The critique of capitalist democracy; an introduction to the theory of the state in Marx, Engels, and Lenin

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The critique of capitalist democracy; an introduction to the theory of the state in Marx, Engels, and Lenin

Table of contents :
Front Cover (Page 1)
Title Page (Page 5)
Copyright (Page 6)
Table of Contents (Page 7)
Section 1 (Page 9)
Section 2 (Page 17)
Section 3 (Page 58)
Section 4 (Page 84)
Section 5 (Page 97)
Section 6 (Page 114)
Section 7 (Page 137)
Bibliography (Page 157)
Section 8 (Page 177)
Index (Page 178)

Citation preview

THE CRITIQUE OF CAPITALIST DEMOCRACY

Of AN

The Critique Capitalist Democracy

INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF THE STATE IN MARX , ENGELS , AND LENIN

BY

STANLEY

NEW

W

.

MOORE

YORK

PAINE -WHITMAN 1957

PUBLISHERS

JC

423

. M82

Copyright,

1957 , By Stanley

MANUFACTURED

W

. Moore

THE U . S. A.

IN

Published by

PAINE -WHITMAN

1182 Broadway , New

PUBLISHERS York 357

,

1

New

York

55 -

63832

CONTENTS

. .

.

.

page

translations

and

OF THE THEORY

. . . . . . . . .

:

TWO

. 3 .

from

.

force asymmetrical above

.

of . 9 .

revolution

Problem

of

primacy

of

sovereignty

Politics

Economics

Variations

constitutional Primacy

. 6 .

.

7

and

:

. 4 . of

?

interaction

CHAPTER

and

economics primacy law

.

. :

Politics

Dictatorial :

. 2 .

or

.

.

politics

Class and exploitation

page

SOME FEATURES OF CAPITALIST . . . . . . . . . .

EXPLOITATION

page

capitalism

order

nature

Freedom

. of

, of

. 4 . . . 8. 2 . . 9 . . 5 6 . .

and

.

equality

of

. : 7 .

exploitation

as

as

capital

, :

of

as

.

Exchange

:

3

. 1.

and commodity exchange Use value value and labour time Fetishism Capital exchange commodities order nature original exploitation and accumulation Labour power commodity Surplus value Fetishism Capitalism

ism

17

AN OUTLINE

Dictatorship

5

rule

9

subject matter

of

Editions

.

. .

.

. .

4

Delimitation

organization

10

.

1

.

DICTATORSHIP

state

in

.

58

:

ONE

.

reading

State and class

.

.

exposition

of

. 3. 5

Method

OF

.

this work

Recommended

CHAPTER

8

.

. 2 .

.

1

of

Aim

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER

THREE : CAPITALISM

DEMOCRACY .

1

Capitalist

exchange . suffrage

democracy 2

.

: Who

AND

. . . . . . . . . . . Capitalist

as counterpart

bureaucracy

is elected ? 4 .

84

commodity

of

.

page

.

Universal Universal suffrage : Who is 3

obeyed ? 5 . Conditions for bourgeois revolution from above . 6 . Conditions for peaceful transition to socialism . England during the eighteen - seventies . 7 . Presence in 8 . Absence in imperialist stage of capitalism . 9 . Problem of socialism and democracy .

FOUR : IDEOLOGY AND ALIENATION . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 1.

ideological 5

.

114

Inverting conscious and uncon abstract and concrete . 3 . Patterns of inversion :

Ideology defined .

scious ,

page

and

Alienation

:

2.

fetishistic .

social

. Mysticism and source. 6 . Alienation : 4

formalism

social cure

. .

LIST OF WORKS CITED . . . . . . . . .

page 137

SUPPLEMENTARY INDEX .. .. .. .

page

.

.

.

.

177

INTRODUCTION

.

“ Whatever

1

party we take in Russia or in any of the more political disputes and we find that nearly

.

Is

,

a

of

enables

Or

the

is

on ?

the general judge the state

capitalists

of

which

and

the

,

's

mechanism

will

so

summation

the nation

of

,

in

in

,

a

country

will

,

's

of

expression

a

an

,

in

such

the people

of

expression

ment

a

lic

or

a

in

of

differences

an

all

countries , opinion now turn upon the concept the state capitalist country particularly the state democratic repub like Switzerland America the freest democratic republic

civilized

political

do

.

?

. . . .

?

about

At

their power over

is

maintain

say

class and

upon which This the basic question disputes throughout the world now turn What they bourgeois press Bolshevism The abuses the Bolsheviks

to

working

that country the peasantry

the

bandits

that

in

Switzerland

are

freedom

unknown

there

advanced

Republic and

a

and

rule but the Bolshevik

is

,

popular

,

upon

England

is

state

of

states based

America

,

that

,

ism

. . : .

of

present time every one the rich newspapers the rich countries repeats these basic arguments and accusations against Bolshev

that the

( 0.1.1 )

10

Bolsheviks have violated the principle of popular rule . . . . These accusations bring us squarely against the question : What is the state ? ” 1

spoke these words in 1919 , the question they raise is at least as urgent and as controversial today . My account of the answer found in Marxian theory is not offered to a public of Though

neutral tion

Lenin

, for

dispassionate students

and

: it

is concerned

testants in a dispute

none exists where this ques

is offered instead to a third generation of con that cuts continually deeper through the world .

,

to

though they terms

.

other

us

described

in

are correctly

so

or

to

't

to

I

't

I

write

because

coerce

guide coercing and for those who urge the can value such people

The bigot and the time server

,

that

in

to

all

agree

,

in



,

commands more imperiously than any master notes disobeying the one we are unfortunate disobey for in

;



realists

who

-

.

at “

call themselves Pascal

don

scorn the obligation

their own appraisal

Reason

neither the obligation

,

yet

necessity

write

evade the necessity

.

by

to

persuade nor deny and persuading knowledge

for

.

conflict we should

a

critical

helpful

it

stand may find

I .

it

.

its

Yet only contestants who are in some degree also students can ex pect to profit from reading Those eager simply coerce persuade will find useless Those discontent until they under

only

the first half

Lenin

's

CE concerned with

is

This book

of

."

the other we are fools

democracy

the relation between and and only one the contending theories analyzing that relation attempt define the central ideas and formulate the propositions critique capitalist democracy developed main the presents against Marx Engels and Lenin evidence to

or

for

no

It

The State

par

.

28

.

It

to

of

in

are true

.

statements

,

Lenin

,

. . .

0 1 1

,

to

.

their

no

what extent

.

,

presents alternative theories can help only seriously responsibility those who take their find out what these thinkers actually say before deciding the light evidence

.

their theory

It

,

in

of

to

.

of

an

is

It

with

by

,

capitalism

,

problem

( 0 . 1.4 )

The service I offer my readers is collection and organization . original presentation the Marxian critique capitalist dem

's

.

itself

,

is

the work

but compactly

clearly

To

an

,

system

in

presented

the

to

touch

my

subject matter treated capitalist democracy

of

problems

of

;

I

it

necessary have found mics and philosophy but

on

forth the Marxian critique

.

has limited the range

of

aim

.

to

set

.

order

not

this book

This

2

In

which

that theoretical

of

formulate purpose

system

is

theoretical

,

,

.

of

.

or

least twenty different books and Engels No work Marx Lenin does for political theory what Capital does for economic theory Lenin State and develops and applies Revolution like his Imperialism elaborate single

essays

,

through

scattered

is

ocracy

, at

of

its

In

11

econo

would have been

quite

certain

discussion

of

of

is

,

as

.

its

in

is

, of

introducing

if

the whole range Marxian economics philosophy goal example price and had been For the problem pheno ignored Chapter Two and value the problem

different

.

in

.

.

,

of

of

in

materialism

the field

of

and

different

is

Chapter Four Nor the situation political theory Chapters One and Three omit entirely the Marxian theory the nation and the Marxian theory international politics including war My discussion deals

menalism

,

of .

in

to

of

I

of

only with those portions Marxism which consider indispensable analyzing capitalist society for the relation rulers ruled represent chapters Furthermore these about one third of

.

.

science

.

the chapters here

Because

,

this larger work

without being defined and

certain

certain technical important ques as

',

of

'

as

.

Examples are such tions are posed without being answered production relations and dialectic such questions

terms those

.

by

.

I

hope some day which end Chapter Three and Chapter Four remedy these omissions publishing the remaining parts

to

are used

out

of

political theory

ing Marxian

presented have been

terms

a

in

The remainder

of

forth

cut

set

al

work

as

single book Another third the origin the Marxian theory socialism and democracy dealt with certain general problems raised call

what was first written

( 0 .2 .3 )

12 Even

the range of topics treated , prohibits thorough analysis .

limitations on the amount of material remaining with

these

or statement , together with indication of relevant evidence raises more questions than it writing myself settles . Because I the task introduction have not attempted treat exhaustively any the topics dis definition

a

I

to

of

of

set

,

and for the same reason have not considered any works theory Marxian other than those Marx Engels and Lenin cursory treatment many related have limited my discussion

.

,

of

.

an

a

,

it in

to

or

is

,

will close

prove

useful conjunction

aid such

study

.

exposition has been designed

to

.

of

of

introduction critically

,

,

of

important central concepts and formulations paraphrase are presented through quotation and Paraphrase Quotation sets forth the initial evidence .

.

reference

introduction not study unable the

,

propositions

its

it

Definitions

read

is

the extent that the study sources

My method

I

of on

to a

at

,

this book readers unwilling an

its

aimed complexity

can deal thoroughly

of

with

hand

to

only

in

subject

other

other occasions

the relevant literature

.

.

3

On the

popularization

terms

As

single issues

with

in

the hope that

in

problems

by

,

on

of

I

;

cussed

I

,

of

presentation

often

an

Quite

the quotation

technical language and summarizing relevant statements from unquoted passages clarifies the point issue and connects with steps the argument which precede and follow identifying Reference the passages quoted into

less

.

,

of

by

it

at

,

translating

indicates the evidence and links study this study sources Paraphrase test the understanding author reference his information The reader carefully questioning both can educate himself struggle of

summarized

,

in

by

is in

defended

excessive

this particu

,

quotation which decisive but quota The danger

quotation and paraphrase

of

is

I

can

quotation

.

of

the blending

is

It

.

,

normal standards but believe lar case not the quantity

of

amount

be

the

it

that

of

I

.

the writer recognize

of

a

is

.

,

of .

,

by

with

its

;

with

's

exposition

of

,

and

(0 . 3 . 3 )

13

the quotations

my opinion attempted

that readers, failing to understand what acquire a jargon instead of a theory . In

paraphrase

tion without

to

, will

say

some works on Marxism have this effect . I have avoid it through systematic use of paraphrase . On

, the , failing

danger of paraphrase without quotation is check the paraphrase against the source ,

the other hand that readers will acquire

a myth

on Marxism

is

to

of

instead

. In my opinion many books many so that after a hundred years ,

a theory

have this effect —

during which thousands of books and articles have about his teaching ,

it

almost indisputable

.say

is now

written

been

Marx

that

said

or

of

political theory

in

by this

evidence simple

the

or no

be

defended

examination

instances

excessive

is

reference can

too

is

many

believe

it

,

In

.

but

of

.

that the amount

also

statement about Marxian Quoting isolated passages

a

, .

for

.

cure themselves

recognize

I

it

them

them

normal standards particular case for

The device cannot cure my readers deserting into the experts the evidence

direct quotation

shocks

can help

I

it

But

of

terms if

in

by

I

to

challenge established precon what he did not have tried ceptions introducing each important definition proposition

, or

,

a

it

a

of

a

'

all

Or

the

over Engels that

Marx

all

1844

those

is

of

at

dates

and

concretely both alternative establish indicating successive variations

and contrasts

on

is

The

the yields

theory

assume that

consistent with his ideas 1918 are consistent with

and

single theory

various in

.

Need

it

,

1848

years

set down

a

as

a

in

are

,

continuities

almost eighty

?

of in

Engels

examination

to

in

ideas

different men

three

by

of

ideas Lenin

1894

's

.

ideas period

whole repetition

political

statement about Marxian inconsistent results This exposition treats evidence

their

some instances

in

,

Furthermore for

.

variation

system

of

to

assertions within the Marxian identify different contexts

as

to

In

,

to

.

or

tions

necessary

of ?

.

regard

,

from Marx Engels Lenin specific without the historical situations described shaky basis the specific theoretical positions attacked provides quoted defini for generalization order indicate the place

task

( 0 .3 . 4 )

14

specific themes their thought 4

.

the different thinkers

periods

of

of Marx , of Engels , or of Sochineniya Russian and the of Marx and course a translation . Roughly half the published is no complete

of

edition

;

except in

Engels is

at different

.

There

Lenin ,

in

of these authors has been translated into English . Some of the works translated have appeared in a variety of versions and editions. Some of the translations are unsatisfactory at import writing

I have tried to meet this complicated situation in way that each reader can make full use of whatever ling uistic knowledge he has and whatever library facilities are avail points .

ant

such

a

able to

.

him

References are identified in the footnotes by author , short title , and paragraph number . If the work has not been translated into English , the short title is in the language in which the work English

is an

translation

, the short title is in paragraphing differs

by

,

in

Marx Engels

Historisch kritische Ryazanov and then Adoratsky

,

by

first

edited

.

the by

Gesamtausgabe

,

.

0 .4 .1

Publication

the original

/

paragraphs

in

corresponding

-

translation

in

's

latter case the translation the original numbers indicating paragraphs the parentheses are followed numbers indicating

of

that

there

of

from

If

the

was written .? English . If in

of

;

's ,

the

.

A

.

,

no

of

at

by

-

,

stopped less than one third completed around 1935 new Gestamtausgabe has been announced Dietz Verlag Berlin but writing Sochineniya the date volumes have appeared Lenin

,

in

of

/

is

.

's

of

in

in

have been published four editions which last two are still general use Neither the Marx Engels Sochineniya nor any edition Sochineniya including every complete Lenin the sense

of

titles

of the

,

,

.

I

it

in

of

in

to

in

has been unavailable is

work

me the language which was written the short title language the have used For example the translation those manuscripts Marx which have been published only

in

where

a

some instances

,

In

. . .

0 4 2

.

thing the authors wrote that has survived

Rus

(0.4. 3 )

15

of this

end

,

book

in

in

it

which

one exists

of

of of

;

translation

was written

identification

,

English

one exists the language

( 3 )

if

the work

in

of

translation

the

identification

which

in

the language

in

both

translation

for unmistakable

it

necessary

if

in

and

an

in

and specific editions ten

)

the work

English

an

the title

may

such supplementation

,

of

short title

, be (2

as

;

work was written

or

:

( 1 )

at

.

the

all

the List of Works Cited , the short titles are listed alphabetically After each short title appears the following information the approximate date which the

At

the

was writ

for reference

used

.

in

this book

English

English

Capital

debt

to

my

however

by

or

Russian acknowledge

, ,

to

material originally responsibility for the

from

,

in

wish

,

French

I

mine

.

is

translation

,

German

in

written

have quoted

I

Where

,

presented judges

in or

,

he

statements

false

,

A

to

.

critical reader

?

In

of

own knowledge Marxian knowledge this field that

Russian

that language Capital published

though the manuscripts were

.

in

the evidence

those

in

no

he

given

are

in

translation written

the references

his

is

if

or

,

,

.

sian

to

which relevant incomplete from doubtful theory But what has

not

in

in

investigating

to

confine himself

omitted

all

check

not critical but pedantic

,

this kind

is

of

.

will

Works

The reader who attempts

5 a

work

Collected

.

volumes

his

of

;

of

in

of

in

by of

of :

;

,

the standard translations that Moore Aveling and Untermann those works Marx and Engels their Selected Works and various volumes the Marxist Library and those Lenin his Selected Works and various

by

London

.

Lawrence and Wishart

,

and

all

;

York

,

,

Publishers New

,

.

by H

by

is

/

,

.

.

0 4

; .3

Charles Kerr and Company Chicago the Marx Engels Selected Works the Foreign Languages Publishing House Moscow and the rest both International Further

; :

.)

(2

-

,

I

.

of

the

a

,

/

To

are given

in

List Works Cited suggest the following books readers collecting basic library Marx Engels Selected Works second edition 1950 1951 vols details

( 0 .5 .1 )

16

I

case

suggest the following books and

essays

for study with

this

work :

Marx / Engels , Communist Manifesto . Marx , Eighteenth Brumaire . Marx , Capital , Volume One .

Marx , Civil War in France . Marx , Critique of the Gotha Engels , Anti - Dühring . Engels , Origin

.

Program

.

of the Family

Engels , Feuerbach . Lenin , Collapse of the Second International.

these

nineteen

.

this book

18

It

my

can

.) .

vols

vol

.

vol

the

guess

found

in

of

our time

(

-

,

Anti Dühring

Works

references

pointed out ,

Selected Correspondence 12

Selected

problem

(

/

,

Engels

Engels

in

of

;

)

volumes

.

-

that three quarters

Lenin

the

)

Marxist Library

the decisive

Marx

Library

,

the Marxist

.) ;

vols

of

(

,

of

3

forms one half

Marx Capital 29

large amount of reading . But as Lenin

a

;

its

This is topic

State .

of (

, The

Lenin

.

State and Revolution Renegade Kautsky .

.

,

Lenin

be is

Lenin ,

CHAPTER

ONE

AN OUTLINE OF THE THEORY

OF DICTATORSHIP

, “ there appears . . . a

of

,

all

by

coerced

others and only

those

societies

the majority

and impossible agreement the

the

of

to

coerce

is a

,

no

all of

for

possible

and possible for leaders

to

societies

is

In

,

.

these

it

,

of

of

,

of

To

of

to

a

monopoly for violence minority coerce the majority

12

the

,

as

is

, .

,

other hand there new power people coercive force the the whom are special longer armed now opposed the power stable groups police and standing armies equipped and organized ists such In

societies with states

on

few

. .

to

for leaders direct collective action without majority Leaders there can only persuade the many the

is

states the

it

without

.

coerce

In

.”

are

societies

in

But

the armed people

that

minority

for

,

for

,



prisons special detachments people the state appears societies with

to

impossible for

special group

is to govern and who require subjecting coercion

some individuals

others

is

coercive force

by

,

states

some are led

then

of .

without

others

a

or

,

so

force the wills troops and

,

on of

of people whose only occupation in governing a special apparatus

, by

,

“ When ” writes Lenin

,

.

In

1

direct

( 1. 1. 1 )

18

.

Leaders here that institu power

of

the

is

and organized minority

.”

armed

in to

to

,

of

;

of

,

of

"

,

adds are obvious beginnings state

the

a

.”

,

,

religious functions Such offices authority endowed with certain and

he

in

;

control water under the most primitive

and finally

hot countries

conditions ly

"

,

In



:

individual

particularly

the entire group the protec disputes repression

common interests settlement encroachments upon propriety

,

of

though under control

certain

;

of

,

individuals

of



,

it

.

the

even

for

:

In

the most primitive societies there are some matters group which officials act each such community assign writes Engels was necessary from the beginning tion

an

collective action without agreement of the majority can persuade the few to coerce the many . The state tion which subordinates the power of numbers to

."

power

of

and differentiated from the remainder the group Engels productive gradually The forces increase

:

to

one point common separate interests between

creates

of

ch

.

;

10

71 21 26 42

:

) so :

in

. .

pars

-

-

-

68 20 24 4

7 9

.

,

12

, . -3

pars

)

-

Also refer

(

.

13

pars

19 , 9,

:

,

17

22

,

10

-

(4

1

5

.

. 3 ,

ch

,

sec

. 2 ,

. , 2 , ch

,

. 1 ,

point

pars

pars

The Mark

Narodism ch

,

, . 9 ,

. 4 . ,

. 5 ,

. 2 ,

. 6 ,

;

ch

of

31 )

-

21

of

:

the Family

Engels

Engels

.

par

.

, . 4 ,

ch

2

.

.

1 .1 .1

,

.

10

.

- 8-

of

,

,

pars

the state

and coercion

.

37

) (

-

23

-

20

(

Economic Content

Lenin

. . .

ch

in

. 1 ,

ch

,

,

,

23

,

15

26

-

. . 2 23 -

ch

. . 4 7 , , ch

pars

State and Revolution The State pars Engels Anti Dühring part second part note above

1 in 1 2

,

Lenin

pars

, ,

: :

;

( ( ( (4 18 23 43 - - 40 44 19 25 ) ) ) ) ; ences

our Revolution

16

7 9

cieties without states see Engels Origin

Lenin

;

)

38

(

the Proletariat

State and Revolution sec State pars For leadership

.

The

sec

. 9 . 40

.

ch

,

. of 3 ,

,

Tasks

of

,

, ,

Lenin Lenin

,

Lenin

,

par

: :

. .

par

10 22

of

,

.

1 .1 . 1

,

The State par For the definition par see also Marx Critique the Gotha Program Origin par pars the Family Lenin

larger

into

-

communities

9

of

.

communities

,

another point conflicting The grouping these

at

,

interests

population

8

The greater density

at

According

of "

,

organized

. . ,

in

of

,

of

With the growth the division labour more developed primitive societies these officials become increasingly specialized

( 1. 1 . 3 )

19

of labour, the creation of organs to protect common interests and to control conflicting interests . These organs, as representatives of the entire grouping , units calls forth

have

a

in

turn

special position

division

a new

respect

with

community ,

particular

to each

under some circumstances even one of opposition . Soon they make themselves still more independent , partly through inheritance of office , which occurs as a matter of course in a world where every thing happens in a natural way , and partly through their growing indispensability , which results from an increase in the conflicts with other groupings ."

Marx

Engels

and

society ,

that the

assert

first developed in safeguard the com

state

that

to

its

original function was groupings communities and that private ownership communities were not characterized of

interest within

these

of

by

,

Asiatic mon

.

,

,



"

,



,

,

with

.

,

of

land the development class society the state acquires Society divides into classes another function writes Engels privileged and deprived exploiting and exploited ruling and Later

.”

.

13

ch

. 7 , .

. 4 , ;

)

. )

;

37

-

23

(

25 ch

's

39

24

4

by

of

, ch ; . , 3 ch , . 6 , . . 2 , 28 . - ch .

.

. 5 ,

Compare pars

.

,

,

21 )

6

pars

, . 9 . 3 12 , :

to

Marx

1853

,

:

( 7 )

14 4

Intro

compare

Engels

Marx Grundrisse

,

11 :

5

in

,

(5 )

2

.

an

pars

Juni

ch

.

( )

4

. . 23 4 ( : , 5

, , : . 1 , .

18 ch

, 2,

13

.

. -14

,

,

India

Engels

.

in

,

of :

27

, ch . 4 ,

to

2

Asiatic society

(6 )

1

Engels

and

class

Compare

Feuerbach

pars

Marx

2

.

par

1890

state

1853

Rule

Oct

par

Engels

France 1891

'

British

par

par

June in

,

par

life and rule

.

,

:

to 19

1853

,

to

June

part

pars

Schmidt

Marx Civil War

Engels

force against

)

;

,

Anti Dühring

the problem

Marx

pars

2 9

-

, 23 ch

-

20

)

-

( 31

26 24

(

37

.

.

,

the

. . .

1 1 4

23 -

-

26

of

1 , .1. 3 .

Engels

part same work par Engels

duction On

pars

class

- ( 4, 26 27 -

class the conditions

the ruling

Engels Anti Dühring part Origin pars the Family

Engels

Marx

for

the subject

pars

maintaining

serves equally the purpose

on

time

4

as

,

(

)

in

of

at

.

,

of

groupings ruled And the state which the naturally evolved racially similar communities had only first developed for the purpose looking after their common interests irrigation such the East and defending themselves against outsiders from this

div

( 1 .1 .5 )

in

of the

,

when appear

.”

5

to

Marx

,

gives way

Engels

,

for the state

in

of

its

no

manage

is to

of

, . . .

group

appeared

class society

communism

.

order

into classes

necessary

On the function the state agree primitive and Lenin When

specific

not arise Only when

and could society

society

to



of

. . .

the division appeared was

slavery

.

of

not arisen

had

the class

there were classes slavery people worked

.

form

of

rule

it,

and

first

the remainder

from

of

,

detached

it

people

conditions

for rule

When

the epoch greater equality

of

when before

,

in

society

slaves

asserts that the original function

of

force the conditions

slave owners over the class

primitive

and that

a

by

to

maintain

,

society

slave

in

in

state first developed

was

Marx and Engels , Lenin

with

of

In contrast

class

for safeguarding the common interest trans safeguarding production formed into the necessity mode Engels writes society which many are exploited few Such

,

be

in

, ,

at

a

of to

of

, ”

a

"

.

; ( 12 . 27 ) . ) , - 1, sec 3 . ; , 3 . 5, , ch . 4 , 20 . 36 7 . : , , , 2 . 17 ( , 1 . 9; ) , 2 19 ; 13 ch , ; , ; . ch sec . 16 . ch sec ch . . . ( 1 51 , 2, 3, , 14 , 37 , ), div . . . . . 3 8 . 9 1, : . . 1, sec

)

1

par

par

pars

par par

below

.

, , 3. 2 .4

-4

. .12 .2

,

Also Lenin

State and

Revolu

. 6 , 10 , , . 5 ,

ch

,

.

30

-

29

,

16

,

-

15

(6

. ): 6 ,

pars

-

,

on

a

no

to

,

Lenin

,

8

(5 )

.

. 4 . , 9

sec

. 1 , ;

20

-

pars

.

. 3 ,

sec

15

, .

,

.

,

18

,

,

16

6

The State pars Lenin holds however that the state will continue exist incompletely withered away for period during which classes Compare Lenin longer exist Self Determination Discussion Up par and Revolution State Lenin sec Summed

tion

pars

par

State

: .

class

The

( . 7 ) 17

. 8 of ,

. 1 , ,

sec

par

pars

,

. 3 ,

.

. . , .

Lenin

their most

The gentile consti

Anti Dühring part Engels Fränkische Zeit compare pars

Engels

suppressed

fought out

par par

sec

(

vol

On the definition 1 ch 1 5 1

-

part

par pars

div

. ; 4 ,

. ;

( 8 )

ch 21

Marx Mehrwert par

pars

sec

, , ,

,

)

20 , 3 , . , . ch . . . 2, . 22 - 8 ; 20 13 19 3, , 23 ; - : . 15 ch : 1 - . . 2 14 21 6 , , ( 28

par

classes

which

Marx Capital vol

pars

item

, .

47

(

;

.

)

vol

form

these

power

third

classes

legal

called

pars

ch

(

11

. . 39 2 , ; 13 13 ,

12 ch

,

5

par

item

so

,

in

the economic sphere

in

,

with one another under the rule apparently standing above the conflicting open conflict and allowed the class war

sec

struggle

.

in

continous open

or



exist either

a

by for

only

could

of

the necessity

,

society

21

( 1. 1. 6 )

by

classes

It

into

.

of

society

of

was

re

the state

."

placed

burst apart by the division

,

its

tution was finished . It had been labour and result the splitting

for maintaining the production mode subordination the power numbers minority power organized protect the armed and order property preserve and order the exploiters must develop

to

to

In

,

law

.

an

to of

,

of

condition of

a

necessary

is

of

In

class societies

for of

.

)

it

as

:

.

,

. 1 ,

and Revolution

State

the

ch

.

18

.

Also

to

is

of

par

in

of

it

. 9 ,

ch

,

Lenin

,

of

27 :

, 24 .

; /

(2 )

11

Also Marx par

.

.

par

istory

)

(H

1

, . 2 ,

ch

sec

.

. 1 ,

,

, 1

į

,

of

classes

.

to

Family

3

-

the

Engels Anti Dühring part Engels German Ideology part div

.

some

10

,

6

.

pars

. 9 ( , 5- , , 9 ) . . , 20 ,

ch

. . .

1 1 6

same work

Origin

at

all of

. in

it at of

labour between classes development stages

division

some societies

societies

that the primary function the state preserve order Marxists specify that and

pars

of

."

its

is

account

exists

assert

Engels

in

Middle

a

in

;

of

,

as

in

-

of

,

in

the

the bourgeoisie

Other theorists the development the social

,

at

protect property

re of

,

in

,

its

a

as

, .

of

it

in

,

class

was the whole

division into classes and that will not exist development succeeding elimination stages

Other theorists

7

citizens

this theory and exploitation

.

not exist

far

society

in

preceding

. 1 1 , . , 1.

state

development involving

did

societies

feature

was the

state

embodiment

of

that

it

stages

of

division

our time

the state emerges labour Marxists specify that

that

of

assert

between

in

.

the connection

was this only time represented

its

in

of

;

The distinctive

whole

the slave owning

feudal nobles

the

2

,

Ages

unfree tenure production The

of

.

of

But

that class which antiquity the state

the condition wage labour

so

,

(

visible corporation

state

of

a

serfdom

the existing mode representative society

official

sec

force the exploited class

by

quired

in

slavery

or

by

of

in

of

,

by

,

an



, ",

for holding down oppression



control machinery for holding down the exploited Past writes Engels shaken class conflicts had need organization the state the exploiting class each period preserving the external conditions production and particularly and

societies

22

of

the primary function the preserve the the exploiters and

of

exploitation

protect the property

is to

state

based

. .

1 2 1)

to

societies

on

all

(

some societies after the abolition

without the

pre

societies where the means

from

produc

of

In

.

inseparable

is

Marxian theory

in

class

exploitation by

of

of

Inic The concept the concept

will

exploitation order

state

.

served

be

of

,

in

in

of

,

of

order the exploited that some societies before the emergence exploitation order was preserved without the state and that

of of

is

,

it

A

of

. an

exploiting class group individuals production involves appropriation

of

whose of

A

of

of

'

is

others labour

.

to

of

to

separate individuals possible for one group tion are owned exploit another group individuals whose ownership production enables them appropriate products the means

.

an

is

,

in

,

as

by

.

,

to

of

of

in

of

of

by

an

the means their products exploiting class exploited class members Variations the specific relations these two groups the means production distinguish the specific classes the slave feudal capitalist and economic formations On the other hand societies use

a

;

to

is

. 2 , ,

.

),

sec

of

6

17

the

, :

sec

,

of

-

. 2 : .

pars

16

, , 4

. ch 2 , .

:

,

,

, .

ch

(

.

ch

31

Origin

Lenin

;

. 1 ,

. 1 ,

(7 ) ch

.

. 4 , , ,

pars

:

pars

34

Engels Karl 18

Family

sec

the Gotha

.

pars

note

,

,

9

.

ch

part

of

) . - : 2 , ch

Anti Dühring the

1

,

. 1 ,

,

,

-

9

(

,

Origin

Marx Critique

, . , ch . 25 9 , 26 : 2 ,

,

Engels

part

of 3,

;

( 3 : )21

Engels

10

:

)

8 9

.

-

(

13

,

.

26

-

16

.

. ),

14

par

par

22

ch

, ;

12

.

/

11 ; ; . , . , ch . .5 . sec , . 2 18 16 , : 1 . . , (

1 2 1 2

. .

16

-

15

Marx

pars

par

Program

Poverty

Communist France

par Lenin Military Program the Revolution pars The State par Marx Engels Communist Manifesto part Capital par part par Marx vol

par

sec

. , 2 ,

,

2

:

Engels

Struggles

( 2 )

.

,

div

Marx

24 in

Marx

. 1 ,

,

6

/ .

, (9 " )

, ):

33

(

34

. : )

part

par

par Engels Engels Feuerbach

sec

pars

3

Marx

11

.

. 3 ,

69

vol

Recht

Marx Class Capital vol

(

par

;

.

. ; . 9 , 68

, ,

Family

ch

( 4 )

.

par

5

2

,

,

of

Philosophy part Manifesto part par

par

sec

Staat und par 85

.

pars

Privateigentum

. 2 ,

.

sec



. 2 ,

div

subsec

not not

2 , , . ( ch 2 . 3 , , 2 . . ) , ch : 1 20 . . sec , -2 ; . 25 47 , 83 5, : ,

and

if

es ,

. If

is

,

it

of

production are owned where the means the community impossible for one group exploit another and such exploitation there are class societies Marx calls classless there

whole

( 1. 2. 3 ) their concrete development class societies exhibit great complexity of structure . In each such society the predominant productive relations are interwoven with other productive relations . In

production

by individuals who own their means primarily with their own and make use of them labour is found in slave, feudal, and capitalist societies . Wage labourers and merchant capitalists are found in slave and feudal Petty

carried

on

of production

. The

is based on the revival of some regions and results in the revival of serfdom in others . Marx and Engels argue in the Manifesto that the class predeces structure of capitalist society , in contrast with those of grows increasingly simplified antagonism sors into the two basic

societies slavery

of

emergence

capitalism

capitalist society important least

,

historical roles have two additional interest groups landlords bourgeoisie capitalists from

petty

,

which are and wage attempts

to

in

a

.

.

35

,

.

,

the

. 6 :

,

1888

'

Tasks

below

.

. . .

1 2 3

note

of

,

Lenin

:

,

10

. 6 ,

references

in

Also

pars

terms

par Lenin The Youth Leagues par

Communist Manifesto

'

Preface

,

,

State

16

Engels

to

of

of

.?

as

workers Such considerations rule out too narrow analyze the class structure given society solely predominant type exploitation

its

distinct

classes

of

-

as

separate

),

commodity producers

and petty treated

(

even

played

in

But

by

.

classes been

at

,

of its

in

. . ,

. .

2 7 2

not

are

,

.

,

3 -5

, 1

:

2

the Second

International

,

Collapse

of

. 3 , ch . 52 ,

,

,

,

; ; .

31 )

(

ch 2

8

( . 22 - 32

. -

März

note

par

.

,

10

.

ch

,

Otyecestvenniye 2

:

. 5 ,

Marx

,

:

pars

23 1;

par

33 ch 23 ,

an

. 6 ( 6 ) , , 11 ) , to 10 ‘ , .

.

sec 13

pars

sec

.

ch

, . 3 31 , ( , . ch ch 1 . . . , 6 20 24 - -8 , , ch .

( . 1- (6 , 3 ) ) 47 , ; ;

vol

Engels Anti Dühring part

(6 )

par

Engels

par

ch

;

1

.

1877

.

,

pars

Marx

compare

vol

7

. ( 7 ), 14 . ), 7 . : 1 , . 17 par

par

sec

Zapisky

Capital

Marx

5

. 6 ,

,

Lenin

slave and feudal societies

par

16

, . .

people

useless

below

,

. ch . 45 . . 4 , 46 ) 11 : . . / 14 : ,

( 2. 2

par

36

ch 24 ch

and some

par

For 1855

note

pars Marx Engels Communist Manifesto part Capital par Engels Marx vol Feuer

bach sec

are useful people the latter part

of

See

45 1

44 -

.

exploiters

,

Some exploiters

.

of

is

The distinction between exploiters and exploited not identical society the distinction between useless and useful members

with

( 1 .2 .4 ) the inseparability

Both

complexity “ Classes, ”

of

exploitation

from

class

and

'

the

.

are recognized in Lenin s definition , large groups of people distinguished from he writes " are

of

class societies

one another by their positions

. 9 ,

,

ch

of

,

in

by

),

in

of

to

Marx Engels

,

,

.

. 1 ,

,

)

:

29

. 25 -

16

ch

31 ( in

-

Engels

1882 par

. 1 :

)

27

For Russian serf Anti Dühring note

.

',

to

pp

.

.

-

zum

2 -8

.

to

Dec

Bauern pars

Vorarbeiten

. 1 , ch .

,

,

,

.

. 57 :

For capitalism and Central Germany pars

3 -9

(

, 10

,

The Mark pars Engels Marx

,

Poverty see Marx Marx Capital vol

Peasant War

der preussischen

compare Engels

pars

' ,

Zur Geschichte dom

4

. 1 ,

pars

Engels

. 2 , 4 :

, :

)

1882

,

Engels

28

(

. 3-

Dec

. obs , 4- .

sec

6

see

.

pars

),

. 2 ,

ch

sec

, , 24

.

ch

(

26

.

-

180

see

-

3

the Family

slavery

and American

European serfdom 15

Origin

.

.

31

For capitalism Philosophy

179

Engels

note

:

. 7 ,

par

14

. 2 ,

,

ch

part

par

3

4

;

for

in some historically defined system of social production , by their relations to the means of production ( the most part registered laws their roles the social

re

is

'

: .

8

27

), .

(

25

pars

.

,

1874

24 1

,

Germany

,

by

in

in

Peasant War

'

,

Engels Preface

,

to ,

,

-

to

.

1 2 3

. . , 1 .3 .2 .

in

'

in

capitalist society For landlords and petty bourgeoisie refer notes below The term petty bourgeoisie stricted urban petty commodity producers Marx and Engels par See for example Marx Class Struggles France part

ences

will

The term

,

62 :

. 1 ,

,

3

be . .

of

to

,

par

used

.

's

,

. , 2 .

a

of by

or

,

,

Peasantry and Working Class Lenin sense throughout this book

Lenin in

of

to

by

)

.

it

30

(

29

)

,

28

(

Lenin extends those peasants who make their living primarily applying their own labour production means portion selling which they own rent and the produce See part par for example Lenin Friends the People div

, :

17

)

. :

: 19

15

'

. 13 ,

pars

. 1 ,

.

,

.

Lenin

(

)

25

,

(

;

32

sec

3 , ,

in

ch

,

,

:

16

,

of

pars pars tion France and Germany sec par Lenin Friends the People part div Development par Capitalism Russia Lenin Agrarnaya Programma Russkoi Sotsial Demokratii sec Lenin Peasantry and Working Class throughout 15 -

of

in

to

,

. . 5 , 29 .sec , 2

. . 1- 33 9 - 7, 3, , ):

. -

30

)

:

,

27

(

-

24

.

,

' of

. 1 ,

ch

in in

,

,

into

, . 25 , ( . 29 - 26 . 1 , 31 -

,

In

capitalist society peasants fall into different classes most the petty bourgeoisie Compare Engels Peasant War Germany pars Engels Preface Peasant Germany Engels Peasant Ques War 1874 pars them

( 1.2.4 )

25

of labour , and consequently by the methods of acqui sition and the magnitudes of those shares of social wealth which they obtain . Classes are groups of people such that one group can

organization

the labour of another because of their different posi definite structure of social economy ."

sec

. 3 ,

. 1 ,

,

vol

Marx Capital par

sec

,

,

:

.

4

,

Znamechaniya

.p 42 .

on

com

.

,

Knigu Bukharina

part par

ch

,

ch

2

of

-

,

,

, 1:

Lenin

,

par Anti Dühring part Lenin Economic Content Narodism Vulgar Socialism and Narodism par Lenin

Engels

pars

In ad , Intro

. . . . 3 1 , : 2 , 11 ; , . 6 , 42 3, ; ch ( ch . 31 ) .2 52 : , , ,

sec of

19

. . . 2 , 1 -5 , ch : .

par

Marx par

:

( 10 ) .

see

)

,

the Critique of Political Economy , Political Economy preface par

vol

na

par . 11 above

1 2 1

. . 48 9 , , ,

to

Marx Critique

par

,

2

. . , 1.2 .2

notes

ch

duction

Beginning , div .

in

14

the references

to

(

Lenin , Great

. ..

1 2 3

dition

22

a

. 3 , ,

in

. 1 :

tions

.

appropriate

) , ,

. ( 7 , . . of , . 11 1 42 , : . 17 ;

, 1,

sec

2

2

,

-

, ,

- ( , of 1 19 26 a , ) ,

59

:

)

30

31

pars

War

Ger

.

part

in

(

class

Poverty

18

. . 5, 3 , . , . 27 Peasant

Lenin Lenin

on

in

: :

(4 13 ) 14

, 13 . 21

for

see

,

-6 15 : .

13 - 5

;

Engels

28

25

in

.

4

div

,

'

to

. 2 . ,

sec

,

2

11 as a sec

3

par

sec

part

and

class see

par

. 17 ) . 1, :

(

18

,

,

below

,

par

On bureaucracy

.

. 7 ,

:

( of 3)

,

,

par par Marx Eighteenth Brumaire Kugelmann Capital par Oct 1866 Marx vol par sec the Gotha Program Marx Critique sec

. 3 .2 .4

1

members Marx pars pars

inst

France

Data

New

Marx Engels Communist Manifesto

, ch . . 10 ( 8 73 . ),

Marx

Criticism

par

pars

Lenin

class

2

many

obs

pars

,

par

-

40 .

inst

Peasant Question pars

prerequisite

organizing themselves

Moralizing

. 5 ,

: . 30 . 9 32 . , ) , 15 , , 1, 26 : , , 2 . . . 29 , ; pars

.

Marx

33 ;

.

1

,

,

(

. 48

.

(

30

,

,

Agriculture

sec

in

,

pars

Narodism

, , 4 to ch ( , . 39 3 , 41 . , or ) ; 52 . ch ) . 7 . : , 3 2 : , 2 . 9 sec , . 7 1 / : , , . . , . 83 7 , , ( , , . 85 ) 2 . : -

of

and

class consciousness

constituting Philosophy

sec

as a

On

in

Socialism

Capitalism

Engels

pars Agriculture art

,

Vulgar

(

, ,

:

29 -

,

Capitalism

38

7

ch

, ,

65

pars

1874

and Germany

1

many

. ), sec .

,

:

)

(

. 5 , 25

62 ,

-

60

pars Marx Eighteenth Brumaire part Marx Surplus Value part sec vol appendix par Engels Preface Peasant War Ger

.

pars

sec 24

3

,

in

:

( 8 )

.

10

of

On exploitation and the petty bourgeoisie see Engels Condition Industry the Working Class The Remaining Branches par Engels Von Paris nach Bern part par Marx part part par part pars Class Struggles France

( 1. 3. 1) 3

.

Connected

the complexities of class structure

with

exhibi

by

ted concrete instances of each main type of economy are the complexities of political superstructure exhibited by concrete instan

of

ces

type

each main

of

state

.

The key to understanding

instance of class rule

each

to

is

understand the type of exploitation upon which it is based . “ The specific economic form ” , Marx writes , “ in which unpaid surplus pumped out of the direct producers determines the way in which the relation of mastery and servitude grows directly out

labour

is

determining factor. Upon this is based the entire structure of the economic community which grows out of the relations of production , and also therewith

innermost secret

,

the

of its

,

's

in

reveals

labour labour

of

the

,

the entire

.

of

of

,

,

form

short

in

which

definite

social structure including the sovereignty and depend the relations between the specific form the state This does not prevent

foundation

political ence

power

,

hidden

of of

of

to

at

social productive



a

to

in

a

any given time corresponds whose form stage the development the types and techniques and therefore definite stage the development relation



always the immediate relation the direct producers

production

a

means

a

to

.

the

of

the owners

structure

is

political of

specific

It

of production and reacts upon it as

its

to

,

.

