The Biblical Canon [Third Edition] 9781441241641

This is the thoroughly updated and expanded third edition of the successful The Formation of the Christian Biblical Cano

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The Biblical Canon [Third Edition]

Table of contents :
Title Page
Copyright Page
Preface to the Third Edition
Foreword to the First and Second Editions, by Helmut Koester
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Part 1: Scripture and Canon
1. Introduction
   I. Some Tough Questions about the Bible
 II. An Adaptable Bible
III. Emergence of the Old Testament and New Testament
IV. Process(es) of Canonization
2. The Notion and Use of Scripture
  I. Scribes and Scriptures in the Ancient World
 II. The Scriptures of Ancient Israel
3. The Notion and Use of Canon
  I. Canons in the Ancient World
 II. Biblical and Faith Canons
III. Canon 1 and Canon 2
IV. Defiling the Hands: A Jewish Notion of Canon
 V. Canon Characteristics: Adaptability and Life
VI. Summary
Part 2: Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Canon
4. Origins of the Hebrew Bible
  I. The Law as Sacred Scripture
 II. Recognition of the Prophets as Scripture
III. The Writings and a Three-Part Canon
A. Sirach 49:8–10
B. Prologue to Sirach
C. 2 Maccabees 2:13–15
D. Philo, On the Contemplative Life 25–29
F. Luke 24:44
G. Luke 11:48–51 and Matthew 23:34–35
IV. The Myth of an Alexandrian Canon
  V. The Biblical Canon in the First Century C.E.
A. The Emerging Scriptural Canon
B. 1 Enoch: A Troubling Exception
C. Song of Songs: Hermeneutics and Canon
5. Early Jewish Scriptures
  I. The Greek Bible
A. Greek Language and Culture among Jews
B. Origin and Use of the Greek Scriptures
 II. Essenes and Their Sacred Scriptures
A. Background of the Essene Community
B. Scriptures at Qumran
1. Old Testament Texts
2. Sectarian Literature
3. Biblical Commentaries
4. Late Jewish Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphal Works
III. Samaritan Bible
IV. Scriptures of the Sadducees
A. Background
B. Scriptures of the Sadducees
 V. Jewish Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphal Writings: Literature That Did Not Make the Cut
VI. Decanonization: Subtracting Sacred Books
6. Stabilization of the Hebrew Bible
I. The Twenty-two-Book Canon
A. Josephus
B. Jubilees 2:23–24
 II. The Twenty-four-Book Canon
A. 4 Ezra 14:22–48
B. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bava Batra 14b–15a
III. The Twenty-three-Book Canon: D. N. Freedman
IV. Summary
7. Rabbinic Tradition (90–550 C.E.)
  I. Cessation of Prophecy
 II. Myth of the Council at Jamnia
III. The Bible in the Rabbinic Tradition
A. Torah
B. Noncanonical Books
C. Sirach
D. The Mishnah’s Use of Scripture
E. Outside Books
F. Cairo Genizah
IV. Writings of Rabbinic Judaism
A. Mishnah and Related Writings
B. Targums
 V. Conclusion
8. The Scriptures of Jesus and Early Christianity
  I. The Biblical Canon of Jesus
 II. The New Testament’s Use of Scripture
III. The Inviolability of Scripture
IV. The Church Fathers and the Old Testament Canon
A. Eastern Church Fathers
1. Melito (ca. 180)
2. Origen (ca. 185–254)
3. Athanasius (ca. 367)
4. Synopsis scripturae sacrae (350–370)
5. Cyril of Jerusalem (ca. 350)
6. Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 370)
7. Bryennios Canon
8. Epiphanius (ca. 315–403)
B. Western Church Fathers
1. Hilary of Poitiers (ca. 315–367)
2. Jerome (342–420)
3. Augustine (354–430)
4. Rufinus (345–410)
C. Summary
    V. Authority of the Old Testament in Early Christianity
   VI. Church Council Decisions
 VII. The Codices and the Biblical Canon
VIII. Unsettled Questions
A. Concern for an Old Testament Canon
B. Concern about an Ambiguous Biblical Canon
C. Concern about Criteria for Establishing a Canon
IX. Summary and Conclusion
Excursus: The Use of the Septuagint in the New Testament by R. Timothy McLay
I. The Understanding of Scripture Presupposed by the New Testament Writers
A. Presupposition 1: A Hebrew Biblical Canon in the First Century C.E.
B. Presupposition 2: The Priority of the Hebrew Text
C. Presupposition 3: The Meaning of the Hebrew behind the Greek
 II. The Use of Scripture and the Inspiration of the Original Text
Part 3: New Testament Canon
9. From Story to Scripture: Emergence of the New Testament Writings as Scripture
  I. From Oral Tradition to Written Documents
