The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and Conflict 9780226249285

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The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and Conflict
 9780226249285

Table of contents :
CONTENTS
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ONE The Setting
TWO The Riot
THREE The Warriors
FOUR Victims and Others I: The Hindus
FIVE Victims and Others II The Muslims
SIX A New Hindu Identity
SEVEN The Muslim Fundamentalist Identity
EIGHT Religious Conflict in the Modern World World
APPENDIXES
APPENDIX 1 THE GIESSEN TEST STATEMENTS
APPENDIX 2 THE MORALITY INTERVIEW
NOTES
INDEX

Citation preview

The The Colors Colors oj of Violence Violence

Sudhir Sudhir Kakar Kakar

THE THE COLORS OF COLORS OF VIOLENCE VIOLENCE Cultural Cultural Identities, Identities, Conflict Religion, and Religion, and Conflict

The Press The University University of of Chicago Chicago Press Chicago Chicago && London London

The University of The University of Chicago Chicago Press, Press, Chicago Chicago 60637 60637 The University of The University of Chicago Chicago Press, Press, Ltd., Ltd., London London © © 1996 1996 by by The The University University of of Chicago Chicago All All rights rights reserved. reserved. Published Published 1996 1996 Printed in in the States of of America America Printed the United United States 09 08 07 07 06 06 05 05 04 04 09 08 33 44 55 66 (cloth) ISBN: ISBN: 0-226-42284-4 0-226-42284-4 (cloth) ISBN: ISBN: 0-226-42285-2 0-226-42285-2 (paper) (paper) Library Data Library of of Congress Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kakar, Kakar, Sudhir. Sudhir. The The colors colors of of violence violence :: cultural cultural identities, identities, religion, religion, and and conflict conflict // Sudhir Sudhir Kakar. Kakar. p. cm. p. cm. Includes Includes bibliographical bibliographical references references and and index. index. 1. 1. Communalism-India. Communalism—India. 2. 2. Violence-India. Violence—India. 3. 3. Violence-Religious Violence—Religious aspects. aspects. 4. 4. Conflict Conflict (psychology) (psychology) 5. 5. Hindus-India. Hindus-India. 6. 6. Muslims-India. Muslims—India. J.I. Title. Title. DS422.C64K35 DS422.C64K35 1996 1996 303.6'0954-dc20 95-35971 303.6'0954-dc20 95-35971 CIP CIP

@ @ The The paper paper used used in in this this publication publication meets meets the the minimum minimum requirements requirements of of the the American American National National Standard Standard for for Information Information Sciences-Permanence Sciences-Permanence of of Paper Paper for for Printed Printed Library Library Materials, ANSI Materials, ANSI 239.48-1992. Z39.48-1992.

For my my daughter For daughter Shveta, Shveta, also also because because she sheasked. asked.

CONTENTS CONTENTS

PREFACE PREFACE

ix ix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ONE ONE

THE SETTING SETTING THE

xiii xiii

11

Shifting Perspectives Perspectives 3 World" ''Unparalleled in the World" The City: "Unparidleled 44 Versionsofofthe thePast Past Hindus Hindus and Muslims-. Muslims: Versions Between EnemyLines Lines 16 Between Enemy 16

TWO TWO

THE RIOT RIOT THE

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25 25

Story of a Cousin Cousin Told by by His Elder Brother The Story Elder Brother Cousin from from Lahore Lahore 28 The Cousin 28 Territory and Passion 37 37 Profile of 40 Profile of aa Riot Riot 40 Hyderabad: 1990 47 Hyderabad: December December i990 47

THREE THREE

FOUR FOUR

52 52 Testing the Tigers 58 Testing the Tigers 58 The Violent Poet 59 59 Young Young Tigers Tigers and and Pussy Pussy Cats Cats Spreading the 72 the Wind 72 Psyche and Wrestling 81 Psyche

2277

THE THE WARRIORS WARRIORS

69 69

VICTIMS VICTIMS AND AND OTHERS OTHERS I: I: THE THE HINDUS HINDUS

A Pardi Pardi Family Family A

92 92

Modern World World Pardis and the Modern

95 95

The Night Night of Long 98 Long Knives 98 Pardis and Muslims: The Past Past 104 104 Image 105 Image of the the Muslim Muslim 105 Gandhi, Psychoanalysts, 109 Psychoanalysts, and Cows 109 Children'sTales Tales 114 114 Children's

87 87

FIVE FIVE

VICTIMS V I C T I M S AND A N D OTHERS O T H E R S II: II: THE T H E MUSLIMS MUSLIMS Rashid's Rashid's Family Family

19 11 19

120 120

Days and Nights Riot 12 3 Days Nights of the Riot 123 Babar's Children 125 125 The Victim Response 128 128 Morality Morality of oj Violence Violence 13 2 132 Morality and the the Hindus 139 Morality and Hindus 139

SIX SIX

A A NEW N E W HINDU H I N D U IDENTITY IDENTITY

143 143

Shadows Mourning Shadows of oj Mourning 144 144 146 Secret Wounds 146 Identity and Cure 148 Cultural Identity 148 Psychology versus Politics? 149 Psychology versus Politics? 149 152 Search for for Hindu-ness Hindu-ness 152 153 The Virtuous Virago 153 SEVEN SEVEN

THE T H E MUSLIM M U S L I M FUNDAMENTALIST F U N D A M E N T A L I S T IDENTITY IDENTITY

Mullahs Meeting the Mullahs Religious Politics EIGHT EIGHT

171 171 176 176

CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION: RELIGIOUS RELIGIOUS CONFLICT CONFLICT

IN THE THE MODERN MODERN WORLD WORLD 186 186 IN Religious Identities Identities and Violence 190 190 Histories 194 Histories and Futures 194 APPENDIXES APPENDIXES 1. Giessen Test 1. The TheGiessen

199 199 1199 99

2. Morality Interview 2. The Morality

NOTES NOTES

205 205

INDEX INDEX

213 213

202 202

170 170

PREFACE PREFACE

T T

his book book is his is aa psychoanalyst's psychoanalyst's exploration exploration of of what what isiscommonly commonlyknown knownasas religious conflict. The hesitations-"psychoanalyst's" instead religious conflict. The hesitations—"psychoanalysts" instead of of "psy"psychoanalytic," choanalytic/' the the qualifier qualifier "commonly "commonly known known as"-are as"—are due due to to an an awareness awareness that conflicts are pothat such such conflicts are complex complex phenomena, phenomena, involving involving the the interaction interaction of of political, litical, economic, economic, cultural. cultural, and and psychological psychological forces. forces. To To reduce reduce their their comcomplexity exclusively to psychoanalytic psychoanalytic notions notions is plexity exclusively to is to to engage engage in in aa psychological psychological imperialism which has been been deeply deeply offensive offensive to practitioners of of other other imperialism which has to practitioners disciplines—history, political political science, science, and and sOciology sociology among among others-who others—who disciplines-history, have traditionally have traditionally engaged engaged in in the the study study of of social social conflict. conflict. My book are modest. They are to to provide My own own aspirations aspirations in in this this book are modest. They are provide aa way way of looking looking at at conflict-the conflict—the psychoanalyst's psychoanalyst's way-50 way—so as as to to deepen deepen the the underunderof standing provided by other other disciplines. disciplines. To To their their insights, insights, II wish wish to to add add my standing provided by my own reliown discipline's discipline's characteristic characteristic way way of of reflecting reflecting on on issues issues involved involved in in religious conflict. conflict. Taking Taking the the Hindu-Muslim violence of of 1990 1990 in in the the south south Ingious Hindu-Muslim violence Indian city city of of Hyderabad Hyderabad as as my case study, study, II have have tried tried to to bring bring out out the the dian my case subjective, experiential experiential aspects aspects of of conflict conflict between between religious groups, to to capsubjective, religious groups, capture the the psychological experience of of being Hindu or or aa Muslim one's ture psychological experience being aa Hindu Muslim when when one's community seems seems to to be against the the other other in in aa deadly deadly confrontation. confrontation. community be ranged ranged against This means means working working with with aa notion notion of of the the group group aspect aspect of of identity, identity, which This which is is constituted of of aa person's persons feelings feelings and and attitudes attitudes toward self as as aa member member of of constituted toward the the self an ethnic/religious/cultural ethnic/religious/cultural collectivity. collectivity. This This particular self-image is is transan particular self-image transmitted from from one one generation generation to to the the next next through through the the group's group's mythology, mythology, hismitted history, ideals ideals and and values, values, and and shared shared cultural cultural symbols. symbols. Group Group identity identity is is an an tory, extended part part of of individual individual self-experience, self-experience, although although the the intensity intensity of of this this exextended experience varies varies across across individuals individuals and and with with time. It can can range range from from feelings feelings of perience time. It of nominal affiliation affiliation with group to deep identification identification or or even even to to feelings feelings nominal with the the group to aa deep of fusion, fusion, where where any any perceived perceived harm harm to to the the group's group's interests interests or or threats threats to to its of its

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Preface Preface "honor" to as to one/s "honor" are are reacted reacted to as strongly strongly as as damage damage to ones own own self. self. II have have then then tried to describe ways in which social-psychological tried to describe the the ways in which social-psychological forces forces in in aa particular particular period bring out out latent period of of history history bring latent group group identities identities and and turn turn them them to to violent violent ends. With evidence men, women, ends. With evidence drawn drawn from from interviews interviews with with men, women, and and children, children, psychological Hindu and Muslim "fundamenpsychological tests tests and and speech speech transcripts transcripts of of Hindu and Muslim "fundamentalists," II have sought to to analyze analyze the the fantasies, fantasies, social social representations, representations, and and talists/" have sought modes of of moral reasoning about about the the out-groups-"them"-that out-groups—"them"—that motivate motivate modes moral reasoning and rape, and and rationalize rationalize arson, arson, looting, looting, rape, and killing. killing. Chapter Chapter 11 describes describes the the context context of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim violence: violence: personal, personal, social, After trying emotional reverberasocial, and and historical. historical. After trying to to understand understand the the emotional reverberations riot of the central tions of of the the Hyderabad Hyderabad riot of 1990, 1990, the central event event of of my my study, study, II give give aa the city of brief brief account account of of its its setting-a setting—a social social and and historical historical portrait portrait of of the city of Hyderabad-before to trace Hyderabad—before going going on on to trace the the contested contested and and contentious contentious history history of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations. relations. Chapter with my my own memories of Chapter 22 begins begins with own memories of the the violence violence between between Hindus partition of the country examHindus and and Muslims Muslims at at the the eve eve of of partition of the country in in 1947. 1947. It It examines the nature nature of ways they they are from one ines the of such such memories memories and and the the ways are transmitted transmitted from one generation viogeneration to to another. another. It It discusses discusses the the morphology morphology of of religious religious group group violence; the sequence the formation lence, the sequence of of steps steps leading leading to to the formation of of riotous riotous mobs, mobs, the the psychology of mobs, and leading to psychology of such such mobs, and then then briefly briefly summarizes summarizes events events leading to the the 1990 1990 riot. riot. Chapter Chapter 33 turns turns our our attention attention to to the the "activists" "activists"of ofviolence. violence.These Theseare arethe the "strong men/" the pehlwans and who take over thethe direction andand or-or"strong men," the pehlwans andthe thedadas dadas who take over direction ganization the riot views religious vioganization of of violence violence once once the riot begins. begins. The The chapter chapter views religious violence through their to identify common themes lence through their eyes eyes and and tries tries to identify some some common themes in in their their psychological makeup professional socialization. psychological makeup and and professional socialization. Chapter riot-the Pardis Pardis of of Chapter 44 looks looks closely closely at at one one set set of of victims victims of of the the riot—the Shakkergunj, aa small small Hindu Hindu community community in in an an old old part part of of the city who have Shakkergunj, the city who have been repeated been repeated victims victims of of religious religious violence. violence. Through Through interviews interviews with with memmembers men bers of of one one extended extended Pardi Pardi family, family, we we see see the the different different ways ways in in which which men and women women experience experience this violence and and understand understand how the Hindu Hindu image image and this violence how the of Muslims Muslims is is constructed. constructed. The The chapter chapter concludes concludes with with aa discussion discussion of of chilchilof dren/s dren's representations representations of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim violence. violence. Chapter Chapter 55 describes describes Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations relations and and violence violence from from the the viewpoint viewpoint of of aa poor poor Muslim Muslim family family from from the the old old part part of of the the city city of of Karwan. Karwan. The chapter chapter analyzes analyzes the the different different "victim" "victim" responses responses of of Indian Indian Muslims and The Muslims and concludes with with aa discussion discussion of of the the morality morality of of violence, that is, is, with with the the ways concludes Violence, that ways Muslims and Hindus Hindus evaluate evaluate their their various various interactions interactions with with members members of of the the Muslims and other other community, community, including including such such riot-time riot-time "interactions" "interactions" as as arson, arson, rape, rape, and and murder. murder.

Preface Preface Chapter Chapter 66 discusses discusses the the social-cultural social-cultural impact impact of of modernization modernization and and globalization in in fostering fostering fundamentalist fundamentalist and and revivalist revivalist group group identities. identities. Its globalization Its centerpiece consists consists of of the the analysis analysis of of aa speech speech by by aa Hindu Hindu demagogue demagogue which which centerpiece shows the the psychological psychological steps steps through which such such an an identity identity is is sought sought to to be be shows through which constructed. constructed. is, so so to to speak, speak, the the Muslim Muslim counterpart counterpart of of the the preceding preceding chapChapter 77 is, Chapter chapter. It It analyzes analyzes the the speech speech transcripts transcripts of themost mostconservative conservative of the the mullahs, mullahs, the ter. spokesmen of of the community, to describe the the psychological psychological construction construction of spokesmen the community, to describe of Muslim fundamentalist fundamentalist identity. identity. Muslim summarizes the the various various identity-threats identity-threats arising arising In conclusion, conclusion, chapter chapter 88 summarizes In from from the the social-cultural social-cultural arena arena that that bring bring the the latent latent group group aspect aspect of of our our idenidento the this aspect aspect of tity tity to the forefront. forefront. It It traces traces the the development development of of this of identity, identity, the the conditions potential violence, conditions necessary necessary for for the the release release of of its its potential violence, and and the the role role by religion religion in played by played in its its facilitation. facilitation.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

II

gratefully acknowledge acknowledge the the support support of of the John D. D. and and Catherine Catherine T. T. MacMacgratefully the John Arthur Foundation Foundation which made long long periods work in in Hyderabad Hyderabad Arthur which made periods of of field field work and other other cities cities possible. A National National Fellowship Fellowship of of the the Indian Indian Council Council of and possible. A of Social Science Science Research enabled me to work work on on the the preliminary preliminary aspects aspects of of Social Research enabled me to the study. study. Most of all, all, II am am grateful grateful to to my my friend friend Vikram Vikram Lal Lai for for his his support support the Most of when it it mattered the most. most. when mattered the II am am thankful thankful to to Sujata Sujata Patil Patil for for her her assistance assistance in in collecting collecting the the materials materials on the Pardis on the Pardis and and for for the the many many discussions discussions on on the the project. project. lowe I owe aa special special debt to Sahba interviews with of debt of of gratitude gratitude to Sahba Hussain Hussain for for her her interviews with the the Muslims Muslims of Karwan. in locating Karwan. Without Without her her deep deep involvement involvement and and courage courage in locating and and arrangarranging the "killers," intiing interviews interviews with with the "killers," this this study study would would have have lost lost an an essential essential intimacy macy with with the the violence violence of of the the conflict. conflict. II am am also also grateful grateful for for the the assistance assistance of of my Arslam and my dear dear friend friend Ali Ali Baquer Baquer and and the the help help given given by by Mehdi Mehdi Arslam and Javed Javed Alam. Alam. Human Development Development and the DivinInstitutionally, Institutionally, the the Committee Committee on on Human and the Divinity ity School School at at the the University University of of Chicago Chicago have have been been generous generous hosts hosts for for an an acaacademic year for that is demic quarter quarter each each year for many many years, years, and and that is where where the the plans plans for for this this work first took work first took shape. shape. II also also owe owe aa debt debt of of gratitude gratitude to to the the Institute Institute for for AdAdvanced to complete vanced Study Study in in Berlin, Berlin, where where aa fellowship fellowship allowed allowed me me to complete the the writwritthe Institute, ing of ing of the the book. book. Colleagues Colleagues at at the Institute, especially especially George George Lowenstein Lowenstein and were generous and Aziz Aziz AI-Azmeh, Al-Azmeh, were generous with with their their time time and and helpful helpful with with their their comments comments and and criticisms. criticisms.

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ONE ONE

The The Setting Setting

T T

he face to occupy he face of of the the two-year-old two-year-old girl girl has has come come to occupy aa permanent permanent corner corner of my mind. mind. Every rises to to the the surface of my Every now now and and again again it it rises surface of of consciousconsciousness. ness. Some Some of of these these occasions occasions are are predictable. predictable. There There is is little little mystery mystery when when the disfigured the disfigured face face flashes flashes across across an an inner inner screen screen while while II am am reading reading about, about, or or seeing lanseeing on on television, television, episodes episodes of of violence violence between between racial, racial, religious, religious, or or language in different guage groups groups in different parts parts of of the the world. world. II can can also also understand, understand, even even as as II resent, the little little girl resent, the girl demanding demanding attention attention whenever whenever people people talk talk of of HyHyderabad, derabad, whether whether they they are are praising praising its its old-world old-world charm charm and and the the deliciousness deliciousness lamenting its its lost lost feudal The connection the face of its cuisine of its cuisine or or lamenting feudal glories. glories. The connection of of the face with bob up with other other contexts contexts is is more more obscure. obscure. Why Why does does it it suddenly suddenly bob up when when aa man in telling me painful encounter his boss work or man in therapy therapy is is telling me of of aa painful encounter with with his boss at at work or aa female female patient patient weeps weeps as as she she recalls recalls memories memories of of her her humiliation humiliation at at the the hands hands of elder sister? of an an elder sister? II know know IIwill willhave haveto togo gothrough throughaalong longchain chainofofassociations associations to this veil veil of to lift lift this of obscurity. obscurity. II am am rarely rarely in in the the mood mood to to make make this this effort effort since since the welcome tenant. the girl girl is is not not aa welcome tenant. She She is is aa squatter. squatter. IIfirst first saw saw the the face face in in aanewspaper newspaper photograph photograph accompanying accompanying aareport reporton on the Hyderabad in finally bethe Hindu-Muslin Hindu-Muslin riots riots in in Hyderabad in December December 1990. 1990. When When IIfinally began the following gan this this study study in in the following year, year, II encountered encountered this this particular particular photograph photograph again again and and again again in in newspaper newspaper and and magazine magazine clippings. clippings. It It had had become become the the dominant dominant image image of of that that particular particular carnage. carnage. II do do not not know know whether whether the the girl girl isisaa Hindu Hindu or or aa Muslim, Muslim, although although aa Telegu Telegu paper, paper, championing championing the the Hindu Hindu cause, cause, the photograph identifies identifies her her as as aa Hindu. Hindu. What What you you see see in in the photograph is is the the unkempt unkempt the slums hair, matted hair, matted with with dust, dust, of of aa child child from from the slums and and then, then, shockingly, shockingly, the the deep her face. wound, not yet healed deep gash gash of of the the scythe scythe across across the the top top of of her face. The The wound, not yet healed right temple, the corner into into aa scar, scar, starts starts at at the the right temple, cleaves cleaves the corner of of the the eyeball, eyeball, and and the bridge bridge of the of aa rather rather flat flat nose, nose, to to peter peter out out in in the the sands sands of of the the left left cheek. cheek. The The stitches the careful job of bespeak aa stitches are are not not the careful job of aa well-paid well-paid professional. professional. They They bespeak

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Chapter Chapter One One harried harried resident resident doctor doctor trying trying to to cope cope with with an an overflow overflow of of the the wounded wounded and and the dying in the emergency room of a run-down government hospital. The the dying in the emergency room of a run-down government hospital. The stitches stitches are are uneven uneven crosses crosses across across the the face, face, hasty hasty scrawls scrawls of of someone someone anxious anxious to One arm the girl to get get over over with with aa silly silly game game of of ticktacktoe. ticktacktoe. One arm of of the girl is is around around aa cushion, without finding finding it. cushion, seeking seeking comfort comfort without it. The The right right side side of of the the face face and and the the edge the cushion the injured injured eye eye rests rests against against the edge of of the cushion as as she she looks looks out out through through the left left eye eye of of the the camera, camera, the the world, world, and, and, if if II am am not not careful, careful, at at me. me. the There is an an unfathomable unfathomable numbness numbness in in her her expression, expression, the the aftermath aftermath of of aa There is cataclysm that that has has shaken shaken the the little little body body and and soul soul to to aa depth depth unimaginable unimaginable cataclysm for me. II try try to to look look through through the the child's child's eyes eyes at at what what must must have have appeared appeared as as aa for me. phalanx of giants, giants, with with black black strips strips of of cloth cloth covering covering the lower halves of their their phalanx of the lower halves of through the faces, faces, come come crashing crashing through th£ splintered splintered front front door. door. She She sees sees one one of of the the men raise and club men raise an an axe axe and club her her father father down, down, the the sharp sharp edge edge of of the the weapon weapon catching the back back of his neck catching him him in in the of his neck as as he he turns turns and and tries tries to to flee. flee. She She sees sees him him disappear disappear as as he he falls, falls, and and the the men men close close in in with with knives, knives, scythes, scythes, and and wooden wooden clubs. clubs. She She sees sees the the mother mother standing standing transfixed transfixed and and then then hears hears her her make make aa the base base sound between aa sharp sound between sharp cough cough and and aa scream scream as as aa spear spear slices slices through through the of when the is of her her throat. throat. The The girl girl takes takes aa step step toward toward the the mother mother when the scythe scythe is swung. burning pain pain beyond pain. Blood Blood swung. There There is is the the burning beyond all all her her experience experience of of pain. streams then, oblivion. streams into into the the eye eye and, and, then, oblivion. II imagine, imagine, in in that that particular particular moment moment when when her her consciousness consciousness began began the the all accustomed moorings, that distinctive distinctive spiral spiral which which ends ends in in the the loss loss of of all accustomed moorings, that the the universe revealed its imuniverse revealed its secret secret to to the the little little girl. girl. She She caught caught aa glimpse glimpse of of the the immeasurably vast we measurably vast stretch stretch of of indifference indifference surrounding surrounding the the pinpoint pinpoint of of light light we whose odds bodily funccall call aa human human life life and and from from whose odds and and ends-birth, ends—birth, death, death, bodily functions, destions, sexual sexual feelings, feelings, relationships relationships with with parents, parents, siblings, siblings, children-we children—we deson trying to construct a meaning. perately keep perately keep on trying to construct a meaning. II shake shake my my head head to to free free myself myself of of these these fantasies fantasies and and again again turn turn to to the the photograph of photograph of the the child child with with aa stony stony face face and and one one uncomprehending uncomprehending eye. eye. II flight of of am am aware aware that that my my flight of imagination imagination is is aa failure failure rather rather than than aa success success of to her too oppressive empathy. empathy. The The sheer sheer magnitude magnitude of of the the violence violence done done to her is is too oppressive my trade, psychofor for me me to to employ employ that that crucial crucial tool tool of of my trade, without without which which no no psychoanalyst make sense within another analyst can can grasp grasp and and make sense of of what what is is going going on on within another person. person. Perhaps this this is is so so because because the the child child is is so so patently patently aa victim. victim. She She is is pathetic pathetic Perhaps because she has has been been flattened by fate. fate. Empathy Empathy requires requires its its addressee addressee to to be be because she flattened by tragic, someone who who has to bring bring fate fate upon herself and and was was thus thus fate's fate's has helped helped to upon herself tragic, someone active even even if if unwitting unwitting collaborator collaborator rather rather than than its its passive passive victim. victim. Tragedy Tragedy active at least least preserves preserves aa memory memory of of one's one's agency agency and and therefore holds out out the the hope hope therefore holds at of its its eventual eventual recovery. recovery. The The unmitigated passivity of of pathos, pathos, on on the other of unmitigated passivity the other

The Setting The Setting hand, tugs down in hand, is is aa dead dead weight weight that that tugs down at at the the spirit spirit of of everyone everyone who who comes comes in its contact. I cannot empathize with the child because I must defend myself its contact. I cannot empathize with the child because I must defend myself against her her pathos. pathos. It It is is far far easier easier for for me me to to pity pity her. her. Pity Pity is is distant. distant. The The girl's girl's against face, then, then, is is not not haunting haunting but but nagging, like aa child child beggar beggar or or aa leper leper with with his his nagging, like face, insidious whine, whine, evoking evoking an an angry angry guilt guilt that that will will not not let let you you shout shout at at the the insidious wretch, "Disappear! Die!" wretch, "Disappear! Diel" At the At the outset, outset, then, then, II am am apprehensive apprehensive whether whether IIwill willbe beable abletotobring bringthe the essence with the essence of of psychoanalytic psychoanalytic sensibility sensibility to to bear bear upon upon my my conversations conversations with the victims of the riots, riots, as as well as to to my interviews with agents of of violence, victims of the well as my interviews with the the agents violence, the men who who stab, stab, bludgeon, and burn. burn. It It is is not not enough enough for for me me to to take take up up the the bludgeon, and the men clinician's stance stance and, and, for for instance, instance, speculate speculate upon upon the the little little girl's girl's eventual eventual clinician's fate: namely, namely, if if she she survives. survives the and the neglect of of aa disfigured disfigured ororthe poverty poverty and the neglect fate: phan (who is is aa female female to to boot) and grows grows up up into into an an adult, adult, she she will will become become boot) and phan (who fearful of of expressing expressing any any anger, anger, will will be be easily easily startled startled by by any any physical surfearful physical surprise, and will will have incomprehensible impulses impulses to to injure injure herself. herself. II want want to to do do prise, and have incomprehensible will do do much much less less as as IIleave leavemy myaccustomed accustomedclinical clinical more but but am am afraid afraid that more that II will moorings to to enter enter the the world world of of social social violence violence with nothing more more than than what what with nothing moorings is called called aa psychoanalytic psychoanalytic sensibility. sensibility. is The in The core core of of the the analyst's analysts sensibility sensibility does does not not lie lie in in clinical clinical expertise expertise or or in specific way way of of observing observing and and interpreting interpreting people's people's words words and and actions. actions. It It aa specific does not not even even lie lie in in aa perhaps perhaps easier easier acceptance acceptance of of the the gulf gulf between people's does between people's ideals and and their their behavior, behavior, in in the the analyst's analyst's greater greater difficulty difficulty in in summoning summoning up up ideals righteous indignation or in reluctance to carry out a lover's quarrel with the righteous indignation or in reluctance to carry out a lover's quarrel with the world. The The core core is is empathy. empathy. Empathy Empathy is is the the bridge bridge between between the the serene serene reworld. reserve of of the the clinician clinician striving striving for for objectivity objectivity and and the passionate, and and the vital, vital, passionate, serve vulnerable person who inhabits inhabits the the clinician's clinician's body. makes me, me, as vulnerable person who body. Empathy Empathy makes as an analyst analyst or or scholar, scholar, step step out out of of the the anonymity anonymity of of an an impersonal impersonal enterprise enterprise an and constantly constantly recognize myself in in it it as as aa human human being being of of flesh and blood. blood. and recognize myself flesh and Without its its vital vital presence, presence, II fear fear that that the the creative creative tension tension between objecWithout between objectivity and and impassioned impassioned involvement, involvement, between between the the stoic stoic and and the the emotionally emotionally tivity responsive perspectives, perspectives, will will be be lost. lost. responsive Shifting Shifting Perspectives Perspectives II began began this this study study with with aa description description of of the the reactions reactions evoked evoked in in me me by by the the little oblittle victim victim of of the the Hyderabad Hyderabad riot riot in in the the conviction conviction that that not not only only the the observer but also belongs to to the the description server but also one's one's state state of of consciousness consciousness belongs description of of the the new phenomenon one phenomenon one seeks seeks to to describe describe and and understand. understand. The The father, father, with with his his new Polaroid Polaroid camera, camera, photographs photographs the the child. child. As As he he holds holds up up the the print, print, the the child child is is

3

4

Chapter One One Chapter first first pleased pleasedand andthen thenpuzzled. puzzled."But, "But,father," father/'the thechild childasks, asks,"Where "Whereare areyou youinin the picture?" picture?" The The father father could could have have at at least least extended extended aa leg leg to to get get his his foot foot into into the corner of of the the photograph. photograph. aa corner Whereas Whereas quantum quantum physicists physicists realized realized the the importance importance of of the the interaction interaction of of subject subject and and object object in in the the comprehension comprehension of of reality-"We reality—"We cannot cannot describe describe 1 the world world as as ifif we we did did not not belong belong to to it," it," was was the the credo credo of of the the pioneers pioneersI-this —this the recognition has has not not generally generally taken taken place place in in the the social social sciences. sciences. Most Most social social recognition scientists have have continued continued to to exclude exclude their their own own subjectivity subjectivity from from descriptions descriptions scientists of psychological psychological and and social social reality. reality. They They have have not not felt felt the the need need for for putting putting of imaginative flesh on academic bones. Subjectivity has been regarded as irrairraimaginative flesh on academic bones. Subjectivity has been regarded as tional. At At best, it is is irrational irrational not not in in the sense of of being being against against reason reason or or concontional. best, it the sense stituting the the not-understood not-understood but but of of being being outside outside reason. reason. stituting Perhaps Perhaps the the social social scientists scientists were were unwittingly unwittingly forced forced to to choose choose aa more more convenient strategy strategy when when they they kept kept the the subject subject strictly strictly separate separate from from the the convenient object, since since an an attempt attempt to to grasp grasp aa more more holistic holistic world, world, the the "really "really real," object, rea!," through the the inclusion inclusion of of their their own own subjectivity subjectivity would have led led to to aa degree degree of through would have of complexity which which could could have have bordered bordered on on chaos. chaos. Psychoanalysts, Psychoanalysts, however, however, complexity were compelled compelled to to abandon abandon this this Cartesian Cartesian stance stance because because of of the the very very nature nature were of their their discipline. discipline. Whereas in the the early early years of psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis, the the feelings feelings of Whereas in years of aroused in in the the analyst analyst by thought aroused by the the patient—countertransference—were patient-countertransference-were thought to contaminate the the analyst's analyst's objectivity, objectivity, to rigorous to contaminate to be be eliminated eliminated through through aa rigorous self-analysis, it was soon soon realized the analyst's analysts subjectivity subjectivity was essenself-analysis, it was realized that that the was an an essential source of of information information about about the the patient. other words, words, the the analyst analyst untial source patient. In In other understands the only in in so far as or she she understands disturbance derstands the patient patient only so far as he he or understands the the disturbance the analyst analyst follows follows the the patient's patient's proprothe the patient patient evokes evokes in in himhim- or or herself. herself. As As the ductions ductions and and their their effects, effects, the the analyst analyst must must be be both both an an observer observer and and the the obobject of observation. Whether it is the individual patient or large collectivities, ject of observation. Whether it is the individual patient or large collectivities, we understand we will will see see with with our our experiences, experiences, hear hear through through our our memories, memories, understand different with with our our bodies. bodies. In In my my own own account account of of religious religious violence, violence, it it is is these these different yet yet interdependent interdependent modes modes of of engaging engaging with with the the persons persons and and events events of of this this study, the keeping alive of the tension between the immersive and reflective study, the keeping alive of the tension between the immersive and reflective parts parts of of my my self, self, the the quest quest not not to to let let the the experiencing experiencing self self get get buried buried under under the the agenda agenda of of aa self self that that would would rather rather organize organize and and interpret interpret the the experience, experience, that that II seek seek to to capture capture in in my my writing writing of of this this book. book.

The "Unparalleled in in the theWorld" World" The City: City: "Unparalleled The The city city of of Hyderabad Hyderabad was was conceived conceived of of as as the the new new capital capital of of the the Deccan Deccan kingdom kingdom of of Golconda Golconda after after the the old old fortress fortress city city aa few few miles miles away away became became

The Setting The Setting water. water.22

congested due to Mohammed congested and and unhygienic unhygienic due to an an acute acute shortage shortage of of Mohammed Quli Qutub Qutub Shah, Shah, the the founder founder of of the the city, city, named it Bhagnagar Bhagnagar after after his his beQuli named it beloved Hindu Hindu mistress, mistress, Bhagmati. Bhagmati. Officially Officially renamed renamed Hyderabad Hyderabad after after her her loved death—Hyder being being the the title title given given to to her by the the king-Bhagnagar king—Bhagnagar contincontindeath-Hyder her by ued to to retain retain its its popular popular name. name. Even Even aa hundred hundred years years after after its its founding founding in ued in 1589, travelers' travelers' accounts accounts continued continued to to refer refer to to Hyderabad Hyderabad by by the the name name of 1589, of Mohammed mistress. Mohammed Quli's Quli's beloved beloved Hindu Hindu mistress. Four hundred and Four hundred and two two years years old old at at the the time time of of this this writing, writing, Hyderabad Hyderabad was by its to be be aa city was envisaged envisaged by its founder founder to city "unparalleled "unparalleled anywhere anywhere in in the the world world and aa replica replica of of heaven heaven on on earth." earth." The The benevolent ruler, with with artistic artistic sensiand benevolent ruler, sensibilities and and literary literary tastes, tastes, who who liked liked to flaunt his his sensual sensual excesses excesses in in verse, to flaunt verse, bilities had the good sense sense to entrust the of giving giving his his vision concrete shape shape to to had the good to entrust the task task of vision aa concrete his prime minister, Mir Mir Momin. Momin. The The minister, who had had grown grown up up in in the the gargarhis prime minister, minister, who den city city of of Isafahan Isafahan in in PerSia, Persia, planned planned the the new new capital capital on on the the lines lines of of the city den the city he had had loved loved as as aa child child and and brought in architects architects and and builders from Persia Persia to to he brought in builders from carry out out the the grand grand design. design. Mir Mir Momin's Momin's plan plan favored favored aa gridiron gridiron pattern pattern with with carry two main intersecting roads, roads, each each sixty sixty feet feet wide, wide, which which divided divided the the city city into into two main intersecting refour four quarters. quarters. The The northwestern northwestern quarter quarter adjacent adjacent to to the the intersection intersection was was reserved the royal royal palaces served for for the palaces and and the the eastern eastern quarter quarter for for the the residences residences of of the the prime minister and the nobles prime minister and the nobles of of the the realm. realm. main zones, an For For the the houses houses of of the the commoners, commoners, twelve twelve main zones, spread spread over over an miles, were these mohallas area mohallashad hadschools, schools, area of of ten ten square square miles, were allocated. allocated. Each Each of of these hospitals, mosques, inns, and fruit hospitals, mosques, inns, and and gardens-with gardens—with vegetable vegetable and fruit markets markets at at the periphery—in an effort effort to to make make every every mohalla mohallaself-sufficient. self-sufficient.Later, Later,durdurthe periphery-in an ing the the short short period period Hyderabad Hyderabad came came under the Mughal Mughal rule, the construcconstrucing under the rule, the tion of of aa protective around the the city city was was started. started. Completed Asaf Jah Jah protective wall wall around Completed by by Asaf tion in 1740, 1740, the wall had had twelve twelve gates gates which which closed closed nightly nightly at at eight eight and and opened opened the wall in at the crack of of dawn. dawn. at the crack The The main main roads roads were were lined lined with with fourteen fourteen thousand thousand two-storied two-storied shops, shops, and there were public bUildings, and there were separate separate areas areas earmarked earmarked for for state state offices, offices, public buildings, and and foreign foreign embassies. embassies. The The pride pride of of the the public public buildings buildings were were the the Jami Jami mosque mosque and and the the Char Char Minar Minar ("four ("four minarets")-a minarets")—a square square edifice edifice with with four four broad and broad and lofty lofty arches arches and and aa minaret minaret 220 220 feet feet high, high, at at each each corner-which corner—which has to symbolize has come come to symbolize old old Hyderabad Hyderabad and and the the faded faded glory glory of of its its Islamic Islamic heriheritage. the center walled city, the intersection tage. Located Located at at the center of of the the walled city, at at the intersection of of the the two two power of main was from main highways, highways, it it was from Char Char Minar Minar that that the the imperial imperial power of the the Qutub Qutub Shahis Shahis emanated emanated outwards. outwards. The The French French merchant merchant and and celebrated celebrated traveler traveler Jean-Baptiste Jean-Baptiste Tavernier Tavernier came reign of came to to Hyderabad Hyderabad in in April April 1641, 1641, during during the the reign of Abdulla Abdulla Qutub Qutub Shah, Shah,

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Chapter One One Chapter who succeeded his father Mohammed Quli in who succeeded his father Mohammed Quli to to the the throne throne of of Golconda Golconda in t1611 6 t t and ruled till t 672. Tavernier describes the city thus: and ruled till 1672. Tavernier describes the city thus: A the town A large large river river bathes bathes the the walls walls of of the town on on the the south-west south-west side, side, and and to Masulipatam. at flows the Gulf flows into into the Gulf of of Bengal Bengal close close to Masulipatam. You You cross cross it it at by aa grand bridge [Purana Bhagnagar Bhagnagar by grand stone stone bridge [Purana Pul], Pul], which which isis scarcely scarcely less less nearly the of beautiful the Pont beautiful than than the Pont Neuf Neuf at at Paris. Paris. The The town town is is nearly the size size of and there fine large Orleans, well built built and Orleans, well and well well opened opened out, out, and there are are many many fine large paved-any more streets streets in in it, it, but but not not being being paved—any more than than are are those those of of all all other other towns towns of of Persia Persia and and India-they India—they are are full full of of sand sand and and dust; dust; this this is is very very inconvenient inconvenient in in summer summer..... . .. When bridge you you straightaway wide When you you have have crossed crossed the the bridge straightaway enter enter aa wide street which which leads leads to to the the King's King's palace. see on on the right hand hand the the street palace. You You see the right houses of of some some nobles nobles of of the the court, court, and and four four or orfive five caravan caravansarais, sarais, havhavhouses ing large halls are ing two two storeys, storeys, where where there there are are large halls and and chambers, chambers, which which are this street you find find aa large cool. large square, square, near near which which stands stands cool. At At the the end end of of this street you in the there is one the walls one of of the walls of of the the palace, palace, and and in the middle middle there is aa balcony balcony when he he wishes give audience audience to where where the the King King seats seats himself himself when wishes to to give to the the principal door the palace this square, in people. The people. The principal door of of the palace is is not not in in this square, but but in another close close by, and you you enter enter at at first into aa large large court court surrounded surrounded by by another by, and first into porticoes under which the King's From this porticoes under which the King's guards guards are are stationed. stationed. From this court court you pass to another the same there are are you pass to another of of the same construction, construction, around around which which there upon these, as upon upon several beautiful apartments, with with aa terraced several beautiful apartments, terraced roof, roof, upon these, as the quarter of of the the palace palace where where they they keep keep the elephants, there are the elephants, there are the quarter beautiful that it beautiful gardens, gardens, and and such such large large trees, trees, that it is is aa matter matter of of astonishastonishment how these arches arches are are able able to carry such such aa weight. . .. ment how these to carry weight .... On the the other other side side of of the the town, town, from from whence one goes goes to to MasOn whence one Masulipatam, there there are are two two large large tanks, each of of them coss in in circuit, circuit, ulipatam, tanks, each them being being aa coss upon which which are are some some decorated decorated boats for the of the the upon boats intended intended for the pleasure pleasure of King, King, and and along along the the banks banks many many fine fine houses houses which which belong belong to to the the prinprincipal officers officers of of the the court. court.33 cipal Hyderabad was cast ImposHyderabad was cast in in the the mold mold of of some some medieval medieval Persian Persian cities. cities. Imposing public bUildings ing public buildings and and palaces palaces were were to to line line its its main main streets. streets. Secondary Secondary streets then then led led to self-contained neighborhoods neighborhoods or or mohallas, mohallas,with withtheir theirnarnarstreets to self-contained row winding lanes lanes often often ending ending in in blind blind alleys, alleys, small small open open squares, squares, and and row winding densely packed packed low-rise low-rise houses inner courtyards, courtyards, many of them them sursurdensely houses with with inner many of prisingly spacious. The The city city was was also also Islamic Islamic both both in in population population and and in in its its prisingly spacious. mainstream culture culture which which had in Arab, Arab, Turkish, Turkish, and, and, especially, especially, Persian Persian mainstream had roots roots in ways of of life. life. Since Since the the Qutub Qutub Shah Shahis were Shias, Shias, with with strong strong links links to to their their is were ways

The Setting Setting The coreligionists coreligionists in in Iran, Iran, aa great great number number of of Persians Persians streamed streamed into into Hyderabad Hyderabad over positions in over the the years years to to seek seek their their fortunes. fortunes. The The most most important important positions in the the administration kingdom were were held held by administration of of the the kingdom by Persians Persians who who had had aa tremendous tremendous impact on on the the art, art, architecture, architecture, literature, literature, and and culture culture of of Hyderabad Hyderabad for for impact nearly two hundred years years after after its its foundation. foundation. With With the establishment of of the the the establishment nearly two hundred Asaf lahi Jahi rule, Persian influence influence declined declined aa little little but but nevertheless nevertheless continued continued Asaf rule, Persian to shape the hyderabadi way life, least among the upper classes. Tavernier to shape the hyderabadi way ofof life, at at least among the upper classes. Tavernier notes the the fair fair countenance countenance and and good good stature stature of of its its Muslim Muslim inhabitants inhabitants as as notes compared to to the dark complexion complexion of of the surrounding peasantry, peasantry, presumably presumably compared the dark the surrounding Hindu, who had their assigned, mostly mostly humble, in the the feudal feudal order order Hindu, who had their assigned, humble, places places in and whose whose native native Telegu Telegu culture culture existed existed only only at at the the fringes fringes of of the the dominant dominant and Islamic ethos. ethos. In In the the cultural cultural pecking or4er, the the Persians were right at the the pecking orqer, Persians were right at Islamic top, followed by by Turks Turks and and other other central central Asian immigrants. Native-born top, followed Asian immigrants. Native-born InIndian Muslims Muslims felt inferior to to both and were were keen to establish establish the the existence existence of both and keen to of dian felt inferior Persian or or Turkish Turkish blood blood in in their lineage, aa mind-set mind-set which which has Persian their lineage, has persisted persisted till till very recently. The The anthropologist, anthropologist, S. S. C. C. Dube, Dube, quotes quotes Hindus Hindus in in the villages the villages very recently. "A Hindu Hindu untouchable untouchable of Shamirpet Shamirpet outside outside Hyderabad Hyderabad in in the the 1960s 1960s saying: saying: "A of of yesterday becomes aa Muslim Muslim today: today: and and tomorrow he will will start start proclaimproclaimtomorrow he of yesterday becomes 4 Because of of the the Brahminical Brahminical notions notions ing that that his his forefathers forefathers lived lived in in Arabia!" ing ArabiaJ"4 Because of pollution, pollution, the the few few Hindus Hindus who who aspired aspired to to share share the the dominant dominant cultural cultural of ethos could could do do so so only only on on aa limited limited basis. basis. ethos The The Perso-Islamic Perso-Islamic domination domination of of Hyderabad's Hyderabad's cultural cultural and and social social life life does not mean that that Hindus Hindus were were excluded excluded from from administrative administrative positions positions and and does not mean from aa share share of of political political power. power. Talented Talented Brahmins Brahmins and and later later the the Kayasths Kayasths from could rise to high high positions positions in in the court. Another Another French French traveler, traveler, Franc;ois Francois the court. could rise to Martin, tells tells us us of of the the heartburn heartburn among among the the Persian, Persian, Pathan, and Deccani Deccani Martin, Pathan, and nobles at at the elevation of of the Brahmin Madanna, Madanna, who who had the most most the Brahmin had become become the nobles the elevation powerful minister of the the king at the the time time of of his his visit. visit.55 Hindus were to to hold hold powerful minister of king at Hindus were high positions in in the the civil civil and and revenue administration of of the the state state well well into into high positions revenue administration the early period of the Asaf Jahi dynasty in the eighteenth century. the early period of the Asaf lahi dynasty in the eighteenth century. As the new pace and the grand deAs the the construction construction of of the new capital capital gathered gathered pace and the grand design the city began to unfold, Mohammed not have have imagined sign of of the city began to unfold, Mohammed Quli Quli could could not imagined that the the lowly lowly Hindus Hindus would would one one day day threaten threaten its its Islamic Islamic cultural cultural suzerainty suzerainty that or that the city's decline was already presaged by an insignificant event taktakor that the city's decline was already presaged by an insignificant event ing place at the the outer outer edges edges of of his dominions. II refer, refer, of of course, course, to to the the entry entry of of his dominions. ing place at what would would later later be be called called the the "modern "modern West" West" through through the the East East India India ComComwhat pany, began setting setting up up aa "factory" "factory" in in the port city city of of Masulipatam Masulipatam in the port in pany, which which began 1611. 1611. For almost almost aa hundred hundred years, years, the the city city flourished in an an approximation approximation of flourished in of For

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Chapter One One Chapter Mohammed Mohammed Quli's Quli's vision. vision. Even Even making making allowances allowances for for travelers' travelers' hyperbole, hyperbole, Hyderabad to have Hyderabad seems seems to have deserved deserved the the accolades accolades that that came came its its way way as as not not only but also Its only aa great great but also aa gracious gracious city, city with with considerable considerable hedonistic hedonistic charm. charm. Its puritan kind more pleasure-loving Islamic Islamic ethos ethos was was not not of of the the puritan kind but but of of the the more pleasure-loving Persian Persian variety. variety. Martin Martin gives gives appetizing appetizing details details of of his his dinner dinner on on the the evening evening of 28 28 June, June, 1681, 1681, with with aa Persian Persian noble noble at at Hyderabad's court—in fact, fact, the the of Hyderabad's court-in The number number and and quality quality of of the the dishes dishes served served on on brother-in-law of of the brother-in-law the king. king. 66 The this memorable memorable occasion occasion far far surpassed surpassed the the fare fare of of court court feasts feasts in in Turkey. Turkey Evthis Every quarter quarter of of an an hour, hour, at at the the ringing ringing of of aa bell, bell, fresh fresh glasses glasses of of wine wine were were ery served. Female dancers entertained the guests and were offered as companserved. Female dancers entertained the guests and were offered as companions for for the the night as farewell farewell gifts gifts by generous host. host. night as by aa generous ions Martin's however pleasant Martins evening, evening, however pleasant for for the the participants, participants, is is not not particparticularly remarkable. remarkable. Irrespective Irrespective of of the the period of history or region of the the ularly period of history or region of world, sensual sensual indulgence indulgence has has been been aa hallmark hallmark of of the the wealthy wealthy and and the the powpowworld, erful, of of what what soap soap television television today today calls calls "the "the lifestyles lifestyles of of the rich and and the the the rich erful, famous." famous." What What is is more more interesting interesting about about Hyderabad Hyderabad isis the the percolation percolation of of hehepopulation and donism donism into into the the lower lower strata strata of of the the city's city's population and its its satisfactory satisfactory partpartnership nership with with the the ends ends of of commerce commerce as as well well as as the the interests interests of of the the state. state. Tavernier, an an epicure epicure who who loved loved good good food food and and wine, wine, tells tells us, Tavernier, us, There the suburbs There are are so so many many public public women women in in the the town, town, the suburbs and and in in the the is like like another another town, town, that that itit isis estimated estimated there there are aregenergenerfortress, which which is fortress, ally more more than than 20,000 20,000 entered entered in in the Daroghas [the [the Commissioner Commissioner of the Darogha's of ally Police] register, register, without without which it is is not not allowed allowed to to any any woman to ply which it woman to ply Police] this trade. In In the the cool cool of of the the evening evening you you see see them them before before the the doors doors of of this trade. their houses, which which are are for for the the most most part part small small huts, huts, and and after after the the night night their houses, comes they at the the doors doors aa candle candle or or aa lighted lighted lamp lamp for for aa signal. signal. they place place at comes It is is then, then, also, also, that that the the shops shops where where they sell tari tari [palm [palm toddy] toddy] are are It they sell opened. The The king from the tax which which he he places places on on this this tari tariaa king derives derives from the tax opened. very considerable considerable revenue, revenue, and and it principally on on this this account account that that very it is is principally they allow allow so so many many public public women, women, because they are are the the cause cause of of the the they because they consumption of of much much tari.? tari.7 consumption Another notes the by the Another Frenchman, Frenchman, Thevenot, Thevenot, notes the liberty liberty enjoyed enjoyed by the women women of reof Hyderabad. Hyderabad. Their Their marriage marriage contracts contracts had had aa clause clause that that the the wife wife would would retain and could tain aa complete complete freedom freedom of of movement movement and could even even drink drink fari tari ififthat thatwas was her desirel her desire! In 1685, 1685, Hyderabad Hyderabad was was plundered plundered by by the the Mughals. Two years years later, later, it In Mughals. Two it was annexed annexed to to the the Mughal Mughal empire empire by by Aurangzeb, Aurangzeb, but the period period of of its its relarelabut the was tive obscurity obscurity was was brief. brief. In 1725, Nizam Nizam ul ul Mulk, Mulk, the the Mughal's Mughal's viceroy viceroy in in the the In 1725, tive

The The Setting Setting Deccan, Deccan, made made himself himself virtually virtually independent independent of of his his nominal nominal overlord. overlord. HyHydynasty, this this time time that of the the Asaf Asaf lahis Jahis derabad again again became became the the capital capital of of aa dynasty, derabad that of ("equal in in dignity dignity to to Asaf, Asaf, the the minister minister of of King King Solomon"), Solomon"), the the title given to to title given ("equal Nizam ul ul Mulk Mulk by by the the hapless hapless emperor emperor of of aa rapidly rapidly unraveling unraveling Mughal Mughal emNizam empire. pire. The threat to walls themselves The threat to the the fortunes fortunes of of the the walled walled city city (the (the walls themselves were were demolished in in the the 1920s 1920s to to relieve relieve traffic traffic congestion), congestion), however, however, did did not not arise arise demolished political map map during from from the the quick quick changes changes that that were were taking taking place place on on India's India's political during the eighteenth eighteenth and and nineteenth centuries. The impending danger danger was was more more the nineteenth centuries. The impending from the the process of modernization modernization which which picked picked up up pace pace in in the the wake wake of of the the process of from British the Nizam's British conquest conquest of of India. India. Although Although the Nizam's suzerainty suzerainty over over his his domindominions was was spared-he spared—he became became aa subordinate subordinate ally ally of of the the British British in in 1798-the 1798—the ions political, economic, economic, and and administrative administrative importance importance of of the the old old city city was was now now political, fatefully set set on on aa course course of of slow slow erosion. erosion. With With the the coming coming of of the the railway railway in in fatefully 1874 and and the the establishment establishment of of an an incipient incipient industrial industrial base base through through the setthe set1874 ting up up of of railway railway repair repair workshops workshops and and aa textile textile mill, mill, it it was clear, at at least least in ting was clear, in hindsight, that that the the northern northern part part of of the the city city outside outside the the fortified fortified walls walls held held hindsight, the key Hyderabad's future. future. the key to to Hyderabad's The The shift shift northward, northward, across across the the Musi Musi river, river, was was accelerated accelerated by by the the floods floods of the plague of 1908 1908 and and the plague of of 1911 1911 which which led led the the Nizam Nizam to to move move his his residence residence and administrative administrative offices offices out out of of the the walled walled city city to to the the north north of of the the river. river. The The and ruler's example example was was soon soon followed followed by by most most of of his his nobility. nobility. The The final blow to to ruler's final blow old Hyderabad was, of course, the integration of the state with the republic old Hyderabad was, of course, the integration of the state with the republic of India India after after the the country's country's independence independence from from British British rule. rule. This This meant meant not not of only the the dismantling dismantling of of the the Nizam's Nizam's administrative administrative machinery machinery but but also also the the only disappearance of of the the feudal feudal economic economic base base on on which which most most of of the the old old city's city's disappearance population had subsisted. subsisted. In In addition, addition, many many of of the the Muslim elite fled fled out out of Muslim elite of population had Hyderabad, mostly Pakistan. The The old old city city was was well well on on its its way way to to becoming becoming to Pakistan. Hyderabad, mostly to ghetto. As As Ratna Ratna Naidu Naidu in in her her sociological sociological study study of of Hyderabad Hyderabad has has obobaa ghetto. served, "Deprived "Deprived of of economic economic opportunities opportunities with the dismantling dismantling of of the the served, with the feudal structure, structure, and and deprived deprived of of its its elite, elite, who are usually powerful feudal who are usually the the powerful spokesmen for for the the enhancement enhancement of of civic civic amenities, amenities, the the walled city as as an an area area spokesmen walled city 8 languishes in in multiple multiple deprivation. deprivation. 8 The The deprivation deprivation is is not not only only material material but but languishes also psychological psychological and and cultural. cultural. also witness to process of inCulturally, Culturally, the the history history of of Hyderabad Hyderabad is is witness to aa process of ever ever inpart of creasing heterogenization. Although creasing heterogenization. Although the the Hindus Hindus were were always always aa part of what what was essentially essentially aa Muslim Muslim city, city, their their native Telegu culture culture was was clearly clearly aa suborsuborwas native Telegu dinate, "Iow" "low" culture culture in in the the preeminently preeminently Islamic Islamic scheme scheme of of things. things. In In the the dinate, eighteenth and and nineteenth nineteenth centuries, centuries, many many cultural cultural groups groups migrated migrated into into eighteenth

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Chapter One One Chapter Hyderabad Hyderabad from from other other parts parts of of the the country country and and even, even, as as in in the the case case of of the the Arabs, from from as as far far away away as as the the Middle Middle East. East. The The Arabs, Arabs, like like the the Marathas, Marathas, Arabs, to soldier Nizam/s army. trading communities came came to to Hyderabad Hyderabad to soldier in in the the Nizam's army. The The trading communities of the the Muslim from Gujarat Gujarat and and the the Hindu Marwadis from from Rajasthan Rajasthan of Muslim Bohras Bohras from Hindu Marwadis became prominent in the city's commercial life. Then there were the KayKaybecame prominent in the city/s commercial life. Then there were the asthas and and the Khatris from from north north India, India, traditionally traditionally the the backbone backbone of of many many asthas the Khatris an Indian Indian state/s state's administration, administration, who who played played aa similar similar role role in in the the Nizam/s Nizam's afafan fairs of of state. state. These These groups groups tended tended to to cluster cluster together together in in separate separate enclaves enclaves fairs where they they could could follow follow their their own own ways of religious religious and and community community life. life. ways of where This is is not not to to say say that that individuals individuals did did not not leaven leaven their their traditional traditional lifestyles lifestyles This with the the dominant dominant Perso-Islamic Perso-Islamic culture. culture. Many Many (especially (especially the the Kayasthas, Kayasthas, with who are well known for for their their identification identification with with the the masters masters they they have so who are well known have so ably served, served, whether whether the the ruler be British or Muslim) Muslim) would would cultivate cultivate an an apruler be British or apably preciation of of Urdu or adopt adopt the sartorial style style of of sherwani, sherwani,thethelong long the sartorial preciation Urdu poetry poetry or buttoned-up coat with with aa high high round round collar collar andgumi and^wm/ topi, topi,aacousin cousinofofthe theTurkTurkbuttoned-up coat ish fez. fez. They They would would prefer prefer Hyderabad/s Hyderabad's distinctive distinctive cuisine cuisine and and its its gracious gracious ish modes of of public public address address and and speech. speech. Yet, Yet, on on the the whole, whole, the lifestyles of of the the modes the lifestyles various groups in the rest of the population—their customs, mores, architecvarious groups in the rest of the population-their customs, mores, architectural styles, styles, food food habits-remained habits—remained distinctive. distinctive. In In the seventeenth century, century, the seventeenth tural for instance, instance, in in the the inns inns set set up up by by the the Qutub Qutub Shah Shahis for poor travelers, Musfor is for poor travelers, Musdole of of bread, rice, or or vegetables already cooked cooked whereas whereas "the "the lims received vegetables already lims received aa dole bread, rice, idolaters, who eat nothing which has been prepared by others, are given flour idolaters, who eat nothing which has been prepared by others, are given flour to make make bread bread and and aa little little butter butter and and as as soon soon as as their their bread bread is is baked they to baked they 9 cover it it on on both both sides sides with with melted melted butter."9 butter." As As in in the the rest rest of of the the country, country, in cover in the medieval medieval period, period, Hindus and Muslims Muslims shared shared activities activities and and experiences experiences the Hindus and in the the public public realm realm "even "even though though in in private private they they were were completely completely segregated, segregated, in 10 almost opposed to each other." In short, it was a multicultural coexistence almost opposed to each other."tO In short, it was a multicultural coexistence rather than any any merger into aa single, single, composite composite culture; culture,- Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims merger into rather than lived together separately. They They were were more more than than strangers, strangers, not often enemies, enemies, lived together separately. not often but less less than friends. but than friends. After After Hyderabad/s Hyderabad's integration integration with with independent independent India, India, the the heterogeniheterogenization percolated even zation percolated even into into the the mohallas mohallasasasHindus Hindusbegan begantotoreplace replacethe theMusMuslims who who had had left left for for Pakistan. Pakistan. Thus Thus from from 1951 1951 to to 1961/ 1961, the Muslim lims the Muslim population of of the old city city declined declined from from 69 69 percent to 55 55 percent percent while while the the percent to population the old Hindu population increased from from 21 21 percent percent to to 40 40 percent, percent, aa trend trend which which Hindu population increased began to reversed only only after after the the violence the two two communities communities to be be reversed violence between between the began became endemic. endemic. The The recurrent recurrent bloodletting bloodletting in in the the past pastfifteen years has has had had fifteen years became the demographic demographic consequence consequence that that Muslims from the the outlying outlying areas areas began began the Muslims from to flee flee to to the old city city as as if if to to aa fortress fortress while while the the Hindu Hindu exodus exodus was was in in the the to the old

The The Setting Setting reverse Muslim population reverse direction. direction. Currently, Currently, the the Muslim population of of the the old old city city is is estiestimated at at around around 70 70 percent. percent. mated Contemporary not aa city parContemporary Hyderabad Hyderabad is is certainly certainly not city for for those those with with aa parMusi river _tiality for nostalgia. nostalgia. The tiality for The Musi river has has long long ceased ceased to to be be one. one. It It is is aa stinking stinking sewer without the sewer's sewer's saving saving grace grace of of flowing flowing water water which which at at least least keeps keeps sewer without the the garbage garbage moving. moving. The The Musi is but but aa marshy marshy tract tract between between the the old old and and the Musi now now is the new new cities, cities, with with slime-covered slime-covered puddles puddles and and aa sewage-borne sewage-borne creeping, creeping, the crawling, and and buzzing buzzing life life which, which, to to me, me, makes makes Hyderabad Hyderabad the mosquito the mosquito crawling, capital of of India. India. Like Like the the river, river, there is no longer an an "old "old city" city" of of medieval medieval there is no longer capital Islam. Leprous beggars asking for alms in the name of Allah are still to be be Islam. Leprous beggars asking for alms in the name of Allah are still to found but but the the nobles, nobles, taking taking the the evening evening air air dressed dressed in in flowing flowing muslim found muslim ropes, ropes, are long long gone. gone. There There are are no no carriages carriages clattering clattering on on the streets or or the unpaved unpaved streets are groups of of veiled veiled women, women, hinting hinting at at suppressed suppressed laughter laughter and and whispered whispered assiggroups assignations, gliding gliding through through the the brightly brightly lit lit bazaars bazaars redolent redolent with strong flowery flowery nations, with strong perfumes and and the smell of of fresh fresh horse horse droppings, droppings, the the shops shops stocked stocked with with perfumes the smell choice wares wares from from Persia, Persia, Arabia, and the the rest rest of of Hindostan. Hindostan. choice Arabia, and Today, Today, the the old old city city is is barely barely one one step step ahead ahead of of being being aa vast vast ghetto ghetto of of over over thatthat areare aa million million people, people, living living in in settlements, settlements, the the basfis, bastis,and andthe themohallas, mohallas, homogeneous in in their their religious and caste caste compositions. compositions. Small Small houses houses homogeneous religious and stacked side side by by side side line line winding alleys which which are are negotiable negotiable only only by by foot foot or or winding alleys stacked bicycle. Goats, Goats, dogs, dogs, and and chickens, chickens, coexisting coexisting in in the harmony of of the the chronchronbicycle. the harmony ically hungry, hungry, rummage through the the refuse refuse littering littering the the open open spaces. spaces. UnemUnemically rummage through ployed young young men men stride stride purposefully purposefully through through the the lanes, lanes, even even if if the the purpose purpose ployed is only only to to buy buy aa cigarette cigarette from from aa corner corner shop shop or or to to impress impress any any hidden hidden female female is watcher with their their purposeful purposeful mien. mien. Children Children play play the the staple staple games games of of the the watcher with poor—hopscotch for the the girls girls while the boys after an an old old bicycle bicycle tire, poor-hopscotch for while the boys run run after tire, kept rolling in aa wobbly wobbly motion motion as as much much by excitement as as by by the the by their their excitement kept rolling in strokes of of the the stick stick propelling propelling it it forward. forward. strokes The picture of walled city, Naidu, is disThe economic economic picture of the the walled city, described described by by Naidu, is dispercent of number of of mal. mal.1IIx The The working working population population is is around around 30 30 percent of the the total total number inhabitants. The The largest largest number, number, about about aa third, third, are are skilled skilled and and semiskilled semiskilled inhabitants. artisans engaged engaged in in the the traditional traditional occupations occupations of of weaving, weaving, pottery, sandal artisans pottery, sandal making, and and food food preparation. preparation. About About aa quarter quarter of of the the working working population population making, earns its livelihood from from casual casual daily daily wage wage work, as pushcart pushcart vendors vendors of of vegevegeearns its livelihood work, as tables and fruits, hawkers of trinkets, pullers of rickshaws, scavengers, and tables and fruits, hawkers of trinkets, pullers of rickshaws, scavengers, and other low-prestige low-prestige occupations occupations such such as as watchmen watchmen and and messenger messenger boys boys in other in government offices. offices. The The fabled fabled earnings earnings of of the Muslims who went to to work the Muslims who went work in in government the Arab Arab countries countries of of the the Persian Persian Gulf Gulf have have brought brought only only minor minor changes changes into into the the lives lives and and the the living living standards standards of of their their families. families. They They have have provided provided only only aa the

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Chapter Chapter One One temporary respite economic hardship. temporary respite from from pervasive pervasive economic hardship. The The Gulf Gulf connection connection of the Muslims has had more social and cultural rather than economic conseof the Muslims has had more social and cultural rather than economic conseis quences; pride which quences; for for instance, instance, it it has has resulted resulted in in aa greater greater pan-Islamic pan-Islamic pride which is visible in in the the sleek sleek new new mosques mosques that that have have recently recently been been built in the the Muslimvisible built in Muslimdominated areas areas of of the the walled walled city. city. dominated The poor, but but its poverty is disThe city city is is poor, its poverty is more more aa general general unkemptness unkemptness and and disorder than drabness. order than drabness. Economic Economic deprivation deprivation has has not not smothered smothered Hyderabad's Hyderabad's vivid definition. vitality or vitality or dulled dulled its its desire desire for for vivid definition. Even Even in in destitute destitute mohallas mohallasthere there are startling startling splashes splashes of of color. color. Here, Here, only only the front door door has has been been painted; painted,are the front there, the wooden wooden shutters shutters of of aa small small window. window. Green, Green, the the color color of of the the there, the faithful, is is the the most most preferred. preferred. It It ranges ranges in in hue hue from from aa bilious bilious green green to the faithful, to the freshly planted planted paddy green of of those those gleaming gleaming new new mosques of the the last last two two mosques of freshly paddy green decades. Occasionally, Occasionally, there there is is aa swathe swathe of of sunflower sunflower yellow across aa house house yelJow across decades. front, but but another another universal universal favorite of both both the Hindus and and the the Muslims front, favorite of the Hindus Muslims apappears to be a cheap metallic blue, the color of the sky on glossy religious pears to be a cheap metallic blue, the color of the sky on glossy religious posters. Hyderabad's Hyderabad's bazaars bazaars and and the of its its well-to-do citizens favor favor the houses houses of well-to-do citizens posters. ornamental wrought wrought iron iron grills grills for for the the shutters shutters of of their shops and and gates. gates. The The their shops ornamental work is is intricate intricate and and distinctive, distinctive, giving giving the the impression impression of of swirling swirling curlicues curlicues work and scimitars, scimitars, of of Persian Persian calJigraphy calligraphy cast cast in in iron. iron. and Hindus Versions of Hindus and and Muslims: Muslims: Versions of the the Past Past My aim here is My aim here is not not to to write write aa history history of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations relations in in HyHyderabad the preceding years. It derabad for for the preceding three three hundred hundred years. It is is both both more more modest modest and and in in that II would some ways more some ways more ambitious. ambitious. It It is is modest modest in in that would like like to to get get for for myself myself and way Hindus and convey convey to to readers readers aa general general impression impression of of the the way Hindus and and Muslims Muslims have have felt felt about about each each other, other, whenever whenever they they have have felt felt as as Hindus Hindus or or as as Muslims Muslims or, more psychological psychological words, or, in in other, other, more words, whenever whenever overarching overarching religious religious identities become salient identities have have become salient and and dwarfed dwarfed other other group group identities identities through through which because histohistowhich individuals individuals also also experience experience themselves. themselves. It It is is difficult difficult because rians rians are are of of little little help help in in an an enterprise enterprise which which is is so so contentious contentious and and where where the the the historian's pointerpretation historical data interpretation of of historical data is is so so inseparable inseparable from from the historian's own own pothese comlitical litical aims, aims, ideological ideological commitments, commitments, and and the the strong strong emotions emotions these comYet some mitments mitments often often generate. generate. Yet some sense sense of of this this past past is is utterly utterly necessary necessary for for my my enterprise, enterprise, considering considering the the myriad myriad reflections reflections in in which which II was was to to encounencounwhere collective memoter it ter it in in the the present. present. In In an an ancient ancient country country like like India, India, where collective memories reach years, cultural be as as ries reach back back thousands thousands of of years, cultural psychology psychology can can never never be ahistorical young country ahistorical as as it it may may be be in in aa young country like like the the United United States. States. Cultural Cultural psychology in reprepsychology in India India must must necessarily necessarily include include the the study study of of the the psychic psychic repre-

The Setting The Setting sentations sentations of of collective collective pasts, pasts, the the way way collective collective memories memories are are transmitted transmitted through through generations, generations, and and the the ways ways the the past past is is used used as as aa receptacle receptacle for for projecprojections the present. tions from from the present. The past of relaThe chief chief protagonists protagonists of of the the debate debate on on the the past of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relapassion are tions tions which which excites excites so so much much contemporary contemporary passion are the the secularist secularist (both (both Hindu and and Muslim) Muslim) on on the the one one side side and and the Hindu nationalist on the the other, other, Hindu the Hindu nationalist on with the Muslim fundamentalist fundamentalist and and the the Hindu Hindu revivalist revivalist on on the the sidelines, sidelines, with the Muslim trying to to inject inject their their particular particular brand brand of of venom in the the proceedings. The detrying venom in proceedings. The debate has has momentous momentous consequences, consequences, its its winner winner aiming aiming at at nothing nothing less less than than bate the capture of of India's India's political political soul soul and and the the chance chance to to shape shape its its destiny destiny in in the the the capture coming decades. decades. coming The asThe secularist secularist faction-framer faction—framer of of India's India's constitution constitution and and politically politically ascendant the time time of cendant since since the of Nehru-comprises Nehru—comprises most most of of the the Western-educated Western-educated liberal is greatly greatly influential influential in in academia. academia.x122 Hindu Hindu liberal and and leftist leftist intelligentsia intelligentsia and and is and and Muslim, Muslim, the the secularist secularist avers, avers, are are relatively relatively recent recent categories categories in in Indian Indian history. history. Before Before the the late late nineteenth nineteenth century,_ century, overarching overarching religious religious entities entities and and identities such such as as Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim did did not exist. Among Among the the Hindus, Hindus, there there identities not exist. were various various sects sects frequently frequently at at odds odds with each other; other,- nor did Indian Indian Muswere with each nor did Muslims constitute constitute aa monolithic Islamic collectivity. collectivity. The The secularist secularist goes goes on on to to lims monolithic Islamic draw draw aa picture picture of of widespread widespread Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim symbiosis symbiosis of of the the precolonial precolonial and the development popular relireliand early early colonial colonial periods periods and and the development of of aa syncretic syncretic popular village level, both from Isgion, gion, especially especially at at the the village level, which which borrows borrows elements elements both from Islamic practice and Hindu ritual as lamic practice and Hindu ritual while while it it reveres reveres Muslim Muslim saints saints as as much much as Hindu holy men. Hindu holy men. The the terms terms "re"reThe secularist secularist view view makes makes aa clear-cut clear-cut distinction distinction between between the ligious" Anglo-American lexical ligious" and and "communal"; "communal"; the the latter latter is is not not used used in in its its Anglo-American lexical sense, meaning meaning someone someone who who is is altruistic altruistic and and ciVic-minded, civic-minded, but but in in its its specifispecifisense, cally Indian Indian meaning meaning of of one one whose whose exclusive exclusive attachment attachment to to his his or or her her comcomcally munity is is combined combined with with an an active active hostility hostility against against other other communities communities munity which share share its its geographical geographical and and political space. Whereas Whereas religion religion is is solely solely political space. which seen as as aa matter matter of of personal personal faith faith and and reverence for aa particular set of of icons, seen reverence for particular set icons, rituals, and and dogmas, dogmas, communalism communalism is is aa more morecollective collective affair affair which which involves involves aa rituals, community's politics politics and and economics economics as as much much as as its its faith. faith. Communalism Communalism not not community's only produces an identification with a religious community but also with its only produces an identification with a religious community but also with its political, economic, economic, social social and and cultural cultural interests interests and and aspirations. aspirations. This This identiidentipolitical, fication is is accompanied accompanied by by the the strong strong belief belief that that these these interests interests not only dinot only dification verge from from but but are are in in actual actual conflict conflict with with the the interests interests of of other other communities. communities. verge In this this view, view, the and early early colonial colonial period conflicts between between In the precolonial precolonial and period conflicts Hindus and and Muslims Muslims were were rare. rare. Whenever Whenever they they occurred, occurred, they they were were essenessenHindus

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Chapter One One Chapter tially that is, tially religious religious in in nature, nature, that is, the the conflicts conflicts were were over over religious religious symbols symbols procession, issues such such as as the the route route or or form form taken taken by by aa religious religious procession, issues of of control control over over temples temples or or mosques, mosques, and and so so on. on. Twentieth-century Twentieth-century conflicts, conflicts, on on the the other other hand, hand, have have been been initiated initiated by by communal communal ideologies ideologies and and are are basically basically over over clashing clashing economic economic interests. interests. In In the the secularist secularist view, view, even even the the religious religious persecution persecution of of Hindus Hindus by by such such eighteenth-century eighteenth-century monarchs monarchs as as the the Mughal Mughal emperor emperor Aurangzeb Aurangzeb or, or, later, later, by by Tipu Tipu Sultan Sultan in in South South India, India, were were dictated dictated by by reasons particular ruler. reasons of of state state rather rather than than the the communal communal ideology ideology of of any any particular ruler. the destruction their temtemAurangzeb's Aurangzeb's discrimination discrimination against against Hindus Hindus and and the destruction of of their ples is is interpreted interpreted as as an an attempt attempt to to reformulate ideological basis of the the ples reformulate the the ideological basis of late Mughal Mughal state, state, while while Tipu's Tipu's attacks attacks on on Hindu Hindu temples temples and and the the Hindu Hindu cullate culture of of the the Kerala Kerala Nayars Nayars was was aa deliberate deliberate act act of of policy policy rather rather than than of of reliture reli13 gious gious fanaticism. fanaticism.13 The holds that The secularist secularist holds that communalism, communalism, and and the the consequent consequent large-scale large-scale to spread nineviolence violence between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, began began to spread in in the the late late nineteenth 14 To To counter counter aa growing growing Indian Indian teenth century century chiefly chiefly because because of of colonialism. colonialism.14 rule" policy by dedenationalism, he he argues, nationalism, argues, the the British British followed followed aa "divide "divide and and rule" policy by of liberately liberately strengthening strengthening Muslim Muslim communalism. communalism. The The rapid rapid diffusion diffusion of nineteenth-century revivalism and nineteenth-century Hindu Hindu revivalism and of of pan-Islamism pan-Islamism in in the the following following the products century, century, again again the products of of Asia's Asia's colonial colonial encounter encounter with with the the imperial imperial the rise West, was West, was another another reason reason for for the rise of of communalism. communalism. Yet Yet another another factor factor was the the decline was decline of of the the syncretic syncretic warrior warrior of of the the eighteenth eighteenth century, century, who who had had been forged who served been forged in in the the mixed mixed bands bands of of soldiers, soldiers, Hindu Hindu and and Muslim, Muslim, who served various various kings, kings, again again Hindu Hindu or or Muslim, Muslim, or or foraged foraged on on their their own own in in the the anaranarchic political conditions unchic political conditions which which prevailed prevailed in in India India as as the the Mughal Mughal empire empire unraveled. raveled. The basic fabric of of India, India, though, though, remains remains syncretic, syncretic, aa commingling commingling of The basic fabric of Islamic influences influences with with Hindu Hindu traditions. traditions. Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims are are not not diIslamic divided along vided along any any cultural cultural or or social-psychological social-psychological lines lines except except in in the the narrow narrow area personal faith. area of of personal faith. The that aa fundamental between Hindus The Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist argues argues that fundamental divide divide between Hindus and history which and Muslims Muslims is is aa basic basic fact fact of of Indian Indian history which is is ignored ignored by by the the secularsecular15 The anist. ist. 15 The Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist would would support support the the contention contention of of the the French French anthropologist Marc Gaborieau, Gaborieau, that that Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims found found their their identity identity thropologist Marc in the the deepest deepest sentiments sentiments of of opposition opposition between between the the two, two, sentiments sentiments that that are are in traceable throughout throughout the the nine nine centuries centuries of of Indo-Muslim Indo-Muslim history, history, from from the the traceable writings ofthe of the Arab Al-Beruni in in the the eleventh eleventh century century to}innah, to Jinnah, the the writings Arab traveler traveler AI-Beruni t6 founder of of Pakistan Pakistan in in the the twentieth. twentieth.16 The The Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist is is thus thus in in basic founder basic agreement with with Pakistani historians who too support support the the "two "two nations" nations" thewho too theagreement Pakistani historians

The The Setting Setting ory the syncretic ory and and label label Akbar, Akbar, the syncretic Mughal Mughal monarch monarch who who is is aa hero hero to to the the secusecularist, larist, as as an an apostate apostate to to Islam. Islam. In nationalist view, In the the Hindu Hindu nationalist view, the the conflict conflict between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims is is squarely squarely religious, religious, indeed indeed theological. theological. Its Its roots roots lie lie in in Islam's Islam's exclusive exclusive claim claim to truth truth and and its its refusal to grant grant equal equal status status to to Hindu Hindu beliefs beliefs and and doctrines. doctrines. to refusal to Islam's division division of of people into believers believers and and infidels infidels and and the the world world into into arenas arenas Islam's people into of peace—dar-ul-lslam—and of conflict-dar-ul-harb-which conflict—dar-ul-harb—which led led to to terrible terrible of peace-dar-ul-Islam-and of cruelties against against the the Hindu Hindu infidel's infidel's person person and and religious religious shrines shrines over over hunhuncruelties dreds of years, cannot be erased from Hindu collective memory. Moreover, dreds of years, cannot be erased from Hindu collective memory. Moreover, the Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist maintains, maintains, the the Muslim Muslim continues continues to to persist persist in in intolintolthe erance, in in the that all all that that is is outside outside the the Qur'an Quran is is an an error error if if not not an an erance, the belief belief that abomination. The The Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist avers avers that that secularists secularists seem seem to to direct direct abomination. their arguments arguments and and appeals appeals only only toward toward the the Hindus Hindus since since they they are are firmly their firmly rejected by by the the Muslims Muslims who who seek seek identity identity in in their their own own religious religious tradition tradition rejected and personal personal laws laws even even when when those those go go against against the the very very fundamentals fundamentals of of aa and secular state. state. The The roots roots of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim conflict conflict lie lie in in Muslim Muslim religious religious ininsecular tolerance, Muslim Muslim failure failure to to outgrow outgrow aa medieval medieval bigotry, bigotry, and and the the inability inability to to tolerance, learn, in in the the absence absence of of guidelines guidelines in in the the Qur'an, Quran, how how to to live live in in aa state state which which learn, is not not Muslim-controlled. Muslim-controlled. is To To summarize: summarize: the the story story of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations relations takes takes on on different different the color is hues hues depending depending upon upon the color of of the the ideological ideological lenses lenses through through which which it it is viewed. with leftist is viewed. For For the the liberal liberal historian historian or or one one with leftist leanings, leanings, the the story story is bathed roseate glow glow of of the the precolonial precolonial golden golden age age of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim amambathed in in aa roseate ity. these storytellers, tale is flowering of ity. For For these storytellers, the the tale is of of aa commingling commingling and and flowering of aa is composite tradition, especially composite cultural cultural tradition, especially in in art, art, music, music, and and architecture. architecture.t177Jt It is the of the story story of of aa gradual gradual drawing drawing closer closer of of Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims in in the the forms forms of their their daily daily lives lives and and of of an an enthusiastic enthusiastic participation participation in in each each other's other's festivals. festivals. In this this vision, vision, there there is is little little room room for for conflict conflict between between the the communities. communities. SpoIn Sporadic reliradic outbreaks outbreaks of of violence violence needing needing some some explanation explanation are are almost almost never never religious gious in in their their origin origin but but dictated dictated by by local local economic economic interests interests and and political political compulsions. To To the the conservative conservative Hindu Hindu nationalist, on the the other other hand, for compulsions. nationalist, on hand, for whom the the Hindu Hindu saffron saffron and and the the Muslim Muslim green green do do not not mix mix to create aa pale pale whom to create pink, the rift between the two two communities communities is is aa fundamental fundamental fact fact of of Indian Indian pink, the rift between the history. They They see see Hindu-Muslim framed by thousand-year-old history. Hindu-Muslim relations relations framed by aa thousand-year-old "civilizational" conflict conflict in in which the Muslims, militarily victorious victorious and and politiMuslims, militarily politi"civilizational" which the cally ascendant ascendant for for centuries, centuries, tried to impose impose Islamic Islamic civilization civilization on on their their cally tried to Hindu subjects subjects through through all all means, means, from from coercion coercion to to bribery and cajolery, cajolery, and and Hindu bribery and yet had had only only limited limited success. success. The The composite composite civilization, civilization, according according to to this this yet view, was was limited limited to small sections sections of of the around the the Muslim Muslim view, to small the population population around

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Chapter Chapter One One courts incourts and and to to court-patronized court-patronized arts arts like like music music and and architecture. architecture. It It also also included ways of of cluded some some Hindus Hindus who who adopted adopted the the Persian-inspired Persian-inspired language language and and ways life of of their their rulers. rulers. The The vast vast majority majority of of Hindus Hindus kept kept their their civilizational civilizational core core life intact while they resentfully tolerated the the Muslim Muslim onslaught. onslaught. In In this this view, view, the the resentfully tolerated intact while they outbreaks of of violence violence between between the the two communities were were inevitable inevitable whenwhenoutbreaks two communities ever Muslim Muslim dominance dominance was was threatened; threatened; the the rage rage of of the the denigrated denigrated Hindu, Hindu, ever stored up up over over long long periods of time, time, had had to to explode explode once once historical historical circumcircumstored periods of stances sanctioned sanctioned such such eruptions. eruptions. stances Between Between Enemy Enemy Lines Lines

To look look critically critically at at any any aspect aspect of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations relations today today is is aa task task To fraught with difficulty As political fraught less less with difficulty than than with with trepidation. trepidation. As political passions passions run run high, aa commitment commitment to to either either the the secularist secularist or or the the Hindu Hindu nationalist view is nationalist view is high, considered considered almost almost mandatory. mandatory. Any Any critique critique which which is is seen seen as as deviating deviating from from the the one one or or the the other other easily easily invites invites the the epithets epithets of of "cryptofascist" "cryptofascist" from from one one side the other. are side and and "pseudosecularist" "pseudosecularist" from from the other. Both Both "crypto-" "crypto-" and and "pseudo-" "pseudo-" are angry words, words, the the former former connoting connoting aa base base veiling veiling of of real intent, the the latter latter angry real intent, alluding alluding to to aa fake fake or or malicious malicious deception. deception. Yet, Yet, as as impotant impotant as as it it is is to to stand stand up up and be counted, there there is is still still aa place place for for standing standing aside aside and and counting, counting, someand be counted, something II intend intend to to do do when when examining examining the two different different views views of of the the HinduHinduthing the two Muslim past. For, ideally, ideally, the the psychoanalyst psychoanalyst is is essentially essentially an an onlooker onlooker and and Muslim past. For, commentator commentator on on the the worlds worlds of of love love and and hate. hate. Still Still somewhat somewhat starry-eyed starry-eyed afafter so so many many years years in in the the profession, profession, II see ter see the the psychoanalyst psychoanalyst standing standing outside outside the fray, fray, unmoved unmoved by the violent that swirl swirl all all around: around: his his only only intelintelthe by the violent passions passions that lectual lectual commitment commitment to to aa questioning questioning that that does does not not seek seek answers answers but but encourencournoble and ages suspicion evoked evoked by by ideals ideals excessively excessively noble and ideas ideas ages reflection, reflection, his his suspicion particularly en envogue, vogue, hishis interest interest aroused aroused byby allall that that is tabooed. is tabooed. It is It comfortis comfortparticularly ing for for me me to to remember-to remember—to counteract counteract my my guilt guilt at at not not being being able able to to live live up up ing to the the ideal-that ideal—that an an analyst analyst is is also also compassionate compassionate toward toward ideals ideals that that are to are fallen short short of, of, including including his his own, own, since since II know know my my own own emotional emotional involveinvolvefallen ment in the issue issue will will not always allow allow me me the the neutrality neutrality II may may strive strive for. for. ment in the not always Let with the Let me me begin begin with the fallacies fallacies of of the the secularist secularist position position which, which, II believe, believe, has has underestimated underestimated the the extent extent of of the the historical historical rift rift between between Hindus Hindus and and MusMusto its view of In lims lims and and has has thus thus invited invited aa backlash backlash to its Panglossian Panglossian view of the the past. past. In other other words, words, the the secularist secularist has has tended tended to to downplay downplay the the dark dark side side of of HinduHinduMuslim relations relations in Muslim in India. India. Scholars Scholars sympathetic sympathetic to to this this viewpoint viewpoint have have pointed not only product of copointed out out that that Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim conflicts conflicts are are not only aa product of the the colonial period but also also occurred occurred in in precolonial times and and were were often often also lonial period but precolonial times also

The The Setting Setting

communal—in the the secular secular understanding understanding of of the the term-rather term—rather than than relicommunal-in reli18 IS gious. gious. In In the the medieval medieval period, period, even even the the Sufis, Sufis, the the Islamic Islamic mystics mystics who who are are so so often often held held up up as as examples examples of of "composite "composite culture," culture/' the the syncretic syncretic Muslims Muslims par par excellence, hadhad serious limits to to their tolerance. In In thethe question of of faith they excellence, serious limits their tolerance. question faith they were unequivocal about Islam and were unequivocal about the the superiority superiority of of Islam and the the hellish hellish fate fate in in store store judgment day. for for the the Hindu Hindu infidels infidels on on judgment day. As As Muzaffar Muzaffar Alam Alam puts puts it: it:"Indeed, "Indeed, in in relation relation to to Hindus, Hindus, often often it it is is difficult difficult to to distinguish distinguish between between an an orthodox orthodox theologian theologian [the [the obstreperous obstreperous mullah mullahofofHindu Hinduimagination] imagination]and anda aliberal liberalmysmys19 practices of of tic."19 tic." Many Many aa Sufi Sufi was was openly openly hostile hostile to to the the religion religion and and social social practices the power-that the the Hindus, Hindus, paranoid-even paranoid—even at at the the zenith zenith of of Muslim Muslim power—that the Hindus Hindus would would obliterate obliterate Islamic Islamic laws, laws, Islam, Islam, and and the the Muslim Muslim community community ifif they they ever ever captured captured political political power. power. Alam Alam summarizes summarizes the the Muslim Muslim side side of of the the believed that IsHindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim equation equation thus: thus: "An "An average average literate literate Muslim Muslim believed that Islam and and Hinduism Hinduism belonged belonged to to two radically diverse diverse traditions traditions and and that that the the lam two radically twain would never never meet."20 meet."20 To To emphasize emphasize the the sense sense of of separate separate identities, identities, of twain would of the distance distance between between the two communities, communities, even even common common social social practices practices the the two 21 21 Thus came to to be be known known as as Hinduwani andMusalmani. Musalmani. Thus although Hindu Hinduwani and although Hindu andand came Muslim identities identities were were not not as as fixed and continuous continuous over over time as the the Hindu Hindu fixed and time as Muslim nationalist neither were were these identities absent absent as as claimed claimed by by the the nationalist believes, believes, neither these identities secularist. In In the the medieval for large large sections sections of of people, Hindu and and medieval period, period, for people, Hindu secularist. Muslim identities identities were rather than than continuous, continuous, occasionally occasionally Muslim were intermittent intermittent rather flowering rather rather than than perpetually perpetually in in full full bloom, bloom, evoked evoked whenever whenever religious religious flowering symbols and and sentiments sentiments moved moved to to the forefront of of conscious conscious concern, concern, which which the forefront symbols was mostly mostly when when they they were were perceived perceived to be threatened threatened or or under actual atatto be under actual was tack. tack. The the aversion The secularist secularist underestimation underestimation of of the aversion between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims and and the the denial denial of of the the existence existence of of any any kind of collective, collective, cultural cultural Muslims kind of identities reliance of identities in in the the past past derives, derives, II believe, believe, from from the the reliance of many many historians historians and political scientists and political scientists on on objective objective rather rather than than subjective, subjective, experiential experiential data, data, thiS, let me which which is is more more often often mined mined by by the the anthropologist. anthropologist. To To illustrate illustrate this, let me take the the earlier earlier example example of of TIpu Tipu Sultan, Sultan, whose whose destruction destruction of of some some Hindu Hindu take temples temples and and persecution persecution of of certain certain Hindu Hindu groups groups are are objectively objectively considered considered as the temple as motivated motivated by by his his suspicion suspicion of of the the loyalty loyalty of of these these groups groups and and of of the temple priests' close priests' close ties ties to to the the Hindu Hindu house house of of Wodiyar Wodiyar which which Tlpu Tipu and and his his father father had replaced. replaced. TIpu Tipu did did not go on on any any general general anti-Hindu anti-Hindu rampage rampage and and in in fact fact had not go even supported supported some some temples temples with with donations donations from from the the state state coffers. coffers. even There which has There is is another, another, unwritten unwritten version version of of these these incidents incidents which has gone gone the making making of into into the of what what II would would call call the the "cultural "cultural memory" memory" (a (a term term IIprefer prefertoto

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if 88 Chapter Chapter One One "collective "collective memory") memory") of of many many Hindus. Hindus. Cultural Cultural memory memory is is the the imaginative imaginative basis vital basis for for aa sense sense of of cultural cultural identity. identity. For For isn't isn't imagination imagination aa memory memory of of vital moments of of life life freed freed from from their their actual, actual, historical context? Cultural Cultural memory, memory, historical context? moments freed from from rootedness is as imagtoo, is too, is aa group's group's history history freed rootedness in in time-it time—it is as much much imagination as as the the actual actual events events that that go go into into its its construction. construction. The The cultural cultural memmemination ory of of l1pu's Tipu's action action (as (as of of Aurangzeb's) Aurangzeb's) has markedly different different flavor flavor from from ory has aa markedly A very very different different realm realm of of experience experience and and disdiswhat one reads in history history texts. texts. A what one reads in tinctive emotion emotion is is evoked evoked in in aa believing believing Hindu Hindu who who reads or hears hears about about reads or tinctive Tipu forcibly forcibly circumcising circumcising Brahmins and compelling compelling them them afterward afterward to to eat eat llpu Brahmins and cow's flesh flesh as as an an unequivocal unequivocal token of their their loss loss of of caste. caste. That That Hindu Hindu shares shares cow's token of the indignation indignation of of those seventeenth-century compatriots compatriots at at llpu's Tipu's destrucdestructhe those seventeenth-century tion of of the the temple temple and and their their relief relief when when they they are arefinally rid of of "the "the yoke yoke of of this this finally rid tion tyrant."22 Indeed, Indeed, it it would would be be odd odd to to expect, expect, as as the secularist sometimes sometimes the secularist tyrant."22 seems to to do, do, that that such such aa deeply deeply religious religious people as the the Hindus Hindus would would have have seems people as raisond'{tat d'etat reacted understood the the mysterious workings of of llpu's Tipu's raison andand notnot reacted understood mysterious workings with disgust disgust and and horror horror to to what what clearly clearly seemed seemed to to be be aa brazen brazen attack attack on on their their with religious sentiments and and cherished cherished symbols symbols of of faith. faith. religious sentiments The ethnographers ethnographers of of the seventeenth, eighteenth, eighteenth, and and nineteenth nineteenth cencenThe the seventeenth, turies, who who were were also also the the cultural cultural psychologists psychologists of of their eras, are are preemipreemitheir eras, turies, nently the the European European travelers. Generally looking looking down down upon upon India India and and its nently travelers. Generally its peoples from the the heights heights of of European European superiority, superiority, the the travelers travelers are are especially especially peoples from contemptuous of of the the Hindus, Hindus, who who are are mostly referred to to as as idolators idolators or or GenGenmostly referred contemptuous tiles, whereas whereas the the Muslims, Muslims, clearly clearly identified identified as as such, such, are are more more familiar familiar to to the the tiles, Christian and and thus thus less less an an object object of of mystery mystery or or scorn. scorn. Lacking Lacking in in any any knowlChristian knowledge of of the the country's country's religious religious traditions, traditions, the the travelers' travelers' interest interest is is excited excited by by edge what appear appear to to them them as as strange strange Hindu Hindu ceremonies, ceremonies, rituals, rituals, and and customscustoms— what with an an emphasis emphasis on on temple temple courtesans, courtesans, burning burning of of Widows, widows, and and orgiastic orgiastic with religiosity. religiosity. From reFrom the the travelers, travelers, then, then, we we can can only only get get pointers pointers to to Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations by paying attention to casual observations and throwaway remarks lations by paying attention to casual observations and throwaway remarks that are are adjunct adjunct to to the the European's Europeans main main interest interest in in describing describing to countrymen that to countrymen at home home the the political and economic economic situation situation of of India India and and the unfamiliar at political and the unfamiliar manners and and mores mores of of its inhabitants. Thus, Thus, for for instance, instance, we get the the followfollowits inhabitants. we get manners ing observation observation from from the the French French traveler, Francois Bernier, Bernier, who who traveled traveled in in ing traveler, Franc;ois the Mughal Mughal empire empire between between 1656 1656 and and 1668: 1668: ''The "The tenth tenth incarnation incarnation (of (of the Vishnu), say the the Gentiles, Gentiles, will will have have for for its its object object the the emancipation emancipation of of manmanVishnu), say kind from the the tyranny tyranny of of the the Mahometan, Mahometan, and and it it will will take place at at aa time time kind from take place when according according to to our our calculation, calculation, Anti-Christ Anti-Christ is is to to appear; appear; this this is is however however when but popular tradition, tradition, not not to to be be found found in in their their sacred sacred books."23 books."23 Such Such scatscatbut aa popular

The The Setting Setting tered be taken tered remarks, remarks, lacking lacking the the necessary necessary context, context, cannot cannot be taken as as an an accurate accurate description description of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations. relations. They They do, do, however, however, make make us us doubt doubt the widespread amity, sulthe picture picture of of widespread amity, while while pointing pointing to to the the existence existence of of many many sulMuslim rule, rule, if len Hindus Hindus resentful len resentful of of Muslim if not not of of the the "Mahometans." "Mahometans/' is Abbe Abbe DubOis, Dubois, aa French French missionmissionThe exception exception to to most other travelers travelers is The most other ary who spent spent thirty thirty years years (1792-1823) (1792-1823) in in the the south south of of India. India. As As aa man man of of the the arywho cloth, the the Abbe is naturally naturally convinced convinced of of the the superiority superiority of of his his faith faith over over cloth, Abbe is the religions religions of of India. India. Yet also displays displays aa compassionate compassionate understanding understanding for for the Yet he he also the customs customs of of the observed so so closely closely for for so so long. long. Most Most of of the the the the people people he he observed time he he is is remarkably Abbe Dubois is aa natural ethnographer, with with aa time remarkably fair. fair. Abbe Dubois is natural ethnographer, stance toward toward his "field work" which would the approval approval of of any any gradugradustance his "field work" which would meet meet the ate school school of of anthropology. anthropology. ate the secularist At first first glance, work seems to support At glance, Dubois's Dubois's work seems to support the secularist contention contention that but relirelithat the the conflict conflict between between the the Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim was was not not communal communal but Hindu sects. ingious, gious, no no different different from from the the quarrels quarrels between between various various Hindu sects. And And indeed when we we deed it it is is true true that that religious religious strife strife is is as as Indian Indian as as mango mango pickle. pickle. Yet Yet when compare with the compare the the internecine internecine strife strife of of Hindu Hindu sects sects with the violence violence between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, the the difference difference between between the the two two is is obvious. obvious. Here, Here, for for the Abbe's between the the folinstance, is is the Abbe's description description of of aa "riot" "riot" he he observed observed between folinstance, lowers lowers of of Vishnu Vishnu and and those those of of Shiva: Shiva: According is the the height height of of all all abomination abomination to to wear wear the the According to to Vishnavites Vishnavites it it is lingam is lingam [the [the sign sign of of Shiva]. Shiva]. According According to to their their antagonists antagonists whoever whoever is decorated decorated with with the the namam namam[the [thesign signofofVishnu] Vishnu]will willbebetormented tormentedininhell hell by aa sort reby sort of of fork fork similar similar in in form form to to this this emblem. emblem. These These mutual mutual recriminations criminations often often end end in in violent violent altercations altercations and and riots. riots. The The numerous numerous to provoke bands bands of of religious religious mendicants mendicants of of both both sects sects are are specially specially apt apt to provoke together in in strife. strife. One One may may sometimes sometimes see see these these fanatics fanatics collected collected together recrowds to support crowds to support their their opinion opinion of of the the super-excellence super-excellence of of their their rewill overwhelm with torrents torrents of of spective spective doctrines. doctrines. They They will overwhelm each each other other with abuse pour forth blasphemies and abuse and and obscene obscene insults, insults, and and pour forth blasphemies and imprecaimprecafinally they tions, tions, on on one one side side against against Shiva, Shiva, on on the the other other Vishnu; Vishnu,- and and finally they will come come to to blows. blows. Fortunately is seldom shed on on these battle will Fortunately blood blood is seldom shed these battle fields. fields. They They content content themselves themselveswith with dealing dealingeach each other other buffets buffets with with their fists, knocking turbans, and their fists, knocking off off each each other's others turbans, and much much tearing tearing of of gargarments. thus given ments. Having Having thus given vent vent to to their their feelings, feelings, the the combatants combatants sepaseparate by by mutual mutual consent. consent. rate That these these religious religious dissensions dissensions do do not not set set the the whole whole country country That ablaze, occasion occasion those those crimes crimes of of all all kinds kinds which were for for centuries centuries the the ablaze, which were

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Chapter Chapter One One result religious fanaticism result of of religious fanaticism in in Europe Europe and and elsewhere, elsewhere, is is due due no no doubt doubt naturally mild to to the the naturally mild and and timid timid character character of of the the Hindus, Hindus, and and especially especially that the the greater number compound to the to the fact fact that greater number compound with with their their consciences consciences and Vishnu and bias and pay pay equal equal honor honor to to Vishnu and Shiva. Shiva. Being Being thus thus free free from from any any bias these religious towards towards either either party, party, the the latter latter serve serve as as arbitrators arbitrators in in these religious 24 combats and and often often check check incipient incipient quarrels. quarrels.24 combats The The description description of of this this riot riot reveals reveals aa ritualized, ritualized, gamelike gamelike quality quality which which is aa ritualization combines combines passion passion with with restraint. restraint. It It is ritualization of of antagonisms, antagonisms, what what Erik Erik Erikson Erikson called called "a "a creative creative formalization" formalization" which which helps helps to to avoid avoid both both impulsive impulsive 25 The excess excess and and compulsive compulsive self-restrictions. self-restrictions.25 The Vaishnavites Vaishnavites and and the the Shaivites Shaivites both interplay interplay and engage engage each each other other in in both and combat, combat, practicing practicing "a "a form form of of war war those who which can peace." In In contrast, contrast, the the HinduHinduwhich can occur occur only only among among those who are are at at peace." by Muslim have no Muslim conflicts conflicts have no such such playlike playlike quality, quality, pervaded pervaded as as they they are are by deathly the burning temples, deathly intent, intent, with with the burning down down of of houses, houses, demolition demolition of of temples, 26 Their victory, and mosques, mosques, and and shrines. shrines.26 Their vocabulary vocabulary is is of of mortal mortal enmity, enmity, victory, and grievous wounds to the defeat, defeat, aa combat combat that that must must lead lead to to humiliation humiliation and and grievous wounds to the collective collective self self of of one one group group or or the the other. other. II have have already already mentioned mentioned that that the the Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist may may well well be be overoverunderestimation) the the existence estimating to the estimating (in (in contrast contrast to the secularist secularist underestimation) existence and and religious identities prestrength strength of of overarching overarching Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim religious identities in in India's India's precolonial is, II believe, believe, also also overestimating overestimating the the role role colonial past. past. The The Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist is, of between Islam the difficulties of doctrinal doctrinal differences differences between Islam and and Hindu Hindu beliefs beliefs for for the difficulties relations between between the me the in in the the relations the two two communities. communities. To To me the Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim rift rift two collective narappears appears as as much much the the consequence consequence of of aa collision collision between between two collective narits cissisms, between two two equally selves, each cissisms, between equally grandiose grandiose group group selves, each convinced convinced of of its civilizational civilizational superiority, superiority, as as of of differences differences in in matters matters of of faith. faith. Abbe Abbe Dubois Dubois narciSSism, the brings out brings out clearly clearly the the injuries injuries to to group group narcissism, the wounds wounds to to collective collective vanity vanity sustained sustained in in the the Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim encounter: encounter: The The Brahmins Brahmins in in particular particular cherish cherish an an undying undying hatred hatred against against the the MaMathe latter lightly of homedans. The homedans. The reason reason for for this this is is that that the latter think think so so lightly of the the pretensions of of these these so-called so-called gods gods of of earth; earth; and, and, above above all, all, the the MaMapretensions homedans do do not not scruple scruple to display hearty hearty contempt contempt for for their their ceremoceremoto display homedans nies and customs generally. Besides, the haughty Mussulmans can vie vie nies and customs generally. BeSides, the haughty Mussulmans can with them in pride and insolence. Yet there there is is this this difference: difference: the the arrothem in pride and insolence. Yet arrowith gance of of aa Mussulman Mussulman is is based only on on the authority with with based only the political political authority gance which he he is is invested, invested, or or on on the eminence of of the the rank rank he he occupies,the eminence occupies; which whereas the the Brahmin's Brahmin's superiority superiority is is inherent inherent in in himself, himself, and and it it remains remains whereas intact, no no matter matter what what his his condition in life life may be. Rich Rich or or poor, unforcondition in may be. poor, unforintact,

The The Setting Setting tunate tunate or or prosperous, prosperous, he he always always goes goes on on the the principle principle ingrained ingrained in in him him that he he is is the the most most able, able, the the most excellent, and and the the most most perfect perfect of of all that most excellent, all created rest of beneath him, created beings, beings, that that all all the the rest of mankind mankind are are infinitely infinitely beneath him, and that that there there is is nothing nothing in in the the world world so so sublime sublime or or so so admirable admirable as as his and his 27 customs customs and and practices. practices.27 The be overestimating The Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist may may also also be overestimating the the depth depth of of the the Hindu/s to the the Muslim, was perhaps perhaps more more prevalent prevalent Hindus historical historical aversion aversion to Muslim, which which was in the the upper upper castes castes where Muslim religious religious intolerance intolerance came came up against the the in where Muslim up against Brahminical conviction conviction of of Hindu Hindu superiority. superiority. Dubois Dubois remarks.Brahminical remarks: But if Brahmins Brahmins cannot justice be intolerance in But if cannot with with any any justice be accused accused of of intolerance in the the matter of of religion, religion, the the same same can can certainly certainly not not be said in in regard regard to their matter be said to their civil usage usage and and customs. customs. On On these these points points they they are are utterly utterly unreasonunreasoncivil able..... . . . Though Though they they have have had had to to submit submit to to various various conquerors conquerors who who able have proved to be their superiors superiors in in courage courage and and bravery, bravery, have proved themselves themselves to be their yet in in spite spite of of this, this, they they have always considered considered themselves themselves infinitely infinitely yet have always their superior in in the of civilization. civilization. their superior the matter matter of The Mahomedans, can tolerate no laws, laws, no customs, and and no no The Mahomedans, who who can tolerate no no customs, religion but their their own, own, used every advantage advantage which which conquest conquest gave gave religion but used every them in aa vain vain attempt attempt to force their religion on on the the people people who who had had them in to force their religion succumbed to to them them almost almost without without resistance. resistance. But But these these same same Hindus, Hindus, succumbed who did did not not dare dare to to complain complain when when they they saw saw their their wives, chilwho wives, their their children, and and everything everything they they held held most most dear dear carried carried off off by by these these fierce fierce dren/ conquerors, their their country country devastated devastated by and sword, sword, their their temples temples conquerors, by fire fire and destroyed, their idols demolished, these same Hindus I say, only disdestroyed, their idols demolished, these same Hindus I say, only displayed some some sparks sparks of of energy energy when when it it came came to to changing changing their their customs customs played 28 for those those of of their oppressors.28 their oppressors. for What hostility was What excited excited the the Hindus' Hindus' hostility was as as much much the the Muslim Muslim assault assault on on their the Hindu/s their lifestyle lifestyle as as on on their their idols. idols. As As we we shall shall see see later, later, the Hindus shocked shocked disgust, beef, then then as as now, now, is is aa far far more more disgust, for for example, example, at at the the Muslim Muslim eating eating of of beef, potent Hindu-Muslim relations than Islam/s potent factor factor in in Hindu-Muslim relations than Islam's reputed reputed intolerance. intolerance. The The Hindu Hindu nationalist, nationalist, II believe, believe, also also overemphasizes overemphasizes the the impact impact of of ten ten centuries Muslim domination. centuries of of Muslim domination. The The explanation explanation for for the the Hindu's Hindus negative negative Muslim as people/s "natural" resentiments sentiments toward toward the the Muslim as lying lying in in aa subjugated subjugated peoples "natural" resentment was sentment is is not not wholly wholly convincing convincing if if we we remember remember that that such such aversion aversion was of the negligible in the rajwas wasecoeconegligible in the case case of of the the British. British. In In spite spite of the fact fact that that the the raj nomically wealth out nomically exploitative, exploitative, funneling funneling wealth out of of the the country, country, whereas whereas during during

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Chapter One One Chapter the Muslim rule stayed within, the latter latter evokes evokes aa hostility due to to the Muslim rule wealth wealth stayed within, the hostility not not due seems, played played the former. Political subjugation and and economic economic exploitation, exploitation, it it seems, the former. Political subjugation less of of aa role role in in determining determining the the Hindu Hindu reaction reaction because because the the Hindu Hindu collective collective less identity, however nebulous, was was crystallized crystallized around around shared shared religious religious symbols symbols identity, however nebulous, rather than based on on political political or or economic economic structures. structures. Muslims were perrather than based Muslims were perceived to to be be outragers outragers of of Hindu sentiment and and mockers of their their ceived Hindu religious religious sentiment mockers of faith whereas whereas the the British British were, were, at at worst, worst, indifferent. indifferent. Granted Granted that the British British that the faith too ate ate beef-a beef—a practice practice deeply deeply repugnant repugnant to to most most Hindus-but Hindus—but they were too they were too few few and and carried carried out out their private lives lives holed holed up up in in bungalows and barracks barracks too their private bungalows and which were were shielded shielded from from public scrutiny by by high high walls walls and and thick hedges. In thick hedges. In which public scrutiny contrast, the the Muslim Muslim lived lived cheek cheek and and jowl with the Hindu. This This proximity proximity contrast, jowl with the Hindu. created the the potential for the the emergence emergence of of new cultural and and social social forms forms but but potential for new cultural created also occasioned occasioned simmering simmering resentment resentment and and nagging nagging friction. friction. The The British also British beef-eater was remote, almost almost abstract. abstract. The The Muslim Muslim butcher butcher in in his his bloodbloodbeef-eater was remote, flecked undervest undervestand andlungi, lungi,wielding wieldinga huge a hugecarving carving knife,was was a very visible knife, a very visible flecked part of of aa town's town's life, life, aa figure figure of of awe awe and and dread dread for for the the Hindu Hindu child child and and of of aa part fear-tinged repulsion repulsion for for the the adult. adult. The The Englishman Englishman remained stranger, the the remained aa stranger, fear-tinged Muslim became the Other. Muslim became the Other. colored by by the Looking at Looking at the the Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim encounter encounter as as decisively decisively colored the facts by aggression by the facts of of dominance dominance and and subordination, subordination, by aggression and and resistance, resistance, by the zero-sum winners and the Hindu Hindu nationalist pays homage homage to zero-sum game game of of winners and losers, losers, the nationalist pays to the the influential influential paradigm paradigm in in contemporary contemporary historical, historical, anthropological, anthropological, and and political science political science writing writing which which considers considers power power as as the the main main axis axis around around which relations between which all all relations between groups groups are are structured. structured. The The impressive impressive work work that that has the emphasis the inequality of has resulted resulted through through the emphasis on on power, power, especially especially on on the inequality of colonial and imperial relations, has been invaluable. But as Raymond Grew colonial and imperial relations, has been invaluable. But as Raymond Grew points out, this this very very emphasis emphasis also also tends tends to obscure and and often often ideologize ideologize the the points out, to obscure processes of assimilation, assimilation, transformation, reassertion, and and re-creation, re-creation, which which processes of transformation, reassertion, 29 too are are inherent in all all cultural cultural encounters. encounters.29 The Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim encounter encounter too inherent in The has been no exception. has been no exception. The The gulf gulf between between the the two two opposing opposing views views of of the the Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim enencounter to scholars counter is is not not aa matter matter solely solely of of interest interest to scholars and and political political propaganpropagandists dists but but is is reflected reflected in in and and vitally vitally influences influences many many facets facets of of contemporary contemporary consciousness. Much of the Indian heritage—monuments, art, music, legconsciousness. Much of the Indian heritage-monuments, art, music, legends, history-which history—which people of an an earlier earlier generation generation were were accustomed accustomed to to people of ends, regard as as noncontroversial suddenly become hotly contested. contested. As As an an exregard noncontroversial has has suddenly become hotly example, let let me the legend legend of of the the founding founding of of Hyderabad. Hyderabad. For For those those subsubample, me take take the scribing to to the the syncretic syncretic school, school, this this legend legend is is the the narrative narrative embodiment embodiment of of scribing an essential essential Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim amity amity in in the the past. past. The The story story itself itself is is aa mythos, mythos,seekseekan ing to to convince convince through through the the power power of of aesthetics aesthetics and and symbolism, symbolism, and and is is aa ing

The Setting Setting The counterpoint logos ofofformal counterpoint to to the the logos formalthought thoughtononHindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslimrelations relations tale goes thus: which which is is routinely routinely employed employed by by the the social social scientist. scientist. The The tale goes thus: Sultan Sultan Mohammed Mohammed Quli Quli Qutub Qutub Shah Shah (1580-1612) (1580-1612) was was the the grandson grandson of Sultan Sultan Quli Quli Qutub Shah, founder founder of of the the Qutub Qutub Shahi Shahi dynasty. of Qutub Shah, dynasty. In In 1579, when when still still aa prince prince and and just old, he fell in in love love with with 1579, just fourteen fourteen years years old, he fell Bhagmati, aa commoner commoner [and [and aa Hindu], Hindu], an an extraordinarily extraordinarily talented talented and and Bhagmati, beautiful dancer. dancer. She She lived lived across across the the river river Musi Musi in in the the Village village of of ChiChibeautiful chalam, some some distance distance away away from from the the royal royal fortress fortress at at Golconda. Golconda. Every Every chalam, evening when when dusk dusk fell, fell, the the prince stole away away from from the the palace palace grounds grounds prince stole evening to meet his beloved beloved across across the the river. river. One One day day aa terrible terrible storm storm broke broke to meet his and the the river river was was in in spate. spate. Fearing Fearing that his lover lover might drown, the the and that his might drown, prince braved braved the the turbulent turbulent rising rising waters waters and and saved saved Bhagmati. Bhagmati. ComComprince pelled to accept his his son's son's choice, the king, king, Sultan Sultan Ibrahim, Ibrahim, had had aa large large pelled to accept choice, the stone bridge built across across the the Musi Musi to enable Mohammed Quli to to court court to enable Mohammed Quli stone bridge built the dancer. dancer. Known Known today today as as the Purana Pul Pul ["old ["old bridge"], bridge"], it it stands stands the the Purana mute witness to this story. On his accession to the throne, Mohammed mute witness to this story. On his accession to the throne, Mohammed Quli married married Bhagmati Bhagmati and and in in her her honor honor built splendid new city on on Quli built aa splendid new city the site of of the the Village village Chichalam. Chichalam. He He called called the the city city "Bhagnagar" "Bhagnagar" or or the the the site "City of of Good Fortune." Bhagmati Bhagmati later later took took the the name name of of Hyder Hyder Mahal Mahal "City Good Fortune." 30 and Mohammed Quli renamed renamed the the city city as as Hyderabad. Hyderabad.30 and Mohammed Quli

It history discerns It is is not not surprising surprising that, that, whereas whereas history discerns the the origins origins of of HyHyderabad the mundane the old derabad in in the mundane facts facts of of congestion congestion and and lack lack of of water water in in the old forforthe city tress capital tress capital of of Golconda, Golconda, legend legend attributes attributes the the founding founding of of the city to to the the sublimity prince's love relevant to sublimity of of aa princes love for for aa commoner. commoner. What What is is more more relevant to our our purpose, however, purpose, however, is is the the way way Hindu Hindu nationalists nationalists interpret interpret the the legend legend today. today. They the tale They see see in in the tale yet yet another another illustration illustration of of the the fundamental fundamental HinduHinduMuslim Muslim divide. divide. "All "All the the story story tells tells us," us," says says aa militant militant Hindu, Hindu, active active in in the the campaign campaign to to have have Hyderabad Hyderabad revert revert back back to to its its original original name name of of Bhagnagar, Bhagnagar, "is he has "is that that the the Mussulman Mussulman has has always always fucked fucked our our women women whenever whenever he has of wanted wanted to, to, as as he he has has fucked fucked us us over over the the centuries. centuries. If If he he deigned deigned to to take take one one of our women his harem, harem, he he could tolerate her our women into into his could not not tolerate her remaining remaining aa Hindu Hindu but but forced her to the stories princes marryforced her to convert convert to to Islam. Islam. Where Where are are the stories of of Hindu Hindu princes marrying Muslim particular interpretation ing Muslim wives?" wives?" This This particular interpretation of of the the legend legend is is not not about about love of mahow flowered into how aa youth's youths erotic erotic obsession obsession for for aa girl girl flowered into the the deep deep love of aa mature man, man, or or about about an an era era of of close close Hindu-Muslim relations which which permitted, permitted, ture Hindu-Muslim relations even when when they did not not encourage, encourage, love love across across religious religious persuasions. For the the they did persuasions. For even Hindu Hindu nationalist, nationalist, the the legend legend is is about about Hindu Hindu defeat defeat and and aa collective collective shame shame wherein the community's most most beautiful beautiful and and accomplished accomplished women women had had to to be be wherein the community's ceded to to the the Muslim conqueror. ceded Muslim conqueror.

