The Book of the 12 Prophets According to the Syriac Peshitta Version with English Translation 9781463234997

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The Book of the 12 Prophets According to the Syriac Peshitta Version with English Translation
 9781463234997

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THE ANTIOCH BIBLE

The Syriac Peshiṭta Bible with English Translation

The Twelve Prophets

Ṣurath Kthobh

Editors George A. Kiraz Andreas Juckel

The Syriac Peshiṭta Bible with English Translation

The Twelve Prophets

English Translation by

Donald M. Walter Gillian English Translation by

Greenberg Text Prepared by

Donald M. Walter

George A. Kiraz

Text Prepared by

Gillian Greenberg Joseph Bali George A. Kiraz

Joseph Bali

9

34 2012

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright © 2012 by Gorgias Press LLC

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC.

2012

‫ܛ‬

ISBN 978-1-4632-0177-7

Printed in the United States of America

9

Colleague and outstanding Dean

Thomas Richard Ross

Donald M. Walter Inspiring scholar, generous teacher, and kind friend

Anthony Gelston

Gillian Greenberg

TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents .................................................................................... v Foreword to the Edition ....................................................................... vii By George A. Kiraz Making of the Text ................................................................................... vii Orthographic Diversions from Leiden and Mosul .............................. ix Orthographic Diversions from Mosul ................................................... ix Text Organization ....................................................................................... x Acknowledgements .................................................................................... xi

Abbreviations.......................................................................................... xii Introduction to the Translation .......................................................... xiii By Donald M. Walter and Gillian Greenberg The Peshiṭta .............................................................................................. xiii The Book of the Twelve Prophets ....................................................... xiii Translation Policy .................................................................................... xiv Notes .......................................................................................................... xiv Translation Technique ............................................................................. xv Addenda..................................................................................................... xix Addendum 1: Mistranslation .................................................................. xix Addendum 2: Inner-Syriac Corruption ............................................ xxxix Addendum 3: Hebrew Meaning Obscure ............................................. xli

Appendix 1: Versification .................................................................. xlvii Appendix 2: Variant Readings ........................................................... xlix Appendix 3: Names ................................................................................ lv Common Syriac Proper Names ............................................................... lv Replacement ................................................................................................ lv Initial Positions .......................................................................................... lvi Medial Positions ........................................................................................ lvi Endings ...................................................................................................... lvii Sibilants (Initial, Medial, Final) ............................................................. lviii Translation ............................................................................................... lviii

Bibliography ............................................................................................ lix Lexica and Dictionaries ............................................................................ lix Reference .................................................................................................... lix Reference Commentaries on The Twelve ............................................ lix V

VI

Table of Contents General Interest .......................................................................................... lx

Text and Translation ............................................................................... 1

FOREWORD TO THE EDITION BY GEORGE A. KIRAZ The primary objective of this edition is twofold: to provide a reliable text for scholars and students who are looking for a fully vocalized Syriac text, and to make available to religious communities, for whom this text is sacred, an English translation that can be used in various religious and cultural settings. As such, one had to navigate carefully between rigid scholarly principles and practical editorial choices. Making of the Text The current edition provides a West Syriac version of the 1887–91 Peshiṭta Mosul text.1 While the Mosul text was prepared based on second millennium manuscripts, its text is substantially attested by manuscripts belonging to the first millennium. We are able to determine this with the help of the apparatus criticus of the Leiden edition.2 As ancient MSS are hardly vocalized, our text relies on the vocalization of the Mosul edition. In addition to full vocalization, our text is supplemented with complete Rukkākhā and Quššāyā pointing and other orthographic markings, keeping in mind the general orthographic principles adopted by Pusey and Gwilliam in their 1901 Tetraeuangelium.3 Hence, while the consonantal tier is substantially ancient, the vocalism and orthographic tiers are quite late. As the Mosul edition did not fully mark Rukkākhā and Quššāyā, these points were added and a regular expression4 was applied to the text to 1 Clemis Joseph David (ed.), The Syriac Bible According to the Mosul Edition, 3 volumes, with an introduction by Sebastian P. Brock (Piscataway, NJ, 2010), a reprint of the Mosul 1887–91 edition titled ‫ܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ ܐܝܟ ܡܦܩܬܐ ܕܡܬܩܪܝܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ‬. 2 The Peshiṭta Institute, The Old Testament in Syriac According to the Peshiṭta Version, Part III, fascicle 4, prepared by A. Gelston (Leiden, 1980). 3 P. E. Pusey and G. H. Gwilliam, Tetraeuangelium Sanctum, the Fourfold Holy Gospel in the Peshitta Syriac Version with Critical Apparatus, with an introduction by Andreas Juckel (Piscataway, NJ, 2003), a reprint of the 1901 edition. 4 In computing, a regular expression provides a mechanism with which strings of text can be matched with a search criterion. In most notations, a bracket expression matches a

VII

VIII

Foreword to the Edition

ensure that all bgādkpāt letters are marked. When the consonantal orthography, and in many cases the vocalic orthography, of East and West Syriac diverged, use was made of Lee’s 1823 edition5 as well as linguistic resources including Audo,6 Brockelmann,7 Margoliouth,8 and Smith.9 As for Rukkākhā and Quššāyā pointing, analogies were made internally within other Mosul readings, and externally with the Pusey and Gwilliam New Testament text, making use of my Concordance10 as a tool and the guidelines presented in my introduction to spirantization.11 In two instances, the facsimile edition of 7a1 by Ciriani12 was helpful in determining pointing: ݂ܳ Jonah 1:4 ‫ ܶܡ ݂ܬ ܰܗ ݁ܦ ݂ܟܐ‬on the basis of 7a1 ‫ ܡܬ̇ܗܦܟܐ‬where the supralinear ݂ܳ point indicates Pa‛‛el; Jonah 3:4 ‫ ܶܡ ݂ܬ ܰܗ ݂ܦ ݁ܟܐ‬, ܰ 7a1 ‫ ܡܬܗܦ̇ܟܐ‬where the sublinear ݂ܽ point indicates P‛al. In Nahum 2:10, ‫ܐ ݂ܟ ܰܘܡ‬, from MSS of the Mašlmānūthā ݂ܽ (Masora), was chosen over Audo’s ‫ܐ ݁̇ܟܘܡ‬.13 In Nahum 3:2, ‫ܡܢ݁̇ܕ݂ܳ̇ܝܐ‬ ̇ܰ ‫ ݂ܰ̇ܕ‬from MS ܰ ‫݂ ܰܕ‬. BL Add 12,178 was chosen against Mosul ‫ܡܢ݂̇ܕ ݂ܳܝܐ‬ The Mbaṭṭlānā and Marhṭānā were added systematically following current orthographic conventions, but the Mhaggyānā, Nāgudā, and Mṭappyānā, all ubiquitous in the Mosul text, were removed as they are alien to West Syriac orthography.14 The text was then collated against existing collations, most notably the Leiden apparatus. It was interesting to note how close the Mosul text was to the readings of the manuscripts of the first millennium, in itself a testimony to the faithfulness of second millennium manuscripts, upon which Mosul was based, to the earlier text. Leiden and Mosul differed in ca. 86 readings; i.e., ca. 1.28 variants per chapter. In other words, 99.43% of the Mosul single character inside that bracket (e.g., [ab] matches a single a or b). The exclamation mark denotes negation. Hence, the expression [bgdkpt][!RQ] (where R and Q represent the Rukkākhā and Quššāyā points, respectively) will match a single bgādkpāt letter that is not followed by a Rukkākhā or Quššāyā point. When this search fails, all bgādkpāt letters have been pointed (regardless of accuracy of course). 5 S. Lee, Vetus et Novum Testamentum Syriace (London, 1823). 6 T. Audo, ‫( ܣܝܡܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ‬Mosul, 1897). 7 C. Brockelmann, Lexicon Syriacum (1928). 8 J. P. Smith (Mrs. Margoliouth), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary Founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus (Oxford, 1903). 9 P. Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus (Oxford, 1818–1895). 10 G. A. Kiraz, A Computer Generated Concordance to the Syriac New Testament, 6 volumes (Leiden, 1993). 11 G. A. Kiraz, Introduction to Syriac Spirantization, Rukkâkâ and Quššâyâ (Losser, 1995). 12 Antonio M. Ceriani, Codex Syro-Hexaplaris Ambrosianus photolithographice editus (Milan, 1874). 13 MS BL Add 12,178 vs. Audo 27. 14 On these symbols, see C. J. David, Grammaire de la Langue Araméenne, 2 volumes, (Mosul, 2nd ed., 1896) §62, §67.

Foreword to the Edition

IX

readings are identical with the readings of Leiden. As for the 86 variant readings, in 45% of the time, the Mosul text was supported by a reading from the first millennium. It is also worth noting that 24 of the total 86 variants pertain to the addition or omission of bdwl prefixes, and 19 variants pertain to the existence or lack thereof of seyāme. Appendix 2 gives the variants of our text against the Leiden edition. Orthographic Diversions from Leiden and Mosul In terms of the consonantal tier, the present text differs orthographically from the Leiden and Mosul texts in two ways. Firstly, it intentionally replaces early Syriac orthographic conventions, most of which are also preserved in the East Syriac Mosul text, with West Syriac ones. 15 For example, Mosul ‫( ܙܥ‬perf. 3rd fem. pl.) is replaced in the present edition with ̇‫ ݂ܳ̇ܙܥ̇ܝ‬adding seyāme and the suffix ‫( ܝ‬Habakkuk 3:16); Mosul ‫ ܘܢ ܚܐ‬is replaced with ‫ ܘܢܐܚܐ‬adding medial ‫( ܐ‬Hosea 6:2); Mosul ‫ ܪܫ‬is replaced with ‫ܪ̇ܝܫ‬ ܰ adding ‫( ܝ‬Hosea 1:2); Mosul ̇‫ ̇ܥ݂̇ܕܥ݂̇ܶ̇ܕ ܝ̇ܗ‬is replaced with ̇‫ܐܕ ܝ̇ܗ‬ ݂̇ܶ ̇‫( ܰ̇ܥ݂̇ܕܥ‬Hosea 2:11). Secondly, as one of the objectives of the present edition is to provide a functional text for religious communities, it was necessary to be systematic and to provide the reader with a standardized orthography. Hence, many contractions were systematically separated; e.g., ‫ ܡܛܠ ̇ܗܐܢ‬was chosen over Mosul ‫( ܡܛܠܗܐܢ‬Hosea 6:5). MS evidence and/or Lee’s edition and the Urmia edition give support to most, if not all, of these changes. Orthographic Diversions from Mosul As for the vocalic tier, the present text differs from the Mosul text in a number of ways. E. Syr. ܲ was generally converted to the corresponding W. Syr. ܰ ̇ܰ except in lexemes where the E. and W. Syriac orthographies vary; e.g., E. ܵ ݂ܳ ‫( ݂ܳܩ݂ܽ̇ܝ‬Zechariah 9:8). Syr. ‫ ܩܝܘܡܐ‬vs. W. Syr. ‫ܘܡܐ‬ E. Syr. ܵ was generally converted to W. Syr. ܰ ݂̇ܳ except when followed ܰ ܶ ‫ܰܡ‬ by ‫ ܘ‬in which case it became ܰ ̇ ; e.g., E. Syr. ‫ ܵܡܘ ܸܣܦ‬vs. W. Syr. ‫ܘܣܦ‬ (Hosea 1:6). This also applies to nominal forms when followed by an enclitic demonstrative pronoun. 15 On orthography, see L. Van Rompay, ‘Some Preliminary Remarks on the Origins of Classical Syriac as a Standard Language. The Syriac Version of Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History’, in G. Goldenberg and S. Raz (eds.), Semitic and Cushitic Studies (Wiesbaden, 2004), 70–89; S. P. Brock, ‘Some Diachronic Features of Classical Syriac’, in M. F. J. Baasten and W. Th. Van Peursen (eds.), Hamlet on the Hill. Semitic and Greek Studies Presented to Professor T. Muraoka on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday (Louvain, 2003), 95– 111.

X

Foreword to the Edition

ܶ

E. Syr. ̇ܰ was generally converted to W. Syr. ܰ ̇ except in lexemes where the E. and W. orthographies vary. E. Syr. ̇ܰ was mapped to either ܰ ̇ܶ or ̇ܰ depending on the phonological, morphological or lexical context. E. Syr. ‫ ܝ‬was converted to W. Syr. ‫ܰܝ‬, while E. Syr. ‫ ܘ‬and ‫ ܘ‬were ݂ܽ collapsed into W. Syr. ‫ܰܘ‬. The choice was made to place the vowel on the consonant preceding the matres lectionis. Metathesis was applied to the sequence ܰ ܶ ‚V resulting in V‚; e.g., E. Syr. ܰ ‫ܝ̇ܐܶܰ̇ܬ‬ ‫ ܸܐܬܐܦܝܬ ܸܐܬܐܟܠܬ‬vs. W. Syr. ‫ܬ‬ ̇‫ܐ݂ܟ ݂ܬ‬ ݂ ݂ ̇‫( ܐ ݂̇ܬ ݂ܐܦ ܰ ݂ܬ‬Hosea 7:8). In C‚V-initial stems prefixed with bdwl letters, this led to further vocalization changes on the ݂ܳ ܵ prefixes; e.g., E. Syr. ‫ ܕܫ ܸܐܠܬܢܝ‬vs. ̇‫ܬܢ ܝ‬ ̇݁ ‫( ݁̇ܕ ܶ̇ܫܐܠ‬Hosea 13:10) where the ܰ̇ܶ shifted to ‫ ܫ‬and the ܰ ̇ܰ was deleted. In a few ܰ cases,ܰ we departed the BFBS edition regarding ݂ܳ ݂ܽ ݁ ܰ ݂ܳ ݁ from ݂ܳ ݁ ܰ ݂ܳ ݁ fricatization: ‫̇ܐܝܕܐ‬, ‫ ܛܢܦܐ‬and ‫ܘܬܐ‬ ̇ ‫ܣ‬, and ‫ܒ‬ ̇ ݁ ݂ܳ‫ ܰܪ‬, all presented here݂ܳ with ݂ ‫ܛܢܦ‬, ‫ܝܦܐ‬ Qūššāyā against the BFBS edition, in addition to ‫ ܡܨ ݁ܝܕ ݁̇ܬܐ‬against BFBS ‫ܡܨ ݂ܝܕ ݁̇ܬܐ‬. In such cases, MSS of the Mašlmānūthā (Masora) were our guide. The Mbaṭṭlānā was applied in the present text following the Pusey and Gwilliam tradition but with further extensions following contemporary ܰ orthographic conventions; e.g., ̇‫( ܥܡܝ‬Hosea 1:9), ̇‫( ݁ ݂ܽܕܘܢܘ‬Hosea 2:2). A number of verbs derived from the root ‫ ܝܗܒ‬appear in M with a Mbaṭṭlānā which has been removed in this edition: Hosea 2:5 ‫( ݂ܳܝܗ ݁ ܰܒܝ‬M ‫) ݂ܳܝܗ̇ ݁ ܰܒܝ‬, Hosea ܶ ݁ ܶ‫( ܝ‬M ‫ܬ‬ 2:8 ‫ܬ‬ ݂̇ ‫ܗܒ‬ ݂̇ ‫)ܝܶܗ ݁ ܶܒ‬. With regards to the vocalization of proper nouns, the BFBS was followed whenever possible. For cases not found in the BFBS, the vocalization was based first on MSS of the Mašlmānūthā (primarily BL Add 12,178) and then on the Walton polyglot. In popular names, however, the received tradition was given prominence; e.g. in Hosea 5:8 we chose Walton’s ‫ܒܢܰ̇ܝ ܶܡܝܢ‬ ̇ܶ against BFBS ‫( ܶ̇ܒܢܰ̇ܝܡ̇ܝܢ‬BFBS also has ‫ ܶ̇ܒܢܰ̇ܝ ܶܡܝܢ‬in Philippians 3:5). Only a few readings in Mosul were rejected, which seem to be ݂ܳ ݂ܳ ݁ ܰ ݂ܳ ݂ܳ ܰ typographical errors: Amos 9:14 ‫ܪܒ ݂ܬܐ‬ ̇ ‫( ܚ‬M ‫ܪܒ ݂ܬܐ‬ ݂̇ (M ݂ ‫)ܚ‬, Amos 7:7 ‫ܘܒܐ ݂ ܶܝܕܗ‬ ݂ܽ ‫( ܠ‬M ‫ܘܕܐ‬ ݂ܽ ‫ܠ‬ ݂ܳ ݂ ‫ܝܗ‬ ݂ܳ ݂ ‫ܝܗ‬ ܶ‫)ܘ̇ܐ ݂ܝܕܗ‬, Joel 2:20 ‫ܪܒ ݂ܳܝ݂̇ܳ̇ܝܐ‬ ݁̇ ‫ܓ‬ ݁̇ ‫ܓ‬ ݂ܰ̇ ‫( ܰ̇ܘܠ‬M ‫ܪܒ݂ܳ̇ܝܐ‬ ݂ܰ̇ ‫)ܰ̇ܘܠ‬, Micah 1:9 ‫ܘܕܐ‬ ̇ܰ ). ݂ܳ ݂ܳ ܰ ݂ܳ ݂ܳ ݂ܳ ܰ Finally, the vocalization ‫ܝܐ‬ ݂̇ ‫ ܘܛ‬was chosen over M ‫ܝܐ‬ ݂̇ ‫( ܘܛ‬Joel 3:3) following modern W. Syr. practice (both are valid). Text Organization The division of the text into chapters and verses is a recent Western phenomenon. Early manuscripts divided the texts into chapters, called in Syriac ‫ܩܦܐܠܘܢ‬, abbreviated ‫ܩܦ‬, or ‫ܨܚ ܚܐ‬, abbreviated ‫ܨܚ‬. Having said that, ancient manuscripts do not always follow a systematic approach in these chapter divisions. The present text follows the recent Western division of

Foreword to the Edition

XI

chapters, naming each chapter in Syriac ‫ܩܦܐܠܘܢ‬. Ancient Syriac chapter divisions are given in the outer margin preceded by the abbreviation ‫ ܨܚ‬for ݂ܳ (they correspond to Roman numerals in the English translation). ‫ܨܚ ݂ܳܚܐ‬ These were provided by Sebastian Brock. The versification of the Mosul edition differs somewhat from the Leiden edition. The present edition follows the Mosul versification. See Appendix 1 for a list of differences. Ancient manuscripts vary in the application of punctuation marks. The punctuation presented here follows the Mosul punctuation faithfully. Acknowledgements Andreas Juckel, my co-editor in the Ṣurath Kthob series, played a major role in setting the textual policies of the edition and helped in the collation of readings. James Walters collated the entire text against the Leiden apparatus. As ever, I am personally grateful to my wife Christine and three children: Tabetha Gabriella, Sebastian Kenoro, and Lucian Nurono. It is hoped that the current edition will be a motivation for further texts and translations of the Syriac Biblical tradition, and will stimulate the use of the Peshiṭta in educational and religious settings.

ABBREVIATIONS ASV BCE CE com. ed. e.g. fem. i.e. impf ISC lit. M masc. MS MSS MT om. P part. pl. pr. sing. v. vol.

American Standard Version (1901) Before the Common Era Common Era common editor, edition exempli gratia feminine id est imperfect Inner-Syriac Corruption literally Mosul masculine manuscript manuscripts Masoretic Text omit Peshiṭta participle plural prior, before singular verse volume

1st 2nd 3rd

first person second person third person



Root (see the appropriate dictionary listed in the Bibliography for citations such as √II)

XII

INTRODUCTION TO THE TRANSLATION BY DONALD M. WALTER AND GILLIAN GREENBERG The Peshiṭta The Peshiṭta, the Syriac translation of the Hebrew Bible, was made in Edessa in the second century CE. Most students of this text believe that it was translated not by a single man but by members of a ‘Peshiṭta school’. The translators of the Peshiṭta wrote for Syriac speakers, whose main desire was to be able to access the Hebrew Old Testament in their own tongue. Their task was that of the great majority of translators: to produce a text which reads well, not as a stilted literal rendering of the source document, but which was at the same time a faithful translation of the Hebrew of their Vorlage. They succeeded admirably, and the Peshiṭta has been enormously important in the history of Syriac as a literary and liturgical language in Christianity in the East. Whether these ancient translators were Jews or Christians is a much debated question; as yet, there is no universally accepted answer. A number of modern scholars believe that both Jews and Christians were involved at different times. According to this theory, at the time when the work began, the community in which the Peshiṭta school was based was Jewish. At this time, however, the young Christian church in the area was gaining strength, and during subsequent decades, as the translation progressed, the community converted to Christianity; so the work was begun by Jews and finished by Christians. Whatever the uncertainties pertaining to this work, one thing is clear: the Peshiṭta has stood the test of time. We hope that our translation will make the pleasure of reading it available to many more readers. The Book of the Twelve Prophets The Hebrew collection was probably compiled during the third century BCE. The component books themselves, though, were written considerably earlier than that. Precise dates even for the lives of these prophets, let alone for their writings, are impossible to ascertain, but we do know that together they cover a period of about two hundred years. The earliest, Amos and XIII

XIV

Introduction to the Translation

Hosea, were primarily based in the northern kingdom before the fall of Samaria in the later part of the eighth century, and the latest, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, and possibly Obadiah, were active in the post-exilic period, in Jerusalem, during the later part of the sixth century. These were violent times: during the twenty-two years from 746–724 the northern kingdom had six kings, of whom five were assassinated. In the southern kingdom, three of the last five kings died in exile, and two in battle. Against this tumultuous background, the Twelve Prophets wrote about moral, religious, and socio-political abominations. There are also some references, often metaphorical, to the political situation: the chaos of the period is the subtext of some of the more obscure passages. For instance, Hosea 7:3–7 is an indictment of the situation within the palace of Samaria. The fevered plotting by disaffected parties within the court circle is equated with the heating of an oven as part of the process of bread-making ‘… For their heart(s) have grown hot like an oven while they lie in wait …’. Translation Policy Our task was different from that which faced the scholars who wrote the Peshiṭta: our readership has different priorities. We were writing for people who want an English translation of the Syriac text, but who also want to be able to use this translation to help them follow and understand the Syriac, in which they are not all completely fluent. With this readership in mind we had to resist the strong temptation to try to write elegant and idiomatic English; rather, our English translation adheres as closely as possible to the Syriac text, facilitating a word-by-word comparison. It is not absolutely ‘literal’; for instance, word order often cannot be preserved, for to do so would result in garbled English, but it is well to the ‘literal’ end of the scale of translation technique which ranges from ‘free’ to ‘literal’. For the convenience of readers, most of the following examples have been taken from Hosea, the first of the Twelve Prophets. Notes These have three main purposes: (i) Where a rendering close to the Syriac text would give unacceptable English, we have given a comparatively free rendering in the verse and a literal translation in the notes, e.g.  Hosea 1:4. ‫‘ ܩܪܝ̇ܫܡܗ‬Call him’: lit. ‘Call his name’. (ii) Sometimes, where more than one translation is equally correct in the context, we have given an alternative, e.g.  Hosea 2:16. ‫‘ ܒܥܠܝ‬my Baal’ or ‘my master’.

Introduction to the Translation

XV

(iii) Where further information is given in an Addendum, this is noted, e.g.  Hosea 2:3. ‘repudiate her’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. Translation Technique 1. Additions. Some words in our translation have no equivalent in the Syriac text. These additions fall into two groups: (i) Words shown between round brackets, added because the sense benefits from them, e.g.  Hosea 1:6. ‫‘ ܡܛܠ̇ܕܐܠ̇ܡܘܣܦ̇ܐܐܢ̇ܬܘܒ̇ܠܡܪܚܡܘ‬for no more will I show (my) love to ...’. (ii) Words added to conform to English idiom. These are not bracketed, e.g.  Hosea 1:11. ‫‘ ܘܢܬܟܢܫܘܢ‬They will be gathered’ rendered as ‘They will be gathered together’. 2. Consistency. We have given consistent translations wherever appropriate, but exceptions were inevitable, as where there are differences between the range of meanings of some words in the two languages, differences in context may require different choices. The more important examples are given below. (i) More than one English word correctly translates one Syriac word; choice is based on context, e.g. √‫‘ ܐܒܕ‬cast out/perish’:  Amos 1:8. ‫‘ ܘܐܘܒܕ̇… ̇ܘܢܐܒܕܘܢ‬I will cast out … the remnant … will perish’. The first use is in the Aphel, the second in the Peal; the meaning varies with the conjugation in this root as in many others. ‫‘ ܐܝܩܪܐ‬glory/honor’:  Hosea 4:7. ‫‘ ܘܐܝܩܪܗܘܢ̇ܒܩܠ ܐܠ̇ܚܠܦܘ‬they have exchanged their glory for shame’.  Micah 1:15. ‫‘ ܐܝܩܪܗ̇ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‬the glory of Israel’. ‫‘ ܒܢ ܝܐ‬children/sons’:  Hosea 1:10. ‫‘ ܒܢ ܝܐ̇ܐܠܠܗܐ̇ܚ ܝܐ‬The children of the living God’.  Joel 2:28. ‫‘ ܒܢ ܝܟܘܢ̇ܘܒܢܬܟܘܢ‬your sons and your daughters’. ‫‘ ܕܝܢܐ‬judgment/justice’:  Hosea 2:19. ‫‘ ܘܒܕܝܢܐ‬and in justice’.  Hosea 5:1. ‫‘ ܡܛܠ̇ܕܕܝܠܟܘܢ̇ܗܘ̇ܕܝܢܐ‬for the judgment is yours’. ‫‘ ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ‬faithfulness/truth’:  Hosea 2:20. ‫‘ ܒܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ‬in faithfulness’.  Hosea 5:9. ‫‘ ܐܘܕܥܬ̇ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ‬I have made the truth known’. ‫‘ ܙܒܢܐ‬season/time’:

Introduction to the Translation

XVI



Hosea 2:9. ‫‘ ܥܒܘܪܝ̇ܒܙܒܢܗ‬my produce in its season’.  Hosea 10:12. ‫‘ ܡܛܠ̇ܕܙܒܢܐ̇ܗܘ̇ܠܡܒܥܝܗ̇ܠܡܪܝܐ‬for it is time to seek the Lord’. ‫‘ ܢܘܟܪܝܐ‬foreigner/stranger’:  Hosea 5:7. ‫‘ ܒܢ ܝܐ̇ܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ‬the children of foreigners’: lit. ‘foreign children’.  Joel 3:17. ̇‫‘ ܘܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ ̇ܬܘܒ̇ܐܠ̇ܢܥܡܪܘܢ̇ܒܗ‬strangers will no more dwell in it’. ‫‘ ܢܦܫܐ‬life/soul’:  Hosea 4:8. ‫‘ ܘܠܥܘܠܗܘܢ̇ܐܪܡܝܘ̇ܢܦܫܗܘܢ‬they laid their iniquity on their soul’.  Amos 2:14. ‫ …‘ ܘܕܓܢܒܪ̇ܐܠ̇ܢܦܨܐ̇ܢܦܫܗ‬the mighty will not save his life’. ‫‘ ܥܘܐܠ‬iniquity/injustice/wickedness:  Hosea 4:8. ‫‘ ܥܘܠܗܘܢ‬their iniquity’.  Hosea 8:1. ‫‘ ܘܥܠ̇ܢܡܘܣܝ̇ܐܥܠܝܘ‬they have … acted wickedly against my law’.  Micah 6:10. ‫‘ ܕܬܘܒ̇ܢܘܪܐ̇ܒܒܝܗ̇ܕܥܘܐܠ‬Again (there will be) fire in the house of the unjust’. ‫‘ ܥܠ‬to/against/concerning’:  Hosea 1:2. ‫‘ ܥܠ̇ܗܘܫܥ‬to Hosea’.  Hosea 7:13. ‫‘ ܡܠܠܘ ̇ܥܠܝ ̇ܕܓܠܘܬܐ‬they spoke treacherously against me’.  Amos 1:1. ‫‘ ܥܠ ̇ܒܢ ܝ ̇ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‬concerning the children of Israel’. ‫‘ ܩܪܒܐ‬battle/war’:  Hosea 1:7. ‫ …‘ ܐܦܐܠ̇ܒܩܪܒܐ‬nor in battle …’.  Hosea 10:14. ‫‘ ܡܢ̇ܒܝ̇ܐܝܠ̇ܒܝܘܡܐ̇ܕܩܪܒܐ‬from Beth-el on the day of war’. ‫‘ ܪܘܚܐ‬spirit/wind’:  Hosea 4:12. ‫‘ ܪܘܚܐ̇ܕܙܢ ܝܘܬܐ‬the spirit of promiscuity’.  Hosea 4:19. ‫‘ ܬܨ ܛܪܪ̇ܪܘܚܐ̇ܒܟܢܦܝܗܘܢ‬the wind will be bound up in their wings’. ‫‘ ܫܘܩܐ‬street/market’:  Hosea 7:1. ‫‘ ܘܡܫܠܚ ̇ܓܝܣܐ ̇ܒܫܘܩܐ‬the band of robbers has stripped the streets bare’.  Amos 5:16. ‫‘ ܒܠܟܗܘܢ̇ܫܘܩܐ‬In all the markets …’. (ii) One English word correctly translates more than one Syriac word, e.g. ‘accept’ translates ‫ ܢܣܒ‬and ‫ܩܒܠ‬.

Introduction to the Translation

XVII

Hosea 14:2. ‫‘ ܣܒܘ̇ܥܠܝܟܘܢ̇ܡ̇ܐܠ̇…̇ܘܩܒܠܘ̇ܛܒܬܐ‬Accept words … accept the good’. ‘dark’ translates ‫ ܚܫܟ‬and ‫ܥܡܛ‬.  Micah 3:6. ‫‘ ܘܬܚܫܟ̇ܠܟܘܢ̇… ̇ܘܢܥܡܛ̇ܥܠܝܗܘܢ̇ܝܘܡܐ‬it will be dark … the day will darken’. ‘horse’ translates ‫ ܣܘܣܝܐ‬and ‫̈ܪܟܫܐ‬.  Zechariah 1:8. ̇ ‫ܓܒܪܐ̇ܕܪܟܝܒ̇ܥܠ̇ܣܘܣܝܐ̇ܣܘܡܩܐ̇… ̇ܘܒܬܪܗ‬ ‫‘ ̈ܪܟܫܐ‬a man who was riding upon a dark red horse … and after him, horses’. ‘save life’ translates ‫ ܦܨܐ‬and ‫ܫܘܙܒ‬.  Amos 2:14,15. ‫‘ ܢܦܨܐ ̇ܢܦܫܗ ̇… ̇ܢܫܘܙܒ ̇ܢܦܫܗ‬save his life … save his life’: two different Syriac roots, ‫ ܦܨܐ‬and ‫ܫܘܙܒ‬. 3. Syriac Usages. Syriac idioms and grammar often cannot be reproduced in acceptable English.1 Some of the more important examples are given below: (i) Syriac idiomatic usages:  Ethical dative: this construction with lāmadh and an objective pronoun usually cannot be rendered in idiomatic English, e.g. Hosea 1:2. ‫ ܣܒ̇ܠܟ‬lit. ‘take for yourself’ rendered as ‘take’.  Rhetorical questions: are often not expressed by using an interrogative, but are inferred from the context, e.g. Hosea 4:16. ‫‘ ܢܪܥܐ ̇ܐܢܘܢ ̇ܡܪܝܐ ̇ܐܝܟ ̇ܐܡ̈ܪܐ ̇ܒܪܘܚܬܐ‬shall the Lord feed them like lambs in a broad pasture?’  ‫‘ ܒܐܝܕܐ‬by the hand of’ is rendered as ‘by/through’ in some contexts, e.g. Hosea 12:10. ‫ ܘܒܐܝܕܐ̇ܕܢܒܝܐ̇ܐܬܕܡܝ‬lit. ‘I have been represented by the hand(s) of the prophets’, rendered as ‘I have been represented by the prophets’.  ‫‘ ܒܢ ܝ̇ ̇ܐܢܫܐ‬sons of man’ is usually rendered as ‘mankind’, e.g. Hosea 11:4. ‫ ܒܚܒܐܠ ̇ܕܒܢ ܝܢܫܐ‬lit. ‘with the cords of the sons of man’, rendered as ‘with the cords of mankind’.  ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬an interrogative particle: this composite of ‫ ܕ‬, ‫ ܠ‬, and ‫ ܡܐ‬is often used as an interrogative particle introducing a question expecting a negative answer, e.g. Nahum 3:8. ̇ ‫ܕܠܡܐ‬ ‫‘ ܛܒܐ̇ܐܢܬܝ̇ܡܢ‬Are you better than … ?’. 

Please check the web description of this book at Gorgias Press for the availability of (and downloading instructions for) further grammatical and syntactical notes on particular passages of the translation intended for the student. 1

Introduction to the Translation

XVIII



‫ܗܘܐ‬

‘it/he was’ is sometimes best rendered as ‘came’, e.g. Hosea 1:1. ‫ ܦܬܓܡܗ ̇ܕܡܪܝܐ ̇ܕܗܘܐ‬lit. ‘The word of the Lord which was’ becomes ‘The word of the Lord which came’.  √‫‘ ܗܦܟ‬to turn/return’, used adverbially before another verb ‘again’, e.g. Hosea 2:7. ‫ܐܗܦܘܟ̇ܐܙܠ ̇ܠܝ‬, rendered as ‘I will go again’.  ‫ ܛܒ ̇ܡܢ‬lit. ‘good from’ expresses a comparison, e.g. Hosea 2:7. ‫‘ ܡܛܠ̇ܕܛܒ̇ܗܘܐ̇ܠܝ̇ܗܝܕܝܢ̇ܡܢ̇ܕܗܫܐ‬for it was better for me then than now’.  √‫‘ ܝܣܦ‬to add’, used adverbially with another verb, means ‘again’, e.g. Hosea 1:6. ‫ ܡܛܠ̇ܕܐܠ̇ܡܘܣܦ̇ܐܐܢ̇ܬܘܒ̇ܠܡܪܚܡܘ‬lit. ‘for I will not add again to show (my) love’ and is rendered as ‘for no more will I show (my) love’.  ‫ܩܕܡ‬/‫‘ ܡܢ ̇ܩܕܡ‬before/from before’ may mean ‘from (the) presence’: e.g. Hosea 11:2. ‫ ܐܙܠܘ̇ܡܢ̇ܩܕܡܝ‬lit. ‘they went from before me’ which becomes ‘they went from my presence’. (ii) Syriac grammar: (a) expressions of the genitive relationship:  Hosea 1:1. ‫ ܦܬܓܡܗ ̇ܕܡܪܝܐ‬using a proleptic possessive pronoun, lit. ‘His word, of the Lord’, rendered as ‘The word of the Lord’.  Hosea 8:7. ‫ ܘܠܐܘ ̇ܐܬܝ ̇ܗܘܐ ̇ܠܗܘܢ‬using a preposition with a pronoun, lit. ‘if there was to them’ rendered as ‘if they had’.  Hosea 10:3. ‫ ܠܝ ̇ܠܢ ̇ܡܠܟܐ‬using lāmadh with a pronominal suffix, lit. ‘There is no king for us’ rendered as ‘We have no king’. Sometimes this construction includes ‫ ܗܘܐ‬the perfect of ‘to be’.  Hosea 8:11. ‫ ܘܗܘܘ ̇ܠܗ ̇ܡܕܒܚܐ ̇ܠܚܛܗܐ ̇ܪܒܐ‬lit. ‘there were to him altars for a great sin’ rendered as ‘he had altars for a great sin’.  Habakkuk 3:3. ‫ ܙܝܘܗ̇ܕܡܫܒܚܐ‬using the attributive genitive, lit. ‘his brightness of glory’ rendered as ‘his glorious brightness’. (b) A Syriac singular may require an English plural, and vice versa; this is especially common with abstract nouns such as ‘good’, ‘evil’, and the like which are often plural in Syriac, but are best translated into English with singulars. E.g.  Hosea 2:18. ‫ ܫܡܝܐ‬lit. ‘heaven’, translated in this volume by ‘heaven’ or ‘the heavens’ according to the context.  Hosea 2:9. ‫ ܘܬܟܢ̇ܝ‬lit. ‘my flaxes’ rendered as ‘my flax’. (c) Syriac verbal forms may not translate into idiomatic English:

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XIX

A Syriac finite verb may be rendered by an English infinitive, e.g. Amos 6:10. ‫ ܕܢܦܩ ̇ܓ̈ܪܡܐ‬lit. ‘that he may carry out the bones’ rendered as ‘to carry out the bones’. A Syriac participle may require an English imperfect, e.g. Hosea 1:4. ‫ ܬܒܥ̇ܐܐܢ‬lit. ‘I avenge’, rendered as ‘I will avenge’. Indeed the tense used for the translation often depends on that of an adjacent finite verb. A Syriac imperfect preceded by a negative imperative may require an English imperative, e.g. Hosea 4:15. ‫ܐܠ̇ܬܚ ܝܒ̇ܠܝܗܘܕܐ‬ ‘You … will not find Judah guilty’ or ‘Do not find … .’ an infinitive together with a finite form of the same root is used to express emphasis, e.g. Amos 5:5. ‫ܡܫܬܒܝܘ ̇ܬܫܬܒܐ‬ ‘will indeed be taken captive’.

(d) ‫ ܘ‬waw: this conjunction requires a variety of approaches, e.g.  Hosea 1:3. ‫ ܘܐܙܠ‬lit. ‘And he went’ rendered as ‘He went’.  Hosea 1:11. ‫ ܒܢ ܝ̇ ̇ܝܗܘܕܐ ̇ܘܒܢ ܝ̇ ̇ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‬rendered as ‘and’: ‘the children of Judah and the children of Israel’.  Hosea 2:7. ‫ ܘܐܠ ̇ܬܕܪܟ ̇ܐܢܘܢ‬rendered as ‘but’: ‘but she will not find them’.  Hosea 7:9. ‫ ܘܐܠ̇ܝܕܥ‬rendered as ‘yet’: ‘yet he did not know’.  Hosea 9:2. ‫ ܘܡܢ ̇ܐܕܪܐ ̇ܘܡܢ ̇ܡܥܨܪܬܐ‬rendered as ‘or’: ‘by the … granary or by the winepress’.  Jonah 1:11. ‫ ܘܢܫܐܠ̇ܝܡܐ‬rendered as ‘so that’: ‘so that the sea may abate’. Addenda There are many passages where the meaning of MT is not precisely rendered in P. Apart from differences imposed by the different idioms of the two languages, there are four main explanations of these discrepancies: (1) error, (2) inner-Syriac corruption, (3) Hebrew meaning obscure, (4) deliberate interpretative change. The three Addenda which follow cover passages in groups (1), (2), and (3). Examples of (4) are mostly outside our scope. There is inevitably a subjective element in this classification. Addendum 1: Mistranslation ‘Mistranslation’ is used rather freely as a category, and includes examples where P deliberately gave a free or non-literal translation of an unambiguous Hebrew passage to add clarity or emphasis. We have sought to explain P’s readings, though we have not been able to in every case.

XX

Introduction to the Translation

The references to Hebrew roots are all to Koehler Baumgartner (1994), The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Hosea 2:3 (MT 2:5). ̇‫‘ ܘܐܫܒܩܝܗ‬repudiate her’. MT ‫‘ והצגתיה‬set, exhibit’. 2:15 (MT, LXX: 2:17). ‫‘ ܘܬܬܡܟܟ‬she will be brought low’. MT ‫וענתה‬ probably ‘she will attend’. The difficulty is that there are four roots ‫ ענה‬attested in biblical Hebrew. P, as LXX ταπεινωθήσεται, has perceived √II ‫‘ ענה‬to humiliate’; many modern commentators argue for √I ‫‘ ענה‬to answer’. See also 5:5; 7:10. 3:1 ‫‘ ܐܢܬܬܐ̇…̇ܕܪܚܡܐ̇ܒܝܫܬܐ‬a woman … who loves evil’. MT ‫אשה אהבת‬ ‫ רע‬lit: ‘a woman loved by a (male) lover’. In an unvocalized text, LXX πονηρὰ and P are based not on ‫ ֵרע‬but on ‫‘ רע‬evil’. 3:3 ‫‘ ܘܐܐܢ ̇ܐܗܘܐ ̇ܠܘܬܟܝ‬and I will be (faithful) to you’. MT ‫וגם־אני אליך‬ follows ‫‘ ולא תהיי לאיש‬you will not be (in a relationship with) a man’ so probably means ‘and I will refrain from you’, with an implicit negative which is rendered neither in LXX καὶ ἐγὼ ἐπὶ σοί nor in P. 4:5–6 ‫‘ ܘܫܬܩܬ ̇ܐܡܟ ̇… ̇ܫܬܩ ̇ܥܡܝ‬your mother has kept silent … My people have kept silent’. MT ‫‘ ודמיתי אמך … נדמו עמי‬I will destroy your mother … My people is destroyed’. P perceived not √III ‫דמה‬ ‘to cease to exist’ but √II ‫‘ דמה‬to be silent’. 4:12 ‫‘ ܥܡܝ ̇ܒܬܪܥܝܗ ̇ܫܐܠ‬My people have asked its opinion’. MT ‫עמי‬ ‫‘ בעצו ישאל‬My people have asked their (piece of) wood’ i.e. have consulted their carved idol. P has perceived not ‫‘ עץ‬wood’ but √‫עוץ‬ ‘to counsel’, probably influenced in doing so by LXX ἐν σ λοις (other MSS read σ ο λοις) ἐπηρ των ‘They would consult omens (or ‘counselors’)’. The noun σ ολον does mean ‘tally’ (which might well be of wood), but also means ‘omen, portent’ which suggests ‘advice, counsel’; alternatively P might have read or misread the noun as from σ ο λον ‘advice, counsel, council’. 4:18 ‫‘ ܘܪܚܡܘ ̇ܨܥܪܐ ̇ܘܕܚܠܬܐ‬they have loved dishonor and a false god’. MT ‫‘ אהבו הבו קלון מגניה‬they have loved indeed, their canopies (or shields) are a disgrace’. P ‫ ܘܕܚܠܬܐ‬does not translate ‫ מגניה‬but would translate ‫‘ מגוריה‬dread, terror’. The latter might be the original Hebrew, the basis of the rendering with ‘a false god’, slightly corrupted during transmission. 4:19 ‫‘ ܬܨ ܛܪܪ ̇ܪܘܚܐ ̇ܒܟܢܦܝܗܘܢ‬The wind will be bound up in their wings’. MT ‫‘ צרר רוח אותה בכנפיה‬The wind has bound her up in her wings’. 5:1 ‫‘ ܠܕܘܩܐ‬for the watchmen’. MT ‫‘ למצפה‬to Mizpah’. P was guided by the root-meaning ‘to keep watch’. Elsewhere, the Hebrew word is

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XXI

almost always a place-name, and P translates accordingly. It is noteworthy that he does not do so here despite the parallel with Tabor. 5:5, 7:10 ‫‘ ܘܢܬܡܟܟ̇ܐܝܩܪܗ̇ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ̇ܩܕܡܘܗܝ‬The glory of Israel will be laid low before him’. MT ‫‘ וענה גאון־ישראל בפניו‬The pride of Israel testifies against him (lit. ‘before his face’)’. P, and LXX ταπεινωθήσεται, perceived not √I ‫‘ ענה‬to reply, answer’ but √II ‫‘ ענה‬to humiliate’. 7:10 is similar except that the Syriac verb is perfect. See also 2:15. 5:12 ‫‘ ܐܗܘܐ ̇ܐܝܟ ̇ܕܠܘܚ ܝܐ‬I will cause commotion’: lit. ‘I will be like tumult.’ MT ‫ כעש‬usually understood to mean ‘like a moth’. P ‘tumult’ does not translate ‫ כעש‬but would translate ‫‘ ככעס‬like trouble’. The latter might be the original Hebrew, the basis of the rendering with ‘tumult’, slightly corrupted during transmission. 6:8 (MT, LXX: 6:9). ‫‘ ܥܘܫܢܟܝ̇ܐܝܟ̇ܕܓܒܪܐ̇ܓܝܣܐ‬your strength like that of a robber’. MT ‫‘ וכחכי איש גדודים‬as troops lie in wait’. Both P and LXX ἰσχ ς have apparently perceived not Hebrew √‫ חכה‬but √‫כחח‬. 7:4 ‫‘ ܢܒܛܠ ̇ܡܢ ̇ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‬he will cease from the city’. MT ‫‘ ישבות מעיר‬he will cease from stoking’. P perceived not a Hiphil part. of √II ‫‘ עור‬to wake up’ but the noun ‫ עיר‬with a preceding ‘from’. 7:6 ‫‘ ܥܬܩ ̇ܪܘܓܙܗܘܢ‬their anger grew old’. MT ‫‘ ישן אפהם‬their baker sleeps’. To reach ‘their anger’, P perceived not the participle (always found as a substantive) ‫ אפה‬plus suffix ‫ א ֵֹפ ֶהם‬but ‫ א ְפ ֶהם‬from √‫אנף‬. To reach ‘grows old’, P perceived not √‫‘ ישן‬to sleep’ but the homonym ‘to grow old’. 7:14 ‫‘ ܡܬܬܟܫܝܢ‬they struggled’. MT ‫‘ יתגוררו‬they assemble themselves’. There are two ways to explain this difference. First, the MT is uncertain: numerous MSS read ‫‘ יתגודדו‬they thronged’. Second, it is possible that there was an early ISC, from ‫ ܡܬܟܢܫܝܢ‬to the present reading. 7:16 ‫‘ ܥܘܪܙܠܗܘܢ‬are they entangled’: lit. ‘(this is) their entanglement’. MT ‫‘ לעגם‬their derision’, perhaps a gloss on the preceding ‫מזעם לשונם‬ ‘from the indignation/anger of their tongue’. P is apparently a guess, to fit the context. 9:1 ‫‘ ܡܘܗܒܬܐ‬gifts’. MT ‫‘ אתנן‬the hire of a harlot’. Both P and LXX δ ατα have rendered as if the Hebrew root were ‫‘ נתן‬to give’, not √‫ תנה‬which has this specific meaning. 9:6 ‫‘ ܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ‬Foreigners’. MT ‫‘ קמוׂש‬thistles/nettles’. P is probably interpretive, treating ‘thistles’ as a symbol for ‘foreigners’, or a guess to fit the context.

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XXII

10:5 10:5

10:11 10:12

10:14 11:6 11:6 11:7 11:7 11:8 11:8

11:12 12:8 13:5 13:5

13:7

13:15

‫ܬܘܬܒܐ‬

‘strangers’. MT ‫‘ יגורו‬they will fear’. P, as LXX κατοικοῦντες, has perceived not √III ‫‘ גור‬to be afraid’ but √I ‫‘ גור‬to dwell as alien’. ‫‘ ܢ ܚܕܘܢ‬will rejoice’. MT ‫ יגילו‬usually ‘to rejoice’ but when used with ‫( על‬as here) the verb is understood to mean ‘to howl, to show distress’. P, as LXX ἐπιχαροῦνται, has perceived the usual meaning. ‫‘ ܘܢܒܘܙ‬will despoil’. MT ‫‘ יׂשדד‬he will harrow’. P has perceived √‫ׁשדד‬ rather than √‫ׂשדד‬. ‫‘ ܦܘܡܗ̇ ̇ܕܛܝܒܘܬܐ‬according to’: lit. ‘a mouthful of goodness’. MT ‫ לפי־חסד‬has an idiomatic meaning ‘in accordance with goodness’ which P did not recognize. ‫‘ ܒܝ ̇ܐܝܠ‬Beth-el’. ‫‘ בית ארבאל‬Beth-arbel’. P has harmonized with ‘Beth-el’ in v.15. ‫‘ ܢܬܟܪܗ‬will grow weak’. MT ‫ וחלה‬from a verb meaning ‘to go round, to whirl’. P perceived not √‫ חול‬but √I ‫חלה‬. ‫‘ ܘܢܬܛܩ‬it will vanish’. MT ‫‘ וכלתה‬it will bring to an end/destroy’. P has rendered √I ‫ כלה‬rather freely. ‫‘ ܘܐܠܠܗܐ‬to God’. MT ‫‘ ואל־על‬to high(er) (things)’. P perhaps guessed, giving a rendering compatible with the context. ‫‘ ܘܢܪܐܢ‬he will reflect’. MT ‫‘ ירומם‬he will raise himself’, from √‫ רמם‬, a Polel by-form of √‫רום‬. ‫ …‘ ܐܣܝܥܟ‬I support you’. MT ‫ …‘ אתנך‬I give you up’. P perhaps perceived not √‫ נתן‬but √‫‘ יתן‬to be never-failing’. ‫ …‘ ܐܥܕܪܟ‬I help you’. MT ‫ …‘ אמגנך‬I hand you over’. P rendered the usual sense of √‫‘ מגן‬to protect’ rather than follow MT with ‫‘ גנן‬to hand over’. (MT 12:1). ‫‘ ܥܕܡܐ ̇ܕܢ ܚܬ‬until … have descended’. MT ‫‘ עֹד רד‬still he roams’. P perceived not √‫ רוד‬but √‫ ירד‬and read ‫ עד‬for ‫עֹד‬. (MT 12:9). ‫‘ ܟܐܒܐ‬suffering’. MT ‫‘ און‬wealth’. P perceived not √I ‫און‬ but √III ‫‘ און‬mourning’. ‫‘ ܪܥܝܟ‬I fed you’. MT ‫‘ ידעתיך‬I knew you’. The Hebrew roots ‫ידע‬ and ‫ רעה‬were confused, misreading resh as dalath. ‫‘ ܒܐܪܥܐ ̇ܚܪܒܬܐ ̇ܕܐܠ ̇ܬܝܒܐ‬in a desolate uninhabited land’: MT ‫בארץ‬ ‫‘ תלאבות‬in a land of baking heat’. ‫ תלאבות‬occurs only here in MT. P and LXX οικήτ render ‘uninhabited’; ‘desolate’ added in P gives emphasis. ‫‘ ܒܐܘܪܚܐ ̇ܕܐܬܘܪ‬the way of Assyria’: MT ‫על־דרך אשור‬, in which ‫אשור‬ may be parsed as a passive participle of √‫‘ אשר‬to walk ahead’, giving the sense ‘well-trodden’. P perceived the geographical term, perhaps influenced by LXX δ ν ’Aσσ ριων ‘the way of the Assyrians’. ‫‘ ܢܦܪܘܫ‬will he set apart’: MT hapax legomenon ‫‘ יפריא‬to bear fruit’. P (which may have been influenced by LXX να σον δελ ν

Introduction to the Translation

XXIII

διαστελε ‘he will cause a division among the brethren’) perceived √I ‫ פרר‬, which includes the root-meaning ‘to split, divide’. Joel 1:6

‫‘ ܓܘܪܝܐ̇ܕܐܪܝܐ‬young lion’: lit. ‘lion’s cub’. MT ‫‘ לביא‬lion’. P may have been influenced by LXX σκ cub).

1:9

1:10 1:17

1:17 2:8

2:14

2:17

2:20 2:23

νο ‘young animal’ (usually a lion’s

‫ܬܝܒܘ ̇ܡܠܟܐ ̇ܒܐܒܐܠ ̇ܘܟܗܐܢ̇ ̇ܕܡܫܡܫܝܢ ̇ܠܡܪܝܐ‬

‘the kings sat in mourning, and the priests who ministered to the Lord’. MT ‫אבלו הכהנים משרתי‬ ‫‘ יהוה‬the priests, the ministers of the Lord, mourned’. P has introduced ‘kings’ as an additional subject which has taken over the verb which ‘priests’ had had in MT. ‫‘ ܙܬܝܐ‬olive trees’. MT ‫‘ יצהר‬fresh oil’. ‫‘ ܘܛܘܝ̇ ̇ܡܘܫܚܐ ̇ܥܠ ̇ܐܘ̈ܪܘܬܗܝܢ‬The heifers thirsted (lit.: ‘were parched’) in their stalls’. MT ‫‘ עבשו פרדות תחת מגרפתיהם‬the grains have shrivelled under their shovels’. P may have been influenced by LXX δα λεις ἐπὶ τα ς τναις α τ ν ‘heifers in their stalls’, though LXX does not have ‘were parched’. ‫‘ ܡܥܨ̈ܪܬܐ‬wine-presses’. MT ‫‘ ממגרות‬barns’. P may have been influenced by LXX ληνοί ‘wine-vats’. ‫‘ ܡܢ ̇ܝܘܩܪܐ ̇ܕܙܝܢܗܘܢ ̇ܢܦܠܘܢ‬they will fall under the weight of their armor’. MT ‫‘ ובעד השלח יפלו‬they plunge through the weapon(s)’. P saw √‫ נפל‬as ‘to fall’, not recognising that with ‫ בעד‬it can mean ‘to plunge through’. P may have been influenced by LXX κατα αρ ν ενοι ἐν το ς ὅπλοις ‘weighed down with their arms’. Having rendered the phrase thus, he needed a compatible translation of the difficult MT closing phrase ‫לא בבצעו‬, for which see Addendum 3. ‫‘ ܘܡܘܬܪ ̇ܒܐܬܪܗ ̇ܒܘܪܬܟܐ‬make the blessing in his place enough and to spare’. MT ‫‘ והשאיר אחריו ברכה‬leave behind him a blessing’. P understood the Hebrew √‫ שאר‬as ‘to be left over’ and rendered this as ‘enough and to spare’ with the Aphel of √‫ܬܝܪ‬. ‫‘ ܘܠܫܘܠܛܢܐ̇ܕܥܡܡܐ‬and to the ruler of the nations’. MT ‫למשל־בם גוים‬ ‘for a by-word among the nations’. P read not √III ‫‘ משל‬to be a proverb’ but √II ‫‘ משל‬to rule’. ‫‘ ܩܕܡܝܐ ̇… ̇ܐܚܪܝܐ‬ancient … last’. MT ‫‘ הקדמני … האחרון‬eastern … western’. ‫‘ ܡܐܟܘܠܬܐ‬food’. MT ‫(‘ המורה‬early) rain’. P may have been influenced by LXX ρ ατα ‘food’.

Amos 1:15 ‫‘ ܡܠܟܘܡ‬Malcom’. MT ‫‘ מלכם‬their kings’. Either P mistakenly perceived the noun ‫ מלך‬with a 3rd masc. pl. suffix as a name or the

XXIV

Introduction to the Translation

Hebrew really should be understood as the name of the Ammonite god. See Amos 5:26. 2:8 ‫‘ ܘܥܠ ̇ܠܒܘܫܐ ̇ܚܒܐܠ ̇ܚܙܩܝܢ ̇ܗܘܘ‬They were girding (or ‘binding’) lines on clothes’. MT ‫‘ ועל־בגדים חבלים יטו‬And upon garments taken in pledge they stretched out’. There are two errors here. First, ‫‘ ܚܙܩܝܢ‬are girding’. MT ‫‘ יטו‬they will recline’, √‫ נטה‬Hiphil 3rd masc. sing. impf. P may have perceived the sense ‘to stretch’ as applied to extending a line, present in the Qal of this root. Second, ‫‘ ܘܥܠ̇ܠ ܒܘܫܐ̇ܚܒܐܠ‬lines (esp. ‘measuring lines’) on clothes’: MT ‫‘ חבלים ועל־בגדים‬upon garments taken in pledge’. MT ‫ חבלים‬is a masc. pl. passive part. √II ‫‘ חבל‬pledge, bind’. In ‘lines’ P perceived this root, which includes the sense ‘to bind’, but missed the sense of ‘pledge’. With a different vocalization than that of Mosul the passage could be rendered ‘On clothes, corruptors were girding’; for that P would have read the Hebrew as derived from √III ‫‘ חבל‬to act corruptly’. 2:8 ‫‘ ܚܡܪܐ̇ܥܬܝܩܐ‬old wine’. MT ‫‘ ויין ענושים‬wine of those fined’, i.e. either taken as a fine or bought with the money of the fine. 3:5 ‫‘ ܕܠܡܐ ̇ܫܘܪ ̇ܦܚܐ ̇ܡܢ ̇ܐܪܥܐ ̇ܘܐܚܕ‬does the trap spring to, from the ground, and shut?’ MT ‫‘ היעלה־פח מן־האדמה ולכוד לא ילכוד‬does the trap go up from the ground with nothing seized’. P renders the Hebrew negative with ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬expecting a negative answer, but misses the force of MT’s infinitive absolute with a finite verb of the same root, a standard construction used for emphasis. 3:10 ‫‘ ܘܐܠ ̇ܝܕܥܝܢ ̇ܠܡܥܒܕ ̇ܡܟܣܢܘܬܐ‬They do not know how to deliver a reproof’. MT ‫‘ ולא־ידעו עׂשות־נכחה‬They do not know how to do what is right’. P perceived √‫‘ יכח‬correct, rebuke’ rather than ‫נכחה‬ ‘what is right’. 3:12 ‫‘ ܒܚܘܛܪܐ ̇ܕܡܢ ̇ܫܠܝ‬suddenly with a rod’. MT ‫‘ בפאת מטה‬with the corner of a bed’. In an unvocalized text, P read not ‫‘ ִמ ָּטה‬bed’ but ‫‘ מ ֶטה‬staff, rod’ and not MT ‫‘ בפאת‬with the corner’ but ‫‘ בפתאם‬with suddenness’. 3:12 ‫‘ ܘܒܥܡܐ ̇ܕܡܢ ̇ܕܪܡܣܘܩ‬and with the people who are from Damascus’. MT ‫ ובדמשק ערׂש‬is difficult. ‫ דמשק‬is usually understood as ‘damask, fine silk fabric’, but is treated as a name here by P. ‫ ערׂש‬is parallel to ‘the bed’ in the previous phrase, and is usually rendered as ‘couch, bed’. This rendering by ‘with the people’ is surprising, since there is a Syriac cognate ‫ ܥܪܣܐ‬with the same meaning as Hebrew ‫;ערׂש‬ presumably P needed something that would make sense when associated with ‘Damascus’.

Introduction to the Translation 4:2

4:5

4:6

4:13 5:9

5:10

5:11 5:24 6:1

6:3

6:3 6:4

‫ܒܙܝܢܐ ̇… ̇ܒܩܕܣܐ‬

XXV

‘with weapons … in the … caldron’. MT … ‫בצנות‬ ‫‘ בסירות‬with hooks … with (fishing-)hooks’. P may have been influenced by LXX ὅπλοις … λ ητας ‘weapons … caldrons’. ‫‘ ܘܢܕܘܪܘ ̇ܢܕ̈ܪܐ ̇ܘܫܠܡܘ‬vow vows and fulfill (them)’. MT ‫וקראו נדבות‬ ‫‘ השמיעו‬proclaim free-will offerings, make (them) known’. P may have misread ‫ נדבות‬as ‫ נדרים‬, and then, needing appropriate verbs for the context, selected ‘vow’ and ‘fulfill’. ‫‘ ܩܗܝܘܬ ̇ܫܢܐ‬blunt teeth’ or ‘bluntness of teeth’. MT ‫נקיון שנים‬ ‘cleanness of teeth’. P perceived not √‫‘ נקה‬to be clean’ but √‫‘ קהה‬to be blunt’. ‫‘ ܬܫܒܘܚܬܗ‬his glory’. MT ‫‘ ׂשחו‬his thought’. ‫‘ ܕܡܫܠܛ̇ܚܠܫܐ̇ܥܠ̇ܥܫܝܢܐ‬Who sets the weak to rule over the strong’. MT ‫‘ המבליג שד על־עז‬who sends forth violence against the strong’ is intelligible, but the complete phrase ‫המבליג שד על־עז ושד על־מבצר‬ ‫ יבוא‬is difficult. The meaning of ‫ המבליג‬is uncertain; in the Hiphil, as here, it includes the meaning ‘to make triumphant’, which possibly influenced P’s choice of √‫‘ ܫܠܛ‬to bear rule’. ‫ܘܡܟܝܟܐ ̇ܥܠ ̇ܪܡܐ ̇ܡܥ ܐܠ‬ ‘who raises the lowly above the exalted’ does not render MT ‫ושד‬ ‫‘ על־מבצר יבוא‬destruction comes against the fortress’ though it does fit the mood of the previous phrase. √‫ בצר‬means ‘to make inaccessible’, and could possibly have prompted P’s rendering as ‘exalted’. ‫‘ ܠܡܣܟܢܐ‬the poor’. MT ‫‘ מוכיח‬reproving’. Possibly, a deliberate change to preserve the theme of the lowly in v. 9 and to anticipate the reference to the poor in v. 11; possibly, an early ISC of a form derived from √‫‘ ܣܟ‬to blame, reprove’, for which see Addendum 2. ‫‘ ܓܒܝܐ‬choice’. MT ‫‘ בר‬grain’. P perceived not √III ‫ בר‬but √II ‫בר‬ ‘pure’. P may have been influenced by LXX ἐκλεκτὰ ‘choice’. ‫‘ ܘܢܬܓܐܠ‬Let … be revealed’. MT ‫‘ ויגל‬Let it roll (down)’. P perceived not √‫‘ גלל‬to roll’ but √‫‘ גלה‬to reveal’. ‫‘ ܘܓܠܝܘ ̇ܠܗܘܢ ̇ܒܢ ܝ̇ ̇ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‬who exiled the children of Israel’. MT ‫‘ ובאו להם בית ישראל‬the house of Israel comes to them’. The significance of the Hebrew phrase at that point is unclear; P may have decided on a free rendering for the sake of a clear meaning. ‫‘ ܕܡܣܟܝܢ‬Who wait for’. MT ‫‘ המנדים‬Who postpone/banish’. P perceived √‫‘ נדה‬to put away’ but missed the sense ‘to make wait, postpone’. ‫‘ ܠܫܒܬܐ‬Sabbath’ with a lāmadh as an object marker. MT ‫ש ֶבת‬,ֶ ‘seat’. In an unvocalized text P perceived not ‫ ֶש ֶבת‬but ‫ש ָּבת‬. ‫‘ ܡܦܛܡܐ‬fattened animals’. MT ‫‘ כרים‬lambs’. P perhaps wished to emphasize the element of luxury.

XXVI

6:4

6:5

6:11

6:14

7:3 7:5 7:6 7:9

7:16

8:1

8:3 8:3 8:6 8:6 8:14

Introduction to the Translation

‫‘ ܡܢ̇ܓܘ̇ܒܩ̈ܪܐ‬from the midst of the herd’. MT ‫‘ מתוך מרבק‬from the midst of the stall’. P perhaps misread, ‘seeing’ not √‫ רבק‬but ‫בקר‬ ‘herd’. P may have been influenced by the similar LXX ο κολίων ‘herd’. ‫‘ ܚܫܝܒܝܢ̇ܠܗܘܢ‬own’: lit. ‘reckoned to them’. MT ‫‘ חשבו להם‬devise for themselves’. The Hebrew meaning of √‫ חשב‬include ‘to devise’, which is not present in this conjugation in the Syriac cognate. ‫‘ ܘܢܪܥܠܝܘܗܝ ̇… ̇ܘܢܨ ܕܝܘܗܝ‬and terrify it … and lay it waste’. MT ‫‘ רסיסים … בקעים‬into splinters … into fragments’. ‘terrify’ seems to be a guess for the unfamiliar √II ‫ רסס‬. MT ‫‘ בקעים‬into fragments’ would not have been difficult to translate, so P ‘lay it waste’ was presumably selected to provide a parallel to the preceding verb. ‫‘ ܘܢܕܚܩܘܢܟܘܢ‬who will drive you away’. MT ‫‘ ולחצו אתכם‬they will oppress you’. The free rendering may result from deliberate choice of a verb more appropriate in the context. ̇‫‘ ܐܗܦܟܝܗ‬rejected’: lit. ‘turned aside’. MT ‫‘ נחם‬relented’. ‫‘ ܚܣܢ‬forgive us’. MT ‫‘ חדל־נא‬I beseech’. Possibly for consistency, P repeats the verb used in 7:2. See 7:3. ‫‘ ܦ̈ܪܟܐ ̇ܕܓܘܚܟܐ‬ridiculous idols’ shrines’. MT ‫‘ במות יׂשחק‬high places of Isaac’. The roots ‫ ׂשחק‬and ‫ צחק‬both mean ‘to laugh’, but the proper name ‘Isaac’ is usually spelt based on √‫צחק‬. The less common spelling of the name here may be intended to emphasize the rootmeaning; clearly this is the sense which P renders. ‫‘ ܘܐܠ̇ܬܠܦ‬do not teach’. MT ‫‘ ולא תטיף‬do not prophesy’; the Hebrew verb means ‘to drip, drop’; used figuratively ‘to discourse’ esp. Of ‘prophetic discourse’. Since this usage is sufficiently infrequent P has probably chosen a verb that fits the context. ‫‘ ܢ ܝܫܐ̇ܕܩܨܐ‬sign of the end’. MT ‫‘ כלוב קיץ‬basket of summer (fruit)’. In the next verse, following the repetition of the symbol of the ripe fruit, MT has ‫‘ הקץ‬the end’, a deliberate word-play. P may have misread ‫ קיץ‬as ‫הקץ‬, or having decided that he could not replicate the word-play, the sense of which was not immediately clear anyway, he would eliminate it. ‫‘ ܘܢܦܠܢ‬will cease’: lit. ‘will fall’. MT ‫‘ והילילו‬will wail’. ‫‘ ܐܠܒܕܐܢ‬perdition’. MT ‫‘ הס‬hush/be silent’. ‫‘ ܢܙܒܢ‬Sell’, i.e. ‘we may sell’, vocalized in both occurrences in this verse by Mosul as a Pael (in Peal, ‘Buy’). MT ‫‘ לקנות‬to buy’. ‫‘ ܡܫܝܐ‬rubbish’. MT ‫‘ נעלים‬pair of shoes’. ‫‘ ܒܦܬܟ̈ܪܐ‬by the idols’. MT ‫‘ באשמת‬by the guilt’. P’s reading is possibly an error, or possibly a free interpretative rendering.

Introduction to the Translation 9:1

9:6

9:9

XXVII

‫ܘܢܠܟܗܘܢ‬

‘their deceit’. MT ‫‘ ובצעם‬break (the capitals)’. The Hebrew substantive from √‫ בצע‬includes the sense of ‘unjust gain’ which might have influenced P. ‫‘ ܘܡܘܠܟܢܗ‬his promise’. MT ‫ ואגדתו‬probably ‘his vaults’. P may have perceived √‫נגד‬, which includes the sense of ‘to declare’; or he may have been influenced by LXX ἐπαγγελίαν ‘promise’.

̇ ‫ܘܐܒܕܪ ̇ܒܠܟܗܘܢ ̇ܥܡܡܐ ̇ܠܕܒܝ ̇ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ̇ܐܝܟ ̇ܕܥܪܒܝܢ ̇ܒܥܪܒܐܠ ̇ܘܐܠ ̇ܢܦܠ‬ ‫‘ ܕܩܝܩܗܘܢ ̇ܥܠ ̇ܐܪܥܐ‬I will scatter among all the nations those of the

house of Israel, as those that settle in a sieve, and the sifted among them will not fall (through) to the earth’. MT ‫והנעותי בכל־הגוים‬ ‫‘ את־בית ישראל כאשר ינוע בכברה ולא־יפול צרור ארץ‬I will sift among all the nations … as it is shaken in a sieve and not a kernel shall fall to the ground’. The mistranslation of MT ‘I will sift’ as ‘I will scatter’ confused the imagery of MT in which the valuable part of the produce, the kernel of the grain, remains in the sieve rather than falling through the mesh. 9:13 ‫‘ ܐܕܪܐ‬threshing-floor’. MT ‫‘ חורׁש‬plowman’. P has apparently selected ‫ ܐܕܪܐ‬to give word-play with ‫‘ ܘܢܕܪܟ‬it will overtake’; he has preserved the sense of the phrase. Obadiah 1:3 ‫‘ ܒܥܘܫܢܐ ̇ܕܫܩܝܦܐ‬in the stronghold of the rock’. MT ‫‘ בחגוי־סלע‬in the clefts of the rock’. 1:9 ‫‘ ܘܢܬܒܙܙܘܢ‬will be plundered’. MT ‫‘ ותחו‬will be dismayed’. 1:13 ‫‘ ܘܐܠ ̇ܬܣܪܕܝܘܗܝ ̇ܒܚ ܝܠܗ‬do not terrify him, (together) with his army’. MT ‫ ואל־תשלחנה בחילו‬perhaps ‘do not lay (hands) on their substance’. P understood ‫ חילו‬to mean not ‘property’ but ‘army’ (both from √II ‫)חיל‬. This interpretation may have led him to choose ‘do not terrify’ to render the rather obscure MT. 1:16 ‫‘ ܘܢܬܘܪܘܢ‬they will be confounded’. MT ‫‘ ולעו‬they will swallow’ (√II ‫‘ לעע‬to slurp’, √I ‫‘ לעע‬to chatter, stammer’.) Jonah 1:4 ‫‘ ܡܬܗܦܟܐ ̇ܗܘܬ‬seemed likely’: lit. ‘turning about’: MT ‫‘ חשבה‬was likely’ from the √‫‘ חשב‬to think, reckon’. P perceived √‫‘ שוב‬to turn back’. 1:6 ‫‘ ܢܦܨܝ ܢ‬will save us’. MT ‫‘ יתעשת … לנו‬will think of us’. P perhaps did not recognize √‫ עשת‬and guessed at a rendering that would fit the context. Alternatively he may have been influenced by LXX διασ σῃ … ἡ ᾶς ‘keep us safe’. 1:13 ‫ …‘ ܘܐܬܬܟܫܘ‬strove hard’. MT ‫‘ ויחתרו‬they rowed’. The root often means ‘to dig’, but in this context ‘to row’. P did not recognize this and provided a word with an appropriate meaning, as did LXX

XXVIII

Introduction to the Translation

παρε ι ζοντο ‘they struggled violently’ which may have influenced him. 2:5 (MT 2:6). ‫‘ ܘܒܐܫܬܗ̇ܕܝܡܐ̇ܐܬܚܒܫ‬was imprisoned at the bottom of the sea’. MT ‫‘ סוף חבוש‬reeds/rushes were bound’. By Syromanie, P perceived ‫ סוף‬as the Syriac ‫‘ ܣܘܦ‬uttermost part’. 2:8 (MT 2:9). ‫‘ ܡܪܚܡܢܘܬܟ‬your mercy’. MT ‫‘ חסדם‬their mercy’. The 3rd pl. suffix of ‘their mercy’ fits the context poorly. P has given a 2nd sing. suffix, achieving a better sense. 3:6 ‫‘ ܬܓܗ‬his head-dress’. MT ‫‘ אדרתו‬his mantle’; P may have failed to recognize the Hebrew word, or may have judged that an item used specifically by royalty was needed. 4:2 ‫‘ ܘܡܗܦܟ̇ܐܢܬ̇ܒܝܫܬܐ‬you turn away evil’. MT ‫‘ ונחם על־הרעה‬repent of evil’. 4:7 ‫‘ ܘܩܛܡܬܗ‬cropped it’. MT ‫‘ וייבש‬it withered’. Micah 1:4 ‫‘ ܢܬܬܠܚܘܢ‬filled up’: lit. ‘blotted out’. MT ‫‘ יתבקעו‬split’. The Syriac verb fits the context better: perhaps a deliberate change. 1:5 ‫‘ ܚܛܝܗ ̇ܕܝܗܘܕܐ‬sin of Judah’. MT ‫‘ במות יהודה‬high places of Judah’. Possibly a change for clarity; possibly with influence from LXX αρτία ‘sin’. 1:6 ‫‘ ܒܝ ̇ܕܒܪܐ ̇ܕܚܩܐܠ‬a plowed field’: lit. ‘place/portion of the plowing of the field’. MT ‫‘ לעי הׂשדה‬a ruin in the field’. 1:6 ‫‘ ܘܐܟܫܐ̇ܟܐܦܝܗ̇̇ܒܝܓܪܐ‬I will heap up its stones into heaps’. MT ‫והגרתי‬ ‫‘ לגי אבניה‬I will pour its stones into the valley’. 1:7 ̇‫‘ ܕܚܠܬܗ‬its false gods’. MT ‫‘ אתנניה‬its hirings (of a harlot)’. 1:8 ‫‘ ܒܪܬ ̇ܝܪܘܪܐ‬young jackal’. MT ‫כבנות יענה‬, lit. ‘daughters of greed’, usually translated as ‘ostriches’. MT ‫ תנים‬and ‫ כבנות יענה‬are often associated as symbols of a wild land, and are usually rendered in P, as at Isaiah 43:20, as ‫‘ ܝ̈ܪܘܪܐ̇ܘܒܢܬ̇ܢܥܡܐ‬jackals and ostriches’. 1:9 ‫‘ ܟܝܒܐ‬painful’. MT ‫‘ אנושה‬incurable’. 1:11 ‫‘ ܥܒܕܝ‬Make’. MT ‫‘ עברי‬Pass away’. Either P perceived not √‫ עבר‬but √‫ עבד‬or, alternatively, a rish may have been miscopied as a dālath during transmission of the Syriac text. 1:12 ‫‘ ܕܐܬܟܪܗܬ‬she has fallen sick’. MT ‫ חלה‬perhaps ‘was weak’. P perceived not √‫‘ יחל‬to wait’ or √‫‘ חיל‬to writhe’ but √‫‘ חלה‬to be sick’. 1:12 ‫‘ ܥܡܘܪܬܐ ̇ܕܡܪܕܬ‬the rebellious inhabitant’: lit. ‘the inhabitant of rebellion’. MT ‫יושבת מרות‬, usually understood as ‘inhabitant of Maroth’. P perceived not the place name but the √‫‘ מרד‬to rebel’. 1:14 ‫‘ ܫܘܒܩܢܐ‬forgiveness’ used in the phrase ‘you will forgive’. MT ‫שלוחים‬, usually understood here as ‘parting gifts’, from √I ‫‘ שלח‬to send away’. The root includes the sense of ‘to dismiss’ which has

Introduction to the Translation

XXIX

prompted P to render with √‫ܫܒܩ‬, which includes the sense ‘to forgive’. 1:15 ‫‘ ܥܕܡܐ ̇ܠܥܠܡ‬forever’. MT ‫ עד־עדלם‬commonly understood as ‘to Adullam’, though sometimes as ‘forever’: an inner-Hebrew corruption from ‫‘( עד־עולם‬forever’) is plausible. 2:1 ‫‘ ܘܡܩܕܡܝܢ ̇ܒܨܦܪܐ‬rise early in the morning’. MT ‫‘ באור הבקר‬in the morning light’. 2:1 ‫‘ ܘܫܩܠܝܢ̇ܐܝܕܝܗܘܢ̇ܠܘܬ̇ܠܐܗܐ‬yet lift up their hands to God’. ‫כי יש־לאל‬ ‫‘ ידם‬because it is in the power of their hands’. Perhaps influenced by the initial lamadh, P has perceived not ‫‘ אל‬strength, power’ but ‫ אל‬as in ‫‘ אל אלים‬God of gods’. There may also have been influence from LXX ο κ ραν πρ ς τ ν θε ν χε ρας α τ ν though the Greek includes a negative. 2:4 ‫‘ ܘܢܐܡܪ ̇ܒܙܘܙܐ ̇ܢܒܙܢ‬he will say: The pillager will pillage us’, or ignoring the punctuation of Mosul ‘The pillager will say: He will pillage us’. MT ‫‘ אמר שדוד נשדנו‬say: We have been pillaged indeed’ has √‫שדד‬ ‘to pillage’, Qal infinitive absolute plus 1st com. pl. Niphal perfect. P is √‫ܒܙܙ‬, Peal impf 3rd masc. sing with a 1st com. pl. suffix. Possibly, P intended to write a 1st com. pl. perfect, the equivalent of MT, but in a lapse of concentration, distracted by the Niphal marker of MT, wrote an initial nun, giving an imperfect rather than a perfect verb. 2:6 ‫‘ ܐܠ ̇ܬܕܡܥܘܢ ̇ܕܡܥܐ ̇ܘܐܠ ̇ܬܕܡܥܘܢ‬Do not shed tears, do not shed tears’: lit. ‘Do not shed/weep tears, do not shed/weep’. MT ‫אל־תטפו יטיפון‬ ‫‘ לא־יטפו‬Do not prophesy, they will prophesy; they will not prophesy’. In this context, the Hiphil of √‫ נטף‬means ‘to prophesy’. P was evidently not aware of this nuance and rendered with the more usual ‘to drop, drip’ adding ‘tears’ to complete the sense. 2:7 ‫‘ ܕܐܪܓܙ‬which provoked’. MT ‫‘ הקצר‬did (the spirit of the Lord) cut short’. P may have seen the sense ‘to reach the limit of patience’ perhaps treating the initial he as an article. More likely he was influenced by LXX παρ ργισε ‘provoked’. 2:8 ‫‘ ܓܢܒܐ‬thief’. MT ‫‘ אויב‬enemy’. 2:8 ‫‘ ܡܫܟܗ ̇ܬܫܛܘܢ‬you may flay his skin’. MT ‫‘ אדר תפשטון‬you will strip the mantle/cloak’. In an unvocalized text, P may have perceived not ‫‘ א ֶד ֶרת‬glory’ or ‘cloak’ (the probable original form of MT ‫)א ֶדר‬, ֶ but perhaps ‫‘ אדר‬fur’, though it is more likely that he went to LXX for guidance and found τ ν δορὰν ‘skin’ there. 2:11 ‫‘ ܐܛܦ‬distill’ or ‘drop’. MT ‫‘ אטף‬prophesy’: see 2:6 above. 2:12 ‫‘ ܒܐܘܠܨܐܢ‬in distress’. MT ‫‘ בצרה‬enclosure, sheep-fold’. From the context in which God promises that he will bring together the previously separated communities of the Israelites (therefore

XXX

Introduction to the Translation

including the Judeans), it is clear that no threat is intended. P was perhaps influenced by LXX ἐν θλίψει ‘in oppression’. Alternatively P derived the noun from √I ‫‘ צרר‬to tie up, bind’: but that derivation, although it gives a sense of ‘enclosure’, would suggest a restricting enclosure rather than a protecting enclosure. 2:12 ‫‘ ܕܡܓܢ ܝ‬which protects’. MT ‫‘ תהימנה‬they will murmur/be discomfited’. P sought a verb which fitted the context. 3:3 ‫‘ ܘܐܪܡܝܘ‬set’ or ‘cast’. MT ‫ ופרׂשו‬in context ‘chop up’. P has rendered a different element of the root-meaning ‘to spread out’. 4:6 ‫‘ ܠ̈ܪܚ ܝܩܐ ̇ܘܠܡܒܕ̈ܪܐ‬those who are far off … and those who are scattered’. MT ‫‘ הצלעה והנדחה‬the halt/lame and the outcast (or ‘the one who is driven away’)’. P apparently chose to extend the theme of restoration, replacing MT’s ‘halt/lame’ with ‘those who far off’. In the following verse ‫ ܠܡܒܕ̈ܪܐ‬is used to translate ‫ הצלעה‬and ‫̈ܪܚ ܝܩܐ‬ renders ‫‘ הנהלאה‬what was cast far off’. P therefore creates chiasmus ‘far off … scattered (v. 7) scattered … far off’ by changing the order and vocabulary of MT. 4:8 ‫‘ ܡܓܕܐܠ ̇ܪܥܝܐ ̇ܥܡܘܛܐ‬a tower, a gloomy shepherd’. MT ‫מגדל־עדר עפל‬ ‘tower of the flock, the height …’. P apparently perceived in MT not √II ‫‘ עפל‬swelling’, used to designate a ‘hill/mound’, but √‫אפל‬ ‘darkness, gloom’. In giving ‘shepherd’, P could have been influenced by the association with ‘flock’, although it is even more likely that ‘shepherd’ is an ISC of ‫‘ ܕܥܢܐ‬flock’. The original Syriac might have read the ‘gloomy tower of the flock’. 4:9 ‫‘ ܥܒܕܬܝ ̇ܒܝܫܬܐ‬done evil’. MT ‫‘ תריעי רע‬cry out aloud’. In an unvocalized text, P perceived not ‫רע‬,ֵ probably ‘shout’, but ‫‘ ר ֹע‬evil’. P then had to give an appropriate verb. 5:1 (MT 4:14). ‫‘ ܥܫܝܢܐ ̇ܕܩܡܘ ̇ܥܠܝܢ‬strong troops, which have risen against us’. MT ‫‘ מצור ׂשם עלינו‬troop, he has laid siege against us’. P possibly perceived not the noun ‫מצור‬, derived from √I ‫‘ צור‬to lay siege to’ but the noun ‫‘ צור‬rock’, which as a place of security suggested ‘strong’. For MT ‫ׂשם‬, which does not include the sense ‘to rise’, P selected a verb to fit the new context. 5:1 (MT 4:14). ‫‘ ܪܥܝܐ‬shepherd’. MT ‫‘ שפט‬judge’. 5:4 (MT 5:3). ‫‘ ܘܢܬܦܢܘܢ‬and they will return’. MT ‫‘ וישבו‬and they will dwell. P perceived not √‫ ישב‬but √‫ שוב‬. 5:6 (MT 5:5). ‫‘ ܘܢܐܪܥܘܢ‬they will attack’. MT ‫‘ ורעו‬they will graze/ shepherd’. P possibly perceived not √I ‫‘ רעה‬to shepherd’ but √II ‫רעע‬ ‘to smash, shatter’. 5:6 (MT 5:5). ‫‘ ܒܪܘܓܙܗ‬in his anger’. MT ‫‘ בפתחיה‬in its entrances’.