,

through

analysis

of

only

these

,

,

political societies Also par

.

3

.

. 2 ,

sec

par

the

by

a

no

by

explain

( 2 ).

it

cannot

exhibited

.

predomin

means sufficient specific historical instance

47 ,

,

. 3 ,

,

,

,

above

the

structure ch

in

economic

Marx Capital vol

. . . .

1 . 1 .7

In

variations

1 3 1

of

.

of

for analyzing the political structure class rule the first place

of

,

is

of

ant type

effects

of

this statement points out identification exploitation necessary but

,

As

."

1

conditions

and can empirically given

,

,

be

of

effects

understood

,

tion

composi

natural environment racial external historical influences and

circumstances

so

empirical

on

in

its

exhibiting endless variations and the same economic basis from principal conditions are gradations appearance though everywhere the same Such variations are due innumerable

27

to

by

,

.

M

an

landed

large landowners alliance originated under Henry the in

, .

in

conflict with

as

,

the

by

from

property

of

,

up

,

basic conditions Its

land was fact not feudal but capitalist property On the one hand they furnished the industrial bourgeoisie with the population necessary for carrying manufacture On the position give agriculture that type other hand they were

.

the condition

interest and

industry

their alliance

ch . . . ; . 1 4 ch 2 27 , , . , : , ,

in

.

)

.,

.

4

div sec

. . 3 , 47 ,

par

sec ch

.

4

. 1 ,

,

,

.

. . 24 2 , 37 ,

ch

par

Scientific 1892 Marx Capital vol throughout sec

ch

(

. 3 ,

vol

France

1886g

and

,

:

also

12

13

, (

.

,

. 6 :

-

29 see

; ch .

;

. ,

Utopian

Fev

. ) 2 5 , ; ,

. of 4 ,

,

k

Nivengeisu

Compare Engels

Civil War

-

.

. 7 26 , .

sec

6

.

47 ,

.

ch

,

in

,

part

. 5 ,

,

. , 3 ,

60

65 :

see

,

Marx Mehrwert vol For French peasants also Marx Class Struggles part Eighteenth pars pars Marx Brumaire Capital pars Marx vol sec

,

-

16

France

throughout

,

pars

sec

.

pars

)

.

ch

(

30

(

pars

Domela

Introduction Socialism For English landlords throughout sec 10 5 )

Engels

Engels

Guizot par par Marx

to

. . . . 35 3 ch , ( , 3- 3- . 24 35 : , 7 15 . 11 24 . , . 39 . 29 (3 ) 3 2 11 : , : . ),

par

sec

Review

Germany

ch

,

Marx

Peasant War

in

. . .

1 3 2

."

.

of

to

of

development which was appropriate and trade Hence their community with the bourgeoisie

of

to

a

in

,

on

,

in

of

ownership

. ' ,

in

of

life were the feudal landowners France 1789 complete harmony with these conditions members

.

in

but

alliance that

Revolution

large

destroyed

itself not

found

bourgeois

its

in

the English

of

distinguishes

large landowners

,

,

of is

,

the conservative character lasting alliance between the

French Revolution which dividing the land The class with the bourgeoisie which had Eighth

,

of

to

is

of

bourgeosie and the majority fundamentally

in

,

,

of

explain able the English the riddle the English Revolution the

standing

the

Guizot which he of

The great riddle for only through the superior under

French Revolutions

and



the English

:

omy

and economic influence attained exploitation and the roles played econ comparing additional classes Marx writes for example type

.

by

technical predominant

of

the degree

environment

development

its

physical and biological

its

of

is

details

it

the same type of exploitation . To account these analyze each society concretely investigating the

on

necessary

,

based

for

( 1. 3.3 )

( 1 .3 .4 )

20

complications

of economic structure account in part for the fact that concrete instances of the same type of class rule Such

vary , first , with respect to the connections between state officials and the total membership of the ruling class , and second , with respect to the connections between state officials and the member

ship of additional classes . These differences are reflected in the variety of state forms— monarchical and republican , aristocratic

democratic — found in different societies based on the same of exploitation - slave , feudal , or capitalist . They are also

of

of

:

in

,

of

1848

,

to

of

for

since

endure

the

each 3

.”

For the

. . . . 3 1 35 , - 9 . 11 50 , ; :

part

. 21 , , , . 6, , 1,

in

part

Marx sec

. 1 ,

,

- 68 ) 20 ; ;

(

par

France pars

. 3 3 , ,

of

, ,

pars

.

,

49

France

inst

Struggles

Class 67

.

sec

2

,

;

21

pars

Eighteenth Brumaire

pars

1 -4

.

-

18

4

.

. :

,

,

.

,

of

,

in

28

39 :

-

.

38

to

. 1 ,

is

an

governments

state

the Renegade Kautsky

and

But

contrasted is

type

used

.

in

and democratic

with

incon

and capitalist distinguishing

' . , 21 . ch . of , 2 , it

is

government

in

of of

form

, of

,

equated

. . ' ' ' 4 ,

with

Lenin reveals Type state

of

aristocratic

state

,

monarchical form

' ,

between

while

state

distinguishing between slave feudal government used unambiguously

of

.

'

Form

from

'

of

states

cited

form

in

unambiguously

the passages

expression

'. '

the

of

use

is

of

Comparison sistent

'

of

.23

,

:

7 9

.

. 4 ,

,

-

:

)

36

(

54

.

-

pars Marx Civil War France sec general Critique problem see Marx For the the Gotha Program pars Engels Mehring par Sept sec 1892 Lenin Renegade Kautsky sec pars Lenin The State pars pars

41

Marx

also

over

rule and slavery changed

this

Junirevolution

,

/

see

. . .

France part

society

exploitation

the French bourgeoisie they permitted the rule

sec

Marx Engels

1 3 3 of

-

5

.

pars

form

a single

type

the bourgeois order

the workers

time that the political

case

order

, ;

attack

the slavery

of

,

class

in

for example

writes

many revolutions

the an



of

None 1789 was

,

.

in

Marx

13

time

of

does not change

of state forms found predominant which its

the variety

in

33

reflected a period

on

type

. 10 , 1, -

and

equated

in

. ' 3 in , sec

's .

4

,

of sec .

to

. 5 ,

ch

,

;

19 )

21 (

is

.

. 4 ,

sec

ch

in

6

;

government and contrasted with type with form state The Compare par State also Lenin State and Revolution par par Because Lenin usage The State nearer that Marx the passages cited

( 1.3 .5 ) To recognize the wide range of variation among instances of the same type of economy and among instances of the same type of state is

emphasize the impossibility of explaining concrete historical processes solely in terms of the general principles of historical materialism . As Engels puts it : “ The development of the to

interpretation

materialist

for even

a

example was

single historical

a scientific task which would have required years of tranquil study ; for it is obvious that here nothing can be accomplished with mere

phrases, that only an enormous quantity of critically examined , completely mastered , historical material can qualify one to solve of this kind ." 4 a single problem

the different forms of organizing class rule , there are different methods of exercising it. Sometimes class rule legal restraints is stabilized within a framework of Sometimes

. Apart

from

rule

is

of

The latter method

dictatorship

re

a

,



,

in

every Prussia 1848 dictatorship the state requires and that From the beginning we have

.

energetic dictatorship

at of

a

"

provisional

Marx writes

,

revolution organization

"

After

of

.

called

an

abolished

.

suspended

,

,

are violated

or

.

law

4

the

, .

.”

struggle

of

'

,

of

'

used

open

Critique the Gotha Program form synonymous with form government

and as

will

be

'

of

state

the bureaucracy

venturing upon

even

,

Junirevolution

from

positions

in

strengthened

and the army here and there

its

party

the defeated

old

for not acting dictatorially for not imme diately smashing and eliminating the remnants institutions While Herr Camphausen lulled himself with constitutional dreams

of ,

proached Camphausen

to

, , , ,

1890

Bloch

Preface par

Sept

Self Determination

par

par

Marx Anti Dühring

pars

21

:

( 5 )

2

1877 Engels

June

-

Nations

5

.

:

3

Ernst Engels to

,

of

.

5

, :

.

, .

par to

,

Right

of

'

,

/

1877

par Engels Aug 1890 par

1878

Lenin

Zapisky

'

Otyecestvenniye

Oct

.

Sorge

19 to

.

4

. . .

1 3 4

,

Engels Marx Critique Political Economy Also Marx Engels German Ideology part div

Marx

5

. , . .1 6 : -7 1, sec . to ( 2 ' 5-6 . , , ) 1 ', : , to sec . . . 1 1 -9 2 . 1, . , 5 22 : ' to : .

.

throughout this book

Engels

1890

pars

pars

Schmidt

( 1 .4 . 2 )

30

's

Lenin

definition rule .

constitutional

upon

is based

this contrast of dictatorial with he writes , “ is power based

,”

Dictatorship



directly on force , unrestricted by any laws .” l Dictatorship is a method of rule : it is not a form of state , to be contrasted , for example , with democracy . “ A liberal," writes

?

, in

as

dictatorship

Everyone

knows

,

case

essentially that class rule invariably mean that dictatorial methods are methods are necessary for class rule sense

,

used

to in

in a

,

amounts

it

Specifically

.

what becomes

of

class rule

does not

dictatorial

is

The assertion

methods are not

that

of all

the

particular method

a

other methods

is

if

dictatorship

antiquity

assert

?

contrasted with

this

as

.

of

is

dictatorial But

state

seems

,



" in

of

's

a

class rule

the

essence

owners

to

Lenin contention that dictatorship the slave

of

."

it

did not

the definition

al

antiquity

this

.

a

abolish

was

of

revealed the state

once the

of at

antiquity

dictatorship slave owners Did democracy among and for slave owners

essence

that

in

the slaves

?

:

or

, . . .

for

the

Lenin , “ naturally speaks of democracy ' in general . A Marxist question never forgets to pose For what class Everyone knows instance that rebellions even violent agitations among

but that

these

which constitution the contention that

the .

6

, . .

,

ch

.

in

sec

, ,

. 3 1 , ,

,

par

Prole

,

State and Revolution of

the Question

Dicta

.

( 23 )

. 1 :

,

Also

par

Bourgeois

.

14

Lenin

-

points

13

.

postscript part

3

24

(

,

. 1 ,

of ,

(

,

sec

of

Lenin mocracy and Proletarian Dictatorship

,

Tasks

, 33 : ): ) . 20 , sec . 26 of : 2 1 , -4 , , , 9 par . , , 11 ,

of

'

Lenin

Lenin

History

34

,

)

Social Democracy

. 163

10

,

-

1

.

28

( :

)

Lenin

,

,

in

,

:

to

par

29

15

, ( . 18 16 ), (

,

point

5

, , 3

pars

Lenin Renegade Kautsky Two Tactics Social Democracy Renegade Kautsky pars

, , . . .

. 9 :

. 2 ,

/

/

:

7

,

79

:

,

16

.

,

, 32 . ,

33

Two Tactics

19

in

. . 1,

,

pars

1 4 2

Lenin

Lenin part

our Revolution par

sec

. 2 ,

ch

torship

.

/

, :

)

postscript

tariat

.

, , 3

38

(

37

. 1 ,

,

4

;

:

,

-

77

22 78

2

17

; .

par

sec

. , . .

1 4 1

par Marx Engels Die Krisis inst Lenin Renegade par Programme Engels Also Marx der radi kaldemokratischen Partei par Marx Engels Vereinbarungssitzung pars vom Juli par Marx Class Struggles France part part Eighteenth pars pars Marx Brumaire Engels Introduction Struggles Marx Class France 1895 Kautsky

De

( 1.4 . 5 ) are necessary

instances

This

the rule of

a is

later times when that rule examining histori can tested points origin and rule their

claim

constitutional

of

cal

of

.

seriously threatened

the time when

at

at

and

at be

established

all

class is first

by

dictatorial methods

.

crisis

a

an of

,

a

,

it

.

,

or

a

to

.

of

constitutions Adoption constitu many years may period tion destined last for end within months the open dictatorship that begins new defends says what that constitution old class rule Yet whatever does of

the origin

Consider

,

,

,

By at

.

A

.”

.

of

it

,

.

is

is

its

.

When

.

,

. -7 1 , . ):

-

(5

-5

pars

' . . 3

,

1884

Engels

below

.

. 1 . 8

Compare sec

34

(

,

33

,

;

1

,

int .

,

in

'

,

:

)

,

37

to

France 1895 pars through par Lenin Constitutional Illusions sec point Bourgeois Dictatorship Democracy Lenin and Proletrian Class

Struggles

, sec . ch 2 ) , , . , in

.

.

22

,

,

:

:

,

21

Nov

.

Bebel

2

,

in

,

Marx

18

Engels

to

. 8 ,

: 20 -

,

, ,

. : 6 :

2

,

of

,

.3 .

/ 1.4 12

, .

12

par

Introduction 36

class

the constitution subversion may require class subverts

par Marx Class Struggles France part Also Berliner Krisis throughout Marx Class Struggles part pars Marx Eighteenth Brumaire Engels Germany Revolution and Counter Revolution

Marx Engels France par

replace the ruling

the ruling

to

,

the two criteria conflict any extent suppression

to

as

as

attempting

to

practice

its

in

the security theory attempting

in

of

the framework

threaten

defined

times opponents

of

.

ways constitution rule But though subversion destroy the constitution

defined

: (

it

:

ruling

may act within

which

.

the

Consider constitutional crises class

3

sanctioned

society

At

set

social revolution

over the revolution dictatorship rules for stabilizing the

a

of

is

constitution

a

victory

in the

of

constitution sanctioned

momentary

out

a

to

of

to

time

no old

to

of

parties them

,

had established themselves and the contending compromise that allowed the ruling class resorted continue the struggle among themselves and the same people exclude the exhausted masses the contrast

relations

class

this

of

a

of

up

"

in

of

a

,

"

"

.

is

to

stabilize and sanction class rule which has been established dictatorially Formerly Marx writes France 1848 consti tutions had been drawn and adopted only when the social point process revolution had reached rest the newly formed

( 1. 4 . 8 ) Bourgeois rule as the product and result of universal suffrage ,



act of the sovereign will of the people , that is the of the bourgeois constitution ," writes Marx of France “ But from the moment when the content of this suffrage ,

as the express

meaning in 1848

.

of this

sovereign

will ,

is no longer bourgeois rule , has the consti

tution any further meaning ? Is it not the duty of the bourgeoisie to regulate the suffrage in such fashion that it wills the reasonable ,

.. .

their rule ?

universal suffrage , in which up to now they draped have themselves and from which they have derived their By repudiating

omnipotence

,

dictatorship

has existed

4

instances of constitutional that dictatorial methods are necessary for class rule

Examination

a

main

as

,

power

,

its law

.

unrestrained

Bourgeois

rule in

not. All political rule

origins and crises power won and one class against another class

the violence by

by

reveals itself , in tained

historical

constitutional methods are

which

in

of



discloses sense

this time our

to

by the will of the people ; it must now be

against the will of the people ." "

secured

: 'Up

the bourgeoisie openly admit

of



extraordinarily

states are

varied

,

95

.

-

94

Engels

, 17

to

Marx Marx

to

43 43 an

3

)

(

42 -

zu

Marx

An

.

,

27

17 17 20 20 :

)

die

,

, .

sec

. 1 , ,

Abschiedsbrief par Engels pars France 1895 pars

, 11 12 : .

11 11 , 10

2

7

(

-

9

,

11

.

, 14 :

3

/

38

-

34

.

,

'

in

,

. 1 .

the Second par

12

sec

,

Tasks point

. , 2 ,

Lenin

the Communist International

of

,

:

23

:

12

-

points

9

,

'

Dictatorship

(2 ) . :

.

Brum

Engels

Deutschland Class Struggles Dva Mira par Lenin Zinoviev Socialism and par Lenin Bourgeois Democracy and

,

to

, sec

6 .Ors9

4

,

'

of

pars

Also

part

Eighteenth

Marx Max pars

Vorwort

Engels

Marx 18

,

)

. : 1 ,

39

,

ch

Congress

Marx

the

Struggles

Class 57

3

pars

Marx

56

,

:

2 8

.

pars

,

.

of in

Certainly

all .

in

,

"

,

part

Sozialistengesetz

par

1885

Sozialismus

Lenin

Proletarian

. 4 ,

Marx

1880

, .

.

:

10

Engels

Introduction

-

part

pars pars

1

8

Dec

pars

sec

par

Kölner Geschwornen

35

France pars

in

1878

-

; part

.

pars

sec

Sept

(

the bourgeoisie

, ; , 4,, . , . ..- ; : . -9 - , , ,: ,: , ., . .:2. : ; ' 21 , 2, , , 86 -36 . . 93 ; 1 . 3 6 , : -7

part

-

1

.

in in

,

pars

78

part

Hyndman

War

in

,

An

France France pars

aire

,

Marx Class Struggles Kölner Geschwornen die

Marx

are dictatorships

states

77

these

, 1. 4 .4 .

of

or

"

,

in

yet their forms writes Lenin essence they are the same One way another but the final reckoning without fail

( 1.4 . 10 )

33

of

of

the commands

law

,

of

to

,

It

defend

unrestrained

.

is

abolish laws but also

by

to

and

functions

law

In

of

.

is

.

,

law

as

,

supreme and Rousseau They distinguish the

Hobbes

unrestrained

of .

power over subjects

to

,

sovereignty

according

by

concepts

certain

Sovereignty

of

with

is

it

itself the source these commands this connection compare the Marxian concept dictatorship instructive to

is

it

because

them

is

create

to

and

power unrestrained

suspend

.

,

however

to

not only

It

.

5

Dictatorship

by

at .

:

the

capitalism transition from to communism must produce an enor mous abundance and variety of political forms . Yet in essence they will unavoidably be same dictatorships the proletari 95

,

of

,

.

,

is

to

power won

and

main

,

of

.

by

law

Marxists

one class against another class power They distinguish the essential attributes

of

,

,

to

of

of

,

by

according

the violence

unrestrained dictatorship

.

,

,

is

of

Dictatorship tained

its to

power

,

right

only

.

but

to

according The sovereign majority subjects their theories cannot coerce the because power based upon their rational consent continuously renewed explaining the basic fact politics subjec Such theories instead majorities tion minorities explain that fact away

,

power itself

,

to

.

in

,

is

law

,

,

of

of

sovereignty essential attributes source law from the various government through which forms enforced But the last analysis Hobbes and Rousseau attribute the sovereign not

the

from

.

Marx Rapport Marx Politische Indif ( 6 )

7

.

a

in

.

38

.

,

1

to .

' 6,

, , .

. 4 : is

,

it

I

an

.

. it,

in

to

of

of

,

for

about Hobbes and Rousseau have collected publish together with and hope eventually exam Hegel the theory the state

statements

however ination

It

. .1 .

1 5

,

,

,

par Conseil Central 1866 sec div p ar Democracy ferentismus Lenin and Dictatorship par Renegade Kautsky par Lenin sec present impossible footnote the evidence these

Also

du

. 6 .

sec

:

3

in

par

, . , 2 : . ch . 65 2, : , . 3 , , ,

Revolution par France part and

. , 1 ,

State

Class Struggles

,

of

of

,

, 1.4 .5 .

Marx

Lenin

of

,

of

law

is

,

,

as

govern various forms ment through which law enforced But where bourgeois theorists sovereignty derive the power from consent the majority Marx source

(1 . 5 . 3 )

34

,

by

-

are

as

dictatorship

and

defined

power

But for Hobbes and Rousseau this positive laws

only

by is

law

.

unrestrained positive law

the few

law

by

,

its

sovereignty

Both

,

of

Against the ideal actuality class rule

proclaim

by

.ity

dictatorship from exploitation of the major state power self rule the many they

.

of

ists derive the power

to

In

.

,

,

by by

to

for

,

by

,

to

,

.

In

addition rules ordained the they consider natural laws rules acknowledged reason posi specify necessary conditions social order addition rights recognized sovereign they tive claims the consider natural

sovereign

to

,

in

of

;

to

, by

, .

is

to

by

and natural right

law

.

natural

of

positive law the last analysis the relation positive right and natural right Sovereignty though unlimited positive law and positive right limited on

law

,

natural

of

on

depends

in

, ,

.

on

.

,

rights claims acknowledged specify necessary condi reason tions for individual freedom Positive law and positive right depend power But sovereign power depends sovereign the last majority majority analysis consent the and consent the

of

positive and turns upside down this doctrine natural law Men forget writes Engels the derivation their they have forgot just from their economic conditions

of



, ,

as

life

of

the animal world With the expan complicated comprehensive whole the

,

,

.

from a

sion

their own derivation legislation into of

ten law



.

",

Marxism

of

an

:

in

prevailing

,

as

of

its

of

In

.

it

of

a

of

society arises for new division labour order professional jurists develops and with originates the theory law further development this theory compares the legal systems various peoples and various times not reflections necessity

systems which find their but The comparison assumes common jurists summing factor and this the find what more less common all these legal systems natural law The criterion however which used decide what and what not natural precisely the most abstract expression law law itself justice From this point onward the development law for the jurists and

,

is

.

,

is

simply

the endeavor

to

is

of

above

,

of

is

.

as

,

at

their word

.

. .

See note

them

1 5 1

. . .

1 5 2

for those who take

, or

a

up

by

to

to

is

is

,

as

relations

themselves

.

in

economic

,

justification

( 1 . 5 .5 )

35

bring human relations , nearer

in so far as these take legal form , ever , eternal justice . And this justice is justice the ideal of

to

always

the ideologized , sanctified

simply

of existing

reflection

relations , sometimes from the conservative , sometimes revolutionary the side. ” Natural law is part of the mythology

economic from

of

class society . 3

Dictatorship

power

is

economic structure

of

.

any

by

unlimited

society

,

law

based

the

on

the ideal rules of natural law

Both

and the actual rules of positive law reflect , with varying degrees of accuracy , predominant relations of production . Positive law and positive right depend on dictatorial power . But dictatorial power

depends ,

the last analysis ,

in

; in the last analysis , forces of production . of

the economic structure

on

depends ,

society

and the economic structure of society the stage of development attained by the The laws which underlie the positive laws established

on

by dictator historical laws of

kind ,

quite

ship

are laws of a different the social change . The right which underlies the positive rights estab

24

, .

.

. 2 ,

par

, . sec . . 16 ch , . 2, : 2, . 2,

. , 3 , , . 58 , ch ", ", . 7 : (6 21 , . . , ) . . 1 , 8 . , , 1 9 : ; ; 1 23 , . ,

ch

;

5

19

, ,

17

.

Lenin Lenin

.

pars

) , , . :

(

-

Wagner par

. 39 ) 37 : : ,

'

35 3,

2

15

) ( ,

60

.

pars

( -

sec

Can the Bolsheviks Retain State Power

. .

pars

. 2 ? , ,

ch

,

Sozialismus

14 56

‘ 210 :

.

Juristen

Narodism

Oct Engels

:

1884

.

zu 3

par

-

to

,

1879

Marx Randglossen Philosophy Marx Poverty

pars

Anti 21

,

56

;

Juni

,

an

Bernstein

Sorge

of

Engels

pars

Marx

par

26

1877

Marx

Engels

11

:

11

.

,

.

part

par

14

/

,

pars

, 23 ; , . . 2 (4 2 1, , ) : ch . 1 . ,

sec

,

,

Economic Content

(2 )

, ,

. 1 . , 1 sec

:

.

Aug

Engels Preface Engels Kautsky

/

) . : 8: 13

(

/

:

10

67 . )

:

, (8)

;

2

, , : 1 ch . art of . 10 , 1 . , to ,

pars

Labour Standard par

par

vol Politische Indifferentismus

Marx

1

( 5 )

, to

par

.

,

1877

par

Gotha Program

part Engels 2

Dühring

Marx

note

of

Critique

the

par

. 5 ,

,

37

. 1 ,

Marx

10

note

subsec

part

Engels Democratic Panslavism par inst p ar Capital Dec 1861 Marx vol

.

par

ch 2

65 ( ”, 64 -

Engels

to

.

62 -





Aneignung durch zusammengetzte Antithese par subsec par Das Gesetz Marx Engels Communist Manifesto

pars

On the

law

,

.

. .18 .4

subsec

,

On natural

natural Engels Ideologie part Marx Deutsche par Der politische Liberalismus

compare

.

,

2

sec

. 1 ,

,

and

div

. .

,

2

justice

3



of

right

positive law

sec

Engels, Housing Question , part see par below

. . .

15 3

origins

( 1 .5 . 6 )

36

lished by dictatorship

ical right

is

overthrow

to

right of a quite different kind , the histor dictatorship , to sweep away political insti

tutions and productive relations which have become obstacles to social development , and to establish new dictatorships with new

is

is on

recog the

foun at

on to

position

law

is

natural

the

.*

,

,

To

position

contrast the historical materialist the

recognition

,

which

of

,

. . .”

and the basic right adaptation change survival

state power with

of

.

6

the one Every right

some need

basic need

dations

the

states

right

;

nition

one real historical right without exception rest



all ,

after

modern

of

all

“' is ,

The right of revolution ," asserts Engels

.“

systems of right and law

raise

.

on

is

's

of

once the problem the state influence social change Marxists dependent upon economic power and assert that political power

as

it

't

.

clearly

do

,

15 18

-

1

pars

1

. .

12

' .

1884

;

'

in

par

pars

Bernstein

,

Nov

.

Bebel

,

,

18

. 2 :

Geschwornen Engels

to

Kölner

par

. , 1 ,

,

'

to

/

an zu

:

die

,

Engels

(5 )

, ,

sec

: to

Letter

13

.

,

Lenin

Lenin

-

,

:

1 3

pars

1917

:

11

.

par

, .

1

,

.) ch .

,

Oct

. , 8, ,

:

,

:

24

International pars

12

to

' , .

22

of

Nov

. . 34 ) 2 ( . ,

34

-

24

.

,

-W

the Second and War

( , 23 - sec

6

to

39 )

,

Socialism

Central Committee ing Childishness Left American Workers pars

'

37 -

(

38

-

36

Collapse

Lenin

Zinoviev

,

Lenin

,

Letter Lenin

. 2 / :

:

1

3

,

par

, . 10 :

,

.

,

,

15

(3 in

sec . .

par

1

Marx die Kölner Geschwornen 1885 Engels Engels Bernstein Mai 1886 par Engels Introduction Abschiedsbrief par Marx Class Struggles France 1895 pars Lenin Revolyutsionnye Dni Engels

pars



Vorwort

An

Zemli

to

:

,

23

17

-

13

Marx

inst

An

,

34

(

33

par

1883

1

Jan

Kontrerevolution

und

Natsionalizatsiya

Marx

just

Introduction Marx Class Struggles France Compare Marx Engels Berliner Krisis through

Bourgeoisie

: , .

17

Engels

pars

inst

, , ).

: . : . 15 . , 1. 3 ) , 5 12 : .4 , . . , , 13 . /

1895

out Marx

concrete

of

of

Engels

par

But

record historical events change radical social we not find evidence economic and political factors even for the prima

In

for

the parity

historical materialism the

?

inconsistent with periods

of

of

general theory

isn

.

is

,

of

.

that legal relations are dependent upon economic relations Taken together these two theses assert the primacy economic over political development This position clearly consistent with the

( 1 .6 . 2 )

37

,

of

. of

the European

between

the end comprehensive

system

France century

,

,

Holland

the seventeenth

or

In

. . . .

Portugal

colonialism

,

a

Spain

of

.

are combined into

production

original accumula

theater more less original accumulation are appor

at

England

In

England

to

chronologically

tioned

trans

the

hunting

capitalist

of

factors

, of

,

as

nations with the whole world this order the different

trade war

the

,

followed

are

its

.

by

,

They

of

in

for

the East Indies

blackskins marked the dawn the These idyllic proceedings are main factors tion

America the the native popu

the commercial

era

of

a

of

,

lation

of

the initial conquest and looting preserve formation Africa into

mines

capital

to

in

and silver

gold

enslavement and burial

of

,

of



:

The discovery

,

ist

society

extermination

feudal

from

,

of politics ? Marx writes of the transition

cy

and they

national of all

in

.

of

,

old

to

?

of

?

a

do

of

of ,

of ?

of

in

to

,

his

requirements

of

all

,

so

-5

4

pars

.

)

6

.

sec

-

to

,

24

.

ch

to

in

. 1 ,

,

Capital vol

order

actions

into motives

rule must pass secure general recognition

31 (

the state

in

what

forces

themselves

action class happens

.

him

ch

put

correspond

of

it .

Appearances

driving

,

to

matter

of

no

Marx

is

."

an

in

,

:

in in

-

order

,

.1 .

. 1.6

)

shorten

pregnant

The traditional view which Hegel sub the state the determining element and

individual man all

the

through the will

3 -4

a

is

It

.

of

finds

politics

the element determined

,

will

society

and

society

we not find economic and political factors Engels writes the relation

pass through his head must transform

his

civil

As

this

must

of

a

,

also

.

to

civil

civil society

society

every

social stability

by

scribes

primacy

the

in

to

state

comparative

for the parity

evidence

for

even

it

periods

In

further

of

is

,

of

.

-

this economic power

Why call

the midwife

transforming

itself economic power How strong comparison with other economic powers parent midwife instead

one

new

a

with

in

hothouse the process production into the capitalist

the feudal mode the transition Force

(

,

.

,

quicken



,

to

society

as

,

of

,

,

part debt modern taxation and protection These methods depend upon brute force for example the colonial system But organized them use state power the concentrated force

(1 .6. 3)

38

of laws. ""? Are

these appearances

do

laws

some

and

?

it

is

't,

in

of

is devoid of the form can secure general recognition some don not politics that decides

its

illusions ? Unless requirements the members

all

conflict , not

of

form

. If

the

in

society

of

of



.

of

While that

of

,

,

protect their social privileges

, ,

to

order

in

view

Bakunin maintains

go

,

be

.

by

all

of

by

,

the state must

done away

all

of

,

,

a

people

few

the

.

to

the devil itself We assert capital the appropriation and then

the state

the

will

1

itself

else

.”

die away

by

means

of

:

;

with then contrary

evil above

capital will Do away with production by

,

the main

is

the state which has created capital that the capitalist capital only favour the state Since therefore the

it his

state

Bakunin

is

that has

power

economic

workers hold our

Social Democratic

the ruling classes selves

that

assert

:

of

theories

nothing more than the organization with which landlords and capitalists have provided them

is

power

force and those

law

political power Engels writes

the great mass state

force

role

of

,

.

product

a

is

the role

Primacy

7

which

emphasize

those which

emphasize

.

groups

of

main

the

.

be

of

of

by

We shall commence our discussion these problems exam ining the Marxian criticism doctrines asserting the primacy politics over economics These theories can divided into two

its

:

of

of

a

the definition

-

'

pars

Compare Marx

/

div

. 2 ( , 4) .

par

ch

, . 1 , ,

"

2

,

.

)

.

sec subsec Privatei Marx Moralizing Criticism Engels Anti Dühring part

pars

1 -3

)

1872

(

-

15

20

.

(

,

)

22

13

. 3 , -

12

(

(

'

of

Jan part



Staat und Recht pars inst

14

pars

of

in

.

to

, ,

, ,

.

1 .7 .1

. . 13 1 - 3-

pars

For

below

Engels Cuno Engels Deutsche Ideologie gentum

par

Feuerbach

par

. 2 .1 . .1

. . .

see

; 19 24 ) , ch : . . 2 . . ch . 2 , 4 , 4 -6 , , : . , . 2 . , 1 -4 . 16 - , . 1

,

Engels

civil society

of

economic facts which his unique system phrase which that they are results force

is

give

1 6 2

has

us

The sole explanation to



in

,

in

,

of

Historical materialism while stressing the importance force origins and social change treats political power terms Dühring results the economic environment Marx writes

39

)

has been

for

used

thousand years by the philistine in every nation everything unpleasant that happens

a

him

. .

1 7 2

no for

(

'

'

force

us

,

to

.

gratefully

remain

the ultimate

cause

,

content with the inere word explanation all of

as

Dühring bids

its

of

in

of

us

to console himself and which gives more knowledge than we had before Instead investigating this force origins and results Herr terms

conclusive

and

power

in

political

abstraction

we must conclude that superior majority the Then writes Engels there

,





”,

,

.

on

force the side arises the problem is

origins

the

economic environment

of

If

we consider

its

from

of

."

economic phenomena

of

explaining

3

we

relations

.

all

itself suffi The

whole force theory

.

the

mastery

and servitude still

.”

remains

If

problem

the former

by

,

actual force has rested with make clear the absurdity

,

of to

ance cient

and that therefore the preponder is

and exploiters

than the rulers

of of

'

',

at we

if

of

of

;

of

explaining the origin classes and relations political rule but for this Herr Dühring has only the word force we are left exactly where started The simple fact that exploited the ruled and have been times far more numerous

its

relation

to

in

political power

of

consider the origins

:

get

up he

,

to

.

,

a

;

be

' :

'

should

able

but requires very par

. 1 .

. .3 ,

sec

.

par

11

,

10

,

of

will

2 , . 4 ch , .

,

,

2

ch

in

;

axiomatician

mere act

,

-

,

then the whole force triumphs the revolver over the sword

-

,

In

. 1.7 . .2 . .

the

now

Herr Dühring

and

Anti Dühring part Anti Dühring part

Engels

Engels

and

the most childish

even

is

this

trees

his hand

So

.

reversed

understand that force

1 7 3

to

from

. . . .

relation

suppose

Crusoe stories

leaves the Crusoe can provide himself with sword Friday appears that some fine morning

loaded revolver is

a

we may

then

with and

unanswered

If

question

of

islands

on

?

the dream swords have not grown

Dühring

to

.

in

'

on



enslaved

Even

no

Crusoe

sword

that environment Engels replies Friday sword hand Where did

of

ties are products

to

of

,

economic environment we must conclude that the instruments subject majori and organization force which enable minorities

40

( 1 .7 .4 ) exercise

particular

instru

,

,

in

for

conditions

its

real preliminary

of to ,

: it

of

to

in

;

;

in

,

.

,

,

95

,

. . , .

25

;

ch

13

,

. 4 , 2, . /

Marx

. sec 1 , , .

sec

par

sec .

ch

Sept

22

-

2

:

. 12 )

(

2

. 18 2 . ,

, 1

;

div

.

Economy

vol .

,

Also

Sept

Engels

2

.

to

. 3 . ,

ch

,

to , 16

Political

Capital

pars

Danielson

par

Marx

Also

Engels

par

4

. .

par

of

. 1 .

. 3 ,

ch

:

,

Marx

ch

. 1 2 , ,

, , 1

:

)

29

of

at



,

2

. 6 :

)

1866

( 4 8 )

7

9

-

5

.

11

(

13

:

, to

.

-

-

div

par

Marx

Engels

, 25

the

a

of

,

,

to

. 3 , ,

sec

-

. 2 ,

July

Critique

(

32

-

30

,

par

Anti Dühring part

Introduction

( 22 )

,

26

.

:

part

to

,

Engels

Engels German Ideology part 5

the political power

Engels pars

ch

. 2 8 , ,

)

:

3

;

17

ch

1

, (

.

. . 2 13 . -

-

, 1 , .7. . 5

,

4

1892 par

Marx pars

has come into conflict with has happened some stage with past invariably struggle the the

Engels Anti Dühring

par

forces they conquest

country

as

with the downfall

Wage Labour and Capital 1857 par Marx Anti Dühring part pars

of

. . . . of

political power

,

. 4 .

ended

, - 1. 7

has

go

or

its

where the internal power economic development almost every

on

to

in

in

is

to

how

use to

did not know

ruin the productive But apart from cases

of in

a

allowed

-

or

ors have exterminated

it

conquest where barbarous conquer country and expelled the inhabitants

exceptions are isolated cases destroyed

that

economic laws this case the two and the economic development works against economic development and exceptions regularly succumbs These few

a

.

with

Engels

direction

the

it

no

is

case

,

this

.

its

in

it

Or

According

accord with

conflict between

accelerated

.”

we at

,

of

is

If



there

economic

must conclude that the extent that

force

increased

protects and develops economic base harmony with and Either works development which

the

disposal

its

',

-

'

on

economic power

the material means force has

we consider the results political power preserved and

on

in

a

,

,

in

of ,

on

is

in

general

on

',

situation

of

weapons

called

;

,

of

production

is

is

To

more highly developed instruments defeats the producer less developed instruments that single word the triumph production weapons and this force based turn commonly

force highly

of

admit that the producer

.

be

,

,

,

of

which the more developed prevail over the less developed produced recognize this and which moreover must

ments

( 1 .8 . 1 ) 8

.

Primacy

a

theories assert that economic

of law

. Marx

of political order

product

:

writes of Eden

order

is

his

“ From

a

.

of ,

'

of

its

of

"

." “

.

as

,

the material conditions

existence

.

;

ch

)

13

.

-6

(

14

. . 5

,

. , 5 ,

.

2

,

27

to

of

by

in

the role

par

pars

1890

Dühring Engels makes some general statements capitalism force the development which

on

attack

concerning

Anti Dühring part Schmidt Oct -

,

: : )

Engels

of

his

Engels

10 3

(

note 12

par

In

8

,

. . 17 ,

par

ch

.”

from

of

its

,

but the will acquires content your class

a

of

bourgeois production

is

terms

Your ideas them

Engels inform their critics are the outgrowth your law and property relations just your class exalted into statutes will which

,

",

of

and

property

of

Marx

selves

legal order

the economic environment

in

origins and results

the laws

analyzes

in

The spirit

materialism



Historical

of



:

a

single word

is "

's

of

as of

of

juristic

as

law

illusion , he does not regard the product production the material relations but conversely regards the relations production products the law Ling Spirit punctured Montesquieu illusory uet the Laws with

of

standpoint

in

)

, ; .

10

-

(9

, ; .

)

19

)

,

) 18

. (

sec

6

12

,

24

),

.

ch

pars

But compare

,

below

1 9 1

. . .

1

13

.

,

12

(

(

24

:

,

.

-

10

15

.

(4 )

31

par

11

.

37

.

3

)

.

9

par

.

.

,

1

ch

,

)

. 7 ,

part Communist Manifesto Eighteenth Brumaire sec par

Engels

Capital

On the same topic par par sec note

. 11 , . 2, .

in

, 23

.

(

.

ch

of

note

.

,

Narodism

Oct

25

1890

par

sec

( 2 . 12 10 , 5 ) , ( .

for

,

,

( 8 -

-

14

,

)

24

cited

. 1 ,

,

sec

,

Marx

par

,

Marx

Marx

par

(7

8

. 2

.

. .8 ch

(

.

to

Also

Economic Content Marx Capital vol

, / ,

( 38 )

. 1. 1. 8 8

. . 2 1 . . ,

Lenin

contradict

pars

pars

Engels 27

32

)

3

pars

passages from further ticularly Engels Schmidt see

confirmation

. ); ch . . 2, 2 7 16 , ch ) ) 4 . 4, , ; , ch . 5 26 , 2 ch . . 8, ( . , ch 1

,

, -

, , . 5 , 24

sec

ch

. .

ch

;

)

20

-

,

sec

the

(

(

( 8 )

,

:

19

.

10

24 27

.

3

. .

22 ch ch

(

-

.

pars

4

.

ch

28

2

ch

ch , . 5 . , 1 4 , , 8 ;

,

of

he

Capital the sections cites Compare Engels Anti Dühring part par Engels Feuerbach par vol sec

him

.

to

its

,

of

.

no

on

are inconsistent with more detailed statements made Marx the positive role same topic Engels asserts that force played the development capitalism only role was economic but that shatter political institutions which blocked that development Yet

42

( 1 .8 . 3 ) The laws of

explicitly

are those rules of conduct

society

a

, that is, by



its

,

the public power of that by society or officials or voters whose decisions are supported by that power . “ With law ," writes Engels , “ there necessarily come support public power into existence organs entrusted with sanctioned by public authority

a

of

.

An 24

in

.

. 1 .5 .5

'

in

a

,

its

)

his

.

; ).

10 44

.

. 5 ,

par

not See Compare ch

a

. -

. ,

;

.

6

par

(

sec 68 6 71

.

2

,

. , 2 , ch .

a

or

that

state exists there pars 43

sec

he



he

argued

then

Struve for mak coercive power

of

23

before the emergence the part references the second note above On the describe this authority compare Engels Anti ühring pars Engels Origin par the Family societies

14

25

-

)

, ; , ,

.

. 1 , 24

(

24 26

. 13 8 , . ,

- .6 , ,

;

ch

)

pars

18 25 3 10 , ,

,

of

32

. ( 9 30 , -

) ;

38

,

23 36

: ( .

pars

-D

. ch , . .

1 1 1

of

in

authority

. 40 4, ) ; ch . . 7 4 : ,

38 ch -

("

.

15

.

' '.

"

'

an

.

,

Narodism

( , 21 ch ). . 4 ,

of

He

whether

apparatus

identifies this

had attacked

in

the

' . 4 or ,

. 5 ,

earlier

to

names used part

sec

sec

.

),

16

(

18

.

On public

(

.

law

in

ch

be is

in

is

,

above

.

. 1 .8 .4

, to

indicate that

and Revolution pars

State 2

and

below

law

years

society

every

Economic Content

. 7 42 2 , ,

see

,

.

.

that

Revolution

ing the same identification

ch 40

Com Incon

this note below par

.

's

assertion

that law context seems clearly with the state Twenty

state see

Lenin

cannot exist without state occurs par Pravo this pas translated either right law His actual words are nothing without apparatus for support but the

Lenin

State and

in

par

see

, .

3

par

13

,

,

the

custom

par

sec

. , 7 : . 2 ,

part

die Kölner Geschwornen sistent Stand par Also the references two notes following For law and natural

found

no

is

of

pare Marx

sage can

be

,

it :

Housing Question

,

,

state

An

. .3 .

the

.3

sanctioned

Engels

1 8

by

conduct explicitly

For law and

no

,

to

to

,

in

to

all

of

a

law

.

it

to

.

to

state

be

According Lenin there can law without According support state Marx and Engels there can support without public power state power the particu public power society lar kind characteristic class Accord ing three societies with states laws are those rules the

:

27

,

( 14 , 27 )

30

. 5 , -

29

,

.

( 3 , 21 )

,

.

. 4 ,

ch

pars

23 ch

,

,

pars

.

1 3

,

.

ch

of

)

;

43

45 (

,

42 ( 40 ),

),

38

:

14

in

40 ( .

), . 2 , 26

(

pars

,

19 26 )

(

),

23

. (

, .

par

21 20

Engels public On Lenin The State The Mark Urgermanen Engels compare power Geschichte des such societies pars Engels Origin par the Family sec pars

43 ask

to

what circumstances the

is

origins

law

investigate

of

To

the

( 1.8 . 4 )

of

, to

. 3 ,

, of

. 9 ,

;

ch

)

10

.