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Chapter One Chapter One Finally, what is the truth? As As far far as as II can can see see the is that that there there are Finally, what is the truth? the truth truth is are two overarching histories histories of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations—with local relations-with many many local two overarching variations—which have have been varying political political interests interests and and ideoloideolovariations-which been used used by by varying gies and and have have been been jostling for position position for for many many centuries. centuries. In In times jostling for times of of gies heightened conflict conflict between between the the two two communities, communities, the the Hindu nationalist Hindu nationalist heightened history that that supports supports the the version version of of conflict conflict between the two two assumes assumes prebetween the prehistory eminence and and organizes organizes cultural cultural memory memory in in one one particular particular direction. direction. In In times times eminence of relative peace, the the focus focus shifts shifts back back to to the the history history emphasizing emphasizing commoncommonof relative peace, alities and and shared shared pieces of the Many of of the the cultural cultural memories memories which which the past. past. Many alities pieces of were appropriate during during the conflict will will retreat, retreat, fade, fade, or or take take on on new new meanmeanwere appropriate the conflict ing, while others that that incorporate incorporate the the peaceful peaceful coexistence coexistence of of Hindus Hindus and and ing, while others Muslims will resurface. And And so so it it goes, goes, on on and and on. on. Muslims will resurface.

TWO TWO

The The Riot Riot

M M

first personal personal experience experience of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim violence violence was was at at the the time time yy first of the the partition partition of of the the country country in in 1947, 1947, when when ferocious ferocious riots riots between between of the two communities engulfed engulfed many many parts parts of of the the subcontinent, subcontinent, especially especially in the two communities in the was nine years old old at at the the time time and and we we lived lived in in Rohtak, Rohtak, aa small the north. north. II was nine years small town some some fifty miles west west of of Delhi, Delhi, where where my my father father was was an an additional additional distown fifty miles district magistrate, "the ADM ADM Sahib." Sahib." As As the the killings killings and and looting looting raged uncontrict magistrate, lithe raged uncontrolled in in the the villages villages and and towns towns of of Punjab, Punjab, more more and and more members of of his more members his trolled extended family family poured into Rohtak Rohtak as as refugees refugees from from the the cities cities of of Lahore, extended poured into Lahore, Lyallpur, and and Sialkot, Sialkot, where where they they had had lived lived for for many many generations generations and and which which Lyallpur, now lay lay in in the the freshly freshly created created state state of of Pakistan. Pakistan. The The rooms rooms and and verandas verandas of now of our house house became became sprawling sprawling dormitories, dormitories, with with mats mats and and durries durries spread spread close close our to each each other other on on the the floor as uncles, uncles, aunts, aunts, and and cousins cousins of of varying varying degree degree of to floor as of kinship lived lived and and slept slept in in what what for for aa child child was was an an excitingly excitingly intimate intimate confuconfukinship sion. The The kitchen, kitchen, over over which my mother mother had had Willingly willingly abdicated abdicated all all control, control, sion. which my hummed the the whole whole day day with with the the purposeful purposeful activity activity of of women, women, and and there there was hummed was not a time of day when a few bodies were not seen huddled in nooks and not a time of day when a few bodies were not seen huddled in nooks and corners in in various various stages stages of of sleep. corners sleep. With with the of With the the loss loss of of their their homes homes and and places places of of work, work, with the snapping snapping of long-standing friendships friendships and and other other social social ties, ties, there there was little for for the the refurefulong-standing was little gees to to do do in in our our house house except except seek seek comfort comfort from from the the sharing sharing of of each each other's others gees riot experiences. This This they they did did in in groups groups which which continuously continuously changed changed in riot experiences. in their membership membership as as they they shifted shifted from from one one room room of of the the house house to to another. another. As As aa their small boy, boy, yet yet privileged as the the son son of of aa father father who who gave gave them them food food and and shelshelsmall privileged as ter, I could sit in on any group of adults, though at its edge, without being ter, I could sit in on any group of adults, though at its edge, without being shooed away away and and told told to go and and play with other other children. children. II became became aware aware of of shooed to go play with their bitterness about about the leaders of of aa newly newly independent independent India, India, Nehru Nehru and and their bitterness the leaders especially Gandhi Gandhi by they felt felt most betrayed. Gandhi Gandhi was the pet pet obobespecially by whom whom they most betrayed. was the

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Chapter Cha~ter Two Two ject of uncles and shameject of my my grandmother's grandmothers aversion, aversion, and and many many of of my my uncles and aunts aunts shamelessly encouraged encouraged her her as as she she held held forth forth in in her her toothless, toothless, gummy gummy voice, voice, sursurlessly prisingly similar similar to to the the Mahatma's Mahatma's own, own, on on Gandhi's Gandhi s many many affronts affronts to to Hindu Hindu prisingly sentiment and and advanced advanced salacious salacious speculations speculations on on the the reasons reasons for for his his love love of of sentiment the "Mussulman." "Mussulman." the It first time became aware the Hindu It was was also also the the first time II became aware of of the Hindu hate hate of of the the Mussulman—the destroyer destroyer of of temples, temples, devourer devourer of of cow cow flesh, flesh, defiler defiler of Mussulman-the of Hindu rapers and killers all! Hindu womanhood, womanhood, rapers and killers all! Mussulmans Mussulmans were were little little better better than than animals, dirty dirty and and without without self-control, self-control, who who indulged indulged all all the the demands demands of of the the animals, senses, especially especially the the violence violence of of the the body and pleasures of the the flesh. flesh. Up Up to to body and pleasures of senses, this time II had had known known Muslims Muslims as as occasional occasional colleagues colleagues of of my my father, father, some some this time boys in in school school and, and, especially, especially, as as indulgent indulgent servants. servants. In In Sargodha, Sargodha, where where my my boys was posted posted before he was was transferred transferred to to Rohtak, Rohtak, II was was particularly particularly fond fond father was father before he of Imtiaz, Imtiaz, his his Muslim Muslim orderly, orderly, who me on on forbidden forbidden bicycle rides to to the the of who took took me bicycle rides bazaar. Once, seeing him get his forearm covered with an elaborate tattoo, bazaar. Once, seeing him get his forearm covered with an elaborate tattoo, II too had had insisted insisted on on one-to one—to the the subsequent subsequent shocked shocked disapproval disapproval of of my my partoo parents. Then Then there there was was Fatima, Fatima, aa teenage teenage girl girl who who looked looked after after me me from from the the ents. ages of of four four to to seven, seven, and and who who was was almost almost on on par with my my mother mother as as the the ages par with object of of my my first desires and and longings. longings. Fatima Fatima was was aa patient patient and and very very often often aa object first desires willing participant participant in in the the games games II invented invented for for both of us. She was was aa valiant valiant both of us. She willing liar on on my my behalf behalf whenever whenever one one of of my my undertakings undertakings ended ended disastrously. disastrously. Half Half liar girl, half half woman, woman, Fatima Fatima delightfully delightfully forgot forgot to to be be consistently consistently one one or or the the girl, other when when she she was was with with me. Hitching up salwar,she shewould wouldscamper scamperupupa a other me. Hitching up her her salwar, guava tree tree to to pluck pluck the the best fruit from from the the top top branches. branches. Her Her maternal maternal perperguava best fruit sona taking taking over over once once she she was back on on ground, ground, she she would would clean clean the the guavas guavas sona was back for me me and and hold salt in in the open palm of her her hand while II ate. ate. Fatima Fatima was was the salt the open palm of hand while for hold the an indispensable indispensable assistant assistant on on our our fishing expeditions to to the the small small pond pond that that an fishing expeditions lay in in the the grounds grounds of of the the house. She helped helped me me make make the the fishing rod from from aa lay house. She fishing rod twig, a piece of string, and a bent pin. She kneaded the dough we brought twig, a piece of string, and a bent pin. She kneaded the dough we brought and made made it it into into small small pellets pellets which were used used as as bait. In spite spite of of my my never never bait. In and which were she did did not not destroy destroy my my illusion illusion that that there there were were indeed indeed some some catching any anyfish fish she catching lurking under the scummy green film that covered the pond. lurking under the scummy green film that covered the pond. It not as It is is not as if if II were were unaware unaware that that the the Muslims Muslims were were somehow somehow different, different, although although II do do not not recollect recollect ever ever hearing hearing the the statement, statement, "He "He [or [orshe] she] isisaaMusMusperson's identity sulman," sulman," as as il^ marker marker of of aa persons identity in in our our home. home. II knew knew Imtiaz Imtiaz and and Fatima could not enter the kitchen where Chet Ram, the Brahman cook, held Fatima could not enter the kitchen where Chet Ram, the Brahman cook, held sway, because because they Muslims. The The Muslim Muslim parts parts of of Sargodha Sargodha were were subtly subtly they were were Muslims. sway, different from from the Hindu mohallas moballasconcentrated concentratedaround aroundthe thebazaar. bazaar.InInthe the different the Hindu early evening, evening, the the cooking cooking smells smells wafting wafting out out into into the alleys were more early the alleys were more

The The Riot Riot pungent-the pungent—the odor odor of of mutton mutton fried fried with with onion, onion, garlic, garlic, and and ginger ginger paste, paste, with with coriander and cumin, seemed seemed embedded embedded in in the very walls of the the houses. houses. Old Old coriander and cumin, the very walls of men with henna-dyed sat out out on on stringed stringed cots, cots, smoking smoking their their hookahs hookahs men with henna-dyed beards beards sat gossip. The The women, covered from from head head to to toe toe and murmuring murmuring their their incessant incessant gossip. and women, covered in flowing white and and black veils, glided glided silently silently through the alleys, alleys, followed followed in flowing white black veils, through the by small small children children scurrying scurrying to to keep up. There There were were also also fewer fewer stray stray dogs dogs in by keep up. in the alleys, alleys, the the ritually animal being being far far less less tolerated tolerated by by the the Muslim Muslim the ritually unclean unclean animal than by by the the indifferent indifferent Hindu. Hindu. than As As aa little little child, child, II had hadregistered registeredthe thedifferences differences but but never neverfelt feltthe theneed needto to either evaluate or explain them to myself. It was only now, in Rohtak, that the either evaluate or explain them to myself. It was only now, in Rohtak, that the family's riot-torn towns towns of family's "war "war stories" stories" from from the the riot-torn of Pakistan Pakistan began began to to retrospecretrospectively tively shape shape my my early early observations observations in in the the direction direction of of prejudice. prejudice. Two Two of of these these II recount recount below. below. For For aatime timethese thesestories storiesthreatened threatenedto tobecome becomethe thecore coreof ofmy my memory in the believe, they they did memory of of "the "the Muslim" Muslim" although, although, in the end, end, II like like to to believe, did not not overlay not replace with fear, overlay the the child's child's love love for for Imtiaz Imtiaz and and Fatima, Fatima, did did not replace it it with fear, and aversion. anger, anger, and aversion. When When II was was carrying carrying out out this this study study in in aa Muslim Muslim locality locality in in Hyderabad Hyderabad and and engaging engaging groups groups of of Muslims Muslims in in conversation, conversation, II became became aware that within within myself aware that myself "the "the Muslim" Muslim" was was still still somewhat somewhat of of aa stranger. stranger. The The strangeness was not not due him but to my my being strangeness was due to to my my ignorance ignorance of of him but to being singularly singularly affected affected by by someone someone II did did not not know. know.The The ambivalence ambivalence of of fear fear and and fascination fascination had not from past with with which Muslims had from my my past which II regarded regarded Muslims not vanished; vanished,- II was was not not indifferent to the indifferent to the subjects subjects of of my my study. study. II became became aware aware that that my my first first impulse impulse the threat the Muslims Muslims posed to my my boundaries boundaries by was to was to defend defend against against the threat the posed to by strengthening strengthening and and fortifying fortifying them them as as aa Hindu. Hindu. Then, Then, in in aa kind kind of of reaction reaction to move by consisconsisformation, my tendency formation, my tendency was was to move in in the the opposite opposite direction direction by actently placing positive, "humane" more positive, "humane" gloss gloss on on Muslim Muslim statements statements and and actently placing aa more tions however, also tions than than on on Hindu Hindu ones. ones. Ambivalence, Ambivalence, however, also has has aa positive positive aspect. aspect. It prevents the It prevents the crystallization crystallization of of ideological ideological convictions convictions and and an an approach approach to to the firmly in in place. the study study with with preconceived preconceived notions notions firmly place. ConVictions, Convictions, as as NietzNietzthan lies. lies. sche more damaging sche remarked, remarked, are are more damaging to to truth truth than The The Story Story of of aa Cousin Cousin Told Told by byHis HisElder ElderBrother Brother himself on the way way to Sohan Sohan Lal Lai killed killed himself on the to Rohtak. Rohtak. He He threw threw himself himself in in front front of of aa train. train. II could could not not stop stop him. him. We We had had made made all all the the arrangements arrangements for for the the escape escape three hundred from Muslim truck was ready from Lyallpur. Lyallpur. A A Muslim truck driver driver was ready to to drive drive the the three hundred miles to the the border had been miles to border for for six six hundred hundred rupees. rupees. Sohan Sohan Lal Lai had been married married for for only five months. very pretty only five months. He He had had aa very pretty wife. wife. On the day of of our our departure departure we we went out to to make make the the final arrangements On the day went out final arrangements

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Chapter Two Chapter Two

with the the truck truck driver. driver. The The house house was was attacked attacked in in our our absence. absence. When When we we came came with back house. We watched five back we we hid hid on on the the roof roof of of aa Hindu Hindu neighbor's neighbor's vacant vacant house. We watched five husky in husky Muslims Muslims in in our our courtyard. courtyard. They They had had long long butcher's butchers knives knives stuck stuck in their Theywere weremethodically methodicallylooting lootingthe thehouse. house.The Thecorpse corpseofofour our lungis. They their lungis. youngest brother-we brother—we were were three—lay in the the courtyard, courtyard, the the head head comcomthree-lay in youngest pletely severed severed from from the the trunk. trunk. One One of of the the Muslims Muslims sat sat on on aa chair chair in in front front of pletely of the corpse, corpse, directing directing the the looters. looters. They They were were bringing bringing out out the trunks the the packed packed trunks from inside inside the the house house and and throwing throwing them them in in front front of of him him on on the the ground. ground. The The from sareesand andcolored coloredsilk silkblouses. blouses.I can I can still ground was cluttered with ground was cluttered with wedding wedding sarees still see the the shining shining brass pots lying lying on on their their side side reflecting reflecting the rays of of the the afterafterbrass pots the rays see noon sun. sun. We We could could not not move. move. II was transfixed by by the the sight sight of of the leaders was transfixed the leader's noon hairy torso torso of of which every inch inch was was covered covered by by aa thick thick black black fur. fur. Then Then two two of of hairy which every the Muslims went inside inside the the house house and and brought brought out out Sohan Sohan Lal's Lai s wife wife and and the the the Muslims went leader pulled pulled her her to him. She She sat sat on on the mans lap, lap, naked to the waist, her her leader to him. the man's naked to the waist, petticoat ripped open, and the Muslims hairy hand, like a giant black spider, petticoat ripped open, and the Muslim's hairy hand, like a giant black spider, covered her her thigh. thigh. After laying her her on on the the ground ground next next to to our our brother's brothers covered After laying corpse, where drops of of blood still oozed oozed from from the the severed severed neck, neck, they they raped raped blood still corpse, where drops her in was holding holding Sohan Sohan Lal Lai fast, fast, my my palm palm covering covering his his mouth. mouth. IfIf he he her in turn. turn. II was had made the slightest sound the Muslims would have discovered us. But I do had made the slightest sound the Muslims would have discovered us. But I do not think think Sohan Sohan Lal Lai would would have have done done anything. anything. His His legs legs were buckling ununnot were buckling had to to hold hold him him up. up. After After they they finished, finished, they they ripped ripped open open her her der him him and and II had der belly. Sohan Sohan Lal Lai never never said said aa word word after after it it was was all all over over and and the Muslims had had belly. the Muslims gone. In In the the days days it it took took us us to to cross cross the border he he remained remained mute. mute. II tried tried my my gone. the border best to make him talk, to make him shed some of his grief in tears but his soul best to make him talk, to make him shed some of his grief in tears but his soul remained far far away. away. He He killed killed himself himself just we reached reached Rohtak. Rohtak. just before before we remained The Cousin Cousin from from Lahore Lahore The We to retaliate, younger Sangh We did did try try to retaliate, at at least least the the younger Sangh [Rashtriya [Rashtriya Swayam Swayam Sevak Sevak Sangh] members like me. And And of of course course the the Sikhs. Sikhs. A A police police inspector inspector told told me me Sangh] members like me. Musof of going going to to aa Sikh Sikh Village village where where there there was was aa reported reported massacre massacre of of the the Muslims. lims. As As the the police police entered entered the the Village village they they passed passed under under aa kind kind of of welcoming welcoming arch arch which which was was aa rope rope strung strung out out between between the the poles. poles. To To this this rope, rope, attached attached penises of with short pieces of with short pieces of string, string, were were the the circumcised circumcised penises of all all the the Muslim Muslim men men who who had had lived lived in in the the village, village, hanging hanging there there as as if if they they were were small small eels eels houses. drying drying in in the the sun. sun. In In our our own own neighborhood neighborhood there there were were three three Muslim Muslim houses. Two of of the the families families went went away, away, leaving leaving only only Cui Gul Mohammed Mohammed behind. behind. He He was Two was silversmith, himself and silversmith, aa quiet quiet graying graying man man who who kept kept to to himself and did did not not really really have have any any friend friend among among his his Hindu Hindu neighbors, neighbors, although although he he had had lived lived in in the the same same

The Riot Riot The street fifteen years. him and wife and street for for over over fifteen years. We We knew knew him and his his family-a family—a wife and three three young to him young children-cursorily, children—cursorily, nodding nodding to him as as we we passed passed by by his his shop shop located located on on the the ground ground floor floor of of his his house. house. In In his his faded, faded, embroidered embroidered skull skull cap, cap, often often working working late late into into the the night, night, his his head head bent bent down down in in concentration concentration as as he he fashfashwith delicate ioned ioned silver silver bracelets bracelets or or ornamental ornamental anklets anklets with delicate strokes strokes of of aa hamhamThe young young men men from from our our street street who who mer, he he was was aa familiar familiar figure to all all of of us. mer, figure to us. The went out during during the the riots riots to to join Hindu mobs operating in in other other parts of the the went out join Hindu mobs operating parts of city, averted averted their their eyes eyes when when they passed by shop. They They had had left left CuI Gul Mocity, they passed by his his shop. Mohammed alone, alone, not because of of any any particular particular affection affection for for him because of hammed not because him but but because of the established established pattern pattern among among the rioters, both Hindu and and Muslim. Muslim. A A mob mob the the rioters, both Hindu always foraged foraged wide from its its home home base, killing and and plundering plundering in in other other disalways wide from base, killing distant parts of the the town, town, leaving leaving people people of of the the other other community community living living in in its its tant parts of own area area unharmed. It is is easier easier to to kill kill men men who who are are strangers, strangers, to obliterate own unharmed. It to obliterate faces which which have have not not smiled smiled on on one one in in recognition. It is is easier easier to to burn burn houses houses recognition. It faces which have have never never welcomed welcomed one one as as aa guest. guest. So So we we kept kept inside inside our our houses houses which when Hindu mob from Anarkali Anarkali came came to our alley alley for for CuI Gul Mohammed. Mohammed. mob from to our when aa Hindu Later, II was was told told they they broke broke open open the the door door and and one one by by one, one, CuI Gul Mohammed's Mohammed's Later, family was dragged out out into into the the alley alley where where they were trussed trussed up up with ropes family was dragged they were with ropes and left left lying lying on on the the ground. ground. From From the the open open windows windows of of the the house, house, string string and cots, low low wooden wooden stools, stools, and and sleeping sleeping mattresses mattresses were were thrown thrown out out onto onto the the cots, ground where where they were gathered gathered into into aa pile. pile. The The doors doors and and window window shutters shutters ground they were of the house were were chopped chopped into into kindling and added added to to the the heap heap which which was kindling and was of the house set on on fire. One by by one, one, the the children children were picked up up and and thrown thrown into the fire. One were picked into the set burning pyre. CuI Gul Mohammed's Mohammed's wife wife was was the the last last one one to to be be burnt burnt alive, alive, havhavburning pyre. ing been forced to to watch her husband husband and and children children die die in in the the agony agony of watch her of ing been first first forced the flames. The shop was then broken into and methodically stripped of the the flames. The shop was then broken into and methodically stripped of the silverware. Within Within an an hour hour our our alley alley was was silent silent again, again, only only aa charred charred and and still still silverware. smoking heap heap left left to to mark mark the the end end of of CuI Gul Mohammed's Mohammed's family. family. Whenever Whenever smoking possible, this this is is the the way Hindu mobs preferred to to kill kill Muslims-by Muslims—by burning burning way Hindu mobs preferred possible, alive. A Muslim who is burnt and not buried after death is automatically them them alive. A Muslim who is burnt and not buried after death is automatically consigned to to hell hell fire. fire. consigned Even as Even as II retell retell the the stories stories of of my my relatives relatives from from memory, memory, IIknow knowIIcannot cannot trust trust that that they they adhere adhere strictly strictly to to facts. facts. II am, am, of of course, course, aware aware of of the the small small embellishments embellishments II have have made made for for the the purposes purposes of of making making the the narratives narratives more more aesthetically aesthetically compelling. compelling. II wonder wonder ifif in in the the original original stories stories there there were were details details by the emofrom from other other accounts accounts of of riots, riots, incorporated incorporated by the teller teller to to increase increase the the emostory. In theirfirst first versions, versions, some of the the more more tional tional impact impact of of his his or or her her own own story. In their some of disapgruesome gruesome details details were were prefaced prefaced by by "I "I am am told," told," aa qualification qualification which which disap-

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Chapter Two Chapter Two peared peared in in the the retellings. retellings. My My later, later, adult adult experience experience of of riot riot accounts accounts has has taught taught me that me that the the talk talkof ofatrocities atrocitieswhich whichone onewas wastold toldabout about(and (andthen theneven evenpersonpersonally ally witnessed) witnessed) is is much much more more than than their their actual actual occurrence. occurrence. The The importance importance of of the the rhetorics rhetorics of of violence, violence, as as the the British British psychologist psychologist Peter Peter Marsh Marsh has has obobserved, not necessarily necessarily that they subsubserved, is is not that they they illuminate illuminate actual actual action action but but that that they stitute for for it. it.11 stitute II am am also also unsure unsure how how much much II can can trust trust my my own own memory memory not not to to make make additions up from riots, even additions from from its its store store of of images, images, picked picked up from narratives narratives of of riots, even as as II the tale. tell tell the tale. The The truth truth of of these these stories, stories, then, then, lies lies in in the the archetypal archetypal material material they than in the factual they contain contain rather rather than in the factual veracity veracity of of particular particular details. details. The The riots riots brought brought to to the the surface surface (as (as they they continue continue to to do do every every time time they they occur occur in in aa both at primifresh fresh edition), edition), both at the the level level of of action action and and of of imagination, imagination, certain certain primitive bodily violence tive fantasies fantasies of of bodily violence which which are are our our heritage heritage from from infancy infancy and and relating to childhood. childhood. Prominent Prominent among among these these fantasies fantasies are are those those relating to sexual sexual mutilation-the mutilation—the cutting cutting off off of of male male genitals genitals and and the the sadistic sadistic fury fury directed directed against which are hit repeatedly repeatedly by against female female breasts breasts which are hit by iron iron rods, rods, stabbed stabbed with with knives, by scythes of knives, and and lopped lopped off off by scythes and and swords. swords. At At one one level, level, the the castration castration of males males and and the the cutting cutting off off of of female female breasts breasts incorporate incorporate the the more more or or less less conconscious wish to wipe the hated enemy off off the the face face of of the the earth earth by eliminating scious wish to wipe the hated enemy by eliminating the means means of of its its reproduction reproduction and and the the nurturing of its its infants. infants. At At another, another, the nurturing of the breakdown more more unconscious unconscious level, level, in in the the deep deep regression regression and and the breakdown of of many many normal normal defenses defenses occasioned occasioned by by the the Widespread widespread violence violence and and the the fear fear of of one's ones own the castration own imminent imminent death, death, the castration of of the the enemy enemy may may be be viewed viewed as as aa councounterphobic acting acting out out of of what what psychoanalysis psychoanalysis considers considers as as one one of of the the chief chief terphobic male anxieties: anxieties: that that is, is, it it is doing unto others—castration—what one one fears fears male is aa doing unto others-castration-what may be done to to one's one's self. self. The The mutilation mutilation of of the the breast breast may may be be similarly similarly dedemay be done rived from the upsurge upsurge of of aa pervasive pervasive infantile infantile fantasy-the fantasy—the fantasy fantasy of of vioviorived from the lent revenge revenge on on aa bad, withholding breast, of the the mother mother whose whose bad, withholding breast, aa part part of lent absence gives gives rise rise to to feelings feelings of of disintegration disintegration and and murderous murderous rage. absence rage. Sexual the partition, Sexual violence violence undoubtedly undoubtedly occurred occurred during during the partition, although although far far below the below the level level enshrined enshrined in in collective collective memory. memory. On On aa more more sociological sociological level, the chief reason for the the preponderance of specifically specifically sexual sexual violence violence level, the chief reason for preponderance of in the the partition partition riots riots in in the is that, that, as as compared compared to many other other parts parts of the north north is to many of in the country, the undivided Punjab Punjab was was (and (and continues continues to to be) be) aa rather rather violent violent the country, the undivided society. Its Its high high murder murder rate is only only one one indication indication of of aa cultural cultural endorsement endorsement society. rate is of the the use of physical physical force force to to attain attain socially socially approved approved ends ends such such as as the the dedeuse of of fense of of one's one's land land or or of of personal and family family honor. honor. There There is is now now empirical empirical personal and fense evidence to to suggest suggest that that the greater the the legitimation legitimation of of violence violence in in some some apthe greater apevidence proved areas of of life, life, the the more is the the likelihood likelihood that that force force will also be used in more is will also be used in proved areas

The Riot The Riot other may not other spheres spheres where where it it may not be be approved. approved. In In this this so-called so-called cultural cultural spillspillover between the vioover effect effect there there is is aa strong strong association association between the level level of of nonsexual nonsexual violence lence and and rape, rape, rape rape being being partly partly aa spillover spillover from from cultural cultural norms norms condoning condoning violent life. 22 Given this violent violent tradition its violent behavior behavior in in other other areas areas of of life. Given this tradition and and its associated associated cultural cultural norms, norms, the the riot riot situation situation further further undermined, undermined, if if did did not not completely sweep sweep away, away, the the already already weak weak norms norms curbing curbing male male aggression. aggression. It completely It is then then quite quite understandable understandable that that sexual sexual violence violence during during the the partition riots is partition riots could rarely approached could reach reach levels levels of of brutality brutality which which have have been been rarely approached in in subsesubsequent quent riots riots in in other other parts parts of of the the country. country. It It is is only only now now that that IIcan canreflect reflect more morecomposedly, composedly,even eventranquilly, tranquilly,to togive give aa psychological psychological gloss gloss to to the the stories stories of of the the riots. riots. At At the the time time II heard heard them, them, their their fearful fearful images images coursed coursed unimpeded unimpeded through through my my mind mind which which reverberreverberated ated wildly wildly with with their their narrators' narrators' flushes flushes of of emotion. emotion. There There was was aa frantic frantic tone tone to but could as to the the stories, stories, an an underlying underlying hysteria hysteria II felt felt as as aa child child but could only only name name as an uncles, aunts, an adult. adult. After After all, all, my my uncles, aunts, and and cousins cousins had had not not yet yet recovered recovered from from the the trauma trauma of of what what had had befallen befallen them. them. The The partition partition horrors horrors stalked stalked their their dreams. dreams. They They were were still still not not free free of of the the fear fear of of losing losing their their lives, lives, aa fear fear that that had had clutched their homeland, clutched them them for for weeks. weeks. They They had had lost lost their homeland, where where they they had had been been born born and and lived, lived, which which constitutes constitutes such such an an important, important, albeit albeit unconunconscious, scious, facet facet of of our our identity. identity With With the the loss loss of of their their homes, homes, their their sense sense of of perperterms 33-— sonal sonal identity identity was was tottering-had tottering—had become become "diffused" "diffused" in in Eriksonian Eriksonian terms while process of while they they had had yet yet to to begin begin the the process of adapting adapting this this fragmenting fragmenting identity identity to to aa new new homeland. homeland. It It is is sobering sobering to to think think of of hundreds hundreds of of thousands thousands of of children children over over many many who have parts parts of of the the subcontinent, subcontinent, Hindu Hindu and and Muslim, Muslim, who have listened listened to to stories stories partition and subfrom from their their parents parents and and other other family family elders elders during during the the partition and other other subsequent fierceness of sequent riots, riots, on on the the fierceness of an an implacable implacable enemy. enemy. This This is is aa primary primary is transmitted transmitted from from one one generation generation channel through through which which historical enmity is channel historical enmity to to the the next next as as the the child, child, ignoring ignoring the the surface surface interpretations interpretations and and rationalizarationalizahelpless fury betions, hears the the note note of tions, hears of helpless fury and and impotence impotence in in the the accounts accounts of of berevenge against loved loved adults adults and and fantasizes fantasizes scenarios scenarios of of revenge against those those who who have have humiliated humiliated family family and and kin. kin.44 The The fantaSies, fantasies, which which can can later later turn turn from from dimly dimly conscious images images to to concrete concrete actions actions during during communal communal conflagrations, conflagrations, are are conscious not not only only aa vindication vindication of of the the parents parents and and aa repayment repayment of of the the debt debt owed owed them them but also but also aa validation validation of of the the child-in-the-man's child-in-the-man's greater greater strength strength and and success success in in overpowering those those who who had had shamed shamed his his family family in in the the distant distant past. past. Given Given the the overpowering strong family family and and kinship kinship ties ties all all over over the the country, country, aa Hindu's Hindu's enmity enmity toward toward strong of the Muslim the Muslim (and (and vice vice versa) versa) is is often often experienced experienced by by the the individual individual as as aa part part of the loyalty loyalty due due to to or or (in (in the the case case of of aa more more conflictful conflictful parent-child parent-child relationrelationthe

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Chapter Two Chapter Two ship) parental mesmesship) imposed imposed by by the the parents. parents. Later, Later, as as the the child child grows grows up, up, the the parental sage sage may may be be amplified amplified by by the the input input of of one one or or more more teachers. teachers. As As Rajesh, Rajesh, one one of of the subjects subjects of of this this study study who who we we will will encounter encounter at at some some length length later, later, rethe remarked: 'We "We had history teacher teacher in in school. school. He He was was the the type type who who loved loved his had aa history his marked: subject. He He would keep the the text text book book aside aside and and teach teach us us the the lesson lesson exwould keep exsubject. tempore—like stories. stories. When he used used to to tell tell us us about about the inhuman atrocities atrocities tempore-like When he the inhuman committed by Muslim invaders invaders on on the the Hindus, Hindus, II remember remember II used used to to get get so so by Muslim committed angry that that II felt felt like like walking walking out out of of the the class class and and beating beating up few Muslim Muslim up aa few angry boys." boys." Leaving whether even Leaving aside aside the the stories, stories, II am am uncertain uncertain whether even my my direct direct childchildhood with their images which which carry inhood memories memories of of the the riots, riots, with their vivid vivid images carry such such an an intense charge charge of of noesis, noesis,the thecertainty certaintyofofknowing, knowing,can canbebecompletely completelytrusted trustedtoto tense represent reality reality or or are are even even wholly wholly mine. mine. For For instance, instance, II "remember" "remember" going going represent with my father to the railway station one night. Was it Rohtak? Hindu and with my father to the railway station one night. Was it Rohtak? Hindu and Sikh refugees refugees from from Pakistan Pakistan were camped on on the the station station platform. Many had had platform. Many Sikh were camped moaned in in their sleep and and aa couple couple had had woken woken up screaming (I (I now imagine) moaned their sleep up screaming now imagine) to escape escape from from their their persistent We had had walked walked through through the the sea sea to persistent nightmares. nightmares. We of uneasy sleepers, their their faces faces discolored discolored by by the the dim dim violet violet glow glow of of the neon the neon of uneasy sleepers, tubes hanging hanging high high above above the platform. Sitting Sitting silently silently among among empty empty caniscanistubes the platform. ters and and tattered tattered bedrolls, bedrolls, shrinking shrinking at at our our approach, approach, the children did did not cry the children not cry ters and rarely rarely whimpered, their large large dark dark eyes eyes full full of of aa bewildered bewildered hurt hurt and and and whimpered, their (again II imagine) imagine) the the memories of stabbed stabbed and and hacked hacked bodies bodies lying lying in in the the (again memories of streets of towns and villages which now belonged to Pakistan. One particular streets of towns and Villages which now belonged to Pakistan. One particular image has has become permanently etched: etched: aa four-year-old four-year-old boy boy with with aa running running image become permanently nose, the yellow-green mucous, mucous, aa thin thin plaster plaster of of salted salted sweat sweat on on the upper the upper nose, the yellow-green lip, dense dense with with buzzing child did the child did not not lift lift up up his his hand hand to to drive drive lip, buzzingflies flies which which the away, afraid perhaps of giving offense to even the smallest of living creatures. away, afraid perhaps of giving offense to even the smallest of living creatures. II never never personally personally witnessed witnessed the the kinds kinds of of violence violence described described in in the the famfamily ily stories stories during during the the few few days days of of rioting rioting in in Rohtak. Rohtak. For For we we lived lived at at the the outoutskirts of of the the town, town, in in Civil Civil Lines, Lines, where where the the spacious spacious bungalows bungalows of of the the sahihs sahibs skirts of the the Raj Raj and and aa few few elite elite non-officials non-officials were located. The The Civil Civil Lines Lines families families of were located. went rarely into into town, town, preferring the company company of of each each other. other. Our Our social social life life went rarely preferring the was focused on on the the Rohtak Club and and was was carried carried out out in in its its high-ceilinged high-ceilinged Rohtak Club was focused rooms with with their their covered covered padded padded chairs, chairs, the the wooden dance floor, and books books wooden dance floor, and rooms on big game hunting and mores of obscure Indian tribes lying unread on the on big game hunting and mores of obscure Indian tribes lying unread on the shelves of of teak teak bookcases. bookcases. Sometimes Sometimes in in the the evening, evening, when when children children were were shelves not allowed allowed in, in, II had had watched watched my my father father and and his his friends friends sitting sitting outside outside on on the the not lawn from from behind behind the the cactus cactus hedge hedge surrounding surrounding the the club. club. In In their drill their white white drill lawn trousers and and their their cotton cotton bush bush shirts, shirts, they they looked looked fresh fresh and and cool, cool, radiating radiating an an trousers

The Riot The Riot aura which made aura of of peace peace and and quiet quiet authority authority which made me me feel feel safe safe and and qUietly quietly sleepy. sleepy. A part part of of this this effect effect was was achieved achieved through through the the sensory sensory background background of of their their A setting—the settling settling dusk, dusk, the the smell smell of of freshly freshly watered watered grass, grass, the the low low murmursetting-the murs of of waiters waiters gliding gliding between between the the clubhouse clubhouse and and the the widely widely spaced spaced bridge bridge murs tables bearing bearing iced iced lemon lemon and and orange orange squashes. squashes. And And as as they they sat sat there, there, the the tables upright garden garden lamps lamps transforming transforming the the lawn lawn into into aa dull dull yellow yellow island island surupright surrounded by by the the brilliant Indian darkness darkness from from which which only only moths moths and and fireflies fireflies rounded brilliant Indian ventured in in as as intruders, intruders, the the silence silence disturbed disturbed only only by by the the occasional occasional dream dream ventured cry of of aa peacock, peacock, they they had had looked looked remote remote from from the the dust, dust, the the color, color, and and the the cry noise of the town they administered. noise of the town they administered. II remember remember weIl well the the night night the the riot riot started. started. From From the the terrace, terrace, where where most most of the the family family gathered gathered on on hearing hearing aa continuous, continuous, muffled muffled roar roar break break the the stillstillof counted at at least least twenty twenty separate separatefires within the the span span of of an an ness of the the night, night, II counted ness of fires within hour as as Muslim Muslim homes homes and and shops shops were were burnt burnt on on that that first night. By By midnight, midnight, hour first night. the night night had had the the shimmering shimmering glow glow of of aa slow-burning slow-burning coal coal fire, the overcast overcast the fire, the sky beginning beginning to to have ragged crimson crimson edge edge of of an an uneven uneven and and an an unnatuunnatuhave the the ragged sky ral dawn. dawn. Although Although on on the the follOWing following days days the the sounds sounds of of the the riot riot coming coming from from ral the town were blended into a low-pitched buzzing, not unlike the one near the town were blended into a low-pitched buzzing, not unlike the one near aa beehive, II sometimes sometimes imagined imagined II could could distinguish distinguish the the distant distant shouts shouts of of the the beehive, mobs the bazaars bazaars from from the the panic-filled screams of of their their victims. panic-filled screams victims. mobs roaming roaming the We had enough We had enough company company that that night. night. The The roof roof terraces terraces of of our our neighborneighboring bungalows were crowded with whole families come up to watch the dising bungalows were crowded with whole families come up to watch the distant cries of of babies babies awoken awoken from from sleep sleep mingled mingled with with excited excited tant fires. fires. Angry Angry cries shouts of of discovery discovery as as fresh fresh fires were sighted. sighted. There There were animated exfires were were animated exshouts changes across across the the roofs as to the exact exact location location of of aa new newfire and the the possible possible roofs as to the fire and changes reactions of the the Muslims. Muslims. On On the the whole, whole, the onlookers were were in in aa gay gay mood,the onlookers mood; reactions of there was was feeling feeling of of respite respite from from the the petty petty concerns concerns of of daily daily life, life, aa kind kind of of there relaxation which comes comes from from the of long long pent-up pent-up tensions. tensions. ''This 'This is is aa relaxation which the release release of lesson the Muslims needed needed to be taughtl taught! We We should should have have put them in in their their lesson the Muslims to be put them places long long ago!" ago!" was was the the general general consensus. consensus. places Although the the night night air air began to be be permeated the acrid acrid smell smell of Although began to permeated by by the of smoke, the the fires far away away and and the the possibility possibility of of any any danger danger to to our our own own smoke, fires were were far homes and and lives lives remote. remote. At At the the most, most, the the distant distant threat threat gave gave all all of tinof us us aa tinhomes gling sense sense of of excitement excitement which which heightened heightened the the gaiety gaiety of of what what was was fast fast turnturngling ing into into aa festive festive Wcasion. ing Iilccasion. perhalils for first night For For the the chil'dren chiMreri^ and and perhaps for the the adults adults too, too, that that first night of of the the riot thus had aa qua~ty quality^akin to the the d~y d^y of of the the kite-flying kite-flying festival festival at at the the onset onset of of riot thus had a1$:in to spring, when when people people\tnr6ng and the the clear clear blue blue of of the the sky sky is is prothrong the the roofs roofs and prospring, fusely dotted dotted with with kiteVirihaH their bright bright colors; colors,- the the town town resounding to the the fusely kites tn ~H their resounding to

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Chapter Chapter Two Two battle battle cries cries of of children children as as the the men men compete compete against against each each other, other, trying trying to to cut cut the string string holding rival kite aloft with with their own. The duels taking taking place the holding aa rival kite aloft their own. The duels place in in the night did did not not use use paper paper kites kites as as weapons, weapons, and and the the battle cries battle cries the town town that that night we heard heard so so faintly faintly were were no no mere expression of of childish childish exuberance exuberance but mere expression but decdecwe larations of of deadly deadly intent. intent. Yet, Yet, in in the safety of of our our house house and and surrounded surrounded by by the safety larations the family, an an uncanny uncanny impression impression of of the the riot riot as as aa macabre festival persisted persisted the family, macabre festival throughout the the hours hours II spent spent on on the the roof. roof. throughout When the brought under under control control after after three three days, days, II remember remember When the riots riots were were brought that my father father gave gave in in to my persistence persistence and and promised to take into the the that my to my promised to take me me into town the next next morning morning to to see see their aftermath. II remember remember waking waking up early their aftermath. up early town the that day day and and looking looking out out at at the the speckled speckled dawn dawn as as the sun struggled struggled with the that the sun with the first clouds cloudsofofthe theseason. season.The Themonsoon monsoonwas wasaafew fewdays daysaway awayand, and,my myelbows elbows first watched its its forerunners, forerunners, resting on on the the window window sill sill of of my my parents' parents' bedroom, bedroom, II watched resting dark fluffy clouds racing racing across across the the sky sky as as imperious imperious heralds. heralds. The The morning morning dark fluffy clouds had been different from others, smelling not only of the sun's warmth but also also had been different from others, smelling not only of the sun's warmth but of budding budding grass grass shoots shoots and and the the dark, dark, far far away away thunder. thunder. The The walk walk through through of Rohtak's bazaars with my my father father was disappointing. II had had expected expected to to find was disappointing. find Rohtak's bazaars with images from from the the stories stories II had had heard take concrete concrete form. form. II expected expected to to see heard take see images smouldering heaps, amputated limbs, cut-off breasts—which I pictured smouldering heaps, amputated limbs, cut-off breasts-which I pictured as as pale fleshy without aa trace trace of of blood. blood. The The reality was oddly oddly disappointdisappointpale fleshy balls balls without reality was ing. Except for an an occasional occasional house house with charred doors, doors, missing missing windows, windows, ing. Except for with charred and smoke smoke scars scars on on its its front, front, the the bazaars bazaars presented presented the the unchanging vista of of aa unchanging vista and provincial town town awakening awakening to another day. day. There There were were the the men men vigorously vigorously provincial to another (and loudly) loudly) cheWing chewing on on marigossa marigossa twigs twigs to to clean clean their their teeth and clearing clearing teeth and (and their throats throats with with much much hawking hawking and and spitting. spitting. Others Others murmured murmured their their their prayers as they they bathed bathed under under the the cool cool streams streams of of water water from from public hydrants. public hydrants. prayers as The women women hissed hissed encouragement encouragement over over naked naked babies babies held held up up above above the the gutgutThe ter. Older children squatted by themselves, with that faraway look which ter. Older children squatted by themselves, with that faraway look which bespeaks of of an an inward inward absorption absorption in in the the working working of of one's one's bowels, trance bowels, aa trance bespeaks occasionally broken broken as as they they bent bent down down to contemplate their their own own dirt. dirt. to contemplate occasionally Almost twenty years Almost twenty years later, later, in in 1969, 1969, when when IIwas wasagain againaawitness witnesstotoanother another western state Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim riot, riot, this this time time in in Ahmedabad Ahmedabad in in the the western state of of Gujarat, Gujarat, II was surprised to to hear hear essentially essentially the the same same rumors rumors II had had heard heard as as aa child child in was surprised in Rohtak. Thus Thus we we heard heard (and (and in in Rohtak that milk milk vendors vendors had been Rohtak. Rohtak believed) believed) that had been bribed by the Muslims Muslims to the milk milk in in the the morning. morning. Four Four children children were were by the to poison poison the bribed said to to be lying unconscious and two dogs had had died died after after having having drunk drunk of of the the be lying unconscious and two dogs said poisoned milk. milk. Apparently, Apparently, most most of of the servants in in Civil Civil Lines Lines who went into into poisoned the servants who went the town town frequently frequently had had personally personally seen seen the the dogs dogs in in their their death death throes. throes. the Women had had hurried hurried to to empty empty out out the the pails pails of of milk,sticky patches of white white milk; sticky patches of Women

The Riot Riot The soon to plaster that MusMussoon spread spread to plaster the the cobbled cobbled stones stones of of the the streets. streets. We We heard heard that into grocery powdered glass glass lims lims had had broken broken into grocery shops shops in in the the night night and and mixed mixed powdered with the the salt. salt. A police van van with with aa loudspeaker loudspeaker was was said said to to be be driving driving around around with A police the warning people not to salt. Both in Rohtak Rohtak and and Ahmedabad Ahmedabad to buy buy salt. Both in the town, town, warning people not there was talk talk of of large large stocks stocks of of weapons, weapons, acid, acid, and and other other materials materials needed needed there was for manufacturing bombs, cached in the underground cellars of mosques,of for manufacturing bombs, cached in the underground cellars of mosques; of prior Muslim preparations for aa slaughter slaughter of of the Hindus being forestalled by by prior Muslim preparations for the Hindus being forestalled the riot. riot. In In Ahmedabad Ahmedabad there there was was the the additional additional rumor rumor of of armed armed Pakistani Pakistani the was the the agents seen seen parachuting into the the city city at at night. night. Its Its Rohtak Rohtak counterpart counterpart was agents parachuting into imminent attack by thousands of armed Meo tribesmen making a detour to imminent attack by thousands of armed Meo tribesmen making a detour to the town town on on their to Pa:kistan. Pakistan. the their way way to The The fact fact that that rumors rumors during during aa riot riot take take such such dramatic dramatic and and fanciful fanciful turns turns is is not surprising. surprising. In In aa study study of of the the ratio ratio of of rumors rumors to to actual actual events events such such as not as killing, rape, rape, beating, beating, harassment, harassment, property property violation, violation, and and inconvenience inconvenience killing, among the the Asians Asians expelled expelled from from Uganda by Idi Idi Amin, the relationship relationship was was among Uganda by Amin, the That is, is, the the more threatening and and dramatic dramatic the the experience, experience, strikingly linear. linear.55 That more threatening strikingly wellspring of of rumor. rumor. At At the the high high point point of of aa riot, riot, the more more likely likely it it was was to to be be aa wellspring the the content content of of the the rumors is at at its its most most threatening threatening and and the the speed speed at at which which the rumors is they circulate circulate at at its its highest. highest. For For it it is is at at this this particular particular time time when when three three of of the the they four conditions conditions for for the the generation generation and and transmission transmission of of rumors-personal rumors—personal four anxiety, general general uncertainty, and topical topical importance-are importance—are at at their their highest highest anxiety, uncertainty, and level. The The fourth fourth condition, condition, credulity, credulity, is is no no longer longer in in operation operation since, since, at at high high level. levels of anxiety, disbelief in rumor is suspended, that is, rumors will be belevels of anxiety, disbelief in rumor is suspended, that is, rumors will be believed regardless regardless how how farfetched. farfetched.66 lieved Rumors, Rumors, of of course, course, also also serve serve some some less less conscious conscious purposes. purposes. Deriving Deriving from and and reinforcing reinforcing the the paranoid paranoid potential which lies lies buried buried in in all all of of us, potential which us, from they were were the the conversational conversational food food which which helped helped in in the the growth growth of of aa collective collective they Hindu body. body. They They sharpened sharpened our our awareness awareness of of our our own own kind kind and and many, many, who who Hindu though they they lived lived in in the the same same bazaar bazaar were were relative relative strangers strangers earlier, earlier, became became though brothers overnight. They They made made misers misers discover discover aa forgotten forgotten generosity generosity as as brothers overnight. they offered to share food with those who had none neighbors who had they offered to share food with those who had none;; neighbors who had little use use for for each each other other now now inquired inquired daily daily about about each each other's other's well-being. well-being. little There is is little little doubt doubt that that rumors rumors are are the the fuel fuel and and riots riots the the fire in which which aa There fire in heightened sense sense of of community community is is also also forged. forged. IfIf IIremember rememberthe theRohtak Rohtakriots riots heightened so vividly, vividly, it it is is not not only only because was an an impressionable impressionable child child but but also also bebecause II was beso cause of the deep sense of communion I felt with my family and the wider, cause of the deep sense of communion I felt with my family and the wider, although vague, vague, entity entity of of "the "the Hindus." Hindus." The The riots riots generated generated emotions emotions which which although expanded my my boundaries. boundaries. They They gave gave rise rise to to exhilarating exhilarating feelings feelings of of closeness closeness expanded and belonging belonging to to something something beyond myself which which II desperately desperately wanted to and beyond myself wanted to

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Chapter Two Chapter Two keep. My keep. My memory memory of of the the Rohtak Rohtak riots, riots, II recognize, recognize, isis not not free free from from aa shameshamefaced for aa shining which sprang defaced nostalgia nostalgia for shining flower flower which sprang from from the the mean mean soil soil of of decaying corpses corpses and and ashes ashes left left behind behind by by arsonists' arsonists' fires. fires. caying In exIn undermining undermining our our familiar familiar controls controls over over mental mental life, life, aa riot riot is is often often experienced as as aa midwife midwife for for unfamiliar, unfamiliar, disturbing disturbing fantasies fantasies and and complex complex emoemoperienced tions, such such as as both both disgust disgust and and overwhelming overwhelming sexual sexual attraction attraction for for aa member member tions, community. The The overcharged overcharged atmosphere atmosphere of of violence violence breathed breathed of the the enemy enemy community. of day in in and and day day out out by by aa person the lid lid on on the the cauldron cauldron of of instinctual instinctual day person lifts lifts the drives as as civilized civilized sensibility sensibility threatens threatens to to collapse collapse before before the the press of instincinstincdrives press of tuality in in both its sexual sexual and and violent violent aspects. aspects. Accounts Accounts of of sexual sexual violence violence durdurtuality both its ing aa riot, riot, for for instance, instance, not not only only evoke evoke the acceptable reaction reaction of ing the publicly publicly acceptable of horror but but may may also also release release the the more hidden emotion emotion of of aa shameful shameful exciteexcitehorror more hidden ment which bespeaks bespeaks instinctual instinctual desire desire in in its form. Besides Besides the the expresexpresment which its rawer rawer form. sion of moral outrage, riot violence can be subjectively used for an unwanted sion of moral outrage, riot violence can be subjectively used for an unwanted but wished wished for for vicarious vicarious satisfaction satisfaction of of sadistic sadistic impulses, impulses, for for the the fulfillment fulfillment of but of ones urge urge to to utterly utterly subjugate subjugate another another human to reduce or her her one's human being, being, to reduce his his or consciousness to reactivity of of the the flesh alone. consciousness to aa reactivity flesh alone. In fiction, this flow of been brilbrilIn fiction, this complex complex flow of subjectivity subjectivity during during aa riot riot has has been liantly captured captured by Hindi writer writer Krishan Baldev Vaid in his his novel Gutra liantly by the the Hindi Krishan Baldev Vaid in novel Gutm huaZamana Zamana("A("A bygone era"). Biru, teenagedhero hero novel, together hua bygone era"). Biru, thethe teenaged ofof thethenovel, together with his parents, parents, his his sister sister Devi, Devi, and and Kumari, Kumari, the young wife wife of of aa neighbor, neighbor, with his the young who always lusted lusted after after with with the the innocence innocence and and ancient ancient knowledge knowledge who Biru Biru has has always of aa boy boy on on the the verge verge of of manhood, manhood, has has been been given given shelter shelter by by aa Muslim Muslim friend, friend, of Bakka, during the the partition partition riots riots in in aa small small town town in Punjab. As As the the marauding marauding Bakka, during in Punjab. well, including including Bakka Bakka himMuslim mob, mob, consisting consisting of of many many men Biru knows knows well, himMuslim men Biru self, roams roams the the streets streets at at night night in in an an orgy orgy of of looting, looting, killing, killing, and and rape, rape, the the self, Hindu family cowers in the small dark room and a terrified Biru's thoughts Hindu family cowers in the small dark room and a terrified Biru's thoughts flow ininaafull, full,barely barelycontrollable controllablestream. stream. flow Even if II survive survive itit will will be be as as aacripple. cripple. Before Before pushing pushingus usout, out, Bakka Bakkawill will Even if first first cut cut an anear ear off off everyone. everyone. Devi Devi and and Kumari Kumari will will also alsohave have aabreast breast chopped break one chopped off. off. Perhaps Perhaps he he will will also also break one of of my my legs. legs. What What if if all all the the others are are killed killed and and II survive survive!I II will commit suicide. suicide. II know how to. others will commit know how to. Somewhere here here there there must must be be aa rope. rope. What What if if II am am killed killed and and the the Somewhere kill herself. will become others others live? live? Mother Mother will will surely surely kill herself. Or Or she she will become mad. mad. She you seen innocent, naive naive She will will go go around around asking, asking, have have you seen my my Biru? Biru? My My innocent, Biru? What What will will probably probably happen happen isis that thatwe wewill willall alldie dieand andonly onlyKumari Kumari Biru? will be be left left alive. alive. Bakka Bakka will will take take her her as as his his wife. wife. Or Or as as his his slave. slave. He He will will will change her name. Sakina Sakina or or Hafiza. Hafiza. II like like Muslim Muslim names. names. Also Also Muslim Muslim change her name.

The The Riot Riot women. to kill will say, me II like women. When When Bakka Bakka comes comes to kill me me II will say, don't don't kill kill me like by my my Muslim names Muslim names and and Muslim Muslim women. women. He He will will be be so so surprised surprised by courage courage that that his his uplifted uplifted hand hand will will remain remain suspended suspended in in air. air. I'll I'll say, say, II am am half aa Muslim. Muslim. When When II hear hear the the call call for for prayers from the the mosque prayers from mosque II half shiver all all over. over. He He will will think think II am am making making fun fun of of Islam Islam but but II am am really really shiver telling the truth. . . . telling the truth .... The But this this will The killer killer will will agree agree that that II am am aa Muslim Muslim at at heart. heart. But will not not stop stop him him from from striking. striking. If If II was was in in love love with with aa Muslim Muslim girl girl would would IIhave have her sake? converted converted for for her sake? II certainly certainly would would have have become become aa Muslim Muslim ifif she she had asked. Lovers have faith not religion. . . . had asked. Lovers have faith not religion .... The The accounting accounting will will start start once once it it is is morning. morning. The The counting counting of of corpses. many Hindus, corpses. How How many Hindus, how how many many Sikhs. Sikhs. There There must must be be aa few few Muslims too. too. The Muslims The intention intention of of killing killing ten ten of of us us for for every every one one of of them. them. On the the other other side side (the (the Muslims Muslims would say) so so many many of of ours ours were were killed, killed, On would say) why so so few few of of them them here? here? There There they out processions of our our nawhy they took took out processions of naked women, why why has has that not happened happened here? here? Strip Strip off off the the clothes clothes of that not of ked women, their women! women! Tear Tear apart apart their their bodies bodies too. too. In In front front of of their their men. men. And And their then parade parade them them in in the the bazaar! In front front of of their their impotent impotent men! men! At At least least then bazaar! In they will learn to to fear fear God! God! There, There, we we hear, they cut cut off off the the breasts breasts of they will learn hear, they of our women, women, their their hair hair too. too. We We also also will will not let them them get intact. our not let get away away intact. Chop one one off off everyone! everyone! Shave Shave their their heads! heads! And And then then kick them in in the the Chop kick them arse! These These are are the the ones ones who who would would not not let let us us touch touch them. them. They They would would arse! not eat eat from from our our hands. hands. Now Now force force them to eat eat everything. everything. Stuff Stuff it it into into not them to mouths! And And say, say, go go to to your your Hindustan! Hindustan! Why Why are are so so few few orphans orphans their mouths! their here? Why Why is is the the sound sound of of the weeping of of widows widows so so low? low? Why Why are are the the the weeping here? heaps of of rubble rubble so so small? small? Do Do not not rest rest till till all all these these accounts accounts are are settled. settled. heaps Avenge blood with with blood! blood! For For aa hurled hurled brick, brick, retaliate retaliate with with aa stone! stone! Avenge blood Take vengeance on the son for the deeds of the father! . . . Take vengeance on the son for the deeds of the father! ... And And this this cycle cycle will will continue, continue, for for centuries. centuries. It It is is better better if if it it remains remains dark. Because Because the the darkness darkness of of the the day day will be unbearable. unbearable. Because Because when when will be dark. morning comes comes no no one one will be ashamed. ashamed. No No one one will embrace. No one will be will embrace. No one morning 7 7 will console. console. will

Territory Territory and and Passion Passion The The partition partition violence violence is is commonly commonly agreed agreed to to have have been been the the most most momenmomenrelations in It tous tous event event in in the the shaping shaping of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations in independent independent India. India. It is recognized that may not been the of is not not as as commonly commonly recognized that it it may not have have been the memories memories of

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Chapter Two Chapter Two this have been been passed this violence violence which which have passed down down through through the the generationsgenerations— traumatic as as the the violence violence was was in in its its scale scale and and intensity-but intensity—but the the division divisionofofthe the traumatic country into into two two states states of of India India and and Pakistan Pakistan which which has has had had the the stronger stronger psycountry psychological impact impact on on many many Hindus. Hindus. The partition of of India India sharpened, sharpened, if if not not The partition chological gave birth birth to, to, the the distinction distinction between between the the secularist secularist and and the the nationalist nationalist gave Hindu. often happens, happens, even even for for the the same same set set of of memories, memories, the the lessons lessons Hindu. As As often drawn quite contradictory. contradictory. The The secularist secularist looked looked confidently confidently to the to the drawn were were quite country's future future polity polity once once this this regrettable regrettable business business of of dividing dividing the the councouncountry's try was was over. over. One One of of the most respected respected political of the posttry the most political figures figures of the postindependence era, Jai Prakash Narain, argued that it had been like two independence era, Jai Prakash Narain, argued that it had been like two brothers fighting for separation. separation. Once Once the the separation separation had had taken place and and the the taken place brothers fighting for parental assets were were divided, divided, the brothers would would live live in in amity amity and and fraternal fraternal parental assets the brothers harmony.88 The The secularist secularist was was convinced convinced that that the the burning burning embers embers of of the the parparharmony. tition conflagration were permanently extinguished. Its memories were gone tition conflagration were permanently extinguished. Its memories were gone forever and and perhaps existed only only in in the the nightmares nightmares of of an an older older generation generation forever perhaps existed which would would soon soon disappear. disappear. "It "It can can never never happen happen again," again/' was was the the common common which refrain in in the the first years after after independence. independence. The The gates gates to to religious religious first twenty twenty years refrain violence were were securely securely locked locked and and the the riots riots which took place occasionally which took place occasionally violence were regarded regarded like like the the fall fall of of small small pebbles pebbles in in the the aftermath aftermath of of the the big landwere big landslide. Men Men of of goodwill goodwill among among both Hindus and and Muslims Muslims echoed echoed the the poet poet both Hindus slide. Iqbal's famous line, line, "Religion "Religion does does not teach mutual enmity." Others Others mainmainIqbal's famous not teach mutual enmity." tained it was only because because of of the the machinations machinations of of the the British that the the tained that that it was only British that partition riots took the gruesome turn that they did. partition riots took the gruesome turn that they did. hopes about Most all, the the secularist secularist pinned pinned hopes about the the end end of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim Most of of all, taken by conflict conflict on on economic economic development. development. The The position position taken by Nehru, Nehru, which which for for many years produced produced aa remarkable remarkable consensus consensus within within India's India's political many years political class class and the the Westernized Westernized intelligentsia intelligentsia fascinated fascinated by by Marxism, was that industriand Marxism, was that industrialization of of the the country country and and the the spread spread of of the the "scientific "scientific temper" temper" through through alization modern education would the religious outlook of of the the people people religious outlook modern education would undermine undermine the and consolidate consolidate secular secular values. values. Implied Implied in in this this "modernity "modernity project"-a project"—a and catch-all term term for for political political democracy, democracy, scientific scientific rationality, rationality, and and philosophiphilosophicatch-all cal individualism-were individualism—were the the notions that the the tasks tasks of of economic economic developdevelopcal notions that ment would would absorb absorb all all the the energies energies of of the the people, people, and and any any conflicts conflicts which which ment arose as as aa consequence consequence of of this this enterprise enterprise would would be be taken taken care care of of by by the the demodemoarose cratic processes. processes. cratic For politically weak of For the the Hindu Hindu nationalist, nationalist, politically weak till till the the remarkable remarkable ascent ascent of the Bharatiya Janata Janata Party Party (BJP) (BJP) and and its its Hindutva Hindutva movement movement in in the the last last few few the Bharatiya years, the the partition, partition, with with Jinnah's Jinnah's Muslim Muslim League League successfully successfully insisting insisting on on aa years, separate state state for for the the Muslims, Muslims, was was the the final proof that that Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims final proof separate

The Riot The Riot were really two had claimed. were really two different different nations nations as as }innah Jinnah had claimed. There There was was aa basic basic and Indian nationalism, and, given the right opposition between Islam opposition between Islam and Indian nationalism, and, given the right circircumstances, cumstances, Indian Indian Muslims Muslims will will want want yet yet another another separate separate state state for for themthemselves. As As we shall see see later, later, 'They "They [the [the Muslims] Muslims] want to create create another another we shall want to selves. Pakistan" is is an an emotionally emotionally powerful appeal in in contemporary contemporary Hindu Hindu nationnationPakistan" powerful appeal alist discourse. alist discourse. There third Hindu, There was, was, of of course, course, aa third Hindu, probably probably in in aa large large majority majority till till at at whom the least least aa few few years years ago. ago. This This was was the the indifferent indifferent Hindu Hindu for for whom the HinduHinduwere simply Muslim Muslim problem problem and and the the national national identity identity question question were simply not not salient. salient. Hindus continued to live in their faith with a traditional indifferenceSuch Such Hindus continued to live in their faith with a traditional indifference— often space, often confused confused with with tolerance-toward tolerance—toward the the Other Other sharing sharing their their space, whether was the Mussulman or whether the the Other Other was the Mussulman or the the Isai Isai (Christian). (Christian). be based National National identities, identities, we we are are told told by by political political scientists, scientists, can can be based on on several principles of belonging: territory several defining defining principles of collective collective belonging: territory (e.g., (e.g., SwitzerSwitzerland), land), ethnicity ethnicity (e.g.,Japan), (e.g., Japan), religion religion (e.g., (e.g., Pakistan), Pakistan), and and ideology ideology (e.g., (e.g., the the United United States).9 States).9 Although Although territory territory is is invariably invariably aa part part of of the the idea idea of of the the nation-state, For nation-state, it it does does not not have have to to be be the the defining defining principle principle in in all all cases. cases. For religion in instance, instance, the the notions notions of of ethnicity ethnicity in in Germany Germany or or religion in Iran Iran evoke evoke Ashgreater passions than greater political political passions than territory. territory. In In India, India, the the political political scientist scientist Ashutosh the secularist utosh Varshney Varshney suggests, suggests, for for both both the secularist and and the the Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist the defining the defining principle principle in in the the idea idea of of national national identity identity is is territory; territory,- "national "national thus highly phrases in the Indian unity" unity" and and "territorial "territorial integrity" integrity" are are thus highly charged charged phrases in the Indian 10 Inpolitical discourse. political discourse.to In In the the secular secular imagination, imagination, the the territorial territorial notion notion of of Inyears since times of the MaMadia, dia, emphasized emphasized for for twenty-five twenty-five hundred hundred years since the the times of the habharata, habharata, is is of of aa land land stretching stretching from from the the Himalayas Himalayas in in the the north north to to Kanya Kanya the west west to to the Kumari Kumari (Cape (Cape Comorin) Comorin) in in the the south, south, from from the the Arabian Arabian Sea Sea in in the the Bay of Bay of Bengal Bengal in in the the east. east. These These boundaries boundaries are are coterminous coterminous with with the the "sacred "sacred whose hallowed geography" geography" of of the the Hindu Hindu nationalist nationalist whose hallowed pilgrimage pilgrimage sites sites mark mark boundaries of the country, the Hindu naoff off essentially essentially the the same same boundaries of the country, although although the Hindu nationalist would half tionalist would go go back back much much further further into into mythic mythic history history than than two two and and aa half remarks: millennia to millennia to date date the the origin origin of of these these sites. sites. Varshney Varshney remarks:

Since the the territorial territorial principle principle is is drawn drawn from from aa belief belief in in ancient ancient heritage, heritage, Since the notion figures in encapsulated encapsulated in in the notion of of "sacred "sacred geography," geography," and and it it also alsofigures in both imaginations [secularist and nationalist], it has acquired political both imaginations [secularist and nationalist], it has acquired political hegemony thing common hegemony over over time. time. It It is is the the only only thing common between between the the two two competing nationalist nationalist imaginations. imaginations. Therefore, Therefore, just as America's America's most most competing just as India's passionate passionate political political moments moments concern concern freedom freedom and and equality, equality, India's most explosive explosive moments concern its its "sacred "sacred geography", geography", the the 1947 1947 parparmost moments concern

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Chapter Two Chapter Two tition most obvious of tition being being the the most obvious example. example. Whenever Whenever the the threat threat of another large, the another break-up, break-up, another another "partition", "partition", looms looms large, the moment moment ununleashes remarkable passions passions in in politics. based on leashes remarkable politics. Politics Politics based on this this imaginaimaginawhen Malaysia Malaysia and tion tion is is quite quite different different from from what what was was seen seen when and Singapore when the the Czech repubSingapore split split from from each each other, other, or or when Czech and and Slovak Slovak republics not being being such part of nalics separated. separated. Territory Territory not such an an inalienable inalienable part of their their naIn tional were not tional identity, identity, these these territorial territorial divorces divorces were not desecrations. desecrations. In India, they become I I India, they become desecrations desecrations of of the the sacred sacred geography. geography.11 Later processes ininLater we we shall shall look look in in some some detail detail at at the the psychological psychological processes passions around the issue issue of territorial integvolved volved in in the the arousal arousal of of political political passions around the of territorial integrevivalist seeks the indifferent is rity which, the rity which, the Hindu Hindu revivalist seeks to to convince convince the indifferent Hindu, Hindu, is under not only those clamorunder grave grave threat threat from from all all Indian Indian Muslims Muslims and and not only from from those clamoring ing for for secession secession in in Kashmir. Kashmir.

Profile of of aa Riot Riot Profile As back at riots, II am As II now now look look back at the the partition partition riots, am aware aware that that perhaps perhaps there there are are very few people who reflect reflect on on the past with the professional professional historian's historian s perpervery few people who the past with the spective. For For most most of of us, us, as as the the sociologists sociologists Howard Howard Schuman Schuman and and J. Scott Scott spective. have remarked, national history have remarked, it it is is only only the the intersection intersection of of personal personal and and national history that the most most vital and remembered remembered connection connection to to the the times that provides provides the vital and times we we 12 12 have lived through. If the is aa significant significant source source of of collective collective the partition partition is have lived through. If memory it is is not not only only because the origin origin of of aa nation nation is is emotionally emotionally aa particbecause the particmemory it ularly charged time. time. As Maurice Halbwachs Halbwachs has has observed, observed, not all emotionemotionularly charged As Maurice not all those which provoking provoking events events are are memorable, memorable, only only those which require require considerable considerable 13 not only psychological psychological adaptation. adaptation. 13 The The partition partition events events were were not only unique unique and and provoked strong strong emotional emotional reactions reactions but also required required profound profound changes changes in provoked but also in of those behavior behavior and and beliefs beliefs of those affected affected by by them. them. Yet those days Yet the the memory memory of of the the deep deep experiences experiences of of those days grows grows dim dim as as II is recollected write, which loses recollected write, like like aa dream dream which loses its its experiential experiential charge charge even even as as it it is and have heard and retold. retold. Recollections Recollections of of all all II have heard and and read read about about other other HinduHinduunique event Muslim Muslim riots riots come come rushing rushing in in to to make make my my unique event part part of of aa category, category, highlighting of with the with the dulling dulling of of individual individual detail detail and and highlighting of similarities similarities which which mark the the birth mark birth of of aa category. category. As riotsAs aa category, category, communal communal riots riots in in India India differ differ from from other other kinds kinds of of riots— student riots, caste riots, language student riots, caste riots, language riots, riots, agricultural agricultural and and labor labor rioting-in rioting—in that the most that they they are are the most violent violent and and most most difficult difficult to to control. control. They They are are the the most most the particular particular conflict, blend of religious, politipolitivirulent virulent because because the conflict, generally generally aa blend of religious,

TheRiot The Riot

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cal, becomes imbued cal, and and economic economic aims, aims, becomes imbued with with religious religious ultimacy. ultimacy. In In other other words, the an arsenal of words, the issues issues at at stake stake become become life life and and death death issues issues through through an arsenal of the last ideational ideational and and ritual ritual symbols. symbols. Moreover, Moreover, as as we we saw saw in in the last chapter, chapter, both both Hindu tradition in Hindu and and Muslim Muslim religious religious cultures cultures have have aa long long tradition in specifying specifying "the "the enemy" and, and, as as in in other other religious religious cultures, cultures, their their violent violent champions champions have enemy" have an an acceptable, even even admired admired rationale for the the violence violence unleashed unleashed in "defense." acceptable, rationale for in "defense." Communal riots riots also also differ differ from from other other riots riots in in that that they they rarely remain conconrarely remain Communal fined to to one one location location so so that that within within aa few few days days or or (given (given the the speed speed and and reach reach fined of modern modern communications) communications) hours, hours, they they can can engulf engulf many parts of of the the of many parts country. country. Leaving Leaving aside aside the the difficult difficult and and contested contested question question of of their their ultimate ultimate cause, cause, the the eruption eruption of of aa riot riot is is always always expected expected and and yet yet takes takes everyone everyone by by surprise. surprise. By By eruption eruption IIdo donot notmean meanthat thataariot riotisisspontaneous spontaneousand andinvolves involvesno no degree degree of of planning planning or or preparation, preparation, but but only only that that it it generally generally takes takes place place after after considerable degree degree of of tension tension between between the the two two communities communities has has been been aa considerable the riot built built up. up. To To change change the the metaphor, metaphor, the riot is is then then the the bursting bursting of of aa boil, boil, the the aceruption eruption of of pus, pus, of of "bad "bad blood" blood" between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims which which has has acparticular location. cumulated cumulated over over aa few few days days or or even even weeks weeks in in aa particular location. In In some some cities cities and and towns-Ahmedabad towns—Ahmedabad and and Hyderabad Hyderabad come come immediately immediately to to mind mind -where —where the the boil boil is is aa festering festering sore, sore, the the tension tension never never really really disappears disappears but but remains below that remains at at an an uncomfortable uncomfortable level level which which is is below that of of violent violent eruption. eruption. tension and and Besides Besides the the ultimate ultimate cause, cause, then, then, aa riot riot has has aa period period of of immediate immediate tension aa precipitating incident which havehave received muchmuch less attention than than the more precipitating incident which received less attention the more glamorous glamorous search search for for "ultimate" "ultimate" causes. causes. The The bUildup buildup of of immediate immediate tension tension to the occurs when religious religious identities occurs when identities come come to the forefront forefront because because of of aa perceived perceived threat of threat to to this this particular particular social social identity. identity. The The threat, threat, aa collective collective distortion distortion of the the meaning meaning of of aa real real event, event, makes makes members members of of the the community community demondemonMuslims. In stratively stratively act act through through words words and and actions actions as as Hindus, Hindus, or or as as Muslims. In turn, turn, the the other the demonstration demonstration of of this this religious religious identity identity threatens threatens members members of of the other community their religious community who, who, too, too, begin begin to to mobilize mobilize their their identity identity around around their religious threats and affiliation. affiliation. Thus Thus begins begins aa spiral spiral of of perceived perceived (or (or misperceived) misperceived) threats and active postures which raises the Musactive counter counter postures which raises the tension tension between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims. Babri lims. To To give give examples examples from from some some major major riots: riots: The The recent recent demolition demolition of of Babri of mosque was perceived mosque was perceived as as aa threat threat to to Muslim Muslim religious religious identity-a identity—a chain chain of mental associations leading from the razing of an unused mosque to the dismental associations leading from the razing of an unused mosque to the diswas then appearance appearance of of Islam Islam in in India-which India—which was then openly openly demonstrated demonstrated against against and, and, in in turn, turn, reacted reacted to to by by aa further further consolidation consolidation and and demonstration demonstration of of aa Hindu identity. was preceded preceded by by aa pepemilitant militant Hindu identity. The The 1969 1969 riot riot in in Ahmedabad Ahmedabad was riod of tension when when members members of riod of tension of the the Rashtriya Rashtriya Swayam Swayam Sevak Sevak Sangh Sangh (RSS) (RSS)

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Chapter Two Chapter Two began aa campaign began campaign demanding demanding the the "Indianization" "Indianization" of of Muslims Muslims and and thus thus initiatinitiating aa similar similar chain chain of of mental mental associations associations and and actual actual events. events. We We saw saw that that the the ing threat to Hindus Hindus is is generally generally around around the the issue of the the country's country's territorial threat to issue of territorial inintegrity which the the Muslim Muslim seems seems to to threaten threaten either through aa demonstrative demonstrative tegrity which either through identification with pan-Islamic pan-Islamic causes causes or or in in the the demand demand for for aa separate separate cultural cultural identification with identity, expressed expressed through through the the insistence insistence on on maintaining maintaining Islamic Islamic personal personal identity, law or or in in demanding demanding aa greater greater role role for for Urdu. Urdu. Here Here the the Hindu Hindu distortion distortion of of law the threat threat takes takes place place through through an an associative associative chain chain where where such such Muslim Muslim acthe acas precursors precursors to to aa separate separate Muslim Muslim enclave, enclave, the the creation creation of of tions are are imagined imagined as tions another Pakistan Pakistan and, and, ultimately, dreaded revival revival of of medieval Muslim another ultimately, the the dreaded medieval Muslim rule. For For instance, instance, the the immediate immediate tension tension which which led led to the Ranchi Ranchi riots riots in to the in rule. 1967 was was initiated initiated by by the the state state government's government's plan plan to to raise raise the the official official status status of of 1967 Urdu which which was was perceived perceived by by the the Hindus Hindus as as aa step step down down the the road of Muslim Muslim Urdu road of separatism. separatism. too general term to than the the most 'Tension" "Tension" of of course, course, is is too general aa term to convey convey more more than most to further the contents prosuperficial meanings. We superficial of of meanings. We need need to further explore explore the contents and and processes cesses of of this this "tension" "tension" in in our our specific specific context context of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim rioting. rioting. What happens in in the the period period of that individuals What happens of tension tension is is that individuals increasingly increasingly think think of Muslims. In psychological language of of themselves themselves as as Hindus Hindus or or Muslims. In the the more more psychological language of the with Henri cothe "social "social identification" identification" theory, theory, associated associated with Henri Tajfel Tajfel and and his his cobeworkers, when workers, when group group salience salience becomes becomes high, high, an an individual individual thinks thinks and and bethe stereotypical characteristics of the category haves in conformity with haves in conformity with the stereotypical characteristics of the category "Hindu" rather than to his "Hindu" (or (or "Muslim") "Muslim") rather than according according to his or or her her individual individual personpersonality 14 In period of ality dispositions. dispositions.14 In aa period of riSing rising social social tension, tension, social social identity identity domidominates, not altogether nates, if if it it does does not altogether replace, replace, personal personal identity identity as as individuals individuals purely in As perceive perceive members members of of the the Other Other group group purely in terms terms of of the the former. former. As Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims increasingly increasingly see see each each other other as as stereotypes, stereotypes, there there follows follows an an inevitable inevitable homogenization homogenization and and depersonalization. depersonalization. Individual Individual Hindus Muslims become become interchangeable, interchangeable, perceiving Hindus or or Muslims perceiving each each other other in in terms terms of rather than personal, idiosyncratic of shared shared category category characteristics characteristics rather than their their personal, idiosyncratic natures. marknatures. Conversations Conversations couched couched in in terms terms of of group group categories categories increase increase markwhat the 'The Muslims have crossed all edly: edly: "Look "Look at at what the Hindus Hindus are are doing!" doing!" "The Muslims have crossed all limits!" limits!" The The stereotypes stereotypes attributed attributed to to one's one's own own and and the the adversarial adversarial group, group, we we history, orally shall shall see see later, later, take take their their shape shape from from popular popular history, orally transmitted transmitted through through generations. generations. The tension at matter of of The immediate immediate tension at the the eve eve of of the the riot riot is is not not merely merely aa matter cognitive cognitive functioning functioning according according to to aa social social identity. identity. The The tension tension is is also also conconstituted strong affects will. The somestituted of of strong affects and and emotions, emotions, "raw "raw passions" passions" if if one one will. The somewhat bloodless what bloodless formulations formulations of of social social identity identity theory theory are are not not completely completely

The The Riot Riot sufficient to to explain explain aa process process which which will will end end up up being being so so bloody. bloody. Here Here we we sufficient need to to add add psychoanalytic psychoanalytic insights insights on on the the intertwining intertwining of of the the individual individual and and need the group group from from earliest earliest childhood childhood onward onward and and aa revival revival of of the the associated associated the emotions in in the the current current situation. situation. emotions In the the first years of of life, life, itit isis only only gradually gradually that that the the child child learns learns to to inteinteIn first years grate dichotomous dichotomous "good" "good" and and "bad" "bad" images images of of the the self-the self—the angry angry and and the the grate loving baby-as baby—as well well as as opposing opposing representations representations of of caretakers caretakers who who both both loving gratify and and frustrate. frustrate. The The child child also also learns learns that that to to have have hostile hostile impulses impulses didigratify rected toward toward those those on on whom whom itit depends depends isis dangerous dangerous to to its its own own well-being well-being rected and that that these these negative negative feelings feelings must must be be disowned. disowned. One One of of the the main main ways ways of and of disowning "bad," "bad/' hateful hateful representations representations is is to to externalize externalize them, them, first on to to disowning first on inanimate objects objects or or animals animals and and then then to to people people and and other other groups. groups. In In aa given given inanimate cultural group, group, mothers mothers and and other other adults adults usually usually offer offer the the same same targets targets of of excultural ex15 ternalization, or "reservoirs," as the psychiatrist Vamik Volkan calls them. ternalization, or "reservoirs," as the psychiatrist Vamik Volkan calls them. 15 The Hindu Hindu (and (and associated associated cultural cultural symbols) symbols) is is thus thus an an emotionally emotionally charged charged The target of of externalization externalization for for the the Muslim's Muslim's own own "bad" "bad" representations representations and and antarget angry feelings feelings (and (and vice vice versa) versa) from from an an early early period of life, convenient resergry period of life, aa convenient reservoir also also for for the the subsequent subsequent rages which grow grow out out of of thwarted thwarted needs needs and and rages which voir private hurts. hurts. Together Together with with this this creation creation of of the the enemy, enemy, which which is "neither private is "neither 'merely' real nor nor 'merely' 'merely' projection,"16 projection,"16 there there is also aa process process of of identification identification 'merely' real is also with one's The child child is assimilating within within itself itself images images of of with one's group group taking taking place. place. The is assimilating family and and group and more more family group members, members, thus thus coming coming to to resemble resemble them them more more and while increasing its its emotional emotional investment investment in the group's shared symbols symbols and and while increasing in the group's shared traditions. traditions. In the the period period of of immediate immediate tension, tension, when when the the salience salience of of one's one's religiousreligiousIn cultural group increases increases markedly, markedly, the the feelings feelings of of love love connected with the cultural group connected with the early early identifications identifications revive, revive, as as do do the the hate hate and and rage rage associated associated with with the the tartargets externalization. Since enemy is our own gets of of externalization. Since the the enemy is also also aa reservoir reservoir of of our own ununwanted selves selves and and negative negative feelings, feelings, it it is is important it be be kept kept at at aa wanted important it psychological distance. distance. Consciously, Consciously, the the enemy enemy should should never never be be like like us. us. psychological Even minor minor differences differences between between "us" "us" and and "them" "them" are are therefore therefore exaggerated exaggerated as as Even unbridgeable differunbridgeable chasms chasms in in what what Freud Freud called called the the "narcissism "narcissism of of minor minor differ17 and hate hate than than do do wide wide disparities. disparities. ences"17 which evoke evoke stronger stronger hostility hostility and ences" which There There is is aa special special quality quality to to the the enmity enmity II feel feel for for aa person person who who resembles resembles me me most not me. me. Next Next to to my my brother, brother, itit isis my my neighbor neighbor the the Ten Ten CommandCommandmost but but is is not ments do myself, myself, precisely precisely because because my my neighbor neighbor isis the the ments enjoin enjoin me me to to love love as as II do one one II am am most most likely likely to to consider consider as as aa rival. rival. The The stereotyping stereotyping of of the the enemy enemy group group involves involves aa progressive progressive devaluation devaluation which which can can extend extend to to the the point point of of dehumanization dehumanization where where '"they" "'they" come come close close to to the the child's child's earliest, earliest, nonhuman nonhuman

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Chapter Two Chapter Two targets targets of of externalization. externalization. Making Making the the enemy enemy nonhuman nonhuman is is to to avoid avoid feeling feeling guilt guilt about about destroying destroying "it" "it" in in the the riot riot that that is is imminent. imminent. To the heightened by aa reTo summarize: summarize: the heightened salience salience of of social social identity, identity, fueled fueled by revival vival of of strong strong childhood childhood emotions emotions that that arise arise from from the the intertwining intertwining of of the the self the cultural that the self and and the cultural group, group, together together with with the the fact fact that the groups groups involved involved are the conflict are religious religious ones, ones, thus thus imbUing imbuing the conflict with with religious religious ultimacy, ultimacy, are are the the distinctive markers markers of of the the tension tension immediately immediately preceding preceding aa riot. riot. distinctive Among the Among the various various precipitating precipitating incidents, incidents, there there are are two two which which occur occur with such regularity regularity in in reports reports of of riots that they they may may fairly fairly be be called called archearchewith such riots that types. One One of of them them has has to to do do with Muslim violence violence toward toward the the cow cow while while the the types. with Muslim other pertains pertains to to disputes disputes over over religious religious processions. processions. Whereas Whereas riots riots around around other the former are are specific specific to India, riots riots provoked processions have have the former to India, provoked by by religious religious processions been common in in the the history history of of religious religious violence. violence.18 Both incidents incidents are are arbeen common IS Both archetypal in in the the sense sense that, that, irrespective irrespective of of their factual veracity in aa particular particular chetypal their factual veracity in case, they they are are perceived as legitimate legitimate causes causes for for violence violence to to begin-shots begin—shots case, perceived as from the starter's gun, gun, so so to to speak. speak. There There is is thus thus an an unarticulated expectation from the starter's unarticulated expectation cow or or aa religious should belong belong to to the the that an an incident incident around around aa cow that religious procession procession should account of of aa Hindu-Muslim riot even even if if such such an an incident incident did did not actually take take account Hindu-Muslim riot not actually place. Historically Historically speaking, speaking, this expectation is is not Consider, for for place. this expectation not unjustified. unjustified. Consider, instance, the the precipitating precipitating incidents incidents of of communal communal riots riots in in the the Punjab Punjab in in aa instance, single year year in in the the last last century. century. single In Delhi. In 1886, 1886, riots riots occurred occurred in in Ambala, Ambala, Ludhiana, Ludhiana, Hoshiarpur, Hoshiarpur, and and Delhi. In precipitating incident In Ambala, Ambala, the the precipitating incident was was aa change, change, insisted insisted upon upon by by the the Muslims, in in the the route of the the Hindu Hindu procession procession on on the the festival festival of of Bawan Bawan SawMuslims, route of Sawthat the bring large adasi. adasi. It It was was also also widely widely rumored rumored that the Muslims Muslims intended intended to to bring large quantities beef into In quantities of of beef into the the city city the the next next day day on on the the occasion occasion of of Eid. Eid. In Ludhiana, riot began been sacrificed Ludhiana, the the riot began with with the the report report that that aa cow cow had had been sacrificed in in aa Muslims house. house. In In Hoshiarpur, Hoshiarpur, the the Muharram Muharram procession procession of of the had the Muslims Muslims had Muslim's passed passed aa major major part part of of its its route route when when aa bull bull suddenly suddenly appeared appeared amidst amidst it. it. The The processionists were were already already involved involved in in an an argument argument with with the Hindus over over processionists the Hindus the entanglement entanglement of of the Xatxaininbranches branchesofofa apipal pipal tree, held sacred the the tatia tree, held sacred by by thethe Hindus, which which the the Muslims Muslims wanted wanted to cut. The The Hindus Hindus objected objected to to the the MusHindus, to cut. Muslims' beating beating of of the the bull bull and and the the riot riot was was on. on. In In Delhi, Delhi, the the riots riots began began with with the the lims' clash between Muslim and Hindu processions whose routes crossed each clash between Muslim and Hindu processions whose routes crossed each other.19 It It is not surprising surprising to to read eighty years years later later that of the worst other.19 is not read eighty that one one of the worst riots of of post-independence post-independence India, India, the the 1969 1969 riot in Ahmedabad, Ahmedabad, was was set set off off by riots riot in by Muslim vegetable vegetable seller seller who who hit hit aa cow cow which which had had stopped stopped at at its its stand stand for for aa aa Muslim munch. Fisticuffs Fisticuffs with with the the Hindu Hindu cowherd cowherd followed followed and and "the "the treatment munch. treatment of of the cow cow (which (which was was not seriously injured), injured), greatly greatly magnified out of of all all prothe not seriously magnified out pro-

