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FO R D H A M U N IV E R SIT Y G R A D U A T E SCHOOL

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J ;5........1950

This dissertation prepared under my direction by

........................................... Rev*, f i l t h y .

entitled

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..................... XMI3!ED-..STATES...PRIQR...T0....THS....C.IV'IL...WAR...................

has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

Degree o f .............. Do c to r o f ..p h ilosop h y ................. .

Dr# A* Paul Levaek...................... (Faculty A dviser)

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH M B THE NEGRO IN THE UNITED STATES PKEOR TO THE CIVIL WAR

BY REV. TIMOTHY J . HOLLAND, S . S . J . B .A ., S t . M ary*s S e m in a ry M .A ., C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y

DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AT FQHDHAM UNIVERSITY NEW YOHEC 1950

ProQuest N um ber: 10993018

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10993018 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

C h a p te r

L

P age

FEEFACB.............................................................................................

iv

I.

THE COLONIAL HERITAGE.........................................................

1

IX .

THE YOUNG REPUBLIC'S FIRST CATHOLIC B IS H O P ....

IIT .

CARROLL' S SUCCESSORS,l 8 l 6 - l 8 2 9 ....................................

56

I V . ORGANIZED EFFORTS IN BEHALF OF THE NEGRO, 1 8 3 0 -1 8 6 0 .......... . . ........................................................................

79

CONCLUSION..................................................................................

118

A P P E N D I X ..........................................................

121

BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................

139

26

-1

iv

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•]

PflBFAGB T h o se who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n th e s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e o f t h e N e g ro e s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a r e a g r e e d t h a t t h e C o lo re d a re a d e e p ly r e l i g i o u s p e o p le .

The f r e q u e n c y o f th e r e v i v a l s

a n d t h e un n u m b ered v a r i e t y o f t h e i r c h u r c h e s a r e e v id e n c e t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n B la c k s d e s i r e a ffilia tio n

w ith some d e n o m i n a t i o n a l g r o u p .

Four m illio n

a r e a s s o c i a t e d w ith some one o f th e f i v e b r a n c h e s o f t h e B a p t i s t s , a lm o s t two m i l l i o n a r e m em bers o f t h e n i n e d i v i s i o n s o f th e M e t h o d i s t s , w h ile t h e r e m a in i n g s e v e n m i l l i o n a r e s c a t t e r e d among s m a l l e r r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s , n o t t h e l e a s t o f w h ic h i s

t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h .

T h e re a r e a p p r o x ­

i m a t e l y 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 i n communion w i t h th e C h u rch o f Borne; how­ e v e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e n u m e r i c a l d i s p r o p o r t i o n b e tw e e n t h e s e a n d t h e t o t a l C o lo re d p o p u l a t i o n , t h e a s s u m p tio n h a s b e e n made t h a t C a th o l i c i s m h a s b e e n i n d i f f e r e n t to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l n eed s,

W h ile t h e r e i s no d o u b t a b o u t t h e p o s i t i o n o f th e

C a t h o l i c C hurch c o n c e r n i n g t h e N e g ro e s s i n c e t h e S econd P l e n a r y C o u n c il o f B a ltim o r e i n 1 8 6 6 , t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n a s t o how e x t e n s i v e i n t h e i r b e h a l f C a t h o l i c e f f o r t s w ere p r i o r t o t h e C i v i l W ar.

The p r e s e n t s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n to

a n sw e r t h i s q u e s t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e w ere C o lo re d C a t h o l i c s i n t h e New W orld l o n g b e f o r e t h e B e v o l u t i o n a r y W ar— and t h e y w ere c a r e d f o r by o t h e r C a t h o l i c s .

As t h e i r num ber i n c r e a s e d w i t h

th e p a s s in g o f d e c a d e s , th e b is h o p s , p r i e s t s and l a i t y o f L

_J

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1

t h e C h u rc h o f Home r e a l i z e d t h a t s o m e th in g s h o u ld be d o n e f o r t h e s e p e o p le *

I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r t a k e a f o r m a l

program o f C h r is t ia n iz a t io n , but t h is d id n o t d e te r zea lo u s c le rg y m e n an d i n d i v i d u a l o w n e rs fro m e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r z e a l* A d e a r t h o f p r i e s t s , l i m i t e d s o u r c e s a n d a tre m e n d o u s i n f l u x o f C a t h o l i c im m ig r a n ts fro m E u ro p e h a n d ic a p p e d a n y p r o p s e c t o f c o n c e n tr a tin g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n on th e B la c k s , a lth o u g h t h e C a t h o l i c s o f M a ry la n d a n d L o u is ia n a w ere m in d f u l o f t h e i r C h ris tia n d u ty .

I t w as m a in ly t h r o u g h t h e i r e f f o r t s

t h a t b y i 8 6 0 , N egro m e m b e rsh ip i n t h e C h u rch o f Rome r e a c h e d a m ark o f 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

I t is

to b e r e g r e t t e d t h a t d e t a i l s a r e

l a c k i n g a n d t h a t d o c u m e n ta ry e v id e n c e i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r f o r m in g a c o m p le te p i c t u r e ; h o w e v e r, a v a i l a b l e d a t a o f f e r s p o s i t i v e p r o o f t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c C hurch w as n o t o n l y aw are o f t h e r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n a n t e - b e l l u m d a y s , b u t w as a c t i v e l y c o n c e rn e d a b o u t h e l p i n g th e C o lo re d * I n g a th e r in g th e n e c e s s a ry m a t e r i a l , th e w r ite r h as b e e n i n c o m m u n ic a tio n w ith a l l t h e d i o c e s e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s p r i o r to i 8 6 0 .

Some w ere v i s i t e d i n

p e r s o n , e . g . , B a l t i m o r e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , New Y o rk , A lb a n y , B r o o k ly n , B o s to n , N ew ark , C h a r le s t o n a n d New O r l e a n s ; i n o t h e r s , r e l i a n c e was p l a c e d u p o n t h e t e s ti m o n y o f a r c h i v i s t s o r o t h e r c o m p e te n t d i o c e s a n

a u th o ritie s *

U n fo rtu n a te ly ,

t h e f i n d i n g s w ere f a r s h o r t o f w h a t h a d b e e n e x p e c t e d . I n v e s t i g a t i o n w as c a r r i e d f u r t h e r i n p r i v a t e an d p r i n t e d c o l l e c t i o n s , d i o c e s a n h i s t o r i e s , p a r i s h r e c o r d s , an d a l l i e d Ls e c o n d a r y w orks*

On t h i s b a s i s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s e c u r e d

j

a n e x p o s i t i o n was m ade o f t h e c o l o n i a l b a c k g ro u n d a s to th e s t a t u s o f b o t h t h e C o lo re d a n d C a t h o l i c s i n A n g lo -A m e ric a , o f e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n t h e N e g ro e s d u r i n g th e p o s t - B e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d a n d o f t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f as-, r e l i g i o u s p ro g ra m w h ic h e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a com m unity o f C o lo re d S i s t e r s a t B a lt i m o r e .

The f i n a l

t h i r t y y e a r s p r e c e d i n g t h e o u t b r e a k o f th e W ar, when a g r e a t num ber o f new d i o c e s e s w ere c r e a t e d , w ere t r e a t e d a s a s in g le p e rio d .

L

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE NEGRO IN THE UNITED STATES PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR

1

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CHAPTER I THE COLONIAL HBETTAGB When Jo h n C a r r o l l becam e th e f i r s t B is h o p o f B a ltim o r e i n 1 7 9 0 9 th e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h c o u ld lo o k b a c k o v e r m ore t h a n a c e n t u r y a n d a h a l f o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e N egro i n A m e ric a . T he a s s o c i a t i o n h a d b e e n l i m i t e d , t o be s u r e , t o a fe w s c a t t e r e d a r e a s a n d t o c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a ll g ro u p s o f C o lo r e d , b u t a t t h e tim e o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e A m e ric a n h i e r a r c h y , t h e C h u rc h o f Rome a n d th e N e g ro e s i n t h e New W orld w ere b y no m eans s t r a n g e r s t o e a c h o t h e r • When th e f i r s t tw e n ty A f r i c a n s , b r o u g h t t o A n g lo A m e ric a b y a D u tc h m e rc h a n tm a n , a r r i v e d a t Ja m e sto w n , V i r g i n i a i n l6 l9 > t h e y becam e p a r t o f a d e c i d e d l y P r o t ­ e s t a n t e n v ir o n m e n t w here t h e r e was s l i ^ a t p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r e v e r h e a r i n g a r e s p e c t f u l m e n tio n o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h .1

I f th e y r e c e iv e d an y r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g — n o t

a t a l l a c e r t a i n t y — t h e y w ere bound t o a c c e p t t h e same b e l i e f s a s w ere h e l d b y t h e w h ite P r o t e s t a n t s who r e s i d e d i n t h e c o lo n y . F i f t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , t h e E n g l i s h fo u n d e d a n o t h e r

1 . M atth ew P . A n d re w s, H i s t o r y o f M a ry la n d , P r o v in c e a n d S t a t e , New Y o rk , D o u b le d a y , D o ra n & C o ., 1 9 ^ 9 » P« 192 a v e r s t h a t t h e s e N e g ro e s w ere im p o r te d a s i n d e n t u r e d s e rv a n ts . 11S l a v e s w ere n o t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o V i r g i n i a w i t h th e a d v e n t o f t h e f i r s t N e g r o e s . I n 1619* s l a v e r y w as n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l i s h Law n o r i n t h e la w s a n d c u sto m s o f V i r g i n i a L

s e t t l e m e n t w h ic h t h e y c a l l e d Maryland,**- a n d i n c l u d e d i n th e f i r s t a r r i v a l s w as a g ro u p o f a b o u t one h u n d re d C a t h o l i c s , two p r i e s t s a n d a s e r v a n t who was a C a t h o l i c N e g r o

gy

1 6 3 6 , m ore B la c k s m u st h a v e come t o t h e c o m m u n ity , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s a r e p o r t t h a t a J e s u i t t r a v e l e d fro m Newtown to B la c k s to n e I s l a n d .ttto o f f e r M ass f o r t h e E n g l i s h an d C o lo re d p e o p l e 1* t h e r e . 5 I t i s n o t a c t u a l l y known w h e th e r o r n o t t h e s e B la c k s came i n t o M a ry la n d a s i n d e n t u r e d s e r v a n t s , ^ b u t i t becam e e v i d e n t , a s t h e l a b o r s c a r c i t y grew c r i t i c a l , t h a t L o rd B a l t i m o r e ’ s p r o j e c t c o u ld n o t c o n tin u e u n l e s s i t a d o p te d th e c u sto m o f p u r c h a s i n g s l a v e s .

J u s t how t h e C a t h o l i c

1 . See B r a d le y T . J o h n s o n , The F o u n d a tio n o f M a r y la n d , B a l t i m o r e , Jo h n M urphy C o ., 1 8 8 3 9 P« & eT s e q . L o rd B a l t i m o r e , d e s i r o u s o f f o u n d in g a c o lo n y f o r p e r s e c u t e d C h r i s t i a n s I n t h e New W o rld , a s k e d f o r an d o b t a i n e d fro m C h a r le s X t h e t e r r i t o r y n o r t h o f t h e P otom ac R i v e r . He d i e d I n 1 6 3 2 , b u t h i s w ork w as c a r r i e d on b y h i s s o n , C e c i l , th e se c o n d L o rd B a lt i m o r e , who l e d a n e x p e d i t i o n t o M a ry la n d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . On M arch 2 5 , 163 Ij., th e p a r t y la n d e d i n A m e ric a a n d fo u n d e d a c o lo n y w h ic h o f f e r e d l i b e r t y o f c o n s c ie n c e t o a l l m en. Of L o rd B a ltim o re , i t i s s a i d : “ H is o b j e c t was n o t o n l y to s e c u r e a r e f u g e f o r p e r s e c u t e d Roman C a t h o l i c s , h o u n d ed fro m e v e r y h u n d re d i n t h e t h r e e k in g d o m s w here t h e y m ig h t e n jo y t h e i r r e l i g i o n i n p e a c e , b u t th e l a r g e r an d n o b l e r o n e , t h a t a g r e a t S t a t e s h o u ld grow u p w here th e r i g h t s , f r a n c h i s e s a n d l i b e r t i e s o f E n g li s h m e n .. . l i b e r t y o f c o n s c i e n c e , th e r i g h t o f h a b e a s c o rp u s a n d t r i a l b y j u r y . . . s h o u ld be s e c u r e d a n d g u a r a n t e e d t o a l l . 1* I b i d . , p . 9* 2 . H e n ry S . S p a l d i n g , C a t h o l i c C o l o n ia l M a r y la n d , M ilw aukee B ruce P u b l i s h i n g Co• , I 93I , p . l 6 2 . 3# M ic h a e l J . I& q^& an, **The A r c h d io c e s e o f a n d P r o v in c e o f B a l t i m o r e , ** The C a t h o l i c C h u rc h i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s o f A m e ric a , 3 v o Y s. , New Y o rk , C a th o T ic E d i t i n g Company, l9 i^ , I I , 99. 4 . A n d re w s, o £ . p . 61*..

e le m e n t f e l t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n a l t h o u g h F a t h e r G i l l a r d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y fro w n e d o n t h e l e g a l i z i n g o f b u y in g a n d s e l l i n g human b e i n g s a s l o n g a s t h e y re m a in e d i n t h e ascendancy."*" By d e g r e e s , t h e te m p e r o f t h e c o lo n y c h a n g e d .

W hile

f e w e r p a p i s t s came o v e r fro m E n g la n d , o t h e r c o l o n i s t s — p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e V i r g i n i a n s — w ere a t t r a c t e d b y th e com­ p a r a t i v e m il d n e s s o f M a ry la n d 1s la w s a n d d e c i d e d t o s e t t l e i n t h i s r e g i o n b e tw e e n t h e C h e sa p ea k e Bay an d t h e Potom ac B iv e r .^

T h ese m i g r a n t s b r o u g h t P r o t e s t a n t i s m a l o n g w ith

them a n d becam e i n f l u e n t i a l e n o u g h t o f o r c e L o rd B a ltim o r e t o r e e o g n i z e them a s a d e f i n i t e p o w e r.

By I 6I4.9 , t h e y

s u c c e e d e d i n g a i n i n g t h e i r f i r s t i m p o r t a n t g r a n t when a t th e i n s t a n c e o f t h e c o l o n i a l r e g e n t , t h e M a ry la n d A ssem b ly p a s s e d a n A c t o f T o l e r a t i o n w h ic h g u a r a n te e d f u l l r e l i g i o u s r i g h t s to a l l th e s e t t l e r s . 5 T h re e y e a r s l a t e r , t h e y d e p o s e d L o rd B a l t i m o r e , p l a c e d W illia m C la ib o r n e a n d R ic h a rd B e n n e tt i n c o n t r o l o f t h e g o v e rn m e n t, d i s f r a n c h i s e d t h e p a p is ts ^ * an d e v e n d e n ie d t o th em l i b e r t y o f w o r s h ip .

I n 16 57* ^he a u t h o r i t y o f th e

1 . Jo h n T . G i l l a r d , The C a t h o l i c C h u rc h an d t h e A m e ric an N e g ro , B a l t i m o r e , S t . Jo sep h * s S o c i e t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 $ P • 7 7 . No d o c u m e n ta tio n i s g iv e n by th e w r i t e r . 2 . S p a ld in g , o p . c l t . , p . 6 5 * 3* The A r c h iv e s o f M a ry la n d , W illia m H. Brown e t a l . f e d s • ) , 63 v o T s . , B a l t i m o r e , M a ry la n d H i s t o r i caT S o c i e t y , I I , 2l\lj.. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s A r c h iv e s o f M a r y la n d ) • Ij.. Jo h n T . S c h a r f , H i s t o r y o f M a ry la n d , 2 v o l s . , B a lt i m o r e , J . B. P i e t Com pany,r 1 8 7 9 9 I , 21$•

C a l v e r t f a m i l y was r e s t o r e d b y t h e Com m onw ealth, b u t C a t h o l i c i s m w as n e v e r a g a i n t o e x e r c i s e th e i n f l u e n c e i t h a d f o r m e r l y e n j o y e d .^

The P r o t e s t a n t s r e t a i n e d t h e i r s t r e n g t h ,

o b t a i n e d w h a te v e r l e g i s l a t i o n t h e y d e s i r e d , p e r s e c u t e d th e C a t h o l i c s a t w i l l an d k e p t M a ry la n d c o n v u ls e d i n a r e i g n o f t e r r o r an d i n t o l e r a n c e . ^ By 1 6 6 3 , t h e n o n - C a t h o l i e f o r c e s s c o r e d a n o t h e r su ccess.

S in c e t h e f o u n d i n g o f th e c o lo n y , s l a v e r y h a d

n o t b een re g a rd e d a s an a c c e p te d i n s t i t u t i o n , a lth o u g h a m o d if i e d fo rm h ad b e e n t o l e r a t e d a s a n e c o n o m ic e x p e d i e n t . W hen, h o w e v e r, t h e P r o t e s t a n t s g a in e d c o n t r o l , t h e y p r e s s e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e rn m e n t u n t i l i t f o r m a l l y d e c l a r e d human b o n d a g e to be l e g a l .

C o n te n d in g t h a t th e p r o g r e s s o f th e

c o lo n y l a r g e l y d e p e n d e d o n f o s t e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r e a n d t h a t N eg ro s l a v e s c o u ld s o l v e t h e p l a n t e r s r p r o b le m , t h e y c o n ­ v i n c e d th e l e g i s l a t o r s t h a t i t was f o o l h a r d y t o w ith h o ld a p p r o v a l o f t h e s l a v e r y s y s te m a n y l o n g e r .

The A s s e m b ly ,

t h e r e u p o n , i n f,Jln A c t C o n c e rn in g N e g ro e s a n d O th e r S l a v e s ” d e cree d t h a t : M U N e g ro e s o r o t h e r s l a v e s w i t h i n t h e P r o v in c e a n d a l l N e g ro e s an d o t h e r s l a v e s h e r e a f t e r t o b e im p o r te d i n t o t h e P r o v in c e s h a l l s e r v e d u r a n t e v i t a ;

1 . Jo h n L . Bozm an, A H i s t o r y o f M a ry la n d , 2 v o l s . , B a l t i m o r e , L u c a s & D e a v e r Com pany, 1 8 3 7 / I I , k-9 5 . 2 . S i s t e r M ary B orrom eo D unn, Q ur C o r n e r s to n e o f F a i t h , B a l t i m o r e , (no i m p r i n t ) , 193^> p p . 2 ? e t s e q .

L

a n d a l l c h i l d r e n b o r n o f a n y n e g ro o r o th e r s la v e s s h a ll be s la v e s a s t h e i r f a t h e r s w ere f o r t h e te rm o f t h e i r liv e s .1 By t h i s e n a c tm e n t , t h e r e was no l o n g e r a n y d o u b t a b o u t th e c o lo n is ts *

a ttitu d e

to w a rd s t h e N e g r o e s - - s e r v i t u d e was t o

b e th e l o t an d i n h e r i t a n c e o f t h e B la c k s who w ould be b r o u g h t i n t o M a ry la n d t h e r e a f t e r . T h is a c c e p ta n c e o f s la v e r y c r e a te d a c o n f l i c t o f o p i n i o n i n th e c o lo n y a s t o w h e th e r o r n o t th e N e g ro e s s h o u ld be p e r m i t t e d t o r e c e i v e b a p ti s m .

B hder t h e C a t h o l i c

r e g im e , t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n a b o u t C o lo re d s e r v a n t s b e in g g iv e n th e s a c r a m e n t , b u t t h e n e w ly - e n d o r s e d p ro g ra m o f e n ­ s l a v i n g t h e B la c k s w as o p p o se d t o t h e c u r r e n t i m p r e s s i o n p t h a t C h r i s t i a n s c o u ld n o t b e h e l d i n b o n d a g e . The m a t t e r w as f i n a l l y s u b m i tt e d t o t h e A ssem b ly f o r d i s c u s s i o n an d i n 1 6 7 1 $ a d e c i s i o n w as h a n d e d down e x p r e s s l y d e c l a r i n g t h a t b a p ti s m d i d n o t im p ly m a n u m is s io n .^

T h is v ie w was

s u b s t a n t i a t e d by L o rd B a lt i m o r e when i n 1 6 7 6 , he made a r e p o r t t o t h e H ouse o f L o rd s d e c l a r i n g : W h erea s i n many o t h e r p a r t s o f A m e ric a , t h e y r e f u s e f o u t o f c o v e t o u s n e s s ) to p e rm it t h e i r n e g ro e s and m u la tto e s to be b a p t i z e d o u t o f a n o p i n i o n t h a t b a p tis m i s a m a n u m issio n fro m t h e i r s e r v i c e s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t ly t h e same t h i n g a s t o t h e dam age o f t h e m a s t e r s a n d o w n e rs a s i f t h e i r s e r v a n t s w ere a c t u a l l y d e a d — and t h i s o p in io n

1 . A r c h iv e s o f M a ry la n d , I I , 2 7 0 . 2 . I b id ., H , 272. 3 . Ib id .

6

r

b e g in n in g to ta k e p la c e i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , a la w was made t o e n c o u ra g e t h e b a p t i s i n g o f th e m , by w h ich i t was a n d i s d e c l a r e d t h a t a s i n f o r m e r t i m e s , th e b a p ti s m o f v i l l a i n e s was n o t t a k e n b y t h e la w o f E n g la n d t o be m a n u m issio n o r e n f r a n c h i s i n g o f t h e v i l l a i n e s , so n e i t h e r s h a l l i t be i n t h i s p ro v in c e a s to n e g ro e s and m u l a t t o s s . And t h e r e h a v e b e e n fo u n d good e f f e c t s fro m t h i s la w ; a l l m a s t e r s , g e n e r a l l y , s i n c e th e m a k in g o f t h i s la w h a v in g b e e n w i l l i n g to i n s t r u c t t h o s e k i n d s o f s e r v a n t s i n th e f a i t h o f C h r i s t a n d to b r i n g them to d e s i r e a n d r e c e i v e B a p tis m .^ The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e C o u r ts o f E n g la n d to o k a s t a n d c o n t r a r y to t h a t o f t h e M a ry la n d A sse m b ly an d th e o p i n i o n o f L o rd B a l t i m o r e ,

By r u l i n g t h a t ^ N e g ro e s w ere

m ere go o d s b y f o r c e o f u s a g e u n t i l th e y becam e C h r i s t i a n s a n d t h e r e b y w ere e n f r a n c h i s e d , 11 t h e y r e o p e n e d th e d i s p u t e . The c o l o n i a l c l e r g y w ere p e r p l e x e d , a n d i n o r d e r t o f o l l o w a u n if o r m p o l i c y , t h e y r e q u e s t e d th e B ish o p o f L ondon t o d e c i d e w h at s h o u ld be d o n e .^

H is r e p l y f a v o r e d th e

b a p t i z i n g o f s l a v e s a n d w as a c c e p t e d by m any P r o t e s t a n t d iv in e s a s an i n v i t a t i o n to p r o s e l y ti z e

th e B l a c k s .

A ll,

h o w e v e r, d i d n o t r e g a r d t h i s v ie w a s o f f i c i a l an d i t was n o t u n t i l 1 6 9 2 , t h e y e a r i n w h ic h th e C h u rch o f E n g la n d w as e s t a b l i s h e d i n th e P r o v i n c e , t h a t a s i n g l e c o u r s e o f

1 . I b i d . , V, 2 6 8 . 2 . Thomas A . H u g h e s, The H i s t o r y o f th e S o c i e t y o f J e s u s A m e ric a , T e x t , 2 v o l s . , New Y o r k , L o n g n a n s , H re e n & Company, 1 9 1 7 7 H # 1 2 0 . (H e re a fte r c ite d a s H u g h e s, T e x t ) . 3 . I b i d . , I I T T 2I . L

T

7 a c t i o n was a d o p te d .'* ' I t was i n t h e same y e a r a l s o , t h a t t h e M a ry la n d A sse m b ly r e o p e n e d d i s c u s s i o n o n th e s t a t u s o f t h e N e g ro , c o n fir m e d t h e e n a c tm e n t o f 1671 an d h o p e d to s e t t l e

th e

i s s u e p e r m a n e n tly b y p a s s i n g th e f o l l o w i n g o r d i n a n c e : W h ereas s e v e r a l o f t h e good p e o p le o f t h i s P r o v in c e h a v e b e e n d i s ­ c o u ra g e d t o i m p o r t i n t o o r p u r c h a s e a n y N e g ro e s o r o t h e r s l a v e s , an d s u c h a s h a v e im p o r te d o r p u r c h a s e d an y su c h have to th e g r e a t d i s ­ p l e a s u r e o f A lm ig h ty God an d th e p r e ju d ic e o f th e s o u ls o f th e s e p o o r p e o p le , n e g le c te d to i n s t r u c t them i n t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , o r t o e n d u re o r p e r m i t them t o r e c e i v e t h e h o l y s a c r a m e n t o f B a p tis m f o r th e re m is s io n o f t h e i r s i n s , upon a m is ta k e n a n d u n fo u n d e d a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t b y b e c o m in g C h r i s t i a n s , t h e y and th e is s u e o f t h e i r b o d ie s a re a c t u a l l y m a n u m itte d a n d made f r e e a n d d i s c h a r g e d fro m t h e i r s e r v i t u d e and b o n d ag e, be i t e n a c t e d . . . t h a t w h ere a n y N egro s l a v e b e i n g i n b o n d a g e . . . s h a l l becom e C h ri s t i a n . . . and s h a l l r e c e iv e th e sa c ra m e n t o f B a p t i s m .• • t h e same s h a l l n o t b e . . . c o n s t r u e d i n t o a m a n u m is s io n .2 D u r in g t h e s e v e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s t f i i c h e l a p s e d b e ­ tw e e n th e a r r i v a l o f t h e N e g ro e s a n d th e a b o v e men­ t i o n e d d e c i s i o n , t h e M a ry la n d C a t h o l i c s d i d n o t d e v i a t e fro m th e t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y o f t h e i r C hurch o f a d m in is ­ t e r i n g t h e s a c r a m e n t o f B a p tis m t o a l l who s o u g h t

1 . W illia m T . R u s s e l l , M a ry la n d , The L and o f S a n c t u a r y , B a l t i m o r e , J • H. F u r s t Company, 1 9 ^ 7 , p • 2 6 8 . 2* A r c h iv e s o f M a ry la n d , I I , 272*

m e m b e rsh ip w i t h i n i t s

ran k s.

T hough f o r c e d b y c ir c u m s ta n c e s

t o a c c e p t t h e s l a v e r y s y s t e m ,”*’ C a t h o l i c s w ere n o t d e r e l i c t in f u lf illin g

t h e i r C h r i s t i a n d u t y to w a rd s th e C o lo r e d ;

t h e y w ere a s c a r e f u l t o h a v e t h e i r s l a v e s b a p t i z e d a n d i n s t r u c t e d a s t h e y w ere t h e m em bers o f t h e i r own f a m i l i e s .

2

P r i e s t s , t o o , w ere i n t e r e s t e d i n th e w e l f a r e o f t h e N e g r o e s , b u t fo u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o do much f o r t h e o n e s n o t u n d e r t h e i r own im m e d ia te c a r e . As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t a s s u m p tio n o f pow er i n M a ry la n d , t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rch s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r ­ a b l y fro m p e r s e c u t i o n . c o lo n y ,^

C l e r i c s w ere e x p e l l e d fro m t h e

p a p i s t s w ere d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r r i g h t t o v o te ,^ -

l i b e r t y o f w o r s h ip was r e f u s e d them 5 a n d t h e y w ere c o m p l e t e ly b a r r e d fro m c i v i l o f f i c e . 0

E v e n C h u rch c o n c e rn

f o r t h e N e g ro e s a n d t h e a s s e m b li n g o f b o t h r a c e s f o r w o r s h ip w e re c o n s t r u e d a s a Roman r u s e t o fo rm a c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t t h e g o v e rn m e n t.^

1 . J o s e p h ZwLnge, S . J . , ” J e s u i t Farm s i n M a r y la n d ,” W o o d sto ck L e t t e r s , 75~v o l s *> W o o d sto c k , 1 9 1 2 , X L I, 2 9 0 . ” C ir c u m s ta n c e s c o m p e lie d a l l e a r l y l a n d h o l d e r s t o g e t h e lp to c u l t i v a t e t h e i r f a r m s . A t f i r s t , in d e n tu r e d s e r v a n t s fro m E u ro p e w ere em p lo y ed b u t when t h e tim e o f s e r v i c e e x p i r e d , no o n e c o u ld be g o t e x c e p t n e g ro s e rv a n ts o r s l a v e s .” I b i d . 2 . S p a ld in g , o p . c i t . , . p • l d ^ • 3 . D unn, 0£ . c i t . , p . 2 o . h . R u s s e lT y 0£ . c i t . , p . 1 1 5 . 5 . A r c h iv e s o f M a r y la n d , H I , 1 0 7 . 6 . Ib id . 7* G eorge W. W i l l i a m s , H i s t o r y o f th e N egro B ace in A m e ric a , 2 v o l s . , New if o r k , G. P . P u tn am * s S o n s , 1893* I , 2^0. L

-I

r

9 B r a c k e t t , i n r e v i e w i n g th e h i s t o r y o f th e B la c k s i n

M a r y la n d , c i t e s a s a n i n s t a n c e

th e a g i t a t i o n w h ic h was

s t i r r e d u p d u r i n g th e l a t t e r p a r t o f th e s e v e n t e e n t h centU ' r y when C a t h o l i c s w ere a c c u s e d o f b a i t i n g N e g ro e s and I n d i a n s i n o r d e r to

c r e a t e t r o u b l e i n some o f th e M a ry la n d

c o u n tie s • I n 1 6 8 9 # ru m o rs w en t a b ro a d t h a t th e R o m a n ists o f M a ry la n d w ere p l o t t i n g a g a i n s t t h e g o v e rn m e n t o f th e p r o v in c e an d t h a t m any an d g r e a t d i s t u r b a n c e s w ere f e a r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C a l v e r t a n d C h a r le s C o u n tie s * The I n d i a n s , i t was s a i d , w ere i n le a g u e w ith th e P a p i s t s , an d s u s p i c i o n m u st h a v e b e e n c a s t on t h e N e g ro e s a l s o f o r t h e s e s o u t h e r n c o u n tie s -^ h a d a v e r y l a r g e s la v e p o p u la tio n * A c t u a l l y , t h e r e was l i t t l e

o r no f o u n d a t i o n f o r s u c h a

c h a r g e b e c a u s e to o m any o t h e r c a u s e s a l r e a d y e x i s t e d w h ic h c o u ld h a v e e a s i l y b r o u g h t a b o u t a n u p r i s i n g *

2

H ow ever,

t h e r e p o r t a t l e a s t show s t h a t C a th o l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e C o lo re d a t th e tim e a r o u s e d P r o t e s t a n t s u s p i c i o n s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t b o th g ro u p s w ere th o u g h t to be i n c o l l u s i o n a g a i n s t t h e g o v e rn m e n t.

1 . J e f f r e y R. B r a c k e t t , The N egro i n M a ry la n d , B a l t i m o r e , J o h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , 189O, p* 95* 2 . F r a n c i s B d g a r S p a r k s , C a u se s o f th e M a ry la n d R e v o lu t i o n o f 1 6 8 9 9 B a l t i m o r e , Jo h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , 189 6 * p a s s i m , e n u m e r a t e s th e r e a l c a u s e s o f th e u p r i s i n g . F o r some timeT* th e P r o p r i e t o r h a d b e e n a g g r e g a t i n g r o y a l pow er t o h i m s e l f and e v e n d a r e d to i n t e r f e r e i n th e e l e c t i o n o f th e A sse m b ly ; he d i s r e g a r d e d th e w is h e s o f o t h e r o f f i c i a l s by f i l l i n g some o f f i c e s w i t h h i s own r e l a t i v e s an d d e a l i n g v e r y h a r s h l y w i t h anyone who d i s a g r e e d w ith h im . The tim e was r i p e f o r t r o u b l e ; so i n o r d e r to c r e a t e a s t i r , a fe w men b e g a n th e ru m o r t h a t C a t h o l i c s th r o u g h t h e a i d o f th e F r e n c h , I n d i a n s and o t h e r s p la n n e d t o s e i z e th e g o v e rn m e n t.

E v en a f t e r t h e ru m o rs w ere p ro v e d f a l s e , p a p i s t s an d B la c k s s t i l l re m a in e d o b j e c t s o f P r o t e s t a n t s u r v e i l l a n c e . I n 1 7 0 8 , p r e s s u r e was p u t o n t h e s h e r i f f o f e a c h c o u n ty to c o m p ile a l i s t o f a l l a ck n o w le d g e d Roman C a t h o l i c s u n d e r t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n an d to f o r w a r d t h e nam es to t h e G o v e rn o r. N o t o n l y w ere t h e m em bers o f t h e m a s t e r ’ s im m e d ia te f a m i l y t o be r e g i s t e r e d , b u t s p e c i a l m e n tio n was made t h a t th e b a p t i z e d B la c k s h a d t o b e i n c l u d e d a s w e ll.'* ' T h e re i s no e v id e n c e t o show t h a t t h i s c e n s u s - t a k i n g w as e v e r c o m p le te d , b u t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d c e r t a i n ­ l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t C a th o l i c i s m r e g a r d e d n e i t h e r c o l o r a s a b a r r i e r n o r s l a v e r y a s a n o b s t a c l e t o m e m b e rs h ip . A p p a r e n t l y , th e P r o t e s t a n t m ind c o u ld n o t f o r g e t w hat i t l e a r n e d , f o r i n 1714-5 # ^

a g a in re v e a le d i t s f e a r s ab o u t

i n t e r r a c i a l r e lig io u s fe llo w s h ip .

B e c a u se o f w id e s p re a d

c o m p l a i n t s , G o v ern o r B la d e n , by l e t t e r , w a rn e d a C a t h o l i c l e a d e r t h a t f r e q u e n t c h u r c h m e e tin g s w ith b o t h r a c e s p r e s e n t l e f t t h e m em bers o p e n to s u s p i c i o n .

