The Censorial System of Ming China 0804702896, 9780804702898

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The Censorial System of Ming China
 0804702896, 9780804702898

Table of contents :
1 The Censorial Heritage in China
2 The Ming Censorial Establishment
3 Censorial Surveillance Techniques
4 Censorial Impeachments and Counsel in a Tranquil Era, 1424-34
5 Censorial Impeachments and Counsel in a Chaotic Era, 1620-27
6 Censorial Distractions and Discipline
7 Censorship and the Traditional State System
Glossary of Special Terms and Titles

Citation preview

T he Censorial System of Ming China

Stanford Studies in the Civilizations of Eastern Asia Editors Arthur F. Wright John D. Goheen Robert H. Brower

Thomas C. Smith Mary Glabaugh Wright

Charles O. Hücker

T he Censorial System of M ing China

Stanford University Press, Stanford, California 1966

Stanford University Press Stanford, California © 1966 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University Printed in the United States of America L.C. 66-10916


My reasons for undertaking this work are for the most part suggested in the beginning pages of Chapter 1. Since it has been done singlehandedly, I accept full responsibility for the way it has been done. However, I am indebted to E. A. Kracke, Jr., of the University of Chicago, for guidance in early stages of the work; and I am grateful for my wife’s forbearance as the work stretched out over more than a decade. I also owe something to all those colleagues in the Chinese studies field who have so persistently inquired, after accepting my congratulations on their publications, “And how is your book com­ ing?” Such reminders must be what preface-writers usually refer to as “the constant encouragement of my professional colleagues.” With­ out them I confess I might not have found the will to persevere in the work despite all sorts of distractions, and I suppose I can now be grateful for them. c. o . January 1966



One The Censorial Heritage in China IN TR O D U C T IO N

i 1






Two The Ming Censorial Establishment











Three Censorial Surveillance Techniques T H E P R O B L E M O F ACCESS TO IN F O R M A T IO N

66 67







Four Censorial Impeachments and Counsel in a Tranquil Era, 1424-34


T H E P E R IO D 1 4 2 4 - 3 4 IN G E N E R A L














Five Censorial Impeachments and Counsel in a Chaotic Era, 1620-27


T H E P E R IO D 1 6 2 0 - 2 7 IN G EN ER A L







l8 o





Six Censorial Distractions and Discipline



Seven Censorship and the Traditional State System

235 254


Appendix Tables










Major Epochs of Chinese History

B.C. 1766? - 1122?





[ F e u d a l i s m ; m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l syst em s] 221



c h



d y n a s t y

[ L e g a l i s t d o m i n a t e d ; e m e r g e n c e o f c e n t r a l i z e d s ta t e ] 202

- A.D. 9

F O R M E R H A N DYNASTY [Im p e rial C o n fu cian ism ; em erg en ce of scholar-bureaucracy]

A.D. 25







Era of political division



6 l8

SUI DYNASTY [P olitical reu n ificatio n ]

6 l8





n g

d y n a s t y

[As c e n d a n c y o f ci v il - s er v i ce b u r e a u c r a t s ] 960




- 1368

YUAN DYNASTY [M ongol dom inance]


- 1644




c h

’i n



[M an ch u dom inance]

Chapter one

The Censorial Heritage in China


This book attempts to explain the nature and workings of an im­ portant part of the governmental system of Imperial China, one that had its beginnings in the third century before Christ and survived until our own century. I hope to contribute substantially to the gen­ eral effort of Chinese studies specialists to understand the traditional governmental system as a whole and to grasp its relevance to both traditional and modem Chinese history. I also hope that my work will hold some interest for all scholars concerned with organization theory, administrative theory, decision-making processes, compara­ tive government, and political theory in general. My subject is that complex amalgam of formal institutions and functional procedures which Western observers of China call “censor­ ship/* and which I shall most commonly refer to as “the censorial system.“ The system involves what modem political scientists call “control**; and it almost equally suggests such familiar terms as “in­ spection,** “surveillance,** “supervision,** “censure,** and “discipline.** Westerners have derived the term “censorship** from a misleading analogy with the censors of republican Rome. One could just as mis­ leadingly point out resemblances between the Chinese censors and the ephors of ancient Sparta, the missi dominici of Charlemagne, the fiscals of Frederick the Great and Peter the Great, the inspectorsgeneral of Napoleon, the ombudsmen of modern Sweden, or even the party commissars of some modern totalitarian states. In the contemporary United States, many intragovernmental con­ trols have elements in common with China’s censorial system. These include the controls that Congress exercises over the executive branch through impeachments, resolutions, and the activities of investigat-


The Censorial Heritage in China

ing committees; the work of the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Bureau of the Budget’s fiscal controls and the work of public accoun­ tants; the specialized supervisory functions of such agencies as the Army Inspector General’s Department; review of judicial decisions by appellate courts; and the locally exercised rights of recall and referendum. The main similar control outside the government is public opinion focused on government affairs through the press, public demonstrations, political strikes, organized pressure lobbies, and letters from individual citizens to their representatives in gov­ ernment. But making too much of such similarities would be as mis­ leading as the use of the term “censorship” itself. In general terms, censorship in Imperial China was a formal, systematic institutionalization within the government of three princi­ pal functions or roles: (1) the maintenance of surveillance over all governmental activities from outside the normal hierarchy of admin­ istrative responsibility; (2) the consequent impeachment, censure, or punishment of civil officials, military officers, and other governmental personnel for violations of prescribed or customary norms of con­ duct, private as well as public; and (3) the initiation or transmission of recommendations, and in some instances the direct issuance of orders, that current governmental policies, practices, or personnel be changed, the recommendations often including direct or indirect remonstrances about the conduct and decisions of the ruler himself. The system comprised several types and levels of specialized censorial agencies, each staffed with members of the regularly recruited civil officialdom on short-tenure appointments between assignments to other types of governmental work. The ultimate purpose of all their activities was, in the Chinese phrase, “to rectify administration.” In other words, the censorial system was an elaborately organized and highly systemized effort by the government to police itself. It was intended to discover all violations of public policy, administra­ tive regulations, and operational orders; thereby to purge the gov­ ernment of incompetence and malfeasance; and consequently to help maintain a governmental tone that accorded as closely as possible with the Chinese ideal. The system was considered an essential but­ tress in the structure that Westerners like to call “the Confucian state system.” Virtually every Western observer or historian of traditional China has taken note of the censorial system and its importance in state affairs. The great Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), the first modern European to live in and write extensively about China, called the

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Chinese censorial officials “keepers of the public conscience“ who “inform the King as often as they see fit of any infraction of the law in any part of the entire kingdom.“ He added with admiration, “they do their duty so thoroughly that they are a source of wonder to outsiders and a good example for imitation. Neither King nor magistrates can escape their courage and frankness, and . . . they will never desist from their admonitions and criticism until some remedy has been applied to the public evil against which they are inveighing.“1 The modern historian K. S. Latourette, judging that “in spite of its defects the [Chinese] political structure which so largely disappeared in the first three decades of the twentieth century was among the most re­ markable and successful ever devised by man,“ has emphasized that the censorial system was “uniquely characteristic of China.“2 One contemporary authority on the history of the traditional Chinese state, E. A. Kracke, Jr., has suggested that “the longevity of China’s political system must be credited in significant degree to the power and vigilance of the Censorate.“8 Among the Chinese themselves, the long prevailing attitude toward the censorial system is well repre­ sented in a comment by the great emperor Ming T ’ai-tsu (reigned 1368-98): “There are three supreme national institutions. The Sec­ retariat is in general control of administrative matters, the Military Command is in charge of the armies, and the Censorate is in charge of surveillance. The dynastic principles all depend upon these, and the Censorate’s surveillance duties are of most particular importance.“4 It is not surprising, therefore, that modern Chinese and foreign scholars alike have attempted general histories of the traditional censorial system.6 All they have been able to do, however, is provide superficial chronicles of changes in the system’s organizational struc­ ture. In large part this is because, for the earlier periods of Chinese history, source materials that could contribute to more meaningful analyses of actual censorial operations do not exist, and for the later periods they are too voluminous to be manageable in their totality. Concentrating on seemingly more manageable single-dynasty eras, the Chinese scholars Yü Teng and T ’ang Chi-ho have studied, re­ spectively, the censorial systems of the Ming (1368-1644) and Ch’ing (1644-1912) dynasties;8 and the Western-trained Chinese scholars Edgar Cha Tang (in the United States) and Li Hsiung-fei (in France) have both produced dissertations on the censorial system of the Ch’ing dynasty.7 But even the single-dynasty scope of their efforts has proved unmanageable. They have successfully summarized regulations con­ cerning structural organization, personnel procedures, and prescribed


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functions of the censorial system; but in attempting to analyze actual operations of the system they have had to rely on secondary materials that are much too general and random in their selections of data to provide a basis for reliable evaluations.8 The European scholar Eugene Feifel, without presuming to grapple with the censorial system as a whole, has provided a useful study of the censorial career of Po Chii-i, a famous poet-official of the T ’ang dynasty (618-907), including full translations of some of his memorials to the throne.9 But such work is necessarily too particular to be used as a basis for any general evaluation of the system. In short, existing studies of the Chinese censorial system are in­ adequate. They do not answer questions modern scholars ask about the system, nor do they resolve the conflicting common interpreta­ tions of it, which range from extravagant claims that it was by nature a democratic restraint upon the ruler's despotic inclinations to equally extravagant denunciations of the system as a ruler's tool for terrorizing his servants and subjects. The present work is intended to help clarify the situation. What is attempted here is another single-dynasty study, focusing on the Ming period (1368-1644). It differs from prior attempts of this sort in several ways. Although it incorporates thorough descriptions of the organizational structure and the prescribed duties of the cen­ sorial agencies and officials, it gives primary emphasis to what censor­ ial officials actually did in practice, seen in relation to the total gov­ ernmental and historical context in which they found themselves. Furthermore, an effort is made to take full account of all kinds of censorial activities, not merely of those that were dramatic enough or curious enough to be selected for attention in secondary compila­ tions. It is this effort to be comprehensive that has prompted me to focus on the Ming dynasty, since that is the earliest dynasty for which we still have a complete day-by-day court chronicle of the sort called Shih-lu or “True Records," the most inclusive of all compilations of political documents in the Chinese tradition. At the same time, the effort to take into account all types of censorial activities in relation to their institutional and political context has required use of some systematic sampling procedure. Coverage of the whole Ming period in depth would demand a lifetime of work, and in any event the volume of data it would accumulate might well prove too great for manageable analysis. To come to grips with the routine details of Ming censorial operations, the study therefore focuses on two short, contrasting periods in the dynasty: (1) the decade 1424-34, encom-

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passing the reigns of Jen-tsung and Hsiian-tsung, a notable early Ming era of peace and governmental stability; and (2) the sevenyear period 1620-27, the reign of Hsi-tsung, a late Ming era of great political turbulence. Thus, descriptions of the structural arrange­ ments, personnel regulations, and prescribed duties of the censorial agencies relate to the whole 277-year expanse of the Ming dynasty. But detailed analyses of what censorial officials actually did, which illustrate and give life to the all-Ming generalizations, are derived only from the two periods 1424-34 and 1620-27. I cannot claim that the two eras chosen for analysis are in any sense typical of the whole Ming dynasty, though they may well be, respect­ ively, the best of times and the worst of times as regards the function­ ing of the Ming governmental system. Similarly, I cannot suggest that the Ming dynasty as a whole is in any sense typical of the long history of the traditional Chinese state, though it is a dynasty in which the censorial system undoubtedly reached a high point of organizational complexity and political prominence. What I offer, therefore, is a case study of the censorial system in only one stage of its long history, with analyses of samplings of the relevant data. A comprehensive analytical history of the system unfortunately must await the pre­ liminary production of many more comparable case studies. The Ming censorial agencies and activities discussed in detail in the succeeding chapters cannot be understood in isolation. They had both ideological and institutional roots stretching back to antiquity. To be fully understood and appreciated, therefore, the practice of censorship in Ming times must be seen in the context of China's long censorial heritage, from which Ming censorial officials drew their inspirations and precedents and in reference to which they were judged by their contemporaries. T H E ID E O L O G IC A L BA SIS O F C E N S O R S H I P

Part of the distinctive Chinese style or mode of life is a penchant for self-evaluation, a compulsion to examine, rationalize, and justify one's actions. Both of the indigenous systems of thought that have principally shaped and reflected China’s national character, Con­ fucianism and Taoism, have stressed the reflective aspect of the good life, and Confucius himself is reported to have stated its main prin­ ciple: "If a man does not continually ask himself 'What am I to do about this, what am I to do about this?' there is no possibility of my doing anything about him."10 Even today the Chinese habitually speak in a kind of rationalizing, dialectical monologue: "I do not


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want to sell the pig today. Why do I not want to sell the pig today? Because today/' etc. It is therefore not out of character for the Chinese to develop a highly institutionalized form of governmental self-evalu­ ation. Sanctions for the two most prominent modes of censorial action, impeachment and remonstrance, are specifically to be found in the two ancient schools of thought that most directly influenced the tra­ ditional governmental system.11 Individualistic, anti-authoritarian Taoism is not one of these. One is of course Confucianism, the heavily moralistic code of “the gentleman," with a pre-eminent emphasis on paternalism in government and other forms of social duty. The other is Legalism, a Machiavellian code for working bureaucrats which is dedicated to the welfare of the state rather than to the state-promoted welfare of the people. Both the early Confucians and the early Legal­ ists advocated criticism in government, and a well-established right to criticize was essential to censorial impeachment and remonstrance. It is clearly Legalism rather than Confucianism that sanctions the censorial function of impeachment. Confucius and his followers trusted to the virtuous example of the ruler to maintain morality and morale in the administration, and they seemed to feel that once a good man had been put in office he should suffer no constraints other than those imposed by his own conscience. Moreover, the Con­ fucians did not condone informers. “The gentleman," in Confucius's definition, “calls attention to the good points in others; he does not call attention to their defects. The small man does just the reverse of this."12 And Confucius' great early follower Mencius had plain contempt for informers: “What future misery have they and ought they to endure," he exclaimed, “who talk of what is not good in others!"13 The Legalists, on the other hand, trusted neither the ruler's example nor the individual conscience. They trusted only to codified laws and regulations, enforced by ruthless surveillance on the part of state-rewarded informers. The great thirteenth-century Mongol em­ peror Kublai Khan once said of his three top-level governmental organs in China that “the Secretariat is my left hand, the Bureau of Military Affairs is my right hand, and the Censorate is the means for my keeping both hands healthy."14 This is precisely the essentially Legalist concept that sanctioned censorial impeachment throughout Chinese history. It naturally appealed to many efficiency-minded rulers and ministers. Remonstrance, on the other hand, finds its clearest sanction in classical Confucian doctrines. Pre-Confucian records abound in ex-