The The Riot Riot portion, portion, spread spread through through the the city city and and touched touched off off further further incidents. incidents. The The riotriot20 ing continued in various parts of Gujarat for some ten days." ing continued in various parts of Gujarat for some ten daYS."20 The precipitating incident The precipitating incident is is immediately immediately followed followed by by the the aggrieved aggrieved group taking taking out out aa procession-when procession—when the itself is is not not the the inciincithe procession procession itself group dent. A procession is is necessary necessary for for the the creation creation of of what call aa "physical" "physical" what II call dent. A procession group. A A physical group is is aa group group represented represented in in the the bodies of its its members members bodies of group. physical group rather than than in in their their minds, minds, aa necessary shift for for aa group group to to become become an an instruinstrurather necessary shift ment of of actual actual violence. For if if we we reflect reflect on on our our own own experiences experiences of of various various violence. For ment groups we we become immediately aware aware of of aa significant significant difference difference between, between, groups become immediately say my my experience experience of of my cultural identity identity as as aa Hindu Hindu and and my psychic prosay, my cultural my psychic processes when when II am am taking taking part part in in aa religious religious assembly. assembly. In In other other words, words, belongbelongcesses ing to to aa relatively relatively abstract abstract entity, entity, the the Hindus, Hindus, touches touches aa very different chord chord very different ing member of of aa physical physical group group,/ such such of the the self self than than the one touched touched by by being of the one being aa member as aa tightly tightly packed packed congregation congregation in in aa Hindu Hindu temple. temple. The The self-experience self-experience of of as the latter is determined more by concrete, bodily communication and phythe latter is determined more by concrete, bodily communication and physical sensations sensations in in the the press press of of other other bodies. bodies. The The self-experience self-experience of of the the sical cultural-group identity, identity, on on the the other other hand, is evoked evoked more, more, and and differently, differently, cultural-group hand, is by shared cultural cultural symbols symbols and and history-heavily history—heavily mythological-which mythological—which is by shared is shaped by the groups hopes and fears and distorted by its ambitions and shaped by the grouP/s hopes and fears and distorted by its ambitions and ideals. ideals. The receive sensorially The information information II receive sensorially and and sensually, sensually, linguistically linguistically and and the experience my subliminally physical group subliminally in in aa physical group and and which which influences influences the experience of of my self self at at that that particular particular moment, moment, is is of of another another order, order, and and is is processed processed differdifferently, than than the the information information received received as as member member of of aa cultural cultural group. group. In In aa ently, crowd—an example example of of aa physical group—the very very nature of the situation crowd-an physical group-the nature of the situation considerable sensual sensual stimstimwith many many people people in in close close bodily bodily contact contact brings brings aa considerable with ulation through channels channels of of touch, touch, vision, vision, hearing, hearing, and and smell smell which which are are sisiulation through 21 2 multaneous and and are are intensified intensified by by the the multiplicity multiplicity of of their sources. t There There is multaneous their sources. is also aa communication communication of of body body heat, heat, muscle muscle tensions, tensions, and and sometimes, sometimes, of of body body also rhythms. The The individual individual is is practically practically wrapped wrapped up up in in the the crowd crowd and and gets gets conconrhythms. tinuous sensual sensual pounding through all all avenues avenues that that one/s ones body can afford. afford. The The body can tinuous pounding through selfconsequence is a blurring of the body image and of the ego, a kind of consequence is a blurring of the body image and of the ego, a kind of selftranscendence that is is reacted to by panic or or exhilaration exhilaration as as individuality individuality disreacted to by panic distranscendence that appears and and the the "integrity," "integrity," "autonomy," "autonomy," and and "independence" "independence" of of the ego seem seem appears the ego to be be wishful wishful illusions illusions and and mere mere hypothetical hypothetical constructs. constructs. That That the the physical physical to and cultural groups sometimes coincide and that it is the endeavor of those those and cultural groups sometimes coincide and that it is the endeavor of who use use and and manipulate manipulate symbols symbols of of cultural cultural identity identity to to bring bring the the cultural cultural who group closer closer to to the the psychological psychological state state of of aa physical group is is aa subject subject which which group physical group will not not pursue pursue here. here. II will

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Chapter Two Chapter Two II do find the do not not find the argument argument convincing convincing that, that, as as personal personal identity identity disapdisapresidue is primitive state where the pears pears in in aa crowd, crowd, the the residue is some some regressed, regressed, primitive state where the violent side side of of human nature is is unleashed, unleashed, as as has has been been postulated postulated in in both both the the violent human nature Freudian and and the the Jungian traditions. Such Such formulations formulations need need to to be be relativized relativized Freudian Jungian traditions. and seen seen in in the the context context and and framework framework of of aa particular and period and particular place place and period in in history—Europe between the the two two World World Wars-when Wars—when extremist extremist ideologues ideologues history-Europe between of the the Left Left and and Right Right were were creating creating mass mass movements movements imbued imbued with with messianic messianic of fervor. BUilding Building on on the the classical classical notions notions of of crowds crowds described described by by Gustave Gustave Le Le fervor. Bon (whose (whose own own ideas, ideas, in in turn, turn, were were framed framed by the dread dread the the French French upper upper Bon by the class felt felt in in relation to the revolutionary masses), masses), Freud's Freud's reflections on the the class relation to the revolutionary reflections on psychology of of crowds crowds as as well as Jung's Jung's observations observations on on mass mass psychology psychology well as psychology were not not free free of of the the ideological ideological concerns concerns of of their their time, namely the the liberal liberal fear fear time, namely were of the the loss loss of of individual individual autonomy autonomy in in aa collectivity collectivity and and the socialist concern concern of the socialist about how to make make the the desired desired collectivities collectivities more more tolerable and tolerant. tolerant. how to tolerable and about 22 Identity in in aa crowd crowd only only gets gets refocused. refocused.22 This This refocusing is certainly certainly refocusing is Identity dramatic crowd amplifies amplifies all all emotions, emotions, heightening heightening aa dramatic and and full full of of affect affect since since aa crowd feeling of of well-being well-being into into exaltation, exaltation, fear fear into into panic. The loss loss of of personal personal feeling panic. The identity in a crowd, however, makes individuals act in terms of the crowds identity in a crowd, however, makes individuals act in terms of the crowd's identity, for for instance, instance, according according to to the the behavior "expected" of of an an anti-Hindu anti-Hindu identity, behavior "expected" or anti-Muslim anti-Muslim mob. mob. The The individual individual is is not operating at at some some deeply deeply reor not operating regressed, primitive primitive level level of of the the psyche psyche but but according according to the norms norms of of the the pargressed, to the particular group. The The violent violent acts acts are are thus thus not not random random but but represent represent the the ticular group. expression and and adaptation adaptation to to aa novel situation of of aa historical historical tradition tradition of of antiantinovel situation expression Hindu or or anti-Muslim anti-Muslim mob violence. Hindu mob violence. It is is paradoxical that religious processions, presumably with spiritual spiritual It paradoxical that religious processions, presumably with aims, perhaps perhaps produce produce the the most most physical physical of of all all groups. groups. Rhythms Rhythms of of religious religious aims, ritual are are particularly particularly effective effective in in breaking down social social barriers barriers between the ritual breaking down between the participants. They They produce produce aa maximum maximum of of mutual mutual activation activation of of the the participarticiparticipants. pants and and aa readiness readiness for for action, action, often often violent. violent. This This is is why why Violence, violence, when when pants Muslim initiated, initiated, often often begins begins at at the the end end of of Friday Friday afternoon afternoon prayers prayers when when Muslim congregants, who who have have turned into aa congregation, congregation, stream stream out out of of the the mosque mosque congregants, turned into into the the street street in in aa protesting procession. Processions Processions at at Muharram for the the protesting procession. Muharram for into Muslims and and Dussehra Dussehra (and (and increasingly increasingly Ganesh Ganesh Chaturthi) Chaturthi) for for the the Hindus Hindus Muslims are almost almost aa certain certain recipe recipe for for violence violence when when they they are are preceded preceded by by aa period period of of are tension between the communities and when a precipitating incident has just tension between the communities and when a precipitating incident has just occurred. occurred. Whereas must transform Whereas internally internally aa procession procession must transform itself itself into into aa physical physical group, the community's As the the popogroup, externally externally it it should should demonstrate demonstrate the community's strength. strength. As litical scientist scientist Sarah Sarah Moore Moore points points out, out, the success of of the the procession procession delitical the success depends not not only only upon upon the the number number of of people people taking taking part but also also on on the route it part but the route it pends

The The Riot Riot 23 takes. takes.23

Routes procession near Routes are are valued valued differently. differently. To To take take aa procession near or or through through an by the more valued taking aa route an area area inhabited inhabited by the adversary adversary is is more valued than than taking route which which avoids avoids potential potential confrontations. confrontations. A A procession procession which which can can pass pass through through known trouble spots and and major major traffic traffic arteries arteries is is considered considered more more successful successful known trouble spots than one one which which slinks slinks through through back alleys. The The number number of of chaperoning chaperoning pothan back alleys. policemen, protecting protecting processions processions which which are are going going to to cause cause the the very trouble very trouble licemen, the police police are are trying trying to is another another indicator indicator of of success. the to prevent, prevent, is success. first two Normally, Normally, the the first two to to three three days days of of aa major major riot riot are are the the most most violent, violent, when take place. As the the police police regain regain control control of of when the the majority majority of of the the casualties casualties take place. As the situation, situation, the the riot riot settles settles down down to to aa low-level low-level intensity intensity of of violence. violence. Isothe Isolated incidents incidents of of stabbing, stabbing, looting, looting, and and arson arson take take place in the narrow alleys alleys place in the narrow lated and bylanes rather major bazaars. reand twisting twisting bylanes rather than than in in the the major bazaars. Gradually, Gradually, peace peace returns, although although some some kind kind of of curfew curfew and and orders orders prohibiting prohibiting the gathering of the gathering of turns, more than than five may remain remain in in force force for for many weeks. The The official official end end more five persons persons may many weeks. of the the riot is marked marked by by the state appointing appointing aa commission commission of of inquiry inquiry headed headed of riot is the state by retired judge who is is asked asked to to determine determine the the sequence sequence of of events events leading leading by aa retired judge who to the riot, name name those who were were responsible, tally the the losses, losses, and and offer offer sugsugto the riot, those who responsible, tally gestions to to prevent prevent future future riots. riots. The The sole sole result result of of such such an an inquiry, inquiry, besides besides gestions offering temporary temporary employment employment to to the the judge, is the the transfer transfer of of aa few few hapless hapless judge, is offering police officers officers who who are are held held culpable culpable for for not not having having taken adequate precauprecautaken adequate police tions. Police officers, of of course course only only the the dishonest, dishonest, have have long long since since calculated calculated tions. Police officers, the monetary value of this occupational risk and have made it a part of the the the monetary value of this occupational risk and have made it a part of above and and beyond beyond the salary they they compensation they feel entitled entitled to, compensation they feel to, above the miserly miserly salary are paid the state. state. are paid by by the Hyderabad: Hyderabad: December December 1990 1990 lhe ocThe Hyderabad Hyderabad riot riot of of December December 1990, 1990, the the central central event event of of my my study, study, occurred peace between between the curred after after aa period period of of relative relative peace the Hindus Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, the the last riot in the city having taken place in 1984. Before that, riots had been an last riot in the city having taken place in 1984. Before that, riots had been an year of thefirst first major annual annual feature feature since since 1978, 1978, the the year of the major communal communal conflagration conflagration when Hyderabad part of since since 1948 1948 when Hyderabad became became aa part of independent independent India. India. The woman, Rameeza The 1978 1978 riot riot was was triggered triggered by by the the rape rape of of aa Muslim Muslim woman, Rameeza Bi, Ahmed Hussain, Bi, and and the the murder murder of of her her husband, husband, Ahmed Hussain, in in the the Nallakunta Nallakunta police police beginning the mobs protesting police brutality station. station. In In the the beginning the mobs protesting police brutality included included the two beHindus, Hindus, but but soon soon the the situation situation took took aa turn turn where where the two communities communities bethe antagonistic came came pitted pitted against against each each other. other. The The incident incident sparking sparking off off the antagonistic usual, the tiniest of postures was, was, as postures as usual, the tiniest of sparks: sparks: some some Hindus Hindus beat beat up up aa Muslim Muslim the Hindus retaliated against the retaliation, boy, boy, the the Muslims Muslims retaliated, retaliated, the Hindus retaliated against the retaliation, and and so on on in in an an ever ever increasing increasing escalation. escalation. The The riots riots were were centered centered around around SubziSubziso

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Chapter Two Two Chapter

mandi, mandi, the the central central vegetable vegetable market, market, which which is is also also one one of of the the two two locations locations of of the general propensity of the students of Hindu-Muslim this study. Given this study. Given the general propensity of the students of Hindu-Muslim two in terms, the relations to relations to explain explain the the violence violence between between the the two in economic economic terms, the hidden agenda be an Mushidden agenda of of these these riots riots is is said said to to be an economic economic offensive offensive by by the the Muslims lims designed designed to to recapture recapture Subzimandi Subzimandi from from Hindu Hindu traders.24 traders.24 Destitute Destitute for for almost the wealthier almost three three decades, decades, most most of of the wealthier members members of of their their community community the Muslims the old having migrated having migrated to to Pakistan Pakistan or or other other countries, countries, the Muslims of of the old city. city had the Arab had suddenly suddenly come come into into money money through through remittances remittances from from the Arab countries countries of Gulf, where where the the economic economic boom boom in in the the late late seventies seventies had had created created aa big big of the the Gulf, market ecomarket for for Muslim Muslim labor labor from from Hyderabad. Hyderabad. After After having having suffered suffered aa rapid rapid economic within aa decade nomic decline decline within decade of of Hyderabad/s Hyderabad's integration integration with with India, India, the the Muslims vegetable trade Muslims again again sought sought to to regain regain control control of of the the city/s city's vegetable trade which which they the Hindus. they had had lost lost to to the Hindus. was at After After 1978/ 1978, there there was at least least aa riot riot aayear, year,sometimes sometimes more, more,usually usually at at the the the city time religious festivals. time of of major major religious festivals. The The tension tension in in the city is is especially especially palpable palpable during during Ganesh Ganesh Chaturthi Chaturthi of of the the Hindus, Hindus, when when clay clay idols idols of of the the god god are are taken taken river, and out the streets out in in procession procession through through the streets to to be be immersed immersed in in the the Musi Musi river, and Muharram Muharram of of the the Muslims, Muslims, when when the the Shias Shias march march through through the the city city bewailing bewailing the the martyrdom martyrdom of of Hussein, Hussein, the the Prophet/s Prophets grandson. grandson. The The riots riots also also erupted erupted on on many pretexts: Hindu many other other pretexts: Hindu shopkeepers shopkeepers refusing refusing to to close close their their shops shops in in the the strikes by the protest against strikes called called by the Majlis Majlis (to (to protest against the the takeover takeover of of the the kaaba kaaba [shrine] to be the burning AI [shrine] in in Mecca Mecca by by aa man man claiming claiming to be the the Mehdi), Mehdi), the burning of of the the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, the removal of a chief minister perceived as symAqsa mosque in Jerusalem, the removal of a chief minister perceived as sympathetic pathetic to to one one community. community. Between Between 1978 1978 and and 1984/ 1984, over over four four hundred hundred people were injured people lost lost their their lives lives and and thousands thousands more more were injured in in the the communal communal riots. riots. A A common common thread thread in in some some of of these these riots riots (as (as in in riots riots elsewhere) elsewhere) is is the the the state/s role by the mobs of one or the other community. assumption of assumption of the state's role by the mobs of one or the other community. Like Like the the sixteenth-century sixteenth-century Catholic-Protestant Catholic-Protestant riots riots in in France France described described by by Natalie the Hindu Natalie Davis, Davis, the Hindu or or Muslim Muslim mob mob perceives perceives itself itself as as doing doing what what the the state place; it state should should have have done done in in the the first first place,it is is helping helping the the political political authorities authorities get providing itself get over over their their failure failure in in fulfilling fulfilling their their duties, duties, thus thus providing itself aa certain certain 25 legitimacy.25 legitimacy. the countdown Coming Coming back back to to the the 1990 1990 violence, violence, the countdown for for the the Hyderabad Hyderabad president of his rath riot when L. riot began began when L. K. K. Advani, Advani, the the president of the the BJP, BJP, began began his rathyatra yatra ("chariot temple of ("chariot pilgrimage") pilgrimage") from from the the temple of Somnath Somnath on on the the west west coast coast to to Ayodhya Ayodhya in in the the Hindu Hindu heartland heartland of of the the north. north. The The stated stated purpose purpose of of the the yatra, which yatra, whichwas wasto to take takeAdvani Advani through through aalarge largepart part of ofthe thecountry country ininthirty thirty days Rama days and and over over ten ten thousand thousand kilometers, kilometers, was was the the construction construction of of the the Rama the god temple temple at at the the legendary legendary birth birth site site of of the god where where stood stood aa mosque mosque conconstructed in in 1528 1528 by by founder founder of of the the Mughal Mughal dynasty. dynasty. The The Toyota Toyota van van in structed in

The The Riot Riot which the the B)P BJP leader leader traveled traveled was was decorated decorated to to make make itit resemble resemble the the chariot chariot which of the the legendary legendary hero hero Arjuna, Arjuna, as as shown shown in in the the immensely immensely popular popular television television of serial of of the the Mahabharata. Mahabharata. Advani's Advani's chariot chariot aroused aroused intense intense fervor fervor among among the the serial Hindus. Crowds Crowds thronged thronged the the roads roads to to catch catch aa glimpse glimpse of of the the rath, rath,showered showered Hindus. flower petals petals on on the the cavalcade cavalcade as as it it passed passed through through their their Villages villages and and towns, towns, flower and the the vehicle vehicle itself itself became became aa new object of of worship worship as as women women offered offered ritual ritual new object and prayer with with coconut, incense, and and sandalwood sandalwood paste paste at at each each of of its its prayer coconut, burning burning incense, stops. In In aa darker, darker, more more somber somber aftermath, aftermath, there there were were incidents incidents of of violence violence stops. rathyatra. yatra. between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims at at many many places places in in the wake of of the the rath between the wake Like religiousLike aa pond pond choked choked with with lotus lotus stalks stalks during during the the monsoon, monsoon, this this religiousbegan with political exercise political exercise was was replete replete with with symbols. symbols. The The symbolism symbolism began with the the "chariot": large lotus, lotus, the the symbol symbol of of the the B)P, BJP,was waspainted paintedon onthe the front front grill grillof of "chariot": aa large the Toyota. The lotus is one of the most Hindu of the universal symbols and the Toyota. The lotus is one of the most Hindu of the universal symbols and is ubiquitous in iconography. Various Various lotuses is ubiquitous in India's India's religious religious iconography. lotuses are are associated associated with with different different gods gods and and goddesses; goddesses,- for for example, example, the the eight-petaled eight-petaled lotus lotus is is the the dwelling dwelling place place of of Brahma. Brahma. The The lotus lotus on on the the van-the van—the chariot-was chariot—was theretheremind, influenced tales from the MaMafore fore highly highly significant. significant. In In the the Hindu Hindu mind, influenced by by tales from the popular poster is habharata habharata and and the the visuals visuals of of popular poster and and calendar calendar art, art, the the chariot chariot is the heroes going the vehicle vehicle of of gods gods and and mythical mythical heroes going to to war. war. Above Above all, all, the the chariot chariot is with Lord is associated associated with with Arjuna, Arjuna, with Lord Krishna Krishna as as his his charioteer, charioteer, as as he he prepares prepares for for aa just, just, dharmic dharmicwar waragainst againstananevil evilthough thoughintimately intimatelyrelated relatedfoe, foe,the theKauKauravas. ravas. Arjuna's Arjunas horses horses were were white, white, signifying signifying his his purity; purity,- Advani's Advani's ToyotaToyotachariot, chariot, which which the the newspapers newspapers were were soon soon to to call call the the "juggernaut "juggernaut of of HinHindutva," was also dutva," was also white. white. yatra and Somnath, Somnath, the the starting starting point point of of the the yatra and the the location location of of an an ancient ancient Shiva Shiva temple, temple, is is also also the the greatest greatest symbol symbol of of Hindu Hindu defeat defeat and and humiliation humiliation at at hands has entered hands of of the the Muslims. Muslims. The The legend legend of of Somnath, Somnath, which which has entered Hindu Hindu folklore the country, us that the eleventh folklore over over large large parts parts of of the country, tells tells us that in in the eleventh century century Somnath temple of Somnath was was the the richest richest and and the the most most magnificent magnificent temple of Hindu Hindu India. India. One One thousand thousand Brahmins Brahmins were were apPointed appointed to to perform perform the the daily daily worship worship of of the the emblem emblem of of Shiva, Shiva, aa thirteen-and-a-half thirteen-and-a-half foot foot lingam, lingam,four-and-a-half four-and-a-halffeet feetinincircircumference. cumference. Three Three hundred hundred men men and and women women were were employed employed to to sing sing and and dance dance before before the the lingam lingamevery everyday dayand andthe thetemple templetreasury treasurypossessed possessedvast vast and precious gems, accumulated over the centuries. riches in gold, silver, riches in gold, silver, and precious gems, accumulated over the centuries. who swept Mahmud, Mahmud, the the sultan sultan of of the the central central Asian Asian kingdom kingdom of of Ghazni, Ghazni, who swept over over fire and was famed north India north India almost almost every every year year like like aa monsoon monsoon of of fire and was famed far far and and wide the great wide as as the great destroyer destroyer of of temples temples and and aa scourge scourge of of the the Hindus, Hindus, came came to to of the Hindu belief that he could destroy so many of their temples only know know of the Hindu belief that he could destroy so many of their temples only because the support. With With aa because the deities deities of of those those temples temples had had forfeited forfeited Somnath's Somnath s support. to strike very root the Hindus' their gods, view view to strike at at the the very root of of the Hindus' faith faith in in their gods, and and tempted tempted

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Chapter Two Chapter Two by the temple's by the the prospect prospect of of plundering plundering the temples treasures, treasures, Mahmud Mahmud marched marched to to Somnath. The The Hindus Hindus were were complacent complacent in in their their belief belief that that Shiva Shiva had had drawn drawn Somnath. Mahmud to Somnath to punish punish the Mahmud to Somnath only only to the sultan sultan for for his his depredations. depredations. Hoping Hoping for aa manifestation manifestation of of Shiva's Shiva's divine divine wrath, wrath, the Hindu resistance resistance to Mahmud for the Hindu to Mahmud was unorganized and offered offered much much too late. Hundreds Hundreds of of thousands was unorganized and too late. thousands of of Hindus perished perished in in the the ensuing ensuing slaughter, slaughter, according according to legend—fifty Hindus to legend-fifty thousand, according according to to nationalist nationalist historians. The temple temple was was razed razed to to the the thousand, historians. The ground. ground. The The Shiva Shiva lin.~am lingamwas wasbroken brokentotopieces piecesand andtogether togetherwith withthe thetemple's temple's plundered treasure transported were fashplundered treasure transported to to Ghazni Ghazni where where its its fragments fragments were fashioned into into steps steps at at the gate of of the the chief chief mosque. mosque. The The Hindu Hindu historian, historian, ioned the gate acknowledging Mahmud's Mahmud's skill skill as as aa general general and and the the fact fact that that Muslim Muslim chronchronacknowledging iclers regard regard him him as as one one of of the the most most illustrious illustrious kings kings and and great great champion champion of iclers of Islam, adds: adds: "By "By his his ruthless ruthless destruction destruction of of temples temples and and images images he violated Islam, he violated the most most sacred sacred and and cherished cherished sentiments sentiments of of the the Indian Indian people, people, and and his his the championship of of Islam Islam therefore therefore merely merely served served to degrade it it in in their eyes championship to degrade their eyes nothing else besuch such as as nothing else could."26 could."26 Somnath Somnath and and Mahmud Mahmud of of Ghazni Ghazni have have become come intimately intimately associated associated over over the the following following centuries. centuries. Today, Today, among among Hindus, Hindus, the the name name of of the the temple temple conjures conjures up up less less the the image image of of Shiva Shiva than than the the memory of of one one of of the the most rapacious and and cruel cruel of of Muslim Muslim invaders. invaders. In In chooschoosmemory most rapacious ing to to start start the the rath rathyatra yatrafrom fromSomnath, Somnath,the thesymbolic symbolicreverberations reverberationsofofthe the ing act act were were well well calculated; calculated; the the righteous righteous Hindu Hindu chariot chariot was was setting setting forth forth to to avenge historical wrongs. avenge ancient ancient humiliations, humiliations, to to right right old old historical wrongs. For the Hindus, is indeed For the Hindus, Somnath Somnath is indeed what what Volkan Volkan calls calls aa "chosen "chosen trauma," trauma," just as mosque at just as the the demolition demolition of of the the Babri Babri mosque at Ayodhya Ayodhya in in December December 1992 1992 27 fairly become one The fairly bids bids to to become one of of the the chosen chosen traumas traumas of of the the Indian Indian Muslim. Muslim.27 The term trauma" refers term "chosen "chosen trauma" refers to to an an event event which which causes causes aa community community to to feel feel helpless and and victimized victimized by by another another and and whose whose mental representation bemental representation behelpless comes embedded embedded in in the the group's groups collective collective identity. identity. Chosen Chosen trauma trauma does does not not comes mean but mean that that either either the the Hindus Hindus or or the the Muslims Muslims chose chose to to become become victims victims but only only that that they they have have "chosen" "chosen" to to mythologize, mythologize, psychologically psychologically internalize, internalize, and thus thus constantly constantly dwell dwell upon upon aa particular event from from their their history. history. A A chochoand particular event sen trauma trauma is is reactivated reactivated again again and and again again to strengthen aa group's groups cohecohesen to strengthen siveness through through "memories" "memories" of of its its persecution, persecution, victimization, victimization, and and yet yet its siveness its eventual survival. survival. In In the the late nineteenth century, century, Swami Swami Vivekananda Vivekananda had had eventual late nineteenth "remembered" "remembered" Somnath Somnath thus: thus: "Mark "Mark how how these these temples temples bear bear the the marks marks of of aa hundred attacks attacks and and hundred hundred regenerations regenerations continually continually springing springing up up out out of hundred of the ruins rejuvenated dethe ruins rejuvenated and and strong strong as as ever."2S ever."28 At At the the beginning beginning of of the the last last decade of of the the twentieth century, Advani Advani was was to summon up up the the Hindu Hindu chosen chosen cade twentieth century, to summon trauma trauma again again from from the the depths depths of of cultural cultural memory. memory.

The The Riot Riot

If the the yatra began inin Somnath Somnath itit was wassymbolically symbolically symmetrical symmetrical for for itit to to If yatra began end in in Ayodhya, birthplace and and capital capital of of the the kingdom kingdom of of Lord Lord Rama Rama and and end Ayodhya, the the birthplace thus Rama thus the the site site of of the the Hindu's Hindu's chosen chosen glory. glory. For For many many Hindus, Hindus, the the story story of of Rama is the the most most resplendent resplendent moment moment of of India's The revival revival of of its its memory, memory, is India's history. history. The commemorated annually annually in in the Ram Lila, Lila, makes collective chest chest swell swell commemorated the Ram makes the the collective with pride. The The chosen chosen glory, glory, too, too, is is psychologically psychologically internalized internalized and and is is as as with pride. salient for for aa group's groups cultural cultural identity identity as as its its chosen chosen trauma; trauma,- both both constitute constitute salient landmarks on on the the terrain terrain of of aa group's group s cultural cultural memory. memory. landmarks to aa halt Advani's Advani's cavalcade, cavalcade, of of symbols symbols as as much much as as of of people, people, came came to halt when on 23 23 October October he arrested in Bihar before before he he could could start start on on the the last last he was was arrested in Bihar when on his journey journey to to Ayodhya, Ayodhya, where where the the BlP BJP and and its its allied allied organizations, organizations, the the lap of of his lap sangh hadhad promised to start thethe construction of the Rama temple on on 9 9 sanghparivar, parivar, promised to start construction of the Rama temple November. The The already already high high political political passions passions were were now now nearing nearing the the point point November. of explosion. explosion. The The spark spark was was proVided provided by chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, of by the the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, Mulayam Singh Singh Yadav, Yadav, who who had had vowed vowed that to prevent prevent the the construction construction of that to of Mulayam the temple temple he he would would not not "let "let even even aa bird bird enter enter Ayodhya." Ayodhya/' The The well-oiled well-oiled mathe machine of of the the sangh sanghparivar, parivar, however, succeeded in smuggling in thousands however, hadhad succeeded in smuggling in thousands chine of kar-sevaks from all over the country for the task of construction. On9 No9 Noof kar-sevaks from all over the country for the task of construction. On kar-sevaks whohad had brovember, Yadav Yadav ordered ordered the the police police to to open open fire on the the kar-sevaks fire on who brovember, ken through through the barriers and and were were intent intent on on the demolition of of the the the police police barriers the demolition ken Babri mosque mosque as as aa prelude prelude to to bUilding building of of the the temple. Scores of of kar-sevaks kar-sevaks died temple. Scores died Babri in the police attack. Their bodies were cremated on the banks of the river in the police attack. Their bodies were cremated on the banks of the river BJP workers workers to to the the villages villages and and towns towns Saryu and and the the ashes ashes taken back by by the the BlP taken back Saryu in different different parts parts of of the country from from which which the dead men hailed. There There they they in the country the dead men hailed. were eulogized eulogized as as martyrs the Hindu Hindu cause. cause. Soon, Soon, Hindu-Muslim riots Hindu-Muslim riots were martyrs to to the erupted in many parts of the country. erupted in many parts of the country. In than aa thousand miles to the south In Hyderabad, Hyderabad, more more than thousand miles to the south of of Ayodhya, Ayodhya, the the riots with the the killing killing of of Sardar, Sardar, aa Muslim Muslim auto-rickshaw auto-rickshaw driver, driver, by by two two riots began began with Hindus. Although to aa land Hindus. Although the the murder murder was was later later linked linked to land dispute dispute between between two two rival rival gangs, gangs, at at the the time time of of the the killing killing it it was was framed framed in in the the context context of of rising rising Hindu-Muslim tensions tensions in in the the city. city. Muslims Muslims retaliated retaliated by stabbing four four by stabbing Hindu-Muslim Hindus in in different different parts of the the walled walled city. city. Then Then Majid Majid Khan, Khan, an an influential influential Hindus parts of local leader of of Subzimandi Subzimandi who who lives lives and and flourishes in the the shaded shaded space space local leader flourishes in formed of crime crime and and politics, politics, was attacked with sword formed by by the the intersection intersection of was attacked with aa sword by some some BlP BJP workers workers and and the the rumor rumor spread spread that that he he had died. Muslim Muslim mobs mobs by had died. came out out into into the the alleys alleys and and streets streets of of the the walled walled city, city, to to be be followed followed by by came Hindu mobs mobs in in their their areas areas of of strength, strength, and and the the t1990 riot was was on. on. It It was was to to last last Hindu 990 riot for ten ten weeks, claim more more than than three three hundred lives and and thousands thousands of for weeks, claim hundred lives of wounded. One of the wounded was the two-year-old girl in the photograph. wounded. One of the wounded was the two-year-old girl in the photograph.

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The The Warriors Warriors ... In my heart there . . Anmy there are arefuries juries and andsorrows. sorrows. —Quevodo -Quevodo

M M

ajid ajid Khan Khan survived survived the the attack. attack. When When II met met him him two-and-a-half two-and-a-half years years . later, was especially the scar later, he he was especially keen keen to to show show me me the scar from from the the sword sword blow blow which had split split his balding head head in in the the middle. middle. The The thick thick ragged ragged scar, scar, many which had his balding many shades the nut-brown nut-brown scalp traversed before before meandering shades darker darker than than the scalp it it traversed meandering down down into the fringe of of wispy wispy black hair at at the back of of his neck, was was displayed displayed as as aa into the fringe black hair the back his neck, proud badge of honor, honor, aa battlefield decoration from from an an old old war. war. The The murbattlefield decoration murproud badge of derous assault assault had had made made him, him, as as Majid Majid Khan Khan put it, "the "the hero hero of of Hyderabad." Hyderabad." put it, derous "Thousands of of people gathered at at the the hospital when they they heard heard the news the news "Thousands people gathered hospital when about the attack," he recollected with pride as he looked in the direction of about the attack," he recollected with pride as he looked in the direction of two young young men in the the room room for for their choral confirmation. confirmation. "Thousands "Thousands every every two men in their choral day," the the men obligingly responded. responded. "Nothing "Nothing united united the Muslim nation nation of men obligingly the Muslim of day," this city as as much much as as that cowardly blow," blow," said said Majid Khan. "Absolutely "Absolutely true. true. that cowardly Majid Khan. this city Hyderabad has has never never seen seen anything anything like like it it before," both the the men men confirmed, confirmed, Hyderabad before," both this time time with with greater greater enthusiasm enthusiasm as as they up to to their they warmed warmed up their roles. roles. this II took took the the men, men, in in their their early early thirties, thirties, to to be be his his chamchas chamchas("spoons"), ("spoons"),thethe fawning, all-purpose all-purpose factotums factotums who around politicians and film fawning, who hang hang around politicians and film stars, stars, catering to their physical and especially to their narcissistic needs. Majid catering to their physical and especially to their narcissistic needs. Majid Khan was was not yet aa political political star star of of the the kind kind who who would would be be surrounded surrounded by by aa Khan not yet would call call aakatori katori("cup"), ("cup"),the themodest modestlocal localversion versionofof whole group, by by what what II would whole group, the coterie,which whichhashas traditionally built aroundprime prime ministers. the coterie, traditionally built upup around ministers. Majid political fortunes nonetheless soared the riots, riots, Majid Khan's Khan's political fortunes have have nonetheless soared since since the and the the visiting card he he gave gave me me was was testimony testimony to to his importance in in the the Majvisiting card his importance Majand lis. Printed Printed in in English, English, his his name name in in cursive cursive red red letters letters riding riding many many lines lines of lis. of different-sized letters letters in green, like like the of aa new new Islamic Islamic nation, nation, different-sized in green, the miniature miniatureflag flag of the card card informed informed me me that that Abdul Abdul Majid Khan was was aa council council member of the the the Majid Khan member of All India India Majlis-e-Itehad-ul-Muslimeen, Majlis-e-Itehad-ul-Muslimeen, aa director director of of Sarussalam Sarussalam Urban Urban CoCoAll 5 2 operative operative Bank, Bank,had had two two telephone telephone numbers numbers and andaaresidential residential address address in in KarKar52

The The Warriors Warriors

wan Sahu, Sahu, the the part part of of the the city city where he owned owned aa house house and and an an eatery eatery (which (which wan where he may be called called aa restaurant restaurant but which is is respectfully referred to as aa hotel). hotel). but which respectfully referred to as may be think we we took took him him by by surprise surprise when when we we walked walked unannounced unannounced into into the the II think anteroom of of his his house house around around eleven eleven in in the the morning morning of of aa hot, late April April day. hot, late day. anteroom If he inconvenienced by our intrusion, intrusion, his deep-set eyes eyes in in aa dark dark round round If he was was inconvenienced by our his deep-set face did did not not betray betray annoyance. annoyance. Interrupting Interrupting his his conversation conversation with with the the chamchamface chastotogreet greetususwarmly, warmly,he heinquired inquiredabout aboutSahba's Sahba'shealth health and andexpressed expressedhis his chas great pleasure pleasure in in seeing seeing her her again, again, before before turning me in in courteous courteous regard. regard. great turning to to me A middle-aged, barrel-chested barrel-chested man man of of medium medium height, height, with with aa short short thick thick A middle-aged, neck that that took its function function of of joining the head head to to the the trunk trunk more more seriously seriously neck took its joining the than of of separating separating the the two, two, Majid Majid Khan, Khan, even even in in his his undervest undervest and and the crumthan the crumlungi,dominated dominatedthe theroom roomwith withaamiasma miasmaofof pled green-and-black checked checked lungi, pled green-and-black raw power. One of of the the walls walls of of the the room room was was covered covered with with mounted blackmounted blackraw power. One and-white photographs photographs which which showed showed him him garlanding garlanding state state and and national national and-white politicians and being garlanded in in turn turn by by more more local local ones. ones. As As expected, expected, the the politicians and being garlanded tall, cadaverous cadaverous leader leader of of the the party, party, Sultan Sultan Owaisi, Owaisi, was was aa gravely gravely benign benign presprestall, ence in in most of the the photographs. photographs. Another wall was was fully fully papered papered over over by Another wall by aa ence most of colored, grainy grainy photograph of aa wooden wooden Swiss Swiss chalet chalet standing standing at at the the edge edge of of colored, photograph of an icy icy cool cool stream stream and and outlined outlined against against an an impossibly impossibly blue sky, the the color color of of an blue sky, the sky sky highlighted highlighted by two fluffy fluffy light light grey clouds. Spring Spring trees trees cast cast dark dark the by two grey clouds. velvet shadows shadows on on sun-dappled sun-dappled grass. grass. Plump Plump European European cows cows with with silky silky velvet sheens and and pink pink udders udders grazed grazed in in the gently rolling meadow. Outside, Outside, the the the gently rolling meadow. sheens morning was steadily getting getting hotter. The temperature temperature had had crossed crossed the the hunmorning was steadily hotter. The hundred degree degree mark, mark, yet yet the the broiling broiling sun sun had had only only begun its inexorable inexorable ascent. ascent. begun its dred Majid Majid Khan's Khan's slight slight discomfort, discomfort, as as we we exchanged exchanged further further courtesies courtesies purpose of my visit, the heat while he while he inquired inquired about about the the purpose of my visit, was was not not due due to to the heat or or the sheen sheen of on his scalp that that periodically coalesced into into the of perspiration perspiration on his bald bald scalp periodically coalesced large drops drops of of sweat sweat which which then then trickled down his his forehead. forehead. He He seemed seemed to to be trickled down be large more bothered bothered by by the the informality of his his attire attire and and our our meeting meeting place. informality of place. For For more someone aspiring aspiring to to be be aa political political figure of more more than than local local Significance, significance, MaMafigure of someone jid Khan naturally wanted to to present present himself himself in in more more appropriate appropriate surroundsurroundjid Khan naturally wanted ings and and suitably suitably dressed dressed for for the Excusing himself, himself, he he asked asked one one of of his the role. role. Excusing his ings men to to take take us to the party office office located located about about aa hundred hundred yards yards from from his his us to the party men house above above his restaurant where where we we were were to to wait wait for for him. him. house his restaurant The The office office itself itself was was sparkling sparkling new new but but looked looked bare bare and and unused. unused. Along Along painted in in what what II have have come come to to regard regard as asHyderabad Hyderabad blue, blue, there there was was one wall, one wall, painted brown plastic-covered plastic-covered sofa. sofa. The The only only other other furniture furniture was was aa table table with with aa aa brown formica top top and and aa white white plastic cane chair. chair. The The sofa, sofa, the table, and and the the chair chair plastic cane the table, formica were covered with with aa fine layer of of dust. dust. There There were were no no cupboards, cupboards, boxes were covered fine layer boxes of of

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Chapter Three Chapter Three files, files, pens, pens,pencils, pencils,paper paperclips, clips,note notepads, pads,ororother otherparaphernalia paraphernaliawhich whichbebespeak speak of of an an office office where where work work is is done. done. We We were were asked asked by by our our companion companion to to step step into into the the adjoining adjoining room room which which was was more more luxuriously, luxuriously, even even garishly garishly apappointed, in in aa lower-class lower-class fantasy fantasy of of aristocratic aristocratic splendor splendor as as shaped shaped by by Hindi Hindi pointed, cinema. cinema. The The peach-colored peach-colored plush-covered plush-covered sofa sofa could could easily easily seat seat six six while while the the divan, with with two two cylindrical cylindrical pillows pillows encased encased in in dark dark pink pink satin satin covers covers and and in in divan, an exultant exultant floral design, was was equally equally spacious. spacious. A A gleaming gleaming new new Mirzapur Mirzapur an floral design, carpet carpet in in loud loud blue blue with with an an intricate intricate dark dark red red Persian Persian motif motif covered covered the the full full area floor. Majid's us ifif we we would would care care to to look look at at the the area of of the the floor. Majids man man politely politely asked asked us sahib'sphotographs, photographs,ananoffer offerweweaccepted acceptedwith withequal equalpoliteness. politeness.The Theman man sahib's came back back after after aa few few minutes, minutes, carrying carrying two two bulging bulging cardboard cardboard shoe shoe boxes boxes came and followed followed by by aa younger younger man, man, the the chamcha's chamchaschamcha, chamcha, bearing bottles and bearing twotwo bottles of of cold lemonade. As we sipped the oversweet lemonade, we were taken on cold lemonade. As we sipped the oversweet lemonade, we were taken on aa photographic tour tour of of Majid Majid Khan's Khan's life life which which highlighted highlighted his his political political career career photographic and the the social social status status he he had had achieved. achieved. There There was was genuine genuine awe awe and and admiration admiration and the chamcha's in in the chamchasvoice voiceasashehepointed pointedout outthe theburly burlyfigure figureofofhishispatron patronininvarvarious the welcoming ious situations: situations: here here he he is is in in the welcoming committee committee receiving receiving the the former former Chief to Sultan Sahib, there there he he is is next next to Sultan Sahib Sahib in in the the reception reception for for the the Chief Minister Minister Sahib, Governor the front Governor Sahib, Sahib, there there he he is is in in the front of of the the group group garlanding garlanding Sultan Sultan Sahib Sahib at the opening ceremony of the bank. at the opening ceremony of the bank. murmured our our involvement with subdued and ininAs we we murmured As involvement with subdued "oohs!" "oohs!" "ahs!" "ahs!" and creasing creasing "uh-huhs!" ' uh-huhs!" Majid Majid Khan Khan came came into into the the room room followed followed by by one one of of the the young men men we had earlier home. Majid was now now clad clad in young we had earlier met met at at his his home. Majid Khan Khan was in the the politician's uniform of fresh, fresh, lightly politicians uniform of lightly starched starched white white kurta-pyjamas kurta-pyjamas and and matching white white leather leather sandals. He apologized elaborately for keeping us us matching sandals. He apologized elaborately for keeping waiting and and then then took took out out aa remote remote control device from his pocket pocket with with waiting control device from his which switch on divan. The The which he he tried tried to to switch on the the vertical vertical fan fan standing standing next next to to the the divan. blades control blades completed completed one one full full circle circle before before coming coming to to aa halt. halt. The The remote remote control button was was pressed pressed again again and and the the fan made another another effort. effort. This This was was repeated button fan made repeated before an to the the chamcha chamchagalgalaa couple couple of of times times before an almost almost imperceptible imperceptible nod nod to vanized fan, vanized him him to to switch switch on on the the fan fan manually. manually. During During the the play play with with the the fan, Majid Majid Khan Khan kept kept on on talking talking to to the the young young man man about about how how everything everything was was now for now sorted sorted out out with with the the police police and and that that there there was was no no longer longer any any cause cause for concern. I had the distinct feeling that this conversation had already taken concern. I had the distinct feeling that this conversation had already taken place place earlier earlier in in the the house house and and on on the the way way to to the the office. office. It It seemed seemed to to me me that that the the highlights highlights were were now now being being repeated repeated for for our our benefit,benefit; Majid Majid Khan Khan was was inintroducing troducing himself. himself. Without Without appearing appearing to to be be overtly overtly boastful, boastful, he he was was conveyconveying ing through through the the conversation conversation the the extent extent of of his his power, power, the the breadth breadth of of his his concern, concern, and and the the degree degree of of his his importance importance in in the the life life of of his his community community and and

The Warriors Warriors The the the mohalla mohallawhere wherehehelived. lived.Someone, Someone,it itseems, seems,had hadreported reportedtotothe thepolice policethat that aa bomb revolver were were hidden hidden in in aa house house in in the the neighborhood. neighborhood. A Apolice police bomb and and aa revolver the house house to party came party came to to Karwan Karwan in in the the evening, evening, took took away away everyone everyone in in the to the the police station for for questioning, questioning, and and some some of of the were roughed roughed up. up. A police station the men men were A young man, who worked in a factory, was the only member of the family who young man, who worked in a factory, was the only member of the family who was not at at home home at at the of the the police police raid. He came came running running to to Majid Majid was not the time time of raid. He Khan for for help. help. Majid Majid went the police police station station and and arranged arranged for for the the release release Khan went to to the of the the young young man's man's family, family, aa task task made easier by the fact fact that that the the house house search search made easier by the of had not yielded any weapon. weapon. After After the the young left, Majid had not yielded any young man man left, Majid Khan Khan proproceeded to to deliver deliver aa lengthy lengthy monologue monologue on on the the ever ever increasing increasing zulm, theopopzulm, the ceeded pression of of the the Muslims, Muslims, by by the police. The The chamcha chamchatook tookupupthe thenarrative narrativebyby the police. pression telling us us of of other other incidents incidents ~here where Majid Majid Khan Khan had had also also starred starred as as the the helper helper telling and savior savior of of the oppressed poor, poor, fearlessly fearlessly confronting confronting police police highhighthe oppressed and handedness, facing facing down down armed armed policemen policemen who who were were ready to fire into Musfire into Mushandedness, ready to lim crowds crowds during during aa riot. riot. lim For me, the image For me, it it was was difficult difficult to to reconcile reconcile the image of of this this courteous, courteous, conficonfident whose zeal be aa total dent man man whose zeal in in the the service service of of his his community community could could not not be total newspretense, pretense, with with the the one one projected projected by by Hyderabad's Hyderabad's English English language language newswas aa well-knowngoonda. papers papers and and the the police police for for whom whom Majid Majid Khan Khan was well-known goonda.Most Most of goonda ininhis of the the urban urban elite elite know know the the goonda hiscaricatured caricaturedform formfrom fromHindi Hindimovies movies as unshaven, solidly tough in in as the the villainous, villainous, dark-skinned, dark-skinned, usually usually unshaven, solidly muscled muscled tough tight jeans (or tight sweatshirts sweatshirts and and jeans (or in in aa check check lungi, lungi,ififMuslim), Muslim),with witha aknotted knotted scarf scarf around around the the neck neck and and aa gold gold chain chain nestling nestling in in the the chest chest fur. fur. The The HyHyderabad derabad police police have have aa special special name name for for them. them. In In their their records records such such men men are are Dictionary informs listed listed as as "rowdies"; "rowdies"; aa rowdy, rowdy, the the Oxford Oxford English English Dictionary informs us, us, is is aa addicted to fighting or "rough, person; one "rough, disorderly disorderly person,one addicted to quarrelling, quarrelling, fighting or disturbing disturbing the peace." Although the the word word itself itself is is of of American American origin, origin, today today aa rowdy rowdy the peace." Although conjures up up more more the the image image of of aa British British soccer soccer fan fan wreaking mayhem in in aa wreaking mayhem conjures European of European football football stadium stadium than than aa knife-Wielding knife-wielding tough tough in in the the back back alleys alleys of Hyderabad. which refers refers to Hyderabad. The The police police also also call call them them "history "history sheeters," sheeters," which to the the sheets files where, sheets of of paper paper in in police policefiles where, year year after after year, year, aa history history of of their their unlawunlawful activities activities is is carefully carefully recorded recorded from the surveillance surveillance and and surmise surmise of ful from the of plainclothes together with the noting noting of arrest records and any any subwith the of arrest records and subplainclothes officers, officers, together sequent trial trial verdicts. verdicts. sequent In the mohallas In the mohallaswhere whereMajid MajidKhan Khanand andothers othersofofhishiskind kindlive, live,there thereare are not not too too many many who who would would go go along along with with their their characterization characterization as as goondas goondasbyby the the police police and and upper upper middle-class middle-class sentiment. sentiment. Unsurprisingly, Unsurprisingly, the the men men do do not not have aa name for themselves, themselves, although although they they would would prefer prefer aa descriptive descriptive phrase phrase have name for such such as as "friend "friend of of the the poor" poor" or or "protector "protector of of the the oppressed." oppressed." A A name name would would

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Chapter Three Chapter Three categorize the community, categorize them, them, separate separate them them from from the the rest rest of of the community, take take them them out the ocean big fish fish but out of of the ocean in in which which they they swim swim as as big but nonetheless nonetheless constitute constitute aa are not vital the ocean's vital part part of of the ocean's ecology. ecology. The The only only name name they they are not reluctant reluctant to to accept police, is accept and and which which is is also also acceptable acceptable to to others, others, including including the the police, is pehlwan. pehlwan. Specifically, pehlwan is isa awrestler, Specifically, pehlwan wrestler,but butgenerally generallyit itmay mayalso alsomean meana a"strong "strong for which which the the strength man"; man",- the the purpose purpose for strength is is employed employed is is left left ambiguous ambiguous and and open pehlwans open to to the the interpretation interpretation of of different different groups. groups. So So let let me me call call them them pehlwans (rather goondas, hooligans, (rather than than goondas, hooligans,rowdies, rowdies,history historysheeters), sheeters),whether whetherorornot not they bodybuilders, although surthey have have actually actually trained trained as as wrestlers wrestlers or or bodybuilders, although aa surof traditional prisingly done so. prisingly large large number number have have done so. Indeed, Indeed, it it is is the the culture culture of traditional Indian Indian wrestling, wrestling, which which II will will discuss discuss later, later, which which has has had had aa profound profound influinfluence in the the formation ence in formation of of their their personalities personalities and and which which constitutes constitutes the the most most distinctive distinctive marker marker of of their their identities. identities. althoughhehewent went Strictly speaking, speaking, then, then, Majid Majid Kahn Kahn is is not not aa pehlwan Strictly pehlwan although through aa few few years years of of training training as as aa wrestler, the taleem, taleem,asasa boy. a boy.His Hisyounger younger through wrestler, the brother the well-known pehlwan and brother is is the well-known Mumtaz Mumtaz pehlwan andmany manyofofthe theyoung youngmen menwho who hang who follow thethe wrestler's hang around around him, him, his his men, men, are are aspiring aspiring pehlwans pehlwans who follow wrestlers the whole wrestling ethos, daily regimen. He daily regimen. He is, is, though, though, aa great great admirer admirer of of the whole wrestling ethos, which he feels which he feels builds builds character character and and prevents prevents young young men men from from going going astray. astray He traditional wrestling in He feels feels distressed distressed that that traditional wrestling is is coming coming to to an an end end in and young imports as Hyderabad, Hyderabad, and young men men are are drawn drawn more more to to such such imports as judo judo and and kakajust that, be picked up without without the rate. rate. The The Japanese Japanese martial martial arts arts are are just that, arts arts to to be picked up the internalizing the necessity being steeped necessity of of being steeped in in and and internalizing the culture culture which which underlies underlies them. decline of them. The The reasons reasons for for the the decline of wrestling wrestling are are many. many. Primarily, Primarily, economic economic deterioration deterioration makes makes it it difficult difficult for for aa family family to to let let one one of of their their sons sons turn turn into into aa pehlwan, since pehlwan, sincehehewould wouldthen thenneed needananexpensive expensivediet dietofofpistachios, pistachios,almonds, almonds, choice choice cuts cuts of of meat, meat, and and liters liters of of milk milk every every day. day. Then Then the the Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim ban wrestling matches in tensions have led bout tensions have led the the police police to to ban wrestling matches in the the city, city, since since aa bout between wrestler can between aa Hindu Hindu and and aa Muslim Muslim wrestler can easily easily ignite ignite aa riot riot between between the the two ten percent pehlwans areareinvolved violence," two communities. communities. "Only "Only ten percent of of the the pehlwans involvedinin violence," Majid said. "In "In fact fact becoming improvesthe thecharacter characterand anddisposidisposiMajid said. becoming aa pehlwan pehlwan improves tion of of many many young young men men who who are are otherwise otherwise inclined inclined to to be be violent violent and and intemintemtion perate. When four people salute you you as as pehlwan pehlwan you walk down When four people respectfully respectfully salute asas you walk down perate. the street, street, you you hold your head head high high and and wouldn't wouldn't do do anything anything to lose that that the hold your to lose respect." respect." Majid peaceMajid describes describes his his own own role role in in the the riots riots primarily primarily in in terms terms of of aa peaceyoung hotheads Musmaker, maker, an an older older mentor mentor with with some some influence influence on on young hotheads of of the the Muslim lim community, community, especially especially in in Karwan. Karwan. He He is is generally generally successful successful in in calming calming to control these boys," boys," violent passions passions and violent and excited excited crowds. crowds. lilt "It is is not not so so easy easy to control these

The The Warriors Warriors he he indulgently chamhe says says in in mock mock sorrow sorrow as as he indulgently smiles smiles at at the the adoring adoring young young chamchao cha."Without "Without any anyprovocation, provocation, these theseyoung youngmen men are aretaken taken ininby bythe thepolice police during riot who who register murder cases cases against against them. them. Released Released on on bail, bail, they they during aa riot register murder come out out swaggering, swaggering, as as if if they they really are killers and have have become become equal equal to to really are killers and come pehlwans. The police have notarized them as killers and what better crethe the pehlwans. The police have notarized them as killers and what better credentials can can they they have?" have?" Majid Majid Khan Khan believes believes aa major major part part of of his his role role during during dentials the riot riot lies lies in in curbing curbing young young "killers" "killers" who who want show off off their killing the want to to show their killing prowess,- he he prevents prevents the the consolidation consolidation of of aa killer killer identity, identity, as as the the psycholopsycholoprowess; gist would say in the disciplines language. Personally, Majid Khan said, he he gist would say in the discipline's language. Personally, Majid Khan said, has never never experienced experienced any any kind kind of of blood blood lust lust even even during during the the worst course of worst course of has religious violence. violence. This This does does not not mean mean that that he he is is some some kind kind of of aa believer believer in religious in nonviolence when when there there are are riots riots between between the Hindus and and the Muslims. He He is nonviolence the Hindus the Muslims. is not aa fanatic fanatic either either way as far far as as violence violence is is concerned. concerned. He He has "healthy" not way as has aa "healthy" attitude toward toward the the mutual mutual slaughter, slaughter, an an outlook outlook he he states states as as following: following: "Riots "Riots attitude are like one-day cricket matches where the the killings killings are are the the runs. You have have to to are like one-day cricket matches where runs. You score at at least least one one more more than than the opposing team. team. The The whole whole honor honor of of your your score the opposing nation (quam) (cjuam)depends dependsononnot notscoring scoring less thanthetheopponent." opponent." nation less than The his role The other other part part of of his role during during aa riot riot consists consists in in liaising liaising with with the the police police and and the the administration administration on on behalf behalf of of the the community community and and in in organizing organizing and and distributing relief relief supplies supplies on on behalf behalf of of his his party, the Majlis. Majlis. Although Although some some distributing party, the accuse ("of the ten bags rice he of accuse him him of of pilferage pilferage ("of the ten bags of of rice he keeps keeps seven") seven") and and thus thus of enriching himself himself on on the the misery misery of of others, others, Majid Majid Khan Khan is is sincerely sincerely eloquent eloquent enriching on the the great human suffering suffering caused caused by every riot riot and and about about his his own own modest modest on great human by every efforts at its its relief. have the the impression impression that that Majid Majid Khan Khan feels feels much much more more efforts at relief. II have comfortable talking talking about about human human suffering suffering than than Violence, violence, about about the fellowthe fellowcomfortable ship of of misery misery than than the the divisions divisions of of murderous murderous ethnocentrism. ethnocentrism. Losing Losing loved loved ship ones, seeing seeing one's one's house house and and meager meager belongings go up up in in flames, flames, the the whimwhimones, belongings go pering of of children children in in hunger hunger and and fear, fear, is is aa shared shared experience experience of of Muslims Muslims and and pering Hindus alike alike and, and, after after all, he is is talking talking to Hindu. Talk Talk of suffering to me, me, aa Hindu. of suffering Hindus all, he during the the riots riots brings brings the the two two of of us us closer closer in in mutual mutual human sympathy human sympathy during whereas an an elaboration elaboration on on the violence will will diVide, divide, will keep reminding reminding us of will keep us of whereas the violence our potential as deadly deadly enemies. enemies. our potential as Muslim, there an In In an an earlier earlier meeting meeting with with Sahba, Sahba, who who is is aa Muslim, there had had been been an absence of of constraints constraints imposed imposed by my alien alien Hindu Hindu presence, presence, and and Majid Majid by my absence Khan had had talked talked freely freely about about his his more more Muslim sentiments. The The Muslims Muslims Muslim sentiments. Khan never initiated initiated any any attacks; attacks,- they they only only defended defended themselves. themselves. They They are are disdisnever criminated against against in in every every field and the the police police oppression oppression is is making making the the criminated field and whole community community mutinous mutinous (baghi). {baghi).One Oneday daythey theywill willrise riseupuptotofight, fight,even even whole against the the modern of the the police. police. After all, there there are are only only four four fightmodern weapons weapons of After all, fightagainst

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ing ing communities communities in in India: India: Sikhs, Sikhs, Marathas, Marathas, Rajputs, Rajputs, and and Muslims. Muslims. Even Even badly badly outnumbered outnumbered Muslims Muslims can can hold hold their their own own against against aa far far superior superior Hindu Hindu host host as police do not turn them. But But this as long long as as the the police do not turn their their guns guns against against them. this situation situation too will will change. change. There There is is nothing nothing like like aa riot riot to to unite the community community and and too unite the strengthen its its collective collective will will for for the fight ahead ahead of of it. strengthen the fight it.

Testing Tigers Testing the the TIgers The Giessen Test (appendix The Giessen Test (appendix 1) 1) isis one one of of the the most most widespread widespread test test instruments instruments 1 in Germany todayl.. Constructed psychoanalytic and psyin use in Constructed on on psychoanalytic and psyin clinical clinical use Germany today chosocial considerations, considerations, its its forty forty statements statements are are divided divided into into six six scales: scales: chosocial social response, response, dominance, dominance, self-control, self-control, underlying mood, permeability, permeability, social underlying mood, and social social potence. Using it it to to systematically systematically tap tap the the self-image self-image of of the the pehland potence. Using pehlwans, the characteristics each ascribed to himself, I found the test to be aa wans, the characteristics each ascribed to himself, I found the test to be particularly useful interview tool tool which helped me to gain gain aa more more comprecompreme to particularly useful interview which helped hensive view view of of the the "warriors" "warriors" in in aa relatively relatively short short period period of of time. time. The The pehlpehlhensive wansoften often did didnot notrestrict restrictthemselves themselvestotojust justmarking markingoff off an analternative alternativeon onaa wans statement but would generally elaborate, offering anecdotes from their lives statement but would generally elaborate, offering anecdotes from their lives as illustrations. illustrations. Thus, for instance, instance, in in response response to to aa statement, statement, Majid Majid Khan Khan as Thus, for did not not simply simply say, say, "1 "I am am very very patient" patient" but add: "1 "I had learn but went went on on to to add: had to to learn did way," and and then then narrated narrated an an incident incident from from his his life life where where he he patience, the the hard patience, hard way," had suffered suffered because because he could not not control control his his temper. temper. had he could In the with the In the first first area, area, social social response, response, which which has has to to do do with the person's person's effect effect on his his environment-whether environment—whether one one is gratified or or frustrated frustrated in on is narcissistically narcissistically gratified in positive responses social social interactions-Majid interactions—Majid Khan Khan sees sees himself himself as as evoking evoking positive responses on the the social social stage. stage. He He finds it easy easy to to attract attract others others and and believes believes people people are are on finds it highly satisfied satisfied with with his his work. work. He He cares cares greatly greatly about about looking looking nice and feels feels nice and highly he has been successful successful in in achieving achieving his aims in in life. life. he has been his aims In the the area has to In area of of dominance, dominance, which which on on one one side side has to do do with with aggressiveaggressiveness, ness, impulsiveness, impulsiveness, stubbornness, stubbornness, and and authoritarian authoritarian tendencies, tendencies, and and on on the the other with with an an incapacity incapacity for for aggression, aggression, patience, patience, willingness to conform conform and and other willingness to the tendency to submit, submit, Majid Majid Khan Khan comes comes across across as dominant the tendency to as particularly particularly dominant and self-willed self-willed although although he he tries tries hard hard to control his impatience in in public life. and to control his impatience public life. As Majid Khan As far far as as self-control self-control is is concerned, concerned, Majid Khan is is more more uncontrolled uncontrolled not to sothan than compulsive, compulsive, but but not to an an extent extent that that would would signal signal delinquency delinquency or or sociopathic tendencies. tendencies. It It is, is, however, evident that that Majid Majid Khan Khan has has aa problem problem ciopathic however, evident in dealing dealing with with his his aggressive aggressive impulses. impulses. He has aa tendency tendency to to let let out out his his anger anger He has in easily which which he he struggles struggles to to control, control, lest lest it it break out in in episodes episodes of of ununbreak out easily checked rage and bouts of violence. checked rage and bouts of violence.

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Although Majid lets Although Majid lets out out his his anger anger and and is is not not at at all all timid, timid, there there are are strong strong indications of of an an underlying depressive mood. mood. He He tends tends to to worry good deal deal indications underlying depressive worry aa good about personal personal problems, problems, lets lets outer outer changes changes greatly greatly affect affect his his emotional emotional about state, and and is is often often depressed. depressed. Coupled Coupled with with his his difficulties difficulties with with self-control self-control state, and the fact that he finds it very easy to get into high spirits, I would suspect aa and the fact that he finds it very easy to get into high spirits, I would suspect disposition where where hyperactivity hyperactivity compensates compensates for for and and sometimes sometimes alternates alternates disposition with dysphoric mood mood and there is marked tendency tendency to to blow blow aa fuse fuse and where where there is aa marked with aa dysphoric in tense situations. in tense situations. As As far far as as permeability permeability is is concerned-the concerned—the fundamental fundamental ways ways in in which which is experienced experienced and and how how open open or or closed closed the the person person isis in in interinterthe outer outer world the world is action with with others-Majid others—Majid Khan Khan sees sees himself himself as as very very trusting trusting and and experiexperiaction ences strong strong feelings feelings in in love. love. Yet he also also finds it very very hard hard to to come come out out of of his ences Yet he finds it his shell, gives gives away away very very little little of of himself, himself, and and avoids avoids getting getting close close to to another another shell, person. The The fact this is only of of personal personal relations relations and and does not happerson. fact that that this is true true only does not hapwell with with others, others, would lead one one pen in in the the public public sphere, sphere, where he can can work where he work well would lead pen to suspect suspect disturbances disturbances in in the the development development of of his his sense sense of of basic basic trust trust and and in in to an openness openness to to his his own own feelings. feelings. It It is is as as if if the the early early contacts contacts with with the the world world an were not not positive, positive, generating generating aa fear fear of of aa hostile environment which led to hostile environment which led to aa were defensive closing closing up up and and guarding guarding of of the the core core self. self. II sense sense in in Majid Majid Khan Khan an defensive an anxiety about about being exploited and and abused abused if if he he ever ever opened opened himself himself fully fully to to anxiety being exploited another human human being. being. This This way, though he he may may remain remain emotionally emotionally isolated, isolated, another way, though he also also cannot cannot be be destroyed destroyed by by others. others. This This hypothesis hypothesis is is supported supported by he by his his responses to to other other statements statements in in the questionnaire such such as as that that he he finds it the questionnaire finds it responses relatively hard to to feel feel tied tied to someone for for long, long, that that is, is, he he is is fearful fearful of of perto someone perrelatively hard sonal commitment. commitment. He He thus thus comes comes across across as as someone someone who mimics trust trust and and who mimics sonal affection without deeply feeling them, something he does quite successfully affection without deeply feeling them, something he does quite successfully in his his public public life life since since he he confesses confesses to to being being very good at at acting acting and and not not too too in very good particular about about truth. truth. particular The The Violent Violent Poet Poet

Unlike Majid Majid Khan, Khan, Akbar Akbar is is aa true true pehlwan. hasbeen beentrained trainedasas a wrestler Unlike pehlwan. HeHehas a wrestler since the age ten and since the age of of ten and comes comes from from aa family family where where for for the the last last four four generagenerations the the men men have have all all been been wrestlers. wrestlers. Among Among the the Hindus, he is is notorious notorious as as aa tions Hindus, he killer, while while many many Muslims approvingly acknowledge acknowledge his his role role in in the kmer, Muslims approvingly the organiorganization zation of of the the community's community's violence violence during during the the riots. riots. Living Living in in aa large large house house with four wrestler brothers and and their their families, families, aa widowed widowed mother, mother, and and three three with four wrestler brothers man who who owns as as wives, wives, Akbar Akbar is is aa prosperous prosperous man owns aa hotel hotel and and three three taleemkhanas, taleemkhanas, the wrestling wrestling gymnasiums gymnasiums are are called called in in Urdu. Urdu. Like Like most most other other pehlwans, the the pehlwans, the

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Chapter Three Chapter Three chief what the pehlwans delicately chief source source of of his his income income is is what the pehlwans delicatelydescribe describeasas"Iand "land business." business." the outcomes Baldly business" is is one one of of the outcomes of of India's India's crumbling crumbling Baldly stated, stated, "Iand "land business" legal system. system. Since Since landlord landlord and and tenant tenant disputes disputes as as well well as as other other disputes disputes legal property can about about land land and and property can take take well well over over aa decade decade to to be be sorted sorted out out if if aa redress of of grievance grievance is is sought sought through through the the courts, courts, the the pehlwan approached redress pehlwan is isapproached by one one of of the the parties parties to to the the dispute dispute to evict or or otherwise otherwise intimidate intimidate the the opby to evict opposing party. The The dispute dispute being thus "settled," "settled," the the pehlwan receivesa large a largefeefee being thus pehlwan receives posing party. withtaleemkhanas taleemkhanas (or the for his his services. services. In In the the case case of of well-known well-known pehlwans pehlwans with (or the for ahharas) and thus a large supply of young toughs as students and allHindu Hindu akharas) and thus a large supply of young toughs as students and allpurpose assistants, assistants, land land business business can can be be very very profitable. Many of of the the pehlwans purpose profitable. Many pehlwans do not need to use strong-arm strong-arm methods methods any any longer. longer. The The mere mere fact fact that fado not need to use that aa famous pehlwan like Akbarhas hasbeen beenengaged engagedbybyone oneofofthe theparties partiesis is enoughforfor mous pehlwan like Akbar enough the opponent opponent to to back back down down and and reach reach aa settlement settlement to to the dispute. In In some some the the dispute. cases, and and these are on on the the increase, increase, if if the the second second party also employs employs aa pehlpehlthese are party also cases, wanto toprotect protectits itsinterests, interests,then thenthe thetwo twopehlwans pehlwans generally together and wan generally getget together and come to to aa mutually mutually satisfactory satisfactory solution solution which, which, because because of of the the fear fear they they come arouse, they can impose impose on on their their clients. clients. Built Built on on the threat of of physical arouse, they can the threat physical vioviolence, overt violence is rare in this informal system where a black legality, lence, overt violence is rare in this informal system where a black legality, like aa black economy, runs runs parallel parallel to to the the state's states legal legal system, system, and and violence violence like black economy, occurs only only when when new new pehlwans muscleinto intothe theterritories territoriesofofestabestabpehlwans trytrytotomuscle occurs alsolike liketotocall callthemselves, themselves,threatening threateningtheir their lished "tigers," "tigers," as as the the pehlwans pehlwans also lished vital interests and inviting swift reprisals. At least among the Muslim pehlvital interests and inviting swift reprisals. At least among the Muslim pehlwans, Akbar Akbarisisaatiger's tiger'stiger, tiger,aawell-respected well-respectedman manwho whoisisaafigure figureof ofawe awefor for wans, wrestler, success success in in the the land land business, business, and and the the high high esteem esteem in in his prowess as as aa wrestler, his prowess which he he is is held held by by his his community. community. A A political political career career is is on on the the cards. cards. Akbar Akbar which has asked to to and and plans plans to to stand stand for for the the state state legislature legislature elections elections on on the the has been been asked platform of the Muslim party. platform of the Muslim party. The the police, The history history sheet sheet of of the police, though, though, is is not not aa respecter respecter of of success success or or sentiment. It It goes goes on on to to call call him him aa chronic chronic "rowdy" "rowdy" and and to list aa succession succession of sentiment. to list of dates, beginning in the early 1960s, and a few laconic lines in front of the dates, beginning in the early 1960s, and a few laconic lines in front of the date on on the the offense offense committed. committed. Akbar was first convicted of of sexual sexual harassAkbar was first convicted harassdate ment when when he he was twenty years years old-"Eve old—"Eve teasing of aa girl,"-as girl,"—as the the police police ment was twenty teasing of history sheet sheet puts puts it-and it—and was was fined ten rupees rupees by by the the court. court. A few months months fined ten A few history later, he came to to the the attention attention of of the the police police on on aa charge charge of of physical assault; he came physical assault; later, the complainant failed failed to to press press charges charges because, because, the the police police suspect, suspect, Akbar Akbar the complainant intimidated the victim. He He was was then then suspected suspected of of snatching snatching aa gold gold chain, chain, but but intimidated the victim. the serious crime crime for for which which he was sentenced sentenced to to aa couple couple of of years years the first first serious he was in prison prison was was assaulting assaulting aa special special police police party, "causing grievous grievous injUry." injury." in party, "causing

The The Warriors Warriors

There follows follows aa succession succession of of charges charges of of assault, assault, stabbing, stabbing, kidnapping, kidnapping, and and There deals, although although wrongful confinement, confinement, most most of of them them in in connection connection with with land land deals, wrongful he he isis acquitted acquitted every every time time because because either either the the witnesses witnesses or or the the complainant complainant or or both are are too too scared scared to to give give evidence evidence against against him him in in court. court. A A long long list list of of ararboth rests, orders orders of of externment externment and and removal removal from from the the city city for for specified specified periods, periods, rests, and short short jail jail sentences sentences (many (many of of which which he he circumvented circumvented by by getting getting himself himself and admitted to to the the prison prison hospital) hospital) follows follows in in monotonous monotonous detail. detail. admitted What What isis now now striking striking about about his his record record are are his his increasing increasing confrontations confrontations with with the the police. police. Abuse Abuse of of police police personnel, personnel, threats, threats, and and aa couple couple of of assaults assaults on of on police police officers officers are are actions actions which which the the Hyderabad Hyderabad police, police, like like the the police police of any with particular any other other city city in in the the world, world, view view with particular disfavor disfavor and and on on which which they they come in the come down down severely. severely. What What is is not not mentioned mentioned in the record record is is that that these these conconfrontations the police police are viofrontations with with the are often often in in the the context context of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim violence lence where where Akbar Akbar is is seen seen to to be be defending defending Muslim Muslim interests interests in in aa clear-cut clear-cut and and unambiguous manner manner by by putting putting his his body body on on the the line. line. This This wins wins him him many many unambiguous admirers the community, among the admirers in in the community, especially especially among the young. young. And And then then somesomething strange strange happens. happens. The The rowdy rowdy is is recruited into the the police police ranks, underthing recruited into ranks, undergoes training, and is is appointed appointed as as aa police constable in in the the armed goes training, and police constable armed police, police, something which which can can only only happen happen as as one one of of the minor fallouts fallouts of of aa political political something the minor by the the Majlis Majlis with with the the ruling ruling Congress Congress party party at that particular deal deal struck struck by at that particular is cut short when he is is dismissed for threatening time. Akbar's police career time. Akbar's police career is cut short when he dismissed for threatening to kill kill an an assistant one of the riots riots in in the the sevento assistant police police commissioner commissioner during during one of the seventies. He assaulted aa police inspector and in jail jail again, ties. He assaulted police inspector and landed landed in again, this this time time for for one one year of imprisonment. spent aa large part of this sentence in the the prison year of imprisonment. He He spent large part of this sentence in prison hospital where where he he continued continued to to be be active. active. Cases of wrongful wrongful confinement, hospital Cases of confinement, assault, and and extraction extraction of of money money are are registered registered as as having haVing been been organized organized by by assault, Akbar from from his his hospital hospital bed. bed. Akbar For about about aa decade decade now, now, though, though, Akbars Akbar's history history sheet sheet is is clean. clean. Akbar Akbar is is For becoming increasingly increasingly busy busy in in the the political political arena arena and and is is no no longer longer personally becoming personally involved in in any any of of the the street street and and mohalla mohalla violence. violence.He Heis isnonomore morea soldier a soldierbut but involved is suspected suspected of of being being aa general general and and one one of of the the chief chief organizers organizers of of Muslim Muslim is violence during during aa riot. violence riot. The The police, police, in in their their written written summary summary which which reveals reveals an an aversion to to pronouns, pronouns, concede: concede: "Is /lIs very locality. aversion very popular. popular. Called Called pehlwan pehlwanininhishis locality. Has earned earned aa lot lot of of money money in in land land business. business. Many Many local local people people approach approach for Has for settlement of of domestic domestic problems problems and and civil civil disputes disputes which which he he settles settles amiamisettlement cably. Has Has car car and and properties properties and and income income from from house house rents rents and and hotels. hotels. Trains Trains cably. many people people of of locality locality in in wrestling. wrestling. Of Of late late not not involved involved in in any any criminal criminal many cases. However, However, close cl{)se watch watch is is being being maintained maintained on on his his activities." activities./I cases. Akbar questioned questioned Sahba Sahba closely closely when when she she first first met met him. him. He He wanted wanted to to Akbar

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Chapter Three Three Chapter know the people name, how how she know the the names names of of the people who who had had mentioned mentioned his his name, she knew knew who had had brought brought her her to the number number of had made made to his student his student who to him, him, the of visits visits she she had to the Karwan area the people politics, religion, the Karwan area and and what what the people had had said said about about politics, religion, and and violence. He was guarded reluctant to to talk, necviolence. He was guarded at at first first and and reluctant talk, asking asking why why it it was was necto interview he believe believe that that Sahba essary essary to interview him him and and why why should should he Sahba was was aa Muslim Muslim except except that that her her dress, dress, face, face, and and ways ways of of carrying carrying herself herself and and talking talking gave gave her her away life, he he found away as as aa Muslim. Muslim. After After all all his his bitter bitter experiences experiences in in life, found it it difficult difficult to trust trust people. people. If people know about him him it because of the good to If people know about it was was because of the good work work he he had honor (izzat) (izzat) of of the theMuslim Muslim nation. nation.Once Oncehis his had been been doing doing to to uphold uphold the the honor suspicions talked to suspicions were were lulled, lulled, however, however, Akbar Akbar talked to Sahba Sahba freely freely about about himself himself and his view the Hindu-Muslim and his view of of the Hindu-Muslim relations. relations. "I "I am am proud proud to to be be aa Muslim. Muslim. ItIt isis this this pride pride which which has has carried carried me me through through many has not many wrestling wrestling competitions competitions II won. won. My My aim aim in in wrestling wrestling has not been been to to achieve myself but but to Muslim. II always alwaysfelt felt thrilled thrilled achieve fame fame for for myself to make make aa name name as as aa Muslim. when large numbers of boys bought when large numbers of Muslim Muslim boys bought tickets tickets because because II was was fighting fighting in in the the arena. arena. Each Each time time II defeated defeated aa Hindu Hindu wrestler, wrestler, II felt felt IIhad hadnot notonly onlymade madeaa but for which looked up to name name for for myself myself but for the the entire entire Muslim Muslim community, community, which looked up to me for its honor and fame. I train a lot of Muslim boys in my taleemkhanas. I I me for its honor and fame. I train a lot of Muslim boys in my taleemkhanas. visit the taleemkhanas occasionally since I have trained others to to do do thethe job.job. visit the taleemkhanas occasionally since I have trained others But under my But it it is is done done under my close close supervision. supervision. Apart Apart from from wrestling, wrestling, the the boys boys protect themselves themselves from are are also trained trained to are also to protect from attack attack by by the the enemy. enemy. They They are trained the condition that they will never never misuse misuse the the training to unnecesunnecestrained on on the condition that they will training to sarily harm someone." sarily harm someone." "I "I also also teach teach my my disciples disciples to to be be good good Muslims-to Muslims—to respect respect their their parents, parents, elders, neighbors, elders, neighbors, and and women. women. A A wrestler's wrestler's life life isis not not easy. easy. He He has has to to observe observe certain he must to bed bed early certain rules rules very very strictly. strictly Besides Besides eating eating aa good good diet, diet, he must go go to early and the morning. pan (betel and wake wake up up very very early early in in the morning. Alcohol, Alcohol, cigarettes, cigarettes, and and pan (betel leaf) He must tea and leaf) are are absolutely absolutely prohibited. prohibited. He must not not drink drink tea and loaf loaf around around on on the the streets. have strictly these rules rules and streets. II myself myself have strictly followed followed these and even even today today II do do not not drink pan. To drink alcohol alcohol or or tea, tea, smoke smoke or or eat eat pan. Tobecome become an an example example toto others, others, II have have undergone undergone aa lot lot of of hardship. hardship. Today Today my my disciples disciples are are very very attached attached to to me. me. If If II were were to to tell tell them them to to kill kill themselves, themselves, they they will will not not hesitate hesitate for for aa momoBut they know that that their their ustad ment. ment. But they know ustadwill willnever neverask askthem themfor fortheir theirlives. lives.He He only works for welfare. He wants them brave." only works for their their welfare. He wants them to to be be brave." Akbar was was now now leaning with pride. pride. Akbar leaning forward, forward, his his voice voice swelling swelling with "Your list of pehlwans has 'Tour list of pehlwans hasmore moreMuslim Muslimthan thanHindu Hindunames namesbecause becauseMusMushas God's A lims lims are are stronger stronger than than Hindus. Hindus. The The Muslim Muslim has God's strength strength in in him. him. A Muslim the nation. Muslim reflects reflects the the strength strength of of the nation. Muslims Muslims are are united united and and one. one. The The other nation (Hindu) not have have this this unity. unity. They other nation (Hindu) does does not They are are divided. divided. We We know know

The Warriors Warriors The our our immense immense strength, strength, given given to to us us by by God. God. A A true true Muslim Muslim is is never never afraid. afraid. The only fear in his heart is of God. The wooden stave of a Muslim or The only fear in his heart is of God. The wooden stave of a Muslim or only only the the cry cry "Allah-u-Akbar" "Allah-u-Akbar" (God (God is is Great) Great) is is more more than than ten ten Hindu Hindu swords. swords. Whatever is is happening today is is aa test the Muslims Muslims have have to to go go through. through. The The Whatever happening today test the sin to to oppress oppress others others but but even even aa greater greater sin sin Quran says says very very clearly clearly that that it it is is aa sin Qur'an to bear oppression. A good Muslim can never tolerate oppression. Today to bear oppression. A good Muslim can never tolerate oppression. Today II am aa pehlwan becauseour oursociety, society,government, government,and andpolice policehave haveforced forcedmemetoto am pehlwan because have faced faced aalot lot of of zulm zulmbut buthave havenever neversubmitted submittedtotoit.it.I have I havealways always be one. one. II have be fought it." fought it." "1 "I was was myself myself aa policeman policeman once once but but II quit quit the the service service after after II witnessed witnessed police brutality. police brutality. II saw saw the the atrocities atrocities they they commit commit on on innocent innocent people. people. One One day day II openly openly took took on on the the police police in in public. public. II beat beat up up aa policeman policeman very very badly. badly. ransacked my Later Later they they ransacked my house house and and destroyed destroyed my my hotel. hotel. II was was charged charged with with assault jailed for was solitary assault and and jailed for one one year. year. It It was solitary confinement. confinement. In In this this one one year year II changed changed aa lot. lot. My My sentiment sentiment for for God God and and my my love love for for the the nation nation awakened. awakened. II also also read read the the Qur'an Quran and and prayed prayed regularly. regularly. II decided decided to to dedicate dedicate my my life life to to the the well-being my community." well-being of of my community" "On my return, "On my return, II received received aahero's hero'swelcome. welcome.People Peoplewere wereso sohappy happyto tosee see me me back. back. II did did aalot lotof ofwork workfor forthe thepoor poorof ofthe thecommunity. community. IIam amsatisfied satisfiedthat thatI I am am doing doing good good work-not work—not for for myself myself or or for for my my own own good good but but for for others, others, for for my people. A not hishis strength ofof hishis body my people. A pehlwan pehlwandoes does notgetget strengthfrom fromthethebuilding building body but from prays. but from the the blessings blessings of of the the poor poor and and the the grace grace of of Allah Allah to to whom whom he he prays. hours of is To To pray pray to to God God in in the the early early hours of the the morning morning when when others others are are sleeping sleeping is the who are the best. best. He He is is not not distracted distracted by by the the prayers prayers of of so so many many others others who are still still asleep." asleep." There was no deadly seriousness. seriousness. There was no trace trace of of banter banter now, now, only only aa deadly "1 believe in equality for everyone. There should "I believe in equality for everyone. There should be be no no divide divide between between the rich and the communist the rich and the the poor. poor. II have have the communist way way of of thinking. thinking. II am am religious religious and the same and communist communist at at the same time. time. You You might might think think II am am aa hypocrite hypocrite because because II own own such such aa big big house, house, aa hotel, hotel, property. property. But But even even in in Russia Russia the the leaders leaders had had everything. I am talking about beliefs and ideas. I hate the rich, their vulgar everything. I am talking about beliefs and ideas. I hate the rich, their vulgar life life style, style, and and the the show show of of wealth. wealth. II also also hate hate the the whites whites because because they they exploit exploit the races not but all the dark dark races not only only in in Africa Africa but all over over the the world. world. II also also hate hate the the police police whose uniform gives whose uniform gives them them the the license license to to commit commit such such horrible horrible crimes. crimes. Today Today the fight is but also the Muslim's Muslim's fight is not not only only against against the the other other nation nation but also against against the the police." police." "1 very happy young Muslim "I feel feel very happy when when young Muslim boys boys are are tortured tortured by by the the police. police. They up even police to They should should be be beaten beaten up even more. more. My My prayer prayer to to God God is is for for the the police to commit unlimited atrocities Muslims. Whenever commit unlimited atrocities on on young young Muslims. Whenever II hear hear about about MusMus-

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Chapter Three Chapter Three lim boys being tortured, II feel joy. Unless these boys dilim boys being tortured, feel like like dancing dancing with with joy. Unless these boys dibodies, they they will will never be able rectly never be able to to stand stand rectly experience experience oppression oppression on on their their bodies, up they are police brutality brutality they become tigers up against against it. it. When When they are victims victims of of police they become tigers who join join my hundreds of who my army. army. Today, Today, because because of of God's Gods grace grace there there are are hundreds of these these young young disciples disciples who who are are spread spread all all over over the the city." city/' There There was was no no hysteria hysteria as as he he spoke now, now, just fanatic dedication. dedication. spoke just aa cold cold fanatic 'The impression is are "The impression is false false that that in in every every riot riot more more Muslims Muslims than than Hindus Hindus are that at Hyderabad this is killed. II can with complete killed. can say say with complete confidence confidence that at least least in in Hyderabad this is not Here the not true. true. Here the Muslims Muslims are are very very strong strong and and completely completely united. united. More More Hindus Hindus than than Muslims Muslims are are killed killed in in every every riot." riot." "In fifteen years finished as "In another another ten ten to to fifteen years the the Hindus Hindus will will be be finished as aa political political that many force force and and not not only only politically. politically. It It is is important important to to remember remember that many Muslim Muslim many children. Evmen marry men marry more more than than once once and and have have large large families families with with many children. Every other Muslim house has at least five to six children. Imagine only two ery other Muslim house has at least five to six children. Imagine only two boys in be tigers these tigers tigers who who will will boys in every every family family growing growing up up to to be tigers and and it it is is these them on without fear. the caste take take them on without fear. Then Then the the Hindus Hindus have have the caste system system in in which which poor Hindus has happened happened many many times in the the past that lower poor Hindus are are exploited. exploited. It It has times in past that lower to Islam or Christianity. This is going to hapcaste Hindus have converted caste Hindus have converted to Islam or Christianity. This is going to happen in be many pen in aa big big way way now. now. There There won't won't be many Hindus Hindus left." left." His was again relaxing, aa seductive His expression expression was again relaxing, seductive light light coming coming back back into into his his eyes eyes and and in in the the hint hint of of aa smile. smile. time of "During "During the the riots riots or or at at the the time of curfew, curfew, II often often go go away away from from home. home. Because there is this is first place Because whenever whenever there is disturbance disturbance this is the the first place where where the the police police lands up. II get get the the work work IIhave havetotodo doduring duringthe theriots riotsdone donebut butnever neverout outof ofmy my lands up. years the the police police have been unable unable to to nab nab me. me. II own house. For own house. For the the last last many many years have been do my land land business buy and do my business the the same same way. way. II buy and sell sell land land but but II am am not not aa land land All my grabber grabber like like others. others. All my land land dealings dealings are are done done at at home. home. No No one one ever ever sees sees me me at at aa site site and and my my signature signature is is never never found found on on any any document." document." "When you came to meet me, you you must had aa certain me "When you came to meet me, must have have had certain image image of of me as sure you will gogo back thinking differently of of Akbar pehlas aa pehlwan. pehlwan.But ButI am I am sure you will back thinking differently Akbar pehlwan, not like the others." wanf II am am not like the others." Sahba's with Akbar whetted my Sahba's account account of of her her meeting meeting with Akbar had had whetted my curiosity. curiosity. She the dignity himself, his She had had been been impressed impressed with with the dignity with with which which he he carried carried himself, his elegance elegance and and his his chaste chaste idiomatic idiomatic Urdu, Urdu, liberally liberally sprinkled sprinkled with with couplets couplets from His courtly from well-known well-known poets. poets. His courtly ways, ways, coupled coupled with with the the air air of of menace menace around because of figure. Akbar around him him because of his his reputation, reputation, made made him him an an intriguing intriguing figure. Akbar the talons talons retracted in was like the soft paw of was like the soft paw of aa big big cat, cat, the retracted and and almost almost invisible invisible in the velvet scabbard. the silken silken fur, fur, aa Damascus-steel Damascus-steel sword sword sheathed sheathed in in aa velvet scabbard. II thus thus went to place in his hotel went to our our meeting meeting with with Akbar, Akbar, which which was was to to take take place in his hotel in in the the late afternoon, afternoon, with much anticipation. anticipation. late with much

The The Warriors Warriors The took us the meeting meeting place not need an The rickshaw rickshaw driver driver who who took us to to the place did did not need an us to pehladdress more elaborate than our address more elaborate than our simple simple instructions instructions to to take take us to "Akbar "Akbar pehlwan's warishote1." hotel."The Thehotel hotelwas waslocated locatednear nearaabus busterminal terminalwhere wherebuses busesfrom fromall all over Andhra Pradesh over Andhra Pradesh as as well well as as the the neighboring neighboring states states disgorge disgorge pilgrims pilgrims bound Famibound for for the the temple temple of of Ttrupati, Tirupati, one one of of the the holiest holiest of of Hindu Hindu shrines. shrines. Families villages, often lies from from far-flung far-flung villages, often led led by by wizened wizened women, women, bent bent with with age age yet yet shuffling along along sprightly sprightly with with faith, faith, stream stream out out of of the the buses buses to to stretch stretch their their shuffling legs, use the toilets, and perhaps perhaps eat eat before they take take the connecting buses buses toilets, and before they the connecting legs, use the for Ttrupati. Tirupati. II found found it it ironical ironical that Akbar's hotel hotel advertised advertised itself itself as as serving serving that Akbar's for special vegetarian vegetarian meals meals for for Hindu Hindu pilgrims. pilgrims. This This time, time, though, though, "hotel" "hotel" was was special not aa misnomer since on on one one side side of of the the restaurant, restaurant, there was aa flight flight of of stairs stairs not misnomer since there was leading up to first floor floor which leading up to the the first which had had six six rooms rooms lined lined along along aa narrow narrow corricorrithe corridor, well, dor. dor. At At the the end end of of the corridor, recessed recessed into into aa wall, wall, there there was was aa sort sort of, of, well, reception barely visible three strapping reception desk. desk. Behind Behind it, it, barely visible in in the the shadows, shadows, were were three strapping young men. men. We We asked asked for for Akbar Akbar and and one one of of the the youth, youth, disengaging disengaging himself himself young from his companions, told told us we were were expected. expected. Akbar us in us we Akbar would would be be with with us in from his companions, twenty minutes minutes and and in in the the meanwhile to please follow him. him. twenty meanwhile to please follow He led led us us through through the corridor to to the the last last room, room, motioned us inside, inside, and and He the corridor motioned us went away. away. All All the the other other rooms rooms seemed seemed empty empty and and the the corridor corridor was silent, went was silent, with only only the the subdued subdued late late afternoon afternoon street street noises noises filtering through its its closed closed filtering through with windows barred barred with with iron iron grills. grills. The The room room was was stuffy stuffy and and dingy, dingy, without without aa windows single weak whirring the fan the same single window, window, the the weak whirring of of the fan churning churning the same stale stale air air over over and were two two chairs, twin bed, bed, aa television television set and over over again. again. There There were chairs, aa twin set on on aa low low was bare stool stool and and aa red red telephone telephone on on aa table. table. Otherwise Otherwise the the room room was bare without without uniformity of ugliness. Above Above the even even aa poster poster or or aa print print to to mar mar the the uniformity of its its ugliness. the bed, bed, there there was was aa red red bulb bulb sticking sticking out out of of the the wall, wall, baffling baffling as as to to its its purpose. purpose. IIcould could back and as feel feel the the stream stream of of perspiration perspiration thickening thickening all all over over my my back and my my chest chest as molecules of of sweat sweat sought sought each each other other to form drops drops which which trickled trickled down down to to molecules to form enter mienter the the pyjamas pyjamas at at the the waist. waist. The The fan fan wheezed wheezed slowly, slowly, dispensing dispensing its its miserly breeze only to to someone someone who sat right it, aa space space both both Sahba Sahba and and II serly breeze only who sat right under under it, were too too polite polite to occupy by moving our our chairs. chairs. The The sheets sheets on on the bed were were to occupy by moving the bed were washed though though they still looked soiled, soiled, covered covered with with aa profusion of patches, patches, they stil1looked profusion of washed cheap detergent detergent haVing having changed changed the the color color of of the the original original stains stains to to various various aa cheap shades of of grey. grey There There were were oil oil stains stains on on the the pillows pillows from from the the heads of guests guests heads of shades daily smearing smearing of of coconut coconut oil oil not not only only kept kept the the hair thick and and who believed believed aa daily who hair thick healthy but but acted acted as as aa coolant coolant for for the the head head and and tonic tonic for for the the body. body. IIcould couldnot not healthy help the hotel was used used for for and and how many customers customers rented rented help wondering wondering what what the hotel was how many its rooms rooms for for periods periods shorter shorter than than aa night's stay. its night's stay. went by by but no sign Half Half an an hour hour went but there there was was no sign of of Akbar Akbar or, or, for for that that matter, matter, anyone else. There There was sense of of unease, unease, even even fear, fear, as as we we waited anyone else. was aa palpable palpable sense waited in in

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Chapter Chapter Three Three the the empty hotel leading the room, room, with with the the only only exit exit out out of of the empty hotel leading through through aa narrow narrow the three toughs who, like corridor which was was blocked corridor which blocked at at the the end end by by the three young young toughs who, like told us, ready even his his other other disciples, disciples, Akbar Akbar had had told us, were were ready even to to kill kill at at the the merest merest nod to keep nod of of the the master's masters head. head. We We tried tried to keep our our fearful fearful fantasies fantasies at at bay bay through through an an exchange exchange of of light light banter, banter, punctuated punctuated by by loud loud nervous nervous laughter. laughter. "How much do you think room in costs?" "How much do you think aa room in this this hotel hotel costs?" the night?" night?" "Oh, you think think they rent it "Oh, you they rent it by by the "If try to "If they they try to rape rape you," you," II tell tell Sahba, Sahba, "keep "keep your your protests protests down down to to aaminiminimum. don't want want them them to to get get enraged enraged and and kill kill us us both. both. On On the the other other hand, hand, ifif mum. II don't they their way whether any they do do have have their way with with you, you, II doubt doubt whether any of of us us will will be be left left alive alive to witness." to bear bear witness." "They "They throw throw the the bodies bodies under under the the bridge, bridge, remember?" remember?" says says Sahba. Sahba. The to our chairs, The red red telephone telephone rings. rings. For For aa few few moments moments we we sit sit rooted rooted to our chairs, be here here in staring, before Sahba staring, before Sahba picks picks up up the the receiver. receiver. "He "He will will be in another another fifteen fifteen minutes," says. minutes," she she says. The The minutes minutes pass, pass, very very slowly. slowly. We We have have lapsed lapsed into into silence, silence, alone alone with with our our disquieting disquieting thoughts. thoughts. II think think of of the the room room as as aa set set from from aa movie movie with with Ajit, Ajit, the villain of the villain of of old old Hindi Hindi movies movies whose whose drawl drawl has has spawned spawned aa whole whole industry industry of Ajitjokes: Ajit jokes: "Raabert," "Raabert," says says Ajit. Ajit. "Yes, "Yes, baas," baas,"answers answersthe thehenchman. henchman. "In room there red bulb." bulb." "In the the room there is is aa red "Yes, baas." "There "There is is also also aa red red telephone telephone which which will will ring." ring." "Yes, "Yes, baas." baas" "Pick "Pick up up the the phone. phone. II will will be be at at the the other other end end of of the the line." line." "How "How will will II know know itit isis you you baas?" baas?" Akbar Akbar entered entered the the room, room, leaVing leaving my my creation creation of of an an Ajit Ajit joke joke unfinished. unfinished. (Frankly, (Frankly, although although successful successful in in dealing dealing with with my my anxiety, anxiety, II don't don't think think the the joke was joke was really really going going anywhere). anywhere). A A powerfully powerfully built built man man of of less less than than medium medium white kurta having aa faint height, height, he he wore wore aa white kurta pyjama, pyjama, the the kurta kurta having faint pink pink and and yelyeldistance of of low floral design, low floral design, so so subdued subdued that that it it was was barely barely noticeable noticeable from from aa distance ten feet. ten feet. He He was was wearing wearing white white sandals, sandals, the the front front of of the the sandals sandals narrowing narrowing warrior's musmusdown to thin down to thin strips strips which which curved curved up up like like the the ends ends of of aa proud proud warrior's tache. His was aa thin tache. His own own mustache mustache was thin line line on on an an otherwise otherwise clean-shaven clean-shaven face. face. His hair hair dyed dyed aa jet black, it it was was apparent apparent that that Akbar Akbar took took great great care care of of his His jet black, his grooming grooming and and appearance. appearance. After the the exchange exchange of of obligatory obligatory courtesies, courtesies, Akbar Akbar turned turned his attention After his attention sharp. He He asked asked me me about about the the study, study, what exactly II to me, eyes bright bright and and sharp. to me, his his eyes what exactly wanted to to achieve achieve through through it, it, what what exactly exactly II did did for for aa living, living, where where IIlived livedinin wanted

The The Warriors Warriors Delhi by aa witty witty comment Delhi and and so so on. on. My My answers answers were were frequently frequently followed followed by comment from from him him which which had had the the intention intention of of mocking mocking my my earnestness earnestness and and exposing exposing my my ignorance ignorance of of the the really really real real life. life. II complied complied with with the the direction direction in in which which he he wanted take our meeting, exaggerated exaggerated my my naivete, pretended to wanted to to take our meeting, naYvete, pretended to greater greater with. My weak laughter stupidity stupidity than than II feel feel II am am naturally naturally endowed endowed with. My weak laughter at at his his sallies, aa tribute tribute to his easy easy victories, began to to relax relax him as he he often often turned to sallies, to his victories, began him as turned to Sahba to to receive receive her her appreciative appreciative smiles smiles which further sealed sealed his triumph. Sahba which further his triumph. He with the He continued continued in in this this vein vein with the Giessen Giessen Test. Test. Instead Instead of of answering answering aa question, he he would would toy toy with me, ask ask me how II thought thought he he would would answer answer aa question, with me, me how particular question. question. With With mock he would turn to Sahba, sometimes sometimes mock humility, humility, he would turn to Sahba, particular discoursing on on the the subject subject of of the the question-on question—on patience or strong feelings in patience or strong feelings in discoursing poetry, while love, love, for for instance-with instance—with quotes quotes from from Urdu Urdu poetry, while II waited waited on on the the sidelines purpose of sidelines for for an an answer answer II could could use use for for the the purpose of the the test. test. There There was was aa he played played with coquettishness coquettishness about about him, him, especially especially in in the the way way he with his his eyes. eyes. He He would be be looking looking normally normally at at her her while while talking talking and and then suddenly the the look look would then suddenly would become become bold, bold, charged charged with with sexual sexual complicity, complicity, the further would the boldness boldness further by the briefest flash flash of the look the smile underlined underlined by the briefest of aa smile smile before before both both the look and and the smile vanished. vanished. II felt could sense sense Akbar's Akbar's dilemma dilemma in in relation relation to to me. me. Clearly, Clearly, he he was was far far felt II could superior fighting skills. superior in in bodily bodily strength, strength, physical physical courage, courage, and and fighting skills. And And as as for for not aa better better man matters the heart, heart, or matters of of the or soul, soul, was was he he not man here here too? too? After After all, all, he he was was aa poet. poet. Was Was not not aa man man all allabout about strength strength and andsentiment, sentiment, both both of ofwhich which he he possessed in he could not dismiss possessed in abundance? abundance? Yet Yet he could not dismiss me me lightly, lightly, this this "doctor" "doctor" his city from "study" with with aa modern modern Muslim Muslim from Delhi, Delhi, who who would would come come to to his city for for aa "study" woman with woman as as his his assistant, assistant, aa woman woman who who boldly boldly walked walked in in the the city's city's mohallas mohallas with her face unveiled and talked to men on equal terms. I had better access to the her face unveiled and talked to men on equal terms. I had better access to the modern world, world, to its systems systems of of knowledge, and to to its its new new relationships modern to its knowledge, and relationships bebetween the generations generations and and the the sexes. sexes. In In terms terms of of his his own own ciVilization, civilization, Akbar Akbar tween the was far far above above me,yet he he could could not not be be easily easily dismissive dismissive of of the the modern modern world world was me; yet whose understood better better and and whose whose symbols symbols IIcould couldperhaps perhapsmanipmanipwhose values values II understood moment, it ulate ulate more more easily. easily. At At that that particular particular moment, it seemed seemed to to me, me, Akbar Akbar and and II just two jousting for were were more more than than just two men men warily warily circling circling each each other, other, jousting for advanadvantage; in tage,in our our individual individual frames, frames, we we also also incorporated incorporated the the collective collective fates fates of of the the Indian the twentieth Indian Muslim Muslim and and the the Hindu Hindu at at the the end end of of the twentieth century. century. Once Once II had had given given up, up, closed closed the the questionnaire questionnaire in in apparent apparent bafflement bafflement and given given Akbar Akbar the the opportunity opportunity to to remark remark to to Sahba Sahba that that he he had had succeeded succeeded and in making making the the psychiatrist psychiatrist mentally mentally confused, confused, Akbar Akbar became became magnanimous magnanimous in in his He was was now now ready ready to to go go through through the the statements statements in in the the Giessen Giessen in his victory. victory. He Test with with more more sincerity. sincerity. Test As II expected, expected, Akbar, unlike Majid Majid Khan, Khan, did did not not give give many many extreme extreme As Akbar, unlike

