THE CONCEPT OF FINITUDE IN RENOUVIER

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Xerox University Microfilms 300 North Z eeb R oad Ann Arbor, M ichigan 48106

LD3907 2 ,1 9 7 4 s io? n C a ld w e ll, E liz a b e t h Pry, 19091 Z' The concept o f f i n i t u d e in . 0 3 Renouvi'er. New York, 19^9«» v i l i , 2 l 8 t y p e w r it te n l e a v e s 0 29cm< T h esis ( P h o D o ) - New York U niver­ s i t y , Graduate S ch o o l, I9^0o B ib lio g ra p h y : p « 2 l6 -2 l8 « C53102

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THE CONCERT 01' FlmlTUDE IN ttENOUVIER

ELlLAEETH FRY Cal DWELL

A DISSERTATION IN THE DERAftTaEiYT OR PHILOSOPHY SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SCIENCE OF NEW YORK UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

NEW YORK, NEW YORK

JMUar* 949.

I r " '

2 table o f .contents

In tro d u c tio n i P u rp o se o f th e s tu d y , i v . — i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ; K en o u v ier a s l i n k betw een oames an d K a n t, i v . — D e f e c ts and d i f f i c u l t i e s o f K en o u v ier, v . —A v a ila b le m a t e r i a l , v i . —P h a s e s o f R e n o u v ie r’ s p h ilo s o p h y , v i i —m id d le p e r io d m ost s i g n i f i c a n t , v iii.

iv

C h a p te r 1 - K en o u v ier an a ivant N a tu re and e x t e n t o f K a n t’ s i n f l u e n c e o v e r K en o u v ier, 1 . — A lre a d y a p p a r e n t in e a r l y w ork, 2 . — The d in g an s i c h . 3 . — The a n tin o m ie s , S . — K en o u v ier’ s view o f K a n t’ s c o n t r i b u ­ t i o n , 9 . — E p istem o lo g y key p ro b lem o f m odem p h ilo s o p h y , 1 0 .— K a n t’ s s o l u t i o n , 1 1 .— K e n o u v ie r’ s o b j e c t i o n s to K an t. 1 8 .— R e s u lts o f th e s e o b j e c t i o n s , 2 7 . — D i f f i ­ c u l t i e s o f th e p o s i t i o n , 2 6 . — P ro b lem o f K e n o u v ie r’ s d e b t to K an t, 29.

1

C h a p te r 2 - The M a th e m a tic a l C o n cep t o f F in it u d e K en o u v ie r’ s n a t u r a l b e n t f o r m a th e m a tic s , 3 1 • — D i f f i c u l t i e s o f a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s , 3 1 .— D o c tr in e o f S u b s ta n c e , 32 . —Law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , 34*—Daw o f num ber, 3 5 .—N a tu re o f d e f i n i t i o n , 3 5 .—S u b je c t and o b j e c t , 3 6 .—A p p earan ces a r e r e a l i t y , 3 7 .— R e a lity i s a r e l a t i o n , 3 8 . —D is p ro o f o f th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an i n f i n t e num ber, 3 9 .— D is p ro o f o f d in g an s i c h . in th e o b j e c t , 4 5 .— In th e s u b j e c t , 5 3 .— R e s u lts o f d is p r o o f o f d in g an s i c h . 57. C h a p te r 3 - E p is te r a o lo g ic a l and M e ta p h y s ic a l I m p l ic a t io n s o f th e ±v^ a th e m a tic a i C o ncept o f F i n i t u d e : Law and F u n c tio n Does th e r e p u d ia tio n o f th e d in g an s ic h r e s u l t in s k e p tic is m s ? 6 1 .— K en o u v ier’ s d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y , 6 2 .—D e f i n i t i o n o f t r u t h i n te rm s o f law , 6 3 .— D e f in it io n o f a i t h i n g , 6 4 .—Law a s r e l a t i o n , 6 9 . — F u n c tio n , 7 0 .— D i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e p o s i t i o n , 74*— I s law l i k e o th e r r e l a t i o n s ? 7 6 .— Can t n e r e be a r e l a t i o n w ith o u t term s? 7 7 .—A bsence o f a p r i n c i p l e o f in d i v id u a ­ t i o n i n K en o u v ier, 7 9 .— D i f f i c u l t i e s o f c a u s a l i t y on th e s e p re m is e s , 8 2 . —D i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o n c e p t o f f u n c ti o n w ith a d o c t r i n e o f e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s , 8 4 .— K en o u v ie r’ s p o s i t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l w ith t h a t o f Hume, 8 8 .

'lO \ 0 4 1

/

31

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C h a p te r 4 - E p is te m o lo g ic a l and M e ta p h y s ic a l I m p l ic a t io n s o f th e M a th e m a tic a l C o n cep t o f f i n i t u d e : The C a te g o r ie s D e f i n i t i o n o f c a te g o r y , 9 0 . - - L i s t o f c a t e g o r i e s , 9 1 .— Com­ p a r e d w ith th o s e o f K a n t, 9 1 . — T a b u la tio n o f C a te g o r ie s and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s , 9 3 . —The c a t e g o r i c a l p ro p o s itio n , 9 3 .— R e l a ti o n , 95*—Number, 9 7 .— S p ace, 9 8 .— Time, 9 9 .— Q u a lity , 1 0 1 .— Becom ing, 1 0 2 .— C a u s a l ity , 1 0 2 .—T e le o lo g y , 1 0 3 . — P e r s o n a l i t y , 1 0 5 .— D i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e d e r i v a t i o n o f th e c a t e g o r i e s , 1 0 6 .—P o s s i b i l i t y o f th e t o t a l s y n t h e s i s , 1 1 2 .— The c a t e g o r i e s do n o t a p p ly to th e w h o le, 113. C h a p te r 5 - K e n o u v ie r 's V alue T heory B ased on K an t and L e i b n iz , 1 1 5 .— E s s e n t i a l l y p s y c h o lo g ic a l, 1 1 6 .—Man a s m icrocosm , 1 1 6 .— I d e n t i c a l s u b je c t - m a t te r o f p sy ch o lo g y and l o g i c , 1 1 8 .— I d e n t i t y o f t r u e and good, 118. — D iv is io n s o f R e n o u v ie r 's p s y c h o lo g y , 1 2 1 .—N a tu re o f c o n s c io u s n e s s , 1 2 1 .— f u n c ti o n s o f man a r e th e c a t e g o r ie s in a c t i o n , 1 2 4 .—W ill a s fu n d a m e n ta l human f u n c ti o n , 1 2 5 .-^ Freedom , 1 2 7 .— Freedom and c e r t a i n t y , 1 3 0 ,-lP h iJ o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y , 1 3 4 .—N a tu re o f m o r a l i t y , 1 3 3 .— The c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a ti v e , 1 3 4- — The p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n , 1 3 7 .— M onaaology, 1 3 6 .— P ro b lem o f th e v a lu e th e o r y , 145. C h a p te r 6 - R en o u v ier and Jam es J a m e s 's p e r s o n a l d e b t to R enouvier., 1 4 6 . — C o rresp o n d en ce w ith and a b o u t h im , 149*— C om parison o f Jam es and R en o u v ie r, 1 5 1 .—Jam es and P e i r c e , 1 5 3 .— Two m a jo r a s p e c t s o f J a m e s 's th o u g h t, 1 5 4 .—K an t th e p io n e e r o f p rag m atism , 1 5 8 .— In ­ f lu e n c e o f K an t on P e i r c e , 1 5 9 .— Con£>arison o f P e ir c e and R e n o u v ie r, 1 5 9 .— R e la tiv e in f l u e n c e o f P e ir c e and R en o u v ier on Jam es, 1 6 2 .— R e la tio n o f R e n o u v ie r 's p o s i t i o n to p ra g ­ m atism , I 6 4 . —h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f R en o u v ier, 165. C h a p te r 7 - The F i n i t e God R esem blance and d i f f e r e n c e w ith K a n t. 1 6 8 .—P h a s e s o f R e n o u v ie r 's c o n c e p t o f God, 169, 1 6 9 .— The L a s t P h ilo s o p h y , 1 6 9 .—M id d le p e r io d im p o r ta n t o n e , 1 7 1 .— R e f u ta tio n o f c o s m o lo g ic a l a rg u m e n t, 1 7 1 .— J a m e s 's c o n c e p t o f f i n i t e God, 1 7 2 .— God n o t a c r e a t o r , 1 7 2 .— Gad i s a p e r s o n , 174*—God i s f i n i t e , 1 7 5 .— P o ly th e is m , 1 7 7 .—L o g ic a l r e s u l t o f p h i l o ­ sophy o f f i n i t i s m , 1 8 0 .—L a s t p h ilo s o p h y m o tiv a te d by d i s ­ l i k e o f C a th o lic is m , 1 8 1 .— E s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s betw een m id d le and l a t e p e r i o d , -1 8 2 .— D if f e r e n c e s betw een Jam es and R e n o u v ie r, 1 8 3 .— God i n P e i r c e , 1 8 4 .— The f i n i t e God i n B rig h tm a n , 1 8 5 .—M ontague a l s o h a s a f i n i t e God, 1 8 6 .— P ro m e th e u s, th e m u th o lo g ic a l symbol o f th e f i n i t e God, 1 8 7 .— P ro b lem s o f t h e f i n i t e God, 188.

iii.

C h a p te r 8 - E v a lu a tio n 190 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c r i t i c i s m s o f K en o u v ier, 1 9 0 . - I m p o s s i h i l i t y o f K a n tia n phenom enalism w ith o u t d in k an s i c h . 1 9 0 .—P o s s i i l i t y o f e l i m i n a t i n g noumena i n g en era}., 19-4.— l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e w ith o u t d in g a n s i c h . 1 9 6 .— God i s n o t an a p p e a ra n c e , 1 9 7 .— C o n fu sio n o f i n f i n i t e w ith i n f i n i t e s i m a l , 1 9 8 .— C la s s th e o r y o f num ber, 1 9 8 .— C a n to r an d t r a n s f i n i t e nu m b ers, 2 0 0 .— I n f i n i t e d i v i s i b i l i t y p r e r e q u i s i t e to f i n i t e d i v i s i o n , 2 0 2 .— B o y le 's la w , 2 0 3 .— The e l l i p s e and th e h y p e r b o la , 2 0 3 .— S i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e m inus s ig n i n th e e q u a tio n o f t h e h y p e r b o la , 2 0 4 . — The f i n i t e i n f i n i t e , 2 0 5 .— The c o n c r e te u n i v e r s a l , 2 0 6 .— D i f f i c u l t i e s o f e m p ir ic a l a e s t h e t i c s , . 2 0 7 .— R en o u v ier h a s no a e s t h e t i c s , 2 0 9 .—Ean a s c o n c r e te u n i v e r s a l , 2 0 9 .—J e s u s , th e m ytho­ l o g i c a l symbol o f th e f i n i t e - i n f i n i t e o r c o n c r e te u n i v e r s a l 2 1 0 .— D o c tr in e cf t h e T r i n i t y , 2 1 2 .— E m o tio n a l in a d e q u a c y o f th e f i n i t e God, 213*— L o g ic a l o b j e c t i o n s to th e p o s i t i o n summed u p , 214-• B ib lio g ra p h y

216

THE CONCEPT OF FINITUDE IN RENOUVIER

INTRODUCTION _ •^

The p u rp o s e o f t h i s s tu d y i s to exam ine t h e co n c e p t o f f i n i t u d e i n m e ta p h y s ic s , w ith s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to th e p h ilo s o p h y o f R e n o u v ie r, and w ith m a jo r em p h asis on th e c o n c e p t o f th e f i n i t e ^ o d .

R e n o u v ie r*3 e n t i r e

l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s b a s e d upon " th e d e te r m in a te law o f n u m b er," and a l l h i s v a l u e th e o ry an d c o n c e p t o f God f o ll o w from i t . a lth o u g h he u s e e ^ a n t a s a p o in t o f d e p a r t u r e , h i s m atu re s ta te m e n ts o f h i s p h ilo s o p h y i s more th a n N e o -K a n tia n ism .

The e x p o s i t i o n , commencing w ith th e d e b t to K ant and

th e e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e law o f num ber, w i l l p la c e main e m p h asis on v a lu e th e o r y an d th e f i n i t e G od.

Some c r i t i c i s m o f f i n i t u d e , e s p e c i a l l y i n v a l u e

th e o r y an d r e l i g i o n , w i l l th e n be a t te m p t e d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s s tu d y i s m a in ly h i s t o r i c a l , s in c e i t c o n s i s t s i n th e f o c u s in g o f a t t e n t i o n upon a h i t h e r t o n e g l e c t e d l i n k i n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f th o u g h t.

I n a s e n s e , R e n o u v ie r, a lth o u g h p r a c t i c a l l y

unknown i n t h i s c o u n tr y , i s th e m ost im p o r ta n t o f th e s u c c e s s o r s o f % t , . s in c e h e i s i n d i s p e n s a b le t o t h e l i n e o f f o r c e c o n n e c tin g K an t w ith p ra g m a tis m . Ag w i l l be i n d i c a t e d i n th e p a g e s t h a t f o l l o w , K ant can w ith g r e a t j u s t i c e be c a l l e d t h e f a t h e r o f p ra g m a tism , a lth o u g h t h e r e i s an e v i d e n t gap b etw een h i s th o u g h t and t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f Jam es.

The

c o n n e c tio n i s t h e r e , b u t , w ith o u t R e n o u v ie r, i t i s r a t h e r a t a n t a l i z i n g

V

s u g g e s tio n t h a t an e x p l i c i t d e v e lo p m e n t.

SShen, how ever, we i n s e r t i n t o

th e h i s t o r i c a l c h a in th e sy stem o f R e n o u v ie r , avow edly stemming from K ant and av o w ed ly i n f l u e n c i n g J a m e s, t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n becomes e v i ­ d e n t a n d th e o r i g i n o f p rag m a tism i n K ant u n q u e s tio n a b le . T h is j u s t i f i e s th e s tu d y o f R e n o u v ie r d e s p i t e th e many d e f e c t s w hich e v e n a c u r s o r y e x a m in a tio n o f h i s sy ste m r e v e a l s . Even th o u g h h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n had to be rew o rk ed b y Jam es i n o r d e r to become p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y v i a b l e , i t rem ain s b o th i n t e r e s t i n g an d v a lu a b le a s a stu d y o f th e p r o c e s s o f t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e i n t e l l e c t i n f r e e i n g i t s e l f from a p r io r is m i n t o p ra g m a tism .

As a p io n e e r e f f o r t t o d e v e lo p th e n o tio n s o f v o lu n t a r is m , of

fre e d o m , o f a s y n t h e t i c an d d y n am ic e x p e r ie n c e f r e e d from th e tram m els o f t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p ts , t h e sy ste m m ust b e o f l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e I t b e a r s , h o w e v e r,,

t h e m arks o f th e s t r u g g l e .

e d , p o n d e ro u s , o b s c u r e , a n d , ab o v e a l l , a b s t r a c t .

I t i s v e rb o s e , d i s p r o p o r t i o n C o n crete i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o

c l a r i f y t h e c o n c e p ts m ust i n e v i t a b l y b e c o n j e c t u r e s , s in c e , i n th e e n t i r e le n g th y and in v o lv e d e x p o s i t i o n , n o t a s i n g l e one i s g iv e n .

I n a t te m p t in g

t o a s c e r t a i n t h e m eaning i n te rm s o f e v e r y day o b je c ts and n o t i o n s , o n e can o n ly p ro c e e d by what seem s t o be r e a s o n a b l e in f e r e n c e t h a t , t r a n s l a t e d i n t o te r m s o f men an d t h i n g s , t h e s o n o ro u s a b s t r a c t i o n s must mean so m e th in g lik e th is .

I n a tte m p tin g t h i s s o r t o f a n a l y s i s , th e work o f «>ames h as

p ro v e d a n in v a lu a b le g u id e , o f f e r i n g , a s i t d o e s , a much s im p le r an d c l e a r e r v e r s io n o f a co m p arab le p o i n t o f v ie w .

I t rem a in s t r u e , how ever, t h a t t h e

com m entator can o n ly hope n o t t o h av e done undue v io l e n c e t o th e t e x t w ith th e a tte m p te d g lo s s e s upon i t .

A gain th e h i s t o r i c a l dev elo p m en t m ust be

r e l i e d upon h e a v ily a s a c l u e i n th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f o b s c u re p a s s a g e s , and we must lo o k f i r s t b a c k to K ant and th e n a h e a d t o Jam es i n o r d e r t o ob­ t a i n a n o tio n o f th e sh ad e o f m eaning in t e n d e d . Very few c o m m en ta ries upon •Kenouvier e x i s t , and none i n E n g lis h . ✓ G a b rie l S e a i l l e s h as w r i t t e n , i n La P h ilo s o p h ie d e C h a rle s R e n o u v ie r, a r e a d a b le , b u t la m e n ta b ly u n c r i t i c a l , resum e o f th e d ev elo p m en t o f R e n o u v ie r's th o u g h t,

^he main m e r i t o f t h i s work l i e s i n th e f a c t t h a t i t i s a f a i t h ­

f u l and ad m irin g ep ito m e o f th e p o s i t i o n , d iv e s t e d o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f R e n o u r iv e r 's crab b ed and d i f f i c u l t s t y l e .

H a m e lin 's Le aystem e de k e n o u v ie r.

w hich i s a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s w hich h e d e l i v e r e d on K en o u v ie r a t t h e t>orb o n n e, i s a g a in i l l u m i n a t i n g by v i r t u e o f i t s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f th e m a t e r i a l , b u t i s a l s o r a t h e r a summary t h a t a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r c r i t i q u e ,

o in c e

n e i t h e r th e s e yolum es n o r R e n o u r i v e r 's o m w r i t i n g s h a v e b een t r a n s l a t e d , w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f a b r i e f s e le c tio n from th e b e g in n in g o f th e f i r s t E s s a i by Benjam in Rand f o r h i s v o lum e, M odern C l a s s i c a l P h ilo s o p h e r s • t r a n s l a t i o n s a p p e a rin g i n th e t e x t a r e my own.

Owing t o t h e in v o lv e d s t y l e

and th e o b s c u r it y o f th e t e x t , id i o m e t ie E n g lis h h a s i n e v e r y c a s e been s a c r i f i c e d to f i d e l i t y to t h e o r i g i n a l . I t h a s / b een s a i d t h a t th e r e a r e two ways t o t r a n s l a t e : word f o r word and s e n s e f o r s e n s e .

xhe l a t t e r makes

f o r th e mare l i t e r a r y an d r e a d a b l e r e s u l t s , b u t , i n many p a s s a g e s , a

vii

t r a n s l a t i o n s e n s e f o r s e n s e ra n th e r i s k o f b e in g a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and w as, a c c o r d in g ly , r e j e c t e d . The p h il is o p h y o f R en o u v ier p a s s e d th ro u g h t h r e e w e ll- d e f in e d p h a s e s , d e s ig n a t e d by S e a i l l e s and H am elin th e F i r s t P h ilo s o p h y , t h e Second P h ilo s o p h y , an d th e L a s t P h ilo s o p h y .

S in c e th e s e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s a r e n o t

o n ly d i s p a r a t e , b u t , i n im p o r ta n t r e s p e c t s , i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , i t i s im p o s s ib le to s y n th e s iz e them i n t o one s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t w h o le . The F i r s t P h ilo s o p h y was in f l u e n c e d m a in ly by D e s c a r te s , whose m a th e m a tic a l m ethod a p p e a le d t o R e n o u v ie r, b u t t h e r e w ere a l s o K a n tia n e le m e n ts i n i t .

I n t h i s p h a s e , th e

c r e a t i v e p h ilo s o p h y i s n o t y e t f u l l - f l e d g e a and o n e i s f r e q u e n t l y rem in d ed o f t h e e a r l y , s o - c a l l e d S o c r a ti c d ia lo g u e s o f P l a t o , i n w hich th e m a s te r i s much, i n e v id e n c e and th e f l i g h t s o f in d e p e n d e n t th o u g h t a r e b r i e f and te n ta tiv e .

E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s an i r r a t i o n a l p h ilo s o p h y i n w hich c o n tr a ­

d i c t i o n i s ta k e n t o be th e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e a l i t y .

The v a l i d i t y

o f t h e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s d e n ie d , and p h ilo s o p h y re g a r d e d a s one c o lo s ­ s a l a n tim o n y .

The works o f t h i s p e r io d , from 1832 t o 1854, a r e , a p a r t

from th e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , d e v o te d t o th e h i s t o r y o f p h ilo s o p h y and to t h e a n a l y s i s t f

th e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f D e s c r a te s ,

and n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i g i n a l . The g r e a t p e r io d o f th e S econd P h ilo s o p h y e x te n d s from 1854 t o 1897 and r e p r e s e n t s th e co m p lete and d e f i n i t e d ev elo p m en t o f th e two c o n c e p ts o f f i n i t i s m a n d freedom i n t o a g en u in e p h il o s o p h i c a l s y s te m ,c u lm in a tin g i n th e

viii

th e o r y o f th e f i n i t e God.

The L a s t P h ilo s o p h y r e p r e s e n t s a r e v e r s i o n to

P r o t e s t a n t o rth o d o x y and th e d ev elo p m en t o f a p h ilo s o p h y o f h i s t o r y w hich i s a s o r t o f th e o d ic y r e c o u n tin g t h e f a l l and re d e m p tio n o f m an.

^ g a in ,

i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y la c k o f o r i g i n a l i t y , b e in g r a t h e r a re w o rk in g o f P r o t e s t a n t th e o lo g y th a n a c r e a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .

The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f

R e n o u v ie r, t h e wqrk w hich b u i l t upon K ant and i n f l u e n c e d Jam es, i s th e _

W*

V*

E s s a i s de C r it iq u e G e n e r a le . w hich embody th e work o f th e m id d le p e r i o d , and i t i s upon t h i s a s p e c t o f h i s th o u g h t t h a t th e p r e s e n t s tu d y w i l l c o n c e n tra te .

The F i r s t P h ilo s o p h y i s s t r i c t l y an o e u v re de .iu e n e s s e .

and th e l a s t P h ilo s o p h y b e a r s upon i t th e stam p o f s e n e s c e n c e ; t h e g r e a t m id d le p e r io d i s t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f h e n o u v ie r an d th e one s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s a n d comment. I t i s h o p ed t h a t th e b e l a t e d r e c o g n i tio n o f t h i s n e g l e c te d c h a p t e r i n th e h i s t o r y o f p h ilo s o p h y w i l l f i l l an unacknow ledged w ant and s e r v e t o rou n d o u t th e p i c t u r e o f t h e dev elo p m en t o f th o u g h t i n th e l a s t h a lf o f th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry .

THE CONCEPT OF FINITUDE IN RENOUVIER

CHAPTER I RENOUVIER AND KANT

A lth o u g h R e n o u v ie r used. K ant a s a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e , he i s no more d i s i p l e o r co m m en tato r upon h i s m a s t e r .

A lth o u g h he c a l l s h i s sy ste m

N e o c r itic is m , he d o es n o t h d s i t a t e t o a p p ly th e c r i t i c a l m ethod which he so much d e s i r e d t o th e f i n d i n g s o f him whom he had c a l l e d th e l a s t o f t h e p u re and t h e f i r s t o f t h e c r i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s . ^

A lth o u g h he acknow ledges

Kant a s h i s m a s te r , he f e e l s t h a t h i s g r e a t p r e d e c e s s o r l e f t an u n f in i s h e d w ork, an d u n d e r ta k e s f o r h im s e lf t h e t a s k o f c a r r y i n g i t on t o w hat he c o n c e iv e s t o b e i t s l o g i c a l c o n c lu s io n s , a s w e ll a s o f c o r r e c t i n g c e r t a i n of i t s e rro rs. I t seem ed to R e n o u v ie r t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o r s o f Kant i n Germany h ad abandoned th e c r i t i c a l m eth o d , w hich was K a n t’ s m a jo r c o n t r i b u t i o n , and b u i l t a f a b r i c o f m y s ti c a l n o n se n se aro u n d a l l t h a t was weak and a t a ­ v i s t i c in - K a n t, r a t h e r th a n p u r s u in g h i s g e n u in e an d s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t t o i t s g > a l.

T h is o m issio n h e s o u g h t t o r e p a i r b y c u t t i n g away th e K a n tia n

m e ta p h y s ic a l deadwood and u t i l i z i n g to th e h i l t th e c r i t i c a l te c h n iq u e i n w hich he r e g a r d e d K ant a s an in n o v a t o r .

I p t h i s u n d e r ta k in g , he acknow -

R e n o u v ie r ,. C h a r le s , E s s a is de C r i t i q u e G e n e r a te . I r a i t e de Lpgaque G e n e r a te . P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Armand e o l i n , 1 9 2 1 , v o l . 1 , p . 141*

le d g e d K ant a s in d i s p e n s a b l e , b u t r e f u s e d t o d e i f y him a s i n f a l l i b l e . Ab he saw i t , K a n t, l i k e a l l g r e a t p i o n e e r s , i n th e f i e l d o f p h ilo s o p h y , was re m a rk a b le n o t by v i r t u e o f h a v in g made no m i s t a k e s , b u t by v i r t u e o f a n i n s i g h t so P ro m eth ean a s to be bey o n d th e sco p e o f one man’ s tim e and p o w e r.

T h u s, th o u g h th e e r r o r s o f K ant w ere i n e v i t a b l e ,

h i s i n s i g h t s w ere p r e c i o u s . He b o th acknow ledges th e s o u rc e o f t h e t o r c h an d i n d i c a t e s w here he i n t e n d s t o c a s t i t s - l i g h t in th e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e g r e a t , d e # / 2 f i n i t i v e s ta te m e n t o f h i s p h ilo s o p h y ,th e E s s a is de Q r i t i q u e G e n e ra le . b u t we n o te t h a t th e in f l u e n c e cf K ant was a t work oh him ev en b e f o r e th e commencement o f h i s m a s te r p ie c e . A t th e b e g in n in g o f h i s c a r e e r , R e n o u r iv e r ’ s f i r s t m a s te r was D e s c a r te s , b u t , evnn i n t h e a lm o st c o m p le te ly C a r t e s i a n , e a r l y M anuel de P h ilo s o p h i e M oderne. t h e K a n tia n in f l u e n c e i s a l r e a d y a p p a r e n t . Im p re s s e d by t h e K a n tia n a n t in o m ie s ,to w hich, a t t h a t tim e , he saw no s o l u t i o n , he even w ent t o th e e x t e n t o f r e p u d ia tin g t h e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n and a s s e r t i n g t h a t antinom y was t h e fu n d a m e n ta l n a t u r e o f B e in g .

Nor was t h i s

an H e g e lia n d i a l e c t i c i n which a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s was a tte m p te d , b u t a f l a t f o o t e d and u n q u a l i f i e d a c c e p ta n c e o f th e c o - e x i s t e n c e

I b id . . v o l. 1 , p

xv.

o f o p p o s ite s a s th e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y .

I n t h e s u rv e y o f th e h i s t o r y cf

p h ilo s o p h y which h e g iv e s i n th e M an u el. he t r e a t s o f i t s e n t i r e c o u rs e a s a v a s t exam ple o f th e T r a n s c e n d e n ta l D i a l e c t i c , i n w hich n b t o n ly th e j a r r i n g s e c t s c o n s t i t u t e a n tin o m ie s one t o a n o t h e r , b u t , w ith in eac h a b s o lu t e sy stem i t s e l f , an tin o m y i s i n h e r e n t and e s s e n t i a l .

He m a in ta in e d

t h a t an tin o m y r e v e a l s B e in g , s in c e t h e c o n c e p t o f n o n -B ein g i s e s s e n t i a l t o th e c o n ce p t o f B e in g .

M u l t i p l i c i t y an d i n d i v i d u a t i o n b o th in v o lv e t h e

c o - e x i s t e n c e o f B e in g .a n d .n o tr-B e ih g w ith r e g a r d t o th e same o b j e c t .

To

p u t i t a b i t d i f f e r e n t l y , p u re B ein g w ould be honogeneous and u n d i f f e r e n t ­ i a t e d , i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from n o t h i n g .

I t i s th e f a c t t h a t r e a l i t y b o th

i s and i s n o t w hich d e l i v e r s h e t e r o g e n e i t y , m u l t i p l i c i t y , ch an g e , i n s h o r t , th e w o rld . I n t h i s , how ever, R e n o u v ie r was d o in g p r e c i c i s e l y w hat he l a t e r came t o d e p l o r e j he was b u i l d i n g on th e K a n tia n m e ta p h y s ic s , i n s t e a d o f on t h e K a n tia n e p is te m o lo g y .

I t was t h e l a t t e r w hich he e v e n t u a l l y came

t o r e g a r d a s K a n t's c o n t r i b u t i o n .

As an e p i s t o m o lo g i s t , “-ant had d e f i n i t e ­

l y l i m i t e d th e scope o f know ledge t o phenom ena, to a p p e a r a n c e s , to p b j e c t s a s g iv e n i n se n se p e r c e p t i o n .

However, h e h a d b een e q u a lly i n s i s t e n t , a s a

m e ta p h y s ic ia n , t h a t a r e a l i t y u n d e r la y t h e s e a p p e a ra n c e s , a noumenon, a d in g an s i c h . a w o rld n o t g iv e n i n p e r c e p t i o n w h ich , n e v e r t h e l e s s , was m a n if e s te d i n and th r o u g h o u r p e r c e p t i o n s , a n d which g u a ra n te e d t h e i r v a lid ity .

Two co m p ariso n s a r e c o n s t r u c t i v e and i n s t r u c t i v e w ith r e g a r d t o t h e K a n tia n d i s t i n c t i o n o f phenomena a n d noumena, w hich becam e t h e m ain t a r g e t o f R en o u v ier* s c r i t i c i s m , p r o v id e d n e i t h e r i s c a r r i e d to o f a r . The K a n tia n noumenon re se m b le s somewhat t h e P l a t o n i c I d e a ,

i t a ls o

c o rre s p o n d s ro u g h ly t o t h e Unknowable o f H e r b e r t s p e n c e r , w h ile phenom ena c o ’T esp o n d t o th e S p e n c e ria n K now able.

N e it h e r co m p ariso n may be c a r r i e d

t o t h e l a s t d e t a i l , and w hat i s v a l i d i n e a c h su p p le m e n ts t h e o t h e r , h ik e th e P l a t o n i c I d e a , th e K a n tia n noumenon i s a p e r f e c t , n o n - e m p ir ic a l, in c o rp o re a l r e a l i t y .

A lso l i k e P l a t o , K a n tia n phenomena a r e m a n if e s ta ­

t i o n s o f t h e noumenal w o rld , a s t h e w o rld o f e x p e r ie n c e i s a r e f l e c t i o n o r copy o f th e I d e a s .

I n K a n t, h o w ev er, th e noum enal w orld i s n o t w orked

o u t i n t o th e d e t a i l e d h ie r a r c h y o f th e P l a t o n i c I d e a s , w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t c e r ta in o f P la to ’ s d i f f i c u l t i e s a re e lim in a te d .

P la to n ic Id e a s a re

o f a t l e a s t t h r e e s o r t s : la n g u a g e , t h a t i s , common n o u n s and a d j e c t i v e s , t h e s im p le a b s t r a c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r s p e e c h an d c o n c e p tu a l th o u g h t; m ath e­ m a t i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s ; and b y p o s ta tiz e d v a l u e ju d g m e n ts . " r e d " , "m an", " c h a i r " , " t r e e " , "2 x 2 = 4 ” »

■Ln o th e r w o rd s,

T T r ^ fl, " t r u t h " , " b e a u ty " ,

a n d " v i r t u e " a r e a l l lum ped t o g e t h e r i n a h i e r a r c h y , r e c o n c ile d w ith one a n o t h e r , c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e w o rld o f a p p e a r a n c e s , an d weeded o u t f o r un­ d e s ira b le s .

T h re e problem s a r i s e : how a r e t h e d i s p a r a t e s o r t s o f JLd e a s

r e l a t e d ; how a r e I d e a s r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t s ; an d a r e t h e r e j-clQa s

a nd

d i s g u s t i n g th in g s ?

h e f i n d th e d e r a t e s o f t h e R e p u b lic w r e s tli n g m a n fu lly ,

i f u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , w ith t h e t h i r d p ro b le m .

Ih e K a n tia n noumenon fu n d a ­

m e n ta lly r e p r e s e n t s o n ly th e t h i r d s o r t o f P l a t o n i c I d e a — th e H y p o s ta tiz e d v a lu e ju d g m e n t. th e p ro b le m .

As f a r a s la n g u a g e i s c o n c e rn e d , K ant d o e s n o t d e a l w ith

He n e v e r e x p r e s s ly and e x p l i c i t l y h a n d le s t h e P ro b lem o f U n i-

v e r s a l s , a lth o u g h h i s fam ous d ic tu m : "T h o u g h ts w ith o u t c o n t e n ts a r e em pty, i n t u i t i o n s w ith o u t c o n c e p ts a r e b l i n d , '

m ig h t l e g i t i m a t e l y be i n t e r p r e t e d

a s a s ta te m e n t o f A r i s t o t e l i a n c o n c e p tu a lis m .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, * a n t i s

m a in ta i n in g th e o n t o l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y o f th e th i n g and th e l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y o f th e c o n c e p t, o r t h a t c o n c e p ts a r e n e v e r e x p e rie n c e d a p a r t from o b j e c t s a lth o u g h th e y can be so th o u g h t .

I f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s a c c e p ta b l e ,

c e r t a i n l y la n g u a g e i s no p a r t o f K a n t's noum enal w o rld , s i n c e th e common noun and a d j e c t i v e m ust b e d e r iv e d from th e i n t e r a c t i o n o f th e c o n c e p tu a l­ i z i n g f a c u l t y o f t h e u n d e r s ta n d in g and th e c ru d e m a n if o ld o f p e r c e p tu a l e x p e rie n c e .

M a th e m a tic a l a b s t r a c t i o n s , b e in g s c i e n t i f i c , a r e li k e w is e

n o t n o u m e n a l. I t m ust be u n d e r s to o d h e re t h a t , i n K a n t, n o t a l l a p r i o r i c o n c e p ts m ust n e c e s s a r i l y be n o u m en al. a n d , in d e e d , i n s i s t e d u p o n , i s

A p r i o r i k n ow ledge, w h ile a c c e p te d

s im p ly th e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f th e know er to

t h e know ing p r o c e s s and n o t a m y s tic a l e n t i t y i n i t s e l f .

I t i s n o t as

know er, b u t a s m o ral a g e n t , t h a t man knows h im s e lf t o be d in a a n s i c h .

K a n t, Im m anuel, C r i t i q u e o f P u re R eason, t r . F . Max M u lle r , 'New ^ o rk , The M acm illan Company, 1 9 2 7 , p . 4 1 .

T h e re fo re , th e noumena, o f w hich K ant e n u m e ra te s t h r e e — God, th e s o u l, and th e u n i v e r s e , o r , a s he p u t s i t , Freedom , uo d , and I m m o r ta lity , c o r r e s ­ ponds o n ly t o t h e t h i r d s o r t o f P l a t o n i c I d e a , t h e h y p o s ta t iz e d v a lu e ju d g ­ m e n ts.

T h is i s c l e a r when we r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s by means o f a v a lu e ju d g ­

m ent, th e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f m o ral good a n d e v i l , t h a t we a r e le d to th e c o n v ic tio n o f t h e i r r e a l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , w h ile th e K a n tia n phenomenon i s c o n s id e r e d t o be a m a n if e s ta t io n o f t h e noum enal w o rld , t h e id e a o f im p e r f e c tio n o r incom ­ p l e t e n e s s i n th e copy i s n o t g iv e n t h e P l a t o n i c e m p h a sis, f u r th e r m o r e , w h ile P l a t o d e f in e s know ledge s t r i c t l y a s know ledge o f th e I d e a l w o rld , and n o t o n ly p la c e s i t w ith in t h e sco p e o f r e a s o n , b u t makes i t th e e s s e n t i a l g o a l o f r e a s o n ; K ant d e f in e s know ledge a s e x c l u s i v e l y o f th e phenom enal w orldand e x p r e s s ly d e n ie s t h e a b i l i t y o f r e a s o n t o p a s s oeyond th e re a lm o f e x p e rie n c e i n t o an u n d e r s ta n d in g o f noum ena.

xhus th e con­

c l u s io n s from s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n , w hich P l a t o would c a l l m ere o p in io n , and n o t know ledge a t a l l , r e p r e s e n t a l l t h a t K ant p r o p e r ly w is h e s t o g a in by k n o w led g e. D e s p ite t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , h o w e v e r, a p r o p e r ly q u a l i f i e d com­ p a r is o n betw een th e K a n tia n noumenon and t h e P l a t o n i c I d e a s o f G oodness, T iu tih , h e a u ty , an d th e l i k e can be h e l p f u l i n g iv i n g a n o ti o n o f th e ty p e o f w hat may be c a l l e d s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e in v o lv e d i n th e K a n tia n noum enon. On th e o th e r h a n d , K a n tia n phenom ena a r e l i k e ‘-'p e n c e r' s K now able, i n t h a t b o th r e f e r to th e w o rld a s g iv e n i n s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n .

Noumena, on

th e c o n t r a r y , a r e l i k e th e U nknow able, i n t h a t - th e y a r e n o t g iv e n

d n se n se

p e r c e p tio n and y e t u n d e r l i e , a r e m a n if e s te d th r o u g h , an d g u a r a n te e th e r e a l i t y o f se n s e p e r c e p t i o n s . S p e n c e r 's U nknow able, h d w ev er, in c lu d e s su c h . c o n c e p ts a s God, M ind, M a tt e r , Tim e, and S p a c e , s l l o f w hich he r e g a r d s a s n o n - e m p ir ic a l. God c e r t a i n l y i s an o b j e c t o f no p o s s i b l e s e n s e e x p e r ie n c e ; Mind a n i M a tte r a r e n e v e r e x p e rie n c e d a s s u b s ta n c e s , b u t o n ly i n f e r r e d from *

th e expe ie n c e d q u a l i t i e s w h ich p e r c e p tio n s y n th e s iz e s i n t o th e o b j e c t ; Time and Space i n th e a b s o lu te N ew tonian s e n s e a r e a l s o n o n - e m p i r ic a l. " s B e rk e le y a s s e r t e d , we do. n o t e x p e r ie n c e Time end S p a c e , b u t o n ly i n d i v i d u a l tim e s and s p a c e s .

W ith c e r t a i n m o d i f ic a t io n s ,^ o d , M ind and M a tte r can

be e q u a te d w ith K a n t’ s God, th e S o u l, and th e U n iv e r s e , a lth o u g h i t

seem s

m ore l i k e l y t h a t K ant in te n d e d h is noumenon t o be one s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e Time and S p ace, ho w ev er, a r e i n K ant s im p ly th e

a p r i o r i form s o f p e r c e p t i o n ,

t h a t i s * t h a t w hich acco m p an ies a l l p e r c e p t i o n ,

i s n o t a p a r t o f th e p e r ­

c e p tio n i t s e l f , and w ith o u t w hich p e r c e p t i o n i s im p o s s ib l e , c o n t r i b u t i o n o f th e p e r c i p i e n t t o p e r c e p t i o n , th e y n o t noum enal, s in c e p e r c e p tio n is p r e c i s e l y t h a t

^ h u s, a s th e

are a p r i o r i . but

i n which noumena do n o t

p a rtic ip a te . I f th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e co m p ariso n a r e b o rn e i n m ind, i t conveys a f a i r l y good p i c t u r e o f th e K a n tia n noumenon, and i t m ust be f u r t h e r n o te d t h a t K an t e x p r e s s ly d is c l a i m s th e a b i l i t y o f r e a s o n t o know t h i s d in g an s i c h .

By means o f th e m o ral law , we a r e made aw are o f

i t , b u t th e l o g i c a l m a ch in ery o f s c i e n t i f i c know ledge can n e v e r le a d u s t o i t , an d i t i s p r e c i s e l y what K ant c a l l s th e T r a n s c e n ta l I l l u s i o n

w hich

le a d s man to b e l i e v e t h a t h i s lo g i c can b e e x te n d e d b ey o n d th e l i m i t s : o f a

e x p e rie n c e and cope w ith th e noumenal w o rld . One o f th e f r u i t s o f th e T r a n s c e n ta l i l l u s i o n i s th e a n tin o m ie s , w hich f i r s t f a s c i n a t e d R e n o u v ie r. They a r e b ased on two c o n c e p ts , b o th o f whi ch a r e g iv e n e x t e n s iv e tr e a tm e n t i n th e m a tu re sy stem o f k e n o u v ie r ; the c o n c e p t o f t h e t o t a l s y n th e s is and th e c o n ce p t o f i n f i n i t y . The w hole d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n th e f a c t t h a t th e T r a n s c e n d e n ta l I l l u s i o n e n c o u ra g e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e id e a o f a b s o lu te t o t a l i t y , w hich h a s m eaning o n ly when a p p l i e d to n o um ena,td phenom ena.

I t in v o lv e s th e p ro b le m w h eth er t h e

e m p ir ic a l s y n t h e s i s c a n b e ex te n d e d t o in c lu d e a b s o lu te t o t a l i t y .

The

an tino m y o f p u re r e a s o n r e s t s on th e assu m p tio n t h a t i t c a n . s t a t e d a s a s y llo g is m , th e arg u m en t r e a d s t , I f th e c o n d itio n e d i s g iv e n th e w hole s e r i e s o f c o n d i tio n s i p g iv e n . But o b j e c t s o f s e n s e p re g iv e n a s c o n d itio n e d . T h e r e f o r e , th e w hole s e r i e s o f c o n d itio n s o f o b j e c t s o f s e n s e i s g iv e n . The m ajo r p re m is e i s an a n a l y t i c p r o p o s i t i o n .

I t h o ld s w ith r e g a r d to

noumena, b u t , w ith r e g a r d to phenom ena, i t h o ld s t r u e o n ly i n s o f a r a s we a r e o b lig e d to t r a c e th e c a u s a l r e g r e s s a s f a r b a c k a s we c a n .

The m ajor

p r e m is e , t h e r e f o r e , d e a l s w ith th e c o n d itio n e d i n th e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l s e n s e , a s noumenon, w h ile t h e m inor p rem ise d e a l s w ith i t i n t h e e m p ir ic a l s e n s e ,

a s a phenom enon.

H e re in l i e s t h e f a l l a c y ,

s in c e th e to r i d h a s no e x i s t e n c e

e x c e p t a s a phenom enon, th e whole arg u m en t i s m e re ly a d i a l e c t i c a l w ar o f w ords and can n o t p o s s i b l y have any m e a n in g . The number o f p a r t s i n a g iv e n phenomenon i s n e i t h e r f i n i t e n o r i n f i n i t e , b e c a u se th e s e r i e s c an n o t be co m p lete d i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n .

Thus th e p roblem l i e s e n t i r e l y i n th e

a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e n o n - e m p ir ic a l c a t e g o r i e s o f t o t a l i t y an d i n f i n i t y t o t h e u n iv e r s e g iv e n a s phenom enon, w hich i s n e i t h e r t o t a l

nor in fin ite .

T h e r e f o r e , t i e a n tin o m ie s , w hich w ere t o th e im m ature R e n o u riv e r th e s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f K an t, a r e r e a l l y a m e ta p h y s ic a l w o r d -ju g g lin g w hich t h e m ature R e n o u v ie r i s a b le to s o lv e i n te rm s o f h i s d o c t r i n e o f fin itu d e .

I t was d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith h i s e a r l y p o s i t i o n w hich l e d him t o

r e a f f i r m t h e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n and s e e k th e s o l u t i o n i n t h i s , p r i n c i p l e , w hich h a s b e e n s u g g e s te d to him by h i s g r e a t t e a c h e r , J u l e s L e q u ie r , who gave him what he c o n s id e r e d to be a m ore c o n s t r u c t i v e co n c e p t o f freed o m th a n t h a t o f K a n t. As th e m a tu re R en o u v ier saw K a n t, h i s g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n had b e e n tw o f o ld :

th e c r i t i c i s m an d l i m i t a t i o n o f th e sco p e o f k n o w led g e, and

th e a s s e r t i o n o f fre e d o m . I n K a n t, t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l th o u g h t o f h i s p r e ­ d e c e s s o r s i s summed u p , and t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l te n d e n c ie s o f h i s s u c c e s s o r s a r e a d u m b ra te d .

I n h e r itin g th e g re a t P la t o n i c - ^ r i s t o t e l i a n t r a d i ti o n o f

a b s o lu te a n d s y s te m a tic p h ilo s o p h y ; t h e t o o l o f th e A r i s t o t e l i a n l o g i c , s h a rp e n e d and p e r f e c t e d b y th e Schoolm en; and t h e e p is te m o lo g ic a l l a b o r s o f th e p o s t- R e n a is s a n c e r a t i o n a l i s t s and e m p i r i c i s t s , he had made n o t

10.

m e re ly a g r e a t s y n t h e s i s , b u t a r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o

te c h n iq u e .

The k ey p ro b le m o f modern p h ilo s o p h y w as, a s R e n o u v ie r r e c o g n iz e d , /

t h e e p is to m o lo g ic a l p ro b le m .

P r i o r t o D e s c a r te s , t h e S o p h is ts a lo n e had

e v e r q u e s tio n e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y , o r sco p e o f k n o w led g e.

The

g r e a t t r a d i t i o n i n p h ilo s o p h y h ad ta k e n know ledge a s a f a c t and s im p ly a n a ly z e d o r e x p la in e d how th e p r o c e s s w orked,

^uch an a p p ro a c h i s n o t

g e n u in e ly e p is te ra o lo g y , w hich comes i n t o b e in g o n ly when th e f a c t o f know­ le d g e i s i t s e l f q u e s tio n e d o r a n a l y z e d .

Tne m e th o d o lo g ic a l s k e p tic is m o f

D e s c a r te s r e p r e s e n t s th e f i r s t s te p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , a lth o u g h i t s d e f e c t s v itia te d i t s re s u lts .

O v e rlo o k in g th e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n i v e r s a l d o u b t,

and o b s e s se d by t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n l o g i c an d th e g ra m m a tic a l s y n ta x o f th e In d o -E u ro p e a n la n g u a g e s , D e s c a r te s h ad s u c c e e d e d o n ly i n g iv i n g im p e tu s t o th e p ro b le m .

Doubt i s a n e g a t iv e c o n c e p t, an d a n e g a tiv e c o n c e p t can n e v e r

be p r i m i t i v e ; th e c o n c e p t w h ich i t n e g a te s is p r e s u p p o s e a i n i t .

One m u s t,

t h e r e f o r e , b e l ie v e i n o r d e r to d o u b t; so m e th in g m ust be a c c e p te d a s t r u e i n o r d e r t h a t th e c o n ce p t o f f a l s i t y may have m e a n in g .

M o re o v e r, " c o g i to ,

e rg o sum” i s n o t a s e l f - e v i d e n t p r o p o s i t i o n , b u t an i n f e r e n c e . d id n o t f in d h im s e lf ;

he fo u n d a t h i n k i n g .

D e s c a r te s

I t i s h e l d by many, a n d ,

a lth o u g h i t may n o t be r e a l l y t r u e , i t f o llo w s on D e s c a r t e s 's p r e m is e , t h a t i t i s o n ly th e n a t u r e o f th e A ryan to n g u e s , i n w hich a v e rb m ust have a s u b j e c t , w hich l e d him t o i n f e r t h e t h i n k e r from t h e t h i n k i n g an a p o s i t h im s e lf a s an in d u b i t a b l e e x i s t e n c e . 'i

1 i ■I

I 3 3 ! /

S in c e t h e B r i t i s h e m p i r i c i s t s stemmed from h o c k e 's o b j e c t i o n to th e C a r te s ia n d o c t r i n e o f in n a t e i d e a s , t h e i r e f f o r t s w ere no more g e n u in e ly c r i t i c a l th a n h i s .

D e s c ra te s h ad been i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a man

who w is h e s t o r e d e c o r a t e a n o ld h o u se , c o m p le te ly f u r n is h e d w ith h e a v y , h ig h ly - c a r v e d S c h o l a s t i c f u r n i t u r e ; who had sim p ly p u t a l l t h e f u r n i t u r e on th e la w , p a i n te d t h e h o u s e , i n s t a l l e d f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t s , an d th e n d u s te d and p u t back a l l t h e f u r n i t u r e .

The B r i t i s h e m p i r i c i s t s had d i s ­

p o sed o f th e f u r n i t u r e p i e c e by p i e c e , an d l e f t n o th in g b u t t h e w a lls and th e f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t s .

I t rem ain ed f o r K ant to make a g e n u in e u s e o f th e

lig h ts . W ith o u t th e f a l l a c i o u s r e l i a n c e on u n i v e r s a l d o u b t, h e s i r e d a g en u in e c r i t i c a l m ethod, i n which th e l i m i t s o f know ledge c o u ld be e s t a b ­ lis h e d .

S c ie n c e , w hich h ad been so f r u i f u l , . m ust be r e s c u e d from th e

p o s i t i o n o f Hume; an d y e t t h e m e ta p h y s ic a l p re su m p tio n s w hich h ad l e d D e s c r a te s upon h i s u n d e r ta k in g m ust be u n d e r c u t,

^ r o f e s s o r H ocking h a s

c & lle d K ant th e f i r s t p r a g m a tis t, an d y e t i t seem s t h a t th e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f th e s ta te m e n t was in a d e q u a te ly re c o g n iz e d b y him who made i t .

P e k in g

j u s t i f i e s th e s ta t e m e n t by c a l l i n g K ant th e f i r s t man to make t h e w i l l an o rg a n o f k n o w led g e.

T h ere i s more th a n t h i s t o i t .

The c o n c lu s io n o f

K ant a c t u a l l y i s t h a t Hume was r i g h t , b u t i t d o e s n o t m a t t e r .