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amples of ministers who doggedly remonstrated with rulers, often at great cost to themselves. The early Confucian thinkers, always in­ terested in imposing their own notions of good government on the rulers of their time, modeled themselves after these ministers. Con­ fucius often rebuked the powerful to their faces, and Mencius fre­ quently said such bold things that rulers “changed countenance” or hastily changed the subject. Through their own conduct Confucius and Mencius thus became examples to be emulated by later remonstrators. Moreover, their expressed principles made remonstrance more a loyal duty than a right. When asked by a disciple how a prince should be served, Confucius said, “Do not deceive him, but when necessary withstand him to his face.”15 He is also reported to have said that “for one whose place is near the throne, not to remonstrate is to hold his office idly for the sake of gain.”16 Even parents, to whom a good Confucian owed supreme loyalty, were not to be exempted from remonstrance. We are told that when a disciple asked if filial piety meant for the son to obey his father’s orders Confucius cried out, “How can you say this! How can you say this! . . . When con­ fronted with unrighteousness, the son cannot but remonstrate with his father and the minister cannot but remonstrate with his ruler. Therefore, when confronted with unrighteousness, remonstrate against it! How could merely obeying the father’s orders be consid­ ered filial piety?”17 So strong was the Confucian insistence on remon­ strance that Chinese rulers throughout history actually called upon their officials to remonstrate with them, and did so consistently. The Legalist view of kingship, on the other hand, had no place for the moralistic criticism of rulers that classical Confucianism advocates, though the early Legalist thinkers did warn rulers about the dangers of not heeding advice, and instructed officials in the art of “persuad­ ing” rulers without threat to themselves.18 Confucius and Mencius, and the early Legalist thinkers as well, lived in a time when China was divided among competing feudal lords. When their remonstrances were ignored, or when they felt that the moral Way did not prevail, Confucius and Mencius were free to leave one lord’s court and wander to another in search of a more congenial atmosphere. In the last centuries of the feudal age, the competition between regional states was so keen that a renowned adviser could get a hearing and a substantial emolument almost any­ where, and this circumstance naturally emboldened such men as Mencius to speak very frankly to their temporary patrons, in a spirit of independence and detachment. However, after China was brought


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under one rule in the third century b .c ., the adviser found himself in a much less enviable position. He might remonstrate, and if his re­ monstrances went unheeded or if his principles were consistently compromised he might indeed withdraw from service. But there was no escaping the state; there was only one governmental structure. The adviser had the choice of giving loyal service to a ruler whom he might not trust, or of abandoning entirely the sense of political re­ sponsibility that is imbedded in the whole Confucian ideology. Faced with this choice, some frustrated Confucians did abandon bureaucratic careers in favor of the anchorite self-cultivation that had always been advocated by China's anti-government Taoist thinkers.19 Other Confucians resolutely upheld the traditional ideal of political service by remonstrating fearlessly, at the risk of disgrace and per­ haps death for themselves and their families. The typical Confucian adviser of imperial times, however, was neither a do-or-die moralist nor a resigned hermit, but a practicing bureaucrat. By being pru­ dently subservient to his ruler in much the way Legalism had pre­ scribed, he kept himself alive and prospering, and hence able to pro­ vide the filial service to his parents that classical Confucianism de­ manded. Nevertheless, his subservience was so modified by moralistic considerations that he was hardly an ideal Legalist minister and at times brought disgrace and hardship upon his family, contravening a basic Confucian principle. All these considerations were never far from the conscious thoughts of Chinese officials of Ming times. All officials, in the course of their administrative routines, regularly evaluated their subordinates and remonstrated with their superiors. In reference to matters within his administrative jurisdiction, any official might submit to the throne impeachments of his associates or policy recommendations; and the highest-ranking officials naturally advised and remonstrated with emperors about governmental affairs of every sort. For that matter, even a common citizen could feel free in Ming times to submit direct­ ly to the throne a denunciation of any official or a complaint or recom­ mendation about any policy, if he could convincingly demonstrate that the matter in hand significantly affected the national interest. And anyone among the educated classes might be just as zealous as any censorial official in bombarding the throne with memorials in defense of the Confucian heritage. The censorial agencies, in other words, did not monopolize control techniques in the Ming governmental system, and a study of their activities cannot exhaust all the control possibilities that existed in

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the system. But the censorial agencies specialized in control tech­ niques as no other agencies did. Whereas other officials might exer­ cise the right of criticism and might even feel a moral obligation to criticize, the censorial officials alone had the prescribed legal duty of criticizing. It is this institutionalization of control techniques out­ side regular administrative channels that gives the Chinese censorial system its special character and made censorial officials the particu­ larly designated, self-conscious “avenues of criticism.“ T H E IN S T IT U T IO N A L IZ A T IO N OF C EN SO R SH IP

Three kinds of agencies constituted the specialized censorial hier­ archy in Ming times: a Chief Surveillance Office or Censorate proper, based at the national capital; thirteen Provincial Surveillance Offices, one in each province of the empire; and a cluster of six coordinate Offices of Scrutiny, based, like the Censorate, at the national capital. Using the traditional techniques of surveillance officials (ch’a-kuan, those who investigate and impeach) and speaking officials (yen-kuan, those who counsel and remonstrate), they covered the whole govern­ mental establishment with a net of remarkably systematic controls. Each agency had a prescribed sphere of jurisdiction and a pre­ scribed functional specialty. The metropolitan Censorate, which had the broadest scope of activity, maintained empire-wide surveillance over all government operations, and its officials, who were both surveillance and speaking officials, submitted both impeachments and recommendations. Provincial Surveillance Offices maintained similar, but more intensive, surveillance over governmental operations within their respective provinces. Their officials characteristically submitted impeachments but not recommendations. The Offices of Scrutiny characteristically restricted their activities to the capital. Their per­ sonnel specially scrutinized and controlled the documents sent to and from the throne, and though they were principally speaking officials, they also submitted both impeachments and recommendations, as did members of the Censorate.* Each of these censorial agencies was heir to a long institutional * Throughout this book the term “censor” is used only in reference to officials of the Censorate. “Surveillance officials” includes both censors and officials of such agencies as the Ming Provincial Surveillance Offices. “Speaking officials” includes supervising secretaries of the Ming Offices of Scrutiny and all their prototypes, such as remonstrators, reminders, omissioners, etc. “Censorial officials” includes both surveillance officials and speaking officials, not censors alone, just as the term “censorial system” refers to all surveillance and remonstrance activities and not to the Censorate alone.


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past, and the techniques that each used were in large part justified by precedent.20 Institutional Background of the Ming Censorate The institutional character of government in China’s earliest an­ tiquity is still very poorly understood, so that an attempt to trace any censorial agency back to its ultimate origins would be futile. But it is noteworthy, perhaps, that the title yü-shih, traditionally used to identify surveillance officials of the Censorate proper, probably had longer continuous use as a ministerial title than any other in any language. The term appears as a title in oracle-bone inscriptions of the Shang dynasty ( 1 7 6 6 ? - ! 1 2 2 ? b . c .) and was used thereafter until a . d . 1912.21 The basic element, shih, was originally the Shang term for a tally-holding archery scorekeeper, and from an early time it undoubt­ edly had the sense of “recorder” that was its standard meaning throughout imperial times.22 The modifying element, yü, can appar­ ently also be understood in its later sense of “royal” or “imperial.” During the Chou dynasty ( i i 2 2 ? - 2 5 6 b . c .) the title “royal recorder” was one of several in use (“grand recorder,” “junior recorder,” “inner recorder,” “outer recorder,” etc.) for feudal-age officials who heredi­ tarily performed semireligious functions at court and evolved before the third century b . c . into choniclers of court events.28 Although the term yü-shih has been called one of several “authentic titles for his­ torians among the oracle-bone inscriptions,”24 and although the Chou dynasty shih in general has been typified as a “stern recorder of the ruler’s deeds and censor of his actions,”25 we in fact have very little information about the functions with which the terms were associated in either Shang or Chou times, and there is certainly no evidence that the office of any shih at these times represented an institutionalization of specialized censorial techniques. Institutionalized censorship appeared, concurrently with other lasting characteristics of the imperial state system, when one regional state destroyed the decentralized feudal system in 2 2 1 b . c . and estab­ lished the centralized, bureaucratic Ch’in dynasty ( 2 2 1 - 2 0 7 b . c .) . Then, as later, the state administrative staff consisted basically of two personnel services, a civil service and a military service; both were made up of what might be called “commissioned officers” ap­ pointed by and responsible to the emperor, who were assisted by “noncommissioned” functionaries recruited in less formal ways and having much less status and authority. During the centuries follow­ ing the Ch’in, the civil service and the military service came to be

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more and more clearly differentiated, and long before Ming times the separate services had become thoroughly bureaucratized, with their own distinctive standards of appointment, promotion, and so on. Be­ ginning in Former Han times (202 b .c . - a .d . 9), and to a notable extent in the T ’ang dynasty (618-907), heredity as a qualification for office was de-emphasized and the principle of regular selection for office on the basis of merit was introduced, especially in the civil service; so that long before Ming times, public, competitive, written examina­ tions based on the classical Confucian philosophical and historical literature had become the predominant means of recruitment into the civil service, and the civil service had become an almost autono­ mous, largely self-perpetuating and self-regulating power bloc in the Chinese state system. Moreover, so great was its prestige (largely de­ rived from the general prestige of learning) that before 1368 the civil service had eclipsed the military service in administrative importance. Though dynasty after dynasty naturally depended in the last resort on military strength, China had long accepted what we know as the principle of civilian supremacy over the military. Censorial officials from the beginning were integral members of the civil service and thus shared in that service’s steadily increasing bureaucratization and prestige. From Ch’in times on, imperially appointed officials of both services were in unchallenged control of all governmental functions through­ out the empire, from local district magistracies and military commanderies up to the various departments and bureaus of the central government. In both civil and military hierarchies, as China’s popu­ lation grew and government became more sophisticated and complex, the basic units of administration gradually became more numerous and their geographical jurisdictions more restricted. There was an inevitable need for supervisory coordination at an intermediate level between the local districts and the central government, and as early as Han times proto-provincial establishments began to appear. In T ’ang (618-907) and Sung (960-1279) times the local districts were subordinated to supervisory prefectures, which were themselves placed under circuit commissions or intendancies. From there it was but a step into the full-scale provincial order of the last dynasties. From their beginning right down to the end of the empire, these in­ termediary agencies consistently had a censorial or quasi-censorial quality and status. Likewise, from Ch’in times on, the structure of the central govern­ ment, though it grew and changed through the dynasties, fell into a


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stable general pattern that emphasized the censorial functions. The top echelon of the government, directly under the emperor, was always tripartite, including a supreme military establishment, a su­ preme general-administration establishment, and what we call the Censorate, usually bearing the literal designation Tribunal of Cen­ sors (yü-shih tfai). Thus the Han governmental hierarchy was headed by a triumvirate called “the three dukes“: a grand marshal, a grand councilor, and a censor-in-chief (yü-shih ta-fu). In T ’ang and Sung times, the top general-administration establishment previously repre­ sented by the Han grand councilor became a several-man grand council, supervising three great administrative organs called the Sec­ retariat, the Chancellery, and the Department of State Affairs; but the Censorate retained its old parallel, autonomous status. By these times, it also had spawned subdivisions: a Court of General Affairs (t'ai-yüari) staffed by associate censors (shih yü-shih), a Court of Palace Affairs (tien-yiian) staffed by palace censors (tien-chung shih yü-shih), and a Court of Surveillance (9a-b. Cf. Ku Tso’s biography in MS 158.2b4b, and Yeh, S h u i-tu n g Jih-chi, 2.i2a-b, 6.4b. 149. HTSL 81.2b. 150. HTSL 84.16b-! 7a.


Notes to Pages 268-78

151. MS; K u -ch in T ’u-shu Chi-ch’en g, K u an -cW an g section, 353.8a-ga. 152. See note 57 to Chapter 5. 153. STSL 26.1b. 154. STSL 30.2ga-3ob. Chao Nan-hsing also lamented that appointments as supervising secretaries were more valued than appointments as censors. 155. STSL 7o.i3b-i4a, 78.3b. 156. STSL 39.8a, 52.21a; Hsii, H siao-t'ien Chi-chuan, 62.6a-7a. 157. STSL 23.1a, 57.7a-8a; MS 243.i9b-2ia. 158. See Chao Nan-hsing’s biography in MS 243.ia~5b. 159. C hung-cheng Piao-t*i, by an unidentified compiler. 160. T u n g -lin T a n g -jen P an g, reproduced in many sources including Wen, H sien -p o Chih-shih, and Ch’en, T u n g -lin L ieh -ch u an . 161. T u n g -lin T ’ung-chih L u , reproduced in Liu Jo-yii, C ho-chu ng C hih Y ü , 1.24-29. 162. E.g., see KTSL 4-33a~34a; STSL i4*3b-4a, ig.2ga-b, 27-27b-28a, 29.i5a-b. 163. E.g., see KTSL 2.3a; STSL 5.24b-25a, io.2a-3a, 12.1b, 22.5b-6a, 26.23b-24a, 394b-5a, 41.10b. 164. KTSL 1.8a. 165. STSL 6i.23a-b. 166. STSL 43.13a. 167. KTSL 3.14b; STSL 5.33a, 77.20a. 168. STSL 5.29a, 9.18b. 169. STSL 12.8a, 13.18a, i54b-5a, 26.1a. 170. STSL 4-32b-33a, 5.7b, 24.22b-23a, 74.31a, 75.20b. 171. KTSL i.36b-38a; STSL 2.8b-gb, 2-44a~45a, 2.52b, 38.10a, 40.2b, 48.5a, 58.ioa-i2a. 172. KTSL 4.28a-29a. 173. STSL 17.9b. 174. For the salary suspensions of Chang and Kao, see STSL 2-44a~45a. For that of Wang, see STSL 8.4b. 175. STSL 17.20b. 176. MS 24i-3b-7a; STSL 74.n b -i2a. 177. STSL 56.i7b-i8a, 59.1 ob -11a. Cf. K’ang P'ei-yang’s biography in C hi-nan-fu C hih 5 2 .2 7 b - 2 ga.

178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191.