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Chapter Chapter Three Three responses to responses to the the statements, statements, further further underlining underlining the the image image of of cautiousness cautiousness had formed formed of of him. him. The Theonly onlyexception exception was wason onstatements statements relating relatingto to which II had which social response response scale scale where where Akbar Akbar believed believed that that he evoked aa very positive social he evoked very positive response. He felt felt people very satisfied satisfied with with his his work. He was was easily easily response. He people were were very work. He it easy easy to to attract attract others, others, and and was was confident confident that people thought thought liked, found found it liked, that people highly of of him. Akbar's uncharacteristic uncharacteristic emphasis emphasis on on his his social social attractiveness attractiveness highly him. Akbar's made me me wonder wonder about about his his narcissistic narcissistic vulnerability, vulnerability, whether whether there there was not aa made was not for continuous continuous narcissistic narcissistic gratification gratification which which sought sought to to countercounterstrong need need for strong act aa depressive depressive tendency tendency revealed revealed by by his to some some other other stateact his responses responses to statements. Akbar stated that he consistently suppressed his anger and was often ments. Akbar stated that he consistently suppressed his anger and was often He felt felt very very strongly strongly in in love, love, yet gave away away little little of of himself, himself, found found depressed. He depressed. yet gave it hard hard to to come come out out of of his his shell shell or or to to trust others. The The cautious cautious and and controlled controlled it trust others. gave also also seemed seemed to to be be an an aspect aspect of of aa tendency tendency toward toward comimpression he impression he gave compulsiveness, manifested in his dealings with money, tidiness, and concentrapulsiveness, manifested in his dealings with money, tidiness, and concentration ability. ability. II wondered wondered whether whether the the control control he he sought sought over over his his inner inner world world tion and the the domination domination of of others others exercised exercised in in the outer were were not not aspects aspects of of the and the outer the same defense defense which which guarded guarded against against the the fragmentation fragmentation of of aa self self threatened threatened same by strong sexual sexual and and aggressive aggressive impulses; impulses,- aa self self in in danger danger of of losing losing its its cohecoheby strong siveness and thus to the outbreak of a full-scale depression. siveness and thus to the outbreak of a full-scale depression. In brief, Akbar's presentation of man" In brief, Akbar's presentation of the the self self was was of of the the "strong, "strong, silent silent man" with which are by with unsuspected unsuspected pools pools of of deep deep feelings feelings which are guarded guarded and and bounded bounded by high high fences fences and and almost almost never never revealed revealed to to aa casual casual emotional emotional visitor visitor or or even even to to those who who would would like like to be close close to to him. By the the time time the the long long interview interview was those to be him. By was over, Akbar Akbar was was regarding regarding me me with certain distant distant friendliness. He wanted wanted over, with aa certain friendliness. He me one one of of his his poems, poems, he he said, said, and and II should should please please write write itit down. down. to give give me to Do test me me Do not not trouble trouble to to test II am am always always in in the the forefront forefront when to bearing it comes comes to bearing when it the burden of the burden of grief. grief. When When they they talked talked of of constancy constancy in in her her mehfil mehfil turned out out to to be be the the one II turned one Who was Who was faithless faithless In In an an otherwise otherwise constant constant world. world. In In these these times times Both Both of of us us have have achieved achieved fame fame in creating creating her I,I, in her She, in in destroying destroying me. She, me. A A broken broken mosque mosque Can be be rebuilt rebuilt in four days days Can in four

The The Warriors Warriors It takes takes aa lifetime, lifetime, though, though, It To To knit knit sundered sundered hearts hearts together. together. The wines of yore are The wines of yore are there there no no longer. longer. The The drinkers drinkers too too are are gone gone In In the the wine wine houses houses They drink drink blood now. They blood now. Akbar, Akbar, guard guard the the mirror mirror Of Of your your heart heart with with care care It It will will break break If you show where. If you show it it around around every every where. "You an "You will will put put me me in in aa book," book," he he said said resignedly resignedly after after II had had expressed expressed an appreciation final victory not be his but but mine, mine, he his poetic poetic talent. talent. The Thefinal victory will will not be his he appreciation of of his meant, for for it it will will be be my of him him that that will be taken taken as as his his reality reality by by the the my version version of will be meant, larger world world outside outside Hyderabad. Hyderabad. The The line line in in his his poem on handling handling the the mirror mirror larger poem on of the the heart heart with with care care was was also also directed directed at at me, me, aa plea plea which which he he was was too too proud proud of to be aware of of and and would would never never have have dreamt dreamt of of making making openly. openly to be aware Young Tigers Young Tigers and and Pussy Pussy Cats Cats Nissar Nissar is is one one of of the the soldiers, soldiers, aa twenty-eight-year-old twenty-eight-year-old man, man, aayoung youngtiger, tiger,who who reveres pehlwans. HeHeis isa handsome reveres Akbar Akbar and and other other famous famous Muslim Muslim pehlwans. a handsomeyoung young man broad tapering tapering shoulders, waist, shoulder-length man with with broad shoulders, aa narrow narrow waist, shoulder-length hair, hair, and and aa pleasant pleasant face face with with high high cheekbones. cheekbones. He He wears wears aa thin thin mustache mustache fashionable fashionable among not like beards favored among Muslim Muslim youth youth who who do do not like to to sport sport the the beards favored by by their their elders. elders. Nissar Nissar is is dressed dressed flamboyantly flamboyantly in in aa blue blue shirt shirt of of some some satiny satiny material, material, printed flowers and trousers. printed with with large large red red flowers and is is wearing wearing tight, tight, lemon lemon green green trousers. There reserve in There is is aa certain certain reserve in his his demeanor, demeanor, aa combination combination of of hauteur hauteur and and shyshyness which sometimes ness which sometimes cracks cracks when when he he is is youthfully youthfully boastful boastful about about importing importing whole bales of cloth cloth from from the States for for his his shirts shirts or or when when he he coyly coyly whole bales of the United United States asks us us to to guess guess the the number number of of people people he he has has killed. killed. It It isis not not eight, eight, the the number number asks of murder cases registered registered against against him by the the police. police. Some Some of of them are false, false, of murder cases him by them are he says, says, but then with modest but but obvious obvious delight delight adds adds that, of course, course, he but then with aa modest that, of there which the police are to tell tell there are are other other killings killings of of which the police are unaware. unaware. Nissar Nissar likes likes to war throats being by the war stories; stories,- tales tales of of Muslim Muslim throats being cut cut by the Hindu Hindu enemy enemy in in underunderground blood sacrifices ground blood sacrifices to to its its obscene obscene gods gods and and goddesses, goddesses, of of corpses corpses thrown thrown into the the river under the the bridges at the the dead dead of of the Akbar and and the the other other river l!nder bridges at the night. night. Akbar into pehlwans theprotectors protectorsofofMuslim Muslimlives, lives,yes, yes,but butalso alsothe theguardians guardiansofofa a pehlwans arearethe boys sleep sleep and and tranquility tranquility in in face face of of such such fearful fearful fantasies. fantasies. boy's

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Chapter Chapter Three Three His admiration for for the the old old tigers tigers is is proportionate proportionate to to the the number His admiration number of of Hindus they they are are reputed reputed to to have have killed. killed. For For Nissar they are are the the fighter pilots Nissar they fighter pilots Hindus number of whose fame whose fame in in serving serving the the nation nation depends depends on on the the number of enemy enemy planes planes each military analogy most useuseeach one one has has shot shot down. down. Indeed, Indeed, it it is is the the military analogy which which is is most ful understanding the ful in in understanding the tigers, tigers, young young and and old. old. A A riot riot isis aa battle, battle, an an outbreak outbreak of long simmering simmering war war where where the the killings killings do do not not involve involve moral moral of hostilities hostilities in in aa long is qualms qualms or or compunctions. compunctions. On On the the contrary, contrary, to to kill kill under under such such circumstances circumstances is aa moral moral duty duty higher higher than than the the patriotism patriotism of of aa soldier soldier serving serving aa modern modern nationnationstate the killing state since since the killing of of Hindus Hindus in in aa riot riot is is in in service service of of the the nation nation of of one's ones faith. Indeed, Indeed, an an outbreak outbreak of of violence in Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim conflict conflict should should no no faith. violence in longer be be called called aa riot, riot, with anarchical connotations connotations of of the the word. word. Less with the the anarchical Less longer planned than aa battle battle yet yet more more organized organized than than aa riot, riot, communal communal violence violence lies lies planned than the two. somewhere somewhere between between the two. The The analogies analogies used used by by Majid Majid Khan, Khan, Akbar, Akbar, Nissar Nissar (and, (and, as as we we shall shall see see later, later, Mangal Mangal Singh) Singh) which which highlight highlight the the warrior warrior aspect identity should aspect of of their their religious religious identity should not not be be surprising. surprising. It It would would be be an an error error to them mere rationalizations for of to discern discern in in them mere rationalizations for their their killings killings and and other other acts acts of pointed out, violence. violence. As As Samuel Samuel Klausner Klausner has has pointed out, riot, riot, assassination, assassination, massacre, massacre, and -defined spheres of and terrorism terrorism are are victim victim-defined spheres of of violence. violence.22 From From the the viewpoint viewpoint of the the instigator instigator and and the the perpetrator, perpetrator, they they are are defense defense of of faith, faith, crusade, crusade, just just war, war, act act of of purification. purification. 'These the real nation. All All the "These are are the real people people who who serve serve the the Muslim Muslim nation. the others others are are useless, useless, interested interested in in making making money money and and sticking sticking to to the the chair. chair. The The next next time time aa Majlis Majlis leader leader enters enters this this alley alley he he will will be be thrown thrown out out bodily. bodily. Our Our second second At least two hundred must be be elimielimislogan be, kill slogan will will be, kill the the police. police. At least two hundred policemen policemen must nated. zulm on on the the Muslims. Muslims. InInjail jail we wewere were so so nated. They They have have done done so so much much tulm thirsty never received thirsty and and hungry, hungry, but but never received any any water water or or food. food. After After leaving leaving the the jail, when jail, when II went went to to the the Majlis Majlis office, office, the the leader leader said, said,"Why "Why are areyou you upset? upset?You You are are not not dead-you dead—you are are still still alive." alive." When When Hindus Hindus get get arrested, arrested, aa B]P BJP leader leader We keep jail. immediately immediately arrives arrives and and gets gets them them released released on on bail. bail. We keep rotting rotting in in jail. The no use use to fight among us. The The leaders leaders fight among themselves. themselves. They They colcolThe Majlis Majlis is is of of no to us. the name name of me and lect lect money money in in the of the the poor poor Muslims Muslims like like me and then then eat eat it it up up themthembut the selves. selves. They They have have opened opened aa medical medical college college but the number number of of Muslim Muslim five paise to aa rupee students students in in the the college college are are only only five paise to rupee (5 (5 perent). perent). Where Where do do they the fees? they have have money money for for the fees? The The college college benefits benefits the the Hindus Hindus more. more. ActuActuthe biggest the mother's ally ally the biggest school school in in the the world world is is the mothers lap. lap. The The child child will will grow grow up up to to be be as as capable capable as as the the education education given given by by the the mother. mother. My My mother mother was was aa statel" complete complete illiterate illiterate and and look look at at my my sorry sorry state!" Nissar married, with with four five to Nissar was was married, four children, children, and and sold sold vegetables vegetables from from five to eight eight in in the the morning. morning. On On aa good good day day he he could could earn earn as as much much as as aa hundred hundred

The The Warriors Warriors rupees. He He also also does does land land business business whenever whenever he is called called by by aa senior senior pehlwan rupees. he is pehlwan to go and and negotiate negotiate aa deal. deal. He He is is usually usually paid paid aa commission commission of of 55 percent. percent. He He to go is is very very proud proud of of his his activities activities as as aa "soldier" "soldier"in inthe the service service of of the the Muslim Muslim nation. nation. is to to serve nation [the "Our work is "Our work serve the the nation [the Muslim Muslim qaum] cjaum]and andprotect protectour ourmothers mothers sisters. We never look look at at their their [Hindu] [Hindu] sisters sisters but but their their bravery is limited limited and sisters. and We never bravery is to raping and and killing killing our our mothers mothers and and sisters. sisters. II decided decided to to work work for for the the nation nation to raping after all all II saw saw during during the Bis case. case. It It is always the the the riots riots following following Rameeza Rameeza Bi's is always after Hindus who who start start the the trouble. trouble. Earlier, Earlier, we we felt felt very very scared. scared. We We were were often often Hindus abused when walked through through their their alleys. alleys. But But today today II am amproud proud that that when when abused when we we walked walk through through aa Hindu Hindu lane, lane, the the heads heads bow bow down. down. They They know know me me as as Nissar Nissar II walk

dada." Dada butbut someone who may be-beDada ("elder ("elderbrother") brother") isisnot notyet yet aapehlwan, pehlwan, someone who may come one, one, someone someone who who is is high high enough enough in of strong strong men. men. As As aa come in the the hierarchy hierarchy of dada,Nissar Nissarisisnot notaapoverty-stricken poverty-strickenvegetable vegetableseller, seller,aapoor poorMuslim Muslimwho who dada, needs defer to to the the well-off well-off Hindus, but someone someone who demands and and reto defer Hindus, but who demands reneeds to ceives respect. Having been trained as as aa wrestler wrestler for for many years in in different different ceives respect. Having been trained many years taleemkhanas, he he stopped thethe training after he he waswas married since he he feltfelt he he taleemkhanas, stopped training after married since the diet huge quantities meat, required could could not not afford afford the diet of of huge quantities of of milk, milk, nuts, nuts, and and meat, required chaku-bazi,wielding wieldingofofthe the by aa wrestler. wrestler. Now serves the the nation nation through through chaku-bazi, by Now he he serves knife. "If "If II hear that two two of of our our people have been been attacked attacked and and killed at the the hear that people have killed at knife. wooden bridge bridge it takes me five minutes five of wooden it takes me just just five minutes to to knive knive five of them." them." In In Sahba's Sahba's expression of of open open interest interest (obviously, (obviously, he he would would not not have have revealed himself in expression revealed himself in this Hindu, had had also also been been present), present), Nissar Nissar elaborated elaborated on on his his profesprofesthis way way if if I,I, aa Hindu, sionalism. sionalism. "There "There is is aa way way to to kill kill with with the the knife. knife. Once Once II stab stabwith with aaknife knife IIdo do not not need need to to turn turn and and look. look. II am am sure sure the the man man is is dead dead even even as as he he is is falling. falling. Then, on on aa street, street, II never nevermake makeaamistake mistakebetween betweenaaHindu Hinduand andaaMuslim. Muslim.We We Then, recognize the the religion from the the face. face. If If II saw sawyou you somewhere somewhere else, else, in in aa differdifferreligion from recognize ent dress, dress, II would would know know immediately immediately that that you you are are aa Muslim. Muslim. ItIt isis clear clear from from ent your very your very face." face." us. We very fast. "Most the time We move move very fast. "Most of of the time the the police police are are not not able able to to catch catch us. All they All they can can do do is is to to suspect. suspect. Sometimes Sometimes we we dump dump the the bodies bodies under under some some bridge which are bridge which are discovered discovered disfigured disfigured after after three three to to four four days. days. Sometimes Sometimes dogs eat eat up up parts parts of of the the body is then very difficult difficult to to identify. identify. We We dogs body which which is then very always make make sure sure that that if if Hindus Hindus kill kill two of our our people, we should should kill kill at at least least two of people, we always four of of theirs. This is scare them them away. away. They must not not think think we are helptheirs. This is to to scare They must we are helpfour less, frightened frightened or or unarmed." unarmed." less, "Personally, "Personally, II don't don't take take aaweapon weaponwith withme mewhen whenwe wego goout outto tokill killHindus Hindus during a riot. I only have a wooden stave (lathi) but I do have a strategy. during a riot. I only have a wooden stave (lathi) but I do have a strategy.II make first person make sure sure that that the the first person II confront confront on on the the other other side side isis the the one one with with aa

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Chapter Three Chapter Three sword. II disarm disarm him him with with my my lathi lathiand andthen thenkill killhim himwith withhis hisown ownsword. sword.ItItisis sword. easy." easy." "Scared? "Scared? What What an an idea! idea! Once Once the the decision decision to to serve serve the the nation nation isis made made where is is the the room room for for fear? fear? One One has has to to be be brave. brave. Cowards Cowards die die quietly. quietly. Instead Instead where of dying dying inside inside the the house house itit is is better better to to be be martyred martyred outside. outside. Allah Allah isis with with us. of us. He knows knows that that we we are are doing doing good good work work and and He He protects protects us." He us." "I have have told told my my wife wife never never to to worry worry about about me me or or stop stop me me from from my mywork. work.II "I have told told her her not not to to wait wait for for me me more more than than three three or or four four days days in in times times of have of trouble. Where Where will will she she look look for for me? me? We We go go everywhere everywhere wherever wherever there there are are trouble. disturbances. She She should should simply simply break break her her bangles bangles (the (the sign sign of of widowhood) widowhood) disturbances. have become become aa martyr." martyr." and feel feel proud proud that that II have and Nissar's wife, though, is is less less worried worried about about his his heroics heroics or or eventual eventual marNissar's wife, though, martyrdom. She She complains complains bitterly bitterly about about her her own own situation, situation, about about Nissar's Nissars attiattityrdom. tude toward toward women women that that does does not not allow allow her her to to step step out out of of the the house. To run run tude house. To their she has has to to depend depend on on her her old old father father to to buy groceries, and and meditheir home, home, she buy groceries, medicines, and and other other essentials. essentials. He never takes out since since he embarrassed to cines, He never takes her her out he is is embarrassed to be seen with a dark-skinned wife. "If I was fair he would take me out everybe seen with a dark-skinned wife. "If I was fair he would take me out everywhere," regret. Another Another man, Aslam, aa sullen where," the the killer's killer's wife wife sighs sighs in in bitter bitter regret. man, Aslam, sullen middle-aged vegetable seller, seller, unemployed for most most of of the the day, day, who who sits sits unemployed for middle-aged vegetable across the street wrapped wrapped in mantle of of sardonic sardonic gloom and has our across the street in aa mantle gloom and has watched watched our interest in the the dadas dadas and gives hishis own assessment of of thethe young ti- tiandpehlwans pehlwans gives own assessment young interest in gers. Pointing to his dusty feet and discolored discolored his chapped, chapped, dusty feet with with grotesque grotesque toes toes and gers. Pointing to police pulled pulled the the nails nails out one by by one one when they took took me me nails, he nails, he says: says: 'The "The police out one when they to jail during the the last last riot. riot. II have have to to keep keep my my feet feet in in water water whenever whenever IIwant wanttoto to jail during clip except that pocket clip the the nails. nails. All All this this tiger tiger business business is is nonsense, nonsense, except that they they pocket three-fourths supplies which Otherwise, three-fourths of of the the relief relief supplies which go go through through their their hands. hands. Otherwise, when into aa pussy cat." when the the police police take take them, them, every every tiger tiger turns turns into pussy cat." Spreading Wind Spreading the the Wind well-known Hindu Hindu pehlwan. pehlwan.InInmany manyways waysheheis is theHindu Hindu Mangal Mangal Singh Singh is is aa well-known the counterpart old-world counterpart of of Akbar Akbar although although he he does does not not possess possess any any of of Akbar's Akbar's old-world Muslim Muslim graces. graces. He He belongs belongs to to the the Lodha Lodha community, community, economically economically one one of of the the fastest fastest rising rising groups groups in in Hyderabad, Hyderabad, whose whose prosperity, prosperity, observers observers say, say, rests rests on on illicit illicit liquor liquor distillation. distillation. Brewed Brewed in in the the backyards backyards of of houses houses and and stills stills near near the the riverbed, riverbed, the the raw raw liquor liquor is is aa potent potent brew brew which which drastically drastically lowers lowers the the life life expectancy expectancy of of its its hapless hapless customers. customers. Basically Basically distilled distilled from from jaggery jaggery and and the the grey grey oxide oxide powder powder used used to to coat coat the the insides insides of of brass brass utensils utensils with with tin tin (and (and which which can can easily easily dissolve dissolve lead), lead), the the liquor liquor is is expectedly expectedly severe severe on on stomach stomach

The The Warriors Warriors linings. It It is is believed believed that that anyone anyone who who daily daily consumes consumes half half aa bottle bottle of of the the linings. willnot notsurvive survivefor formore morethan thana ayear. year.InInthe thepoor poorneighborneighborliquor, the liquor, the pauwa, pauwa, will hoods of the the city city where where the the liquor liquor is is mostly mostly consumed, consumed, itit isis not not an an unfamiliar unfamiliar hoods of sight early early in in the morning to to see see aa corpse corpse or or two two lying lying on on the the street street near near an an sight the morning addawhere wherethe theliquor liquorisisclandestinely clandestinelysold. sold. adda The The reputation reputation of of the the Lodhas Lodhas is is of of aa mercurial mercurial and and violent violent people people who who are the forefront forefront of riot from kill as as are always always in in the of aa riot from the the Hindu Hindu side. side. 'They "They will will kill many people people in two hours rest will will in many in two hours as as the the rest in aa week," week/' says says an an old old Hyderabad Hyderabad resident the community to be resident who who has has studied studied the community closely. closely. They They claim claim to be Rajputs, Rajputs, the the sword the traditional traditional martial martial caste caste and and the sword arm arm of of Hindu Hindu society, society, although although by others. part in in this others. In In spite spite of of their their taking taking aa leading leading part this claim claim is is often often disputed disputed by religious violence, ties with with Muslims religious violence, their their economic economic ties Muslims are are close. close. Muslims Muslims are are the their lethal retailers and, the main main customers customers of of their lethal brew, brew, both both as as retailers and, together together with with the dalits,the thepoverty-stricken poverty-stricken Hindu Hinduoutcastes, outcastes,asasitsitsconsumers. consumers.Even Evensosothe dalits, regard MusMuscially cially they they have have adopted adopted some some Muslim Muslim customs. customs. Although Although they they regard not prevent lims lims as as their their chief chief enemy, enemy, it it does does not prevent them, them, for for example, example, from from regularly regularly visiting visiting Muslim Muslim shrines, shrines, the the dargahs, dargahs,inina aspirit spiritofofdevotion. devotion. Mangal Mangal Singh's Singh's house house is is in in one one of of the the crowded crowded localities localities of of Hyderabad Hyderabad where bazaar running where there there is is aa large large concentration concentration of of Lodhas. Lodhas. The The bazaar running through through it but in it has has shops shops stocking stocking somewhat somewhat more more expensive expensive goods goods but in essence essence differs differs bazaars of visually visually from from similar similar other other bazaars of the the city city only only in in one one curious curious particular. particular. two to men on wearing very This This is is the the occasional occasional sight sight of of two to three three men on bicycles bicycles wearing very loose with aa look loose clothes, clothes, emerging emerging from from one one of of the the alleys alleys and, and, with look of of determined determined concentration, concentration, furiously furiously pedaling pedaling away away to to turn turn and and disappear disappear into into another another These are the liquor carriers, wearing bicycle tire tubes full of the illealley. alley. These are the liquor carriers, wearing bicycle tire tubes full of the illegal way to various distribution gal stuff stuff tied tied around around their their bodies, bodies, on on their their way to various distribution centers centers in in the the city. city. A A young-looking young-looking forty, forty, Mangal Mangal Singh Singh is is aa handsome handsome man man who who laughs laughs easily and has a kind of manic charm about him. He walks with the compact, easily and has a kind of manic charm about him. He walks with the compact, young woman's swaggering swaggering gait gait of of aa wrestler, wrestler, with with shoulders shoulders swinging swinging like like aa young woman's hips, he proudly proudly shows us around around his his vyamshala, vyamshala, the hips, as as he shows us his house house and and his thegymnagymnajust off road and sium, sium, both both of of which which are are situated situated in in aa large large compound compound just off the the road and very very near near the the river. river. The The gymnasium, gymnasium, which which trains trains more more than than aa hundred hundred boys boys and and young young men, men, consists consists of of two two rectangular rectangular halls halls adjacent adjacent to to each each other. other. The The first first hall hallisisused usedfor forweight weighttraining. training.There Thereare arewooden wooden dumbbells, dumbbells,iron irontires tires to be put parallel bars, to be put around around the the neck neck to to strengthen strengthen the the neck neck muscles, muscles, parallel bars, ropes ropes hanging hanging down down from from iron iron rings rings in in the the ceiling, ceiling, and and many many other other contraptions contraptions The whitewashed whitewashed walls for for the the pulling, pulling, pushing, pushing, and and lifting lifting of of weights. weights. The walls are are lined lined with with colored colored lithographs lithographs and and posters. posters. There There is is the the lithograph lithograph of of the the

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Chapter Three Three Chapter reclining god by the reclining god Vishnu, Vishnu, his his faced faced shaded shaded by the hoods hoods of of the the hydra-headed hydra-headed snake, poster of Vishnu's incarnations, snake, Sheshnag. Sheshnag. There There is is aa poster of one one of of Vishnu's incarnations, the the god god Rama pose with quiver of of arrows arrows visible visible above above Rama in in his his heroic heroic pose with aa long long bow bow and and aa quiver is the her ferocious his shoulders. his shoulders. There There is the portrait portrait of of the the goddess goddess Durga Durga in in her ferocious form, the buffalo Mahisasura. There form, in in the the act act of of killing killing the buffalo demon, demon, Mahisasura. There are are portraits portraits the Hindu of of the Hindu heroes heroes Shivaji Shivaji and and Rana Rana Pratap, Pratap, who who have have come come to to epitomize epitomize Hindu the Mughals; Hindu resistance resistance to to the Mughals,- there there is is also also the the reproduction reproduction of of aa popular popular Nehru looking ramparts of painting painting of of Nehru looking down down from from the the ramparts of Delhi's Delhi's Red Red Fort, Fort, the the Indian flag flying flying proudly at Indian national national flag proudly behind behind him him as as he he pensively pensively looks looks down down at aa large large crowd, crowd, the the faces faces of of the the leaders leaders of of India's India's independence independence movementmovement— Patel, in Patel, Rajagopalachari, Rajagopalachari, Kripalani, Kripalani, Maulana Maulana Azad-clearly Azad—clearly recognizable recognizable in the forefront. the forefront. The other other wall, wall, too, is covered covered with with pictures. pictures. There There are are three three large large porporThe too, is traits wrestlers, one traits of of wrestlers, one of of them them Mangal's Mangal's ownguru. own guru.The Theother othertwo twoare arefamous famous wrestlers wrestlers from from the the thirties thirties and and forties, forties, each each in in aa loincloth loincloth and and standing standing with with his feet his feet and and arms arms aa little little apart, apart, in in the the pose pose where where they they are are ready ready for for grappling. grappling. pehlwans, who Pointing Pointing to to one one of of the the pehlwans, whohas hasvery veryclose-cropped close-croppedhair hairand anda thick a thick mustache, was the in mustache, Mangal Mangal Singh Singh informs informs me me that that this this man man was the prime prime accused accused in Hyderabad's first major 1938, Hyderabad's first major riot riot between between the the Hindus Hindus and and the the Muslims Muslims in in 1938, when by the the Nizam. pehlwan, I forget I forgethishisname, name,had had when the the state state was was ruled ruled by Nizam. This This pehlwan, killed the Nizam's killed one one of of the the leading leading members members of of the the Razakars, Razakars, the Nizam's unofficial unofficial reMuslim militia, and Muslim militia, and then then disappeared. disappeared. He He is is believed believed to to be be still still alive alive in in aa remote mote area area of of Nepal Nepal where where he he now now practices practices the the austerities austerities of of aa holy holy man. man. There the independence There are are many many colored colored lithographs lithographs of of scenes scenes from from the independence movement-Gandhi leading movement—Gandhi leading aa long long line line of of volunteers volunteers on on his his march march to to the the sea, firing into sea, the the Jalianwala Jalianwala Bagh Bagh massacre massacre where where British British soldiers soldiers are are shown shown firing into the at the trapped trapped crowed, crowed, men men caught caught in in the the pose pose of of falling falling down, down, clutching clutching at blood is their chests their chests from from which which blood is spurting spurting out, out, open open mouthed mouthed in in silent silent of screams. screams. Then Then there there are are lithographs lithographs depicting depicting scenes scenes from from earlier earlier periods periods of of history: small history: small Hindu Hindu children children being being thrown thrown up up and and impaled impaled on on the the spears spears of the Razakars, blown up the Razakars, Indian Indian soldiers soldiers being being blown up from from the the mouths mouths of of cannons cannons by by the British first war the British after after the the failure failure of of India's India's first war of of independence, independence, the the Sepoy Sepoy Mutiny historians called Mutiny as as British British historians called it. it. Pointing Pointing to to the the Razakar Razakar picture, picture, Mangal Mangal in Singh Singh informs informs me, me, 'This "This is is what what used used to to happen happen all all the the time time in in those those days days in Hindu girls were picked up from the streets or the fields at any Hyderabad. Hyderabad. Hindu girls were picked up from the streets or the fields at any nobles and raped. That time at time at the the will will of of Muslim Muslim nobles and raped. That is is why why our our girls girls started started marrying so early. early. If If aa girl girl had had aa mangalsutra mangalsutra around neck payals around marrying so around herher neck andand payals around the the ankles ankles (the (the sign sign of of marriage), marriage), she she was was not not kidnapped." kidnapped." There Muslim atrocities There is is aa further further series series of of pictures pictures depicting depicting Muslim atrocities from from the the

The The Warriors Warriors long rule: Banda long period period of of Islamic Islamic rule: Banda Bairagi Bairagi and and his his followers followers being being beheaded beheaded by by Muslim Muslim soldiers, soldiers, the the martyrdom martyrdom of of the the Sikh Sikh Gurus, Gurus, Mahmud Mahmud of of Ghazni Ghazni the famous destroying destroying the famous temple temple of of Somnath Somnath as as shaven-headed shaven-headed Brahmin Brahmin priests priests mouths open look up with with bulging look up bulging eyes eyes and and mouths open in in incomprehensible incomprehensible horror. horror. Next Next we we come come to to aa photograph photograph of of Subhash Subhash Chandra Chandra Bose, Bose, the the stormy stormy rebel rebel the national national movement of of the movement who who sought sought an an alliance alliance with with Hitler's Hitlers Germany Germany and and the British British empire InTojo's Tojo's Japan Japan during during the the war war to to violently violently overthrow overthrow the empire in in India. dia. Next Next to to it it is is aa full-sized full-sized wooden wooden statue statue of of Gandhi Gandhi which which is is overturned overturned and and lies lies on on its its side, side, facing facing the the wall. wall. "There "There was was aahigh highwind windaafew fewdays daysago agoand and Gandhiji toppled toppled over. over. He He has has his his back us because because he cannot bear to see see Gandhiji back to to us he cannot bear to the present condition jokes. the present condition of of this this country," country/' Mangal Mangal Singh Singh jokes. have Gandhiji, the apostle "How "How is is it it that that you you have Gandhiji, the apostle of of nonviolence, nonviolence, together together with the the violent violent Hindu Hindu heroes heroes next next to each other?" other?" II venture venture to to ask. ask. with to each "First, "First, II talk talk like like Gandhiji," Gandhiji," he he replies replies with with aasmile. smile."Only "Onlywhen whentalk talkfails failsII Bose." use force use force like like Shivaji Shivaji or or Bose." The hall is by the The second second hall is dominated dominated by the akhara akharawhere wherethe theactual actualwrestling wrestling takes takes place. place. About About four four feet feet under under the the floor floor level, level, the the akhara akharaisisa aflat flatsmooth smooth rectangle rectangle of of reddish reddish colored colored mud mud mixed mixed with with oil oil and and finely finely threshed threshed stalks stalks of of wheat, covering wheat, covering about about half half the the area area of of the the hall. hall. Presiding Presiding over over it it is is aa Shiva Shiva /il1gam; lingam;a garland a garlandofoffresh freshwhite whitejasmine jasmineflowers flowersand andsticks sticksofofburning burningincense incense to its the other bear witness bear witness to its daily daily morning morning worship. worship. On On the other side side of of the the room, room, wall, there temple of next next to to the the wall, there is is aa small small temple of Hanuman, Hanuman, the the ascetic ascetic patron patron god god of Hindu wrestlers. flowers are of Hindu wrestlers. The The idol idol is is smeared smeared with with red red paste, paste, flowers are strewn strewn toes. On wall around around its its feet, feet, and and incense incense sticks sticks burn burn from from between between the the toes. On the the wall itself there are itself there are photographs photographs of of famous famous wrestlers-I wrestlers—I recognize recognize Guru Guru HanuHanuman man from from Delhi Delhi among among them-as them—as well well as as photographs photographs clipped clipped from from Western Western pasted to to the bodybuilding walls. The The slightly slightly fading fading photophotobodybuilding magazines magazines and and pasted the walls. bulging biceps, thighs, and graphs graphs show show off off the the oily oily sheen sheen of of bulging biceps, thundering thundering thighs, and sculpted sculpted pectorals. pectorals. One One entire entire side side of of the the hall hall is is without without aa wall wall and and opens opens out out the river to sareestied tied to the river and and aa peaceful peaceful scene scene of of dark-skinned dark-skinned women women with with sarees above their knees, above their knees, whirling whirling wet wet clothes clothes above above their their shoulders shoulders and and bringing bringing flat stones them them down down with with rhythmic rhythmic thuds thuds on on flat stones to to clean clean them them of of dirt. dirt. Mangal Mangal Singh my attention back to Singh draws draws my attention back to the the gym gym when when he he points points to to the the corner corner next next on a wooden post. "Earlier to the temple where some loincloths are hanging to the temple where some loincloths are hanging on a wooden post. "Earlier Nowadays, of you in we used to have spears we used to have spears and and swords. swords. Nowadays, of course, course, they they put put you in jail jail if you men prefer if you have have even even aa knife knife for for your your self-protection. self-protection. Many Many young young men prefer to to learn karate karate these these days," days," he continues to to enlighten enlighten me. me. "Karate "Karate makes the learn he continues makes the sides sides of of your your hands hands into into killing killing instruments instruments by by deadening deadening sensation sensation in in that that part. They They burn burn the the side side of of the the hand hand and and dip dip elbows elbows in in boiling boiling salt salt water water till till part.

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all sensation sensation is is lost. lost. But But Indian-style Indian-style wrestling wrestling is is still still superior superior where you can can all where you kill aa man man once once you grapple with with him. him. Karate Karate is is only only good good for for long-distance long-distance kill you grapple you get fighting. fighting. Once Once you get in in close close to to the the opponent opponent as as in in Indian-style Indian-style wrestling, wrestling, karate is is useless." useless." karate The taleemkhana does notnot differ substantially from thethe Hindu The Muslim Muslim taleemkhana does differ substantially from Hindu akhara.There Therewill willbebefewer fewerphotographs photographsand, and,ofofcourse, course,nonoidol idolofofa aHindu Hindu akhara. god. might have have an ayat from from the the Qur/an Quran on on aawall wall or oraacolored coloredprint printof ofthe the god. It It might an ayat kaaba, Islam/s haaba, Islam'sholiest holiestshrine. shrine.Comparatively Comparativelyspeaking, speaking,with withitsitsgreater greaterprofuprofusion of of religious religious icons, icons, the the Hindu Hindu gymnasium gymnasium appears appears more more Hindu Hindu than than the the sion taleemkhana appears Muslim. The Muslim training regimen is the more neutral taleemkhana more neutral appears Muslim. The Muslim training regimen is the same as as the Hindu one one except except that that the the wrestlers will say say the the prescribed dawn same the Hindu wrestlers will prescribed dawn prayers at home home before coming to taleem.They Theytoo toowill willdrink drinkcrushed crushednuts nuts prayers at before coming to the the taleem. and crystal crystal sugar sugar mixed mixed in in water water or or milk milk after after the the training training is is over over for for the the and morning but, but, in in contrast contrast to to the the Hindu, Hindu, eat eat great great quantities quantities of of mutton. mutton. morning It been easy It had had not not been easy to to meet meet Mangal Mangal Singh. Singh. We We had had to to go go through through finally took it friends friends of of friends friends of of friends friends before before the the meeting meeting finally took place. place. Once Once it happened, happened, though, though, Mangal Mangal Singh Singh talked talked so so freely freely and and without without any any apparent apparent suspiciousness suspiciousness or or guile guile that that II wondered wondered why why itit had had been been so so difficult difficult in in the the first first place. what my my psychological place. He He did did not not quite quite understand understand what psychological study study of of HinduHinduMuslim tried to to explain explain the the aims aims Muslim violence violence was was all all about about (I (I confess confess that that when when II tried pehlwans, I did of my study of my study to to other other pehlwans, I didnot notquite quiteunderstand understandit itmyself). myself).HeHewas was under under the the impression impression that that we we might might eventually eventually want want to to make make aa movie movie on on the the subject, subject, an an impression impression II did did not not fully fully exert exert myself myself to to correct. correct. In In any any event, event, Mangal most frank of Mangal Singh Singh proved proved to to be be most frank about about his his activities activities as as aa scourge scourge of Muslims, Muslims, perhaps perhaps also also because because he he assumed assumed Sahba Sahba and and II were were both both Hindus. Hindus. The pehlwans had The Muslim Muslim pehlwans hadbeen beenopen openwith withSahba Sahbabut butunderstandably understandably guarded guarded when when II was was also also present. present. With With Sahba Sahba they they could could express express their their bitterbitterpride in role in protecness ness and and contempt contempt for for Hindus, Hindus, show show their their pride in their their role in the the protecthe Hindu tion tion of of the the community community from from the Hindu enemy. enemy. In In my my presence, presence, they they became became For less less Muslim Muslim and and more more inclined inclined to to express express universal universal humanist humanist sentiments. sentiments. For instance, pious talk, instance, there there was was pious talk, not not exactly exactly reassuring, reassuring, that that if if I'were I were cut cut my my blood blood would would be be exactly exactly the the same same color color as as theirs. theirs. By By the the end end of of the the interviews, interviews, pehlwans were though, wereperceptibly perceptiblywarmer. warmer.I like I liketotobelieve believethat thatthis this though, all all the the pehlwans opening up was opening up was because because they they sensed sensed my my genuine genuine interest interest in in them them as as persons persons rather rather than than being being due due to to any any typical typical "shrink" "shrink" "hm-ms/" "hm-ms," phrases, phrases, or or inflections. inflections. II suspect, suspect, though, though, that that their their different-although different—although for for my my purposes, purposes, highly highly complementary-psychic complementary—psychic agendas agendas when when talking talking to to Sahba Sahba and and to to me me were were by shifts their own words, with dictated dictated by shifts in in their own sense sense of of identity. identity. In In other other words, with Sahba, Sahba, aa Muslim, Muslim, their their self-representation self-representation was was more more in in terms terms of of aa shared shared social social ideniden-

The Warriors Warriors The tity. that the tity. With With me, me, aa Hindu, Hindu, once once they they felt felt reassured reassured that the situation situation did did not not contain any any threat, threat, personal personal identity identity became became more more salient, salient, influencing influencing their their contain self-representations accordingly. accordingly. In In any any event, event, when when we we parted, parted, promises promises to to self-representations visit me in Delhi were made, visions of feasting in my house were conjured visit me in Delhi were made, visions of feasting in my house were conjured not without inup, all up, all of of which which II acknowledged acknowledged smilingly smilingly though though not without quaking quaking inwardly wardly at at the the prospect prospect of of the the promise promise being being ever ever kept. kept. There There were were occasions occasions pehlwans-for instance, in meetings with with the in meetings the pehlwans—for instance,when whenwaiting waitingfor forAkbar Akbarininhis his hotel hotel room-where room—where II caught caught myself myself thinking thinking that that the the scholarly scholarly work work of of makmaking aa book book out out of of other other books books was infinitely preferable to being out in in the the ing was infinitely preferable to being out field, anxious anxious and and afraid. afraid. Besides Besides being perpetually uncomfortable uncomfortable in in the the field, being perpetually heat, dust, dust, bad bad smells, smells, and and biting biting mosquitoes, mosquitoes, II felt felt envious envious at at visions heat, visions of of friends writing in libraries. friends reading reading and and writing in quiet quiet air-conditioned air-conditioned libraries. In In the the meeting meeting with with Mangal Mangal Singh, Singh, the the only only threat threat came came from from his his gengenerous but insistent hospitality hospitality as as he he pressed pressed aa glass glass of of sugarcane sugarcane juice on me, erous but insistent juice on me, delicious but but deadly, deadly, aa prime prime vehicle vehicle for for stomach stomach disease disease and and aa possible possible cholcholdelicious era carrier. carrier. We We were were sitting sitting in in aa room room on on the of his his house house where where the first first floor floor of era Mangal Singh Singh lives lives with with his his two two wives. wives. Most Most of of the the eleven eleven rooms rooms on on this this floor floor Mangal are empty. empty. The The ground ground floor floor has has nine nine rooms, rooms, occupied occupied by by his his widowed widowed are mother five brothers brothers with with their their families. families. The The rooms rooms are are in in the the form form of of mother and and his hisfive aa square square and and open open out out to to aa verandah verandah lining lining aa courtyard courtyard which which has hasaatulsi tulsi(basil) (basil) Mangal Singh had corplant growing plant growing in in the the middle. middle. "Not "Not tulsi, tulsi,Mother Mothertulsi," tulsi," Mangal Singh had corrected me while rected me while demonstrating demonstrating his his Hindu Hindu piety at the the same time. Besides Besides aa piety at same time. scooter and and aa motorcycle motorcycle parked parked in in the the verandah, verandah, there there was was aa refrigerator refrigerator scooter and aa water water cooler cooler as as well well as assome some toys. toys. Everything Everything looked looked neat neat and and tidy tidy and and and freshly scrubbed. scrubbed. Mangal Mangal Singh Singh had had introduced introduced us us to to his his first first wife, wife, aa shy, shy, freshly pretty young young woman woman to to whom whom he he was was openly openly affectionate. affectionate. He He had had married married pretty again because because she she could could not have children. children. "But "But II actually not have actually prefer prefer her," her," he he had had again said to the said to the young young woman's woman's obvious obvious pleasure. pleasure. "She "She looks looks after after me me well. well. The The other one one is is also also nice nice but since she she is is educated educated she she doesn't doesn't look look after after me me so so other but since well." As with with his his mother, mother, to to whom whom he he had had introduced introduced us usdownstairs, downstairs, Mangal Mangal well." As Singh behaved like aa spoilt spoilt young young boy boy with with his his Wife, wife, cracking cracking jokes, jokes, praising praising Singh behaved like her her extravagantly, extravagantly, ordering ordering her her about, about, calling calling out out to to her her often often to to reassure reassure himself that that she she was was not not far far away. away. himself There three other men in when we There were were three other men in the the room room when we began began the the interview, interview, the the obligatory obligatory chamchas chamchastotoamplify amplifyhishisstatements statementswhenever wheneverhehepaused pausedforfor breath breath or or effect. effect. They They provided provided emphasis emphasis to to his his statements statements and and strove strove to to inintruth content crease crease their their truth content by by aa resounding resounding ''That "That is is right!" right!" to to his his rhetorical rhetorical that so?" praises while "Isn't "Isn't that so?" Occasionally, Occasionally, when when he he paused, paused, they they sang sang his his praises while he he looked on, on, smiling smiling modestly. modestly. "He "He needs needs good good food food to to keep keep up up his his 'man'manlooked

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Chapter Three Chapter Three power,'" says power/" says one. one. "Manpower" "Manpower" is is said said in in English, English, the the man's man's rough rough and and ready ready word for he lifts translation translation of of the the Hindi Hindi word for strength. strength. "If "If he lifts his his hand, hand, all all the the hands hands in in the the city city would would rise, rise, such such is is his his 'manpower.'" 'manpower.'" They They showed showed me me the the externexternment ment order order served served on on Mangal Mangal Singh Singh by by the the police police and and signed signed by by the the commiscommissioner sahib himself himselfwhich whichbanished banishedhim himfrom from the thecity cityfor forsix sixmonths monthsinin sioner sahib "apprehension "apprehension of of inciting inciting violence violence and and breach breach of of peace." peace." "But "But I'm I'm back back after after one one and and aa half half months. months. II got gotaastay stayfrom fromthe theHigh HighCourt," Court,"Mangal MangalSingh Singhsays. says. The the stay The copy copy of of the stay order order is is also also passed passed on on to to me me by by aa chamcha chamchaforformy myperperusal. out a sheaf photographs. The ones shown toto usal. A A second second chamcha chamchabrings brings out a sheafofof photographs. The ones shown me torture. A Mangal Singh, his me are are of of police police torture. A subdued-looking subdued-looking Mangal Singh, standing standing in in his loincloth, pointing to his back welts. The is loincloth, is is pointing to his back which which is is covered covered with with welts. The face face is bruised and puffed. He it bruised and the the eyes eyes puffed. He points points to to his his left left eye eye where where the the skin skin under under it is have still that beatis noticeably noticeably darker. darker. "I "I have still not not completely completely recovered recovered from from that beating," ing," he he says says with with indignation, indignation, not not at at the the beating beating itself itself but but at at the the surrounding surrounding circumstances which Mangal circumstances of of which Mangal gives gives two two versions. versions. It It seemed seemed aa few few months months ago, time of Babri mosque, ago, at at the the time of tension tension over over the the demolition demolition of of the the Babri mosque, Mangal Mangal received aa parcel, parcel, very received very probably probably from from his his Muslim Muslim enemies. enemies. It It was was kept kept in in the the room next the one where we it room next to to the one where we were were sitting. sitting. His His three-year-old three-year-old son son fell fell on on it and the boy. and it it exploded, exploded, killing killing the boy. In In the the second second version, version, which which is is also also the the statement made to statement he he made to the the police, police, he he had had stored stored firecrackers firecrackers in in the the room room for for the the children children in in the the family. family. His His son son was was playing playing with with them them and and they they exploded, exploded, killing the the motherfuckers me killing the boy. boy. "My "My son son dies dies and and the motherfuckers arrest arrest me me and and beat beat me up, up, claiming claiming II was was manufacturing manufacturing bombs," bombs,"he he says, says, his his indignation indignation quite quite conconvincing. vincing. There There are are other other occasional occasional contradictions contradictions in in Mangal's Mangal's monologue monologue which tumbling out which comes comes tumbling out at at aa high high velocity. velocity. For For instance, instance, in in talking talking of of the the wrestler's he had that he evewrestler's ascetic ascetic regimen, regimen, he had said said that he ate ate exactly exactly at at eight eight every every evening and the house Yet, just ning and never never went went out out of of the house after after that. that. Yet, just before before saying saying goodgoodbye to to us, when his his wife had come us, when wife had come out, out, he he said, said, "The "The poor poor woman woman makes makes such such bye nice meals for but II am nice meals for me me but am so so busy busy IInever neverknow knowwhen whenIIwill willbebehome. home.I Ieat eatatat all hours. How waited up up for have her all odd odd hours. How often often she she has has waited for me me before before she she could could have her own own dinned' dinner!" Mangal Mangal is is not not exactly exactly aa liar liar in in the the sense sense that that he he wants wants to to deceive deceive his his audience. audience. He He is is an an embellisher embellisher of of facts, facts, some some of of which which may may get get changed changed to fit in with what what he true at to fit in with he believes believes to to be be true at aa certain certain time. time. He He may may also also unwitunwittingly to project project aa particular himself. After while, tingly bend bend the the truth truth to particular image image of of himself. After aa while, the the contradictions contradictions become become aa part part of of his his manic manic charm charm as as II fascinatedly fascinatedly watch watch the persona he is is constructing constructing as as much much for for himself himself as as for for us. the persona he us. The first time time Mangal The first Mangal Singh Singh clashed clashed with with the the Muslims Muslims was was in in 1979. 1979. The The Muslims had had claimed claimed aa piece piece of of land land on on the the specious specious ground ground that that itit was was an an old old Muslims

The The Warriors Warriors community the land community graveyard. graveyard. The The man man to to whom whom the land belonged belonged had had won won his his case the court not get the land case against against the the encroachment encroachment in in the court but but could could not get the land vacated vacated and to Mangal Mangal Singh. just and and came came to Singh. His His cause cause was was just and Mangal Mangal agreed agreed to to help help him. never help wanted illegal of him. Mangal Mangal would would never help someone someone who who wanted illegal possession possession of land. notoriously lumbering land. He He only, only, so so to to speak, speak, expedited expedited the the notoriously lumbering machinery machinery of the law, helped in which would of the law, helped in implementing implementing court court orders orders which would not not otherwise otherwise be carried out. out. Mangal Mangal settled settled on on aa sum sum of of money money for for his his services. services. Nowadays Nowadays be carried his hundred thousand he takes his minimum minimum fee fee is is aa hundred thousand rupees, rupees, but but he takes it it only only after after the the work is not like pehlwans who whotake takethe themoney moneybut butrefuse refusetoto work is done, done, not like some some other other pehlwans do to do Mangal, on is do the the work, work, daring daring the the client client to do his his utmost. utmost. Mangal, on the the other other hand, hand, is man of of principles. principles. aa man with five five of people. They had aa few Mangal Mangal went went to to the the site site with of his his people. They had few knives knives and and aa couple couple of of swords swords between between them. them. The The Muslims Muslims were were eight eight in in number, number, all all of each an But they of them them with with swords swords and and each an expert expert at at wielding wielding the the weapon. weapon. But they were being almost though thorough thorough profeswere old-the old—the oldest oldest being almost sixty-and sixty—and though professionals, they lacked power of younger men. men. The sionals, they lacked the the staying staying power of Mangal's Mangals much much younger The Muslims were soon breath and men killed Muslims were soon out out of of breath and Mangal Mangal and and his his men killed six six of of them. them. They They put put four four of of the the corpses corpses in in aa car car and and threw threw them them in in different different parts parts of of the the city murders in particcity to to confuse confuse the the police. police. He He was was charged charged with with three three murders in that that particular zulm, particularly particularlyMuslim Muslimzulm. zulm. ular incident. incident. He He cannot cannot tolerate tolerate zulm, The police report of The police report of of the the incident incident credits credits him him with with only only one one murder, murder, of which he was was acquitted because of month later, hiswhich he acquitted because of lack lack of of evidence. evidence. A A month later, the the history his parents tory sheet sheet continues, continues, "along "along with with others, others, he he assaulted assaulted Imtiaz Imtiaz and and his parents with them." Two months later, Dewith sticks sticks and and caused caused bleeding bleeding injuries injuries to to them." Two months later, in in December had begun Rameeza Bi cember 1979, 1979, when when riots riots had begun after after the the Rameeza Bi incident, incident, Mangal Mangal Singh noted to people who fire to Singh is is noted to have have led led an an armed armed group group of of twenty twenty people who set set fire to Muslim at Muslim shops, shops, attacked attacked Muslims Muslims with with sticks sticks and and knives, knives, and and pelted pelted stones stones at the police. brief notings years: assault, assault, the police. There There is is aa succession succession of of other other brief notings over over the the years: unlawful he was was ordered to report to the unlawful assembly, assembly, rioting. rioting. For For aa few few months months he ordered to report to the police night. But police every every day day at at eight eight in in the the morning morning and and nine nine at at night. But he he was was never never convicted registered against by convicted in in the the court court in in spite spite of of over over forty forty cases cases registered against him him by the the police. police. Because Because of of the the intimidation intimidation of of witnesses, witnesses, the the police police say. say. Because Because the jail, says the people people love love me me and and will will not not let let me me go go to to jail, says Mangal. Mangal. The The police police record Very close record summarizes: summarizes: "Young "Young and and energetic. energetic. Very close to to the the BlP BJP MLA MLA [Mem[Member ber of of the the legislative legislative Assembly]. Assembly]. Has Has good good contacts contacts with with the the RSS. RSS. Also Also close close to Party MLA. to the the local local Telugu Telugu Desam Desam Party MLA. Tries Tries to to be be close close to to Congress Congress also. also. He He is is aa communal communal element. element. Very Very active active during during communal communal disturbances disturbances and and has has very very intelligent very good good following. following. Has Has become become very intelligent and and never never exposes exposes himself himself personally personally in in crimes crimes but but uses uses his his henchmen henchmen for for creating creating disturbances. disturbances. People People

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Chapter Three Chapter Three of of the the locality locality very very frightened frightened and and do do not not want want to to complain complain or or become become witwitnesses. disputes." nesses. Earns Earns aa lot lot of of money money by by settling settling land land disputes." has aa sense Mangal Mangal Singh Singh freely freely admits admits his his political political links links but but has sense of of outrage outrage that he was but behind bars bars in in the the explosives explosives case. case. "I "I was was with with the the Congress Congress that he was but behind party for for so so many many years. years. II did did so so much much of of their their work. work. 1I also also did did the the personal personal party work of of aa couple couple of of MLA MLA in in getting getting their their houses houses vacated vacated from from tenants. tenants. But But work then change over to the the BlP BJP since since that is the only party defending the the then 1I change over to that is the only party defending Hindus. And And what happens? The The Congress Congress puts puts me me in in jail! gratitude Hindus. what happens? jaill No No gratitude at all!" all!" at During men" representing of During aa riot, riot, "strong "strong men" representing different different localities, localities, not not all all of them pehlwans, pehlwans, meet them meetalmost almostonona daily a dailybasis basisand anddecide decidewhere where"the "thewind windis istoto a euphemism forfor where thethe killings have to to take be spread" be spread" (hawa (hawaphailana), phailana), a euphemism where killings have take place and where where they they need stopped. For instance, it it would decided place and need to to be be stopped. For instance, would be be decided at the meeting the violence violence in Dhulpet but at the meeting to to stop stop the in Dhulpet but start start it it in in the the old old city. city. maintain aa tight Mangal Mangal Singh Singh likes likes to to maintain tight discipline discipline in in his his own own area. area. Once, Once, durdurthe riots, mob collected ing ing the riots, aa mob collected spontaneously spontaneously in in his his locality. locality. He He immediately immediately boys who sent sent aa few few of of his his boys who came came back back in in two two minutes minutes after after doing doing satrol satrol(creat(creating ing chaos). chaos). He He then then called called in in the the leaders leaders of of the the mob mob and and told told them, them, "Never "Never do do that that again again without without my my permission." permission." Although Although Mangal Mangal Singh Singh enjoys enjoys recounting recounting his his violent violent exploits exploits in in the the field-for instance, when he land land business business or or in in the the political political field—for instance, when he and and his his boys boys did did satrol satroltotothe theprocession processionofofa anewly newlyappOinted appointedminister ministeratatthe thebehest behestofofhis his really proud proud of Muscabinet cabinet colleague-what colleague—what he he is is really of are are his his clashes clashes with with the the Muslims in in defense defense of of the the Hindus. Hindus. These These allow allow him to identify identify with with and and place lims him to place himself in a long line of heroes such as Shivaji and Rana Pratap, whom himself in a long line of heroes such as Shivaji and Rana Pratap, whom he he admires resistance against admires greatly greatly for for their their armed armed resistance against the the Muslim Muslim emperors. emperors. He He tells us of marriage procession procession when it was tells us of the the incident incident of of aa Hindu Hindu marriage when it was stopped stopped in in because it time for prayers. An An front front of of aa mosque mosque because it was was time for the the Friday Friday afternoon afternoon prayers. altercation took place the bridegroom, Lodha comaltercation took place and and the bridegroom, who who belonged belonged to to the the Lodha community, his horse. horse. The The incident incident was was reported reported to to Mangal Mangal Singh Singh munity, was was pushed pushed off off his who reached reached the the spot spot with with aa few few of of his men. "Within "Within two two minutes," minutes," he he boasts, boasts, who his men. "four of of their their men men lay lay on on the ground, two two dead dead even even as as they they fell. fell. The The others others the ground, "four fled and and the the marriage marriage procession passed the mosque." procession passed the mosque." fled Mangal psychological profile profile shows Mangal Singh's Singh's psychological shows aa great great resemblance resemblance to to that that the difference his responses of Akbar; the of Akbar,difference is is that that his responses are are much much more more extreme. extreme. He He believes he tries believes he tries to to dominate dominate others, others, is is very very self-willed self-willed and and competitive. competitive. He, He, too, is is often often sad, sad, worries great deal deal about about personal personal problems, too, worries aa great problems, tends tends to to supsuppress anger, blames himself when things press anger, and and always always blames himself when things go go wrong. wrong. Even Even his his choice of of favorite favorite songs songs reflects preference for for the sad and and the sentimental. choice reflects aa preference the sad the sentimental. The first is aa Mukesh song with with the opening lyrics: The first is Mukesh song the opening lyrics:

The The Warriors Warriors Life/s Life's road road is is full full of of tears tears Someone Someone should should tell tell her her II have have aa long long way way to to travel. travel. The The other other is is an an old old hit hit from from aa 1950s 1950s movie: movie: Do Do not not forget forget these these days days of of childhood childhood Today Today II am am laughing laughing Do Do not not make make me me cry cry tomorrow. tomorrow. In soIn spite spite of of the the dysphoric dysphoric mood, mood, Mangal Mangal feels feels personally personally potent potent and and socially gratified. gratified. Taking Taking into into account account the the interview interview and and the responses to to the the cially the responses statements on on the the Giessen Giessen Test, Test, II would would surmise surmise that that the the outstanding outstanding feature feature statements is aa hyperactivity hyperactivity defending defending against against depression, depression, comcomof Mangal's Mangal's personality of personality is pared to to Akbar's Akbar's more more compulsive compulsive defenses. defenses. And And since since II am am already already in in the the pared comparison business, let me me go go further further and and look look at at the the psychological psychological profiles profiles comparison business, let of alI all the the four four pehlwans. Althoughtoo toosmall smalla sample a sampleforforany anydefinitive definitivestatestatepehlwans. Although of men" who who carry carry out out the the actual actual acts acts of of ments on on the the larger larger universe of "strong "strong men" universe of ments violence in in aa riot, riot, my tentative collective collective portrait portrait may may still still be be aa source source of violence my tentative of hypotheses for for any any future future psychological psychological studies. studies. hypotheses My first observation is is that that these these men men are are not not abnormal abnormal in in aa clinical clinical My first observation sense. sense. That That is, is, they they are are neither neither psychopaths, psychopaths, highly highly neurotic, neurotic, nor nor delinquent. delinquent. Their their violent of Their control control over over their violent impulses impulses is is not not even even greatly greatly impaired. impaired. All All of them, however, however, are are unusually unusually dominant dominant and and of of aa marked marked authoritarian authoritarian bent. bent. them, There is is also also aa notable depressive tendency tendency in in their their underlying underlying mood, mood, aa There notable depressive threatened depression depression against against which which various various defenses defenses are are employed. employed. Surthreatened Surprisingly, depressive tendency tendency persists in spite spite of of the the pehlwans feelingthat that prisingly/ the the depressive persists in pehlwans feeling they evoke a positive social response,that is, they are narcissistically gratithey evoke a positive social response; that is, they are narcissistically gratified rather ratherthan than frustrated frustrated by bytheir theirenvironment. environment. fied Perhaps self, Perhaps the the need need to to defend defend against against an an emptying emptying and and fragmenting fragmenting self, the building up up of the inner inner experience experience of of depression, depression, contributes contributes to to the the building of aa defendefenrestored and sive sive hyperactivity hyperactivity wherein wherein the the cohesiveness cohesiveness of of the the self self is is restored and most most immediately experienced through an explosion explosion in in violent violent action. action. The The exciteimmediately experienced through an excitement of of violence violence becomes becomes the the biggest biggest confirmation confirmation that one is is psychically psychically that one ment still alive, alive, aa confirmation confirmation of of one/s one's very very existence. existence. still

Psyche and and Wrestling Wrestling Psyche Until now now we we have have looked looked at at the the warriors warriors of of communal communal violence, violence, the men the men Until who their younger who orchestrate orchestrate the the violence violence and and who, who, in in their younger days days (and (and current current youthful youthful versions), versions), were were directly directly engaged engaged in in it, it, as as moved moved by by specific specific aspects aspects

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Chapter Three Chapter Three of their religious and and personal identities. Yet in Hyderabad, Hyderabad, as as well well as as in of their religious personal identities. Yet in in many other other cities cities where where the the pehlwans takea aleading leadingrole roleinincommunal communalvioviomany pehlwans take lence, we we also also need need to to look look at at their socialization as as pehlwans. otherwords, words, lence, their socialization pehlwans. InInother greater understanding understanding of of these these warriors warriors of of religious need aa for aa greater for religious violence, violence, we we need close look look at at the the culture culture of of Indian Indian wrestling. wrestling. It It may may well well be be the development close the development of the professionalidentity identitywhich, which,working workinginintandem tandemwith withhishisperperof the pehlwans pehlwans professional sonal and and religious religious identities, identities, provides provides us us aa more more complete complete picture picture of of the the sonal workings workings of of his his mind. mind. This This is is exemplified exemplified by by an an apocryphal apocryphal story story about about Sufi Sufi Pehlwan, peshawar ("professional") Pehlwan, an an old old peshawar ("professional")who whoretired retiredfrom fromthethekilling killingbusibusiness after after the the 1979 1979 riots. riots. He He is is reported reported to to have have felt felt that, that, like like everything everything else else ness in India, India, riots riots too too were were not what they once used used to be. Since Since each each one one of of us in not what they once to be. us interprets the world from from the the limited limited view we have of it, it, Sufi Sufi Pehlwan Pehlwan too too interprets the world view we have of saw the the deterioration deterioration of of the the country country through through his his particular particular professional saw professional lens. lens. The bodies had The quality quality of of food food and and thus thus the the toughness toughness of of the the men's men's bodies had been been steadily become brittle steadily degenerating degenerating over over the the years. years. Bones Bones had had become brittle so so that that when when one person there hardly any one stabbed stabbed aa person there was was hardly any resistance resistance to to the the knife knife blade blade which sliced which sliced through through muscle, muscle, cartilage, cartilage, and and bone bone as as if if they they were were wet wet clay. clay. Simply was no Simply put, put, there there was no longer longer any any professional professional satisfaction satisfaction to to be be obtained obtained from turned to more challenging, from aa riot, riot, and and Sufi Sufi Pehlwan Pehlwan had had turned to other, other, more challenging, if if perperhaps pursuits. haps less less exciting exciting pursuits. The not The tradition tradition of of Indian Indian wrestling, wrestling, the the malla-yuddha malla-yuddhaofofthetheepics, epics,is is not equally widespread. Strongest the north north Indian equally widespread. Strongest in in the Indian states states of of Punjab, Punjab, Haryana, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and and western western Bihar, Bihar, it it is is encountered encountered more more scatteredly scatteredly in in the the rest rest of of the the country. country. Although Although absent absent in in most most of of south south and and central central India, India, wrestling is wrestling is quite quite robust robust in in parts parts of of Bengal Bengal and and Maharashtra Maharashtra as as well well as asin in some some erstwhile erstwhile princely princely states states such such as as Hyderabad Hyderabad where where the the rulers rulers patronized patronized the the art. just aa sport whole way way of of life; life,art. Wrestling Wrestling in in the the Indian Indian context context is is not not just sport but but aa whole it it is is not not only only aa physical physical regimen regimen but but aa moral moral tradition tradition with with changing changing political political coordinates. phrase of coordinates. In In the the felicitous felicitous phrase of the the anthropologist]oseph anthropologist Joseph Alter, Alter, wreswresmorals."33 tling tling is is aa "meeting "meeting of of muscles muscles and and morals." As far in As far as as the the physical physical regimen regimen is is concerned, concerned, there there is is little little difference difference in forms wrestling between various parts forms and and techniques techniques of of wrestling between the the various parts of of the the country country or wrestlers. Waking the aspiror even even between between Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim wrestlers. Waking up up at at dawn, dawn, the aspiring wrestler runs build up ing wrestler runs aa few few miles miles to to build up his his stamina. stamina. Ideally, Ideally, he he should should then then spend Musspend some some time time in in contemplation contemplation (or (or in in actual actual prayer prayer in in the the case case of of the the Muslim) before he the akhara, or talim-the different lim) before he makes makes his his way way to to the akhara,dangal, Aangal, or talim—the different names names given given to to the the wrestling wrestling gymnasium. gymnasium. Here Here he he begins begins with with aa bath bath before before donning donning the the wrestler's wrestlers habit, habit, the the langot langotororthe theloincloth. loincloth.This Thisisisfollowed followedby by the the actual the anointing anointing of of the the body body with with oil oil and and aa collective collective preparation preparation of of the actual

The Warriors Warriors The akhara, there is is akhara,the theapproximately approximatelyten-meter ten-metersquare squarepit. pit.InIna aHindu Hinduakhara akhara there collective collective invocation invocation of of Hanuman, Hanuman, the the celibate celibate god god of of wrestlers wrestlers and and the the symsymbol bol of of deepest deepest devotion devotion to to Rama. Rama. guru (the in case of of Wrestlers Wrestlers are are then then paired paired off off by by the the guru (theustad ustadororkhalifa khalifa in case practice moves countermoves under Muslims) Muslims) to to grapple grapple and and practice moves and and countermoves under the the guru's gurus jor close close supervision supervision and and frequent frequent instruction. instruction. After After two two or or three three hours hours of of this this jor (literally, pit to (literally, "strength"), "strength"), the the wrestler wrestler rolls rolls in in the the earth earth of of the the pit to partake partake of of its its finishes with with aa bath. cooling, bath. A A cooling, reinvigorating, reinvigorating, and and healing healing qualities qualities and and then thenfinishes large large hearty hearty meal meal consisting consisting of of the the wrestler's wrestlers staple staple foods foods of of clarified clarified butter, butter, pisliters liters of of milk, milk, and and ground ground almonds almonds (or (or chickpeas) chickpeas) if if Hindu, Hindu, meat meat with with piswhen pistachios tachios tachios and and almonds almonds if if Muslim Muslim (in (in the the days days when pistachios and and almonds almonds were were still still affordable) affordable) follows. follows. The The wrestler wrestler then then has has aa short short nap nap and and rests rests for for aa couple of of hours hours during during the the afternoon. afternoon. Then Then it it is is back to the akharaininthe the couple back to the akhara early three hours individual exercises early evening evening for for another another two two or or three hours for for individual exercises to to build build flexibility of of joints. joints. Besides Besides various up strength, up strength, stamina, stamina, and andflexibility various kinds kinds of of weight weight hundreds of training, training, the the core core exercises exercises are are hundreds of deep deep knee knee bends bends and and jackknifing jackknifing push-ups. A A bath push-ups. bath and and again again aa specialized specialized meal meal later, later, the the wrestler wrestler is is generally generally supposed supposed to to be be asleep asleep by by 88 or or 99 P.M. P.M. so so as asto to get get up up fresh fresh and and energetic energetic at at the the the regimen day. crack to repeat crack of of dawn dawn to repeat the regimen the the next next day. The moral and The physical physical regimen regimen is is part part of of aa moral and ideological ideological complex, complex, and and wrestling is to traditional arts, this this is is where where Indian Indian wrestling is similar similar to traditional East East Asian Asian martial martial arts, where physicality where physicality was was inseparable inseparable from from morality morality and and skills skills were were not not indepenindependent dent of of ethics. ethics. Here, Here, too, too, traditional traditional wrestling wrestling differs differs from from the the teaching teaching and and learning judo, karate, or wrestling in the the modern modern context learning of of judo, karate, or wrestling in context as as recreational recreational fighting skills. sports, sports, physical physical exercises, exercises, or or fighting skills. The The wrestler, wrestler, though though very very much much aa part part of of society, society, both both looks looks and and experiences experiences himself himself as as aa man man apart. apart. First, First, but muscled underfed and there there is is the the contrast contrast of of the the bulky bulky but muscled body body to to the the underfed and emaemalower-class neighborhoods from which ciated ciated bodies bodies of of other other men men in in the the lower-class neighborhoods from which signs of apartness, the most come. Besides exhibiting the most wrestlers wrestlers come. Besides exhibiting the outer outer signs of apartness, the wrestler moral principles honesty, ininwrestler adheres adheres strictly strictly to to the the moral principles of of continence, continence, honesty, ternal and ternal and external external cleanliness, cleanliness, Simplicity, simplicity, and and contemplation contemplation of of God God which, which, as with the the ascetic-the sanyasin ororthe thesadhusadhu— as Alter Alter points points out, out, he he shares shares with ascetic—the sanyasin 4 who Of course, who too too stresses stresses hisliminality his liminality to to the the normal normal social social order.4 order. Of course, where where the the wrestler wrestler differs differs most most strikingly strikingly from from the the normal normal man man is is in in his his advocation advocation (like (like that that of of the the ascetic) ascetic) of of absolute absolute celibacy. celibacy. Sexuality, Sexuality, and and in in particular, particular, the the loss of of semen, semen, are are concerns concerns of of high high anxiety. anxiety. The The image image of of the the wrestler 1055 wrestler in in popular Hindi movies movies is is generally generally of of aa strong strong but but simple-minded simple-minded rustic rustic who who popular Hindi goes to to absurd absurd lengths lengths to to avoid avoid the the company company of of women women and and thus thus any any occaoccagoes sion for for sexual sexual excitement. excitement. As As Alter tells us, us, for for the wrestler semen semen is is the the Alter tells the wrestler sion

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Chapter Three Three Chapter locus locus of of all all of of his his strength strength and and character. character. Milk, Milk, clarified clarified butter butter (ghee), {ghee),and andal-almonds, primary ingredients monds, the the primary ingredients of of aa wrestler's wrestler's diet, diet, are are believed believed to to build build up up aa ghee are store store of of high-energy high-energy semen. semen. Milk Milk and and ghee arealso alsosupposed supposedtotolower lowerthe the body heat but can body heat so so that that the the semen semen is is not not inadvertently inadvertently spilt spilt in in sleep sleep but can perperform its its desired desired function function of of building building bodily bodily strength. strength.55 form The control control of of sexuality, sexuality, and and anxiety anxiety about about sexual sexual concerns, concerns, is is the the corcorThe nerstone of of all all conservative conservative moralities, and the the wrestler's wrestler's ideological ideological uniuninerstone moralities, and verse, verse, with with its its centrality centrality of of celibacy, celibacy, is is very very close close to to the the most most conservative conservative parts the Hindu Hindu and traditions. like parts of of the and Muslim Muslim religious religious traditions. Like the the so-called so-called fundafundamentalist, the wrestler, too, too, is is opposed opposed to to the the modern modern entertainment entertainment forms forms of mentalist, the wrestler, of cinema and and television, television, where where sex sex is is so so abundantly abundantly on on display. display. He He disapproves disapproves cinema of modern modern educational educational institutions, institutions, where where boys boys and and girls girls come come into into close close and and of thus dangerous dangerous contact. contact. He He looks looks askance askance at at modern modern fashions fashions in in clothes clothes and and thus care, which which he he feels feels are are devoted devoted to to the the excitement excitement of of prurient interest. bodily bodily care, prurient interest. In general, general, the the wrestler's wrestler's conservative conservative morality condemns all all manifestations manifestations In morality condemns of of modernity modernity that that arouse arouse the the sense sense instead instead of of calming calming them, them, that that stoke stoke the the sensual sensual fire fire instead instead of of dousing dousing its its flames. flames. In In the the various various philosophical philosophical and and social social science science discourses discourses on on modernity, modernity, artists, there there is is very very often often an an absence absence of of what what many many twentieth-century twentieth-century artists, writers, film makers—not makers-not to to speak psychoanalysts-regard as its cenwriters, and andfilm speak of of psychoanalysts—regard as its cenbiographical self of sexuality its tral features: the foregrounding tral features: the foregrounding of of the the biographical self and and of sexuality (in (in its widest widest sense) sense) in in human human subjectivity. subjectivity. Psychoanalysis, Psychoanalysis, the the study study of of the the sexual sexual self, self, is is thus thus aa preeminently preeminently modern modern discipline. discipline. The The protest protest against against the the ubiqubiquity, Significance, significance, and and manifestations manifestations of of the the sexual sexual self self is thus ineVitably inevitably aa uity, is thus basic characteristic basic characteristic of of revivalist revivalist and and fundamentalist fundamentalist rhetoric. rhetoric. There first glance apThere is is one one element element of of the the wrestling wrestling ideology ideology which which at at first glance appears run counter pears to to run counter to to the the conservative conservative label label given given to to it. it. This This is is egalitariegalitarithe akhara anism. anism. In In the akharathere thereare areonly onlybodies, bodies,without withoutsectarian, sectarian,class, class,and andcaste caste hierarchical hierarchical distinctions. distinctions. As As aa commentator commentator on on wrestling wrestling remarks, remarks, "In "In every every the wealthiest wealthiest person Village the common village everyone everyone from from the common labourer labourer to to the person would would enter the the pit together. Everyone Everyone on on everyone everyone else's else's back back with with knees knees on on necks. enter pit together. necks. There was was no stigma, no enmity, anger anger or or threats. threats. The The akhara akhara was was aa pilThere no stigma, no enmity, pilgrimage point of social social equality; equality,- aa temple temple of of brotherly brotherly love."6 love/'6 Until Until the the very very grimage point of recent past, many akharasininHyderabad Hyderabadwere weremixed mixedininthe thesense sensethat thatthey they recent past, many akharas would Hindus and and Muslims training under or Muslim Muslim pehlwould have have both both Hindus Muslims training under aa Hindu Hindu or pehlwan. Majid Majid Khan's Khan'sbrother's brothers khalifa, khalifa,forforinstance, instance, was ChintamaniPehlwan, Pehlwan,a a wan. was Chintamani Hindu. In In any any event, event, although although egalitarianism egalitarianism between between men may be be missing missing men may Hindu. from some some modern modern Western conservative ideologies, ideologies, it it can can very very well be aa from Western conservative well be part of of Hindu Hindu conservative conservative traditions and is, is, of of course, course, available available in in the the ideolideoltraditions and part

The Warriors Warriors The ogy ogy of of Islam. Islam. Egalitarianism, Egalitarianism, for for instance, instance, is is aa point point of of emphasis emphasis for for the the deeply conservative conservative ideologies ideologies of of the the RSS, RSS, the the organizational organizational vanguard vanguard in in deeply the the current current revival revival of of militant militant Hinduism. Hinduism. The The litmus litmus test test of of revivalism revivalism and and fundamentalism remains the fundamentalism remains the attitude attitude toward toward sex sex rather rather than than power. power. Morally Morally and and ideologically, ideologically, the the wrestler, wrestler, either either Hindu Hindu or or Muslim, Muslim, thus thus welcomes and kinship with in his his community welcomes and feels feels aa sense sense of of kinship with forces forces in community which which would modernity through through the would oppose oppose modernity the revival revival of of traditional traditional values. values. The The changed position also changed political political coordinates coordinates of of his his position also make make it it easier easier for for the the of wrestler to wrestler to become become an an active active and, and, given given his his calling, calling, militant militant representative representative of the community. community. Before Before the the independence independence of of the the country country in in 1947, 1947, wrestlers wrestlers the by Indian were traditionally were traditionally patronized patronized by Indian princes princes who who would would have have court court painters or pehlwan's wrestlers just just as wrestlers as they they had had court court painters or court court musicians. musicians. Akbar Akbar pehlwaris forefathers Nizam of forefathers had had been been court court wrestlers wrestlers to to the the Nizam of Hyderabad Hyderabad for for four four generations. by the generations. All All the the physical physical needs needs of of the the wrestler wrestler were were taken taken care care of of by the royal patron. patron. What What the the wrestler expected to to do do was was to to concentrate concentrate on on royal wrestler was was expected the refinement refinement of of his his art art and and the the bUilding building up of his his body. In return return for for the the the up of body. In patronage, the the wrestfers wrestlers would would march march on on ceremonial ceremonial occasions occasions in in royal royal propatronage, processions through through the the streets streets of of the the capital, capital, their their magnificent magnificent physiques physiques testitesticessions fying to and reflecting reflecting on on the the power power of of the prince. They They would would represent the to and the prince. represent the fying honor of of the the prince prince in in their their competitive competitive bouts bouts with with wrestlers from other other honor wrestlers from states-the between kingdoms states—the re-creation re-creation of of aa legendary legendary mode mode of of warfare warfare between kingdoms the Persian tale of Rustum and Sohrab. which has been immortalized in which has been immortalized in the Persian tale of Rustum and Sohrab. of Although Although some some politicians politicians did did try try to to replace replace the the princes princes as as patrons patrons of wrestling wrestling akbaras, akharas,using usingwrestlers wrestlersfor forstrong-arm strong-armmethods methodstotoachieve achievepolitical political ends, wrestler had ends, in in general general the the wrestler had lost lost the the morally morally elevated elevated view view of of his his calling calling demanded by tradition tradition and demanded by and ideology. ideology. It It is is in in the the polarization polarization of of Hindus Hindus and and Muslims and Muslims and in in the the context context of of religious religious revivalism revivalism that that the the wrestler wrestler is is again again power and finding role as finding aa role as an an icon icon of of the the community's community's physical physical power and martial martial prowess. prowess. Although Although he he may may still still be be used used by by the the politician, politician, employing employing religious religious violence violence for for his his own own purposes, purposes, the the wrestler wrestler can can again again hold hold aa cherished cherished moral moral high ground high ground in in that that he he is is proud proud of of his his new new role role as as "protectorofthe "protector of the Muslim Muslim (or (or Hindu) Hindu) nation." nation." The traditional wrestling The traditional wrestling training, training, although although it it also also graduated graduated religious religious viokillers, killers, did did have have certain certain advantages advantages in in structuring structuring the the form form of of religious religious violence. lence. Often, Often, the the akharas akharasand andthe theteachers teachershad hadmixed mixedHindu Hinduand andMuslim Muslimstustudents who who would would never never fight each other other in in or or outside outside the the ring ring and and thus thus had had aa dents fight each dampening influence influence on on the the battlefield battlefield enthusiasm enthusiasm of of the the two two communities. communities. dampening The training training also also inculcated inculcated aa strong strong ideology ideology that bound the the fighting and The that bound fighting and killing by certain rules rules of of combat; combat,- where, where, for for instance, instance, the respect for for wornkilling by certain the respect wom-

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Chapter Three Chapter Three ankind precluded aa woman woman from victim. In Hyderabad, even ankind precluded from being being aa riot riot victim. In Hyderabad, even now, rape rape is is not not used as aa vehicle vehicle for for the contempt, rage, rage, or or hatred hatred one one comcomused as the contempt, now, of munity munity feels feels for for the the other, other, as as it it is, is, for for example, example, in in Bosnia. Bosnia. As As the the strength strength of traditionalideology ideologydeclines declinesand andthetherole roleofofthethepehlwan pehlwan the pehlwan's the pehlwan's traditional as aas a channeler of of his his community's community's violence violence gives gives way way to to aa more more brutal brutal free-for-all, free-for-all, channeler religious violence violence too too promises promises to to enter enter an an era era of of unchecked unchecked ferocity. ferocity. There There religious are, of of course, course, other other reasons reasons for for the the relative relative absence absence of of rape rape in in aa HinduHinduare, Muslim riot, riot, including, including, as as we shall see see later, later, the the strong strong moral moral disapproval disapproval of we shall of Muslim rape as as an an instrument instrument of of religious religious violence violence in in both both communities. communities. Moreover, Moreover, rape unlike in in the Bosnian conflict, conflict, after after aa riot riot the the Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims still still have have unlike the Bosnian to live live together together and and carry carry out out aa minimal minimal social social and and considerable considerable economic economic to lives. As As Mangal Mangal Singh Singh remarked: remarked: "A "Afew fewdays days interaction in in their day-to-day lives. interaction their day-to-day after the the riot is over, over, whatever whatever the bitterness in in our our hearts hearts and and however however cold cold riot is the bitterness after our voices are initially, initially, Akbar Akbar pehlwan stillhas hastotocall callmemeand andsay, say, "Mangalbhai, bhai, our voices are pehlwan still "Mangal what do do we we do do about about that that disputed disputed land land in in Begumpet?" Begumpet?" And still have have to to what And II still answer, "Let's "Lets get get together together on on that that one, one, Akbar Akbar bhai, bhai,and andsolve solvethe theproblem problem answer, peacefully." Rape Rape makes makes such such interactions interactions impossible impossible and and turns turns HinduHindupeacefully." Muslim animosity into implacable hatred. Muslim animosity into implacable hatred. As the warriors warriors are As far far as as the are concerned, concerned, their their ability ability to to get get over over the the bitterbitterness of of the the conflict conflict to again work work together together further further attests attests to to their their high high level level of of to again ness ego functioning. functioning. Unlike other members members of of their their communities communities who are ego Unlike many many other who are either unable unable to to hate hate or or cannot cannot stop stop hating, hating, the the pehlwans havelearned learnedboth both either pehlwans have 7 how to to hate hate and and how how to to get get over over hating.? hating. Killers Killers in in the the service service of of their their relihow religious communities, communities, they they do do not not fit easy psychological psychological or or philosophical catefit easy philosophical categious gories. There There is is no no evidence, evidence, for for instance, instance, that that they they are are psychopaths psychopaths brutally brutally gories. trained to to reject reject human human feeling, feeling, are are sexually sexually insecure, insecure, or or were were abused abused as as chilchiltrained dren. Endowed with leadership qualities and standing out from their milieu dren. Endowed with leadership qualities and standing out from their milieu in certain certain aspects aspects of of character, character, they they are are not-as not—as in in Hannah Hannah Arendt's Arendt's "brutal"brutalin ity of of evil" evil" hypothesis—perfectly ordinary people people with with the the capacity capacity to to behypothesis-perfectly ordinary beity have as as monsters. monsters. have

FOUR FOUR

Victims and Others Victims and Others II: The The Hindus Hindus

O O

ne of the worst ne of the worst hit hit areas areas in in the the riots riots was was Pardiwada Pardiwada ("settlement ("settlement of of the the Pardis") from Char Pardis") in in Shakkergunj. Shakkergunj. Two Two miles miles from Char Minar, Minar, the the center center of of the the walled fifty Hindu walled city, city, Pardiwada Pardiwada is is an an enclave enclave of of about about fifty Hindu houses houses surrounded surrounded by Before the of by Muslim Muslim settlements. settlements. Before the last last riot, riot, Pardiwada Pardiwada had had aa population population of fifty families about about aa hundred hundred and and fifty families (in (in aa family-centered family-centered culture, culture, the the populapopulation figures, too, tion figures, too, are are given given in in number number of of families families rather rather than than individuals) individuals) which which has has now now dwindled dwindled to to fifty. fifty. The the main road to to lead ParThe narrow narrow lane lane which which branches branches off off the main road lead into into Pardiwada diwada meanders meanders through through Muslim Muslim mohallas mohallaswhere wheremany manyofofthe thehouses housesshow show of the owner by having a Window, a door, or a whole the religious affiliation the religious affiliation of the owner by having a window, a door, or a whole bicycles, wall wall painted painted green. green. The The access access lane lane is is generally generally crowded crowded with with bicycles, pegoats, goats, buffalo buffalo and and fruit fruit vendors vendors pushing pushing their their carts carts through through aa stream stream of of pedestrians both directions. pedestrians are Hindus from destrians moving moving in in both directions. The The pedestrians are both both Hindus from Pardiwada Pardiwada and and their their Muslim Muslim neighbors, neighbors, and and the the lack lack of of warmth warmth between between the the two two is is palpable. palpable. A A snapshot snapshot sticks sticks in in my my mind: mind: two two middle-aged middle-aged woman, woman, both both fat, fat, one one aa Hindu Hindu in in aa saree, sane,the theother otheraaMuslim Muslimininan anankle-length ankle-lengthblack black burl/a, burcja,though thoughwith withthetheface faceunveiled, unveiled,walking walkingwith withthethesame sameside-to-side side-to-side of waddle waddle of of overweight overweight ducks, ducks, pass pass each each other. other. There There is is no no outward outward sign sign of acknowledgment acknowledgment as as they they squeeze squeeze past past each each other other although although before before the the riots, riots, II polite greetings am am told, told, at at least least polite greetings would would have have been been exchanged. exchanged. The brick and in The small small brick and cement cement plastered plastered houses houses of of Pardiwada, Pardiwada, arranged arranged in years ago. uneven rows, were uneven rows, were built built thirty thirty to to forty forty years ago. Some Some of of them, them, especially especially at at the the periphery periphery of of the the basti, basti,are aredeserted desertedand andshow showobvious obvioussigns signsofofthe theriot: riot: charred broken electric wires charred doors doors and and windows, windows, broken electric bulbs bulbs and and ripped-out ripped-out wires floors. Many hanging hanging loose loose above above the the chipped chipped and and pitted pitted floors. Many have have crude crude "house "house their walls, if the for for seal[sicT' seal[sic]" signs signs lettered lettered in in English English on on their walls, as as if the complex complex of of feelfeelbe dealt 87 ings the seller ings evoked evoked in in the seller by by such such an an offer offer could could only only be dealt with with in in an an emoemo- 87

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Chapter Four Chapter Four tionally distancing foreign foreign language language rather rather than than in in the the more more intimate intimate mother mother tionally distancing tongue. They remain remain unsold. unsold. The The Pardis Pardis believe that the the prospective prospective buyers, tongue. They believe that buyers, who the owners who are are Muslim, Muslim, are are waiting waiting for for prices prices to to fall fall further further when when the owners will will be be forced into into distress distress sales. forced sales. The street street scenes scenes of of Pardiwada, Pardiwada, though, though, are are cheerful cheerful enough. enough. Since Since the the The main occupation occupation of of the the Pardis Pardis is is the the selling selling of of fruits fruits and and vegetables, is aa main vegetables, there there is great deal deal of of activity activity early early in in the the morning when whole whole families families are are involved involved morning when great in in sorting sorting out out and and cleaning cleaning the the fruits fruits and and vegetables vegetables heaped heaped in in front front of of the the houses and and loading loading them onto pushcarts. pushcarts. Many Many of of the women have have been been up up houses them onto the women since three three in in the the morning morning to fetch the the fruit fruit from from the wholesaler, generally generally aa since to fetch the wholesaler, Muslim, or or even even from from the the faraway faraway Muslim-owned orchards at at the outskirts of Muslim, Muslim-owned orchards the outskirts of the city. city. These These are are traditional traditional business relations which have endured endured through through the business relations which have are based based on on trust, trust, where where the the women women take take the the fruit fruit on on credit credit generations. They They are generations. and make make the the payment the next next day day after after it it has has been been sold. sold. The The riots riots have have disand payment the disturbed these these business-and business—and inevitably, over time, time, personal-relationships personal—relationships turbed inevitably, over between The women between the the Pardis Pardis and and their their Muslim Muslim suppliers. suppliers. The women now now feel feel more more at apprehensive apprehensive walking walking through through dark dark and and empty empty Muslim Muslim bazaars bazaars or or gardens gardens at the morning. morning. In this this time time of of the In any any case, case, it it is is aa community community tradition tradition that that the the women fetch the the goods goods and and the the men men sell sell them, them, aa tradition tradition which which doubtless doubtless women fetch As one persists find it persists also also because because men men find it convenient. convenient. As one of of the the women women describing describing the so the tradition tradition added, added, "Moreover, "Moreover, my my husband husband does does not not feel feel like like getting getting up up so early early in in the the morning." morning." Later in the day, day, once once the the men men are are gone, gone, the the teenage teenage boys boys have have been been sent sent Later in the on their their bicycles to sell sell onions, onions, garlic, garlic, and and ginger, ginger, and and the the older older children children on bicycles to trooped off have have trooped off to to school school next next to to the the Hanuman Hanuman temple, temple, Pardiwada Pardiwada settles settles down more easygoing down to to aa more easygoing pace. pace. Free Free of of morning morning household household chores, chores, the the women to sit the houses, houses, smoking, women come come out out to sit in in front front of of the smoking, chatting, chatting, and and giving giving baths to to babies babies and and young children while while old old men men gather gather under under the the shade shade of baths young children of trees trees to to gossip gossip or or play play their their interminable interminable games games of of cards. cards. By By one one in in the the afterafternoon, the the working members of of the the famify family are are back back as as are are the the school school children. children. noon, working members After aa lunch lunch of of rice rice and and aa vegetable vegetable curry, curry, this this isis aatime timefor forrelaxation relaxationand andthe the After exchange of of the the day's days news. news. Children Children play play around around on on the the streets, streets, generally generally exchange games of of marbles, marbles, and and there is much casual visiting visiting as as people wander in in and and there is much casual people wander games out of of each each others' others' houses. out houses. the Pardis Pardis belong to the the lower poverty is reEconomically, Economically, the belong to lower class. class. Their Their poverty is reflected flected in in the the garbage garbage dump dump which which is is clean clean and and uncluttered, uncluttered, with with nothing nothing more of pottery, more in in it it than than shards shards of pottery, small small strips strips of of cloth, cloth, husks husks of of corn, corn, and and aa few rotted vegetables. the poor few rotted vegetables. Because Because the poor use use almost almost everything everything and and throw throw away very very little, little, their their garbage garbage dumps dumps are are generally generally cleaner cleaner than than those those of of their their away

Victims Hindus Victims and and Others Others I, L The The Hindus richer neighbors. be poor not destitute. richer neighbors. The The Pardis Pardis may may be poor but but they they are are not destitute. They They seem to to have enough money for simple simple food, food, clothes, clothes, and and even even that that necesseem have enough money for necessary poor-a black-and-white black-and-white television sary luxury luxury of of the the urban urban poor—a television set. set. The The girls girls and women women are are dressed dressed in in bright bright colors colors and and wear wear earrings, earrings, bangles, bangles, neckneckand laces, and and large large round round bindis bindisrather ratherthan thansmall smalldemure demuredots dotson onthe theforehead, forehead, laces, serenely unaware unaware that that this particular accoutrement accoutrement is is now part of of the the urban urban this particular now aa part serenely chic of of upper-class upper-class women women in in Delhi Delhi and and Bombay. Bombay. Since Since their their economic economic life life is is chic critically dependent dependent on on the the prices prices at at which which they they buy buy and and sell sell fruits fruits and and vegecritically vegetables, their their incomes incomes fluctuate daily, ranging ranging from from zero zero on on the the day day aa Pardi Pardi tables, fluctuate daily, does not go out out to to work hundred rupees on an an exceptionally exceptionally good good day. not go work to to aa hundred rupees on day. does Their too, is Their housing, housing, too, is decent decent although although overcrowded, overcrowded, not not only only because because of of the the smallness smallness of of the the houses houses but but also also because because of of the the extended extended nature nature of of the the Pardi Pardi family family which which seems seems to to spread spread haphazardly haphazardly in in all all directions directions like like the the roots of of aa banyan banyantree. tree.InInfact, fact,ininthis thisextremely extremelyclose-knit close-knitcommunity, community,there thereisis roots no clear-cut clear-cut demarcation demarcation of of one one family family from from another. another. Intermarriage Intermarriage has been no has been so rampant rampant that that everyone everyone is is related related to to everyone everyone else. else. The The community community is is didiso vided into into four four clans, clans, each each deriving deriving its its name name from from one one of of the the four four goddesses goddesses vided —Chowkat Mata, Mata, Shakti Shakti Mata, Mata, Kali Kali Mata, Mata, and and Naukod Naukod Mata. Mata. Theoretically, Theoretically, -Chowkat marriages within a clan are forbidden and the marriage partner cannot be be marriages within a clan are forbidden and the marriage partner cannot outside the the other other three three clans; clans,- it it is, is, however, however, aa rule rule mostly mostly observed observed in in its its vioviooutside lation. lation. The pardi appears "the hills man," The word word pardi appearstotobebea adistorted distortedform formofofpahadi, pahadi, "the hills man," and hills of and the the group group traces traces its its original original home home to to the the hills of Chittorgarh Chittorgarh in in distant distant north, inhabited Rajasthan bhilhunting huntingtribes. tribes.The Thelanguage language Rajasthan in in the the north, inhabited by by the the bhi/ they speak speak within within the community is is aa mixture mixture of of Marwadi Marwadi and and Rajasthani, Rajasthani, they the community although all all are are fluent in the the Hyderabadi Hyderabadi dialect dialect while some also also know know fluent in while some although Telegu. As As skilled skilled hunters hunters of of birds like quail quail and and partridge partridge and and of of small small ananbirds like Telegu. imals such as rabbit and barking deer, the Pardis were nomadic hunters who imals such as rabbit and barking deer, the Pardis were nomadic hunters who moved southward southward to to Hyderabad Hyderabad two two hundred andfifty ago. According According moved hundred and fifty years years ago. to their their lore, lore, the the Muslim king who who ruled ruled Hyderabad Hyderabad at at the the time time was was suffering suffering Muslim king to grievously from aa festering festering sore sore which which did did not not respond to treatment. treatment. One One of of grievously from respond to the king's doctors, a venerable hakim of Unani medicine, suggested that the the king's doctors, a venerable hakim of Unani medicine, suggested that the only possible cure was was the the application application of of minced minced meat meat of of aa particular particular kind kind of only possible cure of quail which which was was difficult difficult to to ensnare. ensnare. The The king king had had heard heard of of the the group group of of quail Pardis who who had had just entered his his kingdom kingdom and and of of their their proficiency as hunters. just entered proficiency as hunters. Pardis A Pardi was was summoned summoned to to the the court court and and entrusted entrusted with with the the task task of of snaring snaring A Pardi some of these quails. The hunter executed the order and brought back sevsome of these quails. The hunter executed the order and brought back several birds birds whose whose meat meat was was minced minced and and applied applied to to the the royal royal sore. sore. The The worm worm eral that was was eating eating into into the the king's king's flesh turned its its attention attention to to the the bird's birds meat, meat, that flesh turned

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Chapter Four Chapter Four which was poisonous king recovered, gratewhich was poisonous for for it, it, and and it it died. died. The The king recovered, and and in in his his gratehenceforth the the Pardis resifulness fulness decreed decreed that that henceforth Pardis were were welcome welcome to to take take up up residence in the the kingdom more materially, dence in kingdom of of Hyderabad. Hyderabad. In In addition, addition, and and more materially, he he showed his gratefulness by by giving giving them them aa large large tract tract of of land land called called Jalpalli, Jalpalli, showed his gratefulness which is is about about ten ten miles miles from from this particular Pardiwada. Pardiwada. Here, Here, the the Pardis Pardis dug dug this particular which well for for drinking drinking water, water, built built houses, houses, and and settled settled down down for for the the first first time time in in aa well the history history of of the community in in aa place place they they could could call call their their own. own. the the community Because of of the scarcity of of good good forests forests near near Jalpalli Jalpalli and the reluctance Because the scarcity and the reluctance of of the younger generation generation to learn the the arduous arduous skills skills of of hunting, hunting, the the Pardis Pardis beto learn bethe younger gan to to look look for for other other sources sources of of livelihood. livelihood. From From nomadic nomadic hunters they hunters they gan turned into into daily daily wage wage laborers laborers in in the the fruit fruit orchards orchards and and vegetable vegetable farms farms of turned of Muslim landlords, landlords, packing and transporting transporting fruit fruit and and vegetables vegetables from from the the Muslim packing and farms to to sell sell in in the the city. city. Gradually, Gradually, they moved from from Jalpalli Jalpalli into into Hyderabad Hyderabad farms they moved where over over the the last last fifty they have have created created various various settlements, settlements, called called where fifty years years they Pardiwadas. The The whole whole community community still still assembles assembles together together in in the the ancestral ancestral Pardiwadas. village of of Jalpalli to celebrate celebrate certain certain important important festivals festivals like like Dusshera Dusshera and and village Jalpalli to Holi. HolL Although the tradition of Although they they are are now now sellers sellers of of vegetables vegetables and and fruits, fruits, the tradition of hunting and and the the memory memory of of the the days days when when these these nomads nomads were were considered considered hunting the scourge scourge of of more more settled settled communities communities are are very very much much alive alive as as aa part part of the of Pardi identity and and cultural cultural memory. They take take aa not-so-secret not-so-secret pride in their their Pardi identity memory. They pride in reputation as as aa violent violent and and aggressive aggressive people. people. There There is is little little shame shame in in the the reputation "recollections" of the men that earlier, in the days of the benefactor king, "recollections" of the men that earlier, in the days of the benefactor king, they were were regarded as bandits bandits and and thieves thieves and and that, that, whenever whenever aa band band of they regarded as of Pardis camped camped near near aa village village for for hunting, it had had to to report report daily daily to the headheadto the Pardis hunting, it man and the police. Generally, Generally, though, though, the the "outlaw "outlaw hunter" hunter' is is now now aa dark, dark, the police. man and occasionally longed-for longed-for and and rarely rarely fantasized fantasized part of the the Pardi Pardi identity. identity. It occasionally part of It comes to to the the forefront forefront only only during during the the hunting hunting rituals rituals when when the the community community comes assembles to to celebrate celebrate its its festivals festivals in in Jalpalli. Jalpalli. In In aa distorted distorted form, form, however, however, II assembles believe it it also also colors colors their their participation participation in in riots riots and and religious religious Violence, violence, which which believe is experienced experienced in in terms terms of of the the hunter hunter and and the the hunted. hunted. is The would now recognize as as The "identity-kit" "identity-kit" sketch sketch the the Pardis Pardis would now have have others others recognize their their own own is is of of aa community community that that is is accepted accepted as as aa respectable respectable part part of of settled settled Hindu society. society. In In their their origins origins myth, myth, the the Pardis Pardis are are intimately intimately related to the the Hindu related to Marwadis, India's India's richest richest and and highly highly respected business community, community, which which respected business Marwadis, hail from from the the plains plains of of the the same same area area in in Rajasthan the Pardis roamed Rajasthan where where the Pardis roamed hail the hills. The The ancestors ancestors of of the two communities communities were were brothers,one the two brothers; one the rocky rocky hills. chose business business and and the the other other hunting as his his profession. profession. In In their their further further efforts efforts hunting as chose at what what the sociologist M. M. N. N. Srinivas Srinivas has has called called the the process process of of SanskritizaSanskritizaat the sociologist