. 8 ,

/

)

.

10

)

; .

,

24

3

(

, . ch . , 25



.

;

6

ch

)

:

10

( of ,

. 3 6 , . :

, ; ),

29

( 33 )

, :

:

34

, .

31 -

35

of

,

,

.

17

, , :

,

-

-D

12

10

,

,

-6

ühring

Nov

.

10

1877

Caricature

. 6 , ,

Lenin

State pars

of

sec

com

.

,

the State

throughout par sec

.

on

,

Lenin

. 7 : ;

;

Anti

Blos

:

Marxism

12

. 6 , 16

18

pars

Engels

. 3 ,

(

,

, . . 2

24

, 92 93 : , .5

. .

ch

;

of

.

Lenin

to

in

. 2 .

, :

,

12

,

:

)

-

10

(

.

. , , 5 ch , , . 5 , sec . 2 2 , . , ch

;

10

.

. 6 ,

sec

-

Anti Dühring part par

3

. , . 4 ,

,

ch

:

-

State and Revolution

,

,

/

16

Engels

10

an

pars

.

. : 3 ,

45

Marx Engels Communist Manifesto part Marx Civil War Jan 1868 par Marx

6

of

, . 2 4, . ,

sec ch .

. 5 , ,

ch

Engels

, ,

18

of

,

. 5 ,

,

compare

7

5

.

(6 )

-

28

18

,

sec

:

to

'

;

societies

par

.

such

sec

Lenin

the Gotha Program pars sec

Engels

pars 18

Immediate Tasks the Speech pars First Con Lenin sec National Economy par On public power

83 ( 85 )

of

Soviet Government gress Councils

par

the Family

the state

Marx Civil Cuno Jan 1872 Marx Critique

27 an

sec

Engels

par

par

pars

. , 5:

)

,

13

,

in

(6 )

4

, ch . 1 , 3

:

3

-

8

10

Revolution

,

pars

. . ch . . . 5 , 23 , 13 84 5 , 14 ( : ( . 11 ) 86 . , )

. , .4 : 3 , , . . 3, .6 ,

,

(

,

.

15

ch

,

/

;

:

46 20

.

of

.

on of

par

Marx Critique

2 -3

par

par

The Mark

pars

Marx

in

par

par

vol

part vol pars

Engels Origin par Marxism sec

:

Marx

Aneignung Engels Origin

the withering par sec

after

part

3

8

. ), 2 , . ”

,

Philosophy

par

sec

France

France Lenin

pars

,

)

(

,

34

:

in

societies

of

,

Poverty

pars

and

20

23

. , :

19

,

. 2 ,

, 2

(

Engels

Marx Konspekt Bakunina pars the Gotha Program Engels Bebel Mar 1875 par

par

note

Family

(

( 21 )

23

23

,

subsec

1 . , 2 19 , ) 10 (6 , : -8 . 14 7 , . . : , ) 41 ; , , ch 24 , , . 14 : sec , 9 45 . . ( ; ch , 6 ', , 3, . 2 . 12 sec ) . . 1 , , 2, : 4 . to ch

Marx

Marx Mehrwert

par

(

,

is

(

.

. 2 ,

ch

(

2 -3

.

par

Marx Engels Communist Manifesto part Authority throughout Marx Capital vol

War

society

13 )

authority

On public compare

Antithese

Punuluan )

, . 5 ,

,

, of

11

. , 4 , , , 20 5 ch . ( ( 2 18 4 . , ) ), 1 . , 9 . (6 18 2 , ) pars

ch

; (

15

sec

20

ch

;

in

,

, (43 )

pars

the Bourgeoisie part div sec

und Strafe durch

Verbrechen

7

compare

Attitude Deutsche Ideologie

par

that here

Lenin Economic Con Lenin The State pars Engels Condition the Working

par

The Mark par

the Family

(8 ch 45 of ), .

pars

societies

such

clear moreover ruling the section

the interest

in

is

it

)

-

:

Narodism

.

,

Class Engels von

31

30

(

24

37

,

22

lawof

On

tent

Marx writes

Engels

ch

18

, 35 -

,

,

as in

feudal society always

. 1 . , 9, 71 In : ; ( “ of . ch 44 . ) It : 21 7,

of

of

explicit influence the selection those rules which receive public authority discussing the development sanction law

par

44 sanctify

practice

existing

law

( 1.8 . 4 )

of

ing state

in

fix

.

in

of

of

of

,

by

to

by

to

and

legal form

the that practice custom and tradition Aside from other considerations this happens itself when the course reproduction time the continual the foundation the exist given

boundaries

as

,

so .

law

11 in ch

such

Attitude pars

.

. 5 ,

(

.

, 3

,

,

ch

.

-

29

28

-

,

. 7 :

,

,

)

an *

.”

of

.

is

is

,

21

.

. 4 ,

;

23

)

,

16

(

18

durch

Antithese

.

Also

,

note

. , sec

.

:

;

2 -4

. .



Pri

subsec

Phil

Poverty

par

Marx

par

par

sec

par

par

Zemli par Critique

,

:

Aneignung

par

5

)

,

12

24

Socialism

above

Also

Marx Capital

Marx

Engels

Introduction pars

21 -



of

.

. 3 , of

par

.

Engels

pars

par

(5 )

subsec

Jan 1865

Natsionalizatsiya

to

sec

Marx

part

. 1 . 8 .1

gram

par

3

Question

par

,

pars

1

vol

Schweitzer

21

2

,

vol

, to , , . . . 1 sec ; 5 . 30 ; , 2, ch ch . 56 . : 14 . 37 ( 24 ,

Marx

-2

10

. . .3 1 (7 , , , ): , , 1 , , 4 ch ch . : . .

to

. 1 ,

. 1 , ,

ch

,

Staat

pars

.

par

par und Recht Marx osophy pars sec div sec Introduction the Critique Political Economy Marx Critique Political Economy pref par vateigentum

sec

. . 2 , 6

div

.

",

Das Gesetz

par

sec

. . 10 ; 2, 2 ,

47 ,

,

.

1

,

.

. 2 ,

subsec

und Strafe

Verbrechen

. 3 ,

,

,

sec

div

part

; . 22 . ; 2 , ch , , 30 . ch . , , . : 2 , 47 " , , . .8par . , , 1 . 3 sec . , . ( (7 4; ch sec 2 . of : 3 2) ) . , , ; : ch 3 4 . 1, ; , 2 sec , . . , .1 4, , . . 13 39 : of ; . 1 ( , , 16 “ sec . 10 . ) 18 4 8 , ; , . : , . :

von

2

part

Ideology

German

ch

Capital vol

Marx



, / 18. . . 4 . . 2 , ,

,

Capitalist

found

16

3

see

Marx Engels

39

it

as

,

it

of

is

of

.

law

of

( 21 )

by

Feudal

answer that all law both found requirements the the economic order authority based upon that economic order

of

cieties

of

capitalism

pars sec On Engels Condition the Working Class Engels Anti Dühring part the Bourgeoisie par

.

pars

in

found the public

,

and made

made

feudal society but inadequate for

The Marxian

.

is

law

made

of

law

adequate for the stable law

the changing

is

lasts

and finally

objected

mere accident

from

some time

establishes itself explicit law sanctified that this account the origins law

it

; If

. . . .

be

may

It

as is

and tradition

custom

independence

and

for

attain social stability arbitrary action

or to

of

.

is is

,

of

,

a

on

affairs and the relations based upon that foundation regulated and orderly form This rule and order indispensable element for any mode production which takes

Feuerbach

Engels Housing the Gotha

Pro

pars

Utopian and Scientific

1892

par

( 1.8 . 5 )

45

The comparative instability of capitalist law reflects the compara tive rapidity of capitalist economic change . For if we consider not only origins but results , we find that particular laws endure economic order . it upon the laws Marx

meet the requirements

to

,

they

change

jurors



If

continue changes

.

they

as

at too

long

so

his

only

Society

of the does not

Cologne

is

of

to

is

in

.

of

civil society On the the eighteenth century

which

develop

arose

.

did not produce modern in

It

.

Code

the civil society

,

in :

,

,

on

of

,

in

,

Napoleonic contrary



,

"

juridical fiction must express

.

a

it

told

.

That Law the contrary must rest upon society opposition single the arbitrary wills community arising dividuals the interests and needs from the my hand existing material mode production Here the rest

no no

the nineteenth

in

Marx

:

pars

Agrarian Program Lenin

Caricature

Engels

sec

of

, .

);; ,

pars

par

)

Engels par

sec

par

, ,

Natsionali

Feuerbach

Social Democracy Marxism

part

2

par

sec

par

12

par

Capital

Marx

pars

par

, ,

sec

des Feudalismus

(6 -

26

the Critique Political Poli Critique Political Economy Olitical

Housing Question Engels Zemli pars Engels Geschichte der Urgermanen sec

Lenin

Marx

. .

Marx

Coin

ch

,

div

)

42

sec

pars

.

;

10

. 2 ,

ch

; .1 .,

( 1 )

(

45

par

vol

13

:

15

sec

par

Staat und Recht

Marx Introduction

par

Verfall -

par

sec

Economy

9

to

die Kölner Geschwornen par For the par below Also Marx Engels part par sec subsec Das Gesetz

Privateigentum subsec Philosophy Poverty

zatsiya

economic order

society

Ideologie

Deutsche

vol

terms

the thesis

confirm

.

is

in

.

1 8 5

definition

pref

in

investigate law of

To

"

."

society

. . . . , . . 10 , of ) 3 . 3 , 10 4; of : , " . , ch (8 ch 2 . . , ) 2 , . , , , . 37 , , 13 , 4 . : An -5 . sec , : . 5, .2 33 , , ( ch 2 , 5 30 , . ; div ) 1 , see . . . : , div ch . of 9 3 , . 2 of 12 (8 ( , . . 46 13 ) , ; : 3 2 , , . .1. ) ch , 2 1 , . . . 6 , to 31 , , 1 (4 ( . , . ) ch 14 4 , . . , . : . - of ” , , " 2 . , , 24 15 ch : , . .4 . 25 - . 4 , . . , , . 1 27 14 6 . 30 14 , of : ) , . ch . : ( / , 1 ", , 4, 24 .

Marx civil

a

no

.

a

the old

results the economic environment legal that order not creator but creation

is

its

the character

of

of

a

of

,

it

.

From

be

legal expression

than

in

more

its

to

finds the Code the moment the Code longer corresponds with existing social relations nothing will pile paper provide more than Old laws can more basis society than they could determine for the development new and continued

pars

46

. .

(

1 9 1)

law

9. The basic issue between Marxists and theorists asserting primacy the of politics is whether state power controls , or is con , by trolled economic structure . Primacy of force theories and

primacy of

theories assert that ultimately state power controls Historical materialism asserts that ultimately

structure

.

economic

.

economic structure the primacy economics

made

is

of ,

for

for

assertion

of

The Marxian

by

of

controlled

is

state power

in

a

on

-

the latter and the certainly the new power the

,

of

;

on

is

inde is

the other This asymmetrical inter 1

of on

relative

the one hand and

."

,

,

but

.

development

/

(

2

Pro

par

:

sec

3

div

.

)

Compare Marx

, sec .

par

; .

par

2

,

1890

3

1

pars

with

endowed

24 . ; .4 2 . , div . 1 . ,

its

of

Oct

political movement

the

opposition

economic

27

from

. , 2 , div . . 7 1 ( ,

Consciousness

),

of

,

to

.

, ..

1 9 1

Engels Schmidt German Ideology part

established

the economic movement

state power

economic determinism

action between political and

duction

is

It

of

doctrine

of

its

,

and

the movement

simultaneously engendered

Engels

it

,

, ,

.

a

must suffer reactions

has itself established from

once been

the other

own and strives for the maximum

the whole

a

of

it

of

. it

Yet

pendence not

which having

movement independence On

with

prevails

which

.

of

on

:

endowed

conditions two unequal

the

economic movement

the

owing

conferred upon

to

it

the new degree

the one hand

also

,

.

of

But

and gradually further developed reacts upon production and progress the interaction

political power

distinct

designated

of

of

who

those

production whole must follow the movement the inherent relative independence originally

forces

the division

interests

on

now

. . .

,

to

in

is

And

branch

of .

they acquire

and even opposed the interests they make themselves independent being



do

.

of

it

form

doing

,

.

functions so

these

society

.

; ,

them

state

,

is



perform

labour within

In

designated

from

of

from

most easily understood

,

writes Engels Society engenders the division labour common functions which cannot without The persons

certain

of

is

The thing standpoint the

.

change

to



of

,

.

,

,

only however the long run and the general pattern change The contrary statement that state power controls economic development often true the short run for particular patterns

47 Marxian theory action by

of

the

state

is

the

independent

power

state

can the relative independence state great enough economic structure era protection from social change for transfer rising class addition transitions from one

of

an

in

,

a

its

to

In

,

a

to

to

power from fundamental declining

it

be

,

of

more concretely

?

it

to

To

put

limits

the

.

The crucial problem investigate

of

for

( 1. 9. 3 )

,

be

,

to

economic formation another which are accomplished violently against state power can there not transitions which are accom

of

of

the revolution

above

from

?

.

make possible

its

of

?

,

of

through state power The degree the de power upon probable state economic structure makes independence the revolution from below Can the degree plished peacefully

pendence

Some reactions economic development simply vary economic structures different political units exploiters without checking the interests favour other classes Engels discussion certain laws inheritance seems

of

to

of

"

.

, it ,

the development

in

If

them this category the stages family equivalent the are the foundations in

of

of

of

'

.

place

in

of

,

of

the

state power upon

inheritance laws are

,

to

in

in

of

.

,

prove for example would be difficult England and their severe that the absolute liberty testators limitations France have only economc causes for their peculi

economic Nevertheless

,

they

influence

the

very con

a

to

however

,

.

the economy

that

of

extent

,

react upon

Both

siderable

in

arities

distribution

.”

property

,

.

Also

3 , : .

.

. ) 2 : ,

sec

Jan

par

18

(

25

Mehring

Lenin

pars

.

.

pars

1 3

par

quest

19

2

,

Done

:

.

pars

Starkenburg

.

Engels

32

Marx 1 5

,

,

1890

Engels

pars to

Engels

below

33

.

. 2 ,

sec

,

Compare Marx Oct 1890 par Economy par Political

, .

. .

1874

to

Sept

1867



'

par

, . ch 7 - , to is 8 1 . to . ) 4 to : 10 , . . 2. be 4 1 sec , . . 5 11 21 , , , 1 , . ? to 13 , : 90 . . . ch . : 8 .

to

Schmidt the Critique

Capital

Germany

,

. 1 ,

and

ans

1 9 4 5

,

var

to

,

Preface

in

:

5

(

.

,

5

( 3 ),

Revolution

above

Engels

What

of 27

Introduction

.

,

:

2

2

.

:

and

Ransomu

1 9 2

. .

1 6 2 -3

Interv

Lenin

9

-

5 7

State

5

Lenin

,

,

1893

pars

1894

pars

to

July

. , ' , , . 1 yu . .7 . .

14

to

17

.

,

)

:

35

'

,

to

I

,

. -

34

. 9 : (

15 33

,

Aus Feuerbach par Marx Engels Preface Peasant War Marx Konspekt Bakunina par Engels Dec 1882 Bloch Engels Schmidt Oct 1890 pars

Marx par

( 1.9 .5 )

48

check

development Other reactions of state power upon economic the immediate interests of individual exploiters , but promote

their long - term order .

economic had this

effect

the political and According to Marx , the English Factory Acts These laws curb the passion of capital for the

common

.



by

interest

stabilizing

limitless exhaustion of labour power , through forcible limitation of the working day by state command , indeed , by command of a state ruled by capitalist and landlord . Apart from a workers

'

daily

more threatening

,

proportions

movement that swelled into the limiting of factory labour was dictated by the same necessity that spread guano over the English fields . The same blind rapacity

the earth had in the other case living torn roots the force the nation case the decisive Factory Act Marx points out support the pressure landlords was added the working class overcom

.

ex

of

short

pres

term

-

a

,

of

in

.

is

is

by

But the not origins but results The effect strengthen the capitalist system

serious conflict between individual capitalists and longer term

interests

-

upon

sures

Acts was resolving

people

capitalists

of

ploitation

protecting the welfare opposed

often

problem to

the Factory

by

of

for our

issue

In

,

of

,

to

.

Legislation

who are not capitalists crucial

.”

of

its

of

ing capitalist resistance

the

exhausted

case

of

the one

in

up by

as

that had

the

22

Marx

an

:

2

.

,

11

1861 par

Lassalle

par

. 6 .

10

sec

( , , , 8) , ch . . 6 . ( 2 40 ,

.

. 1 ,

,

of

the Working

69

63 -

Condition

ch

.

. . . ,

, .

:

Juni

Capital vol

Marx

Engels

,

pare

Lassalle 5 7

pars

1861

1 9 3

Juli

an

Marx

)

30

(

.3

capitalist class

Com

Single Branches

Class

Oct

1890

54

, :

10

du :

,

.

.

'

,

par

11

.

throughout

)

10

-

(6

10

sec

pars

, ; ;

Schmidt

subsec

Capi

par

,

Engels

par

5

throughout

div

. ), . 7, ( , sec . 7 . 1 11 11 , ): , to :

:

Marx Preface

, ; (8

Marx Capital vol

16

1

:

)

28

-

23

throughout

secs

pars

throughout

. : .

1866

. .

ch

(

. . 10 ) 9 15 ; , ( sec , 13 . ), 5 , . sec

Conseil Central taľ 1867 par

sec

(

.

pars

ch

,

/

Engels

, . 9 : : 3, . 1 -7 , . . ( 2 -9 , 3 1 , , . 6 ) 3 to 16 -4 . ; , 2 sec , 23 : ; . , 6 sec sec , . , . . 3 8 , 1 , 27 , ,

, ),

of

par Marx Free Trade part par Engels Marx Communist Manifesto 41 Zehnstundenbill pars Marx Inaugural Address par Engels Preussische Militärfrage par Marx Rapport Industry

Engels

49

( 1. 9. 6 )

Is there a third category , reactions of state power upon eco nomic development which check the interest of the ruling class by

promoting the interests of rival classes ? Marxists recognize that some actions of

state

which

in

can

compromises

to

power result state the interest of the ruling class is checked , on limited issues or for limited periods , to the benefit of rival classes or sections of classes . They contend , for example , that through political action the working class force the capitalist from

the capitalist

state

a

by

out

which remains

,

hands

the

the

of

.

,

.

:

writes are

not

the existing

private

property

raw

upon

based

of

,

of

consequence

,

, of

inheritance

.

sec

, is

:

Lenin

,

par

1892

. . 4 . 14

,

par

12 ,

,

on

. 7 ,

,

ch

Class



,

,

of

in

of

'

to

of

Preface Condition the Working Development Capitalism Russia

in

of

,

in

is

to

say

,

that land material the same way the right inheritance the slavery not the cause but the contrary slavery

,

is

society

production

Marx

inheritance

In

the means machinery

of

organization

fact take place

the laws

but the effect the juridical

economical in

of ,

not

abolish

to

's

, all

proposal

capi

this argument overlooks the state power Without revolu

in

,

Bakunin

the cause

slave

class character

other civil legislation

Like

.

,



Of

Marxian theory

radical extensions

such

etc

tion

with

into measures for the abolition

extended

economic basis and

inheritance legislation and labour the two preceding categories

that both

connection

do

in

,

.

of

can be According

reform

talism

argued

cited

to

It

might

legislation

be

.*

carried exploiters

in

of

be

to

any other legislation

be

.

economic structure But they deny that the capitalist exploitation can through reform abolished

system

of

framework

or

the

inside

of

reforms

effect

fact that the Factory Acts very definitely increased the working welfare the class not inconsistent with their benefiting capitalist the class well indicated by the statements cited aimed beyond

is

below

pars

below

.

10

legislation

-9

case

area where the interests

. . 3 .5 of .6

marginal

an

is

As is

.

On the problem

pars

For

a

1 9 4

. . , .

this area

this kind there

. 1 .9 .6 -8 . , 1 .9 .

the two classes overlap

see

of

legislation see

of

,

above

in

as

of

The

( 1 .9 . 9 )

50

the cause of inheritance

.. . .

slaves

in

The disappearance

of the

right

of inheritance will be the natural result of a social change superseding private property in the means of production ; but the

abolition

right of inheritance

of the

point of

such

Concerning

never be the starting

can

social transformation . "

a

5

Factory

capitalist Acts upon gradually increasing writes : “ So soon as the revolt of the working class compelled the state forcibly to shorten the hours of work and as a start to impose a normal working day in factories proper , from this moment , when increased production exploitation

the effect of the

, Marx

of

machinery

6

use

accelerated

by ."

value through

of

to

its

all

of surplus value through prolongation of the working day had been rendered impossible once and for all, capital consciously and with energy applied itself the production relative surplus

on

a

,

in

of

-

of

products Marxists conclude that reforms are revolu tionary struggle the sense that the degree advance toward resulting from given reform depends less socialism the nature

. by it

is

to

of

on

to

of

a

its

as

,

of an

of

of

in

in

.

struggle

is

measured terms the effect this particular advancing the grand struggle between classes effect will depend upon such factors the character other

society

It

of

methods

reform

question

the class alignments

attainment

the tempo and focusing around

,

the

in

with

associated

,

which

reforms

its

to

of of

get the reform than the nature the fight The value struggling for particular reform not measured the extent provisions propose which alter existing institutions class

. 2 , 4 .

throughout

/

,

,

Engels Housing

.

(

.

31

par

. 2 .

. 3 ,

. . 3 3, ,

note

ch

. du :

)

-

49

ch

44

(

. 1 ,

52

, 45 -

,

div

.

sec

sec par

On the

Question

,

,

. ( 2 13 , ),

see

sec

15

.

- 3 , 11 , : )

,

.

15 ch

;

(

17 1

)

-

32

.

ch

28

(

38

-

pars

32

. of

sec

. 2 ,

2

part

,

,

,

1 .9 . 6

Marx Capital vol Compare the same work general problem welfare legislation

. 3 ,

. ). ,

:

. . 9

,

14

(

11 -

15

. 7 ,

, .2

, 10 -

,

ch

of

. )

pars

.

,

,

,

6

.

sec

of

,

.

, 1. 9 .5 . of

,

24

on

Marx Report Inheritance pars Also the same work throughout On the general problem tax legislation see Marx Poverty Philosophy pars sec Marx Engels Review Girardin pars Marx Rapport Conseil throughout Marx Capital vol Central 1866 sec

. . 11)

(

1 9

it ,

participating

the numbers

and

fight. Reforms cannot

the

in

abolish exploitation correct leadership , the struggle for reforms can organize and educate the forces of the revolution .”

of

This analysis

the limitations

Marxian doctrine of

the entire

theory Engels developed

from

above

by

explain

to

a

the

. An extreme case of reaction bourgeois revolution economic development is

power upon

fact

in

On

the

.

state

and

contradicted

seem

the eighteen - seventies

in

of Bismarck 's Germany

rise

the

,

of reform

state ,

of

.

the

10

. But , with

, , ,

/

.

,

sec

, 6, ,

.

of

La

Narodism

the Zemstvo

sec

1889

to

18

:

2 -6

.

4

Economic Content

. 1 of , : . 1 , .par

Dec

Engels

:

,

Trier 8 9

. to

pars

1894

Persecutors

,

be

18

)

to

,

-6

5 -6

, . : .

:

1 2

: .

25

Lenin

15 v

-

Engels

1 -5

26

.

,

to

24

(

.

pars

2 -3

.

6

,

:

4 -5

.

,

ch . .3

par

; 1. 9 .5

in

,

2

,

Politische Indifferentismus pars Engels Turati Jan fargue Mar 1894 pars Lenin pars

, of

of

to

in

,

. . .

1 9 7

capitalist rule role reforms under conditions see addition the references notes above Marx Engels part pars pars Communist Manifesto part Marx

,

(9 18 ) : :

through

Reformizm

, ,

Marksizm

.

,

i :

.

-

98

87

,

Lenin

,

:

-

pars

.

. 6 ,

,

sec

, ,

ne

Questions

10

, ch . 3 ,

?

of

:

2

,

is

Lenin What Done Lenin Revolutionary Social Democracy sec par Platform Lenin Resolyutsii pars Kak Sleduet Pisať Lenin Znachenie Prezidentskikh Vyborov Amerike throughout Lenin Controversial

3 , :

:

17

13 -

of

of

na

:

.

. 4 ,

,

,

, .2

,

2

: .

4

. . /

. 4 ,

,

,

,

:

,

to

Lenin Proposals the Second Socialist Conference point Bourgeois pars Lenin and Socialist Pacifism art Lenin par Renegade Kautsky app the Third Inter Lenin Tasks par Voprosy Amerikanskogo national sec Lenin Otvet out

, .

,

,

: /

)

25

-

23

(

,

-

34

. 2 :

2

,

in

,

32

6 :

. . 4

problem

Lenin

Lenin Importance nationalization of

)

.

24

-

23

On the

-6 .'

. 10 . 5

notes

results

from

Compare Engels term below with the analysis

'

in

this expression

revolution



of

the passages cited

term

1

in

of

1

pars

paradox

in

below

pars

.

(

9

25

24

-

. 10 . .1 3 . .6

League

Social Democracy

The touch the double meaning the inology

, 28 ch . 2 , , .

the Communist

.3 , . 3 .8 2, .8

,

of

Two Tactics Gold pars

see pars

to

:

of to

First Address

,

1

84 )

-

70

82 (

-

68

,

revolutionary situa Zhurnalista point On the role reforms compare Engels part pars tions Marx Communist Manifesto par Engels Engels Blank Mar 1848 Marx

( 1.10 .2 ) Engels , state power achieves

to

its

According

equality

restrain originated its

by

state

means

acquires

new

a

class and

of

it

the

which so

also

is

,

,

ruling

the politically

normally

class

,

of

, it at



most powerful

the same time

the

to

in

.

classes and since

conflict between these classes economically ruling

a

in

the antagonism

becomes

inde

maximum

pendence during periods when opposing classes approach power Since the state originated from the need

of

,

cites

time

a

He

a

,

both

cer

of

examples

for

so

,

of

nearly balanced

as

relation

to

in

tain independence

.”

,

as

periods occur when contending classes are power ostensibly that state mediator acquires

,

for

an

By

.

the

of

by

is

as ity

as

of

as

,

,

all ,

.

means for holding down and exploiting the supressed class The ancient state was above the state the slave owners for hold ing down the slaves the feudal state was the organ the nobil for holding down the peasants serfs and unfree tenants and the modern representative state instrument the exploit capital wage labour way exception however ation

this

,

to a

. 2 2 / , ,

,

, -14 :

:

6

.

,

,

Aug

Lenin

, sec . .

27

Bernstein

pars

(3 )

29

par

.

,

of

(7 )

3

Bonapartism

42 ,

- . 3 , 17 ), :

14

(

-

:

Engels Housing

Lenin

State and

,

example

the

no

there may

be

.

(5 )

.

sec

.

8

,

Ger

Marx 38

.

,

25 ”

par

, 18 4

:

4

to

:

)

34

(

.

40

,

sec

11

.

-

in

. 7 ,

. 25 1 . . , 2 3 ; ;

ch . .9 . 2 , ,

,

. 2 , ,

. ( 3 10 , ) , ”, , ch . 15 - . .



. 2 , . 3 ,

France

for

.

circumstances

sec

Engels

,

)

10 2,

. 1 ,

such

political rule

,

In

,

Revolution

par

Engels

par

Manifest Liberalnoi Rabochei Partii

Lenin

Beginning Lenin Revolution par sec

ch the

Lessons

of

.

par

sec

, :

(

1

par

In

Question

,

,

35

) , : 9 . :

( 31 -

,

France

par

Also Marx part

pars

Counter Revolution pars

Marx Civil War part

par

sec

Der politische Liberalismus par Staat und Recht sec

many Revolution and Eighteenth Brumaire

1883

div

,

.

subsec

Privateigentum

subsec

part

,

Ideology

1

,

of

is a

that revolution from above Engels Origin the Family

div

,

in

a

. : . 2, , 1. of 10 " .2 sec . . 1 , ,

society

Engels German

2

of

If

.

in

. 3 .7 .5 class

ture

and

Bismarck

political power below without transfer new the state facilitates radical alteration the class struc

par

ruling

and

.?

Empire

the German

of

,

of

exceptional situation the absolute monarchies the seventeenth Bonapartist eighteenth centuries the First and Second Empires

class which

capitalist

class

exercises

surrendered

( 1. 10 .3 )

53

Only the third of these situations is unconnected with success ful revolution from below . The periods when English and French monarchs played off bourgeoisie against nobles preceded successful revolutions from below . The periods when Bonaparte emperors played off proletarians against bourgeoisie followed a successful bourgeois revolution from below . In Germany , however ,

bourgeois

what the revolution

from below had failed to achieve in 1848 was above in Bismarck ' s Empire . " It is then the peculiar destiny of Prussia ,” Engels writes in bourgeois revolu 1874 , “ to complete at the end of this century

accomplished

its

from

its

:

-

;

11

10

)

32

(

:

in

. . 9

15

.

10

,

-

or

.

, ,

Engels

12 17

, :

-

10

)

:

34

(

.

40

.

3

.

. : 2,

. .

. 2 ,

,

ch

to

sec

,

(8 9 )

2

4 5

,

, .

Anti

'

. 1 .3 .3 :

to

see

.

46

and

refer

:

in

Germany

Engels

Russia

)

10

(

12

.

. 2 ,

ch

,

2

par

. -16 3 ) , , ,

,

:

( 10 )

10

(

17

-

.

France 1

par

.

,

1883

.

Aug

in

. 7 ,

pars

,

,

sec

Civil War

11

.

)

10

,

(

Marx

.

)

:

35

par

Brumaire 18 27

Bonapartism

part

1

.

, -

-

32

(

Bernstein

.

to

)

1866

.

6

27

Eighteenth

,

24

of

Engels

Apr

par

For

below

,

. .10 3 .

Marx

below pars

13

, -

. 3 . 5 .2

.

:

1 -2

,

,

.

)

:

15

(

16

.

ch

. 39 10 - , . , 5.42

.

1892

Engels Anti Dühring Aug 1883 par

1

. - ( 10 . : 21 - 4. 3 4

25 1

Beginning

1

notes

Bernstein

.

. to 1 , ' ,

:

Scientific

par

Engels Introduction Socialism par Compare further par

For analogous situations

in

ences

par

and

,

Utopian

Housing Question part Capital pars 1873

int

.,

,

Preface

Dühring

.

,

,

(5 )

1

.

Marx

above

Engels

Anti

Engels

see

part

2

)

-

;

21

20

1789

,

,

)

:

,

10

(

par

to

Ger

par

,

,

'

in

before

22 (

. .

,

10

.

ch

, 1

17 21 -

and France pars

1640

Engels Karl Marx par Compare pars England after 1688 compare Marx Tories and Whigs Engels Marx British Constitution pars Marx

-

Marx

:

to

'

to

,

.

part

22

to 39

7

: .

'

,

Gewalt und Oekonomie sec

45

before

Dühring

,

England

pars

.

of

. , 4 ,

; ,

-

17

par

Engels

Peasant War

to

Preface

,

18

(

. 49 )

54

(

. 34 ) 3 , ,

,

)

,

39

23

:

(5 )

sec

pars

Introduction Marx Civil War France 1891 pars Engels Introduction Utopian and Scientific 1892 Socialism More frequently situations arise where one class section class rules politically and another class rules economically For

,

:

( 9 )

. a

of

Engels

Engels

pars

sec

protecting

, .1

Engels par

(

)

1

.

:

.

1874

25

,

to 18

,

.

par

par

,

many

1866

21

.

13

Apr

Louis Bonaparte for the sake Marx Eighteenth Brumaire sec

Militärfrage

Preussische

,

Engels

.

. 6 , ,

sec

See

20

rule pars

economic

(

its

political rule

sec

Lenin

( 1.10 .4 )

54 - 1813 ,

1808

in

. If

1848 , by taking on the

and continued in

, all

tion , begun

the world remains quiet and we live long enough then perhaps the year 1900 we shall find that the Prussian government has actually abolished feudal institutions that Prussia has last reached the point where France and

1792

.

.

:

,

(5 )

,

1874

par

25 1

in

Germany

1866

.

13

' to

to

:

1

Engels

to

:

)

-4

(2

-1 3

pars

.

) . :

,

1870

-

on

.

,

,

-

,

,

,

Engels Housing Question part Engels Auflösung des lassalleanischen 3 5

8

-

:

.

36 1 ) 3

-

33

Aug

(

:

to

(

44

-

39

pars

.

. 2 ,

,

2

.

15

Engels War par Marx Aug 1870 pars Marx sec

Marx

Apr

July Engels Juli 1866 par Marx Marx First Manifesto the Franco Prussian

( 2 6 )

5

pars

Peasant War

to

,

.

).

Marx

. . 9 : 1-

, ,

an

Engels 1866

Preface Compare Engels

37

.

par

Engels

9

10

35

.

( .5

1

in

stood

95

,

at

all

all

well

goes

in

of

form

Bonapartism

an

:

7

-

6

.

, , 710 .)

20 . 5 , , . 23 : to

.

,

:

16

-

8

.

:

,

:

'

of

,

Liberal

.

,



.

par

.

, , ,

:

12

.

,

Lenin

Slabosť Rus Agrarian Program

Politicheskoi Linii pars par Lenin Uzel

,

:

: de

Engels

3 -6

i .

pars

Sila

Lenin Manifest

Lenin

13

10

, 11

.

1895

pars

, .

2

an

par

Povodu Rechi Kadeta Maklakova Lenin Karl Marx sec Bebel pars

-

6

,

.

6

,

Engels

Apr 1866 par Marx Juni

Lenin

11

sec

;

Mili

Marx

.

, : O

,

Lenin

1 5

this par

,

,

:

.

an

i , 14

:

Narod

. 15 :

.

:

.

1862

.

28

:

2

in

France pars

Reformizm

8

,

2

.

.

-

15

16

:

, ,

. .

2

sec sec

,

of

, , 3

, .

(9 )

3

14

. 3 . :

, -

11

1866

Lenin

Duma par

:

Engels Engels

Dec

'

ch

par

.

, ,

in

in

'

'

,

' .2

to

. , 3 , .

par

pars

sec

,

,

:

Avgust

foresaw

Dec

Engels Preussische

sec

an

:

4 -5

.

an

,

,

,

,

,

pars

Burzhuaziya

13

,

.

:

26

17 -

:

Lenin

par

Marx

Pravitelstvo Dumy

Social Democracy noi Rabochei Partii Zadachi

,

,

in

; 1 6

.

3

Lenin

Lenin

Marx

1866

Marx Class Struggles Kugelmann Marx

Poddelka Pravitelstvom skoi Revolyutsiz sec

11

,

:

:

)

Mai

Engels

: to

Letters

Also

pars

of

,

1866

Engels

Introduction

throughout Engels Apr 1866 pars Engels

to

an

Introduction

Marx

Marx

4 -8

.

,

pars

Lenin

1 -6

'

11

. . . 2,

2

,

,

.

:

4

an

Apr

par

Engels

and

Kugelmann

par

1863

throughout

Engels

pars

1895

Marx

which

June

pars

:

to

Marx

1

,

extent

compare Marx

tärfrage sec par Feb 1866 Engels

France

. .2 . 1 , , , , 2 , sec Po . i . .5, . , , 9

(

the

to

'

On

velopment

1866

39

in

Struggles

Class

Marx

-

,

:

Sozialismus

Engels

35

,

:

.

Gewalt und Oekonomie Engels Erfurter Programm par Deutschland sec

throughout

Marx

(

Engels

15

par

37

33 -

)

,

24

-

20

4

,

(

,

to

.

,

Engels Krisis throughout Arbeitervereins pars Preussen Engels Preface Germany pars Peasant War 1874 Marx Critique the Gotha Program sec

Tac

(1 . 10 .5 )

55

Engels barely touches upon the problem

of bourgeois

revolu

Russia , and does not discuss the relevance of Germany Japan theory this Yet his analysis the case qualify enough seems itself the Marxian thesis that crises class society the state stands revealed class dictatorship above

.

of

occurrence

.

a

revolutions

. 2 :

,

. 24 - 11 6 26 :

10

16

, ) . ,

-

(

-

17

to

18

Marx

1

' ; 2, :

secs

.

sec

,

draft pars

sec

1

,

draft

Kablukova

1881 par

. . 4 sec , . 3 ( , . 4 . -6

of

drafts

(

-

3 8

:

. 19

,

.

Feb

par

1877

'



to

to

composite

11

,

4

.

(5 )

Zapisky Engels

12

,

.

)

18

(

20

's

,

in

. 4 , , sec

par

Danielson

pars

7

. ( 3 , 18

- . .

19 2 : ), : -9

an

., ,

17 -

.

18

.

.

5 7

:

to

,

,

:

1 8

.

2

. 6:

.

,

this

de

Marx

, ,

:

( 6 )

1

.

,

:

to

11

.

.

,

throughout

and Engels foresaw Oct 1858 par

,

?

,

pars

15

18

an

., .

17

8

to

Reconsidered

.

to

,

1892

,

.

:

-7

.

to

:

On the extent which Marx velopment compare Marx Engels (

:

23

.

.,

22

:

2 6

.

,

to

,

.

24

4

’e

k

. 6 , ,

sec

Sept

Engels Okt 1892g par Engels Kann Europa abrüsten Danielson Oct 1893 pars

polovina

the Social Revolution

Russia and

. 3 . ,

Oct 1891 pars throughout Engels conc Engels Danielson Juni

,

in

.

15

:

3 7

.

,

's

vtoraya

Bon

pars

31

29 -

,

Czarism

Danielson

Danielson Feb 1893 pars throughout Engels Engels

sec 22

to

. 1 : of

Russian

to

:

)

Engels

Engels Sozialismus Deutschland Danielson Mar 1892 pars Engels pars 1892 Danielson Engel

6

,

'

.

6

to

, k

's

29

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, (

to

,

:

)

/

,

6

:

.

23

, :

) 28

Foreign Policy 28

-

4 5

-8

(6

Engels 27 -

1879

State

Marx Engels Preface Communist Manifesto 1882 Engels Engels Zasulich Mar 1884 par Daniel Apr 1885 par Engels Apr 1885 pars Zasulich Engel neizvestnomu adresatu Okt 1885g par

pars

pars son

Marx

1881

;

. . ), 4 3 - -4 6

8

Zasulich Mar throughout

pars

Otyecestvenniye

Apr

.

.

. 3:

par

Russia

10

:

)

Danielson

to

,

.

1880

Marx

32

(

31

,

)

: -

Marx

Aug

to

5

Social Relations

27

( ( 5 ) 25

Engels

.

. , , 4,

, (2 ) ch : . 4 ,

11

Lenin

1 , .10 . 6 .



.

,

par

,

Russian Suedekums par Lenin par and Revolution sec Compare Marx Poland European Mission pars tics

be

from

, 5, .

supported

is

That thesis

by

of

as

in

to

by

of

in

for

from

of

tion

to

of

Marx

,

:

30

29 -

.

,

:

,

pars

Russia

.)

-

ordinarly substitutes the

his formulation

from

above

',



revolution

term

the idea

revolutionary strategy

:

place

for

development

of

.

discussing Russia Lenin

central

,

, , ch . , : 8 ,

,

:

( 2 )

1

.

,

Herr Vogt

in

path a



in

Though Prussian occupies

Marx

pars

2 3

Using Austria

of

.

par

, 39 : , ,

2

. :

. 4 ,

sec 13

.

in

throughout Marx State Europe 1858 Peasant Reform Russia par Engels Marx Emancipation Question throughout Marx Engels Savoyen Nizza und der Rhein Dec 1859 par

( 1 . 10 . 5 )

56

,

for there transition to a new class structure is resisted by power state . But it seems refuted by occurrence of revolution from low

above , for here transition to a new class structure is aided by state power . In this case the state seems sufficiently independent to bal ance class against class , and to accomplish peacefully radical social change .

of

bourgeois revolution from bourgeois other forms state

,

an

of

for

to

provide the opportunity transform the state from protecting exploitation into the minority

of

) )

94

-

of

sec

. 5 ,

throughout

, . : .

;

,

throughout sec throughout

; ,

sec

. 1 ,

,

; ; ,

93

in

29 , (

106 (

,

-

30

( , ), 23 )

56

.

1 3

(

pars

; , . , 6 sec , , . . 3,

Poor

secs

;

-

6

the Rural

16

. 2 12 , 13 : .

for the Social Democratic Party Lenin Agrarnaya Programma throughout par sec

, : . , 12

:

'

(

; . ; 3 44 , ch . 45 . , 8 ) , : 65 .

,

div

1

),

55

(

52

)

,

37

,

: -

,

To ,

sec

;

points

. 1 ,

. 2 ,

Program

Russkoi Sotsial Demokratii throughout Lenin 10

secs

Party and the Peasantry

Zemstvo

Draft

sec

throughout

53

33 - 64

the

Lenin

,

:

)

:

, 10

Workers

Lenin

note

Lenin Economic Content Development Capitalism

Lenin

throughout

sec

Persecutors

(

15

sec 13 -

Lenin

( 52 33 )

.

(

,

2

in

Russia

. of , 9 , .

. . ch , 2 : .4 38 , , ch . 43

Narodism

throughout

6

,

div of

.

a

par

. 3 , 3,

pars

,

of

div

105

,

,

he

bourgeois revolution without the bourgeoisie pars Friends the People part part pars par note

7

above

from

to

lution

bourgeois revo Russia Compare Lenin

organize 38

and unconscious worked for fifteen years conscious

,

against the supporters

,

above

from

?

tion

instrument

Why not socialist revolu

?

the majority for abolishing exploitation

instrument

of

.

the majority universal suffrage

consent

Doesn

in

of

on

of a

on

of

?

be

Whatever may said democracies government seems based dictatorship rather than class

of

case

an

the normal

above than

below

capitalist

within

't

to

more likely from

develops

capitalism the transition from to socialism exceptional bourgeois resemble the case revolution

not

is

of

,

far

To the extent that democracy society

throughout

.

ch

;

:

,

. 4 ,

;

throughout

ch

of

:

,

5 -6

secs

.

throughout

ch

,

; , ch . , 2 ,

:

1 2

, . 5 , . sec

. 1 ,

,

mocracy

ch

:

,

,

of

throughout Lenin Two Tactics Social Democracy throughout Lenin Nashi Liberalnye Burzhua throughout Lenin Pervye Itogi Politicheskoi Gruppirovki throughout Lenin Gosudarst vennyi Perevorot pars Social De Lenin Agrarian Program

57

( 1 . 10 . 7 )

Since the end of the nineteenth century this line of reasoning has marked

the division between

two hostile

trends

the socialist

in

movement. Reformist socialists argue that through development of bourgeois democracy actions of state officials become separable from

of the capitalist

interests

extent which makes not

class to an

in

ful

of

is

the

,

terms of Marxian

from

do

.

socialist transition

thesis that democracy

theory , conditions above with the conditions for peace this we must investigate the Marxian the

dispute by comparing , for bourgeois revolution

To

only possible but probable a peaceful transition to socialism . Revo lutionary socialists deny this claim . We shall attempt to clarify the

form

for capitalist

state best suited

13

,

on

:

)

-

(1

, 14

-

,

.