I t v i s tru e

t h a t we know t h e w o rld o n ly a s we a r e e q u ip p ed t o know i t , i n te rm s o f t h e n a t u r e an d l i m i t a t i o n s o f o u r know ing a p p a r a tu s , b u t o u r know ing a p p a r a tu s i s good enough to p r o v id e w orkable h y p o th e s e s on w hich p r e d i c t i o n s

c an be b a s e d .

The u l t i m a t e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y i s beyond th e scope o f

s c ie n c e , b u t th e t o o l s o f s c ie n c e work w e ll enough w ith i n th e w o rld o f e x p e r ie n c e .

I n s h o r t , c r i t i c i s m o f th e l o g i c a l t o o l s o f man r e v e a l s t h a t

th e y f u n c ti o n a d e q u a te ly w ith i n th e re a lm o f th e o b j e c t s o f s e n s e e x p e rie n c e As t o w h eth er s e n s e p e r c e p tio n i s backed up by any r e a l i t y , th e m o ral law i s th e e a r n e s t o f t h a t , and man can r e l a x i n c o n f id e n t e x p e c ta t io n o f m a ste ry o f h i s e n v iro n m e n t. Thus c r i t i c i s m , w hich d e f i n e s th e scope o f k n o w led g e, r e v e a l s t o u s a t once o u r l i m i t a t i o n s and o u r fre e d o m , u n c o n d itio n e d ; t h e w i l l i s autonom ous.

As m o ra l a g e n t s , we a r e

As s c i e n t i s t ^ , we a r e c o n fin e d

w ith in t h e l i m i t s . O f s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n , a n d , so lo n g a s we a c c e p t th e lim ita tio n , our p re d ic tio n s a re v a l id . The l o g i c a l t o o l o f p r e d i c t i o n , th e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f th e know er t o th e knowing p r o c e s s , i s th e c a t e g o r i e s .

Of t h e s e , t h e r e a r e tw e lv e ,

c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r g ro u p s o f t h r e e e a c h .

1'he f o u r m ain h e a d in g s a r e

Q u a n tity , Q u a li ty , R e l a ti o n , and M o a a lity . The t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f Q u a n tity a r e U n ity , P l u r a l i t y , and T o t a l i t y ; t h e t h r e e . c a t e g o r i e s o r R e l a ti o n a r e S u b sta n c e and A c c id e n t, C a u s a l i t y , and R e c i p r o c it y ; an d th e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f M o d a lity a r e P o s s i b i l i t y , E x is te n c e , a n d N e c e s s ity ,

i t i s t o be n o te d

t h a t th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s i s h e g e l ia n i n t h a t th e f i r s t two c a t e g o r ie s i n ea c h group a r e r o u g h ly c o n t r a d i c t o r y and t h e t h i r d p r o v id e s t h e s y n th e s is o f th em .

F u rth e rm o re , i t i s alw ay s th e t h i r d c a te g o r y w hich

13.

te m p ts r e a s o n i n t o t h e T r a n s c e n d e n ta l I l l u s i o n i n t h a t i t p o i n t s beyond e x p e rie n c e i n t o t h e noum enal w o r ld .

T o t a l i t y , th e A b so lu te ( i . e . , th e

u n lim ite d ,w h ic h i s d e r iv a b le from l i m i t a t i o n ) , I n t e r n a l R e l a ti o n s ( i . e . , R e c ip r o c ity c a r r i e d to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n ) , and N e c e s s ity a r e a l l m e te m p iric a l c o n c e p ts .

T hese c a t e g o r i e s , a s K ant saw i t , do n o t o v e r la p ,

a r e a l l n e c e s s a r y t o e x p e r ie n c e , and a r e a d e q u a te t o e x p la in an d o r g a n iz e e x p e r ie n c e .

M o re o v e r, i n K a n t, no one c a te g o r y r a n k s th e o t h e r s .

A ll

a r e o f e q u a l im p o r ta n c e , and an y e x p l a n a tio n o f r e a l i t y r e q u i r e s f o u r a p r i o r i s y n t h e t i c ju d g m e n ts , one subsum ing th e o th e r u n d e r th e a p p r o p r i a t e c a te g o r y o f eac h o f th e f o u r m ain d i v i s i o n s .

F o r e x a p le , a p ie c e o f c h a lk

i s , a s t o Q u a n tity , o n e ; a s t o Q u a li ty , f i n i t e ; a s t o R e l a ti o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s and c a u s e d ; a s t o M o d a lity , e x i s t e n t . T hese c a t e g o r i e s a r e d e r iv e d by K ant from t h e p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s 5 o f th o u g h t i n a ju d g m en t . He d e p a r t s , how ever, i n some r e s p e c t s from th e tr a d itio n a l lo g ic .

I n th e f i r s t p l a c e , h e d i s t i n g u i s h e s betw een th e

s i n g u l a r an d u n i v e r s a l ju d g m en t,w h ich a r e c o n s id e re d a s one by c l a s s i c a l l o g i c i a n s , on th e g ro u n d t h a t a u n i v e r s a l judgm ent co n v ey s a l a r g e r q u a n t i t y o f know ledge th a n a s i n g u l a r .

He a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s an i n f i n i t e from an

a f f i r m a t i v e ju d g m en t, on t h e ground t h a t th e c o n te n t o f t h e p r e d i c a t e i s r e l e v a n t , an d n o t i t s m ere a f f i r m a t i o n o r d e n i a l .

5 I b i d . . p p . 58 f f .

M o d a lity , m o reo v er, d e a l s

n o t w ith th e c o n te n t o f th e ju d g m e n t, b u t w ith the n a tu r e o f t h e c o p u la , t h a t i s , how we a r e to u n d e r s ta n d th e word " i s " i n a g iv e n l o g i c a l ju d g m e n t. Thus i t can b e seen t h a t th e c a t e g o r i e s a r e d e r iv e d b y K a h t, w ith c e r t a i n m o d i f i c a t i o n s , from th e p r e d ic a b le s o f t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n l o g i c , a s amended b y th e Schoolm en.

"Thus he se e k s t o g ro u n d them l o g i c a l l y and t o j u s t i f y by

l o g i c b o th t h e i r names and num ber. K a n t's e p is te m o lo g y i s f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a c u l t y p sy ch o ­ lo g y . He d iv id e s t h e mind f i r s t i n t o r e a s o n , ju d g m e n t, and w i l l .

T h is can

be u n d e r s to o d , e n t i r e l y a p a r t from a f a c u l t y p s y c h o lo g y , a s r e p r e s e n t i n g th e te m p o ra l se q u en ce o f a ju d g m en t a c t u a l l y so in s t a n t a n s o u s a s t o seem i n d i v i s i b l e : f i r s t , I say w hat a t h i n g i s

( r e a s o n ) , th e n w h e th e r

lik e i t

o r n o t ( ju d g m e n t), and th e n w h e th e r I w ant i t o r n o t t w i l l ) . The a p r i o r i form s o f r e a s o n , t h a t i s , th e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e know er t o d e s c r i p t i v e o r s c i e n t i f i c know ledge, a r e tim e and sp a c e a n d t h e c a t e g o r i e s , o f t h e s e , we a r e a b le to d e te r m in e what th e t h i n g i s . judgm ent i s th e co n c e p t o f p u rp o se i n t h e u n i v e r s e . n o n c o n fo rm ity t o an i m p l i c i t p u r p o s iv e n a e s , th e th i n g o r n o t .

b y means

-^'he a p r i o r i form o f &y i t s c o n fo rm ity o r

we d e te r m in e w h eth er we l i k e

The a p r i o r i form o f w i l l i s t h e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e

o r m oral la w , b y means o f w hich we a r e g u id e d i n c h o o s in g w hat we w a n t, i t i s t h e maxim o f a c t i o n an d , m o re o v e r, g u a r a n te e s t c u s a r e a l noum enal w o rld . S in c e th e w i l l b e lo n g s to th e re a lm o f p u re r e a s o n , t h a t i s , o f noumena, th e c a t e g o r ie s ! im p e r a ti v e makes t h e i n d i v i d u a l a noum enon. I t i s

t h u s th e o h ly p o s s i b l e l i n k betw een th e w o rld o f phenom ena an d th e in n e r c o n s c io u s n e s s .

S in c e freed o m i s , h o w e v e r, beyond th e sc o p e o f e m p ir ic a l

know led g e, i t ca n n o t c la im o b j e c t i v e v a l i d i t y an d so t h e r e w i l l a r i s e a d i a l e c t i c o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n ,w h e r e in m ust be s o lv e d t h e a p p a r e n t c o n tr a ­ d i c t i o n s in v o lv e d i n t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a ti v e , t h a t i s , the t h r e e i d e a s g iv e n up a s bey o n d p r o o f by p u r e r e a s o n : Freedom* God, and I m m o r ta lity . The w il] m ust be f r e e from th e e m p ir ic a l law o f c a u s a l i t y , s in c e i t can be g o v ern ed by no law b u t i t s own c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a ti v e . Ah e r e f o r e , th e w i l l m ust b e f r e e , and fre e d o m , d e s p a ir e d o f b y p u re r e a s o n , b e­ comes a n e c e s s i t y t o p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n .

Uod i s a d m itte d a s a p e r f e c t l y

r a t i o n a l w i l l , i n Whom t h e f a c t i n v a r i a b l y c o rre s p o n d s t o t h e o b l i g a t i o n . I m m o r ta lity i s p o s i t e d a s th e c o n d i tio n p r e c e d e n t o f t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a ti v e , i n o r d e r t h a t j u s t i c e may be w orked o u t .

Thus th e

c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e i s th e e a r n e s t o f a noum enal w o r ld , an d th e c o n c e p t o f a noum enal c a u s e , w h ich p u re r e a s o n c o u ld a t m ost o n ly a f f i r m a s p o s s i b l e , , i s a n e c e ssa ry p o s tu la te o f p r a c tic a l re a s o n .

A lth o u g h K ant by no means

p r o f e s s e s to h av e p ro v e d t h e u n p r o v a b le , h e d o e s h o ld t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y o f th e u n c a u se d c a u s e i s s e l f - e v i d e n t a n d , a s a n e c e s s a r y concom­ i t a n t o f th e m o ra l la w , i t may b e r e c o g n iz e d a s v a l i d . I n a d d i t i o n t o th e l a r g e t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n ,

o f th e f a c u l t i e s

j u s t o u t l i n e d , t h e f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n i t s e l f i s s u b je c t e d t o a t h r e e f o l d s u b d iv is io n i n t o i n t u i t i o n ( p e r c e p t i o n ) , u n d e r s ta n d in g , and r e a s o n . An t u i t i o n

i s t h e f a c u l t y by w h ich o b j e c t s a r e g iv e n d i r e c t l y th ro u g h p e r c e p t i o n . U n d e rs ta n d in g i s t h e f a c u l t y by w hich o b j e c t s a r e th o u g h t i n d i r e c t l y i n c o n c e p tio n .

R eason i s th e e p i s t e m o l o g ic a l bad boy w hich se e k s t o go beyond

th e sc o p e o f s e n s o ry e x p e r ie n c e and u n i v e r s a l i z e th e c o n c e p ts o f u n d e r­ s ta n d in g — t h a t i s , t h e s e a t o f t h e T r a n s c e n d e n ta l I l l u s i o n .

£ o r ex am p le,

th e p r e s e n c e o f a c h a i r i n my room I a s c e r t a i n th ro u g h i n t u i t i o n . The r e a s o n f o r th e c h a i r ' s p r e s e n c e and i t s r e l a t i o n to o t h e r o b j e c t s i n th e room , I c a n l e a r n o n ly th r o u g h u n d e r s ta n d i n g . c h a i r s h av e s e a t s , ” i s th e w ork o f r e a s o n .

The "A" p r o p o s i t i o n , " A ll

Ag lo n g a s re a s o n s t i c k s to

c h a i r s , K ant h a s no o b j e c t i o n ; b u t , when i t s t a r t s d is c o u r s in g a b o u t 'Jod, i t h a s d e f i n i t e l y o v e rre a c h e d i t s e l f . The r e c o g n i tio n o f th e v a l i d i t y o f an y HA” p r o p o s i t i o n f o llo w s from th e K a n tia n c o n c e p t o f c e r t a i n t y i n th e re a lm o f kno w leg e, w h ich he e n v is a g e s a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y b o th u n i v e r s a l i t y an d n e c e s s i t y .

The K a n tia n

c a te g o r y i s an a p r i o r i s y n t h e t i c ju d g m en t, t h a t i s , a judgm ent i n w hich th e p r e d i c a t e ad d s s o m e th in g t o th e s u b j e c t w hich can be made w ith o u t r e f e r e n c e t o e x p e r ie n c e . im p o s s ib le .

I f such a judgm ent w ere im p o s s ib le , e x p e rie n c e w ould be

T h a t i s , i f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from e x p e r ie n c e weie i n v a l i d , no

o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x p e r ie n c e c o u ld be m ade. m ent h in g e s upon i t s

H ence, t h e t r u t h o f an y s t a t e ­

b ein g u n i v e r s a l ( t r u e f o r a l l members o f t h e c l a s s

u n d e r d is c u s s io n ) an d n e c e s s a r y ( w ith o u t e x c e p tio n s , t h e o n ly p o s s i b l e c o n c lu s io n on t h e p r e m i s e s ) .

O b v io u s ly t h i s c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h s p r in g s

from th e P l a , t o n i c - A r i s t o t e l i a n a b s o lu t e t r a d i t i o n an d from th e r a t i o n a l i s m

o f h i s im m ed iate p r e d e c e s s o r s , n o ta b ly ^ .e ib n iz , who w ere B u ild in g upon th e g r e a t t r a d i t i o n . L e i b n i z 's p r i n c i p l e o f S u f f i c i e n t R eason i s a s p e c i ­ men o f th e same th i n g — th e c la im t h a t a l l e v e n ts m u st have a c a u se and t h e c a u s e m ust be a d e q u a te t o th e e f f e c t . R e n o u v ie r i s u n s t i n t i n g i n h i s p r a i s e o f th e c r i t i c a l m ethod, and o f th e c o n c e p t o f freed o m .

I n s t e a d o f b u i l d i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l m eta­

p h y s i c s , he f e l t t h a t K ant had s e t h im s e lf t o exam ine th e n a t u r e an d l i m i ­ t a t i o n s o f know ledge i t s e l f .

He h ad f r a n k l y f a c e d th e q u e s tio n why th e

p h ilo s o p h y o f th e A b s o lu te was b o th p e r e n n i a l an d f r u i t l e s s a n d , i n a b ­ s t r a c t i n g from e x p e r ie n c e th e c a t e g o r i e s w hich a r e th e c o n d itio n s o f a l l k n o w le g e , he r e n d e re d t o p h ilo so p h y a g r e a t and l a s t i n g se rv ic e .^ * I n d e f in i n g th e m eaning and b e a r i n g o f th e c a t e g o r i e s , i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t th e y have no o t h e r r o l e th a n th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f phenom ena, t h a t by no Weans a r e we p e r m i t t e d t o go beyond th em , he p ro c la im e d th e : n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i v i t y o f k n o w led g e, h e f r e e d th e s p i r i t from th e ch im era o f th e A b s o lu te , h e p ro v e d t h a t s u b s ta n c e ( t h e th i n g i n i t s e l f ) and s c ie n c e a r e in c o m p a tib le te r m s , ^ t , w ith r a r e wisdom, i n s e t t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f s c ie n c e , he d id n o t presum e to im p ris o n th e human s p i r i t w ith i n them ; he l e f t th e f i e l d o p en t o f r e e b e l i e f . 7 F u r t h e r , th e c o n c e p t o f th e autonom y o f t h e w i l l form s th e d o m in an t them e /

o f th e se c o n d b s s a i , T r a i t e a e F s y c h o lo g ie R a t i o n n e l l e a n d , i n th e com­ p o s i t e fcrm d e r iv e d from L e q u ie r and K a n t, i s a c t u a l l y th e o n e -w a rd key t o R e n o u v ie r1s e n t i r e sy stem .

6 ✓ ^ S e a i l l e s , G a b r ie l , 1^, P h ilo sop h ie de G h a rle s R e n o u v ie r. i 'a r i s , F e l i x A lc a n , 1905, p . 2 8 . ^ I b id ., p . 28.

I t i s , h o w ev er, im p o r ta n t t o rem ark t h a t h e n o u v ie r 1s d i f f e r e n c e s w ith K an t, b o th i n r e g a r d to t h e c a t e g o r i e s and th e n a tu r e o f th e w i l l , a r e a s im p o rta n t and a s e s s e n t i a l t o h i s p o s i t i o n a s h i s a g re e m e n ts . R en o u v ier h a s s i x main o b j e c t i o n s t o K a n t. The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e r e i s one m a s te r c a te g o r y — r e l a t i o n , a f a c t ig n o re d by K a n t.

8

C o n c e rn in g r e l a t i o n , h e n o u v ie r s a y s

The law o f h i s (K a n t’ s ) c a t e g o r i e s w ould have been q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i f he had r e c o g n iz e d i n t h e c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n t h e k ey to a l l t h e o t h e r s . The many s e r io u s d e f e c t s o f h i s Q sy stem depend on t h i s fu ndam ental e r r o r w hich d i s f i g u r e s i t . To c o n n e c t an d s e p a r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , su c h i s th e n th e f u n c t i o n o f th o u g h t, b o th common s e n s e and s c i e n t i f i c , a n d su ch a l s o i s t h e o r i g i n o f th e c a te g o r y o f c a t e g o r i e s , r e l a t i o n . 10 We have a lr e a d y n o te d t h a t K ant makes no s u b o r d in a tio n o f one c a te g o r y to a n o th e r.

R e n o u v ie r f e e l s t h a t r e l a t i o n i s t h e fu n d a m e n ta l c a te g o r y

and t h a t , i n a m o st im p o r ta n t s e n s e , a l l o th e r c a t e g o r i e s a r e c a t e g o r i e s o f re la tio n .

To p u t th e m a t t e r a n o th e r w ay,

p re d ic a tio n a re s p e c ific r e la tio n s h ip s .

a l l o th e r p o s s i b l e f o r m s .o f

N um beris a r e l a t i o n s h i p ; c a u s a l­

i t y i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p ; tim e and sp a c e a r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

a e n c e , a l l th e

p o s s i b l e ways o f o r g a n iz in g e x p e r ie n c e a r e s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , so t h a t t h i s c a te g o r y i s p aram o u n t and a c t u a l l y d o m in a te s a l l t h e o t h e r s . R en o u v ier

8 > S e a ille s , Ib id . . p . 30. 9 R e n o u v ie r, p p . c i t . . v o l . 1 . p . 1 3 3 , p a r e n t h e s i s m in e . 10, n r , Ib id . . v o l. 1 . p . 147.

b e lie v e d t h a t , had K ant r e c o g n iz e d t h i s , he would hav e a v o id e d c e r t a i n o f h i s e r r o r s , n o ta b ly th e d o c t r i n e o f th e d in g an s i c b , w hich i s e n t i r e l y th e r e s u l t o f f a i l u r e to r e c o g n iz e th e p rim a c y o f th e c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n . I n o th e r w o rd s, th e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a l l t h a t i s g iv e n , i s g iv e n a s a r e l a ­ t i o n would h av e made c l e a r th e s u p e r f l u i t y o f th e d o c t r i n e o f s u b s ta n c e i n any f o im .

T h ere a r e t h r e e e le m e n ts i n t h e know ledge r e l a t i o n s h i p : th e

know er, th e known, and t h e a c t o f know ing.

R e c o g n itio n o f th e prim acy o f

knowing w hich i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , would h av e e lim in a te d t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t d i s t i n c t i o n , which p o s e s such in s u p e r a b le p ro b lem s to ^ > is te m o lo g y . R e n o u v ie r 's seco n d o b j e c t i o n i s to K a n t’ s d i v i s i o n o f t h e t h r e e f a c u l t i e s : i n t u i t i o n , u n d e r s ta n d in g , and r e a s o n .

T h is R e n o u v ie r r e g a r d s

a s a h an g o v er from th e S c h o o ls and w ith o u t j u s t i f i c a t i o n .

n e h o ld s t h a t

t h e r e i s a c t u a l l y o n ly one f a c u l t y , s in c e p e r c e p tio n i s i n s e p a r a b le from u n d e r s ta n d in g , and sp a c e and t i m e , a r e , t h e r e f o r e , r e a l c a t e g o r i e s ; and r e a s o n i s o n ly a c o r o l l a r y o f th e c a te g o r y o f q u a l i t y .

K ant i s , t h e r e f o r e ,

i n c o r r e c t in p o s t u l a t i n g sp a c e and tim e a s a p r i o r i fo rm s o f p e r c e p t i o n . I f K an t i s r i g h t t h a t p e r c e p tio n c a n n o t i n p r a c t i c e be s e p a r a te d from c o n c e p tio n , o f what a v a i l i s a t h e o r e t i c a l s e p a r a tio n ? sim p ly m u l t i p l i e d e n t i t i e s beyond n e c e s s it y ?

Have we n o t

P e r c e p tio n and a b s t r a c t i o n

a r e a c t u a l l y in s e p a r a b l e p h a s e s o f one a c t i o n , o r , t o u s e R e n o u v ie r’ s te rm in o lo g y , o f o n e r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h a t o f th e know er and th e know n.

If

t h i s be th e c a s e , th e n th e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f th e . p e r c i p i e n t t o p e r c e p tio n and th e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f th e kno w er to know ledge c a n n o t d i f f e r i n k i n d , a n d , i f

t h e g e n e r a l name o f c a te g o r y b e g iv e n t o o n e , i t a p p l i e s p r o p e r l y to th e o t h e r .

Time and sp a c e do n o t , t h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r from m u l t i p l i c i t y and

c a u s a l i t y , an d t h i s p o i n t i f f u r t h e r b o rn e o u t by th e f a c t t h a t a l l a r e e q u a lly r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h ich R en o u v ier h a s a l r e a d y d e s ig n a t e d a s th e m a s te r c a t e g o r y . As f o r th e s t a t u s o f r e a s o n , R e n o u v ie r o b s e r v e s t h a t i t h as b en c u to m a r ily r e g a r d e d a s a power p r o f o u n d ly s e p a r a te d from th e s y n t h e s i s o f a p p e a r a n c e s , t h a t i s , o f phenom ena, a n d i n a c e r t a i n s e n s e i n o p p o s iti o n to i t .

I t h a s been r e g a r d e d a s a s p e c ie s o f a b s o l u t e .

The h av o c w rought

by t h i s v iew i s amply shown i n th e h i s t o r y o f p h i l i s o p h y . ^

I t can be summed

up s im p ly i n th e s ta te m e n t t h a t , by v i r t u e o f t h i s s e p a r a t i o n , a fu n d a m e n ta l d is c r e p a n c y o f th e know er and t h e known has p e r e n n i a l l y p o s i t e d an i n s o l u b l e problem to e p is te m o lo g y . K ant h a s m a in ta in e d t h i s s e p a r a t io n a t th e v e ry p o i n t a t v h ic h h i s c r i t i q u e c o n t r a d i c t s i t . . R e aso n , i n h i s e s ti m a t io n , i s th e f a c u l t y o f c o n c e iv in g , beyond t h e c o n c e p ts o f th e u n d e r s te n d in g . i d e a s . a s he c a l l s th em , w hich o v e r s te p i t s b o u n d a r ie s . The i d e a i s t h e co n c e p t o f t h e a b s o lu t e o r u n c o n d itio n e d u n i v e r s a l : and r e a s o n s e e k s th e u n c o n d itio n e d c o n d i tio n o f phenomena u n d e r each o f t h e s e t h r e e h e a d in g s : God, th e u n iv e r s e , th e s o u l . K ant p r o v e s t h a t th e s e o b j e c t s , e x te n d e d to th e A b s o lu te , c an n o t be a t t a i n e d , a n d , f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e i r i d e a s a r e in c o m p a tib le w ith th e f u n c t i o n s o f th e u n d e r ­ s ta n d in g a p p l ie d to p o s s i b l e e x p e r ie n c e ; and h e n e v e r t h e l e s s m a in ta in s t h a t t h e p u r s u i t i s l e g i t i m a t e b e c a u se o f th e a b i l i t y to fo rm i n d e f i n i t e c a u s a l c h a in s , an d to p a s s from p r i n c i p l e t o p r i n c i p l e . 12

11 t ' R e n o u v ie r, E s s a is de C r i t i q u e G e n e ra le . T r a i t e de P s y c h o lo g ie R a t i o n n e l l e . P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Armand C o lin , 1 9 1 2 , v o l . 1 , p p . 8 8 - 9 . 12Ibid.

vol. 1, p. 89.

R e n o u v ie r h o ld s , on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h a t r e a s o n ’’c o n s i s t s i n th e r e f l e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e c a te g o r y o f q u a l i t y t o th e o b je c ts o f k n o w le d g e ," means o f w h ich th e y a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , g e n e r a l i z e d , and s p e c i f i e d .

13

by

In

o th erw o rcis, r e a s o n i s t h e c a te g o r y o f q u a l i t y i n a c t i o n , t h e d e s c r i p t i v e ju d g m en t,

^hen I say w hat a t h i n g i s , s i n c e i t i s g iv e n i n s e n s e p e r c e p ­

t i o n , I say what q u a l i t i e s i t h a s .

I n so s a y in g , re a s o n i s e v in c e d .

I t is ,

t h e r e f o r e , n o t s e p a r a b le from th e u n d e r ta k in g , b u t a c t u a l l y a s u b - c a te g o r y o f one o f i t s c a t e g o r i e s . R en o u v ie r d e f in e s q u a l i t y a s th e su b su m p tio n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t u n d e r t h e u n i v e r s a l c o n c e p t, an d c o n s id e r s b o th th e l o g i c o f p r o p o s i t i o n s and o f s y llo g is m s a s c o r o l l a r i e s o f th e c a te g o r y o f re la tio n ,

£>ince th e s e have a lw a y s been c o n s id e r e d a s th e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s

o f r e a s o n , h e so j u s t i f i e s h i s view o f r e a s o n .

T hus he p u ts r e a s o n i n i t s

p la c e and w arns, i t f o r e v e r a g a i n s t t r a f f i c k i n g i n th e T r a n s c e n d e n ta l i l l u s i o n , a m ost u n w a rra n te d p re s u m p tio n i n so i n s i g n i f i c a n t an e n t i t y . T h is arg u m e n t i s , a g a in ,: d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t th e d o c t r i n e o f s u t a t - n c e , w h ich a r i s e s from th e m e te m p ir ic a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f r e a s o n , and th e i l l e g i t i m a c y o f w hich i s e v id e n c e d by th e o b v io u s in a d e q u a c y o f r e a s o n t o go beyond phenom ena.

T h is R en o u v ier f e e l s h e h a s e s t a b l i s h e d more

d e f i n i t e l y th a n K ant by means^-of h i s r e le .g a t io n o f re a s o n bo an a n c i l l a r y p o s itio n .

13 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 90.

The t h i r d o b j e c t i o n i s t o th e tr a n s c e n d e n t a l d e d u c tio n o f th e c a t e g o r i e s , w hich R e n o u v ie r h o ld s t o be a n o t h e r u n j u s t i f i a b l e p ie c e o f S c h o la s t ic i s m .

A lth o u g h h e a s s e r t s t h a t "K ant i s th e l e a d i n g c a te g o r iz i n g

g e n iu s o f t h e modern e r a , " ^

he s t i l l f i n d s th e ach iev em en t ti n g e d w ith th e

p r e ju d i c e s o f th e S c h o o ls . At th e v e ry b e g in n in g , K ant a t te m p t s t h e im p o s s ib le i n w ish in g to p to v e t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i e s a r e a p o d i c t i c ,a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e n e i t h e r more n o r l e s s th a n he e n u m e ra te s . ■Lt i s o f t h e e s s e n c e o f a l l b a s ic a n a l y s i s t h a t i t i s v e r i f i a b l e o n ly by a s s e r t i o n and d e m o n stra b le i n no o th e r f a s h i o n . 15 He f e e l s t h a t th e K a n tia n d e d u c a tio n o f th e c a t e g o r i e s from th e p o s s i b l e form s o f jud g m en t i s an a r t i f i c i a l and a r b i t r a r y a p p ro a c h . I t ig n o r e s th e f a c t t h a t a llju d g m e n ts h av e a common fo rm , r e l a t i o n ,

f u r th e r m o r e , i n th e

p r o c e s s , K ant d id n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y a d h e re t o th e s c h o l a s t i c p a t t e r n , w hich r e q u i r e s u n i v e r s a l ju d g m en ts

o n ly , w h ereas he in t r o d u c e s s i n g u l a r and. i n ­

d e f i n i t e ju d g m e n ts . The K a n tia n c o n c e p t o f th e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l u n i t y o f a p p e r c e iti o n i s a l s o u n so u n d .

K ant h a s t r e a t e d th e know ing s u b j e c t a s a cu p b o ard w ith

s h e lv e s i n t o w hich th e m a n ifo ld o f e x p e r ie n c e c o u ld be s o r t e d .

i he c a te g o r f c

w ere t h e s h e lv e s , w h ereas th e u n i t y o f th e ego w hich h o ld s th e s h e lv e s t o ­ g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n o f th e know ing s u b j e c t . S in c e no su ch p r in c ip le o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n c a n b e e m p ir ic a lly v e r i f i e d , ^ a n t h a s no r i g h t to p o s i t i t , a n d i t i s u n n e c e s s a r y , s in c e th e r e c o g n i t i o n o f

1L

'

*

*

R e n o u v ie r, i r a i t e de L o e io u e Q a n e r a le , v o l . 1 , p . 1 3 3 . 15

23.

r e l a t i o n s h i p a s th e fu n d am e n tal n a tu r e o f th e know ing p ro c e s s ,p ro v id e s a s u f f i c i e n t u n i t y w ith o u t i t .

I t i s , th u s , a m e ta p h y s ic a l.c a n e e p t u n j u s t i ­

f i e d b y t h e f a c t s , and somewhat i n t h e c l a s s w ith D e s c a r t e s 's i n f e r e n c e o f h im s e lf from th e a c t o f th i n k in g . I n R e n o u v ie r 's view , no a tte m p t s h o u ld be made to deduce th e c a t e g o r i e s a s n e c e s s a r y a p r i o r i on an y l o g i c a l b a s i s , be e n u m erated w ith o u t p r o o f .

They sh o u ld s im p ly

The c a t e g o r i e s a r e , t h e n , no n e c e s s a r y

f u r n i t u r e o f a p o s s i b ly n o n - e x is t e n t m e ta p h y s ic a l e n t i t y ; th e y s im p ly a r e . E x p e rie n c e i s g iv en to ub t h i s way and i t i s sim p ly a f a c t t o be n o te d , n o t t o be e x p l a in e d . The f o u r th o b je c tio n i s t h a t p u rp o s e and c o n s c io u s n e s s s h o u ld be add ed t o t h e l i s t o f th e c a t e g o r i e s . ^

This am ounts to s a y in g t h a t b o th

o f th e t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n s o f K ant a r e i n v a l i d .

I n o t h e r w ords, th e s u b j e c t ,

a s a p h a se o f t h e know ledge r e l a t i o n s h i p , c a n n o t b e s e p a r a te d from th e o b j e c t , n o r s u b d iv id e d w ith in i t s e l f , even f o r t h e p u rp o s e s o f s tu d y . R en o u v ie r m a in ta in s t h a t th e law o f p u r p o s e s i s a s im p o r ta n t i n t h e m ake-up o f t h e human mind a s th e law o f c a u s a l i t y , an d k a n t , a lth o u g h he r e c o g n iz e s t h i s , h a s p la c e d i t o u t s i d e o f th e sc o p e o f p u re r e a s o n a s a r e s u l t o f h i s a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n o f th e f u n c ti o n s o f t h e knordng s u b j e c t s , " a s i f th e man who b r in g s th e c o n s id e r a tio n o f p u rp o s e t o a l l h i s a c t i o n s and a p p l i e s i t to d i r e c t a l l h is ju d g m e n ts , were n o t i n p e r f e c t u n i t y w ith

16 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 140.

17 th e man who c o n te m p la te s a c au se-o r a q u a l i t y i n The f i f t h

o b j e c t i o n i s t o th e K a n tia n c o n c e p t o f c e r t a i n t y

i n th e re a lm o f k n o w led g e. b e f o r e th e h o r s e . •n e c e ssa ry .

A c c o rd in g to R e n o u v ie r, ^ a n t h a s p u t th e c a r t

K ant e n v is io n e d c e r t a i n t y a s a p r i o r i . u n i v e r s a l , and

R en o u v ie r p o i n t s o u t th a t .p h ilo s o p h e r s do n o t a g r e e on what

th e n e c e s s a r y p r i n c i p l e s a r e .

He m a in ta in s t h a t th e c a t e g o r i e s a r e n o t

n e c e s s a r y , b u t a r e s u l t o f v o lu n t a r y c h o i c e . p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n a r e t h e sam e,

S p e c u la tiv e r e a s o n and

‘•To t h i n k ,i s t o ju d g e , and judgm ent i s a

f r e e a c t ; a l l know ledge i s b e l i e f , and b e l i e f i s an a c t o f w i l l .

C er­

t a i n t y i s a t th e end o f th o u g h t , and n o t a t th e b e g in n in g , v e r i f i e d by need and e x p e r ie n c e .

The c a t e g o r i e s a r e c o n s ta n t phenom ena p r e s e n t i n

a l l o th e r phenom ena. Knowledge and r e a l i t y a r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e f a c t d o es n o t e x i s t w ith o u t th e - c a t© g o r y . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a l l th e s e o b j e c t i o n s a r e d i r e c t e d i n some semse a g a in s t th e c o n c e p t o f s u b s ta n c e , o f nopm ena, o f t h e d in g an s i c h . which i s e x p r e s s ly a t t a c k e d i n th e s i x t h and m ost im p o r ta n t o b j e c t i o n . They a r e a l s o l e v e le d a t i t s , c o r o l l a r i e s , th e g round o f th e a n tin o m ie s — t h e c o n c e p ts o f t o t a l i t y and i n f i n i t y .

The m aking o f r e l a t i o n i n t o a

m a s te r c a te g o r y e l i m i n a t e s s u b s ta n c e by th e p r a g m a tic r o u t e , i n t h a t i t ta k e s th e p o s i t i o n o f Jam es and Dewey t h a t i t i s t h e evB nt , and n o t th e s u b s ta n c e , which i s t h e e s s e n c e o f r e a l i t y .

The r e l e g a t i o n o f r e a s o n to a

17 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 140 18

■Renouvier, I . r a i t e d e P s y c h o lo g ie R a t i o n n e l l e . v o l . 2 , p p . 9 - 1 9 .

s u b s i d i a r y p o s i t i o n r e n d e r s ev en m ore u n f u s t i f i a b l e th e T r a n s c e n te n ta l I l l u s i o n , w ith w hich K ant s y m p a th is e d , even th o u g h he d e n ie d i t s v a l i d i t y . The co n cep t o f th e c a t e g o r ie s a s c o n s ta n t phenom ena e l im i n a te s th e l a s t v e s t i g e o f a p r i o r i s m , which t e n d s , even th o u g h K ant d id n o t so i n t e r p r e t i t , tow ard t h e h y p o s t a t i z a t i o n of a b s t r a c t i o n s .

The d e n ia l o f judgm ent and

w i l l a s s e p a r a t e f a c u l t i e s e l i m i n a t e s th e K a n tia n co n c e p t o f c e r t a i n t y i n th e realm o f know ledge s e v e r s t h e l a s t p o s s i b l e t i e w ith an y -fo rm o f a b s o lu te p j i l o s o p h y . The o b j e c t i o n s am ount t o a co m p lete r e p u d i a t i o n o f th e K a n tia n m e ta p h y s ic s , arrl a r e t e n t i o n o n ly o f th e e p is te m o lo g y , a s a lo n e v a l i d and m e a n in g f u l.

T h is i s made e x p l i c i t i n t h e l a s t o b j e c t i o n , th e r e p u d i a t i o n

o f t h e d in g an s i c h .

I n R e n o u v ie r 's o p in io n , K a n t's y ro rst e r r o r was t h e

in s is te n c e upon noum ena.

I t was an e r r o r t o p o s t u l a t e an a b s o lu t e a s a

deraaad o f th e s p i r i t , an d th e d in g an s ic h

.as a n e c e s s a r y r e a l i t y .

Ah is

u n te n a b le p o s i t i o n le a d s to two c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f m a jo r im p o r ta n c e . I f , a s K a n t 's a y s ,t h e noumenon i s o u ts id e th e scope o f p u re r e a s o n , i t can n e i t h e r be known n o r spoken o f ,a n d th e s e p a r a t i o n o f pheno­ mena an d noumena d is a p p e a r s by t h e v e r y l o g i c o f t h e C r i t i q u e o f £ u re R easo n .

Kant a r g u e s t h a t noumena m u st u n d e r li e phenom ena, o r t h e r e a r e

a p p e a ra n c e s w ith o u t a n y th in g w hich a p p e a r s , but K en o u v ier h o ld s t h a t a p p e a ra n c e s a p p e a r an d th e u n d e r ly i n g t h i n g , i f a n y , d o es n o t

19

R e n o u v ie r, T r a i t e de L o g io u e G e n e r a le , p . 2 7 , v o l . 1 .

'^ h is

26.

p u te K ant i n th e u n p le a s a n t p o s i t i o n o f h a v in g to say t h a t soiie t h i n g he h a s n e v e r known and can n o t d is c u s s ,e v e n a s t o i t s e x i s t e n c e , a p p e a rs to him , when, a s a m a tte r o f f a c t , i t i s th e phenomenon w hich h a s a p p e a re d to him .

T h is i s t h e f i r s t c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The second d e a ls w ith th e m o ral la w .

m o ra l o r d e r on noumena, we r e s t j i t on n o th i n g . s o l u t i o n o f f r e e w i l l and d e te r m in a tio n .

-if we have to r e s t th e x t p r o v id e s o n ly an i l l u s o r y

I f freedom i s th e law o f noumena;

and d e te rm in is m , o f phenom ena, we f a l l i n t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n , s in c e m o ral a c t s a r e phenom ena. raenon.

The freedom w hich we n e e d i s th e freedom o f man a s p heno-

20 ’'K a n t," sa y s R e n o u v ie r, "h a s made o f man two men i n o n e; one

who b e l i e v e s h e m ust n e c e s s a r i l y deny f o r l o g i c 's s a k e , a n o t h e r who w i l l s f r e e l y t o a f f i r m f o r m o r a l i t y 's s a k e ."

K ant a tte m p ts t o r e s o l v e t h i s

c o n t r a d i c t i o n by a s s e r t i n g t h a t we do h o t know noumena; we o n ly th i n k o f them a s p o s s i b l e .

We a r e p e r m i tt in g by th e e x ig e n c ie s o f p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s

to p ro c e e d from t h i s th o u g h t o f p o s s i b i l i t y to th e a s s e r t i o n o f r e a l i t y , s in c e sc d o in g in v o lv e s no c o n t r a d i c t i o n .

B ut R en o u v ier h a s p ro v e d a t

th e o u t s e t o f h i s d is c u s s io n t h a t i t i s a b s u rd to claim, know ledge o f noumena. T h is b e in g th e c a s e , i t f o llo w s t h t th e co n ce p t o f th e a b s o l u t e l y u n con­ d i t i o n e d can n o t be w ith o u t c o n t r a d i c t i o n , s in c e i t i s beyond th e sco p e o f

R e n o u v ie r, T r a i t e de P s y c h o lo g ie ^ a t i o n n e l l e . v o l . 2 , p . 2 2 9 .e t . s e q . 21 •'•bid., vol. 1, p. 15*

phenom ena, which a r e th e s o u rc e s o f a l l c o n c e p ts .

I t is ,th e r e f o r e ,

im p o s s ib le even to th in k noumena a s p o s s i b l e w ith o u t c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The m o ra l law i s , t h e r e f o r e , b a s e d on th e r e a l i t y o f a n o n e n t i t y a n d , u n l e s s a p u re n o th in g i s th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n ,K a n t h as n o t av o id ed th e c o n t r a d i c t i o n .

22

I t f o llo w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t phenom ena a r e a l l we can mean by th in g s .

T h ere i s o n ly one w o rld — th e w o rld o f s p a c e , tim e , and pheno­

mena, w hich we know and m ust i n t e r p r e t i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e m o ral la w . I do n o t oppose t h e a p p e a ra n c e to th e r e a l i t y ; I do n o t p o s i t th e form o f a s e l f s e p a r a t e from i t s o b j e c t , n o r an in te r m e d ia r y betw een th e s e l f and t h e o b j e c t . I t i s , a c c o r d ­ in g to ray d e f i n i t i o n , th e v e r y t h i n g , th e t h i n g a c c e s s i b l e t o know ledge, tw o fo ld i n n a t u r e , o b j e c t o f s u b j e c t , o b j e c t and su b ­ j e c t , a c c o rd in g to th e p o in t o f v ie w , d iv id e d i n t o o r made up o f homogeneous p a r t s , th e e n t i r e phenom enon, u n i t y an d u n iq u e means o f th e r e l a t i o n o f p e r c i p i e n t an d p e r c e iv e d , s y n t h e s i s o f ob­ j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e , t h a t i s , o f two d i s t i n c t o r d e r s o f p h en o ­ mena, d o u b tle s s and e q u a lly r e a l , b u t c o r r e l a t i v e , i n s e p a r a b l e , and u n i n t e l l i g i b l e o u ts id e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n . J-t i s th u s i n know­ le d g e , an d , o u ts id e o f k n o w led g e, I know n o t h i n g . I t d e v e lo p s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t R e n o u v ie r e l e c t s to d e p a r t from K ant fu n d a m e n ta lly by th e d e n i a l o f th e d in g a n s i c h . t h i s i s a c c o m p lish e d ,

a s w i l l be s e e n i n th e d e t a i l e d

The l o g i c by w hich e x p o s it io n o f t h e

n e x t c h a p te r i s e n t i r e l y b a se d on th e c o n c e p t o f f i n i t u d e , w hich r e p r e s e n t ­ ed t o R enouvier an avenue o f e s c a p e from t h e im p a s se o f c o n t r a d i t i o n . xh i s r e p u d ia tio n o f th e uoumenon i s e s s e n t i a l to R e n o u v ie r 's m e ta p h y s ic s , to

22 I b i d . . v o l. 1 , p . 15.

23 Renouvier, Traite de Logique Generale, vol. 1. p. 26.

h i s v a lu e t h e o r y , and t o b i s c o n c e p t o f t h e F i n i t e God, a n a i t i s i n th e l i g h t o f th e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s p o i n t t h a t a c r i t i c i s m o f th e p o s i t i o n w i l l be a tte m p te d .

I n o th e r w o rd s, th e p ro b lem r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n t o th e

q u e s tio n s can R en o u v ier r e p u a i a t e th e d in g an s ic h w ith o u t u n d e r c u t tin g h is e n t ir e p o s itio n ?

To p u t i t a n o th e r w ay, i n e l im i n a tin g th e d in g an

s i c h . h a s he n o t e lim in a te d K ant h im s e lf an d r e tu r n e d t o th e p o s i t i o n o f Hume w ith a l l i t s a t t e n d a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s ? W hile i t i s t r u e t h a t i t r e l i e v e s u s o f th e A b s o lu te , o f th e outmoded m e ta p h y s ic s o f s u b s ta n c e , and o f th e dogm atism in v o l v e a i n th e K a n tia n an d p r e - K a n tia n c o n c e p t o f c e r t a i n t y , th e q u e s ti o n may b a a sk e d w h eth er i t d o es n o t p lu n g e u s i n t o s k e p ti c is m and w h e th e r th e freedom from th e d i s c i p l i n e s o f th e p a s t d o e s n o t t u r n o u t on c l o s e r e x a m in a tio n t o be a me e a n a r c h t i n which a l l c l u e s to an o r d e r e d system have beens c a s t a s id e . I t i s R e n o u v ie r'S

i n t e n t i o n , i n m aking r e l a t i o n th e - f u n d a ­

m e n ta l c a te g o r y an d r e a l i t y , to e s t a b l i s h a n e u t r a l monism , i n which th e e v e n t o r s i t u a t i b n i s th e b a s i c u n i t , an d th e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t d ich o to m y b e ­ comes a m ere a b s t r a c t i o n * knows

He e n v is a g e s know ing a s t h e r e a l i t y , and th e

and th e known a s two i n s e p a r a b l e a s p e c t s o f k n ow ing.

In t h i s , o f

c o u rs e , he a n t i c i p a t e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f Jam es a n i . Dewey,. a n d , i n f a c t , i n a l a t e r chApfcer, we s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d e b t, o f Jam es t o him i n t h i s r e ­ g a rd . The q u e s ti o n a r i s e s , how ever, w h e th e r he h as n o t r e t a i n e a to o much o f th e K a n tia n m e ta p h y s ic s to b u i l d a c o n s i s t e n t sy stem o f t h i s ty p e , and i t s h a l l be one o f th e t a s k s o f th e e v a l u a t i o n to p u r ^ u e t h i s p ro b le m .

In

o th e r w o rd s, t h e p ro b lem i s w h eth er he h a s a c t u a l l y s u c c e e d e d i n b u il d in g a. n e u t r a l monism, o r m e re ly a s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s m , b a s e d on a p h e n o m e n a lis t e p is te m o lo g y , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , doomed t o l e a d l o g i c a l l y to s k e p tifc ia m . i f t h i s i s th e c a s e , r e l a t i o n w oulu th e n c e a s e t o be;, a m a s te r c a te g o r y and f a l l back to th e s t a t u s o f a m e n ta l c o n s t r u c t , w ith no o b j e c t i e g u a r a n te e o f v a lid ity . i'he q u e s ti o n f u r t h e r a r i s e s w h e th e r t h e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a ti v e , a K a n tia n c o n c e p t w hich R e n o u v ie r r e t a i n s , i s l o g i c a l l y te n a b l e w ith th e s u p p r e s s io n o f th e noumenon.

As a c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s would a r i s e th e

l o g i c a l i n a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f th e c o n c e p t o f an y God, f i n i t e o r i n f i n i t e , on th e r e m i s e s . The c r i t i c i s m o f R e n o u v ie r 's p o s i t i o n m ust be on two c o u n ts , one i n te rm s o f th e le g a c y o f K a n t, and t h e o t h e r

in d e p e n d e n t o f i t .

..'i'he

s e c o n d ap p ro ach i n v o l v e s th e v a l i d i t y o f h i s m a th e m a tic a l a n a l y s i s o f f i n i tu d e ; i t s b e a r in g upon v a lu e th e o r y ,a n d th e s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s i n g e n e r a l o f a F i n i t e God.

The f i r s t i s c o n c e rn e d p r i m a r i l y w ith th e l o g i c a l im p lic a ­

t i o n s o f t h e r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e d in g an s i c h . an d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e r iv i n g e i t h e r a v a l id v a lu e th e o ry o r a p r o o f o f th e e x i s t e n c e o f uod w ith o u t i f . The p ro b lem r e s o lv e s i t s e l f i n t o th e q u e s ti o n s o f w h e th e r , a c cep t i n g th e K a n tia n e p is te fa o lo g y , an d em p lo y in g th e same l o g i c a l t o o l s a s K a n t, th e noumenon can be e lim in a te d w ith o u t e l i m i n a t i n g th e e n t i r e c o n t r i b u t i o n and r e t u r n i n g t o th e p o s i t i o n o f Hune, w h ich was e x a c t l y what K ant s o u g h t to le a v e b e h in d , and w hat m ust be l e f t b e h in d , u n le s s o t h e r p r e m is e s a r e in v o lv e d .

I n o r d e r t h a t th e p ro b lem may be a d e q u a te ly c o n s id e r e d , e . d e t a i l e d e x a m in a tio n o f R e n o u v ie r 's p o s i t i o n m ust be u n d e r ta k e n .

We

m ust exam ine i n d e t a i l h is ..u s e o f th e p r i n c i p l e s o f f i n i t i s m an d freedom , which a r e t h e k e y c o n c e p ts o f h i s system an d t h e in s tr u m e n ts by which he a tte m p ts ter c a r r y on th e c r i t i c a l m ethod o f ^ a n t w h ile e l i m i n a t i n g h is e rro rs.

CHAPTER II THE MATHEMATICAL CONCEPT OF FINITUDE —• . -

R e n o u v ie r had a n a t u r a l p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r m a th e m a tic s .

T his

was th e o r i g i n o f h is a d m ir a tio n fo r th e m a th e m a tic a l te c h n iq u e s o f Des­ c a r t e s , a n d ,e v e n when he became co n v in ced t h a t su ch a r a t i o n a l i s t i c d e­ d u c tiv e m ethod was in a d e q u a te to th e e x p l a n a tio n o f r e a l i t y , he r e t a i n e d h i s b e l i e f i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f some form o f m ath em atical lo g i c a s th e i n ­ s tru m e n t o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s . n e b e lie v e d he h ad fou n d th e in s tr u m e n t w hich h e n eed ed i n th e m a th e m a tic a l c o n c e p t o f f i n i t u d e , to w h ich , a c t i v a t e d by h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith h is f i r f e t p h ilo s o p h y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , he had g iv e n much stu cy . ° in c e h i s e a r l y p o s i t i o n had been i n s p i r e d by th e K a n tia n a n tin o m ie s , and th e a n tin o m ie s a r i s e from t h e r e l a t e d c o n c e p ts o f t o t a l i t y and i n f i n i t y , i t seemed l o g i c a l t h a t an y s o l u t i o n o f th e a n tin o m ie s m ust be i n te rm s o f a c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s e fu n d a m e n ta l c a t e g o r i e s .

I f a t o t a l s y n th e s is re q u ire s

th e a c t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f an i n f i n i t e s e r i e s , th e n a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s i s im p o s s ib le .

The i n f i n i t e w hole p o s tu la te d by t h e p h ilo s o p h e r s o f th e

A b so lu te l e a d s l o g i c a l l y to su ch a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , b u t th e d i f f i c u l t y c o u ld be e lim in a te d i f r e a l i t y c o u ld be d e m o n stra te d t o be a f i n i t e m u l t i p l i c i t y , r e q u i r i n g n e i t h e r s y n t h e s i s , n o r r e g r e s s io n to t h e i n f i n i t e .

