The Brighter Side of Human Nature 0465007589

Drawing from hundreds of studies in half a dozen fields, "The Brighter Side of Human Nature" makes a powerful

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The Brighter Side of Human Nature
 0465007589

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THE BRIGHTER SIDE OF HUMAN NATURE Altruism and Empathy in Everyday Life

ALFIE KOHN

Basic Books, /11c., Publishm NEW YORK

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HATUl-IAL ASSWHQNS

1 DH the Exislcncc uf a “Human Haunt" fln‘um In flu Hum-t Ly" Nmrflm

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D11 the Naturc uf “Human Haunt" Wt?! My Hm m H: a m :5!" Epith-

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REEFGNDING TI} UTE-{Ens

Prom-chi Practices: Prediction and Promutiun W H W

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Th Hui-Inuit] qf H m Fran Muir Mr 329'

WTMhIflMWn-H =6 The ABCs uf Caring: A Gas:- Study

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Altruism Lust

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Acknnwledgments

Aflbuuh.uenfllmwilhmnm¢nnflwmvfl.mmup¢rfliflpmjIt“. hay-run:- 'II'I'IIJ mile: Ifliauully mun tame: u:- I'filifl thu “than

upturn their ilIdEh-IEdII-fll no: because mm: fleck-r31 law rtqu'trc: it but hug-taunt they u-uly an: indchtfll. This haul-1, Fur mmplc. lit—HI”? Humid nut nil: withuu: mhrr pimple“: lab-cur. fipflifitfllf [hm at"lhr renal-dun

Influx-km mmflin drbiflingnfiay': liturwm hundrtdcnr"its.

fltwuhhtlumnslleamedafewjremaguinlutdwbmmfm rascal-chilly subject is In publish a hunt an il. Remit“ an: uni]! run In”)?

In paint nut in run 11:: mums you :huuld haw induflud but mun-haw nfimd. I haw no dnuhu that this will happen again. and perhaps I flmuld

fip-rfla myapprctimiun minim In Muhawmsmdcimflnmmm: Ind cumplain aha-m my nwraighti. 1n Ihr: mnnth‘nt. them an.- 91m uf penple when: shady haw.- cuntfihulefl In Ill: haul. and. in my Ihinking an III! luhjcfll it cm”, I had m::I'Iarul:rrl:ill.iu~m+ in mm: can: ltngIhy 3111:! Imfltipk', with a Hummer If talented peuplt. Th: willingntsi nt' Dan Barium Enrin Snub. Nancy

Eintnh-trg, and Hmjn Hnflimn [a share their insights and admlarship IIJflE'lll a delightful lil hE'lW-EEI'I pmltlsinna] him! and Ptrltlflfl] dur-

aner. I'm happy It} l'lE'Ffll'l [hill Ihcre i: 1111 tfidtnct cur: trade-9Ebarium nudging m a y and living it. Pam ul' IJ'IE bank at: alm ridu-r [m- the lath I'l'll.‘ hid 1with Dick wnnlin and lawn Elwin. Ann Higgins and En]: Batman final Gilligan and Hanna Minnw. Dennis Krebs. Paul Edit-NHL

Georg: and Barbara Margin. Larry film. and S W Gnrdnm Far :11 authm nun-thing Epilnmizu whit mural phflomphcn H.“ In-

PuftmgalifflI—ifld 1hr.- reu of us limplr ”fit in it! going beymrd 1h: fl.“ nfdlny—Iih trading and flittingmain-'1unfit. I'm Hf}! grim-

Iii

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fill Enrlhtcritiacil mmmenu an filinw chapters that 11?: received final Haunt Einnhtrg. 13.111! Hum. Didi; Ltwuntin. Dafid Adams, Jcflrfi Guldslcin. Mari-n i'armu. Bah Edam-1. Danni:M l . Erin: Schap: In El... Harlin Hnfimm. and Turn Wifldfl'lflll'l. Special mmtinn gnu In Din Eatmm Ewin Euuh. and Phil Harman, "ha Hm pusflivcty hut-mi: in Ihfl'il' willing-11:5: m revicw ind dissect extensive quantities at" my pm“. And In ml.- span: any :11?c full-1: {mm banning to fly it nut law]:If: Irma—I

Ihmfld haw: accepted mart nf flicir suggfltinm. Thtn that is Bill GI'EEIIE. Bin dutin'l said my mun-3pm: HI.- sift: drungh [him]. Iizmr by Hm. idea by lid-n. whiting nut awkward phnaingi.

incunsirltenl; menu. lamina] d i m . and unnuusmitr pmvmtivt rhutmin: until I want In uni-155: him with gratitude. He due: this, luminhinghr enuugh. with entry tingle :Iupwr. ”I'd-u WIT“ an apt-ram dtfiniiifln nfallruism? My sharing Bil! with 1:11t authun want-:1 du nicely. ldun'llnuwwhmldid lfldtmtht flmemdmhcinum: inm-f

limiting. but I dang-latch hnpe h: duem't call it quill Ifttr mu bank. The Era-thud: cantinufl. It was Gears: Margin whu introduced m: I dnun years agu tu- fl'fl: mitinga {If Harlin Huber Ind whu- fiend]! thal-

lrnged m:- m rung-nix: [11¢ limit: uf ill-f warld view premiled m1 lhll: solitary indifidualJun Huttkh’ilih was kind :nnugh ta tip-en his file cabinet: in Int. Jnhn Wart, my alarm. waded his. tail Hi In find i. puhiiahn' Fun-r this prujm hut-cum ht btlifltd in it: walnut. Finally. let men-gr thatjn Ann Miller at Basic fidfly fi r m the pnu'm Iafinhtd an hfl‘ by flthi'l' null-turn

in the? achmwltdgmmt acctinm: this Hallmll Imam what flu in thing,

I NATURAL ASSUMPTIONS

1 On the Existence of a “Human Nature” m m fl m fi ’ W W m Mirna-i1 inh- m m ” thrimhrqdflhfmw that!“

m m m tumult: Mimi-mu qf mam-5f In payfiaflagim mum MudwnrhmfumwAInmm-mmmifly'lwnuflh lupus-111W. WWMHHMItgfim muimwflflfim Mg; Inf“ Hlnheriflnminflm

Eunuidu this tun-inn: IH uf [acts nhuut nurmllufl: Sun-nun: whu think: well nf himselfi: said u:- have a lint-alrl'u.r sc-lfmncepl and is enficd. M an: wlm 11$q m-fl at“ hi: tannin-I ia mlicd a palfim and is applauded. But sum-tun;- t

Ihinh well ul— hia. species in regarded in IMPEIIEII]!

min- and i: dilmisstd. The mumdunal wisdnm I'm il that nu an: muld Incl hard a: 1hr.Fiftiffllll‘l ul' human hehaviur and but Pltlll'd with what he HEEL 5n den-ply held in: this flit-w that if same extraterrestrial iniefligcnce war: In

[all album us 1hr: way w 13]]: about m. then: wnuId lflntiy In: an inltl‘plil'lb tar}! war. Think, fur ample. uf Ihc enpruliun "I'm an]? human." Th: enmhasi: is an the middle ward: i1 is whit we fail m :11: war he that seem: [an us must hum-vanity. Th: phrau "human naturc." mnnwl‘rilc. is 11':IEn'Ed. an ifby mm: linguiuic mnvenliun. Far whit il nasty and negative

in nur repenuire. We inmke ii In explain melfishnem rather than “nine. cmnp-Hilinn rathtr than map-tritium Esq-crummy rather than empaflnr. Du In]: g'iwm day m: may wilnm innumerable suture: ul' filling. rang-

ing fmm small act: uf kindness ll} manna-us MEEH. but “Her (h: we shrug and say, "Well. what did run apart? It‘: jun hum nature In 111! gmfluul."

II

HATUIAL m o m s

(If mum. Ihi: is m:- Im-r: quirk uf language. It is Him-E uf a widrspl'ead h-clicf11ml nurdarkfl aid:- ia mun:- ptrvasive; mun: pmistmt. and mun-hm mun: real Ihln nu: allurr farm. Emit: Ill-l} that the: mall

mmmun modifier far Emmi ii Hap-WI. CIT that Why is invariilhh' that I'J'H': ihlfl‘lflr nl' sutmntmflcd inltndcd :3 an epidm: H: m [:0t i: an invilafinn ta murdtmm chm. Eunverutly. mm. is a label reserved for nlmnrdhary, self-nuifidng imam—mm? cunt-Timing

uur asmmptiun that thus: wlm pm 111: il‘llfl'flfl ul' amen Era! an: a ran: breed indeed. WE raise uur rhildren. manage mar mmpmhi. and duign our gum

trmntnu an the assumptiun that pimple are naturally and prhllfll‘il'f sdfish and wifl act mhcrwiu- «unruly.r if thug.» an: mart-rd In :11: an and EII'IE'Ifull}- nmnitured. We assume that genuine genmsity is mud}.r a mini:- :11 an nidlm dram uf “minimal: if we am: lucky. lint Idf-inlmfll will mic-nail? In: {If the “enlightened" Ifll‘h but in will mam fl'll: um: prtfix. My argm'l'lflll in this hunt '1: mm. that aggn-uiun and mmpcljtiun. HlEIhnc-u and egu-cenlricity. {in mm Hill. flhfiumljr 1hr? dill, and the juyful HILIHII :hnut human patmtial an: hears from same {want-rs are all the mar: gnling for t'il‘ failurt m atknuwlcdgt this. But d1: daninam sum-ads in this culture art gmmhlu 11F cynicism ahnul human nature than issue frum a fl‘l'flilil'f unfair and dhmntd vine-Hui" uur species. My aim

in m pram: a mare balanced pEflpEtlilFE—ifl aflu-malinn ul' what lhfl't in m apprttiiuc aha-u: hmaniind wirhnut Egan-ring 1hr.- realily that pcnplr:

sumflimfl act rum-n. Elem-Ir. the unhr Ipu-cifl m invent fur int-[Hudsmenls nf gel-Dd and Hi] hag. [rt-11mm mcasiun m use hath. In any :1!!!a m mfiw at halantu. thl: dtciliflfl all-um what fact! to emphasize will depend an the starting paint. flu.- mly uul‘ itlil’fldfl an:-

currc-mlr :kwti Thus. in magnum: m :- Ituhbum refusal to mcngnite what. in heartening :1:q titanium, I am chin-fly intmued in shutting that there is mare tn us than the negative qualifies 1m.- him: mm It: idtmifir with human naturt. Mm! nf u: have heard null: half this nary. Human

biting: arr Hlfilh and :dfwfirmered. lufikh‘lg for any flppflrllfllilf tn 131E advantage. But human beings are aim dun“. :Ihll!‘ In furl «within-r15+ pain and pupartd In In: In rtlifit it. That is gnarl evidmc: lfl- auppnrt fl}: whim] that it in a: “namral” In htlp a: in! in u:- hfll‘L that tun-mm fur

the well-behig af amen nfien finnnt he redured 1n "If-hurrah that Initial “nurture: prcdicalcd on human ulfinhncu haw: nu dajm m ErwiIahility—nr Hen prudencc. In :hun. ll'll' cynical c a m album mu-

IMF: i: am ufntep Hid] the hard chm.

flH THE W

E BF J'L “HUM NATURE"

5

Inlhcmumnfdefmdingflmldfllhauhflehahfighlusfltur

human Ham. 1 will Eat: the lime simply tn mph" mm: idfill ind march finding: that ptrm'n tn- 'lht side {If hum-an brings that is umberrlgil‘ding. Thili uplm‘aliun il lustful ma apart [rum advancing [ht cunnInl argument. but it ha! usually Ian-n cunfined t:- hfitingt humid“! only

fur specialist: in the field. Thu: pan E uf [his bank. "Rflipflntfing In Dthem" addrnm the mailfl' of hrlping behaviun, beginning with : {lflfl'ipliflfl in dmptcr 3 at" tht run if ptflfln whu h lil mzvil'sur m mm: It: ”mean: this aid and the mndilinns that pmmmt this. It is inn-resting. in this mnlut. In ukjuu haw early in Iii: we begin Expanding m athtn“ :limfil and win-I can b: dun: In mung:- ’Ihil ”spa-me.

Chapter I! mint-.5 flu: naturt nf empathy and the an uf imagining dwwmld Pram annlher pflmn': paint If view. pumping-fins : Iii-uh film-Eh

in] Framnrl Fur mun-Mn; ul‘ [hm Plfitfllfl. What dun it mean. I all. In imagim: man: that“: tmntinnal stau- witlmut acluailf fading iii—and Vin! Irma? Chapter 5 disuse: flu.- lcminn belwcm acting Either: primarily an memhm {If grflupl and fitting IhEm :I-il'flFflgpr a: hmnanI—wilh a :unsidtrafinn ail" dehumaniulinn and “ha: can he dun: 311q it— fulluwtd in chapter E by I rtpnrt ahuut ctptfimmtal. admu] Fragrant: that can help children bin-mm:- uring pimple.

Pan 3. ” m Hf: in i'nu m U3." [nuts in“: nu: attitude-.5 about altruism and “minimal. Chapter 7 dtscrihu and trig: tn acmum fur the cumin-m1 View that all at“ am actiuns. mn helping nth-n. can ultimalety h: uplaintd :5 an many nun-mp1: In hcntfil Eh: all". This :Hlll'l'lplilfll'h I argue in chapter 3. in phjlmnphicafljr untenahlc and empirically unjuuiv fled: culinary tn the dun-minim mn-dtl: in incinbifllum'. Efflflfl-lfli-EI. psy-

:hnlcrgr. and the culture at large. IUIIIEIjJIIEI we hdp mug-ally.r m hclp. Fullflf. chapllrfl npluru [ht Ennlequmcu—énduding ll'll': mural implicatiuns—uf mmring huewnd the indhriduilinic faunditim an which the

idea: at" adfishnus and altruism arr: tanuruuei The Em In}... Ihuugh. is m inquin- mart deeply inla- nu: tannin-nay u: think the wars: Inf uurselves. Anjmnl: uh:- fltlfih’fltfl twain unsamry

charactflistin tr: human m

mun: In any mutt 111ml that sum: 11mph

have acted badly. Whit in man! is that we are burn will: a partitullr nrimlatiun. Built inm um peaiimism. in nthtr Haida, is a kind affluenniIlium- Thus, In ask whether that is tvidtnm m auhaunfiate the idea at" I brighlfl' lid:- t-u nut nature in In rail-I: the question [If win: it mm: In [1“: Ethan: having :I IIIIIIJ'E—ill'l'f nature—in the first Flatt. MEET mnfidfling why an man]! (If u:- itttpd. lhi: rtsu'intd and ”shitting View. I will turnhthtmtdtiplflmthtulinfnphflngmmnfuurmumpflnm

IE

m

m ASSUHP'I'IDHE

ahnullhlmflniflfllfilpuufirflfghennflurenfmn—lpfiifiiflhflw btlicl'tl'mtitiaflhaiwm] hasitalhr Hflishand W .

WENTDTI-IEPLMHETUFHAWTUEE

murmmthtmy wtarthmrufmturtnrnunmjinlofiur mfimnmflnt, is will? general]? firmed a: a qurlfinn Ilul in mm uni}! fireman:- hut settled. Hmlf Herr-an: iflT-E'Eli 1hr.- disputt mu an a fall:flichntnmy. Evcn [ht must cum mfinhinlngm pay: lip unit: In 1hr: impurtanrc [If nfllurt; EflflV-Eflfll‘jl'. blank-slam, giw-mfianhahynd'm

tum-il—inm—anjrthingquumtnt lam-him“ Ifl' nu lungn find in the

pbnnc bank. A: 1 I937 editorial in 5mm put it. "11-: {It-hat: an name and nurture in regard In hthavinr is 11:!t IJ'I'EI'. Bath 11': immht'df“ But l'lfll' In fist. Bialugicral dflcrnfilfim an.- uill amund. and IU- :11: their critics. The ahuldnnmml nf madam: rhtlfll'il: an III: in": simuld nut ht canfuud wilh [ht diuppfinnct ul’ [ht tunlmvenf ilfllf. "While {hinting :In inlermrlinniat pnazitinn. mm! wrilm mphasizc either a biological m tnvimnmcnlai pmiliun.” mm plfihulog'tst aha-Ha! And m :- landing gene-lid“: Although "II“.- nn‘renl scientifit filhifl-II gut:

against refit-wing the ‘uld' and 'puinflfls' tame-nurture argument + - , lil 'u] mill um much with In, and it i: limp: m radium: it I'm [ht

rhtmficallf satisfying but ldmlil'lmlljr mnningleu dicing and gin: it

new life a: a meaningful problem“! Etrm'nly hiulngy influtnccs hchaviflr. Na wrillfl I Imaw dmiu this. Ind it i: nut my inirnlitm m EEIUIIE' In].r and Ill htrcditarian findings with determinism. "The issue.“ in Ste-phenjajr Gaulad's wards. ”i:- mt whedwr hinting? is I‘Elflfll‘ll but hut-r. Th: dchatr: is bum-tn bin-Logical damminialn {I lhenr'y urliuliu} and. hiulumr l i t a: :I rang: DI flpaciw"‘—thc raw mterial {fir an unimag'imhly van numb-er ul' pmflhl-t behaviurs firm

which In {ha-3m. Dflennininn ll'fl'f hi.- said In like [Ill'fl fin-nu. hulding. ruptcfifllf. that {I} dilferenres amung particular gruup: of pump-la: (scrum. l'itfl. and m on} an: innam which is usually In my. Etlfl'fjiifl'll' hand. [2] a piniculu' hehaviur. altitudt. nr inch] :mngtmml in an unav-nidlhlt

pan [if being human. ur {ELI dflflflfliflifl ul' 3 giwn individual are imam, Thurs, 1h: flm mrt at" durnuiniu may nun [hm Emile-s are I‘IIIIIFIIIT' [en “dented than fill]!!! at Endltmsillifl: the wand may bald

that human mum“ is inevitable hm: H: are lard-Hired It: hurt

{IN THE W

13" A. “HUMAN HAW"

T

multthidmrbdicw thuihewdeflhudfi ulhflhmha leather.

Distinguishing Inning that mtfiflrifl is a PI'IHIiIEII miner. nut jun a mutt-mm] Ill-11E. Bduvinral gmtitinm who an: been [a lhfl'fl' dial individual dficm: arr: inhale, than nut gmcnlll‘r its“: that that: ii I genfliflaflr them-mind slim-fl human Hum-2.5 111i: belief in. hnwnrer.

mmmnn in nthtr quart-tn, and of [ht thre: i'fll'iflilfl it in my [Irrifllliill'alr I‘m here. Dclpitt. at Fffhflplhum:ail. flu.- Etltbl'altd happwmtfium

rut-mlmiun {if the mfnmm qufltinn. then- is an sunninhing readilit-5! m1 [ht pm at“ paydmlugism mil-H researchers. and ([1: public at

lug: tn- auumc 111:1 our behavior is. hrgtlr den-mind by mu" Emmi. In this :hapwr. I want In nfl'rr Example: uf Ihi: urienlalinn. explain what

mighlatmutfmh.mdlhtnmnfimlh¢wflditr nfparticulardflcrmh rill claim.

"MATE? HEEESSAEIIJ SB"

just an: Austria-m: Hm.- prtparing the paraphernalia uf patrimiim In mlthralc Indtptndtnc: Day in I'EIIEB. I. LLE. hatticflfip 'm the Pfflifln Gufl‘ shut dawn a cumnwrcial airliner calming 29E! civilians. firfi at" them childrm. Th;- uliimimfilm-ii}r between this jfl and uh:- F—H lighter plann- I'm whit]: it Hm laid l-IJ hi'I-rl': bun milulwn wall In mhan'auingly uhh'iuu: that mhrr llnilium fur the event were quickly invented: the plane Hi:

Marlin; a: if lfl attack. lam-ring will: unusual apt-ti and Imam! WEI! Humid:- ul' I11: itufl‘nltiunil cmnmerciil air Eunidm'. When each an: {If

than: firmed an! In ht canlpletely faint. N W readers were nu dun-uh! mlinrcd to learn Hut m an: " : 1 l an pan-mm] bias, and: mistakes in: almml umvfiidahlt in hula. '1“! till it human amt: be up. ‘In

Fact. if: human mm." "* Apart Emm Ila: idmlogiml um: ul'tht human natural:”mm—and any-urn: Hhu duuhu III: rdcvm Inf idnulngy “ltd unfit {amide-r the lihlihlmd if “It mm:- nplmtinn's being proposed and pmninenllr

published il‘ 2911 Amtrimn civilian: had hem Iu'lltd by th: Iranian military—the [act in mm m: m prim-i t1:- acccpl i1. Exp-em haw: hum Idling 11h and In: haw btfl'l. rtmh'lding rich Ether. that iii-unity anything; can

Mama-din: by rcfen'inglnuurgmflflrinvflkingflmtflifim pin-u: "human mun-t." Eunfldtr 1mm: mmphl.

W W {spirally atrium mu.mtaltmifilhifllnt jutifiuflnn.uthemgwuufurlh:gmcfithypodufilinflmfifldl

5

NATURAL m

Mundrbdufinnfluu mmfllhulthprnkuiunfllnuwhdiflflfl:

idliznphrenii and bipolar dimrdc-r {mank-dcpmlivt illnfll} have a binIng'icalmmpuntni.11flamumpflunmrudfldhrgalfunmehuiauf

twin :tufifi—whidhuwmafl Mt,mltrinml}r Earned—hutiumgrm tlrltltmngprubahiliwtlul mmmmmfihfithma lhusm balsam: mhimpflumh bowing thl: mfimnmcm :fl-IHLIJIL “leprflhiflnilflfllililfiflm mandmmrdyihitimi:

mtefimbutthmsdfimtniahshnph"ahmintflum.m defiantly hum-m In In: Inch.“ :5 a "til-known} psychiatrist put. iL' A

Hill-page newspaper Idvnfimnt by the Malia-nil Alliance fur flit Himulhr [II {and partly.r undtrhrrinm by the AME-rim Psychiau'h: Annihdun} mum! readers that am only uhimplumia but mm dtprmivt dip nrdm. tun, "an: [E3] bin-w dinner. in Ink-ally II 1111:”. mullipl: ultra-ail. and dink-mu an: biological disuse-.5. Like the-s: d i m mental illnuuu In! “no [aull' Mum!" Even a Ina-deal Familiarity will: the rein-am litmtm in maugh En dtmnmmm: haw trmlljlr extraordinary thil

claim is] but and: HIEEI'I'IEI'IH an: [1min] ul' our :Himr': Vii-EH al' the naturtmunun- ding-um tpenmdmeplhiubghlmnuufhdumpmblm mnwlmfllertisnumppurti ngnridammafl. Takefluumnf hypinniviw '1' Th: mdicil jam-ha]: an: littcrrd with flu: rtmaim Inf dilfll'dfld thrmin [I-urp-Izlnrtmg,r In explain hm! childrtn mutt mile“ Er

dismnible than must are mall!»r suffering fmm a disease {nun-nay called humflun-Defidt Hype-rank“? Dhurdtr}. It Ha: hurl-1| fur quit: sum: Lime [hit :Ijmtflant drugs have I. “pil'fldD-Iifi.‘ effect" an hypemcfifl :hildl'tl't:

fl n v m h n t i u t d n d untrtlwr—wa'tquirtrd hydliamnaf medicaljnn was said u: prme that their tmbk:Hm hicu-dwmifll. In lhr: ht: IEII'Ifls, hnwever. it was dtmflnlfl'ltfid that nianulanu had P M ! the rum: cfl'flu an lh: mumr aujfitf and mailman uf Hanna] d1ildnm.

Far a w t it nu [hm-ugh: that Lhn: 11mm film ul‘ hypmuim

Her: mused. Then it was Ihnughl they Herc undtmmutd. HI: reliahlv: dint-rm haw.- htcn fmmd in either direclinn. hum. Indeed. Iht mmhdming majnriw Inf audits haw :huwn that man hrptnacli-vc children have m: dimmibl: brain damage DT neumlogicil abnfimfifitt:

thtir EEG raiding: are um distinctive. TH mull restarrhm cumin“: m mum that hyperaclimr h hiulngiuflr based: at uni.- Hhtflltr that in my Hidmnr tn supp-art thin alum-Flinn. and a typical: mpanu il. “Hut MT”

Thilappruch m

m the hmhfiufldlndlherehym-

lfllllfl mmimlfi Indwlm Iluplydwlufliflfifllldflnlflflyl

{IN THE m

a

. {IF A "HUMAN NATURE“

HI

Whitndyufhmnhflfimdm uppflnmagrfilmnrmhflmyin inhuman 11:11:t firmnfiflmiqmfimflyflrflmhmadwmfli

l-EiEl'lIifiE quutinn but amfltflinn {fl lurk inn-M an mating the child firth: tl'tild'l- awning ”warmth [nrhii uriwr lam-tin: pm-hlem. . . . [111$ than?

lhflbfifflflifilllmfl‘hflflfliq-.[Ihiflfirfiflfiifllililflflmiflfihilh wwwmmdfimuinnurmnfidnnlmbnhem.mdmmflythe filmmaflufliwflmmdutmdmhemmhnd.“

Jkniuflmhmcdhynunymcaflhmulflmlr “ i m a m

mmpnnImLmlthnughcmflmuwhuhnld this view—Ififlnnuhmewhn d1: null—muted: [hm m:- unequivnml pruaf exist: the: the nujcrr unit of mmiv: drinking in gnu-tic- The paychnlflgisl julm Stalin 0f [ht Ulli'h'tl'liljl' nf' mylunh ratified a Swedish adaptinn ltlld!‘ laid In slmw that handily plays a figififimnt ml: in alcnimliimw-{he but pitta flffi'ifltnE-l! that hertdilanalu have an thi: ism. incidumally—and [fl-[Ind that it will“? mun-wed mfirflnmentil pit-Hurt: :mmttd fur mum." Em if ant-‘1 lull-ram:- [fl Hquur turns am u:- have a heritable tflfllpflfltfll,

marmvtr. this tin-u mm. mun—am haw: gum-d dam shmm—Ihal hereditary [and-n have anything In- :Eu with haw much an: drink. But. Inch dislinnium and rflmfim are fiflfll‘l blunt-d; with [ht unable fire-p-

u'nn {If a few dimmflug mun-agraphs {In 1hr: suhjm. alcuhuliam is mil-mah-r

dmfibtd limpljr ill I din-Elle. milling flu! [11m m nub-and {HE-

mrcljng In 111311e a disease that unnut he turd unlfl: m1: Wedge:

fln-E'l. mm hdplusneu in ill m m . cm. in the dflfiminjal's vim. i- mmflhing partinflar indiririunh an: burn to get inn-valved in. The man men: apalugy fur :- cunnerlim

between crime and human nature was a bank at that name byjamca 11. Wilmn and Rich-rd j. Htrrnltein. the mcflmd-ulugica] hummus: III which have been (LEE-nibtfl by Lean Himin.” {Kaitlin ii the WHMI wlm examined l'hf,‘ fiiudulitm data an which Eyri] Burt's claim; Inf inhtritcd hudligmm were huedj The haul: wan nmrthcleu diumud width and :ppl'l'timively in lhE popular press. fit“ as mum nut study, Ellinn Carrie's W a g {Ilium was being iglmrtd. Currit'l rig-Drain anilfah cmuinclmd this “HZ-ii] and: Hunumic cunt!!! nfn'iminal brinflar. shun-'ing. I'm mph. that chins ul' universal i n m in via-lent aim: uh-

mrrr 1h: lrn- nr [myfizlld difiirtncfl but-rm the murder rat: in that United Stain and in mm! Emupaan Emma-its.” linking it um dificult

indccdln dtl'tnduwu'gumcmflntrdiflunhumn I'IllIEI‘I'.

lfl

HAW W

E

S

Faun-inn M a m a an: mankind? animated In ” M i l l i ! ten. um.- hnpmbablr flflliflll after number being publilhed willmut an]! Inn: {If firmly. A trading pml'nsiuml juumal nm hung up included In inminn by 111:.- nuthnr: ul‘ the Muchvpubliriled Minna-ant: Twin 51ml?

[hill "personality difltrencfi an: mare influfllrce-d by Email: dhrtniw Ihan they are by cmimnmmtal divufltW—Ih: flflfl'I-fl'fl'lll ptl'ifl-nlliil}? dlaflcteriflicl in quaitiun ranging from achiflemnt In “traditiunalism?“ "I11:- [DIET-E mmtinn at" dopamnt ctr strata-11in mm: In minim 111c- crilital faculfiu nl‘ “133mm- and mpaptr fliEI'Ifl': Hfllfl‘l. causing them In lain.- leriuulhr virtually any claim about haw nu]- bduviur is. :hiefly a fimctiun cf nur biochtminry. flue rem-n: mid:- gaw- indemnIn a nturnlnginl [ht-ow nf why mm:11mph enjoy riding mun: mum-n. 1 Harvard psychiatrist. meanwhile. was quoted in {he Nm Fm! Tm Wm: H uphining that 13mph who Hid: nth-n": 1unrilJI 1h:- chtci It! muumnu can hunt I]: understand in [cm]: nf “cumtitun'nn. gun-Him,

lttmmtnL WI.- mink at" th: [Emptrammu] part at LI'H: ptrmn . . . IaniEunr whn is jun annuity tight. mummified. nrdrrly. a: apposed In mum-m: wlm is man: dfiuive, nulgm'ng, upcm Elpl't‘flfli‘l't." H1: fflflttdtl that 1h: tmh'unmm. mu. play-:- a rule, but mphasini a inn-ml time— and. uf mm“. “imam evidfllce—Ihat he in tilting abmt "mic difTamra?” If spcdiliiu are rim-l1.r diallmgtd urn breezy pramuntemenu 11FIhi:

Inn. it :huulld surprhe nu an: that hwle leap m limilar candufium. In a rue-m nthrspapcr prufilt of a maid-:- mar. wt mad IJ'Iii-Z " '1 thin]; if: just lumeihing lhfll'l gentticf he said ul'hia chain! ul W t ‘11 hit: ynu

and yau Inna-w il': whal yuu'w: 5a: In duf "'1' Hclpirnfi In diunnhmc ll'lil[flit n-i' thinking is I11: reduuhtahlt Ann lmrdm. t n "Meant WEI]

Pin-tun" sighed lint “many a! mu: flail-firm are an drug:+ unempluyed dmpuuu. mim'anu. dl'ifit-rl. mgr? with lh-l: wurld. hmri]: Inward u: and nut-nfjuim with satiety!” Lander! reassured lhum that 1hr}r “did 111: has“ Ithcylcnuld w h h d i c t m h m h i n i + . . l h v r m m : 1 n htliflcinlht W i t {mar width ha: been ignmrd by my beharimil ‘npenlf "H It i: an my nutter In dtltrmint 1h: identity Inf 111:1: ”experts"

:llcgcdly guilt}! Inf Egan-ling lhl': stun-Lit: Baum. In fin. an agar III-IE psych-alumni.” [m ny- mdiing fifplftl’liflll‘ilfl] became tn explain behafiu-r is gmetiflllly drummed Ihat the behaviur gentlirjst Hubert Hamill, himull'nn radical triu': flf Ih: hmdritarian pmiflnn. has lately bcgun In IDLE-Id a 1 9 : t 3|:q fire-5m in lhiil dimrinn, a: Elli!- [hflplfl'l cpigraph sugguts." That his annulment may he described a: chm-flab]: in titufrnmlht Eaxtlhufiuminrefflimfi'nmmmhgiflnmflngmuf

(IN THE EIJSTEHCE Of all "HUM HAW"

II

luvinggmwtuufaralrmdy—acmclminnlhefimwuuldhtamply juuified. Th: valiant: an gum-Eli: uplamfinml. m g r . in I I'lflflh' mm,

finally impflviuuu tn ulna. In his haul: all-nu: hutelligmct, Frau": q!

Milli III: Harvard psrdlnlugisl Hmrd Gm'dnrr nbacned: Hula-I'm lhrdflmnuntiumfllunmnmlmflmmfluumimhii IIIJ'I'l-tfl'm “IEIIIDT'F l-EII-fflld. 01' than mus-t dtfl'mnru in adm-ul Pl-Bl'lfilflfl can bl.- 'Iur'lrtmfllj.l dimimled by alluring. nr tlut willingly average japan-Ht «children can h-Emmr viulin 'Iirirlumm. suflire m mnvince IJIE mmmhted Inn-ditirian lint mdifidufl dimer-tutu can but full]! dinulud by juidnu: inttnentim"

Hmfiflmflhg the nptflntiun fimflfll‘ifilflfl have acquirrd fur dilhtliwing in limiu, far i inl'nalrmniugh.r nah: faith in it" flirtatim, cummillrd hcfcditirian: an: Hawaii-Inc {III [his [Elfin-fill. Pfl'll-IPI- mar EImaul cultural dunner ext-mm flail}r as far as champiuning the {amt Hf 1hr individual against sud-II Emu-5. palititad nhligalicrm. and arm-innmmtal dflermilunu. In any can. it IIIDIEI not seem n: have ham trumIII-Hl inm the language uf skepticism lunar-:1 hiuhgical fiflmfltfim

Indeed. Emm pflthifllfl depamnc-nu m [ht daily ntwspaptr m bars and lit-drum. arms: t-

muntrgr+ the ward in: gum.- nul: EIF-EfiEl'l-CE my play

: rult. but our ptflmulitits “ r t L-Ini-fntilillil'gpI find brim: H'I.‘ were ham. Emme- pmplc drink ur min: porn-y. lac-k In their gum fur the: r m .

If m: (hill fir Ittal ur shmt dmm airplanu. blame human nature. Thin film-1r nufly firmwminnal whdmn nfhttMurmur}! Amrita.

BEHIND THE APPEAL Uri" DETERHH'I'IEM A: with any ml'mr helid‘nrucm in a W e :culture. rm tingle mum can in: identified far this dfienninilm. To begin with. “human nature“ it fiifl'lpl'f [ht mics: and man dint: way In!" making sens: aft-Phat w: m Irmmd m. If: [articular attitude ur my Bf living i: cumin-Inn In mualljr Henna: w m . it SEEM! a miner uf cununnn sense In altrihull: it In our naurc. to lift fist-ll”. T11: trawl].r insight: {and cums-tall a!" nlltunl mindful: in 111: fi-Etd nfanfltmpulngf am" by nuw to hair: Hipuraled— at, man:- likely. never H:- lrave nation-ml? Wrdimd the usmnpiinn thai if mm:- Pl'iltlifl': in. pm! in nu: min-u. it mull he pram:HWI‘E, and indexed it I'll]!!! finally he I EDDIEqumE-l of being human. ThfllE' whn reach far this explanatinm the dunes: in hamL In: in gland—uranium influenfial—campany,1hcdarkpunflilnfnw:pudfl

12

HAW ASSUHFT‘IIJNS

EII'H painted by 1h: mammth-cmnu'y philmoflrcr Thamu Hubba— an imam: (if vial-ml. cumpctitjve. adilhamulcd mum lacked in unceasing struggle—w impirtd by limilar imdlmual mflfllntu. E. E. HHPhers-m. in his influential study. Th: Fafimfl Than} q."Pwmnr InfiM n , shun-r: haw thta's ”slat: ul' nature" not nun-11',- was nut in-

truded u a Halal-ital hfpulhflil. : With:amhrupulufi nfpnmififl pump-It. but was. nut even flail? ahaul human nature as Ind]. flatlur. Mfllflfl :rguu. HDHJ-fl began with what l1: knew IJI West-Em civilifltiml. uf individual! already shaped h]? an ethic Inf eguirm. and then inginecl haw the-3' wuuld ifl. il' [11: enfumnwnt apparatu: of the Hat: luddtII—IT armishcd. He hu mid u: numbing :huul LI]: mum Inf flu: turgininn. “Tu get [hit "at: at" naturt, Hubh-u has Ht aid: law. but nut the

socially acquired Inclination]: and desire: ui' mm." MHH'Imfl-fl wfim. adding that “Habit-:1 ufl'tn. a: a cunfinnafim uf the “Mm-31' tannin-tr of men In ill‘ll'idl.‘ and dfllrnjr Each gather. the Mable hthnfluur Inf

mminpmemdvilmdfir

.mnamreufnuni: [hungmlnfinufiiy

[rum ablEn-‘alim ut‘ mmmpnraw satiny?“ In shun, by attrihuling mama-,- ft‘alurfl In I pnuuhttd undu'lying IIIIIIJT... Hubble: rm: unl'f [Insult-med u: with 1 Ihmry [Int Haund up cmharating and legitimatimg nu: awn Menuhin hm I1: actually hand 11ml theory an the mm: mu :1!" lit-it: equatiun that nun}- ptuplt rum In lady. The :implicitjr Inf :1 human mm icruum. hnumr. mum alumuplain tht uracil? of this Lhcury. Tu llllllIllflfl 1h: specter at gene: m-

neumu-amminen i: aim to call an HIE cuml'um ufltmd by an]: Irwin-n [mm responsibility. Ell-nerve that it is gmup: uf duennins'sm: :m m

like: the National Jillian-:1- fur [ht hit-null? Ill—cumpmcd uf pal-mu and mhcr relative: Inf PEEP-ll! with psychological dimrderl—I'hirh infill mun “mum-lily lhil thru- disnrdm are nun-fault din-am. Read again that puigtunt [EH-El" m Ann Landfll. pluding Eur : gun-1min: lhmry that will flcmpl the part-nu [rum any mmplicily in railing children Wham Hwy

nmv remind as such] misfits. Enmider an article in Haj-buy 111m advilfil madam ”lf yen-u gnu caught fading mun-d. dcm'l :11; ll“: Devil mad: run du it. 11'": the Ill-will in yaur “MAI“ And rtflcfl an the [In that Eifh time

a new claim is urn-mi In the rift-:1 that which: behafiur can be explainnd in terms Hf brain ['J‘JE'II'IiIIIT. nowhere is the fldfll‘flfl'fll grater than m y dllfirl'll-l' illfll‘l‘lt'fi.“

{If caunm it is nut may guill‘j' par-mu. adult-Hen. and lawyers “flu: malt: uni:affirm-minim: assumptium. By uirtur ufliuing in : dump-Hatch {ample-Jilin minty. mullm m at 1mm: paint find IIIE‘I’IIIEI'I'IEI Haliing again: the 'Irlleruu of ull'lfl' prank. and this pmmutts feelings: uf‘

flHTl-IEEJEMDFA“HUHAH HAW"

l!-

hulliliw. Why mi:per-anal run:[:I-Irannnlilnnilitgur [m- lime anthem flr‘l'lilfl traubling quflIiII-n: abut the mini Irucm whm an: unjust huld binning ulpnnaihle? Jam-In: Sagan alumna: In Ill-I'dfl‘ In rltinrnllitt {he ”hurt! at malt-y ind agrarian in canflmpuflrr satiety. i1 is helpful. and mimfly flmapeudc. tn b-EHEI'E that I: i: mm film?! pnuihln ID tantra-J open unit-r. l'ilrllt‘f. and jtdnuay. This nu'muliulinn t'l'llflfl hurling: at“ guilt and dilmfi a mmiuuhug mu: uf prim-nil rupanlihiliw Eur huninl when- Thrjlplnut, by tantrum, hulk-ml! that math Ffllrlfll'l. an tnnlj'ul hi: DEI' her anger, and III: difleremial frequency HE M D : in Tukyru and New

'I'mIL implin that. H pimple believe Ihqr can um: [hair lug-Hive hupuhu Ihty nflm Ila."

Th: issue If respnnfihiliw minim: : third I'm-m1 fur Ihr: pnpulmity Inf hinlangical dctrrminilm, and that in a drain: tn prucrw: that status qua.

Thun- whu are wcll HWtd by thr: prflent 1min] Ind fimnfic all-rang!mm: him: an int-Brest hajuslifiring flu: arrangtmml a: nut Hurt}? advan-

llgmun hul haul-imblt. Th: dag-ma that peuplc an: naturally atquisitiv: and In}; En'ch Fromm painted um. it "little More than an @115t cf

flit wish 11:- Frame Eh: 1311i: ul' nu: sin-rial art-augments by impuu'ng [a film that Hwy fauna-w flu: find: at" human mturtJ‘" M I haw: arm dflwhm.” the claim! my in head HIT sci-rial change i: nut tn argue that

rcfnnnn'ammmghmimttadmdhmiuflwvmidnuichangcm m. The rehtinn between une'i paliliu and {ma-'5 flew: an the nature! mumm- qucatiun was explnrtd furtr year: alga by Hichnlas Faun-rt. Aflfl

M i n g1hr twining: of turn damn leading Marian and British scien-

lilu. he fund that EIE'J'EII [if the twelve 1?t I14: classified as m m mentalim um Pfl'li-Iifliluf liberal fll' mind. while Eli-Hm uf thc lurch: htrcdiurian:Hm mule-native. “It wanld 1:: H m m :m- ulau'rfir the

llama-amt“? mum-verily a: aminlngiml in nature a: i: is m clanify it an stimuli: in mama." he candudcd." This. Hf mum. in a duuble-adged Md. and deter-mini“: haw.-

mildE mud] nf the pulitical flfliiliflnl it! their airin- But i! 'u: mirth fanning autumn m1 thcm: deem-minis“ thtIVfi—fim. lacuna: 111:}! In: parficuhfljr HEEL? In my their finding: in the mind: uf Science,

fleniveljr denying that pulhical mnsideraliflm play any rule in their Ill-inking. and mum humus: lhEiI' ummliun is tht duminanl mm in

Anti-km inmflutua] life. Apflt Erum 1111.- Evidence thll can he find I‘n-r flifliifll tin-vim 111:1 cr'nnr is ilflflltlrflfgflifllifl. urthal Immm In:

NATULEI. ASEUHFHGHE

H

ham min-d than mm tomcfurchildrm m- that warhjust panunh: human candifim, it is wan]: mflrm’ng m1 hurl-m humfiu {mm than widely held mumprim‘ll.‘ Such pawdmlngiml and 1:05l] exphlminm probably play a mi: in

cumming instituliana] support: fur determinim but Ihc-u: suppuru can aim ht understand a: mum in their awn right. Emuidcr. Fur mmi pic. haw the lfldfl] Him-2c: vim themselves. Still rghmrciy new as at:dumi: dincipiinem and Hi.“ unsitiv: m marge-.5 that 111:1! an: "m" practhinner: are anlimm In prim: their irgitimaqr. In the audit-my. IEfl'iiilflflEf Eequtnfly i: manurtd by ant-*5 pmximilr ta HIE naluml admin—mart atcurmcly. In an nutdatcd, mechania-lit made] uf the mural IEiEFI'HEE'L

“Thur prumilcd hiulugintinn at" sat-rial 1111d i3 precisely a realizatiml If the desire nf mfiuiugisu. anthmpnlflgisls, and tmnnmlm In he 5d!!!— um. h" This!- It! maniI-Htcd in a prtucmpitinn will}: technique. an emphaii: an predliun in measure-11m: that oftcn edge: nut qmfim: all-nut the hnpunanct at" what i: lilting studied. {Freud mmintltd u: ul'fln: man whu

spent all h'u Lint: polishing hi: W

wilhmfl HEI' gaining them an

m [uni flmundJ

The mflcfiiw immaturity aha-dz]; u m show: up nut unly in It: chain: ul‘ nutlmd but in the canclmium that are 1 ' t about why m: an the Hi]! we III-I1 The“: hm are initgrally mum-clued. [If t m . with

a hurcdilarim pusitinn far mun: lit-2'11...r In mrge frum LII: wart Inf an invtnu'guur who Inn-uh. at a self and am an organism. whn Hatches pumpinintmning and mlhpsfi thi: in“: demand curve: nr Etching: theory. Fran: snuiuhgiu Alvin Enuldntr'i [urinal analysis {If miprncily mm:

it is uni}! a man wall In biologist Edam Trivm':Hulmiuwy technetium {If recipmfil "altruism." In paychulugy can: hear: a pum'liuculafl'gr dtftnahc lune—"W: an.- m ldmlhulfi—that pupa!!! flu: way I'm- hiabugifl] nphnalinln. Psychiah-im+ lung regarded will-u { W i n nby {III'IIE'I‘ medical: medium who

do no! see them an [alarming "ma! meditine." ha'l't am the last dtfid: at turn ban-n retmdiculiihig Ll'ltil' diuiplinc, turning tn nnnrnhiniugiml [nude]: and medical {usuall'f phinflilcnifl-giti” tmlnwnu. The Hmfiur‘ aim bias ui'dflelupmemal pay-inlay and 1h: imam: pupulariur nl' hu‘itahility “unfit-a and: phyflnhgiul mum-rut in 1 . 1 ! ! l mmrr 'Thr hiflI-fl-lil-l lit-hull 1.1-1:t filler-um! {Mali-nu. Drrn'nhrr I'M-fl} flint-Itlm um...- mmnimd ll:- mfliul mph! thing: :1:t- l'll'll'l I pnwuri'fl incentive In inn-w M

r drtn'n'll'n'nl'n hi: my him in [In ht-tflfll.‘ if it tlifl Iheir efl'um “and hr in rl'n.

ill' “TI-thing. tin-i: march Elm-11H ll'llll h: In: Idt-ulngl'ulhr driven Ilhll'l II'III c-Itlwdfleml“flu.

DH THE Elli-TIM {IF A. “

W NATURE"

15

In nlhu' tilt- in thin alumni-r. Puychulugiau may nail-m1 that iflluir mankind: and hmflilafim candusimu are akin to thme of hint-ugh“,

flan perhaps may wilt Eu: 13km atriumly in {hit warld ul' Hitl'IL'h Far whalmr rum-n a distill-line might shift in this directinn, III-I:

urimutinn mun httumu humrp-uralcd inm (hf tun-itulum at" twining inujmtinns and fl'IE fl'iEEria emphyed by ll“! agenda [hilt fund M II" 'lmu m “hauled In lunlr. :1 nature mthtr than nurture. drilled in a

mtmndninfl [hill nut-flaunts familial nr sun-Eh! influence: an behafiar. lhcn 1mm- finding: {In any numbing at 1.!q hf-flr'lalil 'In'ifill'I will be pmdituhle.

Ahham Hall-w all-ct mt:- thal "it in impling. if titan};- tun] ynu haw: in a hammer. tn “til warming as if il wrrt : nail."” Thi-J metaphor is I." Inn apt Far 11']: behafinml mamas. Awarding m the pafdml-ugist Lfli:

mum HuEmm, “Gruttr ”ppm: has uncrgcd Fur the: gtnfiiu: than fur Ill}: emimnmmtal lam-him. I think. brainst- 1hr hull: ul' tht rein-am: Inland: in hunting marinated by behaviflnl gmflcisu whu. lhuugh wry

ruplfiuiuwd in their nun am. an: nut familiar with mvirmmnul thennr ur with mfintiun mndtla.""

Raul-1:11 is exptnsivn and than: Him {In it mum help but hr.- influenced by thl': fiwpnint nil" than whu mppurt i1. II" it i: fuhiunahle m final};r anxiety ur uhmsive-cnmpulsiw dismflflr lhtfl: days. this may haw: Humming tn- dn with It“: fit! that the drug camp-unit: flifl.‘ hung-l nudist--

writing npefimmt: and amp-mi: an lhfl-E tap-in." [The qmfiun thus bccnmu. fur bath I'E'EEII'EIIEI'I and Ilium. nail "Haw {in we Ill-Ht {kill with this pruhlcm?" but "What is the but thug tn- deal with this prohlnn?"] flr. u:- ulw whit mph. an: at" tht majur return! culltctiam

uf npem' vim an l]!!! min: nf dwmmmuln'vt {shark} therapy. an Wapfinflngmawlm nfflufinmfigfmh'm F fl d q m

, was pull]: underwritttn by a :m'pnratiun than! nunufatmrfi [LET

madfineu.“

Even mun: dillurhing an: inflame: when: the final-[ch] and pnlitiul hm: 5mm m dumaiI—thm i1. Him-e inmtigamn accept funding [mm

urganiutinm than nut {ml}! ham:- 1 mung heredilarian bias hm mfllhfl. dart-tr agenda as well. Th:Hinnunta Twin Study. For examplm has been

1113111111.r nuppmwd by Lhr: Finn-her Fund. a funndatiun apparently Eflfllfllil‘ ltd In prawn-ling flmmit: and? black inl‘trinril'yr and mhcr radar. ductrinu." (hinting I11: prupflncntu n!" and: Piunctr-auppurted dflfll’ifll‘l, infidfl'l' tally, is}. Philippc flunhmn. a panhulugin at 1h: University ul' Western Dnuriu whu was hilhtl'lfl a mspcntd m a m ui' altruismF' Th: hrgtr paint. flmugh. il flflijlflili that Efll‘li'lllliiflnl- will Ill-E mlfll'ld

by {ht-mum n-I Lht grant m + but flat the lupin: ta he studifld in 111:

HfiTUIIAL W D H S

IE

lint phat—lupin: inclining mum”! binlugiml Emhnafiam—are hrgehr # 1 c by I11: gnmnr. Ira par-Maui“ m pnythulnginl 'u in and at" tuppufl Pram the Hatiuna] Inlthule uf Menu] HEHIIh—uld must re-

run-char: in Eh: Fltld must depurd an this 3.n at same paint—it is my imPI-cninn that her prnpma] stand: a far hem-r chance aft-ting appruwd if it talk: :11q nturulugical :hnnmnlitifl nr E-EIIEli-E' predispmitium 1| apposed In. say. pant-n1: at" child flaring. HIDE-d]? speaking. pharmaceutical :umpanica and flll'lfl' grammar ape-1 1he-ir trailer: u:- naturc. nut

nurture: univernilit: Iih': tn- app-nim finaltjr murmhm with grants already attached 1:: Ihrm: Ibex: hmrucm-n Lhfl‘l with what {ht}! hm. l'IEil'lffll'E‘

in; the nricnutiun mug thril- :tudmta 1nd Rpm-during it in the nail. flfllfltifln.

Finally. as already hinted. Ill-IE mm media also play a fignifinm min in perpetuating th: Hamptiun that m: in: what DIJI' gene: have mad: “I. This inIII-r Fru-m the dfirrminedljr :Iflflminiific Ihnl Inf Italic! on human hchlviaur in newsweehlies and wmm': magi-lines. [In the

subject {If aggruuinn in parliflIIHJ‘JEfl‘rfir Guldsm'ln, a prul'ulm HF ply— chains? :1 Tcmplt Univmity. "marks. “Ira-l] an: Imuws in what um.- HIE! fin W ur reads. in the ntmpaptr. what an: hflfl'fll i: nineteenth-rennin Halon?“ Explanation: Ihnt imam: biolugicfl walk? it: relatively

£3.13! In d-llfll'ihl‘ and mail: fur a: lumpy-1r I'm-Ir: Hunt Thus. an major um urganizatiun in the United States was iI'Il-Ei‘fllld in rep-fining an the Sun-rill:- Sutcmtm. a declaralinn In th: dim 11:31 aggrfllifln '15 um an

imuiuhlc pan of human mturr. which mu hand in 1935 by kading natural and serial idealist: 15mm twain “Eli-DI“. flue rtpfl-I'lfl mid an flI‘EifliEfir {if Iht': ' 1 a mar-rm. "Call us hank HhL-n 3am: End 3 gm: fur war?" Even when mafiausallflnptsmuudein dwmufi: m addrtu lh-E issue uI‘awash. Eh! mull:In: dim-mum]? prtdictahle. Talus, I'mflanmlt, a flhtivcly highhmw dummmtiry called Wild-find. whit}! aired

an public tum-isiun in late- l'flflfl and was Patti-fl”? fimckd by the Nahum] Sud-2111:: Faundaliun. The final napkin-dc, 'Th-t Fink-m Hind." wu I! I'll:marhhlc Fur what it did nut intiudfi in in treatment uf aggrniiun in fur

Him it did. Hm on: word Hi! addressed m- ill: effects [if parenting practices, via-lent enlcmhumrm. mmpuiflw 111nm, puliflcal FED-Pl! M i . and It} Earth. Instead. fur Him-r5.r minute: viewer: law pmfihl IDI-

pmplt “has: vii-lull. hehauiur was allegediy caused by hypugtycrmia,

pesticide EfijJu-EIJI‘E. prugnlmnt imhflantt. epiltpsy, and hip-al.31- diunrdtr, rap-actively. flue mm, : furnmr Incinpafl'l- I'll-D Haw wart: u I vulumm social: warhn'. '1: givul tin": Ia say. ”I‘m mmflhl: far my

DH THE EHJS'T'EI-il-EE {IF 1!. " H M NATURE"

I?

hehafim . . . bulIbeliEI-rethal . . . whtnweplicepmpltindthumanizhg a + . inuitutiunl. firililiu. what w: flu is w: Puma and w: nummr antimciil virulent behavior." An 15:.c is «quicklyr bmughl an IEI'EE'IEI In can-:11 Illia nfiflapprehensiun by Elplaining that "it": psychopafll i: an indhridlul

'll'hfl'fl wired up difl'crmtly.“ 11H: narramr cmcludL-s a: [bum M'Iiflflltflfflt‘. Hydrhudmflu. Efimrhbagirmingmlhwhuuhm din-u:- and brain dung:- n'm cm Eurasian rel-2m than Mr. Hrdt. . . - Fran I

width arr-:plcd Himific pain: Inf vimr. nfl nu: thnughll deriw Eran l‘lfl'fl'i-ti] Icu'vit'gr in Wiclh1dwmuhm hlfluentnl by Illfllilflfl [rum nu:Emu. dinnimll in nur bland. and iflfflrlflfllifl-fl frnm flu: nullidt undid—and 1m: law link:-

tnmmi um any uzl' mu: rattan.“

What is 1m: ul'aggmsinn is ill:- umnfwhal m.- m laugh: album gentle-r difl'tl'fl'tt-Ei. With flap-EH m whflhfl they: difl‘arencu "uwctl man: In humane: and cerebral hemisphfln than m mun-EH and Bluff-5." [ht lumbar Btryl [in-IT Etndefly fuund [uni-“lining and ambiguuu:

tumult: in the admlarly liltflllufl: but “nut unanimiw ”patted in mg:finfl" in Fin-fur nf the: hinlngical vim:

Th: slap-Mr Ede-u. flint-3:11,. made fingulafly pun-Hr l‘tnum mm, "nflrflflillfll'l Faullj Finding nf Dfl'trmlm" u-r “Pain-Iimhing Allumplt Faih t4: Erplinfl Influ-

tfllia] Study" hcadljncd m lam: fly :dilinm. "W313! WI: Slill Dun": linuw Abdul: III: Brain" illl'EI "Kinkyr Aumnptium Wealml min nf Evaluliunan' Emuning”

mthmlltd ll“.- rtadrn uf nu- :Iick magninn. "Sdenlifl: Urg: Eautiun in [ultrprfling Euthfinl Dam" blind I'mm nu Sandi? mppflmnfl."

Indeed. a 1933 unit]: in LES. New and Hint-H Rapurt. ltllinghr tilled “Hm u. Wumm." claim: that dlItrrninilt Harlin are “savagely :1-

tithd” and thil firminiat :Ehulars “fear" the must-queues [If publicizh'lg‘ mam—.13 ii" the {July Eriticism that misled was shrill and Emljticafly mutir Fattdi HEP-Eilltdlf in thin anidu [and aha-uh a ITIIIPIIhEIiI durripliun

is ufl'trtd at the binluginil pusilifln. aficr which an: pamgraph uf' 5m. mll'l. dnflengu in indudfll fur halannc, fullnwctl by "flu! + . a." and i rum: a! III-I: nriginal pnuiliun.“

13

m

m ASSUME-HS

TAKING UBEETIEE WITH BlflLDE-T Fur Hut-tan: : 1 t In 3hr std-ml and Fair-mm mnfidcnfiun [fl [ht naturtfnunurc quit-5mm. ll'lrflt pmpmcd uplamdum for flu.p-upulafity nl' hiulugim] detenninism—aimpiicily and Emma um. fl!lief fmm mpnnsibfliw. materialism. Emmi: mpmahflity, run-arch

training and finding. and [ht influmc at” the man mtdh—du nut spent

My m the truth m- [3]:i uflhc pmmm intlf. fill the :1t m

they in.- indirectly li‘l'llhl'lnl. in that a satilfinnn' mum all" why a given fiflhflshflnflflpfldcflhifllflwfitiflnflummlhfl ll'ulilhashttn flap-mi “dilly an in III-trill, Tflhflifllhl' speaking. than: i: no iinglr "humn minim" “guilt-HI:

there are unljr individual bduviur: and sun 1113!: an: htlifl'td tn h1dumimwd by innate fur-:u. In the [allowing ”Him: I will refit-w a flaw [if the-IE specific cantrnvmifl. but 1H m: final fun]:- lhe diminn with a fun-w gtmraél abumti-un: ahuul the naturtfnunure disputeI. Thu-IE; Mmmmmmml. II hymn-Ins lawn-claim.

u Rubin Fa: dfl-fi'fl. “It in nu! that man is a: mllure din-5+ but that culunt due: as man is."'" Tn Ih'mlr. that H: can flfl indmtifir summing [lint-d min fl-flllidfl' [If a nJllun: is spatially]. Then: in rm distilled talent: [I human being untn which a writ: at" tultural harm: luv: been graflcd: rather. the wary idea [If hummmru {IE-Fruit an tulluril mum-:1.

I am am arguing nerdy than 111E ml: played by um- nalural m- sandal mvirnlmlenl i: nf I percent greater :iyaificanct dun Wt annually il-

lum.“ hul flu: human mture incl!" is :- anti-.31prfldu-II'L In fact. bintugk'ail deunninilm is faulty lung brim: m: arriv: a1 hint! pcttflilr m our Wu. First, nu genetic imfluninn {in be mtanhlgfiflly mlmtcd 'l'iilh-

nul: tum-ring HME album flu: envirmnl in which an organism mus: funtlinn: whim i: adiplim: in am: mling may ht unhdaptiv: in anathtr. Bird: with lung huh. perfefllf evolved fur alluding hug! finmmhari.mayguhungrrflnasavannawlwrrflrimttuaremh: found an 1hr.- gruund. [[l: i: impunam In Imep in mind. huidmufly, that.

it in the nrganEI-m u a whim filihE-‘I' than it: flflflfl. that interact: with in mvimnmmt.)

Strand. the reliljml batman mu wry simple organiimn and hit

envimnmem i: recipmcal: the indh'idual humr m1::- and animal? Inimfarm: the warld aruuml it.‘ This instincts {HI mun animal: arr.- invariably 'A whim hlfl Wm:- pil-r-E' nl' nrll rcflh'rh aunt-m um mamm- nuy um Wmmmmwflfimmflnmmhmfihflnflhflflimflfl dfltrmin'nm 'u I may mum-m; I'M: huh-rim W i l y can “mum" which mmuinm

DH THE M

E

. (IF A “HUI-MN NATURE."

1'9

lpmduu flrflpfll'itlltf.“ andthi: Enllillfli'fl' bdnviurthm dupe: the tm'imnnwnt, which in turn afl'ect: Lh: Humanism. Ann. fur EIIHEPIE. haw: rectal]? been : 1 a m Iivt in flfiflihll: social lfI-l-E‘l'l'ill that interim. with the

mvirunment: thfi' tannin mefillly he understand a: a cullectiun 11f inciividuals. cash behafing “carding m the imptrative: III a Hall: gam-

tfpr.“ It hard]? and: mmiuning that humans an: HHiflLH'l’f alt-It In

transcend hiul-ngical fumes. but even the distant-1r of a mu": mater I'm a given human hehaviur arr distal-e :huuld nu: indin: I.“ in adapt a Limlflcuminded duermininm. in ma l-Eifl'llhli may [mime-II nut. with I dimflenr

flfllfl um incl-mine haw lgtflfliflflf linked h-EI'IIi'iuI‘ night In: flpl'fllrfli by

mlwr mdhriduals m in dflfmt rnfirmmu. Fur ill-clam. tlu- Hmng mun! cud: ul' thug Amish may haw.- i signifiunt influrmzr: nu Ih: dcvclupmml uf HDI

[mam-depmflvt film-H]. l Amhh Envirunnwnt :iflltr may but mm lid? In induct lllil mnditkln nr. HEM-IMF, nigh! ”than: Ihl! Mhmd net" in apple-In we.“

Third. and Hill? due: 1h: envfi'umnnn lhap: LII: develupmml aha arganiim. but the arganism's biology is M a pmdun {If an inleractiun [mum hfltdity and mvh'nmnrnt. Th: status 131‘: newt-am, fur c m plc, is afl'tfled nut only by genetic imtmctium but by what happened tn in math: during m m . In ule nu Hfllflflifll I'At-illil'q.r wins in a vacuum. 2. Thfldnlfl-nflfiwlnhnmffiminfim i; i m a m Thmwhn

urgi- fluliun in talking all-um human nature usually d1: nut new“ In envirm'lmmmi dutcrm‘mhm ins-mad.” Th: mmmptinn thlt our bchavi inn :11.- entirdy a fimttiun 11f gent] u-er uf enfirunmnl { : 1 e blend ut' the“ mm rcmains panama hummer. l vii-idly recall attending a

gradual: sch-m] class in whith 1h: instinct-1r dm in diam an Lh: 1 1 t t m rtprmm the haiim: nf Etnnit and rullunl determinant:

at" hehaviur. When a nude-m asked ahuul; the mission uf Emma—m;rtilm HE unnduitnninafinn—Irnm this tidy III-:m-Iltlr flu: pmfirunr Harlan-d In 11m. hlfll urn m

m minim- .1 illiih' harjuhn farm and hi: ml-

I-ralm H 1hr Han-Ind Ethn-ul ul- Public Hrillh third [hill Hhm "mum whim: ul'Lh-rn.‘

{EH-"115M Ul'lflnill'l'fl. unit-Jr tn dififll 1 pinicuhr kind {If man I'm: intmdurrd lu- II'I ffli‘il‘flm m u m ll‘fll sugar, Il'nry rapidly :Jnd lpplrtntip' ”drfihcnflly"! mum-Ed in much a “:1; thin mm: u-f IlH-i: amp-ring awn numb-inn: it. Thu: mum flan-mid he

qufliflcd I11.- nnlin: ll'lil 111i: nnHaIi-un in: nun-'11“: n-t'lr uni-trail ind llfll ii alumni H

renaming tn the "mini-Isl" flllflljflpt a! flu- spa-in.“

ED

NATURAL ASSUMPTIONS

nlhflaaifmmwnchadmmntd Hupdlinganduidbtmppmcdlhah yen. than: WEI this. tun. II 'II inltmting la 1:13;:t that the HID“ MH* htalcd hiulngical dfltrmiflisu an: willing In l-E'IEIPEI' their dfl-fll‘iflfl an]? by acknuwltdging that hr:- an: aim at me mcrq' fll‘ cultural farce-.5. mlhcr [Inn by taking human ['11:d Irriuufl'y.“ 3.“Unnm1n£"dm nu ma " M W hand." This in true. and a

paint 'lll'flflh mphaaizi-ng. in bath dhtttium- Han}! m

u Inf nu: cul-

tau-t, such a: aggrflsiun and cnmpfliliun. by HE mm: {I'm-t all am the

mid. Eu: Hm if they did. w: {fluid nm aul-c-nnticalh mnclude than they were therefor: ranted in billing. t fl l f all Finns may.r bur: Llflhc'l‘anfi and virtually all culmm may malt: sum:- farm nI PEI-“Eff, bill that clue-.1.

nut mean tl'wre is a gene fur Luthefinilm ur fur pnum-nult'mg.“ {Amt-fig thus: whu £311 In snap this distinctinn is IJII: hiulugial E. D. Willa-n, Him manner: than "men hunt and Hume-n flay hum: . . . in null

agricultural and mdmtrial satin-fie: and, an that grnund alum. {the purLit-El appcm m ham: 3 gun-MEI: High?!" Mar-mm, we fuquenfly draw flu: mung muclminn [rum cultural limihrity. Th: fan that mmt sari-Hit: have 5mm.- mrl Hf hmt film-u indium-I nut that a hiulagically based

mulsiun m incest aim, but rather flu: in input-ml? flats nut tannin-— :11: why mum initial unmana- b: mam-y?" Bonn-Heb. the Earl that a gin-n [airman-nun can he slid In III-I..-

bifllflfiifll doc-.5 nut inland].r that i1 is universal. {1m}- : feature—51L: dis-EM have a generic bad: “imam bring prurient in :11 mtmhtfl {If a With Binlngyilufulluhuhdrdivfilitymd urilhilirr HM!MHH.- . .FarflmwiL indhr'rdnil ufiatinn was a rental [an {'1' life: and lPEii-E'l punt-fled m ideal Dr mania] mun-s at all- [In Ihjn 'lu'i-E'n'. men. Darwin might huh“: endud LII: quail l'm' a Eng-d humm mm”. in Winn in [1mm nurture. unn- and far :5.“

II. W M m m m m fi m m - n findhthwflunhctwfln mrl'tlatinn and : 3 l is cmplmized in all inlrnducmnr Iuthlifl and mtduln-gy munfl. 311 ii i: milling In It:hum-r may published papers culminate m EDIIJFIJEE IIJIE Hun.

Th:- L‘fll'Tltl-‘Mhfll nl‘ a Ia-chavinr with sum: genetic Eat-tar “In? e m flag:- man.- than it mints. Fur innincei ii is unduubmfly true 1t III: preacher If at least an: inhrrilc'd chainiflislit [Enda- m pfldin Ill: lih-lihnad at" arrest Fur pmptrty crimes. That chricttrillic in :iin calm: Haw nhviuull'y : gmntr tumntratic-n Inf melanin dues nut predispme pcnple In mnmu't diam, but it dun-ts :fl‘m HIE way such pmpl: an:

{IN THE W

D!" a! " H W NATURE“

21

perceivedmdtrtmedhy Ill-nu will: tlflrlkhl,llrhirllin mmfl'flt 'E'Eflllflfllic status ur the likelmuad at" bring suspected at" aiminalitr. and mutuaflI-tfactuiaatnflnimlmhunn mmirfl'm'ittd unit Duly-Jim gullifllfli Ib-EFIJI.‘ haw mirunmrntal firm In: inmhud. In other in-

mmcfl. the rule of the mfirunmm may nut be an apparent, are! i1Ilili my bf: misltading tn Hum:111:“ :1mm mflflhliflfl—fl'f. hclwfln nurlighiednn: and mathmminl ability—ha: nughl m rounding imp-ura-

in human hthavinr tam abuut the rule ml" W Emu asidc. the fact that phyuinlugiml many: may cannula-and tn I given bEhI'l'ii-nr Filler" It”!us aha-hue]? naming abut-l nah an inchfidual engages in these hthin'url. Alta-red nturmrammitltr levels are nut

particularly surprhing in light a! the inlEI'l-Eli'w! rehlifln bum the ill-1|" and brain Eht'millil'f. But the urn cue-nu may Mid: nut became uur animus are mere by-prndmu 11E [hill chemistry hm hue-taunt hath are the

mumufa third, ummptntdamJ'l-fla in pallu‘fl “mm: am all 111: time: inuead nf Hamming that temp-nun imp-mm: multcd {ruin a haul of hue-aw drinking: we might cumider that bath 1114: impmcnct and 1"]! mm; Herr: mpunsu [a haunting lmt cum-'5 jab. errutivchr. a behavim' may:r have cam-HI. Either thin hem Hui-HI by. th: physiuhgical mange. This pmsihifitr is at least a: plausibl: u in uppmile. hm upcns and [slurp-mph- alike I'fll'tljl' uh: it mush. Bath mmutmnc and strumnin ImmllI in paint Hf hit. an be W

variahlu—afl'tcled by nun-Him ur punithn in a satin] hierarchy.“ Thar. pmpk with psydmlngital dburdm In: dutingiflzhed by unusual nturuI'nmmiucr activity dun not mean their behaviuri: I "mil Inf Ill-t dwmifli

almnrmaliw an}: awn: than finding mum: in 1hr: nut nf m ,1 mid prove: 11ml mucus can“: tic-1&1.“

with

In that early lfififls. 1h: experimmlal F M ! HillE m i l and hi: tnllnguu dismvertd that giving r11: : 1 t m phy with

changed run only fl'wir hriim' mm: Hfifity but 11:: wtighl DI their urn-thrill can-21:5!“ Hun: TEE-E'llll'r. fie-raid Edelnun": them-5r af”ntufll

Darwinism” ha; pl'flpfiflrtd. imer alia, that 11:: fimcflnn and smut:- nl' lb: brain "dim“! an mfllfll and hint-w and an: an Inulizcd fimclinn: and fixed Internal-in“: Inn-1:11].r mm: nf the puuihh: mural mum-diam db

1111311, deptnding an mvimnmental stimuli." Dr. In cite nil] number illustralinn. when fun-wk: Hm: mgcthcr. fl'lll'il‘ manna] cycle-.5 ufim and lining}! mm: m min-Lidia." In mid: EIIII'IPIL'. W t :in III: m lb: matte-r. a: well a: the min-r my mund.

Eiulngica] diam-minim“ mat cantidcr this Pull-W hum": their pmilinniagrnundedinredntfiwdflnfing—dhnmmn ll'llllfllllflfl



HAWII'AL AWDHS

1h: uni? way t-D understand a wlmlt is by mining in mmpunufi palm. flu: mun-id nburru that same scientists rmnn lila- I child ulm. Miami: Hurling; lb:Incl: an flu! min-ism nu nun: 1hr.- pictum

appear. muchdn ll'ul.‘ the knah ”tallies" {Ir ”'prugrlflm“ the pit-tuft. and film gun lhl' next. mun.- lhlllfll Hep lul- trying In undflulml 1}": Miami": {If

It'lE'l'ilim': hr chemically making Ihe huh"

5. "hut!" rim m1! mm: 'jflui " Evan Indubiulugist: will cunt-:11: that “it i: : fiflacy—intidcnlaflf

a wry cmnmun uric—m “ppm: that

win"? inherited traits are by definithm fixed and unmudifiahih'm A. grant may he find. but its bthavimal tflffl ufltn is nm. as turban-10ml with“, tan. paint nut. A mmmun amp]: is I lflflflbfllifl defect talltd phtnrltemnuria. which pram-ducts sign: of mmlal retardatiun: then: is m:- dfluhl [hm i1 i3 inbuilt-d. but its cfl'ttu can he muntcraucd by a change in dirt. Pruhltm: with 1 W e can“ my. practically speak-

ing. but lm rnilunt m change nr canlml thin man? ltarned hehafinn.

Even frum an nulutinnary ptraptflivm [ht satin] hthavinrs at a lPIEEi'l'I an: In Him:- datgrfl plum:If: sudden thing;- in tin.- Envirunmenl

demands flexibility. an urginin‘n Inuit adapt fir dint. "Bimini ind pilflifllflgica] medianisms are the arr-rants of annual adaplaliun. nnl III: alimr Way ”nun-i." Rub-m flairn: ha: wriutn- “Fhrthtrmnrt. lhl: sum: mic-Hulngical and? can he urganired difl-El'Ellll'f in [he mund- fill-11!:-

vtlnpnwnl tn:- hnlng ahnul dnuicaliy dilfi-rtnt paucrm ul‘ Mil-Bin] adaptiIinn."“ Thu.- pmfibility uf change. in fltl’lfi't‘ ward; i:- hui]: hum billing]?

itself. Far humam in particular. Eh: ward writ—even when the data do WHMuw—ntd nu: bchcardaalmringaflnguffinalitymh.

DEI‘EEHINISH IN AETI'I‘J'H: Fltflfl SEE Tfl W5-

Baldwin-lug}! MEL-r fifteen fem. uh: idea that EuntEmpufiIT hunnn InitialM a n

be adequately explained by app-eating In mtuml ulna-aim] and gem-lit: :nmhmts m claim a Talk-Hing act-HI may disciplines. lshmfld emphIiu: that Iminb-iulum' in i1: shin l-Efll-E ii not ill iuue htrt: the label ii

m

by m

gmd scientists whn mart-56331:. Hf. haw but: human :md

DN'I'I-IIEIIEI'EHEE flFA“HUHAH M W "

33

mflnmmumm tnfmtthum mm LII-I: Pmcnmmhedaftheir mflhfl-d. W

I refer to satinhinlnfl. I urn-an t1} 11mm: what in mm

tin-w: calla! vulgar m pup (m, what may amnunl 1:: d1:- uanm thing, humin} snciuhin'lugy. II it Ihi: fillicw. chantpiantd by Wilmn. Eithal‘d

Dawiim. David Banish. and anthem 111:: ll“.- dialing-[Iiflwd anthmpnlugist

Clifford Gfitfll hid in mind Hhtn he "Jen-Hi [a the field ill "that ItlII'ifl-Ifl mmhinatinn uf mmmun ll'flll' and tamnmn Immense?“ Such IflCiflhl'flIflgifl-ll mu than Hamlin-nan impcrativr: mm that certain [IMF-Enliilitfi are part ul‘ human naturt. Thus, it in m: brash grid-Ir m swarm but the father of im-lmivt Emu: Ila-m?" himlelf. W. D. Hamihnn. Him flllflflLIflE-El mm "mm: all-ling: which are uflm ll'tfllEd as M y cultural in man—5:3 racial discriminaliun—luv: deep mu in an:

animal past and thus are quite His-Eli-r 11': mt an direct gEnEtic inundaIinnsflm What. thtn. {in w: malt: Inf indifiduai: win Emil In display 1hr.Irail in questiun? humming 1311!. m: dn nut uh: flu: alumna: nl' minim a: prima Facie- militate again“ “mnb-rrship in Dar specie-n. we are left with ma cite-ices. Eiiher the Holmium-f imp-tram can b: men-infirm in which can! 1m.- nE-Ed In ##1l haw MEI-ll]. 1h: tin-my il in lhl.‘ firlit plinfiur pun-dining hthfl'lri-nr. m Ell! : new subthwry will law m be iaIted m int-III“!!! fun-r fifflptifll‘tl.

Hml euuiutimunr binlagiau paint nut that th: idea of man! “it-:tim'l, ham-revue: hem-isn't. can he Mutual-d. It i: nut flflflfifll'fl'f rm: lint

an; individual (m gene or gran-up] will hat-ntfit Era-m Hnlutiun. Hur in it III: an: that all trail: and Winn have hem Elected fur. While it my b!

mttfla'ming tn pick :- panirular [Hunt Inf a particular animal and ask why

it mlwd. many sudi Featurns are nut 54: Iii-Edd? explained a: Ihl: giraflt'n lung 1!c which if: learnt-d :huul injunin-r high lEI‘IflflI flirt-t: clan. Hwy feature-.1 are IEIEEIi'I'EI'j-r neutraifleither epiphemmeml (man-Ir m:-

cisdcntal m u m nf flfllEI" Mes that H'tl't adaptivc] :1:- :IM mkiwi-lg.r rindmn.

Many mduhiulngim. hnwmrF—and lhi: induclfl lflflfl.’ Whit writ: about merit: uthcr than nun—am“ m pruned an the mumpaljnn than 111m mull hi.- I hiuiugirtal basil far all chafinm'illici ind hchmrinfl+1hfi

i“want-ml]:I].r aura-ed in m gup with explanatimu For them. Hawkins was. rcmarlahl'r candid atom [ll-E plumbr canjtciural. Hm whimsiml namfl: uf Ihil enlcrpu‘iu. Hilh spa-ii] mil-rm In the met applicaliun cf m binlngy with which we Iwill be Wfltfl'flfli: "'T|1:.fl many pct-pl: M k h u f fl fl m - m M m fi m m - h fi Mmlhhlhnnmhkhlwilluh- indfiptfl‘l'flbdhlricfilrefnnH-unumfl hymnrpimmdilnrhhu. mmhmmflmfldflflnfl

NATURAL AEEUIWDHE

2*!

Mhmmdmflfaflhflmwfllfliflnwflihmcfluflwm hmmgrndcnwhmwtapphinanuruwnnpfiin.Temptinguitin.lmm butrratmhqmmluinnflunlhtntrlnuadlluawcdwreadcrlummi'm

hirmelf."

Thu: w are Pl'flEll-I-Ed with mun-hrld. nflm infill-minus thcurifl In arm-um fi'fl' Mug—including why jrnu gave a quarter In a home-Ins man In.“ night and why f-IJLI at: El Htflumld‘l.“

Dare renal: al" this tendency tn mate what Emmi. Wing Eran: Kipling, tail: “Just 5n" Marin. i: that Whining? i5 unfulfifiahle—tt imilhflhttnleiupinluchlwlyflutnnfanmuldmrrtfifltil. l[Thil in nuwhm mar:- painfully ubuiuus than in Trivers's humus paprr an reciprncal altruism. Biting um: maple alter innate-r nf mmpln, apparlnfl'y mlItut'flllljur ink-med. nnnltlf-nulimizing behavinn—widnpmid an: nf genuine altruism—hi: rtfrain is that this i: just the man of thing an: would m t stitctiun [u fimr. What-rm H: mm: mm. hflHfl-El'

unnpcned or apupal:r-Irmlll'1-r dtvnuting m lb: LII-cow. in Iill'lF-l'jp' cnmrrucd a: further evidme far that {hairy} In hii bunt, Ht flauflfiir Hull-mi I'l'iltl: huh-tum Barry W Hrbundinghfimnlmuiniflquhfltitmtpnnfiuflrhfimmimh-

in: whm it w . Huitiph: M

an: film-u mim'uing. a: are liIIEIEE

Iplh'm'ngi. Brut: sclfiihnn: minim imam. hm an dull-El mfl-mfificr. . . . Thu-r is m:- pnruibk finding—nu- patltm 13f animal hfluviur in mmrr—flul tan unbarruu. Whining-r . . . Any activity at all can but :huwu 1::- ht mixing

Emu! if flu: tin-11min“ 1r:- drawn wefully emugh. . . . The-arias will] thi: much Why an “plain mrrthhg. u a mull. [I'Ifi' explain mama.“ Ann-that C

W uf the umfian that. “milling is 31131:!t

it:Inn ufmnsenratilm in th: hmadeu sense: lichen In its logical cantluJinn. flu: huplicalinn is [hm what-tun i=1. i:- right, Fur yearn, thargu nfa rmliunarr pulitical agenda lurking within luciubiuhfl hflfl h-cm mad: and hardly dmied, but I want H:- emphaaize that the mmfiiul iuppn-

sitium uf 1h: fitld alrtady tannin palitical hnplicatiuna. Th: mmrnpulngiat Manhall Sahlim hi: Ihuwn haw 1h: Ht: Inf natural Ickfliun has been monfigurcd as erpluitalium grind. and mm.

petitinn by antinhinlflgigu. turntd hm: mmHhing remarkably like the damn an which nul- mun-mil: l'fllElIl in ban-i“ Michal Ghilelin hu made this mmflun explicit. Hating haldly that nalun: runs awarding I'D [ht prtccpu at” [aim-fair: mphalilm." And mm: Inn-till Main:

ON THE EIISTEHEE UP A "HUM NATURE"

25

hli'tflflcd flflfimeifl WWIafi-Enfdlilnewut firminn affluIlunun namr: argument: "Elm: we can dtr'wr the Emu-Iii: basis Fur human defines," may: mnumfiw unnumial Gaul Brazier. “H: {in thal-Efl'ninl: which [utilities 1will Hurt and which 1will nm." [This quatatinn

ippflll‘td in a Mum Hint article that included thl: fufluwing um senlemma: mmmely: "And then: in nu hard whit-rm.- m suppnn lhl'

weary. TH+ Harm-namifl prnfidts a puwerful defense of Adam Emilh'l. lainsezvfairt wit-“31" leader: can a m for flmdm whuhcr [here an: political impEi Italian: to the particular hchiwi-nr: and attitude-s laid m- be hiuulflgiflflr

bun! {suiting aside the mmivu and iflilialjuns nl' I11:- wriltrs mum when}- I|.':'.Jt_-I'I:Lillllj.I it due: null like a mnapirnlurial armihilil}? In find in

H:mfltun*l pmnmancnnmt a purpurtcdir scimuifi: justificatinn far rat! islm nr in Wilmn'a comm sham gmdtr-hased diviaimu nl' blur in biulugical basin. fur unim. Then: i: mun: thin muld be Hid alum mciuhinlugiflHh: may they EWIEI'l-flflk 1h: nfllua'E-buundednul ul' concept: Hid. m be simply

bifllflgitlli Lht war they slip [rum ntmnl dfln'ipiiflm ut‘ animal htha'h'uiur (banding. Elf-sarrifira. duminanre} inlu H'Dl'dl Iilu: I‘m. m‘tmun.

and W

a: if the tqualinn had in each :35: been pmved rather than

simply matted: 1h:- 'Ilfil’f may dflcnd [hEHHd'I-‘fl against thargu a!" with gar dctmninism by agreeing that Eullurai Forces pull against uur birds angry. but then prucced m imist than nlllurc is really just an extension nf Ihill hinlngy. playing {:II.“ in mluliunanr agtrhda.“ Suffice i: in may ll'lll Burma's piih? dismissal (if the field—augmenting that ill findings are all. timer nhflnu: m ridimlflumms mun: apl IhE mun: familiar an: is with nucinhiulngical writings.

Blinder DEL-rm A: I shall :hnw Ian-r. r m ham: taken a Iii-Ich- inIEI'E'E-‘l in the fittfll‘. m which financial" diffmnml will in helping huhmriun and empathy. In

light If this. I wan! In pan.“ here if! qufltiun whether mu.- is pennifled In mntludc. whim: [Incl-l: difl'flmm haw: prim-d rahuu. than they are hiulugiril in nrigin.

This rancluaiun i: simply taken Fur granted by man? If an: II'E uh:crvcthar. girl:- md Hum-2n in fill—1' EIJIILII'E Hlflll mun: caringur IE1! Hialeah: than main. mar: nurturing with hibill ur hm indined In enter the [an trad: Inf [he [Juliana warld. and HE pru-Inpill'f ill-IIfll-E that sum: inhurn

ESE

H a m Afifiu m

m

fanuris rupumihk. Severalmtnt hnnhhawdahtmttdlhutunflupr flan: in detail." and it :Ihnuld he sulfidtm hr".- {a lunch briefly an null!

a few pct-inn. Arman: Hl'lfl has read mafia: in l-L'fli'ifl nr dfiflflpfliflflfl paychnlngr will mart-51m: 1h:- stntcncc “Nu m difl'mncu m Inund.“ It app-urn Frtquenlly but usually in pulling. dimly ifitr : brie-I" mutant: aha-u: [II-t rfliahilitf 111‘ the mmur: being used in II}: study. The rcadtr in inclined m glid: aver lhfl' phmc lint:- 5:: diflin-rrncn m I.1r|'.uim::llll3-r “timer

Exp-cited Em fill-1' EE'I'I'IIEI'IE tn». the study. TH the aluminium lignflinlncl of that nmtfindings in nut in be diamiutd. (liver and. fllffl' again, With difl'trtnt ItlrEbutu, difitmnl Measures, and dim-rent pagiuhliuni. null!

and fanaln Itflfl In an and run. remain and feel, in pretty much 1h: mam: way. Murrum. it nfltn turn: nut [hilt turn whim: lhtre is a finial-

cally significant diflmm bflhl'fln I11:my the 'l'll'ifllifl-II M and um mm is mn Ext-awn

warn

This. then, is 111: cnnlcfl in whith minus! findings at gander Ififl'fimtc $7!d be lat-Mud: flu: whit: [mist uf“nn difl'crtnct" in this mt nujuritf at‘ IHIdi-L'i. But whm man and Ira-mm dn nut turn can 111:

51111:. difi-liflfliV-E pattern:- uf mainlinliun Hill-ill]! an:mum:In mum-u [m- tht difiirrencfi.

Apart [mm flu.- Ean than {ml-f wumm an hEEDflIE mum and [Edith is mu“:- mamn in think that they an: binlugifilhr better prepared [but men [I] can! fur rhildrtn? [fun-n: i: any :uppurl 11 all far this! idfl.

it i: applicable uni}: m thl': fim [Hr mm: iii an infam': life. Even hat. though. any: Hanqr W . m ut haw: jun harm: :I fluid an Ill-E cumpletfly inadequllt mmhemjufl I! adupliw mnlhrrs can but: rmafl-e ad-Eqifllt: 'Wt dfl I'iflt Illa“ fihll lhl.‘ hurmnmall bans (If mutating in human are. u: h'htlhfl' IJ'IIEI'E In: 1:11.r :1 all.

. . . him i: dun.- imflhing hinlnginll at human-ll In dim-mum: i mil-IE “sub-11L lute I'I'HHI'HET” Emma. Emile Dunn. 1111: hiulngiuiugumfln Eur Ham's math-rm; il: ban-d m1 film Ihil dun-in. mm [mm mar binluiinl hum-12115:. but Em: {Ill-Ir

mannui'themmmlkmfiunu flliigiuwlnulnimpmtk'qflliun ill-Inuit: racial flrfllfllrfllfl'lll."

The hfputhflil that andalixafinn mat-H Ihl' dimer-mt: hcr-I: is HIP-'—

p-m'tcd by at. Imt wan audits find'mg Illa! boy: and girh at [ht [while-r nag: arc Equally intmsted h: int-cling 31+ launching, and mhm'iu inmcring with infants. A: aha-m age l'uur ur live. Ihfluflh. the bayf Fifi"-

:Iiritjr tn play with habit: Falls ufl" dramatically. 'I'hew i: m} "flfllfll'fl"

UH THI. EPEIEI'EHEE {IF A "

m NATURE"

'27

M I } ! in the ability ur hwlimfmn Ln hi.- nurun'anl. [ht-m.- rental-dun

mludt: rather. buy: in nur Intiety Eventually get 111: II'EIflIiIfll' flux. wing Eur childrtn ii nut : fil 31:11"!!i far malts." What shunt aggrcuiun? The issue III-HE um“ um m In: mbuanflafly

mare mmplicated than my pEflplf aim. Wim- gender dim-rmcfl an: faund depends an whflhrr an: i: EflflEEITIE-d with aggrcuiun that is phyaical ur verbal. direct ur indirect. aimed It mm m' Hmmfll‘l.

gravy-based nr imihridual. uhsmed in field “Hing: ur in the lnbnrilm'r. and an am. Thu: dintinninn: art mic-van: beam: 1hr.- sun uf hchfliur in which gfildn' [fififlmcfl [In appear lunu. nut In hr: in llricfl'f tircum-

Icfihed that it in impusnihle In mncludc- :wccpmgly Ihil women are In: “aggrtuivfl' fll' "warm" than nun! Fur example. a study [if tun-yea:uISd rhildrm El 111: Hatinnal Inflimte uf Mental Htalth fflflfld rm gundfl difierenres on measures uf averall imam-2mm! aggrmhn.Hm Ihuugh buys. engaged in mare dtstmn'mn of pmpeny. When IhIE dfldmcn um:

attuned ill hum: illllflid {If in the labanlnry, that “I“! I1:- gulch-r difi'EI'EflEEI at all in frequency nr Sli'jr'I-t at" iEEI‘Hfim'I-H

Sn I'll-III? mvimnmcnta] factms play a part in mdiating aggruaiun— ind. indeed. can fine the efl'ecl Inf wiping nut grinder diEEI‘EHE-El—fl’lil

hiulugr fl-EEITIE- EiflI-El' an unlikely expltnaliun nr filfltfiflfllll? meaninglns. hum-Elm; m 111: aulhan n!" :1 major rem DI flr ”Imam march. "If III dili‘ercncu were Ell!!! In difl'trrntfl in the hiring, it wnuld nut mm like]? that mere situalianal cur attitudinal change: could emu: them“?! Mung wilh mhcr rut-ardim. may paint nut that a signiE—nt pmpnrtinn {If the IE! difitmnfll IhIt Ila Hill With Hip-EH m awash“ in adulu

are due- tn- Ihc {art that wmtn Elf-1' mun.- likely m feei guilt? album hurting nth-mi. {Stipulalt 1113: ll]!m nf aggmuinn is permissible, and IE: difl'm enter. virtually vanish] Smut-an: t

{wan MIME-hand ma nurture-

hmefi explanalinns is thus in [hit pmiliun at" having tn dais-e (and PT'IJ'FE] a hinlugital art-mum ni‘ gendrr diffmncu in guilL Much has bun mad: in 1hr.- pupuiar pres: iIh-n-ut hm! Hun-um 5|:d dflennine agate-ssh: behafinr." ”l":- hcgin with. it is interesting that Ant»: Ehrhardt. an: {IE LI]: flstarchcfl whale warhi: fi'equtnfly dud in Iflppurt [If thin mndmifln. hill wrilltn dull "It: hum: . . . an]! ‘Efllfl'lifllfl flw Hunk-m mu: hum m Hen mart awn-ping. 1h: [m that mm In!

in“: mar-:- fiuflghu Ilml Hum-m in:

mm! I11; du- uhmlhmd uf"aggmui-m." mi 1M: Ward

il [IE-n Hid-Elf interwar-d :5 aim in: riding; ass-tnIflHEfiraEhi-c‘mnml. Emd nlI'I-rr drsirlhlr

fill-“lids. lime-rt :in Ill-L' L‘nill'd Emil?! Hurt: hil'l'rtr {In mnaurn: of filth train. or art mm: mama Hum-Ming In min-r wrirul "ward... in i: impnnnnl [Iflt m- du mt m...- .1551“. lb: m l ! In ill-"rah.- I Hula-gin] tIpLIutinn I'ur the-u: Elm."

Efl

NATURAL AESUIIIFI'IUHE

plarafimittdmhnwhalt urinal-i. nfflnmm +..lhl:1'¢isnnfiid¢m [hill llhc'y] haw i majn-r nr prtdn-minam hlflutnctf'” Sunni a: 1hr hiningist Anne Fauflu-Slcflhjg and anthers have aha-Hm “Elmlcd tum:-

temnc level: may, in fact. mafia-I agmiw bchivimu“ rmhn lhll'l III! mhcr way aruund." Third. than: an: mcflmdnl-ngiul prublcnu with mm:

ml“ Eh: undies purpum'n; m shnw that amt-Him: {and lamb-urinal. in panirular] i5 : funniun of hunt-um.- levels." Women and men have also been said In Elifl'tr With Him In ipafial Ind malhtmalical ability. and than: martian: haw barn tmmpncd in the pnpular puns. Hill! [in]: nr nu altrutinn given tn tht weaknmfl (If. disclaimers m. at n'itique-I published after. such rflfirch, Hypmhfiu lbflflt difl'flrncu in brain lit!and autumn.- In 111:!!!“ I'm malt' :upfi'iuril? in spatial skills haw: been pmpmed fur mm: flint. A 3932 Mud'f. hiltd an manly Fame-tn :uiupnsifl. mndudtd that [ht rat-a: puniun (11' I11: tarp-m callusum. [ht bun-(Ill: Inf unfit-s cunnccljng flu: left and right

hmiisphtrfl of that brain. was alight]? largtr in "amt-11. This Hal pmmplly intrrpmcd :u amp-fining 1h:- iclta that Humm's brains an: In: specializtd and thud—art It!!! fit [m- dning Ipalial lash-“ Mud-I In:

PU-hlill‘il‘r attnudcd 1h:- rrlt-ut uf nu [tiff thin mm iubflquem and mud] larger Elllllli-Ei. all {If which [nund nu staljjtitalh significant 5:1

difl'ermct in this art: uf flan: braim" Brain all: flidt, gmdtr d i fl m un mmt 135k: muuring spatiai ability have by Ila-w declined In the paint uf infiigllifitflIE-E.“ Emilie: haw:- alsu demunflratcfi that certain laysmimidcmally', Ih: um: “sully givm in hay—fin nurktdly W e mill-spatial Ikills.“

Even mm:- ia-en Hi: m e d by the claim in [9311 that beans: 4: gmup urban did hull-tr thin gids an mm]: [155”.HEEI when [half had all taken the same dun-H. same innit: [antic-r mull ht at wart.“ ("Du

Haiti Ham: 3 Halh GIL-Ht?" asked Mum-#1.: Largtlr uvtflmktd Ht“! swarm] triliciams subsequently raised by sputialjsu, indutling the punihilit'y lint hay-u and girls luv:- diflmm Imming upcritncn Hm mung]: they 5i! Ihmugh Ih-fl' “mt Itflfll‘fl.” In fan. a study {If Hflflfl:dulmenu

Erma [manly naljnm mlmcd in 1938 Lhmwfl that buys and girl: did mall? well an mail tut: uf mammal abilith summing 1hal fl‘ll'.‘

difltrnwfi that dn tIiII an: mart likely [a ftfltfl cultm'al twining dun flifl'flml barium.“ In rt: :11t illuimflnn nfduhium W i t in supp-art Inf int-urn difl'trmttHnd ll'll': uncritical Intdi: :mmgr m which such claim: an: mfl—fluflmfium in inn-Inn‘s utrugcn lE'II'IEIl Her: Hid nut lung alga

flH THE W E E ID!" A "HUMAN NATURE"

29

In mum: {hr Iignifiacam difl'mnfil in mun-I1”: perfcrmmce an #IE'I‘I'JIL

spatial. and musmlar coordinatinn tab. 111.: inflijf'l authu-n emlicid? flamtd tlun it" utrugcn Incl: Him a given Ham's. pal-Fm, thm lfl diffirrtncu in mgnifive :bilitifi an: aim lilac]? m- be hand an bin-lay. Unfflnunildy. [ht THEII'EI] Hal [atalljr flawed hf a faihme In quantify the humane [Ht]: Dr tn imp luhjcctl blind U:- thl: study”: purpnfit, by III: uni-r: at" trivial mmuru at”p-ufifliflc: and minuuull: mph-I.“ Never-

Lhtlus. coverage (11' this Train-arch appeared an the fmnt Fights of hath the NM Hm!r Tina and It“!In Anglia Tim. the article in that law:- gfliflg In [at a: tu- :uggul. that girl: Hflflld nuw haw.- m mmfier taking standardill-d lull at tannin times 11f the Immuth.m Th: val-inns declamljnm abnut natural fifth-rate: h i m the Ira-m in all nf [hm 3TH! meflmk the dMumu-amd fit! that buys Ind

girl: are null Incialifld in the same ways. “WET. the“: dilti'flfl HI:ial'tuliun Faun-us Marl all birth. A. study at THE: Univtfliw Faund lhll lh: pan-nu at" numb-1m hug-r: drmihed IIu-rn a: “ranger. firmer. larger. little-r tun-I‘dinaltd. and man: alert dun did parent! nf nut-Wham girl!— Hm though uhjctlivt dam indicatcd nu diflflcncn by m.“ In a flare ntll Um'u'tniw llud'f, PEEP]: matched 1 fidentape [If I diapered nint-

tImnIh-uld. Thai-E mld that lit: baby-r was a buy Hm man: like]? to hum-Fret I11: baby's. crying an rcfltcling angcr {rather Ihan [car] than were than tulid the '1t In: a girl.” (Th: implicatiun her: in nu: men-hr that gender diffizrenm: are causal by 1hr.- m-u'al envimnment. but that the Iren- Emu-1w ul' many {if thflfl' difi‘mncu. dtriewd fmm prfliflul rmwh and Emu-lam: dalmatian. is duhinus.) Dthrr research has :hnwn lint parent: 3.11 their E'iflh’lltfl‘fliflmll'kflld girls. haw

tr

are ruling—and tall: m them album tum-{inmate nfim than

parent: nf nmmgtd buys.“ All uf Lhasa “adieu. alung will] nther an:-

cuunu a!" I11! significance uf lax-difirrmtiated panama] and per:- mdalii :aiiun," mm In MESH! I113! Wt pct-:cirw: and raise hm and girls In

diflL-rtmly that biulugit-a] txphnminn: Insanely mm mum in all:mum far the m e paths that 1.t mun-times late.

Twin Emilia

Br 1110m that idtntiul {mnmygmic m- HZ} Iflifll. will: than: all the 5am: Etna. an: mun: Hitl'f la ht simflar In each min-r dun arc fi-alcrml {ditfiflfit nr DI! twim. trim share {will}.r halfnfmcir Emu, m

m

E l m ASEUHFI'IDNE

50

havemndudtd that a Hillfli'llltifll pmpnrt'mn1 1 t m mmull be genetically Ermine-1.011I11: m artists: undies. claiman- I'EIJlifld}? nflmd Ihat half-DE the Variance in human imelligtnce ii i Emu-Him: ul'

Etna-l. that Ichizuphrenia i: just I brain dis-Em. and nu an. Thur (him: shfluld ht pit in pulptuivt. lint of all. by lumping in mind the challenge: in hinlngicafl dtltnninilm raised earlier. Harmer.

firm the mam mulule hereditarian an the qua-slim: 11F schitnphrenia has In- athnnwledge um uni-menu] {aunts arr: an has: as critical as gm in dflflwlining when in dilgmscd as having the disarier: what“ an HE twin

is schimpitrenin th: add: art at has: ml? Hlvfifl that his nr her til-Mn will bl: similarly diagnmcd—Hrn lbuugh their gent-5 are iflml'u'al." A number nf min studies, in [nu-:1. haw hccn mtflurthy pruriscly [or chatfilngt'ng hfledilarian mnclul'imu; aver and WT afiin. that? nfl'fl‘mmplti

{If gmticalljr idmflcnl sibling: whim: five: are radically diflbrrm in urium march.“

The fan lhifl H25 are mun: similar than DI: an a variety uf'nuuum should run rally bu: startling. in any cm. Sine: a raft nfuudiu has sham: that phytita] appeamncr din-u 1111:- my pen-pl:- prrctiw and rfipand In us. turn thildrtn whu Inc-at alike are apt m be LTEiIiIEd alike and. pmumbb a: a mun can] that similar m t . dtwlup similar pcrwnalhics- flthfl mflmnmtnfll fauna-Ii tun. can help In explain why idealical twin: might gruw up In mmblt filth1:]t piychfllflgicallrr mare than Either siblings

Eh; A can: in paint was pmfidtd afltr H-E'ln't'l'fll audit: {flund that ME lwini

me man: :Iihl'lihl‘ with fllptfl m such Ehflfll'ltl'illjtl a: dietary habits nr EIHDVErEi-Dll than an: DE. I: happen: fl'nt idtmiml wins spend mareIimc tag-Elba than clu fmterml wins.“ and m investigator: cantmilled fur thi: variable, 1h: numb-tr at" gun-nu sham-d with that sibling nu langunutter-rd as much. Envimnmmt. in fl-Ihtl' war-:15. amaumed far much al' the difl‘mnct flu: had rrflnhrcly been allrihulcd Ila gem. In I933. I reanalysis [If data baud an i “1d HF Finnilh Wins Hal publishtd. It

fuund “a :ignifimm asmriatiun hEtEn III-r minim similari {If H: much: and lb: freqmncy nf their :ncial hllermiunn . . . [111m] mum

b: Elpiiiflfld by age uur gender difl'trmm. in wim' pan-cm: Inf lflljfll mum-:1 + . . I'D-T hf] gut-fled: varii'liun within pairs.“ ']l.I=I-[fllflflnlflwhflspe-ndtinumfflhflmmnrrflflymhriimflarflunIhnlcflhu du- n-nt—I'nr rralnm hill-in: nn-lhinl ll:r I1!!! IIII-rilh gnu-[ici—m dun-fl III: Eli-:1 III-II rhlldfl'fl innit-Hy ham-t dilfltm :Iprr'lrmn I'ill'l the 1am: panni- 11-b- In Etphli why Ilwy III" q p Lu In: very- Mmm fitmuntuulhrr.mrmrlilutim1inn uh: l fl h fl m H tn'lt-E Ill iflb-um [nut-1'1. but 'u'hlingl. EH. II'II! same ill-111.! apt-rim: Lanai-[InabilcHfi-nrnl mrirunnn-nu in mm: nl pan-nu] Ina-1mm: and their Miran unit an: In—

mlm .1l with their plain.” In Huh-:11: PI-mn'm'i wmdi."

DH THE W

HF A. "HUMAN NATURE"

SI

Bumpmmding tune”: diuuht all-um the liflTli-flflfltt uf 1h: mm: far:lur an: whimphrtnia studits dtmamtnling that DI. wins :huh' a higher mmrchncr HIE—I'll! in. an: mun.- Iih-l'y In be limihr tn an: muthrr— Lhan are min-r siblings." DI Him are. {mm a genetic paint nf flew. nu

difl‘ficm [mm urinary siblings. in an]: and: difitrcncts must b: dun: Entirely to mvimnmmlal Tartan.

Eve-n m IhE extent that HI. twin shnilariw might be dun: In shard grunts. Il'mugiL it may but imprupfl m malt gmfifliminm In {311w penple an this basis. Turn m m mined this crucial. and widely

Hedwiti caveat: T111.- Emdin; ul' brlufiml limillriliu helm twin: may bl.- put-nihi- In the linutinn nl‘ twn lamp}: t tam Hun-Ilia] Emu at all 1nd. Exlnpuhlinm Imm idmflui win Ethnic“! Erntlit thu m ruin-sun til” the nun-111 nr ali'in ul' hthafiaral wr'ufinn in [ht gem-r3] puyuhtiun in prnhleuulic-“

Hun.- pmmiling than that: Will Iuldiu, D!" m

. If! adaptinn

studifl. regardefi with mmjumififltiun as the ideal natural [imam fur mining the fliflfl‘tfllflflflfl‘ quad-m. In than: much mcr :ludifl. HZ twin: rained apart fi'nm each udlerare campfired tr.- IEIE1911t gene: air enfirnnmcm nutters more- Unfnnunmely {fir ilwesflgamn. ihuugh. dildrm whu are put up liar adaption annually an: I'ml plan-d with

familifl an a rindnm basin. The :dnpttd Email].r my be related In. lift in the same- mwn as. m be WHILE"? similar in ather m t ! - Iu 1hr..- family

ufurigin—all nl‘ which Inn-am 1h: dam upcn In cnfimnmumfl Mpg-111m:

ahflut Hi1]: ampedamy' Ehfldflfll in! similar m thtir bin

'

twim.

1mm Eamin's ”analysis :31" mm: at Sty-mm Kitty's data faund than

adopted children tum-d nu: H:- h: Ill-EPIIL‘iIIIfl-ll? mails-r In their amplifilings and nunhinlngifll panama. a fan that ubvinulif {mum he explained

an the basis if gm. A. significant pmpurtiun n-f schizophrenia: adapt“: had adopted partuuwhuhad :parm Hm:- in a psythiauichmpifll; m m In}: flf nun: HF III: nmflrhiiuphrenir: lubjlfls whu Wen: and a: rununis.”

111m in TEE math-tr puuihility tn hr miderfll: Plinth“ may III!!! an idlilpl-l'd child IiiI‘l'n'n‘uLI-n:Lljur Emu : mtm-al child and null:- In.“ arm :fl'm1 m- raist him at htr in. their awn image. Luis Huflmml puma In a study Ending Ihll intelligent: acme-l wertjunl as highly turn-laud between turn

children whn wen: b-n-Ih adapted {by 1h:- nmu pawn“) a: bum-tn um mmrflflhfing'sinlhemhumJflhmumdflidmadnptcdafldm:

32

m

mW fl fl fi

utherwilnnLhnwu-mr, muturrdaflnnwum,nuglufingthltparcntill 11mm mad: I11: diEmnm."” In pfinciplc. adaplian studicn prufidt i pmmhmg mlunhm fin

distinguish; gmtlit [mm Emimnmemal firm“. But mien tugtthu'. than: criticism: appear ta rain truuhling. ptrhaps filial. lam-Him: Ila-nut I111.- war fl‘lEI-E iludiifl have annual]? bun mnduned. Because their data

haw: barn unnamed whuI-E by hath upcdalim and Iarpcuple. the blunder hfleditariin mhfliflfli are, al' mute. like-wile filled into

qua-nun.

Heritability flhicfl}! an thu- huil of twin studitl, plycimlughu Int: mm: to publish and [mat lauriunuallr claim: 111q mi: hefitahility. Despite the Freqmnqr with which we was this ward. however. it due: nut mean what it in typitilly ulna-n m man. In fact, if run-umber: in the Bald wtrt m :1:tbrr Inn-1111.r an: I-El'IIEI'lEE Hum 111: pram: d'lapter. it shim-Id bl: this lune: E m m fl fl u m m w m m m fl fl m m -

min: a grim: hair. [I in cfiflitufl m underarm haw [his mun-r bani-r: point tunic] bl: 1m! nn In my pcaplt publishing paper: an varinus nap-cm at"

human behafiur. Hmiuhiliw is anhr a manure all haw much W

at-

:uunt fur fl w fi in a pupuiafinn with I'EIIIE'L'I. ma trail. mat the abanlult

lewd uf genetic cunlfibmiun u:- tlu: Hail. The dislinclinn i: mitiral. Ifl'lflil'if m it twill-tired by Iht m trait—Hm a trail with an Ila-barium. gar-Eli: basis. such an having tueHhh due: rm: mean that in hefhnhilit'f i: highm {If mm: pimple

whiff are Inkling me: [all them in accidents. Ihen 1h: heritalzniilitylr for this Init i: actualiy quit: lam} Bummcly, whim: heritability lard: an m:mnahly high. a: mum: rum-than claim 1.t an:- Ear particular mmmn

uf 35min“ at Ill'l'lililil'fl... the hardiurian pusifiun in mm mppflrtfli at IIL Again, hcfiuhilitr all: us what prupnnion uf varilnfi: in a trail is "Htlflhun [an an In null urn-Eh“ 'Illll'iguirg,r pun-inl: uhpl'nn “II-din nl'imflrqlmn'

nflrn mnurt II'IE want or mflmmrnlfl Efl'ttl l-llil'l'tplf by uni-quirk! 1]}: lfiptiti'l'f IQ

mdparemwchfldmhflmmhpumme flchmuur'

thaluimulmjnn

{final-d in [hit haul-thald. Einilin'ly. 5hr W'I'ilfi. "II' I t ' : hflkh'lfl fur a flmih' {fie-fl Ell-n

pcrsnnalin'. l wuid nut all-tel trait nimihnly hen-Hm par-ml! ind rhilrlrrn. I wuuld find].-

thild-rtnring pal-rm: and [he family- emimrmm. 1nd at: if lhll'fl‘ pfldinfll tn Ihr child rariahlnlllfldrmdnnm dnrhpurhmnfdwmm. Tarfifimdrprndmrymn child. I III'DIIIIZI nut nan-n: In find i dcprndcnt parcnl but rnlhrr ll'-|- mrrpr-L'HHII'I-‘r uni.

. - _ En the rel-tin: ahaunce HFIIEnI-dfld Iii-hilarity on much trails- d-uu nut Fran-id: for III.-

In indhhn H m e m - fl m m m ell-“ac: in IhtldfipI-ldilnflintw"

DH THE 3 m m DI" A “HUMAN NATURE"

53

explained by genetic 'I'ifll'ifllll't. If that qiIiEi in qumiun m

In“?

Huhfishcd fiatm: of human nalunr. IIIIEHMIZ twat 'Il'fl'flld ham: 111nm: {thil in. Illn- mill 'II'II'iIIIDE wnuldi he law}: and lhl'l'f IrmIId hi: m1 Tfllflfl

In E'Ip-Etll :- high hefilability lewl. Hare tn thc paint. even if hunt-titanIzriliq.r new high. this "mid nut manvn'rmuch in light nftllcflnthat tau] I'il'iiflfl? in law.

Apart fi'um HIE fan um herhah-iliw due-.5 nut tell Inn-H a!" u: [unless m: happm to be bchavinral gmicistsl what: we 11:21am}r want In tum-I, the [uncut-pl i: In limited. am when pmpefly undentund. Il- ln hr almnll meaningless. A hderistiellminlit1.r Matistil: rtfm In the variance afa trait MIN

5 fi r mWhirl: in a m :flrflml at 3M W rim. Regard— less if haw luggeringl‘f high a heritability estimate might be. all IJEILI mulcl he afl' after a :imple thing: in the e-nvimnment. Same hie-him gmticiu: trad“? canctdt 11115.1" jet-I am: is ltfi yum-ad a: to why remrrhen rantinue In be awed by high hlfilflhilil‘f figures.

This. oi mun-E. recapitulate: the earlier [mint abuut haw m

fin

thin mu. refining mun-hr ifl 1h: rain: {11' gums in Hriimzfl dufl I1fl-l tut-an fixed. We would aha dc- HE" m rm“ anall'wr qmfificatinn mentinnfll ahme: {ht-re i5 nu nature whhnul an envirunmem- Stu-film at" individual difl'trms in ptnnnaliw rmtinfly ufl‘t-r hrtakduumr. an lhc naturtfnurtul'e qua-tin“. inserting. fur inuanre. that lmiahility is 57 percent [liturmined by heredity. Unfmtunately. the idea that purely enuimnmental {1r gmtth: mmpumnu can hr minimal—[hm “Every behavior can be far:tared ham .1 pfltenlage attributed In each—i: just a: man: u dflcrmian niJm and in reaiitr merely an adjunrt m it.” u Gmfld puts ital“ fir. in [mammal wards. "the app-m;- at" the Hpflifinn uf cam in a pm: illusinnfqfl This paint in nu: ltrn'hly mntraumiaL yet the pfllhm: al' artificial dWiILiIJ-fl inn} naturb 1nd nmturtvhaicd {”1511 {unlinun in flu: mill Hiflflfl: jflul'flill- a: through the ubjfllinn Hm uivial instead uf'

unwilling that ‘Ifirlifl'lfl the whale enlarpriae. finnsider a child wlm firm-'5 up In bt unuuully helpful mad snlkitmu at" wharf fueling; Tilt very idea of quantifiring flu- degree In which 111i: is a mill-ET uf genetics is nnnsenaiml. The war infants are trait-d by pal-mm Parka tnunnuuslr, dtptndinfl' nm 13a on their gmdtr and warm. but aim m1 haw mam-yr Iihlingl they hate. du- mt: cf the

parmts' marriage. wirether Hum happen: In ht ansiuu: mrtr a prom firm at wurL whflhtr Dad i: thinking uf having In affain and hundrtd: nfnflm wrilhlfl. Il. may it]! be l-hil' sum: bani: temperamental inclina[in-u in: inhunI—Inmt' IIEflIL‘IIE'l- lE'EflI. mun! rennin- In the enfimnmm

dun all-Jen. fur Hamplt—hu: such a difl'mn-c: immntflialdy Ifl‘tcu II“!

H

HATUIULL ASSUMPTIONS

mun Indltflf: ufnunuringhcrdc. Iidmu armpicinul as the-at: my '11:. i: thereby filllfld. IhE input Hf which in Harald: finl. it i»! Eil'f In mmmphasizc :11: significant: uf maul: temperamnlal qullitics that :12a primarily u: flap: enfimnmmal Em. and mmld. it in imp-alli-

blt m mign em m m uf mpnnlihilitr m mum: and Illfl'llfl't. rapt-much.

Hy pain: in this chapter has nut burn that Hal-mg? ihflllld cur can he ndudtd Emm a Study nl' hmuan hthavinr. but lhil'. it is rtlitd an tun heavily and [on casually. Sluppy flirting and qutlflnnabk medmdnlofi

in tug-pm at" binlugiml dfltrminism have ul'ttn bun-tn EIEHHEI bmuu nf a WidEIFT-Ead ltndtnqr m Itflpl and HE" suck um “human naturt” :qfiamuiflnl. The flat Hulk is In inquire whyr many [If u: haw: mumcd

nulmdrtlutwchfltafifld tutu: butfluuhilmturthanmym+

A On the Nature of ”Human Nature” Tlmfiflmmflhnhaflmqflfim.-.

mwmflflpflnfiflniflmhhm

fimmtlfli’fl

WE'RE. DEL? HUMAN

Em day p-eupl: near 13e hum: Heal walla-IL and t'll‘fl'f day Inhaler PEDPIE gr.- nut ul' lhdr my m retum luau wallet: In their flWflfli. Edna-bl: m

vandalimd and bland ii dmuted. fln fill: an: hind. "I've gm tn Inuit

am far Humhtr {II-rue": an the other hand. “What can I dc: In help?" WW flflt'l paint of reference is the braid swat-p nt' unrld Hum!nr last Saturday”: fish In the mapping mall, I'J'IE ring: within nu: specie:

i: utltrhr ”writable. Bur dual {ur. really. mullifafimil naturi- in I mum: u-f Hand's-mum. But in. tan. a: I painted mu it 1h: nan nl' :h: In: chaplcr. in nu:1 c m in Wilma 1.111q In {all {ml}.r half the nary. m dismiss hnlffln- evidrnre. We If! If": lfimilfl' mm a!" human hthaviur :5 bring it the: can: and um- mpariw Fur grnfluaily md MEI-l. :11 III: periphery—incidental] and ml at" the urinary.

Elmer than hem; welcomed as Efidfi'I-tt lb:- : mare balanced purra—pcctiuc, mart-aver. anything hupcful about our sped-:1 is Iiiflgr tn 1:: "mired Impit'ifllflilf. I ttnqr Ihll aflggfltl a peculjan defensiv: II-

lithm-Enl in the gluumy finrpnht. A: I luv:- hegun to mill: about a man: hflptfil] aid: at human nalurt. ] haw: nutiu-d. u ulhtn luv:

Hm: mt. Ilia: ll'u: rtt-Eptinn given thin penpccliv: in the publishing warld i: In: lharl mlhmiauit. A. Helbkmwn 1mm. initimfl].r intucued in an :u-Liclc shun I. Hutu-HIM pregnm In fut-sm- :hfldrcn'l

3-5

HAW AESWI'IDHE

pmnchl hint-int, med In rtquirc dull the pmjntl bi: dum'htd in Ikeptical. Em Imirk'f. lulu-5. flu: publhhlr dilm'uliui :I prupnul Fur

tl'w bum-I: ynu are nun reading an [ht grmmda that it named ”In-u Hurdlmeaning 1-:- br: changing.“

What gfilwriltflnihfliflilflfllyflmirflllflhhem. Huwweun 1h: phrase "human mtwe"—whflher it is Harman? empluyed In explain fllfil-hfltfl cur mushy—ii amllwr. What m— [all pullsmn is a third. A natiunal smurf taken in I'EI'EE asked 549 pen-FIB. all [If them tmplnytd, to agree m dimmer wilh statement: With as "Hail pfflpl-l': an:- just nut fur dwnudm" and "Man pumpk- are nu: hull].r hfl-flfll by nalurr." A bunk-length review ET the mutt: mntluded than “crnflm” mcd an apt [3t for full}:- if: percml uf 1h: rtspundtnuJ Tu l-fll'fl'l! Ellt‘fll. this firm-Id vitw may reflect mun-ctr tip-crime with

mtndfliw. It in impumnt 1r.- ackmwledgc that hmnanlr fl'lfltd human haw: shatttrcd {annulus liktli: nuthing said her: shnuld ht (unstrurd as an allempl la tn'vializt them. Bul while IhL- habit [I lia-cling n-nc's dun-r in a big city i5 tit-mph gmd Knit.1hr: incfinaliun m writ: nfi' nur spctifl— 1:: films“: that Hhfll is Ennttmptt-E is mar: real than what i: mmmrndflblt—llfikfl! mt, ahnve 31L :5 mmcthing Ihal nerd: Explaining, 11111:,

the prcmim uf thin chaplur is nm that much qminism is inmmpmhennible flr has-Ed [m dL-luainn. {lllunuminns can he fuund Fur :Jnxul any sweeping gmmliratiun. mtluding 111': an: that "pt-up]: am; 111:- damntd gnu-d5? Th: premise. rather. it; that the belief that we an: defined |:III'iI|~r:ipn:lll'yur by

what is ignuhlr—Ihal lurch Endemic-.11. are uniwnal. inhurn. and int-vim blur—is 3n [qtifl'lll'f mpfllfld, and 1:: much at IFII‘iIflE-l' with cfidEflE-E album uur other tench-mica. that the film-Him: is wurth pursuing Further. Whilst nmst [If this bank milk-:5 1hr afiirmativc tantrum bright-1T firm {if hmnan flaunt. um chapter chaflt'nges Ih: dark View. It dun-El an by building an the argurnenl :Jmmfl',r presented ahnut hiulugical dfltrm-iniam. which I35 In say. by ”trying in refill: the spcdfic veninns {If the human

nature argu menl that ant-rt certain dilflgl'flibI-L' fcaiuru an: given: and

:11- mnre real {him lather feamre-a. Wlut I'm-flaws aha might be unfit-"mad lhiafi Haj-r: Evm if then:- '12-. rm human nature in Hill: strung. dflenninistit Elm-E, it in Hill impnrlanl In inquire inn: Ihl: Way: by which humans {in

and dc: distinguish thflnlelwm Thus I begin by pmpming several mph nation: fur uur habit nl' umnfing lI'I-I‘.‘ wars-I ahuul flung-Ives.

DH THE. NATURE DF “HUI-IAN HAM-E"

51'

WWWLDFETNIETSH jun a: reputed expmure tn 3 Plfliflilllr behavior lamb amm- pmplr In

alum“! that it rtflect: human namrh lfl dfltfl exp-name It: had new: affect me”: qlflfitflli'l't mtslmcnt ml' humn naturc. Tim thnLuand war: agu. flicflu put it this “if: “If w: an: Forced. at fiery hunt. In Hatch or linen m hun'ihle flirt-Mm this WHHII'II “mm IJI gland? impmuium 1will [I'l-

priw: Hm 1hr.- mnu deflate amnng us at" all rapt-ct for humanity.” Harvey A. Hfll‘l'flilflill. and his mlleagun at Calumhii Unhmiw umducttd :I lie-tie: at" aperimmt: in the IBM: drawing that whjrect: whu "mentally” hard 3 radic- HEW!- hmadcau ahnm I particularly cmfl m—EfllflF-H'J'Ed with dun: Him hard 3 report ahnut an an nfthmitr— were submit)?In: lilur.lr.:|\]ur m behave map-entirely in a game. m apt-ct maptratinn from m . In finds: a dtfcndant innncuu Ind mammcnd a more Fenian “mm. and In npmu a belief that poop]: in E m an: hunest and lu.=l]:ufin.l.I 'I'he implicatifln seem: H: be nut anally.r Ihm a mu: film ui' crur sptciu can ht explaincd Fun-awn].r h}- tnp-murt m mph-aunt Hen“. but also Illa]. we an: sufficiently malleahlt an I!- [u change nur general nutlmt an “IE basin {II hearing almut heartening mien: an III:

Fin at war [1:t; IlHnmuein himsc-it‘ pray-med that hid new: has themmrquencc Inf sharpening the dividing line bfllWIEEI'I in-gmupa and nutgmupl. "us" and “mm" and 3115:: DE fihfinhing the group with which 'hl'll' identify and mm which we are farm-4r.»rah-I1»r dflpmcdj‘ Why. thuugh. Hmfld H: mm:- ID reg-3rd human {guiam nr E'll'i' a: me real than nth-er dint-Minn:- uf hmn nature? Pfl'lflpl w: are far mm mat-an aumdimg “Irwin-a]? m [hrs-.- Eltnttflll. nr puhaps EV“ is man- after] hruught In uur anemia-n. Let u: pun“:- Ihl.‘ latter Pfl'llihililf

fur a mum-211:. Same peap-ic. by virtue uf where their live at with hrhum din! aim-clam. an: struck full in tht I'm with Hil. Em imam uh:- lurm an a teln'ilinn IE1: is curdhmted with I luplided IE-Eimn that I'll!- : Empa-

mble film. This is mm to haul nut Ill: stall: rumplaim that me um: mcdia flu nun-t rtpurt tun-ugh good nun-rs; it in nub-H m inquire inm. Huang 1:!!t things. thud we learn fi'um entertainment prugramming. Fur man: than tum datadn* George Gerhner and his cull-flaw: :1;

III: Annmhcrg Edi-ml ut' flmnmmkatinm at the University HF Permutwnia haw hem nplufing thil quuti-un. Hurt striking ta the-m than II“.1:11:10“e connection bEIWEEn T1." flaring and finicm: is 111: finding that "lrlcvilinn': mm and dmgtmm wall-Id [Ends In nlltivat: : may:

(if relativc dingtr. minruu. dcpnflmct. and—despite its ruppmedly 'mtctuinirq‘ mme—alinuflnn and film." Spedflufly. warding In

I!

HAW ASSHLIFHDEIIE

data fi'um qmfimmaaim. 1h: mart TV I perm: undies. [ht man.- likely I'llE nr shit is In haiku: 111:1 I'll-[Ill pmpir are just am far 111mm: and unuld take adfiniagr uf y'au if ghrtn : thancc} Tht Ilfll‘ifi and than:-

[EH- in [ml-‘5 living mum—and In us Hmcmbcr flu: the average Aim-rican ttlcviuinn HI: is un far about men but": a day—awn a dhmnl vim at” human natur-t. HI i1 shun-UH nut surpfiu- us 11131pmplr rEpfitedl'y Exposed In than Muricaand Lhmctmwuuld internalize just and} a Iii-cu. 5 : : t pinnihlt flplamtiun i:- sugguttd by am: (if Dunn-Huh”:

durarlm wh-HI he dethrfi thal “the h i t the Iii-DEE Inf development a man reach-1:5,. lhl: mar: pram: he bum in crmtiim. if unly bran“ (If the inmuing cmnplfiiw Inf hi: Illil'.~!:.*—|I|J.""ii Inflfid HF Humming that

a Eflphii-limlt'd man is {me whu can Hm HI: Hamil: he is an: whit: can see MIL Thc mumplinn is that naming Might tn- Ebt min at fact Will”. that il in invm'iihlf mun: HHI-iHE In dnuht whal appear: tn be warth

admiring. Tu ht EDIJL in die same {if Fashinnahle. is 31mm be cml in lhe 31:11:: {If dhdainfufly lktplica]. Sim:- Ht. auriclws. aspirt m mphiuicalion. we lab: pain: nut tn be [lien in. We adopt the nttilucic that an]? an filament muld he trusting ur mapflative—muI-d be naive muugh, till: it. In deny the unpflnuanl reality nf Intuit human self-mum: and aggressiun. This midrm. ufmunc. il new: called by it: right m

it is hue-Jud

realism. [l Eflufllds u: smugiy that hum-3r mum, we might wish human-I him not selfish at mmpciitiw. we mm: nfltflhcltu Fan: F acts {that it.

[I'm-5t Fans that currubm-att this vim ui'flw warld]._]u:1 III-ch a palm".ha: been tndified in Ihe main] EtiEI'HIEI, 1: I11: paydmlangiiu Michael and

Lin:- Waflmflt ml.- it: *‘flrnitism is mruungrd in Lht m : If urine-ME: IE-li‘llfiql'. . . . The Fflflihilil'f uftuncern For and mmmilmenl In Hamlin panama": wrifartuanmdiniuelfiraflmflunuapflaumpflflm

m mm: pun-11ml hcntfit, m : mt u:- I-Jt lain-n “dandy.“ While it is nu: immfldifllfll‘f clear wk; qufidim mould hf valued. 1m: EH a clue I'm-m the fact that the rlmtnri: of mgalinn is In: Iikclry In put

mm": intclimuil rqmmian a: rixln thin in: affimmicm. Elm u!" 111: m l important lfllflnl harntd in talk-gt. in fan. is than il i: SHEET la- bl: duhinm. Brandeis paymnlngin Tum Awhile ahmd Ihat "if a film

Imalfanlh us what wt Lhmrgh: nf a Frfl'lti'h mafit 'Ill'll'j'flll' saw. :11: It“. mu: m: fttl disrusfiing furtt'gn fihfli. Ih: mun: inclined we l'fli'f bl: In I'll-inn tn camp-him::hnul the dirtctm's self-indulgence m I11: Elm. tdilnr':lad:

of tloqutnttf" (mm. m mm] Ifl an admin-r 111' mm: H-Dl'lt by making. with a faintly intreduluus [ant and pauunizmg suit-t. “"I'uu Md ii?" in In qutndl ll}: fliIhEr'l mfliminm in a burn and call [Drill dialin-

DH THE HAWK {1F "HUHAH HATUIE"

39

livflmsiniuplm.) In iummteuggcntcd flprcuinrmll-tlilmminate negativinn 0f Ihcaca-dtmy feral]: [hill nl' Eh: mlI;mat-mi. whm mutm in Everyt Such. [IL-flail: sdmhn haw: merely [rainfall-fled mat Vulgar appfllhinnal impuhe by hflning thtir crhifli lkilh and polishing their erudiliaDn until 1nrinu.1ail.l'1.r any idfi laid an their plan-ran ht mnmilr dflm‘fllnl-Etfli and dismissed! The idea herein that rhetmdrncrmmsmdwwnmahuulagivm product may rcfltn sum-r:mm] at insu'Imiunal huetmiur. E‘I'EI‘I if the ailinsm in cummunicated with intimidating ctrliludt and ctprnltd in mwtiiffing. arcane language. Amhil: mnduntd um simple. rather mi:-

chiemu: audits in [:11 I'I-tl' hunch that :ludcnl: mad: In fed dnuhiful aha-.11 [Emir andflnic status wuuld ttnd ll: be tin-turd}; :rilicai : 1 a 5h:- aml a mummie- ash-d Iuhjtcu m tulualr mm written Irwin {mp-

pose-lily wrim-n by mhtr studmui an the bani: uf such niln'ia an intelligent! and tlnrity. 11mm whn were laid 11131 the quality If thcir Hallm-

tin-ns wqd dflerminc whethtr may would hr.- Iu-pl an as cry-en: I'm-

annthtr huh and than than “rt-r: mld Lht flpnfimcnlfl was a visiting pruftnnr [raflrr than a first-year gndunlt nude-I'll] HEI'E ill-Idttd mar:

negatin- I'rn their judgmmu."

Aimhiit that at! am In Elitlfffllillll! whethrr this aurt nf critical par lurr rtaliy d-fl-E'I get interprtlcd as an indicafim'l Inf higher itutlligmtt in H“.- war that [l'lll' fl‘ilifli apparmd'f named. 5h: Ian-mud a hundred subjccls with ma III-uh min-rs. um.- vcry punitive ahnut [I]: hunt in quuu'nn and [ht nl'htl' very negative- [111:- rtuimr was Ihl: same in hmh

me: la mun: that the fly]: would b:- similar.) When each : 1 : t was ask-Ed In till: the mflcr an a rang: nf trails, ”I11: negative minaret" was urn an mare inteliigtnt and WHIP-"fill. With high! Elm flp-Eflill than the pmitiw WIT?" Ifnnt Etc-ls IE5: vuhmmhle and iajudgrd as Wtfliflftfl'fll fur laying mmtdling unflattering ahnul a bun-uh 111' film, this Efl'm in film nmre efidenl {Fm than: wiihin and wilhuul tht afifllmfl when it mm

In tht quulian ul‘ human MIME. Then: is an danger (31' being perceived ii treflulnu: {If fluflty ifunt Imuwingly IEFE'J'I tn ullcrinr—thal is. Inc-H1 ImiIIE—mnfiws in every pie-nun and every act. In this count-aim it is

warmth rtflctting an Hullu May's uhumfiufl [11.31 mm: nf his patient: “did um reprns their usual. aggrmiw. nr ‘anliaucial' urgu . + . [hm]

their needs and desire-s u: have respnnfl'hln kindly. and duriub-I: rehtiaum Him mhc-r profit?“

I fluted ihuw that repeated {

W m flEflIIi'F-E bdflvifiu mum

hag-m uplainlheauumlfliunthalthfledefimflwmrtufhumm

{I}

NATURAL ASEUHPTIDIE

beings-fins: as Ina-carted EHPIJHIFE m in}: behavior might lead an ab fl t ‘ In cumin-tit. that it was innalt. 5:: it is that other explanations for cynidsm an.- panfllct In [lune Fur hiulngiml dcttrminiam. Ennsjdrr [J11manfl 01' fendhag ufi' dung-E. II is theureticilir pnflihlt In dcl'md any feature cf the nun-5 qua an [ht gmunda 1113! it Limp]? reflects the under[ying End-Enrica all" human naturt. but it can hlrdl'f Hap-t unlit: that we hear thi: lint mus: aim: in cmntctiun will-1 than aspen: al' aur system

[hit turn an u-imuphing mrfl ur fining harm Ln {Jill-Erin- Lean Bismuth-Hg said it Hal]: Tu helifll: thal min': amfllhm ur terrhmillitr il in the rum of ill:brill

I: m might: Mm: mm far all men. {mtrmpflmry 3 “ i far all plausible 5nd:tifl. and. by a remarkable minimum“. In jun-rifle 1I-I.I'h:l in: a: 'I'hll need: must

but; will rrpl'naifln W e : a I'IE'IFDIHE In. nlhtr Ihan a Elna: nl'. human mm. PEEHI'IEII'I'I aha“: mm menu m ml'lmain II'II': Ham: qua. II is a luxury fur LhaaflutnIJmpmflm guillnflhcpnliflflllyhluivmammlnnm [hast

uh:- cunlinuu m min: 1h: mitin nf pfiviltgc.“

DIE: agaim pfllhinl mmive: hknd with : 1 t m Emu: um": 3 - : e lane's human, :4 the can: mayr be. ”fan can hardly hr faulted Fur lying In a fi'itnti. Emitting a I'm items: on [ll-E I1: rttum. spreading a bit {If gussip ill-DUE a rival. lasing wur maxi, Vi'ulrlrling,r a tit-arm to someone Hat‘s min-nu. at any 111' a hundred umber pertain-Elaine: if i.l can b: laid 'IJ'lil

virtually everyone dun-u H'IIE'IE things. Infurming the htlief that such actimu an: widesprtad i: the largtr tnnvictiun aha: humus are simply flawed. This is nut an examplt all": p-Enonn] shuflmming. the-11., but (If Ill-l: limitatiuns built inm human mime." A fritnd 111' min: hold me l'flfl'llh' :Imut 111 m m : :11: had in japan. 5h: was standing in line tn buy a fan: can“! Ihr the null“? and marked 3 pi]: flf munqr lying an a munttr umntndtd. She 11m unfit-HI

[hit flll'lfl‘s in the arc: mind it. and 5h: watchtd with mounting incrtdulilr as each perm-:1. ld't it right 1|:t it was. “Fmallr.” she said. "I

was. glad m m: an: mum: Hail: NH and pick up that hiils. But she just tank mm m iflI'EItfll'lt Eli-E m :51: if that pun-nun had ltfl the-m tI'Ifl't. Whtn he said 110., she put :11: mane? but" *Tn dint-L rupnn-ihilritr 1':- tinulmmauflr m dud fiflimh “In: qufltium. :u Bun-pr

SEW: hill hmh' nhn'u-dP'H'Iln' pu‘nri uffl-nil-Hr“. In"It pull-Enum- firmmmi-FIL

Flinn:- {h'mlugfl L'II' minfmcmnl Ihthlh'im Iii-tun} is I Ian- nrhumm Ilium.- ll'll.'l'l uguinllr ahmthhuth-m prop-HughInbtlhuh'arlnmmuthniiufurm.“flfll1ringllmm Itlllll't card w:- mlghl a? ham memhmiam by I-Ihlrth I rein-huh Mania—cur more

ill-I:I.I11III.-11r+ IJIIJ'IIIIIJII'nIaut11I.-I:-—ran-rill:t1l fun-min

DH THE NATURE fl-F "HUME HENRI"

1H

“Glad?“lflid.“1¥hymwughdm1hhtlhtuuguhgmuh the mane-3r?” “Well. you hill-W, thalat 1m: m titer: was "nm‘nuL" ” My Eric-ml flail-Ed ind prfinuuncfid the Ian ward will": Ill: apprupa'ial: nut: nl imny. Hut luau}r urn: have a lender“)! tn rtgard the nil-rm; {lffltfl' awn culture a nnrmal in this universal m . in the 3am lilt'I-l': w:- rtmgnim a dis.-

crtpantr brim-rm mum nf mar practinfll and haw we knuw penpl: (nigh: In behave. This is why we uh: a kind {If ptnreme plenum, 1 [ £ 1 v

mid", fi-nm thinking that mph in mher tulmrfi {II} .15 wt dn. After all. if lhl: jipm‘lm Human had lmlen the mum-3r. an Amri'ican mill-1| ht manned that it in just natural It: flu in. .I'Lnd if it it ifldfld pan ul' mu"

Eliflul't. then ihflt in: I11} and In [ct-l guiltyr when we act accurclingif. A: jmflaganpmit: Either than admin-d5: ll'fll thl: strum—1: and philumphruf fl-fll’ mutiny infill: nth ui‘ m In 3::t HHJII’IIEI'EII u flu: first rulc. “any Ann-inn: find H mm: utmnh'r m b-tiinr Illal Ihis Ina-ad. illflllfl with jfilfl'lllj'. hi'iltl'l'd. fink-nu. ind incruJa. the ifltvimlflrrmunl fil'nuranhnllhefilagclndmwemmdtm In m : it.“

Thin sun 11f thing in, Mt EDiIIEidEIIIinf+ a napk- nl‘fimcfifinmainly. [TL-tall a ski: in which a man luau” Inmwnr filing dim‘wr It I tellin-

rilnt by deacflbing m him in dun-nil the Emmy uf ll'IE animal that Will :‘laughttrtd and HEB [hr plaintive nits uf Illa: vcgetahlcs as they um: plucked up tn Huh: his salad. Th:- dinc'r Hui-“f 51'“ up and Iain-'15., his appetiie game. and arm: a prttilelf timed interval. the lather man lire-ah inn: 3 triumpl'um grin and dive: in“: the abanduntd (Hana. Thu: hmnnr Ema-gt: [mm nu: tnjflrmtnt. :Irg‘l:|..1|:pl'1-r maliriuul. in sat-mg apparently

Multiple-d PEflIPIE' unmasked a: wily. :rlfish fnlks like the real Inf m. Hamid Schulweis, dmmnan uf a foundaflun In hut-nor [Sump-um

what) remand1m during Wad-i War IL nuke: I {ain‘t-lame paint here: hmdnxitfll'yr. ml'rfmming [ambit-n mm.r but man: pilinfull'f d'lillflqinfi Ilium mnFruang nil . - - [11:21:n itl pres-cm: Ill 1ImriII‘I- I lard mirmr. Wauhl I m

a Win! Human. a hungry and hawk-u child. an 19:11. flightrmd ruuplt . . . hut-wing that doing an might bring disuttr upnn my family and myull' . . +?11Hrmlflflfldflfll Hutu ththflflflimflufmftllimiu virtue.“

just a: umptinm a!" "annual“ M E I ! allow m to justify um um:

ililnjr b'flllifll'ifll'. m Hid-mt: In macaw din-um tn pin nip-unn'hilitr

It!

HAW m a n s

unusfurwlutwdu—mdfnruhlwtdhflyrflnglfiflflmiamhflt

1h: mung: m elm A. numb-tr ufwell-nninflucd Hieflwtem: Jul-Iain. and in mm:

can: tahl}? Emu-alt. mIr assumption: about the nature [If human naiurt. The him knawn ui' them: is, uf cmm. flrigina] Sim Ihi: dam-inc in Christian thEfll-DE'! that all nl'ul lint: Adam recluirc dhrine dmPtiml

time are an: ham impure and thus are manually inclined In cummit evil acu. [Alma-ugh this kit: mm in cunt-m Emu In St. Paul. it did nut nriginatt with W I T “ ; [he fifty-Em Psalm [Ella Ill: “B-Ehuld. I wu

hruughi Earth in iniquiw: and in sin did my math-r mmrivc Inc-3'] Ewn many pmpl: Hhfi smfl‘at [ht idt: that [ht virtua- afcmnrmpnflryhumann :mldhccn-mpmmiud by {nrwmfldhcflmhyamfitififl

dh‘iflt bring a: rumpmmiud by] all}: Elia-115 uf mm:- characttr in prthis-

[HIT :Etm u: adflpl a pseudmciemjfic min-n uf the urn: h-Eljtf. When Fn'ud Hl'fllE that “thildrtn an! mmplflttl'f cgaiujc; they [re-l thl'ill' need: intensely and :11i mlhlflflf In lili'lifi? them." and. min}: year: httr. that "the inclinalinn In aggression is an original. HH-E-flhlifljflg instincttu] dispauiti-un in man.*""’ In:- had nu ncrrd fur : mythital Edtn Emu: which 1m: were hanijhed. Tlfll‘ [if a redemptinn which we mighi achieve. When the lit: Elana-d Larch: rah-wed In human natur: a: "uni-tantrum; and Unmhlrfiql it In: [III the basil Inf filming? rilhm‘ than lhl’fllflfl. ‘M'Ien a Imiuhmlusin deadbeat! u: at: “rm-vim! madfineI—mbnt whidfl blindly pmgrammcd [a p m I'JII: Elli-uh mnlcculu hmwn a: Erna?“ this allegedly morally mun-a1 filial-J in jun .u dimming fl an}.r htllfil't Sunday menu-an.

From 1h: tradilinmfly flppflfld quit-1m Inf rtliginn mu! m than. H: m

.

: insuucliun an nu: infill-E with-linen. Thin inIIJ-uctinn

fllnrakndhmt fun-1111:."I‘lwrcmmnrwhufifluur uniquthumanity

as inspiring but bun-tine it in a men- overlay an Lin: tritium animal nature: hmIII—na tnnuptifln Hut, like FrEu-d‘l mtiun al— I. venttr Inf unthinking influmflfl ban-h tutu-hymn unruly hurmn ufthcid. dfl-fl nut speak mall fur u: on halal-1:15,,

fllhcnmay havcarrivedatfluirmcumentnfhummnamnnthe bani: uf a simplt EfllIfiJl-ii'fll uf “If-imam“ wilh HH—fflllflfldl‘fl'fl he: chapter 3}. Lfl-flkillg um [ul- flnE'! awn needs—filming the mural Ermn a ”sum-am mm“, that an: finds filfilt alglnpfllirlg,r Far example—u nut in

1'qnbjatfimublt. 1| flifll‘f became: an whim it fidfldfl tumidpfl'alinn ul' album-5’ nerds; Tn album: Ihal we nfltn an an as [u plum-II: nun-elm. and

In dtftnd dining 1m in! nu! Ln draw up III indittuttm nl’1h: sperm. It may mflhhtmrwhmmmmmflflflmm:fl

ON THE NATURE OF “HUI-IAN NAME."

«I!

flwmfuuflinfldmmnflnfingmmflhingmflmlnrmwfih mun-thing mar:- anfinmu. fimmflfllnfltmwhmmthnmimnfhmluflilhh fllflmctd h’f fluir tan-tun 11mm 111: practical mmcqutnm uf :uuming mhfi'hl'ili'. “Thur.- nnt :dflnlag: u-f hut-lining that man is has: by nalur: inll'lzll11m“Izmm‘unttransmit“ifl'lil'ylI dmhmlca whnprnluis-Elnpufl-fl him all i ramble mil: in draws,“ in hmr um.- writer put: it." This pmiu'nn.

ufcmxrse. talus fur gamut-d that acct-punt: nfhuman but-Its: ii lhlfl' unlr altrrnalivc In utnpiimism—Ihal in. m a fail]: in human perftnjhiljw and

the will In 5.1qt pita-pl: in [hit mm:- H flu: visit-m [It aha prncmd: {mm 1h: higt debauhlr put-mint that a sun-dew is must likely m imp-:15:

in will milk-Isl? ifiu Emu-11Humbug! maintain: [Int ptnpflt an:hminll'f gaudJ Pnl‘rticalumphxfiam Hide. mtmmnptinn [hupenphu'tehhfl

gland at c9511 3 mnstmctiun nu It'll sill-y m- mphnmnric than lhl! mum: venu- nunurE pulafiw. cum-mun 1t.- curl-Jr mu‘ thinkmg. Evm 111m wlw

haw misttd outright qrnifism mayr regard tall: {If Iii: bright-tr side at human naturl: a: rcflccling a simplt-mjndcd “Man In {la-Dd" dugma thm HEN“ starry-eyed and untenable in il tummy-1|.r pmimarked by fimuddt.

I am suggesting that the mar lie: nut in being step-lira} nf that pmitiufl but in math}; 3 false- dithutumy. Ta it'll-ill: that that is. mar: m um lpfl'iu Ihan tguism ur aggrflilinn i: nut flammrilf m can arm's hat with Carl Huger: cur Th"; Hr. [III-guru. Eunfrunled wish the kaleidmmpir; “rink-n ul' human behavinr. mm: humanistic parmahgist: and mhfl nm-Ruunraun'am have argued that 111: gund in u: in Ellenliil and the baths-um: is contingent: withum a ten-ruining envirmunenh w: wuuld individuafly and mflccfiwl? hr: admirihlu. This [tip nl' Faith. mat-ml!

{:I'ilitized E'II'H‘J Pram wiihin the humanism: traditinn.“ i:l limplul].r [11! mirmr imagl: 131' the unsuppufled inertia“: fill the subject H:- cmnr: fmm Hflhhifli. Frtud. and mhcr partisans 111" Original Sin {in it: uriginal ur Fiend-unscientific minivans). Tn wim it the min-[IE- uf“we're all beautifill

maturc-s decp dun-hm" nerd nut bring us H: mm: that we must In: W t fl h r campted, :df-mwimg mmmi—nr vice Haul."

{Sh-ark. [here in nu Ell-fill“! fur detcrm'mhg whim: we :11: an [hill ‘11“.- whimnhipH i m lbw: nu: dinmrlrhflr applaud m muflm hummu- In nu Hurt than I maflcr at Ilium. jun ii dunfimirr W h i g : hqamfly hum-w rho tn'niln: mfl-flmmmflils. an dun mush: Err-limit}- burg-H. tritium] firdml-ngiufly

making. it 1': MI summing m rue-dim ll'l-‘ill ht uh: um! tn mm Harm” um: mm: m

Ell-E. a; Ilwulll fluninl; will: a kind nfhtflmiuhim-um: {m the: mind- at” hil W 'Ihrl.

H

HAW“ ASSUIIIFI'IDHS

hypometifll mnfinuum that lll'l'tthfl hut-tween guud and HE. nu way In 1:113: 11]] 111: praimurthr and uhjccliunahlt aclium 01' an: Ella-m. 111cm

:11: grmmds Fur denying uur pcrfrnibifiqr lwhalnn grin-dim: mm: in this cum-flu, and 31:11 gmumla fur an mucntimental n-hscnrrr m .1.n with Mhm flamm': pmmunttmtm abum hum: bring mun: admin-

hlt than nah Hurt-fiver. that are gruund: Fm" repudialing tin- idea of such : tummumn m brain with. in favor a!" a dialertiacal scram: In!" uur numflnranaflimutiunufflnflnflm "chairenugiunmtmaufl in that mural realm.”

'I'hat Iamnkaflngquicflypaudnitponm ismdnts Balm-ran

{hill than-an hmwfimafcwphflmur that fl1tydnnul Han-ant

:criuus treannenl. That we: mum simply chum: up 5 W 1Bad. Ban-lb. Htithtr—and haw.- dunc with it should III-E uhvinus. Inn-restingiy.

Hen Ilia-H: :lhiIIkt-rs who“ name: we W I : With a jaundiced triL-hr DI hmuan nature have given mixed Iig'lmll. Even Adam Smith. danipli-mh and prtscfipfivcly : philosophcr at” self—inteml in Th HEM qf NM.

ham: his uthrr mljfll' hunt. Ti: Thu] y’Mnmi Satin-nu. II [Hum-M: Haw mlfilh m

m mlfbrmppnnd. thwtmrrilit'nllvlmutpfinripluh

his nature. Hhid'l internal-l him in the [cum nfmhrn,m'u:l minder ll'ltil' happincsa m a n In him. [ht-ugh hrdtrim mulling fi'nm ill. :11:t [hf pull-am: lilting

it. . - . 'l'l'ml: wuitmdtflvtmrmw [rum thtmrmw nel'ulhen. hammer afflict

mMmflquhtmghflnmlnpl—uwil.“

Even TIE-mm Hflhhtli 'fl nun-I a strict writhing-ital again sin-re he tints um insist that pwple an: away: and admiral? mutant-d will-I Ihtir mm hum.“ And tum Hahn-rt Sptnm. miner :1m term "lllfi'i'li'fll ufth: Flu-:51.“ aim trains that “stir-unfit: . . . i: rm lean primarctiai than nfl-prtunaflmfi‘ that real Entificatinn can he had an]? hy“mu1ime1:l benevulnIE“—i Whntt that may Fla-Her. but is nut mutimed by. quaint pltflure.“ Thesmr'yr nfaurmmrtjfindnditma lummwnkin 111i:

tank-II III-filming: nature. mull bat-11d withum rdringnn fired Formula: and uncritical anumptiuns that emphaiilr may I11:- wars: in DUI” call-2cm: rrpcrtuirc. Fl'llflld and Nitmcht. mung others. saw lhE‘IIll-Elfl'fl in d:bunting romantic illuIi-fll'll abnut Ih-E lptcin. nipping MT :11: Insuring dectptinum that blacked um bad news." But Freud aim said that it was: nut his “inlmt'mn m diipul-I': ILh: Habit tndtavuuu uf human nail-urn": he [mini :11 empluaiae “what is evil in mm unly lanai“: mher people disamw iL"" Thi: cmcLitIn my lulu: hem umihli: at an: time. hm

DH THE NATURE flF "HUM NATURE"

I!!!

tacky uh: dmninun fit!!! ha: did In tht flihfl‘ mm. Aswan: mncemrd widl rtslnflng balance is flaw amu- lilmlrl'g.r m be Hurting at d-thunking 1h: dthunicm. Thur an.- twn Maps tn this tut-crpriat: alttnding In the Idmiv able Farm-u u-f :11»: humrm m:- and chant-115mg IJ'H: candminnn lustiljr drawn [mm mafia that paraplemueflmu: hmand mflllc-Hh nthtr.

LIL-t us practcd Hill-1 LII: Ian-er.

HUHAN AGGRESSIflH

I: aggrcuive hem-vim part {if human Datum? l’n. in thc arm;- that virtually all at 'Ifli have Ihr: rapt-city m remand in Ihi: way In a [.‘I-Ertti'li'td threat. Eu! neither that fan nur any firidEnre [II which I am aware permit:

u: m say that aggrcuiun i: an inn-at: tendency uf our species 111‘ anything day.- In an inrl'itflbilil'f in the lift of any git-=11 individual. It i: nut any

man! real or integTal a rupunue than rear-ling In 111: name threat by fitting. mhmring. laughing. fire-ping, m writing. In laying Ihia. Ijflifl a number or invefligimfi whu haw: mm: In

dismiss explanatinns appealing tn imam-nun. In his I??? bank fur mm]:Ilt, [he parcilmlngiu Ruben A. Ham-n cilcd man: than threc hundrtd nudill, including hm dun-n Inf his mum. Hurt concluding [hat mlflfi m Ill: firm 1:11:11q by Fltud. Linn-n3. huh-fir, Ind lathe-n. W I ! is m! ens-mm hunt. Rather. it stem: In hit a learned [mm ul' mill hehfliur. atquircd in the um: W u 1111e 13:13:: nfitlh'il'f and italic-mm! 111; manyul" the 1mm- .mt'ul. similim'lal. ind Monumental Eannrsfi

E'Iffl'l mun: imp-um; 5mm: a!" the Hun-H's India-1g W u , nmphylialuginh tmnlngilu, and when Hum the mum! and Ifitiill

:cimcfi :ignrd :I dflhralinn in lfiflfi. the Swill: Eula-mam. that milk?! mmiaflr till: Earn: paint {m AppendiIL Ta undcuund LhE Ingrid: ui' this cuntlminn:1:: In high: by nah-Elwin; the indisputable fail that aggrulivmrfl. In 1m.- nnmullry understand Ill: mncc the: nnt drscrihl: a

m we Ennw. 1n anther m maintain that,

it in a rupumt Inward which humm naturally incline, In: mun: fliml'urt Itrttth ti“ tun-rm 31mm: b-ryund magnum“. Gnu-Gandhi's Wilma-m

In nunviulcnct in under-um 1-D rcflctt numbing man: than a fun-n at" displacfli aggrtuiun. we haw: cult-rd [ha I'E'rilh'l'l nf unfahifiablt argumenl: nu pier: ul' fiidtnce :rmld tantcivahlf dispmve 1111: {ht-arr hr:-

Ilfl

NATURAL HSUHFTI‘DHS

mihflhtmsflup'msu diaflrflmanymnnfih ummh In confirm it. 1 d1:- nu! p m In dim inch ideu u that duliflmtiun affinaive sign-HEW” pennmlity PILIEITIE. 'I'hrn- 'u gaud mun. mum.

in par beneath the surface whrn suntan: laud]? dumb-t! hiimfl' u mmplflthr fru- af him-Ilililj'gl-r while I'hifllluneuullf grinding hil teeth In-

gcthcr and madam; his napkin. But then: is nu goo-d ream In inlay in: dual “hummus w fi w impulse: luflr. hthind Hurry msiun Inf diugreemenl u’r nary vigil-mus bile 11f an apple nr every dream. Thu:

qunflun is no: whtlher igfll‘fllifln can mmtimes manii'tsl iuflf indin-ctly: a!” mural.- it can. I: in wimhur we in': jusEc-d in having an a priuri mmmiunmt tn believing in it: univmality [much In: in havinbiliwil, a blind faith in the natufllnc-ss of wanting m hun. : {flnfidtnrt in II“.- Eniutmr uf ulterim' malivu 1:1m smut-nu: r-Emain: unpcra-

lurk-ed in reap-um: In a min-lulu: to which at: might have mad with mgr. (Thin-uric: Elf universal amusinn ma}- well tell u: mar: album the II'I-EflI'il-t Ihm ahuut the human min-d I: such} Naming HPP-l'flld'liflE In:

diiinnat standard! HI mtphtal- pra-uf ha: new been ufi‘ered by in unhadnx psychwmlyst. an emulugiu. :- :nciubiulugial. nr infant the in

luppurt 111' the Pfljuditt 'lhllt hthavinn appartnfly dun-ind ul' Imflliflll mun hire- urigimled ii. ur mherwiu Irmbulhn. an invisible urge tn . harm. Fur I11: “ I : afflu- arg'muent. thin-ugh. let u: entertain 1hr: plausibility till! it in indeed Inuible in explain the ptnumlity uF an intruverted.

nunflnlmt palitircal activist by cmjuring up In underlying 3331:11t driuc. Thii i: nit-m: nu! nnly by Freudian: but by humaniui: paychulugisu like Ahmham “Illa“, whn spake [If aggrflsinn‘l being transfumcd inn: "righteous indignati-un," a "passiun I'm jusiicc.“ m- “hnlthy sefl-alfir— WIiDII."'" Whit In:In: In milk: {If this? [four iggt'enilrt brew has human

watered dawn to this paint. it may he drinkable. but thm is nu paint in wall-1mg m a bar and paying gun-d mncr Farr it. 111: subunmjw mutinIinn remain: that it i: 1:05.5t: to amid what we wmfld than have In {all Aggression] {tha- huning kind} in Elm at"mainly [the hflhhr. HIE-

aflinning End}. Ah.repliulhe1gminnthmfiu,hmflureixprcdicflvcufilityh

the nufinn that even flu: latter in a up: afiggrflninn. It Ingram that an: 1mm inhibit m [rinsfarm an urg: u:- aggruu; [lu- facl lhil this an be. and alien in. dun: due: nut diaprm't flu.- uintenct all" Ihe urge m- il: primacy.

"'I'H what in the pun-int uf such an mumplimi' Wht'll't it lhl': man“: that individual: uh: mmt m m ? "disguim" Ihtir pulflhht aggres-

[IN THE NATURE ‘flF "HUMAN HAW"

i?

sin“ will bi man: litaiy Ir.- HEP—Hf ha- dn II:- will: «fluently.r mmqmnm? fir. if individual [HIE-fences are nut the pninL where in lhe Efidmfl Ihifl 1h: uniwrsalily at" aggrusiun means that Hurry indifidual will M r or later lash nut? [in I Imp: it! m m ;dear. d1;- mmnmmmm: nan-slump: liun: ihflfll amt-lain“ in this pafl-Frmdian age manually mllapse ham 111E flld {athmis Ina-dc] which. a: w: aha“ Ht, tad-aw mmmmda the

Infill? u:l‘ illnnu m:- Ihemim nr researchers} If uur nature “at buttum" is In be aggrmiire—n nature whidi H can anly “mg-g]: m- inhibit-uthen why an: m mam.r hLmttr-gathcrtr cultures apparcnllf dnuid [If aggrmiuni' Erich mm hil- painted nu: flflt “the

must pfimitjvt m

are the least waflilre and that Will'lihfl'flfl-I gmws in

pmpuninn m duiliuliun. ll' dflmxfivtnm inert innatl: in lira-l1.r the {rt-11d wuuid have to be dwuppmite."“ “111'. Eur that matter. in:mart-I?

mentally retarded penple. whune inhibitium an: alm prewmhty law. In ran-h.- thamcttrized by awniutnus?“ Tilt-u rumplrs asidc. we wuuld :11: well In munfider our mump-

tiun: album the very idea of inhibitiun—specificafly. 1h: prflnise Ihal an inhibitcd hehavinr ”pres-mu 111-: genuine intlinatinn HF the hidividua! uni-u which in artificial minim I“. hem stapled. Thin m: like fur

granted. just as we assume lhat we are witnessing inmmne': true Elf whm sh: has had 3 Im [a drink: 1hr.- flhnflfliflfll fll' flirtaliuu: behaviur its lbw-ugh! In haw.- been Ire-ed [mm it: IJI-Ifll ruminu. permitting III I Inn-uh at Eu: as she really is.

Thia, hmvu. rcflcum um awn [In-menial mnunm radar-r than III-I: 11:]i befurt us. It in by an mean: clear that Sufifter-lhm-whiskcymun i: in some way unmléugi-cally prim m Sue-befure-thrfi-whiskeymun. m: m- put it difl‘mnfly. that :lmhnl is man: an agar: at” rmlaliun than simply a psychmfl'live chug. [iii-wilt. hurting mull-enm- due: nut

reflect any truer a!” deeper part a!" fine-self lhan nul hurling SDIflEflIIE. An individuil': inhibitinn-Hp-rrhapa w: naught In say her dflhinn In mid aning an ill urge—i: as much 3 pin all? her as [he [Mann-null?

Eficiitt'd} urge ilstlf {If her maflinnal derisiun In an an it. fli‘ mum, Hm ifaggrminn i: lat-m m lac innate. and inhibitinm are understand in lhtir ulna] IEITIIE. flu: wry Em: Ihal 1h: lallcr nil: ur can he laughi reminds us again that what is innit: i: nut infliuhlr. what is hifllugiflll is nut flied- Tht [an thal pump]: 1mlutlllariJ'g:I In.“ 1.1:- min tflibfllt Dr rummil middle Ihunrl that mu (Erin‘s lih: hung“. In. ind aunr'wal can he mrerriddm. In 1]]: case a!"main“. whine the nisltnEE nImd‘Iatlriflil dnuhiful 11:! ht-ginuith. nu: ability In diam: 'umrc'n tltm‘flfl

#3

NATURAL ASSUHH'IDHE Ar: “'1‘ Hanna! Wanim?

Wemgufilnhtruhrmuremmtmufflmthtmuflm

in cammisfinn mm: H:- mquirc cumming : dun-panned repuliiun Hither than Hhfialing uur natural instincu. LEI us cumidtr the urganized lilting timber hum]: hdngl. Pull: hair: lhfl'h'l'l lint. roughly 50 perttnl

nf Amefimn adulu. undmdualu. and high Iclrmui Illldflflll India“: that wan can never he Eliminated beam: fighting them is an inevitable mmqutnc: uf human naturt."

Haw lhis mumpfiun i: in lmuhlr tn begin with human“.- tht aggralifl'l'l ain'ibed m that. nature- Iufl wrf little m do Hid-I war. which. a: Baum put it; is "nut a Malian httfifln nun and mm. but between Star: and State. and individuail an: rnrmifl accidtnmllyfiqfl Minn-mu. firm finual rtfl-rninn an what happnu Isl-rim. during. and after war: Impulse: the human nature vitw a: madam. Willi: there are mcpflnm,

flu:- firnt thing that unit: an abut-run i: the Fact Ihlt than whn declare

and dire-n wm app-mend? mun make manuiv: LEI-E of propaganda m Eli-cit and unlidify supp-art m: 111: plan at" I11: pupal-mm 5am Hun ha: Ifliewcd lh: graphic funnl that unit m n h hill him mar this [all tmmrr. He Wade: :1 fufluws:

tnflnuaflffinufltémflmmiuhldmhiflrpflfiiflfbflflfltflt :11! mt instinctual]? nudist. [fay-lbw; h'll' but a mum]! inrfinatinn mm In hill nut mm kind. and thtrflnrt In: hill": in “164:1“t I‘mrfihlf unlit u: Ill-trill? 'I'E m m m nur hmimtull m i n i : and HE flan."

lfprupagmda depicting themhuaideuhm'huiclggreumwhu threaten fllfl‘ Way Inf Lift due: nm adequately slimulatt fmmg men In

hilL IJ'H: state will I'E'Iflfl In random Th: frequency with whidl Harman: draft in cititms int-z: cumhal {mid inmlu: uifl' petunia: fur than whu

resist it] quafifitl as powerfill evidence against the idea that war: reflect [mural human HE'EI'E'HEWI. flat: drafltd. 1h: Franc-u: ui' military training in charm-[wind by mmaking hum-n bring: inm mlditru. lithiu-

manizing the draflee-s themselvea as well a: the enemy. replacing Cl'i-l'ifiil flmughl. with nfindltu ubcdicnc: ("In war m an: Inn-rt 1th: shccp than wulvefi." and trying In napalm an ablmrrmm for taking a life 1InrilJm mwmwfluhflrmd

i m m m m m

Wflfl'dhtlflifliirphmm'fl'

mmmm-ahmhmm

ind-um achilfiru.hyptnmphhdmhflm.