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tion, the the Pardis strive to to emulate emulate and and adopt adopt the manners and and mores mores of of highhightion, Pardis strive the manners caste Hindu Hindu communities communities in in an an effort effort to raise their their ritual status.1t The The ersterstto raise ritual status. caste while subsistence subsistence hunters hunters now very strict strict prohibitions prohibitions on on the the eating eating of of while now have have very beef. Drinking Drinking of of liquor, liquor, too, too, is is frowned frowned upon, upon, although although in in an an earlier earlier generagenerabeef. tion even even women women were were regular regular drinkers drinkers as as some some of of the older women women still still conconthe older tion tinue to to be. Marriages used used to to be be simple simple affairs, affairs, with with the families of of the the bride bride be. Marriages the families tinue and the the groom groom sitting sitting down down together together with with some some elders elders of of the community and the community tree to to decide decide on on the the arrangements arrangements and and the sharing of of expenses. expenses. The The under aa tree under the sharing head of of the the community community then then conducted conducted aa simple simple ceremony. ceremony. Today, Today, marriages marriages head follow the the more more elaborate elaborate pattern pattern of of other other Hindu castes. The The groom's groom's family family Hindu castes. follow demands and and receives receives aa dowry dowry from from the girls side. side. Brahmin Brahmin ritual specialists the girl's ritual specialists demands are involved involved in in the the matching of horoscopes, horoscopes, in in determining determining the the auspicious auspicious are matching of days, and and in in presiding presiding over over the the elaborate elaborate wedding wedding ceremonies. ceremonies. days, The raise their sociThe Pardis' Pardis' Sanskritizing Sanskritizing effort effort to to raise their ritual ritual status status in in Hindu Hindu society ety is is paradoxically paradoxically accompanied accompanied by by what what can can only only be be called called attempts attempts at at de-Sanskritization de-Sanskritization in in the the socioeconomic socioeconomic sphere. sphere. This This is is because because of of the the reserreserto benefit benefit the the historically historically backvation vation policy policy of of the the Indian Indian state state which which seeks seeks to backpreferential quotas ward ward and and deprived deprived sections sections of of society society through through preferential quotas in in school school admissions jobs. The were once admissions and and government government jobs. The Pardis, Pardis, who who were once classified classified as as aa thus on rung of "scheduled ''scheduled tribe" tribe" and and were were thus on the the lowest lowest rung of the the socioeconomic socioeconomic totem pole first claims totem pole (thereby (thereby having having first claims on on the the state state quotas quotas in in education education and and employment), have been recently reclassified reclassified as caste." employment), have been recently as aa mere mere "backward "backward caste." The has brought with it The elevation elevation has brought with it the the loss loss of of many many economic economic benefits, benefits, and and the with the to prove the Pardis Pardis are are currently currently engaged engaged in in aa battle battle with the bureaucracy bureaucracy to prove that backwardness is that of thus to that their their backwardness is greater greater than than that of aa backward backward caste caste and and thus to recover their earlier, lower status. recover their earlier, lower status. With very few have generally With very few exceptions, exceptions, anthropologists anthropologists have generally not not described described the many reasons reasons why why aa community community reveals itself to to an an outsider. outsider. Perhaps Perhaps this the many reveals itself this believe that that the reserve reserve is is because because many many anthropologists anthropologists believe the information information they they receive primarily due personal qualities, receive is is primarily due to to their their personal qualities, such such as as aa special special gift gift for for establishing establishing rapport rapport with with strangers, strangers, fluency fluency in in the the community's community's spoken spoken lanlanguage, guage, evident evident sympathy sympathy with with its its ways, ways, or or other other markers markers of of an an irresistible irresistible be immodest public. personal which it would be personal attractiveness attractiveness which it would immodest to to talk talk about about in in public. The community's expectations of the researcher, which both encourage The community's expectations of the researcher, which both encourage and and skew disskew aa community's community's self-revelations self-revelations in in aa particular particular direction, direction, are are rarely rarely discussed. cussed. These These expectations expectations may may be be frankly frankly material, material, as as in in case case of of Napoleon Napoleon Chagnon's Chagnon's Yanomono Yanomono Indians Indians of of Venezuela Venezuela who who expected expected aa constant constant stream stream of of presents presents in in exchange exchange for for their their cooperation cooperation in in furthering furthering the the anthropoloanthropologist's gist's academic academic career.2 career.2 There, There, the the community community operated operated according according to to the the

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Chapter Four Four Chapter principle more eggs, principle of of the the goose goose who who laid laid golden golden eggs: eggs: "If "If you you want want more eggs, be be nice nice to to the the goose." goose." In In other other communities, communities, expectations expectations may may be be linked linked to to more more nonmaterial sahih ififthe nonmaterial benefits: benefits: the the prestige prestige of of associating associating with with aa white white sahib theananthropologist thropologist is is European European or or North North American, American, or or (in (in aa more more literate literate commucommunity) with admission nity) help help with admission and and scholarships scholarships for for aa relative relative to to the the sahib's sahib's university. As far far as as the the Pardis Pardis were were concerned, concerned, itit was was evident evident that that their their initial initial university. As ambivalence toward toward me, me, the the motivation motivation both both to to hold hold back back and and to to talk, talk, was was ambivalence colored colored by by their their preoccupation preoccupation with with getting getting themselves themselves reclassified reclassified as as aa scheduled might be scheduled tribe. tribe. Their Their suspicion suspicion was was of of strangers strangers who who might be agents agents of of the the government, gathering gathering data data which which would would harm harm their their cause, cause, like like the the regovernment, researcher searcher who who had had come come twenty twenty years years ago ago and and on on whose whose report report the the governgovernment ment had had acted: acted: "For "For his his own own career, career, he he ground ground aa whole whole community community into into which finally finally triumphed dust." dust." The The hope, hope, which triumphed over over the the doubt, doubt, was was of of my my being being aa potential potential helper helper in in their their dealings dealings with with the the state, state, given given my my obvious obvious high high status. The The motivation motivation of of the the Muslims Muslims in in talking talking to to me-or, me—or, rather of their their status. rather of leaders leaders in in sanctioning sanctioning our our conversations-was conversations—was of of aa different different kind kind which which can can be be expressed expressed in in words words thus: thus: "You "You want want to to write write about about us us and and we we would would like like to to be as be written written about about in in aa way way which which suits suits our our political political purpose purpose of of appearing appearing as victims." In victims." In contrast contrast to to the the Pardi Pardi leaders' leaders' faintly faintly whining, whining, complaining complaining tone, tone, the firmly courteous, the leaders leaders of of the the Karawan Karawan Muslim Muslim community community were werefirmly courteous, barely barely betraying betraying their their slight slight contempt contempt of of aa Hindu Hindu liberal liberal and and do-gooder do-gooder whose whose guilt guilt about about the the Muslim Muslim minority minority they they hoped hoped to to manipulate. manipulate. II was was thus thus aware aware that that the the accounts accounts II heard heard were were not not only only self-representations self-representations of of individuals individuals and and the the community accommunity but but were were also also designed designed to to accomplish accomplish particular particular pragmatic pragmatic acin tions. needed to tions. Thus Thus their their conversational conversational context context needed to be be kept kept constantly constantly in mind. mind. A Pardi A Pardi Family Family The The two-storied two-storied house house of of Badli Badli Pershad, Pershad, of of the the Naukod Naukod Mata Mata clan, clan, is is smack smack in top of which opens in the the heart heart of of Pardiwada. Pardiwada. On On top of the the doorway doorway which opens into into aa courtcourtyard are two painted yard are two painted baked baked clay clay idols, idols, each each about about aa foot foot high. high. The The monkey monkey god with aa golden mace resting god Hanuman, Hanuman, with golden mace resting on on his his powerful powerful shoulder, shoulder, stands stands on on the the left left side, side, guarding guarding with with his his legendary legendary strength strength the the inhabitants inhabitants of of the the Rama house beings. The The idol idol of of god god Rama house from from the the evil evil forces forces that that surround surround human human beings. stands kneeling in stands on on the the right right side, side, with with aa smaller smaller Hanuman Hanuman kneeling in front front of of the the god god in in his his equally equally legendary legendary devotion. devotion. Badli Badli Pershad, Pershad, who who is is about about seventy seventy years years old old and and blind blind for for the the last lastfive five years, years, is is usually usually to to be be found found in in the the room room to to the the right right of of the the courtyard. courtyard. Except Except for for aa cot, cot, the the room room is is empty empty and and scruscru-

Victims Hindus Victims and and Others Others L L The The Hindus pulously clean. floor, made pulously clean. Its Its floor, made of of grey grey paving paving stone, stone, is is swept swept and and washed washed evevery ery morning. morning. Badli has four of Badli Pershad Pershad has four grown grown children, children, two two sons sons and and two two daughters, daughters, of his family live which his his youngest Rajesh and which youngest son son Rajesh and his family live live with with him. him. The The others others live separately in in different different parts parts of of the the city. city. Both Both his sons are are college college graduates graduates separately his sons who reluctantly took the traditional traditional family family occupation occupation of of vending vending fruit fruit who reluctantly took up up the from pushcarts could not Their feelings feelings of of bitterbitterfrom pushcarts because because they they could notfind find other otherjobs. jobs. Their ness and humiliation humiliation are are very very close close to to the the surface. surface. Besides Besides his son, daughterdaughterhis son, ness and in-law, and and two two grandchildren, grandchildren, Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's ninety-year-old ninety-year-old mother mother also also in-law, lives with with him. him. His His sister, sister, Laloo Bai, stays stays in in aa separate separate part of the part of the house, house, lives Laloo Bai, occupying most of the the second second story, story, with with her her eldest eldest son son and and his his family. family. The The occupying most of kitchens are are separate separate but on many many evenings, evenings, especially especially in in the the summer summer when when it kitchens but on it gets very very hot, hot, the the sister sister and and her her family family come come down down to to the courtyard with with the the the courtyard gets food they have cooked, and and both the families families eat eat together together.. food they have cooked, both the .This winter of of .This is is aa snapshot snapshot of of the the family family at at one one particular particular instant instant in in the the winter t1991, 99 t , since Pardiwada family fluidity. Family since aa major major feature feature of of aa Pardiwada family is is its itsfluidity. Family memmemtime depending bers bers come come and and go go and and stay stay for for varying varying lengths lengths of of time depending upon upon the the impact their lives flow of impact of of external external events events on on their lives and and the the ebb ebb and and flow of internal internal famfamrelationships. Badli ily ily life life and and relationships. Badli Pershad's Pershad's eldest eldest son, son, Satish, Satish, lived lived in in the the same same house to aa safer safer area area after after house with with his his family family till till aa few few months months ago ago and and moved moved out out to the December riot he may the December riot of of last last year. year. If If his his economic economic situation situation worsens, worsens, he may soon soon be be back back again. again. In In this this kind kind of of shifting shifting family, family, expanding expanding and and contracting contracting like with an the only like aa giant giant membrane meftibrane with an irregular irregular rhythm, rhythm, the only constant constant presence presence for for young young children children is is their their parents parents (and, (and, to to some some extent, extent, their their grandparents), grandparents), mother. Although both exciting especially especially the the mother. Although it it is is both exciting and and reassuring reassuring to to have have mitimany who can many caretakers caretakers who can compensate compensate for for parental parental shortcomings shortcomings and and mitigate the strong emotions emotions aroused aroused in in aa small, small, nuclear nuclear family, family, the the frequent frequent gate the strong comings and goings goings of of other other adults adults in in an an extended extended family family can also make make chilcan also chilcomings and dren their own with aa marked dren clutch clutch to to their own parents, parents, especially especially the the mother, mother, with marked intenintensity sity as as they they seek seek to to establish establish an an intimate, intimate, enduring, enduring, and and trusting trusting relationship relationship in in their inner, representational worlds-to in their inner, representational worlds—to establish establish "object "object constancy," constancy," in psychoanalytic psychoanalytic language. language. In In one one of of my my earlier earlier writings, writings, II had had attributed attributed the the intense between mother Hindu India vicissiintense bond bond between mother and and son son in in Hindu India solely solely to to the the vicissifinally bebetudes tudes of of aa woman's woman's identity-to identity—to become become aa mother mother of of aa son son is is to to finally of the patriarchy-with all all the the radical come aa woman in the come woman in the eyes eyes of the patriarchy—with radical improvement in in her her status status in in the family that that such such aa transition transition implies. implies.33 II inimprovement the family increasingly realize realize that that the the son, son, with with his his need need for for at at least least one one figure to stand stand figure to creasingly out clearly clearly from from aa labyrinthine labyrinthine flux of relationships, relationships, actively actively furthers furthers the the muout flux of mutual emotional investment investment of of mother mother and and son. son. tual emotional

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Chapter Four Chapter Four The fluidity is The experience experience of of fluidity is not not only only from from within within the the family, family, which which conconstantly but also stantly constitutes constitutes and and reconstitutes reconstitutes itself, itself, but also in in relation relation to to the the wider wider community is community which, which, in in fact, fact, is is an an extended extended family. family. Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's eldest eldest son son is married to married to his his sister's sister's daughter daughter and and his his youngest youngest daughter daughter is is married married to to one one of of his many such marriage in his sister's sister's sons. sons. There There are are so so many such interconnections interconnections by by marriage in the the Pardi community community that that Badli Badli Pershad Pershad would would not not be be surprised surprised to to discover discover that that Pardi he was was the the nephew nephew of of his his daughter! daughter! One One of of the the consequences consequences of of their their being being he such views and such aa closely closely knit knit community community is is the the great great similarity similarity in in their their views and opinopinions on on different different issues issues and and in in the the way way they and follow follow aa shared they think think and shared logic. logic. ions This can can be be helpful helpful in in the the sense sense that that one one can can be be reasonably reasonably sure sure that that even even aa This small sample sample would would be be accurately accurately representative of the the larger community. small representative of larger community. On the the other other hand, hand, it it can can get get boring boring to to listen listen to to very very similar similar responses and aa On responses and shared, common common discourse discourse unenlivened unenlivened by by individual individual quirkiness. quirkiness. shared, the family, Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's wife, wife, one one of of the the economic economic mainstays mainstays of of the family, who who earned fifty to earned fifty to sixty sixty rupees rupees aa day day selling selling fruit fruit died died in in 1988. 1988. He He misses misses her her terribly. "Her times. She my terribly. "Her absence absence is is unbearable unbearable at at times. She used used to to look look after after all all my needs. needs. Since Since 1I cannot cannot see, see, she she brought brought me me my my food food and and medicine, medicine, took took me me to to the bathroom. bathroom. 1I have years and the have been been aa diabetic diabetic for for thirty-five thirty-five years and can can only only eat eat aa restricted diet of of wheat wheat rotis rotisand andvegetables. vegetables.1Iam amnot notallowed allowedtotoeat eatrice. rice.She She restricted diet understood that that these these restrictions restrictions upset upset me me and and sometimes sometimes added added meat gravy understood meat gravy to my my food." food." to "Although my my children children and and grandchildren grandchildren are are quite quite obedient, obedient, 1I feel feel they they "Although get tired tired of of taking taking care care of of me me to to such such an an extent. extent. Sometimes Sometimes 1I think think 1I am am aa get major burden burden on on them them because because of of my lack of of sight. sight. If If only only 1I could could have have this this major my lack [cataract] surgery, surgery, 1I would would be be more more independent. independent. My My mother mother here, who is [cataract] here, who is probably ninety ninety years years old, old, is is still still fit and healthy, healthy, and and people say she she is is my probably fit and people say my daughter and and not not my my mother mother in in the the way way she she looks looks after after me. me. She She brings me my my daughter brings me food, takes me to to the the bathroom, bathroom, bathes me, and and sees sees to to all all my comforts. Even food, takes me bathes me, my comforts. Even at this this age, age, she she is active and and alert. alert. When When my my daughter-in-law daughter-in-law goes goes off off to to her her at is active mother's house, house, she she does does all all the the cooking cooking by mother's by herself." herself." "I "I had had more more say say in in family family matters matters when when 1Ihad hadmy myeyes. eyes.My Mychildren childrenwere were also also younger. younger. 1I was was strong, strong, worked worked hard, hard, and and people people looked looked up up to to me me for for making making all all the the major major household household decisions. decisions. Now Now 1I feel feel dependent, dependent, aa burden burden on the family. They still respect me needs and on the family. They still respect me and and are are concerned concerned about about my my needs and wishes. too, feel be allowed to do wishes. I,I, too, feel it it is is their their life life now now and and they they should should be allowed to do what what they want want to. to. Therefore Therefore unless unless someone someone asks asks my my opinion opinion 1I try not to to force force they try not my views on others." my views on others." The not only The deference deference paid paid to to Badli Badli Pershad Pershad is is not only perfunctory perfunctory but but extends extends to him to sell to issues issues vital vital for for the the family's family's welfare. welfare. His His sister sister and and his his sons sons want want him to sell

Victims Victims and and Others Others l: I: The The Hindus Hindus the the house house and and move move out out of of Pardiwada Pardiwada since since their their sense sense of of security security has has dimindiminBadli Pershad ished precipitately after the last ished precipitately after the last riot. riot. In In the the past, past, Badli Pershad has has resisted resisted the the demand demand although although he he is is now now resigned resigned to to the the move: move: 'This 'This house house carries carries memomemories ries of of my my youth, youth, my my wife, wife, my my children, children, and and the the good good times times that that we we spent spent together. Given a choice, I would together. Given a choice, I would not not like like to to leave leave this this house house till till II die. die. But But under the the circumstances, circumstances, where where we we cannot cannot hope hope for for security security or or peace, peace, II am am under selling. The The reason reason II have have not not done done so so isisbecause becausethe the buyers buyers forced to to think think of of selling. forced house." are are mainly mainly Muslim Muslim who who are are offering offering very very low low prices prices for for such such aa good good house." Pardis Pardis and and the the Modern Modern World World Badli that he Badli Pershad's Pershad's younger younger son, son, the the forty-year-old forty-year-old Rajesh, Rajesh, is is bitter bitter that he could could not find the job he not find the job he feels feels his his college college education education entitled entitled him him to. to. It It is is with with aa sense sense of of aggrieved aggrieved humiliation humiliation that that he he drives drives an an auto-rickshaw auto-rickshaw to to earn earn aa livliving, in in addition addition to to helping helping out out with with the the family's family's vegetable and fruit fruit business. ing, vegetable and business. He promises, although he would He has has aa baffled baffled feeling feeling of of betrayal, betrayal, of of unkept unkept promises, although he would be the promises promises were them. He blames the be unable unable to to say say what what the were or or who who made made them. He blames the changing changing times, times, as as do do many many of of his his friends, friends, for for this this feeling feeling of of nagging nagging dissatdissatworld was isfaction. passing of isfaction. Rajesh Rajesh mourns mourns the the passing of an an earlier earlier era era when when the the world was aa simpler place and the Pardis much stronger simpler and and kinder kinder place and the the bonds bonds between between the Pardis much stronger jaat (a (a word word denoting than than they they are are today. today. "In "In Hyderabad, Hyderabad, our our jaat denoting both both aa caste caste and and aa community) community) was was once once the the best best in in the the mango mango and and grape grape business. No business. No other jaat could other jaat could even even touch touch us. us. Now Now we we compete compete against against each each other. other. We We have have become best in in the become the the best the infighting infighting business. business. Everyone Everyone is is running running after after wealth, wealth, looking looking out out only only for for himself. himself. We We were were happier happier when when we we were were together." together." "In "In olden olden days days after after you you earned earned twenty twenty thousand thousand rupees, rupees, you you relaxed. relaxed. There There was was enough enough to to eat eat for for six six months months and and after after that that we'll we'll see. see. We We went went back back to Now no to the the village, village, lazed lazed about, about, talked talked day day and and night. night. Now no one's ones desires desires are are better food, thiS, ever wants more-bigger ever satisfied. satisfied. Everyone Everyone wants more—bigger house, house, better food, more more this, more more that. that. It It is is good good that that aa persons persons thinks, thinks, "I "I must must progress, progress, II must mustraise raisemymyself." We were hapself." But But this this raising raising is is done done by by pushing pushing someone someone else else down. down. We were hapwe earned but lived love. pier pier when when we earned less less but lived in in friendship friendship and and love. "Even business has Nowadays, it just "Even the the nature nature of of our our business has changed. changed. Nowadays, it is is all all just calculation. of calculation. Earlier, Earlier, we we would would go go into into an an orchard orchard and and estimate estimate the the yield yield of trees trees and and come come to to an an agreement agreement with with the the owner. owner. Most Most of of the the time time the the fruit fruit would made aa little would be be more more than than the the estimate estimate and and one one made little extra extra money. money. Then Then came packing boxes. boxes. We buy the came these these packing We do do not not buy the fruit fruit on on the the trees trees anymore anymore but but get have to to deal get it it in in exactly exactly weighed weighed boxes. boxes. You You have deal with with agents, agents, contractors, contractors, truck owners, no more truck owners, each each one one measuring, measuring, weighing, weighing, calculating. calculating. There There is is no more

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Chapter Four Ch(.j~ter Four walking walking around around in in orchards orchards in in fresh fresh air, air, looking looking up up at at the the trees, trees, and and estimatestimatthe yield." ing ing the yield." Of mourning for days" may may well well Of course, course, aa part part of of Rajesh's Rajeshs mourning for the the "good "good old old days" be be the the normal normal expression expression of of what what Christopher Christopher Bollas Bollas calls calls aa "generational "generational the consciousness consciousness" consciousness" as as it it yields yields place place to to the consciousness of of aa new new generation. generation.44 Rajeshs nostalgic nostalgic ruminations ruminations are are thus also occasioned occasioned by the waning waning of of aa Rajesh's thus also by the youthful vitality which which made the world come alive alive at at aa particular particular time time of of his youthful vitality made the world come his life. The The inner inner feeling feeling of of the the dimming dimming of of life life for for aa whole whole generation generation then then gets gets life. expressed in in aa sense sense of of loss loss which which isisattributed attributed to to changes changes in in the the modernizing modernizing expressed outside world. Many of of us us pass pass down down this consciousness of of loss loss to to our our young, young, this consciousness outside world. Many although it it is is not not strictly strictly their their own, own, and and which which most most of of them thankfully sucthem thankfully sucalthough ceed in renouncing sooner or or later. later. On On the other hand, the raising raising of of aa genergenerceed in renouncing sooner the other hand, the ation's consciousness consciousness occurs occurs precisely precisely because because of of severe severe dislocations dislocations such such as as ation's the process process of of modernization. modernization. Without Without aa crisis crisis of of this this historical historical magnitude, magnitude, the the demarcation demarcation between between the consciousness of of aa preceding preceding and and aa succeeding succeeding the the consciousness is not is not generation generation is not so so marked; marked,- the the change change is not big big enough enough to to become become aa subsubject of ject of reflection. reflection. Rajesh's brother, the Rajeshs elder elder brother, the forty-five-year-old forty-five-year-old Satish, Satish, although although sharing sharing some some of of his his brother's brothers feelings feelings of of bitterness bitterness and and disappointment-he disappointment—he too too could not not get get aa job in spite spite of of his his education-would education—would confront confront the dislocacould job in the dislocain tions tions of of modernity modernity more more actively. actively. He He is is aa passionate passionate advocate advocate of of change change in man, whose of the the community's community's attitudes attitudes and and values. values. A A small, small, intense intense man, whose sense sense of his own own dignity is in in constant constant conflict conflict with an anxious anxious desire desire to to please, please, Satish Satish his dignity is with an would make the the next next generation generation aa vehicle vehicle for for his rather than than weigh weigh it his hopes hopes rather it would make down down with with despair. despair. "You "You know know our our business business isis such such that that we wecannot cannotearn earnaalot lotof ofmoney moneytotobuy buy property or have savings. property or have savings. It It is is aa hand-to-mouth hand-to-mouth existence. existence. Our Our most most valuable valuable property is our our children. children. So So we we are are very very careful careful about about how how we them up up property is we bring bring them and will make why we we not lives. That That is is why not only only want want to to feed feed and what what they they will make of of their their lives. and clothe clothe them them properly properly but also give give them them the best education education we we can. can. We and but also the best We do not our children children to to get get into into bad bad habits. habits. Therefore Therefore II have have bought bought aa do not want want our black-and-white television television so so that that if if they they want want to to watch watch aafilm they can can do do itit film they black-and-white at home. home. Otherwise Otherwise once once the the children children are are in in their their teens teens it it is is easy easy for for them them to to at fall into bad company and spoil their lives. But I know that not everyone in fall into bad company and spoil their lives. But I know that not everyone in our community community feels feels like like this. this. They They think children are are there there for for the fiour think that that children the financial support support of of the the parents parents in in their their old old age, age, and and this this is is why why they they want to nancial want to make them them study study and and find good job. Not for for the the children's children's sake sake but their make find aa good job. Not but their own. We We [indicates [indicates his his wife] wife] are are not selfish like like that. that. It It is is our our duty duty to to bring not selfish bring up up own. the children children as as good good people people and and if if they they feel feel like like taking care of of us in our our old old the taking care us in age then then it it is is our our good good luck." luck." age

Victims Victims and and Others Others L L The The Hindus Hindus "Our fixed festivals "Our people people have have certain certain fixed festivals like like Bonal, Bonal, Holi, Holi, and and Dusshera Dusshera which the time which we we have have celebrated celebrated since since the time of of our our ancestors. ancestors. But But now, now, seeing seeing other other Hindus Hindus celebrate celebrate so so many many festivals, festivals, our our people people also also want want to to celebrate celebrate them. Festivals them. Festivals like like Ganesh, Ganesh, Diwali, Diwali, Ugadi, Ugadi, are are nothing nothing but but occasions occasions for for the festival wasteful wasteful expenditure. expenditure. In In the the name name of of the festival it it becomes becomes compulsory compulsory to to buy new like buy new clothes, clothes, prepare prepare good good food, food, spend spend money money on on useless useless things things like crackers crackers and and decorations. decorations. It It is is the the spirit spirit of of sacredness sacredness and and not not the the show show that that isis important. and the can important. Unfortunately, Unfortunately, these these days days show show and the amount amount of of noise noise one one can have become become aa sign almake make seem seem to to have sign of of one's one's importance. importance. And And sometimes sometimes although not be be interested though the the menfolk menfolk may may not interested in in celebrating celebrating all all the the rituals rituals of of aa may have have to to do that my my festival, festival, they they may do so so because because of of their their wives. wives. II am am lucky lucky that wife shares my my ideas. ideas. Many Many of of my friends complain complain that that they they are are unable to wife shares my friends unable to meet these these expenses expenses but to undertake undertake them them to to please their wives. wives. These These please their meet but have have to women have have no no thoughts thoughts of of their their own. own. They They want want to do everything everything other other to do women amvery very particular particular that that blind blind customs customs and and useless useless rituals rituals are are disdiswomen do. do. II am women carded." carded." "Another is the burial of bodies. II "Another custom custom II would would like like to to change change is the burial of dead dead bodies. feel feel it it is is better better to to cremate cremate than than bury bury the the dead. dead. This This isis because because space space isisbecombecoming ing aa major major problem problem these these days. days. Our Our ancestral ancestral village village of of Jalpalli Jalpalli is is now now only only full full of of graves. graves. The The sad sad part part is is that that these these graves graves do do not not get get respectful respectful treatment treatment from those who from those who are are alive. alive. After After aa few few years, years, the the land land is is dug dug up up and and used used for for is better to finish finish off construction. it is construction. Therefore Therefore II feel feel it better to off once once and and for for all all so so that that there to the the dead. there is is neither neither aa problem problem of of space space nor nor disrespect disrespect to dead. Moreover, Moreover, my Hindu pracmany many times times some some of of my Hindu friends friends have have questioned questioned me me about about this this practice. tice. They They ask ask why why despite despite being being Hindus Hindus we we bury bury the the dead dead like like Muslims. Muslims. II is aa mixed feel feel very very embarrassed. embarrassed. Now Now it it is mixed situation. situation. Some Some families families have have started started cremating bury them. kind of cremating their their dead dead and and some some continue continue to to bury them. This This kind of behavior behavior makes you the makes you the laughingstock laughingstock of of others, others, especially especially these these Muslims. Muslims. They They are are always the lookout for our that are always on on the lookout for our customs customs that are odd. odd. This This is is the the main main differdifferfixed rules ence ours. They They have havefixed rules which which no no one one can can ence between between their their religion religion and and ours. flout." flout." liThe be"The other other thing thing II would would like like to to change change is is our our custom custom of of marriage marriage between because it tween members members of of one one family. family. Earlier, Earlier, people people followed followed it it because it ensured ensured that place. Now Now there no need that all all family family members members lived lived in in one one place. there is is no need for for such such aa is so much overcrowding. I feel that one must send custom because there custom because there is so much overcrowding. I feel that one must send our our because it it will will daughters daughters to to different different families families and and get get girls girls from from new new families families because help help us us establish establish new new relationships." relationships." Satish's main strategy Satish's main strategy in in dealing dealing with with the the dislocations dislocations caused caused by by rapid rapid change by inteintechange seems seems to to be be aimed aimed at at redUcing reducing the the isolation-of isolation—of the the family family by grating grating it it into into aa network network of of other other families, families, and and of of the the community community by by bringing bringing

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Chapter Four Chapter Four it the customs He exemplifies it closer closer to to the customs and and usage usage of of aa Hindu Hindu "mainstream." "mainstream." He exemplifies the both individual collective. In In their their the spirit spirit of of agency agency among among the the Pardis, Pardis, both individual and and collective. vigorous pursuit of vigorous pursuit of community community self-interest self-interest which which manipulates manipulates all all the the levers levers that can prethat can influence influence decision decision making making in in aa modern modern democratic democratic state-from state—from prebureaucracy to to persistent paring petitioning briefs paring detailed, detailed, petitioning briefs for for the the bureaucracy persistent lobbying lobbying of their their elected elected representatives-the representatives—the Pardis Pardis are are by no means means mere mere passive of by no passive victims of of the the modernizing modernizing process. victims process. The Knives The Night Night of of Long Long Knives The plump and The thirty-five-year-old, thirty-five-year-old, plump and cheerful cheerful Lalita, Lalita, Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's eldest eldest particular Saturday daughter-in-law, remembers that daughter-in-law, remembers that particular Saturday evening evening well. well. It It must must have have been been 7:30 7:30 and and they they were were all all gathered gathered around around the the television television set set listening listening to the Saturday to the the local local news news which which comes comes on on during during the the intermission intermission of of the Saturday thethe classification movie. movie. (It (It was was Swami SwamiAyappa, Ayappa,a religious-mythological a religious-mythologicalin in classificationofof Indian had started in another walled city Indian movies.) movies.) The The riots riots had started in another part part of of the the walled city that that five in the evening. news morning morning and and aa curfew curfew had had been been in in force force since since five in the evening. The The news announcer announcer informed informed them them that that the the curfew curfew would would be be lifted lifted for for one one hour hour the the next morning next morning so so that that people people could could go go out out and and buy buy essentials essentials such such as as milk milk and and medicines. medicines. Suddenly, Suddenly, they they heard heard aa crowd's crowds deep deep growl growl of of "Allah-u-Akbar!" "Allah-u-Akbar!" panicky answering come!" "Kill "Kill!I Kill!" Kill!" and and panicky answering shouts shouts of of 'The "The Mussulmans Mussulmans have have come!" to do. It was the third time since her marriage that ParLalita knew what Lalita knew what to do. It was the third time since her marriage that Pardiwada diwada had had been been attacked attacked in in aa Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim riot. riot. It It always always happened happened at at went downstairs night. The night. The women women and and older older children children went downstairs and and started started collecting collecting stones the men stones for for the men to to throw throw at at the the Muslim Muslim mob. mob. Children's Children's school school bags bags were were as pouches for the stony ammunition, sarees and bed sheets emptied to serve emptied to serve as pouches for the stony ammunition, sarees and bed sheets were were taken taken out out and and tied tied around around the the men's men's foreheads foreheads to to prevent prevent serious serious head head whenever they injuries. injuries. The The women women could could not not see see much much whenever they looked looked out out into into the the alley. were "hundreds" alley. There There were "hundreds" of of Muslims Muslims with with swords swords and and spears, spears, their their faces faces their eyes were visible. visible. Prema, covered covered with with pieces pieces of of cloth cloth so so that that only only their eyes were Prema, the the thirty-three-year-old is thirty-three-year-old daughter-in-law daughter-in-law of of Laloo Laloo Bai, Bai, Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's Sister, sister, is certain certain that that the the attacking attacking Muslims Muslims were were not not outsiders. outsiders. They They knew knew which which the owner's names. houses to the houses belonged belonged to the Hindus Hindus and and in in fact fact would would call call out out the owner's names. Perhaps there were aa few cjoondasfrom fromoutside outsidebutbut"the "thewhole wholething thingwas was Perhaps there were few goondas rna's mother's mother's brother planned planned by by our our Mussulmans Mussulmans here." here." Pre Prema's brother was was killed killed that that evening evening as as was was her her sister-in-law sister-in-law Kalavati, Kalavati, who who had had run run out out in in panic panic to to get get all back who had back her her four-year-old four-year-old son son who had slipped slipped out out of of the the house house to to investigate investigate all the the excitement excitement happening happening outside. outside. Both Both the the mother mother and and son son were were chopped chopped down down by by sword sword blows blows before before they they could could get get back. back.

Victims Hindus Victims and and Others Others 1: L The The Hindus Kamla Kamla Bai, Bai, Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's "cousin" "cousin" (I (I have have given given up up the the effort effort to to chart chart more precise relationships), relationships), who the outskirts of more precise who lives lives some some houses houses away away at at the outskirts of Pardiwada, just eaten was rearrangPardiwada, had had aa narrow narrow escape. escape. Her Her family family had had just eaten and and was rearranging before the house. ing itself itself before the television television set set when when the the Muslims Muslims broke broke into into the the house. She ran ran out out with with her children, pleading pleading with with the the men men to to spare spare their their lives. lives. One One She her children, Hindu was killed in front front of of her but Kamla Bai was was allowed allowed to to pass pass through through Hindu was killed in her but Kamla Bai unharmed. She hid hid in in aa neighbors house. The The ration ration shop shop and and the the vegetable vegetable unharmed. She neighbor's house. fire. "One shop to her shop next next to her house house were were looted looted and and set set on onfire. "One of of my my neighbors neighbors has has four children who are not normal in the head. They killed her with a sword. four children who are not normal in the head. They killed her with a sword. Her head head was was literally literally in in two two pieces. pieces. One One of of the the woman's woman's relatives relatives came came out out Her to help. They caught caught hold hold of of her her and and asked asked her her where where her her husband husband was. to help. They was. When When she she refused refused to to tell, tell, they they cut cut off off her her arms arms and and legs. legs. She She died. died. They They him. His His young young daughter daughter Krishnavati Krishnavati broke into into Ratnaram's Ratnaram's house house and and killed killed him. broke hid herself behind an an almirah almirah to to save save herself. herself. They They dragged dragged her her outside outside ai hid herself behind a. dd killed her. They killed her. They did did not not even even spare spare old old women." women." The which left The attack attack on on Pardiwada, Pardiwada, which left twenty-four twenty-four people people dead, dead, ended ended around were not around eleven eleven at at night night when when the the police police arrived. arrived. The The Pardis Pardis were not sure sure whether it it was was the the police or aa new new Muslim Muslim mob mob disguised disguised in in police police uniforms. uniforms. whether police or "Pelt them them with with stones," stones," was was the the general general consensus consensus on on the the action action to to be be taken. taken. "Pelt "The police police would would not not be be scared scared but but the the Muslims Muslims would away." More More 'The would run run away." out, and men men and and women women now now started started to to come come out, and the the alleys alleys of of Pardiwada, Pardiwada, eerily eerily lighted by magenta-tinged fires, began began to tofill fill with of lighted by magenta-tinged smouldering smoulderingfires, with the the sounds sounds of women's weeping as were discovered women's wailing wailing and and weeping as corpses corpses of of close close relatives relatives were discovered and mourned. mourned. and Rajesh, Badli Badli Pershad's Pershads youngest son, was was standing standing under under aa tree to youngest son, tree next next to Rajesh, the temple. Because the curfew he had been playing the Hanuman Hanuman temple. Because of of the curfew he had been playing cards cards with with his Anto, the the whole just come come out out for his friends, friends, Nambre Nambre and and Anto, whole afternoon. afternoon. He He had had just for aa pee pee when when he he saw saw aa group group of of Muslims Muslims running running toward toward the the temple temple with with hid behind he was was swords swords and and tins tins of of kerosene. kerosene. Rajesh Rajesh hid behind the the tree, tree, glad glad that that he shirtless and and only only wearing wearing underwear underwear and and was less easy easy to to spot spot in in the the was thus thus less shirtless dark. As As he he watched watched the the Muslims Muslims throw lighted kerosene kerosene rags into the the dark. throw lighted rags into temple as as they by to to attack attack the that he he had had just left, his his only only temple they ran ran by the house house that just left, was that that he he would died like like his friends if if he he had had not not come come out out to to thought was thought would have have died his friends ease ease his his bladder. bladder. For Rajesh, Rajesh, the the Muslim Muslim attack attack on on Pardiwada Pardiwada was was not not entirely entirely unexFor unexpected. His His Muslim Muslim friends, friends, aa couple couple of of whom whom he known since since childchildpected. he had had known hood, had had been been warning him of of just hood, warning him just such such an an eventuality. eventuality. "We "We are are very very worried worried about you," they would would say say as as they they drank drank tea tea in in aa hotel. hotel. "You "You are are staying staying about you," they there, your wife and and children children are are there. there. You You should should leave." leave." One One day day before before there, your wife

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Chapter Four Four Chapter the to go the attack, attack, the the Muslim Muslim friend friend told told Rajesh Rajesh to go away away for for aa few few days. days. "Why "Why are are will you after you after my my life?" life?" Rajesh Rajesh replied replied in in some some irritation. irritation. "Whatever "Whatever happens, happens, will happen." Rajesh had happen." Rajesh had reported reported the the Muslim Muslim warnings warnings to to the the community community elders elders Dalyan Singh, the unofficial such such as as Dalyan Singh, the unofficial leader leader of of the the Shakkergunj Shakkergunj Pardis. Pardis. The The police police have have made made all all arrangements arrangements for for their their safety, safety, Rajesh Rajesh was was told, told, and and ParDalyan Dalyan Singh Singh pointed pointed to to the the three three policemen policemen who who had had been been assigned assigned to to Pardiwada and and with with whom whom he he was was playing cards. diwada playing cards. Running the temple, distraught Dalyan Dalyan Singh Singh on on Running back back from from the temple, Rajesh Rajesh met met aa distraught the have attacked the way. way. "The 'The Muslims Muslims have attacked from from all all sides," sides," Dalyan Dalyan Singh Singh said. said. "I"I am am find the policemen." Many trying trying to to find the policemen." Many Pardi Pardi men men had had come come out. out. They They tried tried to to stop the the attackers attackers from from entering entering the the heart heart of of Pardiwada Pardiwada by directing aa barstop by directing barrage of whichever corner immirage of stones stones at at whichever corner aa Muslim Muslim breakthrough breakthrough seemed seemed imminent. nent. 'The "The men men of of our our community community are are brave. brave. We We were were unarmed unarmed and and still still did did not Musnot run run away away from from their their swords swords and and spears." spears." Later Later at at night, night, as as soon soon as as MusRajesh rushed his lims lims began began withdrawing withdrawing from from the the heart heart of of Pardiwada, Pardiwada, Rajesh rushed to to his Rasister's sister's house house located located at at the the outskirts. outskirts. The The door door was was closed closed from from inside. inside. Rajesh banged jesh banged on on the the door, door, shouted shouted and and screamed, screamed, but but there there was was no no response. response. "'It "'It is is all all over,' over,' II thought. thought. They They are are all all dead. dead. Everyone Everyone has has been been killed.' killed.' IIwent went up the police up to to the police inspector. inspector. They They were were picking picking up up aa corpse. corpse. 'My 'My sister sister and and her her family family are are dead,' dead,' II said. said. Then Then II saw saw them them coming coming out out of of aa neighbor's neighbor's house house had given who who is is aa Muslim. Muslim. 'We We are are here,' here,' they they said. said. The The Muslim Muslim family family had given them them shelter, lives." shelter, saved saved their their lives." When finally arrived, When the the police policefinally arrived, Rajesh Rajesh was was active active in in helping helping them them idenidenthe dead tify tify the dead bodies bodies and and gather gather together together the the injured injured for for further further transport transport to to the was when the hospital. hospital. This This was when he he saw saw two two men men bring bring in in aa seriously seriously wounded wounded been stabbed by Jafar, Dalyan Dalyan Singh. Singh. He He had had been stabbed by Jafar, the the men men said. said. Jafar Jafar was was the the leader leader of of the the area's area's Muslims Muslims and and aa friend friend of of Dalyan Dalyan Singh. Singh. The The two two had had worked the past, worked closely closely in in the past, liaising liaising with with the the city city administration administration in in keeping keeping the Hindus and was the relations relations between between the the Hindus and Muslims Muslims peaceful peaceful whenever whenever there there was was communal communal tension tension in in the the city. city. (Later, (Later, it it was was discovered discovered that that the the assassin assassin was At this time someone innot Jafar not Jafar but but another another man man accompanying accompanying him.) him.) At this time someone inbeen killed formed formed Rajesh Rajesh that that his his "uncle" "uncle" had had been killed and and the the body body taken taken to to OsmaOsmania hospital. nia hospital. The jeep took The police police jeep took aa long long time time in in coming, coming, and and Rajesh Rajesh offered offered to to take take some some of of the the seriously seriously wounded wounded to to the the hospital hospital in in his his auto-rickshaw. auto-rickshaw. He He could could bring it back. As Parthen his uncles uncle's body then also also claim claim his body and and bring it back. As he he drove drove out out of of Parevapodiwada diwada around around one one in in the the morning, morning, his his adrenaline-fueled adrenaline-fueled courage courage evaporoamed the rated. rated. He He had had to to pass pass through through Muslim Muslim areas areas where where groups groups of of men men roamed the dark dark streets streets in in shadowy, shadowy, menacing menacing packs. packs. "I "I will will surely surely die die tonight," tonight," Rajesh Rajesh

Victims I: The Victims and and Others Others I: The Hindus Hindus thought, the rickshaw rickshaw bore thought, or or rather rather felt, felt, in in his his terror. terror. But But as as the the headlight headlight of of the bore be aa down down on on the the men, men, they they scattered scattered into into the the bylanes. bylanes. They They had had taken taken it it to to be police motorcycle, motorcycle, and and Rajesh, Rajesh, soon soon cottoning cottoning on, on, heightened the impresheightened the imprespolice sion by driving at at full full throttle throttle while roaring threats threats and and abuse abuse like like aa real real poby driving while roaring posion lice inspector. inspector. lice the last Osmania Osmania hospital, hospital, named named after after the last Nizam Nizam of of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, famed famed for for both his reluctance reluctance to to spend spend it, it, was was in in total total chaos. chaos. The The harried harried both his his wealth wealth and and his to cope doctors doctors and and staff staff were were unable unable to cope with with the the stream stream of of injured injured and and dead dead descending the city. his grisly descending on on them them from from all all over over the city. Rajesh Rajesh unloaded unloaded his grisly cargo cargo on the the floor floor of of the the admissions admissions hall hall and and hurried hurried from from one one corridor corridor to to another another on searching for for his his uncle's uncles body body in in the pile of of corpses corpses that that were were haphazardly haphazardly the pile searching stacked outside outside the the wards. wards. He He did did not not find his uncle's uncles body but became became infind his body but instacked strumental in in saving saving the life of of his his niece, niece, Pushpa. Pushpa. In In one one of of the mounds of the life the mounds of strumental corpses, he saw aa hand moving. As As he he tugged tugged at at the the hand hand and and pulled pulled out out the the hand moving. corpses, he saw body, he he saw saw it it was was Pushpa, Pushpa, who who was was still still alive alive although although unconscious with aa unconscious with body, severe head head injury. injury. A A passing passing doctor doctor was was successfully successfully importuned importuned and and cajoled cajoled severe into arranging arranging for surgery, and and Pushpa Pushpa was saved. was saved. into for surgery, find the Rajesh Rajesh returned returned to to Pardiwada Pardiwada to to find the Pardis Pardis preparing preparing to to move move out out of of their their homes. homes. "I "I was was against against such such aa step step and and vehemently vehemently protested. protested. To To evacuevacuate ate is is to to run run away. away. It It was was aa question question of of our our self-respect. self-respect. It It would would always always stand stand as black mark But rumors were going as aa shameful shameful black mark against against our our community. community. But rumors were going around. 'The The Muslims Muslims have have attacked attacked here; here,- they they have have attacked attacked there.' there.' People People around. were were getting getting very very frightened. frightened. Then Then Jaggu Jaggu and and Suraj Suraj pehlwans pehlwans appeared appearedononthe the scene. 'We 'We have have brought brought trucks,' trucks,' they they said. said. The The basti bastimust mustbe bevacated vacatedimmeimmescene. diately.' II was was still still unhappy unhappy but but followed followed their their instructions. instructions. My My brother brother rerediately.' fused to leave. II was very angry. angry. If If everyone everyone else else was leaving what what was was the the was leaVing fused to leave. was very need for for him him to to stay? stay? II asked asked the the police police to to help help and and they they forced forced him him to to come come need with us. us. The The trucks trucks brought brought us us to Gandhi Bhawan." to Gandhi Bhawan." with It was my the events of It was my strong strong impression impression that that the the mental mental processing processing of of the events of the the riot riot is is different different in in women women than than in in men. men. It It is is not not only only that that women's women's memomemories of of the the riot riot tend tend to be circumscribed circumscribed by by what what happened inside the the house house to be happened inside ries rather than than outside outside and and that that their their anxieties anxieties are are centered centered around around the danger to to the danger rather their children. children. With With women, women, anger anger at at Muslims Muslims is is not the baffled rage II enennot the baffled rage their countered among among men. Women also also find it easier easier to to think and plan of moving moving think and plan of countered men. Women find it away from from their their endangered endangered homes, homes, to leave it it all all behind, behind, and and get get on on with with away to leave their lives. Men seem to find it more difficult to free themselves from the their lives. Men seem to find it more difficult to free themselves from the impact of of recent recent violent violent events. events. They They agoni;1:e agonize over over leaving leaving Pardiwada Pardiwada and and impact the implications implications such such aa move move may may have have for for their their own own self-respect self-respect and and the the the community's sense sense of of honor. The men men brood over the the events events of of the riot more. brood over the riot more. community's honor. The

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Chapter Four Four Chapter They neighbors, who believe helped They take take the the betrayal betrayal by by their their Muslim Muslim neighbors, who they they believe helped the violent violent mob mob by identifying the Hindu houses houses (if (if they themselves were were the by identifying the Hindu they themselves not part of more personally. personally. Their not aa part of the the mob), mob), much much more Their sense sense of of betrayal betrayal and and perfidy is perhaps perhaps due due to to the the fact fact that that the men's relationships relationships with perfidy is the men's with their their MusMuslim neighbors neighbors were were more more personal; some were were even even friends. friends. Women's Women's friendfriendlim personal; some within the the Hindu Hindu community. community. With With their their Muslim Muslim ships were were (and (and are) are)firmly ships firmly within women neighbors, neighbors, the the relationship relationship was was limited limited to to the the exchange exchange of of polite polite women greetings. Women Women do do not have to deal with with the the trauma trauma of of the neighbor sudsudnot have to deal the neighbor greetings. denly being being revealed revealed as as aa deadly deadly enemy enemy to to quite quite the the same same extent extent as as do do the the denly men. men. friendships between Although the riots Although the riots have have had had an an impact impact on on the the friendships between that go Hindus Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, not not all all of of these these friendships, friendships, especially especially those those that go back have snapped heightened conback to to childhood, childhood, have snapped completely completely because because of of the the heightened conflict and and violence violence between between the the communities. communities. As As an an outsider, outsider, it it is is difficult difficult to to fict judge the depth depth of of aa friendship, friendship, and and it it may may be, be, as as studies studies across across the borders of judge the the borders of other antagonistic antagonistic groups groups such such as as the the Protestants Protestants and and Catholics Catholics in in Northern Northern other Ireland and and the the French French and and the the English English in in Quebec Quebec have have suggested, suggested, that that such such Ireland friendships are are more more illusory illusory than than real or are are qualitatively qualitatively different different from from one's one s real or friendships This particular particular social-psychological social-psychological friendships within within one's one's own own in-group.5 in-group.5 This friendships theory predicts such friendships friendships can can be be maintained maintained when when individuals individuals theory predicts that that such dwell upon upon their their similarities similarities rather rather than than differences, differences, avoid avoid the the divisive divisive issue issue dweIl of religious religious affiliation, affiliation, and and shape shape their their interactions interactions so so that that the the salience salience of of of their group membership—of one friend being a Hindu and the other their group membership-of one friend being a Hindu and the other aa Muslim—is lowered. lowered. It It appears appears from from my observations, however, however, that that the the saMuslim-is my observations, salience of of one's one's religious religious group group membership membership is is not not lowered lowered by by avoiding avoiding the the lience issue, at at least least as as far far as as deep deep friendship friendship is is concerned. concerned. Such Such an an avoidance avoidance may may issue, smooth the course of fleeting Hindu-Muslim encounters that are temporary smooth the course of fleeting Hindu-Muslim encounters that are temporary from the the very very outset. outset. The The maintenance maintenance of of lasting lasting Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim friendships, friendships, from on the the other other hand, hand, seems seems to to demand demand (and (and never never more so than than after after aa riot) riot) that that on more so the fact fact of of friends friends belonging to antagonistic antagonistic groups groups be be squarely squarely confronted confronted the belonging to before being negated as as of of little little consequence. consequence. Rajesh, for instance, instance, in in the the Rajesh, for before being negated days following the riot, openly berated his Muslim friends for what their codays foIlowing the riot, openly berated his Muslim friends for what their coreligionists had had done done to to the the Pardis. Pardis. In In more more normal normal circumstances, circumstances, friends friends religionists seek to to periodicaIly periodically dissipate dissipate the the tension tension which arises from from antagonistic antagonistic reliwhich arises reliseek gious affiliations affiliations by addressing each each other other deliberately deliberately in in negative negative by jokingly jokingly addressing gious stereotypical terms such as as "Come "Come here, here, 0O you you Hindu Hindu idolator," idolator," "0 "O you you MusMusstereotypical terms such lim violator of four wives," and so on. Such a joking relationship between lim violator of four Wives," and so on. Such a joking relationship between friends strives strives to to reduce reduce the antagonism which which has has its its source source in in the the conflict conflict of the antagonism of friends their religious religious groups groups by by acknowledging acknowledging the difference while while at at the the same same the difference their time downplaying downplaying it. it. time

Victims and and Others Others LI: The The Hindus Hindus Victims

Many Pardi Pardi families, families, including including that that of of Satish, Satish, Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's eldest eldest son, son, Many moved out out of of Pardiwada Pardiwada to to safer safer areas areas after after the the riot. riot. Some Some of of them them have have come come moved back back for for reasons reasons of of both both economics economics and and sentiments. sentiments. It It goes goes without without saying saying that that they they missed missed the the homes homes they they had had grown grown up up in. in. They They missed missed the the nutrients nutrients for for the the soul soul provided provided by by the the closely closely knit knit community community life life they they had had left left behind behind to settle among strangers. They have also been unable to sell their Pardiwada to settle among strangers. They have also been unable to sell their Pardiwada houses houses at at reasonable reasonable prices. prices. The The only only interested interested buyers buyers are are Muslims Muslims and, and, though though Pardis Pardis would would reluctantly reluctantly reconcile reconcile themselves themselves to to the the idea idea of of selling selling an an ancestral ancestral home home to to aa Muslim, Muslim, the the prices prices quoted quoted are are very very low—the low-the Muslim Muslim buyers buyers content content to to wait wait till till the the Pardis' Pardis' fear fear of of staying staying on on becomes becomes greater greater than than the wish. the wish. The disruption disruption in in their their lives lives caused caused by by the the riot riot has has been been considerable. considerable. The "When we we all all sit sit together together to to talk, talk, certain certain things things bring bring back back the the memories memories of of "When says Satish. Satish. "Even "Even that that day, day, especially especially the the sight sight of of broken broken and and empty empty houses," houses," says after so many after so many months, months, we we are are very very scared scared that that it it may may happen happen again. again. Before Before we we plan community-wide basis, basis, we we plan to to celebrate celebrate any any of of our our religious religious festivals festivals on on aa community-wide think think ten ten times times about about the the likely likely consequences. consequences. The The experience experience was was territerrifying! little more more confident confident about about staying staying here here because because aa fying! These These days days we we feel feel aa little police picket has been permanently posted in Pardiwada. But you know police picket has been permanently posted in Pardiwada. But you know the the police are not reliable. Where They arrived arrived police are not very very reliable. Where were were they they that that evening? evening? They three all the damage was the damage was done." done." three hours hours after after all "Our has been been badly badly hurt. We also also used used to to sell in MusMus"Our business business has hurt. We sell our our stuff stuff in lim areas most of of the time we in alone. alone. Now Now we afraid to to go lim areas and and most the time we went went in we are are afraid go there even in small small groups. groups. II keep there even in keep on on thinking thinking about about going going back back to to the the place place we moved out to after the riot. various personal personal conwe moved out to after the riot. But But our our business business runs runs on on various contacts which II developed the years. years. To start such business in new lolotacts which developed over over the To start such aa business in aa new cality where you neither know the people nor the place becomes difficult." cality where you neither know the people nor the place becomes difficult." RadIi resisting the the family to move of the Badli Pershad, Pershad, who who is is resisting family pressure pressure to move out out of the home he built forty years ago, home he built forty years ago, is is naturally naturally more more sanguine sanguine about about the the future. future. ''The next riot," five to "The next riot," he he feels, feels, "will "will not not occur occur for for another another five to ten ten years years because because the riot was the last last riot was very very severe. severe. Both Both the the Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims suffered suffered great great losses and and are are fully fully involved involved in in repairing repairing and and trying trying to to restart restart their their lives. losses lives. Therefore they they will will neither neither have have the the time time nor nor the the inclination inclination to to trouble trouble the the Therefore other community." community." His His children children wish wish they they could could share share his his optimism optimism in in the the other force of of human human rationality. rationality. force For has had For the the women, women, the the riot riot has had the the consequence consequence of of drastically drastically reducing reducing their their freedom freedom of of movement. movement. "We "We used used to to come come out out at at night night and and play play in in small small groups," says says Lalita. Lalita. "Now "Now we we can't can't even even sit sit out. out. The The policemen policemen shoo shoo us groups," us back." The The number number of of women women who who go go out out to to buy buy fruits fruits and and vegetables vegetables from from back." the Muslim Muslim wholesalers wholesalers early early in in the the morning morning has has also also declined. declined. The The women women the

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Chapter Four Chapter Four do not not let let the the children children venture venture far far from from their their homes homes and and have become espedo have become especially watchful watchful of of the the movements movements of of young young girls. girls. "What "What if if Muslim Muslim boys boys hahacially rass rass one one of of our our daughters daughters and and another another riot riot starts?" starts?" asks asks Prema. Prema. "The relations relations with with the the Muslims Muslims of our own own basti bastihave havebecome becomemore moreforfor"The of our mal. mal. The The older older ones ones still still address address us us as as "daughters" "daughters" and and claim claim they they did did not not recognize our our attackers attackers in in the the dark. dark. We We cannot cannot believe believe them. them. Earlier, Earlier, the the recognize Muslims used to to come come when when we we invited invited them them for for any any of of our our community community celeMuslims used celebrations and and we whenever they they invited invited us us for for theirs. theirs. When Jafar's brations we went went whenever When Jafar's daughter got got married married in in Secunderabad, Secunderabad, all all of of us us went went and and helped in making making helped in daughter the wedding wedding arrangements. arrangements. Now Now there are no no more more invitations, invitations, either either from from the there are us or them." The riots have hastened hastened the of Pardi Pardi differentiation differentiation and and us or them." The riots have the process process of separation from from their their Muslim neighbors. They They have have given given another another push push totoseparation Muslim neighbors. ward making the Pardis more Hindu, contributed to a sharper etching of ward making the Pardis more Hindu, contributed to a sharper etching of Hindu and and Muslim Muslim identities. identities. Hindu Pardis and Pardis and Muslims: Muslims:The ThePast Past The their shared The Pardis Pardis recollect recollect their shared past past with with Muslims Muslims with with aa measure measure of of ambivambivlaalence. alence. They They are are aware aware that that their their ancestors ancestors served served the the Muslims Muslims as as farm farm lathat they been influenced in borers during borers during the the latter's latter's long long rule rule and and that they have have been influenced in masters. The many ways many ways by by their their erstwhile erstwhile masters. The influence influence is is evident evident in in the the way way they they dispose dispose of of their their dead, dead, in in the the many many Urdu Urdu words words which which have have crept crept into into forfor religious faith; and, tilltill their their dialect, dialect, for for example, example, valid validfor forfather father,t mazhab mazhab religious faith,and, recently, in in the too seldom seldom use use of of Muslim Muslim names for their their children. children. Rarecently, the not not too names for Rajesh's wife has aa Muslim is jesh's wife Sakila, Sakila, for for instance, instance, has Muslim name, name, aa fact fact of of which which he he is deeply for which he blames blames his his illiterate had no deeply ashamed ashamed and and for which he illiterate in-laws in-laws who who had no names. idea idea of of the the meaning meaning and and importance importance of of names. In the more recent past, past, Satish recalls playing kaIn the more recent Satish recalls playing football, football, cricket, cricket, and and kabaddi baddiasasa achild childwith withMuslim Muslimboys boysofofthe theneighborhood. neighborhood.He Hevisited visitedtheir their they did was even homes homes freely, freely, as as they did hiS, his, and and was even friendly friendly with with their their womenfolk womenfolk who purdah from who did did not not observe observe any any purdah fromhim. him.Accompanying Accompanyinghis hismother motherononher her rounds through the Muslim the fruits rounds through the Muslim areas, areas, he he would would carry carry the fruits and and vegetables vegetables the houses was never made to right right inside inside the houses and and was never made to feel feel unwelcome. unwelcome. The The underunderstanding standing that that existed existed between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims of of the the previous previous generagenerayounger one one which tion, has disappeared tion, Satish Satish says, says, has disappeared in in the the younger which is is aa hot-blooded hot-blooded were tolerant, young ones lot. Whereas the lot. Whereas the older older Muslims Muslims were tolerant, the the young ones are are aggressive aggressive and pretexts. Kamala and are are provoked provoked to to violence violence at at the the slightest slightest of of pretexts. Kamala Bai Bai agrees agrees the assessment, as do others, that it was easy to live together with with with the assessment, as do others, that it was easy to live together with the the older Muslims but with the older generation generation of of Muslims but it it is is impossible impossible to to do do so so with the younger younger who are who are all all turning turning into into goondas. goondas.

Victims Victims and and Others Others I: The The Hindus Hindus The The easier easier coexistence coexistence in in an an earlier earlier era era does does not not mean mean that that the the Pardis Pardis ever liIad likedthe theMuslims Muslimsorordid didnot notfeel feelresentful resentfultoward towardthem. them.The ThePardi Pardiververever sion of of the history of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim conflict, conflict, articulated articulated by by Badli Badli Pershad Pershad as the history as sion an elder elder of of the community, goes goes thus: thus: 'The 'The clashes clashes between between Hindus and an the community, Hindus and Muslims started started long long ago ago in in the the period period of of the the Nizam and his his razakars razahars(a(amamaMuslims Nizam and rauding, unofficial unofficial army) army) who who were very cruel cruel to to the the Hindus. Hindus. They They used used to to were very rauding, harass our our girls, girls, rape them. This This happened happened not not only only in in villages villages but even in harass rape them. but even in Hyderabad. We feared the Muslims. The The rule rule was theirs, the the king king was theirs, the Muslims. was theirs, was theirs, Hyderabad. We feared the police were were theirs, theirs, so so it it was was hard hard for for the Hindus to to resist. resist. We We were were also also the Hindus the police poor and no no one one supports supports the the poor. poor. Some Some Marwadis Marwadismay mayhave havebeen beenwell welloff off poor and but the majority of Hindus was poor. The Muslims were close to the king. but the majority of Hindus was poor. The Muslims were close to the king. They were were moneylenders, charging high high rates rates of of interest. interest. Thus Thus they they were were They moneylenders, charging rich and the the Hindus poor and and though though we we lived lived together together Muslims Muslims dominated dominated Hindus poor rich and the Hindus." Hindus." the "We used to "We never never used to mingle mingle closely closely with with them. them. Hindus Hindus feared feared Muslims Muslims aa were very gosht (beef) lot. lot. They They were very aggressive. aggressive. They They eat eat bada badatjosht (beef)which whichkept keptHindus Hindus prepare kheer away away from from them. them. They They used used to to prepare kheer(rice (ricepudding) pudding)onontheir theirfestival festival vessels. So So we we never never ate ate even even the the vegetarvegetardays but but they they cooked cooked it it in in the same vessels. days the same ian food food they sent to to our our houses. houses. People People only only drank drank tea tea together." together." they sent ian when the "Anyway "Anyway when the oppression oppression of of the the Hindus Hindus came came to to the the notice notice of of our our to do leaders leaders in in Delhi, Delhi, they they wanted wanted to do something something about about it it as as the the British British were were not not going the leaders wanted Hyderabad begoing to to help. help. After After independence independence all all the leaders wanted Hyderabad to to bewas hesitant. Patel, and Racome part of come aa part of Hindustan Hindustan but but Gandhi Gandhi was hesitant. So So Nehru, Nehru, Patel, and Rajendra Prasad felt felt Gandhi Gandhi needed be eliminated eliminated and and had Gandhi killed. killed. jendra Prasad needed to to be had Gandhi Then they they could could free free the the Hindus Hindus in in Hyderabad Hyderabad from from Muslim Muslim rule." Then rule." Badli preBadli Pershad's Pershad's account account of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations relations in in the the preindependence era, era, except except for for his his version version of of the murder of of the Mahatma the Mahatma independence the murder which not every every one one agreed agreed with, with, represents represents aa popular popular consensus consensus among among the the which not Pardis. As historian David David Lowenthal Lowenthal has has observed, observed, it it is is only only academic academic As the the historian Pardis. versions of the the past past which which are are variable, contested, and and subject subject to to different different versions of variable, contested, interpretations,- popular history, on on the the other other hand, hand, is is aa timeless timeless mirror mirrorwhich which interpretations; popular history, 6 gives accurate reflections of historical events, beyond questioning or doubt. gives accurate reflections of historical events, beyond questioning or doubt. 6 Image Image of of the the Muslim Muslim The Muslims are The two two chief chief components components of of the the contemporary contemporary Pardi Pardi image image of of Muslims are by men of of the the powerful powerful and and the the animal-like animal-like Muslim. Muslim. Shared Shared alike alike by men and and women, power seems to be pronounced in in women, the the image image of of the the Muslim's Muslims power seems to be more more pronounced men. men. The The image image of of the the antagonist's antagonist's powerfulness powerfulness is is certainly certainly influenced influenced by by the Pardis' Pardis' direct direct experience experience of of being being an an embattled embattled enclave enclave in in the the walled walled city, the city,

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Chapter Four Chapter Four surrounded by aa numerically their hishissurrounded by numerically greater greater Muslim Muslim host. host. It It also also contains contains their being serfs torical torical memory memory of of being serfs on on the the farms farms and and estates estates of of Muslim Muslim landlords. landlords. This Muslim power relation to to the the Hindus' is This image image of of Muslim power is is in in relation Hindus' lack lack of of it. it. What What is repeatedly weak Hindus-weak repeatedly stressed stressed is is the the weak Hindus—weak because because divided-rapidly divided—rapidly losing united and and purposeful purposeful nation. nation. "Anything "Anything happens happens in in aa losing ground ground against against aa united Muslim become one. Muslim community, community, they they all all become one. We We don't don't because because of of our our different different castes. has its castes. Every Every caste caste has its own own customs customs and and lifestyle." lifestyle." "We united. Each "We are are not not united. Each one one is is engrossed engrossed in in himself. himself. The The rich rich try try to to exploit not happen happen with the Muslims. have exploit the the poor. poor. This This does does not with the Muslims. Though Though they they have poor at rich and rich and poor at least least at at the the time time of of prayer prayer they they are are one one and and they they all all do do itit together at at the the same same time. It develops develops unity unity among among them. them. Our Our system system is not together time. It is not like to the temple to puja atathis like that. that. Each Each one one goes goes to the temple to perform perform puja hisown owntime timeand andinin his own own way way and and then leaves. There There is is no no communication communication between between us. us. If If we we his then leaves. could also show togetherness in our prayers, we can definitely become united could also show togetherness in our prayers, we can definitely become united and Muslims." and stronger stronger than than the the Muslims." 'The problem with because of "The problem with Hindus Hindus is is that that because of the the number number of of castes castes they they are not united. united. Reddys fight with Pardis fight fight with Yadavs are not Reddys fight with Kapus, Kapus, Pardis with Komtis, Komtis, Yadavs fight fight with withNaidus. Naidus.IfIfonly onlythey theycould couldunite unitelike likethe theMuslims! Muslims!Muslims Muslimsmay maybe be small do's and and don'ts don'ts with with regard regard to to religion religion are are very very strict strict small in in number number but but their their do's and prayer. Their and they they are are forced forced to to gather gather together together at at least least for for the the Friday Friday prayer. Their leaders unity. II don't leaders use use these these occasions occasions to to forge forge religious religious unity. don't speak speak Arabic Arabic but but II fiery speeches am am told told many many fiery speeches are are made made in in mosques mosques every every Friday Friday afternoon afternoon where talk of where they they talk of driving driving the the Hindus Hindus away away from from Hyderabad Hyderabad and and making making their own here." their own independent independent Pakistan Pakistan here." The Muslim is powerful because because he The Muslim is powerful he is is united, united, armed, armed, favored favored by by the the state state in by aa state in India India and and supported, supported, perhaps perhaps even even armed, armed, by state outside, outside, Pakistan. Pakistan. "Muslims constant supply supply of of weapons weapons coming coming from from Pakistan Pakistan or or may may be be "Muslims have have aa constant they are locally locally made. They are are always always well well stocked. stocked. Even Even the poorest Musthey are made. They the poorest Muslim butcher's knife knife because because they they all all eat eat meat. meat. Hindus Hindus lim house house will will at at least least have have aa butcher's are well equipped. the government are not not so so well equipped. If If the government continues continues to to please please the the Muslims Muslims and makes rules against against the Hindu majority, majority, these these riots riots will continue forever. forever. and makes rules the Hindu will continue If processions processions are are to to be banned, both Ganesh and and Muharram Muharram processions processions If be banned, both Ganesh should be be banned. banned. Why Why is is only only the Ganesh procession banned? It It is is like the Ganesh procession banned? like should rakhna) and and behaving blessing and blessing and protecting protecting only only one one community community (sir (sirper perhath hath rakhna) behaving like like aa stepmother stepmother toward toward the the other." other." "They "They want want to to dominate dominate us. us. Just Just see see how how they they are are planning planning to to make make the the old old city city into into aa Pakistan. Pakistan. In In Hyderabad, Hyderabad, the the mosques mosques always always had had four four minminarets. building mosques just arets. But But now now they they have have started started building mosques with with aa single single minaret, minaret, just like like in in Pakistan. Pakistan. Hindus Hindus are are willing willing to to adjust adjust but but Muslims Muslims are are stubborn. stubborn. Our Our

Victims Hindus Victims and and Others Others l: L. The The Hindus government be closed government also also supports supports them. them. On On Shivratri Shivratri day, day, the the markets markets will will be closed but during will remain remain open night. Why?" Why?" but during Muharram Muharram they they will open day day and and night. It It was was strikingly strikingly apparent apparent that that the the Pardis' Pardis' self-identification self-identification as as Hindus Hindus occurs only only when when they they talk talk of of the theMuslim; Muslim,-otherwise otherwise the theconversation conversation isisof of occurs Pardis, Lodhas, Lodhas, Brahmins, Brahmins, Marwadis, Marwadis, and and other other castes. castes. It It seems seems aa Hindu Hindu is is Pardis, born only only when when the the Muslim Muslim enters. enters. Hindus Hindus cannot cannot think think of of themselves themselves as born as such without without aa simultaneous simultaneous awareness awareness of of the the Muslim's Muslims presence. This is is not not such presence. This so for for the the Muslim, Muslim, who who does does not not need need the Hindu for for self-awareness. self-awareness. The The so the Hindu presence of the the Hindu Hindu may may increase increase the the Muslim Muslim sense sense of of identity identity but but does does presence of not constitute constitute it. it. Little Little wonder wonder that that Hindutva Hindutva needs needs "the "the Muslim question" not Muslim question" united Hindu Hindu community community and and the the expansion expansion of of its its politipolitifor the the creation creation of of aa united for cal base base and, and, in in fact, fact, will will find it difficult difficult to exist without without it. it. cal find it to exist In In the the bitter bitter complaints complaints directed directed at at the the government, government, the the mai-baap mai-baap ("mother-father") ("mother-father") of of an an earlier earlier era, era, the the psychoanalyst psychoanalyst cannot cannot help help but but hear hear echoes echoes of of aa collective collective sibling sibling rivalry, rivalry, of of the the group-child's group-child's envy envy and and anger anger at at the by the parent. This the favoring favoring of of an an ambivalently ambivalently regarded regarded sibling sibling by the parent. This does does not not mean to these that, like like mean that that there there is is no no factual factual basis basis to these accusations, accusations, but but only only that, many many other other such such perceptions perceptions in in the the emotionally emotionally charged charged era era of of HinduHinduMuslim relations, they Muslim relations, they are are neither neither merely merely real real nor nor merely merely psychological. psychological. The The image image of of Muslim Muslim animality animality is is composed composed of of the the perceived perceived ferocity, ferocity, rampant sexuality, rampant sexuality, and and demand demand for for instant instant gratification gratification of of the the male, male, and and aa dirtiness dirtiness which which is is less less aa matter matter of of bodily bodily cleanliness cleanliness and and more more of of an an inner inner pollution pollution as as aa consequence consequence of of the the consumption consumption of of forbidden, forbidden, tabooed tabooed foods. foods. This This image image is is an an old old one, one, also also found found in in S. S. C. C Dube's Dube's thirty-year-old thirty-year-old anthroanthropological pological account account of of aa Village village outside outside Hyderabad: Hyderabad: "The "The Muslims Muslims are are good good only only in in two two things-they things—they eat eat and and copulate copulate like like beasts. beasts. Who Who else else except except aa bed with is Muslim would Muslim would even even think think of of going going to to bed with his his uncle's uncles daughter, daughter, who who is next his real real sister?" sister?"?7 next only only to to his Badli Badli Pershad Pershad contrasts contrasts Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim sexual sexual natures natures explicitly: explicitly: "Muslims "Muslims always always had had an an eye eye for for our our women. women. This This habit habit persists. persists. Good Good thoughts thoughts and and thoughts thoughts of of God God come come into into their their minds minds only only when when they they shout shout "Allah-u-AkbarI" "Allah-u-Akbar!" Rest Rest of of the the time time they they simply simply forget forget morality morality and and go go on on sexusexually harassing our never took took aa single ally harassing our women. women. We We never single woman woman of of theirs. theirs. They They used were rich rich and used to to take take ours ours all all the the time. time. They They were and the the rulers rulers and and did did what what they wanted. We are moral (dharmic) and would never do such things even they wanted. We are moral (dharmic) and would never do such things evenif if rich. treat all rich. We We treat all women women as as mothers mothers and and sisters. sisters. They They force force themselves themselves on on women; women and women,- they they are are obsessed obsessed by by women and sex. sex. Look Look at at all all the the children children they they produce, dozens, produce, dozens, while while we we are are content content with with two two or or three." three." Most these views Most Pardi Pardi women women concur concur with with these views and and in in fact fact go go further further in in linklink-

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ing the Muslim's Muslim's lewd ing the the outbreak outbreak of of violence violence to to the the "fact" "fact" of of the lewd sexual sexual nature. nature. Kamla Bai remarks, "Muslim boys are especially prone to harass our girls. Kamla Bai remarks, "Muslim boys are especially prone to harass our girls. women free of Unlike Unlike Muslim Muslim girls, girls, we we leave leave our our women free to to walk walk around around and and go go out out of the bastiififthey theywish wishto. to.Many Manytimes timesthe thegirls girlsare arevictims victimsofofvery veryvulgar vulgarbehavbehavthe basti ior part of boys. If to the the verbal verbal level, ior on on part of Muslim Muslim boys. If it it was was only only kept kept to level, it it is is O.K. O.K. But the Muslims often use physical harassment. This makes our boys very But the Muslims often use physical harassment. This makes our boys very angry. Sometimes Sometimes these these fights take on on aa communal communal coloring coloring and and in in the the past past angry. fights take they riots." they have have been been main main triggers triggers for for the the outbreak outbreak of of riots." The The Muslim Muslim animality animality also also lies lies in in aa heedless heedless pursuit pursuit of of pleasure pleasure without without regard regard for for the the concerns concerns and and obligations obligations which which make make one one human. human. 'Their "Their chilchildren are are completely completely spoilt. spoilt. They They drink drink aa lot. lot. They They are are used used to to aa carefree, carefree, dren uninhibited uninhibited life. life. The The young young ones ones are are only only interested interested in in enjoyment. enjoyment. EveryEverything they they do do is is for for enjoyment. enjoyment. Hindus Hindus are are cowards cowards because they are are worried worried thing because they about cultivating cultivating the the land, land, education education for for their their children, children, and and so so many many other other about things. all." things. Muslims Muslims don't don't worry worry at at all." The The Pardi Pardi image image of of the the Muslim Muslim and and the the arguments arguments employed employed for for its its conconsangh parivar to to attract struction struction are are strikingly strikingly similar similar to to the the ones ones used used by by the the sangh parivar attract Hindus political fold. Hindus to to its its cultural cultural and and political fold. (Whether (Whether this this convergence convergence of of perpersangh parivar's articulation of of a widespread Hindu senticeptions ceptions is is due due to to the the sangh parivars articulation a widespread Hindu sentiment parivar's creation ment or or whether whether it it is is the the parivars creationthrough througha amanipulation manipulationofofHindu Hindu symbols symbols is is aa question question II shall shall discuss discuss later.) later.) In In any any event, event, an an understanding understanding of of this component this component of of the the Hindu Hindu image image of of the the Muslim Muslim gives gives us us an an insight insight into into how people vastly superior how people belonging belonging to to aa vastly superior demographic demographic majority majority can can still still psychologically experience psychologically experience themselves themselves as as an an endangered endangered minority. minority. Viewing Viewing an an antagonistic antagonistic group group as as dirty, dirty, and and thus thus subhuman, subhuman, whereas whereas one's next to to godliness, is one's own own cleanliness cleanliness is is not not only only humanely humanely civilized civilized but but next godliness, is commonplace in ethnic conflict. "Dirty nigger" and "dirty Jew" are wellcommonplace in ethnic conflict. "Dirty nigger" and "dirty Jew" are wellknown known epithets epithets in in the the United United States. States. The The Chinese Chinese regard regard TIbetans Tibetans as as the the great unwashed, perpetually perpetually stinking in great unwashed, stinking of of yak yak butter, butter, while while Jewish Jewish children children in Rwandan radio radio broadIsrael brought up Israel are are brought up to to regard regard Arabs Arabs as as dirty. dirty. In In the the Rwandan broadthe Tutsis, the latter casts casts inciting inciting the the Hutus Hutus to to massacre massacre the Tutsis, the latter were were consistently consistently with dirt called called rats rats and and cockroaches, cockroaches, creatures creatures associated associated with dirt and and underground underground sewers, vermin vermin needing needing to be exterminated. exterminated. Serbs Serbs and and the the Bosnian Bosnian Muslims, sewers, to be Muslims, the the Turks Turks and and Kurds, Kurds, and and so so many many other other groups groups in in conflict conflict are are outraged outraged by by each Again, there each other's other's dirtiness. dirtiness. Again, there may may be be aa grain grain of of reality reality in in some some of of the the accusations cliaccusations because because of of aa particular particular group's group's poverty, poverty, food food habits, habits, or or the the climatic conditions conditions of of its its habitat. If the the attribution attribution of of dirtiness dirtiness falters falters against against matic habitat. If too too great great aa discrepancy discrepancy in in factual factual reality, reality, itit will will no no longer longer be be attributed attributed to to the the opponent's body body but but to to the soul. In In some some ways, ways, the the dirtiness dirtiness is is now now even even opponent's the soul.

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worse; it the worse,it is is aa moral moral dirtiness dirtiness which which is is more more than than skin skin deep, deep, aa blackness blackness of of the heart. heart. As aa poverty-stricken poverty-stricken community, As community, the the Pardis Pardis are are not not in in aa position position to to call call Muslims the Muslims physically physically dirty, dirty, an an accusation accusation which which is is more more the the province province of of the higher jokes II remember higher Hindu Hindu castes. castes. One One of of the the jokes remember from from my my childhood childhood is is of of the to the the Hindu, the Muslim Muslim saying saying to Hindu, "You "You Hindus Hindus are are so so dirty. dirty. You You have have aa bath bath today will and then then (now (now speaking speaking in in an an exaggeratedly exaggeratedly slow slow draw\) drawl) you you will today and baathe agaain agaain tomoorrow. tomoorrow. But we Muslims, Muslims, we we have have aa bath bath (in (in aa rapid rapid fire fire baathe But we who work are delivery) Friday-to-Friday, Friday-to-Friday!" Friday-to-FridayJ" 'The delivery) Friday-to-Friday, "The Muslims Muslims who work are dirty, others others are are not. not. We We work work hard to survive. survive. So So where is the the time time for for us dirty, hard to where is us to to appear are appear neat neat and and clean?" clean?" asks asks Badli Badli Pershad Pershad plaintively. plaintively. Muslims, Muslims, however, however, are dirty way;; they dirty in in aa more more fundamental fundamental way they eat eat beef. beef. Beef most heinous Beef eating eating is is the the most heinous of of sins sins among among the the Pardis Pardis (as (as it it is is among among most moral code most Hindus), Hindus), aa more more serious serious violation violation of of the the moral code than than marriage marriage to to aa gosht [beef] Muslim Muslim or or conversion conversion to to Islam. Islam. "Bada "Badagosht [beef]is istheir theirfavorite favoritedish. dish.If Ifany any of us us even even touches touches it it he bath. All All Muslims Muslims eat eat bada badacjosht. That of he must must have have aa bath. gosht. That is is why we we keep ourselves away away from from them. them. We We do do not not even even drink drink water water in in their their why keep ourselves homes," says says Lalita. Lalita. "We "We pray pray to to the the cow cow because because it it is is our our [mother-goddess] [mother-goddess] homes," Lakshmi. Hindus Hindus revere even cow cow dung, dung, use use it it for for cooking, cooking, decorating decorating the the Lakshmi. revere even house, and and for for many many other other things. things. They They eat eat the thecow!" cow!"says says Badli Badli Pershad, Pershad, his his house, beef crecredisgust disgust palpable. palpable. The The Muslim Muslim eating eating and and the the Hindu Hindu abomination abomination of of beef to someone ates two;; it ates an an effective effective barrier barrier between between the the two it is is difficult difficult to to be be close close to someone with whose eating finds diswith whom whom one one cannot cannot share share aa meal meal and and whose eating habits habits one onefinds disgusting. gusting. Gandhi, Gandhi, Psychoanalysts, Psychoanalysts, and and Cows Cows The killing of The Muslim Muslim eating eating of of beef beef and and thus thus the the killing of cows cows has has perhaps perhaps historihistorically bitterness toward the most most important important source source of of Hindu Hindu bitterness toward the the MusMuscally been been the lim. us, though lim. In In Ttpu Tipu Sultan's Sultan's dominions, dominions, Abbe Abbe Dubois Dubois tells tells us, though Hindus Hindus witness witness the uttering loud inthe slaughter slaughter of of cows cows without without uttering loud complaint, complaint, they they are are far far from from inwith complaining and sensible sensible to to the the insult, insult, contenting contenting themselves themselves with complaining in in secret secret and storing up in storing up in their their hearts hearts all all the the indignation indignation they they feel feel about about this this sacrilege. sacrilege.88 Pious Pious Lingayats Lingayats come come up up to to the the Abbe Abbe with with tears tears in in their their eyes, eyes, imploring imploring him him to use his his influence to stop to use influence as as aa priest priest with with the the local local Europeans Europeans to stop them them from from who had been forcibly to Islam eating eating beef. beef. Hindus Hindus who had been forcibly converted converted to Islam could could not not rereconvert convert even even if if they they had had eaten eaten beef beef only only under under duress. duress. From From the the nineteenth nineteenth revivalism has has been been closely movecentury century onward, onward, Hindu Hindu revivalism closely associated associated with with movements against ments against cow cow slaughter. slaughter.

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Chapter Four Chapter Four The beef The ferocity ferocity of of Hindu Hindu emotions, emotions, chiefly chiefly disgust disgust at at the the eating eating of of beef and would automatically and rage rage at at the the slaughter slaughter of of cows/ cows, would automatically draw draw attention attention from from the presence psychoanalysts for psychoanalysts for whom whom the presence of of strong strong emotions emotions in in aa relationship relationship implies the operation operation of 924/ the implies the of unconscious unconscious factors. factors. In In t1924, the British British army army psypsytheme of chiatrist chiatrist Owen Owen Berkeley-Hill Berkeley-Hill wrote wrote aa paper paper on on the the theme of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim meeting of conflict, which selVed conflict, aa paper paper which served as as aa topic topic for for discussion discussion at at the the meeting of the the which Gandhi was also inIndian Indian Psychoanalytic Psychoanalytic Society Society in in Calcutta Calcutta to to which Gandhi was also invited. Berkeley-Hill identifies of vited.99 ln In this this essay, essay, Berkeley-Hill identifies two two main main hurdles hurdles in in the the way way of first is the Hindu/s Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim unity. unity. The The first is the Hindu's "motherland "motherland complex" complex" wherein wherein the with the the ancient ancient cults cults of of mother-goddesses mother-goddesses have have become become associated associated with the ideas ideas the MusMusof women, virgin, virgin, mother, and motherland-Bharat of women, mother, and motherland—Bharat Mata-which Mata—which the lims lims violated violated through through their their conquest conquest of of India. India. (The (The colonel colonel does does not not explain explain why why there there is is no no such such Hindu Hindu bitterness bitterness against against the the British British for for aa similar similar "violaViolation".) tion".) The The second second obstacle obstacle is is the the Muslim Muslim slaughter slaughter of of cows cows which, which, BerkeleyBerkeleytotem animal Hill Hill tries tries to to establish, establish, were were once once aa totem animal for for the the Hindus Hindus (as (as it it still still continues to be tribes in India) and obcontinues to be for for certain certain tribes in central central and and south south India) and thus thus an an object of diject of the the ambivalent ambivalent feelings feelings of of cherishing cherishing and and destruction destruction which which are are directed totems. FollOWing Taboo, Berkeleyrected against against all all totems. Following Freud/s Freud's ideas ideas in in Totem Totemand and Taboo, BerkeleyHill that one an Hill argues argues that one who who violates violates aa taboo, taboo, becomes becomes aa taboo taboo and and thus thus an object object of of detestation-more detestation—more especially especially in in the the case case of of the the Muslim Muslim because because the the violation violation of of the the taboo, taboo, the the cow cow slaughter, slaughter, often often took took place place to to ratify ratify Muslim Muslim tavictories victories or or show show contempt contempt for for Hindu Hindu susceptibilities. susceptibilities. The The violators violators of of aa taboo both envy boo are are contagious contagious and and must must be be avoided avoided for for they they arouse arouse both envy (why (why be allowed the forbidshould should they they be allowed to to do do what what is is prohibited prohibited to to others?) others?) and and the forbidto emulate who also kill cows/ not den den desire desire to emulate the the act. act. Christians Christians and}ews, and Jews, who also kill cows, do do not provoke provoke the the same same hostility hostility because because they they do do not not kill kill cows cows ceremonially ceremonially as as do do the Muslims the Muslims or or with with aa clear clear intention intention of of offering offering insult insult to to the the Hindu. Hindu. Berkeley-Hill/s Berkeley-Hill's solution, solution, "in "in line line with with the the fundamental fundamental ideas ideas which which underlie underlie between Hindus totemism/" is totemism," is that that "any "any reconciliation reconciliation between Hindus and and Muslims Muslims would would demand demand as as aa cardinal cardinal feature feature some some form form of of ceremonial ceremonial in in which which cows cows would would be killed killed and and eaten, eaten, either either actually actually or or symbolically, symbolically, by by Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims be in concave. concave. It It is is quite quite conceivable conceivable that this killing killing and and eating eating of of cows cows could could that this in be so so arranged arranged as as to to fulfil fulfil every every demand demand from from aa psychological psychological standpoint standpoint be without involVing involving the the death death of of aa single single animal, animal, although although in in view view of of the the great great without issues at at stake, stake, namely namely the the formation formation of of aa real real and and permanent between permanent pact pact between issues Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, the the actual actual sacrifice sacrifice of of every every cow cow in India would hardly in India would hardly Hindus 10 be too too big big aa price price to to pay." pay."10 We do do not not know know what what Mahatma Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi, aa strict strict We be vegetarian who who shared shared the the Vaishnava Vaishnava veneration veneration of of the the cow, cow, thought thought of of this this vegetarian suggestion. suggestion.