STSL 57.25b-26b, 63.16b; MS 2314a; 243-3a-b, 5a; 3o6.25a-b. STSL 55.38a, 58.i8b-i9a, 71.4a. STSL 58.32a, 63.21 a-22a, 72.4a. STSL 66.i3b-i4a, 72.26b. STSL 59-34a-35a, 72.i7a-b, 73.25a. STSL 69.4a, 76.2a. STSL 54.1a, 54.i2b-i3a, 55.39a, 61.30a, 76.17b. STSL 64.21a, 79.7a; C hiang-nan T*ung-chih 146.13b. STSL 53.26b-27a, 61.17b, 79.35b. STSL 58.i8a-b, 65.3îa-b, 81.7a. STSL 47.3a. Cf. MS 2434a-b. STSL53.16b, 59.13a, 70.24a, 82.2ib-23a. STSL 53-3ib-33a, 60.18b, 76.32b. Cf. S h u n -fien -fu C hih 107.20a. Compilation of the blacklist of eunuch partisans, called N i A n , was

Notes to Pages 278-86


indeed a matter of great controversy. It is reproduced in Wen, H sien -p o Chih-shih.

192. MS 248.4b; STSL 57.$a-4a, 68.26a-b, 75.i8a-b. 193. MS 275.ia-3b. Chang Shen-yen seems to have been very active as a censor in 1620, 1621, and 1622. After the sixth month of 1622, however, the Shih-lu makes no further mention of him. His MS biography, which is almost duplicated in Shan-hsi T 'u n g-ch ih , i3i.iga-2oa, gives no further in­ formation on him until the third month of 1625, when he apparently went home on leave. MS reports that he had previously offended Feng Ch’iian, who had become one of Wei Chung-hsien’s protégés, and that Feng had friends impeach him for venality. In consequence, he was eventually sent to guard the frontier in modem Kansu, in the far northwest Under Chuanglieh-ti he was pardoned and resumed his career, finally becoming Nanking minister of personnel. I am unable to fill in any information on Chang's career in 1623 and 1624. Since Feng Ch’iian is generally considered respon­ sible for mutiliating the H si-tsu n g Shih-lu (see note 57 to Chapter 5), it is possible that he deleted from the records any references to this enemy after mid-1622. 194. MS 246.i4a-i6a; STSL 11.2a, 49.3a, 52.37b~38a, 66.7b, 74.1 îa-b. 195. STSL 6.4a-b, i54b-5a, i9.7b-8a, 19.37^383, 21.24a, 22.i6a-b, 26.11a, 33.2oa-22b, 52-33a-b, 55.42a, 73.27b. 196. MS 257.13a-!5a; STSL 2-5a-b, 5.26b, 52.24a, 52.37b-38a, 60.8b, 65.1b. 197. STSL 56.4a-b, 59.31b, 64.i5a-b. Cf. Fang Chen-ju’s biography in MS 248.iob-i3a. 198. STSL 52.37b-38a, 63.22b-23a. 199. Li Yen, T u n g -lin -ta n g ,p . 14. 200. STSL 61.33a; MS 245-2ob-2ia. 201. STSL 58.iga-b; MS 245.20b. 202. MS 244-23a-24b. 203. STSL 47.6b, 52-37b-38a, 56.17a. Cf. MS 244-ia-i 1a. 204. STSL 47.6b, 52-37b-38a, 56.17a. Cf. MS 244.1 ia -i5 a and Tso, N ie n p ’u.

205. STSL 56.20a, 69.4a; MS 244.i5b-iga. 206. MS 244.2ib-23a. 207. MS 244-2oa-2ib. 208. STSL 63.35a-36a. 209. MS245-ia-3a. 210. MS 245-3a~5a. 211. MS 245-5a-6b; Hucker, “Su-chou.” 212. MS 243-i5b-i9b; STSL 65.2oa-b. 213. MS 245.711-11 b; STSL 67.24b. 214. MS 245.i5b-i8b; STSL 68.13a. 215. Hummel, E m in e n t C hin ese, 1, 351-54. 216. Huang Tsung-hsi, M in g -ju H sü eh -an , vol. 2 (section 12), p. 18. 217. MS 245-i2a-i5b; STSL 68.2a. 218. For the experiences of Yang Lien and Tso Kuang-tou in prison, see Tso, N ie n -p 'u , 2.5b ff. 219. I b id ., 2 .n b -i2 b , 2.i7a-b. 220. I b id ., 2.14a ff. 221. For the assessment of punitive damages, see STSL 65.20a. 222. Tso, N ien-p*u, 2.17a-!). 223. M


Notes to Pages 287-95

C h a p te r seven

1. Ricd, C hin a in th e 1 6 th C en tu ry, p. 49. 2. Medhurst, C h in a, pp. 112-13. 3. Walker, “The Control System,” pp. 12-14. Cf. Sun Yat-sen, San M in C hu I , pp. 356-57 (sixth lecture on the principle of people's democracy); and Wu Chih-fang, C hin ese G o v ern m e n t, p. 198. 4. Lin, T h e Press a n d P u b lic O p in io n , pp. 59-60. 5. Walker, “The Control System,” pp. 19-20.

6. Williams, T h e M id d le K in g d o m , 1, 431-33. 7. See Wright, C hin ese C on servatism , p. 264. 8. Weber, T h e R e lig io n o f C h in a, pp. 31,48. 9. “Structure of the Chinese Government” (unsigned), p. 136. Williams, (T h e M id d le K in g d o m , I, 433) attributes these observations to E. C. Taintor. 10. Lin, T h e Press a n d P u b lic O p in io n , p. 62. 11. Finer, M o d e rn G o v ern m e n t, II, 863-64. 12. Yüan-shih 148.8b; cf. HTK ch. 54. Also cf. the judgment of a Swedish parliamentary committee in 1939 on the effectiveness of the public control officer called the Justitieombudsman (JO): “The less cause the JO has to intervene with his official authority the more surely is the objective of his office attained.” See Chapman, T h e P rofession of G o v ern m e n t, p. 255. 13. Wittfogel's thesis, in its applications to China, is most succinctly stated in his article “Chinese Society,” and is explained most fully in his book O rie n ta l D e sp o tism . The thesis has been criticized from different points of view by many scholars, including Mote in “Chinese Despotism,” and Eisenstadt in “Oriental Despotisms.” 14. Mote, “Chinese Despotism,” pp. i8ff. 15. Ting, T*e-wu Cheng-chih. 16. On pp. 54-59 of his O rie n ta l D e sp o tism , where he discusses “the or­ ganization of quick locomotion and intelligence” in various ‘‘hydraulic” so­ cieties, and where he relates road systems and postal services to national in­ telligence services in some other societies, Wittfogel limits his comments about China to a discussion of the evolution and the workings of the postalrelay system. 17. Wittfogel, O rie n ta l D e sp o tism , p. 134. 18. I b id ., pp. 135-36. 19. I b id ., p. 136. My book T h e T ra d itio n a l C hin ese S tate, though not in­ tentionally, seems to serve indirectly as a refutation of certain of Wittfogel's most emphasized theses. 20. Levenson, C on fu cian C hin a, vol. 2 (T h e P ro b le m o f M o n a rch ica l D e ­ cay ), especially Chapter V: “Confucianism and Monarchy: the Limits of Des­ potic Control.” 21. Ib id ., p.98. 22. I b id ., p. 61. 23. I b id ., p.72. 24. Creel has persuasively argued that the traditional Chinese bureau­ cracy, in practice and in theory, did indeed measure up to Weber's criteria for a modern bureaucracy. See his article “Beginnings of Bureaucracy.”

Notes to Pages 295-300


I agree with his principal thesis. However, the imperial bureaucracy in prac­ tice was by no means an apolitical administrative agent of the executive, as is commonly the case in modem states; it was an active political power in its own right. 25. Levenson, C on fu cia n C h in a, vol. 2, p. 62. 26. /&td.,p. 73. 27. See the discussions of Hsiung T ’ing-pi's career scattered through Chap­ ter 5. Cf. his biography in MS 259-7a-24b. 28. STSL 15.24b. 29. See the discussions of the Tung-lin controversies in Chapter 5 and in my article “The Tung-lin Movement.“ 30. Chiang, T u n g -lin Shih-m o, p. 33; MS 2i8.4a-9a (biography of Wang Hsi-chiieh). 31. Chiang, T u n g -lin Shih-m o, p. 32; cf. MS 218.9a-! 4a (biography of Shen I-kuan). 32. Chiang, T u n g -lin Shih-m o, p. 42; cf. MS 24o.ia-ga (biography of Yeh Hsiang-kao). 33. MS 2i7.i3b -i5b (biography of Li T'ing-chi); cf. Chiang, T u n g -lin S h ih-m o, pp. 32-34. 34. M S2i7.i3b-i5b. 35. Semedo, T h e M o n a rch y o f C h in a, p. 126. 36. I b id ,, p. 129. 37. E.g., see STSL 22.28b-29a, 23.8a-ga. 38. STSL g.25b-26a. 39. STSL 35.40b. 40. STSL 2.34b-35a. 41. L i-ta i C hih -kuan P ia o 1, 518-19. 42. Hucker, T h e T r a d itio n a l C hin ese S ta te, p. 52.

Glossary and Bibliography

Glossary of Special Terms and Titles S ection I lists term s fo r w hich E nglish tra n sla tio n s are g iven in the te x t or N o te s; S ection II lists term s for w hich on ly ro m a n iza tio n s are g iven .

S ection 7, E nglish acting appointment, shih-chih administration commissioner, pucheng shih

associate censor, shih yü-shih

Ä “avenues of criticism,” yen-lu

administration vice commissioner, ts’an-cheng

admonisher, ssu-chien “ annual provincial transfer,” nienli wai-chuan

Armory, chisn-ch’i chii jfEfglu army-inspecting censor, chien-chün

Battalion, ch’ien-hu so ^pËfr battalion commander, cheng ch’ienhu JE ^p battalion vice commander, f u ch’ien-hu gij^fp branch Censorate, hsingyü-shih t’ai


Army Inspecting Circuit, chien-chün

too assistant administration commis­ sioner, ts’an-i assistant censor-in-chief, ch’ien tu yü-shih

assistant commissioner (of Regional Military Commission), tu chihhui ch’ien-shih

assistant commissioner-in-chief, tu­ tu ch’ien-shih

branch Court of the Imperial Stud, hsing t ’ai-p’u ssu branch Secretariat, hsing chung-shu sheng

Bureau (in Ministry), ch’ing-li ssu


Bureau of Appointments (Person­ nel), wen-hsiian ch’ing-li ssu

mj s a Bureau of Ceremonies


i-chih ch’ing-li ssu

assistant county magistrate, chu-pu

Bureau of Construction (Works),

assistant director (of Seal Office), ssu-ch’eng ü] âÊ assistant magistrate (subprefect­ ure), p ’an-kuan £Jl! assistant minister (Court), ssu-

Bureau of Equipment (W ar), ch’e-

ying-shan ch’ing-li ssu


assistant prefect, t’ung-p’an assistant surveillance commission­ er, an-ch’a ch’ien-shih Sc

chia ch’ing-li ssu

Bureau of Evaluations (Personnel), k’ao-kung ch’ing-li ssu

Bureau of Forestry and Crafts (Works), yü-heng ch’ing-li ssu Bureau of Honors yen-feng ch’ing-li ssu



378 Bureau of Irrigation and Trans­ portation (Works), tu-shui ch'ingli ssu

Bureau of Military Affairs, shu-mi yuan

Bureau of Operations (War), chihfa n g ch'ing-li ssu

Bureau of Personnel (War), wuhsiian ch'ing-li ssu  ü^flËïï] Bureau of Provisions (Rites), chingshan ch'ing-li ssu

Bureau of Provisions (War), tm-k'u ch'ing-li ssu ÂJfcfê|Ë^J Bureau of Receptions (Rites), chuk'o ch'ing-li ssu ±gifêr|ËH] Bureau of Records (Personnel), chi-hsün ch'ing-li ssu

Bureau of Remonstrance, chien-yiian

KK Bureau of Sacrifices (Rites), tz'uchi ch'ing-li ssu

Bureau of State Lands (Works), t'un-t'im ch'ing-li ssu

“capital evaluation,” ching-ch'a &

m “case of the attack with the club,” ch'ih-t'ing an fêfëH “case of the red pills,” hung-wan an

“case of the removal from the palace,” i-kung an “case of the subversive book,” yao-shu an

censor, yii-shih censor-in-chief (pre-Ming), yü-shih ta-fu

censor-in-chief (M ing), tu yii-shih Censorate (pre-Ming), yii-shih t'ai

Central Buddhist Registry, seng-lu

ssu mmm Central Drafting Office, chung-shu k'o

Central Taoist Registry, tao-lu ssu m m *\

ceremonial usher, tsan-li long


» Chancellery, men-hsia sheng chancellor of Hanlin Academy, hsiieh-shih

chief clerk (Censorate), tu-shih



chief clerk (Provincial Surveillance Office), chih-shih ft] chief eunuch, t'ai-chim chief investigating censor, chien-ch'a tu yü-shih


Chief Military Commission, tu-tu

ju m m

chief minister (Court), ch'ing £ chief supervising secretary, tu chishih-chung UjSfëÿcfi Chief Surveillance Office, tu ch'ayuan

um m

circuit, too jg circuit inspector (H an), tz'u-shih circuit inspector (T ’ang), hsün-an yü-shih

circuit intendant (Sung), chien-ssu circuit intendant (M ing), tao-t'ai mm

civil official, wen-kuan Coastal Patrol Circuit, hsiin-hai too mmm

collator, chien-chiao fôfë College of Interpreters, hui-t'ung hum

College of Translators, ssu-i hum or yü-shih f u & £.1ft Censorate (M ing), tu ch'a-yiian



commission, ch'ai-ch'ien commissioner-in-chief, tu-tu

Glossary commissioner (Office of Transmis­ sion), t'ung-cheng shih îiïfcfêL Company, po hu so '§pËfr company commander, po-hu “complied with,” chao-kuo ff&j® controller of the river, ts'ao-chiang yü-shih ftfllflDi. county, hsien $ county magistrate, chih-hsien county vice magistrate, hsien-ch'eng court deliberation, hui-i Court of General Affairs, t'ai-yiian sr


“ears and eyes of the emperor” t'ien-tzu er-mu

Eastern Depot, tung-ch'ang education-intendant censor,


hsiieh yü-sMh

Education Intendant Circuit, t'i-tu hsiieh too

Embroidered-uniform Guard, chini wei Sfc&fêr “error,” shih-ts'o A la erudite, po-shih eunuch, huan-kuan “evasion,” mai-mo MS! examiner, chien-shih