 II. Gospels
A. Authority of the Gospels in the Early Church
B. Citations of the Gospel Tradition in the Early Church
C. Emergence of Authorship: Oral Tradition to Memoirs
D. Authorship and Authority: Memoirs to Gospels
III. Paul’s Writings
IV. From Authoritative Documents to Scripture
A. New Testament Writings Functioning as Scripture
B. Scripture-like References to New Testament Writings
1. 2 Clement (ca. 120–140, but no later than 170)
2. Barnabas (ca. 90–130)
3. Ignatius (ca. 100–107)
4. Polycarp (ca. 140–155)
5. 2 Peter (ca. 150, but possibly as late as ca. 180)
6. Ptolemy (ca. 160)
7. Martyrs of Lyons and Vienne (ca. 175–177)
8. Tatian (ca. 160–170)
9. Athenagoras (ca. 180)
10. Theophilus of Antioch (ca. 190–200)
11. Summary
  V. Conclusion
10. From Scripture to Canon: Tracing the Origins of the New Testament Canon
  I. Justin and the Roots of Christian Scripture
 II. Irenaeus and the Principle of Scripture
A. The Principle of Scripture
B. Irenaeus and the Notion of Canon
C. Irenaeus’s Influence
D. Irenaeus’s List of Scriptures
III. Clement of Alexandria and a Broad Scripture Collection
IV. Tertullian and Levels of Scriptural Authority
    V. Origen and the Use of Written Traditions
  VI. Eusebius and the Emergence of a Fixed Biblical Canon
 VII. Burning Sacred Books
VIII. Constantine and the Call to Uniformity
IX. Production of Fifty Sacred Books
  X. Summary 320
11. Influence of “Heretics”
  I. Marcion and Marcionites
 II. Gnostics and Gnosticism
III. Montanists
IV. Conclusion
 V. Excursus: New Testament Apocrypha
12. Books, Texts, and Translations
   I. Books and the Biblical Canon
A. The Art of Writing
B. The Codex and the Biblical Canon
 II. Textual Criticism
III. Translations
A. Early Translations
B. Modern Translations
IV. Conclusion
13. Collections and Citations of Christian Scriptures
  I. Ancient Lists of Scriptures
A. Introduction
B. Marcion
C. Valentinus
D. Muratorian Fragment
E. Athanasius of Alexandria (ca. 296–373)
F. Cyril of Jerusalem (ca. 315–386)
G. Other Related Lists
H. Summary of Lists
 II. Early Citations, Parallels, and Allusions to New Testament Writings
A. Gospels
1. Matthew
2. Mark
3. Luke
4. John
B. Acts
C. Paul’s Writings
1. Romans
2. 1 Corinthians
3. 2 Corinthians
4. Galatians
5. Ephesians
6. Philippians
7. Colossians
8. 1–2 Thessalonians
9. The Pastoral Epistles
10. Philemon
D. Hebrews
E. General Epistles
1. James
2. 1 Peter
3. 2 Peter
4. 1 John
5. 2 and 3 John
6. Jude
F. Revelation
III. Summary
14. The Criteria Question
  I. Identifying Christian Scriptures
 II. What Criteria Did the Churches Employ?
A. Apostolicity
B. Orthodoxy
C. Antiquity
D. Use
E. Adaptability
F. Inspiration
III. Summary
15. Final Reflections
Appendix A. An Outline of Canon Research: Primary Sources and Questions
  I. The Old Testament Canon
A. Primary Sources for the Study of the Formation of the Old Testament Canon
B. Questions for the Study of the Formation of the Old Testament Canon
 II. The New Testament Canon
A. Primary Sources for the Study of the Formation of the New Testament Canon
B. Questions for the Study of the Formation of the New Testament Canon
II. The New Testament Canon
A. Primary Sources for the Study of the Formation of the New Testament Canon
B. Questions for the Study of the Formation of the New Testament Canon
III. Conclusions
Appendix B. Lists and Catalogues of Old Testament Collections
Table B-1: Old Testament Lists from the Eastern Churches
Table B-2: Old Testament Lists from the Western Churches
Table B-3: Old Testament Lists from Important Uncial Manuscripts
Table B-4: Current Canons of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
Appendix C. Lists and Catalogues of New Testament Collections
Table C-1: Three Early New Testament Lists Based on Eusebius
Table C-2: New Testament Lists from the Fourth Century
Table C-3: New Testament Lists from the Fifth and Sixth Centuries
Table C-4: New Testament Lists from Biblical Manuscripts of the Fourth and Fifth Centuries
Appendix D. New Testament Citations of and Allusions to Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphal Writings
Appendix E. Brevard Childs’s Canonical Approach
Select Bibliography
Index of Modern Authors
Index of Names and Subjects
Index of Ancient Sources

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