Victims and and Others Others L L. The The Hindus Hindus Victims Even years, Berkeley-Hills Berkeley-Hill's paper inEven at at aa distance distance of of seventy seventy years, paper remains remains inism has triguing, triguing, although although Freud's Freud's ideas ideas on on totem totemism has fallen fallen into into oblivion. oblivion. II am am ubiquity of worsurprised surprised that, that, given given the the wealth wealth of of evidence evidence and and the the ubiquity of Hindu Hindu worship and and references references to to the the cow cow as as mother, mother, Berkeley-Hill Berkeley-Hill did did not not simply simply inship inbut sought clude clude the the cow cow in in the the Hindu's Hindus "motherland "motherland complex" complex" but sought aa separate separate explanation in in terms terms of of totem totem and and taboo. taboo. Any unconscious Hindu Hindu ambivaambivaexplanation Any unconscious lence toward toward the the eating eating of of beef, beef, which which he might have observed underlying underlying aa lence he might have observed back to to the infants ambivalence ambivalence conscious abhorrence, abhorrence, could could then then be conscious be traced traced back the infant's toward the maternal maternal body and the the breast it cherishes cherishes and and would would keep body and breast it keep alive, alive, toward the but also also tears tears at at and and would destroy. But, of course, course, Melanie Klein had not yet yet but would destroy. But, of Melanie Klein had not formulated her her theories infant love love and and violence, violence, guilt guilt and and reparation, reparation, and formulated theories of of infant and Berkeley-Hill, who was in in charge charge of of the the Ranchi Ranchi psychiatric hospital, used used the the Berkeley-Hill, who was psychiatric hospital, theories he had had available available to to explain explain his his observations, observations, though though they they now now seem seem theories he forced. forced. as expressed Muslim expressed in in dirtiness dirtiness and and the the male's males perceived perceived Muslim "animality," "animality," as part of human "instinc"instincaggressivity aggressivity and and sexual sexual licentiousness, licentiousness, are are of of course course aa part of human tuality" tuality" which which aa civilized, civilized, moral moral self self must must renounce. renounce. The The animality animality not not only only belongs belongs to to an an individual individual past-to past—to infancy infancy and and early early childhood-which childhood—which needs to be needs to be transcended transcended by by the the institution institution of of aa constantly constantly endangered endangered adult adult part of moral moral self, self, but but also also to to the the Pardis' Pardis' collective collective past past which which is is still still aa part of their their hunters, killkillfolk Visions from the past folk memory. memory. Visions from the past of of themselves themselves as as aggressive aggressive hunters, ing ing and and eating eating whatever whatever animals animals are are available available (perhaps (perhaps also also the the cow?), cow?), drinkdrinking ing and and lazing lazing around around in in the the Village village without without aa thought thought for for the the future, future, are are too too dangerous to the the cultural dangerous to cultural identity identity the the Pardis Pardis are are now now trying trying to to construct construct for for kept at themselves themselves and and others. others. The The Muslim Muslim must must be be kept at aa distance distance because because that that animality animality is is too too near, near, even even Within, within, the the Pardi Pardi self. self. of Here, Here, the the Pardis Pardis are are not not different different from from Hindus Hindus in in many many other other parts parts of by India. India. Some Some years years ago, ago, while while studying studying the the phenomenon phenomenon of of possession possession by spirits north India, spirits in in rural rural north India, II was was struck struck by by the the fact fact that that in in aavery verylarge largenumber number of fifteen out of cases, cases, fifteen out of of twenty-eight, twenty-eight, the the malignant malignant spirit spirit possessing possessing Hindu Hindu men Muslim. 111x When, When, during during the the healing healing ritritmen and and women women turned turned out out to to be be aa Muslim. ual, patient went went into ual, the the patient into aa trance trance and and the the spirit spirit started started expressing expressing its its Wishes, wishes, these wishes-for wishes—for forbidden forbidden sexuality sexuality and and prohibited prohibited foodS-invariably foods—invariably these turned turned out out to to be be those those which which would would have have been been horrifying horrifying to to the the patient's patient's conscious conscious self. self. Possession Possession by by aa Muslim Muslim spirit, spirit, then, then, seemed seemed to to reflect reflect afflicted afflicted to convince imagpersons' persons' desperate desperate efforts efforts to convince themselves themselves and and others others that that their their imagof the the heart belonged to to the the Muslim Muslim destroyer destroyer of ined transgressions and sins sins of ined transgressions and heart belonged of Mustaboos taboos and and were were farthest farthest away away from from their their "good" "good" Hindu Hindu selves. selves. In In that that Muslim spirits spirits were universally considered considered to to be be the strongest, Vilest, vilest, the the most most lim were universally the strongest,

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Chapter Chapter Four Four malignant the Muslim malignant and and the the most most stubborn stubborn of of the the evil evil spirits, spirits, the Muslim seemed seemed to to symbolize symbolize the thealien alienininthe themore moreunconscious unconsciousparts partsofofthe theHindu Hindumind. mind. The thehated hatedout-group out-groupfor forthe the Hindus Hindus(and (and The reasons reasons why why Muslims Muslims are are the vice Parsis, or vice versa)-rather versa)—rather than than the the Sikhs, Sikhs, Parsis, or Christians Christians in in India, India, or or the the "modern not only to do with the the sheer "modern West" West" outside outside the the country-have country—have not only to do with sheer size size of the Muslim minority which which can of the Muslim minority can thus thus withstand withstand the the absorptive absorptive and and disindisintegrative pressure of the the Hindu Hindu majority. majority. They They lie lie also also in in certain certain socialtegrative pressure of socialpsychological axioms psychological axioms on on scapegoating scapegoating and and displacement displacement of of aggression aggression which Robert LeVine which have have been been systematically systematically listed listed by by Robert LeVine and and Donald Donald CampCamp12 bell and fit the tee: 12 bell and that that seem seem to to fit the case case of of Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims to to aa tee: -An —An out-group out-group is is aa target target for for hostility hostility ifif itit isis aasource sourceof offrustration frustration ininits its own own right, right, as as Hindus Hindus have have perceived perceived Muslims Muslims to to be be over over centuries. centuries. -An with the as —An out-group out-group with the most most disparaging disparaging images images of of the the in-group, in-group, as Muslims have the Hindus, Muslims have of of the Hindus, and and whose whose ethnocentrism ethnocentrism the the in-group in-group is is in in aa most hated. position to position to "overhear," "overhear," will will be be the the most hated. The out-group most ethnocentric, of -—The out-group which which is is seen seen as as the the most ethnocentric, in in terms terms of unwarranted self-esteem-the the most unwarranted self-esteem—the Hindu Hindu view view of of Muslims-will Muslims—will be be the most hated. hated. -—The The most most hated hated out-group be the the one is used used most most as as aa bad bad out-group will will be one which which is example words, groups as example in in child child training. training. In In other other words, groups indoctrinate indoctrinate their their young young as to to against against which which targets targets to to vent vent their their hostility. hostility. The have described The existence existence of of the the image image of of the the Muslim Muslim II have described above, above, with with all reverberations, does not mean all its its unconscious unconscious reverberations, does not mean that that aa coexistence coexistence of of the the communities, public arena, communities, at at least least in in the the public arena, is is impossible. impossible. The The hope hope for for such such aa First, there there are of coexistence coexistence comes comes from from many many directions. directions. First, are many many instances instances of Muslims Muslims and and Hindus Hindus protecting protecting each each other other during during aa riot. riot. Badli Badli Pershad's Pershad's own own her family by taking taking shelter with their daughter daughter and and her family escaped escaped certain certain death death by shelter with their his safety, Muslim who, at at some some risk risk to to his safety, did did not not betray betray their their presence presence Muslim neighbor neighbor who, to the to the marauding marauding mob. mob. Second, Second, often often enough enough there there are are acknowledgments acknowledgments the two of of their their common common ancestry ancestry and and the the recognition recognition that that the two communities communities to share the same physical space. jaat," says have have to share the same physical space. "We "We love love our our jaat" says Badli Badli Pershad, Pershad, usingjaat using jaat more more in in the the sense sense of of aaway wayof oflife life than than aaphysical physicalgroup. group."They "Theylove love theirs. We We should should live live together because we we have have the the same same blood." blood." theirs. together because The Pardis Pardis would would be be willing willing to go even even further further in in seeking seeking this this coexisThe to go coexistence by accepting intermarriage intermarriage with Muslims, but but they they believe believe that that by accepting with the the Muslims, tence here they they come come up up against against aa Muslim Muslim inflexibility inflexibility about about matters of faith, faith, even even here matters of bigotry. Badli Pershad Pershad elaborates: elaborates: "Actually "Actually II feel feel marriage marriage between between Hindus Hindus bigotry. Badli and Muslims Muslims would would be one method of building communal harmony. But in and be one method of bUilding communal harmony. But in my opinion Hindus Hindus should should never never make make the the mistake of marrying Muslims bemy opinion mistake of marrying Muslims be-

Victims Hindus Victims and and Others Others I: L The The Hindus cause cause the the Hindu Hindu is is not not allowed allowed to to retain retain his his or or her her religion religion at at any any cost. cost. So So women have many many of of our our women have got got married married to to Muslims, Muslims, either either because because they they were were by force working as in in love love or or by force because because these these women women were were working as servants servants in in Muslim Muslim households. households. None None of of them them has has been been allowed allowed to to remain remain aa Hindu Hindu or or practice practice Hindu Hindu religion. religion. All All of of them them have have been been converted converted whereas whereas the the same same cannot cannot be be tolerant and person to said said of of the the Hindus. Hindus. They They are are more more tolerant and allow allow the the other other person to follow whatever whatever religion or she she wants." follow religion he he or wants." to our "We "We used used to to have have aa young young Muslim Muslim girl girl coming coming to our house house aa few few years years ago. She She was was my my daughter's daughter's friend. friend. She She used to spend spend long long hours hours in in our our ago. used to house. Although family did did not not like like her her visiting visiting us us she she continued continued to to do do her family house. Although her so. She She would would discuss discuss many many things things about about Islam Islam and and the Hindu dharma dharmawith with so. the Hindu me, me, and and one one day day she she stated stated that that if if she she marries marries at at all all she she will will marry marry aa Hindu Hindu only only and and not not aa Muslim, Muslim, because because Hindu Hindu religion religion is is more more humanitarian humanitarian and and tolerant violent as married one men and tolerant and and not not as as violent as Islam. Islam. She She married one of of our our men and to to this this day she she practices practices both both Islam Islam and and Hinduism. Hinduism. She She not not only only observes observes rozas rozas(a(a day month of of ritual ritual fasting), fasting), Muharram, Muharram, celebrates celebrates Bakr-Id Bakr-Id but but also also installs installs CanGanmonth esha idols idols in in her her house, house, celebrates celebrates Diwali Diwali and and Dusshera Dusshera and and participates esha participates in in Holi festival festival along along with all of of us. us. Her Her children children have have both both Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim Holi with all names. They They were living happily happily as as aa family family when when the the mother of the the girl girl names. were living mother of started telling telling her Hindu son-in-law son-in-law that that he he should should convert convert to to Islam. Islam. When When her Hindu started the boy did did not not agree, agree, they they started started threatening threatening him. him. This This is is the the problem problem with with the boy religion. Even of Muslims. Muslims. They They are are so so particular particular about about their their religion. Even the the suggestion suggestion of conversion or or practicing the Hindu Hindu religion religion can can spark spark off off another another riot." riot." conversion practicing the marry Muslim "Unfortunately, "Unfortunately, it it is is more more frequent frequent for for Hindu Hindu girls girls to to marry Muslim boys. This boys. This is is partly partly because because Hindu Hindu girls girls are are not not kept kept in in purdah purdahlike likethe theMuslim Muslim not get girls girls and and therefore therefore come come into into contact contact with with Muslim Muslim boys. boys. We We do do not get even even chance to to see see aa Muslim Muslim girl girl once once she she attains attains puberty. puberty. And And love love isis such such aa aa chance thing that that once once bitten bitten by by it, it, our our girls girls seem seem to to forget forget everything everything about about their their thing willing to huscommunity community or or religion religion or or family. family. They They are are willing to do do whatever whatever their their husbands want. want. They They get get converted, converted, their their children children carry carry Muslim Muslim names, names, go go to to bands madarsas,learn learnthe theQur'an Qur an butnothing nothingabout aboutany any otherreligion. religion. Thetragedy tragedy madarsas, but other The is that some of of the the women women who who married married Muslims Muslims twenty-five, twenty-five, thirty years is that some thirty years husbands. This This woman woman sitting sitting here here was ago are are now now old old and and deserted deserted by by their their husbands. was ago married to to aa Muslim Muslim and and had had four four children. children. The The husband has left left her her and and husband has married refuses to pay pay aa minimum refuses to minimum maintenance. maintenance. She She used used to to earn earn something something when when she was was healthier healthier and and younger. younger. Now she is is ill ill and and goes goes from from house house to to house house she Now she begging for her her daily daily food. food. She She has home, sleeps sleeps wherever wherever she she can, can, and and no no begging for has no no home, one treats her well. Our people don't accept her because they think it was one treats her well. Our people don't accept her because they think it was wrong for for her her to to marry marry aa Muslim. Muslim. That That is is why why II think it is is important important to to hold hold wrong think it

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on to to the the religion religion of of our our ancestors ancestors under under all all circumstances. circumstances. Otherwise, Otherwise, you you on not only only lose lose the respect of of your your community community but other community community also also not the respect but the the other looks down down upon upon you." you." looks It to say It is is difficult difficult to say to to what what extent extent the the Pardi Pardi attitudes attitudes toward toward Muslims Muslims are are shared shared by by other other Hindus Hindus in in Hyderabad Hyderabad or or are are generalizable generalizable to to Hindus Hindus in in the the rest rest of of the the country. country. On On the the one one hand, hand, as as victims victims of of recent recent riots riots one one may may expect the other, they are expect the the Pardis Pardis to to be be especially especially bitter. bitter. On On the other, they are aa lower, lower, "scheduled" "scheduled" caste, caste, and and we we know know from from other other studies studies that that higher-caste higher-caste Hindus Hindus 13 evaluate evaluate Muslims Muslims much much more more unfavorably unfavorably than than the the lower lower castes. castes.13 Children/s Children's Tales Tales way children To To get get some some impressions impressions of of the the way children view view and and experience experience HinduHinduMuslim by Erik ErikMuslim conflict, conflict, II adapted adapted the the "toy "toy construction" construction" method method used used by Erik Erikgirls son son in in his his research research on on the the identity identity development development of of Californian Californian boys boys and and girls in figures, wild in the the 1940s.14 1940s.14 Using Using toys toys such such as as aa family, family, some some uniformed uniformed figures, wild and and domestic blocks, Erikson domestic animals, animals, furniture, furniture, automobiles, automobiles, and and wooden wooden blocks, Erikson asked asked the was aa movie movie studiO; studio,- the the the tenten- to to twelve-year-olds twelve-year-olds to to imagine imagine that that the the table table was toys/ actors toys, actors and and props; props,- and and they they themselves, themselves, movie movie directors. directors. They They were were to to arrange own arrange on on the the table table an an exciting exciting scene scene from from an an imaginary imaginary movie. movie. My My own two families grandparents, parpartoys consisted toys consisted of of two families of of dolls, dolls, each each with with aa set set of of grandparents, ents, and and four four young young children children divided divided equally equally between between the sexes. The The dolls dolls ents/ the sexes. of were were identifiable identifiable as as Hindu Hindu or or Muslim Muslim from from their their dress dress or or other other markers markers of forfor Muslim women, sarees andand hindis religious religious group group identity: identity: long long black black hurl/as burcjas Muslim women, sarees bindis for for the the Hindus; Hindus,- pyjamas, pyjamas, sherwanis, sherwanis,round roundcaps capsand andbeards beardsforforMuslim Muslimmen, men, dhotis, and turbans forfor thethe Hindus. In In addition to to thethe Hindu and Musdhotis,kurtas, kurtas, and turbans Hindus. addition Hindu and Muslim dolls, dolls, there were dolls dolls of of aa man man in in aa uniform uniform with with aa gun gun slung slung over over one one lim there were shoulder, of of two two sinister-looking, sinister-looking, masked masked men men in in undershirts and jeans, and shoulder, undershirts and jeans, and of aa few few domestic domestic animals animals such such as as aa cow, cow, aa sheep, sheep, and and aa dog. dog. The The dolls dolls were were of placed on on aa stool stool next next to to aa large large wooden wooden table table which which was used as as the the stage. stage. was used placed The instructions instructions to the child child were were to to imagine imagine himself or herself herself as as aa film film The to the himself or director—the children children are are avid avid fans fans of of popular popular Hindi Hindi cinema-and cinema—and to to concondirector-the struct an an exciting exciting scene scene for for the the shooting shooting of of aafilm, using as as many many or oraafew fewdolls dolls film, using struct as desired. desired. The The child child was was then then asked asked to to identify identify the the dolls dolls and and after after the the miseas miseen-scene was was over, over, the the young young director director was asked to to describe describe what what was was hapen-scene was asked happening in in the the scene scene and and why. why. The The test, test, conducted conducted in in the the one-room one-room school school pening next to to the the temple, temple, aroused aroused great great excitement, excitement, and and it it was was not not easy easy to to keep keep next hordes of of enthusiastic enthusiastic volunteers volunteers of of all all ages ages from from pushing pushing and and shoving shoving their their hordes way into into the the room to get get into into the the action, action, or or to to stop stop them them from from shouting shouting comcomway room to

Victims Victims and and Others Others 1: I: The The Hindus Hindus ments through the be kept ments through the window window which which had had to to be kept open open because because of of the the heat. heat. Hyderabad not not being being San San Francisco Francisco and and Pardiwada Pardiwada not not being Berkeley, it it was Hyderabad being Berkeley, was impossible to to conduct conduct the the proceedings proceedings as as aa "standardized "standardized test under conconimpossible test under will dispense dispense with with reporting reporting my my results results in in trolled conditions," conditions," and and therefore therefore II will trotted the proper proper scientific scientific format format in in favor favor of of more more informal informal observations. observations. the The fifteen boys fifteen girls, The sample sample consisted consisted of of fifteen boys and and fifteen girls, ranging ranging in in age age to fifteen, fifteen, with median age both boys from from ten ten to with aa median age of of thirteen thirteen for for both boys and and girls. girls. The The lower age age limit limit of of ten ten was determined by by trial trial and and error error since since we we found found that that lower was determined the task task was was not not comprehensible comprehensible to to aa child child below below that that age-not age—not that that II have have the much confidence confidence in in the the reported reported ages. much ages. fifteen) and fifteen) made an Both Both boys boys (twelve (twelve out out of of fifteen) and girls girls (eleven (eleven out out of of fifteen) made an immediate three boys immediate identification identification of of the the dolls dolls as as Hindu Hindu or or Muslim. Muslim. The The three boys and two two of of the the four four girls girls who who first identified the dolls in in term term of of age age or or gender gender and first identified the dolls and had to be to make identification, were were younger younger and had to be prodded prodded to make the the religious religious identification, children of of eleven eleven or or less, less, confirming confirming the thefindings of other other studies studies that that awareawarefindings of children ness of one's one's own own religious religious affiliation affiliation and and the against religious religious outoutness of the prejudice prejudice against 15 15 Boys typically used a large part or the whole groups increases with age. of groups increases with age. Boys typically used a large part or the whole of the stage stage and and were were generally generally more more confident confident in in the the construction construction of of the the excitexcitthe ing scene scene than than girls, girls, who tended to to start start from from aa corner corner of of the the table and then then ing who tended table and gingerly spread spread out out to use aa bigger bigger part part of of the the stage, stage, though though rarely rarely as as much much as as gingerly to use the boys. The different approaches by boys and girls to the task and the use the boys. The different approaches by boys and girls to the task and the use of stage stage space space is is intriguing, intriguing, and and some some speculations speculations accounting accounting for for gender gender difdifof ference are are certainly certainly in in order. order. One One could could hypothesize hypothesize that that the the different different use use ference of aa public, public, even even an an exhibitionistic exhibitionistic space, space, simply simply reflects reflects the the relative relative posiof posigirls in in aa Pardi Pardi family family where, where, in in spite spite of of the the women's women's relative relative tions of boys boys and and girls tions of social freedom freedom and and economic economic importance, importance, the the boy is still still at at the the center center of of the the social boy is stage while the girl girl hugs the corner. corner. II could could also also speculate speculate that that the theimaginaimaginastage while the hugs the tive activity required by the has an an object object of of identification (film director) director) the task task has identification (film tive activity required by and aa content content (exciting (exciting theater) theater) that that are are closer closer to to aa boy's boy's than than aagirt's girl'simaginaimaginaand tion in this particular social group. Another line of argument, complemention in this particular social group. Another line of argument, complementary to to the the other other two, two, would would hold hold that that these particular uses uses of of space space are are these particular tary expressions of of aa broader male-female difference difference in in patriarchal societies. The The expressions broader male-female patriarchal societies. work of of Luce Luce Irigaray Irigaray on on women's language, especially especially with with regard regard to syntax, work women's language, to syntax, suggests that women do not put themselves in the center of space they open suggests that women do not put themselves in the center of space they open 16 by their utterance. Their subject is hesitant, open to interaction, asking by their utterance. 16 Their subject is hesitant, open to interaction, asking questions rather rather than than asserting. asserting. The The male subject, on on the the other other hand, is easily easily questions male subject, hand, is dominant, at at the the center center of stage, operating operating in in terms expanded "we." dominant, of the the stage, terms of of an an expanded "we." In MusIn the the construction construction of of the the exciting exciting scene, scene, boys boys generally generally arranged arranged Muslim and and Hindu Hindu dolls dolls in in separate separate groups groups engaged engaged in in some some kind kind of of violent violent conconlim

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Chapter Chapter Four Four frontation. fighting between of frontation. The The fighting between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims (presented (presented by by ten ten of the fifteen boys) the fifteen boys) is is relatively relatively absent absent in in girls' girls' constructions, constructions, where where only only three three of the girls staged staged such such scenes scenes of of conflict. conflict. Girls Girls use use dolls dolls to to construct construct of the fifteen fifteen girls peaceful scenes scenes from family life, life, even even when they identify identify the the families when they families as as peaceful from family Hindu and and Muslim. Muslim. Their Their stories stories emphasize emphasize relationships relationships between between the charHindu the characters, couples couples watching animals, and, and, especially, especially, parents parents watching watching children children acters, watching animals, play. Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim dolls dolls are are often often mixed mixed together. together. The The excitement excitement ocplay. occurs at at the the periphery periphery of of the scene: aa fight fight between between the policeman and and aa robcurs the scene: the policeman robber, animals animals being being chased chased by by agoonda, agoonda,a aman manrunning runningaway awayfrom froma asoldier. soldier.AA ber, typical scene constructed by a fifteen-year-old boy has a Hindu wedding taktypical scene constructed by a fifteen-year-old boy has a Hindu wedding taking place at the the center center of of the the stage, stage, the the Hindus Hindus watching watching the the dancers. dancers. They They ing place at are surrounded surrounded by four Muslims, Muslims, one one in in each each corner, corner, two two of of whom whom are are identiidentiare by four fied as asgoondas. TheHindu Hindudolls dollsmove movecloser closertogether togetherfor forprotection, protection,wonwonfied goondas. The dering how how to to save save themselves. themselves. The The police police dolls dolls run run away. away. Rather than be be Rather than dering killed by the Muslims, the Hindus commit suicide. killed by the Muslims, the Hindus commit suicide. A A scene scene by by aa girl, girl, aa thirteen-year-old thirteen-year-old in in this this case, case, has has Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim to each the animals an families in next to families in semicircles semicircles next each other, other, along along with with the animals who who are are an integral part part of of the the tableau. The Hindu Hindu family family is is having having coffee coffee and and bread. bread. integral tableau. The The Muslim Muslim family family is is saying saying its its prayers. Small children children are are playing. playing. The The exThe prayers. Small exgoondais isbeing beingchased chasedbybythe the citement of of the scene is is in in aa corner corner where citement the scene where aa goonda policeman after after aa robbery. robbery. policeman The Muslim Muslim children, children, nine nine boys boys and and nine nine girls girls from from Karwan, Karwan, the the other other The location of of this this study, study, ranged ranged in in age age from from ten ten to to fifteen with aa median median age age of location fifteen with of thirteen years. years. They They did did not not differ differ from from the the Hindu Hindu children children as as far far as as immedithirteen immediate identification identification of of the the dolls dolls as as Hindu Hindu or or Muslim Muslim was was concerned, concerned, the the ate younger children children having having more more difficulty difficulty than than older older ones ones in in identifying identifying the the younger dolls according to their religious rather than gender affiliation or according doUs according to their religious rather than gender affiliation or according to age. age. like Like the the Hindus, the Muslim girls were were shyer shyer than than the the boys boys in in their their to Hindus, the Muslim girls approach to to the the task task and and used less of of the the stage stage space space for for their their constructions. constructions. used less approach As with with the the Hindus, Hindus, less less than than half half the the Muslim Muslim children children constructed constructed scenes scenes of of As violent confrontation between the communities although the distribution of violent confrontation between the communities although the distribution of the scenes scenes between between girls girls and and boys was different different from from the the Hindu Hindu sample. sample. the boys was versus 20 20 perWhereas somewhat somewhat more Muslim than than Hindu Hindu girls girls (40 (40 percent percent versus Whereas more Muslim percent) constructed constructed scenes scenes of of conflict, conflict, Muslim Muslim boys boys showed showed significantly significantly less cent) less interest than than Hindu Hindu boys in communal communal violence violence (20 (20 percent percent versus versus 70 70 perperboys in interest cent). It It is is not that violence violence as as the the source source of of excitement excitement was was absent absent from from the the cent). not that scenes of of Muslim Muslim boys. boys. The The violence violence in in their their story story lines lines was, so to say, more more was, so to say, scenes traditional—between policemen and robbers robbers or or the the hero and the the viUain, villain, the the traditional-between policemen and hero and goonda. Thefantasy fantasyofofMuslim Muslimboys boysisisthus thusmore moreofofthe theHindi Hindifilm filmvariety variety goonda. The

Victims Hindus Victims and and Others Others 1: L The The Hindus wherein aa hero wherein hero skilled skilled in in one one of of the the martial martial arts arts such such as as karate karate rescues rescues aa damdamsel the unwelcome sel in in distress distress from from the unwelcome attentions attentions of of the the goonda. (joonda.Though Thoughthe thepehlpehlwan herooccurs occursininone oneof ofthe thestories, stories,IIam amafraid afraidthat thatininchildren's children'sfantasy fantasy wan asasaahero traditional wrestling wrestling is is being consigned to to oblivion oblivion and and is is being replaced being consigned being replaced traditional with the more more modern modern import import of of karate. karate. The The fantasy fantasy of of Muslim Muslim boys boys has has not not with the yet been overlaid overlaid by by the the real-life real-life events events of of the the riots riots to to the the same same extent extent as yet been as in the the case case of of the Pardi boys. can only only account account for for this this difference difference by the in the Pardi boys. II can by the children's actual actual experience experience of of the the riots. riots. The The experience experience of of the boys the Muslim Muslim boys children's from Karwan has never been as traumatic as that of the Pardi boys who have from Karwan has never been as traumatic as that of the Pardi boys who have seen their their homes homes burned burned and and their their close close relatives relatives killed killed by an attacking attacking Musseen by an Muslim mob. lim mob. On policeman play On the the other other hand, hand, the the dolls dolls of of the the army army soldier soldier and and the the policeman play greater role role in in the the constructions constructions of of the the Muslim Muslim children, children, either either as as hostile hostile aa greater helping the figures has been figures (liThe ("The soldier soldier has been helping the Hindus Hindus and and not not Muslims") Muslims") or or aa benign presence presence (,The ('The army army is is telling telling the the Hindus and Muslims Muslims not not to fight"). Hindus and to fight"). benign This reflects reflects the the actual actual experience experience of of the the children children in in Karwan Karwan where where police police This and paramilitary paramilitary forces forces have have often often been been employed employed to area during during aa and to patrol patrol the the area riot or or to to conduct conduct house-to-house house-to-house searches searches for for hidden hidden arms. arms. Reflecting Reflecting their their riot experiences of of the the riots, riots, the the Muslim Muslim children children are are also also much much less less informed informed experiences "causes" of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim confrontation; confrontation,- the the than the Hindu boys boys about about the the "causes" than the Hindu Hindu boys boys often ascribe the the outbreak outbreak of of communal communal violence violence to to the the Muslims' Muslims' Hindu often ascribe throwing of of bada badagosht intoa atemple. temple. gosht into throwing Two flavor of Two examples examples will will give give aaflavor of the the children's children's stories: stories: A A twelve-year-old twelve-year-old boy, boy, studying studying in in the the sixth sixth class, class, immediately immediately identifies identifies the toys and the dolls dolls as as Hindu Hindu or or Muslim. Muslim. He He uses uses all all the the toys and the the full full stage stage for for the the construction of of his his scene scene where the Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims are are not not in in any any kind kind construction where the of confrontational confrontational posture, although the the Hindu Hindu dolls dolls are are clustered clustered together together of posture, although on one one side. side. He He explains explains the scene thus: thus: liThe "The animals animals are are saying saying to to each each on the scene other, 'Don't 'Don't fight among yourselves. yourselves. It It gives gives other other animals animals aa chance chance to to come come other, fight among in your your area.' area.' The The army army man man is is telling telling the the Hindus Hindus that that they they should should think think of in of their country country and and not not trouble trouble the the Muslims. Muslims. The The Muslims Muslims are are saying saying their their their Id Id prayers. The The older older Muslim Muslim woman woman is is telling telling other other women women (including (including the the prayers. Hindu women) that that aa good good woman woman always always wears (burcja)and andthey they Hindu women) wears aa veil veil (burl/a) should all all do do so." should SO." A A thirteen-year-old thirteen-year-old girl, girl, who who studied studied till till the the third third class class and and is is now now aa school dropout, dropout, also also identifies identifies the dolls immediately immediately and and uses uses all all the the toys toys for for school the dolls the construction construction of of her her scene scene which which takes takes up up half half the the stage. stage. She She explains: explains: the "Hindus and and Muslims Muslims are are fighting. [She doesn't doesn't know know why.] why.] First, First, the the chilchilfighting. [She "Hindus dren fight the adults. adults. The The soldier soldier is is saying saying don't don't fight. The Hindus Hindus fight. The dren fight then then the

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brought brought in in agoonda agoondatotoattack attackthe theMuslims. Muslims.The TheMuslims Muslimsbrought broughtinina akarate karate expert who who put put the the goonda goondatotoflight." flight." expert To To summarize: summarize: In In spite spite of of the the endemic endemic Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim violence violence in in the the old city city of of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, less less than than half half the the children children constructed constructed scenes scenes of old of this violence violence in in their their play play constructions. constructions. This This number number may may be be seen seen as as too too this large or or too too small, small, depending depending on on one's one's own own inclination inclination to to view view the the glass glass of large of Hindu-Muslim relations relations as as half half empty empty or or half half full. full. In In any any event, event, aa communal communal Hindu-Muslim orientation is is present present in in aa significant significant number number of of children children between between the the ages ages of of orientation ten and and fifteen. This orientation, orientation, however, however, varies varies with with age-older age—older children children ten fifteen. This being more more communal communal in in their their imagination imagination than than younger younger ones-and ones—and with with being gender—girls, especially especially Hindu Hindu girls, girls, prefer prefer to to construct construct scenes scenes from from family family gender-girls, life rather rather than than from from communal communal conflict. conflict. Scenes Scenes of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim violence, violence, life when they they are are created, created, seem seem to to express express the the child's child's unresolved unresolved anxiety anxiety in in relarelawhen tion to his or her personal experience of the riot—for instance, the fear tion to his or her personal experience of the riot-for instance, the fear of of imminent death death at at the the hands hands of of an an attacking attacking Muslim Muslim mob mob in in the case of of the the imminent the case Pardi boys. boys. Unsurprisingly, the direct, direct, personal personal experience experience of of aa riot as aa vicvicPardi Unsurprisingly, the riot as tim is the strongest impetus impetus to to the the development development of of religious religious hatred hatred and and comcomtim is the strongest munal imagination imagination in in aa child. child. munal In conclusion, conclusion, let let me me note note that both Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims do do not In that both not perperceive conflict in in terms of local local issues as one involving the the "essential" "essential" their conflict terms of issues but but as one involving ceive their nature of aa Hindu or Muslim Muslim which does not over history. Such an nature of Hindu or which does not change change over history. Such an essentialization, found found in ethnic conflicts as the one beessentialization, in many many other other ethnic conflicts (such (such as the one between Jews Jews and York, where local issues to the tween and Blacks Blacks in in New New York, where local issues get get linked linked to the perper"jew" or orthe the "Negro"), "Negro"),will willalways alwaysmake makeaaconflict conflict ceived nature of of the the "Jew" ceived global global nature more intractable. more intractable.

FIVE FIVE

Victims II: Victims and and Others Others II The The Muslims Muslims

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arwan or, to to give it back its original original name, name, Karwane-Sahu Karwane-Sahu ("caravan ("caravan of arwan or, give it back its of merchants") was merchants") was was planned planned as as aa camp camp for for traders traders when when Hyderabad Hyderabad was was aa thriving being built. In being built. In the the seventeenth seventeenth and and eighteenth eighteenth centuries, centuries, it it was thriving commercial area area with with many many inns, inns, mosques, mosques, and and storehouses storehouses for for the the conveconvecommercial nience India and nience of of merchants merchants from from all all over over India and abroad abroad who who camped camped here here on on their visits to period most of their trading trading visits to Hyderabad. Hyderabad. During During the the Qutub Qutub Shahi Shahi period most of the Gujarati Gujarati and and Marwadi Marwadi merchants lived here. here. Today, Today, Karwan Karwan is is one one of of the the the merchants lived most city. most economicaIly economically backward backward sections sections of of the the city. Dotted with mosques, graveyards, graveyards, and and dargahs, dargahs,the theMuslim Muslimcharacter characterofof Dotted with mosques, Karwan is is unmistakable. unmistakable. The The shops shops in in the the cobbled cobbled streets streets seIl sell cheap cheap goods goods Karwan requiring financial investment: asrequiring low low financial investment: spices, spices, bangles, bangles, metal metal scrap, scrap, aa smaIl small assortment sortment of of Indian Indian sweets sweets and and savories. savories. There There are are the the inevitable inevitable general general items needed needed by by aa poor stores which stock stores which stock most most of of the the items poor neighborhood, neighborhood, from from pencils for for children children to to hair oil, packets of inferior inferior brands of tea, tea, and and cheap cheap pencils hair oil, packets of brands of detergents for Some of of the the streets streets have have Hindu Hindu women women vegevegedetergents for the the household. household. Some table sellers sellers squatting squatting at at the edges along along with with their their young young daughters. daughters. With With the edges table their black hair hair roIled mouths strained brick red their oiled oiled black rolled into into buns buns and and their their mouths strained aa brick red from tobacco or women sit vefrom chewing chewing tobacco or betel betel nut, nut, the the women sit behind behind heaps heaps of of fresh fresh vegetables getables which which are are kept kept moistly moistly glistening glistening by by frequent frequent sprinklings sprinklings of of water. water. Cars—except for for old, old, beat-up beat-up Ambassadors—are rare, yet yet the streets stilI still Cars-except Ambassadors-are rare, the streets manage to to be be clogged clogged with with pedestrians, pedestrians, autoauto- and and cycle-rickshaws, cycle-rickshaws, bicycles, bicycles, manage and the of Hyderabad's Hyderabad's road transport system. system. and the rattling rattling buses buses of road transport Occasionally employed employed in in road construction, as as grave grave diggers, diggers, or or as as OccasionaIly road construction, kitchen helpers helpers in in large large weddings, men have have only only intermittent intermittent work. work. kitchen weddings, many many men Others are are vegetable vegetable sellers sellers and and rickshaw rickshaw drivers drivers while while aa few few lucky lucky ones ones Others work in in the the factories factories of of the the new new city city or or at at low-paid low-paid jobs in government government ofofjobs in work fices.The Thefew fewsigns signsofofaffluence affluenceare aremanifested manifestedininnewly newlybuilt builthouses-/fGuif houses—"Gulf fices.

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Chapter Chapter Five Five money/7 one one is is invariably invariably told-and told—and in in restaurants restaurants on on street street corners owned money," corners owned by Muslims business" (Majid by Muslims in in city city politics politics or or in in "land "land business" (Majid Khan's Khan's restaurant restaurant is is on on one one of of these these street street corners). corners). These These eateries eateries and and the the pan pan shops shops which which stay stay open late late into into the are places places where men like like to congregate to talk open the night night are where the the men to congregate to talk and catch catch up and friends. friends. and up with with news news and Kulsumpura which which forms Rashid's family Rashids family lives lives in in one one of of the the lanes lanes of of Kulsumpura forms the the southern part part of of Karwan. Karwan. Rashids house in in on on aa lane lane at the edge edge of of the southern Rashid's house at the the MusMuslim quarter, quarter, the the street street at at the the back of the the house house separating separating it it from from the Hindu lim back of the Hindu majority area. area. Each Each lane lane in in Kulsumpura Kulsumpura has thirty-five houses houses majority has twenty-five twenty-five to to thirty-five on either either side, side, with with aa meandering meandering ribbon ribbon of of open open space space of of varying varying width on width bebetween them which at at its its narrowest narrowest permits only one one bicycle to pass through bicycle to pass through tween them which permits only at aa time. time. The The houses houses are are generally generally one one room room tenements tenements with with thatched thatched or at or tiled roofs. roofs. They are kept scrupulously clean. clean. The given aa fresh fresh tiled They are kept scrupulously The mud mud floor, floor, given mud coating coating at at least least once once aa month, month, is is covered covered with with faded faded cotton cotton durries durries or, or, mud among the the poorest, with pieces of jute sacking stitched stitched together. together. The The access access among poorest, with pieces of jute sacking to the inside of by flimsy flimsy wooden supto the inside of the the houses houses is is guarded guarded by wooden doors, doors, barely barely supported hinges. Worn-out ported at at the the hinges. Worn-out curtains curtains hang hang at at the the entrance, entrance, their their varying varying heights often permitting glimpses heights often permitting glimpses of of the the dark dark shapes shapes of of women women and and children children room. Although Although nominally in purdah, purdah, there moving inside moving inside the the room. nominally in thereare aretimes timesdurduring the the day, ing day, especially especially at at mid-morning, mid-morning, when when one one sees sees groups groups of of women women sitsitting in ting in the the doorways, doorways, chatting, chatting, chopping chopping betel betel nuts nuts into into small small pieces pieces or or shaving mottled brown watchful eye shaving them them into into mottled brown slivers slivers while while they they keep keep aa watchful eye on on the children playing outside. Twice Twice aa day, day, in in early early morning morning and and late late afterafterthe children playing outside. noon, at the public water water tap provided by by the the municipal municipal corporation, corporation, the the the public tap provided noon, at women to fetch buckets of water for women come come to fetch buckets of water for daily daily use. use. Unlike Unlike women women in in Hindu Hindu areas, bathing their areas, the the Muslim Muslim women women in in Kulsumpura Kulsumpura are are not not seen seen bathing their children children or the community they be or washing washing clothes clothes at at the the tap, tap, the community norms norms dictating dictating that that they be out possible. Yet they wait their turns out in in the the open open for for as as little little time time as as possible. Yet even even as as they wait their turns tap becomes the women's the resreswith with the the bucket, bucket, the the water water tap becomes the women's counterpart counterpart of of the place to taurant or taurant or the the pan-stall pan-stall of of men-a men—a meeting meeting place to exchange exchange views, views, inforinformation, and and gossip, gossip, mostly mostly of of aa familial familial kind kind rather rather than than the more political political mation, the more exchanges favored favored by by the men. exchanges the men. Rashid's Rashids Family Family With years of of schooling, fifty-five-year-old Rashid is the most eduWith eight eight years schooling, the thefifty-five-year-old Rashid is the most educated headed by cated person person in in his his family. family. Nominally Nominally headed by his his mother mother who who is is in in her her eighties, eighties, the the family family consists consists of of aa sixty-five-year-old sixty-five-year-old brother, brother, aa forty-eightforty-eightyear-old younger younger br6ther, brother, aa widowed widowed sister her late year-old sister in in her late sixties, sixties, and and another another

Victims Victims and and Others Others II: II: The The Muslims Muslims thirty-eight-year-old their own thirty-eight-year-old sister, sister, all all of of whom whom live live with with their own families families in in sepasepato each five to rate households rate households next next to each other. other. With With five to six six children children in in each each househousepersons. hold, hold, the the extended extended family family consists consists of of about about thirty thirty persons. Rashid's Rashid's occupation occupation is is that that of of an an occasional occasional vegetable vegetable seller. seller. Both Both his his brothers are brothers are unemployed. unemployed. The The elder elder brother brother earns earns aa little little money money by by helping helping out out as as aa cook cook at at weddings. weddings. The The younger younger brother brother runs runs errands errands for for one one of of the the "big "big men" men" of of Kulsumpura Kulsumpura who who owns owns aa restaurant restaurant and and isisactive activeininlocal local politics. politics. The The brother-in-law brother-in-law drives drives aa cycle-rickshaw cycle-rickshaw and and one one of of his his nephews nephews sells sells vegetables. Two Two others, others, in in their their early early twenties, twenties, are are unemployed. unemployed. Unlike the vegetables. Unlike the Pardi women, women, the the Muslim Muslim women women only only work from their their homes. homes. Rashid's Rashid's Pardi work from younger petticoats for younger sister sister sews sews blouses blouses and and petticoats for the the neighbors, neighbors, but but most most other other women nuts to women chop chop betel betel nuts to earn earn three three to to four four rupees rupees aa day, day, aa welcome welcome addition addition to to the the family's family's perpetually perpetually tight tight budget. budget. Except Except for for Rashid's Rashid's younger younger brother brother and have had and aa nephew, nephew, both both of of whom whom have had three three years years of of schoo\, school, all all other other adults adults in in the the family family are are illiterate. illiterate. This younger generation, as This situation situation is is changing changing in in the the younger generation, at at least least as as far far as boys are boys are concerned. concerned. The The girls girls are are still still not not sent sent to to school, school, much much to to the the regret regret niece. Even Even Shakira, of of the the fourteen-year-old fourteen-year-old Shakira, Shakira, Rashid's Rashid's niece. Shakira, however, however, gets gets some kind kind of of education education at at one one of of the neighborhood institutions institutions for for young young some the neighborhood girls, opened opened all all over over the city with with state state support. support. Here, Here, Shakira Shakira learns learns sewing, sewing, girls, the city embroidery, Urdu, basic English, embroidery, Urdu, basic English, and and is is also also taught taught some some fundamentals fundamentals of of her her faith. After she home in in the the afternoon, faith. After she returns returns home afternoon, Shakira's Shakira's day day passes passes in in cleancleaning utensils, preparing preparing the meal, and ing the the cooking cooking utensils, the evening evening meal, and looking looking after after her her younger younger brother. brother. Shakira's Shakira's only only other other outing outing is is going going to to the the dargah dargahwith withother other women veil women every every Thursday. Thursday. like Like aa grown-up grown-up woman, woman, Shakira Shakira wears wears the the veil to get to. She is when She is when she she goes goes out, out, aa garment garment that that needs needs some some practice practice to get used used to. an must satisfy films through through teletelean avid avid fan fan of of Hindi Hindi movies movies but but must satisfy her her desire desire for forfilms cinema with vision vision since since going going to to the the cinema with friends friends is is strictly strictly forbidden forbidden by by the the famfamily. mother, chafe ily. The The other other women, women, including including Shakira's Shakira's mother, chafe at at the the restrictions restrictions to to their freedom women's izzat-their so their freedom yet yet accept accept their their necessity. necessity. The The women's ittat—their honor, honor, so the family the communityinextricably inextricably intertwined intertwined with with the the honor honor of of the family and and the community— is best of times, is much much less less safe safe out out on on the the street street after after the the riots. riots. Yet Yet even even at at the the best of times, women women had had freedom freedom of of movement movement only only after after marriage marriage and and that that too too before before the in the arrival arrival of of children. children. A:lthough Although Rashid's Rashid's younger younger sister-in-law sister-in-law grew grew up up in never seen the city's Hyderabad, Hyderabad, she she had had never seen the city's architectural architectural glories glories such such as as the the Char till she Char Minar Minar or or its its main main bazaars bazaars till she was was married. married. Now, Now, of of course, course, the the riots riots have further years ago have further curtailed curtailed women's women's freedom. freedom. Some Some years ago at at the the public public water water tap, Shakira's tap, Shakira's mother mother inadvertently inadvertently broke broke the the pitcher pitcher of of aa Hindu Hindu woman. woman. She She husband for was was beaten beaten by by her her husband for this this mishap mishap which which could could have have raised raised the the tenten-

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sions between between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims to to aa dangerous dangerous level. level. After After that that she she was was sions forbidden to to fetch fetch the the water water from from the the tap, tap, the the errand errand being being delegated delegated to to ananforbidden other woman woman in in the the family. other family. Early marriages, marriages, repeated repeated pregnancies, pregnancies, and and unremitting unremitting economic economic hardhardEarly ship have have not not broken broken the the women's women's spirit spirit nor nor exhausted exhausted their their zest zest for for life life ship which, II suspect, suspect, isis continuously continuously renewed renewed by by aa vibrant vibrant community community life, life, espeespewhich, cially with with other other women women of of the the family family. There There are are the the many many weddings weddings and and cially festive occasions occasions such such as as the the circumcision circumcision of of aa boy festive boy or or the the piercing piercing of of the the nose nose and ears ears of of aa girl. girl. There There are are the the religious religious festivals, festivals, especially especially Id, Id, which which are are and celebrated without without regard regard for for expense. expense. If If there there is is no no money, money, it it will will be be borborcelebrated rowed rowed to to buy buy new new clothes clothes and and the the goat goat for for the the festive festive meal. meal. This This is is an an extravextravneeded by by the the poor poor to to transcend transcend limits limits imposed imposed by by the the outer outer reality reality agance needed agance of freetheir lives lives and and thus thus regain regain the the vitally vitally important important feeling feeling of of agency agency and and freeof their something which which those those influenced influenced solely solely by by notions notions of of economic economic ratioratiodom, something dom, nality deplore but rarely rarely understand. understand. The The women women often often offer offer their their natnaz namaz nality deplore but together and and after after finishing finishing the the household household chores chores sometimes sometimes chat chat and and sing sing together together till till late late into into the the night. together night. Another source source of the women's women's strength lies in in their their religious religious faith. Another of the strength lies faith. They They freely admit admit their their ignorance ignorance of of Islamic Islamic tenets tenets and and traditions. traditions. None None of of them freely them knows what is is exactly contained in in the younger ones knows what exactly contained the Qur'an, Quran, although although aa few few younger ones have been been taught taught to to recite recite from from it it in in Arabic without understanding understanding the the imimhave Arabic without port of they are are repeating. repeating. Their faith consists consists of of following port of the the words words they Their faith following aa simple moral code code which which makes makes them them feel pious: cleanliness body and pusimple moral feel pious: cleanliness of of body and purity of mind, mind, respect respect for the aged, Allah often, rity of for the aged, remembering remembering Allah often, saying saying your your namaz namazwhen whenthe thecall callcomes comesfrom from the themosque, mosque,keeping keepingthe theritual ritualfast fastofofthe the rozas. rozas. From Fromaamodern modern individualist individualist viewpoint viewpoint which which stresses stressesthe thewoman's woman's rights as person rather rights as aa person rather than than the the duties duties and and obligations obligations prescribed prescribed by by faith, faith, her religious religious belief belief may may contribute the woman's woman's feelings her contribute to to the feelings of of integration integration with the community to aa personal apwith the community and and to personal well-being well-being which which comes comes from from an an approving proving conscience, conscience, and and yet yet keep keep the the woman woman imprisoned imprisoned in in aa "false "false conconsciousness." sciousness." The The faith faith makes makes women women accept accept their their inferior inferior status status in in relation relation to to men to be men who who are are deemed deemed to be physically, physically, mentally, mentally, and and spiritually spiritually superior. superior. It It makes them them only only tenants tenants rather rather than than owners owners of of their their minds and bodies bodies which which makes minds and have For instance, have aa more more transpersonal transpersonal than than individual individual cast. cast. For instance, when when asked asked whether tubes tied, whether after after giving giving birth birth to to six six children children why why she she had had not not got got her her tubes tied, Rashid's namaZ Rashid's younger younger sister sister replies: replies: "If "If you you undergo undergo such such an an operation operation your your namaz is no no longer longer legitmate. legitmate. It It is is said said in in the the Qur'an Quran that that Allah Allah does does not not forgive forgive you you is for this this sin sin even even on on Judgment Judgment Day. Day On On that that day day you you will willfind your face face having having for find your turned black black in in color. color. Allah Allah does does not not accept accept your your namaz, namaz,even eventhe theone oneononId,Id,if if turned

Victims II: The Muslims Victims and and Others Others II: The Muslims you her tubes you have have prevented prevented the the birth birth of of aa child. child. My My sister-in-law sister-in-law who who had had her tubes tied tied has has stopped stopped offering offering her her namaz namazand andisisbecoming becomingunhappier unhappierby bythe theday. day. All can do do isis pray pray to to Allah Allah that that He He stop stop giving giving me me children children and and bless bless somesomeAll II can one else." one else."

Days Days and and Nights Nights of of the the Riot Riot To To continue continue in in the the woman's woman's voice, voice, here here of of Kubra Kubra Begum, Begum, Rashid's Rashid's wife: wife: "It "It was was Friday. Friday. II was was buying buying vegetables vegetables around around ten ten in in the the morning morning when when the the children children between Hindus Muscame running and came running and told told me me that that aa fight fight had had started started between Hindus and and Muslims. Why? II asked. lims. Why? asked. They They said said aaMuslim Muslimwoman womanwas wasbuying buyingvegetables vegetableswhen when the the bhoi hhoi(a(aHindu Hinduvegetable vegetableseller) seller)pulled pulledatather herarm armand andher herveil veiland andshouted shouted at the right of at her. her. Perhaps Perhaps she she had had not not paid paid the right amount. amount. Twenty Twenty to to twenty-five twenty-five of their similar number number from from our our side side rushed rushed to to the the site site of of the the quarrel. quarrel. their men men and and aa similar When II saw When saw that that the the men men were were armed armed with with sticks sticks and and swords swords IIhurried hurriedhome home and told everyone and told everyone to to get get ready ready for for trouble. trouble. Things Things were were already already bad bad with with that that quarrel quarrel about about Babri Babri masjid masjid (mosque) (mosque) where where many many people people died died and and which which there was made bhai(brother). (brother). made Hindus Hindus so so angry. angry. Then Then there was the the attack attack on on Majid Majid bhai One one sees sees the One knows knows aa riot riot is is about about to to start start when when one the Hindus Hindus sending sending away away their their women women and and their their belongings." belongings." "We not even have the "We did did not even have the lathis lathisinintheir theirhouse. house.The Thewomen womenstarted startedcolcollecting them in the men lecting stones stones and and stacking stacking them in piles piles near near the men who who took took up up positions positions at at the the two two ends ends of of our our alley. alley. First, First, the the Hindus Hindus started started throwing throwing stones stones from from the road. men retaliated their their side side of of the road. The The men retaliated from from our our side. side. The The police police arrived. arrived. They firing tear gas They tried tried to to disperse disperse the the Hindus Hindus but but could could do do so so only only after after firing tear gas shells. was again We shells. At At night night there there was again aa barrage barrage of of stones stones from from the the Hindu Hindu side. side. We not go there were of did did not go out. out. Then Then there were shouts shouts of of "Allah-u-Akbar" "Allah-u-Akbar" and and screams screams of "Helpl the men went out this trick. A "Help! Help!" Help!" None None of of the men went out because because we we all all know know this trick. A young Hindus dressed all in black comes to a Muslim area, gives truckload of truckload of young Hindus dressed all in black comes to a Muslim area, gives the Muslim rallying the Muslim rallying cry cry and and there there are are screams screams for for help. help. Anyone Anyone who who ventures ventures out out to to investigate investigate is is killed killed and and the the truck truck drives drives off off into into the the darkness darkness of of the the night." night." next morning. "Everything was quiet "Everything was quiet the the next morning. The The men men went went about about their their work. On throWing by work. On Sunday Sunday night night there there was was again again heavy heavy stone stone throwing by the the Hindus. Hindus. Two Two of of my my nephews nephews received received serious serious head head injuries. injuries. II started started crying, crying, this oppression!" in "Allah, "Allah, how how long long must must the the Muslims Muslims bear bear this oppression!" The The curfew curfew was was in force force but but when when it it was was relaxed relaxed for for aa couple couple of of hours hours more more people people were were killed. killed. to buy An An old old woman woman and and her her grandson grandson went went out out to buy vegetables. vegetables. The The bhois bhois stabbed name was stabbed the the boy. boy. His His name was Amjad. Amjad. A A rickshaw rickshaw driver driver was was killed killed in in front front

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Chapter FiveChapter Five of knifed him of my my eyes. eyes. They They pulled pulled him him out out of of the the rickshaw rickshaw and and knifed him repeatedly. repeatedly. The dust on on which his body body lay turned into into mud from his his blood." blood." The dust which his lay turned mud from ''The man earns earns twenty-five twenty-five rupees rupees aa day day and and has has "The curfew curfew is is the the worst. worst. If If aa man to feed six six children, children, then then what what will will the the children children eat eat ifif he he cannot cannot work work for for four four to feed days? curfew can can go go on on for for weeks weeks!I Last Last time time II had had enough enough flour flourfor for four four days? And And aa curfew days and and we we ate ate rotis rotiswith withchillies. chillies.After Afterthat, that,boiled boiledrice ricewas wasall allwe wecould couldget get days for days. days. In In the the beginning beginning people people try try to to share share but but later later it it is is every every family family for for for itself—a man man is is no longer aa brother, brother, nor nor aa woman sister." itseIf-a no longer woman aa sister." For women who who have family member member in in the faith and and its its have lost lost aa family the riot, riot, their their faith For women tradition of mourning mourning give give both both succor succor and and structure structure to their grief. grief. The The jourjourto their tradition of nalist Aneeslung Anees Jung gives gives us us aa sensitive sensitive description description of of one one such such woman, woman, Mehdi Mehdi nalist was on. on. Mehdi Mehdi Begum, whose whose daughter daughter was was sick sick for for ten days while while the the curfew curfew was Begum, ten days Begum could could not not get get medicines medicines or or milk milk for for the the daughter daughter because because the the husband husband Begum was unable unable to to go go to to work. work. She She blames no one one for for her her daughter's daughters death death and and blames no was attributes it it to to the the will will of of Allah. Allah. "As "As my my child child was was dying dying II was was chanting chanting the the attributes elegy my my grandfather grandfather wrote wrote about about the the death death of of the the young young daughter daughter of of Imam elegy Imam Husain, Sakeena, Sakeena, who who after after her her father's fathers death death was was dragged dragged to prison and and left left to aa prison Husain, alone to to languish languish and and die. die. My My daughter's daughter's death death pales pales in in comparison." comparison." "Aza"Azaalone dari, mourning in the the memory memory martyred martyred imams," imams/'Jung comments, "for "for genergenerdari, mourning in lung comments, ations has has provided provided women women like like Mehdi Mehdi Begum release and and lent lent their their grief grief aa ations Begum aa release focus."1 Indeed, Indeed, II generally generally have have found found that that women, women, both both Hindu Hindu and andMuslim, Muslim, focus."1 with their their better-established better-established traditions traditions and and rituals of mourning, mourning, are are less less bitter bitter rituals of with and more reconciled to the violent deaths of their loved ones,those who and more reconciled to the violent deaths of their loved ones; those who weep and and mourn mourn their their losses losses are are no no longer longer filled with warlike warlike anger. anger. weep filled with The The men's men's accounts accounts differ differ from from the the women's women's in in that that the the riot riot is is placed placed in in aa more historical historical perspective perspective and and conveys conveys less less immediacy. immediacy. Although Although so so far far the the more worst in in terms terms of of the the number number of of lost lost lives lives and and damage damage to to property, property, this this riot riot is worst is described as as part part of of aa series-sixteen series—sixteen in inthe the last last twenty twentyyears. years.When When the the city's city's described wholesale vegetable vegetable market market was was located located here, here, Karwan Karwan was was especially especially riotriotwholesale larger share share of of the the business. Many prone as as Muslims and Hindus Hindus jostled for aa larger prone Muslims and jostled for business. Many Hyderabad riots riots began spreading to to other other parts parts of of the the city. city. The The Hyderabad began here here before before spreading market has has since since been been shifted shifted and and Karwan Karwan no no longer takes the the lead lead in in comcommarket longer takes munal rioting rioting but but is is content content to to go go along along with the general general ebb ebb and and flow with the flow of of munal violence in in the the rest rest of of the the city. city. violence The men's reports tales of The men's reports emphasize emphasize tales of masculine masculine heroics heroics and and martial martial prowess in in contrast contrast to to the the women's women's anxiety anxiety about about the the safety safety of of their their families. families. prowess With men, men, we we hear hear much much talk talk about about how how aa small small group group of of Muslims Muslims triumphed triumphed With over aa vastly superior force force of of attacking attacking Hindus. Hindus. Their Their riot stories resonate resonate riot stories over vastly superior with echoes of Badr, the first battle of Islamic history, where heavily outnumwith echoes of Badr, the first battle of Islamic history, where heavily outnum-

Victims II: The V i c t i m s and a n d Others O t h e r s II: The Muslims Muslims bered Muslims Allah and with their their faith bered Muslims trusting trusting Allah and armed armed only only with faith succeeded succeeded against vastly superior against aa vastly superior foe. foe. Another Another characteristic characteristic of of the the men's men's narratives narratives is is the the space space given given to to the the encounters with the police. police. After start of of aa riot, riot, the the police may descend descend encounters with the After the the start police may on Kulsumpura Kulsumpura at at any any time time of of day day or or night in search search for for hidden weapons or or to to on night in hidden weapons recover goods goods reported reported to to have have been been looted looted from from their their homes by the the Hindus. Hindus. recover homes by are routinely routinely taken taken away away for for questioning questioning Men of of all all ages, ages, from from fifteen tofifty, Men fifteen to fifty, are so that that many many of of them them do do not sleep at at home at night night while while the the curfew curfew is is on. on. not sleep home at so When the the police arrive, there are tense tense confrontations, confrontations, say say between young When police arrive, there are between aa young Hindu policeman intent on on entering entering and and searching searching aa house house and and aa Muslim Muslim Hindu policeman intent youth what he believes is youth defending defending what he believes is the the honor honor of of his his family. family. Indeed, Indeed, in in many many towns the confrontation towns and and cities cities of of north north India, India, such such as as Meerut, Meerut, the confrontation between between the police and and the Muslims have led to violent explosions. explosions. the police the Muslims have led to violent Psychologically, Psychologically, what what occurs occurs between between Hindu Hindu policemen policemen and and young young Muslims by the Muslims is is marked marked by the same same dynamics dynamics as as the the encounter encounter between between white white cops black kids the United by the cops and and black kids in in the United States States described described by the psychoanalyst psychoanalyst to face, the young Rollo Rollo May. May.22 As As they they come come face face to face, the young policeman policeman and and the the Muslim Muslim youth are their pride to prove youth are very very much much alike alike in in their pride and and their their fear, fear, in in their their need need to prove For the Hindu policeman, themselves themselves and and their their demand demand for for respect. respect. For the Hindu policeman, who who adadditionally ditionally incorporates incorporates the the state's state's authority authority and and power, power, which which he he identifies identifies with his that the with his own own masculinity masculinity and and self-esteem, self-esteem, itit is is essential essential he he insist insist that the Muslim respect this the other Muslim respect this authority. authority. Laying Laying hands hands on on the other man's man's body, body, violatviolathandling without way ing ing its its intactness intactness by by rough rough handling without retaliation retaliation or or protest, protest, is is one one way person acknowledged. of of having having the the power power over over the the other other person acknowledged. Another Another way way is is to to enter home without without invitation youth, on enter his his home invitation or or permission. permission. The The Muslim Muslim youth, on the the other hand, equally his own must other hand, equally impelled impelled to to protect protect his own masculinity masculinity and and honor, honor, must violation of resist resist any any violation of both both his his body body and and home. home. It It becomes becomes imperative imperative that, that, must bow to the policeman's superior even even when when he he must bow to the policeman's superior might might and and tolerate tolerate the the incursion his most private space, remain defiant. incursion into into his most private space, he he remain defiant. His His submission submission should not be perceived as under no reshould not be perceived as voluntary voluntary and and under no circumstances circumstances be be rekind of which will will flected his eyes. flected in in his eyes. This, This, of of course, course, is is the the only only kind of submission submission which Hindu policeman policeman as men proceed proceed to satisfy satisfy the the Hindu as the the young young men to become become prisoners prisoners of of an an escalating escalating conflict. conflict. Babar'ss Children Babar Children Both relations have deteBoth men men and and women women agree agree that that Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations have greatly greatly detethe last in riorated riorated over over the last two two decades, decades, especially especially after after the the Rameeza Rameeza Bi Bi incident incident in 1975. 1975. The The earlier earlier participation participation of of Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims in in each each other's other's festifesti-

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Chapter Chapter Five Five vals has the comvals has all all but but disappeared, disappeared, and and ties ties of of friendship friendship reaching reaching across across the communities munities have have snapped. snapped. Old Old Hindu Hindu friends friends are are now now only only acquaintances, acquaintances, to to be be passes them them on but one no longer politely politely greeted greeted when when one one passes on the the street, street, but one no longer stops stops to tap, to exchange exchange further further courtesies. courtesies. The The women, women, who who meet meet at at the the public public tap, are are not not yet yet as as distant distant from from each each other other as as the the men, men, perhaps perhaps also also because because they they were younger sister) were never never especially especially close close earlier. earlier. Ghousia Ghousia (Rashid's (Rashid's younger sister) reports reports Hindu her: "If Hindu women women telling telling her: "If you you are are cut cut the the same same amount amount of of blood blood will will come come out out as as when when we we are are cut. cut. All All religions religions are are not not the the same same but but all all human human beings beings are. are. We We wear wear the the same same clothes clothes and and it it is is difficult difficult to to make make out out who who isis aaHindu Hinduor or Muslim if if we we did did not wear aa bindi." bindi"The The killers killersoften often ask askthe the name nameofof their their Muslim not wear victim before they they strike strike because because they they need need this this additional additional information information to to victim before make sure sure of of the the victim's victims religious religious affiliation. affiliation. When When there is no no chance chance of make there is of making aa certain certain identification identification by by asking asking the the man man to to strip strip and and show show his his penis penis making (Muslim if if circumcised, circumcised, Hindu Hindu if if not), not), the the marauding marauding mobs mobs have have found found (Muslim other, bizarre bizarre ways ways of of making making sure sure of of the victim's identity. identity. A A man man may may be be first first other, the victim's hit the head head with hit on on the with aa lathi. lathi.IfIfwhile whilefalling fallinghehetakes takesthe thename nameofofaaHindu Hindugod god or or goddess, goddess, he he is is then then stabbed stabbed if if the the attackers attackers are are Muslim; Muslim,- if if the the involuntary involuntary cry he isis spared. spared. cry is is "Ya "Ya Allaht" Allah!'7 he The The Muslims Muslims are are concerned concerned about about the the children children who, who, unlike unlike their their own own generation, generation, do do not not even even have have memories memories of of good good relations relations with with the the Hindus. Hindus. to talk in terms Whereas their Whereas their own own parents parents used used to to forbid forbid them them to talk in terms of of "He "He is is aa Hindu; he is Hindu,- he is aa Muslim," Muslim," and and instead instead stressed stressed their their shared shared humanity, humanity, today's today's age. children children are are acutely acutely aware aware of of being being either either one one or or the the other other from from an an early early age. My that Hindus looked down My general general impression impression is is that Hindus are are disliked disliked and and looked down upon but not upon but not passionately passionately hated, hated, even even after after so so many many riots. riots. In In contrast contrast to to the the self-image self-image of of the the Muslim Muslim who who is is compassionate, compassionate, the the Hindu Hindu is is seen seen as as cruel cruel and without without aa trace trace of of pity. pity. "If "If aa Hindu Hindu woman woman or or child child walks walks through through aa MusMusand lim street, street, the the Muslim Muslim will will let let them them go, go, thinking thinking the the fight is between between men men and and lim fight is should should not not involve involve women, women, children, children, and and the the aged. aged. A A Hindu Hindu does does not not think think like that. that. It It is is enough enough for for him him to to see see the other person person is is aa Muslim Muslim before he like the other before he strikes without without regard regard for for age age or or gender." gender." strikes fight only they are "Hindus "Hindus are are also also cowards cowards who who can can fight only when when they are in in aa large large group. group. Muslims Muslims are are not not afraid afraid even even if if they they are are few few and and unarmed unarmed and and their their opponents them courage they know opponents have have swords. swords. Allah Allah gives gives them courage and and they know if if they they die die the in the death death will will not not be be in in vain vain but but aa martyrdom martyrdom which which Allah Allah will will reward reward in paradise." paradise." "Hindus no control "Hindus also also have have no control over over their their impulses impulses and and behavior. behavior. There There are fixed times times or their prayers are no no fixed or formats formats to to their prayers nor nor do do their their books books give give them them instructions the Qur'an go to instructions on on how how to to lead lead aa good good life life like like the Qur'an does. does. They They go to the the

Victims and Others Others II: II: The The Muslims Victims and Muslims

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temple the day the temple temple any any time time of of the day or or night, night, ring ring the temple bell, bell, and and give give their their God God instructions: instructions: "Do "Do this this for for me, me, do do that that for for mel" me!" And, And, of of course, course, having having been been slaves slaves for for thousands thousands of of years, years, they they have have no no experience experience of of governance governance like like the the may be Muslims. They may be more more educated educated by by they they are are illiterate illiterate as as far far as as governgovernMuslims. They ing is is concerned." concerned." ing Most of of all, all, the the Muslims Muslims feel feel baffled baffled and and hurt at the thought of of being being Most hurt at the thought unwanted in the the country country of of their their birth. birth. They They seem seem to to be struggling against against aa be struggling unwanted in growing conviction conviction that, that, irrespective irrespective of of its its formal formal constitution, constitution, India India is is aa growing Hindu country country and and they may be living here here on on Hindu sufferance. Ghousia Ghousia Hindu they may be living Hindu sufferance. says: "We "We hear hear they they are are saying saying all all over over the country, 'Go 'Go to to Pakistan. Pakistan. Pakistan Pakistan the country, says: is your your country, country, Hindustan is ours. ours. Not single Muslim Muslim should should be seen here.' is Hindustan is. Not aa single be seen here.' They harass us we will They think think if if they they harass us enough, enough, we will leave leave for for Pakistan. Pakistan. They They have have we have we will trains ready for here,- if if we we trains ready for our our departure. departure. We We feel feel if if we have to to die, die, we will die die here; have to live, live, we we will live here." have to will live here." "Babar jao Pakistan" ("Children of Babar, go to is today "Babarkikisantan, santanjao Pakistan" ("Children of Babar, goPakistan") to Pakistan") is today one mobs during riot or one of of the the most most popular popular slogans slogans of of Hindu Hindu mobs during aa riot or in in the the precedprecedbetween the the two ing ing period period of of rising rising tension tension between two communities. communities. The The crudity crudity of of the the slogan us to to its its significance the shaping significance in in the shaping of of contemporary contemporary slogan should should not not blind blind us reflects the nationalist's deep-seated disHindu-Muslim relations. Hindu-Muslim relations. It It reflects the Hindu Hindu nationalists deep-seated dispatrust to the doubt regarding regarding Muslim Muslim patrust of of Muslim Muslim loyalty loyalty to the Indian Indian state state and and aa doubt with aa choice triotism triotism if if the the community community is is faced faced with choice between between the the country country of of its its that of birth birth and and that of its its coreligionists. coreligionists. The The slogan slogan contains contains the the accusation accusation that that Muslims may prove prove potential traitors in between their loyalty to Muslims may potential traitors in any any conflict conflict between their loyalty to the loyalty to the state state and and their their loyalty to Islam. Islam. Though repressed in political discourse, Though repressed in elite elite political discourse, this this accusation accusation is is perpermany ceived ceived to to have have enough enough substance substance to to arouse arouse aa sense sense of of unease unease among among many other yet subsubother Hindus Hindus who who are are not not sympathizers sympathizers of of Hindu Hindu nationalism nationalism and and yet notion of nation-state as their political political identity. scribe to the scribe to the notion of the the nation-state as aa definer definer of of their identity. The relaThe importance importance of of this this accusation accusation as as aa prime prime irritant irritant in in Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relaby aa large we shall tions tions is is also also recognized recognized by large section section of of Muslims, Muslims, and, and, as as we shall later later see, see, it it evokes evokes an an emotionally emotionally charged charged response response from from the the community's community's religious-political religious-political leadership. leadership. by events Kashmir where where aa large MusCurrently Currently fueled fueled by events in in Kashmir large section section of of the the MusPakistan, the suslim lim population population is is demanding demanding independence independence or or accession accession to to Pakistan, the sushas two main sources. picion of picion of Muslim Muslim loyalty loyalty to to the the Indian Indian state state has two main sources. First, First, there there has has been been aa historical historical tendency tendency among among upper-class upper-class Muslims Muslims (or (or those those aspiring aspiring the community) Arab, or to higher to higher status status in in the community) to to stress stress or or invent invent Persian, Persian, Arab, or TurkTurkwith their their more more humble ish than rest rest content ish ancestry ancestry rather rather than content with humble Indian Indian origins. origins. The to see The tendency, tendency, more more pronounced pronounced among among Muslim Muslim fundamentalists, fundamentalists, is is to see

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themselves as superior superior beings beings from from outside outside India India who share Indian Indian history history themselves as who share only rulers. only as as the the country's country's erstwhile erstwhile rulers. Second, Second, as as we we shall shall again again see see in in the the next next chapter, chapter, the the specific specific Muslim Muslim the community's history history the community's conservative conservative spokesmen spokesmen would would like like to to construct construct and and is the the one one shared shared with with Muslims Muslims of of the the Middle Middle East, East, especially especially the the sacred sacred exalt is exalt history of early early Islam Islam and and of of the the Dar Dar aI-Islam al-Islam between between the the seventh seventh and and fiffifhistory of teenth centuries, when when Islamic Islamic civilization civilization was was at at its its zenith zenith and and Muslims Muslims had had teenth centuries, conquered the world. minority of of conquered half half the world. Hindu Hindu nationalists nationalists believe believe that that only only aa minority Muslims accept accept the Indian nation-state nation-state as as aa definer definer of of their their political political identity identity Muslims the Indian and container container of of their their loyalty. loyalty. They They are are inclined inclined to believe that that Bernard Bernard and to believe Lewis's thesis thesis on on Muslims Muslims of of the the Middle Middle East East is is equally equally applicable applicable to to the the InLewis's Incrisis, in dian context, context, namely namely that that "there "there is is aa recurring recurring tendency tendency in in times times of of crisis, in dian times of emergency, emergency, when when the the deeper deeper loyalties loyalties take take over, over, for for Muslims Muslims to to find find times of their basic identity in in the religious community; community,- that that is is to to say, say, in in an an entity entity their basic identity the religious defined by by Islam Islam rather rather than than by by ethnic ethnic origin, origin, language, language, or or country country of of habitahabitadefined tion." The nature of the the vicious vicious circle circle is is immediately immediately apparent: apparent: the the anchoranchornature of tion."33 The ing ing of of Muslim Muslim identity identity in in Islam Islam spurs spurs Hindu Hindu suspicion suspicion of of Muslim Muslim loyalty loyalty to to the nation, which which makes makes the religious community the nation, the Muslims Muslims draw draw closer closer in in the the religious community for for security, security, which which further further fuels fuels Hindu Hindu distrust distrust of of Muslim Muslim patriotism, patriotism, and and so on. soon. Empirically, there is Empirically, there is some some evidence evidence in in aa twenty-five-year-old twenty-five-year-old study study that that aa situation situation of of actual actual conflict conflict between between India India and and Pakistan Pakistan is is aa stressful stressful affair affair for for of Indian which makes Indian Muslims Muslims which makes them them emotionally emotionally close close ranks. ranks. Yet, Yet, in in spite spite of toward Muslims increased increased Hindu Hindu hostility hostility toward Muslims during during the the actual actual period period of of warwarfare, fare, Indian Indian Muslims Muslims do do not not feel feel any any closer closer to to their their Pakistani Pakistani coreligionists coreligionists but but in in fact fact feel feel more more distant distant toward toward them them than than in in the the period period preceding preceding the the 4 4 outbreak outbreak of of hostilities. hostilities. The Victim Response The Victim Response Among the poorer in Among the poorer Muslims, Muslims, II was was acutely acutely aware aware of of aa weary weary resignation resignation in their their dislike dislike of of the the Hindus. Hindus. Their Their diatribes diatribes were were often often mechanical, mechanical, lacking lacking fire in energy energy and and that that fire in the the belly belly which which leaves leaves some some hope hope for for the the transformatransformation tion of of various various states states of of withdrawal withdrawal into into an an active active advocacy advocacy on on one's ones own own behalf. behalf. II wondered wondered ifif there there was was not not aa repression repression ,of of anger, anger, even even hate, hate, operatoperatrepression imposing ing ing here-the here—the maintenance maintenance of of repression imposing aa drain drain on on energy energy and and depleting depleting the the aggression aggression available available for for assertive assertive action. action. The The psychological psychological portrait portrait II repeatedly repeatedly drew drew when when the the talk talk shifted shifted from from the the private private to to the the pubpublic, from from the the familial familial to to collective collective realms respect to to the the current current situation situation lic, realms with with respect

Victims II: The Muslims V i c t i m s and a n d Others O t h e r s II: The M uslims of of Indian Indian Muslims, Muslims, was was of of the the Muslim Muslim as as aa helpless helpless victim victim of of changed changed historihistorical cal circumstances circumstances and and the the demands demands of of the the modern modern world. world. One One of of the the main main hukumat—usedininthe thesense senseofofrule, rule,political politicalauaurefrains was was that that since since the the hukumat-used refrains thority, regime—was now of of the the Hindus, Hindus, discrimination discrimination against against the the Muslims Muslims regime-was now thority, was to to be expected. However However galling galling to to the the individual individual and and collective collective sensibe expected. sensiwas bility of the Muslims, this was a fact of life with which one had to come to bility of the Muslims, this was a fact of life with which one had to come to terms. A A few few women women even even took took aa melancholy melancholy (and (and II thought, thought, masochistic) masochistic) terms. satisfaction from from this this turn turn of of the historical wheel wheel which which had had reversed reversed the the posatisfaction the historical position of of subjects subjects and and rulers rulers and and of of the accustomed directions directions of of inequality inequality the accustomed sition and injustice. injustice. Most, Most, though, though, bemoaned the discrimination discrimination against against Muslims Muslims and bemoaned the without expressing expressing much much hope hope for for aa foreseeable foreseeable change change in in the the situation. situation. without "The "The Hindu Hindu likes likes the the Hindu Hindu and and not not the the Musulman," Musulman," says says one one woman. woman. "The "The hukumat hukumatisisHindu. Hindu.They Theycan cannow nowoppress oppressus,us,take takerevenge revengefor forthe thethouthousand hukumat," sand years years of of our our hukumat." "They "They are are doing doing hukumat hukumatsince sinceforty fortyyears yearsand andwill willtry trytheir theirbest besttotomake make the Musulman Musulman weak weak and and insignificant," insignificant," says says another another woman. woman. the "Jinnah part time "Jinnah was was right," right," says says aa man man who who works works part time for for the the Majlis, Majlis, "Living "Living in Muslim nation nation is is the the only only protection protection from from oppression oppression by by the the Hindus." in aa Muslim Hindus." Another the old mai-baap ("mother-father") o\dmai-baap ("mother-father")attitude attitudetotoAnother woman, woman, echoing echoing the more plaintive: ward the state, ward the state, is is more plaintive: ''The "The hukumat hukumatshould shouldtreat treatboth bothHindus Hindusand and Muslims Muslims equally. equally. When When aa mother mother has has borne borne more more than than one one child child she she looks looks at at each each child child with with equal equal favor." favor." the abstraction Rashid Rashid tries tries to to make make the abstraction of of "discrimination" "discrimination" more more concrete concrete by fifteen years vegeby describing describing his his own own experiences. experiences. "For "For fifteen years II worked worked in in the the vegejob in the Road table market. Then table market. Then II applied applied for for aa job in the Road Transport Transport Corporation. Corporation. When II went went in in with my application, application, the the clerk clerk said, said, 'Don't 'Don't even even bother bother to to When with my register your your name. name. Muslims Muslims can't can't get get aa job here/ II applied applied to to at at least least ten ten register job here.' other government government departments departments but but the the moment moment they they heard heard my my name name they they other told me me to to go go away. away. IIfinally got aa job job in in the the railways railways by by hiding hiding my my identity identity told finally got and changing changing my my name name to to Babu Babu Rao. Rao. After After two years when when the the time for proand two years time for promotion came came they they found found out out Babu Babu Rao Rao was was not not my my real real name name and and that that II was was aa motion Muslim. II gave gave up up after after that that and and started started working working with with the the Majlis. Majlis. II said said to to Muslim. myself, 'How 'How can can you you work with the Hindus when when even even your your name name is is unacmyself, work with the Hindus unacceptable to to them!'" them!'" ceptable "It be self-employed. "It is is difficult difficult for for the the Muslims Muslims to to be self-employed. The The Hindus Hindus control control will refuse most businesses. If most businesses. If we we ask ask for for credit, credit, they they will refuse us us and and extend extend it it only only to to members buy goods have to pay ten members of of their their community. community. If If II buy goods from from them them II will will have to pay ten rupees, but but aa Hindu Hindu will will pay only eight. eight. Because Because of of our our poverty poverty we cannot pay only we cannot rupees, send our our children children to to school. school. If If there there is is only only one one man who earns earns twenty-five twenty-five to to send man who

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Chapter Five Chapter Five thirty rupees thirty rupees aa day day and and has has eight eight mouths mouths to to feed, feed, where where is is the the money money for for the the extra extra expense expense of of school school to to come come from?" from?" Rashid, Rashid, however, however, does does not not comcommodern external world for pletely pletely blame blame the the modern external world for the the Muslim's Muslim's plight. plight. "Hindus "Hindus are are better off off not not only only because because they they are are favored favored by by the the hukumat hukumatbut butalso alsobecause because better their mothers, mothers, sisters, sisters, daughters, daughters, all all work. We do do not not educate educate our our women or women or their work. We make them them work work because of purdah," says,not notinina spirit a spiritofofcriticism criticismofofthe the make because of purdah," hehesays, tenets of of his his faith faith but as aa pure statement of of fact. fact. Indeed, Indeed, it it is the loss loss of of faith faith but as pure statement is the tenets which he he holds for what what has has happened happened to to the the Indian Indian which holds ultimately ultimately responsible responsible for Muslim: "If "If we we had had unshakable unshakable faith, faith, then then our our hukumat hukumatwould wouldnot nothave havegone. gone. Muslim: When faith went, everything went." When faith went, everything went." is the This, This, then, then, is the striking striking difference difference between between the the Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim poor: the the former former feel feel less as victims victims and and have greater sense sense of of agency agency and and have aa greater poor: less as mastery over over the the circumstances circumstances of of their their lives lives than the latter. latter. In In the the victim victim mastery than the response of the the Muslims, Muslims, the loss of collective self-idealization self-idealization which which the loss of collective response of sharply reduces reduces self-esteem self-esteem is is perceived perceived as as aa result result of of overwhelming overwhelming outside outside sharply forces of of which which they are hapless victims. The The Muslim Muslim poor convey an an imthey are hapless victims. poor convey imforces pression of of follOWing following aa purposeless course, buffeted buffeted by by the the impact impact of of others others pression purposeless course, There seems seems to be aa kind kind of of instituinstituin aa kind of social social Brownian motion.55 There to be in kind of Brownian motion. tionalized fatalism at at work work which which makes makes them them act act as as ready ready victims victims of of circirtionalized fatalism cumstances and and leaves leaves them them little ability to to defend defend themselves themselves against against exlittle ability excumstances ploitation. This This is not to maintain that that the victim response of the Muslims is ploitation. is not to maintain the victim response of the Muslims is only "in "in the the head," head," without without aa basis basis in in reality. Like the the notion notion of of the the "enemy," "enemy," only reality. Like discrimination too is neither neither merely merely real real nor nor merely merely psychological psychological but but aa too is discrimination blend of the the two. blend of two. Whereas Whereas the the loss loss of of collective collective self-idealization self-idealization due due to to changed changed historihistorical and and socioeconomic socioeconomic circumstances circumstances evokes evokes aa depressive depressive response response among among cal the Muslim Muslim poor, poor, for for many sensitive members of the the community-including community—including the many sensitive members of some of of its its writers, writers, scholars, scholars, and and artists-this artists—this loss of Muslim power and and some loss of Muslim power glory is is explicitly explicitly mourned. mourned. The The despair despair at at the the moral moral decay decay and and political glory political dedecline of of Muslim Muslim SOCieties, societies, the Mushirul Hasan Hasan tells us, is is aa recurrent recurrent cline the historian historian Mushirul tells us, theme in in Urdu Urdu poetry, literature, andjournalism. and journalism.66 Ideally, Ideally, such such aa mourning mourning poetry, literature, theme should clear clear the the decks decks for for the the birth birth of of new new ideals ideals and and aa more more confident confident enenshould counter with with the future. For For many, many, though, though, the mourning is is never never completed; completed; the future. the mourning counter its stock stock of of narratives narratives of of loss loss and and their their elegiac elegiac mood mood become part of of the the become aa part its family heritage that is passed from one generation to the other. For these family heritage that is passed from one generation to the other. For these men and and women, the poet poet Iqbal's Iqbal's line, line, "Lightning "Lightning only only strikes strikes the the hapless hapless women, the men Muslims" (Bartl (Barcjgirti girtihai haitotobechare bechare Musulmanon acquired a personal Musulmanon par)par) hashas acquired a personal sig-sigMuslims" nificance which which has has been been incorporated incorporated into into the the social social aspect aspect of of their their identity. identity. nificance In other other words, words, whenever whenever aa person person feels, feels, thinks, thinks, and and acts acts as as aa Muslim Muslim rather rather In than as an individual, there is a perceptible undertone of grief, a miasma of than as an indiVidual, there is a perceptible undertone of grief, a miasma of

Victims II: The Muslims Victims and and Others Others II: The Muslims 7

mourning has been been called mourning in in what what has called "the "the Andalus Andalus syndrome:'7The syndrome." The syndrome, syndrome, of course, course, refers refers to to the the great great Muslim Muslim civilization civilization on on the the Iberian Iberian peninsula peninsula of that ended ended abruptly abruptly in in the the fifteenth fifteenth century, century, plunging plunging the the Islamic Islamic world world into into that gloom and and leaving leaving aa yearning yearning for for its its lost lost glory glory in in Muslim Muslim societies societies on on the the rim rim gloom of the the Mediterranean. Mediterranean. In In the Indian situation, situation, the the Andalus Andalus response, response, II beof the Indian believe, is is more more the the province province of of the the upper and middle middle classes classes rather rather than than of of the the lieve, upper and vast number of Muslim Muslim poor. poor. Of Of course, course, in in Hyderabad, Hyderabad, with with its its history history bearbearvast number of striking similarity similarity to to the the fate fate of of Andalusia, Andalusia, especially especially in in the the abrupt abrupt endending aa striking ing ing of of Muslim Muslim rule, the heartbreak heartbreak is is more more widespread widespread than than in in most most other other ing rule, the parts of of the the country. country. parts Gilani Gilani Bano~ Bano^ aa novelist novelist from from Hyderabad, Hyderabad, is is one one of of the the more more eminent eminent Urdu has tried reUrdu writers writers who who has tried to to capture capture the the elusive elusive spirit spirit of of the the Andalus Andalus reher novel Aiwan-e-ghazal, sheshe takes as as herher subject a a sponse fiction. In sponse in in her her fiction. In her novel Aiwan-e-ghazal, takes subject slice just before which Hyderabad slice of of Muslim Muslim life life just before and and after after 1948, 1948, the the year year in in which Hyderabad abruptly with its abruptly ceased ceased being being an an independent independent state state with its own own administration, administration, ruler, and part of ruler, and ethos, ethos, and and became became part of India-a India—a country country which which was was geographgeographically of ically contiguous contiguous with with Hyderabad Hyderabad but but was was emotionally emotionally distant distant for for many many of its its inhabitants. inhabitants. The The title title of of the the novel novel is is from from the the name name of of the the family family mansion mansion of of an an old old aristocratic aristocratic (nawabi) {nawabi)family. family.Literally, Literally,it italso alsomeans means"the "thepalace palaceofofthe the ghazal." the ghazal more often than notnot being anan elegy of of unhappy love where ghazal," thecfhazal more often than being elegy unhappy love where the the lover lover bemoans bemoans the the loss, loss, the the inaccessibility, inaccessibility, or or the the turning turning away away of of the the beloved. beloved. One One of of the the main main characters characters in in the the novel novel through through whose whose eyes eyes the the events events of years are Nawab Wahid man in of those those years are viewed viewed is is Nawab Wahid Hussain, Hussain, aa man in his his early early fifties, fifties, steeped steeped in in the the ethos ethos of of aa vanishing vanishing world, world, who who isis fearful fearful and and contemptuous contemptuous of of the change that is poised to destroy the old civilization. Wahid Hussain the change that is poised to destroy the old civilization. Wahid Hussain looks looks down down at at what what he he considers considers the the crass crass commercialism commercialism of of the the modern modern era play of era and and deems deems the the writing writing of of poetry poetry and and the the play of love love with with aa favored favored mistress-normally mistress—normally an an accomplished accomplished courtesan-as courtesan—as the the only only worthwhile worthwhile occupations occupations of of aa civilized civilized man. man. He He admires admires his his grandfather grandfather whose whose dead dead body body was paper covered was discovered discovered one one morning morning surrounded surrounded by by sheets sheets of of paper covered with with Urdu calligraphy flame in his bedroom low. The The family family Urdu calligraphy while while the the flame in his bedroom lamp lamp burnt burnt low. had the family had thought thought that that the the papers papers pertained pertained to to the the affairs affairs of of the family home home which which the the British British ReSident, Resident, acting acting on on complaints complaints of of debauchery debauchery and and the the kidnapping kidnapping of had demanded however, turned be of girls, girls, had demanded for for his his inquiry. inquiry. The The papers, papers, however, turned out out to to be the final drafts fifteenghazals which which the the oldnawab old nawab had thefinal drafts of offifteen^kiZtf/s hadcomposed composedthroughthroughout out the the night night in in aa burst burst of of feverish feverish activity. activity. With With the the threat threat of of the the inquiry inquiry and and eventual yet some ghazals eventual disgrace disgrace looming looming over over him, him, they they were were yet some of of the the best best ghazals his written. Wahid his grandfather grandfather had had ever ever written. Wahid Hussain Hussain ruminates ruminates on on Hyderabad's Hyderabad's fate: fate: 'THe] "[He] opened opened his his eyes eyes and and saw saw the the portrait portrait of of Quli Quli Qutub Qutub Shah Shah on on the the

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Chapter Chapter Five Five wall opposite opposite the portrait of of the the last last ruler, ruler, Osman Osman Ali. Ali. Wahid wall the portrait Wahid Hussain Hussain saw saw Qutub Shah's eyes brimming with contentment as if he was searching Quli Quli Qutub Shahs eyes brimming with contentment as if he was searching ghazal or, the ramparts for for azghazal or, standing standing on on the ramparts of of Golconda, Golconda, lost lost in in the the dream dream of of aa beautiful city beautiful city springing springing up up on on the the forested forested land land around around the the fort. fort. The The city city he he founded founded for for Bhagmati Bhagmati to to live live in in was was like like aa garden, garden, its its magnificent magnificent buildings buildings like lotus lotusflowers lit with with the the lamps lamps of of civility civility and and culture. culture. He He looks looks as as if if he he is like flowers lit is saying to to one one of of his his lovers, lovers, 'Prepare 'Prepare the festivities. The The tender tender shoots shoots of of Urdu Urdu saying the festivities. are coming coming out out but but we we do do not not have have much time left. left. Behind Behind the the hills of aa few few are much time hills of centuries, the the caravans caravans of of time time are are moving moving in in our our direction. direction. Soon Soon the the plunpluncenturies, Under the the rubble rubble of of Golconda Golconda people people will will search search for for derers will will fall fall upon upon us. us. Under derers our stories. stories. The The dust dust particles particles of of our our fallen fallen glory glory will diamond glitglitour will become become aa diamond course, tering tering in in the the crown crown of of aa queen queen in in aa distant distant land."'8 land.'"8 The The diamond, diamond, of of course, was the the Kohinoor the queen, queen, Victoria Victoria of of Great Britain. was Kohinoor;; the Great Britain. Morality Morality of of Violence Violence Although bastis,the theinevitably inevitablyclose closecontact contactbetween between Although they they live live in in separate separate hastis, Hindus leads to Hindus and and Muslims Muslims in in the the crowded crowded inner inner city city leads to interactions interactions between between the two which the full the two which span span the full emotional emotional range range from from friendship friendship to to deadly deadly hatred hatred during the time riot. The during the time of of aa riot. The exchanges exchanges with with members members of of the the other other commucommunity transgressions of nity which which are are considered considered to to be be transgressions of the the group's groups code code governing governing more systematic such such transactions transactions were were of of particular particular interest interest and and invited invited aa more systematic exploration. exploration. In of In this this exploration, exploration, my my focus focus was was not not on on questions questions close close to to the the hearts hearts of reason, reason moral philosophers such moral philosophers such as as whether whether it it was was reason, reason dependent dependent upon upon individual individual desire, desire, religious religious prescription, prescription, role role obligation, obligation, or or aa convention convention that that was being violated by a particular action. Nor was I concerned with the reliwas being violated by a particular action. Nor was I concerned with the religious gious foundations foundations of of the the morality morality governing governing Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations; relations,- with with what, what, for for instance, instance, the the Qur'an Quran has has to to say say on on aa Muslim's Muslim's various various interactions interactions to understand with with those those who who are are outside outside the the faith. faith. My My aim aim was was more more to understand the the psychological processes way way people people experienced experienced these these interactions interactions and and the the psychological processes underlying the underlying the experiences. experiences. It was evident It was evident from from the the preliminary preliminary interviews interviews that that these these interactions interactions had to be had to be divided divided into into two two parts: parts: those those which which pertain pertain to to normal, normal, peace-time peace-time life life and and others others which which take take place place during during aa riot. riot. In In both both Hindus Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, riot-time riot-time interactions interactions deviated deviated substantially substantially from from the the code code that that governs governs their their actions times. There we shall actions during during normal normal times. There are, are, however, however, as as we shall see see later, later, still still aa universal moral few few acts acts that that invite invite universal moral condemnation condemnation from from both both sides, sides, indepenindependent dent of of their their temporal temporal context-normalcy context—normalcy versus versus riot. riot. These These obligations obligations are are considered universally universally binding. binding. Even Even within within context-dependent context-dependent obligations, obligations, considered

Victims Muslims V i c t i m s and a n d Others O t h e r s II: The The M uslims there there are are interactions interactions which which are are perceived perceived as as binding binding on on one's one's own own group group and and not viewed as not on on others; others,- they they are are viewed as distinctive distinctive expressions expressions of of the the community's community's moral moral qualities, qualities, uniqueness, uniqueness, and and traditions. traditions. These These obligations obligations are are perceived perceived as binding. Their usuas objective objective and and moral moral and and yet yet not not universally universally binding. Their violation violation is is usuby the not do ally ally remarked remarked upon upon by the phrase, phrase, "A "A good good Muslim Muslim (or (or Hindu) Hindu) does does not do that," so. that," implying implying that that the the bad bad Other Other may may indeed indeed do do so. Using Using the the method method developed developed by by the the anthropologist anthropologist Richard Richard Shweder, Shweder, who who in in aa series series of of studies studies has has explored explored the the moral moral ideas ideas of of children children and and adults adults Muslim in in India India and and the the United United States, States, II have have attempted attempted to to examine examine adult adult Muslim and Hindu-Muslim ininand Hindu Hindu interpretations interpretations of of nineteen nineteen behavioral behavioral cases cases of of Hindu-Muslim first twelve teraction in teraction in the the "Morality "Morality Interview" Interview" (appendix (appendix 2).9 2).9 The The first twelve cases cases represent while the the last represent different different kinds kinds of of interactions interactions in in normal normal times times while last seven seven cases are descriptive of certain interactions during a riot. Examples of normal cases are descriptive of certain interactions during a riot. Examples of normal house to marinteractions interactions are: are: "A "A Muslim Muslim rents rents his his house to aa Hindu"; Hindu",- iliA "'A Muslim Muslim girl girl marries aa Hindu ries Hindu boy." boy." Examples Examples of of riot-time riot-time interactions interactions are: are: "Some "Some Muslims Muslims rape aa Hindu rape Hindu girl"; girl"; "'Some "'Some Muslims Muslims loot loot Hindu Hindu shops." shops." Further Further interview interview respondent's view the seriousness questions questions seek seek to to elicit elicit the the respondents view of of the seriousness of of the the violaviolation invite. tion and and the the kind kind of of sanctions sanctions it it should should invite. of Before Before discussing discussing the the results results of of the the interviews, interviews, II need need to to sound sound aa note note of caution. between Hindus caution. The The interactions interactions between Hindus and and Muslims Muslims had had also also come come up up during the more during the more freewheeling freewheeling conversations conversations with with some some of of the the same same responresponbecame "more dents. dents. II had had the the impression impression that that people people became "more moral" moral" in in the the situation situation of using aa questionnaire than they were in of aa structured structured interview interview using questionnaire than they were in the the unstrucunstructured tured setting setting where where they they were were more more uninhibited uninhibited in in the the expression expression of of violent violent morality" is sentiments. sentiments. The The "questionnaire "questionnaire morality" is perhaps perhaps inclined inclined to to be be more more conconservative one. servative than than the the actually actually lived lived one. It this may importance in of It seems, seems, and and this may be be of of methodological methodological importance in collection collection of psychological data, subpsychological data, that that the the expression expression of of an an individual's individual's views views on on subheart becomes more and jects close jects close to to one's ones heart becomes more and more more controlled controlled as as the the setting setting changes filling in changes from from an an informal informal conversation, conversation, to to aa formal formal interview, interview, to to the thefilling in of to writing writing for finally, to of aa questionnaire, questionnaire, to for wider wider dissemination, dissemination, and, and, finally, to the the most most controlled controlled expression expression of of all, all, the the enactment enactment of of one's one's views views in in the the public public but tentatively arena. arena. Differently Differently but tentatively stated, stated, it it is is perhaps perhaps less less the the nature nature of of the the medium in which self-di~closure is made than the imagined intimacy with medium in which self-disclosure is made than the imagined intimacy with the the presumed presumed recipients recipients of of our our views views which which is is important. important. Our Our openness openness and and honesty honesty in in revealing revealing ourselves ourselves decreases decreases in in tandem tandem with with the the degree degree of of intiintimacy we believe macy we believe we we share share with with our our ultimate ultimate listeners listeners (although (although on on rare rare occaoccaas an encounter on a train, we may for a time imagine sharing sions, such sions, such as an encounter on a train, we may for a time imagine sharing great total stranger). audigreat intimacy intimacy with with aa total stranger). Writing Writing aa book book for for an an impersonal impersonal audience filling aa quesquesence is is less less intimate intimate than than talking talking to to long-standing long-standing disciples; disciples,- filling

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tionnaire is is less less intimate intimate than friendly conversation conversation which, in turn, turn, is is less tionnaire than aa friendly which, in less intimate than than responding responding to someone even even closer closer than than aa friend. friend. intimate to someone The Muslim sample sample from from Karwan consisted of of ten ten men men and and ten ten women. women. The Muslim Karwan consisted The women women ranged ranged in in age age from from eighteen eighteen to to fifty and all all except except the the youngest youngest The fifty and were illiterate. illiterate. The The ages ages of of the the men men were were between between nineteen and seventy-five. seventy-five. nineteen and were A couple of the men had a few years of schooling but none had finished high A couple of the men had a few years of schooling but none had finished high school. A A third third of of them them were were unemployed while others others worked worked in in low-paid low-paid unemployed while school. jobs as casual casual laborers, laborers, vegetable sellers, and and auto-rickshaw auto-rickshaw drivers. jobs as vegetable sellers, drivers. morality judgments judgments of Before Before II discuss discuss the the morality of the the Muslims, Muslims, there there are are two two general remarks remarks that that need need to to be be made. made. First, First, the the idea idea of of convention, convention, the the idea general idea that the the disapproved disapproved interactions interactions with with the the Hindus Hindus could could be be based on aa conconthat based on sensus sensus within within the the community community and and are are relative relative and and alterable, alterable, is is almost almost totally totally absent. Once Once aa behavior is seen seen as as aa violation violation itit generally generally tends tends to to be be viewed viewed absent. behavior is starkly starkly as as aa sin sin and and it it does does not not matter matter if if it it is is done done secretly secretly or or openly openly or or whether places. These These interactions, the area whether it it is is permitted permitted in in other other places. interactions, except except in in the area of to be imof religious religious faith, faith, tend tend to be viewed viewed as as part part of of aa moral moral order, order, categorical, categorical, imto follow perative, and perative, and binding binding on on all all Muslims. Muslims. Second, Second, the the moral moral code, code, to follow Dworkin's 10 In Dworkin's distinction, distinction, is is dutyduty- rather rather than than rightright- or or goal-based. goal-based.10 In other other words, to Allah's will as is words, aa duty duty like like "obedience "obedience to Allah's will as expressed expressed in in the the Quian," Quran," is taken priority over taken as as fundamental fundamental and and given given priority over aa right right such such as as the the "individual's "individual's like "improving the comright right to to freedom freedom of of choice" choice" or or aa goal goal like "improving the the welfare welfare of of the comtraditional or to the munity." The munity." The morality morality is is traditional or customary, customary, deeply deeply connected connected to the ancestry ancestry and and narrated narrated history history of of the the group. group. The The transgressions transgressions of of moral moral ways ways of of acting acting are are accompanied accompanied by by anxieties anxieties relating relating to to the the unexpected unexpected and and the the fear narcissistic injuries being excluded fear of of narcissistic injuries such such as as being excluded from from the the group group or or the the loss loss of with others of aa fantasized fantasized union union with others of of the the community. community. The was aa consensus-a The statements statements on on which which there there was consensus—a consensus consensus referring referring to judgments of right right and and wrong wrong shared shared by at least least 75 75 percent of the the to judgments of by at percent of sample-are the following: sample—are the following: PERMITTED INTERACTIONS INTERACTIONS PERMITTED

In Normal Nonnal Times Times In To have Hindu To have Hindu friends. friends. with Hindus. To eat To eat with Hindus. To work with To work with Hindus Hindus in in aa factory. factory. To learn learn the the Gita To Gita from from aa pandit. pandit. for whistling girl. To To beat beat up up aa Hindu Hindu boy boy for whistling at at aa Muslim Muslim girl. To beat beat up up aa Hindu Hindu who who is is making fun of of Allah. Allah. To making fun

Victims and and Others Others II: II: The The Muslims Victims Muslims In Riot In RiotTime Time To To give give shelter shelter to to aa Hindu. Hindu. WRONG WRONG INTERACTIONS INTERACTIONS

In Times In Normal Times A A Muslim Muslim girl girl to to go go to to the the cinema cinema with with aa Hindu Hindu boy. boy. A with aa Hindu boy. A Muslim Muslim girl girl to to elope elope with Hindu boy. To To throw throw aa dead dead cow cow in in aa temple. temple. In Riot Riot Time In Time To To rape rape aa Hindu Hindu girl. girl. To kill kill aa Hindu Hindu woman. woman. To

Let us us begin by looking looking at at the the interactions interactions which are consensually consensually conconLet begin by which are sidered wrong. wrong. In In normal normal times, times, the the strongest strongest reaction reaction is is evoked evoked by the idea idea by the sidered of aa Muslim Muslim girl girl going going to to the the cinema cinema with with aa Hindu Hindu boy. This is is not not only only aa of boy. This serious violation violation of of the the moral code but but unequivocally unequivocally aa sin. sin. "The "The other other day day moral code serious we beat beat up up one one such such pair," pair," says says aa nineteen-year-old nineteen-year-old man, man, "We "We watched watched them them we for three three days days and and followed followed them them to to the cinema. II slapped slapped that girl and and ininthat girl for the cinema. formed the the girl's girls brother. brother. He He was to poison poison himself himself and and die die as as he could was ready ready to he could formed not bear the dishonor that that his his sister sister was was caught caught with with one one of of their their [Hindu] [Hindu] not bear the dishonor boys." Almost Almost aa third third of of the the respondents would have have the the girl girl killed, killed, expectexpectrespondents would boys." ing the parents to quietly poison her, bury her alive, or themselves commit ing the parents to qUietly poison her, bury her alive, or themselves commit course, our our "Iaw" "law" that that "expression "expression isiscontingent contingent upon upon its itsmemesuicide. Here, Here, of of course, suicide. dium" also also works in the the reverse direction. The The outrage outrage which which is is being being exreverse direction. exdium" works in pressed in such such violent violent words words will will generally generally be be more controlled if if and and when when it it pressed in more controlled comes to to concrete concrete action. action. Then Then we we can can expect expect aa beating beating rather rather than than murder, murder, comes wounding words, words, yes, yes, but rarely the the sharp sharp stabs stabs of of aa knife. knife. but rarely wounding The would expect The younger younger Muslim Muslim women, women, whom whom II would expect to to identify identify more more menfolk in the action with with the the girl, girl, are are at at one one with with their their menfolk in considering considering the action aa grave grave harsh in the punishment punishment they as sin. sin. They They are, are, however, however, much much less less harsh in the they envisage envisage as adequate. adequate. Most Most would would be be content content if if the the girl girl got got aa good good thrashing, thrashing, and and aa the only couple the girl couple recommended recommended marrying marrying the girl off off against against her her will. will. In In fact, fact, the only not consider remains aa two voices two voices which which do do not consider the the behavior behavior aa sin, sin, though though it it remains serious offense, offense, are are women. women. serious What moral code which invites What is is the the culture-specific culture-specific aspect aspect of of the the moral code which invites such such to aa movie wrath wrath on on the the head head of of aa Muslim Muslim girl girl who who goes goes to movie with with aa Hindu Hindu boy? boy? Preeminent here here is is aa notion notion of of the the family family which is not an association association of Preeminent which is not an of individuals but but aa structure structure with with differentiated differentiated roles roles and and obligations. The obligations. The individuals structure itself itself is is aa part part of of and and in in service service of of aa larger larger whole, the Muslim Muslim comcomstructure whole, the

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Chapter Five Chapter Five munity. is not munity. The The movie-going movie-going of of aa Muslim Muslim girl girl is not an an individual individual affair affair but but the the establishment particular kind kind of of relationship relationship with with the the other other qaum (jaumwhich whichis is establishment of of aa particular aa deadly deadly insult insult to to the the Muslim Muslim community. community. Yet Yet the the ferocity ferocity of of the the imagined imagined that there there are punishments punishments arouses arouses the the suspicion suspicion that are also also some some unconscious unconscious fanfantasies involved this act absent in the case tasies involved in in this act which, which, for for instance, instance, are are absent in the case of of aa MusMuslim lim girl girl eloping eloping with with aa Hindu Hindu boy. boy. To To an an outside outside observer, observer, with with aa different different moral code, the the latter latter would would seem seem to to be be aa far far more more serious serious affair. affair. Although Although moral code, punishments for not so considered considered aa sin, sin, the the punishments for elopement elopement are are not so severe. severe. The The girl girl be readmitted readmitted to to the the home home and by the should should not not be and should should be be considered considered dead dead by the community, with this community, is is the the general general tenor tenor of of opinion opinion in in dealing dealing with this particular particular "sin." rise to hur"sin." My My hunch hunch is is that that going going to to the the cinema cinema gives gives rise to images images of of hot, hot, hurof its beried ried gropings gropings in in the the darkness darkness of its foyer, foyer, fantasies fantasies of of forbidden forbidden sexuality sexuality bethe elopement tween the tween the pair, pair, whereas whereas the elopement makes makes sexual sexual congress congress between between the the couple is legitimized legitimized by by marriage. marriage. The The girl girl who who has has couple more more acceptable acceptable in in that that it it is married aa Hindu Hindu is is outside outside the the bounds bounds of of the the community, community, dead dead as as far far as as the the married Muslim qaum Muslim cjaumis isconcerned. concerned.The Thegirl girlwho whowent wenttotothe thecinema cinemais isstill stilla part a partofof the the community, community, aa boil boil which which must must be be lanced. lanced. Throwing not condead cow cow in in aa temple temple is is the the only only violation violation which which is is not conThrowing aa dead sidered relisidered aa sin sin but but aa minor minor transgression. transgression. It It is is wrong wrong because because it it hurts hurts the the reliHindus and, gious gious sentiments sentiments of of the the Hindus and, more more rationally, rationally, can can lead lead to to outbreak outbreak of of aa riot. themselves with with pointing pointing out erriot. Some Some will will content content themselves out to to the the offender offender the the erthe police. police. ror his ways ror of of his ways while while others others will will consider consider handing handing him him over over to to the During riot During riot time time, the the two two consensually consensually forbidden forbidden acts acts of of violence violence relate relate both to Hindu women, namely, there is namely, their their rape rape and and murder. murder. In In contrast, contrast, there is no no both to Hindu women, consensus moral status of men, men, looting, arson. AlAlconsensus on on the the moral status of of the the killing killing of looting, and and arson. though is aa hesihesithough both both rape rape and and killing killing of of women women are are regarded regarded as as sinful, sinful, there there is punishment of tation, almost reluctance when tation, almost reluctance when it it comes comes to to punishment of the the guilty. guilty. What What comes to the the fore here is between the perceived interests comes to fore here is the the conflict conflict between the perceived interests of of the the community community and and its its moral moral codes. codes. "The 'The men men who who have have raped raped and and killed killed are are our our own. protect us us if own. Who Who will will protect if they they are are severely severely punished punished or or handed handed over over to to the the police?" the nature nature of the dilemma. dilemma. The police?" expresses expresses the of the The recommended recommended punishpunishthe culprit, culprit, leaving Allah, letting ments range range from ments from educating educating the leaving it it to to Allah, letting the the law law take its take its course, course, to to handing handing over over the the men men to to the the police. police. In no difference In the the case case of of rape, rape, there there is is no difference of of opinion opinion between between men men and and Of women women in in either either perception perception of of the the act act or or punishment punishment of of the the wrongdoers. wrongdoers. Of the two two in killthe in the the sample sample who who favor favor the the severest severest sanctions-castration sanctions—castration and and killing of of the man—one is is aa man man and and the the other other aa woman. woman. During During aariot, riot,aatime timeofof ing the man-one danger danger to to individual individual and and collective collective survival, survival, identification identification with with the the commucommunity all other identification with with nity outweighs outweighs all other identifications, identifications, including including the the identification one's ones gender. gender. l

Victims V i c t i m s and a n d Others O t h e r s II: II: The The Muslims Muslims Killing rape of Killing and and rape of Hindu Hindu women women are are sins sins because because they they are are forbidden forbidden by by Islam. through the where aa riot Islam. This This is is elaborated elaborated through the idea idea of of Islamic Islamic chivalry chivalry where riot between Muslims is between Hindus Hindus and and Muslims is aa battle battle exclusively exclusively between between men men in in defense defense of the of the honor honor of of their their qaums. cfaums.The Thewomen womenarearenoncombatants. noncombatants.Weak Weakand andvulvulthey are protection, even by men the enemy nerable, they nerable, are entitled entitled to to protection, even by men of of the enemy host. host. twists to naRape of Rape of aa Hindu Hindu woman, woman, though, though, has has some some surprising surprising twists to the the nabeture of ture of its its sinfulness. sinfulness. The The seventy-five-year-old seventy-five-year-old man man regards regards rape rape as as aa sin sin because cause aa Hindu Hindu woman woman is is haram, haram,forbidden forbiddentotothe theMuslim Muslimlike likethe theeating eatingofof pork or meat meat of of an an animal animal not not slaughtered slaughtered in in the the ritually correct manner. manner. pork or ritually correct halal Rape of of aa Muslim Muslim woman, on the other hand, is not not aa sin sin because because she she is is halal. woman, on the other hand, is Rape This view view is is echoed echoed by another, much much younger younger man, reacts with with horror horror This by another, man, who who reacts to the Hindu woman woman and polluted and to the idea idea of of raping raping aa Hindu and thereby thereby entering entering the the polluted and body. In contaminating contaminating inner inner regions regions of of an an infidel infidel body. In these these two two cases cases rape rape is is not not aa violation violation of of the the moral moral code code that that forbids forbids the the causing causing of of harm harm to to another another individual breaking of individual but but the the breaking of aa code code that that decrees decrees the the preservation preservation of of one's ones own own sanctity. sanctity. no difficulty Turning to permitted permitted interactions times, there Turning to interactions in in normal normal times, there is is no difficulty in Muslims having Hindus Hindus as as friends. friends. There There are are three three sceptics, sceptics, all all women, women, in Muslims haVing possible after riots of the last who who believe believe such such friendships friendships are are no no longer longer possible after the the riots of the last have poipoidecade. decade. They They mistrust mistrust the the Hindus; Hindus,- IIIHindus '"Hindus are are sweet sweet outside outside but but have son son in in their their hearts." hearts/' It to eat the Hindus. Hindus. The It is is also also alright alright to eat with with the The only only reservation reservation is is that that since since the the Hindus Hindus eat eat haram haramfoods, foods,a aMuslim Muslimmight mightinadvertently inadvertentlyeat eatsomething something which which is is forbidden. forbidden. Working Hindus in problem. It Working with with Hindus in aa factory factory does does not not pose pose any any problem. It is is aa of work, of survival, and beyond the personal control of any single matter matter of work, of survival, and beyond the personal control of any single individual individual or or even even aa community. community. priest is Learning Learning Hindu Hindu scriptures scriptures from from aa Hindu Hindu priest is also also not not wrong. wrong. The The Gita, too, is their language wrong to to listen Gita, too, is the the voice voice of of God God in in their language so so it it is is not not wrong listen to to to gain it, it, opines opines one one respondent. respondent. To To do do so so is is to gain knowledge knowledge which which is is pleasing pleasing to to Allah, says third, after Allah, says another. another. It It does does not not matter matter if if one one does does so, so, says says aa third, after all all aa Muslim will remain remain aa Muslim. Muslim will Muslim. The The few few dissenting dissenting voices voices express express the the fear fear that that an exposure exposure to to unbelief unbelief (kuJarl (kujar)may maycorrode corrodea aMuslim's Muslim'sown ownfaith. faith. an II must must confess confess to to aa mild mild surprise surprise at at this this evidence evidence of of tolerance tolerance in in matters matters of me once of faith, faith, reminding reminding me once again again not not to to underestimate underestimate the the impact impact of of the the Hindu Hindu images images from from my my childhood childhood of of the the Muslim Muslim as as aa religious religious fanatic. fanatic. This This becomes especially true true if if we we look look at at the the dissensus dissensus on on the the question question of of aa MusMusbecomes especially lim who converts and and becomes Hindu, an an action action II would would have have expected expected to to lim who converts becomes aa Hindu, be overwhelmingly rejected rejected as as wrong and sinful. sinful. Even the ones ones who who conconbe overwhelmingly wrong and Even the demn the the conversion conversion are are reluctant to punish punish the the offender. offender. Others Others see see such such aa demn reluctant to

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conversion as as aa matter matter of of personal choice. Of Of course, course, such such an an action action is is not not aa conversion personal choice. yet does matter of matter of indifference. indifference. It It is is an an affront affront to to the the Muslim Muslim community community yet does not not call call for for its its interference. interference. Ironically, Ironically, "religious "religious fanaticism" fanaticism7' is is the the least least in in the the religious domain, domain, in in interactions interactions at at the the level level of of faith, faith, less less than than in in any any other other religious area moral area of of social social exchange exchange with with the the Hindus. Hindus. The The otherwise otherwise duty-based duty-based moral code code is is suspended suspended here here as as the the individual's individual's right right to to freedom freedom of of choice choice takes takes precedence over duties. precedence over duties. Beating up up Hindu Hindu boys for whistling at aa Muslim Muslim girl girl or or for for making fun Beating boys for whistling at making fun of Allah Allah are are retaliations retaliations for for straightforward straightforward insults insults to to the the collective collective honor honor of and earn earn consensual consensual approval. approval. The The qualifications qualifications are are minor. In the the first and minor. In first case, case, try to to explain explain and and then then beat, beat, says says one one man; man,- another another man man will will let let the the whistling whistling try go unpunished unpunished if if the girl was out without without aa veil veil because because then then she she has has invited invited go the girl was out this unwelcome unwelcome male male attention. attention. In In the the second second case, case, aa couple couple of of respondents respondents this recommend forbearance forbearance in in face face of of this this stupidity. stupidity. Mostly, though, violent violent rerecommend Mostly, though, reprisals are fully fully in in order, order, as as in in the the case case of of Salman Salman Rushdie, Rushdie, whose example was whose example was prisals are specifically cited cited by by two respondents. two respondents. specifically apBut But during during aa riot, riot, giving giving shelter shelter to to aa Hindu Hindu is is the the only only consensually consensually apviewed as to Allah. proved proved action. action. This This is is viewed as aa religious religious duty duty owed owed to Allah. It It is is aa duty duty independent personal feelings indiindependent of of one's one's personal feelings about about Hindus Hindus in in general general and and the the individual seeking seeking shelter shelter in in particular. particular. It It is is the the expression expression of of the compassion and and vidual the compassion mercy in in the heart of of aa good good Muslim Muslim and and is enjoined by by Islam. mercy the heart is enjoined Islam. On On several several significant significant actions, actions, the the sample sample of of twenty twenty Muslims Muslims did did not not establish renting aa house house to establish aa consensus. consensus. The The question question of of renting to aa Hindu Hindu in in normal normal times reactions. The times produced produced several several reactions. The dissenter's dissenters argument argument is is based based on on the the pollution of the Muslims them. Hindus plaster the pollution of the Muslims by by aa Hindu Hindu living living among among them. Hindus plaster the will perform perform puja puja where hashas floors floors and and walls walls with with cow cow dung, dung, eat eat pork, pork, will whereibadat ibadat been done. more strongly: been done. A A few few feel feel more strongly: "My "My mother mother said said if if you you give give alms alms to to aa Hindu your hand will burn an Hindu your hand will burn on on Judgment Judgment day." day." It It is is not not aa sin sin but but certainly certainly an error error to to be be avoided. avoided. The The assenters assenters argue argue that that not not all all Hindus Hindus are are bad, bad, and and there your house to aa good there is is nothing nothing wrong wrong with with renting renting your house to good Hindu. Hindu. Dissensus Dissensus existed existed on on aa number number of of actions actions if if taken taken in in riot riot time. time. Those Those who who see see setting settingfire fire to to aa Hindu Hindu house house as as aa wrong wrong act act do do not not consider consider itit aa major major violation. It is is aa minor minor offense offense during during aa riot, riot, and and the the offenders offenders should should be be violation. It properly counseled. counseled. Others Others who approve look look at at it it as as something something inevitable inevitable who approve properly during during aa riot. riot. Looting that produced produced pro Looting of of Hindu Hindu shops shops is is an an action action that pro and and con con arguarguments that are are the the same same as as in in the case of of arson. arson. ments that the case The both men The respondents, respondents, both men and and women, women, are are almost almost evenly evenly divided divided on on the action riot. Those who consider sin the action of of killing killing aa Hindu Hindu man man during during aa riot. Those who consider it it aa sin

V i c t i m s and a n d Others O t h e r s II.The M uslims Victims II: The Muslims

will not sanction it will still still not sanction any any punishment punishment by by the the community. community. Some Some will will allow allow it nothing wrong wrong with only Hindu only in in retaliation. retaliation. Others Others who who consider consider nothing with killing killing aa Hindu in killing and being killed is in aa riot riot liken liken the the situation situation to to aa time time of of war war when when killing and being killed is the normal normal order order of of things. the things.