A b so lu te

id e a l i s m o f th e H e g e lia n :jcype i s th e r e s u l t o f sim p ly i g n o r i n g th e p ro b le m ,

b u t R en o u v ie r f e l t t h a t a p l u r a l i s t i c f i n i t i s m w ould p r o v id e a g en u in e s o lu tio n . S in c e t h i s i n f i n i t e whole c o u ld n o t be e x p e r ie n c e d by one f i n i t b e in g , o r by any num ber o f f i n i t e b e i n g s , i t m ust b e , i n t h e K a n tia n s e n s e a noumenon, t h a t i s ,

s u b s ta n c e .

I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s n e v e r e x p e rie n c e d

m e ta p h y s ic a l e n t i t y t h a t R en o u v ier w is h e s t o e l i m i n a t e .

H is method i s

b a s e d upon th e a s s u m p tio n t h a t i n f i n i t y , s u b s ta n c e , an d n e c e s s i t y a r e l o g i c a l l y c o n n e c te d , and th e i n v a l i d a t i o n o f one w ould e n t a i l th e i n v a l i d a ­ t i o n o f th e o t h e r s . The d o c t r i n e o f s u b s ta n c e i s i n s e p a r a b l y li n k e d w ith t h a t m e tap h y s ic a lfo rm o f c a u s a l i t y w hich I s h a l l c a l l " r e a l c o n t i n u i t y . "

The con­

c e p t o f t h a t which re m a in s p erm an en t th r o u g h a l l c h an g e , e x e m p lifie d by th e L e i b n iz i a n p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y , i s i n t h i s p o s i t i o n ta k e n a s e s s e n t i a l a l i k e t o perm anence and c h a n g e .

The same c o n c e p t i s e x e m p lifie d

by D e s c a r te s i n h i s d is c u s s i o n o f t h e wax, a l l o f whose q u a l i t i e s change when i t i s h e a te d , y e t whose s u b s ta n c e i s a r a t i o n a l i n f e r e n c e , s in c e we say t h a t th e wax i s m e lte d .

Were t h e q u a l i t i e s th e t h i n g , th e m e lte d wax

would be a new o b j e c t , and we c o u ld n o t say i t was th e same wax i n a d i f ­ fe re n t s ta te .

T h is view h o ld s t h a t i t i s n o t enough t o d e f in e a n o b j e c t

a s a c u m u la tiv e h i s t o r y o f c h a n g e s, s i n c e eac h s u c c e s s iv e c o n d itio n would d e f in e a new o b j e c t ; b u t t h a t some e s s e n t i a l s u b s tra tu m m ust be p o s i t e d . I t i s a p h il o s o p h i c tr u is m t h a t th e s u b s t a n c e , th u s d e f i n e d , i s n o t a n ob­ j e c t o f s e n s e e x p e r ie n c e .

H owever, t h i s p o s i t i o n w ould h o ld t h a t su ch an

33.

e n t i t y , ev en th o u g h n e v e r e x p e r ie n c e d , m ust be p o s t u l a t e d i n o r d e r t h a t e x p e rie n c e may be a c c o u n te d f o r . •^uch a view r e q u i r e s t h a t c a u s a l i t y , th e g ro u n d o f c h a n g e s, be n e c e s s a r y , and n o t f o r t u i t o u s .

The o n ly way to in tr o d u c e s p o n ta n e ity i n t o

a s u b s ta n c e - p h ilo s o p h y i s th e iJ e rg s o n ia n one o f d e f in i n g s p o n ta n e i ty a s th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s u b s ta n c e , o r th e A r i s t o t e l i a n one o f d e f i n i n g th e o b j e c t a s s u b s ta n c e and p o s t u l a t i n g a s many d is f c r e te s u b s ta n c e a s - t h e r e a r e o b je c ts .

Nei t h e r i s c o m p a tib le w ith th e K a n tia n c o n c e p t o f th e noumenon,

w hich i s one s u t a t a n c e w ith many m a n i f e s t a t i o n s .

I t , t h e r e f o r e , f o llo w s

t h a t r e a l c o n t i n u i t y and n e c e s s i t y m ust c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s s u b s ta n c e , w hich i s m a n if e s te d , n o t a s s p o n t a n e i t y , b u t a s im m u tab le la w . The n e c e s s i t y o f t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e n t a i l s fo llo w in g th e c a u s a l s e q u e n c e to i t s end i n a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s .

Such a p r o c e s s i s

d e m o n stra b ly i n f i n i t e , a s e x e m p lif ie d by th e H eg e lia n d i a l e c t i c .

i f th e

t o t a l s y n t h e s i s i s n e c e s s a y y , t h e n , a s h e g e l m a in ta in e d , know ledge can be know ledge o n ly o f th e w h o le , a n d , when t h i s i s a t te m p te d , each p a r t i a l p r e d i c a t i o n le a d s t o a n o t h e r p a r t i a l p r e d i c a t i o n , and l o g i c t e l l s u s t h a t th e s e r i e s w i l l be i n f i n i t e . T h is b e in g t h e c a s e , t h e l o g i c a l c o n c lu s io n m ust be t h a t a l l p o s s i l e e x p e r ie n c e i s f i n i t e , b u t a l l t r u t h m ust c o rre s p o n d t o an i n f i n i t e t o t a l i t y n e v e r to b e a t t a i n e d .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, e i t h e r t r u t h i s im p o s s ib le

o f a t ta in m e n t, o r t h e n o ti o n o f th e t o t a l s y n th e s is an d t h e . i i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s e n t a i l e d by i t m ust be f a l s e .

The o n ly a l t e r n a t i v e to t h i s dliem m a i s

R en o u v ier* s f i r s t s o l u t i o n , t h a t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s th e e s s e n c e o f r e a l i t y . T h is , h ow ever, he r a p i d l y came t o r e g a r d a s an u n te n a b le p o s i t i o n . I f , a s he had f i r s t a s s e r t e d , N e ith e r know ledge n o r r e a l i t y c a n b e b a s e d e x c l u s i v e ly upon B e in g , b u t n o n -b e in g m ust a l s o be in v o k e d t o e x p la in th e w o rld , and th e o ld l o g i c whose p r i n c i p l e was t h a t th e s a n e th in g , ca n n o t b o th be and n o t be a t th e same tim e m ust be c o m p le te ly r e j e c t e d , 1 th e n l o g i c i s im p o s s ib le , s in c e i t h a s b een d e p r iv e d o f i t s fu n d a m e n ta l la w .

I n h is m ature a n a l y s i s , h e came to th e o p p o s ite c o n c lu s io n t h a t The p r i n c i p l e w hich f o r b i d s c o n t r a d i c t i o n h as th e v i r t u e o f b e in g i n v a r i a b l y p re s u p p o s e d i n d e n i a l ; th e e n t i r e phenom enal w o rld b e a r s w itn e s s t o i t . ^ I n e f f e c t , c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s a lm o s t u n i v e r s a l l y c o n s id e re d th e to u c h s to n e o f b e l i e f s and a rg u m e n ts , and i t i s even f r e q u e n t l y b e lie v e d , w ith r e g a r d t o e r r o r , t h a t a l l o t h e r s o r t s o f a b s u r d it y can be re d u c e d t o t h i s o n e .^

B eing u n a b le t o e sc a p e t h i s c o n c lu s io n , R e n o u v ie r m ust r e i n s t a t e th e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n and t h i s in v o lv e s t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e a n tin o m ie s ,

-‘■he

d o c t r i n e s o f s u b s ta n c e , n e c e s s i t y , an d i n f i n i t y l i e a t th e fo u n d a tio n o f th e x e ; th e y a r e in t e r c o n n e c t e d ; th e d i s p r o o f o f one w ould e n t a i l t h e d i s ­ p r o o f o f th e o t h e r s ; f u r t h e r , t h e m ost im p o r ta n t, t h e one l o g i c a l l y t o be a t ta c k e d f i r s t i s i n f i n i t y . The l i g h t o f h i s p r i v a t e s p e c u la tio n s l e d him to t h e i n f i n i t e ( G a b r ie l s e a i l l e s t e l l s u s ) . E v e r s in c e he had

R e n o u v ie r, C h a rle s , M anuel de P h ilo s o p h i e M odem e. P a r i s e t L e i p s ig , J u l e s R enouard e t Com panie, 1842, p , 58 9 .

2

*

*

*

R e n o u v ie r, T r a i t e de L o g iau e u e n e r a l e . v o l . l , p . 1 5 6 .

3Ibid., vol. 1. p. 30

35.

l e f t th e E co le P o ly te c h n iq u e , he had n e v e r c e a se d to m e d ita te on th e m eaning and v a lu e o f t h e i n f i n i t e s i m a l m ethod i n g e o m e try . A ll m a th e m a tic ia n s ad m it t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a c t u a l n u m e ric a l i n f i n i t e , b u t, when th e y sp eak o f in c o m m e n su ra b le s, o f l i m i t s , o f i n d e f i n i t e l y d im in is h in g q u a n t i t i e s , tj?ey im p e r c e p tib ly come t o th e p o in t o f s u b s t i t u t i n g c o n tin u o u s f o r d is c o n tin u o u s q u a n t i t y an d o f e x p r e s s in g th e m s e lv e s a s i f th e y a d m itte d t h e r e a l i t y o f . t h e i n f i n i t e number w hich th e y had e ls e w h e re r e g a rd e d a s im pos­ s i b l e . . . .H aving r e c o g n iz e d th e a b s u r d i t y o f th e n u m e ric a l i n ­ f i n i t e , R en o u v ier r e s o l v e d to be l o g i c a l , to a c c e p t a l l th e con­ s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s d e c i s i v e and c o n s id e r e d ju d g m en t, how ever o p p o sed th e y m ig h t be t o h i s p r e j u d i c e s . ^ We f i n d , a c c o r d in g ly , t h a t R e n o u v ie r 's f i r s t a n a l y s i s i s m a th e m a tic a l and b a s e d on G a l i l e o ^ argum ent f o r th e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e a l i n f i n i t e num ber. H is fu n d a m e n ta l d o c t r i n e i s th e " s o v e r e ig n ty o f th e law o f num ber, t h a t l i m i t s t h e u n iv e r s e i n e v e r y a s p e c t . 11^

H is p u rp o se

i s to fo llo w t h i s co n c e p t to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c lu s io n i n e v e ry r e a lm . By "law o f num ber" R e n o u v ie r m eans t h e p o s t u l a t e t h a t a l l number is fin ite .

By means o f t h i s co n c e p t he i n t e n d s to r e e s t a b l i s h th e law o f

c o n t r a d i c t i o n , a n d , h e r e , a t t h e o u t s e t , a fu n d a m e n ta l p e c u l i a r i t y o f h i s m ethod i s e n c o u n te r e d .

I n o r d e r to r e e s t a b l i s h th e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n

by means o f t h e law o f nu m b er, he m ust em ploy th e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o a s t a b l i S i .fee law o f num ber.

To t h i s a p p a r e n t p e t i t i o p r i n c i p i i R en o u v ie r

h a s no re p u g n a n c e , s i n c e , a s he s e e s i t , c irc u la r.

a l l d e f i n i t i o n an d a l l p r o o f , i s

T h is i s n o t a f a l l a c y , b u t a n e c e s s i t y .

I f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r

makes a s t r i c t l y e m p ir ic a l a p p ro a c h t o t h e s tu d y o f r e a l i t y , one s t a r t i n g

U^ S e a ille s , op. c i t . , p . 8. 5 Ib id . , p . 12.

p o i n t i s a s good a s a n o t h e r .

T h ere i s no. phenomenon g iv e n i n e x p e r ie n c e

w hich m a n i f e s t l y and s e l f - e v i d e n t l y r a n k s a l l o t h e r s b e in g .

i n t h e h ie r a r c h y o f

I t , t h e r e f o r e , f o llo w s t h a t e x p e r ie n c e m ust b e exam ined p ie c e m e a l

a s i t comes to h an d , and th e p h ilo s o p h e r m ust p lu n g e i n m ed ia r e s . The method i s , t h e n , an a c t o f w i l l ( a k ey p o i n t i n -b -en o u v ier's s y s te m ) .

T hat

i s , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f th e s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s a v o lu n ta r y c h o ic e on th e p a r t o f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .

I t , th e n , f o llo w s t h a t t h e s e l e c t e d p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e

m ust be d e f in e d i n te rm s o f o th e r undefined e n t i t i e s , w h ic h , i n t h e i r t u r n , w i l l be l a t e r d e f in e d i n te rm sfo f th e s t a r t i n g p o i n t ,

in v e s tig a tio n i s , th u s ,

a dynam ic p r o c e s s and i t i s " i n p r a c t i c i n g , we l e a r n t o d e f i n e ." ^ O f p o s s i b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t s , R en o u v ier s e l e c t s th e f a c t o f a p p e a ra n c e ,

fle t a k e s i t a s u n d e n ia b le t h a t nobody p e r c e iv e s o r t h i n k s o f

a n y th in g e x c e p t a p p e a r a n c e s .

"An a p p e a ra n c e i s t h a t w hich r e f e r s t o t h i n g s ,

e i t h e r s e p a r a te o r com bined i n an y m an n er, and by m eans o f which we ta k e a c c o u n t o f th e m ."

7

F a c t s , o r phenom ena, a r e t h i n g s a s a p p e a r a n c e s .

j e c t " and " o b je c t" a r e t h e two in s e p a r a b le a s p e c t s o f a p p e a r a n c e s . know ledge i s a p p e a ra n c e , and a l l a p p e a ra n c e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p .

"Sub­ A ll

At would

seem t h a t R e n o u v ie r in t e n d s to sa y t h a t an y c o n f ig u r a tio n o f o b j e c t s , ob­ j e c t , o r p a r t o f an o b j e c t , p l u s th e k n o w er, i n each c a s e , i s an a p p e a ra n c e , th e fu n d a m e n ta l n a t u r e o f th e a p p e a ra n c e b e in g th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f know er

6 xb i d . , p . 4 3 . 7 £ e n o u v ie r , o p . c i t . . v o l . 1 , p . 6 .

end known, t h a t i s , o f o b j e c t and s u b j e c t .

T h is w ould seem l o g i c a l l y to

le a d to an i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s , s i n c e , i f t h e p a r t s o f an a p p e a ra n c e a r e i n t h e i r t u r n a p p e a r a n c e s , we w ould th e n f i n d o u r s e lv e s w ith a n i n f i n i t e number o f a p p e a r a n c e s . To t h i s R en o u v ier w ould r e p l y t h a t , s i n c e o n ly a f i n i t e num ber o f p a r t s i s a c t u a l l y e x p e r ie n c e d , t h a t i s , p a r t i c i p a t e s a s a c t u a l o r p o s s i b l e o b j e c t i n a s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , no su ch i n f i n i t e r e ­ g re ss in f a c t e x i s t s .

W hile R e n o u v ie r d o es n o t e x p r e s s ly d i s c u s s t h i s p o i n t ,

t h e e n s u in g d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s c o n c e p t o f i n i t u d e w i l l be fo u n d t o be con­ s o n a n t w ith i t .

T h a t i s , such a s o l u t i o n o f th e p o s s i b l e o b je c tio n i s i n

harm ony w ith h i s e x p r e s s e d v iew s on r e l a t e d t o p i c s . R e n o u v ie r v a r i o u s l y d e s i g n a t e s t h i s fu n d a m e n ta l u n i t o f r e a l i t y th e t h i n g ^ c h o s e ), t h e phenomenon (P henom ene), an d t h e a p p e a ra n c e (re p re s e n ta tio n ).

An a p p e a ra n c e i s a th in g -k n o w n -rb y -a -k n o w e r, and t h i s i s

th e i r r e d u c i b l e minimum o f e x p e r ie n c e .

I t is

c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two i n s e p a r a ­

b le a s p e c t s , th e s u b je c t ( r e p r e s e n t a t i f ) and t h e o b j e c t ( r e p r e s e n t e ) . xh e se a r e n o t p a r t s , b u t th e same w hole ta k e n tw o d i f f e r e n t w ays, f o r t h e s u b j e c t i s a more o r l e s s d i s t i n c t o b j e c t t o i t s e l f , an d t h e o b je c t can o n ly be u n d e r s to o d b y means o f a c o rre s p o n d in g s u b je c t.© R e n o u v ie r, t h u s , l i k e Ja m e s, s e e k s to e l i m i n a t e t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t d i s ­ t i n c t i o n a n d , t o t h i s e n d , a d v o c a te s a r e t u r n t o th e S c h o l a s t i c d e f i n i t i o n s o f ’ s u b j e c t " a s t h a t w hich h a s r e a l e x i s t e n c e and " o b j e c t " a s t h a t w hich i s

th e c o n te n t o f t h o u g h t .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, b o th know er and known, qua r e a l i t y ,

a r e s u b j e c t s , a n d , qua known r e a l i t y , a r e o b j e c t s .

T g^ing J a m e s 's t e r m i ­

n o lo g y , t h a t s u b j e c t an d o b j e c t a r e th e same e v e n t v iew ed from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v iew , a l l t h i n g s a r e s u b j e c t s re g a r d e d from t h e i r own p o i n t o f view a n d o b j e c t s from th e p o i n t o f view o f th e r e s t o f th e e v e n t , o r , i n R e n o u v ie r 's w o rd s, a p p e a ra n c e i n w hich th e y may be p a r t i c i p a n t s . I c a l l o b j e c t (b e s a y s ) t h a t w h ich , i n t h e a p p e a ra n c e , i s p r e s e n te d a s t h e im m ed iate c o n te n t o f k n o w led g e: t h a t w hich a p p e a r s , i n s o f a r a s i t i s g iv e n sim p ly i n a p p e a r a n c e . c a ll s u b je c t th e o b j e c t , i n s o f a r a s we ju d g e t h a t i t may e x i s t , be g iv e n , in d e p e n d e n tly o f th e c o n c r e te , p u re a p p e a ra n c e i n w hich i t a p p e a rs a s phenom enon.9 I n th e s tr e a m o f a p p e a r a n c e s , th e ego i s i t s e l f an a p p e a r a n c e , e x p e rie n c e d i n th e same m anner a s a l l o t h e r a p p e a r a n c e s .

Thus t h e p o s i t i o n

o f t h e i d e a l i s t t h a t phenom ena a r e phenomena f o r t h e s e l f i s , i n R e n o u v ie r 's e s t i m a t i o n , u n te n a b le and u n tr u e to e x p e r ie n c e . The s e l f and th e o b j e c t a r e i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t s o f a s i n g l e phenom enon, a n d th e s e l f c an n o t be a b s t r a c t e d from th e r e l a t i o n s h i p and made l o g i c a l l y o r o n to ^ o g ic a lly p r i o r t o i t , a s t h e i d e a l i s t p o s itio n in te n d s .

P r i o r i t y m ust b e a s c r ib e d t o th e r e l a t i o n s h i p .

By t h i s R e n o u v ie r in t e n d s a n e u t r a l monism i n w hich th e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s th e a to m ic u n i t o f e x p e r ie n c e . T h is p o s i t i o n e l i m i n a t e s a t a blow b o th th e tr a n s c e n d e n t a l ego and th e d in g a n s i c h . s in c e i t h a s s u b s t i t u t e d a s i n g l e r e a l i t y f o r t h e

9 Ibid.. vol. l,p. 14.

m a t e r i a l a n d /o r s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e s in v o lv e d i n th e s e m e ta p h y s ic a l c o n c e p ts . I f i t can b e m a in ta in e d , i t e l im i n a te s th e p ro b le m o f g e t t i n g two d i s p a r a t e s u b s ta n c e s t o g e t h e r in v o lv e d i n a s u b s ta n c e p h ilo s o p h y , and a l s o th e m e ta p h y s ic a l q u e s tio n o f t h e n a tu r e o f s u b s t a n c e ,

i h e m a in te n a n c e o f t h i s

view in v o lv e s th e d is p r o o f o f th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f th e noum enon, and th e e s ta b l is h m e n t o f phenom ena, d e f in e d , i n R e n o u v ie r1s s e n s e , a s a com plex of,, r e la tio n s h ip s , as a l l th e re i s .

The c o n t r a d i c t i o n s an d d i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e

K a n tia n noumenon from f te n o u v ie r 's p o i n t o f v ie w have a l r e a d y b een i n d i c a t e d . I t re m a in s to examine h is p r o o f t h a t t h e r e i s no noum enon, w hich in v o lv e s th e f i r s t s ta te m e n t o f t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f f i n i t i s m , i n m a th e m a tic a l te r m s . The law o f num ber i s in v o k e d to p ro v e t h a t t h e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n ca n n o t be v i o l a t e d by t h e p o s i t i n g o f a d in e an s i c h .

H ere R e n o u v ie r 's c i r c u l a r

d e f i n i t i o n can be s e e n i n a c t i o n , s in c e he s t a t e s th e law o f number i n t h i s w ises No«, w ith a g iv e n w h o le, a number i s alw ay s g iv e n . A ll t h i n g s , o r w h a te v e r p a r t s o f t h i n g s t h a t t h e r e a r e , w i l l alw ay s in v o lv e n u m b ers, and I mean d e te r m in a te n u m b e r s ,d if f e r e n t from a l l o th e r n u m b e rs. W ithout t h i s , no a c t u a l o r p o s s i b l e a p p e a ra n c e o f a w h ile co u ld e x i s t . 10 The c a te g o r y o f num ber, t h a t i s , a p p l i e s n e c e s s a r i l y t o a l l phenom ena. A l l num bers a r e th e m se lv e s and can be no o t h e r , t h a t i s , t h e law o f c o n tr a ­ d i c t i o n i s in v o k e d to d e f in e a num ber, and d e t e r m i n a t e .

t h e r e f o r e , a l l num bers a r e f i n i t e

T h e re i s no i n f i n i t e n u m b er.

± f t h e r e w e re , i t w ould

10 "O r, a v e c u n t o u t d o n n e, un nombre e s t t o u j o u r s d o n n e . -^es ch o ses q u i 4 o n t, ou d e s p a r t i e s q u elc o n q u e s de c e s c h o s e s , f o r m e r o n t to u j o u r s d e s n o m b res, c * e s t - a - d i r e d e s nombres d e te r m in e s , d i f f e r e n t s de to u s a u t r e n o m b res. S ans c e l a , p o i n t de r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , n i e f f e c t i v e n i p o s s i b l e , d*un t o u t . " i b i d . . v o l . 1 , p . 2 9 .

40.

v i o l a t e th e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n by b e in g a number w hich i s n o t a num ber. A num ber i s a sum o f u n i t s , a c c o r d in g t o ^ n o u v i e r , an d to be a number means t o be s u b j e c t to t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r u n i t ' s b e in g a d d e d ,

The

s e r i e s o f p o s s i b l e num bers h a s no e n d , no d e te r m in a te o r a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e ; t h e r e f o r e , th e co n c e p t o f a r e a l i n f i n i t e i s th e c o n c e p t o f a num ber w hich i s n o t a num ber, t h a t i s , t o w hich no num ber can be a d d e d , w hich i s s e l f c o n tr a d ic to r y .^ The r e a l i z a t i o n o f a n i n f i n i t e num ber su p p o se s th e e x h a u s tio n o f f i n i t e n u m b ers, an d t h i s e x h a u s tio n i s incom ­ p a t i b l e w ith th e c o n c e p t o f n u m b e r . 12 S in ce t h e s ta te m e n t t h a t f i n i t e num bers a r e i n e x h a u s t i b l e i s th e same a s say in g t h a t th e number s e r i e s i s i n f i n i t e , s-en o u v ier seems g u i l t y o f th e f a l l a c y o f p r e s u p p o s iti o n i n d e n i a l , s in c e he u s e s th e i n f i n i t y o f th e number s e r i e s to d is p r o v e th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a c t u a l i n f i n i t e num ber. M oreover, by h is d e f i n i t i o n , u n i t y c a n n o t be a num ber, s in c e i t i s n o t a sum o f u n i t s , and th e d e f i n i t i o n o f num ber i t s e l f i s b a s e d on a c o n c e p t o f a num ber which i s n o t a num ber,

i n o t h e r w o rd s, by th e same r e a s o n in g by

w hich he h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i n f i n i t y i s n o t a nu m b er, u n i t y would n o t b e a num ber, a n d , i f one i s n o t a num ber, t h e e n t i r e w hole number s e r i e s b re a k s down u n le s s an a l t e r n a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i s g iv e n . R e n o u v ie r h a s co n ced ed i n p a s s in g t h a t p e r f e c t i o n ^ th e q u a l i t a ­ t i v e l y i n f i n i t e ) i s a m e a n in g fu l c o n c e p t, a lth o u g h th e l o g i c o f such a co n -

11 •‘• b id . , v o l . 1 , p . 3 5 . ^ I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 35.
, i t i s c o n d itio n e d by tim e a n d s p a c e .

I n o t h e r w ords, I e x p e r ie n c e q u a l i t i e s o n ly a s co­

e x i s t i n g i n s p a c e and su c c e e d in g , each o t h e r i n t i m e .

T h at i s , a q u a l i t y

i s n o t g iv e n a s a datum , b u t a s a r e l a t i o n , an a s p e c t o f a phenomenon d e f in e d a s a r e l a t i o n o r com plex o f r e l a t i o n s .

T h is i s i m p l i c i t i n th e

d e f i n i t i o n " e x p e rie n c e d q u a l i t y " , i n w hich th e n o ti o n o f q u a l i t y o u ts id e

o f th e r e l a t i o n o f b e in g ex p erien ced , becom es m e a n in g le s s .

An a n a lo g o u s

argum ent i s a p p lie d to > e m o tio n ,w h ic h i s alw ay s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w ith an o b j e c t g iv e n i n tim e and s p a c e ,

^ m o tio n , a l s o , i s a r e l a t i o n

b etw een s u b je c t a s f e e l i n g and o b je c t a s s tim u lu s .

26

I n o t h e r w ords,

a s p e r c e i v i n g an d f e e l i n g s u b j e c t , I am o n lh one a s p e c t o f a phenom enal e v e n t a n d , once t h e e v e n t i s a b s t r a c t e d , no r e s id u e r e m a in s . The problem th e n becom es w h eth er t h i s a p p l i e s a l s o t o th o u g h t, s i n c e , i f t h e r e e x i s t ­ ed a th i n k in g s u b s ta n c e , i t would be d in g an s i c h . d is a p p e a r s upon e x a m in a tio n .

h o w ev er, t h i s , a l s o ,

*»e do n o t e x p e rie n c e s u b s ta n c e , b u t a t t r i ­

b u te ; we do n o t e x p e r ie n c e o b j e c t , b u t q u a l i t i e s ; we do n o t e x p e rie n c e th e t h i n k e r , b u t th e th o u g h t.

I f th e o b j e c t i o n be p r e s s e d t h a t v e r b s

r e q u i r e s u b j e c t s , R en o u v ier r e p l i e s t h a t th e s u b je c t s o f v e r b s a r e th e names o f phenom ena, n o t t h i n g s i n th e m s e lv e s ,

i n o t h e r w o rd s, even i f

th e g ra m m a tic a l id i o s y n c r a s y o f tn e in d o -E o ro p e a n la n g u a g e s had a m eta­ p h y s ic a l b a s i s , t h i s w ould n o t be a noum enon,but th e name o f th e a s p e c t o f t h e phenomenon w hich we c a l l th e s u b j e c t , t h a t i s , o f th e th in k in g r e l a t i o n view ed from th e p o i n t o f view o f th e t h i n k e r .

As R en o u v ier

p u ts i t , T h at i s t o sa y t h a t we a r e w e ll a c q u a in te d w ith o u t th o u g h ts , b u t n o t w ith o u r th o u g h t a s an i s o l a t e d t h i n g , an d even l e s s w ith th o u g h t, an d t h a t th e a d j e c t i v a l e x p re s ­ s i o n who th in k s n e v e r m a n if e s ts i t s e l f w ith o u t th e accom pani­ m ent o f c e r t a i n c o n d itio n s b o th o f o b j e c t and s u b j e c t . '

26

I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 4 9 -5 2 . 27 . i b i d . , v o l. 1, p. 55*

55.

Thought i s th o u g h t a b o u t so m e th in g , an d th e som ething m ust be a pheno­ menon. T h is d is c u s s io n o r th o u g h t, ia o re o v e r, a p p l i e s a l s o t o em otion and w i l l .

The f e e l i n g o r w i l l i n g s u b s ta n c e v a n is h e s l i k e th e th in k in g

s u b a ta n c e , le a v in g o n ly phenom ena.

T h is ta k e s c a r e o f th e t h r e e f o l d

d iv i s i o n o f th e f a c u l t i e s made by K aut i n h i s t h r e e C r i t i q u e s . ev en i f i t w ere v a l i d , w hich R e n o u v ie r d e n i e s . Nor can t h e s e g e n e r a l c o n c e p ts be a b s t r a c t e d and h y p o s ta t iz e d . The g e n e r a l i s t h e c o n d i tio n o f th e i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f th e p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t i s , th e a b s t r a c t i o n s o r c o n c e p tu a l iz a t io n o f th e a p p e a ra n c e w hich makes i t am enable t o d is c u s s io n } b u t th e g e n e r a l e x i s t s o n ly i n th e p a r t i ­ c u la r. c u la r.

28

T h era i s no g e n e r a l i n i t s e l f w hich i s m a n if e s te d i n th e p a r t i I n o t h e r w o rd s, t h e r e i s no P l a t o n i c I d e a which i s more r e a l

th a n i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o r c o p ie s i n c o n c r e te o b j e c t s ,

i h i s , how evey,

c a n n o t be an u n q u a l i f i e d n o m in alism , s in c e a t t e n t i o n h a s a l s o b een c a l l e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t la w s o r c a t e g o r i e s m u st be a t l e a s t a s r e a l a s t h i n g s , and p o s s i b l y more r e a l ,

i t i s r a t h e r sim p ly a d e n i a l o f th e I d e a a s a

noum enal e n t i t y u n d e r ly in g m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and n e v e r th e o b je c t o f any p o s s i b l e e x p e r ie n c e .

I t , p e r h a p s , m o st n e a r l y a p p ro a c h e s an A r i s t o t e l i a n

c o n c e p tu a lis m , an d am ounts t o s a y in g t h a t u n i v e r s a l s ' a r e n o t known a p a r t from p a r t i c u l a r s , b u t may be l o g i c a l l y a b s t r a c t e d from, p a r t i c u l a r s and v a l i d l y u s e d i n t h e d e d u c tio n o f o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s .

28 ■ibid., vol. 1. p. 56.

56.

I n o t h e r w o rd s, ev en th ough we a b s t r a c t th e t h i n k i n g , f e e l ­ in g , o r w i l t i n g s u b j e c t fro m th e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w hich i t i s g iv e n , i t ca n n o t be e l e v a te d i n t o a n e n t i t y i n i t s e l f , b u t re m a in s a n in s e p a r a b le p h ase o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T he c ru x o f th e arg u m e n t, t h e n , i s t h a t th e s u b j e c t i s known a s d i s c r e t e , f i n i t e th o u g h t s , n o t a s a tr a n s c e n d e n t a l u n i t y o f a p p e rc e p ­ t i o n , o r a s " th o u g h t" i n g e n e r a l.

Knowledge i s a r e l a t i o n , and making

o f th e t h i n k e r o r k n o n e r a d in e an s i c h makes r e l a t i o n -

an d t h e r e f o r e ,

know ledge i m p o s s ib l e . ' F u rth e rm o re , th e r e d u c t i o n o f i n f i n i t y t o u n i t y , demanded by m aking th e s u b j e c t a d in g an s i c h . r e s u l t s i n an i n f i n i t e g iv e n , w hich v i o l a t e s th e law o f num ber.

29

T h a t i s , th e s e l f a s d in g

a n s i c h becom es a m icrocosm an d e n t a i l s th e t o t a l

s y n th e s is a lre a d y

s o u g h t t o be a v o id e d . The d is p r o o f o f th e noumenon a s s u b j e c t , i f c o g e n t, i s m ore s i g n i f i c a n t th a n th e d is p r o o f a s o b j e c t , s in c e i t to u c h e s upon t h e w i l l i n g s e lf.

W hile K ant n e v e r m a in ta in e d t h a t th e know ing s u b je c t was e x a c t l y

noum enal, o r s e t up a t h i n k in g s u b s ta n c e i n t h i s s e n s e , he d id s e t up a w i l l i n g s u b s ta n c e w hich was d in g an s i c h a n d , i f we a c c e p t h g n o u v ie r 's d is p r o o f o f t h i s , th e K a n tia n noumenon h a s b een e l i m i n a t e d . I f , how ever, t h e a n a l y s i s i s c o r r e c t , th e r e s u l t seems i n ­ d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from Hume's "b u n d le o f im p r e s s i o n s " . d i v i d u a t i o n o f th e s e l f i s l a c k in g .

29 Ibid.. vol. 1, pp. 57-59*

p rin c ip le o f in ­

The s e l f a t any g iv e n moment i s th e

knov?er-or t h i n k e r a s p e c t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n i n g a t t h a t moment. The s e l f w ould, t h e r e f o r e , be a c u m u la tiv e sum o f su ch a s p e c ts o f a s e r i e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d , s in c e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y i s b e in g r e ­ p u d i a t e d , t h e r e w ould be no b a s i s f o r th e a ssu m p tio n t h a t t h e s e l f o f t o ­ d a y 's r e l a t i o n s h i p was th e same s e l f o f l a s t w e e k 's .

A te m p o ra l s u c c e s ­

s io n o f d i s p a r a t e , f i n i t e th o u g h ts i s u n d e r no o b l i g a t i o n to ad d up t o a n i n t e g r a t e d e n t i t y , and t h e same arg u m en t would a p p ly t o f e e l i n g s o x a c t s o f v o l i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y u n d e r a s y ste m o f f r e e w i l l , i n which t h e e m p ir i­ c a l c a u s a l seq u en ce w ould n o t b e b in d in g upon t h e w i l l . G ra n tin g ,h o w e v e r, t h a t t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f f i n i t i s m h a s e s t a b l i s h ­ ed th e u n r e a l i t y o f noumena, and we n o te t h a t th e d is p r o o f a s t o s u b j e c t i s b a s e d , n o t on t h e law o f n u m b er, b u t on th e d e f i n i t i o n o f a p p e a ra n c e a s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , w hich i s th e fu n d a m e n ta l u n i t o f r e a l i t y , th e law o f number e n t e r i n g i n o n ly i n c i d e n t a l l y i n t h a t phenomena o r a p p e a ra n c e a r e s p a t i a l l y an d te m p o r a lly c o n d i tio n e d , th e n s e v e r a l im p o r ta n t r e s u l t s f o llo w .

The c a te g o r y o f n e c e s s i t y i s e l i m i n a t e d , s in c e c o n tin g e n c y i s t h e

a t t r i b u t e o f phenom ena, a n d , f u r th e r m o r e , n e c e s s i t y in v o lv e s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y w hicn .R enouvier f e l t he h ad r e f u t e d i n h i s p r o o f w ith r e g a r d t o m o tio n . The K a n tia n a n itn o m ie s a r e s o lv e d , b e c a u se a l l th e a n t i t h e s e s v i o l a t e t h e law o f num ber.

A f i n i t e u n iv e r s e h a v in g a b e g in n in g i s th e

o n ly p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e .

H ere th e law o f num ber s e r v e s R e n o u v ie r

w e ll j i t h a s r e s o lv e d h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith h i s f i r s t p h ilo s o p h y by

p r o v id in g him w ith a s o l u t i o n to t h e a n t in o m i e s , w hich had p r e v io u s l y seem ed to b im i n e v i t a b l e an d e s s e n t i a l .

I n te rm s o f th e law o f num ber,

he i s e n a b le d t o b u i l d a c o n s i s t e n t p h ilo s o p h y . T his i s an " a r i t h m e t i c a l p h ilo s o p h y , a p h ilo s o p h y o f s e p a r a t e

30 q u a n t iti e s ." " ^

By means o f i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n s id e r a tio n o f t h e p r o ­

blem o f m o tio n , he b e l i e v e s h e h a s e l im i n a te d th e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y s t a t e d by L e ib n iz a s f o llo w s : T h is p a r t i c u l a r s e r i e s o f ch an g es sh o u ld in v o lv e a m u l t i p l i c i t y i n th e u n i t o r i n t h a t w hich i s s im p le , -tor a s e v e ry n a t u r a l change t a k e s p la c e g r a d u a l l y , so m eth in g ch an g es and so m eth in g re m a in s u n c h a n g e d .31 I t i s t h i s L e ib n iz ia n p r i n c i p l e t o which

hav e p r e v io u s ly g iv e n th e

name o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , a n d , to i t s c o n te n tio n t h a t n a t u r a non T a c it s a l t u s . R e n o u v ie r r e p l i e s t h a t l e a p s a r e e x a c t l y what n a tu r e d o e s m ake. I f r e a l i t y c o n s i s t s o f f i n i t e u n i t s , d i s c o n t i n u i t y and s p o n ta n e i ty m ust c h a r a c t e r i z e i t and t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n , w hich i s bound up w ith t h e law o f c o n t i n u i t y , i s e l i m i n a t e d .

In t h e i r s te a d ,

R en o u v ier p o s i t s th e " a to m ic la w , o r law o f th e autonom y o f phenom ena, i n th e l i g h t o f which be e v o lv e s a c o n c e p t o f c a u s a l i t y o f w hich i t i s n e c e s s a r y to exam ine th e a d e q u a c y .

30 S e a i l l e s , op.. c i t . . p . 6 6 .

31

L e ib n iz , d o tt f r ie d .W il h e lm , M onadology, t r . by R o b e rt L a t t a , dx f 0r d , U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 19 2 5 , p . 2 2 3 . '‘s e a i l l e s , o p . c i t . . p . 6 6 .

R e a l it y i s n o t a co n tin u u m b eca u se i t i s n o t i n f i n i t e l y d i v i s i b l e , b u t com posed o f a d e te r m in a b le number o f i r r e d u c i b l e p a r t s , a c c o r d in g to th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e p r o o f w ith r e s p e c t t o m o tio n . T h e re ­ f o r e , t h e u n iv e r s e i s n o t a plenum ; t h e r e m ust be g a p s between th e s e u n its ,

i t a l s o f o ll o w s t h a t th e r e l a t i o n o f d i s c r e t e u n i t s , th e m s e lv e s

r e l a t i o n s , i s a fu n d a m e n ta l f a c t o f r e a l i t y , and i t s law s a re m a th em a cic a l f u n c tio n s o f t h e s e u n i t s .

C a u s a l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i s o n ly a r e l a t i o n

o f phenomena, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e i t h e r r e a l c o n t in u it y o r n e c e s s a r y seq u en ce o f c a u se and e f f e c t .

'

.

From th e s e p re m is e s i t f o llo w s t h a t R en o u v ier m ust be a p lu ra lis t.

The autonom y o f phenom ena demands a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f n o t n e c e s ­

s a r i l y c o n jo in e d r e a l i t i e s , d i s c r e t e , in d e p e n d e n t, a to m ic ,

i t a ls o

f o llo w s t h a t R en o u v ier m ust e s p o u s e a d o c t r i n e o f e x t e r n a l i t y o f r e l a ­ tio n s .

W ith n e c e s s i t y , r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , and s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n , he h a s

e l im i n a te d th e c lo s e d and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d u n iv e r s e i n fa v o r o f a w o rld i n w hich one r e l a t i o n s h i p i s in d e p e n d e n t o f a n o th e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n t h a t c a s e , h o w ev er, h a s th e c o n c e p t o f c a u s a l i t y any m eaning?

R e n o u v ie r h a s e sc a p e d a humian atomism o n ly by p o s i t i n g th e

r e a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n , b u t , i f th e r e l a t i o n o f c a u se and e f f e c t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y , d o es i t n o t d e g e n e r a te i n t o a te m p o ra l s e q u e n c e , an d , t h e r e ­ f o r e , i n t o th e p o s i t i o n o f Hume anyhow? We s h a l l s e e how n e e s c a p e s t h i s , and to what e x te n t s u c c e s s ­ f u l l y , i n th e c o n c e p ts o f law and f u n c t i o n which a r e t h e s u b je c t o f th e n e x t c h a p t e r , fctome f e l t d e f ic ie n c y i n t h i s s o l u t i o n , how ever, l e a d s him

a l s o t o a d a p t t o h i s n e e d s th e L e i b n iz i a n co n c e p t o f p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d harm ony,w hich e n t e r s th e p c t u r e i n th e d is c u s s io n o f h i s v a lu e th e o r y , •‘■he p e c u l i a r u se w hich R en o u v ie r m akes o f E e ib n iz i s a s i n t e r e s t i n g a s h i s h a n d lin g o f K a n t.

While th e d e b t i s enorm ous, th e m e ta p h y s ic a l

g ro u n d in g o f th e p o s i t i o n i s r e p u d ia te d a n d , a s i n K a n t, t h e q u e s tio n rem ain s w hether th e view w i l l s t a n a w ith o u t i t s m e ta p h y s ic a l e le m e n ts .

CHAPTER III EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND METAPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE MATHEMATICAL CONCEPT OF FINITUDE: LAW AND FUNCTION

R en o u v ier r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be many who would n o t be s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n v in c e d o f th e s o l i d i t y o f a p p e a ra n c e s to a c c e p t w ith e q u a n im ity th e r e p u d i a t i o n o f th e d in g an s i c h . a n d ,to * r e v o lv e any l i n g e r i n g d o u b ts i n su c h a m ind, he e x p r e s s ly d i s c u s s e s th e q u e s tio n v?hether t h e d e n i a l o f s u b s ta n c e f o r c e s him i n t o s k e p ti c is m ,

a n tic i­

p a t in g th e o b je c tio n t h a t , i n s a y in g t h a t phenomena a lo n g e x i s t , he i s i n e f f e c t s a y in g t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a l i t y , he r e p l i e s t h a t i t n o t th e te n u o u s n e s s o f a p p e a r a n c e s , b u t th e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f s u b s ta n c e which le a d s to s k e p ti c is m .

I n o th e r w o rd s, i t i s f a r m ore s e n s i b l e

t o b e lie v e i n t h e s u b s t a n t i a l i t y o f w hat we can s e e th a n to c a l l i t i l ­ l u s o r y and a s c r i b e r e a l i t y to a m e ta p h y s ic a l f i c t i o n w hich no one h a s ever seen. L e t u s bew are ( s a y s R en o u v ie r) o f o p p o sin g th e word phenomenon t o th e word r e a l i t y . The id o l- w o r s h ip in g s c h o o ls i n s i s t t h a t t h e r e a l n e v e r a p p e a r s and t h a t th e a p p a r e n t i s i n no s e n s e r e a l . T h is e r r o r i s u n iq u e ly b a s e d on t h e dogma o f s u b s ta n c e j and in asm u ch a s i t h a s b een p ro v e d t h a t t h e th i n g i s i d e n t i c a l w ith th e phenom enon, a s f a r a s know ledge i s c o n c e rn e d , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n f o r se k in g any o t h e r r e a l e s s e n c e th a n t h a t w hich a lo n e e x i s t s f o r u s s in c e i t a lo n e a p p e a rs t o u s i n any way, o r can a p p e a r t o * u s . l

R e n o u v ie r, o p . c i t . . v o l . 1 . p p . 63 and 6A.

As he s e e s i t ,

i t i s t h e a c c e p ta n c e ,a n d n o t th e r e j e c t i o n o f th e d in g an

s ic h w hich w ould le a d to s k e p tic is m , s in c e i t would c a r r y a s c o r o l l a r y th e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f know ing r e a l i t y . 1f th e s e n s e datum , th e a p p e a ra n c e , th e phenomenon d o e s n o t e x i s t , th e n i s man, im p ris o n e d i n h i s f i v e s e n s e s , f o r e v e r c u t o f f from know ledge o f t h e e x i s t e n t .

The p o s i t i n g o f an u n d e r­

ly i n g s u b s ta n c e , w h e th e r m a t e r i a l o r s p i r i t u a l , w ould a lo n e make know ledge im p o s s ib le .

I n a s c r i b i n g r e a l i t y to th e a p p e a ra n c e i t s e l f , we f i n d a r e a l

w orks — a r e a l w o rld o f a p p e a ra n c e . The word r e a l i t y (h e s a y s ) h a s two p o s s i b le m ean in g s: i n g e n e r a l , i t i s synonym f o r t h i n g , o r b ein g a s phenom enon, t h a t i s , i n a s in g le w ord, f o r phenomena* i t i s a l s o e q u a l ly a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l t h a t i s i n any w ise m a n if e s te d , and we c a n n o t u n d e r s ta n d i t i n any o t h e r s e n s e . The f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n i s c l e a r enough, and fo llo w s from th e d i s p r o o f o f t h e d in g an s i c h ; i t am ounts sim p ly to s a y in g t h a t a p p e a ra n c e s a p p e a r an d a r e , t h e r e f o r e , th e t h i n g s w hich a p p e a r .

The second seems a

b i t o b s c u re and th e n o tio n o f s u b s ta n c e seem s a lm o s t i m p l i c i t i n i t , i f we c l i n g to th e K a n tia n p r e j u d i c e t h a t t h e r e m u st be so m eth in g u n d e r ly in g th e m a n i f e s t a t i o n ; b u t t h i s i s n o t w hat i s in te n d e d .

R en o u v ier seems to

hav e i n m ind so m eth in g co m p arab le to w h a t f e i r c e c a l l e d th e p h a n e ro n , t h a t i s , th e

stun t o t a l o f e m p i r i c a l l y o b s e rv e d o r o b s e r v a b le o b j e c t s ; th e g iv e n

o f s e n s o r y e x p e r ie n c e ; t h e n a t u r a l w o rld ta k e n a s o n e v a s t phenom enon. W hile t h i s i s n o t e x p r e s s ly s t a t e d , i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w ith th e q u o te d s t a t e ­ m ent and w ith th e view w hich i s b u i l t upon i t .

Nor w ould i t n e c e s s a r i l y

demand th e t o t a l s y n t h e s i s w hich R e n o u v ie r s e e k s t o e l i m i n a t e , s in c e i t

63.

w ould n o t demand a c lo s e d w h o le, b u t sim p ly r e f e r s t o th e l a r g e s t a g g re ­ g a te o f phenom ena w hich e m p ir ic a lly can be o r g a n iz e d i n t e r n s o f th e c o n c e p ts o f la w and f u n c ti o n . I t i s by means o f th e s e two c o n c e p ts t h a t R en o u v ier b e l ie v e s he can j u s t i f y h i s r e j e c t i o n o f s u b s ta n c e , w hich h e h o ld s t o be a d m is s ib le i f h e can e x p l a in e x p e r ia a c e w ith o u t i t .

By m ean s, f i r s t , o f th e c o n c e p t

o f la w , w hich h e h e d e f in e s a s th e r e l a t i o n o f phenom ena, h e b e l i e v e s h e can do t h i s . B eyond. th e a c t u a l phenomenon and i t s im m ed iate a p p e n d a g e s , i t i s th e a u t h e n t i c a t i o n o f a f ix e d la w ; i t i s th e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e com ponents o f t h i s law i n te rm s o f one a n o t h e r w hich te a c h e s u s r e a l i t y i n th e o n ly i n t e l l i g i b l e s e n s e o f th e w ord. ...J - h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich we can a s s e r t a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s t r u e o r f a l s e a c c o r d in g t o w h e th e r th e y a g r e e w ith th e la w s w hich we hav e a u t h e n t i c a t e d , o r b e l i e v e we can a u t h e n t i c a t e , o r n o t; t h a t i s , a c c o r d in g to w h e th e r th e la w s im p ly o r e x c lu d e them i n th e s u b j e c t s i n w hich th e y a p p e a r .3 T h is i s a c o rre s p o n d e n c e th e o ry o f t r u t h , m o d ifie d , i n a c c o rd a n c e w ith R e n o u v ie r1s m e ta p h y s ic s .

I n a p u re c o rre s p o n d e n c e th e o r y , a s c o n v e n tio n ­

a l l y u n d e r s to o d , " I am w r iti n g on a t y p e w r it e r " i s t r u e i f I am w r i t i n g on a t y p e w r i t e r .

I n f te n o u v ie r 's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p ex­

p r e s s e d i n th e v e r b " w r itin g " i s th e u n i t o f r e a l i t y , o f w hich " I " a s s u b j e c t and " t y p e w r i t e r " a s o b j e c t a r e i n s e p a r a b le a s p e c t s o r p h a s e s ; a n d , th e phenomenon 6 f w r i t i n g b e in g p r e s e n t , th e s ta te m e n t " I am w r i t i n g on a t y p e w r i t e r " i s i d e n t i c a l w ith th e e x p e r ie n c e .

The "law " i s th e g e n e r a liz e d

s ta te m e n t o f th e f a c t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l e x p e r ie n c e and, th e r e f o r e ,

a c lu e t o each i n s t a n c e o f c o n c r e te e x p e r ie n c e .

3

Ibid., vol. 1, p. 64-.

The

c o n fo rm ity o f i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s to t h e law o f r e l a t i o n s h i p th u s a b s t r a c t e d and g e n e r a liz e d a s a g u id e t o th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x p e r ie n c e , i s th e m easure o f t r u t h o r f a l s i t y . A n o th e r way o f s t a t i n g t h i s i s t o say t h a t , i f 1 a b s t r a c t from any e x p e r i e n c e , such a s w r i t i n g , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p w hich c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t , th e n a s ta te m e n t c o n c e rn in g th e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t r u e i f 1 am th e sub­ j e c t (k n o w er, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a g e n t , s in c e

i t w ould s t i l l a p p ly to " S h ir le y

i s w r i t i n g on a ty p e w r i t e r " ) a s p e c t o f a c o n c r e te i n s t a n c e o f t h a t r e ia - tio n s h ip .

