described the killing in December of an ex-soldier named Maher from Irishtown. A beggar known as ‘Slickfoot’ on account of a false leg, he is listed alongside James Blagriff and George Johnston as men killed by the Athlone Brigade as spies. Dumped in the River Shannon, his body floated on account of his false leg. He was then buried nearby.960 RD: Blagriff (31Dec1920/3), Johnston (11Apr 1921/3) Percy Taylor (31Dec1920/5) Soldier Kilbree, Clonakilty, Cork A deserter from the Essex Regiment in Bandon, Taylor and his companion Watling were shot by the IRA as spies ‘some time after’ the Essex Regiment’s killing of Joseph Begley and two companions at Bandon on 2 December 1920.961 RD: Watling (31Dec1920/6). SA: Begley (2Dec 1920/2)

uniform without badges’, who claimed to be a deserter. He was held for two days in an unoccupied cottage on Matt Donovan’s farm. Then: it was . . . decided to execute him. . . . He died very bravely without the slightest flinching which convinced us that he was a British intelligence officer. . . . His remains were buried on the farm . . . as far as I know, the remains are still there.962

Unknown O’Neill (31Dec1920/8) 32, Ex-serviceman Rosegreen, Cashel, Tipperary The IRA captured a suspicious man in civilian clothes at Killusty. He gave his name as O’Neill, of Bridge Street, Arklow, but said nothing further. He was held for about three weeks, while inquiries were made. It was learned that he had called to a few houses asking if he could be put in touch with Dan Breen’s column, and that an O’Neill of Bridge Street, Arklow, had joined the army years before, although his whereabouts since were unknown. Sentenced to death, O’Neill was shot and buried in a field near Rosegreen. Séamus Robinson, the Brigade O/C, stated that: Fr. Kingston of Rockwell College attended him. . . . Just as he was about to be shot he made one last dramatic outburst of denial that he was a spy. I went over to him and said quietly: ‘Young man, you are about to die. Don’t say anything that may sully your conscience at this awful moment.’ Instantly he had himself under control. ‘I’m not afraid to die’ was all he answered.

In 1926 a Garda report described him as ‘the only person shot as a spy’ in the Clonmel district.963

Thomas Watling (31Dec1920/6) Soldier Kilbree, Clonakilty, Cork See Taylor (31Dec1920/5). Unknown soldier (31Dec1920/7) Ballyvaloon, Grenagh, Cork The Grenagh Company, Cork No. 1 Brigade, recorded capturing ‘a military spy’, ‘in

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1921 1 JANUARY 1921 Patrick Walsh (1Jan1921/1) 19, Farmer’s son, RC Town Hall, Galway Walsh, of Hollymount, Mayo, was detained on 21 November. ‘Of splendid physique’, a court of inquiry found he died of influenza. Six fellow prisoners were allowed to carry his coffin to the mortuary, and another was allowed out to purchase two wreaths.1 Michael Mullins (1Jan1921/2) IRA (South Roscommon Brigade), 31, Farmer’s son, RC Lough Attalia Hospital, Galway Mullins, of Springlawn, Moylough, Galway, detained on 28 November, died of influenza contracted while held in Galway Town Hall. A well-known footballer, his family denied rebel links. Buried Moylough.2 RD: Walsh (1Jan1921/1) Michael O’Meara (1Jan1921/3) 40, Schoolteacher, ex-serviceman, Married with eight children, RC Kiltankin, Ballyporeen, Tipperary O’Meara, from Hospital, Limerick, taught in Knockainey National School. An alcoholic, he allegedly accompanied Crown forces on raids. This ‘sealed his doom’. Patrick Meehan, ‘dressed up as a woman of the tinker class complete with shawl which covered a Peter the Painter automatic [pistol]’, and Jim O’Brien captured him. Held before execution following a court martial, his body was left at Kiltankin on 1 January, bearing the label ‘spy’. His widow Florence secured £2,850 compensation.3 David Tobin (1Jan1921/4) IRA (ASU East Limerick), 25, Blacksmith, RC Glenbrohane, Ballylanders, Limerick As Lieutenant R. C. Keller, the Hampshire Regiment intelligence officer for south Limerick, approached Tobin’s forge around 13:30, he saw two men running up the

