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The Basics of Graeco-Latin Medical Terminology [First edition]
 9788081525162

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University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik in Košice Faculty of Medicine

THE BASICS OF GRAECO-LATIN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Alexandra Kavečanská Pavol Šalamon

Košice 2017

Dedication Coniugī marītōque patientibus dēdicatum estō!

THE BASICS OF GRAECO-LATIN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY © 2017 Alexandra Kavečanská, Pavol Šalamon Department of Classical Philology, Faculty of Arts Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice

Reviewers:

doc. Mgr. Erika Juríková, PhD. Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, Trnava University in Trnava Mgr. Miroslav Čovan, PhD. Departments of Basic Sciences, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin

All rights reserved. None of the parts of this work or its entirety may be reproduced, stored in information systems, or transmitted in any form without the prior consent granted by the copyrights owners. The authors are accountable for the professional level and language correctness. The language and arrangement of the manuscript have not been revised. Academic textbook for Faculty of Medicine on Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice.

ISBN 978-80-8152-516-2

Table of Contents .

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7

List of abbreviations .

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10

Preface

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Part 1 Introduction to Medical Terminology Latin Language

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10

Latin Pronunciation .

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12

Latin Alphabet – Vowels, Diphtongs, Consonants, Letter combinations

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13

Syllabes

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16

Quantity and Accent .

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Parts of Speech – Noun and Adjectives and their Grammatical Categories .

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Structure of Medical Terms .

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24

Prepositions .

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26

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27

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28

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Greek Words in Medical Terminology Exercises

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Part 2 Unit 1 1st Latin and 1st Greek declension

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30

Adjectives of 1st declension .

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31

Exercises

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33

2nd Latin and 2nd Greek declension .

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44

Adjectives of 2nd declension .

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47

Exercises

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49

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Unit 2

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Unit 3 3rd Latin declension – Consonant stems

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59

Exercises

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64

3rd Latin declension – -I- stems

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73

Exercises

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Unit 4

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78

Repetition of Units 1-4

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Example of 1st Test

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4th Latin declension .

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5th Latin declension .

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89

Exercises

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91

3rd Greek declension .

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100

Exercises

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105

Adjectives of 3rd declension .

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113

Exercises

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120

Comparison of Adjectives

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128

Numerals

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132

Exercises

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135

Repetition of Units 5-8

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144

Example of 2nd test

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148

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149

Word Parts & Word Derivations

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149

Prefixes

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150

Exercises

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153

Unit 5

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Unit 6

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Unit 7

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Unit 8

Unit 9

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Unit 10 Word Formation Process

Unit 11 Suffixes – Noun Suffixes

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165

Adjective Suffixes

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169

Exercises

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171

Compound words

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182

Combining Vowels

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183

Most common roots .

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183

Exercises

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191

Repetition of Units 1-12

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204

Example of the Final test

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208

Appendix 1 – Answer Key to Additional Exercises .

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213

Appendix 2 – Grammatical charts (Latin, Greek)

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216

Appendix 3 – Latin Numerals

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217

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Unit 12

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Unit 13

Part 3 Appendices

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Appendix 4 – Pharmaceutical Terminology and Standard Prescription Phrases

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Appendix 5 – Medical Abbreviations

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Appendix 6 – Names of some chemical elements – acids, oxides, peroxides, hydroxides .

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237

Appendix 7 – Latin and Greek component elements of drug names

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239

Part 4 Latin-English dictionary

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242

English-Latin dictionary

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281

Bibliography .

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319

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Preface THE textbook The Basics of Graeco-Latin Medical Terminology is designed to help first year students of medicine (including dentistry) to obtain a knowledge of basic medical terminology. It guides students through an expanding world of challenging language used in medicine and offers a smooth and efficient path to acqusition of the basics of this language. It is not intended to be complete or comprehensive. Students are encouraged to continue their study of medical terminology after completing this basic course. THE aim of this one-semester course is to achieve an active command of basic grammatical phenomena and rules with a special stress on the system of the language and on the specific character of medical terminology in the sphere of anatomy, clinic and pathology. Keeping medical terminology consistent and uniform throughout the world leads to effective and accurate communication between health care professionals. This course does not aim to supply anatomy or other professional subjects. Nevertheless, to helps students with these subjects the textbook is primarily based on the vocabulary from books that are used at the Faculty of Medicine at University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik in Košice. THE textbook consists of four parts. Part 1 contains Introduction to Medical Terminology. Part 2 consists of 13 Units – 11 Units are aimed at explaining new grammatical, syntactical and lexical problems, two Units (Unit 9 & 13) contain repetitions. Further practice for self-study and feedback is provided by the Additional exercises with answers to the exercises in Part 3. Additional chapters in Part 3 also include Grammatical charts (Latin & Greek), Latin Numerals, Standard prescription phrases, Abbreviations and Their Meanings, Names of chemical elements – acids, oxides, peroxides, hydroxides and Latin and Greek component elements of drug names. Part 4 contains Latin-English Dictionary and English-Latin Dictionary. WE, the authors, do hope that this textbook will enable students to acquire the basic vocabulary and structures of medical terminology so that they can use them creatively in their future profession. We are very grateful to MUDr. Silvia Farkašová Iannaconne, PhD.; to MUDr. Martina Gáborová; doc. MUDr. Ingrid Hodorová, PhD.; prof. MUDr. Ivica Lazurová, DrSc., FRCP.; doc. MUDr. Oliver Rácz, CSc., mim. prof.; doc. MUDr. Marek Šoltés, PhD.; and to prof. MUDr. Eva Mechírová, CSc., for their professional advice and support.

Authors

7

List of Abbreviations (a.)

=

artery

Acc.

=

Accusative (case)

Abl.

=

Ablative (case)

cons.

=

consonant

f.

=

feminine (gender)

FCAT

=

Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology

Gen.

=

Genitive (case)

gl.

=

gland

Gr.

=

Greek

I

=

infix

i.

=

intestine

IANC

=

International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee

IFAA

=

International Federation of Associations of Anatomists

m.

=

masculine (gender)

(m.)

=

muscle

MT

=

Medical Terminology

n.

=

neuter (gender)

NA

=

Nomina Anatomica (1989)

N.B.!

=

note well, pay good attention, be careful (notā bene)

Nom.

=

Nominative (case)

P

=

prefix

pl.

=

plural

R

=

root

S

=

suffix

sg.

=

singular

syl(l).

=

syllable / es

TA

=

Terminologia Anatomica (1998)

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PART 1

"A physician is a man worth many men in knowing how to cut out arrows and in applying gentle remedies.“ (Homer, Ilias 11.514-5)

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Introduction to Medical Terminology MEDICAL terminology is the professional language of those who are directly or indirectly engaged in the art of healing. Although medical terms have been drawn from many languages,1 a large majority comes from Greek and Latin. The long and formidable sounding medical terms may seem strange and bewildering and appear to be extremely difficult to learn. Fortunately, there is a logical method found in medical terminology. Medical terms are a combination of words which describe parts of the body, a function, or a condition. The basic parts (stems, prefixes and suffixes) occur over and over again in various combinations. Their knowledge enables the student to analyze the medical terms and even to understand the meaning of the words he/she had not heard before. IT is estimated that about three quarters of MT is of a Greek origin. The main reason for this is that the Greeks were the founders of medicine in the golden age of Greek civilization in the 5th century B.C.2 The Hippocratic School with its founder Hippocrates of Kos3 and, later on, Galen of Pergamum4 formulated the theories on a rational basis which dominated medicine up to the beginning of the 18th century. The names given by them (based on precise observation) to many conditions are still used today (e.g. arthrītis, nephrītis, pleurītis). The Greek terms came into the English language through the Latin, language that is the major source of English vocabulary.5 Greek medicine migrated to Rome at an early date (ca. 220 B.C.) , and many Latin terms crept into its terminology. The Romans used for adaptation of the Greek words the

1 2

3

4

5

From French comes e.g. massage, passage, plaque, pipette; from Italian e.g. varicella, belladonna, influenza. The Greeks were considerably influenced by the medical discoveries and practices of the Babylonians and Egyptians. There must have been a long and respected tradition of healing in archaic Greece that was particularly associated with hero-warriors (Achilles, Jason, Heracles, Asclepius – the healing hero-god, patron of physicians, etc.) focused on the ability to tend to wounds and the knowledge of herbal drugs. Hippocrates of Kos (c. 460-370 B.C.) is referred to as the "Father of Modern Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field. He is credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today. Galen of Pergamum (129-216 A.D.) started his career patching up arena fighters in his home city in western Turkey, but migrated to Rome, where he soon became the personal physician to the emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 A.D.). A large portion of English vocabulary has evolved from Latin and (to a lesser degree) from Greek, thus learning Latin can also be great aid to building vocabulary and language skills in English. Many Latin words were adopted directly into English without any changes (e.g. abdomen), others underwent some kind of transformation in the process of becoming an English word (e.g. clāvicula ► clavicle).

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Latin alphabet, which generally corresponds to the Greek with a few exceptions.6 Latin language – lingua Latīna – was originally the language of the Latini, small tribe inhabiting ancient Latium on the Tiber river in Italy. The subsequent greatness of Rome, the chief town of Latium, made Latin the language, not only of the whole Italy, but also of the vast Romanized territory – Roman provinces: Gaul, Spain, provinces in Asia Minor and in Africa.7

LATIN language played central role as the language of all science (botany, zoology, physics etc.), scholarship and international communication in the whole occidental civilisation up to the beginning of the 18th century, so all medical texts were written in Latin too. When the rapid expansion of medical science starting in 19th century led to increased demand for new terms, Greek or Latin words with Greek endings were used to express new ideas, conditions, or instruments. The new words follow the older models so closely that it is hard to distinguish the two by their forms. Recent words include appendicītis, lactōbacillus, streptōcoccus, epinephrinum, laparoscopia, haematinometer and many others. The main reason of using these

6

7

The sounds of the Latin language were not in every case the same as the sounds formed by Greek lips, so at the beginning a Greek alphabet could not be a perfectly suitable means of expressing Latin words and syllables; it took a great number of years before the borrowed alphabet was altered and improved to the satisfaction of the Romans. For details see e.g. SIHLER, A. L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, p. 17-24. The languages of modern Italy and these other countries where Latin was formerly spoken are called 'Romance languages'. With the help of inscriptions and parchments, it is possible to trace the way by which the Vulgar Latin of Italy, France, Portugal and Spain passed into the form of modern Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish; how, for example, Latin caballus, a horse, became Italian cavallo, Spanish caballo, Portuguese cavallo, Provençal cavals, French cheval & Roumanian cal.

11

words is that medical terms provide one word that describes something that would otherwise take many words to say, e.g. gastroduodenostomia = a communication between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. MT is thereby very efficient and often reduces an entire long phrase to a single word. And as with the all changing scientific fields, the vocabulary of medicine is still expanding. Terms of Greek origin describing pathologic conditions occur mainly in clinical terminology, diagnosis and surgery (e.g. keratodermia, gastrostomia, haemostasis), Latin terms make up the majority of anatomical terminology (e.g. cor, rēn, ventriculus), thus Latin is the international anatomical language.8 Only Latin, not English, is the international basis for creating equivalent terms in other languages.

Latin Pronunciation LATIN was spoken through many countries over many hundreds of years. When we think how much pronunciation varies in different regions of our own country during our own time, the very though of how to "correctly" pronounce Latin becomes daunting. Even English, which is now a universal language, is spoken by each nation with its own native accent. ACTUALLY, a little bit is known about how educated Romans living in Rome spoke Latin because Roman writers themselves have given various hints in their works. It is evident, that Latin was written in more or less phonetic way, i.e. every letter had a consistent value. This pronunciation is called classical, roman or restored pronunciation, and is based on historical fidelity. The pronunciation of the ancient Romans was later modified by Christians in the Middle Ages, when Latin became the language of the church and of the educated class. This pronunciation is referred to by a number of names: ecclesiastical, liturgical, medieval, Church or Christian, and is based on convention. In addition, each nation tends to speak Latin in their own native accents and to pronounce Latin words by analogy with words of their own language.

8

Anatomy is considered a keystone for health professionals, thus there is a need for standard anatomical terminology to facilitate clear communication. Anatomical knowledge provides the framework upon which understanding of physiological processes, clinical evaluations of pathology and trauma, and therapeutic treatments are based. Standards in anatomical terminology are important for all health professionals. Terminologia Anatomica published in 1998 by FCAT and approved by IFAA provides an authoritative international standard for anatomical terminology. TA is a parallel listing of Latin terms and English equivalents that designate the structures of the human body and was published in response to international dissatisfaction with the work of IANC, which had previously been responsible for anatomical terminology and had published 6 editions of Nomina Anatomica. The English equivalent terms provided in the parallel list in TA are not strict translations of the Latin terms, but anglicized forms in common usage. Because the Latin term remains the most commonly used term for most muscles, the names of most muscles remain largely unchanged (e.g. musculus quadratus lumborum = quadratus lumborum [muscle], not square lumbar muscle).

12

Our goal, however, is not to speak as Ovid or Virgil once did, but to be faithful to the principles of the language and to be understood by others. Therefore we use the pronunciation that is more widespread in the Eastern-European countries – the ecclesiastical one.

Latin Alphabet THE Latin alphabet of classical period has 23 letters – it lacks the English w. The letters y (called "i graeca") and z are Greek imports (introduced about 50 B.C.) as are aspirates ch, ph, th (used after 150 B.C.). The letter k (from Greek κ – kappa) persisted only in a few words and mostly before letter a.9 In MT the use of letter k is limited – e.g. Greek word skeleton – and its adjectival derivative skeletālis, e. In other cases Latinisation occurs, that is a change of k to c. The Latin alhabet is divided into vowels and consonants, which can further form diphtongs and letter combinations. Vowels Latin has single vowels and diphtongs (two vowels that form one sound). Vowels can be either long or short. Long vowels are in this book marked by a bar over the vowel called a "macron" (i.e. ā, ē, ī, ō, ū). Short vowels are not marked. The Latin vowels are: short

a

e

i

o

u

as in:

under

let

fit

hot

example:

caput

apertus

vitium

rigor

long

ā as in:

ē

ī

father

prey

example: plānus Just remember this

vēna

ō feet

y full

city

pulsus cyanōsis ū

ȳ

bone

fool

myrtle

vīrus abdōmen

sūdor

sȳrinx

Letter i followed by vowel (at the beginning of the word, between two vowels, at the beginning of a syllable) represents the consonant sound y as in english yet, yes (e.g. iam, iuvāns, maior, peior). After a consonant and before a vowel the sound is iy (e.g. iniectiō, ātrium).

9

These words (e.g. Kalendae, Kaeso, Karthāgō) are not used in MT.

13

In the above mentioned instances the letter j is used instead of i in MT (e.g. major, pejor, conjūnctīva). The grapheme y is used only in words of Greek origin. like arabic

Length has in many cases a distinguishing function – semantically or grammaticaly (e.g. malum = bad thing, disease os = bone

mālum = apple; latus = side

ōs = mouth; passus = step

lātus = wide;

passūs = steps).

Canis os ōre tenet.

Diphtongs Diphtongs, being two vowels together, take twice as long to pronounce as single short vowels and so are considered long. The Latin diphtongs are:

diphtong

ae

oe

ei

au

as in: fiancé resumé rein example cholaemia oesophagus xērocheilia

ui10

eu how auris

neuron pleura

ruin huic

Diphtongs ae / oe are in the ecclesiastical pronuntiation monophtongized to ē. Macron or two dots placed over the letter e in ae / oe indicate that two letters should be pronounced separately: āër /a-er/ – air; diploē /diploe/ – diploe (spongy core of bone). Do not confuse diphtong ae / oe with ea / eo which are two distinct vowels (e.g. ārea /a-re-a/ – area)! Consonants, Consonant Digraphs & Letter Combinations Most consonants are the same as, or very similar to English. Letters b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p and combination qu are pronounced as in English.

10

Occurs almost exclusively in cui, huic, cuius, huius which are not used in MT.

14

Consonant digraphs (two or three letters that come together to make one sound) are ch, ph, rh, th (the aspirates of greek origin) and ss, ll, mm, tt etc. Letter combinations are ngu, qu, su, ti.

DIFFERENCES + e, i, y, ae, oe + a, o, u; before consonants; at the end of a word c

pronunciation: ts

as in: plants

example: caecus, cellula, coeliacus, cystis

k

cat

cc + e, i, y, ae, oe cc + a, o, u etc. in greek words and stems always hard, never soft as in gem used instead of i in MT; never j as in joy, job always fully pronounced, slightly trilled between two vowels; next to m, n, l, r + vowel

kts kk

abstracts bookkeeper

canālis, collum, crista, cutis, lac occipitālis, accessōrius, coccygeus siccus, accola, saccus

k

cake

varicocēlē, leucaemia

g

get

ganglion, gastricus, glūteus

y

yes

major, jējūnum, jūnctūra

r

curd

mūsculāris, macrōtia, levātor

z

rise

elsewhere ss su + vowel a, e never as in nation t elsewhere x between two vowels never as in cherry, ch chemistry, machine ph rh never as in they, this, thing, those th before vowels ngu before consonants before vowels before consonants; after s, t, x; in greek words ti

s s sv t ks gz

sit duchess transversal stay next Alexander

rosa, nāsus, balsamum, persōna scapula, similis, sulcus, neonātus passus, passer, possessor suāvis, suēscō status, testis, tympanum, uterus apex, larynx, mēninx exitus, exanimis, exulcerātiō

ch f r

Scottish loch physics rhythm

t ngv ngu tsi

Thomas anguish singular waltzing

brachium, cochlea, bronchus raphē, phlebītis, nephrōsis diarrhoē thrombōsis, thanatophobia, thōrax lingua, sanguis, unguis angulus, fungus, longus spatium, articulātiō, extrāctiō

ti

active

tībia, ōstium, mixtiō, aetiologia

g j r s

15

EXERCISES

1. Read the following words paying special attention to the vowels and diphtongs! āërophobia, algae, aneurysma, aquaeus, caecus, calcaneus, causa, coeliacus, cyanōsis, deltoīdeus, diarrhoē, eutrophia, faecēs, fovea, gonorrhoea, haematemesis, iēiūnum (jējūnum), leucaemia, māius (mājus), meātus, oesophagus, pseudomonas, thyreoīdeus, trachēa, trochlea

2. Read the following words paying particular attention to the consonants, digraphs and letter combinations! accessōrius, achalasia, acquīsītus, anthropologia, asthma, blepharospasmus, caementum (cementum), cannula, cerebrum, coccyx, cystis, ecchymōsis, emphȳsēma, extractum, fissūra, haemorrhagia, hydrothōrāx, incontinentia, insufficientia, laesiō, occipitālis, ophthalmia, ossificātiō, partiālis, periphericus, praecox, prognōsis, quadriceps, quartus, resectiō, resistentia, sacrococcygeus, sanguis, saphēnus, scrōtum, schizophrēnia, siccus, spasmus, spatium, squāma, substantia, tertius, trānsversus, unguentum, vernix, vitium

Syllables THERE are as many syllables in a word as there are separate vowels and / or diphthongs. In the division of a words into syllables the following rules are applied: 1) A single consonant is joined to the following vowel (e.g. le-va-tor, si-mi-lis, ca-nā-lis). 2) Doubled consonants, like tt, ss, etc. are always separated (e.g. pas-sus, pos-ses-sor, acces-sō-ri-us). 3) Other combinations of two or more consonants are regularly separated, and the first consonant of the combination is joined with the preceding vowel (e.g. os-ti-um, an-gulus, throm-bō-sis). 4) An exception to the rule 3 occurs in combinations of consonant p, b, t, d, c, g + l / r. In such cases both consonants are regularly joined to following vowel (e.g. a-crā-lis, febris, gas-tri-cus). It is not applied in prepositional compounds (e.g. ab-lu-ō). 5) A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second vowel (e.g. a-cū-tus, eme-sis, o-cu-lus). 6) The consonant x is joined to the preceding vowel (e.g. ex-i-tus, ex-ō-ge-nēs, ax-is). 16

7) As single consonants are counted qu and the aspirates ch, ph, th, which should never be separated in syllabification (e.g. bra-chi-um, co-chle-a, ra-phē, tha-na-to-pho-bi-a).