T h a t i s , i f th e r e i s a w r i t i n g , th e n th e law w hich names t h i s r e l a t i o n ­

s h ip o f w r i t e r and w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l s i s t r u e , t h e r e can be a w r i t i n g .

f u r t h e r , th e law i s t r u e i f

I f , i n s t e a d o f " I am w r i t i n g on th e ty p e w r i t e r ,"

" th e dog i s c o n v e rs in g in F re n c h w ith th e c a t " be s u b s t i t u t e d , th e n th e second s ta te m e n t i s n o t t r u e , s in c e th e law w hich we h a v e a u t h e n t i c a t e d w ith r e s p e c t to th e r e l a t i o n s h i p " c o n v e r s in g i n F ren ch " e x c lu d e s such a p o s s i b i l i t y i n th e s u b j e c t s "dog" an d " c a t " . The c ru x o f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t i t m akes o f l o g i c a m a t e r i a l , and n o t a f o r m a l s c i e n c e .

T h a t i s , i t r e q u i r e s m ore th a n o b s e rv a n c e o f

th e r u l e s o f i n f e r e n c e t o d e te rm in e v a l i d i t y .

T h ere

m u st b e , i n a d d itio n ,

c o rre s p o n d e n c e w ith o b s e rv e d o r o b s e r v a b le e m p ir ic a l d a t a . e x i s t c o r r e s p o n d in g to th e s ta te m e n ts made

S om ething m ust

i n o r d e r f o r th e r e l a t i o n s h i p

o f t r u t h , w hich we h av e a u t h e n t i c a t e d a s such a c o rre s p o n d e n c e , to e x i s t . The n a t u r e o f t h i s so m eth in g i s , h o w ev er, a l s o a r e l a t i o n s h i p , n o t a t h i n g i n t h e , f o r ex am p le, A r i s t o t e l i a n s e n s e , o f a s e l f - e x i s t e n t o b j e c t h a v in g q u a l i t i e s .

I t i s t o be n o te d h e r e t h a t R en o u v ier i s u s in g

th e word, " r e l a t i o n s h i p " i n a t l e a s t th r e e s e n s e s , and assu m in g t h a t th e th r e e ty p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p can be m e a n in g fu lly re g a rd e d a s a l i k e i n k in d .

I n th e f i r s t

p l a c e , th e i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f * p a r t s ; i n th e .second p l a c e , th e s i t u a t i o n i s a r e l a t i o n o f o b j e c t s — a n im a te , in a n im a te , o r b o th ; i n th e t h i r d p la c e , th e g e n e r a l la w s by w hich e x p e r ie n c e i s o r g a n iz e d a r e s ta te m e n ts o f th e r e l a t i o n s e i t h e r b e ­ tw een th e p a r t s o f a c l a s s o f o b j e c t s o r t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f a c l a s s o f s itu a tio n s .

The t h i r d c l a s s o f re la tio n s h ip s he c a l l s , a f t e r ^ a n t , th e

c a t e g o r i e s , an d h e d e f i n e s them a s c o n s ta n t phenomena p r e s e n t i n a l l o t h e r phenom ena, w h ich am ounts to sa y in g t h a t s c i e n t i f i c law s a r e a s r e a l a s o b j e c t s i n th e same s e n s e .

T h is i s th e u n d e r ly in g a s s u m p tio n o f h i s

seco n d d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y , s in c e i t i s by th e c o n s ta n t r e c u r r e n c e o f th e la w s t h a t f u l c o n c e p t.

" a l l t h a t i s i n any w is e m a n ife s te d " becomes a m ean ing­ The r e a l i t y o f th e in d i v i d u a l phenomenon i s u n iq u e and

a to m ic ; th e r e a l i t y o f phenomena a s a g iv e n , i n t e l l i g i b l e w o rld demands th e o r d e r in g o f t h e c a t e g o r i s , w h ich , s in c e th e y ca n n o t e x i s t a p r i o r i i n a th i n k in g s u b s ta n c e i f th e r e i s no such th i n g , m ust be g iv e n em­ p i r i c a l l y w h en ev er e x p e r ie n c e i s g iv e n .

The e s ta b lis h m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t

o f law a s c o n s t a n t phenomenon i s , t h e r e f o r e , th e e s s e n c e o f th e e x p la n a ­ t i o n o f r e a l i t y w ith o u t s u b s ta n c e .

I n d o in g t h i s , h e m u st d e a l f i r s t

w ith th e d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y a s th e th in g a s phenomenon. A phenomenon i n R en o u v ier i s , a s h a s been i n d i c a t e d , n o t a th i n g in th e s e n s e t h a t by " th in g " we mean a ty p e w r ite r ,. a c i g a r e t t e , a t a b l e , a s h e e t o f p a p e r , a book, o r a human b e in g ; i t i s a lw a y s and

in v a r i a b l y a com plex o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

A phenomenon i s , i n h i s view ,

a p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f s e v e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich d e f in e th e law o f i t s id e n tiiy .

Thus th e r e l a t i o n of p e r c e iv e d and p e r c i p i e n t i s b u t o n e

o f t h e n etw o rk o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w hich d e te r m in e s th e phenomenon an d haB no p r i o r i t y , l o g i c a l o r o n t o l o g i c a l , o v e r t h e o t h e r s .

T h is p o i n t i s

n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a v o id id e a lis m , s i n c e , i f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e r ­ c e iv in g i s made c e n t r a l and ra n k s th e o t h e r s , t h e v ie w w ould be i n d i s ­ ti n g u i s h a b l e from t h a t o f B e rk e le y .

R e n o u v ie r, h o w ev er, i s n o t sa y in g

t h a t t o b e i s t o be p e r c e iv e d , b u t t h a t to be i s t o be in v o lv e d in one o r more o f t h e p o s s i b le r e l a t i o n s h i p s in w hich o b j e c t s a r e g iv e n in ex­ p e r i e n c e , o f which t h a t o f b ein g p e r c e iv e d by a know er i s b u t o n e. R e n o u v ie r, i n f a c t , a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e i s no su ch th in g a s b e in g i n th e t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e . la tio n s h ip .

We n e v e r e x p e r ie n c e b e in g , b u t o n ly r e ­

T h is i s a p o i n t a l s o s t r e s s e d i n l o g i s t i c s , i n w hich i t i s

re c o g n iz e d t h a t e x is te n c e i s an o p e r a t o r , an d n o t a p r o p o s i t i o n .

To say

" a t y p e w r i t e r e x i s t s " i s a m e a n in g le s s s ta t e m e n t , i n t h i s v iew ; th e o n ly m e a n in g fu l s ta te m e n t i s " t h e r e i s an e n t i t y , su c h t h a t i t i s a t y p e w r i t e r , w hich means t h a t i t i s w r i t t e n up o n , o r i s on th e t a b l e , o r h a s k e y s , o r i s h e r e now ," o r any c o m b in a tio n o f th e s e . c o p u la " i s " i s n o t a co m p lete p r e d i c a t e .

To p u t i t a n o t h e r w ay, th e The s ta t e m e n t "Mary i s " i s n o t

o f th e same s o r t a s th e s ta te m e n ts n£1a r y i s f i v e f e e t t h r e e in c h e s t a l l " , ,u,ia r y i s a b lo n d e ," o r "Mary i s a s c h o o l t e a c h e r " .

The f i r s t s a y s n o th in g

a b o u t th e s u b je c t ; th e o t h e r s a s c r i b e p r e d i c a t e s to i t .

F u r t h e r , th e

o n ly s e n s i b l e m eaning o f "A woman f i v e f e e t t h r e e in c h e s t a l l e x i s t s " i s "T here i s a woman who i s f i v e f e e t t h r e e in c h e s t a l l " .

T h is was th e d i f ­

f i c u l t y o f th e c l a s s i c a l l o g i c , w hich was u n a b le 1d a r r i v e a t a v a l i d r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p by m eans o f a s u b j e c t - p r e d i c a t e s y n ta x , i n w hich th e d if f e r e n c e i n k in d betw een th e s e s ta te m e n ts was n o t re c o g n iz e d .

I t i s av o id e d by

m aking r e l a t i o n s h i p c e n t r a l and c o n s t r u c t i n g a l o g i c o f r e l a t i o n s , i n w hich R en o u v ier i s i n th e t r a d i t i o n o f th e sy m b o lic l o g i c i a n s . I n h i s v ie v i I n e v e r e x p e r ie n c e b e in g , b u t a com plex o f r e l a ­ t i o n s h i p s — s p a ti o - te m p o r a l l o c a t i o n , c a u s a l c o n n e c tio n ,p u r p o s e , p e r ­ c e p t io n o f th e o b j e c t by m en, a rra n g e m e n t o f i t s p a r t s — w h ich d e f in e th e o b j e c t and le a d me t o i n f e r t h a t i t e x i s t s .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, t h e c a te g o ry

o f r e l a t i o n i s th e law o f b e in g , t h a t i s , th e law w hich d e l i v e r s to th e know er th e c o n c e p t o f t h e o b j e c t e x i s t i n g a s a com plex o f r e l a t i o n s , a s re a l. I n ta k in g t h i s r e v o lu t io n a r y p o s i t i o n , w h ich we s h a l l see t h a t W illiam ‘'am es l a t e r a d o p te d from h im , he a s s e r t s t h a t I do n o t ex­ p e r ie n c e m y s e lf a s t r a n s c e n d e n ta l e g o , i n th e A a n tia n s e n s e , o r ,

f o r th a t

m a t t e r , i n any s e n s e ; n o r do I e x p e r ie n c e th e t y p e w r i t e r , t o r e t u r n to th e p r e v io u s ex am p le, a s s u b s ta n c e an d a c c i d e n t s ; w h at I e x p e r ie n c e i s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p " I am w r i t i n g on a - ty p e w r ite r " , a p o i n t w hich i s made c l e a r e r i f we a d o p t th e te rm in o lo g y o f B ergson and s u b s t i t u t e f o r th e s e n te n c e c o n t a in in g g ra m m a tic a l s u b j e c t s and d i r e c t o b j e c t s " t h e r e i s an e x p e r ie n c in g " and " t h e r e i s a w r i t i n g " .

J u s t a s " th e c h i l d becomes a

man" i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e u n t i l t r a n s l a t e d i n t o " t h e r e i s a becom ing from

68.

th e c h i l d to t h e w an", i n w hich th e p rim acy o f grow th and ch an g e i n ­ d i c a t e s a sco p e o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y w hich j u s t i f i e s s e p a r a t e nam es f o r th e d i f f e r e n t s ta g e s o f th e p r o c e s s ; so th e p rim acy o f t h e a c t i o n , and i t m u st be u n d e r s to o d t h a t th e v e r b s o f a l l la n g u a g e s a r e th e nam es o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , makes i n t e l l i g i b l e th e n a t u r e o f a g e n t and p a t i e n t . They a r e , q u a p a r t i e s t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p , n o t qua m e ta p h y s ic a l e n t i t i e s . M o reo v er, s u c h ■r e l a t i o n s a r e n o t g iv e n p iecem eaL o r s i n g l y , b u t a s a s y n t h e s i s , a s a com plex.

To r e t u r n t o th e t y p e w r i t e r , R e n o u v ie r

wou]d m a in ta in t h a t " w r i tin g " , " i s on th e t a b l e " , " h a s k e y s " , and " i s h e r e now" a r e n o t g iv e n i n vacuo s e p a r a t e l y , b u t a s s y n t h e t i c , a s a m ani­ f o l d o f com plex r e l a t i o n s .

Though t h i s com plex mey be a n a ly z e d i n t o p a r t s ,

su ch a s th o s e e n u m e ra te d , th e r e i s no r e s u l t a n t e m b arrassm en t o f p u t t i n g t h e p a r t s t o g e t h e r a g a in , s in c e th e y w ere g iv e n a s a w hole in th e f i r s t p la c e .

I t i s t r u e t h a t a n a l y s i s i s n e c e s s a r y to u n d e r s ta n d in g , w hich

p ro c e e d s by a n a l y s i s and s y n th e s is , b u t t h i s i s no a to m ic e p isto m o lo g y i n w hich th e o b j e c t m ust be c o n s tr u c te d by a s y n t h e s i s o f d a t a , i n t h i s c ase, re la tio n s h ip s .

The o b j e c t i s g iv e n a s such a s y n t h e s i s , o r r a t h e r ,

t h e o b j e c t i s g iv e n w h o le; a n a l y s i s may b re a k i t down i n t o i t s com ponent r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a f t e r w hich i t can be r e c o n s t r u c t e d , b u t th e o b j e c t , th e phenom enon, i s n o t a c o n s t r u c t , b u t a g iv e n .

I n h i s own w ords:

Phenomena a r e b o th sim p le an d com p lex , b u t o n ly i n r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r , em bracing an d b e in g em braced m u tu a lly , th e y a r e c o n n ec ted and u n f o ld a c c o r d in g t o c e r t a i n o r d e r s ; n o th in g i s g iv e n u s e x c e p t by s y n t h e s i s and n o th in g i s c l a r i f i e d f o r u s e x c e p t by a n a l y s i s . I c o n c lu d e th e n i a l l i s r e l a t i v e i n know ledge.^-

^Ibid. r vol. 1, p. 71.

In o t h e r w o rd s, h e s e e s th e law a s w hat m ig h t be c a l l e d th e G e s t a l t o f th e s y n t h e t i c g iv e n o f e x p a :ie n c e , and so a s much g iv e n a s th e o b j e c t s w hich c o n s t i t u t e i t .

Thus h e e s t a b l i s h e s a s i m i l a r i t y i n k in d b etw ee n

th e r e l a t i o n o f law an d o t h e r r e l a t i o n s , i n w hich th e y form an un b ro k en h i e r a r c h y c o n s i s t i n g f i r s t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f th e p a r t to a w hole and th e n o f w h o le s to eac h o t h e r i n a c o n t e x t , th e law i n eac h c a s e b ein g th e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f th e p a r t s .

A p p e a ra n c e , th e n , o r th e phenom enon, i s

d e f in e d a s a com plex s y n t h e s i s o f r e l a t i o n s , o r , i n s im p le r p h r a s e o lo g y , th e t h i n g a s phenomenon i s d e te rm in e d by t h e p o i n t of' i n t e r s e c t i o n o f two o r m o re, u s u a l l y m o re, r e l a t i o n s ; f o r e x a m p le , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r t s to w hole i n d i c a t e d hy "h a s k e y s " , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o t te m p o ro s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by " i s on t h e t a b l e " and " i s h e r e now ", th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f b e in g p e r c e iv e d i n d i c a t e d by " i s se e n by m e", and th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f b e in g u s e d i n d i c a t e d by " i s b e in g w r i t t e n upon" — t o en u m erate o n ly a few" —

i n t e r s e c t and a r e g iv e n a s i n t e r s e c t i n g , to

e s t a b l i s h th e i d e n t i t y o f th e o b j e c t we c a l l a t y p e w r i t e r .

M o reo v er, th e

c o n c e p t t y p e w r i t e r i s n o t c o n s tr u c t e d o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s g iv e n one by o n e , b u t i t i s s t r i c t l y by v i r t u e o f t h e i r b e in g g iv e n s im u lta n e o u s ly and w hole t h a t th e y c o n s t i t u t e and d e f in e th e t y p e w r i t e r . Thus r e l a t i v i t y i s , i n R e n o u v ie r, th e e s s e n c e o f r e a l i t y . Re­ l a t i o n , m o re o v e r, e n t a i l s o r d e r , s in c e th e e i s a f i n i t e number o f s e p a r a te r e l a t i o n s and o f p o s s i b l e p e r m u ta tio n s and c o m b in a tio n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich m u st b e i r e p e a t e d , and th e p a t t e r n o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n s , a c t u a l an d p o s s i b l e , w o u ld p r o v id e a c lu e f o r th e o r d e r in g and s y s te m a tiz in g o f o b j e c t s

and e v e n t s .

T h is o r d e r o r p a t t e r n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s w hat R en o u v ie r

c a l l s la w , and he s e e s i t a s c o n s ta n t i n th e w o rld .

T h ere a r e a g a in a

f i n i t e number o f d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich r e c u r a s th e d e f i n i e n s o f a l l p o s s i b l e o b j e c t s an d w hich a r e i n v a r i a b l y p r e s e n t w henever an ap ­ p e a ra n c e i s p r e s e n t .

T hese a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s which a r e d e f in e d a s con­

s t i t u t i n g la w , w hich i s " th e c o n s ta n t phenomenon a p p e a r in g a s th e sum t o t a l o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f o t h e r phenom ena."

5

S in c e t h e la w , o r c a t e ­

g o ry , i s g iv e n i n v a r i a b l y w henever a phenomenon i s g iv e n . h #noUv i e r h o ld s t h a t i t h a s th e q u a l i t y o f p erm aaenee n e c e s s a r y to g iv e th e w o rld r e a l i t y and i s a n e q u a lly s u b s t a n t i a l and e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e s u b s t i t u t e f o r th e c o n c e p t o f s u b s ta n c e .

A c c o rd in g ly i t fo llo w s t h a t , f o r th e p e r ­

m anence o f s u b s ta n c e , we may s u b s t i t u t e t h e perm anence o f la w . So much f o r perm anence; w hat o f change?

Af th e i n v a r i a b l e

p r e s e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p can f u n c ti o n a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r th e law o f c o n t i n u i t y o r t h e c o n c e p t o f s u b s ta n c e i n endow ing t h e w o rld w ith p e r ­ m anen ce, w hat p r i n c i p l e can be in v o k e d t o e x p la in change* he e l e c t s t o f o r m a l iz e t h i s a s p e c t ' o f phenomena i n te rm s o f th e m a th e m a tic a l c o n c e p t o f fu n c tio n .

The f u n c t i o n s t a t e s th e c o n s ta n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f v a r i a b l e s .

We have g iv e n th e name o f la w t o a l l phenom ena em b racin g th e r e l a t i o n s o f se v e ra l, o t h e r s . rte c o n c e iv e th u s r e l a t i o n s i n th e m s e lv e s , so t o s p e a k , i n th e s t a t e o f im­ m o b i l i t y . T h ere i s , how ever, a n o t h e r p o i n t . o f v ie w . M athe­ m a tic s h a s c o n s e c r a te d th e p r e c i o u s name o f f u n c t i o n to th e la w s which c o n n e c t th e phenom ena w hich a r e th e o b j e c t o f i t s s tu d y i n s o f a r a s c e r t a i n o f th e r e l a t i o n s in c lu d e d u n d e r th e s e la w s a r e v a r i a b l e s , and i n s o f a r a s betw een t h e s e some v a r y an d a r e d e te rm in e d b e c a u se o f th e v a r i a b i o n an d d e te r m in a tio n o f

“’ibid., vol. 1. p. 82.

o t h e r s . M o reo v er, th e law s o f a b s t r a c t q u a n t i t y a r e n o t th e o n ly o n es t o p r e s e n t t h i s c h a r a c t e r ; r e l a t i o n s o f q u a l i t y o r f o r c e , an y r e l a t i o n s , w h e th e r l o g i c a l o r c a u s a l , p r e s e n t th e same c h a r a c t e r i n t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e , i t i s p e r m i s s i b le , t h e n , a n n i t i s e a s y t o e x te n d t h i s m ath e­ m a tic a l co n ce p t t o a l l phenomena an d t o a l l r e l a t i o n s , a n d to e x t r a p o l a t e th e w ord f u n c ti o n i n t o - t h e g e n e r a l f i e l d o f s c ie n c e .o The f u n c t i o n i s th e c o n c e p t em ployed i n m a th e m a tic s t o d e s c r ib e th e f a c t o f c o n c o m ita n t v a r i a t i o n .

"A q u a n t i t y i s s a i d t o be

a f u n c ti o n o f a v a r i a b l e i f i t s v a lu e i s d e te rm in e d w h en ev er a d e f i n i t e v a lu e i s a s s ig n e d t o t h e v a r i a b l e . I n

o t h e r w o rd s, w here th e r e l a t i o n ­

s h ip o f two q u a n t i t i e s i s c o n s t a n t , t h e v a l u e o f one may b e i n te rm s o f th e o t h e r .

a s c e rta in e d

Thus th e c irc u m f e r e n c e o f a c i r c l e i s a f u n c t i o n

o f i t s r a d i u s ; th e d ia g o n a l o f a s q u a r e i s a f u n c t i o n o f i t s s i d e ; th e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f a m oving body i s a f u n c t i o n o f i t s m a ss,

The w ord was

f i r s t in tr o d u c e d by L e ib n iz i n a n o te o f 1694 and t h e c o n c e p t was u s e d by him m a in ly i n a m a th e m a tic a l s e n s e o n l y ,

i n h i s s t u d i e s an d r e s e a r c h e s

on th e i n f i n i t e s i m a l c a l c u l u s , he d e v e lo p e d t h e c o n c e p t o f f u n c t i o n to a l a r g e e x t e n t , b u t h i s m e ta p h y s ic a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f i t i n h i s s t r i c t l y p h il o s o p h i c a l w orks a r e l a r g e l y i m p l i c i t . F o r ex am p le, th e f o llo w in g p a s ­ sag e o f th e M onadology can be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a s ta te m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f f u n c tio n s e x te n d e d t o m e ta p h y s ic s : F o r a l l i s a plenum (a n d th u s aU L m atter i s c o n n ec ted to g e th e r ) and i n t h e plenum e v e r y m o tio n h a s an e f f e c t upon d i s t a n t b o d ie s i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r d i s t a n c e , s o t h a t each body n o t o n ly i s a f f e c t e d b y th o s e which a r e i n c o n t a c t w ith i t an d i n some way f e e l s th e £ i b i d . , v o l. 1, p . 86. 7 Cohen, Abraham, E le m e n ts o f C a l c u lu s . Hew * o r k , JJ. C. H eath an d b0mpny, 1940, p . 1 .

e f f e c t s o f e v e r y th in g w hich h appens t o them , b u t a l s o i s im m e d ia te ly a f f e c t e d by b o d ie s a d jo in g in g w ith w hich i t i t s e l f i s i n im m ed iate c o n t a c t. W h erefo re i t f o llo w s t h a t in te rc o m m u n ic a tio n o f th in g s e x te n d s to any d i s t a n c e , how­ e v e r , g r e a t . And c o n se q u e n tly e v e ry body f e e l s t h e e f f e c t o f a l l t h a t t a k e s p la c e i n th e u n i v e r s e . T h is i s t h e same a s sa y in g t h a t e v e ry t h i n g i n th e u n iv e r s e i s a f u n c t i o n o f e v e ry o th e r t h i n g , and i t i s to b e n o te d t h a t , w h ile H en o u v ier to o k th e c o n c e p t o f f u n c tio n o r i g i n a l l y from L e i b n i z , he m o d ifie d i t c o n s id e r a b ly i n t h e p r o c e s s .

I n L e ib n iz , i t i s b o u n d up w ith th e law o f

c o n t i n u i t y and w ith a d o c tr in e o f t h e co m p lete i n t e r n a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s . T h a t i s , i t i s by v i r t u e o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , o f t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f sub­ s t a n c e , a n d o f th e r e s u l t a n t n e c e s s i t y o f th e c a u s a l n ex u s a l r e a d y d i s ­ c u s s e d t h a t b o d ie s a r e im m ed iately a f f e c t e d by o t h e r s rem ote from them i n Space an d tim e ; f u r t h e r , i t fo llo w s l o g i c a l l y fro m t h i s t h a t a l l b o d ie s a r e r e l a t e d t o a l l o t h e r s , w hich i s wha,t i s m eant by i n t e r n a l i t y o f r e ­ l a t i o n s , t h a t t h e u n iv e r s e i s a c lo s e d system o f c o m p le te ly i n t e r r e l a t e d p a r t s , and t h a t a t o t a l s y n th e s is m ust be made s i n c e d e f i n i t i o n i n term s o f r e l a t i o n s d eman d s th e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e d e fin ie n d u m i n t o t h e w hold. I t i s p r e c i s e l y su ch a t o t a l s y n th e s is w hich we h a v e s e e n t h a t R en o u v ie r s e e k s t o a v o id and we, a c c o r d in g ly , f i n d t h a t , i n h i s a d a p tio n o f th e c o n c e p t o f f u n c t i o n , i t would a p p ly w ith in a s e l e c t e d c o n t e x t , i n w hich one r e l a t i o n w ould depend upon a n o th e r r e l a t i o n ^ an d w ould a p p ly a g a in i n a seo n d s e l e c t e d c o n t e x t, b u t t h e r e w ould be no c o n n e c tio n b etw een th e ch a n g e s o f th e two c o n te x ts , o rp i n o t h e r w o rd s, one c o n te x t would

L e ib n iz , o p . c i t . , p . 251.

n o t be a f u n c t i o n o f a n o t h e r .

■Lh e d o c t r i n e o f i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s would

h o ld t h a t , i f I s n e e z e , i t im m e d ia te ly a f f e c t s th e G re a t N ebula o f Andormeda, t o ta k e a n extrem e c a s e . The d o c tr in e o f e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h o ld s t h a t , beyond a c e r t a i n c o n t e x t u a l l i m i t , such e f f e c t s , even i f th e y e x i s t e d , w ould b e e i t h e r i r r e l e v a n t , o r so s m a ll a s to be n e g l i g i b l e , and, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t o n ly a' l i m i t e d s p h e r e o f r e l a t i o n s i s s i g n i f i c a n t .

h.e_

n o u v ie r t a k e s th e l a t t e r p o s i t i o n , w ith th e a d d i t i o n a l p r o v is o t h a t , b e ­ yond th e f i n i t e c o n te x t i n w hich th e f u n c ti o n i s m e a n in g fu l, t h e r e a c t u a l l y a r e no r e l a t i o n s o r e f f e c t s , even th e i r r e l e v a n t art n e g l i g i b l e .

In o th e r

w ords, he p o s i t s a d e f i n i t e l y p l u r a l i s t i c and ato m ic u n iv e r s e made up o f d i s c r e t e c o n t e x ts which do n o t i i o d if y eac h o t h e r .

A g iv e n f u n c ti o n ex­

p r e s s e s th e law w ith i n i t s l i m i t s ; w h ile a n o th e r f u n c t i o n in d e p e n d e n t l y e x p r e s s e s th e law w ith i n i t s l i m i t s .

Thus th e co n c o m ita n t v a r i a t i o n s ,

th e c h a n g e s , w ith in a g iv e n f i e l d a r e e x p la in e d i n te rm s o f th e c o n s ta n 6 y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t i s , o f f u n c t i o n ; b u t, s in c e t h e r e i s no c o n s ta n c y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n :.th e f i r s t f i e l d and any o t h e r f i e l d o r f i e l d s , th e o t h e r s c o n s t i t u t e d i s c r e t e f u n c t i o n s m a n if e s tin g th e same q u a l i t y o f c o n s ta n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith in th e m s e lv e s , b u tn o t e jq p lic a b le i p te rm s o f each o th e r.

*'or ex am p le, th e se q u e n c e o f a c t i v i t i e s in v o lv e d i n my

w r iti n g on a t y p e w r i t e r w ould be a f u n c t i o n i n th e L e n o u v ie ria n s e n s e ; so would th e seq u en ce o f a c t i v i t i e s in v o lv e d i n th e b u il d in g o f a n adobe house i n N&w -M exico; b u t t h e r e w ould b e no c o n n e c tio n betw een th e tw o , and eac h c o u ld be m e a n in g f u lly d is c u s s e d w ith o u t any r e f e r e n c e t o th e

o t h e r an d w ith o u t i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o an a b s o lu t e w hole o f w hich b o th can be co n c e iv e d a s p a r t s . Sym bolic l o g i c i l l u s t r a t e s th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a e n o u v ie r 'B c o n c e p t o f f u n c ti o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e work o f R u s s e l l , t h e m ain ex p o n en t o f th e l o g i c o f f u n c ti o n s o f s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s .

The symbol "(F x ) f ( x ) " ,

w hich we r e a d " t h e r e i s an x w hich h a s th e q u a l i t y f " i s a s ta te m e n t n o t o n ly o f a lo g i c I f r e l a t i o n s , a s h as a lr e a d y b een i n d i c a t e d , b u t o f a c o n s ta n t r e l a t i o n s h i p p r e v a i l i n g i n a l i m i t e d c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , o f p r e ­ c i s e l y th e view o f f u n c ti o n expounded by n e n o u v ie r , and t h i s i s e q u a lly t r u e o f th e a l l - o p e r a t o r .

T h u s, m a in ly i n o u r own tim e , R e n o u v ie r 's be­

l i e f t h a t i t i s p e r m i s s i b l e " to e x t r a p o l a t e th e w ord f u n c t i o n i n t o th e g e n e r a l f i e l d o f s c ie n c e " h a s b een f r u i t f u l l y a c t e d u p o n . At t h e end o f th e p r e v io u s c h a p t e r , th e q u e s ti o n was r a i s e d w h e th e r R e n o u v ie r 's d o c t r i n e o f e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h ad n o t v i t i a t e d h is sy stem an d re d u c e d i t t o a s k e p ti c is m .

We h av e se e n t h a t h e c o n s id e re d

t h i s pro b lem s d lv e d i n te rm s o f th e c o n c e p ts o f law and f u n c t i o n , which p r o v id e th e n e c e s s a r y p r i n c i p l e s o f perm anence an d ch an g e go k eep a u n iv e r s e g o in g w ith o u t s u b s t a n c e , r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , o r n e c e s s i t y .

I t re ­

m ains t o exam ine th e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s w ith w hich t h i s h a s b een a c h ie v e d . S e v e ra l p ro b lem s p r e s e n t th e m s e lv e s .

I n t h e f i r B t p l a c e , how s u c c e s s f u l

i s th e d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y i n te rm s o f ap p ea ran ce? menon been so d e f in e d ,

c o g e n t l y , . a s t o in c lu d e a law ?

s e c o n d , h a s pheno­ T h ir d , i f pheno­

mena m ust b e d e fin e d i n te rm s o f s e n s e d a t a , a r e we n o t f o r c e d i n t o (a ) a n o m i n a li s t ic view o f la w , and (b ) a s u b je c t iv e id e a lis m ?

fo u rth ,

d o e s R e n o u v ie r 's a n a l y s i s p r o v id e an a d e q u a te p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n ? L a s t , and th e p o i n t t o w hich th e p r e v io u s o b j e c t i o n s l e a d , h as n o t causal-*i t y d e g e n e r a te d i n t o a te m p o ra l seau en ce a n d , t h e r e f o r e , i n t o th e v e ry p o s i t i o n o f Hume from w hich K ant so u g h t t o e sc a p e ? R e n o u v ie r a s s e r t s t h a t , by v i r t u e o f t h e c o n c e p ts o f law and f u n c t i o n , he h a s e x p la in e d a r e a l w o rld o f a p p e a r a n c e s . d e n t t h a t th e p h r a s e so u n d s p a r a d o x ic a l?

I s i t an a c c i ­

D e s p ite th e v e r b a l p l a u s i b i ­

l i t y o f th e s ta te m e n t t h a t a p p e a ra n c e s a p p e a r and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , th e t h i n g s w hich a p p e a r , d o es n o t o a n ta y a n a seem n e a r e r to th e t r u t h frhen he says* T h at w hich i s c e r t a i n and g iv e n , on th e c o n t r a r y , i s so m eth in g o f w hicn e x i s t e n c e can n o t be p r e d i c a t e d , and w hich u n t i l i t i s u s e d a s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f so m eth in g e l s e , c a n n o t be e i t h e r f a l s e o r t r u e . . . .E x is te n c e s , th e n , from th e p o i n t o f view o f k n o w led g e, a r e f a c t s o r e v e n ts a f f ir m e d , n o t im ages se e n o r t o p i c s m e re ly e n t e r t a i n e d . Vie seem i n t u i t i v e l y c o n v in c e d t h a t t h i s e p is te m o lo g ic a l im p asse e x i s t s , and t h a t i t c a n n o t be e l im i n a te d i f we u s e sen se p e r c e p t i o n a s th e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e i n e p is te m o lo g y .

R e n o u v ie r 's a s s e r t i o n t h a t i t i s n o t th e

c a se i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , a n d we f e e l t h a t h e sh o u ld a t t h i s p o i n t have in v o k e d h i s d o c t r i n e o f b e l i e f , r a t h e r th a n e s s a y e d any l o g i c a l d e fe n s e o f th e p o s i t i o n .

When h e s a y s t h a t " r e a l i t y " can have o n ly two i n t e l ­

l i g i b l e m e a n in g s, e i t h e r " th in g " o r e x i s t e n c e a s phenom enon, o r a l l t h a t i s i n an y way m a n if e s te d to .us, we a r e tem p ted to r e p l y t h a t , to u s , i n th e f i r s t s e n s e , i t m eans e x i s t e n c e , and n o t e x i s t e n c e a s p h e n o t

9 S a n ta y a n a * G eo rg e, S k e p tic is m and .anim al E a i th . hew Y ork, C h a rle s S c r i b n e r 's £>ons, 1 9 2 9 , p p . 4 5 , 4 7 -4 8 .

menon; and t h a t th e o n ly m e a n in g fu l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e seco n d s t a t e ­ ment i s i n te rm s o f s u b s ta n c e . is

m a n ife s ta tio n .

I t d o es n o t s u f f i c e t o e q u a te t h a t which

To do s o , i n f a c t , i s a l i n g u i s t i c i m p r o p r ie ty .

A

m a n if e s ta t io n i s an i n d i c a t i o n ; an i n d i c a t i o n i s a p o i n t i n g ; and p o in t i s a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b ; h en ce a m a n i f e s t a t i o n m ust p o i n t t o so m eth in g beyond its e lf.

Thus th e c o n c e p t o f s u b s ta n c e i s i m p l i c i t i n th e word " m a n if e s ta ­

t i o n ” , a lth o u g h n o t i n P e i r c e 's c o in e d w ord p h a n e ro n . w nich sim p ly means an a p p e a r a n c e .

T h is c r i t i c i s m , h o w ev er, w ould d e g e n e r a te i n t o a l i n g u i s t i c

c a r p in g i f R e n o u v ie r h a a s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d perm anence an d change i n te rm s o f law and f u n c t i o n . The q u e s ti o n a r i s e s , h o w ev er, w h e th e r he can w ith in p u n i t y make no d i s t i n c t i o n - i n k in d betw een th e t h r e e ty p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h e c ru x o f th e p ro b le m l i e s i n th e s u c c e s s w ith w hich he h a s a v o id e d m aking th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e r c e iv e d an d p e r c i p i e n t c e n t r a l to h i s a n a l y s i s . C le a r ly , th e p a r t s o f a n o b je c t a r e a k in t o th e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f an e v e n t i n t h a t b o th a l i k e a r e se n s e d a t a ; h o w ev er, t h e law e x p r e s s in g th e r e l a ­ t i o n s o f su ch p a r t s i s n o t a s e n s e datum , b u t an a b s t r a c t i o n ,

I n Ajo c k e ia n

te rm s , th e f i r s t two a r e i d e a s o f s e n s a t i o n , b u t th e law i s an id e a o f r e ­ fle c tio n .

To j u s t i f y th e e l im i n a t i o n o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , i t i s incum ­

b e n t upon R e n o u v ie r t o f o r m u la te and s u b s t a n t i a t e a d e f i n i t i o n o f pheno­ menon i n some o t h e r te rm s th a n t h o s e o f s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n . I f h e su c c e e d s i n t h i s , he i s ip s o f a c t o a S c h o l a s t i c R e a l i s t , a p o s i t i o n t o w hich he i s u n w illin g to commit h im s e lf ; i f he f a i l s , h i s sy ste m i s n o t a n e u t r a l monism, b u t a s u b j e c t i y e id e a l i s m , w hich w i l l f o r c e him l o g i c a l l y i n t o th e

p o s i t i o n o f Hume.

I n o t h e r w ords, e i t h e r s c i e n t i f i c la w s a r e a s r e a l

a s o b j e c t s i n th e same s e n s e , o r th e y a r e a t m ost p ro b ab l.e in f e r e n c e s from p o s s i b l y d e c e p tiv e o r m i s i n t e r p r e t e d sen .,e d a t a .

(H ot t h a t th e s e a r e th e

o n ly p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s i n th e a b s o l u t e ,b u t th e y a r e t h e o n ly o n es on ‘ R e n o u v ie r 's p r e m is e s .)

I t i s n o t R e n o u v ie r1s a p p a re n t i n t e n t i o n to su b ­

s c r i b e t o th e f i r s t p o s i t i o n , s in c e he m a in ta in s t h a t th e law does n o t e x i s t in d e p e n d a n tly o f i t s ex am p les; an d th e second i s e x p r e s s ly r e p u d ia ­ te d by th e s ta te m e n t t h a t phenom ena a r e n o t phenomena f o r a m ind.

I t w ill

be n o te d i n c r e a s i n g l y , h o w ev er, t h a t R e n o u v ie r te n d s to w a rd th e l a t t e r p o s i ­ t i o n , s i n c e , a lth o u g h he i n s i s t s upon t h e e q u ip o lle n c e o f know er an d known, he k e e p s im p ly in g a p rim a c y o f knower o v e r known.

T h is w i l l be e l u c i d a t e d

f u r t h e r i n a n o th e r p l a c e . T h ere re m a in s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h eth er th e d e f i n i t i o n o f phenomenon a s a s y n t h e t i c g iv e n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s a a t i t i e s a law t o be c a l l e d a phenom enon.

I f , and o n ly i f , no p rim acy i s a s c r i b e d , o r n e e d be

a s c r i b e d , t o th e p r e c e i v e d - p e r c i p i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , can a law be p r o p e r l y r e g a r d e d a s a phenom enon, s in c e i t , . a l s o , would be a p o i n t o t i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a g ro u p o f r e l a t i o n s , none o f w hich happened to be t h a t o f p e r c e p t i o n ; and t h i s would be immaterial, Since perception i s not an essential r e -

la tio n .

f u r t h : r q u e s t i o n w h e th e r th e T h is b r in g s up t h e / d e f i n i t i o n o f a th i n g i n te rm s o f r e l a t i o n s

w i l l s ta n d u p .

At* l e a s t , th e g ra m m a tic a l s y n ta x o f t h e In d o -E u ro p e a n

la n g u a g e s i s a g a i n s t i t y i n t h a t

am f o r c e d t o u s e th e wore " I ” a s th e

s u b j e c t o f an y v e r ^ j su c h a s " e x p e r ie n c e ” o r " w r it " , a s th o u g h t h e r e w ere s t i l l some r e s i d u a l ego o v e r and above th e r e l a t i o n s h i p ,

^ re o v e r,

th e r e c a s t in g o f th e s e n te n c e i n t o " t h e r e i s an e s p e r ie n c in g " o r " t h e r e i s a w r itin g " r e v e a l s th e p e r s i s t e n c e o f th e p e r s o n a l p ro n o u n " I " a s more th a n a le g e n d o r a g ra m m a tic a l c o n v e n tio n , f o r , w h ile " t h e r e i s a w r i t i n g " may c o n c e iv a b ly be s e n s i b l e , " t h e r e i s a n e x p e r ie n c in g " becom es a b s u r d , s in c e e x p e rie n c e m ust be e x p e r ie n c e o f som eone,

E x p e rie n c e i s d e f in e d a s

t h e ''p r o c e s s o r f a c t o f p e r s o n a ll y o b s e r v in g , e n c o u n te r in g , o r u n d e rg o in g s o m e th in g ," p e rie n c e .



i n th e l i g h t o f which we m u st c o n c lu d e , no p e r s o n , no e x ­

N or, ev en , i s " t h e r e i s a w r i t i n g " exem pt fro m th e o b j e c t i o n

o f in c o m p le te n e s s w hicn m ust be o f f e r e e a g a i n s t " t h e r e i s an e x p e r i e n c i n g " . By in c o m p le te n e s s , 1 mean t h a t th e s ta t e m e n t o f th e name o f th e r e l a t i o n ­ s h ip a lo n e i s a t r u n c a te d p i c t u r e o f t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n w hich o m its e s s e n t i a l e le m e n ts .

The word " r e l a t i o n " p r e s u p p o s e s a t l e a s t two th i n g s

w hich a r e c o n n e c te d , an a d e f i n i n g a t h i n g i n te rm s o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s d o e s n o t e l im i n a te th e s e i n d i s p e n s a b l e s .

I t may be th e o n ly p r o p e r form

o f d e f i n i t i o n * and i t can be c o n c e iv e d t h a t even t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i ­ t i o n i n te rm s o f g en u s and d i f f e r e n t i a i s ^ a s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n , betv/een t h e w hole and c e r t a i n o f i t s p a r t o , b u t t h i s d o es n o t im p ly t h a t a r e l a ­ t i o n w ith o u t term s i s m eaningful-'.

On t h e c o n t r a r y , a r e l a t i o n w ith o u t

te rm s i s a r e l a t i o n which i s n o t a r e l a t i o n , w hich i t s e l f v i o l a t e s th e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n .

I f I d e f in e m y s e lf a s t h e d a u g h te r o f two p e r s o n s ,

th e em ployee o f a c o r p o r a t io n , th e i n s t r u c t o r o f c e r t a i n o t h e r p e r s o n s ,

10Ih£L A m erican C o lle g e D i c t i o n a r y . New Y ork and ^o n d o n , h a r p e r & b r o t h e r s , 1948, i t a l i c s m ine.

such d e f i n i t i o n h a s e l im i n a te d n e i t h e r m y s e lf n o r th e o t h e r p a r t i e s t o th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e d .

R e n o u v ie r h a s n o t r e a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a ­

t i o n s h i p a s th e u l t i m a t e and a to m ic u n i t o f r e a l i t y , and i t s te rm s a s p h a s e s w hich ca n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d from i t ,

b u t sim p ly m a in ta in e d t h a t th e

r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a s v a l i d a f a c t o f e x p e r ie n c e a s i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . I f r e l a t i o n were su ch a n a to m ic f a c t , th e n no law o f any k in d w ould be p o s s i b l e , s in c e ea c h r e l a t i o n w ould have to be u n iq u e . " I am w r iti n g on a ty p e w r i t e r " an a '.'James i s w r itin g w ith a pen", w o u ld be tw o u t t e r l y d i s c r e t e r e l a t i o n s , s i n c e , t h e te rm s b e in g i n t e g r a l t o th e r e l a t i o n , two new te rm s o f a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n would p ro d u c e a new p h e n o 1 m enon, in c o m p a ra b le w ith th e o l d . I n t h a t c a s e , no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f th e r e l a t i o n , w r i t i n g , . w ould be p o s s i b l e ; n o r c o u ld th e d e f i n i t i o n o f a pheno­ menon a s a com plex o f r e l a t i o n s b e m a in ta in e d , s in c e each r e l a t i o n w ould d e fin e a s e p a ra te e n t i t y .

" W r itin g " , " i s on th e t a b l e " , "h a s k e y s " , " i s

h e re now" would n o t com bine to d e f i n e a t y p e w r i t e r , b u t would be u n a b le i n an y s e n s e to g e t t o g e t h e r , s in c e eac h a to m ic u n i t would be d i s c r e t e and d is c o n n e c te d from a l l o t h e r s b y v i r t u e o f th e s h e e r i n a b i l i t y to s e p a r a t e th e c o n s ta n t n ex u s i n d i c a t e d by th e r e l a t i o n from th e te rm s b e twe n w hich i t s u b s i s t s . Thus no p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n would be p o s s i b l e on th e s e p r e m is e s , f o r two r e a s o n s .

I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , th e v a r io u s c o o r d in a te s

( i . e . , r e l a t i o n s ) d e f i n i n g a n o b je c t a t one moment o f tim e an d one p o in t o f s p a c e c o u ld n o t be com bined i n t o a c o o r d in a te sy stem , a s in d i c a t e d above.

I n th e seco n d p l a c e , t h e r e c o u ld be no r e a l c o n t i n u i t y a n d , t h e r e -

f o r e , no law o f c h a n g e , to borrow a p h r a s e from Lc t z e .

I f a g ro u p o f

c o e x i s t e n t d i s c r e t e r e l a t i o n s c a n n o t be com bined t o form an o b j e c t , i t becom es even more d i f f i c u l t to c o n n e c t a s e r i e s o f c o n s e c u tiv e d i s c r e t e r e l a t i o n s to g iv e p e r s i s t e n c e o f th e same o b je c t in tim e .

xhe r e l a t i o n s

h av e become com parable t o b e a d s , w ith no s t r i n g to h o ld them t o g e t h e r , a n d i t c a n n o t be c o u n te rp o s e d t h a t th e r e l a t i o n o f te m p o ra l s u c c e s s io n p r o ­ v id e s th e s t r i n g , s i n c e i t i s open t o t h e same o b j e c t i o n a s th e r e l a t i o n o f c o e x i s t e n c e , i n th e f i r s t p l a c e ; a n d , i n th e seco n d p l a c e , p r o v id e s no re a s o n f o r t h e o b v io u s f a c t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e l a t i o n s o f te m p o ra l s u c ­ c e s s io n a r e n o t c a s e s o f p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e same o b j e c t .

xo r exam ple,

ray p a u sin g t o g e t a c i g a r e t t e , t h e p a s s in g o f a tr u c k o u t s i d e th e window, th e sh o u t o f a c h i l d a t r e c e s s , th e window o f th e a n t iq u e shop a c r o s s th e s t r e e t , and a woman le a v in g h e r home w ith a sh o p p in g bag a l l f o llo w e d i n tim e t h e r e l a t i o n o f w r i t i n g on a t y p e w r i t e r , a s d id th e r e l a t i o n o f th e t y p e w r i t e r 's b ein g on th e t a b l e w h ile al}. th e s e e v e n ts to o k p la c e ; y e t o n ly one o f th e s e o c c u r r e n c e s , a l l o f w h ich b o re to th e a c t o f w r iti n g th e r e l a t i o n o f te m p o ra l se q u e n c e , c a r r i e d w ith i t th e p e r s i s t e n c e o f th e o b j e c t . I t i s a n a iv e o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s im p ly t o sa y t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s p ro v id e s no e x p la n a tio n o f how i t comes a b o u t t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r Underwood p o r ta b l e o f a n c i e n t v i n t a g e p e r s i s t s when i t i s n o t i n th e r e l a t i o n o f b e in g c a r r i e d , d u s te d , o r w r i t t e n u p o n .

R e n o u v ie r can w ith

j u s t i c e r e p l y t h a t i t i s s t i l l insom e r e l a t i o n , such a s b e in g on a t a b l e o r i n a c lo B e t; an d 1 w i l l concede t h a t h e h a s re c o g n iz e d t h e f a c t t h a t

no o b j e c t e v e r e x i s t s u n r e l a t e d to some o t h e r o b j e c t o r o b j e c t s , b u t he h a s n o t e l im i n a te d th e te rm s o f th e r e l a t i o n , n o r h a s h e e s t a b l i s h e d by h i s arg u m en t a p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n w hich k eep s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e w r i t e r my t y p e w r i t e r , w hich was my f a t h e r 's b e f o r e me, an d no o t h e r . A ll i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s h a v in g b een r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d a t t h e tim e o f my F a t h e r 's d e a t h , how, t h e n , d o I sa y t h a t t h i s i s t h e same ty p e w r ite r w hich he f o r m e r ly had?

The d e n i a l o f th e L e i b n ia ia n law o f c o n t in u it y a l r e a d y

n o te d d e p r iv e s me o f my l a s t v a l i d g ro u n d f o r such a s ta te m e n t.

I n an

a t o m i s t i c and s p o n ta n e o u s p l u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e , th e i d e n t i t y o f my ty p e ­ w r i t e r c e a s e s when j- sh o p w r iti n g upon i t c o n tin u o u s ly , and i t becom es in d e e d am azing t h a t I alw ay s f i n d i t a g a i n when I h a v e a n o th e r i n s p i r a t i o n t o c o m p o s itio n .

M o reo v er, s in c e t h e i d e n t i c a l l i n e o f r e a s o n in g a p p l i e s

t o me, t h i s i s n o t even 8 - s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s m , s in c e ± c an n o t be s a id t o r e c r e a t e th e t y p e w r i t e r w henever 1 n eed i t ; b u t a hum ian s k e p tic is m i n w hich I c a n n o t even say l e g i t i m a t e l y t h a t t o d a y 's w r iti n g h a s any con­ n e c t io n w ith y e s t e r d a y ’ s , o r , i n o th e r w o rd s, t h e r e i s no c o n t i n u i t y even i n r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e l f , and th e m o st am azing o f c o in c id e n c e s i s th e p r e s e n c e o f a h a l f - f i n i s h e d p a g e , on w hich 1 was w orking l a s t n i g h t , i n th e t y p e w r i t e r t h i s m o rn in g .

R e l a tio n s h ip may be a f a c t , b u t any connec­

t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s m ust be a n a c c i d e n t , and no c o n c e p t o f law i s l e g i t i m a t e l y d e d u c ib le from th em .

V»e may s a y t h a t we o b se rv e th e r e ­

c u r r e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s , b u t on w hat g ro u n d do we a s s e r t t h a t i t i s r e c u r ­ re n c e ?

I n ab an d o n in g th e p r i n c i p l e o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , we have abandoned

a l l p o s s i b i l i t y o f m ean in g .

T h i s , a l s o , a s we s h a l l s e e l a t e r , h as

g r e a t b e a r in g on im m o r ta lity i n R e n o u v ie r. We m ust n o te , i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t , i n a r r i v i n g a t t h i s p o s i t i o n , R e n o u v ie r h a s a g a in made u s e o f c i r c u l a r a rg u m e n t. r e l a t i o n o f phenom ena.