Introduction to the Translation

XXXI

5:14 (MT 5:13). ‫‘ ܫܬܠ̇ܬܟ‬your crops’: lit. ‘plantations’. MT ‫‘ אשיריך‬your sacred trees, poles’. P may have been influenced by LXX ἄλση ‘groves’. A guess to fit the context is also possible. 6:2 ‫‘ ܘܥܘܡܩܐ‬depths’. MT ‫‘ והאתנים‬strong, enduring’. P may have been influenced by LXX ραγγες ‘valleys’. 6:3 ‫‘ ܐܟܪܬܝ̇ܠܟ‬I angered you’. MT ‫‘ הלאתיך‬I wearied you’. 6:6 ‫‘ ܘܐܫܦܪ‬please’. MT ‫( אכף‬Niphal) ‘bow myself’. Despite the clues given by the context, P apparently failed to recognize the root. 6:8 ‫‘ ܘܬܗܘܐ ̇ܥܬܝܕ ̇ܠܡܐܙܠ ̇ܒܬܪ ̇ܠܐܗܟ‬be ready to follow your God’. MT ‫והצנע לכת עם־אלהיך‬, with √‫צנע‬, is usually understood as ‘walk humbly with your God’. This traditional understanding, however, may be wrong, for the root-meaning is in doubt; ‘to be attentive’, the sense given here by P, may be correct (P may have ascribed the meaning of ‘guard’ found in the cognate Aramaic root ‫ צנע‬to the Hebrew). 6:9 ‫‘ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬doctrine’. MT ‫‘ תושיה‬wisdom/success’. 7:2 ‫‘ ܐܠܒܕܐܢ‬to destroy him’: lit. ‘for destruction’. MT ‫ח ֶרם‬.ֵ P treated MT’s noun as ‘ban, destruction’ rather than as ‘net’ from √II ‫חרם‬, ‘to split’. 7:3 ‫‘ ܐܝܕܝܗܘܢ ̇ܡܛܝܒܢ ̇ܠܒܝܫܬܐ ̇ܘܐܠ ̇ܡܛܐܒܝܢ‬Their hands are ready for evil, they do not do good’. MT ‫ על־הרע כפים להיטיב‬perhaps ‘their hands are on evil to do it diligently’. The Hiphil infinitive construct of √‫יטב‬ suggests ‘doing well’ as well as ‘doing good’. In MT, this verb refers to ‘evil’, meaning that the subjects diligently do evil. P did not understand that this verbal form related to ‘evil’, but recognized the root meaning and mistakenly perceived a second clause concerned with good. For the sense, he then had to put a negative with his masc. pl. participle ‘doing good’. 7:4 (MT 7:3). ‫‘ ܘܐܣܠܝܘ‬they have rejected’. MT ‫‘ ויעבתוה‬they wove it’: the only certain verbal use of this root in the Hebrew Bible. The word makes poor sense when read either at the end of v. 3 as in MT, or when read as the beginning of v. 4, as in the Mosul edition. Possibly, P perceived not √‫ עבת‬but √‫תעב‬, a denominative verb with rootmeaning ‘abomination’, giving ‘to abhor’. An alternative, though less likely, is that P perceived √‫‘ ܥܒܪ‬to pass on, over, beyond’. 7:4 ‫‘ ܒܝ ̇ܒܟܝܗܘܢ‬their lamentation’: lit. ‘the house of their weepings’. MT ‫‘ מבוכתם‬their confusion’. P may have been influenced by LXX κλα θ οὶ ‘their wailing’, and perceived not √‫‘ בוך‬to confuse’ but √‫‘ בכה‬to weep’. 7:5 ‫‘ ܩ̈ܪܝܒܝܟܘܢ‬your neighbors’. MT ‫‘ אלוף‬friend/guide’. 7:14 ‫‘ ܥܢܐ‬flock(s)’.2 MT ‫‘ יער‬forest’.

Introduction to the Translation

XXXII

7:17

‫ܚܘܠܕܝ̇ ̇ܐܪܥܐ‬

‘moles in the ground’. MT ‫‘ זחלי ארץ‬crawling creatures of the earth’. 7:17 ‫‘ ܢܪܓܙܘܢ‬be angry’. MT ‫‘ ירגזו‬they will tremble’. The Hebrew root ‫רגז‬ has a much wider range of meanings, including ‘to tremble with rage/fear’ than those now attributed to the Syriac cognate: possibly, when P was written, its cognate root had a range closer to that of the Hebrew. Nahum 1:8 ‫‘ ܘܒܓܪܘܦܝܐ ̇ܥܒܕ ̇ܓܡܘܪܝܐ ̇ܢܥܒܪ ̇ܐܠܬܪܗ‬with an overwhelming flood, he makes an end; he will pass over to his place’. MT ‫ובשטף עבר כלה‬ ‫‘ יעשה מקומה‬with a flood which is overrunning he will make a completion of her place’. P renders ‫ שטף‬with a Syriac noun which means ‘an overwhelming flood’ so that the verb ‫ עבר‬is superfluous as a description of the flood, and, misread as √‫עבד‬, is taken together with ‫כלה‬, giving ‘he makes an end’. In MT the last three words ‫כלה‬ ‫ יעשה מקומה‬are taken together. See Nahum 1:8 in the Introduction. Addendum 2, and also the next item in this Addendum. 1:8 ‫‘ ܐܠܬܪܗ‬to his place’. MT ‫מקומּה‬ ָּ ‘her place’: the feminine suffix may refer to Nineveh, but that is far from certain. P has tried to make sense of the unvocalized text by using a masculine suffix. 1:12 ‫‘ ܘܕܥܢ ܝܟܝ̇…̇ܐܥܢ ܝܟܝ‬answered … answer’ or ‘heard … hear’. ‫וענתך‬ ‫‘ … אענך‬I have afflicted you … will afflict you’. P has perceived not √II ‫‘ ענה‬to humble’ but √I ‫‘ ענה‬to answer’. 1:14 ‫‘ ܒܥܓܠ‬quickly’. MT ‫‘ קלות‬you were contemptible’. P perceived not √II ‫‘ קלה‬to be contemptible’ but √‫ קלל‬of which it is a by-form, and which includes the sense ‘to be fast’. Influence from LXX ταχε ς is possible. 1:15 (MT 2:1). ‫‘ ܡܛܠ̇ܕܐܠ̇ܡܘܣܦ̇ܬܘܒ̇ܠܡܥܒܕ̇ܒܟ̇ܥܘܐܠ‬for no more will he act injuriously among you’. MT ‫‘ כי לא יוסיף עוד לעבור־בך בליעל‬no more will the worthless man/destroyer pass through you’. P perceived not √‫ עבר‬but √‫ עבד‬. 2:1 (MT 2:2). ‫‘ ܡܕܒܪܐܢ‬leader’ or ‘judge, ruler’. MT ‫מפיץ‬, ‘the scatterer’ if from √‫‘ פוץ‬to scatter’, or ‘the shatterer’ if from √‫פצץ‬. This word occurs only here and at Proverbs 25:18, where it is rendered as ‫ܦܕܘܥܐ‬, ‘iron bar, club, axe’, a closer semantic rendering than that in Nahum, where P may have selected √‫ ܕܒܪ‬for its meaning ‘to drive’, although √‫ ܒܕܪ‬is P’s usual rendering of √‫פוץ‬. 2:2 (MT 2:3). ‫‘ ܡܛܠ ̇ܕܕܫܘ ̇ܐܢܘܢ ̇ܕܝܘܫܐ‬for oppressors trod them underfoot’. MT ‫‘ כי בקקום בקקים‬for those who lay waste have laid them waste’. For √I ‫ בקק‬P has given √‫ܕܘܫ‬. This imprecise equivalent is sometimes used elsewhere, e.g. at Jeremiah 51:2 ‫ܕܝܘܫܐ‬.

Introduction to the Translation 2:6 2:10

2:12

2:13

2:13

3:1

3:2 3:4

3:5

3:11

XXXIII

(MT 2:7). ‫‘ ܬ̈ܪܥܐ ̇ܕܝܗܘܕܐ‬The gates of Judah’. MT ‫‘ שערי הנהרות‬The gates of the rivers’. The identity of the rivers is completely uncertain. (MT 2:11). ‫‘ ܕܝܫܬܐ̇ܘܣܚ ܝܦܬܐ̇ܘܡܬܪܥܬܐ‬Trampled, overthrown, torn’. MT ‫‘ בוקה ומבוקה ומבלקה‬emptiness … void … devastated, laid waste’. Perhaps because P knew that he could not reproduce the alliteration and assonance of the Hebrew in Syriac, and perhaps also because he thought that √I ‫ בקק‬rather than √‫ בוק‬was the root of ‫בוקה‬, P has given the same equivalence with ‘trampled’ as at 2:2. For ‘overthrown’ and for ‘devastated, laid waste’ P continues the metaphor used for MT ‫בוקה‬, though with different roots. (MT 2:13). ‫‘ ܘܦܣܩ‬he cut off’. MT ‫‘ ומחנק‬he strangled’. Perhaps P did not recognize the root, or perhaps because lions do not strangle their prey, P selected a more appropriate root. (MT LXX 2:14). ‫‘ ܘܐܘܒܕ ̇… ̇ܟܢܫܝܟܝ‬and I will destroy your assemblies’. MT ‫‘ והבערתי … רכבּה‬I will burn her chariot’. P may have found this phrase surprising and gone to LXX for guidance: ‘assemblies’ may be a synonym for LXX πλῆθ ς ‘multitudes’, itself perhaps resulting from a misreading of MT ‫ רכבה‬as based on √‫רב‬ ‘numerous’. P apparently judged that ‘destroy’ fitted the context better than a literal translation of ‘burn’. (MT LXX 2:14). ‫‘ ܕܥܒܕܝܟܝ‬of your deeds’. MT ‫‘ מלאככה‬your messengers’. P perceived not ‫‘ מלאך‬messenger’ but ‫‘ מלאכה‬work’. Influence from LXX ἔργα ‘deeds’ is possible. ‫‘ ܡܬܬܡܝܫ‬searched out’. MT ‫‘ ימיש‬will depart’. The root ‫ מוש‬of MT has a different sense than the Syriac cognate. In Hebrew the meaning is ‘to depart’, giving ‘prey is always present’. ‫‘ ܕܢܦܪ‬snorting’: lit. ‘which snorts’. MT ‫ דהר‬perhaps ‘rush, gallop’ P may not have recognized this infrequently used root. ‫‘ ܕܡܪܒܝܐ̇ܥܡܡܐ‬increases the nations’. MT ‫‘ המכרת גוים‬who sells the nations’. P may have sought to clarify the meaning of the Hebrew. It is alternatively possible that there has been an ISC, from an original ‫ ܕܡܟܪܝܐ‬which would mean ‘who buys’. ‫‘ ܘܐܣܚܘܦ̇ܫܦܘܠ ܝܟܝ‬I will pull down your skirts’. MT ‫‘ וגליתי שוליך‬I will uncover/reveal your skirts’. ‘pull down’ is the opposite of the expected way of humiliating a female prisoner. P’s rendering is difficult to explain. ‫‘ ܘܬܗܘܝܢ̇ܫܝܛܬܐ‬will be an object of contempt’. MT ‫‘ תהי נעלמה‬you will be hid’. MT has a Niphal of √I ‫עלם‬, ‘to be concealed, covered’; it seems to make little sense here. P may have selected √‫ ܫܛܐ‬to fit the context.

XXXIV

3:12

‫ܕܡܐ ̇ܕܒܫܠ‬

Introduction to the Translation

‘when they are ripe’: lit. ‘when they have ripened’. MT ‫‘ אם־ינועו‬if they are shaken’. Since P would have recognized the Hebrew root, the change of sense may have been deliberate, to emphasize the imagery: the figs are so ripe, i.e. the protection so fragile, that they simply fall off the tree. 3:17 ‫‘ ܘܬܟܝܫܝܟܝ‬your possessed’. MT ‫וטפסריך‬: the meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain, perhaps referring to a person in authority. 3:18 ‫‘ ܚܒ̈ܪܝܟܝ‬your companions’. MT ‫‘ רעיך‬your shepherds’. P may have judged that ‘companions’ was more appropriate in referring to other kings with similar status as the king of Assyria; ‘shepherd’ might better apply to the Assyrian king’s subordinate officials. 3:19 ‫‘ ܟܐܒ‬grieves’. MT ‫‘ אין־כהה‬none to lessen’. The Hebrew rootmeaning is ‘to be/grow dim’; nowhere else is it used of healing a wound. P’s choice may have been guided by the sense of the next part of the verse. Habakkuk 1:3 ‫‘ ܩܕܡܝ̇ܗܘܐ̇ܕܝܢܐ̇ܘܕܝܢܐ̇ܩܒܠ̇ܫܘܚܕܐ‬there was justice (lit.: ‘justice was before me’), but the judge accepted a bribe’. MT ‫ושד וחמס לנגדי ויהי‬ ‫‘ ריב ומדון יׂשא‬ruin and violence are before me, there is strife, and contention raises (its head)’. P has apparently been influenced by LXX ἐξ ἐναντίας ο γ γονε κρίσις καὶ κριτ ς λα νει ‘justice is before me, and the judge receives (a reward)’. 1:5 ‫‘ ܡ̈ܪܚܐ‬insolent men’. MT ‫‘ בגוים‬among the nations’. The Hebrew is unproblematic. P may have been influenced by LXX κατα ρονηταί ‘despisers’. Possibly, influenced by the context, he perceived not ‫ בגוים‬but ‫‘ בגדים‬those who act treacherously’. 1:7 ‫‘ ܚܙܘܗ‬its vision’. MT ‫‘ וׂשאתו‬its dignity’. Since for Habakkuk 1:1 MT ‫‘ מׂשא‬oracle’ P gives ‫‘ ܚܙܘܗ‬vision’, and since the root of both ‫ מׂשא‬in 1:1 and ‫ וׂשאתו‬in 1:7 is ‫נׂשא‬, P may have judged that as ‘vision’ was a satisfactory rendering of the former, it could also be used for the latter. 1:8 ‫‘ ܡܢ ̇ܢܫ̈ܪܐ‬eagles’. MT ‫‘ מנמרים‬than leopards’. Possibly, P in a lapse of concentration either read not ‫ מנמרים‬but ‫מנשרים‬, or was distracted by the occurrence of ‫ ܢܫܪܐ‬later in the verse; or deliberately chose the more usual comparison, as at e.g. Jeremiah 4:13. 1:12 ‫‘ ܕܐܠ̇ܢܡܘܣ̇ܐܢܬ̇ܡܪܝܐ‬there is no law (for) you, Lord’. MT ‫לא נמות יהוה‬ ‘we will not die, Lord’. A tired translator might have given ‫ ܢܡܘܣ‬for ‫ נמות‬as a result of Syromanie. Less likely, the translator would have translated correctly with ‫ ܢܡܘܬ‬and by ISC the ‫ ܬ‬became ‫ ܐܢܬ‬and the rest of the word ‫ܢܡܘܣ‬.

Introduction to the Translation 2:1

‫ܥܠ ̇ܟܐܦܐ‬

XXXV

‘upon the rock’. MT ‫‘ על־מצור‬upon the siege-works’ or ‘upon the watch-tower’. P apparently perceived √I ‫‘ צור‬rock’ rather than √I ‫‘ צרר‬to constrain’. 2:4 ‫‘ ܘܒܥܘܐܠ ̇ܐܠ ̇ܨܒܝܐ ̇ܢܦܫܗ‬He takes no pleasure in (lit.: ‘His soul is not pleased with’) the unjust’. ΜΤ ‫עפלה לא־ישרה נפשו‬: ‘he (his soul) is swollen, not upright’ is an approximate rendering. P may have been influenced by LXX ο κ ε δοκε ἡ ψ χή ο ἐν α τῷ ‘my soul has no pleasure in him’. It is also possible that he read, or mistakenly perceived, not ‫ עפלה‬but ‫עולה‬, and saw in √‫ ישר‬the sense ‘to be pleasing’ (to God). 2:5 ‫‘ ܘܓܒܪܐ̇ܡܪܚܐ̇ܘܝܥܢܐ̇ܐܠ̇ܣܒܥ‬The man (who is) willful and avaricious is not satisfied’. MT ‫ …‘ גבר יהיר ולא ינוה‬the arrogant man will not abide’ may well be corrupt. ‫ יהיר‬is apparently appropriately rendered with ‫ܡܪܚܐ‬. Further attempts to trace a train of thought in P are tortuous. 2:6 ‫‘ ܡܥܫܢ̇ܥܠܘܗܝ̇ܥܢܢܐ̇ܕܣܝܢܐ‬he sets firmly upon himself a filthy cloud’. MT ‫‘ ומכביד עליו עבטיט‬who loads upon himself heavy debts’. P apparently divided ‫ עבטיט‬into two words; he rendered ‫ טיט‬as ‘mire’ and ‫ עב‬as ‘cloud’. Elsewhere P understands the meaning of the noun. 2:9 ‫‘ ܘܡܟܢܫ̇ܒܝܫܬܐ̇ܠܢܦܫܗ‬who gathers evil for himself’. MT ‫בצע בצע רע‬ ‫‘ לביתו‬who gains an evil gain for his house’. 3:4 ‫‘ ܒܩܪܬܝܐ‬in the city’. MT ‫‘ קרנים‬rays’. Possibly, P missed the nun in ‫‘ קרנים‬rays’. 3:5 ‫‘ ܛܝܪܐ‬bird of prey’. MT ‫‘ רשף‬bolt of fire’ (from the Lord, bringing pestilence and death). The reason for the choice in P is not clear. 3:6 ̇‫‘ ܘܡܫܚܗ‬he measured’. MT ‫‘ וימדד‬he shook’. P perceived not √‫‘ מוד‬to shake’ but √‫‘ מדד‬to measure’. 3:6 ‫‘ ܘܕܓܠܘ̇ܥܡܡܐ‬they shot a dart at the nations’. MT ‫‘ ויתר גוים‬he shook (or ‘startled’) the nations’. 3:7 ‫‘ ܐܘܢ‬Awen’. MT ‫‘ און‬iniquity’. P has transliterated the Hebrew. 3:9 ‫‘ ܡܬܬܥܪܘ‬awakened’. MT ‫‘ עריה‬bared’. P perceived not √‫ ערה‬but √II ‫עור‬. 3:9 ‫‘ ܘܢܣܒܥܘܢ̇ܓܐ̈ܪܐ̇ܒܡܐܡܪܟ̇ܡܫܒܚܐ‬the arrows will be satisfied by your glorious words’. MT ‫ ׁשבעות מטות אמר סלה‬possibly ‘the oaths of the tribe a word. Selah’ or even ‘and put the arrows to the string Selah’ (so RSV). P has perceived not √‫‘ ׁשבע‬to swear’ but √‫‘ ׂשבע‬to be satisfied’. He has given ‘arrows/javelins’ for ‫‘ מטות‬staffs’. The ‘glorious words’ were possibly an attempt to translate ‫אמר סלה‬, perceiving √‫‘ סלל‬to lift up’ in ‫סלה‬. 3:17 ‫‘ ܒܒܩ̈ܪܐ‬in the herds’. MT ‫ ברפתים‬a hapax legomenon; possibly ‘stall’.

XXXVI

Introduction to the Translation

Zephaniah 1:9 ‫‘ ݂ܟܗܘܢ̇ܚܛܘܦܐ̇ܘܒܙܘܙ ܐ‬all the violent, the plunderers’. MT ‫כל־הדולג‬ ‫‘ על־המפתן‬all who leap over the threshold’. P may have given his rendering for the sake of clarity. MT possibly refers to worshippers of Dagon, who were believed to avoid stepping upon the threshold of his sanctuary. 1:12 ‫‘ ܓܒ̈ܪܐ ̇ܕܫܝܛܝܢ ̇ܠܢܛܘܪܗܘܢ‬men who despise their watchman’. MT ‫‘ האנשים הקפאים על־שמריהם‬men who are settled on their lees’. The metaphor in MT, of wine maturing undisturbed, evokes a selfsatisfied community: possibly this is the sense P intended. 2:9 ‫‘ ܕܐܬܚܒܠܬ ̇ܢܨܒܬܗܝܢ ̇ܘܐܒܕ ̇ܡܠܘܚܗܝܢ‬whose cultivation (lit. ‘planting’) was destroyed, their sea orach perished’. MT ‫ממשק חרול ומכרה־מלח‬ ‘a possession of weeds, and salt-pits’. P apparently did not recognize the rare words ‫ חרול‬and ‫מכרה־מלח‬, and guessed at nouns to fit the context. 2:11 ‫‘ ܐܬܓܠܝ‬has revealed himself’. MT ‫‘ נורה‬is terrible’, a Niphal part. of √‫‘ ירא‬to fear’. P, perhaps influenced by LXX ἐπι ανήσεται ‘will appear’, perceived √‫‘ ראה‬to see’. 3:1 ‫‘ ܝܕܝܥܬܐ ̇ܘܦܪܝܩܬܐ‬famous, redeemed’. MT ‫‘ מראה ונגאלה‬filthy and polluted’. ‫ מראה‬may be derived from a √I ‫( מרא‬related to √I ‫)מרה‬ which occurs only here, commonly translated ‘soiled’, a synonymous parallel with ‫ונגאלה‬. P probably perceived instead √‫‘ ראה‬to see’. From that sense he reached the sense of ‘known’. For ‫ ונגאלה‬P perceived not √II ‫גאל‬, in the Niphal ‘to be defiled’, but √I ‫‘ גאל‬to be redeemed’: this perception would have supported his choice of ‫ܝܕܝܥܬܐ‬. Influence from LXX ἐπι αν ς καὶ πολελ τρω νη ‘glorious and ransomed’ is possible. 3:1 ‫‘ ܡܕܝܢܬܗ ̇ܕܝܘܢܢ‬the city of Jonah’. MT ‫‘ העיר היונה‬the oppressing city’. P, probably influenced by the context, perceived not √‫‘ ינה‬to oppress’ but the name ‫יונה‬. Zechariah 1:8 ‫‘ ܐܝܠ ܢܐ ̇ܕܡܛܠܠܝܢ‬the overshadowing trees’. MT ‫ההדסים אשר במצלה‬ ‘the myrtle trees that are in the valley bottom/hollow’. At Isaiah 41:19, 55:13 for ‫ הדסה‬P gives ‫‘ ܐܣܐ‬myrtle’, so the translation here is unexpected. P’s √ ‫ܛܠ‬ ̇ is cognate to Hebrew √‫‘ צלל‬to be or grow dark’, although ‫ מצלה‬itself means ‘depth, deep’. The influence of LXX is probable: LXX has ‘myrtle’, like P, for the Isaiah passages, but in Zechariah 1:8 apparently had difficulty, and gave τ ν δ ο ρ ων τ ν κατασκίων ‘the two shady mountains’ (perhaps it found or misread a Hebrew text as ‫)ההרים‬.

Introduction to the Translation 1:15

1:17

1:21

3:8 4:7

4:10

4:14 5:6

9:1

9:1 9:12

9:12

‫ܕܡܬܪܓܫܝܢ‬

XXXVII

‘that are in commotion’. MT ‫‘ השאננים‬those at ease’. P perceived not the adjective ‫ שאנן‬from √‫‘ שאן‬to be at ease’ but the noun ‫ שאון‬from √‫‘ שאה‬to make a din, to crash’. ‫‘ ܢܣܬ̈ܪܩܢ ̇ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ̇ܡܢ̇ܛܒܬܐ‬the cities will be empty’. MT ‫תפוצינה ערי‬ ‫‘ מטוב‬the cities will overflow with good’. P apparently perceived √‫פוץ‬ not in the sense ‘to overflow’ but as meaning ‘to be dispersed’. ‫‘ ܐܝܟ ܦܘܡܗ ܕܓܒܪܐ ܕܐܠ ܐܪܝܡ ܪܝܫܗ‬as the mouth of a man who does not lift up his head’. MT ‫‘ כפי־איש לא־נׂשא ראשו‬in such proportion that none lifted up his head’. ‫‘ ܕܢ ܚܐ‬sunrise’. MT ‫‘ צמח‬the Branch’, a term used here for the coming (Davidic) ruler. So too Zechariah 6:12. ‫‘ ܕܫܘܝܘܬܐ̇ܘܕ̈ܪܚܡܐ‬of dignity and of mercy’. MT ‫‘ תשאות חן חן לּה‬shouts of “Grace, grace to it”’. Possibly, P saw √‫‘ נׂשא‬to carry/lift up’ in ‫ תשאות‬suggesting ‘being lifted up/exalted’. The link between ‫חן‬ ‘grace’ and ‫‘ ̈ܪܚܡܐ‬mercy’ is clearer. The individual words of the MT are plain enough, but the meaning of the complete phrase is less so. P gives a clearer sense. ‫‘ ܠܟܐܦܐ̇ܕܦܘܪܫܢܐ‬stone of distinction’ or ‘stone of division’. MT ‫האבן‬ ‫‘ הבדיל‬the plummet’. P perceived not the noun ‫בדיל‬, a metal, probably tin, which with ‘stone’ probably means a ‘plummet’, but instead a verbal form derived from √‫‘ בדל‬to divide from’. ‫‘ ܒܢ ܝ̇ ̇ܕܘܗܐܢ‬sons of fatness’. MT ‫ בני־היצהר‬lit. ‘sons of oil’, thus the ‘anointed ones’. ‫‘ ܚܘܒܐ‬debts’. MT ‫‘ עינם‬their eyes’. P probably perceived ‫‘ עונם‬their iniquities’. Since waw and yodh are easily confused in a Hebrew script, either P correctly read a Hebrew text ‫( עונם‬which subsequently underwent inner-Hebrew corruption) or misread an original ‫עינם‬. P may have been influenced by the LXX ἡ δικία α τ ν ‘their iniquity’. ‫‘ ܩܘܪܒܢܗ‬the offering’: lit. ‘his offering’. MT ‫‘ מנחתו‬his resting place’. P perceived not √‫‘ נוח‬to rest’ but ‫‘ מנחה‬an offering’. Influence from LXX θ σία ‘sacrifice’ is possible. ‫‘ ܕܠܡܪܝܐ̇ܓܠܝܢ̇ܒܢ ܝܢܫܐ‬for mankind is revealed to the Lord’. MT ‫ליהוה‬ ‫ עין אדם‬perhaps ‘the eye(s) of man are towards the Lord’. ‫‘ ܬܒܘ ̇ܒܚܣܢܐ‬Dwell in the citadel’. MT ‫‘ שובו לבצרון‬Return to the stronghold’. P perceived not √‫ שוב‬but √‫ישב‬. Influence from LXX καθήσεσθε ‘you shall dwell’ is possible. ‫‘ ܐܣܝ̈ܪܐ ̇ܕܟܢܘܫܬܐ‬prisoners of the congregation’. MT ‫אסירי התקוה‬ ‘prisoners of hope’. P perceived not √I ‫‘ קוה‬to wait for’ but √II ‫קוה‬ ‘to collect, assemble’. Influence from LXX δ σ ιοι τῆς σ ναγωγῆς ‘prisoners of the congregation’ is possible.

XXXVIII

9:15

9:16

10:3

10:11

11:7 11:7

11:16

11:16

11:17

12:2

12:3

13:3

Introduction to the Translation

‫‘ ܐܝܟ̇ܡܙ ܓܐ‬like a mixture’. MT ‫‘ כמזרק‬like a bowl/sprinkling basin’. P’s ‘a mixture’ is a free interpretation of a ‫ מזרק‬used e.g. for offerings of flour mixed with oil. ‫‘ ܕܟܐܦܐ ̇ܗܘܝ̇ ̇ܩܕܝܫܬܐ‬they were holy stones’. MT ‫‘ אבני־נזר‬stones of a crown’. P’s ‘holy’ picks up the idea of ‘consecration/dedication’ associated with the root of ‫נזר‬. Influence from LXX λίθοι γιοι ‘holy’ is possible. ‫‘ ܘܠܓܙ̈ܪܐ‬flocks’. MT ‫‘ העתודים‬male goats, leaders of the flock’. By giving ‘flocks’, P has lost the comparison of the leaders with the led implied in MT. ‫‘ ܘܢܥܒܪ̇ܒܝܡܐ̇ܐܘܠܨܐܢ‬Affliction will pass by in the sea’. MT ‫ועבר בים‬ ‫צרה‬: ‘he will pass through the sea of affliction’ or ‘he will pass through the sea (with) affliction’. ‫‘ ܟܢܫܐ̇ܕܥܢܐ‬assembly of the flock’. MT ‫‘ עניי הצון‬the poor of the flock’. ‫‘ ܚܒܐܠ‬Rope’. MT ‫‘ חבלים‬Unity’, from √I ‫‘ חבל‬to tie together, pledge’. P perceived the root-meaning of the cognate verb, but not the appropriate sense. Influence from LXX σχοίνισ α ‘allotment of land measured by a rope’ is possible. ‫‘ ܘܕܛܥܝܢ‬those who have gone astray’. MT ‫‘ הנער‬the youth’ or only here ‘the scattered ones’, derived from √II ‫‘ נער‬to shake off’, rendered rather freely. ‫‘ ܘܟ̈ܪܥܝܗܝܢ ̇ܢܥܪܩ‬he will make them flee’: lit. ‘put to flight their legs’ (the word is used of the legs of animals, not of humans). MT ‫ופרסיהן‬ ‫‘ יפרק‬he will tear off/away their hoofs’. Just possibly, P thought the sense ‘to tear away’ could be rendered by ‘to put to flight’. ‫‘ ܕܫܒܩܬ̇ܥܢܐ̇ܥܠ̇ܕܪܥܟ‬for I left the flock upon your arm’. MT ‫עזבי‬ ‫‘ הצאן חרב על־זרועו‬who forsakes the flock; the sword will be upon his arm’. P gives no equivalent of ‘sword’, perhaps because the sense seemed obscure. ‫‘ ܬܪܥܐ‬gate’. MT ‫‘ סף־רעל‬goblet’. P perceived not the meaning ‘basin, goblet’ for ‫סף‬, but ‘threshold, sill’ and from there reached ‘gate’. Influence from LXX πρ θ ρα ‘doorpost’ is possible. ̇‫‘ ܟܐܦܐ ̇ܕܕܝܫܐ ̇… ̇ܘ݂ܟܗܘܢ ̇ܕܝܘܫܝܗ‬stone to trample’ (lit. ‘a stone of trampling’) … all who trample it’. MT ‫‘ אבן מעמסה … כל־עמסיה‬a burdensome stone … all who lift it (lit. ‘all her lifters’). Possibly, P was subconsciously influenced by the similarity of √‫‘ עמס‬to load; to carry a load’ to √‫‘ רמס‬to trample’. Influence from LXX λίθον καταπατο ενον ‘a trampled stone’ is possible. ‫‘ ܘܢܐܣܪܘܢܗ‬will bind him’. MT ‫‘ ודקרהו‬will pierce him’. P may have wanted to distinguish this from 12:10 ‘the one whom they pierced’.

Introduction to the Translation

XXXIX

Influence from LXX καὶ σ ποδιοῦσιν α τ ν ‘and they will bind his feet together’ seems probable. 13:7 ‫‘ ܥܠܠ ܢ̇ܐ‬disciples’. MT ‫‘ הצערים‬the little ones’. 14:4 ‫‘ ܘܢܫܬܒܩ‬will be left’. MT ‫‘ ומש‬will depart/remove’. 14:5 ‫‘ ܐܠܘܠܨܐܢ‬to calamity’ or ‘to affliction’. MT ‫‘ אל־אצל‬to Azel’, though there is no certain identification of such a place. 14:13 ‫‘ ܘܢܐܚܕܘܢ‬hold tight’: lit. ‘cleave to’. MT ‫‘ ועלתה‬rise up’. Possibly LXX σ πλακήσεται influenced P. Malachi 1:3 ‫‘ ܠܕܝ̈ܪܐ ̇ܕܡܕܒܪܐ‬shepherds’ camps in the wilderness’. MT ‫לתנות מדבר‬ ‘to the jackals of the wilderness’. P, perhaps influenced by LXX εἰς δ ατα ἐρή ο ‘houses/dwellings of the wilderness’, has apparently rendered ‫‘ נות‬dwelling of’. 1:10 ‫‘ ܘܐܠ̇ܬܩܪܒܘܢ̇ܥܠ̇ܡܕܒܚ ܝ̇ܕܡܓܢ‬Do not bring to my altar that which costs you nothing’. MT ‫‘ ולא־תאירו מזבחי חנם‬Do not kindle fire (on) my altar in vain (or ‘for nothing’)’. Perhaps P did not understand the MT root ‫ אור‬in this context. 2:11 ‫‘ ܘܪܚܡ ̇ܘܦܠܚ ̇ܐܠܠ ܗܐ ̇ܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ‬has loved and served foreign gods’. MT ‫‘ אשר אהב ובעל בת־אל נכר‬whom he loved, and has married the daughter of a foreign god’. P has perceived a different phrasing from that in MT, where the referent of ‫ אשר אהב‬is the Lord. His rendering of the closing four words is probably exegetical, since there is no evident difficulty in MT. 3:3 ‫‘ ܘܢܓܒܐ‬he will choose’. MT ‫‘ וזקק‬he will refine/purify’. The translators did not consistently recognize this root. 3:6 ‫‘ ܐܠ̇ܥܒܪܬܘܢ̇ܡܢ̇ܥܘܠܟܘܢ‬turned aside from your iniquity’. MT ‫לא כליתם‬ ‘have not come to an end’. P may have seen the verb as applying not to the sons of Jacob, as in MT, but to an object which was implicit and which he characteristically made explicit. 3:11 ‫‘ ܬܚܪܒ‬will lie waste’. MT ‫‘ תשכל‬will make barren’. 3:14 ‫‘ ܡܟܝܟܐܬܝ‬humbly’. MT ‫‘ קדרנית‬mournfully’. 3:15 ‫‘ ܛܘܒܐ̇ܝܗܒܝܢܢ̇ܠܥܘܐܠ‬we give blessing(s) to the iniquitous’. MT ‫אנחנו‬ ‫‘ מאשרים זדים‬we count the arrogant happy’. The element of ‘blessing’ may result from influence from LXX ακαρίζο εν ‘we bless’. 4:2 (MT 3:20). ̇‫‘ ܥܠ̇ܠܫܢܗ‬upon its tongue’. MT ‫‘ בכנפיה‬on its wings’. Addendum 2: Inner-Syriac Corruption The references to Hebrew roots are all to Koehler Baumgartner (1994), The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament.

XL

Introduction to the Translation

Hosea 11:10 ‫‘ ܒܢ ܝܐ̇ܡܢ̇ܥܡܐ‬the children of the people’. MT ‫‘ בנים מים‬the children from the sea/west’. ‫ ܥܡܐ‬may be a corrupt version of ‫‘ ܝܡܐ‬sea’. Amos 4:10 ‫‘ ܣܪܝܘܬܟܘܢ‬your sewage’. MT ‫‘ מחניכם‬your camp’. A possible early scribal error, writing ‫ ܣܪܝܘܬܟܘܢ‬instead of ‫‘ ܡܫܪܬܝܟܘܢ‬your camp’. Obadiah 1:13 ‫‘ ܘܐܠ ̇ܬܚܕܐ‬you … should not rejoice’ or ‘do not rejoice’. MT ‫אל־תרא‬ ‘do not look’. ISC is possible, from an original P ‫ ܬܚܙܐ‬which would have translated the Hebrew and reiterated one instruction from v. 12. Alternatively P may have selected ‘rejoice’ to reiterate a different instruction of v.12. Micah 1:10 ‫‘ ܐܠ ̇ܬܚܕܘܢ‬Do not rejoice’. MT ‫‘ אל־תגידו‬Tell it not’. Possibly, P perceived not √‫‘ נגד‬to tell’ but √‫‘ גיל‬to rejoice’, but more likely it is an ISC of ‫ܐܠ̇ܬܚܘܘܢ‬. 5:8 (MT 5:7). ‫‘ ܐܪܝܐ ̇ܒܚ ܝܘܬܐ ̇ܕܥܢܐ‬as a lion among the animals of the flock’. MT ‫‘ אריה בבהמות יער‬like a lion among the beasts of the forest’. The expected translation of ‘beast of the forest’ or ‘forest animals’ would be ‫ܚ ܝܘܬܐ̇ܕܥܒܐ‬. An original ‫ ܥܒܐ‬was probably miscopied as ‫ܥܢܐ‬. 6:7 ‫‘ ܕܚ ܝ ܐܠ ̇ܕܡܘܫܚܐ‬strong heifers’: lit. ‘the host of heifers’. MT ‫נחלי־שמן‬ ‘rivers of oil’. P would have recognized ‫נחלי‬, which has a Syriac cognate; P would have had no difficulty with ‫שמן‬. Possibly an original ‫‘ ܢ ܚܐܠ‬torrents’ became corrupted to ‫ܚ ܝ ܐܠ‬, and because that form no longer made sense with ‘oil’, ‫ ܡܫܚܐ‬was minimally altered to ‫ܡܘ̇ܫܚܐ‬. It is also possible that an accidental change of ‫ ܡܫܚܐ‬to ‫ܡܘܫܚܐ‬ initiated the process, with an original ‫ ܢ ܚܐܠ‬being changed to ‫ ܕܚ ܝ ܐܠ‬to make sense. 6:9 ‫‘ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬doctrine’. MT ‫‘ תושיה‬wisdom/success’. 6:10 ‫‘ ܢܘܪܐ‬fire’. MT ‫‘ האש‬is it’. In an unvocalized text P mistook ‫ ִאש‬for ‫אש‬. ֵ 7:19 ‫‘ ܘܢܟܢܘܫ‬he will gather’. MT ‫‘ יכבש‬he will suppress’. Possibly, an early corruption of an original ‫ܘܢܟܒܘܫ‬, the Syriac cognate of the Hebrew, with a similar meaning. Nahum 1:8 ‫‘ ܢܥܒܪ‬he will pass over’. MT ‫‘ יעׂשה‬he will make’. P’s text does not correspond to the √‫ עׂשה‬but to √‫עבר‬. An original ‫ܢܥܒܕ‬, which would correspond to the Hebrew ‫יעׂשה‬, may have been miswritten as ‫ܢܥܒܪ‬. 3:7 ‫‘ ܠܡܢ̇ܬܟܪܐ̇ܥܠܝܟܝ‬why would it grieve on your account?’. MT ‫מי ינוד‬ ‫‘ לה‬who will mourn for it?’ Possibly, an original ‫ ܡܢ‬became ‫ܠܡܢ‬

Introduction to the Translation

XLI

during transmission, and the objective suffix was changed from a 3rd to a 2nd person to fit the context. 3:11 ‫‘ ܬܕܘܝܢ‬You … will grieve’. MT ‫‘ תשכרי‬you will be drunk’. Probably, by writing dālath instead of rish an original imperfect of √‫ ܪܘܐ‬was corrupted during tranmsission to an imperfect of √‫ܕܘܐ‬. 3:14 ‫‘ ܡܘܠܟܢܐ‬property’. MT ‫‘ מלבן‬brick mould’. An original ‫‘ ܡܘܠܒܢܐ‬brick mould’ has probably been miscopied. Habakkuk 3:6 ‫‘ ܘܕܓܠܘ̇ܥܡܡܐ‬they shot a dart at the nations’. MT ‫‘ ויתר גוים‬he shook the nations’. P might have resulted from an ISC of ‫‘ ܘܕܚܠܘ̇ܥܡܡܐ‬they feared the nations’ or perhaps ‫‘ ܘܕܠܚܘ ̇ܥܡܡܐ‬they disturbed the nations’. 3:6 ‫‘ ܐܬܒܕܪܘ‬were scattered’. MT ‫‘ ויתפצצו‬were shattered’. An original ‫‘ ܐܬܬܒܪܘ‬were shattered’ is possible. 3:9 ‫‘ ܡܬܬܥܪܘ‬awakened’. MT ‫‘ עריה‬bared’. P perceived not √‫‘ ערה‬to be bare’ but √II ‫‘ עור‬to awaken’. 3:16 ‫‘ ܠܘܩܒܠ ̇ܡܡܠ ܐܠ ̇ܕܣܦܘܬܝ‬at the words of my lips’. MT ‫לקול צללו‬ ‫‘ ׂשפתי‬my lips quivered at the sound’. It is possible that ‫ ܠܘܩܒܠ‬was mistakenly written, instead of ‫ܠܩܠ‬, when intending to render ‫;לקול‬ the cognate √‫ܨܠܠ‬ ̇ could have been miscopied to give ‫ ܡܡܠ ܐܠ‬for ‫צללו‬. Zephaniah 1:1 ‫‘ ܒܪܗ̇ܕܚܠܩܝܐ‬the son of Helekiah’. MT ‫‘ בן־חזקיה‬the son of Hezekiah’. A early copy error is probable. 2:11 ‫‘ ܓܙ̈ܪܬܐ̇ܕܝܡܡܐ‬the islands of the sea’. MT ‫‘ איי הגוים‬the islands of the nations’. An ISC from an original ‫ ܥܡܡܐ‬is not only possible, but such a reading is actually found in the earliest surviving MS 6h9. 3:6 ‫‘ ܕܘܬܝܐ‬the grieving (women)’ – a sing. noun. MT ‫‘ פנותם‬their corners’. An original ‫‘ ܙܘܬܝܐ‬corner’ has surely been miscopied. Zechariah 4:10 ‫‘ ܘܢ ܚܘܪܘܢ‬They will look’. MT ‫‘ וׂשמחו‬they will rejoice’. A hypothetical ‫‘ ܘܢ ܚܕܘܢ‬they will be glad’ may have been miscopied during transmission. 11:4,7 ‫‘ ܩܛܝܢܬܐ‬frail, lean’. MT ‫‘ ההרגה‬of the slaughter’. An original ‫ܩܛܝܠܬܐ‬ would have rendered the Hebrew: the MT construction is unusual, but the root would have been familiar. The ISC, having occurred in v. 4, was carried through for consistency to v. 7. Addendum 3: Hebrew Meaning Obscure Items are cited here when P has made sense of a Hebrew word or passage whose meaning is obscure.

XLII

Introduction to the Translation

The references to Hebrew roots are all to Koehler Baumgartner (1994), The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Hosea 2:6 (MT 2:8). ̇‫‘ ܘܐܣܘܓ ̇ܫܒܝܠ ܝ̇ܗ‬I will fence her paths’. MT ‫וגדרתי‬ ‫ את־גדרה‬lit. ‘I will build up her wall with a wall’. The MT syntax is difficult; P has opted for a general sense appropriate to the context. 4:15 ‫‘ ܐܢܬ̇ܕܝܢ̇ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ̇ܐܠ̇ܬܚ ܝܒ̇ܠܝܗܘܕܐ‬For you, Israel, will not find Judah guilty’. MT ‫‘ אם־זנה אתה ישראל אל־יאשם יהודה‬And though you, Israel, fornicate, let not Judah be guilty’. In MT ‘Israel’ concludes the previous phrase; P has eliminated ‫ אם־זנה‬altogether. 5:2 ‫‘ ܘܨܝܕܐ ̇ܕܨܝܕܝܢ ̇ܛܡܪܘ ̇ܦܚܐ‬The hunters who are hunting hid the snares’. MT ‫‘ ושחטה שטים העמיקו‬the apostates are deep-dyed in slaughter’. P probably arrived at ‘hunters’ from √‫‘ שחט‬to slaughter’. √‫‘ עמק‬to go deep’ perhaps gave rise to ‘hid’, and ‘snares’ may be a guess based on the context. 6:8 ‫‘ ܘܡܦܠܦܐܠ ̇ܒܕܡܐ‬wallowing in blood’. MT ‫עקבה מדם‬. ASV renders freely ‘stained with blood’. √I ‫ עקב‬can denote ‘to follow, to betray (i.e. ‘to creep up behind’)’; √II ‫ עקב‬may possibly include ‘footprint’. P ‘to wallow’ seems to be a guess based on the context. 8:6 ‫‘ ܠܛܥܝܘܬܐ‬led you astray’: lit. ‘was for straying’. MT ‫שבבים‬, the meaning of which is uncertain. P may have perceived √‫ ;שוב‬perhaps influenced by LXX πλαν ν. 10:14 ‫‘ ܕܫܠܡܐ‬of peace’. MT ‫‘ שלמן‬Shalman’. P did not see a reference to an historical person. 11:6 ‫‘ ܡܢ ̇ܐܝܕܝܗܘܢ‬from their hands’. MT ‫ בדיו‬perhaps ‘his branches/villages’. P, as LXX ἐν τα ς χερσὶν α τοῦ, has rendered as if reading in Hebrew ‘in his hands’, the yodh of ‫ יד‬having been lost. 12:8 (MT 12:9). ‫‘ ܘ݂ܟ ܗ̇ ̇ܐܠܘܬܝ ̇ܐܠ ̇ܣܦܩܐ ̇ܠܝ ̇ܠܚܛܗܐ ̇ܕܚܛܝ‬all my labor is not sufficient for me, for the sin that I have sinned’, probably meaning that the labor is not enough to make up for the sin. MT ‫כל־יגיעי לא ימצאו־לי עון אשר־חטא‬: probably ‘in all my labors they will not find in me guilt which is sin’. 14:2 (MT 14:3). ‫‘ ܦܐ̈ܪܐ ̇ܕܣܦܘܬܟܘܢ‬fruits of your lips’. MT ‫פרים ׂשפתינו‬ ‘young bulls of our lips’. Rather than promises of animal sacrifices P lists ‘vows’ or ‘confessions’ as receiving God’s favor. Joel 2:8 ‫‘ ܘܐܠ ̇ܢܣܩܘܢ ̇ܠܪܝܫ‬they will not go up to the top’. MT ‫לא יבצעו‬ perhaps ‘they will not stop’.

Introduction to the Translation

XLIII

Amos 5:26 ‫‘ ܡܫܟܢܗ ̇ܕܡܠܟܘܡ‬tabernacle/tent of Malcom’. MT ‫סכות מלככם‬ ‘Siccuth your king’. P has either read or misread a Hebrew text having ‫‘ סכת מלככם‬the tabernacle of your king’. 7:7 ‫‘ ܫܘܪܐ ̇ܕܐܕܡܘܣ‬wall of adamant’. MT ‫‘ חומת אנך‬wall (built with a) plumbline’. The sense of the Hebrew was not immediately clear to the translator; since he has been influenced by LXX τείχο ς δα αντίνο ‘wall of adamant/steel’, despite there being a Syriac cognate, meaning tin, of the Hebrew ‫אנך‬. Micah 1:11 ̇‫‘ ܡܚܘܬܗ‬its wound’. MT ‫‘ עמדתו‬its standing’. The Hebrew is unintelligible as it stands; critical attempts to clarify it typically invoke inner-Hebrew textual corruption. 1:14 ‫‘ ܠܝܪܬܘܬܐ ̇ܕܓܬ‬inheritance of Gath’. MT ‫‘ מורשת גת‬MoreshethGath’. P, possibly influenced by LXX κληρονο ίας ‘inheritance/ allotment of land’, did not read a place-name but derived the Hebrew construct noun from the √‫ירש‬. 2:4 ‫‘ ܘܦܠܓܘܬܗ ̇ܕܥܡܝ ̇ܒܫܘܬܝܐ ̇ܢܦܠܓ‬he will divide the portion of my people with a measuring-line’. MT ‫‘ חלק עמי ימיר‬he changes the portion of my people’. P may have introduced the ‘measuring-line’ here from v. 5 to make sense of the obscure Hebrew. 2:4 ‫‘ ܘܠܝ̇ܕܡܗܦܟ̇ܚܩܠܬܢ̇ܒܫܘܬܝܐ‬there will be no-one who restores our fields with a measuring-line’. MT ‫ ימיש לי לשובב ׂשדינו יחלק‬perhaps ‘he will remove (from) me, to renegades he will divide our fields’. P possibly gave ‘there will be no-one’ in an attempt to make sense of ‫ימיש לי‬, the Hiphil of √II ‫‘ מוש‬to depart’. P ‘restores’ is based on ‘renegades’: √‫ שוב‬includes both meanings. 4:8 ‫‘ ܙܒܢܟ ̇ܡܛܝ ̇ܘܐܬܐ ̇ܫܠܝܛܐ ̇ܩܕܡܝܐ ̇ܕܡܠܟܘܬܐ ̇ܕܒܪܬ ̇ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬your time has come; the former ruler of the kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem has come’. In MT ‫עדיך תאתה ובאה הממשלה הרישנה ממלכת‬ ‫‘ לבת־ירושלם‬it will come to you, the first dominion, the kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem’, ‫‘ עדיך‬to/as far as you’ has been understood as ‫‘ עד‬time’ with a 2nd masc. sing. possessive suffix. Then ‘time’ has been made the subject of ‫ תאתה‬, a 3rd fem. sing. Impf. of √‫אתה‬. MT ‫‘ הממשלה‬dominion’ has been rendered as ‘ruler’. 5:1 (MT 4:14). ‫‘ ܬܦܩܝܢ ̇ܒܓܝܣܐ̇ܒܪܬ ̇ܓܝܣܐ ̇ܥܫܝܢܐ‬you will go forth among a troop, daughter of strong troops’. MT ‫תתגדדי בת־גדוד‬, probably ‘gash yourself, daughter of a troop’, is difficult. ‫ תתגדדי‬is probably 2nd fem. sing. Hithpolel impf. √I ‫‘ גדד‬to gash oneself’; ‫ גדוד‬is probably a noun derived from √II ‫‘ גדד‬to band together’. P has understood √II ‫ גדד‬for both.

XLIV

7:4

Introduction to the Translation

‫ܐܝܟ ̇ܐܘܪܩܥܬܐ ̇ܕܐܟܠ ̇ܣܣܐ‬

‘like a rag which a moth had eaten’. MT ‫‘ כחדק ישר ממסוכה‬like a brier; the most upright (of them) like a hedge’. P was probably influenced by LXX σ ς ἐκτρ γων ‘devouring moth’. 7:11 ‫‘ ܕܬܫܬܩܠܝܢ‬when you may be lifted up’. MT ‫‘ ירחק־חק‬the boundary/statute will recede/go far away’. The Hebrew text may be corrupt. 7:12 ‫‘ ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ̇ܥܫܝܢܬܐ‬strong cities’. MT ‫ וערי ָּמצור‬possibly ‘the cities of Mazor/Egypt’ or possibly ‘the cities of seige’. 7:12 ‫‘ ܘܡܢ ̇ܨܘܪ‬from Tyre’. MT ‫‘ ולמני ָּמצור‬and from Egypt’. In an unvocalized text, P rendered MT ‫‘ ָּמצור‬Egypt’ as if it were ‫‘ ִמּצור‬from Tyre’. P may have been influenced by the similar LXX π τ ρο ‘from Tyre’. Nahum 1:10 ‫‘ ܡܛܠ̇ܕܥܕܡܐ̇ܠܫܠܝܛܢ ܝܗܘܢ ̇ܡܪܘܕܝܢ‬For they rebel, even against their rulers’. MT ‫‘ עד־סירים סבכים‬in thorns they are entangled (lit. ‘interwoven’)’. P seems to have read not ‘thorns’ but √‫‘ סור‬to turn aside’, and given a rendering of ‫ סבכים‬simply to fit the context. 1:12 ‫‘ ܥܠ ̇̈ܪܫܝ̇ܡܝܐ ̇ܣܓܝܐܐ‬concerning the sources of many waters’. MT ‫ אם־שלמים וכן רבים‬perhaps ‘if they are at peace (or ‘full strength’), and thus many’. P may have been influenced by LXX ὑδ των πολλ ν ‘many waters’, or by the following ‫‘ וכן נגזו‬and thus they pass away’. The Syriac cognate of √‫ גוז‬is used particularly with reference to water in the sense ‘to fail’. Zephaniah 1:14 ‫‘ ܡܪܝܪ ̇ܘܩܫܐ ̇ܘܥܫܝܢ‬bitter, harsh, and fierce’. MT ‫מר צרח שם גבור‬: perhaps ‘the mighty man/warrior cries aloud there’. Confronted by this difficult phrase, P may have been influenced by LXX πικρὰ καὶ σκληρ ‘bitter and harsh’; ‫ ܥܫܝܢ‬gives the sense of ‫גבור‬. 2:1 ‫‘ ܘܐܬܐܣܪܘ‬be bound’ or ‘conspire’. MT ‫‘ וקוׁשו‬gather together’. The root is probably ‫‘ קשש‬to assemble’. P could possibly be based on this, but more likely reflects influence from LXX σ νδ θητε ‘be closely joined together’. 2:1 ‫‘ ܕܐܠ̇ܪܕܐ‬that is not chastised’. MT ‫לא נכסף‬: perhaps ‘that does not long (for an unspecified outcome)’ or ‘without shame’. Influence from LXX παίδε τον ‘boorish’ is possible. 2:6 ‫‘ ܩܪܛܐ‬Crete’. MT ‫ כרת רעים‬perhaps ‘shelters (or ‘wells’ or ‘meadows’ or ‘cottages’) of shepherds’. P perceived ‘Crete’ rather than √I ‫‘ כרה‬to dig’, influenced by v. 5 ‫‘ כרתים‬the Cherethites’. Influence from LXX κρήτη ‘Crete’ is also possible.

Introduction to the Translation

XLV

Zechariah 5:3 ‫‘ ܡܢܗ̇ܐܟܘܬܗ̇ܙܟܐ̇ܘܟܠ̇ܕܝܡܐ̇ܡܢܗ̇ܐܟܘܬܗ̇ܙܟܐ‬like it, free from blame (or ‘conquers’); and everyone who swears by it (is), like it, free from blame (or ‘conquers’)’. MT ‫מזה כמוה נקה וכל־הנשבע מזה כמוה נקה‬ perhaps ‘from this like it will be cut off and all who swear from this like it will be cut off’. P accurately renders MT. The obscurity is probably exegetical rather than textual or due to corruption. 9:8 ‫‘ ܘܐܫܪܐ̇ܥܠ̇ܒܝܝ̇ܩܝܘܡܐ‬I will make a protector (or ‘governor’) dwell in (or ‘over’) my house’. MT ‫ וחניתי לביתי מצבה‬perhaps ‘I will encamp as watch for my house’ or ‘I will encamp about my house because of the army’. P uses an Aphel ‘make dwell’ rather than a Peal which would have been expected to render the Hebrew Qal. Influence from LXX ὑποστήσο αι τῷ οἴκ ο ν στη α ‘I will set up a defence for my house’ is possible. 9:13 ‫‘ ܘܫܕܬܝ‬I have shot’ or ‘I have rejected’. MT ‫‘ ועוררתי‬I have set in motion, agitated’. 9:15 ‫‘ ܘܢܫܬܘܢ ̇ܕܠܘܚ ܝܐ ̇ܐܝܟ ̇ܚܡܪܐ‬they will drink commotion as wine’. MT ‫‘ ושתו המו כמו־יין‬they will drink, they roared as (drunk with) wine’. For ‫המו‬, in this elliptical passage, P has rendered not the verb but a noun from the same root. 9:16 ‫‘ ܕܫܕܝܢ ̇ܗܘ̇ܝ‬which were cast’. MT ‫ מתנוססות‬perhaps ‘raised’ or ‘assembled beneath a banner’, derived from √II ‫‘ נסס‬to assemble beneath a banner’. In view of the unusual MT, P’s ‘which were cast’ may have been suggested by the sling of v. 15. Influence from LXX κ λίονται ‘rolled’ is possible. 13:5 ‫‘ ܐܛܢܢ ܝ‬made me zealous’: MT ‫הקנני‬. Suggested renderings include ‘taught me to keep cattle’ understanding ‫ הקנני‬as a denominative verb from ‫‘ מקנה‬cattle’, or ‘has been my possession’ from ‫‘ קנין‬a thing acquired’. P’s rendering may be a guess to fit the context.

APPENDIX 1: VERSIFICATION Leiden

Begins with Mosul

Hosea 2:1

1:10

2:2

1:11

2:3–25

2:1–23

4:11

Second word of 4:11

4:15

Second word of 4:15

6:9

Last four words of 6:8

12:1

11:12

12:2–15

12:1–14

14:1

13:16

14:2–10

14:1–9

Joel 2:2

Second word of 2:2

3:1–5

2:28–32

4:1–21

3:1–21

Amos 2:7

Last 4 words of 2:6

3:2

2nd

word of 3:2

5:8

2nd

word of 5:8

Yes

Obadiah 1:10

3rd

word of 1:10

Yes

Jonah 1:11

4th word of 1:11

2:1

1:17

2:2

2:1

2:3

Last word of 2:1

2:4–11

2:3–10

Micah 2:7

4th word of 2:7

2:8

Last word of 2:7

4:14

5:1

5:1–14

5:2–15 XLVII

Change affects sense

Yes

Maybe

Appendix 1: Versification

XLVIII

Leiden

Begins with Mosul

7:4

2nd word of 7:4

Nahum 2:1

1:15

2:2–14

2:1–13

Habakkuk 3:1

No equivalent

3:2

3:1,2

Zephaniah 3:11

Last 2 words of 3:10

Yes

3:18

Last 3 words of 3:17

Yes

Haggai 2:19

3rd

Zechariah 2:1–17

1:18–2:13

Malachi 1:3

Last 2 words of 1:2

3:10

3rd word of 3:10

3:19–24

4:1–6

word of 2:19

Change affects sense

Yes

APPENDIX 2: VARIANT READINGS Based on Collations by Donald M. Walter and J. Edward Walters The following table gives the variants of Mosul against Leiden. The last column indicates the support for the Mosul reading as follows: early first millennium up to and including the tenth century. late post tenth century making use of the Leiden apparatus. Lee Lee’s edition agrees with Mosul. Urmia The Urmia edition agrees with Mosul. no support Mosul’s reading is unique. Place Hosea 2:18 (L 2:20) 4:14 4:14 4:15 4:16 4:17 5:6 5:14 7:14 8:4 9:4 1º 11:9 2º 12:11 (L 12:12) 14:7 (L 14:8) Joel 1:16 3:14 (L 4:14)

Mosul

Leiden

Support

‫ܘ̈ܪܚܫܐ‬ ‫ܢܦܩܬ‬ ‫ܫܘܩܐ‬ ‫ܬܐܡܪܘܢ‬ ̇‫ܡܪܕܘ̇ܒܢ ܝ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܩ‬ ‫ܒܥܢܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܐܢ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ‬ ‫ܦܬܟ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܠ‬ ‫ܐܠ‬ ‫ܘܐܦ‬ ‫ܘܢܬܦܢܘܢ‬

om seyāme seyāme om seyāme

‫ܢܬܒܢܘܢ‬

Lee, Urmia early late early early late Lee, Urmia Urmia early early Lee, Urmia Lee early Urmia

‫ܘܗܐ‬ ‫ܕܪܓܘܫܝܐ‬

om waw seyāme

Urmia early

‫ܬܐܡܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܪܕ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܩܘ‬ om seyāme om waw

‫ܒܝ‬ om seyāme om waw pr waw om waw

XLIX

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

L

Amos 4:1 4:3 4:6 5:10 5:16

‫ܕܒܛܘܪܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܪܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܦ‬ ‫ܕܣܢ ܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܝܕܥܝ‬

6:2 7:2 7:5 8:5 8:7 8: 12 9:11 9:11

‫ܗܝ‬ ‫ܚܣܢ‬ ‫ܚܣܢ‬ ‫ܡܣܐܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܝܡܐ‬ ‫ܢܬܟܢܫܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܣܘܓ‬ ‫ܘܡܣܚܦܬܗܘܢ‬

Obadiah 1

seyāme

‫ܕܐܪܡܢ ܝ‬ om waw om dālath ‫ܘܠܝ̇]ܕ̇[ܥܝ‬ ̇ (see p. LV n. 1 below) om

Lee, Urmia Urmia early late Lee, Urmia

‫ܘܡܣܚܦܝܗܘܢ‬

early Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia late Lee, Urmia Urmia no support early

‫ܩܘܡ‬

‫ܩܘܡܘ‬

Urmia

Jonah 1:6 1:7 3:7

‫ܕܡܝܟ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪ‬ ‫ܘܐܟܪܙܘ̇ܘܐܡܪܘ‬

‫ܕܡܟ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪܘ‬ ‫ܘܐܟܪܙ̇ܘܐܡܪ‬

early Lee, Urmia early

Micah 1:15 2:7 5:7 (L 5:6) 6:11 6:11 7:12 7:19

‫ܝܪܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܙܠܘ‬ ‫̈ܪܣܝܣܐ‬ ‫ܒܡܣܐܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܒܡܪܣܘܦܐ‬ ‫ܡܢ‬ ‫( ܚܛܗܝܢ‬ḥṭāhayn)

seyāme

Lee, Urmia Lee early early Lee, Urmia early early

Nahum 2:1 (L 2:2) 2:4 (L 2:5)

‫ܒܚ̇ܨܐ‬ ‫ܘܒܫܘܩܐ‬

om seyāme

‫ܚܣܢ ܝ‬ ‫ܚܣܢ ܝ‬ seyāme om waw pr waw pr waw

‫ܕܐܙܠ‬ om seyāme seyāme seyāme pr dālath om seyāme (could be ḥṭāhīn)

‫ܘܒܫܡܐ‬

early Lee, Urmia

Appendix 2: Variant Readings 3:2 3:3 3:17 3:18 3:19

‫ܘܣܘܣܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܦܪܫܐ‬ ‫ܡܐ‬ ‫ܐܬܒܕܪ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ‬

om waw om waw pr dālath

Habakkuk 1:5 2:18 3:6 3:12 3:12

‫ܡܫܬܥܐ‬ ‫ܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܓܠܘ‬ ‫ܒܚܡܬܟ‬ ‫ܘܒܪܘܓܙܟ‬

‫ܢܫܬܥܐ‬

Zephaniah 1:10 1:11 1:18 2:2 2º 2:5 2:6 3:13

‫̈ܪܡܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܬܘܪܘ‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫ܥܕܐܠ‬ ‫ܕܩܪܛܐ‬ ‫ܩܪܛܐ‬ ‫ܒܝ‬

om seyāme

Haggai 1:11 2:11 2:18

‫ܕܐܝܕܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܚ ܝܠܬܐܢ‬ ̇‫ܚ ܝܠܬܐܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܬܒܢ ܝܘ‬

Zechariah 1:2 1:9 2:13 (L 2:17) 3:4

‫ܪܒܐ‬ ‫ܘܥܢܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܨ̇ܐܐ‬

3:5

‫ܒܪܫܗ‬

3:7 3:8

‫ܕ̈ܪܬܝ‬ ‫ܕܢ ܚܐ‬

‫ܐܬܒܕܪܘ‬ om waw

pr waw

‫ܘܕܓܠ‬ ‫ܒܚܡܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܒܪܘܓܙܐ‬

‫ܕܬܘܪ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܐ̇ܥܠ‬ pr waw

seyāme seyāme pr dālath

LI

Lee, Urmia early Urmia Lee, Urmia early

early Urmia Lee, Urmia Urmia early

Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia early Lee, Urmia early early late

‫ܕܐܝܕܝ̇ܟܘܢ‬

early early early

om om waw

early early early early

om om

‫ܡܥܡܪܐ‬ adḋ̇‫ܘܐܥܒܪܘ̇ܡܢܗ̇ܡܐ ܐܢ‬ ‫ܨܐܐ‬ adḋ‫ܘܣܡܘ݂̇ܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܕܟܝܐ̇ܒܪܝܫܗ‬ om seyāme

‫ܕܚ ܝܐ‬

Urmia Urmia Lee, Urmia

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

LII

5:1 5:4 5:8 7:6 8:16 9:8 9:8 9:13 11:4 11:6 13:9 14:9 14:10 1º 14:18 14:21

Malachi 1:13

‫ܘܗܦܬܟ̇ܐܪܝܡܬ‬ ‫ܕܬܥܘܠ‬ ‫ܟܟܪܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܠ‬ ‫ܒܬ̈ܪܥܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܢ̇ܡ̇ܢ‬ ݂̇ ‫ܬܘܒ̇ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܓܢܒܪܐ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ̇‫ܘܢܦܠܓܘܢܗ‬ ‫ܕܢܫܬܚܪ‬ ‫ܒܝܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܦ‬ ̇‫ܕܒܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܗܘܕܐ‬ ‫ܒܗ‬

‫ܘܐܪܝܡܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܥܘܠ‬ ‫ܟܐܦܐ‬

‫ܕܒܝܗܘܕܐ̇ܘܒܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬

early Urmia early Urmia Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia early Lee, Urmia early Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia early early early early

‫ܒܗܝܢ‬

Lee, Urmia

om waw

‫ܒܬ̈ܪܥܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܢ‬ transp. seyāme om

‫ܘܢܦܠܓܘܢܗ‬ ‫ܕܐܫܬܚܪ‬ ‫ܒܗ̇ܒܝܘܡܐ‬ pr dālath om waw

The above list does not include the following orthographic variants: M ‫ ܝܕܥܬܐ‬vs. L ‫( ܐܝܕܥܬܐ‬Hosea 6:3, Malachi 2:2), M ‫ ܪܒܝܥܝܐ‬vs. L ‫( ܐܪܒܝܥܝܐ‬Joel 2:23), M ‫ ܐ̇ܪܙܗ‬vs. L ‫( ܪܐܙܗ‬Amos 3:7), M ‫ ܠܡܦܝܕܐ‬vs. L ‫( ܠܡܦܐܕܐ‬Nahum 2:3, 2:4, Zechariah 12:6). M tends to double the second radical of doubled verbs: M ‫ ܢܬܒܙܙܘܢ‬vs. L ‫( ܢܬܒܙܘܢ‬Hosea 10:14), M ‫ ܐܬܒܙܙܬ‬vs. L ‫( ܐܬܒܙܬ‬Joel 1:10), M ‫ ܘܢܬܒܙܙܢ‬vs. L ‫( ܘܢܬܒܙܢ‬Amos 3:11), M ‫ ܘܢܬܒܙܙܘܢ‬vs. L ‫( ܘܢܬܒܙܘܢ‬Obadiah 9, Zechariah 14:2), M ‫ ܐܬܒܙܙܬ‬vs. L ‫( ܐܬܒܙܬ‬Nahum 3:7). M also tends not to add seyāme in plural passive participles: M ‫ ܚܕܝܪܝܢ‬vs. L ‫( ܚܕܝ̈ܪܝܢ‬Joel 3:11 (L 4:11), Joel 3:12 (L 4:12), Nahum 3:8, Zechariah 12:2, 12:6), M ‫ ܘܥܫܝܢ ܝܢ‬vs. L ‫( ܘܥܫܝ̇ܢ ܝܢ‬Amos 5:12). Other orthographic variants include: M ‫ ܓܢܒ‬vs. L ‫( ܓܢܒ‬Amos 2:8), M ‫ ܘܟܐܘܢ‬vs. L ‫( ܘܟܘܢ‬Amos 5:26), M ̇‫ ܘܢܫ̈ܪܝܢܗ‬vs. L ̇‫ܘܢܫܪܝܢܗ‬ (Zechariah 5:11). In addition, the following types of orthographic variants were ignored: space between lexemes (e.g. M ‫ ܘܐܦܐܠ‬vs. L ‫ܘܐܦ̇ܐܠ‬, Hosea 8:7), contractions (e.g. M ‫ ܐܡܪܬܝܘܢ‬vs. L ‫ܐܡܪܝܢ̇ܐܢܬܘܢ‬, Malachi 1:7), contractions with enclitics (e.g. M ‫ ܕܗܢܘ‬vs. L ‫ܕܗܐܢ ̇ܗܘ‬, Zechariah 13:9), seyāme on numbers, usually absent in M (e.g. M ‫ ܘܕܐܪܒܥܐ‬vs. L ‫ܘܕܐ̈ܪܒܥܐ‬, Amos 1:6), seyāme on collective nouns, usually present in M (e.g. M ‫ ܕܥܢܐ‬vs. L ‫ܕܥܢܐ‬, Micah 5:8), and waw in ‫ ܟܠ‬and ‫( ܡܛܠ‬M always without waw).

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

LIII

The following are possible typographical errors in the Leiden edition: ‫ ܡܠܟܗ‬for ̇‫( ܡܠܟܗ‬Hosea 10:7, the point is clear in Ceriani’s facsimile of 7a1), ‫ ܠܝ̈ܪܥܝ‬for ‫( ܠܝܕܥܝ‬Amos 5:16),1 ‫ ܘܚܪܬܗ‬for ̇‫( ܘܚܪܬܗ‬Amos 8:10, the point is clear in Ceriani).

In Ceriani’s facsimile of 7a1, due to the kerning of ‛ayn under dālath, the point of dālath is very low and appears as if it is an accent point between mīm and ālaph of ‫ ܟ̈ܪܡܐ‬on the following line. This is not uncommon in 7a1 (cf. ‫ ܥܕܥܐܕܝܟܘܢ‬in Amos 5:21 where, for the same reason, the point of the first dālath is very low as if it is an accent point above ‫ܒܥܨ̈ܪܬܟܘܢ‬ on the following line). 1

APPENDIX 3: NAMES Instances involving gentilics are generally ignored in this Appendix. Common Syriac Proper Names P regularly uses:1 ‫ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬for Hebrew ‫ירושלם‬, e.g. Joel 2:32 (MT 3:5). ‫ (ܐ)ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‬for Hebrew ‫ישראל‬, e.g. Hosea 1:1.

‫ ܐܬܘܪ‬for Hebrew ‫אׁשור‬, e.g. Hosea 5:13. ‫ ܕܪܡܣܘܩ‬for Hebrew ‫דמשק‬, e.g. Amos 1:3. ‫ ܚܘܪܝܒ‬for Hebrew ‫חרב‬, e.g. Malachi 4:4 (MT 3:22). ‫ ܝܘܢܢ‬for Hebrew ‫יונה‬, e.g. Jonah 1:1. ‫ ܝܘܦܐ‬for Hebrew ‫יפו‬, e.g. Jonah 1:3. ‫ ܝܘܪܕܢܢ‬for Hebrew ‫ירדן‬, e.g. Zechariah 11:3. ‫ ܝܫܘܥ‬for Hebrew ‫יהושע‬, Haggai 1:1. ‫ ݂ܟܕܝܐ‬for Hebrew ‫כׂשדים‬, e.g. Habakkuk 1:6. ‫ ܡܦܣ‬for Hebrew ‫מף‬, e.g. Hosea 9:6. ‫ ܡܨܪܝܢ‬for Hebrew ‫מצרים‬, e.g. Hosea 2:15 (MT 2:17). ‫ ܨܗܝܘܢ‬for Hebrew ‫ציון‬, e.g. Joel 2:1. ‫ ܫܝܘܠ‬for Hebrew ‫ׁשאול‬, e.g. Hosea 13:14. ‫ ܫܟܝܡ‬for Hebrew ‫ׁשכם‬, e.g. Hosea 6:9. ‫ ܫܡܪܝܢ‬for Hebrew ‫שמרון‬, e.g. Hosea 7:1. ‫ ܫܪܐܨܪ‬for Hebrew ‫ׂשר־אצר‬, e.g. Zechariah 7:2. Replacement Following the order of the books of the Twelve: Hosea 5:8 1st ‫ ܪܡܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫ גבעה‬with article indicated in MT. Hosea 9:9 ‫ ܪܡܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫הגבעה‬. 1

The Leiden Edition of the Peshitta follows the versification of MT.