:

5 -7

,

:

k

,

Teodorovichu 29

Stepanov

16

Lenin

k

:

.

pars

3 -4

,

:

O

,

14

.,

.

:

-6

,

.

,

"

2

1909g

.

-

,

,

'

:

,

,

:

14

)

7

.

(

. 1 ,

,

-

to

of

a

,

:

Lenin

Skvortsov

of

. 3 :

.,

Lenin

,

:

. ', 1,

sec

Dek

par

throughout

11 )

( 7 -

,

1909

1909g

Dec pars Notes Publicist 1910 sec Lenin Historical Meaning the Internal Party Struggle throughout throughout Lenin Jubilee Lenin Peasant Re

.

2

Dek

Stepanovu

Lenin

Lenin Draft Resolution Lenin On the Road pars Nekotorykh Isto Lenin throughout Razbroda Lenin

Ideinogo

Sovremennogo

-

Skvortsovu

,

,

'

chnikakh

.

. . 17 8 . , 5 - : 4

Otsenke Tekushego Momenta pars the Present Situation 1908 pars Lenin Levenie Burzhuazii pars

Agrarian Question

Lenin

pars

1

:

- . 10 , ;

.

5

pars

. 1 ,

throughout

conc

;

sec

. 4 , ,

Russia

sec

throughout

sec

Ob in

.

class rule

29 :

.

17

,

,

Po

,

13 , : , .

,

the

:

,

of

:

, . 3 -6

. 1 ,

v

,

,

18

-

- . : 16

: -

,

:

,

,

:

,

5

of

throughout Lenin Social Structure form State Power through out Lenin Reformizm Russkoi Sotsial Demokratii pars pars Lenin Itogi Vyborov 1913 sec Lenin Povodu Rechi Kadeta Maklakova throughout Lenin Controversial Questions sec pars Lenin Agrarian Policy the Present Government

of

.

sec

,

11

) -6, : 18

- . 4 16

(

-

19

,

.

25

,

,

.

,

:

. 4 : .

,

,

17

of

,

1

,

,

,

:

22

, .3 -4 . :

,

8

no . the

, on

1 6

,

.

pars Lenin Two Lines Revolution pars pars Lenin Lecture 1905 Revolution Lenin throughout Lenin Renegade Kautsky Letters from Afar pars Lenin Food Situation par Lenin Tasks the Trade Unions par Lenin The State par

CHAPTER

TWO

SOME FEATURES OF

of

of

of

,

in

by

be

of

-

so

of

Idea Marx denies the existence political institutions development argues the and that society development civil the

of

.

com

.

. . .

; , .,

,

,

-

on

.

.

58

par com

on on 4

.

of

of

,

;

.

,

,

. . .

2 1 1

Economy pref Critique Political Marx Rechtsphilosophie Compare Marx Kritik der Hegelschen secs 303 305 throughout com 262 throughout sec

which

is

the state

,

externality

in

their sums Hegel asserts that

,

. . ." of

or

up

,

by

in

of

society

'

of

civil

the

on

is

based

century

the eighteenth

the appearance

incarnation

,

the Idea

is

itself

an

of

,

life conditions the English and French entirety under the name society

to

the state are

on

by

of ,

human mind but

civil

of

to

.



explained neither development the c alled universal the contrary the material have their roots the which Hegel following the precedent set

tions and also forms themselves nor

's

of

reversed

over civil society

of

his outlook at first formulation Right Hegel Philosophy the course Hegel doctrine the state the primacy My inquiry led the conclusion that legal rela

arrived

criticism

's

which

Marx

of

.

he a

1

through

the

CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION

( 2. 1. 2 )

59

The anatomy of civil society , Marx continues , can be studied in political economy . Political economy Engels defines as an historical science investigating the forms and conditions under which differ exchanged , and his

comprehensiveness

it

,

div 39 . . 2 1 2 , , , , 62

.

,

par

. 5 . 1 : 7: 5,

,

Marx Com Marx die Kölner the Critique Political

sec

Marx Engels

to

of

.

3

, .

,

1

, .

sec

Poverty

.

( 2 )

1

'.

incorrect

others

,

instances

,

in

some

bourgeois society

evident

is

translated in

often

is

.

,

. 1 ,

correct

div

Marx

of

par

,

;

.

. , . 1 , 3

. 7 ,

. 2 , . , 6 ch : . . . 6 , , 2 ; / 34 ( An , . 33 . , 3 ) 2 , : , ,

; ,

( 4 )

15

/

. , 28 1

obs

par

sec

1846

Marx Introduction



is

pars

of

,

,

:

:

,

3

:

14

.

,

,

-

par

Economy sec par Bürgerliche Gesellschaft That this

exchange and

1

,

/ 89 : ) )

. 2 ,

sec

Dec par

Wage Labour and Capital sec pars part par munist Manifesto sec div Geschwornen

part

Question

Jewish

12

pars

Annenkov

ch

Philosophy

istory to

Marx

par

. 1 ,

1

sec

(H

div

.

. ): 3 ,

div

exists

Marx King Prussia and Social Reform Marx Engels Heilige Familie sec par Marx Engels German Ideology part

,

(

par par

Marx

( 85 -

. . . . 32 - . 1 50 1 , : 43 52 ) ; , , ( . 96 , 46 -

102

,

throughout

308

science

political

.

in

of

is

to

.

has not attained such economy investigating the production confined capitalist society distribution commodities sec

distributed

time the

,

in

,

,

produced

have

societies

As

ent human

material goods . He adds , however , that



',

is

,

'

bürgerliche Gesellschaft

it

.

in

or

or

'

as

to the the

term

', ' '

by

'

'

or

'

'

occurrence

each

necessary

of

,

ever

at ',

'

by

he

'

to

.

occurrences

in

's

the term

In

of

the passages cited above express the idea for which he his later writings Marx tended first used the term civil society simply the term society which qualified such adjectives ancient slave medieval capitalist Even feudal and bourgeois these writings how the contexts

from

: .

( 3 )

1

, .

,

/

(4 ).

15

. :

.

( 7 ) 25

3

),

.

,

.

the character

and

scope

, as

Mar

.

. 4 :

.,

Weydemeyer

5

to

Marx

of

On

(7 ).

-

civil society compare

8

,

,

Engels Political Economy pref par pars For political economy 1 2

,

.

5

anatomy

,

the

part

below

.

Marx Critique

Anti Dühring 1852

(

. 4 (8 of .2 -9 .1 , ), -5 2 , , 7 4 .3 ch ( . .1 12 1 .) , . of 5

- 2. 1 .2 .

Idea see pars

pars

1

.

sec

. 1 ,

div 8

, 1

. ,

to

,

,

to

from

is

context which translation correct Compare for example Marx Engels Sept 1857 par Engels Marx Oct 1858 par Marx Engels German Ideology part History par On the Hegelian determine

political

60

( 2 .1 .3 )

",



.

-

for

The political economy of capitalism is useful , however , Capitalist society understanding pre capitalist societies Marx its

in

relations

of

and productive

of

of

insight into the organization

,

of

,

provide

all

its

.

of

is



,

writes the most developed and most diversified historical organization production Therefore the ideas which rela understanding organization tions are reflected and the also

the anatomy

of

,

so

,

key

to

a

is

to

on

as

-

of

the human being

of

.

on

The anatomy

of

society out extinct forms the basic elements and fragments capitalist society broken which has been built which parts still drag unassimilated residues other parts have developed from mere suggestion full significance and those

."

the ape

-

to

by

.

of

ism

is

reason

a

of

why the analysis provides capitalism key pre capitalist economic formations that capital commodity exchange Pre exhibits the full development

One

understanding

,

is

,

it

a

.

of

his

supplement his treatment

capitalist

of

of

analysis

systematic

the to

,

to

It

.

of

.

is

form commodities This circumstance Capital organization permits Marx

political economy around commodity production but

result the products take the significant for the critique build

particu

. .sec 3 1, ,

of

a

to

commodity their capacity sell labour only economic formation where the majority

of As

as

of

is

.

capitalist societies are also characterized commodity exchange But capitalism the only economic formation where exploitation normally takes the form exchange where labourers normally

.

par

. . 2 2 , , to

no . sec

ch

. 4 , . , 4,

(8 )

11 , 9

;

1

, .

.

sec

to

, 12 ) : ch . 13 . na : 1 1, 10 ,

-

( vol . 8

-

20

11

‘K

. ch , 1, .1

,

2

ch

,

,

:

,

par

Lenin Knigu

,

of

above

.

.

note

.21 .2

references

.

-4

. 2 .3 .3

. 2 :

.p 7 . ', Also

in

.

to

,

(8 )

par

sec

Lenin Znamechaniya pars Also below Introduction the Critique Political Economy

on

.

com

11

. 3 2 , .1 .3 . .

Marx

par

,

16

,

( 3 )

. , 1

, -

:

.

17

,

-

10

(

, '

,

:

4

Lenin Economic Romanticism Bogdanov Kratkiï Kurs par

Bukharina

Marx Capital über apital Band

Engels Rezensionen Anti Dühring part

)

Engels

1865 par

,

of

, 11 : . 3 , . 5 , : , .

. , 1 , 6 ,

7

. , 3 ,

; . 9 ; obs .

of

,

21

par

. . 4 : 9-

17 29

Mar

Lange pars

sec

, ch . , 2,

economy compare Marx Poverty Philosophy obs throughout pars Marx Grundrisse div par par item sec item Marx Introduction the Critique pars Engels Political Economy sec

(2.1.4 )

61 pre

lar features with accounts of their origins and functions in capitalist societies . The first volume of Capital capitalist production

taken

of abstrac

sense , that is , in

the narrow

in

the process

with

concerned

is

of circulation and distribution . It commen analysis ces with an of commodity exchange , centering upon the theory labour of value . It continues with an analysis of capitalist exploitation , centering upon the theory of surplus value . It con the processes

with

analysis of the interaction

an

and exchange, centering The treatment the 2

of

.

production

by

have utility

they use

whole .

and relations

individuals

those

products

Two

different things

possessor

other

individuals

through

individuals

of

things they exchange

of

possessors

relations

:

relations are involved

of

, of

for

those products

kinds

a

Marx defines as a product of labour individual and exchanged for other products of

an

labour because it has utility for the and

as

commodity

A

possessed

in

capitalist

to

of

distribution

and process

.

include circulation in the second the third , to complete the analysis

to

.

volume

extended

is

of capitalist exploitation

upon the law of capitalist accumulation

of

cludes

its

from

to

tion

as

of

,

a

commodity and

.

capitalism

see

pars

.

definitions

the individual who produces useful commodity that thing not On a

himself

products the product

.

below

the narrow and wide meanings fact that the course economic

between the

of

The distinction production arises from

in

of

2 2 1

For

. , If

exchanged

other

is

consumes

the quantity

of

when

thing

. . 2 .1 2, 2.1 .5 .6 .4 . .1 . .

brings

as

first defined

it

which

is

of

of

.

in

is

,

of

.

Relations the first kind establish the use the commodity which defined the utility the product satisfying some human want when consumed affords Relations the second kind establish the exchange value the commodity

value

to

of

( 21 -47 37 ( 52 )

17

;

pars

51

. 5 46 ) - ,

(1

.4 . , 1-

4

.

;

pars ch

. sec . 1 -6 2,

,

pars

.2 , ch . 1 ,

,

,

or

in

Political Economy

Marx Capital

vol

of

Critique

:

34 the of )

,

, as

pro development circulation and distribution emerge systems ductive relations distinct from but dependent upon the basic systems productive relations workshop field See Marx Introduction

( 2 .2 .1 )

.

of

a

physical prop

its

commodity depends upon

of

The use value

."

;

all

it

if

for

the other hand , a thing can be exchanged other things only has utility for the possessors those things All commodities are useful things but not useful things are commodities

, .

or



,

of

no

a

and others

of

Exchange value like are produced through things production relation

produc

commodity

it

.”

,

,

social context use value reflects social relation tion On the other hand the exchange value depends upon the social conditions under which

a

of

,

and existing therefore

social wants

in

matter

of

a

Although

its

"

-

it

,



.

by

,

it

is

erties rather than upon the social conditions under which produced One cannot tell the taste wheat Marx writes peasant English capitalist who raised Russian serf French

so

in

is

as

.

,

a

as

or

,

in

;

This

chemical

.

commodities geometrical

,

the either

properties “

exchanged

ch . . 51 59 ,

in

the physical

or

a

for

of

discovered

a

element cannot

exchange

a

the use values

be of

cannot

be

of

,

A

this basis

relation

one kind for use values ratio that changes continually with time and exchange involves comparison but basis

which use values

another kind place ratio

a

of

in

the ratio

.”

as

.

of

to

material condition for exchange value Exchange value first appears quantitative



is a

it

a

at

a

is

of

,

of

a

in

ite

,

.

it

relation between men which emerges defin productive forces and which stage the development corresponds producing use values specific historical modes economy Political concerned with use value only far

common any other

, :

:

: 60

)

to

14

-

(

15

16

, 1;

1

, . .

. , 1,

ch

( 1 -5 )

.

1 -6

. 3 ,

,

, : .

1 45 ch -4

; . 17

,

par

.

vol

ch ch . , . . 1 37 , 1-5 ,

; 1,

ch

,

. .8 .

.

. 3) 4 , , .1

,

ch

pars

19 . sec . : 3 1, , ,

.

of

par

18

;

Marx Critique

3

,

Value

1 3

.

. 1 ,

. 4 ,

Anti Dühring

sec

part

of

.



Engels sec

ch

, 18 . , . 2 . -3 27 . ", - ; 33 1 ) , , ch : . . , . , 6 of 1 2 . , ( , , ch ,

40 2 ( 2 32 1

pars

, .

2

, 39 -

-D

.

ch

throughout vol par throughout sec pars Engels Marx Critique the Gotha Program sec pars Engels Anti ühring part Schmidt Oct 1890 pars pars Marx Critique Political Economy pars Marx Capital vol

Karl Marx

Lenin

par

.

. 3 .

, ch . . 1 ,

.3 .3 .

value

. . . 2 .

use

2 2 3

of

. . .

2 2 2

par Political Economy On insti On the below see note the economic below tutional conditions for exchange value see par role

( 2 .2 . 3 )

63

natural property of commodities . As

rule their physical properties

a

only as they make commodities useful , and therefore use values . But the exchange relation between commodities is clearly characterized by abstraction from their enter into

consideration

As

in

in

,

to

atom

use value

."

of

not

and contain

,

an

,

qualities ties

the

use values commodities differ above all their exchange values they can differ only their quanti

. . ; . . as

tions

in

are

use values . In that relation one use value is worth just as much present proper propor as any other , if only the two

abstract

to

If

of

a

is

of

it,

is

to



.

,

we

labour

already

,

its

If

.

or

,

,

,

a

is

It

a

no

it a

from

value useful thing

.

product

this

our hands abstract from use value we also the corporeal elements and forms that make use longer any yarn table house some other

in

altered

However

.

a

,

of

in

from

product

,

exchange

in

.

turns

discover the basis

of

In

labour

3

of

value Marx consumption the utility commodities afford the production labour they require we disregard the use value commodity being only one property left that order

is

's

of

of

of

labour

.

1 8

. in

. 2 ,

. 1 ,

ch

,

.

ch

Political

. 3 ,

vol

of

,

,

Capital

sec

relationships

the Critique

,

par

rejection

10

On

Philosophy

of to

; 1, 4, ,

,

ch 2 .

.

16

-

12

sec

equilibrium

Marx

. . 1,

2

,

pars

1

,

3

.

. 3 , ,

. div ch . 3 . , 3 , 1 , , . div . 1 , 2 , . .

,

,

. : 3 ,

52 sec )

:

)

-

16

Introduction

pars

ch

. 5 , 9 .

. 3 ,

to

,

div of

. 1 ,

. 1 , ,

ch

,

:

2

.

of

60

-

1

zu

Wagner

,

-

,

. It

)

40

. .5

,

:

pars

-

39

sec (

-

)

see

part part

vol

for explaining Marx Poverty

(6

the basis

Marx

37

. 1 ,

62 ), ):

,

Randglossen

pars

. . 24 , , 75 83

)

.

pars

exchange

pars

,

35

-

34

. 3 ,

sec

commodity

Economy

or

,

,

(

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All sensuous qualities have been obliterated product longer the carpenter labour the builder product any other specific kind labour the spinner labour

( 2.3 .1 )

64

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Marx

Marx

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sec sec

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2 3 3

Poverty

66

(2 . 3 .4 ) private

When

remains ,

exchange

exchange

disappears

value disappears

production

but social

and

the

valuation process takes a different form . After the abolition of the capitalist mode of production “ but with the retention of social production , the

determination of value continues to prevail , in the sense that the regulation of labour time, the distribution of social labour among different divisions of production , and the keeping of accounts in these matters become more essential than ever .” of social labour in definite proportions , determined

individual needs,

of collective and

tion

as it was accomplished

is as necessary

, however ,

before . Under socialism directly , through the

The distribution by the distribu

this distribution is calculated adjustment of work to wants , rather than indirectly , through the sale of commodities on the foresight and hindsight , market . It is the difference between controlling being between and controlled , between the planning

of

the anarchy of exchange . Socialist society can for valuation . But it can comply with this necessity in such fashion as to subject the conditions and conse quences of compliance to an increasing measure of informed choice and scientific management . When adjustment of work to wants production

and

escape the necessity

not

no longer functions through commodity exchange , a power which has coerced men individually becomes a power which men collectively control .*

sec . . 7 1,

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Marx Marx Inaugural Address par pars

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zu

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important consequence of the prevalence of valuation

An

Marx

through exchange is what

character of com

the fetish

calls

There is nothing mysterious , he argues , about the use value of a product considered as an object capable of satisfying anything mysterious about the content of human wants . Nor is there

.



ne

the labour time socially

what source

enig

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Marx Critique Political Economy pars Marx Capital vol sec par pars Engels vol

101

17

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.

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to

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establish

sec

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( ch ; 15 . . ), 1, ch of , .

second now to

,

to

of

is

-

134 136 div complicated This point the fact that his labour theory value Marx undertakes two distinct though connected tasks provide applicable first criterion real cost all societies

the complementary

68

( 2 .4 . 1)

embodiments of value . The measure of the expenditure of human labour power by duration takes the form the magni tude value the products labour And lastly the relations the producers which the social character their labour affirms

labour

social relation

the products

between

Commodities are products endowed with fetish things qualities are which human because when products become commodities productive a

non human

on

people take

the

form

exchange

relations

.?

relations between things between

of

,

-

,

;

ascribed

to

.”

|

their labour character

of

form

a

of

take the

of

,

of

.

of

of

,

,

itself

in

of

its

of

as

a

but

delusion based upon exchange general As a

delusion commodity

of is

fetishism

,

Commodity

society

a



.

of

the producers

Since

.

.

of

of

act

of

by

a

as

in

of

,

In

character of

only by

social contact

the products their labour the specifically social their private labours appears only this exchange part private other words labour shows itself the labour exchange society only means the relations which the

of

exchanging

come into

,

of

of

of

,

.

the actual characteristics rule useful objects become commodities only because they are products private labours pursued independently one another complex private aggregate The these labours forms the labour

To

as

.

,

,

through establishes directly between the products and indirectly products producers producers the between the the the social they actually connections between their private labours appear

2 . 8 .1

Compare par

9

, 25 11 ' ) ; , ); , , , sec ch , . ch 15 . . 1 . . - 2 2 -2 , , 3 36 20 , ; ch . , , ( . 3 16 1 - . . , , . zu . 20 10 4, of 3 2 , sec , 37 ); : . .3 3 ( ch , , . . 34 . 7 ) 1 div , 3, ; 2, , : , . .

sec

div

Critique div

par

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1

par

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10

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-

27

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. 4 ,

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.

. 3 .

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,

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par

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pars

:

sec

subsec

sec

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pars

Marx

Political Economy

,

vol

ch

vol

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man Philosophy

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item

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sec

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Marx Grundrisse

par

of

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,

:

throughout

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ch

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,

vol sec philosophische Manuskripte

of

par

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-

, 2. 4 .1 .

,

Marx

Oekonomisch

. 4 ,

;

sec

11

Marx

(2 . 4 . 2 )

69

exist, that is , not as direct relations between people in their work , but as thing - like relations between people and social relations between things . " important

An

reflection

of

commodity

fetishism

social

in

theory

is identification of the order of commodity exchange with the order of nature . In an exchange economy relations between people in the process of social production no longer appear as

take the

of of

in

"

,

the

of

,

of

,

of

an

is

,

of

of

those

.

of



.

of

institutions

,

two kinds

of

a

"

have

but

that social rela longer seem what production free

art and

of

there are

them

history

eternal laws nature Econo singular manner proceeding

as

limitations

Marx

,

",

For

historical

writes

of

of

of

-

to

not the result

as

,

all

from

Ricardo product

of



by.

them

complementary aspect

society tions entered into the members they are but appear inescapable conditions

mists

and

century

a

of

He seems

A

starting point

Smith

the social forms feudal development productive the new century hovers ideal whose exist

.

to

its

but

shoulders

as

,

the other

since the sixteenth ence belongs the past

the

like which

some defin the prophets the

the eighteenth

the dissolution

forces

appendage

Before

of

,

on

,

and

of

,

the one hand

whose

the state

writes Marx

nature and



this individual

ism

upon

,

still on

century

stand

an

.

,

ite ,

in

earlier historical epochs made him limited human conglomeration

eighteenth

as



the bonds

from

men

no



.

In

nature individual seems freed

social ties competition free

",

free from

this society

of

,

,

of

society

individuals

isolated

the process

in

exchange . One aspect of this situation is that the no longer seem what they are , but appear as

commodity

members of

of relations between things

form

all

of

, but

of

such

.

,

in

wealth

is

-

,

In

which

in

relations

are

production developed

conformity with

Compare pars

.

. .

par

6

. 4 ,

. 1 ,

Capital vol

sec

Therefore these relations are themselves part

,

Marx

above

they

. 1 ,

.

nature

,

. . .

2 4 2

the laws

2 .3 .3 4

that

and the forces

of

created

ch

economists mean

of



of

. . . .

.

nature The institutions the feudal system are artificial saying that existing those the bourgeoisie are natural capitalist production relations the relations are natural the those

( 2. 4 . 3 )

70 of the laws of nature

,

of

unaffected by the influence

time . They

are part of the eternal laws which ought always to govern society. It follows that there has been history , but there is none any more." The delusions of commodity fetishism are reflected in social theory that is divorced from the historical record of actual social change and tied to the super -historical abstractions of natural right and natural

. We

5

.8

law

have

some

examined

of capitalist

characteristics

considered as of . We must now consider that feature which distinguishes capitalism from other systems of exchange , the exploitation of wage labour. The circulation of commodities , their indirect exchange society

solely

exchange

a system

of money , is of two kinds . Simple commod commodity money commodity the form commodities

which

is

It

.

-

-

to

,

in

of

buy the selling

to

is

circulation selling order

of

ity

through the mediation

their

. 7 , , )

, , , :

-

56

. 1 ,

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Political Economy

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Marx Introduction the Critique Political Economy par Philosophy Marx Poverty obs par Compare Marx Jewish Question part pars 102 89 Engels Sozialgeschichte Englands part par inst Marx Engels Heilige Familie pars Marx Engels Deutsche Ideologie part subsec Der Kommunismus

71

( 2.5 . 2 )

of

of

is

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at

commodities which

production

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Its

of

.”



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he

in

therefore

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the beginning

order sell driving motive laid out exchange value itself Simple

for

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,

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sell

the buying

the capitalist utilizes the process the product more money than and distinctive

circulation

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.”

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where the amount

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order

in

is

This

the process

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of

the end

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use

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value, is final money commodity money its

word ,

of

owner does not consume , in order to buy commodities which he does consume. “ Consumption , the satisfaction of wants , in one

an

This additional amount

what

.

.

of

exchange value tional amount Marx calls surplus value

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it

,

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.

of

it

starts with one kind use value and replaces with other kinds use value Capitalist circulation starts with one exchange value and regains together with amount addi circulation

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72 ists, wage workers ,

landlords, tenants , usurers , and so on , but only simple producers as and exchangers of commodities .” According to bourgeois economists , capitalism grows out of simple commodity

production through accumulation of property individuals who become capitalists . “ In a time long past there were two sorts of people : on the one hand , an industrious , intelligent , and above thrifty elite the other lazy rascals pened

it

. . . .

So

riotous living

hap

,

the first sort accumulated wealth and the nothing others last had sell but their own hides From this original spite dates the poverty the great mass who their labour still have nothing sell but themselves and the constantly they though wealth the few which increases have long

of

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Marx Compare

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order Therefore the process which produces only consist separating the labourers those

transforms the one hand production into capital and

Kritik

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9

individuals who became wage

those

The capital relation presupposes the separation

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capitalism

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labourers

Marx

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According tion through

original accumulation grows out feudal produc

This the myth

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at

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in

spending

of

all

all

by those

throughout

73

( 2 . 5 .5 )

into wage labourers . It follows that the so -called original accumula tion is nothing else than the historical process of separating the producers from the means of production .” This is the reality of

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Marx

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. . . Marx ,

2 5 4

Compare Marx

5 -8

original accumulation

pars

74

( 2. 5. 6 )

on

of ,

so

serfs and

,

,

slaves

as

the case belong

production

of free labour

a class

are not directly attached of

production

,

In

.

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at

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5

of

of

by ,

in

to

of

the case They are therefore free from unencumbered any means production their own This freedom con ferred upon direct producers the cost their possessions carries compulsion accept subjection with another kind order them

.

the means peasant proprietors

as in

the means

nor

formation of

is

sense that they

the double

of

in

"

free do

to

,

ers

The result of this process

to

of

to

,

,

.

of

of

of

sellers labour buyers are capitalists

,

;

its

,

The

, 25 :

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.

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Engels Origin

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29 )

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.

or

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or

.

of

a

in

society into classes division power are wage workers proletarians bourgeoisie new

Engels

,

to

the free labourers are compelled sell their services production owners the means The predominance this par ticular exchange relation buying and selling labour power results live

Engels Peasant pars der préussischen Bauern par France and Germany some these passages terminological distinctions are lost translation Second exploitation through unfree tenure though the most important

:

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is

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All direct producers share lands Peasant agriculture combined with self In

century

sixteenth

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of

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.

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the use common sufficient household industry capitalist farming growth

England

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lands

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common

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that

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defining characteristic feudal economy Marx holds economy like that century England where fifteenth producers are free peasant proprietors the great majority marked decisive features final phase feudal economic development

not the

;

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Engels Peasant Question

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Anti Dühring part France and Germany

ch

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self sufficient household

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29

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industry economy that has capitalist capitalist been more feudal than becomes more than feudal Capital vol throughout See Marx sec throughout throughout sec sec struction

( 2 .6 .1 ) Labour power Marx defines as the capacity for work , " the aggregate of those physical and mental abilities existing in a human being which he exercises when he produces a use value of any sort .” Labour power is exercised in all forms of the labour availability necessary condition for every mode process . production But although labour power must available some

the definition

in

is

it

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18

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the fact that

capitalism

formation which exploitation normally labour power Compare Marx Wage pars Marx Capital vol

pars

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ch ch ch

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1891 pars

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Preface

Introduc

purchase

Labour and Capital

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sec

Engels

common several economic formations capitalist that are characterized com productive Capitalism entire structure

well

the one economic

out

much

Engels

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production

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Urtext Zur Kritik sec Marx Critique Political Economy pars Marx Value Price and Profit

(9 )

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ch

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set

the economic

Grundrisse

Capital

Marx

Capital vol labour power

pars

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:

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Marx

par

normally

specific

available

the develop productive

. , 2 , , of : , 8 of , : ' . .1 1 ; , , , ch , , . . div , 9 4. “ (7 5 , . ( ) . see 1, , , ch 3 . , ch sec 4 of . , . . , ‘ 6 2 1 , . , ( 2 . , 1 ch , . , . . 14 sec 8 2 , , ), 31 . . : , '” 3 3, sec : . ch , . 3 div ; ) . 7 ch , , . , , , 1 ch , . ch 3, , . 19 ; ., .2 . 1 . ( , . . ch 1 . -3 sec 1 20 17 ) : , 6 : . , . Marx

. . .

2 6 1

which labour power

item

as

Marx defines

widely

stage

a

at

forces and within

Capitalism

a

. of

productive

relations

of

social development commodity only specific

a

form

in

the ment

every stage

of

form

is

at

.

be

is a

of

.

Its

6

Lenin

Friends

vol part

the People

par

vol through

pars

part

pars

( 2. 6 .2 )

76

,

and therefore

cannot

value and

a use

the

pro

realized unless

the

exercise

in

in

use value consists

be its

the capacity for labour has

Its

production

of

cess

,

commodity

a

as

As

an exchange value .

not

does

,

he

sell his capacity

in

He

production

or

,

of

make use

to

der

it .

only his labour power but the means

of

a

;

.

,

of

this process such tools and raw materials are available Under simple commodity production labour power commodity does not become for there the labourer possesses not other constituents

but

needs

for labour

,

on

,

he

sold

is

his labour

by

bought

been

a

,

of

production

and the its

,

of

of

In

return

of for is

,

by

"

of

that the

this capacity

,

,

,

of

is

value labour power determined any other commodity the labour time necessary production consequently and also for the reproduction exchange

as

.?

in

the use exchange value

The

he

,

to

In

.

the product

of

,

means

for labour has

.

in

owner

the purchase labour power capitalist buyers acquire commodity giving proletarian value that sellers

.

capitalist

production

of

to

sell his capacity for labour capitalist When his capacity utilized

it

an

in

to

of

es

raw

a

;

for

.

of

the product his labour Under capitalism the other hand power commodity labour becomes here the labourer possess only his labour power and lacks the tools and materials produce needs order make use order must

it

to

"

. 3 ,

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Marx Marx Wage Labour and Capital Also

sec

sec

vol Philosophy

,

Poverty

. 1 , , , ch ch . . . 1, 6 ( 2

Marx Capital

,

2 6

pars

,

(

, 2

for the maintenance

Development Capitalism Lenin Compare further par above Marx Capital vol

2 .6 .2

par

is

of

. 30 1 : .

27

necessary

and reproduction the labourer Therefore the labour power the value the means subsistence

of

production value

a

is

,

of

or

.”

as

specific article But since labour power exists only power some living individual the labour time necessary produce and reproduce the labour time necessary for the

Free

,

77

( 2 .6 . 4 )

in

any

satisfying

of

considerable extent

of

and also

's

great measure upon a

civilization upon the habits and standards

of

,

the extent

the manner

depending

country

a

the other hand

also

,

products

historical

of

,

the level

On

wants and

-

so

called necessary

are

them

is

physical existence

to in

his

capitalists and proletarians The fixed by the inescapable necessities

.

of

the labourer

of

subsistence



lower limit

.

class struggle between

's of

ed

through

,

from

labour power is actually sold differs being partially determin other commodity

at which

of

the

The price price

by

for the class conditions under which was originally payment only formed The actual level settled continous struggle between capital and labour the capitalist constantly tend

is



,

."

by

it

the

of

free labourers

life established

.”

on

is

of

any other commodity

,

of

use

the price labour power based power value The use value labour unlike of , .

its

of

a

.

7

This peculiarity

peculiarity

to

,

in

to

its

,

to

reduce wages their physical minimum and extend the physical maximum while the working man con stantly presses the opposite direction to

ing

working day

of

of

a

of

to

of

use

the

an

in

of

.

of

being has the property source value Surplus value results from fact that the labour power production adds the capitalist process the exchange exchange value greater than the value the raw materials that

of

its

,

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Marx Capital vol Marx Value Price and Profit

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Marx Surplus Value part Engels Anti Dühring part Marx Wage Labour and Capital

Introduction Compare pars 18

sec

1866

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),

sec 19

-

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Marx Rapport Marx Capital vol

Marx

,

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Marx Grundrisse Price and Profit

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Engels

Marx

par

,

sec

81

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Trade sec

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of

exchange value capitalist production the labour power used the past labour that embodied the labour power and the living labour that daily cost can make available mainte

Condition

( 2. 7 .1 ) work

,

daily expenditure

to

is

in

is

in

. . . .

the

What

in

being

The capital

has itself

, la

than

.”

it

its of

what

of

use

more value

,

values

buys the labour power value this commodity

's

of

.

,

's

of

at

value

its

,

at

capacity for the proletarian product proletarian bour sells value the the labour and pockets the difference the surplus value The class struggle over wages determines how much the value which proletarians ist

buys

no

's

a

of

-

when

value and

typically

he

in

mind

the specific

is

him

of

decides a

in

.

different

capitalist has source

therefore two entirely

the labour process are magnitudes This difference

creates

it

value

alive

.

working

a

keep the labourer from

are two entirely different

day necessary The fact that half labour way hinders him for twenty four hours whole day The value the labour power and the

. . . .

nance and magnitudes

in

its

78

1

23

Also

.

)

(

, ), .

, :

( 7 )

22

, ,

; ch .

. ,, vol vol . 1 1 , 1 9

((

.

:

19 . :

14

)

, :

1 -7

(

1 9

.

. 1 1,

sec

1

1 -6

.

. , . 2,

Marx

Labour

Marx Grund

,

of

( ch 16 ) ) .6 ,

,

, 18 1

Introduction Lenin

,

:

22

-

19

,

Engels

. of

2

2

,

, ,

(

2

:

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:

pars

ch

. ch 1 . , .

; ,

,

,

,

,

,

,

1891

-

'

:

,

2

pars

Marx Wage Labour and Capital sec

par

throughout

( 3 -8 )

7

; . ch 2, .

)

-

sec

24

,

sec

19

(

26

-

20

pars

.

5

,

throughout sec the Gotha Program

Engels

Surplus Value part part vol throughout Marx Critique divs par Engels Anti ühring part

. 6 :

Marx

,

(

pars

par

sec

pars

to

)

par

Profit

,

.

pars

sec

10

Economy

pars

vol

part

Marx Critique Political Marx Value Price and Marx Capital vol

4 9

risse

.

Marx

sec

Capital

Marx

Wage Labour and Capital pars sec item

par

1875

pars

throughout

art

part

Marx

Profit throughout

and

part

,

( , 8)

10

-

18 18 -

,

Program

ch . , . . 1 , 2.7 4 , , 17 , .1 div ch , . . , . 18 . 6, ch 3, ( 3 . . ) 1 19 , 2 , . , . , 1 ; 20 ) , : . 11 . ; A 1 . ; ch , 2 . , ch , , . 8, . 20 . , 7 ch . . 13 (5 5 , 7 ) . -6 , 1 14 . (5 , - ( 3- sec sec 5 9 4 . ) : . : 3, ,

Standard

Mue Mar

. 2 ,

the

Coils Gotha

Bebel Bebel

sec 28 28

Critique Critique

Engels

,

par

sec

,

Marx Capital vol par Marx Surplus Value

pars

pars

Price

17

3

(

Value

.

.

3 , . 6 ch . , . 3 -9 50 , : . of , of 4 : . the , .5 18 , :

Competition

Marx

) , , ,

pars

1 -5

.

,

Class

sec

. : 1 , ch . ,

ch

the Working

Arbeitslohn

toto

of

."

create capitalists must return

Karl

. 1 .

",

to

surplus value than pro particular commodity

is

is

source

of

a

more Assume

a

.

of

is

of

plant and machinery utilization raw materials

no

.

of

to

of



.

,

Surplus Value par Marx plant and machinery also contributes Utilization the total ex change value the final product But according Marx utilization

(2. 7.2 )

79

Exploitation

is

appropriation

of products

of others ' labour

by individuals who own the means of production . The Marxian analysis of the sale of labour power affirms that exploitation is as capitalism

as it is of feudalism

method

the

is

labour appears

be

.

,

labour

to

,

the division paid labour and unpaid

labour

wipes out every trace necessary labour and surplus

All

of





of

writes Marx the working day into

form

form

veiled

, " . . . .

of

,

of

,

of of

The wage

.

slavery

and

other class societies is exploitation surplus product takes the fact that the surplus value that the reality labour exploitation commodity exchange the appearance from

by

feature of capitalism

a

its

essential

What distinguishes

.

to

of

in

of

of

by

methods requiring only the total expenditure labour time technology Consider the entire period the given state production extending from the time when the necessary plant and machinery are first used the time when they are completely worn duced

necessary

of

,

,

;

to

up

:

of

,

is

.

to

out According Marx the total exchange value the output during this period quantities the sum three first the total produce the raw materials used labour time necessary second

of

on

.

therefore

,

Marx

the amounts their own original exchange production values laid out for these means calls constant capital Labour power the other

less than sum

of

.

more and values The

of

no

to

no

,

,

.

of

the

in

,

;

up

to

produce the plant and machinery the total labour time necessary used and third total labour time extracted from the labour power employed production Raw materials plant the process and machinery contribute the total exchange value produced

the total exchange value produced more than own exchange value The sum values laid out this com modity Marx therefore calls variable capital See Marx Capital throughout vol

,

,

,

,

it,

of

,

this analysis rent interest and profit are not exchange value but deductions from the shares

to

According determinants

.

(6 ),

8

.

ch

. 1 ,

.

.

of

for

to

contributes

its

,

hand

la

.

, , . 50 , , ch

3

. vol .

,

,

2 .3 . 4

of

:

.

of

the

, . 12 , ch

in

of

,

of

,

of

in

money which owners land owners and entrepreneurs divide among themselves the difference between the exchange value bour power and the exchange value extracted from labour power process capitalist production See Marx Value Price and throughout Marx Capital throughout Profit Compare the latter part above note

( 2. 7.3 )

80

labour. In serf labour the serf 's work for himself and his com pulsory work for his lord are distinguished spatially and tempor ally , in ways clearly perceptible to the senses . In slave labour even paid

that part

working day

of the

which the slave merely reproduces

in

of subsistence , in which , therefore , in fact he works himself appears work for his master unpaid labour wage labour the All his labour appears to

.

In

to

be

,

for

. be

value of his own means

the

conceals

extent

the wage labourer

which

to

relation

the

;

.

to

,

,

:

here even

to

surplus labour unpaid labour appears be paid Under slavery the property relation conceals the extent which the slave works for himself under capitalism the money converse holds

works

On

of

, 19

.

ch

.

),

sec

.

because

he

society

pars

2 he 3 .

.

't

in

,

Lenin Question Russia sec doesn call capitalists and landlords exploiters

Marx believes they are useless

Capital

-

(5

sec

. 1 ,

6 17 . , ) ) .2 1( , , ; , 7 : ch . . . . 7 . 2 24 12 8 . , 1 ( -3 , , , ; 22

,

( )

15 8

-

Agrarian

Marx pars

16

,

5

9

10 ch .

;

),

(

. .

,

ch

pars

11

. 21

23

(

19

,

ch

.

-

of ,

:

par

through

quests

Communism pars

and Profit

,

ch

. 1 ,

,

of

35

,

. .

;

20

par Compare Single Branches and Capital sec

vol Working Class Marx Wage Labour

Principles

Price

ch sec 1

,

( : 13 - 7)

32

pars

)

(

,

Engels

Value

vol

1

the

,

out Marx

.

, ( 17 . : ), 1 . , . 13 ch - ) , 15 . - . 9 , 14 : pars

pars

Capital

Marx

Engels Condition Industry par

77

.

2

2 , .7.

."

for nothing

the contrary

,

.

's

in

of

to

of



at

of

contends that developing society very great use some them least are productive forces though the benefits they bring are accompanied capitalist from the first with injuries and though toward the end

,

of

of

of

( 2 )

use

of

( 1 )

en

.

development the injuries outweigh the benefits Capitalists and land lords are called exploiters because their incomes are almost tirely derived from their monopoly over the means production and production their decisions concerning the the means are almost universally directed toward protection their monop

.

a

, . sec 4 , .1 . , 3, , . sec 6 . , . 2 of (

,

24

;

22 -

)

par

item

-8

sec

pars

6

, , /

( 5 ) ),

13

7

Marx Grundrisse div

vol

(

Capital pars

; . . of 33 1 ch , , ( . 32 ch ) ' 15 . :

.

:

24

pars

Marx

-

; .

)

25

,

3

( 22 -

part

20

society

osophy

,

ful member Manifesto pars

of

advancement the general welfare others labour by definition use accident Compare Marx Poverty Phil par Marx Engels Communist

rather than toward appropriator

, 1 ch , . ch -2 . : 1 , of is 13 1 sec an ( , . 3 11 , , ) , . div . by 13 - 2, .

An exploiter

18

oly incomes

( 2.8. 1) .

An important result of

relations between people things capitalist

,

commodity exchange

the appearance

relations between

In

take

of

all

societies

.

of

the form on

In

the fact that capitalist exploitation exchange is the fetishism of capital .

commodity of

8

takes

81

,

as

is

,

the other hand

.

sources

be

to

of

On

products as

production

,

are treated value The socially determin

surplus value

.

as

,

of

the means

,

of

past labour creating powers

the living labourer treated production bought and

raw materials

of

like machinery

a

used

or as

,

,

a

,

of

On the one hand the capacity mere commodity factor

.

of

a

,

of

,

on

,

of of

society the relation between two classes people proletarians and bourgeoisie takes appearance the relation between two production types commodities labour power and the means

.

of

of

commod disguised the as

a

,

to

,

is

disguised

capitalism

is

,

of

.

of

Marx

. 1 3 , 11 ( . 1-9 2 ) : ;

,

48

.

. 3 ,

,

.

:

, 2

,

,

-

in

Capitalism

Rus

above

hilosophische Manuskripte

.

,

,

(

11

, /

.

,

3 5

- . : 2:

,

)

, / .