Raw, he s a y s , i s th e

Phenomena a r e n o t e x p e r ie n c e d a s u e in g , b u t o n ly

a s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d , by means o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , we d e r iv e th e co n ce p t o f la w , w hich i s d e f in e d by th e d i c t i o n a r y a s "a s ta te m e n t o f a r e l a t i o n o r se q u en ce o f phenomena i n v a r i a b l e u n d e r t h e same c o n d i t i o n s , b u t , h av in g d e f i n e d law a s r e l a t i o n s h i p , we c a n n o t r e v e r s e th e p r o c e s s and d e f in e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s law and s u c c e e e d i n h a v in g s a id a n y t h in g , s in c e th e word "law " a p p l i e s o n ly t o c e r t a i n r e c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and n o t t o a l l f o r t u i t o u s and a c c i d e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w hich would y i e l d no la w . As -B ertrand R u s s e ll h as s a i d , " I t i s su p p o sed t h a t when

i s c a u s e d by

B th e seq u en ce i s n o t m erely a f a c t , b u t i s i n some se n s e n e c e s s a r y . a s ta te m e n t w hich can m e a n in g fu lly be e x t r a p o l a t e d to a p p ly to a l l o th e r r e l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f p e r s i s t e n c e i n tim e , which i s , in d e e d , a form o f c a u s a l n e x u s ,

i t i s , i n f a c t , n o te w o rth y t h a t R u s s e l l , a f t e r a

lo n g and c o n f u s in g p h il o s o p h i c a l O d y ssey , h a s , i n t h i s l a t e s t o f h i s w o rk s, ta k e n a p o s i t i o n w hich m ust be e s s e n t i a l l y r e g a r d e d a s K an tia n ism w ith m odem im p ro v em en ts. Were c a u s a l i t y a s h e e r m a tte r o f te m p o ra l s e - • q u en ce , w hat m eaning w ould th e p o s t hoc f a l l a c y h av e; how c o u ld we d i s ­ ti n g u i s h g e n u in e c a u s a l i t y , h a v in g what R u s s e ll c a l l s a n t e c e d e n t p ro b a b i l i t y , from a p o s t hoc f a l l a c y ; a n d , f i n a l l y , m ig h t n o t a l l c a u s a l

1 1l b i d . 12 R u s s e l l , B e r t r a n d , Human K now ledge. I t s Scope and ^ i m i t s . u ew ■L0r k , Simon an d S c h u s t e r , 19 4 8 , p . 315*

i n f e r e n c e be p o s t hoc f a l l a c i e s ? A ll t h i s a p p l i e s w ith s i n g u l a r cogency t o th e p a r t i c u l a r te m p o ra l seq u en ce w hich we c a l l th e p e r s i s t e n c e o f an o b j e c t , and i n d i ­ c a t e s th e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f th e c o n c e p ts o f s u b s ta n c e and c a u s a l i t y . T h a t w hich p e r s i s t s th r o u g h change i s n e c e s s a r y t o g iv e change a mean­ in g o r a la w .

I n o th e r w o rd s, t h e r e m ust be r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , "l'he p o s tu ­

l a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith o u t i t h a s l e f t u s w ith no p r i n c i p l e o f i n ­ d i v i d u a ti o n and l e f t u s w ith a s many la w s a s t h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p s , t h a t i s , w ith no la w s a t a l l .

T h is m o re o v e r, i s th e m e ta p h y s ic a l

r e s u l t o f t h e l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f a t te m p t in g t o d e f in e a r e l a t i o n ­ s h ip t h a t i s n o t betw een a n y th in g . R e n o u v ie r n e v e r a c t u a l l y g r a p p le s w ith t h i s p ro b le m .

The

a s s e r t i o n t h a t no -Law o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n cf r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s n e c e s s a r y s in c e t h e y a r e g iv e n a s a s y n t h e s i s i s n o t a s o l u t i o n , a lth o u g h , . . i f c o g e n t, i t w oula j u s t i f y h i s f a i l u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h th e ty p e s o f r e l a t i o n ­ s h ip ; s in c e i t h a s t h e s e i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s w hich c a n n o t be su rm o u n ted s im p ly b y s a y in g t h a t t h i n g s d o n 't h ap p en t h a t w ay, s in c e i t p r o v id e s no r e a s o n why t h i s i s t h e c a s e . I t f o l l o w s , t h e n , t h a t R * n o u v ie r 's d e f i n i t i o n o f a phenomenon i n te rm s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s makes t h e co n c e p t o f tr. t h i n g m e a n in g le ss be­ c a u se t h e r e i s no p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n , an d , f u r t h e r , th e law so d e f in e d would la c k th e u n i v e r s a l i t y , n e c e s s i t y , an d p e r s i s t e n c e demanded o f a la w . ThiB p r o v id e s a p a r t i a l a n s w e r t o th e t h i r d d i f f i c u l t y , i n t h a t i t e n t a i l s a n o m i n a l i s t i c v iew o f la w , and t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f th e

b a la n c e o f i t must a w a it t h e d is c u s s io n o f R e n o u v ie r 1s p s y c h o lo g y .

In

o t h e r w o rd s, t h e r e a l i s t v iew o f law im p lie d by h i s p o s i t i o n h a s n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d ; a n d he c a n n o t ev en re m a in i n th e p o s i t i o n o f A r i s t o t e l i a n con­ c e p tu a lis m , b u t m ust go on t o t h e Humian n om inalism w hich fo llo w s l o c i a ly

fro m th e ato m ic v ie w o f e x p e r ie n c e which i s th e n e c e s s a r y c o n se q u e n c e s

o f h i s . p o s i t i o n , w h e th e r he w i l l a c c e p t i t o r n o t . I t re m a in s to make th e f u r t h e r in q u i r y w h e th e r th e d e n i a l of i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s in c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e n o ti o n o f f u n c t i o n s u r v iv e s t e s t ­ in g .

I n o t h e r w o rd s , i s th e p o s i t i o n o f L e ib n iz o r o f R en o u v ie r th em o re

te n a b le ?

Take a n e x a m p le .

My m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s io n s a r e i n one s e n s e a

f u n c ti o n o f my e a r n in g c a p a c i t y ; so a r e y o u r s ; f u r t h e r , b o th o u r e a rn in g capa i t i e s a r e f u n c ti o n s o f th e same econom ic s y s te m .

On th e o t h e r h and,

from a n o t h e r p o in t o f v ie w , my m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s io n s a r e a f u n c t i o n o f my t a s t e , so a r e y o u r s ; f u r t h e r , o u r t a s t e s a r e f u n c ti o n s o f my t a s t e ; so a r e y o u r s ; f u r t h e r , o u r t a s t e s a r e f u n c ti o n s o f th e same e d u c a tio n a l s y ste m .

T h e re m ig h t, ho w ev er, w e ll b e no c o n n e c tio n b etw een th e econom ic

sy stem w hich p ro d u c e d my money an d th e e d u c a tio n a l sy ste m w hich f o s t e r e d my t a s t e .

I n o th e r w o rd s, my t a s t e i s n o t a f u n c t i o n o f my p o c k e t^ o o k ,

nor v ic e v e r s a .

A cc o rd in g to R e n o u v ie r, t h e two c o u ld be m e a n in g f u lly

d is c u s s e d a p a r t ; a c c o r d in g to L e i b n iz , th e y co u ld n o t .

P o s s i b ly th e

exam ple I h av e s e l e c t e d i s lo a d e d , b u t i t seems t o me t h a t a b e t t e r c a se can be made f o r th e L e i b n iz i § n p o i n t o f v ie w . T ak in g e i t h e r o r two a p p ro a c h e s , on t h e one h a n d , th e t a s t e o f a p e r s o n d e p r iv e d f o r eco n o n ic r e a s o n s o f ed­ u c a t io n w ould be a f u n c ti o n o f h i s econom ic c o n d itio n ,a n d a p e r s o n e d u c a te d

t o d e s i r e f i n e t h i n 6s c o u ld be to o p o o r to buy them ; on t h e o t h e r hand, a v e r y good c a s e c o u ld be made f o r t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f th e econom ic s t r u c t u r e and e d u c a tio n a l sy ste m o f any g iv e n s o c i e t y . The im p o r ta n t q u e s ti o n i s , h ow ever, t o w hat e x t e n t R e n o u v ie r h as v i t i a t e d h i s c o n c e p t o f f u n c t i o n by h i s th e o r y o f e x t e r n a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s . A'h i s p o s i t i o n i s i n e x t r i c a b l y c o n n e c te d w ith th e d e n ia l o f s u b s t a n c e , o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , an d o f n e c e s s i t y ; a n d , t h e r e f o r e , i s fo u n d e d on w hat we have shown to be an in a d e q u a te d e f i n i t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y w hich r e d u c e s f u n c ti o n t o a m e a n in g le s s te rm .

L e t us e x p lic a te th is p o in t.

S u b sta n c e and c a u s a l i t y

have b een shown to be c l o s e l y

by th e p r i n c i p l e o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y .

re la te d

The n e c e s s i t y o f some su ch p r i n c i p l e

to a c o n c e p t o f c a u s a l i t y w hicn i s more t h a n a n i n f e r e n c e , p o s s i b l y e r ­ ro n e o u s , from te m p o ra l se q u e n c e h a s

a l s o been i n d i c a t e d .

T h is am ounts to

a s s e r t i n g t h a t c a u s a l i t y m u st b e i n

th i s sense n e c e ssa ry o r i t i s no t

c a s u a l i t y . N othing beyond a f a i r d e g re e o f p r o b a b i l i t y can be a s s e r t e d fcr any p r e d i c t i o n h a v in g e m p ir ic a l c o n te n t u n le s - t h e c a u s a l n e x u s i s i n t h i s sense n e c e ssa ry .

N e c e s s ity an d c o n t i n u i t y a s so d e f in e d , h o w ev er, e n t a i l

i n t e r n a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s , s in c e th e n e c e s s a r y an d c o n tin u o u s c a u s a l s e ­ quence f o r c e s u s t o a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s . I t may oe o b je c te d t h a t su ch a s y n t h e s i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r y to v a l i d a t e t h e co n c e p t o f f u n c t i o n w ith i n a l i m i t e d c o n t e x t , o r a s e r i e s o f l i m i t e d and n o n - r e l a t e d c o n t e x t s .

T h is m ig h t be co n ced ed i f a f u n c ti o n

w ere n o t , by d e f i n i t i o n , a c o n s ta n t r e l a t i o n .

The a t o m i s t i c v iew o f r e -

l a t i o n in g e n e r a l and c a u s a l i t y in p a r t i c u l a r w hich i s i m p l i c i t i n R e n o u v ie r1s sy ste m , and w hich i s made e x p l i c i t i n h i s n o tio n o f th e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e te rm f u n c ti o n i n a sy stem o f e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s , makes th e p r e s e n c e o f a c o n s t a n t r e l a t i o n to o f o r t u i t o u s to be c o u n te d upon.

By w h at to k e n a r e th e s e d i s c r e t e r e la tio n s c o e x i s t in g i n sp a c e

o r su c c e e d in g ea c h o t h e r i n tim e to be a s c r ib e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s im ila r ity n e c e ssa ry f o r a c o n s ta n t r e la tio n s h ip of v a r ia b le s . n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o say m e re ly t h a t th e y a r e g iv e n t h a t way.

I t is

M o reo v er,

u n l e s s th e te rm s can be m e a n in g f u lly s e p a r a te d from th e r e l a t i o n s h i p , how can th e v a r i a b l e s be i s o l a t e d and s u b s t i t u t e d i n th e fo rm u la o f th e f u n c tio n ?

N or can th e a s s e r t i o n t h a t th e te rm s a r e th e m s e lv e s r e l a t i o n s

be u s e d to s o lv e th e p ro b le m , s in c e i t l e a d s o b v io u s ly to an i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s o f r e l a t i o n s , a p o i n t w hich le d F . R~ B rad ley t o i n s i s t t h a t r e ­ l a t i o n c o u ld n o t be a m e ta p h y s ic a l r e a l i t y . ^ W hile i t m ig h t seem a t f i r s t b lu s h t h a t th e d is c o n tin u o u s f u n c ti o n i n m a th e m a tic s i l l u s t r a t e d p r e c i s e l y R e n o u v ie r1s p o i n t i n t h a t i t a p p l i e s o n ly i n a l i m i t e d c o n t e x t, t h i s i s n o t th e c a s e , s in c e t h e r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p , even th o u g h o f su c h a n a t u r e t h a t th e i n t e r s e c t i o n p o i n t s o f i t s c o o r d in a te s w i l l n o t p ro d u c e a s i n g l e l i n e , i s s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f s i m i l a r i t y . m a ilin g a l e t t e r

I f we s e l e c t , f o r exam ple, th e c o s t o f

a s a f u n c t i o n o f i t s w e ig h t, even th o u g h t h e g ra p h o f

such a f u n c ti o n i s o f th e d is c o n tin u o u s ty p e known a s a s te p f u n c t i o n , i t r e p r e s e n t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w hich t h e r e a r e no b re a k s i n t h a t t h e r e i s no p o i n t q t w hich i t c e a s e s t o o p e r a t e .

13

The c o s t o f a l e t t e r w e ig h -

B ra d le y , F . H.., A p p earan ce an d R e a l i t y . O x fo rd , C laren d o n P r e s s , 1930, p p . 21 an d f f .

in g betw een one and tv© o u n c e s i s s im p ly th e same, and a r a d i c a l i n c r e a s e i n c o s t ta x e s e f f e c t a t th e n e x t w e ig h t, b u t t h i s i s sim p ly b e c a u se f r a c ­ t i o n s o f c e n ts w ould be in c o n v e n ie n t to h a n d le .

A n o th e r exam ple w hich

i l l u s t r a t e s th e p o i n t ev en b e t t e r i s th e t a b l e u s e d by b u s in e s s h o u s e s f o r com puting incom e t a x e s . From s a l a r i e s b etw een , s a y , $25- an d # 3 0 . a weex ( th e s e f i g u r e s a r e n o t a c c u r a t e , b u t t h i s i s th e id e a ) th e same amount o f ta x i s d e d u c te d .

A h ig h e r am ount i s d e d u c te d from th o s e ra n g in g fro m ,

s a y , $ 3 1 . to $ 3 5 ., b u t th e same f o r t h i s r a n g e .

T h u s, a t th e tim e t h e t a x

i s w ith h e ld , th e amount a s a f u n c ti o n o f th e g r o s s s a l a r y i s a d is c o n ­ tin u o u s function.

H ow ever, t h i s i s sim p ly f o r c o n v e n ie n c e i n c o m p u ta tio n ,

a n d , when th e a d ju s tm e n t i s made by t h e C o l l e c t o r o f I n t e r n a l R evenue, th e e x a c t p e r c e n ta g e f c r th e s p e c i f i e d s a l a r y i s com puted and a r e fu n d o r b i l l f o r a d d i t i o n a l t a x , w hich e v e r i s n e c e s s a r y , s e n t to th e t a x p a y e r . I n o th e r w ords, t h e f u n c ti o n i s r e a l l y c o n tin u o u s .

The same w ould be

t r u e o f p o s ta g e r a t e s w ere n o t th e am ounts in v o lv e d so s m a ll t h a t c u r ­ re n c y i s in a d e q u a te to h a n d lin g t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s . T h is p o i n t , h o w ev er, i s more s in c e th e

i n t e r e s t i n g th a n e s s e n t i a l ,

r e a l c r u x o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n th e i d e n t i c a l o b j e c t i o n

o f f e r e d to t h e view o f law a d v an c ed by R en o u v ie r, n am ely , t h a t th e o n ly e s c a p e from an atom ism i n w hich no c o n n e c tio n s a r e p o s s i b l e l i e s i n sim p ly s a y in g t h a t th i n g s a r e n o t g iv e n t h a t way, even th o u g h th e l o g i c o f th e c a s e w ould r e q u ir e t h a t t h i n g s m u st be t h a t w a y ." ^

1/

The th i n g b e in g

A b e t t e r h a n d lin g o f t h i s p ro b le m , w hich a v o id s some o f th e m ore f l a g r a n t s c h o la s t ic is m s o f H e ib n iz w ith o u t f a l l i n g i n t o th e a n a rc h y o f R e n o u v ie r,

q u e s tio n e d h e r e , h o w ev er, i s n o t th e v a l i d i t y o f th e e x tra p o la tio n o f th e f u n c t i o n beyond th e f i e l d o f m a th e m a tic s , w hich th e f r u i t f u l n e s s o f sym­ b o l i c l o g i c h a s am ply j u s t i f i e d , b u t th e p a r t i c u l a r m e ta p h y s ic a l and l o g i c a l c o n t e x t i n w hich i t h a s h e r e been a tte m p te d . W ith w hat j u s t i c e an a tte m p t h a s been made to i n d i c a t e , R enouvier m a in ta in s t h a t , i n te rm s o f th e tw o c o n c e p ts o f law and f u n c ti o n , h e h a s e s t a b l i s h e d an i n t e l l i g i b l e r e a l w o rld w ith o u t r e s o r t to t h e n o tio n o f sub­ s ta n c e .

The q u e s ti o n a t i s s u e was w h e th e r th e y p ro v id e d an a d e q u a te meaxs

o f d e l i v e r i n g him from s k e p tic is m , and i t h a s been th e p u rp o se o f th e f o r e ­ g o in g to i n d i c a t e t h a t th e l o g i c a l i m p lic a tio n s o f th e p r e m is e s a d o p te d h av e l e d him back to th e p o s i t i o n o f Hume.

I n o th e r w o rd s, an a d e q u a te

e x p la n a tio n o f c a u s a l i t y i n te rm s o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y and s u b s ta n c e m ust be p r o v id e d a s a f o u n d a tio n , s in c e c a u s a l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l to th e v a l i d a t i o n o f th e p o s i t i o n .

T h is h a s n o t b e e n d o n e , and th e r e s u l t h a s b een sim p ly

may b e fo u n d i n L o tz e . (M e ta p h v s ic . O x fo rd , C la ren d o n P r e s s , 1884, passim ) L o tz e d o e s n o t a tte m p t t o r e p u d i a t e s u b s ta n c e , b u t, on th e c o n tra r y ', p o s i t s s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e a s th e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . He i s no more c o n te n t to d e f in e a th in g i n th e S c h o l a s t i c te rm s o f s u b s ta n c e and a c c i d e n t th a n i s R e n o u v ie r. So f a r from b e in g d e f in e d in te rm s o f s e n s i b l e q u a l i t i e s , " th e B eing o f T h in g s i s o n ly to be fo u n d i n th e r e a l i t y o f c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s betw een one and a n o t h e r ." T h in g s a r e c a l l e d r e a l i f " th e y e x h i b i t t h a t mode o f b e h a v io r w hich we d e n o m in ate r e a l i t y . " T h is r e a l i t y i s th e law o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h a t w hich we h av e c a l l e d a th in g ; th e la w , by w hich th e ch an g e s i t u n d e rg o e s a r e c o n n e c te d . L o tz e p r e s e r v e s th e law o f c o n t i n u i t y , how ever, i n th e form o f th e law by th e ch an g e s o f th e t h i n g . M o reo v er, t h e know ing s u b je c t h a s n o t been e l im i n a te d . R eal o b j e c t s a r e o b j e c t s w hich e n t e r i n t o r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and th e s e a r e known by a k n o w er. W h ile th e know ledge i t s e l f i s a r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p , L o tz e d o es n o t f a l l i n t o th e a b s u r d ity o f a tte m p tin g to d e f in e a r e l a t i o n w hich i s n o t betw een a n y th in g . W hile L o tz e co n c e d e s t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y seem s to be v i o l a t e d i n such th i n g s a s a game o f ch an ce o r a p u r c h a s e , i n w hich I may become th e ow ner o f a p i e c e o f p r o p e r ty o f w h ich I was p r e v io u s l y th e n o t-o w n e r by a n u n m e d ia te d l e a p , h e h o ld s t h a t t h i s i s i r r e l e v a n t , s in c e sue a ch an ges a r e p u r e ly c o n v e n tio n a l, may b e d i s r e g a r d e d , and do n o t a r i s e from th e n a t u r e o f th e o b j e c t .

t o re d u c e K an t t o Hume, a p o s i t i o n p o s s i b l y te n a b le i n th e l i g h t o f m odern s c ie n c e , b u t n o t i n R e n o u v ie r1s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t, and te n a b le i n no h i s t o r i c a l c o n te x t f o r th e g ro u n d in g o f a value ju d g m en t o r a th e o lo g y .

CHAPTER IV EPISTE mOLOGICAL and m etaphysical im p l ic a t io n s of the MATHEMATICAL CONCEPT OF FINITUDE: THE CATEGORIES

H aving o f f e r e d law a s an a l t e r n a t i v e to s u b s ta n c e , i t d e v o lv e s upon R en o u v ier to s t a t e th e fu n d a m e n ta l la w s , th e c o n s ta n t phenom ena, by w hich a r e a l w o rld i s e s t a b l i s h e d . R a n t.

These a r e c a l l e d c a t e g o r i e s , a f t e r

They a r e , i n f a c t , th e b a s ic la w s o f e p iste m o lo g y an a i t i s n o t

p e c u l i a r t h a t h e s h o u ld r e g a r d them a l s o a s th e b a s ic law s o f r e a l i t y . T h is . i s n o t s u r p r is in g ,, s in c e th e a c t o f w i l l in v o lv e d i n s e l e c t i n g th e know er-known r e l a t i o n s h i p a s a y o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e com m its him t o a fu n d a­ m e n ta lly p s y c h o lo g ic a l p h ilo s o p n y . F o r him m e ta p h y s ic s and e p iste m o lo g y hav e become f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u rp o s e s synonym ous.

The r e c o g n i tio n o f

t h i s , i n th e C r it iq u e o f P u re R easo n , he c o n s id e r e d R a n t 's g r e a t c o n t r i b u ­ t i o n , and sim p ly a e p lo r e d th e d e p a r t u r e s from i t w hich i s g r e a t p r e d e c e s s o r l a t e r m ade. R e n o u v ie r 's c a t e g o r i e s , th e n , a r e th e fu n d a m e n ta l r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een t h e xnow er and th e xnown.

A lth o u g h th e y a r e n o t g iv e n a p a r t from

e x p e r ie n c e , t h e i r u n i v e r s a l i t y c o n s i s t s

i n t h e i r b ein g common to a l l e x p e r­

ie n c e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c a p a b le o f a b s t r a c t i o n fro m i t a s th e la w s o f a l l p o s s i b l e e x p e r ie n c e . d u ced .

The c a t e g o r i e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y and c a n n o t be de­

They can o n ly be a b s t r a c t e d by a n a l y s i s . They m u st be in d e p e ir ie n t

R e n o u v ie r, o p . c i t . . v o l . 1 , p . 119

and v a l i d .

A c a te g o ry i s in d e p e n d e n t i f i t c a n n o t b e d e r iv e d from a n o t h e r .

One c a te g o r y c a n n o t be d e r iv e d from a n o th e r i f a s y n t h e t i c ju d g m en t i s r e ­ q u ir e d

to p a s s from one to a n o t h e r . A c a t e f o r y i s v a l i d i f i t w orks when

t e s t e d i n e x p e r ie n c e .^ R en o u v ier en u m erates n in e c a t e g o r i e s w bich he c o n c e iv e s to m eet h i s own re q u ire m e n ts : The s t a t i c c a t e g o r i e s : ( l ) The law o f b e i n g , o r r e l a t i o n . (2J The law o f num ber. (3) and (41 The law s o f e x te n s io n and d u r a ti o n — th e K a n tia n .a p r i o r i fo n a s o f p e r c e p t i o n , w h ich , a s w i l l be r e c a l l e d , R en o u v ier w ish ed to add to th e l i s t o f c a t e g o r i e s . (5) The law o f q u a l i t y , w hich c o n c e rn s i t s e l f w ith d i s c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l phenomena and in c lu d e s a l l t h a t i s c o n s t r u c t i v e in th e n o ti o n o f s u b s ta n c e , and w hich i s r e q u ir e d f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and f o n a s th e b a s i s o f la n g u a g e . T h is c a te g o r y i s e q u i p o l l e n t w ith th e law o f num ber, s in c e R en o u v ier h o ld s t h a t th e two c o n c e p ts do n o t im p ly each o t h e r and t h a t e i t h e r c a te g o r y c o u ld be p la c e d n e x t to th e c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n . The dynam ic c a t e g o r i e s : (6 ) The law o f b eco m in g . (7 ) The law o f c a u s a l i t y , a c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e r e l a t i o n s in v o lv e d i n becom ing. (8) The law o f t e l e o l o g y , w h ich h a n d le s th e o t h e r a s p e c t o f becom ing. (9 ) The law o f p e r s o n a l i t y , w hich p r o v id e s th e x n o w er.^ R en o u v ier ad d s t h a t t h i s l a s t c a te g o r y em braces a l l th e o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from th e human p o i n t o f view .R The n in e c a t e g o r i e s , o b v io u s ly , a r e v e ry f r e e l y a d a p te d from R a n t. The K a n tia n c a te g o r y o f Q u a n tity i s R e n o u v ie r 's law o f num ber.

2

3

*

S e a i l l e s , op. p i t . , p p . 91 an d 9 2 . R e n o u v ie r, p p . c i t . , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 2 1 -3 .

^ T b i d ., v o l . 2 . p . 2 9 .

R e n o u v ie r1s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n i s , h o w ev er, n o t th e K a n tia n c a t e ­ g o ry o f R e la tio n ; and th e same i s t r u e o f h i s c a te g o r y o f Q u a li ty . th re .^ K a n tia n c a t e g o r i e s

The

o f R e la tio n w ere s u b s ta n c e and a c c i d e n t ( Re­

n o u v i e r 's c a te g o r y o f Q u a l i t y ) , C a u s a l ity ( R e n o u v ie r 's c a te g o r y o f C a u s a l­ i t y ) , and R e c ip r o c ity * a l s o in c lu d e d by R en o u v ier u n d e r c a u s a l i t y .

Re­

n o u v i e r ' s c a te g o r y o f Becoming i s c l o s e s t to th e K a n tia n c a t e g o r i e s o f Q u a li ty . The c a t e g o r i e s o f M o d a lity hav e been e lim in a te d f o r th e o b v io u s re a s o n s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f n e c e s s i t y h a s been d e n ie d , e x i s t e n c e i s ta k e n c a r e o f by R en o u v ier u n d e r th e c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n , and p o s s i b i l i t y i s th e p re d ic a te o f a l l e x is te n c e .

I n a d d i t i o n , h e h a s made th e a p r i o r i

fo rm s o f p e r c e p t i o n (tim e and s p a c e ) , o f ju d g m en t ( t e l e o l o g y ) , an d o f th e w i l l ( p e r s o n a l i t y ) i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . A ll t h i s i s i n l i n e w ith th e o b j e c t i o n s t o K an t a l r e a d y o u t l i n e d .

I t am ounts to th e e l im i n a tio n o f th e t h r e e f o l d

d i v i s i o n s o f f a c u l t i e s w hich h e a d v o c a te d , and th e lum ping o f a l l th e l a v s by w hich e x p e r ie n c e i s o r g a n iz e d i n t o one sy stem . R en o u v ie r a n a ly z e s th e c a t e g o r i e s f u r t h e r , an d b r e a k s them down i n t o s u b - c a t e g o r i e s .

I n t h i s p r o c e s s , h e a d o p ts th e te c h n iq u e s and

te rm in o lo g y o f th e H e g e lia n l o g i c ; each c a te g o r y i s d iv id e d i n t o t h r e e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s , e a l l e d by th e H e g e lia n nam es o f T h e s i s , A n t i t h e s i s ,a n d S y n th e s is .

The r e s u l t s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n th e f o llo w in g t a b l e ;

93.

C a te g o ry T h e s is D if f e r e n c e U n ity P o i n t (L im it) Moment (L im it) D iffe re n tia B eing A ct S ta te S e lf

R e la tio n dumber P o s itio n S u c c e s s io n Q u a lity Becoming C a u s a l ity T e le o lo g y P e rs o n a lity

Sub C a te g o r ie s A n tith e s is Id e n tity M u ltip lic ity S pace ( I n t e r v a l ) Time ( I n t e r v a l ) Genus h o t-B e in g P o te n tia lity D ir e c t io n (T endency) N o t- S e lf

S n y th e s is I n d iv i d u a ti o n T o ta lity E x te n sio n D u ra tio n S p e c ie s Change F o rce A p p e titio n C o n sc io u sn e ss

I t h a s a l r e a d y b een n o te d t h a t th e K a n tia n c a t e g o r i e s fo llo w a s i m i l a r H e g e lia n p a t t e r n , and t h a t w as, in d e e d , one o f t h e p o i n t s w hich R en o uvier ad m ired i n K a n t, whom he c o n s id e r e d to h a v e " p u t t h e , s p o t l i g h t upon th e form o f t h e i r r e d u c i b l e la w s o f e p is te m o lo g y , th e t e r n a r y fo rm ." ^

L e t us

exam ine R e n o u v ie r 's u s e o f th e te c h n iq u e i n th e s ta te m e n t o f th e c a t e g o r i e s . He h o ld s t h a t a l l s c ie n c e and a l l th o u g h t p ro c e e d s by a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s .

S in c e th e phenomenon i s g iv e n a s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l l th o u g h t

c o n s i s t s s p e c i f i c a l l y in th e a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and from t h i s i s d e r iv e d th e fu n d a m e n ta l c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n . The c a t e g o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n ( su b su m p tio n o f a p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r a c a te g o r y ) i s a s ta te m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , and o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p w hich c a n n o t be d o u b te d , th a tx iq o f th e - o b j a c t .or* s i t u a t i o n i to th e .law w hich i s th e c o n f ig u r a tio n o f i t s p a r t s . M o reo v er, th e te rm s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e th e m s e lv e s g iv e n i n o th e r

I b i d . . v o l . 1 , p . 12 3 .

I b id ., v o l. 1, p. 141.

re la tio n s h ip s .

T h is i s a f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f th e d e f i n i t i o n o f a

phenomenon i n te rm s o f r e l a t i o n s a l r e a d y g iv e n . t e r n s o f th e r e l a t i o n a r e th e m s e lv e s r e l a t i o n s i s

The s ta te m e n t t h a t th e su p p lem en ted by th e

f u r t h e r p r o v is o t h a t th e y a r e "g iv e n i n o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s " , w hich would seem to mean t h a t th e r e l a t i o n a u t h e n t i c a t e d i n a g iv e n law s u b s i s t s b e­ tw een two com plex g iv e n s o f r e l a t i o n s , th e o t h e r c o o r d in a te s o f w h ich w ould be o t h e r la w s , so t h a t th e th i n g i s d e te r m in e d n o t m e re ly by th e i n t e r ­ s e c t i o n o f a com plex o f , r e l a t i o n s , b u t o f a com plex o f la w s .

T h i s am ounts

t o s a y in g t h a t a l l th r e e ty p e s o f r e l a t i o n a r e a l i k e i n k in d , o r t h a t th e r e l a t i o n o f law i s t h e same a s th e r e l a t i o n o f t h e p a r t s o f an o b j e c t o r a s itu a tio n .

I n f a c t , i t g o es f u r t h e r an d m a in ta in s t h a t a l l th e r e l a t i o n s

w hich d e f in e an o b j e c t a r e la w s; a l l th e r e l a t i o n s w hich d e f in e i t s p a r t s a r e la w s ; i n o t h e r w o rd s, t h a t th e o n ly r e a l i t y o f th e u n iv e r s e i s th e la w s o r c a t e g o r i e s .

T h is , in d e e d , s u b s t i t u t e s law f o r s u b s ta n c e i n th e

m o st c o m p lete s e n s e , s in c e a l l t h a t i s , a s w e l l a s a l l i t s p o s s i b l e sub­ d i v i s i o n s , w hich m ust be f i n i t e i n num ber, i s la w , o r r a t h e r , i s a f i n i t e c o m b in a tio n o f a f i n i t e number o f la w s .

T h is m eans t h a t R en o u v ie r i s

a c t u a l l y p o s i t i n g o n ly one ty p e o f r e l a t i o n , t h a t o f

la w , s i n c e th e te rm s

o f any g iv e n r e l a t i o n , ( i . e . , t h e p a r t s o f a n o b j e c t o r th e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f a s i t u a t i o n ) a r e th e m sle v e s la w s , o r com plexes o f la w s , and th e r e l a ­ t i o n o f law i s , t h e r e f o r e , th e o n ly r e l a t i o n w hich o b t a i n s .

S in c e th e com­

p o n e n ts c o u ld n o t be th in g s o r s u b s ta n c e s i n th e A r i s t o t e l i a n s e n s e , t h i s f o llo w s l o g i c a l l y from h i s p re m is e s and th ro w s m ore l i g h t upon h i s d e f i n i ­ t i o n o f a phenom enon.

95.

A c a t e g o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , th e n , w ould be th e s ta te m e n t o f a law c o n t r i b u t i n g to th e d e f i n i t i o n o f a g iv e n phenomenon — a n e c e s s a r y p a r a p h r a s e o f th e p r e v io u s d e f i n i t i o n a s

th e su b su m p tio n o f a p a r t i c u l a r

u n d e r a c a te g o r y . S u ch .p arap h rase i s n e c e s s a r y inasm uch a s th e m ore con­ v e n t i o n a l s ta te m e n t o f th e p r o c e s s d o e s n o t ta k e a d e q u a te c o g n iz a n c e o f th e i d e n t i t y o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r w ith i t s la w s w hich R en o u v ier w is h e s .to a s s e rt. The f i r s t c a t e g o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n c o n s id e r e d i s t h a t whidh s t a t e s th e law o f r e l a t i o n i n i t s m o st g e n e r a l fo rm , o r w hich subsum es a p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r th e categ o ry ' o f r e l a t i o n , which t u r n s o u t to be sim p ly th e law o f i d e n t i t y an d c o n t r a d i c t i o n .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, by r e l a t i o n i n

t h i s m o st g e n e r a l s e n s e , h e m eans th e r e l a t i o n s o f i d e n t i t y w ith th e s e l f and d i f f e r e n c e w ith o t h e r s w hich c o n s t i t u t e in d i v i d u a t i o n .

.The

t h e s i s i s d i f f e r e n c e , o r d e n i a l o f w hat th e te rm i s n o t; th e a n t i t h e s i s i s i d e n t i t y , o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f th e te rm w ith i t s e l f ; th e s y n t h e s i s , in d iv id u a tio n .

Thus a l l r e l a t i b n i s a s y n t h e s i s o f th e same an d th e o th e r

i n t o th e c o n c e p t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .

7

T h is am ounts i n e f f e c t t o s a y in g

t h a t th e s e l f i s d e f in e d i n te rm s o f th e n o t - s e l f , 'o r t h a t t h e r e w ould be no s e l f w ere t h e r e no n o t - s e l f to i n d i c a t e i t s l i m i t s and g iv e i t mean­ in g .

U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e in g w ould be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from n o th i n g ,

s in c e th e f u s i o n o f th e s e l f and th e n o t - s e l f i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h an i n d i v i d u a l T h is i n t r o d u c e s an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f th e te c h n iq u e o f R en o u v iey ,

7

Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 146-60.

i n w hich t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s a r e e q u a te d i s , w ith th e e n t i t y and w h at i t i s n o t .

w ith l i m i t and i n t e r v a l , t h a t

A ll f i n i t e i n d i v i d u a t i o n i s i n

t e r n s o f th e s y n t h e s i s o f w h at th e i n d i v i d u a l i s and w h at i t i s n o t , and e v e ry c a te g o r y i s a n a ly z e d i n th e s e te rm s . The categ o ry ' o f r e l a t i o n l i s , th e n , R e n o u v ie r 's a tte m p t to p r o ­ v id e a p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n te rm s o f th e la w s o f i d e n t i t y , c o n t r a ­ d i c t i o n , and e x c lu d e d m id d le .

The s y n t h e t i c com plex o f la w s w hich i s a

g iv e n o b j e c t i s seen to be j u s t t h a t com plex; to be no o t h e r com plex, a n d , s in c e i t m ust be e i t h e r t h a t com plex o r t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d m a n ifo ld o f o t h e r p o s s i b l e and a c t u a l co m p lex es, i t s i d e n t i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n th e s e te rm s .

I n t h i s p r o c e s s , th e g iv e n com plex i s th e l i m i t ; th e m a n ifo ld o f

w hat i t i s n o t , th e i n t e r v a l ; an d th e law o f e x c lu d e d m id d le e s t a b l i s h e s th e i d e n t i t y o f th e com plex th u s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from a l l o t h e r s . U nder t h i s h e a d in g he h a n d le s th e a n a l y t i c an d s y n t h e t i c ju d g ­ m e n t.

The a n a l y t i c ju d g m en t h e d e f i n e s a s a v e r b e l d e f i n i t i o n ; th e syn­

t h e t i c , a s an e m p ir ic a l p r o p o s i t i o n .

B o th , a l i k e , a r e c a t e g o r i c a l p r o ­

p o s i t i o n s , i n t h a t th e y i d e n t i f y a p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r a c a te g o r y and p ro c e e d by th e t r i a d i c p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n th ro u g h th e c o n c e p ts o f i d e n t i t y and d i f f e r e n c e .

Thus i t f o llo w s t h a t b o th th e p o s s i b l e ty p e s o f ju d g ­

m ent a r e c o r o l l a r i e s o f t h e m a s te r c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n .

Ju d g m en t, t h a t

i s , l o g i c i s p o s s i b l e o n ly b e c a u se r e l a t i o n i s th e fu n d am en tal n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y , f o r , were t h i s n o t th e c a s e , i t w ould be f o r e v e r im p o s s ib le to b r in g th e s u b j e c t an d p r e d i c a t e t o g e t h e r . What n ex u s w ould t h e r e be?

T h is i s , o f c o u r s e , a more em p h atic a s s e r t i o n o f th e n e c e s s i t y o f a l o g i c o f r e l a t i o n s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e may b e an i n t e l l i g i b l e l o g i c a t a l l . T here re m a in s o n ly th e q u e s t i o n , a lr e a d y d i s c u s s e d , w h e th e r th e p rim acy * o f r e l a t i o n s h a s n o t d e s tr o y e d th e o b j e c t a s e f f e c t i v e l y a s th e p rim acy o f th e o b j e c t d e s tr o y e d th e r e l a t i o n ^

I t i s , h o w ev er, a t l e a s t c e fc ta in

t h a t r e l a t i o n s m u st he conceded to be a s r e a l a s o b j e c t s

in o rd e r to

a v o id th e p ro b le m s o f th e S c h o la s t ic l o g i c . The o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s a r e d e r iv e d from th e c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n and a n a ly z e d by t h e t r i a d i c te c h n iq u e i n te rm s o f to e c o n c e p ts o f l i m i t an d

in te rv a l.

A ll phenomena a r e g iv e n a s "one" and "m any", t h a t i s , w ere

t h e r e no many, one would have no m eaning.

B ecau se one an d many a r e c o r ­

r e l a t i v e s , th e y c a n be s y n th e s iz e d to feiv e t h e c o n c e p t o f num ber i n g e n e r a l, o r t o t a l i t y , t h a t i s , th e sum t o t a l o f a l l u n i t s .

T h i s , h o w e v e r, i s n o t

to be i n t e r p r e t e d a s symboLising th e t o t a l s y n t h e s i s , w hich R en o u v ie r con­ s i d e r s b o th u n n e c e s s a ry and im p o s s ib le ; a s i n g l e phenomenon e x e m p lif ie s a l l t h r e e moments o f th e d i a l e c t i c ; i t i s a many, made up of o n es ( i t s f i n i t e p a r t s ) , and a w h o le.

F u r th e r , each s i n g l e phenomenon i s a u n i t

i n a l a r g e r phenomenon w hich i s , f o r i t s p a r t s , t h e i r w h o le.

S in c e w h o les

a r e a lw a y s g iv e n , u n i t s a r e alw ay s an a n a l y t i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n , w h ich , once m ade, e n t a 'i l th e c o r r e l a t i v e a b s t r a c t i o n , m u l t i p l i c i t y . I n a p p ly in g t h i s g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f num ber i n o r d e r t o o b ta in d e te r m in a te n u m b ers, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n become a d d i t i o n and s u b t r a c t i o n i n th e c a t e g o r i c a l p r o p o s iti o n a p p l ie d to th e c a te g o r y o f num ber.

Add t h r e e u n i t ^

d i s t i n c t from a l l o t h e r u n i t s ; a n d , by t h i s

98.

c o m b in a tio n o f i d e n t i t y and d i f f e r e n c e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l num ber t h r e e i s o b ta in e d .^

Each num ber i s a sum o f u n i t s a n d , a t th e same tim e , a u n iq u e

e n t i t y , m a th e m a tic a lly e q u i v a l e n t to i t s p a r t s , b u t h a v in g an i d e n t i t y o f i t s own, by v i r t u e o f th e name g iv e n to th e p a r t i c u l a r sum o f u n i t s w hich i t i s .

H e re , a g a i n , th e num ber i s th e w h o le, th e p a r t s a r e u n i t s ,

and th e p a r t s c o n s id e r e d a s u n i t s a r e th e many. T h is a n a l y s i s c a s t s much l i g h t on th e e a r l i e r s ta te m e n t t h a t , w ith

g iv e n H h o le, a num ber i s g iv e n .

I t r e a l l y m eans t h a t , w ith any

g iv e n phenom enon, th e e n t i r e c a te g o r y o f num ber

i s g iv e n .

We m u st u n d e r­

s ta n d th e s y n th e s is o f th e one and th e many i n th e c o n c e p t o f t o t a l i t y a s r e g a r d in g th e w hole a s th e one w hich i s com posed o f th e many.

I n th e

l i g h t o f t h i s , any phenom enon, a s an o r g a n ic u n i t y o f r e l a t i o n s , i s a t o t a l i t y ; th e p a r t s o b ta in e d t y a b s t r a c t i o n a r e u n i t s , ta k e n i n d i v i d u a l l y , ta k e n c o l l e c t i v e l y , th e y a r e m u l t i p l i c i t y .

M o reo v er, th e i n f i n i t e r e ­

g r e s s o f p a b ts i s seen a s a v o id e d , s in c e th e u n i t s a r e a b s t r a c t e d by a n a l y s i s by a f i n i t e c o n s c io u s n e s s and m u st be f i n i t e i n num ber, t h u s de­ fin in g a f i n i t e m u ltip lic ity .

I n th u s c o m p le te ly e x e m p lify in g t h e e n t i r e

law o f num ber, any phenomenon i s , i n a c e r t a i n s e n s e , a m icro co sm , s in c e i t e x h i b i t s w ith i n a n a rro w sco p e th e i d e n t i c a l n u m e ric a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich m u st a p p ly t o th e sum t o t a l o f a l l p o s s i b l e phenom ena. The law o f p o s i t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d , i n R e n o u v ie r1s v ie w , from th e law o f num ber, b eca u se th e u n i t o f sp a c e h a s i d e n t i t y , a s w e l l a s num ber.

I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from q u a l i t y , b e c a u se th e q u e s t i o n s "w here"

8

Ibid., vol. 1, p. 163.

99.

and "when" a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to an y q u a l i t y . ^ I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s c a te g o r y , h e makes e x p l i c i t th e c o n c e p ts o f l i m i t and i n t e r v a l w hich a r e i m p l i c i t even i n th e f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s . The q u e s ti o n "w here?" in v o lv e s two c o r r e l a t i v e p a r t s , th e l i m i t o f th e phenomenon and th e i n t e r v a l b etw een th e phenom ena.

10

T h ese

c a n n o t be c o n s id e r e d in d e p e n tly , s in c e t h e r e can be no l i m i t w ith o u t r e ­ l a t i o n to a n o th e r l i m i t , and t h i s le a d s to th e n e c e s s i t y o f an i n t e r v a l . On th e o t h e r h a n d , an i n t e r v a l w ith o u t l i m i t w ould l e a d to a n i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s and v i o l a t e th e p r i n c i p l e o f f i n i t u a e .

It

f o ll o w s , t h e r e f o r e ,

t h a t a l l s p a t i a l c o n c e p ts a r e form ed by th e s y n t h e s i s o f l i m i t and i n ­ t e r v a l i n t o th e c o n c e p t o f e x t e n s i o n . ^

The s m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e l i m i t i s

th e p o i n t , and a l l o t h e r s p a t i a l d im e n s io n s . a r e b u i l t up from t h i s . In t h e , p r o c e s s , ,th e . p o i n t c o rre s p o n d s to u n i t y ; th e i n t e r v a l , o r s p a c e , to m t i l t i p l i c i t y ; and e x t e n s io n , to th e t o t a l i t y .

12

f u r t h e r , th e p o i n t c o r­

re s p o n d s to i d e n t i t y ; th e i n t e r v a l , to d i f f e r e n c e ; and e x t e n s i o n , to in d iv id u a tio n . A s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s i s g iv e n f o r t h e law o f s u c c e s s io n , in w hich tiie i n s t a n t i s th e l i m i t , c o rre s p o n d in g to th e p o i n t , to th e u n i t ,

^ I b i d . f v o l . 1 , p . 183. 1? b i d . . v o l . 1 , p . 1 8 3 . 11

Ibid.. vol. 1. p. 184. ibid., vol. 1, p. 185.

100.

to i d e n t i t y , tim e i s t h e i n t e r v a l , c o rre s p o n d in g t o s p a c e , to m u l t i p l i c i t y , t o d i f f e r e n c e ; and. d u r a tio n i s th e s y n t h e s i s , c o rre s p o n d in g t o e x t e n s i o n , to t o t a l i t y , to i n d i v i d u a t i o n .

Thus a body e x i s t i n g i n

tim e and sp a c e

i s an i n d i v i d u a l d e f in e d by l i m i t i n g th e s e l f by th e n o t - s e l f ; a d e f i n i t e n u m e ric a l w h o le, d e f in e d &s a sum o f u n i t s ; th e e x te n s io n o f a c e r t a i n f i n i t e num ber o f p o i n t s o f s p a c e ; a n d t h e d u r a ti o n o f a c e r t a i n f i n i t e num ber of i n s t a n t s o f tim e . i t i s u n d e r th e c a te g o r y o f tim e t h a t R en o u v ier d i s c u s s e s th e m a th e m a tic a l i n f i n i t e .

The m ain p ro b lem s w hich he b r in g s u r f o r c o n s id e r a ­

t i o n a r e th o s e oe n e g a t iv e num bers and o f in c o m m en su rab les.

As h e s e e s

i t , a n e g a tiv e num ber i s a c o n v e n tio n a l sym bol o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p , th e m eaning o f w hich d ep en d s upon a n o t h e r ( p o s i t i v e ) num ber.

13

F u rth e r, a

g e n u in e ly in co m m en su rab le r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t a r e l a t i o n s h i p ; w h at i s r e a l l y m ean t by th e te rm , a s he s e e s i t , i s t h a t t h e r e i s a d is c r e p a n c y betw een th e r e l a t e d q u a n t i t i e s l e s s th a n any a s s ig n a b l e n u m b e r . ^

He

th u s r e c o n c i l e s th e m a th e m a tic a l u s e f u l n e s s o f th e c o n c e p ts w ith th e a p p a r e n t f a c t t h a t no such num bers a r e e v e r g iv e n i n e x p e r ie n c e . c a te g o ry o f num ber, a s h e s e e s i t , a d m its

The

o n ly f i n i t e , p o s i t i v e , w hole

num b ers, and th e f o r e g o in g a n a l y s i s o f i t s n a t u r e m akes a b u n d a n tly c l e a r t h a t t h i s s h o u ld be s o , s in c e ev en f r a c t i o n s ( t h e r a t i o o f o n e o r more

13

H

I b i d i . v o l . 1 , p . 226. Ibid., vol. 1. pp. 227-8.

u n i t s to th e many) a r e a n a l y t i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s , th e w hole b e iig g iv e n a s a l a r g e r an d i n s e p a r a b l e u n i t y .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, p a r t s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h ­

a b le , b u t n o t s e p a ra b le . The law o f q u a l i t y R en o u v ier d e f in e s a s th e method o f v ie w in g phenomena c o n s id e r e d a s u n c h a n g in g and n o t num bered.

15

The q u a l i t y a s ­

c r ib e d to th e o b j e c t i s th e g e n u s , o r u n i v e r s a l ; th e o b j e c t i s t h e i n ­ d iv id u a l, o r d if f e r e n tia ;

th e s y n t h e s i s i s th e s p e c i e s . ^

The p r o p o s i­

t i o n and th e s y llo g is m b e lo n g p r o p e r ly u n d e r t h i s n e a a in g , and R en o u v ier h e r e d i s c u s s e s them .

S in c e t h i s p a s s a g e am ounts sim p ly t o a summary of

th e c l a s s i c a l l o g i c , t h i s p o i n t i s m e re ly n o te d i n p a s s in g .

H e re , a l s o ,

b e lo n g s th e p roblem o f u n i v e r s a l s , i n r e s p e c t to w hich R en o u v ier con­ s i d e r s h im s e lf a c o n c e p t u a l i s t , s in c e he h o d s t h a t th e law d o es n o t e x i s t in d e p e n d e n tly o f i t s e x a m p le s, b u t t h a t i t can be a b s t r a c t e d a s an o rg a n ­ i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f ex am p les p o t e n t i a l x y e x p e r ie n c e a b le .

In f a c t, as has

been i n d i c a t e d ab o v e, R en o u v ier i s r e a l l y s a y in g t h a t th e law ijs i t s ex ­ am p les, and th e exam ples a r e t h e la w ; o r t h a t law i s a l l t h e r e i s , and t h a t law i s e x p e r ie n c e d o n ly i n c o n c r e te m a n i f e s t a t i o n . The s t a t i c c a t e g o r i e s , th u s f a r e n u m e ra te d , d e f in e phenomena a s p e rm a n e n t.

Thus r e g a r d e d , a t h i n g , o r phenom enon, i s an i n d i v i d u a l ,

a w h o le, e x te n d e d i n s p a c e , e n d u rin g i n tim e , endowed w ith s p e c i f i c d i s ­ t i n g u is h in g q u a l i t i e s .

15

I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 279.

16 I b i d . . v o l . 1 , p . 280.

The b a la n c e o f th e c a t e g o r i e s d e a l s w ith th e

102

la w s o f ch an g e . The law o f becom ing i s th e law o f c o o r d in a tio n o f a l l p o s s i b l e phenom ena.

17

Becom ing i s a s y n t h e s i s o f b e in g and n o t- b e in g ( t h a t i s , o f

r e l a t i o n and n o t - r e l a t i o n ) i n w hich one p a s s e s i n t o th e o t h e r w ith o u t co n tin u ity .