S in c e ru m o rs

had a lr e a d y begun to c i r c u l a t e t h a t r e b e l l i o n , r a t h e r th a n s p i r i t u a l p u r p o s e s , p ro m p te d t h e s e g a t h e r i n g s a n d t h a t s u c h a c o m ra d e s h ip c o u ld come t o no goods N o th in g c o u ld g iv e g r e a t e r a la r m to th e good s u b j e c t s o f K in g G eorge t h a n s u c h f r e q u e n t m e e ti n g s o f w h ite s and N e g ro e s u n d e r p r e t e n c e o f d i v i n e

1 . J e f f r e y B . B r a c k e t t , The N egro i n M a ry la n d , B a l t i m o r e , J o h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , 1 8 9 0 , p . 9^**

11

r

“j

w o r s h ip .^ U n d e te r r e d by t h e s e f a l s e

c h a r g e s , C a t h o l i c s re fu s e d ,

t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e s e m e e tin g s i n common, b e c a u s e t h e y r e ­ g a rd e d a s u n c h r i s t i a n th e b a r r i n g o f N e g ro e s fro m r e l i g i o u s s e rv ic e s •

B e s id e s , i t

was q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t th e

P r o t e s t a n t s t h e m s e lv e s w ere r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s l a v e r y i n t o t h e c o lo n y , an d s i n c e t h e

common p r a c t i c e

w as f o r s l a v e s to f o l l o w th e r e l i g i o n o f t h e i r m a s t e r s , p r o v i s i o n s s h o u ld h a v e b e e n m ade fro m t h e v e ry b e g i n n i n g t o g iv e them a p l a c e o f w o r s h ip .

B here t h i s was n o t d o n e ,

C a t h o l i c o w n e rs h a d no h e s i t a n c y i n b r i n g i n g t h e i r s l a v e s t o s e r v i c e s w ith them a n d m a k in g them f e e l t h a t t h e C h u rch was f o r them a s w e l l a s f o r t h e i r m a s t e r s . 13hy a n u l t e r i o r m o tiv e was a t t r i b u t e d

to C a t h o l i c

s o l i c i t u d e f o r t h e s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g o f th e N e g ro e s i s d i f f i c u l t to u n d e rs ta n d .

The p a p i s t s w ere c e r t a i n l y

i n no p o s i t i o n t o fo m e n t a r e b e l l i o n , a n d i t w ould h a v e b e e n f o o l h a r d y f o r them t o

s u p p o s e t h a t b y e n l i s t i n g th e

a i d o f t h e B l a c k s , t h e y c o u ld h a v e a c c o m p lis h e d m uch. T h e i r i n t e r e s t , t h e n , s p r a n g fro m no s e l f i s h m o ti v e ; i t w as b a s e d o n t h e h ope o f h e l p i n g th e n e g l e c t e d C o lo r e d , o f g i v i n g them a n o p p o r t u n i t y to s e r v e t h e i r M a k e r. As m a s t e r s , C a t h o l i c w h i t e s w ere a w are o f t h e i r C h r i s t ia n d u ty to s u p e r v is e th e r e l i g i o u s l i f e

o f th e ir

1 . I b i d . , p . 9^4-• L

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12

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ch arg es*

I n p r a c t i c e , n o t o n l y d i d t h e y se e to i t t h a t

t h e i r C o lo re d w o r k e rs a t t e n d e d M ass o n S u n d a y s , h u t t h e y a s s e m b le d them f o r d a i l y p r a y e r s a n d f o r s p e c i a l i n s t r u c ­ t io n s i n c a te c h is m . 1

Xf t h e h e a d o f t h e f a m i l y was h i m s e l f

u n a b le t o do t h e t e a c h i n g , he u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d a n o t h e r o member o f th e h o u s e h o ld to t a k e c a r e o f t h i s t a s k . H ere an d t h e r e m ig h t be fo u n d s l a v e h o l d e r s who d i d n o t f u l f i l l t h is o b lig a tio n , b u t a s a g e n e ra l r u l e , C a th o lic s had a c o n s c io u s n e s s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

3

X t was w e l l f o r t h e C o lo re d t h a t t h i s was s o , f o r t h e fe w p r i e s t s who l i v e d i n t h e c o lo n y w ere d e p e n d e n t on t h e s l a v e h o l d e r s f o r s u c h a s s i s t a n c e , s i n c e t h e y th e m s e lv e s w ere u n a b le t o v i s i t th e p l a n t a t i o n s v e r y o f t e n .

T h e re

grew u p , a s i t w e r e , a l a y a p o s t o l a t e t o a c t a s a n a u x ­ i l i a r y f o r th e c l e r g y , a n d t o no s m a ll e x t e n t , i t s m em bers w ere r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f th e F a i t h among th e N e g ro e s o f M a r y la n d .^ L e s t e n th u s ia s m f o r i n s t r u c t i n g t h e s e r v a n t s s h o u ld w a n e, t h e p r i e s t s fo u n d i t e x p e d i e n t a t tim e s to e n c o u ra g e th e c o n s c i e n t i o u s m a s t e r a n d a d m o n ish t h e t e p i d one b y

1 . M iria m M urphy, nC a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y Work t o o n g th e C o lo re d P e o p le o f t h e U n ite d S ta te s ,* * He c o r d s o f t h e t o e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , XXXVj P h i l a d e I p h i a , 1 5 , p . l l B . ~T b & cords o f th e t o e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y w i l l be c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s H e c o r d s , ACHS).

2 . TEGI. 3. X H I. 4 . Jo h n L a F a r g e , ®The S u r v i v a l o f t h e C a t h o l i c F a ith in M a ry la n d ,® C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l B e v ie w , XXI, n o . 1 l ( A p r i l 1 9 5 5 ) 9 PP* i-2 P* 2 L

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t h e C h u rc h made h i s p o s i t i o n q u i t e b u rd e n s o m e ,

N o t o n ly

d i d he l a c k a s u f f i c i e n t num ber o f p r i e s t s a n d th e f u n d s to b u i l d a n d s u p p o r t m u c h -n e e d e d m i s s i o n s , b u t h i s a u t h o r i t y w as so m e tim e s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n b y th e p r o p o n e n ts o f T r u s t e e i s m w hose in d e p e n d e n t s p i r i t c a u s e d th e C h u rc h c o n ­ s i d e r a b l e w o rry .'* ’ O u ts id e th e C h u rc h , a l s o , o b s t a c l e s a r o s e w h ic h im p e d e d t h e g ro w th o f C a t h o l i c i s m .

2

The c d u n t r y w as b e g in n i n g

t o em erge fro m th e e f f e c t s o f t h e " C r i t i c a l P e r i o d " a n d c i t i z e n s , s t i r r e d b y th e r i s i n g t i d e o f a f a l s e n a t i o n a l i s m , v ie w e d w i t h a la r m t h e g ro w th o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n , th e h e a d o f w h ic h w as a f o r e i g n p o t e n t a t e .

I n c i t e d by th e b i a s o f

P r o t e s t a n t p r e a e h e r s , many p e o p le r e g a r d e d p a t r i o t i s m and 3 p a p is m a s i n c o n s o n a n t w i t h e a c h o t h e r , a n d w ere c o n v in c e d t h a t t h e o n l y h o p e o f k e e p in g A m e ric a i n t a c t was b y r i d d i n g i t o f t h e Roman m e n a c e .

1 . T r u s t e e i s m w as a m ovem ent w i t h i n th e C h u rch w h ic h h e ld t h a t t h e l a i t y , i n th e p e r s o n o f th e p a r i s h t r u s t e e s , c o u ld e x e r c i s e , o n t h e i r own r i g h t , a c e r t a i n am ount o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . When B is h o p C a r r o l l c h e c k e d t h i s u s u r p a t i o n o f pow er a s b e in g o p p o se d t o th e m ind o f t h e C h u rc h , o p e n r e b e l l i o n e n s u e d . Laymen r e f u s e d to a c c e p t p a s t o r s l a w f u l l y a p p o i n t e d b y t h e B is h o p an d d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o v o i c e an o p i n i o n i n c o n f l i c t w i t h th e C h u rc h on m a t t e r s w h ic h a p p e r t a i n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o th e s p i r i t u a l d o m a in . See G u ild a y , o p . c i t . , p . 'jBZ e t s e q . 2 . See Ray A l l e n B i l l i n g t o n , The P r o t e s t a n t C r u s a d e , 18OO-5 O» New Y o r k , The M a c m illa n Company, 1 ^ 3 8 , PP* fo r t r e a t m e n t on b i g o t r y , "No P o p e ry " a n d a n t i - C a t h o l i c p ro p a g a n d a . 3 • T h e o d o re M a y n a rd , The S t o r y o f Amer i c a n C a t h o l i c i s m , New Y o rk , The M a c m illa n Company, 168 e t s e q .

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C a r r o l l , f u l l y r e a l i z i n g w h at a n a rd u o u s t a s k l a y b e ­ f o r e h im , im m e d ia te ly p le d g e d h i s i n t e r e s t an d e n e r g y t o ­ w a rd s e f f e c t i n g a n im p ro v e m e n t w i t h i n c h u r c h c i r c l e s a s w e l l a s to w a rd s b r i n g i n g a b o u t a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g among t h o s e n o t o f th e C a th o lic F a i t h .

H is f i r s t s t e p was to c a l l a

N a t i o n a l Synod i n N ovem ber 1791#

Tahich la w s w ere e n a c t e d

to p ro m o te d i s c i p l i n e among C a t h o l i c s a n d e n c o u ra g e m e n t was g i v e n t o th e a d ju s tm e n t o f d i f f e r e n c e s among th e v a r i o u s 1 n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n th e c a u s e o f g r e a t e r C a t h o l i c u n i t y . W hile a t t e m p t i n g t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e m em bers o f h i s own f l o c k a n d i n i t i a t e

a m ore s y n p a t h e t i c i n t e r e s t b e tw e e n

p a p i s t s and P r o t e s t a n t s , B a l t i m o r e ’ s b is h o p was n o t u n ­ m in d f u l o f a n o t h e r p r o b le m , v i z . ,

th e C h u rc h ’ s o b l i g a t i o n

t o t h e s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e o f th e C o lo r e d .

E v en th o u g h th e

N e g ro e s c o n s t i t u t e d a s m a ll m i n o r i t y , C a r r o l l d i d n o t o v e r ­ l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t he w as t h e s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r o f t h e C a t h o l i c s o f t h a t r a c e a n d t h a t h e s h o u ld t a k e c o g n iz a n c e o f t h e i r p r e s e n c e .2

He w as i n no p o s i t i o n t o i n a u g u r a t e a

s p e c i a l p ro g ra m i n t h e i r b e h a l f ; y e t , Tshen a n o c c a s i o n a r o s e , he p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t th e u n c h r i s t i a n t r e a t m e n t t h e y h a d t o u n d e rg o .5

1 . G u ild a y , o p . c i t . , p . Ij.19 e t s e q . 2 . B a I tim o r e “ c a t h e d r a 1 A r c h i v e s , Case 9&-F1. l e t t e r to A n t o n e l l i , S e p te m b e r 2 7 $ 17 9 0 • 5 . Ib id .

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I n a d d i t i o n to a n o f f i c i a l e p i s c o p a l i n t e r e s t , C a r r o l l h a d a p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n f o r th e N e g ro e s .

Jo h n

He h ad

s l a v e s h i m s e l f , an d was d e e p l y im p r e s s e d b o t h b y t h e i r r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to h i s k i n d n e s s an d t h e i r s o l i c i t u d e a b o u t t h o s e m a t t e r s w h ic h p e r t a i n e d to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l w e lfa r e .^ " H is a s s o c i a t i o n w ith them m ay h a v e aw akened i n him th e u r g e to re m in d h i s p r i e s t s

to be n o t l e s s z e a lo u s t h a n he i n

m i n i s t e r i n g to th e C a t h o l i c B l a c k s .

R e a liz in g t h a t th e s e

C o lo re d h a d a j u s t c la im on th e s e r v i c e s o f h i s c l e r g y , he w r o te to F a t h e r s M o ly n e a u x , W alto n an d S e w a ll: One t h i n g I recom m end m o st s p e c i a l l y to y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , w h ic h i s th e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f o u r N e g ro e s a t t h e M arsh Ta s e c t i o n o f M a ry la n d } ; o f w hose s a l v a t i o n w e, n o t o n l y a s c le rg y m e n an d p a s t o r s o f s o u l s , b u t lik e w is e a s p r o p r i e t o r s , a re s p e c i a l l y bound to ta k e c a r e . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e y h a v e no s p i r i t u a l a s s is ta n c e .... T h is i s a s u b j e c t o f m ost s e r io u s c o n s id e r a tio n f o r you and m e; you a s r e p r e s e n t i n g th e p r o p r i e t o r s , me a s t h e i r h e a d p a s t o r .2

1 . M atth ew R io r d a n , C a th e d r a l "R ecords fro m th e be g in n in g o f C a t h o l i c i t y i n B a ltim o r e to th e P r e s e n t T im e, B a l t i m o r e , The C a t h o l i c M i r r o r P u b l i s h i n g Company, T j o E , p . i+6. ■ fI t was a p io u s c u sto m am ong o ld C a t h o l i c f a m i l i e s o f M a ry la n d f o r th e h e a d o f t h e h o u s e h o ld to a s s e m b le th e f a m i l y a n d s e r v a n t s t o g e t h e r i n th e e v e n in g to r e c i t e t h e i r n i g h t p r a y e r s i n common. T h is e x c e l l e n t p r a c t i c e a c q u i r e d by him i n h i s y o u t h fro m h i s m o th e r was c o n ­ t i n u e d b y A rc h b is h o p C a r r o l l d u r i n g h i s w hole l i f e . T hus i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t th o u g h h i s r e s i d e n c e was a r e s o r t o f f r i e n d s an d r e l a t i o n s o f t h e v e n e r a b l e p r e l a t e a n d o f many who came on b u s i n e s s o r f o r c o u n s e l , e s ­ p e c i a l l y i n t h e e v e n i n g , he w ould r e t i r e w i t h th e c o lo r e d s e r v a n t s an d o t h e r s o f h i s h o u s e h o ld i n th e c u s to m a ry e v e n in g s e r v i c e s . 11 I b i d . g . B a ltim o r e C a t h e d r a l A r c h i v e s , Case 9 P l / l . An e x c e r p t fro m a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y C a r r o l l to M o ly n e a u x , W alton an d S e w a l l , S e p te m b e r 1 , 1 8 0 1 .

The p r i e s t s i n g e n e r a l c o n fo rm e d to th e w is h e s o f th e B is h o p , a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d to c o n f in e t h e i r w ork to i n f r e ­ q u e n t v i s i t s made w h ile t o u r i n g th e C a t h o l i c p l a n t a t i o n s . T h ey b a p t i z e d th e N egro c h i l d r e n , h u t o f t e n b e c a u s e o f o t h e r m i s s i o n a r y d e m a n d s, t h e y w ere u n a b le to d e l a y lo n g e n o u g h t o g iv e c a t e c h e t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to t h o s e who w e re of age.

As a r u l e , and i n m uch th e same f a s h i o n a s was

d o n e i n c o l o n i a l t i m e s , th e c l e r g y r e l i e d on t h e m a s te r o r some member o f h i s f a m i l y to t a k e c a r e o f t h i s n e e d . The d i o c e s e n e e d e d p r i e s t s b a d ly a n d th e r a r i t y o f c o n t a c t b e tw e e n c l e r g y a n d l a i t y p r e s a g e d t h a t u n l e s s m ore p r i e s t s w ere h a d , d e f e c t i o n s w ould be i n e v i t a b l e . C a r r o l l * s h ope was t o e n c o u r a g e n a t i v e v o c a t i o n s , b u t u n t i l s u c h tim e a s t h i s c o u ld be e f f e c t e d , he w o u ld h a v e to d e ­ p e n d on E u ro p e to s u p p ly A m e ric a * s m i s s i o n n e e d s .^

A l­

th o u g h h e f a i l e d i n R a g la n d , he s u c c e e d e d i n r e c r u i t i n g fro m P r a n c e p r i e s t s w ho, a s m em bers o f th e S o c i e t y o f S a in t S u lp ic e , had d e d ic a te d t h e i r l i v e s to p r e p a r in g p c a n d id a te s f o r th e p r ie s th o o d . I n 1 7 9 1 , f o u r S u l p i c i a n F a t h e r s a c c o m p a n ie d b y f i v e

1 . S h e a , L i f e and T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 377* 2 . I b i d . , B e c a u se o f t h e im p e n d in g a t t a e k on r e l i g i o n i n P r a n c e , F a t h e r E m e ry , th e S u p e r i o r o f th e S u l p i c i a n F a t h e r s , th o u g h t i t a d v i s a b l e to e s t a b l i s h a h o u se i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s . A t t h e i n s t a n c e o f C a r d i n a l D u g n a n l, P a p a l N u n cio a t P a r i s , E m ery s e n t F a t h e r N a g o t to c o n f e r w i t h C a r r o l l . The A m e ric a n p r e l a t e a c c e p t e d t h e S u l p i c i a n p r o p o s a l t o o p e n a s e m in a r y i n B a ltim o r e a n d c o n d u c t i t w i t h o u t t h e d i o c e s e h a v in g t o assum e a n y f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o r h a v in g to i n t e r f e r e i n a n y way l w i t h i t s m a n a g e m e n t. j

s e m i n a r i a n s a r r i v e d i n B a ltim o r e an d im m e d ia te ly s e t th em ­ s e l v e s t o th e t a s k o f o p e n in g a h o u se o f s t u d i e s f o r f u t u r e p rie s ts .

A b u i l d i n g was p r o c u r e d on P a c a S t r e e t a n d o n

O c to b e r 3 > th e i n s t i t u t e w h ic h h a s s i n c e b e e n know n a s S t . M ary 1 s S e m in a ry h a d i t s

f o r m a l b e g in n in g .'* ’

T hough i t s d o o r s

w ere o p e n to a n y o n e d e s i r o u s o f b e co m in g a p r i e s t , fe w c a n d i d a t e s a p p l i e d a n d g ra v e f e a r a r o s e t h a t th e p r o j e c t m ig h t h a v e to be a b a n d o n e d .

H ow ever, Pope P i u s V I I , on

h e a r i n g o f the. d is c o u r a g e m e n t o f th e p i o n e e r S u l p i c i a n s , u r g e d th e m t o c o n tin u e t h e i r l a b o r s , a s s u r i n g them t h a t 2 s u c c e s s w o u ld u l t i m a t e l y be r e a l i z e d . M e a n w h ile , t h e s m a ll e n r o l l m e n t a t th e S e m in a ry made so fe w dem ands o n th e s e r v i c e s o f t h e p r i e s t s t h a t s e v e r a l o f th e t e a c h e r s o f f e r e d th e m s e lv e s t o B is h o p C a r r o l l a s * a i d s t o th e d i o c e s a n e l e r g y . T h is o f f e r was e n t h u s i a s t i ­ c a l l y a c c e p t e d , f o r i t came a t a tim e when t h e r e was q u e s t i o n o f l o o k i n g a f t e r th e C o lo re d C a t h o l i c s o f th e c i t y . I n 1 7 9 3 * a g ro u p o f N e g ro e s s e t t l e d i n B a lt i m o r e ^ a f t e r h a v in g f l e d fro m th e p e r s e c u t i o n w h ic h was b e i n g c a r r i e d on

1 . H e rb e rm a n n , o p . c i t . , p . 3 9 * 2 . S h e a , L i f e a n d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 6 0 8 . p . H e rb e rm a n n , o p . c i t .', p . 1+2 e t s e q . 4 . H en ry D eC ourcy a n d Jo h n G. S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , New Y o rk , P . J . K e n e d y , 1B79* p* 74* ""^The A n n a ls o f B a ltim o r e s a y t h a t on th e 9 t h o f J u l y 1793# f i f t y - t h r e e v e s s e l s a r r i v e d a t t h a t p o r t , b e a r i n g a b o u t one th o u s a n d w h i t e s an d f i v e h u n d re d c o l o r e d p e o p l e , f l y i n g fro m t h e d i s a s t e r s o f San Domingo* • • . , ft i b i d .

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1 . The p e r s e c u t i o n w as b r o u g h t o n b y r a c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a t a tim e w hen t h e home g o v e rn m e n t was e x p l o i t i n g i t s i s l a n d p o s s e s s i o n . T h o se who r e s i d e d i n th e c o lo n y w ere g iv e n l i t t l e s h a r e i n i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w ere h e a v i l y t a x e d a n d w ere i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e r a d i c a l p h i lo s o p h y o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . To p a c i f y t h o s e who s o u g h t p r i v i l e g e s , F r a n c e g r a n t e d some c o n c e s s i o n s w h ic h g a v e r i s e t o th e q u e s t i o n v i i e t h e r p e o p le o t h e r t h a n w h i t e s s h o u ld e n j o y e q u a l p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . The lfM s d e s H e i r s 1* dem anded t h a t th e same s h o u ld be e x te n d e d t o th e m u l a t t o N e g r o e s , a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , t h e s l a v e s be g iv e n t h e i r f r e e d o m . Xn 1790# th e C o l o n i a l A sse m b ly made some g e s t u r e s to w a rd s t h e B la c k s a n d th e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A sse m b ly a t P a r i s v o t e d c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s t o f r e e m u l a t t o e s . T h is g av e r i s e to a s e r i e s o f r e v o l t s , w h e re ­ u p o n th e F r e n c h g o v e rn m e n t r e s c i n d e d i t s c o n c e s s i o n s . I n 1792, th e m u la tto e s , s t i l l c h a f in g u n d e r r e s t r i c t i o n s , . i n s u l t e d some w h ite c i t i z e n s a n d , f o r s u c h a m is d e m e a n o r, w e re p u n is h e d by th e i s l a n d C om m ission by b e i n g made to do b a t t l e w i t h N egro b r i g a n d s who w ere im p o r te d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . A t r o c i t i e s w ere c o m m itte d f o r w h ic h th e N e g ro e s w ere blam ed a n d when t h e s i t u a t i o n g o t b e y o n d c o n t r o l , m any B la c k s h a d t o l e a v e th e c o lo n y . F r a n c i s C h i l d s , F r e n c h R e fu g e e L i f e i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 7 9 0 -1 8 0 0 , B a l t i m o r e , Jo h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , 191-$, p a s s i m .

L

S u l p i c i a n s a n d th e N e g ro e s t o g e t h e r f o r many y e a r s . H a v in g a c c e p t e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a r i n g f o r th e r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n e w ly a r r i v e d B l a c k s , t h e p r i e s t s t h o u g h t i t b e s t t o s o l v e th e la n g u a g e a n d c o l o r d i f f i c u l t y b y s e t t i n g a s i d e a p l a c e o f w o r s h ip f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e o f th e H e g ro e s.

C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s i n B a ltim o r e h a d lo n g

w elcom ed C o lo re d p e o p le to d i v i n e s e r v i c e s , b u t i t was now f e l t t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s e d n u m b e rs , m ore e f f e c t i v e w ork w ould be d o n e i f

t h e y w ere g iv e n s p e c i a l i z e d a t t e n t i o n . ^ -

T h i s , o f c o u r s e , d i d n o t m ean t h a t t h e B la c k s w ere b a r r e d fro m o t h e r c h u r c h e s a n d o b l i g e d to a t t e n d t h e i r own. As a m a t t e r o f f a c t ,

th e r e c t o r o f S t . P e t e r ’ s P r o - C a t h e d r a l ,

Abbe^ J e a n M o ra n v ille " , c o r d i a l l y i n v i t e d th em to j o i n h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n i f t h e y so w is h e d .

He was v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d

i n th e C o lo r e d , ^ c o n s i d e r e d i t a p a r t o f h i s p a s t o r a l d u t y t o m i n i s t e r t o th e n a t i v e s and t h e n e g r o e s , 1*

and e v en

a r r a n g e d t o h a v e s c h e d u le d s e r v i c e s f o r them w ith se rm o n s i n t h e i r own to n g u e . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w as p a id t o th e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C o lo re d p e o p l e , s e r v a n t s an d o t h e r p o o r p e r ­ s o n s w hose d o m e s tic d u t i e s r e q u i r e d t h e i r p r e s e n c e d u r i n g th e o r d i n a r y h o u r s o f b u s i n e s s . M a sse s w ere c e le b r a te d b e fo re d a y and r e g u la r c a t e c h e t i c a l e x e r c i s e s , p io u s

1 . G i l l a r d , C o lo re d C a t h o l i c s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , p . 79* 2 . Leo R u sk o w sk i, F r e n c h E m ig re P r i e s t s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 7 9 1 - l 8 l 5 j ( C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e ric a S t u d i e s i n A m e ric a n -C h u rc h H i s t o r y , XXXEX), W a s h in g to n , D .C ., 19i|-0, P . 5 1 .

e x h o r t a t i o n s a n d common p r a y e r s i n F r e n c h a t th e same h o u r w ere th e s p i r i t u a l a l i m e n t o f th o s e w ho, w i t h D a v id , w ere r e a d y , ” to p r e v e n t th e su n to b l e s s G od.” M e a n w h ile , t h e S u l p i c i a n p l a n w as b e in g c a r r i e d o u t a n d , w i t h t h e B is h o p ’ s p e r m i s s i o n , t h e b a se m e n t o f S t . M ary’ s S e m in a ry c h a p e l w as f i t t i n g l y f u r n i s h e d an d o p e n e d a s a 2 c e n t e r o f r e l i g i o u s w o r s h ip f o r t h e C o lo r e d . T h is ” C h a p p e lle B a s s e , ” a s i t w as com m only c a l l e d , p r o v e d t o be a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p r e s e r v i n g th e F a i t h among th e B la c k s o f B a l t i m o r e .

H o t o n l y w as i t r e g a r d e d b y th e

H e g ro e s a s wt h e i r own” p l a c e o f m e e tin g w here t h e y c o u ld r e t a i n t h e i r wg ro u p i d e n t i t y , ” b u t a t th e same t i m e , i t p r e v e n t e d a n e m b a r r a s s i n g s i t u a t i o n fro m a r i s i n g i f w h ite p a r i s h o n e r s s h o u ld r e s e n t th e p r e s e n c e o f a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b er o f C o lo re d i n t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n . I n t i m e , h o w e v e r, d e s p i t e th e s p e c i a l g u id a n c e o f t h e p r i e s t s , th e San D om ingan r e f u g e e s b e g a n to show s i g n s o f r e lig io u s in d iffe re n c e .

E co n o m ic n e c e s s i t y f o r e e d them

i n t o em ploym ent w h ic h o f t e n p r e v e n t e d them fro m a t t e n d i n g M a ss, a n d by d e g r e e s , t h e y l o s t t h e i r e a r l y u n c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e t h e y w e re aw ay fro m home a g r e a t d e a l , t h e i r c h i l d r e n w ere d e p r i v e d o f t h a t C a t h o l i c t r a i n i n g so n e c e s s a r y to c o u n te r a c t th e in f lu e n c e o f t h e i r P r o t e s t a n t e n v ir o n m e n t .

1 . JR io rd a h , 0£ . c i t . , p . 1 7 . 2 . H e rb e rm a n n , o p . d t . , p . 2 J 1 # ,J . G l l l a r d , The c a t h o l i c C h u rc h an d th e N e g ro , p . 1 6 .

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w ere g e n e r o u s l y d e d i c a t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s to th e w e l f a r e o f th e C o lo re d f o r e s a w a tre m e n d o u s d e f e c t i o n u n l e s s s o m e th in g was d one f o r th e c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e p e o p l e .

The f i r s t s t e p

was ta k e n by th e B e v e re n d W illia m D u b o u rg , S . S . , l a t e r B is h o p o f New O r l e a n s , who u r g e d a l l th e b o y s an d g i r l s to a s s e m b le i n th e wC h a p p e lle Basse** w here he was g o in g to c o n d u ct a c la s s i n c a te c h is m .

A t th e i n i t i a l m e e tin g i n

J u l y 1 7 9 5 9 t h i s p r i e s t , am azed a t how l i t t l e

th e c h ild r e n

knew a b o u t t h e i r C a t h o l i c s b e l i e f s , d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r e a f t e r t h e y s h o u ld m e e t e v e r y S un d ay t o r e c e i v e f u r t h e r i n s t r u c ­ tio n .^ F a t h e r D u b o u rg was n o t d e s t i n e d , h o w e v e r, t o re m a in lo n g a t t h i s w o rk , f o r i n 179& tie was a p p o in t e d P r e s i d e n t 2 o f G eorgetow n C o l l e g e . On l e a v i n g B a l t i m o r e , he t u r n e d th e s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e N e g ro e s o v e r t o F a t h e r T e s s i e r , h i s s u c c e s s o r a s r e c t o r o f S t . M ary’ s S e m in a ry , an d was c o m fo rte d i n th e k n o w le d g e t h a t h i s c h a r g e s w ould n o t s u f f e r from a n y s p i r i t u a l n e g l e c t .

D u r in g th e n e x t

t h i r t y y e a r s , T e s s i e r c o n ti n u e d to m i n i s t e r to a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n a l i k e , an d to him i s due m o st o f th e c r e d i t f o r th e l o y a l t y and a f f e c t i o n w h ic h th e C o lo re d o f B a ltim o r e m a n i f e s t e d to w a rd th e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h . The good f o r t u n e e n jo y e d by th e e m ig r e s who s e t t l e d

1.

G race S h erw o o d , The O b l a te s H undred a n d One Y e a r s , New Y o rk , The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 2 1 , p . 5 . l2 . S h e a , L i f e an d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 9 2 .

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36

r i n B a lt i m o r e w as i n no way s h a r e d b y th e San D om ingans who la n d e d i n S a v a n n a h , A u g u s ta a n d C h a r l e s t o n I n

th e s e

s e t t l e m e n t s to th e s o u t h , i t w as a r a r e o e c a s i o n when a n y o f t h e r e s i d e n t s saw a C a t h o l i c c le rg y m a n *

I t so h a p p e n e d t h a t

t h e d e a r t h o f p r i e s t s u n d e r B is h o p C a r r o l l 1s j u r i s d i c t i o n d i d n o t a l l o w him to

se n d m ore t h a n one m i s s i o n a r y a t a tim e

to e i t h e r G e o rg ia o r S o u th C a r o l i n a ; h en ce-, th e C a t h o l i c s t h e r e w ere m ore o r l e s s l e f t t o t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s *

In

s p i t e o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n , th e f a i t h d i d n o t d i e o u t , a lt h o u g h d e f e c t i o n s m u st h a v e b e e n v e r y n u m e ro u s . I n G e o r g ia , C a th o l i c i s m made i t s f i r s t a p p e a ra n c e w i t h t h e com ing o f M a r y la n d e r s w ho, t i r e d o f c o n ti n u e d r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n s i n t h e i r own s t a t e , m ig r a te d so u th w a rd i n 1785 a n d s e t t l e d i n L o c u s t G ro v e, a b o u t f i f t y m i l e s fro m A u g u s ta *

2

Soon a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l , t h e y b u i l t a c h a p e l

a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d no p r o s p e c t o f o b t a i n i n g a p r i e s t to m i n i s t e r t o th e m .

I n 1793> t h e y w ere j o i n e d by a g ro u p o f

S an D om ingans w ho, l i k e

th e B a ltim o r e c o n t i n g e n t , s o u g h t a

h a v e n i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .

T h is i n c r e a s e i n n u m b ers gave

th em m ore r e a s o n t o r e q u e s t t h a t B is h o p C a r r o l l se n d them a c le r g y m a n , a n d t h e y w ere g iv e n a F a t h e r Lem oine who l a b o r e d among b o t h B la c k s a n d w h i t e s u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 179^*^

1 . Jo h n O 'C o n n e l l , C a t h o l i c i t y i n th e C a r o l i n a s a n d G e o r g ia , Uew Y o rk , P . J . K e n e d y , lb 7 9 > P • f t * 2 . G i l l a r d , The C a t h o l i c C h u rch a n d th e H e g ro , p . 2 1 . 3 . Ib id .

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F o r th e n e x t s i x y e a r s , when no o t h e r c l e r i c was a v a i l a b l e , t h e C a t h o l i c s w ere o n c e a g a i n l e f t on t h e i r own.

In 1803,

Abbe" A n th o n y C a r l e s , a San D om ingan, was a s s i g n e d t o t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y , an d th o u g h m o st o f h i s e f f o r t s w ere c e n t e r e d o n b a p t i z i n g th e i n f a n t s , c e l e b r a t i n g M ass and e n ­ c o u r a g i n g th e f a i t h f u l t o c o n ti n u e t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s , h e a lw a y s h a d tim e to g iv e some a t t e n t i o n to th e N e g r o e s .^ a b o u t t h e same tim e a s Lem oine w e n t to G e o r g ia , B is h o p C a r r o l l s e n t F a t h e r S . F . G a lla g h e r to S o u th C a r o l i n a . W ith in t h r e e y e a r s , he was r e p l a c e d b y a F a t h e r IRyan who, i n t u r n , was s o o n s u c c e e d e d b y F a t h e r L e M e r c ie r . l a t t e r d i e d i n 1 8 0 6 , th e e n t i r e

When th e

s t a t e was l e f t w i t h o u t a

p r i e s t f o r s i x y e a r s , a t w h ic h t im e , F a t h e r J o s e p h de C l o v ie r e to o k c h a rg e a n d s e r v e d h i s p e o p le u h t i l th e a r r i v a l o f B is h o p E n g la n d .^

F a t h e r s L e M e rc ie r^ a n d d e C l o v i e r e ^

to o k p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e N e g ro e s an d a l t h o u g h c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d n o t a l l o w them to c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s on t h e B l a c k s , t h e s e c le rg y m e n w ere r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e e p f a i t h w h ic h C h a r l e s t o n ’ s f i r s t B ish o p fo u n d when h e came t o h i s d i o c e s e i n 1 8 2 0 . ^ B e s i d e s th e C o lo re d C a t h o l i c s who came fro m San

1 . m c o rd s ACHS, X V I II , 1 9 0 7 , p . I4Z L . 2 . S h e a , L i f e an d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 4 6 2 . 3 . G i l l a r d , The C at ho l i c“^ 5 h u rch an d th e N e g r o , p . 2 1 . S h e a , L i f e a n d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 462* -ltHe w as a s s i d u o u s i n c a t e c h i z i n g th e y o u n g , h a v in g , s i x t y w h ite c h i l d r e n i n h i s S u n d ay s c h o o l , and a s e p a r a t e c l a s s o f c o l o r e d c h i l d r e n . 11 I b i d . 5 . See B elow p* 75* L

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Domingo a n d f o u n d p e a c e i n B a l t i m o r e , S a v a n n a h , A u g u s ta an d C h a r l e s t o n , some o t h e r s m i g r a te d to P h i l a d e l p h i a w here t h e y a r e r e p o r t e d to h a v e b e e n g r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d by th e J e s u i t F a t h e r s o f S t* J o s e p h 1s p a r i s h *

From r e f e r e n c e s made a t a

l a t e r d a t e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e w ere n o t v e r y many C a t h o l i c N e g ro e s i n t h e c i t y , f o r no s p e c i a l p ro g ra m was u n d e r t a k e n f o r them u n t i l a b o u t th e m id d le o f th e n i n e t e e n t h 1 c e n tu ry . The few t h a t t h e r e w e r e , th o u g h t h e y a s s e m b le d i n a s e c t i o n o f S t . J o s e p h 1 s C h u rch a n d h a d s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r n a t i v e t o n g u e , w ere g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s b e in g a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e p a r i s h .