DH THE H i m DE “ll-I'IJHAH NATURE"

Ila!

fifl'lfl' influential.- nr pumifiw: nth-Ilium. 11in: pmmdm: luv: fl'ltil' milling“: in the ritual preparatinns fur warfare in pfimilive tribe-.1. all all which lead: 11: in all: Wit]: the universal need far this deliberate and inmlwd pram-u if WE are inmteljr disputed m til]? The dilficuiwul" killingm m whu has um first hem dehumaniztd ha] been abut-red by a number nf when. Andre Hall-m: amid 3mm flflflfll aim : Hame-thmwer it a [llama whu in banking at ynu." Gears: Ewell described his inability [a pull 1h: nigger at an enemy suldier whale Pant! were falling dawn: “A man when is balding up: his lrnulllrfl

isn't a 'Fmdst,‘ he i: mihly a fefluw ere-3mm similar In wunwlfi and run dnn't [HE lib: inflating :1 him!“ In his plays. [7.3mm rtftrs mull [hm In the inability tn kill pmplc an: [an act. regardless a! the ideulngical

HIS-fin fur wanting them dead.“ and tmpirical reward: In: mnfinntd that bring ahlt tn 5:: nun-'5 victim: usualir mince: “anagram:- animal fit"! is willing In like against themi“

Hare remarkable.- than tht nerd fur pmpag'anda. thr- ninth. and but: Iraining. dun uh: I'm that nu am: will kill unu'l 1hr: iflmtifitd victim has burn painstakingly- ltrippctl nl'hia humanity. is the {an Ihat mm lira must

m l : will l‘t‘flflt m talu- anmhtr': lift. In 191?. that: military.r mlwt 5. L A. MmhflL Whfl had hem appointed chit!" hijmrian ul' Wurld War II and was lat-Er In um: 11 : Emu-31 in [11L- Ilium-1n Win urn-l: a hunk

calla-d Hm agm'nsl' Finn in which ht diicunm Ill-r: mulls Inf inlerviem with hflfldl‘fiifl 11f infimtn' campanics in I'll-I: central Pacific and Elna-pun lhta-

lru- 111:1: finding: an: naming shun n!" ulnuntfing and an: warth qual— thug,r at Imam: flu flF-Ell‘l‘fl'l'.‘ umII1:II:IrII.-II'1:I11LEII per-rem uflh: men had munily Iirrd II the enemy pmitiimlar pent-11ml with rifle-3.. carbine; gremdfl. ham-aha. BAR-I [II-running Hut-math: rifluL nr machine gum during the mun: a!" an culin- m m L Ewn alluwing fur the dead and Handed. and anuming lhfll in lhtir numhtrl then.- wnuld ht [ht aunt- prupuniun alarm! EI'EI'! a: alum-lg IJ'H: living. lb:- figur: did um: rial: ihflh‘: Elli] nr 25 prrtcm ual‘ 1h:- laui far my actiun. Th:- hul mum; thm muld be nude by 111: Inn-u spirited ind aggressive camp-units was man um.mlninfnurhidmdtflltmmmtuu nflisfircpulrrr... .Amrflnundcruf

infantry will b:- well advisrfll lu- hEIiE‘I-‘t that when ht mpg-H the: til-till? um mun: [hart um: quark-r u-fhi: mm will an Erik-l.- a real Iii-I'm: llJIIEII they III! cmnpcflnl

by almml mun-ring circumnanrt m unIL-u alljurfim [ m{mu-II“? "n'dt hlfltl" n11 troop: with 111: Ipedfit mininn Jinn-Easing their fire. TI'H': E'fi FIE-I'm fllhnalr Hindi nrm fur well-mined and mpiign-amunrd trunps. I mean that 15 part-mt wfllnulfimm will ml. 5mm inflrin! again: mummy-NH: hath. 111m mm ml]! Fact lh: danger but they will nut fight.“

5“

NATURAL ASSUMES

Several painsihuuuhiiplmgtmnmmy. Full. Hanhall

due: nut. mean [hit Him- 25 pennant ui‘mldim in: camp-any umfiring “any fi m t fl h m h t u n l y that pmpunjnnnfthtmmwmdd me their weapum :1 all Even that figure, he emphmiifl, is gamer-mm

midi-ms who HI much a: firtd a rifle mac-I: during a bald: an: included in it. SEEDIHL Lh'u relutunc: tn hill in: nu: true uni? ul‘ “arias- It persisted mu :fifl mld'flen had been thmugh thre: m faur battles, which "allp-c-arcd In indium: that the ceiling was find by 5am: mmtanl which wan inhcmnl in the namu- Inf the trump?“ Third. Hnnhall i: tilting album

ill unwillingntn it: till. not 3 Ear uf being kill-HI. Same :1m men will: I‘Efiflfll [a us: their wcipunn did nut back away [mm dangfi. and. he nun-.5 almflutplydfiau-ic Ihflhsnfmmhul'uiguefum-dfltu furnffilflrnaflurthmFtarflhfinghflhimmemtmmmmumnf hlfltl‘iflurtinihehulifldufl....Itisll'ttrtf-nrtrmmahkmhflimfluuhc must and Emma": halth'y WWI—III: mam 'I'I'IIJ rill tndurr 1h:- MIMI-Ill

uflfiufinmdm—nLEHMMmmhu-mflmmfly unmmcd mhmrtmrdkiflinllfdhwmmfluthfiflmflhfinwwfitfiunmfitflfl if it i: pmsibl: In: turn III}! Ernm that rupumihfliur.“

Thule annual h: dinnined a: the tendmtinu: finding: cur immuta-

liu-ns of an antiwar activist nr even : hmnaniafimlly inclinrd psychnlugisl. Marshal] Ha: : liIcl-c-ng military man. Him; in lhi: cam: m ulhcr Elli-“Lil? man :bnut a lituatirnn that he viewad with alarm. Ibuut what I'll: refitted

In as a handicap of must midi-tn. mat a sign uf health-“ It should also h-t nan-d than. hr: um um mterviming participant:- in tin: Viflmm War. ill-um which many mldim had prufuund mural duuhu. Thil In: Wurld Wit II. In which virtually emu:- hras int!m4Izlngimilll'].r cummitted- flu:

cmmniunnu ip-pil'tflll}! i: am enough whcn this mu arr aggression in irw-nlv-cd. 111:” are mulliplt and variable such] [mammal at marl. here.

but an halmce it wuld "cm that minim-E tn killing is at [can I! “numfl” as idling.

ls Awhn Unavnidahlc? In urder turqud u phuuihh- the idta that hum ”minutely tend Inward aggrminn. it is first actuary m collapse 3 Elfin: numb-H ui' diet”: bdurinn and run-Ii“: inln that ling]: word. A: we have m . the diimv-

trynfimdtrdil'fltnmin flfilrfilmdtpendsunwhflherwmm-

DH THE HAW DF “HUMAN NATURE"

5]

in: nf direct m ind'IrL-tt with“. and an Earth Similarhr. firth] In:dcnts {If the lull-jtfl have diaijnguiahcd hat-tween agglmim and film: and hfitflflfl pusiLiw: dulructivm and 1h: dtl'cmiw use If farm. Tn

use : :ingle ward In rrfcr In killing a dttr far I'm-d. liking part in I religiuus mus] 'mmlving cannibalism. smarjrjng urn-E's chili and aim-min; i Htufilf guard in I‘ll: mun-I! Ill" :1 mhhtry invite: llflPF-il'lfll [If the high-Eu under. Thm tn mm this 'FI'IH'd is a #ingle WMEPI that Wu {If

a single explanation in to acttpl 1hr imitationjusl. and! rtdmfimtism is requiH-i in fan, ta dmm up evident: fur [ht innate View. A; an: pinup

ul‘ Ichnhn put ii. i! is false a: 33mm:- that then.- Li :a sink F'irm'mnitc'fi mmhalinm] me far all flu- things um mphcmtmrfly tern: asp-cum. . _ - fimtuinn ii nut a natural11!:n dinilflil; rather. it i: a nun-urvlns useful mnnmrl “111 In: impacts: 11pm:- nalm‘r. . - . Aggressinn in nut "lnml-ld" in pal-Mull: gangs, hummus, a: hrlin "cl-nun"; I'ILIIH'. wfiws flinch Dr awiw behaviuur in: flu: drvtlupmnflal Eunicquanta i1 lpfltifit mflrurmwnu ul' mlflplt Ind din-m Humtim admin and bun-awn sun-rial urinals 111* human.“

This is wunh harping in mind as we revitw Harri-a1 arguments in famiof the idea Ihal amninn ii unamidIhIE.

111e- irdta Ihal; HE have within us a maturing mam-tug mnir ul' 3:311:55t mtrmr. a fart:- that builds up by Hi?” and must ha: periodically tiraijud afl' lest wt HPIfl-dt inlu Instill fiulcme. is appealing bean” in

it my m vhualiam II." is aim fills-3. 1'e is turd-pressed m name anathrr made] mmnfing Elm.I asp-tn 111' human h-chmriur than is as: widely at:cepted by I]!!! genml pubflr and hi! been an Ihnruughhr repudiaw-d by sprchlisls in the area. Freud and Inna-n1 nutwiihsunding. than: is absu-

iultlf nu flidtnct {rum animal bchaviu-r m human pay-mums? m sugars! that individual: a!" any :11t fight b-E'EHLI-IE ul‘ :p-nntanmm immul Himulafim- We {It‘ll}? be atqmimed with people whu have mm: In man

vial-mu? m a kid: rang:- uf‘cnfimnmmtal H‘tmuli. but Ibis prmrca ncilhtr that the viulenrc is mununeuu: ralhn than rmliw: mar that it is innit: rather than learned. Lihwlaurima+ mile: the physiologist I-L E. Mayer. the

Emailed hydraulil: min-taplmr i1 inapprupriat: can: when we mm:m : the W m a!": buiH-Iq: uraflrflliw w

. . . Ilium ihill h m: man:- than

a law-Bring n!" tht I'E'IPDIIEIE' thrE-shnld with my Chang! as a funniun ul' Illtfl-

{inns in flu.- indifitiuil': phylin'lugita] “mus. There in nu awnin- Eflflfl which mminm In muhlfl. and [1e is up mail; I‘m- [ht l'l'fl'liflfl Inf humility."

52

H i m AESUHFHflHS

TI'I-E tflifllfllfl ul' nmuggrum: individuals and mmfl—wflhmn an]! Inn: 11? Iihl' inexorable build-up uf pressure that It": Hum-y unuld predict—titan refute: the- idea at" spununtuua igfil‘fl-Iifln, as dun-E5 the Magnum-d talcum: at“ [ht enfimnnmm in eliciting all aggressive am [diumutd helmr]. The 1.11m aim predict: that Writing agar-ruin:- Im-

E'I'fl shuuld malt: Ill IHIamine—an tIfi-n tum-v11 a: catharsis. Fullnwing Alistullc's idea that we can be purged uf unplmlm EIL'lflliflM by Halal-1mg tragic m + It has hem upwardly mun. hflwfllfl'. that

panictpating in. ur even flhfln‘ing. aggn-uiw aclivitiei—mch :5 mmpcflu'v: lP-ul'L'l. which Lawn: mummndcd—nul mu]?I is unfit-twin {or curbing vinlcnl beluvia-ur bui actually mrh-alflit." Taking part in IL'IEII aclivit'le-a due-1 nut “d":srharge" mm: mythical inmnal farm; in redutfl ltarntd inhibitinns HEELiI'Hl aggrtuivt hthavinra and remfnrm them. This failure HF 1h: callurlis Effect in also NEH-ant In a l't'll'ilififlhl wrs'mn uf lhr: tl'ueury m be fuund in certain mar. humaniuiu: traditiam in psychullmrapy mt] unwinding. Ramcr than pushing that aggrfininn is

inhum. flint sud-Innis 1:5“: that disagrmhln tip-fl'l'itt'hfl'l. panimlafly Eirlif in life. are lhr EWlT-E 11F [ale-r Efllflliiflfll] dflficulliu. But [hula].r 3:: an

m pres-nib: val-inn: EEIEHI'L'i-I‘.‘ IE-Ehl'qllnfl tu- "discharge" ur "wart null" hullililjr. [hm drawing an 1h: dimfldiled premise: (If the hydraulic

mud-:L the same simpliitir belief 1hr.“ there Hist: within us a repmilaurr uf uni-tantra [rt-ling: that can b:- rcduccd by giving Lhcm capruainn. Such thenriu mm In flier an nttmctiv: and acccuihlt mean: If explaining why.r ii is that the drip who flnt' day picks up a gun and begin: firing at mun-cm: pump]: in :1M ] cur pus: ul’fic: i: invariably tit-scribed an the turning new: as having been: nth].r lumr. We may: Yul: m? HE kept

his aggrrainn haul-HI up ins-id: until it Finally.r hid m bum am. But apart [mm nvcflnnhing all Ihr: mil-er shy lunEni whn will go In Ihnlh'r gram wilhuut having harmed anynnE—and. mnwmlf. 111: In! ”HEW-firth? mm whn have hem episudically vial-mi um mam.r Inn—wt arr: ignaring the Fm::l:l.il:'.-iljtj|.r that it was flfll an endugcnuua fart: hul 1h: 5min] cirrunmancc ui' imlmiun Lhal mun-ihuwd u: ludnpatlfic hthaviur. Dr. IIID-I'E likely. there may.r have hall-n mher variable-I Illa: fllflld hulh lht

isolation mn' ll“! vial-mac. Sum;- pray}: Irhu know m m In diunin the cams-nil the-:11nervEflheless paint tn anther data as suppnning [he innatenfls uf aggression. First. 111m.- an: the mar-DWI and hum-ma! Eactnn. Electrical stimulatinn HF the lfll‘im'l {If the brain hm“ a: the ifliffl'dili .11! been npfir

mentally linked In act: {if \riulencn a: has EIP-IJEIHI'E In high level: 0|“ lfllmlfl'fllfl. in

thin mil: 1:: naming about izlwhrilahility ur Du: Inn:

DH THE HA‘I'IIIE fl!“ wwm NAME"

55

Illllll'fi. it tun-rely khlulmflenflfrmwtdm? “1': W m : lattsmnas distinct frum filflE‘I—flf aggrminn. Wt hair-r ilflid'r scum flu:

Imuaim 1m}: can b: tht mun-quire: fllhfl' [ . t [ht mm a! bnhaviur. Similarly. “It i.- nn: that the brain in Hfltd' fur Imminm but Lhflntmfltltmmu incmainpansufllwhminmherfldfly arguflznl by exp-:fimct m Emelinn hlbthi‘fl'iflf m: tall WEE." u Mum-mg“ hu wfiucnfi'I'hc rule playful by flpfl'ilflt'fil hnpmtmt lit-rill tptdn. Em

when the mural wile-m in qucniun has hem muted. W I “ !behininrwfllmmlfflthtrfihlmlflfllhk.flflfifflmdmhflim shut-urn. Fur humans. uf taut-st. that M minimum: a: mhjtflivcl? per-

mhtdandinlaprdedhnmmemlyrckwnthmdflhivmgiflngthtfic m biulugiul duminhi chin-n. Wt might real] flu.- rlanic 51::tr by psydwlogists Stinky Euchadutr :nd jmm: flingin- in th: min-l1}r IEIIEfls.

111:? EI'II'E' ElP-El'ifll-Efllfll subjlrcu an injection Hf idrenllin. which cam dwhfin m [am-Ind. the hand: m shah; and fl'lflflflt mflush. Thmewhu were laid m nape-n Ihmcfl‘tcuI'tll litflttmnlinn u a mull, Brut mbjL-cu th'flc lair] lhtyhadmllyhctngivmivitflmhlfuunfl Ihlirnmud

(hauntififlfl'f finned—Iii]: 1hr: dirt-tau“ nl' tlrw Elfin depflldent an Him was mum them. The ith'EflfllitlfllhflflE-Hi Manic:immune hmtil: wuhihr: vicinity bu! nmwhcnlhtywcrtinihttnmplnjr nfapersun

inning giddy and tfilL“ T11: phpiulngicil il'flllli’ll. in Mhfl Hum Imam liltlt' wiflmut a social mutant. and In it is that Iht unflachtmical bani: nf aggrtflicm is mmingfifl only with rE'qEIEEI In : givm enuimnmmt. In light within. In tall: uf an irmm1:11dIn hf wan-uh: min

ahumalmuchmummgdutmlhmunhtmfim wilhflut crunch. and hill“: 1h: tan]: in blankflcd by Elfin... it il

thmfnre in the nature {If uur planet fur building! In hum lit-Hm fibriuusir. an aim building vauld rem lflfltliflg if E: :muhud nu flammable maturiil II: feed 1.11: Em. if an tattle-HI}! {nr [clunimulfl til-upped

matchhad started il.urtfa:nmhdctfl1arhadwnedtflllanflrlr stair. Earhufthfleclemmt: his inmalnginihtmcnfhumnaflutin: buhavim.

Aggreniuniialmnidmbeimnwinhnnunhyvinueufiupflh mt: in mint spedn, This mad-Jud {II rurauvm-Iing+ which jefl‘rcr Gnlduein Hittihr 1 m m : a: liking "um giant lap Inward mankind:' is. Lmhap-

pi]; nut remitted m laypeuplg. Apart Hum the m i n i ] pale with: a r m Whinlugixm. 1hr gunman: Funding a r mmarch on I'll! lupin: pruned: m flu- implifit hdicl'thal 1m: can hm:undcrsland win andwifehlflefingbyfludfiflgtiflflldrIfl—dltpiltlhlfifl flulm

NATURAL AEEUHmflHS

EH

I'm ufhmnan wink-11mm that anal-magnum. Ifl alarm [tantalum with animal magi-Hahn." Illilhml.r human hehafiut i: Illufill'd in culmnl mean» ingl. urganhed :ruund W i n mun-ind in tum: uf lung-range. ri-

Iimully devised Fury-um. and m an. Even whtfl: mar speck: is at its mu wininm. in: {annual Incl tn nthtrl fur an expluntinn: organized Era-up munisrarruuuideaflhrrnlmufHunmflpimJndwarila

dillill-L'Iljl' human phmummnn.“ Even if d1:- natunliatit Ind EIPEI'iIII-Enlll findings with ntht-r niacin m!!! mtE-d a: appmile In uur mm. III: rtflity i1 111:: {hr}? difl nut

mpg-an a simple—minded View uf built-in W . This is In": fiflL because u!" the ml: (11' 1h: emimnmtm. nm 13rd}.- m : supplirr nl’ targets In: agg'rutive bthavinr but as :- pulmtiill flifldififi at" lhil hehminr. Altering Lht way an animal is fired—even an aninul hrrd In fight—can til-[tally eliminalt it: wivmm.“ item-1| W t : 31 Ih: Uni— flfiiw Inf Hflflh Hamlin: fmmd that change-u in line environm-Em “Hm

sufficient [a mask n-r diminalt ll'lt htrhahlr effects in autism] bduviur" Hf mite. 1111!!!! finding! flI "gr-Eal plasticity" in aerial hehafi-ur, pinitullrh' aggrafliun, “dc: nm E: wry “lily with 1hr pmumplinn that thErr is an immarphic W E E hut-mm gum-Hit units and bchaviunll until:

that ii hut-dam mu dEVE'ID-Fmtnl. a: i: implied by Ih: nfllirul'l turf in: ‘flggrmive genr.‘ "'5

Strand. the truth '1: lhal [fl apedu an a: infusin- 1.1mt can! “when at mum: dmmwnurifl mm+ I haw.- discussed this nutmEll-EWIIEI'E. will! special rEI'ETenEE In III-E predummam III-f immp-en'fic

and immpccifit map-Emma.“ and m 1will simply- nut: here Illa! just a: mjgmliuu in am: at flu: man}! tau-thud: by which animal: seem In go can fill their Wily In fluid mmpfling. In it is that illuminant: hierlrthifl and finalized lhffllflfil’lfi pastures in: 1mm: purist]!- by firm: nf hm: they Iii-1': genuinely aggrmiirc mummmrh Whm Inch Himmler! dfl mun nude-11:: at" prinmfl have uhIEfiEd an Ehbm'ate meflunilm by which 1hr: d‘upmanu mah- pta-ct afimard in fll'dtl' h:- forestall furmer Inna-film Lh rcccm bani an [Ilia :uhjL-n arm-n Ihil [in]: anemiun ha: been paidi In mnflin awidantt and rerun-cifiatinn an flit pan ufanimih

fl-Tllfllinflmi.wifl1llflrtlultll‘ut wtfiahe-lymunwfiulmce Emma! lhln peace-.1” With milling in Whining? c: animal htluviur In luppnfl III-rm. beliflm in unavoidable human aggrminn may mart 11:- puiznting In III: simple pmflmc {If Vinita-ct in human binary—a: Ihuugh the frequency

fur assuming it can “EH-r of a behavior in the past mmfitultd :- m hiding-ti Tet hmwrmuu repeal lint N i n t h - m u m

{IN THE HAW D

" I ' m NAME"

.55-

ialflen tilt-d in Ilhi: mm. In] very little In du with aggrflIi-nn u ludiPartiripants in war: are {haunt-riled 1:55 by aggTeuii'L- may in march all” an nude! dun by mfiafly m-cialiacd ahtdimm, Th: fact that fiercely WIRE luciflifl fin htcum-E peaceful in a matter at' a Flu-w culturin—

wimen Sweden—Ilia EDI'l‘flbfl-fili'lfl the impunance at" serial and pulilital : 1 t than hiulugim] Elam. Harmr. ufidcnt: in amulalhag that Hi! i! a mhliwly 'I'tli'ElI-l ml:in human hilmry: than: app-flu H: but Iitlll:

evident: nfwarfart :mc-ng firing-cent peuplt.“ and Hen liJIE'I.‘ um m it has nut been lh: nflt. In a pmvmfivc SWIM!“ nfdam Pram ”chat-ulany; and1:1t dilcignlinu, Rim: Eiulrr argue: that the Hundmm “haw: cm to “TE! 51 duminanl futurt n!" hint-n in Fact describe: nnhr 1114:1111 fivtlhflulandyflnnrcuthan I FEE-Enlflflhtlim-E'Wlpfidfiihfli

existed. War ind nthfl' mm nfupprfllinn. acmrding In Eider. multimil-

the historical E1EEFti-fll'l..i dflfllfl' fmm the main mad at" cultural developmtminwhichmmnflhthndmarhhiwmduwhh dmmctinn.“

Whalhthtsnurctnfhgwfiutlchafinr?

firepreoefingucninn huhmmntuntdwithflmeflmlandmpfial daicirncin in thin: schnnl: ufthmgbt m g m MEIR" that human natural:

ii necunrilf aggrfllivt. “It the against this pfliiliun i1 nut exclusively negativc. hnwmr: on: can chum: [mm among lime-mus pcrsumiv: umunu at" our aggrnaivmm—meduninmn nf learning. paychulngical :nndiriunl. aid mfimnmmtil millet-Aha! db nut invoke biological nplanatium. I will nut allflnpt tn descriht that in any dctail. 1H alum

adjudicaw amnng than- The puim hfl'l.‘ i: mum-Ely lflr rnriL-w tilt ring:- at pmflhiliti-fl that lead nun! BMW! 1:: mncludt with Lean Eisenherg: “Learning may nut BITCH-IE! mmplell‘h' Fur hmuan aggrmian, but I11: writ] Farm in mnlcmp-nrarr mitt}! that mung: in dfitlflpflfllflII"!

In widen: that Fi'eucmpaliml with hypmhfl'utd hiulugical factor: is alum: I:p.li:lr.:uliu:."lllll

Dru.- ul‘ the animal Imam: in learning them-y Ira: flu.- rent-grain“ Il'hil; we need nut be reinfnrcedi directly in urdtr to engage in a sham behavim': we may imitate an anion limp-11: afifl ohm-rising mhu's dun iL Amusiun may but ruinfurting 1:: a child if it yields Ipprnnl. but it may be E'rmugh fur adults {an TV prugraml. an III:[mthifl field. ural hum-E} In Ill'lfldtl sud: hduviur. By now. 1:!” mum, mm in an m u : litu'av run: an 111k.

The gum in!" what dillinflmhu' w i t h [ham now-m

H A W ASEUHFI'IDI‘E

Hr

individuals 11:: nun-cumin! m i e n far my run-1mm Miami pmiljnnnnp-Eflplr Inviulcnlumhrduaifirdsnduplthicinhuflwy

an: unahlt m unpalhizt 91' ml: that wrap-active uf awn.“ an inn:- an which [will spend :muiduihlc limt in Chap-IE“ 1!. Hm! rectum-r. it has

bun argued that lEEI'l'lli'I'E individ'mh my luv-c thc upadty m mp:Lhiu- but mun-1 intrrput mhnf hhvhr Earn-filly in mutiunflhr

min: nituaflnm; III: pmblcm lit: in an inapprupréate luribufiun Hf hmfilhy m nunhmtilc mm.“ In eitiwr can. il ipplflfli that um.- tray in:

w t :1:c far dififlm in when?“ i: h'f appealing tn EHIEL The lam: firidmtt again.“ mil. hypnthuis cum-:5 [rum Kabul-n Hun-min. In I 1951 study nfmm't lhiln tum hundred children. he found that currelalinm far idtntical win: cm a width uud mum:- uf agate-Minn Il'fl't 1m mar than thus: far hmrnal I'Wijfl; indindtul daft-mm clearly mull! fi'nm cuvirnnmental IIIJ'IEI' Ihan EEflE‘l‘il: Titian. he tnnfludtd."

Thin: an: Eta-ad clan by nun-w tn:- juuify II'HE mndufim that phytical punishm-EnIH—and. Even mun: cumpcflingl'y. W—prmlucfl childrum whammwniwflunthtirpcm-1htrthleucmamun WEI. and mare writ-d When-l ruin-Bruin:1h: nuance: uf n situatinn and ufan individual} pcrsumliw dynarrflc: that predict aggrmiaum The dillit dreary ihuui [ht rule of I'mnwtinn. flEl‘l'Ed half: century :31:

by john Ballard and his Eflflfilgflfl. has hem Irvin-d filfllfl than dilmrded. Finn. the fan that W

m can im'arhhiy b:- travzed m mm:

:IID-l'l [if Rwandan—flu! is. interferenct will! tht fulfilhncm nf nil-L":

gunk-dune: 11m imply lint m1; imam-rt uf fi'u-Itraiiun will mnfilr pmduce an amt-ssh: mpflfllt. (II. is man: M in flux 511iii]: individual in already Emnlim'flfljr armed.) Strand. paychulnginu III'H'E tum:- In

mdflI-und that 1h:- rflmnn: and 13mm of fiuuflflun dtpend an ham-r it is unwed by [ht individual whjctL' A nitmflnn that haunt: me In flitpfiim firms: may fail In dinurh- ynurL-qulnimiur; whul I'm-1nd frustr'lting h.“ weal: ma]: nut rufll: my fume-11 Ifl-di’f.

Fm! mush: In this mun: flEIiII-IE. :uhjfl'liv: mnccptim: affl'mtriliun inhtidnthatpmplcmaggrmiwwhmthwmmmflhingabmt thtm il chfll-cnged. Th: psrdlulugiu En'hl Snub mm: up the TEIH'IHI films

mflfisfly: "111nm mahm, tuthcsdf-cnmpLandtuW minimum.pmmmmmmm:umme

W im nn flm

rtllw. qunliihlt W

m IIIL'I'I i! Win11u-r IIIHI WED-n

pun-uph- Ill uniform Ind III-rl'ul “1.1. [np-nfliru flu} mun-fl I-Eilnfl.‘ pal-aim inlu- III-E may ul'htmuri belt-uh did nul uh!urn-um nf III-l! hfihidml utuhgit—M put-ain‘t m

Hiker. Eli-ailmlifl 13cm. Th: Fundigm ha: bra-n dinaritd Inn an: al‘ dhuur an Ihu: pin

dumhmflmhnmntn ifltfllfliflflflfllfl Ila-'1': nhfittiummmmr

mar 1m.

{IN THE. NATURE BF “HUM MATURE"

57

t rap-amen. of gull: all appcar m inn-can: d1: pmhabilitr ul' W Thu: mnditinns at. times flit-Ell)" and physically. :u ulhrr Limes pawn— tiilljr m' lymh-alinfly, flirtalrn I pinun': Eriflfllit."" Th: ducal paired by a mini; mwdtd emiimnmem can pmnmle vinlenm—dtpflidinm

agaim an whtlhfl an: is. inclinfll In pcl'tti'li'f: lhfll mvimmnmt u lhl'tlh thing. Whirl“: in flirtmcly rare in Tniyu. Slit-I" HIM

War and flfl'flfl' paninflafly egreginus mu nf fiukntt cannm In:

explained in lEITIIl uf hauiiiw nr hatred, a: w: haw: seen. Htl'h-EI'I.‘ lidmnn. whu has written width].r an Evil and Vin-1mm raj-rcu Ii“!!! 3 5 t uplufllinm. along will! rcfflencfl In “dim. pray-lasing [hi-l “w: tin tram man: by hating. nm at tl': mmim I'm wit-km. but al [11: canditiunl under which thf: mull mun] ilfllihitifln: again“ viulrnfl: hit-tum:

“attired?" Thule mndilinm. he gm an m argue, typimlhr Lake flu.l’nrm ul'uthmimflm in whkfll mutt-n la b:- in charg: rrlinu 1h: autur uf flspumihilily: muflnflflm, whidl turn: the cummhsifln (31" fit:— ]:me inm :- 'fl-l'll'll-‘IIII. even bureaucratin flpmtiun; and fl m m in which vinims an: and: Faults: and impermna]. snipped 13f ptnnnll

ideali and Eunnmiun H} a Immunity."

just as dthunmnimtiun 111’ an nun-1* mm.r be rtquired in order 1-D kill him, afl can we better undmland the Lifltr by inquiring in“: I'll: dthu-

mniting tircumulancu in which but has lived. Tumed into an abject, mint: the wfll—knuwn mcial psydmlugist Philip Eimhardu. a pars-an my new“ tn rink-nu in curd-tr m 1:: taken EEI'iflullf. In :mn : um: ui'

agency. "In an: .I-IIEIIJIE. via-lent: and dutmfliun tmmimm : pilli‘ffl‘. mnlralltd ubj-Efl inn: an arc-thus. controlling WELT“ This idea has burn EIPT-Emd in nth-tr ward: by a numhtr ul‘ writers: “durability and

pnwcfiflantu—pcrhapl as impaled an m by crushing pnlitiral ur ecunumit Farms. perhap: as :- fill-union nf flu: human prrdirammt its-elf— mm! ILL piradmitally. h:- turn In p-mrcr and aggruainn a: a rap-um: {ur in a means if deniaJJ." “Human-r uf tilts-:- then-retinal apprmdm urine: an: :5 crtdible ur particulafljr appmpfiatt [ill a given instance at"

aggressiun, all a!“ mam share ll'l-L" Feature Inf wandering "humn nature" m m Iuptrfluum.

Why Du We Selim AER-slim ls Innate? Jun 1: the perusiwm-u ni' appartm Hi] can lead u: u: maul-m1: that. Lhi: mm! ht nul- nmurn] Ital-IE. In the Freqmncy With which w: an: expand

In It“ ni' Vifllt'l'lfl.‘ my kid plausihiiily w du- film 1113! amt-Him: in

H A W ASE-[WHERE

53

umvnidahlt. Ethnic-thing an [ht ardtr nf twenty flmiuand mun-darn an: rflpflrltd each year in the Urfimil Still:- {w my I‘m-thing ufninny 11mm

ripe: and abnut three-gunner: uf : million mm at“ aggravated assault}. These numbtrs art. turn an a per “pita Innis. asimnumical frum the

pmp-cflivc uf nth” Wulcm indumialiwd naiium. film mmfluui i: the mint-nit Hf cap-ital punishment: while almmt all muntrie-s we via-Ir as civilized haw.- mm! In regard it: mural sum: :5 akin In that In!” slavcrr. 1.11.:“1'1.l {If mar slat-H genial in tleclrnculing. gassing, nr shunting penpll': tu- rkaifh Fur Failing m umlmtand du- Iantdmu if human lift. Hun] cumidtraliuns aside. than: in evidmc: that flu: death penalty. 5::- hr [mm

duel-ring criminalu, actually mutt-mgr: mmc crt' Ill-rm tn imitate uh: Halt. Thu: is the I-Dl'ittj' made Iflfl-TE dingemu: and the climate Elf fin... lunar. final which mndusifln: an: drawn all-nut human mm: arm:cned." h i m .if “pa-up]: in :- Mainly.r warlike society an: flirty 11: man--

Iimalc that propensity inward war in human mum?!“ then it mull be nil-ltd that 111: Uniltd Stain is an: nl' [ht mun warm: such-tire: am that

EM:- 111' the plane-l, having intervened militarily around the wmld mare than 15'] time: lint-E 1359.” Wilhin such a andfly. nut mrprilinglf. the intellcctual tradilium auppnrfing U1: View 111:: aggrtsiiun is mart: flll'lbIifll'l nf hum: than nurture haw: [mind a madly afldjEIIEE. Like adm- heliL-fl ahnut the bulimic mmvurh'ltfl (If Mir Iptcith

Midi an aflumplifln aim-nu! aggrusiun can aim he explained in rerun at [he mspnnaihiliw it lift: [rum mu madden {"Ytnh, I punchtd him am. but whtn sum-chad? insult: yea-u, it's just human HEIDI! In fl}! DE Eh: handle”). in ttmfl nl' imagcs p-I'fltl'flfl'd tun- us by m: mass media. and in

Irma 0f the pant-rm! interest: whu are benefited hfjusl such an 35mpIicim. Thu.- lau Inf 111m may but the must truubling fur us In mnsider. but it new plausible 11m chin-n3 wauid ht tam-rc- Mr]? H: actept the and for inttrvtnfiun ahrnad and dmmnian "mfllmmt" m m if they

have fin! been pErsuIdtd ihal thfle tunic: are required In [ape will] pmple's inmtely vinlem instincts. Similarly. in light a!" aggrfisiun m: the pan nt' nthn' tilizcml. such : ViE'II' help: In divert aumu‘un hm Ell-E action: of the policy Ina-km flmnwlm and {mm ulnar-Emu: Hummic and min] tundiiinm that might h: idemjfitd as tumrihutm's In such

vinlcnm. fuming mar gut final-rad m: a biological “reality" [a wifich an: must he resigned.

Finallllaur.r and must ill-Eidiflullfi thm id! the phtnummnn ar the RIFflflfilling pmphcnr. TI: mum: that humans are beam] [:1 he :ggrnsiw tar egnistir m cmnpetit‘we} is tn an 'm such a way as In prmide evidence

I'm Ihr: assumpliun- Thus. by virtue nfbclieving that human: an: MIME“?

0H THE NATURE. flF "HUMAN HATER-E" awash; an: my bl: I'Elflfl'lfd‘jl' unlihfl'f In W

59

particular “an at 11:!

hem-m: hvulvtd in th: pran- mmcmmt. Far Harm-e. this bn-liaef unduuhtEdi}: jun [indium a: : ralinnali-tinn Fm their unwillingntss m her-amt “1hr: Far n'lhfl Humans. But lih-EI'IE is mm: l'uniltd empirical nuppurl fur the prupmilinn dull. the altitude: imlf has an impact. In a [9-35 Finnhh

Enid? {If 375 1jlrmmg purple. fliitm Walflsu'nm faund Ihal [Imu- filth-n mnIidmd war In bl: part ui‘ human nature WE'I'IE Ital. inclimtd m nuppn-rl flu:

idea of leaching Intact Dr Inf plflflnilly wading far it.“ Till-u Amnirin ‘rmardten gm similar “and“ in I :milkr 1.1-5. :lud‘y: [allege fluid-El“! Hhu Hid they Illa-ugh! war wan “intrinsic ta human naiure" pruvcd In! likely than when m wmi an : putt-minted activity. umding to a

[album-up questiunnairc.” A aunrqr nf studEItts during the Vituum War rev-tiled that “film: whn bEliEi'Ed wan. tn ht infilitablt man: mar: likely than lather! In vim-v thu- 113.5. militiry Emmi-mm: tu- btjlfllififd and m Hymn-5 IJ'IE upiniun that [he inm-lvement should bl: fia]a=ltd."" Indted.

fl'h‘: mcialngiu E- Wright Hill: has argued Hut [11: man impnrtanl cam: uf Wurld War III will hi! the pupaminn far it." The simple fllmnpliun ”1-1! we mum help bring large-saint: help: u: tun cumin“: biting aggrflniw, Hun- :irclr: is man: viciuu: than the an: m up by {he [Ella-inns asllrmpti-un that we are unabl: [u mmml in

unntially viultnt naturm Midi.- [mm the ruptn in whim il pram-es itself “TI-E. then. thi: blind" in nu: unigr' murmu- Ffli‘ all th: mas-um mitwtd here. but aha deadly. While the fil‘ifllfl ulher psychnlugifil and suchl [wars that cannibal: m waive behaviur cannot simply bl: wished away. anumpl'ium album 111: mum ufuu: nude: can hue—and, given thl';

when mus-I he-remmidierei

II RESPONDING TO OTHERS

3 Pmsocial Practices: Prediction and Promotiun flignfifingmhnflmflfllfifllhjmhrflfl

ailmflfit

Thflhdmgqfdimmfflfltflfifluf

until-Inn}! Fhfim'sfirn {Hui-unify. —ccimflnut1h crmm MIL]

GEHEEDUS HEIEIHGS II; Ihnuld nut be ampl'iaing, in lighl nf mi: lfliifltf'i widely than-d illfllnpliun: ahflul human nature, mm hrlping. raring. rescuing, and sham; Welt nut uyalmlaljcalljr studied until 111: mid- In 11H: 1 % warn then were invaligaled thiurfljpr m that w:- migh: undeniand the run-alum [hr Ihn‘r abscncc.‘ The fianiinatinn uf wlml wuuld lam ht called pram{iil hthiviur' Will pmmpttd generally by Lb:- dil-turhing Era-ml: [If vin-

]:nt crime and :Ii|:IIn:~l.'1'l'h::alI].r by what might be called the Gunmen: 33. Thu.latter term :0 than? ntighhurs who. despite hcaring a “E“ Tart City I'm-mm Kittyr Gemrm+ nut-am fur hcip utter lhf: mun: Inl- man than hilfan hum while 5h: will bring Halt-bed In dfillh. nmnhflm failed In

mm:- In hcr aid arr eve-n call I11: putice. This cclchmtcd cam: led parchflh 'Thc1

:

t inuudu-L'cd influ- ml'll- 191111 tummrau wirh malarial, inning-d,

4 W . Incl very nearly indispmuhlt. II. fflm m autumn mldtrlflm vulunlirih and minimally III! hem-£1 sum-cunt Ell-E. but. unlit: I114.- II-Ilr-Iilruli IIJ'J'T'HIJJH, It dun-s nu: IMIEH II'IE

quflli-un nl'ullima’lt- m-EIIIl'iIi-flfl. Ill il'Ellll inpunan—t nun-I In- deficit :I'm mill-Him hf mun: Hf trnmnulnfl in light nflhe far: mm mm- may 'rt-nr wrll hr lhi-nkinl; nfnm"1 mm brm-lh H211 while- Elrlihl'rzllrl'gr i-l-fi-il'lfl: 1n hurl]:- ilnrflhrr. Whflhfi Inching 'fl- n'fl Irul'y alimiu'h: ii".

hr Ihr rrnIIr-II qurlli-rm HI 3 Iltfl' tlup-IutJ But the ward W

I11.- Ir'l'me {II Handing I'm

Iuth (Hi-fl" animu- u lit-1pm! innit-um: pick up a pile nl pap-ch. dmuling MW “: chum-h

Ihau'ing um': mammals. and nun-“ding aympathy m' pmlcninn. run-mam: l1: inn—1mm a: nth uni II'I'E'I-IE' itlium actually 111i? ht quit: dhfimL hull-I, Emitplllfl? and W M !

fill

EEPUNDIHG TD 41mm

fiiltltflimfllim whyhyunflnimmflmmmmndhrt IIlluritlnin thin canny-tun] Emmi. did Whig-nun Hut-Mull}! begin In

nullrct data sham haw m: in hall: t n I:|'.u:1|.r did lac-gin In turn thrir anemia-n in thil dirtfliun. n:mrche-n been“: ll'lfllll' directnn. singing an mama-n! nf maiden“ and waiting to IE1! haw arising]r [IDFIE wq'd mm: In flit rum. Stmgfl mllapstd an subway flunn. mad: {hating sound: in the nu! mum. Ht final in the hall, and flfll-El'h'ilt feigned Hist-5 “hilt their mnfcdfl'alfl

[I'll-Ii]? malt. mm. WI: will want u: lac-h Emfifllj" at that mmqmnfll uf manipulating some (if the :imat'mna] Which but I!!! us first nutict the

overriding Hull: that tillage: fi'um flit-.1: undies: FHJPIE 131' all ages um“? da Eu nut.: 1 eI'l’f n: help. panimlm‘hr 1mm I'll-I! med it :Iflr

and WIIEII the? bdiflt that nu an: the is in : pmilJ'mI In gfl ilwulwfid. flf cm. mm: ptuplt help mun: ftflahl‘f than nth-tn. jam an min: circumstances are mar: flit-h In elicit help. bu: IIH: hurrur Hf Iht Gena-

um.- :1d while unfununalelr nut unique. made in impact partly h:caum it was flctplic-na]. fll'dinlry Ptflplt aftcn [and a hand, and Hillblimu. when Ell-n :itualinn mm: In require it. they act punitively htrm'nlly. Iliamthemitacuthauumuphthemwf‘flanflhflmm

Fund In Saw Drumming flifld“) and upttagt the dozens uf hm Ell-Emhle prmatial behavinfl that nth 111’ u: wilnmcs and pal-Farms in : givm "tihmruyfimcnundflnnllpinfluiwhflhunlheitcfflrvfl'y lung brim smut-ant “up: In afler a push. We disrupt Bur Ichtdules In vigil sick Eritnds. amp m give dire-Jinn: tn Ian ”mt-1:11. all curing peaple

if then: is anything w: tan do In hrlp. humming 1r.- pollz, nearly an mum of aluminium give may ta charitable mum and mas-13' hail“ take

Ill: tin“.- m du- mme Ifll'l'. of voluntugr wart! In nun: study. 35 ptl't-fl'fl nf bland dam: indicalcd a willing-nun In undergn muflmfla and my numight in a hump-ital in WEI-Er m dnmtr: ban:- amrrmur m a mmplfle

strangtr.‘ And if “T. HE: mm researchers. aha-me m flpand uh: idc: nf pram-chi bdmfiur in includt taupcmfiw .IEfl'll'iliEl—Hm‘ling wiIJ'I nun-n furmutual benefit. Inch II in nmtrured callabaralian at wart—we wmfld

find wan mm cfidmcr nf pmmtial inclinatium. AH 151' [him it should b: Iuflmfl, in particularly remarkable in light nf the {act that we an: undil-

ind in in ethic of camp-rim: il'ldhl'idfliliII-m. Lila:- a green lhflfll‘. farting

it: mu;r up hen-rm the EDIIEI'EIIE slabs al' a city sidewall. Him at" hum caring and helping defiu this mltllnt'l lanai-mime:ahnuI—ifum nutrighl climate-1mm flf—Iruch activity.

Mauilingalhtfi-aquemulmmm‘nluflnmmwht.andfl

F

E

Mm

m

: [lawman AND Flflflfl'flflfl IE!

Hmmafiwfurmhmmhufiflafimflnurapnite picture

became: Hen dearer unn- we inlrudme the behifinr nl' milder-en. etilt Frcud Hi5 nil] Farming almu: run-Manly tg‘uiflir mu. hi: cmnujum William film was uhafiving in In early ban}. on thild pnflmlngy, "EH-n

the I'I'Il'fl war uld child has fl'H.‘ pauci- a!" feeling annihtr's mum-'35" In 19-15, an M a n paychinriu {amphimd Lhal "the mplusis an the inhnrn m imth'wt'we feature: {If humility, aggrminm dfllh wishes. and

the negm'fie madam! experience-5 myrtle-ms a lane-5m appmadt Hhith hfl ltd nu: uudmu ul‘ child pawhnin-gy my." 5nd: remarks were. hummer. It Ital! until rut-candy. quilt unusual: lhr: frIL-qucnry anti significance nf early pmmdai hflfl'l'i-fll' Hal gmmlly 1m: an pmfminml I’PttiifiJ-fl in child dmlupmnu. Talia-f. psychologist William Damn“ can mitt: ”Hull-1 mil-film"! htIifl: [hill mural mmiflns an: a rmural camp-unmt al' a child's sci-rial Tlptflflirt. and flu: thu- p-mtmhl fur mural-enmti-urul martian: 55 pm:ent at I:|Iirth.""Ir ll'fllld..jl.llt u plyrhmnalysla were wrung about children'i uranium. n:- wer: many rngnitiwhdfldnpnwnmiifls wrung Ila-nut lhl'ir egucmtrilm. [VFHI bulb-rt tin: as: of mu and 1h: swim] at" Piagtt's mnrrHt-upmriunll magi, children apparently can trim-d [ht firm-Id fi'urm uthtr pimple”: Pfl'flpflcfi'flfl {me chapter 4-“ That Ihm is mam-t. mm In tuddlm than mllialumn and mar-cmteudneu will hardhr teem Htmishing In any“: who has watch-2i say. :I. mmrr—mumh-flld bunt inn: tears up-c-n m a cut an htr daddfl Itmfl: W a ll'lh'l'y-mu-mhvuld flEll'iE'fl! hi: favm'ilc unified luv [u- atal-mull: a wing visitur. Still. the idea flu: mnccm Fur anther: must ht farced dawn th: thmals Inf naturally enact-unit {rt-1mm has um depan-rd mfuflf. It has peniued despit: and]: after study mhmfiuing Dawn's inertia“. Tu start at lb: beginning, rflflrd'l ha: uuhlhhtd that mil-urn:In: mm likely In try—Ind tn cry Inger—when lbw are expand In the

Inund nf another infant': try.r than when Iii-c1: hm fllht‘l‘. Emu"? laud. Misti. Th: wund: um! I'm puma-Hr: uf camparimn have hrdudcd : E-Iil-I'I'lp-lfl-ET-rgfiflt'flltd :mhafi: cry and a hum of whit: 1-min- cartfilfly tinigned tn be as sudden in unset. as lung-hating. and as laud a: th: stimulus nth-Imm's cry, Th: infant: in than: Hudics rangtd [mm thin?fnur m Infinity-rm hum": aid. and their cries seemed to he 3 . m

Iranians raLhn- than mrre mull irnilatinns. These findings Her:- pub. filled in tum papers. that W

Ew: nudiu with a :nmhined [III-fl]. at

man.- Ilfln 25H Hanan. {I'm-nigh: nhjen Ilutthcinfiinuwmfimplymnfiuiuflwuiflnf

fill

EESFflHDlHE TD m

ulhflnwilhtbu'rmiflntufflwuudiuhadfuundflulmh him: criedl-‘nr: Farr immin- lungfiupun hearing: upenfhiu urheruwncry Linn when mammal: ell-2's was play-rd. but {ml}: twenty infams war: and in this: cup-criminal, and tin: diflrmnce um: um llatilticafl'f significanu Ewan iflhis interprfiatinn was accuratm Inf mm. the fact “13! m: an: predispased la mt: this mnfusifln and became diurtucd in 1111' Eat: a!" mulhcr pcflun'ai distress 5mm significant in imalf. But lwu researchers

conducted lumber said? in 1932 will: infantsjmfl tig'hltfl'l hours 1311!. and found thin dry tuner:- nmrr: Iilrzn.':l'gl in try upfln htming : tap: at' miller infant‘s cry than “pun healing a tape of their DIM-L What's mart, than: whu were abrady crying cmtinufll dining; m Hhtn um hard alt-mean:

tilt": trillr and MW crying whtn thin-1r htanil lhcir mm." Taken lugtlher. then- finding: augguh in flat 'E'i-E'I' uffibralmm Sag]. 1nd Harfin Hnfinan. whu canduclcd ma: Hi the nudifl. 1hr :Iislcnct a!" “a rudimentary empilhic distrm martian at birth." I primiljvr 11mm In what w: think ul' 3: empathy.“ Elm specks may.r h: primed+ in lather wards. in he dilcflmfiltd by sin-mam“: Elm-r": diE-Eflrflffl-fl.

As an infam gram. this diammfun cuntmue: and takes more mphis+ Liana-:15 farms. Marian Radkc—Ymuw, Emlyn Eihmwmu. ind their

mandate: have been studying tuddlm Fm the bEHEI' part of 1m: decadfl. hating in effect delimited math-er: as research aflialanu :1:- mile“ data in the ham: ilultad ut' relying cm hritf [and plausibly unrtprewnlalivfl

uhmlium in the hlmraturr. A. ten- H:- fflWlEffl*Mflfllh-flld child. thty have I'nund, can ht cnpmed m she-w signs nf agitafinn and unhappinus in the present: (If ”lather pL-nun's diurnal. perhaps crying nr burying htr head in hfl‘ mmhcr's lap- A: 111:- child dt'h'tlfllpi Iht capacity uf push pmivr behavior. in [hit periud bciwm Eighteen and [firmly-Tum mnnlhl. 11:1- Iflpflfilt In dint-en will became mart active: patting the hut-ad, [tidb-

ing a my. unfit-ring vtrhal rxeuinm nl' mummy. finding an adult u: help. and an farm. Th: ability In} bl: nl' asaialan-Ee m In build an a PI'EIEI'jitiI‘IE 5:115: nf tflfltlfl'fl and rupamihiliw [m filhEl'l. "Enmpic:

muchl mpflflifi n-tmr lung htffll‘fl [Inna-rc- i: a high Incl nf minim:dtwhpmcm" nr I11: cipfldty In turn the rtactiv: dismal imu helping hehavinr.” This during-manta] prugrmtinn has hem rtplimcd in arm

Eli] Inngiludinal :tudiu. By Lh: Iimt childrtn an: [If prudmul agm III:r.:nmi'-:1III*II'[lg+ Shilling, and helping an: regular grammes. Due study all" Ira-reminders. {luringr fit: play discmcrcd lhfll film-Hum {If Lhr: mtL-vcn dfildrrn mired

with. killed, nr tumfnnrd ifltflhfl child all Iran um: during Dl'lljl' Early minulu 11f flhflfiilifln.“ Eflfirchm t

simply taunt [ht numb-Er bf

H E Wm

m

: FEED]EHflH AND HflHflTIflH E?

prmia] hthaviun awning permit nflimn-hmt tuneup with lid!!! varying fiEIJI'Il'B—dtpfl'bdh‘lg‘ in pan an haw I'm:.'I4I:I;I'3|.r Iht mntEpt afpmm— c‘ul behaviur is defined—hut “him“? all? nmh Ending in lid]: In MrItltt tht chill-11:11“: incitimtiun :1:- help fur lwu rmmli. Fmt. “tilt benign

mn‘mnmtm 11f uh: nursery “haul in pmhflbl'r not filled with m m fur sympathy and gcntm-Iitf'fll and man-II, lint: 1111!. all cl‘lildl'tn at uni: gt furl mmpcttnt In htlp. thtir Eilun: m do w ihuuld nut be : 1 1 t H a [film-E In rat! will] Empathy.r and mififity In d1: plight of others. Lib: all pmntm l'flll'fllflihflfl ham: 31m uhmwd Imam: and ldfilh

Elia“! an the pan at" childrtn. Ta may 1113: Impaler? nr helping behwiur is ptn'asivc and mun-dam in nm In upland: a dEIIlflfliE portrait with an angtiicc nut. at In dEEI'f that WEI—Firm]? in 1 Ind-fly infill-Ed with man: flf pflsmms—fifl sm'mwu much had: I. my mid:

(“Him-1”] m- thrnw i1 arms: [II-t mum. But the anljmcial i: nait-r logi«Halli.r nnr «mmthrilling-i«2:113.r prim- m, nur mare Illflfl'll than, flu: Pram-dill.

Wtarediap-used tumachuutmmhmfiumawurlitu rears.

WHD HELPS AND WHEN Psychologist: have kHz-1H! in“: thl: qufll'lnm In!" haw ufltn Frail-tidal bl:havinr accun and why i! menu. but Lha- nmhelmhag maju-rity nf uh: [ E m ha: maternal m..- factnra that main: in accurrfl'lfl! mun.- m' In: fikrly. Sum: affluent [1:1a have H: dun- with the tnfirunmflu—ihlt ii. the lilullifln in which pun-pl:- Emd thmuclwi—whil: min-r: min In flu:

dumucristiu:1m individual: mandates. This dauifitafinn recall:Ill: Patti-finality rerun m 1ltl'uflul‘t dthafl: that has. in am farm at" III-r lathe-r. dmnh‘mtd 1h:- mfiai nil-um {and inn-ii] plfdmlngr in particular]Em dtcadfl. T1} in“ {fill 111: predirliwr mead]. an pram-dill htha'rinr. it might be tuneful tn- funher nubdhridc tacit m :11" Rattan. having m with fun: Eillflflflfifl'l il'filjl'l'd an a mmh'mum Pram the genml In 1h: specific:

mvimnnm-nm] Emma. himaujv: tit-menu of III: simian, the paw-1:3 llilf ufmind. and Enduring trait: [If [11: ptrlnn. I will address Eli-h Elf they: in mm

Envimnmuual Faun“ Frahably flu: hen known and mm: dwmuglfly mmhed amp-en nfhelp-

in: W a r m the- efl'ecl ul‘the premium..- ul'bysundcn. Hun: than

IEE

EWING TD m

an: hundred studies: haw.- hrm publiahncl an this tapil: lint: the GennHIE killing. mint Prflmilhfl'lflf by 111: pnydmlugisu Eihh Luann: .mdjuhn

Dark-r.” The Inc-y finding frum this rcsearch in that am.r gin-n individual is must Marl-,- In mm: to amthcr pmnn‘said ihht- htfififl nu an: :11: can do In. TIM: prutncc afnll'flfl' WiIHE'IIEl. lint in.r reductl the probabil-

inn»r uf helping. Apart frum [ht uhfinu: fact that we may. in 5mm: 5“q Hans. mum: m m:15: has already dun: samuhing. uur inactinn i-J said In umur far any of Emmi] rtmm: first. it n'nud nf ptnplr failing

In attend In wmm‘s diam-:5 ran dim-an us. tau. Emu “uniting it: utnnd. firm if 1m: dun nmicc Whit is suing an. thc fact that uflltr pen-pl: art not htlping an lead III In Emmludr “131 the fihfllhn dufl ml muslitmr an mergennr requiring uur intmmrinn; third. It fur appcm-ing fmliah in ['11: m5 a r m 'Lfil turn: an: no hdp was actually Inc-Edd: thunk [and man fimnufly]. the duty In an i: :harfil by fi r m :

Fruit-m. difl'ming Ih-E respunsihiliw and thereby.- reducing our nurn airligaliun; and. finally, if it turns nut mmfihing 1hmfld haw.- bctn dune, that nil] be mhfl Pmple In aha“: 1hr blame. tun.

Imnifilly.1h:- byuandtr the-arr may nu: be ufmuch use: in explaining the whack: that inspired it. A: Melvin Irma-r ha: [minim-ti nut. Ill: pcflpl: mint-uni by tmm": fi l m at 3 5.1a. were alum.- {nr :1 lean removed frum hFIIJHd-H‘i} in thrir apanmmt: and muld luv: called 1h: police mammal-sly- Thai they failed [a flu an mum-L Eilil'f ht explaimd in lam: ul‘a made] rtlying an mlbbtfltfil fllfllflis.”

The psychoanalyst Arm Btu-tn pray-alts that we begin with I11: ummptinn that lhf.‘ cILflt madman nf hum—hduding thus:- by. llflflflETlI—il a Indium; In unpathifl. Impamifl. and hut-IF. Tl'fl! quin-

tinn m ask. then. is what muld compel us In nwnide Ibis prudifiw. Ht suggnu Ihar. nflun'ua auch as our: camp-:1u: m dtny uur mm basic sense a!"hdplusncu. and that being [unframed with lam-mun: EIH'! I'II:'II:IIIII'."II.+ nus thrtatcm m unmask us, forcing a painfill maglliIi-un uf nut awn paydmtngiml Hate. This hypmhuii, Emu: argues. can uplajn ah: paydmmnntil: armptnm: mmtimfl flhihilfil by “Hill-E wim- rtfuu m htlp;

III-t cast nel' ignoring mur prmac'tal 'mdinatinns is high. [In : well-hm I by Barley and hunt, mhjflu whfl munght [hm h'El'l.‘ nthW cn Pftlltfll wt“.- In: libel].r In aid mmenne the? hard having in tpiltplit

seizure. But that: whfl- Failed m- help were nm apathetic n-r indifferent: “'I'hq uflm had tumbling hands and Elf-taling palms- If anything, ['1t madnmr: ”mm-Iimull].r amuse-d than did the subjeni whu rtpurtcd Lhr:

nut-rm."}“ A: a var'micrn nt— cnmenfiunal behawmfl analys'uh the bystandrr them-3r 1101 only prawn In bl: inadtqmtl: by virtue cf mining

m

mW

: PEEDIB'IIDN AND PIDHDTIDH E!

III: liptifium nfthil plwnonunm. “carding In Gram. but it in also pastlivehr danger-3m: "If Izmr “final tn mm: m the aid HF a firlluw human being is translated intu term: at" a. pun-Ely guru-maria: nlatinmhip biz-mam bflflndfl'l and fictim. tht ia'bfliw In maintain nur urn inlcgrit? will In:

shun-Ed . . . thereby precipiuling me dawnfal] {If uur ability In think, turtlpurHiLHrfllitf,lfldt-nhthaft mumfly.uwcflutnp mumul

judsmmflrm Fur manna likely mhlfll In th: bystander effeu. meal gmups nf marchers haw.- 31m faund [m m: anc': :urpfimll that saw: writ-fie: urt‘

pmcii] hduu'iun in!In: mmmnn in larger :ilifl. In an: flPETiI'I'Hfl'IL a lifl- m ten-ymr-uld child stand an :- busy street and raid In Pifltflbf. ”I'm lull. flan gnu call my hum?" flu Hang-t. nearly three-quarter: uf Iht adult: in {web-rt amall luwnn did ID; cumpared with IE5: than half in

big Lilifl {New York. Philadelphim Human. and Ehjfigfll." flthtr sludin. using :liEmnt manure: cl" helpflllncss and rupumivmen. have

fflund Hutch that um: thing. It aha .Ii-E'E'l'lll clear that Ennpflaiivtneu is

mart likElf In [hammfizc flu.- n-sidcnt: Elf mm! mm. and mmpuilj'II'Eflfll Llama Inf urban incicLi-cm"

Thmr'ut: “raped in the flgflill'ifi prnnim uf laciai nuisance l‘liil'fl'l! ”sand 111:: ifpenplt are IIIflT-E hclpful in small mun: it mun jun ht bccauu! thq' Hum: Ihcirr Hndnm {at mar unkindnfln. a: 111-.- can: may

he) i: like-hr In but refipmnmd. But we do not need this anumptinn of “II-intern:.u suit mmjvalur; I11: fart that nine Imam thc mile-r midflfls

of: small :nmmunit'r simply makes their hunmnnu: harder m amid. "I‘he philmuphtr Thu-ma: Hamel ha: pflinfld nut that because nf “1hr.- htighlcurd rtaljw people have fur us Ether lead live:lit:mm and are mgagcd in limilar mttrprilu" in small mum; it in "easier In pul IZHJI'IEI'II'IEI in their

Flash and Ihcir good and harm became vivid In my!“ But it dim: mutt-n Inf 1h: m1 afl‘urded by small-mun life facilitate: penp-tttiw tiling.IF the unanimity aunciatcd with p-upulatinn drum? pmmutu abjec-

tificatiun. It is diflituh t:- bml: that habit mu when an 'mdividual lie-pl nulnl'tlmcmwdmfluhfurhdp. 'Thi: dingn IL'flllIEIL'l all-u hm. : darker sick: Ila: alumni.- nl‘ pail-at? 141 walla-turn lil'c mun sufl'unlm; m 5111:: people. Md an: that: war-dim: “hum II-rlp'hifl and am: an: nu! HI In“! Cit-51H flaming-urn: an hut rlmfiy Lh-r prrrrnn Irina: hrIp-ni rml'urnu In- urim Hui-1|! uni-m1. In gmrral. lhr tun-n 'H'rlul :i diulnniun may not In- :u that um :I in fin:

illPfil-l'l. Th: ruining nut-5rd: an lI'lE qIJE'IIi-flfl dun nut mun-u] l'ur whit-{Mum utilul

1H tlh'lil: d'flltfl'I-tjr. Elli-Ell It'll? In: :mfmmdrd 'Imh an: uFm-mnunil'g. Mutiny-tr. ll":

Ill-Ell“!!!- III' pmmml behatim iT-I': fllfiti'I-‘E. miudmj nlhtr uprmimu Inn-[raring lush as

arguing-fl pflhnlhrnlfl'. [I In patch] to Marian ladlb‘h'mw lptrmnal mmmun'lraflam

Mirth IFS!!! fur raisin; mm nhjlniuufil

'i'fi

HMHDING '11} W

Ann-1hr:- nplanaliun. nut inmmpatih-IL- Hilh this nut. is ufl'cred by ll“: mmmhm wha cflflduttfll Eh: child-mam: study: “City pun-up]: adjust to the muslin: dmund-s nf urban lift by redudng their bivalvemenl 1with M A I “ 'Tl'lElE demands. we might fldlIL are a!" several lypu.

T11: Punt? bf a dummwn amuunu to a Irma-my ill-Hull that den-mime: E'Ifm—ur ElpflfiiuHhflifl pimple whn an.- unawart nfil and Him [mutt thtmselvu H: [mm u[ the cily‘: hulk Strand, I11: dangcr {If an. [inn] assault in large cilia: il nut cundurive m I pmlurr flr-DP-Elffl'lfl! m mhrra“ predimmentr—upennen even in Imagining their distress. let alum tn taking steps In hclp. fine is [m hm? attending m mm”: mm Hffl'f. Third. [ht lhE-El' scale nf min-r1.r nurrnunding n city.r dwell-tr. particularly with ll".mtuhrmmmg problem at Mme-lumen ave-r the last decade. aver; whtinu d1: huputst m mach um. “Thur: m prank-a] limitaliuna In the Eamrilln impulie in : majur city." Stanley Milgram mutt twenty rear: 151:: in an article what: 311:l menu Hm mare germane tflday. ”II“: citizen attended In every nerdy PHI-fill. if he Hm affinitiw m and fluid m1Herr :itruiuh: impuls: Ihm was Hui-Ed in LII: city. he cum-Id unruly keep his own affair! in nrder.”" When it was unusual In find a man

apmwlcd nut an the sidwalll, Inn: was mailed tn amp. in ME in": was all right. [a 5:1 him fund ur medical iflillfiflfifl. Whm. by mnlml. anti

diih' cummute tn wait invulves gaming by [at even stepping aver} destitutc and flap-crate pmplc a: a nutter at" taunt, an: EDITH! In ward thruummanyannuyanmunrr-cgardsthemaialLThHIun-emn

cantinut m live—ani man: In:- th: paint. live writ—in a system that rum so many In so much min-qr in a {in am: Humid11t mt diga Turning Hid: is an: “If a!" nut digits-ling it. A: {alumnisl Chm-In KnutInmmtr put it: Thu: dig. with its army nf glut-dwcllen. i: I flhflfll fur callummn. Dm‘l nanmll inalitlcts m hflp an: suppruarrd E'Irfff day-I. Hurt-aver. they luv: H:- be mpg-null if am: in; H1 funflinn: lhcl‘l: ill‘l‘: iili'l'lpl’f mu many flame-tens. . . . [Tn help] is nut 11 lifllpl-E :11 ul' mat-qr ul' width mun Fungal: II'E qllilt capable. ll i: a mafia ml

at imiil wart than rmhr 1hr Pl'flffliiflflil and tl': 53mm; an be exp-fined In minim. Tu expat! ninll'tnfln of flu.- mflinaq- litilcn it had social putty. Further. In eupme him huurlr tn 1 wrflchedmn liar tit-rand hi: puwtr In urn-rd! is In mt: mural inmmitivitf a reclaim: Inf daily living."

Fintl..ll :1 1h: pmhbih'ty a!“ helping ”Hill, mush]! twining.

ta vary invariarmeh.r with the number uf bystander: Fifi-En! and [hit sit: at thu- mmmuniw. lfl can it In: inhibittd hr mill nun-ms. It is impnnanl um

m

mW

: PIEDIE'I'IDH AND HDHUTHJH 7"

nutty m be aware u-I'IJI:ntml tn- whidl I'll-Him i: "girder! will]: sunpidun {nr at has: with mired feelingn in nur Ifltil'ty'. hm m run-tall this in “IE

annual-.1 Inf :n'I-imnmcnlal tartar: ulnar-am u:- pmsmjal Hlivil‘p'. Euclid: andvuhmwlfileincimnmumirinflmanddifimhtnqmmifi. nunnhcle-n Ill-11h: fur a camp-ailing H1 131' infirm-nut: an behafinr. If uur culluml mining indudts [hr “ ' 1 n that only a Ell-Eli! 1:1:11d gmdram: into ulhrr people'l pruhIL-mn. this caulitulfl in mvil'nnmtll

nrhhlealmdrfldncl lhtnumbtrufhymfi mmnumwem.

[111m Elwin-m: ul’ lhc Sinnt‘mn Sum: uf the situalinml human than hm: manned the aumfiun nl' n:-

sflrcher: deal with th: rflatinnship human 1h: hEIPEI' and the Fermi!“ lacing hclp-ed. Thcfl: clam? rep-Itltnl 3:11-1:15 of flu: situatifln mflwr flun :1m htlpcr'l character, but [ht]! Ir: immiw and dull twain}! :Ealim [mm Ihe fc-alurfl disruucd in far. Tin-re in nut very much m be Hid air-nu: lhfl-t' findings. hummer, lat-mus: they tcnd m cchn our intui—

liun. T11: It" ambigmn-ul m m ' l miIflT. Ila: mare likely wt will be in hip. Dirt-ct upnsurt In Ihal. mist-r3? i: mun: lilml}r I!) call Earth a prmncial run-spam: than ham-Eng album it indirectly. largely b-ttalflt III-IE and it man: diflicult u:- Iirnf.“ Being [BRIE-Elli] mnally by lfll'IIIE'flnE

whn is saiiciling help in behalf at": third paint}.r iii mare “Elf In mull in a canmhulinn Hun is a min-m rcquc-sl fur manqn—whirh explain 1hr.TEE!!!“ grnwth Elf Mltflurkflhlg by nunprnfil Imam. Mud: has also been made of the [act that the prohahiIiw of htiping sun-mun: imam: if an: “ital. HT is timiiar m. that pal-Hun. “It-54E limiirlgl an! wall tmhliahed Ind umurpriling.“ 1Tb: {an lint mid-Elli! Inf 3 small lawn an: relativeijr likely H: be hnmngenwus—thm is. similar In

an: mama—may partly ughin tht hightr [fit]!- uf helpmg in and: tummunifl'ru.) Thur.- funniunal significance of the” Elna“ rcducn-d :umidmbly. huwmr. in the me {If an mergfiwr: annually mmn:

might be mun: innlined u:- give gran a hand it'thn- mu at“ run are united by I similar pnlhini truth-uh. but that man will yank gnu mu unhe- path ul'an mmingmrrrgardlnsuf‘udnt shthminmwifltyu uw him much 511: cm: In apmd fluid: with 3mm.

Similarity i1 uflm taken far in abjem'u- reflcclim at” pear-pic's flit-r tinnmhipl u:- tach mm. It durefur: ham-s mmtiuning that uur prulcim'flf tn mhm i: '1t subjective and bra-mum. That graduate student: may hi: 2?...“- m

l mun: likely tn will min-r gradual: lflldfl'lfl- with I In]:

TE

REMEDIES TD OTHERS

than ta Isl-ill: chimney “reaps i: um a finding: that [Hill]- itatll' In firm-filianti-nun. Efleardlm may have In mntrul far I]! but one or I'l'fl- umiihlfl, but real life is under no such constrainm Thwl. dn mu TEEII'IEI: a: similar smut-am: with whmn arc-u mnside-r fmlf an idmlagical mulmam but whu speak a diflertnt language? Haw ahuut lfllllEfl-ll-E will: Wham Iran :11: in agrctment Ibnut flu:- arm: raw but nut Emmi: pnlicr? Dues IHn EDI-[Ir taunl fur mare than IJ-Ell'flpfllifll'l in ajudgmem a! limihrirty? Eli-rm if Ht can annular the" quufium h:- uuzr satisfafliun, w: are Hill nhliged In all: whHhIL-r an] unlit-1|: fat-tun “It“! be as unlit-m :I. mmidmtinn fur um: penul- 3: Fur anuthcr—nr whcfiwr flu: tr i m :nfsimilaritr i: instead imply an mtgmmh of I larger wufld view wlfidl, in run, till

he mudiiitd. In the ward: of the pmhulugifl Harvey Hmnnein. '11": Hand nearingfilhuunfdufi than Hcimagintluuilthflufln lit-fluand dininilu- ulhrn i; that find ”by [ht lflill- [hut-f pun-fl: which arr hating

camp-and. . . - llama. thu: gap 1:111! m: prrcfivt whm clan-running mu: trail: dtpendl “pan the Ill-Bill canditium that mmd u: whm In: hut in :imihr and

{fiaflmihrpcu-plt. Tim I: “ m a - M n a q fi u m m hm Magnum W w. u m m m Illa.“

Harm. if iimflfliljl' slang an: axis dun mum far 1 given intlividual.

I:I:Il.lll it aflect his willingnua tn pct-Farm a pmapda] am? And what run {If prmu-cial an? Hun: Bf them: questions is ll‘hl'iiL The? d:- nmrt than highlight d1: diflinflly at" wmfiunalizing [11: hit: a! similarity; 111:? all inm qufllicm the mmhgfulmu. annually “alumni rather than firm-unsuited. ul' wpi‘

cal findings in initial psydmlugf. Hare Fruit-1y, [hay timflmgt [ht um fulntu. It! 513* naming at" that m

m

: slam-L at" :itualinnal 13cm"

li-Iid I'D mmml nur willingnm In with out In athtr 13mph.

Individual State

Th: Iitclihmd that hclping will take pint: is aEcuefl nut an]? by certain feature: if the mvirunmml but Ella by curl-Iain thfll'flflfliltifl {If the wwld-he help-er. For the mum-mt. let u: mmider than: uhmtrimu

that ductihc mmnnfls flat: at a particular mum-:11: uf l'jm-E. Mm: remarch nf “sum" {as app-med 1n “trait“:l Furniture: that an: : 1 l m

[Ira-satin] behaviur has inflamed mmd. Th: must :tmighdhrward and wflJ-utahlilhcd finding hum by Lc-unard Bfliuwita. David Rum,

I'llflEflElfiL FRAMES: PREDICI'IDH AND FEDHD'I'IDH 5'!

Mil?! Inn. and limb mpfifiv:mflnguu, i: dun mutant-rd pmplr are mun.- Hid? In ultnd thtmsclm tn nth-Era: the ml: il- "Ttncl sand, du W." fihildrtn mun-raged m r m pleasant mum-in are mn-re film}; In dunate pclmica than than: allied In real“ mdlapp'g' HEM: Ilhat heft-H 1 & a ht :intluaunlluntn-_I;I|.r m m . tint-ugh. maul ul' Illa: ”march hill mm Erma! IJ'III: rule: "Him: flirt thing: happen In 1mm do good.“ Experiment-

:fl Huang: fur pinup]: m wrap-Enemy rem-iv: [TEE static-nary. sum tun-Hes. tun-u- much mun-:3! far I min jun ptrfnrmfi m“ a min in a plum hmlh. These pimple. film: mnnd premnuhly has hnpmvedi turn am In- b: unusually willing to make a tclcphu-ne call an bani!" al' a stranded trawler, vulunlm firm: u:- help anuthrr rumdmn durum: Infinity. mil

a last letter. help a mnfederate whn has drflpped sum: papers. Ind in an. Naturally. the luhjefls In: nm tuld uf any muttfim hut-mun [ht tun nut-Emmi: afflu- lllltl'f. 1hr.- gift and 1h: uppnrtuniw u: help.) film-wilt. than: whu an: infurmt-d Ihtr did well an a but haw aha bee-n 111-1t 11:

be apt-chm amt-runs. In all {if that cases. w: shutfld nude. il in am that flu- Iubject has simply htlp-L-d hm- henei'actnr u a way (If rtcipmcafing: nlhtr. tht fire-n: pmumcd In hive.- enhanctd hermand mm: II:- disperse hfl m hclp II'I'fflflE whn came: along." mu.- go-od run-ad cicada-r rattan-:12: tin-2*: prumill inclinatinm. the Efl'flu HF had Inn-Dd are mun: implicated. flu 15h: um:- hand. seeing :1lad

III-ufi: may depress mnu'ihutium in charm." and Hume-1n: apparently put int-1 I ntfiithfi mnlinnfl state a: a mu]: nf an unplcaaanl environmen! [Inch :5 m1: cantal'ning distracting hilfirflund nail-fl“ at d5:reth: smut-EH} is 1:5: likely to engage in pmmia] bthafinr. (In th: all“: hand. failure at a mi: aumetinwu—pL-rhaps I lhfl-Ilild lay wilh IEIII'IJE ill-

difidmh—flunflfl htlping. A1 the In“, Failurr alien prndum the III!“ Hktljhfl-ud ul' pmsncial anifiw as nu mtmmflun at all. while sum h i mil. Mun! uril‘jughr,r 51mph: whu l'ecl Efmpflhtlil: mm«H guilt m ufim mug the man lib-hr In help." What aflmmts far that ruined rue-Hulls? Fruit with": mund is as. ”damdflhminmucdchanccufhdpinginflflrumJMMfiflw

flushauuciittdw'llh uhnlfirpqlnhdplhmmhud imhaprmmmmdfl mung the-nr'nt: when it w limit In explain lhr THIHTE nflhia- nJ'Imr-cli-nn. Sum: argue" that: 'I'I.‘ HIP In mah- nm-rl'lr'n lit! bucflrr. and anything rin- II'III haul-h In this-fl m w it fll-I'I'Ill'l"? inttrchangflhlr will. .I III'tflfl-L'ill I‘E‘IPUIH-l'. Either: dull-rug: Illi- ell-Emir viral, ml'mtuining Iluu gratin: :rmpmhy an flhlllll'ljf ldrpending an hour [but [run an: umfl

i1!- Hlndflflmfllrmnflifi-Irfinfinl. ralhcr lhan I mi—rugufinpmnflrt; Il'lu yum-dim Flammahidmmfi s w fi m fl g m m m fi l m We Hillrfllrnmlhh

T4!!-

m m m fl TD DTHEIE

mandialitflymhauasimflarcfl‘mmlynnadtflu.mchfldrm&d

mum. tin-3' an: apt m be In: Emu-um. Strand. all] mgafivt Inn-cud: In: 11m alilh: sadnn: :ndangtr, fur m p h apptar m have difl'e-rtnl musequrncfl- The farmer any well cantrihtflt tn Fmia] behavior, while the lunar pmhahlsy will 11m}I

Mather medhmr nf HIE rift-n: nl' mgafiw :11a is idF-awm. lfldfllil-lul'nl- nutmbean'mtucsling ffllurflmapanfmm hnwit inttl'i-E'Il will: min-mi I1 his bun prupmed lhill: if" pen-FIE flee] had but fit}

good. it is henna:- they are thinking album the misfnnune: at” the penal: to b: hclped, whmu if {filing had run-duct: pmm-cial bchavifir. il ilheciule they are preoccupied with their awn Man.- HF mind. 111131! is mm:

truth to this fnrmulau'un. but time is also man: In the sum-5n SHE-am nus Ettalfl :umplitminna ml' ill own.

It i: Illmel'gir planiihle In argue. an the m1: hand. than if mm: Tatum an himsclf. he is dislmcled frum yuur “Elihu. Indced. in a study when! pmplc were filed to imaging that a dual: friend was dying of

cancer. those whu wen: mmuragcd In thin]: ahnul thtir awn minimum: In 1hr.- dt-ath urn-rt It!!! film-I3.r m help um :I gradual: student than WEI'E [hm whu adapted the dying friend’s paint n1" vitw." 1n a strand aludy. ELI:-

l'lfl'nlafi' schml chiidrtn Him Hm ashd In tail: ih-EIHI Humming lad Ihfll had hippnled tn annlher cl'r'uld man: man: gtnermu. in dcmating prim: chip: Ihan utrc than: Hhfi rmllcd something and. that had happ-cntd tnthnnflhfl." Still anuther experimem. “fining a different perlpectiw:

an atlfaawarmcu. hand that than subje-Ets wha- wm asked In think Ihmll flu: mm the? hid taflicr agrttd m htlp m m : :13: whic-

qutnfly med fllflflflt'hrfl as man: selfish than than: will: bid ml waged in this fltrtifl" nf criliral self—reflminn.“ But [hm is number hand. Sum: hivesligatinm hair: lhfl'l'lrfl that

inducing alumnus a!" tht ulf can actually tnhanct hely'u'lg behavinr.‘ Examining the tirtmnsuncfi in whith that happtns {an hclp us tr.- rem-nail: this finding will: the studim an self-awartncu that produce the up?

lint tfltfl. Finn. Hflflrfllflfifln can Fromm: pmsncial actinn m tht trim: 111:1 il mind: an: al' mural nhligat‘mns nr hurrnaliud Wilhnfi— the gap between whatnn-Ei: dumg and “halal an: (High! m h: fining. Thus.

we- wnuld nan! txpccl Lht cL-ct m m fur ”mean-:- hrhu ha: nu :uth Ht nl' npamljam nf htrmll'. Strand. man-d and ”mama: night In 'Enrnpliming flu:- piclure mu I'unlwrinh: findil'll that a mind1-H.4mm hrhichmpinm-n Ihrulrr':pwdinnmlhmingmmnflfmmhmmp¢rtit-filing II'III EmpI-Ihr. ThiIIdIIh-yfilmlhflhfirniufigflrmhm. l-i-I'Itll'

Elfin-1.111. in [um um lfl'm III-niacin] hula-rim-

PEDSDEIAL PflfiflflEE‘S: PfiEfllflTIflH AND W W W 1'5

called mipmal mdiatnrltjusl :5 sun-Ilium helps tn dammit“: the immature: ur‘lfling in I had "mud. an my being in a gun-ad mnud hE'IP m dflemu'ne the mmequences u!" lacing seiflawm.” {h- ptrhaps it i:

Inn-r: acmratc In In]! that ufl~aumnm is turned imn financial heluuiar because an: Lhinh duritabhr [If oneself. It may. in uthtr wards, he t.‘ miller-L th: affective charge. [If selfrreflectiun that. due-min“ in dirt an hciping flflltr'l. Tum mearchm EIplured tilt nuance: nf [ht-IE ill-uni in in Ehrlich

puhihhed in [931 In a pair a!" preliminary studits. lht‘jn' found tint simply hcighlming “Hawaii-trues: {placing pmpk: in final ufa min-m- n1- playing

Ihrir mm Hui-EH hack tn than an tape} had a dtu‘immtal impact an helping. Then '|.|'.n‘.'.-1r ran anathc-r experinwm. this linu- telling subjects that any had dun-r either in!“ {It Fundy an an analngy [EIL "[11:35: whn had

nut been illffln‘l'ltd {hat thty hid failed (and Ham mum-bl? were nut h-orggcd dawn by HHLmnct-rn] tuna-d mu quickly in assist mun-um: the

if they had been flirting Ihcir nun rcfleclinn. SHE-Emu. [ht aulhnl'lEnnfludt'd. can pmmmt pmmtia] antinn a: lung u “the penun': mind is [med if 1 1 c a m “ nr ulher individual can-rem {imiudhwg a bad mund] that may rub an: at" pcnpccfivbtaiing putt-mini.” If cut-mil cuts and inmmnliied nurm: nl' hue-kph]; can he made salient—and.

spetificallyr. an: 11m washed nu: by premupatiun with one”: mm pl'flblean—then I'l-Eighttfltd arm-m Drama-IF nun-d nut predud: acting in Iht intern-n of nth-In.“ In addiljun H: mum] and :tlf-awareneu, there are mu DIJ'IE'I' chiral:-

tu-isu‘u nl‘ a pawn? mu: that In: rdattd tr.- [ht willingness In mpg: in pmmciil itfifilf. The fine in a lEfll-E {if being prnficient all the :Inttiw'il'q.r

in queuiun. “Uflhfls they feel cnmpflenl in perfarming them. unfit-nu are unlikely In acmnfly undcruhr. helping it“ at fut] Dita-ma] ufisfaclinn frum dining lhnn." finite: Pearl fllincr,” and thin [an is flh‘l’iflflilf nut.

muined to students. While daunting mane? or :xpmsing syrup-am? flat: nut require Illl'lfl.r maria! skill, changing a tire ur pulling mmcmm nut al' a fiver dflIEI. Feuple whn Fee-I cunfident in IhEir ability In ptrful'm a given [351. are mun! lib-l?“ m- {lfl iL Finally. a numhfl ni' Itudiu ham: dmunnrmcd that if: [LI-H1911 [Eels guilty nwr unwilling elm he did recently. then he will he mare lit-13' ta

mm: m gamma aid—even if it is nut mutton: m- whum h: Etch indrhlcd." Hal: 3 subject feel fllpflmiblt fur having hmhen mm: equipment fll‘ Ehrfln in Elfll'l'il: :I-huck in number Iflblt'L and he will urn-Err

m hr: fli‘ htlp more readily than mhers—rtgardlcss1 : : e [ht InmErna-inn mu irumlinml. whetlwr he beflmu th-u min-r people Emu

TE

REMEDIES TD CHEERS

than: it, and (in mm: cam} t'flltr “If: haul]: nu explicitly requested. Sumflimu. iifllplf being present while murmur Eh: harm: a Ihird party is enough In pre-diapuae tin: uhun'er In be ad" help Hhtn aim the uppnnulfiw. {Fur childrm. hunt-rug um:- nudy Huggt'lui that causing

Ian-manna pain call: up a different pattern uf rupunJH—induding 1mm: d'utr-H: but [en m m :mem—llnu men-hr wherein: samemw in

with!“ W

Trait:

By definilinn. a snapshot ul' 3 perm m I panicular imam—4mm gnu-d shut it [re-Elm; and haw capable ah: inn-lint: Ill-E wifl he at pcrl'nrnflng a talk. Whflhfl Ihl‘.‘ is pflflfiupitd with htflflf nr [humbled by guilt—dues nut. prufidl.‘ u: with much inlurmatiun abnm 1h: likeiil'mud :1e being : reliably prumtial 13:11:!“ MIT time. Elf came. umr n!" thus: mt: thin-rac-

leristics mil].r be :I I'EHEEl'ifln Inf enduiing traits: pEIpEIIJai mutinfifl. a 1:11q mural-d ulf—abmrptinn. an immunity m [TL-cling guilty. nr a pn— Iiltml Feeling Hf imumpelente. Such an individual is rEllli'l-rt'hl' unlikely.

all the being equaL to help. But we urinal infer trait fmm Lute—lumepunctuality mmrim dnuht wht'lhfl we can huftr trait [mm flfljlhflgfl— and. il in the-rtfur: imp-Drum! tn “Ell flu: fnrmrr u a It'll-HIM! Elfin-IT.

flyifi'flm h urn-Hum uric-r u'f the wall-Id might lugs-:51 111a: hm: flvunhlyr w: think of nun-than il 'InvanlrnlL-I]:r related In huw inclined we are

m benefit when Huwcven :5 we shall we when we final-aim: the issue I'm-m a dew-:Iupmmu] pcrspcctiw. it turn: an: that th: limit: appmich In child rearing that is libs}; In produce a ptnun with h-EIhh‘f IE'III'E'II uf

:elffilecm' is alm iitehr m pmdm m m whn is caring and heipfiIL Murmwr, than app-um m but a din-mt I'Ellliflfl hum-mu mlfaflttuu and prmncial im‘linatinn. DIl-E paychalugiat has minim: “Ehiidren whu are mmuraged 11: fire! gnu-d all-mu [hmselvu may he. mare inclined In empathize with nflmr: than children who: are prencmpicd with punnml irraJEqua'cine-I and lather mun-rm about that HIP?“ flnpallw. in turn, nficn predisp-ascs an: {a m nut In nthfi's. [Hulk-t that tmpathy. which will he EIPlflrfld in stealer dHIi] in the [allowing chapter, in an nfiflfiw *1um um rrfirrringhmmagmndhu vim-r nl‘1hr Irlhhll pumiumadmhdlnem nl‘ drlidmcin. [ Ill-till mlhrr a ca: nnf 'I'l'lplfl fur and fill- in DIE-III. In lcnp-lll-fln' a!

IIII'l-E'l- awn II'HI'I'III than in. I'I-IEII'l IEIlIlIIiIIIEIII. III. IEIII... nun-I: fun-l- an1|q nn Harp-unfl- I'rum alliannr {In I- :e-min 1nd at uwnplhhmm.

m

mm m ; PEEDICTIEIH MED EDMUND!!! T7

mpunstthumayhtmnnectedm.butilnut1nmmplcufiprmcial hehafim.) Gaunt-adv, an Enrin Snub pull it. “A punt Elf-tnnctpt main

'1: mar: diflicull :11 extend Lht W

In!" the FEE in benflnlfln

“Tl-h“

Dunc: uglin,h m , there In: quflifiuflum [fl slaw u: dam. Pint.

it may.r but, as Snub guts an m luggfln. that children with an extremely high opinion [If mum-Elna an: In: mun-turd In when and flint-Fare it“ Hid? In help. Ptfl‘lapl I “p-mifive but more mun-dent: Elf-campi" i: mart reliable in this respect.“ Secnnd, um all sardines have fuzz-11nd th:

predicted rchtinm—m least mat with both macs. In an: : 5 : m pram-till hthwinr in buy: [but nu! girl:} was actually ”minted will: a

negatiw self-innit.“ In mam, children who viewed fliflflflh’fl negaflvcly “ I t mun- accepting at": fictitiuus pfltl' said [ill have varimu mania] pruhllml.“ [flfruurm. thin may have reflected idmtificalinn will: a trau-

blrcl individual rather than an Within: diapusitiun a: such, and i: 12H: u: IJ'HJI: all-um. actual prmuchl hchavinrj

LIE“ daubfl'u] is tha- muc'utiun hEl'HEEI'l htlping and In irflmlll [nu-nu uf Emmi—that is. the belie-F that une- can inHuEnEE events and aflin thing: that happtn m- anuselt‘. Seven! studies haw.- mnfinntd thin mhtinn.“ which malt: stnae gin-n that :1 ”Iain! mutt-pl, I Emmimd

sense at" cmnpetence. also predict: pmmn'al behavior. While a fleeting of being abla- lu dircct one”: am life when gun hand in hand with high level: of self-uterrn. flu: rm: can-:cptu In: ntverlhelni diltincl."

ll Illa? b: that high HE-Eltflm arms In facilitate l‘EEFflflE'i‘h'Efl-E'fl In mhus‘ mad: by fretting as final I11: Itlf-absarptiun that a prnflrimn

vim uf uur warm can gum-tram Eu: ItlI-nleem appmly dues nut mam genermity: it 1: man: a prerequisite Park. with (idler ingredient: required a: well. Murmur, 3:: Nancy Eiatnbcrg, an: at th: hiding invesfigimru [If children's, Frau-nth] hthaw'ur, luggflu. lawn hull af sulfateem may infiep-cndtnfly camributc t1:- helping hell-avian but I'm qualitatively difl‘erent ”nuns, Inch as lflkiflg approval nl' Hum—at

least in envimnmmt: Hhfl'l' htlpin-g it highly regarded.“ m m uni Imam SHE: PEOPLE will]: relatively high level: uf self-Eltflm may also be m flinch! Lu help became the? hair-I: [ht pardwlugica] Hhcrcurithal m :11. particularly in sci-rial situalinns. This :hnuld, hummer. he Ila-lardtd as. a. E'actnr in in awn right rather than :1:

jun 11 functinn uf flame-mi Aufltivcnflt aha need: m h:- dininymhed Emm miwnfln. Inuit-thing that rest-arm and karma-up]: alike mthnu Tail [:1- dn. Hut nnly 1r: [ht tun Emcfll—flflfldhg up

'FB'

IEEFDHDIHE TD m

m

[wattle-Hand hwflnguflms—upmhkinfliemitfi fun-manyhiya, they tend tn divergr with age: by the third grade, in Iflflli'fl' ho?

ii nut Hpfl'iallf likely In be aggressive.“ {Same clinicians. in fan. suggnfl [lull aggrmiw wungstm wnulcd pmfil frum amnivmeu training. M reliance an bullying anther: magir Man in pan [rum an inability In u

m cur nthfi' their desire-I by number means-)

The-r: is in man: quarter: a flair: usumplian that caring I'm tithe: pulp]: must be mutually admin with taking can: nf unr': mm needl. Taken in in illogical fitt‘tfllt. thin: pmitiun paint: Inward the mndusinn

that {will}.r wimp: are prmncia]. Thu.- niflmcr. which is strangle“ For chilclrm. WEE-Ht: min-misc- Hm an}? an: the Inn inflinntinn: cnmpltihi-e. but they appear m be cumplemlmflrf 'm nunr human. 111m:- whu m hclpl'ul an aim lfltlr In he anti-mm and via.- um. *‘flmmtcriat'lcs that prnmuu: p-miliv: hehairiur IEEII'II uplimili illifll fi‘nm thl: mndpuim 13F haw EEEfli'I-rely a PETE-fill purine: his nr her own inlerefli."fl The HidHI-H‘ far this prupnsiliun includes a study llama-ring that. particularly mung chilthen Him have gnnd inferential skills, menivmm in: undimd with pramciai bthaviur: if the}? can understand what is gluing Inn with ulhfi'

pcnplc. then bring assumin- allnwa :htm t1:- act an thin undmlanding hr lath-jg htlpful. Evan martial-mu: by itselfil more uufifl in predicting

spunlineulfl prmarifl activity [hill i'h‘ill'EI'I-IEIE Hf others' titanium by itself.“ Smut: and nth-en: haw 5.1M Emllh that pniluhrity with peer: and W m :an: likely m Eu together—althuugh it is rm: dear whether thin mhflnn is a Emmi-an uf inlay-Emmi still: nr m u m . Due study. Eur example. faund a “mug Emchtifln hflwctn fillings ufprc-

flhflflim' mhhilifi' and flmir willingness In hElP in adult.“ Alt-mint fnuml that sixth grit-Gm with that and lasting flimdships mm: mm: genera“: and caring an bath a salt-rem“ 3nd in behaviun] mantra“ By cuntmh a preliminary survey taken during the I960: ul' peflple wlm rescued jaws during Wofld War [I hand that social marginaliw. [ht fueling uf him; an fllllli-dEI'. wu fr'lfqmnllf fuund mining ll‘fl: Wm?me-n intmdtw :ubjecu.“ 111i: attracted some attentiun among 11mph!

in the fluid at Inn-much] hdnvinr. but 1 mm 51d at" mart than I'm: hundrtd rum” [flung 'hl'ilh a number [If nun-firm fur purpulfl {If mmpafimn] his fist dnuh-I an 1111: finding. T11: lam-r slum: fiuund nu lignificanl difimm between flu: mu gruupl with rut-5pm III: a mu: ul' hflflnghtg H: thtir {ammunitmfl Suchhility (m- mmflhing Eh.- it.)

nemeddfnm indefinite pi'fllinurafflismnufpmmdalhehifiur.fl

Iran nut a handicap.

m W

mm N

W

m

: PIEDIETHJH AND PRDHDTIGH TE

IlWflflHhEfiJfllilhlfl-Ifllfllhllhtlpfiflnlflil

a Will-qIEIIEE of political aifiiimiun, paninflarly inasmuch u pram-till patterns are uflL-n establilhcd a: a paint in “It whtn 1h: mun rtlfll'fll'lll "I. Hard” i: finally ‘Yfl 1h: um! cumin-thrush: study [If ptupl: Il'hfl

risked their live-4 m fl'i'EJIE‘HE frum mutt-ulratinn W

{mud that “I‘ll-

:urr: Wflt mun: lilac]? than mhm m enduruc egalitarian puljtifll

W?“ T1:- the chant that the pnlilifl] left attempt! In balance an emphasil an indhridull Iihcrtji with a mmmilmml. In that valuu nl' tun-l-

munitjr and cquitjr, tht uhtfntt Inf: Hamlin] 3.15:1:t haw-cm pukilin an the pan lid! and a tendency In htlp nlher: sham-Ii nut ht Hlmflfih-

ing. P'S-ucialiim." a: the puliticfl tin-min Milne! Waller has written. "has: a: with m duct with campmsiun and mlidmity as with justicc+"".I“ Inlemlhiglf. [HH- uf mural manning haw: lhfl'l'lfl'l [lull [map-It WhI: scum 3| relatively high imls are mute lilwly In b:- lih-rra! than mnmfiw.“

And 111: htlicf than: :11: wmld is Fundamcnullyjum that pmple t sufi'cr mull have dun: mmflhing m III-Herve their [aim is M y related tn pulitiml mnmervalism.“ 111.11: 11:: finding shady; imn rtliginus issues. In a antic-1y 113ml [cactus In In mandate fliflfljil‘f with religiml. ant naturally auumn than a strung

trillion exist: between picnr and pity. hem-m find and grand. Elfin all. the WWI-I115 ul‘judainm and Ehtialfinily. like may: ul‘ mun utptmalunil belief syllrmm cum-ruin rtmindm In ht mmpauiunnw and charitable.

Thurs:- fimilhr injunn'tum. hnwmr. haw.- nnl been militia-n1 m prewml 1h: mmmisfiun :11" a range of ham under flu: ham-In- ni' an: religion at ninth-en [mm the crflu. t

“nun-r]? flair-tangled] lilt- men,

William and thildrcn u-I' Hm dry" :1: than; invaded Canaan“ In the

bnrhafia: Ehrluian Ermatkra In cnnlmnpuranr fanatic: killing in Allah's “am-E.“ Len dramtirafly. that aim um! iI "lung pamflr [If finding:

{IL-mumtraling that churchgmr: :11: man: inmtfiant uf EIhIIj-E minim-Hits than numumdrn."" This is nut 1hr.- plant In wrigh whelhcr that and mhrr disturbing phrnum-tn: mun {mm flu:- Faithfuh Failure to Muslim

the teaching: at“ their rtligium ur Pram aspen: If the bar-lief 51mm mums-Hm. {If the lam-r. an: nigh! nut:Ihat adhcrcnu an: nfitn mantiflfll I'll think at" firms-dirt: a: than-u 13mph car I: Foaming ahwlut: Truth. cur that “fit-ring is sum-dime: arm as ifluaury ur dae- m m . Ind human: I: sinful and in ILL-ed nf IIJ'I'Eflt-fl ur Enlighlmnwnu The [tut-Him at hand inflfild in what m! ran ILIl'I'IliEE' almul Ill: Ehrlihm-d ulan individual} hating wingand stumps: frum inc-Hing: that! hi: ur III!” in: a halitm. The answer is that rtligicrm faith appear: In

but neither nflflflry Eur um:- m It! Wally nur niflirienl In mum:

RES-PBHDIHG TD flTI-[EEE

flfl'

mhhahnfimhffldwrthfimflfmmmflfimmmrmtht anther between rEHgimu :ifilhtinn ur belt-find Frau-add Htinlifl.

‘I'h't: mndminn In: mergcd with [11113113t manifnrmiw than many dim-rem [11}!!! HI I'IEl-I'IITI'I aver nun}- yran. A. mild Mud}; 13f Ihuul hm flmuflnd EPiIEfl-pflfiflfll in the I'El'fifl! turned up "nu dimer“:ihl: rtlaliflnship huwwn inwlvmcnl [in the Ehurchl and charitable

arts?“ In :- queatiunmirc-haud study of altruism itwuhing mam! hundred malt mum Itudenu in I913}. fl'ltl'f.‘ HIE unly a alight mrrfla-r

tiun batman .EIIITuiEII] and belid‘in God. and mu: ll: all hut-mm altruiun and anemiance a: religium services-“ In intcnrim with ran-dam]! salt-{ted adult: in IQEE. “uh: 'irrEHEiUIJ-I' . . . [ m ] nearly H Fr:-

qutnfly rated as being a flflfld Samaritan. having luv: and Campaign For their Influw man. and um; humble a: the man: durum and EliEimu If our gruup studied."“ Twu crptr'unrnls with Lfl'idEl'ETid'llilfl

during tht IBM: [nund mentiafly the IBII'IE thing“. In ant. Mud-mt: whn believed in [II-E flit-It‘s mum Her-E nu mun: Iii-Jada.r dun nth-:11

In :nmemthtaidufmmmntinthtmtmumwhnuflwdm haw Ellen ufl‘ a [add-Er.“ In ll'H': filhtl' study. lllJ-dtl'lfli wtrc chssificd a: being 'jcsu: p-mplt" [hum-3.31m II‘Jlml-intint-mII,r :u-Iwmliunillf religious. mnreiliginul. ur adm'm. Thur: um nu statistically significant diffiflme ammug they: grmms in willingnfll Ila valumetr time- w'nh rttm'dud thildrtn at in mhflng Mmpufiun in; that an a test. [There was ant]; um- group in which a 11::qi did 11m 1:11:11. h m Ih: atheism)“ In a different sun uf 'mvesligalinn. a " 1 - t wlm nurH'grtd mun: dun mun hundmd pmph: fi‘flm difl'trtm ncighbu-rhuud: in il mEdjtfllt‘liltd city Elpfctfll to find that religion: pauplle WET-E Elia pun-tinny mdablc. hflprful In their neighhufl. and liktlr In panicipale in

ntighhurhnud organizaflum. humid. 1hr.- rcpancd in IQBII. rtligimu imflvmm was virtually llllfllfllifl'd m till!!! activitiu." F‘mally. .1: III: fllinern’ study nl' farm-r: during the Ivar fumd: "ElrvmlL makers did nut dificr fligflifitaflflf fi‘flm bystander: m' II] a

m with reap-act

In their religinu: idtntificatinn. rut-light“ educalinn. ml! dwir m I'lfrligiulzllsitjlr m that {If Mr pawn?" Du Ill-I: delimit topic: at" polilicl ind I'fligiml. than, it Hmfld item that brim“: [II-I" activism Hf flit Inn mmttimfl calkd NameIn! Ernwanna...r {thangh. a!“ mum: nut admin-hr} ism-timed with pram-rial he-

hmrinr. The presence ur absence uf religinus belief. munwhik. tell: u: IhlilJ-l'ulllf numbing sham thalihelihn-ud at"m ‘ :mmginm cia] activinr."

PflflEflEML m a t s : PIEDIETIflH AND Hill-Willi B] M Ruin By mm. my radar hophg In learn af : penumfiw trail whale rtlatinn m the pmmrial realm is bath rehab-I: and uncom-

plicatcd has 11mm: autumnal tn diflppninuntm. Thi: pin-rm mutinuca at w: inner the rest-arm m1 fltfldfl‘. Th:- mum c-f mum‘s and

nit-W5 {apathy far nupmhy will hr: [ruled in 1h: next dupu-n here can canccm in with caring, sharing, and helping behafinr. { 1 1 1 e in aha with grader flier-emu. 3 mm: inlendfll In r-E'HHI 110! only binlugkil

dutrminadnn ml" MEI-IL but all-fl 1h:- aumdam snciai rulta. This dislhninn in useful in]: time an: uh whelher men and Hamil [ml-Law! difl'trtnlljr. but it is {Tilifil in H1: can nl' :ctinn In flmruughly wiped—indeed,

defismd—by (Inc‘s miliru a: is prulflljal flcljviry. 'I'hmcuhu htliflt thalmalu [mallmlp-cnplc withhighmm manum at" pcnnmliw trait: and attitudn said In define stmypiml mmflinitfl are mun: inclilfld m tfllihil prmndal hthawinr can ulfifl :I

pliunihlt nlicmair: an HI!" :5. data m supp-ml I'J'Hlil' tflnfictinn. Tu lb: tun-m tlul helping nth“: i: Etiliultd by Iflill lib: ill-EI'ti'FEnEII and a

Ennviflifln flf prnnna] ::II:lII:|[:I-I:tL-I'JIIHE.r masculinity sum: tn fit the bill. In an: stud-3r, mun: mun-n than H'fl-I'I'Ifl‘l [and mum.- studypcd male: than III-'{Imflmus malt-I} lefi‘. fllrirrrpn'ilnmtal which In inmtigate when they

flmugjll anmhcr auhjz-cct was dIag—allhmgh the disparity was nut wry hupmflvc.“ timbre-nun ramming men butt-mu rmrhhlt- only when haalping,r is uprmfimulirgd in l-Efl‘l'll 11f: task with whirh men in am

culture an: mun: Familiar, such in: fixing a flat. lint." ur Hhtn mull Indudfl 1"": in” (If helping that like: place in the cum-nil ufinfimle m' : 1 t lung-[Hm rtlafinnships."

Thus: whu hut-lien: that ftmalfl. m- at least pumpk- Hith high man: an mamm uf utrcmrpiul funfininity. an: mm inrlhrrd m exhibit pmincial behaviur can ufier a Flamible ratiunilr is well as data in luppnrrl Ifin'r cunvictinn.‘ In nur :ulturt, Hume-n ”pm-I Ihtuuclves tn but

man:- rmpalhiq: {chapttr 4} and man: pm It: guilt” than manna-'1 mu..chamclerislics may well he lied m helping and firing hthivénr.” In a chuflng-vicljm study published has Ilmn turn f-Efll'fl- after {and in [111: mu:

juumaie :1] tin: um: thud abut-t. high 1mm an a mmurt uf matculinity new: modal-d with : rm'mnd' ltfltk‘fl-E}? In hut-1|). hiding 1h: r m 'hmflfly—flhfllmmmdwifllmly I fur dam: undrrgmdunIH—umm Here In:lilac-Iv II'IIn I'm-n In W

Ih:1mm abut-m hum nature aft-:1- having hum-d :- main

hmitlnsl Iiatufing hid um-“ ll'th'u I'm-tin: i5 mplimtr-d II-Irilh lil'l-fl' and mun: W

m

[m 51:1l nrlhr Fii-[Ifllilliflm it may he virwefi rm: nnlr :H I kind afpmjeflim: In: mull

Inn ulna u a canal {mm file-Inn In pmhl Hurt-r.

BE

W

E

E TD m

m dun-ill: mundilflty a: a “mipum:inhibitu-rin menu?! situatium" hut-tam: such mtn Eccl : nerd to appear mind and an: reluctant m rilk Inning: rum: uf mtnuclm by helping ummurily.” T11:- fan that men

il'f.‘ Wind In be than: if helping nth-tr: has been pnim-flflr dflflihfid h}- mme femin'ut “ha-1m." Than-who hut-line thil gendenfiE-Ermumthenmplim in mm: m at" htlping behauiur. and that 1h: difl'ercntfl that dc: lurn up an: gmmfly slighL arc-m In haw- mml al' [ht Evidence an their “'11:. A: nun-d in chaptfl 1, start: [If studiu tannin passing mmfl'nn fill—Ill! [an Ihal no

flutter flare-um: mm {nun-d. and than: ftp-DH! mdcdnim: whm Him-n Ingcthtr. Cunfidu' a Few {If that march rep-um ilflifll'f described hm in mher cantata. t n Ell-crflJfl'EJ-erg and Hand diacuvcred that l'lflp-r ingfcumfufling. alllrhlg. and mural manning in- thre: distinct PhEflfllIII-I tum thqr aim flu-11nd rm 5:: d fl m in myr uf than.“ While it 1n: M u m that mhjefl: 'Il'hfl thnught Ill-111E!!- wtn': prune-m remanded man: M y tn an apparent epileptic fit in the neat: mum. it aim nn'ned mu that “1113]: subject: mpunded m 111: tmflgemr wiih almnst IL'HIL'IIT [ht :l-EIIIE speed as did ftmilfl."" Children will]: a Mumd cumin-uncle in mm activity 'Ill'flf.‘ mun.- likcly thin mhtn m up: that skill tn Illifl.

when; buys and girl: Hm equally.r [limb 1::- ch: m." Finally. "I'arrnw and hfl' cullflgufl. aflfl' rcvitwing a number Inf Mill-Iii!!! Inf dildrcn'a Pf-fllfltill

hwlhutiunl. [mind that while girls have a WP" far bring mar:- Iltru+

ilIiE. and while {awarding m an: study} they Epics: mun! Hall-1| sympathy dun h-oyl. lhtfl‘! m m h:- nu sigtflfinam Enid-2r diE'L-rtncu in actual [ : t intfivcntiuns." This. indeed. il the giant ul' many undies tun— ducied wiIh bmh diiidren and adults. “1121': gender difiermce: ck: emerge, {in} are twink? uni. pinhl. and humid in qmlificaliunh"

The Individual mus Eh: Simutian Wuhaw:muidfledthtml:flan between [armada] hehafinrandspeciflc 13mm. both individual and sirmflnna]. Em then:- renuim [ht larfifl' qucltinn nf which mart DI Eltlfll' play: 1hr mm imp-mum ml: Gunilla-r the Enlist-ling tun nan-mm“: Indium diEcu-nm urinhlu m

hehwim

fur "Milly [in]: 'lll'll'illlflf in htlping

. .Anrhfldrunhnkdmhflpnrnmmh-chinatp-ecifitlituatiun.

fihamfifllin af LII:- immctlialt nhmflnu nu}- hav: a mare impurum Hunt: an what the hffllfldfl' dun Ihln Ilil mun-Err ur lift hillflr."

PEDEDCIAL PEACHES: FIEEDIETICIH AND PEDIIID'I'IDH E!

Mlhnufi [mm and m m n hut-hr :hlflu‘ EH1: [ahmfl 1hr plight ni' Hit:liml'l. II mm:- puinl m u but-gnu ta Ian-rd“: Ilium in : penunal HIT. . . . flhjwflw risk cundhium filth: 1101125: Illa-filming far rescuers than name-mm. . . . “11:1 dininguilhnd m m I'm-m. nth-Inn was their rtudintsn tr.- acl drapilr [unfit-ed risk].- - - . lit-stun did mu iimph' happen rm app-numbing fart-Hun; [liqu- animal? Emu-d. naught. ur mmgniu-d Ilium where anthers did nnL Thailpafiitipat'mn Ira: nut detcnnined In]: chmmmnru but [by] flwir awn m i l

qualitinl. _ . - ”I 1m] Idwictprtfigurcd brill m m m m m my nl' lift."

Than mndminm all like bunk-Emil m1 EHhEr aid: 91‘ a mntinuum {If though: an the inane. In light Inf all Lht aflillble ran-arch. neither

alum: verdict is as]: m juuifr. The situationalisu: quoted here are Litafl: and Daria-E: flair {Hutu m find pcrmnaljw traits um fumflIJ-n M prtdiflura of Financial hehafiflr muld ht dumbed chafitably :Is In: Ihan cflmuslive. The num- side i: I‘Elill'flfl'lltd by the {Hines-5.. whim: tunclusinn i: hut-d an the 51ml]! at unly um: Largfl bthafinr. and an

mmmdimw une at that: I'E'lflliflgjflfl [mm the Huh. [Hartman thEiI' dismissal at" at lmt an: (If the mvirunmtnul variables—being Hike-d Fur hclp—usatms phrmmun: even with rupttl lu thtir mm dlfl.Twn-fl1i.rdl uf rem: gal invulved 11111]? which tum-lam requested their ashram-E. whereas thrmquaner: nf MEIEIELIEI‘I were finer asked.” It may Wt“ he. a: {he Ulin-l'rl cunt-2nd. Il'lfll'. rum“ Hm all-mi hfi'fllflit their altruisiii: reputatium were BITE-ad]? Imuwn. bu: 1h: authur: seem tum randy ta

dismiu the punihlt rtlfllanct of an mvirflnmtfllfl] factor.) Tu as]: whether IhE individual a: ll'll' muimnmmt cmmu fur mm: in Ii-Jnlnl].r m invite mart qmtium 1'11 mplyr Are we talking :hnut trail; at

Hall: mama-2min arm: put-nun, ahnul gum-ail ffllul'fl {if the tnvimnmum nr than: Familiar In 11:: relalim'uhip being-1:11111: 311t and : 1 t If helpmg? An: m:- mring m furmulatt a general In: of pram-dill anim

nr [making Fur causal [anal-s in a given itulance at" helping? If mun marchers. at 1:351unu'l Wily,hi1“: bun mncm with

Wan-112nm! vafiahlm it has hm For a rue-awn. The particulars (If circumamncu 3:: always impflrtam in definmg the IIE'Ed In help and turning a mud pmmii] prnclivily intu actiurL But lh'u inn-I1 Inpsided fen-itch agenda afieclfl. l‘flfllfl'l' thin jufl rrflmh an EMEEIIIIEI'II III-f the

truth. Spend yum lim: :mmining unly silualinnal illfllltfltfl. and you will libel].r canclud: that they are impurtant—Ihlt in fun IImrill WW!

that all yuur wart his nm been a waste {if limc. lately. mart: pimple in lhc field haw: filmed lhth' mmtinn tn PEP

.IH

IEPDHDIHG TD DTl-IEEE

5:31:1i cit-term“ Ira-[helping hchavinr." This, 1m, mill-fl Hill-E, and

PETE"! Hart Inn lint mun: crtdibilitjr to thc idea urn: "flunk-tic pennmli110" Itdnummhethtcfltlhflvujryaungdfildrmflmupm-

nuunced dime-rental in matinnal armml and rupflnsivem-u In Iheir

mimmutnt. and than muld form the ham ul tnduring hidi'h'idufl diEEfEflEfl in pmuciai khan-inn" Haw Enduring the“: difl‘flmcn In:Illa.r are. however. is unclear. We- alrfidy Inmw [ha urinal hehmrinr:

dusiflcfl .15 pmmdal do not always mundane with Each mhcr. Even mun: damaging m 1h:- Hail lbw-rill: i: the dist-awry that Eflmlilifln! are all“:

law {or Ewen ll-lJflEIililEnfl in ID-ll'IE' studifl that Fullfl'llrtd a given individual Itl'flfil difl'crtnl; situations and retarded inamcu 111' just an: sun at" buhwiur."

Alla-Hill: Immmfadngdlefinthalmupmpieinflwm situafinn 111:? have difl'trc-nl mmi-vu fur htlping. and an: permit my hair: diEmm [unifies fur htlping in each a! turn uitualjuru. Ewan il'an almlijtir ptnuniliw at prmncial afimutiun £15113, this hardly mun-am

that autumn: m dIII‘ECIEI‘iIEd will rush In aid Ether people without milling Envimmnmla] Elana inn: accuum. IF 11-:t chi: lint—I1 Illa—lit rituitiunal nfiahlfl i: whEthEr helping is likely m bring reward: Eur

IEE'ipmcilfl will medial: Ihc BEEN-'5 11F d'mpusiliunal htlpfilhleu+ {111: prawn:- HF a run-ward nuke: imam: pen-pie man: like}? It: help and audit“ In: likely; an: "Hill- “: hint: Inmfihing about the perm and the situation. then. In make a Hedi-mam)" It has lung been part IJE' tht mum tiuml wisdom in penunaliw thmry [hill the nah-cm of the we: provided

by the environment largely detemfintl which Inf thflt tum Will he mfln: Lucful in predhing hthavinr: Wh'EI-I' t.‘ situatiunal rattan ace-m [:11 clear cull. flilpnsiliuna] rattan will became mm: W I . " flue ifllilfl'l't'flliiflfl W U : on this dehale Hill pmfided brjmeph Addmn. a critic ul' [ht situalimulisls. HE' rcamned that [hi1 pmitiun appeal: In mm: people by virtue Infill implicil refund-1111 at human. nril: if our unwillingnnu In help is Huihuuhlt In envirmuntntal muting"! Cit! lnumhtr nf Mame-r: present, nin- nl‘mmnunfitr. and an on}. than 'Eflcnl'lprmur'ulflmiinn pmmmhlmflcummmlqmliun uI'HI'u-thn menial: that can [Jul-alum bl:- ufled n11 nib-Hum perm;- is I mu: untrue-{cummwmr. Balm and his cullahuratun. sham-Ii that at [nut 30“: wwmflhy min mil m

II-rfinr inch an urlrntiliuu-n (id ml, in fan. prrdi-Et lu- maislic I'lrlpl'nfi—Ihill is. In I

“Hume-h- allmiuir miratkm.“ Eirwnhtrg. I'lflh'fl'fl. :mwndi than. ah: 31.11 dflm'hfll just

MIL-h a IliIF-nniliun ml III-I: biti- tin-11m lympmhrli: m m : film I'Irr 'Iuhj-rrll.“ M I'uII-rr cHIrulu'nn n-I'lllnn'l-Iir and Eluilti: mill-Ilium Eur Fund-I hfl’ll'rhr nn hr [nun-II

in chip-Inn 'J' In! E]

FEDSDEIAL PHAE'T'IEES: PIEDIETI'DH AND PflflHflTIflH 35

“Whamcdflfhcingdtfidmthmn beingm‘l‘ludmgerul'thh nut-:33. Adena-n impliu. i: that its casualties indlfllt nut and? inn-Emil: Hi! but intrinlir sand.“

Thehsuecmbeapprmdmdfiumadiflmdhwflnu.flmufih. Wt may wish In regard skeptical]? my! talk M an inhurn nature—guard er evil—irrespecliw [if nur pmitifln an that imp-Drum {If limitiunll

[as-tun. The Ellintrs. fur rump-1:. Hardy.r rtjm Ihlfl-E Etta-n. but they do um lin- m in the name {If innate gnudnun. Radian they tall-1 uf Halal:

dfllflflfr mail: that can bl: "and. In mniin pattern: nf child waving. Ete'pl'ng in mind that 1h:- ptmnmliwftmimnnwm dispute the: null simply-r unflapu inm the qam-ujun uf whflhfl' human name il- basically gland. 1:11:: turn nun la the mnibufiun a!” m : child-rming Il'flfl to pram-rial hthavinr.

RAISING WWW-If) CARE Fflfll'l idiltfliflt-E. flumturul'hmnn hringupchildrmuhumahum nthtr: might mm manna-film unmmplicated: explain m : dlild why helping is Incucr than hunk-15‘, b: fmuful 11mm in, dunmuu-u: [111:d hehafinr ind 5hr: Ill!1:t I. chance m expel-5m it far burnt“. Ill-d bl." a warm and cnqntillir: [Ia-mt: flu: child will gram up caring and aha-hug Ind hflping-

Rudy-u. hmcr, Hark mun.- dt'penchbir in that hitch-n than in the um. Even 1hr mull minus! finding requirc qualifiutinn. Hun mun doc-.1 a march-r dismm win: appear: [ID in: a reliable way In PI'BII'IIHII' pmluriai [ 1 9 t than mmenne that came-n along and dung-:1 the up:

ufurgct brhmriur. making the tE-tfla- vanish. Scrut'mhed dim-tr. finding:

an 5mm: uncE-flr and awn mummy. I: it til: mean-m: that in unsatisfanury? Wu the mph! Inn Ema-u? DID thll: “dill-1t: inlfllct in

mm: way nut yet underuuud? Par-l at" 1h: pm-hltm fur ran-archers in min:In:In” alum fiuur: and imlatc wrinkle: in the difliculw ul lindhg

twain cumbinatiuns Declining naturally—fly. parent-5 t Ir:- lam: m1 Financial vault-u but high an cmpalhy. cur whn IHEI'I: their pumm- with children but do: nm In: phi-find ptm‘uhmmt. Even Ihnugh i1 am

Tflhli'l'fl? easy In Efllfl'flEfil—E : It'll of dflmive Hunting pflncipltk— Haw Nut m [lain a EJIild—thim 1m. fail: In prmddc In Him airflg‘ln guru-stun: "The lifll and background: uf min? flidfll'idflll luv: bin-n maid and E M ” ! marred by “flaring. cunflicL and ”lift. wt than”

puma: emery: as camp-animal: and adipliwlr Inn-nine!“ Gnu.-

HE

IEEPQHDIHG 11} {111E115

again we an: mn'mded flu! human beings refill-t In i m a m :incl-31 identity. by acting a: p-I'rdicuhly a: flhjflu in m: mun-.11 HD-l'ltl. Em ch:- pawn“ main: 3 difl'nmc? Unqufltiunahly. Their gunfirIiuns and action: nu! unhr shape childrtn's Hails. but alm hdirfl'flf alftu their man-ad m "Ilium-:5: a1 a giwn mumml and firm [Id]: In dcltrmine the I'IEIE'IFIFIIEI.‘ uhiluuicmil Etta-r: inundated will] prim-Infill behav— inr In an: simul].r {hat speaks [Ifll Duly m [I]: fl‘IIF-EI'EJI: significance Inf early life tlpci‘itfltfl but alsm by aluminum m the: mmmvmr regarding individual Irma: enfirunnwnlal finan. vulunteen it a [Elephant mini: hutlhw whu mntinutd heiping flu-1' at lam 1i: mum-nth: were generally dhlhguishtd by "thildhund upcrknm Hf nununtnt partnu 'II'h-fll m fled altruism." Thai-I.- wiflmul surh childhnnd flpEIiEt mmtlimu readied this same lflel nf helping. but {ml}: if they were trained fur the

Hurt in a highly mam gmup. Exlrnul indurcnmms muld prunmtu pmmcia] hEIliI‘I-I'iflr. in mhtr wards, but periph- 'lI'i'tE' part-nu had instilltd an intrinsic mmmilmcm In it did nut rtquir: such hwducemenu.“

Th: m

uf Aggrcslifln

Baffin“ explmin mdmi] Ila-rapprmh tuthild rum-"H15 that tend: to prumult helping and Hiring+ In :15 brim-H]:r cumidfi what 311": [Ends In

dis-mung:- aggrcuinn.” Tu brain with, a. pal-cm Enusl ham: and minunicale i deeply felt dilipprmrll [If hurting ulhfl pauplt. It '15 um: muugh Inc-11:15.1 [an] that aggrflsinn in wrung: 111:“!must I]: an Minna] charge

in Um- pmhibhinn. II will In: municrprudufliw if a child urn-um lhah despite a verbal prnhihiiinn. [hr Farm! i: airmail]! midillurhed—ur. wane. Elf-HI amuied-hy his kicking 3 Flame. {Mali-n: haw I11: tacit HWIi-fll‘l 111:: m i n ] : is an hut-vitahl: pan at" human namrc. and fl'lmfure that acting In rem-3i“ a child would he pnindul. i: a panic“-

1:11-13.r pawl. selffifulfilling prupheqr her-:1 Sun-mud. flplainhig 1::- children jun why it i: that hurting pimple is: Ill'fliEl-il'flhll' prawn tn ht Ear mun.- efl'rctiw than reminding punitiveif. panirularly if 1hr: lattfl inmlves sen-ere.- phyflml ptmhhmmt. TIE-re is an infill-null: ruflecfim nf r u m ml this p-nim. Thu: paymalngin [Ham

Baunu‘ind has 51mm that autlmritathrc par-ruling (Ham and rap-unlinhut aha firm and dirt-aim ”tree-d5 bent: at dismuraging aggressivenu: :Ihan eithcr an lufllflrilal'iflll apprnath [cummlljng and martiw} an

111: on: hand nr a permissive: apprnach {minimum but In} an the lather. [Ihtwnrslnfbmh wnridi‘uufl'trcd hyflnpmm Hhu managutuh:

m

m HAETIGES: PREDIC'I'IUH AND PlflHC-FI'IDN I“

bath ptrmiuhtmd punifivt. pfl'hsipl lflliiflfl children do- u IJ'Ie-y plum mm: fifth: limit: but miunallf and unupcflcdly imploding with anguiml implying harsh unflinmJ Dinriplinarr Iflhlfiqm that rtrlr an pun! anmti-c-n a!“ puwer m hithdriwal nflmrm a: IJ‘IE influential dmlupmuual flamml Harlin Huifinm and other: have damnatrawi can Eli-til mn-

fnrmiry in [ht short run but will discourage gamut“:- intcrmlinlinn of mum. Fur much a child. bring “fiflfld” mmists of adhtring m an nitrnally imp-mad dummfl. jun .1: china: in tmaljtarian emu-in may can-

Ilinur In think subversive thuughu but will um upm: lhnm nut land. the child aftmlitafian Firm“ is mu truly committed In the idea thai hurting,r m l : is twang. HE is W [finally with nut filling caughl. If a parent nut urfly [Eli]! m reamn Him a 4:t abnut flu.- mmeqmfl ul'

Harare-55in“ but mu agrarian m tnfinrct hfl' pumt. the child learn: that might rural]? flat: make right. "[11: use uf mm: pawn- by IJ'H: pal-tut can law: to drive 11mm: the impartante uF Lhc- [flu-n“. the-n:- :huuld bu.- mung-h m tht child pay: altmlinn but nm 5:: much Ihal pfl-H'EI‘harm the lawn. Listing nut-thunk. Hf distant-aging aggruniun is null Lanlflmmml' In

mmhmg haw tn pmmnle pmmcial bthmriur. [1 ii any tn imagine a child whn ll-Eill'lt'r hurt: flfll' htlpl nun-J1. and. conversely. rflcardlm have [flund lint mm: childrtn [End In do bath- Tndny. {H atrium

student: ufdflelupmmtai pnwhnlagy Him-rt that aggrnsiun and pramcial behafinr an: simply flppml-ilt and: n! I: sing]: candnuum." In fan. It”!!! miner: hair: emphasized that a flintip~lirmryr ttdlniqm: untitled 1n

pruhibilinn {arr aggressiun at anything Ell-t1 tan lead a mild In human: preacrupinl with htr mm hthavinr. and this is nut pm'timlarly madmiv: m I Failure Inf I‘E'IFflnl-i'lr‘EflEI-l In ulhcfl' nerds-" WI: profited thatch” m that flagrant: queufim uf haw In Fl‘fil'flfl-tt prmadfl activity.

The Human: uf flaring Sum J i m andN W : Hun: bani: dun the Iflhniqufl [at talcum-aging partinflar belmric-r: in tin: pmticr ul' muting all disciplim: and imtruninn in a wann. ummunh and napalm: relalin-mhip with a

child. Th1- lhenrr hm in that mun-Ling : child': and: free: him fi'um hem:prmcmpied with than and all-tum him In ht ape-n tn udm' needl. Hc fflll nah-r. Its: dcfmiw. and bolder ahaut reaching an: In peuplt Iruund him—cm than! who are diE-Erenl [rum Hull-Eff.

Indeed, the research sugguu thai an infanl judged In he lam-ml? :11:d lflhtrpl'im parrnlgmwsupm he mm min dc -

BS

IESPDHDILHG TD OTI-IIEIIS

pmdcnteuand Ilia mun.- Iympathctic in mpnnding tn ulhn-r maple— lhin diml- ilmecmiy ituthei‘" Hm‘turam caulking male: :I flifl'flence aft-tr inflnq". ma. although hm sum-I:- nf Ihl': finding: haw: hem mixed. dtpmding in part an uh: firmin- nl' hunt parent and nlzlluitfl'I {hie cumnl cnnfldcnlly predict uuhsequtnt prnmcial indimtinlu jun by inn-wing haw much nunurante I child mind: it is an: dmmt of

successful pirtnling but not 1h: an]? {Ill-E. {111: film: my be said Ihflfll all of flu: appruadifl dtlflihfld in Ihi: Hui-an. fln-E can imagint finmfly

my “Elegy bring m'u- muvmppfied. pm'lmlaflf if it in singled nut and implcmmtcd in the album: if the nth-en.) If caring far : thild slidfl ilHi-D pummivm. fur mplt.1h: camequentcu may nu: be favorable. Bur. cl'tildren whale parent: are inn-rend in and suppartiv: nl tin-m tumult!”r

deifiinguhh thcmsehfl a: luckily camp-Hm! and htaithitr an a range at Hillier measures. Such parental uuppnrt, natal-ding In flflltl' maul-ch is. particularly hnpnnant during pcriudl at" crisis. Warm. caring. mpmhic partnls du urn-ml thing: a: BIKE. They lid-p

Ibrclflld tumumr: Il'uu flu: wufldi: Ihmmltnt. 13ft plant in which tn act. lit-Human flit thil dearly: "H. child ii then-fur: naturally inclined tn burner-um humans: hr: act-.1- that mulling appmathjng him is inclined In min him: and Erum this urban-11min“ h:- gmn thf.‘ habit IJI‘ a unfim:

{numb}: tn hil IpeciEI."'" {Snmeune whose Elpflfitfltt with mhfll leave: hrr fire-ling threaiened rather [hm at": it likely tn he hlfli'f limiting um fur herself a: the m e ul‘ htlp‘mg alumni} Caring pamnl: aha prmidc the child with mum mnfidtnce. In effm+ they mmhtmtly math-l hclpinfi and caring hchaviur, and 111:7 hum [ht mm {If Emu-es whammflfhcnlj mflmnuflrflflcfli flfivtmm

Inf “hm.

M u g a fl m It mymm Imam tubular! tinting. bu: parent: wim- Lhenuclm film htlphag. sharing. and tiring an: more

Hint-1'1.r In bring up childrtn with than value: than are parents whu an: ptrptluallr wan-id that ”mean: in: album In like advmulgc n1" lihL'llL whnare dEE'nlhtandlelF-cenmlcd. whnvirwfifeuimumm

in which the IIIIEflI-III'E' u-f lumen L1 hull: my pmpl: an: ha:- dcfiratcd Illhn' than haw willing an: i: tn help. Similirly. d1: EILEI'II m which [Humid willie: we implemented by

:thild turn: an thrumcufindusivenus with which thtparnfl Vii-EH! (and cmumgu thin.- thil'rd tn:- fiw] album: I: lift a calm-11Emu-n Us and Them. with mull pen-ph- :li-E'Ell'l a: 'I'hfin? fir In.- parent: “ID-TE likfll'f In

e

mmmhnpflmuilhmmtplnsi: an thrhlmmiir Malian.

PIDSDEIAL PRAG'I'ICES: PEEDIETIDH AND FIGHWDH 59 min: Earth a: :I-flfllEflllE In whum lbw, meant-Iva. are mun-End. t 1: man: lilac them {with rapt-:1 m [ht things that malttrl dun alien? If parents III-:1 than buumjm'im brtwtcn pmpi: similar and dissimilar m

themselvu. whm are thus: bnundafles plated? {Hm-I Imam.r pimple are left am {if the inner circle?! An:- thqr rigidly 5::c {flan a “1!:t af an excluded Emu]: be redauifitd. upun timer imp-[Eliflllr :5 sumac-n: simi-

lar m themselves?) Hun-w relevant are theme haundarifl 1c- Ihtir mull bdmviuri‘ {Will a pawn: [ed CHINE 1::- igrmn: [ht mist-r? at" summnt defined I! an: «of ThEIII—D-l' nan m bring aboul that miurfi'] Thu:

a‘ttitudfl 3|:q whether we meet anthers with our lunch : 1 t m' dmchcd in EMS. and haw w: an: indinfll m perceive Ihn-ae flll'ltl‘! minim: In nurse-Ives. an: cfidmt m uur children. It makes a dilFErcnn: whether

a child hear: his parent rcfer In other m l : :5 subjcn: or ubjcma. a: uniquv: human brings just like us at :5 instance: 11m m- funfliuns m' Ethnic daisificaijum. Ii film matter: whether puma-chi aniuit'f is pmmumd (ur punmrd by Fire-ma lhlt'lilfltl'h'fl] an the basis uf “If-imam: "MichacL if 1min dnn't than: yum- [up with limb, 1h: wan‘l let you play will: her niinusnw" hill an undmiahlt :ppfil far a para“. but it in a “may mare like-hr m inculcate Half-regarding shrew-fines; than ginning Efll'lt'ltm far amen, Part-nu n—nt mm].r nttcl u:- haw: humanist-h: film-u and a cummitmml In prmun'al hl'hfl‘lr'ifl'l‘l. per 5:“. they Elli] need In mmmunirale them quite [BEECH]! In children. Erwin Slauh pflinu [ml Ihat prmiljng 311ml! 1h: dEiiefliljr mi in given brhafiur in limb-I'll? In: cfi'c-nivu than being Explicit aha-Ill what is expected. The idea of "fnnlmllinf' ant-'5 thildren

is regarded by man: a: repugnant, hm direct guidance nerd nut entail catniim {If trickery. ChildJ'En in: gain; m be influenced by parent:

regardless uf whelhtr they haw.- delibemely set abut“. shaping their chilth'tn's valuu {fir whflher flu: parent: an: mu maid-nu: afflu- pmtu}. and Mani-r: at" what may: value: are, Hm laying anything when a child an: selfish}? sends :| message jusl as clearly as saying sumething,

and d1: mug:received by U": child ha: man:- m d:- with the mccpuhl ily' HF:Itlfiihnci: Ihin it dun-H with the virtues ut‘ nnnintmiw parenling. flhvinusly partnm must decide when EilEfl-EE is the best reapnmc,

jun 35 tr

mull strugglz Lu cummw-icilc diaappruva] at" selfish m :9

[Wish-rt hrhafim' Withuut pennitling the «child in infer that their law.- is in {hula—a balm-E far trickier tn strike in practice than in prim. ll due-n

mm 'Ihal netting nut lulu and catwalk-m bflflmfll far marl: :flctlivt whm accompanied by Explanatium; fill-Ed m the child's age and ability in

undrntand. jun .15 chile-n shnuld hr and: In understand why hitting

9D

EEEPDHDIHG TD DTHEIS

i: had‘. In they must hear why—nth: unhr he mid that—Mm; i: gun-cl. {"Wht-n mu shah:- 1mm [I‘i-Erfll' with Martin she gun It: haw.- fim, mm, and that nukes her happy") Hufl'lmn calli this inducfivr disdplint and may: that. :5 applied In

ptumcial hchavinr, E]. can like actmnugt Elf and build an a dfil-d‘s prefixp-milinn In tmpallhiz: with mhtn. Th:- paint in mm jun m- tn-ll but u:explain. nun-1jun I'D praise- hul tn spefifir which belmriur is apprtdiltd and why. [Snub Emphasize: the imp-Drum: firth-IE Inner, which I1: calla. "mp-

b-L-ddcd indunifln"—milching the explaniiiun In a child‘: awn prmncill

animals.) flhiidren :hnuld he encuumged tn WTE'HIE with man] questium and 1-:- lhinh fur WIFE! :bflut such mantra. but 315:: In mmparc thci: indinaliun: and Helium In uflm'.' Th: mare [ht child in ltd In tab: in active rule. made a Farmer in the develnpmenl 0f hue-r awn Prflfifltill unsihilitimt. the has: dangur Ihtn: is at” pram-king defiant nypmifiun a:

IrEI-Elifl-n tuhdtlrfiveylkhnm. afiflthalappemtubcgrmrwith “fl-l“

Di” the many in'll'flljgaliflnl of this style a!“ child rearing, hm stand mu. 011th flu:- Dlinm' study. whith {nun-:1 that 111: yarn-nu a!" childrcn whu latEr thus: [fl I'll-5m: Eunzlpllfln jaws during Warld War II had been

mun- ]ilwly u;- rmphuiz: mmning {rather 'Ihflll phyaical punishment at limp-i2 uhedienct} in bringing than up than had flu.- parents ufnunrflcuum. The inductive stylae. armrding H:- the mm. *‘cummunicatfl : messag: n-I‘mptfl far and [rm-l in childrtn that all-13w: than: to In] a 5mm: nfperinnal Efficacy and warmth Inward ulhm. . . . In mutual. punilhmm! imp-lit: thc need Ifl- rurb Hume intrinsic wildnfls 111' Hi] intent."'“ "[11: mud pim {If I‘fltll‘th mmpenivdy min-rd 1h: child+ I'm-ad: at" man: Ihnn a 111a undtrgmduatu during the 19511:. It turntd an: that than nudenu whn were invulved bath in :a-rial service nah-I'm {cannuuniw mlumm mark} and parlitical mam {prnleuing in bthalf [If a taunt: Hm mart likely In have been mined in humuthifi'lflrl‘iitd by a ratinna] ralhtr than pmilivt :ppmach m diicipfine.

Thtirpummcnmparedwiththuaenlmhn mammhadflpeufi '5: Iran mamdflflm W m : turhdpmrnlflmmmmrht 1|: Ira-t as imp-null“. a: II'H.‘ {mm-m. Unless II'II? thild in mwmged In: {IL-min“ and me her

Pram-nil: nlills. prmaciil initrurtl-un may no! [rm-dun- : pram-rial mum- Cami-dc: um: 1mm w-l'u} refilled being “laugh-t Il'ur my high-Hr filmy.I Ila-u m Inlp II'ID-I-E' in not-d" bu Inlrrwd lltu'l- Irunn in thr mnlnl nl'lhr iI'H-Fllflillbrl! uI'"-I:Il:lrylihgll:n1‘rlflpllr Ihr wish-l Ind tin-Inland: uE'IrJ'yI pain-m, Inch-fl. and Fritz-1|. and 'IIId Ell-I." adults. . . . WIHH 1hr!

slit! wuflwup light." "111-:- I‘ll-III! making burr-I:- i5 End-LIE Hum-5. the Mural-alum ul'fiuafllu'iu. '11:: rumplt ia tun-em. hm iI may serve a: a pun-rm reminderuf "hum

l'l'l-IIII I'm-m I pin-nus]. Emphasis on Elli-Elna: nhtdimJfl

PflflmL PHCHEEE: PREDICTION AHEI PEDHDTIDH El

mpunu'hll: Ind mum: behavim uf dwm. had nut permitted inn-Hivem5. Ind had EEI'IIEI'HH'}? fltflfll reap-turn] ul' tha- childrmJ“ Mafia; Twa- uther, Imam-r Itudifl all. mpectiwiy. min:Jim: and pnlilica] arfivinm painted to annlher feature 111' this suhjgcls‘ familial nf urigin: pal-mt: had pmvided liking mph! nf prnmn'al hehaviur.

Alums: all ai‘ thr: rescum immricwed by Pcrnr Landau and hi: mlRagnar. said may].r identified Elm-ugly with at [fill an: uf Ihtjr parental whn sent-d an : ”mu-dd flf mural mnduflfqm' In a r-Ep-nrt app-Erin; in fl'lll: rum-t amhulagy that tannin: Lamdun': ran-starch. David RWin db suited his interviews wiLh prop-l;- active: in the cafl-gr days ul‘ the civil

righla mnwmtnt. Hm. tum ”an: m- bnlh nf I11;- parent: nf 1hr: Fully Eummitttd"—Lhmc who mm: at Inn a fur writing in the Scrum I'm I'El'jil justice—"war: [human-:3 fully mmmiued [u an aluuisljc mus: during sum: EflEl'IdEd pact-ind nf the mapundenu‘ fnmliv: viral-53“" Th: pawn-r ul' nudeling in. HF mum. nut rtstfincd In pramcial hflmrinr—m Han. Ihr Ihal mailer, m rhildrtn. Waldljng haw a pnwtrful fir admin-d figurtIt“ is likely la prfldun‘! imitatinm partinflflrlr flhnugh nu: nutmrilr] if that figur: mm: tn hr rnwardcd fur dining in. This is haw vinlcncm Inn. is taught. But twang]: rucarch has bctn dune an the

:fl'tru ul— madtling hdping hthmriurs in parfimhr m malt-:- it tlnr that [ht lflhniqu-I': Harts quit-I! HEIIJ“ A child Him had watchei mn briefly. an autumn: dmultd tn charity in hlnuclfliktly la flaunt: man: than mun

nlhtr :hfldrtn mu if munth: hl'l'l‘.‘ clawed lint: the Hip-mm In thu[End-El.

Sam-a! nadir: haw: established Illa! shun-ring warts hflttr than [cli— ing: chiliclrtn arc mum:- Iflm-l'f tn dnnaI-I: whim model: EIhurl them not In give bul simulunmslr EL'I an clump]: [if gentrnsity than when mndels urge children In air: but clu- rml d1: 11:: flflmld'fl's. II. is impartial tn W i l t . hawfltr. that malt-ling in than stun-lie: i: being canwuied with gimp}: Eflmrtaliun filhfl Ih'an with explanaliun [If thu- value [if genial-um?!“ In fact, mudriing alum-1s this same failing: by infill". it Elli-fl nut pram}: :hildrm u: think ahnut the impnrtancr a!” pmmrial behav-

inr. ll dun-ta, hfl'I-Irflfl‘. prmidt infarmatiun—ur ufi‘cr a TEflIifldET—flbflul mm: runccming haw uthtr pcnplc should be mailed.

It is ill—El} useful In rtnwmhcr that this mm H! rut-arch make: I“: uf tunnln'iwd Htflifim far [citing the firms {If umdcling. Far mun: puwrrfinl m.I nannplfl that mm in liluilti-Dfll tit: dmue : child in actually liabll: m encuunter. as well a: examplen set by pen-pi:- whum I11:- child regard: as nunuring and warm. Sllldifl with pan-nu an: smut-what mart [unusua-

9'2

EWHG TD DTHEIE

sire than ant-timt hh-nratnry mndclhag mic-nu, then. The; ll'lfl'h' that parents. whn val“: Ella-Liam an: indcfll Hill-If In Him: d1fldrt‘n with limililr

values. and mi: ti’libl’f illustrmm the pawn-:- nf math-ling man.- than the approach In disciplim- until in [ht hum: [although the“ {Klan an: can In cuflflund}- Ewn Inn-hilt Ill-E]! :u': still UflltEI-[lf m: LI'lE'il' [EEL toddler: HE watching and being influenced by H“ rum-m m whirl: thtir pin-nu react

m mher per-plea distress. fllde-r children's hehavinr is afimcd by : pucm'a dtdséun tn ml]: sub-nut mural dam and pun-sum] uranium In them. A. pan-m whu regularly musician the W i w {If L'Ilhfl' pun-plan

{“Eny. I fi'lfl'fi that rashitr must haw had a putty hard Eh}? [I] EH. mad a: me like that. huh?"}. and an: in mum-ante with that penpmlivc. il

mntlflling the-5E hehfliflfl mmflntly Far a child. Ffflllfli'lflg a Pun-min! 54:1!q Snub has burn a lurking pump-mm: nl‘ pmfiding silualiun: in which children can EIPEI'iEflDE helping Ent-

hind: caring for pets. halting mu Far mung-tr sihiingm tutnr'mg nther thildrfll. and HI- nn.‘ ” Furthennnre. if:child hurls summnc Ell-t. ht fill

Ir.- cnmuragtd m wage-st ways at" making "palatial: and then carry lhfl'll nut. That an: learn: mare From germinal inmlwmml Him financial

ink!“ than [mm Either hearing flhflfll it nor waldlmg lflflltflllfi the is a mailer of coma scum. LEE! uhfinun bul nu lru imp-mum is fill! fun that upp-m‘tunilin tn Ir}? mu pmmrial Hint-.5 11m truly pmnmle laminar by dining but film Efltfllfl'flgt children [a think a! flmnatlvu as htlpt‘ui, tiring pmpit, TILL-r nnrtiun dmmmil: With flit idea at" embedded induflinn (explaining the“

Cflflrepu in the mnlfll ul' 1hr: dfild‘s awn atrium] and with my fifltifll‘l all-nut nfltring :gfl'uflc inctntirfl fur prnmciai behavinr. A {ilild shutdd

get the idea that she 52m: half ui‘ hurt damn la a playmate became ah: i: altruistic: Ihis set: "mu: mtinn :I self-fillfilling pmphtcy n f : :mrl [31'

man:- hcnign than man! Tm: mdundmu Gums: and Til-enduraDil... have nuttd that

chflth'cn HIE] mm: In helm: (Ml Il'rriar W W brim-rim flfltflfi ulna IJI' cflapmilirm in IIlHflI-EI'I'H haw.- intcrm] “mum-:1 than can: semi-alt: lad-mint ant-u muting: Ind withuut external prmmi. Br fliltl'flll. childrm III-Thu vir"'T|'Iil {It-H I'IIII Hum that Fflflflu shank! nuihutr: aIIJ-uia-ti: Inn-Him In 1 [had lmull-u uhriuusly has lIEl'Ed 1n a:- In- pin a mum. Apt" [ll-um mama-my hmhfl—filflh may hug-{f bur-rm: {hr l m [nr 1h: {Hid—this hhtanl rcpu-I‘Hil'lu-n Ell-tram? may rlh'mmfltIfl'

II: data. Ihr Him-nu- M I'm- e-gnhlir impulse; Th:- icln mlht m In In nun-m.- nhruiun. nu lulu t'hlr child in Ihrpmithnnl'hhhnqmfiinmnrmnflrmmhfl.

F i l m PRACTICES: FREDICTIUH m

PIGHOTIDH 93

mdrprmhlmmhnummpliulflufihnmmflmflyflmpmmflfllf mlywhen they he'lien- flternd pammprnmL'“

[I Elm lunch In mu. Elihu-ugh cl'tild dmlugmnlt medalist: fitnerallr 11:: um adds-es: the inure. Il'lfl'l dlildren 1|t View thrir prmmial mnduct a: 3df+inumtewcl will In mun-rill]? only when Hwy belim than!

will pmfil From it. W W W

Inahrgesmdrpubliflndh Indilmdhrgely

autumn: in the [Jailed Emma buy: raised in inslilull'i-nm were fumid In bi: man: gum-rum {u mmumd by damn-m ul‘marblu Manunknnun pun-Dr pun-r} Ihim arm buy: living with lhl'il' filflilil‘l. H m . that Iflflflfl' a mhjtrt': any in the inflilulimh LII: grater his gtnnmiely. Grmip Ewing, III: r-HHIfl'IE-r :pfluhtei may:I It“: "a: an in‘built m u m fur prumuling cum Far uthm." nfl‘tfing appanunit'iu tr: practitt and uh“ helping-"u This wuuld m 1a b: tunnislml with finding: by ulhfl'

inunljgnlnn 'Ihar. :hildrm rained in fllmdfid Emilia. an: mart Hid? ll: be gent-mus in expmimmtal game: dun din" raised in “nth-3r Eunihill-I

Butdwuppuflunitymlflmmdphfcmpenfivdrappmnmb: hmefi-rial Hm for than raised in Wntm-style huuuimlds. T11: relative

benefits at" map-gram: rather than cmnpctilhrt activity [In-r childrtu indud:- Inn?Ig;l'«:r+u:p.llliq.r lamina and achiwrmtm u wall as fllhmmntqi uf Ielf-eHH-IIIJ” Furdltnnme. H'Efl if camtiun. by virtue {If hiring III fictififl" in which nun m- mun: pcnplt wart 1:19:t [or mutual hciL

i: nut cumidtrtd :11mph a-f pram-rial bdmiur, it WWII!!! pmmntu and: hehwiur. In an: study. fifth gnders whu aludi-l-d grammar in

mpflfiflv: haunting grnup: m

mart lid? In give away prim mint:

In a string-tr mm mm than: wha studied cm thcir m i “ In mailman. H'fldErgnitnfili whu phved (mum: ganu: fur seven mnmh: damn-fl Ear mun.- inllipupa in their [fluids and siblings Ilhan Ihnu: whale rema-

tirun :nmhtcd nl' th: ILI'Ifl] mmpfljli'l't WEE-1'" Camidmhl: rum-ch has establish-d that mmfinn :lm m m childrtn': :flnili'tfp.I tn- {all the paint: n-I View nfnlhtr pcnpluL-J“

Empmtimn is In flltnlillljl humn'fling W

thu predil-

FIJI-t5 paniciqnnu In : brute-Jim: I'il'h' {If mhm. l1 all-nus Ih-fll‘l In mumd c-gnrtrnu-ic and uhjeflifiring puma. muragu [1‘1q semit'nrilrf. uptn mnununiacalinn. and. ultimately 11min] activity. {It is and, 11rd? unc'l fellow gmup lamb-tr: t an: an I11: rcteiving HHI ul' flail

Bi

RESPDHDIHG TD flTHEflS

gum-rum, MIL-hum; that EEEEH typically mnfiuJ But raking chil+ drum] in a tumpetiliw enfirflnnwm m: unruly.r deplivu them [If than: ad-

vantages. it is alar- lm-iliii'runlel1]:r dflumive. In fact. {III-E mul— PEI-earthen In: cnmludcd that "tmnpflitinn may strut m supprm stunt-rum? In nthern m i EITII-El' Hit-III than {mpmt'mn “we: m Ethan“: it."'“ While the-re are Infra”? hundred: af studies: ducument'mg 1h:- h-anm nun-f mmpujfinn. mull»l I [w hi'h-‘L': addrflfltd ill- cfl'ms an pmifl behavinr. Thu-c. hfl-‘HEV-EI'. afl pnim in [ht same direction. El'lile-n whu men: Inn-1d

they shq-d try In beat SI'JSI'I'IIEHI'III' clu- al a buwling Earn:- dun-named fen-ctr plint- [alum arm-mart! Ilium Illa-at whu tun-1:11] simplyr play widmul campaiing.'" A late: tlpei'imml replitaltd thH-I: rflulu Hm thuugh IJ'H: uppanmfiw m Elana": [hit firm: was Fran-med Ire-I'm the actual mmpetilinn. Th: implicatifln is that I11: men!EIPE-L'lflljflll nfamntcsl was mush

In undcnninc gen-:rmifinm Thu: mu: gm I'm adults: :uhjtcu mid they Wuuld he {map-Hing again.“ HEB-EDD: in a game mpanded “municrem-

pathicafl}r"—slmwing dish!» in mpunu: In the fl-lhfl'l plenum. 11.1: Elpfllllim of I [DEF-End" il'flfl'i-‘L'Iifll‘l. by mnh'illi. [mutated empathic

temp-amen an several physiological m m ! " 0 | t mural-ch has variud the children ratl'wr than I11: mvirnmntm in order In determin- Hhflher penal-Ia] cumpmilivenul is mandated

with In: willingnfis I!) help. In a ward. the answer is yes. flank-Haeiy. "high gent-mil? mm m in: part a! a paint-n which inmlm 1:15 immeim-Erptrmna] cumpflilinn." a: man! pair {If rental-then: annuludtd an 111: bash uh study with 1'.Iu.1's‘r:11.r Him-n] 1101's.“: It ha: 11m hem than that

buys Hhu wen: rated a: panicuhrly' cumprliljvE—Hnd. in yet inmher

study. buy: whnufilarhfl cmphuimd tampefitinn—turntd am In he hull ”milk: than the-sir perm”! Th: Ecru-mm mindstl mmtinncd earlier a: try-resenting Lb: Im't Hf

value- lhat in hfimical m hdping and caring is. in I-.-.-;1.liltg..-+ a prtdictahll: product I}! : mmpclitivt ndturt. Eump-ufilinn can b-tdtfined as mumflll].r claim-iv: gual attainment. which mean: that adieu Hind m prufil'. ill ant“: cum-11 tip-Hut. I: “and: In rat-Hun. thfl'l. dull; tip-trienn- in mmptlifi 1i“- mn'rummsnu tundra: lhil m an: muclu In . 3 l an sutmfl. {1131 their gains PEPPER!“ a pruhlL-m for annual!”. Under such an army mtnl. Fruit-tin] h-chwim' is. Ihnphr inatinnal, and lhcre i; mamn tn think ihill this [Eli-D11. Hm. WEI-ts m amt-r anvirunmtnw. Whlfl'fil tmnpe— tiljn-n manhunt: a am! {If artificial 5:311i in which E'IEI] person nan”.ul.l‘:lfl'[|.r cum-fl m- dnubl th: btnrfite-ncr: nf fl'lhtflw-iflfl :IL tl'n‘n:r rtgard him an Irinl,ma,andartafitrwhalhtlun—mnperuioncnmuragflam

PINE-L WIT-£5: PREDICTIDH drill} Pflflflfl'flflfl '95 fl-[flflltilji frum which pm'ninn an:m.plrdmlngiclll}! lpflk‘mg, aEurd

InvishmtEflandn-rmhelpthcm. Taking Elnldrm' Sermml'1r Impijcil in many of than: finding: than: the child-m; appmadln'

Il'lflll conducive In pram-rial helmfinr in a fmflmrntal attitud: Inward a thild. I am smirking, in aura. nf lilting 1h:- dtild strimuly. treafing her as a pen-an whiny: riding}! and prcfcrmcfl and quits-flan: mat-1H. I haw: hi

mind flit example set by pan-m: wim- Iah: tht time ta ask their lh'mf'fl'fll" ulcl whtthtr she want: u:- drink l'rmn hfl' ytlluh‘ nr htsr blur cup at lunch lucky. ur who l'E-Eflfll'lifl.‘ [11:1 her unluppincn in very real In her Hen if thfir urn attribute ill m the fact that IhiE' in. tun-thing nr tircd. whu da nut mnfllst their awn preftrencu and :Ifi'll-ihiliflfl with him, and whn are [untamed with haw a mumful [If yawn-up: appeal: [rum hr vantage paint and nut mml'fi" with Hhflhfl' they will find htr appmpriawly HE“ bthfltd. A. child's pft'ftr-Efl-tfl tantrum almys ht arcmnmndiltd. but lhqr can alum?! he cumidtred and tilt}- nerd newer be diamiued. The child in lfll'l'I-Eflflf: with a dininflive pain: at" View. a uniqur m uf finds. and htr awn wag.» at rtamning III-mid: is no: mmhr "tun-"J. Tm- Farm: who ham tab-n all thin In heart is nut m1]? warm and Empathi: bill in aha mun!

film-1y 1-: hi: the Fifth! whn tart: tun-ugh m 3 ' t the child my fmm aggrmiw hthaviur. whn pmfen explaining m |;1~m1‘u:hing;+ whu tflmllllfllirifle: and nuclei: prmncifl] 'Iu'fljllll'l. whn given. [11: thild a than-:1- 1n experi-

tnc: hmdias : caring lat-mu as well. flu: [my bit fmgivm [hr yawning flu: thin p m is an exception in nu: culture. The": in mm: empirical chidtncc that. Few pal-lent: bnlher

tn attribute htlpI-uhm: la childrm {in unit-r m pun-mutt : pram-chi HIE—inlay] ar autumnal]? rummagi- rlfiklrm's rap-amen nfcmpmhit Jinn-15.1“ Casual uhunraljun suggests an lawn glimmer picturc. with parental :fleclian tun frequenlly made mmingem an the child': III-thawing magnum—rand an :11: pan-M's manila. Children arr: ufim [milled as abject: of and fur the parent. and art expand tn dflidtdlf Immin-

and selfish mil-dell. While it is. my to mndrmn part-m: who do nm Pl'tl'r'idt chfldrm with III:Inn HF hum: but suited In the Hull-rating of:pmndal lensihiliur. HE

flinuld ids-t: be :1d m undmmnd the panible ream“: far this "an: 111' affairs. The parent may. fur example. he dhlmttd by hi: nr her awn

H

m

m

m

m

'Mmflngimmfimmmmnfliflfi Hardlirflflrimumalldiuflmhgtnmnfllffmmadfilqnutm uthm. but ah:- fia-r filling :hfldrcn tn- du so. Thule whu ham to W sham whemer a meager mnnfl'lly check L111 be lucid-rd In par fur hath Fund and heal; my m m Ftel stretched In the breaking paint: childctmtrtd. inducli'r: disciplirh: may Ht!“ 3. laughable luxury. (fin: study Fauntl that limple nhcdimce an the pin ufchfldrtn was panicuhflj' w

by [athm Wham: war]: wall ill-filth" luperviscd. and there is ulhu‘

uridtnct I'Jfll'. [ht populm'iw nl' purer-baled discipline tends to m u mu: Elfin dawn Ila: m u m : laddfl.]1“

Them :3!" cm. {hm arr: the pawn who definitely I'tfl'lh'l fi'um

unplnying uh: style nf raising children dflnihtd hm. 5am: are unduuhtcdlr Incl] muting. lilu: Ill: muthtr Him flit: tu- pmtwl hcr dlilud fiwum Empflhic martian: an the mun-d: that the child Ihmfld nut have

In htmhurdmflhjrlhtagmliflufnthuu. . . .Thcm'a Flam? fl-fliflll! lunar an Ear Lhfl" ”HF—u if adult tmpathy we unrtlattd m anc‘s child-

hflfld Elpfl'itncfl. Hum cummml an: FED-FIE will: have Iiil'l'fl'f ahmrrhed the Hint-.1 and norm: uf' M a n culture. which have man: In rim with W

“ lucrfll than will: harping and curing. “In urunund inur-

pcuuml mmpefitims. such an an adult-tic mute-n or a classmam em. EEC-Elli'lffi a m {If and mum ahnul d1: fun-dings {1E u m may,r pmvt Efllfl'llET'F-l'fldufljfl." writes Marl: flmnfillllrarld illllfld flf'lflkifll’ [hit :1 Hid-HE!” 131' that dutrucmcnm Ian-f rump-tritium we accept an faith thrneedfnrcumcuu andlrymdiatauragechiidrmfiumufing“flctsr liflhl'."" flailing children with CITE—Ind ta tire—i: in manna-Mir diificult

[India-taking under the but affirmtama. And uur satiety with in emphlm an mfiflw Wuafism, male: drcunulanm that art minimally trying. If then: 12-: II": urg: to help it it largtlr hit-mall? Emirand, and it mists man.- in agile of main] pressmu than in mnaequmce of them. “Pwplt have little m: Fur altruism in this writ-tr? Eadie‘I'armw ha: m u d . "E‘lflpt when it's imtitulimufizfil. a: lhmugh

dtafltifi and vulunlflr andfiiufi'lfl What 1h: middle-class child {pmficullrly the bar) harm—Em: from explicit innu-uctiun, then limply [rum

nhmatinn—ii {hill nthtr penple“: winery is m

{If hi: manta-11. that

"Eilllilu'h'. when. W m ” w i l l ! pain nul lllll "lhmiml I'I: nul I trlii hill: par-hi“ mutual film.- in I minim:maria?” it In: email ID trier this Ell-El 4:: "Miami: uh Frauen with alumina u} award In a Hunting inallncmm arm: emunliminquufiun.

PIMIAL PflhflTlflES: PREDIGTIQH AND PEDHflTIDH '9'? [ha-mi: nth-mu tummjmtmmchcilinpam that ha has In biz-E out far Hume-H:

TI'IE' paint. thcn. in that idmtflhblie reamm—psydmlaugini ecunnmic. and idmlugifll—lalhcr than shut pcrvmiw art-aunt fur the widuprfld failure to let ahuul raising prnmdil children In turn, the

film: In cam am the flfll't a! pmficfl {lamb-ed by mmmhers—ani in many 11%. auggflmd by ant-’5 awn intuitinauL-s a lung Hay Inn-r ward explaining flu- dinlancr we remain From the Bin-Ilium of which we mumble. Thtre are gape- :nd incmsinencies in the l'Ht-‘ill'd‘l. but there is sufficient mun-mus on man ni‘ [1“: points revitwcd hcrr: m aflmv us In J'E'lffl'fl-E pant-nu 11F Idf-ahlm'ptifln and twain-r if It! :11: In inclimfl.

4 The Self and the Other Jun-din “hurl"flk—fluuhm. uiflugmarpwm W 1' Hugh! I? mm jun? mm: 'm .5a 51: mm Mn} M film Hut. 351: .IIEIIHII'. gnu: 311' h:- .I'Ih' pain: nrfim 1m: ill-'E'HHH '1' Mr

Mining: you My Muluullm n fl Hi indium mafia? Eh- mhnfil fur: mm”; mud jun mhfl nm’jm’f imhiru' hr pum- m-Id' “Hm-E her, 3"" luau, u: 1' 1w: Himhng, 1' m- 'I' fit

dufllgMu m: m. Mammflan‘ym‘udunjlflhfikmfl Inhwrmcfymlfll'anflmdyJfl-flmdmh. Mr. mnjrfir fling: 111:! I Him, n-Elnfi War filling. I933]

dflfimghmpafljmgumd-pm, W M M H lfl'hflfllflflfilfifljflrflflfliflflrm mfj'jafllnwlfll ”drum-unfljflfiqhflfifliflfiufllfnmpufla} —H. 5.. Sullivan {1953]

THE {In-[ER H.5- SUBJECT

"Human hfhfl'l'ifll'" is a 'I'I'Iillt'fldh'lfl descliptinn ul‘ whit Plffl'hfl-i‘flflil“ study becamr we humans arc interesting by virtue ufuur Ihnughu. [nth inga, and umtivu—nni merely e min-m. This is particularly Evident in the prfltm mien: we du nut exhaust an lamina-Minn of that human

capacity [a map-and tn when by cumiduing unruly Elma-twin! bchavic-rs. The atliludu we Lulu: [mm]. and in: :11:- wmpany at] am frfluwa an: 31m cl" flhfiflu! NEW. The way: we uncle-mind and fer] mun-fitted u: when. [ht l‘fipfllfl in which uur view of nuflthu is changed by having tn {In with mhtfl—fl‘lflt III: 11m "bthlviurs" in the mull l-El'lil-E [If the

ward but ncilhfl can they bl.- igrmred.

THE-SELFAHDTHEHHIEI

'59

This: dupurmmidmthecapadtrminugintlhtnythcwnfld

huh fmm a ranting: pun-i111 nth-r than arm-‘5 um. herfifier rcfcrred In as p-trsp-Etl‘w: taking. and aim thc capacity In share in Ill-t fitniirt lift Inf EDD-diff, 111mm an empmhy. My inlcm is tn undtrtaic I dun: inspection at" hath {II the“ p-mttnm., rflicwing tht war they wart. their “213+ tin-n tn tad: mhflJndlhtcm-fltnunifnufinmafflifingmm in than. A: such. it ilnecenurr ta syndicate. and pcrtnp: tn “1* m advantt,

[ht Hut-1M: numb-tr nf difl‘mnl uhnhrs. Fallnwing [ht {mm-warts HI nut by Piaget and Hal-album, Eflgflil'j'l't dfltlflpmmlfllilll Inch :5 Jul“:

Havel] and Rah-art Selma" hair: mmidertd the rin'lsimdfl uf pEflPtE+ I'm.- taking in mm:- dflail. Empathy. mwhilt, hi! httn [ht tun-nun] confirm all—Harlin Huffman and :IHEI'i] nthtr Initial and dmlupmmta] parchui-ngints. a: well as {If pioneering plwhmhmphu Inch 3: Hein: Kuhn: and Carl 11:13:”. The- idtza {1f human rtlafimuhip has bun adth'tued by a range [If philumphnl. Inf whnm Marlin Bubtr is lJ-rulzulmalfll};I L1H: must praminent. while any number uf Initial ninth“ have tic-scribed

Eh: dynamirs all" dchumaniminn, a mini: Ihal may I}: undtntmd in part II the failurt tn like umm' pcnpflfives m- m l'E'l-pflll-d empalhimlljr. Many researchers have Imdaenahen mph-ital. investigations at then- and whit-cl [rs-pin. but than: has bun—a: is an after: the: Lat—um link: in III-I: way [If inlegntiun Inf flu- variuu: strand: uf [hung-ht. A and]: as!" children': empathic rem-name: m- thcir plamlfl is uuflm ind m in i phiinsaphiml disc-Jun: m1 thr: naturr: al' Il'lt' "inuwhmnan"; tam. haw-

nrrr. in nfpmemjaflf greater significance whtnjultapmtd with that n-flur.

and Winn hath are u n d t in a braid-:1 mutt-m. Th:- final—Hhith is m any. man natured—augfl demibed in datwlnpmenul Infidel: uf perspective [fling and Empathy [such 3:. Ethan‘: and Huffman}. respectively} can had]: us tn mnceplualht the: man Inpl'liuicalcd may: hr: mm m slur: in mun-mm": flpcl'itntr. likewise. BuhEr'l dun'iptiun InfIll I-Thnu reiitiunship. and the manna DI intfldeptndtnce afiered by fiaml Gilligan and fiber student; a!" fl'lf.‘ Fifthnlv um ni' rtiattdma, help paint the way H:- In undmundhlg nl‘ 1hr: fullest HIP-DRE! tn nlhen Hf whit}: humans an- capable.