Morality and and the the Hindus Hindus Morality The men and The Hindu Hindu sample sample from from Pardiwada Pardiwada consisted consisted of of ten ten men and ten ten women. women. The ranged in in age from twenty-two of The men men ranged age from twenty-two to to forty-five forty-five with with aa median median age age of thirty years, years, while while the the age age range range of of women women was was between twenty and and fiftythirty between twenty fiftynine, with with aa median median of of thirty-five thirty-five years. years. The The Hindu Hindu women, like their their Muslim Muslim nine, women, like counterparts, had had had had no no schooling, schooling, whereas whereas the the Hindu Hindu men men were were better better ededcounterparts, ucated than than the the Muslim Muslim sample, sample, with with an an average average of of seven seven years of schooling. schooling. ucated years of Economically, too, too, the the Pardis, Pardis, though though poor, visibly better better off off than the Economically, poor, were were visibly than the Muslims from from Karwan. Karwan. Most Most of of the men were were fruit fruit vendors vendors while drove Muslims the men while two two drove auto-rickshaws for for aa living. living. auto-rickshaws Before responses to to each behavioral cases, cases, Before II discuss discuss the the Hindu Hindu responses each of of the the behavioral there is is one one general general observation observation that that needs needs to to be made. As As compared compared to the there be made. to the Muslims, the Hindu respondents were were much much more more relativistic relativistic and and contextual contextual Hindu respondents Muslims, the in judging behavior as as aa transgression and more more easygoing easygoing in in proposing proposing in judging aa behavior transgression and punishments for for actions actions judged as wrong. wrong. Irrespective Irrespective of of age age and and gender, gender, "It punishments judged as "It all depends" was an almost reflexive response, and the individual had to be all depends" was an almost reflexive response, and the individual had to be persuaded to to engage engage further further with the standard standard interview. interview. persuaded with the In responding to cases cases of of interaction interaction with with the the Muslims, Muslims, both during nornorIn responding to both during mal and and riot times, which which were were not clearly labeled labeled as as unobjectionable unobjectionable at at the the mal riot times, not clearly outset, the answers were almost always framed in terms of a context, tempooutset, the answers were almost always framed in terms of a context, temporal or or spatial. spatial. The The linking linking of of the the morality morality of of an an interactions interactions with with time time would would ral be typically typically expressed expressed thus: thus: "It "It was was wrong when times times were were different different but but it it is wrong when is be not wrong now." By By "different "different times," the person is alluding alluding to to aa past past golden golden not wrong now." times," the person is era of of individual individual and and collective collective morality as compared compared to to the the degenerate degenerate Kaliera morality as Kaliyuga of today. today. The The individual individual can can thus convincingly state state that that an an action action is yuga of thus conVincingly is wrong in right right times right in in wrong wrong times. times. Similarly, Similarly, demographic demographic space space wrong in times but but right seemed to to be be intimately intimately involved in moral moral judgments, and II was often told told seemed involved in judgments, and was often that actions actions such such as as the the beating of aa Muslim Muslim or or arson arson and and looting looting of of Musthat beating up up of Muslim shops shops were wrong if if you you lived lived in in aa Muslim Muslim majority majority mohalla mohallabut butalright alrightifif lim were wrong you were living in in aa Hindu Hindu majority majority area. area. This This appears appears to to have have less less to to do do with with you were living morality than than with with prudence prudence and and expediency expediency unless, unless, of of course, course, one one is is willing willing morality to consider consider the case for an expedience-based expedience-based morality. morality. As As aa consequence consequence of to the case for an of this contextual stance, it is understandable that the envisaged punishments this contextual stance, it is understandable that the envisaged punishments

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by the community community for for wrong wrong actions actions were were nonexistent or weak weak and and evoked evoked by the nonexistent or far less less emotion emotion and and righteousness righteousness than than the the corresponding corresponding sanctions sanctions among among far the Muslims against moral codes. codes. the Muslims against the the violators violators of of their their community's community's moral This Hindus and This striking striking difference difference between between Hindus and Muslims Muslims can can be be accounted accounted for religious terms. terms. The the approaches to morality for in in religious The difference difference in in the approaches to morality may may be be seen as consequence of of the difference between between humanist humanist and and authoritarian authoritarian seen as aa consequence the difference religions (Fromm) (Fromm) or or between precept-based and and prophetic (Obbetween precept-based prophetic religions religions {Obreligions have discussed in eyesekere).11 eyesekere).11 In In more more culturalist culturalist terms, terms, as as II have discussed elsewhere, elsewhere, in Hindu philosophical philosophical and and ethical ethical tradition, tradition, the or wrongness of aa Hindu the Tightness rightness or wrongness of proposed action action depends depends on on the the individual's individual's desa, desa,the theculture cultureininwhich whichone oneisis proposed born,- on on kala, kala,the thehistorical historicalera eraininwhich whichone onelives; lives;on onsrama, srama, efforts born; thethe efforts re-required quired of of one one at at different different stages stages of of life; life,- and and on on gunas, gunas, the the innate innate psychopsycho12 "Right" biological traits which are person's previous biological traits which are the the heritage heritage of of aa person's previous lives. lives.12 "Right" and and "wrong" "wrong" are are relative; relative,- they they can can emerge emerge as as clear clear distinctions distinctions only only out out of of the the total configuration configuration of of the the four four coordinates coordinates of of action. action. total The judgments may may well The Hindu Hindu approach approach to to the the making making of of moral moral judgments well be be aa part of part of aa basic basic Hindu Hindu way way of of thinking thinking which which the the poet-scholar poet-scholar A. A. K. K. RamanuRamanujan has jan has called called "context-sensitive."13 "context-sensitive."13 Hindus, Hindus, Ramanujan Ramanujan believes, believes, idealize idealize context-sensitive rather than rules. Whether is in context-sensitive rather than context-free context-free rules. Whether it it is in medical medical is vital matters, matters, where where the the context context is vital in in diagnosis, diagnosis, prescription, prescription, and and preparation preparation of prescribed and of herbal herbal medicines, medicines, or or in in music, music, where where the the ragas ragas have have their their prescribed and appropriate appropriate times, times, the the context context sensitivity sensitivity extends extends even even to to space space and and time, time, the the universal contexts, the Kantian Kantian imperatives, imperatives, which in India India are universal contexts, the which in are not not uniform uniform and neutral. Every moral rule rule thus has aa number and neutral. Every moral thus has number of of exceptions, exceptions, each each of of these these additions additions aa subtraction subtraction from from any any universal universal law law so so that that one one falls falls back back on on the the fits no no context Yet before universal only universal only if if one one fits context or or condition condition (which (which is is rare). rare). Yet before wholly embracing religious-culturalist explanations, wholly embracing the the religious-culturalist explanations, as as II am am tempted tempted to to do, Pardis are not completely in do, we we must must remember remember that that the the Pardis are not completely context-bound context-bound in rape and their moral judgments. The their moral judgments. The rape and killing killing of of aa Muslim Muslim woman woman are are unequivunequivocally by any To ocally condemned condemned as as sins, sins, unalterable unalterable by any contextual contextual considerations. considerations. To me, more significant Musme, even even more significant than than the the differences differences between between the the Hindu Hindu and and Muslim lim approaches approaches to to morality morality is is their their similarity similarity in in the the condemnation condemnation of of the the rape rape and and killing killing of of the the other other community's community's women; women,- both both groups groups regard regard these these acts acts neutral level level they they also unalterably unalterably as as sins. sins. At At an an emotionally emotionally more more neutral also share share aa common common disapproval disapproval of of acts acts which which hurt hurt the the religious religious sentiments sentiments of of the the other other community. What is that this community. What is most most encouraging encouraging is is the the fact fact that this disapproval disapproval is is ofofterms of we ten ten couched couched in in terms of empathy: empathy: "Their "Their feelings feelings are are the the same same as as ours ours and and we were done would would not not like like it it if if it it were done to to us." us." The The existence existence of of this this empathy-even empathy—even if restricted sphere-demonstrates beif it it is is in in aa restricted sphere—demonstrates that that the the history history of of violence violence be-

Victims II: The Victims and and Others Others II: The Muslims Muslims tween the communities be said made enemies of tween the communities (which (which can can fairly fairly be said to to have have made enemies of Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, at at least least in in the poor underbelly of the the city) city) has yet Hindus the poor underbelly of has not not yet dehumanized the the enemy. enemy. There There is is still still empathy empathy on on both both sides sides which which does does not not dehumanized let aa Muslim Muslim consider consider aa Hindu-and Hindu—and vice vice versa-less versa—less than than human human and and theretherelet fore aa deserving deserving prey for every every imaginable imaginable brutality. brutality. Empathy Empathy with members fore prey for with members of the other group, group, even even when considered the the enemy, enemy, defends defends the the Other Other the other when considered of from the the untrammeled untrammeled aggression can so so easily be let let loose loose against against all from aggression which which can easily be all 14 those considered subhuman. subhuman.14 those considered The The Hindus, Hindus, II have have noted noted above, above, are are far far more more easygoing easygoing than than the the MusMusjudgments of lims lims in in their their moral moral judgments of interactions interactions with with members members of of the the other other comcomgirl's elopement Muslim munity. times, although munity. In In normal normal times, although aa Hindu Hindu girl's elopement with with aa Muslim boy is boy is consensually consensually disapproved disapproved of, of, itit isis not not considered considered aa sin. sin. Having Having Muslim Muslim to aa Muslim, friends, working with renting your friends, eating eating and and working with Muslims, Muslims, renting your house house to Muslim, Qur'an from from aa Muslim Muslim priest-are learning learning the the Quran priest—are all all consensually consensually permitted permitted though reservations about is though some some may may express express reservations about this this conduct. conduct. The The dissensus dissensus is on Hindu's conversion to Islam, on aa Hindus conversion to Islam, aa Hindu Hindu girl girl marrying marrying aa Muslim Muslim boy boy or or going with him going out out with him to to the the cinema. cinema. The The latter latter action, action, so so violently violently disapproved disapproved of Muslim sample, opponents would disof in in the the Muslim sample, elicits elicits divided divided opinions. opinions. Its Its opponents would disto an all courage practice because because it courage such such aa practice it may may lead lead to an interfaith interfaith marriage, marriage, with with all problems. Those nothing objectionable acits its attendant attendant problems. Those who who see see nothing objectionable in in the the girl's girls acthem women, which happens tion, tion, most most of of them women, look look at at it it as as something something which happens all all the the time today's world get unduly time in in todays world and and is is not not something something over over which which one one should should get unduly exercised. permissiveness with regard to exercised. Whether Whether the the greater greater Hindu Hindu permissiveness with regard to interacinteractions tions with with the the other other community community is is aa function function of of the the Pardis' Pardis' low low status status in in the the caste hierarchy, and caste hierarchy, and whether whether high-caste high-caste Hindus Hindus wall wall themselves themselves off off much much more the Muslims, is aa question question more from from the Muslims, as as anecdotal anecdotal evidence evidence seems seems to to suggest, suggest, is by future which which can can only only be be answered answered by future empirical empirical work. work. As As with with the the Muslims, Muslims, rape rape and and killing killing of of women women of of the the other other community community the former, as during during aa riot, riot, especially especially the former, elicited elicited consensual consensual condemnation condemnation as sins-the were prepared prepared to sins—the only only actions actions the the Hindus Hindus were to label label as as such. such. Similarly, Similarly, giving to members the other giving shelter shelter to members of of the other community community during during aa riot riot isis not not considconsidered wrong. There is dissensus on the riot-time actions ered wrong. There is dissensus on the morality morality of of other other riot-time actions riot-time morality such such as as arson, arson, looting, looting, and and the the killing killing of of men. men. The The riot-time morality of of the the Hindus is thus strikingly, similar to that of the Muslims in its contents, though Hindus is thus strikingly similar to that of the Muslims in its contents, though not with which which this morality is not in in the the emotional emotional intensity intensity with this morality is invested. invested. The The two two communities communities share share in in common common the the commandments commandments "Thou "Thou shalt shalt not not kkill i l l... . . . aa not rape," the transtranswoman" woman" and and "Thou 'Thou shalt shalt not rape/' but but the the outrage outrage associated associated with with the gression gression of of these these commandments commandments is is stronger stronger among among Muslims Muslims than than among among Hindus. the emotional Muslims to Hindus. Indeed, Indeed, as as II noted noted earlier, earlier, the emotional reaction reaction of of Muslims to any any

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Chapter Five Five Chapter

violation of violation of the the community's community's moral moral code code of of conduct conduct is is intense intense and and especially especially violent woman's sexualized violent in in cases cases involving involving aa Muslim Muslim woman's sexualized interaction interaction with with aa Hindu man. Hindu man. In In such such situations, situations, II believe, believe, the the self-representation self-representation of of the the comcommunity becomes identified munity becomes identified with with the the woman's woman's sexual sexual stance stance in in its its more more servile servile aspect, being "fucked"-not aspect, with with images images of of being "fucked"—not in in aa joyful joyful but but in in aa contemptuous contemptuous sense-by the Hindu. penetrate the whether aa woman sense—by the Hindu. To To penetrate the Other, Other, whether woman or or another another group, is to to be to be be penetrated penetrated is is to to be group, is be superior, superior, powerful, powerful, and and masculine; masculine,- to be inferior, weak, inferior, weak, and and feminine. feminine. It It is is aa blending blending of of the the images imagesof of power power and andsexusexuality phallocentric vision ality in in aa phallocentric vision which which makes makes many many men men all all over over the the world, world, for for example in in parts of the the Middle Middle East East and and Latin Latin America, America, regard only the the man man example parts of regard only who is is penetrated by another another man as aa despised despised homosexual homosexual while while the the active active who penetrated by man as male. inserter inserter on on the the "top" "top" is is considered considered as as aa "normal", "normal", even even macho macho male. Violence Violence between between religious-ethnic religious-ethnic groups groups is, is, then, then, also also aa struggle struggle over over the way of locating the the desired male and the assignment assignment of of gender, gender, aa way of locating desired male and denigrated denigrated female As aa Hindu patient, echoing female communities. communities. As Hindu patient, echoing the the sentiments sentiments of of aa few few "It others, remarked in others, remarked in aa session session during during the the 1984 1984 anti-Sikh anti-Sikh riots riots in in Delhi: Delhi: "It serves serves them them right! right! Every Every one one of of these these cunts cunts (chutiye) (chutiye)behaves behavesasasif ifhis hisprick prickisis at mastl" at full full mast!"

SIX SIX

A New New Hindu Hindu Identity A Identity Great disorders to great devotions. disorders lead lead to devotions. -EmileZola —Emile Zola

SS

ome fifteen years years ago, what is today called Nehruvian project ome fifteen ago, when when what is today called the the Nehruvian project of vigorous and of aa modernized modernized secular secular India India was was still still vigorous and fundamentalism fundamentalism was was I tried to peer intointo aa distant distant gleam gleam in in the the eye eye of of an an occasional occasional imam imamorormahant, mahant, I tried to peer the I wrote thatthat the crystal crystal ball ball of of the the future. future. In In my my conclusion conclusion to to The TheInner InnerWorld, World, I wrote as up pace, pace, individuals will increasingly as modernization modernization picks picks up individuals will increasingly seek seek membermembership ship in in groups groups with with absolute absolute value value systems systems and and with with little little tolerance tolerance for for deviadeviation tion from from their their norms. norms. To To quote: quote: "Whereas "Whereas initially initially the the appeal appeal of of these these to sections who are groups groups may may be be limited limited to sections of of society society who are most most susceptible susceptible to to the the urbanized classes-we pressures of pressures of social social change-for, change—for, example, example, youth youth and and urbanized classes—we can can expect expect an an ever-widening ever-widening circle circle of of participation participation as as more more and and more more people people an are are sucked sucked into into the the wake wake of of modernisation modernisation..... . . . In In short, short, we we can can expect expect an increasing increasing destruction destruction of of the the nascent, nascent, western-style western-style individualism individualism as as more more and to merge promise aa shelter and more more individuals individuals seek seek to merge into into collectivities collectivities that that promise shelter 1 the hurt, for for the hurt, the the conflicted conflicted and and the the ship ship wrecked."l wrecked." If the theme If II again again take take up up the theme of of those those large large social social formations formations through through which many individuals which many individuals in in India India seek seek aa sense sense of of their their cultural cultural identity identity (a (a term term which which II prefer prefer to to the the more more sociological sociological "ethnicity"), "ethnicity"), then then it it is is not not to to derive derive aa melancholy satisfaction perceived prescience melancholy satisfaction from from any any perceived prescience but but to to offer offer some some psychological psychological observations observations on on an an issue issue which which is is normally normally seen seen as as the the domain domain of political political scientists scientists and and social social commentators. commentators. First, First, to get definitional definitional matmatof to get ters ters out out of of the the way, way, by by "cultural "cultural identity" identity" II mean mean aa group's group's basic basic way way of of orgaorgaideals. 22 nizing memories, symbols, rituals, and nizing experience experience through through its its myths, myths, memories, symbols, rituals, and ideals. Socially produced produced and and thus thus subject subject to historical change, change, cultural cultural identity identity Socially to historical is not static affair affair even even while it makes makes aa decisive decisive contribution contribution to to the the enenis not aa static while it hancement of of an an individual's individuals sense sense of of self-sameness self-sameness and and continuity continuity in in time time hancement and space. space. This This definition definition is is particularly particularly apt apt for for the the Hindutva Hindutva movementmovement— and characterized by some as as Hindu Hindu fundamentalism-through fundamentalism—through which large 143 characterized by some which aa large 143

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Chapter Chapter Six Six number number of of Hindus Hindus today today seem seem to to be be seeking seeking aa sense sense of of their their cultural cultural identity. identity. Let "fundamental" does does not in Let us us again again remember remember that that"fundamental" not mean mean "traditional." "traditional." As As in other other parts parts of of the the non-Western non-Western world, world, revivalism revivalism or or fundamentalism fundamentalism in in India, India, Hindu, or Muslim, is to reformulate project of Hindu, or Muslim, is an an attempt attempt to reformulate the the project of modernity. modernity. Hindutva, for has Like Like its its counterparts counterparts elsewhere, elsewhere, the the leadership leadership of of Hindutva, for instance, instance, has but decidedly never never been been traditional traditional but decidedly modern, modern, consisting consisting of of individuals individuals who who turned turned their their backs backs on on their their own own Western Western education. education.33 Keshav Keshav Baliram Baliram HedgeHedgeinstiwar, war, the the founder founder of of the the Rashtriya Rashtriya Swayam Swayam Sevak Sevak Sangh Sangh (RSS), (RSS), the the core core instiHindu revivalism, revivalism, had in tution tution and and the the driving driving force force of of Hindu had his his schooling schooling in youth, he he is is rereEnglish went on English and and went on to to study study medicine medicine in in Calcutta. Calcutta. In In his his youth, ported to to have ritual was was rather rather silly. His successor, silly. His successor, ported have felt felt that that orthodox orthodox Hindu Hindu ritual master's degree biology at Golwalkar, Golwalkar, was was the the son son of of aa civil civil servant, servant, did did his his master's degree in in biology at beBenares University, and Benares University, and was was aa lecturer lecturer in in zoology zoology at at the the same same institution institution bejoined the RSS. 44 fore fore he he joined the RSS. Shadows Shadows of of Mourning Mourning Haunting images helplessness among Haunting images of of loss loss and and helplessness among large large groups groups of of people people underlie many underlie many literary literary and and scholarly scholarly accounts accounts of of transnational transnational historical historical mood with changes. changes. These These images images constitute constitute the the somber somber mood with which which scholars scholars have often have often reflected reflected upon upon the the periods periods and and processes processes of of significant significant transfortransforpaints the portrait of mations in mations in human human history. history. When When Max Max Weber Weber paints the portrait of Western Western wake of with the man in man in the the wake of enlightenment, enlightenment, we we see see aa face face aglow aglow with the promised promised with deep of triumph triumph of of rationality rationality in in human human affairs, affairs, yet yet also also etched etched with deep shadows shadows of mourning. From modern man man peering with hopehopemourning. From Weber's Weber's canvas, canvas, we we see see modern peering out out with ful though disenchanted ful though disenchanted eyes eyes at at aa future future which which offers offers vastly vastly greater greater control control Yet the the portrait over over nature, nature, society, society, and and man's mans own own destiny. destiny. Yet portrait also also conveys conveys aa lost spontaneity which the the social palpable grief grief for palpable for the the lost spontaneity and and immediacy immediacy which social forms forms and the Judeo-Christian and symbols symbols of of the Judeo-Christian religious religious tradition tradition had had built built up up and and guarguaranteed. anteed. times, as the anthropological, Nearer Nearer to to our our own own times, as we we study study the anthropological, psychologipsychological, fictional accounts historical proprocal, and and above above all, all, fictional accounts of of another another transcultural transcultural historical cess, modernization in in the world, we cess, the the process process of of modernization the non-Western non-Western world, we again again encounter encounter the the ghost ghost of of depression depression seated seated at at aa banquet banquet table table laid laid out out for for eaeagerly gerly awaited awaited dishes dishes of of economic economic development development and and the the fruits fruits of of industrializaindustrialization. first outline processes which which are tion. Let Let me, me, then, then, first outline the the social-psychological social-psychological processes are aa consequence consequence of of modernization modernization and and which which II believe believe are are the the foundation foundation on on which which the the edifices edifices of of the the new new Hindu Hindu and and Muslim Muslim as as well well as as other other cultural cultural identities being constructed. processes are, identities in in India India are are being constructed. These These processes are, of of course, course, not not particular to India but but common to most of the the non-Western world. particular to India common to most of non-Western world.

A New New Hindu Hindu Identity Identity A First, First, population population movements movements which which take take place place during during .the the modernizing modernizing process process involve involve the the separation separation of of families families and and the the loss loss of of familiar familiar neighborneighborhoods hoods and and ecological ecological niches. niches. Psychologists Psychologists report report and and novelists novelists describe describe the the feelings of of bereavement bereavement and and states states of of withdrawal withdrawal among among those those mourning mourning for for feelings old attachments and suspicious of creating new ones. These tendencies are old attachments and suspicious of creating new ones. These tendencies are not only only harmful harmful for for individuals but also also hinder of new social strucnot individuals but hinder the the birth birth of new social structures and and forms forms while while they they rob community life life of of much of its its vitality vitality and and tures rob community much of therefore its its capacity capacity for for counteracting counteracting the the sense sense of of helplessness. helplessness.55 therefore With increasing migrations are longer confined by nanaWith increasing globalization, globalization, migrations are no no longer confined by tional boundaries. Globalization, upon traditional tional boundaries. Globalization, too, too, encroaches encroaches upon traditional group group relationships between solidarities solidarities and and the the established established relationships between different different groups, groups, whether whether in in Cochin Cochin or or Moradabad. Moradabad. The The shifting shifting demands demands of of global global markets markets for for particular particular kinds kinds of of goods goods and and labor labor make make for for rapid rapid and and bewildering bewildering the relative particular society. changes changes in in the relative status status of of many many groups groups in in aa particular society. Whereas Whereas some thus claims some groups groups dramatically dramatically increase increase their their earning earning power power (and (and thus claims to to aa markets in goods, higher social higher social status) status) through through their their access access to to international international markets in goods, services, and and labor, labor, others others are are as as dramatically dramatically impoverished, impoverished, with with many many services, forced to to migrate migrate from from their their traditional traditional geographical geographical and and cultural cultural niches. forced niches. The The vast vast internal internal migrations migrations also also give give rise rise to to overcrowded overcrowded living living condiconditions tions in in urban urban conglomerations, conglomerations, especially especially in in the the sprawling sprawling shanty shanty towns towns and and hand, it slums slums with with their their permanent permanent air air of of transience. transience. On On the the one one hand, it is is undeniaundeniahowever awful to middle-class ble ble that that urban urban slums, slums, however awful they they seem seem to middle-class sensibilities, sensibilities, represent hope of represent to to the the poor poor aa hope of escaping escaping from from deadening deadening economic economic deprivadeprivaof tion tion and and the the relatively relatively rigid, rigid, caste-based caste-based discrimination discrimination and and inequities inequities of there is rural rural society. society. On On the the other, other, there is the the lack lack of of cultural cultural norms norms in in dealing dealing with with relative relative strangers strangers whose whose behavioral behavioral clues clues cannot cannot be be easily easily deciphered, deciphered, so so difdifritualized predictability ferent ferent from from the the ritualized predictability of of interactions interactions in in the the communities communities behind in which compel person to be conleft left behind in villages villages or or small small towns, towns, which compel the the person to be conpermanent psychic stantly stantly on on guard. guard. One One is is in in aa state state of of permanent psychic mobilization mobilization and and heightened nervous heightened nervous arousal. arousal. In skills as as modmodIn addition, addition, the the rapid rapid obsolescence obsolescence of of traditional traditional roles roles and and skills ernization ernization picks picks up up pace pace seriously seriously dents dents the the self-esteem-when self-esteem—when it it does does not not shatter it completely-of those who with simultaneous loss shatter it completely—of those who are are confronted confronted with simultaneous loss of particular kinds workers. of earning earning power, power, social social status, status, and and identity identity as as particular kinds of of workers. there is of For For the the affected affected and and their their families, families, especially especially children, children, there is aa collapse collapse of confidence in in the the stability stability of of the the established established order order and and of of the the world. world. What What confidence looms instead instead is is the the specter specter of of aa future future which which is is not not only only opaque opaque but but reprereprelooms sents an an overwhelming overwhelming threat to any any sense sense of of purpose. purpose. sents threat to The The feelings feelings of of loss loss are are not not limited limited to to the the migration migration from from geographical geographical regions and and cultural cultural homes or to the disappearance disappearance of of traditional traditional work work idenidenregions homes or to the

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Chapter Six Six Chapter tities. They They also also extend extend to loss of of ancestral ancestral ideals ideals and and values. values. For For instance, instance, tities. to the the loss compared to to what what many many believe believe was was aa traditionally traditionally healthy eroticism, modmodhealthy eroticism, compared ernity, with with its its popular cinema, television, television, fashions, fashions, the commingling of the commingling of ernity, popular cinema, sexes in in schools, schools, colleges, colleges, and and at at work, is sexually sexually decadent. decadent. "People "People have work, is have sexes lost their (celibacy), their their character character is is destroyed destroyed and and everyone everyone lost their brahmacharya brahmacharya (celibacy), has become become an an addict addict of of bad bad habits. habits. If If you you cannot cannot control control your your libido, libido, you you has cannot be pure."6 Once Once the the enlightenment enlightenment values values of of universal universal equality, equality, libcannot be pure."6 liberty, and and fraternity, fraternity, of of the the preeminence preeminence of of reason reason and and moral autonomy of of the the moral autonomy erty, individual were formulated through through the the political revolutions in in the the nonnonindividual were formulated political revolutions Western world, universal heritage, inevitably triumphant triumphant they became became aa universal heritage, inevitably Western world, they of the the local local culture. culture. In spite of of the the when in conflict conflict with with the the norms norms and and values values of In spite when in disillusionment of of some some postmodern postmodern Western Western intellectuals intellectuals with with the the enlightenlightdisillusionment enment mentality, mentality, its its values values continue continue to to constitute constitute what what has has been generally enment been generally regarded as as the the most most dynamic dynamic and and transformative transformative ideology ideology in in human human hishisregarded tory.77 Yet Yet the enlightenment has has aa dark dark side, side, too. too. The The modernization modernization project project the enlightenment tory. is riddled riddled with with its its own own inequities, inequities, repressions, repressions, and and unfraternal conflicts. is unfraternal conflicts. lost—and retroThere is is thus thus bound bound to palpable grief grief for for the the values values of of aa lost-and There to be be aa palpable retrospectively idealized-world, idealized—world, when in the one progress often turns turns when in the brave brave new new one progress often spectively out to to be be glaring glaring inequality, inequality, rationality rationality becomes becomes selfishness selfishness and and the of out the pursuit pursuit of self-interest, and and individualism individualism comes comes to to mean mean unbridled greed. self-interest, unbridled greed. Secret Secret Wounds Wounds Whereas helplessness constitute Whereas loss loss and and helplessness constitute one one stream stream of of feelings feelings accompanyaccompanyprocess, another humiliing ing the the modernization modernization process, another stream stream consists consists of of feelings feelings of of humiliand radically lowered self-worth. One source of humiliation lies ation ation and radically lowered self-worth. One source of humiliation lies in in the the homogenizing and and hegemonizing hegemonizing impact impact of of modernization modernization and and globalizaglobalizahomogenizing tion, of which which are are no no respecters respecters of of cultural cultural pluralities and diversities. diversities. both of pluralities and tion, both The The imperatives imperatives of of economic economic development, development, which which see see many many local local cultural cultural values and and attitudes attitudes as as outmoded outmoded or or just plain irrelevant, are a source of huhuvalues just plain irrelevant, are a source of miliation to to all all those those who have not not embraced embraced or or identified identified with the modernmodernwho have with the miliation ization project project in in its its totality. totality. ization For the the masses, masses, there there are are other other occasions occasions for for blows blows to self-esteem such as to self -esteem such as For the increase increase in in the complexity and and incidence incidence of of bureaucratic bureaucratic structures, structures, with with the the complexity their their attendant attendant dehumanization, dehumanization, which which has has been been aa corollary corollary of of development. development. The cumulative cumulative effect effect of of daily daily blows blows to to an an individual's individual's feelings feelings of of self-worth, self-worth, The received in in aa succession succession of of bureaucratic and other other impersonal impersonal encounters, encounters, received bureaucratic and cannot be be underestimated. underestimated. cannot the non-Western For For the the elites elites of of the non-Western world, world, there there is is an an additional additional humiliahumilia-

A A New New Hindu Hindu Identity Identity tion in their the tion in their greater greater consciousness consciousness of of the the defeat defeat of of their their civilizations civilizations in in the West. This or colonial colonial encounter encounter with with the the West. This defeat defeat is is not not merely merely an an abstraction abstraction or aa historical of historical memory memory but but one one which which is is confirmed confirmed by by the the peripheral peripheral role role of their their countries countries in in the the international international economic economic and and political political order order of of the the postpostcolonial world. world. Their Their consciousness consciousness of of being second-class citizens citizens in in the colonial being second-class the global order order is is reinforced by their many encounters encounters with with the the more more selfselfglobal reinforced by their many confident Western Western colleagues colleagues in various international international forums. forums. An An examexamconfident in the the various ple of of the the role role played played by by loss loss and and sensed sensed humiliation humiliation is is seen seen in in case case of those of those ple an elite elite group/ group, who who have have migrated migrated to to the the United United Indians, economically economically an Indians, States and and are are frequently frequently exposed exposed to to indifference indifference or or condescension condescension toward toward States their cultural cultural tradition. tradition. When When they they have have not not abjured abjured their their cultural cultural identity identity their altogether altogether in in what what II would would consider consider an an "identification "identification with with the the aggressor/" aggressor," they have turned back back to to embrace embrace their cultural identity identity as as Hindus, Hindus, Muslims, they have turned their cultural Muslims, or Sikhs Sikhs with revivalist felVor fervor which is far far in in excess excess of of their their counterparts counterparts in or with aa revivalist which is in the home country. country. Of Of courser course, migration itself plays plays aa significant significant role role in in the migration itself the the home revival revival of of cultural cultural identity. identity. Global Global migrations, migrations, tourism, tourism, and and communications communications confront with aa foreignness confront people people in in aa society society with foreignness of of others others which which is is unpreceunprecedented All over dented in in their their experience. experience. All over the the world world our our encounters encounters with with strangers strangers possessare are on on aa larger larger scale, scale, over over longer longer periods periods of of timer time, with with the the strangers strangers possessing ing aa higher higher degree degree of of strangeness strangeness than than has has ever ever been been the the case case before. before. ObserObservations vations such such as as 'They "They think think like like that/" that," 'They "They believe believe this/" this," 'Their "Their customs customs are are which may like like that/" that," ineVitably inevitably lead lead to to questions questions which may not not have have been been selfselfconsciously consciously addressed addressed before; before,- "'What "'What do do we we [however [however that that "we" "we"isisdefined] defined] think," think?" "What "What do do we webelieve," believe?""What "What are areour ourcustoms?" customs?"InInbringing bringingtogether together people in processes of paradoxically ininpeople in closer closer proximity, proximity, the the processes of globalization globalization paradoxically crease which separates crease the the self-consciousness self-consciousness which separates and and differentiates. differentiates. The portraits of The portraits of loss loss and and helplessness helplessness may may sometimes sometimes seem seem to to be be overoverdrawn. drawn. Human Human beings beings have have aa remarkable remarkable capacity capacity for for adaptation, adaptation, for for creatcreatnew ing new communities communities when when old old ones ones must must be be abandoned, abandoned, for for planting planting new ing new withered. Yet gardens gardens of of love love around around them them where where old old ones ones have have withered. Yet before before fresh fresh psychological and psychological and social social structures structures can can emerge, emerge, there there is is aa periodperiod— permanent for at permanent for some-of some—of apathy, apathy, chronic chronic discontent, discontent, or or rebellious rebellious rage rage at those who are are held held responsible responsible for for the the loss loss of of old old social social forms forms and and ideals. those who ideals. Historical working through Historical and and social social changes, changes, working through the the psychological psychological mechamechanisms thus lead of loss loss and and humiliation humiliation thus lead to to the the widespread widespread feeling feeling of of being being aa nisms of victim victim rather rather than than an an active active agent agent of of events events which which are are buffeting buffeting the the individindividual and and his or her her group. group. Millions Millions of of people people become become patients patients in in aa broad broad sense, sense, ual his or even patienthood being even if if temporarily, temporarily, patienthood being essentially essentially aa condition condition of of inactivainactivation. After After all, all, patiens, Erik Eriksonhas has pointedout/ out,denotes denotesa state a stateofof being tion. patiens, asas Erik Erikson pointed being

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Chapter Six Six Chapter exposed within and without which be overexposed to to superior superior forces forces from from within and without which cannot cannot be over8 come come without without energetic energetic and and redeeming redeeming help.s help. Cultural Cultural Identity Identity and and Cure Cure

The required required energy energy and and redemption redemption to to restore agcns,that thatinner innerstate stateofofbeing being The restore agens, which sanctions sanctions initiative initiative and and encourages encourages purposeful purposeful activity activity in in the the outer outer which world, world, is is most most often often sought sought through through increasing, increasing, restoring, restoring, or or constructing constructing aa not only sense sense of of cultural cultural identity. identity. Cultural Cultural groups groups are are not only aa shelter shelter for for those those mourning lost lost attachments attachments but also vehicles vehicles for for redressing redressing narcissistic narcissistic injuinjumourning but also ries, for for righting are perceived as contemporary contemporary or or historical historical wrongs. wrongs. what are perceived as ries, righting what The why such The question question of of why such "primordial" "primordial" group group identities identities as as "Hindus" "Hindus" and and "Muslims" are are generally generally preferred rather than than identities identities base.d based on on class, class, pro"Muslims" preferred rather profession, or or other other criteria criteria cannot cannot be be discussed discussed here. here. Perhaps Perhaps the the latter latter lack lack an an fession, encompassing worldview, worldview, are are impoverished impoverished in in their their symbolic symbolic riches riches and and dedeencompassing that essential which people have traditionally void void of of that essential corpus corpus of of myths myths in in which people have traditionally besought sought meaning, meaning, especially especially at at aa time time when when their their world world appears appears to to have have become come meaningless. meaningless. A A core core attraction attraction and and vital vital therapeutic therapeutic action action of of self-consciously self-consciously belongbelonging ing to to an an cultural cultural community community lies lies in in its its claim claim to to the the possession possession of of aa future future which, patiens, isisfelt which, in in aa state state of of patkns, felttotobe beirretrievably irretrievablylost. lost.To Tooutsiders, outsiders,this this future future may may appear appear to to be be aa simplistic simplistic perspective perspective on on the the world world such such as as aa prompromperfect civil ise ise of of restoration restoration of of the the perfect civil society society of of the the ancestors, ancestors, what what the the Hindus, Ram Rajya. Rajya.ItItmay maybebethe thereproduction reproductionon onearth earthofofaa Hindus, for for instance, instance, call call Ram paradise paradise envisaged envisaged only only in in sacred sacred texts. texts. It It may may be be the the hedonistic hedonistic enjoyment enjoyment heaven presided of of more more and and more more goods goods and and services services in in aa heaven presided over over by by aa benign, benign, which "works." "works." supply-side supply-side God. God. The The promise promise is is of of aa future, future, not not seen, seen, but but which The The cultural cultural group, group, which which brings brings the the "primordiality" "primordiality" related related to to shared shared myths, to the myths, memories, memories, values, values, and and symbols symbols to the fore, fore, thus thus assumes assumes aa vital vital healhealloss ing ing function. function. One One of of its its most most important important aspects aspects is is to to replace replace feelings feelings of of loss with with those those of of love. love. This This insight insight into into the the way way groups groups work work psychologically psychologically goes back to goes back to Freud, Freud, who who postulated postulated eros eros at at the the vital vital cohesive cohesive force force in in aa members of groUp.9 group.9 He He believed believed that that ties ties of of love love among among members of aa group group come come into into existence existence through through their their emotional emotional bond bond with with the the leader. leader. In In more more technical technical place of terms, terms, members members of of aa group group put put the the same same object, object, the the leader, leader, in in place of their their ego ego ideal ideal and and consequently consequently identify identify with with each each other. other. This This shared shared idealization idealization gives gives rise rise to to the the love love ties ties which which are are experienced experienced in in the the feelings feelings of of loyalty, loyalty, esprit more intense of esprit de de corps corps and, and, in in the the more intense moments moments of of group group life, life, in in feelings feelings of fusion reordering and fusion and and merger. merger. Experientially, Experientially, it it is is aa reordering and opening opening up up of of the the

A New Hindu Hindu Identity Identity A New

inner world of the individual to to include include members members of of the the group group who, who, in in turn, turn, inner world of the individual open open up up to to include include the the individual individual in in their their psychological psychological space, space, aa mutual mutual affiraffirmation which which lies lies at at the the heart of love. love. In In cultural cultural groups, groups, the the shared shared ego ego ideal ideal heart of mation may not be be the the figure of aa single single leader leader but but many many historical and mythical mythical figure of historical and may not figures figures from fromthe thegroup's groupstradition, tradition,its itsideals idealsand andvalues, values,and andeven evenits itssocial socialand and intellectual traditions. traditions. intellectual We are the profound profound effect have on the conWe are all all aware aware of of the effect the the group group can can have on the consolidation solidation of of aa person's person's "sense "sense of of identity" identity" and and in in increasing increasing the the cohesiveness cohesiveness we often that it unof of the the self. self. Even Even in in individual individual psychotherapy, psychotherapy, we often see see that it is is not not unfirmer and usual patients in usual for for patients in aa state state of of self-fragmentation self-fragmentation to to achieve achieve aafirmer and more more Nazis are cohesive joining an cohesive sense sense of of self self upon upon joining an organized organized group. group. The The Nazis are not not the turned quasi-derelict the only only group group who who turned quasi-derelict individuals individuals into into efficiently efficiently funcfuncby providing the framework world image tioning tioning ones ones by providing them them the framework of of aa convincing convincing world image and the use use of and the of new new cultural cultural symbols symbols and and group group emblems emblems such such as as shiny shiny brown brown uniforms. uniforms. As As Ernest Ernest Wolf Wolf perceptively perceptively observes, observes, "It "It seems seems aa social social identity identity way aa scaffolding can can support support aa crumbling crumbling self self the the way scaffolding can can support support aa crumbling crumbling 10 building. building."to II

Psychology Psychology versus versus Politics? Politics? Hindu identity, would like Before look at the construction the new new Hindu Before II look at the construction of of the identity, II would like to to address address the the objections objections to to aa psychological psychological approach approach to to the the subject. subject. There There are are many many social social scientists scientists and and political political analysts analysts who who would would locate locate the the enhanceenhancein ments ments of of ethnicity ethnicity (cultural (cultural identity identity in in my my terms) terms) in in aa particular particular group group not not in social-psychological processes but in in the competition between between elites elites for for pothe competition posocial-psychological processes but litical power power and and economic economic resources. resources. In In fact, fact, this this has been the dominant litical has been the dominant explanation for for the the occurrence occurrence of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim riots riots and and is is best best exemexemexplanation 1x plified of Asghar Asghar Ali the work work of Ali Engineer. Engineer. I I This This "instrumentalist," "instrumentalist," as as conconplified in in the trasted to to the the "primordialist" "primordialist" view advocate here, here, has been succinctly succinctly view II advocate has been trasted formulated by by Paul Paul Brass: Brass: "In "In the the process of transforming transforming cultural cultural forms, forms, formulated process of values and and practices practices into into political symbols, elites elites in in competition competition with with each each values political symbols, other for for control control over over the the allegiance allegiance or or territory territory of of the ethnic group group in in quesother the ethnic question strive to to enhance enhance or or break break the the solidarity solidarity of of the the group. group. Elites Elites seeking seeking to to tion strive mobilize the ethnic ethnic group group against against its its rivals rivals or or against against the the state state strive strive to mobilize the to propromote aa congruence congruence of of aa multiplicity multiplicity of of the the group's groups symbols, symbols, to to argue argue that that mote members of of the the group group are are different different not in one one respect respect only only but but in in many many and and members not in 12 that all all its its cultural cultural elements elements are are reinforcing." reinforcing."12 that Cultural fixed or Cultural identity identity according according to to this this view view is is not not aafixed or given given dimension dimension of communities communities but but aa variable variable one one which which takes takes form form in in the the process process of of political political of

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Chapter Chapter Six Six mobilization mobilization by by the the elite, elite, aa mobilization mobilization which which arises arises from from the the broader broader politpolitthe primary ical ical and and economic economic environment. environment. Brass Brass questions questions the the import import of of the primary people, he dimensions dimensions of of ethnicity ethnicity in in the the subjective subjective lives lives of of individuals. individuals. Most Most people, he says, says, never never think think about about their their language language at at all. all. Millions, Millions, both both in in traditional traditional and and modern necesmodern societies, societies, have have migrated migrated to to other other countries countries out out of of choice choice (or (or necessity). have an to their place of of sity). And And though though many many may may have an emotional emotional attachment attachment to their place birth or or ancestral ancestral religion, religion, many many others others have have chosen chosen to assimilate to their birth to assimilate to their have lost to their their origins. new new societies societies and and have lost all all connection connection to origins. Brass's primordiality appears Brass's case case for for the the relative relative insignificance insignificance of of primordiality appears to to be be overstated. individual counterpart, overstated. Cultural Cultural identity, identity, like like its its individual counterpart, is is an an unconunconscious scious human human acquirement acquirement which which becomes becomes consciously consciously salient salient only only when when both individual culthere there is is aa perceived perceived threat threat to to its its integrity. integrity. Identity, Identity, both individual and and cultural, most part, tural, lives lives itself itself for for the the most part, unfettered unfettered and and unworried unworried by by obsessive obsessive and and excessive zone of excessive scrutiny. scrutiny. Everyday Everyday living living incorporates incorporates aa zone of indifference indifference with with regard regard to to one's one's culture, culture, including including one's one's language, language, ethnic ethnic origin, origin, or or religion. religion. It that the It is is only only when when this this zone zone of of indifference indifference is is breached breached that the dimensions dimensions of the individual of ethnicity ethnicity stand stand out out in in sharp sharp relief relief and and the individual becomes becomes painfully painfully or or exhilaratingly exhilaratingly aware aware of of certain certain aspects aspects of of one's one's cultural cultural identity. identity. The The breaches breaches in in the the zone zone of of indifference, indifference, like like the the ones ones which which took took place place in in the the aftermath the Babri made by moaftermath of of the the demolition demolition of of the Babri mosque, mosque, are are not not only only made by mowar, riots, riots, mentous mentous external external events events such such as as actual actual or or threatened threatened persecution, persecution, war, and so on. Inner psychological changes at certain stages of the life cycle may and so on. Inner psychological changes at certain stages of the life cycle may youth is also these fateful also cause cause these fateful incursions. incursions. Thus, Thus, for for instance, instance, youth is regarded regarded as as aa period period of of life life when when issues issues of of personal personal identity identity become become crucial, crucial, when when the the conconpreoccupation with the question Ii' scious scious and and unconscious unconscious preoccupation with the question "Who "Who am am I?" reaches its peak. Many migrants, who have willingly chosen to thoroughly reaches its peak. Many migrants, who have willingly chosen to thoroughly all assimilate assimilate themselves themselves into into their their new new societies societies and and appear appear to to have have lost lost all traces find that traces of of their their ethnic ethnic origins, origins, are are surprised surprised to to find that the the issues issues of of cultural cultural have only identity identity have have not not disappeared. disappeared. They They have only skipped skipped aa generation generation as as their their preoccupied with sons sons and and daughters, daughters, on on the the verge verge of of adulthood, adulthood, become become preoccupied with their roots as their cultural cultural roots as part part of of their their quest quest for for aa personal personal identity. identity. II do do not not mean mean to to imply imply that that the the instrumentalist instrumentalist approach approach isiswithout without subsubstance. not aa monopoly stance. It It is is also also not monopoly of of profeSSional professional social social scientists scientists but but is is shared shared by many where there by many people people in in other other walks walks of of life. life. In In Indian Indian towns towns and and cities cities where there have between Hindus have normally have been been riots riots between Hindus and and Muslims, Muslims, II have normally found found that that "men "men of of goodWill" goodwill" from from both both communities communities invariably invariably attribute attribute the the riots riots to to the the politicians pursuing machinations machinations and and manipulations manipulations of of politicians pursuing political political power power or or economic economic advantage advantage rather rather than than to to any any increase increase in in primordial primordial sentiments, sentiments, aa who are perspective which is perspective which is also also shared shared by by people people who are far far removed removed from from the the

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conflict. The The instrumentalist instrumentalist theory theory of of ethnic ethnic mobilization mobilization thus becomes an conflict. thus becomes an "instigator" theory of violent violent conflict conflict among among religious religious groups. groups. In In concentratconcentrat"instigator" theory of ing on on the the instigators, instigators, it it underplays underplays or or downright downright denies denies that that there are "inthere are "ining stigatees/' too, too, whose whose participation participation is is essential essential to to transform transform animosity animosity stigatees," between religious groups groups into into violence. violence. The The picture picture it it holds holds up up of of evil evil politipolitibetween religious cians and and innocent innocent masses masses is is certainly certainly attractive attractive since since it it permits cians permits us us aa disdisavowal of of our our own own impulses impulses toward violence and and vicious vicious ethnocentrism. ethnocentrism. We We toward violence avowal all have different all have different zones zones of of indifference indifference beyond beyond which which our our own own ethnocenethnocentrism, in in some some form form or or the the other, other, will will become become aa salient salient part part of of our our identity. identity. trism, The appeal appeal of of the the instrumentalist instrumentalist or or instigator instigator theory, however, is is not not The theory, however, only that that it it allows allows us us aa projection projection of of the the unacceptable unacceptable parts parts of of ourselves ourselves onto onto only "bad" politicians. Its historical legacy "bad" politicians. Its allure allure is is also also due due to to aa particular particular historical legacy of of the the literary elite elite in in all all major civilizations. This This legacy legacy devalues devalues nonrational nonrational literary major civilizations. processes-what -which form form the the basis processes—what psychoanalysts psychoanalysts call call "fantasy" "fantasy"—which basis of of the the primordial approach. approach. As As has has been been pointed out by others in in aa different different conconprimordial pointed out by others text, text, the the culture culture of of fantasy fantasy lacks lacks all all meaningful meaningful status status in in the the realm realm of of serious serious the discussion not of public public discourse discourse which which is is comprised comprised of of the discussion of of ideas, ideas, not of shared shared 13 Fantasy before reason; is fantasies. fantasies.13 Fantasy is is regarded regarded as as primitive, primitive, primordial, primordial, before reason,- it it is unconscious as as compared compared to to conscious, conscious, mythic mythic as as compared compared to to Scientific, scientific, unconscious marked by by the the pleasures pleasures of of connotation connotation rather rather than than the the rigors rigors of of denotation. denotation. marked A sensitive, introspective discussion of socially shared fantasies (rather A sensitive, introspective discussion of socially shared fantasies (rather than than ideas) ideas) as as the the moving moving force force behind behind the the ideals ideals and and ambitions ambitions of of large large groups groups and reand communities communities is is generally generally not not possible. possible. Steeped Steeped in in aa long long tradition tradition of of respect spect for for the the culture culture of of ideas ideas and and their their own own professional professional role role in in its its production production and propagation, the receptive to and propagation, the scholarly scholarly elite elite of of aa society society are are not not easily easily receptive to the culture culture of of fantasy. fantasy. the II do do not not mean mean to to imply imply that that the the political political and and psychological, psychological, the the instruinstruterms. mental mental and and the the primordial, primordial, approaches approaches should should be be viewed viewed in in either/or either/or terms. Both Both the the approaches approaches are are complementary complementary to to each each other. other. Whether Whether it it be be the the history relations, or history of of Hindu-Muslim Hindu-Muslim relations, or the the analysis analysis of of the the causes causes of of the the riots riots between two communities between the the two communities (economic-political (economic-political versus versus social-psychologica\), social-psychological), or the basis religious group or the the explanation explanation for for the basis of of emerging emerging religious group identities identities (instru(instruthe arguments mental versus primordial primordial attachments), mental interests interests versus attachments), the arguments are are invariainvariably couched bly couched in in aa dualistic dualistic either/or either/or mode. mode. This, This, of of course, course, is is aa testimony testimony to to the the Aristotelian ways of the strong strong hold hold of of the Aristotelian and and Cartesian Cartesian ways of thinking thinking on on modern modern recognize this this kind as minds. minds. Like Like most most shared shared habits, habits, we we do do not not recognize kind of of thinking thinking as mere habit habit but but take take it it for for granted granted as as an an unquestioned unquestioned verity, verity, as as the the way way things things mere "naturally" thinking does "naturally" are. are. Complementary Complementary thinking does not not mean mean that that "anything "anything goes," vulgar postmodernist goes," in in aa vulgar postmodernist sense. sense. It It has has its its own own definitional definitional constraints constraints

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Chapter Six Six Chapter and the more exand boundaries; boundaries; for for instance, instance, the more incompatible incompatible (not (not outlandish) outlandish) the the explanations for for aa phenomenon, phenomenon, the the more more complementary complementary they they will will be. be. ComComplanations plementarity is is the the belonging-together of various various possibilities belonging-together of possibilities of of plementarity experiencing the the same same object object differently. differently. The The wave wave and and particle particle theories experiencing theories of of light in in physics, physics, the the primary and secondary secondary processes in psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis, light primary and processes in mytbosand andlogos logos modes knowledge, a few many examples mythos as as modes of of knowledge, areare a few of of thethe many examples of of complementarity. Forms Forms of of complementary complementary knowledge knowledge belong belong together together in in so so complementarity. far as as they to the the same same object; object,- they they exclude exclude each each other other in in that they they pertain pertain to that they far cannot occur simultaneously. Complementarity is the acceptance of differcannot occur simultaneously. Complementarity is the acceptance of differsome. To To describe describe ent possibilities and not not their their splitting splitting and and the the exclusion exclusion of of some. ent possibilities and phenomenon complementarily complementarily is is to to reveal reveal its its wholeness, wholeness, to to understand understand its its aa phenomenon 14 different aspects. aspects.14 None of of these these aspects aspects is is more true than than ()thers; others,- each each is None more true is different the logic logic underlying underlying complementary complementary thought thought is is not not of irreplaceable. In In brief, irreplaceable. brief, the of an either! either/or but of of an an "as "as well well as" as"variety. variety.Thus, Thus,without without the the psychologipsychologior kind kind but an cal perspective perspective to to complement complement the the political-economic political-economic one, one, we will have have only only we will cal partial and and thus thus dangerously dangerously inadequate inadequate understanding understanding of of the the reasons reasons for for aa partial the success success of of political political formations formations based on religious mobilization. the based on religious mobilization.

Search for for Hindu-ness Hindu-ness Search The instrumentalist instrumentalist approach approach to to cultural cultural identity, identity, however, however, makes makes an an imporimporThe tant contribution contribution by by pointing pointing out out that that these these identities identities are are not not fixed and imtant fixed and immutable but but more more or or less less variable. variable. The The self-consciousness self-consciousness of of being being aa Hindu Hindu mutable today is not not of of the same order order as as at at other other times times in in India's India's history. history. What What is today is the same is today today called called "Hinduism" "Hinduism" has has emerged emerged through through many many encounters encounters between between dissenting dissenting sects sects professing professing diverse diverse beliefs beliefs and and with with other, other, more more self-conscious self-conscious religions, religions, such such as as Islam Islam and and Christianity. Christianity Today, Today, there there is is aa new new Hindu Hindu identity identity under under construction construction in in many many parts parts of India, especially is of India, especially the the northern northern and and central central states. states. It It is is aa process process which which is undoubtedly propelled by undoubtedly propelled by the the fact fact that that this this identity identity is is also also the the basis basis of of politipolitical mobilization mobilization by by the the main opposition party, party, the the Bharatiya Bharatiya lanata Janata Party Party cal main opposition (BlP). (BJP). Created Created out out of of aa preexisting preexisting though though ill-defined ill-defined and and amorphous amorphous "Hin"Hinfaint family family resemblance resemblance to to its its progeniprogeniduism,' the the new new identity identity bears bears only only aa faint dUism," tors. Indeed, Indeed, as as we we saw saw in in the the first chapter, some some scholars scholars argue argue that that the the first chapter, tors. sharply sharply differentiated differentiated cultural cultural identities identities of of Hindus Hindus and and Muslims Muslims which which we we encounter today, today, with with their their heightened heightened self-consciousness, self-consciousness, the the kind of comcomencounter kind of mitment they they command, command, and and the the intensity intensity with with which these identities identities are are which these mitment pursued the British pursued politically, politically, are are aa creation creation of of the British colonial colonial period. period. They They are are not not only aa product product of of the the colonial colonial "divide "divide and and rule" rule" policies policies which which led led to to the the only emergence of of "identity "identity politics" politics" but but are are also also aa consequence consequence of of the the imposition imposition emergence

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of of alien alien modes modes of of thought thought on on native native Indian Indian categories. categories. The The political political scientist scientist Don Miller Miller remarks: remarks: "By "By their their education, education, legislation, legislation, administration, administration, judicial judicial Don 'obcodes codes and and procedures procedures and and even even by by that that apparently apparently simple simple operation operation of of 'objective' classification, jective' classification, the the census, census, the the British British unwittingly unwittingly imposed imposed dualistic dualistic 'either-or' the 'natural' 'either-or' oppositions oppositions as as the natural7 normative normative order order of of thought. thought. In In aa multimultitude of of ways, Indians learned learned that that one one is is either either this this or or that; that,- that that one one cannot cannot tude ways, Indians be both both or or neither neither or or indifferent. indifferent. The The significance significance of of identity identity thus thus became became aa be new, concern ... . . . an an orthodoxy orthodoxy of of being being was was gradually gradually replacing replacing new, paramount paramount concern 15 aa heterodoxy heterodoxy of of beings."15 beings/' Leaving time and the new Leaving the the issue issue of of pinpointing pinpointing the the time and place place of of birth birth of of the new Hindu Hindu identity identity in in the the late late twentieth twentieth century century to to historians-an historians—an identity identity which which its its critics critics have have decried decried as as Hindu Hindu nationalism, nationalism, Hindu Hindu militancy, militancy, or or Hindu Hindu fundamentalism-we fundamentalism—we can can only only observe observe that that this this identity identity selects selects many many of of its its symbols, symbols, myths, myths, and and images images from from aa traditional traditional stock. stock. The The cultural cultural have aa recognizable recognizable ancestry. values values and and forms forms it it endorses endorses have ancestry. In In its its strong strong links links with with the the past, past, this this Hindu Hindu identity identity is is neither neither wholly wholly new new nor nor completely completely old. old. It It is is constructed, constructed, yet yet also also reVived; revived,- it it is is aa combination combination of of the the made made and and the the given. political forces its given. The The social social and and political forces which which are are self-consciously self-consciously active active in in its constructed sangh parivar, have some truth on on their sideside when they constructed reVival, revival, the the sangh parivar, have some truth their when they maintain that the the elements new Hindu were always there; it is maintain that elements of of this this new Hindu identity identity were always there,it is just that just that people people did did not not see see them them before. before. The The question question of of whether whether those those propagating the propagating the new new Hindu Hindu identity identity are are embarked embarked on on its its construction construction or or merely on anmerely on its its articulation articulation for for others others does does not not have have aa simple simple answer. answer. The The answer upon whether point is of swer depends depends upon whether the the vantage vantage point is of of an an outside outside observer observer or or of the insider the process. process. In the political the insider directly directly engaged engaged in in the In any any event, event, the political councounwill involve tering of tering of this this Hindu Hindu identity identity will involve the the offer offer of of aa different different Hindutva Hindutva with myths of with other other images, images, symbols, symbols, and and myths of the the Hindu Hindu ethos ethos rather rather than than any any abstract psyabstract concept concept of of secularism, secularism, which which for for most most Hindus Hindus is is empty empty of of all all psychological chological meaning. meaning.

The Virtuous Virtuous Virago Virago The To more closely To look look more closely at at the the constructed constructed revival revival of of Hindu Hindu identity, identity, II have have chochosen text aa speech sadhavi Rithambra, Rithambra,one oneofofthe thestar starspeakers speakersfor forthe the sen as as my my text speech by by sadhavi sangh thethe prefix sadhavi being the female counterpart of sadhu, a mana man sanghparivar, parivar, prefix sadhavi being the female counterpart of sadhu, who who has has renounced renounced the the world world in in search search of of personal personal salvation salvation and and universal universal religious worldview. welfare welfare within within the the Hindu Hindu religious worldview. It It is is reported reported that that Rithambra Rithambra was Khanna, aa village the Punjab, was aa sixteen-year-old sixteen-year-old schoolgirl schoolgirl in in Khanna, village in in the Punjab, when when she she had had aa strong strong spiritual spiritual experience experience while while listening listening to to aa discourse discourse by by Swami Swami 16 Parmananda, Parmananda, one one of of the the many many "saints" "saints" in in the the forefront forefront of of Hindu Hindu revivalism. revivalism.16

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Chapter Six Six Chapter Rithambra her studies home and joined Parmananda's Rithambra abandoned abandoned her studies and and home and joined Parmananda's ashram. ashram. Soon she she began began traveling with her her guru guru to religious meetings meetings in in the the Hindu Hindu Soon traveling with to religious heartland heartland and and after after aa while while addressed addressed aa few few herself. herself. Her Her oratorical oratorical talents talents sanghparivar parivar and, after being were noticed of the the sangh noticed by by the the political political leadership leadership of and, after being were given some some training training in voice modulation, modulation, she she was was well well on on her her way way to become given in voice to become the leading leading firebrand in the the Hindu Hindu cause. the firebrand in cause. The was given The speech speech II have have chosen chosen was given at at Hyderabad Hyderabad in in April April 1991, 1991, aa few few weeks weeks after after the the general general elections elections for for the the national national parliament parliament and and many many state state assemblies assemblies were were announced. announced. The The speech speech is is aa standard standard one one which which Rithambra Rithambra has to the the enthusiastic response of has given given all all over over India India to enthusiastic response of hundreds hundreds of of thousands thousands of people. people. The The political context of of the the speech speech is is the the bid bid by by the the BJP, the politipolitiof political context BJP, the sangh family, cal cal arm arm of of the the sangh family,totocapture capturepower powerininsome somenorth northIndian Indianstates statesinin the coming coming elections elections and and to to emerge emerge as as the the single single largest largest party party in in the the national national the the preceding preceding months, BJP had parliament. parliament. In In the months, the the BJP had determined determined the the country's country's political Hindus on political agenda agenda by by its its mobilization mobilization of of Hindus on the the issue issue of of constructing constructing aa temple his reputed temple to to the the god god Ram Ram at at Ayodhya, Ayodhya, his reputed birthplace. birthplace. The The construction construction of temple had had become the desigdesigof this this temple become an an explosive explosive and and divisive divisive issue issue since since the nated site nated site was was already already occupied occupied by by Babri Babri masjid, masjid,a mosque a mosquebuilt builtbybyBabar, Babar,thethe Muslim invader invader from from Central Central Asia Asia who who was was the the founder founder of of the Mughal dydyMuslim the Mughal nasty that ruled over large large parts parts of of India India for for over over four four hundred hundred years. years. There There nasty that ruled over had five months months earlier earlier as as many many Hindus, Hindus, the the kar-sevaks, kar-sevaks, had been been much much bloodshed bloodshedfive lost firing when to defy lost their their lives lives in in police police firing when they they attempted attempted to defy legal legal orders orders and and begin required demolition begin the the temple temple construction, construction, aa step step which which required demolition or or at at least least relocation of of the the existing existing mosque. The killings killings of of unarmed unarmed Ram Ram hhaktasbhaktas— mosque. The relocation devotees of of Ram-in Ram—in Ayodhya, Ayodhya, led led to spate of of riots riots between between Hindus Hindus and and devotees to aa spate Muslims in other other parts of the the country, country, including including Hyderabad, Hyderabad, aa city city with Muslims in parts of with an an almost equal equal proportion proportion of of the two communities communities and and where tension bealmost the two where the the tension between them them over over the the years years had regularly erupted erupted in in communal communal violence. violence. tween had regularly The The political political context context of of the the speech, speech, the the theme theme of of temple temple versus versus mosque, mosque, the in its to the the narratives the abundance abundance of of imagery imagery and and allusions allusions in its text text to narratives of of the the epics epics Ramayana Ramayana and and the the Mahabharata, Mahabharata, and and the the person person of of the the speaker speaker herself herself are are all all replete replete with with symbolic symbolic resonances, resonances, evocations, evocations, and and associations. associations. They They virtually virtually reek reek with with aa surfeit surfeit of of meaning meaning that that burrows burrows deep deep in in the the psychic psychic rerecesses of of the the audience, audience, going going well well beyond the words used as as its its carriers. carriers. Liscesses beyond the words used listening Is she tening to to her her speak, speak, the the earlier earlier question question is is once once again again raised: raised: Is she an an elite elite manipulator of manipulator of Hindu Hindu cultural cultural symbols symbols (instrumental (instrumental theory) theory) or or is is she she an an ararticulator of of what what many Hindus feel feel but but cannot cannot express express (primordialist (primordialist viewviewmany Hindus ticulator point)? The The answer answer is is again again not in terms terms of of either/or either/or but but of of the the simultaneity simultaneity point)? not in of both both processes. Rithambra appeals appeals to to aa group group identity identity while while creating creating it. it. of processes. Rithambra

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She both both mirrors mirrors her her listeners' listeners' sentiments sentiments and and gives gives them them birth. birth. My My impresimpresShe sion is is that that the the images, images, metaphors, metaphors, and and mythological mythological allusions allusions of of her her speech speech sion have aa resonance resonance for for the the audience audience because because they they also also have have aa resonance resonance for for her. her. have This does does not not imply imply that that the the speech speech is is aa spontaneous spontaneous pouring pouring out out of of her her This heart. Like Like an an actor actor she she has honed this particular speech speech through through successive successive heart. has honed this particular deliveries and and knows what "works." "works." It It is is not not raw raw feeling feeling but but carefully carefully crafted crafted deliveries knows what emotion, an an epic epic poem poem rather rather than than aa scream scream or or aa shout. shout. Rithambra's Rithambra's power power emotion; lies less less in in her her persuasiveness persuasiveness on on an an intellectual, intellectual, cognitive cognitive plane than on on the the lies plane than poetic (Greekpoiesis-a poiesis—a making, shaping) permeates speech. is this poetic (Greek making, shaping) thatthat permeates herher speech. It isItthis poetic which which gives gives aa first form to to what what are are for for her her audience audience only only vaguely vaguely or or poetic first form partially ordered feelings feelings and and perceptions, perceptions, makes makes aa shared shared sense sense out out of of alpartially ordered already shared shared circumstances. circumstances.t177 ready As As aa renouncer renouncer of of worldly worldly life, life, aa sanyasin, sanyasin,Rithambra Rithambraconjures conjuresupupthe theimimage of of selflessness. selflessness. Associatively, Associatively, she she is is not not aa politician politician stirred stirred by by narrow narrow age electoral considerations considerations or or identified identified with with partisan partisan interest interest groups groups but but somesomeelectoral one one who who is is moved moved by by the the plight plight of of the the whole whole country, country, even even concerned concerned with with the welfare the welfare of of all all mankind. mankind. As As an an ascetic ascetic who who has has renounced renounced all all sexual sexual activactivity, ity, she she evokes evokes the the image image of of the the virgin virgin goddess, goddess, powerful powerful because because virgin, virgin, aa power which which is power is of of another, another, "purer" "purer" world. world. There There is is also also aa subtle subtle sexual sexual chalchallenge to the lenge to the men men in in her her audience audience to to prove prove their their virility virility (vis-ii-vis (vis-a-vis the the Muslim) Muslim) in order order to deserve her. her. in to deserve The The key key passages passages in in the the text text of of her her speech speech are are delivered delivered as as rhyming rhyming verses, in the tradition of bardic narration of stories from the Hindu epics. verses, in the tradition of bardic narration of stories from the Hindu epics. Perhaps people tend Perhaps people tend to to believe believe verse verse more more than than prose, prose, especially especially in in Hindu Hindu India India where where the the transmission transmission of of sacred sacred knowledge knowledge has has traditionally traditionally been been oral oral and through the and through the medium medium of of rhymed rhymed verse. verse. In In any any event, event, implicit implicit in in her her speech be less speech is is the the claim claim to to be less tainted tainted with with the the corruption corruption of of language, language, aa corcorwidely laid ruption ruption which which is is widely laid at at the the door door of of the the politician politician and and which which has has led led people to lose they hear people to lose faith faith in in what what they hear from from public public platforms. platforms. If If Rithambra Rithambra is is aa deep, politician, hers is politician, hers is the the politics politics of of magic magic that that summons summons forces forces from from the the deep, engaging engaging through through coded coded ideas ideas and and ideals ideals the the deeper deeper fears fears and and wishes wishes of of her her Hindu areare determined to to make Hindu audiences audiences whom whom she she and and the the sangh sanghparivar parivar determined make "more" listened to to her her II was was once once again again reminded reminded of of Milan Milan KunKun"more" Hindu. Hindu. As As II listened dera's dera's statement statement that that "political "political movements movements rest rest not not so so much much on on rational rational attiattitudes tudes as as on on fantasies, fantasies, images, images, words words and and archetypes archetypes that come together together to to that come make up this make up this or or that that political political kitsch." kitsch." Hail Mother Mother Sital Sita! Hail Hail brave brave Hanuman! Hanuman! Hail Hail Mother Mother India! India! Hail Hail the the Hail birth [Benares]1 birth place place of of Ram! Ram! Hail Hail Lord Lord Vishwanath Vishwanath [Shiva] [Shiva] of of Kashi Kashi [Benares]!

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Chapter Chapter Six Six Hail religion [dharma]\ [dharma]! Hail thethe religion Hail Lord Lord Krishna! Krishna! Hail Hail the the eternal eternal religion Hail religion Vedas! Hail Hail Lord Lord Mahavira! Mahavira! Hail Hail Lord Lord Buddha! Buddha! Hail Hail Banda Banda Bairof the the Vedas! of Bairagi! Hail Hail Guru Guru Gobind Gobind Singh! Singh! Hail Hail the the great great sage sage Dayananda! Dayananda! Hail Hail the the agi! great sage sage Valmiki! Valmiki! Hail Hail the the martyred martyred kar-sevaks! kar-sevaks\ Hail Mother India! great Hail Mother India!

In ringing ringing tones Rithambra invokes invokes the the various various gods gods and and revered revered figures figures In tones Rithambra from Indian Indian history, history, ancient ancient and and modem. modern. The The gods gods and and heroes heroes are are not not ranranfrom domly chosen. chosen. In In their their careful careful selection, selection, they they are are markers markers of of the the boundary boundary of of domly the Hindu community she and the sangh parivar would wish to constitute the Hindu community she and the sangh parivar would wish to constitute to-today and and believe believe existed existed in in the the past. past. Such Such aa commemoration commemoration is is necessarily necessarily day selective since since it it must must silence silence contrary contrary interpretations interpretations of of the the past past and and seek seek to to selective conserve only only certain certain of of its its aspects. aspects. The The gods gods and and heroes heroes are are offered offered up up as as conserve ego ideals, ideals, to to be be shared shared by by members members of of the the community community in, in order order to to bring bring ego about and and maintain maintain group group cohesion. cohesion. Identity Identity implies implies definition definition rather rather than than about blurring, solidity solidity rather rather than than flux or fluidity, and therefore therefore the the question question of flux or fluidity, and of blurring, boundaries of of aa group group become become paramount. paramount. Rithambra Rithambra begins the construcconstrucboundaries begins the tion of of Hindu Hindu identity identity by by demarcating demarcating this this boundary. boundary. tion In the construction In the the context context of of the the preceding preceding year's year's agitation agitation around around the construction the Ram of of the Ram temple, temple, the the god god Ram Ram occupies occupies the the highest highest watchtower watchtower on on the the border non-Hindu. Rithambra Ram's border between between Hindu Hindu and and non-Hindu. Rithambra starts starts by by praising praising Ram's wife, the wife, the goddess goddess Sita, Sita, and and his his greatest greatest devotee, devotee, the the monkey monkey god god Hanuman, Hanuman, who are then linked Ram's birthplace who are then linked to to contemporary contemporary concerns concerns as as she she hails hails Ram's birthplace wishes to to construct thethe controversial temple andand where the where the sangh sanghparivar parivar wishes construct controversial temple around which which issue issue it it has has sought sought aa mobilization mobilization of of the the Hindus. Hindus. around The five-thousand-year-old religion, of The five-thousand-year-old religion, however, however, with with aa traditional traditional lack lack of has central central authority authority structures structures such such as as aa church church and and with with aa diffused diffused essence, essence, has thrown up beliefs. It is over over the the centuries centuries thrown up aa variety variety of of sects sects with with diverse diverse beliefs. It is Rithambra's to include Rithambra's purpose purpose to include all all the the Hinduisms Hinduisms spawned spawned by by Hinduism. Hinduism. The presiding deity the Shaivite The presiding deity of of the Shaivite sects, sects, Shiva, Shiva, is is hailed, hailed, as as is is Krishna, Krishna, the the most popular god most popular god of of the the Vaishnavas. Vaishnavas. The The overarching overarching Hindu Hindu community community is is then then sought sought to to be be further further enenlarged larged by by including including the the followers followers of of other other religions religions whose whose birthplace birthplace is is India. India. These are are the the Jains, the Buddhists, Buddhists, and and the the Sikhs, Sikhs, and and Rithambra Rithambra devoutly devoutly These jains, the hails Mahavira, Buddha, and the militant last guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind hails Mahavira, Buddha, and the militant last guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh who, together with Banda Singh who, together with Banda Bairagi, Bairagi, has has the the added added distinction distinction of of aa lifelifeNineteenth-century reformist time time of of armed armed struggle struggle against against the the Mughals. Mughals. Nineteenth-century reformist movements such such as as the the Arya Samaj are are welcomed welcomed by including its its founder founder movements Arya SamaJ by including Dayananda Dayananda Saraswati Saraswati in in the the Hindu Hindu pantheon. pantheon. The The Harijans Harijans or or "scheduled" "scheduled" castes, the the former former "untouchables" "untouchables" of of Hindu Hindu society, society, are are expressly expressly acknowlacknowlcastes, edged as as aa part of the Hindu community community by hailing Valmiki, Valmiki, the the legendary legendary edged part of the Hindu by hailing

A New New Hindu A Hindu Identity Identity author of author of of the the Ramayana Ramayana who who has has been been recently recently elevated elevated to to the the position position of the the Harijans. the patron patron saint saint of of the Harijans. of the is established From From gods gods and and heroes heroes of the past, past, aa link link is established to to the the collective collective the kar-sevaks, kar-sevaks, men women their bid build heroism of heroism of the menand and womenwho whoin in their bidtoto buildthethetemtemple died ple died in in the the police police firing firing at at Ayodhya. Ayodhya. The The immortal immortal gods gods and and the the mortal mortal the subject heroes heroes from from past past and and present present are are all all the the children children of of Mother Mother India, India, the subject boundaries of of the the Hindu coof of the the final final invocation, invocation, making making the the boundaries Hindu community community coterminous terminous with with that that of of Indian Indian nationalism. nationalism. II have meshave come come to to the the Hindus Hindus of of Bhagyanagar Bhagyanagar [Hyderabad] [Hyderabad] with with aa message. sage. The The saints saints who who met met in in Allahabad Allahabad directed directed Hindu Hindu society society to to either either bend the has bend the government government to to its its will will or or to to remove remove it. it. The The government government has been removed. On On the fourth of of April, April, more more that and aa half half million million been removed. the fourth that two two and Hindus their power the lawns We Hindus displayed displayed their power at at the lawns of of Delhi's Delhi's Boat Boat Club. Club. We went to the the Parliament Parliament but but it it lay lay empty. empty. The The saints saints said, said, fill parliawent to fill the the parliament with with the the devotees devotees of of Ram. Ram. This This is is the the next next task task of of Hindu Hindu society. society. ment As As far far as as the the construction construction of of the the Ram Ram temple temple is is concerned, concerned, some some not fight fight over brick and and stone. people people say say Hindus Hindus should should not over aa structure structure of of brick stone. want to to ask ask these these They should should not not quarrel quarrel over over aa small small piece of land. land. II want They piece of people, "If someone someone burns will you say 'Oh, 'Oh, it it doesn't doesn't burns the the national national flag flag will you say people, "If matter. It It is is only only two two meters meters of of cloth cloth which is not not aa great great national matter. which is national loss.' loss.' "The question question is is not of two two meters of cloth cloth but of an an insult insult to to the the na'The not of meters of but of nation. Ram's Ram's birthplace is not quarrel about about aa small small piece piece of of land. land. It It is is aa birthplace is not aa quarrel tion. question of of national national integrity. integrity. The The Hindu Hindu is is not not fighting fighting for for aa temple temple of of question stone. He He is is fighting fighting for for the preservation of of aa civilization, civilization, for for brick and and stone. brick the preservation his Indianness, Indianness, for for national national consciousness, consciousness, for for the of his his his the recognition recognition of true nature. We shall shall build temple! build the the temple! true nature. We It the building the temple temple but bUilding of of India's naIt is is not not the building of of the but the the building India's national consciousness. consciousness. You, You, the the wielders of state state power, power, you not tional wielders of you do do not know that that the the Ram Ram temple temple is is not mere bUilding. building. It It is is not not aa construcconstrucknow not aa mere tion of of brick and stone. stone. It It is is not not only only the birthplace of of Ram. Ram. The The Ram brick and the birthplace Ram tion temple is is our our honor. honor. ItIt isis ourself-esteem. our self-esteem. ItItisisthe theimage imageof ofHindu Hinduunity. unity. temple We shall shall raise raise its its flag. shall build build the the temple! We flag. We We shall temple! Hindi Hindi is is aa relatively relatively passionate passionate language. language. Its Its brilliant, brilliant, loud loud colors colors are are imimmuted palette Ram temple possible to reproduce in the muted possible to reproduce in the palette of of English. English. As As the the Ram temple builds it, takes flow of of language, language, as takes shape shape in in Rithambra's Rithambra's cascading cascadingflow as she she builds it, phrase phrase by phrase, in in the minds of of her her listeners, listeners, it it evokes evokes acute acute feelings feelings of of aa shared shared by phrase, the minds social Ram temple, then, is social loss. loss. The The Ram temple, then, is aa response response to to the the mourning mourning of of Hindu Hindu society: aa mourning mourning for for lost lost honor, honor, lost lost self-esteem, self-esteem, lost lost civilization, civilization, lost lost society: Hindu-ness. It It is is the the material material and and social social counterpart counterpart of of the the individual individual experiexperiHindu-ness.

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Chapter Six ChapterSix ence of of mourning. mourning. In In aa more more encompassing encompassing formulation, formulation, the the Ram Ram birthplace birthplace ence temple isis like like other other monuments monuments which, which, as as Peter Peter Homans Homans perceptively perceptively obobtemple serves, "engage "engage the the immediate immediate conscious conscious experience experience of of an an aggregate aggregate of of egos egos serves, by re-presenting re-presenting and and mediating mediating to to them them the the lost lost cultural cultural experiences experiences of of the the by past,- the the experiences experiences of of individuals, individuals, groups, groups, their their ideas ideas and and ideals, ideals, which which cocopast; alesce into into what what can can be be called called aa collective collective memory. memory. In In this this the the monument monument is is aa alesce symbol of of union union because because itit brings brings together together the the particular particular psychological psychological circirsymbol cumstances of of many many individuals' individuals' life life courses courses and and the the universals universals of of their their otherothercumstances wise lost historical past within the context of their current or contemporary wise lost historical past within the context of their current or contemporary The temple temple is is the the body body in in which which Hindu Hindu social processes processes and and structures."IB structures."18 The social identity is is sought sought to to be embodied. identity be embodied. Some people people became became afraid afraid of of Ram's Ram's devotees. devotees. They They brought brought up up ManManSome dal.* They They thought thought the the Hindu Hindu will will get get divided. divided. He He will will be be fragmented fragmented dal.* by the the reservations reservations issue. issue. His His attention attention will will be be diverted diverted from from the the temtemby ple. But But your your thought was wrong. wrong. Your Your thought thought was was despicable. despicable. We We thought was ple. shall build build the the temple! temple! shall have come come to to tell tell our our Hindu Hindu youth, youth, do do not not take take the the candy candy of of reserreserII have vations and and divide divide yourself yourself into into castes. castes. If If Hindus Hindus get get divided, divided, the the sun vations sun of Hindu Hindu unity will set. set. How sage Valmiki Valmiki look look after after Sita? Sita? How How of unity will How will will the the sage will Ram eat berries [fcer]?** [ber ]?** Those Those who who wish wish that will Ram eat Shabri's Shabri's berries that our our bonds bonds with the backward castes castes and the Harijans are cut cut will will bite with the backward and the Harijans are bite dust. dust. We We shall build shall build the the temple! temple! Listen, is the the representation representation of mass consciousness. Listen, Ram Ram is of mass consciousness. He He is is the the god of of the the poor poor and and the the oppressed. oppressed. He is the the life life of of fisherman, fisherman, cobcobgod He is blers, and and washermen.*** washermen.*** If If anyone is not not aa devotee devotee of such aa god, god, he he blers, anyone is of such does not not have have Hindu Hindu blood blood in in his his veins. veins. We We shall build the the temple! temple! does shall build Marking its its boundary, boundary, making making it it aware aware of of aa collective cultural loss, loss, givgivMarking collective cultural ing it aa body, body, is is not not enough enough to to protect protect and maintain the the emerging emerging Hindu ing it and maintain Hindu identity. For For identity identity is is not not an an achievement achievement but but aa process process constantly constantly threatthreatidentity. ened ened with with rupture rupture by by forces forces from from within within and and without. without. Constant vigil vigil is is needed needed to to guard guard it it from from that that evil evil inside inside the the group group which Constant which 'MandaI refers refers to to the the reservation reselVation policy policy announced announced by by the the government government of of V. V. P. P. Singh Singh at at the the *Mandal height of of the the temple temple agitation. agitation. The The policy policy sought sought to to increase increase reservations reselVations in in federal federal and and state state height employment and and admission admission to to educational educational institutions institutions for for the the backward backward castes castes at at the the expense expense of of employment the the upper upper castes. castes. "The sage sage Valmiki, Valmiki, reputedly reputedly aa hunter hunter belonging **The belonging to to aa low low caste, caste, gave gave asylum asylum to to Sita Sita in in his his forest forest abode abode after after she she was was banished banished by by Rama. Rama. Shabri Shabri was was aa poor poor untouchable untouchable who who fed fed berries berries to to Ram Ram during during his his exile. exile. ***A1I of them them belong belong to to the the lowest lowest castes. castes. "'All of

A New New Hindu Hindu Identity Identity A seeks what has united, to seeks to to divide divide what has been been recently recently united, to disrupt disrupt and and fragment fragment what what has been has been freshly freshly integrated. integrated. Rithambra Rithambra addresses addresses the the feeling feeling of of threat threat and and this threat which must desingles singles out out the the political political forces forces representing representing this threat which must be be dethe coming battle of ballot box. feated feated at at the coming battle of the the ballot box. My Hindu brothers! My Hindu brothers! Stop Stop shouting shouting that that slogan, slogan, "Give "Give one one more more push push and break break the the Babri mosque! The The mosque mosque isisbroken, broken, the the mosque mosque isisbrobroand Babri mosque! ken!" What mosque are you talking about? We are going to build ken!" What mosque are you talking about? We are going to build our our not break has never temple temple there there not break anyone's anyone's mosque. mosque. Our Our civilization civilization has never been one one of of destruction. destruction. Intellectuals Intellectuals and and scholars scholars of of the the world, wherbeen world, wherever you you find ruins, wherever wherever you you come come upon upon broken broken monuments, monuments, you you find ruins, ever will find the signature of Islam. Wherever you find creation, you will find the signature of Islam. Wherever you find creation, you disdiscover the the signature signature of of the the Hindu. Hindu. We We have have never believed in in breaking breaking never believed cover but in in constructing. constructing. We We have always been by the maxim, "The "The but have always been ruled ruled by the maxim, world is one one family" family" [vasudhe [vasudhekuttumbkam]. kuttumbkam]. are not pulling down We We are not pulling down a a world is monument, we are building one. monument, we are bUilding one. Scholars, turn the pages of history and Scholars, turn the pages of history and tell tell us us whether whether the the Hindu, Hindu, riding horse and and swinging swinging aa bloody bloody sword, sword, has has ever ever trampled trampled on on anyanyriding aa horse who have have trod one's one's human human dignity? dignity? We We cannot cannot respect respect those those who trod upon upon has given humanity. humanity. Our Our civilization civilization has given us us great great insights. insights. We We see see god god in in aa trees and plants. We run stone, stone, we we see see god god in in trees and plants. We see see god god in in aa dog dog and and run behind Hindus have behind him him with with aa cup cup of of butter. butter. Hindus have you you forgotten forgotten that that the the saint Namdev had was snatched saint Namdev had only only one one piece piece of of bread bread to to eat eat which which was snatched by Namdev ran the dog by aa dog. dog. Namdev ran after after the dog with with aa cup cup of of butter butter crying, crying, "Lord, "Lord, butter too II" Can who sees don't don't eat eat dry dry bread. bread. Take Take some some butter too!!" Can the the Hindu Hindu who sees god even even in in aa dog dog ever ever harbor harbor resentment towards aa Muslim? Muslim? god resentment towards Wherever go, IIsay, say,"Muslims, "Muslims,live liveand andprosper prosperamong amongus. us.Live Livelike like Wherever II go, milk milk and and sugar. sugar. If If two two kilos kilos of of sugar sugar are are dissolved dissolved in in aa quintal quintal of of milk, milk, the milk becomes the milk becomes sweet!" sweet!" But But what what can can be be done done ifif our our Muslim Muslim brother brother is is not behaving behaVing like in the if he bent upon not like sugar sugar in the milk? milk? Is Is it it our our fault fault if he seems seems bent upon being being aa lemon lemon in in the the milk? milk? He He wants wants the the milk milk to to curdle. curdle. He He isis behaving behaving like by follOWing Ablike aa lemon lemon in in the the milk milk by following people people like like Shahabuddin Shahabuddin and and Abto your your senses. value of dullah to him dullah Bukhari.* Bukhari.* II say say to him "Come "Come to senses. The The value of the the milk increases increases after after it it becomes becomes sour. sour. It It becomes cheese. But But the the world world milk becomes cheese. knows knows the the fate fate of of the the lemon. lemon. It It is is cut, cut, squeezed squeezed dry dry and and then then thrown thrown on on the whether you will act the garbage garbage heap. heap. Now Now you you have have to to decide decide whether you will act like like sugar or or like like aa lemon lemon in in the the milk. milk. Live Live among among us us like like the the son son of of aa human human sugar being and and we we will will respectfully respectfully call call you you 'uncle.' 'uncle.' But But if if you you want want to to be be being 'Widely in India. *Widely regarded regarded as as two two of of the the leaders leaders of of Muslim Muslim fundamentalism fundamentalism in India.

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Chapter Chapter Six Six have like like the the son son of of Babar Babar then then the the Hindu youth will deal with with you you as have Hindu youth will deal as Rana Pratap Pratap and and Chatrapati Chatrapati Shivaji* Shivaji* dealt dealt with with your your forefathers." forefathers." Rana Those the Muslims, We are Those who who say say we we are are against against the Muslims, lie. lie. We are talking talking of of the the birthplace of of Ram, Ram, not constructing at at Mecca Mecca or or Medina. Medina. It It is is our our birthplace not constructing birthright to to build temple to to our our Lord Lord at at the the spot spot he he was born. build aa temple was born. birthright We have religious religious tolerance bones. Together with our We have tolerance in in our our very very bones. Together with our three have worshipped worshipped the the dead three hundred hundred and and thirty thirty million million gods, gods, we we have dead Krishna, we lying lying in in their their graves. graves. Along Along with with Ram Ram and and Krishna, we have have saluted saluted Mohammed as our motto, we we pray With vasudhe vasudhekuttumbkam kuttumbkam as our motto, pray Mohammed and}esus. and Jesus. With for the the salvation salvation of of the the world world and and for for increase increase in in fellow fellow feeling feeling in in all all for human beings. We have said, "0 "O World! Believe in in our our UpUphave never never said, World! Believe human beings. We anishads, anishads, Believe Believe in in our our Gita. Gita. Otherwise Otherwise you you are are an an infidel infidel and and by by cutcutting ting off off the the head head of of an an infidel infidel one one gains gains paradise." paradise." Our Our sentiments sentiments are are not not so so low. low. They They are are not not narrow-minded. narrow-minded. They They are are not not dIrty. dirty. We We see see the world as our our family. family. the world as

the necessary Here, in the construction Here, in the construction of of the the Hindu Hindu identity, identity, we we see see the necessary process involves splitting splitting that that enhances enhances group group cohesion. cohesion. The The process involves idealizing idealizing on on the persecutory processes the one one hand hand and and scapegoating scapegoating and and persecutory processes on on the the other. other. What is is being being idealized idealized is is the the Hindu tolerance, compassion, compassion, depth depth of of ininWhat Hindu tolerance, sight, and and width width of of social social concern. concern. These These are are the the contents contents of of aa grandiose grandiose sight, Hindu group group self self which which makes makes the the individual individual member member feel feel righteous righteous and and Hindu pure. It raises raises each each member's member's sense sense of of worth worth for for belonging belonging to to this this group. group. pure. It The be maintained maintained only by projecting The increase increase in in self-esteem self-esteem can can be only by projecting the the the dirty, bad, bad, the dirty, and and the the impure impure to to another another group, group, the the Muslim, Muslim, with with which which root of of one's one's own own group group is is then then constantly constantly compared. compared. This This process process is is at at the the root us, this this indeed scapegoating Moses reminds scapegoating and, and, as as Rafael Rafael Moses reminds us, indeed is is how how the the original original with all all scapegoat scapegoat was was conceived conceived of of in in religion: religion: the the animal animal was was driven driven away away with the the community's community's badness badness inside inside it it so so that that the the community community of of believers believers could could 19 Of Of course, course, as as aa remain remain pure pure and and clean clean (like (like milk, milk, II am am tempted tempted to to add). add). 19 good sadhavi Rithambra good vegetarian vegetarian Hindu, Hindu, sadhavi Rithambraconceives conceivesthe theMuslim Muslimscapegoat scapegoat not as as an an animal animal but as aa lemon. lemon. As As we we shall shall see see below, below, the the Muslim Muslim is only not but as is not not only the object object of of scapegoating scapegoating but also the the subject subject of of persecutory persecutory fantasies fantasies in the but also in collective Hindu Hindu imagination. imagination. collective Today, Today, the the Hindu Hindu is is being being insulted insulted in in his his own own home. home. The The Hindu Hindu is is not not sectarian. sectarian. How How could could he he be be if if he he worships worships trees trees and and plantsl plants! Once Once [the [the were going Mughal Akbar and Mughal emperor] emperor] Akbar and [his [his Hindu Hindu minister] minister] Birbal Birbal were going 'Popular *Popular embodiments embodimentsof ofHindu Hinduresistance resistancetotoMughal Mughalrule. rule.

A New New Hindu Hindu Identity Identity A somewhere. plant. Birbal prossomewhere. On On the the way way they they saw saw aa plant. Birbal dismounted dismounted and and prosplant saying, trated before the trated himself himself before the plant saying, "Hail "Hail mother mother tulsi!" tulsil"Akbar Akbarsaid, said, "Birbal, "Birbal, you you Hindus Hindus are are out out of of your your minds, minds, making making parents parents out out of of trees trees and plants. plants. Let's Let's see see how how strong strong is is your your mother!" He got got off off his and mother!" He his horse, horse, tulsi plant out by its roots and threw it on the road. Birbal pulled the pulled the tulsi plant out by its roots and threw it on the road. Birbal swallowed this this humiliation humiliation and and kept kept quiet. quiet. What What could could he he do? do? It It was was swallowed the reign reign of of the Mughals. They They rode rode farther farther and and saw saw another another plant. plant. the the Mughals. Birbal again again prostrated prostrated himself saying, "Hail, "Hail, father! father! Hail, Hail, honored honored fafaBirbal himself saying, ther!" Akbar said, "Birbal "Birbal II have have dealt dealt with with your your mother. mother. Now, Now, let let me ther!" Akbar said, me deal with with your your father father too." too." He He again again pulled pulled out out the the plant and threw it plant and threw it deal away. away. The The plant plant was was aa nettle. nettle. Akbar's Akbars hands hands started started itching itching and and soon soon the painful itch the painful itch spread spread all all over over his his body. body. He He began began rolling rolling on on the the ground All ground like like aa donkey, donkey, with with tears tears in in his his eyes eyes and and his his nose nose watering. watering. All the the while while he he was was scratching scratching himself himself like like aa dog. dog. When When Birbal Birbal saw saw this this my condition condition of of his his king, king, he he said, said, "0 "O Protector Protector of of the the World, World, pardon pardon my saying that that our our Hindu Hindu mothers mothers may may be innocent but our fathers fathers are are saying be innocent but our hard-bitten." Akbar Akbar asked, asked, "Birbal, "Birbal, how how do do II get get rid rid of of your your father?" father?" BirBirhard-bitten." bal said, said, "Go "Go and and ask ask forgiveness forgiveness of of my my mother tulsi.Then Thenrub rubthe thepaste paste bal mother tulsi. made out out of of her her leaves leaves on on your your body and my my father father will will pardon you." body and pardon you." made II mean mean to to say say that that the the long-suffering long-suffering Hindu Hindu is is being being called called aa relireligious today only he wants to build temple. The gious zealot zealot today only because because he wants to build the the temple. The Muslims Muslims got got their their Pakistan. Pakistan. Even Even in in aa mutilated mutilated India, India, they they have have special special planning. They relirights. rights. They They have have no no use use for for family family planning. They have have their their own own reliwe have? India with with its An gious gious schools. schools. What What do do we have? An An India its arms arms cut cut off: off.* An procesIndia where restrictions placed on India where restrictions are are placed on our our festivals, festivals, where where our our processions sions are are always always in in danger danger of of attack, attack, where where the the expression expression of of our our opinopinwhere our cruelly derided. ion ion is is prohibited, prohibited, where our religious religious beliefs beliefs are are cruelly derided. We We cannot cannot speak speak of of our our pain, pain, express express our our hurt. hurt. II say say to to the the politician, politician, "Do "Do not upon our not go go on on trampling trampling upon our deepest deepest feelings feelings as as you you have have been been doing doing for so long." for so long." In the Hindu In Kashmir, Kashmir, the Hindu was was aa minority minority and and was was hounded hounded out out of of the the valley. valley. Slogans Slogans of of "Long "Long live live Pakistan" Pakistan" were were carved carved with with red red hot hot iron iron thighs of rods rods on on the the thighs of our our Hindu Hindu daughters. daughters. Try Try to to feel feel the the unhappiness unhappiness and the pain and the pain of of the the Hindu Hindu who who became became aa refugee refugee in in his his own own country. country. The Hindu was he was The Hindu was dishonored dishonored in in Kashmir Kashmir because because he was in in aa minority. minority. But there is conspiracy to make him him aa minority the whole But there is aa conspiracy to make minority in in the whole country. country. The tells us two or three children. The state state tells us Hindus Hindus to to have have only only two or three children. After After aa 'The to aa comparison T h e reference reference is is to comparison between between the the maps maps of of India India before before and and after after the the partition. partition.