Court of Imperial Entertainments, kuang-lu ssu

Court of Palace Affairs, tien-yiian ssr

fiscal intendant, chuan-yün shih

mm functionary, li

Court of Imperial Sacrifices, t'aich'ang ssu

Court of Surveillance, cKa-yüan

KK Court of State Ceremonial, hung-lu ssu

Court of the Imperial Stud, t'aip'u ssu

general, chiang-chün General Accounts Section, tu-chih k'o f l ö t » General Services Office, ssu-wu t'ing

m m General Surveillance Circuit, fenhsiin tao

generalissimo, ta chiang-chün A fô Defense Command, liu-shou ssu jS

W granary-inspecting censor,

Department of State Affairs, shangshu sheng fq)# ^ “delay,” chi-ch'ih f ê g director (Ministry Bureau), langchung É|5i£ director (Pasturage Office), ch'ing


Directorate of Astronomy, ch'in-


ts'ang yü-shih

M ÛU* Granary Section, ts'ang k'o

grand adjutant, ts'an-tsan chi-wu grand commandant, shou-pei grand coordinator, hsün-fu grand councilor, tsai-hsiang Grand Court of Revision, ta-li ssu

t'ien chien

Directorate of Parks, shang-lin-yiian chien

district, hsien JR drafter, chung-shu she-jen duke, kung

earl, po fâ

grand guardian, t'ai-pao A fë grand preceptor, t'ai-shih AfiflJ grand remonstrator, chien-i ta-fu

m m ** Grand Secretariat, nei-ko grand secretary, ta hsüeh-shih *



grand supervisor of instruction, chan-shih

grand tutor, t'ai-fu A & Guard, wet $r guard assistant commander, chihhui ch'ien-shih fëfât& ÿ guard commander, chih-hui skih

junior preceptor, shao-shih pfSfi junior supervisor of instruction, shoo chan-shih

/p & flß

junior tutor, shao-fu /p f o junior tutor of the heir apparent, t'ai-tzu shao-fu

left supervising secretary, tso chiguard judge, chen-fu ggft guard vice commander, chih-hui t'ung-chih


lesser functionary, li jj£ Literary Bureau, nèi-shu t'ang

“guardians of the customs and fundamental laws,*' feng-hsien kuan M E H

loading expediter, tsan-yün yü-skih

Hanlin Academy, han-lin yuan

magistrate (county), chih-hsien ft]

Hanlin bachelor, shu-chi-shih

magistrate (subprefecture), chihchou ft]ffi marquis, hou ^ mentor (Supervisorate of Imperial Instruction), yii-te iftfêl messenger, hsing-jen f f A Messenger Office, hsing-jen ssu f f

£ mmm*. SI

± Imperial Academy of Medicine, t'ai-i yuan A S É “ in progress,” t'ung-chao iSM “inner court,” nei-t'ing intendant of transport and mono­ polies, chih-chih fa -yä n shih ftjg investigating censor, chien-ch'a yii-

A^ metropolitan area, ching-shih jgffl or chih-li ÜlH Metropolitan Circuit, ching-chi tao

shih investigator (Ch'in), chien-ch'a shih

Military Command, shu-mi yuan

Irrigation Control Circuit, shui-li

Military Defense Circuit, ping-pei


too military intendant, an-Ju shih

judicial intendant, t'i-tien hsing-yii

mmm judicial review, shen-lu judge (Grand Court of Revision), p'ing-shih Ip-fP judge (Provincial Administration Office), li-wen Sfn] judge (Regional Military Com­ mission), tuan-shih judge (Guard), chen-ju junior guardian, shao-pao /pfô.

* military officer, wu-kuan f£H> minister (Ministry), shang-shu jqj $ Ministry of Justice, hsing-pu ffijgß Ministry of Personnel, li-pu Ministry of Revenue, hu-pu Ministry of Rites, li-pu [email protected]£ Ministry of War, ping-pu Ministry of Works, kung-pu XSP Mint, pao-yiian chü



monitor, cheng-yen lEH Music and Dance Office, shen-yiieh

National University, kuo-tzu chien

official, kuan fg omissioner, pu-ch'üeh föfft “Outer Censorate,” wai-t'ai “outer court,” wai-t'ing “outer evaluation,” wai-ch'a f t m

"nine chief ministers,” chiu ch'ing

palace censor, tien-chung shihyii-shih

Northern Metropolitan Area, pei

palace drafter, chung-shu she-jen

novice, li-shih

palace prison, chen-fu ssu (of the Embroidered-uniform Guard) Pasturage Office, yiian-ma ssu £ g ||



chih-u itmm

or pan-shih $#;§£

Office for Surveillance, an-ch'a ssu

mmm Office for the Rectification of Administration and for Surveil­ lance, su-cheng an-cKa ssu


office manager, ssu-wu IïJ# Office of Currency Supply, ch'aochih chü


Office of Music, chiao-fang ssu Jfc


Office of Plate Engraving, yin-cKao chü

Office of Produce Levies, ch'au-fen chü

Office of Scrutiny, k'o *4 Office of Scrutiny for Justice, hsingk'o JflJ*4 Office of Scrutiny for Personnel,

H-k'o Office of Scrutiny for Revenue, ku-ko p*4 Office of Scrutiny for Rites, H-k'o

wm Office of Scrutiny for War^ping-k'o m

Office of Scrutiny for Works, kungk'o 1 * 4 Office of the Fundamental Law hsien-ssu

Office of Transmission, t'ung-cheng

ssu m&m

# Peking Branch Ministry, pei-ching hsing-pu jLgCfrSB Peking Gazette, ti-ch'ao g££J> or ti-pao Police Office, hsiin-chien ssu JgtfclïJ Postal Service Circuit, i-ch'uan tao

mmm prefect, chih-fu prefectural governor (of a capital prefecture), fu -yin F prefectural instructor, chiao-shou

mm prefectural judge, t'ui-kuan prefecture, f u Jfr prime minister, tsai-hsiang prince, wang 3: Princely Establishment Administ­ ration Office, wang-fu chang-shih ssu

5 .fö £ * .m

Princely Establishment administ­ rator, chang-shih princess, kung-chu Prison Office, ssu-yii ssu prison superintendent, ssu-yii Is]HR probationary service, li-cheng Jggfc proctor, sou-chien province, sheng ^ provincial administration commis­ sioner, pu-cheng shih ftïfefê



Provincial Administration Office, ch'eng-hsüan pu-cheng ssu

Üfclï1 provincial surveillance commis­ sioner, an-ch'a shih Provincial Surveillance Office, t'i-hsing an-ch'a ssu ÜflJJîSc&ïO punishment regulator, li hsing


ration-expediting censor, tu-hsiang yü-shih

record-checking censor, shua-chuan yü-shih

Record Checking Circuit, shuachuan too

record clerk, chao-mo MU record clerk (in early Ming Censorate), chao-mo kuan-kou Ml? if £)

Record Office, chao-mo so MÜFfr “rectify administration,'* su-cheng

mm region (Ytian), ch'u or too $g[ regional commander, tsung-ping kuan fê 'g regional inspector, hsün-an yü-shih

river-control censor, hsün-chiangyü shih

River Patrol Circuit, kuan-ho too

m nm “root of the state,’’ kou-pen route (Yüan), lu salt-control censor, hsün-yen yü-shih

mmm*. Salt Control Circuit, yen-fa too



Salt Distribution Commission, tu chuan-yünyen shih-ssu

m Seal Office, shang-pao ssu jqjjfp] secretary (of Ministry Bureau), chu-shih

secretarial censor, chih-shu shih y ü shih

Secretariat, chung-shu sheng Section (in Ministry Bureau), k'o » sentencer, wen-hsing F«]JflJ “seven chief ministers,” ch'i-ch'ing “source official,” yüan-shih Southern Metropolitan Area, nan chih-li

speaking censor, yen-shih yü-shih Regional Military Commission, tu chih-hui ssu

regional military commissioner, tu chih-hui shih lltfüfëfê regional military vice commission­ er, tu chih-hui t'ung-chih

fcl regional vice commander,/« tsungping kuan

registrar, ching-li Registry, ching-li ssu regulator of punishments, li-hsing

mm reminder, shih-i remonstrator, chien-kuan fjfcH right supervising secretary, yu chishih-chung

gy ® speaking official, yen-kuan Special Accounts Section, chin-k'o Statistics Section, min-k'o storehouse-inspecting censor, hsünk'u yü-shih

“straight-pointing commissioner,” chih-chih shih

subprefecture, chou substantive appointment, sfnh-shou * « Superintendency of Paper Cur­ rency, pao-ch'ao t'i-chü ssu supervising secretary, chi-shih-chung



Supervisorate of Imperial Instruc­ tion, chan-shih f a supply-supervising censor, tu-hsiang yü-shih )& supreme commander, tsung-tu


Tribunal of Censors, yü-shih t'ai or yü-shih f u troop purification, ch'ing-chün

W Troop Purification Circuit, ch'ingchün too

supreme commander (Liaotung), ching-lüeh gg|& supreme duke, shang-kung _h£ surveillance commissioner, an-ch'a shih « K f t surveillance commissioner (T ’ang), ts'ai-fang shih

Tung-lin Academy, tung-lin shuyüan

Tung-lin Party, tung-lin tang

m usher (in early Ming Censorate), yin-chin shih 31 îÉfêl

surveillance commissioner (T'ang), kuan-ch'a shih

Surveillance Office (Yüan),


hsing an-ch'a ssu

Surveillance Office (Yüan), su­ cheng lien-fang ssu

surveillance official, ch'a-kuan £

W Surveillance Section (Sung), ch'a-

an surveillance vice commissioner, anch'a fu-shih gçggijfë tael (Chinese ounce), liang ^ “three great cases,” son ta-an =

veto, feng-po £1® vice censor-in-chief (pre-Ming), yü-shih chung-ch'eng $ 5 ^ 4 ^ vice censor-in-chief (M ing), f u tu yü-shih giJU$flU£ vice commissioner (Salt Distribu­ tion Commission), t'ung-chih to


commissioner-in-chief, tu-tu


vice commandant, hsieh-t'ung shou-

pei ttH

“three judicial offices,” son fa-ssu

vice director (of Ministry Bureau), yüan-wai-lang j | ^ fi|5 vice director (Seal Office), shao-

“ three provincial agencies,” san-

vice minister (Court), shao-ch'ing

ch'ing ssu

touring commissioner (Sung),

/p m

pm vice minister (Ministry), shih-lang


training division, yin g H translator (in early Ming Censorate), i-shih f p ÿ transmission commissioner, t'ungcheng shih aiïfcfê transport-control censor, hsiin-ho yü-shih

vice prefect, t'ung-chih


ward-inspecting censor, hsm-ch'eng yü-shih

Warden’s Offices (in capital cities), wu-ch'eng ping-ma ssu S ltô Â jf hJ Western Depot, hsi-ch'ang jfljJJR


384 Section II, Chinese dCao jti chao-li â â t chao-shua wen-chiian ch'ao-t'ing kang-chi ch'eng-fa cheng-fan ssu-tsui IEÎB5EP cheng-kuan JEHT cheng yii-shih ch'ing-li chiin-wu fêM W -fâ chung i+> fa n g m feng-wen jlHS hsiao /Jn hsien-kang rM M hsing f f hsing-tsai f f f e hsiin-an hsiin cKa-ma yii-shih hsiin-ch'ing hsun ching-ying hsiin-kuan yii-shih hsiin kuang-lu ssu yii-shih

m*. hsiin-shih kuang-ch'eng yii-shih hsiin-ts'ao yii-shih jen-li A M ju f i k'an-ha kang-chi

k'o-tao f4 ü li M ling-shih men-tzu P ^ min R p'u-ping shen-ming $ BJ] shih M shih-lu shou-ling-kuan shu-li ^ M shu-shou shua-chiian JglJ^ ssu-li !(]JÎ[ ssu-shou Hj'i" ta A Cai-chien t'ai-sheng t'ang-shang kuan ‘j jt .t' Ë teng ^ teng-wen ku t'ien-hsia A ~ f tien-li tsa-fan ssu-tsui t'un-t'ien yii-shih ffl M M yin-m a yii-shih SU§flD£ y ii M yü-tien yiian ^ yiin chuan



W orks C ite d O n ly by A lp h a b e tic a l A b b re v ia tio n s


Sun Ch’eng-tse Ch'un-ming Meng-yü Lu Late Ch’ing blockprint edition. Ku Ying-t’ai Ming-shih Chi-shih Pen-mo Wan-yu Wen-k'u edition. Hsii Tung-chih Ij&MM. Reprint. Shanghai, 1936. Hsii Wen-hsien Tung-k'ao WLXI&M^. Reprint. Shanghai, 1936. Hsüan-tsung Chang-huang-ti Shih-lu . Photo­ lithographic reproduction, 1940. Hsii Tung-tien Reprint. Shanghai, 1936. Jen-tsmg Chao-huang-ti Shih-lu Photolitho­ graphic reproduction, 1940. Kuang-tsung Chen-huang-ti Shih-lu Photo­ lithographic reproduction, 1940. Lung Wen-pin IfèXfâ. Ming Hui-yao Blockprint edition, 1887. Ming-shih Po-na edition, 1937. Fu Wei-Jin Ming-shu 0^#. Kuo-hsüeh Chi-pen Ts'ung-shu edition. Wang Hung-hsü et al. Ming-shih Kao 0^ 5tlS. Blockprint edition, 1723. Hsi-tsung Che-huang-ti Shih-lu Photolitho­ graphic reproduction, 1940. (Ta) Ming Hui-tien Wan-yu Wen-k'u ~g^XWedition. T'ai-tsu Kao-huang-ti Shih-lu Photolitho­ graphic reproduction, 1940. Gh’a Chi-tso jgSHfe. Tsui-wei Lu PtÉ£&. Ssu-pu Ts’ungk'an edition. Ma Tuan-lin JfiSBa. Wen-hsien Tung-k'ao X (RM#. Reprint. Shanghai, 1936.