2

To th e J e s u i t s who m i n i s t e r e d t o th e P h i l a d e l p h i a e x i l e s a n d to th e S u l p i c i a n s who c a r e d f o r th e B a ltim o r e o n e s , B is h o p C a r r o l l owed a h e a v y d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e .

H is

own d i o c e s a n c l e r g y p r o b a b l y w o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n l e s s z e a lo u s a b o u t th e s e C a th o lic N e g ro e s, b u t t h e i r g ig a n tic

1 . A . J . B m e ric k , n C o lo re d M is s io n s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , n W oodstock L e t t e r s , X L II, W oodstock C o l le g e , 1913* P* 175 e t seq . J u d g in g fro m th e i n t e r e s t on th e p a r t o f th e J e s u i t s i n M a ry la n d a n d L o u is ia n a to w a rd s th e N e g r o e s , i t i s h a r d t o im a g in e t h a t th e P h i l a d e l p h i a J e s u i t s a c t e d o t h e r w i s e . I t was n o t u n t i l 18147 t h a t a M ass e x c l u s i v e l y f o r th e C o lo re d w as c e l e b r a t e d ; I n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , i f t h e n u m b ers w a r r a n t e d m ore a t t e n t i o n , f o r m a l e f f o r t s w ould h a v e b e e n u n d e r t a k e n e a r l i e r , i b i d . He s e a r c h e s ACHS, X V I, 1899 > P* 151* C h a te a u b r ia n d , i n w r i t i n g a b o u t la is v i s i t t o P h i l a d e l p h i a i n 1791* p r a i s e d th e good e x a m p le o f t h e F r e n c h - s p e a k in g C o lo re d who a s s e m b le d f o r d e v o t i o n s **every e v e n i n g . 1* I n to k e n o f h i s a d m i r a t i o n , h e com posed a n B v e n in g Hymn w h ic h wt h e y s a n g i n F r e n c h f o r many y e a r s , 11 i b i d .

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m i s s i o n a r y t a s k s h a r d l y p e r m i t t e d them to o f f e r t h e same c o n c e n tr a te d e f f o r t a s t h a t o f th e n o n -d io c e s a n p r i e s t s . T h is w as a p e r i o d o f r e l i g i o u s p i o n e e r i n g f o r th e C h u rc h , h e n c e B a l t i m o r e ^ B is h o p , i n s p i t e o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n th e N e g r o e s , h a d t o d e p e n d a lm o s t e n t i r e l y on in d iv id u a l i n i t i a t i v e

fro m th e o u t s i d e — a n d t h i s a s s i s t a n c e

was g e n e r o u s l y g iv e n by b o t h th e a f o r e m e n tio n e d c o m m u n itie s . As i f B is h o p C a r r o l l d i d n o t h a v e e n o u g h b u r d e n s , a n o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w as a d d e d i n 1 8 0 3 , when th e U n ite d 1 S t a t e s p u r c h a s e d L o u i s i a n a fro m F r a n c e . I t had been th e m ind o f Borne s i n c e th e e r e c t i o n o f th e See a t B a l t i m o r e , t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a l in c u m b e n t s h o u ld e x e r c i s e

ju ris d ic tio n

o v e r a l l C a th o lic s r e s i d i n g w ith in th e c o n fin e s o f th e

1 . By th e s e c r e t T r e a t y o f San I l d e f o n s o , O c to b e r 1 , 1 8 0 0 , S p a in a g r e e d t o r e t r o c k d e L o u is ia n a to F ra n c e i f N a p o le o n s e t u p th e S p a n is h K ing* s s o n - i n - l a w a s r u l e r o f T u s c a n y . N a p o le o n , m e a n w h ile , w a n te d a p r o v in c e i n t h e New W orld t o o f f s e t h i s d e f e a t s i n E u ro p e b u t a f t e r he l o s t San D om ingo, he h a d t o c h an g e h i s p l a n o f s e e k ­ i n g th e a n s w e r i n A m erica* A c c o r d i n g l y , on A p r i l JO, I 8 O3 , he s o l d to th e U n ite d S t a t e s th e t e r r i t o r y s u p p o s e d ly t r a n s f e r r e d t o him by S p a in i n 1 8 0 0 , an d i n r e t u r n r e c e i v e d f i f t e e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n c a s h w i t h an a s s u r a n c e t h a t a l l o t h e r d e b t s w ould be s e t t l e d t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f th e c l a i m a n t s . A c t u a l l y , S p a in n e v e r r e c e i v e d i t s p a r t o f t h e c o n t r a c t , th o u g h i t was g l a d to be r i d o f tr o u b le s o m e L o u i s i a n a . On D ecem ber 2 0 , I 8 O3 th e T r i c o l o r was r e p l a c e d by th e A m e ric a n f l a g . . Thom as A. B a i l e y , A D ip lo m a tic H i s t o r y o f th e A m e ric a n P e o p l e , New Y o rk , ¥ . C r o f t s & Co. , l^ I tf 9 P*

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1 . See S h e a , L if e a n d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 3 ^ f o r e x c e r p t o f B u l l e r e c t i n g th e D io c e s e o f B a l t i m o r e : MAnd t i l l a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y s h a l l be p r e s e n t e d to u s o f e s t a b ­ l i s h i n g o t h e r C a t h o l i c B is h o p s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . . . We d e c l a r e , by o u r a p o s t o l i c a l a u t h o r i t y , a l l t h e f a i t h ­ f u l o f C h r i s t . . . an d a l l t h e c l e r g y an d p e o p le d w e l l i n g i n t h e a f o r e s a i d U n ite d S t a t e s . . . t o be h e n c e fo r w a r d s u b j e c t to th e B is h o p o f B a ltim o r e i n a l l f u t u r e t i m e s . . . 11 2 . I b i d . , p . 5 9 1 . See a l s o , i b i d . , p . 59& f o r A n t o n e l l i * s l e t t e r (A p ril 5 , 1808) , c l a r i f y i n g C a r ro ll* s p o s i t io n a s q u e s t i o n e d by t h e s c h i s m a t i c C a p u c h in , A n th o n y S e d e l l a . T h is l a t t e r c le r g y m a n , s t a t i o n e d I n New O r l e a n s , was n o t o r i o u s f o r h i s o p p o s i t i o n to e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r th e L o u i s i a n a t e r r i t o r y p a s s e d fro m S p a n is h j u r i s d i c t i o n . He was p u n is h e d f o r h i s i n s u b ­ o r d i n a t i o n b y b e i n g p l a c e d u n d e r i n t e r d i c t th o u g h he w as l a t e r r e s t o r e d to good s t a n d i n g . The a b o v e m e n tio n e d m is s iv e r e a d s : “We c a n n o t o t h e r w i s e p r o v id e f o r t h e C h u rc h a t New O r le a n s o r P r o v in c e o f L o u is ia n a i n N o r th A m e ric a d e p r i v e d o f i t s p a s t o r and B is h o p t h a n by c o n ­ f i d i n g i t to th e o r d in a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n o f y o u r F r a t e r n i t y , u n t i l a n o c c a s i o n o f f e r s to Us an d t h i s H oly See o f m a k in g o t h e r d i s p o s i t i o n s -which may seem to m e e t t h e g e n e r a l w is h m ore f u l l y . “ I b i d . 3 . I b i d . , p . 591. “

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t h e r e w ere v e r y t e w p r i e s t s i n t h i s new s e c t i o n on whom he c o u ld d e p e n d C o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n l a y i n t h e a p p o in tm e n t o f a n A p o s t o l i c A d m i n i s t r a t o r , he i m m e d ia te ly s u g g e s t e d t o Borne t h a t C a t h o l i c l i f e if

c o u ld he r e v i v e d o n l y

som eone i n a u t h o r i t y a c t u a l l y l i v e d i n t h e t e r r i t o r y .

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t h a t w ay , f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n and a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l o c a l p ro b le m s m ig h t be h a d a n d a s e t t l e m e n t r e a c h e d w ith t h o s e who a p p e a r e d i n t e n t o n k e e p in g th e C h u rch i n a tu r m o il.^ The s i t u a t i o n i n L o u i s i a n a was a d i f f i c u l t one to c o m p re h e n d .

T h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e e o u n tr y h a d b e e n s e t t l e d

b y th e F r e n c h , a n d l a t e r b y t h e S p a n i s h , an d was commonly r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g , a t l e a s t , n o m in a l ly C a t h o l i c .

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a c c o m p a n ie d t h e e a r l y p i o n e e r s , b u t f o u g h t a l o s i n g b a t t l e when t h e h a r d s h i p s o f f r o n t i e r l i f e

an d e x c e s s e s o f im ­

m o r a l i t y d u l l e d t h e s p i r i t u a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h o s e who fo u n d e d New O r l e a n s . An a p p e a l was s e n t t o F ra n c e f o r a d d i t i o n a l c le rg y m e n t o h e l p ste m t h e g ro w in g t i d e o f i r r e l i g i o n , a n d i n 1 7 2 1 , a g ro u p o f C a p u c h in s s a i l e d f o r th e New W orld t o a s s i s t t h e

^ i d *, P* 588 e t s e q . 2 . X b id . , p . 6 I4.O. Some p r i e s t s o p p o s e d C a r r o l l ’ s a s s u m p tio n o f pow er a s a u s u r p a t i o n ; o t h e r s wi sh e d t o h a v e S e d e l l a a s b is h o p a n d t h r e a t e n e d to l e a v e i f t h e i r r e q u e s t w as d e n i e d ; t h e n , t h e r e was t r u s t e e t r o u b l e , th e p r o p o n e n ts o f w h ic h f e a r e d C a r r o l l w ould e n d t h e i r d o m in a tio n ; a n d . f i n a l l y , t h e r e w ere t h o s e who f e l t t h a t C a r r o l l ’ s f i r s t i n t e r e s t w as i n B a ltim o r e a n d t h a t he w ould h a v e n e i t h e r tim e n o r sy m p a th y f o r t h e i r n e e d s .

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J e s u i t F a t h e r s who h ad a l r e a d y b eg u n t o m i n i s t e r t o th e c o lo n is ts .

On t h e i r a r r i v a l , t h e f r i a r s w ere a p p a l l e d a t

t h e d e p t h s to w h ic h t h e i r c o u n try m e n h a d f a l l e n , a n d t h e y im m e d ia te ly u n d e r t o o k a r e f o r m .^

T h ey r e a l i z e d w i t h i n a

s h o r t t i m e , h o w e v e r, t h a t t h e y w ould n o t e n jo y f u l l s u c c e s s b e c a u s e th e f i e l d o f t h e i r e n d e a v o r was so v a s t t h e y c o u ld n o t r e a c h many o f t h e i r c o u n try m e n . In 1722,

F a t h e r C h a r l e v o i x , S . J . s u b m itte d a r e p o r t o n

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c o n d i t i o n o f r e l i g i o n i n t h e c o lo n y t o t h e C o m m is s a ria te 2 o f t h e Company o f t h e W e st, an d on th e b a s i s o f h i s f i n d ­ i n g s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t m ore e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s w ould be g a in e d i f

th e a r e a s o f p r i e s t l y a c t i v i t y w ere made s m a l l e r .

A c c o r d i n g l y , L o u is ia n a was d i v i d e d i n t o

th re e v i c a r ia t e s ,

e a c h o f w h ic h w as p l a c e d u n d e r th e c a r e o f t h e B is h o p o f Q u e b e c .^ th e

To t h e J e s u i t s was g iv e n th e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a l l

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o f t h e Ohio R i v e r ; to t h e

a s s i g n e d t h e c o u n tr y w e s t o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i

R iv e r a n d n o r t h to t h e m o u th o f th e O h io ; w h ile to th e D i s c a l c e d C a r m e li t e s (who h a d s e n t p r i e s t s fro m t h e i r h e a d ­ q u a r t e r s i n M o b ile ) was g iv e n th e c a r e o f a l l t h e m is s i o n s on th e e a s te r n sh o re o f th e M i s s i s s i p p i .^ fa ile d

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1 . Jo h n G. S h e a , The C a t h o l i c C hurch i n C o l o n i a l L a y s , New '------Y o rk , 1 8 8 6 , p . ““5 K " --------------------------2 . The c o l o n i z i n g a g e n c y w h ic h s e t t l e d L o u i s i a n a . S h e a , The C h u rc h i n C o l o n i a l D a y s , p . 5 6 3 • I}.. I b i d . , p . 5 6 6 . L

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r m o n th s , w ere a s k e d to t r a n s f e r t h e i r c h a r g e to th e C a p u c h in s T h u s , th e J e s u i t s a n d t h e F r a n c i s c a n s w ere l e f t to

th e m s e lv e s an d w ere a b l e , w i t h i n w e l l - d e f i n e d b o u n d a r i e s , to c o n c e n t r a t e o n c a r r y i n g o u t a n i n t e n s i v e p ro g ra m o f r e f o r m . To th e c r e d i t o f b o t h , i t m u s t be s a i d t h a t one o f t h e i r m o st n o t a b l e a c h ie v e m e n ts i n r e s t o r i n g C a t h o l i c l i f e 2 t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n u p l i f t i n g th e C o lo r e d .

was

N e g ro e s h a d b e e n a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e c o lo n y s i n c e J e a n B i e n v i l l e fo u n d e d th e F re n c h s e t t l e m e n t a t New O r le a n s 3 in 1718. A t f i r s t , t h e y w ere few i n n u m b er, b u t when th e i m p o r t a t i o n o f A f r i c a n s l a v e s was l e g a l i z e d , t h e y n o t o n ly becam e q u i t e n u m e ro u s , b u t w ere d e s i r e d o b j e c t s f o r e x ­ p lo ita tio n .

Of c o u r s e , a l l w ere b a p t i z e d C a t h o l i c s and

e v e n th o u g h t h e i r m a s t e r s a l s o w ere m em bers o f t h e C h u rch o f Rome, t h e r e w ere t im e s when t h e B la c k s fo u n d i t v e r y

1. Ib id . 2 . H o w ev er, th e p r i e s t s w ere n o t a lo n e i n g i v i n g r e l i g i o u s a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e B l a c k s . I n VJZJ 9 s i x U r s u li n e n u n s a r r i v e d fro m F ra n c e t o fo u n d a h o s p i t a l an d c o n d u c t fla f r e e s c h o o l f o r th e p o o r . 1* When t h e y saw t h e s o r r y . p l i g h t o f t h e N e g r o e s , t h e y to o w ere p ro m p te d to do som e­ t h in g f o r th e s e u n f o r tu n a te p e o p le . A c c o rd in g ly , th e y g a t h e r e d th e n e g r e s s e s e v e r y a f t e r n o o n fro m one o * c lo c k to t w o - t h i r t y i n t h e c o n v e n t an d g a v e them i n s t r u c t i o n s i n th e c a te c h is m and th e d o m e s tic a c t s . A r c h i v e s o f t h e U r s u l i n e S i s t e r s a t t h e i r M o th e rh o u se i n New O r l e a n s . (An u n n u m b ere d m a n u s c r i p t , p a r t o f # i i c h i s now i n t y p e ­ w r itte n fo rm ). 3 . S h e a , The C h u rch i n C o l o n i a l D a y s, p . 5I4I .

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d i f f i c u l t to f u l f i l l t h e i r r e l i g i o u s o b l ig a t io n s . to p r o t e c t t h e i r s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t s ,

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deem ed i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p ile a l l t h e la w s e n a c te d by th e F r e n c h G overnm ent i n b e h a l f o f th e c o l o n i a l s l a v e s , and i n 2 1 7 2 4 p r o m u lg a te d them u n d e r th e t i t l e o f th e Code N o i r . A c c o r d in g to t h e s e s t a t u t e s , th e N e g ro e s w e re to be 3 b a p tiz e d and i n s t r u c t e d i n th e C a th o lic r e l i g i o n ; w ere t o k p r a c t i s e i t s p r e c e p t s w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e , w e re to be k e p t u n d e r C a th o lic s u p e r v is io n u n d e r p a in o f c o n f is c a tio n a n d w ere e n t i t l e d

to d e c e n t C h r is tia n b u r i a l .

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C o n c e s s io n s s u c h a s t h e s e w ould h a v e made C a t h o l i c e f f o r t s among th e C o lo re d c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a s y h a d i t n o t b e e n f o r u n s c r u p u l o u s m a s t e r s who w ere e v e r e a g e r to c ir c u m v e n t t h e la w .

As a r e s u l t , th e C a p u c h in s an d t h e

J e s u i t s h a d t o be on t h e a l e r t ; n o t o n l y d i d t h e y c o n s i d e r i t t h e i r p r i e s t l y d u ty to c o n se rv e and s p re a d th e f a i t h , b u t t h e y w ere d e p u te d by law. to se e t h a t t h e N e g ro e s w ere n o t d e p riv e d o f t h e i r C h r is tia n r i g h t s .

1 . T h is w as a llo w e d to h a p p e n i n s p i t e o f th e s t i p u l a t i o n fo u n d i n th e L e t t e r s P a t e n t i s s u e d i n A u g u s t 171? to7 th e Be g e n t Duke o f O r le a n s s t a t i n g t h a t t h e N e g ro e s w ere “ to be i n s t r u c t e d I n th e t r u e r e l i g i o n ,*1 w ere to be p e r m i t t e d to a t t e n d s e r v i c e s an d r e c e i v e th e m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e p rie s ts . See Le P age d u P r a t z , H i s t o i r e de l a L o u l s i a n e , 3 v o l s . , P a r i s ,^ L a m b e rt, 1 7 5 ^* I , 7 7 “7 ^* 2 . C h a r le s G ayarre^, H i s t o r y o f L o u i s i a n a , 3 v o l s . , New Y o rk , W illia m J . M i d d l e t o n , I&6 7 , I I , 53^'. 3 . I b i d . , (A rtic le 2 ) . 4 . I b i d . , (A rtic le 3 ) . 5 . I b i d • , ( A r t i c l e 4) * o . I b i d ., (A rtic le 1 1 ). L

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1 . R o ger B a u d i e r , The C a t h o l i c C h u rc h i n L o u i s i a n a , New O r l e a n s , A . W. H y a tt an d Compapy, 1939* P* 99* 2 . I b i d . , p . 117* A t P o i n t C o u p e e, L es A lle m a n d , La B a l i z e a n d N a t c h i t o c h e s — a l l i n n o r t h e r n L o u is ia n a r e c o r d s show t h a t N egro b a p tis m s w ere p l e n t i f u l .

t a s k t o e s t i m a t e how many w e re u n d e r t h e i r c a r e

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d o u b t, t h e s e p r i e s t s p la y e d a p ro m in e n t p a r t i n k e e p in g th e N e g r o e s o f L o u i s i a n a a l i g n e d w i t h t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h f o r many y e a r s t o come.

2

T h e ir c o -w o rk e rs , th e J e s u i t s , a ls o m in i s t e r e d to th e C o lo red .

Members o f t h e S o c i e t y came t o New O r l e a n s when

t h e c i t y was f o u n d e d a n d g a v e g e n e r o u s s e r v i c e t o i t s r e s i d e n t s u n t i l 1 7 6 3 > when t h e y w ere f o r c e d t o w i t h d r a w b e c a u s e t h e i r com m unity was s u p p r e s s e d .

3

L ik e t h e i r

f e l l o w J e s u i t s i n M a r y l a n d , t h e y e m p lo y e d s l a v e s on t h e i r f a r m s a n d fro m t h e r e v e n u e r e a l i z e d b y t h e l a b o r s o f t h e B la c k s, th e y su p p o rte d t h e i r o u tly in g m i s s i o n s J L s a m a tte r o f C h ris tia n p o lic y , th ese p r i e s t s tr e a te d t h e i r s e r v a n t s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e k i n d n e s s , e n c o u r a g e d them t o im p ro v e t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , gav e them o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e a r n a d d i t i o n a l m oney f o r t h e i r own o r t h e i r f a m i l y ’ s b e n e f i t , a n d g r a n t e d f r e e d o m t o w hom soever was d e s e r v i n g o f i t . Of c o u r s e , t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f t h e p r i e s t s was t o lo o k a f t e r th e s p i r i t u a l w e lf a r e o f th e N eg ro es; hence t h e r e was l i t t l e

d a n g e r o f th e s e r v a n ts n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r

1* S h e a , The C h u rc h i n C o l o n i a l D a y s , p . 579* * 0 f t h e s t a t e o f r e l i g i o n i n . . . L o u i s i a n a f o r some y e a r s , t h e r e a r e no d o c u m e n ts t o g u id e t h e h i s t o r i a n . The C a p u c h in F a t h e r s seem ed t o h a v e d i s c h a r g e d t h e i r f u n c t i o n s q u i e t l y , a s we r a r e l y f i n d a n y a l l u s i o n t o them i n o f f i c i a l d e s p a t c h e s ...." Ib id . 2 . B a u d i e r , 0£ . c i t . , p . 1 2 . 3 . S h e a , The C h u rc h i n C o l o n i a l D a y s , p . 5 8 8 . 4 . B a u d ie r, o p . c i t . , p . 139* 5 . I b i d . , p . 1I4J.I

C h ristia n o b lig a tio n s .

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a l a y m a s te r i n t e r f e r e d w ith th e e x e r c i s e o f th e s l a v e ’ s re lig io n s d u tie s ,

th e c le r g y d id n o t h e s i t a t e

t o r e m in d t h e

g u i l t y p a r t y a b o u t t h e g u a r a n t e e s o f t h e Code N o i r , a n d t h e y 1 u s u a l l y e f f e c t e d th e d e s i r e d change w ith o u t d e l a y . The J e s u i t s i n e a r l y L o u i s i a n a f o u n d t h e i r t a s k o f m i n i s t e r i n g t o t h e N e g r o e s much e a s i e r t h a n d i d t h e c l e r i c s who l a b o r e d i n M a r y l a n d .

I n F ren ch t e r r i t o r y , th e p r i e s t s

h a d t h e s a n c t i o n o f t h e la w t o s u p p o r t t h e i r e f f o r t s i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n r i g h t s o f t h e C o l o r e d ; t h e y c o u ld e x p e c t th e f u l l c o o p e r a tio n o f th e c i v i l o f f i c i a l s and th e y r e c e i v e d a h e a r t y r e s p o n s e fro m t h e m a s t e r s , m o s t o f whom w ere C a t h o l i c s t h e m s e l v e s .

2

On t h a t a c c o u n t , t h e L o u i s i a n a

p r i e s t s e n j o y e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e B l a c k s who l o o k e d u p o n th em a s c h a m p io n s o f t h e C o lo r e d c a u s e . I n 17639 th e F ren ch te n u re I n L o u is ia n a ended.

The

T r e a t y o f P a r i s w h ic h b r o u g h t t o a c l o s e t h e F r e n c h a n d I n d i a n War bou nd F r a n c e t o e e d e t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r y and C anada t o G r e a t B r i t a i n ; a n d s i n c e i t ^ o u l d h a v e b e e n d i f f i c u l t t o r e t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r L o u i s i a n a , L o u is XV s e c r e t ­ ly tr a n s f e r r e d i t to S p a in .^

U n d o u b t e d ly , t h i s new c o u r s e

m e a n t t h a t p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e s w ou ld f o l l o w , b u t in a s m u c h a s b o t h c o u n t r i e s w ere c o n s i d e r e d C a t h o l i c , I t was e x p e c t e d

1. Ib id . 2 . H a r r y J o h n s t p n , The N egro i n t h e New W o r ld , L ond on, , M eth u en a n d Company, 1 9 1 0 , p . 3 . Gayarre", o g . c i t . , I I , 91*

t h a t t h e same r e l i g i o u s p o l i c i e s w ould he c o n t i n u e d . To p r o t e c t t h e C h u r c h , L o u is e x a c t e d a p r o m is e fro m C h a r l e s I I I t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t he w o u ld a l l o w to c o n tin u e i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , th e e c c l e s i a s t i c s and r e l i g i o u s houses i n c h arg e o f th e p a r i s h e s and m is s io n s a s w e l l a s i n t h e e n jo y m e n t s o f t h e r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s and e x e m p ti o n s g r a n te d -, t o them by t h e i r o r i g i n a l title s . W ith s u c h g u a r a n t e e s , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e C h u rc h w ould p r o f i t f r o m two a s p e c t s - - t h e C a t h o l i c c u s to m s o f t h e F r e n c h w o u ld c o n t i n u e i n t a c t a n d t h e F a i t h o f t h e p e o p l e r e m a i n u n d i s t u r b e d , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e , t h e i n c o m in g S p a n i s h o f f i c i a l s m ig h t c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h r i d d i n g th e c o lo n y o f th e l o n g - s t a n d i n g a b u se s t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w ith t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e C h u rc h . W ith in a few y e a r s , r e p o r t s re a c h e d B ish o p E c h e v e r r ia o f S a n tia g o

( u n d e r whose j u r i s d i c t i o n L o u i s i a n a h a d b e e n

p l a c e d ) t h a t a l l was n o t w e l l ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1 7 7 he s e n t C y r i l de B a r c e l o n a w i t h f o u r o t h e r C a p u c h in s t o 2 i n v e s t i g a t e c o n d i t i o n s i n Hew O r l e a n s . On a r r i v i n g , t h e l e g a t e fo u n d t h a t th e r e p o r t s had n o t been e x a g g e r a te d . Few men a p p r o a c h e d t h e s a c r a m e n t s e v e n a t E a s t e r ; d eb au ch ery p r e v a ile d ; th e b a p t i s m o f c h i l d r e n was l o n g d e f e r r e d , a n d p e r f o r m e d w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d to t h e r i t u a l ; n e g r o e s w e re n o t i n s t r u c t e d and d id n o t r e c e i v e th e sa c ra m e n ts ev en when d y i n g . S erm ons t o a d u l t s an d

1 . S h e a , L i f e a n d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 5^4-0• 2. Ib id ., p. 5 •

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i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r - ^ th e y o u n g w ere e q u a l l y u n k no w n. C y r i l a p p e a l e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e fro m t h e l o c a l o f f i c i a l s a n d when h i s p l e a s e c u r e d no r e s u l t s , h e , i n 1 7 8 5 * u r g e d t h e B i s h o p o f S a n t i a g o t o s e e k a c t i o n fro m C h a r l e s I I I . The B i s h o p d i d a n d t h e K in g r e s p o n d e d w i t h a r o y a l d e c r e e o n May 3 1 , 1 7 8 9 , t h e S p a n i s h c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e Code N o i r , w h e r e i n he e n j o i n e d t h a t m ore a t t e n t i o n he p a i d t h e s p i r i 2 t u a l l y n e g le c te d N egroes. He a l s o o r d e r e d t h a t e a c h p l a n t a t i o n sh o u ld p ro v id e a c h a p la in f o r th e B la c k s , t h a t m a s t e r s w ere t o p a y s t r i c t e r w a tc h o v e r t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e i r s l a v e s and th e c h i l d r e n o f th e s l a v e s , and t h a t i f th e y u n ­ d u l y p r e v e n t e d t h e i r s e r v a n t s fro m p r a c t i s i n g t h e i r r e l i g i o n , t h e y w e re t o be p u n i s h e d b y b e i n g d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r p r o ­ p e r t y .5 E v en w i t h t h e s a n c t i o n o f t h e home g o v e r n m e n t, t h e c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s w e re u n a b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h e p r e ­ s c r i p t s o f th e d e c r e e .

I n t h e hope t h a t a g r e a t e r r e s p e c t

f o r la w a n d o r d e r m i g h t be i n s t i l l e d i n t h e p e o p l e by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a C h u rc h d i g n i t a r y , a n a p p e a l was made t o Pope P i u s VI t o a p p o i n t a r e s i d e n t B i s h o p .

I n 1 7 9 3 9 t h e Pope

named L o u i s P e n a l v e r y C a r d e n a s a s t h e f i r s t O r d i n a r y o f L o u i s i a n a a n d t h e P l o r i d a s b u t t h e h o p e d - f o r r e s u l t s w e re

1 . I b i d . ( u n d e r s c o r i n g m in e ) 2 . G ayar re'', o p . c i t . , I l l , 3 0 1 . 3* x b i a », i n # 3^ 3 0 2 .

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P e r e i g h t y e a r s , th e B ish o p la b o r e d z e a l o u s l y to r e v i v i f y C a th o lic l i f e and b r in g th e r e s i d e n t s o f th e c o lo n y to a f u l l e r u n d e rs ta n d in g o f t h e i r C a th o lie o b l i g a t i o n s . a c h iev e d b u t l i t t l e

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d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e a n d i n 1 8 0 1 , was

t r a n s f e r r e d t o G u a te m a la .

2

H is d e p a r t u r e l e f t L o u i s i a n a

w i t h o u t a B i s h o p f o r f o u r y e a r s , d u r i n g w h ic h tim e m em bers o f t h e C h u rch s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y fro m s p i r i t u a l n e g l e c t . One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s was t h a t when i n 1 8 0 3 , L o u i s i a n a p a s s e d i n t o A m e ric a n h a n d s , S p a i n a d v i s e d a l l h e r c o l o n i s t s t o l e a v e w i t h t h e g o v e rn m e n t f o r c e s . w e re p e r m i t t e d t o r e m a i n i f

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th ey chose, b u t f e a r in g th a t

t h e y m i g h t e n c o u n t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s u n d e r A m e ric a n a d m i n i s ­ t r a t i o n , m o s t o f them p r e f e r r e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r n a t i v e la n d .

P o u r , h o w e v e r , e l e c t e d t o s t a y and m i n i s t e r t o t h e

C a th o lic s s c a t t e r e d th ro u g h o u t th e r e g i o n , th ough th e y s o o n l e a r n e d how p o w e r l e s s t h e y w ere when f a c e d by t h e a n t i Roman a n d i r r e l i g i o u s * a d v e n tu re rs* ^

s p i r i t b r o u g h t i n t o t h e a r e a by Yankee

B e r e f t o f t h e i r p r i e s t - l e a d e r s , many p e o p l e w e re l o s t t o t h e C h u r c h , b u t p r o b a b l y n o n e s u f f e r e d m ore t h a n d i d t h e C o lo red .

When P r a n c e a n d S p a i n r u l e d t h e t e r r i t o r y , t h e

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g u a r a n t e e d b y l a w , b u t now, no s u c h a s s u r a n c e s w ere g r a n t e d n o r e x p e c t e d fro m a P r o t e s t a n t c o n t r o l l e d g o v e r n m e n t.

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a d d i t i o n , many o f t h e N e g r o e s w e re p u r c h a s e d by n o n - C a t h o l i e w h i t e s a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c u s t o m , w ere o b l i g e d t o a d o p t t h e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s o f t h e i r new o w n e r s .

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r e c o r d s t o i n d i c a t e how many w ere t h u s f o r c e d t o b r e a k w i t h C a th o lic ism , b u t i f a l a t e r r e p o r t i s tr u e t h a t r e l i g i o n 1 f e l l t o a lo w e b b , t h e n t h e num ber was p r o b a b l y l a r g e . No one r e a l i z e d b e t t e r t h a n d i d B i s h o p C a r r o l l w h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was i n L o u i s i a n a when he was g i v e n a u t h o r i t y in 1803.

He was w e l l a w a re t h a t i n t h e a r e a p l a c e d

t e m p o r a r i l y u n d e r h i s c a r e , i r r e l i g i o h was a b y w o rd , c h u r c h e s w ere u n a t t e n d e d a n d t h a t a s p i r i t o f l i b e r t y , r e ­ s u l t i n g p a r t l y fro m t h e t e a c h i n g s o f G a l l i c a n i s m a n d t h e 2 F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , h a d become r a t h e r w i d e s p r e a d . He knew , t o o , t h a t t h e o n l y way t o re m e d y c o n d i t i o n s w ould be t h e s e n d i n g o f m ore p r i e s t s b u t s i n c e none w ere a v a i l a b l e , C a r r o l l was f o r c e d t o l e t t h e s i t u a t i o n r e s t u n t i l Rome w o u ld a c t . On A p r i l 2 1 , I 8 0 I4., r e a l i z i n g how d i f f i c u l t i t w o u ld be f o r t h e B i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e t o r u l e a See so f a r a w a y , t h e

1 . See b e lo w , p . 53* 2 . B a u d i e r , £ £ . c i t . , p . 261|. The l a i t y s h o u l d n o t be b la m e d e n t i r e l y f o r t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e . C o n sta n t changes o f t h e i r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r u l e r s d id n o t le n d i t s e l f to r e l i g i o u s s t a b i l i t y a n d r e s p e c t f o r C h u rc h a u t h o r i t y , b u t d i d g i v e t h e fla n t i - C h u r c h 11 f o r c e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s a n d w in o v e r many who w ere luke** w arn . I b i d . L

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P r e f e c t o f t h e P r o p a g a n d a i n Some a s k e d B is h o p C a r r o l l t o s u b m i t t h e nam es o f t h r e e o r m ore p r i e s t s whom he t h o u g h t 1 w o rth y and c a p a b le o f g o v e rn in g th e tro u b le so m e d i o c e s e . On A p r i l 5* 1 8 0 8 , t h e H oly See i n f o r m e d him t h a t F a t h e r C h a r l e s N e r i n c k x o r ftsome o t h e r w o r t h y p r i e s t 11 w ould be a c c e p t a b l e a s th e A d m i n is tr a t o r A p o s to lic and a u th o r i z e d 2 him t o make t h e a p p o i n t m e n t . C a rro ll d id as re q u e ste d b u t was u n a b l e t o p e r s u a d e a n y o f t h e n o m in e e s t o a c c e p t t h e o ffic e • F i n a l l y , t h e B i s h o p p r e v a i l e d o n F a t h e r D u h o u rg — t h e S u l p i c i a n who h a d b e g u n t h e S u nday e a t e c h i s m c l a s s f o r t h e C o l o r e d i n B a l t i m o r e — t o u n d e r t a k e t h e w ork a n d on O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 8 1 2 , t h e new r e g e n t l e f t f o r h i s a s s i g n m e n t . ? When he a r r i v e d i n Hew O r l e a n s , p a r t o f t h e t e r r i t o r y u n d e r h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n had a l r e a d y been re c o g n iz e d a s . t h e S t a t e o f L o u is ia n a and had been a d m itte d i n t o e ig h te e n th S ta te .

t h e Be p u b l i c a s t h e

He f o u n d t h e r e some se m b la n c e o f

p o l i t i c a l o r d e r b u t fro m t h e r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t , c o n d i t i o n s w e re c h a o t i c . To b e g i n w i t h , t h e r e w e re v e r y f e w p r i e s t s , a p p r o x i m a t e ­ ly f i f t y

th o u sa n d n o m in a l C a th o lic s and th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f

th e p o p u la tio n v e rg in g on g o d le s s n e s s .