mountain. Soldiers fired, mortally wounding Thomas Murphy in the groin. When asked why he ran, he said ‘If I had [halted] you would have killed me.’ Tobin was attempting to fire when shot. A revolver, allegedly loaded with dum-dum bullets, was recovered. His brother Ned recalled that a subsequent decision to shoot a local informer was not followed up. Buried Ballylanders, Limerick. Tobin and Murphy are commemorated on a monument at Murroe. Tobin’s sister Mary Ryan was refused a pension.4 RD: Murphy (1Jan1921/5) Thomas F. Murphy (1Jan1921/5) IRA (ASU East Limerick), 29, Baker, RC Glenbrohane, Ballylanders, Limerick See Tobin (1Jan1921/4). Murphy, from Ballylanders, had been detained in 1916 and in 1917. Lieutenant Keller stated that as he lay dying, ‘He asked me to shake hands which I did.’5 Michael Francis Malone (1Jan1921/6) RIC (70142), 30, Electrician, ex-serviceman, RC Main Street, Ballybay, Monaghan A policeman’s son from Westmeath, Malone enlisted in 1909, and was discharged from the 6th Lancers in 1919. He joined the RIC in January 1920, stationed in Ballybay. At around 21:00, a four-man police patrol on Main Street was attacked by the ASU Carrickmacross Battalion, wounding constables Cromwell and Vanbeest. When Malone and others went to assist, he ‘was fired on and at the same time hit on the head with the butt of a gun’. He wounded one attacker before dying. Next morning, Malone’s body was found near that of John Somerville. The RIC believed Somerville was hit accidentally as he emerged from Coyle’s pub, whereas the IRA claimed that they killed him as he attempted to raise the alarm. Owen and Edward McGahey, Patrick McDermott and James Keenan, convicted in Belfast of Malone’s murder, were released after the

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Treaty. Malone was posthumously awarded the constabulary medal. His father James secured £600 compensation.6 RD: Somerville (1Jan1921/7)

were sentenced in June for kidnapping. The Curraghboy Company ‘was reduced to an outpost’.9 SA: Killian (23Sep1921/3)

John Somerville (1Jan1921/7) 38, Butcher, Presbyterian Main Street, Ballybay, Monaghan See Malone (1Jan1921/6). Buried Derryvally Presbyterian Church burial ground.7

John Lawlor (1Jan1921/9) 18, Clerical student, RC All Hallows College, Listowel, Kerry Son of the parish clerk, Lawlor was beaten by police on Main Street between 23:30 and 23:40. A court of inquiry exonerated the police, but did not explain his head injury. Buried Ardfert. His father’s compensation application failed because as a cleric John would not have been a source of financial support, but £30 funeral costs was awarded.10

Martin Heavy8 (1Jan1921/8) 30, Ex-serviceman, labourer, RC Shannon River, Roscommon Heavy, from Brideswell, Ballynamona, Roscommon, was abducted along with his mother, sister, young niece and nephew on the night of 30 December by masked members of the Curraghboy Company, 4th Battalion, South Roscommon Brigade. His sister described how, when raiders asked him to give information ‘about the Volunteers . . . he said he could not’. Held overnight in a cattle shed, the family were taken next evening by ‘mule and trap’ through Knockcroghery to ‘a big house’. There the party was split up, with Heavy’s elderly mother and young niece moved by boat. His family, described dismissively as ‘his women friends’, were expelled, ‘rowed for an hour and a half ’ across the Shannon by James Brehony and Patrick Foxe to Longford, where they found shelter before travelling to Athlone. Heavy ‘was left behind with his hands tied’. Thrown into the Shannon, his body was never recovered. Among those involved were Thomas Naughton, Richard Mee, James Brehony and Luke Killian. Heavy’s may be the death recalled by Patrick Mullooly: ‘As the spy slid over the edge of the boat in midstream, [Frank] Treacy, as if speaking to himself, said: “I will never die content until the Shannon is full of you.”’ Ten Curraghboy Company Volunteers were arrested in January 1921, each suffering ‘a severe beating’. Heavy’s sister and mother identified some of them by their gait, build and voices. A defence lawyer argued that ‘the women who purported to identify the accused were labouring under excitement, and a feeling that they had a grievance’, but all