All Other Works Cited Backhouse, E., and J. O. P. Bland. Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. London, 1914. Balazs, Etienne (trans.). Le Traité juridique du “Souei-Chou.” Leiden, 1954. Barnett, A. Doak. Communist China: The Early Years, 1949-55. New York, 1964. Boxer, G. R. "Portuguese Military Expeditions in Aid of the Mings Against the Manchus, 1621- 1647,” Tien Hsia Monthly, V II ( 1938), 24-36. ------- . South China in the Sixteenth Century. London, 1953. Brunnert, H. S., and V. V. Hagelstrom. Present Day Political Organi­ zation of China. Translated by A. Beltchenko and E. E. Moran. Shanghai, 1912. Busch, Heinrich. “The Tung-lin Academy and Its Political and Philosophical Significance,” Monumenta Serica, XIV ( 1949-50), 1- 163. Gastonnet des Fosses, H. La Chine sous les Ming. Extrait des Annales de VExtrême-Orient et de VAfrique. Paris, 1887. Ghang Hsüan Hsi-yüan Wen-chien Lu Reprint of a Ming manuscript. Peking, 1940. Ghang T ’ien-tse. Sino-Portuguese Trade from 1514 to 1644. Leiden, 1934. Ghapman, Brian. The Profession of Government. London, 1959. Ghavannes, Edouard (trans.). Les Mémoires historiques de Se-ma Ts'ien. 5 volumes. Paris, 1895- 1905. Chen Ghih-mai. “ Impeachments of the Control Yüan: A Pre­ liminary Survey,” Chinese Social and Political Science Review, X IX ( 1935-36), 331-66 and 515-42. Ch’en Ting . Tung-lin Lieh-chuan Blockprint edition, 1711. Chi-nan-fu Chih Blockprint edition, 1850. Chiang-nan Tung-chih Blockprint edition, 1736. Chiang P’ing-chieh Tung-lin Shih-mo Chung-kuo Li-shih Yen-chiu Tzu-liao Ts'ung-shu edition. Ch’ien Mu Chung-kuo Li-tai Cheng-chih Te-shih Hong Kong, 1952. ------- . Kuo-shih Ta-kang B iA f f l. Reprint edition, 2 volumes in 1. Shanghai, 1947.



Ch’ien Tuan-sheng. The Government and Politics of China. Cambridge, Mass., 1950. Chin Jih-sheng Sung-t'ien Lü-pi £S^;8t 3E. Blockprint edition, 163-? China Yearbook 1957-58 . Taipei, 1958. Ching-kuan ICao-ch'a 2-volume manuscript, 1623? Ch'ing-shih Kao Peking, 1928. Chrimes, S. B. An Introduction to the Administrative History of Mediaeval England. Oxford, 1952. Chu Tung-jun Chang Chii-cheng Ta-chuan Shanghai, 1947. Chung-cheng Piao-t'i ^SIE^jü. Included in volume 4 of Ming dynasty manuscript collectanea entitled Pi-ts'e Ts'ung-shuo i&fîfrUtfè. Crawford, Robert B. “ Eunuch Power in the Ming Dynasty,” Toung Pao, X LIX ( 1961), 115-48. Creel, H. G. “The Beginnings of Bureaucracy in China : The Origin of the Hsien,” Journal of Asian Studies, X X III ( 1964-65), 155-84. ------- . The Birth of China. New York, 1937. ------- . Confucius, the Man and the Myth. New York, 1949. de Bary, W. T. “Chinese Despotism and the Confucian Ideal,” in Chinese Thought and Institutions (edited by J. K. Fairbank; Chicago, 1957,) pp. 163-203. Dunne, George H. Generation of Giants: The Story of the Jesuits in China in the Last Decades of the Ming Dynasty. Notre Dame, Ind., 1962. Duyvendak, J. J. L. “The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century,” Toung Pao, XXXIV ( 1938), 341-412. Eisenstadt, S. N. “The Study of Oriental Despotisms as Systems of Total Power,” Journal of Asian Studies, XVII ( 1957-58), 435-46. Fairbank, J. K., and S. Y. Teng. "On the Transmission of Ch’ing Documents,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, IV ( 1939), 12-46. --------. "On the Types and Uses of Ch’ing Documents,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, V ( 1940), 1-71. Feifel, Eugene. Po Chii-i as a Censor. The Hague, 1961. Finer, Herman. The Theory and Practice of Modem Government. 2 volumes. London, 1932.



Franke, Wolfgang. "Preliminary Notes on the Important Chinese Literary Sources for the History of the Ming Dynasty ( 13681644) / ’ Studia Serica Monographs, series A, number 2. Chengtu, 1948. ------- . "Yü Ch’ien, Staatsmann und Kriegsminister, 1398- 1457/ ’ Monumenta Serica, X I ( 1946), 87- 122. Ginsburgs, George, and Arthur Stahnke. "The Genesis of the People’s Procuratorate in Communist China, 1949- 1951,” The China Quarterly, no. 20 (October-December 1964), pp. 1-37. Grimm, Tilemann. "Das Neiko der Ming-Zeit, von den Anfängen bis 1506,” Oriens Extremus, I ( 1954), 139-77. ------- . Erziehung und Politik im Konfuzianischen China der Ming-Zeit. Hamburg, 1960. Han Fei Tzu Han Fei Tzu Chi-chieh edition. Shanghai, 1897. Han Yü-shan. Elements of Chinese Historiography. Hollywood, 1955. Ho Ping-ti. The Ladder of Success in Imperial China. New York, 1962. Howorth, H. H. History of the Mongols, from the 9th to the 19th Century. 4 volumes. London, 1876- 1927. Hsiao I-shan H —ill. CKing-tai T'ung-shih . Volume I. Shanghai, 1927. Hsieh Kuo-chen . Ming CKing Chih Chi Tang-she YiXn-tung K'ao Reprint. Shanghai, 1935. Hsieh Pao Chao. The Government of China, 1644- 1911. Baltimore, 1925. Hsü Tzu Hsiao-fien Chi-chuan Late Ch’ing blockprint edition. ------- . Hsiao-t'ien Chi-nien Late Ch’ing blockprint edition. Huang Chang-chien (editor). Ming Shih-lu Chiao-k'an Chi Volume 4. Taipei, 196-?. Huang, Ray. The Grand Canal During the Ming Dynasty. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1964. Huang Ta-hua “Ming Ch’i-ching K’ao-lüeh” 0f3-bj!9 #lll§, in Er-shih-wu-shih Pu-pien “ - f v o l u m e VI (Shanghai, 1936), pp. 8571-78. Huang Tsung-hsi Ming-ju Hsüeh-an IJEHRygg. Kuo-hsüeh Chi-pen Ts’ung-shu edition. Hücker, C. O. “Confucianism and the Chinese Censorial System,” in Confucianism in Action (edited by D. S. Nivison and A. F. Wright; Stanford, 1959), pp. 182-208.



------- . “Governmental Organization of the Ming Dynasty,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, XXI ( 1958), 1-66. ------- . “Su-chou and the Agents of Wei Chung-hsien,” in Silver Jubilee Volume of the Zinbun-Kagaku-Kenkyusyo, Kyoto University (Kyoto, 1954), pp. 224-56. ------- . “The Traditional Chinese Gensorate and the New Peking Regime,” The American Political Science Review, XLV ( 1951), 1041-57. --------. The Traditional Chinese State in Ming Times ( 1368- 1644). Tucson, 1961. ------- . “The Tung-lin Movement of the Late Ming Period,” in Chinese Thought and Institutions (edited by J. K. Fairbank; Chicago, 1957), pp. 132-62. ------- . “The Yüan Contribution to Censorial History,” Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, extra volume number 4 ( 1960), 219-27. Hummel, A. W. (editor). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. 2 volumes. Washington, 1943-44. Hung Mai Jung-chai Sui-pi Ssu-pu Ts'ung-k'an SSPgTiJ edition. Hung, William. Tu Fu, China's Greatest Poet. Cambridge, Mass., 1952. Kao I-han ift‘—f i. Chung-kuo Yü-shih Chih-tu Ti Yen-ko tf'SSfêlJÆ. Reprint. Shanghai, 1933. Ko Shao-min Hsin Yüan-shih ^f 5c 3t . Tientsin, 1922. Kracke, E. A., Jr. “The Chinese and the Art of Government,” in The Legacy of China (edited by R. Dawson; Oxford, 1964), pp. 309-39. ------- . Civil Service in Early Sung China, 960-1067. Cambridge, Mass., 1953. Ku Chieh-kang. “A Study of Literary Persecution During the Ming,” translated by L. C. Goodrich, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 111( 1938), 254-311. Ku-chin Tu-shu Chi-cKeng Photolithographic repro­ duction, 1934. Ku Ling H ^r. San-cKao Ta-i Lu Kuo-hsüeh Wen-k'u m m x m edition. Ku Yen-wu ÜjfèS;. Jih-chih Lu Kuo-hsüeh Chi-pen Ts'ungshu edition.



Lan-t'ai Fa-chien Lu Blockprint edition of the Wan-li period, reproduced as item 563 in the Library of Congress microfilm series entitled “Rare Books National Library Peking.” Latourette, Kenneth Scott. The Chinese, Their History and Culture. Third edition revised. New York, 1946. Legge, James (trans.). The Li-Ki. Included in Sacred Books of the East (edited by Max Müller), volume XX V III. Oxford, 1895. ------- . The Works of Mencius. Included in his The Chinese Classics, second edition, volume II. Oxford, 1895. Levenson, Joseph R. Confucian China and Its Modem Fate. Volume 2 : The Problem of Monarchical Decay. Berkeley, 1964. Li Chi jgtfi. Sung-pen Shih-san-ching Chu-shu edition, 1887. Li Ch’ih Huang Sung Shih-ch'ao Kang-yao . Typeprint edition, n.d. Li Hsiung-fei. Les Censeurs sous la Dynastie Mandchoue ( 1616-1911) en Chine. Paris, 1936. Li-k’o Chi-shih-chung Shih-chi Blockprint edition of the period 1522-66, reproduced as item 1176 in the Library of Congress microfilm series entitled “Rare Books National Library Peking.” Li Kuang-t’ao “Chi Ming-chi Ping-ying Chih Chi-pi” Ta~lu Tsa-chih Vol. VI, no. 12 (June 1953), pp. 15- 19. ------- . “Mao Wen-lung Niang-luan Tung-chiang Pen-mo” « » m i c a : * * , Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, X IX ( 1948), 367-488. Li-tai Chih-kuan Piao JBft($ 1llS . Kuo-hsüeh Chi-pen Ts'ung-shu 9 edition. Shanghai, 1937. Li Tao Hsii Tzu-chih T'ung-chien CKang-pien $t JlfèiËîÊfiiJi. Blockprint edition, 1819. Li Wen-chih Wan Ming Min-pien IftHEJg#. Shanghai, 1948. Li Yen Tung-lin-tang Chi-k'ao Peking, 1957. Liang Fang-chung. The Single-whip Method of Taxation in China. Translated by Wang Yü-ch’üan. Cambridge, Mass., 1956. Liao, W. K. (trans.). The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzu. Volume I. London, 1939.



Lin Yutang. A History of the Press and Public Opinion in China. Chicago, 1936. ------- . The Gay Genius: The Life and Times of Su Tungpo. New York, 1947. Linebarger, Paul M. A. The China of Chiang Kai-shek: A Political Study. Boston, 1941. ------- , Djang Chu, and Ardath W. Burks. Far Eastern Governments and Politics: China and Japan. Second edition. New York, 1956. Ung-hsien Chih . Revised blockprint edition, 1875. Liu Hsin-hsüeh . Ssu-ch'ao Ta-cheng Lu Kuo-hsüeh Wen-k'u edition. Liu Jo-yü SiJ^rfiL Cho-chung Chih Yii Cheng-chiao-lou Ts'ung-k'o lESÄäl&J edition. Lü K’un g i$ . Shih-cheng Lu CKü-wei-chai Ch'üan-chi ^ edition. Mano Senryo O S fÄ tt, “Kobucho no Tosatsuin ni tsuite” Otani Daigaku Kenhyu Nempo S£^$g, X III ( 1960), 209-36. --------. “Mindai Tosatsuin no Seiritsu ni tsuite” l o ^ T , Shirin * # , X LIII ( 1960), 194-216. Mayers, William Frederick. The Chinese Government. Shanghai, 1897. Medhurst, W. H. China: Its State and Prospects. Boston, 1838. Meng Sen Ming-tai Shih Taipei, 1957. Michael, Franz. The Origin of Manchu Rule in China. Baltimore, 1942. Mote, F. W. “Confucian Eremitism in the Yuan Period,” in The Confucian Persuasion (edited by A. F. Wright; Stanford, 1960), pp. 202-40. ------- . “The Growth of Chinese Despotism,” Oriens Extremus, V III ( 1961), 1-41. --------. The Poet Kao Ch'i. Princeton, 1962. Naito Torajiro 15. Shina Shigakushi Tokyo, 1953. Nieh Ch’ung-ch’i “Chung-kuo Chien-ch’a Chih-tu Chih Yen-pien” i£B K £SJÄ ; 2:Ä # , in I-shih Pao (Tientsin), October 14, 1947. Pao Ch’eng QM . Pao Hsiao-su Kung Tsou-i Blockprint edition, 1863. Pulleyblank, E. G. The Background of the Rebellion of An Lu-shan. London, 1955.



Ratchnevsky, Paul. Un Code des Yuan. Paris, 1937. Ricci, Matthew. China in the 16th Century, the Journals of . . . . Translated by Louis J. Gallagher. New York, 1953. Rotours, Robert des (trans.). Le Traité des examens, traduit de la nouvelle histoire des T'ang (Chap. XLIV-XLV). Paris, 1932. ------- . “Les Grands fonctionnaires des provinces en Chine sous la dynastie des T ’ang,” 'FoungPao, XXV ( 1927), 219-332. ------- . (trans.). Traité des fonctionnaires et traité de Varmée, traduits de la nouvelle histoire des T'ang (Chap. XLVI-L). 2 volumes. Leiden, 1947-48. Sah Mong-wu. “The Impact of Hanfeism on the Earlier Han Censorial System,” Chinese Culture, I ( 1957), 75- 111. Semedo, C. Alvarez. The History of That Great and Renowned Monarchy of China. Translated from the Italian “by a person of quality.” London, 1655. Shan-hsi Tung-chih iliHäSitL Blockprint edition, 1892. Shen Pang èbfê. Wan-shu Tsa-chi £Sf|£iIE. Reprint. Peking, 1961. Shen Te-fu Yeh-hu Pien i f j |j |i . Reprinted blockprint edition, 1869. Sheng Lang-hsi Chung-kuo Shu-yüan Chih-tu ^Slr&crfrJS. Shanghai, 1934. Shun-t'ien-fu Chih JIJSXJfÏÂë* Blockprint edition, 1876-78. Siu Qui. Le Pouvoir de Contrôle en Chine. Nancy, 1937. “Structure of the Chinese Government” (unsigned article). The Chinese Repository, IV ( 1835), 136. Su Shih Tung-p'o Tsou-i in Su Tung-p'o Ch'uan-chi (blockprint edition, 1908). Sun, E-tu Zen (trans.). Ch'ing Administrative Terms. Cambridge, Mass., 1961. Sun Feng-chi Chih-kuan Fen-chi Ssu-k’u Ch'uanshu Chen-pen CKu-chi edition. Sun Yat-sen. San Min Chu I: The Three Principles of the People. Translated by F. W. Price. Edited by L. T. Chen. Shanghai, 1929. Sung Hui-yao Kao Photolithographic reproduction, 1936. Sung-shih Po-na edition. Ta Ming Lii Chi-chiai Fu-li Reprinted blockprint edition, 1908.