EXERCISES

1. By following syllabication rules try to divide following words into syllables! accessōrius, acquīsītus, āër, aneurysma, aorta, apex, auris, autonomicus, biopsia, brachium, cerebrum, coccyx, deltoīdeus, diarrhoē, encephalon, erythēma, eutrophia, externus, febris, felleus, fossa, functiō, gangraena, gastrectomia, hydrothōrāx, īliacus, īnfarctus, insufficientia, ischaemia, karyon, macrostomia, māius (mājus), manūbrium, meātus, mētrorrhagia, neoplasma, oedēma, oesophagus, ophthalmia, osteochondropathia, palpebra, pneumonia, prognōsis, pseudoicterus, quadriplēgia, resistentia, sanguis, saphēnus, schizophrēnia, spasmus, thyreoīdeus, trānsversus, ūrethra

2. Find more examples of rule N.4 in the previous exercise!

Quantity and Accent THE quantity of a syllables is the time required for their pronunciation. A syllable is short, if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel or by a single consonant (e.g. word oculus consists of 3 short syllables = o-cu-lus). A syllable is long if: 1) it contains a long vowel (e.g. word thōrāx consists of 2 long syllables = thō-rāx) 2) it contains a diphthong (e.g. word causae consists of 2 long syllables = cau-sae) 3) it contains a short vowel followed by x, z, or any two consonants (except p, b, t, d, c, g + l / r) (e.g. underlined syllables in words ax-is, gas-tēr) THE accent: One of the syllables in a word is always more accentuated than the others. We say that the syllable is accented / stressed. In Latin syllables are usually counted from the end of a word. The final syllable of a word is not stressed. In disyllabic words (consisting of two syllables) the second syllable (from the end) is always accented (e.g. caú-sa, aú-ris). In polysyllabic words (consisting of more than two syllables) the second syllable from the end of the word is accented if that is long one, otherwise the third one is accented (e.g. ce-re-brum, 17

par-vo-cel-lu-lā-ris, ol-fac-tō-ri-us, glan-du-la, ver-te-bra, ). In the clinical terms of Greek origin with the ending -ia the letter i is always stressed (e.g. dysentería, hypotonía, myopathía). The exception are the words containing Greek root -logia (e.g. biológia, pharmacológia).

Parts of Speech THE parts of speech in Latin are the same as in English (e.g. nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections), but the Latin has no article. Of these nine parts of speech only nouns, adjectives, numerals, prepositions and verbs are used in medical terminology. Nouns, adjectives and verbs (and some numerals) are capable of inflection, i.e. of undergoing change of form to express modification of meaning. In case of nouns and adjectives this process is called declension (so we decline11 nouns and adjectives), in case of verbs, conjugation (we conjugate).

A) NOUNS A NOUN is the name of a person, place, thing (concrete nouns), or quality (abstract nouns) (e.g. river, town, pen, Rome, Alexander, courage). Latin is a highly inflected language, and its nouns have gender, number and case. This means that the ending of a Latin noun changes not only to indicate that two or more things are being mentioned, as in English (e.g. bone – bones, ear – ears), but also to indicate the noun’s relation to other words in the sentence and to convey meanings which are expressed in English by its position and by the use of prepositions such as of, by, to, with, for. 1) Gender: LATIN observes natural gender respecting the sex, thus words like vir (a man), puer (a boy) and scrīptor (a scribe) are masculine and words like fēmina (a woman), puella (a girl) and vidua (a widow) are feminine. Grammatical gender metaphorically classifies words denoting objects or qualities which have no natural gender as being nevertheless masculine (m.), feminine (f.), neuter (n. = neither masculine or feminine) (e.g. virtue / strenght = virtūs is feminine, custom = mōs is masculine). This is difficult for native-English speakers because 11

There is an old saying that Latin teachers never die – they just decline... ☺

18

they are not used to thinking of inanimate objects as having a gender. Nouns that are neuter in English can be masculine or feminine in Latin.12 Unlike English, the gender of a Latin word is necessary to apply the various grammatical rules. Memorization of every word’s gender is the only method available to properly learn and use the Latin

when a noun in nomanitive, it is the subject of a verb eg. Haitham jumps

language. The gender assigned to a noun often relates to its ending in the Nominative singular, but may be arbitrary. Thus most Latin words ending in -us and -er are masculine (e.g. mūsculus, cancer), words ending in -a and -ēs are feminine (e.g. vēna, speciēs), and ending in -um and ū are neuter (e.g. ligāmentum, cornū). Every Latin word has only one gender (the exceptions are very rare). To find the gender of a specific word we need to use Latin dictionary: e.g.

mūsculus, ī, m.; vēna, ae, f.; ligāmentum, ī, n. N. B.!

The gender must be memorized together with its noun!

2) Number: THE Latin has two numbers:

- singular (sg.) denotes one object, - plural (pl.) denotes more than one object.

IN English the plural is formed by the endings -s or -es. In Latin the ending of the plural varies according to the gender and declension (see below). 3) Case: WHAT does "case" mean when we talk about nouns? The case of a noun refers to its function within a sentence. In English the forms "I / he / she / they" and "me / him / her / them" are used for different functions: "I, etc." is used when it is a subject: I like listening to the classical music. "me, etc." is used when it is an object: Did you see me at the concert? 12

E.g. the same thing, and even the same word, can have different grammatical genders in different languages: for example, "auto", meaning a motor-propelled 4-wheeled vehicle a person can drive while sitting inside of it, is neuter in English and German, feminine in French, and masculine in Spanish.

19

IN English, pronouns change when they are in subject / object position in the sentence, but nouns use the same forms: My mother likes listening to the classical music. Did you see my mother at the concert? IT is thus the English word order that determinates the meaning of a sentence. English also uses case to show possession, by attaching an apostrophe + s or an s + apostrophe13 to the noun indicating the possessor. Peter's wife is named Anna. The boys' mother is picking them up. IN Latin, this is done wholly by case-endings added to the stem of the noun. Particular kinds of endings have particular meanings associated with them. They belong to six cases, but in the MT only four are used: 1) Nominative (Nom.) = the case of the subject; answers the questions who, what?; it is the case under which a word is entered in dictionaries; 2) Genitive (Gen.) = the possesive case, with the meaning "of" or "belonging to"; answers the questions whose, of what?; other prepositions may be used too (e.g. for); 3) Accusative (Acc.) = the case of the direct object; used in MT only when following prepositions; 4) Ablative (Abl.) = the case of the agent, with the meaning usually of "with" but also of "by", "in" or "from"; serves to denote the place where or in which something happens or is to be found; used in MT with prepositions only. THESE

different

cases

are

formed,

as

mentioned above, by appending certain caseendings to a fundamental, basic part of a word which remains unchanged despite changes in the word as a whole made to express differences of case and number – to the stem. The system of working with stem in Latin is the same as in 13

Old English had a Genitive case (called sometimes "Saxon Genitive"), which has left its mark in modern English in the form of the possessive ending -'s.

20

English when forming derivations and compounds. For example stem -port (which is Latin) is used to create different other words by adding various prefixes and / or suffixes to it. In Latin, stem is important not only for creating derivations and compounds, but as a base for creating above mentioned cases in singular and plural. To find the stem of a specific word we need to use Latin dictionary where lots of information besides a word's meaning can be found. The dictionary form / entry of any noun looks like this: mūsculus, ī, m.



muscle

vēna, ae, f.



vein

ligāmentum, ī, n.



ligament

The mūsculus / vēna / ligāmentum are in the Nominative case. The ī / -ae / ī are the Genitive case-endings. The abbreviations m. / f. / n., as mentioned above, denote the gender of noun.

It is necessary to learn carefully the triad of every individual noun consisting of three components = DICTIONARY FORM Nom. sg. + Gen. sg. + gender!

ACCORDING to their case-endings, nouns are divided into five main classes / families / groups (paradigms) known as declensions. They are distinquished from each other by the termination of the Genitive singular. Genitive singular is important, because this is the only case in which all five declensions have different forms. To identify the stem and the declension the dictionary must be consulted.

DECLENSION

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

Nom. sg.

a

us/er/um

various

us/ū

ēs

Gen. sg.

ae

ī

is

ūs

ēī

WHY is it so important to know which declension a noun belongs to? We need to know which declension a noun belongs to because each declension, as we will see later, has its own set of case-endings.

21

EXERCISES

1. Make up the dictionary form of following nouns! abdōmen, abortus, alvus, anatomia, apex, arcus, ātrium, bucca, bursa, cariēs, causa, cavum, cerebrum, condylus, cornū, corpus, crūs, ductus

2. Determine the declension of the following nouns! dorsum, ī, n.; extrāctiō, ōnis, f.; fossa, ae, f.; graviditās, ātis, f. humerus, ī, m.; latus, eris, n.; manus, ūs, f.; metacarpus, ī, m.; os, ossis, n.

B) ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVES are words that qualify / specify a noun. They are added to nouns, in order to express something relating to the nouns e.g. the right clavicule, the yellow marrow. Adjectives are dependent words and in Latin they must agree as to gender, number and case with the nouns they qualify e.g. mūsculus latissimus (m., sg., Nom.), vēna cava (f., sg., Nom.), ligāmentum latum (n., sg., Nom.).

N.B.! GRAMMATICAL CONCORD / AGREEMENT = THE LATIN ADJECTIVE MUST ALWAYS AGREE WITH THE NOUN IT MODIFIES IN: GENDER, NUMBER, AND CASE!

IT does not necessarily mean that an adjective has the same ending as its noun, although this frequently happens (e.g. dēns molāris = m., sg., Nom., os longum = n., sg., Nom.). In all medical terms (with few exceptions) the position of adjectives is after the noun (e.g. false rib = costa spuria; costa = rib, spuria = false). Whereas a noun has a normally only one gender, adjectives exist in masculine, feminine and neuter states. They have same cases and numbers

22

as nouns and are declined like them, but have only three declensions (there are no 4th and 5th declension adjectives). According to their endings they are divided into: 1) Adjectives of the first and second declension type – with the endings -us, -a, -um / -er, -a, -um (e.g. albus, a, um; dexter, tra, trum); – their dictionary form consists of three components: •

ending of masculine gender in the Nom. sg. (-us / -er) = the 2nd declension;



ending of feminine gender in the Nom. sg. (-a) = the 1st declension;



ending of neuter gender in the Nom. sg. (-um) = the 2nd declension.

2) Adjectives of the third declension type – with the endings -er, -is, -e / -is, -e / -s, -x, -r, -ns (e.g. ācer, is, e; brevis, e; simplex, recēns, impār, teres) – their dictionary form differs depending on type of ending: a) -er (m., Nom. sg.), -is (f., Nom. sg.), -e (n., Nom. sg.); b) -is (m. & f., Nom. sg.), -e (n., Nom. sg.); c) -s (m. & f. & n., Nom. sg.), -x (m. & f. & n., Nom. sg.), -ns (m. & f. & n., Nom. sg.), -r (m. & f. & n., Nom. sg.); the Nom. of these adjectives is in dictionary followed by Gen. sg. (the explanation is in the Unit 7). BOTH types of adjectives are compatible with all five declensions of nouns. It is often possible to guess the meaning of a Latin adjective from obvious English clues (e.g. accessōrius, a, um = accessory; chronicus, a, um = chronic etc.). Parts of verbs called participles are in MT used in the function of adjectives and are declined in the same way. Active present participles belong to the second group (ending -ns, e.g. afferēns = conductingg carrying forth), passive past participles to the first group (endings -us, -a, -um, e.g. apertus, a, um = open).

EXERCISES

1. Look up the following adjectives in the dictionary and decide to which declension they belong! e.g.



acūtus

acūtus, a, um

► 1st & 2nd declension type

aegrōtum



_____________________________________

aequālis



_____________________________________ 23

afferēns



_____________________________________

ālāre



_____________________________________

allergica



_____________________________________

2. Fill in the missing forms of the adjectives! e.g.

benignus, ________, ________

► benignus, benigna, benignum

biceps, ________

► ________________________________

________, biventris, ________

► ________________________________

________, ________, bonum

► ________________________________

________, breve

► ________________________________

caecus, ________, ________

► ________________________________

caecālis, ________

► ________________________________

________, calcānea, ________

► ________________________________

3. Make up the Genitive forms of the following adjectives of 1st and 2nd declension! e.g.

Nom. sg.

Gender

Declension

accessōrius

masculine

album

__________ __________ __________

aperta

__________ __________ __________

allergicum

__________ __________ __________

cavernōsus

__________ __________ __________

chīrurgica

__________ __________ __________

chronicum

__________ __________ __________

gastrica

__________ __________ __________

internus

__________ __________ __________

2

Gen. sg. accessōriī

Structure of Medical Terms THE medical terms (both anatomical and clinical) may consist of one, two, three, four and more words. 1. One-Word Terms consist of one noun in sg. or pl. e.g.

vēna = vein; vēnae = veins 24

2. Two-Word Terms may consist of: a. two nouns in sg. or pl. e.g.

corpus vertebrae = body of vertebra; mūsculī dorsī = muscles of back; back muscles;14

- the second noun is in the position of a POSSESIVE / GENITIVE CASE or of a MODIFIER (an exception is noun in apposition, which is very rare in MT, see Unit 6); - it means that the second noun is in Latin always in the GENITIVE CASE! b. a noun with an adjective e.g.

vertebra thōrācica = thoracic vertebra; vēna palātīna = palatal vein;

- adjective is in the position of an ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE (adjective modifier) and in Latin is almost always after its noun; it agrees with it's noun in gender, number and case = GRAMMATICAL CONCORD / AGREEMENT 3. Three-Word Terms may consist of: a. three nouns e.g.

fossa vestibulī vāgīnae = fossa of vestibulum of vagina

- the 2nd and 3rd noun are in Latin in the GENITIVE, endings depend on the declension to which noun belongs to (i.e. vestibulum = 2nd, vāgīna = 1st). b. a noun and two adjectives e.g.

vēnae cardiacae minimae = small cardiac veins (grammat. concord)

c. two nouns and an adjective e.g.

sulcus nervī spīnālis = groove for spinal nerve (groove of spinal nerve); medulla ossium flāva = yellow bone marrow (yellow marrow of bones);

- when a phrase includes a noun in the Genitive case, any adjectives modifying that noun must also be in the Genitive case; - close attention must be paid to ending of the adjective to determine to which noun it belongs to. 4. Multiword Terms may consist of several nouns and adjectives in sg. and pl.: e.g.

bursa subtendinea īnferior mūsculī bicipitis femoris = inferior subtendinous bursa of biceps femoris (inferior subtentinous bursa of biceps muscle of femur)

14

For brevity, articles are not included in Terminologia Anatomica and this textbook, but may be used for grammatical purposes.

25

frāctūra vertebrae prīmae complicāta = complicated fracture of first vertebra - in multiword terms close attention must be paid to the word endings!

Prepositions ALL above mentioned forms of medical terms can be used in MT with prepositions thus forming a prepositional phrase. Latin prepositions are invariable words which determine the relationship between them and they govern the nouns. Latin prepositions force the nouns to change their form from the Nominative case into either: Accusative (most of them), or Ablative, or Accusative / Ablative according to whether direction / motion towards (into = Acc.) or static aspect / location (in = Abl.) is in question.

1) Prepositions with the Accusative case: ad

=

to, towards, at

ante

=

in front of, before

apud

=

next to

circum / circā

=

around, about

contrā

=

against, opposite, contrary to

extrā

=

outside of

īnfrā

=

below, beneath, under

inter

=

between, among

intrā

=

inside, within, during

ob

=

because of

per

=

through, during, by means of

post

=

behing, after

praeter

=

except for, besides

prope

=

near by, close to

propter

=

on account of

secundum

=

along, according to 26

suprā

=

over, above

trāns

=

across, over, beyond

ultra

=

beyond

2) Prepositions with the Ablative case: ā / ab

=

(away) from

cum

=

with



=

downwards, about, from, according to

ē / ex

=

(out) of / from

prae

=

before, in front of

prō

=

for, on behalf of

sine

=

without, lacking

3) Prepositions with the Accusative and the Ablative case: in

+ Acc.

=

into, onto (direction)

+ Abl.

=

in, on (place, location)

+ Acc.

=

under (direction)

+ Abl.

=

under (place, location)

super + Acc.

=

over

+ Abl.

=

upon

sub

e.g.

in aortam (into the aorta) in vēnam (into the vein)

in aortā (in the aorta) in vēnā (in the vein)

sub scapulam (under the scapula)

sub scapulā (under the scapula)

A preposition is in MT placed immediately before the noun it governs. All of the above mentioned prepositions are very important in derivation process, when they serve in the role of prefixes (see Unit 10).

Greek Words in Medical Terminology ALTHOUGH Latin is the official language of the MT many words have Greek origin. Greek is a rich flexible language in which compounds are easily made. In MT Greek words are 27

transliterated into Roman characters. Some Greek words preserve Greek inflectional endings (Greek termination -on / -ōn, -a, e.g. amnēsia, dyslexia, chorion, encephalon) whereas others have been latinized (Greek words took Latin terminations, e.g. Greek ending -os becomes -us). Greek terms are generally pronounced according to the same rules as Latin. Examples:

Greek

Latin

bronchos



bronchus

oisofagos



oesophagus

kranion



crānium

tympanon



tympanum

brachiōn



brachium

EXERCISES

1. Look up the Latin names for body parts in the picture in the dictionary! English

Latin Nom.

Latin Gen.

gender

1.

__________ __________ __________ _________

2.

__________ __________ __________ _________

3.

__________ __________ __________ _________

4.

__________ __________ __________ _________

5.

__________ __________ __________ _________

6.

__________ __________ __________ _________

7.

__________ __________ __________ _________

8.

__________ __________ __________ _________

2. Try to translate following medical terms into Latin. Do not forget that you need to translate as first the noun and then agree adjective with the noun it modifies! (e.g. mastoid notch = 1. find the notch (incīsūra, ae, f.), 2. find the adjective mastoid (mastoīdeus, a, um); 3. notch is feminine in Latin, so the adjective must be feminine = incīsūra mastoīdea) lymphatic node, thoracic fascia, transverse palatine suture, internal capsule, middle artery

28

PART 2

„I shall begin with a definition of what I believe medicine to be: to free the sick of all their suffering, to dull the pains brought on by disease...“ (Hippocrates, The Art 3)

29

UNIT 1 1st Latin and Greek declension, Adjectives of 1st declension 1) LATIN NOUNS OF THE FIRST Ā-STEM DECLENSION PURE Latin nouns of the first declension regularly end in the Nom. sg. in -a, and are of the feminine gender.

Nom. sg. -a

Gen. sg. -ae

Gender f.