3 JANUARY 1921 Jeremiah Casey (3Jan1921/1) 17, Farmer’s son, RC Derryfineen, Macroom, Cork DI E. Fleming, C Company, Auxiliary Division led a search of a house near Casey’s home at Derryfineen at about 12:35. Four men ran away, failing to halt when ordered. Casey was shot, the others arrested. Buried Ballyvourney, Cork.11 Joseph Green (3Jan1921/2) 52, Farmer, Married, RC Tourahoun, Kilrush, Clare Green was shot through a window as he sat by the fire ‘reading a paper’. A newspaper reported rumours that ‘there is nothing political in the shooting’.12

4 JANUARY 1921 George Frend (4Jan1921/1) c. 70, Land agent, farmer, Married with four children, CoI Silverhill, Cloughjordan, Tipperary Frend, a Synodsman of the Church of Ireland, was shot as he returned by horse and trap from Moneygall, Offaly, at about 16:00 on 28 December. He died of heart failure. The RIC recovered one rifle case. Edward Frend testified that his father was unpopular, having pursued several tenants for rent arrears. This appears primarily a freelance agrarian attack, probably carried out by two local Volunteers from the ASU Tipperary No. 1 Brigade. Frend’s

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killing was mentioned by Archbishop Charles Frederick D’Arcy, the primate, at the 1921 General Synod of the Church of Ireland.13

robbed him of his shop’s takings on Crescent Avenue, near his home. Off-duty Black and Tans were suspected. Buried St Munchin’s.16

Finbar Darcy (4Jan1921/2) 28, Lay brother, RC Cornmarket Street, Cork A postmaster’s son from Bishopstown, Cork, Darcy wore clerical garb although recently dismissed from the Alexian Brothers order. Attracting suspicion by his heavy drinking in his hotel, he was questioned by Cadets Roberts and Wakefield of R Company, Auxiliary Division. They searched him in his room, and telephoned for assistance. When Lieutenant A. R. Roe, Hampshire Regiment, arrived, Darcy had escaped through a window. Eventually discovered naked under a bed in the servants’ quarters, he was brought back to his room and ordered to dress. He rushed at Roe, seized his right wrist and shouted, ‘Don’t shoot, Captain’, or words to that effect. He made further such efforts before being put in a lorry for transfer to the Bridewell. After failing to grab a soldier’s rifle, he jumped out of the lorry and was shot dead. The raconteur Eoin ‘the Pope’ O’Mahony recalled a rumour that Darcy and others had entrusted £8,000 robbed from the GPO to a woman who then disappeared with it. This was possibly the robbery on 21 December 1920 which cost Patrick Tarrant his life. Buried SFC.14 SA: Tarrant (21Dec1920/1)

6 JANUARY 1921

5 JANUARY 1921 Michael Cassidy (5Jan1921/1) 35, Agricultural labourer, RC Dysart, Castlecomer, Kilkenny Cassidy slept in an outhouse on James Campion’s farm where he was shot by two masked men at about 07:30. When drunk he had apparently spoken against the IRA, and supposedly had guided Crown forces locally.15 Michael Collier (5Jan1921/2) 60, Provisions merchant, Married with children, Protestant Broad Street, Limerick Collier, from Manchester, died of injuries sustained on 1 January when three men