, . , 3 , , . sec sec . 23 . 1, 1 - 3 , 24 , div . ( 2 , , 24 . 4 sec , . 25 1 - sec . 1 , . ): 9: 3,

to 2

. ,

div

,

,

, :

(4 )

3

. :

,

Marx Engels Communist Marx Grundrisse par Marx Introduction par Marx Critique 3

2

of 2;

.par

9

,

,

pars Labour and Capital part pars Manifesto item div item the Critique Political Economy

ch

-p

of

Engels

of

2

,

man Condition the Working Class Atti par tude the Bourgeoisie towards the Proletariat Marx Engels pars German Ideology part Marx Wage pars

Oekonomisch

of

par

See also

ch

;

,

:

Development

Lenin

par

sec

Engels Housing

Anti Dühring part Engels Labour Stand

26

)

(4 22 ) ),

( 6

-

22

Engels 25

.

. 6 , .

ch

pars

throughout

.

pars

sec

sec

pars

sec

. 1 .2 .2 .

throughout

ard art

par

. :

part

pars

. ( 7 . . , 2, 20 , 46 1; ,

, ,

vol

pars

part

ch , , . 4 2 ch , .8 . . . 8 . 1 1 - . , 2 11 . , : . 15 6 , 16 , ; , . 1 -5 : 3 , .

,

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part

Question

ch

par

pars

24

."

.4 . , div . . 3 31 - . , 46 2, 21 ;

sec

of

( . 15 ) , 23 ,

. , 3,

17

class structure

the

Marx Mehrwert

sia

natural and

Because exploitation

nature

ch

ity

.

ch

society

production

exchange

order

vol

capitalist

ch 24

of

bers

class

seems the mem eternal property the

of

its

of

the capitalist

as

a

determined and historically limited situation appropriation the surplus others produce

means

its

of ,

the

to

,

it

of

ed

of

depri and historically limited situation the working class produces seems capitalist vation the surplus members society natural and eternal property labour power The socially

(2 .9. 1)

82 9

.

important consequence of the fact that capitalist takes the form of commodity exchange is the formal capitalist society and equality of members Com A second

.

of

,

,

of

a

“ a

,

the

Prop

of

as

to

his own Bentham for The bondage and inequality capitalists and proletarians

,

what

.

only

is

disposes

of

.

,

each

concerned only with himself

of . ”

is

each

is

.

,

for

,

of

. . . .

Property

Eden

labour power act wholly their own free for they are related one another only commodities and exchange equivalent for equivalent

Equality

possessors

very

Equality There alone rule Freedom buyer Freedom for the and the seller

,

,

,

and Bentham commodity such

.

erty

wills

Marx

to

,

according

man

as

of

rights

innate

,

freedom

modity exchange

of

all

exploitation

; . .

.

. . 5 2 , ,

3

sec

)

.

20

(

.

par

Compare 19

. 3 .

)

.

3

,

2

)

16

ch

;

,

div

par

Kritische pars

19 . 15 . ), .7 2 ) . . . 20 : , : ’” 2, 14 ; ; 15 ; 83 , ch sec 7 . 33 . . . 88 ; ; 1 13 15 6 , . ; ( , , ch ; . 5 . ch ( . ch , 2 84 4 / . , . 13 3 ), 6 25 ) . 89 , ) , : ( 23 ( , . 21 ch sec . 23 ( . . , . ) 19 2 , 21 .3 (18 4 ), , . 25 , 12 , ) ; 1 29 , : / , . 31 sec ch . . 5 39 3 ch in 6 ( , . 1 ( ), . , 26 , 15 38 - , 1 , 37 , sec ) 32 . , to 16 ) 4 : , ( .3 44 . sec . , 3, , 3 3 16 ; ( -6 , div ; . -17 . . ch 41 2 . ) 3 ) . , 12 , 4 ; ; 9, ; ch 2 . ; : , ch 1 ch ch . . . 10 , . div ( 26 24 . 14 8 div . . 55 . 3 ), . “ , ; 7 ( ( ( ( 3 ch 22 2 12 , , div ( , , . ) ); ), sec . . , 3 5 24 , , sec ch sec , . . ‘ div . . . . 19 sec 1 3 1 . , 19 4, . : 11 , , , .

Familie

ch

.1

,

. . 12 . 3, 12 ), . sec , . 48 ch 15 sec , . 1 3 . ; , ( 2 , 13 5, . 1 ,

pars

through

par

. .

,

sec

. 4 ,

(

ch

. 2. 6 7 .1

22

;

, ,

1 -4

;

3

vol . .

part

sec

Lenin Three Sources Marxism sec and the latter part note above

Marx Capital vol Heilige Compare Marx Engels Randglosse No par

(

14

,

4

31

vol

. , 3 ,

ch 24

Mehrwert throughout

sec

ch

sec

par

Marx

part

pars

pars

par

pars

,

par

pars

, .

vol

par

sec

sec

24

par

Marx Capital vol . . ch .

par

throughout

out

; :

par

16

Political Economy par

( . ( 11 22 , ) 21 14 ) ,

2 1 10 ch , of - . 7; . . ; . 12 2 2 6 33 ch sec .9 .4 : . ch ; . 4 .1 23 . ch ( . . 25 16 , 29 51 , , 15 ), ( , 14 . , 35 ), ; . 19 . , . 2 ; 13 4 : , ( ch , 5 . ch ) 7 , ; 13 . . , 1 , 12 ( , ; . ; . 11 . of 1 2 ch ) , , . ch , . 1 of , .

in

of

in

which characterize the relations production are concealed beneath the freedom and equality which buyers and sellers exchange characterize the relations

Marx Rede über

pars par

(

ch 8

Communist

Marx

pars

Marx

Engels

Marx

part

par

par

part

par

par

sec

pars

sec

1858

par

pars

part

part

Urtext Zur

Apr

pars

sec

Free Trade

Manifesto Grundrisse

throughout

item

par

( 7 ) 17

(

par

Marx Capital vol

par

pars

Brüssel

pars

div

sec

par

Engels

Marx

part

pars

Kritik

Polen

sec

par

par

( 2. 9. 2 ) The pervasive

,

conflict

the form

between

and

content

of

the abstract freedom , equality , and individualism of capitalist exchange and the concrete coercion , op pression , and automatism of capitalist production , results from the society fact that in this labour power is a commodity . It cannot be between

2 5 3 -6

above

1919g

,

Lenin

7

1

,

.

Lenin

Deception

Friends

the

to

, , ,

. 31 15 ) ) 3 : : :

Engels Origin

of of

(

, 25 ),

33

.

)

; - ch .

, (20

pars

Preface

(

:

ch

)

(

Lenin par

Engels

par

part

People

. , 2 .4 .3 , . ,

Rech

Iyulya

par

par

Anti Dühring

.

Lenin

3

. 24 . : . ,

pars

Engels

, . . , 34 19 2,

par

.

6

pars

sec

part

1884

36

the Family the People

3

part

Philosophy

19

pars

Marx Poverty

pref

par

par

sec

, ): ., .

.

ch

( 1) 10 , )

par

vol

achieve

Abolition

end of principle : A

(

:

socialism

. The

be effected only upon of the wages system . What

17

only

can

4

,

. ) , , 2 ,

promises

It can

'

principle

10 ; ‘ , . . 5; , . , , . 3, 14 . ch ch . 22 . - ch 15 2 of ' ( 1 , 25 . 31 , ( 48 ( 31 14 , ch . . -21 16 4 . , ) 24 24 ; 46 ) . , ; 3, sec ( sec . . .

capitalism

the reformist

22

'

the revolutionary

commodity

a

of

resolved while labour power remains exploitation cannot be effected upon fair day s wage for a fair day s work .

. 5() 3 : -4

capitalist institutions

The State par

See also

pars

CHAPTER

CAPITALISM

. According

,

for

of

,

of

,

,

of

no

. . .

as "

,

so

it



parties

Engels refers

."

rule

this very best shell estab change persons that the bourgeois democratic republic bourgeois the logical form

firmly

1

can shake

it .

,

institutions

possession

securely

in

,

once

power

its

lishes

to

capital

fore

of

is

is the form of state for capitalist class rule . “ A democratic republic ," writes capitalism the best possible political shell and there in

,“

Lenin

AND DEMOCRACY

Marxists , democracy

to

of

best suited

or so

1

THREE

. . .

:

( 8 )

of our

.

)

28 - in

(

33

-

28

.

pars

32

11

of

, .

Origin

the Proletariat

State

which

the entire

par

Also Engels

,

The

sec

. 3 ,

. 1 ,

(6 of ).

,

Lenin

1

.

Tasks

, ,

Lenin

ch

,

,

par

producers

foundation

Revolution

84

,

par

26

.

par

the hidden

1884

: : .

Mar

2

24

,

point

secret

State and

. 9 ,

ch

, ,

the Family Revolution

Lenin

Bernstein

11

. . .

3 1 1

to

Engels

the direct

to

production

reveals the innermost

.

the means

of

.

is

"

,

to

of It

of

ing of

of

capitalist political rule reflects the character The character capitalist exploitation We have already pointed out that accord always the immediate relation Marx the owners

( 3 .1 .2 ) structure ,

social

including

and dependence ,

between sovereignty

of

state .”

the

distinguished

political

the

We

form of the relations short , the specific form

in

have further pointed out that capitalism is other economic formations by the fact that in

from

capitalist society labour power is normally a commodity .? We have now to discover why, when exploitation takes the form of exchange, dictatorship tends to take the form of democracy . In contrast with slave and feudal exploitation , which operate direct compulsion and personal dependence , capitalist exploitation operates through free contract for the purchase of

through

labour power . The predominance of the wage contract involves the legal freedom and equality of the contracting parties , that is,

.

On

this its its

dis

capacity

for

at

. it

his

is

it

of

his

,

But

if

as a

by

a

as

on

for

is

offered

own nature

commodity the market commodity sale

whose labour power commodity must have the free proprietor own as

,

to

sell

must

from

the person be

he

, :

posal

is

possessor

it

the extent that

actual possessor

it

to

only

labour power can appear

a

,

premise

spring

those which

he

dependence than

its

the absence of any social subordination which could hinder the buying of labour power in an open market . “ The exchange of commodities ," writes Marx , " of itself implies no other relations of

in

“ is

,

the as

by

in

of

, .

of

."

of

he

a

,

of

on

,

to

a

of

law ".

a

is

of

.

of

money meet his own person He and the possessor the market and enter into transactions with one another com modity owners equal rank distinguished only fact buyer They that one and the other seller are therefore equal before the The labour market concludes very Eden fact the innate rights man According Marxism the formal freedom and equality political institutions bourgeois democracy reflect the level labour

.

in

.

above

19

pars

. 3 ,

,

)

3

.

sec

. 4 ,

ch

(

6

.

ch

.

, . . . 1 ,

,

above

vol

2 9 1

Compare pars

-6

,

Capital

its

,

. 1 . 3 .2 , 2 .6 .1

Pars

Marx

. 2 .5 .5

).

20

(

3 1 3

. 3.1 . .2 . .

,

“ in

of

commodity exchange the formal freedom and equality The fight against feudalism and bourgeoisie writes Engels

( 3. 1.4 )

86

the development

of capitalist production

was compelled to abolish privileges , that is, privileges of estates , and to introduce equal rights before the law for private law persons first this development the form universal equality juridical bourgeois democracy proclaims the formal property owner and proletarian exploiter and exploited

writes

the

of

.”

Lenin

or

In



:

well

of

of

,

a

,

capitalist

,

,

exchange

exploitation

capitalist political

so

as

Jut

."

of

apparent absolute equality against the abolition classes operates not against but through

,

.

classes The idea commodity reflection relations bourgeoisie under the pretext persons into weapon for fighting

of

a

converted

of

production

arises

oppressed

the

the

which

deceives by as

it

, ,

equality

greatly

.

,

of

doing

is

In

so

equality

of

law

,

of

of

in

public

of

outcome persons

degrees

as

and then

by

in

,

all

all personal

in

,

by

.

, of

of

. in

of

as

.

1

:

,

Lenin Draft point Compare div

div

. 3 ,

.

;

55

par

, . 3 , . 22 . 2 23 :

par

pars

14 10

ch 13 2 . . ; ,

, . 1

repre of

in

,

( div . , 11 )

12

.

. 3 ,

. 6 ,

ch

,

. 1 . , 2 , . 3 , ; 9 ,

.

)

-

; of

)

16

-

14

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beginning

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democracies the governing

stamp these governments

the National and Colonial Marx Engels Heilige Familie Theses

sec

a

by

people seems

Engels

. . .

governments

from

democracies official inclusion

,

the governing

First

slaves

as

stamps these capitalist

in

people

exclusion

class democracies

other

from

example

of

official

But

3 1 4

is

,

societies

ch

societies

for

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slave

respects

to

those

,

by

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,

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."

,

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rule operates not against but through democracy con Democracy government defined the people con monarchy government trast with which one and with aristocracy which government Bourgeois democracies

( 3. 1. 5 ) democracies

directly

of

,

participate

slave

legislative

,

societies

Second

classes

people

in

the governing

in

the members of

.

senting

all

87

,

to



.

are effectively monop paid officials whose selection

,

the other hand

of

,

laws

bureaucracies

on

,

,

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,

if

.

by

and enforcement olized

in

, .

,

judicial and executive functions But capitalist democracies the people neither make the laws nor interpret them nor enforce They through supposed them vote and their vote are exer Interpretation cise complete indirect control over legislation hierarchies

.

, .

governing

capitalist part

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means

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the democracies people means all the people but govern

people

societies

of

to a

,

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it

In

democracies

but

of

great extent independent popular control people govern When said that the democracies slave and capitalist societies both people and govern are ambiguous terms

and activities are

which

state

members

The

series

a

controlled through

the society

of

.

bourgeois democratic the capitalist economy

partic

of

voluntarily

all

,

competitive exchanges

in

to

capitalist

be

to

distinctive features economy appears

the

of

features

of

distinctive

These

correspond

of

governing

conditions universal freedom and equality Similarly bourgeois appears the democratic state competitive elections controlled through series which to

under

in

,

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ipate

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participate voluntarily under conditions equality universal freedom and But beneath the formal freedom capitalist exchange and equality the material bondage and the society

Bernstein

Social De Bourgeois Democracy and Pro of

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Program

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par sec Lenin Dictatorship point letarian Lenin The State par On de mocracy slave society see Marx Engels Heilige Familie par Origin pars Engels sec div the Family par pars Lenin Renegade Kautsky par sec Lenin The State pars On democracy in

mocracy

the monopoly

from

to

of

democracy On the definition par Agrarian 1884 Lenin

3 . .51 .

, .

24

Mar

resulting see

capitalist production

,

of

exploitation

lie

of

.

members

government

( 3 .1 .6 )

88

capitalism

of

exercised

republic

from

agents

political

optimum

the

and

the mon the capital shell

because the relation between bureaucratic adminis suffrage political counter the optimum

and universal

is

tration

coercion

The democratic

,

for

class

.

ist

opoly over the means

administration

resulting

of

bureaucratic

bondage

the material by

of

oppression

elections

,

democratic

is

bourgeois

lie

by members of the over the means of production exercised capitalist class . And beneath the formal freedom and equality of

part for the relation modity exchange

capitalist

exploitation

com

and

.

between

. "

the Manifesto that large scale

the establishment

presents

for

.

managing the common

the political development

Marx

France

its

of

,

up

the

of in

,

the

.

so

par

many 12

part

into

.

,

,

a

-

its

all

transformed

,

were

caul around sprang

with the decay the The seignorial privileges

Marx Engels Communist Manifesto

/

. . .

towns

hasten

pores

1

it

and

connection

.

,

landowners

3 2 1

of

system

in

absolute monarchy helped which

feudal

to

of

French society and stops

period

the

up

growth which winds itself like

parastic

of

ling body

officials numbering half another half million this appal

host

of

a

an

,

and ingenious state machinery army million together with

a

,

its



.

of

the connection between bureaucratic administration and capitalist rule This executive power with military organization enormous bureaucratic and with vast a

classic statement

of

account

of

l

.”

a

is

and

of

in

,

,

,

of an

In

affairs

simply

committee the entire bourgeois class

state

industry

the modern parliamen power executive the

the world market conquered for itself tary state exclusive political rule The modern

This approach the bourgeoisie

-

since

the administration of

,

last

of

on

,

at

underlies the contention has

of

the control

of

on

,

but

an

of

is

of

to

of

,

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frage

an

of

from

,

is

.

2

If it

that the power the state rests upon the people that the state institu power power tion which subordinates the numbers the armed and organized minority then the application this theory bourgeois democracy will focus not the extent the suf asserted

armed bodies separate

( 3 .2 .2 ) power , the feudal dignitaries into paid officials , and the motley pattern of conflicting medieval plenary powers into the regulated plan of a state power the work of which

attributes

of

is divided

and centralized

perfected

this

of

cession

executive

machine

as in

factory .

a

parties struggling for rule

huge state edifice

principal

the

. . . All the revolutions it . Each of the suc

of smashing

instead

possession

considered

of this generaliza The

of victory ."

spoils

this analysis is that while the rule of the bourgeoisie is established by perfecting the machinery of bureau cracy , the rule of the proletariat is established by smashing it. He

Lenin draws

from

this “ the chief

12

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Russian Social pars point pars

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Lenin Letters from Afar the Proletariat our Revolution

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to

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Bernstein

par

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Political Parties and Tasks the Proletariat points Forgetting the pars Proletarian Militia Lenin Main Thing par Lenin One Fundamental Question the Revolution pars Lenin Marksizm Gosudarstve com Lenin

( 3 .2 .3 ) which the term is used by Marxists , a bureaucracy is a hierarchy of paid officials in which each of the group is controlled only by officials above and which group factory the work the divided and centralized sense

in

a

a

,

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com

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and the judiciary are

police

But the fact remains

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democratic state bureaucracy

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capitalist states components army state power bureaucracy police and judiciary well the narrowest sense paid officials consist hierarchies which each member group only the controlled officials above him and which in

normally

as

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distinguished

Marx

from

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ponent

the passage just quoted the bureaucracy

however distinguished

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of

him

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.

In the widest

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a

of

a

a

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by

the members

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and professors

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a

which members

a

,

bureaucrats form social variety are recruited from social capitalist states the highest officials

bureaucracies

,

.

In

classes

their relation

class since

of

to

stratum

,

,

of

other social groups Like priests prostitutes

to

such

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A

members

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Compare Marx

3

3

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of

In

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civilian and military ordinarily come from the capitalist and land owning classes the intermediate grades the civilian hierarchy many officials are petty bourgeois origin The lowest grades

,

: :

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( 29 )

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34

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of

our Revolution par Lenin State and Revolution par Immediate Tasks the Soviet Government sec Bourgeois Democracy and Proletarian Dictatorship point par

,

Lenin

( 44 )

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Lenin

71 11 ,

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par point

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Marx

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.

par Engels Die Krisis inst Germany par Revolution and Counter Revolution Marx Eighteenth Brumaire sec par pars par Engels Marx Civil War France sec Bernstein par Jan 1884 Lenin Economic Content Narodism com

(3.2.4 )

91

of the police and army

part filled from

are in

. It follows ,

the proletariat

the peasantry

and

however ,

from the basic characteristics bureaucratic organization that the behaviour of the entire group majority is determined , not by decisions of members but

,

its

of

military

civilian

.

or

sometimes speaks

of

of

,

the bureauc

the middle classes and the aristocracy

with

.

contrast

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ch

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and 71

par



class

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Lenin Political Parties and Tasks Forgetting the Main Thing par

of

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Economic Content Narodism Russian Social Democrats par

div

group

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part

Political

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pars

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Lenin

. 4 52 ; 53 ; sec . sec . 3 , 7, 2 , . . 17 : 29 . ,

.

. 1, 4 ,

,

)

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28

,

,

in

of

the army and the bureaucracy compare Struggles part pars pars Class France part par Eighteenth pars Marx Brumaire sec Engels Preussische Militärfrage par

(

)

,

part uses only the

class connections

33

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20

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Marx

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Lenin

)

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Lenin

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part

Marx Mehrwert vol pars

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par

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term

15

the

sometimes

of

in

Marx

places

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Compare Marx Grundrisse div sec item par Marx Introduction the Critique Economy sec par Marx Capital vol par professions sec classes read vol

part

sometimes



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clearly

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earlier

unproductive classes members the indicate that these are not classes the

officials



to

the terminology as

state

,

in

refers

. 8 :

,

. 6 :

sec

,

following

,

Marx

sense

3

,

State

,

Germany letter Engels Status Quo par par Reichsverfassungskam Engels Deutschland sec Deutsche pagne par He does not this his later writings Com par Engels pare Engels Housing Question part par Social Relations Russia for class read estate See

. , , 2 , , . . 2 of 1 . ,

Engels

top officials

early writings Engels

In

class

a

racy

.4

3

as .2 .

decisions

in

by

its

the

of

:

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of

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44

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to

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Narodism

.

Content

of

Economic

of

par Lenin par Tasks Russian Social Democrats Lenin United States the Europe Slogan par Political Parties and Tasks Lenin par Lenin Lenin Proletarian Militia Proletariat point Open Letter Peasant Deputies par Lenin One Fundamental

Lenin

( 3 .3 .1 )

.

But though the

3

hierarchies normally

are closely

civilian classes ,

exploiting

with

connected

make ? Though the actions of the entire are controlled by the top bureaucrats , in capitalist aren 't these top bureaucrats in turn controlled by

what difference bureaucracy democracies

does

officials

elected

officials of the military and

top

it

And

?

since

these

officials

elected

suffrage ,

by universal

and deposed

it at all

is

are

likely

chosen

that their who exploit

will advance

the interest of the small minority and oppose the interest of the great majority who are exploited ? In discussing the relation of bureaucratic administration to suffrage we shall reverse

.

officials

the elected

we

shall

under what circumstances

officials are obeyed

.

these

whom

Second

questions .

these

bourgeois democ

of

we shall racies represent

the order of ask

First,

,

universal

ask

decisions

,

,

or

universal

is

In

.. .”

function

capital

suffrage the

the normal

the electorate

six

claims

,

,

societies

he

ist

economic ties between the members

of

of

,



"

,



of

The character elections Marx writes does not depend upon their names but upon their economic foundations upon the

of

predominantly

, all ; ,

groups

petty bourgeois

-

large

in

,

deception

politics

.

of

voting against their interests for supporters the bourgeoisie On the extent which proletarians are excluded from politics

,

democracy

within the narrow limits

and therefore always remains essentially only for the possessing classes only for the minority

the

But this capitalist

democracy

for the rich

.

,

,

)

.

17

(

above

,

Marx

.

par

under

State and Revolution

:

par

93 18

Bakunina

Compare par

,

Lenin

. .

. :

. 3 , .

ch

;

Konspekt

par

sec

, 2,

Marx

par

. 1 .4 .6

France

pars

,

. , .1 sec . 2 of , sec . 3 , , . . 10 , 10 . 12

. 3 2, . 3

ch

in

the Revolution

10

,

,

exploitation

Question

have

in

In

less complete

we

of .

or

always squeezed

development

a

is

democracy

capitalist society

,

for

conditions most favourable democratic republic more



:

Lenin writes its

capitalist democracies

,

in

to

into

participating

from

,

and

proletarian

of

predominantly

at

:

of

."

in

to

is

to

years which member ruling decide once every three represent the people class Parliament There are two large groups immediate causes for this situation exclusion

Civil War

(

. .

93

)

3 3 4

barred

In

'.

olitical life

.

social

in

the population

is

the majority

events

-p

course

participating

no



',

for

of

peaceful from

the

capitalist society

in

of for

always remains approximately what , freedom for slave owners . republics it was in the ancient Greek Owing to the conditions of capitalist exploitation , the wage slaves of our time remain so crushed by need and poverty that they democracy politics ordinary have ‘no time time Freedom

is

,

,

of

for

In

.

a

Germany far more legality and was than other countries toward the utilization political party organize into higher proportion able the anywhere workers than else the world politically conscious and What this highest proportion of

',

.

of

is



fifteen

-

in

out

of

in

of

!

?

One million mem million wage trade unions out fifteen

capitalist society

the Social Democratic Party workers Three million organized

of



active workers yet observed bers

in

of

to

a

in

a

to



in

was able

do

period Social Democracy

).

-

(

a

a

in

in

of



of

For two reasons the correctness this assertion most Germany constitu clearly confirmed Germany the case very long time stability tional legality lasted condition during this almost half century 1870 1914 Furthermore

,

, 9

:

10

12

( . 34 3 )

;

)

12

ch

35

11

.

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(6

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,

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1895

)

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Lenin Democracy

'

,

10

-

.

.

- ch .

,

to

5

, 28 4 : :

.

par

-

(

par

,

the Trade Unions

and

Democracy

Lenin

,

par

,

. .2

in

9 . - 6 14 ,

of

Tasks

Lenin

point

13

)

Lenin

Sorge

1895

Revisionism

10

,

pars

Bourgeois

Engels

France

and

sec

pars

Engels

1 5

.

. 1 , 1

,

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(4

.

,

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Marxism

Marxism

Jan

pars

1

sec

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Class Struggles

Lenin

.

,

7 -9

Lenin 5

points

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,

Schlüter

-

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,

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-6 . 33

(

Marx

pars

the Family pars sec

- . ; ; , 11 2, ch . , ( 1 5 , ch 9 ) , . : 7 sec 1 of . , 14 , 20 2 , sec . ( , 7 . 3 , 3 18 . : , ) : 11 - .

,

:

pars

)

16

Engels

Caricature

,

,

Dictatorship

(

17

-

.

16

,

and Dictatorship

pars

Revolution

Renegade Kautsky pars

Origin

Deutschland

1894

-1 5

pars

1 -2

.

21 34

-

and

(

sec

Lenin

State

1 6

pars

Lenin

.

Introduction

pars

32

3

Engels

Mar

3 -4

pars

Engels

Sozialismus (5

, ,

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1894

pars

1877

Engels

: . , . 3 , , 13 19 - 14 22 , , . : ,

May

to

Engels

:

.

par

26

,

.

.

, 5,

ch

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11

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. 3.3

. 2 .

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an

,

Lenin State and Revolution sec Compare Marx pars Engels Feb 1865 Auflösung des lassaleanischen Arbeitervereins pars

8

!"

million

Proletarian Interna

Third

( 3 .3 .7 )

94

On

extent to which petty bourgeoisie are deceived by capitalist democracies , Lenin writes : " Capitalism would

the

not

terrorized

condemn the disunited

the

(

downtrodden

,

crushed

a

to

masses

, it

the one hand

on

did

if ,

not be capitalism

,

in

,

politics

,

it

.

,

of

a

in

of

!)

,

if,

existence

on

and the other hand did not put bourgeoisie gigantic apparatus the hands the for lying and deceiving for the wholesale swindling and stupefying workers and peasants countryside

of

in

to

of

,

pars

.

The State

,

Lenin

,

-

:

37

36

.

,

in

,

5

.

sec

, .

,

par

-

37

1851 18

. .

1

,

sec . . 7 . 27 , 3 :

. 3 , ,

:

to

65

,

.

3

,

;

35

,

in

,

to

,

31 -

, ): .

5 -7

(

. 2 :

an

:

par

(6 )

,

1884

.

:

,

,

13

15

.

Mar

.

Bernstein

Engels

,

, :

)

35

(

34

,

33

)

:

points

7 8

(

32

.

,

:

,

,

our Revolution

,

in

'

in

the Proletariat

in

,

:

(8 )

5

. .

;

. 18 : 2 ,

, ,

1 -4

. .

2

.

, 15 ; of

.

'

Tasks

,

to

. 1 ,

sec

to

Engels Gewalt und Oekonomie Bebel Dec 1884 par par Engels Peasant Question sec France throughout Engels Introduction and Germany pars sec Marx Class Struggles France 1895 pars Lenin

par

1

,

to

. 1 ,

24

to

Engels

sec

. 2 , :

,

in

:

11 90

,

par

.

,

10

8 : -

)

13

Marx Marx ina

pars

Engels Preussische Militärfrage par Engels sec p ar März 1867 Marx Schweitzer Oct 1868 par par Civil War France Marx Konspekt Bakun

30

-

17

(

.

;

part pars

History

Lenin Elections the Constituent Assembly Compare Marx Class Struggles France part pars par Engels part Marx Dec pars Marx Eighteenth Brumaire

. . 2 . . ,

63

7 9

.

pars

Place

.

-

30

(

33

and

3 3 3

-

30

tional

32 its )

."

is

of

of

and contrasting the bourgeoisie the tre

in

)

-

of

in

.

(

of

rule the proletariat with the rule mendous importance

by

,

In

struggle are decided non proletarian toiling

that war the experience particularly peasants comparing

civil war And

of

on

. . . . .

'

by

be

and acute through

they become sharpened

lose sight

always

imagine that the most serious political voting fact these questions when

.

They this circumstance questions can decided

masses

democracy

consistent

.

of



The worshippers

is

-

of

.

or

,

to

is

. . .

"

It

out the question for the petty bourgeois and near bourgeois masses decide advance that most difficult and complicated political question whether side with the work ing class with the bourgeoisie Vacillation the part the proletarian non strata toilers inevitable petty

Lenin

( 3 .4 . 1 ) circumstances , the

. Under normal

combined result of exclusion and deception is to elect officials who serve the people with words and the capitalists with deeds . Under these circumstan ces there is no basic conflict between the class policies of the admin 4

istrative bureaucracy and the class policies of the elected officials . But what about abnormal circumstances ? What happens when in a

political

crisis

,

as the beginning

such

revolution , officials are to pursue radically new

of

a

who command the bureaucracy policies ? In such cases , according to Marxism elected

,

officials

the elected

are not obeyed .

basic question of revolution , " Lenin writes , “ is the ques power obscurity tion of . . . . At every step . . . revolution strips of the question where power actually lies and reveals the diver gence between formal and real power the extent that repre

The

."

1

To

,

to

as

its



,

is

,

,

to

,

in

sentative institutions exist this disclosure normally takes place situations where newly elected officials whose formal right govern greater than their actual power confront incumbent

govern greater than whose actual power argue Then doctrinaires the halls state morally obliged that the old power submit the new right society But revolutionaries act the decisive groupings build

of

is

.

to

to

of

.

the

situations the decisions enforced Marx and Engels call

,

officials are automatically parliamentary Of the cretinism

elected

resistance

old

the

power physically able crush revolutionary The delusion that to

new

in

a

in

of

is

to

.

in

their formal right

of

-

,

to

non elected officials

so

,

,

majority

. 6 ,

Pitirim

Constituent throughout

:

to

the

sec

20 ;

,

pars

10

,

Admissions

Elections

by

,

,

:

)

:

, 9,

10

Valuable

Lenin

throughout

votes

of

three

Lenin Lessons the throughout Lenin Renegade

par

above

.

Compare par

. 1 . 4 .7

par

.

Slogans

14

3 4 1

Food Tax Lenin

Lenin

,

sec

,

Assembly Lenin

pars

pars

Sorokin

two

throughout

sec

5

pars

Revolution Kautsky

with

.

Illusions

. , . , , , . sec , . . .5 sec 4 , 13 , .3 , , , 16 . . On sec ( , , 4 23

Constitutional

passed

- -24 36 - . 13 : ; 38 ) . : ( 2, , 10 sec . . sec .

,

amendments

or

,

to

paltry

,

-



of

:

,

,

.

in

the Frankfurt Democrats poor Engels writes These weak minded men during the course their generally very obscure lives had been little anything like success that they actually believed their accustomed Assembly

( 3.4 . 3 )

96

change the face of Europe. They had , from the beginning of their legislative career , been more imbued than any other faction of the Assembly with that incurable malady Parliamentary

,

cretinism

a

its

would

penetrates

disorder which

unfortunate

victims with

,

in

on

Central may have

events

incommensurable

mankind



the

,

else

is

of

,

discoveries

with

the

colonising

,

gold

armies and whatever influence upon destinies

to

some little claim nothing compared

-

,

,

Russian

,

canals

railway constructing

California

continents

new

American

revolutions

wars

,

whole



of

their house

of

,

all

to

its lar

a

of

by

,

its

history and future the solemn conviction that the whole world majority are governed and determined votes that particu representative body which has the honour count them among everything going members and that and outside the walls

hinging

at

no

commanding means One thing especially was proved write Marx and Engels that the working is

situations

in

"

the Paris Commune

,

.

obeyed

,

by

by

revolutionary that identical with being

is

to

."

2

of

it

,

be ,

may just the important question whatever that occupying moment the attention their honourable house parliamentary cretinism The alternative the realization upon

,

,

.

, 2,

,

/

,

,

/

/

:

8

:

-

.

6

,

. ; 7, .

.

,

2

. 6 : , , ,

19 16

sec

(4 )

;

)

22

-

-

13

, ): : .

.

6 7

ch

,

14

ch

,

Eighteenth

par

(

par

19

(

.

,

1869 pars 25

', .

4

the Gotha Program sec Neue Rheinische Zeitung

,

Aug

23

. 20 - :

.

Engels

Marx

.

to

Marx

10

.

)

:

,

pars

sec

,

and the

;

; 816 12 ; 18 ch ; . ch 19 . . , 13 5 ,

,

-

:

Marx

throughout

'

Critique

pars

of 36

31 4 -

41 ( .

Marx

,

12

.

,

throughout

sec

.

,

, /

ch

;

17

2

-

.

pars

34

,

Brumaire

23

Marx Engels Frankfurter Versammlung Nov 1848 pars Engels Germany Revolution and Counter Revolution throughout pars pars 15 - -6

-

2

-

9

. . 3: 16 .

pars

chs

-

:

, . 6 .

,

1

.

ch

.

,

Germany Revolution and Counter Revolution Compare Marx Engels Frankfurter Versammlung Juni 1848 throughout Marx Engels Programme der radikaldemo pars kratischen Partei pars Marx Engels Die Krisis inst 3 . 15 4 .2

Engels

par

Engels Lenin

2 -5

.

,

.

,

.

of

, :

sec

,

:

,

:

.

15

throughout

.

. 5 ,

. 3 ,

, , 4

.

15

,

the Comrades

,

Letter

to

:

-

8

S ”

.

. 1 ,

,

1

.

Lenin

,

:

19

-

14

1 4

;

,

'

ob

of

ch

pars Two Tactics Social Democracy Lenin Doklad par Ob ediniteľnom ezde sec Lenin Dissolution pars the Duma sec Lenin Constitutional Illusions pars throughout sec Lenin Marxism and Insurrection pars

( 3. 4. 4 )

97

.”

its

military

power and bureaucratic organizing and directing the revolu people Reformist socialists hope

,

of

.

,

of by

so

do

to

overcome the resistance educating only can tionary power the armed

of to

for

cannot simply lay hold of the ready -made state machinery it own purposes Elected officials who seek

class

and wield

, it

as

of

,

the center

pat

the

,

,

sorts

,

,

Engels writes

nobil

the feudal

to

paying tribute

serfs and vassals

state

already

:

production

sectors

.

of

,

estate

in

is

of

oppressed

from

capitalist

the

the decisive

all

recruited

replaced

of

an



,

ity

Originally

state

production have capitalist relations

by

replaced

been

feudal

the

,

When

feudal relations

by

.

socialism

to

for

.

.

,

transition and from such states First we shall examine the conditions for bourgeois revolution from above Second we peaceful transition shall compare with these the conditions to

terns

.S

After identifying bureaucratic administration capitalist states we can now analyze some in

power

of

of

.

5

of

.

to

,

through the moral authority overawe bureaucratic opposition suffrage through universal Marxian socialists plan smash oppressed the revolutionary violence classes

the burghers

con

one strong point after another constant struggle with nobility finally developed the and the most countries took their place directly overthrowing them rulers France England making them increasingly bourgeois and annexing

,

in

by

by

in



as

,

in

in

quered

',

,

of of

of

as

or

'

.

money

abovę

,

'

,

.

above

über

. 2 .

sec

. . .

Rezensionen Programm

,

Erfurter

,

Engels

note

3 2 2

:

in 2

.

. ' 3 , sec

Engels

pars

.

,

Compare pars

par

references

-

.

Also

property

landed

the city

Communist Manifesto 1872 par Renegade Lenin

5

/

. .2 30 1 . , , 4 ( in .5 28 - . , ). 10 1 , : 1 .5 , to . .6

. 2 .

France

Chartists

no

'

par

,

2

,

.

. , 3 ,

Marx

Kapital Band

against

Preface

par

1

3 : .4. 3 .

Marx Engels Civil War

par Marx Kautsky sec But contrast

industry

, 6:

countryside

,

against

political conditions The struggle change against the feudal nobility was the struggle in

by

bourgeoisie

a

,

struggle

,

or

?

in

.

of

as

ornamental heads the capitalist class How was this accomplished Entirely through change the economic situation which was followed sooner later voluntarily the result them

( 3 .5 .2 )

98

economy against natural economy ; and the decisive weapon of the burghers in this struggle was their economic power position , con through the development of handicraft indus stantly strengthened try, later of manufacturing

,

industry

and through

the

extension

of trade . ” While proletarian revolution precedes construction socialist economy , bourgeois revolution follows development capitalist economy .'

, during

The period preceding the bourgeois revolution

of a of

a

which

capitalist relations of production develop out of and partially replace feudal relations of production , is one of those exceptional periods " when the contending classes are so nearly balanced

mediator , acquires for a time a cer tain independence in relation to both .” The form of state charac teristic of this period is a bureaucratic monarchy that derives

power , ostensibly

state

as

its

that

of

relative independence from the balance two exploiting declining feudal landowners and rising bourgeosie

ch 4

. (

.

ch

10 31 ch

, ; 1

.

,

.

.

7 9

.

:

5 7

(

, 9) :

,

.

. . . ( 69 10 3 24 ch 12 : , , , . . 18

. ( 10 4 , . ).

. . 1 12 , (

1 ; ,

; .

.

13 , 7

ch

10

.

Ideology part

German pars

. 2 2 , , ,

sec

. . 1, 2 3 ; ;

;

.

(7 )

Lenin Compare

above

Engels

div

pars

. 1 ,

. / 1. 2 , 10 .2 ,

of

Marx

vol

Engels Verfall

pars

Peace sec

and

Also

pars

pars

.

.

, ,

, 1),

par

. , 2 ,

War

Lenin

16

2

2

. -

, , 7

par

pars

inst

part

ch 2

. . 2 , 39 2 - ,

, 2, 1

, ,

sec

par

( 9 )

, ch .

10

: 2

,

)

par

41

pars

3

; 24 , sec .

( . ch 3 . ,

ch 26

, 30

:

-1 7

.

sec

par vol Engels Anti Dühring part

above

.

in

. . .1 2 ” , . , 10 .2 “

. . 1 1 , , sec

part

div

the Soviet Government the latter part note

sec

Par

.2 .

. . 2, 1, 35.

the

. . 1, ,

;

des Feudalismus

div

ch

1

pars

Immediate Tasks references

; ( (14 -27 )

5

, - -

pars

div

32 21 )

ch

pars

-

pars

par

Manifesto part

of

sec

sec

part

Communist

Capital vol par

Criticism

.

Moralizing

Marx Engels

part

.

Ideology

German

Marx

Marx

, ,

-D

,

4 ( 23 8 . . , - . 17 20 6 . ) ) / 3. , 24 , ), 5 : : 21 .1 1 ) . , 22 . . , ( , / , 20 28 1 .

Marx

ühring part

Anti

Engels

Engels

ch

.?

,

classes

politische Liberalismus par sec Aneignung von Verbrechen subsec Privateigentum und Strafe durch Antithese note subsec Staat Engels Prussian Constitution par par und Recht Marx Moralizing Criticism par Engels Anfang pars inst ”

,

.

, 3:

:

)

18

.

. 4 ,

,

.



,



.

;

3

(

34

-

33

.

, :

.

25

. 6 ;

. 4 ,

ch

,

,

/

in

:

6 9

.

,

,

;

12

,

festo

Oesterreich pars Marx Engels Communist Mani par Germany Engels Peasant War par

.

in

part

,

des Endes

1



,



.

,

Der

par

, , 60 ;

subsec

Das Gesetz

"

subsec

( 3 .5 .4 )

99

,

writes Engels , " both in the old absolute monarchy and Bonapartist monarchy the actual power to govern lies in the hands of a special caste of army officers and state officials . In Prussia this caste is recruited partly from families in “ But "

the modern

in

,

of

an

to

.”

24

, ,

.

(

par

ch

:

,

sec

ch . . , - 3: 27

. . 3 1 , ,

, ,

France

in

3

, ,

to

(

. 12 3 ) : :

13

.

, ,

:

3 -8

-

,

Engels Germany

Marx Revolution Engels

, ,

.

:

an

20

:

to

19

-

7

.

,

,

of

,

Engels

)

10

(

1

.

:

)

34

(

. . 3 40 :

. . 3 2, , ch

.

2 ; ,

)

10

,

(

12

,

: 27

.

( 34 )

41

par

.

sec

. 2 ,

part

2

,

,

Question

,

.

Engels Housing

3 5 3

. . . .

,

pars

state

par

Capital vol

par par

the

society

3 4

Bernstein 1889

.

. 2 , 1

,

2

.

.,

par

Civil War

part

gives

sec Anti Dühring Engels Dialectics Nature Engels Verfall des Feudalismus pars Engels Aug 1883 par Kautsky Engels Feb

ch

Housing Question part par int

.

. 2 : . 1 , ,

,

)

.

2

sec

Marx

par

. 4 ,

. 7 ,

par

Revolution and Counter Revolution ary Spain inst pars Marx

ch

sec

,

,

Marx Eighteenth Brumaire

to

,

of

,

to

speak above society independence relation in

of

,

so

.

outside and appearance

all

,

its

own ranks partly from the lesser nobility with entailed estates more rarely from the higher nobility least from the bour geoisie The independence this caste which seems stand

par

Engels Germany

pars

. 3 , , 7;

par pars

Marx

1

in

,

Prussia

Dec

par

. 3 :

Neue

in

Marx Eighteenth Engels Marx

Affairs Prussia Nov 1858 par par 1858 Marx Affairs Prus

Marx

sec

par

:

,

,

the

par

'

and

par

Revolution and Counter par

Capital vol note Marx Civil War France

1859

( . 18 )

.

Marx

17

: sia

Marx Affairs 1

1

27

Brumaire sec July 1854 par

par

pars

Engels

Deutsche Reichsver

Rheinische

Zeitung

par

.

Revolution pars

Engels

2

, , . ch . ch 6 . , 1 7 , , . ,

fassungskampagne

:

8

par

pars

. 4 ,

Germany

Juli

vom

23 , : ,

:

8

. in

War

Feb

Engels Bewegungen

) , , ,

/

,

Engels

Peasant

(

Marx

pars

inst

Marx Engels Vereinbarungssitzung Marx Engels Montesquieu LVI inst par Taten des Hauses Hohenzollern

:

.