LV

Appendix 3: Names

LVI

Amos 1:4 ‫ ܒܪ̇ܗܕܕ‬Hebrew ‫בן־הדד‬. Amos 1:15 ‫ ܡܠܟܘܡ‬Hebrew ‫‘ מלכם‬their king’. Amos 5:8 ‫ ܥܝܘܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫כסיל‬. Amos 9:7 ‫ ܩܦܕܘܩܝ‬Hebrew ‫כפתור‬. Obadiah 1:20 ‫ ܐܣܦܢ ܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫ספרד‬. Micah 1:11 ‫ ܨܥܢ‬Hebrew ‫צאנן‬. Micah 7:12 ‫ ܨܘܪ‬Hebrew ‫מצור‬. Micah 7:12 ‫ ܗܘܪ‬Hebrew ‫הר‬. Micah 7:14 ‫ ܡܬܢ ܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫בׁשן‬. Nahum 3:8 ‫ ܝܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫נא‬. Habakkuk 3:3 (‘the South’) ‫ ܬܝܡܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫תימן‬. Zephaniah 1:1 ‫ ܚܠܩܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫חזקיה‬. Zephaniah 2:5 ‫ ܩܪܛܐ‬Hebrew ‫כרתים‬. Zechariah 6:14 ‫ ܚܘܠܕܝ‬Hebrew ‫חלם‬. Zechariah 6:14 ‫ ܝܘܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫חן‬. Zechariah 7:1 ‫ ܟܢܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫כסלו‬. Zechariah 7:2 ‫ ܪܒܡܓ‬Hebrew ‫רגם מלך‬. Zechariah 9:7 ‫ ܥܒܪܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫יבוסי‬. Zechariah 12:11 ‫ ܒܪ̇ܐܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫הדד־רמון‬. Zechariah 12:11 ‫ ܡܓܕܘ‬Hebrew ‫מגדון‬. Zechariah 12:13 ‫ ܫܡܥܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫השמעי‬. Initial Positions P omits an initial yodh: Hosea 1:1 ‫ ܚܙܩܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫יחזקיה‬. P introduces an initial aleph: Hosea 1:4 ‫ ܐܝܙܪܥܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יזרעאל‬, Amos 7:16 ‫ ܐܝܣܚܩ‬Hebrew ‫יׂשחק‬. P omits an initial aleph: Jonah 1:1 ‫ ܡܬܝ‬Hebrew ‫אמתי‬. P reads ‫ ܝܘ‬for ‫יהו‬: Joel 3:2 ‫ ܝܘܫܦܛ‬Hebrew ‫יהושפט‬, Haggai 1:1 ‫ܝܘܙܕܩ‬ Hebrew ‫יהוצדק‬. P reads ‫ ܒ‬for ‫פ‬: Joel 1:1 ‫ ܒܬܘܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫פתואל‬. P reads ‫ ܐ‬for ‫ה‬: Amos 4:3 ‫ ܐܪܡܢ‬Hebrew 4:2 ‫הרמון‬. Medial Positions

Replacements P replaces a Hebrew yodh with Syriac nun: Amos 6:2 ‫ ݂ܟܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫כלנה‬. Others: Hosea 10:14 ‫ ܒܝ ̇ܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫בית ארבאל‬, Zephaniah 1:1 ‫ ܚܠܩܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫חזקיה‬.

Appendix 3: Names

LVII

Alaph, waw, and yodh These letters are sometimes interchanged, e.g. Hosea 1:1 ‫ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫ישראל‬, 1:4 ‫ ܐܝܙܪܥܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יזרעאל‬, 7:1 ‫ ܫܡܪܝܢ‬for Hebrew ‫שמרון‬, 13:14 ‫ ܫܝܘܠ‬Hebrew ‫ׁשאול‬, Amos 5:26 ‫( ܟܐܘܢ‬7a1 ‫ )ܟܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫כיון‬, Zechariah 6:10 ‫ ܝܘܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫יאשיה‬.

Introductions and Deletions P omits a medial alaph: Hosea 1:1 ‫ ܒܪܝ‬Hebrew ‫בארי‬, Amos 5:5 ‫ܒܪܫܒܥ‬ Hebrew ‫באר שבע‬, Micah 6:16 ‫ ܐܚܒ‬Hebrew ‫אחאב‬, Habakkuk 3:3 ‫ܦܪܢ‬ Hebrew ‫פארן‬, Zephaniah 1:1 ‫ ܝܘܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫יאשיהו‬, Haggai 1:1 ‫ܫܠܬܐܝܠ‬ Hebrew ‫שאלתיאל‬. P supplies a medial alaph: Amos 1:6 ‫ ܥܐܙܐ‬Hebrew ‫עזה‬, Micah 1:1 ‫ܡܐܪܫܝܐ‬ Hebrew ‫המרׁשתי‬. P omits a medial waw: Hosea 2:15 (MT 2:17) ‫ ܥܟܪ‬Hebrew ‫עכור‬, 14:5 (MT 14:6) ‫ ܠܒܢܢ‬Hebrew ‫לבנון‬, Joel 3:4 (MT 4:4) ‫ ܨܝܕܢ‬Hebrew ‫צידון‬, Amos 4:3 ‫ ܐܪܡܢ‬Hebrew ‫הרמון‬. P supplies a medial waw: Hosea 1:1 ‫ ܥܘܙܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫עזיה‬, ‫ ܝܘܪܒܥܡ‬Hebrew ‫ירבעם‬, , 9:13 ‫ ܨܘܪ‬Hebrew ‫צר‬, 10:11 ‫ ܝܥܩܘܒ‬Hebrew ‫יעקב‬, 11:8 ‫ܨܒܘܐܝܡ‬ Hebrew ‫צבאים‬, Amos 1:12 ‫ ܒܘܨܪ‬Hebrew ‫בצרה‬, 1:15 ‫ ܡܠܟܘܡ‬Hebrew ‫מלכם‬, 2:9 ‫ ܐܡܘܪܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫האמרי‬, 4:11 ‫ ܣܕܘܡ‬Hebrew ‫סדם‬, ‫ ܥܡܘܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫עמרה‬, 7:10 ‫ ܐܡܘܨܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫אמציה‬, Obadiah 1:1 ‫ ܥܘܒܕܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫עבדיה‬, Micah 1:10 ‫ ܥܘܦܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫עפרה‬, 1:11 ‫ ܐܘܨܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫אצל‬, 5:6 (MT 5:5) ‫ ܢܡܪܘܕ‬Hebrew ‫נמרד‬, 6:4 ‫ ܡܘܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫משה‬, ‫ ܐܗܪܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫אהרן‬, Nahum 1:1 ‫ܠܐܩܘܫܝܐ‬ Hebrew ‫האלקׁשי‬, Zephaniah 1:5 ‫ ܡܠܟܘܡ‬Hebrew ‫מלכם‬, Haggai 1:1 ‫ܙܘܪܒܒܠ‬ Hebrew ‫זרבבל‬, ‫ ܝܫܘܥ‬for Hebrew ‫יהושע‬, Zechariah 6:10 ‫ ܚܘܠܕܝ‬Hebrew ‫חלדי‬, Malachi 4:4 (MT 3:22) ‫ ܚܘܪܝܒ‬for Hebrew ‫חרב‬. P supplies a medial yodh: e.g. Hosea 1:4 ‫ ܐܝܙܪܥܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יזרעאל‬, Hosea 3:5 ‫ ܕܘܝܕ‬Hebrew ‫דוד‬, 6:9 ‫ ܫܟܝܡ‬Hebrew ‫ׁשכם‬, 10:15 ‫ ܒܝ ̇ܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫בית־אל‬, Joel 1:1 ‫ ܝܘܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יואל‬, ‫ ܒܬܘܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫פתואל‬, Amos 1:4 ‫ ܚܙܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫חזאל‬, 4:1 ‫ ܒܝܫܢ‬Hebrew ‫בשן‬, Micah 1:11 ‫ ܐܘܨܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫אצל‬, Zechariah 14:10 ‫ ܚܢܢܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫חננאל‬, Malachi 4:4 ‫ ܚܘܪܝܒ‬for Hebrew ‫חרב‬. Endings P replaces a final ‫ ה‬with a final alaph: Hosea 1:1 ‫ ܥܘܙܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫עזיה‬, ‫ܚܙܩܝܐ‬ Hebrew ‫יחזקיה‬, ‫ ܝܗܘܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫יהודה‬, 11:8 ‫ ܐܕܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫אדמה‬, Amos 1:6 ‫ܥܐܙܐ‬ Hebrew ‫עזה‬, 4:11 ‫ ܥܡܘܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫עמרה‬, 6:2 ‫ ݂ܟܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫כלנה‬, 6:14 ‫ܥܪܒܐ‬ Hebrew ‫ערבה‬, 7:10 ‫ ܐܡܘܨܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫אמציה‬, Obadiah 1:1 ‫ ܥܘܒܕܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫עבדיה‬, Jonah 1:2 ‫ ܢ ܝܢܘܐ‬Hebrew ‫נינוה‬, Micah 1:1 ‫ ܡܝܟܐ‬Hebrew ‫מיכה‬, 1:10 ‫ ܥܘܦܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫עפרה‬, 1:15 ‫ ܡܐܪܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫מרׁשה‬, 5:2 (MT 5:1) ‫ ܐܦܪܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫אפרתה‬, 6:4 ‫ ܡܘܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫משה‬, Zephaniah 1:1 ‫ ܨܦܢ ܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫צפניה‬, ‫ܓܕܠܝܐ‬ Hebrew ‫גדליה‬, ‫ ܐܡܪܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫אמריה‬, ‫ ܚܠܩܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫חזקיה‬, Zechariah 1:1

LVIII

Appendix 3: Names

‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬

Hebrew ‫זכריה‬, ‫ ܒܪܟܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫ברכיה‬, 6:10 ‫ ܛܘܒܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫טוביה‬, ‫ܝܕܥܝܐ‬ Hebrew ‫ידעיה‬, ‫ ܝܘܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫יאשיה‬, Malachi 4:5 (MT 3:23) ‫ ܠܐܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫אליה‬. Further Hosea 4:15 ‫ ܓܠܓܐܠ‬Hebrew ‫הגלגל‬. Amos 1:2 ‫ ܟܪܡܐܠ‬Hebrew ‫הכרמל‬, Zephaniah 1:1 ‫ ܝܘܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫יאשיהו‬. In some of these places the final alaph presumably corresponds to the Hebrew article, as in Hosea 5:8. Also Hosea 5:8 2nd ‫ ܪܡܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫רמה‬, Amos 1:14 ‫ ܪܒܬ‬Hebrew ‫רבה‬. P omits a final ‫א‬: Hosea 1:4 ‫ ܝܗܘ‬Hebrew ‫יהוא‬. P omits a final ‫ה‬: Amos 1:12 ‫ ܒܘܨܪ‬Hebrew ‫בצרה‬. Sibilants (Initial, Medial, Final) Sin ֹ ‫ש‬: a Hebrew ֹ ‫ ש‬may be represented by P ‫ ܣ‬as in Hosea 1:1 ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‬ Hebrew ‫יׂשראל‬, Obadiah 1:6 ‫ ܥܣܘ‬Hebrew ‫עׂשו‬. Hebrew ֹ ‫ ש‬may be represented by P ‫ ܫ‬as in Zechariah 7:2 ‫ܫܪܐܨܪ‬ Hebrew ‫ׂשר־אצר‬. A Hebrew shin ‫ ׁש‬may be represented by P ‫ ܣ‬as in Joel 3:18 (MT 4:18) ‫ܣܛܝܡ‬ ̇ Hebrew ‫ׁשטים‬, Micah 6:5 ‫ܣܛܝܡ‬ ̇ Hebrew ‫ׁשטים‬. Translation In the following places P has translated what are probably names in MT (or in one case given the wrong name). These passages are treated further (or at least cited) in Addendum 3.  Hosea 10:14. ‫‘ ܕܫܠܡܐ‬of peace’. MT ‫‘ שלמן‬Shalman’.  Amos 5:26. ‫‘ ܡܫܟܢܗ̇ܕܡܠܟܘܡ‬tabernacle/tent of Malcom’. MT ‫סכות‬ ‫‘ מלככם‬Siccuth your king’.  Micah 1:14. ‫‘ ܠܝܪܬܘܬܐ ̇ܕܓܬ‬inheritance of Gath’. MT ‫מורשת גת‬ ‘More-sheth-Gath’.  Micah 7:12. ‫‘ ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ̇ܥܫܝܢܬܐ‬strong cities’. MT ‫ וערי ָּמצור‬possibly ‘the cities of Mazor/Egypt’ or possibly ‘the cities of siege’.  Micah 7:12. ‫‘ ܘܡܢ ̇ܨܘܪ‬from Tyre’. In an unvocalized text, P rendered MT ‫‘ ָּמצור‬Egypt’ as if it were ‫‘ ִמּצור‬from Tyre’.  Zephaniah 2:6. ‫‘ ܩܪܛܐ‬Crete’. MT ‫ כרת רעים‬perhaps ‘shelters (or ‘wells’ or ‘meadows’ or ‘cottages’) of shepherds’.

BIBLIOGRAPHY LEXICA AND DICTIONARIES Liddell, H. G. (1889), An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, founded upon the seventh edition of Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon, reprinted 1975, Oxford: Clarendon. Koehler, L. and W. Baumgartner (1994), The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, revised by W. Baumgartner and J. J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill. Payne Smith, J. (1903), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon. Payne Smith, R. (1879), Thesaurus Syriacus, Oxford: Clarendon. Sokoloff, M. (2009) A Syriac Lexicon, Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press and Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns.

REFERENCE David, C. J. (2010), The Syriac Bible According to the Mosul Edition, Vol. 2, Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press. Gelston, A. (2010), Biblia Hebraica, 5th edition, The Twelve Minor Prophets, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. Gelston, A. (1980), Dodekapropheton, OTSy 3.4. Leiden: Brill. Rahlfs, A. (1979), Septuaginta, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. Ziegler, A. (1967), Septuaginta, Vol. XIII, Duodecim prophetae, 2nd ed., Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

REFERENCE COMMENTARIES ON THE TWELVE Harper, W. R. (1969), A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea, ICC, T. & T. Clark. Macintosh, A. A. (1997), A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Hosea, ICC, T. & T. Clark. Smith, J. M. P., W. H. Ward, J. A. Brewer (1948), A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel, ICC, T. & T. Clark, 1948.

LIX

LX

Bibliography

GENERAL INTEREST Albrektson, B. (1963), Studies in the Text and Theology of the Book of Lamentations, STL 21, Lund: Gleerup. Bright, J. (1988), A History of Israel, 3rd ed., SCM. Carbajosa, I. (2008), The Character of the Syriac Version of Psalms, MPIL 17, Leiden: Brill. Greenberg, G. (2002), Translation Technique in the Peshiṭta to Jeremiah, MPIL 13, Leiden: Brill. Rignell, G. (1994), The Peshiṭta to the Book of Job, ed. K.-E. Rignell, Kristianstad [Sweden]: Monitor. Walter, D. M. (2008), Studies in the Peshiṭta of Kings, T&S 7, Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press. Weitzman, M. P. (1999), The Syriac Version of the Old Testament, UCOP 56, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Williams, P. J. (2001), Studies in the Syntax of the Peshiṭta of 1 Kings, MPIL 12, Leiden: Brill.

TEXT AND TRANSLATION

Malachi Ch.



Chapter  

For See! The days are coming when my anger will burn like a furnace; all the iniquitous, all those who sin, will be (as) stubble; the day which is coming will burn them (up), says the mighty Lord; it will leave them neither root nor branch.



The sun of righteousness will rise on you who fear my name, with healing upon its tongue;1 you will go forth, you will exult, like the calves of the herd.



You will tread down the iniquitous, for they will be as dust under the sole(s) of your feet, on the day that I am preparing, says the mighty Lord.



Remember the law of my servant Moses, which I commanded him in Horeb, for all Israel - commandments and laws.2



See! I am sending to you the prophet Elijah, before the coming of the great and fearful day of the Lord.



He will turn the fathers’ hearts to the sons, and the sons’ hearts to their fathers, lest3 I come and destroy the (whole) earth.4

1

‘upon its tongue’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘law … laws’: the nouns translate different Syriac roots.

3

‘lest’: lit. ‘before’.

4

‘destroy the (whole) earth’: lit. ‘strike the (whole) earth to destruction’



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫ܡܠܐܟܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܬܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܐܬ ܶܝܢ ܘܢ ݂ܰܐܩܕ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ݂ܰܬ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓܙܝ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘܠ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܪ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܗܐ ܝܘܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩ ݁ܕ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܚܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܥ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܝ ܚܛܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶܫܒܘܩ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܥܶ ܬܩ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܶܕ ݂ܰܢ ܚ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܠ ݁ ܬܕܚ ݂ܰܠܝ ܶܫܡܝ ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܣܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܶܠ ܬܫ ܬܢܰ݁ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ܶܦܩܘܢ ݂ܰܘܬ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܨܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܥܶܓ ܶܶܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܩܪܐ‪.‬ܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܬ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܫܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܬܘ ܶܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܢܶܰ݁ܗܘܘܢ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܣܰ݁ ݁ܬ ̈ܪ ݁ܓܠܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܛܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܪܘ ܬܢܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܗ ܕܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܒܕܝ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܩܕܬܗ ܒܚܘܪ ݁ܝܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ‬ ‫ܦܘܩ ܬܕ ܶܢ ݁ܘܕ ܝܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܕܢ ݁ܐܬ ܶܐ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܠܠ ܬܝܐ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ݂ܰܘ݁ܕܚ ܝ ܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܢܶܐ ܶܠ ܬܒܐ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬܐܒ ܶܗܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ ݁ܕܠ ܐ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܚ ܝܗ ܠܪܥܐ ܠ ݁ܒܕܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Malachi Ch.





Everyone:1 bring tithes to my storehouses, may they be food in my house - put me to the test with this, says the mighty Lord; I will open the windows of heaven for you, I will pour forth blessings on you until you say: Enough.



I will rebuke the eater, so that he will not destroy the fruits of the land; not even one vine will lie waste2 on the land for you, says the mighty Lord.



All nations will praise you, when you become the land of my delight, says the mighty Lord.



You have spoken harshly3 against me, says the Lord; if you say: What have we said against you?



You have said: We have served the Lord in vain; how have we profited for having observed his precepts, for having walked humbly4 before the mighty Lord.



From now (on), we give blessing(s) to the iniquitous;5 the servants of sin are built (up), they test God and are delivered.



These (things) those who fear the Lord said, each to his neighbor; the Lord listened well, he heard; he wrote those who fear him and praise his name in the book of remembrance before him.



They will be for me, says the mighty Lord, on the day when I call an assembly; I will take pity on them, as a man takes pity on his son who serves him.



You will return; you will distinguish between the righteous and the iniquitous, and between those who served God and those (who) did not serve him.

1

‘Everyone’: lit. ‘All people’.

2

‘will lie waste’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘You have spoken harshly’: lit. ‘Your words have been strong’.

4

‘humbly’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘iniquitous’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫ܡܠܐܟܝ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܣ ܶܪ ܐ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܘ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܨ̈ܪܝ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ܶܡ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰܣܐܘܢ ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܥܡܐ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܒ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܬܚ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܟ ݂ܰܘܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܣܰ݁ ݁ܘܟ ܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܐܡܪܘܢ ݂ܰܟܕܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܒ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܬܐ ݁ܦܰ݁ ܬܶܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ ݁ܓ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܟܐܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܐܟܶܠ ݁ܕܠ ܢ ݂ܰܚ ܶܒܠ ܦ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܢܫܒܚ ܬܘܢ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܬܗܘܘܢ ܐܪ ܬܥ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܨ ݁ܒ ܬܝܢ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ܶܡ ݂ܰܠ ܝܟܘܢ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܬܐܡܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܡܪܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܫܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܦ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ݁ܬܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐܘܬܪܢ ݂ܰܕܢܛܰ݁ܪܢ ܢܛܰ݁‬ ‫ܚܢ ܝܰ݁ܗܝ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪܬܘܢ ݂ܰܕܣܪ ܬܝܩܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟܢ ݂ܰܡܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܐ ܬܝܗܒ ݂ܰܝܢܰ݁ܢ ܠ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܬܘ ܶܠ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܬܗ ܬܫܐ ܛ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܣܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܬܒܢܶ ܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܥ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܝ ܚܛܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ܬܠ ܬܗܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ܶܨܝ ܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܺܠܰ݁ܘ ܬܕܚ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪܗ‪ :‬ܬܘܨ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ܥ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ ܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܒܚ ܝܢ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܠ ݁ ܬܕܚܠܘܗܝ ܘܠܝܠܝܢ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ܒ ܒ ܶܣ ݁ܦܪܐ ݁ ݁ܕܕ ݁ܘܟܪ ܬܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܟܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܝܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܚܰ݁ܘܣ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ݂ܰܠܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܶ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܬܚܐܣ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒ ܶܪܗ ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ݂ܰܠܚ ܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܠܚܘ ݂ܰܠ ܬܠ ܰ݁ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܙ ܕ ܝ ܶܩܐ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘ ܶܠ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܝܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܕܠ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܗ ݁ܦܟܘܢ ݁ܘܬܚܙܘܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܦܠ ܚܘܗܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Malachi Ch.



Chapter  

See! I send my messenger;1 he will clear the way before me; he will come suddenly, to the temple of the Lord where you wait for him: the messenger of the covenant in whom you delight - See! He is coming, says the mighty Lord.



Who (can) endure the day on which he comes? Who (can) stand, when he is revealed? For he is like the refining fire, like cleansing soap.2



He will return, to refine, to purify like silver; he will purify the sons of Levi, he will choose3 them as gold and as silver; they will bring an offering to the Lord in righteousness.



The offering of Judah and of Jerusalem will please the Lord, as in the days of old, as in former years.



I will come near to you with judgment; I will be quick to be a witness of the magicians and the adulterers, of those who swear falsely, of those who cheat the hired man of his wage, and (cheat) the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow, who turn away him who turns to me, and who have not feared me, says the mighty Lord.



For I am the Lord: I do not change; and you, sons of Jacob, have not turned aside from your iniquity.4



From the days of your fathers, you have turned aside from my commandments, you have not obeyed them; return to me, and I will turn to you, says the mighty Lord; if you say: How shall we return?5



Has man denied God, as you deny me? If you say: How have we defrauded6 you? - with tithes, with first fruits.



You are cursed with curses; you defraud me. 1

‘my messenger’ or ‘Malachi’.

2

‘cleansing soap’: lit. ‘soap which whitens’.

3

‘he will choose’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘turned aside from your iniquity’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘return’ twice and ‘turn’ all translate the same Syriac verb; ‘turned aside’ a different verb (which is not the same Syriac verb used in v. 6 for ‘turned aside’). 5

‘denied … deny … defrauded’: the root-meaning includes ‘to deny (God)’ and ‘to defraud, cheat’. 6



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܡܠܐܟܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܡܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܢܫ ܶܦܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܚܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܶܫܠ ܬܝܐ ܢ ݁ܐܬܐ ܠ ݂ܰܗܝܟܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܣ ܶܟܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܶܠܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܨ ܶܒܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ܐ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܩܡ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬܝ ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬܓܰ݁ܶܠ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܡܢܘ ܡܣܝܒܪ ܝܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܐܬܐ ݁ܒܗ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܡܢܘ ܡܫܟܚ ܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܶܟ ݁ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܢܘܪ ܐ ܗܘ ܕ ܬܨܪܦܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܕܢܶܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰܨܪ ݁ܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܬܟܝܘ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܢܕ ܶܟܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ ܕ ܶܠ ܘܝ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܓ ܶܒܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܩ ݁ܪܒܝܢ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶܢܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ܬܢܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܣܡ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݁ܘܕ ܐܘܪ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܢ ܝܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶܘܐܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢ ܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܣ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܕ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܗܘܐ ܬܣ ܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܗܒ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬܪ ܶܫ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܬܝ ܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܬܥܡܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕ ܬܛ ܡܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐܓܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕ ܬܝ ܶܡܝܢ ܒ ݁ܕ ܓܠ‬ ‫ܐܓ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܠ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܨ ܶܠܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ܬܝܢܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬܦܢܶܐ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܕ ܶܚܠܰ݁ܘ ܶܡܢ ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܡܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܕ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ݁ܕ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܶܕ ܬܐܢ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܬܘܠ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚܠ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܢܬܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ܬܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪܬܘܢ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܘܠ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܘܢ ܤ ݂ܰܛܝܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܦܘܩ ܬܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬܦ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܘܬܝ ܶܘܐܬܦܢܶܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ .‬ܘܐܢ ܐܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܪܝܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܬܦܢܐ‪ܶ.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܛܡ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܢ ܬܫܐ ܠ ܬܠ ܬܗܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܛ ܡܝܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܠܰ݁ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢܟ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܡ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܢܬܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܛ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܥܣܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܪܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܠ ܘܛ ݁ܬܐ ܶܡܬܬܠܝܛܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠܝ ܛ ܡܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Malachi Ch.





The Lord will destroy the man who will do this, and his son, and his son’s son, from the tent of Jacob, and there will be no-one to bring an offering to the mighty Lord.



And this other (thing) that you have done: you have covered the house of the Lord with tear(s), with weeping and groans, for he does not accept your offerings, does not see them1 as acceptable from your hands.



If you say: Why? Because the Lord has witnessed, between you and the wife of your youth, that you have deceived her - yet she is your partner, the wife of your covenant.



Did they not become2 one man, as the others of his spiritual kin?3 (Did not) each seek seed from God? Take heed to yourselves;4 let no man deceive the wife of his youth.



The mighty Lord, God of Israel, says: He will not conceal5 iniquity under his cloak, says the mighty Lord; take heed to yourself, do not deceive.



You have wearied the Lord with your words; if you say: In what have we wearied him? - in that you say that all who do evil (are) virtuous6 in the eyes of the Lord, he delights in them; or (you say): Where is the God who judges judgments?

1

‘them’: sing.

2

‘They … become’: sing. verb.

3

‘the others of his spiritual kin’: lit. ‘the remnant/rest of his spirits’.

4

‘to yourselves’: lit. ‘in your spirits’.

5

‘He will not conceal’ or ‘May he not conceal’.

6

‘all who do evil (are) virtuous’: lit. ‘each who does evil (is) virtuous’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܡܠܐܟܝ‬

‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪܗ ݂ܰܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܒܰ݁ ܶܪܗ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܡܫܟܢܶܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܠܗ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܶܪ ݁ܒ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ܬܢܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܐܚܪ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܐ ݁ܘܬ ܢ ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܥܬܐ ܠ ݁ܒܝܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܣܝ ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܥܒܕܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܟ ݁‬ ‫ܬ݁‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܠ ܶܡ ݁ܬܦܢܶܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܶܒܰ݁ܠ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ܠ ܶܨ ݁ܒ ܬܝ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܣܗܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܝܢ ܝܟ ܠܢܬ ݁ܬ ܛ ܝ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܕ ܐܢܰ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܐܡܪܝܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܡ ܬܢ ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܝ ܬܡ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ܶܓܠܬ ܬܒܗ‪ :‬ܘܗܝ ݂ܰܫܘܬ ݁ܦܬ ݁ܟ ܘܐܢ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܰ݁ܗ ܗܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܚܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܬܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ݁ܕ̈ܪܘܚ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܐ ܬܢܫ ݂ܰܒܐܢܬ ݁ܬ ܛ ܝ ݁ܘܬܗ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܢܕ ܶܓܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܙܕܗܪܘ ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܛܗ ܬܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܟ ܶܣܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܘܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܪܛܰ݁‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬܢ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܟܘܢ ܘܠ ݁ܬ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܓܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܙܕܗܪܘ ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܠܝܘܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ݂ܰܡܝܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐܢ ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܐܠ ܬܝܢ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܒ ݁ ܬܕܐܡܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕ ݁ܟܠ ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ܕ ݁ܒܝܫ ݂ܰܫܦܝܪ ܒ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܗܘܢ ܗܘ ܬܨ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟܘ ܐ ܬܗܐ ݁ܕ݁ ܬܕ ܐܢ ܕ ܝܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܢ ܠ‪ :‬ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

Malachi Ch.



Chapter  

Now, therefore, this commandment is concerning you, priests.



If you will not listen, and will not take it to heart, to give glory to my name, says the mighty Lord, I will send curses upon you, and I will curse your blessings - since you do not take it to heart.



See! I rebuke the seed of the land; I will spread dung on your faces, and dung on your festivals, and I will carry you off with it.



You will know that I sent this commandment to you, so that the covenant may be with Levi, says the mighty Lord.



My covenant was with him, (for) life and peace; indeed he feared me, he trembled at my name.



The law of truth was in his mouth, iniquity was not found on his lips; he walked with me in peace and integrity; he turned many away from iniquity.



For the priest’s lips guard knowledge; they seek the law from his mouth: for he is the messenger of the mighty Lord.



But you have turned aside from the way; you have caused many to stumble against the law; you have perverted the covenant of Levi, says the mighty Lord.



Truly, I have made you contemptible, humbled among all people, for you did not keep my ways, you have (unfairly) favored people in judgment.1



Is2 there not one father for all of us? Was it not one God who created us? Why does each (man) deceive his brother, profane the covenant of their fathers?



Judah has lied; abomination has been committed in Israel and in Jerusalem; Judah has profaned the sanctuary of the mighty Lord and has loved and served foreign gods.3

‘you have (unfairly) favored people in judgment’: lit. ‘you received faces in the law’. 1

2

‘Is’: lit. ‘Was’.

3

‘has loved and served foreign gods’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܡܠܐܟܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܘܩܕ ܬܢ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܗܘ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܠ ݁ܬܫܡܥܘܢ ܶܘܐܢ ܠ ݁ܬܣܝܡܘܢ ܒ ܶܠ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡܬܠ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܬܪܐ ܠ ܶܫܡܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܠ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܘܛ ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܘܛ ܒܘ̈ܪ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬܣܝܡܝܘܢ ܒ ܶܠ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܬܓ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܪ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܦܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܪܬܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܐܪܥ ܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܕܪ ܐ ݁ܦܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܪܬܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܐ ݂ܰܦܝܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ܐܕ ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܐܫܩܘܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܒܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ܬܢ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ܶܕܥܘܢ ܕ ݂ܰܫܕ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܠ ܰ݁ܘܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܝܡܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܚܰ݁ܠ ܶܡܢ ܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪ :‬ܚ ܝܐ ܘܫܠ ܡܐ ܝ‬ ‫ܗܒ ݁ܬ ܐܢܘܢ ܶܠܗ‪ܶ :‬ܕܚܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܶܫܡܝ ܬܙܐܥ ܗ ܬܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ ܬܘܠ ܬܠ ܐܶܫܬ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ܚ ܒ ܶܣ ݁ܦܰ݁ ܬܘܬ ܶܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܦܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܣܐ ݁ܕܩ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܓ ܶܝܐܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܥܘܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܬܪܝܨ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܰ݁ܐ ܬܫܐܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܦܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܣ ݁ܦܘ ݁ܬܗ ܕ ݁ܟܰ݁ܗܢ ܢܛܰ݁ܪܢ ܝ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܗܘ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪܚܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܟ ܶܫܠ ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܣܓ ܶܝܰ݁ܐܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܬܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐܢܬܘܢ ܶܕܝܢ ܤ ݂ܰܛܝܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܒܠ ܬܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܝ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ܶܠ ܘܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܐܶ ܬܢ ݂ܰܝܗ ݁ܒܬ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܫܝܛܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܟ ݁ܝܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ܰ݁ܠ ܕܠ ܢܛ ܰ݁ܪܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݁ܒܬܘܢ ݂ܰܒܐ ܶܦܐ ݁ܒ ܬܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܚ ݁ܬܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬܗܐ ݁ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬܪܢ‪ :‬ܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܛ ݁ܢܦ ݂ܰܝܢܢ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܝ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬܐܒ ݂ܰܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕ ܓܠ ݂ܰܝܢܢ ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ݂ܰܒܐܚܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ܒܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܛܢܶܰ݁ ݁ܦ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ܶܓܠ ܝܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܢܦ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܡ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܠܚ ܠ ܬܠ ܗܐ ܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܩ ݁ܘܕ ܶܫܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Malachi Ch.



 

You bring the blind to the altar: is (this) not wicked? You bring the lame and the sick: is (this) not wicked? Sacrifice it, I pray you,1 to your ruler! Does he accept you, or is he favorable to you?2 says the mighty Lord.



Now, therefore, pray before the Lord, and he will take pity on us; this was in your hands. I will not be favorable to you, says the mighty Lord.



Who is there among you who will close my door?3 Do not bring to my altar that which costs you nothing.4 I am not pleased with you, says the mighty Lord; I will not receive an offering from you.



For from the rising of the sun to its setting, my name is great among the nations; they burn incense everywhere, they offer to my name pure sacrifices: for my name is great among the nations, says the mighty Lord.



But you profane it, in that you say ‘The Lord’s table is profaned, its foods are worthless’.



You say: This is because of our misery - but I have blown on5 them, says the mighty Lord - you bring sacrifices seized by force, the lame and the sick. I will not receive them from your hands, says the mighty Lord.



He is cursed, who has a ram in his sheepfold, yet vows and sacrifices to the Lord that which is sick: for I am a great king, says the mighty Lord, my name is feared among the nations.

1

‘I pray you’ or ‘now’.

2

‘is he favorable to you’: lit. ‘does he receive your face’.

3

‘door’ or ‘gate’.

‘do not bring to my altar that which costs you nothing’: see Introduction, Addendum 1. 4

5

‘blown on’: an expression of contempt.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫ܡܠܐܟܝ‬

‫ܡܩ ݁ܪܒܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܥܘܝ ܬܪܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݁ܒܝܰ݁ܫ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬ܘܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩ ݁ܪܒܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܟܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ܒܝܰ݁ܫ‪݂ܰ :‬ܩ ܶܪ ݁ ܬܒܝܰ݁ܗܝ ܢ ܠ ݂ܰܫܠܝܛܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܪܥܶܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܢܣ ݁ܒ ܒܐܦܝܟ‪ :‬ܐܡܪ ܡܪܝܐ ܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܢܪ ܶܚܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ܒܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ݂ܰܨ ݂ܰܠܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݁ܬ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܐ ݂ܰܣܰ݁ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ ܕܢܶܐܚ ݁ܘܕ ܬܪܥܝ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܪܒܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܒܚ ܝ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܬܓܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܠ ܬܨ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܢܘ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ܬܢܐ ܠ ܐ ݂ܰܩ ܶܒܠ ܶܡ ݁ܢܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕ ܬܢ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܪ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܪܒ ܗܘ ܶܫܡܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݁ܟܠ ݂ܰܐ ݁ ݂ܰܬܪ ܬܣܝܡܝܢ ܶܒܣ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩ ݁ܪܒܝܢ ܠ ܶܫܡܰ݁ܝ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܒܢܶܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܪܒ ܗܘ ܶܫܡܝ ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܛܢܦܝܘܢ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܒ ܬܕܐܡܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕ ܬܦܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܡܛ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ ݁ܦ ܗܘ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܢܬܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶܶ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܝܛ ܢ ܐܢ ܝܢ ܡܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܘܐܡܪܝܘܢ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܕܘ ݂ܰܘܢܢ ܗܘ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܦ ܶܚ ݁ܬ ܶܒܗ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܡܝܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܒܢܶܐ ܚܓ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܐ‪ :‬ܬܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪ ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܟܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܢܬܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܶܒܠ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝ ܶܠܗ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܓ ܬܙ ܶܪܗ ܶܕ ݁ܟ ܬܪܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܢܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰܕܪ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܚ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܪܝܰ݁ܗ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܠܝܛ ܗܘ ݂ܰܡܢ ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܡܝ ܕܚ ܝܠ ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܪ ܬܒܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Malachi Ch.





Malachi Chapter  

The vision of the words of the Lord concerning Israel, through1 Malachi.2



I have loved you, says the Lord; and you say: How have you loved us? Was Esau not Jacob’s brother? Says the Lord: I loved Jacob, but I hated Esau.



I laid waste his mountains, (made) his inheritance shepherds’ camps in the wilderness3.



If the Edomites should say: We are impoverished; we will return, we will rebuild4 the desolate wastes - thus says the Lord: They may build, but I will overthrow. They will call them ‘The border of sin’ and ‘The people with whom the Lord was angry forever’.



Your eyes will see, for you will say: The Lord will be great beyond the border of Israel.



A son honors his father, and a servant his master: if I am the father, in what way do you honor me? If I am the lord, where are you who fear me? Says the mighty Lord, to you, the priests, who despise my name. If you say: How did we despise your name?



In that you offer unclean bread on my altar; and if you say: How did we profane5 you? In that you say: The Lord’s table is contemptible.

‘through’: lit. ‘by the hand of’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2 nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘Malachi’ or ‘my messenger’.

3

‘shepherds’ camps in the wilderness’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘return … rebuild’: when √‫ ܗܦܟ‬is used, as here, preceding another verb, it is commonly rendered as ‘again’; here ‘return’ is used since P literally translates the Hebrew which does not have the Syriac idiomatic force of ‘again’. 4

5

‘unclean … profane’: both from the same Syriac root.



‫ܡܠܐܟܝ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ܟܝ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܥܣܘ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܐܚܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܶܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܡ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܥܣܘ ܣܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܒܶܠ‪ :‬ܬܘܝܪܬ ݁ܘܬܗ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶܝܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܶ ݁ܒ ܶܕ ݁ܬ ܛܘ̈ܪܘܗܝ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܢܐܡܪܘܢ ݂ܰ ݁ܐܕܘ ܬܡܝܶܐ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܟܢܢ‪ :‬ܢܶܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ܢܶ ݁ܒܢܶܐ ݂ܰܚܪ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ ܢܶ ݁ܒܢܘܢ ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ܐܶܣܚ ݁ܘܦ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܩܪܘܢ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܬܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܓܰ݁ܙ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܚܛܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ ܢܶ ܚ ܬܙܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܢܬܘܢ ܶܕܝܢ ܬܐܡܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܢܰ݁ ݂ܰܐܪ ݁ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܥܶܰ݁ܠ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܬܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܝ ݂ܰܩܪ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒܘܗܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݁ܒ ܬܕܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܶܪܗ‪ :‬ܐܶܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ ܬܒܐ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܘ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܒ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܝܩܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܠܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܐ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܗܘ ݁ܕ ܬܕܚܠܝܢ ܐܢܬܬܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ݂ܰ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬܟܗ ܶܢ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܒܙܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܶܫܡܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܐܡܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐ ܶܒܙܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ݂ܰܛ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩ ݁ܪܒܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܒܚ ܝ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܐܡܰ݁ܪܝܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܛܢܶܦ ܬܢܟ‪ :‬ܒ ܬܕܐܡܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕܫܝܛ ܗܘ ܬܦܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

 

On that day, (inscribed) on the horse(s)’ bridle(s), will be ‘Holy to the Lord’; the caldrons in the house of the Lord will be as1 the dishes before the altar.



Every caldron in Jerusalem and in Judah will be holy to the mighty Lord; all who sacrifice will come, will take of them, will boil (the sacrifice) in them, and on that day there will no longer be a merchant2 in the house of the mighty Lord.

1

‘as’: e.g. ‘as (holy as)’.

2

‘merchant’ or ‘Canaanite’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬

‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܦ ݁ܓܘܕܬ ܶܗ ܕܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܝܐ ܩ ݁ܘܕ ܬܫܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܰ݁ܗܘܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܦܝ ܬܠ ܶܣܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩ ݁ܕܣܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܒ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܟܠ ݂ܰܩܕ ܬܣܐ ܕܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݁ܘܒܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܩ ݁ܘܕ ܬܫܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܐܬܘܢ‬ ‫݁ ݁݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܢܒܫܠܘܢ ܒܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܒܘܢ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܟ ݂ܰܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܡܕܒܚ ܝܢ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

 

He will surround all the earth like a plain, from Geba as far as Rimmon, which is south of Jerusalem; it will be lifted up and will dwell in its place, from the gate of Benjamin as far as the place of the first gate, as far as the corner gate, from the tower of Hananel as far as the king’s winepress.



They will dwell in it, and no more will there be a curse; Jerusalem will dwell at peace.



This will be the plague with which the Lord will strike 1 all nations who gather their strength against Jerusalem: their flesh will rot as they stand on their feet, their eyes will rot in their sockets, and their tongue(s) will rot2 in their mouth(s).



On that day, the Lord will terrify them;3 each will seize hold of his neighbor, his hand will hold tight4 to his neighbor.



Judah too will fight in Jerusalem; he will gather the wealth of all the surrounding nations, gold, silver, and very numerous garments.



Such will be the plague of the horse and the mule, the camel and the ass, of all the beasts to be found in these camps, as a single plague.



It will happen (that) all who remain of all the nations who come against Jerusalem will go up, from year to year, to worship the king, the mighty Lord, and to celebrate the festival of Tabernacles.



And it will happen (that), of all the tribes of the earth, the one who does not go up to Jerusalem to worship the king, the mighty Lord – they will have no rainfall.5



If the tribe of Egypt does not go up, does not come, the plague with which the Lord will afflict the nations, those that do not go up to celebrate the festival of Tabernacles, will be upon them too.



This will be the sin of Egypt, the sin of all the nations, those that do not go up to celebrate the festival of Tabernacles.

1

‘plague … strike’: the same root.

2

‘rot’1,2,3 or ‘melt’.

3

‘the Lord will terrify them’: lit. ‘there will be among them great alarm of the Lord’.

4

‘hold tight’: lit. ‘cleave’; : see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘they will have no rainfall’: lit. ‘rain will not come down upon them’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬

‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܚܕܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܰ݁ܢ ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܰ݁ܥ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܪܡ ܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܪܥ ܰ݁ܐ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܦܩܥܰ݁‬ ‫ܟ ܰ݁ܗ ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟܗ‪ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ ܬܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܒܢ ܝܡܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢ ܬܝܰ݁ܗ ܕ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܬܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ݁ܘܬܬ ݁ܒ ܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܕ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ܬܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܩ ݁ܕܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܡ ݁ܓܰ݁ܰ݁ܕܠ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ܬܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܙܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܢ ܬܢܐ ܶܝܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܨܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ܡ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪ :‬ܘܬ ܶܬ ܶܒ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܒ ܶܫܠ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ܬܒܗ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܘܒ ܚ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ܠ ܢܶ ܶ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܬ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܡܚ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܣܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܒܣܰ݁ܪܗܘܢ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܬܩܝܡܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܶ̈ܪܓ ݂ܰܠܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܝ ܶܗܝܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ܬܫܢܗܘܢ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܣܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܦܘܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܣ ܬܝܢ ܒ ݁ܕܘܟ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܬܐ ݂ܰܪܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܐܚܕܘܢ ܐ ܬܢܫ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒܗܘܢ ܬܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܬ ܶܕ ݂ܰܒܩ ܐܝ ݁ ܶܕܗ ܒ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒ ܶܪܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܫ ܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܕܝܪܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܝܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ ܢ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܢܟܢܶܫ ܶܩܢ ܬܝ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܚܬܐ ݁ܕܛ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ܬܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܡܚ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕܣܘܣܝܐ ܘ݁ܕ ݁ܟ ݁ܘܕܢ ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘ݁ܕ ݁ܓ‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܡܚ ݁ܘܬܐ ܬܗ݁ ܶܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ܬܗܘܐ ݁ܒܡܫܪ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܟܠ ܕ ܶܡܫܬ ݂ܰܚܪ ܶܡܢ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܬܕ ܐܬܝܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪ :‬ܢܶܣܩܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܢܐ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܢܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܥܰ݁ ݁ ܬܐܕ ܐ‬ ‫ܣܓ ݁ܕ ܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕܡܛܠܰ݁ܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܓܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܡܢ ܕܠ ܢܶ ݂ܰܣܩ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ ܫܪ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܠ ܢܶ ܚܘܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ ܬܠ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰܣܩ ܬܘܠ ܬܐܬ ܶܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܢ ܫܪܒ ݁‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܥܡܡܐ‪ :‬ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܠ ܣܠ ܩܝܢ ܠ ܡܥܒ ݁ܕ ܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ܐܕ ܐ ݁ܕܡܛܠܰ݁ܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܕ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܕܠ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܚܛܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ܶܡܨܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶܚܛܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܣܠ ܩܝܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ܬܐܕ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܡܛܠܰ݁ܶܠ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



Chapter  

See! The day of the Lord is coming; your plunder will be divided among you.



I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem, for battle; the city will be taken, the houses plundered, the women abused; half the city will go out into captivity, but half the people will not be lost from the city.



The Lord will go forth and fight with those nations, as (on) the day when he fought, on the day of battle.



His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which lies before Jerusalem, in the east;1 the Mount of Olives will be split, half of it to the east and half of it to the west; in it there will be a very great valley, and half the mountain will be left2 on the north, and half of it on the south.



You will flee to the valley in the mountains, for calamity will strike the valley in the mountains;3 you will flee as you fled before the earthquake which happened in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the Lord my God will enter, all his holy ones with him.

XXIV



On that day there will be no light, but frost and ice.



There will be a certain day - that day will be known to the Lord - not night, not day, but light at evening time.



On that day, living waters will flow out from Jerusalem, half of them to the eastern sea, and half of them to the western sea, summer and winter.



And the Lord will be king over all the earth on that day: the Lord will be One, and his name One.

1

1

‘the east’ : lit. ‘her/its east’.

2

‘be left’: see Introduction, Addendum 1.

‘calamity will strike the valley in the mountains’: lit ‘the valley of the mountains will come to calamity/affliction’. See Introduction. Addendum 1. 3



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܨܚ ܟܕ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁ܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܓ ܶܒ ݁ܙܬ ݁ܟܝ ܶܒ ݁ܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܟܢܶܫ ܠ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܰ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܙܙܘܢ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܬ ܶܚܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ݁ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ݁ܒܫ ݁ܒܝܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܦܠ ܓܰ݁ܗ ܕܥܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܒܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܫܐ ܢܨ ܛܥܪܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܦܘܩ ܦܠ ܓܗ ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܒ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܫ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܝܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܐܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܦܘܩ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܫ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܕܠܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܢ ܬܚ ܬܝܰ݁ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢܩܘ ܬܡܢ ̈ܪ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܘܗܝ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܛܰ݁ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܙ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܦܠ ܶܓܗ ܠ ݂ܰܡܕܢ ܬܚܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܪܒܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܦܠ ܶܓܰ݁ܗ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬܦ ܶܠ ݁ܓ ܛܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܙ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܶܠ ܕ ܬܛܰ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪܒ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܬ ܶܒܰ݁ܩ ܶܦܠ ܶܓܰ݁ܗ ܕܛܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܓܪܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦܠ ܶܓܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݁ܒܗ ܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܬܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܘܬܥܪܩ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܢ ܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕܛ ܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ܕܢܶܡܛ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܢ ܚܠ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܕܛ ܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܠܘܠ ܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܨ ܬܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ܶܥܪܩܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܪܩܬܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕܥܘܙ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܥܘܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܗܝ ݁ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܩܕ ܝ ݂ܰܫܘܗܝ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܬܠ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܐܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܓܠ ݁ ܬܝܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܢ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܢܶ ݁ܬܝܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰܰ݁ܕܥ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܠ ܠ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܐ ܬܘܠ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܡ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ܥܶ ܬܕܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶܦܩܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܶܝܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪ܶ :‬ܦܠܓܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܛܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܬ ܬܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܪܒܝܐ‪ :‬ܩ‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܢ ܬܚ ܬܝܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܦܠܓܗܘܢ ܠ ܝܡܐ ܡ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

 

I will put the third (part), which will remain, in the fire; I will refine them, as (do) those who refine silver, I will prove them as (do) those who prove gold. He will call on my name, and I will answer him; I will say: This is my people. He will say: The Lord is my God.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ܕܢܶܫܬ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ܒܢܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܨܪ ݁ܘܦ ܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܕ ܬܨܪܦܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܠ ݁ܬܘܠ ܶܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܗܒܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܗܘ ܢܶܩܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܒܚܰ݁ܘܪ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܕ ݁ ܬܒܚܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ܶܫܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܶܘ ܬܐܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶܥܢܶ ܝܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܕ ܬܗ ݂ܰܢܘ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ ܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܗܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



Chapter  

On that day, a spring will be opened1 for those of the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for lustration2 and for purification.



On that day, says the mighty Lord, I will bring to naught the name of the idols in the land, they will be remembered no more; I will make the false prophets and the polluted winds pass away from the land.



If a man should continue to3 prophesy, his father and his mother will say to him: You shall not live, for you have spoken falsehood in the name of the Lord. His father and his mother, his parents, will bind him4 when he has prophesied.



On that day the false prophets will be ashamed, each of the vision of his prophecy; they will not gird themselves with animal skins,5 for they have spoken falsely.



He will say: I was not a prophet, but I am a man who works on the land; a man made me zealous,6 from my youth.



They will say to him: What are these wounds on your hands? He will say: These are wounds with which I was struck in the house of my friends.



Awake, sword, against my shepherd, against the man (who is) my associate, says the mighty Lord. Strike the shepherd, that his sheep may be scattered; I will turn my hand against the disciples.7



It will be, in all the land, says the Lord, (that) two thirds8 which are in it will come to an end and perish, and one third will be left in it.

1

‘a spring will be opened’: lit. ‘there will be a spring which is opened’.

2

‘lustration’ or ‘ceremonial sprinkling’.

3

‘continue to’: lit. ‘again’.

4

‘will bind him’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘animal skins’: lit. ‘hides of hair’.

6

‘made me zealous’: see Introduction, Addendum 3.

7

‘disciples’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘two thirds’: lit. ‘two parts’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬

‫ܩ ݁ܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܝܓ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܡܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕ ݂ܰܘܠ ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘ̈ܪܝܗ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܕܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬܦܰ݁ ݁ܬܚ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܠܪܣܣܐ ܘܠ ݁ܬ݁ܕܟ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܶܫܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܦ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܪ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬܠ ܢܶܬ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܪܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܶܠ ܘ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ܛܢ ܬܦ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܗ ܠ ݁ܬܐ ܶܚܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ܶܒܐ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ‪ :‬ܢܐܡܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ܐ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܐܣܪܘܢܶܗ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܒܘܗܝ ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܺܠܬ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܠ ܕܘܗܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܕ݁ܕ ܓܠ ݁ܘܬܐ ܡ‬ ‫݁ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܢܒܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒ ܰ݁ܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܬܘܢ ݁ܢܒܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓ ܰ݁ܶܠ ܐ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܫ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܢ ܶܚ ܰ݁ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܢܒܝ ܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܗ‪ :‬ܘܠ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܒ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܒܢܘܢ ܶܡܫ ܶܟܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܪܐ ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܶܕ ݁ܒܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ݂ܰܠܚ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ܪ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܢܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܠ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛ ܝ ݁ܘܬܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܐܡܪܘܢ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܶܢܶ ܝܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݂ܰܡܚܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܒܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܰ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܡܚܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܝ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܠ ܥܶ ݁ܬ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ݁ܕܝܠܝ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܦܐ ܐܶܬܬܥܝܪ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ܬܪ ܶܚܡܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ܘܬ ܶܬ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܕܪ ܬܥܢܶܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܗܦ ݁ܟ ܐ ݁ܝܕܝ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܠܰ݁ܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܚ ܝ ܠ ܬܪ ܬ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܕ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܗ ܢܣ ݁ܘܦܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܐܒܰ݁ܕܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܪܬܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܟ ܗ ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܘܬܘܠ ݁ܬܐ ܢܶܫܬ ݂ܰܚܪ ܬܒܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

 

I will pour out, upon those of the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace1 and of mercy; they will look to me, to the one whom they pierced, and they will mourn over him as they mourn for an only son, they will be heart-broken for him as they are heart-broken for a firstborn.



On that day mourning will increase in Jerusalem, like the mourning of the house of Bar-Amon2 in the valley of Megiddo.



The land will mourn, every tribe together:3 the tribe of the house of David together, and their wives together; and the tribe of the house of Nathan together, and their wives together.



The tribe of the house of Levi together, and their wives together; and the tribe of the house of Simeon together, and their wives together.



All the tribes which have remained will mourn, the tribes together, and their wives together.

1

‘grace’ or ‘pity’.

2

‘Bar-Amon’ or ‘the son of Amon’.

‘every tribe (or ‘family’) together’: lit. ‘the tribes, the tribes together’. The repetition of the noun is distributive: ‘tribe by tribe’. 3



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܕܘ ݁ܝܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܬܦܐ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ݁ܕܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܥܡ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܫ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܥܠ ܕ ݁ ܶܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܩܕܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܩܕܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܝ ܚ ݁ ܬܝܕܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢ ܚܘ ݂ܰܪܘܢ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ ܒ ݂ܰܡܢ ݂ܰ ݁ܕܕ ݂ܰܩܪܘ‪݂ܰ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܬܬ ݁ܒܪܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܶܡܬܬ ݁ܒܪܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܡܪܩܰ݁ܘܕܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܐܡܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܣܓܐ ݂ܰܡܪܩܘܕܬܐ ݁ܒܐܘܪ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܥ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܓܕܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܩ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܰܫܪ ݁ ܬܒܢ ݂ܰܫܪ ݁ ܬܒܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰܫܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܕܘ ݁‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܫܪܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰܫܝܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܢ ݁ܬܢ ܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܫܪܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰܫܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܠ ܘܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܫܡܥܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܫܪܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܫܪܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰܫܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰܫܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܢ ݂ܰܫܪ ݁ ܬܒܢ ݂ܰܫܪ ݁ ܬܒܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ܶܕ ܐܫܬ ݂ܰܚܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܢܪ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟ ܗܝܢ ܫܪ ݁ܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



Chapter  

The vision of the words of the Lord concerning Israel: says the Lord, who stretched out the heavens and established the foundations of the earth, who created the spirit of man within him,



See! I am making Jerusalem a gate1 of terror for all the nations surrounding it; there will also be a siege of Judah, (together) with Jerusalem.



It will be, on that day, (that) I will make Jerusalem a stone to trample 2 all the nations; all who trample it will be severely wounded. All the nations of the earth will be gathered together against it,



On that day, says the Lord, I will strike all her horses with panic,3 their riders with confusion; I will open my eyes to those of the house of Judah; I will strike all the horses of the nations with blindness.



The noblemen of Judah will say in their heart(s): By the mighty Lord their God, the inhabitants of Jerusalem prevailed over us.



On that day I will make the noblemen of Judah like a coal of fire among sticks of wood, like a fiery torch among stubble; they will consume, on the right and on the left, all the nations which surround them; and Jerusalem will again be inhabited in its place, in Jerusalem.



The Lord will visit the tent of Judah as before, so that the glory of the house of David should not increase, nor the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, over those of the house of Judah.



On that day the Lord will protect the inhabitants of Jerusalem; the one among them who is sick on that day will be as David, and the house of David like God, like the messenger of the Lord who is before them.



It will be, on that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations who come against Jerusalem.

1

‘gate’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘stone to trample … trample it’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘panic’: lit. ‘speechlessness’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܬܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܡܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܶ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܐܬ ܶܩܢ ܶܫ ݁ܬܐܣܝܗ ܕ ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܪܐ ܪܘܚܗ ܕ ݁ܒܪ ܐܢܫܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܓܘܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܝܪܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܠ ܗ ܠܘܪܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܬܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܪܥ ܰ݁ܶܠ ܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܗ‪ :‬ܬܐ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܥܠ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܐܶܥܒܕܝܗ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ݁ܕ ܬܝ ܬܫܐ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܬܪܛ ܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܢܫ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫݁ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܕܝ ܰ݁ܘ ܶܫܝܗ ܶܡܣܬ ܬܪܛ ܰ݁ܘ ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܗܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܚܐ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܗ ܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ݁ܬ ܬܘ ܬܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܚ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܐ ݁ܦ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܘ ܬܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܐܡܪܘܢ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݁ܒ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܥܫܢܘ ܡܢܢ ܥܡ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܐܗܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܬܐ ܕܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܩܝ ܶܣܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܠ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܐ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܓܡܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܝܟ ݂ܰܠܡܦܝ ܬܕܐ ܕܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚܒ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܐܟܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝܡ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ܶܣ ܬܡܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟܗ ܒܐܘܪܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܕܝܪܝܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܬ ݁ܒ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܒ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܠܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܓܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡܫܟ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܫܒܰ݁ܘܚܬܐ ݁ܕܥܡܰ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܕܘ ݁‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܟܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ݂ܰܢ ܶܓܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܥܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ݂ܰܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܕܘܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܕ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܕ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܐ ܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‪ :‬ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟ ܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݁ܒܥܶܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܕܘ ܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



I said to them: If it is right in your eyes, give me my wage; otherwise you are oppressing me. So they paid me, as my wage, thirty (pieces of) silver.



The Lord said to me: Cast it into the treasury, the glory of the mark of honor1 from them, which I had valued;2 so I took the thirty (pieces of) silver, and I cast them into the treasury in the house of the Lord.



I broke ‘Rope’, my other rod, so that I would bring to naught the harmony which there was between Judah and Israel.3



The Lord said to me: Take again the garments4 of an ignorant shepherd.



For See! I raise up a shepherd in the land who will not take care of5 the lost, will not seek (for) those who have gone astray,6 will not bind up the broken, will not heal the sick,7 will not nourish those who stand; he will eat the flesh of the fat, he will make them flee.8



Woe! Ignorant shepherd - for I left the flock upon your arm,9 before your right eye: your right arm will wither, your right eye will be blind.

1

‘mark of honor’: lit. ‘the praise of honor/ the glory of the gift’.

2

‘valued’: lit. ‘made valuable’.

‘between Judah and Israel’: lit. ‘between Judah for Israel’. A standard Syriac construction. 3

4

‘garments’ or ‘implements, vessels’.

5

‘take care of’: lit. ‘visit, see to’.

6

‘those who have gone astray’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘the sick’ or ‘those who have suffered pain’.

8

‘make them flee’: lit. ‘will put to flight their legs’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

9

‘for I left the flock upon your arm’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܢ ݂ܰܫܦܝܪ ܒ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܗ ݁ܒܘ ܠܝ ܐ ݁ܓܪܝ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܛ ܡܝܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܶܩܠܘܗܝ ݂ܰܠܓܪܝ ܬ ܬܠ ܬܝܢ ܕ ܶܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܦܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܠܝ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܓܰ݁ ܬܙ ܐ‪ :‬ܫ ݁ܘܒ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܩܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܶܡܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܝܩܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ܬܪܡܝܰ݁ܗܝ ܶܒܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܓ ܬܙ ܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ܐܢܘܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܣܒ ݁ܬ ܬ ܬܠ ݁ܬܝܢ ܕ ݁ ܶܟܣܦܐ ݂ܰܘܐܪܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ݁ܒ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܶܠ ܚܘܛܪܝ ܐܚܰ݁ܪ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܐܒܛܰ݁ܠ ܐܘܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ܬܡܐܢ ݁ܕܪ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܡܩܝܡ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܬܕ ܐ ݁ܒ ܬܕܢ ܠ ܢܶ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕܛܥ ܬܝܰ݁ܢ ܠ ܢܶ ݁ܒܥܶܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܣܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁ܬ ݁ܒܝܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪܢ ܬܠ ܢܶܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܨ ݁ܘܒ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬ܘܕ ݁ܟܪܝܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܗܢ ܬܠ ݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܣܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܐܣܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܕܩܝܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܢܶ ݁ܐܟܘܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܟ ܬܪ ݂ܰܥ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ݂ܰܢܥ ܶܪܩ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕܫܡܝܢ ݁‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܶܫ ݁ܒ ܶܩܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܬܥ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܪ ܬܥܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐܘ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܝܢܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܕ ݂ܰܝܡ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܪ ܬܥܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܐܒܫ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬܝܢ ݁ܟ ܕ ݂ܰܝܡ ܬܝܢܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܝܡ ܬܝܢܐ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܡܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  

Open your gates, Lebanon, let the fire consume your cedars.



Let the cypress wail, for the cedar has fallen, the strong have been plundered; let the oaks of Bashan wail, for the mighty forest has fallen.



The sound of the shepherds’ wailing - for their glory has been plundered; the sound of the lions that roar - for the strength of the Jordan has been plundered.



Thus the Lord my God said to me: Feed the frail1 flock.



For their buyers slaughter them, though they are not guilty; those who sell them say: Blessed is the Lord who has made us rich. Their shepherds take no pity on them.



For no more do I take pity on the inhabitants of the land, says the Lord: See! I deliver men up, each into the hand of his neighbor, and into the hand of his king; they will divide the land, and I will not save it from their hands.

7

I fed the frail flock, because of the assembly of the flock;2 I took two rods: one I called ‘Fragrant’, and the other ‘Rope’,3 and I fed the flock.



I destroyed three shepherds in one month; my soul was weary of them, and their souls cried out against me.



I said: I will not feed you: let it die, that which is dying; let it perish, that which is perishing; let that which remains eat the flesh of her companions.

XXIII



I took my rod ‘Fragrant’, and I broke it, so that the covenant which I made with all the nations would be annulled.



It was annulled on that day, and the humble ones of the flock, who watch4 me, knew that it was the word of the Lord. 1

‘frail’: see Introduction, Addendum 2. So too v. 7.

2

‘assembly of the flock’: see Introduction, Addendum 1.

3

‘Rope’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘watch’ in the sense ‘pay heed to’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܨܚ ܟܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܠ̈ܪ ݂ܰܙܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܦ ݁ܬܚ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܬܢܢ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥܝܟ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܘ ܬܝܢܐ ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬܪܙ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܠ ݂ܰܫ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܫܝܢܶܐ ܐܶ ݁ܬܒܙܶܙܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܢ ܝܺܠܘܢ ݂ܰܒܠ ܘ ܶܛܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܠ ܬܥ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݂ܰܥܫ ܬܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܺܠ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܒܙ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪܒ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܩܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐ̈ܪ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢܗܡܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݁ܐܬܒܙܶܙ ܥܰ݁ܘܫܢܶܗ‬ ‫ܩܶܠ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܗܝ‪ :‬ܪܥܝ ܠ ܬܥܢܐ ݂ܰܩܛܝܢܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܙ ݁ܒܘ ݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ܬܩܛܠܝܢ ܠ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܝܒܝܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܒ ܬܢ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܥܬ ݂ܰܪܢ‪ :‬ܬܘ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘܬ ܶܗܝܢ ܬܠ ܬܚ ܝܣܝܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܠ ܬܚܐܣ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܥܠ ܥܡ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢܫ ܒ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܒܰ݁ ܶܪܗ ݂ܰܘܒ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܠ ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܘܢܗ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐ ݂ܰܦ ܶܨܝܗ ܡܢ ܐܝ ݁ܕܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܫܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ܬܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܢܬܐ ܶܡܛܠ ܶܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܒܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܠܰ݁ܝ ݁ܬ̈ܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܚܰ݁ܘܛܪܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܬܥܢܐ ݂ܰܩܛ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܪܥ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܒܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܬܥܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܝܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܠܚܪ ܬܢ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܪܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܰܐܢ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܝ ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܬܫܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ݁‬ ‫ܥܘܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܕܠ ܐܪܥܶ ݁ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܡܝܐ ݁ܬܡ ݁ܘܬ‪݁ :‬ܘܕ ݁ܐܒܕܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܐܒ ݁ܕ‪ :‬ܘܐܝܕܐ ݁ܕܡܫܬ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܒܣܪܐ ݁ܕܚ ݁ܒܪ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܝ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܩ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܒ ݁ܬ ܚܘܛܪܝ ݂ܰܒܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪܬ ܶܗ‪ :‬ܕܢܶ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܛܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܡ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܶܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܝܕܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܡܟܝ ݁ ܶܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢܛܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓܡܗ ܗܘ ܕܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



I will whistle to them, and gather them, for I will save them; they will be as numerous as once they were.1



I will sow them among the nations, they will praise me in far-off places; they will rear their children, and they will return.



I will bring them back from the land of Egypt; I will gather them from Assyria; I will bring them to the land of Gilead, and to Lebanon, and they will not suffice them.



Affliction will pass by in the sea;2 he will suppress the waves of the sea; all the depths of the river will be ashamed; the pride of the Assyrian will be as naught; the power of the Egyptian will pass away.



I will strengthen them in the Lord; they will hope in his name, says the Lord.

‘they will be as numerous as once they were’: lit. ‘they will increase as they were many’. 1

2

‘Affliction will pass by in the sea’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܫܪܩ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܟܢܶܫ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁ܦܰ݁ ܶܪܩ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܣܓܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݂ܰ̈ܪܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܙܪܘܥ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܢܬܪܣܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ݂ܰܢܫܒܚܰ݁ ܬܘܢܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶܗܦ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܬܐ ݁ܬܘܪ ܐܶ ݂ܰܟܢܶܰ݁ܫ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܗܦ ݁ܟ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܓܠ ܬܥܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܒ ܬܢܢ ܐܝܐ ܐܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶܡܠ ܬܝܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܬܘܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܐܘܠ ܶܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܨ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܗܦܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܶ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܓܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܡܩܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܛܠ ݂ܰܓܐܝ ݁ܘܬܗ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬ ܬܘܪ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܫܘܠ ܬܛܢܶܗ ܕ ܶܡ ܬܨܪ ܬܝܐ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܚ ܝܶܠ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܣܒܪܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  

Ask the Lord for rain, at the time for the latter rain: the Lord makes the showers, he will give you the early rain so that the grass may grow in the field.



For the soothsayers have spoken dishonestly;1 the diviners have seen lie(s); they have told false dreams; they comforted with an illusion: therefore they went (on) their way2 like sheep, they were brought low, for they had no shepherd.



My anger raged against the shepherds; I will punish the flocks:3 for the mighty Lord will visit4 his flock, those of the house of Judah, he has made them like the horse, glorious in battle.



From them (will come) the corner-stone;5 from them the (tent) peg; from them the bow in battle; and from them all their rulers will go forth as one.



They will be like men treading down the mire in the streets; they will strive in battle, for the Lord is with them; the horsemen will be confused.



I will strengthen those of the house of Judah, and I will save those of the house of Joseph; I will bring them back, for I am merciful to them, and they will be as though I had not forgotten them, for I, the Lord God, will answer them.



They will be like the warriors of Ephraim; their heart(s) will be glad as with wine, their children will see and rejoice,6 their heart(s) will rejoice greatly in the Lord.

‘spoken dishonestly’: lit. ‘spoken iniquity’. The same Syriac verb is rendered as ‘told’ later in the verse. 1

2

‘went their way’: lit. ‘proceeded’.

3

‘flocks’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘punish … visit’: the same Syriac root.

5

‘corner-stone’: lit. ‘corner’.

‘be glad … rejoice’1: the same Syriac root. The 2nd occurrence of ‘rejoice’ has a different root. 6



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝ‪.‬‬

‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܫܐܠܘ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܫ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ̈ܪܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܪܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܐ ܠ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܬܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܢܪ ܶܒܐ ܥܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܒܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒ ݁ܟܝܪܝܐ ܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܺܠܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܬܘܠ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚܠ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܝܕܘܥܰ݁ܐ ܡ‬ ‫ܘܩܨܘ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ܚܰ݁ ݂ܰܰ݁ܙܘ ݂ܰ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܠܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܺܠܘ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܫܩܠܘ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܥܢܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܟܘ ܕ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܰܝܐܘ ݂ܰܒܣܪܝܩ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ܗܘܢ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܙ̈ܪ ܐ ܐ ݁ܦܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ܶܩܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܓܰ݁ܙܝ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶܙܗܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܐܶܢܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܓ ܬܙܪܗ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܟܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܢܶܦܩܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܗܘܢ ܩ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܗܘܢ ܣ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ ܙܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝ ܬܛ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣܝ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒܫܘ ܶܩܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ܕ݁ ܬܕܝܫܝܰ݁ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܫܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܗܬܘܢ ܬ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒܝ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܡܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܢܶܰ݁ܐ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܝ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܪܘܩ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܶܒ‬ ‫ܐܚ ܝܶܠ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܶܚܡ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܶܕ ܬܐܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܰ݁ܗܘܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܕܠ ܛܥܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܐ ܐܥܢܶܐ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܓܢ ܬܒ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܢܶ ܚܙܘܢ ܘܢܶ ܚܕܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܘܙ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



He will destroy the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem; he will break the bow in battle, and speak peace with the nations; he will rule from sea to sea, from the river to the ends of the earth.



You too, because of the blood of your own covenant: I have freed the prisoners from the well in which there is no water.



Dwell in the citadel,1 prisoners of the congregation;2 instead of a single day, I will requite you double.



For I have stretched out my bow against Judah, drawn (it) against Ephraim; I have shot3 your sons, Zion, against your sons, Greece; I have made you like the sword of a mighty man.



The Lord will be revealed4 above them; his arrow(s) will go forth like lightning; the Lord of lords will blow the horn; he will ride on the whirlwind to the south.



The mighty Lord will protect them; they will eat; they will subdue (them) (with) stones from a sling; they will drink commotion as wine;5 they will be filled like a mixture,6 like the corner of the altar.



The Lord their God will redeem his people, on that day, as a flock: for they were holy stones7 which were cast8 upon his land.



How good, how beautiful, is the grain for the young men; and wine delights the maidens.

1

‘Dwell in the citadel’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘prisoners of the congregation’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘I have shot’ or ‘I have rejected’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

4

‘will be revealed’ or ‘will reveal himself’.

5

‘they will drink commotion as wine’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

6

‘like a mixture’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘they were holy stones’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘which were cast’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܝܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ‪ :‬ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܶܩܫܰ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܰ݁ܘܒ ݁ܕ ܡܪܟ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܗܪ ܐܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܢܡ ܶܠ ܫܠ ܬܡܐ ܥܡ ܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܠܛ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܣܘ ܶܦܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܪܝ ݂ܰܐܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝܠ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܪ ܐ ܶܡܢ ܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܐ ܕ ݂ܰܠܝ ܶܒܗ ݂ܰܡܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܐܢܬ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܕ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݁ܕܕ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܣܢܐ ݂ܰܐܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݁ܒܘ ܒ ܶܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܠ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ܝܘܡ ܬ ܶܪܝܢ ܬܦ ݂ܰܪܥ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݁ܬ ܶܩܫܬܝ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܬ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܡܠܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܥܒܕܬ ݁ܟ ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܝ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܝ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܢ ܬܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܩܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܢܶ ݁ܬܓܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܦܘܩ ܶܓܐܪܗ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰܩ ܬܪܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ܒ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܥ ܶܠ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܢ ܶܓ ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܐܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܘܢܶ ݁ܟܒܫ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܟܐ ݁ܦ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ܶܩܠ ܬܥ ܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܫܬܘܢ ܕܠܘܚ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܙܘ ݁‬ ‫ܡܪܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬܡܠܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܡܙ ݁ܓܐ ܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܰ݁ܗܗܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܬܥܢܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܦܪܘܩ ܐܢܘܢ ܡܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܰ݁ܗ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ܟܐ ݁ܦܐ ܗ ݂ܰܘܝ ݂ܰܩܕ ܝ ܬܫ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܝ ݂ܰܒܐܪܥܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܫܦܝܪ ܥܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡܐ ܬܛ ݁ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܠ ݂ܰ݁ܓܕ ݁ܘ ܶܕ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܶܣܡ ܒ ݁ܬܘ ܬܠ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  

The word of the Lord concerning the land of Hadrach and the offering1 of Damascus: for mankind is revealed to the Lord,2 and all the tribes of Israel.



Hamath too, which borders it;3 and Tyre and Sidon, which have become very wise.



Tyre built a citadel for itself, and gathered silver like dust, gold like the mire of the streets.



Therefore the Lord will destroy it, will cast its wealth into the sea, and it will be consumed by fire.



Ashkelon will see and be afraid, Gaza will suffer great pain, and Ekron whose hope was disappointed; the king will perish from Gaza, Ashkelon will not be inhabited.



Foreigners will dwell in Ashdod; I will destroy the pomp of the Philistines.



I will take away their blood from their mouth(s), their uncleanness from between their teeth; they will remain, those too who (are) for our God; they will be like the noblemen of Judah; Ekron will be like Ebron.



I will make a protector dwell in my house4 (protecting) from one who passes by and returns;5 the taskmaster will no longer pass by them, for now I have seen with my (own) eyes.



Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion; call out aloud, daughter of Jerusalem - See! Your king is coming to you, righteous, a savior, humble, riding on an ass, and on an ass’s colt.

1

‘offering’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘for mankind is revealed to the Lord’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘which borders it’: lit. ‘will border it’.

4

‘I will make a protector dwell in my house’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

‘from one who passes by and returns’: lit. ‘from him who passes by, and from him who returns’. 5



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܛ‪.‬‬

‫ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ .‬ܘ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܕܪܡܣ ܰ݁ܘܩ ܩ ܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒܢܶܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܪܝܐ ݁ܓܠܝܢ ܒܢ ܝܢܫܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ܫ ݁ܒܛܐ ݁ܕ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݁ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰܬ ݂ܰܚܡ ܬܒܗ‪ :‬ܘܨܘܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܬܝܕܢ ܕܛ ݁ܒ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܟܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܢܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ܗ ܨܘܪ ܶܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܝ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܢܫܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܣ‬ ‫ܗܒܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܥ ݁ܦܰ݁ܪܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܕ ݁‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݁ܕܫܘ ܶܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܢܘܒ ݁ܕܝܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݁ ܶܐܟܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ܥ ݁ܘܬ ܬܪܗ‪ :‬ܘܗܝ ݁ܒܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ܶܚܙܶܐ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬܐܙ ܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬܟ ݂ܰܪܗ ܛ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܘܥܶܩܪܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܶܗ ݁ܬ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܬܪܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܬܕ ݂ܰܚܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܩܠܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܐܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܥ ܬܐܙ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܩܠܘܢ ܠ ݁ܬܬ ݁ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܐܫܕ ݁ܘܕ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܐܝ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ܶܠ ܫܬܝܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܫ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܬܚܰ݁ܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܪ ܶܕܡܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܦܘܡܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܛܢܦ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܶܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܶܗܢܘܢ ܠ ܬܠ ݂ܰܗܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܶܩܪܘܢ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܥܶ ݁ܒܪܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܢ ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܐܫܪ ܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܒܝܝ ܬܩܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܕ ݁ ܬܬܐܶ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪ ܬ ݁ܘܒ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܒ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܫܥܒ ݁ ܬܕ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ܬܫܐ ܚܙ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܥܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪܬ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܘܨܝ ܬܛ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܶܨܗܝܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ܐ ݁ܬܐ ܶܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܙ ܕ ܬܝܩܐ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ܬܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܟܝ ݁ ܬܟܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܪܟ ݁ܝܒ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܥܝ ܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܐܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

 

They will come, many peoples, strong peoples, to seek the mighty Lord in Jerusalem, to pray before the Lord.