Patrick Durr (6Jan1921/1) IRA (South Roscommon Brigade), 22, Farmer’s son, RC Kennyborough, Ballintober, Roscommon Fearing a raid on their homes, ‘Paddy’ Durr, son of Patrick Durr of Toberkeagh, Ballintober, and William Cunnane slept at Agnes Leonard’s, nearby. At about 03:30, armed and masked men came in. Cunnane and Mrs Leonard’s son escaped, but Durr was taken outside and shot. Mrs Leonard said the raiders were not local. This was one of a number of killings probably attributable to a Crown forces death squad operating in Roscommon. Buried Ballintober Cemetery. His father secured £750 compensation.17 SA: Conry (7Apr1921/1), Durr (7Apr1921/1), Monds (7Apr1921/2) John McSweeney18 (6Jan1921/2) 15, Agricultural labourer, RC Union Hospital, Kanturk, Cork Lieutenant C. McKerron, MGC, stated that at 15:30 on 4 January he brought twenty men by lorry to reinforce Newmarket RIC station after an ambush nearby. At Allenbridge, soldiers fired with a machine gun on civilians running away through fields. McSweeney, who was returning from the creamery, was hit in the back.19

7 JANUARY 1921 Francis Luke Shortall (7Jan1921/1) RIC (64741), 38, Ex-serviceman, Married, RC CMHC From Tipperary, Constable Shorthall joined the RIC in 1909, serving in Kilkenny. Captured at Mons in 1914 while serving with the Irish Guards, he rejoined the RIC on 21 February 1919, stationed in Empress Place RIC Barracks, Cork. At about 19:40 on 5 January eight RIC leaving Union Quay Barracks were attacked by twenty-five Volunteers under Mick Murphy from positions at Parnell Bridge, Anglesea Street and Parliament Bridge, supported by

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ex-soldier Seán Healy operating a Lewis gun. Six constables and five civilians were wounded. Wounded in the chest and thigh, Shorthall died from gangrene. Constable Thomas Johnston died thirteen days later. Buried Wexford. His widow Mary received £2,250 compensation, his father and sister £1,250.20 RD: Johnston (20Jan1921/10) Thomas James McGrath (7Jan1921/2) RIC (65788), 30, Farmer, ex-serviceman, RC Kilshruley, Ballinalee, Longford A policeman’s son from Croom, Limerick, McGrath joined the RIC in 1911, serving in Cork. Enlisted in the RIR in 1916, he was commissioned into the West Yorkshire Regiment, becoming a captain. Severely wounded in 1917, he won the MC. Rejoining the RIC in October 1919, he was immediately promoted to sergeant, serving in Charleville, and became a DI in November 1920, serving in Ballinalee. At about 17:00, as six RIC approached a cottage, Seán Mac Eoin, O/C North Longford ASU, rushed out of the door: ‘There were two old ladies in the house and I could not defend myself there.’ He told his court martial that ‘fire was opened by both sides simultaneously’. McGrath fell, hit in the neck: Mac Eoin argued he could have been killed inadvertently by his own men. A constable was wounded. Mac Eoin and another Volunteer escaped. Captured on 2 March, Mac Eoin was sentenced to death, despite an appeal for clemency from McGrath’s family. The Truce saved him. He was eventually released, at Michael Collins’s† insistence, in August 1921. McGrath’s father John secured £2,500 compensation.21

8 JANUARY 1921 Michael McGrath (8Jan1921/1) IRA (East Waterford Brigade), 25, Joiner, RC Pickardstown, Tramore, Waterford ‘Mick’ McGrath, of 34 Poleberry, was one of about fifty IRA who mounted an ambush at Pickardstown. Another party under Pat Keating attacked Tramore RIC Barracks at around 23:00 to lure in military reinforcements from Waterford. A drunken Volunteer