Tang, Edgar Cha. “The Censorial Institution in China, 1644- 1911,” in Harvard University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Summaries of Theses . . . 1932 (Cambridge, Mass., 1933), pp. 155-58. T ’ao I-shih . Kiangsi Fu-i Ch'uan-shu Frag­ mentary blockprint edition of the Wan-li period, reproduced in the Library of Congress microfilm series entitled “ Rare Books National Library Peking.” Tien-pien Ti-cKao JÇfgfiPîÿ. Chieh-yüeh Shan-fang Hui-cKao fgr^il] edition. Ting I T ia . Ming-tai T'e-wu Cheng-chih . Peking, 1950. Tout, T. F. The Collected Papers of Thomas Frederick Tout. Volume III. Manchester, 1934. Tsao, W. Y. The Constitutional Structure of Modem China. Melbourne, 1947. Tso Tsai Tso Ckung-i Rung Nien-p'u appended to Tso Chung-i Kung Wen-chi (blockprint edition of the Ch’ing dynasty). Tsou I fißälr. Ch’i Chen Yeh-sheng . Reprint. Peking, 1936. Tung Tso-pin. An Interpretation of the Ancient Chinese Civilization. Taipei, 1952. Tung, William L. The Political Institutions of Modem China. The Hague, 1964. Tung-lin Shu-yüan Chih Revised edition, 1881. Van der Sprenkel, O. B. “High Officials of the Ming,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, XIV ( 1952), 87- 114. --------. “Population Statistics of Ming China,” in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, XIV, no. 2 ( 1953), 289-326. Waley, Arthur (trans.). The Analects of Confucius. London, 1938. --------. The Life and Times of Po Chü-i. New York, 1949. Walker, Richard L. “The Control System of the Chinese Govern­ ment,” The Far Eastern Quarterly, VII ( 1947-48), 2-21. Wang Shih-chen Yen-chou Shih-liao Blockprint edition of the Wan-li period. --------. Yen-shan-Vang Pieh-chi Blockprint edition, 1590. Wang Te-chao 3:^03. Ming-chi Chih Cheng-chih Yü She-hui BflS* Chungking, 1942.



Wang Yi-t’ung. Official Relations Between China and Japan, 1368- 1549. Cambridge, Mass., 1953. Wang Yti-ch’üan. “An Outline of the Central Government of the Former Han Dynasty,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, X II ( 1949), 134-87. Watson, Burton. Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Grand Historian of China. New York, 1958. Weber, Max. The Religion of China. Translated and edited by Hans H. Gerth. Glencoe, 111., 1951. Wen Ping 3C.M. Hsien-po Chih-shih ÆfêhïSio. Chung-kuo Li-shih Yen-chiu Tzu-liao Ts’ung-shu edition. Williams, Samuel Wells. The Middle Kingdom. Revised edition, 2 volumes. New York, 1883. Wist, Hans. Das Chinesische Zensorat. Hamburg, 1932. Wittfogel, Karl A. “Chinese Society: An Historical Survey,” Journal of Asian Studies, XVI ( 1956-57), 343-64. ------- . Oriental Despotism : A Comparative Study of Total Power. New Haven, 1957. Wright, Mary Clabaugh. The Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism. Stanford, 1957. Wu Chao-ts’ui Chung-kuo Shui-chih Shih Shanghai, 1937. Wu Chi-hua Ming-tai Hai-yün Chi Yün-ho Ti Yen-chiu ÿj Taipei, 1961. Wu Chih-fang. Chinese Government and Politics. Shanghai, 1934. Wu Han Jjlig. Chu Yüan-chang Chuan . Shanghai, 1949. Wu Ying-chi Tung-lin Pen-mo Kuei-ch’ih Hsienche I-shu SfÈÆIïSfiilF edition. Yang Lien Yang Ta-hung Chi Ts'ung-shu Chi-ch’eng edition. Yeh Sheng Shui-tung Jih-chi yYM SIE. Blockprint edition, 1680. Ying Chia jjgfll et al. Shen-lu Shu-lüeh Ming manu­ script, reproduced as item 272 in the Library of Congress microfilm series entitled “Rare Books National Library Peking.” Yü Teng =f$t. “Ming-tai Chien-ch’a Chih-tu Kai-shu” Chin-ling Hsüeh-pao VI ( 1936), 213-29. YUan-shih xjfc. Po-na edition. Yiian Tien-chang Reprinted blockprint edition, 1908.



Abahai, 157 Academies, 163, 214-15. See also Tunglin Academy; Hanlin Academy Admonishers, 52 An Jan, 328 An Pang-yen, 157 An Shen, 209 Annam, 110, i28f, 140, 150, 267,329 “Annual provincial transfers,” 62,269 Army-inspecting censors, 78,250 Army Inspecting Circuit, 72 Assistant censors-in-chief, 49-51 passim Assistant surveillance commissioners, 54, 70-73. See also Provincial Surveillance Offices Associate censors, 12,26,47-48 “Attack with the club, case of,” 164,186,

231 Battalions, 33 Branch Censorates, 26-27,52,330-32 Branch Secretariats, 25-26 Buddhism, 130,135,188,248-49 Bureau of Military Affairs, 6, 25 Bureau of Remonstrance, 18, 52ff, 32526. See also Remonstrators Bureaus (in Ministries), 39-40 Capital evaluations, 97,163^ 167-68, 178,

195» 2»4

“Case of the attack with the club,” 164, 186,231 “Case of the red pills,” 166-67,185 “Case of the removal from the palace,” 167, 185, 198, 206-7, 215-16, 274, 359 Censorate, Ming, 9, 47-52, 55-62 p a s­

66, 164, 328; role in judicial ad­ ministration, 100, 237-50. See also p a rtic u la r censorial title s ; Branch Censorate; Nanking Censorate Censorate, pre-Ming, 12-28 passim , 50, 56, 325-26. See also Branch Censorate sim ,

an d p a rtic u la r censorial title s

Censorship, see Censorial system Censorial officials: use of terms ex­ plained, gn; prestige and influence of, 20-22, 175-76, 297-300; magister­ ial powers of, 23, 27, 87, 124, 237-54; appointments, tenure, and promo­ tions of, 57-62, 235, 256-58, 335-38 p a ssim ; career patterns of, 62-65, 339-40; independence of, 20-22, 5455, 74, 326; punishments of, 13, 22, 179-80, 185, 254-86, 317-18, 325. See also Surveillance officials; Speaking officials; an d title s o f p a rtic u la r cen­ sorial officials, especially Investigat­ ing censors a n d Supervising secre­ taries Censorial system: use of terms ex­ plained, 9n; early history of, 9-29; Ming organization of, 47-57; evalu­ ations of, 287-301. See also Surveil­ lance officials; Speaking officials; Re­ monstrators; a n d title s o f pa rtic u la r censorial agencies an d offices, espe­ cially Censorate; Offices of Scrutiny;

Investigating censors; Supervising sec­ retaries Censors, gn, 132, 322-23. See also p a r ­ ticu la r censors’ title s (Investigating censors, etc.); Censorate; Surveillance

398 officials; Censorial officials, Speaking officials Censors-in-chief, 12, 26, 40, 47-52 p a s­ sim , 69, 236; authority over Censorate subordinates, 22, 54-55, 60, 74. S et also Censorate Central Buddhist Registry, 130 Chancellery, 12, i7f, 25 Chang Cheng, 136,146-47 Chang Chi-meng, 186 Chang Chieh, 207,211,214, 222, 269,273 Chang Chü, 129 Chang Chii-cheng, 153^ 161-62 Chang Ch’iian, 80,92-93,250 Chang Chün, 265 Chang Ch’un, 138t, 146 Chang Hao-ming, 156, i9of, 231,279,


Chang Hsien-chung, 160 Chang Hsiu-te, 189t, 229-30 Chang Hsiin-li, 260,263-64 Chang Jung, 242-43 Chang K’ai, 125, 245 Chang Kuo-chi, 197-98,207 Chang Lun, 93 Chang, Madame, consort, 197-98,201, 207 Chang Na, 194,215 Chang P’an, 266 Chang Pen, 141, 331 Chang P'eng, 93,98-99 Chang Shan, 115 Chang Shen-yen, 222,274, 278, 371 Chang Shu, 225 Chang Su-yang, 88 Chang Ts’ung, 134,141-42,243 Chang Wei-i, 277 Chang Wen-hsi, 195 Chang Wen-ta, 275-76 Chang Wo-hsü, 192 Chang Yiin-ju, 208,274 Chang Yung, 242-43 Chao Ch’un, 266 Chao Hung, 125 Chao Liang, 366 Chao Nan-hsing, 167, 270; and Ts’ui Ch’eng-hsiu, 172, 194, 283; and Juan Ta-ch’eng, 193; disciplines others, 88, 180; is attacked and punished, 17if, 276f; memorials by, 257, 269, 346, 370 Chao Pen, 264 Chao Pin, 262 Chao Shih-yung, 223ft Chao Wei, 266-67

Index Chao Yen, 263-64 Chao Ying-ch’i, 200 Ch'en Ch’ao-fu, 195 Ch’en Ch’i-ssu, 196 Ch’en Chih, 121 Ch’en Chiu-ch’ou, 277 Ch’en Chü-kung, 204 Ch’en Hsiang, 266 Ch’en Huai, 126-28,148 Ch’en I-jui, 180, 277 Ch’en Jui, 92, 140,247-48 Ch’en Li, 247-48 Ch’en Lien, 267 Ch’en Mien, 240,247-48,251 Ch’en Mou, 134-35 Ch’en Ning, 48 Ch’en Pao-t’ai, 228 Ch’en Pi-ch’ien, 231 Ch'en Po, 137 Ch’en Shih, 130 Ch’en Tso, 133,149,265,352 Ch’en Yin-ts’ung, 220, 226 Ch’engChu, 186 Ch’eng Fu, 134-35 Cheng Ho, 111 Cheng, Madame, consort, 166-67, !97 ^ 359 Ch’eng Ming-shu, 208, 211, 224,231 Cheng Tao-ning, 146 Ch’eng-tsu, Ming emperor, 50,58,102 Cheng Tsung-chou, 272 Cheng Yang-hsing, 197, 231 Ch’i Chi-kuang, 153 Chi Shih-chiao, 164,168,357 Chia Chi-ch’un, i86ff, 273-74; remon­ strates, 207,209,212,217 Chiang Hsi-k’ung, 220 Chiang Jih-ts’ai, 81,208 Chiang Kai-shek, 29 Chiang Ping-ch’ien, 190t Chiang Ssu-ch’eng, 134 Chiang Tung-ch’ien, 226 Ch’iao Ch’eng-chao, 92 Chiao Ching, 130 Chiao Yuan-p’u, i86f Chief clerk, 47,50,54 Chief investigating censors, 48t Chief Military Commissions, 33,48t, 238 Chief supervising secretaries, 53,55 Chief Surveillance Office, 48t Chien 1, 261 Ch’ien Mu, 19-20, 324 Chin Ch’un, 125,240-41

Index Ch’in dynasty, 10-12,16-17,3«3 Chin Lien, 137, 252 Ching Chou-shih, 341 Ch’ing dynasty, 3-4, 28-29,55,57,321, 329. See also Manchus C hing-kuan K ’ao-ch’a, 337 Ch’iu Ling, 247-48 Cho Mai, 213 Chou An, 267 Chou Ch’ao-jui, 191L 208,223, 282 Chou Ch’i-yiian, 282 Chou Chia-mo, 201,359-60 Chou Chih-kang, 227,232 Chou dynasty, 10 Chou Hung-mo, 192,254 Chou Shih-p’u, 202,360-61; counsel by, 208-9, 211,231 Chou Shun-ch’ang, 282 Chou Tsung-chien, 192, 283, 285-86; memorials by, 190L 199, 208, 210, 215, 274 Chou Wei-ch’ih, 2i4f Chu Ch’in-hsiang, 210-11, 214 Chu Kao-hsii, 110,129 Chu Shen-chieh, 197 Chu T ’ai-chen, 93 Chu T ’ung-meng, 188,189-90, 214,228, *43 Chu Yung, 128 Chuang-lieh-ti, Ming emperor, 103, 152, 160,173-74 Chung Yü-cheng, 201,360 Circuit inspectors, 12-16 passim Circuit intendants, 24, 71-73, 98, 104-7, «39*«57*34» Circuits, in Censorate, 48-51 passim , 95, 105, 238, 328L 330-32. See also Honan Circuit; Metropolitan Circuit Circuits, in provinces, 14, 71. See also nam es of p a rtic u la r C ircuits

Civil officials, impeachments and pun­ ishments of, 42-43, 48, 123-26, 18395. See also Civil service Civil service: general character and sta­ tus of, 10-11, 35-41,59, 60-61,66, 209, 223-24, 269, 306, 337-38; recruitment for, 11, 35, 59-61, 71, 84-85, 223; eval­ uations and appointments in, 41-42, 95-97, 118-21, 164-65, 209-10, 214, 223; ranks, salaries, and tenure in, 1314* 35“ 36 * 267-68, 338, 340-41* See also Civil officials; Functionaries; Par­ tisanship Coastal Patrol Circuits, 72


Collator, 50,54 Commissions, censorial, 73-94, 342 Committees of People’s Supervision, 29 Communist Party, Chinese, 29 Companies, 33 Complaint Drum, 99-100, 239, 242-43,