18

T h is c o n c e p t o f d is c o n tin u o u s change i s e s s e n t i a l to fte n o u v ie r1s

p o s i t i o n and e n a b le s him to p o s i t a d o c t r i n e o f s p o n ta n e ity w hich a c c o u n ts f o r th e new and th e f o r t u i t o u s . w hich e v e n t, i t i s

A becom in& can b e a c a u s a l s e q u e n c e , in

c o n tin u o u s} o r i t can b e a f r e e a c t , i n w hich e v e n t,

th e re i s a r a d ic a l d is c o n tin u ity .

The p r o c e s s by w hich a se e d becomes a

f lo w e r i s c o n tin u o u s } b u t t h a t by w hich a com plex, in a n im a te m o le c u le becomes endowed w ith l i f e i s d is c o n t in u o u s . The law o f c a u s a l i t y m a n if e s ts i t s e l f i n t h i s ;

"A phenomenon

now e x i s t s , a n d , a f t e r a v e ry s h o r t' tim e , we f i n d a n o th e r phenomenon su b s t i t u t e d i n th e r e l a t i o n s o f th e f i r s t . " te m p o ra l se q u e n c e .

19

I n o t h e r w o rd s, c a u s a l i t y i s

H owever, t h i s te m p o ra l seq u en ce t u r n s o u t to h av e some

am azing c o n s t i t u e n t s ,

in th e f i r s t p l a c e , th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e

secon d phenom enon, we a r e t o l d , e x i s t i n p o t e n t i a l i t y , e i t h e r i n th e f i r s t phenomenon o r i n th e sura t o t a l o f s u rro u n d in g c o n d i t i o n s .

Those c h a r a c t e r ­

i s t i c s w hich a r e a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d c o n s t i t u t e th e a c t w hich i n f a c t comes t o p a s s fro m th e st/m t o t a l o f p o t e n t i a l i t i e s .

I b i d . . v o l . 2 , p . 41* 18

Ibid., vol. 2, p. 45.

^ Ibid.. vo.. k f p. 53*

As n o t y e t come to p a s s ,

103.

th e e f f e c t i s p o t e n t i a l i t y ; a c c o m p lis h e d , i n th e p r e s e n t , i t i s a c t . The s y n t h e s i s o f p o t e n t i a l i t y and a c t i s f o r c e . P o t e n t i a l i t y , a s th e i n t e r v a l o f two a c t s w hich d e te rm in e i t , i f t h e se c o n d i s n o t y e t r e a l i z e d , g iv e s u s pow er; i f i t i s r e a l i z e d , e x e c u tio n o r p r o d u c ti o n . T hese a r e th e two p h a s e s o f th e c o n c e p t o f f o r c e . I n th e f i r s t a s p e c t , f o r c e i s o n ly v i r t u a l , an d p o t e n t i a l i t y i s s t i l l d i s t i n c t from a c t ; i n th e s e c o n d , t h e r e i s a co m p le te s y n ­ t h e s i s , and i t i s f o r c e p r o p e r ly s p e a k in g w h ich i s m ani­ f e s t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i n g e q u a l ly i n a c t and p o t e n t i a l i t y , w hich a r e tra n s fo rm e d by s y n t h e s i s i n t o a t h i r d c o n c e p t. F o rce i s th e a c t o f p o t e n t i a l i t y .

A ll change h a s an e f f e c t , and a l l

e f f e c t im p lie s a c a u s e , b u t o n ly a r e l a t i v e c a u s e . In c o n n e c tio n w ith t.h ii a d a p t a t i o n o f th e A r i s t o t e l i a n con­ c e p t s o f a c t and p o t e n t i a l i t y , R en o u v ier i n t r o d u c e s i n t o h i s sy stem a m o d ifie d form o f n e c e s s i t y , w hich h e d e f i n e s a s t h a t w hich e x i s t s be­ c a u se t h e r e i s law and r e g u l a r i t y i n th e o r d e r o f phenom ena.

He m a in ta in s

t h a t t h e r e i s l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y b e c a u se th e law i s a c c e p te d a s g e n e r a l and r i g o r o u s , a t l e a s t , by h y p o th e s i s ; and t h a t t h e r e i s p h y s i c a l n e c e s s i t y b e c a u se th e i n v a r i a b i l i t y o f phenom ena i s a m a t e r i a l f a c t .

22

N eces­

s i t y i s , t h e r e f o r e , th e f a c t o f th e r e c u r r e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s . By t h i s he seem s t o mean t h a t , a lth o u g h n e c e s s i t y c a n n o t be a c c e p te d a. p r i o r i , ex­ p e r ie n c e g iv e s c a u s a l se q u e n c e s iiS i n v a r i a b l e , and so we a r e e n t i t l e d to re g a r d them a s n e c e s s a r y i n th e s e n s e t h a t , i f B h a s alw ay s fo llo w e d A,

20 I b i d . , v o . . 2 , p p . 53 and 54-. ^ I b i d .. vol. 2, p. 55. 22

IbitjU, vol. 2, pp. 110-111.

w henever we e n c o u n te r A, we m u st e x p e c t B.

I t am ounts to a r e j e c t i o n o f

th e Hurnian d o c t r i n e o f p r o b a b i l i t y i n f a o r o f th e a s s e r t i o n t h a t th e i n ­ v a r i a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n p a s t e x p e r ie n c e s e n t i t l e s u s to p r e d i c t on th e b a s i s o f them .

L o g ic a l n e c e s s i t y i s sim p ly th e u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y

o f th e c a te g o r y , w hich m u st be w ith o u t e x c e p tio n s , s in c e i t i s n o t o n ly p r e s e n t i n a l l t h i n g s , b u t ig , a l l t h i n g s . Both fo rm s o f n e c e s s i t y a r e g iv e n f a c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e , a s R en o u v ier s e e s them , and r e q u i r e no p r o o f , n o r h y p o s ta tiz a tio n . N e c e s s ity , h o w ev er, i s n o t r ig o r o u s i n th e s e n s e t h a t n a t u r e h a s no a l t e r n a t i v e s . P o t e n t i a l i t y c o n t a in s a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , th e one a c t u a l l y b r o u g h t i n t o a c t i s n o t m e c h a n is ti c a ll y d e te r m in e d , b u t h a s i n i t an e le m e n t o f s p o n ta n e i ty , a lth o u g h th e i n v a r i a b l e s e l e c t i o n a s a f a c t o f th e same a l t e r n a t i v e e n t i t l e s u s t o speak o f t h a t seq u en ce a s b e in g n e c e s s a r y .

T h is i s w n at i s m ean t by th e r e l a t i v i t y o f c a u s a l i t y

a l l u d e d to a b o v e; t h a t n e c e s s i t y i s n o t p r e d e te r m in e d , b u t a f a c t o f some p h a s e s o f e x p e r ie n c e , e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s t e r i o r i . Ih e law o f t e le o lo g y i s th e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e 'p r e s e n t s t a t e o f th e phenomenon w ith i t s f u t u r e te n d e n c y . l a t e d by L e ib n iz 's w ord, a p p e t i t i o n . ity .

The s y n th e s is may b e s t be t r a n s ­

I t r e p r e s e n t s th e o b v e rs e o f c a u s a l ­

In A r i s t o t e l i a n te rm s , R e n o u v ie r 's c a te g o r y o f c a u s a l i t y i s e f f i c i e n t

c a u s e ; h i s c a te g o r y o f t e l e o l o g y , f i n a l c a u s e .

A p p e titio n p r e - e x i s t s i t s

f u l f i l l m e n t ; f o r c e b r in g s i t i n t o b e in g . C a u s a l ity p u s h e s from b e h in d ; te l e o l o g y p u l l s from i n f r o n t . ^

^Ibid., vol. 2, pp. 163-5.

105.

The dynam ic c a t e g o r i e s ,

r e g a r d in g th e o b j e c t a s i n p r o c e s s

o f c h a n g e , d e f in e i t a s becom ing ( i . e . , ch an g in g ) i n te rm s o f a n t e c e d e n t r e l a t i o n s v h ic h a r e r e g a rd e d a s c a u s in g th e ch an g es and o f te n d e n c ie s w hich d i r e c t th e l i n e o f c h a n g e .

The s t a t i c and dynam ic c a t e g o r i e s t o ­

g e t h e r d e f i n e th e known o r th e p o t e n t i a l l y know able i n a l l i t s d i s t i n g u i s h ­ a b le a s p e c t s , a s b o th e n d u rin g and c h a n g in g . o f th e know er.

T h ere re m a in s th e c a te g o r y

T h is was p re s u p p o s e d i n a l l th e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , s in c e

know ledge demands a k n o w e r .^ P e r s o n a l i t y , l i k e a l l th e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , i s d e v e lo p e d by th e s y n t h e s i s o f a l i m i t and an i n t e r v a l .

The l i m i t i s th e s e l f , a s e r i e s

o f phenomena p o s i t e d a s b e in g , a s a c t , a s s t a t e , a s i n th e dynam ic c a t e ­ g o r i e s ; th e i n t e r v a l i s th e n o t - s e l f ; th e s y n t h e s i s i s c o n s c io u s n e s s , o r p e rs o n a lity . C o n s c io u s n e s s i s th e n th e s e l f o f th e n o t - s e l f , a n d , so to s p e a k , th e u n i t y o f t h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y , a w hole; i t i s th e s p a t i a l and th e te m p o ra l l i m i t o f s p e c i f i c tim e and s p a c e , an e x t e n s i o n , a d u r a ti o n ; th e d i f f e r e n t i a o f t h i s g e n u s , a s p e c i e s , t h e r e f o r e , an i n d i v i d u a l ; th e b e in g o f t h i s n o t- b e i n g , a becom ing; th e a c t o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l i t y , a f o r c e ; th e s t a t e o f t h i s te n d e n c y , an a p p e t i t i o n ; a n d , to r e t u r n to th e f i r s t and th e m o st g e n e r a l o f th e c a t e g o r i e s , th e o t h e r o f t h i s same, a n i n d i v i d u a l . 2 * A l l th e c a t e g o r i e s m e e t i n t h a t o f p e r s o n a l i t y ; a l l th e p o s s i b l e la w s o f th e know able w o rld i n t e r s e c t to d e f in e th e k now er, th e human b e in g , th e m icrocosm . H ere we se e e x p r e s s ly s t a t e d th e te n d e n c y to r e l i n q u i s h

^ I b i d . . v o l . 2 , p p . 1 7 7 -8 . 25 Ibid.. vol. 2, p. 179.

n e u t r a l monism i n f a v o r o f id e a lis m w hich h a s a l r e a d y b een a l lu d e d to and w i l l be d is c u s s e d a t l e n g th i n c o n n e c tio n w ith R e n o u v ie r 's v a lu e th e o r y .

A lth o u g h i t d o e s n o t f o llo w from th e s ta te m e n t t h a t Knowledge

demands a know er t h a t know ledge i s th e on ly p o s s i b l e , o r ev en th e fu n d a ­ m ental form o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , th e know ledge r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f u n d a m e n ta l.in R e n o u v ie r 's sy stem a s d e v e lo p e d , and th e e p ito m iz in g o f a l l r e a l i t y i n th e know ing s u b j e c t le n d s f o r c e t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h is p o i n t , h o w e v e r, w i l l be d e v e lo p e d i n th e n e x t c h a p t e r . The en u m e ra tio n o f th e c a t e g o r i e s in v o lv e s o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s , w hich m ust be c o n s id e r e d .

I n th e f i r s t p l a c e , th e e n t i r e p o s i t i o n i s r e n d e r e d

d u b io u s by th e in a d e q u a te c o n c e p t o f c a u s a l i t y on w hich th e th e o r y o f law and f u n c tio n i s b a s e d .

T h is h a s a lr e a d y been d is c u s s e d a t l e n g t h , and w ill

n o t be r e p e a te d . T h ere i s , n o w e v e r, a f u r t h e r p ro b lem p e c u l i a r t o th e c a te g o rie s . i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t th e t e s t o f th e in d e p e n d e n c e o f th e c a t e g o r i e s was t o be t h a t a s y n t h e t i c judgm ent was r e q u ir e d to p a s s from one t o a n o th e r .

An a tte m p t w i l l be made i n w h at f o llo w s t o p ro v e t h a t th e

c a t e g o r i e s a r e a l l l o g i c a l l y d e r iv e d by a n a l y t i c ju d g m en ts a n d , t h e r e f o r e , n o t in d e p e n d e n t by R e n o u v ie r1s own c r i t e r i o n . s p e c i f i c ty p e s o f r e l a t i o n , g o ry .

F u r t h e r , th e y a r e a l l

t h a t i s , s u b - c a te g o r ie s o f th e m a s te r c a t e ­

A ll R en o u v ie r h a s done i s

to a s s e r t t h a t th e m o st u n i v e r s a l th e f i r s t o f t h e t h r e e g e n e r a l ty p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p o r i g i n a l l y d i s ­ ti n g u i s h e d , w hich d i s t i n c t i o n we have n o te d R en o u v ie r s e e k s to o b l i t e r a t e . T h is r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d in te rm s o f i d e n t i t y an d d i f f e r e n c e . Q u a li ty i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i d e n t i t y and d i f f e r e n c e .

Where i s th e syn­

t h e t i c judgm ent? A n o th e r i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t , i f a law i s a phenom enon, i t s h o u ld be am enable to th e c a te g o r y o f q u a l i t y ; tba t i s , th e r e l a t i o n ­ s h ip o f i t s p a r t s s h o u ld be d e s c r ib a b le i n te rm s o f 'g e n u s an d d i f f e r e n t i a , th e o b v io u s d i f f i c u l t y o f m aking such an a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c a t e t o r y c a s t s d o u b t upon th e j u s t i c e o f R e n o u v ie r1s a s s e r t i o n t h a t a law i s a phenom enon. W hat, f o r exam p le, a r e tn e g enus and d i f f e r e n t i a o f th e law o f e x c lu d e d m id d le ?

O r, to ta k e an e m p ir ic a l la w , o f h e w to n 's f i r s t la w

o f m otion?

I f we ta k e th e g en u s t o be "law " and th e d i f f e r e n t i a th e s p e c i f i c c o n te n t o f t h e law u n d e r d is c u s s i o n , we h av e red u ce d t h a t c a te g o r y o f q u a l i t y to t h a t o f r e l a t i o n , s in c e ve h av e sim p ly 'S aid t h a t th e law i s whab i s and i s n o t w h at i t i s n o t . I f t h a t i s a l l R en o u v ier m ean s, h e c e r t a i n l y h a s n o t e s t a b l i s h e d two s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s .

I f h e in t e n d s m ore, a s i t w ould

seem , th e n th e c a te g o r y c a n n o t be ex te n d e d to an y S c o n s ta n t" phenomenon e x e m p lify in g th e n o ti o n o f la w , and i t m u st fo llo w e i t h e r t h a t a law i s

n o t a phenom enon, o r th e c a te g o r y i s n o t c o n s ta n t i n a l l phenom ena, e i t h e r o f w hich i s a t v a r ia n c e w ith th e p r e m is e s .

The o n ly a l t e r n a t i v e to t h i s

i s th e a ssu m p tio n t h a t R en o u v ie r in t e n d s to c a l l o n ly h i s own n in e c a t e t o r i e s la w s , and t o e l im i n a te a l l o t h e r s from th e d i g n i t y .

T h is , how ever,

w ould be o f l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e t o h im , s in c e th e genus and d i f f e r e n t i a , o f s a y , th e law o f number w ould be open to th e i d e n t i c a l o b j e c t i o n s .

I f th e

law i s t h e g en u s; and t h e exam p le, th e d i f f e r e n t i a , th e d e f i n i t i o n a s a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r t s i s i n v a l i d a t e d , s in c e th e exam ple

i s , in no s e n s e ,

a p a r t o f th e la w , th e w hole la w b e in g e x p re s s e d i n i t , a s th e e n t i r e law o f e x c lu d e d m id d le i s e x p r e s s e d i n "man o r n o t-m a n " . •Massing to t h e law o f b eco m in g , s in c e b e in g and n o t- b e in g a r e s tric tly

synonymous w ith i d e n t i t y and d i f f e r e n c e , no s y n t h e t i c judgm ent

h a s been made

i n d e r iv i n g t h i s c a te g o r y .

By th e v e r b a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a c t and p o t e n t i a l i t y w ith b e in g and n o t- b e i n g , we can p a s s from th e . c a te g o r y o f becom ing to t h a t o f c a u s a l i t y , an d , t h e r e f o r e , d e r iv e one c a te g o r y from th e o t h e r .

I t is ,

f u r t h e r , c l e a r t h a t c a u s a l i t y i s th e fu n d a m e n ta l and e s s e n t i a l form o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , a p o i n t w hich r e q u i r e s no la b o r i n g a f t e r th e p r e v io u s d i s ­ c u s s io n .

M o reo v er, R en o u v ie r h a s h im s e lf acknow ledged t h i s when h e de­

f in e d c a u s a l i t y a s an a n a l y s i s o f th e r e L a tio n s in v o lv e d i n becom ing. T h is p rim a c y o f c a u s a l i t y b r i n g s f o r t h a f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y , c o n n e c te d w ith th e r e v i v a l o f th e r e j e c t e d c o n c e p t o f n e c e s s i t y , w hich i s i n no form a d m is s ib le i n h i s sy ste m .

A lth o u g h , a s h a s been i n d i c a t e d ,

h e s e e k s to a v o id th e p o s i t i o n o f Hume, h e i s a c t u a l l y p le d g e d to i t . What r i g h t h av e we to assum e on th e b a s i s o f th e p r i n c i p l e s p r e v io u s l y ex­ pounded t h a t t h e r e i s even a r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n o f phenomena? Does th e f a c t t h a t we h av e o b s e rv e d one i n th e p a s t g u a r a n te e i t f o r th e f u tu r e ? Ag f o r t e l e o l o g y , s in c e s t a t e and te n d e n c y can be e q u a te d w ith a c t and p o t e n t i a l i t y , we can d e r iv e t h i s c a te g o r y from c a u s a l i t y by a n o th e r a n a l y t i c ju d g m en t. The f i n a l c a te g o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s a n o th e r form o f th e law o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , a s y n t h e s i s o r b ein g and n o t- b e i n g , o f i d e n t i t y and d if f e r e n c e , in to in d iv id u a tio n . Two t h i n g s seem f a i r l y o b v io u s from th e fo r e g o in g e x p o s itio n : th e c a t e g o r i e s a r e n o t en u m erated a s a b s t r a c t i o n s from e x p e r ie n c e , but l o g i c a l l y d e r iv e d by a s e r i e s o f a n a l y t i c ju d g m e n ts.

They a r e a s e r i e s o f

t a u t o l o g i e s , a s open to th e c r i t i c i s m R en o u v ier d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t R a n t a s a r e th e R a n tia n c a t e g o r i e s th e m s e lv e s . S eco n d , th e y a r e n o t in d e p e n d e n t, b u t d e r iv e d one from a n o t h e r , and a l l r e d u c i b le to th e c a te g o r y o f r e l a ­ t i o n , w hich i s i t s e l f a r e s ta t e m e n t o f t h e law o f i d e n t i t y and c o n t r a d i c t i o n I t m u s t, t h e r e f o r e , f o llo w t h a t th e c o n c e p t o f law , tfx ich was to ta k e th e p la c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f s u b s ta n c e , i s re d u c e d to b u t one la w , so g e n e r a l a s t o be m e a n in g le s s , a l b e i t i t i s th e o n ly law r e a l l y a d m is s ib le on th e p re m is e o f R e n o u v ie ria n atom ism . A ll t h a t can be s a i d o f any r e l a t i o n d e­ f i n e d i n h i s te rm s i s t h a t h e h a s ended by s a y in g .

i t i s i t s e l f and none o t h e r ; and t h a t i s a l l

112.

A t th e b a s i s o f th e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e i s th e ] a v o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n and i t s c o r o l l a r y , th e law o f num ber; i n o t h e r w o rd s, t h e p r i n c i p l e o f fin itu d e .

By m eans o f t h i s h e b e l ie v e s to h av e re s c u e d h im s e lf from th e

p h ilo s o p h y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f h i s f i r s t p h a s e .

T h ere i s no c o n t r a d i c t i o n

a t th e r o o t o f r e a l i t y , a s h e h a d th o u g h t i n h i s y o u th . T h is i s so b e c a u se th e t h r e e f o l d s u b d iv is io n o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s i s n o t , a s h e s e e s i t , an H e g e lia n d i a l e c t i c , s in c e th e s y n t h e s i s d o e s n o t a f f i r m t h e i d e n t i t y o f th e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i t r e s o l v e s , b u t i s a s y n t h e s i s by v i r t u e of' t h e i r v e ry n o n - i d e n t i t y . 2*^ T h ere rem a in s th e r e s o l u t i o n o f h i s o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e : s i n g l e t o t a l s y n t h e s i s o f phenomena p o s s i b l e ? "

28

"Is a

R en o u v ie r m a in ta i n s th a t

th e u n d e r s ta n d in g c o n c e iv e s th e u n iv e r s e a s a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s o f a l l pheno­ m ena.

How can we do t h i s i n th e l i g h t o f t h e c a te g o r ie s w ith o u t an antinom y?

I n o t h e r w o rd s, a r e we n o t back w ith K a n t a g a in ?

The r e s o l u t i o n o f th iB

i s a g a in i n te rm s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f f i n i t u d e . The f a c t i s t h a t " th e t o t a l i t y o f phenom ena w hich a r e o b j e c t s o f p o s s i b l e e x p e r ie n c e tr a n s c e n d s p o s s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e ."

29

Thus e x p e r ie n c e

i s g iv e n a s a c o n te x t w ith in l a r g e r c o n t e x t s . The law o f num ber demands t h a t th e l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e c o n te x t be f i n i t e .

H ence, i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s i s n o t a

f a c t , b u t a p s y c h o lo g ic a l phenomenon a r i s i n g from th e f a c t t h a t th e u n iv e r s e

27

I b i d . . v o l . 2 , p p . 1 9 9 -2 0 3 . 28 I b id . . v o l. 2 . p . 203. 29 £bid., vol. 2, p. 205.

113.

l a r g e r th a n o u r e x p e r ie n c e o f i t .

I t d o e s n o t f o llo w t h a t t h e r e i s no

l i m i t b e c a u se we hav e n o t re a c h e d i t j

b u t i t i s a f a c t t h a t we c a n n o t

re a c h th e l i m i t . Hence th e c a t e g o r i e s do n o t a p p ly t o th e w h o le.

30

T he c a t e ­

g o r i e s a r e r e l a t i o n s , an d th e w hole h a s n o th in g w ith w hich t o h av e a r e l a ­ tio n .

On th e o t h e r h a n d , i s n o t th e w h o le made up o f r e l a t i o n s ?

and o f a f i n i t e num ber o f th em .

It

is ,

I t d o e s n o t , h o w ev er, f o llo w t h a t th e

w hole i t s e l f i s a r e l a t i o n , a lth o u g h i t m ig h t seem r e a s o n a b le to say t h a t th e w hole i s th e r e l a t i o n o f i t s p a r t s , a p o i n t w hich R en o u v ie r d o e s n o t d is c u s s .

R en o u v ie r, t h e r e f o r e , c o n c lu d e s t h a t a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s can

n e v e r be m a d e ,^ A c o n s c io u s n e s s e m b ra cin g th e t o t a l i t y of phenom ena c e a s e s to c o rre s p o n d t o th e c o n c e p t o f c o n s c io u s n e s s , inasm uch a s ' th e o p p o s itio n o f s e l f a n d n o t - s e l f v a n is h e s when c o n s c io u s ­ n e s s becomes i d e n t i c a l w ith th e u n i v e r s e . 32 H e re , a g a in , we f i n d a sp ecim en o f R e n o u v ie r1s i m p l i c i t i d e a lis m , i n th e i n s i s t e n c e upon th e n e c e s s i t y o f a c o n s c io u s n e s s c a p a b le o f em b racin g th e t o t a l i t y o f th e u n iv e r s e . A t o t a l s y n th e s is i s p r e c lu d e d b eca u se i t w ould a c t u a l i z e in fin ity ,

33

and becau se c o n s c io u s n e s s , b e in g f i n i t e , c o u l d n e v e r g r a s p i t ;

a n d , f u r t h e r , w ould c e a s e to be c o n s c io u s n e s s i f i t c o u ld , s in c e t h e r e w ould be no n o t - s e l f to d e f in e i t . The m o st v i t a l a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o -

3CW

,

v o l . 2 , p p . 2& 9-351.

31 I b i d . . v o l . ,;2 , p . 378. 32l b i d . . v o l . 2 , p . 378. 33 Ibid.. vol. 2, p. 379*

114.

nouncem en t, th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e m a th e m a tic a l p h ilo s o o p h y o f f i n i t u d e , and a l s o th e g ro u n d of t h e t h e s i s w hich i t i s s o u g h t t o m a in ta in t h a t tvenouvier i s r e a l l y an i d e a l i s t , l i e s i n th e s ta te m e n t w ith r e g a r d to c o n s c io u s n e s s , w h ich fo rm s th e theme o f th e n e x t a s p e c t o f R e n o u v ie r 's sy stem .

B ut one c o n c lu s io n i s p o s s i b l e on th e p r e m is e :

The h y p o th e s is o f a fu n d a m e n ta l p l u r a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s e s in th e w o rld seems th e n th e o n ly r a t i o n a l , o n e , an d th e m anner i n w hich a c t u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s e s a r e g iv e n co n fo rm s to i t . 34 T h is c o n c e p t o f th e p l u r a l i t y o f c o n s c io u s n e s s e s , th u s e v o lv e d i n te rm s o f m a th e m a tic a l f i n i t u d e , fo rm s th e b a s i s o f w h at, f o r t h i s s tu d y , i s th e m o st im p o r ta n t p a r t o f R e n o u v ie r1s p h ilo s o p h y — h i s v a lu e th e o r y .

To t h i s we n e x t t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n .

34 Ibid.. vol. 2, p. 379.

CHAPTER V REwOUVIER’ S VALUE THEORY

H e n o u v ie r 's v a lu e th e o ry c o n s i s t s i n e s s e n s e o f a borrow ing o f th e c e n t r a l c o n c e p ts o f K an t and L e ib n iz , tr u n c a te d in each c a se by th e rem oval o f t h e m e ta p h y s ic a l p o s t u l a t e s o f th e s o u r c e .

From K an t he

h a s ta k e n t h e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e and th e p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n , w ith o u t th e d in g an s ic h and th e c o n c e p t o f n e c e s s i t y ; from L e i b n iz , th e c o n c e p ts o f th e monad and o f a harmony betw een m onads, w hich i s , h o w ev er, n o t p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t th e n a tu r e o f law i t s e l f , w ith o u t th e p r i n c i p l e s o f s u f f i c i e n t re a s o n o r o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y .

The p r e v io u s ­

l y d is c u s s e d key c o n c e p t o f la w , so f a r d e f in e d a s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f phenom ena.

The f o u n d a tio n upon w hich th e v a lu e th e o ry i s b u i l t i s adum­

b r a te d , a t th e end o f th e L o g ic . a t w hich p o i n t h e was l e d to r e g a r d th e " fu n d a m e n ta l p l u r a l i t y o f i n d i v id u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s e s " a s th e e s s e n t i a l n a tu re o f r e a l i t y . T h is p l u r a l i t y o f in d i v id u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s i s d e v e lo p e d i n te rm s o f th e ■‘-•e ib n iz ia n ^ o n a d o lo g y , g r a f t e d upon a K a n tia n a n a l y s i s o f th e m o ra l la w , by m eans o f w hich l a t t e r fie n o u v ie r a tte m p ts to ground th e K a n tia n p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c t i c a l re a s o n — freed o m , God, and im m o r ta lity , i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n f i n i t i s m , one o f R e n o u v ie r1s two key c o n c e p ts , g iv e s p la c e tc th e o t h e r one — freedom — a s th e c e n t e r o f e m p h a sis.

S e a ille s

h a s c a l l e d K en o u v ier th e p h il o s o p h e r o f fre e d o m ,^ and i t i s i n th e v a lu e th e o ry t h a t th e j u s t i c e o f t h i s d e s ig n a t io n becomes e v i d e n t, and th e lin k a g e i s made betw een freed o m and f i n i t u d e w hich i n t e g r a t e s th e p a r t s o f th e sy stem .

■Lt i s h e r e , a l s o , t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a K a n tia n is m

w ith o u t a d in g an s ic h becomes e x p l i c i t , a s w e ll a s

th e i n h e r e n t weak­

n e s s e s o f th e f i n i t i s t p r e m is e s , and t h a t th e c a s e f o r ken o u v ier* s im­ p l i c i t id e a lis m can b e s t be made. T h is l a s t a r i s e s from th e f a c t t h a t R e n o u v ie r 's p h ilo s o p h y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p sy c h o lo g y . Roth h i s m e ta p h y s ic s and h i s v a l u e - th e o r y a r e p s y c h o lo g ic a l.

h o r i s i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s s h o u ld be th e c a s e i n a

system i n w hich a p p e a ra n c e , th e o b je c t- k n o w n - b y - a - s u b je c t, h a s been p o s t u ­ l a t e d a s th e f u n d a m e n t a l .r e a l i t y .

M o re o v e r, h e n o u v ie r h im s e lf e x p r e s s ly

makes t h i s p o i n t and e l a b o r a t e s i t a s e s s e n t i a l to h i s sy stem and m ethod. I t i s i m p l i c i t i n th e t i t l e o f h i s work on v a lu e th e o ry — T r a i t e de f s y c h o lo g ie R a t io n n e l le , an d i s s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y on i t s v e ry f i r s t pages The c a t e g o r i e s a r e th e g e n e r a l la w s o f a p p e a r a n c e s . A ppearance to a human know er i s th e o n ly ty p e o f a p p e a ra n c e o f w hich i t i s p o s s i b le f o r u s tp sp eak w ith a s s u r a n c e . I t is in i t t h a t th e c a t e g o r i e s a r e g iv e n to u s , a s w e ll a s th e m a n ifo ld o f e x p e r ie n c e . Jhe c a t e g o r i e s p ro v id e th e form s o f t h i s m a n ifo ld , th e r u l e s o f t h i s e x p e r ie n c e .^ h e n o u v ie r s e e s man a s a m e e tin g p l a c e o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s , c o n s i s t e n t w ith h i s p r e v io u s d e f i n i t i o n o f an e n t i t y a s a p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f

■ h s e a ille s , op. c i t . , p . 1. 2

f

fle n o u v ie r, C h a r le s , T r a i t e de P s.v ch o lo g ie R a t io n n e l le . P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Armand C o lin , 1912, v o l. 1 , p . 1 .

re la tio n s h ip s .

T h is i s so i n a tw o fo ld s e n s e : b e c a u se th e c a t e g o r i e s

p ro v id e th e o r g a n iz in g p r i n c i p l e s o f a l l h i s a c t u a l o r

p o t e n t i a l know ledge

and b e c a u se th e y s e r v e to d e f in e an d t o u n if y him a s a p h y s ic a l an d m e n ta l e n tity .

O r, a s h e p u t s i t i n a n o t h e r p l a c e ,

Man i s a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c ti o n o f a l l th e fu n ctio n s g iv en , i n th e u n iv e r s e an d com ing w ith i n th e scope o f con­ s c io u s n e s s ; a l l th e c a t e g o r i e s a r e e q u a lly im p lie s i n th e a p p e a ra n c e o f man to h i m s e l f and i n th e a p p e a ra n c e o f th e u n iv e r s e to man. 4 H ere i s th e c o n c e p t o f man a s m icrocosm upon w hich t h e monadology w i l l be b u i l t , and h e r e i s th e

m e e tin g p l a c e o f th e r e g u l a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f law

and f u n c ti o n i n th e i n d i v i d u a l .

I n man, as i n th e u n iv e r s e , th e y a r e th e

p r i n c i p l e s o f p erm an en ce and c h an g e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i s th e p o s t u l a t e t h a t , i f t h e r e i s one c a te g o ry h a v in g p rim acy o v e r th e o t h e r s , i t i s th e l a s t c a te g o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y , r a t h e r th a n th e f i r s t c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p ; s in c e more g e n e r a l fo rm s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e unknown e x c e p t i n i t s te rm s and th e m onad, th e u n i t o f r e a l i t y , i s s im p ly a p e r s o n a l i t y . T h is i s made e x p l i c i t i n th e s ta te m e n t t h a t th e p e r s o n i s h i s a p p e a ra n c e s f o r h im se lf.-*

T h is ,

h o w ev er, i s i d e a l i s t i c i n i t s im p l i c a t i o n s and k e n o u v ie r h a s much ado and q u e s ti o n a b le s u c c e s s i n m a in ta in in g h i s p o s i t i o n o f n e u t r a l monism. T h is w i l l be d is c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n due c o u r s e ; b u t i t i s n e c e s s a r y a t p r e s e n t , f o r th e c o n t i n u i t y o f th e arg u m e n t, t o r e t r a c e o u t s te p s

I b i d . . v o l . 1 , p p . 3 and f f . ^ I b i d . . v o l . 2 , p . 31 7 . ' ’f j e a i l l e s ,

o p

.

c i t . . p p . 3 0 5 -6 .

and exam ine i n some d e t a i l th e d ev elo p m en t o f Renouvier* s p sy c h o lo g y . P s y c h o lo g y ,i s , f o r him , th e n a t u r a l c o n c o m ita n t o f l o g i c .

In

f a c t , i t h a s th e same s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e in g t h a t l o g i c ap­ p ro a c h e s i t i n th e a b s t r a c t , w h ile p sy c h o lo g y exam ines i t c o n c r e te ly a s i t i s a c t u a l l y g iv e n ; and t h i s common s u b j e c t m a tte r i s th e c a t e g o r i e s . T hese la w s

o f th o u g h t a r e th e la w s o f b e in g .

P e r s o n a l i t y p e rv a d e s a l l

r e a l i t y , i n t h i s s e n s e , t h a t t h e r e i s no im p e rs o n a l t r u t h w hich i s re c o g ­ n iz e d by i t s i r r e s t i b i l i t y , b u t a l l th o u g h t i s an a c t o f w i l l .

Thus th e

t r u e and th e good c a n n o t be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , and th e p r e l i m i n a r y d is c u s s io n o f v a lu e in v o lv e s a d i s c u s s io n o f th e c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h .

C e rta in ty i s

n o t a p r i o r i o r n e c e s s a r y b u t th e f r u i t o f th e a c t o r w i l l w hich s e l e c t s a c e r t a i n b e l i e f and t e s t s i t i n e x p e r ie n c e .

The p o s s i b i l i t y o f such

s e l e c t i o n and t e s t i n g i s fo u n d ed upon th e autonom y o f th e s e l e c t i n g 2 nd t e s t i n g w i l l , w h ich , w ere i t n o t f r e e , would be u n a b le to break th e e p i s t e m o lo g ic a l i c e o f a cosmos c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e i t h e r n e c e s s i t y n o r r e a l c o n tin u ity .

Freedom , m o reo v e r, i s th e p r e r e q u i s i t e to and th e s o u rc e o f

m o ra l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , h en ce a u n iv e r s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by th e freed o m o f i t s u l t i m a t e u n i t s m u st be a m o ra l, t h a t i s , a v a lu e u n i v e r s e .

In fa c t, i f

a l l know ledge i s an a c t cf w i l l , a l l ju d g m en ts a r e i n some s e n s e v a lu e ju d g m e n ts , s in c e th e y in v o lv e th e a s c r ip tio n o f a g r e a t e r w o rth to th e phenom ena s e ie c te d f o r s tu d y th a n to o t h e r p o s s i b l e phenom ena.

T h is makes

freed o m and c e r t a i n t y i n a. .v ery s i g n i f i c a n t s e n s e synonym ous, a n d . i t .

f o llo w s t h a t v a lu e c a n n o t be d is c u s s e d w ith o u t d i s c u s s in g t r u t h .

In

f a c t , t r u t h i s i t s e l f a v a lu e an d th e p r o p e r p la c e f o r i t s d is c u s s io n £ i s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e n a t u r e o f v a lu e . T h is t r u t h , m o reo v e r, i s i n no s e n s e an a b s o lu t e o r t o t a l t r u t h , b u t , a s h a s been i n d i c a t e d , a r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e k n o w er, th e known, and th e la w s o f th o u g h t w ith in th e l i m i t e d o o n te x t o f a f i n i t e e x p e r ie n c e .

The p r i n c i p l e o f f i n i t u d e i s n e c e s s a r y i n K e n o u v ie r 's view

to a v o id a n tin o m ie s ; th e p r i n c i p l e o f f i n i t u d e p r e c lu d e s a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s , b u t i t d o e s n o t r e l i e v e man o f th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n t e g r a t i n g a s much o f e x p e r ie n c e a s h e can i n t o an o rd e re d sy stem i n te rm s o f h i s la w s o f thought*.

I t demands t h a t h e p o s t u l a t e a b e g in n in g , b u t i n c a p a c i t a t e s him

from s tu d y in g such a b e g in n in g , e x c e p t i n te rm s o f th e l o g i c w hich h a s o r g a n iz e d and made f r u i t f u l h i s a c t u a l e x p e r ie n c e s ; li k e w is e w ith r e g a r d to an en d .

I n o r d e r t h a t we may d e te rm in e w hat tr a n s c e n d in g s o f e x p e rie n c e

can l o g i c a l l y be m ade, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to s tu d y th e f u n c ti o n in g s o f th e c a t e g o r i e s i n man a s know ing s u b j e c t , w hich a lo n e can p r o v id e th e c lu e t o th e r a t i o n a l p o s t u l a t e s o f freed o m . The d e f i n i t i o n o f man a s m icrocosm i s K en o u v ier1s j u s t i f i c a ­ tio n o f t h i s p ro c e d u re .

S in c e a l l th e c a t e g o r i e s m eet i n man, n o t o n ly a s

The fo r e g o in g p a r a g r a p h i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e v a lu e th e o r y i n i t s e n t i r e t y , b a s e d , w iih c o n s id e r a b le e x p a n s io n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f my own upon th e i n t r o d u c to i y a n a l y s i s g iv e n by S e a i l l e s o f t h e v a lu e th e o r y . Op. c i t . , p p . 163-4*

o r g a n iz in g p r i n c i p l e s o f h i s e x p e r ie n c e , b u t cf h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y , th e a n a l y s i s o f th e c a t e g o r i e s a s th e y d e f in e m a n 's i n d i v i d u a l i t y can m eaning­ f u l l y and w ith o u t v io le n c e be e x t r a p o l a t e d to th e m icrocosm o f w hich he i s th e e p ito m e .

Were t h i s n o t s o , no know ledge w ould be p o s s i b l e , s in c e man

h a s no o t h e r s o u rc e o f u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e c a t e g o r i e s th a n h i s own p e r ­ s o n a l i t y , w hich i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l l h i s e x p e r ie n c e a n d in s e p a r a b le from i t .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, e x p e r ie n c e i s n o t g iv e n him i n i t s e l f , b u t a s

e x p e r ie n c e f o r him and i n te rm s o f h i s know ing m echanism ,

k e n o u v ie r j u s t l y

a c c la im s ^ a n t 's r e c o g n i tio n o f t h e f a c t t h a t know ledge i s an i n t e r a c t i o n be­ tw een know er and know n, t h a t i t

can be h ad o n ly in te rm s o f th e c o n c e p tu a l­

i z i n g p r o c e s s e s o f th e k now er, an d t h a t t h i s i s n o t a g ro u n d f o r s k e p tic is m , b u t a c o n d i t i o n p r e c e d e n t o f m a s te r y , a s K a n t 's g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n . i n t h i s f a s h i o n , t h e scope o f ^ a n t 's i m p l i c i t p rag m atism is

S ta te d

se e n to b e

enorm ous, and th e e p is te m o lo g y o f R en o u v ier m akes i t e x p l i c i t to th e p o i n t ■where i t becom es g r i s t f o r th e m illB o f Jam es and Dewey.

T h is c o n s t i t u t e s

th e h i s t o r i c a l an d p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f R e n o u v ie r 's p o s i t i o n , w hich b r id g e s th e gap betw een R a n t and Jam es,

k e n o u v ie r , h o w ev er, r e p r e ­

s e n ti n g a s he d o e s a t r a n s i t i o n , i s d e fa c e d w ith u n fu s e d elem ent s o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s an d s u c c e s s o r s w hich p r o v id e the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f h i s sy ste m . The r e c o g n i tio n t h a t t h e know er ta m p e rs w it h th e known i n th e know ledge p r o c e s s i s o f in e s t im a b le v a lu e t o h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s t e r i t y ; b u t t h e a tte m p t to s a lv a g e a n d r e c o n c ile w ith t h i s c e r t a i n m e ta p h y s ic a l v iew s o f

h i s f o r b e a r s le a d s h im , a s we s h a l l s e e , i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s .

B e fo re

i n d i c a t i n g th e d i f f i c u l t i e s , l e t u s exam ine th e p o s i t i o n . R e n o u v ie r1s p sy c h o lo g y i s d iv id e d i n t o th r e e p a r t s :

( l ) th e

law o f c o n s c io u s n e s s , o r th e r e l a t i o n of freedom to know ledge, t h a t i s , th e a n a l y s i s o f th e f u n c ti o n in g o f th e c a t e g o r i e s i n man; (k) th e problem o f c e r t a i n t y d e f in e d a s v o lu n ta r y b e l i e f ; t h a t

i s , th e j u s t i f i c a t i o n

o f th e c la im t h a t know ledge i s a v a lu e ju d g m en t; and (3) m o ra l p r o b a b i l i t y , o r r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y ; t h a t i s , th e e s ta b l is h m e n t of th e K a n tia n p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c t i c a l re a s o n by means o f th e e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f p sy ch o lo g y to th e m icrocosm . 7 We tu r n f i r s t t o th e law o f c o n s c io u s n e s s . A t th e o u t s e t , R en o u v ier m akes e x p l i c i t a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s p r e v io u s d e n i a l o f s u b s ta n c e to p s y c h o lo g y .

Renewing h i s i n s i s t e n c e upon th e p rim acy of r e l a t i o n , h e

d e n ie s a l i k e m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e , and th e p h il o s o p h i e s which w ould e i t h e r d e r iv e m e n ta l phenom ena from th e movements o f m a t e r i a l sub­ s ta n c e o r m a t e r i a l phenomena from th e a c tiv ity o f s p i r i t u a l s u o s ta n c e a r e a l i k e r e p u d ia te d a s e q u a lly d e a lin g i n th e w o rsh ip o f an i d o l n o t v e r i f i a b l e g

i n e x p e r ie n c e .

S in c e th e f a c u l t y p s y c h o lo g y o f K an t and h is p r e d e c e s s o r s

i s b a s e d on th e c o n c e p t o f s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e , R e n o u v ie r, by th e same to k e n , ab an d o n s i t .

7

8

The c a t e g o r i e s a r e n o t f a c u l t i e s , b u t la w s o f r e l a t i o n -

I b i d . , p . 16 5 . R en o u v ie r, p p . p i t . , v o l . 1 , p . 6 .

122.

s h ip ; and he p ro p o se d to s tu d y know ledge a s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , b ased on th e " g u id in g th r e a d o f th e c a t e g o r i e s . " ^ I f , th e n , th e s o u l i s n o t a n i s o l a b l e s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e , e n dowed w ith f a c u l t i e s w hich a r e " m y s te rio u s e n t i t i e s c o n jo in e d to i t " , how s h a l l i t be d e f in e d ?

10

R e n o u v ie r makes t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n te rm s o f a

q u a s i- e v o lu tio n is m m o d ifie d by a d o c t r i n e o f s p o n ta n e ity b a se d on h i s atom ism and p l u r a l i s m .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, th e e v o l u tio n a r y seq u en ce i s n o t

n e c e s s a r i l y o r m e c h a n i s t i c a l l y d e te rm in e d , b u t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d qy th e em ergence o f new phenom ena i n e x p l i c a b l e i n te rm s o f o t h e r , s im p le r pheno­ m ena.

T h is i s an e x p r e s s d e n i a l o f

th e S c h o la s tic p r in c ip le th a t th e re

mut n o t be more i n th e e f f e c t th a n t h e r e i s i n th e c a u s e , \ h i c h c u lm in a te d i n th e -^ e ib n iz ia n law o f s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n ,

dn th e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s n o t

a B e rg so n ia n s p o n ta n e i ty , w hich i s e x p r e s s ly th e s p o n ta n e ity o f a s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e ; n o r i s i t co m p arab le to A le x a n d e r 's em erg en t e v o l u tio n , i n w hich a q u a n t i t a t i v e change i s e n v is io n e d a s p r o d u c in g a q u a l i t a t i v e c h a r g e , and l i f e and c o n s c io u s n e s s a r e , a c c o r d in g ly e m erg en t q u a l i t i e s o f a p r im a l m a t e r i a l s u b s ta n c e .

I t i s th e r e c o g n i t i o n , f i r s t , t h a t a n u n b ro k e n , n e c e s -

a i y , and s u f f i c i e n t c a u s a l c h a i n , e i t h e r m a t e r i a l o r s p i r i t u a l ,

in v o lv e s

n o t o n ly th e i n v i d io u s d o c t r i n e o f s u b s ta n c e , b u t an i n f i n i t e c a u s a l r e ­ g r e s s v iiic h c o n t r a d i c t s th e law o f num ber; a n d , seco n d , t h a t d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n n a t u r e p r o v id e th e o n ly e s c a p e from su ch r e g r e s s .

^■‘•bid.. vol. 1, pp. 12 and ff. 12 Ibid.. vol. 1, passim.

C a u s a l ity h o ld s w ith -

i n a f i n i t e se q u e n c e , su ch a s th e h i e r a r c h y o f in a n im a te o b j e c t s , o f l i v i n g o rg a n is m s, and o f c o n s c io u s l i v i n g o rg a n ism s; b u t f r e e a c t s a r e th e b e g in n in g s o f s e r i e s .

Thus, v ir ile d ie vo r i d m a n if e s ts th e i n c r e a s ­

in g c o m p le x ity o f phenom ena, a n d , i n th e c o u rs e

cf t h i s , th e n e rv o u s

I

sy stem d e v e lo p s , th e em ergence o f th e n e rv o u s sy stem i s a f r e e a c t , and th e b e g in n in g o f a c a u s a l s e r i e s , n o t t r a c e a b l e backw ards i n any p r e v io u s s e r i e s n o r e x p l ic a b l e in i t s te rm s .

The e x i s t e n c e o f su ch freedom i s

g u a ra n te e d by th e fu n d a m e n ta l atom ism o f th e u n iv e r s e w hich was th e con­ c l u s i o n o f th e L o g ic . ^ The s o u l, o r p e r s o n a l i t y — th e i n d i v id u a l — th e n , i s a phenomenon b o rn o f th e u n io n o f e v o lu tio n a r y c a u s a l i t y and s p o n ta n e i ty , o r freedom — a p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s w hich in c lu d e s a w a re n e s s o f them , and n o t m ere u n c o n s c io u s e x p r e s s io n of th e la w s o f re la tio n s h ip . th e c a t e g o r i e s .

The a n a l y s i s o f t h e f u n c ti o n s o f man m u st be i n te rm s o f T h a t i s , i t m u st be a d is c u s s io n o f th e n a t u r e o f th e

c a t e g o r i e s a s th e y a r e m a n if e s te d i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r com plex o f t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s w hich i s man.

The c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n i n man i s th e

f u n c ti o n o f co m p ariso n ; t h a t o f num ber, c o u n tin g ; t h a t o f p o s i t i o n , im a g in a ­ t i o n ; t h a t o f s u c c e s s io n , memory and a n t i c i p a t o n ; th a t o f becom ing, c h a rg e ; t h a t o f q u a l i t y , re a s o n ; t h a t o f c a u s a l i t y , w i l l ; t h a t o f t e l e o l o g y , e m o tio n ; w h ile p e r s o n a l i t y i s th e s y n th e s is o f a l l th e c a t e g o r i e s i n human t e r m s . ^

^ ■ ‘• b id . . v o l . 1 , p p . 12 and f f .

12

£bid., vol. 1, paBsim.

C om parison i n man i s th e c a te g o r y o f r e l a t i o n i n a c t i o n , and i t i s t h e i r r e d u c i b l e minimum p r e r e q u i s i t e of th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f K now ledge, s in c e

i t w ould be m a n if e s tly im p o s s ib le to make any o r g a n iz a ­

t i o n o f e x p e r ie n c e w ith o u t a p p ly in g th e la w s o f i d e n t i t y , c o n tra d ic tio n , and e x c lu d e d m id d le to th e o b j e c t .

The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g o f th e o b j e c t - i n ­

v o lv e s th e tw in p r o c e s s e s o f a n a l y s i s an d s y h t h e s i s by w hich a l l know ledge p ro c e e d s .^

T h is d e f i n i t i o n h o ld s th r o u g h o u t th e a n a ly sis; each o f th e

e i g h t f u n c ti o n s w hich R en o u v ier d i s t i n g u i s h e s i s h e l d by him to be i t s c o rre s p o n d in g c a te g o r y i n a c t i o n ; w h ile p e r s o n a l i t y i s the c o n c r e te , a c t i v e , dynam ic e x p r e s s io n o f a l l th e o t h e r e i g h t c a te g o rie s .

» e r e , a g a in ,

we f i n d f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r th e s u g g e s tio n p r e v io u s ly ad u m b rated t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s th e r e a l m a s te r c a te g o r y .

R e la tio n may be th e m ost

fu n d a m e n ta l, b u t p e r s o n a l i t y i s th e m o st i n c l u s i v e and r e p r e s e n t s th e u l t i m a t e , e x p e r ie n c e a b le c o m p le x ity o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n th e b u il d in g up o f th e c a te g o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y , R en o u v ier i s a t some p a i n s , an d t h i s h a s v i t a l im p l i c a t i o n s i n h i s a n a l y s i s , to e s t a b l i s h th e d i s c o n t i n u i t y , th e d i s t i n c t i o n , betw een man and a n im a ls . T h is lie s , a s h e s e e s i t ,

i n th e i n c a p a c i t y o f t h e an im a l

to g e n e r a l i z e ,

w hich c a r r i e s wifia i t a s a c o r o l l a r y th e i n a b i l i t y to p ro d u c e la n g u a g e . A n im a ls, h e m a in ta in s , a n a ly z e s p e c i f i c e x p e r ie n c e s , b u t a r e a b le to make no o v e r - a l l s y n t h e s i s o f a l l e x p e r ie n c e s o f a common ty p e w h ich p e r m its

13

I b i d . , v o l. 1 . p p . 64.-5.