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fro m a r e p o r t s e n t t o t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n o f t h e P r o p a g a n d a

1 . G u i l d a y , 0£ . c i t ; . , p . 7^5* 2 . S h e a , L i f e a n d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 597* 3 . i b i d . , p . 67177 L

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a b le s s in g ; C h r is tia n D o c tr in e i s n o t ta u g h t, and su ch a d e c a y o f C a th o lic l i f e i s to be o b se r v e d , th a t w ith in a few y e a r s th e C a th o lic f a it h w ill be e n t ir e ly o b lite r a te d . . . .

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Church, i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,

U nder h i s g u i d a n c e , C a t h o l i c ­

ism h a d made s u c h p r o g r e s s t h a t i n 1808 Borne saw f i t t o e l e v a t e h i s se e to a r c h d io c e s a n ra n k and a p p o r t i o n e p i s c o p a l a u t h o r i t y among h im , a s m e t r o p o l i t a n , a n d f o u r o t h e r b i s h o p s a s h i s su ffra g a n s ." * "

The num ber o f c h u r c h e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e

c o u n t r y h a d m u l t i p l i e d a n d w e re t o be f o u n d i n many o f t h e l a r g e c i t i e s from B o sto n to A u g u s ta , and a s f a r w e st a s S t . L o u is.

The s u p p l y o f p r i e s t s was i n c r e a s i n g a n d , m o s t e n ­

c o u ra g in g o f a l l ,

t h e C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n showed d e f i n i t e

s i g n s o f s te a d y g ro w th .

2

To t h e c r e d i t o f t h e r e l i g i o u s b ody o f w h ic h C a r r o l l was t h e l e a d e r , i t m u s t be s a i d t h a t n e i t h e r n a t i o n a l i t y n o r r a c e was a b a r r i e r t o m e m b e r s h ip .

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a s w e l l a s w h i t e s fro m t h e v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s o f B u ro p e w ere i n th e c a re o f h i s c le r g y .

I f , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , no c o n c e r t e d

e f f o r t had been u n d e rta k e n i n b e h a lf o f th e N eg ro es, th e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h o s e i n t h e f o l d w ere n o t n e g l e c t e d . The J e s u i t s i n t h e c o u n t i e s o f M a ry la n d a n d a t G e o rg e to w n , i n P h i l a d e l p h i a a n d i n L o u i s i a n a ( t o 1 7 6 3 ) ; t h e m em bers o f t h e S o c i e t y o f S t . S u l p i c e i n B a l t i m o r e ; t h e C a p u c h in F r i a r s i n L o u i s i a n a a n d t h e t r a v e l i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e S o u t h a n d t h e W e st— a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r sh a re o f z e a l and i n t e r e s t d u r i n g th e C a r r o l l p e r i o d .

-**•

* * P* 5B3 . B i s h o p s w ere a p p o i n t e d t o t h e s e e s e r e c te d i n th e f o llo w in g c i t i e s : P h i l a d e l p h i a , New Y o r k , B o s to n a n d B a r d s t o w n . 2 . I b i d . , p . 679*

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56 *

i

CHAPTER I I I CARROLL1S SUCCESSORS, l 8 l 6 - l 8 2 9 E v en w h i l e t h e H o ly See s e a r c h e d f o r a s o l u t i o n to th e p r o b l e m s d i s t u r b i n g t h e D i o c e s e o f L o u i s i a n a , i t was n o t u n m i n d f u l o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C h u rc h i n 9 t h e r p a r t s o f th e U n i t e d S t a t e s a l s o h ad p r e s s i n g n e e d s .

B e c a u s e t h e See o f

B a l t i m o r e was so v a s t ' i n t e r r i t o r i a l e x t e n t t h a t i t s B is h o p f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a d e q u a t e a t t e n t i o n t o many p e rp le x in g q u e s tio n s , th e need f o r a t l e a s t a n o th e r b ish o p ­ r i c was v e r y g r e a t . B e f o r e g o i n g t o E n g la n d f o r h i s own c o n s e c r a t i o n ,

John

C a r r o l l h a d a n t i c i p a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a k in g t h i s t h e s u b j e c t o f a n a p p e a l t o Rome b u t was a d v i s e d a g a i n s t p r e s s ­ i n g t h e m a t t e r u n t i l a f t e r he h a d r e t u r n e d to th e U n i t e d 1 S ta te s. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1792* u r g e d Rome t o s e l e c t a n o t h e r p r e l a t e t o a s s i s t him a n d r e q u e s t e d t h a t a se c o n d 2 d i o c e s e be e r e c t e d e i t h e r a t P h i l a d e l p h i a o r Hew Y o rk . H o w ev er, t h e S a c r e d C o n g r e g a t i o n o f t h e P r o p a g a n d a , n o t s u r e t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e C h u rc h i n t h e New R e p u b li c

1 . B a l t i m o r e C a t h e d r a l A r c h i v e s , Case 8-K9» T h i s o b s e r ­ v a t i o n i s t a k e n fro m a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y F a t h e r T h o rp e ( r e s i d i n g i n Rome) t o C a r r o l l , A u g u s t 2 8 , 1790* 2 . Q uo ted b y G u i l d a y , o p . c i t . , p . 5 • From a l e t t e r o f C a r r o l l t o P r o p a g a n d a ftr e c e i v e d b e f o r e A u g u s t 1 3 , 1 7 9 2 * lt ltF o r a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r t h e num ber o f p r i e s t s n o r o f t h e l a i t y i s so g r e a t t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t be t a k e n c a r e o f p r o p e r l y b y one B i s h o p i f t h e y a l l l i v e d w i t h i n e a s y r e a c h , n e v e r t h e l e s s , on a c c o u n t o f th e g r e a t d i s t a n c e w h ic h s e p a r a t e s them fro m t h e b i s h o p a n d fro m one a n o t h e r i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o know t h e i r p r i e s t s o r t o be known b y t h e m . K J

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s i d e r a t i o n , C a r r o l l , r e p l y i n g on November commended t h a t f o u r s e e s be c r e a t e d :

o f

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2 3 ,

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a t B o s t o n , w i t h Jo h n

C h e v e ru s a s B i s h o p ; a t New Y ork w i t h Luke C o ncann on; a t P h i l a d e l p h i a w i t h M i c h a e l E g an and a t B a r d s tow n w i t h B e n ed ict P ia g e t. a n d on A p r i l

8 ,

3

P i u s V I I was g u id e d by t h i s s u g g e s t i o n

1808,

i s s u e d two B r i e f s , t h e one e n t i t l e d

ltBx d e b i t o p a s t o r a l i s o f f i c i i 11 e r e c t i n g t h e f o u r s e e s an d t h e o t h e r , wP o n t i f i c i i m u n e r i s n o b i s tt e l e v a t i n g B a l t i m o r e t o t h e r a n k o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n w i t h t h e new d i o c e s e s a s i t s

1 . I b i d . , p p . 5 6 9 , 578* 2 * I b i d . , P* 579• 3 . S hea', L i f e a n d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 6 2 2 . B o s to n was g i v e n j u r f s c L i c t i o n o v e r New H a m p s h ir e , V e rm o n t, M ass­ a c h u s e t t s , Rhode I s l a n d an d C o n n e c t i c u t ; New Y ork o v e r New Y ork S t a t e and e a s t e r n New J e r s e y ; P h i l a d e l p h i a o v e r w e s t e r n a n d s o u t h e r n New J e r s e y , P e n n s y l v a n i a an d D e l a w a r e ; B a r d s to w n o v e r K e n t u c k y , T e n n e s s e e , Ohio a n d th e N o rth w e st T e r r i t o r y , w h ile B a ltim o re r e t a i n e d M a ry lan d , V i r g i n i a , N o rth and S o u th C a r o li n a s , G e o rg ia , a n d t h e t e r r i t o r y o f M i s s i s s i p p i ( l a t e r t o become t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t s o f t h e s t a t e o f A labam a an d M i s s i s s i p p i J

58 su ffrag an s.

l

3

I t w o u ld be d i f f i c u l t to e s t i m a t e how many C a t h o l i c s l i v e d i n e a c h o f t h e s e new e c c l e s i a s t i c a l t e r r i t o r i e s , f o r t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f a n y C h u rc h c e n s u s a t th e t i m e .

How­

e v e r , t h e t o t a l num ber o f c o m m u n ica n ts i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s m ust have i n c r e a s e d c o n s id e r a b ly o v er th e p r e v io u s s i x t e e n y e a r s t o h a v e w a r r a n t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h r e e more s e e s t h a n B is h o p C a r r o l l . o r i g i n a l l y recom mended a s n e c e s s a r y , As a n i n s i g h t i n t o

t h e C h u rc h s i t u a t i o n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e

d i v i s i o n o f th e d io c e s e o f B a ltim o r e , G u ild ay re m a rk s: Ho a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l c o n d itio n o f C a th o lic l i f e i n th e f i v e d i o c e s e s c a n b e g i v e n . I t was a tim e o f p i o n e e r e v a n g e l i z a t i o n . The o b j e c t n e a r e s t th e h e a r t s o f th e s e o u r e a r l i e s t s p i r i t u a l s h e p h e r d s was t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f th e f a i t h o f t h e i r p e o p le , th e b u i l d ­ i n g o f c h u r c h e s , th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f y o u n g meh f o r t h e p r i e s t h o o d . ^ S i n g u l a r l y e n o u g h , t h e C a t h o l i c s who w ere l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r C a r r o l l 1s s u g g e s t i o n f o r a d i o c e s e i n t h e W est w ere f o r m e r M a r y l a n d e r s .

A ccom panied by t h e i r s l a v e s ,

who a l s o w ere C a t h o l i c s , a n d i n t h e hope o f e s c a p i n g fro m t h e r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n b e i n g waged i n L o rd B a l t i m o r e 1 s s e t t l e m e n t , th e y had jo in e d o t h e r c o l o n i s t s p la n n in g to c r o s s t h e A p p a l a c h i a n M o u n ta in s i n s e a r c h o f new l a n d s and a d v en tu re.

I*

On t h e i r a r r i v a l i n t h a t r e g i o n -which i n 1792

I b id . S ee a ls o P a u l P . C ia n g e tti, ltA D i o c e s a n C hronoT ogy o f th e C a th o lic C hurch in th e U n ite d S t a t e s , ’* C a th o lic H is t o r i c a l H e v ie w , X X V III, n o . 1 , (A p r il

T 5 P T T p p . 5 7 -7 ^ l

2

.

G -u ild a y ,

o p .

c i t . ,

' p .

601.

j

was t o become t h e S t a t e o f K e n t u c k y , t h e y f o u n d c o n d i t i o n s , r a t h e r a g r e e a b le and d e c id e d to s e t t l e

t h e r e . ' 1'

No p r o v i s i o n s h a d b e e n made f o r t h e i r s p i r i t u a l w e l ­ f a r e h e n c e , sa v e f o r a r a r e v i s i t fro m t h e f e w F r e n c h m i s s i o n a r i e s who r e m a i n e d i n t h a t s e c t i o n a f t e r t h e i r c o u n try m e n l e f t i n 17&3> t h e s e C a t h o l i c p i o n e e r s w ere l e f t t o t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s .

By 1 7 8 6 , s i x t y C a t h o l i c f a m i l i e s

fr o m S t . M a ry 1s C o u n ty , M a ry la n d h a d come t o a s e t t l e m e n t c a l l e d P o t t i n g e r ’ s C re e k w h ile s m a l l e r c l u s t e r s w ere so o n t o be f o u n d a t B a r d s t o w n , C a r t w r i g h t ’ s C r e e k , H a r d i n ’ s 2 C r e e k a n d F rom an*s C r e e k . The i n f l u x o f C a t h o l i c m i g r a n t s c o n t i n u e d a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r s , i t was. deem ed w ise t o a p p e a l t o t h e B i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e f o r p r i e s t s who w ould t e n d t o t h e i r s p i r i t u a l w a n t s . J Jo h n C a r r o l l was a w are o f t h e r e l i g i o u s c o n d i t i o n o f t h e W e s t, b u t he was u n a b l e t o o f f e r a n y a s s i s t a n c e u n t i l he c o u l d r e c r u i t more c le r g y m e n f ro m E u r o p e .

On M arch 2 6 ,

1 7 9 2 , a s e c o n d g ro u p o f S u l p i c i a n s a r r i v e d fro m F r a n c e , b u t i t was n o t u n t i l S e p te m b e r 6 o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h a t he was a b l e t o se n d S t e p h e n B a d in and a R ev. Mr. B a r r i e r e s t o l o o k a f t e r t h e C a t h o l i c s i n K entucky.^* fo u n d l i f e

The l a t t e r so o n

i n t h a t r e g i o n to o d i f f i c u l t and b ecau se o f poor

h e a l t h , was f o r c e d t o g iv e up a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y .

1 . S h e a , L i f e a n d T im es o f C a r r o l l , p . 2 7 1 . 2. Ib id . l\-*

I b i d . - , P » k 1|55.

T h is , of

6o r

i

c o u r s e , l e f t B a d in a l o n e t o t a k e c a r e o f t h e s c a t t e r e d f l o c k an d f o r t h r e e y e a r s he r o d e t h e “ c i r c u i t 11 b y h i m s e l f i n ­ s t r u c t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g th e s a c r a m e n ts .

He was g i v e n

t e m p o r a r y a s s i s t a n c e b y F a t h e r F o u r n i e r i n 1797 a n & by F a t h e r T h a y e r i n 1799 b u t he c o u ld r e l y on no p e r m a n e n t h e l p u n t i l t h e com ing o f F a t h e r N e r i n c k x i n 1 8 0 5 . ^

D u rin g

a l l t h e s e y e a r s o f m i s s i o n a r y w o rk , i t m u s t be s a i d t o h i s c r e d i t t h a t he a lw a y s f o u n d tim e t o a t t e n d t o t h e B l a c k s . He i n s t r u c t e d them a s c a r e f u l l y a s he d i d t h e w h i t e members o f h i s f l o c k , and i t i s

s a i d t h a t t h e C o lo re d became so 2 a t t a c h e d to him t h a t some b e g g e d to become h i s s l a v e s . I n J u l y 1 8 0 5 , B is h o p C a r r o l l s e n t t h e Rev. C h a r l e s N e r i n c k x t o a s s i s t F a t h e r B a d in i n K e n t u c k y .

H e, t o o ,

w orked z e a l o u s l y i n b e h a l f o f t h e N e g ro e s and e v e n w en t f u r t h e r th a n h is p r i e s t l y a s s o c ia te i n r e n d e r in g s p i r i t u a l a id .

B a d in s e l e c t e d a n d t r a i n e d s p e c i a l c a t e c h i s t s t o

c a r r y on r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s so t h a t h i s w ork w ould be c o n t i n u e d w h i l e he t r a v e l e d t o o t h e r m i s s i o n s , b u t N e r i n c k x 3 f e l t t h i s was o n l y a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o so g r e a t a n e e d . C o n v in c e d t h a t t h e

p r e s e r v a t i o n o f and c o n v e rs io n

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f a i t h c o u ld be b e s t e f f e c t e d b y t h o s e who d e d i c a t e d t h e i r l i v e s e n t i r e l y t o r e l i g i o n , he a s k e d a n d o b t a i n e d fro m

1 . I b i d ., p . 526. 2 . M a rtin J . S p a ld in g , S k e tc h e s o f th e E a r ly C a th o lic M i s s i o n s o f K e n t u c k y , L o u i s v i l l e , B. J . Webb,' l b d i l , P*

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r Two d a y s a g o , 12 y o u n g l a d i e s o f f e r e d th e m se lv e s a t L o r e tto f o r th e l i t t l e v e i l , a m o n g st them o u r t h r e e B l a c k s . , . . T h e i r d r e s s i s t o be d i f f e r e n t , a l s o t h e i r o f f i c e s a n d e m p lo y m e n t, b u t t h e y k e e p t h e m a in r u l e s o f th e S o c i e t y ; t h e y w i l l t a k e t h e vows b u t n o t t h e p e r p e t u a l o n e s b e f o r e 12 y e a r s o f p ro fe s s io n . T h eir r u le s a re s e t a p a r t .1 D e s p ite h ig h hopes and e a r l y e n th u s ia s m , th e p r i e s t was d e s t i n e d to m e e t b i t t e r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t .

T ro u b le b e ­

g a n when t h e Rev. Guy C h a b r a t , c o n f e s s o r to th e S i s t e r s a t t h e B e t h a n i a c o n v e n t , a t t e m p t e d to a l t e r t h e R ule o f t h e Community -which h a d a l r e a d y b e e n a p p ro v e d by Pope P i u s V II.

He a c c u s e d N e r i n c k x t o B is h o p P i a g e t a s b e i n g

^ v i s i o n a r y and e x c e s s i v e l y rig o ro u s * 1 and im p lie d t h a t th e f o u n d e r was u n e q u a l t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y he h a d a s s u m e d .

2

He made t h e s i t u a t i o n so u n p l e a s a n t f o r N e r i n c k x t h a t t h e l a t t e r d e c i d e d t o l e a v e K e n tu c k y and s e e k an a s s i g n m e n t i n r a p i d l y g ro w in g M i s s o u r i .

T h i s he d i d on June 16 , l82ij.

a n d was i m m e d i a t e l y s u c c e e d e d b y C h a b r a t a s t h e D i r e c t o r o f th e S i s t e r s o f L o re tto I t t h e n becam e q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e new e c c l e s i a s ­ t i c a l s u p e r i o r was o f a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t m in d fro m t h a t o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r a b o u t th e i n t e r r a c i a l S is te r h o o d . C o n v in c e d t h a t t h e tim e was n o t y e t r i p e f o r C o lo r e d

1 . I b i d . , p . 5 1 0 . The a u t h o r d o e s n o t i d e n t i f y M o th e r B ib’i a n a n o r d o e s he g i v e t h e s p e c i f i c d a t e on w h ic h t h e l e t t e r was w r i t t e n . He n o t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t was p e n n e d i n May, l82li_. I b i d . 2 . S h ea, H is to ry o f th e C hurch, l 8 0 8 - l 8 i 4 5 > p . 2 9 8 . l 5 . M aes, ojd* c i t . , p . 5^2*

i

R e l i g i o u s , he o b t a i n e d f o r t h e f i v e N egro c a n d i d a t e s a r e ­ l e a s e f ro m t h e i r vows a n d s u m m a r ily s e n t th em home*'*’

T h e ir

d e p a r t u r e m e a n t t h e en d o f N e rin c k x * f o n d e s t h o p e , one w h ic h was n o t r e v i v e d b y a n o t h e r Community u n t i l a f t e r t h e C i v i l War# Ho o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a b o u t C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e N e g ro e s o f K e n tu c k y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d # C a th o lic im m ig ran ts c o n tin u e d t o s e t t l e

in th a t re g io n b u t,

o t h e r t h a n t h e e f f o r t s o f B a d in a n d N e r i n c k x , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g s a i d a b o u t any o t h e r s p e c i f i c a tt e m p t s to h e lp th e 2 B lack s# O u t s i d e o f K e n t u c k y , g r o w in g s e t t l e m e n t s made t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e t e r r i t o r y w h ic h l a t e r becam e t h e s t a t e s o f I n d i a n a , I l l i n o i s , M i c h ig a n a n d W i s c o n s i n ; a n d among t h e e a r l y r e s i d e n t s , a num ber o f C a t h o l i c s w ere t o b e f o u n d #5

E v i d e n t l y t h e g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n was c e n t e r e d

i n O h io , f o r w i t h i n t e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e f i r s t p a r i s h was f o u n d e d i n C i n c i n n a t i , B i s h o p F l a g e t u r g e d Rome t o e r e c t an e p isc o p a l s e a t th e r e .

A c c o r d i n g l y , on Ju n e 19* 1 0 2 1 ,

P i u s V II so d e c r e e d a n d p l a c e d u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f B i s h o p F e n w ic k , t h e S t a t e o f Ohio a n d t h e t e r r i t o r y l a t e r t o becom e M i c h ig a n a n d W is c o n s in #

i . Ib id # 2# T he w r i t e r was i n f o r m e d b y C h a n c e r y o f f i c e o f t h e A r c h ­ d i o c e s e o f L o u i s v i l l e t h a t no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o b e h a d o n C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e N e g ro e s # See A p p e n d ix , p# 1 2 6 # S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , I 8 Q8 - I 8I3.5 , p# 265 I b i d # # p . 55Q#

61).

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I n t h i s new d i o c e s e , no e v i d e n c e was g i v e n o f a n y p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d t h e N e g ro e s by t h e C a t h o l i c s . ’*' The r e a s o n v e r y l i k e l y was t h e same a s t h a t o f f e r e d b y McAvoy f o r t h e S t a t e o f I n d i a n a - - t h a t " t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h i n t h e W est i s

t h e h i s t o r y o f C a t h o l i c w h i t e s and

I n d i a n s " a n d s i n c e t h e "num ber o f N e g ro e s was n e g l i g i b l e , " 2 no s p e c i a l n o t i c e was t a k e n o f th e m . M e a n w h ile , o f t h e t h r e e e a s t e r n d i o c e s e s e r e c t e d a t t h e same tim e a s B a r d s to w n , i n o n l y one was a n y o v e r t c o n ­ c e r n showed t o t h e B l a c k s .

B o s t o n and New Y ork g iv e no

i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h e x p e n d e d a n y e n e r g y i n b e h a l f o f t h e C o lo r e d d u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s .

I n th e

d i o c e s e o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , t h e r e a r e no c o n te m p o r a r y a c c o u n t s e i t h e r , b u t f r o m r e f e r e n c e s made e a r l i e r a n d l a t e r , ^ t h e p re su m p tio n i s

t h a t th e J e s u i t F a th e rs c o n tin u e d t h e i r

o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t i n th e N egroes.

E v id e n tl y , th e p r i e s t s

gave e v e r y e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t h e C o lo r e d a t t e n d i n g S t . Jo sep h * s C h u rch and s t r o v e t o k e e p a l i v e t h e f a i t h b r o u g h t 5 f r o m San D om ingo.

1 . C h a n c e r y O f f i c e s t a t e s t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f C a t h o l i c N e g ro e s l i v i n g t h e r e d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s . See A p p e n d ix , p . 122. 2 . Thomas T . McAvoy, The C a t h o l i c C hu rch i n I n d i a n a , 1 7 8 9 l85lj-j New Y o r k , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19^4-0> P • 1 2 1 . 3 . The w r i t e r v i s i t e d C h a n c e ry O f f i c e i n t h e s e two a r c h ­ d i o c e s e s a n d was t o l d no e a r l y d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e . ij.. See a b o v e , p . 3 8 ; a l s o b e lo w , p p . 9 9 - l ° 0 * 5 . J a n e C a m p b e ll, "S an Domingan R e f u g e e s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , " R e c o rd s &CHS, XXVXII, 1 9 1 7 , p . 9 7 .

L

65

r

A p p a r e n t l y , i n L o u i s i a n a a l s o , t h e r e was no p r o n o u n c e d a c t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e C a t h o l i c C hurch to w a r d s t h e B la c k s,

B i s h o p D ubo urg r e m a in e d i n E u ro p e f o r a l m o s t two 1 y e a r s a f t e r h i s c o n s e c r a t i o n , a p p e a l i n g f o r men a n d m eans

f o r h i s new d i o c e s e a n d f i n a l l y , a t t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f F r o n

p a g a n d a , s e t s a i l f o r A m e ric a on J u l y 1 , I 0I 7 .

2

On h i s

a r r i v a l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , he h e s i t a t e d a b o u t g o i n g d i r e c t l y t o New O r l e a n s b e c a u s e t h e s c h i s m a t i c S e d e l l a had t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f h i s s t a y i n E u ro p e t o c r e a t e more tro u b le ,

A c c o r d in g ly , he jo u rn e y e d to S t . L o u is , th e n

l o c a t e d i n th e t e r r i t o r y o f L o u is ia n a , and e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s i d e n c e t h e r e u n t i l he was s u r e t h a t he w ould b e r e ­ c e i v e d i n New O r l e a n s .

H is a d v e n t m ark e d t h e f i r s t t im e

i n f o u r t e e n y e a r s t h a t a B is h o p s t o o d on t h e s o i l o f t e r r i t o r y w h ic h h a d o n c e b e l o n g e d t o F r a n c e a n d S p a i n .

1. 2. 3.

L

See a b o v e , p . 3 8 . S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , 18 q 8 -1 8 I l5 , p . 713* I b i d . , p p . 356- 3 6 3 . C o n c ern in g S e d e l l a , see a b o v e , p . IpO n o t e . When F a t h e r D ubo urg was a p p o i n t e d A p o s ­ t o l i c A d m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e C a p u c h in gave him t h e c o u r ­ t e s i e s d u e h i s o f f i c e ; h o w e v er i n 1 8 1 5 * a f t e r t h e d i o c e s a n r e g e n t l e f t f o r Home, S e d e l l a p u b l i c l y q u e s ­ tio n e d h i s r i g h t to le a v e th e d i o c e s e . Then, w ith t h e s u p p o r t o f f o l l o w e r s , t h e t r o u b le s o m e p r i e s t a sk ed C ongress to i n c o r p o r a te th e t r u s t e e s o f th e d i o c e s e , g r a n t i n g them th e # r i g h t t o m anage t h e tem p o ­ r a l i t i e s a s w e l l a s t o a p p o i n t and rem ove p r i e s t s . When t h e s e r e p o r t s r e a c h e d E u r o p e , D u b o u rg became f e a r f u l t h a t more s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s w ere i n s t o r e f o r him on h i s r e t u r n , so he p u r p o s e l y d e l a y e d s a i l i n g f o r home u n t i l S e d e l l a 1s d i s t u r b a n c e s w ere q u i e t e d , a t l e a s t te m p o ra rily . Ib id .

i

66 r

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As a n i n d i c a t i o n o f how g r e a t l y th e f a i t h h a d l a n g u i s h e d w h i l e t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s r e g i o n were w i t h o u t a n e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r , B a u d ie r o b s e r v e s : T h e re i s no d a r k e r pag e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C hurch i n L o u i s i a n a t h a n t h o s e f o u r te e n y e a r s , th e d ark y e a r s of th e d i o c e s e . . .W hat l i t t l e h ad b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t 100 y e a r s , w hat l i t t l e F a i t h had been e s t a b l i s h e d w ere a l l u p r o o t e d . D i s o r d e r o f a sc a n d a lo u s n a tu r e a r o s e , r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e C h u rc h became t h e r u l e o f th e day and i n t o l e r a b l e a b u se s d e v e lo p e d . I f t h e r e had b e e n r e s i s t a n c e to th e C hurch, i n d i f f e r e n c e and even i r r e l i g i o n in th e decades b e f o r e , th e r e w ere a l l o f t h e s e now r a m p a n t . P a r i s h e s w ere p r i e s t l e s s , lay m en t o o k c h a r g e o f th e c h u rc h e s and d i c t a t e d to th e c l e r g y , S a c r a m e n t s w ere n e g l e c t e d , c h u r c h p r o p e r t y was l o s t , r e v e r e n c e f o r t h e C h u rc h a n d h e r c l e r g y d w i n d l e d a l m o s t t o t h e v a n i s h i n g p o i n t and m o r a l i t y f e l l t o a s h a m e f u l l y lo w e b b . ^ F a c e d w i t h s u c h o d d s , B is h o p D ub o u rg a t o n c e d e v o t e d h i m s e l f t o t h e t a s k o f u p l i f t i n g t h e w hole to n e o f h i s d io c e se .

On November 19* 1 8 2 0 , he s e t o u t f o r New

O r l e a n s w h e r e .h e was i/vell r e c e i v e d and somewhat e n c o u r a g e d by t h e r e s p o n s e b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e s m a l l num ber o f h i s 2 z e a lo u s p r i e s t s . H ow ever, he f e l t t h a t h i s e f f o r t s w ould n e v e r p r o d u c e a d e q u a t e r e s u l t s a s l o n g a s he was h a n d i c a p p e d b y a s h o r t a g e o f c le r g y m e n a n d t h e v a s t e x t e n t o f t h e a r e a 3 ■under h i s e p i s c o p a l c a r e . I n t r y i n g , t o rem e d y t h e l a t t e r

1 . B a u d i e r , o p . c i t . , p . 2I4.9 « 2 . S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , l808-l81j.3> P . 370* 3 . I b i d . , p .' 3 6 9 .

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r e g i o n , b u t h i s r e q u e s t d id n o t m eet w ith th e a p p ro v a l o f 1 th e o t h e r b is h o p s i n th e U n ited S t a t e s , N e v e r t h e l e s s , Rome was a p p a r e n t l y c o n v in c e d by h i s a r g u m e n t s , f o r on A u g u s t 1 3 , 1 8 2 2 , P i u s VTI j o i n e d M is ­ s issip p i (a s t a t e

(w h ic h h a d becom e a s t a t e i n 1817) and Alabam a p sin c e 1819) i n to a v i c a r i a t e - a p o s t o l i c . A l­

t h o u g h t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t was t e r m i n a t e d — by s u p p r e s s i o n — i n l e s s t h a n a y e a r ( J u l y llj., 1 8 2 3 ) , ^ Pope Leo X I I , on A u g u s t 19* 1 8 2 5 > made t h e s t a t e o f M i s s i s s i p p i i n t o a v i c a r i a t e and a s s ig n e d N atch ez a s th e r e s i d e n t c i t y o f k th e r e g e n t; a n d s e v e n d a y s l a t e r , he e s t a b l i s h e d a t M o b ile a n o t h e r v i c a r i a t e

to lo o k a f t e r ' t h e C a th o lic s i n 5 A labam a and t h e F l o r i d a s . A fu rth e r d iv is io n of j u r i s ­ d i c t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t on J u l y 1 8 , 1826 when Leo X II s u p p r e s s e d t h e s e e o f L o u i s i a n a and i n i t s p l a c e , e s t a b ­ l i s h e d two d i o c e s e s , one a t New O r l e q n s w i t h a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e C a t h o l i c s i n t h e s t a t e o f L o u i s i a n a an d t h e o t h e r a t S t . L o u is to s u p e r v i s e t h e s p i r i t u a l l i f e th e s t a t e o f M is s o u ri

6

o f th o se i n

7

and th e c o u n tr y n o r t h o f L o u is ia n a .*

I b i d - * 9 P« 3 7 8 . 2 . C i a n g e t t i , l o c . c i t . , p . 6 5 . B o th a r e a s h a d b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c a r e o f t h e B is h o p o f L o u i s i a n a by A rc h b ish o p M arech al o f B la tim o re i n 1822. See S h e a , ' H i s t o r y o f th e C h u r c h y l 8 0 8 - l 8 k 3 9 p . 3 8 0 . 3 . C ia n g e tti, lo c . c i t . , p. 65. k . i b i d * , p< 6F7~ ”— 5* 9 p* 6 5 • l 6 . M i s s o u r i becam e a s t a t e i n 1 8 2 1 . 7 . S h e a , H is to r y o f th e C hurch, l 8 0 8 - l8 k 5 > P • 3 8 8 .

j

68

r

T ho ugh t h e p r o b le m o f d e a l i n g w i t h c h u r c h c o n c e r n s i n f a r - f l u n g a r e a s was p a r t i a l l y s o l v e d b y l i m i t i n g D u b o u rg f s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o t h e s e e o f New O r l e a n s a n d t h e s h a r i n g o f h i s o r i g i n a l a u t h o r i t y w ith B ish o p P o r t i e r i n th e v i c a r i a t e o f M o b ile a n d J o s e p h B o s a t i i n S t . L o u i s , t h e n e e d f o r p r i e s t s r e m a in e d c r i t i c a l . ' 1'

W ith o u t m i n i s t e r s o f t h e

g o s p e l , t h e f a i t h o f t h e p e o p l e b e g a n t o wane a n d a l t h o u g h some a d h e r e d f i r m l y t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , t h e m a jo rity d e fa u lte d . U nd er s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , C o lo r e d C a t h o l i c s w ere a l ­ m ost c o m p le te ly ig n o r e d .