5 6 .3 4 8

Confucius, 6-8,322t Confucianism, 6-8,267, 294®!. See also Confucius Control Yuan, 29,327 Controller of the river, 82 Counsel, censorial, see Proposals Counties, 36,38 County magistrates, 38,59 Court deliberations, 41,69 Court of Imperial Entertainments, 37, 126,208 Court of Imperial Sacrifices, 37 Court of the Imperial Stud, 37,62, 81 Court of General Affairs, 12,47 Court of Palace Affairs, 12, 26,47 Court of State Ceremonial, 37 Court of Surveillance, 12,26,47,328 Creel, H. G., 372 Dates, basis for citing, io9n Defense, see Military service Department of State Affairs, 12,25 Directorate of Astronomy, 37,327 Directorate of Parks, 37 Districts, see Counties Document control, 100-107; mentioned, i8f, 52, 55. 57, 71, 332, 351 Dutch, in China, 92,158,197, 230 Eastern Depot, 44,169,193,202, 249 Education, see Schools Education Intendant Circuits, 71 Education intendants, 84-85 Embroidered-uniform Guard, see Impe­ rial bodyguard Emperors: of Ming dynasty, 32-33; gen­ eral functions and powers of, 41-46, 68, 101, 132, 238, 295-96, 300; rela­ tions with censorial system, 50, 74f, 292; extravagance protested, 208, 219-20. See also p o sth u m o u s te m p le nam es of p a rtic u la r em perors (Hsiiantsung, et al.) Eunuchs: roles, numbers, and influence of, 44-45, 102, 111-12, 153, 162, 204, 209-12, 224, 277, 300; criticisms and punishments of, 115, 130, 133-34,149-

400 50, 170t, 198-205, 211-12, 231, 246, 272-73, 276; mentioned, 248-49, 293. See also nam es o f p a rtic u la r eunuchs

(Wei Chung-hsien, et al.) Examinations, civil service, 11, 35, 5961, 71, 84-85, 223 Examinations, military service, 34, 143, 226 Fang Chen-ju, active in frontier de­ fense, 78-80, 190, 226, 229, 250; other activities, 85-86, 206-7; survives death sentence, 278-79 FangTa-jen, 199 Fang Ts’ung-che, 164, 167, 356-57, 359; is denounced and defended, 185-86, 187, 216, 279, 281, 360 Fang Ying, 220 Fang Yu-tu, 208,216, 217-19 Feifel, Eugene, 4,326 Feng Ch’iian, 195,356,371 Feng San-yüan, 189t FengTs’ung-wu, 168,188, 270 Finer, Herman, 291-92 Fiscal intendants, 14 Fu An, 254 Fu Chi-chiao, 192-93,204 Fu Ching, 130 Fu K’uei, 192-94 passim , 281,361 Fu, Prince of, 162-66 passim Fu Tsung-lung, 227-28, 230,252 Fu Ying-sheng, 193, 204 Functionaries (sub-officials), 36; in cen­ sorial agencies, 50-54 passim , 58, 332f General Services Office, 50t General Surveillance Circuits, 71 Gentry, 46,224 Government: organization of, 11-12,3141; decision making in, 41, 68-69, 101, »32, 237-54. See also Censorial sys­ tem; Civil service; Document control; Emperors; Eunuchs; Judicial admin­ istration; Military service; Schools; Taxes; and nam es or title s o f p a r ­ ticular agencies an d offices

Granary-inspecting censors, 83 Grand Canal, 80-83 passim , 157, 159, 228; proposals about, 137-38, 222, 344 Grand coordinators, 38-39,51-52,70, 88,184 Grand councilors, 19-20,21, 25,40,46, 49

Grand Court of Revision, 36,237-40 passim

Index Grand remonstrators, 17,52. See also Remonstrators; Speaking officials Grand Secretariat, 40-41,101,116-17, 161-63 Grand secretaries, 40-41,44ft, 184 Great Wall, 78,229 Guards, 33 Han dynasties, 11-18 pa ssim , 24,323 Hanlin Academy, 37,40 Han 1in bachelors, 60, 336 Hart, Robert, 289 Ho Chien-k’o, 191 Ho Ching, 138,265 Ho Ch’u-ying, 264 Ho Tsao, 277 Honan Circuit, 256 Hou Chen-ch’ang, 210, 229-30 Hou Chen-yang, 207,229 Hou Hsiin, 196 Hou Shou-tien, 211 Hsi-tsung, Ming emperor, 5,43,167,16970, 173, 207-8,356; events of his reign, 152-74, 177; relations with censorial officials, 181-83, 205-13 p assim , 23234, 268-86 passim , 290, 297-99 Hsia Chih-ling, 227,280 Hsia Ti, 264 Hsia Yiian-chi, 136 Hsiang Pao, 147,331 Hsiao Chi, 226 Hsiao-tsung, Ming emperor, 42 Hsieh Yao, 121 H sien-kang, 334 Hsien-tsung, Ming emperor, 42-43,109 Hsing An, 366 Hsiung Chien, 69 Hsiung Kai, 133 Hsiung Ming-yii, 278 Hsiung T ’ing-pi, 155-57, »72“ 73 » l8&“ 92, 357-58; is denounced and defend­ ed, 225, 231, 236-37, 250, 273-83 p a s­ sim , 297 Hsii Chi, 247,282 Hsii Chin-fang, 278 Hsii Ching-lien, 216 Hsii Ch’ing-po, 221,224t Hsii Ch’iian, 90-91 Hsii Fu-yang, 215, 276 Hsii Hsing, 260 Hsii K’o-cheng, 231 Hsii Kuang-ch’i, 229, 296 Hsii, Paul, see Hsii Kuang-ch’i Hsii Shih-ch’en, 196 Hsii Ta-hsiang, 201,360

Index Hsü Yang-hsien, 210 Hsü Yü-ch’ing, 211 Hsüan-tsung, Ming emperor, 5, 42, 109, 132, 149, 248, 290, 296; events of his reign, 110-15; relations with censorial officials, 94, 102, 133-35, 240, 258-63 p assim , 265, 267, 296 Hsiieh Feng-hsiang, 209f Hsiieh Kuo-kuan, 212 Hsiieh Wen-chou, 187 Hu Ch’i-hsien, 134 Hu Chih, 247 Hu 1, 127,264 Hu Jung, 93-94 Hu Liang-chi, 211 Hu Tung-chien, 221 Hu Wei-yung, 48,108 Hu Yung-shun, 212 Huang Chang-chien, 330 Huang Ch’en, 102 Huang Ch’eng-hao, 212, 276 Huang Chi, 139 Huang K’o-tsan, 186-87,274,360 Huang Tse, 149-50,353 Huang Tsun-su, 170-71,283-84,286, 355

Huang Tsung-hsi, 283 Hui Shih-yang, 186,279,357 Hui-ti, Ming emperor, 52,54,329-30 Huo Shou-tien, 225 Huo Wei-hua, 216, 221 f Huo Ying, 216, 227I I Ch’ien, 113, 148-49, 331 Impeachments, censorial, 6, 121-30, 180-205, 256, 306-7, 309-10; use of hearsay evidence in, 22, 256 Imperial Academy of Medicine, 37, 139,


Imperial bodyguard, 44, 64,248^ 261, 280, 282, 327 Imperial clansmen, 129,197,223 Imperial in-laws, 129-30,197-98 “Inner court,” 41,44,69,161 Intendants of transport and monopo­ lies, 14 Investigating censors: pre-Ming, 12, 15, 24, 26; functions and powers of, 4752 p assim , 69, 73-94, 239, 244-46, 25253, 257; personnel practices relating to, 59-62, 74, 223, 257, 335; relations with other censorial officials, 54-55, 60, 370. See also Censorate; Censorial officials; Censors Irrigation Control Circuits, 71-72

401 Japan, 28,30-31,154 Jen-tsung, Ming emperor, 5, 42, 109-13, 132, 148-49; attitudes toward censor­ ial officials, 59, 258f Jesuits, 229. See also Ricci, Matteo Juan Ta-ch’eng, 193t, 281 Judges, prefectural, 59 Judicial administration, 98-100, 236-43, 259, 365; censorial relations with, 24, 5 &-57 > 72 , 143- 47 . 231-32, 237-50, 312-16. See also Punishments and title s o f p a rtic u la r ju d icia l agencies

Judicial intendants, 14, 53-54, 324 Judicial offices, see “Three judicial of­ fices” Judicial reviews, see Judicial adminis­ tration Kan T ’ing-i, 125 334 K’ang P’ei-yang, 217,276 Kao Ch’u, 227,250 Kao Hung-t'u, 207, 212, 274 Kao P’an-lung, 164-71 passim , 173, 215, 281, 282-83; and Ts’ui Ch’eng-hsiu, 172, 194, 257, 270 Kao Ssu-t’u, 195 Keng Wen, 93 K’o, Mistress, 169,174; censorial pro­ tests about, 198^ 203f, 210-11,283 Korea, 30,154, 156, 254 Kracke, E. A., Jr„ 3 Ku Hsien-ch’eng, 163-71 passim , 276,

K ang-chi,


Ku Hsing-tsu, 128-29 Ku Ping-ch'ien, 217 Ku Ta-chang, 191f, 247, 280 KuTsao, 189 Ku Tso, 63, 118, 137, 139, 144, 151, 248, 259f, 262, 308, 3i7n; is denounced, 247-48, 267-68; purges censors, 262-


K’uang Chung, 258 Kuang Shun, 242-43 Kuang-tsung, Ming emperor, 153-54, 166-67 K u an g-tsu n g Shih-lu, 215-16 Kublai Khan, 6, 28 Kung Chii, 366 Kung Nai, 216 Kuo Hsing-chih, 188, 192 Kuo Ju-an, 212, 221 Kuo Kung, i9of, 199 Kuo Yün-hou, 188, 232 Kuo Yung-ch’ing, 133

402 Latourette, Kenneth S., 3 Left supervising secretaries, 53. See also Offices of Scrutiny Legalism, 6-8, a 1,142, 220 Lesser functionaries, see Functionaries Levenson, Joseph R., 295 Li Ch’eng-liang, 153t Li Ching-po, 224, 227 Li Chiu-kuan, 225 Li Chiin, 63,135-36, 240 Li Ch’un-hua, 200, 229 Li Ch’un-yeh, 237 Li Fang, 266 Li Heng-mao, 221 Li Hsiung-fei, 3,321 Li Jih-hsüan, 223 Li Jo-kuei, 207,224 Li K’o-shao, 167,185-86 Li Li, Annamese chief, 110 Li Li, censor, 75n, 245,253 Li Lu, 93,125 Li Lu-sheng, 215, 227 Li Lun, 266 Li, Madame, consort, 166-69 passim , 185-86,198,2o6f, 274,359 Li Mou-fang, 227 Li Pen, 138 Li San-ts’ai, 165-66,167,171t, 187t, 192 Li Shih, 282,355 Li Shih-mien, 113,114-15,148-49, 264,


Li Su, 266 Li Ta, 252,273 Li Te-ch’iian, 130 Li T ’ing-chi, 298 Li Ts’an-jan, 180,195,222 Li Tzu-ch'eng, 160,279,330,333,357,


Li Ying-sheng, 211-12, 222,283 Li Yiian-chin, 147 Liang K’o-shun, 276 Liang Meng-huan, 194,197-98, 212-13 Liaotung, proposals about, 141-42, 22430. See also Manchus; Hsiung T ’ingP» Lien Kang, 108 Lien Kuo-shih, 223 Lin Ju-chu, 171, 246,272-73 Lin Tsai, 250 Lin Yutang, 287-88,290,292 Ling Yen-ju, 240 Literary Bureau, 112 Liu Ch’ao, 198, 202 Liu Ch’i-chung, 92

Index Liu Chih-feng, 211,227 Liu Chih-tai, 276-77 Liu Chin, 44,108, 200 Liu Ching, 141 Liu Ch’ing, 133 Liu Ch’ung-ch’ing, 231,273 Liu Fang, 216 Liu Fu, 260-62, 266 Liu Hui, 231 Liu Hung-hua, 214,220 Liu I-ching, 201, 231, 273f, 277,359 Liu Kuan, 118, 120, 126, 130, 136-37, 142, 240-41, 308, 3170, 331; offenses and punishment of, 150, 260-62, 291 Liu Lan,210 Liu Mei, 213 Liu Po-ta, 245 Liu P’u, 200 Liu T ’ing-tso, 21 if Liu T ’ing-yüan, 216 Liu T ’ung, 130 Liu Wei, 195 Lo Ch’iian, 351 Lo Ju-yüan, 230 Lo Shang-chung, 102,197, 200, 2o8f Loading expediters, 82-83 Lii Chen, 139 Lu Ch’eng-ch’in, 195 Lu Hsien-ming, 222f Lu Shih-k’o, 221 Lu Tseng, 247-48 Ma Ming-ch’i, 198 Macao, 158, 229-30 Man Ch’ao-chien, 201,360 Manchus, 28f; Ming defense against, 78-80,154-57, 189,213,219,225-30 Mano Senryo, 346 Mao Hung, 109 Mao Mu, 282 Mao Shih-lung, 186-87, 278,299 Mao Wen-lung, 156, 218, 280, 353 Men K’o-hsin, 192,231 Mencius, 6f Metropolitan areas, 32,72 Metropolitan Circuit, 105, 329 Miao Ch’ang-ch’i, 170, 282 Miao Jang, 240 Military Commissions, Regional, 33, 38, 54,248 Military Defense Circuits, 71,78, 250 “Military families," 33-34,71» 75- 76 See also Military service Military intendants, 14



Military officers, impeachments and punishments of, 126-29, 195-97. $ee also Military service Military service: organization and sta­ tus of, 10-11, 33-35. 75“8l> *53» »95-96» 2»7“ 19» 225-26, 229, 343; per­ sonnel recruitment for, 33-34, 75— 77, 111, 143, 226-28, 252-53; use of Euro­ pean firearms, 229-30, 296; censorial relations with, 7if, 140-43, 206, 21719, 225-26, 250-53. See also Military officers an d title s o f p a rtic u la r m ili­

Office manager, 50 Office of Transmission, 39,53,101 Offices of Produce Levies, 83-84, 245 Offices of Scrutiny, 9, 16-20, 53, 55, 59, 61 f, 66, 95-104 passim , 164, 235. See also Supervising secretaries; Nanking Offices of Scrutiny Omissioners, 17, 28,52, 330, 333. See also Remonstrators; Speaking officials “Outer Censorate," 16,56 “Outer Court," 41,45,55,161 Outer evaluations, 96,119,178, 214, 223

tary agencies

Ming dynasty: general characteristics of, 30-31; emperors of, 32-33, 42-43; terminated in 1644, 160. See also in d iv id u a l em p ero rs u n d er nam es (T’ai-tsu, et al.)

te m p le

Ming Shih-chü, 273 Ming Shih-yü, 252 Ministers (in Ministries), 4of, 184 Ministries, 25, 36, 39-40, 48, 61, 102-3. See also title s o f p a rtic u la r M in istries