The strategy that 111“: fuumi "H'flll for m m ;:11 flflhflt hilt: turn: an a twulbld nuitudr: mum-:1 the mhcr. flu the on: hand. we Ipprcciitt. in il 'Ili'ET-E. 1hr umber": u-thernen: an the L'l-ll'lfl' hand. in: appre-

[ialr Iht hflfllflflfll‘ll that w: have in column. ln its-Elf. this dual Emphaiil an diflmnct and similarity is hardly nail-EL but tuu few them-bu nf relatiumhip ur mpath'f hair: unphnhtd Eh: impunm uF bath and the

1W

EESPDHEIIHG TD m

5

“Minn htt'fl'flfl them. Tu dim" exclusively on the fin: ii In rill: Imlencing {ranch nf us In life- behind a harder that is. unique but upaqm; to ace uni-g lhl: smund is m drug it": particular: Illa: tin-fin:- tath purl-sun's pillar: in thr: world and explain why. far mmplt. an tnmunter with anntlwr p m nfl‘m whim; that {in ntvtr he equaled by sulitarr refleniun.

Due whn npprctiatea bath 1]]: dilfl-Efllifll’fl- ninth-mm: and tun-1mm humannm is this: In apprthtnd a giwn individual's suhjtctiwily—um merelj' avoiding uhjcnificat'mn but aflirnnlivdv inverting. reclaiming.

addrusing Lin: uLhL-r‘a status a: a auhjcfl. A 511t is an acmr. a tamer. a renler nfnpefimte. and wtdl: any mu htdividuah Ihfll‘f: than: Futurist.

each is aim in W : suhjm. Efisienfiaiisl thinkers ran-Ind against that intaflcctml syltcma and rfll‘wurld practicta that Curls-pin! m crush mdeny the individual': subjectivity by redulch'lg him In a plan If a m i I Hie-mm: damm. a pale appmrimat'mn 11F sum: Inlmrmdem milky. Th:- p-c-im but is In cutcnd this explumliun and :1:m of auhjctfiviiy in antler In like lE-Eflul'll Ill-l] {If the Elfin": mm: a: suhjtfl. 'l'flu in: nu!

jun an nhjtn in my warld but the center ah distinct and dislinni-ve Hurld finally. aflrcu my him nf uf yum awn. This fan :11” unduuanding t, myself—nut unh' in the tunnel: Hm: Ihfll I am tnnlfurmed by turning m hnnw fan. but in thin the way In": cum-rive the Egg-await. 1h: rtatm nf ,nelilrclatcdncu. i: afl‘mrd by l'hl! wry him all" mhliumhip. 111:1:- i-dml will b: lflil'ltd embclliuhrd. and with Ema.r lurk. chri-

lied m dwdi-scuuifln that fallow. I am Chit'fl'f mmcmed with the altitude taint-cl tin: ulher. and the explnraflurl 01‘ 111i; lap-it u diwdmzl inm Iw-u 9311!: a tut-simian nf apprttialing tribune-u and awn-clam; Ihartd humannesn. tramway. Th: first ul' mm inmlm : Inuit at perspective taking and mpathy. including mm: Ihuughu an the implicatiunn at" punuing each uf than hilhuul. tin: amt-r. Th: mt chap-{EI- pru-ctt-ds tn

ilupecl the Whimlfll‘f idaa: share-d humanntss. Thii indudfl m mflcniuu-n an ILhII.‘ phmnmcnnn n-f nhjtflificfllifln. with special referent: In :- warld view lhll dilliflg‘flil-hfl shit-ply httwttn an iJ'l-E'l'flflp- Ind an nut-gmup. us and them. Tint. duper mntludfl with : Inc-l. at nne‘a attitude Inward ants-elf, arguing that this self in hen understand a: a Illhjefl that can he Impufifil‘y objfltified‘. and flu! in an Entity diititlct

fi'ilillnt but cmmefled m. Ill-I: nth-m

THE SELF AND "II-IE DTHER W

Pflnpfifin- taking. m

“11

W DH Palm-Em

m tailed ml: wing." has burn dumbed by

Ruben Sdman an “a farm 13F satin] :ngniljun intermadifllt helm Jungiml mid mural thin-ugh." hldl'td. the pm-tu: at" imagining LII: my am

lather indmdual thinks shunt. fuels in I'EEPDI'II-E m. nr lint-.rall.'|1..I 5m flu: Htfl'ld i: a remarkable [Julianna-Emu, rclalttl In the dumajm [If bulb inlet-

Iigence and tfllifl, bu: whnlly auntd by neiihcr. AI GEflTF Hcrhcfi Mead saw it mare dun half a mturr argu. "This pulling at unt’: HIE in the Flaunt: {If nib-21's.. Ibis taint; by nne': well" if their rule: m- attitudu.

in no: Ian-newly.r an: Inf tin- uariam lip-Hill nr tlpl‘fllliifinl al' inidligmct ur afimclligem behavinr. but is 1hr: my taunt:- flfiti thinner.“ 1'. “Haiti Iml Inf cagm'livc develupnmnl in a prerequisite {at being ah}: tn- imagin-

tively Lab: in the warld Frmn m u : the”: pfllptctivc, and thin skill.

in turn. has been firm-m m pram-at: l+r_-:m'1ing.ll Slfll, mm: in inmlvtd than cognifivt flexibility. {In-alive prnhlun

I-flhl'illfi ficqutntly rcquh'fl an: t:- quuti-un flmmptinm. rmnn cmmtth

factuaflf, and mus-idEr ism from a [rush paint ut‘ vim-v. Em prim!!! Liking add: It": Further rcqulrtmmt that am: inns-me a paint of view anther than une‘l m. This bring: an: nuuidt uf cum-'1 It" nthtr thin jun! [Intuit]: 11F lane's usual my [bf thinh'ng. Untirr sum: circumstances.

duh; H: mm: In rcquirt nut uni}: inttfligcnce but a certain due-Em: nl' mental health: {HIE mull fat] sufficiently unthmttncd and fi‘fl‘. puritalugifillly speaking, [a relax a vigilant Hal-Eh an: {and attachment [1]} the

“If and In rial: adapting mutant: clu's paupccrjrc. Tn du It: may alm require a certain fl-l'l'lEl'fl-lil? Inf Ipiril. a: hut under cal-lain circumstancfl. just a: it any :nntrihul: [a mural rut-awning and bchafiur. In Enchant I willargut lam-r.1h:mutt-pt nfpcrnp-tcliv: takingIn:

inn-ind:mural rnunanm.11t named l-IJ magi-n thil the maul paint

ain't-w i: haunt! up with th: pram“ ul' pet-ring inm [ht immlinm ballind PEDPIE'I animal, and that pmpttlivt taking is an imp-nrtant mum: nl"

infurnmian album than intentians. ptrmiuing nut to:mmparc flflf'l mun motives with than a!" nth-EH. likewise. if it is good In cmuidtr M ‘ necdn, then imagining haw uthm thin}. and Feel cunnlilulea a very Efli-L'ient

Hay fll' unfitnunding than nerds. Kahlil-erg argued that “ *rulie—lalling [tndcnciu' and flu: 'l-tmt nfjualim‘ an: hum-W” and arr.- pin fifth:

when r m Hm LIL-ad mat-nut ma- h5nmhrhd inmind financial a

m

l [Hm a!” urging m Int-in! ruin. Sinn- the-n. mil: “lit: and W

:

liking Int-.- hell-n man-d mun.- m- In: hum-nu; minim-l5- hr dnflnpmmul ply-

rehab-[inn

I'flfl‘

“SPENDING TD [III-IE3

timbre-hr that indudfl wmpatlwand1h: mulutinnul' cunflin.‘ Thur-ail

‘alm evident! aha: t'lw inrlinitinn In imp-Ernie with when hum m i n i

and is pmmuted by flu.- ability to lat: [ht ptnpenivfl a!"umtn} Hum writ-tn cm “dill: tnpi'rt him.- tillied ihflut lihl'fl writ-Lin Hf pur-

EP'E'f'li'i'E rating: spatial ur PETEEPI'IJEL Efl-fi'flilj'l't'. and flfiflfivedusl a: midi difih'tnl kind: uf bchaviur :nflttlcd undtr flit “modal“ heading. that ability In £113,113: in an: {If then: vermin“: 11F Ferny-uni” taking dues null “fit-sari}; imply thin um: can engage in flwmhers: they are mncepluafly hut ncrt always tmpt'ritafly rchmd.‘ Piigtl spent cumidfl'nhle til-m! thumbing a :hilfl‘: uquinitiun Inf I11!

ability In imagine haw a visual space lmlu Emm summne Hie-'5 paint ui' vim. l1 may bu: [hm Ihia mnu lil-E'ri] sun nl‘ penpcttivn tilting is a prerequilitt fur the dfldflplntnl 11F Iht capacity tr.- imagiII-E haw smut-an: the thinks and lee-ii} In Ihis chapter. h m . my inttrfll is primarily with what ilmL-an: tn capture lhemy miller perm]: might apprailzh an idfl and I'm-hr ht mighl ”mp-and tnmflunilly. Imagining :nmIH-r‘s affair ii nu! the lame th'mg as mflyfiefiq

anuflm'a air-HI- When I rrfier In Empathy, I haw: the lam!" in mind {Ihhmlfl‘h in: may intludl: sum:- ui‘ II'H.‘ funnel" u will}. 5am Lu: the term in a much hruacler serum which I helifi'e ha: the Effect Inf blurring this diuinrtifln E113: wfluld dc:- htlttr In {all-:1“ jflhn Flaw"? Example when In: mfm tn 'nmflmpathir inference' and DIM-ENE! that‘ “[11: child the: understands frmn strung {ariaLEIpmninrn me: than the stranger in tht picturt i5 happy i: scldnm fl'll'fltflmt with Jay hmflf In {must-quaint Why an earth nhnuid ah: Inuit?"l lfldfld. [hue twn dilfirmt process-fl art um alt-my: mrrclaltd fur children at far adults: flflmEfl-flfl win: an car;

may idtmifir mlhfl‘s jay is um I'IIt-Eflfll'flj' ahlt m fut] it.“ Uiing a wry

difi'flcnt hflfllflflh Bauha- indiflttd hi! unlitiviqr In I limilll' dininfliun: {Bfl 'inflghhg“ the ml I mean the capacity In bald Hm Mia‘s mu} 3 I'l'i‘it'f arising in lhill W t but nut able m be directly apt-firmed. . . . I imlgint 1n Wan-H- whal mmhcr man i.-r at this wry mun-m H‘iI-hfi'lfl'. iii-Hing. [Irma-Ewing. thinking. and not 11 a dentin-d cunt-2m hm in his. wry rulixy. Lhal 'u, as. a living

pram-n in l-hil man. Th: full "mahng pram!" 5mm dull in an: dtcisiw way: mthin;uflhl: chamcttr graft-mil. imagined isjnhmi tu- [hum ul'imigining-“

T11: r-rlalirun httwctn ‘fimagiuing the “Ell" and “waking pram." which ii: In my Mum pcrsp-Hti w: Ialnirlfi,r {inrluding 1h: afl'miw: vafiflfl and empathy will he adds-used htlfl'fl'. Fun-r the [in]: being. I will I'm an haw ptriptniw: tilting dfltinpl and what in a m implifl.

m s m m m m

Ill!-

Widmutafltmpfing Indefiiem Elle-4m Phgflianmudel. Fhvell and hi: tuflciguu Hamlin! five taupe-mm: nl' pulp-rah: liking. DIM: must be able In dun thru- Ihingl: Em. martini”: that paint: ul'vifiu ulhu‘ than urn-E's m can mist: muni Hallie thal it am hi: usefiul far an: m um- anmhcr [H m hit-mutt: sham smut-ant ch63 paint affirm: third. actually nub: than: infer-mun; I ' m . cuntium :ummuning 1h:

flfllflli paint Elf View In dulltngl: unt': awn: and finally. apply ii In- WI!

nun hut-ham. This M I is relevant bath m a child's developmm and tnwlut mumgmlthrnughduringlnygjwnmcuumfluilhmu m

i



Edwin. meanwhilemudflelnpcd Imam- EIPHEillllfl'l! them. Hm

:nunu'ng that initial. gen-centric posture in which an: rtrnaim ludcd imu am‘: mm pain: arm. I'Il' prupmfl fuur dislinn hull. [I] Same-linuhflwaeflilhtagflflffin'afldninfl.adlildrtifimllnllhtmhcrhala hm 111: still u m lulljtniw [wrap-rum: that may hit unlit: her m that {HIIT' an: paint nl' vicar is thr- righl out. [21 A: at mm ID lla'tlflr. Ihthuammtrflmjvflflcprnpflliuemidrcaflauflmlnutmfly ill-h: Hit-wing I11: ulhcr. but I11: nthrr it Hit-Hing hut-r. {5] A]: as: 1:11 In Efim

the {an imp back 1-:- grasp : "third-puma" W u :m1 this rfiipmral 'III'iE'HI'iIIE in [ll'dfl' In cunrdinale III-E tum paint: of vigil. And H} [rum

mhmm an. Ihtnn nut-p badmn futL-rm m a m 1m. in Hindi term. : “gt-ntralizcd mtg-r”) [remix-flint! flu: hmurpnmn all pmnihl: mid-Fem ptrIp-Efliiru.“

Piagfl htli-fl'td mu Hm putt-1y Ipltill ptrrpuL-ctimt taking it mneIhing than an child. huwmr bright. can manage until about age sewn. flamidtmhlr Evident: has. mumdatcd sinu- lhcn. haw-cm, that chi-

drtn Hutu] war: mung-tr can rant-til}- identifi‘ the drought: and feeling: [limit-Ian. and. in]!!! task med fnl' M I M I is an! Inn camping-I,

Mpgnptuiwmfingunbrdilmvfitdhchfldrmumguum at that.”

utmhathupamnmnmhflemmflfilfilrflfinnflwpmmmiu idea BF Egutmn'icity, which predate. HIE apathy fur ptrspttlivc liking This Hard ha: burn nrinuniy delimd u "tht muffin-an afflu- ulfwhh

1h: nut—5t]l'."” ”unh-tddcdmu in mm] awn paint ul‘ flew?” and ":1lrihuling In when [fll‘lE'l] awn Lnuwlcdgt, viewpninl. F m , and m an."" 111:- eguctntrit child mually unfit-Hm: thit hr: and the miner are

diuinn cumin-s but {inn-m gran-p [hill nth has a u p “ : paint {If vim} Emmy! for [Hummus almul minimal-Ia that describe [firm a: PEGPI: ' ' ihlllfllflflfiflifllhfllnfllhflpflmhfllmmflrhdfltifl m u : flkmmwlmuulhflflul’apdndrhmm.m

I'I‘H

EEPDHDIHG TD DTHEIS

unable In mag:limp-cube taking. Wall-Ianufcgmmu'icii}! nut uni}! til-nu plan in flu.- mntm at" dfltlupuwmfl pay-dining. but wafer:

In very mung damn-n. fit in cmmnun parlance we all adults egucenut ur mf-ccnttrtd nr “all “upped up in thenuduu.“ and I htliflt in: daIn with Milan. Where this rhmnariltil: mum-s I'm-m is mmlrar: Inch inEH‘l'idu-fls may have some sun ufendugenuu: Writ! ithuugh I haw: m nu data to luppun Ibis}, ur they may ham: had [an Htflt prank-I: in Wantingurflly mymnhnthflnpuniti‘rch Inchliztdtuhe

est-rennin“ Ifind it helpful It: imagine flan-e #flsinmnftgncenuitity that nflm

Mcrhp in put-tin: it can tin-iv: Hum cup-iii“- inability. Iii-um Emu-diam! med. nr Pram limp-1e neg-Ian. In the fir“. and men. type—rue m y

adulm that E's—mu: limpljr mum imagine I113! Ether! have pain” fifvitfl‘ Imlilu- flflE'lm .M II 1m:manna:mil": un- afurimu cue-i to figure mfl what [ha-IE pain“ {If View are. In the wand type. one enmuntm a perm“ who1::m w In It“: thl: lac-1f behind cut-n Itmp-nrlrihr: hm: hmwwhunganmwhrtminedunflltuuuidewnflfl hulnnJ'fin urder In mmirdfi' haw each new develnpmmt will aflht him Superfia daily. flu: in he may amend u:- m ,but. Ihr: paint flfl'tfflfll-E-I': is. :1“?! himEL-IETI'I'I: dammit-II aim in minty. Th1! D‘I'hEI‘I may lu-uk at the “rid 1|:li.'II-'i-'crurnll'5'r is, like In run-:13.r all-Er phmumm, waived principally ll I

putmtial thrtaL Such an imfifidual ding: fur m-zttinn ID a lined pHlpenivr. lhlrfl' may bur.- mgniliw fluibiliw. but Ill-EH: i1 inmflidmt mun

limul flEtihifitr In III-mu an: In- take an imagimlive [cap intu :nnther'l Hurld. Harm Harm-1r tEcctiHc-ly diating'uishcd the-.5: 1w wn'mm ml":31} mflidly.nuflngflfl1itiammflylh¢nmfllidfldwhnhegmntflt hauflithnnutrfldfldnptdlfieflngufrlhmnmm.[nimplcrdnfl mlkmuthatmhflshaveflwh'nfldmand Iimitatinrm.lnu—Iuthfl flh'l'l'lflfllflll rut-Mileagnrm: luring flu.- mum-y m bur: lug-.111: nun-unlit? win-icky

iihfllmmmfirdytfiflumlandmudimmmmgfiiflfldhutflchmmmd with hillflfllfhflhflthfiillh‘hmbyhilpqchiLMIufllbfhil mnflitmmd

mmpelled Waller!!!) lilpetuliariulufiml.“

Firm]!!! uncmaybttguctnn'ic—uralleaflfafl Incumidcr nLhfl-s‘ pernpenhfi—nut nl' Iimplt' neglm. We may be lamp-ltd Lu put this dawn

mmhiwmmmufim flm hulhmin'ftfllliflilhlr Mahayana-t.-

W i n n - h u m

allumifllyhmfllthtqm."



w a l l a - H m :

Tl-IESEIIAHDTIED'ITEEE

WE

mum: HEM-I 1-1-1! funded. Eillflriunal :lnmnd: may. I’m‘ example. dhtmfl one [rum midi-ring hmv {1:11:11 am: likcly' ta mtg-3rd une': It'Iimu or Hard-s.

Surntflling wry like :gnrmtficirf in Width men is figuring in“: imam psyrhusadal dysflmrtinn, Psych-mic: may haw: “dtlusium nf nim ' which i: in my 1.t may hdi-Hu that unrehtud Hm“, sunh as run-mark: heard an tEI-Efisinn. art-actually addressed tn- them. Same pimple an:- nm speaking figurativfly if 111:1: anneal. that thc mun-an Fallow: thcm

whcn they wall: at night. And, a: flirt-ad? mriunnd. the Iailur: ta uh! fllhm+ penpectivn has lawn identified a: a prime indiuliun Inf. Hr Hm mun: nl'. satin-palm: htltavinr.“ What paniculariy immu me in the relation hll'l'llEEI'l. the m a i n

it? that stems H:- dtfinc 11mph: "hi: can": assault Ether! and that which in FWI in hr mart- mmmfin. and Its: hnn'ifi'ing, behaviors. The cmtm] jun-h! {If Alla Gulhrit': “Mick's flfluumnl" was that the Ann-gr hid NIH-

iratiuns abnui draffing him In El] flatmates:- villagers an the wand: [hat ht unn- had httn untitled I‘M lint-ring. 111 the- p-Eruplt whn dmp tandj' wmpperl wherever Ihqr happen In he. at “I“: black traffic by duubh: parking. rip page: am a! lihrin' haul-:5. and an an. seem m h: Inch-d inm- Ihtmmhrt-L unable or u.-r.|.1.u.rillir|xg,r In {maidtr lhmlt wh-n win haw m but at fluir garbage. maneuver their car: arumml them. or

dimnvcr a chimtr mining. It mm: intriguing m play with 1hr: pussih-ilitr Ihat what. had: m m m 1055 33:11am: an uh: aid-mall. might but: cannrplulfly rtlltt-d In 'Il'hfll Iflnw: an: In line : wrapnn :l : all-Inger.

This, {If taunt. in nm In up: that I11 tmpl'f puma chip bag will land us In a killer. Casual Em’ltuneu and Ill: willingms Ln Lake a lift an mainland II‘E separated by a gull" m1: can birth! at: ms? in my nmhing nf III-E fun than vinlenn- ha: multiplr mum. Eu: 1-:- rL-flect an the prank: DE any. leaning on DI'IE'I- car burn at midnight la summon a [11't

{rum his hum: in In mali Haiti's pithy arc-1mm at— war as I “maria-tram: failuml: uf imagination.” Reduce the “31?. dale“- the “Hummus.” and fun have III-E [alt-night hunk-er. While 1 {In nut. prflcnd In regard this fill-aw [ram :1 diainicrflttd dilliflt-E fltflll In!" ill] when 11:- is right fiflliidfi

my: wifidnw}. “tithfl' du I Will]: u:- write him n-fl' with rE'pmvin-g labels like "Lhmlghtlus" and "earth-55‘" 111:5: wards may fit. but they uptn a

dilflillli'flll rather thin Ending ant- Thus-1r limit: fiH‘Ihe-r inquiry intu the namnr «if the thang'ht and care—in ihfl'l‘t. the hugimtiun—tlut h: in mining.

In inalhfl 1F; and ptrhap: in tux-1W small tun-Hm. lhiil ahmmhawhmmflm.mmherm.myfimphhawgm

lllfi

IEEPDHDING W W

M a i l i nw m m m d hm m a v m r hfl h w h m ah: m

lulu munch I'll! is mum-.- In than and thru- will II: I

Flint tn- pay far mlisntial bin-ham”. 5mm umhln- m- anning: in peri spa-mire tailing might therefore T-Efi'flifl hum Inch barium“ fur fear of anti-.31 Iantliam. HI that thin imhilirlr Hem-1d nut bi:- dctcctcd. But a: I hidinled in the [all diaper“: dilmsiun Inf “thin may-[Him and ill

efl'rnsunpmmcialarfifidunmh-Efievemal such sanctiumadequaltly Elpllil'l Ih: big dur msm small mun difimmc. Whflt mhm are Pemmflf known In fine. then: in Illa a greater likcfihnud nf filing III-nut them and antitipating fl'ltil‘ martian: m une'fi arm belt-vim. In : mndrm. 'ltl‘hl'll satiety. [mutt-Her. neither of [hm i: prutnt: an: i: dim ttfltd mail by IflIiEiPiEi-fll‘l {If unfavm'ahlt m m : m- by permnal t u m fur than: whu in: :fi'tctcd. Thus an: mun be skilled at taking M'pflspecfimmdhflhfllndammhmquimdfmmtn fluid: In an ulpumilflf.

EfilYflNE EDLIEDHE. AND THU: WEE SEPAIATE PDIHTE flF VIEW [tilfllllflflflfi' lupirleflleidflflfp-Hipeflivt ulingmllwhuil fill-111E

nature {If the Cllhfl'll- tip-Him:- {pmepnuL cognitive. iEEEtiH-E}. Em it is: equally impuntnt m camidu what it: man by Him 'I'hwdnu and reward!!!“ lfllflfl'lifllfl blur whai are actually filndammufl? L‘EITEI'EI'II

dircctinn: that : pcnun tan tab:- in mailing Humid: of his flWI'I perspective. I suggut 11mm can uh: the pain: al'vicw a r m “ uh: talk-tiling t r ) . mmmn-I: (lb: hypnthttifl] umber}, nr fun {ll}: cannula.

Ipecflitmhtr].Thmflun.mdfllcrehtiumhipamthearepm named in figure I.

Thufluflectiwflflmr Tn View an event ur {IF-Em fi'am : vantage point amt-r than an!!! m i: nut nmnarily In IE! it u Inn-[hu- individual data. Pmsihly in-

1]:t by Adam Smith': imparthl specular. um: Hhical firm-in has pru-

pomd that we imagini- an 'idfil alum" at our behavinr when fur; muialing mural pfinciplu and pa]! heed m than. EMF: pflspfllii't'. which is. by dtlinitinn. amnilciem. dhhlflfllcd. and diipilfl-iflmle."

111m I'rtqun-nflyr talk ahmfl End's pail“ ul'vitw. 1nd far We hm:

"

Single

fllhtl' [3*q

flan:I'EIIE

. Pm gmm rung

Eguctnlrin'tjr

{smut-ant}

mhtr

Hypolhclinl

{Emile}

ulhrr

Cnflettiw Lfll

Hnmlitf ufprindplfl

HIE

RESPDI'I'IDIHG 'I'D CITE-Ills

nut had the expefimce—Immflmfl libtnting., Mme: dflulat'mg— nfuaring up it a night slur and minking album human lili- {and specifically, unt'l. awn lift} fi'nm : :mmi: parapet-Lin-

[If the HVETII p-uuible abnracl rcftrn-nct pun-inn that. can be imagined. ] m l 1::- f m medically an that. uf fill-E5 mutiny. "This in what Lind tam-d "HIE genflalitcfi nthtr." ”Th: t-tlflpfl‘hflnl uf a :mnplcte, whith i: u: may :uchlittd. “If infludn a Eunlid-fl'iiifln 11f the inn-rut: and llfll'lfll 0!" I11! 5min] map In which an: bdnngm, he laid. Pmpefliu-

taking, Lhtn, can cumin in immuliihig lhE mllecliw.“ HIJ-Iicl' [hill Selmam fnflum'ng Head. ha: mmtrucied his developmental made] will! thin 31 Lb: cumummatt farm Hf ptnp-Enivc taking. If draft an: satin] [unlequrncu 11F seeing with du- Eff! of the hypmhcsizcd mflmive when they are mdialed by thr change in the way an: m nun-salt. Htid was manly tfll'flffl'flrd with IJEII: prams: nf sucklifllifll'l... but nth-rm. phflumpher "I'll-Drum Hist] nmnng lhtlth hi“: unplan—

Iiu-d that In "rtgard1:1a :3 mcru-Iy an:- individual awning “Inf” ‘u the hem-=1 [II mull Ethical dflfli’ifl. ll matter: an}; Ihat "nut" has III-lain dfllitl nr righu m would h-mtfit 13mm I remain Halt Hf iEEain: Ibal tlrw an: happen: It} be fun cannut he alluwed m miller. Pm Hhica] put-sniptiun is [air if it has Inc-2n universalized. and taking 111: View a!" an idul Dhlffifl {If social [flflflli‘ifil is I mean: Inward [hit end. (Annflwr mean:

is pretending that an: due-1nut know flflf'fl mm plate in satiety ur anther firmnmamhl Furdculirs whilc an: chat-51:5 mafia] and pulilical princirr vp-Ifl—juhn Hawk's Emma: “miginal pmilinn."]“ Thm+ thil 'II'ETIiflfl nf pang-tain- taking—but 1:11.11; this W i n n the war In : mmlity bard an inhuman plindplfl. Mare pmsaicafly, this PIE-El!!! aha upljjm haw wt Iran: behind [ht

mliprinn and happrflpfiatt 1:115: 151' mailman that i: nfim pan uf egnccnuir tlpcficmr. Children—and sometimts adults. Ina—may imagism: that lhry. and flit! detail: at" their lives, dEEI'E a standard, the way Iii:

is suppmed m be. Imk. fur mmplc. a: rmr hand. This is ulna: .1 hand ugh! In Infill Hit: it implant-5 1h: Hamill-r: caugury umdnt-sa- All mhtr hand: arc Ina dark nr mu light. lflltl fltnhy ur tun-u bunny, tun hairy Elf tun:

lfllflfllh. {Jr runs-idler fflfll“ humelmm. Thii ii. fun Ina].r have vaguely assumed at m : paint. the righl plan: In haw: mm: m {ix-rupflliw of 3mm” raliunll EH] Haliun {If it]. Thur:- il li-IIIIITIHhi-‘llfl :tlhr Inlpiciflm

about having Era-fl up EIIEWIIEI'E. with the lfllPiEi-fl-lfliflfli int-rearing in pmpflniun 1::- lb: dhshnflafiur helwccn that place and ruur plan: fir think abnul haw neat yuu like to keep your h-DLII-l ur IPiHm-I'nl. aura-n: whu prefer: a ham: Hen nearer is mime; aura-lie who is satisfied

Tl-[EEELFAHDTHID'fl-IEI

1119'

with In: Iidinm in :- lhh. Gubdflnds. m: might my. mpg-1h: the Inng'uigt fur slab-arming an Ihi: wriam nf egnctntlitiw. Chaim regarding flflE'I awn lift u 111: standard. has pun-mph!!! mun-quanta. Suth an hdxvidual may EH! 3 5mm: Inf mtiflEm-fl'fl ur peculiar dumringntss. Em IJ'IEI'I': is : dflfl‘ipli‘nft mmpmwnt. ma. Tab: nun:illusuminn thtfitt I111! many men lL-nd Inmthnnulctlpfl'ifimt

ur nu]:- tharaflm a: a paint at" rcftrmcc in Idling itfll‘ifl. thrilling

madcla nf drvdupmm. and m funh. Whar- thi: is painted nut in thc-m. sun-h mm tract will]: genuine surprise: a ma]: wriltr might purulent that

he intendzd nu satin flight jun 13mm: IH: mic. nay-r. ”Haw can 3mm

h-Hp [filing uE-mmciuus in 1hr pram: nf a baaufififl Human?" The paint. Illa-ugh, i: that he has warned that "an}runt“—I:Ir. mare prcdlnly. Ill: reader—mun llarulrhlr ht mahjull in hit it malt. 1."t i: ll“! Illfllli insiclinu: Iranian uf mm [m- ran'lm. (infant.

IE’EiIitfl. a: the can my hurl—1h: mu]: mat of ddibcnmrlr adapttd afli-r rude: but {If a kind nr Ihuughtlul :gucrnlficitf. It il true that thinking

{if tune-sell". ur 1h: Emu]: {If which an: is. a when a: defining the nun]: may he: chalk-used by putting unfit-1F in the plat:ufmmtr indifidual—

in this file. a particular Emma: readrr. But the larger paint is that the“: an: my pmmtizal m u readers. that flnt'l awn drcumflancc may nu!

ht shared. that nnr‘a idea (If Iidinen injunr. an: at many pullible Hm

uf keeping 11mm. "I'll-fl: and nth-er flan-1pm ni‘ wH-emheddednm+ it may h: argued, are lacs: camctcd by imagining how a mfltttii't or ubjfltih't tithe: View: flu.- inane—and Iriew: oneself. An sham paint {If

rtftrcnce {In brim in m sprain. u: “put things in pray-active."

Theepml-Ieticalflther Malice. infigurc Lhnmaftnmim'tial flE-Elltfl'fll'll cgfltmlnnty. II‘lEic at" map-active taking can take urn “pant: taunts. 111:1:- invuhn: in“? ining 1hr paint of view nf 1h: talk-uh”: mhtr and nf a single indifidual. ru-putjvdf. In that lint Variant {If the hill-Er {upmmtd by lhl! [miner

martian an the left arc}! the identity of that singie- indlndual is bun-lid:- dupuim. This is [ht hypnthflinl nlhtr. and it is. aha: mum Flt-apt: lamb-ably have in mind when may 1311: abnul penpflfiu- liking.“ Enmuflime: um: make-5 a ddiberate Htmpt m undtuund hm: “suntan: thr" might rtgard : situalinn. whilt ll mhm“ [huts a sudden ihifi Inf plnpflti'lr: m m ll'l'i‘lft uninvited. Even in liht Latter can,

hawdflapmflbhlnpmflwgmundfmmflmmt lwmahing

Ill]

EWINGWW

an efl'un In uh:udun' pcnpflfim whmfltr punih}: and by "narcising" arm‘s mgnitiu and autumnal Humility. Certain prnfminm m tndtmndammurr np-rapfi'flvc Liking—m kulilthcyarctnhednnc well. Any-r mp-n'fimr naught m b:- ahlr: In imagint haw thL- pram of

mmplfling an assignment might but In a uuhmdirutt. A gnu-d {IL-mist pictures whmitmmthelihtmbtnn “Kath-:I'ddtnfmedrfll {an-Hm! : life in which firming due! nut play : majnr rule}. A leather man: he

nummfifl miluaheurlh: can imaginthnwmmenntunfamilhrwilhi givenidnwmfldmpundmitfurflwhfimmfiagflmwflfimm Ella-qr hqhningiflmdilmvm m m h l fl fluthil lint 1 m m incnmprd'rtmihlc brunt he was filing in himself. ta ta any. mindful nfnnlr

hhuflnpflinlurfitfl.fltrflfliflmhrmdlflufifldflifllmlf than Twin-u: mymplfltflflfltlflflthtmmuflmdtflLI-MMHHmilitilrflhflhtm Ibflfltfllfifl‘ljtfl mllnuflhcmfl

This pertain: In mgnitivt PE'I'Iptflj'll't taking. nl'munt.hut {1e in: spatial Enrl'tlflli'lfill :flEr mm: yuan nftcaching. an: my unlit: that when I'IE rctl'm In mum-thhg’: being an HIE ltfi: hr.- inflimtiwlry Eflltfl'fl ta Itil

right. [ht stuflmu' lefL Thtp-cflpfltivtufllnhrpmhflinlnthfiintakmuhmm batmnfl IH'TII'I‘." nf hunt a given iitflilifln fir idea—m“ haw 1hr. him-Elf— lunh m armlher [ultra-um Fur m k + imagine Hut mu are skiing in : Ihlfiltfl'. training yum hand m u:- amund the bud aE' the puma in. Eran: nt- 1jmu+ and gnawing hIreaIinghr hinted at this in nunveniflwe. Euddfl'llf. it churns m1 gun that the pcrmn in the raw behiim fun rcgards run in exactly IhL- um: way: 3mm an: nu: uni? blacked but hula-citing. Dr

l a w that a luhwajr is waiting at the platfnm a: Emu :u'rivr. fan will Inward i1unly In haw: flu: dun-an clan: in 1mm face and Illa: train pull away. ‘fmr Inger—"Wham i! luv: killed the cmdmur lu- hm waited ten

mar: term until 1 gm in?"—wapuratcs after rm: l'E'flliI-E fl'flt fi'nm the mnducmr': ptl'lpflfl'i'h'fl'. run 11': part 131' a study stream at" fluid-b: ridtn.caatndm:1hEdnurmlime.ind£-m I'mjulllnifl gaming am A deliberaleand pumly tngnilivt puma-div: liking can be IfltfiJI in undmtanding but when thin]. Ill-nut a particular inur. and hmr they

might luv: arriwd :1 a pmitiun that stems Ifl run izndacfemihle. If an:In: diflindly undenmnding haw any human being: muld justify Hurting fur thun- Tnhacc-n Institute and :p-cnding his day: clawing 1h: nine“ of I nun] link III-Hum Hunting and lung water. it might htlp tn mm by

‘I‘I-lESEIFANDTI-Efl'TI-[Efl

Ill

tuning: inurdfltngflnbenerfulfwd1hwmldview.hrhpamchm individual regard: the BED“ tn publiriu- the danger [If cigarette: in l:arml'g.I th: my mhm regard the campaign In dissuadc pump-II: fram using mafijuam. Dnc‘a stepqicilm ahum [ht rel-rum research and we": defenfl: [If individ1nl rights against gavernmtnlal restrictinm wuuld then

mm In fur-Haw lugically. flu: mayr still filtflngl?‘ diam with flu.- cunninIim: Int :11: preminc. but an; Inn than internal m m of the W M his becmne mart- accessible.” Idcallr. pcrspcclive taking um mil}:r rtquh'fl flexibility but :huuld inn-EH};- flexible. Tu uh: jun um.- other paint uf vie-w. 111* mm nth-er End uf 1min: nf View. may uffer nun:- uf ll'lE advantages uf perspective liking and my El'fl'l- exacerbate the idmlugical cur paychulugical purl-its {If cmbnddtdnen. During a visit tn an Emir: Elli-Ii at El prfltiginul balm firi'hflflL fur example. I 1:111:13 heard an instrunm' describe : Ell'ifi ethical

cud: Fur lining laminar.“ and infill: his stutter“: lu tumidtr it Fran: the pain: Inf View ulc': Imrkhuldcr in. nr the rain manager ul'. an nfi‘mefl Emily-any. 111E difl‘erence between these um rah-l. huwever—un man: In th: paint, htlwcen Eilhtr um: and 1h: studtnu‘ mm penpcctivc In b-rgin with—may nut have bun 311mm]! In chill-ens: them In Efll‘llid-ET thl': problem in a HEW way. The perspective if a blue-cull“ marten a canlumcr n1" I11: :nrpuralim'a lam-ducts. a maiden! uf 1h: warn whtr: Ihr camp-any i: baled. nr simply Elfin Ethical agent per 5:. mmtd campinuualy able“: fmm the exercise- A given rule, ur a set [if rules wiflfin a nnrmw rang-t. tan bccumc fixed. Heating lhr.‘ purpusc 13f pcrsp-cvcliv: liking.‘ flue nughi instead: In Ir}! In lime in "I lP-iEE with min].r light huIIJ-I. each nf which illmninatfi a lflmfl'h'hfil different Iii-tie Hf Hm ubjecl and ranch nf which pmvidu a will: pileup-um: [mm which In it:a [mum at" Hmlm""

Theflancreleflhfl Cami Gilligan and a EDHEIELHE haw: {mind hull with the it ul' put-upmli'lt taking an the flTfllJlldl Ihal 111i: PTD'CEI-l. hmlufling “nmmfingl Hawk"

original pmhiun ur plafling] Euhlherg's game 13F mm! musical chairs“ 'Ti-uin pflrl'ELll-fllly' mu: flpeflpu'liw: taking is "based m1mull-g rtlaliun:in In unjul IndI-If'm'ldfll [hr hugh'llifi'u: Ehl-I—h-H-Edll‘l-d unidinfluaal Hirlmlaa huhtrnuhldi:

puinl Hitlk‘'lnltmflinmn maj- Hui:fimt incialjuti-rt when Ihul,l nude-Imam: are mare-d

tmahpndl'r'in IIH mrmm a! Ihrir mar:- Eimunnle tmnpnn.h1fihlhr Fri'IriI-rflrd run-[kn luripnuralhmnulifitiun lmhtmflinuflylhrffltdflwhflfimhpfiflm lm

HE

RESPDHDIHGTDUI'HIIS

In“ an: prance-Ed "wiihmfl Ipccififllljr Imam: mything ahnul the ulh-er but aqril'mml'}r by full-am; lhl': law:1 : ! " e and pulling anti-ell” in hill at hcr paailjun."” This in quilt Ina: If the 'I'El'li-Dl'lfl {If W fi “ taking

dilmled m thi: painl. Ham: in :ummnning up a cunt-Hive ulhEr. than

it, by drfiniijnm nu single penal: inmh'fli. In the East [If IhEhfp-mlwtia] nthtr. um: and imaginc 131113.r that lhc'l't in mm fining in 111: next raw hid: in 111: audillurium. ur lam-run: Hurting fur the Tuhmu Imtitule;

who lhr: individual is. and III: unique rig-tail: uf her life m

. are

il'l‘fl'lflln'l.

But lbcliflr than: Him I third val-in}! ufptnpcttivt taking, fitn [Jung]: few theurisu haw: aucndtd m it cur distinguish-rd i1 fmm {ht hypo-[befits] Unit. [In figur: 1 it is halted farther along an [hr min: line that tannin: lht hypmhttifil nthtrJ Snmuiimu 1h: idtnfitjr al' this indi-

vidual Whilst paint nf win: I met tr.- undrmund due: mum in fan. in

is twain] m the tutu-print. This is ninth cunnincd in the dE-lfl'iptifln n1" “himgining the real.” Wit-En I try in capture 1h: thinking at fading ul' anmher man. it is "ml 3,: a 11d“! Emil-Em but in his’ very rtalit'f . , . II a living prance-u in mi: nun,” Huh-er mld us. 111'“ distinttiun httwm a rtlafiunll'tip with an inlml'ungnhlt mun-um.- and with fun in particular is a rental thcme in Huber} writing; Tu imagine 1hr: real. In mgag: in plflpctliw taking in what he wmfld regard a its fullest sense.

in mt ml}? In undtrsund It": implicaljnm Inf thl: ml: {fur examplc. Iflh'fli'}! mndunufi that snmmnt flu: play-s. hum. i1 inmlm “a bald “ringing . . . int-u Iht life fifth: Dlll-Ef."" What aft-tn pun-cs [cur persp-cctirw liking—Dr mpathr. a: 111: mud in :umtlinIL-i used—I'm. nu mun.- than tin-act nf Him; WEE: Hm.- Wankel I liltit imbudjr did that It: Inc? Fm- apfl'mn whuha: hithnrmfailfid tn pm: thal queuiun tn himnfll", Far a child at : mdupuh. thi: in in

elm-Edingly Int-fill Blemish It is precisdf what “Ems to have shaken flitgang mania-H {quaitd in this chaptfl's :pigraphi am. all" his dangcrmu wntrititf." and it in. in the View of 111nm: HageL Kurt Hahn", Ind

nthtr Ethical Iheufim, a mild basil fur mumfitr." But fl'lfl‘ll' in a Hurld nfdifl'ertncb—lh: difl'trtnc: tum-rem rm Hal-Id and my wufld. tn he mn—hemm imagining fulfil-Elfin III-mun:- Ellt’:

situatiun and imagining bar in hfl‘ litualiun. It '1: the difference lat-tutu: asking what it i! like: In hr.- in m m Ell-El shut: and III'I'I-HI it is like In have that. pennn'l I'm. Sumefinml. mute 4'“:t Smith. “I nut unhr

change [immature-.5 with $1111., but 1 clung: plenum and clumflem'“ If m: are rarely afl'wr: in this diuinninn. it may I}: humus: in many Ihuafium it suffice: for an: In uh haw he. hintfllfi hmlld Eh: hiring in

Tl-IEEEIEANDTHEDTHER

115

it; fllechm an: fined that neirflterhe nm' WEBER elm: particulnfljr want: In be hit ave-r the had with a tin: irnn. Bull in : 1 t circunulanccs. w: haw: dilfmnt EIP-E'I'ilflltfl and denim“. and Efl-IIU'EIE perspective liking

proceeds Emu—and. it the time time. reinfiJrcH—Ihe remittitinn at” pmplc‘: unique realitits. Th: philmupher Ha: Scheltr wan :pn'u: Ell'll’ album: this. The quag-

litm. “Haw Hui-Id it be if thin had happened m m?" he declared. (HEM! has numb; tn tin with W t ftfluwifinflng. II‘ mfly 1:1:t Ihc mun urmfld 1m"? alum be. “Hm! it happened in me. with II} charter and lemmt. il wuuld nut hart-II.- htm 54.1 had; bul bring 1h: sun tarp-arm hl' ii. in! il a min-u: mana- Iur him-" Tull: fanatic-filing hl'fll‘lfll itself in EI'H': wry fact

IhaI il include: the aim-me and character {If the fiber pun-nun a: an indhliduil. . . . [Tu imagine men-H in the miller“:- ailualiun] Humid indnrd Ippflr. phenmnulugkally wreaking. In he dire-fled merch- upun mu:Ina-m mum-r mjur. 1nd unit! flit-rerun I11.- In quirk [31]."

Genrge Bennrd Shaw put this more mmllj'. "Du nut dun untu- min-n as yuu wank! have than than unto fun." ht Hid. "Thmr my haw: da'flirrtm

nuts!“ Th: dislinfliun between imagining flfll'ldr in 111: nfl'lcr': similifln and imagining the nth-er in the ather'i iilmtiun has. an I shall argue ahnrfly. definite mustqutncfl fur maximizing empalhic Humans and fur [hr pruhahililjr ni- acling Financially. In facl. taking II'IE' paint DI vitw {If

a rennin fllhfl' perm permits us in unMand persperlhrt taking is an and in itself tamer than aimply an a means fur gum-ring infurmalinn all-nut when. First. while afltfliw perm-active filling Inf 3 murmu- nth-tr

is not the same thing as empathy. il due-5 mm:- ua clan-r in thr: dirt-Him: nf ftc-ling as urn-H an understanding how Ihal penal] Etch. Strand. the [ants an a particular individual raise: the panihility [If imagining nflljult a Iinglt affect ar mgnitian cur event but mun-thing mare gluba]. Dm- can mm: H] unflinmi [ht umtr‘: world. In imagine how he is likely m HPEfi-EIICE thing: that have nu! yet ncmrm-d. m gal :I lens:- fur what it

is to fit him. In raring fur when. m1:- authm' auggflu. "I mun mnn'dtr [Emir I'I-IIUI‘EL way: of lift. nfltda. and desiring. And. almnugh I can nfltr flcnmplhh i1 entirely. I tr}.r to apprehend the futility nil— thl: fllhtr. . . . Baring inmivu slapping nut GE aunt's awn pflsunal El‘il'lll.‘ at t r i m inm- the nlhflr'a.""

II' we are talking :hmn pmpcctivt taking that in. bath minim:- and afi'eclivt, in which flier: is a:11a rather thin : hypmhflical nth-tr. and

KEEPDHDII'HIG TD WERE

1H

in width that mhur‘: wcrrld (nth-tr trunjlut an isolated l'E'l-“Pflflfll in [ESP-rd by 11.1., then m: are finish; 1hr.- pnuibiliw at" an ungaing rcladnnwhip with autumn.” This is the realm that Huh-er an well dun'ihci a

reahn u-f "dining-at" and figuriiiwl'f “turning Inward that mhcr.“ in whim a bridge is tin-nun “Pram Elf-MgIn self-being alarms Iht abyss nl‘druad nf the univme.”" In I'IJEI'I an tmnmutn “I11: amtr happtm a: 1hr

particuhruflwr.Hand'luthmrelatadmhimhuuthamy

Lhilhtdflfl

nmmgardmduuhimalmubjfl t.hutmhia partnerillaiiving E'II'I'IIL"" Pmpattht taking in an ingredient in my much |.'I:-I:I.':I'HulII'uII:Iir|:II+ and

I11:- rehtiunship itself nuke-I such pmpecfive liking mare likely m uh.111i: actuarial. as :11:l 9 will m . m: can begin In platt.‘ m mun-uni a mnnliqr ufa difftrml nun than that Illfllfl'lll'd by the dicutfl afthttullfltivt nth-er. illdfll'fiflihflfllimplfl mflhhlgufanew PEI'IPEEIi'VE an altruism.

FEEIJHG IH'I'D

“Whether familiar pmmuteu pmmcial brhmriar. [ht nature 131' in rtlaliurn

tn ptrsptcliuc tilting. whflher gmdtr diffmcu Eli-5|. with mpect m in and I11: ml: it play: in purchumerapy an: all mum: thrill turn an haw Ltfl: ward ii defined; Writers hive used Why In embrace BEE-cm: Fmpl't11w: taking {ur all pcrsp-tfliw takingll cur In rd'cr II: a feeling nt' mrruw in Iflpflfllfi In number penun's prrdicama In mm;- cilu the term hfl

mfg-112d In it fuling that mat-the:- mum-flue Ell-E's feeling. m- an expressiun uf undtntanding and suppurt, ur mm: mmbinatiun at them: fling. Hum: (If that mt! in nhjcfliumhl: in iILIEIE a definitium if-l-EI' all. {annual

hfpmved right. fit wrung but can dimly.r he slmwn m be man: at lea: fllEfi-IL

Th: pmhlcm dcfivu mlhtr [mm [ht cmmflng siluatiun in which dill}:em pen-pl: an using flu: word diIfi-rmtljr.

Enqhathj will wind in the Early p.111 uf Lh: mum hr lb: [1.5.

paychalugisl Edward 'I'itdttner. Th: Gflman ward frmn which it urn mmlaI-td. EhflHuI-g flilflafly, “Fuling inter") wu made pupullr by

Thendur Lipps a few dead“ taflier m- dflcribe a med:- ol mthtlic pcrccptiun: an: cmfld [ml me": my inm a painting, fur Examplt. [n *Pmpenhu: taking huh-war Ii: nut a iihltilule far 1 gnu-in: remit-1min Him In-

nth-l EI‘EI‘I'IEI'II'.‘ mullatsplnfllidltl ttln-dhidualmwhn piklbuid-E-Lhriiml-nl' dialflgue Euhcr had'11mind. In Iht mum: nl' dirt-rt hunk-die :huut. and fluted flFE'l'h

“twink. mun-11M tlu. M m r fl m hrhssurdfnrchrflhtmcmnlpuapuuw

mating.

THEEEIIAHDfl-IEUH-IEI

115

um:- filfl'f rem. lip-Id] referred unljr In a nun fl'mimkn. 1ilnrilll miller farm-.5 Hf afl'm matching still talk-cl mpmflj.“

Frmd mad;- few flaunt“ m mummy,“ but later wriluL-n an punyd'mthmpy dIt-w an the mncept mpealedly. The ma mun influential in this regard hall-rt been Hein: lit-hm and Earl Bantu. Enhut saw mpathy as a f'l‘ilili'il mmpunenl uf the relationship hen-men parent and infanu althuugh he has been airtime-2| Fur umching 1h: Hard to th-l! paint that it firmed H:- signify finuall'f any.r aspen a!” a pmitiut afl'cflive hand.“ H: flan mud mpmh} In rah-r In what Inna-l researcher-i cal] purapccti'm [:1-

ing, a uni-Eu] Inn] hywhich the flmmpifl "gathers paythulagicai data all-mu nthcr [ha-up]: and . . . imagine-s their inner twain-rm: turn [haugh it i: nut {IF-En m dirm aha-Wilma?“ Fur Raglan. finpathf—hy which ht. mm seemed to have mutant mmflhing {inner In affectivc pram-2m: ufing‘Lh um:- nl" the m a n and inflict-rm candid-an: I'm :I-llttflsl'fll III-tramp: it i: nut an]? ustful fur undcnunding 1h: client'n nut: ul' mind but aim has :1 curative EEEEL In I11:- tunleut ul' therapy. Ihmrisu {m qutnlly {mphasifl [ht :I'll'fl'd In hahncc this supparljvt dtmtanm‘ with nhjtctivilf.

The 'h'fll'ifllui um of empathy in diEermt Khan]: cf mythmhtnpy

Emfld iudffifl a chapter IJr mum a hail-L but I want [u- diflllfll 1h: tun-rep! {rum I'JI-E persptctivc uf 1min] and dflclnpmcnlll parthuhn. In .11:thing. 1 Hit mm; m drum: mmflhing rim: lfl 1hr urigirul Grinninnmiun III-f "funding ia" artt-r pen-an. In its 'Idtal incarnalium this

prance-u build: an and draws [mm Ibu- napalm? m tall: mutt-3m du’: puripm'wc- and lhtrtfflrt is man:rumplicawd than lirnpl'f “feeling with“ summit." In Having this I jail: Norma Flashback. wlm IEEE ammiunal I'ElFfll'll-i'lu'tnfll as Ihe third cnmpflnmt Inf : FRI-EH! {hat 1llfl huludu

idmtiffing anmhcr pmfln's aft-ah: we: and nude-“Landing : situatiun {mm Lhal peflnn's perspective." I aim find Martin Hufl'nnn': fiI'I-E-lllllfl'd definitjnn In hr.- usefill: empathy in Ruling what i1 apprnpriatr: m w m ‘ clfl‘i iilualiflfl—thrll i1. whal 1hr: mid Fad if sh: knew htrmu'n lituatiun. {This dilLincLiflfl came: imu play in instance: uf dranmtic imnyr; Eur exam-

ple. :I Indy Efllpatllit pmnn “Hid likely.r FEE! lad “pan muting a juyflfl individual who did 11m anal. knew that a lave-d um.- had jun dig-1i)“ Mun:- imp-unam is 1]}: dial-linflifln human mpulfij Heeling ham]: and Empathy {ll-fling far}. The latter il. : putimlilr reap-nuns: In annlhfl'l plight mantle-riled by pin: 131' mutt-m. while {flip-31h? tfll'Il-ilfli in sharing lht uthtr‘s afl‘tn, Whll-m'fl' il'. happy-m: m be. Not surprisingly. HIE lwn mncepfl have been difiermtialcd tmpiricafly ill well as tflfltflplufllhr.“ Yet flI-IEI‘E ha: hem mmidmblemimic-n nun-r which Hard Ihuuld repu-

HE

RESPEHDIHG TD DTl-IERS

sen: whith cant-pt. lmniuflyu while Way was 13-11:: med to man

Inlrllllhalutlrlfg+ as. [or illuminant:r by Adm Smith. tin-day there are same Him use ninth; tn: min-an adult I and amen ml] sympathy-" Eva: mar: imnic i: the fin Ihil mm wrilm I'm'r: dfltribtd 1mm; :5 : filndimtflliluf

ndI-uricnlcd“ nr diam-mm!“ rupnme. whit: other: EMIJI'EEE the mndrum it in mp1 [whatevtr mm: thtr give ifl praciuiy an IJH: W uflm-nriemed and suggnliv: nl' mun-3mm.” flu: way or 1h;- mhe-r. it

is impunanl to null: that a PEEP-fill!!! In summat- data situation]. whirh immh'lfl armpilhju'. empathy. at bath {in but diuhrguhhfll [firm a m-

sp-ume Inf" penuna] dish-en in “him the primfi- gum-l is to impruw: lane's awn mmd. II is nu my task In mu out Iht inltmal dynamits—perhapl Empathy all: furlh : nun-self—inlcruted ”rapidly—but. a: I will argue

in chapter 3. pmple can b:- muved m cm tu inc-[her pie-rum”: 35:! Eur r m that have more In dn with concern far that person”: wail-bring than with a dtlirt tn- Imlhr lhfl'l'flfl-tl'lffl Feel Ia-ctltr. If pmpectiw taking illuminatn a 11:31:»: b'f turning an light builhi.

widi empathy Uh: mmhur shin: H} Ih: aunt] and 1h: Lattile. [l in in flu.-

wurds :11” the Elislmlill psych-33mm: Inuit-i; flimwnngtr, :- ' W phe-

nnmenum as when the Pflfi Harlan-lit: write: tn hin muthEr that then.t-nuld nmhcamundalivcinhflmflwithwhichhismulwuubd nmchimc in; nr 3 ph-Ennmrnnn uf M . a: whim in.- say. “yum" narrow. yuur _-_iI:|+'1.r tmhu mt.‘ "H Malice that Ihfl'fl.‘ descriptiuns an: PTIE'd'IJ-lll-Lflflllflf rtcep-

flvt. A: mu.- “Tiler ant-m. whim tmpathiting. “1 EH: nm pmjtn; I train [11: mher intu- myulf."“ EI-IIIIpmth].r in this flaw in [:III'iIIIilriI].r I "span" to

the mhcr": flptl'iflltt. Eu! mm: thearist: rharanefite it immd as rim-filing mu m anathen prntualing. [titling in. {Int milfljuuifit: such a mndtl an the grmlndl that rcctpfifitr in Illfll'E I fimctinn urf l'flflllflll'l'f than ul' mpthf.“

Neithtr uf may: fldlfli‘l’! pushjnm '1: jun-filled. Sympaflw and tmpm thy can :unlinut In I}: distinguish-Ed Even iIh-ulh have an Eltl'lI-EIII fifth: receptiw: being maved by gamut-*5 plight is nut 1h:- samr as chiming in with {at rimming In] that plighL Ennvmc-ly, it IEEIIH mu]?—

Elfin-d. virtually impmsihlb—m ml:nut thr:active churn! al' ruling into anather’: npefientt. parficulafly in {hr Iilualifln dfitribtd tarliL-I' in

which an: fuels the aflcctivc martian apprupriat: m m u :the": aim:t'mn Even if that individual dun-H nut {yen} Flu-l it htl‘ltfl. This idea mm:

in have taken an unflmw cunnutatium in some peapclr's mind: became:13a up. ur bran-IE ufa haul]: cqtutiun ul' what that ward W {If anti?! hunting with the Imnfl Inf Wflflm rfltimflilm in which all

water? and mint: pal-tiripatiun an: Inn-IL“ In I'm. min and m

MEELFEHDTI-IEUIHEI

Il'i'I

mm: mutually mhniwin lump-muudufiunuy be. whamm-

rmptivHu hi.- 3 goat! lhtcner. fur hunm—nmuitatfl an active lflfltt. Pmpniy undcrmnnd. flflpfl’lh'f is kin tn hath datum-nu. It in the airlift dimminn ul'cmpalhy [In]. Illmfl III In mil-I: lent:al' the manphmumm afflicting inm flu: lituau'un ufmmcun: whn is um physically pil‘fltflL Fur many {If flit pump]: t mum-d jtwl during Wnfld War II. “InH'Ehf Emu-ring that nil-1m wart lufl'tring 1m nflficie-nl tar arc-un- thnn."“ 'Ul'. an an: of Eli: Winn-r: flaunt-tn up:

“Tim: m unly 11m pmsihflifiu fur me: either I lufl'tl‘ yum" pain with fun, a: “!

nufl'fl' il willinut minnmmunlhqmflm [rt-11f

me. I'll lufi'n-r il.""

Bd‘nrtwtdelveinm themtpiriutmmdhklmhnrfi-nmfluhfl unn- agiin. HI: lpuh ul'whar. in: nun ulmfly all-rd will! nut mull]:r u “ml-ring present" but u “newline-nth}; the lather side." Fur mph. "Thflcrauddcnly receiminhissmfldlehluwtv hichhtaflfl . . . [air] a man m u n I 'II'IJI'IIII'I. what 1:1: hmd-r aunt-i ln

In

El: Ismmelhal ht Feel: the calm frmu two lidu—wl'th [In-palmnfll'l hand still. and aim wifll the Harman's ahirL" find: an np-ericnce. My: Bubcr. "t the fllhlr pus-m prurient ta him rural] tin“. A transfiuiun has taken place after which a mere ehhnmtiun of :I'Illiljfllj'li'il'f is finer again possible ur tulmhll: H: mm...“ In nthcr wards. um: um Gulf imagine: but 1:11.13]!e the manual event. and the implication: extend wail

hmnd tin-serum] in treating: band bflween diet-Ho imli‘Iri-dualma :datinmhip that annual bl: reduced In 111: turn lutal nl’ fl'n-ir lcpantc ruiith.

THEIDIT AND W E I - l {1H MATH?

Haw Inn: View: flu: High aftmpathy may depmi nut Whig”. an tI‘I-l.‘ “haul uF [3:111:11a mm; In which mH': belnngi. A. bdrm-infill;

mighl auumr. alarm: with Justin firflnfit‘td and animal, that Elaflifill tunditiuning can Elplflitl i1: dfldnpmtnt if a child': pain urjnr is paired with il iignnl uf IL'Ifl'IEfll'II'.‘ :he': pain urjnyr. than the latter will Ian-um: : mnditinnrd flimulm. capable uf clicking eumti-una] muse: an in awn.“ Sum: pafthnarlalylu. manwhilt. Erin: lhat the unique minim

lhip Ian-tween FII'EHI'. and :hild pmuidu : Pffllntflfl' far I" :uhuequem

IEEPUHDIHG TD m

HE

during uf afl‘m. Harry Sud: SuIEinn mantra an thll whirh ii unpleasant. painting IE ”:I ffl'lflin cfirm carnagiun Inf disagrerable Elli-I} fifl'l-Et fmm Iignificam adult: In 'Il'fl'f mung childrtn”" and. fllflhfll. In the war ”Iht tension uf il'IIiEI'f when PI'EIEIII: in th: mufllfling an:

induct: anxicw in 1h: mfami'm Ether: have Emphasizcd that 1] Farm: uhu rupnndl tmpaflticallHr. bfllfl‘. ptrctptiuely and luppnnivtly— tn the child pennhl the child tn dmlup empathic Iii“: uf hfl awn. Martin Hulfinan has nflered the mm: influential and carefully Blah-w

I'll-Ed umdtl afflu- dtvdupnmm of empathy. driwing [rum bath burning lhtunr and psychoanalytic muttptkml.“ HE prncctd: fmln the convicIian that same- rudimenunr form {If empathy. a prediipusiliun m shin: in and mpond la Ill:EEEEI [If Dill-Ian. in put-arm [rum birlh. This mutin-

miun i1 pat-fly hand an studies shaving Ihal: Wham: um min-lath dinnrh-rd by 1hr: mund ni' mathrr infant‘s cry {1:11:l 3-}. Afltr unhr : few munlha. an infant can din-human: 3mm: Tania} uprflsiuna: ahurll'f

thcrrufltr. In: nr sh: tan urn-1m11111151311|]1|-I inltrpl'tt Lin-It expire-Ilium In reflectinm of mmfiuna. A; an: m-ittr alumni-ht: [ht My. “aunt [ht child imbue-a. cannibal] Exprmium (facial. inclL Etc.) with. cmtinnil

rumba, a capacity In min-mud vitamin-um? to thin wit-tint“ at" uthcn I-EEIIIE- lu Full-mu mun afterward?“

Huflmn HELL-:3 that than: an! fuur lewd: at" unplflfil: disarm a: fellow: {I} fllnhil “apathy: a dilum mflian i! [await-E: Hun Inn-fare

infant: haw: 3 Elm 5:115: {hat they and mhfl [map]: are [Enimi cumin. with thur: mull that Lhty may "at timu ram as dwugh what happcncd In the anther happened In themnhn."“' {'2} "Eguten'lrir" mpaflif: chil-

dren by this Magi.- have a clear 1mm: Bf penunal irtlmsntil'gr+ but Ihty nil] cannm :ppmciaw lhc existent: If : 1 w inner awn—a: Hid-2111:1151 by their assumptinn that “hill they find mmfufiing il a time 11f diam!“ will alarm be m regard-ed In album. {3! Empathy Eur artEI's fctljngs: children 311ml]? barium: III-DH: mpumivc m mu ahum what when an: Hiding and butt-r ah]: In ufldfl'ltilfld and than: cumpln and Hen ambiv-

alent Human; H] Empathy 1hr anathcr's lift mnditiun: : :11a sophisticated gimp n-l' mmmu ain’t-ruminant: permiu 3: Mn capacity In map-and In that [Jenna's ggneral mndiliun {rather than fll’df tn his imme-

dial: litmtiun]. and aim In respond In flu: plighl afar: mtin: dam of

Ire-3PM

flfllfll‘ l‘ElEIIth-E'l'l lure faund [lull dliidren do. min-ed. Fragrant

"fi'flm Eflflf 'inwluntarr' mpallflt: diam: m difl'crmthtcd discriminaIium and flpmflum" H Hufl'min prams,” Thin- pmgruniun—parlicuhrlrgrfimndrutmhdmthe thirage—is Wyaflmcfinnnfflw

'I'l-iEflEIIAHD'I'I-IEUTHEI

Ilfl

Mahflity muttlluprnpcttiwufmhflann: Inn-dyad“ Hf difiirrent age: heard .1 sad “'1'? after having bun hmmcttd In "In-r In hum as and a! pnuihh: litmus: {If what you 11:3."a grader: typinlly tried la imagim- thEmu-lm in thf.‘ place nl‘ :11: star]: durum.

while fflflflflflf children just EDMETIH'EIEI! m1 diHI'Iiiinfl mi:111:: went “urchin-d." Gin-rm lb: Ital-Ir ability In alum: in {IIIIEI'E-I aflfim il i: [agililiv: mphiltiutiun. and pt-Ettirvt mining in partinular. that stem: to h:

the key dwelupmentfl wrist-It in undmmflhg [ht mum ul' tmplth}! a: I :hfld malurflWash-ally. flu: mm: lupti-ctmtl Iranian ufalfirtlriw m u m

induding the ability ta imagine haw sum-cunt umh' h: [ct-ling if 5h: mdtrmmd htr predicamrmL. pumppusu til-t ahfliiy l-n dilllnfll' urn-cull” firm the mhnr. Elm.- can lim- rap-and "at 11:35:: partly 'm terms nl' nnt': r-Epl'EflEfltmiun all" the n-thEr'l genera] mndiljun and I“)! afifl'ttthrt :11t

m

law-1nd lhf: situaflnn." murdhag In Huflinan.“ Yet this “parity

mun he mnhmrd—althnugh Hafiman dun rum nun-mm this—kn an:

final nfl" bury-0nd flu.- relau'unship with a tflflfl'l'lt ulhl'r and malt prtu-nl. a: Bubn' 5314:. out? a “ultmched :nnlcm" ralher than a living suhjtn. 11'e i: a real danger Illa: unc'l cugniliw and finaginalivt npadlifl will

bEWIHEEumphiltimttdlhflnmhasteuedflufingflwnpuimmnf :l'fll pea-pk.

Individual Diflirrtnm in Empathy

lfbdflvhnmdlal helping. lllfll'illgfill'hlfldflfinflfmflfljlfliflw pun-Irish: than my arm mum—and M In: “natural" 111m named-ll IIIL‘IiflHI—lhl.‘ name may be "H uf angular. Kuhn: heliwcd tht capacity In Enlpafllitt is: part {IF “1h: innate Equipment 11f the human Willa?"

Whit: mph-thy p-trmiu m In fipfl'ifl'l'lfl vicafimnly 11:: unique aim at II particular prrmn. the hmader “paucity In III: in i1. Hid lit-hut. "III: manual-n.- at Hamlin! human alilm"“——i descripdnn lhal app-ran In who Suflivan's Emu: mmmtm that “wanton: in mud: mun.- imply

Innmn thin M T

"

Hnfl'man. Inn. has drum-ind empalhjr a: main-ran]. nmdtlflmined. and self-rtinfardng." Eli]:iflflhfl' writcr spunk-[u tint “Ihert II'E nu

E'flllilli-flm u!" adm- human bring: {[111 an: rum in prhwiplt matchahlt by Her]: human biting. and More nun: that an: am in principle muniblt.“‘-" But this idea i: hardly mu; nflrly I'll-fl and I Imlfctnlurifl lgu David Hum-I: flfi'fl‘fll 1his W i i m :

HE

W I N G TD DTI-IEIE

M u p . m fl fl fi fl m w m a m m d fi u n i fl msuwiflilhtvhflfhmnhnppinmarnmflhudndlfimw hrmtawmpalhuit M l n f fl fi m r w m n m . . n fl n e mi'fwnlflfllnafimdutmuthmhumucmlm.tuwhumflnlppcmruf

happimuiflmmwnrmmgehmmphflfi.dnnnmfiwpifllm:lhfl ufmiflfl.umflin:u.Thi:m:huepinhkfiumnurnflhandmmtituIifll."

TIE “namrfl fitmnlm" that Hum-r.- attributed tn aw lpldfl il- l

fininimlafprecilehflfisupaciyfiurflfitiltudargmflaflycflledtm-

Palm. ’

' d u u nmnmnthumpmunhcqmflympmhitnrthn

mpullw i: unamidahie. I: is Pflllihlfl fur such rendenrifl m bl.- Iquclched early in lift, and fur mun pcuplc tn- chunse at am}.r gin-n instant m merridt an imliniliun ta feel Iflllllflfll'.‘ Elm-'5 pain. Mall of u: have I degree of vulumarr cuntml aver flue film: In whi-dl it:[til intu var 1Iml‘ill'l mhcn. W: an: nan! innitahhr empathic any mart than w: an: ilI-E‘h'ilflblf l‘luslilt. But henna: Ihe pregnant: n!" hastilr. vinlcnt, and fllfilh inclinatifln: ha:

received man: autumn dun Ihl: fin tint E'I'HFIII'IT. Inn. in in aur rep-ermin I linger han- nn the liner fact.

Th: tnPiL‘ at" individml difl'crtntfl in cmpathy rain-:1 the qufllinn nfhnw flu: phennnwnnn iii to be mfimd. and thin ha: ”Till? pruved

In hr.- a vain; mallcngt fur student: til" [11: subjECL Altampts In up¢r~ "inmlim and quantify 1hr: tumult—cur, ind-em m In mnfinn the mute—Hf ETIIPHIhf in I given subject has led to the man {If filmintin" with M many mam-tr: can empathize. Studies haw: used fa; rial, verbal. quuliunnaiu. and phyfiuiagical mummy—depending :11: III: 35:: uf Ih: IuhjEtu and the indimtinn of the watcher. Hernia unsure: man: In minimum: :11: dangtr ul malnunding mpathr with lhe duh: to men main] mania-um arr humanized nanns: if um-

miu m present DIIE'IEIf a: empathic. it it easier In med: (IE it Hamlin mun-tr on a pier-I: all? papa dun it is to tantra] unc'a facial txpruliun, and taller tu- mnuul une‘: flu: than um”: hurt me. Hum the pumIivelf “lruer” l'flEfll-lill'fl are all-n the least sensitive m qualitalive dif-

frrcnm in». and minim: mcdialiun III-f. :mpathic rupumc. '11:: man due-lupuwnulhr mphinintcd veniun ul' empathy-marching an pear-pecti'H: taking and manning In mmflhing man: than mere IEEH match-

ing—is. maflfidimcmiunai. m

pmhlcma fur mm whu wants.

HMMH.GiVfl1lhfllllthflfflfflflilflringhflififliflfifliflh

THE SELF AHDTHEUTHEE

TEI

advantagfl." an: is tempted In any ”imply.r flu: m can he I'E'Iilfli an ndmivdy. But it is nm at I” clear Ihnt "putting mm] pour mmurfl mgrllwr in and: mulch.r is better than lining and: paw Int-Hurt- 31ml”: The dflfinflfifl :aundi-ng mmm‘emml and dcfinitinn shuuld he kept

in mind while reading any dimiun. ill-finding thi: mm, that dtl'i'hl'l an rut-arch finding: shunt empathy.

Whatever measure we me. it i: dfll‘ Ihu people remand with d:grfls at" mpalhy that vary‘ 35 Francis] hrhauinr dues. according m the

iiluilinn. In indifidual‘n slate nf nu'ni and :nduring Iraiu." Lilac add“. flIiIdren shall-Ir marked difi'crcncu 'm IhEiI empathic ream." 5am: pmplt m m fcfl nlhm‘ dismal: nmre hut-Inch dun thtir awn. a fact mare clearly understand by nan-list: dun by psydmlugisu. Fur Examplt.

Milan Emit-m mutt: "Ha: urn-run nne's mm pain weigh! m heavy as the pain an: Etch with Iflmcflnt, [01' warrant, a pain inltmifitd by Ill!

hmgimuun and prulunged by a hundred arbour-fl (53mm, mu, remrkecl that often “we cannut bear to: we ufl'ense: dam:- m nth-m M m: uuutlm haw.- amcptcd wiflmut rtbdlingfl" fln [ht fllhtr hand.

p-EDPIE with a hint-arr lull" anfimrifl hthafiar mainline: [lemma m

lg—

fires-5w: whim (ht-y have miniature that their actions :11: fltfl'il'tfi adieu Pail-LII Due pram-auxin: marl: fur und-rnunding [but difl'trtntu in

dhp-milinnal empathy was prflpfll-Ed in an altutH difl'fltnl came“ by

Brutal Harmanm :- psychiatrist. flu: “he: an: bnundcd. hr: said. but the

thickness uf the W : uric: significantly fi'um an: pcrmn In the next. A: the ”thick" :nd 41m mntinuum we find ptflpifl HIM: are in!“ defmdud and E'II'EII abut-flirt, whu haw.- liult :pununcuu: lcndcnqr tu-

wlrd fellmv Flt-filing; and: individuall may.r aim [end In nhjttlifliI-I: and din-hiss mhtrs. fit [11:- "fllin" end are maple {hauls-rind by gullihilitr. l-uEEfl-Ijhflil'jr. and sensitivity [in bulb m 5 at flu.- wnrd: fragility and I'Elpflnli'll'fl'fl-fli]. 'I'hfi' Efim i EI‘EIIEI' wlnmbilitf m paychulngital dill-nub-ante. and. if thtrt i: any talent Fraser-L mare artistic mathrinr. This alum-fly uu-l‘ul dunntiml flamwurh. whim I haw.- Hflbtuilhtd a hit. “I dew-lulled an : mull BFHanmarmH warlr. wilh nightmare IflEflEfl+fl

I am prop-using that it may help to sun nut mdividual differ-nuts with Mall-pun m mpflfll'f—lhin-hflufldflritd pupal: lacing. ul' mum. mun: "mutiny" Within" { M nIflfli my hive tn Hark harder In u m ”HHWimu WMflifllfl-f flimflflflmfl m-flfl

W r t .

lfl

RESPDHDIHE TD m

s

this um:- lflcl ark-flair Feeling] 111'“ W u:1uric:al' luuhle hypamc-ms ahnu: [ht vat-inns punctuality and bchafinr plum Ill-1:1 might wail h: :m'rdattd with diapuailiunal Efllpldlj".

Clearly. any numbtr flf Eituatiunal faflurs and “Emilia-If mud: can aha pram-E ur dintumgc nupathil: ”spam. Let us mum m Ill-Ia!

trowdtd thtaifl whtrt prop}: an! inadvertently blunting rich miller. A: lumen-n1.- lit: and wait-s Eur lhl'.‘ film In start. Ihe amines that a couple walking dawn nth: aisle are despcmiciy stunning [ht mm. lit-ping tu- find Hm mu tugtthcf htfm Lht' light: Eu tin-urn. What in il: [hill damning: haw flu: E'fl-lflffll‘lflhl‘f seated nbserwr mna—avhcthcr she vicarinunly lhfll'l's {hair distrtu. HEEL!- smug about hmring “11't carly cnnugh In hair:- hrr pick {If mu, {Jr muslin: indiHcrtnt tn flieir plighi? Many nf [ll-E

um:- wriahles dianuled in the preceding dlipifl‘, hidudirng mun-d and focus ni' autumn. an: rtlmnt here. It 3150 might hr: usefifl m hum-r wlfllhcr ah: herself has mmtljr hm in lhtir filtratinn. Empathy in :1 Iran a: dcptndenl an HIE relatiumhip between the film hidn'widuali H i:

Financial behaviur. Samba-n: 11:131.r 11-: mm: intlind m El'I'lPitl'lE with I pcrsn-n who '1: pgrceivL-d as similar In hut-mm“ Dr whfl dflfl rim, Fri-r flan:

rfiunn nr :fl'lfl'lhET. “lunch Eilhfl' uqmn hfl unmniciuul Eflllfii-Elfl ur an arms DI dwelt-prawn] drprivatinn and diflppfliflimfl'fl."“ The impunitiun hen! i: that that: wuuld be nu mum: In EIPEEI an indifidual mflhihit a cmhtem lml nf empathy with man: she Int-cu"

Several pflltfliii] {ht-Mm ll} fading inm walla-HE flu“: mndiunn

HIE Hurt]! mcnliuning Emneum whn i: unmmfn-rlahk with hat awn mfiunflhy pruhahly wifl mt he partiruhrly respumhrt l-L‘I inmher's,

Sumo-n: whu is auxin-um munimrin; her mun inlcmal slate at hehavinr will b: similarly handicapptd—“l Elrll'lfll linen In my child Hi1]: empathy if I an: inwardly pttntcupitd Him hue-lug a grand mather'*""'—:nd up Hill :11: perm whn in mun.- inttmutd in iflflh‘tiflg flu: fllhtl' Ihan in imagining Ind rmnaling u:- Ihat ptnun'a feeling. Thil mull: my Earlier ditIinrtiun between such; ind wring thrflugh: Bub-E1". tau. decried the “analuical. rcductive. and tic-firing Ila-cull: hfl'h'flfl man and man."" Thur pun-mu wham- nun need: new umrl: pruning than 111m nf III-I:

nth-er is :llm relatively unlikely In attend fully in that umber ptnu-n." And denflndi placed an nnmlf by mhtn can sun-m m drain an: at" [ht Energy

that mpalhy requires- A mulhtr nun: dun-med lhi: to me quit:- paint» Edly: After :I inn;thy nf“ematimul fit-cum" III-III her InddIEI'. lhE firll umhrla in wt:- anrune elst': pflinl uf ‘I'i-E‘Hi'. “It‘s mnmhing beynnd fatigue," she said. “Sam: Evening: I tlflfl'l Hm have an."

MWWTHEUI'HEI

113

Gendtr DiEermce-a A1 [can in our nature. the [aim linking up III: "thin bummiary" paflcm are :11a Imurlmvmlllj-r unaudited with mam-en than men. and 1mm aim an: ptTL'Ei'I-f-Ed :5 bring awn: confirmed with the dynamics ul' mm] relatinmlfips. Thu: arise: the qmnlian nt‘ whcthu hard flit

limit-E Hints in luppnrl flit idea 11f gender dill-mum in empafl'ly. Nancy Ehndnmw'a influmtial analysis flf Emil-tr sugguti thal whim thenmmcrisdwpflmmmuker.girhflmuldewfinmfifly childhufld wifll I but far "Emplfl'lr" huill hm: lhtir prinlanr definiliun Inf BEE III I. In? that burn dn nut . . . III“! in] trilfn :I “ranger buil fur enptfiencing Il'l-Dfl'lllf'l need: at feelings as am?! an [01' If thinking Illal till-E is m uptritncing amp-1hr“: Maid Endings}. . . . Girl: mm: In rxptricntt Il'll'lnh'h'fl a: In: difl'trumialed than baa-1'1. H mm cmflnmm with and maimed ta [ht Hflfl'fli‘ll abject-warm.“

Twn paint: here In! noteworthy. F'mL. d1: ducr'rpliun :mtaintd in 1h:-

liliflli EEIII'EIIEE. which bears a certain similarityr tn- thE idea at"Ihin hauntinl'itl, rain-s 'IJ'H: puuihility that III-I.- hind tall"mm:[zmll'n'rI allcgcdljr mar-I: natural far girl: i: dillifl-Eflilhfld by IEII difi'erenthliun hen-mm self and when

than Huffinan and when: mntend is Ida-nimble. {If fllifi ii 5m then In: “fluid m In hair: tht ingrcdicnu Far 3 mpitulatinn at film] Gilligun's critique [If Iridilinnal slag! llmuries uf mural develupmmtj“ Eat:nnd. the parenlheficali qualificatiunutlrmt girl: may simply lh‘nfi that they

an:- mnn: mapliw m uthcn' u m k n c fl - i be kept in mind a: an: W'Eifl'l'fl- the EIPEI'ilI'JE'flLI] data.

fin Etnain issue: related H: empathy. evidcnce fur a gender differ mmumahly a :uciaJ'Lmd m m : fairly.I mfid. Mthuugh m dim-rm ulna“? (h: not appear in undies 11f children's penpeflivetaking ability? 3 review Inf lflflfll'y-‘*fiV-E studies shun-red that female: du apptar htucr :hl: thin main-.5 m judgc 1hr: manning: {-I' mark] nut-3 11f emnlinn: the difl'erenre i: rdiable. though nul turrrril'vh.r large {abnul .Ilfl'

flfa standard devialianlfi Msm ”Burs are mun: mtivaied than girl: In duh}- and nmk 111:5a cmnliaI—a fact with passibl-I: implicatinm Fur mnlfl' genml discumfnn will: :tlfiflive mpnme as well 1:! far Eh: -::|ifli¢:lulll].r nf rflpnndingvempalhjrally I'n malts. {TIE lanai: urchin-mid— fltd in th: lilmluflr, hddmuflyJ

Swen! :tudinwilh rhihimn hmmggcflnllhflmpilhr mil-1W?

IE'I

IESFDHDING TD DTHEIS

difl'e-rrnt meaning! and mequm Fur Hal-H :md ftmalfl. In m empamy hu bun-n shmm m {arm-lat: with cugnitiw skills: in girls with pmitiv: self-tuning]! and prmncia] hduviun“ and in mathtr Hunt]; with

gram-ii infirm-innr al‘ rayon“.H A5 tn whether girl; and women dim!“ mun: cmpalh'f nVctall mam] audit: auggfil [hill the answer is ft: 31111a the difl'trtntt is an! airways remirlahh.” In 19??, Huflimn

reviewed ni'nt Emilie: with minim ample: and {build that girls were mun: empaihin: in all; If alum—filmy! Ih: difl’ercnce war: nut smisti-r all? fignificml. in um {If the um

."

Six years lawn with Ham? Ehrenberg and Randy knmn': publitw Lin-n M a far mar:- Izletailed rat-vim IJI' nmrt than I?!) mind's}! audit: mndmled with dlild'l'lll and adults. a dim-rent picture Inuit shapt. Th: exinence fll' mammal-ct Inf gender differencu. than}r mndudcd, de— pcnds an hm: Lht {fluttpl is mun-d. If mtg-nth? is mated by asking people In rat: lhtmsclwrs. than {IL-male: art mun: tmpalhic. But il'physin-

Susi-:31 change- ur Facial flprminn is Lil-1m as an 'rndintiun nf flnpfllh'i-I:

minutiae. flu: gender dilfirrtntu Mull? melt away. Given that fll'llfliflmlh'l': and nurlunnnr an! hull: Fifi Inf [ht ulmmypic fmirfim: ml:- . . . III is highly liIt-I'yr Llul [malt-5 m

but man: willing In prestm Maui-hr! in

bring cmpalhi: all-dint fimpllhctic. E'II'E'IEI if lhrr: Hm nu [21-111 m

diffrrtnm ill

rtspnnsit'mtfl. . - . Thr limit-rd rmpiriril rum-firth. 31 um timr. prmidfl “HIE bani: fur Lhc cmmhuiun thin th: w: difl-filflt-l' in mpathjr [nun-cl Eur lelf-rtpurl measures i: in: In an innate marhmhm ur predhpmitinn.“

flndwmenfmlypcnfmmmmdhfithmgthfldnnjlflmh HEIDI that gender diEerencH [amring girls .19m [ml]: when th: W'mm is rental-EM“ When they rflumtd m- m:- tapit meal fear: httr. having Wad mun.- rerun: lludifli. 111: Human I‘nund much the m thing: “gender dim-rm in Empathy may ht an anifltl'. uf the Mud uf muml."m

Frum Feeling [a Helph'lg

Whi]: that: Irma}r ht disagrrcmtm mm- iu “lupmmt, W

I

,

and mhtr partiruhrs. than is a gamma! museum: that empathy itself in

a gmd filing—hum inninsically and in 1mm afiu empirim] rrlau'nn m

unha- duirtd ILIIH at" htiflg. and: as mmmal balm!” Thur: alumni: {at al lean: malfmmiun} ufanpathy in aha widely seen a: a faflur in Hui-up:-

TI-IIEEIIAHD'I'l-IEEITHEI

I15

thanr and (kW-mm.” alli'huugll nut all :mnmcntalm hl'lr't urtfilfly distinguish-ad biz-mm tempts!»Emr and what I am hen: calling perspetdve

taking. 1'. «infinitely.r citfll study in the In: I'Eflifll funnd that Empathy and aggnmiun wen: inversely relattd in lil- and mat-rcarmld barmlfl whilu 193-5 mfla—amlwii band an mun-r11dam studies fuum'l "'fl'lfldfll but nut aer|=tirulghlr contintnt ruppufl fur [ht Il-Dljfll'l flfifl :mpflfliic mpnn-

aims: may he an inlljhimr u-f amflmf'm That a tmdtncy 11: he! ulhtrf jay cur pain may he 3:51:d with

law amnion due: no: mean thal thin tendency mularfly will tram-

In: imu helping hthafiun Casual nil-server: haw: sumeflmes blunt-d th: dislinm'nn bun-rm pmucial attic-n: and unpmhy. Elven gum; am far as In LII-1': i tingle ward like aflruim In “and fur cugilililrt. afl‘mivt. Ind behavioral responses, as well a: bath state and trait dumml'is-tica. and bath self- and nth-Er-Dr'ltnltd mufivafimm While it my mum mtuiiivdy

plausible lhal Empattdting and helping wuuld gun hand in hand—and indud i1 ha: barn argued Ihat empalhy flawed predsdy tn allure Hit mfiaflnn uf htlping bchavia—flw rtlafiun 11:: actually Fraud in :umpln'. a: any other twin-wed hm.'I1wre are: number nf cmnplifilting l‘annn.

Typing-{Hm Eiunhcrgandaculhagut undtnuulimmprdwm sin-rt FH'iEh' a!" nadir: an tha- lubjm and Faund. a: they did with the quflflnn nfgmdcr MET-Elia, that cumlau'mu depended an Ian-w mp3;

thy was manual-Ed. Ta : 1 m l a hit. Empalhy ll rtflcclld in pitturm'" nary train was nut rut-lam tn prumcial behaviur. white empathy as men:-

itlll'td. in ulnar wry: {such u by quflfiunnaire} did turn nut to hi: rand"? Ag "ltappeanthatflwamciatiunbflwmcmpnhymdprmflhl hrluviur i: lfllflfllflt Wtaktr far thildrtn than fur adults?“

HM affix! Empaflljr with negative rulings. such a: Indiana. in.

man: flirty m predict tn pmmchl behmrinr than is empathy with juryfifl Emu: qfdmumi E l m empathic film!” can In: in unpltaflnt flu: "it may at time-n direct flu.- attL-ntinn ui' atrium-rm In W and [Jun actually dent-as: d1: liktliflmud Inf an altruiuic an."“'

Sufi mum W

W I mated nhnw: that a Impathflicfem-

pithil: Hiram: tan he dininguilhed Empirical” frnm I'IIIEI'IE' pfl'mnll

dim-1:55.111:rum. which is uficntcd to H1: rather“: mnditiun. dun lcnd In pmmm: helping hthlh'inr: that H: mm? :Itruiuimm Hut-tum.

HE

RESPIJHDIHG T0 w a s

ru-allfiumcharnufithatdfildrenwhummhedmdrmmm upcritntn suffer-rd h}! smut clu- t ‘ : Julia-squirm]? mart Emma:

hushmingmktmflunlhamaflmdmuliahnummefllingdmhid happrncd In tl'trmsdvu.

w q m Hail-"man hm nhm-td. mum? mugh. thlt une’s min-m and attitudes are dependent in pan an what am: like: la b: 1h: me: {if the mhcr'a. sufl'cring. If an: cundudfi that an an: i: In Hume, 1h: trip-nun may be EMPIII'I'F. Impathy. and help. If mu.- full

pennnfllhr respunsihle. the mult may be feeling! Hf guilt and then illtempt: tn mat: rcparatium Hum: hulds Eh: victim himscll' accountable. Empathy may be replaced by il'ldifl-Erflflt-E nr Han I'unlililitjr,IIT FinallyJ-f lfllll'llE'fll'H." Eli-E is believe-d u: have caused the distress. the reap-unu- may be mural angtr dircntd a: that third put-nun. Ram-tr than bring txptficnttd I! ll“! flip sick: of mpadw. this but reap-um may. a: Piaget suggutn, uh:

Eh: l'urm Inf " *vindictivejny' at wring any sun a! pain inflict-3.1 “Fill“ the

auflmr Inf {1|t Frolic“: sflfl‘efhwgf—a self-sustaining hflllflilj' in whim [ht flfiginnl mnctrn Fur II'H: victim in FurgntlcflJ” Fufingqf Emit-fluid: 111m: is mm: prflimirnarr fi'idtliltt that um pubic tuna-lull: is man.- likely In lead m pm-ancial hrhaviur when 111: mpflndtr aim has 3 arm: n!" pmal rtspnmihflity for hc-lping. Chi-ludren in an: lflfli'f urn.- E'hrm a prujrniv: In! inwhirh Lhry Wm allied ta- {In-nail]: haw a slur].r character was feeling about EflIIIEDIIE Elms”: [linIII“. The suhjntu when auributtd Harm-thing mumbling mpalhy. prmuc'nl behavinr. ur guilt In the Ehiflflfl' later pI'mrcd mare libel].r In

came in m a :Else's aid themselves- Th: strungeal predict” at" hclping. iflllfl‘flliflglf. was the altrihudnn uf guilt. whirl: is m in}: feeling a HI'IIE ufmpunsibilitf fur the pE'I'lfln in need. The mart-I'm” [uncludfll frmn this that "it may nut ”be merely a Itndenw in I'm! [11: same afl'ccu

n the other punun {in 1hr: IEI'IH ul' 'Hiial El'l‘lpifli'f'} that muliumn help-

ing} hm ii dispmitinn In [HI 3 rfipunsihility Inward the nther pmun'l wfll—bcing"”‘-—-a finding that tumult-.5 what that miner: fauna! in lhuii' Iludjr [If l'lli'llfilh‘"

While than: in a cunnitiw: dimenniaun tn the name fif reapunaihiliw. it is nut [ht same as—thnugh it may but emph'kalljr rdattd tu—p-tnpctline taking. what numE‘L-ctiw napalm. Tu Incline than am- any}: in” 'Enme pet-FL- m unlined. u Melvin urn-er and lick Rubin have lhmlm. tau- Hint 1h" iflflfltfifl minim tun-hm 1h” pun-anally mun! hflp} mun haw:- dnm- ”Hauling m m Ihrir fur. Tn Ihr fllflll than Lh'll- umpl'lun il- mug-rd in I gin-n lurk-Ir. Il-

itfljl his all-Ll“ “ N a p a l m hthlll'ml.‘ ta theft-r.

TI-IEEELFAHDTHEDTHEI

IE?

htlp is difl'u'uu li'am lilting W e i r ' s paint gram-v.1: Ilium-dill” he distinguiahfll Ham 3 "mural hnprnliw hand mltljr an 311ml. printiPIE!- sinn: {ht [Ellifizl' due: nun-l intludt an ifl'ctlivr :fimtmiun such is guilt nfmpnmibiliw may bl: linfitfl'l in a given individual and lint-I: flu: m wiih Wham lhfle 'u : panama] mnnfitinm

DEEFiEE all {if lhfl-E qualificatium ahnut the mpuhy-pmmcial mun, pen-pl: Who empathifl: spunlantnully as wt]! :1: than: whn are

upeciflmlly mange-2| m fun-nus an "Luther's :fislrtu'“ It: w i l l !

likely”. all Eh: being equal. In an an their feelings and do m m ; in behalf an. victim. III" an: rung-lands mpalhimllr In a victim's m- Fuup'l lung-[Hm plight min-r lhilljlfl-l In in immdiau: situat'mn. tin-n am- my well but inclined In Engage in sustained atrial: In impmv: that plight—

what Huffimn call: pmmnc'nl aluminum“? We cam-m1 knnw I'm sun: [hit jun because mint-an: feel: Ernpflh'y while mgagtd in financial bflhifiar. I11: mu.“ have helped humus III-f I11: empathic renniuufl'“ but i1 H-DLIIEI

m

mum-blew mandatinmmlcu thtrtin mmnrunn tub-dim:

mherwiie.

The mum: mud-2H camels-[inns hctwecn empaflajr and helping behaviut actually my ht mhltading. Thin is mu: fur 'lr'ill'imfl- mell'lnd-nI-ngv in] minimal” but illfl but-mun: a gnu-El {ll-HI uf pmlnrial hchifiur acturl wilhtml. the act-:31”: having 5:]! any empathic cunntctinn tn the victim. Sum: punpl: help bannin- asl' inwrnalizrd mural: walnuts and prindpln. much like Samuel juhnsum whn was said u:- have remarked: “I have nu: m mud} [filing far [I]: distress nf ulhtrl :5 mm: Il-Efl-Pll' have nr pretend

u: haw; but I Imuw thisi that I watdd d:- aLl in my pal-rt: in I'Eliatll't fliflm."1fl Empathy manr land In helping. III-En. but helping dun-I nut i-Illllnl'fl.r empathy] Whether penpcfliv: lilting "an int]!inclines um.- tn help is 111: tnpic Dr tlw “I'll. Ii-l'lflifln.

IMAGIHIHG WHGUT FEEUHG Tn :flk wl'wther undmtlnding the mini": paint nfviaw might nudge an:

int-u- pmsmriali actiun in. man: hruadly. m minim-e what it. mm In W*.-'|mmh-_-r pmfihliw i:- thnt pram-m int-lawn tan cam: mwmr. Elpfl‘ifllt: hill:

hrlp’mg other: {farm Ihir manna-I might I'IE'I'P lu- ncaltm-rmpiflit tmmflinn Elm tum. In lum. mnmagt unhrr pin-1min] but-haI-‘iur. {Thur unh- rmpinu] supp-ran in: Illis pmfihiliu- lhill I hut-r ul'i: a mall Hudr nf [mult- undermmlmn-s in hhi-rh il 151:: lbuml

IIuI. [Eh-m: 'I'I-‘DI'I'I-l'l'l nth-n tulurrd i'll'llf-t'i'l'p' rhiI-Ii-rn Fur turn Hut-ch mural-rd Lhr'n' mpnlh'r Hum an I penal-EH]; till-1""

III

IEEPDHDIIHIG TD m

s

htthcnthcr':mfityui&mutflm Fadingihluinquirtflhedwrfllt min-EH: usinflhhaluhrllutwidwmflwhlw. [In flutfltfltfiufl.

III: qucstinn is put [ht nther my Emmi) I have M y martian-ad that m-ciupnthjr In: bun dun'ihed by

Him: a: beinlmihlga failure In muthm' paint: uhimr. The pullihflifi' that pcnptniw: taking my bl: m m : In W . caring. and alluring tho hlu bun cultured by mural mflm. "[121: "rapidly to pull unnelf

in annlher pennn'l shut: in heifind mun altm'illi: behavior." {ht philur apart 11mm: Hag-:1 mam!" Sacral undies with childrt-n haw.- indeed imitated that chi-dun with high mare: an m u n uf ptnpflti'v-E

taking. a: well a: that: what: an: Ipecialty tl'dil'ltd in W “ ? taking fur txptrimenul pin-pm Hand to mpg: in pmncial hthaviur more frequIIEIIIIjI].r dun {hair PlenJ" In filth IDIIIE "mirtnigatnfl 1111:: argued that pfirpenhtuhinghflmmrefiaflethanmpaihynapfldiflmuf hclping hthaviu-I'J“ B}! may of flpiilfllififl. 1h: psrdmlngist Dunn's Emblpmpmnthuinuginhlgihtpninlnffitwnfmmntuhnmd:

l'ltlp cithcr can "pruduct I Hat: ui' :ugniliv: diritquilibrium. whim may

he flanked by Edging" or can ".IIiIIIIJIItE a m

IJI' mum-:1 respmuibil-

ilyfi'l“

Hmaflnfflwrumfluhuheenqlfitemmfimcflflflhm IhEII nut allul'lhcrtmmh alumina-11d will: thtumcmrtnfpcnpcflivc taking (Initial. cugnilive. aficfivc} ur the um:- mmureg an? pmucinl behavinr [ m mranting. mun] helping. flaring; and in an]. Some researchtr: have [nun-d that childrtn who an: skiflcd a1 pc-rlpcctivc lilting are rated by their Inch-HI a: in: altruistic ur mun: disruptiv: than Illa-if pun-11,1" but this my my a: much all-nut the teacher: in: abut]! the childrtn—and :pcdfically all-mu d1: fact that childrm whn an: pupuhr wilh their peer: and imlinfil In cullihuritt with them. a: parapcclivc taken tun-2| m be. engage in hdfl'i'ifll' that has been mined illegitimate in man

Arm-rim“ clusrmmm Wypitalh, childrtn arc I'll-HIE In wart alum- m' in W I : against each nthcr or bun-111.} fin mtutherhand. fi'penpecth: taflnghcunflrued aijlm: MEI!“ uf gathering infatuation album anthers. [hm il hthfl-m-‘fl us to ask why “demanding "mil-fl h: m e d tn predilpmr an: m can: nr help. It may he that ptrupctlive taking pruducu an empuhir: response than in turn. lad: m Fromm hthaviar. II' the anly taunt-tum is by way If empathy. dun there in nu manna pulpcnivt lilting alum: lhflflld have

1h: 53m: efim. Any nuIIIJJ-tr ul' miter: have made the paint that while :11: pmcncc nl' pcrsptnivu- taking ul'ltn [militants man]. altruistic. m" pmiflhehfliun. iii: “Manchmnflufafl ludlhcluvinadneilhfi

THEEEIIAHDTHEUI'HEE

129

dwhgtummufimunenfiflanflhimflynrprmhflyrmpfifiw taking in attic-r wards, in I'I-Eill'llfl' necessary um- :uflirjrm fur mum-flit)?!" II is pmaihl-E tn mderlund the fiber“: pfighl but rtmain Eleni]? unfl— W .

(hit nfllw nun: put-Hum (and dceIEng] pieces nfnfidfllct in luppfln uflhis phnmmmun is the fan lhal when the leading march-rm 111:]: as Hart" and Sela-Ian. ml am In gauge a child's ski]! :1 ptflpt-nh't

withing, [hay alien flu in in the cur-mt: if a camp-amine lash 111nm: provide “It-alum {If rmhre thinking empluyred in the service {IF fini-

nunnna and hing: an implicit qu-cuinm such an: I!” you are trying 1:: Hull-min: in uppnnunt it a gaunt. can 3m“ figure- um Lhau he i: flpenhlg 11ml] In nah: a certain III-[I'VE [and {hat he expects you In expert him la main: ill, and d-E'I'ill: a firmer; in light ufthi-l?"' Clad}! 111'“ i! a farm-y {mm uh: prmucial realm. In fan. the jump from mmpflilifln In lithium is I lfil. longer dun

111:“. [mm mmpflilinn 1a mick-3r m- umrighl aadnpathy. Il'nm: ran adapt 111E lather": pain! Inf view FIJI purpm-u 0f niumphing met him in a cuntfli. {HIE {an surely du- su fur pqnaes [if EnidJJInndt-{I manipulaliun ur radium. Again. this has. bun nun-d mpcattdly in nth: litcmum "Tu finhnifl require: ll mud] mil.- liking Ikil] a: In Empathiir." laid unl-

psrchnlugiuJ" Similarly. the philnsnpher Bernard Williams has obm d that "If“: inaighiflll understanding Mathew TIL-ding: Pflfltllfl'd by 111: Wlhflfif plenum ii palms-Ed in much the 5am: farm by the nadirIzil: m" CHI-El perm"; that is 11l way in which the 1:111:11 an: dininguiahtd fi'nm lhr: brutll IH' indifl'crtm.”'“ ll IEEIIII undeniahlt flu! mmptlitun. can anius. and barbarian: can place perspective taking in II'IE' sent:- uf has: thin inspiring EH15. But [ht write-r5 who haw: ltME-d thin paint gcncrallry haw nut sampled m damnalrale the irrelevant: fur dial-halite] pussihiflitifll ufimagining haw

sunbeam-else think: m- [EEIJHHI'H' film mammal-min mi Even though lhh all“ {an bu: Eflpfll'ltd m anther rt-alma, it may.. ink-randy hfl' an hula-Hus In praise-warm? anti-an in : situatinn that HEIRS tn call fur such Iflifll‘l.

Endnpaths flteptei and harping all the Eflnfllflnl, I would argue thfl : victim is man: Iii-Mb}.r h:- In hclp-u-d cur mmfmed by MW: whiz: inuginu: ‘l'hi'l hf il BED-ill! Ilrfl'uugh. how the firm-Id huh fi‘nm hi: paint a!" vim. [Inn by mmcnnr Mm due-g nut. M the very least, am:- is ten iitchr to h:

hurt by 3 W E : ulnar. u Fuhhich pain“ nut: Thtahilil'r w idnflifi Winn in nthfipeupk, and Hpfliflly fluahifity In HE Iiltfllim‘fl Hum the pair-Hike ul' Inn-Iliu- penunL] can 1H.-1 . 1 t u: Incl In

13D

IESFDHDDIIG T'D {III-[£15

Eli-Ill" Ill-EH undtflundhg. A. thikl with will Ihflil‘f 'l'l'l'lfl Hill“ In 13hr lwith an m In}- is In: likely ID man aggressively tn the attunpu chimp-Hr In Fla-IT with. magi-Lied my mmathfl-d who hclu min unduflundingJfl

Th: Errata likdihund uf heip‘nng {or um hurting]. I wnuld further

:nnlmi is. a mmqmnc: at" thu- Ftl'lpflli‘fl't taking int]!mlhcr Ihan a!” sum-:- nlher channel-ink Ihil is merely cunt-laud with it. It may be than

the Fragile m: wuuld cleaniht as prusnciafly unit-med art fill-D nmre likely In mpg: in pmptflivt taking for ulhctr mmm. and that mar lb: III-III'IE uf their live: flit-3r an: mar: liluulh.r than Ether! tn In: Ihil [kill in

pram-rial ways. but the at! {If PEHPEEIj'h'E' taking is um neutral- Tn cunlilifl‘ the cli'm uf um‘: aniun an mum-n: Eli: h ah'tadr m h-I: mun:

inclined In help than in hurt. Th: prubabilitr Um hclping actually will talk: plat: is flmher inmutt]. hflwfl'flfl. when an afl'miw dimensiu-n is addtd tn the act ul‘ blushing. Elm: air-fin: m [nah-E my: I]? the prupmitinn that summinmuld hath understand and [tel haw Lhc athtr fire]: are: rtmain indifi'flem

ur hind]: tn her. This harden an that incuncrivahlc. [ht ll-Dfll-EMi-El]. If my mind upturn yum Hurld and my bran vibrate: with it: tmnflmal impact. than I am an ynur sidt. I t ] ran trap-and m 3.9e ruliw bath

cagnjflwly and afl'ttlivclr. wry ljul: ha: hfln lrfl m china. In a ward, mpilhjr hills.

1

FEELING wrmflur MINE-JG Thu: mint-r innit 9f Flavdl‘s “nunempuhic infirm" is what h: call: “noninfcmmial Empathy": feeling lfllflflflfll eilc‘a feeling: withuul HIT].r

mnual reprfltmatiun Inf them.“' The paint here is that there are difffltm mum: m empathy. truly am:- a!" whim 'u. marhtd "penpcctivc taking." Hullinan [lfllfl that Empathj: Elm-Illa] aim (an be dut In ill inmflr TEllIil-I-

in; mhmiam [filth as mu m be {nund in min: mhnrnsL simple mimitnr. at any ui' Hutu] patterns at mnditinning and Itarntd a m liunJ" In nrdrr In match mun-run: that's lflflt it in: nut always nun-[my m um:- Lh: hmginaliun: am: can simply use the eyes and cars In pick up an nhvinus was at lht nimn'fllnnun.r m mull mic-Human 33mm flu: fllhfl‘:

past brhavinr. Few students [if the field timingI Wflfllti agree with Hindi fli'l. dttlaralifln that Ht'lPil'hT [which he called "fifmpadfi‘"l "always hu-

pflts...nihigmsnmcdtgrecflwauhudtuhhcpcmnwhumanth

mimrwn

THEEEIIAHDTHEUTI‘IER W

u

131

. paw-retire liking can add [am In flu.- HItFiII'JfiI‘.‘ re-

Ipnml" Ind parmit that rapt-me la b: mun: flfiihl:and mini-mud. “The war}.r uur of uh: cn-mlilinnal me—lhitfiing in mm: at" what [ht ndwr M b : {acting hind-tr lPEEifi-Ed dmmnntancc—prcsuppuul Illa: mm:

inugining i: taking place. Withuut pmptniw: “this lhm can he "ful-

ing with“ hul nu :fllhflllic “ft-db; inm." My paint is I‘I-IJI'. that that 'u Humming illegitimate :hnut what Daniel Elem call: "affect Illl'lll'll'mttll."

but unhr that. Ere-came il 12mm “largely nut of amt-u and almult automatiniflh" it mun he dilfiltfl'flished fmm :I EIJIIIH' vminn ni‘ madly. whid'l "invnlvcl IJ'H: mediatiun {If cognitive pmmnmwfl A: Hubert s-l'h‘l'llfl has painted am. 1 mp? 1will mm: up and kid: lam-tun: whn it trying. but this tines um Empathy maktJ" liktwilt I’m "umtnr mimicry." in which we Winn: m- rtcnil while watchhig lumen-n: Ell-I! be sub-

jectcd tn: :uddtn painJ" Thu:- inwluntarr m prnhtrbal rflpumci may represent the raw mam-rial of empathy—or primitivt p r a m m it. dflflnpmcntaflf speaking—hut nu man! than this. Haw when mafifir is med in a much branch-r H'I'llt tn intludc lupPflfliimfll. we have nu tmuhlt itltmifiying pmplc- whim: rut-spams ring.r list-tn attentively. but flifllfl'f henna:[ . t 1r: fill“. Thru- art than: t an uh: lunkuut fur mthing that muld but thmttning iur Ill-EH!” In dun-lathe; Thur: an: Hm: t farm: a ITIIdE and unweltnmr cumulaIiu-n an a victim (Hy. nun-mane ”Hiring [rum I1"! dtfllh uh laud nut]

rather than bring nlpunsivt m the ulher': nerds. 111cm are than: whaauun! I11: sufferer that they ”knuwjusl hm! you Ed" when in reality 111E]:

muld um haw: the Russia: idfl. And thtrt an! fl'lfllt whn Eda-pt n plinth: m m k dmflnfli‘. “if-cumcinmly ILL-ting ttdmiqufl much fl refittIi“: listening fl-IhE'I' dun inviting genuine cmmecliunJ“

Bu! tun ifw: In: :mmtd with nupathy- pray-tr, and with Irina-r: effnru m algal“:- in i1. m: mun mill but alive m 111:- pnuihiliw uf "panda-

empathy," which human in fiery EIPI'EififllI: nf vicafimm amnion in which Ptl'lp-E‘Eli'l't tiling play! nn pm. This i.|. rlIhtr a annual-1' dilim 111m [ht mnttmim: thal Waive.- liking men-15' adds an element at tflgnilji'e suphiuicatinn In unpathy. Wimnut Examining the unlit]: of the uthtr. mpathit feeling in “11ml? sclf-ufimttd and thus “NEH-fill? HE 111:- namr. '11:: tnltl'p-I'ilt i: rtdurtd In: an uprfirinn nf 35:11 when: fins-rem:- paint is. lane‘s awn mtmnritl nr cumin-ml Milt. If. in place at“ imagining thru- rral. Ill individual TEHE'E an the liflli'ltifln in which 11:: ufllfl happen.“ h} be. men her enmflflnal reap-unit will rtflttt link man: than 111: way she hcmlf wuuld map-and n: being in flu: situilinnJ" Altma-

tivelr. ifuhereli-fl m1 uhtinmnlflufflumher'laflm. 1't Milli

15!

IESPDHDIHE TD m

mm :15: at wart hm an aulunuu'c hitching ufmatimL Eilhfll‘ half. Ihr: i1 respanding m heat-1f. This diaflnninn ‘u dirmty relevant In that Frank: Hf npu'inwm tally inducing mpathic I'EEI-Elifll'll. In a techniqut nun Ill-Ed with lfll'l'lf uguhrily. Ezra Stufland m up the: mndilium far his nubjenl- AH uf Ihem watchtd 541mm“: clam Nil-[15E hami H3!- nrippcd m a nut-hint: Ihai they were mld strut-31:11 painfifl hunt. Sum-I! wen: ink! just In watch the man urtflflly. sum: 'll'flt mid m imagine- tht way 11:: was feeling. and

mm: wan: lull-fl In imagine themselve: in his plum. That: wart mu phrfiulugifll mun-J Inf empathy: tanstritlim nf bin-ad wrist-II Ind sweating of patina. Th: Em shamed : guild-r Man an Iht pm ul' than: in Lb: "'tmzlg'inc-him' tnndjtinm Ihe lflflfld was higher fur dam: in the “knight-ml?" canditiun. Tait-n mgfihu will: mm: 01hr:- um.

PEIIIEd ur unlr margimfly aign‘dicam dilfi-rmu mung mnditiuru. Elufland's tanks can bl: mad uni}! a: shaving that am: kind at deliberate an uf the hnagimfinn pruducu : mm;- 5mm 111:“ just “aiding"! [The W m {IL-sign its-EH was mill-Int}? imp-unanl by virtu: uf mphuhing that imagining 1h: min-r in diam-ml Rum. and a flaiiati: alumni“: tn. imagining uneIEIf in the nfl'll‘r‘: Ihnch HI Ethel-tr and Smith 5am] 5am: wrilm haw: unmwd that the imagint—aflf canditinn Hannah

ilf prnducfl a more inflame afl'cctim: reap-nun; thin flu.- imagine-him canditinnn. I am not prepared in ['Dl‘lfiE'dE this." but men if it were true. it :ImuId but kept in mind lhll inhumanity 'u nail 1hr: an]? criltfifl-I'I- fur milky. The in"; i: nutjun haw wetpy I Mam: 11pm: learning IIHII 3mm spans: has flit-d: it isaim Hhfll‘hfl‘ I am IEI'IH'HY mum:and reacting In I campamhk Inns. in my um: life or whclhrr I am manning In 'gmur

unique IE1. nf drummcu-dh:luddmnn: al‘ the tit-nth. the parficuhr Emma: al‘ this put-nun yuan hurt-d 1113: an: upedllly vifid Ear you. yum mdy marital Ilium-y and flu.- reuultam [win-He: ul‘ guilt 3m“ are nan fee-ling. tht my 1mm- iniu'al numhntu is finally giving may to real pain. [I]! I'E‘EPEIIII in whidl yum mnuinus [cars c-f being abanduned in: m In be [ 1 ' t revived by thin Heal, the relatinnship that mu and l haw: hid up “mil nan. and HI nan- Same a! that parlimlars I simply m h t n but. man talu- u-n rural: manning—rind. awn:- m flu: painl. rfifl relevance In fuur Mun] life—uni? in tail.- 1mm perspemiw. if] think II III!" :1 Earl. Duly [hm can am. a: Buhtr mid. nut fee-l “a general *1 law.- :hradyr dncrihrtl lam 5min me with adult: ml nut-rim :hfldrrn. smuthymn Whinnmhnflutfll hfa-ruhllm Ilrn'lhflnlhnrlhmmmfi mm m u m ‘ i p fl m m m m i fi h "3-. 'HI.

TEESlLFJ'LHDTHEflTHIE

I53

dilmmfunnrmlenfnfleriugJunhilpflfiwhrpnhumtplh fifth!!! mint?” itninn is an: variant Inf pmdntmpldw that damn sptcial lucnliun. This is a clinic defense medial-liar]. defined a: [he prunes: {If unmmciaulty atu'ihufing sum-2mm: ahuut nneself u:- anmhfi' pmnn blinks-E il'. wmlld ht tun-n painful to flint-whilst Mtnhip afthal feclmg: lhlfl. l-IIJII'IIED-lll! Whfl cal-mm hL-ar m admit his own waive inlpularfl my helim thal it i: eve-wan: else wlm is hastilt Inward him. In gummy.

an: is rupandjng to suntan::Isc': first. while in pmjcninn the arruw is reversed and an: "diumrcn" in Ihr: ulhcr win! in mail? pan ufunuelfi Th:13mm an: m diilfrrtm that an: might maunahl? my prujeniun

has naming whatflcr m tin with tmpalhrfi‘ 1ft! in practice the two can easily hr mnfincd. Pump]: may]r pur‘purt tn mpmd In Inmhut'l dim!“

when in fan me distress they are responding tn is their own. The selfahmrhcd individual may app-car I'm all the marl-d ta fer] when" pain circa thnugh ah: rally um fllhlrl u m an which her awn pain in pm-

jenedi (The manifestaliun of thia phemmenun in Familial. palficularhr in pathnlugica] idtmifitalinm brim:11t and daughtcr. has but: addrencd hf mml milfll.}]“'

Cami-firing the diflerem my: in whidl penple can much innmcr'l felt-ling wiflmul malty.r respnnding m lhat mhcr—Fccling with but nut firth]; fur—call: [a mind flu: clinic dtfiniliun of inmn‘fl'g! mm:

used by Ephtemulugilu: justified true belief. The first mudifiH is the pcnhztm an: hET-t. flint: my fur nu gmd mas-1n h-clitvc mmflhing la b: Lrut. and an: mm].r accidentally he [ML but am- [annm thereby be Hid m “lint-w" iL Thifi is mums-nus tu- Hhat is missing in empathy liar Mdfitmpifllfl Wilhfllfll'. [wrap-nah: taking: and: Perl: wilhnul any jumbfirltiun fur thin feeling. IFiIJ'I-Dut an].r m uf what [he Healing mum fur

the cabin. [flungrinilnglr hm: and: would [tel—or actually hat Edi—in Ih: um: liluililm in nu: withuul it: mu. ufcuurfl. It is an: mum: ufinfunnatiun

ahuut the udmr’s Iiifl'f Iranian. pmfiding that it is taken an nu mar: than a pmfiliflna] hidiuliacrn, P'fll'filpl- mm: 5cm at" uscillatiun hctwcen hung:ine-nlf and imagine-him can b: haipful. But what nfim m m happen in that genuine. mhtr-uriflnlcd empathy gives way :fler a woman! In

dwrlling an ant“: awnm u t t ; flu:nan: by fetling Jul-r jay. but Ihi: calls up a mum? {1f 111: Ian time mum-tilting limp-crud and dilighlfill happen-d m unmlfi and sauna the min-H: reality has slid my. Hufl‘mm tall: this "cgnilfil: drift,"1"' and Ill: input! is that fll'lt'l- capacity Fur

mpuhy in : fimflinn nut nulyafwhflhfl um cm rup-ondta album but

IH

IESFDWG '11] m

ammmmgmm.pfl1hfin§mflwm uric-marina. flntdhfincfiunduthmdymmmmmdfiimpithdm

mm: m which 1hr tip-Brim that prumked 1h: atlwr'l affirm: 1':spnnu is univtrnl. Luci us assume thai Stmhnd's Iuhjcclu had respondcd much mart strung]! in I11:— imaginr-Hlf {miditiun than in fl'I-E imagine-

him madman. 'I'hc fact i: than mid: fi'um quantitative M m : in mailiviw. jun lhflul migrant Humid man in [ht 53m:- way u:- having h'u hind burn-Ed. Dm- Elpcrirnru an: interchangeable and I might a: Ire-II pm my!!!" in 3mm lilUlliflfl a: knight: 3mm minim. Thu: h't ntcd mm” fl'ilEl'i-‘Dll by which lfljudgt the upadw fur mam-t empam1r: haw will one can mpalhiu with flu: nth-2r Hhtl'l his siUJaLi-zm i: uuuidc at" nm': awn marina-.1” Hare the hnagimdnn in: 1b: liII'l-I': qu: mun 11f cmpatlw, A: a 1mm lhaw: In wart hand even In appmlilllalt .1 genuim-Iy Empathic reap-um: In a woman who hfljust givtn birth.1 may lumw wlut pain in. hm I have new-r knuwn th'u ID": If pain [Dr flhiuiliun}. Still. a:

Schtltr emplmized. this due: nut mm that flapmthy mun h: mnfiflcd to what we haw pmamflf Imprinted: Wtfln have: Iiflifmdinmdim mkfimiuninjwnrmrmfl.flnflurr with filth!!! thlir Ippmtialiun {If Hahn. and m mu Izmir: Emu numbn- penal-1'1 miimliun :I'nr : third pal-w. will-Ian: HIT I’H'H'ifll “mph-d ILhiH particuln’ H quflilj' g r a m : htl'a-J"

Inugim- : cunthlmlm: an an: lid: m univenal {IPEI'i-EflE-El. what: imagine-HE will :14: [timing hand]: an 111: Edi-ET aid: are things an: bu nu! Ptflflflifl'f muted. where imagine-him in ubviuudf n!-

qzfirfll Hiring binh}. The first thing in ht paid her: in dual 1h: interming cases an: in the middk' ldtfllh at" sputum}. flu: can gt: away With treating lint rump]: as a generic grief. but nnljr I1. tnnIidcmh-l: can In

thc inttgfily asl' [ht empathic reap-amt Seqpnd if ant”: capacity tn empmlfiae mmm ht enhmxtd by dcvtloping heapectiufiaking Iii“, thus ll least an: an try.r m bra-adieu [in ring: if nil-ET: nprfiencn. Th: mun: fitqurmly an: can man "I've been mere." the higher the prunin-

hfliw nl‘ managing smut-thing dust In an mlh'fl: tunntctiun—at ILL-art :I-f 1hr: imagine-Leif “duty. The vhifln uf empathy nfiered here in an: that might be said In flu" [rum in tfljfllflllifliil rathtr than an tmnliaélist Lmdtramnding nl‘ hum life. in the um: that 5mm had in mind when hi: said that flint-mu

precedfl fllElIEE+ Whm m.- lalh aim“: the feeling ufjnr. Iha't i: under-

'l'l-I'ESEIFAHDTHEDTI-IEI

135

stun-dis ”mullingflut midrib-2|; mm a: Illcilmanlialiun uh largu'. print utqunr nfjay. Philip‘: hippiflfll i: an ”tribal: cf Philip. and it. cannot pumped? bl.- lmdmtnnd amide of Pllilip'l Imiqwl EH uf [incumHancfiJua-t as flu: phenumennlugist: mid u: that Minimum in altar: tunarimunflq Willing. In any afii-n mun ll'lfl'fl- but mu :1 m i

aflcct. Duly iw-heg'mm mnmue it mamm.pmmnlingm speak plaIc-niflfly ant-1r. duti- il appcar whit-It tn dhpcnn will]: ptl‘lptttill't liking. Naturally it in PEIII-IHJIE [and pritlicall'y wry uIEfiJI] In ablfl'anfim

Hfiflp': c m : E'IF-El'itnt'fl' ufjny and Nun's Experience ufjur and Eran-i3": flpEfi-Enrt ul'juyr In try.r h:- find “It tumult-n dcnuminalnr. But it is imparlanl to remember thal "tiny," per IE. in III absuinim dn'iired I’mm that particularflptfimand fllhE'l‘! [item-em. ltilnumurercal than than: numhtr thin. a mutt-pl. that is hand an nur fill-I‘m with the: Frmch li'iulrl.r din-e flallflighu. thru- Emu. and III) funk.

Fearing: in: pal-11min: m the ptnun Him feel: them. and empathy. pmptrhr undcflm-n-d. is a my a! taking acmum if that fact. But it is :Im a way In: an: penal-J tn aclnuwltdgt that this ruling {If [ht miller in m u d in his {aha-mu. This ha: barn implir'lt in the [meaning {Ilium

sinn: flu: mph: htfl': is um pain bu: in pain‘ and [mm my wrap-rim:1h: Earl. [[111 it man! he rtdunrd In my pain in highly.r significant. Thtn: in

nu- IvThuu rtlaliamhip unit-H Ihtre in : Than. said Bubtr. unltu thtrc is ill] “afirmaljnn 411' III: primal? dun-p W of III: amt-1'." m l Lupin mind dutmyplrmerinidiflngtmin”diflirtnl. flltfllilflf

dim-rem Erma 1111.!d in the dtflnl'tti. uniqut wary which it put-nub: m him. and I attlpl whmn Immune-12.1mm inmflmml m m m [lflflflhilflfllh-EFEfl-fl-nhtil."l“

Thilhan beenlhtlargtrpainl uflhhthapitnpfllptfliwufingflfl mpalhyflluwmmapprttialemuyuumnmmemdlhmwcmhc mnnrfltd in Ipilt HF that. Engnitivdy Ind EEEEli'ITEhI'. H: can mnlu'uct thaihfidgemmthcabusandiechuwflwuniquemhflthinhandfflh and makuawufld.1hi:isammtnftmndflandimpifltinn.fiuflw tfidmmufwhlwhmmuflwlutflmnhc.

5 The Self with the Other m w m m u w a m m g WIMHHMIMHHHM.JHH1 fl m m m m m m m m m M i n k - “ fi n

m m l l fl fl l

Parr. nfwhu make: a InmuL-iting. a friend flflfilling. an audmr milieu;-

‘mm : dhner mmpinicun entcnaining is 111: fact that their apt-fiance: an! difl‘ercm [rum ywn. The-rt an: a: many my: Inf acting and matting, cumming and cmumflng.1! than! Ir:pmpk. and it in tin: irreducible name-mus af 111m pmplt': way: that hr: find inn-imflnHI. an mher mils-inns, Hana-ring. Wlfliflg, appalling, Pmpttlivt taking and em.

path]: rtmind us fifth: Email Eur! nfmlflljplicitym whilrhelping m In imagine what it mu.“ ht lit: m but this particular lather. the am sitting ligiunvctErtJhiupflmnwhHMEbnwafllmnaL Em, Lhmagain,mqrhrnntahnvrnfl.flflmune1pcflrdainfihri—

lies—shared idinsynrraniu and upinium—in 1h:- Iii-NH nl' hm urangm

Hand um against a background uf differences. And. just as ill'lpnl'lll'll, figure and W i n n httfltrltd: tlu: diflcrtncutan happrtcintcd in lightufthefandutdtiipenunwhmnInnnmhfirslul'allahaapnm

Ithlhisthalallnwamm hfldgtfliegap.tuflclin1uandimagjm.Wm w:- flmdanwnmflr din-similar. wt malt] scarcely apprehend flu: uthtr': Exptfienrm I21 Elan-E [rumba-s i1 inn:- mtr awn diilcn. Bubtr remindtd

us Hut Wilhfllll dil'lanfl.‘ there in nu rdatinnslfip. but it is 315:: um.- thu withaut shin-d h u m . than: ii nu awn-taming 1h: distance. That fin: and I belong In [II-E um: Iplfl'ifl is a reality In ht ward. 1 1 : : d sauna: mnuivci human-ant? m which it. refit“

m z s m m m m

151

i: imp-mam In m m n lam we mun: that th: unhr alternative In dehumaniring in doing run-thing a! all. We wuuld {Ia WE“. mm: agaim m imagine a cuminuum hum. h: the ma pain: i: manhunt: ufnn'y Lhnughl

Dr [filing ”gar-fins 111i: issue. The fin: extending tn flu.- L-fi rrpreamt: imam-lug dtg‘m: ufdthumanifltinn:1:: 1h:- right, 1111.- Erwin: apprefiatiun Fm- Ihe nil-m": humnit'y. Let us begin with a dam-r lac-k at 1h: nEflillihrfi—Lhfl filifllfl war: by which In: mum-H regard uur feflmn a:

less than human.

THE HUMHT ID!" H

m

Dthumaniaafinn "Heliunril flaked ufl' 'mtn New Age l w m l i m .IIIJHHHEiI'Iit piyclmlnfl

nflfled a Ihflflfl'hlfill critique uf Lh: discipline. II. drew From exjsmnlialiam and writings in [11:- Enslcm traditimu, than the figumus raisinnism uf the nan-Freudian: and the gnawing diirnmfnn 11F 'Il'ifififlli hflc’mdfll Fifi innaliw [ht-urinal: and researchers- [1: misuiun was naming IE5: Lhan the

ram: ul‘ this human being [mm lhI: rigié. pusitifiuil: itilt'fltf: nfhchafim~ ism and fmm the dark. hatinrtivist detmninilm 11f mythimlysia. 5mm:-

thing uf nu: palmtial is uvcflmked+ the humanist: Il'fl'llfll. uur flirt: {Emmi-um Haunted inm mu. by than: traditiun: and aim by 1h: uncriti-

cat and ficfllifl' relianttflll llfltlmll science methnd: to find]: people. Tu uperimeni m1 subjefls 1with: the fll'l'IIE tau-min] methudnlngy uscd In invrstigatr mimhu and quarks. In mm inlangihlfl and! a: law: at

nativity fll' anguish aver munality Emu quanlifiable variahlfl. i: m flhifit pit-chitin at the mat ul‘ rcducing us. fragmenting us, hfliling m. dawn. Tu are the perm“ Ffifllfll‘flf as a muhil: inl'mmiliun practimr at a dfltl‘ I'DEIE'I‘II with vml turd! {mas-camputfl. mamas-nit} is nut

an}? In Et'talt an inadequilt Ihmnr but aim tn- din Viflltnlff m- th: reality nfhumin lift. ‘Wilh flu: IJEII ufinlfllliunl and :rtdmtiala. lhcm‘ia-u and

researchm “rm said In haw drained the harm-nines: frnm the humans when“: hehauicrr Ind mmjvalinn [ht-y pl'flllm'fll m :Iudjr. Tr.- he HIII'E. thin pried: culllpafl a varied IE1 nfcfitiquu inn: :1 fl"!

phrases. The I'Efilflfl I include il here is that this line nfcfitidsm Efl-Eflill'flf chargcd Phil's with an insidinu: Farm ul' dthumanilllinn. Thu: implimw [inn is that uur humanity in II rial: not an]? because (if the attiiudn uh“ b1.- individual: but alum beam: ul' imtimlinml farm. {11' mum. iti-

[3-5

RESPDHDIHG TD [3111135

drnficp-sychnluflmprmnu unhuncnflhncfurtca,andhardiylh= mm: p-rumincm nf 111m, Dru Ihhih immdialcly nf Ham's, criu'q'm ol'

the dehumantting hum-ct uf capitalism. :- critique that ha did In]! {unlimm hi: tarly philmnphi: llama-“rpm. Th: muttlmdical dry pram: of Gapt'flfi mu, :uddtniy Erupts inlu I pun-inml: indictmtnl at I quilt-m in which

than with p-ttl' uplnil than witlwul it: "Th-fir mutilate the lillmrer inn 1 fiagmmt uh man, [In-grad: him to the Iflftl ul'an appcndagt 11f: marlin. - . . mafnrm his tilt-Lima! imu Hurting-limit. and drag his will and child hmuth II'III' wheels [If thtjuggcrnam ml" capital.” Any “'11t

ul' satin] critic: haw: calla! uur aucmiun m [hr cfl‘ctu uf mind-numbing lab-3r. thflly humucmi: flfglnifllifln, the idcntificaliurn nf filth individ-

ual with a highly specialized task. and 111:.- mciflyr's relentless pursuit uf Itchnulugifi] did-tun. 111cm! interlncking phenomena have been db niedhrnnmmul‘critiflfarlmmnjuhumnfhum

beings. cumuflmcmflfingnnamflflmwhmwrnmfl: m m : In a label. an nbauaninn, m‘ :- s'mgie FEHUI'E. Whm 3 mm

judgu 3 mm sir-Id}! an the basis of her :pptmm he is engaging in an an that id: um mtrthr mist but dehumaniflng, an: walla-gnu: In the idmtifiutiun 11F sunken-n: lull-1y an [ht basis at. say. maIJHmmifill ability-r. 111m handlfl. {“Ihc math gtnius," “the an: widl the meal hadr‘? are cum-mien: and can turn mmt m but!" acctptc-d by 1h:- unt w hbelcd: it it bitter EH flt‘lt'lIdf tn hr.- idcntified with I ningie L'I'Iunrtu'inljc than nm II: have any.r identity.r a: all. But this tum-why rtductiuninm leave-.5 u: with

kutlmnawhulcandflifltfm [Eillhanihlflnan—Efltfliflhtm linm mmlm an: hit-11d“! tn EH: flutcring.

A: the label: III-mint In: benign and 1hr.- dehununintinn m u m . hr: begin In wimm a cyclical retail-nu between auimdr: and

bchav‘mr. “Him m.- Will-Bf punple divuwd nl dignity. dufiluu and mfltfl', we relate In them as suhhuman and thu: jufilifp' In fl-lll‘llfl'll'fl nl‘ turning away fmm. In turn adding in, lhcir min-cry- This in. [ht m haw [ht affluarnt of [lam].r Indium. cultivated andi Fraud Inf thtir mum! rtfinemmt. {an HEP-l [and pmfil: fru-m] the uppressiun nf an Efllil'l' clut-

nl‘ ptn-plt. tuctd by npprmiun la a ragged and P M aunt, deprived nl' uppflflunity m be mlwmin. than: lamp}: mm: In bl: sum as

dun-ring [hair plight. Strip away dieirhmnaniw and they um mwurl'hf a!" bdrm Ural-rd as humans! 5mm.- pmpit l'El-ill htlping and III-En {lg-hm:HIE vinim mjmtify

thin derhiun. mhwm I smpml;111mm mare 'm flies “rand gmup thauwtmight imagiHcfmam m u m m i - wit-'5: Inhtlp.

WWW-Imam

13'!

Humantmfinnhflflflndemmdbehwiurflntmuuhemmm did. I f : human being i: NEE-ring. I want In interVEHt: jinn! I am nut inlervm‘mg {fir since my“ interventmn is inn-Emifl}. I decide that this mus-t nm bramfi‘tring humun firm; afmrall.Tu1hia cue-mmhalw In: rating in. W a l l y . a t u m ! In (“If prom-[rial m- unpathic impulm as much as widen-ti: of nu: sallm'nlit'}r to mr tie-.5 with amt-rs. II is III-cum: um inclinalinn to: help has bun [nun-and that m nf u: mpnnd. in lEIf—dEf-flfl-fl'. by denying the reality Hurt- m.I Philip zimhardu saw Hmflhiflfl at this mrt happc-ning with {:11t m. pumpkin :ht sandaluni-nu. “After run-puma] upmm [In mummin dimers]. wiIh impmvement slaw m- nut apparenli the individual feel: helpless m {flirt 53ml]:r thing-E and vim-rs Inth put-apical minim] hurdcns. tn be.- IEfi'i-fl'd with-u: perm! in'ur-zvrlwIL-ma-rnl."1| Hun.- dmmmicaliy. adieu lII-E Nazis began their pram uf Emilie. main]: wimu Ft]: blip-Ht“: and helpless. ta slap it. "111m [nadir-gs, which enmuragt selflcmtcrcd— m:and manna] distancing From gum. providi- 5:1!l sail for pan-ivity.“ as the miners saw it.5 In hath example-5. the absence ufmnncclinn tn

fiflim: i5 simultanmualy a must and an cfl'en ml' dthumniutiun. This Vitinu: Err]: uflm null: put mere inn-Him: and Inward In: Elf nutrighlz vinlentt. The farther an: mum in 1h:- dirrtctinn a!" “tipping“ individual ar graup ul' hmnanhy. the mar: litmu- an: feels to dn harm; [lu- mm': vinlenl an: henna-lea. 11']: man: likeiy that am: will dthunnnitt,

EHH'III thtfil'ifll haw: multitd an this Icll'vruinfflrring lamina.“ and i: has burn cnnhmcd unpirimfly by 1h: well-hmn plychnlugifl Alla-cu Bandun and iii: mime-l."

541 much is well fliiblilhtd. But it may be that there i: Il'lfl'lh-El' mull]: iign at" a dthumaniflng such] system urn: which I HER-r I'lfl'IIT a: purl.- specuiatiun. Pet-hag}: when m.- cannnl he a!" hip when we [cal

wen-.rhtlmcd by dthmnmizh‘lg Emm. we dhphtt mlr mpnnsiveneu m nthn‘ 3pm. Thus. the Etta!!! 1h: diminuu'nn uf : sens: Inf shared hmnannuu [uni by film-Isiah. nf rtupenfill nr tampauim mung-m

u!" anther with 11h:- murc Hm is mad: um anhmds. This is nut tusuggtn that an imam mlat'imuhip mm haircut-n a giwrn individual? cuncern fur hum-.111: and Far pats: flu! fact that Elam Baa-hit was a flamed cat mum-er pram nmhing. But Imnclhing af [ht II'JTI may can]: an a larger stilt. A such? ur hismrical pcrind regularly W e d by tic-humaniuliun man].r be In that EIIIE'IEII. prune m a prtntcupathn will: inbuilt.

A television dutumenury was hmadmt 3 EH mm agu :Imut Ila: mccuflun at a black man in II-fisaiuippi. "I'm.- prugmm permitted vie-I'm

tummrmmlflmmm.m HatthhiIn—indtluprimnnflflamuud

Ill}

REEPflHDIH-G TI} {THERE

him—pmpfiflfurhi: deaths! flitifltflftflntf-nimflneshm Him-flute

$ a 3 nbhit being and m but “In: gas chamber in prep-Initial! fur killing flu: mm firmer th: Em airing if the dummy. the plimn

mien fluid hEFE'EEi'I'E'CI a great deal nfcflficfl] mail—“mare Elfit . . . m all-nu: thc dcath at" th: bunny rabbit than at" Edwal’dfll Thi: Ha: alm lb: ttprricm nf Francil Furd Euppnla. dircflnr nF TIE: Will-r. "Thirty

people were shut in the mafia but pcuple unly talhd flhfllfl “um-it! In animals: “ hr: mid an inlmitutr.“ Anya“: who has waldltd Ninthfl‘ {Supp-n1: 5111,, M W " Haw, in a crnudfll I'JIE'EIIEI' may have unlit-ed a

talk-cm: and htmfirll mam: aria: fmm the indium: during a aquamainwhidladngialhmwninmariwr-ihimufmum, inthtcummaf wide-war, ii'l'age human blundlmhig lhll cam nu an: In min a 1315!

{if mum dinshilprccisclythcmnffinlmctinflwfilmsflntinurflmmil. Ell]! up I Hi." nl' dell-[15H against il—I ml] will] il hulcjult big Enough Far a puppy m wiggle Elm-ugh? This is very likely the use. and my pain! isthatsnmuhingvtryaimflarmayhappmanawidflsmltinrmllik. Hummer: Lr-teduleuflunhuman.maninuhmtrcaledmmnrt than ininlill. That we mmm uuruiiru album tlw fan: at" unn- uu ur

Wmttd Eih'fl is. all Ihingi being equal. a simple and cmmumdahh: tIpl'flI-iflfl ul' uur nun-bl:- impuht m help tht htlplrsn. But all thing: an: nut Equal: penple gnu hungryr while we lavish can: P" pets. Hare-aver. lhil attcmiun m the needs {If Infinfll! i: um math nil-e mun: luxury itfl'fl 11:! hr tnnlflalfll with widenprmd human misery. It i: a deliberate. mutiny

lflmd attentium and as such 1h: intriguing 1:II-:1~.I.1Iihilitgir in mind that it is prctisclr : r

m In that h m minty."

Immunization

Hummingahnmmrdchummflufiunflulmnfluflnmpafitiflhnd m

i

: Emu. Ihfll it mid Ice-m m [nu-lbw than these r m 1will have

'Iiflwhfltdinnipmplcnphmthth'aflflfinn [Britannia-an lhthlm [ll-Ill! IIIIH'I “MW." Sin-:1- mm: at u: Inn-II In Ih'mt Inf numhfl Ih'u wn. Inn. 'II III! III: 'll'lil impilliling 'H'lllll mind: i: in m 'l-‘Iilfi'fllfl'fl ill-nu! lhr “ ? 'lr I'H'Ii nul' mm infirm-:1:- I'll!- IH'IIfl'I badly and. m hmlr 'Il'nl.‘ ahnuld IiI‘.-I:I m but trfllrd. End: if imam-r:

mun-um: [ur Inul' raw-inn I'ur Ihr: innings-ed. thin in mailing .115q mu Hfl'h' DI' the Imltmud Including WITH}: Hi“: In: hmghl mm Ihr dam'ltiII-r: {hll um lip-Hit! i'l Talk-n ur camptcd? [In 'Iu'tl'tliflil : I'Iununulfis Hull-"“1111! sympathy- h-raua: uh: "ELL-d"

{m lulu: I'm befall-m her. w e :is “

M in: ht: Mel-Eng? "flu mmlhrifl at” lulu:

Hannilflfl hwnfldafiflffiflhfidflflmflmumfllhflmmfllfifl lfiflfll‘l‘l-il'li an M n .

T'l-IESELEWI'I'HT'I-{EUT'I-IEI

HI

mhtaddmurdfl'fltmlnrrhmnlniltnunflm.1hlpfindplflm mfidc am.r mach Etna-run] dungu are aha applicable u:- alu-rhig indhridualimtractium.flntway uranmhcr. ail ufflwmdcal with my: ufmathg mthtr PEN-fin a human I: diflicull u pnuihle In fluid. 'Sludiifl Inf aggre-Hiun have midi-d at last flllnEElEilr genmfizitium m1 amiss: n1“ nu: nun and at" nfllcn' humanity launa the likdiimd thai aggrtumn will occur "I" The cunfidrnc: In this finding impel: u: to Lrym fifizrtumhawmwhandmainuinmhanamqwm bring us lflgflhtr. Gm app-mach m rcdudng figuratiw diluntl: it In rtdulfl.‘ phyla] djlmnct. Virginia Wunlf may have overstated thing: a hit when ah: man: that il in “almost flap-ambit.- m dislike In}! one if umlunflsl at [harmful but her paint is basically mum Unltss an: it 5W It uhjtctfl'ying what at in 11:: grim at some flIiJH-flltlll passion. merely taming: [ammfacthrithlhcuflwrfln havctheeflen ufmahngher blunanneu sharper and man: illicit“. Marc afien than um. an: in inchnfll tn mm: For suntan: whn is hurt in [ht HEd’L Rivalry and cruelty thriw: an dililil'ltt 1 : t dilunn: allow: u: In turn pcnpl-e- inm ahuractiuns. Ell-die: by Hilgram and alter: have :11a that aubjflu art In: Elm-1y u:- givc nmre Illa-ch m- pmplc wham 111:? can we, bar. and much ([1. Eflfinfi I 1'. The Ifll r m 1hr.- mhn-r is. tl': [fli- willing 'III'II' are m bun him—prflhdrhflluuhiammdifliflfltmdrhunmniflmmwmwhn i: palpahly. undtniahly human. (I: in in this Ipirit that an: paydmingilt prupnmfli [hm 1mm tantra] ntflfllialm‘! be requirtd m ullr. m mh athcr in 111: nudeJ“ The Mary is mld Hf: {cl-rural group Ihal [ml cunlml {If

Itrlininthtflflhcflubdlirn IMfiandpr-rparedlnmtumnpuimgfi u an example. lttnnduhgludryfllnwtdhimmdinlfllfimlkuflmhh Emily. In I.III1 Inn-r [lb-E pure-113:1] reflmed cm hi5 IH't. dwelling an hath mpl'uhmenu all Ihurtmmingn. . . . hflfl mmpleting the [filth his. upturn druid-ad nm In tutu]:

him. Inllfld mrrllmanmhn‘haplrn human:- hithnm alluringlfimmcmnpnu a parting Inter.“

EWMMdmtmfliflgmmmrfiflflcflmfllflflm cunvtnaliun Him a stringcr incrcases the pmhahility that and: will when-w qllfl'lfl’f help that per-sun." Giving pump]: 1h: appanuniw m [mummi-

fite with 23:1111th:! before play-ring a Iabnmtunr game. mtanwhile. makes it mun: littlr Lhal they will play:I cmptntivrly rather than jun min; In nuflmite pmnml Fill.“ Medium pruymm that bring mine: and duhficthmfncemflfl have hfldlhflflfilflflfkmflmmm

HE

REFEREE“; Tfl cums

dich- :uinm and victim: mahmfiunfluirduh fire-Huge.“ Finally. Hfl'llhil directflpmmmmhmhunnmmfurpmpkwhufl mpan‘tf I'm empathy in mm: fully.r dad-11nd: fur than. "dirm pen-mu] m u . . . iii not mail fur building hand: ufur."" In chapter 4|. l argutd Hut il' ptfip-Efli‘I-I'E tilting is tu- htlp 1:: capture flumfiqmrnlitrufflmmhflfitmmthemmheduapmtfllnf

imagining him. nut Mum: m l f in his situation. Hm I want In qtufil‘y this: if :11: uhjcctivc i: to retain cur war:- a mm: of 1hr.- nthcfi hllfllflfln-L'Il—‘Hi'lfli “walnut-31hr!- lhan haw HE difi‘cr—Ihzn thtinugineIttf “fill-ti? may d:- nircehr. The fan that an: p-trm-n rtgaxd: analhcr fl similar In hersetfwifl [end In faciliutt Etllpilhjl'. hm tnrpmhy and putrIplrctiw: taking Illa can pun-nut: lhll'. lens: nfuimilnrity. If] mflenun haw I hauld mm in Inulhfli shualiun. 1 cm In magnh: that I my Inf-E“ :mfld he in hfl' situatiun. Tu I'EilillE that I Iva-111d likely be warm

with dupairh In unlit: that lh'u islilclyhnw shtisftcling—mdpflhipn it aha means lhil I 1will share that fell-Hug. In anyr Elle. 111i: prm

facilitate:1h: magm'fiun 1 1 l we have in c m . 511E“ Harder [hill m l : whu are ashtd tn imagine the-mantra: in Lhr: film": plan:- are In“

Hheiytublame lhitpfllflflfil'hilpflldiflWIIflm-flflukfl‘flflm with mmpauiun." Th: mtidm: m M a l i a n . than. '1: m- appredm not unruly the

mhtr'n dittint't'nrt paint {If View but aha In 3e5- lhat other as a human Iuhjttt—and In magnite [hit m: man: It :Hfl'ibutt. This "cmutiuml rtiliflliunul'fllr unity firmlflkifldflli speck-5"" ‘u nun mun-hm m ht mplmrcd an Ipccial uranium: it in a mud: uf being in the wufld. a may nf living. It mugts [mm 1h:- ackmwltdgmtnt that mat-“s mining— out] mm Was—depend: an aflirm'mg flu: subjectivity of ulhm.

Such : hmnanizaing :fimalinn ha: [ht tanner:- mnuqumce afrtduting mmmgfiftfluaflmmph-InHL Butilisahnmlmdin Hull.

Tim's flu ' W “ Thar: InmhnhinglthmagI-qmslhatu‘efitthgnnmydut.1hfirfi, whithldippaduutufanfiflpaper,hnfatflmgegii5hthalid11m-

'mg ImilE and :hmaldu-lengih hiir. and 1hr i: warm; : T-ihin rmhhw mindwilh U1:m:'fluukfludfurfllfl5"llnfllalflltphumfur Hung Lim¢.1md1mgfurduninh¢rhctmuphin thisJ wanderhmr W a m n I W H M M M h m m m m

THE. 5E]! WITH THE. flTl-[EE

H!-

Huuldpullthh :ltin umhflhtadhifllcmnmingfinumahlfshchu HE'III'H' knmlm I hmnmemil. 111'. Eur that filillfl'. lfllfllflllfl! dying nl' In

incurable disarm—hm sumeflling uther Illa“ .1 simple lack of Elpnitnct

h a t r m i h m a n d I ammmfirciyaumlhnnwwhalhiu.

My Eye: {lnTl m d}: strand phat-:1. which il'fll'lI-Edillfllf “ml-mu HIE iEHEI in i1 did til-E first time 1 saw it T'EPWEI’LIE'Ed in a flhfllfll‘lf article m1

dthumanizatinn-“ It is a phutu flf: sumhem lam-ch mun-h: a mud nfwhiic

men and W “ in the furegruund and the batik: (If hm black men

hanging Emil: :i lJEt :bmr-E and hthind them. Eight fl-l' IIiJI-I.‘ air the whit:

limp]: are facing lht amt-ran, neutral ul‘ thtm smiling a: if they “tr: It i Fifllin [me man paint: with his index finger in lhefiewrr :Imuld be Inn:

run-1 u:- miss the ma dead men ur his mm satisfaninn with what has bun

dune In Hum. In Ll'u: luwcr [tit-dam] thi: is m: arc: I hut-p Humming,r Ila—lunch a yuan; L'L'HIPl-l'. The? are hmh [uniting :1 me and grinning.

Hwy l-E'E'l'fl Friendly. 1h: 5m! uf [alts I might enjuy having dinnfl With

Shtiahuldinghflrighthfimdbthindhflhflind htilgflspinghfl thumb aflminnatelf.

Haw can this hEHHmHE-Ed tum! null an]? duthmniifl hum

mull}r that E, D, and E can watch while mi; happtm. bul Ihat (I can hold nnm D1: thumb. This pushfl my imaginalinn m il: limill. Haw can [hm prop]: be casual, rflaxtd. Maud whtn Hm m m [whirh Her: ptflpl: I shun “hill: bid-art] art swinging from a find-:11 tree um firm-tn Eur. imy? I cumin-n.- tn- walch their fire: him“? a: lhnug‘h il wen.- lEfll-ihl-E tn huge that t: gnwily III wirnt Ill-H-r have seen. what they haw: alluwed tn happtn, hill htgin In :inltin and mini: :l-I'I'Iflfli will vanish Hurt my eye: Ind their film 1IIIIriII lurn Mini: and he 1will drap- hEI' thumb and {ht}; will

realize lhty an: 11111 cm :- dale but present at :- murdrr- At [ll-E same filth!

rht tflflflgfl in 111: lam-arr phmu will Inc-Ir. damn it htr 1 : t and 5h: will blink I I'm lime: in dishtl'lef and. very mfily. 5h: will mumble. “flh my Bad" and stand fi'flIEl'l with hurrur as [cars well up in [1121' erg-1 until

luddtnlf sh: rum hen-Ell" and rip: ufl'fltt T—shin. {inferring 1h: mhari

airmen: nl' nflrdnm In the flhH-Eflil'f {If appliuding mil: deflh. But [hr suhjt'cu in It“! phalngraphs cuntinut In llflilt unlil at but I

turn away [Tum Ihc-m. I cannnt htar ta sec, num- managu: u:- undcnmnd,

[hm illuuratinm nf whal kappa-n: when a marital: gruup a!" peae—in IJ'I'ui case. black: ur gays—i: uhjtclifled. This is LIE [angina] madman Elf

failing m appreciate the humani an: share-s with 1hr: number: a!” an

um-gmup. In minim. i=1 happy-m: predictably. It happens necessarily. in EH1: W i l t . killing is nut puuihlc. Nazi: did nut shave human being! inlay: dimhtfl: flit? rid the Fallitrllntln E U W In Elli-£1! Hm

1H

RESPDHDII'I'G ‘I'fl {HI-[Elli

Ifimmhgmdfmesurfluufinup. MmficanmldiH-Iinfifimm did nut pump bullet: inm- penple': hfldifl: die? Iimllnhir fitmfimted Eammuniiu "inacflsfm [aracli midwa- :11: nm {as I mitt} shunting childrtn In dfllh whu could but their mm yuungfi Iihlingl, m muhing ban“ by lilamming dam: the-H riflt hulls an the hands of immanent lhflpkflpen: m are prmcning them-Hut: fmm "mum-ism." ‘Whiit the psychnlugifll dynamic: in Each Inf Ike-It example: i: limilil‘. th-l‘ flamplu lhEI'II-l-tl‘ll'fl uhfiuully are nut analog-Duh let alum: inten changeahlr. “either an: lht}? exhaustive; virtually any human nf war mfinltnt lubjugatiun Inf: pflpulafim will 1nd It! In 1h: um: cundultim

That Efi-fldlflifll'l was well Writ-Ed by Sam Eran: mam,mwhmfiummmmm.mwwmm mri'arr ur gruntidr. we fin! #humanixe than: we mfln ll:- ‘elimimue.’ . . - The humile imaginatiun nflmutically due-strays uur natural 1&1q tn idmtifir 1with allm unfam- up-rc'rfl. . . . A Fufl-badifll inuginalitm wuuld Ind u: H: lhl magni-

Ii-un lhal thins:- wr :1": fishing iflfflii'lll are lit:burn-1m. 111-11 hurl when urn-Ii. [mmmlmcflmir :hildrm hatt- gning mw,mdmliltedflilhfireli1pnf duuht Ind imflfl'."

Tn till: a fi'ighlfully iii-uni: rump];- nfhmr the m a hurtlmtlilgnr mu.“ he dunk-d in nrdtr In du him harm. mm: of flu: mpn umptahblc fink-nu against flIhET culture: has bemjuuified an lhl: W i l l that than [flap]: “du nut value human life Lhc way we du." "I11: mdnninn uf indii'idtflh H:- mm purl: Inf: M . mflnuhih.

in an infitatifln m dfllllll'llflflifllifln—DI‘ the 'It in simply a spatial inflame Inf dchumanilaljnn. d1: kind that flplflltl an the Eflflflfiw: level. Du: number manned up the experimmial lintfmgu an the mph: In Him: Wlln mlfiufifld III a m numb-tr. I pfl‘lnlfi hfl'fl'fl'ifll'iljlflfltd in but In: infunnili'm Ibnul hcr {If him, is altrihumi In: H:- dispmilianal and man: In lilullinnll film-Eli. i: mmi-dered mm! bin-magnum“: and similar In ud'm' [mu]:-

IIIIEllh-EIE. and is Fern-incl H} b: In:unfihlt and In: indtpmdtm {If flu: mhm in the gmup. . . . Ceniilfij'. what irflergruup cmflin in grail. drindividanlinn {If

amp-Imp membcn tldmmm'uu Ihcm. i m their direflu'ling mm. and fatiliutu lggfluiw reap-aria Ii-fl'lll'll'll lhtm."

Emu-ins dwil procedure in: nut u Hmightfumrd a: rthunutdzing In imlividual. It is imp-ambit: m lnflbjflli'l'ilt Dr humanim: : pinup hr:L'IIIIE' a m i: nulaauhjm urn hlmlin 'm l1]: Em phce. Winn he

TTIEEELFWTTIEUI'I—[Efl

I“

dun: in In I'l'duhl' 1h: "Jim-:1.- ul‘ map nwmheuhip. tn appucialc huh

the individual'fl unique paint If flew and the lye-ties IllEllll'I-hip that she flirt: with m. That is In say, w: an 3:: beyond gmup mcmhenhip in lwn dire-mum il. unite. She may he an: u-I' Them. but sin- is mostly {I} a p-El‘fl-flfl.jull lib: me. andfh}anindi1richfll.¢iuinn fmm the when in hfl‘ group. Maximixhg Pl'l‘lflflill hawkdgt, minimizing diam and m m

'il:'j|Lr are useful not jull fur humufiing in gent-ml but specifiufly fur mmuming d1: abs-tad: nfdeindividuatmm Mmmpfl-um ahuul. a particular gmup an: Ihaltmd 15 um.- calm-1mm tuntafl with it: Inn-tube”. an:

by one. At firm, the Hereafip-es persist and remain in meanMum-I: with dirt-tr. knnwlcdgc :hmn in individual: He's an: (if flu: good I'm EV-Eflllliflf. Il- unE came: In inc-w [an many munlmnmpIEI—Ind the chief ran-an prejufice endure-l is that this happens tau rarely—Lin: unemwu [rt-mm: and mlllpu. Mung with lhc win-ping auumpfium ahnut this pinirular Era-up, the Epiltcmnlugifil Him]: by which

individual! are seen FdfldP-HHT' as members of urn: or number uni-group is challenged. Enncrflc dual]: nudgc an: upward Inward sun-ting warn-d hummus. and dawnward inward string uniqumen. Th: cmnhilutiun

watts i1 nearly impassible t1:- nhjectify cur m harm. Heal-EH":- mplm a! Ibis prams: p-n-im the war mat, the way beyond 111m: mapnhnu nF lulu: an my dealt. Hen: i: I cullegt inmctur ductiliing I dhtussiun with his stud-Bum Th: prevailing altitude in din threw run-r: I'm- :1 lump: Paulie with AIDS first“! in flit. [khan mum Elf. “I tram numbing m ('11 with lhrm." 'I'hm In: harm-.11].r any slim-r ufcflnpulim And yet when 1 :huwcd than a film {In AIDS and flu: dying. they Hfll {Emu-bad. Same in the EL'III- fi'i'fll upmlr.“ And I'll-Ht. an : xiii-rent tflpit. ‘u the Hrilcrjudilh Want:

Fur a lung lim. it bu bur-n1 Fail-busy Ihr Isfldil. I'm- mm1m. I'm me. In , _ - [In-[ml cm Israel's minivan] and [treat] [hr in“: DE summing railed ”I'll-Es-

t'mian. rights" a: a unuhlL-mmc int-cation of Israel's tut-min. But ll'll.‘ . . . uprillng in lh-r armpicd Ifl'l'ilfl-l'ifl- has put Hub and bland nu [I'IE Palestinian "pmbluu." In: figmpnpfi Fiflm. an lrlm'ijinn anli. Fur til-E. cm I pitiful trip 1:: Gun.

Palestinian: hau- ltquircd :- human Eamfl

flammgtummhflnmmmnimpiyhumflununenfflm ruminant: m drastic :1mutt-pins! :hifl. m Ifl‘ecthg an medium] tumu-

W

HE

E

E 11] m

mflfitflmnflfhmmth‘fllluflmflwithflflhflerfllifl pun-Wm; intcrgmup hmlflin. Hehri-th Himmler. hand if th: Gestapm pfidhumagnmflfilphcmmwhmhemmkflhcmnplfimdin

1H3 almul; haw flurrr are eightymflflunqnmndingflemmdflchmhulfldmmjfi.flfcm Ill-E min-fl in.- w'mt. Inn thil an: i: I fim-clusjtfl. Ufa“ than Him ulk like mammmmlmtmuflmtrmiml.nmmhuhaddflamm

Emil."

Whyflmiflhgdmehmmjmmdprflwmmeim pmjcct nl' dchumanizaliun has hmhrn dawn. With it gnu the auspidnn,

flu: hatmd. and the willingness tn murdEr. Eventually :11: Earl. 13f mm:nnt's being ajnIF—nr aging fir: guy urn blank—is nut nutty an impurtant

lflctnhisbtingaptnan+W:mmm.mpanphrM-: Gflmde Stein. that there’: nu Lil; dine. Tu mitlhhficwscfimuhuumilumunflmahimlaflimmhn that we are all bra-dun and alum under the akin. H u:- cal] inm qmtiun

um 1.1m].r fl'lt 'll'fllllt {IF patriotism but the mnflqumcfl {1F defining anew-1f 1'.Irim|1au'1|'l1;r will: Tfiptfl' In mtmhemhip in any.r subsfl {If 1h: human ram. I1 will but, In this alum. a Hurry cunlrnvmial paliliun mung thus: an

hath tht left and 111:- right. DiEmn-x- and dimiw an:- m h: Etlthflltd

in sumr rfipttu. hm any [in]: ptup-IE draw“ hut-d 1m around. their group—Hm a Era-up that is in 11:: minnl'it'r—fl'len‘: is exclusinn, and when- thm ii minim. then.- tin but I. W-wmum-‘I‘lm pfllifiljr and in

uhjecliflcaliun Bf flu: “ET- Th: prnhlfln in nu! an much with [fling pridc i-.I:I durum: ni' anti mm culture a: with 1hr: Eact flan this prid: can became defiant. EIElllli'H‘E. irratiunai. and ultimately deadly.

Histurically. must at" thin man uf uglinm: has hem a result nfpuwcrfill inmrtsu dining LI".- lit-fining, d1: branding calf and discriminating again“ peuple said In he imp-urtanlhr dim-rem: member: Inf In'rnlzlrit}r

gmupi. (This. is Hh'f' denuncialimu ul' aflinnativt actiun pmgmmal- in: minimally ahistufiu]. tilhl'fl‘ naively cur dhingcnunmljr HI: entrcnthed pattern: LII discrimination will nut vanilh even if mjnfity group: luddenly stopped taking nun-rice (if m: at all-bu cfllni: aileriaj It is easy In an: hm! 111m: in in npp-mued minnriur wuuld be inclined In put] [ch

gflher and uh: plmure in flu: FEET gmup infirmity.r that ha: been dispinged by anthers Hcmthclm. talk amng pump]: if a Efl'flifl group In Maintain a public shut uf umur In “aid lttting mmidm am: my

avid-rm: uf Inn-am crilzidnn. should he detpljr n'nublhig tn film

'I'I'IEEEIIWITH'I'HEUTI'IEI

HT

whu-u lflliflllh‘.‘ allegiance i: In h m H hum. Similu'lf. In rump-and II]- a parficular event—lay. awar between hum nations—h? :nkitng‘firll haw i1 is likflr 1a afl'ctl unt': um nalim: is a Inn-filly bankrupt llilfltfl'."