O u t s i d e o f New O r l e a n s , l i t t l e

a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d o n i n t h e i r b e h a l f a n d a s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h e o n l y n o t i c e t a k e n o f them i n New O r l e a n s d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n 2 D o c trin e S o c ie ty a t t a c h e d to th e C a th e d r a l. T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n , b e g u n i n l 8l 8 b y a C a p u c h in F a t h e r (w hose name i s n o t l i s t e d ) w i t h B is h o p D u b o u rg * s p e r m i s s i o n , h a d a s i t s p u rp o se th e p ro m o tin g o f th e s p i r i t u a l w e l l- b e in g

1. Ib id ., p. When B is h o p F o r t i e r a r r i v e d i n M o b i l e , he f o u n d two p r i e s t s i n t h e w hole v i c a r i a t e , b o t h o f whom b e l o n g e d t o New O r l e a n s a n d w ere s u b j e c t t o im ­ m ed iate r e c a l l , i n S t . L o u i s , B is h o p B o s a t i h a d a v a s t d i o c e s e , f a r - f l u n g p a r i s h e s and few c le rg y m e n . I b i d . See a l s o B a u d i e r , 0£ . c i t . , p . 2 7 6 . I n New O r l e a n s , D ub o u rg c o u l d c o u n t b u t f o r t y r e l i a b l e p r i e s t s in h is d io c e se . See S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , I 8 0 8 i 8 t o , p . 372. 2 . G i l l a r d , The C h u rch a n d t h e N e g r o , p . 1 8 . L

i

o f t h e C o lo r e d an d t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t among them o f s p e c i a l d e v o tio n to th e B le s se d V i r g i n , S t ,

J o s e p h an d S t , L o u is

(th e p a tr o n S a in t o f th e C a th e d r a l) ,^

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was l i m i t e d t o men b u t l a t e r , i t s r e g i s t e r was b r o a d e n e d t o i n c l u d e t h e nam es o f women,

G illa rd h o ld s t h a t t h i s s o c ie ty

becam e tla p o w e r f u l in stru m e n t* * i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e e v a n g e l i z a 2 t i o n o f t h e B l a c k s b u t n e i t h e r he n o r o t h e r s g iv e a n y 3 p a r t i c u l a r s as to th e e x te n t o f i t s a cc o m p lish m en ts. D u r i n g t h e s e v e r y y e q r s when t h e o l d e r and new er d i o c e s e s f o u n d i t e i t h e r d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e to do s o m e t h i n g f o r t h e N e g r o e s , t h e p r i m a t i a l se e o f B a l t i m o r e s till

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d e a t h d i d n o t m ark t h e end o f C a t h o l i c s o l i c i t u d e , b e ­ c a u s e h i s s u c c e s s o r s i n t h e e p i s c o p a l c h a i r — L e o n a rd N e a le . ( 1 8 1 5 - 1 7 )* W h itfie ld

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1. I b id . 2. Ib id ., p. 1 9 . 3 . I b i d . B a u d i e r , o p . c i t . ; S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , 1808-1814.3; D u P r a t z , o p . c i t . ; Gayarrd", o p . c i t . ; V o g e l , o p . . c i t . ; a n d t h e C h a n c e ry O f f i c e o f t h e A r c h d i o c e s e o f New O r l e a n s g iv e no e v i d e n c e on t h i s q u e s t i o n . I4.. H u g h e s, T e x t , I T , 1 1 6 , r e f e r s t o N e a l e ’ s k i n d l y t r e a t ­ m e n t o f h i s s l a v e s and h i s e f f o r t s t o a i d th e m . 5 . C a r t e r G. W oodson, The E d u c a t i o n o f t h e N e g ro P r i o r t o l 8 6 l , New Y o r k , G. P . Putnam S o n s , 1915* p . "T3 8 c a l l s M a r e c h a l a n uu n t i r i n g c o - w o r k e r o f t h e C o l o r e d . 16

70 t h e N e g ro e s o f t h e a r c h d i o c e s e h a d n o t b e e n n e g l e c t e d .

i

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He ju d g e d t h a t t h e r e w ere b e tw e e n 6 0 ,0 0 0 a n d 8 0 ,0 0 0 C o lo re d C a t h o l i c s u n d e r h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n and was p l e a s e d t o r e p o r t th a t D i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s have a l s o b e e n g o t t e n u p among t h e C o lo re d p e o p l e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t h e c a r e o f t h e s i c k . T h ese s o c i e t i e s £ are d ir e c te d by th e v a rio u s c i t y p r i e s t s . Of c o u r s e , t h e a r c h b i s h o p s r e l i e d m a i n l y on t h e J e s u i t s and S u l p i c i a n s to c o n tin u e th e r e l i g i o u s s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e B l a o k s ; h e n c e , w h a t e v e r r e s u l t s w ere a t t a i n e d w ere d u e i n no s m a l l m e a s u r e t o t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e s e c o m m u n i ti e s .

The

m em bers o f t h e S o c i e t y o f J e s u s s t i l l c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e N e g ro e s i n t h e c o u n t i e s a n d a l t h o u g h many o f t h e p r o b l e m s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d s t i l l e x i s t e d ,

3

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p r i e s t s w ere h e s i t a n t a b o u t p a r t i n g w i t h t h e i r C o lo r e d s e r v a n t s l e s t a n y s p i r i t u a l harm would b e f a l l th em . The S u l p i c i a n s a ssu m e d a somewhat m ore i m p o r t a n t r o l e : i n m o u ld i n g t h e f u t u r e o f t h e T e s s ie r z e a lo u s ly f u l f i l l e d

C a th o lic N eg ro es.

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1 . HA S t a t e m e n t C o n c e r n i n g t h e D io c e s e o f B a l t i m o r e P r e ­ p a r e d a n d F o rw a rd e d t o t h e B d i t o r o f t h e A n n a ls o f t h e P r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e F a i t h by H is Grace A r c h b is h o p W h i t f i e l d , ” ( J u n e 2 7 , 1 8 2 9 ) , H i s t o r i c a l R e c o rd s an d S t u d i e s , TJ. S . C a t h o l i d H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , New Y o rk , I I ,

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t h e t h r e e C o l o r e d l a d i e s who a s s i s t e d him i n t e a c h i n g c a t e c h i s m — E l i z a b e t h L a n g e , M a rie Boegue an d M a r ie B a l i a s — J o u b e r t r e v e a le d h i s p la n a b o u t o p e n in g a s c h o o l.

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c a r r i e d on b y F a t h e r s T e s s i e r and J o u b e r t i n B a l t i m o r e , s p i r i t u a l a i d was b e i n g g i v e n by a n o t h e r c le rg y m a n i n a r e g i o n now s e p a r a t e d , b u t w h ic h u n t i l 1 8 2 0 , h a d b e e n u n d e r th e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f th e A rc h b ish o p o f B a ltim o r e ,

The

c h u rc h m an was Jo h n E n g l a n d , B i s h o p o f C h a r l e s t o n , S o u t h C a ro lin a , F o r t h r e e y e a r s , Ambrose Iv la re c h a l, t h e in c u m b e n t o f t h e B a l t i m o r e See h a d b e e n u n a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e r e ­ c a l c i t r a n t p r i e s t s a n d i n s u b o r d i n a t e lay m en i n t h e l o w e r s e c t i o n o f h i s d i o c e s e , so h e p e t i t i o n e d Some t o p u t a b i s h o p i n r e s i d e n c e a s t h e o n l y way t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u e s t , Pope P i u s V II by h i s B r i e f " I n t e r M u l t i p l i c e s " o f J u l y 1 1 , 1820 c r e a t e d two new S e e s , one a t R ichm ond, V i r g i n i a and t h e o t h e r a t C h a r l e s t o n , S o u t h C aro lina,** '

H ow ever, i n 1 8 2 2 , t h e c a r e

o f t h e t e r r i t o r y w h ic h was i n c l u d e d i n t h e Richmond D io ­ c e s e was g i v e n b a c k t o t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e an d r e m a in e d i n h i s h a n d s u n t i l I8J4.I;

2

C h a r le s to n , on th e o th e r

h a n d c o n t i n u e d a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t See a n d f o r t h e n e x t

1 , S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , I 8 0 8 - I 8 I4.5 , p , 5 8 , U n t i l l 8 2 0 , t h e A rc h d io c e s e o f B a ltim o re had e c c l e s ­ i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y i n M a r y l a n d , V i r g i n i a , N o r t h C a ro ­ l i n a , S o u t h C a r o l i n a a n d G e o r g i a . W ith t h e c r e a t i o n o f R ichm ond , i t s b i s h o p was t o s u p e r v i s e C a t h o l i c s i n t h e S t a t e o f V i r g i n ia w h ile t h a t o f C h a rle s to n had th e c a re o f th o s e i n b o th C a r o lin e s and G e o rg ia . I b i d . 2 . r b l d ., pp. 8 3, 575.

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771 t h a t he r e g a r d e d them a s a m a jo r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d p r o v e d t h a t h i s e f f o r t s w ere n o t i n v a i n . I n com m entin g on how f a i t h f u l t h e C o lo re d w ere t o t h e i r Christian duties, he says:

C a th o lic s la v e s a re e x tre m e ly w e ll i n s t r u c t e d and p io u s ; th e y a re fo n d of e n te rin g l i t t l e s o d a litie s of d e v o tio n and o f a s s e m b lin g i n th e a fte r n o o n in th e ch u rch f o r p ra y e r and s i n g i n g ; th e y a l s o have a g r e a t c h a rity in a s s i s t i n g each o th e r in t im e o f s i c k n e s s a n d d i s t r e s s , n o t o n l y w i t h t e m p o r a l a i d i f i t be r e q u i r e d b u t by s p i r i t u a l r e a d i n g , p r a y e r and c o n s o l a t i o n ; t h e y a r e e x c e e d i n g l y a t t e n t i v e t o ha v e t h e f u n e r a l o f an a s s o c i a t e r e s p e c ta b ly a tte n d e d and n o t o n ly have th e o f f i c e s o f t h e C h u rc h p e r f o r m e d b u t to c o n tin u e th e c h a r i t y o f p ra y e r f o r a c o n s i d e r a b le tim e a f t e r d e a th f o r th e r e p o s e ,o f th e s o u ls o f th e ir frie n d s. E n g la n d was c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e f a i t h o f t h e o r i g i n a l C o l o r e d C a t h o l i c s w ould r e m a i n f i r m , b u t h e was n o t so s u r e t h a t t h e s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n w ould b e a s c o n ­ sc ie n tio u s .

He f e l t t h a t s o m e t h i n g s h o u l d be done t o p r e ­

s e r v e t h e c h i l d r e n so h e p l a n n e d t o o p e n a C a t h o l i c i n s t i ­ t u t e w here, b e s id e s o t h e r e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l s u b j e c t s , an i n t e n s i v e c o u r s e i n c a t e c h i s m w ould b e g i v e n th e m . 4

H o w ev er, he was n o t a b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h i s p r o j e c t u n t i l t h e iB ^O ’ s , a n d i n b i d i n g h i s t i m e he c o n t i n u e d t o l o o k a f t e r t h e B l a c k s j u s t a s he h a d b e e n d o i n g s i n c e he

R e c o rd s ACHS, V I I I , 1 8 9 7 , p . 5 2 0 .

a ssu m e d t h e r e g e n c y o f t h e C h a r l e s t o n d i o c e s e . B is h o p E n g l a n d ’ s work and t h e e f f o r t s o f J o u b e r t a n d r N e r i n c k x s e e m i n g l y sum u p C a t h o l i c a c t i v i t y f o r t h e C o lo r e d b e tw e e n t h e y e a r s l 8l 6 and

1 8 2 9 ,

T h e s e c le r g y m e n l a i d t h e

g ro u n d w o rk f o r a p r o g ra m t h a t c o n t a i n e d g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . To w h a t e x t e n t t h e h o p e d - f o r r e s u l t s w ere r e a l i z e d now d eserv es c a re fu l c o n sid e ra tio n .

L

-J

CHAPTER IV ORGANIZED EFFORTS IN BEHALF OF THE NEGRO, I 8 3 O - I 8 6 O The t h i r t y y e a r s p r i o r to t h e C i v i l War w ere a p e r i o d o f a c t i v e c o n c e rn f o r im p ro v in g th e l o t o f th e u n d e r p r i v i ­ l e g e d i n t h e U n i t e d States,"*" y e t two d e s e r v i n g g r o u p s — t h e N egro r a c e and t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s w e re d e n i e d s u c h a t t e n ­ t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y s t i l l r e m a i n e d u n d e r t h e shadow o f s u s ­ p ic io n .

S in c e t h e l 8 2 0 f s , t h e r e h a d b e e n a g r a d u a l d i r n i n 2 u t i o n o f sy m p a th y to w a r d s t h e f o r m e r an d t h e m o u n ti n g r a c i a l t e n s i o n seem ed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t tim e w ou ld be s lo w i n e f f e c t i n g a n im p ro v e m e n t i n i t s

sta tu s ;

th e l a t t e r , t o o ,

c o n tin u e d to s u f f e r sim p ly becau se p o p u la r p r e j u d i c e r e ­ fu se d to r e p u d ia te i t s

c l a i m t h a t C a t h o l i c i s m a n d A m e r ic a n ­

is m w ere e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i n o m o u s . The s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e w h ite s a n d B l a c k s were t o some e x t e n t due t o t h e n o t i c e a b l e g r o w th i n t h e nu m b er o f N e g r o e s ^ b u t f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h e y w ere c a u s e d b y t h e f e a r t h a t one d a y t h e C o lo r e d m ig h t g a i n c o n t r o l o f

1 . F o r f u l l e r t r e a t m e n t , s e e C a r l F i s h , The R is e o f t h e Common Man, I 8 5 Q -I S 5O (A H i s t o r y o f A m e ric a n L i f e , V I ) , New Y o r k , The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 2 7 , p p . 2 5 6 - 9 0 . More i n t e r e s t was c e n t e r e d o n th e c a r e o f t h e s i c k and t h e b l i n d w h i l e a i d f o r t h e p o o r , t h e u n d e r p a i d an d t h e s l a v e s w ere a d v o c a t e d a s t h e o r d e r o f t h e d a y . 2 . See Jo h n K r o u t and D ix o n F o x , The C o m p le tio n o f I n d e p e n ­ d e n c e , 179Q~l85Q (A H i s t o r y o f A m e ric a n L i f e , V ) , New Y o r k , The M a c m illa n Company, 1914+? P* ^+21 ©t s e q . 3* A b s t r a c t o f t h e R e t u r n s o f t h e F i f t h C e n u s, W a s h in g to n , D u f f G re n n , 1 8 3 2 , p . I47 l i s t s t h e N egro p o p u l a t i o n a s 1 , 0 0 2 ,0 3 7 * A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c e n s u s o f 1 7 9 0 , t h e B l a c k s nu m b ered 7 5 7 ?2 0 8 .

th e S o u th ,

S u s p i c i o n was f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d b y t h e s t o r i e s

o f W il l ia m L lo y d G a r r i s o n * s a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e A b o litio n ists*

u n d erg ro u n d r a i l r o a d ,

th e r e a c t i o n fo llo w in g

t h e N at T u r n e r r e b e l l i o n i n 1831 and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e T o u is s a n t L * O u v ertu re* s u p r i s i n g i n H a i t i b e in g d u p l i c a t e d i n A m erica,

As a c o n s e q u e n c e , s o u t h e r n w h i t e s r e g a r d e d t h e

N e g r o e s a s p o s s i b l e f o m e n t e r s o f t r o u b l e an d c la m o r e d f o r stric te r

s u r v e i l l a n c e l e s t t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y be

en d an g ered .

I n a n s w e r t o t h i s , v a r i o u s s t a t e s e n a c t e d la w s

r e s t r i c t i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e C o lo r e d w h i l e t h e s o u t h i n g e n e ra l sought to p re s e rv e i t s

e c o n o m ic l i f e 1 h o l d t h e s e p e o p le i n p e r p e t u a l s e r v i t u d e .

by w ish in g to

D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s a l s o , t h e C a t h o l i c C h urch h a d r e a s o n t o show c o n c e r n f o r i t s

f u t u r e i n A m erica.

P r o t e s t a n t s had

become i n c r e a s i n g l y a la r m e d t h a t t h e c o u n t r y m i g h t be ws o l d o u t 11 t o a f o r e i g n p o t e n t a t e c a l l e d t h e P o pe

and t h a t ,

b e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e C a t h o l i c i m m i g r a t i o n , t h e p a p i s t s w ould so o n s t r i p them o f p o w e r.

The n o n - C a t h o l i c c i t i z e n r y , f e e l ­

i n g t h e n e e d f o r a d o p t i n g some p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e s , fo rm ed

1 . K r o u t a n d P o x , o p . c i t . , p . 1|21. V i r g i n i a r e v i v e d a n o l d la w w h ic h was on i t s b o o k s s i n c e 1806 o r d e r i n g f r e e N e g r o e s t o l e a v e t h e S t a t e w i t h i n a y e a r a f t e r m anu­ m i s s i o n l e s t t h e y s p r e a d d i s c o n t e n t among t h e s l a v e s ; i n 1 8 2 5 , M a r y la n d b a n i s h e d f r e e N e g r o e s who c o u l d g i v e no s e c u r i t y f o r t h e i r good b e h a v i o u r ; i n 1 8 2 2 , S o u th C a r o l i n a p u t a l i m i t a t i o n o n t h e m ovem ent o f f r e e N e g ro e s and fo rb a d e t h e i r r e c e i v i n g an e d u c a tio n ; i n L o u is ia n a , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n v o u c h s a f e d b y t h e Code N o i r was f o r b i d d e n i n I 8 3 O, i n d e f i a n c e o f w h ic h t h e C o lo r e d c o n d u c t e d s c h o o ls i n s e c r e t o r had t u t o r s t r a i n th e c h i l d r e n . 2 . F ish , op. c i t . , p. llif.

a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d t h e A m e ric a n P r o t e s t a n t P a r t y , p le d g in g th e m s e lv e s to keep th e U n ited S t a t e s s a fe f o r uA m e r i c a n s , tl i . e . , P r o t e s t a n t s who w e re n a t u r a l i z e d 1 c itiz e n s . T h ey became commonly known a s n a t i v i s t s and o p e n l y o p p o s e d e v e r y a c t i v i t y w h ic h was s p o n s o r e d by o r 2 gave a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e C h u rc h o f Borne. I n c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u c h a s t h e s e , t h e members o f t h e h i e r a r c h y w ere I n no p o s i t i o n t o f o c u s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n o n th e B la c k s, b u t t h i s d id n o t p re v e n t t h e i r ta k in g fo rm al and d e f i n i t e p e o p le .

s t e p s t o re m e d y t h e r e l i g i o u s p l i g h t o f t h e s e

The a r c h d i o c e s e o f B a l t i m o r e and t h e d i o c e s e s o f

C h a r l e s t o n a n d New O r l e a n s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ; i n m o s t o t h e r a r e a s , h o w e v e r , t h e b i s h o p s c o u ld o f f e r no m ore th a n en co u rag em en t to th o se i n t e r e s t e d i n th e C o lo re d . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e tr e m e n d o u s p r o b l e m s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had i n t e r f e r e d w ith m is s io n a r y a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l t h i s tim e .

Prom now o n , t h e C h u rc h was e v e n l e s s a b l e

t o c o n c e n t r a t e on one p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p , f o r t h e num ber o f C a t h o l i c s s t e a d i l y a r r i v i n g fro m f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s r e ­ q u ire d c o n sid e ra b le a t t e n t i o n .

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1 . Humphrey Desm ond, The A .P .A . M ovem ent, W a s h i n g t o n , The New C e n tu r y P r e s s , I 9 1 2 , p . 2W. 2 . T h e o d o re M a y n a rd , The S t o r y o f A m e ric a n C a t h o l i c i s m 5 New Y o r k , The M a c m illa n Company, 1 $ ii2 7~"p. 278 e t s e q .

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do ne i n b e h a l f o f t h e B l a c k s .

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made f o r t h e f a c t t h a t f u l l y two d o z e n o f t h e s e d i o c e s e s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a s w here t h e N e g ro e s w e r e , a t t h e m o s t , v e r y fe w i n n u m b e r , i t i s

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s e e s , t h e r e a r e r e c o r d s o f some d e f i n i t e a c t i v i t y b e i n g 2 u n d e rta k e n . I n t h e o l d e r d i o c e s e s w here t h e w ork h a d b e e n u n d e r way f o r y e a r s , e n c o u r a g i n g r e s u l t s w ere b e g i n n i n g t o ap p ear.

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t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s b y s u p p o r t i n g th e p ro g ra m o f u p l i f t i n g th e C o lo red .

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t u r b e d by t h e g e n e r a l n e e d s o f h i s a r c h d i o c e s e - - w h ic h had o n ly s e v e n ty -fo u r p r i e s t s to ta k e

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i n g fro m t h e C h e sa p e a k e Bay t o t h e Ohio B i v e r and fro m t h e

1 . See C i a n g e t t i , l o c . c i t . , p p . 5 9 “70* ! n 1833s D e t r o i t ; I 8 3 I1: V i n c e n n e s ; 183? : D ubuq ue, N a s h v i l l e , N a tc h e z (a v i c a r i a t e s i n c e 1 8 2 5 ) ; 181^0: C a l i f o r n i a ( t h i s , o f c o u r s e was u n d e r S p a n i s h j u r i s d i c t i o n b u t became i n 1859# tk© d i o c e s e o f M o n te r e y - L o s A n g e l e s ) ; I 8I4.3 • H a r t f o r d , P i t t s b u r g h , C h i c a g o , M ilw a u k e e , L i t t l e Hock; 18ij.6 : O reg o n C i t y ( a v i c a r i a t e s i n c e I 8 I4.3 )# W a lla W a lla ( s u p p r e s s e d i n 1 8 5 3 )# l81}7: A l b a n y , B u f f a l o , C l e v e l a n d ; G a l v e s t o n ( a v i c a r i a t e s i n c e l8ipL) ; I 8 5 O: W h e e lin g , Savannah, S t . P a u l, N e s q u a lly ; 1 8 5 3 s P o r tla n d (M ain e), B u r l i n g t o n , B r o o k l y n , N ew ark , E r i e , Q u in c y ( t r a n s f e r r e d t o A l t o n , 1 8 5 7 )# P o r t Wayne, C o v i n g to n , N a t c h i t o c h e s , S a n t a Fe ( a v i c a r i a t e s i n c e I 8 5 O ), San F r a n c i s c o ; 1857s S a u l t Ste M a rie (a v i c a r i a t e s i n c e I 85 O ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e , t h e r e w ere a l s o a t t h e o u t 'h r e a k o f t h e C i v i l W ar, t h e t h r e e f o l l o w i n g v i c a r i a t e s ; L e a v e n w o rth ( I 8 5 O ), Omaha ( 1 8 5 7 ) &nd S t . A u g u s t i n e (1 8 5 7 )* 2 . E f f o r t s were e x p e n d e d i n V i n c e n n e s , N a s h v i l l e , P i t t s b u r g h , B u f f a l o , Savannah and N a t c h i to c h e s .

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th o u g h i t was b e y o n d h i s pow er t o o f f e r them s p e c i a l a i d , he w r o t e t o t h e P r e f e c t o f t h e P r o p a g a n d a i n Home: How d i s t r e s s i n g i t i s t o b e u n a b l e t o s e n d m i s s i o n a r i e s t o V i r g i n i a w here t h e r e a r e ^ 0 0 9000 N e g r o e s . I t i s i n d u b i t a b l e t h a t had we t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s and f r i e n d s t o s u p p o r t th e m , p r o d i g i e s w ould be e f f e c t e d i n t h i s v a s t and u n ­ tille d fie ld . I n M ary lan d , b la c k s a r e c o n v e r t e d e v e r y d a y an d many o f them a r e good C a t h o l i c s a n d e x c e l l e n t C h r i s t i a n s . A t B a l t i m o r e , many a r e f r e q u e n t c o m m u n ic a n ts and t h r e e o r f o u r hundred r e c e i v e th e B le s se d S a c r a m e n t e v e r y m o n th . I t i s t h e same t h r o u g h o u t M a r y la n d w h e re t h e r e a r e a g r e a t many C a t h o l i c s among t h e N e g r o e s .1 The E c c le sto n

same v i e w was h e l d by h i s s u c c e s s o r , Sam uel ( I 83I1- I 8 5 I )

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t o Rome: The s l a v e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s e s t a t e s o f f e r s a n o t h e r e x t e n s i v e and f e r t i l e f i e l d t o t h e l a b o r i o u s and z e a l o u s m i s s i o n a r y ... t h e i r so u ls a re n o t l e s s p r e c i o u s i n t h e e y e s o f God t h a n t h o s e o f t h e i r m a s t e r s a n d I may s a f e l y add t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y c o n s t i t u t e s a b e t t e r p r e p a r a tio n to p r o ­ f i t o f th e a s s i s t a n c e o f d iv in e g race t h a n t h e s u p e r i o r k n o w le d g e o f t h e la tte r.... To me t h e r e a p p e a r s no r a c e o f men i n t h i s c o u n t r y , n o t e x c e p t i n g e v e n t h e s a v a g e s among whom more good m i g h t be e f f e c t e d . B u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y , in s t e a d o f h a v in g m is s io n a r ie s to sp a re f o r th e m , I h a v e n o t e v e n e n o u g h t o a t t e n d t o t h e w a n ts o f t h o s e who fro m

1 . R e c o r d s ACHS, I I , 1 8 9 1 , P» 13^-* L e t t e r fro m W h i t f i e l d to C a rd in a l P r e f e c t w r i t t e n i n 1832*

h a v i n g b e e n e d u c a t e d i n th e C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n a r e m ore e x p o s e d t o . . f e e l th e ir s p iritu a l d e stitu tio n . The n e x t a r c h b i s h o p , F r a n c i s P a t r i c k K e n r i c k ( 1 8 5 1 - 1 8 6 3 )* i s p r o b a b l y b e t t e r known f o r e x p l a i n i n g w h a t t h e C h u rc h * s p o s i t i o n was fro m a t h e o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t o n t h e s l a v e r y q u e s t i o n t h a n f o r a n y a c t i v e work he d i d i n b e h a l f o f t h e 2 C o lo red , Y e t , a s t h e i n c u m b e n t o f t h e p r i m a t i a l s e e , he c e r t a i n l y d i d g iv e them e n c o u r a g e m e n t ; o t h e r w i s e , t h e w ho le p r o g r a m o f t r y i n g t o c a t h o l i c i z e t h e B l a c k s c o u l d h a r d l y have been c o n tin u e d . The J e s u i t s , t o o , c a r r i e d o n a s i n t h e p a s t .

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t h e y w ere a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h much from a s p i r i t u a l s t a n d ­ p o i n t , t h e y w ere s t i l l o p p o s e d t o t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e s l a v e r y s y s te m an d b e s o u g h t t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l t o r u l e a g a in st i t .

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s e n t an o f f i c i a l answ er to t h e i r p e t i t i o n .

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d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f t o be h e a r t i l y u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o w a r d s t h e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e s e r v a n t s , b u t he r e f u s e d t o a u t h o r i z e a n y s a l e u n t i l c e r t a i n g u a r a n t e e s were g i v e n by t h o s e i n ­ t e r e s t e d i n b u y i n g t h e B l a c k s P u r c h a s e r s would h a v e t o a g r e e t h a t t h e N e g r o e s be g r a n t e d t h e f u l l a n d f r e e e x e r c i s e o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s and t h a t t h e s e r v a n t s 1

1 . R e s e a r c h e s ACHS, I X , 1 8 9 6 , p . ll+Y• R e p o r t o f E c c l e s t o n on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f h i s d i o c e s e . 2 . F r a n c is P . K e n r ic k , T h e o lo g ia e M o r a l is , 3 v o l s . , P h i l a ­ d e l p h i a , E . Cummiskey Company, l8 1p., I , 50i|* 3 . Z w in g e , l o c . c i t . , p . 2 8 1 . k, Ib id ,

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m i g h t n o t be f o l l o w e d , t h e s l a v e s w ere n o t t o be so ld .'* ’ On t h i s a c c o u n t , fe w s u i t a b l e b u y e r s c o u ld be fo u n d a n d t h e c le r g y m e n h a d no o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e t h a n t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r t h e C o lo r e d u n t i l t h e E m a n c i p a t i o n P r o ­ c la m a tio n b ro u g h t th e lo n g -s o u g h t r e l i e f . M e a n w h ile , J o u b e r t 1s e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t h e S i s t e r h o o d i n B a l t i m o r e was p r o g r e s s i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; a s c h o o l was o p e n e d f o r N egro g i r l s and t h e C a t h o l i c C hurch f o r m a l l y e m b a rk ed on a p r o g r a m w h ic h was t o h a v e f a r - r e a c h i n g re s u lts .

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The o b j e c t o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i s one o f g r e a t im p o rta n c e , g r e a t e r in d ee d th a n m ig h t a t f i r s t ap p ear to th o se who w ould o n l y g l a n c e a t t h e a d v a n t a g e s w h ic h i t i s c a l c u l a t e d to d i r e c t l y im ­ p a r t to th e l e a d in g p o r t io n o f th e human r a c e a n d t h r o u g h i t t o s o c i e t y a t la rg e . I n f a c t , th ese g i r l s w ill e i t h e r become m o t h e r s o f f a m i l i e s o r d o m e s tic s e r v a n t s . I n th e f i r s t c a s e , t h e s o l i d v i r t u e s , t h e r e l i g i o u s and m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h ic h w i l l h a v e b e e n a c q u i r e d i n t h e s c h o o l w i l l be c a r e f u l l y t r a n s f e r r e d a s a le g a c y to t h e i r c h il d r e n • • • • As t o s u c h a s a r e t o be em ploy ed a s s e r v a n t s , t h e y w i l l be e n t r u s t e d w i t h d o m e s t i c c o n c e r n s a n d t h e c a r e o f yo u n g c h ild re n . How i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e g i r l s s h a l l h a v e im b ib e d r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s an d h a v e b e e n t r a i n e d i n h a b i t s o f m o d e s t y , h o n e s t y and i n t e g r i t y . ^

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A b u i l d i n g o n Richmond S t r e e t was p u r c h a s e d and t h u s

a new c e n t e r f o r r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s was g i v e n t h e C o lo r e d C a t h o l i c s o f Baltimore."**

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u n d er th e d i r e c t i o n o f F a th e r Jo u b e rt u n t i l h i s d e a th i n l 8 i | 3 , when a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e S u l p i c i a n s u p e r i o r , t h e i r s p i r i t u a l c a r e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e R e d e m p t o r i s t F a t h e r s 2 who l i v e d i n n e a r b y S t . J a m e s 1 p a r i s h . F o r t h e n e x t f o u r y e a r s , no p a r t i c u l a r p r i e s t t o o k c h a r g e o f t h e N egro work b u t i n I 8 I4.7

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t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o u g h t t o be p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d s o f 3 one c h a p l a i n . The a s s i g n m e n t was g i v e n t o t h e R ev. T h a d d e u s A n w an d e r, C .S S .R . who i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r t o o k a p r o g ra m o f e x p a n s i o n w h ic h i n c l u d e d t h e e n l a r g e m e n t o f t h e c o n v e n t , c h a p e l an d s c h o o l .

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spo nsored th e e r e c t i o n

o f a t w o - s t o r y b u i l d i n g w h ic h he p l a n n e d t o u s e a s a s c h o o l f o r b o y s , b u t w i t h i n a y e a r , t h e l a c k o f f u n d s f o r c e d an abandonm ent o f t h a t p r o je c t,^ " I n 185!]., t h e S i s t e r s o f P r o v i d e n c e w ere i n v i t e d t o o p en a s c h o o l f o r t h e C o l o r e d c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a s e c t i o n 5 c a l l e d S o u th B a l t i m o r e . F a t h e r W i l l i a m C l a r k e , S . J . h ad f o r a l o n g tim e u r g e d t h a t some a t t e n t i o n be g i v e n t o t h e

1. 2. 3* 4. i_5.

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t h e s c h o o l , some o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d , f o r some i n e x p l i c a b l e r e a s o n , o p e n l y b e g a n to d e m o n s t r a t e a g a i n s t 1 N egro n u n s c o m in g to l i v e i n t h a t l o c a l i t y . The o p p o s i t i o n became so v e h e m e n t t h a t F a t h e r C la r k e an d t h e O b l a t e s d e ­ c id e d to p o stp o n e t h e i r v e n tu r e -u n til such tim e a s c irc u m ­ s t a n c e s would be m ore f a v o r a b l e t o t h e i r u n d e r t a k i n g . M e a n w h ile , t h e c h a p e l o f S t . F r a n c e s C o nven t c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e a s a c e n t e r f o r C o lo r e d w o r s h i p p e r s , a n d when i n th e 1850t s , i t

c o u l d no l o n g e r h o l d a l l t h e m e m b e r s .o f t h e

g r o w in g c o n g r e g a t i o n , q u e s t i o n a r o s e a b o u t o b t a i n i n g a 2 l a r g e r house o f w o rs h ip . The J e s u i t F a t h e r s i n t h e n e a r b y S t . I g n a t i u s p a r i s h h a d f o r many y e a r s a b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e C o lo r e d who a t t e n d e d t h e i r c h u r c h , b u t t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e y w ere u n a b l e t o g iv e t h e s e N e g ro e s a l l t h e a t t e n t i o n th ey d eserv ed .

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o f t h e o v e r f l o w fro m S t . F r a n c e s , t h e p r i e s t s t h o u g h t i t a d v i s a b l e t o o p e n a b i g g e r c h u r c h and p l a c e i n r e s i d e n c e a p r i e s t who c o u l d d e v o t e h i s f u l l tim e t o t h e C o l o r e d . ^

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was t h e n d e c i d e d t h a t t h e b a s e m e n t o f S t . I g n a t i u s 1 w o u ld ,

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1 i f r e m o d e l e d , s u i t t h e p u r p o s e and so on S e p te m b e r 2 0 , 1857* i t was g i v e n o v e r t o t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e o f t h e C o lo r e d C a th o lic s I n 1 8 5 9 * t h e new d i r e c t o r o f th e w o rk , t h e Rev. P e t e r M i l l e r a r r i v e d i n B a ltim o re a f t e r h a v in g s u c c e s s f u l l y f i l l e d a s s i g n m e n t s among t h e N e g ro e s i n G eorgetow n and F r e d e r i c k , M a ry la n d a n d f o u n d h i s c h a r g e s t o be v e r y much d e v o t e d t o an d a c t i v e i n t h e c a u s e o f C a t h o l i c i s m .