Thus says the mighty Lord: In those days, ten men from the peoples of every language1 will take hold of the skirt of a Judean, and they will say to him ‘Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you’.

1

‘the peoples of every language’: lit. ‘all the tongues of the peoples’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܘܢܰ݁ ݁ܐܬܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܶܝܰ݁ܐܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‬ ‫ܘܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܫܝܢܶܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܨ ܬܠ ܝܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܢܶܐܚܰ݁ܕܘܢ ܥܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܰ݁ܪܐ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬܢ‪ :‬ܒܝܰ݁ܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܟܠ ܶܠ ܬܫ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܒ ܶܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܦܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܡܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܢܰ݁ ݂ܰܐܙܠ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ܬܡ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܫܡܥܢ ܕܐܗܐ ܥ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

 

For the seed will grow1 in peace, the vine will give its fruits, the land will give its crops, the heavens will give their dew, and I will give all these things to the remnant of this people.2



As you, those of the house of Israel and those of the house of Judah, were a curse among the nations - so will I redeem you and you will be a blessing, your hands will be strengthened, and you will not be afraid.3



For thus says the mighty Lord: As I planned to harm you, when your fathers enraged me, says the mighty Lord, and I did not change (my mind),



So I have thought again, in these days: I will do good to Jerusalem and to those of the house of Judah; do not be afraid.



Do these things: speak truth, each with his companion; judge with truth, justice, and peace in your gates.



Do not plan evil in your heart, each against his companion; do not favor false oaths, for I hate all these, says the mighty Lord.



The word of the mighty Lord came to me saying:



Thus says the mighty Lord: The fast of the fourth (month), the fast of the fifth (month), the fast of the seventh (month), and the fast of the tenth (month) shall be occasions of4 exultation and joy, good festivals, for those of the house of Judah; love truth and peace!

XXII



Thus says the mighty Lord: Now, therefore, peoples inhabiting many cities will come.



The inhabitants of one will go to another, and they will say: Come, let us go and pray before the Lord, and beseech the mighty Lord; I too will go.

1

‘grow’: lit. ‘be’.

‘I will give all these things to the remnant of this people’: lit. ‘cause the remnant of this people to possess (or ‘inherit’) all these things’. 2

‘your hands will be strengthened, and you will not be afraid’ or ‘let/may your hands be strengthened, do not be afraid’. 3

4

‘occasions of’: lit. ‘for’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬

‫ܨܚ ܟܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬

‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥ ܰ݁ܐ ܢܶ ܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܬܬܠ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܓ ݁ ܶܦ ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܬܬܠ ܦܐ̈ܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܢܶܬܠܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܛ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܥܺܠܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܟ ܶܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݂ܰܘ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܘܛܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܝܘܢ ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܟܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܬܠܢ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟܘܢ ܘܠ ݁ܬ݁ܕܚܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܦܪ ݁‬ ‫ܘܩܟܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܗܘܘܢ ܠ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁ܬ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܬܒܐܫܘ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܕ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬ ݂ܰܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܓܙܘܢ ܝ ܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡܪ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܘܠ ܶܗ ݁ܦ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܶܐܛܰ݁ܐܒ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝ ܶܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܚ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁ܬ ܒܝܰ݁ܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܠ ݁ ݁ܬܕܚܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܡܺܠܘ ܩܘܫܬܐ ܐ ܬܢܫ ݂ܰܥܡ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪܗ‪ :‬ܘܩܰ݁ܘܫܬܐ ݁ܘܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕܘܢܘ ܒ ݁ܬ̈ܪܥܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ ܒ ܶܠ ܒ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܠܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ܠ‬ ‫ܘܐ ܬܢܫ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒ ܶܪܗ ܒܝܫܬܐ ܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܢܶ ܝܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܬܪܚܡܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܟ ܶܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܣܢ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܪܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ܚܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܥ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ܥܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܥ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܠ ݁ܕ ܬܝܰ݁ ܬܨ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݁ܘܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܝܪ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܢܶܰ݁ܗܘܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܕ ܐ ܛ ݁ܒܐ‪ :‬ܘܩܘܫܬܐ ܘܫܠ ܡܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܢ ܰ݁ ݁ܐܬܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܐ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܒ ܰ݁ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܣܓܝ ݁ܐܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܡܰ݁ܪܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܬܘ ܢܰ݁ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܰ݁ܨ ܶܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܒܝ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܢܐܙܠܘܢ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܥܶܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ܐ ݁ܦ ܐ ܬܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



Chapter  

The word of the mighty Lord came to me saying:



Thus says the mighty Lord: I burnt with zeal for Zion, (with) great zeal, with great rage I burnt with zeal for her.



Thus says the Lord: I am comforted by Zion, I dwell in the midst of Jerusalem; Jerusalem will be called ‘The Holy City’, and the mountain of the mighty Lord ‘The Holy Mountain’.



Thus says the mighty Lord: After this, old men and old women will sit in the streets1 of Jerusalem, each holding his staff in his hand, because of his great age.2



And the streets of the city will be filled with boys and girls playing in its streets.



Thus says the mighty Lord: If this is a great thing in the eyes of the remnant of this people, in those days, it is also3 a great thing in my own eyes, says the mighty Lord.



Thus says the mighty Lord: See! I save my people from the land of the east, and from the land of the going down of the sun.



I will bring them, and they will dwell in Jerusalem; they will be my people, and I will be their God, in truth and in righteousness.



Thus says the mighty Lord: May they be strengthened, the hands of all who listened, in those days, (to) these words from the mouth(s) of the prophets, from the day when the foundation of the temple of the mighty Lord was laid, that it might be built.



For before those days, before that time, there was no wage for the men, nor (provision) for the cattle, nor peace from the oppressor for anyone going out or coming in. See! I provoked them, all men, each against his companion.



After this I will not be as I was4 in former times, for the remnant of this people, says the mighty Lord. 1

‘streets’ or ‘open places, squares’. So too v. 5.

2

‘his great age’: lit. ‘from the multitude of days’.

3

‘it is also’: or, as a rhetorical question, ‘is it also’.

4

‘I will not be as I was’: lit. ‘not as I was’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ‬ ‫ܬܒܗ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܚ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݂ܰܪܒ ݁ܬܐ ܛܢܶܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܛܢܶ ݁ܬ ܒ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ܛܢܢܐ ܪܒܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܚ ݁‬

‫ܘܫ ܶܪ ܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܒ ݂ܰܓܘ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ݁ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܝܐ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܬ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܘ ܶܪܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܬ ܬܢ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܰܩܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ݂ܰܩܕ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒܫܰ݁ܘ ܶܩܝܗ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܰ݁ܠ ܢܶܬ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘܢ ܬܣ ݁ܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܐܚ ݁ܝܕ ܒ ݁ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܛܪܗ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ ܡܢ ܣ ܬ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܢܶ ݁ܬܡܠܘܢ ݂ܰܝܠ ݁ܘ ܶܕ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܝܠ ܘ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܫܬܥܶܝܢ ܒܫܘ ܶܩܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܫܘ ܶܩܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐܶܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ܗܝ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܬܗܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦ ܒ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܕܝܠܝ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ܗܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ݁ ܬܦ ܶܪܩ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܢ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܪ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝ ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܐ ܐܶܢ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܘܢܶܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܰ݁ܡ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܰ݁ܗܘܘܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܬܐܢ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܗܐ‪ :‬ܒܩܘܫܬܐ ܘ ݁ܒܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܬܠܢ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܝܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟܠ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܒ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܬܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܕ ܐܬܬܣ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܐ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܦܘܡܗܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܣܰ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܶܫ ݁ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕܗܝܟܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ ܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬܢ ܠ ܡ ݁ܬܒܢ ܝܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܝܘܡ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܡܢ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܥܐ ܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܠܝ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܡܢ ܕ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܦܩ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܠܝ ܗ ܬܘܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܓ ܶܪ ܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ݁ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܒ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒ ܶܪܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܨ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܗܐ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܶܝܐ‪ :‬ܠ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܠ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ݁ܒܝܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

 

They made their heart(s) as hard as adamant, so that they would not hear the laws or the commandments, which the mighty Lord sent, by his spirit, by the former prophets: there was great anger from the mighty Lord.



Since I called (to) them and they did not hear, so will they call (to) me and I will not hear them, says the mighty Lord.



I will scatter them among all the nations which they did not know;1 the land will be deserted then,2 with no-one passing through or returning, because they made the pleasant land a desolation.

.

1

‘which they did not know’ or ‘which did not know them’.

2

‘then’: lit. ‘after them’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܢܶܫܡܥܘܢ ܬܢܡܘ ܶܣܐ ݁ܘܦܰ݁ܘܩ ܬܕ ܶܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܫܡ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܒܗܘܢ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ݁ܒܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܰ݁ ܬܙ ܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܘܚܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ݁ܢܒܝܐ ܩ ݁ܕܡܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܗܘܐ ܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܢܶܩܪ ܬܘܢܢ ܝ ܘܠ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܕܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܬܨ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܪܗܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܒ ݂ܰܕܪ ܐܢܘܢ ܒ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܠ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥܰ݁ܘ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܠ ܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܠܝ ܕܥ ݁ܒܪ ܘܕ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܥܠ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ ܐܪܥܐ ݁ܕܪ ܓ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



Chapter  

It was in the fourth year (of the reign) of Darius the king, (that) the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, on the fourth (day) of the ninth month, which is Canun.



He sent to Bethel, Sherezer, and Rab-mag: the king sent1 his great men to pray for him before the Lord.



To say to the priests of the house of the mighty Lord, and to the prophets: Shall I weep in the fifth month, or separate myself,2 as I have done now (for) how many years?



The word of the Lord came to me saying:



Say to all the people of the land, and to the priests: You have fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh months for seventy years now was it for me that you fasted?



And if you eat and drink, is it not for yourself that you eat and drink?3



These are the words which the Lord proclaimed, through the former prophets, when Jerusalem was inhabited and at peace, and the surrounding cities, the mountains and the plains (too) were inhabited.



The word of the Lord came to Zechariah saying:



Thus says the mighty Lord: Judge with true judgment; each should act with loving-kindness and mercy towards his brother.



Do not defraud or oppress widows, orphans, the poor, or those who turn towards me; do not plot evil in your heart each against his brother.



But they did not wish to hear me; they turned a rebellious shoulder,4 they stopped up their ears so that they would not hear.

1

‘sent … sent’: two different Syriac roots.

2

‘separate myself’ or ‘abstain’.

‘is it not for yourself that you eat and drink’: lit. ‘was it not you eating and drinking’. 3

4

‘turned a rebellious shoulder’: lit. ‘made their shoulder rebellious’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܙ‪.‬‬

‫ܪܒܥ ݁ܕ ܬܕܪ ݂ܰܝܘܫ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܢ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܙܟ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܥܐ ݁ܕܗܘ ܬܟܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܐܪܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܢ ܬܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܪܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܠ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܫܰ݁ܪ ܬܐܨܪ ܘܪܒܡܰ݁ ݁ܓ‪ :‬ܘܫܠܰ݁ܚ ܡܠ ܟܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܡܨ ܬܠ ܝܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݁ܒ ܶܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ ݂ܰ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܗܐ ݁ܟ ܬܡܐ ܫܢ ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܡ‬ ‫ܝܫ ܬܝܐ ܐܘ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢܙܪ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ݁ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܨܡܰ݁ܬܘܢ ݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܗ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܰ݁ܐ ܚܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܩܰ݁ܕܬܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܥ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒܥܝܢ ܫܢ ܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܠ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܬܨܡܬܘܢ ܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܬܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܬܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܐ ݁ܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܐ ݁ܟܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ ݂ܰܕܢܒ ܶܝܐ ݂ܰܩܕ ܬܡ ܶܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟܕ ܬܝ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ܗ ܬܘܬ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܐܢܶ ܝܢ ܡܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܟ ܶܪܙ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ܬ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܠ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܩܘ̈ܪ ܬܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܒܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܕܝܪܢ ܬܠ ܗ‪ :‬ܘܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܘܦܩ ܬܥ ݁ܬܐ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݁ ݂ܰܙܟ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܝܢܐ ݁ܕܩܰ݁ܘܫܬܐ ݁ܕܘܢܰ݁ܘ‪ :‬ܘܛܝܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ܬܢܫ ݂ܰܥܡ ܐܚܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶܡܣܟܢܶܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬܦܢܶܐ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ ܠ ݁ܬܥܠ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܘܠ̈ܪܡܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ ܒܠ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܬܛ ܡܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܒܝܫܬܐ ݁ܓ ݁ܒܪ ܥܠ ܐܚܘܗܝ ܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܨܒܰ݁ܘ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܢ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܦܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܡܰ݁ܪܘܕܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܣ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ܪܘ ܕܠ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܢܶܫܡܥܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



Say to him: Thus says the mighty Lord ‘See! A man whose name is ‘Sunrise’;1 he will rise from beneath.



He will build the temple of the Lord, and he will be praised;2 he will sit, he will rule on his throne; and there will be a priest on his throne, and (there will be) a counsel of peace between the two of them.



The crown will be for Holdai, Tobijah, Jedaiah, and Yosiah the son of Zephaniah, as a remembrance in the temple of the Lord.



Those who are far away will come, and they will build the temple of the Lord, and you will know that the mighty Lord sent me to you, if you will listen to the voice of the Lord your God’.

1

‘Sunrise’: see Introduction. Addendum 1, the note on Zechariah 3:8.

2

‘be praised’: lit. ‘receive praise’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ܗ ܶܕܢ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܬܚܬ ܢܶ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܚ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܢܶ ݁ܒܢܶܐ ݂ܰܗܝܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ ݂ܰܢܩ ܶܒܠ ܫ ݁ܘܒ ܬܚܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒ ܘܢܶܫܬ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܛ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܘܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܟܰ݁ܘܪܣܝܶܗ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܟܰ݁ܘܪܣܝܶܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܬܟܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܝܘܫ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܟܝ ܬܶܠ ܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠ ܚܰ݁ܘܠ ܕܝ ݂ܰܘܠ ܛ ݁ܘܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܝܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܨܦܢ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܕ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݁ܐܬܘܢ ݂ܰ̈ܪܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܫܕ ݂ܰܪܢ ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ܶܘܢܶ ݁ܒܢܘܢ ݂ܰܗܝܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܕܥܰ݁ܘܢ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܬܫܡܥܘܢ ܒ ܬܩ ܶܠܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  

Again I lifted up my eyes, and saw: See! Four chariots were coming out, from between two mountains - those mountains were mountains of brass.



With the first chariot (there were) dark red horses, and with the second chariot (there were) black horses.



With the third chariot (there were) white horses, and with the fourth chariot (there were) piebald1 horses.



I answered and said to the messenger who spoke with me: What are these, my lord?



The messenger answered and said to me: These are the four winds of heaven which stand before the Lord of all the earth.



In it there were black horses, going out to the land of the north, and white (horses) going out after them, and piebald (horses) going out to the land of the south.



The dark red (horses) went out, and sought to travel2 through the land; he said to them: Go, travel through the land - and they travelled through the land.



He cried out, and said to me: See these who are going out to the land of the north, and are quieting my wind in the land of the north.

XXI



The word of the Lord came to me saying:



Take, from the captivity, from Heldai, from Tobijah, and from Jedaiah, and come on that day, and go into the house of Josiah the son of Zephaniah, who came from Babylon.



Take his silver and his gold, and make a crown: set (it) on the head of Joshua the son of Jozadak the high priest.

1

‘piebald’: a different Syriac word from that used in Zechariah 1:8.

‘to travel’: lit. ‘to go to travel’ or ‘to go travelling’. The construction may be used to signify intention or command. 2



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܘ‪.‬‬

‫ܟ ݂ܰܐ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒܥ ݂ܰܡܪ ܟ ݁ ܬܒܢ ܬܢ ݁ܦ ܬܩܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܬ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܘ ܶܚܙ ݁‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ܦ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܛܘ̈ܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܬܗܢܘܢ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܐܢܘܢ ݂ܰܕܢ ܬܚ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܟ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܪܬܝܢ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ ܐܘ ܬܟ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܟ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡܝܐ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ ܣܘܡܩܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܡ‬ ‫ܒܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܒܥ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ ܐ ܬܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܶܓܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݁ܒܡܪܟ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܠ ݁ܬ ̈ܪ ݁ܟܫܐ ܚܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܡܪܟ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܡܪܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܥܢ ݁‬ ‫ܘܚ ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܐܶܢܶ ܝܢ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܥ ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܩܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܝ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܐ ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܬܒܗ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ ܐܘ ܬܟ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܬܢ ݁ܦܩܝܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ ܬܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܦܩܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܪܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܪܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܶܓܐ ܢ ݁ܦܩܝܢ ܠܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܣܘ ܬܡ ܶܩܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܗ ܬܠ ݁ܟܘ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦܩܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܘ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠ ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܙܶܠܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟܘ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟܘ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܥܐ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܚܙܝ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܕ ܬܢ ݁ܦܩܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܪܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܡܢ ܝ ܚ ܝܰ݁ܢ ܪܘܚ ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܪܒ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܟܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܛ ݁ܘܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܚܘܠ ܕܝ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܫܒ‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ܶܡܢ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܥܝܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܘܥܘܠ ܠ ܶܒܝ ܝܘܫ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܨܦܢ ܬܝܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܒܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܗ ݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܟܝ ܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܣܝܰ݁ܡ ܒܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܗ ܕܝܶܫܰ݁ܘܥ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܝܰ݁ ܬܘܙ ݁ ܬܕܩ‬ ‫ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



He said to me: They will build for it a house in the land of Babylon; they will establish it, they will settle it there upon its base.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬܩ ܬܢ ܬܢܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܘܢܫܪ ܬܝ ܬܢܰ݁ܗ ܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܕܢ ݁ܒܢ ܝܢ ܠ ܗ ܒ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܢܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  

Again I lifted up my eyes, and saw a flying scroll.



He said to me: What did you see? I said: I saw a flying scroll, twenty cubits long and ten cubits wide.



He said to me: This is the curse which goes forth over the face of all the land; for everyone who steals from it (is), like it, free from blame; and everyone who swears by it (is), like it, free from blame.1



I will send it forth, says the mighty Lord; it will go into the house of the thief, into the house of anyone who swears falsely by my name; it will dwell within his house, and it will consume its wood and its stones.



The messenger who spoke with me went out and said to me: Lift up your eyes and see what is this that goes forth.



I said: What is it? He said to me: This is the measure2 which goes forth, and in it are the debts3 of all the land.



Then, See! A cover4 of lead was lifted up - and a woman was sitting in the midst of the measure.



He said to me: This is Sin - and he pushed her back5 into the midst of the measure, and he put the leaden cover upon its opening.



I lifted up my eyes and I saw: See! Two women went out, with the wind in their wings - their wings were like stork’s wings, and they lifted up the measure, between the earth and the heavens.



I said to the messenger who spoke with me: Where are they carrying the measure?

‘like it, free from blame (or ‘conquers’); and everyone who swears by it (is), like it, free from blame (or ‘conquers’)’: see Introduction. Addendum 3. 1

‘measure’ or ‘litter, sedan chair’. ‘measure’ is a literal translation of the Hebrew ‘an ephah’ (a unit or container of ca. one bushel). 2

3

‘debts’ or ‘trespasses’ : see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘cover’ or ‘talent’: Babylonian talents could be heavy, weighing ca. 60 kilograms or light at about half that weight. It is not known what the weight of the Syriac talent was. See also v. 8. 4

5

‘pushed her back’: lit. ‘made her fall’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬

‫ܩ ݁ܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݂ܰܐ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܘܚܙ ݁‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ܦ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܡܓܠ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܙܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܟܰ݁ܗ ܥܶܣܪܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܚܰ݁ܙ ݁‬ ‫ܡܓܠ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ ܐܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܦ ݁ܬ ܬܝܗ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܛܬܐ ܕ ܬܢܦ ܬܩܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶܦܝܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܬܗ݁ ܬܕ ܐ ܗܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ܟܠ ܕ ܬ݁ܓܢܶ ݁ܒ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܬܢܗ ܐ ݁ܟ ܬܘ ݁ܬܗ ܬܙ ݁ ܶܟܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܠ ܕ ܬܝ ܶܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܬܢܗ ܐ ݁ܟ ܬܘ ݁ܬܗ ܬܙ ݁ ܶܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ܬܥܰ݁ܘܠ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܬܢ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܗ‬ ‫ܐ ܶܦܩܝܗ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘ ݂ܰܒܝܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ݂ܰܩܝ ݂ܰܣܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ܟܠ ܕ ܬܝ ܶܡܐ ݁ܒ ܶܫܡܝ ܒ ݁ܟܕ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ܟ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܐ ܪܝܡ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܘܚܰ݁ܙܝ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܗܝ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܬܢ ݁ܦ ܬܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ܗ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܚܘ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܗ ܬܕ ܐ ܗܝ ܟ ܬܝܠ ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢ ݁ܦ ܬܩܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܠ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܢܬ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܒܐ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘ ܟ ܬܝܠ ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ݁ܟܟܪܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܐܒܪܐ ܐ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܝܗ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘ ܟ ܬܝܠ ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܪܡܝ ݁ ݂ܰܟܟܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬܐܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܗ ܬܕ ܐ ܗܝ ܚܛ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗܝܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ܶܟܢ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ݁ ݂ܰܬܪܬ ܶܝܢ ܢܶܫܝܢ ܬܢ ݁ܦ ܬܩܢ‪ :‬ܘܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟܢ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܘܚܙ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܶܗܝܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܟܢ ݁ ܶܦܐ ݁ܕܚ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܩܠ ܗ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܟ ܬܝܠ ܬܐ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ݂ܰܡܘܒ ܬܠܢ ܬܠ ܗ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܟ ܬܝܠ ܬܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



I answered for a second time and said to him: What are these two olive-branches, between the two golden spouts from which pours gold?



He said to me: Do you not know what these are? I said: No, my lord.



He said to me: These are the two sons of fatness1 who stand before the Lord of all the earth.

1

‘fatness’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܬܪܬ ܶܝܢ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒܢ ܝܢ ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐܢܶ ܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܪܬܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܣܘ ܶܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܙܝܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܢܣܟܝܢ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢ ݁ܬ ܬܪܝܢ ܢ ܚ ܝܪܝܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ܬܡܪܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܠ ܝ ݁ܕܥ ܐܢܬ ܡܢܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܗܠܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܐ ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܬ ܶܪܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܩܝܡܝܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  

The messenger who spoke with me returned, and awakened me, as a man who is awakened from sleep.



He said to me: What did you see? I said: I saw a golden lampstand, with a bowl on top of it, and on it seven lamps, and seven openings in each of the lamp(s) which is on top of it.1



And there are two olive trees beside it, one on the right of the bowl, and one on its left.



I answered and said to the messenger who spoke with me: What are these, my lord?



The messenger who spoke with me answered and said to me: Do you not know what these are? I said: I do not know, my lord.



He said to me: This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel ‘Not by might and not by strength, but by spirit’, says the mighty Lord.



What are you, great mountain, before Zerubbabel, (but) a plain?2 He brought out the top3 stone, of dignity and of mercy.4



The word of the Lord came to me, saying:



The hands of Zerubbabel laid the foundations of this house, and his hands will complete it; and you will know that the mighty Lord sent me to you.



For who despises the days of small things?5 They will look6 and see the stone of distinction7 in the hands of Zerubbabel: these are the seven eyes of the Lord, which look on all the earth.



I answered and said to him: What are these two olive trees, on the right of the bowl and on its left? ‘seven openings in each of the lamp(s) on top of it’: lit. ‘seven openings (or ‘mouths’) to each lamp which on top of it’. P repeats ‘seven’; a distributive construction. 1

2

‘a plain’: lit. ‘as a plain’.

3

‘top’: lit. ‘chief’.

4

‘of dignity and of mercy’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘days of small things’: lit. ‘small days’.

6

‘look’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

7

‘stone of distinction’ or ‘stone of division’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܕ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ‪ :‬ܘܐܥ‬ ‫ܝܪܢ ܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܬܬܥܝܪ ܡܢ ܫ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܙܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܚܙ ݁‬ ‫ܗܒܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܦܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܫܒ ܬܥܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܪܓܝܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܒ ܬܥܐ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒ ܬܥܐ ݁ܦܘܡܝܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܒܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܫܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܪ ܬ݁ܓܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܶܣ ܬܡ ܬܠ ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܬܪܝܢ ݂ܰܙܝܝܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ‪ :‬ܚ ݁ܕ ܡܢ ܝܡܝܢܗ ܕ ݁ܟܦ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܘܐܡ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܡܪܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܥܢ ݁‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܬܠ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ݂ܰܐܢܬ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܡܪܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݂ܰܢܘ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ‪ :‬ܬܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܬܰ݁ܶܠ ܬܘܠ ݁ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܢܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܐܢ ܒܪܘܚ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡܪܝܐ ܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܐܢܬ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ܩ ܠ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܦܩ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܝܫܝܐ ݁ܕܫܘܝ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘܗܝ ܕܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘܗܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܣܘܗܝ ܕ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ ܣܡ ܫ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܘܬܕܥܘܢ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܫܕ ݂ܰܪܢ ܝ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܚܘܪܘܢ ܘܢܶ ܚܰ݁ܙܘܢ ܠ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܫ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܡܢܘ ܬܫܐܛ ܠ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܙܥ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪܢ ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܰ݁ܥ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܕ ܬܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ‪ :‬ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܐܶܢܶ ܝܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ܒܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘܗܝ ܕܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܙܝܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܝܡ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܦܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܶܠܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܢ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܣܡܠ ܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



Hear! High priest Joshua: You and your friends who stand before you - you are men (set to be) a sign,1 that See! I bring sunrise2 to my servant.



For See! The stone that I have laid before Joshua: on one stone are seven eyes.3 See! I open its gates, says the mighty Lord, I will search out the iniquity of that land on that day.



On that day, says the mighty Lord, you will call, each to his neighbor, beneath the vine, beneath the fig-tree.

1

‘men (set to be) a sign’: lit. ‘men of wonder’.

2

‘sunrise’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘eyes’: perhaps ‘facets’ in this context.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܢܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪܝܟ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܕ ܬܩܝܡܝܰ݁ܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܶܪ ܐ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕ ݁ ݁ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܡܝܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܒܕܝ ܶܕܢ ܬܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܝܶܫܘܥ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ݁ܕܝܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܒ ݁ܬ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܰ݁ܥ ݂ܰܥܝܢ ܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܦ ݁ܬܚ ܐܢ ݁ܬ̈ܪܥܝܗ ܐܡܪ ܡܪܝܐ ܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘܐܡܘܫ ܥܘܠ ܗ ܕ ܐܪܥܐ ܗܝ ܒܝܘܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܗܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܓ ݁ ܶܦܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܩܪܘܢ ܐ ܬܢܫ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒ ܶܪܗ ܬ ܶܚ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܬܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  XX



He showed me Joshua the high priest, as he stood before the messenger of the Lord; Satan1 was standing at his right hand, to oppose him.



The messenger of the Lord said to Satan: Satan, the Lord will rebuke you, the Lord who chose Jerusalem will rebuke you. This (man) is a brand that was taken from the fire.2



Joshua was clothed with filthy3 garments; he was standing before the messenger of the Lord.



The messenger answered and said to them, who stood before him: Remove the filthy garments from him.4 He said to him: See! I have removed your iniquity from you; I will clothe you in good garments.



He said: Let them set a pure crown upon his head:5 they clothed him with good garments; the messenger of the Lord was standing (by).



The messenger of the Lord bore witness to Joshua; he said:



Thus says the mighty Lord: If you will walk in my way and keep my commandments, (then) you will judge my house and guard6 my courts, and I will give you the right of access7 among those who stand (by).

1

‘Satan’ or ‘the Adversary’. So too v. 2.

2

‘This (man) is a brand that was taken from the fire’: MT a rhetorical question.

3

‘filthy’ or ‘defiled’. So also v. 4.

‘Remove the filthy garments from him’: see Zechariah 3:4 in Appendix 2 for the textual issues involved in MS 7a1 (which has an apparent dittograph, this phrase being followed by another which is not in MT, namely ‘They removed the filthy garments from him’). However, Mosul = MT. 4

‘Let them set a pure crown upon his head’: in MT (and in MS 7a1) this phrase is followed by ‘They set a pure crown upon his head’. See Zechariah 3:5 in Appendix 2 for further comments. 5

6

‘keep … guard’ the same Syriac root.

‘the right of access’: lit. ‘those who walk’, a literal translation of the Hebrew which presumably means ‘the right of access’. 7



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܟ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝܢ ܝ ܠ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟ ݁ܕ ܬܩܐ ܶܡ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܬܤܛ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܬܩܰ݁ܐܡ‬ ‫ܗ ܬܘܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܝܡܝܢܶܗ ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܶܟܝܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܬܣܛ ܬܢܐ‪ :‬ܬܤܛ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܓܥܰ݁ܘܪ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܓܥܰ݁ܘܪ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܕ ܓ ܬܒܗ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݂ܰܢܘ ܐ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܶܕ ܐܬ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰܠܛ ܶܡܢ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܝܶܫܘܥ ܠ ݁ܒܝܫ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܬܡ ܶܐܢ ܬܨܐܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܐܡ ܗ ܬܘܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠ ܬܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܕ ܬܩܝܡܝܰ݁ܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪܘ ܶܡܢܶܰ݁ܗ ܬܡܰ݁ܐܢ ܬܨܐܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܶܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܚܙܝ ܕ ܐܥܒܪ ݁ܬ ܡܢ ݁ܟ ܥܘܠ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܘܐܒܫܬ ݁ܟ ܡܐܢ ܛ ݁ܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܢܣܝܡܘܢ ܟܝ ܬܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܒܫܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐܢ ܛ ݁ܒܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܬܩܐܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܣܗܕ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒܝܶܫܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܒܐܘܪܚ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܬ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ݁ܘܦ ܰ݁ܘܩ ܬܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܛ ܰ݁ܪ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܰ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ݁ܕܘܢ ܝܘܗܝ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܝ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ݂ܰܛܪ ܬܕ ܬ̈ܪ ݁ܬܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬ ܶܠ ܬܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܗܠ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܩܝܡܝܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



May all flesh fear before the Lord: for he has woken, from his holy height.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܶܡܬܬܥܝܪ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܠ ܟܠ ܒ ݂ܰܣܪ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕܩ ݁ܘܕ ܶܫܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Chapter  

I lifted up my eyes and saw a man, and in his hand (there was) a measuring line.1



I said to him: Where are you going? He said to me: I will measure Jerusalem; I will see how long it is and how wide it is.2



The messenger who spoke with me went out, and another messenger came to meet him.



He said to him: Run! Say to this youth ‘Jerusalem will be populated3 (like several) villages, such will be4 the multitude of men and of beasts in her midst’.



And I will be in her midst, says the Lord, like a wall of fire: for glory, I will be in her midst.



Oh! Oh! Flee from the land of the north, says the Lord, for I have scattered you to the four winds of the heavens, says the Lord.



Oh Zion! Escape, inhabitant of the daughter of Babylon.



For thus says the mighty Lord: After glory, he sent me to the nations who plunder you; he who comes near you, comes near to the apple5 of his eye.



For See! I lift up my hand against them: their works will be plundered, and you will know that the mighty Lord sent me.



Sing praise, rejoice, daughter of Zion, for See! I come, I dwell in your midst, says the Lord.



Many nations will join with the Lord on that day, and they will be his people, and he will dwell in your midst, and you will know that the mighty Lord sent me to you.



The Lord will inherit Judah (as) his portion in his holy land, and again he will choose Jerusalem. 1

‘measuring line’: lit. ‘measurer’s line’.

‘how long it is and how wide it is’: lit. ‘how much (is) its length, how much (is) its width’. 2

3

‘populated’: lit. ‘dwell’.

4

‘such will be’: lit. ‘from’.

5

‘apple’ or ‘pupil’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܘܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܡܫܘܚ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܘܚܙ ݁‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܬܐܙܶܠ ݂ܰܐܢܬ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܶܕ ܐܡܫܚ ܝܗ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܶܠܗ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܚܰ݁ܙܶܐ ݁ܟ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘ ܬܪܟܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܟ ܬܡܐ ݁ܦ ݁ܬ ܬܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ܐܚܪ ܬܢ ܐ ݁ܬܐ ܠܘܪܥܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܬܐܓܘ̈ܪ ܶܣ ܰ݁ܐ ܬ ܶܬ ܶܒ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܶܠ ܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܗܪܛ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡ ܰ݁ܪ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܰ݁ܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܬܘܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣ ܬ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܕܢ ܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܬܐ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬܫܒ ܰ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܰ݁ ܬܘܗ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܫ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܬܘܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܘ ܐܘ ܥܪܘܩܘ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܪܒ ܬܝܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒܥ ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܕܪܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ܐܫܬ ݂ܰܘܙ ݁ܒܝ‪ :‬ܬܥܡܘܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ܬ ܬܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܒ ݁ܬܪ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܫܕ ݂ܰܪܢ ܝ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܒܙܝܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܕ ܬܩ ܶܪ ݁ܒ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܠ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ ܗܘ ܕ ݂ܰܥܝܢܶܗ ܬܩ ܶܪ ݁ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܙܬܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡ ܶܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ܐ ܬܢ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܕܝ ܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܰ݁ܗܘܘܢ ܠ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܘܬܕܥܘܢ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܫܕ ݂ܰܪܢ ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܝ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ܬ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܶܐ ܐ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܒܚ ܝ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܶܪ ܐ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܶܘ ݁ܟܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ܶܠܗ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܠ ܘܘܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܶܝܐܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܫܕ ݂ܰܪܢ ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܶܘ ݁ܟܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܕܥܝܢ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܩܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ ܶܫܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܨ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ‬ ‫ܘܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܐܪ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ ܡܢܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



I said to the messenger who spoke with me: What are these, my lord? He said to me: These are the horns which scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.



Then the Lord showed me four carpenters.



I said: What are these coming to do? He said to me: These are the horns which scattered Judah, as the mouth of a man who does not lift up his head;1 these came so that they would agitate them, uproot the horns of the nations who were lifting up (their) horn against the land of Judah, to scatter it.

‘as the mouth of a man who does not lift up his head’: see Introduction, Addendum 1. 1



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒܝ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܢܶ ܝܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܡܪܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܠܰ݁ܝ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܘܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬

‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܢܶ ܝܢ ݂ܰܩܪ ܬܢ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܕܪ ܠܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܝܢ ܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܐ ݂ܰܢ ܬܓ ܶܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܶܝܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݂ܰܩܪ ܬܢ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܕܪ ܠܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܪܝܡ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܘ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܕܢܙܝܥܰ݁ܘܢ ܐܢܶ ܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܥܩܰ݁ܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܡܪܝܡܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ݂ܰܩ ܬܪܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܬܕܪ ݁ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܩܪܢ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 



I saw, in the night, a man who was riding upon a dark red horse, standing among the overshadowing trees;1 and after him, horses2 dark red, and piebald, and white.



I said: What are these, my lord? The messenger who was speaking with me answered and said to me: I will show you what these are.



The man standing among the trees answered and said to me: These are they whom the Lord has sent to travel through the land.



They answered, they said to the messenger of the Lord standing among the trees: We have travelled through the land; all the land is in repose, dwells in peace.3



The messenger of the Lord answered and said: Mighty Lord, for how long will you withhold mercy from Jerusalem, and from the cities of Judah with which you have already been angry for seventy years?



The Lord answered the messenger who spoke with me, (speaking) fair words, comforting things.



The messenger who spoke with me said to me: Proclaim, say ‘Thus says the mighty Lord: I burnt with zeal for Jerusalem, for Zion (I felt) great zeal’.



I am very angry with the nations that rage:4 for I was a little angry, but they became more wicked.5



Because of these things, thus says the mighty Lord: I have turned towards Jerusalem in mercy, I set my house in its midst, says the mighty Lord; a measuring line will be stretched out over Jerusalem.



Proclaim again, say: thus says the mighty Lord - Now, therefore, the cities will be empty6 of good things; the Lord will build Zion again; again he will choose Jerusalem.



Then I lifted up my eyes and looked: See! Four horns.

1

‘overshadowing trees’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘horse … horses’: two different Syriac words.

3

‘in repose, dwells in peace’ or ‘dwells and desists’.

4

‘rage’: lit. ‘are in commotion’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘became more wicked’: lit. ‘helped the wickedness’.

6

‘will be empty’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܝܐ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܒܺܠ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܪܟ ݁ܝܒ ݂ܰܥܠ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܰ݁ܐܡ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܐܝ ܬܠ ܢܶܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܩܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܚܙ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܛܺܠܝܢ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܣܟܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܚܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܬܪܗ ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ ܣܘ ܬܡܩܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܦܝ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܡܪܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܡܰ݁ ܶܠ ܒܰ݁ܝ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܠܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܶܘ ݁ܝܟ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ܕ ܬܩܰ݁ܐܡ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܐܝ ܬܠ ܢܶܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܠܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܕ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܡܗ ܬܠ ݁ܟܘ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܥܢܘ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܕ ܬܩܐ ܶܡ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢ ݁ܬ ܐܝ ܬܠ ܢܶܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟܢ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܒܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܠ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐܶ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ ݁ܬܝ ܬܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܶܚܰ݁ܡ ܐܢܰ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܓܙܬ ܥܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒܥܝܢ ܫܢ ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܘܥܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܒܝ ܶܡ ܶܶܠ ݂ܰܫܦ ܬܝܪ ܬܬܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝܐܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܒ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܶܠ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܡܠ ܒܝ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܟ ܶܪܙ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܛܢܶܬ ܒ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܨܗܝܘܢ ܛܢܢܐ ܪܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܬܙ ܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ܬܪ ݁ ܶܓܙ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܓܫܝܢ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܓܝܪ ܶܪ ݁ܓܙܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩܠܝܰ݁ܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ܥܕܪܘ ܠ ݁ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐܶܬܦܢ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܠ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠܬ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܪܚܡܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܫܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܘܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܰ݁ܝܝ ܬܝ ܰ݁ ܶܗ ݁ܒ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܰ݁ ܬܘܗ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܬܚ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬ ܐ ݁ܟ ܶܪܙ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܠ ܢܶܣܬ̈ܪ ܬܩܰ݁ܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܒܢܶܐ ܬܘܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܓ ܶܒܐ ܬܘܒ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܡܢ ܛ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒܥ ݂ܰܩܪ ܬܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܘܚܙ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zechariah Ch. 

Zechariah Chapter  

In the eighth month, on the first of the month, in the second year of (the reign of) Darius, the word of the Lord came1 to Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of the prophet Iddo, saying:



The Lord was angry with your fathers, very angry.2



Say to them: Thus says the mighty Lord ‘Return to me’ says the mighty Lord, ‘and I will turn3 to you’, says the mighty Lord.



Do not be like your fathers, to whom the former prophets proclaimed and said: Thus says the mighty Lord ‘Turn away from your evil ways, your evil deeds’, but they did not hear, they did not obey me, says the Lord.



Where are your fathers and my prophets? Do they live forever?



My words and my commandments, which I commanded my servants the prophets: your fathers remembered them and were minded (to accept them) and said: As the mighty Lord was minded4 to do to us, according to our ways, according to our doings, thus has he done to us.



On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, which is Shebat, in the second year (of the reign) of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of the prophet Iddo, saying:

‘came’: lit. ‘was’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘very angry’: lit. ‘(with) a great anger’.

3

‘Return … turn’: the same verb in P is used for both.

4

‘minded’1,2 or ‘agreeable/reconciled’.



‫ܙܟܪܝܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰܙܟ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܫܢ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܬܪܬ ܶܝܢ ݁ܕ ܬܕܪ ݂ܰܝܘܫ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ܬܡܢ ܬܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݁ ݂ܰܙܟ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܒ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܟ ܬܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒܪ ݂ܰܥܕܘ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܬܙ ܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܓܙ ܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܥܠ ܐ ݁ܒܗܝܟܘܢ ܪ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬܦ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘ ܠ ܬܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬܦܢܶܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܘܠ ܬ ܶܗܘܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ܐܟ ܶܪܙܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ݁ܢܒܝܐ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡܝܐ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܒܝܫܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬܦܢܘ ܡܰ݁ܢ ܐܘ̈ܪܚ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܒܝܫܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܘܠ ܬܨ ݁ܬܘܢ ܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܢܒ ݂ܰܝ ܝ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܝ ܶܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܦ ܰ݁ܘܩ ܬܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦܩܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܒ ܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܝ ݁ܢܒܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܬܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܰ݁ܪܘ ܐܢ ܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܘܢ ܶܘ ݁ܐܬܪܥܝܘ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬܪܥܰ݁ܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܢ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܠܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚ ݁ܬܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܨ ܢܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ ܕܗܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܒܝܘܡ ݂ܰܐܪܒ ܬܥܐ ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܢ ݁ܬ ܬܪܬܝܰ݁ܢ ܕ݁ ܬܕܪ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܘܫ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܒܛ‪ :‬ܒ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݁ ݂ܰܙܟ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܒ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܟ ܬܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒܪ ݂ܰܥܕܘ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Haggai Ch.





I will overthrow the throne of the kingdoms; I will destroy the power of the kingdoms of the nations; I will overturn1 chariots upon those riding in them; horses and their riders will fall, each by his brother’s blade.



On that day, says the mighty Lord, I will take you, Zerubbabel the son of Sheltiel, my servant, says the Lord, and I will take you for2 my signet ring: for I have chosen you, says the mighty Lord.

1

‘overthrow … overturn’: the same Syriac root.

2

‘take you for’: lit. ‘make you as’.



‫ܚܓܝ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟܒ ݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܣܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܗܦ ݁ܟ ܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܗ ܶܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܦܠܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ ܬܘ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܒ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܦܣܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܟ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܚܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐܶܣ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܶܫ ݂ܰܠ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐܠ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ݁ܒܕܝ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܟ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܚ ݁ܬ ܬܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ܓ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Haggai Ch.





Haggai said: If one who is unclean1 touches any of these things, is it not defiled? The priests answered, saying to him: Defiled.



Haggai answered and said: This people is thus - and thus is this generation before me, says the Lord, and thus are all the works of their hands, and anything which they bring there is defiled.

XIX



Now, therefore, take to heart, this day2 and hereafter, before stone has been placed on stone in the temple of the Lord:



When you came upon a heap of twenty (measures of threshed grain) - and it was (but) ten - or you came to the winepress of fifty measures - and there were (but) twenty of them,3



I smote you with the parching heat, with a withering wind, with hail, on all the work of your hands: yet you did not turn to me, says the Lord.



Now, therefore, truly repent,4 from this day and hereafter, from the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month, from the day when the foundation of the temple of the mighty Lord was laid, that it might be built.5



Take heed:6 there is no7 seed in the granary; the vine, the fig-tree, the pomegranates, the olive trees have not borne (fruit): but from today I bless them, says the Lord.



The word of the Lord came to Haggai a second time, on the twentyfourth (day) of the month saying:



Say to Zerubbabel the great chief of Judah: I will shake the heavens and the earth,

1

‘unclean’: lit. ‘whose soul is unclean/defiled’.

2

‘take to heart, this day’: lit. ‘set your heart from this day’.

3

‘of them’: lit. ‘for them’.

4

‘truly repent’: lit. ‘subdue your hearts’.

5

‘that it might be built’: lit ‘to be built’.

6

‘Take heed’: lit. ‘Set your hearts’.

7

‘there is no’: a rhetorical question ‘is there no’ in MT.



‫ܚܓܝ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܬܩ ܶܪ ݁ܒ ܐ ܬܝܢܐ ݁ܕܛ ܬܡܐܐ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܰ݁ܗ ܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ ܠ ܶܡܣܬ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ݁ܒ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢܘ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ ܬܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܶܠܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܣܬ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰܢܐ ܗܘ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܗܝ ܫܪܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ ܶܕܡ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ ܶܕܐ ݁ܕ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܩ ݁ܪܒܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܣ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܒ ܗܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ܬ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܣܝܡܘ ܶܠ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܘܠ ݂ܰܗܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ݁ܕܠ ܐܬܬܣ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܐ ܥܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܟ ݁ܕ ܬܥܐܠܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܝܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܟ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܐܠܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܡܫܝܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܥܶܣܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܥܨ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܰ݁ ݁ ܬܕܐ ݁ܕ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ‬ ‫ܪܩ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܰ݁ ݁ ܬܪܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܚ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝܘܢ ܠ ܘ ݁ܬܝ ܐܡܪ ܡܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ ܶܠ ݂ܰܒ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܗܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ ܝܰ݁ܘܡ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ܶܕ ܐܬܬܣ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ܶܫ ݁ܬܐܣܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܗܝܟܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܬܒ ܬܢ ܝܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܘܬ ܬܬܐ ܘ̈ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܶܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܝ ܬܠ ܢܶܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܙܝܐ‬ ‫ܣܝܡܘ ܶܠ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ ܕܠܝ ܙܪܥܐ ݁ܒܐܕܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܓ ݁ܦ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܥܢܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܐ ݁ ܬܒ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܬܪܬ ܶܝܢ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒܢ ܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒܐܪܒ ܬܥܐ ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ‬ ‫ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܐܶ ܬܢ ݂ܰܐ ܙܝܥ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Haggai Ch.



Chapter  

In the seventh month, on the twenty-first (day), the word of the Lord came, through the prophet Haggai, saying:



Say to Zerubbabel the son of Sheltiel, the great chief of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jozadak the high priest, and to all the remnant of the people:



Who is left1 among you who saw this house in its former glory - and how do you see it now? Did it count for nothing in your eyes?



Now, therefore, be strong, Zerubbabel, says the Lord; and be strong, Joshua the son of Jozadak the high priest, and be strong, all people of the land, says the Lord: and build, for I am with you, says the mighty Lord.



The word that I established with you when you went out of Egypt: my spirit is present2 among you; do not fear.



For thus says the mighty Lord: Once again I shake the heavens and the earth, the sea and the dry land.



I will stir up3 all nations; they will bring the delight of all nations; I will fill this house (with) praise, says the mighty Lord.



Mine is the silver, mine is the gold, says the mighty Lord.



The glory of this latter house will be great, greater than (that of) the former, says the mighty Lord; in this place I will put my peace, says the mighty Lord.



On the twenty-fourth (day) of the ninth month, in the second year of (the reign of) Darius, the word of the Lord came, through the prophet Haggai, saying:



Thus says the mighty Lord: Ask of the priests concerning the law.



If a man is carrying consecrated meat in the skirt of his cloak, and with his skirt he touches bread or cooked food, or wine or oil, or any food, does it become sanctified? The priests answered, saying: No.

1

‘is left’: perfect verb.

2

‘established … is present’: the same Syriac root.

3

‘shake’ in v. 6 and ‘stir up’ in v. 7 have the same Syriac root.



‫ܚܓܝ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܫܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܥ ܬܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܰ݁ܝ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܶ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܫ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬܐܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܝܶܫܘܥ ݂ܰܒܪ ܝܰ݁ ܬܘܙ ݁ ܬܕܩ ܬܟܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܗ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ ܬܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݁ܒܫ ݁ܘܒ ܶܚܗ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܢܘ ܐܶܫܬ ݂ܰܚܪ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܗܝ ܠ ݁ܒ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܚܙܶܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܚܫ ݁ܝܒ ܒ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܝܠ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܝܠ ܝܶܫܘܥ ݂ܰܒܪ ܝܰ݁ ܬܘܙ ݁ ܬܕܩ ܬܟܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܟܗ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܝܠܘ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܶܕ ܬܐܢ ݂ܰܥ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܡܟܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܪܘܚ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܬܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶܐܩ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ܠ ݁ ݁ܬܕܚܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ݁ ݂ܰܙܒܢ ܡܙܝܥ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܘܒ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܘܝ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܝ ݁ܒ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܙܝܥ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܝܘܢ ܶܪ ܓ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܡܠܝܰ݁ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܫ ݁ܘܒ ܬܚܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕܝܠܝ ܗܘ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡܐ ݁ܘܕܝܠܝ ܗܘ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܪ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܛ ܰ݁ ݁ܒ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܪܒ ܫ ܰ݁ ݁ܘܒܚܗ ܕ ݁ܒ ܰ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܐܬ ܬܪ ܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܐܶܬܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܡܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݁ ݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܢ ݁ܬ ܬܪܬܝܰ݁ܢ ܕ݁ ܬܕܪ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܘܫ‪ :‬ܗ ܬܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܘܒܐܪܒ ܬܥܐ ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝܪܚܐ ݁ܬܫܝܥܝܐ‪ :‬ܒ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܫܐ ܶܠܘ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩܰ݁ ܶܪܒ ܒ ܶܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܶܢ ܬܫ ܶܩܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܓܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ܶܒܣܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪܐ ܕܩܘܕ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ ܒ ܶܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܢܦܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܪܛܰ݁ܘܛܗ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܚܡܪܐ ܘܠ ܡܫܚܐ ܘܠ ݁ܟܠ ܡ ݁ܐܟܶܠ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܡܐ ܡܫܟܰ݁ܚ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩ ݂ܰܕܫ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܥܢܘ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܡܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܠ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

Haggai Ch.





I called (for) desolation on the land and on the mountains, on the grain, on the wine, and on the oil, on everything that the earth brings forth, on man, on beast, on all the labor of their hands.



Zerubbabel the son of Sheltiel, and Joshua the son of Jozadak the high priest, and all the remnant of the people, heard the voice of the Lord their God, and the words of the prophet Haggai whom the Lord their God had sent to them: and the people feared before the Lord.



Haggai, the messenger of the Lord, spoke the message of the Lord to the people: I am with you, says the mighty Lord.



Then the Lord aroused the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Sheltiel, the great chief of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jozadak the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people: they went to do the work of the house of the mighty Lord their God,



On the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month of the second year of Darius the king.



‫ܚܓܝ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܥܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܒܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܛ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܟܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܕ ݂ܰܡܦ ܬܩܐ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ܠ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܫ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬܐܠ‪ :‬ܘܝܶܫܘܥ ݂ܰܒܪ ܝܰ݁ ܬܘܙ ݁ ܬܕܩ ܬܟܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ܒ ܬܩ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐܰ݁ܗܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܰ݁ܝ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܗܘܢ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܶܚܠܘ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕܫܕܪܗ ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܐܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܶܟܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ܟ ݁ܘܬܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚܗ ܕܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܫ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬܐܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܥܝܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܗ ܕܝܶܫܰ݁ܘܥ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܟܗ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܟܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܙܠܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܒܪ ܝ ܬܘܙ ݁ ܬܕܩ ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪ :‬ܘܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ ܬܕܐ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܐܗܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܒܝܘܡ ݂ܰܐܪܒ ܬܥܐ ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܢ ݁ܬ ܬܪܬܝܢ ܕ݁ ܬܕܪ ݂ܰܝܘܫ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܝܐ‪ :‬ܒ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ܫܬ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Haggai Ch.



Haggai Chapter  

In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first (day) of the month, the word of the Lord came,1 through the prophet Haggai, to Zerubbabel the son of Sheltiel, the great chief of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jozadak the high priest, saying:



Thus says the mighty Lord: This people says ‘The time when the house of the Lord should be built has not come’.



The word of the Lord came, through the prophet Haggai, saying:



Is this a time for you to live in your (well)-roofed houses, while this house has been laid waste?



Now, therefore, thus says the mighty Lord: Consider your ways with care.2



You sow much, but you reap little; you eat, but you are not satisfied; you drink, but your thirst is not quenched;3 you are clothed, but you do not feel warm; and those of you who earn a wage, earn a wage (to put it in) a purse with holes (in it).4



Thus says the mighty Lord: Think well concerning your ways.



Go up to the mountain, bring wood; build this house, and I will be well pleased with it, I will be glorified by it, says the Lord.



You looked for much, but (it) was little: when you brought it into the middle of the house, I blew on it - Why these? says the Lord, my house has been laid waste, yet you run, each to his (own) house.



Because of you, the heavens were forbidden to give dew, the land withheld its fruits.

‘came’: lit. ‘was’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2 nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘Consider … with care’: lit. ‘set your hearts to’.

3

‘your thirst is not quenched’: lit. ‘you are not (well)-watered’.

4

‘with holes (in it)’: lit. ‘which is pierced’.



‫ܚܓܝ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܢܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܬܪܬ ܶܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ݁ܕ ܬܕܪ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܫ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܪܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܫܬ ݁‬ ‫݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܶܫ ݂ܰܠ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܠ ܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܝܘܙ ݁ܕܩ ܟܗܢ ܪܒܐ ܠ ܡܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ܬܡܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܐܡܪܝܢ ܠ ݂ܰܡܛܝ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ܬܒܢܶܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܗ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܓܝ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܒܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܒ ݁ ܬܒܬܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܡܛܺܠܝܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢܐ ܗܘ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܘܒ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܣܝܡܘ ܶܠ ݂ܰܒܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܙܪܥܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ݂ܰܣܓܝ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܡܠܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ݂ܰܩܠܝܠ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܟܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܘܠ ܬܣ ݁ܒܥܝܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܘܠ ܬܪ ܶܘܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܒܫܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܘܠ ܬܫܚܢ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܫ ݁‬ ‫݂݂ܰܰ‬ ‫݂݂ܰܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܢܬܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ ܕܡܬܬܓܪ‪ :‬ܡܬܬܓܪ ܠܨܪܪ ܐ ܢܩ ݁ܝܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܢܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܣܝܡܘ ܶܠ ݂ܰܒܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܨ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܫܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܚ‬ ‫݂ܰܣܩܘ ܠ ܛܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܐܝܘ ܩܝܣܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܢܰ݁ܘ ܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܐ ܶܠܗ ݂ܰܩܠܝܠ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܥܠܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘ ݂ܰܒܝܐ‬ ‫ܬܚ ܝܪܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܒܣ ܬ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰܦܚ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܒܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܒܝܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܢܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܪܗܛܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܐ ܬܢܫ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ܐܶ ݁ܬܟܝܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ܬ ܦܐ̈ܪܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܛܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zephaniah Ch. 



You will not be ashamed of all the stratagems which you wickedly prepared for me;1 at that time I will make the power of your pride pass from you, you will no longer vaunt yourselves against my holy mountain.



I will leave in your midst a poor and humbled people, and they will trust in the name of the Lord.



Those who have remained of the house of Israel will not act unjustly, will not speak falsehood, a deceitful tongue will not be found in their mouth(s) - for they will pasture, they will lie down, and there will be nothing to harm them.



Sing praises, daughter of Zion! Sound the trumpet, Israel! Rejoice, exult with all your heart, daughter of Jerusalem!



The Lord has lifted your sentences;2 he has removed your enemies from you, king of Israel; the Lord is in your midst, no more will you see evil.



On that day, it will be said to Jerusalem: Do not fear; and to Zion: Do not let your hands become weak.3



The Lord your God is in your midst, the mighty, the savior: he will cheer you with gladness, renew you with his love, delight you with praise as on a festival day.



I will remove from you those who reproached you.



See! (What) I do to them all, the humbled in your midst at that time: I will save the downtrodden, I will gather the far-off, I will make them a name, a praise, throughout the land of their shame.



At that time I will bring you, at that time I will gather you, I will make you a name and a praise among all the nations of the earth, when I bring back your captivity in their sight, says the Lord.

1

‘prepared for me’: lit. ‘did against me’.

2

‘lifted your sentences’: lit. ‘made your sentences/judgments pass away’.

3

‘Do not …’1,2: indicatives may be read instead of imperatives.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܟ‬

‫ܨܦܢܝܐ‬

‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܕ ܐܥܠܰ݁ܝܝ ܒܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܝܕܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪ ܶܡܢܶ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܗܬܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܶ ܟ ܗܝܢ ݂ܰܨ ܢܥ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܘܫܢܐ ܕ ݂ܰܓܐܝܘܬܟܝ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܬܘܣܦܝܢ ܬܘܒ ܠ ܶܡܬ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘܪܒܘ ݂ܰܥܠ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܩ ݁ܘܕܫܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܥ ܬ ݁ ݁ ݁݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܣܒܪܘܢ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܬܪ ܒ ݂ܰܓ ܶܘ ݁ܟܝ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ܶܡܣܟ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܠ ܢܶܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܢܡܺܠܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܝܠܝܢ ܬ ܶܕ ܐܫܬ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܪܘ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ܬܓܠ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶܫܬ ݁ ݂ܰܟܚ ܒ ݁ܦܰ݁ܘܡܗܘܢ ܶܠ ܬܫ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ܟܰ݁ܶܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܶܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܢܶܪܥܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܪܒܥܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܶܒ ݁ܒ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܒܚ ܝ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ܬ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܝ ݁ܘܕܘܨܝ ܒ ݁ܟܰ݁ܗ ܶܠ ܶܒ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܕ ܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܰ݁ ܶܪܩ ܶܡܢܶ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܟܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܰ݁ܗ ݁ܕ ܐܝ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܶܘ ݁ܟܝ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ݁ܬܚܙܶܝܢ ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒ ܰ݁ܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܰ݁ܡ ܠ ݁ܬ݁ܕܚܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶܨܗܝ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰ̈ܪܦ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܠܘܪ‬ ‫ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܶܗܟܝ ܒ ݂ܰܓ ܶܘܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܓܢ ܬܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܦܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܣܡ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ܒ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݁ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܘܢ ݂ܰܚܕ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܢܕ ܶܝܨ ݁ܟܝ ܒ ݁ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܒܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ܬܐܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܥܒܪ ܶܡܢܶ ݁ܟܝ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܡܺܠܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܢ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ ܶܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡܟ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܰ݁ ܶܘ ݁ܟܝ ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܰ݁ܪܘܩ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐܶܢ ܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܟܢܶܰ݁ܫ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܬܫܒ ܰ݁ܘܚܬܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݁ܟ ݁ܒܝܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܪܚ ܝܩܰ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܗܬ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬ ܶܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܝܟܘܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܒܗ ܒܙ ݁ܒܢܐ ܗܘ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ܗ ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܐ ݂ܰܟܢܶ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܬܫܒܰ݁ܘܚܬܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬܢ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ܥ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zephaniah Ch. 

Chapter  

Woe! – (to) the city (that is) famous, redeemed1 - the city of Jonah,2



That did not listen to the voice, did not accept discipline, did not trust in the Lord, did not draw near to its God.



Its noblemen roar like lions in its midst; its judges are like the wolves of the evening: they do not wait for the dawn.



Its prophets are licentious; the men are unjust; its priests have defiled the sanctuary, violated the law.



The righteous Lord is in its midst, he does not act unjustly: morning by morning3 he gives his judgments in the light (of day), he does not delay - yet the unjust knows no shame.



I have cut off nations; the grieving (women)4 have been destroyed; I have laid waste their streets, no-one passes by; their cities were deserted, without men, without inhabitants.



I said: You will fear me, you will accept discipline from me; nothing which I have commanded it will be lost from its sight:5 prepare yourselves, draw near, destroy all its artifices.

XVIII



Now, therefore, wait for me, says the Lord, for the day that I establish for witness: for my judgment is coming, to gather nations, to bring kingdoms near, to pour out my anger upon them, all my fierce anger - for in the fire of my zeal the whole earth will be consumed.



And then I will return to the nations a pure speech, so that they may all call upon the name of the Lord, and serve him as one.6



From the further shore of the rivers of Cush, they will bring me sacrifices on that day. 1

‘famous, redeemed’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘Jonah’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘morning by morning’: lit. ‘in the morning (or ‘dawn’) and in the morning’.

‘the grieving (women)’: sing. noun and following verb. See Introduction. Addendum 2. 4

5

‘be lost from its sight’: lit. ‘perish from its eyes’.

6

‘as one’: lit. ‘with a single yoke/service’.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܚ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܨܦܢܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܝ ݁ܕܝܥܬܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܦܪܝܩܬܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܐܘܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܠ ܶܫ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܥ ݁ܬ ܒ ܬܩܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܩܒ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܪܕ ݁ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ݂ܰܣܒ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܬܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬ ܐܰ݁ ܬܗܗ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܶܩ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒ ݁ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶ ܝܗ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܬܘܗ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܐ̈ܪ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ܬܢܗܡܝܢ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬ܘܕ ܬܝܢܶ ܝܗ ݂ܰܐܝ ݁ܟ ܕ ܐ ݁ ܶܒܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܟܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܨ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘܠ‪ :‬ܬܟܗܢܶ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܛ ܶܘܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܡܩܕ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܚܛ ݁ܦܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫݁ܢܒܝܶ ܝܰ݁ܗ ܦܚܙܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂݁ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܙ ܕ ܬܝܩܐ ܒ ݂ܰܓ ܬܘܗ ܬܘܠ ܬܥ ܶܒܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘܠ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܨܦ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܘܒ ݂ܰܨܦ ܬܪܐ ܕ ܝ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܬܝ ܶܗܒ ܒܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬܘܠ ܠ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܶܒܗܬ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚܪ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܪܒ ݁ܬ ܫܘ ݂ܰܩܝܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܒ ݂ܰܠܝ ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ‪ :‬ܨ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܥܡܡܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܚܒܠ ݁ܬ ܕܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܒ ݂ܰܠܝ ܐ ܬܢܫ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܒܠܝ ܕ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶܡܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܕܠܰ݁ܝ ݁ ݁ܬܕܚܠܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܬ ݂ܰܩܒܠܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪܕ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܥܝܢܶ ܝܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ‪ :‬ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܛ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܒܘ ݂ܰܘܩܪ ݁ܘܒܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܒܠܘ ܟ ܶܗܝܢ ܶܨ ܢ ܬܥ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܕ ݁ܦ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ݂ܰܣ ݂ܰܟܘ ܠܝ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܩܰ݁ܐܡ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܬܣܰ݁ܗܕ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܐܫܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܟ ܬܢܫܘ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܡܛܝ ݁ܕܝܢ ܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܬܪ ݁ܒܘ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܛܢܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܬ ܶܬ ܶ ܶܐܟܰ݁ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ܕܪܘܓܙܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕܒܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܓܙܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗ ܶܚ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܪ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܕܢܶܩܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܝܕܝܢ ܐܗܦ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܶܣ ݁ܦܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܦܠ ܚܘܢܶܗ ܒܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ݂ܰܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗ̈ܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟܘܫ ݂ܰܢ ܝܘܢ ܠܝ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ܶܚܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zephaniah Ch. 



Because of these (things) - As I live! says the mighty Lord God of Israel: Moab will be like Sodom, the children of Ammon like Gomorrah, whose cultivation was destroyed, their sea orach1 perished;2 they will be desolate forever; the remnant of my people will plunder them; what has remained of my people will possess them.



This will happen to them because of their pride, for they reproached, they taunted Israel, the people of the mighty Lord.



The Lord has revealed himself to them,3 who will destroy all earthly kings: each will worship him, from his place, all the islands of the sea.4



You Cushites too, you will be slain by the sword.



He will lift up his hand against the northerner, he will destroy the Assyrian, he will make Nineveh desolate, a waste (place), a wilderness.



The flocks will lie down in its midst, and all the animals belonging to the people; pelicans and porcupines will live in its houses, the animals will roar in the midst of it: a desolate waste in its gates, for its foundation has been laid bare.



This is the fortified city, which lived in peace, saying in its heart: I am, there is no other like me. How has it become desolate, a place of shelter5 for the animals? All who pass by it will be astonished, will hiss, will wave his hand, will say:

‘sea orach’: a name used for more than one plant that flourishes in a salt-rich environment. 1

‘whose cultivation (lit. ‘planting’) was destroyed, their sea orach perished’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 2

3

‘has revealed himself’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘the islands of the sea’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

5

‘place of shelter’: lit. ‘house of a byre’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܨܦܢܝܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܰ݁ ܬܗܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܕܡܰ݁ܘܐ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܶܠ ܶܝܢ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܐ ܬܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ݂ܰ݁ܰܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܥܡܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܬܥܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܚܒ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܨܒ ݁ܬ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܐܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܣܕܘܡ ܬ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܰ݁ܶܠ ܠ ܥܠ ܰ݁ܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܫܪܟ ܰ݁ܗ ܕܥܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܢܒ ܰ݁ܙܘܢ ܐܢ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܘܡ ܰ݁ ܶܕܡ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܠ ܰ݁ܘܚܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܗܘܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܕ ܐܫܬ ݂ܰܚܪ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܢܐܪܬܘܢ ܐܢܶ ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܠܦ ݂ܰܓܐܝܘܬܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܶܣܕܘ ܶܘܐܬ ݂ܰܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܗ݁ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁ܒܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܐܶܬܓܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܕ ܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܝܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܣܓܰ݁ ݁ܕܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬܬ‬ ‫݁ ܶ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܐܢܫ ܡܢ ܐ ݁ܬܪܗ‪ :‬ܟ ܗܝܢ ܓܙ̈ܪ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܝܡܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܐܢܬܘܢ ܟܘ ܬܫܝܶܐ ܩܛܝ ݂ܰܠܝ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢܪܝܡ ܐ ܶܝܕܗ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܓܪܒ ܬܝ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܰ݁ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܕ ܠ ݁ܬܘܪ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܥܒ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܗ ܠ ܢ ܝܢܰ݁ܘܐ ܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ܶܨ ݁ܕ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܪܐ‪.‬ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܪܒܥܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܘܗ ܓܰ݁ ܬܙ̈ܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܚ ܝܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦ ܬܩܩܰ݁ܐ ܘܩܰ݁ܘܦ ܶܕܐ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܝܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ܢܶܢܗ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܘܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܝܗ ݁ܢܒܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܬ̈ܪܥܶܝܰ݁ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܒܒ‬ ‫݁ ݁ܶ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܕܥܩܪܗ ܐ ݁ܬܦܪܣܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܒܐ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܒ ܶܫܠ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܢܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܐ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܒ ܶܠ ܬܒܰ݁ܗ ܐ ܬܢ ܐ ܬܢ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܥܫ‬ ‫ܬܗ݁ ܬܕ ܐ ܗܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܬܶܠ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܡܪܒ ܬܥܐ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܟ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܕܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܪܩ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܢ ݁ܝܦ ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zephaniah Ch. 

Chapter  

Gather yourselves together, be bound,1 nation that is not chastised.2



Before you become like the chaff which passes away, before the fierce anger of the Lord comes upon you, before the day of the Lord’s anger comes upon you.



Seek the Lord, all meek3 (people) of the land; act justly, seek righteousness and humility: perhaps you will be sheltered on the day of the Lord’s anger.



For Gaza will be forsaken; Ashkelon (will be) desolate; they will drive Ashdod away at mid-day; Ekron will be overthrown.



Woe! To those living at the sea coast, to the people of Crete:4 the word of the Lord (has come) upon you, Canaan, and the land of the Philistines - I will destroy you; you will no longer be inhabited.5



The sea coast will be dwelling places, Crete6 (will be) a pasture for flocks of sheep.



The sea coast will be for the remnant of the house of Judah; they will feed in them, they will lie down in the evening in the houses of Ashkelon, for the Lord their God will take care of them,7 he will bring back their captivity.



I have heard the reproach of Moab, the blasphemy of the children of Ammon, (with) which they reproached my people, they taunted them at their borders.8

1

‘be bound’ or ‘conspire’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

2

‘that is not chastised’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

3

‘all meek’ lit. ‘all you meek’.

4

‘Crete’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

‘I will destroy you, you will no more be inhabited’: lit. ‘I will make you cease from (being) a habitation’. 5

6

‘Crete’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

7

‘will take care of them’: lit. ‘see to/visit them’.

They taunted them at their borders’: lit. ‘enlarged themselves against their borders’. 8



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܨܦܢܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰܢܫܘ ܶܘ ݁ܐܬܐܣܪܘ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕܠ ݁ ܶܪܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ܬܐܬ ܶܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܰ݁ܙܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܚ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܠ ݁ܬ ܶܗܘܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܥܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ‪݁ ݁ ݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓܙܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥ ݁ܕܠ ܢ ݁ܐܬܐ ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܝܘܡܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܥܐܘܗܝ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܟ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܡܟܝ ݁ ܶܟܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܙܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܟ ݁ܝܟ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܟ ݁ܒܪ ܬܣܬܬܪܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝܘܡܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܬܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܠܫܕܘܕ ܒ ݂ܰܛܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܩܬܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܫܩܠܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ܢܶ ݁ܕܒܰ݁ܪܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܒ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܬܥ ܬܐܙ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܥܶܩܪܘܢ ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܩܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܒܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܩܪ ܶܛܐ‪ܶ :‬ܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܬܥܡܪܝܢ ݂ܰܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܝܶܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܢܥܢ ܘܐܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܦܠ ܫ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܟܝܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܓ ܬܙ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܡܪܥ ݁‬ ‫ܚܒܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܩܪܛܐ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܝ ܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܢܶܪܥ ܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݁ ܬܒ ܰ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܪܟ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܫܩܠܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܢܶܪܒܥܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܢܶ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐܰ݁ܗܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܦܢܶܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܕ ܬܦܐ ݂ܰܕܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܥܡܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܶܣܕܘ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬ ݂ܰܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܫܡܥܶ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁ܒܘ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܬ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܣܕܐ ݁ܕܡܘܐ ݁ܒ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܬܚܘܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zephaniah Ch. 



Afflicting mankind, (so that) they walk as if blind, for they sinned against the Lord; their blood will be shed like dust, their flesh like dung.



Their gold and their silver will not be able to save them on the day of the Lord’s anger: in the fire of his zeal all the earth will be consumed, for he brings tumult and destruction upon all the inhabitants of the earth.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫ܨܦܢܝܐ‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܫܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܬܘܐܨ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܢܗܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܥܰ݁ܘܝܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕܚܛܰ݁ܘ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܕܡܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒܣܪܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܟ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܒܗܘܢ ܘܣܐܡܗܘܢ ܬܠ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓܰ݁ܙܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁‬ ‫ܡܦ ܬܨܝܰ݁ܘ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܛܢܢܶܗ ܬܬ ܶܐܟܠ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܒܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰ ݁ܕܕܠܘܚ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܬܢܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ܥܡܘ̈ܪܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Zephaniah Ch. 



On the day1 of the Lord’s sacrifice I will punish the noblemen, and the sons of kings, and all who are clothed (with) the clothes of foreigners.2



I will punish all the violent, the plunderers,3 on that day, who filled their wine-cellars4 by violence, by deceit.



On that day, says the Lord, (there will be) the sound of crying from the Fishermen’s Gate, wailing from the other5 (gate), great destruction from the high places.



Howl! Inhabitants of Maktesh, for all the people of Canaan were confounded, all who trade in silver have perished.



It will be at that time, says the Lord, (that) I will search Jerusalem with a lamp; I will punish all men who despise their watchman,6 who say in their hearts: The Lord does neither good nor evil.



Their possession(s) will be plundered, their houses destroyed; they will build houses but they will not live in them, they will plant vines but they will not drink their wine.



The great day of the Lord is near, it is very near; the sound of the day of the Lord hastens: it is bitter, harsh, and fierce.7



That day is a day of wrath, a day of affliction and adversity, a day of confusion8 and destruction, a day of darkness and gloom, of cloud and thick darkness.



A day (to blow) the horn, for (trumpet) blast against the fortified cities, against the high corners,9

‘On the day’: lit. ‘It will be, on the day’. Compare with v. 10, ‘On that day’: lit. ‘It will be, on that day’. 1

2

‘the clothes of foreigners’ or ‘foreign garments’.

3

‘all the violent, the plunderers’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘wine-cellars’ or ‘storerooms’.

5

‘other’ or ‘next/another’.

6

‘men who despise their watchman’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘it is bitter, harsh, and fierce’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

8

‘confusion’ or ‘contention’.

9

‘corners’: a literal translation of MT which here may refer to a battlement.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܨܦܢܝܐ‬

‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݁ܕ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ܶܚܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܟܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܒܫܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܠ ݁ܒܘ ܶܫܐ ܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ܙܘ ܙܶܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܥܠ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܚܛܘ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܡ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ܬܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ܘܢܶ ݁ܟܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܺܠܰ݁ܬܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܨ ܬܝܰ݁ ݁ ܶܕܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܘܢܗܘܐ ݁ܒܝܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܐܡܪ ܡܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܩܶܠ ݁ܕܩܥ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܚܪ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܬ ݁ ܬܒ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ܶܡܢ ܬ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܺܠܘ ܬܥܡܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܟܫ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܘܪܘ ܟܗ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܢܥܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܐܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ܟܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܬܫܩ ݂ܰܠܝ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܙܒ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܶܒܨܝܗ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܬ݁ܓܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܫܝܛܝܢ ܠ ܬܢܛܘܪܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܒ ܶܠ ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܠ ݂ܰܡܛܰ݁ ݁ܐܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݁ܦ ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ݁ ܶܒܐܫ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܒܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܒܰ݁ܬܐ ܘܠ ܢܶܬ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܒܬܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܩܢ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܠ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ܙܬܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܨܒܘܢ ݂ܰܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ܘܠ ܢܶܫܬܘܢ ݂ܰܚܡܪܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܩܪܝܒ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܗ ݁ܒ ܬܩܰ݁ ܬܶܠ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܣܰ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܒ ܗܘ ܬܛܰ݁ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܩܪ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܡܪܝܪ ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܫܐ ܘܥܫܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ ݁ܕܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܟܐ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܘ݁ ܬܕ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܕ ܐܘܠ ܨ ܢ ݁ܘܕܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܛ ܬܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܒܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܕܥܢܢܐ ݁ܘܕܥܪܦܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܕܚܫ ݁ܘܟܐ ݁ܘܕܥ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܕܩܪܢ ݁ܘܕ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝܢ ݁ܬܐ ܥܫܝܢ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܠ ܙܘ ݁‬ ‫ܩܥ ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Zephaniah Ch. 