Pattern vēna, ae, f. (vein)

ALL words belonging to the 1st Latin declension are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

vēn -a

vēn -ae

Gen.

vēn -ae

vēn -ārum

Acc.

vēn -am

vēn -ās

Abl.

vēn -ā

vēn -īs

THE unchanging part of the word that precedes the final -a in the Nom. sg. can be described as its STEM (i.e. vēn- is the stem of the word vēna) to which grammatical affixes (i.e. the endings of different cases -ae, -am, -ā etc.) are added. Latin has no article like English the and a(n), or French le, la and un, une. Thus the Latin noun vēna may mean either a vein or the vein; and in the plural veins or the veins. The very small masculine group includes only a few occupation nouns, they form so called EXCEPTIONS TO GENDER (e.g. dentista, ae, m. = dentist; pharmacopōla, ae, m. = pharmacist). The 1st Latin declension has only one set of endings for both feminine and masculine nouns. 2) GREEK NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION GREEK nouns of the first declension are, analogically to the Latin, feminine and masculine. A lot of Greek feminine nouns terminate in -a in the Nom. sg. and they copy the Latin pattern vēna, ae, f. (e.g. artēria, ae, f. = artery; glōssa, ae, f. = tongue; gangraena, ae, f. 30

= gangrene; trachēa, ae, f.15 = trachea, windpipe). The feminine nouns ended in -ē either become regular Latin nouns in -a (e.g. corōna from κορώνη = garland, wreath; chorda from χορδή = cord; aorta from ἀορτή = aorta), or keep their Greek ending -ē and follow the pattern raphē. Greek masculine nouns end in -ēs and are declined as diabētēs. In the plural they are declined like regular Latin nouns of the 1st declension.

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

Pattern

ē

ēs

f.

ēs

ae

m.

raphē, ēs, f.16 (raphe) diabētēs, ae, m. (diabetes)

In the singular they are declined as follows: sg. f.

sg. m.

Nom.

raph -ē

diabēt -ēs

Gen.

raph -ēs

diabēt -ae

Acc.

raph -ēn

diabēt -ēn / -am

Abl.

raph -ē

diabēt -ē / -ā

MANY derivated and compound words consisting of -pnoē (breathing) and -rrhoē (flow) belong to this pattern (e.g. dyspnoē = dyspnea, difficult breathing; bradypnoē = bradypnea, slow breathing; apnoē = apnea, absence of breathing for short periods; diarrhoē = diarrhea). 3) ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST DECLENSION FEMININE adjectives of the 1st Latin declension end in the Nom. sg. in -a, and they follow the pattern of the 1st declension nouns, i.e. vēna. e.g.

apertus, a, um

=

apertus,

(open) caecus, a, um

16

f.

m. =

caeca,

caecus,

(blind) 15

aperta,

m.

apertum n. caecum

f.

n.

from greek adjective τρᾱχύς, εῖα, ύ (rough, rugged, prickly) In older editions of NA written correctly as rhaphē, TA prefers orthographically incorrect rendering of the ancient Greek word ῥαφή – raphē.

31

sg.

pl.

Nom.

caec -a

caec -ae

Gen.

caec -ae

caec -ārum

Acc.

ceac -am

caec -ās

Abl.

caec -ā

caec -īs

4) TWO-WORD TERMS Noun 1 + Noun 2 MANY standard medical phrases consist of two nouns, the first one in the Nominative case and the second one in the Genitive case: e.g.

vēna, ae, f. + orbita, ae, f. = vein of orbit / orbital vein = the second noun is in Latin in the GENITIVE CASE ► vēna orbitae sg.

pl.

Nom.

vēn -a

orbit -ae

vēn -ae

orbit -ae

Gen.

vēn -ae

orbit -ae

vēn -ārum

orbit -ae

Acc.

vēn -am

orbit -ae

vēn -ās

orbit -ae

Abl.

vēn -ā

orbit -ae

vēn -īs

orbit -ae

Noun + Adjective e.g.

vēna, ae, f. + nūtrīcius, a, um = nutrient vein = the Latin adjectives always agree with their nouns in GENDER, NUMBER, and CASE = grammatical concord = vēna, ae, f. ► noun is feminine so adjective must be feminine too ► vēna nūtrīcia

32

sg.

pl.

Nom.

vēn -a

nūtrīci -a

vēn -ae

nūtrīci -ae

Gen.

vēn -ae

nūtrīci -ae

vēn -ārum

nūtrīci -ārum

Acc.

vēn -am

nūtrīci -am

vēn -ās

nūtrīci -ās

Abl.

vēn -ā

nūtrīci -ā

vēn -īs

nūtrīci -īs

WHEN we combine Greek nouns with Latin adjective we must pay attention to endings: e.g. diarrhoē chronica = chronic diarrhea ▼ 1st Greek

▼ 1st Latin sg. f. Nom.

diarrho -ē

chronic -a

Gen.

diarrho -ēs

chronic -ae

Acc.

diarrho -ēn

chronic -am

Abl.

diarrho -ē

chronic -ā

EXERCISES

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! axilla, cornea, maxilla, papillae, pneumonia, petechiae, cauda equina, corōna radiāta, fascia lāta, linea alba, macula crībrōsa media, artēria nūtrīcia tībiae, glandulae gastricae, carīna trachēae, vēnae medullae oblongātae17, vāgīna carōtica, scāla media, āreola mammae, fenestra cochleae, artēria profunda linguae, substantia compacta, vēna saphēna parva, ēminentia maxillae, macula lūtea rētinae, līnea oblīqua, glandula parōtidea accessōria, ōra serrāta, ampulla tubae uterīnae, lamina crībrōsa sclērae, vēnae profundae, sella turcica, taenia cinerea, systolē et diastolē, zōna fasciculāta, vēna hēpatica intermedia, sub linguā, commisūrae valvulārum, plica vēnae cavae sinistrae, ūvula vēsīcae ūrināriae, sūtūra palātīna trānsversa

17

The term medulla oblongāta is Latin official synonym for myelencephalon (= afterbrain) which is the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which medulla oblongāta develops. According to TA myelencephalon is preffered term. To which declension does the word myelencephalon belong?

33

The English word suture / stich can be translated into Latin as sūtūra or raphē. Sūtūra denotes: ► in anatomy, a type of joint in which the apposed bony surfaces are united by fibrous tissue, permitting no movement; found only between flat bones of the skull a) sūtūra plāna (plain suture) b) sūtūra serrāta (serrated suture) c) sūtūra squāmōsa (squamous suture) ► in surgery, a stitch or series of stitches made to secure apposition of the edges of a surgical or traumatic wound Raphē denotes: ► in anatomy, a seam; the line of union of the halves of various symmetrical soft parts / structures.

sūtūra palātīna trānsversa

raphē palātī

2. Give the Gen. sg. and the Nom. pl. of the following terms and translate them! Gen. sg.

Nom. pl.

English translation

e.g. chorda tendinea

chordae tendineae

chordae tendineae

tendinous cord/s

a) macula crībrōsa

_______________

_______________

_______________

b) spīna palātīna

_______________

_______________

_______________

c) vēna cava

_______________

_______________

_______________

d) āreola mammae

_______________

_______________

_______________

e) glandula thyreoīdea

_______________

_______________

_______________

f) vēna orbitae

_______________

_______________

_______________

34

g) artēria arcuāta

_______________

_______________

_______________

h) plica palmāta

_______________

_______________

_______________

3. Translate the following English terms into Latin! mammary gland (= gland of breast), compact bone (= compact substance), accessory thyroid glands, spine of scapula, carotid sheath, serous coat, epidemic diarrhea, round window (= window of cochlea), palatine uvula, sebaceous gland, fold of left vena cava, raphe of medulla oblongata, deep lingual artery (deep artery of tongue), fasciculate zone, white pulp of spleen (= splenic white pulp), aortic valve (= valve of aorta), mucous membrane of tongue, allergic acne, nutrient vein, gastric glands, proper hepatic artery, right clavicle, on the tongue, under right scapula, mucosal folds (folds of mucous membrane)

The ancient used a number of adjectives as nouns, the qualified word presumably being dropped as redundant. A name formed by treating an adjective as a noun takes its gender from the ending of noun (e.g. tunica mūcōsa (f. gender) ► mūcōsa; tunica conjūnctīva ► conjūnctīva; tunica cornea ► cornea; artēria trachēa ► trachēa).

4. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

substantia alba

____________________

____________________

coxa valga

____________________

____________________

valvula corōnāria dextra18

____________________

____________________

apertūra externa

____________________

____________________

fissūra secunda

____________________

____________________

ūrethra fēminīna

____________________

____________________

vēna saphēna magna

____________________

____________________

glandula endocrina

____________________

____________________

zōna interna

____________________

____________________

diarrhoē chronica

____________________

____________________

18

TA preffers the term valvula semilūnāris dextra.

35

5. Complete the following Latin phrases to match the given meaning! a) __________ mammāria an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring b) vēsīca __________ a hollow muscular organ in many animals, that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination19 c) pulpa __________ __________ aggregations of beta lymphocytes appearing as white dots visible macroscopically when the fresh spleen is sectioned d) __________ serrāta the serrated junction between the retina and the ciliary body e) glandulae __________ microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sēbum f) __________ tendinea one of several small tendinous cords that connect the free edges of the atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles and prevent inversion of these valves during ventricular systole g) cauda __________ the bundle of spinal nerve roots arising from the lumbosacral enlargement and medullary cone and running through the lumbar cistern (subarachnoid space) within the vertebral canal below the first lumbar vertebra; it comprises the roots of all the spinal nerves below the first lumbar; horse tail

6. Form grammatically correct medical terms using the Genitive form and translate them! frāctūra

+ costa

► frāctūra costae (fracture of rib)

frāctūra

+ clāvicula

► ________________________________________

+ tībia

► ________________________________________

+ mandibula

► ________________________________________

+ fībula

► ________________________________________

+ coxa

► ________________________________________

+ aorta

► ________________________________________

ruptūra 19

TA preffers the term vēsīca bīliāris.

36

+ artēria

► ________________________________________

+ trachēa

► ________________________________________

+ fascia lāta

► ________________________________________

+ capsula interna

► _________________________

Vārus and Valgus THE terminology is made confusing by the etymology of these words. In the classical Latin, the definitions are the opposite of current usage. Valgus actually means having the calves of the legs bent outwards, "bow-legged" and vārus, with legs bent inwards, "knockkneed".20 Application of these words in adjectival form to other portions of the body by the medical community has resulted in their definitions changing so that they now refer to the ANGLE OF THE

DISTAL

SEGMENT.

In

orthopedics, a vārus deformity is a term for the inward angulation (angulation, that is, toward the body's midline) of the distal segment of a bone or joint. The opposite of vārus is called valgus. In a valgus deformity of the knee, the distal part of the leg below the knee is deviated outward, resulting in a knock-kneed appearance. Conversely, a varus deformity of the knee results in a bow-legged appearance, with the distal part of the leg deviated inward.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) fascia

20

1) alba

See LEWIS, CH. T. – SHORT, CH. (1879) A Latin dictionary, s.v. vārus, valgus.

37

b) vēna

2) parōtidea

c) zōna

3) chronica

d) substantia

4) lāta

e) āreola

5) equina

f) glandula

6) serrāta

g) diarrhoē

7) interna

h) ōra

8) cochleae

i) cauda

9) cava

j) fenestra

10) mammae

2. Form grammaticaly correct prepositional phrases using the Accusative case! e.g. in + vēna saphēna magna

► in vēnam saphēnam parvam

in +

artēria nūtrīcia tībiae

► _______________________________

vāgīna carōtica

► _______________________________

ūrethra fēminīna

► _______________________________

glandula endocrina

► _______________________________

vēna orbitae

► _______________________________

VOCABULARY accessōrius, a, um acnē, ēs, f. acūtus, a, um albus, a, um ampulla, ae, f. aorta, ae, f. apertūra, ae, f. apertus, a, um apnoē, ēs, f. arcuātus, a, um

accessory acne (a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin) acute white ampulla aorta opening, aperture open apnea (absence of breathing for short periods) arcuate

38

āreola, ae, f.

areola (a small circular area on the body with a different histology from the surrounding tissue, most commonly used to denote the pigmented area on the human breast around the nipple)

artēria, ae, f. axilla, ae, f. bradypnoē, ēs, f. caecus, a, um capsula, ae, f. carīna, ae, f. carōticus, a, um cauda, ae, f. cauda equīna cavus, a, um chorda, ae, f. chronicus, a, um cinereus, a, um clāvicula, ae, f. cochlea, ae, f.

artery axilla (armpit, underarm) bradypnea (slow breathing) blind capsule carina (a ridge of cartilage in the trachea) carotid tail cauda equina (bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve roots) hollow, excavated, concave cord chronic grey, ash-colored clavicle cochlea (the auditory portion of the inner ear, a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth) commissure, lining, junction, juncture (a site of union of corresponding parts, such as the angle of the lips or eyelids) compact cornea (the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber) garland, wreath corona radiata (white matter of both ascending and descending axons carrying most of the neural traffic from and to the cerebral cortex)

commissūra, ae, f. compactus, a, um cornea, ae, f. corōna, ae, f. corōna radiāta

corōnārius, a, um costa, ae, f. coxa, ae, f. crībrōsus, a, um densus, a, um dexter, tra, trum diabētēs, ae, m. diarrhoē, ēs, f. diastolē, ēs, f. dyspnoē, ēs, f. ēminentia, ae, f. endocrinus, a, um epidēmicus, a, um equīnus, a, um

coronary rib hip cribrate (sievelike; containing many perforations) dense, thick right diabetes diarrhea (increased frequency or decreased consistency of bowel movements) diastole (part of the cardiac cycle when the heart refills with blood following contraction) dyspnea (difficult breathing) eminentia, eminence, tuberosity endocrine (secreting internally) epidemic equine, of or belonging to horses 39

et exōcrinus, a, um externus, a, um fascia, ae, f. fascia lāta fasciculātus, a, um felleus, a, um fēminīnus, a, um fenestra, ae, f. fenestra cochleae fībula, ae, f. fissūra, ae, f. frāctūra, ae, f. gastricus, a, um glandula, ae, f. hēpaticus, a, um in (+Acc. / Abl.) intermedius, a, um internus, a, um lamina, ae, f. lātus, a, um līnea, ae, f. lingua, ae, f. lūteus, a, um macula, ae, f. m. crībrōsa media

and exocrine external, outer fascia (band or sheet of connective tissue) fascia lata (deep fascia of the thigh) fasciculate, fasciculated biliary feminine, female window round window (anatomical orifice in the labyrinthine wall of the ear's tympanic cavity) fibula (calf bone) fissure fracture gastric gland hepatic in, on, into intermediate internal, inner lamina broad, wide, deep line tongue yellow a spot, mark, stain macula cribrosa media (medial perforated area in the wall of the vestible of the ear through which branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve pass)

magnus, a, um mamma, ae, f. mammārius, a, um mandibula, ae, f. masculīnus, a, um maxilla, ae, f. medius, a, um medulla, ae, f. medulla oblongāta

great, large, big breast mammary (pertaining to the mammary gland or breast) mandible masculine, male maxilla (upper jawbone) middle medulla (the middle of something) medulla oblongata (a cone-shaped neuronal mass responsible for autonomic (involuntary) functions located in the hindbrain, anterior to the cerebellum)

mūcōsus, a, um

mucous (1. pertaining to or resembling mucus; 2. covered with mucus; 3. secreting, producing, or containing mucus) myelencephalon (afterbrain, the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which medulla oblongāta develops)

myelencephalon, ī, n.

40

niger, gra, grum nūtrīcius, a, um oblīquus, a, um oblongātus, a, um ōra, ae, f. ōra serrāta orbita, ae, f. palātīnus, a, um palmātus, a, um papilla, ae, f.

parōtideus, a, um parvus, a, um petechia, ae, f. plānus, a, um plica, ae, f. pneumonia, ae, f. prīmus, a, um profundus, a, um prōprius, a, um pulpa, ae, f. radiātus, a, um raphē, ēs, f. rētina, ae, f. ruptūra, ae, f. saphēnus, a, um scāla, ae, f. scāla media

scapula, ae, f. sclēra, ae, f. sēbāceus, a, um secundus, a, um sella, ae, f. sella turcica serrātus, a, um sinister, tra, trum

black nutrient oblique oblong, rather long, longish border, brim, edge, margin ora serrata (the serrated junction between the retina and the ciliary body) orbit palatine (belonging to the palate) palmate papilla (1. a small nipplelike projection, such as a protuberance on the skin, at the root of a hair or feather, or at the base of a developing tooth; 2. one of the small, round or cone-shaped protuberances on the top of the tongue that contain taste buds) parotid small petechia (purplish red spot caused by intradermal or submucous hemorrhage) flat, plane plica (fold) pneumonia (an inflammatory infection of the lung) first deep, profound proper pulp radiate (furnished with rays, irradiated, shining) raphe (suture, seam) retina (the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue) rupture saphenous (relating to or associated with a saphenous vein) scala (a ladderlike structure) scala media (cochlear duct, the middle division of three divisions of the spiral cavity winding around the modiolus of the cochlea in the inner ear) scapula (shoulder blade) sclera (the white of the eye) sebaceous (pertaining to or secreting sebum, oily, fatty) second a seat, chair, stool sella turcica (a saddle-shaped depression in the body of the sphenoid bone of the human skull) serrated, sawshaped left 41

spīna, ae, f. splēnicus, a, um squāmōsus, a, um sub (+Acc. / Abl.) substantia, ae, f. substantia compacta sūtūra, ae, f. systolē, ēs, f. taenia, ae, f. tendineus, a, um thyreoīdeus, a, um tībia, ae, f. trachēa, ae, f. trānsversus, a, um tuba, ae, f. tunica, ae, f. tunica conjūnctīva

tunica mūcōsa tunica serōsa turcicus, a, um ūrethra, ae, f. ūrinārius, a, um uterīnus, a, um ūvula, ae, f. vāgīna, ae, f. valgus, a, um valva, ae, f. valvula, ae, f. vārus, a, um vēna, ae, f. vēna cava vēsīca, ae, f. v. bīliāris (v. fellea) zōna, ae, f. zōna fasciculāta

spine, spina splenic (pertaining to the spleen) squamosal, squamous (full of or covered with scales, scaly) under matter, substance compact bone suture systole (part of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles contract) taenia, line tendinous (pertaining to, resembling, or of the nature of a tendon) thyroid (resembling a shield; denoting a gland (thyroid gland) and a cartilage of the larynx (thyroid cartilage) having such a shape) tibia (shinbone ) trachea (windpipe) transverse tube membrane, coat conjunctiva (stratified squamous epithelium with goblet cells, and also stratified columnar epithelium that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera) mucous membrane serous coat Turkish urethra (a tube connecting the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body) urinary uterine uvula (small pendant fleshy mass, small grape) 1. vagina; 2. any sheath or sheathlike structure valgus (having the calves of the legs bent outwards, outward angulation) valve valvula, cusp, a small valve varus (bent, stretched, or grown inwards, inward angulation) vein vena cava (hollow vein) bladder gallbladder zone, belt, girdle zona fasciculata (the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex)

LATIN PROVERBS ālea iacta est

ex prīvātā industriā 42

historia magistra vītae

in memoriam

in nātūrā

notā bene (N.B.)

prō formā

nōn scholae, sed vītae

ālea, ae, f. - die; bene - well; est - is; forma, ae, f. - form; historia, ae, f. - history; iactus, a, um - thrown, cast; industria, ae, f. - diligence; magistra, ae, f. - teacher; memoria, ae, f. - memory; nātūra, ae, f. nature; nōn - not; notā (imperative mood of the verb notāre) - note, observe, mark; prīvātus, a, um private; schola, ae, f. - school; sed - but; vīta, ae, f. - life

43

UNIT 2 2nd Latin and Greek declension, Adjectives of 2nd declension 1) LATIN NOUNS OF THE SECOND O-STEM DECLENSION PURE Latin nouns of the second declension end in the Nom. sg. in -us / -er / -um, and are of the masculine and neuter gender. MASCULINES

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-us



m.