It my be unnaliui: m upm my plenum tn upms equal! c m far all human brings. but there would mm to he an ubligatiun In refill. ur a]. [can In attrmpl. ta- mudmtc. :- fun-:hmcnuflr partisan Hurld View-" In the absence of such an firm. um.- my became indificmu m the new that pump]: whn an.- nut in nne'l awn Elan are sulffl'ing—m' mu Flamed by this Ilrth‘l it" that in-gruup might sum-thaw bentfil- (In: may mm: In help unit's m-m nu: «31113,r In the fidufiufl HE but Hm il'. Eh! EIPEI'IJ-E of,

m . APE-fl fi'flln tht fan that live: an be Inst 3:. a I‘Efllfli [If thil I'm-rid vicar. it i:- inn-install? nhj-cctirunahle In nan-nu unt': filial; in the war that

lead: mm iIIII:I'II.-\I:iillulrl].r In all. DI' lam: dmhpmtm, "II it gnu-d Ibr tl'lt H‘s?" It ilsurelyatfilmuragingflntim manyptoplcdnjmt 1h'u-‘i'cta EII'IIEI' Inn}. ll flu! pajama-lay 0f gran]: mumbrn-hiip Isl-SEEN lulu: reunifance. Farsi, inmhing an nut-WP. treating a mnmmn enemy. is not a

mum mnscqucnte uf marking with uthcrs. flunpcraliun dun nut “squirt humility Inward m- [mnpclitiun wilh anulhfi gmup. [If (nun: it 'u ttrhninllr true that the fumiiun flf In? arc-up entaiis a: least 3 a u l

dimjnnjun huwctnlhnstwhnartmdmnmmmhtm If: bundriwrr aim in gtnial wave In the [India bu: driven ht pane-s an till-E highway. hr: may [HI 3 VIEW: m

DI mnnenifln u: may: in Ihis fraternity: he- dfl-E‘l

not mm: H: the drii'tt‘l- nf fllhtl‘ whiflfl. But. his {mud-tric- is nut :nndilinncd an Eflfllilf inward can and truth. Then: in nu 1:]w defined and mminmlly charged idae-nfificaflun (If an autism-up. Many nt‘ “:5- hmrt mm: m Hfifldfllfi map-uranium with inltrgru-m camp-Hiriun: mlr EIPEr'iEI'IEE with mmpfljtiv: alhlelin. tun-punt: capitalism. and inlmtinnal fivaln' has taught us that if : gmup uf Fragile '1:

tum-rim; mgflhcr it mun but far that purpnu Inf thinning anathtr pinup. Happily this need not be true: it is a fimfliun ul' initially mmtrunrd

decisiuns rather than Inf Ihe name {II gmups. Elam rest-arm dam-mum“; 1hr: bent-fit: af twp-Entire lamina—in 1cm: u!” bath miunred arhimmml and great-tr esteem I'm fell“ Ifilll manhu— ‘llhmmimm filfltfl-fldlhfl.H m fl fi fi fl fl u fl fl u fl m w t m Manly. um- I'I'u- pmpk mull Hid-r :han: "Whig:- 11: um firmly fitfl il lhrI-I an: an

nppuult nil-:5 Di ant-1hr: thudr. A: Mun-nun Drulsdl ha: inn-m "Lruaa-rullln; manhuflip!- and lmahltfl [#1111 m Emmi-rm :5 a mule-raring Influ-rnfl I'I'I rtmhmg m1. particular martyr-up m-nfin 'Ilrill'lin n until-1y.“N This. l'm‘lrrtfl'. ii a high-ml “mu-fit Ilm my uhilnilflr mkiph lhrpn'ill nun-mm. tH-nh'nIIH-flirrfllm nun-1mm uni.

H3

IESFflHDIHG TD DTHEIE

hit drawn film]: that thflt M ! an: m dcpmdmt on M y mmpcfifinn and my HEB he diminishd by ll]! additiun nf this cle-

mm." Similarly. I uric-a. nf audits bjr I111: Hutch paydmlagiu jamh Rabbi: Emmd “nu Hidtnct fur a gran-r ingmup mlitity in 111: [mmpflimr] cmtdiliun. If {Hi-filling there in a slighl but nnmignificanl [Enlimy in Eh: nppmil: flit-tabla!“ Thil. hi: painltd nut lam-r. dtbunh the "Tiff pflpuhr nmian . . . thit intergmup cumptthiun llidl tn ingmup culmsivenus."“ Evtn in the Army. number and]: fuund, Lhe mm in cad: squad did nut mm: In- hn-l‘. upnn eadl mher mum favorably. at In hum-r

filth anther httlfl'. whcn they WET! in cmnpctitinn with ulhtr Iquadmfl Many flfldifl cf adult cmpmtiun dun nut Iptfilifllly Its: fur the diurnal: {If inltrgruup mmpttiijnn. bu! hemi tun. the flhl-EIHIE BI an nulgruup din-El nu: mm in imflfitrt with that: fannalim crf grit-up HEM—Hf— an idtnfitj' thal. in turn. lead: We In put amid: murmur {amid-tritium

I11" HlllimtruH-L“ In :11a u pardaningint Han-fir Humtein put in [ct]ingl nf intriguing: imilf simply cln nut require intergmup enmity". thl

Furmer"nm:pfingfmhindependmdy.uamnn1lrnpmut WWI-Ellfun-lbw!“ A mandlineufrflearch. mmtinnfil in chapterfl. illllfl ant-flungEng l1 emphasiiu than sil'niclau'it].r El: nm : fimfliun ml” quit-cm: pmximity at charauerisuu held I.I'.'I Efllflmm. but reflect: a auhjcflhrt m m : ni' tht lignififlnct all "has! II shah-d Winn mfltr} ii the meaning nf lhl: :fifl‘fitnccs h i m mu hdividuals uq' graupi—aa' the ihlfl'l‘lt-t nf mun. lug; lite-tall Howl-Bin”: abut-realign thai "HIEI‘E in naming inherent in an]! fininniun bflW-l'm human hem” that camp-ell u: I:- H't uthm a: ulna. '*

Th: impact ufsuch distiminns is nut filed hul dependent nu Indilifltinn panama; and individual Ehflfiltlfl train- Elm: awn-:11:r [mind Ihat racial Hartman between “I: flhlfi‘i‘fl and the abnrved ail-mud th: amp-Ethic

reap-Hum nf black dlildren less than it did than uf white children." Ant-[ha study asked undfimduitcs In paujudgmtnt an {and chum: I punishment Far) I Emilia“: lmflml whn may have cheated an i tell.

"l'l'mqyr Hm laid, :mung lather lining; haw this student felt album variuu: maria: issues. Bum lhr: liktlilmud at" finding lb: unfit-m guilty and I11:

sewn-ii]: Inf Ihr: puninhnwnt dtpendtd an firth” flu.- aludenl'l cuflfl an lhfit {Inc-slim: are-r: :imilar m lhe iuhj-Etl's 131m views-hut an]! Ear thus: auhjm: who scared high an :1 hrs: nf aulhnriurian pmmulitr

Emma. Altitudt similarity was nut in III-lien! Err—Hr ll least did nut afl‘m the judgnmm aE—tht flll'ltl‘i." Hem than. we have nun hearttning distant-fits: 1::m m1 amp.

i: an! fltfltfllfil'f m wrkaglimtmmhcrgmup. milm M i l l - I :

TI-[EEEIIWITI-l'II-Ilm

H!

tfimufdifl'mu m g m u p a i u n u t m m fl y m h p r m tllllifllll widl than: d fl m l . Ntvrrthelm. the man: m a n : unl'l

membership in a given my iii—EH“ :uiur bring. flfifl' 31L 3 dfimm ulnar man Emptfllifln with :- gnu-up {If 1mm in 3 1 m m IhE mare unt'l ldF-definilinn depend: an [1111 mmbunhip. the greater I11:- dangm an: 1:! fltluding and dthunnm'u'ng than in an aut-gruup. Hatred nt‘ hummumls is um an writable mmequcnm nf [ht flillfl'fltl'

nfdifl'trtm mun] manual“: the plmurt an: uh:[rum mm: [mum Inf ant“: humeland and 11:11 m i n a rivalry with pun-pl: whn haw anther Immdanda. Bu; nur tip-Irritant with IhE fi'cqutnql and demutmg mmmqutntu all" We vmu:111w aim at"111: Harld imam thal when:

flwrd hummandindividuai uniqunm:mn hamplmhed mar [may mcmhtrlhip, thlswmfldhrmuchtn flmgflfli

The idea uhhm-d hummnl has bun EIPTEIl-Ed by IDIIIEIITi-fl'l'li in [ETHII nfflpanding the W: unlil it Embrace:m m .Thii dummiIaljnn i: aft-tn ufl'trcd dfltl‘iptill'tl'jl' a: “11:: pmuipfivtlw "The mun-ll fart HF Ilium-1r. From I piychfllngicll puim 13f Hie-Ir. any h: laid tn- b-L- the

madam] entargunent nf such] mmdmm and ntiunal EWI‘HMJ' m : “It sudnlngiu Shark: Hun-nan flank? in flu- :arl'f pan nf [hilrenlunr." Hun.- recenlly. Peter Singtr. inmking smut-thing akin In what

I have called talking the callective Euler's paint DI 'I'i-E'Ih argued that man} wilting has. sinceM I tints.bunmmillidiif In I "Fully univeri

lull" peripmirc: Mtl‘llilti-L‘ imprint: [HIDE limited In nun-E3 kin and arm”: wn gruup might be utendedtuafiiderdfllehymhgmuum whammthuflwylnddui' Hummegmupamngnflmluflfi'nmaninqnnhlpuhuuffitwmmnm impuuern‘amthanuml'urrl.I

What lpiflitlllfl'lflfltfil] about this cuntrpltiun 'II Illel'acl [11.1t min]: in nu conceived in a duality—either the-rt i: the whens] Wt

111' there in widespread diImrd—hut rathtr III flilting an I. mnflnuum. We nun.r never EH m thc paint where tunic-311:1him; a difl'trmt shin min: 151‘ prtfertncfl minding religiun “u an marl:- 1.1a; ID- III-mural!

dehumnilatinn nr dilcnunge caring minim-ship: than that perim'l having a dim-rent hair calm nr prcfcrencfl regarding sleeping [Haiti-an. W: lamb-ably dun tun-I. m: In trivhliu attitude: an min] and putitiml quelliunl. but 'II'E' ran fl,'rln:l1.llll1].r Ippmn'imate a nut: 11F aflain in which mtmbnuhip in such a gmup remains It.“ unlit-n: than unt': humanmu Indthuahnutaptmlfidlnflwdthumufiflflunuflhmwhudunm

Ififl

EESPflHDIHG TD flTI-IEIIS

slum: surh mmhc-rnhip. In plan: at" flags. llamas a!" war Irma-n, and hump-rt Hither! flying "Iii.“ HE. I'm IL" in: muld flu nu better than tn

ditphy LEE-I1 Ehmherg'n wards: flue Hhflifl "mutt-ms extend beymrd family and hqnmd mlinn In mankind has bum [idly human.""

mothaumhjm Unlen Ill:- pnteptinn i: systematically blurted am. it in pmbably not In

d'lflicull m harp in mind that III: udicr is a human being. Hmong]: the}; art answered in very difl'mm Haw. II'IE am: cuisttntial quad-11m apply 111 all {If us: what In: make {If mflrtfllity and finitudE. ilk-mint, iulunnmy and rclalifl-nship. hm: In mate meaning and cunfrunt memfinglcunm+ lib-win, it may h: plittical to speak of Eh: gram mjufiw 91' human: a:

being able m appreciate 1hr: uniqueness. the mhemt'u nl' ulhen. PHspt-nivt taking and cmpathy. as the last chaptcr dun-tailed, 5hr: In I glimpse intu the life at" that perm“ and Ihlt penun Ilune. W: can undfli

numl whit w:- ihifl with thr- uther and we can understand haw we dififi+ The air]: in m entertain hath fimflmmusly. 11mm and anly tint-n, du- 1m.truly uptritnct the Dlhtl' a: a subject.

1 my *‘rxpm-irnct“ rather Hun “m1dtnlmd” became tame-fins nun: than an mttflmual apprchcmiun in r-Equired. [l in [ht um: .15 will: mnfliw. Entry-cm: inc-w: than dtalh i1 hcfitahlt. but lhtrc are run man]!

[annu- wnuld air then: an: nut any] wlm rally knuw [hm an: day they will. may: [a brand {hcrr will: b: nu 5 : l tIpEl'iH'IEE this uranyfluing else. Ham.mu.wemm3 menthcrhlp-emnjuulilwmandniapmm

like nu rather. but the cunnwliun I am {Inn'ihing must he felt wing-filly as ml}: as cunt-'5 m hum-anneal and uniqutntn are felt. YE! turn this [an furnmlatiun give: 1.1.! pan“. 1: it: city In nu: unit's

mm [Ia-alum a: a paint uf camparimn and wish lint we could appreciate thr {Hhfl'l subjtcdviw :5 fit! dn c-ur awn. But it is nut Eltal' that tun-run: {la-H tip-cm his m- hcr awn mhjtcliviqr. Having upland hath Iidfl.

ufmcpmtm afapprcdating the lather. I turn 11w m a # 1 t bdrm"

hull III flu: implications fur ant": reluinmhip In unucll'. FIOH fiUI'EflJE THE 5E1!"

Tn bring the c m urf “tubjum'irr” dawn to earth is m bring it dawn In mania-s. End: a!" m E: III: rrfermm paint for hi: undcrstanding uf

THESELEWITH'IHEGTHER

Ilil

whthmflmmheiamjen—nnewhnuu—mwdmmm that is Wig; flirted upnn. Hut firm if: man: In the “my than lhil. In murder m make that MM inn: 3 Euhjtfl by taking her perspectiw+ {me must {in a very particular sense] mall: the ulfintn anuhjm. Wt speakufthcil in Htrrthr language when H: mm: [hill smheune maintain : “an-nu of

W W " aha-m htr pmhltms m whm we adnlirt lflll'lenrlfi' whu dun nut like herself [an atrium]? nr can hugh at htrscfl. n t l built int-fl hi!

llfll'iiflfl uf cull-trifle perspmivc lilting th-t mugnhiun that rich uf Ill i: WEI? an: individual mung many. The paint in nu: truly In changt the I13! We regard «untilIr.-r5.—I'lflltflel'g-nr as bring just as imp-tuna“: In thtnuehfl II we an: m flHmIVfi—hifl aim m thing: uur tar-perception. Each {If u: [133. undtr uh: mural :wmn Lhai {allows Pram I'm-5. m special miller mm“. W: mm to IE: 111i: brawl: we came m m uumlm fmm the uuuidt. th: my mhcn in us. In Head's wurfln. "The self ha: 1"": chin-AI:l-E'l'illjll: lhal it is an flhj-ECI m itself. . . . H: inflame: a seli in 5:: far :5 hr: m tall.- IhE attitud-E ni’ annulm- and act mwrd [11'da: mhm an?"

This in: nu: :Im'f: firy m du. Smnmne whn became-.5 swan: {If being :11: nhjrn a!“ anudmr'n ptrrcpljmu and judgments. watchcd and wrightd by that Iuhjt-L'Il. in indintd m ruin Hill: by :truggling In ream: ht: mm tubjectivily. Thur mm:is aimed by ubjertify'ing the other: if rm: m an. Inn-5k ahurflflinhahuul mmlwifldu lhtlamem 1:o will wwdenr fun 1jII'vlzllur Paul: II: nhjfllifi' mu.- hy uhjfitifying fill] an an]? a subjefl can do. {Thin was due Elsa-rice of Sarnr'n earl}: cafitamre uf human Ttllfl-nrn-

£119.)“ But sum-tun: cunfidcnt in [HF subjmrflvity. unafraid nf being abject u: Infllhtl‘. {in final In resin thil lunptatiun and can jnin with [In mhtr in “Bing herself from the athcr's pain: ul firm Thil in the BIL-aim? self-nbjcctificatian I haw.- in mind. Still. Ihm in run qmniun but 11:31 this p m : i: mnufiw. tat-Inpam1. and nth-lime: it in in the interest {If mellltnnhdedgt In: Why ur

mum-mun ll:- other; Th: mm! lhflnfl': ni' suhjmifily 1: man: [inn-11¢r to signal Ithitnphrmii—I: IJIE late It. D. laing'a brillilnl phmnmmulugi—

til panniu mad: clear—man skillful paupertivt liking And if 1J1: I-Elf i: Iznlujnewlflii'mrwtl.r this doc: not had: I'EH fur ant“: rtlaflnnshipn with uthm "Tu [ht mmt aha: [anal is dthumalliltd. he lane: 11:: upadty 1a in u

a mural being." writes Herbert Heinum m dthumniflliun uf the Half

and 1h: fifllfl' End up rcinfnrting tat}! min-r.“ 111E105!- {If IJ'H: arm: of all" a: humn. a: subject. a: agml. i: uminnu: inclctd. Hailing :huwn

filming-mall? that subjects who remain inmrmnu: are more likely m

delivrrlhu-Eh than Ibo-1c trulcd is individual: and Edmund by Him.“ Iimhardn aha nun than "min! hfluvinn arr.- mmged by Elwi-

L52

EESPflmhH} TI} {III-IBIS

mum-nu] and ilflflpflflmfll mntitimu which mm: anti m magniljun and “Emmy?"

at“

Thnttfifnrflwuflnsuhjcn ililiamanifwedimhtfanlhalunt nun-:11Efl-E'Eli'h'tly cmpalhitt ufllfll an: um twpathize with ant-Leif. Alice Hill” mnnhd 1]“! i "lad-1 a! unpathy For the mfl'qtrmE at" unu'i awn

dildhuod can result in in utunishing Inch (11' unanimity In other childrcn*s withing?“ Ehiklhaud akin un: film mat mimic hi: m range {If feeling. ur who is utenfiilhr a :tnngtr tn hilnlelf. in unlikely In furs: an affective mum-aim m smut-unt- Else. A due-area {If selflkmwledge and tuninn with ant-‘5 awn afi‘tniw Hf: facilium bath hum-ring

and bring hum tn all-en.“ Hwflan'hJuflcinTqtalflnttWhEnYm'rEHut

Anywhere at All?" 11".- idea uf taking anther permu': W

e pmuppuiel that that

limp-Hm: is different Pram nut-'5 own.111:“: wmlld he nu [flfllih-ifil'f (If m ; nut this an nfimlginatiun. and nu mud In dn 1:}. if the idtmiiic: ul- tht two hidividuall Inn-re nut distinct. With empathy. hawtvcr {the Ifll'l that due-.1 nu: include perspenive rating}, penple may think that the plat-us ul‘ {FL-cling 1h: mhtr‘a afi‘m him: at a mystical unit-n with the

min-r. DE mum. an flltrldtd urn-ritual: if anything like mmplele FuIiun is Efllfl'fl'ltlf 1111;“ but sum: pan-pl: mntend that it is a Hat: dbmmlr m be adult-nth and that apathy In EDIEHIi'l'Ed [rpm-cull : highly Iil'Jl'lIl! of Ifltclirve Iharing. Such a state a!" being has implicatinm nut and]: fur the idea 114'mp:lhf but aim fur lh-E status flf the empalhizcr. afltcling 11']: Half 3.! WE“ II: the rdlfiumhip, It in with an cw: m- buth 1113: I Him 14:- thafltngt this pnsitifln. and I wan! ta milk: it ElEil' that in mining In} Hand with the grill

mijuritr all may: whu hill-E draught animal? almut the issut, [mm phihiaphm m 1min] Fl'ffllfllflfl'iill. Pfihfll‘fl the mail. impnuivt mm:- on

this raster. but-mule Inf his crrdentials in opposing individualism. in Huh-Er. A: the prc-mitr thtfll'ilit at" rdafiunship. flu: must aniculatt flip-uncut Hf the idea lhil the fififillmflll uf human life i: whit happrn: hflwem an: PEI'IIII] and number. Huber Cflltfl-‘flfl'llt‘f trimmed anything mumbling

Fusinn. mmutflxmg it as a distal-flan at" gcnuinc tit-mum“ with th: other. “flue mum! “and in a relaiiun In mmflhh'lg that E: null pal-rifled

u mmrumd and fiifliflfl' fur imam" he flifl." This punitium which E natal What diflmnflrinlhe lifll'flfthil sectinm ledhim mdiaulnct

WEELFWITH'IHEDTHER Mfmm the implhtm d'mjrltidlm dllpitl:hi: m in filth-id] mfltifil sect:

I53 inttrfll

1111'.- flighl [rum Ihtmnunnnmmm imaaspcthl splint that 'u Winn-I11: the true bring ii, in: I]! in. Hagen. Hum flit Elemental sighs": ur Ill-t midi-rm Eastern Int-hing: In flu: IThil'filrill-Eii DI thE nun-dun {Danni In mtmiiraiimL a High], ETD!“ flu: Hill-[film claim an. I]!!! PERI-Du. who [Illllli WEE-f Iliflfl-Elfill 'WE. II is High! {mm IJIt Hume-mi: lp-uhmnfli Ill" :pwrh in whim: rfilm a rmpurflr i5

thallium-m and mpunm ii rflpumihilitr. . . . 'I'he Iugitiw flight um. d flu: claim al' :11:- tinntiun inn: ihufliunlflmm i: an legitinuu- :H'air HE man.“

In Fact, Buhcr [HI 5:: WEI}? 3!:q this that hi: Itjtctcd th: ward-cw; blatant! h: was ED-IIE'EI'II-Ed [hail i1 {lfl‘fl-‘flfllfld this hm al' the “if in the

prams ut' aperiendng 15h: anther. HL" used different language In emphas'm': the fact that an: paflicipalcs iII the nib-:1": Iii: "withuut forftiting anything If the fell 1%aqr ufhi: [awn] anii'ity. . . . Agmn‘ I'Elilifln Elinmay between real PETE-Elm- . . - Due must be truly 3131!: In my I in mder m hmw 1h: myslc-nr Inf III-t Tim in its whulr: lruth.“” Enntempnnry ntudmt: Inf unpnlhy haw: mm: In mud] the lame mnduiiun. Sara Harlin Hufi'man: “Mthflugh empaflw 11131” but! a major.

pumps flu- nujnr. sud-a! hand. it ducal- nm afluw am:- m biz-mm:- lhc m3“? And elsewhtrc: “T11: Empalhil: radian mun dcpcnfl imavily an the sum": cagfifiw- Imu- 131' :11: mhn' at. distintt [mm hinuelf."“ Harm Fflhharh sitll.il:.u'l3.r Emphaailfl that "flupillh'y. In haw: commit. tiw; :umcqucnnrn. Iii-tunic]: “pal-Minn bHH-E'E'fl nil" and ntgjuect. The

vital-inn: upm'mrr HF:fl‘m shuuld nut rtflrcl 1h:- mrrgm: at" flhfl'n't'l‘ and nhjtn. but shuuld dam: l'rum this abunrfl'a ability In alumni: 1h: ptnp-rnivc and shirt 1hr.- fttliflg Inf 1hr.- uhjctt."“ Essentially the aim: pun-in! has bran mad: by [he psychmnahrit Rudulf Esta-in.“ the psythu-

Lhtrapist David Shapim.“ uh: psydmlngisl Ian—in Snub.” and flu: philinav

nphtr Mitt-Inn Hayflnfli" Fm Cart-l Gilligan, Hl'lfllil? viii-fin 111' human dfl-EIDPIIIEI‘H and mraiiur turn: an rcladansh'tp. "lure due: nm imply main-n ur Hanan-wither . . . [and [whaling] dam um imlnlglE an ihacntt

1 : 1 " d at an idtnu'w nl' fttlirltlg: ur a [ill—ll”: In dillillfl'llilh harm“ it“ ind ulhfi."” 1f Ihe questinm that. in: What. hank-n: In 1.11! HIT whtu it feels inm lh-I: nthtr? [but ammrr it: All is nut lust. There an.- difltrmt way! flf dtsnihing the ideal I'nrm ul‘ tmpadw. hm nun: Inf them require: lhill' 1h: self firearm: suhmrged in the n-Ihcr any man: than {hat in whjcclivily ht dtmulilhtd. I may [fit] hi1 fut-ling! Inc! I ma].r [Hi in l'l'lpflfll-E In hi:

154

IESPDHDIHG TU W

feflings. hm thH-Eil- mm? dnuhl that memhfiflufdfis mutant: mntinuu m hr I. ll" unpafl‘l'j' Her: a business ”insulin“ (whim. think

fufly. it is 11m}; il wod b: a tflflpfl'fitfl'fi venture. : pflmerlhip. rather

than a merger M an acquisiflun. But we fill'll'lfll: haw: mantra II: that. Th: larger farm hum: i: an

apprltiitiun {If fllh-EFIIHE. and ti} My limp]? Ihal'. empathy ill DUI fill'lfln i: rathcr lib.- dfl'fil'liflg a Want” a: sum-run: whu data nut give nway all" he'r III-EH- lu charity. If the? il'l.‘ wunhy 0F flair names. Impalhy and

pemprttive taking {at least taking the perspeflive ul‘ the cnmr-EIE mhefl. nm marsh.I luv:- tht sell" imact but aha lfil'fl'l': 111:- 5:1!" transfnnucd. In dllptfl 9. I will [all mun: sham a Hurld Vin-r gmmndtd in TIEI-‘Iliflfll-hip rathtr than in I11: conduct nf dime individuab. Th:- puint here is [I'm selveswimmmm I'm-1mm imaginemhmhumdimflemd yum II'E flllfl WI'IJ'IEEIEEL 'I‘Ilirr pifififlfl. whim presuppmu Lht: #311: nl' Frat-Hing Ihl: “If. has bun unlined by [Emiliill drum-i515 and clinicians. It is Lme. mitt! judilh jurdan. lbs: "in murder In mpilhiit. an: mun Iuw a welldifflri Enljfl-tfld sense of self. . . [beanie] without an adequately animlattd and rtlativflv :ummnt act of whiny-mum nr MF-imagcs. any 1::u III-y identificatiun might beam a threat m the Immunity Inf 1]]: self.“ But a: the same that. the buundaries between self and aihtr must be flexible In "all-nu Fur a urn-u: n-f 'HE—fltfl' m aft-ultra jnining with an-

ather" m that an: an “flptritnct a menu If fecling cunntfled and . . . at III'I-l‘ same time [upmttlfl‘i

Sepamlminflmu'mt thallht integrity uflhestflisfltailmddnfl

11m imply Etpflfllfll‘fll in the in“: that an: rtlalcs m Iht Dfl'IE'I' from afar. Th: [alter neither dgscribca the maliw nl' mpaflfit mnmcliun nut ufl'mapi-Elureufmmlalhtalth- Gilligan rmmrhwnrly thaladiniml

aha-rarer lama.r he currctl in idtmil'ying ”mumm- wha- ia: in my: ni’

having nu HIE but 111i: nhsErvIE-r may himself he in danger if having nu what?“ A: will: mpathy, m: "Hm 1113!. mm duped hand: are still urn I'lElIIdI—bul: they an:- aim Hm hind: twining. alt".I warmth and pull: nf

an: accessible In III-E when

THEEELF'WTI'HTHEDTHEE m

I55

m TAKING IN THE REAL Wfllllfl

Demuncing Evil TIIiI-Ehllflfll'ilflldltprtfimflflfle hanmnlidered mlufappfichfing the rather as fiber and the lather is firmly hm. Empathy and prune:u‘ve taking an: thun- fn-cm ul' thu: forum. and Hit]!!- ufmmmning drhumam influx and dtindiwn'duatinn arr adtheued in [I'IE' latter. I Wflflld nil-Ir Iii: m mm In sum: {thin} implications flf pcrsptcfive taking and empaihr a: well in mm: mm: pmhlenu urf ipplifithzln in than urn-rid that is hum: fur u: an indifiduals and ['ilifllfl: Inf mtiun-atalea. Dhjcctifi'ing anthers i=5 a undid mam“: Fur Earning am certain min—um cunt? killing hm hailing. fur hum“. Th: lurgmn mung-n m llii'E i'nm lame-uni! belly Ilzl-IIII].r by hinilhing flu.- awareness If the

human 511t h: i: imrading: it 11: jun an all-(lumen. Evcn with "selectiv: and {ramimt dehumnhafiun." thnugh tl'wl'fl is all-1:51 II'H': dang-H 111:! “the Eflmlnlfliffl' lE'If-FTD-L'fl'liiflfl it achiflrn wil] urn-55 the ever-Ihifi'mg Mandarin uf adaptiveness and hccum: destructive. to writers as well] a: m uh;- selli'fl A: a general] ruin. my: main m “magic in all situatinn:

and will]:111mb:- to maintain an apprechfim furthe nthar': whit-trinity and hmmnity.

Em whai aim-u: than: whn commit Ulflipflkihlfl. unfnrgiflhlru am?

Are me n:- affirm uur IL'D-lflfllfl-l'l: humnitr with flit dire-um nf death squads. 1h:- mn-lnlm nfrhfldrtn? In a ward. gnu, fit-mm whu has htcn IliiI'II.-II:EII].r [mined by evil will um manage [his widmui cflhn. but I]':I1|LI dimmsal ul' fiends in “HE fllan human in ma H55? and [an datum. It is In aucmm H:- drcumvtnt tht igniting prnHt-m a!“ human will by denying that th: Hilda-Er: m u humin u we. find it i: imldwnendf m

acct-pt 1hr premise mat same people can be exiled fmm the human mmmuniur. ”Dena-it: ire-Marta.“ Damn:m l :in hi: any addmstd m

an imagimnr German aiming,r Wmid War II. "I Ihlll still apply In ynu the name {If maul“ Emmi: camp hdlhhacalllataiclhtpulptnive mum hd'widur :15. m "E whai the world Infill lib: In I fipill all“ a murdrrgr? Tu begin with. we are rmmned by“ the limits Inf our capacity tn imagine. It is nu:

away: my in put mtlvu 'm the [amid-an of dam whu mum du- :11: m . “ But wlfill: it any h: d'tflintll m attumplhh lhil leap uf imaginitiun. it in: nu! mulb- pmhltmlfit In du- m. The 'h‘iE‘l-T that [HI-E ought ml

Inmmupmnthepnimnffitwnhflhinummbchucdnnthc

155

'IESPflHDIHG TD {In-IE!!-

gar-unis: tithtr Hut their villain]: in { W I arr that I‘m: W

flu!

mmMum. The liner is. exactly what led Brunt: Httlt'fl'ltim m fl'ilititt

Ilium-flay Liflun I‘m trying m £51m: nut haw Gcmn dun-1m :2dland Ilia-5r tannin tn the: Hui nun. hhind awn}- [mm min: mundanmnfl the mluhgyanheMun-[flu mr-prflem danger that mdmtmding fully may mm: clan: m forgiving. I

belitvtlhmmluumvfltlhu ma: ulhism rqieflandprnunllhcmmlin [IT tn undtramtd than min-litany a: Dr. Liflnn id.“

111: fun that l hippfll In think this pnfitiun in dnldfullr misc-unfliwrd [Inn run-1'. prntnt me {mm lurking to punk.- mfl haw Beltrlheim arrived at it {peflupa m his mm enpfi'ience in a mnmtmlinn camp]: tumult-1y. :11: fast! um I can undculand his paint muffin-r ii: nm a banicr w my uhjrcting In ii. I {In nut mean In tunes: that my marlin-n tn flHltlht-ifis flew i: ramparahle In hi: {ur my} ream-on m the 55. but fillhtl' that Ptflpfflli'fl.‘ taking is um I‘fllllllfifl'f Exchtsivc with judging. II.

it [rut that Pfl'lptflii't 13hr: and :mpuhizm will [Ell-Ii. all else bring cquaL In he mart mlmm than nth-tn." {This helps m uphill why same religinu: Faun-Hm may he reluclam In imaging hfl'fl' their doctrine appear: In Ihulir Inf 11!.t faidu: [ht tau-r:- an af doing it} 'lhl'tilfi'l! m midi-mine the cunviflinn thal flhEfl-ILII-E truth reside: in tin-irmm {India-FL}

Bu: judging rcmajm campaljhh: with understanding hEEEnI-E neidm Winning nur Itatnlzlumhj-r demand:- flfi'l'EEI'II'L'HI. "Mu matter haw mean or hidL-Dus a "Lam's life ii. lhl: firs! thing in to mflcnund him." said Charles Hurt-1n flanlcy. "m mike crut jun haw it. 53 I113! nu: common human nature has mm: In wnrk am in thil way.

. . . 111i: 51:11 (If mum-alibi dunes Hm, hummer. dispense with praise flil'fll hlIIIIJE."" Emir-y. nl‘ taunt. matt- bufnrt 1h:- 55 tflillrd. but nihtn him: nut null: laid the lfllfl-E' thing in the past-Hazi era. the]! have struggled tau undtr:land this when: evil by mean: all perapmive taking. Mic: Hill-en for example. nit-scrim: how 3hr: mutual“: hfl' initial I‘tlll-t'lafltt' h:- imagtm: haw Ihe arm-Id huh-d in Hitler himself. In regard him a: a human being and m Icarn abnut his childhmd. "Irwe turn uur baths an mmtthing hEEEIJE-E it is diflimlt Ln undcnland and indignamly rtfizr m it a: 'inhu“1:115 in: will] nmr hr: able tn learn anything album it: nalurh"" Sumelimn w: will and m talu- min-t againsi Hil. rm: I'I‘IH'HT In unricraland ill- Sumetimm Ihai actinn mum IJ-E harsh. nm It all I1": way WE

maul-1 prairie-r m Hut-:1 anathtr humm bring. Dill-H the process at" understanding pvt-dud: sud: flan? Whm it {Ina—m 1w: find uundm.

TI‘IIEELFWITHTHEDTHEE

I5?

fur example, unahlr In my: mun-E Iii: an animal aft-21' having mm: In rmgtu'u his humnrmm—lhm the atrium i: illegilimalt. W: shnuld mu haw m nhjenfly. In silent: nur empathir T-EIPDIIIE. in urdtr 1n incar-

mm. The nerd tn an must be m campglling—an ind-cud it 51.1t! ill—{hill m:- find mlw- mlmnfl'f prepared u:- do whu In: t:- he dune in IpilE nf I'flll' Full awarentfl HT 1]}: HiHDET'E- humanity.

Taking the ather's pcmpccti'te and ulhcnuim: trying In undtntand him nut Inrllnl'gl.I can cut-fist with judyncnt—imluding negative judgmmt" —uf his it'ljflnl‘. in some cam judgment supplies the ”fill far dull in HF undustand'mg. II is prtdlfl'l'r In Fifi-TM evil thal H: nccd In figure mu hun- il mm: In happen: “'1" med tn grasp il: appeal fi'um 111: imidlr. In In intmuing article an empalhy and the law. mu: srhular his unharmed

that ”understanding ham and why Haiti“!!!in: an nun-arm: tn: Ill-I: Barman 11mph, nr haw md wiry lynrhhmgn were and an: m attractive u: when {If [he RBI-L is imp-Drum m maturing than! EH]! Flt-In running?“ 'I'h: aaaumptiun lhal Empathy flcludtn flu: pmflbifily qudg'ing i-I band an 3 Edit dirhmmn}: Eilhfl' 1m: 1m]: dawn Plum a dim:- and put judgment. iIlnm ubjmifying this indifidtmL 111' else we berm Inn: with

ha and mp: her auimdu. her viii-m, 11H warli That valut judgmml dun nut entail u'lzgjmififiliun is the whim [If lumber bani, yet to be

wfitlen.']11:t L-mpathjr dues nut mtail trying In m

III-r ufllfl prawn

in a central argument. in Eh: preaching ucflum Lfltimatdr, mmt EIPI'I'I-r linm DE relunlnce tn empalhixt with bad Fungi! [in he mud hid. In

an mutated :uumpfiun lhal Eltlpfllhf require: a sun at“ merging {If atlf and mhtr. ll" this. is Kiln, than m: can begin In undcrflarhd haw an: individlnl can understand and Feel inm mfllhfl‘, yet still be able tn- nuke a drtisinn abuul LhL- nth-21' and his min-nu. Bur task [311 III! In 1':t and

13mm ll'IE vi]: all of whirl-1Efllclhcim spanks—and alm- lu undrrstand them empathetimllgr. 11: Fan. the liner may.r help u: In prawn“ their WHILE.

Sufarlhawhcenspcafingnfhnwmngh mapprnachthtutlwr. tubing for minted tlm w;- tnn fluid-r: whflhfl cur rm! Ir.- judgt. I am an: mminmd flu! this in awn—any mart [tun we run will. seriumly all-nut value-fie: will ltiulll'lflt nr utilitarian nrjnurnalinm. WE can fluid bring

"judgm-tntaL" in lhl: my Hut ward i: “wally undfluuam but it may nu! "Hul aljn-Ihmcnli ll'rcliliulpdlmnfln Vtrj' aft-tn lhufl: Hhfl-fll‘fll‘l'll us lull Inuit:

jfldl'l-tfltl IIIILI IJII'IE'I' pan-FIE! h-E'hfli-nr in: about nth-H [alumni mil}: mean flu: 1Hmat-“Id nu: fluh' rug-him juflmrnrmn- Thur ha 1:: m:- um app-M11isjm n murh a nlur

Judl'mml. ill dilly-prowl. IThrjr aha rail In“: “11'.1h¢ir iflrl'l'lilll- tn ll'i-fllflll'lfl di‘lflPFfi'l"

H1.- IhrIu-rhfi 'l'lllfl!MEI-filth}

155

IIIEPDH‘DIHE TD WHERE

lupus-slink mmuidtuuruluu hunk-rm undmtand anudwr ptnun u-I' ideal. flu: mpnnlt In her is. 11m! lhrnugh with judgmenl humus: w: are. far better 111' warn: [1min]: far betterJIJudging mum- Perm-Bah: tilting E-IIE'I (film and Ihapt: III-:- judgnwm. and. if am: is wen-minded magi}. nu? even pm!a radical rerunlidmtiun ufunc'l pmitinn. Bul it dint: nut Erase the j-udgmtnl fll' int-lem-r its Elifltnfl. In a way. this i: In my walking mm than that penpcctiw taken dn that entire]? gin up

dwiruwnpuinunfview

when flitylnmmhen' Apaintnfritw.

assuming dulwtmnntbthllliiflahndapuialhflt u. madm-

tjfings. : 5H nf films.

flattrring War Theiduthatundmundhgflwnppniafnrilflnhflpmmhmwhw

m lulu-Ill it rain: the hrfladtr qucutinn at what can but arcmnplinhfil fruln thtact u-fptnptcfivc Laking.Th¢amwcrbcgina hilhllwahm-

tin]: that il ufl'e'ni a pmfuundly impnflafll Ira? In pmmntt I'll-[ill flange. Harm: Hm. 3 kg?! theorist, act-.5 it this way. Inn-u: Th: mun puwflfifl dwin- m flPflIE Ind {Juli-Hg: ‘ . . "mural ummpliunl El] Inaiingmmiuuefmmannflurpuhtnkfl. - -.T11.rtfl'url Indummyhtlp [1.1m] magnifi- Lhal [gruml ptrlpttli'lrc i1 parthl and that du- mm: qua is nut

ilfl‘lfililhll.‘ ur ideal. . . . 'I'm “131' find that run had an much ignnrnl lhl: paint {If

view nimhm dutynudidmt realimlhal. yuuwmmimkingymflpus'mldfifl I'm realm. Perhaps run will End [[131 lib-t my thing: are is nut III:ml} war Ihingl

maid ht."

T11bl.- rl'flIEII inn: : lingfe, :nmrmtiunal pmpectiv: is manual-ally t1} cling In! an misting 1:! ul' bthavium ur laws. Tc- ast haw m m the might View at h: aimed by til-I! usual way if fining tunings; of assigning

hl‘amn nl' diluihuting manta-5+ at uni making muffin: is: In call establishtd harm: inn: slut-Him and. al III: lit-m. In misc I‘ll-E pmu'hileitf ul' change.

5:- Ear Eran rtquirhlg I mpmtinn ufjudgnwnt. pcnpcflive tilting suspends Ihr: susptnsinn nl'judgmtm and suggtsu that thing; man.r but neither 3: 51:1l am a: “tiara-nary as they appear [mm 111: mummy

mug: paint. Thin main-n perfm mm:- in light nfwlnt Hf: Hula-3dr innw‘ m trauma-ml tgncmlrism by imagining miter ptnmnfi pain! nl' vim fi-cqmnfly Elm-ad: In mndilicatinm in hnhafiur. tn III-much! amiuitr and flu

'I'l-IEEEIIHIIH'IHEUTHEI

15!]

Imithncrnflw Itching!!! individluliwu Milflfl'rrnMun ti: expect that hemming aimihrhr mbtddtd with mpefl In tht impan nfwcial pmcticfl at smuurm an aim uir thing: up. Prupeclhn Liking i: alm the I'm E‘IHIHI': nfmllcttivt. m u m

hired dfliflifln making. There is nu need In mdtrsu’fld that “red: Ind thwsaluthcninttuuiunnlmerc innhmwnuadn-nflifl nujnritalilnilm. In. in hunt. this M l dEfltfl than fl'fl: Midi!!! I'l'lfll-‘l

p-cnple mppnrt will assume affine. flit puiir'f mm: ufliriall suppan will but implmmnlti and thus: who uhjccl willjusl haw: tn- liw: with it. Bu realdcmntflqilchmnniufihfdilhgutlndfiflflflng.uthtpdhicfl pilflnwphrr Benjamin Hart-H law: "Iwifll’ultn"munniall1cumgdtmmuhulwiflmnmjrldvrflflr'l pmilian I'ur teatime-mm and pmmtial Iradt-affi. mr fit“ {as :I minimliu might think] mm 1 will [uh-randy Ffflllil him tn my h'hllfil'f hr.- chIJ-mu. II mm. rather. “I will put mpclfin hill Flatt. I will 111; m main-thud. I |will III-aim m- hear 'tH mahuflflh, lh'illiulfll fmacnmmnn rhfluritflunfiw ufacnlnmnn pupal: ur El {mm gun-IL"

Such penpcnive tilting. Barber machined. "has a pulilitaily mil-2min” puh'm‘ In mlngt ptupnctiufl and expandMun-cuin a fashion ll'lll. m: m murh “ammo-dates a: man-end: print: Elm-run and the an-

uguniims the-r breed?" With each {If us able m an: haw things Imk luntherm the dial-if! m IJ‘ilIJI'Iph and imp-1H ELI!” will an than: fill'lltl'! give: my [a a dining In much cmurmus. Head In: ahsulululjr right In cannula: ml: taking :0 dentin-nary: the cmnmunkafifln that is at the rum uf m1!With-"El prunuol'puuing m‘sltlfinthcplactunhtmher

pfllfln'l attitudt-J“ Fflspenivc takingnfi'en a dccp way of Eating EEEfl'llfll‘. affllhfl'l: when math; dtdsium with them cur Fm- fl'urm. But it 115-: nfl'en a may at dflulifiring the pflilfll'lfllll Wthe-‘p‘ murlure {If naliumh'lm It i:. m be

blunt. what must ht dune it" the wpcrpuwen 311! nut 11:: Enemlinat: rad! lather and [he pliflfl. Each lid: mus-I. :nmidfl haw Iht nthtr Fifi"!- any.r gin-rm iituatiun. I do nut hmw whflhfl thii i: dun:- hy Inn-3dr” al' this Soviet Union. but it mm:Ei'idtfll Illa! 111:“.- i: ahatL-r [an [in]: t-Eurt

in the Unfit-d Sun-l m at: things [rum I11: Snvict palm nf View- This. Ralph Whit: argued in his bank Fmrfid fibril-I‘m. is Lht prtrtquisilt fur lllflil'ing I11: EIIJIEE’: hand-.5 back fium midnighl. Wt nut-fl In uh: "Haw wuldlhliflwmlimduithlhraitmflnnflusm Uninn nun-r [1:c ...Huwwuuldlinmrpmrmmfimcriflnbrhafiufi"fiflmiflflut

[fill q

m m

n

u

m

m m

m

m m

m m



m

M

+

animate-1H1 imam-t ndwrdunuifiimernl. Harm. durrepreIn“ : mhu' nldimnflarr mun uf pcnprcliw: taking. flu: um where unearflrhmginuunmfl‘inmeuthfl'l Iiuutiunrlthtrfllminughfinl

thrml'ltrinthcullwr'l Iiflminn. Aflflulhilktdistiutfinwrinnpoliqnuhnmnfidflhwflfl wnuldfce]iidwyfiuedinlmunu'ythuhadlhilmrynfhaiuginwded [Ihithmmdnflmmamuntrrfluthadlmtfiftypwpkfinrmrynm we Inn in Wurld War [L I tun-1min llfl'l'tlllfldfll h}! i mammalian nl' hmtil:pnwrnandmi:uiln.T-n hnag'inclhialimaliunilmlnmtn def-7mI'nre pulmandmfitn hmlility. jl'fl «awn-iileum-I'llI11.r ilk-tardy dnntirn‘Wuhinfirm. Rubtn 5cm ajnumal'ut whflpmbcdfl‘lt lilinkhlgfll'fluflhfl‘flul m m m m m m m m m m g m m m n m himlfthnhtgimeruieminflweu'ly Ififlifll, laidthil:

Thwfiinh.mammdmh1h¢higbwpuflimuflmh W h a m 'fl'I-Il 1hr Inflammhllflhm Hidin- weir whirls-n... . . [Pimple unuideflu W t ] up "Put WH- 'fl'l Eh: Eulsiam' ill-nu." I dnnfl Ihinl‘. Illm'l miflflfifldlmflhfl-Hfllfldflflflffl."

Whetherurmuhertlushfln mumtcclht-ninmcd'u‘ectiun

flwrflflqmtbmhuImiyhflniappmvmmnn them (“.15. citium in taming In apprtcialt mmmcrn hummus. The imp-cm: was. as it sin-mu always i5. [alumna] mum. Mikhail finrharhfl 111:1.r

bl: :uhutamiwly difi'crtnl'. fi'nm his [Indicate-5m, but nvtnhadnwing Iii: pulicy [Inference-l was the [in II“: he can:In Hut Yuri. and u:- Wuhfmr

Inn and meal-Hi timid!“ m h: a human being. Media {mm-rag: {pf 11:: 5mm Uninn during than: Hilifl 13:53:: in capturt the ordinary humanity

off-mitt citium. "If: wrfhm'dln m a m pump]: whm menu“ are that vivid and crisp." laid main! plydmlugisl Emu Plum. "Ta 5:: Lhamuhmheingmuappmtdmnblmnmmcpnflldnuaflud ‘Iuniauu' m- ‘cummunim' Ei‘lffl III a dime-filial] lhit we really need." laid III: psydlimriu Huh-nth}! IJflurL"

Tumhfiecfifirdnmii aha: [inthtlalmarym1 tnuhjulifyuntu mlizt widl an unpleamt III" haw uurnnium my appflr m when. In the lint chlplfl. I recuuntcd haw a 1.1.5. wanhip killed 290 human: penplein IfllflfiwhmhlhmdmacMfiflmfl.Thhmmm

covered in flmfnru'gn pm: mmyndnus. nudist would h u m Fund: the want ifmy mhtr tannin had ham respunaihic. But taking themilecliu nth-t": pnimuffiew {In m m a m aggrifltd party]

'I'lllfifll'fiifllIUI‘l—[Efl

LEI

Mmmuflymmmpflflmmukmhrmnurpnflfifimm :itiztm. In the [all : 1 d alone. the United State: ha: :punmrrd a war again“ Hitil'ififlfl. bumhtd Libya. invadcd Granada and Pinama. Ihellfii Lehmn, and armed dictum” afiMI their mm pcflplu. “ M a n :are insulted nr hut-mused m- angered by the intensity nfruentnmm their flag inspirts mad the glubc. it may he in part beam:- mtinnal PITWe: taking occurs m rarely. Wt :11- nm min-[find m asking haw and: Hui-film: might appear tn :11 nullider. mane nut mined Frnm childhn-n-d ta- “krmw“ that any aunt-h min“: are always—mm. by defini-

timn—nmdcruhm in 1hr: imam“ of Ffledum am! Barnum. and in flip-limit In mun-um: chili: pmmcariun. I dun 11m than“ than lanai and inflammamrf mmpk: beam: I think the United Sill-E1- i: uniquely nil." Sellifighlmmm: run: dell-p hem but am 11M}r here: pram: tilting dang 'nm appear to he 1 main! pat-tin: in Ffinfl: urjapan um" ail-gamma Either, But i! i: 1110 easy In fault mmmnr: lulu-‘1 parathialiam of 1-D imn'gh again“ it in [ht- ib-

Hnfl. We will null; be inclined to are fluflehfl Pram another paint of View Lfl'flflfl we an: first made Hume-nah]: will: evidcnte that m: manually

rail In [In an.

flit-girdles: nil-rim all-E's passport m hand. it wuld but a Harlin! curds: when reading in the newspaptr ahnut 1hr: activities ul' me“: cuumn' [and I]! pmnuunrenwnu unfit: lucid-uni In imagiru: that an: “I!

wading ahaut mmfdrkg being dune ur said by another cmmtrr. partial;lady Ill-I: drsignattd tun-my. Wuuld they still mm justificd. deftnsivc I'llhfl' than ufimiw? Tu rain this quutifln will dread no an: HI lung

as it is much-2d in generic language. Bu: paint nut that am fret-dam fight-r3 unuld b: m m : a: lmnrhu if Ihqr weren't mm. ind Ill-c inn:- h-lcnmfl [largest].

This same Emmi“: i: appmprhfl: with respect to any number at" pmujm in which hr: haw hut-mm: accusmmcd. hr: Ann-rims Him I'Efifll: In w flag: any lfl:irraliunil than Hindu: 'Hhfl m m Ell cum? Haw wuukl we rm upun Itarning that all children in IIIDI'JIIL'I' cnunn'r (my. a Eummuniut :mmtrr} had ll:- bc-gin Hurry Hhufil hr by rtdting I loyalty and: in lhtirfllliufl? Wauld it malls: any difl‘m: iftlul nth 'a'u. Hmmflhn-ih [in lupuin-Lmfl.cfitthmuffl.5-£mdgnpnliq iI-chli'l-du

radical 'Il'il all'lflfl LI'III Eh! Ural-Ed 5131:: 'u u! flitpli-fll‘iil. Tn ill-gun.- lh-m II'IH { m White-truth H lulu-r Mirna Ihuul-hum h'ulurr hau- enema-ant} pn‘haplm

Turn-fully- hffi'lfir II hi! thr: hunflahh—ilmdrfi th- [unrest-{uni 'h'iI-IZI-IH'I II'III' III!" L’niltd Slain in an hiuuriml film-3.11mh'nled h].- nullit- m u and M W nah

hr Ella-udiriflninnl-

IfiE

IEEFDHDB'IG Tfl (FIBERS

mulled : phdgcufaflegim? Dl'mum all-Emu lpinnwl cumpln 111' this sun huh-finitely. And that is exactly win: I am mammflhlglifll

m: dn. flncnf tI'H." mm: rmurhhlt advantunenu in human mun-1mg:— and {fll-E of 1hr Ill-[I‘ll undmpprfljaitd futures 11f madtrflity-n-vil nur ability In mend Lhr: culture-buund pfliP-Efli've [hat had hithmn lim-

ited human brings. Emu-cultural 1 : 1 1 l at: bath infiniithr liberaling and tnflrfllflufllf humbling flint-I: 111:}: hclp m fulfill: [I131 lhl: war it: duc- things i: mm thr way things have m ht dune. Femiw taking is um: Mechanism by which I":put this Emultdgc hm pumice, wing it In Inch

nuptial: and In fluid: nur awn EVIL

Tuning an lb: Rectivm Campusinn and :mmccliun are must :flicimfly prummad by giving pump]: El China.- In experience the fill.- circm'mlanru nrudmn. Tu Ipcnd time talking will: IHEH pEUpIIE-tfl learn how thin-1].r fear falling illt-E'p in the wrung place: Its: mum-an: 5:11:11 whal linlc [ll-t? haw: haw titty drink In him DI.“ the hflpfiltllnfll. haw fiercely lava] Frimdahip: blunt-m in the alleys and parts—{his is H:- turn an absmrafl pmhlem ihumrltssn-Hfl inn: rural human brings. flf mum um um: shuuld mflgralulalt him-sell {:11 having ”IEIPE'I'iEI'IEEd" hunt-lumen by dint a!" having visited in victim. an 1h: my hnmc. Eu: thymu- #11:: has difffii‘f Ian-awn lfiflT-Efl nmml limb. at a similar mull again in quite I11: same way and calm-DI; Easily pm:

by small: du- irn similar unuhlt. Th: pun-nun who ha: 2|m 3 Few hum: ln‘and-Ed an 111: highway i:- martin-after mare libel].r tn ufier ambiance In mud-In and]. mnturiaL flu: Ermine-55mm rcpuru that hi: nu langfl halt: put Hutu-um uni-gm an the nuns—um that hi.- hi: knuwn wlrm

it ii- In btinjured and ignored. “I lay them, raiding. sumewhere hen-rem life and draw h'ithnul. a htlping hand. This incidacm has lurtly turd: fl'h‘.’ {If thin Ila-rill dhrmc." h: “ital."

Bra-362nm: pauple'a range if W e : is a remedy fiJr indiflfltame- Em filth httttr—allhuugh th-I: tum apprmdws art, al' tflflflt. mt mutually mludw—I-il In hflflf penpertiw-Iiking skill: and mhann: Ell]Pillhif respumivm an that {me can imagine. fiat-L and help summne

Hm wiihuul hiring pun-sultan! been in his or hcr prctltiumtm. Elan lhil he done? flu:nplimiim will depend pinl'f an nth-Ether we [flflffli'flt uflhi: prams-5 as treatmg sumelh'mg ur a: rerun-ringit. Ifflutlt'r Hist: because

pup-IE: mpmhy and pct-sputum- taking an: in cclipac. m m EPI'IIL thcn mun-1&1; the-m Hauld mm a simplmr ml: than trying ID dell-relap- [lid]

TIIEEElFWTIHTI-[EDTHEE

16!

ill]. mientafim [mm wraith. Whflhfl' nrnnt Eupathgr in man u multil— urmumnntunl]maniuabmce—amtmhtmadcthatiliiahum capacity that will flnurish unit-H mm: fart: hlufm with its {it'll'tlIJ-P—

men! and aumlizalim'l. Nance. fur cumpln haw gmdtr difficult-l in mpaihy ate-m to rcfltct mill mum: and mute-rm :huut Idffirumutirm mar:- lhan a disparity in innit-.- potential. What Bubtr said In amt Fur the infrequnwy (if authtmil: diningut my be ptflinrnl m empathy Ill well: "Hun nf the time we have tumor-i all" ma: mim'w There in m a I'm Imp-I: il'nurchargeisnnt tnmmflmmhutmdr tn turn [ham an again.

In Elpfl'imenu cull-ducted h}- Etmland. Aderman. Balsam and m]:m—mm ulna-:1? dcnribcd. mm: m EH.- dhrusltd in later thilpllfli— pump]: nah-d In ilmgine liflmlnlvn in lame-uni: ELIE: litualiun. at In

imagine haw the lather Es twinning I'IET situatinn. are mun: Hid? m rupund phwiulngirafly In that pct-sun's damn more Iiitizr in bl: syrup» them inufid of cllrugllnr'f and more likely 11: help fur purely aluuilti:

ream than mhjtcts nut inwtcd tn pamk: m the anthers unit-reapedcunt Langfi-Iflm prawn: ul' "mpmlrry Inkling" Far dfildwn. mean-

while. have achieved :- men-5m": of m + althuugh ”Pi-Ell“? th: Emu 111' than: prugrams. Inn, i1 pmpenjvt taking 1':t than apathy pct-r IE." Teaching w i t h : taking m mange-r children Il-il [.‘I-mitive «affirm

an pmncia] hehaviun. alflmugh it in nu! clear haw lung IhEE-E {BE-fit“ hat," flu: exp-trim! with older thiklrtn was aim Framing, For hafl' a day 23:11 week um ten weeks, fifteen ddhrquenl buy: received "TIME-

d'fll “filming in {IL-Eden! rule-taking skills" and went helped "m we fllfl'fl.Iclm fmm uh: ptflpctli'li'fl at" mint-r1,“ Hm 5a did that buy: exhibit better pumivr-uking 1km: afterward. but lhl'f hid mined Eli-H “*definquem" than a tantra] grnup after one and a half wan. {Eu-lain

qualificatium all-nu: d1: MIL-thud and Lil-I: :fl'tct size aim: questions ahntfl the lignificinc: ul' ll'I-El-l mulll, hflwflfl, Hm ”they d:- I'entiin Hamilin; enungh tujmu‘l‘y Inn": attempt: it rqnlimt'mn than have actually been pcDMEdJ“

Hummmhhfim dfildrm—imuihlttmxtmifflwilhmlwlp 11m satiny ID We beyond selfishntn—Ihtn m: ought to lanai. am truly uwhalcanbcdnntathnmt [uwuifiuuuedinthapiflfll mind-IE hhmlnry. hm aim in Ithflflll. Th: fullnwing chapter dflcrihn mail

uperimcnu. with sptcial cmphasil an a long—Icnn study undcr way i:

Warmth. In help children Ira-tum: better a: pal-Hm: lilting. mm arms. and mare ulpumiw.

L The ABCs 0f Caring: A Case Study MuiqfiflriWflr.uflfl!-Irmfihirmmt "flu"!!!

fimwflqmnpuflummlflhfiim Mufiunflufll —mlil.liEuinni

READING. W E . IDLE TAKING [fur-t had In pick: ilflgiflfll mtingin which-1h Mthildrtn Inward wring

ihflut. aalhiting with. and helping nthm. it wuuld he a plate whenIhey mgulariy crane inm mntan with thtir pm and whim: mm: flirt ui' leaning in all-tad? taking place. Th: sdmu] is sud‘l an nhvimn chain: lint an: wandtn haw it wuld he that th: nth: mumgmt at" 31min! ulna-s and behafinr—apan Ermn minus! mhnrmimu [a he politc— pla'fl. nu purl in I11: ml [Injury-Ely {If Amrfican claumnnu. This. wnuld nun m be dur: tithe-r lfl : lack ufimcrm in thr- I'adfl at In sum: nhjtm'un

In using 111:: mhnuls in partially fur lh‘u purpnfl. Em]: fixture. Pl'flhflhl'f play a rule. but I will manna-alt but an [IIE

hlttr and mmidtr thru- lipt-tifill: renal-mm“: that pant-nu, Inch-rs. palaiqr nun-m and mint: may haw: ahnut {Ingmar-based lam-grams [a help dailtlrtn dE‘I'ElflP :- [armada] uritnlatiun.111: fin! is that this. agenda. by

vii-tut: uf being canttrntd with such! and mml hm.Imam“ In tea-ching mints—a dangt'murs busing“ [hr 3 public imfimtinn. The mund— and Lhin an: dnuttaila will: the hrnadrr absence at" interest in [he prun—

cia] realm—i: the fear that childrcn laugh: tr.- nrn: ah-nu: mhtu un'll but 11t: m [uni am far mmndm and succeed whun the-1r :11: W11

intnahtarflflnmtiflr.1hlhirdinlhatlahinglimtuu1lute-adlm

MMHFEAIIHGIAEASEETUDT

155

men mm: [It‘ll “mammal—Inca“ In lad-ruin. finch I Ihifiuf prinrifies is 3p: It: hit panimlarhr unpopuhr at = lim: when w: m nun-Elfin by dean'ibing hmr mud: students {In nut m_

Tubminwflhthtfim. dumhmunpingflwfmmatapmmc‘nl agmda i: rah}: laden. but neither an an haunt Inn-him {IL-n? thal 1h: wry um: i: In}:Inf the sums qua. The {ninth lil'fltflct and behaviflr. hnchai-req-nn. thaflnhwhichnhrpmuideahmdhfltmm

ufwifl-maflas muduputufflne]umnu1hcmrrinflumiudf.¥aluu maimprcscminflnmydfldmnmlcdmregudflchmhtnfim

an: nm principll manic]: fur [timing in must 1.1.5,. uhmls: th-ildrm Hurt eithtr amp-eunuch [agailul an:miner] at individually {apan frum an: M } . Enlhhuntivc cfl'urt i1. genial-ally MEET] a: inapprnprialt: for that

nutter. I'll-till. immuiun a! any man is rmwcd [m frtt time and Iii:mungt-d in lhl: claumnm. A nude-m whn htlps math-tr m lnrn is guilty at" dimming- Fmaflv, lb: nwmpfiunn that guide a leachrr': mflhnd I'm Ellfflrcing disdpihe and [wt-phi; tantra] Ill-1h: chipmunk—and that very [an that um issues an: viewed in term: nf :Hsciplint and comm] in uh: Em place—arc aha ltttptd in values. In lhfll‘l... tn mug: nu: Htflflfil

Ifl that raring. sharing. helping. W

e taking. ind mtpathixing are

Iain-{y managed in. nut 11:: mm will}!!! inn: 3 mun} tnvirunmnn. Ithmtuminethtfllunflrfld'fi nphumdtndttheminfma new IEI'.

his Mmuid flutmunl mutant! ancialskillsuughl Inn-ht uughtmhucimm-rnfnnumin thcfiddnfcducafiunmdfild

dfitlupm who d i m with thin. Th: pmblmn in that such innruc[inn—along with nunumm: and Innralrmtla.r summne In model altruilm.

nppm1uniliu tn practice caring I'm- IJ-IIh-fl'I. and In huh—i: um m be

hand in all I'lflflI-E'I. The 1:11q may need In prufidt win: mum children will not nth-amine gtL In any can lhfl'l' is rm cancfivahlt dangtr m pmvid'mg than film in bath mviamnmenu- Enmuragtmml [mm mm

dun an: alumina: In main: empathic Tflifiunihipl il : I'll'g'fl'll'j.r dflifilhl: farm 91' redundancy.

In pl'attiflt. iflht cut fluid? In he :Huuucdhtlnw in any incliminn, Pl'fllfll'ifll :dmrinn will nut hr: nearly as mnu‘uvershl as anxious principal: and :chn-nl hnard when my fear. “that anumptiuns and fip-flI-r

Iii-ht pfinciplu a!"Illd'l slim-:31pang-um: m explaincd clearly. with abjecu'mu :micipimd and adtquatdy addmflcd. parents and flfllfl' tummy-lily when fi-nm am [ht paiiljmfl sptctrum Iwill Hid}! find 111: Villlntl Fundammmlljr unuhkfliunahle. ifnm lung Eveline. They my iimply tram-Ian: Ih-fll' gull: inn: : 13“:n with whim flwr are mare

[EE-

IIEEPGHDIPH} TD m

Eamflinn clprtuing Imiufirrfinn that their childrtn In bring pmvided with uh: still: nf win-fin ntgm'miun ur the whit: nl' pnsifive ritiiflirf

ur uh: capacity In balance cantata-n For mil" with warm Fur flfl'ltfl- fin: educamr. ninth; that “Ameriun “haul: in

filtflflfly' rducum la ena-

dunie explicit value-5." I'HflIIlIflE'flEIL'E that : prmucial pmynm be Frail-1:!!! an “dtiumhip Hlucalim nth-tr than mural m- 'II'HJLIIE'I «HII.Iiul.':ni1:}rI!I,“1| Th: ill-Ea hit! i: am In misrepresent 1h: lllllfl'f afiuch a pmgrarn km! to allay firm that une's child is being hmhwashed. 111m i=5 Bathing subversive-— exam in I'll! literal menu a!" auhwrting mlfiahnm—ahmn a plan m rain-n chflth'cntnbrnitcrnndmurrmfingpmplr.

11H: idea that a pram-dun ul' such a program will b: gullible and IPiI'HEI-fli. destined m be victimized by mum-spiritfii indifiduals. can he {nerd had In the prejudice that melfinhnfll and campetitivcntu are

efliminu: lfltii] flute-gin. While it may 5cm: pandfluiral. haw-em. than: who-a: mantra is “Lani. am far Number fine" in: at mar: :11“ a dhidvmugt in any m 431' alt-titty than din-u Him an: skill-rd :l Hurting wifll nlhErI and inclined m du- m. A well-designed pragmm flf pmmtial

inn-mint: will includc training in cmpucrafiw: mnflict rtmluflun and nuthud: uf whirring rune“: gual: Lhil. do nut require lhr: mm uf fur-t: ur

maniplflalifln. Campetitiun and the single-minded pursuit DE narrowly mncdvcd :cfl—iniflfit typically turn nut In I}: munlcrprnducliv-t. There in Ihm canaidrrlhlt benefit In the individual in learning In than: and map-Hau- rather Ihifl in avuiding uiher: III-T trying m defeat

them. and any Jan to [Each [rm-ands] Vilma can imludt such skills. But Elm wilhuul such a mmpmmnt In a what pram Ill: 12:11:1m nf ennui-aging thildrtn H} hl'tfil'l‘llfl mush: In- album. In empathize and help. tin-El [ml Emuliluu: a May. "[11:51! value: may not specifically hnwfil I11:- actnr—and. ilrdtti rm if [I'll-ET mmttimu {la Il-E'l'ltfit him,

111:]: :huuld mar bur.- pmmttd an this basis—hut lht'yr dc- nm. undtr mat circumstanm+ mar}. again! his inn-rem Eilhfl'. 11 is “'11! [hill Ill-Ell

:thfld mygruwupmmtmum ElbflulhiE-fl'iflbdlflflnhil fimflmanfl flu}: minnaily min a businus :pp-nimnwm in ardtr tar {end m m an: in distress. In this respect. it wuuld flat be incorrect la 59:11 ET :I

trait-HE. all" than-sing what Inn. nf ptrlun an: IILI.Itinn=|tcl-1.r Hill“ to be {mWINES flTI-E'l child In ha}. Fur 1h: mum part. though. ll'ltl‘t is nuthing ahaut raring fur ulhtrn that impliu um caring fur. fll' kinking afifl, ant-self. mlcnhmu. htallhy ”If-cum. and pnpulariur are all mmpmihla with. and Han currehtes all a Financial m-itnmiun {dupnltr 3]. Thccuncemthfllflfillnrmnnliumflinnandudunicinflrut-

MMDFW:AEHSEEIUDY

lfli'lr

tinnmhrunely rubledildemhmiitlkun.5uruullmlmfl.dm

in ahmlmefy nu “idem: In lugging-It flu: pram-dill Ehiildflfil. m' the In“ uf Inning tarp-trim“: Ital. hdp la amt: tin-m. in: mI.Ill.|::l.l:l;l.-r admin with mflmiu: : 1 : t Quite m the contrary. As noted in duper

4, perspectivbtaking skill: ten-cl In pmmfllt cugnitiu' pmbk-m mhring mare genuaflr. And in an: nudjr. girls’ lard Inf empathy at age eight or nimmapnuurfiflprufinwufperfnrmmcunnmfingmdlpeflhg IEIB taken turn ffl‘il'l- later—alt Hm better medium. in filth Ihfim dieir miginal lea: scar-:3! Hm unlymdmingndimuuhpmmdnlurimudnnmmhmiwm

mm: fitdlence. but flu: eflmfimfll prme-n itself due: nut rcquilt a chain: brim teaching childrtn tn:- thinl‘. and Inching [ht-m H:- can. It i: Fulfill-E. a: I will Ilhunly explain. lu- inlegmle Fri-maria! lulu“: intu duregularmrrimlum:u languadlild'n mm; tort-ad and spell and mini critirally. 1h: may as. HIE" [tam will: tfltfl. that mmuragr ptflptfiI'm: taking. Gunprraliw hauling. nuanwhi'lt. which hil- an impuflant place in I prmuciai minimum, has been 51mm in them"? hundred: of nudity. m- mhanct idliE'II-fl'l‘l-tnl T-t‘fl'fll'dlfli Inf mhjtflmam-r {11' lg:Ind! 50 Eflfllilittlll and renurkahlt luv: the“ rtlultl been that Hahn-uh Hid individual teachers aftcn adapt EDflpEl'i—Ii'fl't Iminfl Mild-I‘ll primarily in

nrdtr m alrengthtn madcmi: p e r m , with III-E prunmliun nfprm-ntill film unlined HI an uninttndcd humus.

Dimminmafl'mmdallcaming

Anyuhmmrhuancfl‘mnnhnwchflch-mmmrtguflmdinm with nlhm in fuur ways: by regulating HIM! is bring learn-Ed, haw it. ili htingltil‘nfld.wflfinrfim hhbfingharntd. 3111:1111m Ihtlfinlin: mm. The minus strategic! fur mcmgmg prunuflal imam:-

{inn—and. fur LII-ill: mam-n Lb: rtln'am asp-flu nI any Minna] rupturitnm—can useftr hf: t'fl'fllflilfll within [his funk-mark. The- first mlcgnry trim [a flucnnlcm at" th: IEEED-fl. which album:

a arid: range nfaflivitiu. fi'um lit'it training in W V ! taking our mural rue-awning In dimiun: 3|:q walnut-s that can. in turn. include t-illw “'chrifimliun" ul' lhIE bdiel's that :tudmu already hold or ald-

Eflhinncd lecture: an characttr and mummy. Hull bf Eh:- dchalt an 111! :ubjtct mum btween pmpuntm ufjun such program. each amusing Hiawatha-Eng mialirinficnrnfuding lama-inani'arlcu

1E5

RENE-MING TD mums

mafidtrafinnhglvmlumWafhlegmflngsuchmuu imminnrglflar turrinllumfi A: In aluminium: m spatial unit! mind In an: 111' mm appmachfl. d1ildren can In: mu in cmwenfiunal “abject arm that have :11: additinnal bendil [If encouraging pcnpttflv: taking. FurtlrwnmmenLlnus Hilfiflflfllhtidflflflpefifitu‘linhlfiin

W

e taking. fin: Inch pram. lured by HDI'IIIE Fflhhidt in fill:

1mm. in wunh camidtring. 5h: warhtd with mtg-eight third} and [infill-grad: linden“ in the LEI Angel“1:“t who-uh W'hfl mpmunted a variety of etl'mic hackgmunds and influded I fair number H F W thildl‘t'n. Thqr Her: diuidtd inm lhftt Err-ups: an: Mttiwd "myth?” training. the strand wart-Ed an minim: pmblem-mhing shilim and 11:: third Inert-red a: : tantra] gruup. Fm- ttn wash. th: children in that firfl

mu gmups mu with a miner I‘m- flartc 45-minute mailman each HEEL Hurt and alter [ht intmmtinn, m a r t ! Inn-rt nth-n nf self—cuntq

:mafimfls. and pros-3th! m m ; fliildfln in Iht “mpalhy” training tnndjljnn [which actuality farmed mar:- n-n undmtanding mhm‘ paint; civic-hr and mum-m than an feeling Elm-mi participated in lflEl‘ll (lumen nun-hrs dtfl-lnped by Fuhhach and he: ism-data, whidl have bun publilhttl “Farah-1r} 5am uf lb: attifiliu- are dEIEETIfid m fadlitate lhl' f-Ecugnitiu-n of uthm* minus: childrtn try to identify feeling! depicted in phnmgraphu. play a ailml amnion of *‘ltkphnnfl' in uln'ch that must pan than; a finial EIPI'E'l-lifll'l from an: In the fllht'l'. and discriminate :mung difififlfl iffmivt intensitifl as thnr mnespund In rfll—lifl' :ituatiuni. Ether activitin pmmnlt panpecfive—uking stills: Ihr: [as]: nigh: b:- m imaginn: haw nary chm-ultra. FEEL tn act out nitualiflm Erma [ht pail“ uf view If difl'fltm panidpantl. In: gum Hill! :laumflts might want In receive a:

a gift. [I] mirrm' some eiu-‘a tmmhn, and an farm. TIM mulu af this study, “while nut Iptcucular. rcflcttrd qflmiti: and lutiuically significant with: {hwy-r: in children t participatcd in that Eltlpall'ljl training aflivitica. . . . [They] reflected a man: pmitive

HIP-canny and ding-lard gram-r initial unanimity m [nib-lg: than childmn in the ma runu-ul mndidam." Ambit declined fur children in

but]: the empathy and the prtflJlEm-lfllfing trailing mam. leaning Fuhbadt In candudm that any punitive Elpfl'itfltt in a null] grmlp+ 'Afimmmmtfianmanhflpmnflnbemdebflumwaflflnimflkflm MEI-unflinlpnuaruihrlpi‘rhflthrnmhtpnflhdjtmdmmhfimThhufl a n y form hum.- uni-unu- hrkm l'l-‘I-‘II'EII'I'UEIEIIIIIIZ. paflicuI-iri'r fur-granule: tHldrmk mflfllnhthrprimiryfmmmlhcuhmlhlm.‘ UflflllhffllflflfflHMI-IWI

pmiflw pup-Emil! lurudinthtrpnnulu." nylmdmlu‘.‘'whuqurmnurfludmmmail] bunny.- uirnull'y lug-Ifl-t-Irvl'fl.“II

m z m n r m m : AEASEETUDT

I59

Wflmmml.mylmvesuchaneflin.flmpmmfialhflum incrtau-d an]? fur than: whim: mining unions Haunt-d an purl-sprawl: taking. a: appalled In literal-l].r tugnifivr Ifilll. Such an immfiun. Fflh-

hath dtridtdcan h¢"m1:fifl fmflmavmgcclfildmwrflmfurflmvflr Iggrmiw: {hit-i“? Thin IEIPEI'iI'IlflII in m;- ifllflll'll'iflfl {If haw I thing: in the {uninha-

humml'n the urn-men: uf whit children tram—can Juli-ct Ina-modal alfilu-Elfl and bthavinr. But aumding l1:- Ilh: Ina-the:- variahlcs I mmtimned it :1 [can u impnrtant. Cumider [ht IIIIIIEI' Inf haul th: Ensmninn tilt: place.

Having children [tam [mm each mhfl. rather than men-«1'11.r frm the imam-3r nr 1h: tram. male: pawrflll bands ilflHJI'Ig them. finding I ll'El'f dilfirrem message than dfl-El having E‘iEh child work an her awn—0r. wars-t. ’lcading E'flrd'l thfld tn usmne that pen-FIE mus! wart at m pm'pum the mm“ of filth liming inn-cud? rtlnwd m 1hr mhfl'l. Cumiw learning due: nut prfluppuflt Lhr L-Il'ltenfl- uf prfllucill nut-tint l1 amunu In an enimccd :trunural imerdep-endcm in width ilfldmll mun rel? an each mhn while thry unit an a link Thi: is donut: by Iptdfy'rng. fur ample. that nu une an be cunnidere-d In have sum‘ fully mmplettd Ihat talk until fitfiflllt in thc gruup has. mantrcd it. Elch hi!- a built-in incentivt [u help. financial altitudfl and hE'll-Iififll'l tmtl In spmut frum this :mngemenl. an the: a mhjettht sense at" m idfl'll'lt? and : Effllfl itttplafltf of mhm. incintling than H'I'IIJ- are difl‘rrcm fi-nm unacil‘ with rap-rel In Elluliljl'gu abiliw final. at nlI'lEI' n'iteria! aunymadtlsnfmnpflaflwmmg: mdrpcndmnm 11:3?i 111311. Elli-EH an grad: manipulaliun In mate intuitive: I'm- Hurting Iflgflhfl. smut inwflw Hawaiian 3mm: :5 wfll as within m y .

smut prmidt [at .1 mm diminn at" labnr in tmnplcling auignmm: [such that EIEI'I gruup member has amen 111 [III-13.r mm infurmacljun whit fiery-me is mpflmihlt Fur teaming all {1H1}. Varinus msum an: til-red {D balancc inttrdtptndtntt with individuil atcnumahilily. In any cut. tauperilicm dint: rml imply unanimity.r ur the absent;- 11F mnflifl. Thu:

is fl'idence that enmuraging ntudmm tn:- dismn mntmvmial inuu and in {limp-t: with rich {Ilhtt‘ {but mm a {11:11:11 (11' {mpfl‘ififllfl—lhm ”jun-cling Ihe Fab: dithfllfllfljf Inf cumpt-titivc lit-halt an the an: hand Inc]

the abut-fire {If mnflitt an the mhtr—is partimtarhr tfl‘tnivt a: dram-luping ptrapttliw-{fling shim! EI-ut any [If than: ippl‘flaflit: m cooperative: lflrning will. :u a girl-Jeri] rule. Itad dafldrm m undmtand and can:

:huut each anther filr mar-I.- than the learning that til-1:1 plan: MW“? ur imimfly.

I'm

REMEDIES T!) m Thedfirdiuutinmfingfmprmnthl vfluuisfltqnfiflnm

With album will. students learn? Hull Iflfll'dltl'l mummnfl that chil-

dun be- aimed In gruupi Llui mnimiu hummeiw. But nut since

Ih: thy: at" 11:: Gilt-W ldlfl-fllllflUl-E has children's ltfll‘fliflg inwhtd immiun filth dun uh:- m at” dim-mm as!“ Thin: pmuhility'1: watt]: pondering. Furmuflerchfld tuguitkmm'fnungenl luminance firsthand what it is It: be: hctptrand H:- but mmihlc far Ila-mm depnldtnl on him.” Fur lhr: yuungfl thiId. Elli: {Tun-age imminfl pres-em: an appurtuniw tn lfi.‘ a [Imam-rial made] “ha is nut an adtflL Ant-cm mums sugars! Lha: 111B warts wcll in practice.” and III Israeli Hudy imiicaiu that 3g! nriatiun is significant fit“ within I. tingle gndit. Kindergarm-tn wham- tlaumalea ranged: I’mm barely fun: year:

11111 It} nan-:11? 5i: Hm mart gentmu: and flpl‘tfilcd mun-.- uring animdu than than Erma than: when fiery-nut was album III: may.“ Finally. thtrc is 131: quutirnn 1:}m mntcm in which lurning tat-H

place. A: with lhll': Ian fat-nut. 111E tan rtffl cidwr m that may a :lmmmu hnrganiudnrmthtalruclurtnflhttnlim xhunLThtlaucrhuhc-tn

LhE rubjm HP in“: pmvmtiw profit-n5 by lhl': ht! Lawn-m Humble-m and his Mandates. Their "just cummunilf“ high 5:114:15]: girl.- aludcm:

panic: at “EH—HE mural didainm Mgflhfl' in Lha- c m 111' writhing m3] respum'ihilirf Eur gun-ruling their stimuli.” Wimin flu: hidh'rdual clammm,akcyinutiahuuandhywhum dedlium an! nude album children': cundun, II: is nun-mull? mega-d that

the teacher explicitly or infiltliurillhlr Emmi-H nllfl and norms by which urdcr is maintained and hehavim WHIT'DHIHL Tm“? [ht ttarhcr':ml: ul— *‘diarciplint" is idenu'lied an I :nntinuum nil-tithing frum EIII'ElI-E irifl'ilfiia'j.r In : campltlcly lama-hire lurk. depending in pan an haw much nails: and Elf-gmmd aniviw the [fiche-r than“: In acmpt. Th:mflhud Fur I'Elll'flil'liflg nturltnu—and Ihe heath-cf: ml: is imbued mmmnuljr match-d nf in trrnu uf rutraim—may be hanhl‘r punitive (III: uh! swig]: 111' it may inmhrt manipuiaung man In assure.- mmpfiulct {111: mu HfltL In e-ilhcr cut. that dfl'iliflll is I‘ll-E {Each-EH] filmy: and III:

lethnique mush“ hrs-cl]; 11f mifichl Meme-ms. Sum: educaiun am: beginning to challenge this wary nffmning [III Mhrirguiflgthuchfldrmnfaflagflunandlhmfldphyimlein making derisisnru shunt how their churn-m i: m be run. Diuiplinc wmfld thus he runnfigurrdu mutual pruhlun solving. Such an1 p m will In: FI'EEEI'I'E-d by 3111't 'Il'hfl [31mm the idt: nf autummy and demucralic dediiun making. but it may aha ht irgucd Ihat purely practical mmideminmrcmmmmditmmfldrmmmlflflymfnflnl

TI-[Efilflfi [1F M G : ACES! 511"}?

IT]

rulu thitflltfhl‘thllpedtudfiiltlhlnfllkldiflfltdlfifllflfl.‘h urging [hit childnrn he gin-n : mitt. l din nut mun u: may than learhm

slum-cl nut inl-EITEI'IE in a trim lituaiinn. but nnlr that Ellttmflf imp-med guidelinfl fur behaviur will be Efierfive an]! In lung :5 rmrdl and punishmt: [mulefimea called “cnmequmu‘j mminue tn be meted But. If lb: goal in n: wrung: children [a himnaliz: that fillidtlillcfl, thrn cumin-:1: Hm tuggnu that prumm‘mg 1 arm: nf Whip in film i: like-if In he singularly Efitfliw.

Tn haw: mildrcn hcip nitride haw lhtif d a mis m but Ht up—lry which I innludt um an]? rule: aha-u: talking and hitting but aim hm: In

fllEh-I'fll-E birthday: and {Inna-at:- tht Halli—i: tn infilE them In tall:pin

in a [Irate-1!. nfdhuusiun. an nppnnuniw fur comma and mmmul. Tu Lhim Imam. it i: : chann- m Frantic: pcflptflih'blnltiflg :Itflh, to than: and linen and htlp. It it in Ehfll‘h a way of prnfiding a flmnmrk fur prmncial inlmtfiuns that supp-curt: fl-fl‘lfl' Inch appurtunifin: it tum: haunting-in; IEIIIIIEIE'I inn] 1 | ] t upping-[unity ll: learn aha-III and print-

tin'e caring [amul+ incidentally. thinking; a: Hem.” This in by nn Int-an: an whauuiv: survey at" the punihilitics that might be fil imn this 51:11:“a Thu-E few pinata ahuuld ht mfiititnt. huwever. to main: plain that an Educatur need nut he [unlined tn mn'iru«~ Iar adjuslmtms in nrdnr tn help nudmts. becumc mun: rflpnmihl: and mupunsivt m an:Iflfll‘hl'l'- Chihflrtn du null lam In tart.- almut fldlfllhfl'

just because their teacher tells them In flu in ur even sham than hurl-r In do an. althnugh mm may 11: significant cmtrihumrs. Whilc [ht available research an innnvatiw: way: In LII-E the. churn-um [award this mud in clislreuinglr ifitflmpI-flt. an: prugnm that began in the lea-rid.r [El-ED: nu:

uznnl'g.r has unfit-ml mm: mum] and fElE'h'flfll data an the gmcral insult. but aha hi: mad: lllE' Inf Each nl' the ration I have ducrihed here. Ihul pruvidingamudflfarammptdumiwphndpmialmfium

"'Thia.DIrun-1t.iflumu Hut [alluring min-h i:- in iuflfl Ida-inun- gull. Hun.- lam-fly. titular- Mini In at mums-rhu- and nth1:!t album lhr ullimw: m

unl'tiuiplhu-

Even if an: a! Ill-r {nivmli-IJHJI program:- uf behavior cullu'ul. ran-ch .u. "AHHIi'I'r Disti-

FHM." dill] EllL'litL'd in htpmg clfldrcn ql-EI-” d4:- qmfl childrtn Turn mun-.--|.-I‘I'I:url:iIIH:I1.l a:

much malt-lira“ dtminds an ll'll' wad-tr? [flu- mm-mum uni coup-nitnrtdu-mtianlit.“

ta 1:}- IhJI :I flmm] h'ilhnl; lhmugh :I'H: Educ-I [uni-dun Ihmfld htrfl-I'IHm-td Hill“- [Inn nu mmfl (main: Eran-I rhmnnln: fllil nun: Ih'ill rfli Iflminl; [fl‘nty ll nut tllifll

Phil-I

1'12

EWING TD {III-15115 THE CHILD [ I m a m PIDJECT

Dylw Brawn, a lawyer by mailing. hElPEd In sum the Furd mdirtiun Ifltr Wufld War II and blur aptntd Ellifnmh'a Efll inltgmlcd. :Mdu-

nti-unal banding: uhmzul. In 1111': Ian: IQTM. ha tumed hi: aluminum la- :11:

pervasive individmflism and sdf—pmucmpaliun ht betieved were mule:mining th: American iii-rial mm". After i arm a!" intmitwing 31mm: manly-five chfld-develupmml specialism educalurl. and inch] plydmiugists. Bro-um persuaded the Hewlett mdflti-flm the large-:1 philim thrupin: nrganitalinn an 111-: Wm E0351. 1:: suppun a mum that would

In: a strategy Eur pmmming [armada] 13111:: mud hthavinr in 111: “ha-all. Th: flhild Drwlwpmtm Prujefl {GDP}. and 'm Pirtfll urganizaiiun. 1h: Dfltlnpmcnlal Ella-[lies Gunter, grew nut Inf that Prflpfllfll. EDP is Ihe first

lung-tenm mmprthmsiw, Idllilfllvhiltd pmjc-n at" it: kind. empluying

ml Izmir Educamrs In implant!“ in prngnun but Edam researchers In anti: iu :fl'cflivenfll.” In the gluing Inf I'Elflfl. lhad tht nppmtunily tn all-unna- 1h: Icimnls in which II“.- EDP operate: and In [all I'm-l unhr with in Infl“ but 1151:: with daze“: uf children. 1 m . parenla. and mile-r members ul‘ 1111- nurmunding Efl-mJIltmili-El.

Aft-tr being inviltd m wart in flh‘.‘ Sim Ramon Valley Unified Schnul Dim-in. album thirty mile: us: all" Sam Frandam. I111- EDP film-fully mald'md [we acts Inf thud: filamentary ld'lfl-Dll iq Illa: dim-in fur fiiIE' and flat-cumin:mm. in min Hip Ihm dammed which Inf mm m: wan 11: receive lh: pragmm and which wuulrd he Eh: cumparimn Ethan-I5. Th: first teacher: 'III'E'I-f: trained in prepamtiun far that WEE-EE- schml arm. Staff rematch-r11 Fauna-fl an a grin-up- nl' rhiJcErt-n. than in kindergarten. and are nut: in the FI'IEI-Efli- uf fuilflwmg them inm junirur high schml tn 35m: whtlhtr flitir auimdts. hthaviur. and achicvcmml. differ [mm than: {if their muntcrpam in the cumparimn lEhfl-flll. In the fill] nf 1933. the Frat-gum was imm-duced inn:- mn elemenlan' schmh in nearby Hay. Hard, 3 district mar: nhninil-y {Ewnt 111311 the thins. [Ell-nun suburb:

in San llama“ Vallry. Apart Hum t-

lug:- nmuhtr nf childrtn. tum. and sufl" mew

hm inwalvflL what nukes ll": idea [If Ihr: EDP an mmpdling i3 Ihal in

nus-thud arm-nun m a kind at" immmirnn far 1]}: studmu. saturating all asp-Ens nf their schnul merit-nu: and mm-tul' thrir liIlIIE at hume- a: wclL

Ill program atlcnd: lu- narh n!" th: Enur educaljunal Mable: discus-led in III: In! lectiun. um.- abjecliw but-mg n:- mtruin uh: rtlamr: imput-

Hme aft-am in thaping children“: prumlzial mimufiun. I will will? them in urclcn

MMDFW:AGAEEETUBT

1'”

With l'flpL'tI. tn tun-ital” mutt-11L lhl: EDP dun-u nut add special MI!!!ufthe Inn Famed by FEihb-ich. Hath-er. 111:In“ 11nd for mm: a! the [fill-la! Its-mm: an: salaried to encourage PEI‘EIJ-Efliffl tiling and In made] pmmcial b-chawiur.“ First-finder: might punk: their tradingIifll: nn 3 nary about i Ehiid win: ii ridirulfll by hi: peer! Eur being

stupid; the Iuhlcquent class diacuuiun uh tl'tem u:- reflen nut fill-htr an the meaning nl' Iht Imry' but aim on [11: nature ul' fiitndnlfip and funny. EilIh-gradtn may read about a whim buy whu meet: a black permn far that Hm lil'II'IE. after which the Mudtnu pray-teed In cumider whether it in reamhl: for the bay In II.-.r+|:Irr'3|.r flu: his um attpninunce will ht imulled if liltd h'l‘ltlhtl' his fill-cheat: were 5131mm 11min? place: :1 [ml fl mirth emphasi: an d1: Int-mud fireaching :u an I11: cufllEDL For at [can part uf lhE day. childnm are mmged

mkunfmm HIT—h athflmithtrinpainurhnlighflrlargflms. A: fi r m at: lemon. lhf: Itflhtfflucrihu Ill-rush and help: dIiHrtn m H:intrimit mum: Inr engaging in iL, [31h- nhmn lib! pram-until} “Jun-s thu will In mm: film-ram m pfl'furming il. fliifl'fli interdependent mic: In the gin-Hp Innu-

ben. and nplains thr Ipetific :IIJIIEI Lhal will be lawman [m “trifling that: Heinz“: Hadenficandmiflgmh. Thtclildrenmthen Ieflluwnrhunthelalt in [hair gulps."

lnan mumpttudiscmnagenudenu I'mmueingcuupemianu only: m1: m 1mm: flIhEI' end. teacher: {In nut use numsit mufiwlun such

a: End-n ur inurgmup cmp-ctiti-un la mum-agar nr "ward pinup1!a

{flaupmtive game: are all": uH-d an the phmrwndJ

The idea of fl'fllfl-flflt ifllflfl'fliflfl in iltfllhfl' fflfllr-E {If 1h: pmjtth

I'Jn a repflar huh. mu diflu'tm china—say, at" fifth-gutter: and In:fifld—fl'l'ld-ETI—Eflflll lust-flier In Ihil under!“ an watt with thl'h' “hud-

dies." Older students art film infittd m dame mm: {if their fitt- fun: In tut-wing r m chit-firm Finally. than: ii the inn: uf III: minim fur InminIJIJII [ht Inn uf apprnach lifl- clan-rum]: managemtnt deactihcd show. in width childrm

lie-tide mgcmu will: thc tudicr haw 111:1: want their dun m- h: rum in used hlfl. Styled "drvelupmentil dil-fiplhflt‘" by 111:: EDP. [ht finphalii again i: an dndnping intrinsic mnlhre: tn parficqlale prudunjvtlf and prmuciallf. Tcachcrs an: managed In dfldnp wan-n rdaliumhipn will:

[11: thiidn-n, III-nth m- umdel firing behafinr and In redm the number {If discipline pmhlems. The idea i: In cream in Envimnmml in whid: Itfildrenlflml mklmandhdpflthmhfifindinwhichlhfiphylpflt

I'M

HES-FUNDING TD w a s

in mingflui mflmnmenl. Pfiimfit' clam muting: ill-Elle”- Indium: wrinu: blurs. Ind children mun-Lima help to main: dcciainm :h-nul flit timing and uranium! nf their “admit wurE. Teacher: am asked to recon:idtr sum:- af their usual panic-em “1: it mum-r that th: thihiren will: in I'm: In [ht lunch mam? HI: permission 1:: us: uh;- hmhmnm? Eual-El-E I taming activity.r Hardy a: prescribed?” “Flu-n 1 prublcm timelnpl,

the quutin-n I'm the childrtn '3: Win: till 11-:- a: i ch" ch aha-u! EH. :1: Wedlnzifllmwiflthelmherdn fmm—mmm? ln talkinghith tmhtrlinmhtdizn thtftngrm.untr¢puufly

hum haw skepticilm ha: bun-n mfurmfll inm amazed enthusialm: In give children—even Hm ffluflfl' chjladrcn—sumc :{Illtflive rflpmm'hility fur making dlfifliflfll... m ammu- lhll‘. they m ham-ally well intentinned

{if Wine: lacking in undtfltamiing at lflf-Cflnlrulfl.“ and m Hurt at creating an ampherc al' Harmah and txcitemmt abuut Icarning appear In 3-H lhl' lune far [11: [ : t Eflmpfl-fl-fllll at the program. It wuuld am

he- Imp-filing In ltifl'l. name all iht" rmarch I'm been campletei that this HpEflisfllEIHflfl-I pawerflllmmn‘hulurm childrcn‘spmmia] winnind behaiiur. Thur EDP aha ha: Inn-dent: undtrllkt m m unit: pmjecu uIdIasdIeadupfinnufanudyFmflg-rinfluarmhtm name-sari: withheld bu: Him-I: d m m fl an: # # 1 iin lh: childrm in dflafl} rather than jun tulle-cling my: fur I-Dll'll‘ll'lil'lfl; and “charity.” Either

mimic: imlude pcriudic humwurh mignmmt: 111:: an: apt-cilia"? danigned m be dun: with pan-nu: : mandvgmder may. fur Example. hinghumeapmmahuulachfldwhninfifldbyalihling. PITEIIHHIE infittd m shat-r: lhtil‘ awn chfldhmd mcmnflts, u:- help their sun ur dIIJEI'HEI' camp-nut a poem an the um: whiten. Ind then In diatribe the

Hh-tllt apt-rim: in filing Certain Ititl'llL'E pmjfll! an: aim intflflicd In In chm: by Lb: Hhfllf: family in urdfi m Inner mllab-aralim at hum. Ind dildl'tn Ina“!r he ”signed tn ifllEr'll'i-IEH 111d: nun parents about [ht fmnihr': hhmry. Spatial “humid::m'fl'tiu indudt family film nighL an

afitrnuun uf outdunr nunmnqmfljtiv: game: fur parents and mildreu. and i inlay.r in whim “1|d bring din-Er gnnclprcnu In sclmul far I crun-gmnfiunil pauper-live m1 educitiun and Hindi Hamil.

In their Wfilinga. mum: all the EDP Imfl hav: distinguished tllcir app-mach m leaching Mun-1 lit-m than: a! Intact-tum mad-211- Unlike certain variant: of character Educatinn. 1hr EDP apprmch make: m:

MIEII'IPI: In brib: nr threattn mildrm into adapting a let uf mum] guild:Iincs. Th: mphuis. as IIIfiIII-d aim-1dr but! dcar. is an hdping them In

mdermlmi Illa-mu fur: given valuemflwrfllan IiflFlFilflil'l-tinlllfll

'ITJEABCEDFWG:AEA5EETUD?

175-

Lhcyacctplilnrbmfltinatmain myhcnuflthtymmldmdumT Ulllih: purely child-centered app-tundra, hum”. the EDP ii milled

In flu.- hnpurtanre Inf andt malizalinn: the Icarher': job is In Int-ac]:+ tn guidr, tn Hiram. h:- Eaciiilatl: :mptralinn. tn: mndtl—in IIIDI'L to 1:: much mar: than a Fulani?! hfllifld-El'. financial value: rum: Hm I Effl-

thesi: Hf adult inculcatiun and peer intern-tritium and 111m ulna—in mntmt tn Ihr: pmgram: clcwlnpcd by m :mural manning mural-inu— emphalile nlring fur when a! we" in applying principle: uf Elm.

him In the prnjm': implementation. students mndnnfiy sell-clad fmm the lhl'ti: n m and mm: mmpurimn firth-mill Fraud II:- but similar nut fl-fll'f dmmgmphiflliy but film an I rang: Inf I'll-[Til] illitudn. value-s. and stills- Then. aver 1hr..- “Ell five gran. Milflfll prugmm (hurl-1mm and mim-r mmparism claimants Hm visit-rd by abut-I'm blind In flu: cunditiun (and. after the finl fear. umwar: that “Here “I

any hlmt'mhun at all]- “me rtpnna. Ingtlhfl with «linen-ended innerfitm at thildrcn. lhml'fld than tea-chm urn: 1:!d hnpltmtming the urinal]: imp-uncut: [If the Fi‘flfl'l'im. Program thildren punished thgir damm: :5 mar: supp-affirm rep-Dried a greater emphasis m: [urns-och] film, and WE": mun: Irilwly m 513' Hm Illa-5* had participated in flail-apin: clan rule: than men: children in mmparimn achuuh.

flu the :1t hand. an: all teadlers Iver: equally successful at kaming ur understanding th: EDP training. and whilt um“ graspcd i1. Id!!quately. Fm mitt-red it Efltil'fhl'. SHIT membtm readily ranted: mm: M n d fl in than training pro-mdurts—nutah-lfi' in Hpccting Mather: u: put flu: pmgram in“: practin: whilu they were fun learning in cum all“. and in ruining teachers an: grade level at a time. with the mull. that me whulc Iamlw was not inmlvai in the1.1i from thl.‘ bcgirming. To 1111- utmt [hit the prdhnimnr rend“ mauld him.- bum-n mun: imputii'I-re. the wfiatinn in tfildlfl'l' still at implrmenling [he 1min“: campuncnu III 111: program may be partly uspumible.‘ ("film an: plan: In path-rm a :uliuiral analyst: m delflnninu wintlwr tmhufl' huplmwnm

firm shill dun inflated emulate with :hflch'tn'l Francis] altitude: and bchafiunJ Afinfiwmflimerflmmdnmtianafmedfldrmfim *Anmhrr pmfiHttulhrflnflult-unpflfllwhfl‘flnfl. M I M I - t h -

inning}: popularinfalifnmh hairdrpuuiufliy httfladfllpttdh'frllltad-tlfifllfld

pumhh- .11] Il'lfflr [mpalflnn filing-l1- Whilr nu;- hl'lil! I'I-fll HIE-d 1hr pmimlar fi l m In tnmrrdliw [timing dfidnpurd by [hr EDP Ilifl—m'. LIT-mum Imflmlflfl II'II: firimn: 1 : t rampant-nu Inf =rhr prawn—(mum H-fi'fl-r iufiflli thil Iht malt! may nm h! J]

Itrit'lnl an inn..- Huh-en m lhtcmpparimn Idpfllflfld "lit-II mlulirnly MI W m rumprlili-II: Mariell- nf tum-Him-

:

[TE

Emmmfi 'Ifl m

flu: urigina] when each IFHJIE." lignifium dim-m: between pm[rim and rump-adieu t u l linden“ hav-I: emerged. The Fmr mgage-d in mm": spam-annuals pram-till behavinn in dash strum-d bcttcr lblc m undetltand hypmhflirjl conflict siluil'mm. and were mar: Iii-2hr tn like wmnnt's needs inm IEI'IL‘IUI'II in denim: with than siluatiflm. 1:1 mm: illfl-LHIIIEH+ LIE}- plant] ingrlher mare humuninuaiy and callah-nra-r t‘mfly. flu nthtr mmurfl, hmrflfl. and: u u-hmed htiuvinr Humid:

Ill-f clan and style a! participmjan in Ill'uflfll'l'd gran]: lulu. dim-rental Ell-Hum madman: did nm mnuhtmtiar mam statistical flignilimnce.“ With Hlll-l'.‘ ur nu prompting. pin-tut: al" than childrm rtcuunt haw

Elicir mm and daughter: my: take the initiative to TEWI'H.‘ dime: {and d1: 5:: mnfufly] whill: playing gamut: with friends, In name can: pa:tnu ahu till. ufhmring timidnd. III-l1. the hilil [If the china!!! they him!-

iitl‘lfl‘lifl‘d... In invulvc thtir chfldrtn in family dedlium. Ham. :1 niunl observer uf classes in flu: pram-am schmls is “run by hm: :Iu'lidrm hall]: ranch uthtr afl- the flan-r withuul bring asked. actually listen m Eld'l

{I'lhET during muptT'I-‘iicd diumflum. and turn mutually m can]: miter I'm.- iuistanct an diflicult uuignmmts. Il may be useful In mil-w 1h: EDP'I uptritnu: with rap-en tn the

thm WEI-1 urban-angel In flit idca uf prfllflfifl educatinn mmidtred :hnvc. Eutn a whimr dtlihlflflltlf hating far 5311 llama Valley miduua “in an: nppmed In lb: PTHEI’IIIITI cnmmitment H: leading WIJUH hll dilfitulw Itilca-vefing :ar ruistance. flammatiw lEhfl-fll hmrd munhcn. t l ‘ i l admininumum and prultflivc partnu all gent-all? seem It! be puukd at the lflggfllliflll than the GDP": minim: might bl: ”gilded

as mnflawnhl. {hnlififl Ill-Ch a: helpfulness. mnfidnafiun. and n:spumihility an: unifn-mfly um i: mmmndahlc. and I11: pmjcct it: andiltd wish having help-ed tn pmnmle them in childrtn. Elmira. mm '1: utilhfl' wink-nut aft-3mm Imr abje-nfiw: r m

to luppflrt any fear that caring thilclmn will b: [unlit II:- mind up Fur Emma-Ivan. {In a, quad-auntie. pmgram Inflmu wm mare Iiln-r than

their Eflflflll‘l‘P-il‘lli in tht nthc-r inch-nail m btliafle that an: hm an 01:15::[inn [a dcfcnd nne'a punitiun even if it sat-ms urflikfly In pnvaiL Trail-en Ind parmu can-um: this finding by Idling :tur'lu uf children Him

have became [mare alumina H'H'I while hecmning flifll‘E prumcial. A gmutn: balm mm: In haw: been ruched ban-rm tuna-m Eur self and mum fur nth-Em

Firufly. an the qucttic-n uf id'liflemem. Imdfllu and {

m in

pmgram achunh seem m magma: fluL as an: tm—ywdd tumr put it.

:uupmliv: beaming i: “lit: arm: hair: I-‘nurbnimfl GivenInd:madam

THE ABE!- UF CARING: A CASE STUDY

IT?

ftp-urns a: well a: th: flillliiinfl march an cmperative Education. an: unuld ripen pram-am thildrrn m enjny an Hdt'm‘llag-L' in [hr acquisitiun

HF lemming skills. Hutu-Her. while EDP": emphasis hal- rum rcquired any mrifict n! mun-minim] Ethical-mm: as murmured by Mandardited It'll: mm. milhtl‘ ha: it pmfided iu nude-m: with any :igm'firsam advantage mrfi than: in mmpafisnn schools. This may wt“ bl: due In a writing EEEEI:

students. in t: dim-in alrtadr Hurt in the my HII yum: Fur [hfifumh in [hm in 1:5: run-um Fur impruvmm. Fart 11f {hr purpnst «of 111: EDP is In dflermint which mflhfifll an: Inn-31 Efl'em've in a WI-haifl pragram dimmed m raising pmsarial childnm. Barium such llfldifl‘ Pirlirulll'lf ul' Ihil magnitude ind with

thin mmhimtiun a! techniquea. had never heffll'fi' been mnduned. the :mnmimwm u-I' rflnurcu has a!" mail? lite-n tmrnmua: 1hr Hewlcu

mdalinn has spent mun-thing an the muck-r {If an: milliun dun-1hr: a year fur eleven rem. its largest grant ever. It is rum yet clear what level at flpmdjflfl't. what cmnmimwm {If l'ill'fl.‘ Em training and supp-Inning lflEl'lEfl., and what kind 11f Efl'un In : 5 e Eflll'lll'lllllilf hacking will b: requirtd ul' lather 5:111:43] system: that deride ti:- ad-upl all ur part ul 1h:EDP': pmgnm. Bu: fl-E'I'I. as [ht pmjctl war: an and Ill: data mminut In bl: analytic-d. turn a: rumfltr! Iflfll haw far pmmcia] value: can

hr.- pmmmrd wilhnui math; fundimtmal ("hinges in nur writ-If: imtir

“Ilium. the EDP already ha: mad: I11: pain: 111:1 mildrm can b: rain-d Inwarhwifla. can: [unandhclpuchmhflflndlhuidmuhmphyl

majur rult in that pun-cut.

III FROM ME TO YOU TO US

L Altruism Lost Hamlhn‘mpmtnflfinthflmhhqf MaduflfiflaHWhWEflH-flflflrm him-.m

WWIIHEH

SURGE 0F MEI-WISE 111m hummus evidmcc flutwnfimflmhflp pcnpleinnfld. that in! can it: an: urn-11d thruugh nth-rs“ fits and Earl their pain. that certain way: if raising and affirming children can Prflmflt they: prun-

daldinmuium al'human HI": m thrill-:1! httflmtll lent ill Elmira: 1h: capacity tn {in harm. But what. asks 1hr.- sin-pair. dun all Ih‘u imam“ tn? Wmddn'l an unhiaud inquiryr intu why m: tall: man: Elsi: limp-n:-

liw ur mm: In hrr aid—Hr why fur lhil man-tr, we in anything Fur cur with flihE‘I'I—l-Efld us E‘H'El'llllu‘lflf tn the mnli'rfl! uf ulf-inttrtfl? This is 111: chafing: Inf cgnisn an I: maul philosophers inn-ll ii, prychnlugiul tguilm. 1'11: term ill gum-rally dtlintd I: ah: virul- that indifidulls always II}? In further what Ihcy hdim m be their mm inurHH. and 'u. i: mimguinhtd Ernm cthital cguhm. whit-J1 bald; that individuals Begin to dfl In} “I in sin: diltinguilhfll Era-m agatiun. which is

mat a mien-m mean : 3 mm

m but: nun-11m: furmnccimr

HIE-:hmrptiunJ

The first 111mg“: heuidah-uu: earn-inn] ilthiti‘l. ii prediclled an the existence ufa split between what is good fur mi: and what is shrunk].r mil-Di

Thar an: pin-qty ufcullum in Hhidi [ht idle: 111'd a discerning is unfamiliar m

if described by an nmridm'. “mild sum m

if nut

imrmnprchcmiblr. In fact. I]: dis-Iiminn a: we undennnd it mdar is fairly- nrw firm in “Fun-m mlumt, having will: intn being—nit]: lhl!

tguhmflltnlinn dhpme in in watch-nun alum “we: cumin “a!

IBE

FRDHHETDTDUTEUS

After Hobbes. phflmnplm's brat the dmm fur racism rather Inudly and frcquenlhr. Ell'fl'l [hast III-hast rtpulilifln: run-d an luring cal-rented his bleak View nf human mun-t were careful In make ubc-isannc bcfun: the

ultinme reality nl‘ stillinlercsn t n p Bull-m whale semmm in the early

eighttcnth century an: regarded as the classic critique nt‘ Hahhts'a [rammw a Faun-d Il_i1'|. a pulling: nuw raj-Ely tilt-d} m mun that " m [bani-Im-

I'nar :fleninn, benemlmcc amung thr ran-:1. in lubfl'r'h‘i-Efll m “elf-humus.“ll

john Stmn Mill mute. "fll‘ Lin- social virtue-1 it is almmt mpcrflmu: ta speak; an mmpIL'l-fl}: i: it flu: wrdic: {if all up-efiunn that “Himm- is

natural." The peuple we regard as mural HIE gimp-1'1.r Eelfifih in a difierenl my. he cuminurd. Tlmin i=5 a “sympathtti-c sclliihncn'. Harlin: d dfln‘.

3 Mil. m a Mr. '4 Taday it urnuid nu langua- he appmpriatr: la refer m the “challenge" ul‘ cguhm brawn: lh'u. pmitiun has Inc-mm:- Iht dnminant. nu! du- dissidrum. an: in ["11" rullurr. The belief that human: an: naturally aggruniv: my be wide-spread. hut at least this i: still mngnhable as a htlitf that mum he deli-Med and tan ht {lisp-mm]. By manual. the but-lief lhifl huthan: always act in 111: final analysis an a: in hEI'lEfil firms-chm! I1.“

lat-came. in bflrrnw [mm mmpultr pirlanct. Ihr dun-Faun assumptinn. flirt-I3: dot-s amen: hmher [a {flu :- defame Inf egnism: it is that prtmiu:

fur mim- claim: milhtr than itself the nuhjflt ui' dimgrmment. Elm-yum Inmfl 13mph are: mill]! nul fur Lhfllfl-Ehl'fi- even when they appear In be doing gnfld. Bunk: arguing fur III: univu‘mfiw ul' idfilhnHE—th is In say. fur flu: mneniucncr: at" gtuuim alu'uimb—are nm written. The?

dn nut have In he infirm-n. Rather. bfluh prnceed Fran] this assumptinn by debating I111: Emmi-flu ut' univmal ulfishm: m' the whdmn u!" basing public pulinr an it.

My Emu-rm in thin chapter is In fl-Efl a quid: lkfidl Hf hm! tgflifim calms mnttmpmry binning. flammin {alluring with nthtr such] ltifl'lcfl}. and pafllmlugjh—nr it [can influmu'al Hhmh uf [hm-ugh: within thine discipline-.1. The fullnwing Inertia-n will mmine the ream-M fur um reliance an this assumplinn. just as m:- first ma chapters pmpuud Elplimtium Fur the appeal at hidugi-cal deienninilm and Ill: belief'm innate aggressinn. Thtm in the next thapier. I will rerunsider whcthcr lhflt is finally gun-cud r m In htlicw: dun ma] altruism '5 jun an illuliun. Mlflfiflflhm+ as I shall lhfl-‘h'. have largeiy jntimned 1h:- nmiun at" Human-am. But this has nm causal mast afflu- rusl nfm In mm a but in nut lung: ar Helm-lute“. Barry Sdllflfll Hut: nut lung age: than

ALTEUIEH IIIST

153

Mlimry Hahn. numb. and hthlvinr than” Illin- I m m Via-fin Inf whalitumammbrapflmn....[1nthinliliunlhumanhehgl.._mnulm

pursue stiflimtrm. Ir.- utisfir win“. In muimim ulility. {Ir preference. a: pmfil. nr min-1mm; fll‘ repmdufliut Elli-Eu. They are My. imuilhl: in III: II-III'IIIiI. al- 'Il'flll “Wt-inn}

Lent: hnknlitfltmnrcdmflyituchnnhmdifliplimsin tum

Eulogy Edward D. Wilma has referred tn altruism a: the “central ttwcntinl pmhltm calf ludubiulug.“ and E! has even hem luggflted that the field ul' mullinlnfi, which inc-mp“ m apply binning m social behavinn was hum-sud In uphiu 1hr: uiurnct uf altmim." Indttfl. altruism dfltfi Item In past: a pmhlcm: If tun-rival is the engine [if natural seltcfinn. haw fin we armunl fat than: indifiduals warms many dim-rent species whu E1:- to

gun: length: m hcmfil; udmra—aunmfinm: mu II. the can 111' their awn Evin? 111:: mfiahifllngiml flip-2mm has 11m been, a: EDII'IE' casual reader!

:mnulznms+ m afl‘er 1 hinlflgical gmunding fur what we g,r-I.rnII:-ranl,|1|.r call almaijm. Quilt I11: TIE'h'Efl-E. II has attempted In {it-fin: mil altruim‘l am ET nhtmfl', rtd‘uring il in tith- mr:In a: variant uf selfishness. Fup-mrinlfiulngisu hil‘I'E unhflilfllirlgi'f uud this firm: technique In :Iplain away lh: nigniflunc: of inn-Inn 11min] bchaviur. Thuau. Richard Hawkins lel'll III dull: unfunn- who still MIL-s ill—Hill“ altruism simply has no! fare-d fans: “A human satiety baud simply an [ht grunt“: law a! unfit-rial I'Iaflhlfl! selfhhncu unultl he a very nasty Incl-Ely in which In Him. BU! unfuflunaillf.

hum mud: Hi! my dtplm'c mule-thing. it due: nut slurp it being IEZI'III:."'I

Twu thcnriL-s dnmmam L11: [flflltfllllfll'flj'f nutiuhintugicfl awn-um ul‘ altmhm. Th:- fiflh Min-d by W. D- Hamiltnn and pfl-Plll-ill'i-Ied by DawI'im. is 1:1a as inclmiv: lime“. ll flfliul‘ilhtd after in llltmpl m :hmr Lint natural ale-Edna Hui-led an gruupa rather than individual: [111m purp-nrting In uplain haw an: of sdfvucrifice were maintain With DarHillian theory} was 11:31 we]! ruched. Hamillun argucd than sdtctiun upmtu nut an individual: ar an gun!“ but an gen-H. Thu: hdjvidul'll will uniflct WHIWI if thtrt in a high limb-ability that this act Hfluld mm: the: survival 11f lhEil‘ gut-nu in clau- :I'thlii'lfl'fl. Th: clam thf.‘ relaliu: Mini:I lhflmflI'EE-Eflfill'fldifl Mun). dumlmflwlikelflmdnf

134

EDI-II HE TI} THU Tfl US

flflifiEE—Hfll Ihtffiflsuchrflaljmwhuflmflluwmnmiwmmfi: lb: Ila-ifict : lflllfld dfl'iainn [rum HIE tut-bruit pct-1pm”: lhll i: fll'ul'lfl'd In gawrn mlutian. The EEEfl-Ild majur than}? i: Hahn! Triflra's ilk:ui‘ I'H'iprocal allnk inn—quid pm qua ll'lfllffil‘nfl'd int-:- 3 law ul‘ nature. {1m- individual nave: Innflm became dlil increasu the pmhibiliw that Ill}: favur will Email?

he rctunnd. Hanfllmu m : uf 111i: arrangement that "Eh-I: tcnn almiilm may hr.- 3 misnmm-n {11:11i: an uperutinn uf bmufill ufthe initiating irrcfivflualfl Appropriately #:1011311. Tr'nrm reciprncatem timing that Hamiltnni modei and n-Lhcrs "111:1 alttmpt [fl flphm altruism mum in term: nf natural mktliflfl arc Inn-deb designed 11: late ll".- litruism nut at" aiminnf“ Thu-rt art. then. turn majm‘ hinlagical lhIE-I'Jritl- uf the phmumumn. lllflthtauthurnfcathlayaflicnIhE-rhasniptdnutanyaluminium-n.l

Elf tht nan'm Bath. a!" mm. arr tartan. Thu-5E whn have mm: :lung Iflmd—wfiltn {alumni uf such explannliun: and pmmdfll at" much- rein-um m- uur awn W a r t vim-red Ihu-m an: exhaustive. Thus. any: Wiltun. there an: unljr mu kind: [if human altruiun. The firm: i3. ”*hard‘cmc" and u'..-.u:lenlia.ll'§pr amt-um: In what Hanu'lmn cull-rd inclusive

Hun-u: the Htflh‘d. "mfi-mrc" altruism. refer: lu PT-Dlfltiili train-rimmkuhted to bring mine reward m flu- annr. [The {urnwr sun: Inf eguilm. Wilma Hams. i: mun: dangcrnus sin-1. by firm: if Min-filing um’: kin Era-“pi il'. nuke-.5 3191131 hamnny impnuihlt. But he prunnuncen himself

"uptin'nislic" lint-:- "human brings apptar In be- mflidtntly mlfim and ukuliling" In [Mar [he Iaurr Hm. and—in a 11:5n Ihal shank! haw: mettle-d mm: and far all IJ'HE' all-gunman ihnul Wilma-n”: puliucn]

mnficL'mm—“tru:

Hlfil-I‘lnflh il' nbcdicrm In the nlht'r mum-aim: uf

mmnflianhiulflghillhtifimammflflflfpfl'fitfl :ndflcmlIra-:13?" Dflwr binlugial: [rave added their “Jim. "Eirfllfll'iflflil'f biology in quill: char that 'Wht‘: in it far me? i: an ancitnl refrain far all life. and

Ihfl't i: nu THIHII'I- u:- cxcludc Hm mph-m,‘ writes David Email." And 5mm Militant] Ghimlin. this ufi-qunled bit {If Ecrmgrm untimtnt: "Given a full chance tn- m in hi: awn mteml. nmhing but Elpcdimcr 1IIIII'ill rum-aim him Hum hruul'njng. fi'um maiming, Hum murdurhE—h'u brother. his IIIIIE. hi: parent. ur his dribd. Strut-d! an 'allnlin.‘ and WEI-Id]: a 'hr-punitc' bl:cd.““ Rithardalflmndurhuutpmdeddfisfiwhmahuuhfimnuflw

and altruism are Fur him numbing mun: flan “mmple: fin-ms afrepraductiw: sdfishnm." mun] 5'.m an: self-swing surfing-Hum“ ul'imlircci

ALTEUISH LUST

135

”Cipro-city. and mundane: in “lb: nil] small 1min: that tell! us haw Far we ran 5::- Hithnut incurring inmlerablc fish. ll telli- in nu: tn amid cheating but haw me can {heal nuciafly wiflmul being caughU‘“ Almader'u tantra] puini i: that than: it an hfightfl lid-E 11f human nature and until-in: heyund neifishncss. The paint ht“! is mm [1131 fill-IT planking him-131's: accept: these canalulium. which Philip Kirchner rightly call: “grandma: Hnbhclian

:penllatiuns that. have nu basis in hiulugy IH' In? miter science."” It i: rather lhfll 1hr: brunch at" this lEiEflfl'.‘ that plume-5 m addrm human

hfluvim' has seen fit m deny the 11-31i of gmuint altruilm+ math; [ht thim uf universal wlfiihnrss a mIn h: Hhifllfll! by arguing that it mu when. will: muugh embellishment and cannula-Ina] fiddling explain away

all iII'HIIHCH at" pruwcial hehafiur, Thi: :nlcrprim bath TEE-EH! and canlrihmu m [ht again“ I113! mdflffifl 0111:: disciplinu and the [“111]!!! u a Hhfllt.

Elm-mm and Either 5min! Scienm Eguirnn in nu! an aumnpiiun but the mumpfim undcrlying urn-classical emu-minim, "hid: ii. in mm. [1“: dumb-mm appruach tfll the dilciplinc in thin: tannin. “Thur finl principle uf E-[fl-flfll'l'licl is that every agent in aclualed an}; by self-Entrust," Infra-1: Francis Edgewurth in the IRE-DI.“ "T11: uni-y mummim mlial h:- a dmfipaiw: and prtdicflv: mime ul' Illll'fl-‘Ifl behavim' ii Eguilm." Iii-fl EE-Dl'lflfllill Danni: Mueller in the £9335." Th: m 1i: band on 1hr..- Pl‘fll'llilll' that Every individual i: merely trying In mfllhflifl hi: mm utility. weighing rhuire: in larder to arrive at the uplinn that yield: [I]: Il'iflll admmgeuun nulcume Fur himstlfi Thin in true whulwr he i5 acting a: invcnar at lahnrcr. prudu-ccr m cumumfl.

and aha regardlfll Inf whether ur nut ht- app-um H: b: Efl'fliillifilfl‘r mutii'aled. Elm-wan: is alum}: Engaged in the business Elf luring In milk:

raliunal rhuktmflnnaliw having bin-n dcfincd htfl: a: 11ml? tin-Ell!“Iiw: with egniI'm—wheihn nit-Inning a dmdnrinl. hiring,r a mrretarr. {fl'

dtciding ahaut muting In a new rily- 1111: grand um, Adam Smith rear surf-:1 m. is 111m. nu um: turd Htl‘ Ln: m tramctnd his cgnism since firewall: prufiu when Ei-EII wart: In benefit himulf.“ This is the [hm the I!!! is. cummenlm.

Suth unficlding rtliann: an tht a prim-i anumpfim In!” wif-intereu tin um rum-rubh- muugh when 1h:- miwity midL-r mmidmtinn in.

1E5

Fflflfl HE TD ”EDD TD U5

Ii'f. a bidding war fur a mum helm-en mu mutant. which isjmt the mrt nl' thing with which man-,- EtfllI-nmil-ILI 1n:- Elfin-fly mum. When

[hr]! continue In ding In that lam: min-dd In tip-lain tharitilhle ur Idimfific‘mg behaviur. huwmr. :5 sum:- dn. [hm-'1.r turd la- n]! anmtian In

mumulw: in LhI: prawn- Th: quuflnn nf haw In mm For "the pantrhy whnjumpl inm [he lab: 1:: law: a dmmiing shrimmtr + . . m

tha- alandp-c-im uf ecunnmicl is a challengingunE"—hut null tun chant-rug. in; fur ill ecu-Immiu and a legal Hhflhl', cmtivfl William Linda! and Richard Pmner. Thus: who risk their iiwn m n13.- mmmm: dint. thin!

[impacts-E, “gm their “mm-.1: in the rump-apart: and this my be flu: ‘neal‘ cumpletr: slur-gm." And whyr data name-1n: Him r m why they m Imafluhrwpa-uhuut mflllnnanmhtrp-umn'shmdmflmumm hcr? Certainly um am at maul-n: 1L thing}: he F M ] ? dam: nut haw whu l‘:fiflllh H‘II lat-fur: the Elma-put

lappled aunt dues hum-T till: 5': twp-Him! H'fillih is 1mm wry Imall and that his nun h'lfllllh batman-r llig‘hh h 11mm: Eflflflifllf mud!- Emil-H” than 3'1. Hurt-aver. ifflu: cm: H:- }! af tilt-fling the me is very small lilhl': cml 11F: shall”. 1'. can lmmfflt wullhin la.“ very law mu m himself. “I”.Hm LIE-ugh, humus: lhlry an: uranium; A pummhljr “Jun 3 dullar lfl him-HIE much mm highir than In: value: a flail-r In B. m: rum:- may llill h: I “pmfllahlt” mmtfinn far A."

11am M . which appflred am in thé Hmmm but in the a m Mud: Ennis-u. an: unusual uniy fur giving tunnel: mafia“ In usmnpliun: widely alumni in 1hr: Edi Ann-flit: flflflflmifl has argued IJ‘l-al then:- an unhr three mamas '12a:- giw: mun-51.! m charity: direu Ira-marlin m that dam, indircct benefit: tn I11: dnnur. a: a “Hand“ mntivc" in which “a dunur banefih ncilhfl dirt-filly rmr indil'EEll}? fmm the cnnmmptiun at" the duritahl: gum-l. hm mnfly fmm the an Inf giving?"

The hxlusiun 01‘1h:- third lam-55:2lzliulit}r appear: at first In rut-pram: a din-pan tun.- fmm unhndnl ltfl-ifll-Effll 111mg. but a dam.- rflding nor that ImIe-ntt malt: tlear that the thind mut'nrt '15 Hill umdifltdlf egnistic: 1h: mum: M" the htfltfil. m- Ih: dam: mun-Hy shift! from pruducl m Franzen.

Ham, tn I1]! I11: lean. wnuld not wan: his mm: It'll-l In such a mlire.‘

anuflm tmnumisl. in a bun-uh enlitled 5455mm din-aim, andm

i

cull?!)+ argue: lhrlt tin-re is um! neither lI'lfl-ultlifl' henthfltd hith il. It m : mum-Ht- I I I - H m ! “imam l'firi'ln'il'lfl ah? mug-ilk hennflu Fur duin; nun—which dfltrlhtl- hm.- trnmy [maple [slim an. The man: Elfin-[lug qufilll-IHI. h‘haitl'l will I!!! flldl'fl-Ed in Ill-I! nfil with h

minim Hm mmimn mhatrd In mrfl nihqn' needs with}!!! Iflflflfl‘l fur nu]- sun at Immanuel hl'lll'fillli. hfluflfml HH-fitflhcfinn 1:: tin: uni-char: ul' pill. nr film-n.

hLTIlUISH LUST

IE?

mmmfitndfiflngflhhuwmmmmhfiumfiwmmtpm him] “111 h'h-ilih hr Eur: Em" hi! m mnlmnpiinn. l-h-ilfl m dillinguilh hi: mighIHII'I lit-mind Barium-r lumhcmflfi {mm hi: dtnundfursuglr tu- rnah: :11: in tin.- crllm'. . . . It in admin—lg bath mnwnitm and mmmhk I'm- Hflnum

m . . . treat 1h:- imHviduul :u : 3 a hi: pmftrtmn “than: dealing flplicifl‘r with dupmdhililr Illa It'll: pufmmui‘lfl'llldtl {III-ll: I'nr ht'lpr'm; min-r maple."

In fact, much Eummilu cannot distinguish haw-ten min: to lunch Himself and m bentfil autumn: Ell-E has! Hath appear in I'll: rigid ab uflnpdnn all" mfivmal tguism mtl [ht Whflll': ”mum: cum: crashing dawn. This in why lil'mla'glr II'E apt In my things like. “A puma is reliable ifand Inn-“11]-r if it is mare admitting-mus u:- him than being urfl'tliablc."fl With lhn-ir blind loyalty-r tr.- th: idea (if Hirénlflfll. dim mmisu lppfll' 'lil'El‘f nearly a: ludicrous :3 I11: banker in the [Inimity1 Pythun Ikcldl 'Ill'l'lfl litcralhr cannot grasp the cunt-:11! a!" charity. Asked 11:- mntfibute In III-Ir arplum' Fund. m1: hanktr bmnmn-s inmingly plfl‘flfld whm mid

this wuuld he nrither : [nan nor :1 131 dadge. Afier hearing that hi: i! simply bring ailed In dmate a puund that will be given In flu: nrpham. III-I: min From and shakes hi: head. “I don't fullnw mi: :1 all." he any-n.

“I mean. I dun'l want ta mm stupid hi.“ it huh tn me Elli though I'm : pmmd dawn an [ht wimle drill.“ Jun 3! modalniml maumpliuns play a prcufiginua rule in mnmnpa— ran-r tram-mica. m are firm influtnlhl nwdtl: in Iht mhcr undal Ida-nuts that rely mlufiwly an 1h:- htlitl' that fitnl'fll'fl': an: u-nl'y m haul-fit bane“. In BEL, 111m Ihtfll'ifl flu [ml IEIEl'El' mfil an this htlitl'; mt}! mm In 11: naming man: than HI many elaburifium nf iL Etching: thtury in lflfifl-Ifl-fl. Hiflfl‘iflltd with Ffltr Han and flu- lalt Gut-mgr Ham . p-l'fl-[E-Edl- Hum 111: pruning thfll beneath the Evidence val" “

a

selflcunfl: an unfit-firing *cguhm' can b:- dimwredfi' With Lht m flan al' : I'thr ”saints." m whn hut-1p nun-r5 exp-EH that thing up “will hing ant-ill rewards." 'I'hc [ml].r inn-ruling queatiun Hilh rtgard tuwealflw peuple's mnnihmimu m charity in: whflhtl' thin! an: mart tan-

cerntd with taming "uh: sun-rial appmvai at"Ihtil‘ put-H's” fll‘ “Eh: mfinflt Ill-f lh: individinl: whn hemlit [rum IhL-ir murky?" Friuldship. tun. an this acmunt. can brat tn: undrmm-d a: "a mini-tichangt sync-m in which altruimi: actinn is an: ui' [ht gun-Dds u:hmgtd."" Alvin Guuldlm has lyuflnalicnfly let out the m m of red-r

gravity in nude-If. :I phennme-nun than ]:IIrllfluII'Liillifl'gu1 begins :5 firm fl:J'Iangc but man tan-.5 an the pmp-ertie-i nl' an EIUEflflflll'Ifl-lfl flflfil‘l. 11w innit: that we give in urdtr m 5 : 1 . t in "null.“ lJl'Ii'liTEI‘fl] and hupurtmt

IBE

mflunmmmumus

an :Irmrm nf rultun: than the intuit lib-urn," may firth: an: Ill. Eguiflifi.

Guuldner WHEEIEIEI. 5:: be it. Recipmdw is simply a way {If "nmhilitlmgl tgfliuic Mimi-3n: and channeflingl 111cm inln the minimum: fifth: Inch] splat]. . . . *Prival: Vina: main: public hmfifl.‘ "'5' But Efi'flii‘m is nm jun the pray-en? at" specific Echo-culls {If thuughh such as Etthflflgt the-arr in antinlflgy and public chnict Ilia-aw in paiificil sci-trace {In my [withing al' [111.- pupuiarity uf gum;- tht-nry mudth acrnu

that mdal Him]. I: also infirm: the mainslrtam in than: dimplinfl. sinu- thr: average schnlar {111: lb: real nf us} :iiIqIl].r [BI-5E3 Fur gmmcd that MIH'H Inf a pflliw all-ray: an am if p-crttin-rtd sclflimmnt—induding when they decidfl m hflflfllfl memhtn: uf the polity in th: first plan. Lari! unwrd, tl'h: dumimnt pnlilica] philnmphy ul' Uhmliam— m nm m be mama-d with Pmflfll-dif lihmlilm—hu gran-n frum flh‘: malty mil uf individlmlism and emu-ism. As [he paliliral IhEflrisl Benjamin Barhtr has uhsmcd. "Relatiumhip! faundcd an mnfiws nlher min null-intern: narrnwlf defined have claim; fallen nullidt Lh: P-ili: uE lib era] palitica] theurw“ Thu:- Ian-:1 half Inf this {11:l discus-st: sum: a!" I11: mam: why Inga-ism PEN-ill! in the culture at largt. Fur main] IdEfliil-ll, the fllull'lpIiun is partirularly appealing because Infill tunreptual fleganch which is In 531.5, its simplicity. {hm whu bulimts firm": is mnfivatrd tflfl-flIi'wdjr by HILifltEI‘EE-l tan lpifl um. mud-e]: and hrpmhmn and predattium. and can quantify the nasal“. Rut-:11 Frank paint: nut Ilut the

assumpliun is alm mpmd dnfnuhrcly: 'I'he flint-eyed r-E'lfll'fllfi Fun In:- gamer hmnililtiim thin In him: nflcd mm:-

m'mn altruistic. mud}.I t1:- l'mn: I nun-rt: suphislicatcd mllflgut lam Gallium-trill: [hal it was HIT-uninfi. This In: nurely help: armum far this mnardimn

unlum: nf int befufiural ark-mill: have spun: trying H: u—nh fllfish I'llflli'fll

Fur Inning]? l-ElF-flrrifithig um.“

If. I’m whatfltr rum, III-E idea 111‘ allnliam is regarded as inmmislml with the assumption: of aim-in} scientilu. [hair mpmue fur the: mm! part is simjml}r m immre it. And if same example nil prnmrial helmvisnr m“ tmpalhic Immune cannm bur iguana-d. 111th “u will bl: :hrunll u:- Iii [ht eguistir: dwarf—anything In avoid having m tanks: that the the-

unr itself is incapable elf capturing all the multifaceted richness at human htingl.

ALTEUIEH MET

1&9

Paychulugy 1'11: lam: tit-mime? tn ignur: nrdinun Iflllfl'lfillfi efidenrcappnnaph

in 1hr lit-Id flamed In undmtanding the bclufiur and mmivmifin at" the individual. 111m in, in fact. a certain measurt ul' uninlmtianal imny in flit n-tmiuml dfl‘lafltiun by mdubinlugisu that psydmlagy llEflil Whit

they have m uflrr.‘ a mum “realistic" Hilda-standing nl' human nature. T11 uh: fluent [hill this m m at" flafiflfl TH“ an a Mandarin-n uf tgn'um. ptythnlnghts um: la b:- managing quite well an their uni-11.11“}: may.r nut

It'll: ahnur. hiclushrc Emu: ur differential rrprudutlive SHE-lit“. but I'll-tit sketch Inf a “hill“? Itfl-rtgarding urganhm Inn-uh rtmarhhl'f timiiar In

ILI'HII farm-d by bin-lagisu. I am gfl'ltrflliIi-IIE+ uf came. Psydmlngisu flfitfl dun nut Hm speak the Hill!“ hanging: mung {hum-Elva, It! Ilnnt mnflm in III! lam-E

Eunguc a: brink-gins. 'I'n pwchmlyiu and behaviuriin. exp-:fimentalifls and ll'ltmpials. spaciaiists in pmsutial activity and those allfllding m miller pmhlcms—IIJ rally {la appear m l'fl‘i-l'.‘ tguilm a: Mr Eflmmm'l dtnuminamr. 111i: p-nim ha: bum math- with :pm'nl Furte by Michael and

Lin: Wallach in their bank ehntngj '5 SamMIIfifl' WW— “Farthing-L cal {ht-urine: nl' muflvatifln art, aim-mt Him-nut fitEpt'mn, flmdmnentilly

quiuic. in a mmrhrial manner" aha-5r have mitten." 111: number uf drive: attributed to: I]?! human may have gruwn aver the rut-an. but Iht. nature at mu: dfivu “mu-er sum: In change: it is slimy: 1hr: satisfaniun

ul' amt-'5 awn need: that in Iuppmed In mutivate the individual. Thin its [alum an Eailh. It i: un-dy true nf pychmnalytit mm. which ha: leadmi inm papuhr whine and thus been influenlial Far an! {IF prupnrtit'm m the flm'flh-Er III-f its pracflflunm- “Vin-5r [cw mmplfl can he Fflflfld in psycho. analytic litmtm't :Iul dun] : 5 d with pmitiw: funm uf behaviur and

dd nfll Filth: pfimifilr ml d1: aspen: nf unre-mlved Ennflifl." 531'! lb: analyst Rudolf Ekatein“ T11: tendmry nf Freudian m Elfl.‘ paflmlagy in run-j.- heinviur is Htll hm- [RE-call [his mid juke- ilbmlt til-I: undeflying meaning if Ihr: pati-tnl's limit aha-rival Em her analysis: if she runes cal-tr. 3111* is must if late. hauling; i! an time. campuhivcj Eul this facility fur

taking anything innncumll [at #351115]? Whaltiflmfl and inltrpming it In

death is in paniruhrl’y lintl'mm Hill'l regard In pwplewl‘mhripmmt far nth-3H. flmwdwuulynmflluflmfimufalmfllmandhewiflmam

1m

WHEWTDUWUS

fur rewiring inlt‘ififlifd'lit conflict. a tign that 3;q ur min-w in nu! fit

under cuntrnJ. Man: a child is grown. what WI: fl" "'allruia'lic ianpulalts and ’fl'lfll'llil’f lwill Inuit-tn in the link.- egniu." Fluid infiunncd m. but [hit

is jmt an cur-Eda? an hi: primaryr dumntr. which ha: already been Ell-illlhhtd. Thmugh 1h: Hindu“ mm the musicians W i l t ! w: esp? H1: 1111:. :flf—mwing Euntlin-m at this numihl: cum fur [hul- wull‘art nf ulhtn. jun Inn-i at the dim. Frtud urgtd. But nap Imam; a: thtm

if duty : 3 t til-I'lll'idifl' :hr: lhtfln': if “a drum“ sums m luv:- hum pmwulud hffllllllfllilfit interuL.In”: null]: lac-ingdtccivcd hyappurmu."“

In g m ifl we“! drain.- m hurl]: [mutilutfl a, minim] Earmalima. an uncnmciuu: Human], agaiml MIL-’5 mat duirc, which is annually In hurl. IF Ihfllfl “flaring Frmn Finn] dilEIlE! try null tn hifm anybody

chm said Frtud. we can I}: am: they In: much def-Ending against their ‘mmdum Hhh II} M lhcir infirm-1n an m mhu p-mplt'm The man! ahruinn'r the an flip-Bars. the man: prufuund [he incur”: secret greed cur Envy m fldism, And if this set III" hypnlhesfl Iliiis m penuadn II'H! psychmnfliflu luv: ether: in I'M-ENE. Hamil mnliwu muld hr.- mn-

Hrued a: [bathing mart than mpnnflu tn mu “urigiml hetple-flntuf‘ Fraud wrmt in an tirl'f lunar." Hi5 {hughltr Anna taminuca in 1h: lfllfl‘ 'Irrjn in hEI' hui-knnwn Hark, fl: flu and HE Arlen-harm” y'flq'hfl. which drrnlu a Full duptfl m debunking allmiam, Fmpi-t’i “'sumndtr” In this impulst suggest: 1htir nerd In mr-L'rcnm: 111: finaldam {If their under-

lying mamhism cur mm: mhcr dtftmiv: pram-Ens. 5h: urn." Given Ihil Ihmrelica] grnmidwurh, the martian H: allrm'im an the part of analytically indined—Hren if nu: urthudu: Freudian—psychndwrapht: i: fairly predictable. After all. Freud himatll' wanted Hut "all "ha wilh tn bi! man: nubile-minded “1311 their {unlfiluliun Illmn [all

fictima m neuralhf“ The therapist'sjnh is H: illlflprtl. and In inlfl'pl'fl pumped]: an: mull be able to lpflt Ihr: ugniMi-fllly driven 11!:m rut-the animus that {almmt h}- definitinn} give rise tn 'lfhl‘l an untrained- fll‘fllT'l'lT

might call “being a mic:- permn." Sim: Hflfllfl'fl an: mm: likely tn pmfiru prumtia] inclinatinm in am culture. wnmm will mm: ufim be an that receiving and nf the-5e immtium. 5a real-mu jean Bile-r Hill-21:1 “flinicialu . . . may think they we Waugh In th: fact that th:1mm in

Inning herself Ihmugh sewing ulhfl‘li. They may um: itltmpfl m dil-

mirerwhit shtiamflj afitrmdtulhnwdnuhtiljmtuulf-nnring a: HflTfln-E tlflt."“

Thu: I11: demriptivt plt'mile that u-lfiahnm nmtifltfi w Haw alaninn became: a prescripflive fi'imewnri PM the fllmpeutir: enIErFI'iIE:

ALTIIJISH LflE'l‘

1'31

“lmimnmr rmwnnfldrfimlflunhjmimhhifflilpflhgld as stir-discmery I'llhfl‘ than pun: nhurtfliun. II in signflinm that pmgrt-ss'mr and Emma“: mcial critics have, in die-ch juintd [mtg n:-

cent]? In mutt tht imtituflnn nl damp? fur lure-duly 111i: m Eflhtfl Btllah and his mlltag‘un nut: that “th: qua-Him “I: this right ur wrung? became: “la. this gain: In wart [m- tm: "mu-I?" , .— _ The Ill-:11!

hams: nf III-trapuflja: mhfinmhip ”cm: in undercut the pullibil'ltji' u!"

nth-r than “minimal-d rrlilinmhipli."" Allan Elnora is mun: Hatch-1n: ”Paychulugy has dutincflun: Hilly hctwccn good Ind hid farm: unfit:film-us!“

m

depth psythulflgy If: m : In HIE lather mfljur w i t h in

mutuality them-5r: hduvinrism, ur [taming damn. Uni: I'Jf 1]}: man wilting infirm: uf a m t between then rival srhml: ul' thuughl umtflna Eguism. Nut III-Illl'glr the vulgar veninna afrlmical and ape-mm candi-

Liuning but also [he firmer farms of lithium-ism Iain: sclf-inl-erul a: [In-it paint nf'depanurt, Even whm hlmdrd with EIE'IIIEI'III at" cngnit'nr: Ilium-y ur parhgrd as satin] learning dreary. the ulnar ins—again. vinmllf l1]! dtfinifiun—mnlivalcd m bcntfit himsdf. Frculfl pulmurt principle and 111': hrhi'I-‘im‘ist'l HE: Inf reird'urcemml ET! {in thin mill-EH. I: kill} nut

very far apart at :3]. Th: infltflhiliw ul‘ thl: "mint-res: dncu'inc i: mm: unanimity]: when

psychulugilu. numb-If than: mmrcd Ell-"equity the-arr." insist an min! it EVE“ m explain luv-c. "111: amnunt ul' mmamiu: [me a pen-1m feel: Fur

sum-mm: 'u suppwcd 111 hr.- a dim: [human ul‘ Lhr: hctmfiu hr: m :11: deli“: {mm lhE millinnsh'lp." David Mcflhflmfl ha: ubsmcd. 11ml: uhu tale a diEerrm view uf their passifln have mad: *‘altributim ‘H~ mm! “'4 Such army-1t: an: martini-nu mndcmned. and mldcfitflndfl-hlf m. fur rrprmnting III-E m t I-DI'I: ufruldblnudfil reductinnilm. Hut thil

almuid nul distract us fmm TEEBEIL'lIiI'lg Ihal: tht principal feature ul‘ tlu': mndtl is again-m- flint all" Iht mun influcmial and width 1:i bun-h in tht field. 1m: :l'mulcl anti-:9. dun nut begin by rhampinning Etienliflf {as

apposed In Fanatic} :ppmad'ws [a human relatiumhip. Rather. LII: reader is wtlmmtd wilh than wards: "Futilicims mama that 'Evm nun I'm hi: prim.” Emmy-r thmry. ma. mu an the simple. but min-filth lift. ummpfinn [hill [mm is fllflah.""

{lanai-flu. finally. than: psychnlngilu wha- hatr-E specifically infiniv gated pram-CH brim-rim Ind unpalhy. Why do in: with nut m mhn

pulp-1:? Hus: min] behaviur Lhmrists. whu dmninate tlfl! dismal-am Inf Lhahum.pninllnuntnflhrflrmmu:{llwtmltrkiugmmltmfl

reward—if mt txplicit P M at public multiliun arr pin. that

192

WHETEVDUTDUS

HIE-alumna]: m w m m h h l m w u fl m m e l m u f p m h h m m —

cilhcr mud-Emmfinn by when fur wrinkling a satin] nurm ur guilt lhr Irinlaiing an inttmlliud Hindu-d: {It [5] 1-H: find lam-cunt HIE: pain lfilflflliflfl. and relieving that pain il- ufien lhl mm! m : In? {If irnpmfing nu: mm mammal static. Mmannllnftlureumh miewedincttflfluntlwrrhfiun

hflwem hrlping and Inn-ad ur IEIf-IHHI'EI'IEEI hm been guided by mm: variatinn Inf um: cgniuti: mumpflmm In a final: rcccnt itnuc ml" :1 leading jaunul. an: ptrchnlugill tall: nhuul haw pmitiw: mun-d lead:

pearl: to help mar: readily because than,r “regard IITIHI'IHIVH mare Ewan ably than [lacy albumin an: inclined mm” whflt mthtr gran]:- affluflmn propane: that E'II'E'II unpalhir: mam. will: [Hi lid when “view— ing : milk-ring victim . . . help fur eguhtir: rut-1m: m rc-litve the m

in W m ? " time. if pmmcia] activity accurs when we are altuned [a nut mm :E'ccliv: Halt. it is barium! m: In: atlcmp'ling tn hmdil

aura-Am. If prfiifldili activity utturl whcn we an: iltLEI'ltd [fl mhm. it in became doing mil-ling 31mm thrir liltfllinn will bl: rewarding m m.

Pmitiut nun-d. negatiw Ina-ad. stir-mm. nut “Hanan—Lb: purist rulpifica] Ending: hardly IEE'III [a miller lint: lhl'y HIE in1lur:irllhl1_|ur parcu'wd Elam-ugh an :gflistil: filter. Eaten hefum grappling with flu: album if Ihin Ihmnr. l :huuld

match dim-r thallbune ufthtse manna ufprmucinl hehwiurcanhe disnfilud mu ul' hand. Thtn: is a prima fad: plauaihiliw u:- tach, just a: thin-I: is tn- flch fifth: inurprctatiun: fifth: rim-tat whidl IhL- psych-InnaIfil'l pifitflt 3 . e fur her appflinmwni. 111:1: mint-thing is pmblemalic here may um unnu- m m. until u: m Il'llr whiz-It picmsrr and mnglfiu Ill-E Pint-m; II'. in undnuhtedly- [rut [hit mm: ptupic help anther: fur HIE-Ilfl'iflfi ream-11:, and th: manna gtnmll'f prop-crud [public magi.

flan, Elflflpiflg guilt. and an nu} ma: mdjhkuany. Bu: [ht pussihililjf ufgenuhu: aluminum has hccn mkd inadmiuih]: by man invflfigltm-a, all of their ingenuity having Intern Med flflfliifll‘f In “plinth: thr:

Humanism; uf :gnimh: Iflflli'l'fl. Nor is this tendency peculiar 1n mbduvinfilh. II 13. Daniel Bali-m uplaim: fi r m 19in. . . flmhflmflnfimhudmhfilfinflnnmpfid‘mmfllr

ii:Her: mlficienili'r saphiltifiled tn pmvidc an cgninir: arc-um]! nf any hrhfl‘l'ifll‘ Ihlt mighl IF-P-Efll' m be ahruillicfllgr mtivmd. Ennlinufil dumimncn of par dwlnn by madam durendanu ill-“I121: early egnbtic111m III” mutivaliun mm.r

napkin why I'll-E men: “FINE! nl' inlmfl in and remrch an helping llhll'l'iflf . . . In: nut fled Inaparaflel wnfimminfluchlfitquenimdfihflhn

ALTIUISH LEET

I95

illmmmflflflfllkmflmfl.miahdflfflfl pamhlty.1flmajmpaydmlngiul Lhtarifl nfmmiwflnn—Frurflmbdufimfl.

and em. huminhlii: our “third Inn-c" limit—m: quill.- dcir in thri- ans-um: mmummmaupmmhdnmmmmmm bun-din."

A: agenfl'il whinmligmunmu min“:Mafia! “haul:u m 111:! if they cannot idtntifi' Ih: flE-intflcued mum: bdflnd helping htluuinr or cnlpillhf. it i: beau: Ilia-5r art that hurling hard mgh nr in the right plan-5+“ flnttnmmmmlhtflwmflthhhifljupm became: hand In ignum. Dal: thin :11: mmpuible with Eilhfl' an Eguisfi:

cur an alu‘uilt'u: interpretatiun are flfllflfllfltifliflf vie-wed in hum-5 uf the fauna. flcad Ellzlrlllr'luI and Lama: tin-3r imagin: “It cunflicl that hHI-IEIIEI-

an mull Infler in «cladding whether lfl help: the“ pea-plan do nu! want In

make [ta-uh uf themdves by nwrreatfing but they are also “wnrficd ibfl-Hl tin.- guilt and sham: tiny would feel if they did rum htlp““-d1is ufl-inlemted Hurry being 111: Hill? [unceinhk [native fur turning 11: the aid a!" summit: in dime-.53. Dr read Dafid Eusenhan and hi: {flIlEflgufi H ll'lt'f dim: tht l'flfl'ifl-Et m pram-dd brim-rim at Tutu: uni” nun-mini}. "Subjtcu who fanned an [ht victim'l fading: pmunuhhr euptrienctd greater empathy III-H.111“ It. M M M I m h p m m - u h r fi ”wading“! II is mumcd a: a Hum-r ul' mun: hflt [hill tmpamllr is HIE-led by I quell Eur personal rmrd—tven dmugh flmcnlnn himlelf had mmphined a dtfl-flf: eaflitr Ila-nut them-ht: Hhfl- flplflfl'fl helping nr ramming and "darn-mi m1 1hr.- huia. of little tuna-cl: trident: [hill [hm Inuit ht *mme-lhing in it' for flu: actnr. even whtn nail-ling in appuml."“

Enrin Snub. an: a! the Ira-fling. and mast wphisiicated, them-in: ai' lhl: mmmm Inf pmmchl htluviun i: um immumr m [hr dumilum anumptiun: afflu- discipline. He dininguilhu diam-hr hetwun aluuistic and tEfl-iilil'.‘ nuni'rfi. inflating that [11:]; may bum be presenL but thrn mmmldnubtundlcflhmul‘mefmn

Hhelu'winr flmtdlmmdlnlimunn'ificflhmminfuflfilinmnfih III-build filinguiiil um Iimr. M peuplr deveiup {mm fur mhm' welfart‘ the? m Etch; In Slum I: gain mhffl'liun I'm Hamlin! nth-15' gnu-ah Ind ”during nfllrn‘ lllfllfi. . . . When a penal: hut-haw: pmmdafly wt Ill—altruism: inlentims. Pll'll'f In hrntfll m , he i: Hi": likely m but lam Elicia-Ilium at. land terminlr flu.- flluritm nl’. nth rthI-‘nrttme-nt.“

194

FEDHHETD'I’UU'I'DUS

Theidfl hflthlhltflmpmplewhndu nulpluutnmfluhuwmty

will benefit {ram being: guard Haul-inn. fi-El'l: that: Will: hIElP lpflnlintDillh'. can be“ be explaincd by what in the final analyaii i.:li Skimmrian bahaviufiam. What mfly arc-mm: fur helpfulneu. ahnuld an: be iJ'IEJiIIEd m Inzlig,r deep mnugh i-l Elf-reward. Finall'f. this belitl' 11m infnmu Eh: Hark nf same thawing, who an:

man: imcmttd in the way we think :hmlt mnnliur than in flu.- “'1' wt

behave. Dtnnis lint-b: appmfinghr ducribn 1hr.- pmitinn ian lurk tam: "Suhjtcu tailnr Ihll'il' nmrfl dtdsi-mu In [ht alttrmthts that advance their ltfl-imflut, and adjust their mum] numb; in supp-Ht at" lhtir

IIr.l:I:n:i:£\viIlium.'*""ll Rtgfldlm a!" the way an: appruachfl lfl‘li-E‘i] inun. in

{:1t wards. and mm”: mm:cammjmwm m the needs and right: ul‘ uflatfl+ minintverruatjmllchmdcdtmdmmmfimnnfl ltlfilih duh-u. Thm Ens-lance: [If idenlugiml mmmilmm tfl m are film-Ems Ill: Emmi urinating pfindplfl ul' miubinlugy. mainstream :mnnmics {as

well ill anther Initial Ida-um}. and pflchulugjr. Thai these dildplinfl all share the belief that humus are actually am far Ihflnstlm Hen lil'lfn

may gn- uul'. nf thtir my fur amen in helpfial fur undmtmiding why [ht

1'm uf aln-uilm in typimfly dfliflllfli in the Ila-dew a: lau'giu‘:+ But then are uther future; at" thc may that sustain this : 1 t and malt: quinm appear in h: a Illfll'ltf ufcummun m . Thea; utnminm, 12km m.-

Etthn'. DEBT I willing hat at cur Ian-chi milieu

BEHII'HD THE. APPEAL DF EGDISH In principle. at” munr, it i: Enfirflf pmu'lalt flu! :gn'um in an pnpuhr

brunt:- it in: true. But u with mhtr prwilmt almmpiiam in un- cuhunr. in: do not ward to acct-pt that pump]: an: by nature ifllfltlltd unljr in Ill-tundra: in fl-I'IIIEI' In :Irrim: at a canvindng ucml; of why In many at" u: mum: thu w: an. A: I have : 1 d nun-d. this belief in particular is an m m in our Ehnlanhip and paptflar nfinfl'E that :xplilzil induc-

u'hutinn i1 practiufly nupcrfluuul. WE hawbflnpmuflded that altruiimil mlfldfimparflybydw

prulnulgaliun [if Etplicit adf-iJflL-ml ideulugiu. We: are tun-Id nu! {July that ml: anemia-tr Inf nu: np-cciu in; dtlfil'ltd H: h: pmrupicd with his mm writ-bring. but Ihal1!.t pwmmpntiun in the path In indhriduul ind Inch] [ulfiilma Mummy is: married, 111' at least fitndljr. In the Erica uf

dningfmmmlflhhthtvitwlmutthifllmmdhhl

ALTEUISH LDST

15'5-

hcen decriedbyphilmnphen fur Hamil-in. Ham. in th: flfiflwq'fimi-

mt Ream. :11q I.“ haw IdH-tm: and morality pull in uppmifl: dirt:tiunl; Hm umturiu htfljflhn Raw]: mm:In unnfilll? LII: Hm: cumulu-

sium" The llfltiflrl that tad]: at" u: uhmild w e hit!" mm mfinml stir-inlerut imsp-cctiv: of it: til-En an nun-n. up I‘ll: phihlnphcr Kai Hitllm,

hmmflmflmfiumrh dithilmrrnl'tdfiulflfiiinl. Ithabcliefflm my ptaplt who: reflulah-am uhiu nalmflycamumluvnflfis inpulimluif Hut 11f maple “filing in tulluxfl such is cur m. H m . Ihl: ml mflm‘itr H

mural ptfllumplunmlhupuuhflthumimd 3munwaummuy MM“

Htvcrlhclm, vminm uf Ethical cguilm :unlinuc In math: Hummin: with In ilwisihle hand. In manure “Etch-r "elm-I nfthnnulm who

I'm: hr the [ti-Eu {If the hmn pun-tenth] mmt.“ ll:- flcite new gencrafimu ml" adult-struts captivated by the mrfldduu: Inn-d: nf Ayn Rand. WE elm pram-gnu whn all: H: In ennui-tier ninth-er Inc]: of u: is better ufl thm he was fun: rear: alga—with the emphasis an Emmial wtfl—hcing—u if unfit p-crlannai bank atcnunt wrun- lhc mast appmpriaw Elli: an which m gaugr the lumen 0f nu: lead-en. Snmflilnfl ethical egaism slate-.5 nut at u: frm the c m uf vulgar

HIE-hclp Ian-cults. 1nd mmuinm it taint: : subtltr gut-at. Imagine a middledau Human whu II}?! sh: in weary [If taking mpmuihilitf fur the wenbeing uf anthers. 5h: wrestle-s with the {tut-Minn ul' whether Ihe shuuld amp making hcmlf availahln m mumrti mmflnt whu his lung hum depressed. m“ perhaps with handler to: dullenge a huineal culhagut Far 3 prummiun the latter wants knit-Imp+ fiver lunch she dfl'lfl'ihfi her dilemma In a friend. and inmlly the [rind pmidfl hcr with sup-pun fur [hil Pffl-Pfl-lfld shift in villuu: You'vt gut to start putting jl'fllfl'l-Eill- lint. III: is laid. Tnu'rc nut nhl-igatcd tu- IDI'I'E mher peuple's pruhlflns. Whnthcr at nm the-y in: attituhlfl'd in Ihrrapemi: jflgnn ("Give fauna” permiu'mn In like rialprIJrI'laihnili'iIt].r fur Frau-sling your iuuu").

sunh musmnces arr.- Iridtly seen a: 1hr pmfierrtd r u m and an: afiin'ud Him: apt-Inn. They 111:, ha In: sum, Email? Hi!“ Inn-mum; and undmtandihlt Mar? Eva-lanky and her culleagufl have dun'ibtd lfl-II'I-EIhing similar as a stage Lhrnugh which many Human pan afler hailing

viewed theme-1w: a: In: imp-amt than the put-pl: Ihn' talk: can: of: “Thur: thinu nf when. fur 3min m I-IH'EI'“ For {I'll-m. are ufim widen]?

W i m m t w m h q i n m :umflieirmaudmfitrand

lfl

FIDHHETDTDUTDIJS

film?!“ W: are talking in lather finds. abut: an mam-ltd. reactive lllf-Dl'fllrfll‘fl In corrupt-nut: Fur at earlier dehiliming lulu uFIelf.

We an: aim talking. ta put mil in [nutflh flhmt HUME“ whilst l'l'll‘fil [mm : cmnfltml to caring and rtlattdnm is simply mart mnupicuuua than the eguism {and :gfltism} uf mun}.r men who hilt! burn MEI"? aiienale-d l'mm din-st value-J-" But hunt-1r“ sympathetic we

may be In [ht c m : 111‘ Ihll'.‘ individuals invnlvtd, pt]! talk: all-nu: pulling nnudffirlt repute-amt I try cmnpunenl 01':nntunpurarr micty'l

vent-ration nl‘ acll'wimcrw, and. by fireman. : tlinutr in which aitruim: hmdemuemanihfimichuasyufmemnuneisnpeuedm nullity-aw-

[1|e :I‘thltd In advict abnul Inn-Hug nu! Fur Hmnbtr fin: i: ll'lt "fictive cmmacl In “may fueling guilly"—an Elllnflatiun “flirted finial:[qr-11ml].r in bank.“ ankle-I. "mm-11+ and inI-urmal tflfl'ln'trlltifln thal is! m the queflifln nf nan-mu a givrn prmn may have dun:- snmrlh'm; all-nut Whiflh he ar lhtaugm tn furl guilty- Guilt is pertrived as analnrguus u:- dmdmfl': 1h: «mix;-r quefliun i: hm: In gt: rid unfit mm: firing-"LIV. Afifl all. guilt in an Imp-123nm fiat-ling. and a relativistic sari-Ely whust WildiHurd it! ”Who an: 3m“ m- judgc mum-tr pan-uni lifi:5'" is left with pleasum in the [ml]: tritfiiun bf which tn fiiluit: Irtiun and afflict. flu: imagimnr lumh mmpaninn tells her fi'iend that she has no rut-awn in feel guilty—1: phmc pup-and wall htfnrc baring 1h:- actmmt a!” what 1h:apflicr actually has dune. Eur]: a stance reinfnrcfl flu- cguialic ‘lll'iI-iflII. Hl'u'd'l. in turn. cuntr'rhutu m the disnfiml of 3H guilt (Him.

Elhhnl cgnism. in shun. hcgnL-u psychniugical tga'um—Ilul is. I. mmman Mid— I‘Jul H: sin“ rulrifl nurulvu m self-inlcmti hnwfler that but-lief minim: int-If. will “Iliflflttl'f inciint u: m 5H:- this admin:

{lamina tnthcsdfasafan nl'lift. In lum. Lh: my utmmmnim.u Hand paint-I'd an! [llt-E this thlpltr'n Epigraph}. afl'ttu [ht way wt rally

dn hue-haw. '1"t such id“: m : vhinus tirtlt inm mmian: m: act in atturdanr: with I'll-I!!! imagu and munch].r pram-ride supp-art fur them. The Euthaniim by Hhith this Prflflfll Ihptl'itfl 1! 11m particulafly m'flllfl'imu. Th: imaminn {If 'mimral Emmi: man." 133*: Barry Elli-ram, "ltd tn [ht fnrmati-nn n!" social pl'fllj-E'EE and insljlutium that war: Enlflifltfll will]: it but. dull tmdn'mhwd prcvinun Farm: nf satin! urganiutiun." Th;- iIJIIE i: [I'll-E HF 1111: Ill-guild: Hsumplinnl uf hthfliflr thmr'y. whith mm In us valid "mt because war}. is a nalunfl amplificmicm {If htharimr the-aw hm ham: hthivinr then-qr principln. in the

farm of aritnt'rfir nunagtmem. Ind :1 uignificam hand in transl‘nnnizng

ALTIIJISH [DIST

1'9?

Hurt inn: .II1 mmplflifllhfl Inf hdnvinr than? Ffindgflflfm fln Jill-E individual kiwi Ina. w: 3:1 ”mm biz-tam in: helium we art. and w: beflm we are because we at: uurulm nun-ling that way. [2t W E fifth!- intvimbility nFthi: m m In "Mi: :1 [ll—HE! tinn nu: uni? at" our :Itimdn ahaut uranium. bu: :11? the my me: tantra: altruism. Eu man}! hfittfli. “has: pit-lure HF:11: human heingia truncate-d,

all gunning- and irreducihlt tum-ITEM I'm “hm liming barn lapped all} fir}.r In: bolster their {1H by dti'm'mg [111* only alimtht m tantra :fli

strumming Imprint-ssh umpian. Unlua w: are prepared an sump: I'll! "Illl'uillil: perfccfinn" Inf “:1 ran: Hf sail-11:" {Willarflfl nr :1"fl'ltfllj' whit]:

flgardlnflnaslfltfifitiil In'mul ...whnhasnnrigh1 muinfnrhil

mm nine" [Randi]? we are campefled m can mu- lm wilh Ill-E apnlogim If IEH-ifllflflL m m Ihh fall: dichnmm? rcprmnu a Ila-hater”: trick at an hunIll-l limit 91‘ the: imaginafinn. it is widely shared by 11::- lay culture. Even if we muted: that altruism {Iii-[5+ we in:mnninctd that it in flnmflmfly rant. W:- umcht: it with thr: add stlf-nnificing individual {if Mr :1:quajnunce and with 1h: list nf [wet-11y u: an rescuer: haunted all the El'ld a!" til-d} rm by lht Cami-gin Hm Fund Cnmmiuifln—pmpi: whu rial: thtir Ihrfl In carry thildrm nut of burning buildings and an furlh. Such I21:trannul'uclilnan.r talc-n ul' acifltu. salilnh.r behavinr paint an image u-f mm:-

Ihing quit: din-"Hm: frat-m nurtflm, In fan. the Mug: 5: uflm defined pundit-I? in lEHI'lfl nt' in minus fium us.

flfthia practice we m a y maul thingn- Finn it dusflthufu: an injuntt hr min; ID pm pan 1:!” human nature bcynnd our reach. In HI: Hug-Hr. Camus ha: his flilTfll-fl-l' delibmtely refrain frum praising the hnnnrahl: dim: at" uni-dent: all" th: distase-infcucd mun.Hi: annual:

i: that by uni-Hurting nverimpurflntt In praistHn-rdw artisans! NIP: mar. by hplimflm. 1!: Fiji“: indirect lull patent Ila-Huge tn Ill-I: m

lid: ul' hum “alum- Fur thin

flIIjllIdIE' implics 111:1 sun-:11 animus Ihifll.‘ am a: nun: wit-m. wlu'll: nflumnm anfllpflthru‘nflugmzrll Putt. Thaw-dun nuuhun—Iimfiw-“

fi r m In ling” an aim!“ mmmunicatfl [ht Haunting me:-

nge Ihlt a fin! larger-man-lifi: dmnflcn have bcmm: specialist! in helping others. In taking an a lift al— this sun. they relin't u: crf thLHap-unaihiliw at having in 5n and cl:- Hktuiat. We call ll'ltm ntmpim‘f bu: dwymnullimmlly mmplu m 11:. {'I'hiliirflhtrlikthefimflinn

IE

HIGH HE Tfl THU TI} U5

Ihat mun] phflusnphrrs phy in the academic cummimitr. Expcm in “film: fitlds can slungh [If the Ethical implicatium all" their ml. secure.in the Imuwledgu- that fl'LhEI‘I are having unplug-ed 1:: “HT ah-u-ut Inch thingmll In BEL. Dfll.‘ nptfinmnl slmwcd that subject: will] mad aha-m

penpl: whu did an flctpflfllflll mum at" vuluntm Hurt sub-sequmtly fill-HI thrmuII-rfl :u :slig'hllylr Inns almahtil: than than whu rend flhmlt individual: Hhfl HE'I‘E' IE5! htlpfill '5 111m} and mat strumm- m an :cmum 11E again: a Pflplflilril'f. this

Ippl'flflth has the Eflect ufturning Bin-Immintn an all-nr-nflthing PEEP-HHtinn. If nu: print: definiliun of the ward Ends Him: 'SIH‘ 'Muthtr Tm,”'andEmmmwecmfldnmhhkchmthmmum? III-Etch nut :uml'mtahlr in a lift Wu] H: Hlf-aggrandiumtm. {Tl-1i: is ilm'h'y-r dlhtrfnr lhh'nlu'ng is airway: m pnpular: it malt-ts {hanging my.) Again we witness : ulf-qEflil-Ig groping: if I know altruism i: not within my math, why h-nthcr trying tu- act that way—ul- lurking ll:- nlllim: il in my children?