Zephaniah Chapter  XVII



The word of the Lord which came1 to Zephaniah the son of Cushi the son of Gedaliah the son of Amariah the son of Helekiah,2 in the days of Josiah the son of Amon king of Judah.



I am completely removing everything from the face of the earth, says the Lord.



I remove man and beast, I remove the birds of the air3 and the fish of the sea; I will set a stumbling-block for the sinners, I will destroy mankind from the face of the earth, says the Lord.



I will lift up my hand against Judah and against all the inhabitants of Jerusalem; I will destroy from this place the remnant of Baal, and the name of the (idol-worshipping) priests4 with that of the priests,



All who were worshipping, on the rooftops, the hosts of heaven; all who were worshipping, swearing by the Lord, swearing by Malcam,



All who turn from the Lord, all who do not seek the Lord, do not seek him out.



Be afraid! In the presence of the Lord of lords, for the day of the Lord is near: the Lord has prepared sacrifices, he has summoned his guests.

‘came’: lit. ‘was’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘the son of Helekiah’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

3

‘the air’: lit. ‘heaven’.

‘the (idol-worshiping) priests’: …‫ ܟܘܡ̈ܪܐ‬is often used in contrast to a priest of the Mosaic law. 4



‫ܨܦܢܝܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܬܒܐ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܨܦܢ ܬܝܐ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܙ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܨܦܢ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܟܘܫܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒܰ݁ܪ ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܕܝܘܫ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ݂ܰܐܡܘܢ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ‪.‬ܬ‬ ‫݁ܒܪܗ ܕܚܠܩܝܐ‪ :‬ܒܝܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܪܘ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܟܠ ܡܢ ܐܦܝܗ ܕ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ܰ݁ܘ ܶܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ܰ݁ܪ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܥܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܪܐ‪ :‬ܡܥܒ ܰ݁ܪ ܐܢ ݁ܦܪܚܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩܠ ݁ܬܐ ܐܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܚܛܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܒܢ ܝܢܫܐ ܡܢ ܐܦܝܗ ܕ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܪܝܡ ܐܝ ݁ܕܝ ݂ܰܥܠ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܟ ܗܘܢ ܥܡ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܐ ܕܟ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܬ ܬܪ ܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܪ ܐ ݂ܰܥܡ ܕ ݁ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ ܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܣܓܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܠ ܐܶ ܬܓܰ݁ܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ݂ܰܠ ܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܣ ݁ܓܕܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܘܝܡܝܢ ܒܡܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܡܝܢ ܒܡܠ ܟܘܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܟܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ܦܟܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݁ ܬܒܥܶܝܰ݁ܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܒܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܡܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܒ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܚܠܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܝܶܰ݁ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܕܒ ܶܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܙ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Habakkuk Ch. 

 

Your bow will indeed be awakened,1 (and) the arrows will be satisfied2 by your glorious words; the earth was split by rivers.



The mountains saw you and trembled, violent rain passed over above; the deep raised up its voice, lifted up the height of its hands.



The sun and moon stood in their spheres:3 they proceed by the light of your arrows, by the brightness of the lightning flashes from your spears.



In your rage you will tread upon the earth, in your anger you will trample the nations.



You went forth to redeem your people, to redeem your anointed one; you cut the head from the house of the unjust, stripped him bare, from his foundations as far as his neck, forever.



With his staffs, you shattered the heads of his rulers, who had put their trust in their savagery, that they might in secret consume the poor.



On your horses, you stepped upon the sea, the gathering of the great waters.



I heard — and trembled within me4 at the words of my lips,5 at the trembling in my bones — my knees shook, for he showed me, made known to me, the day of affliction which is coming upon the people.



For the fig-tree did not bud, there were no leaves on the vine; the fruit of the olive-tree failed; the threshing-floors yielded no grain; the flock was gone from the sheepfold; there were no bulls in the herds.6



But I will rejoice in the Lord, I will exult in God my savior.



The Lord of lords is my strength, who made my feet like hind’s feet, established me on my high place, so that I may sing his praise.

1

‘awakened’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘the arrows will be satisfied’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘spheres’ or ‘habitations, heavens’.

4

‘trembled within me’: lit. ‘my belly trembled’.

5

‘at the words of my lips’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

6

‘herds’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܚܒܩܘܩ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܫܒ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܒܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ݁ܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܬܬ ܬܥܪܘ ݁ܬܬܥܝܰ݁ܪ ܶܩܫܰ݁ܬ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܣܒܥܰ݁ܘܢ ܓܰ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܗ̈ܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒܢ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܩ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܥܶ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܪܝܰ݁ܡ ܬܗ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܚܙܐܘ ݁ܟ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܬܘܙܥܘ‪ :‬ܘܙܪ ݁ܝܦ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘܗܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܩܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܗܠ ܟܝܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܣܗܪ ܐ ܬܩܡܘ ܒ ܶܡ ݁ܕ ܬܝܪܝܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܢܘܗܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܓܐ̈ܪܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܙܟܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܬܙ ݁ܟ ܬ݁ܕܘܫ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܚ ݁‬ ‫ܡܬ ݁ܟ ݁ܬܕܪ ݁ܘܟ ܥܠ ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩܬ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܩ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶܡ ݁ܦܰ݁ ݂ܰܪܩ ݂ܰܠܡܫܝ ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܦ ݂ܰܣܩܰ݁ܬ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܨ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܣܘܗܝ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܗ ܠ ܬܥܠ ܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܝܗ ܕܥܘܠ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܐܫܠܚܬܝܗܝ ܡܢ ܫ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܦ ܶܚܬܬ ܒܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܛܪܘܗܝ ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝܛ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ܐܬܬ ݁ ܶܟܘ ܒ ݂ܰܫܝ ܬܚܢܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ ܕܢܶ ݁ܐܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܒܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܝܐ ܠ ܶܡܣܟܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܪ ݁ܟ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫ ݁ܟ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܫܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܝܐ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܫܡܥܶܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܬܘܙ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܪܣܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܠܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ݂ܰܡܡܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕ ܶܣ ݁ܦܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܰ݁‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܪܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܝܢ ܝ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܪ ݂ܰܡܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܒܘ̈ܪ ݂ܰܟܝ ܬܙܥܝ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ ܶܕܩ ܠܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܐܘܠ ܬܰ݁ܨ ܬܢ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܬܬ ܶܐ ܬܠ ݁ ܶܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܛܪ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܓ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟܰ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ܐ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܙܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܕ̈ܪ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܒ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪܬ ܬܥ ܬܢܐ ܶܡܢ ܓ ܬܙ ܶ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܬ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ ݁‬ ‫ܥܒܘܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܓ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܘܙ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܶܕܘܨ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܬܗܐ ݁ ܬܦܪܘܩܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܶ̈ܪܓ ݂ܰܠܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ܐܝ ܬܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢ ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ݂ܰܪܘܡܝ ݂ܰܐܩ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܙܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒ ݁ܬܫܒ ܬܚ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Habakkuk Ch. 

Chapter   The Prayer of Habakkuk the Prophet 

Lord, I heard your name and I was afraid.



Lord, your deeds are in the midst of the years of the living: in the midst of years you will be known; in anger, remember your mercy.



God came from the south,1 the Holy One from the mountain of Paran; the heavens were covered by his glorious brightness, the earth was filled with his praise.



His brightness will be like light; in the city2 of his hands, he will set his strength within its confines.3



Death4 goes before him; a bird of prey5 goes forth at his feet.



He stood, he measured6 the earth; he looked, they shot a dart at the nations;7 the mountains of old were scattered;8 the ancient high places were laid low: his ways are of old.



Beneath Awen9 I saw the tent of Cushan; the tents10 of the land of Midian will tremble.



Is the Lord angry with the rivers? Is your anger against the rivers, your violence (directed) at the sea? You rode on your horses, on the chariot of your redemption.

1

‘the south’ or ‘Teman’.

2

‘in the city’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘within its confines’ or ‘in the surrounding country’.

4

‘Death’ or ‘A pestilence’.

5

‘bird of prey’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘measured’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘they shot a dart at the nations’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. The Syriac however might be an ISC: see Introduction. Addendum 2. 7

8

‘scattered’: a possible ISC: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

9

‘Awen’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘tents’ or ‘curtains/families’: a different root than that used for the ‘tent’ or ‘habitation’ of Cushan. 10



‫ܚܒܩܘܩ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܨܠ ݁ܘܬܗ ܕ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܩܘܩ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܘܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܫܡܥܶ ݁ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡ ݁ܟ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܠ ݁ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕܥ‪ :‬ܒܪܘܓܰ݁ ܬܙ ܐ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܢ ܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܝܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܰ݁ܘ ܫܢ ܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܟ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܬ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܶܡܢ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ܐܶ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܙ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ܬܪܢ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܣܝܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܘܗ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܫܒ ܬܚܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܫܒܘܚܬܗ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܠ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܙ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܪܗ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘܗܝ ܢܣܝܡ ܥܘܫܢܶܗ ܒ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒܩܪ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܢ ݁ܦ ܬܩܐ ݂ܰܛ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܠ ܶܪ ݁ܓ ܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܐܙܠ ܡ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܚܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܩܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܚܰ݁ܪ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܠܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪܘ ܛܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܡ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܟ ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܬܥܠ ܡܝܢ‪ :‬ܕܝܠܗ ܐܢ ܝܢ ܗܠ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܡܫܟ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ܐܘܢ ܚܙ ݁‬ ‫ܘܫܢ‪ :‬ܢܙܘܥܢ ܝܪܝܥ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶܚ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܓܙ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗ̈ܪ ܬܘ ܬܬܐ ܪܘܓ ܬܙ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܚ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟ ݁ܒܰ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܥܠ ܢܗ̈ܪܘ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫ ݁ܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܡܪܟ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܦܘܪܩܢ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Habakkuk Ch. 



Woe to him who says to the wood: Awake! And to the dumb stone: Arise! They are empty, gold-plated: (there is) no breath in them.



The Lord is in his holy temple; all the earth will tremble before him.



‫ܚܒܩܘܩ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܩܰ݁ܘܡܝ‪ :‬ܣܪܝܩܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ܠ ݁ ܬܕ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠ ܩ‬ ‫ܝܣܐ ܐܬܬܥܝܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܟ ݁ܐܦܐ ܚܪ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ܩܪܝܡܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ݂ܰܠܝ ܒܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟ ܬܶܠ ݁ܕܩ ݁ܘܕ ܶܫܗ‪ :‬ܬܙܘܥ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Habakkuk Ch. 



Woe to him who defrauds, who gathers evil for himself,1 who sets his nest on high so that he may escape evil.



You have deliberately brought2 shame on your house; you have despoiled many nations; you have caused your soul to sin.3



For the stone(s) cry out from the wall, the branch4 from the tree answers.5



Woe to him who builds a city with blood, who founds a town on iniquity.



All these are from the mighty Lord:6 the nations will be worn out by the fire, the peoples will weary (themselves) for an illusion.7



For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the8 glory of the Lord, as the waters which cover the sea.



Woe to him who makes his companion drink the dregs of (the cup of) wrath, who makes him drunk, so that he may look upon his nakedness.



You have been filled with shame rather than honor, you too drank and staggered; it will return to you, the cup from the right hand of the Lord, and (there will be) shame upon your honor.



For the violence of Lebanon will cover you, the spoil of the beast will disturb you, by the blood of mankind, the violence of the land, of the city, and of all its inhabitants.



What profit is there in the carved image9 which the workman carved? The molten image is false doctrine, in which the heart of the workman trusted - to make a dumb idol.

1

‘gathers evil for himself’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘deliberately brought’: lit. ‘purposed’.

3

‘you have caused your soul to sin’ or ‘you have brought sin on yourself’.

4

‘branch’: lit. ‘peg, pole’.

5

‘answers’ or ‘hears’.

6

‘All these (are) from the mighty Lord’: a rhetorical question in MT.

7

‘an illusion’ or ‘vanity/an idol’.

8

‘with the knowledge of the’: lit. ‘to know’.

‘What profit is there in the carved image’: lit. ‘What has the carved image profited?’. 9



‫ܚܒܩܘܩ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣܐ ܶܡ ܶܩܢܶܗ ܒ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ ܠ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܗ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ ܶܨ ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܡܟܢܶܫ ܒ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪܥܝ ܶܒܗܬ ݁ܬܐ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒܙܬ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܐ ݂ܰܘܐܚܛܝ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܬܫ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܬܐ ܬ݁ܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܐ ܬܥܢ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܣ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ܟ ݁ܐܦܐ ܡܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܕ ܬܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܘܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܬ ܶܩܢ ܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܢܶܬ ݂ܰܛܪܦܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ܒܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܡܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܟ ܶܗܝܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܢܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܒܣܪܝܩ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܶܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܶܪܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܡ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܟ ܶܣܝܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܫܩܐ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒ ܶܪܗ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܪܐ ݁ܕܪܘܓ ܬܙ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܘܐ ܶܠܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܢ ܚܘܪ ܒ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܣܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬܝ ܬܐ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܐܢܰ݁ܬ ܶܘܐܬ ݂ܰܛܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܦ‪ :‬ܢܶܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܘܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܟ ܬܟ ܬܣܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܣܒܥܬ ܨܥܪܐ ܡܢ ܐܝܩܪܐ‪ :‬ܐ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܝܡܝܢܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܥܪܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܬܪ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܙܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܬ݁ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ ܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܢܟ ܶܣ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ݂ܰܘܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܬܥܡܘ̈ܪܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܪ ܓܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܶ ܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܣ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܦ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܠ ܶܦ ܰ݁ܗ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ ܝܘܠ ݁ ܬܦ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓ ܰ݁ܶܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܕ ܐܬܬ ݁ ܶܟܠ ܠ ܒܐ ݁ܕ ܐܘܡܢܗ ܥܠܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܠ ܡܥܒ ݁ܕ ܦ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܪܐ ܚܪܫܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Habakkuk Ch. 

Chapter  

I will stand in my place, when I am brought out upon the rock;1 I will consider, I will see what he speaks to me, what he replies to me concerning my reproof.



The Lord answered me and said: Write the vision, write it clearly upon the tablets, so that he who reads it will be inspired by it.2



For the vision is3 for its time, the end is coming, it does not lie; if it is tardy, do not be disheartened, for it comes quickly, it is not late.4



He takes no pleasure in5 the unjust: but the righteous will live in faith.



The man (who is) willful and avaricious is not satisfied:6 he was greedy7 as Sheol, unsatisfied as Death; he gathered to himself all nations, all peoples drew near to him.



They will take up8 all these parables concerning him, and proverbs, and riddles, and they will say: Woe to him who gathers to himself much9 that is not his, until he sets firmly upon himself a filthy cloud.10



See! Suddenly, those who devour you will rise up, those who trouble you will awake, you will be their spoil.



Since you despoiled many nations, the nations which have remained will despoil you: because of11 the blood of man, the violence (done to) the land, to the cities, and to all their inhabitants. 1

‘rock’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘will be inspired by it’: lit. ‘will run after it’.

3

‘is’: lit. ‘was’.

4

‘tardy … late’: both translate the same Syriac.

‘He takes no pleasure in’: lit. ‘His soul is not pleased with’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 5

‘The man (who is) willful and avaricious is not satisfied’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 6

7

‘he was greedy’: lit. ‘he enlarged his soul’.

8

‘They will take up’: in MT a rhetorical question.

‘much’: in Mosul an Aphel active participle (or perhaps an infinitive): which multiplies’. 9

‫‘ ܡܣܓܐ‬that

10

‘until he sets firmly upon himself a filthy cloud’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

11

‘because of’: lit. ‘from’.



‫ܚܒܩܘܩ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬

‫ܩ ݁ܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܟܝ ܐܶܩܘܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟܕ ݂ܰܕܪܝܟ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܶܚܰ݁ܘܪ ܶܘܐܚܰ݁ܙܶܐ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡܰ݁ ܶܠ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܕ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡܝ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬ ݁ܝܒ ܠܝ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܡܟ ܬܣܢ ݁ܘܬܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܐ ݁‬ ‫ܥܢܢ ܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܟܘܒ ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦܰ݁ ܶܪܫ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܠ ܘ ܶܚܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܕܢܶܰ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܗܛ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܕ ܬܩ ܶܪ ܐ ܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܪ ܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩܛܰ݁ܥ‬ ‫ܡܟܰ݁ܕ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܘܐܢ ܡܰ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܚܙܘܐ ܠ ܙ ݁ܒܢܗ ܗܘܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܶ ݁ܐܬܐ ܩܨ ܐ ܘܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܓܠ ܬܐ ݁ܬܐ ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܘܠ ܠ ܬܨ ݁ܒ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܙ ܕ ܬܝܩܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܗܝ ܬܡܢ ݁ܘܬܐ ܢܐ ܶܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ܠ ܬܣ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ܐܦܬܝ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܗ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܫܝܘܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܬܣ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ ܐ ݁ܝܟ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ܒܪܐ ܡܪܚܐ ܘܝ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܟܢܫ ܠ ܘ ݁ܬܗ ܟ ܗܘܢ ܥܡܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܩܪ ݁ܒ ܠ ܘ ݁ܬܗ ܟ ܗܝܢ ܐܡܘ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܒܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬ ܶܠ ܢܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܦܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܬܐ ܘܐܘܚܰ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܡܰ݁ܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܣܓܐ ܶܠܗ ܕ ܬܠ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܫܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܶܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ ݁ܬܝ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܗ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܡܟܢܶܫ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܢ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܝ ܬܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܙܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܙܥ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܟ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬܬܥܝܪܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܶܡ ܬܢ ܶܫܠ ܬܝܐ ܢܩܘܡܘܢ ܡܢ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܙܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܢܬ ݂ܰܒܙܬ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܐ‪ :‬ܢܶܒܙ ܬܘܢܰ݁ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܕ ܐܫܬ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܪܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ ܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܢ ܬܫܐ ݂ܰܘܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ݂ܰܘ݁ܕ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܬܥܡܘ̈ܪܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Habakkuk Ch. 



Its horses are swifter than eagles,1 fiercer than the wolves of the evening; its horsemen will circle in the air, its horsemen will come from far off, they will circle in the air2 like the eagle hungry3 for food.



They all come for spoil; the sight of their faces is terrifying; they gather (up) captives like sand.



He mocks at kings, insults rulers, jeers at all the strongholds, heaps up earth and seizes it.

XVI



But you will deflect4 his wind, you will pass over; his force on behalf of his god will be defeated.



For you are everlasting, Lord my God, the Holy One; there is no law (for) you, Lord;5 you have set him to receive6 judgment, you have formed me to reprove him.



Your eyes are pure, they do not see evil; you cannot look upon the wrongdoers: why do you look upon the willful yet remain silent, while the iniquitous devours the righteous?



You have made mankind as the fish of the sea, as the creeping things that have no leader,



They are all brought up with a fishing-line, drawn out in a net, gathered in a drag-net; and after he had gathered (it all) he rejoiced, exulted.



And he sacrificed to his net, burnt incense to his drag-net, for by means of them his portion grew fat, his food choice.



Therefore, he continually casts his net; he kills nations, he takes no pity.

1

‘eagles’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘circle in the air’1,2 or ‘fly on high’.

3

‘hungry’: perfect verb.

4

‘deflect’: lit. ‘change’.

5

‘there is no law (for) you, Lord’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘to receive’: lit ‘for’.



‫ܚܒܩܘܩ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫ܨܚ ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫݂ܰܩܠܝܠܝܢ ݂ܰ̈ܪܟ ܶܫܗ ܶܡܢ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܪ ݁ܝܦܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܕ ܐ ݁ ܶܒܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܛܘܣܘܢ ݂ܰܦ ܬܪ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݁ܐܬܘܢ ݂ܰܦ ܬܪܫܘܗܝ ܡܢ ܪܘܚܩܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܛܘܣܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܢܫܪܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟ ݁ܦܢ ܠ ܡ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܠܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܶܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܚ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܐܦܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܫܝܢ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܚܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܟܢܫܝܢ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬ ‫ܡܒ ݂ܰܙܚ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡܝܶܩ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝ ܬܛܢܶܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܟܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܪܟܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܓ ܶܚܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩ ݂ܰܒܪ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ܬܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܚ ݁ܕ ܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܝܕܝܢ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܗ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܠ ݁ܦ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܗ ܠ ܬܠ ܶܗܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܬܚ ܝ ݁ܒ ܚ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܬܢܡܘܣ ܐܢܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܐ ܡܪܝܐ ܐܗܝ ܩܕ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܢܬ ܗܘ ܶܡܢ ܪܝܫ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܣܡܬܝܗܝ ܠ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܠ ܬܢ ܝ ܠ ܡܟܣ ݁ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ܐܢܬ‪ :‬ܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܝܢ ܐܢܶ ܝܢ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟ ܘܠ ܬܚܙ ܬܝܢ ܒܝܫܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܠܡܚܪ ܒܥܘܠ ܠ ܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܚ ݂ܰܐܪ ݂ܰܐܢܬ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ܬܪ ܶܚܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܝܩ ܐܢܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟ ݁ܕ ܬܒ ݂ܰܠܥ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘܠ ܠ ݂ܰܙ ܕ ܬܝܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܫܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܠܝ ܶܠܗ ܡ ݁ ݂ܰܕܒ ܬܪ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒܕܬ ܐܢܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܢܘ ܶܢ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܬܟܢܶܫ ܒ ݂ܰܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܦܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܟܗ ܒ ܶܨ ܬܢܪ ܬܬܐ ܬܣ ܶܠܩ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܬ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܟܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܟ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܫ‬ ‫ܕ݁‬ ‫ܢܓ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܒܡܨܝܕܬܐ ܶ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܝ ݁ܘܕܨ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܰ݁ܡ ܶܒܣ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܓܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܦܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܶܫ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܚ ݂ܰܠܡܨܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܕܬܗ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܡܢܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܬܗ ܓ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܡܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩܛܠ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܘܠ ܬܚܐܣ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܬܫ ݁ ܶܕܐ ܡܨܝܕܬܗ ܒ ݁ܟ ݁ܙܒܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Habakkuk Ch. 

Habakkuk Chapter  

The vision which the prophet Habakkuk saw.



How long, Lord, shall I call (upon you), yet you do not listen, cry1 to you of extortioners, yet you do not save?



Why have you shown me iniquity and villainy? I see rapine and evil there was justice,2 but the judge accepted a bribe.



Therefore the law has grown feeble, justice is not meted out fairly;3 for the unjust greatly harms the righteous, perverted justice is meted out.4



See, insolent men,5 look, wonder, be struck dumb - for I am doing a deed in your time6 that you would not believe if someone told (it) to you.



For see! I arouse the Chaldeans, an insolent and bitter nation, who go throughout the breadth of the land, to take possession of dwelling places that are not theirs.



It is powerful, fearsome: its justice (emanates) from it, its vision comes forth.7

‘call … listen … cry … save’: participles. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, participles translated using an appropriate tense, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the nonrepresentation of ethical datives, 2nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘there was justice’: lit. ‘justice was before me’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘was not meted out fairly’: lit. ‘did not go out with equity’.

4

‘perverted justice is meted out’: lit. ‘justice goes out perverted’.

5

‘insolent’ or ‘willful’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘time’: lit ‘days’.

‘its justice (emanates) from it, its vision, comes forth’: lit. ‘its justice is from him/it, bringing forth its appearance’. See Introduction, Addendum 1. 7



‫ܚܒܩܘܩ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒܩܘܩ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ܒܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܩܘܩ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܶܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܬܓܥܶܰ݁ܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܘܠ ܬܫ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܥ ݂ܰܐܢܰ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܥܶܰ݁ܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܬܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܚܛܘ ݁ ܶܦܐ ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܦ ܶܨ ܐ ܐܢܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ‪ :‬ܩ ݁ ܬܕ ݂ܰܡܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܚܙܶܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ݁ܘܒ‬ ‫ܠ ܡܢܐ ܚܘܝܢ ܝ ܥܘܠ ܘܥ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ܬܝ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܩ ܶܒܠ ܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݁ ܬܦܓ ܬܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦܰ݁ܩ ܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܙ ܬܟܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܬܘܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒܝܫ ܒܝܫ ܠ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܢܦܩ ܕܝܢܐ ݁ܟ ݁ܕ ܡܥܩܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ ݂ܰܰ݁ܙܘ ݂ܰܡ ܬܪ ܶܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܪܘ ܶܘܐܬ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܪܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ ܬܕܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢ ܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܐܢ ܐ ܬܢܫ ܶܡܫܬܥܶܐ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܡܩܝܡ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ݁ ܬܕ ܝܶܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܡ ܬܪ ܬܚܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܪ ܬܝܪܐ‪ :‬ܬܕ ܐܙܶܠ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܦ ݁ܬ ܬܝܗ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰܐܪܬ ݂ܰܡܫܟܢܶܐ ܕ ܬܠ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܫܝܢ ܗܘ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕܚ ܝܠ‪݁ :‬ܘܕܝܢܶܗ ܶܡܢܶܗ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܙܘܗ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܦܩ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Nahum Ch.



 

Your companions1 slept, kings of Assyria, your neighbors stood still;2 your nation was scattered upon the mountains, there was no-one to gather them (up).



There is no-one who grieves for your wound;3 your wound is grievous; all who heard the report of you exulted4 over you: for your evil has continually violated every man.

1

‘companions’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘stood still’ or ‘encamped’.

3

‘no-one who grieves for your wound’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘exulted’: lit. ‘clapped their hands’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬

‫ܢܚܘܡ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܢܡܘ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪܝܟܝ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬܘܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܪܘ ݂ܰܩܪ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܒܝܟܝ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܕܪ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܛܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܡ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܫ ܬܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܒܰ݁ܐ ܗܝ ܡܚܰ݁ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ݁ܟܝ‪ :‬ܟܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܰܠܝ ܕ ݁ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ ܶ ݁ܒ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܬ ݁ ܬܒ ܶܪ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܫܡܥܶ ݁ܟܝ ݂ܰܢܩܫܘ ݂ܰܟ ܬܦܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܥܶ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܟܰ݁ܠ ܐ ܬܢܰ݁ܫ ܐܡ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܬ ݁ܟܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Nahum Ch.



 

Nevertheless it was exiled;1 its infants were dashed against the ground at the top2 of all its streets; they cast lots for its honored men; all its noblemen were bound with chains.



You too will grieve,3 will be an object of contempt,4 will even seek support from your enemies.



All your fortified places are like fig-trees (with) the first-ripe figs, that when they are ripe5 fall into the mouth of the eater.



Your people are like women in your midst; the gates of your land will be opened to your enemies; fire will consume your bolts.



Under siege, draw water; strengthen your fortified places; get into the mud, tread the clay, strengthen the property.6



There the fire will consume you, the sword will destroy you; like a crawling locust, it will consume you - for you multiplied like the crawling locust, grew numerous like the locust.



Your merchants are more numerous7 than the stars of heaven; the crawling locust cast a skin8 and flew.



Your Nazirites9 are like the locust, your possessed10 like the locust which settles on a hedge on a cold day, but when the sun rises flies away, to a place not known.

1

‘was exiled’ or ‘was taken captive’, lit. ‘went into captivity’.

2

‘top’ or ‘beginning’: lit. ‘head’.

3

‘grieve’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

4

‘an object of contempt’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘when they are ripe’: lit. ‘they have ripened’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘property’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

‘Your merchants are more numerous’: lit. ‘You have increased your merchants (to be) more’. 7

8

‘cast a skin’: lit. ‘stripped a sheath from its wings’.

‘Nazirites’ or ‘sacred ones’: the root-meaning of the Hebrew ‫ נזר‬is ‘to dedicate, consecrate’. The form here in MT is a hapax legomenon, perhaps meaning ‘consecrated ones’ or ‘princes’. 9

10

‘possessed (by demons)’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܢܚܘܡ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܙܠ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܝܠ ܰ݁ ݁ܘ ܶܕܝܗ ܐܫܬ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܦܰ݁ܘ ܒܪܝܰ݁ܫ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܫܰ݁ܘ ܶܩܝܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܒ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܦ ܗܝ ݁ ݂ܰܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ݂ܰܝܩ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܗ ݂ܰܐܪܡܝܘ ܶܦ ܶܨ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶ ܝܗ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܣܪܘ ܒܫܫ ܬܠ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܝ ݁ܬ ܶܕ ܶܘܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܫܝܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦ ܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܝ ܬ ݁ܒܥܶܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܥܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ ܬܪ ܬܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܬ ܶܐܢ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܒ ܬܟܰ݁ ܬܪ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܶܫܰ݁ܠ ܬܢ ݁ܦ ܬܠܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݁ܦܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܟܪ ݁ ݂ܰܟܝܟܝ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܕ ݁ܐܟܘܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܶܡ ݁ܟܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܢܶܫܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܶܘ ݁ܟܝ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܬܚܘܢ ܬ̈ܪܥܶܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܪܥܶ ݁ܟܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܟܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܠ ܡܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐܟܘܠ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܝܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ܬܝܐ ݁ܒܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܥܫܢ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܟܪ ݁ ݂ܰܟܝܟܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܥܰ݁ܘܠܝ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܠܰ݁ܝ ܶܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܝ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ܘܕܘܫܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܒܛ ܬܝܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܥܫܢ ܝ ܡܘܠ ܬܟ ܬܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܘܒ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܟܝ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܫܢܰ݁ܬܝ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟ ݁ܟܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܙ‬ ‫݂ܰܬ ܬܡܢ ܬ ݁ܐܟ ݁ܟܝ ܢܘܪ ܐ‪݂݁ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܓܝܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܙܚܶܠ‪ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܶܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܠܚ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܚ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܣܓܝܝ ܬ ܬܓ ݂ܰܪܝܟܝ ܛ ݁ܒ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܟܘܟ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝ ܫܡܝܐ‪ :‬ܙ‬ ‫ܣܝ ܬܓܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܝ ݂ܰܫܝܟܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܩ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܙ ݂ܰܝܪܝܟܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܩܪ ܬܝܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܨ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܡܨ ܐ ݁ܕܣ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܝܟ ܒ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܡܐ ݁ ݁ܕ ܶܕܢ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܬ ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ܘܠ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ܬܥܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Nahum Ch.





Chapter  

Woe to the bloody city! It is all falsehood, full of iniquity, the prey is not searched out1 within it.



The sound of the whip, the sound of the rattling of wheels, the snorting2 horse, the chariot breaking away.



The horseman who leads, the shining sword, the flashing spear - and the multitude of the slain, the numerous corpses - (there is) no end to the corpses, they will stumble on their corpses,



Because of the repeated harlotry of the beautiful harlot, the sorceress,3 who increases the nations4 with her harlotry, families with her enchantments.



See! I am against you, says the mighty Lord: I will pull down 5 your skirts on your face, I will exhibit your nakedness to the nations, your shame to the kingdoms.



I will hurl abomination(s) upon you; I will abuse you, I will make you a spectacle.



All who see you will abhor you; they will say: Nineveh has been plundered - why would it grieve on your account?6 Where should I seek comforters for you?



Are you better than Jawan of Amon, who dwells among rivers, waters surrounding it, its strength the sea, waters its wall?



Cush and Egypt were its power, there was no end to it; the Putians and the Lubians were its support.

1

‘searched out’: lit. ‘found’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘snorting’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘sorceress’: lit. ‘mistress of enchantments’.

4

‘increases the nations’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘pull down’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘why would it grieve on your account?’ or ‘why would it annoy you?’: possibly an ISC. See Introduction. Addendum 2. 6



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܢܚܘܡ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܠ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܶܡܬܬܡܝܰ݁ܫ ܬܒܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰ ݁ܕܕ ܬܡܐ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ܟ ܗ ܟܕ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ܬܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܐ ܕ ܓܝܓ ܶܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܣ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢܕ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܣܝܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢ ݁ܦܪ‪ :‬ܘܡܪܟ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܩܶܠ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܫܘܛܐ ܘܩܶܠ ݁ܕܙ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܙܗܪ ݂ܰܘܢ ݁ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܩܛܝ ܰ݁ ܶܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܬܪ ܬܫܐ ݁ܕ݁ ܬܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܙܟܐ ݂ܰ ݁ܕܡ ݁ܒܪܩ‪ :‬ܘܣ ܬ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕܫ ݂ܰܠ ܶܕܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܬܣ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰܠ ܫ ݂ܰܠ ܶܕܐ‪ :‬ܢܶܬܬܩܠܘܢ ܒ ܶܗܝܢ ݂ܰܒܫ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰܕܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ܬܪ ܶܫܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰܫܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܣ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ܐܬ ܙܢ ܝ ݁ܘܬܗ ܕܙܢ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܪ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚܪ ܶܫܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒ ܬܙܢ ܝ ݁ܘܬܗ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܦܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܠܝܟܝ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܐ ݂ܰܦܝܟܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܣܚ ݁ܘܦ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܚ ܶܘܐ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܣܝܶ ݁ܟܝ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܥܪ ݁ܟܝ ܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܘ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܨ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܪ ݁ܟܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܥܒ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܟܝ ܠ ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܫܕܐ ܥܠܝܟܝ ܛܢܦ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܙ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܬ ܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ ݁ܟܠ ݂ܰܡܢ ܕ ܬܚܰ݁ܙܶܐ ܶܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ܢܶ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢܶ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܢܰ݁ܘܐ‪ .‬ܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܢ ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܡ ܬܟܐ ܐܶ ݁ܒܥܶܐ ܶܠ ݁ܟܝ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܬܝ ܬܐܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܝܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܠ ܰ݁ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܒܐ ݁ܒܢܰ݁ܗ̈ܪܘ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܛ ݁ ܬܒܐ ܐܢܬܝ ܶܡܢ ܝܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ܐܡܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܝܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܝܐ ܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܗ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܢܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܘܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܬܠ ܗ ܬܣ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܦܘ ܬܛܝܶܐ ܘܠ ܘ ݁ ܬܒܝܶܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ ܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܒܥ ݁ܘܕ ܬܪ ܬܢܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Nahum Ch.



 

Trampled, overthrown, torn,1 heart-broken, knees knocking together, bodies trembling,2 all their faces blackened like the soot on a pot.



Where is the lioness’s den, the pasturage of the lioness’s cub, where the lion would enter in, and the lion cub, with none to do (them) harm?



The lion tore sufficient food for his cubs, he cut off3 (flesh) for his mates too: he filled his lairs and his den with prey.



See! I am against you, says the mighty Lord: I will destroy your assemblies4 with smoke, the sword will devour your cubs, I will destroy your prey from the earth, the sound of your deeds5 will be heard no more.

1

‘Trampled, overthrown, torn’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘bodies trembling’: lit. ‘trembling in all loins’.

3

‘cut off’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘destroy your assemblies’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘deeds’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫ܢܚܘܡ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܘܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܪܥ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ݁ܟܠ‬ ‫ܘܪܩ ܒܘ̈ܪܟܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܡܬܪ‬ ‫ܕܝܫܬܐ ݂ܰܘܣܚ ݁ܝܦܬܐ ܘ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܬܒܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܒ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܚܨ ܝ ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܦܝ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟܘܡ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܝ ܶܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܪܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܐܙ ܠ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܗܝ ݂ܰܡܪܒܘܥ ݁‬ ‫ܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܐܪܝܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܗܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܡܥܠ ܠ ݁ܬܡܢ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܡ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܬ ܶܡ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܪܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܣܰ݁ܩ ܐ ݁ܦ ܠ ݁ܬܢ ܬܝ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܡܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܥܘܗܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܬ ݁ ܬܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܪܒܘܥ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܒ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܟܢ ݂ܰܫܝܟܰ݁ܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܪܝܟܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܬ ݁ ܬܒ ܶܪ ݁ܟܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬܠ ܢܶܫܬ ݂ܰܡܥ ܬܩ ܬܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܟܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Nahum Ch.





Chapter  XV



The leader1 went up before you; he guards the camp,2 he (is) a watchman, he holds the summit,3 his strength is exceedingly great.



For I, the Lord, restore the glory of Jacob as the glory of Israel, for oppressors trod them underfoot,4 destroyed their shoots.



The shields of their mighty men are reddened; the men, the warriors, sport with fiery torches, with chariots on the appointed5 day; the horsemen are terrified.



In the streets, (there are) the glorious (ones) - in their chariots, in (their) boasting - they seem like torches, they run like lightning.



They will seize6 their rulers, they will stumble as they go, they will hurry to the city wall, they will prepare the battlements.



The gates of Judah7 were opened, the palace8 was shaken to and fro.



She roused her horsemen, she went up; her maidservants moaned in their grief,9 like doves.



Nineveh is like a pool of water in the midst of waters. They flee: stand fast! Stand fast! But none returns.



They plundered the silver, they plundered the gold: no end to her ornament(s), numerous all her goodly garments.10

1

‘leader’ or ‘judge, ruler’. Mistranslation. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘camp’ or ‘watch/guard’ using the same root as for ‘guards’.

3

‘summit’: lit. ‘loins/backs’. Metaphorically, ‘the highest part’.

4

‘for oppressors trod them underfoot’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘appointed day’: lit. ‘day of the things which are prepared’.

‘seize’: MT √I ‫‘ רכז‬to call to mind’ is usually understood in this verse to mean ‘to summon’, perhaps the sense which P tried to give with his use of ‘to seize’. 6

7

‘Judah’: the Hebrew is obscure. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘palace’ or ‘temple’.

9

‘in their grief’: lit. ‘in their hearts’.

10

‘garments’ or ‘vessels’.



‫‪‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܗ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܢܚܘܡ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܚܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ ݂ܰܐܪ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܒ ܬܪ ܬܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܠܩ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܚܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܒ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܨ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܰ݁ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܟ‪ :‬ܘܢܛܪ ܡܛܰ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܚܣܝܢ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܦܢܶܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܶܪܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܶܪܗ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ݁ ܬܕܫܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܐܶܢܘܢ ܬܕܝܘ ܶܫܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܒܠܘ ݂ܰܫܒܘ ݂ܰܩܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬܥܶܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܠܡܦܝ ܶܕܐ ܕܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ܒܪ ܐ ܓܢܒܪ ܐ ܡ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܣܟܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܬܢܒܪܝܗܘܢ ܡܣܡ ݂ܰܩܢ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܕ ܶܡܬܛܝܒܝܢ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ܬܪ ܶܫܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܠ ܶܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܪ ܟ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬ ݁ܒܗܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܫܘ ܶܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܫܬܒܚ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݂ܰܡܪ ܟ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܘܡ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܙܘܗܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܩܐ ܬܪܗܛܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܠܡܦܝ ܶܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܬܪܗܒܘܢ ܠ ܫܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܟܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܢܶܐܚܕܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝܛ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬܬܩܠܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܗܠ ݁ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢܛ ݁ܝܒܘܢ ܥܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܝܟܶܠ ܬܙܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ̈ܪܥܶܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܬܚܘ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܩ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ܬܪ ܶܫܝܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܠ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܡ ܬܗ ݁ ܬܬܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢܗ ܬܡܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܝ ܒ ܶܠ ݂ܰܒܝ ܶܗܝܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܝܘ ܶܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܗܝ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܬܐ ܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܬܥܪܩܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܐܩܝܡܰ݁ܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢ ܝܢܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܐܩܝܡܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬܦܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܒܙܘ ܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܙܘ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܬܣ ݁ ܬܟܐ ܠ ܶܨ ݁ܒܰ݁ܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܫܝܢ ܝܰ݁ܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܡܰ݁ܐܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܪ ܓ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Nahum Ch.



 

What1 are you plotting, against the Lord, who brings to completion?2 (The time of ) calamity will not occur twice.



For they rebel, even against their rulers;3 they are drunk, in their drunkenness; they have eaten, and are filled (as with) dried stubble.



One who plots evil against the Lord will go forth from (among) you; he will purpose iniquity.



Thus says the Lord: Concerning the sources of many waters,4 which ran and passed on: though I answered you, I will not answer5 you again.



Now, therefore, I will break his yoke from you, I will break off your bonds.



The Lord will command concerning you: No more will the house of your God be sown abroad in your name; I will destroy the graven images and the molten images, quickly6 I will make your grave.



See, the feet of the messenger on the mountains, (he) who proclaims peace. Judah, keep your feasts, fulfill your vows, for no more will he act wickedly among you,7 for it has all perished.

1

‘What’ or ‘Why’.

2

‘brings to completion’: lit. ‘makes an end’.

3

‘For they rebel, even against their rulers’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

4

‘concerning the sources of many waters’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

5

‘answered … answer’ or ‘heard … hear’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘quickly’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘for no more will he act injuriously among you’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܢܚܘܡ‬

‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ܓܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܩܰ݁ܘܡ ܕ ݁ܬܪܬܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܙ ݁ܒܢ ܝܢ ܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝ ܬܛ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܡܪ ݁ܘܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘܝ ܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܘܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܐܟ ܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܬܡܠܝܘ ݂ܰܚܒ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܝܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪܥܶܐ ݂ܰܥܘܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܢܶ ݁ܟܝ ܢܶܦܘܩ ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒ ܒ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܶܝܰ݁ܐܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܰ݁ܪܘ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪܘ‪݁ :‬ܘܕܥܢ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܐܥܢܶ ݁ܝܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܪ ܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܪܗ ܶܡܢܶ ݁ܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܢ ݂ܰܩܝܟܝ ܐ ݂ܰܦ ܶܣܩ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܟ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶܙܕ ݂ܰܪܥ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܶܡܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܶܗ ݁ܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܫܡ ݁ܟܝ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܓܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܓܠ ܝ ݁ܦܐ ܘܢܣܝ ݁ܟܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܥܒ ݁ܕܝܘܗܝ ܩ ݁ܒܪ ݁ܟܝ ܒ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡܐ‪ܶ ݁ .‬‬ ‫ܡܣܒ ܬܪ ܬܢ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܶ̈ܪܓ ݂ܰܠܘܗܝ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܥ ݁ ݂ܰܐܕ ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܛ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܰܫ ܶܠܡ ܢܶ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ̈ܪܝܰ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ܟܗ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Nahum Ch.





Nahum Chapter  

The scourge of Nineveh, which is in the book of the visions of Nahum the Elkoshite.



The Lord is a jealous and vengeful God;1 the Lord seeks vengeance in his anger, the Lord seeks vengeance on his adversaries, he keeps watch (on) his enemies.



The Lord is long-suffering and his might is great - but indeed2 he does not acquit; the way of the Lord is in the whirlwind and the tempest: the clouds are the dust of his feet.



He rebukes the sea, he dries it up, he lays waste all the rivers; Matnin and Carmel have mourned, the flower of Lebanon fades.



The mountains trembled in his presence, the high places swayed to and fro, the earth trembled before him, the world and all its inhabitants.



Before his anger, who (can) stand? Who (can) bear the heat of his anger? Its heat burns like fire, the mountains are split asunder by it.



The Lord is gracious, to help on the day of distress; he knows those who put their trust in him.



With an overwhelming flood, he makes an end;3 he will pass over4 to his place;5 darkness will pursue his enemies.

‘The Lord is a jealous and vengeful God’ or ‘God is jealous, the Lord is an avenger’. 1

‘indeed’: see the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, the use of an infinitive with a finite form of the same verb, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 2

3

‘with an overwhelming flood, he makes an end’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘he will pass over’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

5

‘his place’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܢܚܘܡ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܚܘܡ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݁ܕܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܢܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܶܣ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ݁ܕ ܶܚܙ ܬܘ ܶܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܚܘܡ‬ ‫ܡܚ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܬܙ ܐ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܣ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܐܘܗܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܗܐ ܛܢܢܐ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܒܘܥܐ ܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܒܥ ܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬܘܢܛܪ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܓܝ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܢܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܙ ܬܟܝܰ݁ܘ ܬܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܶܟܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܥ ܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܢܢܐ ܶܚܶܠ ݁ܕ̈ܪ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܠܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܐ ܐܘܪܚܗ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݁ܟ ݁ܘܟ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܫ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗ̈ܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݂ܰܡܚܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܟܰ݁ܐ ܶܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܪ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܐܰ݁ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬܢ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܡܶܠ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܬܢܢ ܝ ݁ ܶܒܫ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܘܟ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰܪܩ‪ :‬ܬܙ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܬܙܥܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ ܶܒܝܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܛ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܘ̈ܪܡ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ܥܡܘ̈ܪܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܪܘܓܙܶܗ ݂ܰܡܢܘ ܬܩܐ ܶܡ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܬܗ ܬܝ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܐ‬ ‫ܘܓܰ݁ܙܗ‪ :‬ܚ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܢܘ ܡܣܝܒܪ ܚ ݁‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܐܝܟ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰܫܪܘ ܶܡܢܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܕ ܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ݂ܰܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܢ ݂ܰܕܬ ݁ܟܝܠܝܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܛ ݁ܒ ܗܘ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܣ ܬܝܥܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ݂ܰܠܬ ܶܪܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܘܗܝ ܢܶܪܕ ݁ܘܦ ܶܚܫ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܓܪ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ܓܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪܝܐ‪ .‬ܢܶ ݂ܰ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

They will lick the dust like the snake, like moles1 in the ground they will be angry2 in their pathways; they will tremble, and fear the Lord our God.



There is no God like you, who forgives iniquity, remits the sin of the remnant of his inheritance, whose anger does not last forever,3 who has delighted in goodness.



He will return, he will have mercy on us, he will gather4 up all our iniquity, he will hurl all our sins into the depths of the sea.



You will show5 truth to Jacob, loving-kindness to Abraham, as you swore to our fathers in the days of old.6

1

‘moles’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘be angry’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘whose anger does not last forever’: lit. ‘you do not hold anger forever’.

4

‘gather’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

5

‘show’: lit. ‘give’.

6

‘as in the days of old’: lit. ‘as the days which are from eternity’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܐܝܟ ܚܘܠ ݂ܰܕܝ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܠܚܟܘܢ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܝ ݂ܰܠܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܢܶܪܓܰ݁ܙܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݁‬ ‫ܘܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݂ܰܗܢ ܢܙܘܥܘܢ ܘܢܶ ݁ܕܚܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܫ ݁ ܶܒܩ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝܰ݁ܪܬ ݁ܘܬܗ‪ :‬ܘܠ‬ ‫݂ܰܠܝ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪ ܬ ܚܛܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܛܝܒ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܨܒܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܚ ݁ܕ ܐܢܬ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܟܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܬܦܢܶܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܢܪ ܶܚܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܕܐ ݁ܒܥܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܩܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܟܢܰ݁ܘܫ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܚܛ ݂ܰܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܬܠ ܩܘܫܬܐ ܠ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪ :‬ܘܛܝܒ ݁ܘܬܐ ܠ ݁ܒ ܬܪ ܬܗܡ‪ :‬ܕܝܡܝ ܠ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

I will bear the blow from the Lord, for I have sinned against him, until he will judge my contention, bring about1 my vengeance, bring me out into the light so that I may see his righteousness.



My enemy will see, she will be covered with shame,2 she who was saying to me: Where is the Lord your God? My eyes will see her; henceforth she will be trodden down, like the mire of the streets.



It is a day to build your fences, a day when you may be lifted up.3



It is a day when your time4 will come, from Assyria, from the strong cities,5 from Tyre6 even as far as the River, from sea to sea,7 as far as mount Hor.



The land will harm its inhabitants, because (it will be) the fruits of their deeds.



Tend your people with your staff, and the flock(s) of your inheritance; they will dwell on their own,8 like the flock(s)9 in the midst of Carmel, they will feed in Matnin, and in Gilead, as in the days of old.10



As on the day when they went out from the land of Egypt, I will show them wonders.



And the nations will see, and they will be ashamed of all their might; they will cover11 their mouth(s) with their hands, their ears will grow deaf.

1

‘bring about’: lit. ‘make, do’.

2

‘she will be covered with shame’: lit. ‘shame will cover her’.

3

‘you may be lifted up’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

4

‘time’: or, though with vocalization different from that in Mosul, ‘merchandise’.

5

‘strong cities’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

6

‘from Tyre’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

7

‘sea to sea’: lit. ‘sea and as far as the sea’.

8

‘on their own’: lit. ‘they only’.

9

‘flock(s)’2 : see Introduction. Addendum 1.

10

‘as in the days of old’: lit. ‘as the days which are from eternity’.

11

‘cover’: lit. ‘put’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܢܰ݁ܕܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܚ ݁ܘܬ ܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܣ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܝܒܰ݁ܪ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕܚܛܰ݁‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰܒܥܬܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܦ ݂ܰܩܢ ܝ ܠ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ ܶܘܐܚܙܶܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ܶܚܙܶܐ ݁ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܒܬܝ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܣܝܰ݁ܗ ܶܒܰ݁ܗܬ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪܐ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܠܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܶܗ ݁ܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܢܶ ܚ ܬܙܝܢ ܬܒܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܠ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܬܝ ܬܫܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܝ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕܫܘ ܶܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܝ ݂ܰܓܝܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܕ ݁ܬܫܬܩܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܝܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܠ ܡ ݁ܒܢܐ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ܕ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒܢܶ ݁ܟܝ ܢ ݁ܐܬ ܶܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܐ ݁ܬܘܪ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܨܘܪ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝܢ ݁ܬܐ ܥܫܝܢ ݁‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ܗܘܪ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܒܶܠ ܠ ܬܥܡܘ̈ܪܝܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܦ‬ ‫݁ܘܬܗܘܐ ܐܪܥܐ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܝ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡ ݁ܟ ܒ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒ ܬܛ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܘܠ ܬܥ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝܰ݁ܪܬ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܢܶܫܰ݁ܪܘܢ ݂ܰܒܠ ܚܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܬܥܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܝܗܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘ ݂ܰܟܪܡܶܠ‪ :‬ܢܶܪܥܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬܢ ܝܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݁ ܶܓܠ ܬܥ ݁ܕ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩܘ ܶܒܗ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܶܘܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܬ݁ܕ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܝ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܚܙܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܘܢܶܒܗܬܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܰܓܢ ܬܒܪ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܢܣܝܡܘܢ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܦܘܡܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܢ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚܪ ܬܫܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.





Chapter  

Woe is me! For I was like the summer gleaning, like the gathering of the grapes: (there is) no bunch to eat, though my soul longed for the first fruits.



The just man has perished from the land, there are no upright men,1 all lay ambushes, each hunts his brother to destroy him.2



Their hands are ready for evil, they do not do good;3 the ruler says:4 Give! The judge says: Bring a gift! The prince5 speaks (of) his soul’s desire.



They have rejected6 their good (things), like a rag which a moth had eaten7 - the day of your watchmen, of your redemption, has come: now therefore, will be their lamentation.8



Do not believe your friends, do not trust your neighbors,9 and guard the words of your mouth from your wife.



For the son abuses his father, the daughter opposes her mother, the daughter-in-law her mother-in-law, and a man’s enemies (are) those in his household.10



But I will look to the Lord; I will wait for God my savior, my God will hear me.



Do not rejoice over me, my enemy, though I have fallen: I will rise up again; though I have dwelt in darkness, the Lord gives me light.

‘there are no upright men’: lit. ‘there is no-one who is upright among the sons of man’. 1

2

‘to destroy him’: lit. ‘for destruction’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘Their hands are ready for evil, they do not do good’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 3

4

‘says’1: lit. ‘asks’.

5

‘prince’ or ‘magistrate’.

6

‘They have rejected’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘like a rag which a moth had eaten’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

8

‘lamentation’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

9

‘your neighbors’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

10

‘those in his household’: lit. ‘sons of his house’.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܙ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܩܛ ݁ ܬܦܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܠ ܩܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܩ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܗܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܣܓܘܠ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ݂ܰܐܟܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܟܪܬܐ ܶܪ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܣܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬܪܝܰ݁ܨ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܟܡܰ݁ܐܢ ݁ ܬܟܡܢ ܝܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܠܚܘܗܝ ܬܨܝܕܝܢ ܠ ݁ܒ ܬܕ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܗܘܢ ܡܛܝ ݁ ܬܒܢ ܠ ݁ܒܝܫܬܐ ܘܠ ݂ܰܡܛ ݁ܐܒܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܫܠܝܛܐ ܬܫܐܠ ܕ ݂ܰܗ ݁ܒ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬ܘܕ ܬܝ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ܫܚܘܕ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܬܒܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܶܨ ݁ܒ ܬܝ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ ݂ܰܐܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܬܣ ܬܣܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܕܘ ݂ܰܩܝܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܣܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܛ ݁ܶ ݂ܰܒܬܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܐܘܪܩܥܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܩܢܶ ݁ܟܝ ܐ ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܠ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܟܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܬ ݂ܰܗܝܡܢܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܠܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ݂ܰܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܩܪ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ ܛܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܝܒܝܟܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܠܝ ܦܘܡ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ܬܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܐܶ ܬܡܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ܐ ܠܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܒܪܐ‬ ‫ܡܨ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܪ ܠ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݁ܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܒܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܣ ܶܟܐ ݂ܰܠ ܬܠ ܬܗܐ ݁ ܬܦܪܘܩܝ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܶ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܶܚܘܪ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܢ ܝ ܐܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܒ ܶܚܫ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶܚܕܝܢ ܠܝ ݁ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܒܬܝ ܕܢܶ ݁ܦ ܶܠ ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ܐ ܐ ܬܢ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܗܪ ܠܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

The voice of the Lord to the city, proclaiming doctrine1 to those who fear his name: Hear, tribe, (you) who will testify.



Again2 (there will be) fire in the house of the unjust, treasures of iniquity, the scant dishonest measure.



How could they justify themselves with an iniquitous scale, or with a bag of dishonest3 weights?



Her rich men are filled with deceit,4 her inhabitants speak falsehood, their tongue(s) deceitful in their mouths.



Truly, I will begin to wound you; I will destroy you because of your sins.



You will eat, but you will not be satisfied; there will be an epidemic of dysentery;5 you will thresh but you will have nothing to save;6 and anything that you do save, I will deliver up to the sword.



You will sow, but you will not reap; you will tread the olives, but you will not anoint (yourself) with oil;7 and tread (grapes), but you will not drink.8



Because you kept the commandments of Omri, and all the deeds of the house of Ahab, you walked in their counsels - because of this I will make her speechless,9 her inhabitants scorned10 - you will bear11 the reproach of my people.

1

‘doctrine’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘Again (there will be) fire …’: a rhetorical question in MT.

3

‘dishonest’: a different root from that in v. 10.

4

‘deceit’: MT ‫‘ חמס‬violence’, but also ‘wrong’. P’s noun is that of v. 10.

5

‘there will be an epidemic of dysentery’: lit. ‘dysentery will be in your midst’.

‘you will thresh but you will have nothing to save’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 6

7

‘anoint (yourself) with oil’ or ‘measure oil’.

‘tread (grapes) but you will not drink’: MT ‘and must/new wine, but you will not drink wine’. 8

9

‘make her speechless’: lit. ‘give her to/with amazement’.

10

‘scorned’: lit. ‘a hissing’.

11

‘bear’: lit. ‘receive, accept’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ܟ ܶܪܙ ܝܘܠ ݁ ܬܦ ܬܢܐ ܠ ݁ ܬܕܚ ݂ܰܠܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܩ ܶܠܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݁‬ ‫ܣܗܕ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܡܢ ݂ܰܢ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܬܘܒ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܘܨ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܘܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܟ ܬܝܠ ܬܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ݁ܕܥܶܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܐ ܢܶ ݂ܰܙܕܕܩܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܐܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܘܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܪܣܘܦܐ ݁ܕܡ ݁ܬܩܶܠ ݁ܕܢ ݁ܟܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܬܫܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݁ܢܟܝܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܥܬ ܶܝܪܝܗ ܡܠܝܢ ܥܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܡ‬ ‫ܡܡܺܠܝܢ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܠܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݁ܦܘܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܐܶ ݂ܰܫ ܶܪ ܐ ܠ ܶܡܡܚ ܬܝ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܚܒ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ܶܡܛܠ ܚܛ ݂ܰܗܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ ܶܨ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ܶ ݁ܐܟܰ݁ܘܠ ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ ܶܕܡ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܟ‪݁ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܣܒܰ݁ܥ‪ :‬ܘܥ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܪܒܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܨ ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܚܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶܥܨܘܪ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶܡܫܘܚ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ‬ ‫ܐܢܬ ܬܙܪܘܥ ܘܠ ݁ܬܚܨ ݁ܘܕ‪ :‬ܐܢܬ ܬܥܨܘܪ ܙ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܬܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܪܝ‪ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܐ ܬܚ ݁ܒ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܢܛܪܬ ܦܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܰ݁ ݁ܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܕ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܝܗ ݁ܒܰ݁ܬܗ ܒ ݁ܬܡܰ݁ܗܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܡܰ݁ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܒܡܫܪܘܩܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݁ܬ̈ܪ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܕܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܬ ݂ܰܩܒܠܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.





Chapter  

Now, therefore, hear what the Lord said: Arise, contend with the mountains, let the high places hear your voice.



Hear, mountains, the contention of the Lord, and the depths1 of the foundations of the earth: the Lord contends with his people, reproves Israel.



My people, what have I done to you? How have I angered you?2 Testify against me!



Did I not bring you up from the land of Egypt, redeem you from the house of bondage, send to lead you3 Moses, Aaron, and Miriam?



My people, remember now what Balak the king of Moab planned against you, and how Balaam son of Beor replied to him: From Shittim as far as Gilgal - for he understood the righteousness of the Lord.

XIV



With what should I come before the Lord, and please4 the high God? Should I approach him with burnt offerings, or with year-old calves?



The Lord does not want thousands of rams, or myriads of strong heifers;5 I will not give6 my first-born - that would be my iniquity;7 nor the fruits of my belly - that would be a sin of my soul.8



I have shown you, son of man, that which is good,9 that the Lord seeks from you: that you should act justly and love loving-kindness, and be ready to follow your God.10

1

‘depths’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘I angered you’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘to lead you’: lit. ‘before you’.

4

‘please’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘strong heifers’: lit. ‘the host of heifers’. See Introduction. Addendum 2.

6

‘I will not give’: this is the meaning here, where ‫ ܐܢ‬is used in an asseveration.

7

‘that would be my iniquity’: lit. ‘it is an iniquity for me’.

8

‘that would be a sin of my soul’: lit. ‘they are a sin of my soul’.

9

‘is good’ or ‘helps’.

10

‘be ready to follow your God’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܕ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܘ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܶܡܟܝܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܬܕ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܩܰ݁ܘܡ ܕܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܡ ܛܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܡ ܬܥܰ݁ܢ ܬܩ ܬܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܣܝܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕܝܢܶܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܘ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܬܕ ܐܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܛ‬ ‫ܡܩܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܫ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ݂ܰܡ ܶܟܣ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܗ ݂ܰܕܝܢ ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡܝ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܥܶ ݁ܒ ܶܕ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݁ܟܪ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܐ ܶ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܬ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܩܬ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܕ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܟ‬ ‫ܝ ܥ ݁ܒܕ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܦܪ‬ ‫ܠ ܐܣ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ܡܘܫܐ ܘܠܗܪܘܢ ܘܠ ܡܪܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡܝ ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܪ ܬܗ ݁ܟܝܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܪܥܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܐ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܟ ܬܒ ܬܠܰ݁ܩ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܡܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢ ܝܗܝ ܶܒܠ ݂ܰܥܡ ݂ܰܒܪ ܒܥܰ݁ܘܪ‪ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ ܤܛܝܰ݁ܡ ܘ ݁ܥܕܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ܓܠ ܓܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܝܕܥ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܩܕܡܝܘܗܝ ܒ ݂ܰܝܩܰ݁ ܶܕܐ ݂ܰܫܠ ܡܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܒ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܩ ܶܕܡ ܠ ܡܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܫܦܪ ܠܠ ܗܐ ܡܪ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘ ܒܥܶ ݁ܓܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܫܢܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܶܡܨ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܚܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܐܬܠ‬ ‫ܛܒܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܐܠ ݁ ܶܦܐ ݁ܕ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܟ ܶܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܶܪ ܒܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕܡܘ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܕ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ ݁ܘܟܪܝ ݂ܰܥܘܠ ܗܘ ܠܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܦܐ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܪܣܝ ܚܛ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ ܶܕܡ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܥܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪ ܕ ݁ ܬܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܥ ܬܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܚܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܬ ݁ܝܕ ܠ ܡܐܙܠ ܒ ݁ܬܪ ܐܗ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܛܝܒ ݁ܘܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܗܘܐ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

The remnant of Jacob will be as1 a nation among many nations, as the dew from the Lord, as the showers on the grass, which is not preserved2 for man, does not wait for mankind.



The remnant of Jacob will be as a nation among many nations, as a lion among the animals of the flock, as a lion cub in the sheepfold of the flock,3 which when it has set (one animal) apart, cuts (it) off, tears, and there is no-one who delivers.



May your hand be lifted on high above your adversaries, may all your enemies perish.



However, on that day, says the Lord: I will destroy your horses from your midst, I will destroy your chariots.



I will destroy the cities of your land, I will overthrow all your walled cities.



I will destroy the magicians from your hands, you will no longer have diviners.4



I will destroy your graven images and your high places from your midst, no longer will you worship the work of your hands.



I will destroy your crops5 from your midst, I will lay waste your cities.



I will exact,6 in anger and in wrath, retribution from those nations who have not listened.

1

1

‘as’ : lit. ‘in, with’. So too in v. 8.

2

‘is not preserved’: lit. ‘does not abide’.

3

‘as a lion among the animals of the flock’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

4

‘you will no longer have diviners’: lit. ‘diviners will no more be for you’.

5

‘crops’: lit. ‘plantations’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘exact’: lit. ‘make’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܛܰ݁ ܬܶܠ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ܒ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ̈ܪܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܟܪ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܢܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܠ ܥܣܒܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܡܩܘܐ ܠ ݁ܓ ݁ܒܪ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܐ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ܒܥܡܐ ݁ܒܝܢ ݁ܬ ܥܡܡܰ݁ܐ ܣܓܝܰ݁ܐܐ‪ :‬ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܓ ܬܙ ܬܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ܬܢܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܫ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܣܰ݁ܩ‪ :‬ܬܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܬܥܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܦ ܶܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܬܪܝܡ ܐ ݁ ܬܝܕ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܣ ݂ܰܢܐܝܟ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ܒܥܶܠ ܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܟ ܢ ݁ܐܒܕܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܓ ܬܘ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܶܕܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܪܟ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܣܚ ݁ܘܦ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܟܪ ݁ ݂ܰܟܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܬܪ ܶܫܐ ܶܡܢ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܙ ܟܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܢܶܗܘܘܢ ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܓܠ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܦܝܟ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܓ ܬܘ ݁ܟ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶܣܓ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܓ ܬܘ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܚܪ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܘܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܫ ݁ܬܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܥ ܬܢܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܢ ܕ ܬܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓܙ ܐ ܘ ݁ܒܚ ݁‬ ‫ܘܐܥܒ ݁ܕ ܒܪ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.





Chapter  

Now you will go forth among a troop, daughter of strong troops,1 which have risen against us,2 and have struck the shepherd3 of Israel with a rod upon his cheek.



But you, Beth-lehem Ephrathah - (though) you are the least among4 the thousands of Judah - a ruler will come forth from you, who will be over Israel; his going forth5 from the beginning, from the days of old.



After this he will deliver them up, until the time when the woman in labor gives birth, and the remnant of his brothers will return to the children of Israel.



He will arise, he will shepherd (his flock) in the strength of the Lord, in the glory of the name of the Lord his God, and they will return,6 for from that time he will be exalted unto the ends of the earth.



And there will be peace: the Assyrian, when he has come to our land, trodden down7 our palaces - we will raise up against him seven shepherds, eight princes of men.8



They will attack9 the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in his anger;10 he will deliver us from the Assyrian, so that he will not come to our land, will not tread upon our borders.

1

‘troop … troops’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

2

‘strong troops, which have risen against us’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘shepherd’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘the least among …’: lit. ‘the least/small that you will be among …’.

5

‘going forth’ or ‘origin’.

6

‘and they will return’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘down’: lit. ‘on’.

8

‘men’: sing. noun.

9

‘attack’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

10

‘his anger’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܗ‪.‬‬

‫ܝܣܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪܬ ݂ܰܓ ܬܝ ܶܣܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܫܝܢܶܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܩܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܬ ܶܦܩܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݂ܰܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒܛܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܦ ܶܟܗ ܠ ܪܥܝܐ ݁ܕ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܐܢܰ݁ܬܝ ܕ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ‪ :‬ܙܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܒܐܠ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܢܬܝ ܶܕܝܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܚܰ݁ܡ ܐ ݁ܦܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܛܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪݂ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܶ ݁ܟܝ ܢܶܦܘܩ ܫܠ‬ ‫ܘܡܦ ܶܩܗ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܪܝܫܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܝ ܬܥܠ ܬܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝܠ ܬܕܐ ܬܝ ܶܠܕ ܬܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܐܶܢܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܚܘܗܝ ܢܶ ݁ܬܦܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢܩܘܡ ܘܢܶܪܥܶܐ ݁ܒܥܘܫܢܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܩ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܰ݁ ܶܗܗ ܘܢܶ ݁ܬܦܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܣܘ ܶܦܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܡܟܝܠ ܢ ݂ܰܐܪ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܬܐ ݂ܰܠܬ ݂ܰܪܢ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܟ ܒ ܬܣܚܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪ ݂ܰܬܢ‪ :‬ܢܩܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܰ݁ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܰ݁ܘܗܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܫܠ ܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܬܘܪ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܫ ݁ܒ ܬܥܐ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܬ ܬܡܢ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܐ ݁ܕܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܕܢܶܡܪܘܕ ܒܪܘܓܙܶܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢܐܪܥܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦ ܶܨܝ ܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ݁ܬ ܬܘܪ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬܘܪ ܒܚ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ܕܠ ܢ ݁ܐܬܐ ܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶ ݁ܕܪ ݁ܘܟ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܬܚܘ ݂ܰܡܝܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

But you are a tower, a gloomy shepherd1 of the daughter of Zion; your time has come;2 the former ruler of the kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem has come.3



Now, therefore, why have you done evil?4 Is there no king for you? Or have your advisers perished? Pains have seized you, like (those of) a woman giving birth.



Suffer the pains of childbirth, endure hard labor, daughter of Zion, like a woman giving birth: for now you will go out of the city and live in the field(s), you will go as far as Babylon, and there you will be saved, there the Lord will deliver you from the hand(s) of your enemies.



After this, many nations will be gathered together against you, those who say: May Zion be defiled, may our eye(s) see it.



For they did not know the purpose of the Lord, they did not understand his thought, that he had gathered them as ears (of grain) for the granary.



Arise! Thresh them! Daughter of Zion, for I will give you horns of iron,5 hooves6 of brass; you will break to pieces many nations, devote their possession(s) to the Lord, their wealth to the Lord of the whole world.

‘a tower, gloomy shepherd’ or ‘a tower, a shepherd clouded over’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 1

2

‘come … come’; two different Syriac verbs.

‘your time has come; the former ruler of the kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem has come’: see Introduction. Addendum 3. 3

4

‘done evil’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘give you horns of iron’: lit. ‘make your horns of iron’.

6

‘hooves’: lit. ‘your hooves’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐܢܬ ܶܕܝܢ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܓܕ ܬܠ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ݂ܰܥܡܘܛܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܶܨܗܝܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܡܛܰ݁ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܐ ݂ܰܫܠܝܛܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܕ ݂ܰܒܪܬ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟ ݁ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܕܬܝ ܒܝܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܶܒ ݁ܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܐܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܡܠ ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܟܝܟܝ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܕܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܐܚܕ ݁ܘܟܝ ܶܚ ݁ܒܶܠ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܬܝ ܶܠܕܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܶܒܠܝ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܬܝ ܶܠܰ݁ܕܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܶܡܟܝܰ݁ܠ ܬ ݁ܦܩܝܰ݁ܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܚܣܢ ܝ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ܬ ܶܨܗܝܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܘܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܪܝܢ ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܐܙܠܝܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ܶܒܠ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܬܡܢ ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ܶܨܝ ܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܦܪܩ ݁ܟܝ ܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܡܢ ܐ ݁ ܬܝܕܐ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒܥܠܕ ݁ܒ ݁ܒ ݁ܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܶܝܰ݁ܐܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܢܫܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܕ ܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ‪ :‬ܬܬܛ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ ݁ܦ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ݁ܘܬܚܙܶ ܐ ܬܒܗ ݂ܰܥ ݂ܰܝܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܢܶܰ݁ܫ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܠ ܝ ݁ܕܥܘ ܡ‬ ‫ܚܫ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐܣܬ ݂ܰܟܘ ܬܪܥܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܫܒܶܠ ܠܕ ܬܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܝ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܰ݁ܪܙܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩ ܰ݁ܘܡܝ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܐܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܝ ܐܢ ܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܒ ܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܶܨܗܝ ܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁‬ ‫ܠ ܕܩܪܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܣ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܝ ݂ܰܕܢ ܬܚ ܬܫܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܕܩܝܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܚܪܡܝܢ ܶܩܢ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁ܘܦ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܟܣܝܗܘܢ ܠ ܡܪܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟ ܗ ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.





Chapter  

It will come to pass,1 in the latter days, that the mountain of the house of the Lord will be established on the summit of the mountains, higher than the high places, and all nations will be gathered to it.



Many nations will go, and they will say: Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; he will teach us of his ways, we will walk in his paths, for the law will go forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.



You will judge among the nations, you will rebuke distant strong nations: they will beat their blades into ploughshares, their spears into sickles, and nation will not lift up sword against nation, no more will they learn war.2



They will sit, each under his (own) vines, under his (own) fig-trees, and no-one will harm them, for the mouth of the mighty Lord has spoken.



For all nations will walk, each in the name of his (own) god, and we will walk in the name of the Lord our God, forever, forever and ever.



For on that day, says the Lord, I will gather those who are far off, I will bring near those who are scattered,3 those whom I have afflicted.



I will make those who are scattered a remnant, those who are far off a strong nation; the Lord will reign over them on the mountain of Zion and in Jerusalem, from henceforth and forever.

1

‘come to pass’: lit. ‘be’.

2

Micah 4:1–3 is a parallel to Isaiah 2:2–4.

‘those who are far off … those who are scattered’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 3



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪܝܶܐ‪ :‬ܛܘܪ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩܰ݁ܢ ܒܪܝܰ݁ܫ ܛܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܪܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܢܗܘܐ ݁ܒܝܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܢܫܘܢ ܠܗ ܟ ܗܘܢ ܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܘܢܐܙܠܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܡܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘ ܢܶ ݂ܰܣܩ ܠ ܛܰ݁ܘܪܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܝ ݂ܰܠܘܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܐ ܶܗܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܠ ݁ܦܢ ܶܡܢ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚ ݁ܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܢܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܦܩ ܬܢܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܣܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܶܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܣ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܫܝܢܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܬ݁ܕܘܢ ܶܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ݁ܦܣ ݂ܰܪܝܗܘܢ ܠ ܶܣ ݂ܰܟܝ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ ܬܕ ܶܢ‪ :‬ܘ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܚ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܡܓܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶܫܩܰ݁ܘܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬܠ ܢܐܠ ܬܦܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ܬ ݂ܰܐܢ ܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ ݂ܰܗܪ‬ ‫ܝ ܓܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܫ ܬ ܶܚ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܡ ܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܰ݁ ܶܗܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܢܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܢܗ ܶܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܢܗܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ܬܢܰ݁ܫ ܒ ܶܫܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݂ܰܗܢ‪ :‬ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ ݂ܰܘܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ ܬܥܠ ܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݂ܰܟܢܶܫ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܒܕ ܶ̈ܪ ܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܩܰ݁ ܶܪ ݁ܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܠܪܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܶܕܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܫ ݁ܬ ܠ ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܒܕ ܶ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܫ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܥܒ ݁ܕ ܚ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ݁ܘܒܐܘܪܫܠܡ‪ :‬ܡܟܝܠ ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ ܠ ܥܠܡ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

Therefore now, because of you, Zion will be ploughed like a field, Jerusalem will be a ruin, and the mountain of the house1 (will be) a dense forest.2

1

‘mountain of the house’: i.e. the temple mount.

2

‘dense forest’: lit. ‘house of a dense forest’ or ‘house of a thicket’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܶܠ ܬ ܶܬܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ‪ :‬ܘܐܘ ܶܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܰ݁ܘܪ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܚܪܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܶܡܛܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ݂ܰܚ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܥ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܒܝܐ ܠ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.





Chapter  

He said: Now hear these things, heads of the house of Jacob, rulers of the house of Israel - was it not fitting for you to understand justice?



Those who hate the good and love the evil, you who seize the skin from them, their flesh from their bones,



Who ate the flesh of my people, stripped their skin from them, broke their bones, set1 (them) as for the cauldron, as meat for the pot.



Then they will cry out to the Lord, but he will not answer them; at that time, he will turn away his face from them, for their deeds were evil.2



Thus says the Lord, concerning the prophets who lead my people astray, who bite with their teeth yet proclaim peace, and proclaim war against him who puts nothing in their mouths.3



Therefore, (there will be) night for you, without vision; it will be dark for you, without divination; the sun will go down on the prophets, the day will darken4 around them.