-er



m.

Pattern mūsculus, ī, m. (muscle) cancer, crī, m. (cancer)

Nouns ending in -us21 are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

mūscul -us

mūscul -ī

Gen.

mūscul -ī

mūscul -ōrum

Acc.

mūscul -um

mūscul -ōs

Abl.

mūscul -ō

mūscul -īs

Nouns in -er (very rare in MT) are declined as follows:

21

sg.

pl.

Nom.

canc -er

(cancr -ī)

Gen.

cancr -ī

(cancr -ōrum)

Acc.

cancr -um

(cancr -ōs)

Abl.

cancr -ō

(cancr -īs)

Some 2nd declension nouns in -us still display their original form in modern English: campus, circus, stimulus, radius, focus, etc. These words are not considered exotic or technical, and many of them keep in English their Latin plural: stimuli, radii (or radiuses), foci (or focuses).

44

BOTH groups of masculines of the 2nd declension have identical case-endings which are added to the STEM of the word, but nouns ended in -er have the Nom. sg. modified by the development of E before R (e.g. Gen. sg. cancrī, Nom. sg. cancEr). EXCEPTIONS TO GENDER have the same set of endings as mūsculus and cancer, but have feminine gender: e.g. alvus, ī, f. = belly, bowels (i.e. organs of the abdominal cavity and excrement). NEUTERS

Nom. sg. -um

Gen. sg. -ī

Gender

Pattern

n.

ligāmentum, ī, n. (ligament)

Nouns in -um are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

ligāment -um

ligāment -a22

Gen.

ligāment -ī

ligāment -ōrum

Acc.

ligāment -um

ligāment -a

Abl.

ligāment -ō

ligāment -īs

WHEN we compare case-endings of -us masculines and -um neuters we notice, that both groups have identical endings except for the Nom. pl. and Acc. sg. & pl.

N.B.! THE NEUTER RULE The Nominative and the Accusative of neuter in all declensions are always alike, and in the plural end in -A.

22

English has borrowed a number of 2nd declension nouns ended in -um directly from Latin: forum, stadium (originally Greek), auditorium, memorandum, referendum. In English, plural can be either forums or fora, auditoriums or auditoria, referendums or referenda. Data and media are plural forms.

45

2) GREEK NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION GREEK nouns of the 2nd declension are, analogically to the Latin, masculine and neuter. Greek masculines end in -os / -ōs and neuters in -on. There is typological affinity between the Latin -us and the Greek -os as well as between the Latin -um and the Greek -on. Masculine Greek nouns have been almost all Latinized and took Latin endings -us / -er (with few exceptions like nephros, ī, m. = kidney) and they follow the Latin declension pattern for the 2nd declension. e.g.

bronchos (βρόγχος)



bronchus (windpipe)

karpos (καρπός)



carpus (wrist)

lobos (λοβός)



lobus (lobe)

thȳmos (θύμος)



thȳmus (thymus gland)

stomachos (στόμαχος)



stomachus (stomach)

EXCEPTIONS TO GENDER have the same set of endings as mūsculus and cancer, but have feminine gender: e.g. methodus, ī, f. = method; diameter, trī, f. = diameter.23 MASCULINES

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-os



m.

Pattern nephros, ī, m.24 (kidney)

Nouns in -os (very rare) are declined as follows:

23

24

sg.

pl.

Nom.

nephr -os

nephr -ī

Gen.

nephr -ī

nephr -ōrum

Acc.

nephr -on

nephr -ōs

Abl.

nephr -ō

nephr -īs

In TA the Latin word diameter is considered to be masculine, therefore all adjectives connected with it must be masculine – diameter trānsversus, diameter oblīquus. Older medical books treat this word as feminine – diameter trānsversa & diameter oblīqua. TA prefers the Latin term rēn, nephros is used in compound words.

46

NEUTERS MANY neuter Greek nouns have been latinized too (e.g. κρᾱνίον kranion ►crānium), but others preserved the Greek specific ending -on in the Nom. sg. & Acc. sg. All other caseendings are Latin. Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-on



n.

Pattern ganglion, ī, n. (ganglion)

Nouns in -on are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

gangli -on

gangli -a

Gen.

gangli -ī

gangli -ōrum

Acc.

gangli -on

gangli -a

Abl.

gangli -ō

gangli -īs

3) ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION ADJECTIVES of the 2nd Latin declension are either masculine or neuter. Masculine adjectives end in the Nom. sg. in -us / -er, and they follow the patterns of the 2nd declension masculine nouns, i.e. mūsculus / cancer. The stem used in -er adjectives is derived from the feminine Nom. sg., thus the stem of the adjective dexter, tra, trum is dextr-. The masculine Gen. sg. form is dextrī, NOT dexterī. Only few adjectives retain the -e-vowel throughout inflection e.g. līber, era, erum. Neuter adjectives end in the Nom. sg. in -um, and they follow the pattern of the 2nd declension neuter noun, i.e. ligāmentum. GREEK masculine adjectives (very rare) end in -os and are undeclinable in MT. e.g.

apertus, a, um

=

apertus, m.

(open) caecus, a, um

=

caecus,

dexter, tra, trum

=

dexter,

=

līber,

f.

47

n. dextrum

dextra, f.

n. līberum

lībera, m.

(free)

n. caecum

caeca,

m.

(right) līber, era, erum

f.

m.

(blind)

apertum

aperta,

f.

n.

azygos (Gr.)

=

azygos,

(azygos, unpaired)

azygos,

m.

azygon

f.

n.

4) TWO & MULTIPLE WORD TERMS Noun 1 + Noun 2 e.g.

bulbus, ī, m. + oculus, ī, m. = bulb of eye / eyeball = the second noun is in Latin in the GENITIVE CASE ► bulbus oculī sg.

pl.

Nom.

bulb -us

ocul -ī

bulb -ī

ocul -ī

Gen.

bulb -ī

ocul -ī

bulb -ōrum

ocul -ī

Acc.

bulb -um

ocul -ī

bulb -ōs

ocul -ī

Abl.

bulb -ō

ocul -ī

bulb -īs

ocul -ī

Noun + Adjective e.g.

ānulus, ī, m. + fibrōsus, a, um + dexter, tra, trum = right fibrous ring = the grammatical concord of GENDER, NUMBER & CASE must be applied thus = ānulus, ī, m.

► masculine noun, adjectives must be masculine ► ānulus fibrōsus dexter

sg.

pl.

Nom. ānul -us

fibrōs -us

dext -er

ānul -ī

fibrōs -ī

Gen.

ānul -ī

fibrōs -ī

dextr -ī

ānul -ōrum

fibrōs -ōrum dextr -ōrum

Acc.

ānul -um fibrōs -um dextr -um

ānul -ōs

fibrōs -ōs

dextr -ōs

Abl.

ānul -ō

ānul -īs

fibrōs -īs

dextr -īs

fibrōs -ō

dextr -ō

48

dextr -ī

e.g.

palātum, ī, n. + dūrus, a, um = hard palate = grammatical concord of GENDER, NUMBER & CASE = palātum, ī, n.

► noun is neuter so adjective must be neuter too ► palātum dūrum

sg.

pl.

Nom.

palāt -um

dūr -um

palāt -a

dūr -a

Gen.

palāt -ī

dūr -ī

palāt -ōrum

dūr -ōrum

Acc.

palāt -um

dūr -um

palāt -a

dūr -a

Abl.

palāt -ō

dūr -ō

palāt -īs

dūr -īs

WHEN we combine Greek nouns with Latin adjective we must pay attention to endings, as they are not the same in the Nom. & the Acc. sg. e.g. ganglion, iī, n. + ōticus, a, um = otic ganglion ► ganglion ōticum ▼



2nd Greek sg.

2nd Latin

pl.

Nom.

gangli -on

ōtic -um

gangli -a

ōtic -a

Gen.

gangli -ī

ōtic -ī

gangli -ōrum

ōtic -ōrum

Acc.

gangli -on

ōtic -um

gangli -a

ōtic -a

Abl.

gangli -ō

ōtic -ō

gangli -īs

ōtic -īs

EXERCISES

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! frēnulum vēlī, antrum mastoīdeum, artēria profunda brachiī, chorion frondōsum, rāmus cōnī artēriōsī, diabētēs insipidus (DI), fovea oblonga sinistra, mūsculus glūteus medius, manūbrium sternī, hīlum nūcleī dentātī, in uterō, cōnus elasticus, mūsculus dartos, ampulla rēctī, raphē nūcleī, ligāmenta flāva, artēria azygos vāgīnae, torus tūbārius, tōnsillae palātīnae, sēptum nāsī osseum, metatarsus prīmus vārus, apertūra mediāna ventriculī quartī, mūsculus quādrātus 49

lumbōrum, incīsūra tentōriī cerebellī, crista collī costae, apertūra tympanica canāliculī chordae tympanī, structūrae oculī accessōriae, nōdī lymphoīdeī popliteī profundī25, nūcleus raphēs magnus, morbus chronicus, chorēa gravidārum (CG), fistula in ānō

Latin word mūsculus is morphologically a derivative of mūs (“mouse”, from Greek μῦς) with diminutive ending, thus meaning "little mouse". The name reflects the movement of a contracting muscle under the skin reminiscing a mouse moving beneath a rug.

2. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

ascītēs chronicus

____________________

____________________

ātrium dextrum

____________________

____________________

diameter trānsversus

____________________

____________________

fractūra ōlecrānī clausa

____________________

____________________

āla nāsī sinistra

____________________

____________________

anōmalia congenita

____________________

____________________

labium externum

____________________

____________________

costae spuriae

____________________

____________________

3. Complete the following Latin phrases to match the given meaning! a) diabētēs __________ a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely dilute urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine; tastless diabetes (DI) b) hīlum __________ __________ the mouth of the flasklike dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, directed inward, and giving exit to many of the fibers that compose the superior cerebellar peduncle c) fissūra __________ __________

25

Latin official synonym of nōdī lymphoīdeī is, according to TA, nōdī lymphaticī.

50

the deepest (first) fissure of the cerebellum; demarcates the division of anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum d) __________ calcaneī the groove on the upper part of the calcaneus, which with a corresponding groove on the talus forms the sinus tarsi e) fossa __________ a depresion at the back of knee f) (intestīnum) __________ the first part of the large intestine, forming a dilated pouch; blind gut

As was mentioned in Unit 1 a number of adjectives in MT is used as nouns. We have few examples of this phenomenon in the 2nd declension too. Remember that a name formed by treating an adjective as a noun takes its gender from the ending of noun (e.g. intestīnum caecum (n. gender) ► caecum; intestīnum rēctum ►rēctum).

Latin word fissūra denotes in anatomical terminology fissure / groove (e.g. fissūra prīma cerebellī) and in clinical terminology cleft (e.g. fissūra linguae congenita).

51

4. Translate the following English terms into Latin! left fibrous ring, deep artery of arm, long muscle of neck, back of nose, chyle cistern (= cistern of chyle), trunk of accessory nerv, pleural cupula (= cupula of pleura), oblique diameter, cerebral furrows (furrows of brain), crest of neck of rib, isthmus of uterus, muscular space (= lacuna of muscles), accessory kernels of oculomotor nerve, transverse muscle of tongue, labial commissure (= commissure of lips), azygos artery of vagina, median aperture of fourth ventricle, broad ligament of uterus, muscle layer (= layer of muscles), fracture of acromion, left ala of nose, thoracic ganglia, uterine cancer (= cancer of uterus)

The Greek word καρκίνος (karkinos), as well as the Latin word cancer, meant crab. The Greek and Roman medical writers used these words to name any spreading, ulcerous growth on the body.

5. Form grammatically correct medical terms and translate them! collum

+ fībula

► collum fībulae (neck of fibula)

collum

+ costa

► ___________________________________

+ radius

► ___________________________________

+ tālus dexter

► ___________________________________

+ malleus

► ___________________________________

+ vēsīca ūrināria

► ___________________________________

+ dorsum

► ___________________________________

+ collum

► ___________________________________

+ lingua

► ___________________________________

+ palātum

► ___________________________________

+ ūvula palātīna

► ___________________________________

mūsculī

6. Give the Genitive singular and Nominative plural of the following terms and translate them! Gen. sg.

Nom. pl.

English translation

e.g. cilium

ciliī

cilia

eyelashes

a) rāmus globī pallidī

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

b) spatium interosseum metatarsī _______________ 52

c) bursa collī

_______________

_______________

_______________

d) nūcleus autonomicus

_______________

_______________

_______________

e) ligāmentum tarsī

_______________

_______________

_______________

f) glandula tūbāria

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

g) mūsculus externus bulbī oculī h) fasciculus trānsversus

7. Choose the correct form of the adjective! labium

+

internus, a, um

► ______________________________

diameter

+

oblīquus, a, um

► ______________________________

diarrhoē

+

epidēmicus, a, um

► ______________________________

cōlon

+

trānsversus, a, um

► ______________________________

apertūra

+

tympanicus, a, um

► ______________________________

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) antrum

1) interosseum

b) vēsīca

2) nāsī

c) diameter

3) autonomicus

d) spatium

4) ūrināria

e) mūsculī

5) sternī

f) āla

6) cūpula 53

g) manūbrium

7) mastoīdeum

h) cūpula

8) dartos

i) nūcleus

9) collī

j) mūsculus

10) trānsversus

2. Form grammaticaly correct prepositional phrases using the Ablative case! e.g. sub + artēria profunda brachiī

► sub artēriā profundā brachiī

sub + ātrium dextrum

► _________________________________________

costae spuriae (pl.)

► _________________________________________

labium externum

► _________________________________________

ligāmentum tarsī

► _________________________________________

cōlon trānsversum

► _________________________________________

VOCABULARY acquīsītus, a, um acrōmion, iī, n. āla, ae, f. alvus, ī, f. anōmalia, ae, f. antrum, ī, n. ānus, ī, m. artēriōsus, a, um ascītēs, ae, m. ātrium, iī, n. autonomicus, a, um azygos (on, Greek) brachium, iī, n. bronchus, ī, m. bulbus, ī, m. bulbus oculī

acquired, not present at birth acromion (the outermost extremity of the spine of the shoulderblade) ala (wing) belly, bowels anomaly, irregularity antrum (cavity or chamber) anus (an opening at the opposite end of digestive tract from the mouth) arterial, concerning arteries ascites (an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen) atrium (a chamber affording entrance, especially the upper chamber on either side of the heart) autonomic azygos (unpaired) arm bronchus (one of two subdivisions of the trachea serving to convey air to and from the lungs) bulb (any rounded organ / mass) eyeball 54

bursa, ae, f. caecum, ī, n. (i.) calcaneus, ī, m. canāliculus, ī, m. cancer, crī, m. carpus, ī, m. cerebellum, ī, n. cerebrum, ī, n. chorēa, ae, f. chorion, iī, n. chorion frondōsum chȳlus, ī, m. cilium, iī, n. cisterna, ae, f. cisterna chȳlī

clausus, a, um collum, ī, n. cōlon, ī, n. congenitus, a, um cōnus, ī, m. crānium, iī, n. crista, ae, f. cumulus, ī, m. cumulus ōophorus cūpula, ae, f. dartos (ē, on, Greek) dentātus, a, um diameter, trī, f./m. (MT) dorsum, ī, n. dūrus, a, um elasticus, a, um fasciculus, ī, m. fistula, ae, f. flāvus, a, um fossa, ae, f. fovea, ae, f.

bursa (a small fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur) cecum, blind gut calcaneus (heel bone) small canal cancer wrist cerebellum (small brain) brain chorea (the ceaseless occurrence of rapid, jerky involuntary movements) chorion (an extraembryonic outermost fetal membrane around the embryo) chorion frondosum (the placental part of the chorion) juice (milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats) eyelash cistern chyle cistern (a dilated sac at the lower end of the thoracic duct in most mammals into which lymph from the intestinal trunk and two lumbar lymphatic trunks flow) closed neck colon (the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum) congenital, existing at birth conus, cone (a cone-shaped structure) cranium (skull) crest mass, heap cumulus oophorus (a mass of follicular cells surrounding the ovum in the vesicular ovarian follicle) cupula (dome, dome-shaped roof) dartos (flayed, causing contraction) dentate diameter back (noun) hard elastic fascicle (bundle of structures) fistula (a permanent abnormal passageway between two organs in the body) yellow fossa (a depression, a hollow) fovea (a small pit or depression, facet, fossa) 55

frēnulum, ī, n. frēnulum velī

frondōsus, a, um ganglion, iī, n. globus, ī, m. globus pallidus glūteus, a, um gravida, ae, f. hīlum, ī, n. incīsūra, ae, f. insipidus, a, um interosseus, a, um intestīnum, ī, n. (i.) caecum (i.) rēctum labium, iī, n. lacūna, ae, f. līber, era, erum ligāmentum, ī, n. lobus, ī, m. longus, a, um lumbus, ī, m. lymphoīdeus, a, um malleus, ī, m. manūbrium, ī, n. mastoīdeus, a, um mediānus, a, um metatarsus, ī, m. methodus, ī, f. morbus, ī, m. mūsculus, ī, m. nāsus, ī, m. nephros, ī, m. nervus, ī, m. nōdus, ī, m.

frenulum (little bridle, a small fold of tissue that secures or restricts the motion of a mobile organ in the body) frenulum veli (a slightly raised white band passing from the inferior end of the medial longitudinal fissure, through the groove between the quadrigeminal bodies, and down to the superior medullary velum) full of leaves, leafy ganglion (a small, usually hard bump above a tendon or in the capsule that encloses a joint) globus, globe (a round body, a ball) globus pallidus (the smaller and more medial part of the lentiform nucleus of the brain) gluteous, gluteal pregnant woman hilum (a little thing, a trifle) incisure, notch tasteless, insipid interosseous (placed between bones) intestine cecum, "blind gut" rectum , "direct gut" 1. lip; 2. liplike structure; 3. margin; 4. fold lacuna, space free ligament lobe long loin lymphoid malleus, hammer (the outermost and largest of the three ossicles of the ear) manubrium (a handle, hilt, haft, that which is grasped or held in the hand) mastoid (1. resembling a mamma; breast-shaped; 2. relating to the mastoid process, antrum) median metatarsus (the part of the foot between the ankle and the toes) method disease, illness muscle nose kidney nerv node 56

nūcleus, ī, m. oblongus, a, um oculomōtōrius, a, um oculus, ī, m. ōlecrānon, ī, n. ōophorus, a, um osseus, a, um ōticus, a, um palātum, ī, n. pallidus, a, um pleura, ae, f.

kernel oblong, longish oculomotor eye olecranon (the bony projection of the ulna at the elbow) bearing eggs osseous, bony otic (of or relating to the ear) palate pale, pallid pleura (the serous membrane investing the lungs (visceral or pulmonary pleura) and lining the walls of the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)

popliteus, a, um quādrātus, a, um quartus, a, um radius, iī, m.