It hhadcnnugh mun-raw lhcfitldinmismannfl.hmaurnflmr¢. 1while run-Wing in adu'laliun Far the hmirlfl'f HIHHI. ilm inn-ml I'll--

quenllr m disdain th: very hit:uf helping. This in a atrium ambivalrncn. We pram- m m ,and 1m “acct-ping hclp any h:- utna: twain-:15. and HIE-ring Il-Ellh a: hmhnffl Many 11F us. an I pnilued nu! in chapter 3. misc {HIT childrtn m campete raiher than In share. And mulling pimple in ptfii—E'hrm It minimfl rust. u:- unflelf—i: 31mm: mm rcquirtd by

law. fine legal Inhalar has mitten. “It is nut a grunt avemutemenl In W I [hm [ht :upremc mmmand at" this mighty rtpusimrr ul' EnglaAmerican flmught and E‘Kp-El‘it'fl-EE is: ‘Himl your mun busincss!‘ "*1 With the hrlp GI flm'h tradiljnns a: pmhmmtylh. pmlmiil beta?im' i: vii-it'd snip-imam” and altruism i1 reductd m HIE-'iflltl'fli. Notice the cunlcmpl with which Hr: refer In "do-goudfla."" hflw ready we are uhuimul‘f have ulteIn paint nut and riditul-E Plflldfl-hElPEI'l {thun- t riur mmivfll a: well as psfiidn-viclims. flur fultlnre is filled with welfare quart“ driving Cadillacs. heallhy beggar: film use crumbly: I! p-lfipi. and

[ht like—theme rump-IE1 being Ear mun:- ulimt tn us than their anus] pmale-ntt unuld juu'tfy. We the-mil example-e. cf such dflEP-ljfl-fl. undding nur had: hauntingly and twink-lg uur lips inn:- I uthficd nmizrll; nf rintfiratinn. “It take-.5 unly a few nhviuuu frauds . . . In snap the rump-alsiun fl-r slacpt'flal marks and cut off lhcir charity mmplcielrf“ “*1: an: prediupmed 1n Inn-IL fur- :uch flflflpltl and to ”gar-:1 the-m a: man: dcdlivt than the fl-blfiflfll misery that IIIJTDLflflll- us: thin illnw: In In

rcauur: and justify autumn far nut helping. Aajflum: Hagan pm: it:

ALTIUISH LDS'I'

199‘

mmfiflhumsnmipmhflumflmflnmuhu fl‘taI-Elllflifllfl Inn-thief. 5:: written:hmrmnw m HIE-E111: 1h: truth: nfflnl mumplinn lbw: human naiufl: that theIWI' pawl: m trun- il a: a naluni lair. Jim! beau-I: tin-3r ll'fiH-‘E they Ihuuhl nut finish.- a natural II'II'. dug- Inr In 13n it. . . . Will:

tunic: m: is {hat the Fl-flfll'fllflh'l validity IJI' II'IE In: 111' semiannual. i: h i m : fllF-fulfllin; In:n:|f.|:|1u|:1|:1w:"'I

[in th: uranium whEn H: a

m am ltllpicinn nl‘ [hr whale

:fliir and mmmnd Franck] hflufiur ta uur chiIt-n and In each «Him-r+ nude: how m- dn :9. I: is nmjml that mlighmmd self-hum“ is said In tncumpau helping fllhEl‘l. Elul dial htlping other: in alum-l always

jusliflcd in ttrm: {If what Ihur: htlprr may 5H um cf i1. 11H: manly.r firm Litre: wt hair: laid out far Huntlm an: Enlighlcncd atlf-imcrtsl and unenlighlrnccl HIE-interest. Elan-tail hrnlhtr, Addnumum challenged

Entrants by making thil abacnutiun ill-DUI Ethical btha'I-rifll‘ more giant-rafly: “All y-nu wlm pmfm [I] sing 1]}: plain: uf right conduct. Emm III:

ancitnt htl'fltl whuu lug-grads haw: mired dawn m the mm uf III-I: Frill-Hill day. have never denuunrcd injuuicl: urpraisedjuitir-Elpin Hum 11:": repulalium hunuurs. and rewards they hring.“'“ Hmwifluunding the philmuphka] repudinflun uf Ethical tgaiml. then- seenu link.- duuht that when we as a satiety an: nnl husyjmtifi'ing ur mam-ding selfish htllaviflr, we are plumbing that Frills-tidal Mint: Hill

reduund m- t: bum-fit nd‘ the- acmr. Fairy tales urn: replew with nmgicul mature: urmyalnr whn pun- FIE mlfurnmates and reward charitable at“. The mm: mm] is. finuml in a nugnin: advmisemenl fur charity that tunic: thit- hflardline: "Haw Helping I Paar Child Will Hah- ‘f-uu FIE]

Rich." and aim an : hillbflflrd that stands nut Ear frum my humus: “Land 3 hand! A fricndly act is rarely fnrgmtm.” Han? religiuu: lradilium

mphaiim quiuiu: induwrnmtt. pmmiaing [hill 111cm- whu In Tightly will bl.- rewarded wid'l : pleasant afieflifi: ur a Hate nf enlightenmenh same-

fine: by earning Lb: Equivalcm HI Emmi: mun-it. hadgfi! ll: a mum" mint: ul' thin est-ink appeal—um: nm mMned in :hfldrm or LIE“: religium—wr 'i'I'E prumiled that vulumt-H'ing um time fur good [mun will bring us a htalfl'u'er immum: snlum lawn :hnltstc-rul larch and huge-r lift. Tm: luding pmpnnmt: ul?‘ Lhi: View put it an Fallen-m: "In

dun.- mugh tinifl. m.- necd m dfielnp plEnty uf vinunu: stream—even if it lake: a little: cnlightrnL-d admin-Jess In driw: 1.15..“ *MflaTn-hmnflpnflil."fl1rrnlhmfiutflflm. ..Ih1ItrrIrhirhIfl-Ih'll

mnhinuit'flflm-flllhetnptnly" flhlthrwfizfldluldwmmnflmnmu. ufllhtpum.lhtuuimrd.lhelnne.fluhlind:A.ndfluufl-Ilh-.-muuqflulhr W

t



m [Lulu H:|3—H]n.“'

FIflHHE'IflYflUTflUE

2m

Win: hwwl'm flflmflmufnfinddfimpuhflrpnlinfi

Hen: are curl-pt: final three mapper anirln, repreunlatiue nf hum dredsnfnthumflluhippmd Inappeuuimindwlpmufafiq

Hannah: A Eden] mmufiuian mil}! filled Far I mprdwm‘m: pair}? in mint int-m marfllily. ll‘jl'lllfl' flu: it can: fu- l-e-I-l m ruppurt health can.- Eur pug-Jun: imam Hui Minimum: dun [a FIT IlI-fl' fur n'itiml Ind lung-Inn L1H! fur ilti'lnu."

"FmflyfinkncermflnnphymnflliumnfdnflmsflflflrmmrpmdunhityJLmnmJbuntflilmuldnrfllimiflflufmfifilhrmfim'flidfllhmfll m m ukcpltfidmtul‘lupum ltnEruzlfitul‘flhfldm-n. lnni"

Thu: [illiterate pimple] "In: annual fuel wart and 11: rank; the 5 m m hiflinru uf dulllfl in Hun-Ear: and W m ! mmpmulifln. Saint tnd q}mrnin: m :rimr.“

flit-mung: her:- h 1.11:1Ht ought m try In rcduce infanl mal'taflw. family vinlcnce. and illitcmqr harm“;- il i: in nur mm hfll financial imam m

du m. I f “ d1: nut 31:! nun tn htlp ruining 11mph, it will unlr mt ui mun: dawn [ht main"

Du: Ecummic 53.1mm in hand an just such calmhtium, and an reducing unnatununfi: hm. including Inch “cattcrnalilits” u hmnan ILdTEliflE; I'D dfllhfl and CHILI. A Enrpuralinn emu fur may an: ream. and that is u:- pmu'de a fimmhl: rtlum an invflmm tn Ihm: who an it. From the curpnmie III-Inf an: lhETEli-L'III'E Fully.r men: In ETIEDLIIIIIEI‘ I

WEI-lid flew in which H’ifi? heating is disapproved because it leads m tbc mmim use: 111' media] bcncfiu. But slut: thc lamina: af Amtrita in hulinus. this pmpectiw: EEEPI- nut nf duwntnwn :I-kFE-El'flpfil and aubur-

hcin industrial parks and batman: the lifeblmd nf public purity. mu. Thus mar mum in lapped m reduce infant munaliw ifand unly if this an ht

thrill-11 H} be a Hl'il-f irwutmml. [Wt do nut ask: If pmenting bible: Hum dying is I'Ifl'li : Iuflicit-nt rear-fin to up flu: public treasury, then what is, the paint in having nun-H" Emu HIE are all reunning this may in nu: plum-3m} 'Thg- pain: Jun-:11 dethmlinnl. n-f-muru. il tannin! m muihHin' I mnuimnhcy tn Inppurtlflh'l'l‘lphiliflm. Idnmmnmdflrtlwmdfinnwhyuppminlighnfm ruin-unu- mtl uLh-fl {um-Bruin: I'ur funding. 'I'I'II: pun-int. rim-tr. LI- IIJ chunk-Him tlul Ill!-

aim-11; lur d a m n : invariably mm: to financial Elf-him- If in: an: tn than:

hum a “mini“ In {and M u m and mm.- flll'lfl' bud

Irrqaudllulflrfimlandprrhaphnlqumimmmhi: mun?



harm. H: but alludr

i-iflbrmfilmnflpnfm

HLTIILLTISH [BET

2111

Iim.junifilingnthdccifinn ahauthmv II:- lrcalndlmin mun-rim u: will get nut unfit, ur Inna-wing Tum Le-hrtr'l wry mulicll advice In the Buy 5mm“: "Er: {awful nut In duffuur 590d duds uriwn there's no am: watching fun."

Puliq' :Inaljflt Lilhtth Sdlnrr has dEtIII'HI {in I rqmflL-r‘u paraphrase} Ihal "flit pulitiml will and cinnamit maurm In Expand“ pm Elma ln reduce [£151n pregnancy and child shun: “will mint nun-I flan]

altnxim but 5mm mutt-rm abnut pm-dunifity and the high can: ui' El'ill'lé and unemplnymenl.”" This iflumpfiu-n uhfimnh hfnrms thus:- quaint-d in thc Ihm': new: “urinal. But if 511+ IE! u: rcfltclunjust haw pmfuund an hidinmm1 we haw Ihrrcby ltwlttl again“ tht writ-1y in “birth Wt Hit. LEI 1:: aka plum In at Wham this assumption ii: Hit-n hut. Th:iuu: is Family framed w thin thus: will: wuuid malt an appeal In: mmctlu‘ng lilu: iluuhnb—whn would in}: we shmfld nap dflfllrfllic vial-tut:m prm'idt care In l'lEWbfl-I'IIE just humans: it is 1hr right thing In din—art permit-ed as nah"; Tl'mse wha- appcai In Lb: d-inlmsl fifth: dunm'. cm

[ 1 } : t handgun 5mm it! :hrrmzl pHyn:ti4H.wi]ling In midi:Iufijr Inc-n]

appeals fur refmncfi In 1112 Ila-[tum lint in unit: In get 1]}:i dune. Th: pmhicm is: that. [rum 3 lung-rang: pmpctliw, this my 11: a ulf-drftaiing ntmlafl. TI: 1 1 a haw thin ii Hunt. in fluid In till: a Hep had. and recall the rem-arch that has album! E l m [internal]: iflEEnli'l'tfi can unlit-train: 1h:- vcry perk-mam: Hwy 211: mud tn:- pmmnle." Unit-ls applied with (are and dilnetinn. rewards filth as mung. I'i-L‘IIJIT in a mutt-st. M L and even : 1 t can he mumcrpmdunhm

pifliflllifl'f if the It'li'I-I'il'f in qucuinn mquirfl creativity. This is truc- fur l-E'H'ETHI man. must (If them having to do 1I-Irith the effect: nf reward: an intrinsic mmivatinn—Ihal is, an Inn-E's liking I'm the inciti'I-ritz.r in qufitiun, Ha mifinal inducrmml ran camp-mutt far 11: a m : a! intents: in a task: pimple du their best war}: when they find it Em. nut when lllt'yr a"! in in Far flu.- munfir. But the- data like us even Ember. than! :hm-r that

rewards annually mi: imrimic int-mm. ‘W’hfl unu- may have hum dune Fur pit-asun- Eflll'IE-l- In hr Ihuught uh]: a charm I prrrequiuitc Fur nhuiniltlgr the Extrinsic incentive. Erma-ve- the reward and 111m is no Iflnfifl' any denim m mminu: [an-trimming 1h: [is-L Murmur. 11mph trim at:111mHlvea a: mutivatcd by rewards 31m Hand in feel cuntrnllcd by the-m. Thu..mull. ant: nah. i: firm-n pawns-r ptrfflnnm. Thu: Endings dune-rag: [I11- hchifiufial vim Illa: il is El“?!- upcdiEI'II In dangle a reward bet—Dre an nrganism (infill-thing an urginhm With Wu [#5:] in ardcr m IEI'IIL‘fl-uflgl' a dflired activiur nr altitude. This suit gen: thatflmrhanudtuufllinluhewiyhmmmuflinm:

in?

mmuamvuumus

'wnrkpllct and fll'ullfl'l in the clam. Hut 111: impliufium EllET'Id bcyund pruductiuity: 1hr.- rmarch aha points up th: E'Imlljlr Di" Irving m m 5 : prumcill bun-ham: by the nu.- uf Eurinli: inn-mites ur nflifl

app-tall m sclflinlemt. 111E stutegy tend: In Duh: um.- dcpcndent an what is. in tfl'm. a briht i'm' helphlg. It nfl'er: m:- rcuun In help in 1h:abunc: ni' mania, and it till-climb drawn: nut the intrinsic value of hurting mhtr pump-It“: “reds. And nut Gill)" dun-H it wind up mufling nut aluuisrn. but it 31m pmmmfi : cynical ltfldtfl-Ejl' m assum- Lhm .un an: fluid htlp wilhnut getting mmthing am at" it.

Emilie! mm:- al' I11: “Farina-nu]. evident:

.Semnd- and mid-Wm ifhfi mcivtd mar-1t: Fur daunting u:- anntlwr child—m" fines fur nu: helping—Hm Ins likely m : 1 : t their

ID'HTI behafiur in wards Emailing an intrinsic mutivafiun u: help than were children whu rectivtd nu ”wardi- ur puninhnwnu.“ .Amung dlfldnan whn EI‘ITE my mm:- nl' their game winning: after

I'llthinfl' a mudtl in m, than who Hm luld 1hr]: had mad: d1: dumLi-un: "because yuu're the kind uf pmun whn like: u:- htlp IJIhH' pmp}:“—-ur whu were amply mld [hula-1.r had “sinned quite a hit" (withnut any atuihuflunHtrt subscqutmly mun: gun-mus than those Ink] they had dammed IIIEEIIfl-E flue].r mm: EIPE-fltd in tin In." . Thu likelilmud nf childrtn": dun-Hating inane-fledin an: mud}- hndl whm

they WEI‘E FffliEE-d and when [hay WET-It ltd m think ul'fl‘ltmatlm u hdpfu] Ptflplt+ Eur, in :I {gum-up ctptrimtm, it was the latttr will]

finned nut m be 1mm: gene-mu: than thus: when had rmitrtd wrhal reinfurcemem. In ulhcr 'Illl'fll'dl, plain: prumntfll gencrmiw in a given letting bu: cum-:1 m in: EfltfliV-t mnfidc n!" that Huh-.115, Wham d111then with an intrinsic impala: In he Emmi: cunlinuld m- :Ifl an [Ital mmivatifin in cutl'm manna-mas-" . Element!” “haul nudmu what: number: hflhved in using mar-d:

11:! mmifllr them were lfll cmpflmtive and gainful.“ dun min:- drildram." :ndulu whnmuflfied mmfuragmfingmhelparemrdmntcd

menu-the: as In: altruistic than than: whu Either received nu payment nr wm lflld nfier film-1r said they Humid hcip that they wnuld 11: paid. "Eurimic incrmivu an. by undermining ulfiperceived allnIiI-m, decrease intrinsic mutifitiun In help when." dim reward-an cmdudtd. "A ptrmn's Lmdnus. it act-ma. mun-m 5b: huughL"" - WEI-Ill!“ flE-El‘lfd munejr fur mural-in; i quflliunnih‘f: um the HI:phunewereifll fihflytu agreetnasimilarraquflt m w fl m c h fi

ALTRIJIE-H LUST

ED!

hmhwlficbmmmwminwlvcdthmwfltmmhfim hill! paid I'm thcrh‘ participatfmn in the fim lunar.“ - Repeated bland [Inna]: wha- wEI'E remind-Ed Inf altruistic r

m fur

giving bland indicated that 11-19:}.r Hm mun;- willing la {in u: again than than uh:- tmrn- rmlinded ml? 1hr.- p-tnunal hnufiu uf what they mm: about In d0. Fanning aflmtiun m] pen-anal benefit: actually rrduccd

flu: muliuatinn In gin Lhmugh with th: dmflun-" - mink mhjm: whn were mld that a pennnaliljr tut Ilium-d they waitkind and dmughlfifl peuple Hm mun:- liE-Elyr In 11:];- a confidante when "amid-email?" tit-upped a pill: at" cards than mm:- Ihm: mid they Hm unusually intelligent urlhme given nu rfldhfli at all. Thil i: impartial

htfilfllc it suggest: that hem; led m think of nut-self as gmnuus doc-.5 nut BEEF. behaviur marl}: brawl.- it in a kind of minimal. :1mac-d

mhamn thin lib-El lpplfllnllf pmnmtn pmlndal Icliun harm-Ill it

help: to build it flew fifth:- selfas almlistic.“ Th: Irma-m uf data: studies, when mien Ingetlwr. an: Imightfurh ward. “HI-tn we an: rewardtd Fur Pfflflfl-E‘ill behaviur. m: [end In sum the reward. and um alu'uism. armunn Fur our having acted 1'! we did. If H: than not see uumchrn as altruistic. we :11: In: Him-fl]:r 1::- act prumthllf am: 111-: ntfimic reward fur inning that way is withdrawn. In this rnpm.

verbal reinforcemem fur hfiping i: tum-rue dun flflthiiflm and material reinfurte-mcnl i: Hum: yet. {lament-1y. tnmungtmm: tn think nl' nub sulfa: : gmemus punt—an supp-cal am In mlfintmu but [a gram

Iltl'uilm—IEEIII! H: be the mun reliable way in pram-Ht helping Ind caring me: the Inn: haul and in difimm siluatinm. Th: m r:finred hum,- dumail: with I: clinic study [hat warned again.“ giving in

m the tempmiun nfpafing bland donors." And it mam that If:mum d'umin an. impractical an :ducltur's Minn that fl-mlflfll alum mm but! Mdull in pan-mutating Mud" mixing. 5!"u m r m m d III-aide: than ant-can hi.- ufln'rinrm nthen may btl'arnwrt Efl'cflhrl: in mun-din! mm: In devnlnp their Ikilh lnd ahilitiu. . . . Italhtr IJ'III'I. ilF-Ffillillfl m HIE-pin. Induln might b-r hunter smiled in fll'fifl nude-nu In an

unbuhfll'nfuthni Hidflfliflg'nrd tflfl'llil'fl'lm immediacy-Mun.“

Threisnlemnhm,m.farthmnhupmpm¢mdflnupdu landfill and rtin izn the‘naked greed fifth!hulillfll- world by prnclaiming that 'mhica pays." A: 111;- wsry least, all 1h: Inn-arch finding: alidc, it lhnuldhcuhfimuthtmdiaunttymprimipaflymleghimw

Ill-l

FEUH HE TD THU THUS

personal gain as th: unljr min-tram W t ! Fur uni:behiwim. [fa limiIiun aria-cs in which immal :umlucl 1': mar: lumfi'i'fi. w: haw: M nu basil fur rtjtfiin; it.

Hare hruadly. lhii disnmifln has painted to the existent: n!” ma distinct sclfvfulfilling pruphtcits. Firu. m.- ltnd In "liw: damn In" the “lump-tin]: 111:1 m! are basically Idfiah. m- up in the ulmnplinn dial it: an: aim m m pmially. B-mh at" lhfl'lit urienlatiuns fired m1 themselves. Helping is like lying: an: find: it difficult In amp with just an: WWI.“ n1. Sunni m: aim live dull-m m 1h: vim-r I111! Whlfll m: d:- hflp Indie-n it is unhr fur Efiuiitic ”5350115,, and we limit up In the "View {hill we an: basically altruistic. What hr: haiku: la b: mu: all-mu unuelw: and uthm :fi‘m: how m.- bchmrt, which. in mm. afl'etu nur HWifll‘fli :h-uul human nature. Ennfldtr a Jihad}.r summit. A m : rhfld. 31:1 inumihl: Inf mntivr than] mnfidcmljnm, attribute: altruism In fllhfll an th: simple ball! {If him many helpful an: ihtr Fun-Farm. has he fll'fl'fl'l. he begin:- m think

ahuut may pcnpll: an In bandit mums. Whiz-run:- he me: such bthafinr mrdtd in an: may m- annthtr, I11: assume: Ihat lhE reward “taunt: I'm

the inclimtinn in help, Since he himsell'ii affirm-Ii Extrimi: incml'nrfl. ht

figure-.1 that ht. tin-u. i3. WU!!- mthr Imam: u! what 11: gel: nut a f t In fact. he EEI'IEI'IHl-EI. whrnmr pet-pl: arm u:- an altruilu'cally. there

must be guild [that in. magmatic} rmuna fur it. Dmside ul‘ mtrgcnqr siluatiuns. 1h: child is also kn Hid]: In htlp PEDPIE if he dun nn-l admin: drum and h: ii he“ likely-r In ndmirrr than!

pmplt h:- lilfl-PE'E'H af hating selfish Intuitive: when ma help. Since he will tum: In 3-“!!!t must. if nut Ill. put-up]: [If hiking such malivts, he will but Encrcanhgir dumdintd m help. This. in turn. mil].r mah- mhm In: film-hr In With mu m him. 5-:- hr: 1will he even less lilumlu.r In respond

pmilhrd'yr In than nr in bEliEv-E in Ihll! flifllflltfl nl'fluu‘um. Thin dun amthcr H m tirtlt clue in. Selfiihmu. Iilu: 1h: belief in in ubiquity. i1 fully undmtandahle Hilhmfl any.r iJI'lu'flfllljfl-fl uf"human nature.“ Till: use flf exu‘imic inn-nlike: In pmmut: Emmiw mmhhu will-I HIE cullapu uf altruilm inm nainllineu. with a ramminnem In this value Inf putting aunt-if first. ind with several distinct afldttflit tmditimu prtmiud an paydmlngim] ega-

iam tu- crealt I pnwrrful. nif-reprndudng Hammad in which talk {if iitmism is instantly dismantled as wishful fl1'mliing. II' we can bra-alt 1hr.5pcil 01' mm ideal-055:3] forces, m: can cunfinc with-null prejudiE-E 1hr.philomphical argumnu and Entpiricil E‘lridlflL'E cm thu- qunliun Inf

Hhfihfi' it is mmnable m assume that will altruism nthu.

8 Altruism Regained mmfmflmmfiflilhflmtk

mm

—Dmi:l Hull: “'13"

Sefihhmhflhmmhflmmmflmflwm mkflrmflhyflrwmfl *fluryfichunmtlfl]

11-1! ILLDGIG BF WISH

I: ii man inuurtullm lulu-”Wu!Hakim affirm mined by Genrgt' SLIDll-ITEIIEII Gent-mm impulses. are. ”self-deceptive hypn-u'icit-4 Big 3 tin]: Math lh: lurfac: and fan will find a fern-cum. pflfinmm. prufmmdlr selfish man."* Thu-u wim do um remember the

full rang: ufnur speck-1' puuihfls'tiem however. are run-human! tn rue-pm sud: Ilandtn. Whilc that is r m tn- dnuhl. Hhcthcr the EIHIEI'ICE ul'

Effllll'illt" illfuinn can fiEI‘ be empirically demnmtmlEd—al Int-ill In the satisfaction uf stamina—l will In. It:- show in this simpler that summit: whnarguufmflwrtafityulaluuhmnundanngrmmdnlfiuufirm ii that bane-nth the EE-Dill.

Mutlhuptemergedfiumhprecetfingdupurm: wmcflu‘t cguiim is m: an]? width mad but gulrn-Irraill}r “kill for granted awn mung Ichulin. Uni: can hardly amid anti-ting haw ranch]:r Ill‘jl'flfl11t m m jusfifir the uswnptiun tint each Inf m in aha-arr icflng m bent-fit himsdfwmwhmappcafingmhdp mmdsmhlhemnrfl philnmphL-r jun-cl Frinbng has written. “Empirical evidence [1drequired um is :fldflm pram-nut! in suppun uf pafdmlngiml Will. 4 + . It is nil-all]: that 'armduir Initnl'ill' whn build: the lbw-13 Elf unit-Hm lflhhfln."

h tm mm th nMflm mm mfly nm u

2H5

HUM HETD‘I'EIUTGUE

thin turf 31mm win: aluuism and nlfishnu: man and do l'lflt mm Tn htgin with. we :huuld mphuizt again this distinninn between Financial bthavinr and altmism. It is a simple nutter la demnnurate the [313i cf the pmpmitiun that pun-pl: ill'l': uflih'tflflflf 5H5!!! in Lht: mu: aha: we? mun-r hurl]: nr slur: with ulhcn: much activity nbvinufly gnu an all 111:

timt. Th:- qufltifln ‘5“ hand 'u what pain-pl: an: pmmcial. whflhtr mm:

cup-acted hencfll m 1hr: self mun main-alt this behavinr. TI: argur: that altruism flint: i: not In dfl'l‘jl' lhEE‘liliEltfl: m- valurnl' whal is amnetimn called :rlf-Iu'lre. Fm the mhe-r way amund. self-lave i:

nut at all uh: same thing as sclfiflmnl. 'l'hins dis-limiun was :mphalicallf mid:- by flaunt-an. [In the an:- hand, In: mutt. mm: in ”warm, flu: Hurt Inf mum] and: Infirmary inclinaiiun m an: ahuul alien-If Illa! lie-l bthind that impulse uf ulf-premtiun and is "mnttnlcd win-n an: Inn: needs are satisfied." It is perfectly mmpaliblc Him—induced. a prerequi-

flitl: fur—“flit gentle and afiflmmtt puliuna." {In the uther hand. then: i: murrpmpu. which put: one“: mun nctda ahead of mhfls' and channel: that HEITEIIE Elli! uh: nut! {If unit's claims; il in [ht mum: Inf campait'wm. mm vanity. and miner "113l and iris-:ihlt palm-ans.“

Th: idra that [airing flnfltlf nut [ml]: data nut fldfldt but :nualljr Eadfimn [airing fllhfl‘l has. been {calm-Ed in [11: "(Hi : 1 m writer].

Erich mm. Fur example. flute-d thil "Ihfi‘ luv: Far “15*a half is ins-rpm. 1'3,b Eflflflfltfld with the luv: for any 1 ] t sniff—and. minke-flay. lhfll "IEIfiEhfl-EH and HIE-law. En: frum bring idcfltircaL an: annually nppnlitn.

Till! selfish PEfl-DII {Int-Ii nut luv: hiamaelftm much but Inn Iilflt: in fact I'Il' Irate: IIIiJIrumrlli'+1I What In: mudmu {all sell-cucem is relevant hEEI'E. Recall 111:: the app-mach to raising a child that pmmum a third? faith in the RH Mfrlflpl traded}? with the apprnach [hill h i m IJIE HIE-EHhc-ud uf tht child's carhg aha-u! and helping uthtn. jun-l a: ltlfil-hflfll bun nu rmmhhnn': In hfllthjr fllfihfl. HI mull

it he diith‘lguilhed [film the tendency tn sinllnnhlr Junk nut fur une‘: awn intern-II} 1+t is surely naming uhjcctiunabl: abum waiting until rm an an: in light brim-r crossing the lime! in arranging the filnliiun': in

ma“: living mum in the Ira]: that seems null; PIE-35mg. Eunsidemtinn uf ulf-hueruu may Wt“ tn: urflvtnal. and i1 may Ill'ldfl‘ m drcumuanm firm allnw an: tn help nth-tr: mun: {Harlin-Ely. Think. Fur example. [If the

mammdm'mn [hm airplane pair-mm first nature meir mm mmn muhm than may cant-9nd tn flitirchildrcn‘a nflda. lulu-cu. hfl-‘II'E‘H'EI'. can be mmpmmdcd In flu: paint dull unr lulu

light cIE' principic. 11H: Fan that taking can: at" m l f is [nanny mun-fl m- E'I'E'fl WWII-“hf {an flail? hut-mm: I minnalilaliun far mum

fl?

ALTIUISH EEG-AIMEE

mum-n with une'Imduirumdfurumlmkhgnrflmaflivdy

tnmpling the claim nf when. imm has argued that this mnfilsinn in all-tn a dtlihtratc straw-51* m mic-mm: gut-1F Th: lattcr is dam 1n EMT-W m wlfishnua. which {in land In a life [EVE-id fir 1hr: man-til!

ar fl'fll distinguished by “11? aminuial- Gr it can make rn-nm {In}? fur than htlpful Incl-avian that an: finished m bm-rfit fll'lfll'lf. This disturliun [If 5rlf-inlereait ii nut benign. andi it is ilIi-Izv:+ m mum: m nur primary muffin here. nut int-fitahle. "Edi-lure may be [Imminent in nu: mum wilhnut mnnrily being muertign,“ :5 III: paychulugifl Eur-inn hflpurt mm." likewise. l-Elfilh'fl‘ll-l mil}r bl: pmmin-lnl in am satiety Wilhfllll necessarily defining human namre. We any :gree that and: prmn i: 31:11 Mr htl‘ awn int-Hut width-nut. cumin-ding Iha! this. is hfl' emf] mnaidtratinn. and 1m.- may agree Ll'lll mm: PEfl-PIE' an! lhDI'DIIEI-‘Ilf

“High hrithflm cumluding that this is Inn: at"M

. Tu assmne attun-

Will: i: m minim: a dmrip-lifln nf pathnlaug'gr Fm an arc-aunt fifth: human cumiitinn—a n'iticiim that has been nude uf Freud’l Hark.

The dislinfliun betwcen selfainierc-sl lnr self-lave? and selfiflm aluminum uur apprmth m [ht iii-r: uf altruism. Ta hr: altruistic is. nut nmsaarily tn be :EE-ahaflgating. {In 1hr last rhaptrr I tried tn :hulr haw turning altmhm in“:- sumething nan-1w and nearly unattainable

nuke: i:l mitr In dismiss: 1hr: whnit idtza a: [Hitachi] Th:- philmm pher Earn-Id Miin tank a “£11 in 't- righ! directiun when ht male.

"111-: allmisl is m be durarttfized nut as (“If Whfl pm: the inure-fl: ul‘ mint-u 11mm! 01' his awn. hu: :5 an: wha- puu flu int-arms ni' min-rs an an equal Taming will: his {MI-:11."I This definition. huwmr, with in stress an an truncrmi: balance ni' interest; due: nut intimately m m the reality ul‘ nuncguislic helping. which flfit‘l‘l ”mm m gamut-d Him-mu any rtganrl tn wlwther 1h: help-er will henrfil. Hun-lit: that “Wilhfllll any.r regard In" due-.1 nut mm “at the cup-ens: HE" TIP: helptr': mnccrn may simply be m impmw I11: welfare HE ummlr—pefiui' A: Mary

Hidgley, mnfl'bfl' phiiuwpiler, put it: Prop}: define mail-Ii: hdnfliur m m ,uanjvisy whid: whfl: lit-lying mm diam nothing Fur 1hr: age-m. which ht hild-dun ml III .lfl Iran. or which ii.

mamfih In: his difiadfirflagc- This mil-r: [lamina m : In dunnr Ihr pnm'hfliw nl' mummiun Inward! i1- The ll'flfli W m matting pmitifl. 111cm ildflllllfif 1h: hmfilul'lhuudur.“

Htflflhawnnminnufalmfimthmhmflmmtpiduuflrm

nnr In brand a: In define my lhr dialling! 11f Egninn.

FIDHHETDYDUTDUE

HIE

Wloakingat mpifinlthmundlequflfinmilwiflhmcfillm musick-r jun haw marina: Ih: :gfliu': argumcnu mafia.I an. harping in mind that m: art dealing will: I “rang ‘H‘ETI-iflfl {III-50in]! here. an!

hat-Eng that the ultimalt gm! muffler}! human artisan mutt Efllfld‘ifl'fl" ht m hurl-em the il-Elfl-l'. Il‘. might surpriu satin] nit-min: and lamp-It. whu ulna myth-Jim tguinm Eur gamed. m Inn-l that thil in “try nun-h.- 1

fiend iflue 'm plfilumphy—am tumult curry-ant in that field accept: in tnnh but because alums: nu on: data. 111:! pulpit Him mail: it their bilabial In min: I]!!! Musical Funndfliam Inf Ind: btlitlll. have, Hi'l'l'l

Harding umnimitr. {amid th'fl an: Hauling. In 19-50. on! mile-r :p-alnghoul fur ri'u'mg 1h: pmhlfln in ajmrna] Enid-1'. acknnwledging that

"mum?! [hurt IPPEII' to be few philmuplm uh:- hnld" that fil Tumbler.muflmphiimnpherwhnniedmmmnhe 'ulu:

began his paper a: fauna-rs: F E W eiuismis. I “ppm."girdedhfmufl W

“ muffin

mun: simple-mindrd fillln'u inn thr: binary Inf philmphr. and dang-emu: Ind W i t t Inn. ramming :3 il firm {a (“whine cynicism abnut human idflli and I 1151!: IEIIl-E uf scientific mum-d. bull! U[ which make [ht nrclinmr reader ffll

uplfiltimtfll. will] mmrptual mnfini-un. whith- ht fll‘l‘l‘Ifl-l mist- Far I" 01' Ihu-E nut-m il wring: Hrrnal. in an: {arm fir number. in IJHE hum ul‘ firm-yea-

Hudtnm. Ind unfit-r: carnelian] material fur their philnmphy imtrunnn. thin Iii-I: mmmafilfltdifittflffluld‘rlmbulflhmfmm

an m

In dinphjr limit 15H" :1 dtmnlilinn tip-nu.“

Suthultmpu atmmhemnfin gmmfi.wmm d5": juurmls art hard In find. and III: best Emmi-alum! fill I11: subject— Eflluring an intruductnry ufl'f [Int artfully dhtinguishcs thd: “Jim.“ versium uf eguirmm—m publilhfll in due min-l]:r 1911]: but man wen: nut at" print. apparenthr assigntd h}- E'tw phllmuphr imtnmnn- TIE.- fufluw— ingartmmtuflhcrummfl uthinlhefiddmukemeid nnf

Whit“! fits-Jill“ HfimfllrH’wfifinflflmflflflqfflnp. lfaflacfinnlmnidtuhEH-Hilh. that“ that term nu lunger has much naming. flhutenun absent-d 11131 i! hmfihudkmyflmdm mygfim lhlt'flfl'llld aflmr

“llflifldflfl'ihf mmwhnwanu {abtbunwdatdwnak-E." In Pfifiiit. tgfliilil often sin-Id: ward: Iii: mfihnm nr HEM! m the paint Illa: 1h: argument Inca-Incl unfilhifiihlc. Whit wa-uld i1 like, an:

HfllflflhlfltmflwcgflifldfllifihflmflflhflrflIImfiIfit?

ALTIIJIEH IEEAIHED

HIE

Entry-mum: pémnftfidtnmmhtuplm any Ill- heingin 1h:- actm": awn inter-:11. lhcn [ht gum: is. riggtd. Em Jib-flit; Can Want In Hrfll.

Egnilu :IiflflI-EIiII'I-EI pail“ nut. that

wen when I want u:- extend myself In uthers. this '1: still an HFFE‘fl-iflfl ul' what I war-L so altruism must Elmira.I ht “luxury. But this. a: mamI philumphcn have pail-fled nut. in a lugica] error. ‘W'Iut mailer: for deter-

mining the truth nr Ealsitf {If mega-ism is mat the subjen {II 111: desire but 111:: uhjm. flhvinusly anything than I want i: strumming that I want: In daim than this pain: is finish: in In has: the which]: argumtnt not an a

plychnlngital truth hul an : tauluklg'y. Th:- quutinn i: Hhflh-El' what I Hunt is motivated by numeral. Fin-din; Emma I: Wffiuflt Eflhflg It.

It my be 1111: thll

helping ulhns brings an:planar.“ but this if. um flu: same a: shaming 111:“. an: helped in ardur la plus: [Lima-ell: In mall},r Ell-El, a: [hut phflmu—

pher Hichnlas Enchcr pain“ um. M mi IW DH HW Mhfl- pi mi lfllfli tflf mmfl

minim: pmdun {if 111:1 uf' Ihr fll'lltl'. In flfll'lllill rirnnnmfl. at am; ram. m1: m u : number's bun-Elihu just but-mun LII-fir am hi: hcntfiu. and nut luau“ they same-haw benefit nmelf thruugh flu.- mrrhanism Inf inl‘enufixatiun u an .uhlique way a! [urlhcring Line’s mrn gund. . . . Acmrdhlgljr. Illmum an dun null berm In: umelafinh been“ 'fl-I'IE' gm utill'aniun [rum ill performance.“

The dialinttinn mynnl alt-ray: ht my In maltin Framer. but it in {filial nevertheless. The again l'fllJll flu man:- than paint 11:: 1h: mil-run the-Fact all" thc rescuer if she means l1: shnw that L11: Framer had I113: pleasant nfiflgluw in mind lat-Fun: admin'L-ncring CPI! tn the vifljm. (likable, IJ'H:

{an lhal pmmrial buhavinr appirrntlf cunltibults In hflllh? lHr-EIIEEIISI ur uE—canfidfixr” dun. nut hulsltr [he again": tan-L}

It is a Ernfiltr para-inn that an: End! up defining mare plmm': Era-In helping if ll'lil primart i: 1hr.- Earthfll [hing fmm une'n mind upnn druidil'w.r tn htlp.‘ This point has been mad: by a nun-burr [If thinkfls, including-lulu, Slum Hill" and». pflhapl mare surprisingly, Hcrhtrt Sptncfl': 'EI-Ime blindly. fiilim,r m drlihrmehr puma: nut mm ifllfl'flfl nflen Harlan in Ih-LIrwin.- M Ihn-Ir wry inter-rm. whtrfil hi1: nur min-ch an thr mm: mlimld man: I'm

III-unfilinl; uunelttn IIITIII Ium nu: Iu hr I l'fllfl'fl-E'I'Fffldllfii'l't .urllcfl- Thil il II'IE' {Erll'll argument ul' Rahal-I. Frank‘s I'-I.'I.'EI'II III-rut. Paula-m ml... Iii-nun. 'IJnI'u-rlumt-t-I-r, Punk'-

fl-mcmin-g [and unpm-Iflzlil uuunpuun 1:1- lhil Elm mun-l but and} I'I!‘ {ll-m Ilu m1: pun-u: cur

nun: inn-turn- Altruism h: all-tinny undIL-nahrn only in uni-rt 1n bur-did nun-Hurt: in Lb: IEII‘ run—Hen maul-'11. Ilu'i hypnthflil ”quifl 11131 H! aunthnw remain :in ll'll' ihrhabum Iii-lay

HI'.‘ m “nil!" helping HIM-fl."

21D

FIDH HE T!) 11:31] TD U5

MtktfimmflfltdhvllnuiflimhmTHiMDfpem

Machiardhyhuwfliugflflu---hfi1flymhiwcduflyfl1mdumil malty unuilhh. . . . In the truly nmpath-Hic [hdifidnul]. ant-nun“ in In ahumrhtd

fimthpmhuwmmhni‘haptudmehmntghmmmcpmp Hunk-E leiI-luppilml IInllirl'linl:h my ultimately rut-lull.”

IMcfluflmflHfinndnnmmmflfltthtthtpmplcwc knuw whn might be clauifitd a: unsdfish an: rathtr nun: liktly In In content than than whu m “Huh. The cuntmunent may nm in fiery fill-E he a mulequenc: nf bring unselfish. hm it the: mm that selfish pcuplemat huflpmmmhapphmuinynmflsuhlflufdu pnpuhtiun." Hyhrge-rp-uinthrein dun-mm plmmdmmtfltfi'umgcnm in. it nttd rm: ham: httfl—hldttd. pmblhh' was nut—{he paint nf the int. Bu! eguilu. an! unable tn nhuw that pleasure always dam result: they

mum: fl'flh‘: ItHI-f: ufprmial mic-n: that bringnu- Ippinml ialilfaniun

m flu: sum—mile“. of cm. Ihqr [all back an d}: qumiun-bcggizng

martian that mm:- mn of Htisl'attiun alum in": barn prmm m the

actinn wuukl nut have taken place. It £111l always but argued thlt aldwugh w: lhht nu: inttntim: an: .II'IIUiIIiE. w: an: lamina-d unmiuully by self-intertal. Here we run

imn the lungatanding mnfimmr abuut the Intent m which pwrhmm lflic the-aw ltl'ldl itself In mpiriul validitiun. 11H: 111m is gun-d mason to think Hymn-ed win-ht: or mmlnriu Eli“ and affect mlr hehavinr we may HEW}? c m . 111:! all uf u: an admiral? butmd by tflflillit mnt'wu Inf which w: an: mum is cumidtrihly mart pmhlnnmit. Freudian: and. ntn-afliam have dnlwn mu- mtentinn In an array

nfputatiwly W pmplc whu aim: in urdtr tn:- cumml nth-EH. indudin; "stlf-mrifidng“ Farm“ and [men who nut only {In mun: harm Ihan g m d h u t a c t m a l l n r u m Lhcmsclvunfflicirwnflh altaringin—

dividuah. Thu: insighu frnm dtpth psych-flag? 1m: inuhuhlt fur diifing’uishjng allmiuil: Emm panda-altruism: hrhafin-rs. But i1 is :nmhfl mill!!! tn aunt flint itflE-fll'lltitflu :nnflitu and talhfltl mutilutt lb: rrm' ran-nun all at" u: 1:111- abaut um. flu: ad” the- mmqunm ul' this: pmpmiljnn. M mm: m be based an faith alums. wnuld I-Etm In b: that any altruiat who underarm! 1 lflttfllfil] Inalrtia [in which man-r 5th“! “mafia! mu mud:- mciaul} “UH ht u'mlfurnnd inm a self.

mum: rgniu. Such “gum“. in any HIE, make it diflicull In dn philnanphg'. a:

meal l'tpl'flentlti'l'fl GE tlut field hurt argued." Mural philmplwrs

.H-L'ITIIUISH REGMHED

51]

are ahliged In :unmn flan-unravel with th: dflili-I'Hfl Inf cunnium. fl‘fll': igEllfl. Tu 'Il'fl'lfl'! away Ill: apparent ream-n: lhfll I“! an an: 'l'lll'l'jr' fll' Ill: Emu—é? inflating paychuanaiynil at any uthcr Iranian ufdtlmninhm— in In cullapn the Ihnlt hulinfli imu an epilwmuhgiul fiddlr.

Main. Tm, Lia W

Eafllfm Egflirism+ [I] be [admiral Ilium it.

in Murmur? humus: H dunks d1: flinch-cl.- nut lanky af alums-m but 131‘: writ-fir ufulhct mat-Eva whmeninentc wuuld mm to burn}? real

indEEd. Eumider the fan 'lhlill fluEll}? is Hwy hit as unselfish as bIEI'IHfllmtc- Hubert Paul Wulfl’ Wfilfl: “film: a Ectplil: hi1! admhltd [hit it is logically punibl: fur m1: man In want number In suffer. he {111mm my

well deny that it is equally pussiblt . - . For and: man In want :nmher m be happy.““ lndctd, spa-Hm; hhtm-icafly. suit—imml was Em dtfinad in uppnsitiun tn malt-vulture rather than H: hmnlm." Th:p m at either inclimtirun belies. the claim that me- can want nnly what ii in fiflE'E mm inmma. A m Ham-ling HM Egnisn. Ta tale tl'H: hut argument a flap filnher. tgnism. suit-II? manned. i: mmn’md mlusivel‘r with sump“ In htntfll the firm! self. [hit an: that. l nun exp-edema Thu: cgnism twin-at uphin whyI HE mgagt in bcl'nvinrs than an advantage-arm In It: unruly in 1h: lung: rum Ham-y Sidgwict rained thi: flhjfltljflll in :h: laufliflfltfl‘lll'l. century: IFthr ULililIriIn I'll] In answer the qunfinn. "W111 Ilia-EH I Ilcrififl my mm happinm fur the grater happintu afanmher?" it ran: lureh' he adminihlt tn III: the Egnial. "Why almuld 1 milk:I pram: Flt-nurt- Err am- in LI'II' flaunt? Why shfldlmmyflafiumnrnmfflmfldhflawm Lhanabnul I11: fitting: armhu' ptnnm?““

{If cm. simple prudflwe dmunda that I tilt inn: mnsideralinn haw waif: atti-crn will :fl'ecl mt m1mnnth. But given the narmw perspeclivt 0f egnilm. my fumn! "If in a: 115t final me a: in! snmmnt the] present self—litmus mare m. Tu attend In that pmumcd interim: uf MHHMIIIJ'J'L-mu [withmu rugard In what 1 [mar right :1a may but

apericmed II Huntiafljr an Illruillil: an." End. {If m . it Eli dun: anyway. Swim: Ha: Ha hunt rm Hamil]. Eguism has acqlflmd II'I-fld'l Inf in fume hf hildllliking an [ht idea Inf rantaiunnllilinr+ particularly in EEGnumimandthtnflwrmthlidenm.T-atafinh¢utmnatumlmd

3.12

FEIJHHETDTflU TD U5.

iilT-E'Pl'fliihlfl dflil‘: tn [Mainlin- uur self-him: i: In appefl tn the ME: 1:!” making ratinnai dtdsiuns. TIMI! i1 is um I! all unusual tn rcad Ihfl'lll'. “ ‘hard-cure' ihmillic in]. in which: flier: in nu pmlpefl uf PETID‘I’H].

Fwd . . . [andl fllhlfl' sun: 11f seemhlgly imilinvml hehafinrfq' Thus it is. I'm. that saints lilu: primnm‘ diltmnn“ mam humming and unattL’ling hum-ram what IEEII'II rational I'mm each indifidual player's [unpacthe rum out. m be Malia-nil from the penp-ectiwuf 1h: dyad. The thud; nl' such mulls. W a d Rather, iiiurm Iulel'f in [the] ill-Idvifld apprnlrh In miurllfltr in lifl'fl'll 111' I prudentill punuit nfsrlfinh id'l'iflllfll't. . . . Tu {flaregud 1h: inn-rum Hallie-rs is nu: ralitmal but inhuman. And that: is milling Erratinml album cum-mm; uur seminar-II: hahrgrrnmtflmaha t-Ikfllhtinlflrfliflfnthfll int-13mm."

Ewan Ema: Herr:mum that thc quest Fur rafinnaliw Wm unimfll. in nth-tr turd; naming :lmut 111: validity.r at" egaitm wuuld Ihmh'f

ht Eslahiiahed. Hall-anal decirinn: may be made in Eh: inn-mt Inf benefiting same-mm £15: a: surely as In benefit oneself. fir. put the anther In? armmd. “Mimi!“ an: neither nun: war In: ratinrlal than nmullruiau.

111:]? an: simply punuhlg diff-Hem M11!” 'l'hu: in gain: deprived of am: If in. chain: hit: ni' ammunitinn. m fi w m w a g m m m m Efldfigaifl [arguedinthc but duptrr that flmwnt whu Indie-Ire: we M always put cur awn

inner-em ahead {If tI'fl' may HE“ mnfince himself 111:: [flu is in [he natun: {If [ht organism: :thical cguiim, that i: to say, elicit: piychnlugica] eguium. But [hi3 dun not mean that an: view lugiraflf entail: the

ulher. war that the relatiun warlu the fli‘hfl' war amund. (finite In the mnu'ary. in fin. II: is not mrprising 111m psychuélngital age-ism is incumpalihlt will: Hhica] :IJIJu'um: if twat in far: (are: maul].r Ibfllll him-

ull". then the-rt is little pain: in telling peaple they naught m du nth-:1win-E. But Kai Iii-clam has mad: thr: inu'ig'uing nhscnatiun that. with lip-taking. Lb: psychulngicnl again Eiflflfl-l subscribe [a ethical cguilm Eithfi. If m: “Inna: hflp pinning crumlvw firm it is useless H: presn'ih-E

an; snrl ul‘ mnduct will: respect tn whim! iflltrflls m: aha-uh! mnfldcr. W: might as 1In.r1|:':il tell that psydmlngical {gain mm; In Emir blue hair a: tell him nut tn be an altruim.“

flu an: Lev-:L thin injum an ammingly irnnir: came-quanta! plfd'lflv Ingicali eguhm. But in list: l‘lfll‘lil'ldl u! at“ what £111]a [rum any mnfim about the fliilflm ufa find human mun. Hulfishncn is: m m m

ALTIUIEH W

E]!

beagiwnnlhtrflunmmflhingdm.flmnqufltiumafnluzmd mum‘s] mlpahiliw an:- sn many tlfldl-fl in :dI—deccptium Happily. CEDilmmmunmwflciyflhehuntmknufifltInmuthwflhflf-mm.

huhrrmt as I can-1m. It in fur thi: realm that am: of the few mafia“ Eflflmuplnn m Lat: :11: Ht: mush menhtltu cmdfl:

huh has Ffldinlugifll Eguinn huh ‘mdbpendtnfly prupmmdrd II II intrinlicalhr ligrlifinnl mflfil dnnrint. ll: sun-m5 lfl' haw: htm mam {at-manly med m lllppmfllflidvucflqufmmuqfldfitmnrflmflmlmmfiflpfliq...[Iu|:h u1tupenuidrmitmtmludmilmufi'flrriminflm‘ifiihlyfld summit-ll}- Emmi."

II' II Haul: pertaining "In:muthratinn mmighl have far wanting pumpkludfim Andilhflmwurlhlmkingagainmflmvmmlhm hurmmdeguilmmhr lmthlnrdtrlflflthflfllhfi'hlftmlfllh

jusfified and used the assumpliun.

m

FITNESS DflEEHT FIT

In Il'll' Ian clupttr. I wind to :Iwhr that 111: autumn Indnbinlnfl burial-1c:

ml altruism suggest: the difignme uf an undertaker. nu: cf 3 Iuilar. If in 1 | : dhave lhl: cum-equate nm at" uplaining. but uf explaining any, human alu-uism. the-n w: an: nun-w obligated u: ask #11:t the-n.- in my pun-in! in listening to win! Emi-Dh-i-Dlflfl has In In}! an 1hr Huhjl'fl. I think [he arm-re:- is nu. aha-arc all because hinlagiau an: nut inlmned in um-

thru, A writer like Eidurd [13m i5 impntitm with critic: whn think In! in attributing ta genes the claim tu be selfilh. 1:3t ii fiflun': Inf Ip-ccd'l.

Dahtim Trill-iii; the my issue is him: urganiunu actually {In- and what In {an infer ihmll natural MIL-Erin" [rum lhtir behafinr." In Elli, hr: urn,

an a mini}; behafiflral understanding 0f du- IEHII. an: muld ufl'er a: an

illusualinn ui' altruism a gram: predispmiflnn In him: had mall: unfit-.5: mains maredumdfnndwmmuptiunfifidlinmmmmfflad for Hfln‘fl-flfl slat.“

Haw suduhialngisuhnwapmchfimfmflidinghadandfmmm mm the urn III-BillillEI at curtain wards—1h: wniun flu: ml? ditscribe: Ihe behaw'ur uf man? IPE'EiEi and the urn: Ihal “planes 3 tmiqutl'f

human phmummfln—m a reader can b: Fnrgivm fur cancludl'ng fluff third: animal: {nr Erna] really are ulfiuh ur ailmhfic- t n mint-inlangit: l'flfllfllflfl up c m :111pm“! lam-Elfin: .ihnut flunk-m. Hint they

Fflflfl HE Tfll 1'0“ TD U5

2H

hiveinmhdhnnmlyampflficiflrmhhmmthr mmplw:

numlly discuss in 1]}: :nnlm uf human afl'ain. Fm- uhfimu m

.

than- i: linit tn bu laid lbw: an 'mum': "chain“ It! unfit: it! life- ID that another can HFE. B? tantrum. then! in a gram deal In he laid ahuut why a human hut-mg data an. Hume: matter. WI: {Early are man: impmaldwilh mmurlmtrifi mmmmherhui fiihflnnwilhdw

W

whale Eff-serving miun hi: the unintendcd rnnflquuflnfl: {If

firing a lift. Em w:- finnm flptfl m hut much of intemt an I11: :uhject at human altruism final 3 field Ihal (nu-f nemailfl disregard! ll}: quuliun al' math: and tannin dhtirnguish brim had teeth and good murals.” Malia: am the anti-stun.- at muflmtiunal {amide-filial; tut: lwn ways.

We tannin-1 Hindu-i: that humans an: truly altruistic jun but-um: mamhm ui' lather specie: help an: anniher [at-jun but-tam:- hmun: thun“he: help an: Iflflflltl’. I'm that flflllfl']. Bul W: 33150 Eallflfl-I [mitlude

that hmmm: wally m selfish jun! httauu an argumcm like ”tn-flush:fitflflfl turn: an the “mill-hum!" {If the gait. In fan. we mflfll cun-

cludtvtrymudtalallahuulwhryuuandlmhelpfiflnntheiamisuf Inch data.

Emsider the spatifii: sadnhiuhgiml funnulu fur altruism. I: mu" hchat'iur really buund by 111:- impflatim at" inchuivc fitness? Iran. how 11:: I“: explain I11! [act 1111! wt fi'cqucnlly' help lhflI-E whn are unrelated

m- m. induding than: whu will nrver hear at help m win an: amp-ring? Fur dun manner. what evalufinmry m can m.- mflt at the I'm that a dhpruparfiumtc share uf an: {If human finknca are mummified again“ dun;- ruhtivu? 'I‘n uh:- fllfl'fl: thin hr:- d1: [amt uur kin with apt-rial gen-en

mini, him-shall Eahlins has Elm-um that "nu syaicm ul‘ human kinship mlalium is urgnniu-d in mud will: the garlic cmfficitnu uf rdmjun-

ship a: hum tn Whiflbfiifll.”" In {Ilhlfl‘ Wfll‘di. our socially mnHmctcddtcisiumahnutwlmmwewfllmflunmmdiflamnflm hear Faint relatinn u: the Hnudfinu thu farm that basin at" binlngial fikulafinns. Huchuful'fluttallalmfiam flm.dnunulimmhrlhtatuu] unifice ufth: m 3 life. But wen mil-m it. dun-H, we find plenty uf

flflmplfl that inclusive fitnm IhEurf cannot easily Explain. much as peapl: whu bemm: m mIn pmmmc pnlitifll cam-:5-" 1n shun, giwtn the lignifirante uf human chain. iIIEllEl-i’fl: Emu: mun bf duhimn fill“: fur

{flaming human altruism. A: Philip Hindu-r m. thutinnntfldtntrmlndm1myfinmflmulmflidufluhgiwnflumiu whhnlfiirmiufimhurmfippcdmwrmlfltmmmnflmptmlm

ALTIUIEH m

'21!

mdtnperflnrmminm dutdflrmfmmnurindlfliw Elm”. Ithpum'bkmwir Illa-Hamlin nf Hm sap-Hm ufimuly and 111 In deny that natural Elwiflfl hill" Hashim-rd dilpmitium m bflhflfiflr that land Ifl- Iu'lh'n'fl {nr imam Il'IrIyl} In

minim: nu! Mum: litmus." Ila-ciprn-u] aluuinm. the nth” nujur hinlnrgical cmrtrihuflun In flit Lupin turn: nut m be nu mun: prmnising a: in nphnalinn nfuur Frill-IDrial bthafiflr. Hubert Trifle-15‘s dflenninatiun u:- find an egm‘stic attain-u uf Inch behavior in mhanusjngly nhviuus: “Wren: thi: ink-11:11:11 cal-E. i1 ili draw that thc rtl-m-tr Ihmfld nut hflLIIEI‘ m saw: the drawing min." h: says.“ Thm must b:- sfl-m-E- mf-maximiling advantage In rescuing ur nu mlcwnuldduil; Ihis irl lhtprmniu. 11m flltuflidluifln.: 1 t dimr

um. End: in [ht rtil warld. it is tnmmnn m hclp all-anger:- Hm lhuugh

mm: is virtually I'm dune—particularly in urban lflfinfil—Ihil thqr will

mini-day mum ll}: fawn {In fin. as Sakai-n: paints am. we even help

Peuple whu may well ht mnnrucd as gene-Ii: campfiitflrfl“ All Triver: can offer in l'flpfll'lll‘! is Iht spatulalin-n than “selenium mm.r [war 3 Multiparu' alimhti: syntm in whirl: altntiuin: an: an: dispensed [rut-4913.r among more than lwn h1di‘ridual:."" 1n mhtr wards. Iht' flint-rm: at" prfiiul}! whal wmfld app-car In refutt I Ih-Efll'f limited In self-maximizing. rctipmtil-helping hrhafim is mind: In stun Iii: a mnfirmaiiun 91' it. I! Tflvrm's furmuhflum slrilu' 1M :3 being unfalfiifiahle. Richard a d fl ' : pmmptary prunuunctmtnu End-1m Il'Ial ward with new

meaning. 3.: wiih Tl'ii'fll. tguinm it nut the.- dtductinn but IJ'IE prcmile.‘ and he gut: In Htmnfinary length: m explain why individual: “m uflfll .fllll m bl: :IJIJ'uirntit" (hi1. Emphasis} and In try In :ccnunl "fur the altruism

nf mun] behavior in Emmi-zany ulfijh mm."“ Lil“:- uthtr m-c'iubiulu»

flim. MEIEIHEIEI‘ appmachn till: Inpi-r having already mart—ml? rill-HI nut that pmsibiiily at" genuint altruism Th: prfluppnlitiun may.r he “and ‘m the Emu Inf: sylluginn: [ I ] it.“ human behavic-r tan h-c understand in [emu {If M : predispuaitinn [plumtypc '1: tnLircI'y :I‘Ediflfl'll-I': m gunm“PEI: [2] gm: m

"‘Hlfish." maternal admivcly will: Framing cup-

in ul' IhEflfl-EI‘FEI: thercfum (3] ail human behiwim in: H3”? ldfilh. ap~ [humus In Ill: tannin nulwilhaunding. What Email]: fflr the mn'nhialugiu 'u Ian-rely In figurin- nul Elm-Ir tn napkin away 3]] than pally

£53111l tn II'IIE' mmnry.

This is W ' s W

1in n: flitting gym: 53mm, and he

in naming il' nut irwcnlivt in can-yin; it nut. Napalm- ruin, 1:: begins. {I Whflnmfliflm ail! fimwinm.w£rnmm

216

HIGH HE TD VDU TD US 1311? {wt remand]. And what abut-I that fact thit HE I'll-1.1M? hurl]:

strangers?

{reptiles MWr}. R M M But dun't m: mmll'lfll'll’}! htlp pcnplc who uhfiuml'y willmmum the hunt?

Hill-£3193. fl w fi i m h w m w y m fl fi m n h m fl u fi n fl mh—umfllhgmmi “Mm: W " fl W fl m fl m fl m fl k fi fi . But what 311nm all the Eurasian: in which I'll) C in a puliflfln u:-

rHHJm-cmt HitEIiII'I thw.I an. m‘ in which prumcial heluviur take: Flam: WWW ? flm'l'hmim W W I M M H H M N M H H M H I

Winn flatmhmpmflmnflfijmhmn mflnfnfln mmflmflu hngmn. Hr whflgmdflmflj WflfimImmumm that ”him Mi "all; W i n Mum W M ] mflngnrmnfing In thirm m in { M a l film-tinni. ”*5 find hm: dfl- run tflplflin pump]: “'11:: {Indy dun”! calculate at :11. win :imply rupund tn annular puma-W: need wilhuul any thought nf getting lflmefllil'lfl' am at" it? Isn't mamas! mhmwifmm-gmhm but Muslims: as will “H will hinthegnifl's h i n fl fl l w l fl m M a fl n fl t fl fl — fl fl i hisanrguul. . . . fl] mflnflnglfimsdmlfimflwwidflm.priwndflm mkmbflhflhflmmfimmmflsflmnmmhm'y And 14:- it gun-cu. Undcr lhl: gum: uf "climimming flu: aura 131' mph-r1.IEI'IIII'. hi: lurruunded the cancepl." Alexander rend: lhil murfliif iljult a manner 9f luring m “*uulguc-sh Human-311w, autdn um: udEra' m

mum]? manipulate LI'II'I'I'I int-1 suing {unwary In dwir m immu: m that am.- get: bad. I‘l'lfl-I'E than am: given up. "When we span}: fwnrahlr in DUI' children ahuul Gnu-d Samfitanism. we an: telling Ihcm about a buhminr that In: I urn-lag likelihm-d a!" being Wutfifllf pmfit— able?“ Duesalldi'u flyinmtfaccnfwlutwemamundur—flmmun: 111‘ the warld‘: mm: mmpfliljve and Hagen-Emu! martin? Due: i1 item In Il'f mare abuut thr author dun ahuut the 1 ] : t he prufcms In dunib-t? Du w: find no :vidrnce m :uppnfl this sour qmtiam that i: panned ufl'au 5cm? Alnanthr h unfazed. “Llajrbt we ruin finding nu:

ahuul the gents and lhcir mislian . . . [batman] accepting the argument: at Hulutiunm binlngisu i3 lilu- admitting that an: is. aficr all. an flaw ill."“ Th: mare 1pm: deny his them-y. this IIIEII'E fun prim: him curred. Far mart reambie a cancltuiun, hand am what pmple actualir Iflf ill-d do ralhu' than an an a prinri tmmuiunem m hialngrital dutrmiuism.

ALTIUISH EEGMHED

El"?

ildrfulluw'mg: mmlnfwhitilhummandpmmfialdnfinm I!!!“ In

Iii inn} timer inclusive fitness ur recipmdty than. and it cannot be made 1::- fit Hm if w: lit an uh: when: and Li: it up Will: rape. Thi: din-El mm.

man that we are beyund the call [If hiulngf: it menu: then: art nth-Er taliahles that prmrc. in cam such a: thin, mare decisivc. ll dues mm mm that inclusive film-u 1 . t is inadequair m “mum fur the ulfincrifiring behafinr in anther species: it man: that human culture and values

have HHI'II'EIZI tn the paint at" hemming infiumces in thtir mm right-" We have, and regularly nun-ruin. t1“: pawn: to make dcchium thil an: nut adaptive—which inrludfl than: dial: are maladaptive as well an 111:- mud: largcr set ufchnitu that are multil will]: raspctl In :miutianary c m Hiliflrll. II" miuhinlugy Ilen- !I]'n‘::::u-rut-Ilimfl'nlr puwerfili and practically minimum In human behafinr. its impact Hauld ht m undumnint gtnuint altruism Because it: tin-uric: an: llltifllflltl'f egnialic. Sin-EL- it in neither paw-HEM nur relevant. we aughl m limit. dmewhm 1-:1- flecidt Whflhtl' altruism ii I‘t'iIL But Lhcrt i: : Imam amung many sntial scientist: In bulitvt that until 5mm: hinlugifll gmunding has burn [mad [at unt’: 'h'i-E'l'll' at"

human behafiar. that win-r i: as ground as melt-5:. ‘I‘hi: tmdrnr}: refit-m I width htld. uflen unm'Li-nflaicd. sens: that sunbathing linttd djrflflh' In Emu ur ncumu'ammilttrs is man! “Ital" thin mmell‘lhig with-ml! such a mnmtiun. Sam at" [he mm: we arr: inclinad In lhinll; this

way were discussed in damn I: trace-s {If hinlngiml dcttrminism and nuterialism. [ht habit at" filing the natural Him-ms with innh'hdgt innit". and in funh. Em ifwc- tun.- nm mdai El'EflliLfl'H :il: hmh—evm if our miginal equipment. so In speak, disposed 115 m [are truly ahmlt anti-alum wauid mill be nu nut-d Ian ass-mm:- Ihnt ali suhacquum

umfivatium can hr caihpaed int-1: cguinn. Gordan Mlpun dflfll'ibtd how we acquire mauve: as w: 310w that harm: '"Fulm'I.i4|::|n;r.l:1I1].r autumn-

mnun“ n!" that 31w:- riu- m than- A. drain- la hclp when an bumm: :1 Fault! and enduring i mulive H any 1:1t regardltn 11F whether. ur urban. it was learned” Tu grape desptrately fur hinlugical balm! i1. witfingly uzr uni-lilting”. In deny Lht unlit? HI" what fillpun dfitfib-t-d. 1Full-l marry wri'lm who art: highly nilifll Inf again“ have scrambled In dflflflflllfillfl l'hll alu'uilm in biulngimfl'f mind. Haw m i l l ] haw:

fl'ttf bum? The firm mm a!" thim wa- mm: arr-us: in that mapenfiun is usuallhr adaptive. Using lhl! priaunm‘ dflurlma gain: a! his model, U1: phflmu— phtr Peter Singtr argmu that what-n ma flirty human um chilled by a

tiger. flit-1' hath sin-ad a bun-nu dmct nl' firming iflhlf Hark-t! lagItn’

EIE

FIG]!!! HE Tfl Tm} TD U5

mfightthemimlnfidunifmhjmtmriedahuuhimflmdmd: a run far it. Thistnakfl intuitiwmmandiifineu Enigma. Burial-hut

Infill E‘I'flluti-flTIflJT fldfifllflflt In mutual aid dun-H nut tell us much that In: want In tnmu ahuut uur awn [armada] behafiar. Haw 1will inch htlufinn he manifutcd? Haw mu m.- pmmntt than? Why du- mm: pcuple damn: than mun: ultra flun uthcrs? Why data: mm“: bum mart ur e-l

gran-nu: a: 5hr.- ages? Winn bin-lag? can do for us in explain haw a range 1:! human pnnu'hflitka cam: tn Halve—nut prfllict which an: End! Elf H1 will thunm m actualitt m den-nub” that any uf Lhmn is binding on cunltmpumrr human aujmdfl and behaviors- Evcn if [wiping is Fair-tired by flnlulinn, it i: mm a hinlngical gin-n. [In-fl him-1n supp-m1 [ht Edna [If a brighter side Inf human nature? 'I'H. pruvifling we lmdmldjflfl haw link- i: cunnined in the wrd W Philmnphm and satin] :l-dIHIIEII ought m harp in mind [I'm il i: 1

risky lamina: m dismiss hirulngiral argmntnts whm their mncluninrn: um distant-fill hm tmhract thtm whtn Lhty art-m l-I'.'I pain! : paflrail at a kinden gal-ulnar apt-tits- If we tan chum la repaint: viulencc and

“Hi-hum. to: am aha- fluid: In abandnn 1h: mpmhic and htlpful

lendenrifl that are pan at" can nalure. Wt haw: [hr gmtic rap-idly fur butlL just as. ”smu- ahum fitmu and flu: lit: fail ta dispruue than existent: Inf Err-11in: human altruilm. lfl mtenuihle hintugical bun {if

helping dn little man: than explain what eh: HL" mu than. Then: is 311t pmblcm. 1m. Singu—md h:- is run: alumni: in making this mrl [II Ieap—de-dlmu frnm the Hildfll'l'] nf cmpmlinn the Builtm 01' "an mluflnnary adunlage in bring genuinely altruistic innead ufnuling mdpm-m] fldmngu m: the basil nl‘ mlmlamd HIE-inlflfll."“

Units! ht ii using “genuine” ailruillic" in a [II-frui'uliiu'l'gr weal: sense. Elli: art-ms unfflundcd. All that is shim-Pu in tin: exampl: arm: mtn and : iiger in that it is advantageuua lfl wart mguhcn mu that working [115a i:

dun: far :hmiuin: 1'1:a [I‘Jf taunt. iI cunpcrafiun is mare adipliw than mmptlilifln in a 1min? 91' fillings, :5 appmrs tn- ht [ht mt. this innmafaclmhtpuaedmcrlighdr.lamnnlljngfiingflnilhmnnhr

beam i1 dflfl- nut ahmur that mm in mm.) Is it pmsihic m ground altruism in hinlngr. flfll iffingcr [ails tn- da an? Hus! writ”: in Ibis field an: satisfied with an egnistii: HIE-Efllfll'l afhnth print-rial hthi‘l'ifll‘ and tthics, a [in that than” gin:- pauu m thus-r.baking fur hinlngical Him: at run] aiufism. Htvml'ltlflh mural pruplt haw: undcrlaktnjuut such a march. Martin Hnflinan, I'm- cumplt.

hm reamed thin. Emu : hiaulugiu'l W E . PM!!! cguhtit : 1 t

ALTIUIEH EEEMHED

E19

Iium for helping an: nut germanium: nincr l-Elf-inltflfll is um prudituhly lied lu- dning gun-d. Htlping, thawing. and mnptraling are Eltlrl‘jl' adapfifi'. he argues. in HE nerd a mum flliihlt. hiulugifill‘y hand nudiitnr 131' they: bchafim in nphin haw 1hr}- dcvciuped and penjmad." In a nun. Hufl'man i: Talia-ring in Darwin FWHIEI'P! htfll'. Hill-lit

the [alt-Eh at km by the lime he firm-IE Th: Dar-ml #Mnn in IE“. attributtd In an: Spain an “mam: at" sympathy" that was an datum-

liu-n of the "mafia! imt‘mm” found mmghmu uh: animal kingdom. Humility itself. he Milli. Ha: In this Intent 3 product {If Hulul'iun.“ Fur

hi: pan. Huffman Malilflllfl napalm-f tr.- urn: an 1h: hinlagical madnniun. Unfununmcly. hi: vmiun uf empathy. an h'l' hair:- alrtady ll'lflh i: at least pantry eguiuic. Humvtn while the Hui: heme-tn unpad‘ljf and prmmia] bchfllriur 111:1].r be emphicafly based {Elli-till mmplfl}. the cm-

lntiumry hui: uf Empaflw i: IFMIfli'I-It. and drum is. in that ward: Hf um: paydmhiulngiah “nu substanljve neumbinhgifi] EVE-dam:- abut: bail: Intdiafinn n1" almn'sm."fl Two :mdiu in flu.- hst dun-tad: hm+ llama, aucmplcd In Illifl'll'

that EIIIIPILI'If [am]. in am- me. altruism a: well} are highiy I'Itl‘iflblt. Th: lint. pubfiihcd in 193! by Harm Hatthm. E. Danici Batmm and their :ulleaguu. fauna that identical ruin: Inn-ru- mar: Ibuilar in lhtil'

mouse: In an empathy qucslinnnaiI-E flun wcr: fiiltnuil twin: [.IH mu: 115]." Th: mun-1. a FREE fluid? by]- Hfilippc lhuhmu and his mflraguu. productd cumpanbh finding: an I ammu- BF rmpifllj'

L54 versus .20] and aim m: a {W'Ell-l‘jf-i-l-EII'I aclf-repnn ul‘ prulnlziil bl:hauiar {.155 “mu: £51.“ [raving aside 1hr I. mutant 1hr qualitimu ill-nut Hulhmn'l credibil—

iljr gin-n his magmas claims album the genetic hfniufitr uf blacks {Ht [1, 2?firn.35L hath nf thlfll' uudiu [:11 us flatly I'm-w suhjms dun-Eh: lhEfll-Il'hl'fl. nut haw thanr actua'lhr helmw. Sclfvdfln'ipliun wmdd m Inertia-111:3I'I'y1 ammptihle In enfirmmumal influeum. in which ran: the

thin: ut'a Emmi: [HIM is cut in“: dnuhL [It aim suggest: the Pallihfli'lf that the pmdl-anfl-piper manure [If Empathy was actually pickhg up mill respnmivenesa. a: Haldlew: El 31. finial-tilt.) In any (35:. that m bath Hudifl Elf twiju mart-d together. which an! a!" questinnlhie tunefulnen fur imlaiing genuiu: futon. flush-3n“: study. In null-.1- mum

m . was uI‘ a self-selentd ample: qufiLi-c-muirts were: mafltd In Lilli] tur'm pairs. and [11: 5TH pain whn returned them banana: I11: :uhjtcu. Nu

mnlifltmifln was firm In tht pvt-Hibéliw that thus: t decidnl to uk: part may haw bum unrtprficnuliw Inf [ht amt-r wins at al' 111: popula[inn :1 large. Family. Hen il' nun: affluen- muhndulugiml prahltnu

flu

FRUHHETG TDUTDUS

milled. we :hmlld t'lfll fnrgfl Ihlt th: midi?! tun-um an]? hmtabilitr— the extent uF Erwin; cunlrihulinn m individual difl'trmes with T-tfiptfl lath:- trait ill—1d Mlfllflfllflflllflwhifihlhtlrflilitflfl'il d-Et-Eflflifl-Edbf genetic [um-r! {we thaptfl I}.

We seem In he icfl. then. will]: the idle: thai hinlngim ham: so far mntfihulcd Hz: nut undcntanding ui' altruism ml]: a mil-lit] that rcdum it In eguiam—mmer like a llbnrimq' Lflhnin'in whu needs In than: 3 [Exam sample berm HUM-in: it but has available far that purpnfl III-Ill}? a swung acid that diamlvu what ht is trying 1::- imp-cu. In this anal-agar. w: wankl nut [unclude lint [hm is rally nothing ll'lEI'E H] be studied .‘ifltl‘ all. bu: rathtr that we aught H:- Hnd the urn-rt In a [alarm-awry better equipped fur such r m . A: a general mic, III-DH] and paychnlugical phtnumma mm: but ”claimed m twining-r amr more than hinlugical lupin can he I‘t'dllttd m thu- stufl' nf phylics. The specify: gun-slim: uf whether human pruwcia] behavinr can he unlimited by a airmen: and inducible

desire In help is um, finally. a mamr [at Inuit-inns};+ If hinlngiml arc-taunt: a!" altruism deny its Elislcnnr. than: an: other alltl‘lllli'l'fl :vailab]: tn- u: bur-midi” that judgment Il'm all hdmfiur i: tsunami":

WHY UTIIJTT WENT WHETIDN

Dewitt: the duminali-un nf mummies by a made] that we: all behafinr an exclusively Hlfvinlmllt'd, [htl't has ham a stirring at” dhum in rec-rm 1min. T11: idea Bf "ecnnnmic man" has lung been criticized as i mislead-

ing {as fippflfitd in useful} fltlifl'fl since the 1:311:14Insuling+ cumisltnt. fully Manned acmn on which I11: made] depends bur Hull:- wmmhlancc tn pump]: in flu: real Hflfld; Hurt rut-cent. hawcvn, are sustained critique-n ul' 1114: egg-ism at thu- mrt at thi: mnccptian. Acting ram-Dually simply i: am tanlamuunl m mmg in ant-”n mm IEHviIll-Efli'lil. mm- write-r5 haw

argue-d. And turn in cmnnmic manner: {which in practire dn nut musliHill: a malm umn Ihtmsclvts. dimmed :I'mm. my. pfllilical m- perm-ml

muleraL pwple mutjncly attend m. "mflflmmit. nnncguini: cmidfli minus, Sac-rial Himmu fittd tn:- atknuwledge these lather can aim-minus. whether w: mfcr m [hm culltnivtly :5 maralit'gr [Hirhatl M t H a flit mural dimcnainn [Amitai Ell-juni}. cflmmilmml [Wyn Sen}. civil: values: [firtg and Flu}: Dawida nr lamenting else. These and mher

milcrs—fi‘um within cum-“mtg and Fran-m neighbnrirng flaws—have lately fjlallenged Ill-I: discipline tn break I'm at [but hegemany flf :guiam.“ Still. 1h: number: and inflmnce uf these dullmgm lhm'lld not b:

ALTRUIEH EEGMNED

221

Wind. Neoclassical tum-naming Efl-fltillllt m dun-hum [ht dimiPlil'lt'.“' and they typirafly Hmd I11: mndtl in I'm: mi: first. they ”51H! lhit eguism in mm an tmpirical finding but simpl'y an mmnplinn Emu:

whim IJE-Efill hypulhflca can he [IL-rived; and Hand. lhcjl my I]!!! III: idea 31':tlLintcmttd acquit-mi: act-m can adequme-ly Hum-um fur :Jtruism. IT it { 1 t ant“: utility.r fimttiun “hat is. Hi If M } [an includ: anything; including a drain: u: help nthcrm With rap-ct: tn Hm lint paim. thu- umFuhm-u ui‘ the mun-Ila! in preEifid}! whal mum in: htginning m qutslinn—al has! will: raped In phcnflmtna uuuidr: {If :11: wnrld nl' tummcrfl- Such cmmmisu ham: handicapped thtflllth'fl by min; a tum-I Lhil. Earl: In distinguhh hH‘IIr-Elfll Elf-Britnwd and mht'r-nriented prrferencci {If came cm: can basin willh an} assumpiin-n irrcapeclive {if It: truth val“: and Frat-EH! in spin

um [arc-fictions: indntd. crummisu nfitn mm m pal-Ede flmaelvn an [ht Vfllflt‘l‘fl' and n'gur {If what [in h: gmmled Emu :- sentence that begin will-I “Assumn . . ." But DI'IE'! ability In my mningfifl thing! all-nut the real warld i: cumpmmhrd if the ruppmitinn, rim-ugh plmuihle ind with-If Httpwd. i5 Ellimillfll'f [Elms—ii: far mmpim rme pmils 1mi-

Irmai tgubm fl-El'l thuugh it {la-Ir: nut accuum In: haw pcuplc actually think and ffll and in. Man:- gcntmllr, the qutllinn of hm.- uur purerflirts am: In be what they arr—a quad-rm that Hannmials delihmteiy l'I'fliid by taking prefflcntes a: firms—is nut an]? intellectually intern-1+ in; but aha:- pmically ia-Drtifll. Pm Economist whu Wants In any that III: welfin: ul‘ amen: is jun mu: nf many panihlc preftrcnct: that an act-Hr can haw, munwhilc. plate-I

himulf in mmflhing IJ-f a dihmnu. Eilhn‘ Elf-inll'l‘fll: mean: mmflhing substantivr ur it [has am. If h dues. than altruism cannot be understood a: an cmplc lhtl'tflf Will'lfllll {Icing via-1mm [a thin mp1. Altruism by definition in nut in sub“: (If car-minim. If LI‘II': Hflnmflfl like: this path. ht: had hflltr he prtpared m dcfmd the idea that E'II'EITD‘I'IE mall's:T El sdfiaming. {Same hart argued that in term: {If applicd Eta-numb: the

disciplint Int-ed ml Incl ihfltlld nan: disptnu- with altruism: a main? in which pmplt try 1r.- Mtfl nth mhc-r’s nctds can have an tflirirnt cmnumiq: IFS“!!! a: readily as an: in which each in trying In meet I'lEl' awn-” Hummer. mllapsing Everything int-1 sclI—inltmt prummn an infamy

tin-n with ft'lll'iill‘ds and punistuntnti that main in: bad fllfinagfiIIEfllJ“ The [In]? way In pram: the Eutegrit'f BI thl: idea nf alLruiam, that, in In EhflflE-E' the : 1 t pussihiliw and pump up the lie-dc; nf ”if-imam:

until it Lakes in Wing {including rcal ahnliam] and. a: a rank, fiyfififl naming. Tu my.r pimple II'E [Inflated Ila].r Elf-intern: in, ant!

222

FEE!!! HE TD THU TD U5

again. H: II? nuthingmun: than that people want What they want. A: I m m .am has a Hahn Mirna: fur [failing In difl-‘trtntiatc bflwecn thedniremhemfilnmwlfmddwdflimm benefit when. cwghflmnbruguedthuanmmmhlwfiuneglflu nuditffaih lab-ti: Enid-Frill; - . [ht urshl': also] fill—II lab-Ea gnu-film . - . [Humming-H] {1f Many turn-mist: In again awning in term: a!" xlfwiruemu . . .m: halamfld antiwar-d1? Ian-tween untulugy and hhflwui“

The team“! will: 3:311: Ih'u way :11: llrnrl'lutrillljnr mar! inlerflltd in flu:- nalurt ui' m m ind mandala: thin in haw hflpfill at fllfiih mail pit-up]: mall}! are. Bantam: [if this. and ham: they: manuals“ punt-sum-

Ihlr within: the Ial'I'JE' triumph: uf prmatial hthariur :5 1h: rm :11" III. i: is hard [1} an haw thing : frw mul‘e minutes ufit will tnnvinte than than], lhfil :11: missing sumething.

There art, hnwmr. a few hill of Hidrnct hm within eat-Jimmie:

that an: wunh Hating. If we an: minted by emnumir self‘interest. Fur mph, nu: dcdsium almut giving manta.- m- tharily shuuld h-c highh'. if no! nclunivtly. mat-live In t1: incentive-s. [After all. why help the unfurtunatt unless. than: is mm: financial benefit In- thi: giver F} TH there an: data. {a auggcsl lhal while nu: dtductjum may may mm: ml: in mariachi an: In inn-tau I11: amnunl {II a gift, IhL- initial dtcisiun In

dnnale—paniruhrlf

by than who. are mm: generous—i: mad: fur mhcr

Imam.” Experienct with I'E-EElfl changu in tilt la: law: hat-t nlfflfli funhcr mm In doubt th: HIE-Mt hypnthuh: In 1932‘. lfl'fl flu.- tnp individull rule in: ml Eran W5 mini. than: “I

an

annual £11m in [ht rate nf “hing. perhap: beans-e pimple 111m had man: In [in all-lily. MEI. “hum muiltmitm Hflt lint permitted In hut-gin deducting charitable

gifts. [hut was nu diitfl'llibll: imam: in immunity. In bath man. In: flit-dub Linus app-:H nm In haw-I: burn the Infinity Eflfltfl‘n- Prdjmimn' "spans indicate flu: same in lrut: fur flu: [BEE [Tax lit-hm An]. Elnora: u it hi!:Hntrdmntrihb

[inns an all. it app-ear: m Ira-n.- imam-rd LII-rm. - - . 11w: haw: 31mm burn. and Fri-tummy altar: will he. puma-pie minted mull].r by mmnfl kindlimn m a Mil-I'll all M jam: nr religious mnvicliufl.“

Hug-[fin Inner. in his chalkngt tn the Earmarks-based “(mu-ac-

muniing“ app-mach lu- sts-rind h-Ehaviur, his, wilh his cn-wnrlurn, cunduned snare-ml :mdin I'll! indicate pl'upll' dun nut m

In at primm'ily

ALTIIJISH EEEAHIIEII

2-1!

a mt-muhnizcmfltn ifpmfilisminlerprtud mare hrmdlf unplealrurt. In an: Hptfinwnl. subjenl who wrn': uhtd In unlunten' fur annihm' Study. and m cannibal: a pnrn'nn uf [ht payment duty wnuld receive [a a firefly family, signed up Fur mart uninm 111m did than! whn

HEP: nun-i ash-rd fur a mnlributinn—pmvidcd they HIT!“ being paid fairly.r fur thrir limit.“ ltnl-fl argun [hm penple mm premmpied with MHinltrfll fll'lif when they urns-t flu: summnt is taking advantagt nl' than.

Eh: pcuplt what they draw:- and tr will :11: what thnr can to make sun: athers get what they {Laser-m. tun-u. In [his m+ it is um self-interest

but "1111: than: ufjunticr [Hut] nerve: :5 lb: curl-Ina] urgan-iting principle in mm: human tndti'lfflfl."”

In the 9q6:3] mm. whcfl: mama and adm- egn'uu have lung insisted that we milk: all nu: decisions. on [ht basil 1:! flying in unlimizt

nur individual gains. "111: single mast mmpelling and munwr'mmitiv: diumrerf uf T-EHEEH‘J'I m1 political alliludc: and bchm'inr aver the in! thirty wars is but: want an influmtt self-interest :auctui'lllbj.r tum." ant-turdhug,r tn Gary-rm.“ What is far mun:- likfly m prcdin mmm‘s paiiliun an an issue nf public [:1q is 3 {imply held prindp-lt. Altitude: ail-um mun ranging {rum dmgregatinn m uncmpluymrnt Lend m rtflcn vain: cflanmiimenli mun! Ihfln lhq' dn EHE'E pmflrul ambl- 'm : git-tn nullity.“ fi:i:|.':|il:su'l'g.r+ pcupie whu hail: had margin“ In inlflE-II‘L will: PIJHEE uflictn

and jurists In.- unmfly ill least an main-med will: flu: Fail-mu bf :13: pmtedurfi Eu wilh haw wail Ilia-'5' pfimmlly Fired.“ Take mull-nu example—the lfl-L'flfll'd fi'fl rider tfl'ccl that in umppmcd u:- I‘EHEH eguiml in all it: glans. The ids: htrt, u enhanmd by Mancur film-n and anthers. is that [maple will always lrj-r In take advantage

Elf flflflfl' dTnns—t m Lb: paint (If persuading I'J'llll'm In math.- thus: :fi'um—uilhnul lat-arm; mg ml" uh: mm themsrluu. ”hm. filth rim-m benefits From the Influence [if an inn]! In prawn him. bur. wuuld Hui-d serving in Ihat army units: cumpnllctl In dn 11153-1111: prnbltm i: Ihai this mpp-nficd law at” nan-rt uftm Bails In truth: pmplt d1:- piwh in when. according in than: dreary. Lhtf should jun be min; In Latch : flu.- ride.“ Here in andulngisl Guild Harwell:

In nut 15 riparian“ HE hall-t Faund [hat sulfitcu Farah: in investing Mum. linl lamp-animus nf lhtir rumurn-s in publir gnu-d: dflpifl': {undilium spa-Hid” du'tgntd m mau'tuitt LI'IIE' impact nf [ret- riding and thus Hflnimiu- im'uuneuL

TI": prrnhnn: “Faun-I1 Hana-minim ”illntlg-hrll" brhafinr winrrpliratlrd um and war. Hm dun an” cupcfimmlm find fhfir suhjctu mm; lunch difltrrmfljr.

. H Wlmhfiwldmnwmuhnhflfidrlmflnulfimniunufindividual

EH

FIDH HE. TD THU TD U5

m m W " '

m

i

h

m

i



m

m

w

m

m

This is. nut III Irtifan ul' :untrivcd txptfimcnul pruccdum. In 1h:real wafld. mu. pun-up]: regularly flu thing: like cunm‘butc to public {clawiliun and radin Hatinm Hm Waugh ”minim: throw prtdins Elm-rah: shat-111d wail fur flfl'ltl‘li m cunuihute and than watch or listen fur Eras- Fur that mating. it i: diflicult In Explain an I11: basil ni' this. durum-y why anyunc

mr gnu In 111:- p-n-Hs. Sim :lmiun: are 31mm“ never decided by a fingl: mic, guru-run: .Ihuuld tab: a fit:- rid: by lttting uthen dd: their civil: duty

Th: fi'fl rider pmblem. Iii:priinnfrf d i m and the “flagefiy (If that cummmufi'" mmplifies a situatiun in which what is advantagtuus fur each ufu: ill had 11w: fur all BF “1. and 'I'i-fl.‘ 1mm. Typically. soda]

Identists have unlined that the only way am If thil canundrum in H} artificially “rang: 111mg: w thin filth individual has a dirttt. perm illlflfll in Farming the cummun gmd—or a reason In fluid pursuing his pain-mt hit-rims. A. {mu-ii aulhuriw may he amp-unwed tn puniih atlfinh bthaviur, fur mmpln at inctndvu may but It'll up In malt :mpmlivt hchlvi-nr fllfll't almrjvt m at]: individual. Thru- mlulinm 13h! fur granted what u:- hi1": already btg‘un In 1-H: i: i dubiuus mmI-EI {If narrow. lEH-illl-ETEIIIEEI mnfifitifln. Thus we should

nut bl: surpriltd m lam that a writ! uf “unlit: h}! Euhyn Dawn and hi! Hum-inns: hu Ihmn'l [Int mine {If “12!! eguilit'i: indurnnmu in actually

nflfllfln‘ far Final-filing behafiur that i: in Havana's but interests. Pump]: will muaHy m m : with warmer: in : gram: 1:: lung 3.: they am:. given an uppurlunirf In- feei a IEIIEE Inf helungingm-u In that may.

Alla-w mnetumee‘lmd Minimum-Wand heurshewifl Iuhsuqumtly [tn-cl m mall: Minn: in the gruup': immu ramm- than trying t1:- lalt. athlanlagt [If the nthm." In the face {if such argumtnu Ind data a: have hem sumnm'imd hue, sum-u Etflnm'll'fllj and mhm haw: admledgtd that that is mare In human nature than eguism—and thtn prune-Ended {hmfilll‘r [In ignunr" fltahumInvmmafummnflihniueflwhuhmmudmwdu Irlf Il'lll'l'l'fil I'l'lfld-EI—flj'. In: “tidyingHun-amt: ln 3 Irwin ul'hl'ch'r I'rr-r: rtl-n' m u m

mil-I main-u! [rm-up: ul' nuhj-rnn. Ihr pun-pl: mun-1| Iih'lh' m Inna-1. nu! I'll'llliiI-‘fh I'm II'I-rir mm Maul rum-HI: tun-11: ecu-numb: gradual-1- unfit-nu {Ewififllh “11:1.- h'll'l'r unliullr In him-u min: "I n Emu]: tithing: [I'll-III h'hhrh Ellen-um- bl'I'll'filfld. phi-m! Inlllnd In In!

[d'lllii-E ufl' umm' ill'lrtl-III'IIEI'IL} In a Influx-up Wan-in. Lhr: ccunn-I'I'lu sludmu Inuit-d tn H1.- Ihi'l! [I'm-E5! wu- nm a run-minim” in their thallium—fir Eli-r.- Illa-f :IIJIP-h' did MI rug-and In lhfl: qfl'I-‘li-nl'l."

ALTIUIEH W

Ihlil' m

22.5

adminim. TI'I-E EEn-flflniifl Thumu Damn. Fur inn-me,

mnmdtd: “In reality. mm an.- nm ill“?! “Huh. HE“ in pulitirs. . . . In NH"! fitld. m:- atmum :1!" human hthavinr is : 1 1 t Hhhnul Minn ul' . . . altruism." But hf [ht “try lint FIE-E he was “mun-ting". “WE 3:1:t lil'll.‘ lflfw’il‘llflffl Exit!“ :5 : mmenmne uf aur whim"?! AnuLhtr all'itt'gjl'. a: we saw. is u:- ackmwltdge [ht tflifltntt a!” altruistic mmiuatinn hm In El: Ibis will: any number ul' utlu-r pmaihlt prefmnm in 1hr driwcr “mic-d Srlfvlmmst. thus apple-31in: 1-: m the axium. Hfitrfl‘mlflm however thty manage m do: it. mamr m u m urn-minutIn insist flflt mu mulivntiun far all lEli'll'iljfl i: :guiati: Ewen limugh thin umlhn 'u whufly unjun'flitd.

THE LIMITS DE EEEIPHDEITT Elihu! dfllillflliflfl ii gflling whal III-Ill: wants. [ht Hamil which Fur Earning

thtrr is lfldt.11lfl'tili nu Hillth Ihiing a: a fit:Imuth. as spa-aim in [mid of dtdaling m bushes: gmupa al fipcmhrc lunmmns. This, 1341' cm.

afludfl In 111:- idta ai' ”tip-rarity that Hr.- htar satinhinlugisu Fritz-muting and than we find in all 1hr Emil! mum in unu- Ennn m mflII‘I-tl‘. I give gmu this and 1mm gin: III! that. Mare Frieda-Ely: I giw: run this urn-MEI;I k m

1 Flip-H31 gran will giw In: that {nr 11mm:- yuu ahead? gm: it to null! Such. allcgrdly. i: du- n? nflht wan-Id. Thtwisdnmnffl'lisasapruuipflwfuuflaljm [ma-1mm u m i! nut whal mnrcrm ml: hm- Hill—1H. 1mm In .1l Hhflhfl‘ I-I'Ii‘l

arrangem-Enl [If give and like is mu: always and ntcflsal'ihr lie: hit-hind prmucia] lactation Thi: is impnflant because rn::I:i|:ln!I'I::-I:iIn].r is a far my [rum ahm'mm: there is a ran difference hen-rem Inaling mhm u run wuld Inh- [hem m mt jinn—the Guldm Rule—and lmling when as they haw lrtalcd ynuuruynuflpen thtm In treatyuu- Infant, thtlwnarcncfl; nnh' diuimilarin thtury but. it tumuld Hem. imam-[3r mind in minutiae.

A study- fll' IHI'HIEH pruchuulm [nun-d that the man: likely childnrn wen: [ : 1 i i sharing "m [El-nu nf their awn future benefit. [I'IE [cu gnu-Emu

1.11:1" 'Ill'lfl't a: rampart-d with their put-m.”

111th: is no qmstiun [hat our nflmrr is studded with ample: nl‘ recipmcity. But than is cansidflahla queflinn as. [a whtthtr giving mus:

alum?! b:- mudtmn-ud it half curl" in tithing. A marhflabmd Hun-unlit ‘1 1m Itinngifldr'tm: lhpfi'I-HIII? nick-[ling m m mrrhuudlf tn'nclwir

ifliufhrlphuflflt.whfiriflflflflilfilhflwnrhfinlhflhfl.nfl he whit-db} multitude ur lam-HM: flu- hflidfl pm prlruinlrrnl.

22E

FED]! HE Tfl TflU TD U5

nflmilwpirfllruvm m h a w m g e d u a m m mnemhmnf

“hm 111mm.“ “hill! the fact lint mu- thinking about Hint in natural [my be affluent-d by nur mum-111i: sultan is mrlunhtd. mil-wise. aututinn in are]? paid tn Ihr: Pfl'l'I'El' M111: self-fulfilling pmphec'f. If“! hair: been mfiflhfl] to exp-urn I m far Herr til. ta harp m silently i:n relaliumhips m that things HE nearly 5 1 p m {and In feel mumml'nl'lable HhEl'l they are nmL H1mum the m ufhclp-ingu fining a flaw: that Hughl In he rut-paid. 111:1: than trpefllli-uni can mat: a reality a: ml

in: any determined by animal tguism. Idea: flhfllfl. nunflm. mm: again. limp: how m: an and hip dttcrminc whu m: am "The idca that c:— thing: ii the basil [If infirm“: Iflaliumhipi may.r iflflflu‘f have the {Hen

uf impairing such rehtiunshipm" as um psydming'um have mph:lilcd.“ Bur. nut warrant: whu Jufl'ufl 13mm this lyndmm: will haw: flu.PIEIEHEE {If mind In realize that the relatiumhip has unraveled because a!" m!Elm-«eullt.r hand mmptium abuut the need {cl-r recipruucity—nfller than 11mm lhl! rchtiumhip failed In umrplify :1 W I 111! cf quid pro qua. In mm: tultum. afitr all, flu: Emphasis 'u an gill: rather than em:hangcd cummndiljm. Thu-I! gift: mmrc. as Levin H311;- npliined. "ft-um

um: hand In number with no m m : at" anything in mum."“ Even within an aim mhurt. a rttipradty uritntatiun unit: with gendcr and dau+ rtminding u: jun 11cm cuntingmt that mitntalinn rcaily' is. In Ihr:

Inn-ii nutty. middle-clan boy: aimed man- candiu which tr

wru- mid

flinch identity was m h: mad: Emma m the rtdp-itfll—llfll is. when rctipmcily was a p-mfihilitr—than whiz-n I11: dunafiun wu la he ant-nylnnus. Huwmr. [Hana-tiff 'l'l'il nut amend by dun-nut nanny-limit? immig

middle-Elan aids ur mung lower-class childltn at"Eilhcr 5:1. And when the childrrm Herr suited in gmflal mam why it i: appmpfiut m sham. fliEI'E was a diner! “simian Ill-Et'll'e'Efl the mlinnal ll‘h'l'] {If [he fllhtr

and flu: likelihflud HF an amwer that mun-11:11 reciprocity nun-In." If m: Inc-Ir. 11:! thus way fritnduhip is p-crctivfll. h lhuuld izmmcdimzly be clear haw muninivt. mu immature. it i: In think in turn: [If reriprncitr. This is the way a simrear‘uld sec: Wings: "511:": my Ericntl because :11: pushfl rm: an uh: 3mg and than I pulh her.“ Widfin a fth' years. must rJ'liIdrtn [HI-H pm thil cancepliun nf Fritndship. and 111: "mar-E

develnped {'IDHEEPI Inf rehfiflmhip is man: than an autumn: in rrdpmn'w. 1!. 'u. aupwmrdhnm In rum:i|:-r-:n|:i-I.}.r.“'-"Jr Ffimdilfip il a W W I . In mun-fine Else that nu longer demand: any mn {If precin- exchange.

What is Inn: (If friendship is 3.1m mu: nl" helping. In an: study. grad: film-:1 dfildrm ware mm1 ' : v t imprmd by Haitian: durum A.

ALTIUISH IEGAII'ED

12".?

Hhurmmrdahmnthmhrmwhudiflagmdmfnrmmwhn had flflitr rtfiutd In help 3. Adults. mflnuhilt. gave a mare F-Dliati'l'l:

mhutiunm B than m i n i m a w w m n r m m u clam m altmiam than 1:- reciprocity." This that run Int-an that canspimamly failing In return a favor in not Emil-ally fitwrd I! ubnnlinus. Ehildrcn and adults alike atrmgly dual!-

pmvcufp-capltwhartfluc luheipmnntwhufifldlcmafimtaflifl. But it is impunam in but {ficfid ailmul IJ‘IE cambflun: wt draw [mm lhil. That reciprncatjng is partial-ed a: prefab-IE [a 11m reciprucaling duel nut mean that an :fllir: at" recipmfiw exhaust: um understanding nfhuw

pmsnthl bthavinr ape-rants at 511::a fl-pfl'alt. Wt mminui hdp smu— gm just IJEIIE’IIIE they need htlping. nut henna-c we Expat: In EH inrIhing am a!" it: If: can: album Idwir wall-bring Hithuut regard In hum w:

my hfnflil. This it more regularly In“: Elf mm: pimple dun at flfll‘fll. hut if. is char Ll'ut ratiprutitp' is rhmfleriatic [If unljr : limited lulu!!! Inf

pram-still behavim'. flther inch hthavim' '1: more prayed? cant-II slimlinlic. and 11mph whn Hart 11 and: an qucstinnnairu an: actually man: Iihlfli].r In help flfllEl'l when thwart nul' EIPEEIiEIE In main-i.- any W lit-n," lib-wise. 1]}: [in that a lugnidtd mhflnnship may eventually mlhpru: due: no! suggfll flu! all firing between tum penplr Em Ill-E underHnad exclusivelHr Hen principally—an an Elfl'till: in mutual but ramming. The art: 131' m i l } ! than uh! plat: bflwtm 11m fi'iflid! or lawn mm as a rult. he explained in term: Inf that firing relatinnfllip.

(Th: relatinnfliip tannin! in turn but redurtd 11:- simple redpmciw m- the sum nf the puficipanu' needs.) Ewe-11mung dildnrm :5 Erin Snub and :l talk-agar shaved hm decade: 13:, “Friar sharing afl'fl'lcd subsequent

during by nunfrimdl. but it: efl'tct an tharing by {Hutch Hi: slight?"

Margarn Clark. a paychulngiu. has tmphuimd Lhal caring. or, as she prefers. “tuna-mull." relatiflnlhipa apt-rat: diflifl'flllljl' than “1::change" Tflififlfllhipi—I distill-Him that recall: Bub-er”: discuniun of mulmgthtmhtrasa'lhnunrman ILmuncpapc-r.clut:ndhfl m—wurhern Ht nut tn lhuw Ihil [maple an: pleased In have their fimr taunted if thve‘}r have EIPIE'fl-E'd In flflflnfle relatinmhim but are actuilhr

disappnintcd with 1h: rtc'nprmitd aid if flit-y had huped In uuhlish 1 mmmunal relatinnlhip with 1h;- ulher.“ In :nmhn papa: Ih-E prupuued

dull; iI a mmmunal rehtiunship is apt-cum rm:- peapl: Hurting tastdwr an: In:mnccmcd nth-nut harping track 111‘ when did what. firm if a mud it: :15e fur main] cumplfliun Inf uh: tut.“

Unfm'tuluttlf, Clari': prtfenad way u!" Whiting this diflir-

223

FRflMII-IETDYHUTDUS

tum—in [I'lElt audits and in I subsequent until—ha: been In nu! mung

HIE“ a: mbjtn: and Piirflfh an: with an attractive WEI-mall. The mummml mndilinn is said to ht in farm whim they an: mid she in: singlt. wllil: the exchange tunditiun mm: vainly that ah: ha: been intrmiucud n rim-lied. TH: would sum I mun uncmvincinfi way In: nperatiunaliat

bud} canctpm paniculm-ly the farmer. Thu.- mm": {Hum 1-D impms 1h: wuman might. wclil in: m

by an :cnnunfically {m- nucinhinlngicallyj

minded uhunrer a: milling nmrn: than lung-4cm iawutmcms in a I'm:

uf exdmnge when“ pay-HE is expected flfifl' Lh: EIF-El‘ifllml has aided. M

r at nm Lhil i1 [I‘ll-t. the rithnnn at” an Iifiuu. a cummurlaL a:-

fit“ simply a nun-endangr-hmd rehti-nmhip i: hardly captured by lhi: study in flirtatirun. SW1;mart munhgflfl m amid? at“ married mupln in whkh luhjrfli wtre mind In rupund m : Immun- LIE marital adjmlmenl :II HE]! :H a qUflliflnflliTE tapping their attitude alum! an exchange urienlaliun [haw important it Has- [m' Ilium that what they du fur when i: Milhfl 11mm nut In: than Whit mhm du- fur dim]. It wan [mud flut thus:- whn

were prcncmpied with grunting a: much a “1:1" 511': Ended m him: In: Eiltilfiring running-s.“ Given la

trends. it in all the mare dhappninfing—and remark-

abie—lhat no link reward: him hut-en dune: m dmnnslratt nupifically the Iimilaliflm Inf rtcipmcily LEI-raw- Furlunatrlh an. we hair: arm. then: it such mnfirmat'mn ul' the limit: nf again-m mm gun-nanny And ifm: lat:

afresh Incl: at Ihedugma afrnfiprudw.wenurweflagrflwithlflmr that it i: I'filfl'f : thturelifll invmlin-n m explain. {If enpinin may. fill.- uwrirhrlming L'VHHIH: that tnmladicu [he mmrrmn mumptinn that Pmpll: an: muliralrd I11.r Elf-infling cud}. In I‘m. Fur Ihr mm part. penpien‘unflad in obviously “Illa-armingmy: A: thin-m. part-nu. spam-es. [mud urn-1pm. HE. m:- dan'mtt: lllflil Infill-hill 1m: him: am! an: cflhfl: fur tin.- bunL-fill at when: ind I" dun it I: naturally. il'nm

man: in. than 'I'I-rhfl 1m: min?!“ dun fur ”wright-AT“

SUI flEHEl-DUS

In prupnning that IJ'HE Elislflllit ul“ ganuimr altruism {an nfltr I plaulihlt umnt at" many. til-Hugh nut all. Mums nf pmwriai hehafinr. thil

maple-r has mnu-nmmd thine-fly an aha-wing the weaknem uf tguism Phflmnphtn luv-E had land rmun Far rejming I11: prupmitiun that all

ALTRUI5H m u m

EB

penphmtutmumhuwfiuhcmndvmlhlflugutd. Furflmirpnn. mtinbiuluginl mamas nt‘ gnu-tit “selfiahnus” are Inf fill‘flflfl}? limited Film: in txplaining Hum] human bflhaviur, and :I “Eduction uf pruancial

auivily In men- film-u cumidtfitiflm in M

i

d hmune c-l' tht

siglfificanct nfbnm cultural influence and md'windual Elwin. The [Dimfliiuncut a!" ntadauical mail“ In “flaming crawling. induding all helping bd'lmriur. in [In-m: Inf flH-hllnut in hard In jull'lfir mnccpmifly

nr empirically. EEEipru-Eit'fi' dues nut alt-taunt Fur haw mull adult: canctir'I-‘t 13E what prom-tin} antiviur : 1 d h: at mun ht- In man, I": than an: 1:: III: my again-1 Haul-i predin—unlen the idea uf-EEu-ilm “u expanded

II: III:paint that it im'ludfl everything and thus can EIEFIET he dilpmved. From that ptnptctiut af must H'I'iltl'l who haw addrtucd the lupin. [he Elilillll'llil‘ m nminm Inf altruinn ride: D-l' falla- Im flu.- Itltul {1F :gnimn: Ih: [Ira {'IDI'IEEPIE- are defined an as in he recipmmllf "Jailed. lagitafly. iFw-c act pmudally. and if it cam-m III-E d-cmnnslrattd that w: did ill fur “ I f - m ;rum. cm: maulr [while that we FT-Dbiblf did

malnuistififly—atltulifitisrunttdctEUEIfliflflfln neednmberelend Fm- pmili'i'tl'f IdF-dcnying am. A: a Lawyer might put it, the burden Inf prunf TEIL'li Equally an the pray-fluent: of eguilm and IllTlli-lil'fl:

the lam: mdms nu greatrr rrspumihfliw to prune her case. If human: car: and hclp fi'cqucnflr, and in m Hurting wary early in lift. then m: have what might be filled a prim: facil- I'Eilfll‘l m IIILIII'IE that much behavinrmramnacflywhatituflmmmtheanmrfiflvmfl ahnut and ”ch 1:: hip [ht Glhfl. The Iil’lIPI-l'l-l my tn mlidatr this in jult In all the pawn pcrfunning the Financial activity- [Must 5min] psychuflngy research at" the tapil: nut an]? tuludu m uncamplimlcd an approach but duct-Wu: :uhjttu by telling lhlfll'l that Inmflhing Eli-IE altugeflie‘r i: being studied.) Naturally

it is. pmsihlc that an hidividuai is Emmi {If his Inn: mufiws ur in dtlibtfllfl'l'f min-muting Lhm. But that i: Int-ply mm: “Juan.- in

Ill-firing I'hifl peflple In“: In In; an the Inhjlrl Inf I'll}? they derided In help. Hanqrfiincnbcrgmdfiymhiaflfiitmllhhnpprmchwflhagmup of whim: Him "fined unlit-h tn Inr I'D flutter lhtm: Fuur- and flu:fflr-nlds. A rut-archer [flawed ll]: children armlnd LhEir prmhml and Wild'ltd I'D-r unpmmprltd .IE'lI nl' sharing. helping. m- cnmfnfling. Whtn

such in act was aim-wed, Iht child was Hit-d why ht LTI' lihl: did it I.“Hmnr

mm: Tau gain: that mjnlrmPTI and Ill-E arm-rm mm aunt-d imn gran-:1 [Itigflf‘ifl nf expluulinm Hal um.- nf [ht children mad: refit-mutt In 111:

demdsul‘auflwriw figure: nurturifear ufhtmgpuniflwd fur failing tn

25a

HID-LII HE TIE} THU Tfl U5

[nip.Vcrr [cw nidlheyflpflted mhemfiflnanmtwaybyhflpingnr [hi] they acted m I'EEE'i'I'E minis] Ippmvn]. Thu,- mmt frequent unplann-

linm referred either In prignufit (mammal) ran-3mm err 11: the sin-pl:

fan that that child they helped had m

uh: help [for example, "Hc':

hungry'“,l,“ Thin, ni' emu-ac. in flu: can: at" altruism. In his nummmh Hudy' nf bland (lunar: {p. SEE-Einfifl‘}. lidurd

'I'imrlusa+ mu. naked why pcfllpl-E had and lb: way Hwy {Iii Hm: laid mmfllfing Ila-nut hiring eithtr a filmy.r war I flair: tn help when. ur till-Ed

album hunting in express gmdtude fur being in grand health ur fur having remind sum-rune e156: bland in flu: pal-L [July 1.15 ptrcml 11f Lht damn laid Ihc'ljur I‘m haying In rat-rein Innu- benefit From dimming. “Imam

ewhmizu that aim-Ht nil respunderfls "empluyed a mural mhuhrr" and that far mm»: “the unfit-r5: Willi nut limitcd and cunfintd m- {hfl family. HIE khuhip. m In a drfimd Infill. Ed'lllil: m- uccupatiurul grimy fl-l' clan; it was the withers-I1 lfl‘iflfl'fl'" they fished m help." Enmfim pumpk- du mart 111ml. bring a maid: In a playmalenr pm with a pinl nl' bland. and dnnuti: act: at" htlping nr ffltfliflE—flrltfl ptrl'urnwd. il wauld mm. unlit-m all-1" lil'fll': :I-‘nr caltulalinn—art fur 1111121111].r Explaimd in the [51111. undmmfiu linguagt uf pun! aluuiam. Cunnidcr : {cw clamplu m “I'm-Id War II. whirl: ranted qunlium a! gnu-dun: and mril m the uni-mt. Philip Halli-.- inmtigalrd d1: FrEfldl

village if L: Chflflhbfln, “hill-II: minim“ agrecd m hid-EJEHI dupiu: Ih: alumnus riglu thil humhed. Hm in his Emlil'ill mnrlmiun: I f “ Huddmldtmmdflugnmhmttmhtppcmdinltflhmhm.wtmmt

ifl: haw m5}- il‘ was far mm In rcfim: m givi- up flwir mmdrnm. m rut-fuss:- In participle in hair-ti betray-IL and murder. and In Ill-El]:- I'h-I! dcsprnt: adults. and

the unified :hildrm will: Wed an il'wir Ida-um. . . . W: l'iil In unaand what happened in LI: flumbun if w: thin}. lhalfimr flur- tlteil minim wrrc: :umplnr and dim-mil. . . . The flumhrmnai: IhinL than 1hry think Ethan: it :I all. Ilm her

in: Ill I11: 51:: level ul' human darn-1H1. If ynu imisl upnn din-Ann; thtr mailer, they iiil tell 1mm that fl'Ifl' :rt nut I'll-Drill? hatter Ihan fll‘lffll‘fl.‘ I'll-E. . . . Um “if

uijudgmg [ht Chamhmmais is their Hay—with a shrug all" [ht 5 - t and II“.qua-Minn: "Wt“. when: that mtfld II'InI gun? I Inc] In uh1 ' t I'II'I.“'“I

What the stakes are highest. the explanation i: lilflPlEliL The help-

:rs (In nm see. thnnwlvea 3|!- EEIFifltfl'Esl-Ed an die an: hand. 91' as hernia: an the uthcrnfland pa'utesminm album ILhI: lauer tardy mund like fall: unduly. 11w“ 11mph typically fl]? that {hey IiII'IPIjI' did what had II: he dam. may answer-ad a mil+ Hwy nude the chitin: choice. than: mpImudthil Ian-tin H a m Hiflchhwflclrrfldumaflcgmym

ALTEUISH W

H!

thtflnzimmpalinnuancmfliaflnlicuxwmhlirrlqywflhth: phflue'lvicthmJflthgchwfluithflimhlflflLhmmimmi muu-nf-fanlir: lhtuflufl‘umflqmflflflflmmflflfimhr hmmlliflfl'miIIMWfiflflflflrflfl-flfllfiflffldmfi.”-Tllfi'l “aqua-Elfin“afhfiuiminiflthil.ll'almallnnfmmmundflmn.lwlidi]

multimindu'mlmyjuh””Hemlimuulmnifidnn'tnfllfqlpfllmmJ inflammiufluflm'ubehgam"

The [nil-mm, in undying indifithul men nfjfll, [nunfl anally the fill“: thing. Frum mm: uflheir infamant: dry heard: “I did 110!t unusual: any-ant Haul-d have dune 111: same- thing in my place" and "I insist on Elfin: flux it WEI Ihanluttly natural tn In“! dun: Ibis" In! “I feel thal I III-I'll? Iiid my duty. I am mt : b.9111!"Ml Funhc-rmnrt. 1h: fllinln’ study cumin: [“t- inflimlium that much III-[Ill]! rescuing was genumcly Mir—tic, 11H: tall: are Hm high. fur Imam ind the m : inactivity “ELIE"? mutinued fi'um twu In five fem. Hare than halfnhh: r u m fdl that. EVE—“El th: first an at" helping was HM]? I'imlq.r m lhcl'llltl'l'fl and their family. (In mm:- mu. the mime-n Hell IE1“ their mm :hiIe-n

my in: they Haul-ti not share the riIILJ Llsuuallhir there had been nu prim personal mnmflinn m [ht fictimm: mar: thanflfl pun-n: hclpcd :1 Inn-u: an: mmpiflt “1:115:12 I"l1|'Il'mernlunlnflt.r 351mm the victim: WEI'IE' [mm In nutfuup. wide-Ir drmistd at thr: time. Hi the dechiun to hip fllfl'l'n mum he diminud a: a use n-f [taunting Ififl' ant'a awn. The: minim: mere all-u. will: Few turptium. in nu putitiun In cump-rnutt I11: runner:

ur mum tht favur. Id- recipratity prfluuuhlr Hal nun tame-Inflated II

a punih-ifity. Panicuhdyhlpmnhtilflwfinthnmrumhfl t h e m In amid rrapnnlihiliw far 111: victim: while lust-ping Ihtir tmucinhcn (1:31. Had Lhtir mnljvalifln balm truly In In! gum! :hflul drum-u mIn escape gum. flirty fluid nut have hut-Hm whim thejm with were living with them tamidfird taming dwmsulm in or runn'mg am far Vuiuua mm. Yet that? did inlcrfifl't. refining In HIIrIJ'H 111m: in their mun-d1 mfiatflwh'fimflmthaugh Ihi: umnld Mirth-uh: m m [ht-Men DE “IE hunk." UVEfiIL Hen [II-I: Inuit doch'iluirl: figflii‘l Huddhthardpulmdmythcallnliflnalwnrhhflt But i: in mm: plmihle m Itfifllflfl I'm- IH'diIIIIIT helping a: I cal-

tIJl-‘lled hid I'm Inch] :pprmral mamm.a: nun]? quilts inlisl is the :mP'Thiiinunduuhcdlrmqm-m: mphhcludinglhmwhm

232

FIDHLETDTDUTDUS

mafihcirmwurfllitupcn’aflydepemtmmhfls'jlflgmm But in Ihch' study if Emma. Efi‘il'l. Snub and a $111t fmmd I ligniflmm nagufllu Ithfinn h-E'I'HI'IEED need fur Ipffl'fl'lu'fl] and simple 1hr. ins. mggufing that at hut 111i: prom-d3! brhafiur ‘u nut mntivattd by

:- “E!!! In iJIlPI'EI-E mhtra." Causidct aim an cart]! nutty uf mdergrathlale 11131:: by m m BerinwiuInd Innis: E.D:nicl1in which each subjen multidmplifflwrnleuflwrktrmdcumnuflpapflhnlflmflfl

1h: fl‘IIiEhIIJEE Hf III LII'HEEEI supervis-Dr. Than: whu Hm mld their perfnmanct would afl'm how th: suptnrilm' was walnut-d1|:e an: mare

hunt—regardless ufwhezlher lil'lE‘f had hflffl ltd In think the superv'iam' wusningtuheaflmuthnwprodmfiwtherfihcemn undtr cmditium nl' iflflflffllifi". in (1-1.t watch. pimple arm-had hil'dfl’ imply in

unlin- tn hcncfit mutant- uhum thin-3' had fl-H'Ef min.“ 5:} l':|: 'u far rimr act: at helping cunnilin- [hf 11mm. I am eating : mmflltamepfinnand mummmu uplnmwilhanapkin. ”If it': in ninth! a: min: Han, ruu'il nttd this." be may; simply. flaw in ii

Fumble he and so u m “wry.r fan: with me nr huprm me with his Ihuughtfilh'lfls Eutinlhtabmmnfflidtnteinlhhdiflfliflmlsflm

mm nm In mgr-1 h'u iclian a: Era-unim- helping. And i1 i1 grammdad

uni an a rule that Uni: 511d flirt Napkin: m I'mpl: with Sweet Hull:— ur turn that. flu: ShmIJd Eu: Hit-f: In Pmplt. It i5 gmundtd in ptflpfifii“: liking. ll ii udwr-miflnled and :lnigtaIr-d and unch'amitic. I1 '1: the

uppuflteflegucmlfimfindhhthchshunwhich Inhdldzhum mania. 'I'he EEDi-ll may rtjuin that Ila: reward: and purtilhmmu mmivuing pmial behiviur haw: been htflnalized: people help just m Eel planed with themselves nr tn amid guilt. And nut: again we named:

than this annual; describfl ill kill IDIIIE pan 41f [ht malintinn of all Iml mpcuphflmcanitmullynphinaflprmodalbdflfiurmhmuf alu'uilm?

Mmmwfilmwhahefimwmnflflmrurcm. 111:1 Hem unl'y imp: tum-threat 11min: when: aimliam i: shawl: II: he no- In: plamihle than again. after which each 151‘ u: in an hi: arm n:am'ihut: either [native {ur mane mmhinilinn} In a given incl: u-f helping.

Afltr fll. Hen III: In: almu'u may ftel plead after having hetpcd. Her planar: ml. by dtfifliliD-II. nut I'JH: rum-nu fur htlping, but hm:- till we EFE'I‘ distinguish between plfllun! thal fullnw: fnJm teaching I 1 : t guaJandpl-tasurethalfl magnififlanypmpltargueflmfl mutant! Ihitflwnimtafgemfimflmfilmmmrhtdrmn-

ALIJ'HUIEH EEG-Hm

23!

Dmflaunndnunmslunrdlilfirmflthulptntmfluna dead: in his. Unit'tnlity uf' Kama: labm'alnry Ertaljl'lg artificial liluatimu “in which um: puma i1 murmured with I.“ nppuflunflr In htlp anuther perceive-d m be 'm med" and intrudiflring "changes in 1h: situaliun— manipuhtiutat cnahlt Lu lfiltmatjcafly in dhcmangll: the “damnIhip hen-mm dim-rem potential ultimate gull: 11f helping. ' H m flu: W t : experimental dfiiflns—wl'lich are depending an une' a per-ape:Liv: tithtr'Ingminua or mnlriwd—Batmn has altc-mptcd In ruin: am an: {guislir hypmhtsi: after :11t and IE1! whtlhtr prnmciill hehafiur may nut. It lean fur mm:- peuplc. milieu I mmhimtirun of sympathy and Pflspttli'l't taking. For suhjtns when rap-anti in thia way 1::- annthcr'a distress—either apnnlamrnusty ur I! : renflt an!" experimental iJ'Jltl'IIIL'tiIflIn‘IF —genuine altruism may paw-ride the w t emnumital explanatiun crf why thty hriptd. An}- tEfilI. mafianal at albumin. that [hut pmpk mighl realize are “nm. the gual [If helping". 1hr}: art nil-11]:II1_|.r emutqufimm at" helping . . . because the ultimaie gun] is m i n m tht ulhtr's Win-flirt. uni [their] :mnfifl

Tn denim-Infill: thl: Flamihilitr In" this hwnthmih Baum: lint hid H} mm:- m grip: with the argument that pram-rial h-chavim is nmtivalcd by Etc-thing Inflfl!‘ inspiring man an lllE'lllPl m rcducr flflE'l awn firm-inn:

Gianna. 3mm: yuu an! in paim I am in pain; I want nm In h:- iu pain. m l help Emu. Thu: awry is mld. fur innincr. nl' haw 111a Hun-11hr: mm: gm: money In abeggar and tlplaintd In a surpriseduhmr that h: was

rim-fly trying m I'tlifil'fl hi: mm diurtn in "tin; L11:- W E distmi.“ fl'lfl: gmup nl' rmrthm. pmpflshlg that w: mm: H: the aid nf Him in emergtndea uni}: In rut-duct nur awn madam] mull], um: explicitly

11131 "tht mjar Inuit-flint: 'nnplicd in 111: Ina-dc] in um I pmiliI'E 'alu-uislint“ {In-t. hm. rather a selfish tic-lire to rid [Ill-ESE" nf an unpleasant emuljnnal llflt."w

Haw thm is, nu qufiIiu-n that dismay—by definitiun an unpleasant

mumn Ihat an: is inclined m tn: In EEEEPE—Dfiflfl Ill-DEE attend exp-asure in alum-tun: EIIE'! plight- What we “[11In ash is whflhtr this i: the

ME [Hpflflflt mu- cus“ have. Bra-1h Hanan and Ham Eimnh-erg have [flied apart diatrtss and sympalhy {which Bitmn calla empathy]. III-DH-

ing that than: a qualitatiw: difl'trcnn: ban-wen [ct-ling min-I: Inn-r apprb hmivt. an the an: hand. and and m- cummri an the [Eh-Er. {Bataan "Bilin-n IZ'IHfi-I'I'I-[II llul Iuhjnru in tha- I'igh empathy minim ut'llil. flpfl'i-thrflll tun-I mmpfltmdhglfiflflmflflflnrmlHEWIMHIp-mificdtuagfim

litmiufl mpfllhkflly filth-um in'p' prumpllng [aa- I'nrauurtd 11:1.r qua-liumuirfl} ur 'lui'tl'l!

indutfil IE but unpillm' by: man: nefan Inilnu'liun In m: In imagine hm 1h:- I'ifl'uu flush.

EH

WHETGYDUTDUS

I‘m: dun: In Ilfl'uugh Finn-r Inllflil and npcfimnnfl mnipulalim:“ Eiunhtrgfluuughammhhutinnnfnlhepandmmdmflwhufflffll flprtfliflfl and heart ”ml" Given lhil.‘ Itif-nfimcd 11'“q m be disthlguished fmm [Illinurientcd mncfim Baum nut had In aim-w that. the Ian-H was mare thin jun: 1 ! : t 'mlpctu: m ”cap: ”Milling unpleasant. Ht diad mil by dgmumlnllhlg that the penpk her [all] empathic in: jun. 11 lihlelfl.r In help even if the experimenm design all-nus them In reducc their diureu easily by limping fl‘fll'fl flu: unfit-ring vitlim. In an: al‘ hi: flfl'f sludiu. [hut "all numbing m Imp mldenu fmm lil'flpl'f‘ ignnring a written awn] m httpaicniurwhmeparmuhadbtenkfllcdinawatcflrm,fiulit mud dual high-cmpamy students were um immamfl primarily in relifl'infl thcir awn dim-us: I'll-E? Hint-Ed to help t- fall“! H'fl-Iflll'l and that? agreed m da- m althuugh lht'f mukl haw.- simply Ht [ht run-mi” A sec-and mmltflatinn Inf legalistic account; prupmfl Ihal people helpinurdtrmgainartwarduramidapumshmml.flen ink-titan: 'nmn-rlmll'gpr Emmi-rd. Again. this ItEElfl plausihlt a: far a it gm, but Balmnha: Lried [unhnw that El dun-El nut 3:11:11- Imnugh In Explainall instance: ul'helping behavinr. Ha.- mm-d that a help-EH: run-ding m Fed mm“? responsible fur aunt-flailing a Hinim'a distress wnuhi pm“! she in: mmiulcd by a med fur appmval at human! reward. Thcrtfnrt, if IJ'IE' feelljult :5 pleased when Ifl-IflE-DIIE E'lfl-E HEP! in In htlp. 5h: Illa].r um have hem intemtcd in taking credit heme-lat" Fur being a Tflmfl' bu! an]? in math; aura lhal the victim's dismal wan relifled—an altruistic umIju. In an: fllldjl'. Batman mid his IuhjtcL-I that by pnfnrming “Hi II a talk inmlving numb-tn. 111:1 might but able In help mun-fin: clu- (whim: mice Hwy 113d Ill-3rd} awn-id mild but unpltannl alum: shacks. A

link 13:11:17. mun: whit-cu wru- infnrmed thm the mhtr Pfl'lfl-n wmfld nut he rut-Mn::hutks :flcr all. 111nm:- whn hid scar-rd high an I quatiunv mitt-based mmur: nf empathic rflpum In this uthcr's plight did repun 1 "mt: pfliilitrl mac-d if Lb:- athtr': shack: Heu- amidti but than: who were mspunsible far this raprirw we": nu happifl than mm: Hhfi lmrncd thal, flu,- ulhu' uuhjcct had barn glared amp-curd}? “trough nu

scrim nf their meal“

But what about HIE idta [hill 1W: htlp simply in fll‘d-fl m amid guilt? In 31:! lflfllhtt slutty. Bats-nu dccidrd In rural: it can]: fur subjcctl In air-fluid helping by requiring Ihflrl u:- put il- nm in nrdtr h: quailfir an a htlp-tr. If [ha-f were tuld in idVil'IL'E that maul ptuplt [fluid nm p315 1h: lfll. I‘ht suhjmn whn 'Iffllllflltfltdjufl Lu Haw.- nfl guilt Feeling: prumnahly muld junify ailing it and thm nut htlping: in Ha: mt Hui:- EaulL If. I'I-D'li'fltl'.

ALTHU'IEH W

235

lhtr madcamiuuudfnrt mmmwhmgiummmLfl-umfigumd

tr

were It‘ll]? il‘IIH‘E'l-lfl'd in helping the victim. flu predicted. "Providing

jutifiratiun fur nu! hclping . . . had a dramatir till-ct an [ht hflpilrg of law-empathy ulhjectu; it had lilflf: EE-EEI‘. an the helping Inf high-empathy subjects. ..[WhichillpfflilflYWIHtWtwflflHflpfllif...fflflflfl m In have [hit Ifll'llluath].r for the perm-n in raised flaked EJIIuiEtit m penan‘s nut-rd rtducc—i"'“ Mlhnugh hath arm W “ are mmilum with 1hr pmihilitf of Ital almJIm. “Pith-El" nfl'm an airtight prmf. In [ht fifll fl-Ilt... it h

pfllliblt that Ill-r.“ luhjtm Wham-l: mun-d irnpmvcd after HIE 1I.I'iu::ti1:l:| I'll helped by a third Flam:r were min“? plflfld. all Iran. in pan. m :Inf M m m fl w Inhelpflmlhmrghflwynnngmdwthmmjht prank: (if the mud 1111-15! i: 3.1m suspcn: Pimple mufivalcd In help Imminentr in urdcr In mid guilt might um In fl‘ltmmlm flfflht haul: u:-

will}: they might "I!“ expect to far] had far [ailing In In! hard to pan: flu! qualifying LIL-st. Thu: idea that guilhmmirvittd suhj-ccu muld hail null with : t‘lE'flJ‘ conscience suggest: a failure In mugnhe the depth and rang: 13f HIE—pummmnt. {[311 Lb: nlher hand. Bataan did indfltl find that law-empathy subjetu made In: uf an alibi! than Iuigl't-I-J-m[marlinr :ulh

junIn qualify tn hcip whtn mid flu.- tflt mu diflinflt—fltfl in. “in!“ film an my mil—dun when laid [ht its: war. simple.) A very aptcific and mphistjmtni challenge In Ham‘s tfllflli'll't rel:tut HF aJtnIrhm has hurt-n mad: by Ruben Ehldini Hi: mntmtiun is that EH11 empathic individuals htlp mhm may m "I'm-re thcir m ladlltfl. whirJ: is canard by the umcn' plighL' If difimm mean: If! Hard m imprmt tht tun-ml nl' an tmpalhit pfiIfl-fl. h: m- ah: will no lunger he mun: helpful than anynnt the—luggcsling that ptmnfll gntificitim Ind nut gmuin: allm'um “El behind 1h: Financial behavimfl"

Hulk:- Lhal Batman Ind Einldini art in agrecmtnt that mpaflljr lead: to banana-d Taping. thfll [ht empalhit pfl‘lfln I'tcls sad Lip-fin mtflllntfl" in; mutant Eli-E in diam. and that 111E saints: pruhably will he :15

duct-d 3.l htlping 11m whim Thu? ditfl'trence is that Bataan insist: that flit gala] nf htlping is altmiw‘n: far “It“: tmpadiic indifidmh. Beg-rand the specific mellmdnlugifl] uiticilml II: has HIE-rand [If Ciildini': him

Imdyflfl hi1: mun-thud has ham to ll'lfl'h' that,m mm Childini‘: multh ‘flthianfldydflfinnfiundtnniwmhmmhmmim Ibuflnflifld'liilnnl dahinlhfltlhmhtlpuflinlmhtfimrndmfifimkMrifipLHEm

dullhqmy FrdnnlnfllmbuluyIIMTh-rlppriumflruimufmhamtn-n mud. Ahmthrmmdmhuwhmidmlhlwflumnrflntm-flffim

I-IJIIIIHI'I'II'II mun-fl-

EH

FIDH HE Tl“) 'h'flU TC! US-

empalhic imlividml: do nu help has just because they tip-cm II: have Ilhtir Inn-ad enhanced by fllhtl' mm {in this cm, by “Elihu; an enjoy-

ahlt widen]. Em. again. this i: true ufll‘f ul' subjects whu I‘flpflfld limp-minitill'y tn nufltfing. Fur nthtn. helping dfl-E'l .iIIdfiEd. appear tn- h-c mutinltd at 1:131 partly by a dain- tu impruvt Lhtir an Email“

Several nadir: h’f tum mher group: of remix-rs. all: publinhed in I'Elfl-‘El. mm In subalanlint th: filth-I that a: lean sum: I'lflpfl'l an: genufinely iilmilfit. Th: Em [If Ihnt. candun-Ed by David Schrnfllrnjulm Duvidim and their mlleagues. is nmwanhr because thnr did nut expect In mnfirm Batman's tmpafl'ly-allmism hyputlmais. Euhjuru “rm gin-1m a pill Ihal wudencribedm lama: I platthflandtnmhcflaihafing lht rfl'en {If fixing in plan: Whilfil'fl' mun-Dd a PEfi-fll'l ha: upnn taking il.

{Presumably nu currelaljnn uiau hflwecn mpalhr and gullihila't'f.) The munch-En H i m tint empathic individual: Wuuld be In: likab- In help if they thuught htlping cuuld marl EHE‘i'iflEE their ifldflfll because {If the drug, In fam Lhclllfl'l'h flier: Hm nu significant difl'crenrfl hen-rm the plan-bu and Inland-lining cmditium. Thrall: I'Il'ltflfl- auppartcd the altmism hrpmhflia: subjects apparently Hm nut uttering h:- hclp jun tn chm LhErmsclm up.“Ill Th: nflmr l-E'fifl 0|" Huclifl. mnduclfll by Nancy fistula-erg and her mhtfl. "u uFinIm-u lat-tau“ it 'u :pparrmly the I‘m: In distinguish bummer] aliruisiil: {m- m least sympathetic] and [manual-fining: [natives in atmunting I'm the pram-tin! bthauinr nl’ childrcn. Dp-crntiumlifing : distinnim bEl'H'E'EI'I sympathetic and ail-[Tell I'Eifliflnfl in luddlm “III! nun

my [cat ailme- qunfiummirc-hased mflhnd: an: ill-humus]? impmclkal, In mu amdiu. Eimaherg’n gruup had sham that hut-an ran.- ancient“ in

Winn In an anxiety-producing stimulus and dflElEfitEi 'm reap-uni: m a Hilnulm I'll'pfll'ltd m pmduc: :adness cur calla-m: m difitrent pal;Ienu usually malched facial reacliunl. although it was nu: clear whHhL-r

the latttr resp-nnse muld he described as irrlllirueh.r atheriuritntedflfl Having laid 111i: granndwmk fur [ht idta [hm sympaflmin: minim-n5 [in not culhpu intn mm {lumen—and Marc Lhal it is punihle that mm: children‘s pram: imam. lib:- mml: adului may pmptrly ht described a dualism—Ember: then tried In replicate Balm': lindingn with [nur- and. Eur-rm-nldli The children 'II'E'I'E lhfl'h'fl vidmlapfl

of mint d1ildr¢n being injured an a plammund. Adult: judged whflhtr IE: facial Expmsinn: and 3:1!!q uf the falling viewer: wen! sad and

mm‘lfi'fl m- imic-u: andilPlH'thEMi'I-I't. [I'M-r:- m lilti:pmbttm d'utinI'fliihil'lfl' WEE-E111 Pram distrfls: mien—11H reliabililifl um .53 and .95.

wait-elf.) Tm days 1:11:11. filth dlild mu givm a my and left in 3 mm

ALTIUIEH m

25'!

uithmnthtrchifl " 1 3 ] : q unlinghnwwillinghrurlhe Hum shin:1e my bmh lpflflflntfluflf ind “panmm. It tum-rd nut that the dfildrmwhnhadreacmd wilhmnctmm mtfihnwmmmurlikttym

dict thr: tu'gr mlunflrfly [campinhk m Bauml': inf-MHZ! candiljun}. while [hau- whn had reacted with dhu'ul m

milk-Hy tn Ihare mien

the? war: mull"

Hanyuhhminmtiglfiummquitt difliu'mt Eta-mun: windmill tum: nt‘ haw empilhf is define-d and mam-HI {and whuhtr it i: m u mpnmiv: In a Particular silualjnn m- a: reflecting an enduring mi].

hull-r Fruit-rial hdfl‘l‘ifll‘ i: cmstmd. whim tan-hm fill ht mnnridtrtd In be filled nut, and m an. The flip-uni?! finding! Ill-D vary dcpmding {In which mini-:3] [can an: perfumed an Ll'u: data. and mm: candida!!!

In: higher than min-fl. Ant-that impmum “mun it whuhn pmficial ninja-n means helping in an w r y ur MIL-rim iilualiun. {Bil-

mn and his :uflcagmts haw: m

for trample. lhll a gtnuindy 311mb-

Lil: mnliiriliun In help immune irhfl i: run in dillm: may dcpntd m: 111E“: being a preexisting emnlinual EDIIHEEIifl-fl hrtwcen [ht lift: indifiduahJW mulling Clark's. dininclinn bum :mnmuml Md :1chang: relatiunihipl.) flfldm intern-ltd in [running Eh: mflhodaiugii

cal fine pnims and fiurdm qualificatium {if the research W t d here an urgtd m cumull IIH! smdiu ll'ltll'lfll‘fi'fl. Even if emplihir: ur sympathetic individuals I“! Elfin-d. likely tn huh:

fur altruistic reams. this dare-.5 nut mean that scintere-sl; mmm: vanish. Elm-n nun: that Ill-IE1! may still "pcrfonn : rdmivtrh-entfit analyii: huffin- acting" and that their {mpadlf-hued alumni: can be "easily muhtd by men-Hing eguisliac mums?“ And, indeed. In any that H: can Itlfl'ld m [and be Mflfimifld by] the and at' anathu in nm In My dill WE [In nut Illlfl attend In nu: nun needs—fir that we Ihuuld nm flu In. The pruhlem with til-emit: ufmmivatiun based an leif-illtcmt is MI 111:: they art film but [fill 111:? an: nnly partly that. Thu-1y tannin jun

mnugh that inward: plausilfle t1:- Pfllufldfl' u: that we have hard tho: win-ult- slurry Hhtl'l m: haw: ML Whtn Marian are PIE'fl-Ed In Mend flit-fir ega‘um in thr fact ul':Hurld full a! 11mph whn an [a benefit when. tiny

merely embeliilh the egnillir theory. In the Wilhthl' apt mtaphm'. HIE! an: Either lit: premium: awn-m tdtd to the idea 111:! thufilth in 11::- mm ul‘ the naive-Ht. 'lll'hn Wmuflmmdmd'*epindfl"m:mlfurflumm filhuutgiuingqrflugmmutmumpflm...hnamwmaffllfhluid

mhludumrfluffllmfiufimmdhthaflm..lnnd}uh¢nrwrdmphfiiul

ESE

FIDHHETDTDUTDUE

flmflmfimmtumlnlmflflmurlm'fl-mhmlufifihflm

Illflmlulnfi pufiltdflh-rinfimt" What in true nfplyrhnlngim il. nl'cnunc. eqmlljr true alhiulnghu and mumhu. David Ballard. H1 m i s t . mm that w: regularly giw: gifts. damn: bland. help ulclinu nl' natural disasters, pay nut mm mflamfilictfurfumfl mm.hfldthcltatu.htmnfldfi.

mid; will: innmhuhnpfilu'nedinurnuui‘aflfW Butlhtmnfllhflt in: muh'qy. Ind-1hr mn- illliriIEIlt'Ih-E nphnuinm. dupe-uni: lhI: [unpuliun m milk: in: {Iran wrap and abandm :tlf-inltrnl u i flfli'flfl-‘il immpl'mn. Indeed, dun: i: mud: in he laid fur making numulfilhnru tin.- g-Imunl cm. . . . In udwrwnrdi it maynmr he appmpriate In turn the usual argument unit-I

had: it i: nun-I dill. ulfinh nun wmctinwn apprai- tn hut-haw: unflflnhlj'. but than Il'll-E'Irfll'l men mun-lime: app-Hr m huh“: selfilhlffiu

If the liner l'm'mulatiun Ifll'fll imphulihlt L'fl‘ ll: lull impunible In

prime. m} In: an be said {If its uppmilm du- mmrd that Idfishne-Iu is “It nauu'al 113:: of hmnanhind. The “riding mmplcxiw nl' human his[arr can but arranged m a: In acmnmmdalc an].r number ul‘dimreliml can-strum: tilt-d selectively. alums! amr feature an Inve- thu: gruund

and hEflJlflE Iht' figure. 111.1: we mam: m 541-: lflf-ilfl-fl'fll 35 1h: urgin-

nifing principle {If nur HIE-cit! may: I! mud! ihnrul flu: inlcruu ul' [ht it'll-1T a: 1|}q the tutu".- al' the vine-wed. W'I'Itlhtr an: acmpu 111:: 111: Hidfflfl! and argumcnu ruin-red in IE1: chapter supp-art Enflard': cunImtiun thin namelfishnfin i: 111:- gtntral can. 11'q nut-I39 mint-n51: the cynical mmpmitiun Ihal all [If [H.Il' finer meant-nu In: unljr In mam.r dis-

play: ui' clmrlay W nltruiun in real.

Idliulmm By any w h i t standard.

9 Beycmd Altruism H‘hflflflflflfiuflisflhflflumfiqmm barman-III: jfllfliflhflfinflfiwm 1'a ligMIfMIJH-ifln'. jusfl'uwuflmflmflinmflmflffiunflhfi Mathifumh mum mum}

UPTDUI'J Hiring timpliflud the hm: nl' pram-Mia] mn-timiun by setting up a palm it}r {If eguism and altruism. I now want in cumpliralt nutter: unrr again. II“ the paint ii In challenge the ear-aims by arguing far the EIiElE'I'HZE (If nun-snif-imt-rcamd activity. it is suificitm tn mnl'm: tin: dimsinn In the-u turn ahrmativrs. But if we want a finer TElflhll'ifl-fl. :1 man.- deiaiJL-d ant-mum uf htlping hehafinr, it hut-mm Here-Mary m admit than: can that Ii;- bclwcm and hayund the uhfium manila-Hide; Whit an: we u:

make. fur example. ufprflpl-E whiz! latrififl: [hr the hemfil {If their familiml at far mm: 01hr: gmup a!" which me?- feel a pan? HtithL-r egg-ism. nu: altruiam Hull: a-dtquau' m 311mm fur [hi3 sun of thing. II ii Iml agaim

because. while grimy identification can have 111": firm of benefiting the: “If. Jul-rally m a Eflfllfl'flififi' ufttn hue-came: a fi'flfll in its awn right. [In th: lather hand. it dun-.5 nm 5mm quit: EDHEIC'I m reduce thin gmup identifi-

catinn m aluuiam timer—«mks: altruiflm i: defined as :nphing mint than eguhm. {It is fit“ Its: apprapriatt m- hlame the damn-mm nl' inwrgruup conflict an an new nl' altruism a: 511m: written haw: dun-L]. Let u: 5H Iii-[IE grow iJIttrnctiml and ill-D- nnnpmmciil Hfifil‘f in DHIEI' m mncentraw slut-Bi}! an a m:- in which on: puma hflp: anuthcr. II' I hrlp fun, it is pnuihlt In identify [bur annual: ul- whmn I in:

intending m burn-flit by 111i: art.Mmififlififlmy be dEflfl-I'Ed by d1: fnfluwing shunhand; t i } Int. [21 m: beam: at" yen-u. (3:: you, and H} us. SIIJrianrfll'lil tram. cm]? III-IE :Ifini mlimm Fur: fluvhm.‘ but :- carcfill

Ell-fl

FED-H HE TD TDD TD U5

“came-n1 uf thl: limit: (If paychulugksj quilm rflfuifl: thal if: under— stand altruism in flit mutant m“ that: dun-hr related Ila-111mm. The intruductiun (If w: ill a pain: nf raft-rum: radically FETISH flu: Emir: diicussiun and will ht tl'H: muchunne Fur the mmainder at th: chaptcr. ] ash-mild begin by implanting Ihil firm with this {at any} attempt In nun nu! tht I'm-inn: mutives fur pmmcia] behaviur. ILI'IHE an: bound m but may cam. Real prep]: dun um nhligt u: by naming m a m imn 'll'IE' right bust. A given individual may, depending an h-El' lfllfl' and litlII-r

flan. be mut'rvmtd by any nl" than mmidmlinn: ar by I-EII‘I'H:mmbhmiun

afflm and shtmaybemm: mar: mpuusivntuuntflranflthfl umfivt m

than."

Mr 11mm:- anf umber cider—cut balance: nfhelpingin wlich Ill-E math: is. atria-u!!! HIP-gain. In such much Lh: pros-nth] an i: nut regard-Ed as inl'J'inIiIL'iIl].r valuable but in “anII E ll-‘IEIHI In mm: Pfl'l'l'flfli]

rewardi such 3:!- mun-2y. praise. pmtige. m' a greater likelilmnd uf being helpcd in mlurra. While I haw: argutd :mnuuufly that {hi1 cup-lamlinn

tannin! adcquatelf :ccuunt For all pmuchl hthuinr. it i: impnrllnt In “tumult-d5:- that it dill-El fit mm.

SEE-imam”. is Hen mun.- dtafly tied In [II-E idea ul‘mapmtim: with mar-L- than an: nthtr Pfl'lfll'l. In a mcittr flu! narrate-n mmp-etitian and mliunr efl'nrt. the suggesticm tint we nughl m watt Iflfitd’ltr is rtgarded a: 1:5t rtffl-shingly humanistic ur suspiciuuily urn-American. The fact that writer: whu paint nut flu: aduanmgu nf :uupnratian Ir.- ltlthfl'l. managers. and puliq' makers are alien men a: radicals ur visiutlafifl fl'fl mart abaut uur Malian m harm-w individualinm than it. {In-cs all-um cunpwatinn itu-IF. The liII'IPIE trulh ii ti mm: PI‘IJFIDflEnl-l uFleamw-uri

Emphasize—and must participant: Hakim—it: IIIEI'IE'fitl In each individual Hh-n lilac: pm‘l. "flu-aperativ: bchavinrs Haditiannallr haw: lat-tn dtfinfll mar: in term: [If mnmquencfl fur the I-El‘f than the nth-H. that ii. a:

cunrdinating nne': hehafinr with that afanmher in firmIt: achieve une': anal." Evrn Hflhhfl was tumthlly mmmtnding I map-tram: mh-Ilinn In the 111ml {If anarchic vialrnct: 11mm w: shan- an intern! in peace. we {in mud shnuld agrce m abide by the 1 1 t HF a {ennui

mthuriw. "flu: prnpnsitinn lhil. pump]: annuity will pmfit [mm fichang~ in: their talcum and mum-tn seem: an the fibre [If it i nurfideulugim] assertinn. :35i mnfirmd by empirical find]: and apprmcimately as cantcichmi-ahuinuunflnuhnmrupefl, ulhn Haunnl'mnmfil. ll'unrhelpl purely nut uh cum-11in" mm mm: wash: u.- do Irlil—II'III is, in arm-r In: fulfill :- primipk—

lllm1mm.- nflhfir pun-ibilitiflrally caplurt-a: lhtuptnfln: mum-:3 E'ITI: rtliliun htlfi'll'fl'l

prim-ilk: mutiny-ennui mmmmmflefidflmeflhflhdflrhptmi

BEfflHII AIJI'IIUIEH

HI

Mahmfimflutmflpflfmmwfllhcmhmhy

getting a grand nigh: a sire-p. Emperafiun an inch. Iilt: lam: French] bulwnrmr lam tguiartit mtivati-un: undisturbed Mr ”

3

n 111: dafiiiun In rail-1r:- lama-ant flu“: diam is

mints mnfivalcd by a. drain.- In rdiflc unit's awn vimfinus dismal. This. in 1 haw nun-d mwal tinny in nu altruiim. If an individual?!

pmnrhl behafinr can but: lliiEEd m a flair: m reduct- her mm distanfumtnavuidglflLnrmftdplmcdwifl lhmclfi lhcnlhEH-flfilIh-E

uhirnate benefiriary ul' the an: meeting ll": tamer”: med: its. kph. jam: 3 means In that end. It may nut he almtiflm but iantmtivclr w: Htflfiflifl a dhlhctim't between Ihil mutintiun and Ilriiginfurward tguism. Hun-um. WE are limply mun: impressed 1with. a person whn is truly»r saddtned hf m 13hr”: 531a than by him mumtrparl; whn chem pmpl: up in unit:- tn cultivate a repuntiun u 3 3:11:11 fellow. TI“.- idfil 11f taking pleasure fi'um

giving pleasure. which mnlrihules m. mung nth-er things. a safisfiring mun! rclilinmhip. ducs rm! mm H:- u: panimlarly abjfltimblt, It wuuld nut seem especially Enabling even if It: were unihhr In Pfl'l-‘F'E 1h: Eljfllfl'lfl: at" real altruism and were left with the {an that humans Earl butt-r far having mad:- mhtrs FEE] hem-r, Actually. [hi—1i inurdcpcn-icnc: speaks rather well fur um HIE-fit! and pmiflfl : Tmflrlihljr firm humiltiun an which m mustrufl pmitiw nunm and imtilutiumIt is rathtr alrikmg. whm an: amp-u m think rub-nut it. Lhat man of u! {in far] Eflfld ahnut helping and had IIIHIIE Hm helping. We caught nut to take this I'm flTfll‘lIEfiL Panda-r fur a mum-n! the fact that m.- are likely

in flat] guilty when we the-um: nu: t1} mm m mmmnu'l aid unlefl m: uh.- :11t steps In men-idle ur define this feeling. Tl'mnul Nigel laid than guilt "is weds-Ely the paint-d recugnitiun that {me is mm: fll' has mind contrary to a rut-mun which lhr: claims. rights. or inlemu a!”mlwr: pmvidE—n ream-n which must til-artfurt h-E antecedent]? arknuwledged." film-rim. h: argued. sympaihy is not jun Int-cling had upun mmumering nth-2r 11mph": pain: built inm the mum-pt h “the paint-fl swat-ma: at

flltir distress as sue-Elfin: In hr M ."5 firing unwilling {Ir unable m hclp aim prompts Il'l-DII'IEI' Iranian in many mph. :5 l nhnrved in chapter 5; a {flidl'l'lql' ta mtinnaliu- 1hr.faflure in an. by demgating the victim. We hhur m cmvinre aura-Ive: that she bmught I'mr pmhlenu an heme”, that sh: is Evil m- Ill)" and gem-rally unwurthy of nut pro-such] cflhm. Herman Hclvifle pm this

quilt eiIEl'f in “Hurdle-hf." hil Ital-r Inf quiet IEhElIinn:

FlflHHETDYDUTDUS

$42

Summilihmdmttrrihlt. [Emilia-II “plasteruinpuirfl flulhnughtnrliflu

firmifirtIllitflfllfl'h-Eflifl'ftfiflm: hUttmainspec‘flImI-m. m u m pnim I'I; dun am. “it? trr whn wnuld mm [I'm invariably ”lil- i: airing m the

inherent fllfishnm 13f lhI': hm“ hurl- It rather praflflh frmn a ttfllh'l hay:lea-mu: a!" mmdying flccuivt and organic ill. Ta a whim: being. pit}: :21 nm uldum pain. And when at [an it i: permiwd that mrhpity mum: Ind 1-:- china! mcmr. mmmnn I-Elll.’ hid: III: mu] bl: rid ul' il.fl

“fluthhereemrwlcdpnflinllyhuflmbflndflcfibedmnmdininfly: 'Whtn w: an: unable ti:- hclp an innuccnt victim however, mar duin: tn

EH: in a just wn-rld in threatened. In Illd'l Iitufitifim pimpin- may Hittite

tul'm'tive balance by dtdding that the victim in in fact biannual-H13." Wlmmtr It“: ML: of I11:- dclirt In Jim: in a just. warld m m amid cognitive diamante. it mm: EHI'IIiIE-Enl with the phmummnn Inf dutgating Eh: victim In sums: that we du :51: because a deep-stand inclina-

tiun tn relieve mum” pcfl-un'a pain has httn Eruslralcd. This imprtuiun i: mmgthtnnd by mhcr rural-ch findings. First. such demgafiun appar—

mthr can he pmmltfl simplyl by asking pcuple m imaginc themlelve: in [ht fittim': situaflun: dry dam reap-and with campusinn rather than rejectinn.‘ SEEHHEI. E'h'l'fl if pen-1:]:- haw mnflnced thtmulve: uf the mart-“hints: if the Vifljflh they will Mill rupund Prflifl-Eiflll'f in many W125 if Ehrtn tilt nppnrlunity.‘ Finnauhlur+ Lb: Eaflun: tn help:+ as Dari-cf and lama: dilcuvtrrtl (p. ES}. mmthm Judi pcapI-r: to E'III'iIIEf Phjl'litfll

ligtu Inf discumfnn—al if there wm a price m In? fur dlflnlhfi not In [ur being muhh In] fuflnw 111mg]: urn th: mg: In alleviate mother‘s “fitting.

Ilmafrtflcflwcilunumdtenfiimfaflingmhehnmmeiflm finding badly m- Ujring tn comm unrulvfl that then: was nu and In htlp :fiu- IIL Him-rile. alt-ending tn anather’: pain Fur m m having m d1:- wilh nut-'1 awn well—being my have m be danified as a kind at

ephmhmitiaikindquimdifl'emmfmmwm "Emmi-4:111:65]:11m.

Hm Thllmyhdpfmjunlnhdpyn uismidudcfcndudat Luigi]: in lhl: preceding dflptlr. But it is ufien diflim]: In tell the dill'eru cm.- between ”fun and "mt beam: at yuu'i—aflm in ban-rem gnu-line altruism and tin: vital-inns maths-flan jun m a . In Stmn Hun-Imam m I plum-inn] Idealist, In: u

HmlpenpkuhudilphymmmfmmJndEflgnn-dbflmutlbfldnlm dunnttqrtudiltinglilllwhfllurIhL-ir'THPtmfimtimilmht-lpmhtflurm

BEHIND ALTEUIEH

Ell!

feel hflmflmhmihflcflflrmnplhhbuhgmhllhtmm-”m [In lhlllhillinhgeniflldiuflnmwm mihdflfluril“mflj" mint.”

HIilnmphen pain: nut. quin- righthr. that tin-fact affectingInk-sum afler helping {In-El nut :JInw us In hie-r lhal [ht EIPE'EIEIIZI plasma.- nati-

mfln‘ thc htlping- Hutwiihnanding 1114: Experimental “lurk uf Bataan and film. lhuugh. manyr paychulugilu danpair at being Ihit In Em:- #41:“

III: ream“! fur pmsnrial befuvinr. 11H: fact than they “dun nut madly Elli [Hill]? inm urge-min: and iltnu'stic filtfifll'itl . . - cranial atrium difliruliifl in Illempling In integral: ram-d1. finding}.'*” Paul Schenriflh. a lithium-gist 31 wart an an hmtigiti-nfl ufunmuallf 5mm“: miiljumirth rut-pom Lha: h: ran inn- 1 “ d mud" trying In mtegurhe lhl: nature mr their philmlhrnp'f: ufim. then: “I nu “drill

mama." Sam-E damn felt. bad immune die-f had h1heriled Il'lflIIvEf Emu grind? cur uncflfical P-EIJ'tI'IH and manic-1m aim.- awar Lhis tainicd Influx, 5mm were [firing tn “give unmething had." time thty had been helped

by anthers—a mathe- cleaflyr diflertnt frum heiping in the expiration Inf subsequtm gain. 5mm- .usid Lhty I'tlt "Iiiminishu-d by aflww :ufl'fl'h'lg“ or that they 1:d mm “If-E with lhrmmlvfl if they did nut htlp." This last THPL‘IlH-IE‘ is mmnmniy heard Eran: maple who Pfi'fiifl'lfl m m m mm. A nun wha- lcapl. mm ll'll': sub-fly much- in Hunt Yuri IIIIir].r tn fl'lI'E .I child—very nearly [using his mm life in the Frill-[Ell— mld a rcpuner that had he no: and. “I would. have died insid: I wauld hair: hem nu gun-ad m mm“[turn that an."" In math-tr inn'dtnl, a IIIIII will: dine inm {ht Putnam: River in pufl mmenne Fran: a sinking ['Ell' said. "I jun muldni Hat-ch the guy draw. I think 1 jumpcd ink: that waltr mu uf Hlfrdcfuun. l unmmfl luv: hum ahlr: In liw with myself if hi: Ind

drfl'fl'nflil and I had dune nudfing."“ A men-rial fir rmcher ii inclimd to from in m m :1 III: difliculw ul' amnaining WmIII-flu: pmplr: hclp-cd um ufll‘ul': fi l m nr 3 mphilljraltd Wfliflfl Inf uguinn.‘ fltherl. nfl-llbif than: mun.- run:cmnl with results than wilh rut-limb, an: indincd In dhmiss d1: qufltiun "ln'lu'hih: mflrqmm unnul alt-:11 h- Iflum :I. fat-r.- flue. lh-HI: 3mm dumplmn

Itill'il'll'IEh-i' Mutlflfllthflpfiiiplflltfllflilflifl—Ifllmh' ildl'ltllfltlhflt Ih'fll nhjrniI-Hy urge-m II'.|.:I'I_ mmdu mmhmg. but than II'I-Ej' plrlmaflv Ii'fl iii If Lhfi that m thin-.m- m Ihr mall-rt Han? t i u m nl pi'!‘l'1'l|:|'|fl'fl"l.'I-l I'lfilllh Ium ran Ihl: na-linn all Earn—HEW r.I-r Err-dim: nrurnii! infill-numb thl: lab-cl il- nu- I-nnlrr ul-HI h1- riirur'nmi'u

thin-turned by being [I II'lE arr-:1- ul' imrquychir {mm I'll-fling rung-cilia lur unable-I tau-Iiijimndn way- “mmlrmiblingqumflmu- llnhdnwuirupusplrhhnfifl fl m ' “hr-11¢ Imlp—nlhninigitmcinmflmuuigmflnhilnmufw

Mummmfimmaflmflmfl?

EH

FEEL! HE. TD TDD TD [15

auunimpunanl. Emperhapsnurrupnnuflmuldhcmm the difliculur ufmucfing d1: qufltiun mince lllll'.‘ name nt'thi: pmhlem in: mu so much Lb: hadtquaqr nfuur “Elfin-II as [he incltriflbilitr ul' humzm denim: In htnefil 11:: “If and In bandit all-mu,

Distintt {mm t': chaflmgt of “plinth: :gniuic and altmini: mun flirts—Ind aim m the Elmira-1 m- finfimu hem-fit II: III: HIE—i: III! Fallihilii‘f 11131 the turn my cum. I my want In help jun bun-nus: arm: rut-quire hl'lp mul' N's:- beau“ il 1will make IIIE fer] hfllfl' In give yum! that

hip. The latter due-.1 um nun-i nu: the funncr': claim In ht altruism unhm altruism in defined a: a nfl-mflficing act—an: Ihat mun email rial: nr disadvantagt fur III-I.- aunt—Dr a: an an than I'I'I'lfll' mat mull in any advamagc atcming to flu: annr. [I have {aim pain: In repudiate just such I drfinitjflnJ Faulty. the present: 11f but]: native-n lhnuld nut b: mm [tun-d will: the pram: “firth? I mun-nigh 5mm needs agili'lwl min: btfflll'

acting: hurt, my m

med: indium III! In help just an my magnifinn uf

fum- need: dun-u.