Those who see visions will be ashamed, the diviners will be put to shame, they will all cover their lips, for God does not answer them.



But I, however, am filled (with) the strength of the spirit of the Lord, (with) judgment and fortitude, for I will declare to Jacob his iniquity, and to Israel his sin.

XIII



Therefore now hear this, heads of the house of Jacob, rulers of the house of Israel, who reject judgment, pervert all uprightness,



Who build Zion with blood, Jerusalem with iniquity.



Its heads give judgment for a bribe; its priests teach for a reward; its prophets divine for silver - yet they put their trust in the Lord and say: See! The Lord is with us, and evil will not come upon us. 1

‘set’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘their deeds were evil’: lit. ‘they did evil (in/by) their deeds’.

3

‘who puts nothing in their mouths’ or ‘does not put (food) in their mouths’.

4

‘dark … darken’: two different Syriac roots.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܓ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܡܥܰ݁ܘ ܬܗ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܢ ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܫܠ ܝܛܢܶܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܬܘܠ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰܕܥ ܕ ܬܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܘ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܒܝ ܬܫܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܚܛܦܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܶܡܫܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܶܡܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܣܢ ܝ ܰ݁ܝ ܛ ݁ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܣܪܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܓܪ ݂ܰܡܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܪ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܕ ݁ܐܟܘ ܒ݂ܰܣܪܗ ܕܥܡܝ‪ :‬ܘܡܫܟܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܡܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܐܫܠܚܰ݁ܘ‪݂݁ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܶܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܪܐ ݁ܒ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܪܡܝܘ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܣܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ܐ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܶܡܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܝܕܝܢ ܢܶ ݁ܓܥܘܢ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܘܠ ܢܶܥܢܶܐ ܐܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܗܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܒܐܫܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܛܥܶܝܢ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܢ ݁ܟܝܢ ܒ ܶܫ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܟܪܙܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܕ ܬܠ ܬܪ ܶܡܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܦܘܡܗܘܢ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܟܪܙܝܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܨܡܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܫ ݁ܟ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܶܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܠ ܬܝܐ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܪ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܥܡܛ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܗܬܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܢ ܕ ܬܚܙܶܝܰ݁ܢ ܶܚܰ݁ܙ ܬܘ ܶܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܚܦܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܬܩܨܘ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܛ ݁ܦܰ݁ܘܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܣ ݁ܦܘ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܠ ܥܢܐ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܐܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ܰ݁ ݂ܰܪܡ ܶܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܡܰ݁ ܶܰ݁ܶܠ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܚ ܰ݁ ܶܘܐ‬ ‫ܘܓܢܒ ܰ݁ܪ ݁‬ ‫ܘܚ ܰ݁ܗ ܶ ܕܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܕܝܢ ܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܥ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠܗ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܚܛ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܬܗ ݁ܟܝܠ ܬܗ݁ ܶܕ ܐ ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܘܫܠ ܝܛܢܶܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܠܝܢ ܕ ܬܝܢܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܥܩܡܝܢ ܟ ܶܗܝܢ ܬ̈ܪ ܬܝܨ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܒܢܶ ܝܢ ܠ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ݂ܰܒܕ ܬܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܒ ݂ܰܥܘܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܟܗܢܶ ܝܗ ݂ܰܒܐܓ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܡܠ ݁ܦܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܒܝܶ ܝܗ ܒ ܶܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܕܐ ݁ ܬܕܝܢ ܝܢ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫̈ܪܝ ܶܫܝܗ ܒܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܦܐ ܬܩܨܡܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܢ ܠ ܐܬ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܢ ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܬܬ ݁ܟܝܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܡܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܗܐ ܡܪܝܐ ݁ܒܝܢ ݁‬ ‫݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

Like a thief,1 my people withstood his peace; you may flay his skin2 so that you take away his hope, bring back warfare.



You will expel the women of my people from their pleasant houses; you will take glory from their infants forever.



Arise, go! for this was not (your) resting-place: for defilement will indeed destroy, and its destruction will be grievous.



The man who acts3 deceitfully, mendaciously - I will distill4 wine and strong drink for you, and it will be from the distillation of this people.



I will indeed gather all of you, Jacob; I will indeed bring you near, remnant of Israel, together; I will make him like a sheep in distress,5 like the flock in the midst of the sheepfold which protects6 from men.



The breaker has gone up before them; he has made a breach: they passed on, they went out through it; their king passed on before them, the Lord at their head.

1

‘thief’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘you may flay his skin’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘acts’: lit. ‘walks in the spirit’.

4

‘distill’ or ‘drop’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘distress’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘protects’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܓ ܬܢ ݁ ܬܒܐ ܬܩܐ ܶܡ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܗ ܬܫܛܘܢ ܕ ݁ܬܥܒܰ݁ܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܶܡܗ‪ :‬ܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܗܦ ݁ܟܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ܶܪܗ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܦܘ ܬܢ ݂ܰܩ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܒܰ݁ܘܢ ܫ ݁ܘܒ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܡܢ ܝܠ ݁ܘܕ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܢܶܫܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܬܫܕܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒܰ݁ܶܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩܘܡܘ ܙܶܠܘ ܶܡܛܠ ܕܠ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܢ ܬܝ ܚܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܛܢܦ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ܶܒܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܬܠ ܗ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܫܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟ ܒܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܬܘܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝ‪ :‬ܐܛܰ݁ ݁ܦ ܬܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܚܡܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܬܕ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܰ݁ܶܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܡܛ ݁ܘܦ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܫܟ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܟܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܰ݁ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܬܪ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘ ܐܶ ݂ܰܩ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܡܟ ܬܢܫܘ ܐ ݂ܰܟ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܓ ܬܙ ܬܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܓܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܥܶܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܥܒ ݁ܕܝܘܗܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܥܢܐ ݁ܒܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܰ݁ܪܘ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܣܠ ܰ݁ܩ ܬܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܬܒ ܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܪܥ ܬܘܪܥܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܗܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܠ ܟܗܘܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒܪܝܫܗܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.





Chapter  

Woe to those who plan deceit, who work evil upon their bed(s), who rise early in the morning1 and do everything that they have planned, yet lift up their hands to God.2



They covet fields and houses, and take them by force, they oppress a man (even) in his (own) property, in his (own) inheritance.



Because of these things, thus says the Lord God: See! I plan evil for this tribe, from which you will not raise up your head(s),3 you will not stand erect4 - for it is a time of evil.



On that day, he will utter a prophecy5 concerning you, wailing he will make lamentation; he will say: The pillager will pillage us.6 He will divide the portion of my people with a measuring-line;7 there will be no-one who restores our fields with a measuring-line.8



Because of this, you will have no-one to measure9 with a measuringline, or to cast lots in the congregation of the Lord.



Do not shed tears, do not shed tears10 for these things,



That it may not reach you, the reproach that is spoken concerning the house of Jacob, which provoked11 the spirit of the Lord with these stratagems. See! My words do good to those who walked upright:12 they were fulfilled. 1

‘rise early in the morning’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘yet lift up their hands to God’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘head(s)’: lit. ‘neck(s)’.

4

‘stand erect’: lit. ‘walk with body erect’.

5

‘utter a prophecy’: lit. ‘take up a proverb’.

6

‘he will say: The pillager will pillage us’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘He will divide the portion of my people with a measuring-line’: see Introduction. Addendum 3. 7

‘there will be no-one who restores our fields with a measuring-line’: see Introduction. Addendum 3. 8

‘you will have no-one to measure’: lit. ‘there will not be for you one who measures’. 9

10

‘shed tears’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

11

‘which provoked’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

12

‘those who walked upright’: lit. ‘the upright (pl. noun) who walked/went’.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬

‫ܩ ݁ܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܫܟ ݁ܒܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩܕܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݁ܒܕܝܢ ܒ‬ ‫ܫܒܝܢ ܥ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܢ ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܨ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݁ܒܕܝܢ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒܘ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܩܠܝܢ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܝܕ ܝܗܘܢ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܐ ܬܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪܐ‪ :‬ܘܛ ܡܝܰ݁ܢ ܠ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܬܘܪ ܓܝܢ ݂ܰܚܩ ܬܠ ݁ܬܐ ܘ ݁ܒܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܢܣܒܝܰ݁ܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܒܩܛ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒܩܢ ܬܝܢܶܗ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ܬܝܪܬ ݁ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ ݁ܒ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒܝܫܰ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܬܐ ݁ܦܫܝܛܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܫܪܒ ݁ܬܐ ܬܗ݁ ܶܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ݁ܬܪܝܡܘܢ ܶܡ ܬܢܗ ݂ܰܨ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܗܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܩ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢܐ ܗܘ ܕ ݁ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶܫܩܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܩܝܢܬܐ ܢܶܐܠ ܐܘܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܰ݁ܝ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܒ ܰ݁ܙ ܬܘܙ ܐ ܢܶܒ ܰ݁ ݂ܰܙܢ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܠ ܰ݁ܓ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܗܦ ܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܘܦܠ ܓ ܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܒܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܘܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܩܠ ݁ܬܢ ܒ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܦ ܶܠܰ݁ ݁ܓ ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ܨ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܟܢܰ݁ܘܫܬܗ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܗܢ ܠ ܢܗܘܐ ܠ ݁ܟ ܕܡܫܚ ܒܫܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܬ݁ ݂ܰܕܡܥܘܢ ܶܕܡܥܶܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬ݁ ݂ܰܕܡܥܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܓܰ݁ܙ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܕܠ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܚܣ ܬܕܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܐܡܝܪ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܨ ܢ ܬܥ ݁ܬܗ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ܡ ݂ܰܠܝ ݂ܰܡܛܐ ݁ܒܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܬ̈ܪ ܶܝܨ ܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܰܐܙܠܘ ܶܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܡܠܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

Tear out (your) hair, shave (yourselves), for the children of your indulgence, extend1 your baldness like (that of) the eagle,2 for they were taken into captivity (away) from you.

1

‘extend’: lit. ‘increase’.

‘eagle’: the Hebrew cognate includes the meaning ‘vulture’, more appropriate here; the Syriac term however does not. 2



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܪܘܛܝ ܘܓܘܙܝ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܕܢܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܦܢܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ݁ܟܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܣܓܰ݁ܝ ܶܡܪܛ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܶܕ ܐܫܬ ݁ܒܝܘ ܡܢ ݁ܟܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.



 

Mourn, howl, for these things; walk barefoot and naked; howl like the jackal, lament like the young jackal.1



For its wound is painful2 - and it has come to Judah, it has drawn near to the gate of my people, to Jerusalem.



Do not rejoice3 in Gath, weep not at all;4 in the houses of Aphrah, roll yourselves in the dust.5



Make6 yourself, inhabitant of Shaphir - naked she went out, yet she was not ashamed, the inhabitant of Zaanan; the mourning of Bethezel will take its wound7 from you.



For she has fallen sick8 for good, the rebellious inhabitant,9 because her evil came down from the presence of the Lord to the gates of Jerusalem.



You prepared the chariots for the horses, inhabitant of Lachish; it was the beginning of sin for the daughter of Zion, for the sins of Israel were found in you.



Because of this you will forgive10 the inheritance of Gath:11 the houses of idols were as idols for the kings of Israel.



I will again bring to you an heir, inhabitant of Mershah: he will forever12 raise up the glory of Israel.

1

‘young jackal’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘painful’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘rejoice’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

4

‘weep not at all’: lit. ‘weeping do not weep’.

5

‘roll yourselves in the dust’ or ‘sprinkle yourselves with dust’.

6

‘Make’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘wound’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

8

‘fallen sick’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

9

‘rebellious inhabitant’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

10

‘forgive’: lit. ‘give forgiveness to’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

11

‘inheritance of Gath’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

12

‘forever’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܛ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܺܠܝ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܝ ݂ܰܡܪܩܰ݁ܘܕܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ܶܚ ݁ܦ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܝ ܘܥܰ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܗܠܝܢ ܐܪܩ ݁ܕܝ ܘ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܬܝܪ ܬܘܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܒܶܠ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ܬ ܬܝܪ ܬܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܛ ݁ܬ ܠܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܩ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ܬܪܥܶܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܝܒܐ ܗܝ ܡܚ ݁ܘܬܗ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܒ ܬܓ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶܚܕܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܒ ܬܟܐ ܠ ܬ ݁ܒܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܒ ݁ܒܬܐ ݁ܕܥ ݁ܘܦ ܬܪܐ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܠ ݂ܰܦܠܘ ܒ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܝ ܶܠ ݁ܟܝ ܬܥܡܘܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܫܦܝܰ݁ܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܪܛ ܢܶ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܩܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܘܠ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܗܬ ݁ܬ ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܨ ܬܥܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܨܝܠ ܬ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ܶܡ ݁ܢܟܘܢ ܡܚ ݁ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܡܪܩܘܕܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܕ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ܕܢܶ ܚܰ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ܒܝܫܰ݁ܬܗ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܪܗ ݁ܬ ܠ ܛ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ ܬܥܡ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܬ̈ܪܥܶܝܗ ܕ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܗܝ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܦܓ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܪܟ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬ ܶܫܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘܪܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܠ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܫ‪ :‬ܪܝܰ݁ܫ ܚܛܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܛ ݂ܰܗܘܗܝ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܟܝ ܐܫܬ ݂ܰܟܚܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܬ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݁ܬܬܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܫ ݁ܘܒ ܬܩ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܬܝܰ݁ܪܬ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬ݁ܓܰ݁ ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܒܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܣܪܝܩܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܠܣܪܝܩ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܬܐ ݁ܕܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܫܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܢܥ ܰ݁ܶܠ ܐ ܬܝܩܰ݁ ܶܪܗ‬ ‫ܐܝܐ ܶܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܝ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܪ ݁ܘܬܐ ܬܥܡܰ݁‬ ‫ܕܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Micah Ch.





Micah Chapter  

The word of the Lord which came1 to Micah the Mershite, in the days of Jotham, and Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samaria and concerning Jerusalem.



Hear, all you nations;2 give ear, earth and its fullness: the Lord of lords will witness against you, the Lord from his holy temple.



For See! the Lord comes forth from his place: he descends, he treads upon the high place(s) of the earth.



The mountains will be melted beneath him, the valleys filled up,3 like wax before the fire, like water which pours down a steep slope.



All these (will be) because of the iniquity of Jacob, because of the sins of the house of Israel. What is the iniquity of Jacob, if not Samaria? What is the sin of Judah,4 if not Jerusalem?



I will make Samaria a plowed field,5 for planting a vineyard; I will heap up its stones into heaps,6 I will reveal its foundations.



All its graven images will indeed be shattered, all its false gods7 will be burnt in the fire, and I will destroy all its idols, for they have been amassed from the wage(s) of a prostitute, and to the wage(s) of a prostitute they will return.

‘came’: lit. ‘was’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘all you nations’ or ‘all of you, nations’.

3

‘filled up’: lit. ‘blotted out’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘sin of Judah’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘plowed field’: lit. ‘place/portion of the plowing of the field’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 5

MT ‫‘ והגרתי לגי אבניה‬I will pour its stones into the valley’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 6

7

‘false gods’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܡܝܟܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕܡ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܡ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܡ‪ ݁ :‬ܬܘܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܚܰ݁ܙ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܪܫ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕܝܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ܶܚ ݂ܰܙܩܝܐ‪ :‬ܡܠ ܟܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܕܚܙ ܐ ܥܠ ܫܡܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܥܠ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܟ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܨ ݁ܘܬܝ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܡܰ݁ ܶܶܠܬܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܬܡܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܗܝܟܶܠ ݁ܕܩ ݁ܘܕ ܶܫܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܦܩ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܬ ܶܪܗ‪ :‬ܬܘܢ ܶܚ ݁ܬ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܥܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܫܪܘܢ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܬܚ‬ ‫ܡܩܐ ܢܶܬܬܠ ܚܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܫܥܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܡܝܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢ ݁ܕܪܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܚܬܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܶܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܘܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܚܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܬܡ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܬܠ ܐܶܢ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܗܝ ܚܛܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܕܝܗ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܬܠ ܐܶܢ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܟ ܶܫܰ݁ܐ ܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܝ ܕ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܩܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܨܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܘܐܥܒ ݁ܕܝܗ ܠ ܬ ܶܫܡܪܝܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܣܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܓܶܠ ܫ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܓܪܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܓܠ ܝ ݁ ܶܦܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܶܡܬܬ ܬܒܰ݁ܪܘ ܢܶܬܬܒܰ݁ܪܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܶܕܚ ܬܠ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܗ ܢܐܩܰ݁ ܬܕܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‬ ‫ܶܒܢܘܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ܦ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܪܝܰ݁ܗ ܐܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܚܒܰ݁ܶܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ݁ܓܰ݁ܪܐ ݁ܕܙܢ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܢܶܗܦ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰܢܫܘ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܓܪܐ ݁ܕܙܢ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Jonah Ch.



 

When the sun went down, the Lord God commanded a wind of parching heat, and it dried up the gourd, and the sun beat upon Jonah’s head, and he was exhausted; he sought death1 and said: It is in2 your hands, Lord, to take my life from me, for I have been no better than my fathers.

XII



The Lord God said to Jonah: Were you deeply grieved on account of the young gourd plant? Jonah said: I was mortally grieved.3



The Lord said to him: You took pity on the young gourd plant, for which you did not labor, which you did not cultivate,4 that sprouts in a night, and dries up in a night.5



And should I not take pity on Nineveh, the great city, in which there are more than one hundred and twenty thousand people, who do not know their right hand from their left,6 and a multitude of cattle?

1

‘sought death’ or ‘asked death for his soul’.

2

‘is in’: lit. ‘comes in’.

3

‘I was mortally grieved’: lit. ‘it grieved me much, (even) to death’.

4

‘cultivate’: lit. ‘rear’.

‘that sprouts in a night, and dries up in a night’: lit. ‘that lasting only one night it sprouts, and lasting only one night it dries up’. 5

‘know their right hand from their left’: lit. ‘know between their right hand and their left’. 6



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܒ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܝܘܢܢ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݁ܕ ܶܕܢ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܬ ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܬܗ ܠ ݂ܰܩܰ݁ܪܐܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪ :‬ܦܩ ݁ܕ ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܐ ܠ ܪܘܚ ܶܐ ݁ܕܫܘܒܐ ܬܘܐܘܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ݁ܒܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܨ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܬ ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܬܘܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬܛܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܦ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܫܰ݁ܐܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܬܐ ܠ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܰ݁ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܛ ݁ܒ ܐ ܬܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܝܟ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܝ ܶܡܢ ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܠ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܒܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܝ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܠ ܫܪ ܬܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܩܪܐܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܬܘܢܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ܬܗܐ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ܛ ݁ܒ ܶܟ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܝ ܠܝ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܛ ݁ܒ ܶܟ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܶܠ ܰ݁ܗ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܰ݁ܬ ܬܚܣܰ݁ܰ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܠ ܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ܬܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܩ ܰ݁ܪܐܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܠܝ ܶܒ ܰ݁ܗ ܘܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܝܗܝ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܠ ܝܶܗ ܝ ܬܥܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܪ ܠ ܝܶܗ ܝ ݁ ܶܒܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܒ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܬܠ ܐܶܚ ܰ݁ܘܣ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܠ ܢ ܝܢܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܬܒ ܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܝܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ ܰ݁ܬܐ ܪܒ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܰ݁ܘܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ‬ ‫ܬܪܬܥܶܣܪ ܐ ̈ܪ ܒ ܬܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܬܝ ݁ܕܥܝܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܝܡܝܢܗܘܢ ܠ ܣܡܠ ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܣ ܬ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Jonah Ch.





Chapter  

But Jonah was deeply grieved,1 it distressed him greatly.



He prayed before the Lord and said: I beg you, Lord - was not this what I said,2 when I was in my own country? Because of this, I rose early, I fled to Tarshish, for I knew that you are a merciful and compassionate God, that you are longsuffering, that your lovingkindness is great, you turn away evil.3



Therefore, my Lord, take my life from me: for it is much better for me to die than to live.



The Lord said to him: Did it grieve you so greatly?



Jonah left4 the city; he sat at the east of the city, and there he made himself a shelter; he sat beneath it, in the shade, so that he would see what happened to the city.



The Lord God commanded a young gourd plant, and it sprouted, and it grew up above Jonah, and it gave shade for his head, and relieved his suffering;5 Jonah welcomed the young gourd plant, and was very glad.6



But the next7 day, when dawn rose, the Lord God commanded a worm; it attacked the young gourd plant, and cropped it.8

1

‘But Jonah was deeply grieved’: lit. ‘grief (affected) Jonah, a great grief’.

‘was not this what I said’ or ‘was this not my word’. The interrogative is implicit in P. 2

3

‘you turn away evil’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘left’: lit. ‘went outside’.

5

‘suffering’: lit. ‘evil’.

6

‘welcomed … glad’. The verb and noun are based on the same Syriac root.

7

‘the next’ or ‘another’.

8

‘cropped it’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܝܘܢܢ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫݁ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܬ ܶܠܗ ܛ ݁ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܪܝ ܠ ܝܘܢܢ ܟܪܝ ݁ܘܬܐ ܪܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܐܘܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܨܠܝ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݁ܬ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܶܡ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ ݁ܬܝ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ ݂ܰܒܐܪܥܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܥܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܓܝܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܪܩ ݁ܬ ܠܰ݁ܝ ܠ ݁ܬܪܫܝܰ݁ܫ‪ :‬ܬܝܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܗܘ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܩܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܐ ܬܰ݁ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܐܢܰ݁ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܚܦ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܓܝܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪܐ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܓ ܬܝܰ݁ܐܐ ܛܝܒܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ܐܢܬ ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܬܡܪܝ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܝ ܶܡܢ ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܬܩܚ ܠܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܡܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܛܰ݁ ݁ܒ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܶܡ ܬܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܝ ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܶܠܗ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܛ ݁ܒ ܶܟ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܰ݁‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܒ ܶܠܗ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܢ ܬܚ ܬܝܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܢܦܩ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܡܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܒ ܬܚ ݁ܘܬܝܗ ܒܛ ܬܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܕܢܶ ܚܰ݁ܙܶܐ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܬ݁ܓܰ݁ ݁ ܶܕܫ ܬܠ ܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܶܠܗ ܡܛܠ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܬܡܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܠܫܪ ܬܘܪ ܐ ܕ ݂ܰܩ ܬܪܐܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܬܝܥܐ ݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܠܰ݁ܩ ܠ ܥܶܰ݁ܠ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܬܘܢܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܘ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܕ ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܰ݁ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܥܠ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܕܝ ܝܘܢܢ ܒܗ ܒܫܪܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܩܰ݁ܪܐܐ‬ ‫ܝܫܗ‪ :‬ܘܐܪܘܚ ܠܗ ܡܢ ܒܝܫܬܗ‪ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ݁ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܪܒ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ ݁ܬܗ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܐܚܪ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܦ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ܬܗܐ ܠ ݁ܬܘܠ ܥܐ ܒܡܣܩܝ ܫ ݁ܦܰ݁ܪܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܫܪܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܩܪܐܐ ܘܩܛ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Jonah Ch.





Chapter  

The word of the Lord came to Jonah a second time, saying:



Arise, go to Nineveh, the great city, and preach to it the message which I say to you.



Jonah arose, and went to Nineveh, according to the word of the Lord; Nineveh was a city great to God,1 a three days’ journey.



Jonah began to make his way into Nineveh, a single day’s journey, and preached and said: Forty days from now, Nineveh will be overthrown.



But the men of Nineveh believed in God; they decreed a fast and clothed themselves in sackcloth, from their great men to their little ones.



Word reached the king of Nineveh: he arose from his throne, took off his (royal) head-dress,2 clothed himself in sackcloth, and sat among ashes.



They proclaimed and said, in Nineveh: By the command of the king and of his noblemen, neither man nor beast, oxen nor sheep, shall take any food, nor graze, neither shall they drink water.



But let men and beast(s) be clothed in sackcloth; groaning,3 let them call upon God; let each turn from his evil way and from the violence of his hands.



Who knows whether God will repent and have mercy on us, and turn away from us the heat of his anger, so that we will not perish.



God saw their deeds, that they repented of their evil ways: he turned away from them the heat of his anger, and did not destroy them.

‘great to God’: a literal rendering of the Hebrew probably meaning ‘an extraordinarily large city’. 1

2

‘head-dress’: See Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘groaning’: lit. ‘with groaning’. Similarly elsewhere.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܝܘܢܢ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܬܪܬ ܶܝܢ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒܢ ܝܢ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܟ ܶܪܙ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܘܡ ܙܶܠ ܠ ܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ ܬܟܪܘܙ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܢܘܐ ݁‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܪܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪܒ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܢܘܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܩܡ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ܠ ܢ ܝܢܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܡܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ܬܠ ܬܗܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܕ ܐ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܝܘܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܪܝ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰܥܠ ܠ ܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܕ ܐ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܢܘܐ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܟ ܶܪܙ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܬܟܐ ܠܪܒܥܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܝܘܡܝܢ ܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܢܘܐ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܗ ݁ܦ ܬܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܰ݁ܘ ܐ ܬܢ ܶܫܝܰ݁ܗ ܕܢ ܝܢܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܣܩܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܨ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ܶܒܫܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܣܩܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܠܙܥ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܰ݁ܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܟܰ݁ܘܪܣܝܶܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܢܰ݁ܘܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݁ܕܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܩܰ݁ܠ ܬ ݁ ܶܓܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܘܡܛ ݁ܬ ܡܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܒ ܥܠ ܩܛܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܢܶܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ܶܒܫ ܣܩܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ܬܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܐܟ ܶܪܙܘ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ ܒܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܢܘܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܢܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܢܶܛܥܡܘܢ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܘܠ ܢܶܪܥܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦܶܠ ݂ܰܡܝܐ ܢܶܫܬܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܘܬܘ̈ܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܬܠ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܣܘܢ ݂ܰܣܩܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܢ ݁ܓܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܘܟ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܩܪܘܢܶܗ ܠܠ ܰ݁ܗܐ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܐ ܬܢܫ ܶܡܢ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܒܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪܚܗ ܒ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܶܚܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܢ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐܶܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܰ݁ܙܶܗ‬ ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܡܬ‬ ‫ܚ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܟ‬ ‫ܗܦ‬ ‫ܘܡ‬ ‫ܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܦ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܕ ܬܠ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܒ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܕ ݁ ܬܬ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܚܙ ܐ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܚܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܒܝܫܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓܙܗ ܘܠ ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚ ݁‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Jonah Ch.



 

Chapter  The Prayer of Jonah



Jonah prayed before the Lord his God, from the belly of the fish, and said:



I called to the Lord in my distress, and he answered me: from the belly of Sheol I cried out, and you heard my voice.



You had cast me into the depth, into the heart of the sea, the river surrounded me, all your tempests and your waves passed over me.



For I had said: I have avoided1 your eyes - now, will I again see2 your holy temple?



The waters surrounded me, to the point of death;3 the abyss encompassed me; my head was imprisoned at the bottom of the sea.4



I went down, to the lowest parts of the mountains; the earth closed its bars around my face forever: but you brought my life up from desolation,5 Lord my God.



While my soul was afflicted, I remembered the Lord; my prayer went in to you, to your holy temple.



All who preserve worthless idols forsake your mercy.6



But I will sacrifice to you with a cry of thanksgiving; whatever I have vowed I will deliver up as payment to the Lord.



Then the Lord commanded the fish, and it disgorged Jonah on dry land.

‘avoided’: in MT this verb is passive. In P, despite the use of the Ethpaal, the meaning is active. 1

‘will I again see’ or ‘I will see again’. The interrogative is unspecified but fits the context. 2

3

‘to the point of death’: lit. ‘to the soul/breath of life’.

4

‘was imprisoned at the bottom of the sea’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘desolation’ or ‘corruption’.

6

‘your mercy’: See Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬

‫ܝܘܢܢ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܨܠ ݁ܘܬܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܶܗܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܥܘܗܝ ܕܢ ܬܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܨܠܝ ܝܘܢܢ ݁‬ ‫ܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢܢ ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݂ܰܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ܬܥ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܬܝ ݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܰ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܪܣܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܕܫܝܰ݁ܘܠ ܓܥܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ܬܩܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܐ ܒ ܶܠ ܶܒܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܪܢ ܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܡܚܫܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܠܝܟ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܪܡܝܢ ܝ ܒܥ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܰ݁ܠ ܝܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܐܶ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݁ܬ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܩ ݁ܬ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܙ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܗ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܩܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܰ݁ܬܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܢ ܰ݁ܝ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܬܫܐ‪݂ܰ .‬ܘ ݁ܬܗ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ݁ܕܪܘܢ ܝ ݂ܰܡ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܒܰ݁ܫ‬ ‫ܘܒ‬ ‫ܪܝܫܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܚܕܬ ܣܰ݁ܘܟ ܶܪܝܗ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ܝ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܡ‪݂ܰ .‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܣܩܰ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܫܬܗܘܢ ܕܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܢ ܚܬ ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܐ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒܶܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܝ ܝ ܶܡܢ ݁‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܟ ܨܠܰ݁ܘܬܝ ܠ ݂ܰܗ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܟܕ ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܛ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܦ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܝ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ܶܪ ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܘܥܶ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܩܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܢ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟ ܬܫ ݁ܒܩܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܠ ܕ ܬܢܛܪܝܢ ܶܕܚ ܬܠ ݁ܬܐ ܣܪܝܩ ݁ܬܐ ܡܪ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶܕܡ ܕܢܶ ݁ܕ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ܐܶ ݂ܰܫ ܶܠܡ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܒܚ ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪܥ ܬܢܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܢ ݁ܕܝܢ ܒܩܶܠ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܘܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܦܠ ܛܗ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܒ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܢܘܢ‪݁ :‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Jonah Ch.



 

They lifted Jonah up and they cast him into the sea, and the sea rested from its tempests.



Then each of them feared a great fear from the presence of the Lord: they made sacrifices to the Lord, and they made1 vows.



The Lord prepared a great fish, and it swallowed up Jonah; and Jonah was in the belly of the fish (for) three days and three nights.

1

‘made … made’: lit. ‘sacrificed … vowed’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܝܘܢܢ‬

‫ܘ ݂ܰܫܩܠܘܗܝ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܕܐܘܗܝ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬܬ ܢ ܝ ܚ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܡܚܫܘ ݂ܰܠܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬ܘܕ ݂ܰܒܚܰ݁ܘ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ܶܚܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ܶܚܠܘ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ܬܗܢܘܢ ܶܕܚܠ ݁ܬܐ ܪܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰܢܕܪܘ ܢܶ ݁ܕ̈ܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܠ ܥܶܗ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܛܝܶ ݁ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܢ ܬܘܢ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ݂ܰܒܡ ݂ܰܥܘܗܝ ܕܢ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܬ ܬܠ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܬܡܡܝܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܠ ܝ ݂ܰܠ ܬܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Jonah Ch.



 

Each said to his companion: Come, let us cast lots, and we will know who has caused this evil to come upon us.1 So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah.2



They said to him: Tell us: this evil - why has it come upon us? What do you do?3 Where are you from? Which is your country? Who are your people?



Jonah said to them: I am a Hebrew, and I worship the Lord God of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land.



Then those men were very afraid,4 and they said to him: What have you done? - for they knew, each of them,5 that he had fled from the presence of the Lord.



When he told them, they said6 to him: What shall we do to you, so that the sea may abate?7 - for See! The sea grows rougher.8



Jonah said to them: Lift me up and throw me into the sea, then the sea will abate, for I know that because of me this great tempest came upon you.



Each of them strove hard9 to return to dry land, but they could not, for the sea grew rougher.10



They cried to the Lord and said: Oh Lord, let us not perish 11 for the life of this man; do not blame innocent blood on us - for you are the Lord, and you act according to your will.

‘who has caused this evil to come upon us’: lit. ‘this evil, for whom has it come upon us’. 1

2

‘do you do’: lit. ‘is your business’.

3

‘Who are your people?’: lit. ‘From which people are you?’

4

‘were very afraid’: lit. ‘feared a great fear’.

‘each of them’: lit. ‘those men (sing. noun)’, using a different Syriac word for ‘men’ from that used in the opening phrase. Similarly in verses 13 and 16. 5

6

‘said’: pl. part.

7

‘may abate’: lit. ‘may abate from us’. So too v. 12.

8

‘grows rougher’: lit. ‘grows rougher upon us’.

9

‘strove hard’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

10

‘grew rougher’: lit. ‘grew rougher upon them’.

11

‘let us not perish’ or ‘may we not perish’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫ܝܘܢܢ‬

‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ݁ ܶܦܨ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰܕܥ ܒܝܫܬܐ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܠ ܚ ݁ܒܪܗ‪ :‬ܬܘ ܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܪܡܝܘ ܶܦ ܶܨ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܣܠ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܬ ܶܦܨ ݁ܬܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܶܡܛܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܶ ܬܬܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝܢ‪ :‬ܬܡ ݂ܰܢܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ ܶܠܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܚ ܬܘܢ ܒ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ ܗܝ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰܐܢܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܐ ܬܝܢܐ ܐܢܬ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܰ݁ ܬܗܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܬܕ ܶܚܰ݁ܠ ܐ ܬܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܝܘܢܢ‪ :‬ܥ ݁ܒܪܝܐ ܐܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܡܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܝ ݁ܒ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪܘ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܕܬ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ܶܚܠܘ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒܪ ܐ ܬܗܢܘܢ ܶܕܚܠ ݁ܬܐ ܪܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܝܕܥܘ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ܬܗܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܪܩ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܘܝ ܐܶܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܐܡܪܝܢ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ܘܢܶܫܶܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ܶܡ ݂ܰܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܬ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܠܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܬܐܙܶܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ‪ :‬ܫܘܩܠܘܢ ܝ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܐܘܢ ܝ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܶܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ܶܡ ݁ܢܟܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܕ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܡܚܫ ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ ܶܡܛ ܬܠ ݁ܬܝ ܗܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܫܘ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ܬܗܢܘܢ ܕܢܶܗܦ ݁ܟܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܒ ܬܫܐ ܬܘܠ ܐܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܚܰ݁ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܐܙܶܠ‬ ‫ܘ ݁ܐܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗ ܬܘܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܬ ݂ܰܕܠܚ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܩܰ݁ ݂ܰܰ݁ܪܘ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡ ܰ݁ܪܘ‪ :‬ܐܘܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܠ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܒ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫ ܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܶܚܫ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܰ݁ܟ ܕ ܬܨ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ ܐܢܰ݁ܬ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܢ ܕ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܙ ܬܟ ܬܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܢܬ ܗܘ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܬ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Jonah Ch.





Jonah Chapter  XI



The word of the Lord came1 to Jonah son of Amittai, saying:



Arise, go to Nineveh, the great city, and preach against it, for their evil has reached me.



But Jonah arose, to flee to Tarshish, from the presence of the Lord: he went down to Jappa, and found a ship that was going to Tarshish; he paid2 the fare and went down into it, to go3 with them to Tarshish, to flee from the presence of the Lord.



The Lord stirred up4 a great wind upon the sea, and there was a great tempest in the sea, and the ship seemed likely5 to be wrecked.



Then the sailors were afraid, and they cried out, each to his god, and they threw baggage from the ship into the sea, so as to lighten the load;6 Jonah, however, went down to the lowest part of the ship, and slept.



Then the captain7 approached him, and said to him: Why are you asleep? Arise, call to your god - perhaps the god will save us,8 and we will not perish.

‘came’: lit. ‘was’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2 nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘paid’: lit. ‘gave’.

3

‘going … to go’: lit. ‘returning/coming … to return/to come’.

4

‘stirred up’: lit. ‘cast’.

5

‘seemed likely’: lit. ‘turning about’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘to lighten the load’: lit ‘that they might be lightened from them’.

7

‘captain’: lit. ‘the master of the sailors’.

8

‘will save us’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܝܘܢܢ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܝ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ ܥܠ ܝܘܢܢ ܒܪ ܡ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܟ ܰ݁ ܶܪܙ ܶ‬ ‫ܩ ܰ݁ܘܡ ܙܶܠ ܠ ܢ ܝܢܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܶܣܠ ݂ܰܩ ܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܘܐ ݁‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ ܰ݁ܬܐ ܪܒ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒܝܫ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܡ ݂ܰܝ ܬܘܢܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܶܚ ݁ܬ ܠ ܝܘܦܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܪܫܝܫ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܫܟܰ݁ܚ‬ ‫ܥܪܩ ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܪܫܝܫ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܝܗ ݁ܒ ܐ ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܘܢ ܶܚܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܦܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥܐܠ ܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪܫܝܫ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܪܩ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܡܚܫܰ݁ ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐܪܡܰ݁ܝ ܪܘܚܰ݁ܐ ܪܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܗܦ ݁ ܬܟܐ ܗ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܠ ܶܡܬܬ ݁ ܬܒܪܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܶܗܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܕܘ ܬܡܐܢ ܶܡܢ ܐ ݁ ܬܦܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ܶܚܠܘ ݂ܰܡ ܬܠ ܶܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܥܘ ܐ ܬܢܫ ܠ ܘ ݁ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܬܗ ܶܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ݂ܰܘ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܢܩܠܘܢ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܝܘܢܢ ܕܝܢ ܢ ܚ ݁ܬ ܠܗ ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܐܢܰ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܩܰ݁ܘܡ ܩܰ݁ܪܝ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ܒ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܗ ܪܒ ݂ܰܡ ܬܠ ܚܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܡ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܒ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܬܠ ܬܗ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܟ ݁ܒܪ ݁ܢܦܨܝ ܢ‬

‫‪‬‬

Obadiah

 

Those of the south will take possession of the mountain of Esau, and those of the plain the Philistines: they will take possession of the field of Ephraim, and of the field of Samaria, and Benjamin (will take possession of) Gilead.



This ancient captivity of1 the children of Israel, which is in2 Canaan (and) as far as Zarephath, and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Spain, will take possession of the cities of the south.



Those who are far off3 will go up to the mountain of Zion, to judge the mountain of Esau: and it will be the kingdom of the Lord.

1

‘of’1: lit. ‘to’.

2

‘in’1: lit. ‘from’.

‘who are far off’: a participial adjective; MT ‘saviors’ is active. ‘Those who are saved’ is an alternative rendering of P, though this root normally has a transitive function when it is used to mean ‘save’. 3



‫ܥܘܒܕܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܐܪܬܘܢ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܦ ܶܠ ܫܬܝܶܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܰ݁ܐܪܬܘܢ ݂ܰܚܩܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ܠ ܛܰ݁ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܥܣܰ݁ܘ‪݁ :‬ܘܕ ݁ܦܩ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܶܠ ݁ܕ ܬܫܡܪܝܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒܢ ܬܝ ܶܡܝܢ ܠ ݁ ܶܓܠ ܬܥ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ :‬ܘܚ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܬܨ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܟ ݂ܰܢܥܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܦܰ݁ ݁ܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܐ ܩ ݁ܕܡ‬ ‫ܫܒ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܕ ݁ ܶܒܐܣܦܢ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܢܐܪܬܘܢ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝܢ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܢ ܠ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ܠ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܣܩܘܢ ܦܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܥܣܘ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Obadiah

 

For slaughter, for1 violence against2 your brother Jacob, shame will cover you, you will be cut off forever.



On the day when you arose against him, on the day when foreigners took captive his army, when foreigners entered his gates, when they cast lots over Jerusalem - you too will be like one of them.



Do not watch your brother’s day, on the foreigners’ day; do not rejoice over the children of Judah on the day of their loss; do not boast3 on the day of affliction.



Do not enter my people’s gate on the day of their distress; you, too, should not rejoice4 over his misfortune on the day of his distress; do not terrify him, (together) with his army,5 on the day of his distress.



Do not obstruct6 the narrow way to slay his refugees; do not deliver up his fugitives on the day of affliction.



For the day of the Lord concerning all nations is near: as you have done, so will it be done to you; your vengeance will return upon your head.



For as you drank upon my holy mountain: so all the nations will drink continually; they will drink, they will be confounded,7 they will be worn out - they will be as nothing.8



The remnant9 will be on the mountain of Zion; it will be holy, and those of the house of Jacob will take possession of those who took possession of them.



The house of Jacob will be a fire, the house of Joseph a flame, the house of Esau stubble: they will be burnt up by them, they will consume them, and there will be no remnant for the house of Esau, for the Lord has spoken. 1

‘For … for ’: lit. ‘From … from’.

2 ‘against’:

lit. ‘of’.

3

‘boast’: lit. ‘widen your mouth’.

4

‘you should not rejoice’ or ‘do not rejoice’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

5

‘do not terrify him, (together) with his army’: see Introduction, Addendum 1.

6

‘obstruct’: lit. ‘stand on’.

7

‘they will be confounded’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘nothing’: lit. ‘as (if) they were not’.

9

‘The remnant’ or ‘Deliverance’.



‫ܥܘܒܕܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܶܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܚ ݁ܘܟ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܶܣ ݁ܝܟ ܶܒܗܬ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܘܬ ݁ ݂ܰܐܒ ݁ܕ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܩ‬ ‫ܫܒܘ ܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ܬܩܡܬ ܠ ܩ ݁ܘܒ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܠܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫̈ܪܥܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݂ܰܐܪܡܝܘ ܶܦ ܶܨ ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ݂ܰܐܢܬ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ݁‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܚ ݁ܘܟ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶܚܙܶܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ܐܒ ܬܕܢܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܟ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁ܒ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܘܠ ݁ܬܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܠ ܒ ݁ܬܪܥܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݂ܰܩܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܕܐ ܐ ݁ܦ ܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܬܗ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܬ ݂ܰܣܪܕܝܘܗܝ ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܠܗ ܒܝܘܡܐ ݁ܕܥ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݁ܒܝܫܬܗ ܒܝܘܡܐ ݁ܕܥ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܘ ݁ ݂ܰܙܒܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܕܘ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ ܣܪ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܬܩܘܡ ݂ܰܥܠ ܡܩ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܩܪ ݁ܝܒ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܕܬ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪݁ :‬ܘܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܥ ܬܢ ݁ܟ ܢܶܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ݂ܰܥܠ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܬܢܐ ܶܕ ܐܫܬܝܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܩ ݁ܘܕܫܝ‪ :‬ܢܶܫܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ‪ :‬ܢܶܫܬܘܢ ܘܢܶ ݁ܬܘܪܘܢ ܘܢܶܬ ݂ܰܛ ݁ܪܦܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܬܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡ ܬܝܢܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܒܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‬ ‫ܡܫ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܩܕܝܰ݁ܫ‪ :‬ܘܢܰ݁ܐܪܬܘܢ ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܙܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܝܠܝܢ ܕܝܪ ݁ܬܘ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܝ ܥܣܘ ݂ܰܚܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܝܘܣ ݁ܦ ܫܠ ܗ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ܢܘܪ ܐ‪݁ ܶ :‬ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܐܩܕܘܢ ܒܗܘܢ ܘܢܶ ݁ܐܟܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܣܪ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕܐ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܐ ݁ܕܥܣܰ݁ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܡ ܶܠ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Obadiah



Obadiah 

The vision of Obadiah: Thus says the Lord of lords to Edom.1 We have heard a rumor from the Lord, an ambassador has been sent to the nations: Arise! let us arise for war against it.



See! I have made you insignificant2 among the nations - you are much despised.



The pride of your heart has led you astray - he who lives in the stronghold of the rock,3 whose dwelling-place is on the height(s), who said in his heart: Who will bring me down to the ground?



If you are lifted up4 on high like the eagle, if you set your nest among the stars - I will bring you down from there, says the Lord.



If thieves came upon you, or plunderers by night, how did you remain silent until they had stolen (what) they wanted?5 If grape harvesters came upon you, would they not have spared the gleaning?



How has Esau been searched out! His secrets revealed!



They sent you as far as the border, all the men of your covenant led you astray, they were stronger than you;6 the men of your peace, of your bread, set an ambush for7 you, for there is no understanding in them.8



On that day, says the Lord, I will destroy the wise man from Edom, and understanding from the mountain of Esau.



Your mighty men will be plundered,9 Teman; (every) man will perish from the mountain of Esau.

Parts of the book of Obadiah are closely similar to the oracle against Edom which forms part of Jeremiah 49. 1

2

‘insignificant’: lit. ‘small’.

3

‘in the stronghold of the rock’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘are lifted up’ or ‘go up’.

‘(what) they wanted’: lit ‘what they needed’; ‘want’ is used here because the text suggests theft for desire rather than to satisfy a need. 5

6

‘they were stronger than you’: lit. ‘they prevailed over your strength’.

7

‘for’1: lit. ‘beneath’.

8

‘them’: lit. ‘him’.

9

‘will be plundered’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‫ܥܘܒܕܝܐ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܕ ܬܝܐ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܘܒ ݁ܕ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݂ܰܠ݁ܕܘܡ‪ܶ :‬ܛ ܬܒܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬ ݂ܰܠܚ‪ :‬ܩܘܡ ݂ܰܘܢܩܘܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܝܙ ݂ܰܓ ܬܕܐ ܠ ܥܡܡܐ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܙܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܰܝܗ ݁ܒܬ ݁ܟ ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܫܝܛ ܐܢܬ ܛ ݁ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܢܐ ݂ܰܕܫܩ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܫ ݁ܘܒ ܬܗ ܶܪܗ ܕ ܶܠ ܬܒ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܡܘܬ ݁ ܶܒܗ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ‬ ‫ܛܥܝ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܥ ݂ܰܡܪ ܒܥ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܢ ܝ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܠ ܒܗ ܡܢܘ ܢ ܚ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶܢ ܬ ܶܬܪܝܡ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܢܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܬ ݁ܟ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܟܘܟ ݁ ܶܒܐ ݁ܬܣܝܡ ܩܢ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܬܡܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܫܪܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܶܢ ݂ܰܓ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܒܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܬܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܘ ܬܒܰ݁ܙܘ ܙܶܐ ݁ܒܺܠ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬܩܰ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܡ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܬܩܛܘ ݁ ܶܦܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܬܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܪܐ‪.‬ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟ‪ :‬ܬܠ ܬܫ ݁ܒܩܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܒ ܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݁ܬܒܨܝ ܥܣܘ ܘ ݁ܢܒܥ ܡܛܫ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ܕܪ ݁ܘܟ‪ :‬ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܝ ܬܡܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܐܛܥܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܟ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܡܨܝܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܓ ݁ܒ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡ ݁ܟ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܬܣܡܘ ܟܡܰ݁ ܬܐܢ ݁ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܝܟ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܝ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫ܘܟܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ݁ܕܘܡ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܣܟܰ݁ܘܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܥܣܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܒܕ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ܶܡܢ ܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܙܙܘܢ ݂ܰܓܢ ܬܒ ݂ܰܪܝܟܝ ݂ܰܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܥܣܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

For see! I command, I will scatter among all the nations those of the house of Israel, as those that settle in a sieve, and the sifted among them will not fall (through) to the earth.1



All the sinners of my people will fall by the sword, who say: Evil will not come near, it will not reach us.



On that day, I will raise up the fallen tabernacle of David; I will repair their breaches, I will raise up their ruins, I will build it as in the days of old, as in generations past.2



So that they may inherit the remnant of Edom, and all the nations called by my name,3 says the Lord who does this.4



See! Days are coming, says the Lord, when the threshing-floor5 will overtake the ingathering, the grape-treading the seed, the mountains will flow (with) sweetness, a delightful fragrance on all the hills.6



I will bring back the captivity of my people Israel; they will rebuild7 the ruined cities and live (in them), they will plant vineyards and drink their wine, they will lay out gardens and eat their fruits.



I will plant them in their land, and never again8 will they be uprooted from their land, which I gave them, says the Lord your God.

1

‘I will scatter … to the earth’: see Addendum 1.

2

‘in generations past’: lit. ‘as years of generations’.

3

‘called by my name’: lit. ‘my name has been called upon them’.

4

‘this’: lit. ‘these things’.

5

‘threshing-floor’: i.e. the produce after threshing. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘a delightful fragrance on all the hills’: lit. ‘all hills/heights will be fragrant’.

7

‘rebuild’: lit. ‘build’.

8

‘never again’: lit. ‘not again’.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܦ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪ ܒ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܪܒ ܬܶܠ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ܶܦܠ ݂ܰܕܩܝܩܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܬܥܪܒܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܚܪ ܬܒܐ ܢܶܦܠܘܢ ܟܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܚܛ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܬܕ ܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܠ ݁ܬܩܰ݁ܪ ݁ܘܒ ܘܠ ݁ܬܡܛܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܩܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܡܫܟܢܶܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܕܘܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܕ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦ ܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܐܶܣ ܰ݁ܘܓ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܥ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܢ ܝܐ ݁ܕ݁ ܬܕ ܬܪܕ̈ܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܡܣܚ ݁ܦ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܐܩܝܡ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܒܢ ܝܗ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬

‫ܪܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܕܘܡ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݁ ܶܕ ܐܬܩܰ݁ܪܝ ܶܫܡܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܢܐܪܬܘܢ ݂ܰܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܨ ܬܪ ܐ ݁ܕܥܶܢ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܛ ݁ ܬܦܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܐ ܝܘܡ ݁ܬܐ ܐ ݁ܬܝܢ ܐܡܪ ܡܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܰ݁ ݁ܕܪ ݁ܟ ܐܕܪ ܐ ܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢܪܕܘܢ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݂ܰܚܠ ܝ ݁ܘܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܶܗܝܢ ܬ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܣ ܬܡܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܪ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܗܦ ݁ܟ ݁‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܢܰ݁ܘܢ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬ ‫ܝܣܐ ܘܢܶܐܟܘܢ ܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܨܒܘܢ ݂ܰܟܪ ܶܡܐ ܘܢܶܫܬܘܢ ݂ܰܚܡܪܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܬܠܘܢ ݂ܰܦܪ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܘܐܨ ݁ܘܒ ܐܶܢܘܢ ݂ܰܒܐܪܥܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܩܪܘܢ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐܪܥܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܕܝܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܒܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ܬܗ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Chapter  X



I saw the Lord, standing upon the altar; he said: Strike the capital, let the thresholds tremble, their deceit1 upon every head;2 I will slay their remnant with the sword, he who flees will not escape from them, and he who is delivered will not save his life from them.



If they should descend into Sheol, my hand will lift them up from there; if they should go up to the heavens, I will bring them down from there.



If they should hide on the summit of Carmel, I will search and take them from there; if they should hide from before my eyes, in the depths of the sea, there I will command the serpent, and it will bite them.



If they should go into captivity before their enemies, I will command the sword there, and it will slay them; I will set my eye on them for evil, and not for good.



The mighty Lord of lords speaks, who draws near to the land and it trembles, all its inhabitants dwelling in mourning; its end rises up like a river, recedes like the river of Egypt.



Who built his stairways3 in the heavens, established his promise4 on the earth, who calls to the waters of the sea and pours them out upon the face of the earth: the mighty Lord is his name.



See! Are you not5 as the children of the Cushites to me, children of Israel, says the Lord? See! I brought up Israel from the land of Egypt, the Philistines from Cappadocia, and Aram from Kir.



See! The eyes of the Lord of lords are on the sinful kingdom: I will do away with it, from the face of the earth; however, I will not do away with the house of Jacob in this way,6 says the Lord. 1

‘their deceit’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘every head’: lit. ‘the head of all of them’.

3

‘stairways’: lit. ‘ascents’.

4

‘promise’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘Are you not …?’ or, if this is not intended as a rhetorical question, ‘You are … ’.

6

‘in this way’: lit. ‘thus’.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܝ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܛ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܩܰ݁ܐܡ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ‪ :‬ܡܚ ܰ݁ܝ ܠ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܙ ܬܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܙܘ ܬܥܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܙ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܣܟ ݁ܦ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܒܪܝܫ ܟ ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܚ ݁ܪܬܗܘܢ ܒܚܪܒܐ ܐܩܛܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܠ ܢܡܰ݁ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ ܕ ܬܥ ܶܪܩ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶܫܬ ݂ܰܘܙ ݁ܒ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ܶܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܬܘܢ ݂ܰܠܫܝܘܠ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܬ ܬܡܢ ݂ܰܬ ܶܣܩ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܕܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܢܶܣܩܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܶܢ ܢܶ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܡܢ ܐ ܶܚ ݁ܬ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܣ ݁ܒ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܢ ܢܶܛܫܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܢܶܛܫܘܢ ܒܪܝܫܗ ܕ ݁ܟܪܡܶܠ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܬܡܢ ܐ ݁ܒܨ ܐ ܘ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒ ݁ܬܗܘ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ‪ :‬ܬ ܬܡܢ ܐ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ܠ ܚܘܝܐ ܘܢܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܒܥܶܠܕ ܬܒ ݂ܰܒܝܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܬ ܬܡܢ ܐܶ ݁ܦܩܘܕ ܠ ݂ܰܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܢܐܙܠܘܢ ܒ ܶܫ ݁ܒ ܬܝܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܦܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܢܩܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶܢܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܣܝܡ ݂ܰܥܝܢ ܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܠ ݁ܒܝܫܬܐ ܘܠ ܠ ܛ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܩ ܶܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝܒܝܰ݁ܢ ܶܒ ݁ܐܒܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܬܘܙ ܬܝܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܢ ܶܚܬ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ݂ܰܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܶܠܩ ܶܩ ܬܨܗ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ݂ܰܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܡ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܡܣ ܬܩ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܡܘܠ ܬܟܢܶܗ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܬܢܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܩ ܶܪ ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܫ ݁ܕ ܠ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶܦܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܟܘ ܬܫܝܶܐ ݂ܰܐܢܬܘܢ ܠܝ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܣܩ ݁ܬ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܦ ܶܠ ܫܬܝܶܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܩ ݂ܰܦ ݁ܕܘܩܝ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܬܪܡ ܶܡܢ ܩܝܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܘܒ ݁ܕܝܗ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ ܶܦܝܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ ܕ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟ ݁ܘܬܐ ܚܛ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܪܡ ܠ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐܘܒ ݁ܕܝܘܗܝ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

I will turn your festivals into mourning, your songs into lamentations, I will gird sackcloth on all your loins, (cause) bald patches on all heads,1 make it like the mourning for an only child, its end like a bitter day.



See! Days are coming, says the Lord, (when) I will send famine to the land - not a famine of bread, not a thirst for water - but of hearing2 the word of the Lord.



They will gather together, from sea to sea, from the north even as far as the east, they will run to seek the word of the Lord - but they will not find (it).



On that day, the beautiful virgins will be exhausted, the young men parched with thirst.



Who swear by the idols3 of Samaria, saying: Your god lives, Dan; the way of Beer-Sheba lives - they will fall, and they will not rise up.

1

‘all heads’: lit. ‘all your heads’.

2

‘of hearing’: lit. ‘to hear’.

3

‘by the idols’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܝܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܗܦ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ݂ܰܐܕ ܝܟܘܢ ܠ ݁ܒܶܠ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܶܗܝܢ ܙܡܝܪ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܠܘܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܨ ܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ ܬܚ ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܬܗ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܝܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܒܶܠ ݁ܕܝ ܚ ݁ܝܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܚ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܦ ܬܢܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܬܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ݁ ܶܦܢ ܠ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܶܝܢ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܨܗܐ‬ ‫ܗܐ ܝܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܡܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܠ ܡܫܡܥ ܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓܡܗ ܕܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܓܪܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܢܫܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܢ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܪܗܛܘܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܒ ܬܥܐ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܘܠ ܢܶܫܟܚܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓܕ ݁ܘ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ܒ ܶܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܫܦ ܬܝܪ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪݂ܰ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܗܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܶܬܛ ݁ܪܦܢ ܒ ݁ܬܘܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܰ݁ ܬܗ ݁ܟ ܬܕܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܝ ܶܡܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܦ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܬܘܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܚ ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ܒܪ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܦܠܘܢ ܘܠ ܢܩܘܡܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܚܰ݁ܙܘܩ ݂ܰܣܩܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܥܒ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܗ ܐ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Chapter  

Thus the Lord of lords showed me: See! A sign of the end.1



The Lord said to me: What did you see, Amos? I said: A sign of the end. The Lord said to me: The end has come to my people Israel; no more will I make it pass away from them.



On that day, the temple hymns will cease,2 on that day, says the Lord of lords. There will be more corpses3 everywhere, they will be cast out to perdition.4



Hear these things, those who treat the needy with contempt and despise5 the poor of the land.



Who say: When will the month end, that we may sell grain? The Sabbath end6 that we may open the granaries? That we may reduce (the weight of the) measures, increase the weights, make a deceptive balance?



Sell7 the needy for silver, the poor instead of rubbish;8 sell the refuse on the floor of the barn?



The Lord has sworn, the mighty one of Jacob: I will never forget any of their deeds.



Because of these things, will not the earth tremble and all its inhabitants dwell in mourning? Its end will rise up like a river, carry away, and recede like the river of Egypt.



On that day, says the Lord, I will make the sun set at noon, I will darken the earth during daylight.

1

‘sign of the end’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘cease’: lit. ‘fall’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘more corpses’: lit. ‘corpses will increase’.

4

‘perdition’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘despise’: lit. ‘bring to naught, make of no effect’.

6

‘end’1,2: lit. ‘pass over’.

7

‘Sell’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘rubbish’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܚ‪.‬‬

‫ܘܝܢ ܝ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ݁ܕ ܶܩ ܬܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܙܝ ܬܥܡܘܣ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ݁ܕ ܶܩ ܬܨ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܛܝ ܶܩ ܬܨ ܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ݁ܘܬܗ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܡ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܕ ݂ܰܗܝܟ ܬܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܢܦܠܢ ܬܫܒܚ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܕܝܢ ܠ ݁ܒܕܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܶܣܓ ܬܝܢ ܫ ݂ܰܠ ܕܐ ܒ ݁ܟܠ ܐ ݁ܬܪ‪ :‬ܘܢܫ ݁‬ ‫ܡܒܛܠܝܢ ܠ ݁ ܬܒܝ ܶܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܕ ܬܫܝܛܝܢ ܠ ܶܡܣܟܢܶܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܢܙ ܶܒܢ ܥܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܶܕ ݂ܰܐܡ ݁ܬܝ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ݂ܰܫܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ܘܢܶ ݁ܦܰ݁ܬܚ ܐܘܨ̈ܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܬ ܬܩ ܶܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܐܬܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ܟܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢܙܥܪ ܟܝܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܢܙ ܶܒܢ ܒ ܶܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܝ ܶܫܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܦܐ ܠ ܶܡܣܟܢܶܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܶܝܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܚܠ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܬ ܐܘܨ̈ܪ ܐ ݂ܰܢܙ ܶܒܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܝܡܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܬܩ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܦܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܠ ܐܶܛܥܶܐ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܠ ݁ܬܙܘܥ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ܶܒ ݁ܐܒܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘ̈ܪܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܰܣܰ݁ܩ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܕܚܘܩ ܘܢܶ ܚܘܬ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ݂ܰܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܩ ܬܨܗ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ݂ܰܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܒ ݂ܰܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܚܫ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܪ ݁ܒ ܶܫ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܢܗ ܬܝܪܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

For thus has Amos said: Jeroboam will be killed with the sword, and Israel will be taken into captivity from his land.



Amaziah said to Amos the seer: Flee, go to the land of Judah; eat bread there, prophesy there.



But prophesy no more in Bethel, for it is the king’s sanctuary, it is a royal house.1



Amos answered and said to Amaziah: I was not a prophet, nor a son of the prophets, but a shepherd, a gatherer of sycamore2 fruit.



The Lord took me from following the flock; the Lord said to me: Go, prophesy to my people Israel.



Now hear the word of the Lord: You have said: Do not prophesy to those of the house of Israel, do not teach3 those of the house of Isaac.



Therefore thus says the Lord: Your wife will be promiscuous in your city; your sons and your daughters will fall by the sword; your land will be divided up with a measuring line; you will die in an unclean land; and Israel will be taken into captivity from his land.

1

‘royal house’: lit. ‘house of the kingdom’.

‘sycamore’: a tree bearing small fig-like fruits; not the European or American sycamore. 2

3

‘teach’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܛܰ݁ܠ ܝܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ‪ :‬ܘܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘܣ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ܐ ܢܶ ݁ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܒ ܶܫ ݁ܒ ܬܝܐ ܢܶܫܬ ݁ ܶܒܐ ܶܡܢ ܐܪܥܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܬܐܡܘܨ ܬܝܐ ܠ ܬܥܡܘܣ ݂ܰܚ ܬܙ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܥܰ݁ܪܘܩ ܙܶܠ ܬܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܟܰ݁ܘܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܬ ܬܡܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܬܡܢ ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ܶܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܠ ܬܠ ݁ ݂ܰܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ܬܒܝܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܡܩܕ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟ ݁ܘܬܐ ܗܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܬܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܬܠ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ܬܥܡܘܣ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܡܘܨ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ܬܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܶܩܛ ݂ܰܫܩ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪܢ ܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܶܒܣܬܪ ܬܥܢܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡܪ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܙܶܠ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܰ݁ܬ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪܬ ܕܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܚܩ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶܠ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܰ݁ܬ ݁ܟ ܬ ݂ܰܙ ܶܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܢܰ݁ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܢܰ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ ܛܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܬܡܰ݁ ݁ܘܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܘܝܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ ݁ܓ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܢܰ݁ܬ ܒ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ ܢܶܦܠܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܐܪܥ ݁ܟ ܒ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܒ ܶܫ ݁ܒ ܬܝܐ ܢܶܫܬ ݁ ܶܒܐ ܶܡܢ ܐܪܥܶܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Chapter  

Thus did the Lord of lords show me the creation of the locust, when the late grass began to sprout:1 this was the late grass, after the king’s mowing.



When it had completely eaten2 the grass of the land, I said: Lord of lords, forgive us! Who will raise up Jacob, for he is feeble?



The Lord rejected3 this: it will not be.



Thus did the Lord of lords show me: the Lord of lords called for judgment by fire;4 it consumed the great deep; it consumed a portion (of the land).



I said: Lord of lords, forgive us!5 Who will raise up Jacob, for he is feeble?



The Lord rejected6 this: it too will not be.



Thus he showed me: See! The Lord stood upon a wall of adamant,7 and (a piece of) adamant in his hand.



The Lord said to me: What did you see, Amos? I said: Adamant. The Lord said to me: I set adamant in the midst of my people Israel, and no more will I pass over them.



The ridiculous idols’ shrines8 will be laid waste, the sanctuaries of Israel will be laid waste, I will arise against the house of Jeroboam with the sword.



Amaziah the priest of Bethel sent, to Jeroboam king of Israel, and said to him: Amos has rebelled against you, in the midst of the house of Israel - the land cannot bear his words.

‘when the late grass began to sprout’: lit. ‘at the beginning of the springing up of the late grass’. 1

2

‘completely eaten’: lit. ‘finished eating’.

3

‘rejected’: lit. ‘turned aside’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘judgment by fire’: lit. ‘to judge with fire’.

5

‘forgive us’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘rejected’: lit. ‘turned aside’. See Introduction. Addendum 1, 7:3.

7

‘wall of adamant’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

8

‘ridiculous idols’ shrines’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܙ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕ ܶܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܫܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ‬ ‫ܘܝܢ ܝ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒܰ݁ܪ ݁‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܨ ܐ ݁ܒܪܝܰ݁ܫ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܫܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܬܪ ܶܓ ܬܙ ܐ ܗ ܬܘܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܒܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܟܗ ܠ ܥܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܬܡܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܚ ܬܣܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ .‬ܡܢܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓ ݂ܰܡܪ ܠ ܡ ݁‬ ‫ܢܩܝܡܝܘܗܝ ܠ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕܙܥܘܪ ܗܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟܝܗ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ܬܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܕܢ ܒܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝܢ ܝ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܟܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݁ܬܗ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܟ ݁ܬ ܠ ݁ ܬܦܠ ܓ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܚ ܬܣܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܡܢܘ ܢܩܝܡܝܘܗܝ ܠ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕܙܥܘܪ ܗܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟܝܗ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܬܗ݁ ܶܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܗܝ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ ܐ݁ ܬܕ ܬܡܘܣ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܬܩܐܡ ݂ܰܥܠ ܫܘܪ ܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ ܬܐܕ ܬܡܘܣ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ݁ܐ ܬܕ ܬܡܘܣ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܠܰ݁ܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܚܙܝ ܬܥܡܘܣ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܬܣܐ ܶܡ ܐ ܬܢ ܬ ݁ܐ ܬܕܡܘܣ ܒ ݂ܰܓܘ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣܰ݁ ݁ܦ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܩܕ ܶܫܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪܒܢ ܦ ݂ܰܪ ܶܟܐ ݁ܕ ܓܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܟܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪܒܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܩܰ݁ܘܡ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ܢܶ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܒܝ ܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܪܐ ܕ ܶܒܝ ܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܠ ܬܰ݁ܘܬ ܝܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܫܠܚ ܐܡܘܨ ܬܝܐ ݁ܟ ܬ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܡܫܟܚܰ݁ܐ ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܕ ܥܠܝܟ ܥܡܘܣ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘ ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶܘܐܡܪ ܠܗ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܡܣ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܒܪܘ ܶܡ ݂ܰܠ ܘܗܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





  The Lord of lords has sworn by himself,1 the Lord God the mighty has said: I despise the magnificence of Jacob, I hated his palaces, I will hand over the city with all that is in it.2



If ten men remain in one house, they will die.



And his uncle, or whoever is near him to carry out3 the bones from the house, will lift him up, and will say to whoever is in the house: Is anyone still with you in the house? He will say to him: No-one, for they have perished, for they did not call to mind the name of the Lord.



For See! The Lord goes forth; he will smite the proud house and terrify it, the lesser house and lay it waste.4



Do horses run upon crags? Or yoke(s) (of oxen) plow there? For you have turned justice into gall, the fruits of righteousness to wormwood.



For they rejoice about nothing, they say: Was it not5 with our strength that we took a city?



For See! I raise up a people over you, house of Israel, says the Lord God the mighty, who will drive you away6 from the entrance to Hamath as far as the gorge of the Arabah.

1

‘himself’: lit. ‘his soul’.

2

‘all that is in it’: ‘its fullness’.

3

‘to carry out’: lit. ‘that he may carry out’.

4

‘terrify it … lay it waste’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘Was it not’ with not in doubt. 5

‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬here is ironic: the questioners imply that their strength is

‘who will drive you away’: lit. ‘they will drive you away’. See Introduction. Addendum 1. 6



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܡܣܶܠ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܬܝܩܰ݁ ܶܪܗ‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܡܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܡܐ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܫܠܡ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܬܣܚܪ ݁ܬܗ ܣܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܬܚܪܘܢ ܥܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܪܐ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒܪܝܢ ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ ܢܡ ݁ܘܬܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܢ ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܘܢܶܫܩܠܝܘܗܝ ܬܕ݁ ܶܕܗ ܐܘ ܶܡܢ ܕ ݂ܰܩܪ ݁ܝܒ ܶܠܗ ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܶܦܰ݁ܩ ܓܪܡܰ݁ܐ ܡܰ݁ܢ ܒܰ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܝ ܐ ܬܢܰ݁ܫ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܒ ݁ܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܐܝ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܢ ܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܠܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܣ ݁ܦܘ ܠ ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܟܪܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܩ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܐ ܬܪ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘܢܪܥܠܝܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܐ‬ ‫ܙܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܘ ݂ܰܢܨ ܕܝܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܐ ݂ܰ̈ܪܟ ܬܫܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܘ ܬܕܒܪܝܢ ܒܗܘܢ ݂ܰܦ ܬܕ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܪܗܛܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܫ ܬ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪ̈ܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܦܐ̈ܪ ܐ ܕ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܐ ܠ ݁ܶܓܕ ܶܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܝܢܐ ܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܚ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܡܪܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܬܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܣ ݁ܒܢ ݂ܰܠܢ ܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗܐ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܡܩܝܡ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܕܚܩ ܬܘܢ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܬܢܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܢ ܚܶܠ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ܬܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

Chapter 

IX



Woe to those who treat Zion with contempt,1 who put their trust in the mountain of Samaria, who appoint the heads of the nations, who exiled the children of Israel.2



Pass over to Calneh, and see! Go from there to Hamath the great! Go down to Gath of the Philistines - is it better than all these kingdoms? Their border is not greater than your border.



Who wait for3 the evil day, who bring near the Sabbath4 of violence.



Who lie down5 on ivory couches, delighting in their beds, who eat the fattened animals6 of the flock, calves from the midst of the herd.7



Who play upon the mouth of harps,8 and, like David, own musical instruments.9



Who drink strained wine, anoint (themselves) with the choicest salves, do not concern themselves with the ruin of Joseph.



Therefore they will be taken captive in the forefront of the captivity, their rulers will exult no more.10

1

‘treat Zion with contempt’ or ‘neglect Zion’.

‘who exiled the children of Israel’: lit. ‘and they exiled the children of Israel’. See Introduction. Addendum 1. 2

3

‘wait for’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘Sabbath’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘lie down’ or ‘fall asleep’.

6

‘fattened animals’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘midst of the herd’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘harps’ or ‘lyres/stringed instruments’.

‘own musical instruments’: lit. ‘musical instruments are reckoned to them’. ‘reckoned’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 9

‘their rulers will exult no more’: lit. ‘exultation will be taken away from their rulers’. 10



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܘ‪.‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܛ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠܕ ܬܫܝܛܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܠ ܶܨܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܬܟܝܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܒܛܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܬܦܪ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܝ ܠܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܠܝܘ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܒܢ ܝ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕܥܡܡܐ‪݂݁ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܚܙܘ‪ :‬ܘܙܶܠܰ݁ܘ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪܘ ܠ ݁ ܶܟ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܚܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܘ ܠ ܬ݁ܓܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ܶܠ ܫܬܝܶܐ‪ :‬ܕܛ ݁ ܬܒܐ ܗܝ ܶܡܢ ܟ ܶܗܝܢ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ :‬ܐܢ ݂ܰܣܓܰ݁ܝ ݁ܬܚܰ݁ܘܡܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܬܚ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܣ ܶܟܝܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܩ ݁ܪܒܝܢ ܠ ݂ܰܫܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܫ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܕ ݁ܐܟܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܟܒܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܥܪܣܰ݁‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܥܒܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܬܫܰ݁ܘ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܦܛܡܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܥܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܶܓܶܠ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܓܘ ݂ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܢܩܫܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܕܘ ݁ܝܕ ܚܫ ݁ܝܒܝܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܬܡ ݂ܰܐܢ ܝ ܬܙܡ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܟ ܬܢܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠܰ݁ܶܠ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܫܚܢܶܐ ̈ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܝܶܐ ܬܡܫܚ ܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܒܛܝܠ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܕܫ ݁ܬܝܢ ܚܡܪܐ ܡܨ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ܬܒ ܶܪܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܬ ܶܩܠ ܬܪܘ ܬܙ ܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝܛ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܢܶܫܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ܒܪܝܫ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

Let justice be revealed1 like water, and righteousness like a mighty torrent.



Did you offer me sacrifices and offerings (for) forty years in the wilderness, house of Israel?



But you carried the tabernacle2 of Malcom3 and Saturn your idol, the star which you made your god.



I will lead you away captive from Damascus, says the Lord, whose name is God the mighty.4

1

‘revealed’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘tabernacle’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

3

‘Malcom’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘the Lord, whose name is God the mighty’: lit. ‘the Lord the mighty God his name’. 4



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܙ‬

‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܓܠ ܬܐ ݂ܰܥܫܝܢܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢ ݁ܬܓܶܠ ݁ܕܝܢܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܡܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ܶܚ ܰ݁ܐ ܘܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܒܢܶܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܩ ܶܪ ݁ܒ ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܝ ܐܪܒܥܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܫܢ ܝ ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݁ ܶܒ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ܬܘܢ ݂ܰܡܫܟܢܶܰ݁ܗ ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܰ݁ܘܡ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܶܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܟܘܟ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܕܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܟܰ݁ܐ ܬܘܢ ݂ܰܨ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܐ ܬܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܫܒ ݁ܝܟܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܗܠ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܕܪܡܣܘܩ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

For I know that your transgressions are many and that your sins are grievous; the oppressors of the righteous have been bribed,1 they have turned away the poor at the gate.



Because of this, he who acts wisely at that time will keep silent, for it is a time of evil.



Seek good and not evil, that you may live; thus may he be with you, the mighty Lord, as you have said.



Hate evil, love good; establish justice in the gate: perhaps the Lord God the mighty will have compassion on the remnant of Joseph.



For thus says the Lord God the mighty: In all the markets (there will be) lamentation(s); in all the streets they will say: Alas! Alas!; they will call to the plowmen, to mourning,2 to lamentation(s), and to those who are skilled in wailing.3



And in all the vineyards, lamentation(s), for I am passing through your midst, says the Lord.



Woe to those who desire the day of the Lord: what is the day of the Lord to you? It is darkness, not light.



As a man flees from the presence of a lion - but a bear met him - and he enters a house, leans (with) his hand on the wall and a snake bites him –



So is the day of the Lord: dark and not light, gloomy, no brightness in it.



I hated and rejected your feasts, I will not accept the savor of 4 your religious assemblies.



Even if you should offer me whole burnt-offerings, I will take no pleasure in your offerings, I will not look on the best of your fattened (beasts).



Take away from me the sound of your music; I will no longer listen to the song of your harp.

1

‘been bribed’: lit. ‘taken a bribe’.

2

‘call the plowmen to mourning’ or ‘call to the plowmen for mourning’.

3

‘skilled in wailing’: lit. ‘those who know wailings’.