popliteal (at the back of knee) quadrate, four-sided fourth radius (1. the bone on the outer or thumb side of the forearm; 2. a line radiating from a center, or a circular limit defined by a fixed distance from an established point or center)

rāmus, ī, m. rēctum, ī, n.

branch rectum (the terminal portion of the large intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anal canal) septum (a wall or partition dividing a body space or cavity) space spurious, false sternum (a plate of bone forming the middle of the anterior wall of the thorax and articulating with the clavicles and the cartilages of the first seven ribs)

sēptum, ī, n. spatium, iī, n. spurius, a, um sternum, ī, n.

stomachus, ī, m. strātum, ī, n. structūra, ae, f. sulcus, ī, m. tālus, ī, m. tarsus, ī, m. tentōrium, iī, n. thōrācicus, a, um thȳmus, ī, m. torus, ī, m. truncus, ī, m. tūbārius, a, um tympanicus, a, um tympanum, ī, n.

stomach layer structure sulcus, furrow, groove ankle bone tarsus (1. the seven bones composing the ankle joint; 2. the fibrous plates giving solidity and form to the edges of the eyelids) tentorium (an anatomical part resembling a tent or covering) thoracic (pertaining to the chest, thorax) thymus (a ductless gland lying in the upper mediastinum beneath the sternum) torus, elevation trunk tubal tympanic tympanum (eardrum, tympanic cavity and tympanic membrane) 57

uterus, ī, m. ūvula, ae, f. ūvula palātīna

uterus uvula (small grape) palatine uvula (the small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate above the root of the tongue) velum (veil) ventricle true

vēlum, ī, n. ventriculus, ī, m. vērus, a, um

LATIN PROVERBS ab ōvō usque ad māla

ad acta

ad multōs annōs

ad oculōs

circulus vītiōsus

curriculum vītae

dē factō

numerus clausus

actum, ī, n. - fact, file; annus, ī, m. - year; circulus, ī, m. - circle; clausus, a, um - closed; curriculum, ī, n. - course (of one’s life); factum, ī, n. - fact, action; mālum, ī, n. - apple; multus, a, um - many; numerus, ī, m. - number; ōvum, ī, n. - egg; usque - all the way, right on, without interruption, continuously, constantly; vītiōsus, a, um - vicious, difficult, morbid

58

UNIT 3 3rd Latin declension – Consonant stems THE largest and most important category of Latin nouns is the 3rd declension, a group of words comprising all three genders (m. + f. + n.) and showing a great diversity of form. This declension has no consistent Nominative word-ending26, like the -a, -us, and -um of the 1st & 2nd declencion, and appears to have little predictability of any kind. But the 3rd declension does operate on regular and consistent principles. WHEN we take English words like index, vortex, vertex, cortex, apex, appendix etc. (which are pure Latin words by the way) and pluralize them, we get English forms like indices, vortices, vertices, cortices, apices and appendices.27 These forms illustrate the -es plural that is regular for all masculine and feminine nouns of the 3rd declension. Since we know that Latin case-endings are always added to the BASE / STEM of a word, we can deduce from the plural forms that the stem forms of index and vortex are indic- and vortic-. There is no indic- in the Nom. sg. of index, and no vortic- in vortex. Change thus involves an alteration of the word itself. N.B! The STEM of words from the 3rd declension can be quite different from the Nominative (vocabulary) form of the word. THIS is a major contrast with the 1st and 2nd declension, where merely the final Gen. sg. case-ending is removed to get the stem.28 When learning a 3rd declension noun it is really inevitable to learn the GENITIVE case of that noun, which is considerably more important than the NOMINATIVE case to help us determine the STEM of the word (the stem plays, as we will see later, a key role in word derivation). When studying the Genitive forms, try always to associate the Latin stem with an English adjective derivatives.

26 27 28

LATIN WORD

STEM

ENGLISH ADJECTIVE

cartilāgō, cartilāginis, f. (cartilage)

cartilāgin-

cartilaginous

Wiliam T. Stearn classifies nouns of the 3rd declension into 22 groups acording to the ending of the Nom. sg. There are also correct hybrid plurals indexes, vortexes, vertexes, cortexes, apexes, appendixes in English, but they differ in usage from above mentioned forms. As a general subtype, the Latin -or noun of 3rd declension is a particularly easy form, since the NOMINATIVE AND THE WORD STEM ARE IDENTICAL.

59

cervīx, cervīcis, f. (cervix)

cervic-

cervical

margō, marginis, m. (margin)

margin-

marginal

dēns, dentis, m. (tooth)

dent-

dental

corpus, corporis, n. (body)

corpor-

corporal / corporeal

caput, capitis, n. (head)

capit-

capital

abdōmen, abdōminis, n. (abdomen)

abdōmin-

abdominal

femur, femoris, n. (femur)

femor-

femoral

OCCASIONALLY, as with words pars, partis, f. (stem = part-) or orīgo, orīginis, f. (stem = origin-), the stem may even provide the obvious English noun derivative. ALTHOUGH the 3rd declension nouns have a variety of the Nominative endings, the GENITIVE SINGULAR ending is uniform for all of them and is always -IS. THE 3rd declension nouns are divided into two classes: 1) CONSONANT STEMS

= imparisyllaba

2) -I- STEMS

= parisyllaba

N.B.! Within each class masculine nouns have exactly the same case-endings as feminine nouns ► M = F

CONSONANT STEMS The name IMPARISYLLABA means that the words belonging to this class have one more syllable in the Gen., Acc. & Abl. than in the Nom. sg. Nom. sg.

x syllables

Gen. sg. etc.

x+1 syllables

MASCULINES & FEMININES ENDINGS -or (-tor, -sor, -xor), -er & -ex are mostly for masculine gender (with a few exeptions as arbor, oris, f. = tree), endings -iō (-tiō, -siō, -xiō), -gō, -tūdō, -tās & -īx are mostly

60

for feminine gender (with a few exceptions as margō, inis, m. = margin). All masculine and feminine words of the 3rd consonant class have following case-endings:

sg.

pl.

Nom.

various

-ēs

Gen.

-is

-um

Acc.

-em

-ēs

Abl.

-e

-ibus

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

various

-is

m. & f.

Pattern cartilāgō, inis, f. (cartilage)

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

cartilagō

cartilagin -ēs

Gen.

cartilagin -is

cartilagin -um

Acc.

cartilagin -em

cartilagin -ēs

Abl.

cartilagin -e

cartilagin -ibus

EVEN though there is no difference between the behaviour of masculines and feminines, the knowledge of the respective gender for applying the correct form of the adjedtive is necessary. The masculine noun from the 3rd consonant declension must be combined with the masculine adjective of the 2nd declension, the feminine noun with the feminine adjective of the 1st declension. e.g. margō, inis, m. + squāmōsus, a, um ► margō squāmōsus (squamosal margin)

61





3rd cons.

2nd m.

sg.

pl.

Nom.

margō

squāmōs -us

margin -ēs

squāmōs -ī

Gen.

margin -is

squāmōs -ī

margin -um

squāmōs -ōrum

Acc.

margin -em

squāmōs -um

margin -ēs

squāmōs -ōs

Abl.

margin -e

squāmōs -ō

margin -ibus

squāmōs -īs

e.g. rādīx, īcis, f. + accessōrius, a, um ► rādīx accessōria (accessory root) ▼



3rd cons.

1st f.

sg.

pl.

Nom.

rādīx

accessōri -a

rādīc -ēs

accessōri -ae

Gen.

rādīc -is

accessōri -ae

rādīc -um

accessōri -ārum

Acc.

rādīc -em

accessōri -am

rādīc -ēs

accessōri -ās

Abl.

rādīc -e

accessōri -ā

rādīc -ibus

accessōri -īs

AS can be seen from the charts above, the nouns and their adjectives do not have the same case-endings, BUT there is GRAMMATICAL CONCORD between them (i.e. gender, number and case are the same).

NEUTERS THERE are few 3rd declension neuter nouns that have entered English without change, e.g. corpus, omen, genus, opus. Some of them even keep their original Latin plural ending -a (e.g. genera, corpora, opera29) – as we already know all Latin neuter words have in the Nom. & the Acc. pl. ending -a. Neuter nouns of the 3rd consonant declension end in the Nom. sg. mostly in -men, -ur, -us, -ūs and -ut, but other endings are possible too (e.g. os, ossis, n. = bone). Neuter nouns have following case-endings:

29

Or corpuses and opuses. Plural of omen is always omens.

62

sg.

pl.

Nom.

various

-a

Gen.

-is

-um

Acc.

= Nom.

-a

Abl.

-e

-ibus

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

various

-is

n.

Pattern corpus, oris, n. (body)

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

corpus

corpor -a

Gen.

corpor -is

corpor -um

Acc.

corpus

corpor -a

Abl.

corpor -e

corpor -ibus

N.B! There is more than one class of Latin nouns ending in the Nom. sg. in -us. The 3rd declension neuter type (corpus, oris, n.) mustn’t be confused with that of the 2nd declension (mūsculus, ī, m.).

THE neuter noun from the 3rd consonant declension must be combined with the neuter adjective of the 2nd declension. e.g. corpus, oris, n. + adipōsus, a, um ►corpus adipōsum (fat pad / body) ▼ 3rd cons.

63

▼ 2nd n.

sg.

pl.

Nom.

corpus

adipōs -um

corpor -a

adipōs -a

Gen.

corpor -is

adipōs -ī

corpor -um

adipōs -ōrum

Acc.

corpus

adipōs -um

corpor -a

adipōs -a

Abl.

corpor -e

adipōs -ō

corpor -ibus

adipōs -īs

N.B.! Irregular words 1) vās, vāsis, n. (vessel) ► belongs in plural to 2nd declension (vāsa, vāsōrum, vāsa, vāsīs) 2) os, ossis, n. (bone) ► Gen. pl. OSSIUM (not ossum)

EXERCISES

1. Identify each of the following Latin nouns by giving its declension, stem and English meaning! Latin noun

Declension

Stem

English meaning

e.g. corpus

3

corpor-

body

a) frēnulum

_______

______________

_______________

b) caput

_______

______________

_______________

c) vulnus

_______

______________

_______________

d) gravida

_______

______________

_______________

e) forāmen

_______

______________

_______________

f) cor

_______

______________

_______________

g) intestīnum

_______

______________

_______________

h) cavitās

_______

______________

_______________

i) latus

_______

______________

_______________

j) digitus

_______

______________

_______________

64

2. Translate the following Latin terms into English! arbor vītae, forāmen caecum, ossa digitōrum, cervīx vēsīcae ūrināriae, mūsculus dīlātātor pūpillae, corpus lūteum graviditātis, artēria profunda femoris, corpus callōsum, lacūna vāsōrum, mūsculī levatōres costārum longī, labyrinthus corticis, vāgīnae fibrōsae digitōrum pedis, forāmen nūtrīcium, tūber cinereum, mūsculus rēctus abdominis, pēs anserīnus, artēria cerebrī media, mūsculus tensor vēlī palātīnī, vāgīna tendinum mūsculī longī extēnsōris digitōrum30, mūsculus dēpressor sēptī nāsī, articulātiōnes crāniī, caput obliquum mūsculī adductōris hallūcis, vulnus sclopetārium, angina pectoris, pēs plānus, commōtio cerebrī, tālīpēs equīnovalgus congenitus (CTEV), post exhumationem, sānātiō per prīmam intentiōnem, sānātiō per secundam intentiōnem, vulnus contūsolacerum The Latin muscle Names consist of two elements and form an APPOSITIVE. An appositive is a noun (N2) explaining or defining another noun (N1) i.e. after the word mūsculus (N1) we put another noun (N2) that has the same case, the same number, and usually the same gender as the noun mūsculus (e.g. mūsculus adductor = adductor muscle ► both are in the Nom. sg. and are masculines). The second noun is NOT in the Genitive case. The Latin muscle names are usually translated into English without a word “muscle”.

Tālīpēs is a deformity in which the foot is twisted out of normal position. It may have an abnormally high longitudinal arch (tālīpēs cavus) or it may be in dorsiflexion (tālīpēs calcaneus), in plantar flexion (tālīpēs equīnus), abducted and everted (tālīpēs valgus), adducted and inverted (tālīpēs vārus), or various

combinations

calcaneovalgus,

tālīpēs

of

these

calcaneovārus,

(tālīpēs tālīpēs

equīnovalgus, or tālīpēs equīnovārus). Normal forefoot to rearfoot alignment is called pēs rēctus.

30

The Latin precursor vāgīna tendinum mūsculī extēnsōris digitōrum longī contained an adjective after a noun other than the one it modified, which is not compatible with the rules of Regular Anatomical Terminology, so the adjective longī was placed after mūsculī.

65

3. Give the Nominative plural of the following terms and translate them! Nom. pl.

English translation

e.g. varix lymphaticus

varicēs lymphaticī

lymphatic varices

a) corpus cavernōsum

____________________

____________________

b) nervus vagus

____________________

____________________

c) cartilāgō nāsī accessōria

____________________

____________________

d) regiō digitī pedis

____________________

____________________

e) vulnus morsum

____________________

____________________

f) glomus carōticum

____________________

____________________

g) articulātiō pedis

____________________

____________________

h) vās rēctum31

____________________

____________________

i) mūsculus rotātor thōrācis ____________________

____________________

4. Translate the following English terms into Latin! vascular space (= space of vessels), deep artery of thigh, cerebellar cortex (= cortex of cerebellum), tensor (muscle) of fascia lata, bones of foot, margin of tongue, middle phalanx, foramen caecum of medulla oblongata, treshold of nose, ilac tuberosity, interosseous border of fibula, long extensor (muscle) of fingers, interphalangeal joints of foot, cortex of lymph node, healing by first intention, carotid wall of tympanic cavity, tendinous sheath (sheath of tendons) of long flexor (muscle) of fingers, joint of head of rib, orbital fat body (= fat body of orbit), oblique head of adductor (muscle) of hallux

5. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

mūsculus obtūrātōrius externus

____________________

____________________

mūsculus abductor pollicis

____________________

____________________

vēna cardiaca magna32

____________________

____________________

rāmī crūris cerebrī dextrī

____________________

____________________

tumor benignus

____________________

____________________

gangraena hūmida

____________________

____________________

31 32

TA preffers the term artēriolae rēctae. Official synonym is vēna cordis magna.

66

6. Look at the pictures of different types of wound and give their Latin name!

a) vulnus ______________ b) vulnus ______________ c) vulnus ______________ d) vulnus ______________ e) vulnus ______________ f) vulnus ______________ Are there other types of wounds mentioned in the previous exercises?

7. Complete the following Latin phrases to match the given meaning! a) diabētēs __________ a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body b) pēs __________ a condition in which one or more arches of the foot have flattened out c) mūsculus __________ is a broad muscle in the posterior compartment of the forearm, curved around the upper third of the radius; its function is to supinate the forearm d) __________ ōris the cavity of the mouth, bounded by the jaw bones and associated structures e) __________ coccygis the small bone caudad to the sacrum in humans, formed by the union of four (sometimes five or three) rudimentary vertebrae, and forming the caudal end of the vertebral column

67

The Latin medical term coccyx comes from the Greek word κόκκυξ for “cuckoo” as it resembles a cuckoo’s beak. TA prefers the above mentioned term, not the alone standing word coccyx.

8. Find the words that are not written in Latin! Give their Latin name! English

Latin

a) _______________

_______________

b) _______________

_______________

c) _______________

_______________

d) _______________

_______________

e) _______________

_______________

f) _______________

_______________

g) _______________

_______________

Not all names for human body parts in English are derived fom Latin or Greek (e.g. knee, knuckle, elbow), but the names of bones come (often unchanged) from Latin (e.g. humerus, ulna, pelvis, patella, tibia, fibula). In some cases the name arose from the supposed resemblance between the bone and some object (e.g. tībia means "flute", fībula means "buckle" or "clasp", patella means "little dish" and pelvis means "washing basin"). Other bone names are derived from Latin but have undergone some sort of change (e.g. diminutive clavicle from Latin clāvicula which means "little key" – word has kept the Latin stem but received an anglicized suffix; English mandible comes from mandibula and means "means of chewing"). 68

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) forāmen

1) planus

b) arbor

2) abductor

c) pēs

3) obliquum

d) corpus

4) carōticum

e) vās

5) cavernōsum

f) ossa

6) vītae

g) caput

7) ōris

h) cavitās

8) nūtrīcium

i) mūsculus

9) digitōrum

j) glomus

10) rēctum

2. Give the case, number, gender and declension of the following words! e.g. coccygem

► Acc. sg., f., 3rd decl.

adductōrum

► _______________________________

mūsculum

► _______________________________

dorsum

► _______________________________

capita

► _______________________________

digitīs

► _______________________________

lateris

► _______________________________

marginēs

► _______________________________

diabētēs

► _______________________________

graviditās

► _______________________________

artēriās

► _______________________________

VOCABULARY abdōmen, inis, n. abductor, ōris, m. (m.)

abdomen abductor (muscle) 69

abrāsus, a, um adductor, ōris, m. (m.) adipōsus, a, um angina, ae, f. anserīnus, a, um arbor, oris, f. arbor vītae articulātiō, ōnis, f. benignus, a, um callōsus, a, um caput, itis, n. cardiacus, a, um cartilāgō, inis, f. cavitās, ātis, f. cervīx, īcis, f. coccyx, ȳgis, m. commōtio, ōnis, f. contūsolacerus, a, um contūsus, a, um cor, cordis, n. corpus, oris, n. corpus callōsum

cortex, icis, m. dēns, dentis, m. dēpressor, oris, m. (m.) digitus, ī, m. dīlātātor, ōris, m. (m.) equīnovalgus, a, um equīnus, a, um exhumatio, ōnis, f. extēnsor, ōris, m. (m.) femur, oris, n. fibrōsus, a, um flexor, ōris, m, (m.) forāmen, inis, n. gangraena, ae, f. glomus, eris, n. graviditās, ātis, f.

abraded (worn off or down by scraping or rubbing) adductor (muscle) fat, fatty, adipose angina (spasmodic, choking, or suffocative pain) goose-like, of or pertaining to geese arbor (tree) arbor vitae (of cerebellum; cerebellar white matter, so called for its branched, tree-like appearance) joint benign callous (with a hard skin, hard-skinned, thick-skinned) head cardiac cartilage cavity cervix (neck, necklike structure) coccyx commotion (a violent shaking or motion) bruised and torn bruised heart body, pad corpus callosum (an arched mass of white matter in the depths of the longitudinal fissure, made up of transverse fibers connecting the cerebral hemisphere) cortex (the outer layer of an organ or other structure, as distinguished from its inner substance or medulla) tooth depressor (muscle) finger dilatator (muscle) equinovalgus (raised, everted and abducted from the body midline) equine exhumation extensor (muscle) femur (the thigh bone, extending from the pelvis to the knee) fibrous flexor (muscle) foramen (opening, aperture, hole) gangrene (death and decay of tissue as the result of interrupted blood supply, disease, or injury) body, ball, enlargement gravidity, pregnancy 70

hallūx, ūcis, m. hūmidus, a, um īliacus, a, um intentiō, ōnis, f. interphalangeus, a, um labyrinthus, ī, m. latus, eris, n. levātor, ōris, m. (m.) līmen, inis, n. lymphaticus, a, um malignus, a, um margō, inis, m. mellītus, a, um morsus, a, um obtūrātōrius, a, um orīgo, inis, f. ōs, ōris, n. os, ossis, n. pariēs, ētis, m. pars, partis, f. per (+ Acc.) perforātus, a, um pēs, pedis, m. pectus, oris, n. pelvis, is, f. phalanx, gis, f. post (+ Acc.) pūnctus, a, um pūpilla, ae, f. rādīx, īcis, f. rēctus, a, um rotātor, ōris, m. (m.) sānātiō, ōnis, f. scissus, a, um sclopetārius, a, um sectus, a, um siccus, a, um sūpinātor, ōris, m. (m.) tālīpēs, pedis, m. t. equīnovalgus tendō, inis, m. tensor, ōris, m. (m.) thōrāx, ācis, m.

hallux (great toe of the foot) humid iliac intention, design interphalangeal (between two phalanges) labyrinth flank, side levator (muscle) treshold, boundary line lymphatic malignant margin, border honey-sweet bitten obturate, obturator origin mouth bone wall part through, during, by means of perforated, penetrated foot, any footlike part front of the chest, breast pelvis phalanx after stabbed pupil (of the eye) root straight, upright rotator (muscle) healing, curing cleft, split, divided caused by projectile, shooting cut dry supinator (muscle) foot deformity a foot deformity in which the heel is raised and everted from the body midline tendon tensor (any muscle that stretches or makes tense) thorax (chest) 71

tūber, eris, n. tūberositās, ātis, f. tumor, ōris, n.

tuber, protuberance tuberosity tumor (a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive) vagus (strolling about, rambling, roving, roaming, wandering, unfixed, unsettled, vagrant) varix (an enlarged, tortuous vein, artery, or lymphatic vessel) vessel life wound

vagus, a, um varix, icis, m. vās, vāsis, n. vīta, ae, f. vulnus, eris, n.