fired prematurely, enabling the military to seize the initiative. McGrath and Tom O’Brien were killed on the Ballinattin road. An IRA inquiry concluded that ‘all [IRA] parties were 2 & 3 hours late, and three men’ were drunk. Liam Lynch, O/C 1st Southern Division, asked GHQ whether ‘there [is] any use in our courtmartialling those . . . under the influence of drink?’ Buried Carbally Cemetery, Waterford. Commemorated by a monument on the Ballinattin road, McGrath was the first Waterford city Volunteer killed during the War of Independence.22 RD: O’Brien (8Jan1921/2). SA: Keating (19Mar1921/17) Thomas O’Brien (8Jan1921/2) IRA (East Waterford Brigade), 24, Farmer, RC Pickardstown, Tramore, Waterford See McGrath (8Jan1921/1). ‘Tom’ O’Brien was only identified after the Truce. Buried Ballygunner.23 Michael Kennedy (8Jan1921/3) IRA (Tipperary No. 1 Brigade), 18, Labourer, RC Moneygall, Offaly Kennedy, from Moneygall, was shot on 7 January by a military and police patrol as he fled across fields, defying orders to halt, and died at 07:30. Buried Toomevara, Tipperary.24 Charles French (8Jan1921/4) 60, Farmer, RC Relagh, Omagh, Tyrone Hit by a Crossley tender, French died instantly.25

9 JANUARY 1921 Frederick Gordon Smyth26 (9Jan1921/1) RIC (70426), 21, Shop assistant, ex-serviceman, CoI KGVH From Rathdrum, Wicklow, Constable Smyth joined the RIC on 23 February 1920, serving in Limerick and the RIC motor transport division at Gormanston Camp, Meath. He fractured his skull when in a lorry which hit a telegraph pole around midday on 8 January. He died at 01:00. Buried Rathdrum.27

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10 JANUARY 1921 James Farrell (10Jan1921/1) 50, Ex-serviceman, labourer, RC North Brunswick Street, Dublin Farrell, a Boer War and Great War veteran, of 11 Prebend Street, was shot when two Auxiliaries ambushed on North Brunswick Street returned fire. Buried GC (South Section: K. §. 11).28

11 JANUARY 1921 John Doran (11Jan1921/1) 26, Farmer’s son, RC Keggal, Camlough, Armagh At about 23:30 two masked men ordered John and his brother Michael, whom they accused of participating in an ambush on police on 8 January, to dress. Ignoring pleas, they shot John dead outside. Michael was freed after shots were fired over his head. Republicans maintained Doran was murdered by plain-clothes Crown forces, whereas official sources blamed the IRA. One of Doran’s sisters was widow of Head Constable John Kearney, killed on 22 November 1920. Buried Camlough, Armagh.29 SA: Kearney (22Nov1920/11)

12 JANUARY 1921 Felix Mallon30 (12Jan1921/1) 16, Agricultural labourer, RC Newry Nursing Home, Newry, Down Shot from a passing motor car outside Clonlum Sinn Féin Hall at around 15:00, an operation could not save Mallon.31

13 JANUARY 1921 Stephen Carty (13Jan1921/1) RIC (58105), 46, Farmer, Married, RC Cratloe, Clare From Roscommon, Sergeant Carty joined the RIC in 1898. Promoted to sergeant in 1916, he was stationed in Ruan, Clare. He died when twenty-five East Clare Brigade Volunteers under Michael Brennan attacked a vehicle carrying eight RIC which had left Ennis at 11:00. The driver accelerated away and reached Limerick, but Carty, severely wounded, fell from the lorry. Sergeant Curtin,