Us Sum: m l :"

3

:

d

v and ripe I'm-transm-

dtncc 11mm: it marks if pin-w nr wflmngmtuhtinn or unhealthy

IEiFnL-rifire. The-u- aswciariunfl. fl'lnugh. mm In refit-£1 Ill-E dflnfinanl‘ wit-w uf‘allruism in a culture behflldtn In an Hhi: nf HIE-inltrm mart than murmhg inherfllt in 111: idea ul'alIJuism. Hid] unly an: umpfinn.

there is no ”awn than helping sum-rant simply hccaut ht rtqlfiru hub shauld ht suspicinus ur lmuhling In us. The single flccpliun is 1]}: Mark. {11' hidindualhm an which alu'uiIm—flr mar:- prefiuhr. Iht tgnismfallruim dithutnmv—mu. Hum: is a stir with a hunt”: nf inn-rut: and prefertncrs. "[11: again says it always alttmpt: m fl'fllifl'lill!‘ them The [tune-guilt mpflu 'Ihll'. it some; timt: [nah after the hurt-em nf math” “If. But both tall-.2 for granted the nialmce uf “pant: Elm. each will: in awn 5:! {If {Wine-.5

mrrlapping} inttruu- I: is imp-Drum m Wilt. ill Edward Sampmn did. Ihill :Euinn and :hruilm are “in uppnlitinn truly in an hdhiflulflhfic netting: their uppmifiun in nu! writlm in granite. Emmi {If uur funda-

mtnu] human paychnlngy."“ The implicatiun of challenging individmlilm. Pfl' IE. will he dilmastd in II“: fulluwing mirth. For m: timr being. let mejun Emphaaile that and: a {hall-mg: dam nut imrul'v: a blurring nl' idtnlilifl m a raven firm In the Ell-I1 Hf mystical Fluian discussed in thflptfl IL Eunlider Ill: case of prumcial btlnviur. Tu :pealr. ur an “In” in this mutant i3 nm In hulightufmuyuumdthtiwhnmflmupthetuJIiLhuwn-Hr.m

BE? 0H1] ALHUIEH

245

magi-in: that thl'l't in": mm: uranium in which an: mum nut—Even wilh perf-Efl self-Lnufladgt—nedutt I pun-lucid act intu- an attempt H]bmfit Either ul‘ lin- hdjviduala inmlvcd. Thin is n-m jun bruins: flnt'lmm afl‘cn in rennin tn:- Ll'u: nthtfs m- htcauu it stand: side-braid: with

the nflm‘: nr bun-nun- une has dil‘fitulw ascertaining whether she has helped flu: other E'gflilljfliflf m altmiatically. II is ralhtr bunny: uh: {Min-e: htnflf nu: bring ”lanai in m impnnanl may no 1hr: mil-er ani a: I result. finds herself ailing within-m intending In brat-Ii: just the atherm' hmdfar thE lwu separate selves added lugcthcr. Presatd m Explain, 1h:- will my nut [hill :11: mum [cl] what. lht ha: in mind, hm fllhc‘r that the questiun i: nfiscnnceivcd Ira-must hfl' referent: pain: is sumflhing

beyond tilhfl' {If the turn partnIEI'S: i! is HIE muncflinn ham IJ'IEIIL I prmnt than: dhtimclium with 1mm: [Hummus-LI. Thu-2'1.r an: nut blindingly fl-h‘h'iflflfl. and the “us" [native is my In mnfiut with. an tht

an: hand. flu: :impl: inability tn distinguish htlwrm {gun-ism and altruElm. anti. an the other hand. a merging uf an: p-tnmf: idtmitr with IJ'HE'

nthc-r. Describing what I belie-re m be a unique and inedurihlr [aha-naturnan ii I'Imhtr mmplicalcd hr the fan that autumn].r writm whn haw.- referred In tnnmending the quilmfallruism did‘lfl'lfllilflr mm In haw hid in mind exactly whit I am trying m distinguish it Emm. Due philumpher champinns a kind at" [ m u m aumdam not an tantra: relaflun:hip but an a hrgtr Baud “ml is neilher mine nor 3am.“ Thai: in+

flumtfll by Easttm traditic-na mean smut-thing else altngEth-En" and anthers haw: mad-I: such Mfume: an fltuingly than it is diflinlll It: 1:11 II:".I.‘.|‘-I:'Il'g.r haw they cunt-Eh: of Hanan-riding [ht didmlumy."

The fam-mmpmml I'm-id ufl'ertd here is nut intended as a 11:3: flatnw, but [he idea a!" hL-iping fur [ht ME! {IF us rathtr than 71th: fir...

in Mint mpnu. martin-ed as a slap beynnd altruism. If the quutinn it asked. "But what du ran gut nut uf helping?" the IEIFHHII‘E Ila-gain replica, “Paar: a!“ mind" nr "A mph: [mm gum." T11:- illruht run-plinth nothing. but than DH: ptflnnal gain was nut III: paint nl' my “l hciping." Th: pal-sun thinking :hflm “us“--1hm is nu chitin-u: lab-El I'm him—replica by challenging this premifl‘s {If [he quad-an, sin-t: 1h: idfl ul' MIL vmm nthcr-gain “mun. alum-.- 311. irrtlevam. The rtlaliflnlhip in udlich such hflpéng DEL-uni {and an: at" which it tun-rial beget: : mutinLhni m l .he undmmud h}! a nmtlaasiu] mama arm equity [heu-

fir“. my.r mart than a lhru-uiimcminnal uhjm could he mpprdtended by a mn-ufimnuiunfl (realm. Fur the phiimnphcr h u m Blunt. mmm—npufiuflr,

fi'icndnhip—prmidu a mum: Fur mdmtanding almlilm that a m

215

I-‘llflflfll’l'fli'flflmlifi

mmlsyammshucdanilnpaniafity.flut.mmflmnthil,kilalma M

t 111M l'llldgfl u: heynndth-I: iflcl uraltruilm.

Th: ttl‘ms "truism" and “almiun” :5 usually mdummd unit us ill in den-Elihin! acting frnm fiinldlhip. . . . Ffimfllhip involve-s prisms bring bnund up with um: anmhcr. 1hr difltrrm mm iii mutinm and Elf-dings Hhith flu: fricnds have Inward: an: mnflmr in thrir manning and significant-E [rum III: Emir: rflalinm

Ihip nfwhirh they arr:11:11.... This i5 #113“ mrfilingand III-tin: ufb-mrlicmm in friendship an: nul sup-rat;- I'runm my awn ill-1min. [mm what is plenum“? a land tu me: it i: nut. in that :Ii-E'I'IS-IE'. “diiimerested.” III is aim. he nun-H1 later. nut jun mum-atrial by 3 W I ! ! ! nl' “mm and Illruim] In {HI [finds-hip in I

{mm-II in wl‘lirh ll": fliuirinn hurt-Hm within-rut and mhfl'iinllfl‘tfl is ohm nu: applimhlc- Thu-.- [dmdship itull'm u what i: nf imp-arm:- [a me. and in that name whil in in my inure-It. In that sense I III: ml lmmflr iarrilirt my mm

ilHEf-E'II in fitting fur lllt' good If my friend. I HI with i llfl'lll: {If flu: fi'itndslfif! Mum: tu- me. Hm Ihnugh it il- the flit-ml h'l'flflE benefii I dire-HI! aim at {i.E.. which is my nmtive fur aningL and nut my aim.”

Tim W lit-ET. Gum] Gilligan [imp-Din] a :Ir'Eltinlgl].r limilar farmulm Iiun that gram fmm hL'I‘ study ul' the mural [IE'I-‘Elflpmcnl ul‘ tum-men and girls, BIL-wad caring Fur nth-I: HE and caring fur ulhtfl, sh: wrmt, then:

Eli!!! a “prnpenivr {that} I'm-[Ian an the dynamic: nf rEhliunship-s and dissipalfi the tensiun httwttn aellishncas and mlpnnsihility thruugh : new undarsunding ml the immunnmiun bfl‘lflm uthtr and stiff“ ’I'his phenumenun dues nut transpurt the individuals inml'ved In I plan: far all-cm: 1h:- iuuu GI tmpallw and dilll'l'fl. self and warmer- 5am:une may well find that hi: "mud i: lflfllld by that nthErE—in in intimaterehtinmhip i1 muld manila.r he athemise—hul llhis til-DEE nu: man that

mil: nf"u5" can In- mllipafll int-1 fiialdini's negative mt: rtlitf nun-dd in which the rural pain! 01'Mtpiflg is In imprmre unit's mm enmtinmll Ila“.[chapter 3}. Vital la Ciillrdini'fl idea is tht hy'pflth-Esis that in]; fiber maul

eflumr will. do jun :5 WEI] 1.1. 1nd is. illlflthingtihl-E With. helping. “Flu! I am dun-ibing in : llli-E nf inln'dependenct in which my ficarimfl “dune-n cur pain can b:- relirtved did} if yum dish-es: is relieved. In [ht mm: at" us. darn. unpalhy must b: [fraught a!" as ncithcr tguiuil: nur alu'u'utic. II ii :I fimctinn DI the relationship ill-Elf. Heidegger tat-l: mate {if this in his chair Hark. flail; mi Thu' “ ‘Empaflw'

dag-5 nu: first mnuimtc Htii‘lgrh'ilh; all]? an I11:- 1131i! nf Bdng‘with data “Empathy' hut-mm: punihlm'm It in hue—mu: 1m.- are I'EIIIEL'I 111-: I

fictlinmmdmpandmynu.flfmum*thisworhredpmalmmr mpmhifiug aim help: an “insulin and mmfihm: m 1h: social band ur

EETDHD ALTIUISH

H?

Iflflhl'llflfl In that adm- ptrmnffi Empathy. hard an urban l Earlier referred m- as giahil persptcflv: tilting—[ht hiclinaiiun m hmgim: lifi: u 111: ulhcr. nthcr thmdimtteexperimflqfllwmhfl—mmm

dcfin-c lhf.‘ rchtirumhip. Simiaflutflfmdfllhpi mrthnnilismmblcmlpealul' lam: mmhinalinn nf tgniam and altruism giving Way m i relilim'uhip.

Such a Innflurmatinn has impa-nant implicaijum {ur mumhl hehaviur. WI}!!! we first “ht-fl. mnvc-nlianal mama explain my helpfulms: a: we human}: [I'itntl-I. I begin In Ilu'nl and act in term: if m. Initially" EMPIIITF

may h:- : mautr at" ficarinu: diHJ'E'I! at nthrrnuritnted sympathy and m

. 11H! mutually it is : refit-aim: nf uur rrlatinnship. Somflhing at" the mrl. CEElfl'ihE'! I1": dung: Ihal uftcn mun-n in gmup intmfliun. Harry.i 513th Sullivan suntan-d that cmpmtiun mum 11131 "I play martin}; m It": mics nl‘ [ht gamut lfl pm:- my prutigc and [ruling ni' auperiurilf and mtrit. Whirl: we mllahumtn. it is

a mane-r of w. 111:- adticvnnmt in nu hunger a ptmnal success: it is a group pcrfmmanct."“ This has ham Lhu: flptrifntt u-I' many math” Him 5111mm”.- thtir dual-11mm tn [acilitalc Imperative leaning: at. first.r

children I‘H'l'p Eirl'l uthu-r m learn hut-flun- thty hm:- lu. hmlflt their grade depend: partly an 111: when” arhicvmmt. Eur. typically a m ufgrnup infirmity, an LII, dmhps and Lht cguinljl: in-renljvu became In:

salient [althuugh the]: in nut alt-my:- diupp-tar illngclhcrl. Hal-r. innit-ad {If hunting Tm! humus: I will bandit [mm 3mm impmvml. I am m 1 ? hut-rend in lhr: ptrfinnnante we manag-r: 1! a grnup. This [rump idEl'llil‘f. m m by Ruby“ Burt: and his cullflguts. Inmng nthm+ dflfl null appeal In but a mafia“ uf nmnhtrs' Weighing Ill}: htflffilfl-

In “If and git-up bun-Fun: melt-cling flh‘: latter. 'I'Iut then.- may hr.- 1 [unlit-HE i: in 35mm:lflidl hyan [Inuit]:- chumrr—unt swept-d in an individualistir; frame DI rtfmncc. The ism: Fur 1hr: grnup-idcnlificd pmidpm H- fur I11:- pc-rmn whn I'm-l! mun-tried In a fricnd nr law. in nu kingfi-

simply “What can I du Ember—and will i! b: at my flpflllt?" but "What can I do Fur Us?"

BEHIND THE APPEAL D? nmnmum

Tummcfi‘umnwtnynuluulindummmafm'l mutiralinnfur pmmdal helmfinr is. by EIIEfll-iML In a]! into qutuljnn the ideology- ul' hdividunlhm Eur—II. Hun nl" this haunt him alumpttd tn thallcng: lhl: win“ that humus an: mmafily stlfilh. but that :flinnaliun at" altruism

Ella-'5

flflHHETDTflUTDU-E

name: an inquiry inm the aura-lapping issue ufhuw m: In::1:t lunchmhcr—mnppmtdtaIhuwmmmwud.urwhalwtumt far. each when

"Human lift a: radial unlit? in unify th: lift ninth pain-n. i: lanky my lift. . . . II. i1 Huntialljr mfimdr. rut-55m! ”Emir," Iii-d the Spanish

philnauphn‘ flI't-Egfl 1y flaunt,“ Ethnil'lg a. number If uthfl' Cuntinflntfll thinker; Such a dcdamtiun Imam.r he Inn cumngam Eur nur {HIH.. but dill.- Englilh pulirifil] lilrEfll'illll than: 1min: an: fl'lfll'E' Emilia: la us. pm:Efldfll Plum 3 similar Hark] View. Hula-hes my hive been flu:- fint in-

:iifidualial: in thr: lfll‘flltflllh mntury. u Matl'htnun 11:11 it. thrhdividmlmuennfiduruamfllwhfltnarumnfihlgnmdfl wbnlr.huluanuflmrd'hilm:l£ a ..T1Irhumnrnmnilfi'fldmnfium W I : 1m lhl: Will: In! album and fittdum is I fimninn nf Fantasia“. ...Suri£tjrmn1fllufrelaliumufuchmgtbflwflnpmpfiflnn.fl

While ll'lfl'IE uhvinusly In: impnnant dim-mm mung thtm. all the arthiltfli nf dtmnrralic liberal the-arr and mphalimI—Lnrlw. Hum.

Smith+ fitntltum. and LEI—spat: a similar Imagingt- lfw: an: part {fl-f a mach-tr. Ill-ET Hid. it i: {ml} Milli-l: With 01' u: druidcd u in indifidrual

that ii was in his inleresl In give u]: mmething 'm flTdEl‘ In came mirth-ET. If m: Humans: 590d: m idea: with each mint}, ill is beans: we an: penuaded that mlufiflg nut 11F mlr Ill-E"! 1will pay DE. "We art- Ethan-ltd

m musider the interest: af flihflfi. it is by summing up the benefit: and m s u m fi c h put-man; dwmisnumcialgmiptr anhulnntygmur preferences plus mint- plus hen plus hi1. {The utilitarian: may,r luv: rtjmed Ethical tic-ism. but they stifl HER-red a ringing :flirmat'mn 13f

individualiamJ II we: radars: 1h;- idfi uf [madam at political rights, Han. remind-ed m, thfltartnnlyflmrighu dmflpflcflfmmmhflmmandfiumflwmmmwfiw. ...L'Iherlr ii. flIHEI'm. flu.- fight 1:} {in a'lh'llfl which due: nut him-I other: . . . [a Iihtnjrl

ml [untitled “pill-II 1h: helium: bfl'h'fln min and man. but nthfl upon the

illiflfllifl-I'I nfman frnm man. It istludgfitnfmh W.Theriglflnflhe Mail-Id individual. withdrawn intu hinutlf. . .. wholly mtmfled with his

prime imcrm mid acting in man-Int: with hi: print: unfit."

II Hi“ the implicit psych-alum: uf libfi'al theari‘fls—iheir ficw ul' human Mum—that infinnned thin pulilital man. Haw flu: psydmlugy

EE?UNI] ALTIUISH

249

Managed fl'atfisriplilleinitluwnright,wefind thalitnmat ever}-

bnmrh. schnul, :perialrr. and Iheurr within it is prcmimrd m1 indivichulinn. Fur Freudiam. humans an: mtimria] by inuinn and dfivm pfintiFulfill].r by intraprychir {urn-s. Fur heiuvim'ifll. the law: {If learning pertain

In the individual Humanism a: it rcspnnds m the mulling-mama at" in: envimnnmm. Fur humming. the man bar-urn 'u my::nmfifltiun. with the human pntential muvmunt undertaking “lhfl' deifimliun Inf th: in:-

laied H1!" - . . .an1

1

a denial uf hmnan reciprocity and [unann-

nity."" Deuulnpmmul ply-thulugifll gen-:11“? qfll-E maturity and

heal“: with autumn-w and indhiduatinn; fllEflriE'E nf achievement and mmivminn litmus almust txdusively an the individual. The entire discipline. atturding la Edward Simplun. “play: an important. ml: in rain-

farcing an individualistic. iElf-E-Dflliilifl-fll Wit-Ema: it hflpfl play {balm IJ'II: impuruncc {1f interdtpendmt mint-5!“ Bewnd pulitiu and psychulngjr, individualism is the central theme aft-Hr everyday lives, and it: manure has been taken by French nhsenrm fi'am Till-fl]mil]:- m the anlhmp-nlflgim Lauri: Dumunt. the lam-r summa— rizing uur predicmnmt in an: blunt. damning phrase: "The whale In: becmnc a heap."“ Writing in the late [9605. Philip Slater remarked that nu: success at fitting nunflvu I'm-m val-inns (minim: has HI u: 'dirr mauled. hurled. Innely. Lfllpmllfltd+ unmcflury. and unanfc."" FifItc-n year: law-r, flab-m REM and his mil-eagues painted am that w [end m min}. a r m 5min! lift and mmiunmu primarily in tcrm: nf penal-Ia] fulfillmenl and individtnl well-being.“ lfldEEd. w: II-E'fid an];

Wild] UH: telehralia-n (if pends-ml her-mm in muvies and an televisiun. at malice [ht mylhulngy at intfividual firearms that sustains flLll' :m— numic system Eli'E'fl in a carp-unu- 15:. We betray nurseh'fi in uur adver-

tising flmpairgns ("I helium.- in mt"! and our Faster 111131111: (“Gad him my ptrmul apart"). The nymptmm Inf um- idcnlngf. in :I'mrt. II'E ubiquitmu. and they range {mm mm prumiu: paninllan m the underlyhg mmnhjmimi mmmimwnH-nry rrmtljur tallcd inn:- qufltinn ur turn inm 3mm nus—that dimrnu being fi'nm whit Heidegger called hehlg-Irilh m heingiin‘theiwurid. In IMII' View. the isnlated self came: upun 1h: scene

and than dcddu whclhtr H:- hu: pan til” .1 immunity, flu: pfllflifill d:lfilfl alien rElflI'I'E intfl : Iminn WEE“ Iibfll‘t'f inf imlividunh] and Equality [amflng individuals}. |E'm' mural bedrock is the printiple {If n-DI'IiI'II-fl‘lrfl'fl'ltt: if you will} nu harm. gnu may act h-EIHHEI' 1mm individInllf [hum-E. flu: amnion: all-nut the Ill-lining {If life dininguilh harmful] I111,- mbilin' nt' ufllrtaliflfiun and the “algafiw [If simple mall'-

EH}

Fflfllfl HE Tl] I'DIJ TD U5

ufiifiiflhmmumpnkmtmmmrhllflwthcldfitht distrau- indh'idunl.

In light nl" this. wt an: extraordinarily aluminium If any inflfiliflfl Illa: mu- wurld vim-r might nut 13-: utility itself but manly a sci-dilly :nnr "tuned vmiun uf reality. The idea llfll: indi'l'idllfllilm in dnnipthr-aly

inmmpleta—that it i: an: way, but uni? an: Hwy. uf making mm: u-f the world—nil] scam ill-tillmp‘l'fl'ltflliblt in many. Th: Hpalfllt HIE a: the fundamental Ifiel 11F analysis m In u: limpl'y m reliant [ht my lift in. The suggentiun that individuallism is pmrriptivdy infirfim. mesm-

whilc. Hi“ ht rtcu-imd iii a challenge 1:: all 111:: i: limrl'g.r and gum]. We :11: an guard against anything that mun-1r. rmuttlyr Eh: mflfltivism. since [his rain: the Ipe-ntr Hf Hui-aims: at at" {he suhmrricm af aunt‘s idtndw in a faculty. grmp.“ PErhap: it is In: gnu-d. ural lean hialnricafl'f under-

IHn-thh-lt. I'm-1m: 11131 H: champiun HIE privfitged sum: af flu: ”II. but um: we can at: only in :fichmmnifi: an an: side.- i: institutional l'fliflflf. unlhemhtrilthchflitgcd indifidull.Tuflmdf¢uut HLmia

mm; fi‘um thi: piflure?

What is missing. nf mum. is h m rdmiunship : very different :lttrnaliv: m individualism. In making lPiE-l' for a “ll“ [hill ha: uh: right In [11%. wt have distant-Ed awn-ht: um unruly-r fi'um flulflfl‘ifjl' but m II'IIE' idea if mnnflrtifln with [Ill—I'lfl' Hm. I: this simply a funniun of I-ltl‘mlypcd thinking. nr 11:: we ruin Inch mmfinn humus-t it mum: Writ-m wrathuw? Ln manlwtrbr wyufan ilfllflmi'. Whtnwtcumrmmmmnc finmhnapninlnfannmmfinglhallhrhailhahmdffllflflwlufl

with whirl: sh: m HEM-d fit that sh: mwtr hm heritlfgtt dfipl'tflt-fl. Eur mniun is m Hflptfl [hm 5hr: dam pmul tun much. Thai innit-ant find: it niece-Mar; m speak will: such mphzuia may auggul that 1.11: is trying In ward nfl'dmhl; what is dtclafl-d l-n hi: finulyr gmundtd may in fact but

Prtffl'iflflitf silualfll. Sn it i: Eur 1h: mmmiuntms {if a M y . and specifimllf fur nu]- :ndfly'l cult [If the self. Th: mare flu: premliun

at" primary. [dirt-Jinn”. and fiat-hm [mm all mmmitmcnl an! Imm— pflrd. u mm+ [he mun- ant snip-Eu: that Eh: m (If Hit-is actually in danger. 111L- ccnsi'I-re def-ens: of individualism may hen-pull. 1h:- fear

that diet: in mall-r naming [HI In due-[mi Any number If such] critics haw: paint-rd m the frantic III-flhilhjl' in Anti-mu mirth 1]}: lack uf' cummuniq. [ht absence aft-11mm In :hared ulna-J nr m [ht value {If um: i: shirt-i. w:- an: dividcd Frmn filth lather. nut had. lip-:11] aunelm m tl': pain: that it. is pmt'nundly unnm ding In tnwltdgt nu: alienaljnn. humid, like I. land? "ml hl'lfl Milly

HE'E’flHD ALIENS” haul-s Inf lacing lie:- fmm mmu'ifling W

u

IJ‘EII . we insist thi: is not

apredinammlhuudmice. innfiuflvemtufcfiailhutufmadMHt Inf Faint-:1

The Hailed 5mm: is may Eh! reducliu ad ahmdmn at" “11': am: uf tfl'ain. whit]: in magniuhlt, man! a: 1m. in all t t t r n ruhurfl. Uh:-

wilt. nu: m l umpmmi m truly the latex: indicatium nf lame-thing that had been ‘fll‘flufld for men] centuries. Ami it is against this backdrup

that m: can begin In flfldtfltflnd nut ml]: 1hr: mphali: an “IF—hm: but film th-I': htfltf Ihit cunt-I'm Fur “H i: mum real than cum fur mhm. Wad“: din-attuned and therefure math: mart 5311a it: pmtlalisun hem-mu a [Hilarity and 1 : a 1::- mm “natural." But #11:! ii it that [hm-Elm: 1h: EH... leading m. pamdnxiufljr. HI-

ufln [ht idea a!" selfimnd all :11: mar: Will-Emmllf? It is the very swirl: uf nu: imiividuaIianL Th: circle is. viriuus: w: turn Fur nur rtdtmplinn tuIhe wry idta that Lmdm us. Hm'm: haw uflen we express uur individualit]! in a drew. pl‘tdjtlflhll.‘ way. like the uld juke ahuut wanting 1::- he a

nnnmnfnnnilt . . . jun like evenlbndy Elli: flu:- mcinlagin nulls what Tnctfillic- nuiictd ill-Dull flu: United Emu: “Tim indifidml . . .achim:

lit-Edam and puwrr [ml]! under the Enndiliun that he became immflrphit. III-1' similar in Farm In all the atlwr indifidual: in 111: unduly. . . . The individual is fru- . . ; In expand :5 a standardized hidividuallfl Bur miscmhlr hidifidualityhancwcdmmtbathnfuurcaninthcfiumaf

ptnnnalizcd firms: plain. Hm is Ih'u the only plmdmr. we encounter in “thing In undmtand uh: rants and fruits ufindifidmliam- Eunaider I11: widupreard appra] nl'

htlid' swltmn that pmmiu' Innuendem. It i: am detachment Erum 0111:". that has turned us into hitchhikeni. antinus In escape the “If in IhEfirsl which: that came: dmm the mad—Hen an: that pmptls us right

past hmnanhy- Elm-durum has :ugmflr criticind Harman fl. fl-mwm who “aim-main Emu-ml indhriduaflinm with halal merging. . . iIuerI-reavling]

this film: mlaliunahip with aln] Equally cumulu- vision {If unmm

and uniam Whm Illa-rt it tm- difiurrntiflted prrmn In became part {If

satiny m“ cul1ur:."-“ The paint. [If mumm is that il'lE'fi-E' putatively appasiu': made: are really run an dflferenl frum Eflfll'l uflwr htcauu Ihqr share

the fraturt nf milling anything in dun: with bringvrwith. In I limilar vein, Peter Marin mun-Mt: a cummiun with salami]: much taken wiflfl "Ipil‘iluality" and myalidnn. "I hum: tlurre i: lam-ailing,- null-idlenf Int." 11:..- Hid. “I m

than. Hut Hl'flli in- it?”

furl it. I hum i ii

Efi-E

FREE-I HE TD ‘fflU TD U5

“II, may not 1}! I mj'tlflfi" I Hid. "Ptrhlpl it in HI: EDITH." Thil slmltd him. HI:- hild mm mmflhing mm: magma Iham that. munflnli: and grand. Humming "It-mu" rathrr than all flfllfl'fll him- 11 had nmr DEWI'I'E'd m him Ihal what might I}: calling m him Frum bewnd the self were flu:

Wfldl a! mmmunity and val-alt. the h'fl-I'ldl- ul' hhmry and atrium—HI] ul' them waiting II} but entered nm as a Him ET I mwflm but in 1 h'l‘jr more difimh still:

as a mum] man at wunun mung utl'ltl‘ pawns. with n Ftflfln'i- cflmplu mum: and "will. Thai-r world: hill burn cloud in him. had rtcrdrd Ernm mnhfimflr nm :1: hr hm! I:I:1'II:I:| H:- inhabit mum Pull]: qr mpnmihly ur Infinity, and m hr IHI that“ ghmfly Fifi-HIE! an mlhing diuim Ind m u m . II a drum in which he hid nu annual “him.“

EtmLulu-aiauuflauhwdly right m m Hut-wen flmstnhuin I‘J'IE Wu: whn wnuld criticize individualism an: nnntlhtlul I part nl' this

Humid vii-hr and w: Ihfluid nut pl‘fltnd Ihat we can with: it Frum Lht nulaidt." Still. trifle: fmm antral Lradilium hilt-E called ant-Minn [u L1H:

implications and dtficitnciu aft-u: mall" firientfllinn. Variant]: Hfitfll haw: Emphflflilfld an: nr ill-I'tl'l' [if then tradi'linnh but it h piflittfliflf inlprcflivc In 5:1: Ihem gathtrcd Inge-1113.

First. of mum. lhrrl: an: Lhr: hhlflfim mad anthmpulagius when remind us that the idea [If the individual self as 1m.- mnrfiiw ufil is. In far fmm being a simple rcfltctiun uf reality, finally an ammluu: cuncup! among human brainy. The very ward infimihmfisn did nfll Elijl. until

the nineteenth EE'IH'IJIT. and the warld view it signifies i: hardly when fur granmd in Easttrn and mnindmuializtd sfldtfits. The anlhmpnlngisl Eliflhrd Eta-m sprain Eur I'Iliil'l'j-r athnr inch] m m : The WEI-[Em (martian 111' ll“: llfl'lflll u I handed. uni-Elm mun! ur In: 'fl'lll'fifl'lfli maliulinnll and Infinilifl unfit-He. I dynamic {ruler uf IHII‘E'I'II'III. emu-tin“. judgment, and Hliunmganized inn: 3 distinflive whale and net tantra:Ii'rrly again“ bath Dll‘flfl' luth Hlmlcl. and again“ in. Infill ind nilm‘aI hid: ymmd. 111. huh-urn humrrEg-iblrilmaysetmmuamhflpewthridufiflth |h¢ mental ul' flu.- wnrld': m m “

The nhttntiaflu Indium: ant:- emphatic: that flu: self is alt-my: a Hfl'h‘dfliflttiflf-fl-flltfl {m :dnpt the mdigennuu hnhil at" hyphL-mtinn}.

Einktgaard. Hintncht. and Sartre- did nm tunly drum:- Ihcir mptcliw: cm: In addrus'ulg 1h: inn: [If ideal human relaliunahjp." bu: the

mmtmml u a whnk din-H nut fluent in rtpuflfl-nn fur minim: cun-

REFUND ALTEUISH

253

mm with Iht individual. “Being-Hill] is an exillmtial thmctcrifliu: Inf [1min llmman being] tutu whcn finial]? nu D'I'J'I-El' in prmm-at-hand m‘ FETEEiIr-Ed,” awarding m- Hcidcggtr. "EVE“ Bimini Bring-flan: is

Icing-with in the wurldf'" This theme in Erhard by Earl jflptm“ Gabritl Hutch“ t1}: lfllfl' Gamma,“ anti. at' taunt, Bub-Er.

Man. a: hit critique at” liberal pnlitiL-al the-BIT angst-HI. aha hdped

In gin: us mm: distill-[IE I'mm individualimn. “Hm nnlf is the nulflial {If my warn-rim].r given in m: a: a Lucia] pmdufl [an is turn 1hr: hnguagr in which the lhh1lwr is attiwi." ht.- said; “my mum mum: is Ill-till activity. and therefnre that which I mikt' Inf myself. I make {if myself fur satiety

and will: that mud-mane” at" myufl'a: a Initial biting?“ Feminist ilhlflrf has. added in mint, puiming am, an Mary Hidgk-y put it. [hat “the whale idta Inf a fit: indtpendenl. enquiring. changing individual. an Ht: mnlnl tn Eumpcan mught, has alt-aw: been flatn11':l the idea Bf a “Edam“ And. it! annlhfl‘ mil-ET nut”. thin idea in

"fiII[IdaIZI'L-Ifl'llflll'gpr undermt by an Examination Inf [ii-malt Experienct.”“ II

has hurt-n sugar-rated Ihat flu: dcftmc at" the “pant-c ull' rtpreuntn for many mm nut in exprnlinn Inf fluiflflflmf and stranglh In much u i

retreat fmm Eunnmeflnesa and mflnerahilitf. which can hr. at least :11 an uncumcinus lml, deeply drumming- In any can, the Fer-finial; critiqul: me: the Iul few derail-El has made it all the mar: difficult In strip! unnilimlly the ultimall: reality nf the separate.- HIE Evun in pgychulngy than haw: Inn-n puck-EL: 41f ruining: Familyr mum: ll'IEDIT [aka a step IJ'ETD‘IId the “If: It] dues the brunch [If psych!)-

analysi: knuwn :5 abject relaiinn: flue-1w. which uflers :1Inn-silt! n-I human htnauhjrtt'why tlm balance: rclaminass with autmnmy-” Frmd”: Ink dusive attenlinn m the mntivati-nnal farce: within the individual In: been

dlaflengtd by mm. Humey. and 511mm the urn-Funding. In H‘l'l'm: "Infill-1| t-f Perm-ml Individuality.“ Sullivan ”and: Thptnmulitr...mnbtuhlcrv:dindsmdirflmlhh1rflflinmhmfln lanai-Humility [If among Pflflflfllfllifl- . _ - Emu fifth: greatest diflicultifl “muntfl'fll in bringing ihmlt ri'r'fll'lilhlfl' l'hifllgf is this il-hflfllll iflffllpihlfl illusiun that

[hurt is a ptrdurmg. unique, iirnpln cliilnm “EH, talk-d urinmly "mu” m: "I,” and in mm:- M'ring: faminn. the P-iltiEflFfi. nr ll": suhjm parsun'i. prim“: pump-

El“. . . . El main nu m

In flunk ul' nundvu: M- "hldividual." "separate."

npahte nl' anything like dtfitfiliw dain'iptm in imlntinn. . . . Hun great pmflwu in this. fltld of slum.r can he made until ll i: Hahn-d 1h.“ [ht- fifld a! uhmnfiliun

in what pump-I: flu with fld‘l mher. what "1E1? {111 Emmi-tat: H: II]! nth-H :huul what Hwy dn with Each: flfl'lIEf."

EH

FIDHLETIJTDUTDUS

Whilc all of the“ dullmgn m individualism share a diuatial‘actinn with nur view {If the centrality. ur lflg‘ifil] prinrity, cur naive- ctlchratinn nf the self. they du no: nfl'fl‘ idmflta] muaphfaical antenna [u uplafl that it". Heidegger um! ml a Will; and Sullivan was nm a Marxist; ftmhiisu. like uislcntiilim. dimmer :mnng fliflns-thrfl‘ What “Hill-l at I11!!! critic: shut, Ihnugh. is [hr idta um Jannlj.r 111:“ any perm-n in

mud in maria] rtlalinunmips, bu! Ihat the» wry martian nf ptmni‘mud il {lependtnt an than: relatinnships. Wt an: initial brings: EIL'I'] uf u: in almdry in :- Hal-Id. Hillymflly. [he might Hm my that the idea at" an individual It“ il ahlirined Hum 1111: given run-lit}.-r nf' inlficunneniun—

a: apprised In the view that it i: W

that is a reificatiun and unlr

int-para“: Him an: 1111. Eur]: m :flirm 1hr: “min-n {If indifidmlity. a:

Beliah and his cnfltaguu :1n puhted nut. in to EDIE!” the ml. 'il'fll'ld. {If ideas.“ Raliamliw “l knowledgt and crilflii.

is a produfl of Inch! htmiun, nf mired

h is 31m important in rtmgnize what Ill-fl! critics in: I'll?! dining. Thy are am just arguing Um individual sci“: an: inclined all-timid? Ill:- flpmu Lhcir individuaiiw and their lit! tn {H.tL (Elm: think; fur example. up!“ David Hahn's dfltl‘iplifln at" “15m?“ and “cmnmuniun.” nar Andras Altman [1d uf “Hulfll'lfllllf” and "humunnmy." hmh (If which speak 1::- uur dualily'. our and m b: ”panic but aha tn bl: part {If lame-{hing [HEEL] The pain! in mhfi' In qufit'mn the idea HI :I [EPI-

nt: self that in urge-s nflhis mm m' that- These criu'cs also an: nut simply saying that each of us cum-es m lumw hfl'l-Elf by immm'ng with ulhm. It in Ink. as flirt-leg: 1r Basset and lather: minnwlcdged. that we must why an mu fallow: Ht" fur selfikmwltdge.“ But moving hey-and an intfividrualistic world View in nu! cummtndcd In in lunch: a: a mum fur sell: d i m . Elm rthtiunshiqn an: an mi and cullfltiwljr thtr :lm drm'ihe d1: hmnan cmlditin-n it [ran a: mmh'wingljr a: a mndtl hand an squint: selves.

Evm when “It Tfiflfl {mm ddihrnt::naptralium Emu: intimacy fll' community. we in! Martin-MM! tram-ts. : pain: that has hem flpln-rtd by Irrilcrl [rum many difl'erml disciplinfl. Biulngichfly meshing. u Lani: Tlmmu mniflwd. a gflud can: an ht mild: Fur mlr marlin-mt: a: rmhiu. WI: in:- that mult- up. u we had gin-p supp-used, nl'wcmsiwly midrd packru nfuur awn pans. Wt

Ire :hartd. rmled. mmpied. . . . The whale dear I'm-film uf we'r- uwn Ell-If— mluus aid iifl-Hmfd, fffl-l‘l'll-H'PI'fl-iflg. autumnal", indnpcndcnt. inland illmd ul' 1 SEW—i: I myth.“

BETIDHD ALTILHEH

255

fllhflhhhgilu luv:11m talk-d our Htl'l'ltifll'l m flu: dulihtfltt E m Iinn that man In I'E'lllllll'l'f both within and among speck: a: u: make

'H dear that hath rmnpetithln and seif—suflidmrr an: the mepfinn in mm": rather thin lhr: rule.

Plyrhnlngicalhr winking. the Elfin "a cmnpnlitfi III-111ml: whirl] hill firm and is being farm-5d and built up lint-E the day ufnur birth am of Eflunfl'l'fl nmrwending illfluErItEfl and fidflflgfl between aura-Iva and nun-rs. . . . W: are memhm an: if Iflfllhfl'l'.““ This due-I. nut mean that m:- arc :rmbimir. fund. {Ir itlflfli: it mum that m: du- nm Hill at

dfldflp independent Ufa-111m. The idn malarhilfl': natural eguctnlritiw mm: but fl'II-‘E'I'l'iddfl'l in unit! in nut: him social [m- prnsnrial] in a

hclirl' Whfl-fl' pnpuliriur "is :m‘ibulah-lt m an mmhui: an individualim" in dmlnpmmlii paydmlngy; in film. "In understand indivifliul: fully. mare mun Hm snip 111: rehfiunfliipl Erma which the individual i: dtriwd.““ Smiulugicflly speaking. uh: very idea uf mutiny presuppose: inandrptndtnte. Even in an hidividualhfic satiety. we rely an each mhen marl-1 with ranch mhrr. inn-ran with filth mite-r in innumerable way-s. Th: pinneen 'h'hflfl'l we mm wmfld nut h“: survived withnul being willing m map-trait. Inch-15mg? m: are farccd [fl rechan 1with: tht {act that run wlmlr sncirdcs an: mun-1hr: murdtpcndmt. Hmlflr accidtnls and nil spill: i n “ mulling nf rmljuna] boundaries. Hum.- cnunlrf

TH'ilUH it: mrrmqr ur adjust: in: imflul ram. 1h: Tt'I'l'rhfliliflI'I—l in: fall around flu: world—and the U5. and. mark-t is as Vulnmhlt m such change: Ell-E'III'IEIH-E a: is my nil-1:1- :nmp-unL-nt III-{111E Hal-Id Efflu-

umjr.” We ifl'.‘ all: Hi u: mpped lflfi'l‘tht'l‘ fur 13h:- dmtiun a!" than-juntBET. Failing tn mug-nit: this Em. panhting in [ht 111ml]: I'll! are PHI-Imih-rd by [ht :11]! HFII'IE ”If. i: rowdy hannfiu] in: man? “11-1.“ tram

us naive; umbir: In den] “rim the mmplt'flilifl of Lh: run-i] wadd. Th: evidence an links between isnlathnn and pail-suing? {bath mental and phniuli has hut-tn ”hunt-d «I'manrq.r lbw-5. lrmiully. chi: urn-1r indhridual-

ism add: inmh Ln injury by during its vinind 111: m1 uf LEI-— uttdtdflnrifli.hfllrwfilflfiuunntflurdnnhuohltmd:

Ann-m3 traditional . . . Muslim a!" flu.- mming ul' human rehtiunfl'l'ms. and it: mpi'lnh an mntpflitiw: individualism and HIr-fl'lii‘l'ltfl' haw mutt! : Iillll* linn in HIEdI cart gifinghantndmgtrtdaflifiwand can-giver: “ m m gut-d lPfiiE-L

155

FEDHHETDTDUTGUS

5h: pfliflfl In flu.- "clndu: I'm-m [II-E biz-lying prul'mimu"—Imuh1}r

the

: 1 m {If aunt-5. child are walk-tn, and titanium. Th: mmbijufinn nf

human! and :hmnhahly 3w wait: that ha: jam-ducal this Ihufligt may indin-nlf EH: Iht TEIIIII nf nut individualist tlhiE.“ Hamill hehavinr in 5mm], In my [bathing nfaJIru'utiI: m' "m”-mafiul¢d prma-ciai bthflim. hi dilcmn'aged and HE“ made In IEEIII Ilium In human mturt. flur mun] Vilirflfl is hhmd by a self-hastd metaphysics and by Pfiflitfi that m h:- imlntl: us, 1n I'm. a tun-rid wit-w has-Hi an the indhridual ull' as uppmd In 111: stlf-in-rtlatin-nlhip ha: “filing Inn-fl] implicatiunl. u {IDEI III: widtr 5:1Bfiflflfl—Illmilm. empathy. and Iclfiahnflhdiuumd In this

PDEIIL EDUIEES {1F H U M

Rumifingfluirtandflutf Fur all it: influfllfl. Ham’s Hhifll wilt-m is hardly III-Bun]? an: duigned l-il'lfll' the Enlighu-tmwm. Wherru hi: spoke nfdulits, Dfllfl'fl haw: talhd Inf rights; whmu hr was interuttd in the illlrinlil: value [If attain-In, nl‘hcn haw.- hcen mart Eflntfmtd with run-suits. But Ham's prestriplinn: tin amplify mu feature! that have I‘Eigfltd supreme in Wastem flmught. First. mundiw is residue-n1 in thl: individual: it is th: autumn?

uf flu: scar ramcr than its relatinn m nth-tr Hl'h'fl {hat is integral [11 1h! idta ul— mural agtnc'f, Sunni [DD-rim? is manifested in principle: Ihfll nughl 11: hr.- adnpttd jun must.- nur real-an tell: u: that 111:? am.- right. Fm the PIEIEI'II. it! it inflict: In say abut]: [ht fin] [If man: that the indhridual [ID-III“ i1. nut a ntqaL purely [cu-uni cunlcfl fur mural d'ucul-

sign; If we but-gin with the lit-II. w:- mrlur 1hr HIE and fl'lfl't m man-rill Eumequencea- In this in It“!!! {If valuing hdtptndcnte aver interdtpnbd-

urn-rt. Llltitfl Guldnunn has nhu-nwd thai i1 is prefix}? Kant”: enqfl-Iuiu an the animal.Hit-[hill lend: him In imagim: a :tmim bun-mun whal um: warns [a flu and whal an: shmdd do. "En lung a! Ih: m m ; I]!!! I. 'II lhl: lflhjfit at" atlinm the Irll'fll'd'l fur happiness in am universal but

eguiatic. and a: filth. contrary n:- virtue."55 WhalEv-Er the ml: nf il'III:li'In'iIEII.J..‘aI.l:i.iI:I:I+ [haughf an: nf [ht moat wilting lithium DI Ham': thflught is surely this. hymn:palii‘miliq.r a! duly and dc:ire. Th: will :huuld mnfurm tn 1hr: maul law and nut H:- what an:Him:

In flu. In fact. hr: says. "It is HEN dam tn allnw anther mnfim [fur

52mm: . 1 m

2'5?

h m . thfl afimcrfltfl Hen In mom: “with dirt Inn-m] hi3“ The mart- clearly we dint'mgtish bun-[m ought: and prtfermcu. 1h: Illflltr. There an: mm}- pflmm m sympalhfliflfly tmutinned Tint wiihml m1: nmirr111'“a HIE—.Ihnun flit-1r find an inner miflaninn in Ipreading jay Ind rrjuict in II".mmmlmml nf nth-tr: whirh [In-5r haw.- madc pauihlt. But I fly that haw-Her

Mimmamiflrlchnuy lac, m a l w fl f u m m h u n n u u c m fl w a n h . . . . [If mu.- Inll flflh' fi'nm dflrr and widmm inf inclinatimr-dhm fur [hr fir“ Iiil'lE hi: injun ha genuine mun! wmh."

Th'u bald: Inn: far 1511m. Hum We law: 111: “parity In slum.- in athfls' ruling: and we- uughl: m rulfivatt this mm? :11 an imp-unfit tunl [ur doing nur mural duty. But mm is value an]? in the mpathy 11:31 it ddibtrattiy willed, nut in the kind that HIE-Eur! spununmualyfl “(ITEmrrn mu the prtl'trrtd int-Him ni' El'npi'lhf is um m as valuahlc in it: Wright hutnnlrimufuauithdpuusmmumrafinmfly rungnized

mum] uhligmiamHm all rthidlll 'll'hfi hm fallnwtd E311: Mun-Iowan? hair-:- EnlEnwcd him in this rcpudiatiun if

all that i: nut willed. But an: live:

indispumhly haw bun influmccd by th: vial-hr thfll muraliw must ht hnpusei that ethiral IEflI-E maul hit. as it ware. hammc-rcd inm children. thallhcrighlthinglnduilalnmuhfdcfinifinn Lhtmijlgwewnuidmfliu' nut Ilia. If mnnl m m in: an tin-null? impmtd duty. in: nhnulcl nut wan-din that it [amt-5 in be viewed a: a chute and is undertake-fl rrlurtlnlly. Tagflhfl, Earl]: and Hflhh-E! haw,- lcfl us :1 [1291125 nf permanent "ruggle between. an tht an: hind,1h: [an-nun“: durin- fur pin-amt: :1 1h: EEPIEHEH.‘ of n-lhm and. I'll-ll the anther hand. an uhligat'mn In transcend lint instinct. Eivtn lhias Hay nl' flaming I‘lfllflit'jpl,r it was understandable fur Freud tn- luv: cumluded that Phil-Ill! will usually prfl'l'iil. that “ill-lili-flfi tun] passiuns are stranger than munnahle interestsf'“ Traditinna! flifllflfily aha has huld. fun-flaming Kant, Illa: lh: idtntily ul' indifiduah mun be i-IT'I'i-E'I'iflli... that pfinriplr: are to I'll" funnuhttd dispass'mnmdy. impartially, univmalizahh'. ThEn: in nu Inn-m fur littl-

ings ht": h-E'Ealfl! THREE! Influ- an lmrtliahl: bani: fur an].r Ethical sync-III; III-IT are tantamount 1n bill. which its prerilelf what we with m climimw. filmust all tlhifl] ”slam regard this is iljflfllfllifi Hen "hum [ht talk turn! tnalflujsm It iamtatuinddtncc malflicuflrm Entrrmflltindfl tujahn Rawh‘: hunt .1 Thin} qffium dim“ the radar I'IEI “m Humal

dismlmuednm." And Thuma: Hagtl's influmlia] bout. Th.- hum

253

FflflH HETDmUTDUS

f d m brain: with the Malian that "mull? sifnflium altruism "ii nut I fidhg." T11: ward Minna! {if M

Magi-1': Em m

appear: Iii time: in

m u . Lawn ht sumlrmim hi: pmilinn as fini-

lam: ”win-hurl mined mafia-“in nmdapend11a. Wm, H Inlrhhnnr and ultimalr Idlfli-L'l'. 'I'hnr dept-ml imtrid un- lhe Fan that our m

: [hr minn

In:- luhjccl 1n the Fulfill] mndhinn Inf uly'enivity. whith depends in turn an mulhiliaty tn wit-w nun-thin hum hufll Eh:perm-nil and hnpersmul lundpuints. and In engage in renal-fin! In partial cuntluflum {mm hath 111' that map-Ilium."

Tm recent bunt: stand in appnaitinn Ia 111i: firm (if :Ilruimi—Ind nl' Etl'lifl mart Emu-ally. lament: Blum‘: Fflmduhp. dualism andMumfif]. a: I have 3. ]d mmlin-nfll. Imam altnxiam in [but minimal at" rd:-

tianship. Hurt than this, Elurn argues that an act. math :1 sat-Hug m benefit a [find in mud. may qualify as mural even i! it is. neither impartial nnr univmafizahrle. Tn act urinal-zeta13::qincarnatlgnur with sympaihy and can. in in iudl' In emu-r [hr mural malm. 5am unmiuna my be changeable and capricimu {and dwrefure incapable all suppufllng mnmlily}. but nu! all

emnflm, and nut all altmhtiu: tmulium. an be I'D dumbed!” HEI Huddings'l filming in ml [flflf-EI'II-Ed. will} nihilism as such. but. lib: Blum‘n Inlay, i1 rtjttu lamb 1h: idca Hut murality must b: universaliIIh-IL- and 1h: ummplinn Ihii perlunal mnnectiun is [an capriciuu: In

mum a system if ethics. Huddings is chiefly rammed m establish than muting and raring Far “I: nthcr is mar:- valuahl: than uphnlding princi— ple: in rule: abnut right aniun. Thm. 5h: “iumlEhJ liht very wellnpring

uf ethical bflnviuur in human iEEEIiV-E warm," in cm“: cum rathtr than abstract uhligaliun.“ Th: idfl. that muralily can ht hand an feeling: rather than m is man]?! mired had: In Dafid Hume. “Ream i1. and uught Dill? m

he the llil'l-I't {ill- thc pan-4mm." l1: 3 W {pp-min“ ht mutt-1:11 was “Whit cltmnrdirury." Furtunattly. laid Hume. Il'IEl-E pilliflfll utuun are manly hemalent: we generally l'E'I-PIJ-llrd empathicaflf and mn-

[:II:ILII'.HL‘:Iliu:aLI=1'1.r m nlhtfl, making their tame-nu nu: awn and :ndcavarimg In bring 2|}q what in in their iJIIE‘TTEl-‘l. All If what In: all] the virtue: are 'Inunminjiv. Nag-r1 incl Elm-1n nfl‘H ” M y mum: definitimn nl' lufh'tlfll my sprain: ul "3 hillinlrlnl m an 1'41 mmitlrmhan cu! 1h.- inln-nn nf nuan- mm. h i m 1hr [Ir-rd Inf ultrrinr I'I'I-l'lli'lu'fqfl‘t and Hum Hf": ITEII'EI [In IE1: End [If imlhrr pn'lnn fur

h'u awn Hit. I.'|I' mud-nu I'I'IIHiI'HIEd In» 1Lflil'l u WWI II: Haul-cl flfll'l that nuihirg in thtflllIEIEIH nrllmfllmpurmdfluudslhuuxhuuiunuflmihamlluulnflnflflrv tin-n and unfit-m applbnlinn.

BETHND ALTIUIEH

rue-ltd intlwfanthatweapplmd

259

whalhfilefiuuflwrpmlflrmdnppme

whu hanm thcm—juu a: w: lit: with ruptct la numlmflte cuntl'ihulfl tn Eh: puhiic gnarl. and that grand hi! meaning I'm In beau-e

al' (and i: dcfintd in lcnm on [HIT empathic rap-3m: In Dill-El“!- The run]: i: 111:: empathy. whidi h:- nliled mallard-w. i: "HIE chief m mural dialinflinnl."l'

If

Sprinting very mughly. my inltl'ltifll'l 11:11: is In mums: an indifidml mummy with a rehtinnil fine. i cagnitiw mummy with II'I- afl‘tttiv: Duh a pfinriple- or rule-hand muniitf with flflE gruundtd in can.- ur nupm

thy." The mnvtmiuml idca i: that the I'm-mar Pflflihifitf in each pair is more rehab-in. Mm: philfllflphtl'l have held that ratinna] rulcl {such a: ”fine uhuuld attempt In help than: in :hngm' Ellie {ml to unemlf i: nut pmhihitivt") are mun: dumb]: man afl'mtiw: rut-spams in number pfiarm and her militant-cm. Hill-I'M. thh Inumptiun is bring questiuncd: in Each nut [I'll-IT have 3515:“ lulu-n defmlded ii i mlid bani: fur muralit'f. hutithascvcn beenmcdflmtnflumanmflyh: mutwmhrlhm feeling].

Imagineapenflnwhu infinflmedtn fulaIgmmlprfleplahuul 1h: vain: uf helping hui Hhfi has. nu windmill cunntcriun lfl myr victim. nu [Ht dflil‘l m an: aura-III ralitvd ul' pain. Suth an individual may fail tn magniae iflfllhET'l dismal: curred? m begin with and rum.r then heip niwandly m at the wrong lil'llfl! fur lack {if afl'cctiv: annual-amt with 1h: victim. Hummer, Erwin Snub argue: than “indifidmlr channel-ind by

a muffin with fill?! and feelings [1-dt m nhflgatiun tn them mil]:r be mun: liithr ti:- malu: thcju-dgmtm that victims clan-sewn: thcir withing and bl: [an helpful under Iuflh cunditiunl."“ [I Haul-:1 qualify thin by lufigflt-

in: that ii is not W much that rule: Pr'fldil-Pflfl can In him the victim as thal Empathy an turh sud: a Iflldmfi" when: in c m ]

The fllinm like this a nap further: "Ilitlflfl-ST. grand whim. nr shun-act prindplts may inure [-IJIIE] In the IuEEfitlg [If mil penple."" Tu

uh: arithtr extreme-2min uflhia. antral-13mm: hcar I111: edmts Inf I-Lam in the :puchn nil' Nari mm murdcrtr End-3H" Hun-en. What it m-Iullril'ljnr required. Hues! declared. his naming In dfl with Hmhflfl. but with a "’I'nEt'Iniluus duelin- fur jmtice and a fanatical sense If duty?“ Barnum: cf h-c-th tin: Harm afflu- cunctpt and flu:- paniculnr tantra-t: meanings it can an: an. duty may nm but mm reliable Ihan me. What is mull-m iI allruism is regarded as a Ill-urn] guild. than perhaps empathy

Ind E‘lt‘l‘: HPFI‘DIifl‘lfltE this gnarl mare dandy than principltd helping mr muld. This. mu. munds :urprifina‘ it lint. limit unpalhit htlping is mammal]?I ”audited with mum mum-t ul‘ gutificaliun fur the helper,

Eflfl

FIDHHETD?DUTDUS

while dishflrnttd hclping Hem: Fulfil? 1:51:55." H m . I dhinu-rEllflil helper Inl- m II In Marge an nhliglfinn. In fuflw : rult, In Em:

up In a principk 'l'he Tcflpflmt m the mhcr ii Mart nit-:Iialtd and indirtth the at: al' muting ll'fl‘.‘ mlrmr‘s net-d5 hating only a Infill“- H: achieving the ultimah! gnu] Inf acting in IEEIJI'EIH'IEE with the pfindpk' Campalsiurn. by tantra-fl. will [raid 1-: ficiliiatt I11: uhjmitr: uf helping: just in nrdtr m hflp. II thus has a Ilrungrr claim In wear I11: Hunt]: at” Illl‘llil-il'l'l." Hum it may HE". bl! Lhfl a pawn mmiwwd h? nilfl at primiplfl Hill aim-flu}! 111 ifl'flfiw tunimilmml m helphg [II will rum-E In

car: ahuut the partimlar mhrr bring helped. {5hr may even mm 11: think Flu-imaintain.r album flu:- rclminmhip butt-rum herself and the min-r, in whirh can! nit uf altruism in hEI'iflE the paint.) Em even hrs".-+ pfimiplu' mun-ihute m altruism uni? iIItl'IrEEfl'p—Lhal is, null: insnfar 3: lb: act Inf hflphtg tficiu an atlwr-ufimted mm“ than rule-urinated} mfllhl't. BEE-idfl the fan that :I I'Lantian apprnach In finality III-T! HEE'II] chilhn unreliablt. ur mum! [rum gmuine alim'tsm. it: uppusitian but-mm duly and drain: virtually guarantees that mural hehafiur will hr patched as disagreeable. as same-thing one unuld gu- uut flf ant': way In amid. It is cumin-am m :nmplain abnul Hidflprtad immnnlhr—chtathg. (EsIm-mrfly. nphilati-nn. and It: [huh—hut 1:3: m mIn inquirt whethfi this jun might be relalfll In th: tray mutilin" hill burn m m in flu: - first plat-t. .. IfHumE in right album Lh:“nllunlmen" ufhtnflnlfllt panda-m, and iii]! fifth-E: firm:- descrihrd taflitr in thi: bank has III-H11 penuasiw.

the-n we luv: mun: m question th-r premise ul‘ traditiunal undmtanding: nl' mutuality Assuming a racial and childwtaring taunt: cmdudw to caring and helping. unpalhf and perspective taking, [here is ream tn thhlhfllalwlntwewmfl indnandwhatwmngfl! mduartnfllmfarapart

after :1]. Thu.- IPPfl-fflll cum-Hymn- af hire and duty.- 5hu-uld plus;flmm map: In: Him unit: .1 fEtiih ufth: will and of NEED-mil]! desire mindless HI 1111: natun: uf aunt‘s denim. This mwnfl, il' Iain: :1 {act Hint. hhtu :u m: pauihéliw ufun “urganit muralinr"-—mu

thalisanmm‘al nutgmwmufwlmwtanraflmdmamufprhdplu imparted fur the purpua: {If ”dinning um

A Ham: fur Plinciplel

The idea If a rehlimul. iE-IEEHVE. cam-based. ur urganic mum'fitjr min [mama-culling m m :In Miami apprmhu In :thin- Hut Indium

IE'I'DHD ALTIUISH

2'51

urn-Man flulumalmpthmlflmmmideriu [Impaled replacemmlafilflcmumtflrtfiflly-Tuhtginfiflhwhtclflflyh Ihl: rclflantr m mural“? cur the I’m Ll'fll'. human: ire—m it law have tht “pad” m

bur—mm: align-amt [hill i: usually believed? It i: [HIE thing In uhlfl'fl' that duty and duh-c mar amiap but mint-thing that again In argu: Lhu Lhil gin-'12: In infumntiun all-nu: the nature m ml:- ul' dutjr. W1.- miy have

barn mu quick it: dnn'iht nu: Ipfliei fl Ic-Ifish. but but? {inn matting this pmplinnufwhflutmarfl'mhnwwtuughtm but? It may be ptrminible. a: Elam and Hudding: argue. In dimni the

rtquirflnmts nl‘ univemafizahflity and impmialitr. but if 111:! ward Harald; mam anything, it spedfin sumflhing ugh-rantcd: it Inn-m prcscribc filhlf than jun dtln'ibt. In the Cam's: [If arguing 111:! Italian ii nut the IfllflT-E Inf aural distinctium. Hume paused 1ft mat: what l'flfl lit-cum: a wry film-nu: digrmium HE nhmfil Ihat philnmphtn frequcnfiy and ummuunuhhr iiidt fi'um talk ill-nut the nature uf human: ur HF Gad hm

talk 3|:q haw m: alga“ m behave." Th: [:11q t1:- aumne mat mm: mural lignificantc mid-u in I ducriptic-n at", my. #11:: human: nerd—an mar: genmll'y. In “rum: than me can ever derive a value fium 3 Earl— ha: mm:- m be regardcd a: an instance at" that namrallntic fallacy. Th: issue in man: cumplitatcd Lhan I am making mu her-u: in th:

ell-hr I'Qfi'fli. 1h: sn-{ulled Waugh! pmblfln In: the subjctt Hi a 1111t all" disputatiuus mumphs. But it seem: dcar tu me mat we must bu: very cart-Eu! all-nut muming [hit any .‘lifll'l nf mummy can b! {summed an the hill-il- uf an empirical fintfing : 1 t thl: capacity fur empathy—fir, Fur that nutter. I11: capacity Fur rfimnmm thl: nced in h: cared I'm. the hismricll prflll-Enfl‘ nl' plum-rial at unlimtiai arm at anything 111‘ the kind.

lI‘.II|1.:r belief: about tum-selves may, at"cm.afi'cct nu: behafiur. W: may act mun: mmfly as : :nmqu-L-nte :rf reaming that it is within am"

repennire tn dun m. But the queuinn at hand i: am haw flflen we Eflflflfit in mural at“; it i: haw in: mm: In all than: 311'! mural. That is a math:

ul'judgumfl and thin-ice. mat of dim-awry- Mast pang-Ire m.- lmuw may Eta-pl the numtilive judgmenl that tiring Fur flfllEfli il a grand thing In {II}. but Ihat dues mt make it any less a nnmmfivtjudgmclm flaring. lib: everything Ell-IE. dun nut h-cmmc- gnu-d just h m : h in gmmliy up Fraud. Hnr dun i1 lam-mm: gum! jun bin-tau“ it may be “natural." Hurling is aim Datum}: [ha upcralive queniun is whim nf am my natural mpihilitiru HE will fluid:In Hint. 311!c if curing um in mm:

sense mare natural than hurting. Ht wuld still :I‘IDI.‘ be able m mlufle arm-thing 31mm in mural desirability [mm this EEL

REE

FRDHIET'D'I'GUTDUS

The paint of all this is that in taunting Wu kinds uf' IEI'IIDI'flliI'j". m: Intuit filial 111E Imptili-ufl m mnttrp-nm stifl' rule: {"flu: :huuld hflp

if . + ."'_I with warm mutants nfmncrfi: caring. By virtue {If being dumplium. d1: laucr arc not rum-lily mural “IIEII'IIE'I'IIS :II alL A mnralit'f flf {raring nu]: IE“ u: 111m it is desirable In help Dl' cal-ti In hunt to help m- :are. In nurture relationship: in which helping can lat: place. fll' ta attend to real human beings maker than m :Imrm mics. In plat:uf"flnt shmfld htlp if. _ ." Judi a mural [mm-Ewart till 53!" ”Hm nimuld htlpif. . .“ ill-"Tun Ihmlld help yawfiund if. . . ." It mm mm mi! 111: 51'? But it cm: umit

the 5M Huddings hm mad:- a: sand 1 me a: tan b: mad: againit principles, but Illljll'lltfllf she is unahh! to sham that ll‘lEf can but hiflilh-Ed Hum Illfll‘ilfilH‘l-fl! least Immune ah: ends up inflating mm: herself. Th1:

paint. aha up. i: nut u:- cnmnm rules abuut sin-fling and killing—nuts. that HiJI dish with each other and [T'EHE their awn EIEEPliDfll—hul m can: tin-ply 31::q when and let this aunt-H ch: Frail-er actiuna- "Each mu wh-n Ell-III!!! under uur gut must he :II'IEl a: ant-caring," Ill-I: pru-

pnm.“ But flat is this ifnut a plinciplei‘ Il: may be a principle mutt-med with Iht “flut- during. and a wry app-Eating principlt. hul it is Minis-rial:—

:hljr a pflntiple. At lhil paim. In u: m Hid:- tlw inn:- nl' whal :umtitulu I maral system ur statement and simply aslr. whulu-r the injunm‘nn m tmpathizt

uflm u: suifilzium std-that: III} than m: can gut by with-nut printiplu. ImmEdiiIElf we realile that it due: Hill. In madam nf mnflim thr

prusicng qmfliun i1: With WM?! lhlIHl-Id we empathize? Th: pregnant Hanan ur 1h: Imus? Thur.- fictim nf [mm-ism ur flu: displated and up; Fraud pmple in wimse hdulf the 'lEfl'DTil-I: almgglfli' We need printiple: Ila-nut [lime-m jusntire. duty, III-T right: 1::- hc-lp us d-rcidc. "But. this is 1 falls: dtD-‘lflmfln [fliflflli this reply. “:1 humm- chuicc can b: nmdt manly

by flnpathiting with all parties In the dispute." Tn whizh m.- annrgn Thin is fill: mun“! indeed—and it is aka a principle. I want In magma: Ihe impurtanrr. and value (if tummy but nut :lEig'n m it ahurden it cannula-t suppnn'. Empathyiinmmum} fur helping: smut put-up]: an: prnmfiai jun became 1hr? think they should ht- And Empaihy in “MIMI fur flaming mural bduviflr. Th:[all11:!a I ham to add. dufl nut hing: an cmpalhy'l being aEecrin-fi Ptnpmin'Hm blindly. alum hu [maul Hm III allruiuir: rapt-m- In Imam- iu m I Flu-:11; :ficflwafiuirflTh-umuia] m m m n huh-urn mac-cm hull-Emmudmd mum-n1 EllIII:- gu-IJ-d a i m rall'flfl than between lazuli-null :ur burn-Hutu confide-nth"; and nlinnal tmnidcl'ilhlu.""

BETDHD ALTIUIEH

2'55

linking in I with: phi-m. 3-H il, tan. is hlflifient. “Wham: W m ::hnuld u: like?" is a: whim and unsetflhg. a qumiun as "With t mM r ! H: :mpalhixe?" ur "Fur whnrn shmfid in: cart?“ min-thy II'II'] care 1:1: mm Ema-changeable mncapn. T:- h:- q. Empalhy mafinn'tiitflI-E likelil'lmd ufhtlping. but it dun Hm logically Enlail Liking actium This is uh}- lhe Dljncru .El'l' [he need for a "cunjninv

Eng n-f mpmhy far pain with perm rupnnnihfliryf‘” 1hr idflufm. by [flflll'iEL can b: thunghl urn building in [his w h i n y m that In EII'EI'II'JI' mutmflnlnnlnnly mahartherfcdjngahutnaninhu landfill“. Even flu: ridtercuncept aim. :hnugh. rtquiru: nu: {all m rule} I'm dircflinn In! In": elducic PEEPIE tn “hum m: are um penguin-y mmmfied. Such nclwiun fiulmfl harm: nf faint“ In which I mini mm: [if us want In hr [ailhfuL ”The EEfllfiIl [EEE'I 11f the ”damn: firm is that. h'hfl‘l flit}! tum-I! in Ihl: that, M l ? Eie-a uul [II-E willdnw." a: “Eli-Elm put it.“ Impifliilil'jl' mil]-r bl: manned. but film Iht man tiring

indi'h‘iduai will uflfll he Embled by its Elli-CHELJEIIIEI 511a Hill Named u: shunt par-pit ulna "my ha: wry amiahlt and duflghtfinl tn mm: with ll'l'lD-Il] they sympathile. and fl'l'fllli? unjust and marveling 11: 1h: rm Inf lhr

Hull-III“ Ewen Humc, fur than matter. magnhed Illu- problem: "Sympathy-r with plenum rmmw Hum Lu [ill mud: him“ thin flu: with pcrmm “wand Ennflgunul. . . . [mwehluwjlumrrm IhE'i-Eilfl'qllfllifiEIIJ-jf

rcfltnhn.mdrflflnagmtmmmdvicemdm-"" Itmyhcugurddntthcpmhh-mhcmilnmmnmhiudl indemnit- but just Ihat we need In can- fnr more people. In a mine

this is trut. Harlin Haifnfln pump-um in cfl'm that mun- :Ind hum filing. a: in]! is making ill. efl'nn In {@1t 'Irith III-um ptupll: and In undtflund {hair mmmun human-in", mu htlp In reduce empufllic hhsWHSIiISI heachnawltdgn.d1c fan is dual: we will m m m f u r

www.mdtuihmmmwwfilbtindinfldmfwmmuu mwhuln we are muchtclymnnecmdunltflthfitilapfindpkflut restrain: LH. frum fining m. I would prop-me that Judi flhflifly—lfl u: amid the bathed mm Eli—{an I]: pruh-Iemarir m1 Hum.- min-m. Cmfidrrjust Inn-E If many plum-bl: flampiu. Hun-r: Fifi-mu nerd urgtan “implant: than an gun III-Em at pun-11:. Suppers: that Fred in admitted 1D uh;- hmpiml ind gum whammlanhnnly inhavehilbofifrlqjcnil.filmdd hrbrgirm pliufity mfiwrupcnflmmshmflhtgubflimflwmdaflhcfinfl H i m m l u fl ' h u h f m w w m t u l m u w Freduucll’ulhilpligh (may. when the either. :3q)? needy. path-ml mjun :I-fl many

1‘5!

FEDHHETQTDUTHUS

lime-.5 un a cmnpulfl pfintuul: m thtm. Simuld Ihii hr: flawed tn amen Ihtir dccisinn. m- :hnuld they unplnry rule: In ensure fail-urn u a: mun-

terhahnce In their ptnnml iniulvmnt?" What I am really talking alum here. allhnugh the current In“ acquired : pejnrative rrpumjnn in Him: tirdn. '1: flu: and fur inhalant-n.

Thil i: prfliltly What Hm: In hr: lacking in public uflicilh whu in: gmumcly “mu-ed by. and gum will-n+ {IE-slim“: individuals the; en. muntcr an :11: street but whim: budget pfim'ilin tram: misfit? an I mud: wider Hill: 1mm. dunemnfmwmllmumhrlur.ldlfldnmihawtfl.wflwprfimv Ibll' dull! ul' an: indifiduall E'Irfl-Ifl in nutpmrmg uf sympathetic mpg-nu and UPI-H: 1hr mum-1:1 tqmmmitr :3! man]: '1'“ mpmt: uf 3'“ milIiu-n Jews liIlui in Hui till-am camp! air all" a lumdmd Human-d jnpmcw killed in HimIhimfl and Hannah may mus-Ir: but mun-limit uneninesl. Arthur Enema-r ha:

pull it pfligmnflr. "Slalillics dfifl'l hula-ad: it il 'LI'HE' {Hail which murals. We are unable tn tran: the mu] prawn: with nur 1mm: “HIE an mil? fun-cu: m1 Hull.- lump: fll' reality-3"“

lthinlititputt'mgflihglmmflngtymny dutwem-hletn

Erma nub m1 mun-EH. rezdy-lu—hand realityhalflmugh obviuullr it is min In dc: an. ll. wanld sun-m “.111 than: is: nt'tcn mural rain: in mmin!‘ bay-13nd what is in Frum uf uur Face-I m' what ”ft-ch right" in our

gut. Emmi that human lives are lifllflflil'nfl'fi- sacrificed in Iht mm: 131' abnnninm. 51':a 113::- that trying m hut-p Me's tandem subju-

livitjr before In is 5mm“? a man: pmmiaing mutt by which tn an'i'lfl: at mummy than is fin-ruling an :hstranium. Hflmhflfls. ahsanctiuru an alien nu: ml]: linlr. m juslim and a greater good. It is Hi link cunlequen-EE whether we 1:1” thin a higher-nrdtr murnliw ul' an!" m- d:cidc that no muraliir at are i: adequate by itscll'. What matters is the magnitiun that same mural claims are nu In: urgent fur hcmg inun-

gihl: ur physically distant fl-I' nfl'lerwiae hard to feel. Camus wrulkd with this issue in Th Hagar. dfltfibinfi' his dncmr pmtagnnizsfls nblilau‘nn m resin 1h! heart-mum; pleas nl' infected individual: whu

mind In I'E'jflifl their 1|:t ants nullide [If the quarantinEd area, mHha mint-d being turn away fram thril- l'zlmilj.r and shipped 11:: 1h: hmpilaJ. "Tu fight abstraction 3m“ must have lame-thing of il in run: mum

make-up." Eamul mutt."

IET'DH'D fiL‘I'IUIEH

EH!-

‘Where Humanity Beg-ins All ul' that tmuidmtium lflflfll‘ that what u:- lltfll is : mutuality al' draught and ul‘ feeling, u-f principal: and {11‘ cm. This may wand lib.- I facile. even pmfimctnrjr. mmprmniie. but apgarently it in! nu! nhvinm m manna. 5am: champiflm at" a fift—hlfld I'I'ifll'fliljl' mum to but :flflg'i: In principle: and l'lllt'l. will“: a much larger [fiflliflgtl'll Inf Ear-{'5 intellec-

tual heir: have dismiued afl'efljw mnneniun a: tpiplrwnmntnal ur in trim-ram nr cut-n inimi-HJ In nhiu. Whal l haw-t nit-d to do hfl‘t. manM'Ef. is nut manly tn II}? that : :jrnlhuis is required and let it E“ II'. that hm H:- emphanizc the run-Hun: it i: requirtd. the dcficifluifl aft-ac]: partial mnccplinn of lfl-fll‘fllil'y'. “Till: respect In the relating impnrtanct {If Illnughl and Feeling, win: can Elf“? the pawn? uf um: William 111: 91111:? Whith ha: bet-n man-rt dudfl—hlnndicss raljnmlitjr nr Emma] passinn dmruid ul‘ mmn? Bath II'E' inhuman because tad] is truly part [if 111: human. Imptnnnll printiple-s were intruduced in the first planar btfillfl.‘ nut all human panic-n: an! as btnnultm a: flu: m that Haunt {on far Ihfll. manner. Ih‘ts hunki Ericbfllfl—a EH1 that w: Fun-get at uur pal-3L 't'tt principle: :lnnt 1:11:

junify mass PETE-H and fllldfil' hulmuu. flu that philursnphcr Williuu Barram put in "T11ht Tim is um Ill-E mm: as m be remnahlt. In my

time line:heard [ht must hairiraiaing and any thing: Era-m wry ram nl mm. named in i p-cflenlry ration-ml my: nu insight ur fat-Hug hid but-En used In thtd. the remain: al any paint.""

But munn and cart. Printiplfl and Fulani-m. an: nut really aircrew ingrtdicnm that haw: In In: .111ilin'uallh.r rflmhinfll. The? can each mhn m their hiding place-2.: urn-ch. by :- miranlluu: alchemy, i: transfurmd into 1hr.- nlhnr. Snmmm- may begin to help berm: 1hr.- Ihhtlu :11: ought In 11:11 HI. Sum 5hr ha: Hurt her a person. : suhjm. and Ihe [amt-s In m: as HEEL Th: Illfl-fi'h'l! has Hahn! in H1: pram-chi act has Elicittd a living mnncnirnn. Th: minim quma: um rum“, initially mufinled by

a cummitmtnl m the idfl ul‘jmrice. whn xiii “I hut-gm In like the pump]:lumhtlpilgandhemmevcfitfismncdatwhmmhappmingm thtm."“

Cami-mew. wt might ask. when: {l- munil prhxiplu mm: frnmi' Tn lulu: EIlElIl [IE1 can but lE'IIJ'l'IEd in uni-Ehflurward fashiun, But hen: i: Innlhtr panihilily: m'tr lime. um: mpund: iflitt'wdy In man].r people

and this my prmnpl 1hr :nnuininn that an: m

In Hp. Due Hans In

2'55

HHHHETDHJUTDUE

thin]: than: gtfldefim Eur helping fiirly and. mum: M y . than: haw tn treat ulhfis. We manual:- m nlhfi'l' feeling: and 111m I‘m-flowing flip-anus fitntmlly sulidify: prirnn'plfi. in Hum, might ht undmtn-n-d u "congealed empathy." hpprnaching ill:Hill-E idea I’mm ii. diEerenl direc-

tiun. H m pmpuscd that [lit flip-[hit fi t ! may he wahd Wide-m1}. ur mythic al‘ut may be ruined Em and Hum may Pfilfll‘.‘ lhr mum! pfinripki. Ehht'r win-r. flu.- mmv WufipfimiplcmdflnpmhirlflinflumldpeMIhun-dhflmcm Him {Dr ltrmmhen any nhting band}. The mult mar bl: that the pfincipk. Hen if

burned initially in n “cu-13L" didactic mutual . . . is mndrd and Ila-rad E III :E-Efliwlr thitflflll reprflflflatinn—u I “Int" cupitiun.“

Chhtrs. Inn. [1.1l wnuted lhil car: may but 1h: main imp-rm: fur dE'I'ElBF-iflg Ell'lifll idea: :5 Hail a: sup-plying than with IJIEiJ' [uni-Em.“

In any cam Hit turn an: more clan-Iv whit-i than we might mumr. and any pmgram tn prawn-IE prusudal aujludes and behafinr Ought tr.- emphanifl: 1111111 jmfltt and caring, principle: and Empathy—.1 vitw that mu

cognitive deveinprm-nul paydmlugitu lib: Ping-M and Habit-Hg gau-

mm: Evident: uf having tmhmccd.“ A: on: legal schnlar pul iL. “-fihm dnnmum GT “111‘ rule: Pffldutfl mmtm: II: data nugltn c-f pun-n33“ And whrdwr uur [urns at the mama“! i: an rflI-Ei ur perms, we nughl In bar in mind that morality is. a SID-dill prudun. I talkative :flhrL A: Earn! Gilligan and Gram Wiggins hive emphiized. “Strung fading: and

dfifl' principle: an: dependent an ‘amhenlic' rrlaiiumhipu" rather Ilfln bthig stifwgenmtcd."

The kiln intrnducedinthrlintpanuflhin drip-[Eh dwarelntiuml Plflptfli'l'f: heck-1m frum bra-rand altruism, hat immutable mam] mnificalinm. We an: prtdispostd tn htlp [ha-5:- with whmn w: I'EtI I Finn-anal cannefliun fur mun-n! than are neither eguisljc not allruiltit. II in the p-trl'm Hiflittfldfllfl." uf Ham‘s split hen-rem datin- and duty. I have mnmdtd that. w: nut-rd ruin ul'himm m guidc our Imam-cm ul' 1km: with Wham then: in nu Feeling nfun. But ptrlup: In: and [a “firm in Him with strangers m yr that were nr mulad be such a cunnflfiun. mmsm—unt sclzl' hclping iflfllhfl' within-fl mmidmtiun at“ ptrsuna] pin—i: hath l'EElilliE and cumudablr. But I mud-:1uFrL-htcdnfll Ihm‘. fipples out mncemricallf Rum uur lured was In thin-5e we lmmr m warrant that has Ih-I‘: pmcmial nl' mating tutu mudir: hands. flu: nhligatiun. 1: Radar runinih us. i: nut manly In trim! indhriduall in a “min filhhn bus; m wart tugether In nuke structural

BETDHD ALTILTISH

EH?

dungn Ihalwiflhu'lifltccafing. We :huuld "mmum I'IEIEIEE III-Iii]. murder in whirl: it'liflfl far prudential inhaling: iii—it least by and large— cnilx'idenul with artinn Fur the mmmnn gnud."" This: means [hillrngin; the imtitutiunal and idmlugical supp-uni for mmpcljflun and indiridmlilm. I'Ephring I-I'IE‘III whrrnrr Fflllihlf with a nun“ uf cuupcmim MEET all. we on intertlependem. like it or nut: HE Hullld d1} halter In Iii: it. We 1hnuld In In mm: a pram-rial flrhnutifln in flLll' childrm and aura-Iva. Ill-ending m lb: dflflflpmrnl Bf pcrlptnivr-taking and amp:Illnlr skills. We should braiden mn- range ui experience-.5 m minim.undtmandlng all and identificatinn wilh. min-n. Ethliu-nship in th: Full!!! lEflll' in Hm I lulunr fur 1h: few. dependent an specialiaed training fll' afiiuence. Nu me has spake-n mar: IranianIttl'f cur partially about the tummnn Inability at cunnminn than Harlin Huber. Hi: napalm: In an inugim-d critic who uh whtfllcr dialugu: in

a realistic passihility in tin: min-dun “lid is wunh “wring": Thiiftuffliahguc in nu privilrgt affluellutmnl activity like dhltttit. Il due: nun-I

btgin in :11: “pp-tr slunr nl' humanity. [I hrgim nu- high-r1- Iham flew.- humanity lat-gin; "[11:11:- arc nu giftcd and ungiflcd her-3, only III-us: h'hfi girl: mama-rhea

Ind than: whur withhold th-nmstlm- . - . I an: mm mutant-cl will! lhI: pun-1 I an: mutt-med In'lfh - . - the braking lhmugh {rum lhl.‘ Hallm- u-l' tl'u: :hllly—ltmptnzd dimmflhltmu. uhuinacr. and mnlrmm: in which II'H" m1Wham l Flu-ch ll

undamnrutnfmcmmull livingand uutul'whidlhtmandal lime: lulu-n brul: thmugh. Whillwr? Into numb-13 EIIIIHL [Emit nr huhr. inm nu Eilhtl' and mflnHalf inn: [HI lil1|_|' I'l'l‘iEIIE'I-Elfll 1nd 313:: cf nun-try day. when- ] haw In dun with jun 1h: m1.- sum: “rt-alhy" him when: d'uu.r and business I 3:11 min 111 in such a way. giant: 1n giancr. but In Inn-uh. Hard to ward. 'lhli I uptrimct ii I: “rather! tn ml,- and "WW“. In ii. il: in EFDILEI'I in mi.- Ind Ellyn-Elf iII'J il. And 11w. in 11' {hr dunking of mud“! that I! haw: called my ruling Ila-n: appran In HIE. horrid-y and

firms. nu.- rflmiw reality mama-h- and givcn m m:- in mm and rupmuihcil— hy,Wtdunnl find mnninglyinginlhingjmrdnwflpuliimafllinflhhu haw-run u: Ind thing: it can lupin-n."

Butler's anaWEr speak: 31m m than 'Hl'hfl Nina“: altruism with un-

lwardiul' htrnism. la mm: whn mum: that we are stuck in Eh! quichaml uf stlf-inlcrflt. m [hau- whu rain- their thilda'tn and plan public policy hflEd an the premise than lhE prusncial is umpiin. Tfl- rtjflt lhm unjui-

lifted assmnpliun: i5 m: m taint lea-m:- at the real wufld. It in. if I may ruin a famritt Laying nf [ht quip-:5. m hr: nut an np-timisl. but I Hahn.

Ha imparted mlutinn will diunlw mar Fumble-1m ul' dehmmniufiun

2m

HDMHETHTDUTDUE

Ind can-crummy, calm and cruelty. Ha "ugh! redrmptia-nn I'rmn outside uf human life 1will III III break Ihmugh. The wart that has II: but dun-r: is nu: wart. but u: :11: better equipped far it than M: haw: bun ltd In htlim. Tu HHI'II'E mlvu heyuud atlruhncu. w: almady have

"hill in requied. We already at Hhfll i: requiem We II'L' human and we luv: each nth-:1:

Appendix The Seville Statement 01] Violence

Belin‘ingihl'l it tummy-awry maxi-llama flmmprflmhr diltiplinflthl: fl'lfllili dangfluus and destructive armifiu nt'uur merit-s. Irinlmfi: and war: mug-

niting flu: sci-mm i: I human cuhural prudun which I'Jill'll'lfl-l: In: dnfirlim: at flaampasling: and gratefully :t-uwledging the suppafl d the :mhm'itin al' will: and lEpE-Efllilh'tl- at [11: Spanish L‘NESED: we. the undersigned Ethni-

infinmarmmdihcwrldandfi'umrflrunudmmJfl-tmindium-min: flu! Inllawing 5L3l-Etl1tfll nun Vinkncc. 1n iL we dialing: a numb-er uf allegtd bilhlifil finding! 1'11: haw bum uled. men by m in aur disciplmn. Injuntifir

vial-rm: Hid liar. Bit-nus: lhl: ifltgtd Ending! hart mnuihLt In in film where nfpeuinlilm in m: time. if: nubmil that lhr apnea. m

m wjecliun

uf [hm mil-flalnnmt: [all mhihutt lignifnntly tn lhl: Internlfinnfl 'I'fil: uI' Farr. hfimrnflcimlificthtufifluddiumjlmifir riflencruldmrii [lunar but has bum made sinu- Lhtllfi'tfllflfflfldtfn Idfl'ltf. Furuunplt. [ht than: {if Huluu'nn ha: burn turd mjunifir nut only Hat. hut Ill-fl m m .mlanialiln. and lumen-inn bf :11: ml.

w: Iliitl': nut Pniilifln in m: I‘m-m al‘ Eur pmpmilimi. Wt in: W

that

M a m m y - m a n u a l s ” : viulmtcmdwflthucuuflbrfluitfilly addr-fllinl Erma thl: HindPflilfl of uur Infilripiim. but It nitrin Hum her: In hint it cans-Mn“ a mun-H hnpurmll [Int Imp. IT LI Int-mum? uranium to u}! lhil. w: hm inheriu-d a tendency tn

mitmfmmmaminflammatllhmghfilhfigmflflymm

2m

APPENDII

urinal Iptdn.mlylfflnlflufdfltmrfiwimI-mflinfiglflinfihmfln

nrpn'tfld M 5 have HIT hem rep-urinal Huang natmlhr living spam. and nun-r ul'lhc-n: ima’lw tht llfl ul'lmll delight-d In In- mlpum. Harm-ll prtdalurr {ct-ding UPI-EH1 nth-tr speck-s cannut be equated with inlm-lpflifl 'IIFi'EII-El'lfl'. Warfuriaapcrufiuflyhumnphcummddmummurinmhflufimh.

Thu.- Em fl'fll mum-Em has flung“! an ridinlly art-r rim: indium: that i1 E I pram-cl, nil- I:I.I1'll..l.l1'!_ Iu. Main-gin] cunncctiun is. primarily Ihruqh language whirl] nuke: pmflhkiht cmmiinafiun uf sump; flu.- Immiuiun uflrrhnuclnm. and LI'It' us: if Ill-lull. WI: i: hifllflfiiflllh' punihh. but it i: nu! Wiuhh. u tfidenn-d by its mriatiun in arc-unann- and minn- mi'er time and mar-E. Thar: an: tulmfl-s which haw: um engagfil in war lhr {mimic-5., and lhEr-E art flfllll'fl whirl] [11191: [113331.11 in 'IIII' fi‘tqumll? .1: mm:- Iifl'lfl'n and “DI It n-Ihtr'l. n u m u m ! m u m 1:} any Lhal ha: nun-1n? burr vial-rm bthuinr in gamma“? pmmmmud inln nu: human: III-Inn: “Mik- grnn art invali'ni H :d] kirk of 11mm” system function. the? prmiadl.‘ a dfiflupmrmfl pmmlifl 111:: ram btfllullilrd unruly in nzrnjunniun with line fining-mil and Iii-till min-mm

While individuals van in their prediapnsilinns In be .15“:t by their m . it 'u the i‘ll-IL'I'IIiDI'I but-run Iht'lr Elem-1i: tfldn'h'fl'I-Enl um! tunditinm ml" nurlurinn: than dflmninfi III-cit Wilifli- Eli-[E11] Eur rau- pflhmn-ghm thr gent-5 do null pro-chit:- mdiuiflual: man-Hy ptrdiapmcd In viulcncn Miriam du- tin-1| dflfimmt the umsilt. Whilt Emu an: mimul'lrrd in Huhlishing mu“ III-thaw inn] cap-utilifl. they flu um h1- Ihcmdtu Iptcifyr IhI: nulrutnt'IT [I mmmnmm Immune-m- m fl‘f that in thr mun: nf human mlutim

{hart has hut-en a idcttiun fur agar-ruin bghlumr mun- lhin [m- ath-H find: all" hrhavinr. In all nil-undid spa-cits. mm: within 1hr lump in Hhiwed by the ability.- In twp-Brut and m fulfill social r m : relevant m Iht 3trucluri: Inf that stump- “Darrin-Intuit" invalu-m Inn-rial bending: and affilialiam; i: is 11m simply I

mun uf tht pun-Inflow. and In: a! q-rn'ur phyailral puwrr. ahhnugh it the: hvnlw HWiV-E hghai'iurl. “hm gmlil' Illa-Ilium fur Iggrtui'n:IJ-rhitinr III! hat-n :nififllly histiuflfll I'm anhnall. il hi5 r:=||:ninlz’sl1-r sun-ltdrd in pmduring hypnnflfflait‘t individualr. llu'al indk'IIL-I that aggn-uinn in: nut auxin-ally “Ilene-Hi undrr natural mnditinns. When inch uperimrrflafljr-crflmi Ill-“pur-aggrmiw

animals an- prflcfll in a such] gruup. than Eilhfl" disrupt in ant-ill urunurt ctr in: driwn nut. Vinlrm i5 nrilhtr 'm crur mini-um Ila-[aw rum in our gene-I.

rr u: m u m mmlum' In 5:11:- LI'III humans him: a “vinlrm Imrain.H While we :11: him.- III-I: nun-.1] iFIIJil'JIl-Il In an finlmlhr. it is null :umnuikufly mil-Bled by intmal m: Emmi-31 :limuii. 1J1: higher primalu and lfllliit Mhfl'

:IIIiIIIIlI. nu: high” mum] FWEHEI fill-tr Inch nimuli Hurt fllqr can but Htfll 11pm. Haw Hamisahlpedbyhmrithflcbtmmndilinmdfldwdalfld. Thur i: nuthinl in cm: nrumplwlialufi that mmpch LII In Mil-lit vinknthn

Ins m a m ? vacuum-r In any that war i=5 named by “ilmimct” m‘ III? Wmiminn.1htm¢rgtmufmudemnrfanhmhflnijmmqflm 1hr primary a! unmimul and Malina] Pinata. Inmtflme: nil-HI "instincu,"

EH

W

In 1h: puimlql nf mgfilimr [II-clan. Harlem “r

invalm 'qllflutinml ”Ill-E DI

prnnna'l :hmnrriuifl llfl'l'l an ahedirm'e. iuflfltib‘ifllj". and itlfllilm. Initial stills such :3 language. and rat'mnal cmsidflminm ilfl'h a: {mtfllflflfliflm plinning. and him-manual: practising. The tflhmlugy ml- malt-m war ha: eugFulfil trails: amhlialtd with virulent:- bath in [ht training 13f annual (amt-Ham: and in the prepll'llinn a! mppcm far in: in {hunt Effltfll pupulaliu-n. A: a result all mi: rung-min. surh [:3l an: ul'ttn misfit“ m hr ['11: must: fllhfl' dun LIE! mmewcmu DI II'II: Frat-En-

Wt {mcludr lhal hinlnmr flats nfll tun-drum humanity In Win and lhifl Immunity ran he find [rum 1hr liming:nfhiulugin] pruim'nm and unwed Iwith mnfidence m undrrtate t- Irmlfmtiw Hilts nrtdtd in Lhis Iflll'fl'Tl-IIlinnil i'nr 111' Pm: and in t'flt yum- tn mum- Mthuugh Ihm Hall-:- un- mimijr

infliluflflflil and mllfltiw. they :Ilm PEI-l IIPDTI the L‘fl-I'IIli'ifl-HEIIHE {If n'nfrmlml panicipanu [Dr whmn pessimism and optimum Il'l'.‘ crucial fulundufl a: "war:Inc-I'm in 1hr mind: al‘ mm." pan-are alsn begins in nur mind:. "[11:- same ipecifl Mm] hurt-mad war is. capahlt grim-uremia: putt The rupunfibiliw lit: with nth “I III. Saint. ”If IE; l'flflfi David: Adam. Pity-{halal}; Wtflfi'll L'nivcrflw. Hid-Hum. (ET?! USA SJ... Bimini. lithium-3y. Thu.- fimlmlian National LJI'Ii1IrlHit'_I.=1 Eanhrrn. HumiliHJ’. hilt-rem. Mumphynidam. Imlilute fur Exp-Efimrntil W Muffiudv nu-n'q.r 11f LIL-dim] StilHI-tfl- ui' USSR. lmingrad. USSR

Emmi:- Frinl'. flint-r. Prychnlnfi. Albert Einstein Hardin] Benin. Philadelphia IPA} USA

Juni- M. Emirigur: Dflgadu. W

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ulflgiE-ui. Madrid. Spain

JDH‘ Luii Hm. E1hum-lug. Imtitllu H m di- Plum. Haiku 11F.. Maxim Arrincj Elias-1. individual Eflflfltntfl Fawhalngy, Pulhh Ana-dum- a Stitfltti. Wan-1hr. Pnland Hauling: (Errata. fliuhginl hummpulngy Imam-:1 d: Enudin-s AnIrupnlfigiml. Maxim D.F.. Ink-lim-

Benin-n E. flimhmg. film-liar flnwtifl. Huhfifilr nil" W

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USA 1:: M 1 . Satin] Fwdmlngy. Enichmgswiaflnfihafilithr Huchsdmllr. Landau, Ffldfl'll fltpublir nl' fltmmr Samiraflumar Elm-sh. Sod-Jhfl. Indian Imtinflt uf Human Strict-Eu. III-alumna, India

Rabat-I1 Hinde. Animal Marian Eambritlie Urliwnim Uli Eid'lini E. LIEHLE‘Ih Marital fimhrnpahfi. fillinnllH m :{Inn-MI. Hliruhi. limp-a Tflhl H M . Pflthillry, Emu-nil. UniI'HI-iiy. Euflil

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:

]. Hutln Etmlfl-I. Whlufi, Ufii'iEfli-flld d: Swill, Spain FEEH'I'iDD Maw-r brawn} Biurhtmisln. Univfisidad Autfinmna. Ham-ii Spin Diana L. Human. Ethulngy. Unimlidnd {It Swill, Spain

{If III-111m Entitfiu. Alhil Handy. Pfllilifil] Psychnlnfi+ EEI'IIEI' furlhl: M [It-1M, Inch Juhn Filll Emu. Mimi Edith. Hamlin: Grim Slim: Ullhfllith Building Gwen {DH} USA. Riithi Wfllhtrfim. FEW;U m ufjjri'ilkyli'l. F m

Notes

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I

jr... “Nauru, Huflm'n Ind Ethan-int.“

1 5 . Ehm."flwfimrglmelldfioriiflnfimfl5nflifirnruintht Earlim Tran." p. 229'. 5. E. E. Gimhurl. "Dnelnpm-EMII W i n Hi BEhIH'ifl-‘ll Capfltithl." pp. [HE—8'9. II. 5. j. Gnuld. "Similarititi llama-n II'IE' Stun.” In Na: in GM Emu. flit-hard ltwnmin. Steven flnumand Ltcmflamin suggeal IJul hiulngiml determinilm anumn nu: uni].- that hidiridm] brink-inn "an" [IM- tlirr-rl mflltEI'I-Efl of inhurn physical charitlrrisflrs." hm alm- Ihm wtial jibe-1143mm; can be tnphiantd in [1:11:11 nfinflifidml bulimia“. 111E III'EIE'IE'I-E-IE' all-thin umnfl farm uIrrdUEfinn+

hm. dairninfi that a gin-titty imm- mm": than Lhtmm Infill:mus-lilutrHJJS 1m ufitfl mfihutgd in din-[unions DI the mtmfnw'lwfi qufll'jfll'l... perhaps beam: III.-

uh: Ihis alumifli: rum uf analysis fur granted. Tumult-tr. Illflim claim-.5 lucid IJH: {litter-Initial In dnih' ”straw: nf causality - - - [mm laws In humans: and [mm humans In humanity” lip. IE].

II. *‘Bchniural 5min hun- Iillll': In my lhfllll unimh ul' dntlnpmml (2.1.. why IhE human Hired?! um language} nr alum“ ifl'fl'flfll’ dim-renter. between gruup-a Hug" H111.- [his parl'unu better than buy:- u-n l't'l'hl] tests)" (It. Plumb. "Emimmncnl and Gene-n." p. Iflfi]. Hamil-1’: rh-nim uf turnl may iutlf heimtnfl'fiue sinn- gendtr difftrcncta in verbal alanilit].l rm [angu- uiaL [Eu 1. 5. Hard: and H. III. Linn. "Ufl‘ldll'l' Dififlmm in Vtrhal Ability“):

5. IL Wilma. “A [law cf Human Elf-fir." p. 13. 7. E. F. Turn-1r. Sunwug Ethiophmid. F. E. 5‘ Mn:- l'anl Tim: advtniwmun. Stptuuhu' 2?. I935. p- Edi]- D i m .

in rail warm-mm: I. diafiic in nul mum-mun In thinning that ii i: iJflImlfil: mbcumls is {used by exp-mm u} an lemma] ham. mmrly attainsIn fun. cumin-mm fauna- unit-Indy m-y htul‘grnm mlmmr: dun Emmi:

”ET!

HDTES TD PAGES E—ll]

Fedilpmiliun even with mun-ml u:- m a y ! curt-mt? Ilium [An editurill in the Mew Erghmd'jwmal g u m argue: lhli "rulmnll “Malian till '1! mm 5111:1131-1- Ihul gnu-tic lnmmhliun“ with mpect u:- thu: dium: [IL FL 1Wil“alum:+ ”Hanan. Nurture. and. Famil'llI Prediipmitiunfl Eul thme Hhfl claim that

adimphrcuil i: a brain dis-tut :ypiuilf un- Lhil linguist In emphasiu that it i: um mum] by tnfirnnmenul Emu-n. whith in [his ma: hm man: m {'15 wilh Earniiial dyirumljun than with smiling lih: iululcd lib-mt- Thug mean that

Elfin-plumb i: inhtritrd; llll.‘ pauihilhy' that fimifill hafnium“ play: i rah: it prerhrly what than.r an: it plain: H: dmr. 9. Th: elinlflgicfl relevant: {if I‘lmsnihnr {h'lfilmfim In ichiaupbrenii. In

aim: m anther psychnlngical di-Eflrdflfl. in Helleuahiialwd. A review nl' llll'EE nan-m nujur uudin mndudu 111:1 “mini-um in that rate-I Inf uhimphrenil are Pl'tdifliH-E in pan [mm prinr estimate: ul' disturbantu in IJ'HE imrat'amilial envirflflmmt" REL]. GaHJtrin. "TI“: Family and FlhflPiIh-lllflfl." p. ESE].

10. 51:1.- mr aru'rl-r: 1111 this Euhjtfl. "ELIE-tr Lht Ruth-$5 flhildrfn." l l. 'I'hi: inmprflainn cum-H Hum mtmicm I ham-r: mndunnd withnnunfllcr al' pmmirwm ipEfiIIil-ll in till-r;r field as Ht" in {mm i W at mart Ihim i hundrtd jt-unul article: and thlpll'fl un Ill".- mhjwl. Humvw. in I. lune? DI hurly firt- hundred primal-3.r can: phyliciam published in "335. [he mil-infilf ililil they helium! urgnniur: cause: u!“ hypcfltlirily h'EI'E “willy primary.I (F. E. Brunet: and IL Shnmm "Managrmrm of Ehildlmud 'Hrptrncliflw' by Hillary flirt Phyiichm." p- 901'IE. IS. Cain. Th Inning Hymn, PP. n. 133.

15. finders Fflldil'lfl! an: ducfihcd in II. m . "Mmhaliun': Elmira GEM—a," pp. 74—15. Th:- flm-E artirlt queue:- the mhrnpulugiu D'lfiflhl fl. HEII'II an aging, “HI:- an: is genetically [nudes-lined m butt-um an almhulic. Even if III: Emmi: mining lit-l um nmuully Emmet. 111: inlflfllim uf wriuul {Miran-

mrmal Em it arm-hi]:- mxianl it' M i n i is In mm: in an mammal“ tp. TEL H. 5:: L]. Eimii'l. “Ii Erin: in II”: fimn?"-afid "Art TIE-It 5mm fur Erin?" I5. E. flum'it. W W Emu. pp. 24-25. IE. A. Tcflegm H IL "Fumflitjr Simillll'ifi' in Twin: Emu! Alum. an! Tflfflhfl'." p. lfllfi. H. H. W. Lflr, "TIIL- Ghlflffl-hfl' Planar." p. 5-5. EHiPl-El- and {MM in urilhil. IE. L Van fiddler. “l-[is Rabbit‘s Vain.“ 1hr: i5 nu 5mg: nl' :imih: Hamlin. Tn Imus: :ht rupmm rail- in : gmremmem mn'er fil' drivz'tng habit}. 3 Still: burtautm dflidtd m ufltr a chance at a cash prim: tn mung:partitipaIinn. This-+ hr mid : rcpm-trr. inn lit-tam: “il‘l humm nature" In Win: In 1will: manna-3' {Mandated P1151, 'Tflfflc Survey Dfl‘m a PHIL-"I. 19'. A. lat-Elm. “Pan-Mal Guill Trip." That I'll in I'EI'IE In 1933 1h: HI:

Hfll ItiLAHflman-mfltphim-fl [I'm humped sun is I pnnraludmlmdapm

HID-TEE TD PAGES [Ill-15

2T5

mwfikmmflmfinmflqfljm-"i¥emmflutm& numbing w rmfid haw dun: In mah- B-uhh’p‘ 'mm film fighlf " 1h: H'mlt. ”11H Imwtr in .1: 1mm puirflcd ml, 'grnu.‘ " Amulmdy. mpliml “It" whit: mlulillfinL' ”WMI: mm? adapted childm rum am well. mm :In nut. and Wtflfl‘fl' him! than

in may hive numbing II:- dl} with palm:ming.'fllil i: ml In any that mvh'unmm mun“ far nmhing. but we mu inn-aw it in in: lignifimnl than In: tlmughl" {A

Iandtn. "Rule {i Gtmflfl- Dflm Evaluated“). HI. Th: epimph 'u Fran: PInm'm. “Envimnmt incl Gena." 111;}. I135. llfl; "Marc :Ind mnrm” he mid an interhrimtr in i939. "I find mwclf standing up biz-Fur: firmlinl; mint-u ind [Ju- puhli: In My. *q. trail I minum mrylmdf. halt! an- Il'! 1101 a}! garlic] " T11“ mum-rm appmed Inward [he and al' :I New I'm-1i Tim Ari-Emir: mick- that nrmplilin Futile}? thL- IUI'T. at" hrp-trb-cnlic hrrrdiuriamim Plantain litmus mWhmhflTf-tufitrrpauunfl'asmtific {in and: .I'III'EEF-illg claim: in Ih'u: "Th-r: rum ant-:11]: bniufian and mum permu-

aliall'p' trails—Eh: dflmnimnts nil-1mm wr'rt 1hr ur HWfiL fill-n 1h: hill-Eli ufjnhfl HI: find funny- and Ihl: kind: at" maple we Hit—awn Inga-ll.- mhtdd-Ed in HH- mil: nf chrmnmnm-Ei Ihu nur parents Fill In u: it Emma" III}. Franklin. "W113! I Ehild l: Him." pp. 49, 3-51. '21. H. (induct. 1':m gm“. p. 315.

22. [1.5. Hacl'hflsum m m mu arm:fflbm pp. 22. 2'1. “Eu-n thn’: phytinlng-irfl pustular“ Ifl' :bnu: thr phnialnfl nl' maria!itfllmtn." hut-adds (p- EH}. Similarly. cum Huntfindsplauflhltme hit-a]: sci-nub pounj'rdinlmduffhfliu. mmlfihlhlhrdmflmmrill Ehmfl'lwflt

mcialiud man an flu: nanfl'c with which thry Inn-rt burn'23. Ping-5n] anti-til: quntE-II in E. Beck-rim. “He-Hill. She-Wm" p. H. Human naturr :lm hi5 hum mini-Id m “Flam lhi: 3.11m: {If slut-mid; 4! Emma" flhmpfic nlhlaflr. mu nfinilin! ” : 1 1 t furhi: pm in I Her-aid lnflirJ-iJIg ring. {mmtmwl mt lung agar "PH-FIE died in 1111.- rpicl: shuul-l. but it didnfi Hap Inch-11m. Tu “up inuld bl.- mnlnnr In Inm'l nature" {qmtnl in HJimul'lhy and I'. NEH-In. “Fic'tunr at Any Earl.“ 11. E15}. 24L Fm- mmp-k, lfl IL A. Inna. "lam Gram in Erwin-Walnut: 25.]. EIEII'L Elm”: Milli. p. '9'. 25. E. F m Tu Hmtrar I: Hi! I}. Iflfll. He mntinufl. "Tn 1hr lumbar: flmnydflcflmmflhm panlnd FI‘HIE'EIL ll'lEEfll'lEEP'lfl'rifll'flI-E lulu-nan ”Ethan and brine-n Hflflld app-Hr a: Emmi: as [I'll' mun mud: n: m."

ET. 5:: my Mr finial. pp. H—HL HID-92.

25. H. Fin-arr. Th Mam-Lyman Emlyn-”:1. p. ”9. 29 m m Ema. and Hamill, NM [1| flu‘ firms p. 255. 3-D J!- H “H.11r flyinhgq H:- iEI-IE. Ill L1H Huffman, ~mcmngmgnmnmmm." :1.

I23.

51. 5-H. fur sample. It W. Lang "Iridium; I'J-flliflf.“

m

HDTEE T'D PAGES [5-15 3-3. 5H5. unlit: and H. A. Suit-rim. fill... E E T M fi M H m

Him. 34. 5!!! Erin: I-ifllllIII-Ilriil'l M1! Fifi Thu: Iflidt. "Fill-fl Ell-ch CHEW mlial Study af “ M Btllfllltnt' "1nd Ban-gr H-Ehllfl'. “Th: Nth- Eltgtniufi' pp- 25-26. A Ii'lrilflnlfun Flu: uni-cit. mu. nulfi Ihu "The Final-tr Fund . . . Inn

Mcdmmhmtu'udfl hflltnflnl' bysdm'nulcclfirqm prawn“: black: m genetically infefiur lu- whitn.“ (T. E. [5d and D- A. Vin-1:. ”IE-£5 Fight I Lilil'fllfl T-E'lll fur finnsewativfl.” p. ME}. 35. It in in Hull-“uni Harri. lha! flu.- Iimh bum I hertdimhn urirnuliun and nutrighl nuism lurru up urn mart tnplidtlv—and. barium ul' hi5 minnruam urdrmialhmn nann- diuurhingiy- Whm hr claimuiaIL-H # 3 : : a lute demmirmrd the hula-rim:I:Ili.lit'I,ur Iii ahruinn and a m . he win Him urinal-13' hut-flu“ 11f his l'l'lilll'l'lr' publiull'mm urn pmiil bahu'iur and an firm-fl: Bum-s in ptrmnalh'f Eu: Ill'fl juurnnl readrn have Inwhr mm In realm jun

wl'ut infant: his hertditflian winking. In E1355. Rushmn publmhrd a pap-H that tilcd “Hululinnin nirthifliaml" m uplam why "nnluid: arr mart bud-mi-

nimally mnhttd Iium (Samara-id: whn in mm. are malt an dun Neg-raids." {"Difl'mljnl IL Timur? and ht: Him-Irma in E and H." p. 7711]. Turn rm later. he chhumled Ir; ulfflhIg thl: Elihu that while-5 "maniffll Inn: firmly and llflhl't [annual] run-trim Hun blinks“ dull.- In "Ll'lt pram: ul' [mi-I: and unha-

[icmary influmtn.” The "larger ptnim and flmrte-r mum[wk-I ui'hh'itam. EM namplm an: lit-l}: a ran-ml: ul'nnlmiurun Election preuuru, Em Pflfl‘llil-

Ii'lfl'“ attiiulih'! an: Faund In hair: a Will: rampant-m.” The I'd-t: [hal hlaclu are naturally mar: prnmil-Eunm. is "um mmfluflflwfl-flmhmn added ‘ 1 . t primry :uhslanliltifln [fir thil "stud-f"—thr mum-5r for which ram:- frnm flu:l'imucr Fund—Ira: lhtr [BEE diary uh: Fruit!!! Army Eiugttm and an article tI Wit-II- in Mhur F m a pumugraplfic mum. Hmhlun'l mid: ap—

pearei presumflhliter passing peer review. in themqflmh In Him!in [Human and A. F. Eulirfl. “flue Dimer-mm in Sunni Bthifim: Tinting an EqIi-rmu‘y Hypnlhnhf" pp. 5153. H5. 515]- It read: I: a mlrku jute. hm Ill]! duuh-l EDI'IIIE'TIiIJE in Irriauin-Efl ml- Iilid la- rue: in Ill-L'- I933. whim he publill'lfl'l m annlhn‘ pap-n. Lhis an: maul-cling Iht cuurd Ilnl brain flu- is {'lflfllfli with Mulligan;- and defining tin-u hitch lure u'rlallct' brains than whites. Bhulu'

Inner scum [In IQtefi: in: nut dur m cullunll hnam ht Halt-Hi. [This :fliflt. “Ram [HE-Harm in Euhivinur,” lib:Ihl: uni: lit-In 19415. Hal puhlhl'I-Etl in Hum-Iflflfldfldffllfitfldflfl‘mfi. ajnumfllditfilhfI-lam Emiafldftflwinfl’

Arum: junta an it: Hlilurfl hairdJ 35. Prrsmul mmmmn'fltinndanuirr 1933.Meinha mitten that pupular ifliflfl 5|:q aggrtuinn m lflfltlfl'f dunclrfiud In; then.- Ihrm: “lli T1111 III: mun-- nf human via-“Imu- uiu within l'l'll' individual. El . . . that if psychiatfiau. paydmlugiau. and hénlngiau were unruly clever mmgfi. they urn-UH Hemifir the Fur-tin: a: [15111113]i I'm-Inn 'lhil gin: rin- Iu wink-m behaviar. 3] Gi‘l't'll lhr: Tm [hit Ihf: mun-s Inf vinlmce mid-E Hiahin [In- indiwthlll‘s “in. ii

HUTEE TD PAGES Hit-I'D

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in Illllllld H: be II In“ dwethlly Pflflfllll In ind1L-nlifgur pulmlifl nfindm Hun-.- flleffiflmmmiiannflhmhyusingmm: mflu-Ihiu-gmefii: ”Fifth-Dlug'ifll running prncflhrt” 1"BelitEI lbuul Hanan Ambit." p. 15}. 5?. Emma] rummunifllinn with David AthmsJHnuan' 1933. 3!. “11:1.- ‘h'iultm Hind." 'I'l'ill-H‘I and fitted by Marlin Fwd]; um flu! ninth and final Epimfie nl‘ Th Mind. and was amt-1i an PBS in [httmhrr [EH-l. Mldvtrlinmmll‘urthtugisndt Ihunpp-rmtdhflmh'm 1115* Tina mitt-wired:

“W: are all heir: m a flflfli‘.‘ hihrfimlct. [hep imidl: that train are primil'n'e Htfllpl'infi: at“ fly: ill-:1 iggrflu'nn that flnluliun and mum help 1H m mntml"

{Dr-rum '3'.- IflE-B. 9. E311}. Jflflfllfl Kigali. untitled the name sort nf idmiufl hflhilutl I maduvfur-TT mml't ahuul. innm that air-lad inn-:1war: 13:): "Th: mull: [mainland Emmy-lion. which “I mid: eqflicil after HIE Eartha-r1 limit-hing 111' hi: daughltr had hem distmrred. is that humus are vulnerable m such Mtfilfl'fl'fl-

ing. animal-Iii: impullfl Ihai m:- ptrmn run b:- ht-H mull]! rnpnmibl: fur his nr her hrhafim h'l'lfll pusim gram urn-fig“ {Um Hui. p. 1'], 39. E. L. tdtrly. Till: Mini :3" Tim Min-III. pp. 2-3. Ilfl. H. Htlnughfln H :L “him In. Wm." Hp- p. 51. III. it Fun. "IIIlrutiurliun." p- '3'. Fm: in by 1111 Irwin: flw ml]! trailer with this firm In Sunni-mtg: width Law. jnhn Barium!"1':n tu- "iinnatr preference: umflul'ltrllfll by mllural influence" (p. [D]. It Hauld Illfl he. I huh-n In add. [H m m “ m adufi the Ilihbulfih 11m. Fun: identiflfl: man is :5 mllll't duel‘IE. 5a., ham. nulr H 421' Ilhil dllpltr. Aim. “Elvin Emu. In an. Impulngilt small? lMEiill-Ed il'iIJ'l Intiabialng'gr. I ' m an the Emmi-ma]

inflame: uf gem-[it mum:11f thumb: in 11mm": brim-rim. [lb-scrum: “Ill: in thcmuwufa singlt cenmnr Lhtl't hm htt-nadruti: k m : in £11:m a dmu': decline in lI'I-I! hiflh Tilt. hrm'iwn: “Tu the quad-ml. Hm! muld the-fl Hm thug-:5 in the [flu-unwa- nf ll'll': Epfltilfi mm: in unly um: hundred mn?1he glint-I hair: withing In my. 1111:: {Inflation can unruly.r b: muttered in Hm: cf [In millimlinnal amt-J rillnnirlfll'}.r drvnlnping lumwiedgtfll' behifinml and min] aunt-ct:

flu: l-lil'll'l uflmmhIg. lhr III-r: DI" mmitinn. thl' law: 41!"mil Fifthniufl. due Inn-I a! “mints, flu: law: uf culturt clung: Thin Eh: gent: unduline all the-3t his in i high-minim. Lurk“ Wining-ital truilm: far this qua-Minn. Hm lruiun will

help I.“- ml It all" [Th Tngifl H'h'll'. p. lflfi]43.juhn ClirM+JflIiE Dun-blush. Ind 5|!!t Hilltr. "Tb! {high H Luann.” H. See. far W e . D. Tinktlmich and W. Barn-IL. Egan uni1mm pp. EEO-EL 15. SH:- D. H. Gard-uh. "East: and Chung: in Satin] M m "

415. P. l. Billing: and]. Huh-rim. "fimflin and Hum Barium." 9. IE. The hmilh art mmfluntd Inc-n:- hcum: il 1n: 3 study a! Illi: militia: lhu

Eflll'lll'il'fl'l'd II'III'H' :I'I'IHITI‘H'I nfa fiErl-flit rultin HDI- Hun.- bmndh. many penpl: :ln ml. w w w . m m Eran lhchnpauuhheuvfl'mmmtdw-

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ITE-

"rink-1mm: ptndunnfimrra-fliun mmfiiple lain. Hmnfirflm plexhthaflmurtmmu] fratmu—nmdmmlnfufnflr'swn'unmdur In a flush- EH'II'. Ill Fur Elamplt. an? [MI-until]. Rum, and Eamin. Hal ll Eur Gnu, pp. III}. Elli-'3'. Baum. Inn. um um]? dlu cuhurt- and uphringhg hull 11m mphuitu [Int “1|“.- intangibles [Jul we call Tru- lwill“ dtltl‘lil'linr: haw In! win-inn nut hie-hm [bum flu wide l-FftlILflfl—EIIIEIIEI-I.‘ :11a la- : 1 e it"lfilhnfial—flfll‘. nut

[filli- ptrmil" FED Elfin-fly Hind ill'l Animal." p. 2155}. II-B. 5w, 1hr imtflnw. Ihi: final thflpln HIE. lhwlim. H! W Gnu. II'EI. Th: FII'II example in fmm Lin-11min. Inn. and Harlin. Hui in GM Gun. '1. 2:.m strand in [him [lurid m it}. E- D. Wilma. "Human Damn- 11 Animal." p. 43.

5|- Richard lflflnflfl units Ihia paint frtqlfl'llflf. 5H: Fur clamp!!! Ii: “51::t of Him" 1:. Eli. 52.]. Elam-a, m m .113. 155. IEIL

53- Du tnlnsmm, m.- p- 27 and not: TE nl‘ Ihi: duper. flu lam-mm It: a dilcusainn uf unearth by "kind Ililtigh uni hi: :nlhfl'ufl in lino-1+ "Inlfltl-l III-“mm in Stmlmin-‘Uinltnfl LinL.‘ F. El}. H.Thean:lngjriiltnnflami1'halqumd h L l fl u fi n W fi u n f

mu Hm Psychiilry." p- 52. . “Brain «Christ: 55. H. FL Hammrig. E L innit-1L and H- E. W upudlut' mummy minuhl he am: an ”than Elptrinlcfi.‘ tn Raga-nu in hnin ”ml-mu]-r Ind brain dmniflnr II'I." changed by rapt-rim" thnr mull.- lip. 27). 55. Inn-l Hun-HRH ha lmfimd Ede-Ermn'l d‘lflfl'j" in flu.- finil Fifi If his bun-uh Th Jul-HM: gift-rm]. The qualatinn is frum p. 17?. Sindhi with III: final 33mm 111‘ an. meanwhile. suggfll than lfl‘l‘ll ul'fl'ut huh": “In-Lulu” Ind fimninnrrmiiuplamj: for sum: lilflt. particularly I'n‘lhl'cflthl'flfflfllfl. . . .

Emmi—“MEI!“ mm. Lillfl. munch, much and puIIMr—rtfifllfl and. willh timt. mnfnrcfi lPlfl'ifiE ntmlFflfllfifi ill-hilt when Eall ima- disun: - . . [ml nth hdifidufl ” m i n mimic-[bring “limb? inflnflhltgunflkprnflm 'u aim the uniqut pmdun Inf m u n ” [LL Anti and I'.- Skit-film “mirth? i1 Brain DE'I'EI'HPI'I'I-Efll." pp. 55. 5-H. 5?.T1filislruefaranngedlpflin.fimnifltnhmunhch1flfin 'I'I'inlll mitlu by H. IL Whack. including "Hemlrull film-throw and sup

prurniurn."

H.1htanflnfl.hyhgau tdlqtmltdbyflmh HuhhudinHThE

'I'Inury and Panic: ul' Emmi: fleduninnimt." p. '13.

59. um. nu- 31-5555 Em, [1.3. Ell}. FL. I}. *Eiirna. "An Evalulinnu'r mil ” H E W Fury-tum an Al;greuivc Faun-us” pp- M . Ell. E. Emu. “fill-11:11 Emmi." p. lfi'a'. Fur fliliqufl Hminhlialalr. I m m m m m m a u fl r u m m m m m

NOTES TI'J PAGES 23—21 W

EFfllflflh'l'. Th flu and:

1

2‘?!

w Philip flilchtr'u ultim-

1h!- ind m m bunk. FWJIHMIH.‘ Ind Lhe chapter an m m in LII-uranium Hill-IE. and Hal-ruin. NH in GM Em. flu Wilma in particular. that! in

Stuart Hampshire”: mint. “Tl-It lllut'mn nut-f Swahili-1m" {In Dal-fin; mild!“ might mnmh Guq-t Elfin”: '"t'au EunTnlm that Ethic: nutLmilm bu! Tau Can't Talk: the Ahniun am {If Elhifl" and “I? Hidfllfi'l trench“ rfl'fl‘m 'mjufiflng."

I52. w. B. l-hmihnn. “In-nu.- Burial Aptitude: nl' Hm." p. I34. 53- Dawlilur Thu-WEIR. p- 2112. Ed- I m mt luring far-Him hm. A. It'lltljll' published in m

[mad that

pahhntflm ITE mm HIE-[EHFIIJ when they are nit-r11.- Ell-uni and mndudtd

that thin il a 5 . : t al' the fluiuu'nmry adwnhgu allmiprnral Fun-El alluring. manna“? barium: tmtfihulun maximal? assume that urn! W in neuter dmhn an:- mm liktlyr m mum II'H! Favor um- [El]! [1. E. lam-chard, I... L

Hcflun-ald. n. A. Eli‘l'uri and n. Manila. "Par-I‘undling*’}- an anlhmPflhflh-ia, meanwhile. lpnruhltd Il'lil llu.‘ pnpdnfiw of {in [and ”print-ably huh Inch tn I'I flung alumni an: primal: relalim adnplrd MIT 50 milling run agu" (H.

Ilium. “1!. mm..- Pmnipqiun rnr Equalitfl6-5. B. 51:!!m Ti: Barmfilr Hum hmm. pp. [911-9]. EB. Salflim. Tl: LI'I-uld'dhm y'fluhgr. than. 3. Sullln mg: m M I . HI.

Ell-2'4. and the rdnmcu lilrrt. ET- H- T. telin. Th Emmy qmnfl' and w Ewiuflm grin. pp. Sal—15EB. Bruinm Hill. "A firm-lit Deli-nu: ul' Iht- Fru- Marlm.” F. MD. I59. 5H, Eur multiph-+ I}. Hiram. Thrflmr undtlu Turin-'54:. Hither :mnmcuu

flu! miuhiulugiiu’ claim: m II'IE tfl‘fll chill satiny has pmhcd m m adapt m milidlpliw: bthn'riun In: mrimu humus:- Iht'y suggut “ t nut Mun: H :Iflfi-

cit-ml? plank 1a all-aw !I-Dtiflju' In faint nflm m film-s shit Ind m to mun-Hm: nu: flint.“ . . . [raising II‘IE' qflfllifln Inf] huh- flu: Imqr In inchctrimbilitf

[ilk-gem? p-mdufld by :mlulim] lit: with the mnfidflfl chin: ahaull Emil: an all- sun-chi htlm'riur" {Fan-flu; .Jlnh'nm, p. iflfi}. 7‘]. Fur fllfllplfl. m A. Fumwfitcriing. Myth a r m Ilnflflh'. 3'3”l y'rmamm- audit. flint-innflmmrmmdfl'flr. 7L H. {IL-adorn“. Thr RW'M qf flfm p. 3D.

TE. Thl: ran-arch: i! ImmriI-HE 'II E. F. Hehnn Ind A. Fund. "Inning In Gin“ 1'3. Anh- Ehrlnrd: put: it thin “1": "Il'bny: thaw. all the a m .am y [Imp-Emily Inward: tlitfluj' Icliw Pllf ll'lll'l girls. m.- shmfld mall and mum! flh‘ipfllil'l' Dr mmludr that girls are mm pan'n't. mu? dtp-emlrul. have In: initiative. ELI-u lfldflmip hthninr. 411' are gmrnfly Eran. usurliw" than haw. ("B-inlflfl? In Hm Destiny.“ 1}. I5]. SH.- aha filth-r. Sum-rand m . p. 95. TH. E. H. Eulmm'ngl :1 II... “Eu-hr Org-mm nf Altruism and Aggresn'un.” p. [79. flifl'trml mum—[m nan-“Flt. “JEEP-mt amnion-anxiety

Hull-El. Incl lather nflnp—pmdlrctd diflTErtnl finding: abut“ gmdfi diEET-

Eflfl

HDTES 11') PAGE “ET-=23

mmhmfldifla‘flflfimflflmfluflfidflflmmh run-arm at HELP. (H. D. r u m anti 5. Fatback. " m m m

and

Academic Adlifinmmi." p. 1341:]. T5. A. Frmfi. J- ”Hunky. Ind I'. IL Thanh "Art Human Mum-II In:

Agra-rm:- 11m Hm?" p. 555- A lam-r memh rtfitu [hand that m

were

Inn-rt Elfin-niacin than wmtn air-trill]. but by [us than ant-mild al' I. nandard dniuian (A. H. Elgty and 5“,]. Swfl'rn. "Gendcr and Ann-Hin- ll-c-hIt'inr”lI. 15. Fur example. in that Mm l'ml Thu Magnum [Hduin Emm+ ”1‘11: W 5 " ) : ind fir Addam- Winifred Gallagher. "5:: mil Harm-mm“).

T7- Ehlhilrdl. “Binlunr [5 Mat Bestinjr.“ pp. 12-”. 1E- FINN-finding. mm :5! Grain p. IE'J'. Sandie: It the 11-a Pfimm:

[Enter in GIL-mail hair-r :11a that “I11: mam :nc‘nl riparian-1:: nf I mil-I: [wanker] inf-Immune: hi: circulating land at andragcn." Harman-u rin- Ind [Ill dtpend'mgnnamnnkef: pnahmnmthrhhnnhyufimima 'il'l'lithl'lfhfll hum placed. (I. 5. Bernstein. T. F. flmflun. and E. M- lust. "The Intern-flan Earnest in Hmhlmun Frhmlflf'Tl'I-r qua-IIBf Harman-EL Eduviur. and W than: h {mm p. 5-53.} T9. 5:: litln-iL-rr Erin-rand Elfin pp. QE—II'H]. Ham.Hflfifl-Hflflw line]:

31': Illhjfll. m apprcfiablt Hmualinn in an individual malt. making mm link: H-fl'l IEI'IflI'E difflnfll In draw.

El]. IE. {it Lam-sm-Utanfling Eld- l. L. Hillbilly-'1. "Brim! Dimurph'flm in tha- I-Iunuu Enrpul Elflmum.“

" El. D. Wahlalm “Elia: and Sampling Emir in 5:: Difl'mt W 32, 5:: u. c- Linn arid j. 5. Hrflr. 'flnder. MIME-m and stint-It" far :I mriflr uf Irma] math—Mun an Ill: mph. 33. E. Sprnlhin :1 3L, "'EIEI‘D'ifl'IEI‘EflLiIlfid Hiya." pp. I'll-‘39. Ell. E. I'. Brnhmr and]. E. Slinky. “5t: [immune-I in Mathematical Abil' in.“

35. Fur rumpled. Bath-rich. "tdtr and Midi PH‘Farmm-tt":_l. Ilflimm and]- [Jurkim ”Girls. Burn. and Math": Ella-incl: Eda-£1: allM . 1111:. It'll-l-

lflfi: and : uric: uf mpmm W E Eenhmi": paper in Malia-III uni EmiSrimm HEB-El}: fl. parlictdaflf Lhme by Blair. Sham, flipmm. Enrich. Earn-

h'ul. Hfirumh-r: and Bunningrr. and Wahhlen.

Hi1?“ study. dnn‘ihfli by Gila Himuammfingnflh Amrinn Mmdatinn fur flu: Adrmccmrnt nfScicncc. was repu-mc-d in I. A. Eflfll. “Study:

Bay's. Gir’l: ahaul Equal in Lemming Mmh-" A nth' W a i n a! m: hundrflli nudiu intrulring mm {um militia-1 Inhj-E'Elfi m l : lhil girl: Emily have I:

flight edge in math during “If alimentary and middlt-Hhml years: [11: admintngt nhifu. In buy: dimly in high :chuul, win-n Hunt-mu Inn: mart- Iaiitud: in “Inning tl'nt'tr muses. Harm. flfl'I-EIE'I diffnlmtfl an: mailer 'm mar: I'E'IIEIII midi-:3 and minim-ml: in tests flrdfl' Emu-all pnpuialinn fl. 5- H'flifi. E. a u , and 5.]. LII-111mm “tdrr Elfin-mu in Hill'lematin Pflfmmflj

HDTES Tfl PAGE. 29

EBI

51'. A: {III rally HEB. elm.- :htl [rum Ihu: unifies, {1:1d In; Darren Ilium. I pnyrhulngin. and EIhah-flh H i m . a gradual: iludem. um um width aunilahlt [at I'fli-EH. Tin- pmmincm new: tflvfl‘ifit at [In- rcuarch in:

band mlun't-rl'f an an uni pmmuliun gin-n at n mnfrrmrr nt' 111-.- Enrirur Em NIL-mastic“ in Haurmhcr IEIBH. Apart [rum dturiptiuu in :11: pupuiar PI'IE'III. [have bun-tn abh- In attain only lira min-n annual: of I11: rutilrrh: :I Lhrmpagt juumal mick- puhliihrd final mum-115 hcfun: 1h: rmfltrmm IE- Harmon 11111 D. flimun. "t'lpruul EEEIEIJ nil-[mi Flur-lmlium an Human Molar Ind

Pmmual-fipuial Still—5”} and in unpuhhshcd synopsis nl' the: mnfm: pruImmlinn that In: dhtrihuwd aflmard I'D. Ilium“. “Hannanll Influmm {In Cufdlivtfflmur Fumuun in Fm-mmamal H'nmm"l. 1km mu murcu mugs-Ht Irv-tn] gut-'1- prubl-rma with the mhnduhgy. 'Il'hid'l Hm nut mmliuntd in ll‘ll' breathlm :fl-Eh'lpiiptl' arc-aural. FiuLnnIm-uurn nfhurmnntltwhappflredmhawhctnulmiulh:

mirth-1 warm-n III-Tr: II'II1|:II1Jr drfimd :5 bring in II'H': lml' lnflm cm‘ndiliun whim [t Hut Humming, and in Lht' high condition nth-m they um: huh-urn Fll'ifldl. It i: main-Ir puuihlt. thm. Ihil an: mhjm‘: low Inn-I In! actually

higher than anmhrf: high [an]. undermining my mkninm about that rdaliu-n ul' Immune In perfnmlnrt. Errand. the suhjfits apparenlljr Hm.- IIfl-‘l blind In Ill-H.- Iludy’: [aluminum—a “rims pruhlaem in any hthm-inral I'E'IE'IJTI'I. but a mining flan-r Inn- in light ul' flhfl' I'E'lfllrllh. which his ducmntmed widflprtad and Emma usumplinm nhnul Ih: pny'rhnlngical cfi‘rtu n! mmunul prrin-duThird. verbal :h'lls hm upmlinnaflttd :3 I11: speed wilh which suhjefls Could rrpc'll “a III-Ell til—mixed hhrlfiu in a blinlil llilt'l'" Iii-1' Lima—I I'I'IEJIIII'I'." ludiflfiuih' iITtl-rI-‘ilrll In .1111.- ahilily nitli in II‘IL‘ r-EJI lip-add. {Ru-flit! ni— mun: siguifinnl Huh, pinirullfl'llr' mm: inmhhg pmhlnm-mlvmg :hilhiu. generally find nu lijl'fllflflitil.‘ dung-ti 1«I-Iil'lvtl'nw: menstrualnth. [Err E. S W . ‘Efipifivc Behavinr and than t l m i fifth") Finally. Ihe :uhjens in me afflu- ifir undifl 'lil'l'EflldEf 1mm wl'lureceiwd

hurl-nun: rcplu'cmml therapy. “hull. each mbjm wu run-pared with humll‘ [with and wilhnu: thr ntrugm}. 1hr ruu'h: Hm immrluniw. Th: finding: that

mad: 1h! Ira-m pug: afflu- Nm I'll-Ii. hum um his-ed an a mmparimn nl' [Ell flll'IIl-Efl'l Hum-tn and [HI mnfltragm wamen—mwh mu small I m l : h: suppnrl Iht asarump-Iian Lhal [ht hurmmlc actually mused the BEE-El. 35. T. H. Hing]! II. “Eadie-I Ti:- Sflt Harman-:1 In Want-m“: lat-I'd n!"

W " p. L 3'94] 1 Iliilin. E]. Hmmuflu. and I. LI-Il'ih "Th: Egrl: fifth: WM:-

EII]._[. [ : d ill-d 5-- Emdw. "Sen. mitt-tutu-"

9L Rem-mi in n- Sultan-1+ "5n Halt-I nay. Pnnrfifl I! Ever a: [he Emmimu.“ p. CIIL 92- 5r:j_H. M"Aumhnrlmhn5:1flifl‘umiuinnhth¢5nrinflur

ESE

mmrmfism:

lit-I1 BEM'IiflH UPI-limb”: and Falhm" Eire-n 'Il'ilh “hula. ilflflflllllfl't‘f. lit-1+

baud dilfmnm: may mull I‘m-m nmturr :3 hit" a; mum-e. Mmhrr 1mm+ fm‘ example. :pund mun: linu': Iicking their minim-m null: nulls-prim: dun Ihch‘I-nul! uflzlpfin; {I}. L Hun-rt and G. A. Hurdii. "hiulher Rats Int-tract mien-ml? with Milt and Female Wiping“). '33. _I. Grunherg. "II'II'IE'I'iIiiI'I! Henul lllmm“ p. 12. Tn tat: mflwrmn— auu. Gfltlflltl'g qua-1H SE‘allI' Early. “Elms: nun: In: hum 3 m m hilh Hr‘m uudin. u ".11t dun III-E1“: mu m: binary 91' “1E din-unit: It all in fly: biological families. urhnH-nf du- athilnphrmi: adnpltu bl.- inwuigucd. Hun: i: this {an run-ind tn Irhimphmnin. Hogarth: farm“ am: far that unjuil'f al' the urinal: with “men In mml human buhwim‘. 1H. 5H. Fur example. 5It“.- rmlrch ruin-Ed in h Ell-i1 "Wlum Sin-ling: Jul.HIM: Peas in a Pad." p. 1'5. 95. Fur rumplt. we lawmiL lime. Ind Elwin. Nu: In Eh: Gm p. “5.

Thai: mun-n mum-.1inn: adullhnad. A tuner nl' I'I-E'fll'ljr 1!.flfl'fl Swedish twin pain [and [hi]; album halful'lh: HI”: 11w each uIJn-r man my clay. whit!

thil hm tnlt afoul? flaw-third nfthr [E's {EL “admit-1W. H. Ftdrnm.tnd I. Hummun. “ A u m l {If Heritability fur analilr").

95. It. j. Rm;- Ind]. Haprin. “Frequent? u-I Sat-ii] Comm Hid hump-Ii“ llama-Harm: nf Mull Hanan-gait Gnu-mu.“ p. 515. 9?. Humin. "Enrirunm-rnl.‘ Ind Gui-H." p. HE. EB- Lflumin. Em. and Hamill. Na! in flu films. pp- HIE-H}; BEL Billing! and Euchrilh. “Swain: Ind Hum Bahamian" p. 5.

III}. Pcrmml {municatium Supimbrr 1935. Fm furll'lfl fl‘ilidnm III" Idnpliun audit-I. m.- Larwmtin. Ila-H. and Hamill. NH ll flu:- flmn. pp. 2211—23.

hhflm'l‘- LEI:+ 5. Him. and B- Crank. “Eritiqut DI the Danish-Mum Emit: ul' LI'IE Adapted-Amy Offspring ul‘ Schimphrtnir: Pill'fl'lll": and T. Lid: and 5. Elm. "En'tiqu-E" Hf Ill: Daniah-Amnim 51MB fli' [he malarial Ind hdnpliw: Wit-n uf Aduplm W'hu BEEHI'I'I-l! Ethimplu‘cnic."

1m. afimn. "Th: ( h m Grmfiuffiut‘uliflfim W t . " p. 135. Mi", Ih'HL p. 1-H. "13. H. W. Feldman and IL (I. Lmnlin “it: that "if natllfll Idrtlilm hfl

lung burn in uprmt'mn an I M f r , flu: addithlz Funk: “rim far the flaunt-r than“ ht mull“ (“Th-I.- l-IIL-I'it:ill:llilit1.r Hing-up." p. I [ET].

[H.Eflthtcfimmmuuffluldmfirmqum:dhl W. Huhngnflml'lfl: Hum+fiurtm Debut. Aptitudfl. and Gmup Dim-Hm.“ pp. TH—IE. Scarf aha hunmtdthudifl'trtnm within I particular Ernup may bchighh' hum mu m haunt-mm difl'trrntn an! until-fly tmimrmunul. {ht flfiipuinl.in: lit: Lnrnmin. East. and Hamill... Hut in flur than. pp. [IE-13. “15. Guild. “Simihtiljm haw-urn [lu- Stu-l." HIE. IL {1. m m . “Th: Amuluh dvmind the M k affine-Ia" p. 405.

WWFAGES 53-4!

2'53

[II-[AFTER 'l'

I. I3. L Hintermd P. H. Hirln'ii. Th Mali-nun; Eli}. pp. l—ID. E. flit-cm. quultd in].j. fl‘Ennnnr. "Pup {11km u Infill:Ilfll Threatttfl'd Vhlenm." 1. H. A. Hurnattin :1 IL. “Efl‘cm nut" Ennultdgt :Ihfllll REED“! Satin] Emu an ”much! Bthmlinr. 55cm [Inna-plinth and Hand"; :nd E. Latin-d and

H- L Hnmndm “The Hut ul‘lhlau-dajflfinuial fluunutun Hypmhflicaflurifl:

Dttiiinnli." Thu.- liturr End}! ll-[Erlilil'ltd tl'lill III-f: brand-rut! inflrtd ifftclcd III-rill

Milan]: ram-tr dunjuu mun-1.3.11mums and Imh'hat “calm study I'uuml lit-m rnlltgt III-Ilium“ what-rt": malhun’: in 1hr Hint: HI FIEEiEEEnlJnl'm F. Renard?

dfirlupcd a It'll ril'lnflfilhll.‘ Guliu-nh an human mluIE—illhnugh Duly Imp-umilr—aflfl ht mu ilIfl-llillI-‘ilfd [L 5- Wrightamnn and F. 1:. Halli-«e. "Mum In

III: Frflidml's Manhuinn and Change: in Fhilumphiu 11E Human Ham“). 1. IL A. Hamil-in. [II-wily and Eli-Ilium. p. [35. 5. G. Gerhnrr H .11.. “'I'elfi'iiiun's Mean Wurld." pp. 10. 12. E. F. [In-llama”. Th Palm-:17. p. 19. 7. H. h. Wallach and L Wallach W 'i .‘idntm fin- .‘hfilhh-Im. :1. 2:5. 3. T. H. Ambit: and A. H. Giucbrunl. "A Hegaljfiiy Ilia: in lulu-punk

m l Erdmfim.“ p. 2. 9. Faradflighmllly prawn-path: fl‘iflqlfl: nI dumb! :1 I'll: tit-{mill Miran :II' 111: Edwin, In: W. Knuth. Mun-firm Bug-II and Hi: Jim ifdflmf. lfl. M i l t ind Glaichrmh "A Nrgam'ily Him. in hump-Hand EtallflIium" II. T. H. M i l t , "Efilliint but Elm-l." Th: qlmlaiinn 'u fmm p. 15!. IE. IL Hay. Till: Hauling qlfdnfim. p. 123.

1.1. L fistula-Hg. "Th! Hm: HHHI‘IE Inf Human Hula-E." p. 124. H. E. Schwinn. fl: fliflbfit Human. Nil-fl. p. 250:. 15.]. Hagan. Emmflk Man. [1. 9. 16. H. Schulurtis. Farrhrurd lu- Tfirm'l'mfifl: Humility. p. :i. 17. 5. Freud. Th- Inmrrflnhan affirm. 1:. EH}: 5. Fraud. fihfimflm and fl: flflmnflufl. 9. E9. The iii-a M a distinct : 1 t itfltifltl. m arm-tun [cur Ihil aggra-

sinn was. 1:1“ mum. denim-d Ian: 'm Frtud': turn-r ind rtpudiatrli firm by many DI hi: must slavish dn'utccs- But IJ'H: inpudirnu nf whm stun In musljlutc a

mflarnriamulflrigimifihwtrtprtmflhl hint-mi Inn; hit-Fun! LIIII mute]:— Elfll will. wu afldcfl13. H- Lfi'l'lfl'lIr flu Wm. p. ESE

19.1 Hawkins. I1» 545.!- Em. F. iiEB. Th: rum-11ml i: ufFrrcd by Sam “EC-racial {permnifl mmmmimthn.

June 1935], : cunflibmnr [{I- surl- plilll'flfltiflm M W Emir. 21.5w IL Hay, ”fin: Huhlurm of m."

and The N M

234

HDTES TD PAGES “-4" 22. For cmplt, Erich Frmnm has win-m: “Man‘s mum fimmt h: d:-

Emsd in term: in]- I :FEEiEI: quality. such at Inn's. ham. mum, [and m- fi'fl. but only in lrnm uf flirt-damn} mnhuiimam Ihit rhamctrrifl human {fume and

hm: Iheir mm in Ill: hiulng'lfll dichnmmy Inn-wean mialing instinct: and Half:mrenfis" {Th alum-1' d]! Harm [ 1 : 5 m pp. “EM-55}.

25. Whil Sartre strum i=5 nut unruly tlul. nu Eli-Ed human minu- uLiLu but that the ideas nfgu-utl and nil are dtfinrd by m: Ihucn: i: run-1 1 1 lMlliflfl.‘ tn [hm term: against whid'u h'l': can b: MEI-gully mmparcd34. A. Emilh. flu- Tharj' 1y" Hm! 52mm. p. 9‘. In fan. the Hflfl'fl-mifl Mafia 5:“ argun Lhal “Emiih did I'm-t fllififl il. gun-rally aupminr ml: m the punuifl :JFHII-inlmst in any nf hi: wrilingl. . . ."I'ht pmrnmr Inf mural plain-Iaphy and IJIE piunflr mmmm did nut. in [1:1, Incl a life 111‘ spttuflfla: ant-him. phrrn-hn. Ind-xii. it '11 put-incl}; Ihc narrmr'mg Li thu- bmd Smilhiin firm: at"

I'Hlll'lll'l brings. in mudern E m a ll‘lfl an ht men as am: {If lhl: majflr {Idirienrifl DI mntrmpunry manic flrury" (A... 5111, En Ethic: and E

m

pp. 25. 1’5}. 25. Thu me far thi: run-ding ul' Huhhfl i: made by Errand Gm in "l'kl-hhfi and Payrlmlngiml Egnhm": "Tlmufih thfi's paliliral thenn- rcqu'lrfl ll'l-lll all men- he mutt-med with their uwn self-inlflut. especially their own pram-William it due-.5 um requirr dull they tannnl he- mnrtmrd Hilh any-[hing Ell-t". thtg in Hflbhtl'l- pulitiul thrill-5' require: TtI mun null have friends [at

whnm Ihrr irr Willing In Main: mm: Iarrifir-n'. . . . {Thur lhmrr] i: um psychulufiiml quiun. What t h H dun dung-r i: an untflflmmimtd mm“! Malamute” ‘ (p. 51?}. 26. H. Spcnrn. 1 ' 1 : q ml. l.Q.m-tatinmmfi'nmpp. 25!. ill: Hr alm pp. TIE-$5. ET. Hichad and Lin Wallath {DEED-d... HiIJI mnflderahltfiuflfimtinn, that “ i d ' l will: In unmask illmiun and cumbnl hymn-inf: any hau- In?! hi1: m I. mnrl: fill-rm:- p-nsitinn in "mil nl' his pmnuunrtmmls all-nut lht nil-tun: nfhuman

being: dun lhr: ram justify” [Hminhfi‘s Sand-m: far Him-m. .1 5m. 23. 5. Fraud. h i m m

M Hybmuflm. pp. Hfi-i'f.

29. I. A. fl-lll‘firl. Hanan flmm'm. p. 269. 5D. A. H. Minimum Th Hurt-Err Ell-NM if Hun-ml Hum. pp. fill-9. 31. E. Frmnm. IMAM; q," Hm: Hum-mm. pp. l‘H—Tfll. 32. Thin pain: it mid: by Hahlnr Haulagu in fir him1 ' m Win. 13-. 91'.

33. Thu.- Elam: :mhufl I ' m } pm this pain: firm-ugly II-Ir ruling what u:- mull! mucludt mu if it were- s'lmwn that aggression {J an: mu at number had Inn-Em HIE-Eli'd run—“hid: i.:l In fly. IJIII it 'II'E'I'IE' in. Evolved adaptation. Such

a lilZEM-tfliflfl "Hnuld mm tall m: I H whflhrr with agnniinn i: m bl: [ti-11nd in :11. mm. m wan my runtcmp-nmry human ludfiiu: f2] tthnr. gimm- lhnl it arms. il. i5 Iunniunal in any pmimlir {uhural fi‘l‘il‘flflflflfll11-t Ihan Iht am.in which il Hfll‘l‘fd: (3] whether. given lhn‘. it nmun. learning i: air in nut aim-Inland

HDTEE TD PAGES 45—50

255

in it: dewtuplmnnflrfllwhfihlnhnmwhm.wflwimfldwmfluflh dung-Ed" l1}. 1-5]. 34. The [Imam-lit! ml" "Maud mduhgin flunlld Grimhi! {fllflilllflflll mull a m 01' mi: hind Il'ld magma wine dun: by min-1:1. Enemy Ffl‘fl'fll {if I. lamp-1t- Inf ihuut [lift-t hut-dud uncirrgradumfl Iflffld with the "Marne. ”Th: man nf 1-m- artin man's Izmir mturt" ID. [inn-hug. “ e EIPE'E'L'Il'I-Ef ml 111:- Enluau'nn nf 1 Sptcific War." p. 541']. In EIIJ'IH‘ pulls. I53 puma-m a! undergradualu. GE putt-mu!" high finaljlmim. and 53 perm nl'adull: tread that “Huma mm“: bring him it i1. mm: trill ail-nay: he W" (D. Gmberg. "Pith-

“H In Pram." labll.‘ 2—]; 11‘".- Emit-yr M undtrgfldtmfl “I

ah: plfllliflud in

“War Exptnmq: Sum: Funhn-r indies." 9. IE}.

55. imam quaint-{l in H. fia’hlim. Th L'mmd'dhw qfflmim. p. 9. Eihlhli Idth: ”TI:- altrihute my m I“ human wan. (luminance W at the Hit In human ifl'flrfliimfll il a kind {If bargain mid: whh l'EiIJiI‘j' in whirl: ill] midn-

Iunding ul'lhr phcnnme‘nm 'II gained at Lhttmldnmthing in: hmhr m h“ {p. 15}. SB. 5. firm. Flam qffl: Emu. pr. HE. 3‘1- It. unit-grand IL [tin-rm. W”. p. 2'25. M . Arthlrllfiefllermm: [I'm midi-H5 "art muflualtd Hill by W hm by ail-Him” (“The 11min ul' Him ind Hi1 Fmdiramrm." p. 52].

SE, Mahala: PiflFhTill-I'JEI in H- E- 1mm Jim film-fl. p. I'M. 39'. flnw'll. "Hum-age tn Eufluniaf’ p. 55.

m. In urdrr In b:- :HE u:- h'll III:- nrfl nnpnwfaligndi. (1mm? Chflfl Ian. ”I haw merited in my I'll-Earl all lhal might bl! skin In him" ( W . p. 55L

Hit-wile. flu.- heml't: mmluliunan wlm plans: In hill lhr Grand Duh: fmm : I'm-IIIr fen may in dfllfl'l'l'lil'ltd that he “:11l nut HE him . . - with End’s. help. my hand

trill mrgt up jun in tirnt. and blind me” m hi: can mmmil {hr umrdtr [ 3 " t .ilsuuflu, in Caligula and Tim Emu Hum. pp. 2413-19]. 4 ] . 5H. far umplr. ]. E. Eafilfi'g; and T. Eh“ "Emminn hum-mu: anti Amiga-tin] Ethan-inn" p- {52- I11 Sanity Hiram”: [am-1m apt-durum. 1hr Hi“ingnrn In nrr'p mil: fll'dfll ind :dminislrr rltflrir Il'lfldtl In I Hflngfl‘ lrfl "signifiamly rcdllflfltl as I11: victim was rum-dud mart humiliate m :11: whjtn."

Sperifinlh. 35 pntml T'E'fifl'fl] In arr; nul I11: innmninnn Inn-hm Iht victim h'ili r t E . 31.5 pnrrnl. said nu wlrn Il’fl.‘ victim's mic: was alt-11bit. fifl pie-rm mfiutd. when the Fiftifl'l H11 in the Jam:- I'D-DI", and Ti} PETE!!!“ rqimrltd the

Mutt-f5 urdm Irhcn it “5 W eifllrhl: darin- lfi. Milgum, M

' H:- furtt tl'u: trinim‘; hand mun III-r:

! 1': A m . pp. 34-551.

42. 5. L. A. Manhall. Mn mm Fm. pp. 5-1. H. 43. IhitL p. 5?. 44. Ibid.. pp. TH-‘J'fl': m 311:: p. 59* 45.Inmdning.hrnlfmdndlgrnlnflnrudmuflim$nummueuf HM"! haw: lately taken In rimming Ihil Min-half: dim wru- fn'urduhnu- Tim

velar-11min particular. m l rflinrdFE-l m m m m i m i fi m hiflnrhn

5'55

H m TD PAEES Ell-H

fur II“: U5. Amy. tutu: W

nut Himltlillm in Manhall's claim: a:

thuhwd III-I: likelihnud ufhishn'vilu cumin-led interview: in thr I“? he Hid I1: did. 11m: durum: um Wed Immatlmtimlly in I recent mick that dust:

with a prmld Iflimliun that “animal-3.- pen-pl: mmmllr talcum. quilt by thflmelve-I. that knack Inf IHllfuI killing.” {The imhur 31m. ham-urn rim-IL Ed!!!- that "I [air umber ul' p-mplt hid all-Inlay: had an ianprnuimiuir any: at

III-t plummrrm" all” refusal In lin- ll'ul Hilnlull drapihtdd I haw nu! inmrigilt-d. W ' u Wat-Eng? and thus Lama! [ m m kmwludgcahly ahuul 'H'I'I'rlllfl' hi: tritium” margin are camplclriy. partially. fir nm It ali credible. Iliad-

en mar war" In mad his bank and the ankle sumnm'iz'mg d1: {filicislmand farm their nun upininm IF. Smnkr, "The Sultan nl'tht Haldirr: W1“: Didn't Sham." Warn appear m1pp. Hand EIT. Mm :I-EIE' IL Halluran. "Etnflfl's firm-Elma 513': Gunfire Thtu'l Il- flnthtd." Eur I rupnmr m Ill: durg-HJ IE. Elma. Amman pp. '3'. I52. Ltfll'l Eiscnbwg main: ml: 1hr: my: pain: “Th:- mrn: abu-rualjun infirm-111spflticl ul' Iimiln: behavinmlu-Icumfi that Ell [hr Emu-nit lab-cl 'Htarh' justififi m: mmluflnn flhfllfl Ill undfli'fin; agar-rm?! ill-Hind, within-u: Mailed “ d nl' thl: mndiliumu waking. and [I'll

mhaninm m m . lhe behaviur (If Each. Such ‘flplm'utinni‘ retry a descripliv-E Libel IJut In: bun incisfl'lnimlfly applit-d m mlrhflfly diEmm luv-ell at“

behavinral manniulinn. as [haugh naming Hm 1hr sum: as wphhlhig" {“Tht Hun Hum: 111' Humul W t " p. 125].

4?. IL E. Mayan. I’iuhrralddfllmfll. p. HID. Emphnlil lim Farm mini

mum's: paupctu'm m:- t': writing: ufjnhn Paul Emu. HIE. Fun: I din-tuniun ul' “magma-live m s " : the rum in A. Hun-

llgu. Ed... Lama; Nan-AW 49. 5-H.- the diuum'nn and mum cilfll in mm: WI. pp. ”HT. Cam-I Tavr'fl hu Eli'IIE'hI' dispaudullhe mdun-i: mudduilptnimln angerinchqnfl 5 {"Gflting II Elm at" Van: Sync-m") ml" burr hunk. dug-r. Andjmmr Hagan writ-s: "I: i1but in human “.31“a express angu m m WI?“ M1111: mum Hum to he ‘Heilhcr' Th: Eflfilflqmfll‘tl ul'mppruainn dingy an: : functinm a!" uh:- mn'al comm in which uh: child is adapliflg" (p. Efii. 5'1 “may. “I! Mafia: Eff-firm! m p. 215. 5| . 5. Schlrhter ind ]. E. Singer. "Column. Sun-dd and H I M DHL-nninanll fil' Elmfliurul Slur." 51'. 5e;- fl. Adams. "The L'il-E and Hhufl a! Aura-Ilium Rue-Imam." p. 533: and Haulagu. Thfihhlm offlm Amman. up. pp. 5'1. I52. 32. Mnmgu Elm-HEIEichard I}. an Gddfl u lbllmu: “Then.- ii an mart :I'I'Ilflfl m hflim that man light:Husbtfluflfishnrbflvmartlufitnrhlthmtnlhinhlhummfly hum ban luv-L- wing!" (p. 1'65}. 5!. Eu]. I'. Emu. “The Magical Bail uIWarIIrt":1ndlI-'L IL lapel. "A Hum? nl' 1hr Efidfl‘lfll‘: I‘m-r [mnhuman Killing in 1]}:- I'k-iammm" p. 12?. 54. 54MB. L'- flinshurg and B- F- W . ”The Bthflianandlhtflfllflifl H‘Aflrulium"p.fifl.5nflmd1qflcr5nfflmu.w

fl"?

WEE "I'fl PAGES Ell—5? 55.ILI-.fiilhfl;fl.].fli£flmfli¢.mdl E M " W llhfl'ifll'i'fl Hilary- 31. 39. J W M

A

W

5E. 5:1: my H1:- flan-HI. pp. 19-2-1. Elill nun: minimum in mppnn nfthili misulflrdinthlpiflinffl.hupmmdfl-51lndmmfihfliflng. 5?. F. (It Wail. Phat-muting” Punt-n.

SEEfllupEn'fiSmfi'urduEfidtnflfianmhmflhlinthe warm." 59.fl.flllfl+lhflhhmiflrm Fun: munflhthmdrflhdtlnu:hflinlytmnfhmmnhinm. thirguu.‘*h1mflEwnptm:ndHtlrEuu-m mummfliuhmmmdmnlngiHMmPPnnmdmhaut Lhtqinliqr uf'lifir. - . .Thtfilflfflrrfl: w m t h fl m i h m m i p m h fl d tummeuldufanfla.-__Itisnulhumannamrrhuadnmimmrmuddaf inch-1f flulhznuraflnfhilhudmnhgrinnmhlrdfiuimlmrdm

“I” [Ia-p- 12. 56. 159]ED. Harm. "I'll: H m Hill“: In!- Hum Him.“ [1. P27.

El.Furm:qflc.mH.G.fluugh."hW1‘hmufW lb}. '52. Fur Hamlin In I. A. M l . "Euchl MWPru-Eushl Unilfilhflhflmflflfirflmfldmmmimmfiflihm m 4

151. EL HDIIEII..T.T. Fndhlndflfllnflr. "Bull-nflnunflggluflnnin El. Mflflymiflafflumfl tan-ht finmd hw.flfluirr+“flunu-

mm or [liIfi-rtnl Illindu all” Parmul Diuiplhr." Hp. pp. ”749. lint-arthm :1 the Urm-t-rsh-f of Illinois qnd a turn-[align hum-rem buy-5' 2

|

:

v and

that pm'nlm' us: (If phyiifil puniilmwnl in 1951}. What 1hr? lmrhd dawn lhn'r :uhjc-L'u 'm Illa: WI! 153“; that buy! Ila-Ii grown up and mind 3 : 3 1 : 5 t t {If their an: (L D. Emu H ill.. “Ann-Him; imd [l1 Ennrlalfl aver 22 Tran").

155-. Far “ample, ml: C. Hfl'l'fi and E- Eldrtdgu, "Rape-um III-E Abufld. H m fi and Hm-Haltmted mil-dun m 1hr B-ll'flvim all" Their PHI-1."

155. E. Eta-uh. ”A. Eumcplim {II III;- B u m and [II-Hem ui' Mimi“: and Ami-Jinn,“ 11. [3'1 ET. H. E. Hellman. “Walnut: tribunal Hui m . " '1. 5E. Elli. IhHIL. pp. LEI-52. E. F. G. ihardu. "111E Hunun M I " p. 31H. m. This idfl uguahl'ytnmn tum Erma Hiflmhehy fly d'filfird Aim. Alum; I'IH'E'I'II: writing: that w i l l variation": an thil them: an- lnfln Hay“: Hind-r and h m Arm Gwen's TA: W ifflt Sun-QC M’ifl: Miller': Fm ll'nur flhru Grand. and Andra." liar-d fichmuflfl‘: flu If Iii-dim. Thu.- Ihrtm Inf Fflh'fli lumen may I'lm hclp In Explain the app-n] nl' heliflim! flul human unnu- i: Furtvilarm-n[all].r rink-m 1nd :gmnir. shun aim-mall? slitting I hn'rl't in tantrum-'1 rilnmnz- cmflumindwhndy unmhn Hmhyamihmhganflf-lqudinl “wintry In unt'l mum hfli: mum.

ESE

HDTESTOPAGESfl—Efl

7L Elwin-151'; lhtdemhptmhydnunmw ILIH'EI'HI Illljlfliljl' ni'vinknt crtLE-m:fltfiflfludyalfiw?ark5mtfmm l-‘EIfl?m I'EIfiBn-uppnfltdlhl

Hflthmjlulsudia“hmialiflngtfltn“ tflmmdcalmhltfllhncachfltnm mcwufly l'mhd m u I'll-Ill mu lithium! humid” (NJ. Bur-I'm Ind 11 L Pier“, “fie-1mm: ur Brutaliflliun"l. H. [lamb-erg, Huh-um m M chip 2. p. 311* TE. mflmtismmflyhiudnndrmmmflwnfmm . In a flpfll‘l HI .I. U5. mug-rum Illbtfl'l'l'fl'l'lil'lfl in 1915. III: Furrcign ”Elfin DifiiiannflhtfinngrtuhnalflflflrdtSmirnahflnchnhhtUhflnnfflungnu. liltcd lEII “imam-tn at" [the] In: nf United Sum Armed Fat-cu alarm-d"

bflmn l'fllflmd that Mr. all hm 39 uf lhflfl mm- [35D- lfiincr: [915. cf r m . dwira-dithnufinflflminlmdhwadinghumnflnmdl Uldtramuchuidfl definitim of wing 1hr "immd farm a: I pulim'al. imirwnml," Barry Elathmm

and hi: mlhiguu at tht Bmuhings [mm-m- munlui El!!! Huh incident:- jull. haw-ten [916 and [915. as {WI-Ed in thtir bunk. PM W

War. Vial-malty

Ill inaunm at" LLS. marvemjnn arc-ind [he EI-flhl' Ina-E been dufl'ihrd by the W I :1 nit-Ermin- in. “awn—1m: tum-rising. given Lhal fiery inn-id“

minnhhhtmhudflflhdhimmiam wish-:13. H- l. Wilma-um. “111-: FigurdHJlnliml Elli! fur Pm Emma-m" ‘15. I}. Adam: and 5. Bun-h. ”The Hflh Thu War 15 Inlrhuiit II: Human Hum-r Difluuflgfl AIL-flan Fur Fem by Tmmg Permit." TE. Bumbag. ”War Elptnanw and 1h: Ewhflinn {if a Specific Wu."

T1. EWJEIILTMMQ‘H’HHWH Tim. FmIfllP-fl-lill.

WT!!!-

E. Furl mhfiflhillnrrnfpmifl mun-II. huhdingi piflflrhlmpremarina fifth-t flplminnnhludiu in the field frmn I964 m I'Elflfl. mclflpflr I at H. Smithson. I'. I1". Emma. and P. Pearce. M q" Editing Huh-1m E. Rpm-t fi-um 1h:- ful flm mint“ 1with: dim-rm! mu: nbt'imulf trill nut

hr: vich'lfli as. hitcrthangtahlt—campart. I'm- Elample. I111: dtulilinn In In anather Ihupprr aha-ad uf you in Iil'lll.‘ and In dunu: an: a!" 1mm- iidntylr—mmn :hnugh am all. rmwh has mm dnuhl an m: prim a!" lumping legal-m btlpifll. during. and filling undtr nun rubric.

A small Hmhr {If dmflarr Hhml childnm by J. Lirritu ind P. Hunt-n F'Snmc Perl-finial“? and ”minibus! Emeline! of Children's Pram-rial ILL-hathr“! faund lhil mm than: were “‘rtlatimiy indacptndrm dam-u." paninflarly I'm buy-l. Either res-cinch hm pun-hund in the mm: dilation fut bath mu: M. Eadie-Tan“ and [1. lam-Walla {“l’fimmfiMI and Enndaln nf Pram-Eh! lfluvim in “lung Childm'fi faund n mud-Haw mnnhfinu between pits-than]m' during and mml‘nrling. bul :nn rthtinmhip hflmn eithflill-thin:afihilifl

Ind helping. H. Hunting-Burr; and H. Hind 1"111: Minmhjp of W

NW 111 Fifi-E 53

239

m‘ l m h g mm mHun] W u1:} Pmc-tial Enhafinr'fi :nmhilufl helping and cnml'nrljng illu n Jingle IED'I'I! and fault] I]!!! i. m nun-bled In II‘I-E Prflil‘l‘II-E uf :han'nrg. flu: and? [(3. L. Eirhmarn In at" "FEI-[l-fl-fi Edam-d m Htlphq; Behind-car in Prexhnnl-Ag: Ehildnm‘fi mu {nund helping and mminn'mg In bl: m a y Tl‘lilllfll.