-

12

pars

pars

par

13

,

1847

,

izing Criticism von

. in . / 2 . . . 63 ; 11 , ) 13 ch 6- 9: , , : - . 7 / 66 ; , ( 3 ch 14 7, . ch , ( . 7 . , . , 12 . 2, , , , 4 - 5 , , , ; 13 . ) in , ch , , 9 . .1 . .2 : of 34 , 10 56 , . . in - , 7- : '; 35 1 4 9 , 58 , , ch : ( . ) . , : 11 . 29 4 ; , 35 ) : . sec - , . 27 : ch 3 8 . , 40 . 13 , ( : 3 . 2, , ch , (7 . , . ) . 28 3 : 3: 24 : . , to , , 7 . in 4 ; , 1 . . ch

, 3. 2

.2 , 3 .2 .4

in

of

For differences the origins and the roles the bureaucracy before and after the bourgeois revolution compare with the references Engels State Germany letter par notes above Engels Status Quo pars Deutschland sec Marx Moral

Engels

Engels

( 3.5.5 )

100

England and

century

seventeenth

In

eighteenth

in

century

fought , at the decisive point , against the basic requirements of the bourgeoisie . “ During the whole of this struggle ," writes Engels , " the political power was on monarchy

France the bureaucratic

to the

the side of the nobility , except for a period when the monarchy used the burghers against the nobility in order that the two estates

economic the nobility and

with

the monarchy again

power

,

increasing

their

itself

dangerous

grow

doing

so

allied

in

through

moment when the

,

,

might hold one another in check . But from burghers still politically powerless began

forth

called

the

In

."

.

a

of

,

in

revolution

in

England and then first France capitalist these countries the class and the class feudal land owners fight decisive civil war The petty bourgeoisie and the

bourgeois

from

.

of

pattern

the

of of

is

This

class

is

capitalist

bourgeois

revolution

below

.*

the

a

in

.

of

propertyless masses support and push forward the capitalist trans complete elimination society formation The outcome feudal political power for property land and decisive share

century Germany the bureaucratic monarchy the decisive point for the basic requirements the bourgeoisie 1870 writes Engels the fourteen and

-

a

of

-

-

six

in

East Elbian provinces

-

.

)

,

,

an

drawing

the bourgeoisie

of

Friends

of

:

, ,

)

Lenin

Lenin

Lenin Economic Con Report Central Com Economic Development

by

state functions

. 3 , :

. 5 ,

64

Lenin

26

(

,

note

44

par par

1920

par

sec

: ): ( . 56 3 ) ; , ,

. 3 . . , . 16 71 . 1, (

,

,

div

3

par

ch , .2

.

par

sec

the last passage five sentences

of

In 29

tent Narodism mittee Mar

,

,

of

of

the People part

. 3 .

the

Poles confronted twenty five millions since outgrown the old Prussian Junker feudalism

Gewalt und Oekonomie

par

living

two million

long

acquisition

(

Prussians

by

who had

, “ . . .

,

and including

",



half million

old In

.

,

at

In

nineteenth

fought

analogy

between

before the bourgeois the proletariat before

.

30 10 , , ) p . .

117

Also

.

1932

(

.

,

2

above

par

12

,

, . ch 25 . ,

,

note

Moscow

.

and the last part

vol

part

2

,

edition

. 10 .2

third

Anti Dühring

1

the

-

with

Engels

of

par

441

,

. 1 .3 3. .3 5.4

1952

.

, .p ' . s ,

of

,

revolution and acquisition state functions the proletarian revolution have been omitted from the fourth edition Compare the fourth edition Sochineniya Lenin vol USSR

( 3. 5 .6 )

101

So the very victories

of the Prussian armies shifted the

foun

entire

dation of the Prussian state edifice . Junker rule became more and intolerable , even to the government . But simultaneously

more

industrial development had

a rapid

Junkers

the struggle between bourgeoisie and

superseded

bourgeoisie by the struggle

and

between

workers ,

no

,

but

propertied

of

classes against

the the

to

class the old absolute monarchy had change completely into the form state especially devised for this Up purpose was that time the Bonapartist monarchy

. at

. . . .

Bonapartism

.

the form

of

on

by

,

in

to

of

its

of

it

of

as its

its

to

,

taking

all

well and the world remains quiet and we live long perhaps year then the 1900 we shall find that the government has actually abolished feudal institutions all

in

,

enough

Prussian

that Prussia has

last

,

all

1848

goes

at

If

1813 and continued

in

is

It



the end

modern

the abolition feudalism clear away numerous remnants

sacrifice Junker system such peculiar destiny complete then the Prussia bourgeois revolution begun this century 1808

,

of

Prussia must therefore decide feudalism

events

presupposes

which

a

Bonapartism

is

but

to

,

state

;

-

of

form

state

at

. . . .

:

semi feudal

a

still

all to

of

pressure

,

the working

,

,

protecting

of

a

matter bourgeoisie

longer

that moment however when was protecting the nobility against the pressure From

all

.

of , of

a

ed

balance

in

its

it it of

so that from domestic causes also the social foundations of the old state were completely overturned . The monarchy , slowly rotting since 1840 , had had for main condition existence the struggle between nobles and bourgeoisie which had maintain

the point where

reached

France

stood

In

Germany the capitalist

class

compromise

and

feudal

to

of

is

is

a

.

.

6

above

1874

pars

.

Germany

."

above

,

Peasant War

. to .10 5 ' 1

,

.

)

Also notes

revolution from in

bourgeois

Engels Preface 37

. -

-

34

of

the pattern

35 3 ( .5 . 36 5

This

is

an

.

decisive

,

in

avoid

is

.

-

war

order

the class

civil The petty bourgeois class neutralized the working class gradual transformation isolated The outcome feudal landed property and increasing political influence for the bourgeoisie effect

a

landowners

of

.”

in

1792

(3.5.9)

102

Our

analysis has revealed above . First relations through

conditions for the bourgeois

three

the coexistence of two kinds of period a transition in which feudal productive relations are replaced to a decisive extent by capitalist . Second is the existence of a bureaucracy sufficiently independent to balance bourgeoisie against nobility during the economic trans revolution productive

ition

.

danger

from

Third is a stable class alliance resulting from the common confronting capitalist and feudal exploiters , a united

front against the working 6

.

conditions society

is

class

.

The theory of reformist socialism for the peaceful transition from

. First

of two privately and the other

the

is

one nationalized sition period in which

coexistence

the nationalized

forth analogous capitalist to socialist sectors of the economy , sets

owned , through

sector

increased

is

a

tran

by

state

action at the expense of the private sector . Second is the existence of an elected government sufficiently powerful to initiate and con economic transformation . Third

this

from

stable

is a

class alliance

enlightenment of proletarian

the common

socialism

and petty

on

for

bourgeois producers , an electoral majority We have already outlined Lenin views

.

trol

resulting

a

in

he

.

these

,

of

's

the second and conditions Against the reformist hope for socialist argues that normally bourgeois democracies electoral majority

third

the majority cannot be won for

socialism

except through revolution

."

the first condition the social consequences

,

nationaliza

-

a

if

means that

it

this

state monopoly

,

becomes

a

monopoly



, .

of

.

.

-4

. 3 .3

.1 .

above

a

becomes

it

class

supplies the entire people Secs

progressive

depend nationalization large scale controls the state For

If

is

of

's

analysis

tion that entirely upon which capitalist enterprise

,

is

by in

be

,

he

.

be

Lenin

3 .6

to

Against the reformist belief that win elections argues that normally bourgeois democracies win state power the bureaucracy cannot controlled socialist officials but through revolutionary destroyed must action to

ary struggle

this

(

. .

)

3 6 3

103

means that the

state

. ..

directs

the

enterprise

entire

interest ? Either in the interest of landowners we have not a revolutionary democratic but

— in

whose

and capitalists : then a reactionary bureau

cratic state , an imperialist republic . Or in the interest of revolu tionary democracy : then this a step towards socialism .” It is

true that nationalization , carried out by a proletarian state , builds socialism . It is also true that nationalization , carried out by a state , supports capitalism

bourgeois

It may

.

presents

that Lenin a very abstract refutation of a very concrete argument . In fact the opposite is true . The point at issue is not the possibility of a peaceful transition to socialism seem

its

any historical circumstances , but possibility under the capitalist democracy normal circumstances Reformists argue peaceful transition under normal circumstances impossibility under these circumstances But insists that the concrete development individual states creates

of

.

he

.

its of

the possibility Lenin argues

.

of

under

re

is

It

.

To

, .

in

to

is

of

ty

be

in

of

;

he

recogni divergent from the normal and exceptional circumstances that there are combinations which peaceful transition might feasible admit the possibili peaceful transition not reformism but Marxism proclaim formism this possibility abstraction from the concrete circumstances sharply

zes

is

to

of

. It, an 3

to

,

, -

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)

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pars

, ,

-

Also

. 3 .8 .8

. 4 .

par

.

12

to

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.

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. 5 :

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Bebel

16

sec

Engels above

the revolutions

1848

Marx

and

the possibility For example

,

Marxism

.

denying

of

Statements categorically occur the literature

of

.

11

10

,

; .

Apr 1878 par Engels Bracke Engels Sozialismus des Herrn Bismarck Engels throughout Mar 1881 Bernstein

1879

of

transition

Engels par

-

19

3 6 3

. , . 1. 9

below

to

1

.6 : . -

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( 3 )

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. .

Nov

Compare

in

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par

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Fight Catastrophe and How Engels Anti Dühring part

Threatening

Lenin pars

pars

. . 2 ,

sec

. , . 2 .

3 11 6

.3

,

to

of

,

,

it . It

reformism conditions economic and political which define apply statements particular true historical situations decisively different situations under cover liberal platitudes concerning universal suffrage

peaceful

just prior

Engels write that Communist

( 3 .7 . 1 )

104

7

.

England in the eighteen - seventies

provided

combination peaceful considered

of exceptional

a

circumstances such that Marx transition to socialism a possibility in that concrete situation . Let us consider these exceptional circumstances in connection with the for

laid down .

just

three conditions

In

to

of

in

of

high

cultural level

the

political

of

the development

of

centuries

a

,

of

,

to

)

“ 1

by

)

schooled

4 , , ,

/

.

.

in

11

.

,

attained ”



can

of

existing the forcible overthrow Engels part social conditions See Marx Communist Manifesto par But the social conditions existing some twenty years later ends

only

, all

elected officials over England was still the



is

,

In

effective control writes Lenin by

be

.

A

second condition the bureaucracy 1871

, . . . by

"

. . .

liberty

the comparatively

3

trade unions

proletariat

. .; 2 )

. , . . .;

is

,

in

, :

,

of

is an

of

condition

.

electoral majority socialism the that time according Lenin the following circum stances were present the absolute preponderance workers proletarians that the population owing the absence peasantry the excellent organization the proletariat One England

in

,

.

of

in

the question

he

analyzes

no ,

be



, :

.

in

he

.

Deception

Lenin

See

he

. 17 .

. 4 ,

socialism

Yet whenever

the

terms

.

in

is

,

recognizes the specific conditions which block peaceful transition development exceptional circumstances See possible

that such

a

of

par

sec

,

People

to

peaceful development

"

of

in

at

be

.

. 3 .7

sec

,

. 4 . ,

of

peaceful transition for England Marx recognizes the possibility Speech the United States and perhaps Holland See Marx par Amsterdam Also below Similar unqualified statements can found Lenin For example 1919 the height the civil war asserts There can

13 : , ,

of

:

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-

10

.

) . . 1, 46

-

45

,

47 ch . ( 3

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.

. 1 ,

sec

,

,

pars Lenin State and Revolution sec Lenin Rene gade Kautsky pars peace possibility On the ful development for the Russian revolution during 1917 see Lenin

7

: , .

)

:

1 2

.

Marx Marx

,

Also

. 7.

,

-

,

:

11

, (

-

42 :

.

,

. , . , , . 32

,

;

,

par Left Wing Childishness Marx Labour Parliament pars

5 6

.

1 sec 2 5 7

,

:

,

, ‘,

int .

,

. . , .

3 7 1

of

Chartists

Lenin pars

14

toward the Provisional Government par Lenin Compromises pars Political Situation throughout Lenin Lenin Russian Revolution and Civil War pars Lenin Aims throughout points the Revolution Attitude

( 3.7 .3 )

105

model of

extent, without

to

a considerable excluded England

at that

, but without militarism

purely capitalist country

a

, where

,

revolution

a

.

bureaucracy even

Marx

Therefore

revolution , ready the ' -made

a people

of

time seemed possible without destruction as a prerequisite ." 2

and ,

’s

state machinery

of

,

paying the capital

the circumstances were

, ,

a

in

to

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to

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Also Engels

Lenin

7

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par

, ,

par

. .

1 3 2

the historical

Engels Preface

Right

Engels

,

of

:

22

Russia

par

Compare to

.

par

Philosophy

Communist

'

Hegel

10

-

6

of

:

.

,

( 3 )

Social Relations

1883 par

par

Proletarian pars

For

Russia

in

.

Relations Critique

2

to

,

. 5 ,

,

18

Apr

.

:

)

38

(

van Pattern

Engels

a

,

Social

Introduction

(

. . .5 . , , 3: , . sec ch , , . . 's , . 1 sec 3 . , . 5, . 6. , , , , 2 sec , . . . 1 . . , 9 42 to par

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Marx

Marx

.

Lenin

the references note above ing Childishness Lenin Left Peasant Question France and Germany sec ing Childishness sec pars Left Engels

par

90

Childishness

see

background

.

12

:

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Left Wing -

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Lenin

to

. . .

3 7 2

,

Lenin State and Revolution Apr 1871 par Kugelmann par Lenin Renegade Kautsky

' .

,

tion

par

.

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Confidential Konspekt Bakunina

. 2 ,

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Marx

Marx

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Marx London Workers Meeting par Communication div

throughout

Charte

to

In

."

4

its

to



in

, .

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of

,

a

,

a

is

to

Every genuine revolution combination both Engels brings social revolution writes that new reorganize society class into power and permits that class capitalism own image the transition from socialism

ture

usually

satisfied

a



sometimes

,

political rule

seventies

radical transfer radical alteration economic struc

refers sometimes

to

revolution

a

all

consider

term

the eighteen

three conditions equally likely to

The

England

in

situation

In

Marx

did

of

."

organized manner the concrete

to

,

to

impel the capitalists providing they were bought off peacefully and pass over socialism cultured

submit

to

think

of at

“ it

,

as

such

to

was perfectly admissible giving them ransom

,

Lenin ists well

, if . . .

In

of

the

The last condition is peaceful nationalization of the economy . England exceptional situation that time writes

( 3 .7 . 5 )

106

peaceful transfer of political rule requires first two conditions

:

ive

bureaucracy

control

over

an

.

only of the

satisfaction

electoral majority for Peaceful

,

socialism

effect

and

of

alteration

economic

also of the third condition : buying structure requires satisfaction capitalists off the . If the first two are satisfied but not the third ,

there ful.

be

can

socialist transition which

a

lawful but not peace

is

peaceful transfer of politi peaceful alteration of economic structure . “ If, cal rule and England example the United States the working class were Congress majority could legally Parliament win

Marx

for its

of

,

it

in

, by

one

'

a

violenť

.

with the old order

the American Civil War and rebels against the lawful



as

as

.

of

up

be

into

."

5

would

be in

(

force it

If

turned

whose interests were bound

French Revolution

the

could

, by

of

'

movement

those

way

the

the extent that such laws and institutions had been society Nevertheless previous development

they were crushed

power

or

or

in

the peaceful

standing

institutions

the

established

by

,

development

revolt

laws and

to

end

to

an

put

)

,

in

a

to

clearly distinguishes between

par

,

,

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:

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.

)

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and par

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of (3 ) :

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.

the Zemstvo Lenin Persecutors Lenin Lenin Two Tactics pars Europe Slogan par Lenin How the Capitalists United States Importance Gold Lenin Are Scaring the People pars pars par Lenin Publicist 1922 Lenin Notes Compare also pars Report Eleventh Congress

Manifesto 1890 par sec

to

in

he

,

revolu

no

revolutionary for

In

;

.

non

-

its

.

the

in

is

its

a

of

legal continuity with greater degree which had tionary predecessors than did armed opponent periods government lawful absolute sense no

is

. , 13 .

,

.

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in

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3 7 5

Hyndman par Also Marx p ar Party p ar Lenin Mistakes Our Dec 1880 absolute sometimes defined sometimes Lawful government comparative terms The examples Marx cites indicate that comparative sense During the French Revo using the expression lution and the American Civil War the lawful government was that

Marx

Sozialistengesetz

govern

( 3. 7. 7 ) England

the eighteen seventies economic structure distinctly

likely than peaceful transfer

of

where the effected entirely by peaceful and legal means

.

lawful and peaceful

to

be

."

'

'

a

this event only the political transfer would

In

revolution

pro slavery

be

add that

submit without

certainly never

to

he

.

He

the English ruling classes rebellion this peaceful and legal

hardly expected

-

to

forgot

is

.

,

in

be

country

at of

,

,

Engels writes

political

rule Marx reached the Europe England that least the inevitable social revolution might



conclusion

only

,

less

-

that

Marx considered peaceful alteration

in

Engels testifies

for

107

The economic alteration would

both

lawful but

.

not peaceful

,

in

It

.

of

,

,

by

.

8

Some twenty years after the period we have been discus England followed the other major powers entered the imperialist stage capitalism was this later period that sing

to

.

in

of

its

in

.

ism

But

of

peaceful transition program social England this period the exceptional situation the seventies no longer existed The new circumstances resulting from developed

reformism

wiped out the conditions which peaceful transition possibility

imperialism

for

.

a

consider

to

Marx

of

the development had led

extended

in

In

.

exploits and dominates the large groups into voting for capital increase the proportion the of

through

large

whole nations

,

to

.

Exclusion

in

itself deception

facilitated

of

In

is

scale

imperialist metropolis

of

is

ism

metropolis

politics

an

the

participating

in

from

which

unprecedented

an

develop

on

italism

groups

.

of

of

an

Take the problem electoral majority socialism imperialist stage capitalism the this period the exclusion and deception which normally secure electoral majorities for cap

.

or

,

to

On

. . 8 1 . -8 . .

1886

,

-

24

of 29 :

par

,

Marx Capital

'

to

,

Engels Preface

. -

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. 1 .4 -5 , .18 ,

;

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6

( 7 ),

2

of

,

.

,

:

.

. . .

3 7 6

7

,

in

of

a

,

summarily ment fights civil war without suspending violating abolishing any the laws inherited from pre revolutionary times See Engels Marx Civil War the United States pars Marx Aug 1862 pars Marx Criticism American Affairs throughout Marx Abolitionist Demonstrations pars the legality compare secs general problem above

( 3. 8 . 2 )

108

- proletarian strata , and expanded through corruption of the better - paid sections of the working class . On corruption of proletarians in the imperialist metropolis, belonging

non

to

writes : Economically

Lenin

" 1)

the difference

sections of

that

is

oppressing nations receive crumbs the super profits which the bourgeoisie through these nations obtain oppressed nations Further intensive exploitation the workers

.

of

of

of

in

class

of

working

the

population

a

in

of

'

'

to

a

,

of

,

in

oppressing nations larger more economic data show that percentage oppressed workers become skilled workers than larger percentage rise nations the aristocracy the working

of of

Intellectually

spiritually

in

oppressed

or

or

to

that

the

school and

in

of

)

“ 3

the difference oppressing nations are invariably trained workers everyday life ignore the workers despise in

privileged

nations

.

the workers

of

.

in

)

is

oppressing nations occupy

comparison with

spheres

is

in

many a

life the workers

position

that

of

political

of

)

“ 2

Politically the difference

of

(

of

in

a

To

.

.

is a

oppressing class This fact certain extent the workers robbing the nations share with their bourgeoisie the business oppressed workers and the mass the population nations

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Imperialismº par munist International point Lenin Preface throughout 1920 Lenin Tezisy Doklada Taktike

( 3 .8 .7 )

109

Second , take the problem of bureaucracy in the imperialist stage of capitalism . “ In particular , " writes Lenin , “ imperialism the epoch of bank capital , the epoch of gigantic capitalist monopo capitalism lies , the epoch of the development of monopoly into ing

state monopoly

-

capitalism

displays an

extraordinary

strengthen the

in

inten but

of

to

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of

social

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the state

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has greatly accelerated and intensified the conversion monopoly capitalism capitalism into state monopoly The

1917

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social welfare monopoly capital

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an

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hindering Government action less and less competition more and more active direction

.

the state

nationalization the imperialist competitive monopoly The transition from increasing emphasis the positive role an

results

.

capitalism

capitalism

in

stage

of

of

,

."

the freest republican countries Finally take the problem

of

in

,

of

in

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unprecedented growth the state machinery military apparatus bureaucratic and connection with sified repression the proletariat not only monarchies

18

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Proletarian Revolution par Lenin Renegade Kautsky sec par Lenin Tasks the Second Congress par the Communist International point Lenin

110

( 3 .8 . 8 )

of

tries are converting themselves — we speak tary convict prisons for the workers ." 4 “

' rear

mili

- into

fact ,” Lenin remarks of controlled economies ,

of control reduces to the issue of who controls is, which class is controlling and which class is being economy , State monopoly capitalism is a controlled pre competitive economy many respects from

the entire question

, that controlled .” in

for

. be

,

an

of

described

in an

in

,

the construction transformed this economy can imperialist state under the circumstances But analyzing the problem electoral Lenin

by .

socialism

of

.

,

its

,

ist

state power

as

long capitalism But the capitalist class retains state capital controlled for the protection this economy will working exploitation not class attains abolition After the

power

of

of

different monopoly

the

whom

be as



As a matter of

their

bureaucracy the proletariat can and the problem the capitalist attain state power only through forcible destruction state machinery through revolution from below

. 1 .

,

, 17 )

20

pars

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:

. 16 - .6

, ch .

United States

,

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State and

,

.

.5

Revolution 1917 par par Lenin Imperial

to

Europe Slogan 33 )

Preface

43 ( , 32 - of

ism

Also Lenin

Lenin

,

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12 in

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,

. .

.

3 8 5

in

:

-

(

:

3

. , on 5,

,

:

,

24

.

4 -5

.

( 3 -4 )

4 , . 6 , 3.8 .5 . 2 . . -4 , . 15 . ,

Chernovoi

5

;

point

9

-

40

.

ch

,

Lenin par Lenin Turn sec Proekt Tezisov Lenin Speech the Political Situation World Politics par May 1917 pars sec Lenin State and Revolution pars note below Also references pars

. , , 3, .

:

13

,

: :

.

through through

Also par

.

?

throughout

above

to

Fight

It , ,

Tasks the Pro Disorganization

, . sec 10 . . 7 11 , ,

. 4 ,

,

, 3 . 5 .2

of 16 16

,

;

,

State Power sec

Lenin Lenin

,

:

- -

pars

12 14

. .

pars

Lenin

-

11

-

. 1 .9 .6

Compare pars

12

to

.

.

, ,

.

:

26

3

-

.

Lenin

5 6

.

;

)

16

-

-

, ‘

.

3 . 6 .3

2

.

pars

out Lenin Can the Bolsheviks Retain Left Wing Childishness out Lenin above

to

of

:

2

v

. 2 15 , ,

,

,

par

div

point

1879

Amerike

Threatening Catastrophe and How throughout secs secs

10

,

(

15

Apr

10

Vyborov 1

,

letter

Lenin

-

, . :

pars

: ; .4 ,

sec

letariat throughout

Tactics

18

to

,

to

Danielson

our Revolution 10

in on

Letters

.

,

.

23

:

( 2 )

1

.

,

:

Marx

Znachenie Prezidentskikh

,

,

sec

to

throughout

It,

Fight Lenin Threatening Catastrophe and How par Engels par Compare Marx 1865 Marx Feb par Kugelmann Schweitzer Oct 1865 Marx Feb par sec the Gotha Program 1868 Marx Critique

( 3 .8 . 10 )

111

to Lenin : “ The political superstructure of the , economy new of monopoly capitalism ( imperialism is monopoly democracy toward political capitalism ) , represents a turn from reaction . Democracy corresponds to free competition . Political According

reaction

corresponds

politics

imperialism

. . . . Both

monopoly

to

strives

the

toward

foreign and domestic of democracy ,

in

violation

toward reaction .” Lenin agrees with the reformists that

the epoch

in

18

.

. 7 ,

;

ch

:

34

-

27

,

.

19

,

) -

(

-

29

,

3

sec . .3 5 . ,

Also

Otvet Kieus

pars

, ,

28

-

(

)

Lenin

Marxism Socialism

.

pars

24 17

.

36 9

13

(

-

43

.

Caricature and the Split

in

Lenin

instead

,

10

-

7

11

, . 6 ,

ch

. 9 ,

pars

of Marxism pars

,

.

:

12

Imperialism

komu Lenin

.

ch

;

( 9 )

16

,

par

,

.

,

Imperialialism

( 5 of 7)

Lenin , Caricature

.. .

3 8 6

Lenin par

democracy

abolish

,

will fight to

capitalism

sec : 11 ), .

capitalism of imperialism comes into conflict with democracy . They disagree as to whether monopoly capitalism will peacefully , being democracy by submit to abolished or whether monopoly

par

the state remains

.

the capitalists

See pars

.

Its

of

.

effective control over the

by

For the

turns primarily

peacefulness

the other two conditions and unresisted expropriation

satisfaction

,

socialism

of :

upon

bureaucracy

for

.

electoral majority

of

an

of

ism

for

to

for

the form

,

of

as

So

bourgeois democratic monopoly capitalism the conditions lawful transition from social peaceful are not identical with the conditions transition The lawfulness the transition turns primarily upon the attainment long

highly

,

its

,

in

.

he

an

,

.



concrete

developed

be

.

. .

3 7 5 6

above

with

-

imperialist cases analyzed Lenin bureaucracies and partially corrupted working classes argued that the transition could neither peace Suppose for ful nor lawful But possibilities alter with circumstances imperialist state bourgeois democratic example form and with states

to

its

is

a

of it

to for

,

Marx

.

,

.

29

:

(9 )

par

.

,

1869

1

to

:

( )

Dec

.

Engels

10 5

.

to

lawful but not peaceful Compare Engels Marx Kugelmann Marx Nov 1869 pars 1

par

.

, to

5 7

.

Oct 1869 Marx

;

24

transition which

is

's

;

an

.

of



the

a

,

to

peasantry were out lose domination over other nations and suffer economic consequences without losing democratic insti tutions These circumstances would materially affect the likelihood electoral majority for socialism and this concerete situation fully consistent with Lenin principles assert the possibility

Confidential

112

( 3. 9. 1 )

. Our

the problem of peaceful transition to socialism , in terms of the more general problem of the connection capitalism between and democracy , seems to have resulted in a

We end with the

parasitic

decaying capitalism

in

of

of

capitalism alist states protection Part the explanation lies

the best

is

thesis that

imperi

requires abolition democracy pointing out that imperialism

.

for

capitalism

democracy

that

is

with the thesis

began

in

. We

political shell

of

paradox

of

analysis

.

9

of

in

.

of

,

its

a

is

It

.

,

social system which has come conflict with the conditions for own development among them economic competition and political democracy The rest explanation pointing through the lies out that the whole period into

as

providing

is

.

,

art .

to

,

5

to

:

6

'

to

.

,

:

.

,

. 6 , :

,

,

.

. 1 .

par

countries

the

compare February the

in

. 4 ,

Russia between

pars

.

,

Socialism

sec

,

in

v

,

,

Taktike to

prospects

in

the

Con

Lenin Angliiskie Sporu Konstitutsionnyi Krizis

peaceful transition socialism independence from imperialist domination

discussion

It

is

to

.

8

,

, :

24

:

29

:

-

. 9 :

, ,

. 22 3

. .

(6 ) o

Preface

Engels Amerikanische par Feb 1893

and the Split

Tezisy Doklada

Bebel

par Engels

1884

2

the

)

-

:

29

of 24

(

.

an

: 10

, to

Imperialism

Lenin

Nov

Engels

Danielson

: .

7

.

,

par

Meyer and

Engels

par

1885

also

Standard

for

the prospects

pars

for

, ,

Lenin

of

's

1894

Avstralii

Lenin

which win their Lenin

Mar

par ,

21 V

: 14 : ,

)

29

-

19

.

, :

43

On (

23 -

.

4

Lenin Anglii par

. 6 . :

,

of

,

par

Sorge

to

Engels

Feb

par

3

:

(6 )

.

1886

the Working Class 1892 Engels Präsidentenwahl par

Marx

Kautsky

Engels

Feb

3

-

Kelley Wischnewetzky dition

26

17 )

11

Marx

bourgeoisie

Engels Labour Aug 1881 par

ischnewetzky

-W

to

Kelley

rule

-

. . 2, 1 -9 ( . 5 -

.

,

2 3

1883

pars

an

,

: .

Engels

. -11

.

30

Aug Engels

pars

pars

12

9

,

Communication Vogt Apr 1870

for the 21

is

.

government best suited

pars

the best political shell democracy the form

true that parliamentary div

of

capitalism

It

more possibilities than that

for

.

It

is

.

as

of

their coexistence the connection between capitalism and democ racy has involved conflict harmony well The democratic movement wider than the bourgeois democratic movement has

to

in

Marxism

sec

.

Caricature

,

Lenin

,

,

.

)

see

of

.

small countries 23

in

(

25

par

.

6

,

socialism

3 .6 .3

of

,

and October revolutions which references are given last part note above On the prospects for peaceful transition

( 3. 9. 2 )

113

democracy is the form of government best the proletariat From bourgeois democracy

above

.

See par

. 0 .2 .2

. . .

3 9 1

. .

reformist socialists borrow their illusions revolutionary socialists build their power

In

.

the rule

of

suited

for

true that revolutionary

proletarian democracy

CHAPTER FOUR

the actual relations

,

critique

of

of

the Marxian explanation

fail

recognize these relations

the

by

are

,

widespread

capitalist

between

its

is

the other part capitalist society

:

capitalist democracy

ure

in

of

and democratic institutions

part

only

is

analysis

to

.

1

of

Its

IDEOLOGY AND ALIENATION

of

literature the adjective

ideological

of

.

a

central task

is

these delusions

the

Marx

ideology

a

wider

,

,

.”

"



'.

'

change

of

as

With the

us

Marx writes

"

the noun

ideology

has

The state writes Engels the first ideological power over mankind

reference than presents itself

to

Marxian



.

of

exposure

theory In

ian

through

of

,

in

,

of

.

for what they The delusions fostered characteristic features capitalist economy capitalist the and the state are not corrected capitalist culture but elaborated Criticism this culture

.

or

of

of

In

is

"

:

the economic foundation the whole enormous superstructure more less rapidly transformed considering such transformations one must always distinguish

,

of

between the material transformation the economic conditions production which can be determined with the precision natural 114

( 4 .1. 2 )

115

, and

the legal, political , religious , aesthetic , or philosophic al - in short , ideological — forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out. " The basic idea expressed in this passage , according to Lenin , is that " social relations divided are

science

ideological relations the former

on

of

wide

a

to

theories



is

'

'

."

to

both theories and institutions ideology applied only The noun

by to

a

superstructure

adjective

The latter merely constitute All three writers apply the

.

and

. . ."

material

into

to

;

,

.

,

ideology

is



,

every

historically

of

In

Marx and knowledge

the usage

delusion

.

from

by

,

,

-

,

the

People

,

of

:

19

.

Critique

Marx

of

:

a

.

,

4

he

.

to

.

set



.

so

in

is

,

ch

,

.,

Friends

deludes

part

.

)

to

?

,

be

in

Lenin

,

:

-

10

, 6

.

. 2 ,

;

sec

( 3 )

. 5 ,

ch

is

. 2 ,

,

to

as

4

pars

One Step

.

pars

.

, 3



for

(

5

,

Ideology part pref par

.

,

Economy

.,

,

/

"

ideological view

)

of

Marx Engels German Political

, ,

of

/

,

,

:

.

Lenin Two Tactics Social Democracy Compare Marx Engels Communist Manifesto

:

) ).

44 11

Marx Critique “

note

par

17

, 3

, .

17

( (

43 12

par

-

,

, . 11 ) .

par

.

sec 1

, .

, . .

1

otherwise this

37

48 (

.

:

, , 12

par

read

par

Lenin

. 4 :

, ,

.

4 .1 .1

.

,

3 2

sec

par

thinker

Consequently

process

writes indeed

Materialism and Empirio Criticism sec Compare the references Marx and Engels note ideology see Lenin What On Marxism Done

4 25 .1 . ( 2

,

1

.

4

ch .1 . .

.

ch

Feuerbach pref

such

invert

The real forces which

error

Lenin

below

Forward

2 ism 3 ”

by

Engels

Economy

par

part

ideological

an

not

Political

par

remain unknown

be

in

motion

would

that

consciousness

a

but with him

is

"

,

of

is

,

.

's

,

in

in

their sense not Lenin theory which reflects reality incorrectly ing the actual relations thought and being Ideology Engels produced the called thinker consciously use the term

Ideology

"

2

as

. .. "

an

,

)

,

to

every scien the case that for example with religious ideology

objective truth there corresponds Engels ideology differs from science

We shall

to

,

by



is

contrasted

,

(

as

,

it

conditioned but tific ideology

he

,

word writes unconditionally

a

In

.

ideologies



's

,

a

of

,

theories correct and incorrect Lenin incorrect specific kind theories Marx and Engels According usage some scientific theories including Marxism Lenin are variety

ideal

(4 .1 .4 )

116

the

that since all activity also grounded

him

analysis

does this

a

Indeed

on

.

thought

seems

it

;

of

is

because thought

course by

matter

independent

to

of

source which

as

a

he for

himself with counterfeits , appearances . . . . He works with mere thought material , which he accepts without examination as pro duced through thought ; and he does not search more remote

is

it

. of

inverting the relations

conscious

and abstract concrete The clearest illustrations Engels Marx and can found their critique

of

in

be

?

to

by

concrete

of

meant

abstract

to

by

.

unconscious provided

is

What

2

to

unconscious and the relation

to

of

,

ed

."

of

,

in

is

mediated last thought This error results from the inversion two interconnect relations between thought and being the relation conscious

.

Hegel

,

to

,

is

an

of

,

of

is

the human

."

and translated

in

head

the external appearance nothing true The conceptual

transposed

,

than the material

the

merely

to

hold the converse

other

independent subject

.

Reality

be

.

reality

conscious unconscious Marx thinking which under the name

transforms into

even

1

.

the Idea

I of

creator

'

the Idea

is

he

"

‘ :

of

of

On inverting the relation For Hegel the process

writes

1 . , , . . to 1 div , . 1 3 -5 . 1 . . ; (4 .pp , . ). " 2 . 41 -3 . , 1 -8 42 . , 1, 2 ; , , . 1 ‘ ch 1 ( . . , 2 div . . ) ch : 10 1 57 1 / , ; .

1

through

obs

Dec

Marx

par

1861

Capital

Engels Vorarbeiten note throughout note

Anti

par

pars

Engels

to

pars

vol

zum

: . 4 ,

,

1

pars

22 ch

par

sec

sec

. : . 1- ; , 4 6 , ;

par

1861

( 9 )

to

Philosophy Engels Marx

Der humane par

subsec

, .

part 2

par

Also Marx part

3

1 div , , . . 1 2 ch ; , . . 2 sec 1, , .

14

, 6; 3

pars

, , , , ch . ch 3 . 3 : . , 4

. 1 ,

1893 par

div

Schmidt

below

Also

par

. 4 .

. 4 ,

).

22

(

17

ch

-

;

, .

par

1 5

pars

9

1873

. ,

. 2 ,

;

ch

'

Capitaľ

13

par

.

Preface

to

par

Marx

. .

note

July

40

:

.

,

to

.

; , of

.

.

11 1

,

, )

par part

to 9 , , . , 8 . , .pp. . ch . . 1 39 3 , - ,

Dec

Feuerbach 4 2 4

.

-

,

1890

4 2 1

27

Also

part

note Anti Dühring part Engels Feuerbach

Oct

Engels

sec

5

, .. . 1- , 13 ) 3 . ', , :

(

15

Engels

Dühring Engels pars

Poverty

.

obs

Marx

sec

par

pars

to

out

Marx

, ,

:

(

; 52 )



(

Sankt Bruno Liberalismus

Mehring

Ideology

6 -8

, .. .

4 1 3

Engels

Engels German

(4. 2. 3 )

117

On inverting the relation writes : “ Logical schemata can

of abstract apply only

to to

concrete, Engels forms of thought .

But the question here concerns only forms of being of the external world ; and thought can never create these forms by itself but

the external world . With this , however , the whole relation is inverted . The principles are not the starting point of the inquiry , but final result they are not applied history nature and human but abstracted from them Nature and the human realm are not regulated these principles instead they accord with nature the principles are correct only and history This the only materialistic view the matter Dühring opposite Herr view idealistic stands the thing com

,

,

.”

a

,

that

,

as

a

in

in

a

as

,

of

our thought

concrete unity

is , is

"

.

of

The concrete

many characteristics

appears therefore

synthesis

thought

merely

thinking

,

,

way

con

self absorbed

of

operating

into error

self coordinating For the method

of

product

Hegel fell

-

. of . . . - .

the

reality

spontaneously

advancing

is

it

of

is a

a

in

as

. . . .

:

in

as

in

a

concrete

grasped

no

is

to

which the and reproduced concrete our minds means the process that produces the concrete The whole appears thought whole product our heads the

concrete

it

.

of

2

,

a

's

is

,

it

to

to

unconscious

observation and conception

abstract

:

of

,

is



,

,

,

to

of

it

Hegel

the product starting point result and not reality and the starting point the starting point

.

of

is

a

of

process

sidering

as by

conscious aggregate

an

is

it

differences

although

Marx

is

of

because

from

the

its

on

abstract

error concerning the relation concrete which renders plausible his error concerning

It

the

of

world from According

also

and constructs real world out ideas schemata phantoms existing somewhere outside just like Hegel eternity

head

categories

the relation

as

so

in

is

.

's

of

pletely

out

far

by

.

,

:

to

from

its

them

in

must derive

.

below

or

,

Also

the

. .

Also note

4 2 4

.

-

. 2 .

,

as

3

par

1 8

. .

pars

as

,

ch

.

. 4 1 , ,

part ch

3 6

pars

- , ;

Anti Dühring

.

Engels part

, , ch . 3 , -

,

same work

1

. . .

4 2 2

-

of

a



,

in

which grasps the world the only way possible for think way that differs from the artistic the religious the practical minded grasping long this world But we occupy

brain ing

( 4 . 2. 4 )

118 the

,

did before outside our heads

real subject

its

it

exist

in

only speculatively , theoretically

it

as

to

continues

,

our brains with

independ

what they and being

thought

relations between

.

the inversion

by

by

and Engels illustrate

criticisms Marx

these

mean

of

In

."

ence

,

.

from

-

by

his

.

to

by

in

fact derived

of as to

of

as

,

are

.

that reality Hegel inverts the ignoring the non mental conscious unconscious which theoretical investigation actually returns He substi

tions which relation reality

to

of

Hegel inverts the relation ignoring the abstract concrete concrete reality from which theoretical investigation actually starts He substitutes the starting point his inquiry abstrac

-

,

of

,

Idea

into the Absolute

.*

tracks return

of

inverting

,

the relation abstract concrete and ends with inverting the relation conscious unconscious they normally call ideological The reverse pattern which starts to

to

,

.

,

of

,

,

of

,

to

obs Engels

Marx Poverty Phil Capital Marx Preface

, : . :

21

20

-

3 8

.

.

pp

7 -9

:

17

-

. , 1 , , . . 14 . 3 5 , ,

sec

on

. 4 ,

ch

ch

)

, , :

13

(

14

.

7 -8

. ; 56 : , .

-

.

,

pp

,

:

below

.

-6

pars

. 4 .3 .2

Compare

,

ch

.,

.

.

1

to

.

-15

,

on

,

.

to

of

,

Engels

. , 1 ,

pars Ueber die Dialektik Dühring Engels par Anti int Dialectics pars Engels Feuerbach pars Nature Engels Schmidt Nov 1891 pars Lenin Konspekt Gegelya pref com first edition com book pars Lenin Materialism and Empirio Criticism 1873

par

par

throughout

,

sec

: . / 6 :

. : 4 ,

. . 1 8 , ,

osophy

ch

, .2 . , 3 , . ch , . 2 ch , 18 . . 2 ( sec 5 , . ), 23 1 ) , ; , :

-P

,

sec

. .

. .

Political Economy

below

.

to

the Critique

Compare Marx Economic hilosophical Manuscripts throughout Marx Engels Heilige Familie sec

throughout

sec

note

Also

4 2 4

.

-

1 2

.

4 .2 .4

(

5

,

3

man

Introduction

(2 )

,

Marx

.3 .

. 3 4 , 2. sec

pars

ch

starts with

.

of

of

Marx and Engels analyze two main patterns inversion exhibits wide range variation The pattern

which

of

which

which

from

escape

a

.

3

of

each

mysticism

no

's

den

:

to a

that lion

of

to

the inanity

to

as

.

of

so

vism

by

,

,

of

inquiry the mental process the subject matter thought develops for the non mental process which the object thought develops And step the first leads the second subjecti the second leads third flight from the paradox tutes

which

( 4 . 3. 1 )

119

with

inverting the relation

of conscious

with

inverting

of abstract

the relation

unconscious

to

,

concrete

to

." the narrative Engels

and

the be

to

of

.

of

Marx

spirit

history can

,

,

conditions

of

rulers

ideas

from

illusions

history

.

in

of

'

their empirical apprehended

,

,

foundation

and

,

self distinctions

.)

-

are

,

by

,

as

with

as

(

'.

is

This one another through because merely ideas they thought distinctions made ed

-

as

one accomplishes the Idea

prove order into this rule ideas among the successive ruling ideas and this apprehending them self determinations possible because these ideas really are connect

;

connection

by

.

mystical

an

One must bring

“ 2 a

motives under empirical recognize the rule and

,

these actual

of

material individuals

empirical

with

so

ruling

or

.

“ 1

of

:

broken down into the following three steps One must separate the ideas

the ideologi

on

history

in

find

in

of

those which

in

's

of

is the

march the world According establishing the hegemony

God

process

set

An important family of theories constructed

,

call fetishistic

cal pattern

and ends normally

they

'—

the first pattern

or ,

-

'

the

in

ideologies

are

fit

theories

-

of '

a

But

of

. 4 .1 .4

patterns

both

above

.

par

defined

a

, it

of

Theories

. . .