hit in the head, died at about 12:15. The IRA captured Carty’s revolver. Buried Roosky, Roscommon. His dependents secured £600 compensation.32 RD: Curtin (13Jan1921/2) Jeremiah Curtin (13Jan1921/2) RIC (60459), 43, Farmer, Married with children, RC Military Hospital, Limerick See Carty (13Jan1921/1). Curtin, from Cork, joined the RIC on 16 October 1901. He served in Clare, the RIC Reserve and Roscommon before returning to Clare in August 1908, stationed in Newmarket-on-Fergus. Promoted sergeant in 1918, he was awarded the constabulary medal. Buried Cork. His widow secured £2,500 compensation, his father £600, and his children £2,500.33 Robert William Compston (13Jan1921/3) USC, 25, Presbyterian Cullyhanna, Armagh Constable Compston, from Lisnadill, Armagh, was stationed in Crossmaglen. He was one of three local constables who volunteered to go with a USC party from Dundalk to recover Patrick Kirke, a postman fatally wounded during an IRA robbery. After firing warning shots, as he advanced towards a house used in the earlier attack he shouted that he was hit, and quickly died from a groin wound. Police found ammunition and food in the empty house. Buried Lisnadill Church.34 RD: Kirke (13Jan1921/4) Patrick Kirke (13Jan1921/4) 23, Ex-serviceman, postman, RC Louth Infirmary, Dundalk, Louth See Compston (13Jan1921/3). Kirke, from Crossmaglen, Armagh, was a telegraph messenger before enlisting in the RIF on 23 March 1916. He served for three years, being mentioned in dispatches. On demobilisation he was appointed postman. Although escorted by RIC, he was shot in the back while carrying old age pension money by an inexperienced Volunteer who disobeyed orders.35

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Martha Henrietta Nowlan (13Jan1921/5) 31, Bookkeeper, CoI Westmoreland Street, Dublin Martha, of 57 Connaught Street, worked for Messrs Michell & Co. Confectioners, Grafton Street. She left home at about 16:20 to visit friends on Westmoreland Street. A military lorry stood at the junction with O’Connell Bridge while soldiers checked motor permits. A shot was heard at about 16:45. A boy lay on the pavement and Martha by the kerb. Eight people were taken to Jervis Street Hospital. Martha died before admission. A court of inquiry concluded that the bullet that caused her death had struck a soldier’s rifle and splintered the stock, killing her and wounding other bystanders. The Washington Times carried a claim by ‘a former Sinn Féin soldier’ that Crown forces were responsible. Ten-year-old James Brennan, wounded in the forehead, died on 15 May. Buried MJC (31. A.332). Her mother secured £550 compensation.36 RD: Brennan (15May1921/13)

14 JANUARY 1921 William Michael McGrath (14Jan1921/1) 54, Journalist, King’s Counsel, Married with five children, RC SVH McGrath, from Portaferry, Down, was called to the Bar in 1895. His son said ‘he always had a most peaceful life, and had practically no enemies’. At about 01:30 armed and disguised men forced their way into his home at 129 Altona Terrace, Dublin, shooting McGrath four times. The dying McGrath thought ‘the only reason he could have been attacked was because of the spitefulness or enmity on the part of ex-soldiers from whom he had disallowed donations’ as chairman of the court of referees for unemployment assistance for ex-servicemen. He died at 09:30. His name appears on a list headed ‘Casualties British Agents’ and ‘British Casualties’ in the Michael Collins papers. Buried GC (Garden Section: Q. f. 56.5–57). His widow secured £5,000 compensation and his children £3,000.37

15 JANUARY 1921 Gerald Oswald Pring (15Jan1921/1) 32, Excise officer, RC Western Road, Cork Pring, of 3 Bloomfield Terrace, worked in Midleton, Cork. He, his brother and sister took back streets home from the railway station because of tension following the shooting of two RIC men near the courthouse earlier that afternoon. At about 21:10, two police Crossley tenders passed and a shot was heard. Pring fell dead, shot through the left eye by a high-velocity bullet. A court of inquiry could not determine responsibility. Buried SFC.38

16 JANUARY 1921 Patrick O’Donovan (16Jan1921/1) IRA (Timoleague Company), 21, Farmer’s son, RC Cullinagh, Courtmacsherry, Cork O’Donovan was killed and two comrades wounded when shot during a Crown forces round-up. His father found his body at 08:00 in a field, after he had failed to return home the previous night. Lieutenant H.