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ChapterSix Chapter Six while, they will not have while, they will say say do do not have even even one. one. But But what what about about those those who who have moshave six six wives, wives, have have thirty thirty or or thirty-five thirty-five children children and and breed breed like like mosQuitoes quitoes and and flies? flies? Why should Why should there there be be two two sets sets of of laws laws in in this this country? country? Why Why should should we be we be treated treated like like stepchildren? stepchildren? II submit submit to to you you that that when when the the Hindu Hindu of of Kashmir became aa minority to Jammu. Kashmir became minority he he came came to Jammu. From From Jammu Jammu he he came came to you Hindus will you to Delhi. Delhi. But But if if you Hindus are are on on the the run run all all over over India, India, where where will you go? jump from peaks of go? Drown Drown in in the the Indian Indian Ocean Ocean or or jump from the the peaks of the the HimaHimalayas? layas? What What is is this this impartiality impartiality toward toward all all religions religions where where the the mullahs mullahsget get the the bullets? the moneybags moneybags and and Hindus Hindus the bullets? We We also also want want religious religious imparimpartiality but not not of say tiality but of the the kind kind where where only only Hindus Hindus are are oppressed. oppressed. People People say be Hindu-Muslim unity. Leave the structure of the Babri there should there should be Hindu-Muslim unity. Leave the structure of the Babri mosque undisturbed. II say, this unity mosque undisturbed. say, ''Then Then let's let's have have this unity in in case case of of the the Jama half Jama masjid* masjid*too. too.Break Break halfofofit itand andconstruct constructa temple. a temple.Hindus Hindusand and Muslims then come Muslims will will then come together." together." You You know know the the doctors doctors who who carry carry out out their their medical medical experiments experiments by cutting by cutting open open frogs, frogs, rabbits, rabbits, cats? cats? All All these these experiments experiments in in HinduHinduMuslim unity Muslim unity are are being being carried carried out out on on the the Hindu Hindu chest chest as as if if he he is is aa frog, frog, No one has ever rabbit or rabbit or cat. cat. No one has ever heard heard of of aa lion's lion's chest chest being being cut cut open open for for aa medical medical experiment. experiment. They They teach teach the the lesson lesson of of religious religious unity unity and and amamity to be ity only only to be Hindus. Hindus. In there was was aa Muslim procession which In Lucknow Lucknow there Muslim procession which suddenly suddenly stopped stopped when when passing passing aa temple temple where where aa saffron saffron flag flag was was flying. flying. The The mullahs mullahssaid, said, 'This flag of infidels. We We cannot "This is is the the flag of infidels. cannot pass pass even even under under its its shadow. shadow. Take Take down flag!" Some of down the the flag!" Some of of your your liberal liberal Hindu Hindu leaders leaders and and followers followers of Gandhi persuading the Gandhi started started persuading the Hindus, Hindus, "Your "Your ancestors ancestors have have endured endured aa born to Take great deal. great deal. You You also also tolerate tolerate aa little. little. You You have have been been born to suffer. suffer. Take down flag." Luckily, the leader was down the the flag/' Luckily, II was was also also there. there. II said said to to the leader who who was the Hindus flag, "If trying to trying to cajole cajole the Hindus into into taking taking down down the the flag, "If II took took off off your your cap, blows to replaced the cap, gave gave four four blows to your your head head with with my my shoe shoe and and then then replaced the cap, you protest?" protest?" This cap, will will you This is is not not just just our our flag, flag, itit is is our our honor, honor, our our pride. pride. Religious impartiality does does not mean that that to to appease appease one one you you insult insult the the Religious impartiality not mean were riddled with bullets of other. other. Hindu Hindu children children were riddled with bullets in in the the alleys alleys of to please please the became red with the Ayodhya Ayodhya to the Muslims. Muslims. The The Saryu Saryu river river became red with the blood shall blood of of slaughtered slaughtered kar-sevaks. kar-sevaks.We We shallnot notforget. forget.

It It is is true true that that for for the the strengthening strengthening of of cultural cultural identity, identity, belief belief of of the the not necnecgroup group members members in in an an existing existing or or anticipated anticipated oppression oppression is is helpful, helpful, if if not °The best known mosque, located The best known Indian Indian mosque, locatedininDelhi. Delhi.

A New Hindu Identity ANewHinduldentity

essary. Yet for for the adessary. Yet the eight eight hundred hundred million million Hindus Hindus who who are are relatively relatively more more advanced on vanced on almost almost every every economic economic and and social social criteria, criteria, to to feel feel oppressed oppressed by by Muslims their number Muslims who who are are one-eighth one-eighth their number demands demands an an explanation explanation other other than by the we than one one given given by the theory theory of of relative relative deprivation. deprivation. This This theory, theory, as as we disknow, perceives inequality know, argues argues that that aa group group feels feels oppressed oppressed if if it it perceives inequality in in the the distribution of of resources resources and and believes it is is entitled entitled to to more more than than the the share share it it retribution believes it receives. There There is is aa considerable considerable denial denial of of reality reality involved involved in in maintaining maintaining that that ceives. the Hindus Hindus are are relatively relatively deprived deprived or or in in danger danger of of oppression oppression by the Musthe by the Muslims. Such Such aa denial denial of of reality only possible the activation activation of of the the reality is is only possible through through the lims. groups persecutory fantasy in in which which the the Muslim Muslim changes changes from from aa stereotype stereotype group's persecutory fantasy to an archetype; archetype,- he he becomes becomes the the "arch" "arch" tyrant. tyrant. As As in in individuals, individuals, where where perperto an secution anxiety anxiety often often manifests manifests itself itself in in threats threats to to the the integrity integrity of of the the body, body, secution especially during during psychotic episodes, Rithambra's Rithambra's speech speech becomes becomes rich rich in especially psychotic episodes, in the imagery imagery of of aa mutilated mutilated body. body. Eloquently, Eloquently, she she conjures conjures up an India-the India—the the up an motherland—with its its arms arms cut cut off, off, Hindu Hindu chests chests cut cut open open like like those those of of frogs, frogs, motherland-with cats, the the thighs thighs of of young red-hot iron iron rabbits, and cats, rabbits, and young Hindu Hindu women women burnt burnt with with red-hot rods,in short, short, the body amputated, amputated, slashed, slashed, raped. raped. It It is is the the use use of of metaphors metaphors rods; in the body of the body—ones own own and and of of one's ones mother mother {India)-under (India)—under assault assault that that of the body-one's makes an an actual actual majority majority feel feel aa besieged besieged minority minority in in imagination, imagination, that that ananmakes chors the the dubious dubious logos logos of of aa particular political argument argument deeply deeply in in fantasy fantasy particular political chors through the power of of mythos. mythos. the power through They the mid-term mid-term elections They said, said, "Let's "Lets postpone postpone the elections till till the the Hindu's Hindus anger anger bottle of Keep the cools cools down." down." II say, say, "Is "Is the the Hindu Hindu aa bottle of mineral mineral water? water? Keep the bottle while and the water bubbling?" It bottle open open for for aa while and the water will will stop stop bubbling?" It is is nine nine hundred thousand years years since kidnapped Sita hundred thousand since Ravana Ravana kidnapped Sita and and challenged challenged god god Ram. Ram. But But to to this this day day we we have have not not forgotten. forgotten. Every Every year year we we burn burn his his fire of burns bright. bright. We effigy effigy and and yet yet the the fire of our our revenge revenge burns We will will not not forget forget mullah mullahMulayam* Mulayam*and andhis hissupporter supporterRajiv RajivGandhi. Gandhi.I Ihave havecome cometototell tell the wailing of of the young young men men and and mothers mothers of of Bhagyanagar, Bhagyanagar, listen listen to to the the wailing the river, listen the story by Ayodhya, the sacrisacrithe Saryu Saryu river, listen to to the story told told by Ayodhya, listen listen to to the fice the kar-sevaks. you fice of of the kar-sevaks.If If youarearea Hindu, a Hindu,dodonot notturn turnyour yourface faceaway away temple, do Ram. from from the the Ram Ram temple, do not not spare spare the the traitors traitors to to Ram. After the the incident incident on on the the ninth ninth of of November, November, many many Hindu Hindu young young After men came came to to me. me. "Sister," "Sister," they said, "Give "Give us us weapons weapons to to deal deal with mulmen they said, with mullah Mulayam." Mulayam." II said, said, "Why "Whywaste waste aa bullet bullet to to deal deal with with an an eunuch?" eunuch?"Ram Ram lah had become shooting his arrows. Ravana's Ravana's one one head would fall fall to to had become tired tired shooting his arrows. head would be immediately immediately replaced replaced by another. Vibhishna Vibhishna [Ravana's [Ravana's brother] brother] be by another. "The minister of Uttar Pradesh. T h e chief chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.

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Chapter Chapter Six Six said, will not by cutting heads. His said, "Lord, "Lord, you you will not kill kill this this sinner sinner by cutting off off his his heads. His life life is navel." My brother Hindus, these leaders in is in in his his navel." My brother Hindus, these leaders have have their their lives lives in their power and their chairs chairs [of [of power]. power]. Take Take away away their their power and they'll they 11 die-by die—by themselves. themselves. They They are are only only impotent impotent eunuchs. eunuchs. When When Ram Ram was was banbanished Ayodhya many and ished from from Ayodhya many citizens citizens accompanied accompanied him him to to the the forest forest and stayed of stayed there there overnight. overnight. In In the the morning, morning, Ram Ram said, said, "Men "Men and and women women of Ayodhya, go go back back to to your your homes." homes." The The men men and and women women went went back back but but Ayodhya, aa group of hermaphrodites, hermaphrodites, who who are are neither neither men men nor nor women, women, stayed stayed group of back and and asked, asked, "Lord, "Lord, you you have have not not given given us us any any instructions." instructions." Ram Ram isis back kind. He He said, said, "In "In the future Kaliyuga Kaliyuga you you will rule for for aa little little while." kind. the future will rule while." These, neither-men-nor-women, are are your your rulers today. They They will These, neither-men-nor-women, rulers today. will not not be able able to to protect India's unity unity and and integrity. integrity. be protect India's you Make Make the the next next government government one one of of Ram's Ram's devotees. devotees. Hindus, Hindus, you must you want the temple must unite unite in in the the coming coming elections elections if if you want the temple built. built. Hindus, will be Hindus, if if you you do do not not awaken, awaken, cows cows will be slaughtered slaughtered everywhere. everywhere. In In the retreats the retreats of of our our sages sages you you will will hear hear the the chants chants of of "Allah "Allah is is Great." Great." You You responsible for will will be be responsible for the the catastrophes catastrophes for for history history will will say say Hindus Hindus were Accept the the challenge, the history history of were cowards. cowards. Accept challenge, change change the of our our era. era. Many you are Many say, say, Rithambra Rithambra you are aa sanyasin. sanyasin.You Youshould shouldmeditate meditateinin some some retreat. retreat. II tell tell them them raising raising Hindu Hindu consciousness consciousness isis my my meditation meditation now will go till the flag flies flies from the ramparts ramparts of the now and and it it will go on on till the saffron saffron flag from the of the Red Red Fort.* Fort.* The reThe feeling feeling of of helplessness helplessness which which persecution persecution anxiety anxiety engenders engenders reverses process of the fragility verses the the process of idealization, idealization, reveals reveals the fragility of of the the group's group's grandigrandiose ose self. self. The The positive positive self-image self-image of of the the Hindu-tolerant, Hindu—tolerant, compassionate, compassionate, with special with special insight insight into into the the relationship relationship between between the the divine divine and and the the natural natural the worlds, between worlds, between human human and and divine-exposes divine—exposes another, another, negative negative side: side: the specific being cowardly to change the specific Hindu Hindu shame shame and and fear fear of of being cowardly and and impotent impotent to change the material at material or or social social conditions conditions of of life. life. Indeed, Indeed, we we should should always always look look closely closely at aa group's specific form of self-idealization to find clues to its particular mogroup's specific form of self-idealization to find clues to its particular moment ment of of self-doubt self-doubt and and self-hatred. self-hatred. What What aa group group most most idealizes idealizes about about itself itself is intimately intimately related related to to its its greatest greatest fear. fear. For For the the Hindu, Hindu, the the positive positiveself-image self-image is of weakness cleaving to it. Are tolerant or or are are of tolerance tolerance has shadow of weakness cleaving to it. Are we we tolerant of has the the shadow we merely weak? Or tolerant because weak? we merely weak? Or tolerant because weak? The with its unbearable state helplessness, demands The crumbling crumbling self, self, with its unbearable state of of helplessness, demands Rithambra channels restoration restoration through through forceful forceful action. action. Rithambra channels this this need need for for agens agens into into aa call call for for collective collective and and united united action action in in the the political political arena. arena. She She holds holds out out 'The power in *The symbol symbol of of political political power in India. India.

A New New Hindu Hindu Identity Identity A the possibility the possibility of of some some kind kind of of self-assertion self-assertion through through the the coming coming electoral electoral process where where all all the the persecutory persecutory anti-Hindu anti-Hindu forces, forces, from from within within and and withwithprocess out the the Hindu Hindu fold, fold, can can be be engaged engaged and and defeated. defeated. With With this this prospect, prospect, the the out negative self-image self-image begins begins to to fade, fade, the the group group self self becomes becomes more more cohesive. cohesive. negative The Muslim, Muslim, too, too, though though remaining alien, becomes becomes less less demonic demonic and and more more The remaining alien, human, although although still still aa cussed cussed adversary. adversary. human, They Muslims in tell They ask ask what what would would happen happen to to the the Muslims in aa Hindu Hindu India? India? II tell them the Muslims not be be dishonored them the Muslims will will not dishonored in in aa Hindu Hindu state state nor nor will will they they be rewarded to their votes. No umbrella umbrella will be rewarded to get get their votes. No will open open in in Indian Indian streets streets because it it is is raining raining in in Pakistan. Pakistan. If If there there is is war war in in the the Gulf Gulf then then slogans slogans because of won't be of "Long "Long live Live Saddam Saddam Hussein" Hussein" won't be shouted shouted on on Indian Indian streets. streets. brothers, we And And as as for for unity unity with with our our Muslim Muslim brothers, we say, say, "Brother, "Brother, we we are are willing willing to to eat eat sevian sevian[sweet [sweetnoodles] noodles]atatyour yourhouse housetotocelebrate celebrateIdIdbut but you do do not want to to play play with with colors colors with us on on Holi. We hear your calls calls you not want with us Holi. We hear your to prayer along along with with our our temple temple bells, you object object to our bells. bells. How How but you to our to prayer bells, but can unity ever come come about? about? The The Hindu Hindu faces faces this this way, the Muslim Muslim the the can unity ever way, the other. The The Hindu Hindu writes from left to right, right, the the Muslim Muslim from from right to other. writes from left to right to left. The The Hindu Hindu prays to the rising sun, sun, the the Muslim Muslim faces faces the the setting setting left. prays to the rising sun when If the the Hindu Hindu eats eats with with the the right hand, the the Muslim Muslim right hand, sun when praying. praying. If witch for for with the the left. left. If If the the Hindu Hindu calls calls India India "Mother," "Mother," she she becomes with becomes aa witch the Muslim. The The Hindu Hindu worships worships the the cow, cow, the the Muslim Muslim attains attains paradise paradise the Muslim. by eating eating beef. beef. The The Hindu Hindu keeps keeps aa mustache, mustache, the the Muslim Muslim always always by shaves the the upper lip. Whatever Whatever the the Hindu Hindu does, does, it it is is the the Muslim's Muslims reliupper lip. relishaves gion to to do do its its opposite. opposite. II said, said, "If "If you you want want to to do do everything everything contrary contrary to to gion the Hindu, then the Hindu Hindu eats eats with with his his mouth; should do do the the the Hindu, then the mouth; you you should opposite in in this this matter matter too!" opposite tool" After the After the laughter laughter subsides, subsides, Rithambra Rithambra ends ends by by asking asking the the audience audience to to raise their their fists fists and her. "Say raise and repeat repeat after after her. "Say with with pride, pride, we we are are Hindus! Hindus! HinHindustan dustan [India] [India] is is ours!" ours!" The beginning. Both The conclusion conclusion of of Rithambra's Rithambra's speech speech complements complements its its beginning. Both the beginning and the the end end are are concerned concerned with with the the issue issue of of drawing drawing the the the beginning and boundaries with aa boundaries of of the the group group of of "us" "us" Hindus. Hindus. Whereas Whereas Rithambra Rithambra began began with self-definition self-definition of of the the Hindu Hindu by by including including certain certain kinds kinds of of Hinduisms-as Hinduisms—as personified by heroes, figures-she ends personified by heroes, gods, gods, and and historical historical figures—she ends with with trying trying to to achieve this self-definition with what achieve this self-definition through through contrasts contrasts with what aa Hindu Hindu is is decidedly decidedly not—the Muslim. Muslim. At the start, start, the the boundary boundary was was drawn drawn from from inside inside out; out; at at not-the At the the end, end, its its contours contours are are being being marked marked off off by by reference reference to to the "them," the the the the "them," Muslims, who who lie lie outside outside the the psychogeographical psychogeographical space space inhabited by "us." "us." It Muslims, inhabited by It

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Chapter Chapter Six Six is, of understood that that "their" not only is, of course, course, understood "their" space space is is not only separate separate and and different different but also devalued. devalued. In In her her enumeration enumeration of of differences differences Rithambra Rithambra cleverly cleverly conconbut also trives to to end end at at aa note associates the the Muslim Muslim with with certain certain denigrated, denigrated, note which which associates trives specifically anal, anal, bodily parts and and functions. functions. specifically bodily parts II have have suggested suggested here here that that the the construction/revival construction/revival of of the the new new Hindu Hindu identity identity in in the the text text of of Rithambra's Rithambra's speech speech follows follows certain certain well-marked well-marked turnturnwhich is by fantasy. To ings ings of of the the plot plot which is motivated, motivated, energized, energized, and and animated animated by fantasy. To the religiousreligiousrecapitulate, recapitulate, these these are: are: marking marking afresh afresh the the boundaries boundaries of of the culcultural cultural community, community, making making the the community community conscious conscious of of aa collective collective cultural loss, countering countering internal internal forces forces which which seek seek to disrupt the unity of of the the turalloss, to disrupt the unity its freshly freshly demarcated demarcated community, community, idealizing idealizing the the community, community, maintaining maintaining its by comparing bad "other" which, at besense sense of of grandiosity grandiosity by comparing it it to to aa bad "other" which, at times, times, becomes finally, dealing comes aa persecutor persecutor and, and,finally, dealing with with the the persecutory persecutory fantasies, fantasies, which which bring up particular sense rebring up to to the the surface surface the the community's community's particular sense of of inferiority, inferiority, by by resort to to some some kind kind of of forceful forceful action. action. sort In these psychological processes, II am In describing describing these psychological processes, am aware aware that that my my own own feelings feelings toward toward the the subject subject could could have have colored colored some some of of my my interpretations. interpretations. This myself, exposed exposed to to all all the the This is is unavoidable, unavoidable, especially especially since since II am am aa Hindu Hindu myself, crosscurrents crosscurrents of of feelings feelings generated generated by by contemporary contemporary events. events. My My own own brand brand of of Hinduism, Hinduism, liberal-rationalist liberal-rationalist (with (with aa streak streak of of agnostic agnostic mysticism) mysticism) can can Hindu identity sangh be expected be expected to to be be critical critical of of the the new new Hindu identity envisaged envisaged by by the the sangb parivar. Thus,totobebefair fair(the (theliberal liberalfailing failingpar parexcellence), excellence),one oneshould shouldadd add parivar. Thus, that the the Hindu Hindu is is no no different different from from any any other other community community or or even even nation nation that which feels feels special special and and superior superior to other collectivities, collectivities, especially especially their their neighneighto other which bors and bors and rivals. rivals. This This sense sense of of superiority, superiority, the the group's group's narcissism, narcissism, its its selfselfaggrandizement, serves serves the the purpose purpose of of increasing increasing group group cohesion cohesion and and thus thus aggrandizement, the enhancement enhancement of of self-esteem self-esteem of of its its members. members. Rafael Rafael Moses, Moses, reflecting reflecting on on the the group group selves selves of of the the Israelis Israelis and and the Arabs, asks: asks: "And "And is is perhaps perhaps aa little little the the Arabs, grandiosity the right glue glue for for such such aa cohesion? cohesion? Is Is that that perhaps perhaps the the same same meameagrandiosity the right sure of grandiosity which is seen in the family and does it serve the same sure of grandiosity which is seen in the family and does it serve the same purpose, thereby thereby strengthening strengthening the the feeling feeling of of special specialness and of of some some grangranpurpose, ness and 20 diosity which which all all of of us harbor in in ourselves?" us harbor ourselves?,'20 diosity The cannot bebe faulted forfor fostering a Hindu pride or or even The sangh sanghparivar parivar cannot faulted fostering a Hindu pride even the Muslim. for for trying trying to to claim claim aa sense sense of of superiority superiority vis-a-vis vis-a-vis the Muslim. These These are are the the narcissistic economy. normal normal aims aims of of any any group's groups narcissistic economy. Perhaps Perhaps we we recoil recoil from from such such aims because because narcissism, narcissism, both both in in individuals individuals and and groups, groups, is is regarded regarded with with aims much misgiving. misgiving. A A person person who is aa victim victim of of passions, passions, sexual sexual and and aggressive, aggressive, much who is may be be pitied pitied and and even even seen seen by by some some as as tragically tragically heroic. An individual individual proheroic. An promay pelled by by narcissism, narcissism, on on the the other other hand, is invariably invariably scorned scorned as as mean mean and and hand, is pelled

A New Hindu A New Hindu Identity Identity

contemptible. Whereas the perversions perversions of of sex sex may may evoke evoke sympathy, sympathy, the contemptible. Whereas the the miscarriages of narcissism, narcissism, such such as as aa smug smug superiority superiority or or an an arrogant arrogant selfselfmiscarriages of righteousness, provoke distaste distaste among among even even the tolerant. The The question question righteousness, provoke the most most tolerant. not of of the sangbparivar's parivars fostering Hindu narcissism (which, know, is is not the sangh fostering of of Hindu narcissism (which, wewe know, serves individual self-possession) but of when this narcissism becomes serves individual self-possession) but of when this narcissism becomes deviant or or abnormal. abnormal. The The answer answer is is not not easy easy for for II do do not notknow know of ofany anyuniveruniverdeviant sal, absolute absolute standards standards which which can can help help us us in in charting charting narcissistic narcissistic deviance deviance or or sal, pathology in in aa group. group. One One would would imagine imagine that that the the promotion promotion of of persecutory persecutory pathology fantasies in in aa group group to to the the extent extent that that it it resorts resorts to violence against against the the perperfantasies to violence secuting Other Other would would be be deviant. deviant. Yet Yet we we all all know know that that aa stoking stoking of of persecupersecusecuting tory fantasies fantasies is is the the stock stock in in trade trade of of all all nations on the the eve eve of of any any war and tory nations on war and continues well well into into the the duration duration of of hostilities. hostilities. continues One One could could say say that that aa group group wherein wherein all all individual individual judgment judgment isis suspended suspended and be regarded pathoand reality-testing reality-testing severely severely disturbed disturbed may may legitimately legitimately be regarded as as pathological. which looks at logical. ThiS, This, however, however, is is an an individualistic individualistic viewpoint viewpoint which looks askance askance at any kind of through immersion this view, any kind of self-transcendence self-transcendence through immersion in in aa group. group. In In this view, person feels of spiritual uplift in religious assembly, spiritual uplift in aa religious assembly, where where the the person feels an an upsurge upsurge of love love enveloping enveloping the the community community and and the the world world outside, outside, would would be be regarded regarded purposes of It with with the the same same grave grave suspicion suspicion as as the the murkier murkier purposes of aa violent violent mob. mob. It is by merging merging into is certainly certainly true true that that transcending transcending individuality individuality by into aa group group can can generate generate heroic heroic self-sacrifice, self-sacrifice, but but it it can can also also generate generate unimaginable unimaginable brubruthe same tality. tality. To To get get out out of of one's one's skin skin in in aa devotional devotional assembly assembly is is also also at at the same that skin part of mob. Yet to time time to to have have less less regard regard for for saving saving that skin when when part of aa mob. Yet to equate equate and and thus thus condemn condemn both both is is to to deny deny the the human human aspiration aspiration toward toward selfselftranscendence, transcendence, aa promise promise held held out out by by our our cultural cultural identity identity and and redeemed, redeemed, ifif occasionally, flow of occasionally, by by vital vital participation participation in in the theflow of aacommunity's community's cultural cultural life. life. It It is, is, however, however, evident evident that that it it is is this this group group pride pride and and narcissism narcissism which which have it possible possible for of have made made it for the the Hindutva Hindutva forces forces to to offer offer another another vision vision of India's the modernists the India's future future as as an an alternative alternative to to those those offered offered by by the modernists and and the traditionalists. the traditionalists. The The modernists modernists are, are, of of course, course, enthusiastic enthusiastic votaries votaries of of the modernization project although the Left Right may may argue modernization project although the Left and and Right argue over over which which economic suitable. Both Both factions, factions, however, however, are are neither neither interintereconomic form form is is the the most most suitable. the question The ested ested in in nor nor consider consider the question of of cultural cultural authenticity authenticity as as important. important. The traditionalists, retraditionalists, on on the the other other hand, hand, including including the the neo-Gandhians, neo-Gandhians, totally totally rethe issue ject modernity ject modernity solely solely on on the issue of of cultural cultural authenticity. authenticity. The The Hindutva Hindutva reformulating the forces tried to forces have have tried to offer offer yet yet another another alternative alternative by by reformulating the project project of of modernity modernity in in aa way way where where its its instrumentalities instrumentalities are are adopted adopted but but its its norms norms and of and values values are are contested. contested. The The pivotal pivotal issue issue for for them them is is not not the the acceptance acceptance of global global technoscience technoscience or or the the economic economic institutions institutions and and forms forms of of modernity modernity

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Chapter Chapter Six Six but but their their impact impact on on and and aa salvaging salvaging of of Hindu Hindu culture culture and and identity-as identity—as they they define it define it. it. Cultural Cultural nationalism, nationalism, though, though, will will always always have have priority priority whenever whenever it conflicts conflicts with with economic economic globalism. globalism. It It is is apparent apparent that that such such an an approach approach to to modernity will have have great great appeal appeal to to the the emerging emerging middle middle classes classes and and sections sections modernity will of neither to of the the intelligentsia intelligentsia which which are are committed committed neither to what what II can can only only call call uniuniversal versal modernism modernism nor nor to to aa postmodern postmodern traditionalism. traditionalism. The exThe danger danger of of stoking stoking group group narcissism, narcissism, Hindugaro Hindugarv ("pride") ("pride") in in our our exin aa belief ample, ample, is is that that when when this this group group grandiosity grandiosity (expressed (expressed in belief in in its its unique unique history history and/or and/or destiny, destiny, its its moral, moral, aesthetic, aesthetic, technological, technological, or or any any other other kind kind of of superiority superiority vis-a-vis vis-a-vis other other groups) groups) is is brought brought into into serious serious doubt, doubt, when when the the group humiliated, when group feels feels humiliated, when higher higher forms forms of of grandiosity grandiosity such such as as the the group's groups in ambitions ambitions are are blocked, blocked, then then there there is is aa regression regression in in the the group group akin akin to to one one in the which normally rethe individual. individual. The The negative negative part part of of the the grandiose grandiose self self which normally remains mains hidden, hidden, the the group's group's specific specific feelings feelings of of worthlessness worthlessness and and its its singular singular sense sense of of inferiority, inferiority, now now come come to to the the fore. fore. If If all all possibilities possibilities of of self-assertion self-assertion which must are are closed, closed, there there is is aa feeling feeling of of absolute absolute helplessness, helplessness, aa state state which must be be changed through assertive action. Such a regression, with its accompanying changed through assertive action. Such a regression, with its accompanying feelings of helplessness, is feelings of vulnerability vulnerability and and helplessness, is most most clearly clearly manifested manifested in in the the sphere flavor of sphere of of group group aggression aggression which which takes takes on, on, overtly overtly and and covertly, covertly, the theflavor of narcissistic As in narcissistic rage. rage. As in the the individual individual who who seeks seeks to to alter alter such such an an unbearable unbearable the group's need for self self state state through through acts acts as as extreme extreme as as suicide suicide or or homicide, homicide, the groups need for undoing the damage undoing the damage to to collective collective identity identity by by whatever whatever means, means, and and aa deeply deeply anchored, anchored, unrelenting unrelenting compulsion compulsion in in the the pursuit pursuit of of this this aim aim give give it it no no rest. rest. Narcissistic the offending Narcissistic rage rage does does not not vanish vanish when when the offending object object disappears. disappears. The The painful painful memory memory can can linger linger on, on, making making of of the the hot hot rage rage aa chronic, chronic, cold cold resentresentment ment till till it it explodes explodes in in all all its its violent violent manifestations manifestations whenever whenever historical historical circircumstances cumstances sanction sanction such such eruptions. eruptions. II am am afraid afraid Ayodhya Ayodhya is is not not an an end end but but only beginning since buffeting Hindu that matter, Musonly aa beginning since the the forces forces buffeting Hindu (or, (or, for for that matter, Muswithin the their scope. lim) lim) grandiosity grandiosity do do not not lie lie within the country country but but are are global global in in their scope. They itself, of of the the wonderful wonderful attractions attractions and and They are are the the forces forces of of modernization modernization itself, the the terrible terrible distortions distortions of of the the mentality mentality of of Enlightenment. Enlightenment. It It would would also also be be easy easy to to dismiss dismiss Rithambra's-and Rithambra*s—and the the sangh sanghparivar'sparivars— evocation evocation of of the the Hindu Hindu past past from from aa postmodern postmodern perspective perspective which which considers considers every every past past aa social social construction construction that that is is shaped shaped by by the the concerns concerns of of the the present. present. In In other other words, words, there there is is no no such such thing thing as as the thepast pastsince sincethe thepast pastisistransformtransformable able and and manipulable manipulable according according to to the the needs needs of of the the present. present. Yet Yet as as the the French French sociologist Emile Emile Durkheim Durkheim pointed pointed out out long long ago, ago, every every society society displays displays and and sociologist 21 even requires aa minimal past. 21 Its even requires minimal sense sense of of continuity continuity with with the the past. Its memories memories cannot be be relevant relevant to to its its present present unless it secures secures this this continuity. continuity. In In aa society society cannot unless it

A New New Hindu Hindu Identity Identity A

in the the throes throes of of modernization, need for for continuity continuity with with the sense in modernization, the the need the past, past, aa sense of heritage, heritage, essential essential for for maintaining maintaining aa sense sense of of individual individual and and cultural cultural idenidenof attractity, more pressing, reducing the tity, becomes becomes even even more pressing, sharply sharply reducing the subversive subversive attractions of of aa viewpoint which emphasizes emphasizes the the plasticity plasticity and and discontinuities discontinuities of of tions viewpoint which the past. It It is is this this need need for for aa continuity continuity of of cultural cultural memory, memory, of of aa common common the past. representation of the past in in times of rapid rapid change, change, even even turbulence, turbulence, which which representation of the past times of parivar addresses with considerable social resonance and political the sangh the sangh parivar addresses with considerable social resonance and political success. success.

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ven though 'ven though the the appellation appellation "fundamentalist" "fundamentalist" is is often often used used for for stigmatizstigmatizis no other ing particular groups, especially of Muslims, there ing particular groups, especially of Muslims, there is no other word word the nature nature of which which is is aa satisfactory satisfactory substitute. substitute. This This lies lies in in the of the the phenomenon phenomenon itself beliefs, and will itself which, which, with with its its pious pious passions, passions, strong strong beliefs, and inflexible inflexible values, values, will with negative inevitably inevitably imbue imbue any any neutral neutral and and originally originally descriptive descriptive term term with negative or or positive connotations. As a phenomenon, many hold the opinion that relipositive connotations. As a phenomenon, many hold the opinion that relireligious community to preserve its gious gious fundamentalism fundamentalism is is an an attempt attempt by by aa religious community to preserve its saidentity identity by by aa selective selective retrieval retrieval of of doctrines, doctrines, beliefs, beliefs, and and practices practices from from aa sacred nostalgia for Although aa nostalgia for the the sacred sacred past past is is aa hallmark hallmark of of fundafundacred past.! past.1 Although retrieved fundamentals mentalist mentalist rhetoric, rhetoric, the the retrieved fundamentals are are very very often often pragmatically pragmatically refined and refined and modified. modified. Contemporary Contemporary fundamentalism fundamentalism is is both both aa revival revival and and aa construction, construction, both both derivative derivative and and original. original. of Muslim Muslim fundamentalism fundamentalism in in India India shares shares some some of of the the abiding abiding concerns concerns of Islamic Islamic fundamentalism fundamentalism elsewhere elsewhere in in the the world world but but also also has has some some distinct distinct As the local flavors. As local flavors. the political political scientist scientist M. M. S. S. Agwani Agwani points points out, out, there there is is not not one many fundamentalisms assoone but but many fundamentalisms in in India India of of which which the the major major varieties varieties are are assonames of Nadwah, Tablighi ciated ciated wit wit the the names of Deoband, Deoband, Nadwah, Tablighi }amaiat, Jamaiat, and and }amaiatJamaiatbut divided i-lslami. i-Islami.22 Muslim Muslim fundamentalism fundamentalism is is thus thus not not monolithic monolithic but divided into into factions which differ factions which differ not not only only on on the the means means of of bringing bringing about about the the desired desired all Islamic Islamic revival revival but but sometimes sometimes also also on on the the preferred preferred ends. ends. Although Although they they all agree agree that that the the precepts precepts of of earliest earliest Islam, Islam, valid valid for for all all times times and and climes, climes, must must govern govern aa person's person's private private and and collective collective life, life, that that nationalism, nationalism, secularism, secularism, and and materialism are materialism are un-Islamic, un-Islamic, and and that that such such popular popular practices practices as as saint saint worship worship devotional in in Muslim social and religious lifelife at at dargahs darcfahs(shrines) (shrines)and and devotionalmusic music Muslim social and religious relaare are undesirable undesirable imports imports from from Hinduism, Hinduism, they they disagree disagree on on the the desired desired relatotalitarian practice tionship between between religion religion and tionship and the the state, state, or or the the extent extent of of totalitarian practice j170 70 needed neededtotoenforce enforcereligious religiousorthodoxy. orthodoxy.

The Muslim Fundamentalist Fundamentalist Identity Identity The Muslim For me, fundamentalism is the the third third Muslim to the loss of colFor me, fundamentalism is Muslim response response to the loss of collective self-idealizations self-idealizations and and the the fracture fracture in in self-representation self-representation brought brought on on lective by historical historical change. change. If If the the victim victim is is unable unable to to hate, hate, the the fundamentalist fundamentalist cancanby not stop stop hating. hating. Whereas in the the Andalus Andalus syndrome syndrome the group cannot cannot stop stop not Whereas in the group mourning, one one of of the the components components of of fundamentalism fundamentalism is is the the phenomenon phenomenon of mourning, of an emotional state where natural process the "inability "inability to mourn/'3 an the to moum,"3 emotional state where the the natural process of of grieving is is blocked blocked by by undue undue anger. anger. grieving

Meeting the Mullahs Meeting the Mullahs The men who of The men who have have traditionally traditionally spearheaded spearheaded the the fundamentalist fundamentalist response response of Muslim widely regarded Muslim societies societies and and who who are are widely regarded as as representatives representatives of of Islamic Islamic conservatism are are professional men of of religion, ulema,with withvarious variousdegrees degrees conservatism professional men religion, the the ulema, of religious religious learning, learning, who who are are also also known known as as mullahs mullahsininPersia Persiaand andIndia. India.InIn of mullahswas waspsychologically psychologicallythe themost mostdifdifsome ways, ways, my my encounter encounter with with the the mullahs some ficult. The The meeting meeting itself itself was was undemanding since besides besides our our animating animating ficult. undemanding since minds the the encounter encounter only only involved involved aa disembodied disembodied voice voice on on the mullah'spart part the mullah's minds mullahs—Qari Hanif Mohammad Multanwale, Syed and ears on mine. The and ears on mine. The mullahs-Qari Hanif Mohammad Multanwale, Syed Mohammad Hashmi, Hashmi, Maulana Salimuddin Shamshi, Shamshi, Riyaz Riyaz Effendi, Effendi, and and Mohammad Maulana Salimuddin others—came to through their live at at different different times times others-came to me me through their sermons sermons recorded recorded live during the last decade decade at at various various mosques mosques and and reproduced in hundreds the last reproduced in hundreds of of during thousands of inexpensive audiocasettes which are widely available in the thousands of inexpensive audiocasettes which are Widely available in the Muslim neighborhoods of Indian Indian towns towns and and cities. cities. Muslim neighborhoods of The the mullah The encounter encounter with with the mullahproved proveddifficult difficult onontwo twocounts. counts.First, First, mullahasasthe the there was was the the persistence of my my Hindu Hindu childhood childhood image image of of the the mullah there persistence of wild-eyed man man with with aa flowing flowing beard beard who who spewed spewed fire and brimstone brimstone every every Wild-eyed fire and Friday afternoon afternoon in in the the mosque an intent intent to to transform congregation Friday mosque with with an transform his his congregation into aa raging mob baying baying for for the of the the Hindu Hindu infidel-mine. infidel—mine. Second, Second, into raging mob the blood blood of the mullah's mullah'srhetoric, rhetoric,based basedononolder oldermodels modelsfrom fromthe theheyday heydayofofIslam Islamininthe the the Middle East, East, was was unpleasantly foreign to me. Openly Openly emotional, emotional, using using the the Middle unpleasantly foreign to me. full register register of of the the voice voice from from aa whisper whisper to to the the full-throated full-throated shout, shout, screaming screaming full and on on occasion occasion weeping weeping as as he he is overtaken by enthusiasm, the and is overtaken by religious religious enthusiasm, the mulmullah'sstyle styleofofpublic publicspeaking speaking(as (asofofthe theHindu Hinduzealot) zealot)was wasdistasteful distastefultotome. me. lah's My adult sensibility, sensibility, influenced influenced by by psychoanalytic at the the My adult psychoanalytic rationalism, rationalism, recoils recoils at hectoring tone, tone, the the imperative imperative VOice, voice, and and the the moral moral certainty certainty which recoghectoring which recognizes only only the black of of unbelief unbelief (kufar) (kufar)and andthe thewhite whiteofoffaith faithand andhas hasneither neither nizes the black time nor nor tolerance tolerance for for the the shades shades of of grey. grey. time Influenced Influenced emotionally emotionally by by fantasies fantasies from from aa Hindu Hindu past past and and cognitively cognitively by concepts of of aa Western-inspired Western-inspired liberalism, liberalism, my myfirst reaction to to the the mulmulby the the concepts first reaction

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lah word itself lah was was to to label label him him aa "fanatic/' "fanatic," the the word itself an an eighteenth-century eighteenth-century than describe European European coinage coinage meant meant to to denounce denounce rather rather than describe the the religious religious zealot. The to rip zealot. The temptation temptation to rip open open the the mullah's mullah'sfacade facadeofofa just a justman mangripped gripped by religious passion to by religious passion to reveal reveal the the workings workings of of other, other, baser baser motives motives was was overoverwhelming. Indeed, the speeches of most whelming. Indeed, the speeches of most mullahs, mullahs,expressing expressingcontempt contemptand and indifference indifference for for everything everything other other than than the the object object of of their their passion passion and and an an ununshakeable certitude certitude in in the the rightness of their beliefs, seem seem to to be be verily rightness of their beliefs, verily dedeshakeable signed job. The signed for for aa psychoanalytically psychoanalytically inspired inspired hatchet hatchet job. The temptation temptation to to pathologize mullahasasananobsessional, obsessional,ififnot notpsychopathic psychopathicororeven evenparaparapathologize the the mullah noid, had had to to be if II wished wished to to understand Muslim fundamentalism fundamentalism noid, be resisted resisted if understand Muslim without resort to reductionist first step without resort to reductionist psychological psychological c1iches. cliches.44 The The first step in in such such an understanding was an understanding was to to listen listen to to the the mullah. mullah. Sung Sung in in many many voices voices and and with with varying varying lyricS, lyrics, the the music music of of the the fundamenfundamentalist theme song talist theme song is is easily easily recognizable recognizable from from one one mullah mullahtotoanother. another.After Aftera a couple couple of of obligatory obligatory avats avatsfrom fromthe theQur'an Quran ininArabic Arabicasasaaprelude, prelude,signifying signifying both the the realm realm of that that both the speaker speaker and and the the listener listener are are now now in in the of the the sacred, sacred, the the fundamentalist begins with as fundamentalist generally generally begins with aa lament lament for for the the lost lost glories glories of of Islam Islam as he plight of he compares compares the the sorry sorry plight of Muslims Muslims today today with with their their earlier earlier exalted exalted stastatus. tus. There There may may be be aa sizable sizable presence presence of of Muslims Muslims in in all all parts parts of of the the globe, globe, says says one one mullah, mullah,and andthe themosque mosqueand andthe theQur'an Quranfound foundininevery everycountry. country.Yet Yetnonowhere Muslims are where does does one one hear hear that that Muslims are thriving, thriving, successful, successful, or or on on the the ascenascendant. being whipped whipped by dant. A A hundred hundred and and sixty sixty million million Muslims Muslims are are being by two-andtwo-anda-half a-half million million Jews, Jews, says says another. another. Look Look at at the the sorry sorry fate fate of of Iraq, Iraq, aa land land made made sacred the blood sacred by by the blood of of the the Prophet's Prophets grandsons. grandsons. At At one one time time Sultan Sultan Salah-alSalah-aldin din Ayubi Ayubi (Saladin) (Saladin) commanding commanding aa force force of of thirteen thirteen thousand thousand in in the the battle battle for for Jerusalem Jerusalem faced faced Richard's Richard's army army of of seven seven hundred hundred thousand thousand and and killed killed battle for three hundred thousand thousand Christians three hundred Christians on on aa single single day. day. Once, Once, in in the the battle for Mecca-and the first first battle mullah'spreferred preferred Mecca—and the battle of of Islamic Islamic history history is is every every mullah's illustration-the illustration—the Prophet Prophet with with aa ragtag ragtag force force of of three three hundred hundred and and thirteen thirteen (a number which along with the word "Karbala" has become the most (a number which along with the word "Karbala" has become the most effeceffective tive symbol symbol of of political political mobilization), mobilization), including including women, women, children, children, and and old old men, men, defeated defeated the the one one thousand thousand armed armed warriors warriors of of Abu Abu Jahl, Jahl, many many of of them them on on horseback horseback at at the the battle battle of of Badr. Badr. Today, Today, with with all all the the oil, oil, dollars, dollars, and and weapons in the world, Muslims are slaves to the. dictates of Western Chrisweapons in the world, Muslims are slaves to the dictates of Western Christian powers even which they the putative tian powers even in in the the thirty-six thirty-six countries countries of of which they are are the putative rulers. in rulers. Once, Once, when when the the Muslim Muslim saint saint Khwaja Khwaja Moinuddin Moinuddin Chisti Chisti died died in Ajmer, that is, is, kafirs(here, (here,the theHindus) Hindus)began beganreading readingthe thekalma, kalma, that Ajmer, nine nine million million kaftrs became became Muslims. Muslims. Once, Once, at at the the sight sight of of Imam Imam Rahimullah's Rahimullah's funeral funeral cortege, cortege, twenty thousand thousand Jews Jews converted converted to to Islam. Islam. Today, Today, Muslims have trouble trouble twenty Muslims have keeping their their own own faith faith alive. keeping alive.

The Muslim Fundamentalist Fundamentalist Identity Identity The Muslim

The choice choice of of historical historical illustrations illustrations from from the the early early history of Islam, Islam, inThe history of including their legendary elaboration, elaboration, to to bring bring home home the the fact fact of of Muslim cluding their legendary Muslim dedegeneration and and distress distress in in the the modern modern world world is is aa pan-Islamic pan-Islamic phenomenon. phenomenon, generation Few if if any any civilizations civilizations have have attached attached as as much much importance importance to to history history as as has Few has 5 Islam in in its its awareness awareness of of itself.5 itself. "Recognize "Recognize your your history (tarikh)\"isisthe thecomcomhistory (tarikh)I" Islam mon fundamentalist fundamentalist exhortation, exhortation, in in contrast contrast to to the the Hindu Hindu revivalist's revivalists implied implied mon suggested, "Live "Live your your myth!" myth!" From From the the Prophet's Prophet's time to the the present, has suggested, time to present, it it has been Islam which which has has distinguished distinguished between between self self and and other, other, between between brother brother been Islam kafir,the theunbeliever. unbeliever.ItItisis and stranger, stranger, between between the the faithful faithful and and the the alien alien kafir, and therefore not not surprising surprising that in fundamentalist fundamentalist discourse discourse it it is is the the wider, wider, therefore that in Arab-centered history history of of Islam Islam rather rather than the history history of of Indian Indian Muslims Muslims Arab-centered than the through which collective Muslim Muslim identity identity is is sought sought to to be shaped. be shaped. through which aa collective After listing mullahs proceed After listing the the symptoms symptoms of of Muslim Muslim distress, distress, the the mullahs proceedtotodidiagnose the the disease. disease. The The bad condition of of the the Muslims, Muslims, they they aver, aver, is is not not due due agnose bad condition to any any major major changes changes in in the the outer outer circumstances circumstances of of Muslim lives but because to Muslim lives but because of aa glaring glaring internal internal fault: fault: the the weakening weakening or or loss loss of of religious religious faith. faith. Muslims Muslims of have lost lost everything-political everything—political authority, authority, respect, respect, the the wealth wealth of of both both faith faith have (din)and andthe theworld world(duniya)-because (duniya)—becausethey theydid didnot notkeep keeptheir theirpact pactwith withMoMo(din) hammed. At At one one time time Allah Allah gave gave Muslims Muslims the the kingdom of the world only only in hammed. kingdom of the world in order to to test test them them whether whether they they would would continue continue to to remain slaves. Musorder remain His His slaves. Muslims have have failed failed Allah's Allah's test. test. It It was was their their religious religious zeal zeal which which made made aa small, lims small, unarmed group group of of Muslims Muslims succeed succeed on on the the battlefield against overwhelming overwhelming unarmed battlefield against odds. (Now (Now the mullahbegins beginstotoaddress addressthe thelistener listenermore moredirectly.) directly.)Today, Today, odds. the mullah you do do not not respect respect the the Qur'an. Quran. You You do do not not respect respect the the Prophet Prophet who who isis so so pure pure you that not not aa single single fly came near near him him during during his lifetime, aa man man whose sweat fly came his lifetime, whose sweat that smelt more more divine divine than than shiploads shiploads of of perfume. may think think of of yourselves yourselves as smelt perfume. You You may as Muslims but but look look into into the the mirror mirror of of the the Qur'an Quran and and you you will will see see you are not. not. Muslims you are The because they The Arabs Arabs lose lose to to the the Jews Jews in in Palestine Palestine because they are are fighting fighting for for land, fighting for land, even even if if it it is is their their own own land. land. They They are are not not fighting for Islam, Islam, for for the the of Prophet. Prophet. Sultan Sultan Salah-aI-din Salah-al-din fought fought for for Islam Islam and and won won Palestine. Palestine. On On eve eve of the his soldiers: is the battle battle against against Richard, Richard, he he said said to to his soldiers.- "Paradise "Paradise is is near, near, Egypt Egypt is far." far." He He did did not not defend defend Islam Islam by by the the sword sword but but by by his his character character as as aa Muslim. Muslim. The to send seThe Christians, Christians, as as is is their their wont, wont, used used to send beautiful beautiful young young women women to to seduce duce and and corrupt corrupt Muslim Muslim generals, generals, their their priests priests assuring assuring the the girls girls forgiveness forgiveness for for all all sins sins incurred incurred in in service service of of Christianity. Christianity. Saladin Saladin rejected rejected thirteen thirteen of of the the most palace; in most beautiful beautiful Christian Christian girls girls sent sent to to his his palace; in fact, fact, the the Christian Christian women, women, impressed by by the the Sultan's Sultan's steadfastness, steadfastness, read read the Onthe theother otherhand handthe the impressed the kalma. kalma. On the last Muslims not to Muslims lost lost India, India, not to the the British, British, but but because because the last Mughal Mughal emperors emperors like Mohammed Mohammed Shah Shah Rangile Rangile and and Bahadur Bahadur Shah Shah Zafar Zafar were were sunk sunk in in the the like quagmire of of wine, wine, women, women, and and poetry. poetry. quagmire

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Chapter Seven Chapter Seven After After the the diagnosis diagnosis the the physicians physicians proceed proceed to to pathogenesis. pathogenesis. The The disease disease is process of has not reis caused caused by by the the process of modernity modernity which which the the Muslim Muslim body body has not retoday between between the sisted. sisted. There There is is no no difference difference today the home home of of aa Muslim Muslim and and that that of aa Hindu, Jew, or or Christian. Christian. The The sickness sickness of of television television has has entered entered Muslim of Hindu, Jew, Muslim homes where where families whole evenings homes families fritter fritter away away whole evenings in in ungodly ungodly entertainment entertainment rather reading from them say, "We rather than than in in reading from or or discussing discussing the the Qur'an. Quran. Some Some of of them say, "We watch television watch television only only for for the the news." news." II ask, ask, "What "What news? news? Of Of murders murders and and acciaccidents? Is Is there any news to gladden gladden the the heart heart of of the faithful? Where Where is is the the dents? there any news to the faithful? news that that aa Muslim country has conquered an an infidel infidel land?" land?" People People walk Muslim country has conquered walk news about the the streets streets singing singing songs songs from from movies, songs, rather rather than than movies, prostitute's prostitute's songs, about with the kalma theirlips. lips.They Theyfollow followeducated educatedpeople peoplewho whoare arethe thethieves thieves kalma onontheir with the of religion, who teach teach the separation of of religion religion from from life life and and from from politics. of religion, who the separation politics. Muslims Muslims have have now now taken taken to to these these deeply deeply offensive offensive modern modern fashions. fashions. They revered name name such They no no longer longer give give aa revered such as as Fatima, Fatima, that that of of the the Prophet's Prophet's daughter, their own name the the little girl daughter, to to their own daughters daughters but but prefer prefer instead instead to to name little girl after after some some movie movie actress, actress, aa prostitute. prostitute. Look Look at at the the Western-style Western-style trousers trousers that that men wear, with You see men wear, with pockets pockets in in indecent indecent places. places. You see men men bending bending forward forward and and money from hip pocket, pocket, next taking taking out out money from the the hip next to to the the buttocks. buttocks. In In winter winter you you can them sliding hands into the side can see see them sliding their their hands into the side pockets pockets and and taking taking out out peanuts peanuts or the these the mouth. or cashews cashews from from the these disgusting disgusting places places and and putting putting them them in in the mouth. woman in in In never permit permit the In olden olden days days aa ruler ruler would would never the presence presence of of aa woman official rooms or official rooms or at at public public functions. functions. A A mullah mullahwould wouldnot notperform performthe thewedding wedding Now some rulers cannot even ceremony ceremony where where women women were were present. present. Now some of of the the rulers cannot even woman. Instead Instead of of only only bOWing bowing before before Allah, Allah, MusMusto go go the the toilet toilet without without aa woman. to pirs ("holy lims lims now now bow bow before before graves graves of of various various pits ("holy men") men") who who are are three three feet feet underground. No No wonder bending under the assault underground. wonder Islam Islam is is bending under the assault of of Kufar; Kufar; Arabs Arabs are bowing bowing before before Jews Jews and and Christians, Christians, you you before Hindus. What What is is this this are before the the Hindus. preoccupation with with worldly wealth and and success? success? Allah Allah says, says, II did did not bring not bring preoccupation worldly wealth you into world to you into the the world to make make two two shops shops out out of of one, one, four four out out of of two, two, two two factofactories out out of of one, one, four four out out of of two. two. Does Does the the Qur'an Quran want want you you to to do do that? Does ries that? Does No! They They want want you to dedicate dedicate yourself yourself to to the the faith, faith, give give your your the Prophet? Prophet? No! the you to life for for the the glory glory of of Islam. life Islam. The by the The remedy remedy suggested suggested by the mullahs mullahsisisa areturn returntotothe thefundamentals fundamentalsofof the the light the faith faith as as contained contained in in the the Qur'an. Quran. The The Qur'an Quran is is Allah's Allah's book, book, the light the darkness given given by by God God to to lift lift the darkness of of mankind. mankind. Nothing Nothing can can be be added added to to or or subtracted No arguments, no subtracted from from the the book. book. No arguments, no no discussion, discussion, no no objections, objections, no asking asking for for proofs. proofs. It It is is eternal eternal and and unchanging. unchanging. It It is is not not like like the the clothes clothes you you wear which which are winter. Follow wear are different different for for summer summer and and winter. Follow every every rule rule of of the the faith, not not just the ones ones which which are are convenient. convenient. It It is is not not what what you you want want or or wish wish faith, just the

The Muslim Muslim Fundamentalist Fundamentalist Identity The Identity

but Allah's wish that that has with. It is but Allah's wish has to to be be complied complied with. It is is not not your your likes likes but but what what is liked be done. All that that is is liked by by the the Prophet Prophet that that must must be done. All is needed needed to to live live your your life life is contained in in the the examples examples from from the the life life of of the Prophet. All All you need is contained the Prophet. you need is faith—in Allah, Allah, the the Prophet, Prophet, the the Book, Book, angels, angels, judgment day, paradise, and faith-in judgment day, paradise, and hell—and effort. effort. If If you you cannot cannot get get worldly worldly wealth wealth without without putting putting in in an an efefhell-and fort, how how can can you you obtain obtain paradise paradise without without it? Tell your your daughters daughters to to offer offer fort, it? Tell namazdaily dailyininthe thehouse; house,-you youwon't won'tbebeable abletototell tellthem themonce oncethey theyare areburning burning namaz in hell. in hell. Psychologically, Psychologically, then, then, fundamentalism fundamentalism is is aa theory theory of of suffering suffering and and cure, cure, just as modern modern individualism individualism is is another another theory theory of of suffering suffering and and its its cure. cure. The The just as core of of psychological psychological individuality individuality is is internalization internalization rather rather than than externalizaexternalizacore tion. II use use "internalization" "internalization" here as aa sensing sensing by by the the person of aa psyche psyche in in the the tion. here as person of Greek sense, sense, an an animation animation from from within rather than than without. without. Experientially, Experientially, Greek within rather this internalization internalization is is aa recognition recognition that that one one is is possessed of aa mind in all all its this possessed of mind in its complexity. It It is is the the acknowledgment, acknowledgment, however however vague, vague, unwilling, unwilling, or or conconcomplexity. flicted, of of aa subjectivity subjectivity that that fates fates one one to episodic suffering suffering through through some some of to episodic of flicted, its ideas ideas and and feelings-in feelings—in psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis, murderous murderous rage, rage, envy, envy, and and possesits possessive desire desire seeking seeking to destroy those those one one loves loves and and would would keep keep alive— sive to destroy alivesimultaneously with with the the knowledge, knowledge, at at some some level level of of awareness, awareness, that that the the simultaneously mind can can help help in in containing containing and and processing disturbed thoughts. Fundamenmind processing disturbed thoughts. Fundamentalism, on on the other hand, hand, identifies identifies the the cause cause of of suffering suffering not not in in the the individindividthe other talism, ual mind but in a historical process which, however, is not fatefully ual mind but in a historical process which, however, is not fatefully deterministic but amenable to to human will and and eminently eminently reversible. reversible. IndividIndividbut amenable human will deterministic ual and collective collective suffering suffering are are due due to lapse from from an an ideal ideal state state of of religious religious to aa lapse ual and faith, and and the the cure cure lies lies in in an an effort, effort, to to restore restore faith faith in in one's one's inner inner life life to to its its faith, original state of pristine purity. original state of pristine purity. Another religious discourse so Another striking striking aspect aspect of of fundamentalist fundamentalist religious discourse is is not not so much its its warlike anger against against the enemy—the modernization process, the the modernization process, much warlike anger the enemy-the infidels-held the contemporary Muslims, infidels—held responsible responsible for for the contemporary sorry sorry state state of of the the Muslims, but turning of rage inward masbut the the turning of this this rage inward in in aa collective collective self-recrimination self-recrimination and and masochistic self-hate. self-hate. The The loss loss of of Muslim Muslim greatness greatness is is not not grieved grieved for, for, aa process process ochistic that pave the the way way for for an an eventual eventual acceptance acceptance of of its its loss loss and and thus thus enable enable that would would pave the community community to to face face the the future future without without aa debilitating debilitating preoccupation preoccupation with with the the past. Instead, the the loss loss is is experienced experienced as as aa persisting humiliation, aa narcisthe past. Instead, persisting humiliation, narcissistic injury injury to to the group self self which which keeps on generating generating inchoate inchoate anger anger the group keeps on sistic rather than the the sadness sadness of of mourning. mourning. The The instances instances from from history history in in the multhe mulrather than lahs sermons sermonsare arereplete repletewith withsadomasochistic sadomasochisticimagerY, imagery,betraying betrayingan anunconunconlahs' scious rage even as as they they seem seem to to bemoan bemoan the the lost lost glories glories of of Islam. Islam. Their Their talk talk is is scious rage even liberally spattered with blood. Rivers of blood flow in the massacres of Musliberally spattered with blood. Rivers of blood flow in the massacres of Mus-

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Chapter Seven Chapter Seven lims, chests of lims, fountains fountains of of the the stuff stuff spurt spurt from from the the chests of children children martyred martyred to to the the modern and pefaith. faith. The The atrocities atrocities borne borne by by Muslims, Muslims, both both in in modern and medieval medieval periods, are detailed detailed with with much much relish. It is is not not the the doctors doctors and and the the officersofficers— riods, are relish. It the representatives of of the modern world-who world—who have have sacrificed sacrificed for for the the councounthe representatives the modern Hanif, but the mullahs. Detailing try's independence, says Qari Mohammad try's independence, says Qari Mohammad Hanif, but the mullahs. Detailing incidents not not recorded recorded in in history books, three three thousand thousand ulema ulemawere werelaid laidonon history books, incidents the road road to to Delhi Delhi and and the the British drove road road rollers rollers over over their their chests. chests. HunHunthe British drove dreds were were sewn sewn into into pigskins and burnt burnt alive. alive. Impaling, Impaling, burning burning on on stakes, dreds pigskins and stakes, being trampled trampled under under elephant elephant feet, feet, and and the walling in in alive alive of of early early martyrs martyrs the walling being is described described with with an an eye eye for for gory gory detail. detail. The The listeners listeners are are asked asked to visualize is to visualize the plight of the the pious pious woman woman who hundreds of of nails nails driven driven into into her the plight of who had had hundreds her palms and and feet feet saying saying to infidel torturer, torturer, "You "You can can drive drive aa hundred hundred nails to her her infidel nails palms will still still take take Allah's Allah's name." name." into my too and and II will into my tongue tongue too In In addition addition to to the the sadomasochistic sadomasochistic imagery, imagery, another another theme theme in in fundafundamentalist discourse discourse is is the the inculcation inculcation of of guilt. guilt. The The speeches speeches conjure conjure up up imimmentalist ages of ages of the the ancestors ancestors regarding regarding today's todays generation generation of of Muslims Muslims with with eyes eyes full full of with aa 'Thou hast forsaken Skillof reproach reproach and and with "Thou hast forsaken us!" us!" refrain refrain on on dead dead lips. lips. Skillfully reactivating the guilt guilt vis-a-vis our parents that is our common common human human vis-a-vis our parents that is our fully reactivating the legacy from from early early childhood, childhood, fundamentalism fundamentalism stirs stirs anger anger and and guilt guilt in in aa potent potent legacy brew. brew. To is To trace trace psychological psychological themes themes in in Muslim Muslim fundamentalist fundamentalist discourse discourse is not this discourse to the not to to reduce reduce this discourse to to psychopathology. psychopathology. Illness Illness to the outsider, outsider, funfundamentalism is is aa cure cure for for the the insider. insider. For For many Muslims with with an an inchoate inchoate damentalism many Muslims menacing future, future, with with fracfracsense of of oppression oppression and and the looming shadow shadow of of aa menacing the looming sense tured self-esteem self-esteem in in the the wake wake of of historical historical change change that that saw saw an an end end to their tured to their political role role and and aa virtual virtual disappearance disappearance of of their their language, language, fundamentalism fundamentalism is is political an attempt, attempt, however however flawed, flawed, to to revive revive the sacred in in social social and and cultural cultural life, life, to to an the sacred give politics politics aa spiritual spiritual dimension, dimension, and and to to recover recover in in their their religious religious verities verities aa give bulwark against against collective collective identity identity fragmentation. fragmentation. bulwark Religious Religious Politics Politics To more closely psychological processes processes involved To look look more closely at at the the psychological involved in in the the fundafundamy exemplary text aa mentalist mentalist mobilization mobilization of of Muslims, Muslims, II have have chosen chosen as as my exemplary text Azmi, an speech speech by by Ubedullah Ubedullah Khan Khan Azmi, an influential influential north north Indian Indian Muslim Muslim leader. leader. Azmi, who has occupied occupied important important positions in Muslim Muslim institutions, institutions, such such as Azmi, who has positions in as the secretaryship secretaryship of of the the Muslim Muslim Personal Personal Law Law Conference, Conference, an an organization organization the through the conservative conservative section section of of the the community community has has zealously zealously through which which the sought to to guard guard its its autonomy autonomy in in the making and and interpretation interpretation of of civil civil laws laws sought the making

The Muslim Muslim Fundamentalist Identity The Fundamentalist Identity

applicable to Muslims, would call By applicable to Muslims, is is what what II would call aa "moderate "moderate fundamentalist." fundamentalist." By this the founding mean that, that, like like all all fundamentalists, fundamentalists, he he subscribes subscribes to to the founding myth myth this II mean that the Prophet that aa truly truly Islamic Islamic society society existed existed only only in in the the period period of of the Prophet and and the the must go back to first first four four Caliphs, Caliphs, and and one one must go back to those those origins origins to to restore restore the the initial initial vitality of the community. As As aa moderate, moderate, however, however, he he does does not go so so far far as Vitality of the community. not go as some others others who who advocate advocate an an opting opting out out of of or or aa rejection rejection of of the the modern modern InInsome dian political system, dian political system, ajehad a jehadtotorecover recoverthe thespirit spiritofofIslam's Islam'soriginal originalenterprise. enterprise. in Informed Informed by by fundamentalist fundamentalist beliefs, beliefs, his his politics politics is is yet yet politics politics as as usual usual in many to changing realities. many ways, ways, requiring requiring aa constant constant adaptation adaptation to changing political political realities. Like many many fundamentalist fundamentalist leaders leaders who must operate operate within within secular secular democrademocrawho must Like cies, Azmi Azmi has degree of of political political influence influence for for himself himself (he (he is is aa cies, has negotiated negotiated aa degree member member of of Parliament) Parliament) by by entering entering into into aa mutually mutually beneficial beneficial alliance alliance with with allisecular secular politicians politicians of of aa mainstream mainstream political political party, party, the the Janata Janata Dal. Dal. In In such such alliances, ances, we we know, know, fundamentalist fundamentalist leaders leaders are are willing willing to to be be carried carried along along on on aa wave of purely purely socioeconomic socioeconomic or or political political resentment resentment while while they they mobilize mobilize wave of votes for for their their political political allies allies by on religious religious passions passions and and fears fears of by playing playing on of votes their constituency, constituency, saying saying and and doing doing things things which which the the secular secular politician politician will will their studiously avoid. avoid.66 studiously The to seduce The rhetoric rhetoric of of fundamentalist fundamentalist politics politics attempts attempts to seduce its its target target group participation in purgroup with with aa sense sense of of participation in aa collectivity collectivity with with aa transcendent transcendent purvalue or pose, giving pose, giving aa higher higher value or meaning meaning to to life life than than could could be be given given by by any any secular politics. The secular politics. The group group addressed addressed by by the the fundamentalist fundamentalist has has the the very very satsatisfying being "chosen," with aa sense mission connected isfying feeling feeling of of being "chosen," with sense of of mission connected with with aa sacred to the the adversary's sacred purpose, purpose, sanctified sanctified by by God, God, and and superior superior to adversary's mission mission not similarly which which is is not similarly blessed blessed or or is is blessed blessed by by aa lesser lesser god. god. My selection particular speech, My selection of of this this particular speech, delivered delivered in in 1985, 1985, is is not not because because way but but precisely precisely because not. It it it is is remarkable remarkable in in any any way because it it is is not. It is is an an ordinary ordinary speech which takes filing of speech which takes as as its its springboard springboard an an insignificant insignificant event, event, the the filing of aa petition by by an petition an obscure obscure Hindu Hindu lawyer lawyer in in aa district district court court in in Rajasthan Rajasthan seeking seeking aa modeled after ban ban on on the the Qur'an. Quran. Unlike Unlike Rithambra's Rithambra's speaking speaking style style which which is is modeled after Hindu bardic narration, Hindu bardic narration, Azmi's Azmi s rhetoric rhetoric isis in in traditional traditional Muslim Muslim style, style, interinterflourishes in in spersed spersed with with Urdu Urdu couplets couplets for for an an audience audience which which likes likes poetical poetical flourishes its its orators. orators. The The speech speech as as reproduced reproduced below below is is necessarily necessarily abridged, abridged, though though not edited flow of of not edited to to change change its its essential essential content, content, images, images, or or the the sequential sequential flow thoughts. thoughts. "[I have to the offspring of "[I wish] wish] II did did not not have to see see this this day. day. These These are are the offspring of Nathuram Godse banning the Nathuram Godse [Gandhi's [Gandhis assassin] assassin] who who are are talking talking of of banning the Qur'an. Nathuram Godse Quran. The The children children of of Nathuram Godse dream dream of of occupying occupying the the

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Babri mosque. mosque. Ubedullah Ubedullah Khan Khan Azmi Azmi declares declares openly, openly, Look Look at at the the linBabri lineage of of all all traitors from the the time time of of Mahatma Mahatma Gandhi Gandhi to to that that of of Indira Indira eage traitors from Gandhi and and then then look look at at the the lineage lineage of of those those who who have have been been loyal loyal to to Gandhi India from from 1945 1945 to to 1985. 1985. What What is is the the crime crime for for which which we we Muslims Muslims are are India being Our book book is is being being banned, banned, our our personal personal law law is is being being being punished? punished? Our proscribed, our community's very way of life is being restricted. Beproscribed, our community's very way of life is being restricted. Beware, ware, history history may may repeat repeat itself. itself. Balasaheb Balasaheb Deoras Deoras may may have have to to read read the the kalma kalma[i.e., [i.e.,become becomea aMuslim], Muslim],Atal AtalBihari BihariVajpaee Vajpaeemay mayhave havetotoread readthe the kalma, kalma,Mister MisterRajiv RajivGandhi Gandhimay mayhave havetotoread readthe thekalma.· kalma* Stars sometimes sometimes appear appear in in the waves Stars the waves Khalid sometimes sometimes leads leads armies armies Khalid the rise rise of Yazid Every Every ages ages sees sees the of Yazid Every Every age age witnesses witnesses the the birth birth of of Shabbir." Shabbir.** How have we How much much have we served served this this country country!I What What have have we we not not done done to to get get to Muslims Infreedom freedom for for this this countryl country! The The equal equal rights rights given given to Muslims under under Indian law law were were not not given given as as charity charity but earned them. And but because because we we earned them. And dian today they they want want to to ban ban the Quran? Who Who led led the the country country to indepentoday the Qur'an? to independence? Everyone Everyone calls calls Mahatma Gandhi the the father father of of the the nation. nation. Fine, Fine, dence? Mahatma Gandhi we'll also call call him him that. that. Who Who killed killed the the "father "father of of the the nation"? nation"? Nathuram Nathuram we'll also Godse. Who Who killed Indira Gandhi? Gandhi? Beant Beant Singh Singh and and Satwant Satwant Singh. Singh. killed Indira Godse. Were they theyMuslims? Muslims?You Youeliminated eliminatedthem themboth. both. Were

Even then then you you complain complain of of my my faithlessness, faithlessness, Even If I am not faithful, you too have not been been aacaretaker caretaker of of my my heart. heart. If I am not faithful, you too have not Who Who did did we we eliminate? eliminate? Let Let me me tell tell you you that that since since you you call call us us "Pakistanis." When Pakistan's "Pakistanis." When Pakistan's tanks tanks rolled rolled into into the the country country then then in in the the form Abdul Hamid'" form of of Abdul Hamid*** we we destroyed destroyed eight eight of of those those tanks. tanks. Whenever Whenever the the country country has has asked asked for for sacrifice, sacrifice, Muslims Muslims have have given given their their blood. blood. We We have have protected protected the the country country at at every every juncture juncture and and today today you you are are questioning our our loyalty? loyalty? You You talk talk of of banning banning the the Qur'an Quran which which taught taught questioning us to to die die for for the the country's country's honor. honor. Qur'an Quran gave gave discipline discipline to to the the world. world. us ·Deoras the chief the RSS BlP. *Deoras was was the chief of of the RSS while while Vajpaee Vajpaee is is aa prominent prominent leader leader of of the the BJR **Khalid was the the legendary legendary general general of of the the all-conquering all-conquering Arab Arab armies armies in in the the seventh seventh century. century. ··Khalid was Yazid, first Muslim the personification Yazid, the the first Muslim king, king, is is the personification of of evil evil in in Islamic Islamic sacred sacred history history while while Shabbir Shabbir is the Prophet's Kar· is another another name name for for Hussain, Hussain, the Prophet's grandson grandson and and Yazid's Yazid's antagonist antagonist in in the the battle battle of of Karbala. bala. ···A ***A hero hero of of the the India-Pakistan India-Pakistan war war of of 1965. 1965.

The Identity The Muslim Muslim Fundamentalist Fundamentalist Identity Qur'an Quran gave gave even even the the lowest lowest of of the the low low the the right right to to live live in in dignity. dignity. Qur'an was the first to raise its voice against caste distinctions. Quran was the first to raise its voice against caste distinctions. Qur'an Quran first to was was the the first to abolish abolish differences differences between between high high and and low. low. Qur'an Quran taught the the world world that that man man does does not not become great on on the of birth birth taught become great the basis basis of but on the basis basis of of religious religious virtue, virtue, abstinence, abstinence, and and truth. truth. To To ban the but on the ban the Quran means to ban reality, to ban truth. These bribe-takers want corQur'an means to ban reality, to ban truth. These bribe-takers want corruption to to continue. continue. These These libertines libertines want want the the honor of women to be be ruption honor of women to violated. These These drunkards drunkards want want the the looting looting of of India India to to continue. continue. But But violated. when people come come to to know know the Quran, when they understand understand Qur'an's Quran's when people the Qur'an, when they laws, then then Qur'an Quran will save both both the the world world and and the the mil/at millat[religious [religious will save laws, community of of the the Muslims]. Muslims]. community The than secular poThe political political culture culture of of fundamentalism, fundamentalism, perhaps perhaps more more than secular popolitics of Azmi first litical litical cultures, cultures, is is fundamentally fundamentally aa politics of imagery. imagery. The The image image Azmi first besieged Muslim Vile, conjures conjures up up is is of of aa besieged Muslim community, community, under under attack attack from from aa vile, treacherous nationalist. Azmi's Azmi's specific treacherous enemy, enemy, the the Hindu Hindu nationalist. specific technique technique is is to to project the the image relentless attack attack against against the the central central symbol symbol of of Muslim Muslim project image of of aa relentless idealreligious religious identity, identity, the the Qur'an. Quran. This This citadel citadel of of the the community's community's identity, identity, idealized ized as as the the all-good, all-good, the the all-just, all-just, the the all-pure, all-pure, and and the the source source of of all all benefibeneficence, In cence, is is surrounded surrounded by by aa sea sea of of Hindu Hindu corruption corruption and and debauchery. debauchery. In contrast who must first define contrast to to aa Hindu Hindu revivalist revivalist like like Rithambra, Rithambra, who must first define and and then then draw not need draw up up the the boundaries boundaries of of aa Hindu Hindu community, community, Azmi Azmi does does not need to to enengage gage in in any any such such boundary-setting boundary-setting exercise. exercise. The The religious-cultural religious-cultural identity identity of cfaumand anditsitssense senseofof"us" "us"versus versus"them" "them"has hasbeen beentraditionally traditionally of the the Muslim Muslim qaum clear-cut clear-cut and and relatively relatively enduring. enduring. What What Azmi Azmi attempts attempts to to do do is is to to trigger trigger and and stoke his audience. stoke aa persecutory persecutor/ anxiety anxiety in in his audience. In persecution is In psychoanalytic psychoanalytic thought, thought, persecution is an an internal internal event, event, aa subjective, subjective, irrational irrational experience experience often often equated equated with with the the pathology pathology of of paranoia. paranoia. Melanie Melanie Klein Klein has has related related the the anxiety anxiety it it generates-the generates—the feelings feelings of of disintegrationdisintegration— to to the to the the earliest earliest stages stages of of life, life, to the baby's baby's experience experience of of aa depriving, depriving, frustratfrustrathas pointed the feeling of ing ing breast-mother. breast-mother. But But as as Meira Meira likierman Likierman has pointed out, out, the feeling of part of persecution persecution is is also also aa normal normal part of the the response response to to destructive destructive and and obstrucobstructive Connecting tive forces forces which which we we encounter encounter in in the the course course of of everyday everyday life. life.77 Connecting to loss, to the the individual's individual's primitive primitive persecution persecution anxiety anxiety from from infancy, infancy, damage, damage, loss, deprivation, deprivation, frustration frustration are are aa range range of of events events which which constitute constitute aa destructive destructive attack on our sense sense of of identity identity and and represent represent partial partial death. death. Persecution Persecution anxion our anxiattack ety signals signals aa situation situation of of great great danger danger and and carries carries with with it it the the fear fear of of the the group's group's ety symbolic death, death, and and annihilation annihilation of its collective collective identity. identity. It It is is only only when when this this of its symbolic particular anxiety courses courses through through and and between between members members of of aa group, group, making making particular anxiety

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Chapter Seven Seven Chapter individuals individuals feel feel helpless, helpless, frightened, frightened, and and paralyzed, paralyzed, that that people people become become loosened traditional cognitive loosened from from their their traditional cognitive moorings moorings and and are are prepared prepared to to give give up held social, up previously previously held social, political, political, or or economic economic explanations explanations for for their their sense sense of to the Azmi has has to of aggrievement aggrievement and and become become receptive receptive to the religious religious critique critique Azmi to offer. offer. Persecutory Persecutory anxiety anxiety is is one one of of those those strong strong emotions emotions which which can can take take people back to people away away from from "knowing" "knowing" back to the the realm realm of of "unknowing"-from "unknowing"—from aa "knowledge" of of the the cause cause of of their their distress distress to to aa state state where they do do not not know know "knowledge" where they what them suffering what it it is is that that gives gives them suffering and and pain pain though though they they do do know knowthat that they they are suffering suffering and and in in pain. pain. One One antidote antidote to to this this paralyzing paralyzing anxiety anxiety is is anger, anger, are preferably in aa violent assertion that that is is psychically psychically mobilizing, mobilizing, as as Azmi Azmi conconpreferably in violent assertion tinues: tinues: banning the the holy what dangerous Even the talk Even the talk of of banning holy Qur'an Quran shows shows what dangerous conconspiracies are are being being hatched hatched to to damage damage our our faith. faith. spiracies Awake before you Awake 0O Indian Indian Muslims Muslims before you disappear disappear completely completely mention in Even will not Even your your story story will not find find aa mention in other other stories. stories. What these conditions? will What steps steps should should we we take take under under these conditions? The The Muslim Muslim will not the court court to to prove prove the not come come to to the the truth truth of of the the Qur'an. Quran. The The Muslim Muslim to his will come will come out out with with the the shroud shroud tied tied to his head head to to protect protect the the Qur'an. Quran. We tongues that tear off We will will cut cut off off tongues that speak speak against against the the Qur'an. Quran. We We will will tear off the the skin skin of of those those who who look look askance askance at at the the Qur'an. Quran.

After having having tried tried to to erase erase previous previous cognitive cognitive structures structures through through aa After heightening fear engenheightening of of persecution persecution anxiety anxiety and and dealt dealt with with the the paralyzing paralyzing fear engenthis anxiety through fantasized violence, what dered dered by by this anxiety through fantasized violence, what the the fundamentalist fundamentalist has before him is aa newly born group group without memory and and with inchoate has before him is newly born without memory with but but inchoate desires. Azmi Azmi proceeds to shape shape the the identity identity of of this this freshly freshly minted minted group group by by desires. proceeds to offering offering it it aa series series of of narcissistically narcissistically enhancing enhancing self-images-"This self-images—"This is is who who you are!" are!"—particularly relation to to the elder sibling, sibling, the the Hindu. Hindu. you -particularly in in relation the elder After After thirty-five thirty-five years years of of oppression oppression the the Indian Indian Muslim Muslim has has remained remained the country. kaloyal loyal to to the country. If If there there is is anyone anyone loyal loyal from from Hindustan Hindustan to to kabristan bristan[graveyard], [graveyard],then thenit itis isthe theMuslim. Muslim.You You[the [theHindus] Hindus]die, die,we wedie. die. What Next, your your ashes are What happens happens after after death? death? You You are are cremated. cremated. Next, ashes are thrown into into the Ganges. Where Where does does the the river river flow to? You You flow from thrown the Ganges. flow to? flow from here and and reach reach Pakistan. Pakistan. Ashes Ashes scattered scattered by the wind wind can can land land anyanyby the here where. When When you you die, die, mother mother India India does does not not care. care. When When we we die, die, where. the motherland motherland says, says, "My "My dear dear son, son, you you will will not not leave leave me me to go anyanythe to go

The Muslim M u s l i m FFundamentalist u n d a m e n t a l i s t IIdentity dentity The

where top of in where else. else. If If you you have have lived lived on on top of me, me, after after death death you you wilI will sleep sleep in my my lap." lap/' There three kinds There are are three kinds of of sons. sons. One One son, son, who who according according to to the the law law of of the his faith the land land and and in in light light of of his faith fulfilIs fulfills his his obligations obligations toward toward his his parparput [son]. suput (good ents [son]. Another Another is is calIed called suput (goodson) son)who whonot notonly only ents is is calIed called put fulfills his his obligations obligations but but sacrifices sacrifices his his alI all for for the the happiness happiness of of the parfulfills the parents. The The son son who who shoots shoots his his mother, mother, cuts cuts her her throat, throat, kills kills both both his his ents. kuput[bad [badson]. son]. Now Nowlook lookatatthe thesons sons father and and mother-he mother—he is is called called kuput father of this this motherland motherland and and decide decide who who is is the the good good and and who who is is the the bad son. of bad son. The Muslim Muslim who who believes believes in in Qur'an Quran and and calIs calls India India his own country country is The his own is the suput. suput.When Whenafter afterthe theformation formationofofPakistan Pakistanthere therewas wastrouble troubleinin the Usman Ali Kashmir Kashmir then then it it was was Brigadier Brigadier Usman Ali from from my my town town of of Azamgarh Azamgarh who first to bulIets. When who was was one one of of the the first to falI fall to to Pakistani Pakistani bullets. When his his twitching twitching corpse motherland said, corpse felI fell to to earth earth at at the the border border the the motherland said, "This 'This is is my my son son who protect my who sacrificed sacrificed himself himself to to protect my honor." honor." When When Abdul Abdul Hamid Hamid stopped stopped the the Pakistani Pakistani tanks tanks which which would would have have rolled had his flesh torn ribbons then rolled on on to to Delhi Delhi and and had his flesh torn to to ribbons then the the Indian Indian earth my suput. earth said, said, "This 'This is is my suput.And Andthey theywho whokilled killedMahatma MahatmaGandhi, Gandhi, the liberator liberator of of the the country, country, killed killed Indira Indira Gandhi Gandhi who who sacrificed sacrificed so so the put, suput, suput, much much for for the the honor honor of of the the nation-what nation—what will will you you call call them, them, put, or or kupuf] kuput?You Youdecide. decide. While While on on the the surface surface the the whole whole tenor tenor of of the the speech speech is is concerned concerned with with distancing distancing the the Muslim Muslim from from the the Hindu Hindu enemy, enemy, on on the the more more unconscious unconscious level level it it betrays betrays the the existence existence of of an an unwanted unwanted relationship relationship with with the the same same foe-an foe—an intimacy intimacy held held at at bay bay by by disdain, disdain, even even hate, hate, but but an an intimacy intimacy nonenonetheless. Viewing Viewing oneself oneself as as the the "good "good son" son" of of the the mother, mother, as as opposed opposed to to the the theless. Hindu "bad "bad son," son," is is an an unconscious acknowledgment of of their their connectedness, connectedness, Hindu unconscious acknowledgment even when when this this connection connection exists exists only only in in an an unending and obsessive obsessive compecompeunending and even tition. After After exorcising exorcising doubt-including doubt—including self-doubt-about self-doubt—about Muslim Muslim loyalty loyalty tition. to the the country country (vis-a-vis (vis-a-vis loyalty loyalty to to the religious community community outside outside the the borborto the religious ders of of the the nation), nation), the the self-images self-images offered offered to to the the group group in in the the folIowing following paspasders sages are are of of aa grandiose grandiose variety, variety, of of an an exhilarating exhilarating Muslim Muslim superiority. superiority. The The sages enhancement of of colIective collective self-esteem self-esteem then then serves serves to to increase increase the the security security of enhancement of the group group self self by by countering countering the deathly threat threat to to its its survival. survival. the the deathly Like Like spokespersons spokespersons of of alI all ethnic ethnic groups groups in in conflict conflict around around the the world, world, Azmi's vision Azmi's vision of of Muslims Muslims and and Hindus Hindus is is of of two two groups groups in in eternal eternal competition competition to to answer answer the the question question of of which which is is more more civilized, civilized, stronger, stronger, and, and, generally, generally, 8 8 As his in better. As better. his evidence evidence for for Muslim Muslim superiority, superiority, he he offers offers Muslim Muslim virtues virtues in

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Chapter Seven Chapter Seven comparison consists of of aa heightened comparison with with Hindu Hindu vices. vices. First, First, this this superiority superiority consists heightened Muslim Muslim's greater resoMuslim apperception apperception of of the the aesthetics aesthetics of of life, life, in in the the Muslim's greater resonance nance for for sensory sensory and and sensuous sensuous experience experience and and in in greater greater artistic artistic giftedness. giftedness. And who talk And you you who who raise raise slogans slogans about about Muslim Muslim loyalty, loyalty, who talk of of aa ban ban on on the the mirror? the Qur'an, Quran, have have you you ever ever looked looked at at your your own own face face in in the mirror? It It was was the believers in the the Qur'an Quran who who taught taught you you the the graces of life, life, taught taught the believers in graces of you how how to eat and and drink. drink. All All you you had had before before us were tomatoes tomatoes and and you to eat us were potatoes. What What did did you you have? have? We We brought brought jasmine, we brought brought franfranjasmine, we potatoes. gipani. We We gave gave the the Taj Taj Mahal, Mahal, we we gave gave the the Red Red Fort. Fort. India India was was made made gipani. India by by us. us. We We lived lived here here for for eight eight hundred years and and we we made made India India India hundred years shine. In thirty-five years you have dimmed its light and ruined the shine. In thirty-five years you have dimmed its light and ruined the country. A will not not be be grateful grateful if if made an emperor. emperor. Layout Lay out aa made an country. A beggar beggar will feast for for him him and and he he will like it. it. Throw Throw him him aa piece of bread bread in in the the will not not like piece of feast dust and and he he will will get get his his appetite appetite back. Do not force us us to to speak speak out. out. Do Do dust back. Do not force not force force us us to to come come in in front front of of you you as as an an enemy. enemy not God, God, look look at at their their ignorance ignorance to to believe believe we we have have no no words words When When out out of of pity pity we we gave gave them them the the power power of of speech. speech. Azmi's Muslims, Azmi's attempt attempt to to sharply sharply differentiate differentiate the the Hindus Hindus from from the the Muslims, the Muslims Muslims consider suggesting suggesting that that the consider themselves themselves as as haVing having come come to to India India racial from from outside outside the the country country eight eight hundred hundred years years ago ago (and (and from from aa superior superior racial the current between the the two stock), stock), is is partly partly aa consequence consequence of of the current antagonism antagonism between two communities. communities. In In such such aa hostile hostile situation, situation, the the fundamentalist fundamentalist exhorts exhorts the the MusMusto shun lims lims to shun contamination contamination with with any any of of the the Hindu Hindu symbols symbols and and strive strive to to keep keep their their shared shared Islamic Islamic identity identity intact intact and and pure. pure. The The fundamentalist fundamentalist is is loath loath to to acknowledge acknowledge any any Muslim Muslim similarity similarity to to the the Hindu Hindu and and focuses focuses only only on on the the differences which, which, he he seeks seeks to to persuade persuade those those yet unconvinced, are are of of stubdifferences yet unconvinced, stubborn born emotional emotional importance. importance. From From the the relative relative level level of of sophistication sophistication of of the the two two civilizations, civilizations, the the batbattle for now shifts tle for superiority superiority now shifts to to the the arena arena of of power power as as Azmi Azmi offers offers up up the the image of of aa powerful powerful Muslim nation, much much stronger stronger than than the the Hindu Hindu enemy. enemy. image Muslim nation,

There is is aa limit limit to to our our patience patience and and tolerance. tolerance. These These wicked wicked people people There we can should can sacrifice sacrifice all all we we have, have, including including our our lives, lives, should understand understand that that we but but not not our our honor. honor. We We cannot cannot compromise compromise the the glory glory of of the the Qur'an. Quran. Today the the whole whole world world is is in in turmoil. turmoil. Some Some madmen madmen are are disturbing disturbing the the Today peace of of the the world. world. This This is is not not aa challenge challenge to the two two hundred twenty to the hundred twenty peace million Muslims Muslims of of India India but but to to the the over over aa billion billion Muslims Muslims of of the the world. world. million That is is why request you you to to remain remain alert. alert. Today's Todays tense tense atmosphere atmosphere That why II request

The Muslim The M u s l i m FFundamentalist u n d a m e n t a l i s t Identity I d e n t i t y i f883 3 should make every should make every Muslim Muslim who who is is still still living living unawares unawares aa true true Muslim. Muslim. They the time They are are banning banning the the Qur'an. Quran. Has Has the time not not come come that that you you become become by it? of regular regular in in saying saying your your namaz namat as as ordained ordained by it? They They are are thinking thinking of keep your rozas banning banning the the Qur'an. Quran. Has Has the the time time not not come come that that you you keep your tolas even banning the even in in the the heat heat of of summer? summer? The The more more they they talk talk of of banning the Qur'an, Quran, the more more you you should should live live according according to it. Give Give your your life life aa religious religious cast. cast. the to it. The MusThe secret secret of of Muslim Muslim strength strength does does not not lie lie in in the the sheer sheer number number of of Musmillatof ofwhich whichthe theIndian IndianMuslims Muslimsare arealso alsoaapart, part,aa lims all all over over the the world, world, aa mil/at lims notion of of aa pan-Islamic pan-Islamic collectivity collectivity which which is is the the stuff stuff of of the the Hindu nationalHindu nationalnotion ist's nightmares. nightmares. For For the the Muslims, offer of of such such aa collective collective identity identity helps helps Muslims, the the offer ist's to counteract counteract the feeling of of being being an an embattled embattled minority minority in in one one particular particular to the feeling country. The The real secret of of Muslim Muslim strength, strength, however, lies in in the the superiority superiority country. real secret however, lies of Islam Islam over over the the religion religion of of the the Hindus. Hindus. Our Our religion religion makes makes us us stronger, stronger, their their of divisive faith faith makes them weaker. weaker. Our Our religion religion is is of of the the future, future, theirs theirs mired mired in in divisive makes them an outdated past. We are stronger than we think, they weaker than what they an outdated past. We are stronger than we think, they weaker than what they or we we might might believe. believe. or Why do do they they talk of aa ban ban of of the the Qur'an? Quran? Why Why are are they they so so afraid afraid of of the the Why talk of Quran? They They are are afraid afraid because religion is is one one of of touchablestouchablesQur'an? because their their religion untouchables. Quran gives gives aa religion of universal universal equality. equality. They They have have untouchables. Qur'an religion of no place place in in their their hearts hearts for for their own people. people. Let them allow allow aa Harijan Harijan no their own Let them to drink drink water from their their wells. wells. These These high-caste high-caste people people who who talk talk of to water from of Rama and and Sita, Sita, let let them them first permit Harijans Harijans to enter their their temples. temples. first permit to enter Rama In contrast, contrast, look look at at the Quran. It It gives gives every every human human being being aa right right to to In the Qur'an. equality on on basis basis of of his his humanity. humanity. That That is is why why thirteen thirteen thousand thousand HariHariequality jans, thirteen thousand thousand tribals, tribals, converted converted to to Islam Islam in in Meenakshipuram Meenakshipuram jans, thirteen in Madras. Madras. They They did did not not know what is is written written in in the the Qur'an. Quran. They They only only know what in knew that that Qur'an Quran gives gives people people of of low low caste caste the the right right to to sit sit together together knew with with people people of of higher higher castes castes on on terms terms of of equality. equality. So So these these Harijans Harijans who have have been been given given so so many many benefits benefits by by the state are are ready ready to to throw throw who the state them away. away. We We do do not not want want benefits benefits which which give give us food and and clothing clothing us food them but which which leave leave our our hearts hearts enslaved. enslaved. We We want want freedom freedom of of our our minds, but minds, souls. We We are are prepared prepared to to tolerate tolerate slavery slavery of of every every kind kind freedom for for our our souls. freedom but not not of of the the soul. soul. You, You, enslavers enslavers of of the the soul, soul, Qur'an Quran liberates liberates the the soul! soul! but That is is why why we we believe believe in in the the Qur'an Quran which which gives gives life life to the soul, soul, makes makes That to the black like like Billal Billal the the chief chief of of aa fair-skinned fair-skinned tribe: tribe.* Today, Today, when when MusMusaa black lims are are being massacred everywhere, everywhere, when when there is talk talk of of doing doing away away lims being massacred there is "Billal *BiIlal was was aa black blackslave slaveand and aafavorite favoriteofofthe the Prophet. Prophet.

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Chapter Chapter Seven Seven with personal law, with Muslim Muslim personal law, when when the the honor honor of of our our mothers mothers and and sisters sisters is is being violated, being martyred, being violated, when when our our children children are are being martyred, when when our our very very existence unbearable to to others, Harijans chose existence is is unbearable others, thirteen thirteen thousand thousand Harijans chose to to convert convert to to our our religion. religion. Because Because man man wants wants freedom freedom for for the the soul. soul. A A bird bird will be unhappy palace of will be unhappy even even if if confined confined in in aa palace of gold. gold. Its Its soul soul craves craves for for the freedom that freedom. freedom. The result is the freedom of of the the garden. garden. Islam Islam gives gives that The result is that that not but also also in non-Islamic countries, people are not only only in in Islamic Islamic but in non-Islamic countries, people are flockflocking to Islam. being to to convert convert to Islam. No No one one is is asking asking them them or or telling telling them them to to become that people people are come Muslims. Muslims. It It is is because because of of its its teachings teachings that are taking taking refuge in the Qur'an. refuge in the Quran. Do finished off Do you you think think Qur'an Quran can can be be finished off by by merely merely banning banning it? it? We We have lived for fourteen fourteen hundred have lived with with the the Qur'an Quran for hundred years. years. We We have have passed passed under Karunder arches arches of of swords. swords. We We have have come come through through the the battlefield battlefield of of Karbala. valleys of through the the hills bala. We We have have passed passed through through the the valleys of Spain, Spain, through hills of of that in in Gibraltar, Gibraltar, through through the the plains plains of of India. India. We We can can say say with with pride pride that respite has undergone, spite of of thousands thousands of of ordeals ordeals it it has undergone, the the Muslim Muslim nation nation remains mains incomparable. incomparable. The The love love it it has has for for the the Qur'an Quran is is unmatched unmatched by by that of any other community for its religious books. No one loves his that of any other community for its religious books. No one loves his religion more more than than the religion the Muslim Muslim loves loves Islam. Islam. We We need need to to maintain maintain relarelaWe have suctionships Muslims all tionships with with Muslims all over over the the world. world. We have tried tried and and succeeded in developing these relationships. relationships. We ceeded in developing these We can can then then deal deal with with any any challenge challenge that that comes comes from from either either inside inside or or outside outside the the country. country. Our Our faith with each makes us us more faith grows grows stronger stronger with each challenge challenge it it faces faces and and makes more first look powerful. The powerful. The fox fox which which wakes wakes up up aa sleeping sleeping lion lion should shouldfirst look after after challenge the be its its own own safety. safety. Anyone Anyone who who dares dares to to challenge the Qur'an Quran should should be aware aware that that either either he he or or his his father father or or his his offspring offspring will will have have to to become become aa Muslim. Muslim.

It is is the voice of of Mohammed, Mohammed, the the command of God, God, which which can It the voice command of can never be be altered. never altered. The the Qur'an The world world may may change change aa thousand thousand times, times, the Quran never. never. In summary, summary, the the psychological psychological process process involved involved in in Muslim Muslim fundamenfundamenIn talist politics, which has as its its goal goal the of political, political, economic, economic, the replacement replacement of talist politics, which has as and bases of with aa religious of and social social bases of politics politics with religious critique, critique, consists consists essentially essentially of two steps. steps. First, First, there is an an attempt attempt to erase previous cognitive structures, structures, as two there is to erase previous cognitive as they relate relate to political life they to political life and and issues, issues, through through the the generation generation of of aa strong strong perpersecution anxiety anxiety in in the the group. group. Second, Second, on on the the now now relatively relatively clean clean slate slate of secution of the group's group's political the fundamentalist fundamentalist politician politician proceeds to draw draw the political psyche, psyche, the proceeds to group self-portrait-offers self-portrait—offers the the Muslims Muslims aa collective collective identity-which identity—which aa group

The The Muslim Muslim Fundamentalist Fundamentalist Identity Identity

emphasizes the the community's community's superiority superiority in in relation relation to to the the enemy enemy group, group, the the emphasizes nationalist Hindus. Hindus. Although Although this this superiority superiority may may have have many many other other features, features, nationalist such as as the the strength strength to to be be derived derived from from an an identification identification with with aa larger, larger, powerpowersuch ful pan-Islamic pan-Islamic community, community, its its core core isis aaconviction conviction in in the the inherent inherent superiority superiority ful of the the group's groups religion, religion, Islam, Islam, and and of of all all its its symbols. symbols. To To maintain maintain this this feeling feeling of of superiority superiority and and the the strength strength itit gives gives to to the the members members of of the the community, community, itit isis of considered essential essential for for the the individual individual to to be be zealous zealous in in the the observance observance of of relireliconsidered gious duties, duties, accept accept the the priority priority of of religion religion in in all all areas areas of of life, life, and and to to acknowlacknowlgious edge the the demands demands of of religion religion as as having having the the first call on on individual individual loyalty. loyalty. edge first call To To conclude: conclude: The The reasons reasons for for the the attraction attraction of of the the fundamentalist fundamentalist idenidentity Apart from tity for for many many Muslims Muslims are are not not difficult difficult to to fathom. fathom. Apart from providing providing aa forum forum for for resistance resistance to to perceived perceived domination domination and and repression, repression, fundamentalfundamentalism ism offers offers aa narcissistic narcissistic enhancement enhancement for for aa sense sense of of self-esteem self-esteem fractured fractured by by the the workings workings of of aa historical historical fate. fate. Besides Besides giving giving aa sacred sacred meaning meaning and and trantranscendent purpose the lives lives of of the the hurt, hurt, the the dislocated, dislocated, and and the the shipscendent purpose to to the shipwrecked, fundamentalism also makes makes aa masochistic masochistic reparation for guilt guilt wrecked, fundamentalism also reparation for feelings possible. In defining an Other as a competitor with a deadly intent feelings possible. In defining an Other as a competitor with a deadly intent toward one's ones own own group, group, fundamentalism fundamentalism provides provides aa focus focus for for undue undue anger anger toward and unresolved unresolved hate. hate. Little Little wonder that many many are are willing to pay pay the the costs costs of of aa and wonder that willing to the closing closing of fundamentalist fundamentalist identity-a identity—a considerable considerable denial denial of of reality, reality, the of one's ones eyes mind to the structures of the contemporary world, world, and the renunrenuneyes and and mind to the structures of the contemporary and the ciation pleasure-seeking attitude attitude in in favor favor of religiously disciplined ciation of of aa pleasure-seeking of aa religiously disciplined life. life.

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EIGHT EIGHT

Religious Conflict Religious Conflict in in the the Modern World Modern World

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ur times witness to religious revival. Islam, ,ur times are are witness to aa worldwide worldwide wave wave of of religious revival. Islam, Hinduism, religions in born-again ChrisChrisHinduism, Buddhism, Buddhism, the the new new religions in Japan, Japan, born-again tians tians in in the the United United States, States, and and the the Protestant Protestant sects sects in in Latin Latin America America are are unundergoing dergoing aa resurgence resurgence which which isis regarded regarded with with deep deep distrust distrust by by all allthe the modern modern heirs find most heirs to to the the Enlightenment. Enlightenment. Although Although aa secular secular humanist humanist might might find most manifestations is manifestations of of the the current current religious religious zeal zeal personally personally distasteful, distasteful, he he or or she she is nonetheless religion at nonetheless aware aware that that the the revitalization revitalization of of religion at the the end end of of the the twentwentieth the resacralization tieth century century constitutes constitutes aa complex complex attempt attempt at at the resacralization of of cultures cultures As Andrew beset modernity. As beset with with the the many many ills ills of of modernity. Andrew Samuels Samuels reminds reminds us, us, this this fragmented resacralization to of fragmented and and fractured fractured attempt attempt at at resacralization to combat combat the the sense sense of oppression vision of transcendent purpose is future utterly utterly bereft bereft of of any any vision of transcendent purpose is oppression and and aa future not only fundamentalisms but but also to the not only aa part part of of the the new new religious religious fundamentalisms also integral integral to the so-called so-called left-leaning, left-leaning, progressive progressive political political movements.! movements.1 One One can can discern discern the the search search for for transcendence transcendence even even in in concerns concerns around around ecological ecological issues issues and and environmental the discourse environmental protection protection where where at at least least some some of of the discourse is is comprised comprised of nature mysticism. of elements elements of of nature mysticism. However, However, if if we we look look closely closely at at individual individual cases cases around around the the world, world, we we will will find find that thatthe themuch-touted much-touted revival revivalisisless lessof ofreligiosity religiositythan thanof ofcultural cultural identiidentities may not be any ties based based on on religious religious affiliation. affiliation. In In oth