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w ould be i m p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y on a l o n e , he r e q u e s t e d h e l p fro m h i s p r o v i n c i a l and was g i v e n a s a n a s s o c i a t e ,

t h e Rev.

M i c h a e l 0 f C onno r, S . J . , f o r m e r l y - B i s h o p o f P i t t s b u r g h , who 2 had r e s i g n e d h i s see to e n t e r th e S o c ie ty o f J e s u s . The c om bined e f f o r t s o f b o t h p r i e s t s aw akened many N e g r o e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r w e l f a r e , a n d w i t h i n a s h o r t t i m e , t h e num ber o f c o m m u n ica n ts so i n c r e a s e d t h a t t h e b a s e m e n t c h a p e l became to o sm a ll f o r th o se i n a t t e n d a n c e .

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t h e p r i e s t s t o l o o k a b o u t f o r a n o t h e r l a r g e r e d i f i c e and F a t h e r 0 TC o n n o r, o n h e a r i n g t h a t t h e U n i v e r s a l i s t s w is h e d t o s e l l t h e i r c h u r c h b u i l d i n g on t h e c o r n e r o f C a l v e r t and P le a s a n t S t r e e t s , p u rchased i t , F ra n c is X a v ie r.

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t h e name o f S t .

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f i r s t N e g r o e s h a d b e e n a s s e m b le d b y t h e S u l p i c i a n F a t h e r s f o r c a t e c h i s m i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e ^ C h a p p e ll e B a s s e , 11 t h e i r

1. I b id . 2 . G i l l a r d , The C h u rc h and t h e N e g r o , p . 3 0 .

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m en t • ^ O u tsid e o f th e S t a t e o f M ary lan d , y e t w i t h in th e con­ f i n e s o f t h e a r c h d i o c e s e o f B a l t i m o r e , t h e r e was a n o t h e r c e n t e r w h ic h r e p o r t e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e C o l o r e d , t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d w ere i n no way c o m p a r a b le t o t h o s e r e a l i z e d i n th e B a ltim o re u n d e r ta k in g .

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w h ic h m a rk e d t h e o p e n i n g o f G eorgetow n C o l l e g e , t h e c l e r g y ­ men who t a u g h t a t t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n d e c i d e d t o do s o m e th i n g a b o u t c o n s e rv in g th e f a i t h o f th e r e s i d e n t s i n th e n e ig h b o r 2 hood. A c c o r d i n g l y , th e y f o u n d e d H oly T r i n i t y C h u rc h ( n o t f a r fr o m t h e C o l l e g e g a t e ) , and i n v i t i n g a l l t h e C a t h o l i c s o f th e s e c tio n to

s e r v i c e s , made s p e c i a l g e s t u r e s t o w a r d s

th e C o lo red . T h e i r e f f o r t s w ere e v i d e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e t h e p a r i s h r e c o r d s i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s show a num ber o f N egro 3 b a p t i s m s and m a r r i a g e s . I n a d d itio n , F a th e r F ra n c is N e a le , th e f i r s t p a s t o r , fou n d i t n e c e s s a r y to o r g a n iz e a s p e c i a l c l a s s i n c a t e c h i s m f o r t h e B l a c k s — a w ork t h a t was s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n t i n u e d b y h i s s u c c e s s o r F a t h e r De T h u e z .

1. Ib id . 2 . S h e a , L i f e o f A r c h b is h o p C a r r o l l , p . 60i^_. 3* A r c h i v e s o f H o ly T r i n i t y P a r i s h . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b a p t i s m o f a N egro a p p e a r s on F e b r u a r y V j 9 1?95 a n d r e a d s a s f o llo w ® : B a p t i z e d J o h n , s o n o f C h a r l e s , s l a v e p r o p e r t y o f Masum W a r in g . Eodem d i e , A n to n y , - b a p t i z e d so n o f C a t h e r i n e , a s l a v e p r o p e r t y o f D o l l y B a r b e r , n e a r G e o rg e to w n .

I n 1 8 1 8 , t h e c l a s s was g i v e n o v e r t o F a t h e r M c E lro y who f o r m a l l y c o n v e r t e d i t i n t o a Sunday s c h o o l an d e n l i s t e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e C o l le g e s t u d e n t s t o h e l p i n t h i s C h r i s t i a n 1 en d eav o r* F a t h e r Van Lommel, who became t h e p a s t o r i n 1 8 2 3 * f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d u p o n t h e w ork o f F a t h e r M c E lro y . f u r n i s h i n g room s i n a l i t t l e

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h o u s e a t t h e e n t r a n c e to t h e

G eorgetow n p r o p e r t y , he t h e r e a s s e m b le d N egro b o ys t h r e e 2 t i m e s a week t o i n s t r u c t them i n t h e t h r e e tlRI s . tt F o l l o w i n g Van Lommel*s d e a t h , no o t h e r c le r g y m a n i s m e n t i o n ed a s h a v i n g t a k e n u p t h i s work a l t h o u g h *

s in c e th e f a i t h

r e m a in e d a l i v e , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , no d o u b t , m u s t h a v e b e e n 3 c o n tin u e d • M e a n w h ile , e v e n f u l l e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s w e re b e i n g o f f e r e d t o t h e N egro g i r l s by t h e V i s i t a t i o n S l l s t e r s .

In

1 8 1 3 * L e o n a rd N e a l e , a f u t u r e a r c h b i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e , and E l i z a b e t h L a lo r founded th e V i s i t a t i o n c o n v en t i n W a s h in g to n a n d r e a d i l y g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o some o f t h e k nuns to i n s t r u c t th e C o lo red g i r l s i n c a te c h is m . The S i s t e r s b r o u g h t t h e g i r l s and e v e n t h e o l d e r women t o t h e - c o n v e n t e v e r y a f t e r n o o n when t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n 5 h a d b e e n d i s m i s s e d , a n d t a u g h t them r e l i g i o n .

1 . R e y n o ld s , o p . c i t . , p . 5 1 . S p e c i a l R e p o r t o f t h e U .S . C o m m issio n er o f E d u c a t i o n f o r I 8 7 I* W a s h in g to n P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , l t T / l , p . 2 0 lu 3. IM d . 4 . S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , 18q8-1{.5, p . 2 5 . 5 . S h e rw o o d , o p . c i t . , p . 3 7 .

The n u n s a l s o t o o k o c c a s i o n t o u r g e N egro l a d i e s i n ­ t e r e s t e d i n t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e i r own r a c e t o op en s c h o o l s w here t h e g i r l s w ould he g i v e n a s o l i d t r a i n i n g i n C h ristia n p r in c ip le s .

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M a r i a B e c r a f t b e g a n a n academ y i n 1820 and was amazed by t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n -which h e r p r o j e c t r e c e i v e d . ^ W i t h i n a fe w y e a r s b e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e nu m b er o f a p p l i c a ­ tio n s,

she was f o r c e d t o p u r c h a s e a more commodious b u i l d ­

i n g , and w i t h t h e g e n e r o u s a s s i s t a n c e o f F a t h e r Van Lommel so s t a n d a r d i z e d h e r i n s t i t u t e

t h a t i t became o n e o f t h e 2 m o s t h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d i n W a s h in g to n . Though she m et w i t h a m e a s u r e o f s u c c e s s , M iss Be c r a f t , n o t e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e w o rk sh e was d o ­ i n g , d e c i d e d i n 1831 t o e n t e r t h e c o n v e n t .

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f e r r i n g t h e m anagem ent o f t h e academ y t o B l l e n Sim onas a n d se v e ra l o th e r a s s o c ia te s ,

she was r e c e i v e d i n t o t h e

com m unity o f t h e O b l a t e s o f P r o v i d e n c e i n B a l t i m o r e .

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f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e g i r l s o f 7 / a s h i n g t o n , t h e o n e s t o whom t h e B e c r a f t p r o j e c t h a d b e e n e n t r u s t e d w ere u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n th e a c h ie v e m e n ts o f th e f o u n d e r , and w ith in a y e a r , w ere f o r c e d t o c l o s e t h e i n s t i t u t e . I n 1 8 5 1 9 a n o t h e r s e m i n a r y f o r c o l o r e d g i r l s was o p e n e d i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o lu m b ia , b u t i t ,

t o o , was s h o r t - l i v e d .

1. rh ia . Z i T b i d . ', p . 3 8 * 3 .' G i l l a r d , The C h u rc h a n d t h e N e g r o , p . 1 3 8 .

Begun by A r a b e l l a J o n e s , a f o r m e r p u p i l o f S t , P r a n c e s A cadem y, i t was i n t e n d e d t o o f f e r t o t h e g i r l s l i v i n g i n W a s h in g to n t h e same t r a i n i n g a s t h a t g i v e n b y t h e O b l a te S i s t e r s i n B a lt i m o r e ,'* ’

D w in d l i n g r e s o u r c e s p r o v e d i t s u n ­

d o i n g and a f t e r a fe w y e a r s , i t s f a t e was a l s o

se a le d .

The 1871 R e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o m m issio n er o f E d u c a t i o n m e n t i o n s two o t h e r a t t e m p t s u n d e r C a t h o l i c a u s ­ p i c e s t o h e l p t h e N e g r o e s o f W a s h in g to n , b u t g i v e s no d e 2 t a i l e d in fo rm a tio n about e i t h e r . One p r o j e c t was b e g u n by t h e J e s u i t s i n S t , A l o y s i u s C hurch w here i n t h e m i d d l e 1 8 5 0 1 s , t h e same s c h o l a s t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s were o f f e r e d t o two h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y N egro c h i l d r e n a s w ere g i v e n t h e w h i t e p u p i l s i n t h e p a r i s h s c h o o l ; t h e o t h e r was t r i e d i n S t , . M a t t h e w s p a r i s h , w h e re fro m 1858 t o i 8 6 0 t h e S t , V in cen t de P aul S o c ie ty m a in ta in e d a f r e e sch o o l f o r C o l o r e d b o y s and g i r l s i n t h e h ope t h a t C a t h o l i c i n f l u e n c e x w ould be more e a s i l y s p r e a d i n Negro c i r c l e s . - ' U n fo rtu n ate l y , n e i t h e r u n d e r t a k i n g l a s t e d v e r y l o n g and b o t h m arked t h e e n d o f C a t h o l i c a c t i v i t i e s i n b e h a l f o f t h e N e g ro e s i n W a s h in g to n u n t i l l o n g a f t e r t h e C i v i l War, B ven t h o u g h t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f C olum bia w ere r e g a r d e d b y many a s b e i n g m o s t i m p o r t a n t a i d s to t h e

1 , S h e rw o o d , o p . c i t . , p . 3 14.. 2 , S p e c i a l R e p o r t , o p . c i t . , p , 20i_f., The w r i t e r v i s i t e d b o t h p a r i s h e s b u t f o u n d no r e c o r d o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e i t h e r sc h o o l. 3 , Ib id .' L

r f u r t h e r i n g o f th e cause o f C a t h o l i c i t y , i t

93

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f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e o f t h e p r i e s t s and t h e l a i t y i n g e n e r a l l e n t much i n a t t r a c t i n g t h e B l a c k s t o w a r d s t h e C h u rc h o f Home,

The C o m m is sio n e rs He p o r t

commented a s f o l l o w s on t h e C a t h o l i c o u t l o o k s The C a t h o l i c C h u rc h was a s f r e e i n a l l i t s p r i v i l e g e s to th e b la c k w o rsh ip p e r a s t o t h e w h i t e and i n t h e s a n c t u a r y , t h e r e was no b l a c k g a l l e r y . . . The c o l ­ o r e d p e o p l e i n t h o s e d a y s in . a l l t h e C a th o lic ch u rch es n o t o n ly k n e lt sid e by sid e w ith th e h ig h e s t p e rso n ag e s b u t t h e pews w ere f r e e t o a l l . . . . And t h i s h a s b e e n t h e g e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t w h ic h t h e C o lo r e d h a v e . r e c e i v e d fro m t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h . The p a s t o r s o f S t . P a t r i c k ' s , S t . M a t t h e w 's , S t . M a r t i n ' s and S t . A l o y s i u s '

ch u rch es a re s in g le d o u t f o r t h e i r z e a l

i n b e h a l f o f t h e B l a c k s , a n d no d o u b t , t h e i r l i b e r a l s p i r i t was m i r r o r e d i n t h e c o r d i a l t r e a t m e n t g i v e n t h e 2 N eg ro p a r i s h o n e r s b y t h e w h i t e s . W oodson, a n o n - C a t h o l i c N e g r o , i n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e w ork d one f o r t h e C o l o r e d i n B a l t i m o r e a n d W a s h in g to n p a y s d e fe r e n c e to th e e f f o r t s o f th e C a th o lic c le r g y .

The

f o l l o w i n g comment i n d i c a t e s w i t h what h i g h r e g a r d he h e l d th e ir e ffo rts : Long a c t i v e i n t h e c a u s e o f e l e v a t i n g th e c o lo re d p e o p le , th e in f lu e n c e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement was h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y t o a r o u s e t h e C a t h o l i c s to d isc h a rg e t h e i r d u ty o f e n lig h te n in g

1 . I b i d . , p . 218. 2 . W oodson, o p . c i t . , p . 1 0 7 .

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r t h e B l a c k s . W h e re v e r t h e y h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o g iv e t h e s l a v e s r e ­ lig io u s i n s t r u c t i o n , th e y g e n e ra lly ta u g h t th e u n f o r tu n a te s e v e ry th in g t h a t w ould b r o a d e n t h e i r h o r i z o n and h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d l i f e . The a b o l i t i o n i s t s and P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s w e re a l s o i n t h e f i e l d b u t t h e w ork o f th e e a r l y F a th e rs i n th e se c i t i e s was m ore e f f e c t i v e W h ile t h e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h e N e g ro e s i n t h e a r c h ­

d i o c e s e o f B a l t i m o r e was b e g i n n i n g t o p r o d u c e r e s u l t s o f a som ewhat p e r m a n e n t n a t u r e , t h e e f f o r t s o f B is h o p E n g la n d i n C h a rle sto n a ls o began to b e a r f r u i t .

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l a t t e r d i o c e s e , t h e y w ere o f s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n .

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h a s a l r e a d y b e e n made to E n g l a n d 1s h o p e o f o p e n i n g a s c h o o l f o r C o lo r e d c h i l d r e n , b u t he h a d t o w a i t u n t i l 1835 2 b e f o r e he c o u l d p u t h i s p l a n i n t o e x e c u t i o n . He h a d l o n g b e e n a w a re o f t h e h e a v y t o l l t a k e n by P r o t e s t a n t i n f l u e n c e s , and w h i l e d e s i g n i n g a p r o g ra m t o c o u n t e r a c t a n t i - C a t h o l i c a d v a n c e s , h e was a s k e d by t h r e e y o u n g l a d i e s o f h i s d i o c e s e if

t h e y m ig h t e s t a b l i s h a com m unity o f S i s t e r s .

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b y t h e i r e a r n e s t n e s s , t h e B is h o p “e n c o u r a g e d them t o fo rm a c o n g re g a tio n to i n s t r u c t b la c k g i r l s a s a ls o th e poor w h ite g i r l s ” and ap p ro v ed o f t h e i r r e q u e s t to u n i t e u n d e r th e title

o f t h e S i s t e r s o f M e rc y . I n 1 8 3 5 9 two m em bers o f t h e c o m m unity , S i s t e r Mary

1. I b i d . , p . 108. 2 • ‘S ee abo ve, p . 7 7 . 3* P e t e r G u i l d a y , The L i f e a n d Tim es o f Jo h n E n g l a n d , 1 7 8 6 1 8 I|2 , 2 v o l s . , New Y o r k , The A m e ric a P r e s s , 1 , 1927* P .

5287 lU* .Records ACHS, V I I I , 1 8 9 7 , P* 2 1 9 .

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V i n c e n t Of M ahoney and S i s t e r M ary M a rth a CM Gorman b e g a n t h e s c h o o l f o r t h e N egro g i r l s o f C h a r l e s t o n , a n d much to t h e B i s h o p 1s d e l i g h t , a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e num ber o f c h i l d r e n . T h a t same y e a r , E n g la n d e x p r e s s e d t h e hope o f c o m p l e t i n g h i s p r o j e c t f o r t h e C o l o r e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g i n my d i o c e s e a c o n g r e a g a t i o n o f y o u n g men who, bound b y r e l i g i o u s v o w s, l e a d i n g a com m unity l i f e u n d e r r e g u l a r d i s c i p l i n e may a t t e n d to th e i n s t r u c t i o n o f poor b oys, f r e e and s l a v e a n d t e a c h them t h e way o f commerce and t h e i n d u s t r i a l t r a d e s , e s p e c ia lly th e tra d e o f b u ild in g c h u rc h e s , s c h o o ls and o th e r e d i f i c e s f o r r e l i g i o u s p u rp o se s.^ When h e f o u n d t h a t he c o u l d n o t i n t e r e s t a n y y oung men i n t h i s v e n t u r e , t h e b i s h o p , d e c i d e d t o o p e n a s c h o o l f o r b oys a n y w a y , by s e l e c t i n g two s e m i n a r i a n s a s t e a c h e r s and p l a c i n g them u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f one o f t h e d i o c e s a n p r i e s t s , 2 a p p o in te d to s u p e r v is e th e i n s t i t u t i o n . W it h o u t a d o u b t , Jo h n E n g la n d r e g a r d e d t h e s e " s c h o o l e x p e r i m e n t s " a s b e i n g one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l h i s e p i s c o p a l u n d e r t a k i n g s an d he saw i n c r e a s e d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i n g them a s t h e e n r o l l m e n t m o u n te d .

H is f r i e n d s ,

h o w e v e r , t h o u g h t h i s a c t i o n p r e m a t u r e a n d w ere v e r y much a l a r m e d a b o u t h i s p e r s o n a l s a f e t y when t h o s e who o b j e c t e d t o h i s p r o g ra m t h r e a t e n e d t o h a n g him and t e a r down h i s k c a th e d ra l.

1* 2. 3. Lk.

I b i d . , p . 32 I4.. I b i d . , p . 219. TTxTcT., p . 2 2 0 . T B Id .

I n 1836, th e a p p ea ra n c e o f a s e r i e s o f a n t i - s l a v e r y t r a c t s i g n i t e d a f i r e o f p r e j u d i c e w h ic h h a d b e e n s m o u l d e r ­ i n g i n t h e s o u t h f o r y e a r s , and i n C h a r l e s t o n ,

some o f t h e

c i t i z e n r y w ere so w ro u g h t u p t h a t t h e y dem anded t h e d i s ­ c o n t i n u a n c e o f E n g la n d 1s e f f o r t s i n b e h a l f o f t h e B l a c k s , The b i s h o p , f a c e d w i t h s t a g g e r i n g he y i e l d e d o n l y a f t e r he

o d d s, had to a c c e d e ,

but

had been a s s u r e d t h a t o t h e r r e ­

l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s w ould n o t be a l l o w e d t o c a r r y on t h e i r p ro se ly tiz in g .

He c l o s e d h i s s c h o o l s t h a t y e a r , b u t i n

I 8 I4I ,

when he t h o u g h t t h a t some o f t h e a n t i p a t h y h a d s u b 1 s i d e d , h e t r i e d t o r e o p e n th e m . T h i s s e c o n d a t t e m p t was

no m ore s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e f i r s t and i t m ark ed t h e f i n a l move on th e p a r t o f t h e C a t h o l i c C hurch f o r t h e C o lo r e d p e o p l e i n C h a r l e s t o n f o r many y e a r s . B i s h o p E n g la n d d i e d w ent a l l f o r m a l a t t e m p t s N egroes.

i n l81j2, and w i t h h i s p a s s i n g t o cham p ion t h e c a u s e o f t h e

The two s u c c e e d i n g b i s h o p s — I g n a t i u s R e y n o ld s

and P a t r i c k L y n c h — who o c c u p i e d h i s c h a i r u n t i l i 8 6 0 adh ered s t r i c t l y

to a n o n - a g g r e s s iv e p o l i c y .

P ro b a b ly

t h e i r a t t i t u d e was d i r e c t e d by t h e s e t b a c k s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r ; o r m aybe, th e y d i d n o t w is h to p la c e t h e C h u rc h i n a c o m p r o m is in g p o s i t i o n a t a tim e when p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s w ere a p p r o a c h i n g a c r i t i c a l s t a g e . A t a n y r a t e , t h e r e w e re no s p e c i a l g e s t u r e s made t o w a r d s

1 . G u ild ay , L ife o f E n g la n d , I I ,

151

th© N e g r o e s , a lth o u g h th e C a th e d r a l, S t . Mary’ s and S t . P a tr ic k * s c h u r c h e s c o n tin u e d to welcom e them f o r d i v i n e s e r v i c e s and th e w h ite p a r is h o n e r s more o r l e s s r e g a r d e d 1 them a s p a r t o f th e c o n g r e g a tio n * Two y e a r s b e fo r e C h a r le s to n l o s t i t s f i r s t b is h o p , Richmond r e g a in e d i t s d io c e s a n in d ep en d e n c e w ith th e a p 2 p o in tm e n t o f R ich ard W helan t o th e s e e . There was l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f th e new b is h o p b e in g a b le to do much f o r th e B la c k s b e c a u se he had o n ly f i v e p r i e s t s to ta k e c a r e o f 6 , 0 0 0 C a t h o lic s s c a t t e r e d th r o u g h o u t V i r g in ia .^

As a

m a tte r o f f a c t , th e s c a r c i t y o f r e c o r d s l e a v e s th e f i r s t f o r t y y e a r s o f t h e s e e ’ s e x i s t e n c e w ith no more th a n a fe w p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o C a t h o lic i n t e r e s t i n t h e N e g r o e s . A l l t h a t i s known i s t h a t i n l8 $ 9 ( b e f o r e th e a r r i v a l o f B ish o p W helan) B la c k s were i n a tte n d a n c e a t S t . P a u l’ s Church i n P o rtsm o u th , V ir g in ia and t h a t th e p a s t o r had t o add some pews to accom modate them f o r s e r v i c e s . ^

The

p a r i s h r e c o r d s a l s o r e v e a l t h a t th e r e w ere a number o f C o lo red b a p t is m s , m a r r ia g e s and b u r i a l s p r io r to i8 6 0 * B e s id e s t h e s e n o t a t i o n s , th e o n l y o th e r m en tio n o f th e C o lo red i n th© d i o c e s e i s th e n o t i c e g iv e n t o th e a p p e a r ­ a n c e o f th e f i r s t C a t h o lic N egro i n th© c i t y o f Richmond

1. 2. 3. 4. L

I b id . C ia n g e tti, l o c . c i t . , p. 68. S h e a , H is t o r y o f th e Church, l8 0 8 - l8 U 5 . P« 577* See l e t t e r from th e V i c e - c h a n c e llo r o f th e d i o c e s e , A p p en d ix , p p . 1 2 7 - 1 2 8 . _j

B n i l y M i t c h e l l 'stiose name f i r s t a p p e a r s i n 181|6.^ I n 1 8 5 0 , two m ore s u f f r a g a n s e e s w e re a d d e d t o t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p ro v in c e o f B a ltim o re .

One was f o rm e d b y

l i m i t i n g th e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f C h a rle sto n to th e C a ro lin a s a n d g i v i n g t h e c a r e o f G e o r g ia a n d e a s t e r n F l o r i d a t o t h e ? n e w ly c r e a t e d see o f S avannah; t h e o t h e r was c a r v e d fro m t h e d i o c e s e o f f&chmond a n d h a d a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f V irg in ia w ith i t s e p is c o p a l s e a t a t f h e e lin g .^ N e i t h e r d i o c e s e was i n a p o s i t i o n t o o f f e r a n y s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e B l a c k s , a l t h o u g h a g e n e r a l r e p o r t fro m t h e f o r m e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c N e g r o e s w ere n o t n e g le c te d .

The p r e s e n t V i c a r - G e n e r a l , i n r e v i e w i n g t h e

C h u rc h a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t e n y e a r s o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e d i o c e s e , m akes t h e f o l l o w i n g comm ent: Our r e c o r d s show a l a r g e num ber o f s l a v e s b a p t i z e d and c o n firm ed a s t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s made t h e i r way t o p l a n t a t i o n s o f C a th o lic o w ners. I n s t r u c t i o n s w e re u s u a l l y g i v e n b y , t h e m i s t r e s s o f t h e m a n o r , a u g m e n te d b y t h e m is s i o n e r a s h e made h i s ro u n d s th ro u g h th e v a s t t e r r i t o r y . Some o f t h e c h u r c h e s h a d g a l l e r i e s and i n th e s e th e s la v e s a t t e n d e d M a ss . O t h e r c h u r c h e s t h a t w ere n o t so c o n s t r u c t e d h a d s e c t i o n s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e C o l o r e d . . . . T h e r e w e re no

1. I b id . 2 . Jolm G. S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C hurch i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i8 ijlj- -l8 5 F , New ‘Y ork , Jo h n G. S h e a , 1 8 9 2 , P • 99 • 3.* £ k i d • * P* "°7• C h a n c e l l o r r e p o r t s t h a t no d a t a on tlae C o l o r e d i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e d io c e se . See A p p e n d i x , p . 1 2 8 . L

J

99

m i s s i o n a r i e s who d e v o t e d t h e m s e l v e s e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e C o l o r e d , n o r w ere th e r e any ch urch es d e f i n i t e l y a s c rib e d ( s i c ) t o th e m . T hey w en t t o M ass e i t h e r a t th e house o f th e p l a n t a t i o n ow n er o r i n t h e c h u r c h o r c h a p e l t h a t was p r o v i d e d f o r a l l C a t h o l i c s . ^ -

1

M e a n w h ile , i n much o f t h e t e r r i t o r y w h ic h h a d o n c e b e e n p a r t o f t h e d i o c e s e o f B a l t i m o r e b u t i n 1808 was d i v i d e d among v a r i o u s s e e s , c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e

n o t i c e was t a k e n

o f any C a th o lic e f f o r t s f o r th e B la c k s.

P h ila d e lp h ia has

b u t two p a s s i n g a l l u s i o n s o n r e c o r d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e N egroes l i v i n g w ith in i t s

c o n f i n e s w ere n o t e n t i r e l y

n e g le c te d d u rin g t h i s t h i r t y year p e rio d .

F a th e r S n e ric k ,

w r i t i n g o f C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e C o lo re d o f P h i l a d e l ­ p h i a r e f e r s t o a num ber o f d e v o u t B l a c k s a t t e n d i n g S t . J o s e p h ? s Chur c h : I n 1838, th e l i t t l e c h u rc h housed C h r i s t i a n s . The c h a n c e l e n c l o s e d a b o u t t h r e e f i f t h s o f th e w id th o f t h e b u i l d i n g t h u s l e a v i n g room f o r s e v e r a l pews i n t h e n o r t h e a s t a n d so u th e a s t c o rn e rs , th e l a t t e r of w h ic h w ere o c c u p i e d by a r a c e o f c o l o r e d C h r i s t i a n s who I am a f r a i d h a v e a l l b e e n c a l l e d a w ay . T hey w e re o f F r e n c h a n d ¥ e s t I n d i a n b i r t h a n d were bou n d d e v o t e d l y t o g e t h e r b y good w o rk s a n d f o r good w o r k s . T h e y m e t f r e q u e n t l y b y a la w o f t h e i r own i n t h a t o l d c h u r c h and t h e r e p ra y e d a lo u d i n t h e i r n a tiv e F ren ch w h ile th e y c o u n te d t h e i r b e a d s t r e a s u r e d a s h e ii* lo o m s . I h a v e o f t e n

1 . R s c e r p t fro m a l e t t e r r e c e i v e d i n a n s w e r t o a w r i t t e n i n q u i r y a b o u t th e d io c e s a n i n t e r e s t I n C a th o l i c N egroes p r i o r to i8 6 0 . See A p p e n d i x , p . 1 3 8 .

100

r

l i s t e n e d t o them w i t h r e a l p l e a s u r e an d e n d e a v o r e d t o l e a r n and r e p e a t t h e ^ p r a y e r s w h ic h e s c a p e d fro m t h e i r l i p s . The s e c o n d r e f e r e n c e m akes m e n t i o n o f t h e c o n c e r n showed b y t h e J e s u i t F a t h e r s fro m t h e tim e t h e s e p e o p l e f i r s t came t o P h i l a d e l p h i a and t h a t b e f o r e I 85O, C o lo r e d C a t h o l i c s w ere n u m ero u s e n o u g h t o h a v e w a r r a n t e d t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f a s p e c i a l Mass f o r th e m . The c l e r g y o f S t , Joseph* s w ere t h e f i r s t to ta k e m ea su re s f o r th e p r e ­ s e r v a t i o n and i n c r e a s e o f th e f a i t h among t h e c o l o r e d C a t h o l i c s o f t h e c ity . I t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s p i r i tu a l in te r e s t of th is c la ss o f th e s e c h i l d r e n o f th e c h u rc h s h o u ld n o t be n e g l e c t e d . The f i r s t e f f o r t was made i n I 8I4.7 when Mass was s u n g f o r them a t e i g h t - t h i r t y The c o l o r e d p e o p l e u s e d t o a s s e m b le i n th e o l d c h u r c h a l m o s t ^ fro m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y . B u t t h e N e g ro e s i n P e n n s y l v a n i a w ere n o t o n l y i n P h i l a d e l p h i a d u r i n g t h e p r e - w a r y e a r s ; t h e y c o u ld a l s o be found i n th e c i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h .

Whence t h e y came i s n o t

know n, b u t t h e r e w ere C o lo r e d C a t h o l i c s l i v i n g i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e s t a t e when Pope G re g o ry XVI e r e c t e d a d i o c e s e t h e r e i n 1814.3

M i c h a e l 0 * C onnor was d e s i g n a t e d

t h e f i r s t B is h o p o f P i t t s b u r g h a n d a f t e r h i s c o n s e c r a t i o n i n Rome ( w h i t h e r he h a d gone t o s e e k a d m i s s i o n i n t o t h e

1 . A. J . B n e r i c k , ^ C o lo r e d M i s s i o n s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , ” W o o d sto ck L e t t e r s , X L I I , 1 9 1 3 , p . 1 8 3 . 2. Ib id . 3* See A p p e n d ix , p . 1 3 0 . L e t t e r s e n t by d i o c e s a n a r c h i v i s t vo u ch es f o r th e p re s e n c e o f th e C o lo red t h e r e . L

101



r 1 S o c i e t y o f J e s u s ) , he came t o th e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o r u l e a

n

d io c e s e h a v in g t h i r t y - t h r e e

c h u r c h e s , f o u r t e e n p r i e s t s and

a p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e d a t lj.5 ,0 0 0 .

In c lu d e d i n h is flo c k

w ere some C o lo r e d p e o p l e who, i n t h e B i s h o p 1s j u d g m e n t, w ere d e s e r v i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n a n d f o r whose s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e he a p p o i n t e d a s p e c i a l p r i e s t , R o b e r t W ils o n ,

t h e Rev,

He u r g e d F a t h e r W ils o n t o p u r c h a s e a

b u i l d i n g w h ic h c o u l d be u s e d f o r c h u r c h s e r v i c e s a n d t h e n g a t h e r t o g e t h e r h i s N egro C a t h o l i c s t o f o r m t h e n u c l e u s of a p a rish .

A b u i l d i n g on S m i t h f i e l d S t r e e t , P i t t s b u r g h

was b o u g h t a n d o n June JO, l81jlj., B is h o p 0 f Connor f o r m a l l y J d e d ic a te d i t a s th e ” C hapel o f th e N a t i v i t y , " U n d o u b t e d ly , t h e y o u n g p r i e s t 1 s e f f o r t s m et w i t h much su c ce ss becau se w ith in a s h o rt tim e , th e P r o te s ta n t p r e a c h e r s s o u g h t t o s te m h i s a c t i v i t i e s b y a c c u s i n g him o f h a v in g p r o - s la v e r y l e a n in g s .

T h ey c h a r g e d him w i t h g a t h e r ­

i n g t h e C o l o r e d u n d e r t h e ^ p r e t e n c e o f r e l i g i o n 11 so t h a t he m i g h t t h e m ore e a s i l y s e i z e a n d s e l l them a s s l a v e s i n i. th e so u th la n d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o f t h e B l a c k s b e l i e v e d t h e r e p o r t and d i s c o n t i n u e d a t t e n d i n g h i s c h u r c h .

W ith in

a y e a r , t h e c h a p e l h a d t o b e c l o s e d , an d t h e fe w l o y a l N e g ro e s who r e m a in e d w ere i n v i t e d t o w o r s h ip i n S t . P a u l 1s

1 . S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , l 8 k k - l 8 6 6 , p . 6 7 . The w r i t e r s t a t e s t h a t Pope G re g o ry a n s w e re d h i s r e q u e s t a s fo llo w s: ”You s h a l l be a b i s h o p f i r s t , an d a J e s u i t - a fte rw a rd .” I b i d . . 2_. I b i d . , p . 6 8 . 3 . A p p en d ix , p . k . Ib id .

p

102 C a t h e d r a l u n t i l a n o t h e r c h u r c h was p r o v i d e d f o r them i n

n

1865.1

The c o n t i n u e d i n f l u x o f C a t h o l i c s i n t o P e n n s y l v a n i a an d B i s h o p O’ C o n n o r’ s i n a b i l i t y t o l o o k a f t e r them p r o m p te d him t o a s k Borne t o d i v i d e h i s s e e .

H is r e q u e s t was r e c o g n i z e d

b y a d e c r e e i s s u e d o n A u g u s t 1 2 , 1853 w h ic h a u t h o r i z e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f th e d io c e s e o f E r ie from p a r t o f th e t e r r i t o r y 2 o v e r w h ic h h e h a d r u l e d . T h i s new e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e , a c c o rd in g to th e te stim o n y o f i t s p r e s e n t V ic e -C h a n c e llo r, h a s n o r e c o r d o f a n y s p e c i f i c w ork i n b e h a l f o f t h e C o l o r e d p r i o r t o 1 8 7 1 *^ I n t h e t h r e e r e m a i n i n g d i o c e s e s fo rm e d f ro m B a l t i m o r e a t t h e t i m e t h a t P h i l a d e l p h i a was c r e a t e d , n o n o t i c e s a p p e a r o f an y C a th o lic e f f o r t s f o r th e N egroes p r i o r to 1860.