, A lso T r a i t e de L o eiq u e G e n e r a le . v o l , 1 , p . 1 .

125.

o f a b s t r a c t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ,

i t , t h e r e f o r e , fo llo w s t h a t a g en u in e

g ra s p o f r e l a t i o n s a s c o n s t a n t phenomena i s im p o s s ib le to th e a n im a l, who ta k e s e x p e r ie n c e a s d i s c r e t e and p ie c e m e a l, and i s in c a p a b le o f th e a b s t r a c t i o n s w hich a r e in v o lv e d i n a g e n u in e o r g a n iz a ti o n o f e ^ p a ie n c e i n t o k n o w le d g e .^

T h is s u p p l i e s b o th to co m p ariso n a s th e c a te g o r y o f

r e l a t i o n i n a c t i o n and t o re a s o n a s t h e c a te g o r y o f q u a l i t y in a c tio n * i n o t h e r w o rd s, i t d e p r iv e s th e a n im a ls o f th e f a c u l t i e s o f a n a l y s i s and s y n th e s is and o f d e d u c tiv e l o g i c . T h is p o i n t i s v i t a l to w hat may be c a l l e d R e n o u v ie r1s v o lu n t a r i s t i c e p is te m o lo g y , s in c e i t c o n f in e s the a c t cf w i l l w hich m akes th e c a t e g o r i c a l p ro p o s itio n t o th e humaa a n im a l a lo n e .

S in c e man a lo n e i s con­

s c io u s

o f th e m e e tin g o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n h im s e lf an d o f t h e i r a p p l ic a ­

b ility

to h i s e x p e r ie n c e , a l l o t h e r a n im a ls ta k in g phenomena one by one

w ith o u t r e c o g n i tio n o f th e g e n e r a l law s w hich i n v a r i a b l y accom pany them , man a lo n e i s c a p a b le o f th e a c t o f v o l i t i o n w hich e v e n tu a te s i n c e r t a i n t y and K now ledge.

Man a lo n e can s e l e c t a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n e x p e r ie n c e ty

m eans o f w hich e x p e r ie n c e can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a s y s te m a tic w hole w hich m ore n e a r l y a p p ro a c h e s th e u n a t t a i n a b l e t o t a l s y n t h e s i s a s th e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f th e

i n d i v i d u a l an d th e fu n d ed wisdom o f th e r a c e I t f o ll o w s , th e n , t h a t w i l l

d e v e lo p s .

i s th e fu n d a m a a ta l human fu n ctio n .

Whule th e a n im a l a c t s s p o n ta n e o u s ly i n th e s e n s e t h a t h e a c t s a c c i d e n t a l l y

^Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 65 and ff. and pp. 119 and ff.

o r f o r t u i t o u s l y , h e " v i s i b l y l a c k s th e r e f l e c t i v e s p o n ta n e ity w hich i s a c o n c o m ita n t o f a c l e a r a w a re n e ss o f th e a b i l i t y to o r g a n iz e o n e 's own e x p e r ie n c e s ." ^

i t i s t h i s r a t i o n a l w i l l w hich c h a r a c t e r i z e s th e human

b e in g , and i s t h e s o u rc e a l i k e o r h i s know ledge and h i s m o ra l ju d g m e n ts , t h a t i s , a s p o n ta n e ity n o t m e re ly u n c o n d itio n e d , b u t conditioned by an a w a re n e s s o f th e la w s im m anent in- a l l e x p e r ie n c e by v i r t u e o f an a w a re n e s s o f them i n th e s e l f ; i n o t h e r w o rd s, co n d itio n ed by a c lu e to th e l a b y r i n t h o f e x p e r ie n c e g iv e n i n i n t r o s p e c t i o n .

-t-t i s f o r t h i s re a s o n t h a t R en o u v ie r

i n s i s t s t h a t th e w i l l i s in s e p a r a b le from i n t e l l i g e n c e .

" S e p a ra te d from

i n t e l l i g e n c e , freedom i s n o th in g more th a n ’ih a z a rd , c a p r i c e , a n d i r r a t b n a lity ." ^

d n le sS v o lu n ta r y a c t i o n c o rre s p o n d s to th e f i n d i n g s o f ju d g ­

m e n t, man h a s c e a s e d to be r e a s o n a b le and d e g e n e r a te d to aa a n im a l l e v e l . G iven w hat i n t e l l i g e n c e r e c o g n iz e s a s th e same c ir c u m s ta n c e s , freedom m u st d i c t a t e th e same r e s p o n s e s .

S in c e t h e w i l l i s a r e l a t i b n s h i p d e t e r ­

m ined by th e s i t u a t i o n w hich p ro m p ts i t ,

th e w i l l i s r a t i o n a l , o th e rw is e

th e r e w culd be no law o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p d e f in e d by the w i l l . - ^ T h ere i s no m o ra l l i f e and no s c ie n c e wiftiout th e r a t i o n a l w i l l .

15

. •‘• b id . . v o l . 2 , p . 33 7 . 16 , S e a i l l e s , o p . c i t . , p . 19 5 . 17 S in c e th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f K e n o u v ie r 's c o n c e p t o f law h av e a lr e a d y been c o n s id e r e d i n d e t a i l , no f u r t h e r comments w i l l be made a t t h i s tim e , bub th e e x p o s it io n u n d e r ta k e n g r a n ti n g him h i s p r e m is e s .

R e a c tin g t o a c o n t e x t i n w hich t h e s t a t i c c a t e g o r i e s ( R e l a tio n , Number, S u c c e s s io n , P o s i t i o n , and Q u a lity ) a r e p r i n c i p a l l y in v o lv e d , t h e v o lu n ta r y a c t o f b e l i e f w h ich , whoa v e r i f i e d , c o n s t i t u t e s c e r t a i n t y , e v e n tu a te s in s c ie n c e ; r e a c t i n g to a c o n te x t in v o lv in g p r i n c i p a l l y th e dynam ic c a t e g o r i e s (B ecom ing, C a u s a l i t y , T e l e o lo g y ; , th e outcom e i s m o r a l i t y .

I n o t h e r w o ra s,

th e a c t o f w i l l w hich d e tr r m in e s w h a t i s y i e l d s s c ie n c e ; t h a t w hich d e te r m in e s w h at i s d e s i r e d , m o r a l i t y . I t i s , m o re o v e r, t h e i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y o f freedom i n th e m o ra l o r d e r w hich i s th e g u a r a n te e t h a t t h i s a c t o f w i l l i s in d e e d f r e e , i 'l o r a l i t y i s a u n iq u e ly human a t t r i b u t e , and t h e r e i s no m o ra l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w ith o u t freed o m .

How, th e n , can we be a s s u r e d t h a t t h i s freed o m in d e e d e x i s t s ,

t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s a c t s h a s n o t been im p u ted to a h e l p l e s s a u to ­ m a to n '

i t i s , a m a z in g ly , i n th e re a lm o f t r u t h and f a ls e h o o d , n o t o f

r i g h t and w rong, t h a t R en o u v ie r f i n d s th e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f freed o m . a sy stem o f n e c e s s i t y , e r r o r

"In

i s n e c e s s a r y ; u n d e r a sy stem o f freed o m ,

e r r o r d ep en d s upon ju d g m en ts w hich can alw ay s be s u sp e n d e d , an d so a r e i n no s e n s e f a t a l . "

18

N e c e s s ity f o r c e s u s i n t o e r r o r ; freed o m e n a b le s u s to

f i n d t r u t h by t r i a l and e r r o r . ' Human b e in g s g r a d u a l ly a t t a i n th e v i s i o n o f t r u t h , w h ich th e y b e a r i n p o t e n t i a l i t y w i t h i n th e m s e lv e s ( a s the c a t e g o r i e s ) , a n d th e e s s e n t i a l e le m e n ts o f ihLch th e y c a n g r a s p c o m p le te ly i n tim e , by d o u b tin g when n e c e s s a r y , by a f f ir m in g to th e d e g re e a u th o r i z e d by t h e i r know ledge w hich h a s been v e r i f i e d and observed, i n p u r i t y o f h e a r t and freed o m o f s p i r i t . ^9

• ^ • R e n o u v ie r , T r a i t e de R s v c h o lo g ie R a t i o n n e l l e . v o l . 2 , p . 92 19 Ibid.. vol. 2, p. 93, parentheses mine.

The w i l l i s f r e e o n two c o u n ts : b e c a u se i t i s n o t c a u s a l ly c o n d itio n e d a n a b eca u se c e r t a i n t y p re s u p p o s e d a f r e e a c t o f w i l l . The f i r s t i s r e m in is c e n t cf R a n t, in c o n c lu s io n , b u t n o t in th e arg u m en t by w hich i t i s d e v e lo p e d .

I n R a n t, freedom i s e s t a b l i s h e d in t h a t th e w i l l , b ein g

s e l f - l e g i s l a t i v e th ro u g h i t s own c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e , c a n n o t be s u b j e c t to th e e m p ir ic a l law o f c a u s a l i t y .

K en o u v ier, h a v in g e lim in a te d noumena,

m ust f i n d a phenom enal j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f freed o m , w hich he d o es i n h i s con­ c e p t o f th e n a t u r e o f c a u s a l i t y .

S in c e c a u s a l i t y i s n o t n e c e s s a r y , b u t

m e re ly a r e l a t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y te m p o ra l, u n cau sed phenomena a r e p o s s i b l e , and the w i l l c o n s t i t u t e s one such u n cau sed phenomenon. many s o r t s o f f r e e a c t s which may b e g in a s e r i e s .

I t i s one o f th e

The seco n d i s th e

e x p l i c i t d ev elo p m en t o f th e d is tin c tio n betw een man and a n im a ls , i n th a t i t in v o lv e s th e e x p r e s s s ta te m e n t t h a t c e r t a i n t y , o r t r u t h , a r i s e s , a s h a s been p r e v io u s ly i n d i c a t e d , from th e r e c o g n i tio n o f th e c o rre s p o n d e n c e be­ tw een th e o b j e c t o r s i t u a t i o n and the c a te g o ry o f la w .

The r e f l e c t i v e

judgm ent by w hich th e p a r t i c u l a r i s subsumed u n d e r t i e la w , th e c a t e g o r i ­ c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , r e q u i r e s a f r e e a c t o f w i l l i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f th e c a t e ­ g o ry and i n th e t e s t i n g o f the c o r r e c t n e s s o f th e s e l e c t i o n ,

m o reo v e r,

th e judgm ent m u st be f r e e t o c o r r e c t e r r o r s in c a t e g o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s , w hich would be im p o s s ib le w ith o u t freed o m .

I t , t h e r e f o r e , fo llo w s t h a t

freedom i s p r e s e n t in e v e ry r e f l e c t i v e ju d g m en t and t h a t i t i s th e con­ d i t i o n o f c e r t a i n t y b e c a u se c e r t a i n t y p re p u p p o s e s a f r e e a c t o f w i l l .

T h is p o s i t i o n le a d s to a dilem m a: lh e c o n c e p t o f freedom i s b ased o n o u r know ledge o f .law . b u r know ledge o f law i s th e r e s u l t o f an a c t of f r e e w i l l . I n o t h e r w o rd s, b eca u se we know th e law and know we can a p p ly t h e la w , we know we a r e f r e e ; y e t we s e l e c t e d and a p p lie d th e law by a n a c t o f w i l l , and what g u a r a n te e h av e we th a t th e a c t i o n was l e g iti m a te ? K en o u v ier s o lv e s t h i s by a p p e a lin g t o h i s m o d if ic a tio n o f th e c o rre s p o n d e n c e th e o ry o f t r u t h p r e v io u s ly expounded.

I n h i s v ie w ,

th e th e o ry d o es n o t a p p ly to o b j e c t s in d e p e n d e n t o f s u b j e c t s .

I n o th e r

w o rd s, " ' I am w r i t i n 6 on a t y p e w r i t e r 1 i s tr u e i f I am w r i t i n g on a ty p e w r it e r " i s a m e a n in g le s s h a l f - t r u t h , s in c e th e s u b j e c t i s s e p a r a t e d from th e o b j e c t . T hought can be t e s t e d o n ly hy th e la w s o f th o u g h t. T h a t i s , " I am w r iti n g on th e ty p e w r it e r " i s t r u e i f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w r i t i r g

is

i n a c c o r d w ith t h e c a te g o r y or c a t e g o r i e s by w hich I ( a s x n o w er, n o t a s w r i t e r ) d e f in e su ch r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t f o llo w s t h a t e v id e n c e and b e l i e f a r e c o r r e h t i v e s , i n t h a t th e same f r e e a c t w h ich s e l e c t s th e la w , s e l e c t s th e e v id e n c e w hich j u s t i f i e s th e c h o ic e .

T h ere i s a t th e b a s i s o f a l l b e l i e f a t l e a s t a

p o s s i b l e d o u b t, w hich makes know ledge c o r r i g i b l e and p e r m its th e f r e e e x e r c i s e o f v o lu n ta r y b e l i e f in a r r i v i n g a t a c l o s e r a p p ro x im a tio n of t r u t h . T h e r e f o re ,

ig n o ra n c e

i s sim p ly n e g l e c t o f a p ro b lem , w ill in g n e s s

t o r e s t w ith an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n r a t h e r th a n make th e e f f o r t r e ­ q u ir e d t o r e s o lv e th e l i n g e r i n g d o u b ts by f u r t h e r in v e s tig a tio n . C e r t a i n t y ,

i n t h i s v ie w , becom es a b e l i e f s t r i c t l y

r e l a t i v e to th e b e l i e v e r j f u r t h e r ,

i t i s a dynam ic t h i n g w h ich r e a l i z e s i t s e l f i n p r o p o r ti o n to th e en erg y and i n t e g r i t y o f th e b e l i e v e r . The r e d u c t io n o f c e r t a i n t y t o i n d i v i d u a l i t y and b e l i e f c r e a t e s an i n t o l e r a b l e m o ral s i t u a t i o n fo r th e a v e ra g e man, who i s e q u a l ly la c K in g i n e n e rg y , k n o w led g e, an d g e n u in e i n s p i r a t i o n . The p h il o s o p h e r , th e r e v e l a t o r h im s e lf , a t th e o t h e r e x tre m e , a lo n e and w ith d i f f i c u l t y s u s t a i n s h im s e lf i n th e c o n v i c tio n o r th e f a i t h w hicn i s r e q u i r e d . I n d i v i d u a l c e r t a i n t y , o f n e c e s s i t y , demands a c o n t r a c t . 20 T h ere a r e two s o r t s o f p o s s i b l e c o n t r a c t : th e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t ( th e a c c e p ta n c e o f a u t h o r i t y ) and th e p e r s o n a l c o n t r a c t , opposed to th e f i r s t , w hich i s a c o n t r a c t o f a man w ita h im s e lf t o make a f r e e c h o ic e of t r u t h . I n o t h e r w o rd s, c e r t a i n t y i s a c o n t r a c t o f a man w ith h im s e lf to e x e r t th e i n t e l l i g e n c e and e f f o r t r e q u ir e d to c o n tin u e to c o r r e c t h i s ju d g m en ts u n t i l th e y conform to t h e e v id e n c e , i n s p i t e o f t h e te m p ta tio n to r e s t i n a c c e p t ­ ed h a l f - t r u t h s . I m p l i c i t i n th e s e p ro n o u n cem en ts i s an a lm o s t P e i r c e i a n c o n c e p t, o f a b s o lu t e t r u t h se em in g ly in a d m is s ib le

on R e n o u v ie r 's p r e m is e s . The

e n t i r e p o s i t i o n i s r e m in is c e n t o f P e i r c e 's s ta te m e n t T h at b e l i e f m ust be b a se d on th e s c i e n t i f i c m ethod o f t r u t h - s e e k i n g , w hich c o n s i s t s i n p ro ­ c e e d in g from th e known t o t h e unknown by su ch a r o u te t h a t " th e u l t i m a t e c o n c lu s io n o f e v e ry man s h a l l be th e sam e."

Were n o t some such c o n c e p t of

a g e n u in e t r u t h w hich c o u ld be re a c h e d by t r y i n g and sh o u ld be th e u ltin a te g o a l o f e v e ry i n v e s t i g a t o r i m p l i c i t h e r e , th e p e r s o n a l c o n t r a c t w ould be

20

i b i d . , v o l. 2 , p . 351.

p o i n t l e s s , s in c e e v e ry common man’ s u n c o n s id e re d jud g m en t w>uld be good enoug h .

How, th e n , w ith o u t s u b s ta n c e , n e c e s s i t y , o r r e a l c o n t i n u i t y , can

su ch a t r u t h be p o s i t e d ^

P e ir c e h a s a d o c t r i n e o f r e a l c o n t i n u i t y i n

h i s p r i n c i p l e o f sy n e c h ism , b u t su ch a view i s e x p r e s s ly r e p u d ia te d by R e n o u v ie r' s atom ism . R en o u v ie r w ould p r o b a b ly r e p ly t h a t , s in c e th e c a t e g o r i e s a r e c o n s ta n t phenom ena, and man i s th e m e e tin g p l a c e o f a l l th e c a t e g o r i e s — th e m icrocosm — t h e c a t e g o r i e s m u st be a l i k e i n a l l maa a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e w ould h av e t o be p u b li c a g re e m e n t, upon p u b li c v e r i f i c a t i o n , a s to th e v a l i d i t y o f c a t e g o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s .

The d i f f i c u l t y o f t h i s p o s i t i o n

l i e s i n th e in a d e q u a te p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n a l r e a d y to u c h e d u p o n . As R e n o u v ie r s e e s i t , memory i s th e p r i n c i p l e o f th e c o n t i n u i t y o f th e s e l f an d memory i s th e c a te g o ry o f s u c c e s s io n i n actio n .

T hat i s , i t i s

th e te m p o ra l n e x u s o f s u c c e s s iv e e v e n ts in v o lv in g th e s e l f w hich p r o v id e s i t s p erm an en ce.

The o b j e c t i o n s to t h i s h av e a lr e a d y been d is c u s s e d . The

c a t e g o r i e s a r e common t o a l l men, and t o th e e x t e r n a l w o rld a l i k e , and so i n t e g r a t e man i n t o h i s e n v iro n m e n t,

h o w ev er, memory would n o t s e r v e

a s a p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y w ere i t n o t t h a t man i s endowed wifo th e pow er o f d e f in i n g h im s e lf a t a g iv a a moment o f tim e i n te rm s o f th e c a t e ­ g o r i e s o f w hich h e i s c o n s c io u s w ilh in h im s e lf .

I n o t h e r wands> memory

w ould h av e n o th in g t o c o n n e c t d id n o t th e c a t e g o r i e s d e f in e t h e i n d i v i d u a l by t h e i r i n t e r s e c t i o n i n him a t one tim e and p l a c e .

21

The d i f f i c u l t i e s

o f t h i s h av e been d is c u s s e d i n th e g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , and w i l l n o t be r e p e a te d .

A ssum ing, h o w ev er, a s seem a d m is s i b le , th a t

th e p r e v io u s ly d is c u s s e d in a d e q u a c y o f R e n o u v ie r!s p r i n c i p l e o f in d iv u a t i o n i s c o g e n t, no m e e tin g p l a c e o f th e c a t e g o r i e s h a s e v e r been e s t a b l i s h ­ e d , and c e r t a i n l y no g ro u n d h a s been g iv e n f o r assu m in g a f i n i t e m u l t i ­ p l i c i t y o f such m e e tin g p la c e s who c o u lu De i n e m p ir ic a l a g re e m e n t a b o u t t h e i r a p p lic a tio n . ■•■t w ould, t h e r e f o r e , seem t h a t R en o u v ier h a s h e r e assum ed th e e x i s t e n c e o f an o b j e c t i v e t n r t h to w hicn h e i s n o t e n t i t l e d .

I t w i l l be

n o te d i n w hat fo llo w s t h a t h e h a s d e a l t somewhat s i m i l a r l y w ith th e m o ra l law . The view o f freed o m h e r e expounded g iv e s R en o u v ier an e x tre m e­ l y i n t e r e s t i n g p h ilo s o p h y o f h i s t o r y , w hich w i l l be t r e a t e d a t le n g th in a n o th e r p l a c e , and i s n o t i c e d h e r e o n ly b e c a u se o f i t s e th ic s .

b e a rin g upon h i s

P u r s u a n t to h i s d o c t r i n e o f s p o n ta n e ity and freed o m , h e r e g a rd s

h i s t o r y a s a s e r i e s o f g e n u in e a l t e r n a t i v e s , and so th e r e c o r d o f th e .c h o ic e s o f m o ra l a g e n t s ,

h i s t o r i c a l c a u s a l i t y , a t l e a s t o f th e d e t e r ­

m i n i s t i c v a r i e t y , i s r e g a rd e d by him a s a p e r n ic io u s e r r o r , e s p e c i a l l y i n s o f a r a s i t r e l i e v e s man o f m o ra l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

In f a c t , he sees

h i s t o r y a s h v in g done two in e s tim a b le s e r v i c e s to e t h i c s :

(1 ) d is p ro v e d

f a t a l i s t i c t h e o r i e s o f p r o g r e s s , an d v e r i f i e d f r e e w i l l by th e f a c t o f i t s v i c i s s i t u d e s ; and (2) shown freedom o f c h o ic e , and good and e v i l a s v a l i d a l t e r n a t i v e s , th u s m aking w hat i s and w h at o u g h t t o be a l i k e p o s s i b le w ith o u t c o n t r a d i t i o n . I m p l i c i t h e r e , b e s id e s th e e x p re s s e d d o c t r i n e of freed o m , i s

a c o n c e p t o f o b j e c t i v e good and e v i l a n a lo g o u s to th e p r e v io u s l y m e n tio n ­ ed c o n c e p t o f o b j e c t i v e t r u t h . R en o u v ier f e e l s j u s t i f i e d in a d o p tin g t h i s p o s i t i o n i n t h a t h e a s s e r t s t h a t , i f e v e r y judgm ent w hich g o es oeyond th e im m ed iate phenomenon i s a v o lu n ta r y b e l i e f , th e n t h e r e a r e m o ra l t r u t h s . T h is seem s t o mean t h a t a l l c a t e g o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e a c t s of w i l l ; h e n c e , a m o ra l ju d g m en t d o e s n o t d i f f e r i n k in d from a d e s c r i p t i v e ju d g ­ m e n t.

T h e re fo r? , i f t r u t h can c o r r e c t l y be a s c r i b e d to d e s c r i p t i v e ju d g ­

m e n ts , i t c a n w ith e q u a l p r o p r i e t y be a s c r i b e d t o m o ra l ju d g m e n ts .

It

f o llo w s , th e n , a lth o u g h m o r a l it y i s a n o rm a tiv e s c ie n c e , t h a t i t s h a r e s w ith th e d e s c r i p t i v e s c ie n c e s th e n e c e s s i t y cf a n a b s t r a c t g ro u n d , t h a t i s , o f th e la w s o r c a t e g o r i e s u n d e r w hich i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s m u st be subsum ed. M o ra lity p u t s t o work th e c a t e g o r i e s o f c a u s a l i t y , t e l e o l o g y , and p e r s o n a l i t y .

T h a t i s , i t in v o l v e s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f th e e n t i r e

p e r s o n a l i t y to i t s m eans and e n d s .

I t i s a q u e s tio n o f a com mitment to

o b ta in by e f f o r t and p e r s o n a l Idx>r an e x e r c is e o f freed o m .

The a n a lo g y

o f t h i s to t h e p e r s o n a l c o n t r a c t ty w hich c e r t a i n t y i s a r r i v e d a t , i s c le a r,

f l o r a l r e c t i t u d e a g a in in v o lv e d th e p e r s e v e r a n c e to c o r r e c t m o ral

ju d g m e n ts , to l e a r n by t r i a l and e r r o r , to seek m o ra l t r u t h i n e x a c tly th e same m anner a s man s e e k s s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h .

F u r th e r , m o ra l

t r u t h i s v e r i f i e d , l i k e s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h , Cry th e t e s t o f w o r k a b i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e . re a s o n and b e l i e v e s h im s e lf f r e e .

Man i s endowed w ith

The em o tio n s p r o v id e him w ith g o a l s .

The g o a l s a r e p l u r a l and o p p o sin g ; h e n c e , c h o ic e i s n e c e s s a r y .

M o r a lity

a p p e a r s i n th e c o n f l i c t o f th e c h o ic e o f o p p o sin g g o a l s , th e pow er o f m aking such a c h o ic e . h im s e lf , t h a t i s , m aking c h o ic e s ,

Man i s

i t o o n s is ts in

u n d e r ih e n e c e s s i t y o f o r d e r in g

h e h a s th e pow er o f c h o o sin g th e o e t t e r .

T h is i s g i o r a l i t y b ased o n e m p ir ic a l ju d g m en ts th ro u g h t h e c a te g o r y o f t e l e o l o g y , t h a t i s , th e s e l e c t i o n from c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s .

T h i s p u r e ly

e m p ir ic a l a n a l y s i s of t h e moraL law i s , ho H ev er, c o m p le te ly bound up w ith th e a d a p t a t i o n o f th e K a n tia n c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e . The K a n tia n m o ra l law i s s t r i c t l u n o n - e m p ir ic a l; a fo rm a l maxim u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e , g iv e n empty o f c o n te n t in d e p e n d e n tly o f e x p e r ie n c e to be u s e d f o r th e o r d e r in g o f e x p e r ie n c e i n p r a c t i c a l r e a lm s .

R e n o u v ie r’ s

a n a l y s i s i s i n e m p ir ic a l te rm s o f e m o tio n a lly a e f i n e d g o a ls and e m p ir ic a lly a s c e r t a i n e d m eans, s e l e c t e d by a p r o c e s s o f t r i a l and e r r o r .

Upon t h i s

i s su p erim p o sed th e K a n tia n c o n c e p t o f a m o ra l law u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e and i d e n t i c a l i n a l l men, a l b e i t n o t a. p r i o r i .

T h is is done by means o f

th e c o n c e p t cf d u ty , which R en o u v ie r l i n k s w ith t h a t o f p u rp o s e .

I n o th e r

w o rd s, th e g u id e f o r t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n betw een g o a ls i s t h i s c o n c e p t o f d u ty ; we a s s o c i a t e t i e

id e a o f an u n c o n d itio n e d " o u g h t" w ith th e e m p ir ic a lly

s e l e c t e d b e t t e r , th u s t r a n s l a t i n g ex p e d ie n c y i n t o o b l i g a t i o n . By w h at r i g h t , th e n , th e c o n c e p t o f d u ty i s dubbed a c a t e ­ g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e i s d u b io u s . In K a n t, th e d e s ig n a t io n i s j u s t i f i e d on two c o u n ts : i t i s c a t e g o r i c a l i n t h a t i t i s

th e a p r i o r i form o f th e w i l l ,

a s th e c a t e g o r i e s a r e cf th e u n d e r s ta n d in g ; f u r t h e r , i t i s c a t e g o r i c a l i n

th e s e n s e o f u n q u a l i f i e d , u n i v e r s a l . and d o e s n o t , a c c e p t i t , an s i c h .

I n th e f i r s t s e n s q , R en o u v ie r c a n n o t,

s in c e a l l a p r io r is m h a s d e p a r te d w ith t h e d in g

The seco n d s e n s e sh o u ld h a v e d e p a r te d w ith n e c e s s i t y and r e a l

c o n t i n u i t y , and can be j u s t i f i e d o n ly a s was s u g g e s te d above i n u n i v e r s a l ­ i z i n g th e d e s c r i p t i v e ju d g m en t, and s u b j e c t to th e same o b j e c t i o n s . R en o u v ier h im s e lf makes no a tte m p t to j u s t i f y i t .

^ e s t a t e s t h a t we n eed

no eaq p lan atio n o f t h i s a s c r i p t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l o b j e c t i v e t r u t h to a s e le c t i o n o f a p r e f e r a b l e c o u rs e o f a c t i o n r e l a t i v e to an i n d i v i d u a l i n a l i m i t e d c o n t e x t; i t i s sim p ly a f a c t . The p o s t u l a t i o n o f th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e on e m p ir ic a l g ro u n d s a lo n e l e a d s R en o u v ier i n t o a f u r t h e r f a l l a c y , i n which h e i s i n th e r e s p e c t a b l e company o f Jo h n S t u a r t M i l l ;

th e f a l i c y o f com position and

d i v i s i o n in v o lv e d i n d e r iv i n g th e s o c i a l gooci by a d d in g up th e goods o f th e in d iv id u a ls .

Two o r more m o ra l a g e n t s , h e h o lu s , can c o n c e iv e o f a common

good b u i l t o f t h e i r com bined g o o a s .

h i s t o r i c a l l y , s in c e K en o u v ier was

w r iti n g b e f o r e S p e n c e r p u b lis h e d h i s o r g a n ic th e o ry o f th e s t a t e , R en o u v ier w ould h av e been a p io n e e r h ad h e d e v is e d any o t h e r e m p ir ic a l c o n c e p t o f th e n a t u r e o f g roup w e lf a r e ; h o w ev er, th e p o s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a r e t r o g r e s s i o n from t h a t o f K a n t, who, g iv e n th e p re m is e o f th e noumenon, can e s t a b l i s h a kingdom cf en d s w ith o u t c o u n tin g n o s e s .

S in c e , h o w ev er, i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y

an e t h i c a l tr u is m t h a t th e a d d i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l goods i s more p r o d u c tiv e o f c o n f l i c t th a n com m unity, i t can h a r d ly be s a id the t R en o u v ier h a s made a happy s e l e c t i o n o f m o ra l t r u t h s by h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t r a c t to c o r r e c t h i s f i n d i n g s u n t i l th e y c o in c id e w ith o b j e c t i v e t r u t h a s d e f in e d i n te rm s o f

th e a g ree m en t cf ti e f a c t w i th th e c a te g o r y . On th e b a s i s o f t h i s o s t e n s i b l y e m p ir ic a lly d e r iv e d c a t e g o r i c a l i m p e r a tiv e , R en o u v ier b u ild s an e d i f i c e w hich i s a lm o s t i d e n t i c a l w ith t h a t o f K an t e x c e p t f o r i t s to p s t o r y . I n sum, he s t a t e s t h a t man m u st r e s p e c t h i s own p e rs o n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , th e p e rs o n o f a n o t h e r .

T h is i s t r u e because

tn e common good demands a m u tu a l c o n fid e n c e and e x p e c ta n c y o f c o o p e r a tio n p o s s i b l e o n ly i f th e tw o a g e n ts c o n s ib r th e m s e lv e s a l i k e in k in d o r e q u a l i n d e s e r t , betw een whom an i d e n t i t y i n d iv e rsify and a p o s s i b l e r e v e r s a l o f s itu a tio n s e s ta b lis h e s a b il a te r a l re la tio n s h ip .

22

In th e l i g h t o f t h i s ,

h e makes two f o r m u la tio n s o f th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a ti v e , b o th p a r a p h r a s e s o f K an t: ( l ) A ct alw ay s i n euch a m anner t h a t t h e maxim o f y o u r co n d u c t c o u ld be e r e c t e d by y o u r c o n s c ie n c e i n t o a u n i v e r s a l la w ."

23

( 2 ) "R egard

th e p e rs o n o f a n o th e r a s e q u a l to y o u r own i n n a t u r e and d i g n i t y , a s an end i n i t s e l f a n d , c o n s e q u e n tly , r e f r a i n from u s in g i t a s a m eans to an e n d ." ^

In t h i s p h r a s in g o f th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p erativ e; i n th e a s s e r t i o n

t h a t i t i s a fo rm al p r i n c i p l e ; t h a t t h e a g e n t can e r r i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s ; a n a th a t i t i s a l i k e i n a l l , R en o u v ier sim p ly

22 23

0

S e a i l l e s , o p . p i t . , p p . 2 7 1 -2 .

I b i d . , p . 27-4* c f . "T h at i s to s a y , 1 am n e v e r to a c t o th e rw is e th a n so t h a t I . c o u ld a t th e same tim e w i l l t h a t my m axim s h o u ld become a u n i ­ v e r s a l la w ." K a n t, Im m anuel, The F u n d am en tal P r i n c i p l e o f th e M eta p h y sic o f E t h ic s , t r . O tto M an th ey -Z o rn , hew lo rm , D. A p p le to n -C e n tu iy Company, 1936, p . 17. 24. •‘•b id . . p . 27 3 . c f . "A ct so t h a t i n y o u r own p e rs o n a s w e ll a s in th e p e rs o n o f e v e ry o t h e r you a r e t r e a t i n g mankind alw ay s a s a n e n d , n e v e r m e re ly a s a m e an s." K a n t, o p . c i t . , p . 4 7 .

fo llo w s K a n t.

K a n tia n , a l s o , i s th e s ta te m e n t t h a t th e autonomy o f th e

r a t i o n a l w i l l e x i s t s b e c a u se th e r e a s o n a b le a g e n t f i n d s th e law in him ­ s e l f , and f r e e ; an d f i n d s i t i n a l l o n ly b e c a u se

i t i s in e a c h ,

hove,

a s i n K a n t, i s exem pted from th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e . J u s t i c e i s h e l d to be b e t t e r th a n lo v e b e c a u s e lo v e i s n o t alw ay s s in c e r e ; i t may be s e l f lo v e o r h y p o c r is y .

R en o u v ier d e p a r t s from K an t, h ow ever, i n th e a s s e r t i o n

t h a t t h e r e i s no f i n a l p u rp o se o f a c h ie v e d p e r f e c t i o n , b e c a u se no t o t a l s y n th e s is i s p o s s ib le .

In o t h e r w o ra s, th e g o a ls d i c t a t e d by th e c a t e ­

gory cf te le o lo g y a r e f i n i t e g o a l s i n f i n i t e c o n t e x ts , i n s o l a b l e from o th e r g o a l s , b u t n o t from th e common good a s d e f in e d by th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p era­ tiv e .

T h is c o n c e p t o f th e common good a s a r e g u l a t i v e p r i n c i p l e i s a l l i e d

w ith th e a d a p t a ti o n o f the K e ib n iz ia n p r i n c i p l e o f harm ony, an a i s n o t to be ta k e n a s in te n d e d t o c o n t r a d i c t th e a s s e r t i o n t h a t th e r e i s no t o t a l s y n th e s is .

I n o t h e r w o rd s, i t i s n o t e n v is a g e d a s a K a n tia n kingdom

o f e n d s , b u t an a l l - p e r v a d i n g co m ity r e g u l a t i n g th e s e l e c t i o n of f i n i t e g o a ls i n t h a t i t i n t e r d i c t s c e r t a i n o f them a s a t v a r ia n c e wiia i t . T h at not i s , an a l t e r n a t i v e i s s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e /e v e ry o n e a c t u a l l y e v e r w i l l do i t . The p e c u l ia r

f u s io n o f th e b o rro w in g s from K ant and u e ib n iz o c c u rs

i n th e t r e a t m e n t a c c o rd e d th e K a n tia n p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c t i c a l re a s o n , w hich R en o u v ie r h a s a d o p te d u n d e r th e name o f m oral p r o b a b i l i t y , th e t h i r d a s p e c t o f h i s p s y c h o lo g y ,

m o ra l p r o b a b i l i t y d e a l s w ith th e b e l i e f s

we a r e e n t i t l e d to h o ld by v i r t u e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f th e m o ral la w . T hese f a l l i n t o two c l a s s e s : th e n a t u r e o f th e in d id d u a l and th e c o n q e p t

o f th e u n i v e r s e . 25

T h ese, o b v io u s ly , c o rre s p o n d t o t h e K a n tia n c o n c e p ts

o f freedom an d im m o r ta lity , and i t i s i n d e r iv i n g h i s own v e r s io n o f im ­ m o r t a l i t y t h a t R en o u v ie r makes h i s d e p r e d a tio n s upon L e ib n iz . He u n d e r ta k e s f i r s t th e a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a t u r e o f th e i n d i v i d a l . H is d e f i n i t i o n i s b a a e d upon h i s fu n d a m e n ta l p re m ise o f th e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , i n th e l i g h t o f w hich h e h o ld s t h a t th e o n ly p o s s i b l e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f th a n a tu r e o f an in d iv id u a l e n t i t y i s t h a t th e p e r s o n i s h i s a p p e a ra n c e s f o r h im s e lf .

26

C o n sc io u sn e ss a s s u b j e c t p lu s o b j e c t i s

r e a l i t y ; an d b e in g i s g iv e n to u s a s a s o c i e t y o f c o n s c io u s n e s s , c o u r s e , i s th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e L o g ic , r e s t a t e d .

■‘■his, o f

As was ad u m b rated a t

t h a t tim e , i t i s i m p l i c i t l y i d e a l i s t i c , s in c e c o n s c io u s n e s s i s a c t u a l l y g iv e n p rim acy o v e r a p p e a ra n c e , ev en th o u g h th e y a r e s a i d t o be i n s e p a r a b l e . T h is was h in t e d a t i n th e H )£ ic when 6. t o t a l s y n th e s is was d e n ie d on th e ground t h a t no c o n s c io u s n e s s e x i s t e d to know i t , i . e . , no i n f i n i t e con­ s c io u s n e s s ; i n o th e r w o rd s, th e in d i s p e n s a b le a s p e c t o f t h e know ing r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p i s th e k n o w er.

I t m ust be p o in t e d o u t t h a t t h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y

o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t i s j u s t a s n e c e s s a r y i n s u b j e c t i v e id e a lis m a s i n n e u t r a l monism, and t h a t such a p rim a c y o f th e know er a s A p n o u v ier im­ p l i c i t l y te n d s to w a rd i s r a t h e r t h e p o s i t i o n to w hich he o b je c te d t h a t a p p e a ra n c e s a r e a p p e a ra n c e s f o r a know er th a n a g e n u in e ly n e u t r a l p o s i -

25

R e n o u v ie r, P s y c h o lo g ie K a t i o n n e l l e . v o l . 2 , p p . 2 0 6- a n a f f .

26 R e n o u v ie r, L es p r i n c i p e s de l a M a tu re , A a r is , L i b r a i r i e Armarui C o li n , 1912, p . i ; .

139.

t i o n i n w hich th e r e l a t i o n i s p r im a r y ,

it

seems j u s t , ho w ev er, t o adv ance

t h i s c f i t i c i s m , s in c e so much em phasis i s p la ced ^ u p o n c o n s c io u s n e s s i n th is a n a ly s is . T h is s o c i e t y o f c o n s c io u s n e s s e s i s l i k e L e i b n i z 's ^ o n ad o lo g y i n t h a t e a c h c o n s c io u s n e s s i s a r e a l i n d i v i d u a l , th e u l t i m a t e u n i t o f r e a l i t y , i r r e d u c i b l e an d i s o l a t e d , an ato m j b u t u n li k e i t i n t h a t i t i s n o t a s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e .

L e ib n iz d e f i n e s th e monad a s " a sim p le sub­

s ta n c e , w hich e n t e r s i n t o com pounds. By ’ s im p le 1 i s m eant 'v fith o u t p a r t s ’ . S in ce a monad "have no windows’*j

28

eac h i s d i f f e r e n t from e v e ry o t h e r ; and

th e y ch an g e by v i r t u e o f an i n t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e i n a c c o rd a n c o f c o n tin u ity .

w ith th e law

The p a s s in g s t a t e s o f th e monads a r e c a l l e d p e r c e p t i o n s ,

and th e i n t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e by w hich th e y change from one p e r c e p tio n t o a n o th e r i s c a l l e d a p p e t i t i o n .

Thus th e Le i b n i z i a n monad i s e s s e n t i a l l y

I

c h a r a c t e r i z e d by th e two c o n c e p ts r e p u d i a t e d by R en o u v ier — s u b s ta n c e and r e a l c o n t i n u i t y . R en o u v ier a s s e r t s t h a t h i s th e o r y i s a l s o a m onadology, b u t t h a t i t d i f f e r s from t h a t o f L e ib n iz by th e e l im i n a tio n o f th e s e m e ta p h y s i c a l c o n c e p ts .

29

He h a s no o b j e c t i o n to th e ^ e i b n i z i a n c o n c e p ts o f

27 L e ib n iz , o p . c i t . , p . 2 1 7 . 28 I b id .. p . 219. 29 Kenouvier, 0 £. cit.. p. 12.

140

p e r c e p tio n and a p p e t i t i o n , w h ich , i n h i s v ie w , c o rre s p o n d to : h i s c a t e ­ g o r ie s •, b u t r e j e c t s th e n o ti o n t h a t th e monad i s a s u b s ta n c e , s im p le , and w ith o u t e x t e n s i o n .

No e n t i t y can be d iv o r c e d i n h i s v iew from th e

r e la tio n s h ip o f a p p e a ra n c e . a l l th e c a t e g o r i e s .

T h e r e f o r e , a l l e n t i t i e s m ust be s u b j e c t to

S in c e e x te n s io n i n s p a c e i s a c a te g o r y , i t m ust be

an a t t r i b u t e o f a l l e n t i t i e s .

The R e n o u v ie ria n m onad, th e n , i s n o t a

s u b s ta n c e , b u t a " l a w , . . . c o n s t i t u t e d by th e i n t e r n a l ; an d e x t e r n a l r e ­ l a t i o n s demanded by a p p e a r a n c e ." 3^

I n o t h e r w o rd s, i t i s a p o i n t o f i n ­

t e r s e c t i o n o f th e c a t e g o r i e s d e te r m in in g an i n d i v i d u a l .

T h is i s o b v io u s ­

l y i d e n t i c a l w ith th e d e f i n i t i o n o f th e p e r s o n a l i t y o r know er, g iv e n a t th e o u t s e t o f th e 1‘s y c h o lo e y . an d f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e c la im t h a t R e n o u v ie r 's p o s i t i o n i s i n f a c t a s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s m , s in c e i t e q u a te s th e knower w ith t h e t h e u l t i m a t e u n i t o f r e a l i t y .

I t was t h e r e i n d i c a t e d

t h a t t h e know er r e c o g n iz e s th e c a t e g o r i e s a s d e f i n i n g h im s e lf , i . e . , knows h im s e lf , i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f o th e r, o b j e c t s .,

R e n o u v ie r w ould c o u n te r

t h a t th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s e lf-k n o w le d g e i s a s p e c i a l c a s e o f t h e know­ le d g e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n g e n e r a l, i n w hich know er an d known a r e i d e n t i c a l and t h i s i s e x p r e s s ly s t a t e d i n t h e a s s e r t i o n o f P e i r c e t h a t h e was an o b j e c t to n im s e lf j how ever, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s n o t i d e n t i c a l w ith t h a t o f c o n s c io u s n e s s i n g e n e r a l , and such a p o s s i b l e i s o l a t i o n o f th e know er a s a u n iq u e s u b j e c t - p l u s - o b j e c t e n t a i l s th e p o s -

3° I b id .. p . 13.

s i b i l i t y o f i s o l a t i n g him from o th e r o b j e c t s a s a t l e a s t a c l o s e r and more i n d i s s o l u b l e r e l a t i o n th a n o t h e r know ledge r e l a t i o n s .

When t h i s i s

co u p led w ith th e o b j e c t i o n to th e t o t a l s y n th e s is on th e g ro u n d o f th e ab sen ce o f an i n f i n i t e c o n s c io u s n e s s , i t seems d i f f i c u l t t o a v o id th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t th e know er h a s become c e n t r a l and th e p o s i t i o n h a s b e ­ come an id e a lis m . I t th u s seem s t h a t R en o u v ie r h a s abandoned h i s n e u t r a l p o s i ­ t i o n and t a c i t l y acknow ledged th e p rim acy o f c o n s c io u s n e s s ,

how ever, th e

c o n s c io u s n e s s w hich he h a s p o s ite u a r e d i s c r e t e , a to m ic e n t i t i e s and th e p re m is e s o f f i n i t u a e an d freedom p e r m it him no o t h e r s o r t .

I f th e s e h a v e ,

a s th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e i m p l i e s , a common good, how i s i t a r r i v e d a t?

I n f a c t , how i s com m unication p o s s i b l e betw een them i n o r d e r t h a t

th e y may p o o l t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l gouus i n t o a s o c i a l gooa*^ I n o th e r w o rd s, how w o rd s, bow i s : . t h e s o c i e t y o f c o n s c io u s n e s s e s p o s s i b le *

" e i b n i z bad

c o o r d in a te d h i s w in d o w less monads by m eans o f th e p r i n c i p l e s o f p r e e s t a b l i s h e d harm ony, and h e n o u v ie r, f a c e d a l s o w ith th e problem o f com­ m u n ic a tio n , b o ro e s i t from him w ith s u i t a b l e m o d i f ic a t io n s .

n e d e n ie s

t h a t th e p r i n c i p l e o f harmony i s "a b i z a r r e p r o d u c t o f th e im a g in a tio n of n e ib n iz .^ -

i t i s a f a c t o f e x p e r ie n c e , an d th e o n ly m is ta k e s o f L a ib -

n i z was t o im a g in e t h a t i t was p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , w hich e n t a i l e d a l l th e m e ta p h y s ic a l i d o l s o f s u b s ta n c e , n e c e s s i t y , and r e a l c o n t i n u i t y w hich R en o u v ier h a s ab an d o n ed .

L ik e th e c a t e g o r i e s and t h e law o f d u ty , i t i s

a f a c t o f th e u n i v e r s e , r e q u i r i n g no e x p l a n a ti o n s , b u t m e re ly s ta te m e n t. Phenomena i n tim e a r e g iv e n a s c a u s a l ly r e l a t e d , a n d no m e ta p h y s ic a l ex­ p l a n a tio n o f th e s i t u a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y ,

^e n e e d o n ly a c c e p t i t .

I t sh o u ld be n o te d t h a t , a s i n L e ib n iz , a l l e n t i t i e s , n o t m erely c o n s c io u s b e in g s , a r e m onads.

T h is , how ever* w h ile l o g i c a l i n

L e ib n iz , i s a tte n d e d w ith many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n R e n o u v ie r.

L e ib n iz s e e s

no o b je c tio n t o an u n c o n s c io u s monad a n d , a c c e p tin g th e view o f th e monad a s a s u b s ta n c e , t h e r e i s n o n e; h ow ever, i f th e monad i s a p o i n t o f i n t e r ­ s e c ti o n o f th e c a t e g o r i e s , i t f o ll o w s , th e n , a s h a s been i n d i c a t e d , t h a t man i s th e o n ly monad who i s aw are o f t h i s .

x t f o llo w s , th e n , t h a t t h e r e

a r e m onads, i n f a c t , a n overw helm ing m a jo r ity o f th em , w hich do n o t know th e m s e lv e s .

I f th e know ledge r e l a t i o n i s fu n d a m e n ta l, and s u b j e c t and

o b j e c t a r e i n s e p a r a b l e , t h i s le a d s t o d i f f i c u l t i e s , s in c e t h e r e a r e r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p s a n d , f u r t h e r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f th e m e e tin g o f th e c a t e ­ g o r i e s i n th e u n c o n s c io u s monad m u st be s e p a r a b le from th e r e l a t i o n of s e lf - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f th e c o n s c io u s monadj t h a t i s , s u b je c t and o b j e c t can be m e a n in g fu lly d iv o r c e d .

The o n ly e sc a p e from t h i s w ould be 1h e

id e a lis m to which R e n o u v i e r d jje c ts , w hich would deny th e autonom y o f thB u n c o n s c io u s m onads.

Mor i s t h i s ev en open to th e o b je c tio n t o B e r k e le y

t h a t , even a s w iv es may im p ly h p s b a n d s , b u t n o t a l l men a r e m a r r ie d ; so p e r c e p ts may im p ly p e r c i p i e n t s , b u t p e r c e p tio n may n o t be an e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i p n s h i p ; s i n c e , i n a s s e r t i n g th e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e know ledge

143.

r e l a t i o n s h i p , R en o u v ie r h as e l im i n a te d th e o b j e c t i o n by h y p o th e s i s . R e n o u v ie r, h ow ever, f i g h t s shy o f id e a lis m a n d , i n p ro c e e d ­ in g from th e n a t u r e o f th e i n d i v i d u a l t o th e c o n c e p t o f th e u n iv e r s e , d is c u s s e s a t le n g th th e u n c o n s c io u s monad, tim e , th e monad i s an atom ,

32

e x i s t i n g i n s p a c e and

w h ich , a g a i n , i s a com plex o f r e l a t i o n s ,

and n o t a s u b s ta n c e , t h a t i s , an u n c o n s c io u s monad.

^11 t h e s c ie n c e s a r e

d e r iv e d and c l a s s i f i e d i n te rm s o f th e m onadology, an d , b e c a u se o f th e d o c t r i n e o f s p o n t a n t i e t y , t h e r e i s a f o r t u i t o u s n e s s i n th e b e h a v io r o f th e s e u n i t s w hich le a d s to a fu n d a m e n ta l in d e te rm in is m i n n a t u r e , which c o rre s p o n d s t o freedom i n m an.

To p u t i t a n o t h e r way, t h e s p o n ta n e i ty

w h ich , i n t h e u n c o n s c io u s m onads, c o n s t i t u t e s in d e te r m in is m , i s , i n th e co n scio u s, imoaads, freedom o f th e r a t i o n a l w i l l to make s e l e c t i o n among i t s p o s s ib le g o a ls . Thus th e n a t u r e o f th e monad g u a r a n te e s th e f i r s t o f th e K a n tia n p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c tic a l r e a s o n — fre e d o m . I m m o r ta lity i s d e­ l i v e r e d fey th e c a t e g o r i c a l im p e r a ti v e . a t:a in a b le g o a l.

The id e a o f o b l i g a t i o n e n t a i l s an

T h a t i s , i t w ould be u n r e a s o n a b le t o im pose a d u ty w hich

c o u ld n o t be c a r r i e d o u t .