LATIN PROVERBS dē iūre

ex tempore

in vītrō

in vīvō

locō citātō

quot capita, tot sententiae

in vīnō vēritās

vīnum rēgum, rex vīnōrum

citātus, a, um - quoted; iūs, iūris, n. - law; locus, ī, m. - place; quot - how many; rex, rēgis, m. - king; sententia, ae, f. - opinion; tempus, oris, n. - time; tot - so many; vēritās, ātis, f. - truth; vīnum, ī, n. - wine; vītrum, ī, n. - bottle, test tube; vīvus, a, um - live

72

UNIT 4 3rd Latin -I- stem declension A) -I- STEMS THIS class of the 3rd Latin declension nouns is called PARISYLLABA and is, in comparison with the imparisyllaba, less numerous. The name PARISYLLABA means that the words belonging to this class have the same number of syllables in the Gen. sg. as in the Nominative singular.

Nom. sg.

x syllables

Gen. sg. etc.

x syllables

MASCULINES & FEMININES ENDINGS can be various, but the most often occuring ones are -is and -ēs for masculine & feminine gender. Only few words belonging to MT end in -er (e.g. venter, tris, m. = belly; māter, tris, f. = mother33). Words belonging to this class have following case-endings:

sg.

pl.

Nom.

various

-ēs

Gen.

-is

-ium

Acc.

-em

-ēs

Abl.

-e

-ibus

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

Pattern

various

-is

m. & f.

auris, is, f. (ear)

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows:

33

Gen. pl. is mātrum, not mātrium.

73

sg.

pl.

Nom.

auris

aur -ēs

Gen.

aur -is

aur -ium

Acc.

aur -em

aur -ēs

Abl.

aur -e

aur -ibus

WHEN comparing two groups of m. & f. nouns of the 3rd Latin declension, we can see that the only difference is the case-ending of the GENITIVE PLURAL. IMPARISYLLABA

PARISYLLABA

sg.

pl.

sg.

pl.

Nom.. cartilagō

cartilagin -ēs

auris

aur -ēs

Gen.

cartilagin -is

cartilagin -um

aur -is

aur -ium

Acc.

cartilagin -em

cartilagin -ēs

aur -em

aur -ēs

Abl.

cartilagin -e

cartilagin -ibus

aur -e

aur -ibus

AS in the imparisyllaba group there is no difference between the behaviour of masculines and feminines in the parisyllaba group. The masculine noun from the 3rd -ideclension must be combined with the masculine adjective of the 2nd declension, the feminine noun with the feminine adjective of the 1st declension. The rule of GRAMMATICAL CONCORD must be applied. e.g. canālis, is, m. + opticus, a, um ► canālis opticus (optic canal) ▼



3rd -i- stem 2nd m. sg.

pl.

Nom.

canālis

optic -us

canāl -ēs

optic -ī

Gen.

canāl -is

optic -ī

canāl -ium

optic -ōrum

Acc.

canāl -em

optic -um

canāl -ēs

optic -ōs

Abl.

canāl -e

optic -ō

canāl -ibus

optic -īs

74

e.g. auris, is, f. + medius, a, um ► auris media (middle ear) ▼



3rd -i- stem 1st f. sg.

pl.

Nom.

auris

medi -a

aur -ēs

medi -ae

Gen.

aur -is

medi -ae

aur -ium

medi -ārum

Acc.

aur -em

medi -am

aur -ēs

medi -ās

Abl.

aur -e

medi -ā

aur -ibus

medi -īs

B) GENUINE -I- STEMS SOME genuine m. & f. -i- stems have become disguised in the Nom. sg. as they were shortened by omission of one or more letters = the contraction of a word (SYNCOPE). These nouns are of one syllable in the Nom. sg. and have double consonant before the Gen. sg. caseending -is (e.g. -nt, -nd, -rt, -rb). In the Nom. sg. they end in -s or -x. Original parisyllabic word

Syncope

Latin word after syncope

Nom. Gen. sg.

Nom. Gen. sg.

* partis, partis, f. (part)

► partis, partis, f.

► pars, partis, f.

* dentis, dentis, m. (tooth)

► dentis, dentis, m.

► dēns, dentis, m.

* mortis, mortis, f. (death)

► mortis, mortis, f.

► mors, mortis, f.

* lentis, lentis, f. (lens)

► lentis, lentis, f.

► lens, lentis, f.

* pontis, pontis, m. (pons)

► pontis, pontis, m.

► pons, pontis, m.





2 syll.



2 syll.



1 syll. 2 syll.

AS we can see, these words have historically also been parisyllaba, so they are declined exactly as m. & f. parisyllaba nouns (auris) with the exeption of the Nom. sg. where contraction occurs.

Nom..

sg.

pl.

sg.

pl.

pars

part -ēs

auris

aur -ēs

75

Gen.

part -is

part -ium

aur -is

aur -ium

Acc.

part -em

part -ēs

aur -em

aur -ēs

Abl.

part -e

part -ibus

aur -e

aur -ibus

C) THE ACCUSATIVE ENDING IN -IM & THE ABLATIVE ENDING IN -I THE regular case-ending of the Accusative singular of i-stems (m. or f.) was -im. But, in most nouns this is changed to -em (following the consonant declension). The regular form of the Ablative singular of i-stems was -ī. But again, in most nouns this is changed to -e. The regular endings -im and -ī are found exclusively in the following few words in MT: a) febris, is, f.

= fever

b) sitis, is, f.

= thirst

c) tussis, is, f.

= cough

d) pertussis, is, f.

= whooping cough

e) tūberculōsis, is, f.

= tuberculosis (TB)

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

Pattern

-is

-is

f.

febris, is, f. (fever)

These five nouns are declined as follows:

sg.

pl.

Nom.

febris

febr -ēs

Gen.

febr -is

febr -ium

Acc.

febr -im

febr -ēs

Abl.

febr -ī

febr -ibus

THE masculine word axis ends only in the MT in Acc. sg. in -im (e.g. dislocātiō ad axim = angular dislocation).

76

NEUTERS NEUTER -i- stems (very rare in MT) end in the Nom. sg. in three endings: -e, -al, -ar. Words that end in -al / -ar have historically also been parisyllaba, but they lost final vowel -E from the end of the word (APOCOPE). Original parisyllabic word Nom.

Apocope

Latin word after apocope

Gen. sg.

Nom.

Gen. sg.

* animāle, animālis, n. (animal)

► animāle, animālis, n.

► animal, ālis, n.

* calcāre, calcāris, n. (spur)

► calcāre, calcāris, n.

► calcar, āris, n.

Neuter nouns have following case-endings: sg.

pl.

Nom.

various

-ia

Gen.

-is

-ium

Acc.

= Nom.

-ia

Abl.



-ibus

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

various

-is

n.

Pattern rēte, tis, n. (network)

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

rēte

rēt -ia

Gen.

rēt -is

rēt -ium

Acc.

rēte

rēt -ia

Abl.

rēt -ī

rēt -ibus

WHEN comparing two groups of the neuter nouns of the 3rd Latin declension, we can see that the difference occurs in the following case-endings: 77

1) Abl. sg.

3) Gen. pl.

2) Nom. pl.

4) Acc. pl.

IMPARISYLLABA

PARISYLLABA

pl.

sg.

pl.

Nom. corpus

corpor -a

rēte

rēt -ia

Gen.

corpor -is

corpor -um

rēt -is

rēt -ium

Acc.

corpus

corpor -a

rēte

rēt -ia

Abl.

corpor -e

corpor -ibus

rēt -ī

rēt -ibus

sg.

THE neuter noun from the 3rd -i- stem declension must be combined with the neuter adjective of the 2nd declension. e.g. rēte, tis, n. + artēriōsus, a, um ► rēte artēriōsum (arterious network / plexus) ▼ 3rd -i- n. sg.

▼ 2nd n. pl.

Nom.

rēte

artēriōs -um

rēt -ia

artēriōs -a

Gen.

rēt -is

artēriōs -ī

rēt -ium

artēriōs -ōrum

Acc.

rēte

artēriōs -um

rēt -ia

artēriōs -a

Abl.

rēt -ī

artēriōs -ō

rēt -ibus

artēriōs -īs

EXERCISES 1. Identify each of the following Latin nouns by giving its declension (3rd consonant = 3A, or 3rd -i- stem = 3B), stem and English meaning! Latin noun

Declension

Stem

English meaning

e.g. pars

3B

part -

part

a) appendix

_______

______________

_______________

78

b) pūbes

_______

______________

_______________

c) cervīx

_______

______________

_______________

d) dēns

_______

______________

_______________

e) ōs

_______

______________

_______________

f) avis

_______

______________

_______________

g) mons

_______

______________

_______________

h) tussis

_______

______________

_______________

i) glans

_______

______________

_______________

j) ulcus

_______

______________

_______________

The term cervīx often indicates the part of the body connecting the head to the trunk, but it can also refer to any constricted, neck-like portion of a body part or organ. For example, the cervīx uterī is the lower, narrow end of the uterus. The cervīx vēsīcae ūrināriae is the constricted portion of the urinary bladder near its union with the ūrethra and cervīx dentis is the neck of tooth.

Incisor tooth

Molar tooth

2. Give the Nominative singular of the following terms and translate them! Nom. sg.

English translation

e.g. supercilia

supercilium

eyebrow

a) glandulae uterīnae

____________________

____________________

79

b) mūsculī thōrācis

____________________

____________________

c) retinācula cutis

____________________

____________________

d) nōdī lymphoīdeī pelvis

____________________

____________________

e) artēriae pontis

____________________

____________________

f) canālēs adductōriī

____________________

____________________

g) vāsa sanguinea rētinae

____________________

____________________

h) fīla olfactōria

____________________

____________________

i) mūsculī levatōres

____________________

____________________

j) dēntes dēciduī

____________________

____________________

3. Translate the following Latin terms into English! calcar avis, rādix linguae, dēns incīsīvus, forāmen rotundum, venter mūsculī digastricī, canālis rādīcis dentis, vallum unguis, appendix testis, vermis cerebellī, mūsculus corrūgātor superciliī, pars intermedia ūrethrae masculīnae34, pecten ossis pūbis, vāsa sanguinea rētinae, bursa mūsculī tensōris vēlī palātīnī, cutis anserīna, nūcleus ambiguus, glans clitōridis, punctum nervōsum35, canālis adductōrius dexter, apex ossis sacrī, pars ossea sēptī nāsī, mūsculus levātor angulī ōris, corpus cavernōsum pēnis, mons pūbis, cavitās ōris propria, cervīx dentis, diameter trānsversus pelvis, mūsculus splēnius capitis, vāsa vāsōrum, calcar calcāneī, febris ē causā ignōta, corpus aliēnum auris, mors in tabulā, tūberculōsis ossium, rigor mortis, post febrim rheumaticam, post ruptūram tendinis calcāneī, extrāctiō dentis Once known as the hippocampus minor, the structure now known as the calcar avis is an involution of the ventricular wall produced by the calcarine fissure in the brain. A heated debate raged between two prominent scientific theorists, Sir Richard Owen and Thomas Henry Huxley, over the presence of the hippocampus minor in apes versus humans. Owen put forward the lack of an identifiable hippocampus minor in humans as part of an attempt to debunk evolution. A bitter personal and academic rivalry ensued, as Huxley conducted his own dissections to refute Owen's claims. Huxley ultimately dismantled Owen's premises, securing the epithet "Darwin's bulldog" for his defense of

34 35

Old term was pars membrānācea. Punctum nervōsum is often called Erb's point being named for Wilhelm Heinrich Erb, famous German neurologist. Medical eponyms are terms used in medicine which are named after people. The problem with eponyms is that they give no useful information about what is or where to find the item named. Thus the rules of TA do not support the use of eponyms and their use should be discontinued (e.g. older term cornū ammōnis = Ammon's horn was replaced by hippocampus prōprius).

80

the theory of evolution. Thus, this relatively obscure neuroanatomic landmark served as a pivotal point of contention in the most popularized and acrimonious evolutionary debate of the 19th century.

Instead of the grammatically correct form os pūbis preferred by TA many older texts use term pūbis – grammatically incorrect form, as it is Gen. sg. of the word pūbes, is, f. On the other hand, the grammatical incorrect forms in connection with the os īlium – e.g. āla ossis īliī, corpus ossis īliī – are prefered by TA. The correct forms were in older Nomina Anatomica (BNA 1895 and INA 1935) – corpus ossis īlium, āla ossis īlium from īlia, īlium, n. (groins). The grammatically correct form is kept in artēria / vēna circumflexa īlium profunda.

4. Translate the following English terms into Latin! erector muscle of spine, glans of penis, body of nail, neck of tooth, depressor (muscle) of eyebrow, apex of rooth of tooth, semichannel of tensor (muscle) of tympanum, pontine arteries (= arteries of pons); proper oral cavity (= proper cavity of mouth), transverse muscle of thorax, pelvic lymph node (= lymph node of pelvis), corrugator (muscle) of skin of anus, spinous 81

foramen, bony part of nasal septum (= bony part of septum of nose), transverse pontine fibres (= transverse fibres of pons), splenius (muscle) of neck, arcuate kernel, sanguineous vessels of internal ear, calcaneal spur (= heel spur), chronic cough, complicated fracture of calf bone

5. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

dūra māter

____________________

____________________

axis bulbī externus

____________________

____________________

mūsculus extēnsor pollicis longus

____________________

____________________

auris externa

____________________

____________________

post mortem

____________________

____________________

tussis hūmida

____________________

____________________

lobus medius pulmōnis dextrī

____________________

____________________

vitium cordis congenitum

____________________

____________________

frāctūra radiī lateris sinistrī

____________________

____________________

The Latin official term preferred by TA for dūra māter is pachymēninx coming from Greek παχύς (thick) and μῆνιγξ (membrane). It is a tough, fibrous membrane forming the outer covering of the central nervous system, and is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord. The name dūra māter literally means "tough mother", a loan translation of Arabic ‫ﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﺃﻡ‬22‫ﻔﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟ‬2222222222222‫( ﺍﻟﺼ‬umm al-dimāgh al-ṣafīcah).

82

The two delicate layers of the meninges, the arachnoīdea māter and pia māter considered together form a structure called leptomēninx. In the terms pia māter and dūra māter the noun «māter» follows the adjectives.

6) Look at the picture of the different bone displacements that may occur after fracture. Try to match together numbers with Latin term!

Displacement

Number

a) dislocātiō ad latus

_______

b) dislocātiō ad longitūdinem cum distractiōne _______ c) dislocātiō ad peripherīam

_______

d) dislocātiō ad axim

_______

e) dislocātiō ad longitūdinem cum contractiōne _______

7) Form gramatically correct clinical terms using the terms from the previous exercise together with prepositional phrase! frāctūra cum + dislocātiō ad latus



frāctūra cum dislocātiōne ad latus

+ dislocātiō ad peripherīam ►

__________________________________

+ dislocātiō ad axim

__________________________________



+ dislocātiō ad longitūdinem cum distractiōne ►

__________________________________

+ dislocātiō ad longitūdinem cum contractiōne ►

__________________________________

REPETITION OF UNITS 1-4 1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! corpus lūteum graviditātis, crista collī costae, mūsculus dēpressor sēptī nāsī, carīna trachēae, ossa digitōrum, frēnulum vēlī, vēnae medullae oblongātae, mūsculī levatōres costārum longī, 83

manūbrium sternī, vāgīna carōtica, in uterō, vāsa sanguinea rētinae, fenestra cochleae, hīlum nūcleī dentātī, artēria profunda linguae, rāmus cōnī artēriōsī, pars intermedia ūrethrae masculīnae, vēna saphēna parva, pēs anserīnus, ligāmenta flāva, macula lūtea rētinae, glandula parōtidea accessōria, ampulla tubae uterīnae, sēptum nāsī osseum, chorion frondōsum, canālis rādīcis dentis, systolē et diastolē, zōna fasciculāta, vēna hēpatica intermedia, sub linguā, mūsculus glūteus medius, raphē nūcleī, morbus chronicus, apertūra mediāna ventriculī quartī, fistula in ānō, structūrae oculī accessōriae, forāmen caecum, mūsculus dīlātātor pūpillae, vulnus sclopetārium, commōtio cerebrī, sānātiō per secundam intentiōnem, venter mūsculī digastricī

2. Translate the following English terms into Latin! proper hepatic artery, trunk of accessory nerv, bones of foot, body of nail, cerebellar cortex, neck of tooth, depressor (muscle) of eyebrow, serous coat, apex of rooth of tooth, interosseous border of fibula, proper oral cavity, middle phalanx, transverse muscle of thorax, fracture of acromion, accessory kernels of oculomotor nerve, carotid wall of tympanic cavity, pelvic lymph node, spinous foramen, bony part of nasal septum, transverse pontine fibres, left ala of nose, nutrient vein, arcuate kernel, sanguineous vessels of internal ear, allergic acne chronic cough, deep artery of thigh, margin of tongue, long extensor (muscle) of fingers, healing by first intention, orbital fat body, long muscle of neck, back of nose, oblique diameter, crest of neck of rib, labial commissure, broad ligament of uterus, spine of scapula, raphe of medulla oblongata, aortic valve, right clavicle

EXAMPLE OF THE 1st TEST Translate the following terms into English! Each correct word has a value of one point! 1) nōdī lymphoīdeī popliteī profundī

► _____________________________________

2) fovea oblonga sinistra

► _____________________________________

3) mūsculus rēctus abdominis

► _____________________________________

4) palātum dūrum

► _____________________________________

5) ligāmenta flāva

► _____________________________________

6) tussis sicca

► _____________________________________

7) artēriae pontis

► _____________________________________

8) tunica serōsa

► _____________________________________ 84

VOCABULARY adductōrius, a, um aliēnus, a, um ambiguus, a, um angulus, ī, m. animal, ālis, n. apex, icis, m. appendix, icis, f. arachnoīdeus, a, um auris, is, f. avis, is, f. axis, is, m. calcāneus, a, um calcar, āris, n. canālis, is, m. causa, ae, f. cavernōsus, a, um circumflexus, a, um clitōris, idis, f. complicātus, a, um contractiō, ōnis, f. corrūgātor, ōris, m. (m.) cutis, is, f. dēciduus, a, um digastricus, a, um dislocātiō, ōnis, f. distractiō, ōnis, f. ē, ex (+ Abl.) extrāctiō, ōnis, f. febris, is, f. fibra, ae, f. fīlum, ī, n. glans, ndis, f. hippocampus, ī, m.