4

‘accept the savor of’: lit. ‘perceive the smell from’.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܒ ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܣܓܝܐܝܢ ݂ܰܚܘ ݂ܰܒܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܫܝܢ ܝܰ݁ܢ ܚܛ ݂ܰܗܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܨܘܗܝ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰܙ ܕ ܬܝܩܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݁ܒܘ ܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܨܠܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚܕܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶܡܣܟ ܬܢܐ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܓ ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܡܢ ܕ ܶܡܣܬ ݂ܰܟܠ ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܢܶܫܬܘܩ ܶܠܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܐܚܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥ ݁‬ ‫ܝܕ ܒ ݂ܰܥܘ ܛ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ ܘܠ ݁ܒܝܫ ݁‬ ‫ܶܕ ݂ܰܐܡܪܬܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܟ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ ܢ ݂ܰܪ ܶܚܰ݁ܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܘ ܛ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܩܝܡܰ݁ܘ ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܣܢܘ ܒܝܫ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕ ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܒ ݁ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܫܘܩܰ݁ܐ ܡܪ‬ ‫ܝܘ ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐܰ݁ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݁ܟ ܗܝܢ ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܝܐ ܢܐܡܪܘܢ ܬܗ ܬܘܝ‪ :‬ܬܗ ܬܘܝ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܩܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܠܟܰ݁ܪ ܐ ܠ ݁ܒܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܡܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܬܝ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܝ ܐܘܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܶܘ ݁ܟܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܙ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܟܪܡܐ ܡܪ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܬܗ ܶܘܐ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܚ ܬܘܝ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ܓܝܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܶܚܫܰ݁ ݁ܘܟ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܘܠ ݂ܰܢܗܝܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ ݂ܰܐ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܝܛ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܬܥ ܶܪܩ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܐܠ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ܓ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܶܠܗ ܶܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܢ ݁ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܘܣ ܶܡ ݁ܟ ܐ ݁ܝܕܗ ܥܠ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܶܒܗ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܚܫ ݁ܘܟ ܗܘ ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܢܗܝܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܡܘܛ ܗܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰܢܐ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ݂ܰܐܕ ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐ ܪܝ ܚ ܒ ܬܥ ܬܨ̈ܪ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܘܐܣܠ ݁‬ ‫ܟܐ ܣܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ܐܨ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܕܐ ݂ܰܫܠ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܒܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܬܐ ݁ ܶܦ ܰ݁ܢ ܬܣܩ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܝܩܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܒ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܫ ܰ݁ ݁ܘܦ ܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܡܝܟܘܢ ܠ ܐܚܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܶܡܢ ܝ ܬܩܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܙܡ ܬܪ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܙܡܝܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܟ ܬܢ ܬܪ ݁ܟ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Chapter  

Hear this word, which I take up against you - a lamentation, house of Israel.



She has fallen, she will not rise again, the virgin of Israel; she has been deserted upon the land and there is no-one to raise her up.



For thus says the Lord of lords: The city from which a thousand went out - a hundred will remain in it; from which a hundred went out - ten will remain in it, for those of the house of Israel.



For thus says the Lord to the house of Israel: Seek me, and live!



Do not seek Bethel, do not go into Gilgal, do not pass over to Beersheba, for Gilgal will indeed be taken captive, and Bethel will be as if it never was.



Seek the Lord and live! So that he will not burn up, like fire, the house of Joseph,1 consume Bethel, with none to put it out.2



Who turn judgment to gall, righteousness to the ground.



They have forsaken him, who made the Pleiades and Aldebaron, who turned to dawn the shadows of death, who made the day darken into night,3 who called to the waters of the sea, who poured them out upon the face of the earth: the Lord is his name.



Who sets the weak to rule over the strong, who raises the lowly above the exalted.4



Who hate the poor5 in the gate, who despise him who speaks (with) integrity.



Therefore, since you have trampled down the poor, and have taken from him choice6 offerings, you will not live in the houses of hewn stone which you built, and you will not drink the wine of the desirable vineyards which you planted. ‘he will not burn up, like fire, the house of Joseph’; or ‘the house of Joseph may not be burnt up like fire’. 1

2

‘to put it out’: lit. ‘who puts it out’.

3

‘made the day darken into night’: lit. ‘darkened day to night’.

4

‘sets the weak … the lowly above the exalted’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘the poor’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘choice’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܗ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ܬܐܢ ܬܫ ܶܩܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܐܘܠ ݁‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܡܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܬ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬ ܬܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܐ‬ ‫ܡܩܡ ܒ ݁ܬܘܠ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ݂ܰܕܡܩܝܡ ܬܠ ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢ ݁ܦܩܝܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܶܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܗ ܐܰ݁ ݁ܦ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܶܫܬܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܬܒܰ݁ܗ ܬܡܰ݁ܐܐ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܬܢ ݁ܦܩܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܶܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܗ ܬܡܰ݁ܐܐ‪ :‬ܢܶܫܬܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܬܒܰ݁ܗ ܥܶܣܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܥܐܘܢ ܝ ܠܝ ݂ܰܘܚ ݂ܰܝܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܓܠ ܬܓܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬܶܠ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶܥܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܫܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܥ ܠ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܒܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܬ ܶܥܒܪܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܓܠ ܬܓ ܬܶܠ ܶܡܫܬ ݁ ܬܒܝܘ ݁ܬ ܶܫܬ ݁ ܶܒܐ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݁ܕܠ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܠ ܢ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ‪ .‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܐܟܰ݁ܘܠ ܠ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܥܘ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܘܚ ݂ܰܝܘ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܢ ݂ܰܐܩ ݁ܕ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܢܘܪ ܐ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕܥܶ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ܬܗ ݁ܦܟܝܢ ܕܝܢܐ ܠ‬ ‫ܡܪ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܙ ܕܝܩ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܫ ݁ ݂ܰܒܩܘ ܠ ݂ܰܡܢ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܡ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ܠ ܨ ݁ܦܪܐ ܛܺܠܝ ܡܰ݁‬ ‫ܝܡܐ ܘܥܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ ܠ ܶܦܝܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܫ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܠܺܠ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐܫܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܥ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܪܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܶܠܛ ݂ܰܚ ܬܠ ܬܫܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥܫ ܬܝܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܥ ܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܪ ܬܡܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠ ܬ̈ܪ ܬܝܨ ܬܬܐ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܠ ܶܡܣܟ ܬܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܡܢ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ܬܣܢܶ ܝܢ ܒ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܠܰ݁ ݁ܦ ܕ ݂ܰܩ ݂ܰܦܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܠ ܶܡܣܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܒܢܶܰ݁ܐ ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݁ܒܰ݁ܬܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝܘܢ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶܬ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘܢ ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ ݁ .‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܪ ܓ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܶܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܒܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦܣܝܠ ܰ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܢܨ ݁ܒܬܘܢ ܠ ݁ܬܫܬܘܢ ݂ܰܚܡܪܗܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

I afflicted you with blight, with mildew, with hail; the abundance of your gardens and of your vineyards, your fig-trees and your olive trees, the creeping locust consumed - yet you did not return to me, says the Lord.



I sent plague among you, after the manner of Egypt; I slew your young men with the sword, together with the captivity of your horses; I made the stench of your sewage1 rise up into your faces - yet you did not return to me, says the Lord.



I overthrew some of you, as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah, and you were like the brand saved from the blaze - yet you did not return to me, says the Lord.



Because of these things, thus will I do to you, Israel, at the end, for this I do to you: prepare yourself, Israel, so that you may cry (to) your God.



For he who created the winds, created the mountains, who makes manifest his glory2 to mankind, who turns the dawn into3 thick darkness, who trod upon the high place(s) of the earth - the mighty Lord God is his name.

1

‘sewage’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

2

‘his glory’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘turns .. into’: lit. ‘makes’.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫ܘܒܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܟܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩ ܬܢܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ ܬܪܕ ܐ‪ .‬ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܡܝܟܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܚ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܕܬܐ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ݂ܰܙܝܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܟܠ ܬܡܫܘܛܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝܘܢ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܛܠܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܝ ݂ܰܡܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫݂ܰܫܕ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ ܡ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܕ ݂ܰ̈ܪܟܫܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܡܚ ܝ ܪܝ ܰ݁ܚ ݂ܰܣܪܝܘܬܟܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܰ݁ܝܘܢ‬ ‫݁݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ܘ ݁ܬܝ ܐܡܪ ܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܠܣܕܘܡ ݂ܰܘܠ ܬܥܡܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܗ ݁ܦ ܶܟ ܒܟܘܢ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܐ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝܘܢ ܠ ܘ ݁ܬܝ ܐܡܪ ܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬܦܨܝ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܫܠ ܗ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܒ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܪܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܗ݁ ܶܕ ܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܠ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܛ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܒ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܠ ܬܠ ܬܗ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܕ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ܰ݁ ܶܘܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ܛܰ݁ܰ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܛ ܬܢܐ‪ ݁ :‬ܬܘܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‬ ‫ܬܫܒܘܚܬܗ‪ :‬ܥ ݁ܒ ݁ܕ ܫ ݁ܦܪܐ ܥ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Chapter  VIII



Hear this word, cows of Bashan, who are on the mountain of Samaria, who oppress the needy, afflict the poor, and say to their lords: Bring to us, that we may drink.



The Lord of lords has sworn, by his holiness: See! Days are coming upon you when with weapons they will take you away, and your remnant in the fishermen’s cauldron.1



The woman will run towards the breach, straight ahead;2 they will be cast out at the mountain of Harmon, says the Lord.



Enter into Bethel, and transgress; in Gilgal, increase transgression; bring your sacrifices in the morning, your tithes at three days.



Raise up a thank-offering of something leavened, vow vows and fulfill (them)3 - for in this you have delighted,4 children of Israel, says the Lord.



Truly, I gave you blunt teeth,5 in all your cities, shortage of bread everywhere6 - yet you did not return to me, says the Lord.



Truly, I withheld the rain from you, when harvest was yet three months away;7 I brought down the rain on one city but not on another:8 rain would fall9 upon one part, but the portion upon which rain would not fall would dry up.



So two (or) three cities gathered together in one city, that they might drink water, but were not satisfied - yet you did not return to me, says the Lord. 1

‘weapons … caldron’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘straight ahead’: lit. ‘before her’ or ‘towards her’.

3

‘vow vows and fulfill (them)’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘in this you have delighted’: lit. ‘thus you have delighted’.

5

‘blunt teeth’: lit. ‘bluntness of teeth’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘everywhere’: lit. ‘in all your places’.

‘when harvest was yet three months away’: lit. ‘before three months of the harvest’. 7

8

‘but not on another’: lit. ‘and upon one not’.

9

‘fall’: lit. ‘come down’.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܚ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܒܛܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܶܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܓ ܬܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܡܘܫ ܶܚܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܕܛ ܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ܶܡܣܟܢܶܐ ܬܘܐܰ݁ ܬ ܠ ܬܒܝ ܶܫܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ܐܝܘ ݂ܰܠܢ ܢܶܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪܢ ܠ ܡܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܐܬܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫܩܠܰ݁ ܬܘܢ ݁ ܶܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܡܐ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܩܕܝܫܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܗ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܘ ܬܡ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܙ ܬܝܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ܪܬ ݁ ܶܟܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܣܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܨ ܬܝ ݁ ܶܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܰ݁ܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܬܕ ܬܝܰ݁ܢ ܠ ܛܰ݁ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ݁ܬܘܪ ݁‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪܗܛ ܐܢܰ݁ܬ ݁ܬܐ ܠ ܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ ܬܠ ܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܫ ݁‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܠ ݂ܰܘܐܥܶܠܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܠ ܬܓ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܓܘ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ܬܥܠܘ‪ :‬ܐܝܘ ܠ ݂ܰܨ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܥܘܠܘ ܠ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܝܘܡܝܢ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܣ ݂ܰܪܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬܠ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܕܘܪܘ ܢܶ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܶ̈ܪ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܶܠܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐܣܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܚܡܝܥ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܬܘܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܐܶ ܬܢ ܝܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚܣܝܰ݁ܪ ݁ܘܬ‬ ‫ܗܒ ݁ܬ ܠ ݂ܰ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܩܗܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ܶܫܢܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݁ܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ ܬ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝܘܢ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܚܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܶܡ ݁ܢܟܘܢ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܨ ݁ ܬܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܝܪܚ ܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܪܐ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܛܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬܠ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܦ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܟ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ ܢܶ ܚܰ݁ܘܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ ܬܠ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܦܠ ܓܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܕ ܬܠ ܢܶ ܚܘܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܪܐ ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܐܒܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܛܪܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܡܢ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ‪ :‬ܕܢܶܫܬ ܬܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܐ ܘܠ ܢܶܣܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ܶ ݂ܰܟܢ ܬܫܢ ܬܪܬܝܢ ܬ ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝܘܢ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

Thus says the Lord: As a shepherd snatches two legs, or the lobe of an ear, from the lion’s mouth - so will they be delivered, the children of Israel who live in Samaria - suddenly with a rod, and with the people who are from Damascus.1



Hear, bear witness in the house of Jacob, says the mighty Lord of lords, the God of Israel.



For on the day when I visit the iniquity of Israel upon him, I will (also) punish the altars of Bethel: the horns of the altars will be hewn off, they will fall to the ground.



I will destroy the winter house with the summer house, the ivory houses will come to naught, and many houses will come to an end, says the Lord.

‘suddenly with a rod, and with the people who are from Damascus’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 1



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܐܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܬܪܬ ܶܝܢ ܟ ܬܪܥܝܢ ݂ܰܐܘ ݂ܰܛ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܕܐ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܦܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܝܒܝܰ݁ܢ ܒ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܒܚܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ܶܕ ݁ܐܕ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ܨܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܛܪܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶܫܠܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܕܪܡܣܘܩ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܐܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‬ ‫ܐܣܰ݁ܗܕܘ ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ݂ܰܘ ܶ ݁‬ ‫݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ܶܩܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܗ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܓܕ ܬܡܢ ݂ܰܩܪ ܬܢ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܶܚܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܦ ܬܠܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܶܚܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܩܝܛܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܐܒܕܘܢ ܒܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܫ ܬܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܣ ݁ܘܦܘܢ ܒܰ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܬ ܬܘܐ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܶܒ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܣܓܝܐܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Chapter  

Hear this word, which the Lord has spoken concerning you, children of Israel - concerning the whole family which I brought up from the land of Egypt.



I said: You only have I known, of all the nations, and of all the families of the earth: therefore I will visit upon you all your transgressions.



Do two walk together, unless they have made an appointment?



Does the lion roar in the forest when he has no prey? Or does the lion raise his voice from his den when he has nothing to tear?1



Does a finch2 fall into a trap on the ground unless there is a fowler? Or does the trap spring to, from the ground, and shut?3



Is the trumpet sounded in the city, and the people do not tremble? Or is there evil in the city, which is not from the Lord?



For the Lord of lords does nothing, except when he has revealed his secret to his servants the prophets.



The lion has roared: who will not fear? The Lord of lords has spoken: who will not prophesy?



Proclaim in the palaces of Ashdod, and in the palaces of the land of Egypt, and say: Assemble yourselves, all of you, on the mountain of Samaria, and see the great tumult in her midst, the oppression within her.



They do not know how to deliver a reproof,4 says the Lord; they amass plunder and spoil in their palaces.



For thus says the Lord: Distress will encompass the land; her strength will fail5 her, her palaces will be despoiled.

1

‘when he has nothing to tear’: lit. ‘but if he tears’.

2

‘finch’ or some other small bird.

3

‘shut’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘to deliver a reproof’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘will fail her’: lit. ‘her strength will go down from her’.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܡܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܣܩ ݁ܬ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܪܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܕܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܒܠ ܚܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ ܝܶ ݁ܕܥܶܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܐܶ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܚܘ ݂ܰܒܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܪ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܐܢ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܐ ܙܠܝܢ ܬܪܝܢ ܐ ݁ܟ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܬܢ ܶܗܡ ܐ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܒ ܬܥ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪ :‬ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܠܝ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ܶܓܰ݁ ܬܙܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܐܘ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܡܪܝܰ݁ܡ ܬܩ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‬ ‫ܶ ܶܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܐܢ ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܡܪܒܘܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܬܢ ݁ܦ ܬܶܠ ܶܨ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܬܚܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݁ ܶܒܠ ܬܥ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܨ ܬܝ ݁ ܬܕܐ‪ :‬ܐܘ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܬܫ ݂ܰܘܪ ݂ܰܦ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܬܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܚ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬܡܐ ܠ ܬܙܐܥ‪ :‬ܐܘ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡܐ ܬܗ ܬܘܝܐ ݁ܒܝܫܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܫ ݁ܝܦܘܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܠ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܐܢ ܓܶܠ ܐ ܬܪܙܶܗ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܕܘܗܝ ݁ܢܒܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܢܗܡ ݂ܰܡܢ ܠ ܢܶ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܠ‪ :‬ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܡ ܶܠ ݂ܰܡܢ ܠ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢ ܶܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܬܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܪ ݁ ܬܬܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܪ ݁ ܬܬܗ ܬܕ ܐܫܰ݁ܕ ݁ܘܕ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪܘ‬ ‫ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰܢܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܟ ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ܛܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܚܰ݁ ݂ܰܰ݁ܙܘ ܕܠܘܚ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܬܝܰ݁ܐܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܰ݁ ܬܘܗ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܥܫܘܩܝܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܒܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܙܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܚܡܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܠ ܬܝ ݁ܕܥܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܠ ܡܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܡܟܣܢܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ܬܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ ܢܶ ܚܕܪܝܰ݁ܗ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܚܰ݁ ݁ܘܬ ܶܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܗ ܥܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܢܗ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢ ݁ܬܒܙ ܙܢ ܣ‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

I raised up prophets from your sons, Nazirites from your young men: Is it not so,1 children of Israel? says the Lord.



But you gave the Nazirites wine to drink and you commanded the prophets not to prophesy.2



See! I press you down into your place,3 as a cart presses down when it is full of sheaves.



And speed will perish from the swift, the strong will not retain his strength, the mighty will not save his life.



And the archer will not stand firm, the swift runner will not be saved, the horseman will not save his life.4



And he whose heart is strong, like that of the mighty man, he will flee, naked, on that day, says the Lord.

‘is it not so’: See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions as the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, vocabulary equivalents, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2 nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘not to prophesy’: lit. ‘that they should not prophesy’.

3

‘into your place’: lit. ‘beneath you’.

‘save his life’: lit. ‘preserve his soul’; the Syriac verb has a different root than was used in v. 14. 4



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬ ܶܡܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܩ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܝ ݂ܰܡܝܟܘܢ ܢܙܝܰ݁ܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܫܩܝܘܢ ݂ܰܠܢܙ ܶܝܪ ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܢܒܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܩܕܬܘܢ ܕܠ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢܒܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܝܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕܡܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܓܠ ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܝܐ ܶܫܒܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܡܥܝܩ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܬܚ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܣܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܛܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܩܠܝ ܬܰ݁ܶܠ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ݂ܰܥܫܝܰ݁ܢ ܬܠ ܢ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ݁ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܢ ܬܒܰ݁ܪ ܠ ܢ ݁ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ ܶܨ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݁ܐܒ ݁ܕ ܪ‬ ‫݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܛܗ ܬܠ ܢܶܬ ݂ܰܦ ܶܨ ܐ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ܬܪ ܬܫܐ ܠ ݂ܰܢܫܘܙܶ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܶܫܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩ ܬܫ ݁ܬܐ ܠ ܢܩܘܡ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ݂ܰܩܠܝܠ ܒܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܛ ܢܶܥܪܘܩ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܥܫܝܢ ܶܠ ܶܒܗ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ݁ܓܢܒܪܐ‪ :‬ܥ‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Chapter  

Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Moab - and of four - I will not turn away from them, for they burned the bones of the king of Edom, (turning them) into lime.



I will send fire to Moab; it will consume the palaces of Kerioth, and Moab will die amidst tumult, clamor, and the sound of the trumpet.



I will destroy the judge from its midst, and I will massacre its noblemen with him, says the Lord.



Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Judah - and of four - I will not turn away from them, for they despised the law of the Lord, they did not keep his commandments, and the idols after which their fathers went led them astray.



I will send fire to Judah; it will consume the palaces of Jerusalem.



Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Israel - and of four - I will not turn away from them, for they sold the righteous for silver, the needy for (a pair of) shoes, that tread upon1 the dust of the earth.



They humiliate the needy, they have turned aside the path of the poor; a man and his father go to the woman,2 so as to profane my holy name.



They were girding (measuring) lines on clothes,3 on the side of every altar; they were drinking old wine4 in the house of their gods.



I destroyed the Amorite before them, whose height was as the height of the cedar; he was mighty as the oak - I destroyed his fruit from above and his roots from below.



I brought you up from the land of Egypt, I led you in the wilderness for forty years, and I brought you to this place to inherit the land of the Amorites.

1

‘that tread upon’ or ‘of those who tread upon’.

2

‘the woman’: a cult prostitute.

‘They were girding (measuring) lines on clothes’ or with a different vocalization of the Syriac ‘On clothes, corruptors were girding’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 3

4

‘old wine’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܐܒ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ܬ ܬܠ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܘ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕܡܰ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܩ ݁ܕܘ ݂ܰܓܪ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܕܘܡ ܠ ݂ܰܣ ܬܝܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݂ܰܫܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪ ܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܡܰ݁ܘܐ ݁ܒ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܰ݁ܘܠ ܬܣܚܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬܗ ܕ ܶܩܪܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܡܰ݁ ݁ܘܬ ܡܰ݁ܘܐ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܘܒ ܬܩ ܬܶܠ ܕܫܝܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ݁ܕܠܘܚ ܝܐ‪ :‬ܒ‬ ‫ܩܥ ݁ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܕ ܬܝ ܬܢܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܓ ܶܘܗ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ ܐܚܪ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܘ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ܬܠ ܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܣܠܝܘ ܬܢܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܦܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ ܠ ܢܛܪܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܛܥܝ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣܪ ܬܝܩ ݁ܬܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܰܐܙܠܘ ܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܗܘܢ ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܚܪ ܬܬܗ ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܢܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܬܣ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܘ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܬܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܕ ݂ܰܙ ܶܒܢܘ ܠ ݂ܰܙ ܕ ܬܝܩܐ ܒ ܶܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܣܢܐ ݁ ݁ܕ ܬܕܝܫܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܣܦܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶܡܣܟ ܬܢܐ ܶܡܛܠ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩܦܚ ܝܢ ܠ ܶܡܣܟܢܶܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܐܒܘܗܝ ܐ ܙܠܝܢ ܠ ܬܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܒܝ ܶܫܐ ܨܠܘ‪݂݁ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܛ ݁ܢܦܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܐ ݁ܕܩ ݁ܘܕܫܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܢܬ ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܠ ݁ܒܘ ܶܫܐ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܶܠ ܬܚܙܩܝܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܶܓܢܰ݁ ݁ܒ ܟܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܚ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐ ݂ܰܗܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܥܬ ܬܝܩܐ ܬܫ ݁ܬܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ݂ܰܐܘܒ ܶܕܬ ܬܠܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܙ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܬܝܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܣܝܰ݁ܢ ܗ ܬܘܐ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܕܪ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݁ ݁ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܒܠܘܛܐ‪ :‬ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܦܐ̈ܪܘܗܝ ܡܢ ܠ ܥܠ‪ :‬ܘܥܩܪܘܗܝ ܡܢ ܠ ݁ܬܚܬ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ݂ܰܐ ܶܣܩܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬ܘܕ ݂ܰܒܪܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ܐܪܒܥܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܫܢ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܬܕ ܐܡ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܝ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܟܘܢ ܠ ݁ܬܪ ܐ ܬܗ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܠ ܡܐܪ ݁ܬ ܐ ܬ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.



 

Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Tyre - and of four - I will not turn away from them, for they delivered up to Edom an entire captivity, they did not call to mind the covenant of brotherhood.



I will send fire to the walls of Tyre and it will consume her palaces.



Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Edom - and of four - I will not turn away from them, for he pursued his brother with a sword, he cast forth all pity,1 he preserved his anger forever, and he preserved his wrath forever and ever.2



I will send fire to Teman and it will consume the palaces of Bozrah.



Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Amon - and of four - I will not turn away from them, for they ripped open the pregnant women of Gilead, so that they might widen their boundary.



I will light a fire in3 the streets of Rabbah, and it will consume her palaces - with clamor on the day of battle, with the whirlwind on the day of dark clouds.



Malcom4 will go into captivity, and her priests5 and her noblemen together, says the Lord.

1

‘he cast forth all pity’: idiomatic; lit. ‘he corrupted his compassion’.

2

‘forever and ever’: pl. of ‘forever’.

3

‘light a fire in’: lit. ‘set fire to’.

4

‘Malcom’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘priests’: in this context, the term probably means a priest of a pagan cult, as ̈ , used for a priest of the Mosaic law. opposed to ‫ܟܗܐܢ‬ 5



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܘ ܶܒܝܗ ܕܨܘܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܬܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܗܕܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܝ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܚ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܫܠܡܘ ݁‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰܫ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬ ‫ܠܡܬܐ ܠ݁ܕܘܡ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒܫܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕܨܘܪ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܣ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܘ ݂ܰܒ ܰ݁ܘܗܝ ݂ܰܕ ܐܕܘܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥ ܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦ ܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡ ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ܰ݁ܠ ܬܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܒܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰܪܕ ݁ܦ ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ ݂ܰܠܚܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܛܰ݁ܪ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܟܗ ܢܛܪ ܠ ܬܥܠ ܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓܙܗ‪ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܪ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܬܗ ܕ ݁ܒܘܨܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܣ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܢܘܪ ܐ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܘ ݂ܰܒܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܕܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ݂ܰܥܡܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܬܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܪ ݁ܬܘ ݂ܰܒܛܢ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܓܠ ܬܥ ݁ܕ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܢܪܘܚܘܢ ܬܚܘܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܫܒܘܩ ܢܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒܫܘ ܶܩܝܗ ܕܪ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܬ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܣܚܪ ݁ܬܗ‪ :‬ܒܩܥ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܥ ܬܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥܪ ܬܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܘܡ ݂ܰܒ ݁‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܘܡܪܘܗܝ ܘܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ ܐ ݁ܟ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Amos Ch.





Amos Chapter  

The words of Amos, who was one of the herdsmen1 of the children of Tekoa, which he saw concerning the children of Israel, in the reign of Uzziah king of Judah and in the reign2 of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake.



He said: The Lord will roar from Zion, he will give voice3 from Jerusalem: the sheepfolds will mourn4 and the summit of Carmel will wither.



Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Damascus and of four - I will not turn away from them, for they trampled Gilead with iron nails.5



I will send fire to the house of Hazeal and it will consume the palaces of Bar-hadad.



I will break the bars of Damascus, I will cast out the inhabitant of the plain of Aven, and him who holds the scepter of the house of Eden, and the people of Aram will be taken into captivity, to Kir, says the Lord.

VII



Thus says the Lord: Because of three transgressions of Gaza - and of four - I will not turn away from them, for they led away captive an entire captivity, which they would deliver up to Edom.



I will send fire to the walls of Gaza and it will consume her palaces.



I will cast out the inhabitant of Ashdod, and him who holds the scepter of Ashkelon, I will turn my hand against Ekron, and the remnant of the Philistines will perish, says the Lord of lords.

1

‘herdsmen’ or ‘shepherds’.

285

‘reign’1,2: lit ‘days’.

3

‘voice’: lit. ‘his voice’.

4

‘mourn’: lit. ‘dwell/sit in mourning’.

5

‘iron nails’ or ‘iron cutting instruments’.



‫ܥܡܘܣ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥܡܘܣ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܨܚ ܙ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܕ ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘܣ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܬܢܩܰ݁ ܶܕܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܬܩܰ݁ܘܥ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܙ ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܒܝܘܡܘܗܝ ܕܥܘܙܝܐ ܡܠ ܟܐ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܝܘܡܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܕܝܰ݁ܘܪ ݁ܒܥܡ ܒܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݂ܰܙ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܐܫ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܬ̈ܪܬ ܶܝܢ ܫܢ ܝܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܗܡ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܢܶܬܠ ܬܩ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒܰ݁ܢ ܶܒ ݁ܐܒܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶܝܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܒܫ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܗ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܪܡܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܘ ܶܒܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܕܪܡܣܰ݁ܘܩ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ܬܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݁ܕ ܬܕܫܘ ܒ ܶܣܟܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦܪܙܠ ܠ ݁ ܶܓܠ ܬܥ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܕܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܠ ݁ܒܝܗ ܕ‬ ‫ܚܙܐܝܠ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܬܣܚܪ ݁ܬܗ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ݁ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܬ ݂ܰܒܪ ܡܘ ݁ܟ ܶܶܠ ݁ܕ݁ ݂ܰܕܪܡܣܘܩ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݁ܕ ܐܘܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܶܡ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݁ܕ ܬܥܡܘܪ ܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܦܩ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܥ ܬܕܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܫܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ܥܡܐ ݁ܕ ܐܪܡ ܠ ܩܝܪ ܐܡܪ ܡܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܚܘ ܶܒܝܗ ܕ ܬܥ ܬܐܙ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܐܪܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܬܠ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢܫܠ ܡܘܢ ݁ܠܕܘܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܒܘ ݁‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰܫ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒܫܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܕ ܬܥ ܬܐܙ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܣ‬ ‫ܐܘܒܕ ܬܥܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܩܠܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܶܡ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒ ܬܛܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܐܫܕ ݁ܘܕ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܐܗܦ ݁ܟ ܐ ݁ܝܕܝ ݂ܰܥܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܶܩܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܐܒܕܘܢ ݂ܰܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ܶܠ ܫܬܝܶܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܶܪ ܐ ܬܡ ݂ܰܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.





The nations will be aroused, they will go up to the vale of Jehoshaphat, for there I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations.



Make the sickles strong, for the vintage is ripe; go up! Tread! For the cisterns have filled up and the wine-presses have overflown, for their evil has increased.



The uproar of the tumult in the vale of decision - for the day of the Lord is near, in the vale of decision.1



The sun and the moon grew dark, the light of the stars grew dim.



The Lord will roar from Zion and raise his voice from Jerusalem; the heavens and the earth will tremble, the Lord will take pity on his people and strengthen the children of Israel.



You will know that I am the Lord your God, that I dwell in Zion, my holy mountain, that Jerusalem will be holy, and strangers will no longer dwell in it.



On that day, the mountains will drip sweet wine, the high hills flow with milk, all the brooks of Judah will flow with water, and a spring will go forth from the house of the Lord, and will water the valley of Shittim.



Egypt will be destroyed, Edom will become a desolate wilderness, for they despoiled2 the children of Judah and they shed innocent blood in their land.



Judah will endure3 forever, Jerusalem for generations.



I will avenge their blood, I will not take pity: for the Lord dwells in Zion.

1

‘decision’1,2: pl., lit. ‘what is decided’.

2

‘for they despoiled’: lit. ‘from the spoil of’.

3

‘endure’: lit. ‘dwell’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܶܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܶܬܬܥܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܪܘܢ ܘܢܶܣܩܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ ܬܦܛ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁ܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ ܐܬ ݁ܒ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܝܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܢ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܛ ݁ ܬܦܐ‪ :‬ܥܘܠܘ ܕܘܫܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܠܘ ܓܘ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܫ ݂ܰܪܪܘ ݂ܰܡܓܶܠ ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܶܫܠ‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܒܝܫ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܦܥ ݂ܰܡܥܨ̈ܪ ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܣ ݁ܓ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܩܪ ݁ܝܒ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܶܪ ݁ܓ ܬܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ‬ ‫ܘܫܝܐ ݁ܒܥܘܡܩܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܦܣܝܩ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܦܣܝ ܬܩ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܪܒ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܘܟ ݁ ܶܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܫ ݁ܟܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܰ݁ܗܡ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܬܠ ܬܩ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܙܘܥܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܐܘܪܫܠܰ݁ܡ ܢܰ݁‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܢ ܚܘܣ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܰܚ ܝܶܠ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܥ ݂ܰܡܪ ܐ ܬܢ ܒ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ ܛܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܕܫܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫݁ܘܬܕܥܘܢ ܕ ܐܢ ܐܢ ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݂ܰܩܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܢܶܥܡܪܘܢ ܬܒܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܢܛ ݁ܦܘܢ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݂ܰܚܠ ܝ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܢܪ ܕ ܬܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܚܠ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܢܶܦܰ݁ܘܩ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܩܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܦܨ ܝ ݁ ܶܕܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݂ܰܢܪܕܘܢ ݂ܰܡܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܒܘܥܰ݁ܐ ܡܰ݁ܢ ܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰܢ ܚܶܠ ݁ܕ ܬܤܛܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܒ ܬܶܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܕܘܡ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܚܛ ݁ܘܦ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫ ݁ܕܘ ܕ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܙ ܬܟ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܐܪܥܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ ܬ ܶܬ ܶܒ‪ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܠ ݁ ܬܕ ܬܪܕ̈ܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܥ ܶܕܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܘܠ ܐ ݂ܰܚ ܶܣܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܬܥ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ܒ ܶܨܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.



Chapter  

For in those days and at that time, when I restore the captivity of Judah and of Jerusalem,



I will gather all nations; I will bring them down to the valley of Jehoshaphat; I will enter into judgment with them there, on account of my people, on account of1 Israel my inheritance, who were scattered among the nations, for they divided my land.2



They cast lots for my people; they gave young boys for the hire of prostitutes, they sold young women for wine, and they drank.



How are you valued by me,3 Tyre and Sidon, all the region of Philistia? Are you requiting me (with) retribution? If you are loading me with recompense, speedily and swiftly I will return your retribution on your (own) head.



Since you have taken my silver and my gold, and will carry my beautiful vessels to your temples,



And have sold the children of Judah and the children of Jerusalem to the children of the Greeks, so that you might put them far away from their border,



See! I am arousing them, from the place into which you sold them, and I will return your retribution on your (own) head.



I will deliver your sons and your daughters into the hand(s) of the children of Judah, and they will sell them to Sheba, to a far-off people, for the Lord has spoken.



Proclaim this among the nations, sanctify a battle, arouse the mighty men; may they draw near, may they ascend, all the warriors.



Beat plowshares into swords, sickles into spears - may the weakling say: I am a mighty man.



Gather together, come, all you surrounding nations: come near, and there the Lord will break down your might.

1

‘on account of’1,2: lit ‘on the face of’.

‘for they divided my land’: the victors, not the Israelites, are the subject of this phrase. 2

3

‘How are you valued by me’: lit. ‘What are you reckoned to me’.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܬܗܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܡܗܦܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬܢ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ ܬܦܛ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܕܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܚ ݁ܬ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ܢ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܟܢܶܫ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܥܡܡܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ܝ ܐܝ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܬ ܬܡܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰܦܝ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ܬܝܰ݁ܪܬ ݁ܘܬܝ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪܘ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܠ ݁ܓܘ ܐܪܥܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ݂ܰܐܪܡܝܰ݁ܘ ܶܦܰ݁ ܶܨ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰܙ ܶܒܢܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܛ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐܓܰ݁ܪ ܙܢ ݁‬ ‫ܘܝܗ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘ ܛ ܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ܶܘܐܫܬܝܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܠܰ݁ܝ ܨܘܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܨܝܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܕܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܰ݁ܗ ܓܠܝ ܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ܶܠܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܬ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܚܫܝ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܢ ܐܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܓܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܘܪܥ ܬܢܐ ݁ ܬܦܪܥ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܠܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܘܐܢ ܚܰ݁ܘ ݁ܒܶܠ ܪܡܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܥܠܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫ܪܗܒܐܝ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪܥ ݁ܢܟܘܢ ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܡܣ ݁ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܝܪ ܐ ݂ܰܐܥܶܠ ܬܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܗܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܣܒܬܘܢ ܶܟܣܦܝ ݂ܰܘܕܗܒܝ‪ :‬ܘ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܢܝ ݂ܰܫܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܝܗ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݂ܰܘܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ݂ܰܙ ܶܒܢܬܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܢ ܝܶܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ܬܪܚܩܰ݁ܘܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬܚܘܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ .‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܗܦܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬܗܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܡܥܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐ ݁ܬܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܙ ܶܒܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪܥ ݁ܢܟܘܢ ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܫܠܡ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܢܙ ܒܢܘܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܐ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܪܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܡ ܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪܒܘܢ ܘܢܶܣܩܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܩ ܶܕܫܘ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪ :‬ܐܥܝܪܘ ܠ ݂ܰ݁ܓܢ ܬܒܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܟ ܶܪܙܘ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ܒ ݁ܬ ܶܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ܓ ݁ܒܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܚܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܘܥܘ ܶܣ ݂ܰܟܝ ݂ܰܦ ܬܕ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܣܝ ܶܦܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܓ ݂ܰܠ ܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܠܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܕ ݂ܰܚ ܬܠܰ݁ܫ‬ ‫ܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܢ ܬܒ ܬܪܐ ܐ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܚܕܝܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ݁ܘܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰܢܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ݁ܘܬܘ ܟ ݁ܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܓܢ ܬܒܪ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.





I will make wonders in the heavens and on the earth: blood, and fire, and fumes of smoke.



The sun will be darkened and the moon (turned to) blood, before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord.



All who call upon the name of the Lord will be saved, for on the mountain of Zion and in Jerusalem there will be deliverance, as the Lord said, for the remnant whom the Lord has called.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܠ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܠ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܥܒ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܶܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݁ܘܕܚ ܝ ܶܠ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܪܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܬܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܥ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܶܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ܠ ܶܚܫ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܕܢ ݁ܐܬܐ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܟܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܬܡܐ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬

‫ܘܪ ܐ ܕ ܶܨܗܝܰ݁ܘܢ ܘܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݁ܘܟܠ ܕܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܫܡ ݂ܰܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܢܶ ݁ܬܦܰ݁ ܶܨ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒܛܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܙܒܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܫܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܕ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܫ ݁‬ ‫ܘܙܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.





The Lord answered, and said to his people: See! I am sending you grain, wine and oil, so that you may be satisfied, and I will no longer make you a reproach of the nations.



I will drive away the northerner from you, I will drive him away to a dry and desolate land, his face towards the ancient sea, his rear towards the last1 sea; his odor will spread, his savor2 rise up, for he has risen up to do (great things).



Land, do not fear - exult and rejoice, for the Lord has risen up to do (great things).



Wild animal(s), do not fear, for the tender grass has sprouted in the camps in the wilderness, the tree has given its fruits, the vine and the fig-tree have given their strength.



Children of Zion, exult and rejoice in the Lord your God, who gives you the food3 of righteousness, who sends down to you the early rain and the latter (rain), as before.



The granaries will be filled with grain, the vats will overflow with wine and with oil.



I will recompense you for the years which the flying locust ate, and the crawling (locust), and the grub, and the creeping locust, my great host which I sent upon you.



You will eat and you will be satisfied; you will praise the name of the Lord your God who performs wonders for you: my people will never be ashamed.



You will know that I am in the midst of Israel: I am the Lord your God, there is none other than me; my people will never be ashamed.



And afterwards, I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh: your sons and your daughters will prophesy; your elders will dream dreams, your youths will see visions.



And upon servants and upon maidservants, I will pour out my spirit, in those days.

1

‘ancient … last’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘savor’: the Hebrew word ‫ צחן‬means an unpleasant smell. P ‫ ܣܘܬܐ‬usually means a pleasant smell, perhaps used because the smell of dead locusts was welcome. 2

3

‘food’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܡܫ ݂ܰܕܪ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܟܘܢ ܥܒܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܪܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܛ ݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪ :‬ܬܗܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܶܣܒܥܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܐܶܬܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ܶܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܣܕܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݂ܰܘܠ ݂ܰܓܪܒ ܬܝ ܬܝܐ ݁ܐܶܕܚܘܩ ܶܡ ݁ܢܟܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܕܚܩܝܘܗܝ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܪܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܨܗ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݁ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܝܡܐ ܩ ݁ܕܡܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܚ ݁ܪܬܗ ܠ ܝܡܐ ܐܚܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܡܚܐ ܪܝ ܚܗ ݁ܘܬܣܩ ܣܘ ݁ܬܗ‪ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܶܕ ܐܬܬܪܝܡ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܐ ܬܠ ݁ ݁ܬ ܶܕܚܠܝܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܶܕ ܐܬܬܪܝܡ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܕܘܨܝ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܕ ݂ܰܕܒ ܬܪܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܝܥܐ ݂ܰܬܕ ܬܐܐ ܒ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܠ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܠ ݁ܬ݁ܕܚܠܝܢ ܚ ܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܓ ݁ ܶܦܬܐ ݁ܘܬܬܐ ݂ܰܝܗ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ܶܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܝܰ݁ ܶܗ ݁ܒ ܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡ ݁ܐܟܰ݁ܘܠ ܬܐ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܶܨ ܬܗܝܰ݁ܘܢ ܕܘܨܘ ݂ܰܘܚܰ݁ ݁ ݂ܰܰ݁ܕܘ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܛܪܐ ݁ܪܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶܚ ݁ܬ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܥ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫ ܬܝܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܶܡܢ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܫܦ ܬܥܢ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܘܢܶܬܡܠܘܢ ܐܶܕ ܶ̈ܪ ܐ ܥܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܨ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܨܪܨ ܬܘܪ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܟܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܨ ܐ ݁ ܬܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܙܚܶܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܢ ܬܝܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ ݂ܰܐܟܠ ݂ܰܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܫܘܛܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܚ ܝܠܝ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܶܘ ݁ܐܦܪ ݁‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܫܕ ܶܪܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܟܘ ݁ܘܬ ܶ ݁ܐܟܘܢ ݁ܘܬܣܒܥܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܫܒܚܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܗܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥ ݁‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܗ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܬܕ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܟܙ ݁ܘܬ ܶܕܥܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܓܘ ܐܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܐ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶ ݁ܒܗ ݁ܬ ܥܡܝ ܠ ܥܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܟܢ ܐܫ ݁ܘܕ ܪܘܚ ܝ ݂ܰܥܠ ܟܠ ܒ ݂ܰܣܪ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܢܒܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܟܚ ܘܡܢ ܒ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܟܘܢ ܚܠ ܡܐ ܢ ܚܠ ܡܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܥܠ ܝܡܝܟܘܢ ܚܙܘ ܢ ܢ ܚܙܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܠܡ ܬܗ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܫ ݁ܘܕ ܪܘܚ ܝ ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܬܗܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܛ ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ݂ܰܥܠ ܥ ݁ܒܕܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.





They will go up within the cities, they will run upon the city walls, they will go up upon the houses, they will go in through the windows like thieves.



In their presence1 the earth was agitated, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon grew dark, and the light of the stars grew dim.2



The Lord gave voice3 before his army, for his host is exceedingly numerous; the manifestation of his word is powerful; for the day of the Lord is great, terrifying - who can endure it?



So now, says the Lord: Turn to me with all your heart, with a fast, with weeping and with mourning.



Rend your hearts, not your garments, and turn to the Lord your God, for he is merciful and compassionate, long-suffering,4 his goodness is great, and he overthrows evil.



Who knows if he may turn and have mercy upon us, making the blessing in his place enough and to spare,5 and fine flour and drinkoffering to the Lord your God.



Sound the trumpet in Zion, sanctify a fast, call6 an assembly.



Gather the people, sanctify the congregation, gather the elders, gather the young, the infants at the breast, let the bridegroom come out from his bed-chamber, the bride from her bridal bed.7



Between the porch and the altar may they weep, the priests who are the ministers of the Lord, let them say: Have pity on your people, Lord; do not make your heritage a reproach, and to the ruler of the nations,8 so that the nations will not say: Where is their God?



The Lord was moved with indignation for his land and he took pity on his people. 1

‘In their presence’: lit. ‘Before him’.

2

‘grew dim’: lit. ‘set’.

3

‘voice’: lit. ‘his voice’.

4

‘long-suffering’: lit. ‘his spirit is long’.

5

‘enough and to spare’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘Sound … call’: both translate a single Syriac root.

7

‘bridal bed’: lit. ‘house of her bridal bed’.

8

‘and to the ruler of the nations’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ܢܶܪܗܛܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ܢܶܣܩܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ܢܶܣܩܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ܘܐ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܫ‬ ‫ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶܬ‬ ‫ܢܶܥܠܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܓܢ ݁ܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܣܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܫ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܐܶܬ ݂ܰܕܠ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܙܥܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܫ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܪ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܘܟ ݁ ܶܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܕܡ ݂ܰܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܝܗ ݁ܒ ܬܩ ܶܠܗ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܠܰ݁ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܣܓ ܬܝܰ݁ܐܐ ܗܝ ܛܰ݁ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܫܰ݁ܪ ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ܬܕܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܪܒ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥܫܝܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ݁ܕܚ ܝܰ݁ܠ ܛܰ݁ ݁ܒ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܡܢܘ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܣ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܒܪ ܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܶܠ ܒ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܟܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬܦ ݂ܰܢܘ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܒ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݁ܒܡܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܨܪܘ ܶܠ ݂ܰܒܝܟܘܢ ܘܠ ݂ܰܢ ܚܬܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܦ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘ ܠ ܬܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶ݁‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܦ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣܓ ܬܝܰ݁ܐܐ ܛܝܒܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪܐ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܶܚܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܢ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐܶܢ ܶܡ ݁ܬܦܢܶܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܟܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܣܡ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܘܬܪ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ ݁ܐܬܪܗ ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩ ܬܝܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܫܝܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܩ ܶܕܫܘ ݂ܰܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܟܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܟܢܘܫܘ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܩ ܶܕܫܘ ܥܕ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܟܢܘܫܘ ܬܣ ݁ ܶܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܟܢܘܫܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܝ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ ܬܘܝܢ ݂ܰܩܰ݁ܝ ܬ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܓܢ ܬܘܢܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܶܦܘܩ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܩܝܛܘܢܶܗ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ݁ܬܐ ܶܡܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܝܢ ܝ ܶܩܣܛܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܚܐ ܢܶ ݁ܒܟܘܢ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܡ ܬܫ ݂ܰܢܘܗܝ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܡܰ݁ܪܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚ ܰ݁ܘܣ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡ ܰ݁ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬܬܠ ܬܝ ܰ݁ܪܬ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟ ܠ ܶܚܣ ܰ݁ ܬܕܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ܫܘܠ ܛ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟܘ ܐܗܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܢܐܡܪܘܢ ܥܡܡܐ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܛ ܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒܐܪܥܶܗ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܣ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.



Chapter  

Sound the trumpet in Zion, cry out on my holy mountain: let all the inhabitants of the earth tremble, for the day of the Lord has come.

VI



It has drawn nigh, a day of darkness and of gloom, a day of cloud and of thick darkness, like the early dawn covering the mountains: a nation numerous and strong, like nothing before,1 nor will there be after it for years, for generations and generations.2



Before them, a devouring fire; behind them, a flame consumes: the land before them is like the garden of Eden, but behind them, a desolate wilderness, none escapes them.3



Its appearance is like the appearance of horses; like horsemen, so do they run.



Like the sound of creaking chariots on the mountain-tops, like the sound of the flame of fire which devours the stubble, like a strong nation set in battle array.



The nations will tremble before him; all faces will be black4 as the coals for the cauldron.5



They will run like mighty men; like warriors they will ascend the city walls; each will go along his (own) path; they will not deviate from their paths.



No man will push away his brother, but each will go6 in his own pathway; they will fall under the weight of their armor,7 and they will not go up to the top.8

1

‘like nothing before’: lit. ‘like it there was not ever’.

2

‘for years, for generations and generations’: lit. ‘until years of generations’.

3

‘them’1,2,3,4,5: sing. pronouns; ‘the nation’ is the antecedent.

4

‘black’: as a sign of mourning.

5

‘coals for the cauldron’ or ‘soot of the pot’.

6

‘push away … will go’: pl. verbs.

7

‘they will fall under the weight of their armor’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘they will not go up to the top’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܨܚ ܘ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܥܘ ܒܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܫܝ ݁ܦܘ ܬܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ܶܨܗܝܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕܩ ݁ܘܕܫܝ‪ :‬ܢܙܘܥܰ݁ܘܢ ܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘ̈ܪܝܗ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܛܐ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܦܶܠ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦܪܝܰ݁ܣ‬ ‫ܘܩܪ ݁ܒ ܝܘܡܐ ݁ܕܚܫ ݁ܘܟܐ ݁ܘܕܥܡܛܢܐ‪ :‬ܝܘܡܐ ݁ܕܥܢܢܐ ݁ܘܕܥ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܬܝܐܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥܫ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܟܰ݁ ܬܘ ݁ܬܗ ܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܡܰ݁ܢ ܥܠܰ݁ܡ‪݁ :‬ܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܪܗ ܠ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ܛ‬ ‫ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܠ ܫ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܕ ܬܪܕ̈ܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܕܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܐ ݁ܟܶܠ ܢܘܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܒ ݁ܬܪܗ ܡ ݁‬ ‫ܘܩܕܐ ܫܠ ܗ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܣܬܪܗ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰܚܪ ܬܒܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܕ ܶܡܫܬ ݂ܰܘܙ ݁ܒ ܶܡܢܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܦ ܬܪ ܶܫܐ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܬܪܗܛܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܚ ܬܙܘܐ ݁ܕ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܐ ܶܚ ܶܙܘܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܕܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢܗ ܬܙܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܫܝ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܩܶܠ ݁ܕܡܪ ܟ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܬܩܶܠ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܫܠ ܶܗ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܕܝܪ ܠܩܪ ݁ܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܟܶܠ ݂ܰܚܒ ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܥܡܐ ܥܫܝܢܐ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܢܙܘܥܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܠ ݂ܰܐܦܝܢ ܢܶܐ ݁ܟ ܬܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܶܢ ܢܶܣܩܰ݁ܘܢ ܒܫܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܓܢ ܬܒܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ ܢܶܪܗܛܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܓ ݁ܒܰ݁ܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܗ ܢܐܙܠܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶܣܛܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܗ ܢܐܙܠܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܪܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܙܝܢܗܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܠܚܘܗܝ ܠ ܢܶ ݁ܕܚܩܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܠ ݁ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ݂ܰܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܢܶܦܠܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶܣܩܘܢ ܠ ܪܝܫ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.





Why do the cattle groan, the herds of bulls lament? Because there is no pasture for them, the flocks of sheep too have perished.



I will call to you, Lord, for the fire has devoured the camps in the wilderness; the flame has set on fire all the trees of the field.



The wild animals too cry out to you, for the watercourses have dried up; the fire has devoured the camps in the wilderness.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܝ ܠ ܗܝܰ݁ܢ ܪ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܶܡܬܬ ܢ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒܥܝܰ݁ܪܐ ݁ܘܒ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܢ ܒ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܓ ܬܙ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥܢܐ ܬܣ ݁ܦܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܟܰ݁ܬ ܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬ ݁ܟ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܫܠ ܶܗ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܶܕ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ݁ܬ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ ܐܝ ܬܠ ܢܶܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܟܬ ܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܝܐ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ ܬܬ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݁ܕ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ܬ݁ܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܒܫܘ ܦܨ ܝ ݁ ܶܕܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܦ ܚ ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܶܝܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܪܐ‪.‬ܬ‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.





The meal-offering and the libation are lacking1 from the house of the Lord; the kings2 sat in mourning, and the priests ministering to the Lord.



The field was plundered, the earth dwelt in mourning, for the grain was plundered, the wine dried up, and the olive trees3 laid waste.



The plowmen were ashamed and the vine dressers wailed4 for the wheat and for the barley, for the harvest of the field had vanished.



The vine has dried up, the fig-tree has been laid waste, and the pomegranates, the palm trees, and the apples: all the trees of the field have dried up, for the joy of mankind has come to an end.5



The priests have put on sackcloth, those who minister at the altar have mourned and have wailed. Go in; pass the night in sackcloth, ministers of my God, for the meal-offering and the libation were withheld from the house of your God.



Sanctify a fast and call an assembly, gather together the elders and all the inhabitants of the land, to the house of the Lord your God; cry out to the Lord your God and say:



Alas! Alas! For the day which is nigh is the day of the Lord, and (as) plunder it will come6 from the Lord.



See! The food stores were taken7 from the house of our Lord before our eyes - and joy and exultation.



The heifers thirsted8 in their stalls;9 the store-rooms were laid waste; the wine-presses10 were demolished; the grain dried up.

1

‘are lacking’: lit. ‘have passed away’.

2

‘kings’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘olive trees’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘The plowmen … wailed’ or ‘Be ashamed, plowmen, and howl, vinedressers’.

5

‘the joy of mankind has come to an end’: lit. ‘joy has ceased from mankind’.

6

‘(as) plunder it will come’ or ‘plunder will come’.

7

‘were taken’: lit. ‘passed away’.

8

‘thirsted’: lit. ‘were parched’.

9

‘The heifers thirsted in their stalls’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

10

‘wine-presses’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܐܒܰ݁ ܬܶܠ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܣܡ ݁ ܬܝܕܐ ܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟܰ݁ܗ ܶܢ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܬܝܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܡܫܝܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܶܕ ܐܬܒܰ݁ܙܶܙ ܥܒܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܒܰ݁ܫ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܝ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܬ ܶܒ ݁ܐܒ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܙ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚܩܶܠ‪݁ ܶ :‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܒܘ ݂ܰܙܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܺܠܘ ݂ܰܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܥ ܶܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܨ ݁ ܬܕ ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܩܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܚ‬ ‫ܒܗ ݁ܬܘ ܐܟܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܝܶ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܬ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܬܬܐ ܶܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܙܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܐܝ ܬܠ ܢܶܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ ݁ܬ‪ :‬ܘ̈ܪܘܡܢܰ݁ܐ ݁ܘܕܩܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܓ ݁ܦ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕܚܩܶܠ ܝ ݁ܒܫܘ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܒܛܠ ݁ܬ ܚ ݁ܕ ݁ܘܬܐ ܡܢ ܒܢ ܝܢܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܟܗ ܶܢ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܒܢܘ ݂ܰܣ ܶܩܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܺܠܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܡ ܬܫ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܥܘܠܰ݁ܘ ܒܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܘ‬ ‫ܐܪܩܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܣ ܶܩܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܫܡ ܬܫ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ ݂ܰܕܐܰ݁ܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬܟܰ݁ܝ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܝܗ ݂ܰܕܐ ݁‬ ‫ܣܡ ݁ ܬܝܕܐ ܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܩ ܶܕܫܘ ݂ܰܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܫܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ݂ܰܢܫܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܩܫܝ ܶܫܰ݁ܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܥܡܰ݁‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܟܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܓ ݂ܰܥܘ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܩܪ ݁ܝܒ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܗ‪ :‬ܐܘܗ‪ :‬ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܙܬܐ ܶܡܢ ܐ ܬܗܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܐܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘ ܬܗܐ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ܕ ݁ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܘ݁ܕ ܬܝ ܬܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟ ݁ܬܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ݂ܰܕܐ ݂ܰܗܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܡܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܨ̈ܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܣܬ ܶܚܰ݁ܦ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܘܝ ܡܘܫ ܶܚܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܨ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܒܰ݁ܫ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘ ܐ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܥܒܘܪ ܐ‪.‬ܬ‬ ‫݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Joel Ch.



Joel Chapter  

The word of the Lord which came1 to Joel the son of Bethuel:



Hear this, elders; give ear, all harlots of the earth. Was it ever2 like this in your days, or in the days of your fathers?



Tell of this to your children, and your children to their children, and their children to the next generation.



That anything which the creeping locust3 left, the flying locust ate; and anything that the flying locust left, the crawling locust ate; and anything that the crawling (locust) left, the grub4 ate.



Wake up, drunkards, and weep! Howl, all wine-drinkers, for the wine which you will never drink!5



For a nation has come up to my land: strong, numberless, its teeth like the teeth of the lion, its biting teeth like the biting teeth6 of a young lion.7



It laid waste my vine, broke down my fig-tree:8 broke it down, threw it down, its branches (bleached) white.



Mourn, like a virgin who has put on sackcloth for the husband of her youth.

‘came’: lit. ‘was’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2 nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘Was it ever’: lit. ‘If it was’.

‘creeping locust’ or ‘canker-worm’: a term used for more than one species of locust or possibly a stage of development. 3

4

‘grub’ or ‘locust’.

5

‘you will never drink’: lit. ‘has passed away from your mouth’.

6

‘biting teeth’: lit. ‘canine’ or ‘molar’ teeth.

7

‘young lion’: lit. ‘lion’s cub/whelp’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘broke down my fig tree’: lit. ‘(made) my fig-tree for breaking down’.



‫ܝܘܐܝܠ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕܝܘܐܶܝܠ ݁ܢܒܝܐܬ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܝܘܐܝܠ ݂ܰܒܪ ܒ ݁ܬܘܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܬܗ݁ ܶܕ ܐ ݂ܰܩܫܝ ܶܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܨ ݁ܘܬܘ ܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܥܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܐܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݁ܬ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܝ ܐ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬ ݂ܰܥܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܠ ݁ ܬܕ ܬܪ ܐ ܐܚܪ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܨ ܐ ݁ ܬܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܛܐ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݁ ݂ܰܟܠ ݂ܰܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܟܠ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܕܡ ܕ ܐܘܬܪ ܩܡܨ ܐ ݁ܦ‬ ‫ܕܡܕܡ ܕ ܐܘܬܪ ܡܫ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܶܠ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݂ܰܟܠ ݂ܰܨܪܨܘܪ ܐ‪.‬ܬ‬ ‫ܩܡܨ ܐ ܙܚܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܡܕܡ ܕ ܐܘܬܪ ܙ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܺܠܘ ܟܠ ܬܫ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܝ ܝ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܰ݁ܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܐܬܬܥܝܪܘ ̈ܪܘܝܐ ܘ ݁ܒ ݁ܟܘ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܘܡܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܦ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܠܩ ݂ܰܠܪܥܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܫܝܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܶܫܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܶܠܗ ܶܡܢ ܬܝܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬ܫ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܒܘܗܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܢ ܝ ݁ ܶܒܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܓ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܓ ݁ ܶܦܬܝ ܠ ܚܘ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܕܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܬܝ ܠ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܬܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܚܗ ݂ܰܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܰܘܪ ݂ܰܣܘ ܶܟܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܒ ݁ܬܘܠ ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ݁ܒ ܬܝܢܐ ݂ܰܣ ܬܩܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒܥܶܠ ܛ ܝ ݁ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



  

Chapter 

Turn, Israel, towards the Lord your God: for you have stumbled in your iniquity.

V



Accept1 words; turn towards the Lord your God, say to him: May he forgive you for your iniquity, and accept2 the good; he will requite you (for) the fruits of your lips.3



Say: The Assyrians will not save us, we will not ride upon horses, we will no longer call the work of our hands ‘gods’, for you are merciful to the orphans.



I will heal their backsliding and I will delight in their vows; my anger will turn away from them.



I will be like the dew to Israel, and he will spring up like the lily, he will set his roots like that of Lebanon.



His vine shoots4 will flourish, he will be like the olive adorned with its fruits, his fragrance like that of Lebanon.5



They will return, they will dwell in its shade; they will live on the grain; they will flourish like the vine, their memory like the wine of Lebanon.



Ephraim will say: What more use are idols to me?6 I have humbled him, I have praised him; as the cypress which gives shade, your fruits were found in7 me.



Whoever is wise, let him understand these (matters); whoever is discriminating, let him appreciate them: that the ways of the Lord are straight, and the righteous walk in them, but the iniquitous stumble in them. 1

‘Accept’: lit. ‘Take upon yourself’.

2

‘Accept … accept’: two different Syriac roots, both imperative.

3

‘fruits of your lips’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

4

‘vine shoots’ or ‘high branches’.

5

‘Lebanon’: by metonymy, the trees of Lebanon.

6

‘What more use are idols to me?’: lit. ‘What more to me and to idols?’.

7

‘in’: lit. ‘from’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܨܚ ܗ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬ ܬܗ ݁ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܶܕ ܐܬܬ ܶܩܠܬ ܒ ݂ܰܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܠ ܘ ݁ܬ ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܶܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ݁ܒܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪܘ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ܕܢܶܫܒܰ݁ܘܩ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܡܶܠ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܦ ݂ܰܢܘ ܬ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܥܘܠ ݁ܟܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܟܘܢ ܦܐ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܣ ݁ܦ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩ ܶܒܠܘ ܛ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܦܪ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܰ݁ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݁ܟ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܬܘܪ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܬܠ ܢܶ ݁ܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܰ݁ܪ ܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܐܰ݁ܗܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܢܬ ܡܪܚܡ ܐܢܬ ܥܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܬܣܐ ܬ ܬܝܒܘܬܗܘܢ ܶܘ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܙܝ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܚܡ ܢ ݁ܕ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ܪ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܗܘܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܛ ܬܶܠ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܪܡܰ݁ܐ ܥܶ ܬܩܰ݁ܪܘܗܝ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܥ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܫܰ݁ܘܫ ݁‬ ‫ܕ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܬܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰܕܗܕܝܪ ܒܦ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܪܝ ܶܚܗ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܬܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢܶܫܘܚܘܢ ݂ܰܥܘ ݂ܰܦܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܙ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܓ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܒܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܦܪܥܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬܦܢܘܢ ܘܢܶܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ܒܛܺܠܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܚܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݁‬ ‫݁ܘܕ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܢܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ݁ܕ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܬܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܦ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ ܶܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܡ ܶܟܰ݁ ݁ܟܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܬܐܢ ܐ ݂ܰܫܒܚ ܝܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ܬܡܐ ܠܝ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ‬ ‫ܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܩܛܪܩܐ ܥܒܝܛܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܢ ܝ ܐܫܬܟܚܘ ܦܐ̈ܪܝܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܢܘ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܚܟܝܡ ܢܶܣܬ ݂ܰܟܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒ ݂ܰܝܢ ܢܶܫܬ ݂ܰܘܕܥ ܐܢܶ ܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ݁ܬ̈ܪܝܰ݁ ܬ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܬܗ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܶ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܙ ܕ ܝ ܶܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܗܠ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܠ ܶܡܬܬܩܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

Travail like that of a woman in labor will come upon him, for he is an unwise son; and after this he will not stand firm in the travail of the children.



From the hand of Sheol I will redeem them, I will deliver them from death. So now where is your victory, death? Or where your sting, Sheol? Consolation is hidden from my eyes.



For whom among the brothers will he set apart?1 The spirit2 of the Lord will come, from the east, from the wilderness: it will stir up3 and lay waste its springs, it will dry up its water-sources, it will despoil the treasury of all the goodly vessels.



Samaria will be found guilty, for it provoked its God to anger; they will fall by the sword, their infants dashed to the ground, their pregnant women ripped open.

1

‘will he set apart’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘spirit’ or ‘wind’.

3

‘stir up’: lit. ‘raise up’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܚ ݁ܒ ܶܶܠ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕ ܬܝ ܶܠܕ ܬܬܐ ܢܐܬܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪܐ ܗܘ ܕܠ ݂ܰܚܟܝܰ݁ܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܰ݁ܠ ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܢܩܘܡ ܒ ܶܚ ݁ܒܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ ܶܨ ܐ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟܰ݁ܐ ܗܝ ܬܗ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܕ ܫܝܘܠ ܐ ݁ܦܪܘܩ ܐܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܡܰ݁ܢ ܡܰ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܘ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܗܘ ܥ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܬܐܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩܣ ݁ܟܝ ܫܝܘܠ‪ :‬ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܫܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܥܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܙ ݁ܟ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟ ܡ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܐ ܶܚܐ ܢܶ ݁ܦܪܘܫ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܐܬ ܶܐ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܢ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܗܘ ݁ ܶܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ܫ ݂ܰܡܒܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ ܢܶܒܰ݁ܘܙ ݂ܰܓܰ݁ ܬܙ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܟܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܒ ܡܥܝ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰܣܩ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܡܐܢ ݁ܕ ܶܪ ܓ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܝ ݁ܒ ܬܫܡܪܝܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܡܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܠ ܬܠ ܰ݁ ܬܗܗ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ܐ ܢܶܦܠܰ݁ܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܝܠ ܰ݁ܘ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܦܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܒܛܢ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܦܪ ݁ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܶܫܬ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

When Ephraim spoke there was trembling; he was great in Israel; he was guilty (with respect to)1 Baal, and died.



Now, they sinned again: they made themselves a molten image, from their silver; the carpenter made2 an idol in their image; they spoke to the sacrificers of mankind who3 kiss the calf.



Therefore they will be like the cloud at daybreak, like the dew which rises early and passes away, like the straw which flies from the threshing-floor, like the smoke from the window.



I am the Lord your God who brought you up from the land of Egypt. You shall know no God other than me. There is none other than me who redeems.



I fed you4 in the wilderness, in a desolate uninhabited5 land.



I fed them, they filled their bellies and their spirits were high6 - so they forgot me.



I was like a lion to them, like a leopard in the way of Assyria.7



I will attack them like a bear tearing (at the prey); I will pierce the membrane of their heart(s); the lion will eat them there and the wild animal(s)8 will rip them up.



I have destroyed you, Israel; who will help you?



Where now is your king? Will he redeem you, and all your cities? And your judge, for whom you asked me, you said: Give me a king, a ruler.



I gave you a king in my anger - I took him (back) in my wrath.



The iniquity of Ephraim is bound fast, his sin is hidden. 1

‘(with respect to)’: lit. ‘with/in’.

2

‘the carpenter made’: lit. ‘the work of the carpenter’.

3

‘who’: lit. ‘and’.

4

‘I fed you’. MT ‘I knew you’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘uninhabited’: lit. ‘which was not inhabited’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘spirits were high’: lit. ‘their heart was lifted up’.

7

‘the way of Assyria’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘wild animal(s)’: lit. ‘beast(s) of the field’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܪ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܡܰ݁ ܶܠ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ܬܪܐܶ ݁ܬ ܗ ܬܘܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܟܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ ݁ܒ ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ܠ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܢܣ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܬܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܣܐܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܠ ܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܟ ܬܪܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ܬܕܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢ ܬܓܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܰ݁ܝ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܒ ݁ܕܡ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ ܦ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ܥܶܓ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢܫܩܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܛܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܢܶܗܘܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܰ݁ܟ ܓܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܡܩܰ݁ ܶܕܡ ܘܥ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܥܢ ܬܢܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܨ ݁ܦܪܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܬ ܢ ܢܐ ܡܢ ܟ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܚ ܶܡܢ ܐܕܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܬ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܐܗ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܡܢ ܝ ܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܕܥ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܢ ܐܢ ܡܪܝܐ ܐܗ ݁ܟ ܕ ܐܣ‬ ‫ܶܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܕ ݁ ܬܦ ܶܪܩ ܐܠ ܐ ܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܟ ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܰܚܪܒ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܠ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ܬܢ ܪܥ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܐܶܢܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܠܘ ݂ܰܟܪܣܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬܬܪܝܡ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܥܐܘܢ ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܪܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܢܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ݁ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܐ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܓܥ ܒܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܕ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܬܬ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐ ݁ܒܙܘܥ ݂ܰܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪܡܐ ݁ܕ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܬ ܬܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܝ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪݂ܰ .‬ܡܢܘ ݂ܰܢܥܕ ܬܪ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܒܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟܘ ܬܗ ݁ܟܝܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬ܘܕ ܬܝ ܬܢ ݁ܟ ܕ ܶܫܐܠ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܩ ݁ܟ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܟ ܶܗܝܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܠܝܛܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܬ ݂ܰܗ ݁ܒܠܝ ܡܠ ܟܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓܙܝ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݁ܒܬܗ ܒ ܶܚ ݁‬ ‫ܘܝܶܗܒ ݁ܬ ܠ ݁ܟ ܡܠ ܟܐ ݁ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܨܪܝܪ ݂ܰܥ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܠܗ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܫܝܐ ܚܛ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

Jacob fled to the land of Aram, and Israel toiled for a wife; for1 a wife he herded (sheep).



By the prophets, the Lord brought up Israel from Egypt; by the prophets he was preserved.



Ephraim provoked and embittered (him); his blood will be poured out upon him, and the Lord will turn his reproach upon him.

1

‘for’: lit. ‘in the face of’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܠܰ݁ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܐܢܰ݁ܬ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݁ ܬܕ ܬܐܪܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܠܚ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܪܩ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܐ ݂ܰܦܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܢܬ ݁ܬܐ ܢܛܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶܣܩ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ܢܒܝܐ ܐ ݁ܬ ܢܛܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܶܡܢ ܶܡܨܪܝܢ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܕܗ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܡܪ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܶܡܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܓܙ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܶܫ ݁ܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܦܢܶܐ ܶܠܗ ܬܡ ܶܪܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ܢ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

Ephraim has fed (on) wind and pursued the whirlwind all day (long); they have increased deceit and plunder; they have made1 a covenant with the Assyrian, and they have brought oil to Egypt.



The Lord has a dispute with Judah: he will exact (from) Jacob according to his conduct,2 and requite him according to his deeds.



For in the womb he deceived his brother; in his strength he was arrogant before God.



He prevailed over the angel and he argued with3 him; he found him (at) Bethel and he spoke with him there.



The Lord, the mighty God, remembered him.



You, however, turn to your God; preserve goodness and justice, wait continually for your God.



The scales of deceit are in the hand of Canaan: he loves to oppress.



Ephraim said: I have grown rich, yet I have met with suffering;4 all my labor is not sufficient for me,5 for the sin that I have sinned.



I am the Lord your God who brought you up from the land of Egypt; again I will make you dwell in tents, as in the days of the festivals.



I spoke through6 the prophets, I multiplied my visions and I have been represented by7 the prophets.



There is suffering8 in Gilead, in Gilgal you sacrificed bulls to an idol; truly your altars (are) like mounds (of stone) in a field of barren land.

1

‘made’: lit. ‘cut’. A standard idiom.

2

‘conduct’: lit. ‘ways’.

3

‘argued with’: lit. ‘sought from’.

4

‘met with suffering’: lit. ‘found pains for myself’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

5

‘is not sufficient for me’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

6

‘through’: lit. ‘with’.

7

‘by’: lit. ‘by the hand(s) of’.

8

‘is suffering’: lit. ‘are pains’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬

‫ܩ ݁ܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܝܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܪܕ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܥ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܙܬܐ ܐܣܓܝܰ݁ܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܟܰ݁ܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܕ ܬܓܠܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ݂ܰܥܡ ܬܐ ݁ܬ ܬܘܪ ܬܝܐ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܣܩܘ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܫܚܐ ܠ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܠܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܘܕ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܥܡ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܥ ܠ ݂ܰܝܥܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܒ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݁ܘܕ ܬܝܢܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܨ ܢ ܬܥ ݁ܬܗ ܢܶ ݁ܦܪܥܝܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܐ ܬܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܡܪܒ ܬܥܐ ݁ ܶܓܝܪ ݁‬ ‫ܢܟܠ ܠܚܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܥܘܫܢܶܗ ܐ ݁ܬܪܘܪ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܰ݁ܠ ܐܫܟ ܶܚܰ݁ܗ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ ܶܠ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܬܡܨܝ ܚ ܝܠ ݂ܰܡܶܠ ݁ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܶܡܢܶܰ݁ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠ ݁ܬ ܬܢ ܐܬ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ܶܪܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܢܬ ܶܕܝܢ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܐ ܬܗ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܘܛܝܒ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܘܕ ܬܝܢܐ ܛܪ‪݂ܰ :‬ܣ ܬܟܐ ܠ ܬܠ ܬܗ ݁ܟ ܐܡ ܬܝܢܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܢܥܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܐ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ܟ ܬܶܠ ݁ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܠܡ ܬܪ ܶܚܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܣ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ݂ܰܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ ܕܥܶܬ ܶܪܬ ܶܘܐܫܟ ܶܚܬ ܠܝ ܟܐ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗ ܠ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܬܝ ܠ ܬܣ ݁ܦ ܬܩܰ݁ܐ ܠܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܠܚܛ ܬܗܐ ݁ܕܚܛ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܬ ݁ܟ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܐܘܬ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܒ ݂ܰܡܫܟܢܶܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܐܢ ܡܪܝܐ ܐܗ ݁ܟ ܕ ܐܣ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܝܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܒ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܢܒܝܐ ܐܬ ݂ܰܕܡ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܺܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܡ ݁ܢܒܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܬܐܢ ܶܚܙ ܬܘ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐܣܓ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܒ ݁ ܶܓܠ ܬܥ ݁ܕ ܟܐ ݁ܒܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܠ ܬܓܶܠ ݂ܰܠܣܪܝܩ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܚܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܬܘ̈ܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܪܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܓܶܠ ݁ܒܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

I will not give vent1 to the heat of my anger, I will not destroy Ephraim again, for I am God; I was not a man in your midst; I am the Holy One, I will not enter the city.



They will follow after the Lord, (who is) as a roaring lion: for he will roar, and the children of the people2 will tremble.



They will be aroused, like a bird of prey from Egypt, like doves from the land of Assyria, and I will return them to their dwelling-place, says the Lord.



Ephraim has surrounded me with falsehood, the house of Israel and Judah with deceit; until the people of God have descended,3 a holy and faithful people.

1

‘give vent to’: lit. ‘effect, perform’.

2

‘the children of the people’: see Introduction. Addendum 2.