T h is i s a n a i v e t e on a p a r w ith D e s c a r t e s ’ s

dictu m t h a t God would n o t d e c e iv e him .

M o reo v er, t h e c a te g o r y o f t e l e o ­

lo g y g u a r a n te e s im m o r ta lity .

Our p u rp o s e s go beyond d e a t h , i n s o f a r a s

d e a th f i n d s them u n r e a l i z e d ,

f u r t h e r , atom ism r e q u i r e s t h a t t h i s be

i ^ I b i d .. p. 17.

in d i v id u a l s u r v i v a l ; t h e r e can b e no l o s s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n an i n ­ f i n i t e com ic B e in g , s in c e th e law o f number b o th p r e c lu d e s th e e x is te n c e o f th e s h in in g s e a and dem ands th e i n d i s s o l u b l e e i n t e g r i t ,y o f t h e dew drop. T h is e n t i t y which p e r s i s t s , how ever, i s n o t a s p i r i t u a l s u b s ta n c e , a K a n tia n noum enon, b u t a p s y c h ic e n t i t y ,

im m o r ta lity i s th e p e r s i s t e n c e

o f th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l f u n c t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , t h a t i s , o f th e c o n flu e n c e o f th e c a t e g o r i e s a t a s p e c i f i c p o i n t .

Wor d o e s i t ta k e p la c e i n a n o th e r

w o rld ; th e dead a r e s t i l l h e r e w ith o u t t h e i r b o d i e s .

How a d isem b o d ied

c o l l e c t i o n d f c a t e g o r i e s can f u l f i l l t h e s t i p u l a t i o n o f c o rre s p o n d in g to a } l o f them by h a v in g s p a tio - te m p o r a l l o c a t i o n i s n e v e r e x p la in e d ; n o r i n w hat s e n s e i t can be an o b j e c t to i t s e l f .

M o reo v er, im m o r ta lity

would have t o b e o f f i n i t e d u r a t i o n , o r th e law o f number w ould be con­ t r a d i c t e d , and i n what senBQ w ould f & n ite p e r io d o f s u r v i v a l a f t e r d e a th b e im m o rta lity ?

I s t h a t n o t a c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f t h e v e ry m eaning o f th e

word? T hese d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l be c o n s id e r e d a g a in i n th e e v a l u a t i o n . The t h i r d p o s t u l a t e , u0d , i s in t r o d u c e d a s th e id e a o f a m o ral o r d e r w hich g u a r a n te e s p e r s o n a l im m o r ta lity an d th e h a p p in e s s o f th e good, God i s t h e g e n e r a liz e d c o n c e p t o f t h e uo o d , w hich c o u ld n o t c o n c e iv a b ly e x i s t e x c e p t a s th e o b j e c t o f a c o n s c io u s n e s s ( n o te a g a in th e i m p l i c i t id e a lis m ).

s in c e R e n o u v ie r1s c o n c e p t o f th e f i n i t e G0d i s c e n t r a l t o

t h i s s tu d y , i t i s r e s e r v e d f o r le n g th y tr e a tm e n t i n a s e p a r a te c h a p t e r

33R e n o u v ie r, P s y c h o lo g ie R a t i o n n e l l e , v o l . 2 , p . 3 0 1 .

and m e re ly n o te d h e re i n o r d e r t o c o m p le te th e ^ a n t i a n p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c t ic a l re a so n . The v a lu e th e o ry h e re s e t f o r t h i n d i c a t e s t h e e x te n t o f Re­ n o u v i e r ' s le a n in g s to w a rd s u b je c t iv e id e a lis m i n th e p e r s i s t e n t i m p l i c i t p rim acy o f th e knowing c o n s c io u s n e s s .

I t a l s o r a i s e s th e q u e s ti o n w h e th e r

i t s s t r u c t u r e can s ta n d on t h e m e ta p h y s ic a l f o u n d a tio n s o f th e p h ilo s o p h y o f f i n i t u d e , w ith i t s r e s u l t a n t ’ r e p u d i a t i o n o f th e noum enon. Can a c a t e ­ g o r i c a l im p e r a tiv e , an d i t s p o s t u l a t e s o f freed o m , G oa, and im m o r ta lity be d e r iv e d from a p u r e ly e m p ir ic a l p re m is e o f g o a ls s e l e c t e d a s b e t t e r i n a f i n i t e c o n te x t?

I n o t h e r w o rd s, can a ^ a n t i a n e t h i c s b e d e r iv e d

l e g i t i m a t e l y w ith o u t a d in g an s i c h *

T h is r e p r e s e n t s i n e f f e c t th e c r i t i ­

c ism s h a s b een h i n t e d a t i n th e i n c i d e n t a l comments o f th e e x p o s i t i o n . T h ere re m a in s th e f u r t h e r q u e s tio n w h e th e r th e monadology* w i l l s ta n d up i f s u b s ta n c e and r e a l c o n t i n u i t y a r e d e n ie d , b u t t h i s h a s been a d e q u a te ly t r e a t e d i n th e t h i r d c h a p t e r , i n ,th e t h i r d c h a p t e r , i n th e d is c u s s io n o f th e la c k o f a p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n ^ e n o u v i e r 's s y s te m : P r i o r t o com ing t o g r ip s w ilh th e f i n i t e G0d an d a tte m p tin g t h e e v a l u a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to d e v o te some d i s c u s s i o n t o 'th a p o s it iv e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f &en o u v ie r , which c o n s i s t s i n h i s in te r m e d ia r y p o s i t i o n betw een K ant and th e p r a g m a t i s t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , W illiam Ja m e s.

CHAPTER VI RENOUVIER AHD JAMES

I n h i s u n f in i s h e d , p o sth u m o u sly p u b lis h e d m a n u s c r ip t, Some P roblem s o f P h ilo s o p h y . W illiam Jam es w ro te : R en o u v ier was one of. th e g r e a t e s t o f p h il o s o p h ic c h a r a c t e r s , and b u t f o r th e d e c i s i v e im p r e s s io n made on me i n th e s e v e n t i e s by h i s m a s t e r ly ad v o cacy o f p l u r a l i s m , A m ight n e v e r have g o t f r e e from th e m o n is tic s u p e r s t i t i o n u n d e r w hich I h ad grown u p . l Jam es was tw e n ty - s ix when a copy o f th e 1869 L 'A nnee P h ilo s o p h iq u e . o f w hich R en o u v ier was e d i t o r , f e l l i n t o h i s h an d s an d he made h i s f i r s t a c q u a in ta n c e w ith th e o b j e c t o f h i s a d m i r a t i o n ,t o whom h e owed i n a d d i­ t i o n a d e b t o f g r e a t p e r s o n a l g r a t i t u d e , a lth o u g h R e n o u v ie r was unaw are j. o f h i s serv 5 .ce to Jam es a t t h e tim e o f i t s o c c u r r e n c e . I t i s w e ll known t h a t Jam es s u f f e r e d from a m o rb id d e p r e s s io n , o r r e l i g i o u s desp o n d en cy v e rg in g on m e la n c h o lia i n h i s young m anhood.

T h is i s r e c o r d e d i n xhe

V a r i e t i e s o f R e lig io u s E x p e r ie n c e , i n w hich th e c a s e h i s t o r y i s q u o te d a s t h a t o f an anonymous F re n c h c o r r e s p o n d e n t.

Jam es d e s c r ib e d i t a s a

specim en o f th e " w o rst k in d o f m e la n c h o ly ” , "w hich ta k e s t h e form o f p a n ic f e a r . " *

He r e c o u n ts t h a t he was i n a " s t a t e o f p h il o s o p h i c p e s s i ­

mism a n d g e n e r a l d e p r e s s io n o f s p i r i t s " i n w hich h e s u f f e r e d from "a

The L e t t e r s .off W illiam Jam es, e d i te d by h i s s o n , Henry J a m e s, B o sto n , L i t t l e , brow n, an d Company, 1 9 2 6 , v o l . 1 . p . 1 8 5 . 2 Jmmes, W illia m , The V a r i e t i e s o f R e lig io u s E x p e rie n c e . Hew f o r k , Longman^, G reen a n d C o ., 1935 > p!p. 159- , 6 0 .

147

h o r r i b l e f e a r o f my own e x i s t e n c e " .

The v i s i o n . o f a p a t i e n t i n a m e n ta l

i n s t i t u t i o n r o s e b e f o r e him and he i d e n t i f i e d h im s e lf w ith t h i s u n f o r tu n a t e b e in g and f e l t t h a t " n o th in g t h a t I p o s s e s s can d e fe n d me a g a i n s t t h a t f a t e , i f th e h o u r f o r i t sh o u ld s t r i k e f o r me a s i t s t r u c k f o r h im ."

he s u f f e r e d

from an a p p a l l i n g se n se o f i n s e c u r i t y , f e a r o f s o l i t u d e , and o f th e d a rk , in w hich he was sav ed from co m p lete breakdow n b n ly by c e r t a i n p a s s a g e s o f d c r i p t u r e , which gave him c o m fo rt.

3

V»e h av e th e ward o f fa m e s ’ s own son t h a t th e "F ren ch c o r r e s - U ponden t* was Jam es h im s e lf , an d t h a t he was p ro fo u n d ly d e p r e s s e d by d o u b ts c o n c e rn in g m o ral p ro b le m s and m a n 's p la c e i n th e u n i v e r s e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e q u e s ti o n o f w h eth er man was g e n u in e ly s i g n i f i c a n t , o r an im p o te n t and m e a n in g le s s b i o l o g i c a l f l u k e .

A j o p r n a l e n tr y o f A p r il 3 0 , 1870, i n d i c a t e s

t h a t Jam es c o n s id e re d t h a t h e had been f r e e d from t h i s c o n d itio n a s a r e s u l t o f r e a d in g th e d i s c u s s io n o f f r e e w i l l i n th e f i r s t volum e o f t h e Eayshs.l o e i e k a t i o n n s l l e . which i n s p i r e d him t o b e l i e v e i n t h e freed o m o f h i s own a b i l i t y t o ta k e c o n s tr u c t iv e a c t i o n i n th e u n iv e r s e even i f he c o u ld n o t s o lv e i t s m e ta p h y s ic a l p ro b le m s , and to a tte m p t to l i v e i n t h e l i g h t o f th iB

3

I b i d . , p p . 160- 1 .

^"When he (Jam es) w ro te th e c h a p t e r on th e ’ s i c k s o u l ’ t h i r t y y e a r s l a t e , he p u t i n t o i t an a c c o u n t o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . Ue s t i l L d i s g u i s e d i t a s t h e r e p o r t o f an anonymous 'F r e n c h c o r r e s p o n d e n t* , s u b s e q u e n tly he a d m itte d t o M. A b a u a it t h a t th e p a s s a g e was r e a l l y th e s t o r y o f h i s cwn c a s e , and i t may be r e p e a te d h e r e , f o r t h e w ords o f th e f i c t i t i o u s F ren ch c o rre s p o n d e n t who was r e a l l y Jam es, a r e th e m ost a u t h e n t i c s ta te m e n t t h a t c o u ld be g iv e n . Ttey w i l l be fou n d a t p ag e 160 o f th e V a r i e t i e s o f A o lie io u s E x p e r ie n c e . 11 L e t t e r s o f W illiam Ja m e s, v o l . 1 , p . 1 4 5 .

r e s o lv e f o r a y e a r .

R en o u v ier h ad i n s p i r e d him to b e l i e v e , a t l e a s t , in

h i s own i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y and c r e a t i v e pow er, and th u s l i f t e d th e p a l l o f m e la n c h o ly w hich h ad p a r a ly z e d an d i n c a p a c i t a t e d him. The v o ic e o f an unknown f r i e n d sp eak in g th e e x a c t w ords one n e e d s to h e a r from th e p a g e s o f a p r i n t e d book i s an u n f o r g e t t a b l e ex­ p e r i e n c e , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s made so d e e p an im p re s s io n on ^ames t h a t h e e v e r a f t e r o v e r e s tim a te d R en o u v ie r

a s a p h ilo s o p h e r .

I t i s c e r­

t a i n t h a t he was e x t e n s i v e l y in f lu e n c e d by him . -t-n a l e t t e r o f 1 8 7 b , i n th e d i g n i f i e d te rm s a p p r o p r i a t e to c o rre s p o n d e n c e w ith a s t r a n g e r , Jam es e x p re s s e d to R en o u v ier h im s e lf h i s g r a t i t u d e f o r th e a i d h e h ad r e c e iv e d .

The l e t t e r i s i n F re n c h , an d a

t r a n s l a t i o n o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t p a s s a g e fo llo w s : Thanks to y o u , I p o s s e s s fo r th e f i r s t tim e an i n t e l l i g i b l e and r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t of f r e e d o m . . . . I can say t h a t th ro u g h i t ( R e n o u v ie r 's p h ilo so p h y ). I began to be r e ­ b o rn t o t h e m o ral l i f e ; an d b e l i e v e , d e a r s i r , t h a t t h i s i s n o t a s m a ll t h i n g . 5 h’o r i s i t t o be assum ed t h a t t h i s i s a fu lso m e and n e u r o t i c o u t b u r s t ; th e o s t e n s i b l e r e a s o n f o r th e l e t t e r i s a d e s i r e to o b t a i n a copy o f t h e work o f ° u l e s h e q u i e r , R e n o u v ie r 's g r e a t t e a c h e r , whose work was u n p u b lis h e d , and th e p e r s o n a l t r i b u t e i s i n c i d e n t a l , b u t h ig h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , e s p e c i a l l y when we c o n s id e r t h a t th e a c q u a in ta n c e w ith R e n o u v ie r 's w ork, th e i n c i d e n t o f i t s g r e a t p e r s o n a l im p a c t

on him , and th e ack n o w led g em aat o f i t , a l l

I b i d . , v o l. 1 , p p . 1 6 3 -4 , p a r e n th e s e s m in e.

H9.

c o n s id e r a b ly a n t e d a te th e p u b l i c a t i o n o f an y o f J a m e s 's p h il o s o p h i c a l essay s,

h i s f a t h e r a l s o , i n a l e t t e r to h i s b r o t h e r , u e n r y , b e a r s w itn e s s

to h i s g r a t i t u d e t o . R en o u v ier f o r th e h e a l in g of h i s m e l a n c h o l y . ^ I t i s c e rta in th a t

Jam es was s te e p e d i n R e n o u v ier.

n i s co r­

re sp o n d e n c e w ith him i n d i c a t e s th e d e e p e s t r e s p e c t and a d m ir a tio n ,

he i s

" q u i t e overcom e by y o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f my p o o r l i t t l e a r t i c l e ; " ' and de­ p l o r e s th e f a i l u r e to a p p r e c i a t e R en o u v ier and th e 2a cm o f g e n e r a l r e c o g n i­ t i o n o f h i s w ork, e s p e c i a l l y i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . a e c r e d i t s R en o u v ie r w ith h a v in g p ro d u c e d , a s th e h e i r o f Hume, "a s o l i d , e l e g a n t and d e f i n i ­ t i v e sy ste m , p e r f e c t l y c o n s i s t e n t , an a c a p a b le , by re a s o n o f i t s m o ral v i t a l i t y , o f becom ing p o p u la r , so f a r a s t h a t i s p e r m i tt e d to p h ilo s o p h ic s y s te m s ."

8

n e a t t r i b u t e s h i s f a i l u r e to t r a n s l a t e R e n o u v ie r, who, a p p a r e n t­

l y , h a d t r a n s l a t e d some o f h i s work i n t o F re n c h , to th e p o o r c o n d itio n o f h i s e y e s i g h t .^ The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f R en o u v ier a r e a p p a r e n t from th e f a c t t h a t Jam es a tte m p te d to te a c h him t o h i s s tu d e n t s and gave up th e p r o j e c t a f t e r a y e a r on th e g ro u n d t h a t th e s tu d e n ts fo u n d th e s u b j e c t to o d i f f i c u l t . T h u s, even th e m a s te r pedagogue was u n a b le to p o p u la r i z e h i s i d o l w ith h i s own s t u d e n t s .

I n f a c t , Ja m e s, who comments on th e c l e a r n e s s o f R e n o u v ie r1s

^ I b i d . . v o l . 1 , p . 169 7— I b i d . . v o l. 1 , p . 186. ^ I b i d . . v o l. 1 , p . 187. 9 I b i d . . v o l. 1 , p . 207.

'150.

s t y l e , seems to be i n a m in o r ity o f o n e , s in c e even G a b r ie l S e a i l ^ e s , who i s a d m irin g to t h e p o i n t o f s h e e r sy co p h an cy , co n c e d e s him to hav e b e e n a bad w r i t e r , and th e p r e s e n t com m entator h a s r a r e l y e n c o u n te re d more com­ p l i c a t e d p h ilo s o p h ic w r i t i n g . T h ere i s one in c o m p re h e n s ib le p a s s a g e in a l e t t e r fo J o s ia h R oyce, d a te d December 18, 18 9 2 , i n w hich Jam es s a y s t h a t " R e n o u v ie r c a n n o t be t r u e — h i s w o rld i s so much d u s t .

W hile t h i s may seem to more

c a p tio u s c r i t i c s a more j u s t e s tim a te o f R en o u v ier th a n th e encomiums o f h i s o t h e r c o rre s p o n d e n c e i t i s so c o m p le te ly i n c o n s i s t e n t w ith them t h a t th e r e a d e r i s l e f t a t a l o s s to u n d e r s ta n d w hat Jam es can mean h e r e , and th e c o n t e x t g iv e s no c l u e .

The s u b j e c t o f th e l e t t e r i s a rev iew Jam es

h ad j u s t f i n i s h e d w r iti n g o f th e P r i n c i p e s de l a M a tu re . and th e o n ly f u r t h e r comments w hich h e makes t o Royce a r e t h a t th e work i s " e n e r g e tic " and h a s a th e o d ic y a t th e e n d ."

P o s s i b ly , f o r a f l e e t i n g moment, u n d e r

th e in f l u e n c e o f th e c l e a r , n o b le , and i n s p i r i n g o u tlo o k o f Royce, a se n se o f t h e e m p tin e s s o f th e p h ilo s o p h y o f f i n i t u d e o v e rto o k him , to be f o r ­ g o t t e n a g a in , f o r , i n a l a t e r l e t t e r s e n d in g R en o u v ier a copy o f The W ill t o B e lie v e . Jam es r e f e r r e d t o "how c o m p le te ly I am s t i l l y o u r d i s c i p l e . I t i s h e e e t h a t he in t i m a t e s t h a t

n e n o u v ie r ’ s v o lu n ta r is m r e p r e s e n t s h i s

s a l i e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n "and t h i s p o i n t i s c e n t r a l . " I n a l e t t e r to F r a n c o is P i l l o n i n 1904> a f t e r R e n o u v ie r1s

10

Ibid., vol. 1, p. 334» Ibid.. vol. 2, p. 44*

d e a th , h e a g a in p a y s him warm t r i b u t e , e u lo g iz in g him a s " a g r e a t f i g u r e i n p h ilo s o p h ic h i s t o r y , "

12

a more j u s t and te m p e ra te e s tim a te ,, s in c e i t

i s i n f a c t h i s t o r i c a l l y t h a t R en o u v ie r i s m a in ly s i g n i f i c a n t * b u t s t a t i n g t h a t h i s own p h ilo s o p h y "d o es n o t a t t r i b u t e to th e q u e s tio n o f th e I n f i n i t e th e g r e a t m e th o d o lo g ic a l im p o rta n c e " a s c r ib e d t o i t by R e n o u v ier. I t th u s a p p e a rs t h a t , w ith c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g e n e r o s ity and en­ th u s ia s m , Jam es h a s cla im e d R en o u v ie r a s i n s p i r a t i o n and m a s te r , a lth o u g h h e d i d n o t p r o f e s s co m p lete a g re e m e n t w ith a l l t h a t h e had b e l ie v e d . B e a r­ in g i n m ind, a s was p r e v io u s ly i n d i c a t e d , tin t ^am es had re a d R e n o u v ie r1s E s s a is b e f o r e h e d id any a p p r e c ia b le p h ilo s o p h ic w r i t i n g h im s e lf , a com­ p a r is o n o f h i s own e x p r e s s e d p o s i t i o n w ith t h a t o f R en o u v ier i s i n t e r e s t ­ in g i n th e e x tre m e .

A re m a rk a b ly R e n o u v ie ria n e s s a y i s th e one e n t i t l e d

Does C o n s c io u s n e s s E x is t?

A t th e o u t s e t , Jam es s t a t e s t h a t

To deny plum ply t h a t 'c o n s c io u s n e s s ' e x i s t s seems so a b s u rd on th e f a c e o f i t — f o r u n d e n ia b ly 't h o u g h t s ' do e x i s t — t h a t I f e a r some r e a d e r s w i l l fo llo w me no f a r t h e r . L e t me th e n im m e d ia te ly e x p la in t h a t I mean o n ly -to d eny t h a t •• th e word s ta n d s f o r an e n t i t y , b u t to i n s i s t m o st e m p h a tic a lly t h a t i t d o es s ta n d f o r a f u n c t i o n . ^ Compare t h i s w ith R e n o u v ie r 's s ta te m e n t t h a t th e know er is a fu n c tio n o f a l l o th a* f u n c t i o n s .

Then n o te t h a t , i n what f o llo w s , th e ex p o sitio n o f

Jam es i s th e n e u t r a l monism o f t h e f i r s t E s s a i . e x p re s s e d with a a l c r i t y

12 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p . 205. 13 . Jam es, W illia m .E s s a y s i n R a d ic a l E m p iric is m . Lew f o r k , Longm ans, G reen and C o ., 1912, "Does C o n sc io u sn e ss E x i s t ? " , p . 3*

n e v e r g iv e n i t by R en o u v ie r. xf we s t a r t o f f w ith th e s u p p o s itio n t h a t t h e r e i s o n ly one p r im a l s t u f f o r m a t e r i a l i n th e w o rld , a s t u f f o f w hicn e v e r y th in g i s com posed, an d i f we c a l l t h a t s t u f f ?p u re e x p e r i e n c e ', th e n know ing can e a s i l y be e x p la in e d a s a p a r t i c u l a r s o r t o f r e l a t i o n to w a rd s one a n o th e r i n t o w hicn p o r t i o n s o f p u re e x p e r ie n c e may e n t e r . 14 Nor i s i t t o be assum ed t h a t t h i s i s m e re ly c l a r i f i e d R e n o u v ie r. A l­ though th e view o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f know ing a s b u t one o f 1h e p o s s i b l e c o m b in a tio n s w hich c o n s t i t u t e r e a l i t y i s i m p l i c i t in R e n o u v ie r, i t i s now here e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , a n d , i n f a c t , R e n o u v ie r 's e n t i r e a p p ro a c h , a s h a s a l r e a d y b een i n d i c a t e d , te n d s t o g iv e know ledge a p rim acy o v e r o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n c o n s i s t e n t w ith a g e n u in e n e u t r a l monism. The p o s i t i o n s e t f o r t h by Jam es i n th e q u o te d p a s s a g e i s , a s was m e n tio n ed in th e e x p o s i t i o n , n e c e s s a r y t o th e v a l i d i t y o f R e n o u v ie r 's d e f i n i t i o n o f a phenom enon, a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , o f a law a s a phenom enon. U n le s s th e know er-known r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t e s s e n t i a l t o th e n a tu re o f a phenom enon, no phenomenon can be d e f in e d i n i t s a b s e n c e ; c o n s c io u s n e s s becom es an i n d i s p e n s a b le e le m e n t o f r e a l i t y ; and th e p o s i t i o n becomes an id e a lis m .

I n th e d e s c r i p t i o n o f man a s m icrocosm ; i n th e d e f i n i t i o n

o f an e n t i t y a s i t s a p p e a ra n c e f o r i t s e l f ; a n d , m o st o f a l l , i n th e d e n i a l o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s on th e g ro u n d t h a t no c o n s c io u s n e s s e x i s t s c a p a b le o f g r a s p in g i t , R en o u v ier te n d s i m p l i c i t l y e x a c tly to w ard t h i s p o s i t i o n .

Ja m e s, on th e c o n t r a r y , a t th e v e ry o u ts e t

o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n , ta k e s e x p l i c i t c o g n iz a n c e o f th e n e c e s s i t y o f a v o id in g

14 xb i d . . p^ 4 .

153-

id e a lis m i n t h i s m anner and n o t o n ly c l a r i f i e s th e p o s i t b n o f n e u t r a l monism , b u t e x p r e s s ly e l i m i n a t e s th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f such a n o b je c tio n to i t . The d e f i n i t i o n o f " p u re e x p e r ie n c e " , m o re o v e r, s e r v e s in a d d i t i o n t o c l a r i f y th e m eaning o f t h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f s u b j e c t and ob­ j e c t a s p h a s e s o f one i n d i v i s i b l e r e a l i t y and t o g iv e a c l e a r e r meaning t o R e n o u v ie r* s seco n d d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y a s " a l l t h a t i s i n any w ise m a n if e s te d ."

In t h i s i t may w e ll be t h a t Barnes was a id e d by h i s stu d y

o f P e i r c e , to whom h e m akes even m ore g e n e ro u s acknow ledgem ent a s an i n ­ s p i r a t i o n th a n h e d o e s t o R e n o u v ie r.

S in c e th e c o m p a r a b ility o f P e irc e * s

p h a n e ro n , w h ic h , a c c o r d in g t o Jam es F e ib le m a n ," in c lu d e s e v e r y th in g

th a t

i s e x p e r ie n c e d " - ^ to R enouvier* s n o ti o n h a s a lr e a d y been n o te d , i t may f a i r l y be assum ed t h a t i t was a l s o e v i d e n t to J a m e s, and t h a t one con­ c e p t th re w l i g h t on th e o t h e r .

T h is , h o w ev er, m u st be c o n j e c t u r e , s in c e

no d o cu m en tary e v id e n c e f o r i t can be p ro d u c e d . I t seem s n o ta b le h e r e t h a t Jam es, a s l u c i d and r e a d a b le a p h il o s o p h ic w r i t e r a s h a s e v e r p u t p en t o p a p e r , i s l a r g e l y in d e b te d f o r i n s p i r a t i o n to two o f th e m o st o b s c u r e , p r e c i o u s , and c ra b b e d w r i t e r s i n th e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f p h ilo s o p h y .

I t seems a t tim e s a s th o u g h J a m e s 's

c o n t r i b u t i o n c o n s i s t e d i n s e e in g What R en o u v ier an d P e i r c e w ere r e a l l y d r i v i n g a t and w ere u n a b le to p u t a c r o s s ; a s th o u g h , h a v in g seen th ro u g h t h e i r d i f f i c u l t s t y l e , h e was a b l e t o s e n s e t h e i r g e n u in e s i g n i f i c a n c e

15

F e ib le m a n , J a m e s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P e i r c e 's P h ilo s o p h y . New Ao rk , H a rp e r and b r o t h e r s , 194-6, p . 1 4 7 . (F eib lem an shows no s ig n o f a c q u a in ta n c e w ith R e n h u v ie r; th e q u o te d p a s s a g e , h o w ev er, i s a c l e a r e r e x p la n a tio n o f w hat. P e i r ce seem s t o mean by th e p h an ero n th a n can be fo u n d i n P e i r c e 's own w ritin g s ;

and n o t o n ly make c l e a r w hat i n them i s o b s c u re , and e x p l i c i t w hat in them i s i m p l i c i t , b u t to draw c o n c lu s io n s o f w hich t h e i r own to r t u o u s th o u g h t p r o c e s s e s h ad raaae them e i t h e r c o m p le te ly u n aw are, o r in a d e q u a te ­ l y aw are. ■Ln t h i s c o n n e c tio n , sm o th e r i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s h o u ld be m e n tio n ­ ed.

I n J a m e s 's l e t t e r s , th e r e f e r e n c e s to P e i r c e a r e m a in ly to th e ec c e n ­

t r i c i t i e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r and th e d i f f i c u l t y an d o b s c u r it y o f h i s w ork, and t h e r e i s o n ly one i s o l a t e d acknow ledgem ent o i him a s a p h il o s p h i c m a s te r .

^n th e o t h e r h an d , R en o u v ie r i s g e n e r o u s ly acknow ledged and

e u lo g iz e d i n th e l e t t e r s ,

b u t, th r o u g h o u t th e p h i l o s o p h i c a l e s s a y s , t h e r e

i s n o t a s in g le r e f e r e n c e t o R en o u v ier., w h ile r e i r c e i s r e p e a te d ly named a s th e s o u rc e o f *, a m e s 's i n s p i r a t i o n .

One p o s s i b l e e x p la n a tio n o f t h i s

m ig h t be J a m e s 's p e r s o n a l d e b t t o R en o u v ie r, w hich gave him a g r e a t e r f e e l ­ in g o f warm th to w ard him .

A n o th e r m ig h t b e t h a t R en o u v ier was b e t t e r u n d e r ­

s to o d and more c o m p le te ly made J a m e s 's own th a n P e i r c e , s o t h a t th e c r e a t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R en o u v ier seemed to Jam es c o m p le te ly h i s own i n a s e n s e t h a t h i s b o rro w in g s from P e ir c e n e v e r becam e.

I t i s c e rta in ly a f a c t th a t

Jam es a c t u a l l y to o x more from R en o u v ie r th a n h e d id from P e i r c e .

The

n a t u r e o f h i s in d e b te d n e s s may be a n a ly z e d somewhat i n t h i s ways

assum ing

t h a t t h e r e a r e two m a jo r th r e a d s i n th e th o u g h t o f Jam es — p rag m atism and r a d i c a l e m p iric is m , th e f o r a e r was c o n s c io u s ly i n s p i r e d by P e i r c e and th e l a t t e r by R e n o u v ie r.

16

T h i s , ho w ev er, r e q u i r e s th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n

L e t t e r s o f W illia m J a m e s, v o l , 2 , p . 328.

i m p l i c i t in th e u s e o f th e word " c o n s c io u s ly " , s in c e t h e r e i s a n i m p l i c i t p rag m a tism i n a a n t , w hich i s f u r t h e r d e v e lo p e d by R e n o u v ie r. M o reo v er, i t m u st be remembered t h a t P e i r c e was g r e a t l y in f lu e n c e d by K a n t and b o r­ rowed l a r g e l y th e same i d e a s a s d id R e n o u v ie r.

S in c e R e n o u v ie r 's im p o rt­

an ce i n th e h i s t o r y o f p h ilo s o p h y l i e s p r e c i s e l y i n t h i s p o i n t , i t de­ s e r v e s more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n . P ra g m a tism , i n Jam es, i s a th e o r y o f Knowledge and o f t r u t h w h ich , i n s i s t i n g f i r s t on th e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f know er and known a s a s ­ p e c t s o f one p r im a l r e a l i t y , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d in g p rim acy to th e Knowledge r e l a t i o n s h i p o v e r i t s te rm s , h o ld s , f i r s t , th a tx n o w le d g e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p in w hich th e K n o w e r-a sp e ct i s a b le to d e f in e i n te rm s o f f u n c t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , w hich " g iv e s i t s w hole l o g i c a l c o n te n t t o t h a t r e l a t i o n to r e a l i t y on a b e l i e f ' s p a r t t o w hich th e name ' t r u t h ' p l i e d , a r e l a t i o n w hich o th e rw is e rem a in s one o f m ere b a re w i t h n e s s . " ^

i s ap­

c o e x is te n c e o r

Reduced t o i t s lo w e s t te rm s , J a m e s ia n p rag m a tism s t a t e s

t h a t an id e a i s t r u e t o th e e x t e n t t h a t i t p e r m its i t s h o ld e r to a d j u s t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o t h e r e s t o f h i s e x p e r ie n c e .

The t r u e i s a form o f th e

good, and th e good i n t h e . A r i s t o t e l i a n s e n s e o f good f o r s o m e th in g .

A

b e l i e f i s good o r t r u e i n s o f a r a s i t w o rk s, t h a t i s , i n s o f a r a s i t e n a b le s th e i n d i v i d u a l to s u r v iv e h a p p i ly i n h i s e n v iro n m e n t.

17

F r e q u e n tl y , a s in

Jam es, W illia m , The W a n in g o f T r u th , hew f o r k , •Longmans, G reen and C o ., 1911, 'T h e M eaning o f th e Word T r u th " , p . 22 0 .

th e e s s a y e n t i t l e d "The W ill t o B e lie v e " , Jam es a d v o c a te s th e v o lu n ta r y a c c e p ta n c e o f e m p ir ic a lly u n v s r i f i a b l e b e l i e f s i f th e y a r e m o ra lly o r e m o tio n a lly s a t i s f a c t o r y t o th e b e l i e v e r .

T h is a p p l i e s , o f c o u r s e , p a r t i ­

c u l a r l y i n th e f i e l d o f r e l i g i o n . h a d ic a T e m p iric is m , 011 th e o t h e r h an d , was r e g a r d e d by Jam es a s in d e p e n d e n t o f p ra g m a tism , a n d , a s he grew o l d e r , h e re g a r d e d i t a s more im p o r ta n t ,

i t h a s a s i t s e s s e n t i a l t e n e t s n e u t r a l monism an d p l u r a l i s m .

F i r s t , r e l a t i o n s must be a s r e a l a s t h e i r te rm s; The r e l a t i o n s t h a t c o n n e c t e x p e r ie n c e s m ust th e m s e lv e s be e x p e r ie n c e d r e l a t i o n s , and any k in d o f r e ­ l a t i o n e x p e rie n c e d m ust be a c c o u n te d a s ’ r e a l * a s a n y th in g e l s e i n th e system .I** S econd, The su n d ry p a r t s o f r e a l i t y may be e x t e r n a l l y r e l a t e d . E v e ry th in g you can t h i n k o f , how ever v a s t o r i n ­ c l u s i v e , h a s on t h e p l u r a l i s t i c v iew a g e n u in e ly • e x t e r n a l 1 en v iro n m en t o f some s o r t o r am o u n t. T h in g s a r e 'w i t h 1 one a n o t h e r i n many w ay s, b u t n o th in g in c l u d e s e v e r y th in g , o r d o m in ates o v e r e v e r y th in g . The riord 'a n d ' t r a i l s a lo n g a f t e r each s e n te n c e . S om ething alw ay s e s c a p e s . 'E v e r n o t q u ite * h a s t o be s a i d o f t h e b e s t a tte m p ts made anyw here i n t h e u n i­ v e r s e a t a t t a i n i n g a l l - i n c l u s i v e n e s s . The p l u r a l i s t i c w o rld i s th u s more l i k e a f e d e r a l r e p u b l i c th a n l i k e an em p ire o r a kingdom . However much may be c o l l e c t e d , how ever much may r e p o r t i t s e l f a s p r e s e n t a t any e f f e c t i v e c e n t e r o f con­ s c io u s n e s s o r a c t i o n , so m eth in g e l s e i s s e lf - g o v e r n e d and a b s e n t and u n re d u c e d t o u n i t y .1 9

1 8 E a s a v s 4 a R a d ic a l SfflgiriQ ism , "A » 'o rld o f P u re *oqpar ie n c e " , p . 4 2 .

19Ja m e s, W illia m , A P l u r a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e , hew xo r k , Longmans, ur e e n and ° o ., 1 9 2 1 , p p . 3 2 1 -2 .

T h is p a s s a g e , o f c o u r s e , i s an echo o f R e n o u v ie r 's d i s c u s s i o n o f f u n c t i o n , expounding a s i t does th e d o c t r i n e o f th e l i m i t e d c o n te x t and th e ex­ t e r n a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s ? and a l s o o f th e d e n i a l o f th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f th e t o t a l s y n t h e s i s , i n which m e n tio n i s made o f th e f a c t t h a t r e a l i t y i s alw ays l a r g e r th a n o u r e x p e r ie n c e o f i t , w ith o u t, how ever, th e a p p e a l t o c o n s c io u s n e s s and i t s a t t e n d a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s .

Jam es a g r e e s w ith Re­

n o u v ie r , h ow ever, t h a t r e a l i t y i s n o t a c lo s e d sy stem , an d i s c h a r a c te r ­ iz e d by r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Pragm atism i s an e p is te m o lo g y ; r a d i c a l e m p iric is m , a m eta­ p h y s ic s .

I t i s d u b io u s t h a t Jam es was r i g h t i n h o ld in g t h a t one c o u ld

b e a c c e p te d w ith o u t th e o t h e r , s in c e t h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f s u b je c t and o b j e c t i s t h e common d e n o m in ato r o f b o th .

P ragm atism s o lv e s th e a g e - o ld

p ro b lem o f e p iste m o lo g y — how can two d i s p a r a t e s u b s ta n c e s , one m a t e r i a l an d th e o th e r s p i r i t u a l , be c o n n e c te d w ith each o t h e r — by m aking r e l a ­ tio n s h ip .

I n t h i s Case know ledge, a t l e a s t on a p a r w itn i t s te rm s and

e q u a l ly e m p ir ic a lly r e a l .

W ith o u t t h i s m e ta p h y s ic a l p r e s u p p o s iti o n , th e

a p p e a l to co n seq u en ces rem a in s m e a n in g le s s and u n p h ilo s o p h ic a l and p ro ­ v id e s no>answer t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f flume t h a t r e l a t i o n s a r e n e v e r e x p e r ie n c e b u t o n ly i n f e r r e d , w hich la n d s a s u b s ta n c e - p h ilo s o p h y an d a s e n s e - d a ta p h ilo s o p h y a l i k e i n s k e p tic is m .

W ith o u t n eu tralism monism, pragm atism i s

i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from fc»antayanacs a n im a l f a i t h . -

At am ounts sim ply to

s a y in g t h a t I m ust b eh av e a s i f a w o rld o f r e a l th in g s an d r e a l r e l a t i o n s e x i s t s , even th o u g h I h av e no l o g i c a l p r o o f t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e , s im p ly b e c a u se i t i s i d i o t i c an d a n t i - s o c i a l n o t t o .

The m e ta p h y s ic a l d o c tr in e

158

o f th e r e a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s a lo n e g iv e s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f th is p o s itio n . The Jo h n th e b a p t i s t o f p ra g m a tism i s K a n t.

1 'h is i s r e v e a le d

i f we a d o p t K e n o u v ie r’ s s u g g e s tio n a n d , i n s t e a d o f c o n c e n tr a ti n g on th e K a n tia n m e ta p h y s ic s , s t i c k to h i s e p is te r a o lo g y , h i s s c i e n t i f i c p h ilo s o p h y , and exam ine t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f h i s r e p l y to Hume.

A p u r e e m p iric ism c o u ld

n o t p ro c e e d on K a n tia n te rm s ; n e u t r a l monism i s , a s h a s been i n d i c a t e d , an in d i s p e n s a b le p o s t u l a t e . K a n t, ho w ev er, i s n o t a p u r e e m p i r i c i s t , and e s t a b l i s h e s t h e r e a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s i n a d i f f e r e n t w ay.

&ven though be

a c c e p ts th e Humian view t h a t th e m a n ifo ld o f e x p e r ie n c e i s n o t g iv e n a a r e l a t i o n a l l y o r g a n iz e d , t h e r e l a t i o n s , w hich a r e th e a p r i o r i form s o f th e u n d e r s ta n d in g , a r e e q u a l ly r e a l an d fu n d a m e n ta l.

A cosmos i s made o f

th e u n io n o f t h e r e l a t i o n a l form s o f th e c a t e g o r i e s w ith th e c h a o tic and am orphous g iv e n o f s e n s e - d a t a .

T h is i s ,

to th e b e s t o f t h i s w r i t e r 's

know led g e, th e f i r s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l s ta te m e n t o f th e p a r i t y o f r e l a t i o n s and t h e i r te rm s s in c e t h e em ergence o f th e e p i s te m o lo g ic a l p ro b lem . We a r e so c o n s t i t u t e d t n a t o u r i n t u i t i o n m ust a lw a y s be s e n s u o u s , end c o n s i s t o f t h e mode i n w hich we a r e a f f e c t e d by o b j e c t s . What e n a b le s u s t o th i n k th e o b j e c t s o f o u r sen su o u s i n t u i t i o n i s th e u n d e r s ta n d in g . N e ith e r o f th e s e q u a l i t i e s o r f a c u l t i e s i s p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e o t h e r . W ith o u t s e n s i b i l i t y , o b j e c t s would n o t be g iv e n to u s , w ith ­ o u t u n d e r s ta n d in g th e y would n o t be th o u g h t by u s . 20 F u r t h e r , a s i s i n d i c a t e d i n th e d is c u s s i o n o f c a u s a l i t y , th e i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y o f th e seq u en ce o f i n t u i t i o n s p o i n t s to a c o rre s p o n d in g

20

D K a n t, C r itiq u e . &£ P u re R easo n , p . 4 1 .

159

i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y o f r e a l i t y , w hich j u s t i f i e s th e a t t r i b u t i o n o n t o l o g i c a l s ta tu s to th e r e la tio n s h ip s .

21

T h is , h ow ever, am ounts sim p ly to s a y in g

t h a t , ev en th o u g h H um e's a n a l y s i s i s i n a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e f a c t s , t h i s d o e s n o t make know ledge im p o s s ib le , s in c e t h e i n n e r n e c e s s i t y o f th e c a te g o r y i s jaom e o u t b y an a p p e a l t o c o n seq u en c es — th e o u t e r i r r e v e r s i ­ b i l i t y o f th e g iv e n . I n t h i s p o s i t i n g o f th e r e a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , a p d o f th e a p p e a l t o c o n seq u en c es i n i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , K an t i s th e f o r e r u n n e r o f p ra g m a tism .

He i s a l s o th e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o g e n i t o r , e s p e c i a l l y o f Jam es,

i n a p p e a lin g t o th e w i l l a s an o rg a n o f k n o w led g e, e s p e c i a l l y o f e m p iri­ c a l l y u n v e r i f i a b l e k n o n le a g e .

O v e r la id a s t h i s i s i n ^ a n t w ith a l o g i ­

c a l p r o o f o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f th e p o s t u l a t e s o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n , th e fu n d am e n tal p o s i t i o n i s t h a t t h e w i l l p r o v id e s a know ledge f o r e v e r f o r ­ b id d e n to th e u n d e r s ta n d in g , b e c a u se n o t am en ab le t o i t s c a t e g o r i e s . Freedom becom es a l o g i c a l in s tr u m e n t and a m e ta p h y s ic a l te c h n iq u e , b u t i t 'r e m a i n s fu n d a m e n ta lly a g u a r a n te e o f th e v a l i d i t y o f a " w i l l to be­ l i e v e " w hich s p r in g s from th e aw aren ess by th e w i l l o f i t s own a u to ­ nomy. P e ir c e was "m ore in f l u e n c e d by K ant th a n b y an y o th e r p h i l o s o ii 2 2

p h e r e n c o u n te ed d u r in g h i s own p e r io d o f d e v e lo p m e n t."

M k e iie n G u v ie r,

he c o n s id e r e d t h e p o s t u l a t i o n o f t h e d in g an s ic h f o n t ' s g r e a t p h il o s o p h i ­ cal e rro r.

21

A lm ost i d e n t i c a l w ith R e n o u v ie r i s h i s s ta te m e n t t h a t &a n t 's

IbicT. . p p . 157 and f f . 22 Feibleman, o£. cit.. p. 33.

i n s i s t e n c e t h a t th e d in g an s i c h can be c o n c e iv e d i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w ith much o f th e r e s t o f h i s p h ilo s o p h y ,

d in c e i t

"can n e ith e r be in d ic a te d

n o r f o u n d ...n o p r o p o s i t i o n can r e f e r to i t an d n o th in g t r u e o r f a l s e can be p r e d i c a t e d o f i t . "

T h is pronouncem ent sounds a lm o s t l i k e a t r a n s l a ­

t i o n o f R en o u v ier* s s ta te m e n t

t h a t " o f t h a t w hich i s i n no w ise known,

i t i s im p o s s ib le e i t h e r to p r e d i c a t e o r t o s p e a k , n o t e v e n t h a t i t e x i s t s . " ^ f n f a c t , P e i r c e ’ s e n t i r e d is c u s s io n o f th e p o s i t i o n w hich he c a l l s C r i t i c a l Common-Sensism r e a d s l i k e a p a r a p h r a s e o f Hen o u v i e r 's o b je c tio n s t o K a n t, and th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t " th e k in d o f Common *>ensism w hich th u s c r i t i c i z e s th e C r i t i c a l p h ilo s o p h y and r e c o g n iz e s i t s o m a f f i l i a t i o n to K ant h a s s u r e l y a c e r t a i n c la im t o c a l l i t s e l f C r i t i c a l Common-densism" p a r a l l e l s R en o u v ier* s s ta te m e n t t h a t he w ished t o a p p ly K a n t 's c r i t i c a l m ethod t b K ant h im s e lf . A g re e in g w ith R e n o u v ie r i n th e p o s t u l a t e t h a t a p p e a ra n c e s a r e r e a l , P e ir c e makes more e x p l i c i t th a n he d o es th e c o n tin g e n t n a t u r e o f th e know ledge r e l a t i o n .

P e ir c e m a in ta in s t h a t t h e know ledge r e l a t i o n i s

n o t one o f th e n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n s o f o b j e c t s and so a phenomenon can be d e f in e d in d e p e n d e n tly o f th e know ledge o f i t ;

on th e o th e r h a n d , know ledge

can n o t be in d e p e n d e n t o f th e phenomena g iv e n . He d e f i n e s e x p e r ie n c e a s a r e a c t i o n t o t h e p h a n e ro n and h o ld s t h a t a l l e x p e rie n c e * even dream s and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , i s a r e a l a p p e a ra n c e , an d i t i s th e t a s k o f e p iste m o lo g y to d i s c r i m i n a t e b etw een th o s e a p p e a ra n c e s which a r e u n iq u e and p r i v a t e

23

R e n o u v ie r, I r a i t e de L ogique d e n e r a l e . v o l . 1 , p . 2 7 .

and th o s e w hich a r e s h a r e d by h u m a n ity a t l a r g e . P e ir c e f u r t h e r a g r e e s w ith R en o u v ie r* s d o c t r i n e o f th e p e r s o n a l c o n t r a c t , i n r e p r e s e n t i n g e x p e r ie n c e a s a p r a c t i c a l j o k e r c o n s ta n t ly f o r c in g th e man who h a s t h e w it an d f o r t i t u d e t o lo o k f a i r l y a t i t t o c o r r e c t h i s v ie w s .

A lth o u g h he n e v e r makes e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o th e

d o c t r i n e , t h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f s u b je c t and o b j e c t i s ad u m b rated i n th e s ta te m e n t t h a t h e i s an o b j e c t t o h im s e lf and i n h i s view o f know ledge a s a w aren ess o f c o m p u lsio n . T h u s, b r i e f l y , we may sum m arize th e s a l i e n t a g re e m e n ts o f P e i r c e an d R e n o u v ie r,

The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f P e i r c e n o t to be found i n tte -

n o u v ie r i s th e p r a g m a tic maxim, w hich s t a t e s , i n e f f e c t , t h a t th e mean­ i n g o f an

b j e c t i s d e f in e d an d e x h a u s te d i n te rm s o f i t s a c t u a l o r pos­

s i b l e p r a c t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s.

P e i r c e h im s e lf h o ld s t h a t t h i s i s d e r iv e d

from th e one l o g i c a l maxim b f J e s u s s "By t h e i r f r u i t s ye.-know th e m ." h h il e t h i s h a s b een shown t o be i m p l i c i t i n K a n t, i t becom es a c e n t r a l e p is te m o lo g ic a l d o c t r i n e i n P e ir c e an d i s a d o p te d by Jam es and bewey. A few f u r t h e r p o i n t s a r e n e c e s s a r y ,

f e i r c e d e n ie s any form

o f s u b s ta n c e an d , i n o r d e r t o do t h i s , s u b s t i t u t e s a p rim a c y o f r e l a t i o n s , A th i n g i n P e ir c e i s a s e t o f r e l a t i o n s i n t e r s e c t i n g t o form an i n d i v i d u a l , w hich i s c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e s t r e s s , t e n s i o n , o r o p p o s iti o n o f th e r e l a t i o n s w hich c o n s t i t u t e i t ,

he a l s o f i n d i n P e i r c e a d e n i a l o f a b s o lu t e and

d e te r m in a te c a u s a l i t y , an a ss u m p tio n o f a n e s s e n t i a l s p o n ta n e ity a t th e

t o o t o f r e a l i t y , and o f an u n c o n d itio n e d freed o m . ach ie v e m e n t

The cosm os i s an

an d n o t an a b s o l u t e — th e f r u i t o f a p r o c e s s w hich in c lu d e s

ch an ce, an d n o t a m e ta p h y s ic a l f a c t e x i s t i n g ab i n i t i o .

The p a r a l l e l

w ith h e n o u v ie r i s e v id e n t h e r er ,* a l s o . Hhat -d id Jam es do w ith th e s e two u n K a n tia n d i s c i p l e s o f ^ a n t? He a d a p te d th e p ra g m a tic maxim o f P e i r c e w h ile e l i m i n a t i n g c e r t a i n o f i t s d iffic u ltie s .

P e i r c e had h e ld t h a t a b s o lu te t r u t h e x i s t e d a s an e v e r -

r e c e d in g g o a l, a t l e a s t , a s a l i m i t o f a n i n f i n i t e s e r i e s , w hich a l l i n ­ v e s t i g a t o r s w ould e v e n t u a ll y a r r i v e a t i f th e y k e p t a t i t lo n g en o u g h . T h is view., h o w e v e r, le a d s t o an i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s , t o be a v o id e d o n ly f.oor a m a th e m a tic ia n t o be a b le to make h i s p o i n t . ” i t m u st, t h e r e f o r e , fo llo w t h a t th e p h ilo s o p h y o f f i n i t u d e , i n t e r e s t i n g a s i t may b e, c a n n o t to d a y f i p d a c c e p ta n c e o f a c o m p le te ly l i v i n g sy stem . I t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y , i n an h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t, a s a p io n e e r w ith o u t whom a g r e a t and l a s t i n g p h ilo s o p h y m ig h t have been much lo n g e r i n th e m aking, t h a t we m ust a p p r e c i a t e R e n o u v ie r.

BIBLIOGRAPHZ1

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