4 3 in 1

to

',

"

.

3

To

of

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Anti Dühring

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false statements

.

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call such

to

not assert that they consist that study such theories worthless for acquiring knowledge See Marx Engels German Ideology part pars par Marx Engels Communist Manifesto part Capital 1873 pars Engels Marx Preface

entirely

grotesque

head

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on

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far more wonderful than

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wooden brain table turning ever was

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out

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121

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tion

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as

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capitalist societies class relations between producers pro exchange relations between factors

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entering into relations with one another and with men the commodity world with products the human hand inversion the fetishism commodities

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men which here assumes for them the fantastic form relation things analogy we must turn between order find the misty regions religious products the world There the human independent beings head appear endowed with life their own

,

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tion mystified

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produc between labour power and the means According capitalist accumulation Marx The

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endanger the continual reproduc continually increasing scale

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could seriously the capitalist relation be

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tion

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which combines scientific with vulgar economics ideological which Compare Marx Engels Heilige Familie par sec Poverty Philosophy pars sec classical

elements

. , , . sec . 1 ,

ideological throughout

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part

3

connection

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2 3 3 -4 20 in

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:

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in

.

as

religions

capitalism

of

,

of of

of

treated pre Christian

crete

is

these economists much self productive capitalist nature labour itself Pre social production they treat much the Church Fathers consciousness

evident necessity

forms

it

of

the bourgeois

to

on

.

,

of

a

to

's

clearly written that they that product value Forms which belong production mas social formation where the process production seem ters men instead men mastering the process

( 4 .4 .1 ) 4

123

.

Thinking which starts by combining

different ways the

in

inversions of the actual relations of conscious to un conscious and abstract to concrete ends by combining in different ways the complementary delusions of mysticism and formalism . complementary

Marx

and Engels devote more

than

half their theoretical writing

of rival theorists, mostly philosophers or economists. Their critical technique , in addition to exposing errors of fact and logic , consists in laying bare the specific combination of mystical critiques

to

formalist elements in each theory they examine . The dialectical method , as they practise it, is a systematic search for the concrete ." It is an over-simplification , particularly misleading where the and

culture of capitalism

Critique of Political Economy ,

(

sec

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. 16 . . 3 ) . . ch , ; 17 2 , sec 3 2 . . , , , ch . . ch 3 49 33 . , , . ( 19 2 19 ( , 10 . 1, . 31 - 17 ; ) ; 2 11 ) ch , , . 46 31 ch . ( , 15 . ( . 2, 89 . ( ) . 1), 27 ) 47 , , . ; 20 13 12 ; ), 3 sec , sec . . 14 ch ; . : 1, 4 . . 1 . , 23 6 : -5 , : ( . 11 ; . 21 7 , 4; ) . , , 15 , 1 . , ch 3 sec , . , ( . 16 . 1 48 ) , , ch . ; 14 ; , 9 , ( ch . . 15 . . ) 2 ; , , 3, . 5, ; 16 1,

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critiques

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such

,

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Poverty

of

For

see Marx Kritik Engels Kritik der

,

throughout

,

,

see

.

sec

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;

philosophische Manuskripte throughout

, -

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.

secs

sec

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,

. 1 ,

counterpart For the formative Philosophical Manuscripts Economic man throughout throughout Marx man ch

,

,

,

),

4

.

sec

Oekonomisch

;

their

throughout For the most important single passage exemplifying this critical method literature Marx

in

,

1

Marx

Feuerbach

Marxian Capital vol period see Marx

out

, .

, , ,

in

Engels

see

throughout

Nationalökonomie their maturity

thought

of

Hegelschen

der

,

the formative period Rechtsphilosophie

in

Engels

,

-

.

. . .

4 4 1

of

15

an

,

:

,

11

-

.

. 7 ,

pars

1

Capital 1873 pars Marx Preface Compare also Engels Anti Dühring part par Engels Danielson Okt 1888 par For examples such critiques written Marx and sec

through

( 4 . 4 .2 )

124

tration of these of the relation ideological

themes

of

. One

conscious

. Nor

pattern

,

cannot equate mysticism unconscious ,

to

,

one equate formalism

can

inversion

and theories of the inversion

of

set

the relation of abstract to concrete , and theories of the fetishistic pattern . Each of the two main patterns exhibits both inversions and both illusions : they differ in the order and emphasis with

of

of

.

5

by

ideolo

and

law

of

.

What

the the

,

economics

."

,

dictatorship and democracy and exploitation and exchange

its

the

politics its

of

formalism

surface

maximizes as

and

reflect

capitalism

; ;

mysticism

its

.

is

,

in

dig beneath

of

of

the interpenetration

the culture

of

is

interpenetration

Marx and Engels

the basic tensions these that

of

to

interpenetration

of

conflicts critiques

expose

The

,

politics through

A

.*

of

the critiques

,

diversity

show

Bourgeois

striking characteristic class cultures capitalist cultures particular the profusion Starting from their false alternatives this

of

,

in

to

of

the will general and and complexity

power

Christianity



humanism

social theorists obscure the economic foundations continuous debate between ideologists the rule gists

of

in

in

ourgeois

of

petty

-b

abstractions

the

replacing the revelations

of

with

formalism

to

mysticism

,

.

of

of

in

to

.

of

organize a common errors Proudhon shifts emphasis mysticism the final economics from formalism locating the abstractions classical economics the consciousness religion from Providence Feuerbach shifts the final emphasis they

which

characteristics

individual

produced

consciousness

in

,

below

by ,

,

Feuerbach

.

, .

above

Marx

,

:

throughout par Engels

4 5

-4 .

8

-

. 1 .7

secs

social

controlled

throughout

, . . 1 , . , 3 :

.

2

.

;

19

,

ch 28 .

to

an

1846

and

.

Compare

. 2 .5 -9 , 3 .1

. . .

4 4 5

he ,

.

of

whose members are

societies

Marx Annenkov Dec Philosophy epigraph sec Engels Aug 1846 Marx throughout Compare secs above

. 3 4 4 4 .4 , .4 . 4 .3 . .4 . of 2. .

Poverty

individual consciousness

, .

structure typical

in

the characteristics

As

,

or

of

to

refer

ch

of

the ideological inversions together with the characteristics social structure producing these inversions Marx analyzes his theory estrangement alienation uses them these terms

(4 . 5 . 1 )

125

of controlling , the

instead

of their collective activity .

consequences

in

ers

In such societies the unintended consequences of human actions confront the actors as alien and coercive powers : men live as strang

critique

humanist

has

his an

,

,

because they

which

is

,

are themselves

of

,

inverted consciousness the world Religion inverted world

sub

the

of

,

of

is

.

is

.

.

produce religion

This state and this society

an

an

of

or

man when his actual self has not yet been discovered already been forgotten But man not abstract essence sisting outside the world Man the world men his state society

es

of

, by

not

does

and self reliance -

is

religion

the self consciousness

-

“ is

of

the at

religion

that man makes

Indeed religion

-r

.



The basis

, of

its

of of

his

in

.

,

he

,



writes

his career religious

origins already developed anti eligious criti

earthly

Hegel

the outset explanation

of

.

of

terms the humanist successors

consciousness

cism

materialist

class society

Stating his theoretical program starting point Marx takes for

make man

'

'

religious belief into

a

a

developing critique

of

."

in

in

by

.

to

'

to

in

change and situations they are increasingly compelled powerless control The terms alienation and trangement had been used Hegel and his other connections successors Marx gave them this specific meaning the course creasingly

a

Economic Philosophical Manuscripts throughout Marx Engels Heilige Familie pars Engels Feuerbach pars

-7

Theses

Bauer

. 3 ,

div



True Socialists par

. 1 ,

in

Manu

Kritische Randglosse par No sec “

.

. 4 ,

ch

,

and Edgar

the

,

Marx Engels

On the concept Communist Manifesto part

pars

,

div

sec Randglosse

-

sec

23 . (

9

Marx Engels Heilige Familie par Kritische No

Marx

Bruno

3

sec

On the concept

Feuerbach

par

man

sec

6

pars

5

Marx

Kritik

div

par Philosophical Economic

in

, 3

man

5 , , ) , ch . , 1 , .

see

,

in

Feuerbach

. . 1 / , 3), / , . , . , 1, .8 , no 3 . ( ; 4 . sec . . 20 .

scripts sec

.

:

31 :

26

.

/

-

,

3 , ;

)

5

the concept

Marx

261

.

,

Hegel

see

. 5 .

of

in . on 7 (6 , , , ( ) sec : 13 ch . ; . . . 5 ), ch 6 . , 3, , see 4 , sec ( , . . . 3 7 ; . , .3 2 , 4 . div , , ch . . 6 On 6, sec see on . . ,

.”

is

of

. . .

4 5 1

On the concept alienation Rechtsphilosophie com

der Hegelschen

Marx

.

in

is

is

. . .

's .

is

's

,

.

fantastic realization fact The not realized essence essence because man man struggle against religion indirectly struggle against therefore the world which religion the spiritual aroma The task Marx

(4 .5.2)

126

of religious alienation to the criticism of social roots For writes some twenty years Capital religious later The reflection the real world can practical every entirely disappear only when the circumstances as

day life

none but transparently

men

to

offer

rational

relations

.”

2

with one another and with nature

,

of



of

.

its

,

in

he

extend the criticism

is to

,

himself

sets

of

inversions

and

therefore

immediate

as

related social institutions

three

ideological

ultimate

of

Marx identifies sources

sources

,

.

is

,

is

.

of

alienated consciousness The first division labour particu larly the division between exploiters and exploited The second commodity particularly exchange between exploiters exchange particularly

exploit

of

state power

,

is

The third

.

and exploited

rule

.

)

16

(

15

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. 4 17 , ;

sec

-

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5

.

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45 . -46 / 2, :

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sec

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, .

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Party towards Religion

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Right through Kritik der National pars Marx part

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For examples the analogies Marx repeatedly draws between pars economic and religious superstitions above For the religious analogy implicit the term fetishism Marx

( 4 .5 . 3 )

127

In each case , he holds , inversion and alienation by capitalist form are maximized the institution in of

.

extent

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division

the

of

of

in

division labour the workshop proletarians capitalists Marx writes the

.

,

the exploitation

greatest

through

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Capitalism

labour

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ers over exploited .

as

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whole The spiritual potentialities many one point because they vanish capital What the detail workers lose concentrated the at

the workshop production expand

of

art —

is

for

only

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on



or

,

:

of

capitalist production growth The knowledge the judgement and the will which are developed even though small scale by the independent peasant just personal artisan exercise cunning required savage for the the entire war are now

,

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as

.

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strangers stand opposed the producers the property dominating power This separation begins simple cooperation

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Marx Capital vol On the second point

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differs from greater extent division

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Capitalist developing

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( 5 )

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production stranger Since the process also the which the capitalist consumes labour power the product continually converted not only into commod the labourer capital ities but into that into value which claims the power to

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.

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On the other hand

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writes Marx the process material wealth into capital out yet stripped

extent the exchange purchase labour power the capitalists On the one hand

.

proletarians

for the capitalist

greatest

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it —

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its

128

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par par Marx Engels Communist Manifesto part Marx Capital vol par Engels Anti Dühring part

( 4 .5 . 5 . )

129

produces objective wealth

capital,

as

him

its

own objectification

.”

.

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Marx Capital vol

. .

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Marx

,

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4 5 4

the

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(4 .5 . 6 )

130

.

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represent the people

serve

the old govern legitimate functions were

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be

.

be

,

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was

amputated

pre eminence over society responsible agents society the Instead years which member three the ruling

from

itself and restored deciding once

class

,

nation

While the merely repressive organs

mental power were wrested

the destruction the state power which that unity independent and parasitic itself from which was but

the embodiment

the

excrescence

by

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,

to

to

superior

reality

a

become

claimed

be

to

and

be



:

on

of

The unity the nation was not be broken but contrary organized the the Communal constitution

Commune

to

,

its

develops to greatest extent state power obscur through universal suffrage the rule capitalists over prole tarians Marx writes the constitution proposed the Paris Capitalism

In

of

of

.5

,

social environment The errors which arbitrary invention than

and superficial

observation Vulgar economy actually economic fetishism but interpret systematize and defend doc in

,

,

else



Marx writes does nothing

in

in

such theories consist less

: .

prejudiced

.

,

them

'

from

is

to

of

origin

institutional

the

suggest

their proponents to

,

tions give rise

analysis

this

that the erroneous social theories are not only products but also descrip

result

of

which

inversions

of

.

6

One result

ideological

an

as

.”

in

in

suffrage serves every other employer the search the workmen capitalist states the government and managers his business dominating power confronts the governed alien

of

.

Compare

1

,

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pars

35 . 3 , , 42 sec .

10 . 55 . ; / . on

Marx Engels div

, :

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.

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(

28

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109

(

,

in

par Marx Civil War France sec Kritik der Hegelschen Rechtsphilosophie first throughout Marx Jewish Question part div

Marx 279

Origin

52

Engels

,

)

;

19

(

22

.

. 3 ,

,

48

par

div

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ch

pars

.

(

. 16 - , 9 ) 4 , .5 , ; 32 ) .5 , . . . . 3, 51 12 ,

vol

29 - ch

of

of

capitalist production who agents trinaire fashion the ideas prisoners capitalist productive are relations We need not wonder

( 4 .6 . 2. )

131

that vulgar

economy feels at home with the alienated form in which economic relations appear as obviously absurd and utterly then

in

if

all

inconsistent . These relations seem self - evident , to the extent that their inner connection is concealed and they are accepted by com mon opinion . But science would be superfluous the form



it

, ,

to

an

:

of

."

1

which things appear coincided directly with their reality Engels writes legal ideology But once the state has be independent power respect produces society come with

of

,

. , 1,

Engels

; ,

10

,

of

the Family par sec

( ch 9 . ) 9

.

. 1 ,

div

par

:

, 1

,

9

. 2 ,

,

:

.

7

sec

,

,

, :

Grundrisse div item par Origin Engels

Public law

each having sec

,

spheres

,

,

/

Marx

this

in

of ,

autonomous

13

to

,

since

is

in

and

.

24

. . 2 , 20

laws

take into consideration the entire the result that the juristic form

Marx Engels German Ideology part

Fränkische Zeit pars

as

law

:

are treated

( 2 )

, -

13 19

11 12

. .

pars

form

juristic reasons

everything and the economic content nothing

and private pars

the

course

operation

in

it

be

system

must

of

to

matter already

, . 1 ,

legal

be sanctioned

is a

in

order

the form of

facts must take

case the economic process

on

.

in

,

.

a

further ideology Among professional politicians theorists public law and jurists dealing with private law the connection with economic facts becomes entirely lost Since each particular

Grundrisse Profit

ch ch 17 sec . . , . . vol . , 2 1, 10 2 48 ; , , ,

par

:

-

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to

. 4 .3 .7

.

.

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. 1 ,

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. .

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pars

above

pars

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Marx

Marx

vol

Value Price par

pars

par

Marx Surplus Value part Marx Mehrwert vol par part

sec

sec

Capital

vol par

par

pars

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26

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also

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sec

1867

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par

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and

( : , . . 17 sec ) 13 . . 7 2 : , . , , 11 1 7 , . 3 ; div : 3 , , . to . . 1 . . , , ch 7 3 57 .9 , . 3 13 .2 , ( , , 11 . 48 , 55 ch , : , ) . 18 ; 9 . ; 30 , . 7 div . ch : . . . 6 1 3 , vol -8 , . to 47 , . 3 . ch , , , (6 . 48 1 , . -7 sec . ) 1 . 49 , . . , 2 1 sec 7 , , 3 . ( , , 27 49 4, , . sec . . . 4 50 ) 1 2 25 , , 1 ; ; .

, 4.6 , .1 sec . . of 2 , 4 . ; , ch ch . 61 . ( 19 6, , , . 63 ( 16 ) . ; 17 . div . ) ch , 26 3, .

Marx

ch

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8

.

par

sec

,

State and Revolution Compare also secs above vulgar democracy comparable For the concept with the concept vulgar economics see Marx Critique the Gotha Pro par Compare par gram above Compare par Marx Capital vol Lenin

July

part sec

Engels Marx June Apr 1868 par Engels 1868

pars

Compare

( 4 .6 . 3. )

132

of

re

,

all

."

the real con to

to

of

.

of

by

as

of

and persistent

the

unconscious and abstract concrete are inverted individuals because they are presented institutions The subjective mystification alienated reflects the objective mystification alienated social

conscious

inverted

through

and legal ideology

fetishism

by

In

both economic

nections perceived

as

internal contradictions

capable

each

presentation

systematic

2

its

elimination

historical development

own

of

its

independent

quiring

consciousness

.

relations

in

, “ . by . .

of

by by

an

. . ..

,

is

.

went much

economics

bring

not

does

alter

farther

enough

not

to

,

it

if

if ,

bourgeois

even

the causal

into

this

of

of

deeper than that

and

insight

powers

alien Mere knowledge

,

. . . .

the situation

certain

means

by

,

of

domination

this

dominated economic production which they alien power And though

are

a

society men

themselves

themselves have produced bourgeois economics has given basis

to

,

"

capitalist

relations created

as



.

We

by

A

alienation

contemporary

is

of

this analysis indicate the cure for already have seen writes Engels that

second result

act

of

/

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)

(

24

.

,



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27

.

,

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in

.

par

, .

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3

subsec

,

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of

the eye See Engels Marx German sec

of

Engels draw

and

, .

1890

par

1890

ideological thinking

retina

,

part

Oct

.

Marx

the

, ; . , 2 94 . , ( 1

.

Oct

23

par

par

15

14

, to

above

images

15

of

,

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,

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1

9

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Schmidt

inversions involved

. 27 4 . .

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to

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Schmidt par

all

.

a

pars

the

part

und Strafe Staat und Recht Engels Housing

Verbrechen

above

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between

Engels

Engels

on

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pars

pars

analogy

itself and

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par

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part Also

par

Privateigentum

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Feuerbach par

and the physical inversion Marx Jewish Question part

vol

planned basis has freed

, . 1 I . .5 3 .5 2, ; . , . , 1 " . 4 6 .1 .3 . .2 , 24 , . 1 -3 : , " , ch sec . . div 1 4 . . 8 . ,

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4 6 2

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par

them

Engels Feuerbach German Ideology part Aneignung subsec

Engels durch

on

tion and managing

by a

,

;

society social forces under the control That requires above everything else social act And when this has taken produc place when society taking possession means

Capital

means

they

which

present

at

are

the bondage

from

in

members of

held

133

its

by

all of

( 4 .6 .5.)

production which they themselves have produced

;

,

Marx

:

differently

world

left

the

;

the battle

the

nothing

it ."

to

is

then

-

lies behind interpreted



.”

to

reflect This Philosophers have only point change

will

that there

of

analysis

cry

for the simple reason

be

it

.

,

itself

in

is

,

as

an

now confront them irresistible alien power when consequently man no longer merely proposes but also disposes only then will the last alien power which now reflected re ligion vanish And with will also vanish the religious reflection

but which

us

by

.

in

to

of

of

The Marxian theory the social source and social cure ideological error seems paradox Let grant that culminate science can completely replace ideology only when the social rela ideology reflects have been replaced radically differ grant only possible ent social relations Let that this becomes point long development late the men control over their

social environment which he

develop within and promotes the domin

:

of

Marx poses this problem when writes his predecessors The materialist doctrine that men are products circumstance of

and

,

and education

changed men

consequently

are products

of



of

a

at

as

as

such knowledge

can

social act

the

objective pre well well material means for as

go

.

illusion

where

how

doesn

?

ance

of

control over

a

?

gain

And

to

,

getting there

as

social environment Still involve subjective

and

which Engels writes requisites knowledge

of

physical

't 's

, of

in

.

us

tions which

subsec

Marx

Hegelsche Konstruktion

's :

)

48

-

1

;

. 3 div , . .

. 2 , ,

div

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der



pars

sec

pars

part

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:

5

71 ( of

.

part pars

sec

throughout

Randglosse

)

1

istory

par Empörung

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circumstances and different education , forgets that circum are altered by men and the educator must himself be

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of socialist educators take

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LIST OF WORKS CITED

LIST OF WORKS CITED

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general statement

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137

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NOTE

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WORKS OF MARX ENGELS

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Communist Manifesto 1848 Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei Ausgewählte Schriften Berlin 1951 1952 Centenary edition London 1948 Ideologie Deutsche 1846 Ideology

.

. n .d ., .p

,

,

.pp

. n .d .,

./

Mos Len

519

See German

424

)

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. 1 , .v 7 ,

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1848

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496

Mos Len

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Berliner Krisis 1848 Gesamtausgabe

MARX / ENGELS

140 Die

Krisis ( 1848 )

M / E Gesamtausgabe, div . 1. v . 7, Mos ./Len . First Address to the Communist League ( 1850 ) Ansprache der Zentralbehörde an den Bund M / E Ausgewählte Schriften , Berlin 1951 - 1952 ,

. .,

pp . 358 , 361.

n d

März

vom v.

1850

.

1.

Address of the Central Committee of the Communist League Germany Members Engels Germany Revolution and Counter Revolution Marxist Library New York 1933 Frankfurter Versammlung Juni 1848 1

.

v

-

, .

13

.

,

:

,

in

its

First

to

(

Ideology

. n . d ., .p 8 .

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. . 1 1 , , v . . v. 7 7 , ,

1848

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./

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1846

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German

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.

.

./

. 1932

.

. 1 , v . 3 ,

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,

127

,

115

.pp

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Mos Len

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.

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1848

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/

III

and

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1933

1845

Gesamtausgabe

Junirevolution M

1939

Parts

Len

)

6

.

Marxist Library

Heilige Familie

. E

New

,

The German

Vol

Mos

div

Ideology

,

/E

M

Gesamtausgabe

. 1 , v I .5 ,

.

Die deutsche Ideologie

130

LVI

Berlin

reprint

facsimile

,

1849

;

.

22

Jan

.

1928

'

'

Communist Manifesto

to

Preface

/

,

Die Neue Rheinische Zeitung

21

)

1849

(

Montesquieu

1872

.)

Communist Manifesto

,

.

1882

Berlin 1951

1952

, v . 1 . 1848

.

./

. 1 , v . 7 .

27

Mos Len

div

)

German

.

434

, v . 3 , .p

1920

in

reviewed

(

.'

impot

l'

et

socialisme

Mehring Stuttgart

,

.

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,

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1850

Girardin Nachlass

,

/E

M

Emile

Girardin de

Review

,

Gesamtausgabe

of

/E

M

(

-

/E

,

.

to

Russian Edition 1882 Selected Works Moscow 1950 1951 Programme der radikaldemokratischen Partei M

Preface

Schriften

of

/E

M

Ausgewählte

, v . 1 .

russischen

. n .d ., ) .p

zur

-

Vorwort

'

1882 Ausgabe von

'

Preface

to

(

See Communist Manifesto

MARX / ENGELS

141

(1849 )

Taten des Hauses Hohenzollern

/E

M

ischen

Vereinbarungssitzung M

:

Revolution von 1848 Zeitung ' , Berlin 1949 , p .

Die

/E

vom

Juli

4

,

Gesamtausgabe

Auswahl aus der

( 1848 )

div . 1, v. 7,

Rhein

Neuen

.

214

. ., p .

Mos ./ Len .

n d

173

.

WORKS OF MARX Demonstrations ( 1862 ) ( Original German text, published unavailable to me . )

Abolitionist

.

1

Feb

1859

, . K

Nachgelassene Ferdinand Lassalle Briefe Mayer Stuttgart Leipzig 1922 Ruge Nov 1842

1895

.

Berlin

. 2 ,

Berlin

1932

div

Mos

Berlin

1929

.

-

. 1 , v . 1 ,

div

,

half vol

.

, .p

451

536

.

1933

, .p

.

Len

./

. 1 , v . 5 ,

,

)

(

. 1 , v . 6 ,

,

)

(

E

M

/

Feuerbach 1845 Gesamtausgabe

/E

M

I

Aus

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30

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Arbeitslohn 1847 Gesamtausgabe

.

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dates

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1858

.

.

Dec

1858

.

.

8

, .

3

Nov

1859

, .

1

Feb

an

.

E

, .

1858

1886 Mos Len 1933 Kölner Geschwornen 1849 Karl Marx vor den Kölner Geschwornen Engels all dates 1870

Marxist Library New

1877

Briefe

/

States

.

8

Tribune

Nov

Aug . 1862 ,

.

, .

in in

10

Blos M

Dec

York Tribune

New an

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1858

Prussia

30

201

Prussia

York

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Affairs

Presse

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in

United

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New

Affairs

p

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in

Affairs

1937

, .

York

in

'Die

v

/ E Civil War

M

the

Abolitionist Demonstrations

in

MARX

142

Constitution ( 1855 ) in England and the British Constitution . Marx and Engels on Britain , Moscow 1953, p . 409

British

The Crisis

India ( 1853 ) Selected Works , Moscow

Rule

British

1950 - 1951 , v . 1 , p . ( 1861 - 1878 ) Das Kapital . Kritik der politischen Oekonomie . Volksausgabe , v . 1 - 3, Mos./ Len . 1932 - 1934 . Capital. A Critique of Political Economy . Vol. 1, tr . by Moore and Aveling , Chicago 1918 . Vol. 2 , tr . by Untermann , Chicago 1907. Vol. 3, tr . by Untermann , Chicago 1909 .

/E

M

.

in

312 .

Capital

Charte

( 1855 )

Die M

Administrativ - Reform

/E



1852 - 1862 ,

Schriften

Gesammelte

Die CharteUrquhart. ed . Ryazanov , v. 2 , Stuttgart

Assoziation

1917 .

Chartists

(1852 ) York Tribune

New

,

25

Aug.

1852

.

. -

1952

v

, . . 1 .

1850

n .d

,

24

Vol Confidential Communication Konfidentielle Mitteilung

Kugelmann

,

Letters

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1870

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1870

1952

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.

1862

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.

Presse

9

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1862

1934

Die

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New published

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unavailable

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of

Original

,

German

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17

Marxist Library

mann (

With Marx

Criticism

28

Kugelmann

März

28

Kugelmann

.

Berlin

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With Marx

to

.

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.

1848

Ausgewählte Schriften Berlin 1951 Marxist Library New York

,

E

/

M

York 1937 , p . 71. Class Struggles in France ( 1850 ) Die Klassenkämpfe in Frankreich

bis

Civil War in France ( 1871 ) Vol. 9 Marxist Library , New York 1933 . Civil War in the United States ( 1861 ) ( Original German text, published in ' Die Presse 7 Nov . 1861 , unavailable to me. ) M / E Civil War in the United States , v . 30 Marxist Library , New

MARX

143

/ E Civil War

M

New

York

Critique

the United

in

, p.

1937

198

States

.

, v.

Marxist Library ,

30

Political Economy ( 1859 ) Zur Kritik der politischen Oekonomie . Berlin 1951 .

Critique of the Gotha Program Randglossen zum Programm M

/

Marxist Library ,

11

( 1875 ) Arbeiterpartei .

der deutschen

Schriften ,

E Ausgewählte

Vol .

of Political Economy .

to the Critique

A Contribution Chicago 1904 .



+

of

Berlin 1951 - 1952 ,

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.

1938

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York

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Free Trade Marxist Library

435

.

1932

, .

Berlin

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.

du

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,

the Question

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div

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Poverty

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Discours sur Address

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1848

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Prussian War 1870 Members the International Working Europe and the United States July 1870 Civil War France Marxist Library

First Manifesto

.

.

Tribune

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York

on

New

Question

the Emancipation 17

:

Russia

)

Emancipation

(

.

35

of

.

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Der Achtzehnte Brumaire des Louis Bonaparte Vienna Berlin 1927 The Eighteenth Brumaire Louis Bonaparte Library Vol Marxist New York

M

*

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(

)

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Mimeographed

Berlin

Economic Philosophical

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hilosophische Manuskripte

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Eighteenth

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. 1 , v . 1 ,

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Oekonomisch

. 1 ,

( 1841 ) Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Naturphilosophie . M / E Gesamtausgabe, half vol Frankfurt 1927 Economic Philosophical Manuscripts 1844 div

Doktordissertation

MARX

144

-

( 1858 )

Grundrisse

Grundrisse

Kritik

der

1953 .

Berlin

politischen

der

( Rohentwurf ) .

Oekonomie

Hegelsche Konstruktion

der Phänomenologie ( 1845 ) Marx über sein Verhältnis zu Hegel und Feuerbach

531

.

, .p

./

. 1 , v . 5 ,

.

1933

1860

1953

Inaugural

, . of 1 .

.

.

Frankfurt

with

omissions

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1857

Berlin

1951

235

, .

,

Oekonomie

of

to

A

1926

Political Economy

zur Kritik der politischen Zur Kritik der politischen Oekonomie Contribution the Critique

Economy

Political

Chicago

265

.

, p .

1904

(

.

York

New

p

,

the Critique

Right

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to

Introduction Einleitung

Philosophy

Stenning of

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's by

James Mill

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James Mill 1844 Exzerpte Oekonomische Studien Gesamtausgabe div

Berlin

1932

.

, .p

half vol

. Hegel

Criticism

Selected

M

Einleitung

607

, of tr .

/E

M

A

Rechtsphilosophie

Hegelschen

Gesamtausgabe

div

Zur Kritik der 1927

's

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/E

M

Address 1864 Inaugural Address the Working Men International Association Selected Works Moscow 1950 1951 Right 1844 Critique Hegel Philosphy Introduction

.

.

Berlin

)

Herr Vogt

Mos Len

.

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Gesamtausgabe

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with omissions

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1926

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.

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.

York

1932

1926

excerpts

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Stenning New

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von

Der König von

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to

me text unavailable Bakunina Gosudarstvennosť Sochineniya USSR 1935 145

Konspekt E

York

1874

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Artikel

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Original German

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Frankfurt

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Bakunina

(

Konspekt

Essays

, tr .

/

Gesamtausgabe

by ,

und die Sozialrefrom

E

Preussen M

Randglossen

Selected

half vol

1844

(

by

, tr .

Stenning New

and Social Reform zu

of

Essays

Prussia

Kritische

M

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Selected

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, .p

1927

King

,

Gesamtausgabe 576

/E

M

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Question 1844 Zur Judenfrage

Jewish

MARX

145

Labour Parliament

1927

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Frankfurt

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)

und Feuerbach

Strauss

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174

1863

.)

Surplus Value Criticism

1847

.

Moralizing

298

.

/E

Russian Menace

Glencoe 1952

.

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M

in

of

Hoselitz

. 1 , .p

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text unavailable

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1913 1914

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1873

Italian 32

, v .

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Politische Indifferentismus First published Die Neue Zeit

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Blackstock

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1858

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19

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Oct

European Mission Poland 1867 Original English text unavailable me English French translation translation

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1858

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Russia

editorial

York Tribune

New

340

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, . 13 ,

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to

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(

part

USSR 1936 Manuskripte Oekonomisch philosophische 1844 See Economic hilosophical Manuscripts Peasant

excerpts

1926

,

by

tr .

,

Natsionalizatsiya Zemli 1869 Original English text unavailable Sochineniya

, .p

and Critical Morality Stenning New York

Criticism Essays

Selected

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div

,

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Die moralisierende Kritik und die kritisierende Moral Gesamtausgabe Berlin 1932

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)

Moralizing

(

(

1953

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Mehrwert

Moscow

1843

Schiedsrichter zwischen

Gesamtausgabe

1927

Britain

)

/E

M

Luther

See

on

Schiedsrichter

(

als

and

1862

,

Marx Luther

Meeting

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'

Workers

als

p

.

. .

1854

.

29

Mar

Leitende Artikel der Kölnischen Zeitung 1842 Der leitende Artikel Nr 179 der Kölnischen Zeitung Gesamtausgabe div half vol Frankfurt London

a M

. 1 , v . 1 ,

)

(

1854

Tribune

,

York

New

Frankfurt

403

.

.

,

p

1927

.

half vol

. 1 ,

,

Gesamtausgabe

div

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( 1843 ) Rechtsphilosophie

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-

Aus der Kritik M

Rechtsphilosophie

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Kritik der

MARX

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Poverty of Philosophy ( 1847 ) Misère de la Philosophie .

M / E Gesamtausgabe , div . 1, v . 6 , Berlin Vol. 26 Marxist Library, New York n . d .

' Capital

Preface to

1932 .

1867

( See Capital. ) Preface to ' Capitaľ 1873

in German text ‘Nachwort '.) Wagner ( 1882 ) Randglossen zu Adolf Wagners ‘Lehrbuch der politischen mie .'

Capital:

(See

Randglossen

zu

Kapital . Kritik

Das

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politischen

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,

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,

1878

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James 1905

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div

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1869

Association

the

September

1869

)

,

,

re

réussi

(

-t -

a

elle

?

.

n .d

'

d

to

of

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.

Angleterre

's

Guizot

408

.

, v . 3 , .p

,

Mehring Stuttgart 1920 Why Book Has the English

Revolution

'

.

,

Review

révolution

by

ed

in

Nachlass of

/E

German

London

)

'

,

viewed M

,

la )

Guizot 1850 Pourquoi

Guizot

A

at

the Fourth

(

of

Review

11th

Council

the General

,

's

Report

of

ingmen

oncerning the right inheritance Annual Congress the International Work held Basle Switzerland from the 6th

of of

Report

Berlin

et Souvenirs 1864

)

Inheritance

(

on

Report

' 1 /6 Mar .

, .p

Guillaume,

'

me.)

to

.

1867 , unavailable

Been

?

Successful

1860

.

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Oct

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at

Warsaw

.

New

York 1939

,

,

12

, .

)

10 —

(

York Tribune

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New

342

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Using Austria 1860 Russia Using Austria The Meeting

Russia

1953

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,

Moscow

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on

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Sozialistengesetz

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Stekloff , ch .

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text in M / E Ausgewählte Briefe , Berlin 1953 . Correspondence , v. 29 Marxist Library , New York

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Danielson M

to

10

1879

.

1881

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New

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1911

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1880

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Dec

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M

8

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Briefwechsel Berlin 1949 Selected Correspondence

,

3

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Briefwechsel , Berlin 1949 - 1950 , v . Selected Correspondence , Moscow

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all

to

MARX dates

Kugelmann

Berlin

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, , .

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,

17

.

,

Library

,

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,

29

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Ausgewählte Briefe Berlin Selected Correspondence

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,

29

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E

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E

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Oct 1877

.

19

to

.

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Schweitzer M

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/

French

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Kugelmann Letters Marxist Library New Apr 1870 Meyer and Vogt Ausgewählte Briefe Berlin 1953

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1881

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,

Menace

1952

Moscow

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37

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v

Wage Labour

Britain 1865

Wage Labour and Capital 1847 Lohnarbeit und Kapital -

Russian

Glencoe

Tories and Whigs



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England

and Engels

-

,

letter

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Marx Engels

1852

Price and Profit

With

final

on

Marx Value

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in

to

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W

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Kautsky und

Berlin

1925

.

,

Eduard Bernstein

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.

1877

half vol

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1954

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Berlin

,

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Zur deutschen

v

an

, . .)

1929

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,

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Leipzig

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an

26

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1935

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Marx

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1948

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Marx , Capital, v . 1, Chicago 1918 . Preface to Marx 'Poverty of Philosophy

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Peasant War See Peasant War

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1952

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, . v

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Poverty

First German Edition Philosophy

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Vorwort . Marx , Das Elend der Philosophie , Berlin

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, v . .) 2 ,

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Zwei Aufsätze

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Englands

Sozialgeschichte

)

.

Glencoe 1952

ENGELS

155

State of Germany

( 1846 ) Gesamtausgabe, div .

Status Quo in

Capital

1933 , p . 480 .

. 1 , v . 6 ,

( 1847 ) Berlin

1932

231

)

(

1895

'

to

Supplement

div

Deutschland Gesamtausgabe ,

/E

M

, v. 4 , Mos./ Len .

1

.

/E

, .p

M

.

Nachtrag

politischen

, v .

,

1

.

-

, v . 3 ,

Volksaus

York

1937

.

Capital

Oekonomie

half vol Marxist Library New

-

.

./

on

Engels The Mark

Kritik der

1932 1934

, .

.

Das Kapital

Mos Len (

1883

)

gabe

34

, ,

Marx

, .

Berlin 1953 142 Marxist Library New

,

.

p

, 1

2

:

, , . v.

/ E /L /

.

, .

Liebknecht

K

.

,

Kautsky

und

Andere

1933

,

Marxist Library

New

York

.

n .d

v

, .

Correspondence

29

.

.

W

.

./

-

E

Selected

,

Bebel

Mos Len

1886

/

A

an

,

Geschichte Scientific

dates

Briefe

/

1870 M

and

1935

all

E

M

to

York Bebel

deutschen

Utopian

Socialism

v

Zur

S

M

.

Die Mark

,

1925

. .

n d

,

n

.d .

,

.

,

Selected

Marxist Library

,

29

, .

.

1953

v

,

Berlin

Correspondence

New

York

New

York

Jan

1872

Briefe Berlin Correspondence Oct 1891 Correspondence

Moscow

Marxist Library

,

, .

.

,

1953

. .

n d

,

.

Moscow

n d

Moscow

n d

. .

,

1892

Correspondence

. .

31

-

15

.

Correspondence

June

Selected

1892

,

E

E

/

/

Mar

Selected 18

/E

Danielson

M

to

to

Selected

Danielson

M

29

Danielson M

to

n d

Selected

v

Ausgewählte

29

.

24

Cuno

. M M . /E /E

to

.

n . d

/ / E E

Berlin

.

Sept 1890 Ausgewählte Briefe

Bloch

Bernstein

.

21

M

E

Ausgewählte 1953 Berlin Briefe Selected Correspondence Moscow

M

to

/ /

E

M M

28

/

E

M

an

dates

.

Briefe von Friedrich Engels Eduard Selected Correspondence Moscow Blank Mar 1848

,

to

to

all

Bernstein

ENGELS

156

to

Danielson M

/E

n. d.

/E

M

1892

Correspondence ,

Selected

to Danielson

.

Sept

22

Feb . 1893 Correspondence

24

Selected

.

29

Marxist Library ,

New

York

, v.

29

Marxist

,

New

York

29

Marxist Library ,

New

v

Library

n . d. to

Danielson

/E

M

Oct.

17

n . d.

/E /E

M M

M to

.

Briefe , Berlin 1953 . Correspondence, Moscow Aug . 1880

Ausgewählte

/E /E

5

. .

n d

Briefe , Berlin 1953 . Correspondence , Moscow

Ausgewählte

. .

Selected 12 Sept . 1882

Kautsky

n d

Aus der Frühzeit des Marxismus. Engels Briefwechsel Prague 1935 .

/E

M

York

1890

Selected

to Kablukova M

v

000

June

to Ernst 5

1893

Correspondence ,

Selected

Correspondence ,

Selected

v

n . d.

.

mit Kautsky ,

Marxist Library ,

29

.

,

.

n . d

,

.

,

/E

1953

Marxist Library

,

, .

.

Berlin

29

Briefe

Correspondence

v

/E /E

1953

New

York

New

York

, . . . 3. v

n d

, . 29 v, .

Marxist Library

.

.

,

Ausgewählte Briefe Berlin 1953 Selected Correspondence Moscow

. .

n d

28

Sept 1892

,

/E

/E

M M

to

Mehring

item

.

the preceding

1950

,

that

.

dates other than

Briefwechsel Berlin 1949 Selected Correspondence

of

,

-

,

all

1 -4

.

13

1866

v

Marx

Apr

Briefwechsel Berlin 1949 1950 Selected Correspondence Moscow

,

M M . M M . /E /E , /E /E

Marx

n d

to

to

.

n .d

M

Selected

Berlin

1865

,

.

/E

M

29

Mar

Ausgewählte

M

to

Correspondence Moscow

Selected

Lange

M

in

.

6

to

/E

M

to

all

to Kelley -Wischnewetzky , dates Letters Americans New York 1953 Lafargue Mar 1894 Original French text Ausgewählte Briefe

York

New

ENGELS Mehring 14 July 1893 M / E Ausgewählte Briefe,

Schlüter

1

to

York

New

,

E

/

York

New

York

me

to

(

M

Americans

1953

Selected

Briefe Berlin Correspondence

.

,

1953

Marxist Library

dates

York

Briefe Berlin Correspondence

1953

,

Jos Dietz

und Andere

.

,

.

,

,

Marxist Library

New

York

1953

. .

n d

,

, .

.

,

K

.

W

Liebknecht

Kautsky und Andere

1933

Marxist Library

,

29

v

Correspondence

, .

.

.

.

,

.

,

Bebel

New

York

all dates Original French

Ueber die Dialektik

.

edition

only

.)

'—

German

1953

.

,

. .

n d

, /E

in

)

Anti Dühring

, '

-

Berlin

1878

Alte Vorrede zum See Anti Dühring

(

Ausgewählte Briefe

-

Dialektik

texts

Correspondence Moscow

(

die

/E

Ueber

Selected

M

,

Zasulich

M

to

.

n .d

/E

1883

Len

./

/E -

Mos

Selected

M

A

Briefe

1870 1886

Apr an

18

van Patten M

to

n .d

v

.

,

Ausgewählte Briefe Berlin 1953 Marxist Library New York 29

/E

in

Correspondence

Selected

. /E

Moscow

.

26

Turati Jan 1894 Original French text

M

E

,

.

,

E

/ /

M

1889

Ausgewählte Briefe Berlin Correspondence Selected

M

to

Dec

.

18

Trier M

to

n d

v

, .

Selected

1953

1894

29

25

.

/

Americans

Jan

Ausgewählte

. M M . /E /E

to

Starkenburg

to

Letters

E

M

.

,

Becker Sorge

,

u

New

Phil

.

Joh

,

von

. .

Karl

Marx

gen

F

aus Briefen

Friedrich Engels Stuttgart 1906

.

Auszüge

an

all

Briefe und

. A .

Sorge

,

to

n . d .

v

, .

29

Ausgewählte

/E /E

M

,

Schmidt all dates M

to

New

1895

Original German text unavailable Letters

Marxist Library ,

29

,

to

.

1953

, v.

.

n .d.

Berlin

Correspondence

Selected

.)

/E

.

M

Jan

to

157

ENGELS

158

Verfall des Feudalismus (date unknown ) Ueber den Verfall des Feudalismus

.

Von

Zur

Paris nach

/E

M

(1848 )

Bern

,

Gesamtausgabe

Vorarbeiten

Geschichte ,

deutschen

v

. 1,

1953 , p. 158 .

Berlin

. 1, v. 7, Mos./ Len . n .d., p . 533.

div

‘ Anti - Dühring (1877 )

zum

'

Zehnstundenbill Die englische

Geschwornen

,

1895

.