The j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e B i s h o p o f New Y o rk was r e ­

moved fro m t h i r t y - n i n e c o u n t i e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e s t a t e i n 18 I47.* when t h e d i o c e s e s o f A lb a n y a n d B u f f a l o w e re e s t a b l i s h e d . J

The a r c h i v e s o f t h e f o r m e r o f f e r no

e v id e n c e t h a t any C a th o lic B lac k s l i v e d w ith in i t s b o u n d a r i e s , w h i l e t h o s e I n t h e l a t t e r do make a p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w ork o f t h e R e v . S e r g e de S c h o u l i p n i k o f f , a fo rm e r R u ssian n o b le .

6

S h o r t l y a f t e r h e was a s s i g n e d t o

1. 2. 3. h.

Ib id . S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , l8 1 4 i- l8 6 6 , p . i|2i|.. S ee l e t t e r f r o m C h a n c e r y O f f i c e , A p p e n d i x , p . 1 2 2 . The w r i t e r v i s i t e d t h e New Y o rk an d B o s t o n C h a n c e ry O f f i c e s a n d was i n f o r m e d t h a t no d a t a was a v a i l a b l e . F o r B a r d s t o w n , s e e A p p e n d i x , p . 1 2 6 — l e t t e r fro m L o u is v ille . , l 5 . S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , 18141-1866, p p . 1 2 6 , I 3 2 . 6. Ib id .

J

S t.

J o s e p h * s C a t h e d r a l , F a t h e r de S c h o u l i p n i k o f f became

v e r y much I n t e r e s t e d i n t h e N e g r o e s and a f t e r r e n t i n g a s m a l l h o u s e on t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e c i t y , he g a t h e r e d t h e B l a c k s t h e r e f o r c h u r c h s e r v i c e s and c a t e c h e t i c a l i n s t r u c ­ tio n .^

He c o n t i n u e d t h i s w ork u n t i l a b o u t t h e tim e o f t h e

C i v i l War an d when he l e f t , h i s Kw ork was n e g l e c t e d a n d the C o lo red C a th o lic s l o s t t h e i r i n t e r e s t o r r e t u r n e d to t h e i r 2 t e r r i t o r i a l p a rish e s. I n 1 8 5 0 , New York was r a i s e d to a n a r c h d i o c e s a n r a n k h a v i n g a s i t s s u f f r a g a n s e e s : B o s t o n , H a r t f o r d , A lb a n y 3 and B u f f a lo . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , two more d i o c e s e s w ere c a r v e d fro m i t s

o r i g i n a l b o u n d a r i e s , B r o o k ly n b e i n g g i v e n

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t h e s e 1 new e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e s w ere s p e n t i n p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g a p ro g ra m s u i t e d t o l o c a l n e e d s an d a s a ■5 r e s u l t , l i t t l e h e e d was t a k e n o f t h e B l a c k s . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s e x t e n d i n g fro m 1830 t o i 8 6 0 , t h e s e e o f B o s t o n g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n o f h a v i n g e x e r c i s e d any i n t e r e s t on b e h a l f o f t h e N e g r o e s w i t h i n i t s

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1 . T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s f o u n d i n M iriam M urphy, o p . c i t . , p . 121 . 2 . S i n c e no s o u r c e was i n d i c a t e d , t h e w r i t e r com m un icated w i t h t h e B o s t o n B u re a u o f V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s a n d was i n ­ fo rm e d t h a t C o l o r e d w ere b u r i e d i n t h e C a t h o l i c c e m e t e r y , t h e f i r s t one f o r 1829 b e i n g F reem an Sim pson • who d i e d F e b r u a r y 2 . 3 . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was made t o t h e w r i t e r a t C h a n c e ry O ffic e . I4.. S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , l 8 [|i4- l 8 6 6 , p . 1 6 3 . 5 . I b i d . , p p . 5 2 8 , 5356 . See l e t t e r s f r o m C h a n c e ry O f f i c e o f t h e s e r e s p e c t i v e l d i o c e s e s . A p p e n d i x , p p . I 3 3 - I 3I4..

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1 . S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , 1808-1±.3j P* 633* 2 . I b i d . , ”^ p 7 T 0 5 ~ 6 1 J D T ?• p. 656. 'Ebid-* * P» 702* T h i s t e r r i t o r y c o v e r e d t h e r e g i o n now known a s t h e s t a t e s o f Iow a a n d M i n n e s o t a .

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i n 1 8 9 8 ) o f f e r s a su m m atio n o f w h a t e v e r C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t was show ed t o t h e C o l o r e d o f I n d i a n a a n d I l l i n o i s p r i o r t o

i 860 . I n d i a n a , o f c o u r s e , h a d f e w N eg roe s ♦ ♦ • . T h e r e w ere C a t h o l i e Ne g r o e s > • . • some o f whom h a d b e e n a t t a c h e d to t h e o l d F r e n c h f a m i l i e s ; o t h e r s m ust have been i n t r o ­ d u c e d l a t e r . F o r e x a m p le , B i s h o p B r u t e n o t e d t h a t when h e p a s s e d t h r o u g h I n d i a n a p o l i s i n J u l y , 1838 he b a p t i z e d two N e g r o e s . Due t o t h e r u r a l c o n d i ­ t i o n s o f I n d i a n a , V in c e n n e s was t h e o n l y l o c a l i t y w here a n y d e f i n i t e s t e p s co u ld be ta k e n f o r t h e s e p e o p le . I n I 85O t h e r e w ere 221 f r e e N e g r o e s i n th e v i l l a g e , a t e n t h o f th e p o p u l a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y some o f t h e s e w ere C a t h o l i c s an d no d i f f i c u l t y was p l a c e d I n t h e way o f t h e i r a tte n d in g s e rv ic e s i n th e C a t h e d r a l *2 T o o , t h e S i s t e r s o f P r o v i d e n c e , who t a u g h t s c h o o l i n t h e d i o c e s e , a r e s p o k e n o f a s h a v i n g o f f e r e d t o g iv e some C h r i s t i a n t r a i n i n g t o t h e N e g r o e s , two members o f t h e com m unity e v e n v o l u n t e e r i n g t o d e v o t e t h e r e m a i n d e r o f th e ir liv e s in th is cause.

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1* L e t t e r s from L o u i s v i l l e (f o r m e r ly B a r d sto w n ), D e t r o i t and Dubuque r e p o r t t h a t t h e s e d i o c e s e s h ave no r e c o r d o f any e a r l y C a t h o lic e f f o r t s f o r t h e C o lo r e d . See A p p en d ix , p p . 125- 126. g . See A p p en d ix , p p . 1 5 5 - 1 3 6 .

r a l a c k o f f u n d s o r t o o p p o s i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f w h i t e

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d i o c e s e , ‘‘a f t e r a t h o r o u g h s e a r c h , ” r e p o r t s : . . . t h e C h u rc h was h a n d i c a p p e d i n a n y e f f o r t s oh t h e i r b e h a l f . H ow ever, we h a v e a g o o d l y num ber o f b a p t i s m a l r e ­ c o r d s o f N e g ro e s who w orked f o r lAhite C a t h o l i c s . I t i s p re su m e d t h a t t h e y w ere c o n v e r t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r v h i t e m a s t e r s a n d a t t e n d e d c h u r c h w i t h them ... The f i r s t r e c o r d we h a v e o f a c h u r c h f o r N e g r o e s i s i n 1 9 0 5 *^ M e a n w h ile , i n t h e s o u t h l a n d , t h e C h u rc h was b e g i n n i n g t o show s i g n s o f a w a k e n i n g .

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la b o re d z e a lo u s ly to r e s t o r e C a th o lic p r a c t i c e s i n th e d i o c e s e o f New O r l e a n s t h o u g h i t was n o t u n t i l t h e a c ­ c e s s i o n o f B is h o p B la n c i n 1 8 3 5 * t h a t t h e C h u rc h r e a l l y b e g a n t o come i n t o i t s own.

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a s ” a new e r a f o r t h e C h u r c h , t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h i n L o u i s i a n a .

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th e J e s u i t s b ack to th e d io c e s e to open a c o lle g e f o r 4 y o u n g m en, e s t a b l i s h e d new p a r i s h e s , v a n q u i s h e d t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f t r u s t e e i s m t h r o u g h l e g a l p r o c e d u r e and w i t h t h e a i d o f z e a l o u s p r i e s t s , r e s t o r e d harm ony and

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ib id . See A p p e n d ix , p . 137• B a u d ie r, o p . c i t . , p . 321. S h e a , The H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , 1 8 0 8 - 4 5 * P • 6 7 2 .

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f o r m a t i o n i s h a d a b o u t t h e work o f t h i s l a t t e r com m unity a l t h o u g h e v i d e n t l y i t s m em bers c o n t i n u e d t h e s c h o o l s f o r t h e B l a c k s u n t i l t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e tw e e n t h e S ta te s .^ I f C a th o lic s o l i c i t u d e f o r th e s p i r i t u a l w e lfa r e o f t h e N e g ro e s i n L o u i s i a n a h a d b e e n i n e v i d e n c e s i n c e t h e c o l o n y was f i r s t f o u n d e d , i t r e a c h e d a new h i g h i n 181^7* F o r many y e a r s , C o lo r e d b o y s an d g i r l s w ere a s s e m b le d a t t h e C onv ent o f S t . M i c h a e l f o r c a t e c h i s m i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d a t t i m e s , when t h e S i s t e r s c o u l d n o t g i v e f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o a l l t h e p u p i l s , t h e y s e l e c t e d some o f t h e g i r l s as t h e ir a id e s .

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1. 2. 3. 4.

I b i d . , p p . 67U -8O. See a b o v e p . 4 3 , n o t e . U rs u lin e A rc h iv e s . B a u d i e r , o p . c i t . , p . 399* I b i d . , p . 4 O2 .

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1. 2. 3. . Ij..

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t h a t th e y c o u ld n o t acc ed e u n t i l lo n g 3 a f t e r t h e C i v i l W ar. C a th o lic a c t i v i t i e s in

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fr o m 1820 t o 1 8 2 3 , F a t h e r A n th o n y

B l a n c , l a t e r t o become t h e f i r s t a r c h b i s h o p o f New O r l e a n s , was a s s i g n e d a s a r e s i d e n t p a s t o r o f S t . M ary ’ s C h u rc h a n d d u r i n g h i s s h o r t s t a y , d i d z e a l o u s w o rk , e v e n among t h e 1 N egroes. He was s u c c e e d e d b y F a t h e r M aen h au t who a l s o was t r a n s f e r r e d a f t e r a s h o r t t i m e , a n d a g a i n t h e c u sto m 2 was r e v i v e d o f h a v i n g t o r e l y o n t r a n s i e n t p r i e s t s . T h o ugh Chanche a r r i v e d e i g h t e e n y e a r s a f t e r B l a n c ’ s t r a n s f e r , he fou n d v e s t i g e s o f th e l a t t e r ’ s l a b o r s , and i n o r d e r t o s a l v a g e a s much a s p o s s i b l e , h e a p p o i n t e d F a t h e r z J o h n C la u d e F r a n c o i s t o t a k e c a r e o f t h e C o l o r e d . T h is a rra n g e m e n t p ro v ed to be j u s t a tem p o ra ry o n e , b e ca u se o t h e r d i o c e s a n dem ands a n d t h e s h o r t a g e o f p r i e s t s f o r c e d C hanche t o a s s i g n F r a n c o i s t o o t h e r work a n d o n c e a g a i n , th e f a i t h o f th e N egroes r e c e i v e d a s e t b a c k . I t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e b i s h o p o f N a t c h e z h a d t o l a b o r u n d e r s u c h d i s c o u r a g i n g h a n d i c a p s , f o r he was v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e C o l o r e d a n d w a n ted t o p r e s e r v e them

1* R i c h a r d Gerow, C r a d l e D ays o f S t . M a ry ’ s a t N a t c h e z . M a r r e r o , L a . , Hope Haven P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 , p* 2 F 6 . £. Ib id . 5 . I H t L , p . 267.

to th e f a i t h .

I n l 8 i|J+, he w r o t e to t h e P r e f e c t o f t h e

S a c re d C o n g re g a tio n o f th e P ro p ag an d a, la m e n tin g th e f a c t t h a t t h e N e g ro e s w ere so n e g l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f p r i e s t s , a n d e x p r e s s i n g c o n f i d e n c e t h a t i f some a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n th e m , t h e m a s t e r s w ould p r o f i t fro m t h e i r good e x a m p le • I t w ould be v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r r e l i g i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y h e r e t h a t we s h o u l d have z e a l o u s p r i e s t s who w ould be w i l l i n g t o g iv e th e m s e lv e s e n t i r e l y to th e i n s t r u c ­ t i o n o f t h e N e g r o e s . T h ese p o o r p e o p le l i v e in an e n t i r e ig n o ran ce o f r e l i g i o n an d d i e w i t h o u t B a p t i s m . T h ese N e g ro e s a r e i n c l i n e d t o r e l i g i o n an d t h e y h a v e n o t p e r m i s s i o n t o go o u t s i d e t h e l i m i t s o f th e p l a n t a t i o n . The good w h ic h would, be t h e r e d one w ould be a p e r m a n e n t g o o d .' B e s i d e s , t h e good w o r ld r e f l e c t up on t h e i r m a s te rs. When t h e s e w ould s e e t h e c h an g e t h a t w o uld be p r o d u c e d i n t h e i r s l a v e s , t h e y w ould n o t b u t e s t e e m a r e l i g i o n w h ic h w ould p r o d u c e s u c h . . . e f f e c t s and t h e e s t e e m w ould l e a d them t o e m b ra c e i t . Chanche d i e d i n 1852 a n d s i n c e n e i t h e r o f h i s s u c c e s s o r s u n t i l i 8 6 0 — Jam es Van de V e ld e and W il l ia m E l d e r — s h a r e d h i s e n th u s ia s m to w a rd s th e c a t h o l i c i z a t i o n o f th e B la c k s, h i s e a r l y h o p e s w ere s o o n f o r g o t t e n . ^ I n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e n a m in g o f N a t c h e z t o t h e f u l l r a n k o f a n e p i s c o p a l s e e , a d j u s t m e n t s h a d t o be made i n o t h e r d i o c e s e s i n o r d e r t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f a g r o w in g C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n .

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t w e n t y - f i v e new s e e s

a n d f i v e v i c a r i a t e s were e r e c t e d e i t h e r by c a r v i n g them

N a tc h e z D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , L e t t e r o f B is h o p Chanche w r i t t e n i n lbljljT To be f o u n d i n Case I . l 2 . Gerow, o p . c i t . , p . 2 8 6 .

fro m o l d e r d i o c e s e s o r , a s i n t h e c a s e o f O re g o n , C a l i f o r n i a a n d t h e M e x ic a n c e s s i o n , by c r e a t i n g new e c c l e s i a s t i c a l j u r ­ i s d i c t i o n s when t h o s e a r e a s became p a r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , I n I 8 I4JL, t h e R e p u b l i c o f T e x a s , a t t h e i n s t a n c e o f B is h o p B la n c was made a v i c a r i a t e - a p o s t o l i c and s i x y e a r s 1 2 l a t e r became t h e d i o c e s e o f G a l v e s t o n . I n 181+3* C h ic a g o , M ilw a u k e e ,

3

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k Rock^ w ere c a r v e d fro m t h e t e r r i t o r y

o f S t , L o u is a n d made i n t o b i s h o p r i c s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e , t h e O re g o n a r e a was d e s i g n a t e d a s a v i c a r i a t e a p o s t o l i c — o n l y t o be e l e v a t e d i n t o a n a r c h d i o c e s e t h r e e y ears l a t e r . 5

i n l8k7 > Tn a d d i t i o n to B u f f a l o an d A lb a n y 6 7 a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d C l e v e l a n d was fo rm e d fro m C i n c i n n a t i , ‘ a n d W a lla W a lla fro m t h e a r c h d i o c e s e o f O re g o n C i t y - - t o become i t s o n ly s u ffr a g a n -under th e A m erican f l a g .

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I n t h e d e c a d e p r i o r t o t h e C i v i l War, f o u r d i o c e s e s q 10 w ere r a i s e d t o a r c h d i o c e s a n r a n k — New Y o r k , 7 New O r e l a n s .

1 . S h e a , Hi s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , 181+1+-1866, p . 2 8 8 . 2 . I b i d . , p . 225. The b i s h o p o f C hicago was g i v e n j u r i s ­ d i c t i o n o v e r th e e n t i r e s t a t e o f I l l i n o i s . 3* I b i d . , p . 2 5 0 . T h e l i m i t s o f t h i s d i o c e s e w e r e s e t a s th e

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C i n c i n n a t i was g i v e n a s s u f f r a g a n s e e s : L o u i s v i l l e , D e t r o i t , V in c e n n e s a n d C l e v e l a n d . C h a n c e ry O f f i c e a f f i r m s t h a t no C h u rch e f f o r t s w ere e x p e n d e d i n C i n c i n n a t i i n b e h a l f o f t h e C o lo r e d i n t h e s e p r e - w a r d a y s • See A p p e n d ix , p . 122. I t h a d n o t b e e n a d i o c e s e p r e v i o u s l y a n d was now g i v e n t h e s e e o f M o n te r e y a s a s u f f r a g a n . See S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , I8i4.{.-l866, p . 7^3 • See a b o v e , p . 96"• ”* S h e a , Hi s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , l 8 i4lj.- l8 6 6 , p . 2 5 8 . The d io c e s e had M in n eso ta to lo o k a f t e r . I b i d . , p . 3 ^ 8 . T h i s new s e e em b ra ce d t h e t e r r i t o r y w h ic h f o r m e r l y c o m p r is e d t h e d i o c e s e o f W a lla W a lla ( s u p p r e s s e d i n I 8 5 O) w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t s o f C o l v i l l e and F o rt H a ll. C i a n g e t t i , l o c . c i t . , p . 6I4.. See a b o v e , p . 1 0 2 . Ib id . I b i d . , p . 101. Ib id . I b i d .,' p . 100. S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , l 8i|ij.-l8 6 6 , p . 575• T h i s s e e was g i v e n j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r e a s t e r n K e n t u c k y . See a b o v e , p . I I I 4.. S h e a , H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u rc h , l81)li.-l866, p . 6 2 5 . C o m p rised a b o u t n i n e c o u n t i e s i n I l l i n o i s .

i n 1 8 5 7 )* F o r t W ayne,'1' an d S a n t a F e ; ^ i n 1 8 5 7 * t h r e e more a r e a s o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n w ere fo rm ed by c r e a t i o n o f t h e d i o c e s e o f S a u l t S ta M a r ie ^ a n d t h e v i c a r i a t e s o f S t , A u g u stin e ^II " an d Omaha. R J Of a l l t h e s e e s t h a t came i n t o e x i s t e n c e b e tw e e n l81j.O and i 8 6 0 , o n l y P i t t s b u r g h , B u f f a l o , S a v a n n a h and N a t c h i ­ t o c h e s o f f e r a n y e v i d e n c e o f C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t b e i n g shown i n th e B la c k s .

What was done i n th e f i r s t t h r e e h a s a l ­

re a d y beai n o te d ; as f o r N a tc h ito c h e s , th e s t o r y i s v e ry b rie f. A r c h b i s h o p B l a n c , u n a b l e t o do much a b o u t t h e d e e p i n r o a d s w h ic h a n t i - C a t h o l i c i s m was m a k in g i n n o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a a n d h o p i n g t h a t a r e s i d e n t b i s h o p w ould be a b l e t o do more e f f e c t i v e

work t h a n t h e f a r - d i s t a n t r e g e n t i n

New O r l e a n s , p e t i t i o n e d t h e H oly See t o e r e c t a n o t h e r d io c e se in L o u isia n a .

I n acco rd an ce w ith h i s r e q u e s t ,

P ope P i u s I X , on J u l y 29* 1853 p l a c e d t h a t p a r t o f t h e S t a t e b e tw e e n t h e t h i r t y - f i r s t and t h i r t y - t h i r d d e g re e s i n t o a new d i o c e s e , t o g e t h e r w i t h th e p a r is h o f A v o y e lle s, a n d s e l e c t e d A u g u s te M a r t i n a s i t s

f i r s t b ish o p .

6

When M a r t i n assu m e d h i s e p i s c o p a l d u t i e s , he f o u n d

-*-• Ifoicl*, p . 599* E m b raced t h e c o u n t i e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a rt of In d ia n a . 2 . I b i d . , p . 6 2 2 . I t was g i v e n j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r New M e x ic o . 5* I t o i d . > P«5 9 2 . S u p p l a n t e d t h e v i c a r i a t e o f Upper Mi c h i g a n • I}.. I b i d . , p . ij-53 • To r u l e e a s t e r n F l o r i d a . L 5. I b i d . , p . o 54* I n c l u d e d D a k o t a , I d a h o a n d N e b r a s k a . 6. I b id ., p .6 7 5 *

117

r r e l i g i o u s c o n d i t i o n s i n a d e p l o r a b l e s t a t e so he s e t to work a t o n c e z e a l o u s l y t o r e v iv e r e l i g i o n , see t h a t th e yo ung an d t h e n e g r o e s were p r o p e r l y i n s t r u c t e d and ^put r e l i g i o n on a so lid b a s i s . l W ith o n l y f i v e p r i e s t s t o m i n i s t e r t o 2 5 ,0 0 0 s c a t t e r e d

C a t h o l i c s , he c o u l d n o t c o n c e n t r a t e h i s a t t e n t i o n o n t h e C o lo red .

Y e t , he d i d n o t n e g l e c t th e m .

He r e o p e n e d

s e v e r a l c h u r c h e s i n 1858 a n d i n v i t e d t h e B l a c k s t o a t t e n d — a lth o u g h th e re s u m p tio n o f s e r v ic e s l a s t e d f o r o n ly a b o u t two y e a r s . The o u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l War w r o u g h t c h a n g e s h e r e and e l s e w h e r e .

R e p e r c u s s i o n s w ere f e l t t h r o u g h o u t t h e

n a t i o n n o t o n l y i n t h e p o l i t i c a l and e co n o m ic s p h e r e s b u t i n r e l i g i o u s c i r c l e s a s w e l l a n d th e a p p a r e n t r e a w a k e n i n g t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y seem ed t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n th e s o u th r e c e iv e d a d e c id e d s e tb a c k .

C a th o lic a c i t i v i t y

was c u r t a i l e d an d o f c o u r s e , a n y s p e c i a l g e s t u r e s d i r e c t e d to w a r d s t h e H e g ro e s w ould be o u t o f p l a c e .

H ow ever, d u r i n g

t h e t h r e e d e c a d e s j u s t r e v i e w e d , C a t h o l i c i s m , th o u g h i t s e f f o r t s w e re p u t f o r t h u n d e r h a n d i c a p and i n l i m i t e d a r e a s , was n o t i d l e — i t e x t e n d e d a g e n e r o u s welcome t o t h e C o lo r e d t o j o i n t h e r a n k s o f i t s

1. I b i d ., p. 676.

L

c o m m u n ic a n ts .

( u n d e r s c o r i n g m in e )

i

118

r

m

CONCLUSION Prom t h e e a r l i e s t d a y s , t h e C a t h o l i c C hurch ch am p io n ed t h e c a u s e o f t h e C o lo r e d a n d w a s , to a g r e a t e x t e n t , r e s p o n ­ s i b l e f o r t h e c h a n g e o f a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f P r o t e s t a n t s r e g a r d i n g th e b a p tis m o f s l a v e s .

I t h e ld s t r i c t l y to a

p o l i c y o f f o s t e r i n g good w i l l among t h e N e g ro e s by welcom ­ i n g them i n t o t h e c h u r c h e s o f t h e w h i t e s , m a k in g them f e e l t h a t t h e y were p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r c o n g r e g a t i o n , a n d b y i n s t r u c t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o become b e t t e r C h r i s t i a n s . W ith t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n i n d e p e n d e n t A m e ric a n h i e r a r c h y , th e e f f o r t s begun d u rin g th e c o l o n i a l p e rio d w ere c o n t i n u e d .

A t th e c l o s e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,

f u r t h e r s u c c e s s e s w ere r e a l i z e d -when B is h o p C a r r o l l a s s i g n e d t h e n e w l y - a r r i v e d San D om ingans t o t h e c a r e o f t h e S u l p i c i a n F a th e rs o f B a ltim o re .

I n o t h e r a r e a s , t h e emigre*s w ere n o t

so f o r t u n a t e a s t h e M a r y la n d g r o u p ; h o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h t h e y l a c k e d t h e r e g u l a r m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f p r i e s t s , m o s t o f them r e m a in e d s t e a d f a s t t o t h e f a i t h . C a r r o l l d i e d i n 1815 b u t i n t h e d e c a d e and a h a l f f o l ­ l o w i n g h i s d e m i s e , h i s e x a m p le o f e n c o u r a g i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e s p i r i t u a l n e e d s o f t h e B l a c k s was n o t f o r g o t t e n .

The

s u c c e e d in g a rc h b is h o p s o f B a ltim o re and th e e p i s c o p a l i n ­ c u m b e n ts i n t h e n i n e d i o c e s e s e r e c t e d b e f o r e 183O w ere i n h e a r t y a c c o r d w i t h h i s w o rk , b u t t h e y m a j o r i t y o f them h a d no o p p o r t u n i t y o f c o n t i n u i n g i t b e c a u s e t h e y h a d no C o lo r e d l i v i n g u n d e r t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . L

A d is tin c tiv e

^

not© was a d d e d t o t h e s e e a r l y e n d e a v o r s I n t h e d i o c e s e o f B a r d s t o vm w here a b i r a c i a l com m unity o f S i s t e r s was f o u n d e d i n 18214..

S h o r t - l i v e d a s t h i s s i s t e r h o o d w as, i t

c e rta in ly

p r o v e d t h a t t h e C h u rc h was n o t i n d i f f e r e n t t o p r o m o t i n g t h e s p i r i t u a l w e lfa re o f th e C o lo red . Prom I 85O t o t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l W ar, s u r p r i s ­ in g ly l i t t l e

was d o n e f o r t h e H e g r o e s .

I n a d d i t i o n to th e

e le v a tio n o f fo u r se e s to a rc h d io c e sa n ra n k , th ir ty - tw o new b i s h o p r i c s w ere c r e a t e d b y t h e H o ly S ee so t h a t t h e l a r g e num ber o f C a t h o l i c i m m i g r a n t s fro m E u ro p e m i g h t n o t be d e n ie d n e c e s s a ry e p is c o p a l s u p e r v is io n .

The a d m i n i s t e r ­

i n g o f t h e s e new s e e s d i v e r t e d e c c l e s i a s t i c a l e n e r g y fro m a c tiv itie s

t h a t m ig h t have b e e n d i r e c t e d to w a rd s th e

C o lo re d ; h e n c e , f o r y e a r s , C a th o lic is m had v e ry l i t t l e c o n ta c t w ith th e m ajo r p o r tio n o f t h a t r a c e ,

n e v e rth e le ss,

d e s p i t e t h e p a u c i t y o f p r i e s t s a n d m e a g re r e s o u r c e s , f o u r s o u t h e r n d i o c e s e s t o o k a n a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e B l a c k s ; and i n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , two n o r t h e r n s e e s - - P i t t s b u r g h and B u f f a l o — a l s o p a i d some a t t e n t i o n t o t h o s e l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a rie s.

The g r e a t e s t a c h i e v e m e n t f o r t h e

C o l o r e d C a t h o l i c s d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s , h o w e v e r , was t h e f o u n d i n g o f two c o m m u n itie s o f C o lo re d S i s t e r s . I n d e e d , i t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t no u n i f i e d , c o u n t r y ­ w id e p r o g ra m was f o l l o w e d .

E a c h b i s h o p a n d p r i e s t , when

e n c o u r a g i n g t h e N e g r o e s t o becom e C a t h o l i c s , a c t e d i n h i s i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t y , h e n c e t h e e f f o r t s r e m a in e d a s e r i e s Lo f i s o l a t e d e n d e a v o r s — p r o d u c i n g s p o r a d i c r e s u l t s .

In

120

r c o m p a r is o n t o t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , f e w N e g r o e s became m em bers o f t h e C a t h o l i c Church#

T hose who d i d were m o s t

welcome i n t h e f o l d , a n d k n e l t w i t h w h i t e p a r i s h o n e r s a t t h e a l t a r s , a s t h e c l e r g y w en t a b o u t t h e i r C h r i s t i a n d u t y o f m i n i s t e r i n g t o a l l p e o p le w ith o u t d i s t i n c t i o n a s to c o lo r#

L

-j

121

n

r APPEND IX

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122 Diocese of Erie T l l K C lIA N C K H Y O m C K 2 0B W K H T N i n t h S t h k k t

Erie, Pennsylvania

Jlay 6 , 1949

Rev. T im oth y H o lla n d , S . S . J . The J o s e p h i t e F a t h e r s E p ip h a n y A p o s t o l i c C o lle g e Newburgh, New York Dear F a t h e r H o lla n d : Your l e t t e r to F a t h e r G o o d i l l has b e e n r e f e r r e d to me. You a r e u n d o u b t e d l y aw are t h a t t h e N egro es came to th e n o r t h w e s t e r n p a r t o f P e n n s y l v a n i a i n num bers o n l y a f t e r th e C i v i l War. As a r e s u l t t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f s p e c i f i c work h a v in g be en done i n th e D io c e s e from i t s f o u n d a t i o n to 1871. W ish in g I c o u ld be o f more h e l p to y o u , I b e g to r e m a in R e s p e c t f u l l y y o u r s i n Chris t ,

James W. Weithman V ic e -C h a n c e llo r JWl/sak

T

h e

A

r c h d io c ese

29

o f

C

in cinnati

EAST EIGHTH STREET CINCINNATI, OHIO

A pril 19, 1950 THE

CHANCERY

Rev. Timothy J . Holland Epiphany Apostolic College Newburgh, New,York Dear Father Holland: I regret to write that I have been unable to find ar^ything d e fin ite in the history cf the Arch diocese of C in cin rati about Catholic e ffo r ts for the Negroes before 1860. I have consulted Rev. John Lamat t , author of the ,fH istoiy of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati" and his rec o ile c tio n o f early work in the diocese for the Negroes goes back no ea r lie r than the 1860’ s and that amounts to a chapel for them a t most. With a l l good w ish es, I am, Sincerely yours in Christ, Aas’x . Chancellcr

0

Arrljfctoreae C l I ANC E HY 1*54

o f Detroit BUI LDI NG

WASHINGTON

BOULEVARD

DETROIT 20 • MICHIGAN -FICE OF CHANCELLOR

May 9, 1949

Rev. Timothy J. Holland, S .S .J . Epiphany A postolic College Newburgh, New York Dear Father Holland; Enclosed you w ill find the response of our Diocesan H istorian to your inquiry which I forwarded to him. We are hopeful that i t w ill be o f some help. With every good w ish, I am S in cerely yours in Christ,

A ssistan t Chancellor K

123

12*

J S a e r c b ^ H e a r t (E lju r c lj JBox 172, JRt. 2 (31c, (JHidjigan May 6 , 1949.

T h e h e v e l e n u x > e rh a ra X e a r n s , C h a n cery

B u il d in g ,

D e tro it. p e a r F a th e r K earn s: The e a r l i e s t m en tio n o f any v^ork n o n e f o r t h e n e &r o e s b y t h e c h u r c h I n D e ­ t r o i t t h a t I h av e b een a b le t o f i n a i s an e n t r y in th e C a th o lic D ire c to ry f o r th e y e a r 1869. I t 1 m e n t i o n s a " C h a p e l f o r t h e C o l o r e d ” a t t e n d e d by H e v . B e r n a r d C o f f e r s , He was p a s t o r o f o l d S t . A nne f o r a g o o d many y e a r s b e g i n n i n g i n 1 3 5 8 , a n d I h a v e no a o u b t b u t t h a t *t h e •,! c h a p e l ” was t h e b a s e m e n t o f S t . A nne w h e r e s o many o t h e r s m a l l C a th o lip gro u p s haa f i r s t been b ro u g h t t o g e t h e r . F a t h e r S o f f e r s m u s t h a v e b e e n w o r k i n g among th e m b e fo re t h a t a a t e , but I have n o th in g to pro v e th e su p p o s itio n . C o r d ia lly

y o u r s ,

125

JVrctfbbcesan flUjanrerjj C O R. ELEVENTH AND BLUFF ST.

pubuijuc,

A f t e r h i s c o n s e c r a t io n a s B is h o p , th e R t. R ev. M ich a el O'Connor a r r iv e d i n P it t s b u r g h December 2 0 , 1 8 4 3 . Accompanying him was th e R ev. R ob ert A. W ils o n , D .D ., who im m e d ia te ly was a s s ig n e d to work among t h e C o lo red p e o p le o f th e c i t y . The C olored p o p u la t io n o f P it t s b u r g h a t t h a t tim e was e s t im a te d a t t h r e e th o u sa n d , b u t n o t more th a n a s c o r e o f t h e s e p r o f e s s e d th e C a t h o lic R e l i g i o n . F a th e r W ilso n c a l l e d t h e s e t o g e t h e r and m in is t e r e d to them i n a sm a ll fram e h a l l on S m it h f ie ld S t r e e t n ea r Diamond S t r e e t , w h ich was b l e s s e d by B ish op 0 * Connor on June 3 0 , 1 8 4 4 . T h is f i r s t Church f o r th e C olored i n P it t s b u r g h was c a l l e d : MThe C hapel o f th e N a t i v i t y " . In h i s book " F oun dation S to n e s o f a G reat D io c ese " M sgr. A. A. Lam bing, w r i t e s o f F a th e r W ilso n and t h i s en d ea v o r: "The z e a l o f th e youn g p a s t o r f o r h i s s a b le f l o c k was e x tr a o r d in a r y and amounted aitomost t o e n th u s ia s m . He w ould v i s i t t h e i r hom es, spend h ou rs w it h them and e v e n p a r ta k e o f t h e i r f r u g a l m e a ls , th e b e t t e r to w in them t o C h r is t , and h i s la b o r s w ere crowned w ith good s u c c e s s . But i t e x c i t e d th e j e a l o u s y o f some o f t h e p r e a c h e r s , and a t r i c k was r e s o r t e d to by t h e s e m i n i s t e r s o f th e g o s p e l o f t r u t h , w h ic h , ow ing to th e ig n o r a n c e and b i g o t r y o f th e t i m e s , was s u f f i c i e n t t o d e s t r o y th e f r u i t o f h i s l a b o r s . A m i n i s t e r d e c la r e d from th e p u l p i t o f one o f th e ch u rch es t h a t Dr. W ilso n was a p r o s la v e r y man, who was p la n n in g to c o l l e c t a number o f th e n e g r o e s t o g e t h e r , and h ave them s e i z e d , ta k e n s o u th and s o l d in t o s la v e r y by h i s a g e n t s . The t r i c k s u c c e e d e d , th e p oor ig n o r a n t p e o p le to o k th e a la rm , th e c o n g r e g a tio n was b rok en up i n l e s s th an a y e a r a f t e r i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and th e c h a p e l had to b e c lo s e d and abandoned", ( p . 1 9 6 ) . From 1845 u n t i l a f t e r th e Second P le n a r y C o u n c il o f B a ltim o r e , O cto b er 1 8 6 5 , th e C olored C a t h o lic s w orsh ip p ed p r i n c i p a l l y a t S t . P a u l's C a th e d r a l. At t h a t tim e F a th e r James T r ea c y , P a s to r o f S t . B r i d g e t ' s , whose p a r is h was i n th e c e n t e r o f th e C olored p o p u la t io n o f P it t s b u r g h , p u rc h a sed a l o t on th e w e s t s i d e o f A rthur S t r e e t , n ea r C en ter A venue, on w h ich a b asem en t Chapel was b u i l t un der th e p a tr o n a g e o f S t . J o se p h . The C o lo r ed c o n g r e g a tio n w ould h e a r Mass a t S t . B r i d g e t ' s , and m eet in t h e i r own C hapel on Sunday e v e n in g s .