Ministry of Justice, 39-40, 232, 237ft, 244,248 Ministry of Personnel, 39,41, 6of, 96-97 Ministry of Revenue, 39 Ministry of Rites, 39-40 Ministry of War, 39-40,41 Ministry of Works, 39-40 Mongols: in Yiian era, 25-28, 326; Ming military relations with, 78, 110-11, 128, 154; other Ming relations with, 84, 218, 227, 254 Monitors, 52 Mote, Frederick W., 293 Mou Chih-hsin, 212 Mu Hsin, 130 Music and Dance Office, 37,327 Nanking, 31, 50 Nanking Censorate, 51, 74,263, 329, 332-33

Nanking Offices of Scrutiny, 53 National University, 37, 138, 245; stu­ dents assigned to Censorate, 51, 59, 91» 105» 332» 347 Nationalist China, 29 Ni Ssu-hui, 210-11 Ni Ts’ung, 126 Ni Wen-huan, 2i3f, 280 Nien Fu, 133, 134-35» 247”4 8 Nobles, 34,196-97 Nurhaci, 154-55, 157» 226

Pacification Commissions, 25-26 Palace censors, 12,15,24,26,47f, 323-24 Palace drafters, 18 P’an Ju-chen, 213 P’an Shih-liang, 252 P’an Shih-wen, 221 P'an Yiin-i, 212,221 Pao Te-huai, 92,141,143, 148 Partisanship: characteristic of late Ming bureaucracy, 45-46, 153, 160-61, 174, 183; censorial denunciations of, 21417, 272. See also Tung-lin Party P’ei Lien, 125 Peking, 31-32, 85-86, 329 Peking Branch Ministry, 351 P ek in g G a zette, 67 P’eng Ju-nan, 77, 207, 21 if, 222-23 P’eng K’un-hua, 211, 230 People’s Procuratorates, 29 People’s Republic of China, 29 Pereira, Galeote, 86-87 Pi Tso-chou, 210 Pi Tzu-yen, 218 Po Chii-i, 4,17,23,326 Portuguese in China, 158, 229-30 Postal Service Circuits, 71 Prefects, 38 Prefectural judges, 59 Prefectures, 38 Prime ministers, 19-20, 25, 40, 323-24. See also Grand councilors Prince of Fu, 162-66 passim Princely Establishment Administration Offices, 37 Prison Offices, 5of, 54 Prison superintendents, 50,54 Proposals, censorial, 131-47, 179-80, 205-34, 307-8, 310-11. See also Re­ monstrance Provincial Administration Offices, 3839, 54, 56t, 7if, *48

404 Provincial governors, see Grand coordi­ nators Provincial Surveillance Offices: organi­ zation and functions of, 9, 38, 53-58 passim , 62, 70-73, 81, 88, 180-81, 25053 p assim ; precursors of, 13-16; judi­ cial role of, 98-99, 237-50 p a ssim ; de­ clining censorial role of, 29, 57, 62, 249» 339 Punishments, 223, 232, 238, 275, 284; commutation of, 114, 143-46; of cen­ sorial officials, 13, 22, 179-80, 254-86, 317-18, 325; by censorial officials, 27, 87, 124, 244-45. See also Judicial ad­ ministration Ration-expediting censors, 81 Recommendations, censorial, see Pro­ posals Record checking, see Document control Record-checking censors, 91,104-7,349 Record Checking Circuits, 71,105 Record clerk, 47,50,54 Record Offices, 50,51,54 “Red pills, case of," 166-67,185 Regional inspectors, 52, 70, 86-94, 164, 342, 345^ activities and powers of, 78, 84-85, 98-99, 105, 175, 228-29, 236, 238t, 244-46, 251-53 pa ssim ; disciplin­ ing of, 179-80, 256f Regional Military Commissions, 33, 38, 54, 248 Registrars, 47,50,54 Registries, 50,51,54 Reminders, 17, 23, 52, 330, 333. See also Remonstrators; Speaking offi­ cials; Omissioners Remonstrance, censorial, 6-8,12-13, 1620, 27-28, 131, 132-34, 205, 206-13. See also Remonstrators; Speaking offi­ cials Remonstrators, 17-20, 22, 255, 325. See also Remonstrance; Speaking officials; Grand remonstrators; Omissioners; Reminders; Bureau of Remonstrance “Removal from the palace, case of," see u n der “Case” Revenues, see Taxes; Ministry of Reve­ nue Ricci, Matteo, 2-3, 86, 96-97, 229, 245,


Right supervising secretaries, 53 River-patrol censors, 82 River Patrol Circuits, 72

Index Salt-control censors, 83 Salt Control Circuits, 72 San-ch’ao Y ao-tien, 217 Schools, 36-37, 137, 226, 245; censorial surveillance over, 71, 84-85; censorial proposals about, 138, 207 Secretarial censors, 26,47t Secretariat, 6,12,17-18,25,40,46,48t Semedo, C. Alvarez, 86,298-99,343 “Seven chief ministers,” 69 Shang dynasty, 10 Shao Ch’i, 263 Shao Fu-chung, 278 She Ch’ung-ming, 157 Shen Ch’un, 138 Shen Hsiin, 231 Shen I-kuan,298 Shen Ting, 125 Shen Ts’ui, 198, 360; censorial denunci­ ations of, 275, 279-83 passim Shen-tsung, Ming emperor, 43, 45, 83, »53* *55» 15&-59» 161-65 passim , 356 Shen Wei-ping, 187 S h ih -lu : general nature of, 118-19, 122; controversies over, 215-16; incom­ pleteness of, 268-69, 350, 355-56 Shih San-wei, 192,214,217,276 Shih-tsung, Ming emperor, 43,45 Shih Yu-hsiang, 212 Shou-ling-kuan, 332 Shu Chi, 245 Soldiers, see Military service Source officials, 53 Speaking officials, gn, 13, 17f, 27-28, 5253 * 55 » 132» *75-76, 236, 322-24. See also Censorial officials; Remonstrat­ ors; Supervising secretaries; Bureau of Remonstrance Straight-pointing commissioner, 330 Su Shih, 325-26 Su Shu, 214 Subprefectures, 38 Sui dynasty, 323-24 Sun Ch’eng-tsung, 157, 230 Sun Chieh, 129, 187, 201; memorials of, 186, 190, 223, 228, 274, 360 Sun Shao-t’ung, 223 Sun Shen-hsing, 201,360 Sun Wei, 64-65 Sun Yat-sen, 287 Sun Yu-ju, 209-10 Sung Chung, 247-48 Sung dynasty, 11-24 passim Sung Shih-hsiang, 198,211

Index Sung Ying, 247-48 Supervising secretaries, 17-20, 28, 53, 59-62 passim , 69, 74, 223, 257, 333; activities and powers of, 69, 73-94, 99-104, 239^ 252-54; relations with other censorial officials, 28, 55t, 370; punishments of, 265-66. See also Of­ fices of Scrutiny; Censorial officials Supervisorate of Imperial Instruction, 37»333 Supreme commanders, 38-39,51-52, 184 Surveillance commissioners, 14, 24, 54, 66, 265-67. See also Provincial Sur­ veillance Offices Surveillance Offices (Yiian), 27. See also Provincial Surveillance Offices Survellance officials, 9n, 12-17 passim , 323-24. See also Censorate; Provincial Surveillance Offices; Censorial officials Surveillance Sections (Sung), 15 Surveillance vice commissioners, 54, 7073. See also Provincial Surveillance Offices Ta Wang, 130 Tai Sheng, 140-41 T ’ai-tsu, Ming emperor, 32, 42, 47, 49, 68; and the censorial system, 3,53, 58, 256; cited by Yang Lien, 200, 204 Taiwan, 158 T ’ang Chi-ho, 3 T ’ang dynasty, 11-24 passim Tang, Edgar Cha, 3,321 T ’ang Pin-yin, 188 T ’ao Lang-hsien, 222 Taoism, 6,43,135 Taxes, 80-84,159,217-19,220-23 Teng Ch’i, 346 Tenure of censorial officials, 235, 335-38 passim

“Three great cases,” 217. See also u n der “Case o f . . . ” “Three judicial offices,” 69, 237-44 p a s­ s im . See also Censorate; Ministry of Justice; Grand Court of Revision “Three provincial agencies,” see Pro­ vincial Administration Offices; Pro­ vincial Surveillance Offices; Regional Military Commissions T ’ien Chen, 209 T ’ien Ching-hsin, 197,277 Ting 1, 293 Ting Shao-shih, 280 Touring commissioners (Sung), 14-15

405 Training divisions, 77-78 Translators, in early Ming Censorate, 47 Transport-control censors, 83 Travel, time limits imposed on, 348-49 Troop purification, 75-77, 111, 253. See also Military service Troop Purification Circuits, 71,76t Ts’ai Ssu-ch’eng, 190, 226,22gf Ts’ao Hsiieh-ch’iian, 216 Ts’ao Ku, 215 Tseng Ju-chao, 211 Tso Kuang-ch’i, 285 Tso Kuang-tou, 93, 165^ 170, 172, 187, i92f, 274; dismissal and punishment of, 171, 194, 250, 270, 281-85 passim Tso Ting, 108 Tsou Yiian-piao, 162, 167-68, 188, 216, 270 Ts’ui Ch’eng-hsiu, 172, 187, 194t, 257, 270, 277, 28of, 283 Ts’ui Wen-sheng, 166, 185, 198, 272 Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 154 T ’u Chieh, 48 Tu Chih, 331 Tu Fu, 17 Tuan K’ai, 262 Tuan Min, 133 Tung-lin Academy, 163-68 passim , 21415, 281, 360 Tung-lin Party, 160-76 passim , 187-95 passim , 212, 214, 231, 269-74 passim , 297-99 Tung Yii-ch’en, 226f Usher, in early Ming Censorate, 47 Van der Sprenkel, Otto, 338f “Vetoes,” see Document control Vice censors-in-chief, 12, 26, 47-52 p as­ sim . See also Censorate Vietnam, see Annam Walker, Richard L., 288,323t Wan Ching, 171,194,211-12 Wang An, 166-70 passim , 193, 201, 360 Wang Ao, 127, 146 Wang Chen, 44, io8f, 200 Wang Chang, 114 Wang Chi, 201, 360 Wang Chi-tseng, 102 Wang Chih, 44,108 Wang Chih-tao, 226 Wang Ching-ming, 128 Wang Ch’ing-po, 220,223


406 Wang Hsiang, 242-43 Wang Hsien, 241-42 Wang Hsin-i, 210-11 Wang Hsün, 264 Wang Hua-chen, 155-57, 190-92, 196, 225,227,250 Wang Hui-t’u, 269 Wang Jun, 260 Wang Lai, 245-46 Wang Li, 127 Wang, Madame, consort, 169 Wang Meng-yin, 254 Wang Ming-hsüan, 93 Wang San-shan, 192 Wang Shao-hui, 171,173,188,195 Wang Ta-nien, 211,219, 227 Wang Te-wan, 232 Wang Tsun-te, 94 Wang Wen-yen, 165-66, 191, 357-58; trials and death of, 172, 192-94; men­ tioned, 202, 250, 278-82 passim Wang Yang-ming, 163 Wang Yeh-hao, 180, 206-7, 222, 226, 276 Wang Yiin-ch’eng, 187, 209, 223, 274 Ward-inspecting censors, 85-86 Warden’s Office, 85-86 Weber, Max, 289, 293, 372 Wei Chung-hsien, 44, 168-74 p a ssim ; censorial attacks on, 63-64, 170-71, 198-205, 210-12, 359; supporters of, 192-95, 212-13, 221-22, 257; punishes enemies, 194-95, 197-98, 271t, 275-86; confusion about name of, 355, 359 Wei Fan, 222 Wei Kuang-hsii, 180, 231 Wei Kuang-wei, 172t Wei Ta-chung, 193t, 200, 202, 277, 281ft, 285-86,361 Wei Ying-chia, 185-86,189,206,357 Wen Chen-meng, 201,360 Wen Kao-mo, 197, 229-30 Western Depot, 44. See also Eastern De­ pot White Lotus Society, 157-58, 230,232 Williams, Samuel Wells, 288-89,291 Wittfogel, Karl A., 292-96 passim , 372 Wu Chih-jen, 220 Wu Jui-cheng, 273 Wu Na, 137 Wu Sheng, 220,224 Wu Ta-p’u, 362 Wu-tsung, Ming emperor, 43 Wu Tsung-yiian, 130 Wu Yii-chung, 280

Yang Chen, 196 Yang Fang-sheng, 230 Yang Hsin-ch’i, 220 Yang Jung, 94,116, 262 Yang Lien, 63-64, 165-72 p a ssim ; parti­ san leader, 187, 192, 198-99, 274, 282f; denounces Wei Chung-hsien, 194, 199, 200-205, 234n; imprisonment and death, 250, 270, 281, 284, 286, 357-58; mentioned, 206-7, 215, 232, 278 Yang P’u, 116 Yang Shih-ch’i, 93-94, 112-13, 115-16, 262, 267-68, 350 Yang Shu-chung, 192 Yang So-hsiu, 211,216, 222,224 Yang Tao-yin, 228, 254 Yang Tung-ch’ao, 200,230 Yang Wei-hsin, 228 Yang Wei-yiian, 191 Yang Yii-k’ai, 196 Yang Yii-k’o, 200 Yao Tsung-wen, 188-89, *9°» *73 »*7 ® Yeh Hsiang-kao, 167L 171,187,192,19395,216, 298; counsel by, 207L 225,272, 274L 278 Yeh Sheng, 94 Yeh Yu-sheng, 277 Yen Chi-hsien, 125 Yen K’ai, 260, 262-63, 265 Yen Sung, 109 Yen Wen-hui, 77-78 Yin Ch’ung-kao, 121,134,140 Yin T ’ung-kao, 208, 220, 224 Yin Yiian, 243 Ying-tsung, Ming emperor, 57, 109, 111, 128 Yii Ch’ien, 108 Yii Ho-chung, 228 Yü-shih (“censor"), 10 Yii Shih-ch’i, 125 Yu Shih-jen, 252-53, 278 Yii Shih-yiieh, 247-48 Yii Teng, 3, 346 Yii T ’ing-pi, 212, 217, 222,277 Yii Yii-li, 165-66 Yiian Ch’i, 115,149t Yiian Ching, 195, 224 Yiian Ch’ung-huan, 157,213,230, 353

Yiian dynasty, 25-28 Yiian Hua-chung, 193, 274, 281 Yiian Ying-t’ai, 155 Yui, O. K., 327