'

1885

Berlin

)

(

, v . 3 , .p

Stuttgart

Bauern

1920

384

1886

)

,

preussischen

(

Geschichte

by

, ed .

.

Zehnstundenbill Mehring

der

/

Kölner

Kölner Geschwornen

.

1850

Nachlass

E

M

Zur

die

Handschriftliches zum Anti -Dühring ” . Vorarbeiten ( See Anti - Dühring , German edition only . )

Vorwort zu Marx ' An Karl Marx vor den

der

, p .

'.)

v

/E /L /S

M

, . 1 ,

.

'

W

(

to

Introduction Wolff Die schlesische Milliarde Zur deutschen Geschichte Berlin 1953

568

.

/ E /L /S

M

das Aufkommen

und

.

Bourgeoisie

WORKS OF LENIN )

1913

Pra

Sovremennogo

Obshchei 154

Policy

the

Present

.

of

General

.

-

, .p

19

Agrarian

, ) v.

1949 1952

(

Question Government The

the

of

,

.

'

vitel stva Sochineniya USSR

Politike

)

Agrarnoi

(

the Present Government

ob

K

Voprosu

(

of

Agrarian Policy

.

) v

Pervoi Russkoi

Rev

in

the

.

, p .

13

, v .

-

First Russian

.

York

, . 3 ,

1938

304

.

New

Works

v

Selected

, .p

, v .

Selected Works

in

Conclusion

,

-

195

Social Democracy

12

2

.

in

and

of

-

,

1

p

157

. ., . 3

Ch .d

n

, , . 4 ,

The Agrarian Programme Revolution 1905 1907

Chs

226

.

-

-

(

of

n .d

, v . 4 ,

., .p

Selected Works New York Agrarian Program Social Democracy 1907 Agrarnaya Programma Sotsial Demokratii olyutsii 1905 1907 Godov Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

New

York

LENIN

159

Agrarnaya Programma Russkoi Sotsial - Demokratii Sochineniya , USSR 1949 -1952 , v . 6 , p . 89 .

( 1902 )

Question in Russia ( 1908 ) Agrarnyi Vopros v Rossii k Kontsu XIX Veka . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 15, p . 53 .

Agrarian

The Agrarian Century

Question

Works, v. 1,

Selected

New

. ., p .

York

n d

Aims of the Revolution ( 1917 ) Zadachi Revolyutsii . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 -1952 ,

Works, v . 6 , New

Selected An

v

Collected

.

26

20 , New

v

.

139 .

, p.

York 1943 ,

Inconsistent Stand ( 1917 ) Protivorechivaya Pozitsiya . Sochineniya, USSR 1949 - 1952 ,

Works, v .

at the End of the Nineteenth

Russia

in

25

,

.

.

240

p

.

70

1929 ,

York

38

p

.

.

book 2 , p . 250 .

Angliżskie

Spory ( 1912 ) Angliiskie Spory o Liberal'noi Rabochei Politike . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 18, p . 331 . Attitude of the Workers ' Party towards Religion ( 1909 )

Ob Otnoshenii Rabochei

Partii

k

Religii .

, USSR 1949 -1952 , v. 15, p. 371 . Works, v. 11 , New York 1943 , p . 663 .

Sochineniya Selected

Attitude toward the Provisional Government (1917 ) Rech ' ob Otnoshenii k Vremennomu Pravitelstvu Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 25 , p . 3. Speech 17 ,

.

Collected Works, Avgust

Bebel

( 17 )

Iyunya .

the Attitude toward the Provisional Government , June

on

1917

4

v

.

( 1913 )

Sochineniya

, USRR

20

, New

York 1929 , book

Works ,

v.

, p.

195

.

1949 - 1952 , v. 19 , p . 263.

Beginning of Bonapartism ( 1917 ) Nachalo Bonapartizma . Sochineniya , USSR 1949- 1952, Collected

2

21 , New

v

.

York

25

, p. 1932

,

199

.

book

1, p . 76 .

Bogdanov ‘Kratkii Kurs " ( 1898 ) Retsenziya . A . Bogdanov , Kratkii Kurs Ekonomicheskoi Nauki Sochineniya

,

'

USSR

1949 - 1952 , v . 4 , p . 32 .

'.

LENIN

160

Bourgeois and Socialist Pacifism ( 1917 ) Burzhuaznyi i Patsifizm Patsifizm Sotsialisticheskii . Sochineniya ,

- 1952 , v. 23 , p . , Works v. 5 , New York

Selected

165 .

1949

Bourgeois Democracy

1943, p . 246

Tezisy i Doklad o Sochineniya , USSR Theses and Report

1949 on

- 1952 ,

v . 28 , p . 435 .

Democracy and the Dictatorship

Bourgeois

Proletariat .

of the

Works

Selected

i

Burzhuaziya

.

Proletarian Dictatorship ( 1919 ) Burzhuaznoi Demokratii i Diktature Proletariata .

and

v

. 7,

Reformizm

Sochineniya , USSR

. ., p .

York ( 1913 )

New

1949 - 1952

223 .

n d

, v.

18

, p . 499 .

Can the Bolsheviks Retain State Power ? ( 1917 ) Uderzhat li Bol' sheviki Gosudarstvennuyu Vlast ' ? Sochineniya

, USSR

1949 - 1952 , v . 26 , p . 63.

Selected Works , v . 6 , New York Capitalism in Agriculture ( 1899 )

1943 , p . 250 .

Kapitalizm

Khozyaistve . v Sel’ skom Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 4 ,

Works, v .

Selected

12 ,

p . 89 .

York 1938 ,

New

Caricature of Marxism ( 1916 ) O Karikature na Marksizm i ob Sochineniya, USSR 1949 - 1952 ,

p

. 1.

' Imperialisticheskom v

.

23

,

p

.

.

16

A Caricature of Marxism and 'Imperialist Economism Collected Works , v. 19, New York 1942 , p . 214 .

Chernovoi

Proekt Tezisov

( 1917 )

Ekonomizme '.

'.

Obrashcheniya k Chernovoi Proekt Tezisov Internatsional 'noi Partiyam . Sotsialisticheskoi Komissii i ko Vsem Sotsialisticheskim Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 23, p . 197 .

Collapse of the Second

II

International

( 1915 )

Internatsionala . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 ,

Krakh

Selected

Works, v. 5 , New

v.

21 , p .

1943 , p .

York

181 . 167 .

Compromises

( 1917 ) O Kompromissakh . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952, Selected

Works , v .

6 , New

v

.

25

, p.

York 1943 ,

282 .

p . 208

.

LENIN

161

Constitutional Illusions ( 1917 ) Illyuziyakh . O Konstitutsionnykh Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v. 25 , Selected

York

Controversial Questions ( 1913 ) Spornye Voprosy . Otkrytaya Sochineniya

, USSR

Works , v . 4 ,

Selected

Rech

'

New

York

Marksisty . p . 123 .

. ., p .

n d

of the People ( 1919 ) ob Obmane Naroda Lozungami

Sochineniya , USSR The Deception of

, v.

the

1949 - 1952

.

Party and the Marxists

People

.

.

124

Svobody

29 , p . by

Deception

v . 19 ,

Questions . An Open

Controversial

i

Partiya

1949 - 1952 ,

p . 174

1943 , p . 175 .

i Ravenstva .

311 . Slogans

the

of

Works , v . 6 , New

Equality

and

.

Freedom

Little Lenin Library London Dictatorship 1918

Sochineniya USSR

v

. .

1942

)

)

365

.

.d ., .p

York

n

New

It .

.

Proletariat

.

the

of

.

89

.

, p .

11

, v .

-

the Duma and the Tasks

, v . 3 ,

of

189

)

(

i

,

Works

, .p

book

2

1929

the Duma 1906 Rospusk Dumy Zadachi Proletariata Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

The Dissolution

.

Proletariat Against

of

York

29

, . , the .p

25

, v .

-

,

20

, v .

of

New

Nei

s

(

i

,

Disorganization and the Struggle Collected Works

Selected

)

267

1917

Proletarskaya Razrukha Borba Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

Dissolution

1916

, p , . .p 306 . .

York

excerpts

22

-

,

19

New

, v . .

-

o

, v .

Collected Works Disorganization

219

Up

(

.p

York

(

-

, . 1 , v

New

,

Itogi Diskussii

)

n d

1899

(

in

Russia

Rossii

Self Determination Summed Samoopredelenii Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

Discussion

218

1949 1952

,

Works

on

Selected

York

, . v n . .d 3 ., .

v

Capitalism

Razvitie Kapitalizma

345

, v .

-

New

, . 7 ,

of

Development

. ., 28 , p .p .

.

' i

,



O

Demokratiï Diktature Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

Works

.

)

(



and

Selected

1942

,

19

.

Vol

Democracy

LENIN

162 Doklad

ob Ob " ediniteľnom S” ezde Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 ,

Draft of

Theses

on the

Pervonachalnyi

( 1906 )

.

v

10

,

.

p

289 .

National and Colonial Questions ( 1920 )

Nabrosok

Kolonial 'nomu . Sochineniya , USSR 1949- 1952 ,

i

po Natsionalnomu

Tezisov

Voprosam

Preliminary tions. Selected

Draft of

Works ,

v

.

Theses on

10

,

New

v. 31 ,

p . 122 .

the National

York

, p.

1938

Colonial

and

231 .

Draft Program for the Social Democratic Party ( 1902 ) Proekt Programmy Rossiiskoi Sotsial - Demokraticheskoi Partii . Sochineniya , USSR Selected

Draft Resolution

-

1949

Works, v . 2,

New

1952

,

York

v . 6 , p.

224

.

on

Works ,

v . 4 , New

Dva Mira ( 1910 ) Sochineniya , USSR

York

1949 - 1952

16

, p.

278

Economic Content of Narodism ( 1894 ) Ekonomicheskoe Soderzhanie Narodnichestva

The Economic

Mr. Ch .

Content

Struve's Book

2 in

Selected

v . 1, p . 315

of Narodism

and

v . 11 , New

York

.

Works ,

Part of ch . 3 in Selected Works , Economic Development ( 1920 )

v

. 1,

Rech ' o Khozyaistvennom Stroitelstve Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 30 , Selected Works

, v . 8,

Economic Romanticism K Kharakteristike Sochineniya A

, USSR

Characterization

New

i

.

i Kritika

.

p

the

Criticism

1943

,

p . 610

York

of

- 1952 ,

Marta . 440 .

v . 2, p . 111 .

Economic

Romanticism

of It

.

. ., p .

n d

n . d . , p . 218 .

York

Knige

.

New 31

ego v

( 1897 ) Ekonomicheskogo Romantizma . 1949

Partii .

Zadachakh

n . d . , p . 13 .

, v.

G . Struve . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 ,

Rabochei

11 .

. ., p .

n d

the Present Situation 1908 Proekt Rezolyutsii o Sovremennom Momente Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952, v. 15 , p . 293 .

Selected

Ques

.

Moscow 1951 . Economics and Politics in Proletarian Dictatorship (1919 ) Ekonomika i Politika v Epokhu Diktatury Proletariata .

456

.

in

LENIN

163

Sochineniya , USSR Economics and Proletariat .

Politics

Works ,

Selected

1949 - 1952 , v . 30 , p . 87 .

Era

the

in

v . 8 , New

Dictatorship

of the

Works ,

v

. 6 , New

York 1943 ,

( 1920 ) Falshivye Rechi o Svobode . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v .

p

Proletariata .

and the Dictatorship

Assembly

The Elections to the Constituent of the Proletariat . Selected

the

n .d. , p . 3 .

York

Elections to the Constituent Assembly ( 1919 ) Vybory v Ychreditel 'noe Sobranie i Diktatura Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 30 , p . 230 .

. 463.

p

364

,

.

. .

31

252

, .p

1938

,

ezda

Moskovskogo Soveta Yanvarya

Soyuzov

'

S ”

Professional nykh

i

Zasedannii VTSIK

Ob edinennom

Vserossiiskogo

York

17

(

1919

na

'

Rech

v

, .

Situation

New

)

Food

,

Works

Selected

10

Speeches about Freedom

"

False

of

368

. .

,

. ., .p

23

, .v

London

483

)

1921

(

. . 164

, , p .p .

1917

(

Naroda

' i

ya

316

.

39

2

book

, .p

.

, , .p

24

, .

York 1929 Kak

Oni Voyuyut Protiv Sotsial

York

Are and How 1943

413

.

New

111

.

, . 1 , .p

-

v

People

, .p

, . . v

Works

the

'

'

-

Selected

1949 1952

,

USSR

Friends Social Democrats the

of

What

11

Sochineniya

,

?



Dryz

'

New

1894

)

the People

Chto Takoe Demokratov

,

v

, .

of

Friends

-

1949 1952

v

USSR

Collected Works

20

Sochineniya

,

.

Forgetting the Main Thing Pozabyli Glavnoe

308

York 1937

New

, v . 9 ,

Selected

-

,

1949 1952

32

USSR Works

v

Sochineniya

, . .

Naloge

Prodovolstvennom

)

(

Tax O

Food

v

-

,

1949 1952

Collected Works

n d

Sochineniya USSR

, . 28 , .p

.

1919g

.

, .p

11

, v .

-

,

!

)

(

Gosudarstvennyi Pereverot 1906 Gotovitsya Novyi Gosudarstvennyi Perevorot Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 180

They

Fight the

LENIN

164 Great Beginning ( 1919 ) Velikii Pochin . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , Selected

Works,

v

Historical Meaning

. 9,

New

v

. 29, p .

York

377 .

, p.

1937

423 .

Internal Party Struggle ( 1910 ) Vnutripartiinoi Borby v Rossii .

of the

Istoricheskii Smysl Sochineniya , USSR 1949 -1952 ,

.

v

16

, p.

344 .

Works , v. 3 , New York n . d., p . 499 . History of the Question of Dictatorship ( 1920 ) K Istorii Voprosa o Diktature . Selected

Sochineniya, USSR 1949 - 1952 , A Contribution to the History

31

,

p

.

.

314

of Dictatorship

of the Question

n . d ., p .

241 .

)

(

1917

.

95

, .p

)

(

207

, . .p

. .

., .p

n .d

.

. .

, .p

, .p 3 . ) .

94

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1937

.

85

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1943

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1949 1952

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USSR

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, , p p . .

,

11

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1949 1952

)

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of

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1916

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1930

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, v .

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USSR Works

Sochineniya

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,

v

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,

Imperializm

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,

Imperialism

)

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, , .p .p . .

New

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v

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1949 1952 18

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Sochineniya

USSR Works

173

Capitalism

21

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Socialism

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Imperializm

v

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Works and

22

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313

Kapitalizma

Stadiya

of

Vysshaya

33 ,

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Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 Imperialism the Highest Stage Imperialism

27

, . v

York

v

, ,

Imperializm

New

book

1918

)

1916

v

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Works (

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-

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Immediate Tasks the Soviet Government Ocherednye Zadachi Sovetskoi Vlasti Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

2

1929

.

402

, p . ,

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24

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of

v

, .

Collected Works

20

-

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York People the Capitalist Are Scaring Zapugivayut Kapitalisty Kak Narod Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 Selected

How

Works , v . 7 , New

.

v

.

LENIN

165

Interv ’ yu Ransomu ( 1922 ) Interv 'yu Korrespondentu 'Manchester Gardian Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952, v . 33 , p . 363 . Itogi Vyborov 1913 Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , Jubilee

v . 18, p .

Yubileya . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 ,

'

The Peasant Moscow n . d . With

k

Ransomu .

462.

( 1911 )

Po Povodu

k

' A.

Reform

17, p . 84

v.

.

Proletarian

and

- Stepanovu 2 Dek . 1909g . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 34 . Teodorovichu 2 Dek . 1909g . Sochineniya , third edition , v . 14 , USSR

- Peasant

Revolution

Skvortsovu

Kak

ne Sleduet

Pisať

Rezolyutsiï ( 1907 )

Sochineniya , USSR Karl Marx ( 1914 ) Karl Marks. Sochineniya , USSR Selected Works, v.

Kongress

v Shtutgarte

Mezhdunarodnyi

1949 - 1952

, v.

12

1935

, p.

, p.

189

192

.

.

1949 - 1952 , v. 21, p . 27 .

11, New

York

1943 , p . 9.

( 1907 ) Sotsialisticheskii Kongress

( There are two articles with

this

' Proletarii '.)

title

v Shtutgarte

. This one

. appeared

Sochineniya , USSR 1949 -1952 , v . 13 , p. 59 . Konspekt Gegelya ( 1914 ) Konspekt Knigi Gegelya 'Nauka Logiki . Leninskiï Sbornik , v . 9, Mos./ Len . 1929 . Konstitutsionnyi Krizis v Anglii ( 1914 )

Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v. 20, p . 205 . Lecture on the 1905 Revolution ( 1917 ) Doklad o Revolyutsi 1905 Goda . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v. 23 , p . 228 . Selected

Works,

v . 3 , New

York

n . d . , p . 1.

' Left -Wing

Childishness ( 1918 ) O ‘Levom ' Rebyachestva i o Melkoburzhuaznosti Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 27 , p . 291 .

‘Left -Wing Selected

Childishness

Works, v. 7,

New

and York

-Bourgeois . ., p . 351.

Petty n d

.

Mentality

.

in

,

LENIN

166

‘ Left -Wing

( 1920 )

Communism

Detskaya

’ ‘ Levizny ' v Kommunizme . USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 31, p . 1.

Bolezn

Sochineniya

‘Left -Wing

,

,

Communism

Works, v .

Selected

Infantile Disorder .

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,

York

10 New

1938

, p.

55 .

Lessons of the Revolution ( 1917 ) Uroki Revolyutsii . Sochineniya , USSR

1949 - 1952 , v. 25 , p . 203 .

Selected York 1943 , Letter to American Workers ( 1918 ) Pis '

Works, v . 6 , New

p

.

.

.)

1917

, , .p .p . . 334

)

1917

New

Afar 1917 Pis ma Daleka Sochineniya USSR 1949

v

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1943

304

1

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27 .

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1929

, p , .

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1943

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364

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, p .

15

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1952

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Preface the Russian Kugelmann

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to

Pis ’

Comrades

203

York 1943

New

mo Tovarishcham Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

Letters

192

Nov

.

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Works

Selected

Letters

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.

24

to

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Pis mo Chlenam TsK Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 Letter

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.

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. ., 28 , . .p .p

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190

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334

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1949 1952

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Empiriokrititsizm 11

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Materializm Sochineniya

Military

1908

-

Materialism

Marxist

.

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York 1938 and Empirio Criticism New

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of

in

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1952

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Sochineniya USSR 1949 Selected

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218

1908

.

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York 1943

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Works

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.

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Party

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, .

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, . v

.

1942

362

.

York

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19

the Proletarian Revolution

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1917

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.

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v

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Zemledelii

.

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, ' . s 6 ,

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168

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of

Laws

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Capitalism

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LENIN Agricul

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1938

190

.

New

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Works

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1949 1952

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1943

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1952

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30

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1949

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1919

Politicheskoi Linii 1912 Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 Ob Otsenke Tekushego Momenta

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178

1938

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Nekotorykh Istochnikakh Sochineniya

, , .p .p . 306 .

,

10

, v .

USSR

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Sochineniya

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Works

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1952

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.

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)

.

, . p

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185

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1949 1952

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1950

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, .p

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Sochineniya USSR

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Deputies Delegatam

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Peasant

to

Moscow Open Letter

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,

One

.

, . 25 , .p v

, . 21 , -

,

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of

One Fundamental Question Revolution 1917 Korrenykh Voprosov Revolyutsii Odin Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 340

LENIN

169

Open Letter Deputies .

Delegates

to the

Works, v . ( 1916 )

Collected

,

York

New

20

All -Russian

of the

,

1929

Soviet of Peasant

book

2

, p.

56

.

Otvet Kievskomu Otvet

P

.

( Yu. Pyatakovu ) .

Kievskomu

, USSR

Sochineniya

,

1949 - 1952

v . 23 , p . 10 .

Otvet na Voprosy Amerikanskogo Zhurnalista ( 1919 ) Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 29, p . 476 .

‘ Peasant

Reform "

(1911 )

‘Krest 'yanskaya

Sochineniya , USSR

The

' Peasant

i

Reforma

siya .

Proletarski -Krestyanskaya

Revolyut

1949 -1952 , v. 17 , p . 93 .

Reform

Proletarian - Peasant Revolution

and

With The Jubilee , Moscow n .d . Peasantry and Working Class ( 1913 )

of

.

.

p

179 .

.

p

295

Krest 'yanstvo i Rabochü Klass . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 19 , Selected Works, v. 12 , New York 1938 ,

.

(

)

, . 5 , .p 19 . . (

.

)

, . 1

p

1905

365

.

v

-

Liberalism

122

, . 9 , .p

v

,

of

v

and the Hannibals

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Works book Pervye Itogi Politicheskoi Gruppirovki Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 Collected

.

The Persecutors

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.

69

.

1943

77

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1952

.

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11 ,

, v .

i

New

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1949

-

v

Sotsial Demokratii

346

the Proletariat 1917 Rossii Zadachi Proletariata

, . 6 , v

Selected

,

USSR Works

Sochineniya

of -

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Politicheskie Partii

Zadachi

.

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1906

Poddelka Pravitelstvom Dumy Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

Political Parties and Tasks

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, v .

1949 1952

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Povodu Rechi Kadeta Maklakova

24

v

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Works

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, n . .d ., 12 , .p p . v

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Revolutionary

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of

Social Democracy 1907 Platforma Revolyutsionnoi Sotsial Demokratii Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 179

Platform

LENIN

170

Political

( 1917 )

Situation

Politicheskoe Polozhenie . Sochineniya

,

1949 -1952 , v. 25 , p . 157 .

USSR

Collected Works,

v

. 21, New

Praviteľstvo , Duma i Narod Sochineniya , 1949 - 1952 , Preface to 'Imperialism Preface

' State

to

'

v

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.

, p.

1

36

.

.

1920

.)

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1932 , book

York

( 1906 )

'

and Revolution

1917

(See State and Revolution . ) Privet Vengerskim Rabochim ( 1919 ) Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v. Proletarian

Militia

29 , p . 357 .

( 1917 )

Proletarskoe Militsii . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , O

Works , v.

Collected

20 ,

.

, p.

24

150

.

York 1929, book

New

Proletarian Revolution ( 1918 ) Revolyutsiya Proletarskaya

v

, p.

1

229 .

i Renegat Kautskii .

same title, but

( This is not the pamphlet of the which appeared in ‘Pravda '. ) Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v . 28 ,

the

p . 85 .

'

The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky Collected Works , v. 23 , London n . d ., p . 231 . Proposals to the Second Socialist Conference ( 1916 )

'

RSDRP 2-oi

1949 - 1952

-

Social Democratic

by

, v . 22, p .

157

.

Central Committee

Labour

Party

to

Proposals Submitted

New

York

1943

the

'.

Sotsialisticheskoi

Second

of

Tsentral nogo Komiteta

the

Predlozhenie

Konferentsii . Sochineniya , USSR

article

the

Russian

Socialist Confer

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1919g

.

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232

.

Works

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.

ence

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1911

17

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29

, v .

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Reformizm

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Prosveshcheniya

LENIN

171

Renegade Kautsky

( 1918 ) Proletarskaya Revolyutsiya Renegat Kautskii . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 -1952 , v . 28 , p . 207 .

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.

, . v

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Sochineniya USSR

1930

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1

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26

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, v . 21 ,

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.

249

.

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Revolution and Civil War 1917 Russkaya Revolyutsiya Grazhdanskaya Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

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.

, .p

20

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365

Self Determination -

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Self Determination

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Prave Natsii

Selected

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1949 1952

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Towards the Revision Collected Works Revolyutsionnye Dni 1905 Sochineniya USSR 1949

Sochineniya

1917

Partiinoi Programmy

Peresmotru

Sochineniya

Right

York

to

K

New

the Party Program

the

1920

. ., .p 76 .

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Works

Selected Revision

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Congress

the Central Committee the Ninth Russian Communist Party Bolsheviks March

.

v

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, .p

30

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Marta

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Kautsky

Renegade

1920

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29

of

Report

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Works Mar

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The Proletarian Revolution Selected

the

i

and

Liquida

LENIN

172

and Religion ( 1905 ) Sotsializm i Religiya .

Socialism

, USSR

1949 - 1952 , v . 10 , p . 65 . , Selected Works v . 11 , New York 1943, p . 658 . Socialism and War , written with G . Zinoviev ( 1915 )

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21 , p .

.

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12

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Sochineniya Selected

272

York 1929 book 315 Councils National Economy 1918 Maya 1918g ezde Sovetov Narodnogo Khozyaistva USSR 1949 1952 372

First Congress

Rech

Aprelya

1917

Works

Collected Speech

Momente

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215

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1897

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299

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495

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Tasks Proletariat Our Revolution 1917 Zadachi Proletariata Nashei Revolyutsii Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

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1938

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York

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.

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,

Works

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International 10

Communist

the Fundamental

v

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Internatsionala Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

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160

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of

the Second Congress the Communist International 1920 Osnovnykh Zadachakh Vtorogo Kongressa Kommunisti Tezisy

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173

Tasks of the Third International

( 1919 )

.

Works, v . Tasks of the Trade Unions ( 1919 )

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Selected

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28

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, p . 3 .

1943 1909

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Dec

1952

219

Marxism

.

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, p . .3

, . v

York

, .

-

Component parts

.

)

(

New

Chasti Marksizma

v

-

,

29

New

1949

, . 4 ,

Works

11

, . v

USSR v

Selected

,

-

Skvortsov Sochineniya

Sostavnykh

16

,

Works

25

, .

and Three

Stepanov

295

book

1932

)

The Three

i

1949 1952

Selected

sya

1913

Tri Itsochnika Tri Sochineniya USSR Sources

v

-

York

1917

Borot

,

to

Fight

Nei

i

Marxism

279

1938

New

(

of

Sources

v

, .

21 ,

,

Collected Works

Istorii

v

York

Threatening Catastrophe and How Grozyashchaya Katastrofa Kak Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

639

1919

(

in

, . v

New

,

v

, .

Works

10

-

,

i

ego Mesto Tretii Internatsional Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

Selected

, .p p .

v

-

11 ,

and

433

York 1943 History Place

New

its

, . v

Third International

, .

1949 1952

19

USSR

Works

29 ,

.

Sochineniya

to

467

1919

Selected

Three

258

Gosudarstve

,

O

State

, p . .

RKP

Internatsionala Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

The

31 ,

, . v

1921

Taktike

o

Doklada

na

, . 9 , v

Taktike

o

Doklada

Tezisy

York 1937

New

)

Works

Selected Tezisy

-

,

.

of

Youth Leagues 1920 Zadachi Soyuzov Molodezhi Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

York

New

. ., .p

London

the

v

Works

Collected

Tasks

,

n d

, . 23 ,

Doklad na II Vserossiiskom 20 Yanvarya 1919g . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 -1952 ,

, p . 456 .

29

10

.

Secs

.

.

v

390

Zadachakh III Internatsionala Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , O

LENIN

174

To the Rural Poor ( 1903 ) K Derevenskoi Bednote . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952,

. 2,

.

. .

378

158

1905

)

.

)

-

(

of

v

-

.

,

in

of

1915

. )

Stolen Flag

.

, .

, . p

118

.

York 1930

New

v

Collected Works

115

p

-

, v .

1949 1952

, . 18 ,

,

USSR

21

Flagom

Pod Chuzhim Sochineniya

)

138

.

, . p

552

.

165

. .

, .

. 28 ., , . p .p .

v

York

n d

New

, . 8 ,

Works

v

-

,

(

Valuable Admissions Pitirim Sorokin 1918 Tsennye Priznaniya Pitirima Sorokina Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952

188

)

, .p

19

, . v

-

by

,

)

, v .

1949 1952

-

Avstralii 1913 Sochineniya USSR

18

)

1913

1949 1952

Selected

. .

21 , , p . .

, v .

York 1943

p

v

New

Sochineniya USSR (

V

Uzel Zadachi

, . 5 ,

Works

, (

Selected

-

,

.

O

States

(

of

Europe Slogan 1915 Lozunge Soedinennykh Shtatov Evropy Sochineniya USSR 1949 1952 308

United

Revolyutsii

, . 9 , p . 1 .

1952

1949

Social Democracy the Democratic Little Lenin Library New York 1935

(

Under

a

.

Vol

USSR

Tactics 22

Two

,

Sochineniya

144

Revolution

.

v

, . 3 ,

New

.

York Democracy Two Tactics Social 1905 Dve Taktiki Sotsial Demokratiiv Demokraticheskoi Selected

.

-

127

.

1952

1949

293

Works

, . n .d 8, ., p p .

, .

Dve Taktiki Sochineniya USSR

v

(

v

, . 5 ,

New York 1943

p

v

-

, .

21 , p, . .

.

1949 1952

Selected

.

, .p

v

Revolyutsii

USSR Works

Two Tactics

423

1915

)

of

York 1942

New

Dvukh Liniyakh

Sochineniya

,

O

the Revolution

256

1949 - 1952 , v . 23 , p.

, .

Collected Works

Two Lines

243 .

Politike .

,

v

325 .

. ., p .

n d

( 1917 )

Politics

Mirovoi Sochineniya , USSR

Povorot

. 6, p.

v

York

New

19

Turn in World

v

(

Works ,

Selected

LENIN Vulgar

175 Socialism

Vulgarnyi

and Narodism

i

Sotsializm

( 1902 )

istami- Revolyutsionerami . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , Vulgar Socialism tionaries Selected

War and

.

v

. 6, p.

York

Voskreshaemye

Sotsial

234 .

Revived

and Narodism

Works , v . 2, New ( 1918 )

,

Narodnichestvo

. ., p .

n d

the Socialist Revolu

by

197

.

Peace

Doklad o Voine i Mire 7 Marta . Sochineniya , USSR 1949 - 1952 , v. Selected Works

What Is To

, v . 7,

Be Done ?

Chto Delat '? Sochineniya , USSR

New

York

, p. n . d ., p . 27

65 . 283 .

(1902 ) 1949 - 1952 , v . 5 , p . 319 .

Selected Works , v . 2, New

York n . d ., p . Party Peasantry Workers and the ( 1901) Rabochaya Partiya i Krest 'yanstvo .

'

27

.

, USSR 1949 -1952 , v . 4 , p . 394 . Works, v . 2, New York n .d ., p . 234 .

Sochineniya Selected

Znachenie Prezidentskikh

Vyborov

v

Amerike ( 1912 ) Vyborov v Amerike .

i Znachenie Prezidentskikh Sochineniya , USSR 1949 -1952 , v . 18, p . 373 . Znamechaniya na Knigu Bukharina ( 1920 ) Znamechaniya na Knigu N . I. Bukharina ‘Ekonomika Itogi

'

nogo Perioda . Leninskii Sbornik

, v.

11 , Mos

./ Len .

1929

, p.

345 .

Perekhod

SUPPLEMENTARY

INDEX

. , .16 V .2 .—

note

,

by

. 1 . 3 .4 , 3 .1 .5



pars

pars

, .11 .1 , . 0 — 1 .4 .4 .2 .4 , . 3 . 1 2 .1 . .4 24 , 3 .4 .4 , 3 .5 .4

ARMY



-

ADORATSKY AFRICA par ARISTOCRACY

0 . 4 .1

.)

is

to

be

few

(Major topics can be located through the Table of Contents and exceptions followed through cross references in the notes. With a subjects which cannot this index restricted traced that method

ASIATIC SOCIETY par AVELING E

, .-

par

pars

. 1 . 7 .1 , 1 .9 .9

M

, .—

BAKUNIN

. 1 . 10 .2 , 3 .1 10 .4 , 3 . 5 .4 , 3 .5 .6

. . .2 1 9 . .1 4. 4. 5 5 10 .1 . .1 1

-

pars

-2

CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS

note

.

— 1 .6 .2



pars COLONIALISM CONSTANT CAPITAL

pars DIALECTIC pars DISTRIBUTION DIVISION OF LABOUR pars DUEHRING

note

pars

177

-4

. . .17 2 .2 - .1 .2 -4 , , 2 4 .2 . .1 .3 1. .5 1 .3 , 1 . 1 .6 , 1 .2 .1 , 1 .9 .2 , 4 .5 .3

, E .-



. 0 .2 .2 , 4 . 4 .1



3

. 2 . .1 .5 1.4 , .2 2 .5 .2

par

pars



CIRCULATION CIVIL SOCIETY

. 1 . — 6 .3 , , 3 2 . 1 .7 8. .8 .1 2 1 . . 5, 2 .3 2 .1 .1

— L

CAMPHAUSEN

, .-

-

, , J 0 . .— -

, ,

— —

BAUER BRUNO note BAUER EDGAR note par BENTHAM pars BISMARCK pars BONAPARTISM

INDEX

178

EAST INDIES —

par . 1.6 . 2

EDEN , F . M . — par. 1. 8. 1 ENGLAND — pars. 0 . 1. 1, 1.3 . 3, 1.6 . 2 , 1. 9. 4 -5, 1. 10. 2- 3 ; pars . 3. 5 . 2 , 3. 5 . 5 : note 3 .6 . 3 ; sec . 3 . 7 ; par . 3. 8 . 1 EQUALITY — pars . 1. 1. 5, 2 .4 .1 , 2 . 9. 1 -2 , 3 . 1. 3-4 , 3. 1.6 EXECUTIVE POWER - pars . 3. 1.5 , 3. 2. 1- 2

note

.. ;

2 5 4

FACTORY ACTS — pars . 1.9 .5 , 1. 9. 10 FEUDAL SOCIETY — pars . 1. 1. 7 , 1.2 .2- 3 , 1. 3. 4, 1 .6 . 2, 1.8 .4 -5 , 1. 10 .2 , 1. 10 . 4 ; note 2. 1. 1 ; pars. 2. 5 . 5 -6 , 2. 4 . 3, 2. 7 . 2 -3 , 3 . 1. 3 -4 , 3. 2. 2 , 3. 5 . 2 - 9

FEUERBACH ,

L.

- par .

4 .4 . 2 ; note

FORCES OF PRODUCTION 2. 6 . 1

JUDICIARY

— pars

4 .5 . 1

pars.

. . , 1.5 .6 , 1. 7. 5, 2. 2.2, 2 .4 . 3,

1 1 3

. 3. 1.5, 3.2. 3

JUSTICE — par. 1. 5 . 5

. -4 ; 4 .1 .2 , .

. 1 .38 .6. .6 1, ; 1 .6 .3

- ; 7 ;

2 1 1

-

sec

pars

note

,

. . .

;

4 . 6 .3 - 1 4 9 4

.

4 1 .4 8 .2

pars

10

, . . , 3 .1 .3 -5 , sec . 3 .7 1 .6 .5

LATIN AMERICA — note 1.2.2 ; pars. 1.6. 2, 3. 4. 3 pars — pars. 1. 1.6 - 7, 1. 2. 4 , 1. 4 . 1 ;

LAW

pars

.

;

. .

;

2 7 2

. 1 .2 .3 — , 1 . 3 . .3 , 3. 1 1 .7 .5 .1 , .19 .5 , 2 .5 .3

note

pars

, . N — . 35. 1. .H . 0 4 .3 . .1 -5 3 - . 1 .1 , -4 .4 , 3 , .3 . 1 5 . 2 .4 .7 .4 1 , .3 , .6 .8 36. , 3. , .1 .4 7 1 2 . . .5 6 4 . 4, .8 6 , .5 9-, 2 . 6

. . , 1 .9 .4 , .1 10 .2 1 6 2

, 3 .2 .2 ,

, S .

par

pars

, 3 .1 .6 ,

3 1 3 -4

-2

. 6 . 4 , 2 .9 .1

pars

, 3 .4 .3 , 3 .5 .4 ,

,

3 . .53 -6

-5

. 10 .1

1

pars

. 1 .4 .2 ,

;

1 .2 .2

note

3 .5 .6 8

GERMANY



3 .3 .4

-

FREEDOM

, . .

3 .5 .2

, -

FRANCE

-4

,

3 .2 .4

LIBERALISM

LINGUET 3 .4 .4

par

pars

3 . 6 .3

LANDLORDS



LEGISLATIVE POWER

.6 .3

-9

. 1 .9 . 4 , .19 .8

pars

.

;

.

sec

4 .2

;

2 .1 . 1

. 3 ,

1 . 6

.

;

pars

; .2 , 1 .5 3 . 4 pars

. . , 2 .7 .1 2 5 1



. .1 10 .5

-

par

note



par

INHERITANCE LAWS INTEREST notes JAPAN

.15 .1



.

pars

note

. 1 . .6 1 .2 .5

HOLLAND

F

W

. .13 .3

par

. .

.

,

HOBBES

- T. -

-

2

.54 .1 ,

HEGEL

G

, F .-

GUIZOT

INDEX

179

MEANS OF PRODUCTION

— pars

. 1.2. 2, 1.2.4 , 1. 3 .2, 1.7 .1 , 1. 9.9 ,

2 . 5 . 3 , 2. 5 . 5 - 6 , 2 .6 . 2 , 2. 7. 2, 2 . 8 . 1, 3. 1. 6 , 3 . 2 . 3 , 4 .5 . 5 , 4 . 6 . 5

MONARCHY — pars. 1. 3.4 , 1. 10 .2- 3 , 3. 1.5 , 3 .2. 2, 3.5 .3 -8 MONTESQUIEU , C . L . - par . 1.8 . 1 MOORE , SAMUEL - par . 0 .4 .4 NAPOLEON 1 - pars. 1.10 . 2- 3, 3.5 .4 ; note 4 .3 .1 NAPOLEONIC CODE — par. 1.8.5 NATIONAL DEBT - par . 1.6 . 2 NATIONALIZATION — pars . 3.6 . 1, 3.6 .3, 3.7. 4, 3.8 .8 -9

NATURAL NATURAL

pars . 1. 5 . 4 - 6 , 2 .4 . 3 RIGHT - pars. 1. 5.4 , 2.4 . 3,

PEASANTS



LAW

4. 5 . 4

par .



. . ; notes

0 1 1

PETTY BOURGEOISIE



. . , 3. 1.3

2 9 1

. . , 1. 3. 2 ;

1 2 2

par .

. . ;

1 2 3

note

3. 3. 3, 3. 3. 7 - 9 , 3. 5 . 5 , 3. 5 . 8 , 3 .6 . 1, 4 . 4 . 2

pars . 3 . 2. 4, 3.3. 7 - 9 , 3 .7. 2 ,

.. ;

1 2 3

pars .

. . , 3. 2. 4 ,

2 5 3

PLANNING — pars . 2 .3. 4, 4 .6. 5 POLICE — pars . 1. 1.1, 3.2. 3-4 PORTUGAL - par . 1.6. 2 PRICE - pars . 0.2 .1, 2.6 . 4 , 2 .7. 1, 4 . 3.9 PRIMITIVE SOCIETIES — pars . 1.1.1 -6 , 1.2.1- 2 PROFIT — notes 2.5 . 1 , 2 . 7 . 1 PROTECTION — par . 1.6 . 2 PROUDHON , P . J. - par . 4.4 .2 PUBLIC AUTHORITY — pars . 1.8 . 3-4 PUBLIC

POWER

par.



..

1 8 3

RACE — pars. 1. 1. 4, 1. 3 .2 REAL COST — note 2. 3.4 REFORMIST SOCIALISM — pars . 1. 10 .7, 3 .4 .4, 3.6 . 1-4, 3 .9 .2 REFORMS — pars . 1.9.5 - 11 , 1. 10.1 RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION — pars. 0 .2 .2 , 1. 2. 3, 1 .3.2 , 2 . 1. 3 , 2 . 2 . 2 , 2 .6 . 1, 3 .5 . 2 - 3, 3. 5 . 9

RELIGION par.

4. 6.5

pars .

..,

15 6

. . , 4. 1. 2 -4 , 4. 3.8 - 10 , 4.4. 2, 4 .5 . 1-2 ; note 4 .5.3 ;

1 1 2

RENT — notes 2. 5. 1, 2 .7. 1 REPUBLIC — pars. 0 . 1.1, 1.3.4 , 3. 1. 1, 3. 1.6 , 3.8.7 RICARDO , D . — par . 2.4. 3 RIGHT OF REVOLUTION — par . 1.5.6 ROUSSEAU , J . J. - pars. 1.5 . 2, 1. 5 .4 RULING CLASS — pars. 1. 1. 4, 1. 1.7, 1.3.2, 1.3.4 , 1.4 .6 -7, 1. 7.1, 1.8.4, 1. 9. 5 - 7 , 1. 10 . 2 , 3 . 3 . 3 , 3 . 5 . 2 , 4 . 5 . 6

INDEX

180

RUSSIA - par. 0. 1. 1 ; note 1.2.2 ; RYAZANOV , D . - note 0.4. 1 SCIENCE — pars . 4 . 6 .6 , 4 . 6 . 9

pars . 1.10 .5 , 3.4 .3

. . , 1.3.5, 4.1.3 ;

note

0 2 2

.. ;

4 3 5

pars.

. . , 4 .6.2,

4 5 4

SIMPLE COMMODITY PRODUCTION — pars . 2 .5 . 3 -4 SLAVE SOCIETY — pars . 1. 1.5, 1.1.7 , 1.2.2 - 3, 1.3. 4 , 1.4 . 3, 1. 9. 9 , 1. 10 . 2 ; note 2. 1.1 ; pars. 2 .5 .6 , 2. 7. 2- 3, 3. 1.3, 3. 1. 5, 3. 3.4 SMITH , A . — par. 2 .4. 3 SOCIALIST SOCIETY - par . 0 . 2.2 ; note 1. 1. 5 ; pars. 1. 2.1-2 , 1. 9.11, 1. 10.6 -7 , 2. 3. 4 , 2 . 9. 2 , 3.5 . 2 , 3.6 . 1 SPAIN

— par

. 1. 6. 2

STATE OF NATURE — par . 2 .4 .3 STRUVE , P . — note 1.8. 3 SWITZERLAND — par . 0 . 1. 1 TAXATION — par. 1. 6 .2 ; note 1. 9 .5 TRADE UNIONS — pars. 3. 3.6 , 3. 7.2 UNITED STATES par.

3. 7 .6



par.

..;

0 1 1

UNPRODUCTIVE CLASSES UNTERMANN , E . - par . 0 . 4 .4

note

—note

par

. 3.4 .3 ;

3. 2 .4

note

VARIABLE CAPITAL - note 2.7 . 1 VULGAR DEMOCRACY - note 4.5 .5 VULGAR ECONOMICS — note 4 .3.5 ; WELFARE LEGISLATION

.. ;

1 2 2

par .

. .

1 9 6

4 . 6 .2

note

.. ;

3 6 3