N .B .

The l a t e R ev. John Canova, who u n t i l h i s r e c e n t d e a th was a r c h i v i s t o f th e D io c e s e o f P it t s b u r g h , l i s t s Dr. W ilso n , a s th e R ev. R ichard H. W ils o n . S in c e I h ave n o t b een a b le to v e r i f y t h i s a t th e p r e s e n t t im e , I h a v e g iv e n th e name as p u b lis h e d i n M sgr. Lam bing's books R ev. R ob ert A. W ilso n , D.D.

C o m m is s io n P in r tf s * u f B u f f a l o Grand I s la n d , N# Y# May 1 0 , 1949 The R ev Tim othy J . H o lla n d , SSJ J o s e p h it e F a th e r s E piphany A p o s t o lic C o lle g e Newburgh, N. Y. Dear F a th e r H o lla n d ; \

i Your l e t t e r t o F a th e r M cLaughlin h a s been forw ard ed to me f o r p o s s i b l e d a ta . Our H i s t o r i c a l Commission was form ed p r im a r ily t o g a th e r d a ta from th e v a r io u s p a r is h e s . In "A H is to r y o f S t . J o s e p h ’ s Old C a th ed ral" p u b lis h e d a t 50 F r a n k lin S t . , B u f f a lo 2 , N. Y. in 1 9 4 7 , and w r itt e n by th e R ev. N e lso n W. L o g a l, who rem ains a t t h a t a d d r e s s , I f in d th e f o l lo w in g a t page 112: "Work among th e c o lo r e d p e o p le o f B u ff a lo began in S t . J o s e p h ’ s C a th ed ra l many y e a r s b e fo r e th e C i v i l War. The R ev. S erg e de S c h o u l ip n i k o f f , V ic a r -G e n e r a l f o r th e German and F rench p e o p le o f th e D io c e s e , i n t e r e s t e d h im s e lf in th e sm a ll c o lo n y o f c o lo r e d p e o p le lo c a t e d in B u f f a l o . F a th e r de S . b e lo n g e d t o th e R u ssia n n o b i l i t y , he was a s s ig n e d t o th e C a th ed ra l when he a r r iv e d in B u f f a lo . " S h o r tly a f t e r com ing to th e C a th e d r a l, he r e n te d a sm a ll hou se on t h e E a st S i d e , w hich he u sed a s a c h a p e l and e a t e c h e t i c a l s c h o o l f o r th e c o lo r e d p e o o le o f th e c i t y . A s i z a b l e number o f C a t h o lic s were found and many c o n v e r ts were g a in e d by F a th e r de S . "When he l e f t B u f f a lo , th e r e was no one t o ta k e h i s p l a c e . The work was n e­ g l e c t e d and th e c o lo r e d C a t h o lic s e i t h e r l o s t t h e i r i n t e r e s t o r r e tu r n e d to t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l p a r is h e s ."

C om tm issiim P* The R ev. Tim othy J .

u f |S n ffa ln H o lla n d ,

SSJ

-2 -

On page 134 o f th e same work I f i n d a l i s t o f " P r ie s t s o f S t . J o se p h * s C a th e d r a l," in w hich "the d a t e s a p p e n d e d ., i n d ic a t e d a t l e a s t one o f th e y e a r s in w hich th e y s e r v e d in S t . J o s e p h * ^ th e d a te s b e in g ta k e n from th e b a p tism a l r e c o r d s . In th e l i s t I f i n d : "Rev. S e r g e de S h o u lip n lk o f f

1 8 5 7 ."

I hope t h i s may be o f some h e lp to y o u . You m igh t be a b le to g e t f u r t h e r d e t a i l s from from F a th er L ogal a t th e a d d r e ss above g iv e n .

S in c e r e ly

(R e v .; Edward S . Schwegtt/er c£".

133

CHANCERY OFFICE 52

WILLIAMS

STREET

B U R L I N G T O N . VERMONT

May 6 19 49 Rev. Timothy J . Holland Epiphany C ollege Newburgh, New York Dear Father: In r e p ly to your recen t l e t t e r o f in q u ir y , may I say th a t th ere i s no record o f any s p e c if ic work b e in g done fo r th e Negro in t h i s D iocese p rior to 1860.

The Negro pop ulation in t h i s S ta te

has always been alm ost n e g lig ib le . With a l l good w ish e s, I remain, S in c e r e ly yours in C h r ist,

C hancellor.

The

C han cery

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307

C on gress

S tr e e t

P o r tla n d ,

M a in e

May. 2 ,1 9 4 9 ' '

R e v . Tim othy J . H o lla n d S p ip h an y A p o s t o lic C o lle g e Newburgn, New York R everen d d ear F a th e r , In r e p ly t o you r in q u ir y o f A p r il tw e n ty n i n t h , th e r e a re no r e c o r d s a t th e Chancery O f f ic e o f P o r t la n d o f any s p e c i a l work i n b e h a l f o f n e g r o e s b etw een 1853 and i 8 6 0 .

A lth o u g h th e D io c e s e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t

1853* th e f i r s t B ish o p d id n o t come u n t i l 1855* and th e e a r l y a c t i v i t i e s w ere t h o s e o f a p io n e e r d i o c e s e .

S i n c e r e ly y o u r s ,

Chance

1)36 S

a in t

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K IN T

or

m a r y - o f -t h e - W o o d b a in t

C ollege M a r y -o p -t h b - W o o o s In d i a n a

H ISTO R Y

May 13, 1949. The Reverend Timothy J . Holland Epiphany A p o sto lic C ollege Newburgh, New York. Dear Father H olland, Your note o f A pril 28 to Monseignor Bernard Sheridan has been r eferred t o me fo r r e p ly . Several th in g s have pre­ vented me from answering i t u n t il tod ay. In t h i s l e t t e r you inquired i f any s p e c if ic work was done for th e Negro in th e d io c e se o f Vincennes p r io r t o I8 6 0 . In regard to t h i s m atter we have no o f f i c i a l documents but from other sources i t i s known th a t a t one time a churoh and sch ool fo r Negroes was planned in th e town o f V incennes. Indiana, o f cou rse, had few N egroes. Some sla v e s liv e d in the r eg io n when Indiana became a s t a t e and the C o n stitu tio n o f 1816 pro­ vid ed } "There s h a ll be n e ith e r sla v e r y nor involuntary ser v itu d e in t h is s t a t e . . . . " This was in terp reted as emancipation but th ere were s la v e s , c h ie f ly in th e w estern c o u n tie s , for many years a ft e r t h a t . A lo c a l census in Vincennes in 1830 enumerated th ir ty -tw o held there but i t seems th a t sla v e r y was e x tin c t by 1840. An important item was incorporated in th e C o n stitu tio n o f 1851* "No Negro or Mulatto s h a ll come in t o , or s e t t l e in th e S ta te , a f t e r th e adoption o f t h is C onsti­ t u t io n . " I may remark th a t the d io c e se o f Vincennes had a French t r a d it io n , th a t th e th re e bishops and a la r g e number o f th e p r ie s t s and r e lig io u s in th e d io c e se during t h is time were French and had l i t t l e or no r a c ia l a n tip ath y to th e b la c k s . There were C atholic Negroes in Indiana, same o f whom had been attach ed to th e old French f a m ilie s | others must have been introduced l a t e r . For example, Bishop Brute noted th a t when he passed through In d ian ap olis in J u ly , 1838 he b ap tised two N egroes. Due to the ru ral c o n d itio n s o f Indiana,4 Vinoennes was the on ly l o e a l i t y where any d e f in it e step s oould be taken for th ese p eo p le. In 1850 th er e were 221 fr e e Negroes in th e v i l l a g e , a ten th o f the populat­ io n . C erta in ly some o f th e s e were C ath olics and no d i f f i c u l t y was placed in th e way o f th e ir a tten d in g se r v io e s in th e c a th e d r a l. I t seem s, how­ ever t th a t th ey did not atten d the sch ool o f the w h ite s . In th e e a r ly 1 8 5 0 's S is t e r S t . Francis X avier, a S is t e r o f Providence who was lo c a te d in Vincennes# wrote* Our l i t t l e b oys, fo r ty in number, are doing n ic e ly . They pray fo r you w ith great fervor# I do not know when we s h a ll begin our sch ool fo r the negroes, for I fin d very few who wish to help u s. The poor negroes are not in high esteem in t h is cou n try. S t i l l , two o f our p o stu la n ts hsve o ffered th em selves for the work, and we s h a ll take Father Peter Claver for our patron .

126 S

|l K N T

OF

M a r y -o f -t h e - W o o d s C o l l e g e S a i n t M a r y -o f -t h e - W o o d s In d i a n a

a in t

H IS T O R Y

A fter a few months she wrote again : At l a s t my d e s ir e s are about to be r e a lize d # Bishop de S ain t C alais is to begin a c la s s fo r th e negroes and to b u ild a church for them# Dr# B atty, a FVencb p h y sic ia n , w i l l g iv e part o f the n ecessa ry funds# A p r ie s t from th e d io c e se o f St# Brieuc w ill be t h e ir chaplain# Our S is te r s w il l have charge o f th e sc h o o l, and soon, I h ore, th ese poor negroes w i l l become C a th o lic s. Both o f th ese r efer en ce s are taken from Mine# Clementine De La C orb in iere, The L ife and l e t t e r s o f S is t e r St# Francis Xavier (St# M ary-of-the-W oods, I n d ., 1934), pp# 262-263# N either o f th ese e x tr a c ts is dated# I t seem s, however, th a t th e " p r ie st from the d io cese o f St# Brieuc" was John Gueguen who was tr a n sfe rr e d to Vincennes in 1853 to be r e c to r o f the seminary# I f t h is is c o r r e c t, i t might serve to help f i x th e date o f th e plan# But the p r o je c t was never carried out for th e church records in Vincennes give no in d ic a tio n o f e ith e r a church or school having been e sta b lis h e d there# Whether th e fa ilu r e was due to a lack o f funds or to o p p o sitio n on th e part o f w h ite people cannot be a scerta in ed but the plan was c e r ta in ly in accord w ith the s o c ia l and ch a rita b le in t e r e s t s o f th e bishop# This i s a l l th e data a v a ila b le on the su b ject u n t il a fte r the C iv il War when Bishop Chatard took cognizance o f the ra p id ly growing Negro p op ulation in Indian apolis# V.ith b e s t w ishes I remain S in c e r e ly yours,

Rev. Robert Gorman St# Mary-of-the-W oods, Indiana#

®(je JBioceaan Ctjancerp 328 Jfllftlj Avenue, North NavlfvlUe (3) (Settneaeee May 1 6 , 1949 Rev. Timothy J . Holland Epiphany A p o sto lic C ollege Newburgh, New York Dear Father Holland: In answer to your l e t t e r o f A p ril 28th I wish to say thfct I have made a thorough search fo r records o f work fo r Negroes b efo re I8 6 0 . In com piling data on work fo r Negroes b efo re I860 i t w i l l be n ecessa ry t o bear in mind th a t th at was b efo re the c i v i l way and during th e tim e o f slaveyyy Hence th e Church was handicapped in any e f f o r t s on t h e i r b e h a lf. However, we have a good number o f baptism al records o f Negroes who worked fo r w hite C a th o lic s . I t i s presumed th a t th ey were converted through t h e ir w hite m asters and attended church w ith them. In (O’D&niel’ s book "Father o f the Church in Tennessee" th ere i s a referen ce on page 400 to a C ath olic school fo r N egroes, and fu rth er r eferen ce i s given t o th e C ath olic Almanac befween 1842 and I860. We have no record in the Chancery o f such a school and do not know where i t was lo c a te d or when abandoned. Many o f th e old records o f t h i s d io c e se were destroyed by f i r e . The f i r s t record we have o f a Church fo r negroes i s in 1905. I hope t h i s inform ation w i l l be o f some a s s is ta n c e to you although i t i s very meager. S in c e r e ly Rev. Charles M. W illia a s

136

I h s n o p '.s l l o r s i : i ms I I a n t I I a h m i m S t h u h t S.WATVN/Vir, G h o m g i a

May 17, 1949

Rev. Timothy J. Holland, Efciphaiy Apostolic College, Newburgh, New York. Reverend and dear Father: 29 has been received* ray reply.

Your kind le tt e r o f April I regret absence has delayed

Our diocese came into ex— isten ce in 1849* Prior to that time i t was a part of the Diocese o f Charleston. As you know, those were the days of slavery. Our records show a large number of slaves baptized and confirmed as the m issionaries made th eir way to plantations of Catholic owners. In­ structions were usually given by the mistress of the manor, augmented by the raissioner as he made h is rounds through the vast te r r ito r y . Some of the churches had galle r ie s and in these the slaves attended Mass. Other churches that were not so constructed had sections re­ served for the colored. I am not aware of any sp ecial e ffo r ts made. There were no m issionaries who devoted themselves exclusively to the colored, nor were there any churches d e fin itely ascribed to them. They went to Mass eith er at the house of the plantation owner, or in the church or chapel that was provided for a l l C atholics.

The Diocese o f Charleston would have much more complete records, since a l l the territo ry was under the ju risd iction of that See for many years prior to 1860. With kindest regards, I beg to remain, Most sincerely yours*.

Vicar General.

r B IB L IO G R A P H Y

M a n u s c r ip t S o u r c e s : A r c h iv e s o f t h e A r c h d io c e s e o f B a ltim o r e # A r c h iv e s o f t h e A r c h d io c e s e o f New O rle a n s # A r c h iv e s o f t h e D io c e s e o f C h a r l e s t o n . A r c h iv e s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N o tre Dame, w h ic h c o n t a i n m uch m a t e r i a l o n t h e See o f New O r le a n s p r i o r t o i 8 6 0 . A r c h iv e s o f th e U r s u l i n e S i s t e r s , New O r l e a n s , L o u is ia n a # D i a r y o f F a t h e r J o u b e r t , M o th e rh o u se o f t h e O b la te S i s t e r s o f P ro v T d e n c e , B a l t i m o r e , M a ry lan d # D i a r y o f B r o t h e r J o s e p h M o b b e rly , G eorgetow n U n i v e r s i t y A rc h iv e s . P a r i s h Be c o r d s o f H oly T r i n i t y C h u rc h , G e o rg eto w n . P a r i s h R e c o rd s o f S t# P e t e r ’ s C h u rc h , B a r c l a y S t r e e t , New Y o Y k 'T fity l-------

P rin te d S o u rc e s: A r c h iv e s o f M a r y la n d , 63 v o l s . , B a l t i m o r e , M a ry la n d H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , I 8 b 5 - l 9 W , V o ls . I - V I . D o n n an, E l i z a b e t h : D ocum ents I l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e H i s t o r y o f t h e S la v e T ra d e t o A m erT ca, 2 v o l s #, W a sh in g to n D .C # , C a rn e g ie ' ‘i n s t i t u t e o f W a s h in g to n , 1930# G oodw in, M .B.4 S p e c i a l R e p o rt o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s C o m m issio n er o f E d u c a ti o n f o r 1871» W a s h in g to n , ^ v e r x in e 'n 't P r T n t r n g 7 i f f T c e 7 3 8 7 I 7 ” H u g h e s, Thomas A #: The H i s t o r y o f t h e S o c i e t y o f J e s u s i n N o r th A m e ric a , D o c u m e n ts, I ( 2 p a r t s ) , New Y o rk , L ongm ans, G reen a n d Company, 1 9 1 0 . J e s u i t R e l a t i o n s a n d A l l i e d D o c u m e n ts, e d i t e d b y R ueben Gold T h w a i t e s , 7 3 ”v o l s . , ~ C l e v e l a n d , The B u rro w s B r o t h e r s Com pany, 18 9 6 # L

_J

W o o d sto ck L e t t e r s j A r e c o r d o f c u r r e n t e v e n t s and h i s t o r i c a l n o t e s c o n n e c te d w ith t h e C o lle g e s and M i s s io n s o f t h e S o c i e t y , 7 5 v o l s . . W oodstock C o l l e g e , W o o d sto c k , M a ry la n d , 1 9 1 2 -1 9 4 6 .

S eco n d a ry Works: A dam s, A l i c e P . : The N eg l e c t e d P e r i o d o f A n t i - S l a v e r y i n A m e ric a , l 8 0 B - i d 51 * Bo s t o n , C inn and Company, 1938’. A dam s, Jam es T r u s lo w : A m erica* s T r a g e d y , New Y o rk , C h a r le s S c r i h n e r a n d S o n s , 1 9 5 if* A n drew s, M atthew P . : H is t o r y o f M aryland, P r o v in c e and S t a t e , New Y o rk , D o u h le d a y , D o ra n an d Company 7 T 92 9 • A s w e ll , B . C . : **The C h u rch an d th e N e g ro ,*1 Commonweal, v o l . I X , n o . 3 (N ovem ber 2 1 , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 6 6 . B a i l e y , Thomas A . : A D ip lo m a tic H i s t o r y o f t h e A m e ric an P e o p l e , New iftTrk, P . S . C r o f t s an d Company, l 9 i $ . B a s s e t t , Jo h n S p e n c e r : A n t i - S l a v e r y L e a d e r s o f N o r th C a r o l i n a , ( J o h n s H o p k in s U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e s ) , B a l t i m o r e , 1877* B a u d i e r , H o g e r: T he C a t h o l i c C h u rch i n L o u i s i a n a , New O r l e a n s , A'.~ W. H y a tt a n d Company, 1959* " B a y a rd , R alph: Lone S ta r Vanguard— The C a t h o lic R eo c c u p a t l o n ot T e x a s , S t . L o u is , The V i n c e n t i a n P r e s s , i% 5 » B e a n , W illia m : frAn A s p e c t o f K n o w -N o th in g ism -- The Xmmi g r a n t - a n d S l a v e r y , 11 S o u th A t l a n t i c Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . X X I II , no ij. ( O c to b e r 1 9 2 1 0 ,' 319-331 B e t t l e , B d w ard : ^ N o tic e s o f N egro S l a v e r y a s C o n n e c te d w i t h P e n n s y lv a n ia ,* * M em oirs o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , v o l . I (A u g u s t l b £ 6 ) , 5 5 5 - 5 B8 . B i e v e r , A l b e r t t The J e s u i t s i n New O r le a n s and t h e M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y , &ew O r le a n s , (no im p r in t ) , 192%. B i l l i n g t o n , Ray A l l e n : T he P r o t e s t a n t C r u s a d e , 1 8 0 0 -1 8 6 0 , A S tu d y o f t h e O r i g i n s o f A m e ric a n N a t iv i s m , New Y o rk , T he M acm iX lan Company, 1 9 5 8 .

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B l i e d , B e n ja m in J . : Ca t h o l i c s and t h e C i v i l W ar, M ilw a u k e e , (no i m p r i n t ) , l 9 k $ \ B ozm an, Jo h n L e e d s : A H i s t o r y o f M a ry la n d , B a l t i m o r e , Jam es L u c a s a n d 1 . D e a v e r , lo^T"* B r a c k e n r i d g e , H en ry M .: V iew s o f L o u i s i a n a , P i t t s b u r g h , C ra m e r, S p e a r a n d M ichbaum , I B 1 7 . B r a c k e t t , J e f f r e y R . : N o te s on th e P r o g r e s s o f t h e C o lo re d P e o p le o f M a ry la n d S in c e th e W ar, ( J o h n s H o p k in s U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n Hi s t o r i c a l an d P o l i t i c a l S c ie n c e s , e ig h th s e r i e s ) , B a ltim o re , 1890. : T he N eg ro I n M a ry la n d , B a l t i m o r e , J o h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , lo 9 ^ * B u t s c h , J o s e p h : “ C a t h o l i c s an d t h e N e g r o ,1* J o u r n a l o f N egro H i s t o r y , V o l. I I , n o . !+ ( O c to b e r 1 9 1 ? ) , 5 5 5 _________ : “N egro C a t h o l i c s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1* C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l R ev iew , V o l. I l l , n o . 1 ( A p r i l T ^ T T T i y - ^ r . " '" ' ' ' ' C a h a la n , Jo h n ( t r . ) : “ L e t t e r s and P a p e r s fro m th e A n n a le s d e 1*A s s o c i a t i o n d e l a P r o p a g a t i o n de l a P o i , 1* H i s t o r i c a l R e c o rd s a n d S t u d i e s , I I (O c to b e r 1 8 8 2 ) , T5T* C a r r o l l , M ost R ev . J o h n : “ R e p ly to t h e R ev. P a t r i c k S m y th ,1* R e s e a r c h e s , A m e ric a n C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , I

C 191I), 1 9 3 -2 6 6 .



"

C a t t e r a l l , H e le n T . : J u d i c i a l C a se s C o n c e rn in g A m e ric an S l a v e r y a n d t h e t o g r o , C arne g i e I n s t l t u t e P u b l i c a t i o n F o T M ^ ^ s H T H g t o n T D . C. , 1 9 3 2 . C h i l d s , P r a n c e s S e r g e a n t : F r e n c h R e fu g ee L i f e i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 7 9 0 -1 8 0 0 , B a l t i m o r e , The J o h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , 191$ . C ia n g e tti, Paul P .: “A D io c e s a n C h ro n o lo g y o f th e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h i n t h e U n ite d S ta te s ,* * C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l R ev iew , X X V III, n o . 1 ( A p r i l 1 9 ^ 2 ) , 5 0 -7 ^ 7 C l a r k e , R ic h a r d H .: The L iv e s o f D e c e a s e d B is h o p s o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u rc h i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 3 v o l s . , New Y ork’, P . ^ H e a , “T8HH7 ------------------- ---C o d e, J o s e p h : D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e A m e ric a n H i e r a r c h y , New Y o rk , L ongm ans, G reen a n d Company, 1 9 4 °•

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C ro m w e ll, Jo h n W. s The N egro i n A m e ric an H i s t o r y , W ashing­ t o n , D .C ., The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e S tu d y o f N egro L i f e a n d H i s t o r y , 19lif« C u r l e y , M ic h a e l J . : The C h u rch an d S t a t e i n t h e S p a n ! s h P l o r i d a s , ( S t u d i e s i n A m e ric an C h u rc h H i s t o r y , C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e ric a , XXX), W a s h in g to n , D .C ., 19^ 0 . DeBow, J . D . B . : S t a t i s t i c a l View o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s . ♦ . B e in g a Compendium o f t h e S e v e n th C e n s u s , W a sh in g to n D .C . A • G• P . N i c h o l s o n , P u b l i c P r i n t e r 7 D e C o u rcy , H en ry & S h e a , Jo h n G. * The C a t h o l i c C h u rch i n T he U n ite d S t a t e s , New York7~T£# D u n n ig a n a n d Company D esm ond, H um phrey: The A .P .A . M ovem ent, W a s h in g to n , The New C e n tu ry P r e s s , T 9T2 . D enges, Jo sep h F . : C a th o lic M is s io n a ry and E d u c a tio n a l Work Among t h e Ne g ro e s o f th e B a lt i m o r e A rc h d lo ce s e , C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y , W a s h in g to n , D .C ., 1 9 2 8 , D u b o is , W. E . B . : B la c k R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , New Y o rk , H a r c o u r t B ra c e and Com pany, 1935* ? S u p p r e s s io n o f t h e A m e ric a n S la v e T r a d e , New Y o rk , L o n g n a n s , G reen and Com pany, 1 8 9 6 , D unn, S i s t e r M ary B o rro m e o : Our C o r n e r s to n e o f F a i t h , B a l t i m o r e , . C o p y r i g h t - S i 's t e r s o f P r o v i d e n c e , 1$5ij.. D u P ra tz , L eP ag e: H i s t o i r e de l a L o u is ia n e , 5 v o l s • , L o n d o n , T . B e c k e t a n d P . A* H o n d t, 175^# D u tto , L . A . : ^ N e g ro e s i n M i s s i s s i p p i , 11 The C a t h o l i c W o rld , XLVI, ( F e b r u a r y 1 8 8 8 ) , 5?5-*575. F i s h , C a r l : The R is e o f t h e Common Man, 1 8 3 0 -1 8 5 0 . (A H i s t o r y ^ f - ^ e r T c a F T i f e T 'V l l T ^ e w Y o r k ; The M a c m illa n Com pany, 1927* F i s k e , J o h n : O ld V i r g i n i a a n d H er N e i g h b o r s , 2 v o l s . , New Y o rk , H o u g h to n , M i f f l i r i and Company, 1 9 0 0 , F o r t i e r , A l c e e : L o u i s i a n a S t u d i e s , B a to n R ouge, F . F , H a n s e ll a n d B r o t h e r , 189 !).. F re n ch , B. F .: H i s t o r i c a l C o lle c tio n s o f L o u is ia n a , 5 v o ls P h i l a d e l p h l a , D a n i e l s a n d S m ith ,~ T 8 5 ().

G a n b r a l l , T h eo d o r© : C h u rc h L i f e I n C o l o n ia l M a ry la n d , B a l t i m o r e , G. L y c e t t (Company, ' T H 8 5 • G a r r a g h a n , G i l b e r t J . : The J e s u i t s o f t h e M id d le U n ite d S t a t e S j 3 v o l s , , New Y o rk , The A m e ric a P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 . G ayarre^, C h a r le s E , : H i s t o r y o f L o u i s i a n a , 3 v o l s , , New Y o rk , W. J . M id d le to n , TO>7"» Gerow, R ic h a r d : C r a d le D ays Of S t , M ary1s a t N a tc h e z , M a r r e r o , L o u i s i a n a , Hope Haven P r e s s , 191+1. G i l l a r d , Jo h n T • : The C a t h o l i c C h u rch an d th e A m e ric an N e g ro , B a l t i m o r e , - S t. lo s'ep h ’ s "S o c l e t y P r e s s , 1929• _________ : C o lo re d C a t h o l i c s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , B a l t i m o r e , The J o s e p h ! t e P r e s s , 191+1, G i l l i g a n , F r a n c i s J . : The M o r a l i t y o f th e C o lo r L i n e , W a s h in g to n , C a th o 1 1 c U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T 92BT G r a s s i , J o h n : **The C a t h o l i c R e l i g i o n i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i n l 8 l 8 , M R e s e a r c h e s , A m e ric a n C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l S o c ie ty , V III, 1890. G r i f f i n , A , P . : S e l e c t; L i s t o f R e f e r e n c e s on th e N egro Q u e s t i o n , G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n , I 9O3 . ’ G u ild a y , P e t e r K . : The L i f e a n d T im es o f Jo h n C a r r o l l , New Y o rk , The E n c y e lo p e d 1 a P r e s s , 1922• : The L i f e a n d T im es o f Jo h n E n g la n d , ■ 'IT H F ^ L W ; 2 1922, H a r t , A l b e r t B , : S l a v e r y a n d A b o l i t i o n , New Y o rk , H a rp e r B ro th e rs , 1906, H eb erm ann, C h a r l e s : The S u l p i c l a n s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , New Y o rk , The E n c y c lo p e d ia P r e s s , l'9 i6 V H ic k o k , C h a r le s T • : The N egro i n O h io , 1 8 0 2 -1 8 7 0 * C le v e la n d fn o i m p r i n t ) , 1 8 9 6 • H i l l , Raymond: S o c i a l Work o f t h e C o lo re d S i s t e r h o o d s , C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y , T 92 ^ . H o ffm an , M,M, : C h u rc h F o u n d e rs o f t h e N o r th w e s t, M ilw a u k e e , B ru c e P u b l i s h i n g Com pany,’""T93T*

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H ouck, G eorge P . : The C h u rc h i n N o r th e r n O h io , New Y o rk , B e n z ig e r B r o tE e r F ,' T F871------------------ . ------H o w le t t, W illia m J . ; The L i f e o f R e v . C h a r le s N e r in c k x , T e c h n y , I l l i n o i s , The M is s io n P r e s s , 1915* H u g h e s, Thomas ‘A * : The H i s t o r y o f t h e ” S o c i e t y o f J e s u s i n N o r th A m e ric a , T e x t , 2 v o T F ., ifew Y o rk , L ongm ans, G reen an d Company, 190 7 -1 9 1 7 * I n g l e , E dw ard : The N eg ro i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o lu m b ia , C Johns H o p k in s U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l an d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e s , 1 1 t h s e r i e s ) , B a l t i m o r e , 1893* Ja c k so n , L u th e r: “ R e l i g i o u s I n s t r u c t i o n o f N e g ro e s T i l l i8 6 0 W ith S p e c i a l R e fe r e n c e t o S o u th C a r o l i n a , 11 J o u r n a l o f N eg ro H i s t o r y , XV, n o , 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 3 0 ) , 7 ^ -H IiV — J o h n s o n , B r a d le y T . : The F o u n d a tio n o f M a ry la n d , B a lt i m o r e , Jo h n M urphy Com pany, 1883* J o h n s t o n , H a rry H , : The N egro i n t h e New W o rld , L o n d o n , M ethuen an d Company, L t d . , 1 9 1 0 . J o n e s , C h a r l e s : R e l i g i o u s I n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e N eg ro i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , S a v a n n a h , T . P u r s e a n d Com pany, l d i |2 . K e n r ic k , F r a n c i s P . : T h e o lo g ia e M o r a l i s , 3 v o l s . , P h i l a ­ d e l p h i a , E . C um m iskey, iB Ip .. K in g , G race E . : New O r l e a n s , T he P la c e a n d P e o p l e , New Y o rk , The M a c m illa n Company, K in g , W i l l i s J . : The N egro i n A m e ric a n L i f e , New Y o rk , The M e th o d is t Book C o n c e rn , 1 9 2 6 . K i r l i n , J o s e p h : C a th o l i c i t y i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , P h i l a d e l p h i a , The McVey Company, K r o u t , Jo h n & F o x , D ix o n : The C o m p le tio n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , 1 7 9 0 -1 8 3 0 * (A H i s t o r y o f A m e ric an L i f e , V ), New Y o rk , The M a c m illa n Com pany, 1 9 h t* L a F a r g e , J o h n : “The S u r v i v a l o f th e C a t h o l i c F a i t h i n M a r y la n d ,1* C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l R e v ie w , XXI, n o . 1 ( A p r i l 193 5 7 , 1 - 2 1 . ; L am b in g , R ev. A . A .: F o u n d a tio n S to n e s o f a G re a t D i o c e s e , 2 v o l s . , P i t t s b u r g h , I 9H . "*

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M aes, C a m illu s : L i f e o f F a t h e r N e r in c k x , C i n c i n n a t i , R. C la r k e a n d Company, 1 8 8 C • M a y n a rd , T h e o d o r e : The S t o r y o f A m e ric a n C a t h o l i c i s m , New Y o rk , The ¥ a c m i l l a n “TJompany, i 9 l j H McAvoy, Thomas T . : The C a t h o l i c C h u rch i n I n d i a n a , 2 7 8 9 1 8 3 k.* New Y o rk , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950* M c M aster, Jo h n B . : A H i s t o r y o f t h e P e o p le o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s . 8 v o l s * , New Y o rk , 1)7 A p p le to n a n d Company, 1913. M c S h e rry , Ja m e s : The H i s t o r y o f M a ry la n d , B a l t i m o r e , Jo h n M urphy Company, 1 8 5 9 • M eehan, Thomas F . : “M is s io n Work A m ongst C o lo re d C a t h o l i c s , 1* H i s t o r i c a l R e c o rd s a n d S t u d i e s , V I I I , U .S . C a t h o l i c Hi's t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P h i l a d e T p h i a , 1 8 9 0 . M e rcy , A Member o f t h e O rd e r o f : A C a t h o l i c H i s t o r y o f A labam a a n d t h e F l o r i d a s , New Y o rk , P . J . K enedy and S on s, 19 0 8# M essm er, S e b a s t i a n G .: The W orks o f R i g h t R ev. Jo h n E n g la n d , 7 v o l s . , C l e v e la n d , Tde A r t h u r H. C la r k Com pany, 1 9 0 8 . M i l l e r , K e l l y : R ace A d j u s t m e n t s , New Y o rk , N e a le P u b l i s h ­ i n g Company, I 9O8 • — M oody, V. A l t o n : “ S l a v e r y o n t h e L o u i s i a n a P l a n t a t i o n s , “ L o u i s i a n a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , L X X II, ( A p r i l 1925) M urphy, Jo h n C .: An A n a l y s i s o f A t t i t u d e s o f A m e ric a n C a t h o l i c s T ow ard s Im m ig ra n ts a n d N e g r o e s , C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y , W a s h in g to n , 1 h e was a c c e p t e d a s a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t in th e

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