Huian hulk-Tm: Ind Im- cull-Em .11 than: Hui-anal Inuit“: nl‘ Hnnlil Health lilt mml malarial htlufiufl and :rlut. in {He-n. film there is nun run-mu M M mm: [aged-her give-n than. they ”require diEH-cm HMitiflLit-s. I'I'Ifl-li‘l-‘tl, and skill; inn-fin tn'lh difl'ernu perm-MI :mrihulu: and pram-bl}- haw difl‘fltm mtuedmu." 11M. Entflcflt'arrnw. E. Zahn-Wafler. and M- Elflpman. "Ehfldrm'n Pram-dill DilguI-iliuns and Edna-int." p. JTIII Thtrl.‘ ii [In parlindar run-m III-c

sham wen. [ur rumplc. um altruinically and nmlanlu'uisljnfly anti-tutti pruinrial huhiirinn wnulll hi! high]? E-III'I'II'JEII-lfll-

Bfirunfl thr qucsliml ul whrlhrr mm: min]Hudifi :hmm it nun-dam ml: ht mufingfuli? rammed ii the manual"Il'h'fltlflfEih-EI muffin ffilfl‘f but]: u: anything; mningflll. ‘l'hr lam-11 brhiwifln in rum-ll {If thr mirarrh indudt

III-mum]; pull-J mun-v that :hildrtn Innwjmt Hun in I gamut. pulling up ipilled paper dips. ur signing up It: be a suhjtfl In sumeunr Else'5 fipEfiflHflI—nmw H which Hem: terrih-ir infflmuflw :huul II“.- hrighltr aid: 11l— human nature. Vanni-r and her ctr-Haring hl'n'll' been :mun: the mus] penal-11mg {nuts nl' 1hr

fltld‘: mlhndulugy: “II is appurm Ihln‘. : wry t'fll'ru'ln' hand LII 31:11am 11:1 hut-tn manipulated rrr albumin! in rne-awh. Hamil.- “1' lb: inches in.- Irifiil. hill-mm ruling in dflldrm‘: cup-trim with when. and generally wiihnul apprtriahlt

flmii'f Ur srfinu! dimmiflm. flan-Ii? is prumrial h-rhaviur mlufllfll in "mm umber than fi-cqucmtgv , - _ [and the“: is a} ham; grip-ham um I malrr'nliuit,

in'Lpn'mnal inlt'rrlungfluirrhlivdy “ii-iii cummmiili-fl :u 111: Irritn'ilm tit—pramrial anions, cum, pp- 529', “I“. Mm MI: El. Eli-III and F. Van Hulmm “11w Dwdnpmrm nl' Mtruilrn." p. 3.] These mmmenl: am: TEIflIH'h will: chi!drm. hm mm In apply In prmadal rmarch in general. 111! writm aim nut-E llm in II": muntlen Maudie-I whm rhihzlrm are Hillard h:- dannut Harmr Inf Ihtir .PI'I'IE winning: m “£11: pram" 1}: [am lather abstract Eur-up ul'aharnl thildrtm Ihm 1': mm In dun-ht whflhfl thr mung Whjfl'I-l- fully EI'IIIP the fi l mInd Ilma the IIII'IIE'E' 0! III: Equ-Efl lip. “TI. linden my It'll"Ihruugh flu.- Huliiuudjudgt fur m m 'h‘htll'lrl' such manure-I: at" [Ira-satin] indimtiqm m unamidahle giwn lil'HE' 5 " t want-r. 1:"- lift “1! rut-ml: nip-31:11: cuntrirrd flpfl'i'l'l'lmlfll {kaigm and. mm: gull-filly. 1!]: sun uf “redunit't mpiflmm (I'm luml human gun-inns inm khan Number al'Fharlir Tuitm qmtd imm Bun Labeled “Far Charilyr." Funhcrmnrc. it is nut that 1mm” ll'l-E' Fulani-[fl tmueq-uu-ntt “I Ihl'I-Ilt" unnlisflnury ntlhn-rlulugin in Elm II'IE' depth M an: imliml'mn 1:: help in given shut sin-in ur mhtr Hill In- haw: mlrre-Ithuartd nut pmmfial dunner by making 1': Ian thy In [In [ml-d. Th:- lam: il 1hr.- hnpflmtitm at“ a mum mliqur by Jan-pl: Adtlmn. Haul mum-rt: at helping. hr.- trg'ufl. “ammun- “a thin fun“ a!" allmism. in but. {Jul-In m,- nut

HHI'EETDPAEEEfil—fi?

29D

mmmmlhndppnhfifldcpfinfiunnnmdyhmflnmdufln

mdifmcmwmnuiwmnpcrhntmwmpmhmdmdcprmliumm I'lllil'dl?” P'Th: Facile-lug}- at" Mlnlilm." F. W} In my cue. H m dear 'Ihlt 'II'E mnhliged tn pruned m m in Imflnguse uflhtrtmrdHhMI helping. during. and raring. 3. Pulllfr-nm [9-35 are tiledhfi". IL Hudgkhuan.MH-nhumfirfim1ni Fatah-flag. pp. 21-52. "Eu-m in a druid:- hrhm firmly-nu m mutant-Ii abut-11 flu.-

nlunn-uru:mitn'iill'irn and Irlfilhnm (If Alum Miriam giving a: a mug: nah-Hal pcnaual wraith has mutual “tar-El} {or m1? .5- dcndt" {51. H}- Hut mflydutwrniy millinnfimnifim familiflgivefiwpfltmlurmmufthei

hum In charity. hulcigiflr milliun penpll: llflfill III-Ill {linearly if!!!“ hill'Hm hum an 'H'flllllllifll' Hark in HIE-E (I. fltmnelL ”film. LWIIJ Pain“ ml"

nam-

II. 5. H. SII'I'HIIII. "Elitiulim 111' “an! Milli-an :ml Srif-Sutrifitirq Behmrinr." Sptdfically. 5'9 pace-m DI the umplr: nil' H-Il hula-ad {Em-run agreed {I} Bun-uh nil] [ugh-I.- mulllnch'hunrl'mrruw lfl-‘I'hmflfl'tl' Efllkd il: Hindu-rill put-m: said tr would probably damn: m- : sprcifiu: pan-cm wham- lilurllin-II had hubrmdmcrihtdlnfllm- llmfhtfllfllhlnndlhnflflmpmhflnlinflrpiflll mhnfi Inf ll".- pupuhlinn. but the fi r m hum-rm dun- twu mm uf durutiun h'fl very dflr m 1h:- lubjctu. min? uf nth-m1: Il-hfll I'ur time In think Ibfllfl ll:-

reqml h-rfnrt ICE-Him: m it. The EIPE'I'iIII'I'IIEI' hunt! the Hide-.Iprfltl Hillbilnua In help “quit: mum-rd."

5. 51cm quaint-d in W V “ . IihnI—Wuhr. III-El (Jim. “(hila-

dms'n hmdal Dijpmitiuns and Ere-ham." p- fill-

E. L Bull-hr. "IE-Ennis uf HEfl-lflilf in W u . " F. 2’13.

45'. W. [lam Thiflmflflifl p- H. Marian lladkr-emwwl‘rcramfir HflmwdutwhtrHIHrmadmdnigu...dwprmncialdlutlwmnlmhld link but impart m1 [ W ul' dlfltlrm ur ul' d'lild dflrlupmtnl.“ lflthf wilful: luv: mm: In I i : I “dint-Hr dim-farm firm nl' childrtn in lighll url' repeat“! litmunatralium ”Lint aiming. :u-uptral'mg. hflp-ing. [eelhg mpalhr. and tiring Fur W are a: much fl part aF:hildnm'l bani-haul rtptr'luil'l'l- H In: nthfl kinds ul‘ satial imeruliuns" iflidkt-‘a'arrum Iatulfl+ and filial} Inn. “flildrm'a Frag-nth] Diipnailiuml and BH'IJ'II'iflf." pp- 521-25].

3. H. L. Shim. ”Hflhmn's Ingmar In flu: Err Inf finmhrr Infiml": .IL Sigi and H- L. Huffman. "Empnlhic Dianna in I11: Hwhuru.“

E. G. B. Harlin and: IL D. Glad “I. "Ilium F m in Hum-mm." ID. Sign and Hnflman. "Emgmlhic Diaman- in flu: Elihu: p. 1115'. II. M. Eadie-Yam Mini E, lam-Waller. “Emu, Hon'm. and Palm III fil'lildrm": W i l l Bthfli-M." p. 9?. IE- lflfifin‘nw and EahlbWaxhr.“Dimmimu Imdfimdatnnfl’mmc'ul Erin-rim in “Jun; flfildrm” 11-. I211. 13. m . p. [23.

HGTES TD PAGES Ell-Tl

29!

11. 5!! E. Lilli-E and}. H. Ila-lay. Th III-WI:M r . 15. H. J. Lfl‘l‘lfl. "Thin-junk: Hulk: “m Humn Erbium and flu: Ecunflmiu: Hfldfl 111‘ Man." pp. 255—511 Dari-tr and brunt. hflflflfi. maintain that IE! alumna 1.11mi tgir nnigl'lham tum could l-EI!‘ whu III-u gain; on 1nd thll thl: bystander lhmrr lhncfm uflhfi an adtqmlt :ilrflflll'll Elf lhrh‘ Eillrufl: In It! {In}. H, Darla? and B. LIL-nu. “31min hmminn in Eugenics." 11.

3H].

16. Duh-1r and Law, "Bflllndzr Interim in W I . " p. 382. 1?. 11.. Gwen. W W fl fl r - fi fl pp. III-ilmltl'iiqutaflaluntmd Dil'lcr‘l dwarf begin: an F. 5E. IE. H. Taiualhiln. 5. Haber. mud ]. [AI-ninth. "Whu Wuulh’t Hun-hi Lun mild?” l9. fln 1hr quntinn uf tauperatimm “mm campfliliwnlu. lll'l' m: war}. if SPEDIZH' Hagan and him mandala. {El-um;- nl' Ihal mark in mriud in L L Mtlmn Mid S. Hagan. "Enmpflitinn: The Eur-Spangled Strunhlt.“] in- T. Maid. "fiummmL" pp. Eli-ET. Uhtwise. ll'IE' Kannada Rnhtrt Funk paint: an: that "tumult: tl'm l'l‘btfllfl'igr reprint-ti immfinm'" din nail gamut-:3 map-Italian simIn-ljlI mu Inf fear at" lam-[inns hm alsu htflufl nl' “flu DPFflfllflljlj-fl Ihlrjn' [Ir-avid: In dilil'l'll lrliln liar-chamber ind tn [burr [In-lulu] litl and [malty 11m. in tum. {in nut-am mptnIi-cln firm in muslin!“ h'hn't

duh-cling 'u impunihlr: m dung: [and lama: imp-mania In Main: lfliflflr' {Pym-nu urn-“Ilia Hum 11. EH7}. 2L Tahmihi-fln. Hither, Ind Lucinda. “Wk-I: Wuuldn‘l Haip- I: In mild?" p. 55. 22. 5. Mil-grim. ”The Expat-ileum nl' Living in Citing-i.” p. H55. In I'll. Milan!“ continues. "the chine-I [IBM-lap new mm 111' nuninvnlvemem. 1112mm In Win-dtfintd and m «lien-.13”.r a pm If til}? lift that they cut-minute Ill: warm: 11mph In: mlunam u:- vifllillt. H-fl'l In:- actually {tubal-ram [1} give up I I!!! an I111: subway m an :1c Human; shay [numb]: 'l was gelling nfl‘ anyway.“ finite-ad

Inf makin; lhr gum“: in : umighLI'urI-ranl and Eli-Him]! war. 111m.- mm + . . an: cmh'td in "spans: I'D liequenl disarm W m nl" amlnad: they pie-flit ind butt-um: Erna-Jihad mndtl nf rupnnliing" (pp. HES-Iii]. EB- E. Hrauflummcr. “Hm-I in San- fln: Haul-1:51 Mun-Ital]? flL" p. Ell. Hammer write: pm il this my: "Every timc unmmm: walk: my 51e an impma

lunh'tg fund. h: riIL-a harming: limit lurthr. il littlfliflllflhfl'. .1 Hull: lm [flu 1h: pct-Inn h: flmuld ht" (H. IL Gibbs. “Begging: Tn Giu- ur Hut tn GE's-r." F- TIL

24. This. mun-ding lu- Marlin Hufinuzn, can: bl: wilnflscd nut thinly in disfl‘uln l-E'ILI uf Inkling I'IJ'il'lEfl'I. ul— Ihl! ID“. 11131 III-til] paychningilu nurmilly

mminc. but aim in Lhr puma-fl hifitm'ifl 11f prmutiill mmIra—thus: im'nlvrd.

l'ur maple. in the cm: righfl. m min: aluminum- "Thu: activiiu' din-m, re. pfiitd mum-n with : diiadmugtd gmup m d tn haw:- hild the Elf-tn Inf hunmflying their imial cmpuhil:uni syrup-illicit {Emu'I‘hn try-It'll!!! mum:

5‘95

H0135 TIE} FAG-£3 11—?5

mmudmfirntnhhmmmflmmlndahjufiuflr“ r'Emp-nhr and Pram-rial Activism." p. 52}. 25. Fm mmplr. IN E. Stub. m

Sal-inf Blindnnnd Mai-uh}. ML I.

dial. 7: and J. W E . "Self-efleem. Simihrily. UH: Ind Hflping."

:5. H. A. Harm-1m. Email} an Iii-dam. p. I25. 21" Mum: 1hr “any mumm- awihhlt an Ihr rrhiiun firm-rm punitive mun-ad and p-I'Dlfltifl] hrhaviar, an: E. 5- Hun-m. fl. Undrmnud, and D. L Emu:—

him. "AH-"m and Mminn": A. III- hm. “Harms. Failurc. All-Intifln. and imliml m fllhnn": L a m and W. H. (Influx. "Eur-rm. Failurt. and Sada! Iflpflmibility." A umber IJI utlur studies 041 th: Iuhj-en in- tiled in D. L Emmhan. F. Salmq. Ind IL Hal-gig+ "Th: jun-1's nl' Halpinm“ p. 399. Variant: rIE'l-l'lrthl'fl haw lP-IE'I'II I goud dfll ul'u'nu- debating I11:- pun-tin: mdmiam ul' lift: rfl'tfl. wring m fluid:11']t positivit- math chitfly Ifl'td tmnflm, mapl— tium ur fllmliufl.

23- fl. Undrr-rnml n :L. "Autumn-11 Hl‘flililflr AM. and W m " 5.19- D.— IL EhL-rmd Hid E- Buh'nn. "Environ-11mm! Dfln‘milmnu offing-u. inn." Suhjrns #111: had flfl'fil ml?! fifteen minutn prrinnning a last in the face

{If diltruclium includilu mumm- muiil: in thl: backgrmmd did ha" I! much mluntflr Hurt—{msifling nf Hurting mu math {millenn- Em amber r1:aflrdIH—u thuu Hhfl ptrfnrmed the initia'l lash wflhaul. fl'lt nuke. II. is qua-aIiflfllhlf+ huwrvtr. Hhflhrr :I duirt Ia leafl- 1hr in: fur a quiflrr Idling rather than dn manila-unlit: turn-1i i5 a valid inditmm uf reduced altruism; 5-D. Hun-Ell Hennfll incl Ihrifl Miami's lllfllhl' was l'l'pfll'ltd in m Tm]. "Sunni: flu: in III: Wily." .r'u with (I'll: findingsm hart-harm misc. I an

iltl'nfinglhr print-main unplmlemnliunflnm: Ilmlmdiam the red“:tiu-I: in financial hehw’nr. 5]. (In hath ul' Il'lfll' pair“. Ill' DJ. lilfllflll'l. IL B. C-ilklirl'. and: D. T. m “Altm'um u Hedmiamf' pp. “HE: and “159 n.L rupefiivtly. 51". w. E. Thump-mm E. L. Baum. and D. L W u . "Fa-tut al‘ Atten-

tiun ”Eta-alt! ch:- lmpm al‘Htgal'wr AIR-:1 an Maui-rm' Nu:m].Eanrlm-ifl "Fa-tun tmmkm Ind Mlt'fljlfl'l,“ p. “:3.

33. H. A. manual. L H. fling. all-IL]. A. Hal-lard. "Inducing Mint album 5:”nr mitt" Indeed. Ihnu: farmingun immune :Isc's disarm um filth mm: serum-u: than than: in m: Pfifiili‘lfl! aflm candiiiaun. warning that a urgilivr

Imus-d par I: dun nut inhibit hclp'lnfl: bchm'isur. It i: warm “mmlg. mu, than Erma-lily hen: Hm manned by duniliun at' will: lube-m In unlmnwn other chfllh'm who "wan'l have a Eillllfll‘ H:- be in the study and earn” [hum—nut by willingness In help the uhfl :hiid Hhflfl Infifl'nrlune they hid jmt recalled. The

panama] mpume sanctified. in fiber wards. m a Ihird party. 51. IE. D. Batman :1 II... "Critical Self-Edwina and self-Perm MinaIII

55. 5:: L HEM“. ".I-i-unfl Sinai-Aim. Ind “ h m In Help."

HD'I'EE TD PAGES '15—?7

293

Min in nmmgflflwflmflummfi. and Hfl‘fli'llflld'f. “Thejnfl Inf Hrlping." HIE. F. H. Gihbun: and IL A. Wirkhtnnli. “Sci-FmRum and Help'I'IE lduwm.‘ “I11: qunuflnn in {mm p. 4m. 37. P. M. [Him-r. “LEEifiIfI'IIli’I‘IEIfl-d lmplemmtinlfimucii Edmuium" F. III]. The rattan-ante ufmmpucutt has. 315:: bun nah-d by H. EistnbtrgJIrmflfl: Em. Eng-Jilin and Marina. p. it”: and E. Emil:+ “A. Emu-Flinn ul' uh:Dnermhmtu and Dtuhpmm1at Altruism and Aggie-stint." 11. Hull. (In: :E-El all"

Etprrirrhrm: shun-mi flutdlildnmgim Wimtfium fur Dptl'ilirlfli gm: arupnfluahmwcrtmrrlfidymflupwhmwwwcttdflirlgmdm: mm Ikilll II} will m m Eh: {L Pete-rm“. “Ital: n!" Dam Emma-mt. Dani: 11.51:, and Pm h m : an Hating in II] Emn'gmnr." and "Influtnc: {If Apr. Tut Cmpflenfl. and Ia'Il'drxqmqlllmill:iliulr Fla-nu an: fllidrm": flmfiimfl.

33. AWflmmenfflumhmguflttrmflhrdinfl.L E m H IL. "Emul'run Ind Altman.” pp. EJT-S’Q. 39. E. hm-Wukrlt 3].. “Th:Early W E I “ ul'P'mmcia'lE m . " F. E. in. Tin-rum“: W i l l hemnudtllutafl IfliI thearifl I'IE'l-lifll'l I Imm-thtinn 4nd" “11d hum [he ands-Hm“ ptramulitgr d'III'II'IlflEIli-tl [I'm pfllplt utrihult 1n (lumbar: :n': hut-d man:- cm. w i t h than rtaliw. The W i l l : in. that, inmrfllfl rtlinhih'Ij-n asidt, um huduwinml [Dmislfl‘ltifl are actually quilt: mall? lhl: Pll'iflfl who i! mail: in am: lilualiun in nu: lflTihl'F Hid? ti:- hl: aucrlivt in mmfl. In H'IIIIT m M b : il: Ft'l'iflll'i htlflfiur will: my

m m . H: mm lab: imn Hcml an indfiemfimlt number Hf (manual spedfiu [”We Imuw [hi-1 sh: [truth m be martin-T if flltll dealing Hath. ha 111t Ind inun- mulher i: vil'fling htr Inlm'irlg,r the hfllHIj'l and H'thfir haven't mun each nflicr fur : tflliI-e and if ah: feds Ihal her marliigt in gain; well at 1hr lim: . . .“J—thr tflil harming I‘Ill-Tflh'l'd in that prawn In the paint af IEII-i-flfl all predittive utility. Thil sun: uf tritique has hem nfl'crtd by Walter £115d lichIrd 511m. and mhtra. but it will but l-El llidf: here. «II . H. A. flame-It. ”Empathy and Related flap-um: in Iliklrtm" p. ”E. 12. Snub. "A Gnmptinn afflu: III-Hum and Bruit-Iowan: 11m

in: and Agmuinn." p. ”2.

«I3. lbiIi. p. H5. H. 5.. Fflhhnth and H. D. Flt-EM “ A W III-:1 Mu'll'lfl'n.“ pp. Ell—L 111A. Finn and T. Edam. "Fmfim'l u f fi d f u :- W in lht Dahumanitatiun Emu-“ 'IE. San-n.- Hi this: ntudifl In WEI! in E. Hidlilrhr. “Emu-1ind Hdping." pp. EBB-Jill}. 5h: 31m diuusifi urn-I. canola-Math;: pantie: rdalinn—

flf‘: brim atlfi-rnml and. hlflpinl.

17.1htdhmuflmhsfluud.hmh.bfih¢mm:mq

HD1133 Tfl' PAGES 77-?!

2‘94

nfindivifllull uhnrututdjmdnrml WuridIl Int-1d than dwufllingnfli In rum: “'35 pmitimrh mhttd in 'rntrmal lam-m uf Euntrnl but nut it I" related In flflflm [5- I"- fllincr and F. H- filial-r, “rd-lamb:M + pp. ”IF-TE}. #3. Su- EiH-nhfig. ,{flmiflir E-IIIIII. Emmi-“Hi. mud m . p. 21513. Fm M y , than: helping m :huing 'u mgardfil u HIP-Etl—fl is far lune anther rum-1 diffiuruh H:- mm nut—m.- wnulll rip-en higher FEE-EEG“! In putrid: in admmagr. 19. Fuhhurh an! Fur-5M "Aggmsimt Ind ”LI-ninth," pp. 2117-12. 50. E. Snub, “Humming Fmili‘I-rt Eli-ham in Ethan-uh in fllhtr Edutiv limfill Efltmgl. Hill in tl'n.‘ Ham." 3:. III]. In rhnpter 5. we fll l-El.‘ haw I Khalil-bum pragmm designed In PTIJIIIIIJIE pmmfl hehariunr has cmubunfld

thin {hilth'm then- have lumrd mu m In.- buth mun.- can'ng mad man: HILL-Er In “and up I'm- lheir awn vim than an- their mumerparfl in “her Ichnnh. film If!Ehmhtrg. .iflmflm Em. (Ignition. and Bulimia-r. pup. llfl-Ifl. far I dim Iifl-I'I nl' inerp-crmmfl pmhluem‘mhm: skilh. 5 ] . D. E. BirI't-ll and H. Edit-Yawn. "Frmathl Batu-inn Elicia] Infer-

mial Abiljly. and Ann-Iiwnrn in Children-" T11:- tmrd W

M is impurum

hm: auntiw: children an: mart film-[y I'I:I hdp uf thri: mum-3.13m kn lit-fly In mmplf with n'qunu fur illiflilm. {5H [hunk-HE. Alma:Ell-Him. [lupin

landfill-him. pp. III]. Em; and H. Eiflnherg, E. Elmerun. and It. Tum. "PI‘IHID' till Ethan-liar in I-I'l-l' Prurhml i'carl.“ pp. “TI-FL! 52‘. L MUM; IL {l Btll. and H. 1'. I'arhu-fluhm "Tanya-3mm and Helping Ethniur in Flu-chad Ehiklrrn." mac wfiling'nfl: in help an adult in n Iaburmnry situalinn was firmly mrrclaltd with mtiahfliuu WH' rtpnm flflwdflthtn'llwlpfilhuiuhnmnmm

Ell. A. F. Hal-mama. "Frirndslliip Palms-Hid Mmfiflirfidlfliurin Prud— H. F. m m “The Inn-In." pp. 217. 249. 55. {Jim Ind miner, H A M W u . F. I'M. Elfin. Ib'ui.. p. I611. 51. H. Wilmer. “Sudalilm and flu.- flil'l Hehflunflip.“ p. HIE. 53. Thu.- "III in qu—nti-nn in: hand m1 thr lflflf them-gr nl' mun! dflflupmt dtr'utd by 1hr Ian.- laurtnfl Enl'llbtrg. Finding: [mm Emu}. llfldifl- ul' I m m “ hat-mm librriliam and “pancanvmflwnfl” winning an mural dilemmas {reprimang 1h:- mnu mphislitaluL-d mm awarding u:- tuEmma-mm

m- rru'it-Hcd in Ei-IcnbL-rg. .Il'frurlflir Em Calm-Hull. ald' Brahman p. 152. Far

Inlflligmw.” 1:. HE].

5115. lhflJh mdLA. Fqihu. "Wilt: W u h i j u u Wufld?" p.52. HI" Deuummmr 5:6.

‘ 4

wrongly rrliled ID i qmtinnmire~banrd III'I'EESIII'E nfpulilirll IihcmEn'n. Tillrchtiumhip [Dr bar: was null smhtinlly Jigniflnm 1H- Emu-I'llIrlnfl'l'fi—fl-I'rrg+ "Reins tin-alibi]: uI Frumdnl Mural lumnhg In Mmfim Fniilinl Ijh-rraIimL Ind

L

EMS. H-Iflfl an Ejimhufi awn [EH fi l m mural fawning HHE 11-35m

mmPAGESTB—Hfl El. W

1295

lluurElt-qfl-d lP-lfltl‘flhfl‘l'fli “’T'htmmhtemrhuhtm tha-

rcrligim ail-n1: pc-flmimd [ht-nurtprflnuntl has been lhtdflfl'fllfllit hue-H.111:[It-[film burn the El'ufllfllfll that m .ril'l MI! I: fibula-rm. :1. 2m.

flu burn 1hr: Intrufnlliirl" [Hi] I

52. I]. w. Allpun and J. 1.1- nun... "Pumas-I lfligimu flrilmuljnu and

W i n ” 11. 152. 11m: finding: htflifl in lillil'.‘ I949; but Alb-Dr! and In: qmlifir Ihcm in hm Haw: lint. pearl: “ha mmd church qumflj' l-md tn he Ila-HI prejudttd Illim than h'l'm seldmn IiIIEIfll-d: and. mud. 1h: Iflir nf m ' l

religimity app-ran In Plljl' a rah. Spfiifimlly. than (milled In the intrinsic ulnar uf their belief: Hm mun: tflll'l'ilfl ml" minimal-hits than than- h'hn were primarily iJ'ItEI'Ell-fll in what tr Emmi get am at religion far thtmulm [Ill “rurinfir” mimmiun}. “an: hhtltd u "hidintrinfimulr Frat-digital!" 1mm: Ihll' least mtflanl flail Ip. i141}-

as. :1. 1r. Bloch a. n. Eingtr. and E. It. Eli-it. Tu W

.ur a: W , .

pp. lflE—fifllhcamhun gun-I1mahu-nwdutflnsmurmu: negating rdafinnlhip lpp-rim" hfl'lll'll'tn Ehul'th int-131m: and El'flriljr. 54. IL W. Fmdrklu, "MIL-r 'I'l'l'llfl- Ego." p. 505. 65. V. H. flint and J. M. flint-III. _['r.+ “A Finn-W firmly Inf Edit jinn: Btfld' and Behavinn." p. 5W. HIE. L U. Ant-ii, "Emergent-r Htlping Incl Eating-inn: Behaviur." 5?. II. E. 5mm. G. Wheeler. and E. Dimr. "Faith withnul Warh." ES. 5. Genrgilnm. “I:: fleligium Heighhnrhmd I Grand Heighhnrhmd?‘ 6'9. miner and Dime-n fl: shunt Family. p. 155. TI]. Faced with [ht fiflmm find IrEIatinmlfip lat-mun lh-Eillll Ind htlpning

h m .i1hu bunIllflflltli.Inflnwing Ally-Inn's diuinninn hum Elill‘inlill': and ilfll‘ifllil: uricnfltiuns. that Hhfl mum 'u um hflhr rtligium an: is hm haw

an: iI rtliigimui- IE. Dimitri Balm. 1hr tumult. hu inddcd a third: mrgnrr In Allpun's Elm-nu: a "m" uricnufliun. whim in characltfiud h}- In uprn—n‘nitd Ihl'fllugifial Inn-h. man: a pro-rm of IIIJ-EHifll'lillfl than an martian of attitude. 'l'hl: fan: in lhill mm: nl' Hits:- Hrlr: 11E wligmritr hi: fl-ET ban mm H:- be

rdinhl'gr related In that likelihood of helping pmpl: in nl'E'd- E-I-unn “Elm. hm:— Em. Ihil lhtn: i: a mmmlim hciwnm lhm m ul' hclicf and flu: u m Fur helping. 1n um.- mllyr. III: and his mlhhflntnn made it dilfimh Eur mhjm

II:- II.'|=|Jilil:1.r fur III-E pliv'llcg: nf hflping mun: In flffld+ flu.- nliunflt being that pmple mutivated by human“! reward m- amidanct {If guilt might mlmtmm hall:huJ: then nut try wry hard It: qlflli'y. It tamed nut that [if 1hr unified: will: walnut-end. II'I'lJl-l clumfleriud hf 1h: qunt uritmilia-urn lendfll In with harder than nth-H lr'fllllllilfl'l In urn: the chain- In I'lllil"? help. In Balm’: W a r t duh mama. wrg mure truhr altruism. W u . chm:- who “and high an the quail mun-um: were nut ill-:1.r mar-E liltlr than mhen m luv: valumflrtd in flu.Erll. place IE. D. Baum H :L. ”Etlig'mul Prnmfill Hnlhmliun‘1. It aha lhuuld In: hep; in mind [Jul intriruinr. entriluic. and quut mulflfll mfflfllhemni'nmdnd Hidinlhcrptflmuliwuimiiflnifidflduptdflm

255

HGTESTD PAGES 81-!!!

m m displaying Dl'ltfll' lhfll: 39pm Hu manually ”spam-fibrin umm' men-Eh,itwnuldnmhe-taflrhmflmfiunperuhadmyfldngmdnuighflfi; In hurl. HIE qua-II urirntiliun in: defined In lint alumna. int-India; an aha-in. Hill "are high if he or III: cunlinun In Ilruggk will] the big quutinuu :hnut h m flillfl‘l'lfll' [Banal]. pun-mum! mmmunifltiumjanuarr I989}. 71. P. Brunch:- and IE. I-Itndrith “hudmmy and Htlping Bduvinr." '32. 54:13.. Full“ mmpin 11H: Hudifl tflith'td in D. Bar—Til]. Humid Erin-rim

pp- lit-52-

'33P Thil. In in Indian in: the fin: tn nu“. il tilt [trim] limimiun i1 4'4... H. Eight and H. {Irwin's m'fl'lllflil In!" I?! Iludiu un 1h: lulqiefl. midi I'nund [rum helpingun I]:part 111' mm {“fimflfl Ind Helping Behavior." up. ”.1. 235. 3131]}. H. H. A. Harmuin el 1].. "EH-inn: ul' W E : Ihmfl 1 m : Swill Eva!!! all Emu-nil] Malian Sun-rial Banttpfinn. and Hand.“ p. lfl-IE. 1'5. In chapmr I. I will 511ml {hit phyuinlugial mum-n of empathy dun um mm] any with gmdn" dim-Hm: ml? tat—mm nit-mm: Ell}. mum lea-l1 that fact that Hamlin] an: mun: inclilmd In :21:- flmnueh'rl IJ'uI tiny. In In“: imernalhed nun“: uf empathy and firing. mu itself be rflnrim In a :mch I'm

generflifllium Ibuut helping huhw'mr. fln guill, m A. Fmdi. _|. Manning-I. and P. It. Thmnc. “Ar: Wm Ail-ray: [m awe-liar: 11m Hen?” pp. 541—15.: andE- Hflmmhpflm‘*fifiy Drgmhujnnnfflmflammdfim“ p. til-ll.

1'15, “Wammmmdmwtfiwmtpflmmlmdcmflmflnudl DI uflI-En. In deliver multim- Fun!“ Inf w i l l lenicé. Ind. mar: Willy. In

fitil'nalc the pray-nus Inf album. :41t their gush. Th: drnund fur wmm H: mm.- ntlwrs in the“ my: i1 l'i‘ilflf “rung within the Family and ipplifl m

mm: Ell-El“ in ndwrdmt rtlatinnshipa. such an fritndslipa. Emmi-than gender lltl'tatfpcl prmidu nidrntt {I111 nun“: [ant-Mg this l'fllll'llll'fl'll and caring; lulpl‘uhtu; art- nan-rind with Lin: Eng-malt gender run-1t. In “Etta-[flit undies --.wummhucljrpiuflybnmr:trdmurtflmnhhdunm.nntanlym

heipfiflnni. hm also an kindnnu. campusim. and lb:- Ihiljnr m dwmt muif mmplulelr u:- uthm- Furflwmmw. mulch :ufihmu nu- uflm rattdu mm desirahlr in mm mm nun" [Eight and Cram. “ 5 d and HdpingE m . " p. 2311. 11'. D. H. Tm: and I. F. m m . “Huculilu'fl hmihiu Helping in Emrrgtnr'ni.” Thu.- quntlli-u-n :11n {III p. 124. TE. Herr. far immune. il: jun Eater Hill-21': Em men. “In magenta tushlrt. menu mmdmw ll] Ins: mmflhing. nr :1 buL :Iltmhtimll'r. m git-I.- HIM' thing my. . . . Wu: haw awn-d I linutian in which mm": alhhring Ihlmel'lfl

inlpfinuryhuymbtauuncd tn thenctthnfnflwnmdmun‘tufllen [break-m flit-m with being Iii:- :I wm'lun. Tu h:- Iih: : wnmn in Ilfllflll u:- hr naming. Hmmfnrted mlul'nnfllhmnaiumfly ”miflwsnl'dummhn" [Timid-Hm fight-g]- fifth-n. pp. 41'. MI. 1]},

mml’hflfifilfi-fli

HT

19. Humbug-EH; uni Hind. "T11: [thiamhip uFI‘rflthn-nlm“ ltd-aunin; aha-m Framial Mural Ennflitu m Hamill Heinvim'." p. 56!). SE]. Earle-gr and [mumm-+ “ 5 W Immfim in m m . " p. 351.

El. L Flt-1m. "Infill-Irma: of Age. Tank Gimp-time. ind Eupanlifliir Fan-cm an ElaiHrrn‘: AILmimL"

Eff- Eadie-Vinnie. Iahn-Wnlni and fi l m .“EHdrm'lPEMIDir pmilium and BIL-haw.“ pp. fill-25. “Elli-HI“ may mfl'fll facial upmflum and muflifld Hutu]: npreuhm that an: nm in illenuelvfl Ihmilliu: bill which cam: {Eh-fl! m an “IBM in an sill-Him: lighl. It might but revealing tn flatly buys' and girll' run-Inn and baa-{ping behlviun whim the um:- prtmriai an: I!“ lab-EH diIEtrcnflHs brawn in an: candiliun :ndu cumpufinn in anther mnditinn" (p. 51?]. 33- Fur an: rumplt. see 3 ”DH“ smelly at" under-Emu!“ by Hum: ind hr: mar-1mm. Fcruim'nil'y Int-D111 nu lb:Mani] Aurilmlm Chmtiunniirt

km rrlalrd 1a the m : of hut-[ping m whirh swim: aged—that is, I!“numh-fi nfhuur: [In-3r Vfllufl‘lflfl'fltl In help I. Human whoa-r dfldnzn hid linen

£11]q in i fill' accidrnl. Hmnrrr. 1: I} III:mnrhtiun was nut partilzlularlyr hug-miIivt {r - .25, p a: 1123}. [21 Ill: rdatimh'lp Hm only with thl: Imam“ 1:!"t prmuiwd h]! dime whn had agreed In whnlflr: m relaiiunfllip II all turned up hflwfln I'Eminin'lly and flu: atlull dermal: In help. {3: Dal—1r Mention m help. rathfl aha.“ annual helping. was Inc-fled. and III} the silmflun um um an tun-rwand that”. in Eiatnbflg‘n wards. “did l'lfll rtqtflrt quid. mmmtnul m . . . Thtrrl'nrc. um- Inrnuld um hair Hptfinl inurummuiiw Ira-fluted in am:sun-s nl‘M y ] m b:- pmiljwtf I'E'hltd [:1- am ind-e1uf Milling" (H- Eism hing til IL. "EEBEII'FEEIHIHI Trail: and Hlflping in a "WWII?! Simian": qqmuLi-un {rum p- EH].

El- Lllflfl-l! anti Dali-T. I'll-r “ W i l l i 53M. pp. ”HI-EH. 55. fllim-r and Ulirn-r. Hr dflnl'sfir M y . pp. [23. I27. ”2. EE. HE- "lid... pp- ”5-33. 5?. Hm I" nudmu {If [lu- fi-IE'H haw: been jnlmnf-mmtuhttlifl tn Ibis Ipprmu'h. Erwin Snub in: lung tall-HI lbuui Incl Ittmpttd tn uptminnfliu l “mini nrimminn“ lid m be related In an inclinatinn In help irruprnht nl' situalimul fmun. 33.11:. D. lawn :1 3L. “Wt-tr: I: m: Alli-nim- in that Muuittir Hun-ah hf?" HB,H.EhmbrrlflaL“1h¢flakfl5Wfl1rar-dfilmfifichmmh

Train in Helphtg-" Ell fl-l'rmn‘nt. i1 i1 aim 11111“t Immrhfldrm "Irh-u WEI-l equally in EDI'IIPIIEH and tfl-Etli'hr-E plum-nth] hitch-Italian "mum: pram-cit! hflufiur that i: withmn apparent “rung E'flllfliflfllill "lid-Elpillflingls 'l'hn' appear lube apprmching 1h:- clismm 'L‘flflflilhrdf—h‘f humming cup-inning. “Hug qua-tiara" {ifib‘l’irmm' and InhntWaxlfl. “Emu. Hnfim. and Filter“: in fihildren'l

Pram-rial khaki-1r.” p. 921.

EBB

mmPAGE-EH-flfl

ELAIHiHbmmdhflmlhflguflmrmdupmlmdiuthu r m lignflicanl aluminium “in lh:Imr In madden“ fll'll'l 1; + .21} m +.Ilfll-"aml

ulhtr: 1with "Hun-ail m: tflIfl-iflfl'lcf acmu vacuum" {Mt-farm“. Iahm Waller. and Hum. ‘Tihillirm'l Financial Dirpnaitium am! Erhafiur." p. 52E}. In an: I'll-Elf M i n d by I!|"irn:II1I.r hrndf. heip'mg 5mm Emu: sfilialg: Hfl'fl ml I'flfll'd {Indie-Tannin and Inhnvwmaur. ”Dhmnmim: Ind Gawain“: nl' Ill-mafia] Eeluv'i-nr in Vault; Children.“ I}. IEI}. Ill-call. Inn, [11:1 wen relaIjr-dy HabI-E W m future-1. such I: mdahfliw. may predict helping in uh:- hbumm but um I! hum:- lm nut-r 5d. :huw]. 95- 5:1: D. Rant-L E- L Gautier. and T. lhntlrn. "A M a l i a n

Appmidl In Mmfiuic Ida-vim." 95. Th: trpc [If prumdal hthaviur pmhahly mane“, 1W.5hflfl-lfl'll, spunmlmlnfluipnuch almmquiredin W . m fl m 1 k u l r i t h

dispuitiun 'Ihlll [In lengthier mmmitmmti In amt nth-HI, 1H. MIL-Inn. “The Parchulug'gr a! Mlmiun." [L 4'2. 95. E. htafltr. "Minus.“ 1}. HIE. HIE. E. G. Elm 1nd]. Miller. "Sc-Eilliflfiflfl uni fiitlfltinn'll Inflmfl an Sum Allruifih." 1hr: qumunn :ppean an pp. 1345-5-55. 9?- Anna; III:- Inflrcfl fur than follow: in dru- 1:1! :11.- lhrn: writingtt H. L Hwflinan. “Altruiuflit Bah-main ind l-hl.‘ Firm—Child Ethiinmhip": EL]. I'Jhm Walk-r. H. II. WTIHW. and IL L King. “Child flaring and Ehildrcu‘u Pram-rial lndinalinm Inward Vinims nf mutual": and FL IL Scan. E. E- Hal:mbad H. mmflmqflfldflm. Endgame lumlufrmmh

pram-rd in Damn". Hr Hard fluh'fl. Chip. 4: P. Hui-tin and H. Eilmherg. final: 53" Emil-lg; Shmg. and Hm, chap- 15. Du the {hum-liar: tfitm u-i' physical W m : in paninfiar. In: W. {l Each-r, “Gunnrqurncfl n! Dim-rem Hindu nl' Parental [Martyr-lint": H. H, Lrflmwiu. L U. Waldfl. and L I]. Eran. ”Punishmnrm. Idtntificuiun. and A W . " and HIE fallow-up intunigitiun wilh I11: um: subjects. L I}. Emu H 31.. “Again-aim and [la Currclflfi mar 22 Vii-an." HE. A nulnhtr Inf flu: mntrihutm In I recent Imhulnfl. slaw: and sigmIiflu Edit-Ed by IE. hhm'fir'ukr. E. H. Cumming; and E. Imam. ad-drm flu: Itlltifllllhip hflh't-EI'I. [hut [mm mm ufhduviun. Sttflpflilllf pp. H. [ET-EH. lit-92. and ENS. Man “I Ridib'l'in‘flh'. Eahn—Wultr. and H u m ”Ehildrm’: Financial DispauiLiuru and Bun-ham." F. E l

99. Set. for namplc, E- Snub. “A Cantu-Flinn al' tht Dflrrminmtn and Den-lupmrm all" Alu'uism and A W . " :1. [53.

HI}. The mmepi {If “pt-nut atmhmmt" in drrhrd {mm nth-I: 'll'fll‘lll. ul‘Juli-11 M y Ill-d Han' MmH-mth. D'Ptfllifl-fliflf delincd, a Ecru-d5: attached infirm urn“ glad In IE, and eager m mumblilh mutant! with. his [11ml iflfl‘ i hritl'

”panda“. Frail-ably the must width cilrd rupufl on 11:: whflumhip 1:1:l “cure attachmrnl and later prulruthl hehflfiu-r in E. Watery]. Wippmam and L

A. Srflflrh "Attad'lmml. Fmitiw Afl’m. Ind filmy-unit: in flu: Prfl Gimp." M M h fl I'lll'fl Iludifl,miltwrnfflhichilupwililrllifinhutbnd1nfflich

HD'I'EfiTflFflGEE 33-9!

299

mm mahly tunrhuiiw. Ettaha L. Aw Smith. " M I M E fill-Id!”

Ind Panam- dhdnpmiun in Pmclmnl." p- 53: IE. him-Huh. E. M. Gum. I'flil'lfll. and IL lama-Hi. "Altruism and Amnsim.” p. I l: and Eli-uh. "A flan-teplic-n a!" [he Detrnninmu and Hewlupmenl all" Altruiml and Almium" pp. 119—50. The Ede: that an infant with a rcfiablr rnrmefiiun In a luring art-lam

will Emu up m be mart ant-alumnus hfl input-tam :mucqumm fur Flinn-till hurl'flrim.1 " . “ lII: he mnfilled with reactive hulfliun—begeli the man a! antfljflntu that ilk-hr: unt m {with [hip am?- an Ear ulhm. It i: Ill-D .mu-riucd whh higher Inn-wk Inf 111ml running [Hunk-rs. .r'l'b‘ruu-Ii' 5min,

Englflim, and new. p- 151:. H". Inlernling mum-n1- nf du- rchlimul'lip hat-tum lit-1mm and WWIhchavinr includr 1!. IL BITH'IIL “HERE! Hflllll. Temperament. Family and Frirndn": Barnett. “Empalhy and Related lnpnnm in Childrcn." up. pp. Hill-53: III'I. Eadlm-‘i'muw. F. H. Scull. and. E. Iaheimkr. "Liming Emmi-tn Fur flthen“: Eadie-Tam. Zahn-Wmler. mid Chap-min, "Children'l Pram-rial Dispushinm and EI-Ehminn” pp. MM; and trad-um writing: all Marlin Hnflman. Erwin Snub. and Ham: Fuhlnrh. lath Hnflman and Snub aha hall-E dun: pinmrtring war}. an the impnmnct {If camuntatmg much] value: tn chilfirm and flu- vinm- nl' Explaining fllhfll' flunjuu Eflffll‘tifl! Ilfl'l'lli: lhne lupin

an: nplumfl in Ihl‘: {allowing swim. "12- j- 1. 1mm. Emm, p. EllIDS. Hmu Elllfltl'fll in A. hfillfl. Fur I'm Hm: find pp. Iii-EH. “H. In a flllidl' Em pawn”. Add: Fab-tr and Elaine Hauliuh mphuim mat Inf these theme: in magi-11in: haw children nan he mmungfll In lh'ill'l: their tun.

“Hahn; children l-hifl' . . . unlyr mlkuthrm clulth IIIL-ir pflunliim: mm tightlyFamed shiring undnminu Marin.” Innead. they prupme that during he

rummage-cl as fifllm: "I - Bar putting the children in chargruf lih-I'! sharing (“Hi-Ill. I bought an: bank a!" bubble mp Far Hurry-me. Whit“: Ihe but war In Hun.il?'} 2. fly puiming nut 1hr advanmgu uni sharing. Hf ynu gin but half of 1mm rm! mm and uh: li'l'fl TEI-ll hflf Inf I111 him- :rnym. jmu’ll bath he IHE m mil-r. Fungi-:3] .5. B1: alluring [irflt far inner prawn. ['Lnnr Iwill 1H 1.1:" hnmur when am ready In alarm"! II. By thawing apprrtialiun I'ar during when i: Ila-cum Iplin'lfll'ltmfi. {'Thinu'i 1m“ fur giving m:- a bin-.- ui‘ yam- mniic. II'. h'fl dtlidnusfi 5. fly Int-[hung shying yours-gill {'H-uw I m l tn gin-yum: bin: arm-y coalit'jl" {filling-

mifl'mfl Elwin. pp. 11!. IT'M'fl]. , pp- ME. I “ . The quainlflfi- fllmtr and fllinlu'. flrdflmfifi'M Iiun appear: Inn pp. IEE—flfl. 105.]- H. Bloch. hi. Hun. Hid H. E- Smith, ”Sandalifllinn Enrrtlmfl nl‘ Sludml fini'l'iml." Hpi pp. I59. 175-715. Ant-Hm: nmrh miller [lull]? mil-3' film he ufinlfrfll. High mhml aim who u m pmmdafly m m mm mntd an the huh cf: qufltinnmirt imn “India-Hunk" and: "fimmfir" gmupl dtp-Elld'

ing an whflhfl an upmflunity In hull: was, cumuued H “a dialhngl: H:- Lht null and an uppmuniljr In wfify lune": mural ill-Ell" m- m: unaudited with I can-

H m TD PAGES 91-93

3m

minu- fucul cm the “Elli! ill” the [urinal bring hflptd- Signifiranfly dill-rent“ 'mlmw thingihwmraifldml: filarpflflufllhedifl‘tms Human Iflhjflll whim Herr pmmrially Wilma-d and Ihm: wha- H'm nut. The mulllm Inf uH-nriemtd {fflifltlfllll‘ifl helper: WEI'E' Inn-n: t ' f H:- hiw and lint withdrawal u a dilfiplifl-IIT mmurc, while flu.- math-2n {:Jnlhfl—urinnmd [mienuicl hnlptn mun: afltn “it'd aduranrienltd indmin-n. putting nut the tnmequtntfi nf 1hr.- du'ld'a. behavior [at nut-aunt Ell-t [Marni-1i." m a r m and Altru-

ism." tip. pp. Hi". ME}. IN. Land-m. "Th: Emma-H." IL 2'”. HE. D. Rumba]. “The Natural m

of M i l k A m . " 1?.

i152.

lfl'fl. Du nwdr'ling. m]. H. Eryn and H. H. Wflhelt. "Pl'fllihiflfi Ind Pricfidflgfinflmfiw“:j- H- Bryan and P. Madam 'tliui:Baa-ham by Emil-inn“: Hnlfimm. "Alumni: Behavior and thus 9 ' 3 : t t lithium-hip"; and EditVarmw. SEMI. and lam-Waller. *‘aing Bum-rm Eur fllhtrl." ilfl. Whtn an adult auburn nhildren In dammit: by dunihinl 11m: flu-in: HI unuld unit [J'lE [mar recipient: happ'wr—IIIE "walhit Fri-idling“ Emilia-I'l— fln: dtfldtru'n grntrmiy is. signifitanlly higher. Tl".- mmp-nrhnn lun- i: with nthrr suns nfcxhnflminn hurl-I as annmmdng [In] it in "guild tn dwalf'} fllh'fl‘ t n I'll—h nludtfing 1N. Eiarrthcrgflfl'g and E. Rabbi-LEI. "Came-I'll {If Herbings and PM nf flu: Hnfleifl’machfi'l I I I . Swfiuuh.Fminw3midfldnmrmiHHn-fflj, mil, udmnrnl‘hiu

Ian-r wring}. 112.]- I. GI‘HIIE'C and T. III'I. "'I'ht Sncfllintian ul' Frmdal: Hui-lint," 11-. ESE.

H3. LL 5. Hfldu. A m :11 m

up. pp. fl]. ltH—llfl. The study WI!-

ul' EH! burn. it!!! mm In ash-mm. it i: pnuihlr. hum”. {hill pruncial turn-dentin Hm cunfuundtd with. atliludn Inward mummy tin-2r the dalmatian mm: and: in the W W I11" the flpafimmter.

IH. Bee. ihr Example. H. II. Gum and T. D. Emmi, "Thur: [man Inf m m m an the Ffllfll'lllilf al' I Hyunhn Fmplt.“ and nib-an a r m writing, ”5. 5:: rd].- My Emmi, chap; .1 and 5., flip-animy. HE. D. W. Juhmun 1:: ill“, " m Inf Emptratii'e mu: lndiuichilized Iru-lnmL'I-tm m1 Emil-rm financial Barbarian Mflludu tumult! LEIITIiI'lfi. Ind hrhievemem." I ” . T. Gram. mint d”"'flu: Ilium ufihnptfltiflfllmunnPfl-udmul Chilnirm’: Humid athl'l'ifl'l'.“ ”B. 5.11:. far Hamplt. [hr math cited in I1 “ 1 q and IL T-jnhnmu. “Th: Sari-liminn Hid M W M Crimil." 9. l3? I'll-III in hair W whim-an, ”1.5749. Ahamflfim-nmnand Enridegnnm'flififlfl Gran]:- nnfl flu: W a d flan-mm.“ 9. H3.

HflTES'm PAGES Bil—I'D]

MI

”E. HLWHT ILJL Hakka-Jud [1. B. W‘mEfli-unfflnmpflifire and Cuupmtivr Inmninuml 5m an Children] W u . " F. 93. 1212'. H. A. Bun-Ht and]. H. Emu. "Efl'm: of Cnmpctitiun with Dunn-l: Flfldtfltk an flhildrrni Htlping Behlviur.“ The den-immfl Elfin Inf Dump-Hitiun in nut limimi m childrtn. A autumn.r in which undufimdlutfi phrcd lhE mks flfmrpuflltflmflgflidifluifltddflllhfilflflhfllfldbflninflmfildlflmmpfll

“aim: min-r subjecu Hm in: 1H:- m Lair: the m a y :ai‘ lib-tit: fllhl'l' mud: manila: and mtdmtmdflEErpnrilimuuniul-n Eringlhntumpany [1}.imld. “Eflhru Inf W m ” lnltrdrpl'ndrnrt Izm myriad-anal Dtcilim

Hiking"). I2 I. Harlin“. Hatfllm. and Curbin. “'I'h: Effect HIGH-quirk: and Campmtiut Imminnll SEEI- un Children“: Emmitr."

I31]. 1'. Li'l'llflfl and E. G. Engljl. "Eipefiflinn: u-I' Chapel-Ilium and flnmpujtian and "I'll-til Eflbtu. an Bhutan-m' marinas Emutinml REFINE-Ill."

W in Nlfl'I-fl'y Sch-nu] Bap," p.

III. E. Eudwrfilrd and F. Elma-n. "

“15.3Ill. Thu.- nflefl nihnyi' rump-Him 'I'I'ill raw-med in III- AH Hume-m I.

1!. Matthew. and j. A. Hmnnl. "En-latiumhip hat-Hm Enmpflitirmu and Empathy in 5- nd T-Ywflldl." T111.- tflm and" EM' mmpfihhm urn npuncd in H. D. Fflhhldh "Smdiu nl' Empathic Behauim 'm Climb-en." p. H. i215. Grunt: and Him "Th:- Sutialiulinn armmHErlufiur." pp. 226—53. lEfi- 5m:- IJu: rtscu‘th tiltd in Mir—Yuww. Iahn-Wanltr. and Sham “WEE!- financial Dilpflliliunli and Bduirinr," pp. 499—5111}; and Grant-H Ind

Dix. "Thur W u u! I’m-such! Blhi'lrifll'l p. 232. I21 Thin nether i: qualed I'm]. SegIL"C-umpmiunl1e Hull," 9. llfl. HS. Barn-Ht. “Empathy and Edited ling-um: in Ehilclren.” p. lfirfl. I29. W. H. Landau Ila-Ill. A. Pam-tr. "Allmhm'mhuandficmnmiufp. 42!}. I311 Inuit-Tamar: is quad in II. Pin-:5, "Gnu-d Wham it. Ag: Tim?" 1:. 73- In Fart. menu-m Inuilith a cilildhmleunrd Inpufir flli-Iifllfllum-

htdwniunnfahnmm tudhnrmunflhwflhumnbflngiislahmmtn inks,alibi: all Im- n-amming ability. The mall pupular intelligent:Int lulled with children. It: WISE-R, [Elm III: hummus quuljun: "W111! is it unullgr but” mliHWMIHfl-hwwdufllyndurdunMIflmflhtfluP"

M

I

!

I. IL 1.. 511mm. ”Sandal-Bum: Undrnunflhg.“ .1. H1

1G. H. Head. Mud. say: and 5m 5.. Min. 3. Fur cum. I!!! I]. WJHM audit E p. Ell-II.

M

M W -

HE

HDTES TD PAGES HIE—IE!

1|. L fluiflhnl. W app-flu 1:11 p. I “ .

W

J

M

W pp. HI-Ilfilhmufinn

5. D. W. jnhnm. “MEI-11hr:P m Tfl'nl and Emptfllht Prtflilpmilkm." Hare brnadlj'. Hrad “WhithEtuupcrui-flpmttuu dfltdflilt any tacitly rd? cut this IH'IL '5. 5h: D. Eli-EH: and EL lulu-IL "lulu-Tm ind ARM“ IL HS: Hid LL E. Fur-2|. "Th-Ir Gun-nun V-lidity of Egnmntrhm.“ 1". W H F . [Janie] Elem ”gun that piirlicll and lunar? I'l'lllldllll

m—wlfid't W e : the nmiun afhring dilllin-cl flan—lumber perm i1. Eur [In infant. a prtcnndilinn nl' ll'lill'inl nubjflljw aquarium-cu 1m Jump-1w [I'm-H flak mini. [1. 125]. flij- H. HavrlL Eng-link: W pp. 159. H11. Aha m: firth: and

Jim-nil. "luélfling and Muninh." p. ”3-. Flaw-an gm: m in m

dim-m

Inn-II {If wphiflilcitiun 1with run-pen In afieniv: Plflpl'fl'i'lfl.’ tiling". it 5111 a child my I}: Illa-L- In magnifl fill]? that 1mm {In [His Eflfld a: had. 'H'llflll I1: Hmlmlly 1will: dilliflfl'llilh 11m Elfin-n1 my: bf ruling huh III-ch II anger. ”darn. I'm. and an an IF. Hill].

E. ]. Shir“. ”mm In! Engnifiw W

m an Emily." upt-

tiiIH-T pp- 2215!. 23-2, 233. IE. LI. Bub-Er. Ila! EMJHHI. [3. 1|]I L J . H. Haw-nil. Th W i fl - T fi h fl m SHE: in {Jim pp. 211$! I. [2. 5H.- IL L Ethnan. '"I‘nwa'fl a Snuflmul filfll'fl‘il ul' Melt-ping Interptnmul lit-[mm Ennctpu." up. pp. 159-51."5ad1l-Cngmtiw Undtnuncl-

him" up. pp. SELL and Th Emu-fl qmpnuut Eastman-Eng. pp. 3740.111: Igtfllhmlumuhnflammflutmmnhcckhflumnu recenmhh: Ihrce. I3. Eat. [at milk. [3. U. 53mm. “Eur-iii Enfinilimh" pp. 51InIE; H. L-

Hafl’mul. "lnltnmm n! Mm and Eagniliun in Empathy," p, 1'09“. and Ffll'fl. "Th1.- Calm-nu Validity fir Emma-hm." 11. I134. Due H the hey rhallrngfl In thEHagfihnflmflabkumfmmHEImtfluflnuhulhmwdflulbyagldm :hildrrn muld m1]? pain: In I pinun: ni' : happy [in m indium haw I character in I slaw Hauld [HE] h a m ! littflli-flIL H111: mi Ina-Ed by paflhuhugill: 1:: mm: a child“: lifll’fflfls ii mad:- luu rmplitalti Burk pninltd ant. flu- diild 1will he umbh: m mmmmiutt I'm-r mudmundjnl ("Imerpflmml Furrmpljnn ufi'uung cl'liillill'llfl'l']. HDHHH‘. Emir“: :nmluaiau In: burn uititiu-d an

flhgrnundnhallhtchildnnmarhmpititdthrmrrtflrnmfimhyfinfltuf hum-ling huh mug-l pulpit Eda—[Ir hair tr+ films-rim, [ELI—El in given ail-II:-

tinn [H.J. Elan-din and 5. Grin-mp“. "Emu Egmrntfirm"). Heithrr Elf lil'lm hum fur :rfifln! ll “H: cunefl flip-um: {minimum- gmu'ml: Waive HIE-I: n: th: mnerpt i: manually understand. but. ll Cami?“ Sham: paint: ml. ”The

il'lP-Dflll'll Em ”mail: lhlt significant infirm in undurnlmlin; nth-Elf em finnlmdlhuflhmtluldkfifimfimmhflumflfliflufllandfi'Wp 5171.

HET'ES TD PAGES "13—! 1‘!

:11:

11.1.1353c IMHufljufirn-m afflh EH1 p- 25!.

15. w.1mL“Egumnu-im and Euthlhnflnfliuunu‘auflmlflifiium' p. it l'fl. Shula. “Eu-fill Bil-Elfin.“ P— 5W, 1?. Ibid. IE- Thu: hll. prawn-uni“.- Iuggnfiun i! ufi'fied in pinning: by Miller Huh ugu. HI.- r-l-fi'rr 11: " P M if mlturflinlinn which emplnifl macaw-kit!"

(fl! Bung Hull-ML. p. 351. I9. E. Hut-may. Nun-sir and Hum Emu-mt. p. {3. El}. Fur mmplt. i!!! H. G. Gullah ”A Eatinlngiul Thrall-r Inf Fwd-mp:flw": and. nun: warmly]. IE. Gihhh "Suthl Flu-cum in Ill-Him." up. p. 3115. El. E. Fifih. "£1t Ahmhlim and lb: lflfll film-rm."

fl- I'll-tad. Mad, Hf; mud some}, pp- 1.544“-

23. T. “HEEL Th krill-flit] affirm :1. 5. EILJ- hurls. A Thaw]- qflsfltt. [3. IE and passhn. 25. A: may already bl! atrium. Infill: I11! :uEIErliw nflwr'l and 1h: hypo: fllfl'il'fl] mhn's ptnp-E'ttivcmt I'HH unmhlcd. A: mdfidnpnwntal Pfi'll'fhfllflflifil hm. all-erred. “III: capacity In talc: 1111.- ml:- Inl' miller is Hahn-:1 In the Ibilily Hr cram the nmhn uf a mminning,r such! anther Ifhi-rh relaim it: pram-Hie: frum um.- “Hill ptrmpliun [fl- [ht ml." {IL luau. Th Eyck-mg Say: p. 51]. 2-5. _|'. Hag-H qumed in Lnufl. “Eg-nttnn'iim and Sada-I Intfli‘ltliifll! am the Lift Span." p. 32.

21'. I‘m indthlfll tn Fred Haggard far Ihil “Elwin

25. N- Ember. Hmyhhm pp. Iflfl-lfll. El}. E. Hm”! Hill-Erin W

W

. 1}. “IE.

5n. [2. Gilligin and G- Wiggins. ”111-: flfigim ul‘ Hunlity In Early M r hand HEIIIj-fll'll-hipi." p. 125- Ina-Eluzlrwni1 film in his, 1am 1!a fluhlherg cunt-lived"

all? I31: high!!!“ Hag»: uI PHIPI‘I-ljl't linking a: a- PHI-EH! all? "tempura-Hf :cpiruing the actual Ede-minim: uf W

1[Tum Iheir claim: and int-Hull in Mdfl' um um:

what {mud hr: thi: rdali'n: mm” 1:! than: thin-n5 and interest: Emu: [IIE paint ul' l'ifl'ii' Inf any pinion implicated in the dilemm“ [L Whit-g, I1 Hard. and IE. Ll'l'ifll'. "Th: Enum {if Stag: E." manumripl I}. HI. 3!. Huber. Th Emil-igu- 44mm. [1. Bl. 5'2. That gang member was hurnrinwd by [ m Fug. Thai: tum-minim

Tellurium-d I“ 'IREfl-Etlifll'll {If I! fianghanger." 33. T. Nigel. ”Gamma-m.” p. 154: Ill. Baier. TM.- Hflml' Hunt :1} Fin-L p. 2113. H. A. Smilh. Th flurry ua-m! W u . p. 34?. Smith's [Him in than. Elllllfltl'fi' {“wmpmhy"! in nu! {guistir since it ”due-I 11m iris: H'fi'I Hum ll“:mainltiun at any thing lhll I'll-El btfillt-n. m- lhal fifll‘lfl In Illjflfl'll". in my nun pmptr plenum I'I'Id dunner. hul which il mtirel‘y mpird :bnui than rflilfl tn run." flntemlinghr. he upam this: bank by naming In rult am the pmaihilhy ufhmiiningthemhflin herdmminn: "t him-nu immtdifltflpfiimnf “I

Elli

Hfl'I'ESTflPAEfi Han—115

“hundmmnftd.flflnfammidllufdumerinvrhinh mwmifiefled.

but by {mttivhig at" what if nun-chit: shank! End in Ill-H.- Iii:lilulflfl'l'l." [IL |9'].'.I 55. M. Edulu. THIN-1m :51"Em}. pp. M . 3-5. Shawquumdhi F-5ingu',”I'I1t Hrpamilmmslndflulm'lilll'm martin," p. 35.

5?. H. Raiding; Gun-g. ”1.”. 2!. Mn act-j. 1-". Jar-clan“: disclaim nl' “

:

t amp-thy” P M In flumefiium" p. 11+

55. In incl. firm-1&1- H-Il'l'lli In far a In argue that “dim nfn'tnct III: III: mhtrpemmuuuchmlntheiflwm nfhillmulurjnr.,-flfl lnrdhr hippmimifld. wit" it i: hauled an Inn“ {Hemlgrim 13.111: Ihu we pp- LIE—43]. 59. H. Huber. Brim Hm and Hill. PP. 1942. 115. JED. Huber, fl: Emu-id! gum. p- '14ill . Fm- mnrt. m L Wilpl'. "Hillary uf the Cmnpl a!" Emmy." iilnfimqrfljrrhnmmflmflmlyfi lf-f-hffifi'fl, Freudflidlhmmrmhj "play! Eh: lat!!!“ pm in nu: undtnunding 111' what il inhaler-11y [Dreign In nu: any: in ulhcr peuple" 1p- 41]] and is "ll-IE meduniam by man: DI” which m: are HIMHI m Lah- up any atrium: at :15, tum-rd: mud-u mental lift" (p. 42 mi}. Freud

aha term-Ed lump-mm in his manly-ml: afhnmar [rah-Ind Thirfll'hfflfl nah U

m pp. [35. 195-97}.

43. Far mmpie. lee H. D. FElhhflll. “5c: M

in Empathy and

Such! Ethan-rim in Childrtm“ pp. 349-211 'H- H. Kuhn: flunlfli in G. S. HIE-Hi. "T11: finlithefifil Mearfirqufflw Tfl'fll

'Emphlhy' in Plychmnilylk Dimuuru." p. [3.

-

15. "TD mam-E IJII: cfimt": prir'lu'ilt WM 1: il' 'I I'm 1mm m.but Hitlwul : E'FEI.‘ lining th: '3: if quality—Hm hmflfflogm HIM: infll m

Hum (p. 234}. Mm l-E'E H. D. Fl'l-hhil’d'l. “5min Inf Err-pal“: fl-flufinr in Childrm" p. 5. IIE.”Tht Etfll'lll'lhl'fl'fl Eiqfilhhg refer: mthtlbilil'r fl r fl m m t fl m m m t n w finihnimtn s w i m m d a m d m . , . . l ‘ m :

mmmnn mmlafinn ul' nupifl'lyr u Tingling wilh' :mphniul BEL-clin- momma.tu the mlufiufl all" iI1IIIrI‘IIrI'nlt-I'E1 judgmtnl. and11t alpflifl at running lhfiughl which In: equally important to II“.- mum at' Ewing. In 1::t wardl. 'empn-

{hf hall-ed I n : mnfiuhunuf'fnfing IImriIh' with Ilia-mm hlmdercmmptuf Eily'ifihhng m- Tflling inlu“ ” (H. F. Bantu, "Empuihit Undtnunding.” p. It'll}.

4'1. See. fur example. Fflhh-ath. "5:: W

in Empathy Ind Sandal

Ethnim in Children.” p. 32‘}.

4E. H. L Huaun. "Empathy. finch] Engnifiun. ind Mural Anion.” 49. 5e: IL]. {3mm and G. Hundclmhn. "Emit-finals] lupunm m Afitfin M y : in flthm." Sympathy fur m m 2156: thunk-n was fmmd m be I

fun-climb!" "lb: 51between the uhservcr'l habitual imp nip-training and acting and 1h: “amn- nl‘ lin- lilulliun in which the mhfl il flhlfl'fil‘d." Wl'lll'l'll'lill Empillw M u t u a l - 1 m i n thin rchtiun. “111: [mum ulnrhhlulhuprufl:

HDTES Tfl' PAGES ”5-113Humility mm [Wail candiliflni mica:- nut ill!!! M

ms y F1151?! mp1-

th's'" ipp. Elf—H}. 5H alm not: 36 hehw. 5D. Fur Dan Balm-n. l'ur mph. “IE ttnn "dun null mun finding the “fill! tmutinrn mu.- imagine: Ill!!! menu“ in need in I'm-ling, nnr flan it man feeling flu:

emmiun an: wuuld if ”fining thl: alhtr’s plight. lmtud. il in a man: uthflv wit-med mic-nil mpnnle child by and mngruem with Ih:Fern-Wed Helium ni' Jam-Eon: Ell-E" (“financial Ruthenium.“ p. 93'. :JH} HE C. I}. Hanna and]. 5. Eur-kt. "Empuhr." p. I‘M}. Euwn‘l idinnplmii—lhnuglh he imilfl. nun-t mmPlutlth' aherrmt—mt nrl' tht ttrm cmuplicaiu mum humus: he is an: {If IJIE Ina-cling rtlrill‘thtfl in tin.- fitid. Far I 3:111:11] rural-it: uf du- umfiuian imam

pfithnlngin: and : pump-um! 5:! ml” Wit-EL m L. Whpt. ”Th: Disn'nman

hum syrup-my and amps-nu.“

5|. WMI: III: nupalhizcr "it: with: H:- II'H: full ring: and {5c}: ul'lhl':

mlrwfi ale-am: Mal-I: nr liluarlinn . . . flu: ampuhiur, in mumL i: III-flu! 11mm with his 131' hr nun feeling: in rupunle In L1H.- uthn" M. P. Mdl-llfllal'l Ind fl. 1'. Michaela. Ell-path. p. 3!. 52. 111i.- nerd: tfl mauve bfl'ffll'ld sympathy is III'E'll-Elil hf Gilligan and Wiggiu. Him paint nut that flu: urrm cum-mics a certain dhtflfl: [hlfl't' 'umIhltntl

ufmnntflian implied if rm:- dmnarn “m “and apart and Imtai' [ht mhtr. Fte'l'mg sympadty fi-r her :1: him" as app-med m "pnrflin'pflfiug; in anmhfl's ffllhg:

. . . Aignifring an allilufll: Ii tngigcmrnt mhn' man an :uimdr 11f judgmcnl [It flhlrwaliufl" {'"I'l‘n': {higim at“ Mummy in Emir [mildhnud mum-hips," p. 1221.

53. In I'fl'm, Edith Eflpl'lfllfld man: ldmia'iliun fut 1mm? than fur empmhy. In 15mm” {flaw-Ming,“ he “Lid, "we are illhll! In W [line ulhfi‘l] jm-| witlmul therrby nun-{Ham tn gel inn:- 3 jnrhll man-d mhes" [flat Mm: qr 5W5}. p. 1?]. H. L flimwm+ "Imanily a: UR—Histuriml Him-m: and H Menu] [Ii-tam" p. 2215. 55. Huddmlp. W . .1. 5|}. Aha IE'E' HH‘IL "Th: Mum-mind Hamil: of LluTt-rm “Empathy“ in Paydmanllflil: DBL-um." pp. Ifl-ifl'.Mina-awn: Inf [hil- flu in. Hunt‘s [Ht al' Ijnpiflj. Inn. 55. Wisp-c. “Thu: flilliflflinfl brwttn Sympnhy Ind Empathy." p. 515.

515:1.- lit-rd. 'Thr Ann‘lhflic-al Ink-min; nl' *Empalhr' in W r i t W e . “ pp. 13-17. 5H. 5. P. fllinrr and P4 H. flliinrr. 3 " t M II. El. 51 E. WitnL TH Tm barn-duh l'l-HL p. HILL fill. Bub-n. E m Hal all! Hun. pp. HIE-QT. EL L ail-mm "Th: W i n n HWHIEI W Baum int." I51 H. 5. Euflhl'an. "Thur lfllfliaun {If I'mmml Individuality." p. 325, I53. H- 5. Sullivan. TI: Inter-pinning! M dfijflhflj. p. In. IE-IL Uni: {mmmur dmr'ihfi Hulfinin'l {hurry u “a "furmnlilinn Inf

flfllfl

HD'I'EETD PAH-E5 llfl-lfl

flunflyficfim in mmiliuninltemu“tfl.l.1m"fimpflhfmdm linnll Undeflundingf' pp. HID-Ell. I55. lhid.. p. 115.

66. H. L Hath-an, "The Cflfil'llfihtflinn at" Empahr HI- jlflflfl: mi Haul-a1 judgment." '1. 5L Etidrn may:r find Hammad: dnrriplinn ul' what hr min in htlhl.‘ Eur stages ufunpmhyin aim-51m? III'III': writing: an dugnflralmpic. ET. H- hdhw'fm. E. Emu-Wuhan and H. Chapman, "El'liklren'l Frn-Iuc'nl Dispmitimu. and Erin-Him.” p. ‘13]. 155. H. Hangman Ind Ljnhmnn. “flagnilimu Inbred In Eruplthfin Fir:tn Elevtn-Tcir-flld Ehildren.“

H.Hnlfiu1n."1mrraclinn at Aim and Engaitiun in Empuhy" pp. Iii—12.

"m. t m quumi in. M

“111:! M

W 11mm; ul‘ *Empnflq' in

Flfihuimh'lic: Dim." 1:. I5. '3’] . Hflhul qwuted in j. fijunhn. "Empathy and Self Emilia." 1:. II. TE. Sullivan. fl: Inn-um Tim: 4:!" W 5 . [1. 32. 7'3. Huifinan. ”lnltratlinn nf Him and Eagnitinn in Empllhf," 51-. [[fl'. and “I: Alli-nim- Fan {IE Human Hitul't?"

H, F- H- fiarfitr. “A Canter-ma] Analysis at EMF-mm," p.13. 1'5. I1 Humlr. All Ell-wk] Giuliani-I; Eh W

I #Hfllh. excerpt: fi'nm

which an: mprinlfll u "MIL SEE-Law. and W e , " pp. H. Iii—fin. 'FEI. 5:1.- H. Einnhc-r; Indj. Elflfll'. Edi-u Empathy all In W 111:. 551-35. '11.]. Shirt-r Ind H. E‘ufljhcrl. "Empllhjr ‘lfinrtd in M L " 11. 39?.

Tr.- mah: Illflll'l‘l wane. [ht minus tut-1mm Ifl‘ “l

11m mmiflmlh

”Jill-d m an: II'I-nlhli'l' in than litmmm, especially.- pm Eilfl'f thildbund" {H Einrnhcrg El 31.. ”fitl-iltiuin uf Smyalhr and Plenum] Dian“: tn Prulucifl Be-

humor." I}, fill. TE. For an: fllmfinn Inf hmr :1 dispulitimfl imlimtiiun In like the perapfitivual'mhm can illl'll'lfl Illiflllfl hummiun mdnjuat lhaland nnflfl Milli-MI] rmlhm. If! H. H. Davis H 1].. “Emmiunll Hernia“ In Dramatic Film Slimuli.“ T9. H. A. Bantu. “Empalhr ind Ethitd flap-am“ in I‘S‘értillclrfl'u.1+ 1:. HQ. Bl}. H. Hundtn. m t m q m q r m pull. In Arthur Knuth-fl nnwl W n: Hm. we rad nl' what :unnunu m mm'lunw'y Ptflpttlil't lilting: “Ht [rind In hnhi an In the banned ht had For a few minute: fill In! [11: uflimr Irilh I11: fir. he maught il might Ilifl'm him far [but running umflit. lanai hr flfll mm: mun: mink-r 1h:- Fami‘rhr and flu! m m 1::- put Mmll‘ Enlhtpmilinflufllilu-ppum lilfld 1am: Mmmmmflmum'1qu" I'p. If]. BLA. (Imam. H I M pp+ Iii-SIT. HE. P. A. Hillflmd H. Einnb-Irfi. "T11: Edith“ nl' Empathy In fi l m

and W

W

W Balm-I'm" p. flfi. 5am: mmm hum! that Im-

HflTE-E TD PAGES 111-123

3B?

tiuhcpnappflrilqm Hfllflfll Hflld’tfilhfi laugh I m m m Huh} nun. Artur-fling [D m cdmflur. “Hid: whu gran up in In arm-mph”: a!" virulent: mam: il inm term: of their cup-Him: and simply us: h an 3110t mum uf upturn-inn nf humility :Iflll rink-m. Thfir didn’l m

With publit cup-remind: DIhand at M

what in: mm;

t 33:11:11: 3 [mp mu Mitt“ (Emmi:

Eur-ninth qunu-d inj. Berger. “Dun lately Epics-ell. the Hula-mm [hill Hum-Nun: a! a Echo-cal “Pulpit"ll33. E. Hartman. TL- ;V'git-ln. tl'flp. E. 34. *‘l’flrrpliun uf similarity M m 111: dispuitinn to imagine haw an: Hauld fuel in angular”: plat-E” ll]. Krebs, “Emplthy and Abruilm." p. I HS}. 35. Busch. 'Empalhit UnderuaJIding." p. [211BE. Hflmlul-fll. ll: Iran mu: mud}- luu q fl that that trliifllcy In unpu—

flu'u in [an amiable mnu nitmtinm than flu.- lewd-Iraq w fimfillliiw m" In pm until" in LII: plat: nl'II'Itfl' lflru-Im and Hrndlhnhn. "5mm input!!!

In: Amt-uh: D'uphfl in fllll'ltfl"'l.

51. A- Hiflcr. Far Hm Gun Gal-H. p. 153. BE- fliuhrr. Th £5m ##m p. Bfl. EEI- "Frdingrhmawawnnfldsmmfliflmdynflsfitd...flflnlflhrd w flmpfllhilll with I11: dyrphnrin ul' nthm" [51:a "Al-HE?! Id W e

FEflP-Efli‘l'fi nu Empathy." p. 229}W p. 157. 9]. H. Ehndflrnw. Th J i m { El. SE! {1. flilhgin. J'l a 1%: Fair. 9'2. D. limb: Incl B. Stun-up. "Rah-Talking; Ahifity Ind Albumin-alum I'm Eltmmm Schnnl Ehildren." p. '96. In a I'fl'if'li' 11f fauna-11 stutfifi will twenty-dun m l “ . :1] but III-I1: 1:! them with rhildmn. no signifier!“ sandal difltrtntfl in prrtpective taking Hm hunt! in tightflm at" them: buy: had 1]“.admugc in the refining fun: [I]. L R M ”5:: HIE-fence: in Emplfltqr and: Ithtrd EEIZIII'i-Dfl." 9. HT]. 113.]- A- Hail. “IE-end” Elk-cu in Dtcnding Hum-HM Euu.“ In I. lam mm HI tl'H: Ewan-h. Eii-rnhcrg and 3 mutant]:- qualify thil finding II Talia“: "Ahhuugh warm-ch appur tn but: man: shill-rd than mm at dfluding vinuL awn mnwrhal can. flint mm: [n- h: rrliti'rriv fth‘ cam-mm It: diHErmH in

{hfldrm'al aficnjw: ml: batting (including mailing:- militia- Girls dn mm m I}: hill-r thin buy-I al detailing military nan-I; I'ltrnrr'rn'. HIE“: ill rthmrtl‘r Iillll' nidnw: that girl: and buy: dilcr in with? lfl- firm-d:- iii-“31 nunuubal mu min Perfnrmn-fl {In traditional ifl'ecth'c rah,- lingInks. Harem-mr. Hill"! “Em hag,r age", nah: lend tun bcmm-I: Inn-H: :lillcd than {cmln ll. dtffldillfl dud-pm um” {H Ember; and IL Lmnun. “5:: minute: in Enlpil'h'f ind at W p. 1221'. hmthrr mrdm fmmd that ant': pmitim al' Capirilifi," Hdalul dfll‘linlnre i: I: hflter prudittnr ni- lensilivily in India PEEIFIE'I lanolin-nil Elfll-fl'lthan {Inc's gmdrr is. Prupk in mhurclimtl: rain and to 9:}- mfui :Iucminn m flu: lead-cf: natunl'mind—lnd il happnnl. flul Il'lflllfl! mum lit-If huh: I]!!! Italian in fl-Il'l' culture £5. E. Enudgml. " a 3 ln—Iuitinn'l

HD'I'EE TD PAGES 123-155

HIE

'94. N. [Limb-HI H 11.. “ W i n n uf Farina]? Inducied Emntimlll Biennium in Chitin-IL“ p. 2&5. 95. Fflhhllh "St: DiEtrt-ntu in Empathy Ind Emil] Ethnim' in Chil-

tkm." 111:5: Ending-s Hfl't' mmpliulrd by {fifimnt FIIIEHIII uE empathic rellmm: depending cm Hhtlhtr I‘hl: rupum-t il'fl In I plunnl nr lfllplllllll'll

aim. Eiamherg. Inn, Inund li'lil smpafl'ltli: Fania“: man: man: swung]! undated with prmrill behavinr in H1: can If

girl- (H. Humbug, H.

Htflrflth. and IL Mm. “Vitamin: Emuliunfl Rfimtflfll and Praia-rind Ilabrim"). 95. 5. IL 311% “Hmul Health. Tampa-mutual. Family. and Fflufllj." 1:. 25-3. 9?. Fflhbfll‘h Found I “quit: Inn-dim dilffltmr” (“Stu Damn in Em-

pathy and Sada! cflinr in Ghildmm" P. 3151'. Eur example. whil: a larger dill-Turn“ “Hm-d up in a warm I-tudy nffuut-gndm I]. Lam-m and P. Hunt“. “511ml: Pflmmfilr and Humid-um] Gamble: ul' Ehildmn“: Francis], lat-I'm" int“). 93. afirml. "5:: Dtflhtntfl in Empathy and “flied Behminn.”

'99. Eunherg and [ m “5H Hutu-urn in Empathy and Related EIFndtiu.“ pp. [25-25. III]. Illnivd.+ p. m9: and Fl'lhblfll. “Sludifl of Eng-unit HEW in Chill drum." 1:11. Ell—25. T111.- mnlure. develupcd by Fnhhadl. inmhfi Itlling 1 Ear! H: thildrmimnrthm “haunted with pinmflmd thanElfin! them In alumina their mm emutiuml m1: at m pain! m l pinurt nl' flu.- tmTflpnnding filth! upmuinn.

lfll. l.1mnmd.Ehnfltrg."Gmdflmflhg¢Difl7flmmh Empathy and Sympathh” p. EM. 1115!. Bryan-1L ”Mutual Health, Tunnptrlmnu. Family. and Fri-lids.“ p. 213-

Hmhen' allE'l-Eill'lfl'll a!“ Ll'lIEiJ' childrtn's nun-ml hlflllh mu :1:t In IJ'III': {hildrum": rfpurlcfl 1:c nl'rmFIIhr—hm nut. imminglr,II: III: dlfltll‘m'l IE5" at 5min] FtflPL'EI-i'd'll.‘ liking. lflfl. Fur rump-1r, Hahn-I, Hart. in II hunk an “IE rubjm. H'fitfl+ ”Hull

clinical dacripliuns ul'lhr: paychnpath make mun.- mrt nfrflertnt: m hi: flirt-Enl-

u'irily. lath ul' tmpathy, and inability In farm Harm. unminml relatinmhip: Willi mbemu-tharactfliatifl thal had him In Irma! MI'JIE'H as ubjecu insltad a! a pawns and prurtm Iu'm Frum lumped-mm guilt and ram-flu! fur 11min; dun:

In" ( W . p. 'H. Mm lEE! Gibbs. “Sandal PI'lJ-Efim in Ddianqucnq'.“ pp. Ell-Fl: and W. Dal-mm. TM Mam! {MM pp. 11-15. Iifl-l. N. [L Fnhbith and 5. Fflhh-ach. "111: Rehtiumhip13-:t Empflhr flu! Aggrcuim in Two Ag: Glmps." This rthti-umhip mu Ill}! [mind fur ynungtr rhildrm.

I95. Hillrr and Ehtnh-flg. “The Ethtinn at Empathy m Aural-he and Entenulifiny'fimimdfl Edmvinr," p. 559.

HDTES TO PAGE IRE—IE?

5E9

195. Hnflflmh ”II All-Infill: I'm ul' Hum-n Hum-e?" pp. 125-35. HIT. H. Ehrrher; Ind P. A. ”Ellen "Th:- Eeluinrn nl' Empathy In Puma-tin! Ind Edam-Iii Behav'mn."

lfl'fl. [hi-d" p. 114. Mm IIH'.‘ Fistula-erg. Htflrflflh flflil Aha. "Tmfinulim tin-I'll]. Rflpumivmm and Prumdal Behaviur.” 109. Hi. Ehrnrherg and P. Miflrr. “Empillhf. Sympathy. III-d Mtruim.“ p. 195. Empathy Wilh whim." tmulinn. acmrding 1n Fnhhfirh. "cm 1'05t :11. qutmrrir until-mill urinnminn" ("Sn Difl'erenm in Empathy and Saudi] Behind-H

in (31%" p. 13-“ and dun um m

mmistmt mm: lint fur a farm

hidiuitlual (H. D- Fflhhld'l and 5. Fflhhld'la. “Alt-Hive Frat-run Ind Audi-mi: hdll'twmrrfl," p. 13391. III]. M. L Hafl'ruan. "Dfltinpmtnl Inf Hamil Huhuinn.“ p. 21H- 5:: IlmE'tb-erlmdflilkh “Thtflthlinnufflfipflhytu humdalindflehied

Ham." 11-. [I1511nd .1 Fuhharh and H- D. Fnhhndu. "William and Altruisrn.“ p. I'Elfi. I l l - Eisenb-Etgand Hillflr, ”"111: M a n uI'Empuhyr In Fina-Inch] ll'ltl 1tIaltd Haitian.” pp. I [1-15. l-lflwmr. it may he that penal-HI dim“ it I'll'hlfli

ti: hdping in lhi'." can: If angry-[win (p. [(13]. Alan 5H! I'll. Eistnhcrg and it. A. Fahfl, “Elam: IhE ”Minn-Empathy Hypmhuii.“ I12. I. Iluhin Ind L. A. Ptplau. "Whu Bdiflfl tn :juzlt Wad-d?" pp. HT '31:. 35.

HS. mmflmfljflflmrflfltm p-221Likflrhrmmtlmpnrdmllag-ill “Tilt! IJIII “maul user can. but In :ltn‘muiw In our amp;- fi'urm m m : than: it [but victim‘s pflflm a Ural.r uf drawing i1 ml” 11D. Wright. HI: fi r m

gum Btifl-Ir. p. 195].

I”. H- {Il'npmn :1: ll. "Elllllfltlznir incl Eflpumih'flitjr h III-E Hali'mliml Ii Will-Ian's Htlping." p. HS. HE. "flmmm- nutmhmmnnpuhi: Inflrduflun'pnin lil'l-‘iI-flflflflm : . but they were aha mun: likely In gun and my man- hwn-hcd [If—flu” of their gmnl HIE! uni" remumihifllyr :nd Irntlntq 1:: mile mimefls" [film an! fliinu. Ti: Alma: magnum pp. I'M—'15].

Ilfi. Fur fl'id-l'l'ltt fifth-r link hfl'll'ftl'l npfimmfl inclun'lun ul' Empl'lhf

Ind: Pram-till hthl'ln‘I-Dl‘. m: Emmhrrg 111d Hflltr'"I11: Erbium uf EII‘IPEILIIT In Frmuriahnd Erlutd Brianna." pp- llfl-ll; mdfi D Edmund" “Heguife-

5m: Relief and IJ'H': Eupnthy-Aimfinn Hypmhlm': ” “'3'. H. L H-nflimn. "Empafllr and Frfluucial finirilm." ] [5. This point is mind writ-diam by bull-I Fflhhld'l and HnEn-un. Uh:Hilt+Dflinil Kreb- pail“: out than Lin.- fafl I-hfll higher Inltllnt‘mutfl manning art ant-n niacin-3i 1with prim-rial helium dune: nut Fran [hilt thfl-E' framing Ililllin!‘ talk-d inln play in any given iituuiann. “Hubndy has uublishcd 11'“! any whim in any fiprrimem ha: engaged in mural running at pfltptfliw-fllin: final which MW: dun-ind I maul hurl-twin. 'I'u. thw'rt ttfl'ltlflt'd. and 3m. 1w:

51H

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April PMS}I IE. Eilmb-ng and Hiller. “The Eehtiunuffimpafllr In Pmucifl and El."htfll Erbium! p. I “ .

1211 juhmnn HI: quoted by]. Hamil. who “'1! quart-cl by F. C. Sharp. than was q-IHHI. by 11. D. Him. ”‘Inu'udutti-Jn." pp. [IE—IT. This same- Fflfli] 1min Hil- nudr '31“ H. Eiwnbtrg. Jill-um: EHal-urn. Engrflflfl. and Erfinrinr. p. 15. IEL 5. E. Hflhl'u-IL ”I'flmnal Wtrmm: nel' 1h: (1:111:31: amtm." Uflmunfllfly. 1hr fi l m hr'iflpublish-ltd fincriplilm {If flli: nan-rim: dun um Iptrisl‘yr Ihl': mmurr III rmpalhy and due: 11m indicate what {Hint-Hr: [if my]

in EmPfl'Ihf scum m found belt-Inn thr nuhgm-up Inf Illflillfl'lfl Him mlunlmrd Eur luturinfl and I111.- Luhgmvup whu [ulna-d 35 pan nl'a E-fllfl'll! requirtmem. Allan. flutmpmhy mun-s furlhtmmml mmmgiwn. IEE. Hair-1, “Lhmmrmfi' '1. E4. 123. In UI‘H': wry unall Mud}- ul'IttmId- and thirIi-grndtn-tfl - 5H}. wrapar-

liw-lah'ng abiliw wal- runrlalcd will] ubmmn' jullglmmi Hf thr chihkm‘: w i l l icfivilin um III: cum: III-E mull urn-Eh [Hubs and Slump. "flu-l!ling Ability and “mini: Behavi-aII'"I-. Camp-and with I mnlml gmup. Lindflgirtm hug-*5 in I wand experiment fil'l-D mmplntd : wit-tiling flHdI-E were mm Iiithr m dflil'lll'fl' candy In ”I. pam- chiid." whil: Iht girl: “H: mm: lilmrl].l [u auhtathild tuuhumdhufluiurmcdtdhdp- layulidnu: help war: and girl- did nut clonal: man a: I run]: of Em- irumeminn 11E- Snub, "TIL-

Us: at link: Harm: ind Induniun in Ghildrm'i Lamina uflklping and Shil'il'll Ichifinr"}- In Ifill Innlhlr nudge. bulb, hinderglncn and third-glad: buy: III-ha Hm trainld ll With-E taking damn-d mun.- candirs m “a pmr hm!” than 111ml.- t were nun-t Ininnl. hurt-stingy. ptnpfiliwr-uling and rapidly.- m we" negatively-I cunt-laud fur the fume-r thildren [IL ]. hmnlu'. ”HEB-El Inf Ink-Taking Expnitutta an Ila]: Tiling. Empathyfilmfism. and Aggrruian'i Iii. B. Unflflh'fl-n-d and E. Hunt. "Fmpccli’w—Taking and Mmlilm." 125. limbs and Emu-ll, "Halt-Talia! ind Altruism," IL Hill. With E m kind: 11f htlping. m t i v : liking Inn}- Iimphr he : Ih'll than Eiriiilllfl the

hfltfiflfliflfl—Jtfll au- mndminl apflmde wuuld likely infirm-an III: |:ILI'II:I|'.1:iI|:In't|ilg.r ul' helpirqilnurdrdmnmrhtJ-ungmdpenpeniw ukflmybrhxlimdtu I'Dilflltfl‘l' as a mumflur {In E. IE. {3hr}! III-d L [Imam "The Ammml ind

Efleciivm nl' Htlp"). I‘Efi Fun-rump]: ”c.1Ill1-Wfll-Er A W ? “ and] BradySmith. "Ptnptflwt-uling and Prawn] M r . " Ha t-tti‘llt Whimflflng H31 invnlvfli berm hat-turn

117. L A. Eta-dd. "Hulalinnlhip hum-mamFwy-arm:Tniugmd Tara-char Ratings at” {minim-'5 {llama-um Muir in III-unlit: UM Inn-ugh

Fmr": Ill-d l'... hum and D. lira-in. “PmpmmrmTifinfi mi 5:315 nf {Pm} Budd Bthfliur in Elnnmflrr Srhml flliflrnl."

I'IID'IT'ES '11} PAGES 129—!!!

III

123. Far w k . 1:: 1H,]. Framing, L. All-Eu. and 11mm " m l . Ink-Taking. 1nd SEN-Am." p. lflfl: limb: and luudL "Railt'n‘ 1nd Mmfiam" [3. IE“: E. Snub. "Hamming t i w Btlnfinr in Sch-min. h

filth-tr Edmuimul Setting; and in {In- Humr." p. HE: and Ihmml. Th Hid EH“. p- 93. 129. Far rump-k. u:- t fl l . d fl fl - fi fi m fl fl m in: Shift in Elfin-II. pp. 45-46. lit}. L- A. Emulh “Infam Ears-iv“ Atuduntm Ind I'lfl-EI'I'II crfAdIF-ulinn it Frmhmfl.“ p- 53. Man at: Eadie-1'31“. Elfin-Wank. :ndChapmm. "Children”: financial Dilpmitiun: and Echauiu-r." p- 159'. E. Epitcllfl. “fiyfl‘mpmhr”: ]. E. SaviHI‘q-I and T. Ehr, "Emulinn Ann-lit“ 1nd Ahmad-i Mum." pp. {ED-El: Slayer. “Aflfiliw and (Infinitiw PfiIp-Erfim ml Empathy." p. 2‘15: Eire-fibers. A m Emu-MI. W M and Ethan-w. F. “ii. 15L 5. Wiflhma. Elfin and!!! 1.1-": if M y . 1:. 9L Sditlrr, ma. bu unit-d llfll truth? urn-min: nm in inn-mitiv'lw m ufl'lm’ Iuflfihlg but in liking pitanurtfl'um iLAndamydindividual“wuhiim-Imflflleplinlnd m u he mus-cl l'l‘l‘lil'l-‘h in I apathy fur “hulking feding‘t" {Th Null: If

w } . p- :1}. 13:1. N. D. Ftdihndh "Emmy Training.” p. 215. pp- ISIS-4!}. 13!. Fh‘r‘dl. £ 3 u W 131. Huifinan. "Emmi-nu nl' ARE-El ind EnglfiIin-n in Elfin-lily." pp. lull—IE. ALI-u at H. Eisenhng and ]. Etna-fir. "Liriliral lam in Lht firmly 11f Empathy."

p. '9: and Hump-lush ”Empathy mu! Emufinml Undnslu'rdium" p. 124[55. Head. Mild. ill-fl: and 5min. p. 565. [35. “Taking mlher': pulpit-flirt innnm madam! ru-ntinm In fllfl Ethan's plnmreur pain" H}. I}. 311511-114 iFuIiII+ and P. .FL Edna-Em. “'Mfltl' Emu-[intuit Iranian: [D flu: Dinar-.5: Inf [hit-n." p. 17!]. W Hill-“fifth Iqbal-1. p. Hi. IET. Elm. Th { is quutcd in L Hum-:1“, “Empaflw Hml ELEMJIHLE: [35- W All? Either Skill," I39.Furinmfillufi£mnua[lh tmpit.lflj+flm:tllq“m Himirnr ill- Primitin- Emmy-" Ill-D. The lat: mythic-Infill Hindu-tr M i d m Hm: abut]! hm: ht Ill-HI Winnmflflwmmiflgfllflhmmm.mn"iflnfl flan: um her twin. I Fell mymfl' tranunmcd I'mm 'Sid' inlu i: 'dilfllL' Hcr fin:

m m tn flpl‘fllim‘l flu! urn luppmed m- h.- wirmth. and 1h: Hid. Turn final pretty.- rnutm dnn’l ynu Sid." That flldfld thr dialnguru far a: I In: tuna-med” (fl: Trflmfilffllll' 39: p. I3]. all a nudtnt. I hid I limilclr nptn'fl'fle 1IIII'ilh In hmrutmr hlhfl- happ-emd In I]: a psychiatrist. I taught him nut brfnre clan: an:111;: In Hill‘I tnfltfl‘fl Ibuul mutt-thing memmg [ht mtthlnin nl' 1hr taunt. "I m .l-IH.‘ wu'rr angry." ht sahi rind-thing. A: be“ as I can mail. I Intrin't hI'EI'I H M mufl 111m. [hil in. It m ‘ l :1:m [1“t rupnnu I-E'Hllfll I'l'fll‘li'l'l

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nduliwh' IlTfllivr farm Ht dilllilli'l'm Hm infaltiiiring. rather {hall Milli: ur undflalanding. 1-H. Erwin Snub all: Hi: hilt empathy ( " W an FII'I I.“ p. HIE}. HE. E. Smilind. "Elpluniury huntigatinnz. Inf Empaflw." pp. 253-97. “3. Bub-er. Hr E M of Man. 11. Hi.

I“. "I Haul-:1mm tall such mandarin! [afllfltsfll‘ ddtm 'pmducmpalhr' lint: win! is in queuinn hum.- HIE dnftmu Iiih': Fifi-action - - . [which] filminFrill-[131!!! difmm frum Elma med In Efilflhlilh empathic mmmuntuinn and Ihnuld nun ht lhnughl {If a: "laid to empathic “finial-maxim ul' nfi'mh-e :nmmuniudml" {34%. "Empalhil: Understanding.“ p. IEfll. A.“ early Hudy 11f mung: Eltduutu [amid a .Ill'tlflg myth: rtlminmhip burn-n Hupilhy and pmjrniun III—.55!- but Lht mflnm nl' 1hr Ih'u qlfill'rlin “rt-rd: Inuit ll but. finpflhf having hum npunliutuliu'd a: uprflsing Ill: btlirflhal "nlhm" him: I mflain trait than thiljudgmem in“!!! with what mml pen-pie m Ihfllll: them-

H'h'fl- tfl. I]. Hnrnun and P. himnmrfll, “Th-t Helaliumhfiqu HUME iefliun, Empathy. Healim Ill-El Adjusmwm. (Ipcrminmlh' flefimd'fl. HE- See. Fur instance. IL I}. laing's fili‘lifl' wart cm family dynamicanr sum:-

uf [he all-jun rulatinlls Ill-rarilu- Hun-y Chuclnmw drscrihrs a [II-II: Illld'f ufEnid Bali-II”: in which "111: 'nnpflhy' if m: patitnl’: mum“ was a film: culpathr . .. . grub-ably a {inland Pfiflfllifll‘l ufwhal th: maliwr tlmughl bar infant daughter's need: :hufld be. As her daughter grew. and HI: ablr tn EIPI'fl-l- “HIE and limb, ll'll': mud-1H lylttmuifllly igmmtd IhH-L- win-minim Ind 311': Efldhltl. 11m u:- hcr annual htharinr but fllhtr m whal 1hr had irrthe lire-u pinu- prujened mam hat thild- - . - Tl'hr dlughlfi] It". [hit III: in: m

m Ill-m flu: urn

Hum-album". d u t m t h d m h h a w fl m t m l i m m a f fl u m pp. WEI-1L Hfi. Huflimn. “Intnactinn nf fifth: and W in Empathy.“ pp. Hill-EH. Hijmt I‘l- Gillipn Ind Wiggim mil-l the HE: nil'ptrlptfliw taking hill-Ed unminlflprtulian Ilutexc'lutlu ummingfltpnhtnffirwdflwcm mhu. m dn Ihqr n-Imdiau- turf-EH} an II'H' gmundl lh-II 1h:- mrd: impli-H “an

filial-mil].r all {filings—ll“! sell 1nd mhtr rm flu: Hume“ {Eiliigm and“. WW.

"Tim flfigim nFH-urflily in E3111,- fllildhnnd Echljmsh'qh.“ p. I22}. m

i: m

Emu In Iimi! uur “Willi-rim: uf Ill: Haul in lhi-Ir Ham HE. Edit-let. 1'1: NM"! grimly. 11. 4'1.

HQ. Bub-H. Tit K W J H A pp. 95. TB.

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Pnrhnlufl nfflpmluid.” Hm qua-“It: il Mid; Eamh Afrhn prim whim mm" hwhtnntt“wurhdinarul auflmwhmnaflmnhfmh hmwfltsnfld will-mm uwnsih. I H: Elptfllflil 'Iu fill villi my hand! a haul all rin- mmed in 3111'?“ . .{Whtn [I pmmutdlhal [mlrdai InflalwmrI-Jmfimd. Butwhu

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intridnflulwz'mflm ptmbefinethmme hgmflflm limit HIE tilhtr by rirlut a!" their anion ur blatant: {II-f their intrinsic pmunal “MW—flu m-calhdjun Warm phmnmrmn—il W Ihurt. Ste. In: umbph. III-1.]. Lflnfl. “"111: Desire furjlulict ind Radium: In Victim!" [ m m Ila-pun an 31. 225:.

4|. P. G. m m “'I'hc Human Ell-aim" p. 293. 5. 5. P. fllinrr and F.1d. (Him. 1 ' t Hamlin. p.116. 6. Fur tumult. new. “1'. litrnanl, P. Dumbrrg. and Fr Hedi. “Bellman-

iuiinm" 111:. ME [I]; H- {3- Hall-Imus. ”ViDIEI'III-l’ Iridium Mural Bambi." p; H]: H. Smith and 5. H. Srhflru. “Intergmup Agrarian.“ p. 565.

TI"- Elmjcn: Hm willing in admilflslfl mm: mm shards. m prop]: du— Hrilfld il “m1 :m'malinir. rant-n bund'l“ Ihm In mmc who urn-r dam-ibnd

pmhiwly m nul ducribrd at alL The fl'lfldlfl- HIE-rt tut-d by whit-Eu m punflh pmple fun-r Elihu-I.- m lam. I11]! HI‘I-Il'l‘l uh: lhll-CEI flaqr thought I112].- wen! giving: did nut eliminate trmra. ”aflrflsiun has pirripilnmh mlaled m fi l m ll‘ll'l'h- with d-t-humaniini [Infarct-an-" Suhirtu appmnfly 3'1“:l l-I'llml-l'I‘I'EInl' bhmr. switch-Ii UH their m u m . and brunt-arm mm WEE-site. “Th:

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firm “nth-r dil‘ft'rmt fwdhurk cmflitium indium Ii'h'fl IIIE dehmnitini pm—

:uhm: prudunnd thcir BEECH hr dim-Inning Ihc vitlhns 114' Lhtir humannn: nthrr than ltJllE-Il Infill lamina-fling uni punitive atrium" m. Bandum B. Undrnrc-n-d! and H. 1'. mmn. “fliiinhihitiun ul'figgrt-uiun": qumalinm Emu pp. 253, 255, 55?). [L I}. A. Euphn. ”Hit-ruling {Slit-ankle nt': Dtuh Fatwa-i" p, H33. {I

mum. I viewer Inn-ha :uppm'u-tl “pita! pmhhmcnt nigh! well he unmm'fll b]! Ihcpflghlul'lptmmnhnh adbrcnaculmtcdludinh mdfismhwith: pro-Elm had: : HEP. Hut-r dun um.- unit: a: a ham: uf mind nut: that an:- not

unlyr appmm nl‘ killing criminal: law persisu in mi: idrulogk'al (unnatural: t'lll'l-pi-IE flint-Hing its cum-rue tnmcqumrn—ulhu is. a uni hum.“ being “Illhlgahuut Ihtfllfl that he will not will in i [Hitch—l? Andwhal Il- Llltlelmiun-

:hiphcmrmdflindiflrirmmnhnnmmdihilpmfllflmdpiwfuranhEI-ifll 5]. Burlap-uh qumrfl in FL Lind-w. ”Fl-uni”: In Keep." p. I. m. j- E. Saint}- and T. Eby. "Emmi-Inn Hfllrfllfl'fl Ind inflict-ii] Ethn— iur." p. 415. Lila-wile. Band-um1nd his culkiguu wilt: “Bfiiyulimu of ufl'lrrl

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H. 'i'. WWIE. I": ll: LEM-hum pp. IEHE. HI. H. Humphrfi'. "All 1111mm“ PmPu-ul." p. 36. 13. D. A. Wilder. "Smiil [Lil-EEM'IIEHDII.“ p. SIT. H. 5:: H. Sfllnmun H II... “Jimmy-mm! and Htlpt'ng." 15. 5-H.- II. M. [hi-Mid. HtTafish. and H. Shahlte. ”Behafinr. [JamminIinn. Ind Assumptium :buul DLI'IEI.‘ Pmpk'u Edmfinr in I E m : [HI-Emmi

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IE. Lumlzitw lmrrflihtt. diffitflf at" I Ffllltl'iifl mdiuiun P‘l'fllfll'll in W . Ham" dun-scribe: th-E pram: IJIi: my: "Mn-3|." nf the rim-t. when they are given Iht uppnnunily m Ian 3|:q H'l'lll happmttl. Il'lty begin tn I‘flfl-fll‘lflt ant anulhe-r a: human beings—LIE ulfimden Ian. I have very few vicflm-afiender mating: in width FED-FIE dun-1'1 npnlngin: ‘ . . Earl-i] “hm tha- hldividual 1minim saw “WM-r:- an: ran living?“ amt th: hit! 531': any lira-w.- in a Il'I-tllfl' and arm" 45 day: they can”: li'fl: dum— Influx-rt, [Hut vicu'ml can Lmdn‘llflml why It": Lid dnnn‘l lhinl: I'm math lhflul grabbing their 'I"'H" if flu: hark dmr'l nptn" [qua-ted

in E. Rubi}. "Ii Vial-Iguana (11115?" p. 52}. 1']. H. FL Harman-in. Uffl'flj' and K i m 3}. HE. 111: nip-Hi1? Fur abstract Ihnught 115:: mm um physiu] pmflmiqr in MI ”quire-El fur “hurritr: n1" my, ”

h: HidiIE. [1 A m . 5. 5. am, and L E. Hall. “Enlpuhi-I: aha-mum1:a lull-Intent Vinim." "It Ilunar-“Ind appear 111m nnplfl'liling ILL. penpeflht taking] uhmwm murder rumpus-flan [ht [In]! just reap-um: In undtsu'md sufl'erinl.“ ll'lr filth-afl- candudtd (p. 545}. 19. H- Echtlcr. ‘17:: 15mm!if 5 m . p- '33. film In? Alli-ed Adler's dim

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El}- Iimhardn. "111-: Human Ehoiw." p. 2'91 2 ] - The syn-Lemma: inhunwtimiun of [I'm V i e w by IJIE U3. ill-ruin“ [hmes—inrlufin: flu.- uur ill—insult! imam—ii: null-:11 in IL}. Liflnn. "Eammfial Ei'iL“ Mm ml: Hark Hahn's aim-nun! all” 111:.- Iran "A fit mu 11:31. But if I gunk got killed. it Hi: like me gain; mt here and stamping an 3 much." [muted in

5. Km. Fan cf flu- Enrnjl. p. [25. Urn Lhil- mm: page il- ill'lIJIJ'IEI' hurrifirhg pimmmph—Ihil [me all n 3111111: uFThm' children enjqrfing1h: tight Inf: kfl-winl' fanth being Email2?. lit-tn. Fara Jib Emmy. pp. 24-55. 1'3. Wfldtr. “Social Eat-:gmizaljun.“ p. ME. 21. Th: inltruclnr. Rub-n1 Fania. Irlm wash." at th- U’I'Iii'fl‘liljr affirhn—

mat Huh:- Each. is qualed by Stu-d: Terktl. Hill:- 1-; in turn qllflltdin E. E- W . "Terir'l II. TIE." p. 575.

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act-aunt 41f: pinup dfundmulinjm who have ll'lfi'l'ld inln the We“ Bari... wl'lith 13ml armpit-.1. fish-d u:- imagint whit life might be lit Eur lib-E Flhuini-

am. Ihm WEHHH'E nu::Ht. Wt“ Ear: Hill-:- “hilt, [nihil'l their point {if View; may did nutljlnw [hams-elves even a split Hamlin-mm and uncommitted

pifliripHi-fln in H1: lim Elf mus-I: whmr filfl an: immwhmz'l Ind hlrrwav-L-n m with with main. Lil“: {In-uh. lhlf’f did ml. mum-:11 in flumg thnnaclm Emu: lhfllt.‘ 1m hand: Whirl: Ila-y are mill-filling In admit uni-t" ID. Emma. fir 1":i “M p- 391'. E5. Himmler“:- apeech in q d in A. Hill“. Far Him {hat End. 1:. '31 2?. In 1hrir 19TH pamdr DE :| smalI-tmm “paper (”The Damn ltpuhflnn-Dmncm”l. III: writer: ul' the A W LII-pm mil-int! jun thin purl nf pumhialiam. {Zine ul' [ht paper's [film-paga- imn'es begins a fallaws: "Failihk tugs-fly ha: fluff-HI ll'h'. vmtium FIII‘H fll' Min Franc-H landh- Ind her mull-at [Hive H vulcanm desimyed Japan raj-hr Inn-day.“

2'3. H. Dru-nth. Th flmiuhnn y‘flmfim p. 33. 1'9. 3-H.- the undies til-3d in my Nu [hum pp. 43—49. IEE-Erfl. an]. IIIL Rabbi: and]. H. E. d: Barf. “Th: Anticipatiun hf [um-gimp

Eunpcufiun and {human-minim undu- Ffi'lnlt-I': II'HZI FuhIit finudhinm.“ Wain-n app-um": an F. 213-

ELL]. H. Eihhitel fl..“DiftmfliaawflandEfltdIp-ccmdEmmi i'liw: and {in-upcraliw Inlngmup Inlrmlfliun m M and [ h i m Ami. tudfl.” Malian appear: an p. 55.

32. j. W. julian. I]. W. fliahuprind F. E. Fiddlr. "Chnli-‘lhmplulic Effie-tn {If hing-mug: (lampetiliun.“ p. 525.

3:5. 5H. I’m- mmpte. E. M. Halve-5+ 1L]. {1. van d: Eran :mflj. M. {It'll-Ell. “Baum-mint: Eur [ht Btmfit ulc' U1." 34. Human. 1'3e and K m . 5}. [5. 5e: alm pp- Illa-IE.

35. H. D. Fnhba-ch. “Studies at Empathin: Bflufitrr i-n Childmn." p. in. 35- H. IE. Hitch-ell and I}. Hymn. “'l'h-L- DER-Edam} {Eli-mm"

57. c. H. [infill-h 5am: Hyman .1. us. 33. P". Eingtr. HI: Wag firth 1:. EH. 5min In Huflnlian philanplut. strum Ihal [ht circle upland; as I Inmflun alum capacity In run-an mflmr

than “ham: of what III: diathinfidlr rrli-I'r- to an "allmiitic imlimmH"—a dilitinfljun I": will Entflllfllfi again in thl: final chapter- Th: mural circle ill-II} Encampiun animal; acmrdimg m Singfi. wha- i: hm Elm-urn fur hi5 defrme Inf mini

righu. H: wuuld mflnubuflfly hair: Elli-r: patina: far my :uggnliun llul width apread mun-m [fir animals may he an :25d HF I dehumniiring mushy.

3'9. L. Bumbag, "Th: HIE-III: Nan-r: uf Human Hum." p. 121". Mm act Hurmiein. [Inn-4h and HIE-dam. Hp. pp. fl.

Hm M ‘lfl. G. H. Held, Hid. H

Hal-H. I511: Ind IL Gurney. Th

and Swirl}. pp. [35. I'll.

4L “My mum“: militia-m Irilh Ill:1 3 t , . . an: It'll-ally gun-mud by Ill'f

aninldn with mpnn m Llwnhjen which I am Furl!“ Chher. . . . II iI thmfiur:

llfi

HEITES TIE} PAGES 151-15!

unduafinrhumm-rflfliymn dtugflmflnfmil flammmmuflthhr Inns-rend [ht Ether at 311111: nnucfl' lfl- b: m

m 111.! him. T11:- m m 131'

Ihl! I'E'Ii‘l'i'fl-flfi brittle-n c o m m “ in ml [ht Mimi-1 [hi-ingm'ithl: il: il mnflicl"

{IFE 5mm. Bangs-mi Nflflingllfil, pp. 1'13. 5515!. h i mIn my, I dun nut Eullufl

Sartre to uni: Hardin. 42. Hellman. "Fink-n” wilhuut Hum] flfllmim." p. 5]. Min In: Bernard. Humbug, and Rail. "Duhmnanifltinn." pp. It‘ll—II. i5. "Undtr mndilinns specified as deind'widlming. Ihfll' I'm-H. Harman-gr mild-"unwed cufltgt girh nhu-clurd amthtr girl almual urn- lil’flt' flit-y Put] an

Immunity In flu in. mannimrn for as lung in 1hr]: m

flan-d. and i: did nu!

mitt-r W t 111' um that [:Iluw mud-ml mu. 3 nm: girl who didn't m

:1:

hr hurl- In additinn. there was “In agent 11f mtniun m m m fine the girl: In

I'll] lib: Ellen. . . . Eundilium Hhich induct I'mling: ui FEM-Mm Lead In Inn-trad mlf—mmrinumnl. IHI rmhanaumtm. and udutrd inhihifinn all-nut punishing I111.- tiuirn" Wimbardu. ”Th: Human {Sh-nicer“ p. ETD}. 4-1. Iimbnrdu i1: qunlrd in Hnrnutin. Emily andE m p. Hfl. Mm ftfl“ the findings {LE-scribed in chapltr 1!- :nlte-miug the rfiuimuhip brawn-m wait-chi Hufiur and bulb l-ElFIflIZ-E'IEII'I and internal Inn-nu uftmlfl‘ul.

45. Milk-r, Far I’mr {Jun-I flan-1', p. [1546. "TIE! hmdfl thr mg: of afl'eniw: ill-mull and mini-re fll' Ending: in nun-Elf. the mar: putt-mid empathic respumhrtm-fl my cum m [ll-E uthrr. A2. [hart is a narruning ul' whk'h aflhtt: an: appruprialt [at the “If. Ila-n.- I'lm may he : tunailmem Inf tmpathir mpunsivmu. : Ian at" the imnudime. [Wt-Hing [flflifiljn' wanmhur’y. inner um" I“. 1|Ir'._]-|::Ir::l;m. “Empafl'uy and EcIIBumdu'ic-a,” p. 5: in: film 1:. '3}. flimlrd iIIlr-urrpfitinn aha hm hum fun-11ml tu- “film-E purl-Fruit": M in thihlmn- 5121.- A. P. W i t h and E. 1'. H M .EM. 1:. 5D. 41. This is I'll! till: til“ i 1959 TEEHI'II Ilbum by Th: Firuig'n mm. 43. Even the tummn Islmplim that Funinn in uprrimrd in infamy hll h-E'E'I'J (flanged. Dani-:1 Stern argue-5 {hill infims “new-r exp-trienn- a period 111' tau] Irlfl'u-Ihrr Imdiffi-Itnliuinn. Thu: i: no cunfiuian but-flu nus-ll" ind nth-uin :11:- bcginning m- at any palm during infancy- . . - In Each. IJ'III.‘ wbjtcljut ctprrirntcl [If Imiun. will] :tL-r [In mm: ml}- after .I l-l.'II.I-l: Ell-ii. Efll'l! Elf and

3 mn- u-Ihtr wrists. Uni-an W

in: Hill!“- Hana-n! as flit awn-um mun ul‘

ifli'lltl'l'p' nrganifing 1h: npcdmc: of mlfihcihg-withanmhnr. rnljuzr than u. that

lam-dun [if 1 main: Elihu: nf lhl: illilltlin-r In difftrtnliilr Idffim mil-ET" {IL

sum Hr 1mg: I-Ihrla'qf'tbr want, 1:. Ifl]. 19. M. Eula-n. Th: K W qH-i'ml. :1. 5!. SD. Haiti. pp. "Ti-fl. III}. 5|. H. Huber. Emmy .Hun mhl' Mun. pp. 9?, ”E. 52. H. L. Hnfl'man. “Inltnninn uf Alert and Cngnifinn in lit-palm." {1.

IE.

HDTESTDPAGES 155-15?

EI'J'

51 H. L Hufl'rnan. "Dwelnpamntal 5mm DIME!“ and fiumlitiun Ind It: Implintium [at Mtruiui: Hutivaliu-n." p. E"). fill. H. D. Fuhhath ”5-H Difl'flencfl in Empathy Hui Elm-ill Ithflinr in children." p. 359. 55. '“Trun- allmil-Iic I‘m-liq: has-rd m1 gut-main: l‘fl'l'lpalhf 1will l'flth: mam”: [Hal unly if lhE' altruistic pun-mi: upablr all" amiding ad-tnlifitminn which is idnltifil trilh this Inn Ell-111E stir. and is ill-Ir tn nuinlin hflprulnru hut-d: an

Iiiflnmfl: I‘llhurr than fuiun” IIIL Ehurin. "Flyt'JmuIH-lysia and Eduminfl fur flu: Ffltfliuflnn (If I'hl-itiw Human Enuliiu.“ 11. 311i. Elli. "A. mntinumu sums: Df-IJ-IIE'E nun titling: mun. i n d i u m , bl: m1:

EIIIIIJI‘ Lin-I Imp! Ihl.‘ nut-mu! FIEI'l-flfl [rum Ila-ling himull'iu hi- althil: film-gin-

ingi: ul' mthfi's feeling? ID. Shapim. # e Saw. 9. 9H. 57. ”Allhmlgh empalhy' i: an Hamlin! mum: {If human mam. Ind inunnHtinl; identities can be beneficial in H'I-II'I'f “Ti. liming identitifl can b:

fimlmua“ IE. Slaub. “Emnurgr an Pm I.” p. [H]. EB. ”In Int-in; with Iht Mhtr. I in I'm! Inu- “SITE-Elf. I Ila-Iain my mm Maturity and Il'fl lam nf mym martian: In him and his “urinal" {II-IL Hay-Hull: fin Eurhg.

P. 42}. {riflfiifligannndfl Wiggint“11ltflrigimafflnnlltrinhflyfiidhull-II Edntiumhipl," pp. IE“. 123-. ED. jurdan. "Empathy Ind 51:" Emu-dam," pp. 3-5, 'EI. E. Gilligan. p-cnunal cummlmimtiun. March IMP.

52. Bernard. flitmhc'rg. and Rafi. "Ikhumanifltinn." pp. I’M. ID‘EI. Tim?r cuminut: "The greater mlr reliant: m1: drhumaninuinn an I methinhm fur

mph]; with life. thE IE5: readily can the new facts ai' our Hill-HIDE he inn-gated in“; nrur Full psychit Eunflianing lifltl: 5:: many ul' its vital tumpmnu. such II unpalhf. have been shunted Hide. milk-d. nr abstured" (p- IH}. 53. A. Enmua. Human-:1. Jim-HEM and Lin-NA. p. 5D. 54. Urn:- ncwspap-tr cnlumnifl with-rs: “Hatred is Huh :11 add thing. II'H: amEmmiun I annual mm In nut::11c [El “comm,I : 3 t {Input-ire wilh

flu: pfllpll.‘ Thu:- bin-I.- Icl il star lhcir mull. mlm' thin” cwrr Ihflflflhl. Ihip-I: their buhavinr m {hm [hr]! want- precious Hm: suiting nth-n human lasting: will: Int. cmnlinlly. rut From 1hr ram:- rlnih i1 flit-3' In" M. Chfindlen. ”l

Dhnmin:

ml" Prrjuditr Mm Fans. [L-. Fiamrlfl. 55. ll. Bettrlhtim. “"Thtir Spa-rial” Wu Hunter." 11. BE. 56. 5“. far mplr. G. Nip-L1H. flat Mann: :5" H m pp. {HT-E. ET. Conley. 5min! {hymn-mini. 1:. l5- Mm IH lam-m Willa-e: "I: night he Infill In mum: limp-nth]: I'm a. murdn'tr. but am: m-uld tmpalhize Iwith: Ihit pawn in fifth: In try In undmund him at her. while Hill diuppmring a-E' hil fill" her animfi" {"H'H: Distintl'mn bflwfln Empathy and Empathy.” p. MEI]. I55. Miller. Far I'm-train Guild. [3. HS. 59. L H. Hindtnum ”Ltfllitf Ind Empathy." 3:. HM.

313

m

1‘!) PAGE 153—169

I'D. H. Himhr. “Junk: War-i." pp. 53. ED. 1!.

‘H. n- Bat.Sn-In;£kumq. pp. 1'15, 1H.Ahumj.fluuhflgt.lumi Jim-run Drill-rm). p. 272.

5'2. Mud. Mind. 3d: and Satin]. 1}. SET. 73. IL E. Whitt. FMIfid WM. p. [513. 14. Embed Ed'lfln ptrmnal cmminflnm. Haw-1hr! IHE.

1'5. Hutu ind" Ufinn :n‘: qufllflfl in. D. Enflmm. "Hun Hm ‘Etii Emir-r: " 1:. 1 TE. H. Lmr. “Hm H1 tlcm," p. 135. '17. Buhen Edwin Hamil-flu. p. H. 13.1‘hil III-HIM! il Hllfl-Ed 'II P. A. Miler and H. Eilmhflg. "Th:

Ila-hint: nf Empathy tn hflrflsiw and Enienulizingmnthutial Behififir." 1:. 333.

79. 5:: H. Eismhrrgamd FL A. Hill”. "11".- Hdmiunnf Empllhf In Pluntil] MEI fltlaltd 565%." pp- “IL-IL

flfl. FL]. thinner. “Fmtrinn and m m hhfliflf.‘ The quatatiun i: [rum p. 323. Hmr. 1h: mm number DI" ddhlqucnl Hill-nus in fiprr'lmcnlIL plu'thu. and mnlrul mndin'flm rinses unlv frum LID m.- EJ a: I'ulinw-up. {Shani-tr (attitude-5., mar-tater. IJ'Ifll I11: subjects may have bun atypical]? Imam. flflfifl :I trim: From lhfl' brg'nming [in-tn ilfirl' all. 1hr]: tumuld uni: hair: bum in

tin: illldjf il' Ihcy had um hurt-naught- Liktwm: in in wait-Ir: than t: Pfl'fiptfllli'l't-r Mgflmmwwmtnlmfldflmfimmmmm Iheir htl’fl'lil'ifll'.

M

E

I. I". H. flfifln. "Ltgitinfltin: and 1

pp. 39L M

M P'mlndll Ednulhn."

.

‘2. H. I]. FrflIh-ach and S. Fuhhlch. “Mfufivt Plum": and Endemic Athena-um." “Empathymybtmnmived ul'uampingatiflflulllwm girl um in adapting m the mhml mfimnment" (p. 1545]. 3. 5:: my Mn Emma pp. 46-54. IL I. Spit-rich “Futhnpuhy.” p. "13. 5. H. D. Flashback ”Empathy Training." pp. HHS.

E. H. D. FEI-l'lbifli :1 IL. Inning” Can. '1"- H. I]. Fflhharh and 5. Fflhhath. “Empathy Trim'ng and II": Irwin— firm ul' Ant-union." pp. 4064'. Fuhhath 1.1 3]., turning h Cult. [1- I.

H. Fur T m:If mirth ml Il'H: varinw- mndfls d Emptmliw inning. HI: 1hr.- mtrihutinm in I. fibrin at :L £111.. Lem-mug M W . W u ;H LEFT-J Ill. W.Juhmnn and H. T.J-I:Ihn;mn. ("Wand W m : H. E. fibrin. Emma M g : and thin I'llfl'l'lllflfl I}! the Iflmifllflfll Ail-minim Inf 1h: Study qmp-enlinn in Educatilm [Edilld hr Hill-ff :11d Gram I315 Lila-q

m

TD PAGES 169-1?!

519

filufianuflnmflflflfiflfifl}-flnlh¢qutuinnfl'hawmflmummrtgardihcir tIflIIrrIItfl “m map-craniu- {an DPPIJl-Ell In rumprlitiw and imlcpmdcm] Inm'mg

finalimfl.It:I}. W. jullmam L T..Jflh-'fl-'.lrflll. H111 {1- Elm-film "1nII:rI:|I:pI.'IH.'l— mu.- ilnd hltfipn'lnml Anni-mm] mung Hflnugrnnnu: and Holmium“ hidiwidtnll." El- 5a.- IIL sum... [1 W.]uhnlm and I. TJdmmn. ”Cuff-unfit: lire finm-Huclivfl”; and D. 'I'jnnsvuld and I}. w._l[‘lflmn. “1111: Hart: ufflummwrsr

an fingniliw Fflupmh'evTaking.” Within Pillfl'll- h u m . mmflifl is in 'unpala-tam fat-tar in manning pm barman {we W. IL Lnufl. ”Egmentfism and fluid IflI-Efitliflfl mm [hr Life Span." pp. “Ii—TE}. II]. This mirrurs Erwin Sxmh's mini: an Ilflfl'lil'lf hydninE—Ipflifiufly. turning [financial attitudes by luring :I chant-L- tn [[1 Ihfln am (Mr: Sufi War-End “mull-tr. 'II'IJL 2].

“.5.“ If. E- rims-“11mph”? Can't lull HI: Sixth-find: Hunt, :1 Eigh'lhvfinflrr High: BI: Allah.- 1n Htlp.“ 11A. Harman-21:1,. "Elli-cu nffirhpsmmmnfm W

m

31111:i Hahnfiur."

13. 5:1: F. [L Pawnh. I-Iiggimand L ILahlhflg.1nm3K-uflhrgfrdppunt-h In Mar-11' Edit-flint. H. I’m- : r m HE {ht Hill! and unsatisfying m m wppnrling the eflmivcm: ul' Hui-mitt Discipline. m G. F. Erwin]. H. M. Fulilll. I'Id H. H. Hunk. "What Hutu-3rd] Rally Sham almut Marni“.- Disflplhufi' 15. Mmthfl thnun-um mam-Erma“: inn: i.i raised by Earuljrn LimWultr. She camimu II'III a lfi’flil‘llrr Hhfl mufllu-Iy and e-l’licirmlf [ah-s car-r,- nl' a thild in Ilium-la in Dfd-E'I‘ lu- pus-um.- ardrr in I111: duuu-nm may unwillingly he

withing Hm Itwlns.‘ “[I} III-ill. pmplcdu 11m l'L'ilfl rnmtiumlly In “Fifi in nlllefi Mdti'l flunifmmcuneflhm.mmmuth¢whniiiudmgtifllhmflki“ ("'Cantluriunl." p. fllfl]. “5. Thu: 3,:c Illa! full-1m: nihmr Lhc pruju'l fiI-flfliflfil. haw it 'II perfli'I-red by pal-litigants and: iMH‘I'flE-d albumen. Ind hmr Hell it I-E'I'l'll- In but

Hurting appclrcd in I difl'nrnfl {mm in my artiflt. "F I: I'm- Pm-smial Tad-aing." It i: laud Ian immim. lifllhlnd mannihn. and men]: repmu prepared by thr [EDP mlfl'. Amung lht laurr are: 'i". Bfltlilfltl‘l H 1].. "The Child Dirk-ehpmmt Projen”: I]- Sula-mun el 11.. "Eu-upffllih't turning a: Fan ul‘ 1 Emnpmhensiw Elan-mm Prng'ram Designed la Fran-min.- Frmathl Dun-HEIDI). mm"; 1". BIH'IHi-rh H at. "Efl'flt: crl' I11 Hummin- Ethan] Hull-am In En-

.hanct mrial flehafim' an Ehiludrtn's [Infiniuw 5min] Emblem-Solving 5H": am! Strategies“: and D. Balm fl 3].. "EI'lItIIlEinn‘ Ehfldrtn‘a Praia-rill Bun-huinr in the Elassrmm.“ W. Erin: Schaps i: dilfll-fll.‘ nl'lhwEDE lulu-fly- “ ah m airman and fluid Snknnun 'u dimmr nl' rflflrd'u. [5. The [ 1 t Dtveiupmm I'mjtct In: mupilcda hihlingmphy unfulfil-

ch'm‘l lit-2mm flu: pram-mu prmnthl flint-I1. “Ga-Ind Hamill: fur Ell-lid Kinda."

325

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llfiulumunaIL'tuupwafiwLflmhlgflMufaW Glinrlmm Fray-am flfligned tu- Prmnme Prim-infill Btu-1m" E'fl'. H. Wanna :1. 3L. "TI": Child Dcwluprnent iecL” ‘2]. “1|. :hflfi’l Infill-E 13q can b: prestn'ni firm in {he [ucc nix-rim“ milbehlvinr if the [rather uu'ihrmu 1hr but pauiblr mm'n'l: In fig {lint min-

Efll trilh du- finl. while {trunking-ml}: lmpping or arm Ptmhlfing 1hr.- afiiun.

+ . . Him? it‘fldlm hadn't-III.- thifl rhildrtn in: selfvcentfled. manipulative. and lazy. mddulwhnnlhflmishchfltil hhflaunllwymmltning hardmtlrtmling Int-mini]. testing limitl. H {ham-ugh“; authority. If an: IEIH chick-tn this my.

lb: lugifll way In Fffltl'll armpund m- milheluu'inr in mum.- thruturplmiahmm]. and 1h: Inlifll way In gtl :I'Iilch-rn m hehflr: fill-ll i: In nu: marlin. We

try tn hdp [tat-Juan at: :hildren u flflljlflt It'f—il'lllll'fllfl'd but aha a: Fume-nth“? nrimtrd. If an: urn childnm an inlcrnlud in hmmg. IJIIZI ill- “Infill! In PIE!!! Illd n:- be fair and kind. lhtn flu: logical napalm:- In mishahaflur is In- find nut uhyfli: Lhild mn't able to cln thl: right thing. and In pram-id: the “Hflflfi' help. Th: 10mm] appmuch in Filing chfldmn m behave well ii In I}: 'IIJI'E' Lhnr inn“ when: i: upefled. haw.- the lhilll nquirrd. Ind {In IE1! lhu i: i: I rmmuhit. fair. rflpunsihle. m- hind thing In flu“ l'ihii}.

fl.DId1tfiflflurmthfldrtninflmmhnnwhmmupmjtuhmm

15.5 rurainrd m hr: wind and ablrr'rnl ilfifl fill-rt: vein. 25. Fur mun: II-p-ctific Mann-nation an the rflulu flflfl' five run. It: the ”lurch rtpm't: lined in nu“.- lfi. HEfi‘fll‘lillfl'lfl d“ EDP lufl'mm: In take-pain:

tuqultfl‘pumdmavuidrflggcflthglhcaignififlntcnfiiuindinfl.

W

?

L Hui Himlfln. [hr EIHEI'IIIJIE. drfinu pfithuluginl claim ll “Ihl:m

that

EH HEW hidiu'id'ml all all" him “ # 1 t am II'E mu which II'E dune m furlher m-

pmltn l'hfi'l he helitm m be in his awn intern! or will pram-Jute nr Franc: whit htjudgu H:- he hi: awn Errata“ 51nd. HI.- i: mutt-med In hflp nIJ'Im when and [filly when helping lhflll m- be'mg {mm-email :hnu: them will. in his judgment. Elfl'll'lfl his awn haunts. Th:- Lh'mg Ill'fll! in Iii-mgr: dtcisi'u- in mating Himm- t1:minn is II“.- W 1113 “in: I'I-I.‘ '3 than: m dn will Fromm: his awn gnu-ad. II in flu: uJu'malt nmtiuting [me ur nun-fling Elam [at all mummy atrium. . . .

Will-I Ihl: psychologinl tfiflifl i: mnnnilltd In dim-I'm: i! that maple fi'fl' mlunv larily an m prawn-u: I11: iumrtu: fiffl-thflIMM'und' in indium I111! lantern mu.

dilimflefludly. Lt. an! in Inch a way that iu: ham 1!“.- fiflm.‘ regard fur him-Elf u

hf: has far mhfl!" ("Thu Fair-:1 DI Egaiml.” p1}. 3-1—35}. 2. Mandiir Madalyn: emphuizu the m y nf qmtinm aha-u Ihmhm

and tfifl'fl-fll. Pflmliflfl m 1h: amnififlnm ul'thc'lr alum: I'm that warh- uf Ham Hid airmail;- .md arguing that "it i: HIE]! whm Hubble: deuchn II".- dmtrim {II'

natural law 15mm IJIEiI' Mil-tatrlian filmrl . . . pmmlingl a tumpklelf

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TD PAGES HIE-1H

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indh'idlfllill print-:1: tilt-1m Intuit - . - that Ill:- pfl'nhlfln Bulge: in :I slurp

Eli-rm“ ("F—guilt“ and Wm.“ pp. 15243]. 3.]. Bulifl. THAI-Inning #flrbgml. p. 1H. L j. 5. Hill. "Thu-II: EH!!! an Hyatt." p. 394. Ht“ mutinuefl: "Min-Illa flurrcwrual :I perm" in whim] ...n1tural m m u fl 3 mm pull-rtrlitl “tribut- thin Elfin-hm: in my all" in Full-nu. my "main nude-rim. Thin Hindi

nun are extremely ram Herr mu.- I'I'.I'Il:ll admil" lip. 395].

5. IL Schwuu. Th Mp: Hm: Hm 31. HE. p. 3. E. E. D. Wihnn. W 1'. 5H: 5- E. Ealm. “Aluuimm and Eflifica' p. [9. Darwin was nut un-

I'll-Tire uf rilhlrr 1hr ninfirrr a! h'idflpfld pun-amid him-fin“ in mm; with. ur ul‘ “1-: thalltngt um Fund I'nr his wary. I1 I- Dan-Hm. Th W

Gm. [1.3.

9. W. 1'1. Hamillml. "Inna“: fan-rial Apliludu {If him," 11-. Ht] .jlut in an In: Elli-d In 5H III: manage alum flw lmt m g uffllnfinn. Trim: graffiti!ln talk abmll a widr Hui-:11: uf human Irma-thus and inalilminm :_-. if thtiir firm fihlll'fllffl {unruld he nplninud in Inc-rm: of flu: emlwd prank: Hf individLulf flitting anthers hm: helping them withuul having t1:- reripmnflr. In his mick. “Thu:- Em'lmian uni" Etcipmnl Altruiun.” ht dhtmm “friendlhfia. muralilllil: inn-um“. guilt. lj-‘Iflpllhfi and gratitude“ under the heading “Suhlle imitating” [11- 5D}. filth-"lac. from 1 mm bank by an: E. IL Bldmrk: ”Indecd. given the {mlrll impnrlilnt-I‘: u!" It-l'ipl‘flfll altruism in human writ! inlflaclirm. il m highly.- lilu'iy ma: I11: prim-c mntimiug [aunt behind Efflfl‘fll flIruiui: mud-Iliu-

tiun and III: admit-arr nf ilkgtt"? ‘purr‘ altruism i: : linin- Iu rhml hr dummiin; altnu'ui: Hfl'ififfl an Lb: pan nf mm: wilhuul camp-muting rctipmchy by uthm" [Th Pmbh 1y" AM. [1. I33}. In Til: saw: firm. mwhih, [hurkim “15n that {"I'I'll 'LI'H: hum-In capacity Eur ration-II thuughl "Huh-rd H i nitdII-v ninrn at" Her mun- dfiinml cheating“ (p. RUE]. find Maul M m explain: with a alright fit: that WWII-EH 'u "a gum: of lift in which ll“.- participantsIn: trying m mmpu'ehmd lulu: in in am.- anml'n-r“: mind: Hurt. and mar: tfltfli‘h‘fllf [hm it can but dam: in Inna-E.” whilt lqhurenfla i: duigned “largtly Fur wring a m a: other: HE l.l.'l- ind Ihm ant-ring mhrrl‘ m : Inf numlvu an a: tn unt- nu: nun filth-El than their lulu-Ems when ll'llfl't an:

:mflirts" {nu Sinks? anus-11:53“. pp. I 1:. 25:}.mcm.1h: trim}:- throw at" mipmca] altruism a: appl'mi In human hthgs—qu n}; null-ling al' [In- mlt ul' mandguflluumgmmhnlthflflnE—ilhudmnndfingmflm [in-rim warn-11:51:“. IflL Trim. “".I"I'u!l Emintiun Elf Itcipracfl A I M " p. 15.

I]. E. H. H'ilim. flu Human Mum. p.151. A :imihr mun-dud is ufintd b1 Harlin-EL Human iltruiim i: laid to ruin: In Hut-I: mm: indun'mn'w-Iilnns. 1'c— mnl. nr “in-Elm." [In Ii": lam typr. A form B In fifl-‘ififl.’ himwlfhl nrdcr 1h.“

1!. may h-L-IIEI'ILJ Mar: lung. Indium}. i: 11mg Endurinrk Hawk and Hflmn Frilrfiman. making implicit flu.- dfimiun m Min-fair: rapitalinn that him all

322

HUT'ES TD PAGES 151—485

flung guidedhi: m u m m m m flfl'lil-IEME [III III-Hikdim]. IE. EL 55:11:l Th Mpg-jug: within. P. lfli'i'. I3. FLT. [ll-infill. TirEmyujHafunmdm J5E- PEI-'1'. And [hm is man: uhhis: "Ha hinl fll'gcnuint: «:har'il].I ImL-Iinnlu uur 1n'iliumun Inf mutiny. ant: Hmhntnlalinn ha: bun laid nick. What pint: Fur map-Hahn tum: nut 11} hr 1 mixture DI uppnnunism and uplnilatinn."

III. AIL-mud”. Th- flimlugp {Mimi Syn-m. pp. I39. 35!. I5. F. Huhfl, lhufl'lng'A-Hun, p. 4115. '5. Edward} i1 quilt-fl in J's. 51m. “MEI-IE]- Funlm" F. L H. Hmfln ii qlwlcd in J'L Emmi. Th- . “ a H i m pp. Eli—5?. lifimith m y n m h fl e h fl n u h l i n d n m m n f h i l [ufluweninflfil THPI'C‘I'. he undtnmnd than! Emmi: Idf—ifllfl'fl-I dill nut land. indeed. IhuuH um]- defin: thl: whirl: Inf hum-n mum. 5:1. It In? rue. Irgu-u Amlmrl: Ben

{flu Erik: and E M ” pp. 22-23}. I9. W. H. knit: and It. .IIL. Puma. “Altman: in In! and Etmmm'fl." pp. HT. “11}. “E.

ED. {2}. H- Amara, jr-.. “Empirical huh-Ii: nl‘ Emir-H Until-flyingMimi Emfibutium m Charity." 1:. +5.

El. H. Marga“; Wm. dflnmn. and away. pp. ”HIE. Hug-HIE: Erin m claim lhal bfimue mmhu fail la in}. mfinflnnil qufllinm. III-I.mlinn 11f HH-imerul is hruaduled In include rmrt than idliih behavinr per 5:. This. W . i: I'na'rutllg.r a virmr. II mm: that n-Il'ilh and altruism an: Il‘t lumped mgtlhtr under a tun-11mm [BHIJIIIEI'EHI [has in. either highly nflsleadinl ur 1-1.: muluiagiul: flu: nullity a! fluuim'c maflnticm i: cithn- dnficd nr arm-pl

midr.

22- Univ-unity mfflhimguH

mluluTdnnhqunttdinll. l-L Fri-uh.

Pun-jam WI!!!” Emma-h p. Tin. 23. I'. Bhu, Ewfiageundfimr ll hill £99. pl: 17, Eflfl. EH. This iumman' a! Hamil-Jul": fien il mnuinfll in D. Wright. HIPadd-

g

griffin! M n 9. 15]. 1‘5. A. W. flunldner. “Th: Han“ ul' impurity.“ pp. I'II'I. ”'5. 25. B- Barber. Sun-lg flmnum 1:. “EL Limit. Miami Rhtman wrilu: "flminl liberal such] rhcary Eu: IJIT [ht graimd with [ht auburn-miner that hduah m dtlinfll are in flirt-d DI bring mflrtd—m IbftaltflE-Ii—inlfl Enduring and Halli-I: inundation H'ilh. um;- innlhtr" {"In-Eflvidualiam ill-III thud: flbjflu: fir Hrrhulnm'.” p- 23!}- Th:- primary EDIE-Em :1:tt Barbi-r and Schumn i1 nut thl: mini: but the individualism: Frtmiifl ui' Lib-Enlilm. tn whirl]. I 1will. rIEtIJI'I'I later Th:- I'irw ul' human mum: that undflgird: mil-n Wat-rm pnlilifili Ihmlg‘hl maul]. tundra u:- u W e EfltiIi-EI [II-Illa my or may Ila-I charm;- In auntiIll] but H {mm indindmh hfhflfl' III-china] In Hindi“ will ll:hifltd nth:li'fll'h' an HE-inlunl}.

HUTES TD PAGES ISIS—['95

523

21'. H fl m m fl m p.21. Small-um! dimuflnnul'qrnitim

in fl'lillfltl‘ E. 25. MA. Walhthinfll. WflhflLfifihfigfl-fihuflifirw p.501E9. FL Elan-in. “Fl'fdmfllllj'lii. Sympathy. Ind Mlmhm." p. lfifl. Lita-ril-

L1H: William: "Muhuugh many asp-HI: {If qd': [hrll'fll'j' haw: bctn whjcfltd II: atrium niljfilm and art Hun-pied mu. when an all. largely in rewind I'm-In. I'llflll

students uf Freud mm In haw mnl'mutd taking fur granted the bani-I: egnilm nr nlfis‘hnni flu: thl' Ill-Dry mutual“ [Hy-hing? 5

:

t 5 W . p. 3H. flu:

nuptial! was ill] Emlyn nanmd Dim Speriing 'h'hu argued Eur [he «mi-Menu: Inf “mill-mintiadmh“ which h: law In I ”highly mhlinuled {am {if lave" Eur miewur d1: umberpfivileged that tumult he remind In narciflinn ur lulu-Elfin ("A Firthflil'fll'rl'lt Study ul' Swill-Mindeflwu'fi. HI. 5. Frtui Thrmwpflmflm g m pp. 23!. JUL 3|. Freud i: quilted in‘WIIllchuld Wlflach. W ' s “ i n fi r m . flflt p. 11". 52. Fl'flI-II is {luau-d in flllflhl. "PIthMIflhIIiI.M r , and Minna.“

1:. 1H. 5!. A. Frau-i Th Expand the Mum gfflgl'iflu. pp- ifl—H, empttinflf pp. [53-34. In a [numntt 1hr iddl: “It m

l an cup-m qmtiun Thain-r the":

i: such a thing a: a gthllirfliv ifllnliflil: whiiun m unr’: I'dlmmtn, in which LII: ratification uf unit‘s awn inninct play: nu pan I1 all. em in 5mm.- dinlplaced and

aublimatni farm." 5h: dun procured: m- mmtinn : few ndur padwlnginl uphnltium tl [[151t wide ill answer w thin " a qufltl'un" (p. 134 hi}, 1H. Freud in quoted in Wallachand Walhch. W E M F W mu. [1. H.

55.]. I}. Milk-n Twirl n Mm fill-hum 4;." Wm p. E5. 3H. 1H. fl-tllah e1 1].. Hflfls grill-Hui. pp. I29. 139.

51 A. Bin-um. ”If grungy Hahn-rim Mini. 1:. ”E. 35. D. E. Mtflitlland. “Saint Erfltttimu an 1hr Tim rumbling?! fil'

Lflw." pp. 555, 539. t:

[ht W

: I'lil'fl' Iflmfll Ira-H fi'um mumlivc

m i s u - Gary But-duct. I'm- rumplr. watt: "An dEcicm marr'ugc market

drwhps ‘lhiduw' prim: In said: panicipmtl tn HI-‘ll'l'ilflli dull will mink;fl'leir flptfltd wefl—hcing" {quulrcl in Flint, Fir-Hum unflun Email. 1:. IBM. 5'9. E. Will-um G. W. Winn-er. and E. M i d . Eng-fl}, p. T.

41L L. Hui-twill. "Ha-ad. SEE-hm“, and Wilhgnfls In 11:19." 1:. Hi. III. E. B. Eiallfilfi :1 EL. "Empathy-Bind Helping." p. TM. 42. E. [1. Hanan. "financial Motivation" p. 55. flatm. I! in:Ilull lll' in

flitnnl {lupin-J. final-:11!"1h: um few mam-then H} ukturiuusly III-I: pmaihil'lr ul' nilmisii: rumination. But it mm: than nut many writtn have run mticed III: praiuund :guillil: him {If Hurt un mum-rial behiviflr. Tu the flmrt lill that

ilfllldfl Hamil: and. this Wail-chi. we mun. banner. add cinj. Lunar. wlm

3‘21

HDTES Tfl FABE IE5

Wed11m 'mnmmmwmmarmmmummcm inner that than ml. NEIL-cl IIJIr Inllmplinn] . . . than a yum-mm; mn-

muunlinghummiculm [Lid-:1 that man'sIns” I:"'I1Itjlutint Mali“: in Human lithium aml II".- Emnnnfi: Handel all Hln." p. ELI]. Ill. Fur inslalmr. an: paydmlngist mitts: “’l'he I'E'h’ll'dillfl mflqutncfl fur II'H: individual may nut hr.- uhvinua. and Ihlt [cl-rm: thfi' Illu- In: nflrn :11t

and1 : 1 1 m In: luv:- m dig I “III!” In real-'11: that “11mm!" may In: Il'urmnrpuurr-ictking- . .nrlthulwrhdpmhnninm'd crmmtcmflm

an nhligminn m Within" nr curt-n [hall "a m-nlhrr'l wlfltu can: {If her baby i: Imp]? repaid by lhl': Wand Hum. I'mpne‘unc: and iltml'mn acmrdEd IIH'. emciafljr' wl'rm he hctmn humanly and Exclusively attached tu- I'mrr.”ll.'1l'rllglr it

lht: wry rm! uI hi: chapter an altruism dues lhil aulhur. like hum Freud harm-t him. rank-m: and ash whflhfl then- might but mu- m- th-r um: "Sn-m: pmpln- an altruisticalh. I'I-fll: fur an].I nl' tht trawl]: Ila-ltd. but bun-came I11: lugitnf a situalinn dflmnfil i1. 111:1; dhpusinnaldy mu: .1 situalinn. cnndufi: flu: flu.- mim-ul and. filling wlmiun m Ihtpmbltm Inquire-1Emm than an :m'un uh: ftrlflin sun. and lhrn E" ihritl and [I'll] it. - . . Thai: kind of altruiI-ln has been almost untidy ntglcflrd by Plytl‘fliiflfiiflin-indtrd “min ut‘ 1hr Il'I-L'Ilflrifi lht‘f haw: Idflptfll Item to imply 11m "I could ml Eli-II: but Waugh in nullity Iifl- il in frequently umblrmh't and him I'm granted. it due: nifl. and “mum iglmrr it." Maine than in duh Ificnhuughl thl: unify altruilrn muted-rd m be ”a! is hut-d an ruimul and dispass'mnlie judgmem. There ii nu aflnnw‘ledgmtm at [ht punihilily 13f empathy-bland aluminium {WrighL The W gramBrim-mun pp IE7. HE» i l . 1.1-2 Ififl-fil.J: HM] H. flm-lqrnml II- l a w f l r m hum-twin in W "

p. 331 15. W- E- 'Ihumpmn, EL L. Emu, and D. I... Jim-Emma. “ , mIn! Mimlinn Hedi-tr: the Impact ul' Hearth: Hut an Alli-Him." p. 2'95. Emphuh Edd-Id. 45. D. Randall. ”flu.- Huurll Surifliflliun al' Alfl'uillit Autumn-m1." p. 155. 1?. E. Snub. m w m w Muufifl. ml. ”I. p. 7. II in um

difli-m'll tn determine durum“ m whim an: {If 1hr India-r ludifrg IJIEMEIH in flu: fill-Id. Hanin afifllfl. is ulljfltlltdy m1 cguisL flu lhl: on: hand. In: :I-Efl empathy, I'BIJHI' than an Din-“fl! qua!“ fur aeflmirtl. as Elu- printipi] mcdialnr at" pram-rill bthlfim. flu II'II.‘ mhrr hind, I'll:- lumciimu duct-tribe! E'flEIF-IIJ'I'F' in trmu turnintnl with {flu-ink lhmrin: lih': Eiilldini: "Th-I: WWI-1m Elam-en nfhtlpin; m m in churn [mum-d Elm-:13: In thr: cumtqumml til" min; In rtfinr lhrir mm dilll'fll." fln thlr: m1: hand. '1! {Hill-Hill? paint-5 In ell-men“ uf unpuhy u lacing altruinit. fill 111: nth-:1: hand. than: dmwrm—thc fan than mpflhf i: band an meme elu'l PWHJHII and 11all-Minted Iwith Iain: [In “111'!

Illa! pmblrm—dum-lflmtummmuwfluuhmulhflm hmflh defined. war In ml: mu. quifli: Exphmlium. Hnfl‘mm ultimately pram empathy u

HDTES TO PAGE Will-WEI

525

aha-idgtlmfl quilticandlln'uhtitnmfivu.flflm.hcmmmwhythis III-I fill-w mlr Ihll' empathy htnrfiu hath [ht "Wand tht nth-Er. while a: admitint: h: emphasius that Empathy pmfiflulfl 3 Eli]: Emm tgfliilifl m min-ninja: I‘lflli'l'fl. (H. L afinan. "I: Altruism Par! at“ Human Hum-r?" up- pp- HIT. 13541: “ll'llfl'ii'lifll’l (If Milt-n and Eflmlflinn in Empathy." Pp. I IE-rl 7: and‘Thr DrrrI-upm-rm ul' Empllh‘f.” P. 5.5- Fur annthur dimiun anlmnn": mind

Eiflmh ml thin inut. FEE Blue-n. “hunch! Hmifiltim.“ pp. TEE-H. EIJ ill-IL D. Krebs and IL Datum. "Hum! Juilifinlim.” 1:. 2E. Th: pmflfipfiun that [album fmm this uflnmnfl in u fun-Ham: “Rather than waging: Futilae Inn]:-

Igflinll HH—intcrml. perhaps we shnuld . . . [help peupie la HI'Idflfl-tlfld the moral! gain: Him-intend with high-level ward l'fltl‘lfil” lpp. 51-53}. It is nut charm rut-that think-HI predamhfiummtgdnflnpnflnulim :ptdaliflng in marl-ll run-awning. 1'9. ‘Tht significant: uflflhiafl] egu'um philnmplflflll}! 'u nut nan allunativ: rmrtplinn of right but 1! i dullengt In any filth Winn" fl. llwh. J Hum uffuflm p. HE}.

Ell]. Nielsen. “The Vain-I nnuis' p. 33. Taken In in 1:1t run-Elm 11h: {it-urine self—dcsuufls. h: argum “If+ “ht-n.- inn-run rnnllaim. m: in:mnplr lulfl that radl pus-nu il all-1y: In In In :lllilf'!‘ hi1 m inlet-flu. we lulu-I: nu WI]!

fillifinfll'r m adjudiflll: mnflin: at innit-II. W: 'm eflen trll 1hr.- PHI-PIE whu anin mnflifl In I“ an mnflsiclinrg" tp- I'D-l; 1H alu- p- H}. Thu-mm Hagrl main [he Puim that I [amine-int minim "valid have In than inelf nut cm]? in Ihe halt nf

{lit-cm L'flfl'lflm fur null-an hull aim in an 'III..II:II=iIitg.r tn:- I'EE-Il'd nne': mm camera: a: being 01' inn-mu m nnynnt HIE. Heep! imlrumlfllv nr mmhgtmly [man the uptraflnn nl' mm;- unlimcm. An flail-l who need: hem. helm: cuntluuiing

than mum: the I'm mam In :niu him. mum ht ihlr It} 3:11t III: main“ ‘Whm's it In him?" He is prttludcd [mm lit-fling mum“ if mhtr purple Ira":

him In nah my Mum; gr Am pp. 34.351. 51. Thu Ethical egaism is nan-l cumfismd In this mmr at psydmlum wan umdrnmrrd 1mm Ila-hen PHI-HE.- newly- :IEttt-Ii maiden: urf flwflTflflflvmemher Hindu]! Paydmlugiml Muffin. dcrlartd in his 1936 prnflemial addrm [I'm In: ml. a. "Fraud and malnflledndmle fliflfl-inflflfl" ("Self-IMH-IH Ill-Ii

Punt-MI RHp-flmirhifily fled-LII.” p. 5:. 52- H F. Balm-hr at I]... lib-uni Wag: J I M . p. '31 53. h is alumni in nut cullur: that " “mankind“ is basically self-Hing. camp-Etitiw. algal-Elfin. and dfltmlh'e. Such I the-arr nucfluuh tlw I'art II'III: milfium nf pmpl: {must art" than marl-nan} have rpm-ll milt'mnn nl' [mun Inf hum

dred- ul'Inn giving their 11mm: In millinm al' DII'I-Efll. . . . Self-inlnmfl. we “an i: limit. BuI it is ml HI: Inuit elem-mt. It isjull lune punihilitjr. . . . flu: hung: a! hllfllll'l pmrihilitin i: built nn HI'IH mm In“: dam and what men luv: “H i: pal-sihle" l[Millie-r. T m : Hm Fiji-hing of Him. pp. 59-. “II. H.hmnl£diliannflmhmfinbfl kimlitfleduuhl Ibfllttwhaiilh-u— in: Irrilfln m1 flu.- mpir: III-ml the available thin are the fullnwing: Ir":- Gun

3-25

m

TD PAGES IW— [fl

mrnfimmmfinrmfi mmnflhfimmmn m 55. Etch-rm. Hr Emilfir Hui-m1 hm. pp. EIE. 253. [JR-Hit. ”mi. lmrr write: {hill :5 I [Hull u-l'mlr mm]:lfltflfl. “m: begin u:- m muse’lm Il'fll mhrn in inIIrm'm-nul Imus- Wt fin:nuntlm an a mun-liar] DI mum and n!" mum-res that can he dew-hptd, flplflil-Ed, nr catching-rd with nlhm in minIn I'I'IE'IE'l than: “-311“. Wt intern-n will: n-lhun in “'5"! mail In.- dnigned tn uptirnilt

aur In: at mu:- rmurn-H: wam H:- EH 1h;- mml; am of am time. tflhm. Ink-nu. And we alum: Hanan: darn Hm" { ” i Math: in Hum-1 lithium." p. 252}. film are hmilai Eutuni: “If it is true that Ptfllflf {In "eh m biannu- lhcir plenum with ma] cumitleritimm, and if any H1: blight. m the ffll‘llil'fllT. that. they an: "rnll'y' nnl'gr mu m “mini“ flicir Piafilfllfl‘: Ian-1 all Ihll

hum. Ihat pawl: behavi- mar-ally.- duly as lung in il pap. and m an}, mural: in Iih-Iy m In:- : minuw. antiwmnn] rfl'un" lfllr Hard m p. 25”. 55-. Will-um flu Hit-an Natal-n Fl- I72-

5'5". J'L. Hand. Ti: firm 9! Sim. p. H. 58. A. 'E-fll'llfll-p Dir Hug“. p. [21 1]}. I213 in MM tditi-fllfl]. 59. G. E. ‘Hmmu, E. 11. Emma. and j. 5. [Ink-r. “flu Gan-d Elli-Hill!“ Distuungt Htlpfilhwn?" “FIJrIZhILh:+ subjects exposed m highly hflpcl'ul mndtl: HIE-I‘l- IEH lilac}? In illlfihfl'lt thfir lawn] htlping In inlrinsil: {EL-ling: nr sympaljlf.

mixer“. and cmnpauiun. althtmgii dirtir hrlirf in LII: finpnnmcc uf hdping did nu: Iiiniinilh- - . . Elli-mun! tn paragon: ul- Imlpfillnfll- may undrmmu flu.inrrimil: mnlifill'mn m help" in- 199}- 111i: Mud]! :Im suggest: I limil in flu.-

Elfiflivmcu ul' M i n ; :1 i mean: {If mug-mg lfllflfl'flifll IIE'hI'i'itlr. fill]. H. Eadie-Tim. P. M. firm and E. hhn-Wulfl'. “Lamina {Inn-tern Eur Dlhm." p. 5!“.

EL]. M- Eatdiflh InlmdlI-clim n:- Tll: End Sum-Hun and lb Ln. F. Hi. This anIJmI-ngy. ban-d an pap-cu prncmtd at & mrflflmc. in. an httcrciling,_if

Willi! dalrd. Irratmml ufthr lupin BI.“ in 11f III: lit: I'Wlh. it In: mail the mud: LII-a1 "ntiIJH'r mu Inn um“ um criminal kw mun-Hm itirll' with IJH: laud Ihill um due: mt dn. hm mtlwr allmpu merely m furhid Ihe dating Ii hilnn“ (I.

Hip-Ian, "A lfiflfll Infill. at financial Schwinn” p. 292}. It mighl. he argutd [hill tiling step: In manila” Frill-5min] behaviur h'D‘Il-H. apnlrl {mm in fiber virtufl mdmwharhs. {unstimu- an ldflliuinn that pmplt in that M y an: nnl hwlintd In uh.- Mich “Ii-an wiahuul Ihr [hrfll' ul‘ unclinm. Pump: 1hr lair IMF“ he I-HEI'IJ.‘ m such “mum. Hm [minis-l Itgal scholars have argued that a 1:33] watt-m like cum in up wilharul any duly In- rnrut. h “dnmid 111' can: and umpnm'rrnmru m Iiht flier? nt' when. . . . That 5mm. 3 human being. a pan uf us. is drumming and lmil] dit- h'iIhImJl l-utflr IEI‘I‘IIIIi'lrE nttian . . . Ian-m Mar-rurgrnl . . .1111.“ any pun-stifle hflHngt-mml at" ind'widual autumn}- b5.- Lhu: imp-nailinm car an :I‘Ernuihrt duty" {L BmdL-n “A hu-ytr's Primer nu FeminiuM n : and Tart." pp. 35. 5-1}.

Hun-m. mu: participant in da- rarlicr mnIcr-mrc mphuirmd: ”Hm": i: m:muufliw. lflhl.‘ hut Gnu um curt-wag: m J : in sure u:- dint-alumina iL 1H1

HDTEE Tfl PAGES lfl-Em

3'2?

the: nut minimal-IE. it nil indiefllrpcmiin Ifihtmuhumffin iljurr mhmnmmlimplfnpnflmifillgm Iridium cmpemfliundhuhfl. mfiru 'II influtntn mnduct It IIL il I l i u m ;m

" M. H. Hun-mm. “LI-n

Hal-ah. ind Rm.“ '1. 2'52]. I52. In the hu- ninuflnlh Em. III'IE 1I-ur-mrltl lflrlfl‘l w uud. lulu-cull? Hilhfl-lfl [aqua-ante fawn-um as I ranch-all term In pmmmr [hr and: at pragmsihru+ umpian minim Ind1::t mind-min“. This 'II flu.- giu Ina-fan ”title by Lam]- Budd puhlhhtd in tha- I'Elfifls {“t'um Arrives in Herb"). 6!. N- l. Gibbs. “Bugging: Ta fli‘l‘t or Hm m Slim." {1. “IL

1H. ]. Hagan. { r m Hus. p. 235. Urinnmmfly. III: ml? human muli'l'lv Linn Elfin ithulilin tu lhfl'lr flu: mfl-inm the: rum reign mpnm: in "Hip mutinmm wish u:- infirm L'h-E mtualirt EHFE vimn" (p. EH1]. Thin timid main man: a valianl a! HIE-Marat than a gnu-mm: alternaliw: In it. lLIfiEEI-lifl! tl'ul: even run: L'l'iti-fl flffl'flflilm are reluctant tn ulh urinal] about [muffle altru'u-II.