hippocampus minor

adducent, adductor foreign, alien ambiguous (obscure, doubtful, uncertain) angle animal apex, point, summit, top appendage arachnoid (1. resembling a spider's web; 2. the delicate membrane interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater, and with them constituting the meninges) ear bird, spur axis (axle around which a round body turns) calcaneal spur canal cause, reason cavernous (full of hollows or cavities) circumflex (bending or curving around) clitoris complicated contraction corrugator (muscle; a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle close to the eye, wrinkler of the eyebrows) skin deciduous (falling off; subject to being shed, such as deciduous primary teeth) digastric displacement, dislocation parting, dividing from, out of extraction fever fibre thread, cord, fiber (any threadlike anatomical structure) glans (acorn, oak nut) hippocampus (a curved elevation of gray matter on the floor of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle, a major component of the brain) small hippocampus 85

ignōtus, a, um īlia, īlium, n. incīsīvus, a, um lens, ntis, f. leptomēninx, ngis, f. longitūdō, inis, f. māter, tris, f. arachnoīdea māter dūra māter pia māter membrānāceus, a, um mēninx, ngis, f. mons, ntis, m. mors, rtis, f. olfactōrius, a, um opticus, a, um pachymēninx, ngis, f. pecten, inis, m. pēnis, is, m. peripherīa, ae, f. pertussis, is, f. pius, a, um pollex, icis, m. pons, ntis, m. pūbes, is, f. pulmo, ōnis, m. punctum, ī, n. punctum nervōsum rēte, is, n. retināculum, ī, n. rheumaticus, a, um rigor, ōris, m. rotundus, a, um sacer, cra, crum sanguineus, a, um sēmicanālis, is, m. sitis, is, f. spīnōsus, a, um

unknown ilium (the groin, that part of the abdomen which extends from the lowest ribs to the pubes) incisive, incisor lens leptomeninx (arachnoid mater and pia mater together) longitude mother arachnoid mater (a delicate fibrous membrane forming the middle of the three coverings of the central nervous system) dura mater (the outermost, toughest of the three meninges / membranes of the brain and spinal cord) pia mater (the innermost of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord) membranaceous meninx (membrane) mons (mountain, mass, heap) death olfactory optic pachymeninx, dura mater, dura (thick membrane) pecten (comb, resembling a comb) penis circumference, periphery whooping cough tender, delicate, pious thumb pons (bridge) pubis (the lower part of the abdomen, especially the region surrounding the external genitals) lung point, puncture, end nerv point of neck network retinaculum, ligament (that which holds back or binds; band, halter, rope, cable) rheumatic rigor, stiffness, rigidity rotund, circular, wheel-shaped sacral, saint sanguineous, bloody, of blood semichannel thirst spinous, spiny (thorny)

86

splēnius, a, um

splenius (one of two muscles at the back of the neck, running from the back and sides of the vertebrae to the occipital bone of the skull; the splenius muscles rotate and extend the head) eyebrow table, board, plank testicle (testis) tuberculosis (TB) cough ulcer nail wall belly vermis (a worm) defect

supercilium, ii, n. tabula, ae, f. testis, is, m. tūberculōsis, is, f. tussis, is, f. ulcus, eris, n. unguis, is, m. vallum, ī, n. venter, tris, m. vermis, is, m. vitium, iī, n.

LATIN PROVERBS deus ex māchinā

extrā mūrōs

genius locī

mēns sāna in corpore sānō

per aspera ad astra

alma māter

pium dēsīderium

post scrīptum

almus, a, um - nourishing, dear; asper, a, um - rough, difficult; astrum, ī, n. - star; dēsīderium, iī, n. desire, wish; deus, ī, m. - god; extrā (Acc.) - outside; genius, iī, m. - (an attendant) spirit; locus, ī, m. place; māchina, ae, f. - machine; mēns, mentis, f. - mind; mūrus, ī, m. - wall; pius, a, um - pious, devoted; sānus, a, um - healthy, sound; scrīptus, a, um - written

87

UNIT 5 4th & 5th Latin declension 1) LATIN NOUNS OF THE FOURTH U-STEM DECLENSION LATIN nouns of the 4th declension end in the Nom. sg. in -us (masculine gender) and in -ū (neuter gender).36 MASCULINES THE 4th declension consists of a relatively small but fairly important group of nouns. Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-us

-ūs

m.

Pattern plexus, ūs, m. (plexus)

Nouns ending in -us are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

plex -us

plex -ūs

Gen.

plex -ūs

plex -uum

Acc.

plex -um

plex -ūs

Abl.

plex -ū

plex -ibus

AS they all have the ending -us in Nom. sg. they can be confused with 2nd declension nouns like mūsculus or with 3rd declension neuter nouns like corpus.37 The Genitive ending of the word is therefore very important to determine correct declension.

36

37

A few 4th declension nouns appear unchanged in English: status, sinus, census, consensus, hiatus, apparatus. If you want to pluralize any of these words in English, and you mean to follow Latin practice, you will not change the word in spelling – the Latin plural of census is census. It would be correct to say, in English, “one apparatus, two apparatus;” but it would also be acceptable to anglicize and say, “two apparatuses.” There is one very useful rule for the 4th declension that might help you: if any Latin -us noun has an English derivate with a -u- before the final syllable, it is almost sure to be a 4th declension Latin word. To illustrate, if you are confronted with an unfamiliar -us noun - say, manus (hand), prōcessus (process), gradus (grade), sinus (sinus), situs (site) - and you can think of an English words “manual, processual, gradual, sinuous, situate” you might assume that the word belongs to the 4th declension. This rule works because the -u- vowel clings to the Latin base in forming Latin derivatives. But be aware that not all 4th declension nouns have derivatives formed in this way.

88

N.B! mūsculus, ī, m.. = 2nd declension corpus, oris, n. = 3rd declension plexus, ūs, m. = 4th declension

EXCEPTIONS TO GENDER have the same set of endings as plexus, but have feminine gender: e.g.

manus, ūs, f. = hand acus, ūs, f. = needle quercus, ūs, f. = oak tree

NEUTERS ONLY two neuter nouns belong to 4th declension in MT: cornū, ūs, n. (horn) & genū, ūs, n. (knee).

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender



-ūs

n.

Pattern cornū, ūs, n. (horn)

These nouns are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

corn -ū

corn -ua

Gen.

corn -ūs

corn -uum

Acc.

corn -ū

corn -ua

Abl.

corn -ū

corn -ibus

2) LATIN NOUNS OF THE FIFTH Ē-STEM DECLENSION THE 5th Latin declension is a very small group of feminine nouns except the word diēs, ēī, m./ f. = day, appointed day.38 They always end in -ēs, and the stem is the part of the word that precedes that ending. The Nominative plural is identical to the singular.

38

Only a few words from the 5th declension have any influence on English. Most of these actually retain their Latin spelling as English derivatives; for example, species, series and rabies.

89

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-ēs

-ēī

f.

Pattern faciēs, ēī, f. (face / surface)

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

faci -ēs

faci -ēs

Gen.

faci -ēī

faci -ērum

Acc.

faci -em

faci -ēs

Abl.

faci -ē

faci -ēbus

THE word speciēs, ēī, f. (species) is used in pharmacology only in plural form – speciēs, ērum, f. and denotes mixture of herbs / tea blend e.g. speciēs diūrēticae = diuretic tea blend. 3) NOUNS OF THE 4th & 5th DECLENSION + ADJECTIVES THERE are no 4th and 5th declension adjectives. The nouns of these declensions can be combined with the adjectives of the 1st and 2nd declension depending on their gender. N.B.! 4th m. & n. + 2nd

4th f. + 1st

5th f. + 1st

5th m. + 2nd

e.g. plexus, ūs, m. + gastricus, a, um ► plexus gastricus (gastric plexus) ▼



4th m.

2nd m.

sg.

pl.

Nom.

plex -us

gastric -us

plex -ūs

gastric -ī

Gen.

plex -ūs

gastric -ī

plex -uum

gastric -ōrum

Acc.

plex -um

gastric -um

plex -ūs

gastric -ōs

Abl.

plex -ū

gastric -ō

plex -ibus

gastric -īs

90

e.g. genū, ūs, n. + valgus, a, um ► genū valgum (valgus knee, knock-kneed knee) ▼



4th n.

2nd n.

sg.

pl.

Nom.

gen -ū

valg -um

gen -ua

valg -a

Gen.

gen -ūs

valg -ī

gen -uum

valg -ōrum

Acc.

gen -ū

valg -um

gen -ua

valg -a

Abl.

gen -ū

valg -ō

gen -ibus

valg -īs

e.g. faciēs, ēī, f. + popliteus, a, um ► faciēs poplitea (popliteal surface) ▼



5th

1st pl.

sg. Nom.

faci -ēs

poplite -a

faci -ēs

poplite -ae

Gen.

faci -ēī

poplite -ae

faci -ērum

poplite -ārum

Acc.

faci -em

poplite -am

faci -ēs

poplite -ās

Abl.

faci -ē

poplite -ā

faci -ēbus

poplite -īs

THE nouns and their adjectives do not have the same case-endings, BUT there is GRAMMATICAL CONCORD between them (i.e. gender, number and case are the same).

EXERCISES

1. Put each word into the appropriate declension! hiātus

porta

febris

callus

fascia

mēniscus

diēs

hallūx

osteon

sinus

ōvum

pylōrus

mēcōnium tremor

genū māter

frons

cērumen aditus 91

bacillus

cor

zōna

pulmō

ūrethra

crūs

pūbes

glans

orbita

cariēs

ductus

cancer

cubitus

speciēs

nōdus

īlia

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

The Greek word denoting a bone is osteon (in a wider sense). What is its Latin equivalent? In a narrow sense osteon is the basic unit of structure of compact bone, which is made of multiple osteons.

2. Choose the correct form of the adjective and translate! ligāmentum

+

artēriōsus, a, um

► ___________________________________

genū

+

vārus, a, um

► ___________________________________

speciēs (pl.)

+

ūrologicī, ae, a

► ___________________________________

forāmen

+

lacer, era, erum

► ___________________________________

rāmus

+

mēningeus, a, um39

► ___________________________________

3. Translate the following Latin terms into English! hiātus adductōrius, aditus laryngis, arcus ductūs thōrācicī, nūcleus tractūs opticī, regiōnes digitōrum manūs40, scāla tympanī, faciēs gastrica, corpus spongiōsum pēnis, rīma ōris, 39 40

Latin official synonym is nervus spīnōsus. The Latin precursor term digitī manūs was replaced with regiōnes digitōrum manūs.

92

prōcessus mastoīdeus, cornū uterī, recessus membrānae tympanicae, sinus vēnārum cavārum, āla cristae gallī, artēria trānsversa faciēī, fenestra vestibulī, rāmus sinūs carōticī, apertūra aqueductus mesencephalī, regiō genūs, porus gustatōrius, plexus choroīdeus ventriculī quartī, tractus sōlitārius dexter, glandulae ductūs cholēdochī, organum olfactōrium41, corpus adipōsum buccae, faciēs glūtea, rāmī genūs capsulae internae, tractus mesencephalicus nervī trigeminī, cornū coccygeum, arcus cartilāginis cricoīdeae, partus praemātūrus, faciēs Hippocratica, īnfarctus myocardiī acūtus, prōlapsus fornicis vāgīnae acquīsītus, collāpsus meatūs acūsticī internī, prō diē, faciēs dolōrōsa

The term faciēs Hippocratica was first described by Hippocrates as the change produced in the face by impending death or long illness, excessive hunger, and the like. The nose is sharp, the eyes sunken, the temples fallen in, the ears cold and drawn in and their lobes distorted, the skin of the face hard, stretched and dry, and the colour of the face pale or dusky.

4. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

faciēs externa

____________________

____________________

genū valgum

____________________

____________________

abortus complētus

____________________

____________________

ad ūsum internum

____________________

____________________

prōlapsus congenitus

____________________

____________________

palma manūs

____________________

____________________

cariēs sicca

____________________

____________________

faciēs composita

____________________

____________________

5. Complete the following Latin phrases to match the given meaning! a) arcus __________ __________ the superiorly directed convex arch formed by the terminal part of the azygos vein b) __________ arōmaticae aromatic mixture of dried herbs 41

TA prefers organum olfactōrium to organum olfactūs.

93

c) __________ dentis a breakdown of teeth due to activities of bacteria d) ductūs __________ one of the ducts, numbering 15-20, which drain the lobes of the mammary gland; they open at the nipple and bring milk

6. Translate the following English terms into Latin! transverse ligament of knee, palpebral fissure (fissure of eyelids), aortic arch (= arch of aorta), region of middle finger, solitary tract, oval window (= window of vestibule), coeliac plexus, choroid tela of third ventricle, buccal fat pad (fat body of cheak), branches of knee of internal capsule, arch of thoracic duct, laryngeal inlet (= inlet of larynx), sense organs (= organs of senses), digits of foot, external acustic meatus, knee joint (= joint of knee), gastric impression, gluteal surface, deep facial vein (= deep vein of face), abscess of nasal septum (abscess of septum of nose), tooth decay (= decay of tooth)

7. Form gramatically correct prepositional phrases and translate them! in (+ Abl.)

+ situs

► in sitū (in its normal place; in the site of origin)

post (+ Acc.)

+ uterus

► _________________

_________________

+ vītrum

► _________________

_________________

+ partus

► _________________

_________________

+ īnfarctus

► _________________

_________________

+ pneumonia ► _________________

_________________

► _________________

_________________

+ abortus

8. Form gramatically correct medical terms and translate them! mūsculus levātor

+ ānus

► mūsculus levātor ānī (levator of anus)

+ glandula thyroīdea ► _______________________ + labium

► _______________________

+ angulus ōris

► _______________________

+ scapula

► _______________________ 94

mūsculus trānsversus + lingua

► _______________________

+ mentum

► _______________________

+ abdōmen

► _______________________

+ nucha

► _______________________

How to say an opening in MT: 1) apertūra - denotes mouth of some passage, an inlet or entrance to a cavity or channel, and opening made up with big bones e.g.

apertūra interna canāliculī cochleae (internal opening of cochlear small canal) apertūra aqueductūs mesencephalī (opening of aqueduct of midbrain) apertūra pelvis (pelvic outlet)

2) porus - word limited to:

porus acūsticus externus / internus (external / external acoustic opening) porus gustatōrius (taste pore)

3) ōstium - a small opening, a mouth or orifice, a general term to designate an opening into a tubular organ or canal, or between two distinct body cavities e.g.

ōstium pharyngeum tubae audītīvae (pharyngeal opening of auditory tube) ōstium sinūs corōnāriī (opening of coronary sinus) ōstium aortae (aortal orifice)

4) forāmen - a natural opening or passage, especially one into or through a bone, an aperture or perforation through a membranous structure 95

e.g.

forāmen apicis dentis (apical foramen of tooth) forāmen vēnae cavae (caval opening / opening of hollow vein)

5) aditus - an opening, entrance e.g.

aditus antrī mastoīdeī42 (aditus to mastoid antrum) aditus laryngis (laryngeal inlet)

6) hiātus - an opening, gap, or cleft e.g.

hiātus aorticus (aortic opening) hiātus saphēnus (saphenous opening)

7) rīma - a narrow elongated opening or fissure between two symmetrical parts e.g.

rīma ōris (oral opening, oral fissure)

8) meātus - a body opening or passage, especially one leading to the body surface, such as the opening of the ear or the urethral canal e.g.

meātus acūsticus (acoustic meatus)

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) genū

1) lactifer

b) aditus

2) mastoīdeus

c) prōcessus

3) sicca

d) cornū

4) gustatōrius

e) porus

5) arōmaticae

f) partus

6) ōris

g) ductus

7) laryngis

h) cariēs

8) praemātūrus

i) angulus

9) uterī

j) speciēs

10) vārum

42

The Latin precursor term aditus ad antrum mastoīdeum contained a preposition, which is not compatible with the rules for Regular Anatomical Terminology.

96

2. Give the case, number, gender and declension of the following words! e.g. abscesuum

► Gen. pl., m., 4th decl.

acum

► _______________________________

laryngum

► _______________________________

mēcōnium

► _______________________________

manuum

► _______________________________

mēniscum

► _______________________________

partium

► _______________________________

corpōribus

► _______________________________

genua

► _______________________________

palmae

► _______________________________

osteon

► _______________________________

VOCABULARY abortus, ūs, m. abscessus, ūs, m. acus, ūs, f. acūsticus, a, um ad (+ Acc.) aditus, ūs, m. aqueductus, ūs, m. arcus, ūs, m. arōmaticus, a, um audītīvus, a, um bacillus, ī, m. bucca, ae, f. callus, ī, m. cariēs, ēī, f. cērumen, inis, n. choroīdeus, a, um coccygeus, a, um coeliacus, a, um complētus, a, um compositus, a, um cornū, ūs, n.

abortion abscess needle acustic to, toward aditus (opening, inlet, entrance) aqueduct arch aromatic auditory bacillus (bug, germ) cheak callus (thick, hard skin) caries (decay) earwax choroid coccygeal coeliac, celiac (relating to the abdomen) complete composed, regular, good-looking horn, any horn-like structure 97

cricoīdeus, a, um crūs, ūris, n. cubitus, ūs, m. diēs, ēī, m. / f. diūrēticus, a, um dolōrōsus, a, um ductus, ūs, m. ductus cholēdochus faciēs, ēī, f. fornix, icis, m. frons, ntis, f. gallus, ī, m. genū, ūs, n. gradus, ūs, m. gustatōrius, a, um hiātus, ūs, m. Hippocraticus, a, um incomplētus, a, um īnfarctus, ūs, m. lacer, era, erum lactifer, fera, ferum larynx, ngis, m. manus, ūs, f. meātus, ūs, m. mēcōnium, iī, n. membrāna, ae, f. mēningeus, a, um mēniscus, ī, m.

mentum, ī, n. mesencephalon, ī, n. myocardium, iī, n. nucha, ae, f. osteon, ī, n. ōstium, iī, n. ōvum, ī, n. palma, ae, f. palpebra, ae, f. partus, ūs, m.

cricoid (ring-shaped) crus (lower leg, limb; the section of the leg or hind limb between the knee and foot; any leg-like part; shank) elbow day (m.), appointed day (f.) diuretic painfull, full of pain duct bile duct face, surface, impression fornix (vault, arch) forehead gallus (cock bird) knee grade gustatory hiatus (opening, gap, aperture, cleft) Hippocratic incomplete infarction lacerated, torn to pieces lactifer (milk-bringing) larynx hand meatus (opening, passage) meconium (the first intestinal discharges of the newborn infant, greenish in color and consisting of epithelial cells, mucus, and bile) membrane meningeal meniscus (a crescentic fibrocartilaginous structure of the knee and the acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and temporomandibular joints) chin mesencephalom, midbrain myocard (the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle) nape osteon (the basic unit of structure of compact bone, comprising a haversian canal and its concentrically arranged lamellae) ostium (opening) ovum (the female reproductive cell) palm eyelid childbirth, delivery, parturition 98

pharyngeus, a, um plexus, ūs, m. porta, ae, f. porus, ī, m. prō (+ Abl.) prōcessus, ūs, m. prōlapsus, ūs, m. pylōrus, ī, n. quercus, ūs, f. recessus, ūs, m. regiō, ōnis, f. rīma, ae, f. sinus, ūs, m. situs, ūs, m. sōlitārius, a, um speciēs, ēī, f. speciēs, ērum, f. spongiōsus, a, um tēla, ae, f. tertius, a, um tractus, ūs, m. tremor, ōris, m. trigeminus, a, um ūrologicus, a, um ūsus, ūs, m. vestibulum, ī, n. vītrum, ī, n.

pharyngeal plexus (network of nerves / blood vessels) porta (gate) opening, hole, passage, channel, pore for process prolapse pylorus (the lower orifice of the stomach) oak tree recess region fissure, opening, cleft sinus (a curve, fold, a hollow) site (original position) solitary species mixture of dried herbs / tea blend spongy, porous tela (a thin weblike tissue or structure) third tract tremor (a shaking, quaking, quivering, trembling) trigeminal (treefold, triple, triform) urological use, using vestibule test-tube, test-glass

LATIN PROVERBS ad rem

bonā fidē

in mediās rēs

lāpsus lingae

sine īra et studiō

status quō, status quō ante

bonus, a, um - good; fidēs, ēī, f. - belief, intention; īra, ae, f. - anger, ire; lāpsus, ūs, m. - slip, mistake; quō (= in quō) - in which; rēs, reī, f. - thing; studium, iī, n. - study, bias, prejudice; status, ūs, m. - status, state, condition

99

UNIT 6 3rd Greek declension GREEK nouns43 of the 3rd declension resemble those in the Latin 3rd declension: all three genders (m. & f. & n.) great variety of the Nom. sg. endings the principle of using Genitive stem, which is not necessarily visible in the Nominative division in consonant (imparisyllabic) and -i- (parisyllabic) stem.