3

‘descended’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܰ݁ܙܝ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܐܶܗܦ ܰ݁ ݁ܘܟ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܬܒܠ ܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܗ ܠ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܪ‬ ‫ܠ ܐܥܒ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܚܡܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܕܐ ܬܗܐ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܢ ܬܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܩܕܝܫܐ ܐܢ ܘܠ ܐܥܘܠ ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܢܐܙܠܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܐ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢ ܶܗܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܗܘ ܢܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܗܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢܙܘܥܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܐ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܒ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܝܘ ܶܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܢܕܘܠܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܛ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܐܬܘܪ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܶܡܢ ܶܡܨܪܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܒܗܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡܪ ܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܘܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݁ܒܢܶ ݁ܟܰ݁ ܬܶܠ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܢ ܶܚܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ݁ܕܪܢ ܝ ܒ ݁ܕ ܓܠ ݁‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܗ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ ݂ܰܕܐ ܬ ܬܗܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܩܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

For when Israel was a child, I loved him; from Egypt I called my son.



As they called them, so they went from my presence; they sacrificed to Baal and they burnt incense to graven images.



I led Ephraim; I took them into my arms but they did not understand that I had healed them.



I drew them forth with the cords of mankind, with chains of love; I was to them as the one who lifts the yoke from their neck, bent down to them, so that they might eat.1



They will not return to the land of Egypt; the Assyrian is their king, for they did not wish to return.



The sword will grow weak2 in their cities, it will vanish3 from their hands;4 they will eat their own opinions.



My people depend on returning5 to me; they will call to God;6 he will reflect7 as one, but will not lift himself up.8



How can I support you,9 Ephraim? Or how can I help you,10 Israel? Or how could I make you like Admah, or like Zeboiim? I have changed my mind and11 my compassion is aroused.12

1

‘so that they might eat’: lit. ‘and they ate’.

2

‘grow weak’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘it will vanish’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘from their hands’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

5

‘on returning’: lit. ‘to return’.

6

‘they will call to God’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

7

‘he will reflect’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘lift himself up’ or ‘be lifted up’.

9

‘How can I support you’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

10

‘how can I help you’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

11

‘I have changed my mind’: lit. ‘my heart has returned’.

‘my compassion is aroused’: lit. ‘my mercies (or ‘innermost being, bowels’) have (or ‘has’) been set in motion’. 12



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܕ ܶܛܶܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬܗ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܗ ܶܒܪܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܪܚ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܶܡܨܪܝܢ ܩܪ ݁‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ ܬܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܒܚܰ݁ܘ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܙܠܰ݁ܘ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܓܠ ܝ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬܣܡܘ ܶܒܣ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ݁ ݂ܰܕܒ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩܒ ܶܠ ݁ܬ ܐܢܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ܕ̈ܪ ݂ܰܥܝ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥܘ ݂ܰܕ ܐܣ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܗܘ‬ ‫ܚܡܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܒܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܬܢ ܬܫܐ ܢܶ ݁ܓ ܶܕ ݁ܬ ܐܢܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܫܫܠ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܕܡܪܝܡ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܠ ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܪܟܢܶ ݁ܬ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܶܘ ݁ ݂ܰܐܟܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܠ ܢܶܗܦ ݁ܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܬ ܬܘܪ ݂ܰܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܨܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬܛ ܰ݁ܩ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܢ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܐܟ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݂ܰ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ܰ݁ ݂ܰܪܗ ݂ܰܣܝܦ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁‬ ‫ܥܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ̈ܪ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ܘܠ ܢܶܬܬܪܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܬ ݁ܒ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܬܠ ܬܗܐ ܢܶܩܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܪܢ ܐ ݁ܟ ݁‬ ‫ܘܥܡܝ ܬܠܝܢ ܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܥܕ ܬܪ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܐ ܐܶ ݂ܰܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܥ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܘ ݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ܐܥܒܰ݁ ݁ ܬܕ ݁ܟ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܕ ܬܡܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐܘ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ܨܒܘܐܝܡ‪ :‬ܐܶܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܠܘ ݂ܰ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟ ܶܠ ܒܝ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

I will chastise them by my rebuke; the nations will be assembled against them, when they are chastised for their two offences.



Ephraim was a trained heifer, who loves to thresh (grain); I have passed over her neck; I will mount Ephraim, Judah will thresh,1 and Jacob will despoil.2



Sow righteousness for yourselves, and reap according to3 goodness; light a lamp for yourselves, for it is time to seek the Lord, while he comes and shows you his righteousness.



You have plowed sin and iniquity, you have reaped and eaten the fruits of deception; for you have put your trust in your (own) ways, in the magnitude of your strength.



Destruction will rise up against your people: all your fortified places will be despoiled, like the prey of peace,4 from Beth-el5 on the day of war; they dashed against the ground the mother with her sons.



So they did to you, Beth-el, in the face of your great evil;6 in the early dawn the king of Israel was confounded and ashamed.

‘thresh’1,2: the same Syriac root as that translated as ‘to come upon’ in v. 9; perhaps a deliberate word-play. 1

2

‘despoil’: MT ‘harrow’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘according to’ or ‘in accordance with’: lit. ‘a mouthful of’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 3

4

‘peace’: MT Shalman, proper name: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

5

‘Beth-el’: MT ‘Beth-arbel’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘your great evil’: lit. ‘the evil of your evil.’



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫݂ܰܒ ݁ ܬܟܐܬܝ ܐܶ ܶܪܕ ܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܢܫܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݁ ܶܪܕܝܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ݁ܟ ܘ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܬܐܢ ܥܶ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܪ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܨ ܬܘܪܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ܡܠ ݁ܦܰ݁‬ ‫ܥܓܠ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܪܟ ݁ܒ ܠ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܒܘܙ ݂ܰܝܥܩ ݁ܘܒ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܢܰ݁ܗܪܘ ܠ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܚܨ ݁ܘܕܘ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܬ݁ܓܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܕܛܝܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܙܪܘܥܘ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢܐ ܗܘ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܒܥܝܶܗ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ݁ܕ ܬܐ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܶܘܐ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩ ݁ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܘܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܚܰ݁ ݂ܰܨ ܕܬܘܢ ܶܘ ݁ ݂ܰܐܟ ܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܦܰ݁ܐ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܠܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܝܐ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪܬܘܢ ܚܛ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓܢ ܬܒܪ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܕ ܐܬܬ ݁ܟ ܬܘܢ ܒܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܣ ܬ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܙܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܢܩܘܡ ܐ ݁ܒ ܬܕ ܬܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܟ ܗ ܶܘܢ ݂ܰܟܪ ݂ܰܟܝܟ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܙܙܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܠ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܡܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒܢܶ ܝܗ ݂ܰܫ ܶܩ ݁ܦܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܒܝܫ ݁ܘܬ ܒܝܫ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟܘܢ‪ .‬ܒ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܦܰ݁ ܬܪܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܘܪ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ܶܗ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

The vine of the shoots is Israel, which has borne fruits: as the multitude of its fruits, they have multiplied altars, as the blessing of their land, they have built high places.



Their heart was divided; henceforward they will be condemned: he will overthrow their altars and despoil their high places.



For after this they will say: We have no king;1 we have not feared the Lord; a king - what would he do for us?



They have spoken of affairs of deceit;2 they have made a covenant; they have returned judgment like a tangle of thorns in a field of barren land.



The inhabitants of Samaria will be strangers3 to the calf of Beth-aven, for they have dwelt upon it in mourning with it; its priests will rejoice over it,4 and over its glory which has passed away from it.



hey will also take offerings to Assyria, to the king of Yareb: Ephraim will be shamed; Israel will be ashamed of its opinion.



Samaria has thrown away its king, like straw upon the face of the waters.



The shrines to the idols of Aven - the sin of Israel - will lie waste; thorns and thistles will sprout on their altars; they will say to the mountains: Cover us; and to the hills, (hoping that) they may fall upon them.

IV



From the days of Ramah, Israel has sinned; there they will remain: will war not come upon them5 in Ramah, because of the children of iniquity?

1

‘We have no king’: lit. ‘There is no king for us’.

2

‘spoken of affairs of deceit’: lit. ‘spoken words of deceitful affairs’.

3

‘strangers’ or ‘sojourners’: MT ‘they will fear’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

‘and its priests will rejoice over it’ or, depending on how the punctuation and conjunctions are understood ‘and its priests, and they will rejoice over it’. 4

‘will war not come upon them’: MT may be read as a rhetorical question presuming a negative answer. 5



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܨܚ ܕ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬

‫ܩ ݁ܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܫܒܘ ܶܩܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܦܐ̈ܪܝܰ݁ܗ ܐܣܓܝܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܓ ݁ܦ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܕܥܶ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ܦܐ̈ܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܬ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܣܰ݁ ܬ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܛ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܪܥܗܘܢ ܒܢܘ ܥܠ ܘ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܶ ݁ܬܦ ܶܠܓ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܬܗ ܬܫܐ ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݁ܝܒܘܢ‪ :‬ܗܘ ܢܶܣܚ ݁ܘܦ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܒܰ݁ܘܙ‬ ‫ܬ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܘ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܡܟܝܠ ܢܐܡܪܘܢ ݂ܰܠܝ ݂ܰܠܢ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܠ ݁ܕ ܶܚܠܰ݁ܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܡܠ ܬܟܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܠܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܪܐ‬ ‫ܝܩܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܥܰ݁ܘ ܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܡܺܠܘ ܡܶܠ ݁ܕܥܶܺܠ ݁ ܬܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓ ܬܠ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܦ ݂ܰܣܩܰ݁ܘ ܕ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܝܪܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒܚ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ݁ܒ ܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܘܢ ܢܶܰ݁ܗܘܘܢ ܬܘܬ ݁ ܶܒ ܰ݁ܐ ܬܥܡ ܰ݁ܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ܥܶ ݁ܓ ܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ܶܒܐܒ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܥ ܶܡܗ‪ :‬ܘܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܪܘܗܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܘܗܝ ܢܶ ܚܕܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥܰ݁ܠ ܐ ܬܝܩܰ݁ ܶܪܗ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܡܢܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܶܠܗ ܠ ݁ܬܘܪ ݂ܰܢܘܒܠܘܢ ܩܘ̈ܪ ܬܒܢܶܐ ܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝ ܬܪ ݁ܒ‪ܶ :‬ܒܗܬ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܢܩ ܶܒܠ ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܢܶ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܗ ݁ܬ ܒ ݁ܬܪܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܬ‬ ‫ܫܕ ݁ܬ ܬܫܡܪܝܢ ܶܡܠ ܬܟܗ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܶܓܶܠ ݂ܰܥܠ ܐ ݂ܰܦܝ ݂ܰܡܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܟܘ ܶܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܘܕܪܕ̈ܪ ܐ ܢܐܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܚܪ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܦܪ ܶܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܐܘܢ ܚܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕܢܶܦ ܬܠܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܡܪܘܢ ܠ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܣܐܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠܪܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܬ ܬܡܢ ܢܩܘܡܘܢ ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܛܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܝܘܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܒܢ ܝܐ ݁ܕܥܘܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒܪ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





  Although they may rear children, I shall bereave them,1 for - woe to them! - I take vengeance on them.



Ephraim - as you have seen Tyre set in her buildings, so will Ephraim bring out his children to slaughter.



Give them, Lord, anything you give - give them a childless womb and dried up breasts.



All their wickedness was in Gilgal, for there I hated them in the wickedness of their stratagems; I cast them out of my house, I will no longer show them love; all their rulers are rebellious.



Ephraim smote the root: it dried up so that it will not bear fruit; if they beget children, I will put to death the delight of their innermost being.2



My God will reject them, for they did not obey him; they will be wanderers3 among the nations.

1

‘bereave them’: lit. ‘deprive them of the sons of men’.

2

‘innermost being’: lit. ‘bowels’.

3

‘wanderers’ or ‘forgotten’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ ܶܦ ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܢܪ ܒ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܓܝܶܰ݁ܙ ܐܢ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡ ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܫ ܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܘܝ ܠ ܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ܬܦ ݂ܰܪܥ ܐ ܬܢ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬܝ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ݁ ܶܒܢ ܬܝܢܶ ܝܗ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܢ ܶܦܰ݁ܩ ܒ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܚܙܝ ܠ ܨܘܪ ݂ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠ ܶܩܛܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܓ ܬܙܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܬ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܗ ݁ܒ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܡ ܶܕܡ ܕ ܬܝܗ ݁ܒ ܐܢܬ‪ :‬ܗ ݁ܒ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܡܪܒܥܐ ݂ܰ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܝܒܝ ܶܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݁ܒܝܫܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܟ ܶܗܝܢ ܒܝ ܬܫܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܠ ݂ܰ ܬܓܰ݁ܶܠ‪ܶ ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ ܣܢ ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܡܪ ܬܚܡ ܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܰ݁ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܨ ܢ ܬܥ ܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܒ ܰ݁ܝܝ ܐ ܶܦ ܰ݁ܩ ܐܢ ܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝܛ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܬܡܪ ݁ܘܕܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡܚܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ܥܶ ܬܩ ܬܪܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܝܒܰ݁ܫ ܕܠ ܢܶܰ݁ܬܠ ܦܰ݁ܐ̈ܪ ܐ‪ܶ .‬ܘܐܢ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܠ ݁ܕܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܐܡܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܥܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܓ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܢܣܶܠ ܐܢܘܢ ܐܗܝ ݂ܰܥܠ ܕܠ ݂ܰܫܡܥܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܗܘܘܢ ܛܥܶܝܢ ܶܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

Chapter 



Do not rejoice, Israel, do not exult like the nations; for you have strayed from your God, and have loved gifts1 from all the granaries.



They will not be satisfied by the (produce of the) granary or by the winepress; the oil will fail them.



They will not dwell in the Lord’s land, but Ephraim will return to Egypt, and in Assyria they will eat unclean (food).



They will not offer wine to the Lord; their sacrifices will not please him. It is like bread of affliction to them; all their gluttons will be defiled, for their own bread2 may not enter the house of the Lord.



What will you do for the feast day, for the day of the Lord’s feast?



For they went with the spoil; Egypt will gather them up and Memphis will bury them. Foreigners3 will inherit the delight of their silver, and thorns (will spring up) in their tents.



The days of vengeance have come; the days of retribution have drawn near. Israel will know the fool, the prophet, the madman, and the man clothed in the spirit of madness: your wantonness has increased in the magnitude of your iniquity.



Ephraim is a watchman with my God; the prophet is a snare, a stumbling-block,4 in all his paths; wantonness in the house of God.



They have sunk deep into corruption5 as in the days of Ramah; from now on he will remember their iniquity and punish their sins.



Like grapes in the wilderness, I found Israel; like the first-ripe figs, I saw their fathers; but they entered Baal-peor, they devoted6 themselves to shame, and were defiled like that which they loved.



Ephraim - their glory flew like a bird: from the birth, from the womb, from the conception. 1

‘gifts’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘their own bread’: lit. ‘the bread of their soul’.

3

‘Foreigners’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘a snare, a stumbling-block’: lit. ‘a snare of stumbling’.

5

‘sunk deep into corruption’: lit. ‘they went deep, they twisted’.

6

‘devoted’: lit. ‘separated’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܛ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܥܰ݁ܝ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܐܰ݁ ܬܗ ݁ܟ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬ݁ܕܘܨ ܐ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬ ݂ܰܡܘܗ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ܬܐ ܶܡܢ ܟܠ ܐܕ̈ܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܚܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ܬܠ ܢܶܣܒܥܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܟ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ܒܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܐܕܪ ܐ ܘܡܢ ܡܥܨ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܢܶܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ݂ܰܒܐܪܥܶܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܬܠ ܢܶܗܦܰ݁ ݁ܘܟ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ ܠ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪ ݁ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܰ݁ ݁ܐܬܘܪ ܛ ݁ܢܦܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ܐܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܐ ܗܘ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܢܶ ݁ܒܣܡ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܰܢܢܩܘܢ ܠ ܡܪܝܐ ܚ‬ ‫ܘܢ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ܶܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ܗܘܢ ܕ ܐܘܠ ܬܨ ܬܢ‪ :‬ܟܠ ܬܐ ݁ܟܘ ݂ܰܠܘܗܝ ܢܶܬ ݂ܰܛ ݁ܢܦܰ݁ܘܢ ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܥܐܠ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ܬܐܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ݁ܬ ܶܥܒ ݁ܕܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܕܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܙܬܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܟܢܶܰ݁ܫ ܐܶܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ ܶܦܰ݁ܣ ܬܩܒܰ݁ܘܪ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܗܢܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܙܠܘ ܒ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܪ ܓ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܣܐܡܗܘܢ ܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ ܢܐܪܬ ܬܘܢܗ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܘ ܶܒܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡܫܟ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܥ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܢܶܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܟܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪ :‬ܩܪ ݁ܒܘ ܝܘܡ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܛܝܘ ܝܘܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ݁ܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ ܬܫ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ݁ ܶܒܗ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܠ ݁ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ݁ܕ ܬܫܛܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܡܰ݁ܢ ܣܰ݁ ܬ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܝ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܬ ܫܪܝ ܚ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ܬܗܝ‪݁ :‬ܢܒ ܬܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܬܚܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܟ ܶܗܝܰ݁ܢ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܬܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܕܘܩܐ ܐ ݁ܦܪܝܡ ܥܡ‬ ‫ܘܩܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܫܪܝ ܚ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܒ ݁ܒܝܗ ܕܐܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܠ ܢܶܬܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܰ݁ܪ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܘܠ ܗܘܢ ܘܢܶ ݁ܦܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܕ‬ ‫݂ܰܥ ܶܡܩܘ ܘܚܒܠܘ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܝܘܡ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܛ ݂ܰܗܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܥܶܢ ܶܒܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܪܐ ܐܶܫܟ ܶܚ ݁ܬ ܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܠ ݁ ܬܒ ݂ܰܗܝܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܬ ݁ܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬܟܪܬܐ ܚܙ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠܘ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܒܥܶܠ ܦܥܘܪ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܢܙܪܘ ܠ ݁ ܶܒܗܬ ݁ ܬܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܠ ܛܢܦ ݁ܘܬܐ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܣܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܬܐ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܚ ܐ ܬܝܩܪܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݂ܰܝܠ ܬܕܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݂ܰܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܦܪܝܡ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܦܪ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

I wrote many of my laws for him, but he regarded my words as foreign (to him).



They sacrifice sacrifices of choice (animals); they eat the flesh and the Lord takes no pleasure in them; from now on he will remember their iniquity; he will punish their sins, and they will return to Egypt.



Israel forgot his maker, and built palaces; Judah built many strong cities: I will set fire to his cities, and it will consume his courtyards.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܶ ݁ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܫ ݁ܒ ܐܢܶ ܝܢ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܐ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܢ ݁ܘܟܪ ݁‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ܕ ܬܢܡܘ ݂ܰܣܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܟܒ ݁ܬ ܠܗ ܣ ܬ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܬܨ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܣܪܐ ܐ ݁ܟܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܕܒܚ ܝܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܒ‬ ‫ܕ ݁ܒܚܐ ݁ܕ ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܶܬܕ ݁ ݂ܰܟܪ ݂ܰܥܘܠ ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݁ܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ܚܛܗܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܗܢܘܢ ܠ ܡܨܪܝܢ ܢܗܦ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܛܥܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܝ ܬܢܰ݁ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܢ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܶܕܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܗܝܟܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܐܣܓܰ݁ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݁ܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ ݁ܬܗ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܣ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܫܝ ܬܢ ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܫܒܘܩ ܢܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

Your mouth is like a horn, like an eagle confronting1 the house of the Lord: for they have transgressed my covenant and acted wickedly against my law.



They cried to me, they said: We know you, (you are) our God.



Israel has forgotten the good; the enemy has pursued them,



They have crowned2 kings, but not with my blessing;3 they have borne rule, but they did not acknowledge me;4 with their silver and their gold they made themselves idols, which will perish.



They have erred with your calf, Samaria; my anger against them increased:5 how long will they be incapable of innocence?



For it was from Israel: the carpenter made it, it was not a god;6 but your calf led you astray,7 Samaria.



For they sowed the wind, but reaped the whirlwind; they had no standing grain, nor ear of wheat giving flour: if they had any portion,8 foreigners have eaten it.



Israel was swallowed up; from that time he was (lost) among the nations, as a useless vessel.



For they have gone up to Assyria as a wild ass, alone; Ephraim loved gifts.



Although they were delivered up to the nations, I will gather them up; they will take little rest from the burden of kings and rulers.



For Ephraim has multiplied altars for sin - he had altars for a great sin.

1

‘confronting’: lit. ‘against’.

2

‘crowned’: lit. ‘made’.

3

‘with my blessing’: lit. ‘from me’.

4

‘acknowledge me’: lit. ‘make me known’.

5

‘increased’: lit. ‘was hot’.

6

‘a god’ or ‘God’.

7

‘led you astray’: lit. ‘was for straying’. See Introduction. Addendum 3.

8

‘if they had any portion’: lit. ‘if there was (anything) with them’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬

‫ܩ ݁ܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܚ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܢܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ܪܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܪܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܦ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ܟ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܩ ܬܪܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܩܝܡܝ‪ :‬ܘܥܠ ܬܢܡܘܣܝ ܐܥܠܝܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܠܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢ ݁ܟ ܐ ݂ܰܗܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܪܘ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪܘ‪ :‬ܝ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܛܥܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܛ ݁ܒ ݁ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܥܶܠܕ ݁ ܬܒ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ ݂ܰܪܕ ݁ܦ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܒܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܡܠ ݁ܟܘ ܐܠ ܠ ܶܡܢ ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܫܬ ݂ܰܠܛܘ ܘܠ ܐܘܕܥܘܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܣܐܡܗܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܗܘܢ ܦ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܪ ܐ ݁ܕܢ ݁ܐܒܕܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܛܥܘ ܒܥܶܓ ܶܠ ݁ܟܝ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܪܘܓܰ݁ܙܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ܠܡܰ݁ ݁ܬܝ ܠ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܡܫܟܚ ܝܢ ܠ ܶܡ ܬܙܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܶܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܗܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܬܓܰ݁ܰ݁ ݂ܰܪܐ ܗܘ ݂ܰܥ ݁ܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ܶܕܗ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܐܰ݁ܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‪ :‬ܐܠ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܥܶ ݁ܓ ܶܠ ݁ܟܝ ܬܫܡܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܛܥܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܙܪܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܬܥ ܰ݁ܶܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܝ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܨ ݁ܕܘ‪ :‬ܘܩܝܡܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܫܒ ܬܶܠ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܶܒ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܩ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܠ ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ ܐ ݁ܟܝܢ ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܚܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܘ ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݁ܬܒ ݂ܰܠܥ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܘ ܶܡܟܝܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܡ ܬܐܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܠܝ ܶܒܗ ݂ܰܚܫܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕ ܶܗܢܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܠܩܘ ܬܠ ݁ܬܘܪ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܪ݁ ܬܕ ܐ ܝ ܚ ݁ܝܕܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦܪܝܡ ܡܘܗ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ ܶܦܢ ܢܶܫܬܠ ܡܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܰܟܢܶܰ݁ܫ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬܬ ܢ ܝ ܚܰ݁ܘܢ ݂ܰܩܠܝܰ݁ܠ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ܶܫܩܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܐ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝܛܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܶܠܰ݁ܗ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܶܚܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܠܚܛܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܣܓܝ ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܚܐ ݂ܰܠܚܛ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܪ ܬܒܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

Ephraim was like a foolish dove, without sense;1 they came to Egypt and they went to Assyria.



Wherever2 they may go, I will spread out my net over them; I will bring them down, like the bird(s) of the air;3 I will chastise them, as befits the report of their testimony.



Woe to them, who turned away from me! I have brought evil upon them, for they have trespassed against me: for I had redeemed them, yet they spoke treacherously against me.



They did not call to me from the heart,4 but they howled on their bed(s), they struggled5 for grain and wine: they rebelled against me.



I instructed (them), strengthened their arm, yet they devised evil against me.



They returned - to nothingness; they were like a faulty6 bow; their princes will fall by the sword, because of their effrontery:7 thus are they entangled8 in the land of Egypt.

1

‘without sense’: lit. ‘in which there was no heart’.

2

‘Wherever’: lit. ‘To a place’.

3

‘air’: lit. ‘heavens’.

4

‘from the heart’: lit. ‘from all their heart’, ‘wholeheartedly’.

5

‘they struggled’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

6

‘faulty’: lit. ‘deceitful’.

7

‘their effrontery’: lit. ‘the effrontery of their tongues’.

‘thus are they entangled’: lit. ‘this is their entanglement’. See Introduction. Addendum 1. 8



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܰ݁ ݁ܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܝ ܬܒܰ݁ܗ ܶܠ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܰ݁ܢ ܐ ݁ܬܘ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬܘܪ‬ ‫ܶܘܗܘܐ ܐ ݁ܦܪܝܡ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܝܰ݁ܘܢ ݁‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܰܙܠܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܠ ݂ܰܬܪ ܕܢܐܙܠܘܢ ܐܶ ݁ܦܪܘܣ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ ܐ ܶܚܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܚܬܐ ݁ܕ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܡܨܝܕܬܝ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܦܪ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܐܪܕ ܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܫܡܥܐ ݁ܕܣܗܕ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܥܠܝܘ ܒܝ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܓܝܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܬܘܝ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܕ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܕܘ ܶܡܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܒܝܫܬܐ ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܺܠܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩ ݁ܬ ܐܶܢܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܠ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ܡ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܺܠܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟ ݁ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܓ ݂ܰܥܘ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ ܶܡܢ ܟܗ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܐ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܪܕܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܫܝܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝ ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܒܘ ܒܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܘܐܥܫܢܶ ݁ܬ ܕ ܬܪܥܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ݁ܪܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܦܠܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܒܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܶܩܫܰ݁ܰ݁ܬܐ ݁ܢܟܝܠ ܰ݁‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܠ ܡܰ݁ܕܡ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܡܢ ܡܪܚ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕܠ ܫܢܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܗܢܘ ܥܘܪܙܠ ܗܘܢ ܕ ݁ܒܐܪܥܐ ݁ܕܡܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

When I have healed Israel, and the iniquity of Ephraim has been revealed, and the evil of Samaria: for they have acted deceitfully in my presence, for the thief has come in, and the band of robbers has stripped the streets bare.1



They do not say in their hearts that I recall all their evil; now, therefore, their scheming - which was before me - will encompass them.



With their evil they made kings rejoice, with their deceit.



All their rulers are adulterers, like an oven which is set alight for the baking; he will cease from the city2 kneading the dough until it is leavened.



On the day of our kings, the princes began to be angered by the wine; they stretched out their hands with evil men.



For their heart(s) have grown hot like an oven while they lie in wait; all night, their anger grew old;3 in the early morning it was set on fire, as fire, as flame.



They have all become hot as an oven; they have consumed their judges; all their kings have fallen and none among them calls to me.

III



Ephraim has mingled himself with the nations; Ephraim was (like) a round loaf, eaten before it was baked.



Thus, foreigners consumed his strength, yet he did not know; old age4 came upon him, yet he did not know.



The glory of Israel was laid low5 before him; yet they did not turn to the Lord their God, nor did they seek him.

1

‘stripped the streets bare’: lit. ‘stripped bare in the streets’.

2

‘he will cease from the city’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

3

‘their anger grows old’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘old age’ or ‘white hair’.

5

‘was laid low’: see note to 5:5.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܨܚ ܓ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܙ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬܓܠܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠܗ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܐܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ‪݁ :‬ܘܒܝܫܰ݁ܬܗ ܕ ܬܫܡܪܝܰ݁ܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐܣ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ܫܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩܪܐ ݁ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܬܢ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ܬܥܰ݁ܐ ܶܠ ܗ ܬܘܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܚ ݂ܰܓ ܬܝ ܬܣܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܩܕܡܰ݁ܝ‪݂݁ܰ :‬‬ ‫݁ܒܫܘ ܶܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܐܡܪܝܢ ܒ ܶܠ ܒܗܘܢ ܕ ݁ܟ ܶܗܝܢ ܒܝ ܬܫ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܬܥܰ݁ ܶ ݁ܗܕ ܐ ܬܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܟܝܰ݁ܠ ܢܶ ܚܰ݁ܕ ܬ̈ܪܢ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܐ ݂ܰܦܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܨ ܢ ܬܥ ݁ܬܗܘܢ ܕܗܘܝ ݁‬ ‫ܒ ݁ܒܝܫ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ ݂ܰܚܕܝܘ ܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܶܟܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬܓܠ ݁ܘܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܒܛܰ݁ܠ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܫܠ ܝܛ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ ܬܓܝܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬ ܢܘܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܐܦ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܬܠ ܶܫ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ܬܚ ݂ܰܡܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ݂ܰܟܝܢ ݂ܰܫܪܝܘ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܐ ܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܓܰ݁ ݁ܕܘ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܝܕ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫ܪܓܙ ܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܚܡܰ݁ܪܐ‪݂݁ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܒܝ ܶܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܚܰ݁ܡ ܶܠ ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܐܝܰ݁ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܬܩ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܰ݁ܟ ܬ ܢܰ݁ܘܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܟܡܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܟܰ݁ܗ ܠ ܬܝܰ݁ܐ ܥܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓܙܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܨ ݁ܦܪܐ ܝܩ ݁ܕ ܗܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܢܘܪ ܐ ܘܫܠ ܗ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܪ ݁‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܚܡܘ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ݂ܰܬ ܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰܐܟܘ ܠ ݂ܰܕ ܬܝ ݂ܰܢ ܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܡܠ ݂ܰܟܝܗܘܢ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܠܘ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ܒܗܘܢ ܕ ܬܩܪ ܐ ܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܬܐ ܕ ݂ܰܥܕ ܬܠ ܐܶ ݂ܰܬܐܦ ݂ܰܝ ܐܶ ݂ܰܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ܒ ݂ܰܥܡ ܶܡܐ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰܠܛ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܟ ݁ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܬܚ ܚ ݁ ݁ ݁ ݁ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܬܘ ܬ̈ܪ ܬܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ܶܠܗ ܘܠ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢܐ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܟܘ ܢ ݁ܘܟܪܝܶܐ ݂ܰܚ ܝܠܗ ܘܠ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ‪݁ ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܶܪܗ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܠ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝܘ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܰ݁ܗܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܐܘܗܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

And also, Judah, make1 a vintage for yourself, when I return the captivity of my people.

1

‘make’: perfect verb.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܬ‬ ‫ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ܩܛ ݁ܦܐ‪ :‬ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܦܢܶܐ ܐ ܬܢ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

They will say: Let us go again to the Lord who struck us, and he will heal us; he broke us, and he will restore us.



We will live for two days,1 and on the third day he will raise us up, and we will live in his presence.



May we2 understand (how) to walk in the knowledge of the Lord, as in the early dawn when his going forth is shown beyond doubt;3 may he4 come to us as the rain, as the spring rain that waters the earth.



What shall I do to you, Ephraim? What shall I do to you, Judah? Your goodness is like a cloud at daybreak, like the dew which rises early but passes away.



Therefore I have cut down the prophets, I have slain them with the words of my mouth, and my judgment will go forth like light.



For I delighted in goodness, not sacrifice, and in the knowledge of God (which) is better than burnt offerings.



They, as man,5 have transgressed my covenant; there they have deceived me.



Gilead is a city of wrong-doers, wallowing6 in blood; your strength7 like that of a robber.8



The priests took a part in (that) way, they killed at Shechem, for they did wrong.



In the house of Israel I have seen an amazing sight: there, Ephraim was promiscuous, Israel was profaned.

1

‘for two days’: ‘for two’ is added for sense. MT has the dual of ‘days’.

2

‘May we’ or ‘We will’.

3

‘shown beyond doubt’: lit. ‘established’.

4

‘may he’ or ‘he will/might’.

5

‘as man’ or ‘like Adam’

6

‘wallowing’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

7

‘your strength’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

8

‘robber’: lit. ‘a man, a robber’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܘ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ ݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܐܡܪܘܢ ܢܶܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ܢܰ݁ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ܠ ܬܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܣܝܰ݁ܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݂ܰܪܢ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ‬ ‫ܢܶ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܨܒܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܝܐ ܢܩ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܢ ܘܢܐ ܶܚܐ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܬܠ ݁‬ ‫ܘܢ ܚ ܝܢ ܝܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܬܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܫ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ܶܩܢ ݂ܰܡܦ ܶܩܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܐ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰܠܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݂ܰܕܥ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ܠ ݁ܝܕ ݁‬ ‫ܪܘܐ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݁ܪܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܥܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܛܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܢܐ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܢ ܬܢܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕ ܬܠܰ݁ ݁ܟ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܛܝܒ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܡܩ ܶܕܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܛ ܬܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݁ ݂ܰܒܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܨ ݁ܦ ܬܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܦܘܡܝ‪ :‬ܘܕܝܢ ܝ ݂ܰܐܝܟ ܢܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܩ ݁ܬ ݁ܢܒ ܶܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܛܠ ݁ܬ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܒܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܪ ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܢܶܦܘܩ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܬܗ ݂ܰܕܐ ܬܗܐ ܛܰ݁ ݁ܒ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܝܩܰ݁ ܶܕܐ‬ ‫ܚܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܒ ݁ܝܕ ݁‬ ‫ܝ ܒܛܝܒ ݁ܘܬܐ ܘܠ ݁ܒ ݁ܕ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܨܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰܫܠ ܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܢ ܬܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪܘ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܝܡܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ܬܡܢ ݂ܰܕ ܶܓܠܘ ܒܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܗܝ ܕ ܬܥܒ ܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܝ ݂ܰܥ ܰ݁ ܬܘܠ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܦܠ ܦ ܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܥ ܰ݁ܘܫܢܶ ݁ܟܝ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ ܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܓܠ ܬܥ ܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ ݂ܰ݁ܓ ܬܝ ܬܣܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܝܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬ ݁ܦܘ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ ݁ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܫܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܩܛܠܘ ݂ܰܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܗܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܬ ܬܡܢ ݂ܰܙ ܢܝ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬ ݂ܰܛ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ ݁ܒ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܚܙ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

Ephraim saw his sickness and Judah (saw) his pain; Ephraim went to Assyria, he sent to the king of Jareb: but he cannot heal you, nor cure your pain.



For I am like a lion to Ephraim, like a lion cub to those of the house of Judah; I will break, I will go, I will carry off, and there will be noone to save.



I will go again to my place, until they succumb and seek my face, and in their distress come before me.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܚܰ݁ܙ ܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ ܟܘ̈ܪ ܬܗ ݂ܰܢܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܒܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ ܬܠ ݁ܬܘܪ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܰ݁ ݂ܰܕܪ‬ ‫ܐܣܝܘܬ ݁ܟܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝ ܬܪ ݁ܒ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ ܬܠ ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܠܰ݁ܡ ܶܡ ݁ܢܟܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܒܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܰ݁ܟ ܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܝܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܬܐܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܶܡܛܠ ܶܕ ܬܐܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܐ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܠܝ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬ ݂ܰܒܪ ܘ ݂ܰܐܙܠ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܫܩܘܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܦ ܶܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܶܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ܐ ݂ܰܙܠ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܬܪܝ‪݂ܰ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܬܡܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕܢ ܚ ݁ܘܒܘܢ ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܥܘܢ ܐ ݂ܰܦܝ‪݁ :‬ܘܒܐܘܠ ܬܨܢܗܘܢ ݂ܰܢܩܕܡܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

Hear this, priests! Pay attention, house of Israel! Royal house, hear! for the judgment is yours: for you were snares for the watchmen,1 a net spread out upon Tabor.



The hunters who are hunting hid the snares,2 but I will chastise them all.



I know Ephraim, and Israel is not hidden from me; now Ephraim has been promiscuous, Israel has been defiled.



Their scheming does not allow them to return to their God, for the spirit of fornication is in their midst, and they have not known the Lord.



The glory of Israel will be laid low before him;3 Israel and Ephraim will stumble in their iniquity, Judah too will stumble with them.



With their flocks and with their oxen, they will go to seek the Lord, but they will not find him, for he has departed from them.



For they have been unfaithful to the Lord and they have given birth to children of foreigners.4



Sound the trumpet in Ramah, and the horn in Ramah! Cry out in Beth-aven: (We are) behind you, Benjamin!



Ephraim will be desolate on the day of reproof; I have made the truth known to the family of Israel.



The great men of Judah were like those who move a boundary: I will pour out my wrath upon them, like water.



Ephraim is oppressed, closely pressed in judgment, for he desired to follow after idols.



I will cause commotion in5 Ephraim, (and be) as a lion to those of the house of Judah.

1

‘watchmen’: MT place-name, Mizpah. See Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘The hunters who are hunting hid the snares’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

3

‘will be laid low before him’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘children of foreigners’ or ‘children of strangers’: lit. ‘foreign/strange children’.

5

‘cause commotion in’: lit. ‘be like tumult to/for’. See Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܗ‪.‬‬

‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܘܒ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘ ܬ ݁ܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ ܬܟܗ ܶܢ‪ :‬ܘܨ ݁ܘܬܘ ܶܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕܕܝܠ ݁ܟܘܢ ܗܘ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢܐ‪ :‬ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܶܚܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܘܢ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘ ܶܩܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܡܨܝܕ ܬܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬ ݁ܒܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܬܝ ݁ ܶܕܐ ݁ܕ ܬܨܝܕܝܢ ܛ ݂ܰܡܪܘ ݂ܰܦ ܶܚܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܬܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܐ ܶܪܕ ܐ ܠ ݁ܟ ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶ ܬܢ ܬܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥ ܐ ܬܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ :‬ܘܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܠ ݁ܟ ܶܣܐ ܶܡܢ ܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ܬܗ ܬܫܐ ݂ܰܙ ܢܝ ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܘܐܬ ݂ܰܛ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܰ݁ܗܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܫ ݁ܒ ܬܩܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܶܨ ܢ ܬܥܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܕܢܶ ݁ܬܦܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܬܙܢ ܝ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰ݁ܓܘܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܠ ܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܥܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܟ ܐ ܬܝܩ ܶܪܗ ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܘ ݁ܐܦ ܶܪܝܰ݁ܡ ܢܶܬܬܩܠܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܥܘܠ ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܬܬ ܶܩܠ ܐ ݁ܦ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݂ܰܥܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ ܢܐܙܠܘܢ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܒܥܝܶܗ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܘܠ ܢܶܫܟܚܰ݁ܘܢܶܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ‬ ‫ܒ ܬܥܢܗܘܢ ܘ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ݂ܰܪܩ ܶܠܗ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܶܓܝܪ ݂ܰܕ ܶܓܠܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܬܝܐ ܢ ݁ܘܟ ܬܪܝܶܐ ݂ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ܕܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܒ ݁ܬ ܬܪ ݁ܟ ܶܒܢ ܬܝ ܶܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܥܘ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܩܪܢ ݁ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܫ ݁ܝܦܘܪ ܐ ݁ܒܪ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܬܶܠ ܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ݂ܰܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ܐܘܕܥܶܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܡܟ ܬܣܢܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܫܪܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡܢ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‪ :‬ܐܶܫ ݁ܘܕ ܪܘܓܙܝ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܢܶ ܝܢ ܬܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܗ ݂ܰܘܘ ݂ܰܪܘ̈ܪ ݁ ܬܒܢܶܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܗܢܘܢ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܡܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܝܡ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ ݂ܰܘܐܝܨ ܒ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܨܒܐ ܠ ܡ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ܬܒ ݁ܬܪ ܣܪ ܬܝܩ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ܶ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܢ ܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܕܠܘܚ ܬܝܐ ܠ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܐ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

They have loved promiscuity; wine and drunkenness have taken (hold of) their heart.



My people has asked its opinion,1 its rod has declared it, for the spirit of promiscuity led them astray and they turned away from their God.



They have sacrificed on mountain-tops; they have burnt incense on the high places, beneath the oak, the poplar, and the terebinth, whose shade is pleasing; because of this your daughters will be promiscuous, and your daughters-in-law will commit adultery.



I will not care for your daughters when they are promiscuous, nor (for) your daughters-in-law when they commit adultery, for they mingle with the promiscuous. They sacrifice with the harlot;2 a people which does not understand embraced a promiscuous woman.



For you, Israel, will not find Judah guilty,3 you will not go to Gilgal, you will not go up to Beth-aven, you will not speak ‘The Lord lives’.



For the children of Israel have rebelled like a heifer which rebelled against the yoke. So now, shall the Lord feed them4 like lambs in a broad pasture?5



Ephraim is a companion of idols; forsake him.



They have all been promiscuous; they have loved dishonor and a false god.6



The wind will be bound up in their wings;7 they will be ashamed of their altars.

‘My people have asked its opinion’: i.e. the people have sought guidance from a piece of wood in a ritual of rhabdomancy. Also see Introduction. Addendum 1. 1

‘harlot’: lit. ‘(the woman who) goes out (into) the streets’: presumably the text implies the women (sing. noun) working in the streets/markets are prostitutes. 2

3

‘For you, Israel, will not find Judah guilty’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

4

‘shall the Lord feed them … ?’: the interrogative is inferred from the context.

5

‘broad pasture’: lit. ‘open place’.

‘they have loved dishonor and a false god’: lit. for ‘a false god’ ‘the dreaded one’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 6

7

‘the wind will be bound up in their wings’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬

‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܒܗ ܠܒܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪܚܡܘ ܙܢ ܝ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܚܡܪܐ ܘܪܘܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܶܫܐܠ‪ :‬ܘܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܥܰ݁ܝ‬ ‫ܘܛܪܗ ݂ܰܚܘܝܶܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܪܘ ܬܚܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܙܢ ܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ ܐ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܒ ݁ܬܪܥ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܢܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݁ܟܘ ܶܡܢ ܐܗܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܛܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝ ܒܠ‬ ‫ܝܫܝ ܛܘ̈ܪ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰܒܚܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ̈ܪ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܬܣܡܘ ܶܒܣ ܶܡܐ‪ :‬ܬ ܶܚ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܛܡܬܐ ܕ ݂ܰܫܦܝܪ ܶܛ ܬܺܠ ܬܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݂ܰܢܙ ܢ ܬܝܢ ܒ ܬܢܬܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܟܺܠ ܬܬܟܘܢ ܢܓ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬܠ ܐܶܣܥܘܪ ܒ ܬܢܬܟܘܢ ݂ܰܟܕ ݂ܰܢܙ ܢ ܬܝܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܐܦ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܟܺܠ ܬܬܟܘܢ ݂ܰܟܕ ܢܓ ܬ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܶܗܢܶ ܝܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫݁ ݁ ݁ ݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕܒܚ ܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܥܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܠ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ݂ܰܙ ܬܢܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ܚܠ ܝܛܰ݁ܰ݁ ܢ‪ :‬ܘܗܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ ܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ܢ ݁ܦܩܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܫܘܩܰ݁ܰ݁ܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܣܬ ݂ܰܟܠ ܥܦܩ ܙ ܢ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܐܢ ܰ݁ܬ ܶܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܚ ܝܶ ܰ݁ ݁ܒ ܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬܐܙܠ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰ݁ܓܠ ܬܓ ܰ݁ܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܐܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܬܐܡܪܘܢ ݂ܰܚ ܝ ܗܘ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܬܣܩܘܢ ܠ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܰ݁ܪܕܘ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ܰ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛ ܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܕ ݁ܬ ܶܡ ܶܰ݁ܢ ܢ ܝܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪܐ‪ :‬ܬܗ ݁ ݂ܰܟ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ܡܰ݁ ݂ܰ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܚܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܟܝܠ ܢܶܪܥܶܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܐܡܪ ܐ ݁ܒܪܘ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܩ ܶܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰܫܘܬ ݁ܦܐ ܗܘ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܦ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܪ ܐ ܐ ݁ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܘ ݂ܰܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܪܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܟ ܗܘܢ ݂ܰܙ ܢܝܘ ݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܕܚܠ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܶܨ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܪܪ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ ݁ܒ ݁ ܶܟܢ ݁ ݂ܰܦܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܗ ݁ܬܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ݂ܰܚ ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  II



Hear the word of the Lord, children of Israel, for the Lord judges 1 the inhabitants of the land: for there is neither truth, nor goodness, nor knowledge of God in the land.



Curse(s), falsehood, murder, theft, and adultery have multiplied, and blood has mingled with blood.



Because of this, the land will dwell in mourning; all its inhabitants: the beast(s) of the field, the birds of the heavens will mourn and the fish of the sea will perish.



For man does not condemn, nor blame; your people, like the priest, dispute.



You have stumbled by day, and also the prophet of your people2 has stumbled by night; your mother has kept silent.3



My people have kept silent, for they are without knowledge;4 indeed you have rejected knowledge, and I will reject you from the priesthood. You have forgotten the law of your God: so I will forget your children.



As their multitude, so they sinned; they have exchanged their glory for shame.



They fed on the sin of my people; they laid their iniquity on their soul.5



The priest was like the people: I will visit their ways upon them, and I will repay them for their deeds.



They will eat but they will not be satisfied; they have been promiscuous but they have not multiplied: for they have forsaken the Lord.

1

‘the Lord judges’: lit. ‘(there is) a contention to the Lord with’.

2

‘of your people’ or ‘who is with you’.

3

‘your mother has kept silent’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘are without knowledge’: lit. ‘there is no knowledge (or understanding) in it’.

5 ‘laid

their iniquity on their soul’: lit. ‘to their iniquity they placed their soul’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܒ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܫܡܥܘ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ݁ܕܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܝܗ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܬܗ ݂ܰܕܐܰ݁ ܬܗܐ‬ ‫ܥܡ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥܠ ܕ ݂ܰܠܝ ܩܘܫܬܐ ܐ ݁ܦܶܠ ܛܝܒܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦܰ݁ܶܠ ܝ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܒܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ ݂ܰ :‬ܬ‬ ‫ܣܓܝܰ݁ܘ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܕ ܬܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܘܓܢ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܘܓܰ݁ܘܪ ܐ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܛܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܕ ܓܠ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܩܛܰ݁ܶܠ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܠܛܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ܶܬ ܶ ݁ܒ ܶܒ ݁ܐܒ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܝܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܐܠܘܢ ܟ ܗܘܢ ܬܥܡܰ݁ܘ̈ܪܝܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ‪ :‬ܬܘ ݁ܐܦ ܢܘ ܶܢ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡܐ ܢܣ ݁ܘܦܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܘܦܪ ݁‬ ‫ܗܢ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܐ ܬܢܫ ܬܠ ݁ ܬܕ ܐܶܢ ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰܡ ܶܟܣ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ܬܡ ݁ܟ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܬܬ ܶܩܠܬ ܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܡ ܬܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܬܬ ܶܩܠ ܬܐ ݁ܦ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡ ݁ܟ ܒܺܠ ܬܝܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܬ ܐ ܬܡ ݁ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܬܩ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܶܡܛ‬ ‫ܥܰ݁ܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܢܰ݁ܬ ܬ ܶܓ ܶܝܰ݁ܪ ܶܐܣܠܰ݁ܝ ܝ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܠܰ݁ܝ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ܝ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܣܠ ݁ܝܟ ܡܢ ܟܗܢ ݁ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܥܝ ܢܡܘܣܗ ݂ܰܕܐܗ ݁ܟ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦ ܐ ܬܢ ܐܛܥܐ ܠ ݁ܒܢ ܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܛܘ‪ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܠܰ݁ܶܠ ݂ܰܚ ܶܠ ݁ܦܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܩܪܗܘܢ ܒ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܗܘܢ ܗ ݁ܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܐ ݁ܝܟ ܣ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܟܘ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܥܘܠ ܗܘܢ ܐܪܡܝܘ ݂ܰܢ ݁ܦܫܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܛ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܥ ܬܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܩ ݁ܘܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܐܘ̈ܪ ܬܚܰ݁ ݁ܬܗܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ܬܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܝܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܐ ݁ܦܰ݁ܪܘܥ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢ ݁ܐܟܘܢ ܬܘܠ ܢܶܣܒܥܘܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܙ ܢܝܘ ܬܘܠ ܣܓܝܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݂ܰܕܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܩܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

The Lord said to me: Go again, love a woman, an adulteress, who loves evil1 as the Lord loved the children of Israel, but they turned to other gods, and loved raisin cakes.



So I bought her, with fifteen (shekels) of silver, and a cor2 and a half of barley.



I said to her: You will remain with me for a long time;3 you will not be promiscuous; you will not go with (another) man; and I will be (faithful) to you.4



For a long time the children of Israel will dwell without a king, without a ruler, without a sacrifice, without an altar, and without one who wears the ephod, or burns incense.



And afterwards the children of Israel will return; they will seek the Lord their God, and David their king: they will know the Lord and his goodness in the latter days.

1

‘a woman, and adulteress, who loves evil’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

2

‘cor’: 11.5 bushels.

3

‘a long time’: lit. ‘many days’.

4

‘and I will be (faithful) to you’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݁ܕ ܬܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܰ݁ܡ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܙܶܠ ܪܚܡ ܐܢܬ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܓܝ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ݁ܒܝܫ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܰ݁ ܶܗܐ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܪ ܶܢ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܰ݁ܘ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܰ݁ܘܢ ܐ ݁ܬܦܢ ܝܰ݁ܘ ݁ܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܪ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܕܒܘ ܶܫܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܐ ݁ܦ ܬܫ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܟ ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܥܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܬܗ ܠܝ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܣܥܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݁ܙܒ‬ ‫ܣܪܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟ ܶܣ ݁ܦ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݁ܟܘܪ ܘܠ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܶܝܐܐ ݁ܬ ܶܬ ݁ܒܝܢ ܠܰ݁ܝ‪ :‬ܬܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܙ ܢܶܝܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܓ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܪ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ ܶܬ ܬܠ ܗ ܕܝ ܶܘܡ ݁‬ ‫ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܣܓ ܶܝܐܐ ܢܶܬ ݁ܒܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ‪ :‬ܕܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܬܟܐ ݂ܰ ݁ܘܕܠ ݂ܰܫܠܝܛܰ݁ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܝܘܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܐܡ ܶܒܣ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܕܠ ܡ ݁ܕܒܚܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܕܠ ܠ ݁ܒܫ ܐ ݁ܦ ݁ܘܕ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁ܘܕܠ ݁ܕ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܟ ܰ݁ܢ ܢܶ ݁ܬܦܢ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܒܥ ܰ݁ܘܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝ ܰ݁ܐ ܐ ܰ݁ܗܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݁ܢ ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘܠ ݁ ݂ܰܕܘ ݁ܝܕ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܕܥܘܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ܛܝܒ ݁ܘܬܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ܬܡ ݁ܬܐ ܐܚܪܝܶܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

I will sow her in the land, and I will show mercy on ‘Not-Loved’; I will call ‘Not my people’ ‘My people’ and he will call me ‘My God’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݁ܬ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܶܘܐܙܪܥܝܗ ܠܝ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܪ ܶܚܡ ݂ܰܥܠ ܬܠ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܩܰ݁ܪ ܐ ܠܰ݁ܰ݁ܶܠ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܝ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܢ ܝ ܐܗܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

I will bring to naught all her rejoicing, her festivals, her new moons,1 her Sabbath(s) and all her feasts.



I will lay waste her vines and her fig-trees, of which she said: They are gifts which my lovers gave me. I will turn them into dense forest, and the beast(s) of the field will eat them.



I will visit upon her the days of the Baal, when she burnt incense, wore her rings and her pearls, and went after her lovers, but forgot me, says the Lord.



Because of these things I will entice her and bring her to the wilderness, and I will comfort her.2



There I will give her her vineyards, and the valley of Achor where her mind will be opened; she will be brought low3 there, as in the days of her youth, as at the time4 when she went up into it from the land of Egypt.



It will be on that day, says the Lord: You will call me ‘My husband’; you will no more call me ‘My Baal’.5



I will take away the name of the Baal from her mouth and they will no longer remember his name.



I will establish a covenant for them on that day, with the beast(s) of the field, the birds of the heavens, and the creeping things of the earth; I will make the bow, the sword, and battle cease from the land, and I will make them dwell in hope.



I will betroth you to me forever; I will betroth you to me in righteousness, in justice, in goodness, and in mercy.



I will betroth you to me in faithfulness, and you will know the Lord.



And it will be on that day, says the Lord, (that) I will answer the heavens, and they will answer the earth.



The earth will answer the produce, the wine, and the oil, and they will answer Jezreel. 1 2

‘her new moons’: lit. ‘the beginning of her months’. ‘comfort her’: lit. ‘fill her heart’.

3

‘she will be brought low’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘time’: lit. ‘day’.

5

‘Baal’ or ‘master’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝ ܚ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܒ‬

‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܥ ݁ܕܥ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܒܰ݁ ݁ܬܗ ݁ܘܟ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܕ ܝܰ݁ܗ ܘܪܝܰ݁ܫ ݂ܰܝܪ ܶܚ ܝܰ݁ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܒܛܠ ܟ ܰ݁ܗ ܚܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݁‬ ‫ܥ ݁ܶ‬ ‫ܐܕ ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܚܪ ݁ܒ ܓܘ ݁ܦܢܶ ܝܗ ݁ܘܬܐܢܶ ܝܗ‪ܶ :‬ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܐܶܢܶ ܝܰ݁ܢ ܕ ݂ܰܝܗ ݁ܒܰ݁ܘ ܠܰ݁ܝ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܕ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܘܗ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܥܒ ݁ܕ ܐܶܢܶ ܝܢ ܬܥ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݁ܐܟܘܠ ܐܶܢܶ ܝܢ ݂ܰܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܦܩܰ݁ܘܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܰ݁ܐ ܗ ܬܘܬ ܒܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܶܒܣ ܶܡܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܶܫ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ ܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕ ܬܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܠܰ݁ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܗ ܝܰ݁ܘܡ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܘܐܙܠ ݁ܬ ܒ ݁ܬܪ ̈ܪܚܡܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܠܝ ܛܥ ݁ܬ ܐܡܪ ܡܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩ ݁ ܬܕ ܶܫܝܗ ܘܡܪܓܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܶܕܠ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܠ ܗ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܠ ܐ ܬܢ ܬܠ ܗ ܠ ݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒܰ݁ ܬܪܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܡܰ݁ܶܠ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܶܠ ܬܒܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܚ ܣܰ݁ ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܬ ܶܠ ܬܠ ܗ ݂ܰܟܪ ܶܡܝܗ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܬ ܬܡܰ݁ܢ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡܩܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕ ܬܥ ݁ ܬܟܰ݁ܪ‪ :‬ܕܢܶ ݁ܬܦܰ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ܶܣܠ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܬ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁ܘܬ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܡ ݂ܰܟ ݁ܟ ܬ ܬܡܢ ܐ ݁ܝܟ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܝ ܛ ܝ ݁ܘܬܗ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܪܝܢ ܝ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܒܪܝ ܬܘܠ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܬ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܢ ܝ ݂ܰܒܥܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܬܠ ܢܶܬ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܟܪܘܢ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܪ ܫ ܬܡܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ݂ܰܒܥ ܬܶܠ ܶܡܢ ܦ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܬܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘܐܩܝܡ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܩܝܡܐ ݁ܒܝܘܡܐ ܗܘ‪ :‬ܥܡ ܚ ܝ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕ݁ܕ ݁ܒܪܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܡ ܦܪ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ݂ܰ ܬ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܦܰ݁ܐ ݂ܰܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܰ݁ܬܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܰ݁ܪ ܐ ܐܢܰ݁ܘܢ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܰ݁ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܒܛܰ݁ܠ ܡܰ݁ܢ ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܚܫܐ ݁ܕ ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܩ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܡܟ ܶܪ ݁ܟܝ ܠܝ ܠ ܬܥ ݂ܰܠܡ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܡܟ ܶܪ ݁ܟܝ ܠܰ݁ܝ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܙ ܕܝܩܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݁ܕ ܬܝܢܰ݁ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܛܝܒܰ݁ ݁ܘܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܢ ݁ܘܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܘܬܕܥܝܢ ܠ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘܐܡܟ ܶܪ ݁ܟܝ ܠܝ ݁ܒܗ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ܢܶܥܢܘܢ ݂ܰܠ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܬܝܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ ܬܐ ݂ܰܡܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܶܥܢܶܐ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܬ ܶܥܢܶܐ ݂ܰܠܥܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܰܚ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܚܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ݂ܰܘܠ ܶܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ܢܶܥܢܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܝܙܪܥܶܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰܘ ܬ ݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Chapter  

Call your brothers ‘My people’ and your sisters ‘Beloved ones’.



Contend with your mother; contend, for she was not my wife, and I was not her husband; may her promiscuity pass away1 from her presence,2 her adultery from between her breasts.



So that I will not strip her naked and repudiate her,3 as (on) the day on which she was born, make her like the wilderness, like a thirsty land, make her die of thirst,



And have no mercy on her children, for they are children of a promiscuous (woman).



For their mother was promiscuous and their birth mother behaved shamefully.4 She said: I will go after my lovers, who give (me) my bread, my water, my clothes, my flax, my oil, and all that I need.



Because of these things, See! I fence her ways with thistles, I will fence her paths5 and she will not find (her) way.



She will go after her lovers, but she will not reach them, she will seek them but she will not find them. She will say: I will go again to my first husband, for it was better for me then than now.



For she did not know that I gave her the produce, the wine, and the oil; I gave her much silver and gold6 - from which they made a Baal.



Therefore, I will again take (back) my produce in its season, and my wine in its season, and I will take (back) my wool and my flax which I gave to her so that she might cover her nakedness.



So now I will uncover her nakedness before her lovers, and no one will deliver her from my hands.

1

‘may her promiscuity pass away’ or ‘her promiscuity will pass away’.

2

‘her presence’: lit. ‘her face’.

3

‘repudiate her’: see Introduction. Addendum 1.

4

‘behaved shamefully’: lit. ‘was ashamed’.

5

‘I will fence her paths’: see Introduction. Addendum 3.

6

‘I gave her much silver and gold’: lit. ‘silver and gold I increased for her’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܠ ݂ܰܚ ܝܟܘܢ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪ :‬ܘܠܚ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܟܘܢ ̈ܪܚ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܡܟܰ݁ܰ݁ܘܢ‪ :‬ܕܘܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܕܗܝ ܠ‬ ‫ܕܘܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܡ ܐ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݁ܬ ܐܢܰ݁ܰ݁ܬ ݁ܬܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܬܐܢ ܠ ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓܘܪܗ ܡܢ ܒܝܢ ݁ܬ ܬ݁ܕ ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܥܠ ܗ‪ :‬ܬܥܒܪ ܙܢ ܝ ݁ܘܬܗ ܡܢ ܐܦܝܗ‪݁ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܰ݁ܐ ݁ܕܝܠ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܟ‬ ‫ܝܰ݁ܕܐ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܥܒ ݁ܕܝܰ݁ܗ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܕܠ ܐܫܠ ܚ ܝܗ ݂ܰܥܪܛ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐܫܒܩܝܰ݁ܗ ܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܝܗ ܒ ܶܨ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܨܗ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰܡ ݁ܕܒ ܬܪܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܝܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘܐܡ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܒܢܶ ܝܗ ܠ ܐ ܪ ܶܚܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݁ܒܢ ܝ ܙܢ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܗܬ ݁ܬ ܬܝ ܶܠܰ݁ܕܬܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܬ̈ܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ݁ܝ ܐܡܰ݁ܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܒܰ݁‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܪ ݁ܬ ܐ ݂ܰܙܠ ܒܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܕܙܢ ݁‬ ‫݂ܰ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܰܢ ܝ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܫܚ ܝ ݁ܘܟܠ ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬܒܥܶܐ ܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܝܗ ݂ܰܒܝ ݂ܰܠܚܡܝ ܘܡܝ ܘܢ ܚܬܝ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ܬ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬܗ ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܕܪܕ ܶ̈ܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܝ ܶܠܝܰ݁ܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫ܐܣ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܚ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܓ‬ ‫ܶܡ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܛܠ ܗܠܝܢ ܗܐ ܣܐ ݁‬ ‫ܬܠ ݁ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܶ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܬ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ܐܢܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܘܬ ݂ܰܐܡܰ݁ܪ‬ ‫ܚܡܝܗ ܘܠ ݁ ݁ܬܕ ܶܪ ݁ܟ ܐܢܘܢ܂ ݁ܘܬ ݁ܒܥܶܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܘܠ ݁ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܘܬ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ܐ ݂ܰܙܠ ܠܝ ܠ ܬܘ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܥܠܝ ݂ܰܩ ݁ܕ ܬܡ ܬܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܛ ݁ܒ ܗ ܬܘܐ ܠܝ ܬܗ ܶܝܕܝܢ ܶܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܕ ܬܗ ܬܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܒܰ݁ܬ ܬܠ ܰ݁ܗ ܥܒܰ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܡܰ݁ ܬܰ݁ܪܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܫܚܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܘܣ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܗܝ ݁ ܶܕܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܢ݂ܰ ܠ ܝܶ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ݁ܬ ܶܕ ܬܐܢ ܝܶ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝ ܬܠ ܗ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢܶܗ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫݁ ݂ܰܘܕ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕܘ ݂ܰܒܥ ܶܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ܐܣܓ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚܡܪܝ ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒܢܶܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܘܪܝ ܒ ݂ܰܙ ݁ܒܢܶܗ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܣ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܪܝ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܬܗ ܬܢ ܐܗܦ ݁ܘܟ ܐ ݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܰܢ ܝ‪ :‬ܕܝܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܒ ݁ܬ ܬܠ ܗ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟ ܶܣܐ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܣ ܬܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܚܡܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܐ ܬܢܫ ܠ ݁ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܬ̈ܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡܟܝܠ ܐܓܶܠ ݁ܦ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܣ ܬܝܗ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܢܦ ܶܨܝܗ ܶܡܢ ܐܝ ݁ ݂ܰܕܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݁‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.



 

The Lord said to me: Call him ‘Not my people’, for you, you are not my people, and I will not be your (God).



Surely the number of the children of Israel will be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured and cannot be numbered; and it will be, in the place in which it was said to them ‘You are not my people’, that there they will be called ‘The children of the living God’.



They will be gathered together, the children of Judah and the children of Israel, as one; they will make for themselves a single head, and they will go up from the land: for great is the day of Jezreel.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܕ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܰ݁ܝ ܐܢܰ݁ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܩܪܝ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܬܐܢ ܬܠ ܐܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠ ݁ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܡܢ ܬܝ ܬܢ ܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܰ݁ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ܢܶܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ܐܝܰ݁ ݁ܰ݁ܟ ܬܚ ܰ݁ܶܠ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܝ ܬܡ ܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܕܠ ܶܡܬܬ ݁ܟܝܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܘܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ܬܡܢܶܐ܃ ܘܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ݁ܐܬ ܬܪ ܐ ݁ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠ ܗܘܢ ܠ ݂ܰܥܡܝ ܐܢܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܬ ܬܡܢ ܢܶ ݁ܬܩܪܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ܬܠ ܬܗܐ ݂ܰܚ ܬܝܐ܂‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܟܢܫܘܢ ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ‪݂ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܢ ܝ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܚܰ݁ܕܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܥܒܰ݁ ݁ܕܘܢ ܠ ܰ݁ܗܘܢ ܪ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܠ ݂ܰܐ ݁ܟ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܫܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݂ܰܚ ݁ܕ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܣܩܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ܰܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܰܪܒ ܗܘ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܙܪܥܶܝܠ܂‬

‫‪‬‬

Hosea Ch.





Hosea Chapter  I



The word of the Lord which came1 to Hosea the son of Beeri in the time of Uzziah, and Jotham, and Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah; and in the time2 of Jeroboam son of Joash king of Israel.



The beginning of the word of the Lord which came to Hosea. The Lord said to Hosea: Go, take a promiscuous wife and promiscuous3 children, for in gross promiscuity the land has turned4 away from the Lord.



He went, and took Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim, and she conceived and bore him a son.



The Lord said to him: Call him5 Jezreel, for in a little while I will avenge the blood of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and I will bring to naught the kingdom of the house of Israel.



On that day I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.



She conceived again, and bore a daughter. The Lord said to me: Call her ‘Not-Loved’,6 for no more will I show (my) love to those of the house of Israel, but indeed, I will carry them off.



For I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, I will redeem them by the Lord their God; I will not redeem them by the bow, nor by the sword, nor in battle, nor by horses, nor by horsemen.



She weaned ‘Not-Loved’, and she conceived again and bore a son. ‘came’: lit. ‘was’. See the Introduction, Consistency or Syriac Usages, for such idiomatic constructions, vocabulary alternatives, the use of ‫ ܕܠܡܐ‬when negative answers are expected, the non-representation of ethical datives, participles translated using the tense of adjacent finite verbs, 2 nd person imperfects as alternatives to imperatives, and the like. 1

2

‘time’1,2: lit. ‘days’.

3

‘promiscuous’1,2: lit. ‘who fornicates’.

4

‘gross promiscuity … has turned’: lit. ‘fornicating … will fornicate’.

5

‘Call him’: lit. ‘Call his name’. Similarly in v. 9.

6

‘Call her “Not-Loved”’: lit. ‘Call her name “She was not loved”’.



‫ܗܘܫܥ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܬܒܐ ݁ܕܗ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܥ ݁ܢܒ ܬܝܐ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݁ ݂ܰܦܶܠ ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥܠ ܗ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܥ ݂ܰܒܪ ܶܒܪܝ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܰܝܘ ݂ܰܡܘܗܝ ܕܥܘܙ ܬܝܐ‪݁ ݂ܰ :‬ܘܕܝ ݁ܘܬܡ‪:‬‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݁ ܬܘܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܚܙ‪݁ :‬ܘܕܚܙܩܝܐ‪ :‬ܡܠ ܟܐ ݁ܕܝܗ ݁ܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܝܘܡܘܗܝ ܕܝܘܪ ݁ܒܥܡ ܒܰ݁ܪ ܝܰ݁ܘܐܫ ܡܠ ܟܰ݁ܐ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ܂‬ ‫ܪܝܫ ܶܦ ݁ܬ ܬܓ ܶܡܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ݁ ݂ܰܕ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܰ݁ܥ‪ :‬ܐܶ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܪ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ ܠ ܗ ܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܠ ܗ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܫܰ݁ܥ‪ :‬ܙܶܠ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܶ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰܣ ݁ܒ ܠ ݁ܟ ܐܢܬ ݁ܬܐ ݁ܕܡܙܢ ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݁ܒܢ ܝܐ ݁ܕܡܙ ܢܝܢ‪ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕܡܰ݁ܙ ܢܝܰ݁ܘ ݁ܬܙ ܢ ܐܪܥܰ݁ܐ ܡܰ݁ܢ‬ ‫ܬܒ ݁ܬ ܶܪܗ ܕ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ܂‬ ‫ܢܣ ݁ܒ ܶܠܗ ܠ ܬܓ ܬܡܪ ݂ܰܒܪܬ ܕ ݁ ܶܒܠ ݂ܰܝܡ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܙܠ ݂ܰܘ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܛܢ ݁ܬ ܘܝܶܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ܶܠܗ ܒ ܬܪܐ܂‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܶܠܗ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܩܪܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ܐ ݂ܰܝܙܪܥܶܝܰ݁ܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܩܠܝܰ݁ܠ ܬ ݁ ݂ܰܒܰ݁ܥ ܐ ܬܢ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܡܗ ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ܂‬ ‫ܐܝܙܪܥܶܝܠ ݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܒܝܐ ݁ܕ ܬܝܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܒܛܠ ݂ܰܡܠ ܟ ݁ܘܬܐ ݁ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܬܐ ݁ܕ ܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܠ ܒܥ ܬ‬ ‫ܶܒܗ ܒ ݂ܰܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܐ ݁ܕ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܙܪܥܶܝܠ܂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܒܪܝܗ ܠ ܩ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ܰ ݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܡܰ݁ܗ ܬܠ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܰܐܡܪ ܠܝ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܰ݁ܐ‪ :‬ܩܰ݁ܪܝ ܬ‬ ‫݁ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܰ݁ ݁ܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܛܢ ݁ܬ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܘܝܠ ܕ ݁ܬ ܒ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܝܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܦ ܐ ܬܢ ݁ܬ ݁ܘܒ ݂ܰܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ܬܠ ݂ܰܡܰ݁ܰ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܶܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ‪ :‬ܐܠ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܬܚܡܰ݁ܰ݁ܘ ݂ܰܥܰ݁ܰ݁ܠ ܕ ݁ ܶܒܰ݁ܰ݁ ݁‬ ‫ܶܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ܬܫ ܶܩܠ ܐ ܬܢ ܠ ܗܘܢ܂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݂ܰܥܠ ݂ܰܒܝܐ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܕܝܗ ݁ ܬܘܕ ܐ ܐ ݂ܰܪ ܶܚܡ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܪܘܩ ܐܢܘܢ ܒ ܬܡ ܬܪܝܐ ܐܰ݁ܗܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܠ ݁ܒ ܶܩܫܰ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒܣ ݁ ܬ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ‪ :‬ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܬܶܠ ݁ ݂ܰܒ ܬ‬ ‫ܐܶ ݁ܦܪܘܩ ܐܶܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܐ ݁ܦ ܬܶܠ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݁ ܬܒܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݁ܒ ݂ܰܪ ݁ܟ ܶܫܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܦܶܠ ݁ܒ ݁ ݂ܰܦ ܬܪ ܶܫܐ܂‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݁ܬ‪ܶ ݁ :‬‬ ‫ܣܠ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܠ ݁ܕ ܬܠ ܐܶ ݁ܬ ݂ܰܪ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܛܢ ݁ܬ ܬ ݁ܘܒ ܘܝܶܠ ݂ܰܕ ݁ܬ ܒ ܬܪܐ܂‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒܐ ܕܬ̈ܪ‬

‫ܒ ̈ܐ‬

‫ܬܕܐ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܒ ̈ܐ‬ ‫݀ ܨܘܪܬ ܒ‬ ‫ܐ‪ .‬ܐܬ‬ ‫ܕܘ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܐܕ‬ ‫ܐ ܓ ܐ ܆ ܘ ܐ‬

‫ܘܪܬ ܒ ܒܐ ܕܬ̈ܪ‬ ‫ܒܐ ܗ‬ ‫ܒ ܬܐ ܐ ܓ‬ ‫ܐ܆‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܨ ܐ܇ ܕܒ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܗܕܐ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܐ ـ ܐ ܐ܇ ܒ ܪ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܐܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝ ܪܘ ܐ ܘ‬ ‫ܒ ܐ܆ ܘܐܘ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ ܒ ܐ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܐ ܕ ܢ ܘ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ ܒ ܨ ܐ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐ ܒ ܐ ܒ ܐ܇ ܗܪ ܐ ܘܬ ܇ ܒ‬ ‫ܕܐ‬ ‫̈ ܐ‪ .‬ܘܐ‬ ‫ܐ ܨ ܐ ܘܗܝ ܕ ܢ‪̈ :‬‬ ‫ܬܘܒ ܕ‬ ‫ܒ ܐ‪ .‬ܘܐ‬ ‫ܕܪܐ‬ ‫̈ ܐ ܕܕ̈ܪܐ ̈ ܐ܆‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܐ ܕ ܨܠ‬ ‫ܒ ܐܐ‬ ‫ܥ ܕ ܓܐܐ ܕܗ‬ ‫ܐ‪ .‬ܘܙܕܩ‬ ‫ܐ ܪܐ‬ ‫ܐܐ ܐ‬ ‫ܒ ܐ܇‬ ‫ܘ ܒ ܝ ܕ ܢ܇‬ ‫ܐ ܨ ܐ‬ ‫ܐ ܕܒ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐ ܐ ܢ܆ ܘ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܐܬܘܬܐ ܒ ܘ‬ ‫ܬ ܐܘ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܐ ܕ‬ ‫ܕ ܐ ‪LI‬‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܘܬ ̈ ܐ ܐ ܢ‪ .‬ܪܐ ܕܗ‬ ‫ܬ ܐܘ‬ ‫ܒܓܒܐ ܐ ܓ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ ܐ ܕ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ ܒ‬ ‫ܘܬܪ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐ ‪ :‬ܒ )ܗ ( ܙ ̱ ) ܨܘ ܐ ܓ ܒ ܐ‬ ‫ܪܕ ܐ‪ .‬ܐ ܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐ ) ܝ‬ ‫ܐ ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܬܐ‬ ‫ܓ ܐ ܐ( ܘ ܙܥ ܐ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒ ܩ ܕ‪ .( :‬ܘ ܒ ܐ ܐ‬ ‫ܐ ) ܝ ܗܘ ܘ‪:‬ܒ(‪ .‬ܘ ܒ‬ ‫ܺܪܫ ) ܝ ܗܘ ܐ‪:‬ܒ( ܘ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺܪ‬ ‫̈ ܐ ܐ ܪܐܘܣ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܒ ܒ ܬܐ‬ ‫ܐ ܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܒ ܘ ܪܣ ܕ ܪܘ ܒ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܘ ܐ ܘ ܪ ܘ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫܀ ܐ ܘܐ ܀‬ ‫ܐ ܬܘܕ ܕ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫̈ ܐ‪ .‬ܘ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܐܕܐ ܕܨ ܒܐ܆ ܐ ܠ ܒ ܡ‬ ‫ܐܙ‬ ‫ܓ ܪܓ ܒ ܐ ܢ ܕܒ‬ ‫ܒܐ‬ ‫ܕ ܐ‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܙܕ ̈ ܐ‬

‫܀‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ‬ ‫ܐ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܒ ܬܐ ܐ ܓ‬

‫ܒܐ ܕܬ̈ܪ‬ ‫ܨܘܪܬ‬

‫ܓ ܪܓ ܒ ܐ‬ ‫ܕ ܐ‬

‫ܒ‬

‫ܪܐ‬

‫ܢ ܕܒ‬ ‫ܒܐ‬

‫ܒ‬

‫ܒ ̈ܐ‬ ‫ܒ ܬܐ ܐ ܓ‬

‫ܐܙ‬

‫ܒ ܡ‬ ‫ܓ ܪܓ ܐܣ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܕܘ ܐ ܡ‪ .‬ܘ ܪ‬ ‫ܔ ܐܢ ܓ ܒ ܓ‬

‫ܣ‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ‬

‫ܒ‬

‫̈‬

‫ܓ ܪܓ ܒ ܐ‬

‫ܢ ܕܒ‬

‫ܐܙ‬

‫ܐ ܪܐܘܣ ܒ ܘ‬

‫ܪ ܕܒ‬

‫݁‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ‬ ‫ܐ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܒܐ ܕܬ̈ܪ‬

‫ܒ‬ ‫ܒ ܬܐ ܐ ܓ‬

‫ܒ ̈ܐ‬

‫ܐ‬