55. Ham. Th RM. p. 52. I55. E. 11. Elm-mid I'll-d A. lulu. "Errand Sit-IL" p. 5!. ET. W. E. lflnl. “U5. [Fl-Ft! In Fight Infant Hui-1&1.“

55. M. Frl'lldflfll'l'ifl'l. “Err-plow An In Slap Famil'f 'lfinlfllfl." p, All. IE}. J- B-fl‘flfl'l‘. "PI‘lc-n-ni‘lllitflatyTI-auslmu Emu Funny and Huufifiaflm." III- M.

W. Th: author: flfill Hum-omits tfllbflfliflflt challcnrgu cguiili: assumpv Iii-"fil- luw Hui-It'd Ihi-I. tun. "The appeal for min] p m in Inn-ally mind: an :EII-inlmfl mundi. nu (huh! under the influemr ul- mmemimal: flunmnifli Ind tht-ir belief 111:: there i: anljr tell-imam. Sn :il in nah-d II'II: Hellfire Ind-

mlfls tritium:+ It‘ll- p-ul'lliml unrest. in ChfilP-El' in III-E Inn-[nah and ID I'unh" I‘ll-I. 1!... Lu: and E. Lux. { W m 5mm. p. EH}. TI. {In m1:- uE Hit albums. 1hr taut-din“ lahtrl Inn-ii punt-d Fran: hi: parody valInt-night lelL-nrisiu-n plum-1i: lfl'li‘itt W i l l [:1 mail: a m

paint “1 hnifurwird In Ii".- di'y." ht Hid. “Ilium [II-"T Will run-I all: pain-1r cilitf'tfl [udmmdnwhunhuuldhndmmhunflafuurumm-“fluwlmne W i l l a mpp-rm lheidflnfprhmmdmily—lrflmmrmmlifll

htnartnppmtdmprimipkmmlhmEMmEflimhmrtdismhmmn— him- app-med it man! muniflcmt III-“Elfin” puiiqr an It"! grmmdi that it might

dilmungt vuiunlmfim. I find this naming mpg-“main. but it '1: impnnmt lhll any dhcuuinn In! Ll'w manner hegin by tulrdling 1h: reality {If wink:prlzad hungrr and hnmdnmni. Th: Untied Stun has. by any man. an: a! 1hr lean [entrain welfare nun in flu.- Wfltm him-id. Ell." Fug-mm: m Eillflf

appallingh [Hid-ml hag“ public Musing} m eh: simply :hu-nl I'll... Italian]! hmhh h i m ] . and 1h: with“: flffl'lifl'l'r : 1 1 a m (n.5,. infant mummy.

pmpn'tf ("rm-1H: m i m l um.- Hmfld expert is a mull. 'l'htfitfl pain-int nfehncwd ufliurilll. ll. h'flflk'l mm. in muhtur: afthne pmblem trill! the public finds availibk la than fllhfl' III-fl] w thin]: qr ill-legit: fur Framing prim: dmflrj'hnnilmurchInmnmtlutuppnnfuuudi Pfflltlfll

313

HDTEE Tfl PAGES I'M-ii]!

dun-n nut mm: mything Hm I: dull-rfir-dnfiu- "duttim in print: dnnillin-Iu. {Tmaludinhjr Bunnnhhflmsandflflk fl m i u m c k c d i n m m willin 3mm. p.521] Em Hm H-EE'IIIEI.‘ riliflm did donate In pmulcrrfidrfium hue-nus: [hm was [tum-ed fwfimflum.Emilia-“Id what-II: Inc-:1? l haw: mu m:- tfidtnct m utpp-nrt the hypulhuil Ihfl Financial behaviur an H": par: of hLdE-Uidual: Hauld dun-dine beans-t lite? were m:- Ifll'tfifl cmpfllfll m dun ll'H.’ gamma wart far it- Main-i it in mm my impruliun thu Shred” m In: i ptupir thin Amricam—i cmflusiun Ihll wuuid seem tn (min: and m [:1t [mm III-i: wi'r nf Illinhing. 1f mwflng. Inu- Hmdfl illicit Hut 1 magtunimul prubli: pun-liq wnfld Infidel Emmi” fur prim" IE'iI'iIfifl-I. {lam-mm. : gamut IJuI. Innis1hr anther my “hill:ptupkguhwy? Inn-dull math-rm, jun-I a: : m m m that infldfl mhfl :mmuifl and hill: in niminfll. I'llfldflli wink-um. TE. Lirlhrflt Schult'l m m duuihni in H. McCain. "Eighth: Pavertf." p. 21. T3. Dnthtptrihufmlinfit incemimamlhrmriuffidwd DflLruuth of it summarifld in E. L Dad and R. M. Ryan. .I'nrmmr Humans: and 34p [Illumination in Hum Edwin: Huh upper [Hamill-gr 1hr renting: in Th- HEM-n Ends qf Emmi. Hhid'l ht tau—Edited]: and THEE-I Jinnah-He. l'l'hfl has {Irmnnfl mltd in human: nadir: ll": dammit: fifth! at fltrrnll hmmlim an creativity

(£41.. “Hufivatim and Emmi?" and Milli-1t. E. A. Hfl'll'lflfl'j'. and E. 5. Guam "Burial Influence: urn firtalhiumfi.

74. CL 1.. Smith :1 :I.. "Clildren'l Elma] fillfibulifln: W

Hflp

Giving-”

“F5. J- E. Gnu-:4: :1 IL. “Median-kg. Dim: I

m

. and Mtrihulimu."

75.]. E. Gum: Hui E- Radian “Mahatma. Erinfnrtrmtnt. anti film

inn." pp. 555-29. 77. E.A.FabufllL."EfifluafIflardsnnflildfln'sFrmndllm film."

'J'fl. C. D- Batman H .11.. ”Buying Ilium." Thu: mum ii Emu p. 911. '31}. H. Emit-rum. H. M. [Jun-u. Ind D, Widgtir. "Umimmifliflg Elfin.

cf the Fm-in-dit-fluar Tflhnique with Extrinsic ileum-d5." HI]. I]. L FaumlhILuLr I}. E. Slum-r. and L. L Dir-wing, "ERR-II uni Hiking Bland Dunn: Hmim Elfin: lip-DH Dunn-1' Randall." BL A. Summind W. fltjnng, “The Efl'ert all Puma-till Labelml'k-lphg Behavinr." Titmuaa': [957 m y a r m 52. IL H. Tammi; Th figl'i' M [bur lhfl-flllfld bhad dam in England ptnundtd him [I'm “that mmmrrrialinr [in 131‘ bland ami dnnur mhliunfl'u'pfi mprcuu IJ'I-I': uptuainn nl' Iltruism“ (p.

215}. I: :Im intrflfll- lam-ii] and medical rush in I'll! long run. main: mar:

mg“. minim-mm: diflicullifl. and an imqlfiuhlt rtti'fl-Iributiun nl' bland Emmdwp-nnrm 1h: fiflh—IHF'MIhlflhmdinlhlUIfilfll Sulu.fince

HflTE-E'I'DFAGEE

Hill-213'?

329

Ilwrm-lrlm'fln. m.nlmtfllhlmdh1lltflnhrdfimflhflmfimn mhmlfl-r damn. 35. P. H. fililwr. "hgjlimting and Imphnmlingl’rcuurifl Educatinn." p.

FEEL Gum hchafinrflm 5H5 hmnam- :15 mm mnpnndm m LIH.‘ Flu-Ill ni' ”Hummu,while the evident;- rflhwrd flare iuflflflll Ihll inlrimit: min-III: can In 3 Ear mun- puwrrful mutivatm than reward]. art. But jusl I! w: Ida nut. mmtifllly in}. rthIIr-ds. neither in nut imfimir muliuiliun Mlmlkfllf de-

Hwy-ed h}- ll'lEl'l'I. Twn psychnlugim lllflEE-I that pump-It in tin.- hdping puruleniimu. him it: paid fur pram-rial hcluriur. nu? um “and idly by II'IIEI :flmu' Ill-ti

illtl‘ltiflil.‘ mmiialian m be- undfl'minfll. [nun-d. flit? may irlivcly II‘J-nl. Farmhfl. unpaid appurlunilju In he bra-£11m] (E. G. Elm-y and T.J- Thinnnn, "SEEM

lint: uf Htlpfuhlm‘T.

a

m

:

I. Eanufim quoted in H. H. HIM.Pia-reward In THJWHHHHL l'lfgt. pp. ill-1:. 2.1. Feinlxrg. "Flychulnlifll Ernimh" pp. JED-Bl.

5.1.}. Hum. Elli-El. pp. Ell—H. 4. E. Frmmn. mainHM pp. [31-35.]u-l in tin: il-IJIIEII'EIL' ahdI-lnw “Haidatirjfly. an it mums at lint—ptadntc stilishntu, 5n 1h:- ahstntc Hf “maintain! in I11: child may uphill, qua-crummy. 111m. write: Ping“; “I'll It“ is at ll'fl': mum-c! nirmfily In hrgin with I'm d1: wry l‘fllfl-fl tl il i:- not swan nfiuclf“ [3h- flyrfinhgimi Min. [3. 13}. 5. 011 this puinL HE. fur example. F. W. Tau-dun H i m JEWEL pg}. 12-43. E. The ttndtnl'mul syllugism nun :5 [film n35 mm: ‘fitminlmfl 'II a hiulugitall'f girth striving :11:t in I'Hlflllll mum}; Elf-mural eqlflh

crud: emu: art-ed is mailed in human mum—mi mat a tI-Ittflvcnndiliumfl human puaiun. QED." [Th- fl m nf Hum: WWI-Hi. p. Ell-5']. 7. G. Mlpdrl. Bum p. 45-

3. IL I]. Hun, Imudmfiun m Egm'rn mu!mm In. 2. M

9. BIL-cam: at this distinrliu-n. an: in punlrd h: mmMEri dL-finitim all" ! and: as flu.- Iullnwing: “Self—mm], m5 inlmdud H:- hrm'fil mm

nrgilnflm Inf mitfii-I-l fir Infill unit-um: fur the Hum" 15. H. Edit-an: and]. A.

Hawartl. "lntrnlalilcd Valun a: Hulivamn of thm.“ p. 2‘29}. It would sun: that ”flu-Ir an an requirfl IEH-Iflfll'iflfl" in murder In be [ : t altnu'ltic arr perm fl'lllmmr 1': inch-want m it: IIlumlif'jnll'niil,r fur the Iaht]. Unless same Hunt: ar: being mad in In idimrnrmlir: way hrrr. III is difliwlt In ufldffllllld hun- hulh mntlilinm

m m . I am running fur adefimiiinn in which rm ufl-flmfifl- is required. :lfldl. H flu: nflerfll b}! M p h fl lends: pmplt hthlw Illruilljnlly. I'IE' tum-r.

33'}

m

TD PAGES EEK-21H

"tnfllfiffllandmufi'flwlnnfimudflflnfnflnnhmm

ml uf its arm: an Iluir mm Hdfilfl" ("Fifi-HIM III" Mtnl'um"). Mm l-IIE'E L A. BIL-um. M A M and March} pp. 9—H]. Ti. H]. M- Midglty. "flurfiugglingfi' p. III-H. Hidgley Ines an In fljl' flu: “ml-E: min 5:11t am.- I'J'H: induct-mun" fur Ih:alumni: mm which Itfll'fl m mu

: [Inn'iplinn an an]? mun-laud to thin prmdfl- i1ind mama-T fur: pmiliw definiflmhminimicflmflwflflnfdhmwflfiuflnfimfluumimul much-e fur taming aul puma-och] 3115.

l l . IL H. Ltl'l'lm. "hrthnlugical Eguhm.“ p. 5H. A militia-1 11! km”: W published the fflllflh‘infi war in the um: juumll began by admitting that heuu“:m1uthhcliningth1t[igu'umlhhardlyrmumthanidtadiuun

“dirt.in: Infill-"l mungphilnwphm“ III}. E. Handgun.“r “Wulagiul Egaim" p- 2451' 12. H. J- Era-rm "Plfdlulngifill Eguinu Rubi-Ed." 11. 2'93. hum-13 the m pnim abflut Eflflilm'l firming pcnuam: unhr 1::- frnhmm m mad:- by fl-fl'nil'd Gm: “II. in Human] l1} find mwhtflngicafl {Ell-hill M I“. Thu: :3q am I haw mat ll'E beg-inning I-tudml: n-f pililmuphy” 1"Huhhu and Pardlnluginl Egu'um." p. 5136 may.

”I. Miln. Eggn- uni-HAW up. pp. 4-1. H- {Emu-nun quumd in Ftinhcrg. "Flydtalugiul Eguiuu." p. HIE. 15. SEE. fur nmnpk. thr finding: rrp-ur'lfll—ind mhrr rut-starch 11"virfld—in I}. H. Williams-m and LIL 5. flirt "Fmfiding HrL-lp and ”flirt-d Edllimhip Tn]: ll- Determinant: uf [313nm in film and Self-Enhaiium." Aha at: flu sclf-repnm uffldney dam-rs. duuihcfl in C. H. Fellnu' IrHIJ. I.

Hlfllull. “lliidnnr Dunn-n flfirilittd." p. 559.

Ii H- Ruthie-r, 5W“. :1. 131?. himFunhis prnflmfliun in and”- callageumdmu (H - IE} when did vulunlctr marl: in a pijrdliatrit hemp-Ila! Hunt-d as bring mart Httplin; H dumnlvu than than whu did ml vulnmtm (M. King. L I]. Wilda. and 5.

hint-5r. ”Hannah? (flung: as a. Fuml'luin of Fulunlefl ElplfiEfl-[L' in a I’nthillI'il': Hmpiul'j: marlin- Inlulclgglf had Faundn lil'l'IH-Il' human: in Elf-runfldrm. but is, did nut include a {mural group {IL E. Echeihe. “flnlleg-E Students Spend Eight Wash- in Hutu] Huspiml'}. The idea flul prumdll behavinr "ltl't'l'lglhfl'fl Imr'I] mm: 111' prnmul “huh and puwtr" In: cultural-Id by jemmr Frank {Bimini-n and Hauling. p. RTE}. T11: [11mm argued that. :L lull-t {m- penplt with

I 1mm; unlit nf alum-harm to. anti filpnmihililr far. ads-tn. liking pin in helping fllifi'l'ililfl kid: In a with:HIE—Hnlnflliun {5. F. Blind and F. H- Ufinfl'.

Th Alf-kWh Hum-El}. p. 25”. Finfllh'. Hanna Fflhhiflih fmmd Illal ln'ming in

perlpeniv: liking was nun-timed will: I mun.- p-milhll: :dficrIIE-L'pl m y dfli dun [H D. Femblch. "lflrn'm! m III-are." p. 259].

IE. Funk writes: “T111: Inna-dd m l : :11imdligihlr: mm: In flu: prflzb in; qmli-Im Inf 'Whm": in H |i.I.-.. man] behind fin m? " Itinnwludgingliner:

“Fmflwmuddtnwmhnlisfimflunfmmdnhlflnfighlmingmuflmfhi:

Nfl'I'ES Tfl PAGES Eflfl—fll

5-3-1

Wednnlhrflnlhnlnmmialgahsmhlfllbflfimflflfl.HnflMhtflim

w flu.- in hull". . . . Iii-ma] unlimmll clu- nm [End In malarial Edi-ranting! unlfll [ht]! art hmrti'rlt" {Pmm uni-him 3mm. pp. I9. 25!}. Th: mlir: lht‘lil “mu, ll'lllfl. nun the ammu- Infill-fill" umkfimd but extremely elabnmtr mdlulilm {III

5 9 1 m whim: atrium: {let alum: waiting} i: nfifl demmirfltd. Hav— ing quit;- mmr'u'ltingly El-I'Itllh'l'l. that I'lflfl-ifllf-ifllflflfl'd hchlvinr flilfl. Frank “m:[hm it is (ml! apparmtly at superficially mn-mdf-imerultd. arguing in {Em Hut if pump]: an ham-ally ur hfipfifllf. ll'lt mm: Hammifli uphnuinn mull

lllfl'lf hi: lung—WWI :tE-imm. I Hauld mm“ ll'fll Lh'u mphmfim is mun: Hmumits—huud titanium-cumin]. mum? twin: nILhrt"Muuum1-rilhin FWJW 19. Hill ml:in his a l l t '“I'hmt an” an: happy , , - H'I'IID hm III-eirmindn flamed nnwme nhjwrmherflmn dwirmm luppinnn an thzlmppi-

I'l-IE'I-I nf nthtrs. an the imprnfl-mm at" manhiwi wen an arm: IE1 {If pursuit, Enilnhrcd um 11 a mm but u iiulfan ideal end. Aiming than: at mlhing Ell-E. Llieylind luppimubrmtway'unuthLA. [JanindL LuLHmiflI} .Emnmiu. I" 41].

211 H. Sputum-r. The Hwy-Muqfflhs. ”1241+ 219."5urely.“flhhup Eminwruu: [El-[II fan Efll'rm'l'. “fllal claim“ we all HIE-II: i.l nut. 1!“! Elm: pt‘uflliiil'llr

fur happilms" U- Butln'. Th: dim-lg] {if Eff-fight. p. 433i. El. 1 am I'l'l'fll'l' ul' unify um ant-mill. tu- dncunwnl this impruIinn—H Huber

lilh.| survey In!" :huut um hundred ruilrge Huck-nu thal was {In-Inducted in lh! law [95!]: hm nut}- pub-fished in I'EIEIE. Eath sludcnl Hill nah-d In list the 14m pump!!! ht nr slu- Im-rw but. In {kc-id: II'hE'lhl'I' Ihfit people “IL-rue happy ur unlnppf. and that m tlfliflifir {ht-m as sclfish ar umcflish. Elf flu: marl}: mu lhuunnd u m

generated. fwtr than four prmml um judge-:5 In it huh happy and fllfilh. :Thirty-scwn pclctnl wt:itlfil-h but nut Inppy. 42 puma-r. Hm.- happy but nut nlfim. and flu.- remninder Her-I: nriLhHJ "5E]filh graph111:. byd-rfinhi-un. film: whim: Icliuilifl an: dn'ulcd m flinging Ila-mum Wm. Ycl. a1 Ital-l a: judgrd by aim-11. then.- scllilh pimple are [ill In: lihly In he lupin than than: whale

L-E'urts are durum-:1 u:- rmhing when haw-gr. . . . fiumlulim: [In mm: m a: run Humid haw.- thm dn unm- run-u (p I: fill)” In. Finland. ”I'll-E Alla-nimParadnl.“ qumaliun an p. 53‘]. E2. Taylnn findfln qf Ethn. p. «Ill All: at: Arthur Elplln: "The claim Elm nun:- al‘ uur Hum: 11 really mud-Jami by mar mmfium tlmughll and mu-

fim H held m but a Ira-Julia af III:- tt'llirlt enttrpriae nl‘ ethics aim: l-Ill'h I Ihflil it [unfit]? a shabhil-gr dilfilfiltd vmim uF hard causal determinilm I'i‘fll'lE'I' thanIII empiriL-a] Binary aha-m I111: [amp-c1- :haflcleriulitm DI humm nature and mutin-

fim" £“59rinhiulnfl. Human Harm and I’wchnlugifll Egaism." [1. 5m. 23. E- I". Wall}; Th- Hm-rl'j of UHF-{Hm p. Win. Elltl'llilflj' I11: warm: puim has Inn-n nadir by IL “Hm-11.. "Th-.- Vmitn ni' Egm'sm.“ p. 95-. El]. Cunard. flatnmfl' Era-nary, p. E: and I-‘tu‘ga. "Psymuingitfl Egaism." p. HIE. Ell. 5!! 5. Hnlmu. “The Erin-l Hiflnnr Inf SEE-ImfitIL"

HGTES TD PAGES Ell—EH

333

ESHElilqunM-dinfi. 5E1: "Minna! Fat-h.“p. ED. EB 54,-: I. w Peri-fit. "£5115a Mil-Ilium. and Inumiumlitm'lfl lmldhil

'.Etliu" up. pp 74-“. Elm“. Llfl‘filuphfl jmh‘. wrilfl: “Thu: nfihtniflu mummtfleumumfldwwelflmu fnurfilufluhnmJtfinLmuch

manta-:11 Ihe nwdmfimu Illumihrm IihflmlH M " 1"‘n’afiflifl HE Mmflnfl.

21'. P. PHIL-1L “Why It Fay: In E: final-um.“ 55. In primntn‘ dikmml. “I'D pllrfl'l upward? and lifllfllllfllfltfl-lf Ink-v dd: whflhcr In "rmpmlt" at “II-Hm." and lhtir dw'uiurfl. taken miflher.

dflcrnimlhtnmriUnduuncimdnguumhgmfiwpainuHflm Hut: but I!- tun-upturn. 111m PEI-ill“ ifbuth amp-Haw. um pnim if hall: HEEL and nu paints ihht cmptrmfi h‘l'l'ilt I! defens. (Th: actual puinl min: i: In: hnpurw umt than the rtlnliumhip: brim-m Iht pawn!!! in each madman.) Fran: A'I

lama-1r pniprcliw, in amt-r Hum it when sense In daftfl eithtr Hay—tu- rut halauniffldefwflmdlnmuimiflhngfimifflmnpcmtfl. Enfmurfl.

man-um Hmlkfllf. Em bull phrm dun hfliurif III-nth tWflI-E'fillfi' radii-“hm min: In stick it In Ill-E mhfl. Sinus flu.- ginu: Iunu m: Eh! imp-unann- uf ulna-nudity; [ht hiditidlfll"! paint ul' flew. l failuhr pulilitii iritnlist jam.- Hamhriligl: in mien-i115 m it .11 pflmnm' 'IflIJ'IE'I' dun primnfl’ll {Elem fl. Ham-bridge. "Ppmmmg 1h: Empflhrm: and Prhm-ipkd Funndmium fur Empentiun“l. 29. End-mt, {'flflfii‘fl pp- all}, 155} imphasj: nmjtttdl. What dflminfl

Hhflhtr in Eli-{I'll is rational irl wheflwr apprupriau: mun: in: thin-5m far ruthingaguaLn-m Math: gm! il- flll'dmring. [ficthfiuimm ThMm-ulfluunin, p. HE: and IL Bram-IL. “Italian-Lilith Efluinmy and MW." man- p- 635.: 5:11 'llfl'ilifl: “A mlflfltflfl. flame:- m 5111': any [IEEI'IEE' nf egnism thin: m: fir: m Ila-Hit}- - - . The exclusion a!" my mmidcruiun [anther than “II-inter!" mm In

input :I whullr :IrlJilnnr “minim an flit 11min: 11f nu'unaliur“ ("Eatimnl Fin-all.“ pp. TI". 2'01.

5!]. Frank. Purim with: Rm 3:. 255. If .'lil. liL NEIL-Ell. “113mm in Efllin." p. .5112. Mm 115': Tuflnr. W Iht bflwm firmnpaIihili-rp' lhi: than mite: Hit-hen papa-r. later a Erin, p. 3-4. In 1m: mu Inf again: in. mu.- unly ul" I “rung I'Efl-i-fl-I'I HI psyduflngim] rgniun {one 'IpE-Eifying than “an do nu mher Ihll'l in [IT in benefit Handrail. Th: pmblnn mil-he: wilh a: Wflht vmiun [ant specify-ling [ha win LIT tn b-umlix awn-1m)(Him. '"Ihr Vuim nl' EEUiIm." pp. 56-31}

52. E. W. E. hum. "F:}rd1ulngiu:al Eguilm." pp. 97., lflfl-L 33.. Elm-rum mate! a pair-1 of laying Lhat hi1 “driniliml Inf Illl'llilll'l- and H E M an: I t e m null mhjcfliw, I am nut mun-tuned but with flu.p-emlag-y of nm-IhrH“ (Ti: 5% SEE. 9. II}. 54:. This. paint am mad-t by [1:m in I 19'” hum: and is paraphrased

in E. I}. Bun-mi “Mining? and flu.- flal: fl Idiliun in Pruning-I'm; Fro-until] Baha'i-an" p. Ill-Ell. 35. Fflldifllflflflllfirlhi qmm‘mlfl. IL m...“rfl:fllhflllflifl1

HUI'ES TD PAGE Eli—Elli-

5.53

Mm.“ up. p. ESE H. A. Simian. "Binlnnr. whining. and lb: Unlin-

illnding of HM“ Staci-11 Balm-rim." p. 3110: F. Kiwi-tn Faith; .a'lmbiflnn. p. SEER. Dal—Twin, mu, wt‘tflltd Hill! the Ilium-HI nt'whflhtr animah' haul-int multl prayer]! hi.- HAIL-d mural (In: H: Lima! 1y" Mu. pp. I Iii-[31.1mm Hag-311.113

wfillm that "empathy uu- hthafiur DI but: in I him: Iwith “In {If i WIMIEEI' in I hmpilil mm film: In marlin; t' trim-rim Fur nuphur" [Hull-“1*”. p. 5!]. 55. H. Enhlim. Th Unui‘dfim gluing. 1:. 5'3. 5'1 “Can HE maintain that [In- ultimfle min-inn in human filmed flirt-Linn 'u gmui: {MMHIHI the must Ipprnprim Hlt'ln is III-I1: whirl: but mun: ll'n': flfl‘fi'lu'fl flf W lib: Inna-'5 awn? Tu {In an m- wnuld haw.- In wpp-nfl lhfliflimunmnfrtliginun.pafifluLmdhudkuuaJmmy1flnm—aflmlfflir'ifir'mgHt:mmmitwd in difleglrd fur mnlhmiw uf gm Iilut unc'l- awn—art aberruinnrs dnlimd fur uhlifinn 'I'cl much am 11:“: hum highly m i and lhI: Mm linden-hing them transmitted 'II 9:11t mlnmn- . . . Han-thin: In: him!

n-fhumln numflunindicuuttm wrmuhll'gadlu m e w m m m h t nu:- uhical heluflnr tmlvn m an n:- mur: d'wir ptrpetutiun” M. W. Elwin. "Mural Salul'mn and Human ME." pp. 50-31}.

55. Hitthtr. mam! Ankh-IL p. 4:12. 55. IL L Trim. "The Emlulinn af Int-rad Abdul.“ 11.3%}. ill tfim. fl: L's-r mIJJfiuH affliuhgji 11. 3'1". III. Trim. “The Evaluliun at" Ectipmm'l Mu'uinn." p. 52. HI: m

m

in thin "in, Ipplremlr pining i: by an "In a 11mm 111' mung mlfllipnrtr

htflatlinns it is puflibk [I'm in mm: situations individuah are admin-d In dunnnmlfllt gemalifld Iltruiui: utilitarian Ind IJul their ruin mum when thfiu' hartlumwdanmherinuflmw thudmymgenuinehalufiuic.which ll‘Ejl'bEl-I:

{In by atling I‘Jailljf. wilhuul any appurtnl [Illfl'iflr unmet" (p. 53].

15?. IL adcr. Th W

U M fil'JnflIIIEIIIIIr pp. 33. 93.

1:5. lbid-. p- lfl'fl. H. Ill-id” pp. [51. I50. 15, Ihifl-. pp. WEI, I15. 10L *IEI. "lid. p. 151.

11'. Hclvinflmhu puinmdmulhfl mwhhnIht-Hp-ttiflfthcnum [emit mucnnlnriatinn in htl'flu'iurmnj'he In large all in Iwnm-panjrdfm:

ul' d1: glam.“ In a useful draught W I . he lilip‘llhlfl thl: fiil-ttflllt {If I gmr-dirflted human: in birth IJ'lIl film-run ulf-mrilichg helium-r bud lhfl'llll haw randnm mutatinna and {nu-imam“! dung“ [Ifld‘l a: fund availability and climmr} muld Emily uwrwhdm the input a!” flu llflflldlfli-Ei] genetic influanc: (TM 1":t Wing. pp. HIE-fl. iii. G. H". Allpurt. Film and Emu-fl in W up. pp. fl-fl—H. “HI!

In maul value-a. sen-H. Mun-infini- Elation. flag-fin. H i m

W p. “'3.

III]. P. Singer. Th firmly Cfifir pp. 17-43.

.33!

N W TD PAGES 219—252 III}. M. L Hufinml. ”I: Mu'uim Pal-II Inf Human Hum?” 5L u m . Th Elm-m afflm. up. pp. 99-11 I. Iii-EB. “IE.

52. ]. Punt-pp. ”Th: firthnhinhfl at PIE-mil] Behavinfl.“ F. El}. Fur: "linking” mutt-Elmira “ m t nf Iht- puuihlt hinlngiul huh nl' empathy.

in L. Brahma, “A. fliulnginl i’rnptclivr 12m Emplfll'y." 53, IL A. mum-r- H IL " *Pfindples in His Hill]!!! “lit-h II'IL'I'HE Him in the Forum: flifltherl. . . I ” H. j. P. Hus-luau :1 IL. "Mini-am and minim" 55. SH 5m. "Halinml FMIIH:51 E. ILnIm. “Mimirm and Eflir'lmqi'": G.

man and P. David—mm Emu: far a [:Iw'm! Sufi-fl}: Elli-uni. fl: Mani D i m ; H. 5. ” t h a n “Limits on SHF-Srrlhtg"; l. Schmnz. “fl: Embafir Human Harm-r. up. rhap. '5: 1m: iI-I'ld hm. Human-sh: fi r m and Ballad. a m and Eran-all]. Ml him.- been publilhtd lint: that hill: 1910:. Far: uni-“n1 TE'i'i-E'III' Inf rectm writing: challenging [ht flH-iultcrtfl nmdcl in “HI-ll ul' lhl: Inn-till m . m the mliun emilkd *flrilin" in]. Hlnlbridgt. " 5 q III-.Adt'triary Halli.“ SEE aha my “Altruism IIII-'itl'lin Egniam.“ 56. After lining mm: triljfl] warts. 5m “mind: hin raider: IJIIl "Ill.-

Hmpflm Inf pun-1y adf—inlfltflfll bnhmrimrr remim [ht standard fine in emnumics. prmiding LII: hrhatriuml I‘uundminn of standard tutu-1mm {brat-y and

policy analylil. and the huh uf nmrh Elf win: in lillfl'l'll m Irwin“: {if 1.11am” [Eh Emmfiuma. p. [ T I'LHEL And. film: anmhcr mart-:1 "1n will: fifth: Fault-us . . . mdnu mmmi: Milena: still tmbrilcfl Eli-interest II III: bran; and mu] Bf Econ-Emil: Han" (int: and Lu:. Hannah: E m . p. 99].

57- Ilia-Inn. "Altruism and Elfititnqr." pp. III—Hr. 53. 54::1: 1 t that “ e mmi'I-rilifln pruh-ltm _ . . liEflIIILEi-tlt'lh-Eflflml'lifl nl'rmdnlmlpulifllmenu: andunrmunn " 1 1 ; l Item Inhalrtlil'lh tn mmfihute in thin are: in [In MEI-I'll in Indilimal m m : Ihcm'y d this HIM-It inn: of mmmflmrm [lhat is, altruiuiu': mmidflmliunl] H112] flu: until] rclur

[inns smruundinj it" {"Hatinlul Funds." 1}. I3]. 5:: aha. in [his m m . my dimminniulhcpmcedhgduptflnfthrincflflfiwnfllnfflwudlmm m .

E'El- H E W “limit: an SrlfiE-ecling." pp. Bin. 16-”. Elfin-h; u:Adam Smilh'l W fi m that hcnrfiu m mun: m Emm ulf-Inlmfled ruin-r than ahmilu'c mm, Euiuni flhflmrflt "If than: [am] an filfldillfl'lflll.

diEmnu-I helm *flE-Invt" Ind luv: fur nth-En. Smith'l whulr thflil lhhflt . . . It [hm sue-nu. m1 gmund: uni mund Eflmplflflullliflm LI'IEII Iht qufll I'm iflfdflid‘lflim Ind ruling tn urn: ulhm {Ill publi: indudflfl am of: I'm-II.bf mural nhiigaliun. are but kept 3pm“ {Th Hum! Man. [1. 291'. El]- Fin: mutt-:- In this rift-u an find in 1F". A. Hudghhuun. Hflfluflmfl Sink; and Pal-M. clap- 2+ manusrripnl pp. iii-ES. El- A- Lady. ““runmd flurily." WEE-n: pin-limin- pulmn Indium]! hll man: WW1I'll:- not 5}“: my dam-l:- mnrt In charity. but tJu'I dues ml mean [IIII flu: Elfin-Him {J the puplflflinn with mat: [a I'm:Inf—LE“ the fluent—dual:

HDTEE TD PAGE 32!-

535

I mmpmpuninm ui'lhrirhmmnhin dulhmrwithfewtr reams. Du flit contrary. "Tim :nmhinul giving uf mrpufllinm and fmmdalimn is truly “I purl-mm awf'all than is rnmrihulrd: 9D p-fl‘ttfll came. from individuals- - . _ IEH‘ than imflvidualsfl people with incumn under filial} gill-II:- 1'15 parent Inf whit LEE}I haw-rm and than al “EDIE!" m lflflflflfl Eil't 2-5 pun-m. Al Ihl: nth-tr End {If m: Huh, 11mph- witl'l inmmn n! ififlflflfl ll:- iflflflfll gi-nm LE- purccnl; l75.flflfl m

ilflflflflfl give L? per-tent and I IN.“ nr mar-:1 2.] prrrmt. Dublin“ ul'whm i: cuntribultd mmu {rum Emilia with iflfifllflflfi unda EILEEN" III- D'Gunmll.

"HI'I'EIZI'F. Lllflfl Pain“ DI" Lighl"§|'. HE. D. T. Milk-n ”Penn-m] Ducrving “mu juflicr: I'nr flthm.” 53. IL]. {Hm-r. “The-junk;- Hmiu- in Human Helatinnl and the Etunnmi: Mandel ufMan." p. 254. LL-mtr pump-am dun mwmh appurtnlly supp-urtin! mditiunal HIFinlcrt-Jl rmmnplimu—nmabh- thr lilfl'il'fll‘l" an equity II'IIIL-uluury.l in sea-ch11 psychulafi—wn-ms lu- mrasurr: um whit LI'IE subjefls [htmselm actually prefer but the IDIU. III-[hinting fllfl' "hflin'nin: uprrllhrt in Ih: hm'iTIH-I- fluid."

Fania-1m? inmurhu Ill!!! :11: ufltn ask-rd In mic—play bus-mumplt in IJ'IIE'H' nix-Irina“- Hummer. Lemur In::hnwn that the a m mbjr-L'l ulumu Hull "when” IIFE mun- preu-cnqahd with HH-hltflnl than PE'IJPI-l'.‘ ilflulnf an: (pp. EST. 2101. ii. I}. R. flrrfll. “Bryan-[I SEIE-IMHHL” 5}. 2'4. Hr mm'flluer. “111L- lunger an: undies paliflru m- parlitipalfl in public Ifl'lirl. tht lm it man that nur understanding al' human behwiur is advanced by the erunumit mndel a! individ[fl] tunsmntr! mmptljng fimth- fur pblflflifllfl and pmfil air the pluralist mnttpliun nl' pnliliral til-ban : duh al‘ irrrmnn'hhlt hurl-flu. TI'IIE hnpm'tr'uhtd languagt and pmmim of mr—mtm: can ncilhtt articular flfll‘ uphiu punter-Eu] human “minim“ IiIH: (aluminium. lanky. air-union. and dun-r" lpp. E'fimfl'al'].

55. Eflfll'lih by David 5mm. Which I'm apptarcd in il numb-ct 1i midi-.1 Ind fluplm. pmfidfl nidlmrt fur Elli-i. See. I'm Hump-5:. I}. I]. Sun Ind E. I... Funk. "SEE-llllil'l‘fil in finwrimns' Fulilical Dyinium.“ iii-I5. T. IL Tyler. "juice. Stir-Intuit. and the Lia-shim nf' 1:511 and l'ulfl‘acal Authnriw.“

«ET. Em withmu wailingm altmhtit mli'ulliun. tin: idn that pawl: will In! In :wn'ld parIj-cipatinfl in cullmiw atrium is mismatch-Ed. :5 Albert E). Hindi.nun chit-Nd. Such Mimi-an. Iii-.- uflwr instant-u u!” urhring mum-d :I gm]. shunld um pruptriy be taunted as a mu: [ht wry pmcm in part {If what brings fijlfillmrnL Such fl "melting ul' I111: tall inm 1h: plrulm: “WI." I “fmiuu ul'

nfiving and flflilliflfl'," is trauma“ in publir-rrplfihlg mirhifl—fl filfl that W

Ilacuna-mists. nflm [ail 1n :tlmulcdgc- A: warm: of I11: pun-cur all

flhan': Ihrurr. Hinchman m!!! that that hnpuuibilirr Infra-Hum“: anion fiat lug-r: grams was being proclaimed "at m: precin- mnmm1 “luau Lha- Western

Ifll‘ld mu lbflfli In b: all hm maulfird by an unprmdmtcd wart HF pubii: m u m , match-J, Frau-m, matuf and kiwi-ugh- . - - Um: [thflt tutu-u]

had flair nm fllrircm. Illflflllfl-T people I'l'llfl hand than: deeply “putting

WTDPAEE SM

335

m p m x m m m q m a m m m in illflfldiflfll’fifllflhfi I'm-mu why IIIUI-Ecuflmliw afliflfll nFflIEiitlifluhmiH ”Mahmud i] th: fim plan. it“: prrhap: In: real than than! HEIIH'L'L and would bl.- um! unlikely In“: 3: ram" [Wang m m . pp, ”IE-FE. HIE—39']. 53. G. Harwell. "Mtluiarm and the Prnhk-m uf Gallium: Hahn." pp.EIflI—l 1.

E9. :3. Han-til and IL F. Ana-I. “ m m Fm llidt. 11m Mm:-

Elsci" pp. anal-3119. 7!}. 111: tugtdy uf 1h: m m mm hind out. In Gm: Hardin: frum th: pmpmiw: at catch mm- M r "with mm m a public pasturc. ii in mime In keep adding animal: In his herd. But the um: fell-Inning that malt.” thi: deciliun mm unaihlc [a mu.- mdjvidml will nut: in arm will]:In all individuals. Each will pun“: his Itlf-ilittrfll. lb: gun will he deplutd. ind t'll'tnrfl-I'I-I': Hill Inn.

Hardin nuts LII-E Farah-IE u:- argue Eur Military binh mm] (“111: Tragedy of flu! Hummus").

Tl. Thi: finding ii inhflmllialtd hf mmh flucrihed in IL H. Dali“. A... j. E. Inn 15": limp. and]- H. DrhdL ‘tu-up-Irnlim I'm: the Benefit ul' U5." 1! 'fl mnmivabh—flmuugh DEE-E1 himself dispute: this interpreltiun [Wranmuniuu'un. Harm lllfli'BJ—tl'm film-ring l-llhjflttl- m that Ind tfll'l'fl.‘ m inn-w nth anther prfll'lmllfl taupe-ruliw drcisianj lea: htfllfll': :. fil‘fllq} idflflilf has but: WMMauuflrtdutcaannfiymm-Iandwumhflifldmlm m m t n ' indhidmlilimhjrnrlreflhmmhfimwhm mmmmm ind cumpcfling, T E A . Dow-m. d a m Miami-ant}. quail-Id inHInlbI-idge. "Breaking [II-E Advmary Hal-d."

'15. 5. B. Dre-man and E. W. firu-nhun. “Mir-Jinn m- lflipl'utily." pp. fifi—fil

14.11. 5 m m ] . Hills. " m a u l m m m m flammal ctiumhips." p. 23.

75. L- Hydg, n. Gm. p- 9. '15. Dmmm and Greenbamm “Mm-'31:] DI' Elmira-city" pp. 54. 55. TI. 1. Tamil. “Dflchpmmt in Etdpfl'ncif lbw-ugh Friendlhip." pp. #5lfll. Wilifln is fmm p. “II. 15.]. Sula. S. Wiltnberg, ”III III. Giulia. "hinting Itch-uni andflunmiprncal hunch} cwiur.“ 7'9. J]. Ham. (3. L. Grudtn and T. lindm. "A Permu-Situatinn Appraich In Mnuiuti: cifliul'." This line: nut rat-m 111m :llruhtit hrlptr: 1will ht nu mart Etna-nu: than tgu'utit htlpm was: all siluau'nm, maugh- Th: aumm I'IIIFII llul d11- n-Iunann: ul' 111mm.- In lid}: in a quit! pm qua m u m

dtptndsnn tth-emgna prtuinglucdfarasmunct-mmtn¢¢dh¢mmu mun- cur-mic. u in urn-gum! situatium. “album: Ihmdd humm- more lib-h-

m htlp and LI'H': arm at“ tamptmaflm :Ih-nuhi dttieim“ lp. [9113}. El]. E. Snub mil I... Shunt “Hzcd En-rfippma flIiHli Sharing Ehr-

H m TD PAGES Eli-255

357

innit“! latipudtyiuflurilg,"p.25fl.1'htfimdflnumfll llllillifll BL W m d fl fl h “ h m fl m m m m m m fl Full: . I .

E2- H- 5- Ehrl, "In-:md lulu-ping in Tim Tgrpfl nf 2 m m " 53-. H. S. Clark“ 3].. "fleciiili-ml': Hand. Ithlinmhip‘ Tfllt. and Ht'lphll.“ Bil. B. I. Hurflein, H. {IL-firm, and H. G- H

I

M "A Thtary Ind

Inwfligalinn nli' the Effen nf FJchang-bfihimminn an Hmiigt and Fri-Hidship.” Th»: negative curl-Ilium: was mmfifihly suiting!!! [at mm [Jun In!“ Hfllflfl'l. ThE'l-Iflltiflidl' rtpunu Hamil.I ali'mllargt flirndll'lipu ill‘ll'h'lfll apmitiw: minim: was [mud hflutmexthangeufimuumand Fritmhhip intemil'f ant-n: mlicgn stuck-nu. but the Elicmhhipi in qmnim'l 1-111: " 1 : ! t than. Imperfit'ul.

and :ilualjun—dntnuintd-

35- H. ]. Lam and j- a. Hui-d]. “1min: and Aluminum“ p. 2:11. Hi. H. Eiamhngvflrrg and C. Hui. “El't'llflrtn's Mural Emma: alum Tlmir flwn Spun-Juneau! Prumcm Enhifinr." lain-ulna"; obit-rm dun I'lflfl'l rpptfl m mthnrirr 'EII' puniihmflll {which Int-IT mnmktflr ihlml but} 31':- what an: “mid up“! il' [hr rhildrm Hm II. Huhlhm'g‘: fim Hanoimnnl running {I}. 229}. and [hm Eh:- appartntl'gr ill'l'uiil'i-l: adi-mirnild nplmuliml hm: nfiur—and pruutubly m1EailIy—hfln mailed I: Eng;- 2. LL. ill- “ inuhalm, “Wu-urban!" way all" Ih'mking abnu: maul prnlfleml (H. Eil’l'l'lE‘B-ETI and H- Hand. “Th-r: flelatiumhip [If Pruebmlm‘ Realm album I'm-lucid Haul flnnfliru m Pram-rill Edam" p. 355'}. pp. 251—33. ET. B. H- Tiunuu. Th- Elfi W EB. P. P. Hallie. Lat III-urn! Hui BL- Ell-J. pp. M .

3'9. A. [lam-:15. Ti: HEW. pp. [21}. 15-1. 235 [ll-p- HT. L'HL 231 in mm: editiurm]. The L1H remark mun in flu.- mntnl nul- un: uF the mvcl's mull: m i l l : exchangn. linu‘i I'm-ml TIIT'uu npmmfl a dflifl: In hi: 3 Him in u w fl d 1-1:]q {Ii-ad. pmmplin; lieu: w “1' Ihll IIEiI M e d truly in hair! a man. “Yes." Tarruu replies. "Ht'rr hail] after- lhl Ian: thing. bu I'm 1:“ anhiflmu' (p. 233}.

9!]. {Hintr and fll'flwr. fl: 3 m Hun-fly. pp. ”3+ 223. El. Th: fare-ping Elna are natal in ihid.. pp. I. E. El. 35, HIE. lfl. FIE. ELI-uh and Shtri; ”In gene-nil. children With : strung nae-[IE fur appmnl may be inhibited and mum:- in wrist] IitILaLimu. uptdalh- ntl'l'd ur ambiguuul nun-111i: would Iimil Ihtir pmmcial barbarian hfliulfl' htlpinfl min-r5 nr sharing Him awn-s uflt-n inn-ulna im'l'uflan ui' minn" [ " t far Approx-fl. Ehfldrtu's Shim-“innr Malawi-m. and, flrfiprurity in Shir-mg." p- fl'fil I. DIhI'r Hud'ifl m 1hr.- flll'll' :fl'm an: cilusl in Huffman. "I: Aluuism Pu: nf Humn Nam-EP". p. 126. 9‘3. L lit-rim: and L IL Darfifln. “Rapundhilily and [hp-mm." H11L'Iurc haw Ihii finding rhallmgn 1h: hrlping-na-rrcipmdly with u with as I11:

hfpflfllllil that Financial bflufiur in m m ! by it Inn-ch fur iFPTD'l-‘TIL E-I. E. D. Ilium-II. IMAM Elm-hull. chap- 1 m

p. 153.

HfiTES TD PAGES 253-353

353

95. III. B. Hanna. "Franck! Hnliwtiun." pp. 95. M. H. The nary in! m u d by Jnhn Auhrfl and child in A. “ 1 | : l

“Eguism and Mlminfl," p. 453. fit my ai'ailar antcdmc ha: late:- laid abnul Ahrlhatn Linmln.

'EIT. [. H. FilininJ. Harlin. and]. A. Piliavin. ”Emu! 5 m m . “ P- 293. 511mm ftil'l Ian-H flu- Hliflinl qualified thin by cumming that an acclaim "'lhll' mmim: EM helping has :1 sympath-Hic timer than a uflish tum.” Th: moduli,hmncr, runaim fimdmmufly again-Ii: I]. A. Main :1 IL “Eflpumive B]fllfldlfi." p. 2‘55}. fl. [3. D- Balsam}- Fulfl... and PL JL M

finnl tn the Dimnfflthnl": Bill-fill. “

t

. "Adultl' Emflinl'fll Ell:-

1H m . “ up. pp. HIE—HIS:

and albu- writing: 99. N. Eistnbtrl H II... ” H m m uif PHIIJIHIIDilmand Sympathy

in flhildren 1nd Adults.“ Hill This and aimihr explain-mu II'l'd-flfi'ibfll- in Burn-n. "

W HnLi-I

“flan.” pp. lflfivfi'r HM - I3. ll Hanan at EL. “Fin: Etlldin Tali“: THU Haw Elu'iui: Alla-luIives tn the Empathy-Minn Hypmhtflfl," pp. bib-HEHIE. Ibid.. 9. EB.

Iflfln. Far rumple. we R. B. {lialdil'li H 31.. "Empalhrvflutd Hdpinfi.“ IIH- 5::- E. l]. Bun-cm H. :L. "I'Iltgllive-Eule Edie!” and flu: Emlmhfullmh

. ilrl Hrp-utlmii." pp. 92243. I115- lhid. lflfi. D. A. 5&1d H l].. "Empilhii: [lantern and Helping Belwriur." IDT. N. Eisniherg at at. "Bimini-m bf Viufluufly [minted Emmi-null Rania“ in Children“: and “Difl'flentflliun DI I’fimml Difiltfl and: Symptjr in [

1

t and fidulu.“ II is true. as fistula-erg :ubuqumllr admits. That heart

“It dncrlrnlinn "muld aha I'I'fl-E'i'l an uutwud unriemminn mmmpanird by

fimpfllhf" (H- Eisenhcrg H 31.. "Etiatiun ni' Sympathy and Emma] Hiatus: In Fault-rill Ill-fluvial.“ IL 55].

WE. HI. Einflbrxrg. H- Mcfl'taflh and IL Mm. “Viflfimfi Emmiunal lit-r lpumivmu and Pmmcial Buhninr." Hau- I‘HE'I'IIIT. iii-Hiker: hit! Illa-1m

Illal dispuritimlil Emiralhy isin-rilar m Bats-111‘s aathfl due: indeed prcdin hulping in n n].- that mm m sump-m1 LI“: flaunt: ul' genuine altruilm IN. Eilmherfi H il.. ‘Tht Hal: of 5mm? Hid Ahnt'uflh: Pflsnnalitr Train in Hamil-If}. ll'l'J. I'. A. fi l mll: IL. "Attirlmmlh Wmhfliqumd Hnflfltinn In IHIEEI hnmhrr Hm in Dim-m.”

Ilfl. Bataan. ” m Hutivatiun." pp. 94. “E. III. M. A. Wilhth and L. “'5!!t "Hm-r F E MElam the Cult of flu: SHE" pp. til-52. HE. flalhridiflumluflfiflm p. BB.

HflTES 'I'fl PAGES 239—245

519

SHANE?

1. Anhur Huefllm Eur amplemm Ill-M “ W E - r unifiih I‘ml-fll'll. at th: risk uf unt‘: awn HIE.- is the dumimnl pllnmmman in hill-INT. ...Thelrwblewilhnurlpecin inflatinmeudaggreuiun.hutnnmmd dwminn. . . . Th: autism ti IJIE gmup fur-rd: fill III-E altruism all in manila!" {"Tht Limit: {If Han Ind Hi: Pr-rdiflmam." pp. III-531. I think Andrew Bin-d Schnunhltr is right when he rucjuim that altruism in hardly Ill-E duminam phnmmv emu in 1nd: silum'mru (are hi5 flu: 13! “Minus. :1. 223}. Hm unly mull the Inn: hr mitt-Ithcd “III“ it include: gram:- ln'yrilw. but altruism I'll pal-thwart! unfiiendhr m flu:- idra: nf mmpflilim‘l and am-[mupL

2. mm: firth: Fifi-EH la la“: aha-u: graduinm “ r u m ratlur dun rum; 41'": m

Iur only am: mmiwfiunal pattern SEE I]. firth: anti F. VIII

Henemn.'“The Dfielupmml {If Altruiam"

5 “Became Ihc uhimal: goal Hm Llu‘: Pril'lliiplt-fl ht'lp-fl] is in umlfl EI-l' npm: lhe mu} plinriple. it wfld am In: gimp-inn: In all the mum-Hind

.E'ilhfl' 135::i ur Illruinit”

If {ma'5 uhimall: gm] I: In uphrld a mural

prinfiplt nuth a justice. than neilher ”If nur mher benefit i: ll iJ-q. em ihwgh ant-'5 animal“ In uphill-H [he plinripk may hemfit SEE mint. a: bath." [I]. 1]. 31:51:51,. “Primal Thin-u. Marl] Principln. uni I Three-Pith Handel fl Prumrial Huli'i'alim'l.” p. 225].

II. hi. Ehmiacrg Ind Rhilflilltn ”Hull-13th:: HEW taking-till and lithium} Schwinn." pp. I | [45. 5. T. Mild. Hu- Hmihh't! afdflmiul, F+ flu. E. H. Huh-ilk. “filflltbf.” p. '19.

'J'. I. Rubin and L A. Perla“. "Bulk“: aj'nfl “"a and Iranian: in Amflur‘s Lfll." p. Til. Se: in H. Eilmherg. Jhlnirfir Emfim. Gunman. and M pp. Ill). 19?. B. D. Ade-Hum. 5.5. Brehm.amlLB. Hall. ”‘EmFHHEIEIJIHmi-un nfan Innatem Vitljm.“ p. ”'1 H. Eiltflhfl‘fl. .I'll'l'fliiflif E m P M ; and M Ill 5. lit-Imam "Why Puliii: [dun Mann.“ F- 37. H. H. flas-‘I'armw. L'. Idm-Waflrr. and H. fluplmn. "Gillie-1": Ham Dispasiljuns and Bduviar." p. «HS. 15!. Paul Echtnhh. pen-anal cunmunicllium 5:13:t “Iii.

13- Burn-H Sandflmu. quail-d in W. IL Tnung. “What": 5! Girl an the

Tami-It" " p. 95. H. Bum: Dahlia. mum-find in L Whttlu'. “Eunntr Pull: "In frail: Bar in flit-tr." 1:. BE. 15. E. E. 53mm “PEI-Imam” and IJ'Il': Amalia: Ideal,“ p. 1'7“. 16. 1 him: in mind Alasdair hhtlntyrt‘l u m that in I'll! mum 11'

mini; wilh admin. "q

uF hum-valence m aim ship?! dn not min.

Hfl

NflTEE TD PAGES $45—$45

any mar: Ihan qmlhm urmE-inmm den. In my such] lift l m but ht imrulwd in reciprocal relatiiMIhiqfl. in 'l'l'hi-III'I i1 may crruinly In: rounded than!

[in- prim.- I have In par fur HIE-setting hehafinr it .1 Ian all" main kinds ul' rdnticrnlhipl. flu: if I 'I'I'Il'lt In kid I certain End of life. with rel-Illinmhjp: tin-mt.

flirndahip. and cmpmtinn villi fibers. Ill-HI tn}- h'iml'mg lhtir gmd and III]? flaming my gnu-d :11: nm mu indtp-tudml, discrimimhl: dflirn. II. h um I“!!! that I haw- Ih'n Eqflfilll: mum-:5. mlf-inflnnl and bmmlem't. fur {hing flu: l-illlfl.‘ attiuu. I hm an: math-r. n dcsin: In line: in a certain 'Hfl'f. which m

l h:-

thilnutriu-d a: a flair: I‘m-my gnarl ratherthan that Hail-ten. Fur IJ'If: gun-ad Hm

I rut-ugh: and puruw is not mine parljmlarly. wept in flu: saw: that] rulingnifl and pursue it“ {“Egnism and Altruirrn.“ p- 455}. In mm: rue-1m Madntrrc‘: farmuhlian i: Wiring“ similar m m:- phrmmmun I am altrmpting tn dturihc. Em his Int turn IEI'IIETI-E'E‘! reflect adifl'trem pic-in! ul'ikparmrt: nnl "u!"

but "it." tun-I. um mktflmfilip hul a mmrptinn :11" I111- Gnud [-11 fluid! bath a!" us In: rrlltfiL It i: the punuit all” I numndtm mural imprmflnu ruin-r Ihm III:

flilll'II-E'E {If a hand bet-urn!" 11m.- individlmm flu! Inn-Its III-t dislilmifln brim «claim and lltruilrn in his cultepljm.

11'. Far ample. [ht Winn "hcwm :guirm and altruinn . . . {ID-Elm}! figur-t in Buddhinl uhic: hum: fly: Bucldhill animal {11' 111: "If defum 1h: “halt quit-Ilium" by firm: uf balding Ihnr lil'lE “Hi:- nm "I unil'nnn ILIIJIIIiI'I-t-E' that

Fell-ill: lliruugh time. but a clufler Dr pm. pmem and filiufl.‘ “Helm‘ taunt-fled In firh lather bf lie: 11F “rial.“ {kg-reef “I. W. Pmtn. “Egaism. Aluminn and Inlmtiumlim in Buddhilt Ethics." pp 7]. 1'3}. IE. Far example. 3::- A. H. Hula-r. T m In" W

a; filling, pp.

[59-11] (“Regarding ulfiahms and umclfifllntn i!- mmmdiclm and mutually

ndmh: i: int-It“ charm-Irrillk HF 11 Inner IHfl Inf permnaflrr dfi‘tlflpl‘fl-H'Il. . . - Haw muld :clfilh hcdumun he DPPflI-Ed In Iéllmism. when mlfinhne-s: became lfllfilhh' Flammable" :I'ur lefl-m'tuililing mhjtcufl: N. Modding; fining. p. 59 {”fiimzc I am dtfined in relalium I do nut sanifice myself when I rum-r.tnmud the lathe: u m-cuhg. flaring in. than. hath srlf-icr'rijlg and aha-n

“firing"l: EL firth: and F. I'm Hfllflm. "Tht Butt-um! Inf Miminm" pp. 50-31 (“m high Iva-la u! dr-nrulupmmL it in more d1: un- lhal I11: dislincliufl between selfishnen and mnrlfishnfl: diam-in than that {ht filflfl hum udmivfly other-nrirmtd"); and A. P. Balmltin and G. T. Hithldl, Elfin]. p. 17:} ("II can m b: mam-d lhai the mncnpt HI 51min“. which ha: nl'len hE-H'I Huh-rd [ht-um}? In amp-allay, lulu: In hecqm-t ll'lEfll'liflEi-E'fl in lh-E mnlnil nl' III-IT!“ nnpaflur, humus: helping flllE'l child after: Heel: 1t htlphl mw‘i HIP]. I9. 1.. A. film, Fnhdrflp. rl'll'mirl. and Mr}. F. 'J'E. This. ui' min-H. it nut m 5H1: 'Ihat new friendship—0r Hen every act in the dun-st Whip—cm hrmdrm'ihed. Prrmdptiirely. Em. Blum argues Ihfl part-nu naught ta cmphifliz-I! mun- than the “ml” min. The ilk-BL ht says. ii In rails-E thildrtn HI’IIEI. firm. {In-iv: phuur: fi'mn helping when: utmul. ifl' mum; to Imip arm when dinning

NOTES TD PAGES Elli—252'

H1

mi:- nulplmunhlflandfllhdjfldaprfluinmhipflnwhfll Ihtirplmalld the mhcr': au- inlmhflngflhlt {pawn-ii mmmlmifiltim. Januaryr WEE]. 211. EL Gilligan. In a: flg'gi'irm: mm. p. H. Ehnvhm ill: I'm- dfllfl'ibfld her mum of : III-unlit? ufmc in an min-mp1 “m mplun: 1h: exp-Erirnce nf HurliIlfl'll ur inltl'dcptndtflttr whirl! uv-midfi ll“: tradiliunil tantrum: between £311-

im and ihnflnn" :L'flflmppillfl Iht Hun] Dnmin.” p. 24”. El. M. Hcidcgger. any; an! Iii-r. p. “52. "Being-with." is the awkward. III-crush Iillfl'fll. Innlhlinn {if the Emu Him-in. Fur which lhfl‘t in un- precinEngl'flh EquivahnL

25!. H. I}. Fuhhlch 1nd 5. Fflhhuch "Ethpifl'l'f Twining and the Regular tin-n 11f Aggressim” p. I l L 5:: in J, V. Juflhn. “Empathy and Self humbriu." p. i": "Empathy in . . . I11: lam-cu: through which we'll np-erienud "me all hair mum-than and :inflaritr tu- mhur human i: {Hath-flied. . . . Wilhnut Impfllhr. IJ'IIE'I'E in nu intimacy. nu real Iflfliflm nEln Ippflduinn nflhn

panda: nf “Wilma within canneflinn." 23. H- 5.1%l W J W Wu}, ”

M

W

h

it]. 011t 1r UBHEL Hut and Hugh, pp. 39, Hi. 25. (I. B. HHH'IHIM. Th: Fhfiflm' Tin] a r m k

m '1. 3.

'26. E. Hint. “Em the finish Quintinn." pp. 42-43. Fur man: an [ht “cluli:libflill millil:ufmmeivhlg flu:nhliunfllip Huangmm II purl-1f irHIrumtm [a] air actiflflllal. mint-r Lhan I: hufimirmd Emfial."ut IL I'. Wnlfl. Th PM!!!) y'lfimlflm, cap- [Th-FIF- 5. 2?. F. Marin. "Thu: Hm Hflcisiism.“ pp. 45—15. 53. Smpmn. “Ply-Iz'hnlumr and III: Annritln Ifl-IE'IL" p. TED. Aha Ill: IL

Hogan. ‘Wefical Egmmlfiam and [he tkm n-f fiompliam"; and j. T. Span“. “Achifltmem Ame-rial: Etylt." Simpson mnlml a zip-print paint 1:! chillenging parchnlag'im whn think thfi' haw: bur-ugh: thr disciplim In I mm and

higher dbl-mam by virtur of transcending didmtumiea such a: muculinily Hum fenfininityr. Thur "diflttlinl nulhrm.” In.- puinrla m1. are firm-rill}lacuna-d in the mun] plank-411m is. tun-5min th-I: individual. Fur example. "androgrny a: a sign Inf gland hut-31th mum-by refined: In indifidmlifli-c IHiI-l atrium-1mm in Inn-hid: prnmu Will! It! In: lvtflnlflntd and tufliniuu in unit! In In:

mitt-cash!" {pr TH}, 21L DummEI-Hpnhm 119552-63. 3|}. P. Shun. fl: Wrafhwfim. p. H. 3!. E. H. 3:11:11 El. IL. Hafiifi glib Ham. pauim. 32. Paui Wan-hm In: call-ed II-Ilflljflil'l m [ht Ell-I! u m nfimifidlfllin“ Ell-Hm hclplm d-EFE'I’IIIIEI'IEE. 5e: Th Pam gram. pp. I “ .

33.1. W. Meyer. “Myth: at Suthlintiun incl nf Pmnmliu'." p. fill. 54. N. Ehndumw. “lfiund Drive Ti'IIE'fllT." p- 255.

35. Hal-in, “111: Hair Huciuhm." F. El). EI'IE'II'IIZEI' Still!in: qmfiumd ”haw Mil]! hlllIlllfliltiIt' ii 1hr ‘Immperanlul’ fi'umitr III" hmhfi: pmhulumr

Elli

HUI'ES TD PAGES 252-253

whcn it [nun light aft!“ Elfin-1111mm affierydaflifie in II“.- Mufti-I.inflflhlu" ("Humanism and Eehafinfilm in fiydmlnmr." p. 25'}. 36. “Hg-Emu.- m cur nmdtm nminn: of the 'persu-n' 1111' Hell“ is int-m bly pm of any inquiry intn tuber Ill-lib 11m- Fur . . . [but is It! individullin

mu-de at thuufihl. distinctiw: of modem t

m cultures. which, Ihuugh w:- my

criticise 'n in pan nr in whulc. 1m: tilfl'lEIIJ-I'. cmpt- It hldtliblj- math may mitt-pm tilinn we gin uf nth-Ear made: Inf thought and awry mmnpt 1H: mh m Tfl'illl'.‘ nut awn” 15. Unit's. "Camlusiunf’ 1:. EH}. 3?. E. flue-H1:. "Fm-m the Hamill-'61! Fuinl Ii VII-aw." p. 5-9. Aha In: that Hark nl' Harte-1 Hausa. with when Dun-mm sludiui such as hi: my. "A EHEEIJIT all the Human Mind": and man}- u'f LI“! any! in T. IE. Hellrr. H. Sum. Ind D. E. Wtflb-flf. rd!" Hmhwfiq fnfidfiflflm 5-H- SLill. mu Emir: chvmud some 135“ mu in his Suing andN W

In an flpluratl'fln Hi" the question] 131‘ “Bflngflhflhfiifi‘ and his tlhifl it“: [Bundled m1 1hr idfil that ml: pun-nun mun act a: if III: Hm mummihlc [at II! ” I t . 5H- my Huy- "Elillilli'fllillilm Here and Haw." 2111. pp. ELSE. 39. HEHEEH+ flu‘ugnad mu. pp. 156-51 4H]. “W1.- :iln': wlut tau-m: {ml}- thmugh Ihe mnunurfllf uf manuallyr tannin-II undcntandingl- Manhunt nummuhn is 1mm f-nrhilmlfalnnt. name 'mdividual" {H.jflpm. Hm mi Elisha. F: W}.

‘I I. "Tint thin I m

alwaf: In hr Pill-“til is bring in canirumalinn Hill!

Ifluu. [inwhum intum I mylelfim il mm find it i: in fimiunnfthil Hagar

andin rehtinn In it than A: nrn‘ {In htdefincd. that '15. an indtprndrm wfld or :1 Iran a Hurld that in—duuhlkfl by I lininn—lrfl'lrd il- indrp-endenL . . .

By a shitting mudd. I distawred the partially flilitf [If the "l'huu‘ ll. Inn-minutely I11: um: um: lubrr was writing his bank" {I}. HII'IEEI qflfllfll in

H. Friedman. Th “hint: q." Emflnfln-I’m. pp. 3119. Eli}. {2. 5H upccially his Itfiltmunt uII' mcuphysiml and pulju'ul mull in 'flr

Riki "Man's mfithrirjl i: funndcd up-un rtbeilinn. and rth-tflinm in ill mm. m Duly find it: qtiE-caflun in [hit mlidarity'. . . . 1n nhuurlfifl rip-Britain. sufl'tril'tg

:Iindiviclufl. Em [mm [ht mun-m when a. mm-rmt nimbeilinn begin. Inflerv in: in arm an. a :uflcttiw exptrimcc. Mfume the Jim prawn-Hive map for a mind Ewart-thud by flu: lll‘iflFl‘l-t'fl uni" thing: is In realile thal thin feeling Inf “magmas is than-d with all mm and that human Italily. in it: entirely. :ufl'm

fium the album: which “pant“ it {mm I11: rut ul' II'II':1mm. . . . I ”hei— Illcrtfizlrt In: {I'll-i" (p- 211"}.

III. III. Han. fl fi m m i fl W W f I - fi fi p. 151'. Hi:Int

phrase in quntiunihk btfilfll: in nut cullufl: m:- sfl-m In htk maxim nl' nundm a: will being. 41. H. Hidglfirflflm and Phenom] Identity.“ p. 5L 5hr:m m “In wire at it: Fm: 1nd nuhifily, il minim a dump strain 131' {-hily, nuljlfll hut-cum: the

realm“ why i! was nut applifll l-n um Influflhe human m m nan! hflnflfly hnledaLhmhflmrlhcmppundimhpendnmuflhemkmiudffflfl+

NUTEE TD PAGES 253-253 II In

H!

'31:“:t nth; lim- gnnlcd III: In“ and Int-nit: a i r m a n “

Mhndimdfldnflmud'thekumflghtmedmfluuwfli. Ilptfltfldtdtu In univcrul when if: was um."

+1.5. H. Sdnmn. “lndivhhuiliim and the flbjccu Inf HEW." p- 216. 1-5. 5-H. fur tumplr. C W . "Bury-and Drive Timmy," pp- SIZE-1 IE: and III 'Tflh'trd I Ill-Ilium! lndiridmlism." up. pp- Elli—1. 41*. H. 5. Sllfli'lfflfl. "T11: [Hui-tin ul' manna] ludiuilhnlily.” p. 5294B. Em 'ma: indiridualiuira Sufi-m3! has an Hill-E111 “we dilmmwhn utmractmflctmdaidch yfidcuifllnHMrshwurh lnw,md learningflfl Inf nur ani'riw gun an in rrhtiumhipl. may. annriarinm. and mmmulfilifl

mind by ilmhulimfll lll'Lfllhll'l'l and illitrjlrfltd by cultural 95::t Inf llltl'l'lins. flur indiviihulilm in “Mil-D"! Ind] pattern" {BIB-III}: H 91.. Hahn If“:Hula-I1 p. H). {theme-glrflflHLJMMM. pp. IEE—Tfl. Ell}. L 1111:1135. Thin-u If: BIL pp. 2. [El 5|. Hrchmflylljnm Eiw'ut i: qmwd in W . ” I ' m in Idilinul Indhidmflsm." pp- HIE—Eli.

52. J. Vin-uni“. "Dtvdnpmuul in W I" aim pp. 95—95.

lhrmigh Frinflllhip.“ p. lfl-I:

55- The fltmhrr HIE? {rm-II: "med In many wilful: In but hid. in tit-ginning: in failure uf h u m cmprmiun. fingered by West Gut-rm“

Mlml bani-rd firth-inn tn permit inert-H run lht'rl': m flu. L15 Trusury' 521'e jam Eater fllrfltflfld Sunday [tht fly hut-Fun flu: Gilli] In In flu: dullnmumifll'aflagiin uflwymandthtmark“ tfl_Wfllh.“Aatial Win-Id in Dari “mil It Find: Baum limfl.

1H. 5. Mun. "111.: Crisis in E31315" p- 55. 55. L finldmann. Inna-Him p. lflfli. A: Lam mum pail“: nut. the [In tlul utililarianism apptan m- bL- m m with Him-Till] happintu Hen Hlile bring mhurtd in individualism wig-ail: that finldmnn’: mark my Fulfill

may tu- Hlnt'un thinking : 1 t ulhm flPl'Efl-il'lg a waiver“! Inuh. 55. I. Ilia-1t. Eriflfw q" Pun-tin! Erma. abridged and uprimud 3 " u m and III: liil'm',r at" In“: Inward Either Hem” p. I52.

51!. Kim. Fun-Ilium qfflrflrflphfi: y'all-Inuit, Ilritlgflluidrtphted 1H "11!: md-Ition Elf Hm.“ pp. 346-47.

5!, SmLEml. Thflumilnffiflun ambuduflfiw flflpfllfl "Hamlin and {he III-Mtg}.r uF Luv: mum-d UII'II'I‘ Mm." pp. Til—754 59.5.Frnud.flimhnflmmmm p.59. El}. Mild. Th flmflfifi J A M pp. 3. "4. El. Ste mum. Furl-Elfinfiflmul, mummy. Sushi: I1 lwlung. Hun! m . P. '35: "f'fipll'itimunfl-I ii an: in iIIII'nIIiI: flillll'l' H II“.- flmu'ni:

emu-than.my man: than inmmiiltnt'gr is an initimi: Future ul'pnctifllm 52. Hale-l. m n m 1:. Hi. 55. Blum. F M Hill-ml. and Marni-‘1. pp. 9-H}.

"

m

344

TD PAGES 15-5—253-

E‘L Huflh’ufl. Curing. [1. 5. E5. D. HIJIH'H‘I Tram-#Hm Minn. W W in bun-uh 1 pl. 5. IE. 5. and biz-uh. 3. pl. 3, m. E. mpcnivfl'f {pl}. 415 and EIB in this cdiliun}. EE. Thatflfinm flaunt! lhll Llwm-Ijuriljr nil" dull: whu "unfiljfll [rum 1h.-

Hui: “rm Muted neilhtr by pfinciplfl with aljuslicr I'Iflf by empalhyr and :I titling ufdil‘flfl mun-m Eur II'IL' victims. Than in ll'lil third. gin-up htlptd primarfl-lr mum: Ihr'f firlt an idmtiliralinn Him 1 mt'ul flit-rum:- gmup. Ind-I :3. ll'urir family nu" “Entitifi that flptEt-Ed at upprmiucd [Irma-chi bchnfim' [5. F.

Dim and P. H. Dlinfl. Th .ifl'rmfr Pas-main}. :11}. pp. I'El'!Ei|Lr 2H1]. T1“: hn' quutinn [111' that " m m fl t " indii‘idluli—Hhi-Eh probably lI'I-IJ-llld hi: imIicltrtd only I minlagiml file-mun and um i Ihird made]: Inr fll-DI'ilil'f—is ml

Hhcthfl mcaclwasintfimicflly righlm Immh unhflhcritwuapprmcdhy ht]: IH'IJPIE. With rap-tut In unlit-n mnfnmairy aha-n il vrnr diflh‘ml I'mm ruin; [Fur 1h: firLimJI (art. fur Iris-Junk. 5- Fflhhach and H- I]. Fuhhafl'n. " A W and thm." p. EH]. It leads In w i l l cnmuqumm only a: lung in the mil-n m m w v fl u u sud] htluuiurmdlhu: wmfldmtnbrilmfimflylcfi rdilblt than H'Ihfl principled ur Imp-1min: hailing. 51E.5lfllh.”hflanfl1nhndflwflfltmimnuuflflfldupnenluf Alu'uiun and inhuman." p. 153-

Ell. Dfllwr and (Him. firm-hr Permit]. p. 25?. 59L Hm: qufll'ld in IL H. Ham "Ham H. Mull." F. 21. TI}. T11: phiIa-m-pl'wr Hichulfl Rather. Eur Ell-IIIFIE. “ f l III-ll if um.- i: flflflfld. "unnt‘l art I'm the nth-It‘l- Helium [-HII' plea-mm] Pl'lfll'flh will: In :51.11:um“: mum “ Hahn-hum u 1mar-1|. m [I'm :nuther‘: welfare lnr [uppinusi ii at least in part a dtltrminingIaflnr Fm- nnt‘s m-m." B1:13mm m with dininlcrntud cuntrrn-drlining flu- hucr ward In a m maid : mutualitflnn in t m " m fur 1h: mhrr‘: “Em with Ear in nun uh. tritium "ii-rent: In mpg-mm fur nmlfand nun-E: mm ill-Emil" [Fulfill-m, pp. E—lfl]. 'H. 5:: E. D. Bus-an H IL. "Hing-inn: Praia-till Hutimiun." p. 335. flhm flap! jun :II'I-Dl'li Inf math; {his pain: uplir'lt 11PM. r i m and Mai-uh}. p. 121]}. Elli-till dun um 1mm Ilm principled helping in punch-ll} EEfliIIi-l.‘ but that it apprars In nan-d mil-Jut- nun-He IJ'IE altmismftguism dichmamy {pfl'lflfll Wamjanmry 1939]. Fur 1 mudtl flul Equllfl niuuinm with an IflirIflithflflimiihfllfl'flfl“flifiuflmlfl'lpflnddflfflh'lndihmiflfahjrfi lion], lfl.‘ 5- H- filth-win: and} A. Hum-uni. " 1 m m Value: I: Huliumn

11f Mm." '32. I}. Hummd Tmflxqfflm Hm hunt; FL hm. I wins-7n

’u 111i: edilicml. '13. Huddhlgs. Enhg. 11. 93. Her mpfl'mil. ‘il'll. LIL Hum. Frill-limp. a i m fllfl'Hfllfi-fl. p121. Ahampp. ”55. L“. 155.

1'5. 5:: L linhlbfl'g, “Guild-Em u Prixipled Iflpnulililim" 11- Ill.

HD'I'ES TD PAGES 255-256

545

I'H'lfllil firth hm nude :1iimilu' paint, but Iqrnmll-fly he gun an In chin: flu: mpml'n' has In: maul Fur-n- at. all and Illa! Idf—inlm ultimflhr autumn far [ht Iifli'liflm in: mail: ahwt 'Ill'hfll-E pcnpccliw ll: Luke. TE. 5. P. fllin-rr and P. H. miner. Th flitrmliflr M . p. ”I. Snub. Inn.

hu imiucd Ihu lumclhing lib: Esp-umihilily mm: b:- added In the virtue Inf twpallfir m m : III: multing “pmmiai firitnialiun [ill a ram:- run-Eb}:-

lmlltr ufpm'lliv: behavinr than empathic capacity“ alum! ("A Enact-Flinn nI Ihr: Dawn” and W m : 91' euhm and Ann-"inn." I1. I43]. Eta-ll [I'm this [ruling Inf lawnaihilhy. rather than Empaflly alum. hm hm mpéncafly muchltd with rhildflrn'l Hmil'IEl'Itl-I In lulp IF. I15}. ‘17. Hanna. [-hrflhhm, p. E. '13.} 5. LEIL ”Thu-I: Ell-1111 an Heligiun." p- 394.

'19. D. Hunt. all! 5% W

I'll: Emil 3'1"“. abridged and

l'E'fl'ilflEd u "Mutiny, Enlvnw, and Walnut-t.” pp. Iii-H.

EB. H. L Huffman. "Empathy. Sada} Catnitiun. and Mara] m . " MmIll!!! his "Dfldnpmml nf Pmmill Mutiufiun." F. El“. HnEman painu: nut that ifllflili‘l"! I'll-Dfllili'jr. tau. can be Han-d.

El. Huddinga ufi'm lather flamphl, but bfl' minimum in filth can i: u:rejen prim-min. A. wunum nu: only 1will, nu: but Lina“ nu: “with": her awn child in law the life uI um fll'hfl childrrrl. 1h: mitt: [if-urn; 1:. H1. 52. V. W. firm-3rd,. I’. Dumb-aim and F. Infill. "flchummmhnf' pp. IIILI l35. The fllim. fur mmplr. uranium: in “flhi: all”I!!!" which I-tipaulmlu

lhll “Lhr: inln'flli {If individual: my be llIh-fll'diflltld in Iht [ream guard" {Th Jill-Him}! Haunting. p- 2”}.

H. A. fiamus. Tin- Huww. p. SE “:1. 35 "In lfll‘flt Editinm]. Mutt pmnaic'allr. cumidfl the m:nl'a Inuiwillt. Etntmly. pun-Etc uflicL-r who was lump-mid Ear lumiflfl' in tflflir tit-Ems Iwith. finfliljmm rflmfl- m disguisr tht I'iln final hr mukl nut bring hirmeil‘ In gin:- Litkcu In real pcflpllr. flu ht pm it, "I had 3 Emma“. I hid a heart. I slafltd string Iht human bring: brhil'I-Ii the driver's Ihtels“ HI.

Juhnaun. ”Pauli-:1: mung Elam- a1 Unancuin; mm“). Haw Ihi: sun unframputinn and pfrspttlil't taking is run-hr hudable in “self—and may even mam Ill-flail? [a prop-1r whu fed they that: human ticketed unntcflmrfly. But if we htlicwe

ll'lilt Iirlwtiing umaft dlivm can III‘FE lim in the lung run. than Ihil p-ulifl- inflict-r is guilty af lie-Hing his mmpnilnim lupflflfidfl-I munlh'. W i l t apathy l'nr

ihmttinn. BEL W- 53111:“, Irmtimf Man. pp. E'HII-Tl. HE. {Him and Glitter. TI: .llfnflfl' Pflmfflgr. p. 2'2]. 5?. H- L. Hufl'mifl'l. ”111: m m 411' Empalhr m jlfllice and Han] Judymm." [3. TE.

BE. Fur mmpit, we ]. Slayer. ”fictive and Euguitivt Frrspenim an Empathy.” p. 223; ”adding. Emily. '1. 5?: and [1.]mh. “Twink-I nl' Altmum."

HE

WWPAGESE’Efi-fl-fi?

BEL Dnlhtnnthmdif'hgnamuedfliflfinnpflhf. . .Itulal'iiulfmfllill nun!indwqunicuulciunct-Tuh¢Hmitiw:hnthnnuahtgnud- .- .E-ll'nr: fl'lh sympathy can arquir: : mml {haunt-r [ht-n: ml, h: a mmmun law. :1 Irwin a!" min.” fln lht lather hfl'lfl. h: HEW: "Haul much mum prcdmn

Eli I tink- humminr than all [In- rulu in llu': world" (I. Piaget. Till- Mm!1 w tuft-I: chill”. pp. $59.19”. Eahlhflg'a prntcgts argue fiercely thanM a w inn,r {lanai Gifligin'l critiquc of his unit-raided div-Him m Ihllflfl principlu. 11': Minimum karma-and mtidflflrflrt.hldfld. hialalfiwmidm Ian-m In rrfltn mun.- Lhan a pink!imrre-It in fllil dirt-aim. In : pap-er put-linked

in firm? in 1956.. hr: and run [nllngufl dinntued " m m 111' ”airlift tympaflir' fur ulhm" a: rhulflfliuit aFSJeagt E tum-l] humming. 11m hema-

Imct "prawn and expresses mic”: idcmflimljnn and mlpilhic [mum will! uthm . . . [Indil isllugiuilfmdplyflmlfiimllypfinnu 'Ilhll “mulling Flint" IL inhibit-rt. I}. Btu-yd. and IE. Levine. “The Return :1? Blair EL," nu. pp. 3-. IE}. Du 1hr rtlalium biz-11mm can: and‘imliu. aha HEJ. EIEIII. firm-rug flaflhfl. pp, ”5-24: andw. Dam. ThMmflEflH p. 102.

ii]- John Hut-run in qunled in L H. Haida-rm "ltgiifl'f Hill Empflhjr," 1:. I51“! 9|. [1. Gflliglnutdfi. Wiggins "THOIipMHHunhfinEfllrfllildhula-ti Ethiinmhips." p. ”B. My m m

92 lit-flu. [hum pp 152-3.

93.H.Buh¢r.flrmMu-udflfn. p p . “ q.

References

Alum. Elm-Tn. "'I'lu‘: UH: and I'll—Hui:1

1

mHtmrdL" In H

i

m

A M ! in- nsim Rum-ll. “End by Paul F- limit: and David Ell-2mm, Amsterdam: Elwfififfimth-Hnflmd Bit-medical Pm". lflfll. hum-t5. Elwin. and Emu Emu. "Th:- H'flh 111:1Warl: lmfim-il: {a Human

Hlturr Dimgu Mtim far Peace by Timing Pmple.” In EM}! an Phil-Hm edit-Ed by]. Hlflil'l Ramirez. Hull-EH h. Hinde. Indjn 5mm. Sni'lle. Spain: Fubflfldmwn d: II Uniwnidld df: Elm-Eli. “331'. human.1mm. '"f'bt Par-flaw Inf Ahntim.” Guam-tiny. Hun-umber 1933, Ilfl-II-Ii.

.I'IIJIII'JIInn-mr Dunn. 5mm: 5- Bum-I. ifld h

m B- flan. "Empathiu: amu-

uljnn of an Inna-rem ficljm: Thcjmt Wart-:1- lad-halffirwfqflhmmfly mud 5m: W 1'9 {3974}: Hit-4?. Jim-tn, M l } . Th Ilium-inn! firth-aha ##5## HH. edited by Hem: L Amhicht-r and Rnwena IL Amharher. HEW 'I'flrk: Harper and Raw. 1964. W h i t .Elma D. H: lining qr Ham! 511m; Harmhnmc. NJ"; Mdine d: Erwin. 1957.

M i r . Gama W. flaming: 5mi- Gcruidmlfluufira i



y

.

New Haven. Em; Vale Uni'lr'fl'lit}? Frau. 1955.

— . Th Hum of Pry'udim Garden (Sign NEE: Andra: m . 19.51. — . Palm-n an! Gmfl in Fem-lam}. NEH ‘fnrl: Hull, flit-chin and “Fm 1951. hum“. Gamma Wumdl LII-cult.Elms. “Per-uni] Erligium flflmfiatiunmd Prtjudicc.” fwd!If W I ; and W m m 5 “951}: 432-45. Ann-rm. Tum H. "Brilliam but Crud: Peru-minus nI Hegntiv: EMm"

jmqrflqmflunu: Sum: W

19 {1933}: 145-55.

-—-. "Hu-Iit'minn 11ml Cmuiritjr: Efl'cfl: all" Hum-Ilium flfiflminn an Ere-

:Ijvc Wflters-" Incl-Inf if m y mi Satin-I! W 43 “9351-: 595-99, Alums. Tum LL. and Am: H. Emmi. "A Negativity Him in interpermna] Eflmflm.“WfM-§wfl Whig IE “951]: l-EE.

REFEIEHEES

HE m

u Tau-M H” Elm: Ann Hmum. Il'ld h u m E. Grimm“. "Sari-l

Influmtfi an. Crtflhilyr: Th1.- Efirfll nl' Cuntrnfled—fm lit-Hind.“ film-11d if

mm; and 3mm £13t an “953:: 11—25. hum. {hut M. In- “Empifirali Altal'flilll nf Mum Unfit-thing Individmi flanu ifihutium In M y - " m m fi r m found III] {1952q 45-51

Alt-nun. WILLIAM H. "T112 Haiure-Hm'ture Della-E. Aptilulifl. and firmly [HF Fermi-H.” Jul-mun fljrfiahgur 1!- [IEIflE-J: TIE-Ell}. Ann-us. humane: V. "Emu-Etna Helping and “Elia-inn: Behfliur.“ W Ram: 59' “9761: Iii-53. Ami, CHI'I'E. and PHILIP 5mm“: "Plulidqr in Brain Hereby-mt." m a m . Dumb-tr HEB. Elfin—fill. MIL-mm, .ilismflr. Edilfll by Philip What-Hm- Wimp-01B: li‘lzulmljrlmlu![-r.vr'rfl[r I951. Amunzmduu‘nn. "Th: Surilliflliun n!" Mmfiuir and: Eympnd'miqr lEhil-‘H'ifl"! 5am:- Thmrflira] ind Experhnmlal Amine-.5." In .Il'fl'ruim and H m Inimi-

m, Edil-HI by]. Mammy and L Bfliwili. New Yuri: Madmi: Frnl, 19W. Ann-Hm”. ELLmrr. and Dunn Emma-elm. “jig'mh' Bump: and II'II' W r i t mammal: 1n Funuil ul' flnmmnn Grails.“ WEI} and Enid Pal-w Buihin 5 [1979]: IBE—‘l'fi.

Assam-mm hm. "Traffic Survey {Hm I Hill—t" Mr. Hm! firm. I5 HM-fll'lhfl' mm, H.

Luann-5. imam and Batman STANL'IU. Th Mm m :Bin-main; Hr Him“ I: .Tnl'lnr. Burton: Shirtlhhall. 1933..

Emmi. {L E. flu m

qfflu'hmrl:F W W m

lamd: fluil Hartwell. IHEIE. EMEII. Emu". Thrflrfaraiflmmr I’m-ml W

flnfurd. Enl-

m qrElli-1. Ithaca H.T.:flurndl

Unfit-flit! Frau. I953.

linumzm. fill-ant BEL]. Unnifiwmn. and Himu. E. aflm. "tlfl'hiliun nI Aggie-ulna." fauna! q" M i in m m 9 HRH}; 253—59. Ban-Tu. [LIME]... Flu-maria! lurk-liar.- Than :11!Rmi. Wagl-nn. ELIE: Humisphctt, [ET-I5-

lama. Dawn. fir Han and 1h- Tau-flu." My. Clfl'flfl'. ml Hm Nam. Hm Tart: Viking. lfl‘flfi-

. fir H'ilrupfl'mg'r lfiliil. Hm Turk: Harp-Er and Ila-Ir. 1W9. Hutu. Human-um IL StrungHum:m

m



mMy”; Bah-Icy:

Univerlilr nf fiafil'umia Prfll. 193i

Mum. Hum A. “Empathy and Hrhlfll Italian“: in Chihdrm." In Erlfllflflj' um'ffl 5 | " d :diwd III-g:f Ham Ember;andJIn-HSim.Ennhrflgm

England: Cambridge Emu-nit}: Pres-5., [937. MET. III-[AH :L. 1nd JM-Iu H. BHHH. "Elihu urflmnllelitim will: flulmml

Fmdlnck an {flfihdrtni Hunky-hug Ethan'nr.“ W

Fifi-Lia” I'D

{WT-II}: ESE-4:1

M m . Hm I... hum H. Hum. 1:11:11a 4% Hawum “Induc‘m: Afl‘ut

H E W

H9

Ila-um HMWWWGHMFEEHWJTHWWHIW lg] 1-5- {IET'B}: Ifi-I—HET. HIM-"Hr. Mann A... Em»: A. Mamm. and [1mm Ii. Gama. ““111: Elm uf Cummithle and Cnupenliw [Mn-uninnal Sci: an fllildm'l firmw— fly." Hit-1mm} an! 5min! fijrfinlag militia 5 “HTML Ell-EH. h m . Man: A ” Hum A. HATIHEWE andjurnn' A. Human. ”Realm bflwrnEnmpfljljwnflu Incl Empathy infi- and T-TEIr-flldl." W Hyfinbg [ 5 “919}: Efllafl. Banal-4+ 305m A. Human W u . New Yuri: Pknllm I'EWT. 311nm. Dunn EH an! Mum: [tum-Yunuw. “Frmacial Behavinr. Sufi-E1 Mart-1m] .fi'dani'lilfgr+ ant! M m e ” in Ehfldlm." CE!!! W 13

“977}: 175-5]. Baum. “rum”- Ira-um Hm .rl End; in W

M

. Garden Elly,

H.'I'.: Anchur Bun-uh. WEE.

Emu. HIEHALL Fug-'11. "Empalhic umnmm.",ramarmmini-ml- Exh— mi'gn'r drum-lily: 31 HEIRS}: Int-2'5. Bass. Anna-H. "When Sibling: Ar: L-‘n like FEB!- in a Pad.“ Habit-Ink. 5 | } i til-ED. 25-25. BATE-DH. [3- DANIEL. m a m £3m ahcnming. . "m111Vlillfll. Hum] Principlfl. Ind iThl't-E-Pflh Hudrl ul'mc'ul Hmhminn." In E's-rut! and Mara! Palms: r m :and Sac-um! W m . fli-

had by Nancy Hamburg. januu human. and Enrin Snub. Hilhdllr. NJ; Lumnn: Erlhaum. I939. — - "Fl-unaliial Muflniiun: 1.1 It Eur: Truly Altruiltt?" In I ' M in Etpl'l'l‘a-

ml'ml' 5w! Phjriukg]. val. ED. Edited by Lit-maid Blrhuwill. Sin [Ii-ran: Academic Frau. 1931'. . "Suriuhinlugy and the Rahal “High-IE] in Haunting qcial Edifilfl': An Alimliw ‘l'itH.HM if m a y and Saul-E fig-dam ‘L'J [HHS]: lflEfl—flfi. BATE-fill. IE. Damn, jum' G. Burma. Gill 5.. Gunrrr. 55mm hummd. Hmmm. Blnmr-r. Fm: Snmnuumn. and Hum]. Bum. ”NIL-gatinSlat:- flclict‘and flit Empathy-.Mmflsm Hypnmtsis." jun-urn! if Fen-mm; an! Sana! £ 1 t 5-H “QB-“HI: 922-35. Hannah. E- DMIIEEL. MIEHBLLE H. fl-IJLLH. JULIE. 1L Can-5.5. and HELEN E. ”H.11mun-Bmznu.. ”III-11H:- In the Altruism in II“: “mini:m a w w 11¢q Fnlnnfln'lfl' and W fiwfiahfl 5-H “956}: E lfl-fllfl. HTML-H. E. Damn" amijn 5. Eu“. “EmpaLh-gr: A Sam: nEAIu-uini: Mmiflfiml

I'nr Helping?" In Emmy madHrit Murmur: End-III. WP]. and W

mm: t

H rdilrd by j. Philippe Human and Richard M. Sautnlinu.

Hillauzliir. 51.]; t'l'fl'lEl'.‘ Elihaum. 193]. Susan. E. £15111:i 5- Bum hi. LJMH-Dflllll. ind It'll-Elm mung. “Buying

Hindnrfl: Efl'm {If ill Efllrhllili Inn-Truth“: fur Hrlping an Pmriwd Mirnauflfi- -i {PETE}: BEL-El. hm" Ham and Elfin! m

5511

R

E

M

nun-mi. E. Baum.1mm: L. than]. 31mm BumJum G. hum. hum:

L. PM.hi.Em:HcMAmn.andflnnlflmrn1T.“Five5mdk-s Tinting Tum Hun-Ir Egmlil: Murmtivn In- th: Empathy-film HWHiI." jun ndg'finmhfl mm' Emmi H I M 5-5 “933}: 52-17. BAH-DH. E. DAHlllql FULTI. and Pam A. Sultan-ml. "mun Emmimul Indium m the [Hurt-n ul' fllhm." In E-pnj'fig mi fl; W I . edited by Nancy M andjlntt Swarm. Chub-tilts. England: Elmh'l'lzlfi

UII'I'I-rtriity PI'EIE. 1951. mm". {3- 11mm JIJII FULT-I. PAT-1m A. M u m . and nun Pullman.

"Ethical H—Erfleflhn and ErlF-Ferttiirfll Altruism: Whtn MFR-rm h i s . " q Hamlin “JWHyM-fiqj .53 {IE-ET]: M E . Hanan. 1:. Hum”... “.11.m IE. (Imamjm' L. WEIH. 5m F. Hmh Punt: ]. Rum. acljmmma,1nd Tuna“: Elm-m- "ldighm Emu-iii Hu-

liminnr I: I: Altruiui: ur EEn-ialiri'"_fuur-fl gram-um,andm

m

5? “9391: Sin—Ell.

film-1mm, Flt-ml, mmn Emma-3H,, Ham?” him. and E11: 513nm. “Erfm: Elfin Elem-mm? Echo-all Pmlnm In Enhance Frnmdal Hahn!!! flhildrm's fingniliw: Such] PmHem-Ealring Skill: and Smeghi.“ M qfdfiffl W W In [1939]: [17—59. Ban-uncut. harm. III-alumni “Emu. Ilium. Emma-H. EIJI: Swan, and Ju-

urm Wan. “Thu: Ehild Dflulumt Prujrn: A Eumprelmsiv: Frugtam fut 1hr: Dficlupmml uf Pflflfltill Limiter" In Maui Maui-r and W ' Him-fli- Tim}. Emmi-l. mdfiflimm. : 5 d by William H. Hunting: antljamh L Erwin-u. Hillsdaiat. NJ; b r i m Erlhaum 1959. HAMHH. Dnmm1.. Ian“ E. Emmi. and Duunuu T. Imuni.“fln11i:m

a: HE-liflflilfll‘. Helping and H—Gmifiwm u Equlrnlcm Ital-mm."_fiw=-

mama and Still Hyfluhgr m “951}: "139.45. MMJAHET Emmy. hm Em.Gum E. LILHEI‘I'. andjmmmn Muuxrr.

“Hum: Himin'ra: Primitive Empathy.” In 5 % "J H: Balm. edited by Manny [fistula-erg and jinn! Stray-er. Cambridge... England: Elmira-HI: Univ-trinity FIE-15.. Eli-i“.

Haul,HERE? (I. ” [ 1 : a nl' llifl'fltnl Hind: nl' FumlNEW.“ In flnw'grflfldflnflnpnm: RIM-uni. ml. 1. edited by HarlinL Hufl‘mmand Luis Wlid'u Hufinm. c' Turk: Him-H" 5:5: Fuundalinn. 19H. humumlulu: H M with Law. Urbain: Univ-trail]:- mlIllintfl Pim+ “1'55.

W M ‘ H b H H L S h c — W m m Haiti-HIM Grumman Emu." Edmiijmfiim Em. j-munrflF-Ehrmrp' I‘DIB‘II. Iii—4?. EEEIIHITH. jun. ”fi-mdn and Math M M E Dun fining}! HIV: limitati-um fur Edmhnnli Pal-icy?” Bum Emu-nil]1

w 9"Hamlin IE5! PHI}:

[EB—H. hamdnn. Inlljnml DIIIIJH. "flirll. Burl.Ind Hath." Edi-unfit .Ih Hugh, Septfllhml'flflnhtr Ifl‘fll. 6-9. 32-3-5.

H E W

35!

Hanna. Hut Plum-f ELI-run Human: m m . Hm luu G u m Ind jtu. Burma: Tum. Wan-1'1 H’ugn qr Inniq Th W $515!: Pm. mud Hmn'. Han: Turk: 535i: Ema-uh. [HIE-tiBILL-1H.Inuit #4., Emma hut-um. Wuum H. Suuwm+ AH" Emma, ”Hi 5 “ . t MINI-Tan. HflfflqflhHmrthdmfiuhs-nn‘fimnmhm : Humanity ul— Ealihnia Pram. l'EIEE. Lift W

Hanan. [EM-m.” I‘mscm. 1:111]m {1. Eur-IL“. “5:1: Dflftmlcn in Hall-I!mlliul Ability: Fact at Anficl?“ Erin-1m. IE 1 1 : : t [950. HER-53. mun. UUIEI'I‘L"G¢I1EIi.I ni' Hamlin.r in Chili-en." Jufimnjmfgffifih-

h} um 119431: 24: I45. Hum“. LEELJI. “A lawn“: Prim an Fun-mirth: 11am? Ind Tun."1

w 9"

want-Minn 3-3 {1935}; 5-51

Erratum. fltm Lu". ‘flr Myh {Tn m

min: Gun-h .Hlflll an! than

NM New Turk: Dnfltdmr. 195'}-

angina-H. Hun. and unjmmmrd. “Cc-grim Ecliud In Empathy ifl Fluttu Elem-flar-flld Childrm." GIIH W

t 5E ilfllflfl: Infill—IE-

E l m , FEIIEIIT {3... and Illa-ma Slim-MI. "Hangman ufflhildhnntl ‘Hr

pemctivirp‘ by Primary Ear: Plinthm." W

and hhufiwul' Hal-Iv

tin II [1935']: Bil—Elli.

llama. Jill-Em. "flnct Rarely Euphrtd. IIIE' Huiucluu {him "mama: il a Etbunl Til-pit." NM that NIH-H. 3- flflnhtr i933. 1115.

— - "Print {If "Inna-:1? Tflnililfl intn Fawn}.- aml Hunil‘ulmn.“ Mm fir-i

Thu. 13 srpannhcr was. A]. HIIIID'IITWE. [Human-r. "Mun-d. Srlfvhirarmni. and Willing“: In E F T W

flint-Hand"? and Sun! fijdluhgl 52 UNIT]: 'FEl—EH. Miriam. LWHAIHI. and WIHJAH H. flunk-m. ”Surreal. Failure. and h i l l Eupumihiliwf'jwmuf If Hannah}; and Sari-IE Briefly 1 :lflfifil: Efi'l—EEL Ell-mum. Llamas. Ind Lam: H. 115mm. “limp-unlihflity and Drpendr-

my." jaumfl J A M ! and Sam! £1m ’55 ”953]: 429-315. annual.1:"q w.. Fun Dull-mam. and Film Elm. 'flthumuiutinn.“ In Sum-mufinr EMT. Edillfll by Henri: Sanfnrd. Graig Gama-tuck. at a]. San Frans

dumjmnry-Buu. 19'”. BEIHI'IEIH. 1mm: 5..Tflauu P. Gum-mi. and. HananH. Eula. “‘I'ht- Inlrnctiun ul' Hnnnnncn. Bdmint. 1116 Exit] Eumtu in Hunhmmn Primate-I." In

H mmidflrmmflrfium tdiltd by fink-E EL 51'1”. New hark: Plenum. [Elli

Humid. Emmfl.IL "tk-m:with Mimiim." hfinw W a r m ; Eflilrd by King‘s Bullet: Swinbinlnfl Emma. Cartridge. Cambridge. England: ['mbridg‘r Urli'l'fi'flh? Fri-Tin I932. Hamlin. Baum- "Tlmir Specialty Wm Hurdtr.“ Enriew at T5: Mm‘ m by Rnbcnjar Liflun. Hm Yuri Hm flunk Karim. 5 Dumber WEE. I . 51451 mwm. Pam. IL. and jam-mm 3 m . "'firnflin and Human Edna-flat:

Pin and Fulum." Flu-lumpy.

REFERENCES

352

Bum. Hun. "lrflecn'mu Inf 3 W

.

" Hafirfi. infirm I935. 15. EB.

Hummus“. whim, "Intuit? u LflpHiun-rinl Human and u Emu] Dim: The fine Inf Iln." I945. Identified in Erin-m: .rl' Nu m m in

Hflflflfljflfldfljfihfllfl. edited by Hulk: Hlv,finutfingd.lndfleflfil Blenhergfl. NH "I'nrlt: Sim-an and Schwinn. 1953. m i1 I'JIE Balms. Bin-L1H- “Thu:- Eme-rgmc-E and Sudafimflnn of 5:: m L"! {IQU‘E}: 239-51. Eflfliflt Yul-an." Mini-Mm w

lama". Mun-3H. Tau. TIMI-H. Emu MW, and [Inn Slum. “Efl'ecu ml“ the Age Slnmurlufflm M W M W W H T J W I J Edam-f W Ili- ll‘EH'EII: Hill-59. BLAH. I ' m H. Euhlgrflifiuwh m m Her fathjuim Wills-r. I'EHH. Mum.Ham H“, and STEPHEN 5. Elm.Farm “Haul War: ES. .Ilrlud Fm .u a Mind fun-unfit Wimunn. D.E.: Blanking: Inflituliun. l'EI'J'E.

IuIIIJhITH.MrHIdGnIht'JCfln-ruqdflm Thurman Wm NEH Yuri; Fri-13mm PIT-Iii. I951. ELDEI. Jim-nu. H. “Mame: Lulu-h I1 51:: Difl'rrmliflinn in flu: Entiiiifllhn Bflhfl'iflfl nl' Hula-n and Fame-n-” In Tirfljrhhg flrl’m' Farm! mm."flminflmh. :diltihyjflhflfilmmmmdmlhnm-nhflfl Turk: Paydmlngifll Dimensium. HHS. m._]uflnl. H.+ Null-u Hun. and H. B u m Slurrni. "Militia-n flan:-

lam diludrnl Mfimm"jaumd qwmm 2!.- Hfilfifi}: HJ—TT. Btu-cm. $1.1M- Tfir (This; 451"”: Janina Mid.- Hnr High: E

m Ha: Riki

m m m m m s n h q r m a m Hewi'urhfiimnnand Erhmm. IH'I. Burmhmuma k Egan Paul. 19m.

m

‘ Windmill!) Landau: W i n d

Bum. Wan: IE. Muir-I £1a Id at: Mia-unit. (Iii-cap: ”Ml? fl Chin-gt- Flus. I974.

EDIE. HELENE. “humeral Ftrtrplifin nf Tuning; Ehildrln: EI-fltfllfl‘illl nr Empathy?” Why'd-aim: 51l9‘i’l}:!fi3—flfl. Bum. Ban-:1. “Mmluflénn‘: Ehuiw: flan-m." Snail-whim. fljulr l fi . Til-'39. Hunks. WILUAH j" and GLEJ'IIH L. PIEIEE. *‘Dfltrrenfl: ur Bmtaliul'mn: What I: 111: Efl'ect 11f Emu-mum?" Eli-rand fi r m . «Dinah-tr PM“. 155—34. “ yr H M ; E!!! Hymn. Emma. " W . Egninn, and Hutflity."1 HEW}: 531-91 N of I Pump-rum an Emmy." W fllmanm Luna. ”A W Farm HE H.939}: lfl-I'EL H um}:191!Elm-m. Hnlflnfl ]. "Pirdmlngiml Egu'um E M T M 3119.

BITHH+JAHEE H.. and PERI? Lawn-nu. "Aknl'lfli-E W a r t ! Ehildru'm' Euch-

bgu'm: menu 13 ”mm: Elm-Ell. Enumjmfl Hfiamd Hum-r Human W m “ W a n d Punting Gumtr-

IEFEIEHEES Milly: m

um

and 11mins." M

355 W all [19'7“]: 51'9-

53. Human. 3mm IL "Mental Hfihh. Tit-mm“. Family. and Ffimds: FIBIpfi'm'fl nn Children‘l Empathy Ind Social Fmpecfiw Taking." In Ell-pill]-

mn'a'fl Ila-1W. Ed'flrd by Harry Eilfllhfl'fl' andjlml Emu-Er. Mridgc. Engiand: firmbrisdgr Uniwnhy Fran. HIST. luau. Ham. t m mMn. Tumbled by Ennddfiugurfimilh. 191T. Ileprim. Hen-r Yuri: Mam'uillln. 1955. . m x m n a W q fl k l m Tranlhttdb'f Ham-ire Fritdmau and Runailfi Gregur Smifl'l. Hm Yuri: Harper Ind Raw. 1955.

Bun-u. 1mm]- “Mm-ism Arrim: in Muffin-nun gum-{1 fl ”9551:4114: Hanna! Had. “A. {in-um: DEF-Emit Inf [ht Flu.- Hal'ttL" HII April I973. Hill IIDII.

BUTLER. 111m". Tirdnflqjfif Run-fight lflfldflfl‘. Hrnnr [L Mm. lflfifl.

finnmdmmduu: flwmmn. and W

MLLLIIL “Thu: finish urH m "

Emu. fl Sepllmhfl 1935. [4545.

Balms. flaunt B. "An Emulinnlw and Ill-Edwina! Fmi'rt an Am~ sin.- Pattrms.“ In Him.md'dgvnfin: Wall-and Sun-rillm . edited by Carolyn Eahn-Wultr. E. Hark Cunning; 1nd Humid Imnulti. Cambridge. Engilml: Cambridgr Unfit-nil? I'I'HI. Em. Gums. flaunt IL llamas j. W a l l . and Hfiflil'fl'fl E. Hour. "A Btu-inpmrntal-GL-nc-Iit Amlysis ul' Aggie-“ii:Iduvim 'm Mitt: ]. Ithavhrll Du:{Dina—"Imdlfflfiwfllfllf £ 5 : t 'IH “935}: 59—59. [331.111. Aunt-r- c m "If 11m flfln Ha}; Truth-rd by 51mm Gilbun- New Turk: Vintage. I953.

— . TI: Hagan Tmmhmd by 51mm Git-fl- 19H"- Hm Turk: Vining-Ir, 19H. ——4 fl:- Hun-H1 Trimmed hr Anthem Bauer. New Turin Vintage. IEEEI. . fluulnnfl. fiddling ml flnfl. HEB. Tnnalllul byjuuin flflriL-n. Hum "k'nrh: Village. I914. m . ARTHUR L "Bambi-logy. Human Hflm+ Incl Psychnlngiu] Eguism." jinn-u! qf'End and H M Sin-chm E H'M'EI}: £7.35. flumnm. HIEHHHJ. "Egocrulrhm and Amiga-daft Ethavint: The Autumnal and Training uni" Each] Ptflpfllht-Takilu SHIII.“ W W 9 [I975]: SEE-3!.

{Inn-mm, Mum}. and STEPHEN Gnmm. “Emu W

In H- Ila-rim." m m “ : W

u A Reply

7 “95-21: I-IH-fi-

flan-um. "JEI-lfll. flunuuh u q L u . flu: final-Hum. d

m [up

Hun-I. "Empathy ind Rtsp-umihilin in tht Mmivatiun of Children': Haip-

Eng-" W

anything 23 {19311: tms.

Elm-mam. HAHN. "Ewan-d Dn'w: 111mg? flhjen fiehliuni and tha- Limit: {If Radical Indivithulhm-” Than-3 nm' 5511:!!! H [1935]; ETl-llfl‘. — . WWflflflhfinfiWulflrhmq’M. fluidity: Ufliflflitf Inf flfliinn'l'l Fran. 1W3.

35+

mum

— , “Tmrd a Ethfimul Individualism1 The Medium-n nl' Self Ihrnugh Flyflmamlrm." In Emmi-mm;H i m - a m . I m m . all-duh Hm H'isflm W t . Ediliflll by 'I'lmmas E. Heller. Harlan minim-11d David

E. tlbu'y. Eunffird. Calif; mam-rd University Press. l'flfl'fl. Elam-ml. EDIE“ Bu, hum: E's-IlJ'ILLMEI.r Dun-Hun Hfluuflnfl. HHIH AIM, jun: Emma!+ and Arum: L Em- "Empmhy-flamd Hnlphg: 1: ll Swims]? mfidfillflr Hntimtdi'" W a! m y and Saint M W 52 {193?}: HEP-ElliCurrn. (Imam E. ‘Terhfl at 1'5." Bum-I (Hill. '9 Daub-tr 1935* EW-TE mu... Mmm 5. "Rum-d limping in Tun Twit: nIE' Ettaflmuhipa." journal qffllmuhfir and Emil Hyddfllfl II? (1934]:519-51 Clans. Magnum 5.. 1nd JUflfl-flfl Mina. “Imflpemnal Mmflun in Birthing: and {Jammurul Erhtimulfipu."jmmdg"flmfluflj mama-1W 37‘ [lgmk EE—E-IlEll-IL Hanuurr 5., Haiti's!“ fluLH‘rl-IE. Hum E. Painful... and Ema-Inn MIL-

IEIHL "fitripitnl': Him-2|. Edafiunfllip Type. and HelpingfjmuiqfflaufiIN} ELI-d Emu! W 5:! “937}: fi-II—lfl‘fl. Eu“. E. GIL. and JHDE Mlufl. “finchlifltinn Ind Simlinmi 1 m an Sustained Allminm." DIM W

1 .5? {1935}: [555-59.

Gum. E. Em and LESLIE flIEHmIH.“11'-t Anna-um and Eflcfliwnnl uf Help: The Ethtinmlfip nf Mnli'I-I'fl iH'Id Abilities In Hrlphlg Mam.“ M g and 5:!e Phi-fining} fluflrfim in [Jr-EllEu“. 1:; GIL. and ‘l‘lmms J. Truman. "Silf-PEffljflium nl' Helpfillntu: Diffmm Meaning! I'ur Difltrmi Frflple'r‘" Piper prmnted at the annual

muting HE 111: Amman Prydwuhgin] hawthtiml. Atlanta GL, Aug-um IE3. Eurm Vlcrul. E” audjnuui H- EJEHAIDSJI- ”A Emurvhnalwi: Ella-1y Inf Euclilion: Edi-H Hid Bthwinfljdm-mqfflmmfiq mikdflhyhhg I (1955]: 559—75. Mum. 11ml. "Hfl Hm 'Evil Emil-LII "’ Ilium Hur- Haiti. '3 jun: IDES. T. m i n “ . Thimflpfiqu:dfi1hhflmlfl“£mnflgflémfliflm”fltw Yuri: Fantheun. [931 M n . DAVID. .fll'mim fled Emu}:1! Stuff in M lW New furl: [hffll'd Univernz'uy Press. 1913. fimnudunm and SudanEarn)“. "5:: Hmm1A Sudy a!" :11: Err: ml' the BthnH-n'." Efifl Darin-pm II? I 19751:. BIEHI'EI'. M r . CHARLES Hana-H- M W J snufmiawm ”fir Yuri: Snihnrr'l. 1909.

EHHHIHEE. E- hull. Baum Hummm Imam Mum-Tn, Hfllnfl Knuth Tutu-w. and [luau-H Lam-Wm. "£q firgnninIi-un of MIL-“inn and Ami'mn: IJ'fltlnpmnlml Final“ and Individual Difl'ercncfl.” In Alt-um:lniflW ' - W r m 3 m " .editfllhy hhn-Wnler.E.

555

W Marl: Cumming. Ind Humid M

L Cambridge, lingual: Emu-Hg:

Unfit-nit? Freu+ [9%.

Emu... ELu-n't'r. w m m d m fl h fl m MTHE: m u , l'EIEIIt. Danna. WW. mflmfliflmflflflm‘:NMHHIIM HIE-r 'l'm‘l: F111: PTI'JI. [933. DmJuuu. and Bill um“. “ W u - 1 m m in Marin:Dilb-

uinn of Remit-Him" fund JHruui-‘ly uni 55TH Ply-huh”- fli {WEE}: l??—-flfl.

Dani-1H. 61mm- flflumJHn-miflm‘uhmhh Heir-In Turk: l1 Appittml, IBM. [tartan-H. Gun, and PALI-‘L [unusual-t. M i s fi t I W Hun-11ml. I'EIHE.

Eflfli} Hen “hark:

Dam. Mu: H.,].Inr E- HULL, Emma 11 fauna. and Elm-n1? E. Wm.

"Emit-ml [Initial]: In Dram": Film Ethnuli: Th: Irflluenct al' Curl-fillilivt m 52 {la-an; w Ind Emmi-anal E m p a t h y . ” q fl WEI-33. Dawn. 3mm H. "Hun n. Hui-ell: Hufll and flu.- Itlmnca uf Guguitiw: Pwthnlnfi.“ minim Him-um 25! “983}: Ell-2'5. Dawn. [.11a M", Amman]. E. arm in: Run.Imljnflfl H. Hutu. “(Imp-err [ion for [ht Brut-fit nl' III—Hm He ar H1» Emmi-Em." In Hand Sifil'lfnflmr.

Edil-Hl byjant Hamhfldge. fidugu: Uniwrliw nffllfiugn I'm-u. fmhmm— mg. mam, Infill: LIL. JEANNE. HcTMrufl, and Hum M u . "Helfl'riur. Eam-

munififliun. and Millinplzimu About Elihu Pbuplc'l Erhiim' in a Enmmm‘fl 35 HEW}: I—I: 1. Dilemma 5hmtiun."jmnm' y'Fmpna-Erlfidnd W W Damn. Harman. Th English Gm Hm Yuri: Blind Ufli'h‘lfl'litf Pm“, l'El'Ifi. Dam. Enwnm L. and R i m H. Emmi. 1 WM m and warm-mm in Human 5mm New ’I'url: Hmum. I'EIBS. Ihmnicfl. Mani-.111. Till: Run-hm y’ W . m m and m New Hun. III-nuns. Ya]: Uniuflily' Fun, PETS.

H m

III-anus. KENNETH A. "Spatial Infanmtiun-Pmcfisinl 'U'Ir'uhlfl in flu: Development nt' $551411!t 1nd Mtruim in [midi-tn." In A m and H W ' Haw uni San-in! flip”. edited by Wyn htuh-l. E. Marl: Eum— mingn. and flmfld lannnfli. Emuhritlge. Enghnd: Embfitlgt 1.”.Tl1i'IIIvL-miu.I FITS-'3. l'fl'flifi. Dunnrnwnn Pram. m m Tnmsllluad Inn; And!!! It. u m . Hunt Yuri: NH A m “ Lihnry. 1952.

DIEIIAH, 5. EL. and C W W. Elnflulm. "Mu-Lian: ur Ilccipmciw: flaring li-clufinr in I'II'iEH flhdflglntn Emil-dun." E'Ifla' W H HMS]: 51-53. D'm-I-ufl'r. Lama. Em? anI M ‘ Madm- I W H J H W W

flhitfln: Univflaitr nl' Chiagn FIE“. lfifl.

a

355

m

But: MH..andl-hu1mflmv. "E¢nd¢rnndflell:mguflclufinr:n Hull-ulflll’ftit Harrier-r DI the Sun-rial Finimlugitfl lithium." W .5d IUD HEB-fl}: 235-3113. Emu. hut: H.. and VALE-Ill1. 5 m . ”Genda- Ind W i t Film-rm: A M Hen-Wit: Iii-ruin: if the Such] Plydmlnliral lilflahl'cr.‘ M

Bulb-m HID [E935]: BEE-ED. EMA-11.. TIMI-Mi 3.. and DIM-'1:- A. VII-L “BBS Fight : L'nmul Tm Enrflnma— tim" [ 1 " t Hm. SI Mud: HEEL A L Alli.

EHIJMIn'r. Ann L ' t fi [1- Hm Dntiny." M fi r 1h Mr Julrffiugun 1555.. 12-15.

EIIEJI'IIIEIE. m 123-23.

" 1 1 m Hat-Jr:uf Hmrun I'Ihlure." Sui-pm H April 1911.

Elam-n5. Han-m- A m Ella-tin. liq-HM. and Main. Hilflhh. “J4: LIII'v fence Erlhnum, Iflflfi.

--—. “Relatinmhip Inf Frmncial HnnlEmil:In Altruism. Fuliliral LiberalB M 15 [IRE]: 31—39. islm and Imdligrnu." W EIIEHIEIE. Hmcv. Emu: «Gunman. and Hum Tim“. "financial Ethan-hr in

Ilhl: Finch-ml 'l’tirs: Mrflménlulical and Emma] Inn-H-" In W

unn‘J-famfimnfl-H I MEFL-mm: film-MIMI W m all .Fhsiflw film-nil}.

edited by Enr'm Slauh. Daniel flanTflJe-ny Huylnmki. amflanufl REEF-aw Iii. New Yuri: Hun-um. l'EIE-Il.

.L Fm. “liming 1hr Akmism-Empallw Elm-Ella. ”Am, and ln Hypadmis with Phyliulogicil and Summit Inditu." Paper pruL-nlcd it uh: :umual rattling ul' flu.- Smiely uf Emcrhmtal Satin] Prythulnfl. {3hrlmu-willc. Va”, [111!!t HIM. Eula-Inna. Haunt 31mm A. Fun. Elmira: Emmm. Halli-I H. mm. PAUL A. HILLEI. and EIJIEET [nu-mm. “Difl'urmtialinn at Vininmlry lu-

ducfll Erwin-nit] Hum-hm.“ Why-damn 2411935]: HER-15. Emuluu. Hm. E m A. Fun. hm. A. “ELLE..JI.'H FULTI. firm Sarah 11mm H. Han-m. and EM IL Elma. “Rt-laflnn uf Empathy and P

M

III-isms la I'm-much! HEh-i'll'ilfl': A. Hultimuhad Smdr.”fiwul 4 W 5

nnfl' 3w! fi r m 5'1" {[939}: 55-55. [Juliana-Bun. Han-1:1. and Euullrm G m ."final-m: Elf Framing:Ind

Fawn fifth:- Hndelfhtarhfl: Tl".-Fflm unflhildrén's (infill-Sim.“ Dam-lapmun! Parking: I5 HMS}: 163-175. Emma-Baum mum. and Pullman. Hum. "III: Idflumhip If Fit-swalers' Emuning album financial Mun! Cunflilu 1:: W i l l finch-vim." CHE

Mum-n! 5D I 1919}: 356—63. Emmi-1Hm, and BAND! LIIIII'HJH. "5E1flfimminElqfllhymd Halt-Ii flap-mitifl." Psychhgimf fluflrl'in 1-H HESS]: I'M-Ill. Elan-alum Ham. Hum: Hcfifiu'rm and imam Mm. "Haitian: Emu-r

limul Eflpumirmm III-d Prmmzinl Bthatim': Thrir Intern-Elfin: in

35'?

W E E hung M

"

M

H

W

W

W H “my: 2955*-

SI L Efllfllfllfi. Hanna. and PA“. A. Hun. H'Empflhy Emmy. uni Mtruhm: Empificflmdflnncrptuflflrfilflnfilpufljn-JIHW W h y hhnqr Ehrnberg antljmfl Sharer. Cantu-infill. England: Eamhfi-dg: Ulivmitr Prm. IEIBT. — ."TheEthtinnnl'Empalhjrmlm'flhnd hinted Hakim-I." Ibrahim:icll' W

[111 {1937'}: El'l-l I9.

Enmnu. Hmm+ PHIL A. HELL-ll. lulu: Scam. E l m A. FmIn:

Full. Jim; W

and mm L- Sun-L '11::Ital:arr-gammy andmm

Hamlin? Trail: in Helping: A hmmim" jar-nu! gr Hus-alum: 57 ”5393: III-57. Emma-Em. “mum and fi r mHm "Children”: Hand Eta-mil:dam

"Hui: {hm Spatial-emu Pmmhl Bfllninr.“ W

m

15

“WW: SEES-29'.

Eumum. Mann" Hm W I . W u A. Fun. Dunn 5 m m . Hflllfl H. Ham. Emu SHELL. Ind KILL? Emmi-u. ‘Wewntialirm “I Pnsunal Dismsmdflympathyiaflhfldflnmdfldulu.“flwwmm EI- “EIfl-BI.‘ 1'Efi-T5.

taxman. Hanan Mu: M

m hm. EL Hum. jun Fun-L, IIJEHJLII: A.

Fm. and firm SHELL “fimdtr—ltlaied Train and Helping in I Hunt-Infl-

m

Eiluilinu." 5:: Huh I'D HRH-fl}: fiflfi—Ifl.

human.Mum. mdjmnETIM'II- "firiflul Issues. in Harald? ni'Emgnlh'y." In Elfin-i} and H: W filifld by Harm-r Eilmh-n': and Jill'flfl Shim.

flimhridfit. England: flmhfidgt Unhrtnily Fm 19HEIIIHIEIIF. him-rm. and Juan- 5mm. ms- E M met In M bridgu. Engllnd: [Zimhridge Uniwnity Prm. [$1. Enm. Elma. Tl: flu!“ with m . flu Hit-III}. [3w F M in

r

. Eln-

FI'IIH‘i-IED:

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Elm. LE-fll'llhlfl- [ZIL+ L Eml-luumfl.Elm: Dumw. Imam W m . and Fn'l'l'i' Hume: 'I'uulL. " W i n and In m l u u aver 25! Yum." In

HEM dam-mun mu“ Hub-um tdiled by David H. Era-well. Ian M. Evil“. and flifl'm'ii EL D'Damll. Nth- “Hi: Fltnum. I931

Efllufll. AHITA-I. 'flr Mani flab-m r m1: Nu E m . HE! THE: Fret Pius. [REEL

Fan-u. haul. and mm: Hamsm m y aim: Hind-Jr. Hm ‘I'ufl: lit-1m. [HE-'5'Fun. Ilium A.. Jan Fuuz. Ham Elillflllfl, Tm: Hnrflmm. and F.

553

REFERENCES 5cm? Enmmrflln. “Elfin: uE' lmrth m: EhiHflfl+l Pmmcil] lull-nth:-

film: A smilim Study.“ W

Ruining 2511959}: sag—I5.

Fwnn-Smum. ANNE. Myth; :53" Gflflr.‘ H i m r m dud Wm and Mn. New Turk: fluid: EurJuillin1 lflflfl.

FIJHHISIE. JnaL “Fly-:hnlugiml Eguilm." in HM and W u . Radian: in SmflnILabkmq’Pfiim-nflj, tdittd bflntl Firinb-crg. Ell I'd. Encinu. Cflifi: Dictamm. I'EI'J'I. FILIIIIAH. M. “'1. and IL I3. Lmnmn. "Th: Htliuhilitf Hang-up." m . I9 Dartmbtr ”'15. HEB-EB. Fauna. GAIL Ii. ll'ld H u m jun-1H fl. “Kidney than“ lie-visited." 1n Jill?!-

mmflcfigmw,Emma}. MWilrfit-u. ediml by}- Philippa: Hashim: and Eid’filrd H. Snrmm'nu. Hillidialt. NJ; 1mm: Erlhflum, I113]. Fflflmm. Halli-uH m . "Empifllr Training: A Field 5mm.r in Mfume Educ:-

tiun.” In dwhuflflrfidmrw War-"INNHarm udittd by Stfnmur Fflhhach and Adam FI'IIEIEI. New Turk: finger. ”TB. — . "hurling m Care: A I'mitiw: Appr-Ludl In Child Twining Ind Did-

[:Ili-nll'."_fmnm' grain-inn: cam.- Pxprhsngg l2“flfl1}:flfifiu?l. — . "5L1: Difltrtncfl in Empalhy and Sfldfll Bthu'im' in flfldfln,“ In Th W H I J W M H India-db? HIJI'C'!‘ Enabling. New Yuri: hula

dtmi: Prim. I952. — . "Stun-lira Inf Empalhi: Behrin- in Childrtn." In Plum; in Want I'm-amt; Ema-ml. ml. 3. flflttd hjl' Brendan 1!. Either. NEH 'H'url: Madurai: "

Ptfll. I'EI'TE.

FHHMEH. Hum Duran. mud EE‘I'Hflllfl F m - "Afl-‘cniw Fifi-flit!- and Amdnmi: Achinvmm." CHM flnflnpmf 5-H {lflfl'i'h 13-35-47~—. “Empathy Tnining and I111.- fleguliliun Inf Wflhfl.“ A MM an 3|:t -I {1932}: SEEP-4H. — . “The Hrlathnship Elam-tn Elflpli'hf Ind Airmail-hm in Tm Lg:

Stumps." W

W

W ] [19691: HIE-T.

W E , Hflflflfl Dfi'l'l'fl'i-l. SETH-DUI Fall-rum. Ha.“ Fauna. and Emma. m m m m film: CWMHMJHEMHMW W I . Glrnfi-rm [II.: Emu. Fun-mun. HES. Platinum, SE'I'HMI. and Hannah Dan-cu FESl-LIMZII. “Winn and Altruism: A Fulanilitf Pmprniwr." In t'l‘fl'flll-l-Tl mi 33mm: H M and Elf-If flnp'm, :I'iilfd h}- {Lamlyn Elia—Wain, E- Hart Cumming. and Harald lfl'lfl-fl-IZILL flimhrijgt. England: [Lamb-lids: Uflh'fl'fitf q + [BE-E-

FIIFJ'H. Emmi-m. "Ethical Ahmaluliam and flu.- ldc-al flhm" P952- Etc-primal in finding: in Elli-cal Thur}, ediuztl by Wilfrid Scum Ind john altm Englewmd (HEB. HJJ FrtnlkcalL [9'11]. Film. HELIH. "A. Ffimitiu Preicripliun l'nr Eqflility.“ LEE. Hm mi Hr'flH w . E fiulult [933. 57.

REFERENCES

559

Fun. Eat-run B. "Whirl: jailuuw Calf: Ind Hi5 Ehfi-Gradr Inna-h. In EighthGradfl flight It Man]: In Htlp.‘ NM Purl This. Ell] Number [953. BIL

Fun-mu. Jflflfl H- Win: W t . id ed. Englcwuu-d (HE. R]; Frrnfiu— Hall, [9-35— . m fl w fi m f fl l h r n h q d fl a l m fi fl fl t h m HEN Yuri: Juhn Wiley. HEB. FLflllFfliIl-HTIHID. Ell-rims, Ham F i r m , and III-Elm: “HHUIHJH- ”Amumml Inf Hefitihiljly I'm Pumalitr, Band 1311 a Shun-Fun]: {If the E m

malily Inmtnnr: A Study all" I239! Twin Pail-l.” Hut-liar Giulia ID IIE‘E'EI}: Ififl—E-E'.

Faun. Hanna E. "111: Gaunt! Vllidilr ul' Emirhm.“ M

W” H !

3-H- {IQ'I'J}: HEB-BB. Funmn Anni: DWlH-Iflfl. { l a w m a nHun-ml SHIN-Ill, LIBIJII'I' DP Enn-

mtus. anagram h m m Eur 1'.aES. .I'lnudFirm in Hutu mull-in. Hula-human. DE; mummm Pfiming {Hit-t. 1915Fax. Ilium. "Inna-duninn." In M f fi n fl m . :dilld lil‘f Rubin Fun. Hear Turk: Juhn Wilfir. ”75.

FHHI._IEIHHI D. hawk! Mi Huh: .1‘ W

Hymn-mp1. EH.

ed. NEH Turk: Sthmkcn. 1974!.

Fun. 11:15a H. Faun-m ninth: Rum: TI: W

Hall q" uh M y . Hair

Turk: Mann-n. HIE. Emmy. Dunluut. "Whit 1 Child I: Given." Mm rm Tim Mala-Lint. 3 Saplmb-tr 1959. .3649.

Fuzun, Mum. n:.Eguandlhfrfirflm qIgE-u. [937- Ill-prim new. and. Trim lited by Bedl Raine-Ii. New Tart: Internatiunal Lhiwnilifl Frau. lfifi. FIELI'II. Emu-tum. m m and In M m Tmnhml and edited kHz-1e: Strachfi'. New 1|IF’InIrl‘L: Harlan. HI'EI. . fimfiyhfluflmfltmljmy'ty. HELIIPdnLTrImlIMdh-y

jam-i Strum}; NEH Yuri: Harlan. 19.59. — . Ihlflfllflllflflflfl cy‘flm Translated andtfl'ledhfirjmfiulthrf. HEW Yuri: Air-an Disrul. [955.

——.Influduflnn£uhnumfijrm Tfllflhttdflldtdiitdbfjmsfli‘ flit-1r. NH Yuri: Harlan. 1%.

—.jn.lru mu' new Ruin-in h: 1h U

m Tfllflhlfli hijamu Enid-em

Hull Turk: Hanan. IHI}.

FIEUfl-EHIIHIH. MIL-1'. "Emplwm Au m- .Elnp Family Wuhan.“ Mm I'ml: Thu.

23 Auguu'. 195341. Fulfill-HAN. Mama. at m WadiEmilia-.1! W

Ruin: New 'I'mt:

Randal-n Haul-1:. I951;

Flllfllflfls. 11mm W. "MIH“fill!Ego: a'm Explaining finial-Int ul' MIL-um”.-fmn 5 m m HIE-inf 25 [lflfifl]: “HE-5135. Flam. h u m j m MEL“.Ind: PAULINE Eur-In 'I‘Hflln. "Arr W m

5H}

m

Huh-fly: LII-u Aflrflliw'l'lun Huff: A. Review until.- Expnillmflljfln— H [I977]: Hill-fill m flirt.“ W Elm-nun. W W 3., Llrncu Mum. and lieu-n julul. “ML-rm. Ila-ItTahing. and Stlfvhmm mammalian al' Harm: WaningMmfisfit Behavinr." CHM W 55 HHS}: IEEHE. Flflifll. Emmi. 1 1 5 . 3 q m m Hfl'i'urh: FIIFEHCIHL 1915. -——h. HmfirM-di M y I'll: [ h m Ifflflu. Ermidhflmm: Flirt-all, HH'L

. Tn Hun M I! II? New Yuri: Harp-:1” ind Ilmr. 1975. WHILE. erun. "5:: and Hflrmmuf flu! Jim-hr, March 1555. 17-32-. {IA-um. Human. Fri-n: If Mint TI: 7hr] nfMuhHr f i l m New Turk:

Basic Ell-uh. 1953. Gun-11.. Eurmnn. “BlmTtd Gcnrfl: Thu.- hfi'u'lfiun uli'Smill W " J l fl r -

in: 51-bit. Spring 193D. 165-79. - " m I11: Huh-E: Paint nl' firm: [In tlu: Hum Inf M Unlirnunding." In Emu! HEW. NEH Yuri: Hui: Banks. 1933.

W

M a , hum-r Van. “Him Rabbit's. Vain." Hm Yuri: film. Ell Jul-H: I'D-Bl, E3.

Gianna-mm. 5mm. "I: a Idiginus Hfighhurhmd i Gun-d N W " l-Ifl. “Elli“: l l Hahn-um w q H e w Glllflll-‘I. Gianni; Lu“ Elms. Hmm 515mm. and H i m “:1a. 'Tflrfisinn's Linn Wnfld: Fink-nu Frail: Ha. III-15." Annmhrr! Schnul

of flammmintium, I..Tnini'irrlil:1|r nl' Ptmurlval'th._5:pI¢-mhfl Ifififl. Hill-I'D-

Mr GI". lama. ”MindhrchnhlimlEfiim"jmflfflrlfihjfflfl EB [IE7]: HIS—ED. Gallium MICHAEL T. Th Emmy 1N“? and Ill: End-flint tiff-II. Earl-Hm Univ-ruby fll' Gilliam]: Press. IQ‘M. Eta-um, FILEIIJEI. IL. and Emu-r A. fi l m . "Self-FM humtium and Hfiphlg Bthfliflh'flmdqfflrflufl; and! Sada! Parking 43 “H21: 152Til-

GtnHHC. “Social Pmmm in III-1w The Herd m Fatili'utt Empathy Inu Well I!- Sudmnuml Dflinqunmy-" [n W W I “High m W . {dined by Wili'mn H. Hurlhlfl ufljmnb L. Eflil‘fl.Hflt 'c'mhjulm Wiley, [BE-T.

Gnu. Hm IL “Bum: Tn Give ur Hm tn Eu." Till. 5 Ember 1933. HIE-H. Th] uni Wm? W Fair: W Elma-m. Gum. In a W {hmbfidgm Mass: Hanard Univeniry has. 1931 . "Emupping flu: Mal-fl Dwain.- Hnr 1111:n ul' Ihrfielfin Wmlfip." In Rummy-ting fulfilm- Juanita}. . 6 1 : t and flu Surf in “hmThigh. fililtd by 11mm: E. HEIIH'. Marlm 5am. and fluid E. Well-berg. . Calif; Stanfmtl Unfit-nit? Pram l'EIflfi. W

m

3H!

Emma". final. and Gun-r Wmmfll. "‘I'h: Drink: ul' Hamlin in Ell-11.r Chill-

hn-nd ltluinmhips-" 111 ” MH: Marni Lin-um. edited by Cara] Giltigln. Juli: ‘lfitturia Ward. and Jill Hdfln Tlflnr. Elmhclidgr. lulu-1.: I-Ilnlnl Univfi'fily I'THI. lgfl-fl. Guam, Bun-nu E- “Dewlupmrnlal Genetic: nl' Bflufimfl Ill-patina: The

Hmumflm Pmblem If-lfillmld." ”Edit-Mm W

I? {IF-Fl}:

[ET-201'. Gmslvnn. Bmflufi E" Hid Bun-HIE F. 65:11:. “The Mum and flu.- Gnutin :II' Aggrusiun.” In Ema}: ill fink-fl. unlined by]. Harlin Bimini. Eula-En A. Hindus. 1nd jun} flmeheL ME. Spain: W fl ch- h Unhrflfithd d: 5::m lflfil

Ewan. EMILE: ‘I'.. 3:19a B. Emu. and Emu. I. Ell-Ill. Tn III-fin and in C M . fluid-E1: Univcrdqf val" EaIiJ-hmia HEEL I'EIHI'J‘-

W

m Lfltfllfl. {um-1' Kant. Tran-bled by Ruben Iliad. Lannie-1: H13.

15'? l. m m . Jul-mm ll. and Gamm- 1’- H u m E M : W

limiting.

and 15mm. Hiflsdilc. NJ; hill-mn- EJ'HJHum. 1935. i

m

t

n H- "Bali!!! :hnul Hum-In figmuinm" Insignia-lullH’nr:

Hui 5mm! find BMW Bum. Edited III-g.r ju Grmhd and lulu-rt A. Hilde. Elmhridge. England: {limhridge Univmilr Prfli. WEB. Gum-swam. MICHAEL j. “The Family.r and FIFI'HJFfl-Il'fllflfl." M Emil-u if

Awning. 59 “Elli-E}: 235—99. Gain-Inn. Dunn-.1- "5n: Rules Brig“ Fawn-flu] u Hilfiifl flit Emmium,” Hm Hui Tina, 25 August [953, El. [1115. Gum-DH. D. M. "Carl-r and Chung: in Burial Infill." In m m in fiduhum-rm. ml.fl.nfimdh}-F.l-LflanrrnndL.Pu1rflgr.fl1fimr¢: fllfnni Univfltirr Prul. in we“.

Bataan. WHL “T11Cl‘ili'fl- in mg." Lam-II flhh H m ll] ju'ly 1953. 6mm. Hunmc. fir Human :lgrnda. New Turk: Shun Int! Sthuurr. [972. 6:31:53. i-Lumml G. "A W Them! nI' firdmpflhy.“ m w grit-fining] 53 [IEHB]: 355-615. Gallium. Eur-Hm e . "swim-in“ Ifl'l‘hTt-fll. flit EEIH." m {if 5mm I l l Erin-Hm 1:} Ruth Elli-in. .n'hhr Furl T-illn Emmi Hruil'll. IE Augml I'flflil. '3'.

. "5n Ell-1rd}- Kiml an Animal." In Ell-rim! Dun-win. Hm Yuri: Mun. 19H. M u m ALI-rm W- "Th: Harm al' Math: 1! Parr-nil!” Slam." Julian W

IEnid-I El’t [lflfiflk 'IIEIw-TE-a

Gn.mm. Dnmm. Fatima}: In HIE-JF— Hun-lumpy. --—-+_ “War EIPECl-flfl'fi' and lht Emuliun at": Spell-ii: War." W Emilia-n 15 “H591: 515-19_——_ "War Expcnmty: 5am: Flfl'fl'lll' Elwin-.5.“ W I Ng m r m 5 (1915!: 5-2.5. Gum Ham-1 fl... and Tarzan-mt. D. Gum ”the Impact nt‘Hn-tlmfuatim an

REFERENCES

m

thermflhynftflnflymhnfiqfln." M

W 3111913}: I15-

35. Gum, Tm. Elwin-cur ul' "I'll: Elihu fl!- Euupunl'w: Ell-u an Pmrhnnl Chi]{h'e-n'l Mandi] Belufinr.“ by firmedim A. Annmdi.m mm m

fir u: may at W

“. 13mm NMMHH Etpltmhfl was. 13.

GmnumJum “lnlmilhrg Hana-l Elana: Hm": and Nahum" m m Eljanuary I'EIBIJ, III—IEGlut-lull. Dawn. Th lr'flilw Wild. TIIIfll-Ilifll b1 Hahn “ M n . Hflr Tait: Farm. 31m:- ind flimuu. 1933. Gluwnm+ EILEEN EMIEFILIII. and ALLAH Lulu. "Begun-cl Edi.“ dun-in M i . March [985. Ell-53.

Slum. Auu. Thflrhufiy'nhflfifi T t r n f d - h fl fl m-H' Wm Tmulmtd by Huck-gird: uni Hum: Hannum. Hut-w filth: Gm: PM“. 1955-

Emu. Rant-1.. ind Gum Haul-mun. ”Emmiflnal linguists 1::- h i m [1".t in Elihu-I: T11: Diltimliun llama-n Empathy Hui Sympathy.“t nm' dfimflrj mild-id efidm 5| [lgflfi]: Eng-H. GummJuM-I IL. Ind THInDuIL Elm. "TIE: Suthlifltiml ul' Prmudfl Bdufim and Sand Wm “raw and Reality." In Alum uni Amrum— W tdiltd by [Jaclyn Ealmiwmtr. E. Han {Summit-ugh and Ram“ Innnnui.

Eimhrilifl. Engiind: {Smith-ids: Univcriitf FIT“. 1555. GI'LHEE. JflAH l:'.. um: Emma: J PHILIPPE Human and Em; H. Eulln'l "Hfldfliflfi. Dire“ lmtnmiun. and Am'ihmiunl: Elfin-cu an A I M " Bum!W Evy-ham} H “9131: Ell-5'1. Emma. jam E. ind EIIEA Elm-um "Aurihutiun. Eehfurumrnh Ind hllruhm: h Devflnpmemal Analysis-" W W IE {195D}: 525-34 Hus 5narr-“'[11.c Psychology at“ hplnhrid " Phalurupy Eatg-r. Hm.

flunjumru J'L.''Gmdrrfifltm m nurturing Hun'mrhal Gut-IT W fluflrfln El ”9131: 345-51 Hausa. PHILIP I'. In: Immlflhudflrflfl': "flu-Shyqflh Way’kflm and Hun-I Emdnm H m Hm. H1“ Turk: Hu'prr Culuphm, 19TH. Hnuuiww. Elm-lulu. ”Gmnll'n Gnndwn SIT! Gunfire find: I: flirted." Mm Furl Til-fl. Bjuh' 1935. “II.

HAHILmH. w. [L "Innate 511th] Apliludnuf "I1: aim Apprmch [rt-m Eur-intimary Gumfiu-" In d fi r m i did by Ila-bin Fm. New 1furl:Jain Wilt-y. Infra.

Han-Influx, 5mm. "Th:- Hhuinn {If mam-" Iflifli‘ at flu Hm m fan. by E M 0. Wilma. Hm Fifi Ruin: film-h. Ii flnubn 19TH. End-EEK H m . Elmira-H. and [Minn Emu“- "Eedpmfil Eflifl: Inf Harman]!

Fluctuatium an Human Hular and Fmeplual-Spflhl flflll." W W “H [WEE]: {55-59.

W

1555

Ham. Ham. “ T u p i ? Inf the Gamma-11:? Fri-mm I! Breathe:- 1955. 1915-43.

HAIL luau-T D. Why: Tim ml! Hui-uni. c'

Yuri: juhn Wiley. 1911:.

Human-m. Emu-r. Tl: Minimum fit fljdmhfl and m if Tull-flingDr“. NW ¥DTI|IZ Emit: Bantu. 1951. Hmmu. MAINE-r- fitting and Til-u. Translated hrJ-nhn m m m Eduard Huhhmn. New Yuri: HII'PET and flair. WEE. HILLII. Tnflm ILL. Hanan 5am. and mum E. WELLIILIH‘. uh. Hanan-rah; kinda-alum dunno-5., Minimum. and th Sulfi- Wall-m MM. Elanl'nnL Calif; Stanfurd University Fun. 19515. Hmmmn. L'I'H'Hl H. "agility aml= Empathy.“ Hit-HF- LII-I Emir 3.5 HEW]: 1574-1553. Himamn. hum D. E m f i l m Hilfll' Ina-mi and Halli: min. Hint-emu, H._[-: Human Urflwmily Press. I931. H u m 5115'”: E. “Putnam! Charmcfisliu Inf 1h:- EnIlt-gt Vahuuu-r." Anni-

mnfimf qf-[Imnmilj Hjfllm'q'] fl “9303': EDS—EHaunts. Danna (lull. "hymn-[w Egniam: A Hm: an Meant launl' Discunifln.” Pfiflm ind W Emmi H [1951]: HIE-13.

Hmnmm. hump-Ila A. Mun'wmnu far Giving and" ramm- .d Edn'l'fli' Huh :3" HH- Hmmv. New flirt: Faunduiun Enter. furlhmmhl. Harman. LEI-Il- Wuma. "The Changing Genflkaffindalifltinn W T ) ? ! “ Jinn-ahi'l'mm III “955}: lfi-IIE. Harm-m, H m L “Altruiuit Ethnic-:- and Ill: heal-[31H Ithiimuhip."

M

if handily and 3min: HIM 3| “975}.- 937-43.

— . *“I'ht Cantu-imam {fl Enpith'f lflJHJLirtiI—nd Erhard W t . “ 1n Elfin-Ill} and In Sharing-n1, Edill-‘d by Hill"?! Eilenherg andjmct 3mm. Camhfidge. England: flamhridgt Univmiiy Prns. I931.

— . "Th-E Mflnpmrm nf Fmpmllw.” In din-mill and Wing Erik-win: Emil. Pan-mafia. and Burn-WM W m . Mind by]. Philippe Emhtnn and Richard H. Earn-Minn. Hills-flair. NJ; LII-runn- Erilnum. I'EIBI. — . ".Dew-Iupmem nvl' I'mmcial Hmivuinn: EI'IIPlIhfIfld Guilt.“ In '3']: flarim :if Humid! Edwin tdilfll by Hillary Eiunhtrg. NEH Yuri: Ant-derail: Prus. 1931'.

—. “Btu-Inpmnll Emma uffifl‘tfl and Eugnilinn and In Duplicating: Fur Mimiflir: Hmhminn." Drum-M Fig-"inning I ] [197511 fiflhfl. — . ”Elmnalhy and Erma-till Animal." 111 Salim! and Mom! l'hfm' 3

W

mi Emil-Ml alrflnfl. fililfll by Ham-1r EillL-nlmrrglb Jinn“ flfiimnfl. and Eniu Stanly- Hiflsdalt, 11].: law-mac: Erlhaum, lflflB. "Empalllf. Burial Cunnitium and Hull—II Adina." In MEI-II M r Elli flaw-.ffiwu m Than-y. Emmi. anddppbmnau. :ditnl by William H. Eurlinfl Iluzlja-Iznh L Bt'fl'irll- Hillslinhzr1 ML]; Lawn-un- Ellbnum, [939-

. "Immirliun {If Aflttl and Emilia“ in Empathy." In Eml'l'ssm. filgnflfin

3H

H E W

a i m Ediltdhfflanull E. m.jmflafin.andfluhntlhjufl. Emhidgt. Engluld: Eamhfidgt Urfiwnil'f Frau, I934. ._..._ “II Altruism Pin uf Human than?" I“ y" M and Said.

Hymn +3 “93”: 121-37. .“5-:: Dim-rum in Empaflur and Erhard fl-flmrimm” within-dm H {191?}: TIE-fl. Hanan. Hull". 'WIHi-Ell Emmuim and the t ' l m Inf W

4

"

Amt“ Jig-high! HI [1975]: 533-41}. Hfl-ILHIL 511mm. "Th: Sulfur! Hint-arr nf Stimulant." In BaniElf-hm

:dimi hflant Hamhridgt. Elli-tap: Unhminr nfflfltagu I’m-u. fnrfllmmmg.

“Hm W

M. "Li". Mural; and Em!” In 'flh Gui 5min:- fink:

Law. Hind bfjlilllll- H. W . lfifi. Reprint. flhucuter. Hill—1.! Filer Smith. HE]. m fl m w HDIJII'I', W . N W H M M ‘ m Hun-r Turk: “Him. [95!]Wm a m Hmsrufl. Hui-1v A. Emu-alt; mt Kind-M11 Nu Lani N qcwmd CHER. H}: Mimi-[II]. 1W5. Hmmmn.Hum A... Eumm'n Wmflhmfl FMHIIL. dTILLAHAflHL “Elia-nu a!” finch-Hg: all-nut Emit-w Sui-ill Emmi: an financial Behavinr. Enfiil Guncqflinm and M " } m fl f fl m fl fl n fl w Parking 32 I HHS]: HEB-+5.

Haven. M I . and Ila-um: Emma. "Rnpuum nfhhmed. Htflltttfll. and Hun-Mutated flhildren II: the Ethan-inn ul' Their I'm." jun-nu! g" W W Esp-hi“) E “935:: EfiI-Ffl. Hutu-m 11111:. “The “flit-tun and Fmtim-nl'Email: W m :Fran: Hafidfl': Law: In firm-Ii: Eulil'I-tfl'hlfl'" In r m a Lillian fining. edited by Shawn Hunt. Lax-1m: Jillian-n and Ruby. 1932.

Hm‘ Dawn. "Humility. Self-Law. and Emir-rm." ”M. In Egan- fiddlinIfll. edited by M d 1]. Hflu. hhnunL Calif; “flint-11h, 19:3.

. J Tm Inf Hum Hm Ward: Clamndnn Frau. TIES-EL [111mm Mann-us. ”An [Emu-tint Prnpmal.” In In a Dad Till. did by Ruben Jay lifinn 1nd Nidmlu Humphrfin Cambridgt, Ham: Harvard Unh mail}- Prue-r I'Elfl-IlHim. jmrr Sui-um Emu-rmPlumInd Sun-i j. LII-Inn. ”Gander Dilfir-

m mu: 'm Hill-taunt: Fflfmt: A “Edwin.“ W m pun-m. HTIIEJAHEI‘ Sin-Ln. and Hanan E. L1H". “Gmdfi Diflcrmm in "a'trhfl AHIilil: fluflrfln 1TH “9335': Ell-HEBA Hm-Anflph.“ W Hull. LEWIS. Thflfidfldfilflflfldfll’lflrEfli-Ljfiffiwfl. HnYm‘hV'mfllt. IE3.

Inflflm'rl. Em]. "Efifl HI"lalakin: W Ill}. Alumni. and A W . " w

Ian Eula Tnh'ml. Emplv Wimp H {1913}: [Illa-H-

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555

lama hum: M. “Swan. Flihfl'fl. fillmlhn. and Emlilm II: Ethan 11H Winn

film-hr nF SummHJqH-rmuflg unlim'nifljdflnfl 1511910}: 291-SM. jflflflflfl+ HIEIIAH. lnd FIT". MAI-In. "Tacit-qr II Any Gnu: II.'fl'II.|:l,r 1 " e

Gmwing." New PM M

E] Hmcmhtr IRE-E. Al. 51!.

11min. H.111. Rum MEI-EH}. Tmulaltd hy‘l'fillium Elrlt. NEH Yuri: Hanndajr Prni. I955.

1mm. Emu-mun "Fm-Emit: affiltruiim" In England 5 : } ! l tdixul by Jane Hambridge. filling-u: U M ? nut" fllifigu Fran. Furlhmmilng. jtIm-I. DAVID: W. ”hfl'fllivt Pfflpfltlil'l: Taking and Cnupenliv: Fredilpnlzithan.” W u ! M I I NEH]: HEB-Ti]. Jenna-nu. [harm W” and Fauna P.1mmmnjnlnmg W : Gnu-up Thai} and

{Fm-P Hills. 3d Hi. Enfilch'nad flltfl'l. HJ.: Pruitt-Hall. 195,7. jfllfllflflfl, Dawn III-L. and Emu T- jun-Insult. W

and W

Ediu.

Him“ Inlflarliun Bank [241. I939. — . “Th:- E-udaflntinn and Ami-Hutu“ mm; A11: (Imp-cram: Lming Expn'imn: 1hr Eululinn?" In W

Eat-id m

Jam! 1'. :flitrd [If L.

Hickman. Briefly Hill}. Elli: Sage. I933.

jmmmn. Dh'flll- W.. Emu. T. Jflfllflflfl. j u m junum. and Dot-III.“ AHnnunfl. ”Elli-n: ml' Cmptnliw 1mm lmliu'dmfiud [nuns-trim] an Sludtfll Plum-rial Behavian Altitudu mull-d Inn-1mg. Ind m m l . "

1mm! in)" Edit-Minna! W m 53- {IEI'TE}: 445—53. junumu, 11mm W.+ Emu. T. jut-mmx. and GED-[FIFE Mumm "IDIH'IflE-r

prudence Ind Inlerp-flwml Almlim mung H a m and Humagcnmm Individuall; A 'l'l'ltnrtlicll Fumuhliun and a Hfla-analfli: III” III-I: hunch.” Haw qffluflilmf Rum-nth 53 [[933]: 5-54. jmnsc-H. DIM. "Palm: LII-akin; {Juan ll [hull-ruling Dflicfi.” Hm Ffli Tina. IE hug-nil I935. AS. jmnmJun-mi 'L". “(Ila-1'13.- in Cunnccliun: En'qnfl‘li: hurting. Built and Stru-

nlilj'." Elan: Gamer fur DL-vrlumrmfl W Iind Smdiu. nn. H. Wtflfllqu Hus. IE1. — . "Empathy and stir Writs.“ 5mm.- Euufl [Dr D E W Sen vine-s and Sunfish?!1 nu- IE. tlfilw. Hus. I951. Jun-um Emu“ H. I ] : T

m Styli RH. :11 Hm furl: 11 VIII H u m

513"“. Jumudwu w.. m w. Eula-r. and: Ella E. F m "mmi-Thgmpmlic Eflfiu flflnwrfimup W . " fi m f fi fi m fl y fi w m 5 {IE-BE}: EFL-ET.

Enact-AH. jam-IE. Th Hm if fl: Chili New ‘I'mh Hui: Bank. 193%. -.-.——-—. LII-rm“: fir-III: T

M Elglfll'fll, uni 515E Embl'iflgl,Hill; HEIH'IHI

Unfit-11in Fil‘llih lil'fl'El. Emmi, L113". “Art-That: Guam fiat N 1955+ 3-H}.

H milk-HI: t

h Mffiugut

REFERENCES

35E _

."Ii llffd'hliulfifl: flitfitnu?11tfinmrflflfltpendunhrhnflmmum

E'I-I'iliflllie." Irvin-II ni' Erin llld' Hun Hum. bfjil'nfl Q, Winn ind Richard]. l-lcrrmllrin- .‘itunlyk a m February [9513. ELL-2?m . tun-mm. "The adnim a! Hunk." In Ellis: andMlhflflu: Rainy in Eflflm‘ HM}. Him! by fluid: fill-chm. Hm Yuri: El. Mrtin': Fran. WES. . “Morality and I‘ll! [him 111' have tam-lard [kl-er Hm." In Eflfl'fl'fldfihfiill. Him-d by [humid 1]. Milan. Btlmum Calif; Wuhwnflh. IEH.

W I . fl'fl‘H-l-Lfl' L. and PHILIP H. Hum. Til-{7pm J W ' Lmngnn‘ “ M in mafia-firm and flimlhfiun. San FMIJUHfl*Elfl-+ [HEEL m . flann- J'L “Hnuming flaunt]: Hi a Death Furuuld.“ Hm Tami Tuna. 3'! Ha].- [Elli-B. 33H.

hmJflflu. ”A. Legal Lani :I Pram-ill ldufiut: What Can Happen H011: Tries m Htlp ur Fails in HEII] humble-r“ lndllrlun. W 1 . and m HFWJ mud Sari! Hug-h. tdittd by Lam-am Wilpt. Hm Val-h findcmii: Frfls. 1913hummudm'r- “q

ul'htnuhm and Altruiul: End-Maui: and Elm-un-

trivc 5mm“ uf Allmim': Brim-liar." In W a r dMaximq'Pwm-ua' m

:r

u

mm

m a: Humil- Hamill} unlined by Erwin. Snub.

Daniel Bu-Tat-njr W E .Indjanufl Mull-5H. NEH Tali:Hm. IRE-II-

— . “filial-run. Similm'itr. Liking: and Hiking." M

y uni Swill H3-

rhiugr Blur-firm E HEW}: Ha—‘H. Punching. TIE-H Yuri: Hflll. Iilfl‘l’lfll Elam, Eur-um. .4 Flinn in W and Wilfllfllh ENE. Elm. Saul-I. Farm nffll Em}: Hugh-ninja: Why-filial. Sim Fun-hm: Harp-H Ifld flaw. HIE-Hi. ElmEmmi [lulu-r. Th Emafl' PIrnHI-Il mu'F'mufl in Hm W hTHflE. Hut: Harmfl Univfltit'gr Pram [932ELI-uh. Huhfl‘r IE. "Wuhan: hlilhflul Hun] Ila-train: Irflnctinnl an du-

Dne-hummilatiun ul'Firth" ardi'irlhnitflifjmnd{ W I'm 29' [ I973}: Ell-IE] . Elm“. 5mm. “Why Puflil: Ideal Hitter." In TIE! Pharqf HHI'I' Hun. HEM-d hr Flu-hut B. Heidi. Emhridgm In“; Billing-:1“. PEI-BB. Emma Dfl-IEEH. "Hurmmul Influmel {m EWMDIH Farm in Palm

"Th-2mm"

mammal Wm:1ht Hunt at Hurmum- W HIE-1mm- Lard-m1. Dumb. 1H3. Ell-IE, Hun; “ m m D- Wm; 1nd Smmm i ' l . "

M

y flung li-

a ai-un nI Vuhmllzrr Elpfl'ifl'ltl.‘ in I Ptythiufir Hu-pifll.” Jun-1' If Enuu'mg Ind Chard H M l!!! ll'fl'flli: 123—25. 'Ill'mlln. PHILIP- I’m-tiling Jllfiflfl'l.‘ Sat-inflating- and flu flufl fir Hun-n m flmhridim Ham: HIT Fm“. 1515. m.}ulfl. HI- [pmdnnymfinrjnhfl Ill-mm M u m . lullsulll

IEFEIEHGES M L 1933,

35'?

W Thflffifiqfflrlml' Hit-Hill. Htfl‘l'urhjnlm Wiley.

Hum. Elem”: A. “In-1m Emmi 'mMuniHvV'mlmrt Lint." lunar-III? Shit. I:Ilflembtr 1933. 29-311. 5H1. H . "Study: Him. Gil-II abuul Emu] in Lulil'fliHE Hath." m Primary 1355., 49. Ilium. Almlm. flm'hm ll' Mm. Thimble-d hf Dull-m- Hllflh'. PHI. NIL-Ir Turk: Bantam. l'ElEE. . ”fin- Lint-ill nl' Min Ind Hi: Fmdirimtm.“ In Th Lflufl y'Hu-un MIMI. :dited by Junalhau Rum-all Lmdun: Allen lane. HHS. HDHLIIIEIIE. Lyn-rum. "Enrui'imrt ll Hinfip-I-Ird Eflpn-mihflily'." In Edna-rim. All Inmduruh‘mmj Hm. 1 : d by G- Etch: 11111] P. Wtingannfl. Dnrdrtdu. Hullmd: I]. RENEE. HIEF.

— . Flu-rm; fi H fl W r W - fi fl n n fl fl d fi q fl m Vial. I HEM}: an Hum! flan-Input. 51m aciam: Harp-n and limit. 193].

Humans. Lamina. Dun-mm Emu. and {Inn-us LEI-rm. "Thu.- flnm Inf Stag: E: [u Principle and Mural Faint ul' View.” In Eur Hum-flung n'lr Marni Hkmdm-Maflmwfiqflfi'fir Entrain- wrMnmJj'hrI-thng. edited by W.

Edd-um and G- Hunntr-Winflfl. Frlnflm't: Euhrhmp Verllg. IEIHEI.

Rama. Hymn. “Aluminum width Eiahm." Erwin-r {If Pam mm Rm- Th flukafflafilufinm, by Ruben I'LFI'IEII. Tirfl'aflnfl. EH "”1959. W THE-H.

. “Erislmt'lalim Hm: and Haw." Th amp: Ema:- 55 “BE-l}: LEI-3'1 . Ni Emmr: TI: {in again“ W . Barnum Haughmn Hifliin. IE5. — . “I' I: fur Pm'ul Tmhing." huh-I {Huh M W fl Huwmhcr PHIL Ell-25. fiI—Tl. — . "Elmer IJIE Eullm Children." The flflmfln Hmmhlr PEEL W—Im‘ Ilium. EEIBE-CI-llllmlI-IE. "Minthm Ind Elli-inn.“ Elfin EH {1935): IE—Ei. Hull-mu. Hum. "Th: a w n . " Hm Peri 11m Magnum III August 1931!. 33-31.

— . Ti: a H Willi: New ‘h'mi- l-hrp-crmd flaw. WEE. Emmi” 11mm. Edi. “Hum. him-rm. and Erhwiur." iii-nu. El} Han-h

193?. H45. W u u , { ‘ m - “Huh mfimmn Haul-1mM 3 February 1933. flit-E5.

y fll."Nm w

,

Ilium. DIHHII. "Empathy andunlawfjmnfl jam-dig.and fluid W 52 HERE}: III-HE. Elfin. IILHHH. and 1|:d Emma-H. “Hurlljmlifinliun: In the Stank: Inf Edi” In Fm Mam! Ale-rim MINE-Jun: and Earl: fir Mum}: III-rum Jilin mi 3km. edited by Eli-chat] L Eumnm Maria A. flrndrfichjlmb L. {IE-rill, and L a w flnhlhflg. In prrparatinn. Elna. Dunn. and Cum: Human. "Halt-Taking and M n : W'Imn Tm Put l r m the Sham nl' Ann-flier, WillTh-ey Tate Tau m M M r ‘ :

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Hum LAWHEHEL "Erma-thy Hun Er: Luau-14m:l i t w m r Hill." Hm: Hurt Tillfl. IT Hart]! 1935. CE.

WIvUTM-IHHE. fluumnt til. and M 1.. Hmmwm. ”5::q Dinarphhm in th: Human EDI‘FL'II Eaflmum." m 5'5 jun: [9112. “51-32. “HINDI. Ema-rm. Ind Hamlin A. Hfllflmm. "Th: Efi‘tn a!" lulu-ad Ind Swill Dull-nah an Hypnthflicaljuricfl:m a m g w w m 'EI HEW]: 543-55}. 14mm. AH". "Part-mill Guill Trip-" 5min Fink. fljuhr I'El'i'fi. IT. — . "lulu: uf film—ill! fll'tln W . " Emil-II Gil-h. 2‘5 MIT 1933, I2. lawn.W1Lum 1H,. and Emma“: A. I‘m-m. “Alumina in Lawn-cl Ecmmiu." A m Emil-um: Haw EH {19TH}: {TI-2|.

LLHIIITA. jam! T.. and Bull. G. Emu. "Ellfl'flitiflm ul' W “ and finmpfliliun and Their Elihu an Elbunm‘ v i m Emminnll Ibr-

Ipnnm."jnnrufql"finnufiq and“ Parking 55 {WE-'3}: Elli-H. mlu._]ul..1r_. and Pam. Human- “5am: Pflmmfiw 1nd Ham-min“! Gun!lfln Inf EhiHr-Im‘l Hum-ch] Bullwinr." Journal .3" Ernie efldm Mi'Iir “BEN: 529-42.

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