A GREAT number of simple Greek terms have been completely latinized and are declined exactly as Latin nouns:

thōrāx, ācis, m. (thorax)



cartilāgō

larynx, ngis, f. (larynx)



cartilāgō

pharynx, ngis, f. (pharynx)



cartilāgō

phalanx, ngis, f. (phalanx)



cartilāgō

hēpar, atis, n. (liver)



corpus

pancreas, atis, n. (pancreas) ►

corpus

OTHER Greek nouns have (in some cases) preserved their original Greek endings. The presence of some letters in a word can help you to determine its Greek origin: K, Y, Z, PH, TH, RH, RHH, CH, PS are most often found only in Greek words. The words with original Greek endings are divided into 4 types: IMPARISYLLABA

- masculines & feminines & neuters

PARISYLLABA

- only feminines

1) IMPARISYLLABA / CONSONANT STEM MASCULINES

43

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-ēr

-ēris

m.

Pattern sphinctēr, ēris, m. (sphincter)

Many 3rd declension Greek common nouns have entered English without adaptation: martyr, nectar, larynx, climax, aroma, coma, polis, metropolis.

100

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

sphinctēr

sphinctēr -ēs

Gen.

sphinctēr -is

sphinctēr -um

Acc.

sphinctēr -em

sphinctēr -ēs

Abl.

sphinctēr -e

sphinctēr -ibus

AS can be seen from the chart above, the nouns belonging to this class have the same case-endings as the Latin pattern cartilāgō. The only difference between them is that the vowel -e is in the Greek words long one (Latin -E

Greek -Ē), thus the vowel is kept in all cases,

while in the Latin ones it is deleted. e.g.

Latin

Greek

māter, mātris

sphinctēr, sphinctēris

venter, ventris

ūrētēr, ūrētēris

THE word gastēr, gastris, f. (stomach) is an exception to this rule. FEMININES

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

Pattern

-is

-idis

f.

īris, idis, f. (iris)

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

īris

īrid -ēs

Gen.

īrid -is

īrid -um

Acc.

īrid -em

īrid -ēs

Abl.

īrid -e

īrid -ibus

THESE Greek nouns are declined as cartilāgō too. 101

AN important group of words denoting INFLAMMATORY DISEASES of organs belongs to this pattern. The medical terms are formed by the use of the suffix -ītis, ītidis, f., which is added to the stem of the word (mostly Greek one44) denoting an organ: e.g.

word

stem

suffix

inflammation

mēninx (meninx)

mēning-

+ ītis

mēningītis, ītidis, f. (inflam. of the meninges)

appendix (appendage)

appendic-

+ ītis

appendicītis, ītidis, f. (inflam. of the appendage)

hēpar (liver)

hēpat-

+ ītis

hēpatītis, ītidis, f. (inflam. of the liver)

TERMS denoting inflammatory diseases are all feminines and are used only in singular. They are declined as follows: sg. Nom.

hēpat -ītis

Gen.

hēpat -ītidis

Acc.

hēpat -ītidem

Abl.

hēpat -ītide N.B!

NOT all medical terms denoting inflammation are formed by this suffix (e.g. pneumonia, ae, f. = inflammation of the lungs; ophthalmia, ae, f. = inflammation of the eyes), nor does it always denote inflammation (e.g. rachītis, ītidis, f. = rickets).

NEUTERS

44

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-ma

-matis

n.

Pattern trauma, matis, n. (trauma, injury)

Exceptions to this rule are terms tōnsillītis, ītidis, f. (inflammation of the tonsils), appendicītis, ītidis, f. (inflammation of the appendage) and vāsculītis, ītidis, f. (inflammation of the blood vessels).

102

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as follows: sg.

pl.

Nom.

trauma

traumat -a

Gen.

traumat -is

traumat -um

Acc.

trauma

traumat -a

Abl.

traumat -e

traumat -ibus

THE nouns belonging to this class have the same case-endings as the Latin pattern corpus. The NEUTER RULE (Nom. = Acc., Nom. pl. = -a) is applied. Not all nouns that are terminated in -ma are Greek neuters of 3rd declension (e.g. mamma, ae, f. = 1st), the Genitive case-ending is the only reliable indicator of declension. AN important group of words denoting TUMOURS belongs to this pattern. The medical terms are formed by the use of the suffix -ōma, ōmatis, n., which is affixed to the word element indicating either the location of the growth or its nature: e.g.

word

stem

suffix

tumour

nephros (kidney)

nephr-

+ ōma

nephrōma, matis, n. (tumour of the kidney)

osteon (osteon)

oste-

+ ōma

osteōma, matis, n. (tumour of the bone)

hēpar (liver)

hēpat-

+ ōma

hēpatōma, matis, n. (tumour of the liver)

TERMS denoting tumours are all neuters and are used only in singular. They are declined as follows: sg. Nom.

hēpat -ōma

Gen.

hēpat -ōmatis

Acc.

hēpat -ōma

Abl.

hēpat -ōmate

103

MOST, but not all Greek nouns terminated in -ōma denote a tumour (i.e. abnormal growth of tissue & swelling) (e.g. glaucōma, matis, n. = glaucoma, a destructive disease of the eye caused by increased intraocular pressure; trāchōma, matis, n. = trachoma, also called granular conjunctivitis, contagious, chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes). 2) PARISYLLABA / -I- STEM ONLY feminine nouns are included in this group.

Nom. sg.

Gen. sg.

Gender

-is

-is

f.

Pattern basis, basis, f. (base)

Nouns belonging to this pattern are declined as Latin pattern febris: sg.

pl.

Nom.

bas -is

bas -ēs

Gen.

bas -is / -eos

bas -ium

Acc.

bas -im / -in

bas -ēs

Abl.

bas -ī

bas -ibus

THE greek endings –eos (Gen.) & -in (Acc.) are preferably used by pathologist. This group of 3rd declension parisyllabic Greek nouns includes also the terms denoting DEGENERATIVE / NOT INFLAMMATORY DISEASES, which are formed by the suffix -ōsis, ōsis, f. e.g.

word

stem

suffix

degenerative disease

nephros (kidney)

nephr-

+ ōsis

nephrōsis, ōsis, f. (degenerative disease of the kidney)

fibra (fibre)

fibr-

+ ōsis

fibrōsis, ōsis, f. (degen. disease of the fibrous tissue)

hēpar (liver)

hēpat-

+ ōsis

hēpatōsis, ōsis, f. (degen. disease of the liver)

104

TERMS denoting degenerative diseases are all feminines and are used only in singular. They are declined as follows: sg. Nom.

hēpat -ōsis

Gen.

hēpat -ōsis

Acc.

hēpat -ōsim

Abl.

hēpat -ōsī

N.B.! The Genitive singular is the only reliable criterion for discerning between different types of the nouns terminating in -IS! e.g.

pulvis, ERIS, m.

► 3rd Latin consonant

pelvis, IS, f.

► 3rd Latin -I- stem

a. carōtis, IDIS, f.

► 3rd Greek consonant

symphysis, IS, f.

► 3rd Greek -I- stem

3) GREEK STEMS ANOTHER group of the Greek words is not used in MT as a stand-alone one words, but only their STEMS are being used. To become accustomed to using them, they will be introduced after Vocabulary section in the following units to help you slowly improve and expand your knowledge of the clinical and pathological terms.

EXERCISES

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! systēma dīgestōrium, mūsculus buccinātor, diaphragma sellae, ligāmentum vēnōsum, basis stapedis, mūsculus massētēr, rīma glottidis, porta hēpatis, pancreas accessōrium, ōstium ūrētēris, mūsculus prōnātor quādrātus, caput epididymidis, regio indicis, mūsculus sphinctēr ductūs cholēdochī, basis ossis sacrī, tūberositās massētērica, siphōn carōticus, strātum grānulōsum, incīsūra pancreatis, nūcleus cuneātus accessōrius, vēna scālae vestibulī, pars 105

autonomica systēmatis nervōsī periphericī45, jējūnum in sitū, emphȳsēma aquōsum, osteītis fibrōsa cystica, trauma capitis clausum, genū recurvātum, rētinītis pigmentōsa, mēningītis tūberculōsa, vomitus post narcōsim, nephrītis acūta, cellulītis orbitae, fibrōsis pulmōnum, ōtītis externa, syndrōma caudae equīnae, dermatītis atopica

Pancreas is so named because of its fleshy appearance. Greek πᾶν (pan) means “all,” and κρέας (kreas) means “flesh.”

2. Look at the picture below and give the Latin names of the parts of pancreas! a) head of pancreas ____________________ b) body of pancreas ____________________ c) tail of pancreas ____________________ d) pancreatic duct ____________________

3. Choose the correct form of the adjective and translate! oedēma

+

circumscrīptus, a, um

► _________________________

spondylōsis

+

chronicus, a, um

► _________________________

symphysis

+

pūbicus, a, um

► _________________________

faciēs

+

popliteus, a, um

► _________________________

cōma

+

diabēticus, a, um

► _________________________

4. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

mūsculus sphinctēr ānī internus

____________________

____________________

mēningītis neonātōrum

____________________

____________________

aneurysma spurium

____________________

____________________

45

TA prefers term dīvīsio autonomica.

106

trauma capitis apertum

____________________

____________________

mūsculus cremastēr dexter

____________________

____________________

ōtītis media chronica

____________________

____________________

5. Form gramatically correct medical terms and translate them! adēnōma

+ prostata

► adēnōma prostatae

+ glandula thyreoīdea

► ____________________________

+ intestīnum crassum

► ____________________________

+ hēpar

► ____________________________

+ papilla duodēnī

► ____________________________

mūsculus extēnsor

symptōmata

+ index

► ____________________________

+ digitī (pl.)

► ____________________________

+ hallūx

► ____________________________

+ carpus

► ____________________________

+ arthrōsis chronica

► ____________________________

+ dermatītis faciēī

► ____________________________

+ cheilītis allergica

► ____________________________

+ acnē necrotica

► ____________________________

6. Translate the following English terms into Latin! pulpy kernel, tegmentum of pons, masseteric tuberosity, sphincter (muscle) of pancreatic duct, sellar diaphragm (= diaphragm of sella), internal carotid artery, palatine torus, pubic symphysis, ureteric orifice (= orifice of ureter), carotid siphon, cusp of tooth, fibrous layer, accessory cuneate kernel, groove of ankle bone, fracture of cranial base (fracture of base of cranium), external urethral sphincter (= external spincter muscle of urethra), fibrosis of myocard, orbital cellulitis (= cellulitis of orbita), rheumatic inflammation of brain, edema of glottis, fracture of right shoulder blade

7. Form gramatically correct prepositional phrases and translate them! status post

+ gastrītis

► status post gastrītidem (state after gastritis)

+ cirrhōsis

► ____________________ ____________________ 107

+ cōma diabēticum

► ____________________ ____________________

+ encephalītis lēthargica ► ____________________ ____________________ + scotōma periphericum ► ____________________ ____________________ + thrombōsis

► ____________________ ____________________

+ parōtītis epidēmica ► ____________________ ____________________

The parotid gland, which runs alongside the ear, used to be called glandula parōtis. TA prefers the term with an adjective – glandula parōtidea. It is one of the glands that supply saliva to the mouth. Inflammation of this gland, parōtītis, is the acute, contagious disease commonly known as mumps. The Roman physician Celsus (De Medicina 6.16) knew of mumps, although there was no Latin name for it. He called it parotid swellings and as a remedy for these swellings he recommended a mixture of pumice, liquid pine resin, frankincense, iris, wax, and oil. Pliny, the Roman encyclopedist, recommended (Natural History 28.49) a mixture of foxes' testicles and bull's blood, dried and pounded together and mixed with the urine of a she-goat, all of this to be poured drop by drop into the ear.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) systēma

1) ūrētēris

b) siphōn

2) dīgestōrium

c) symphisis

3) accessōrium

d) emphȳsēma

4) faciēī 108

e) rīma

5) carōticus

f) porta

6) apertum

g) pancreas

7) glottidis

h) ōstium

8) pūbica

i) dermatītis

9) hēpatis

j) trauma

10) aquōsum

2. Try to fill in the blanks! Notice similarities between English and Latin! a) A monocular microscope is a microscope that only has __________ lens. b) To bisect means to cut or divide into _______________ equal parts. c) A quadruped is an animal having _______________ feet. d) Dextral is the motion from an observer toward the _______________. e) A triad is a group of _______________ thing(s). f) A unicellular organism is an organism that consists of only _______________ cell(s). g) A diatomic molecule is molecule composed of _______________ atom(s). h) A heptalogy is composed of _______________ part(s). i) A quintet is a group containing __________ members.

VOCABULARY adēnōma, atis, n. adultus, a, um allergicus, a, um aneurysma, atis, n. appendicītis, idis, f. aquōsus, a, um arthrōsis, is, f. atopicus, a, um basis, is, f. buccinātor, ōris, m. (m.) carōtis, idis, f. (a.) cellulītis, idis, f. cheilītis, idis, f. cicātrix, īcis, f. circumscrīptus, a, um

adenoma (a benign tumor of glandular origin and structure) adult allergic aneurysm (an abnormal, blood-filled sac formed by dilation of the wall of a blood vessel or heart ventricle) appendicitis (inflammation of the appendage) moist, humid, full of water arthrosis (a degenerative disease of a joint) atopic (related to the predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions) base buccinator (facial muscle of cheek) carotid artery cellulitis (an acute, spreading, bacterial infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues) cheilitis (an inflammation of the lip) cicatrice, scar circumscribed (to draw a line around; encircle) 109

cirrhōsis, is, f. cōma, atis, n. crassus, a, um cremastēr, ēris, m. (m) cuneātus, a, um cuspis, idis, f. cysticus, a, um dermatītis, idis, f. diabēticus, a, um diaphragma, atis, n. dīgestōrius, a, um dīvīsio, ōnis, f. duodēnum, ī, n. emphȳsēma, atis, n. encephalītis, idis, f. epididymis, idis, f. fibrōsis, is, f. gastēr, tris, f. gastrītis, idis, f. glaucōma, atis, n. glottis, idis, f. grānulōsus, a, um hēpar, atis, n. hēpatītis, idis, f. hēpatōma, atis, n. hēpatōsis, is, f. index, icis, m. īris, idis, f. jējūnum, ī, n. lēthargicus, a, um locus, ī, m. massētēr, ēris, m. (m.) mēningītis, idis, f. narcōsis, is, f. necroticus, a, um neonātus, ī, m. nephrītis, idis, f. nephrōma, atis, n.

cirrhosis (a chronic degenerative disease in which normal liver cells are damaged and are then replaced by scar tissue) coma thick, large cremaster (the muscle which raises and lowers the testicles) cuneate (pointed like a wedge, wedgeshaped) cusp (a pointed or rounded projection) cystic dermatitis (inflammation of the skin) diabetic diaphragm (separating membrane or structure) alimentary, digestive, promoting digestion division duodenum (the first or proximal portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum) emphysema (the abnormal presence of air in a tissue or part) encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain) epididymis (an elongated cordlike structure along the posterior border of the testis) fibrosis (degenerative disease of the fibrous tissue) stomach gastritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach) glaucoma (a disease of the eye in which pressure within the eyeball damages the optic disc) glottis (the vocal apparatus of the larynx) granulous liver hepatitis (inflammation of the liver tissue) hepatoma (tumour of the liver tissue) hepatosis (degenerative disease of the liver) index (forefinger, second finger) iris (the circular pigmented membrane behind the cornea) jejunum (part of the small intestine extending from the duodenum to the ileum) lethargic (drowsy, apathetic, feeling a lack of energy) place masseter (a thick muscle in the cheek that closes the jaws during chewing) meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) narcosis (a condition of deep stupor or unconsciousness produced by a drug or other chemical substance) necrotic (dead when referring to tissue) neonate nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys) nephroma (tumour of the kidney tissue) 110

nephrōsis, is, f. nervōsus, a, um oedēma, atis, n. ophthalmia, ae, f. osteītis, ītidis, f. osteōma, atis, n. ōtītis, ītidis, f. pancreas, atis, n. parōtītis, idis, f. periphericus, a, um pharynx, ngis, f. pigmentōsus, a, um prōnātor, ōris, m. (m.) prostata, ae, f. pūbicus, a, um pulpōsus, a, um pulvis, eris, m. rachītis, ītidis, f.

nephrosis (degenerative disease of the kidney) nervous edema (an abnormal accumulation of fluid in intercellular spaces of the body) ophthalmia (inflammation of the eye, especially of the conjunctiva) osteitis (inflammation of a bone or bone tissue) osteoma (tumour of the bone tissue) otitis (inflammationf of the ear) pancreas (a large, elongated, racemose gland located transversely behind the stomach) parotitis (inflammation of the parotid glands) peripheral (pertaining to or situated at or near the periphery) pharynx pigmentary pronator (a muscle that turns a part into the prone position) prostate pubic pulpy, fleshy powder rickets (defective mineralization or calcification of bones due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium, potentially leading to fractures and deformity)

recurvātus, a, um rētinītis, ītidis, f. scotōma, ātis, n. siphōn, ōnis, m. sphinctēr, ēris, m. (m.) spondylōsis, is, f.

recurvate (bent back) retinitis (inflammation of the retina) scotoma (dimness of vision) siphon (a bent tube with arms of unequal length) sphincter (constrictor muscle) spondylosis (degeneration of the spinal column, especially that resulting in abnormal fusion and immobilization of the vertebral bones)

stapēs, pedis, m. status, ūs, m. symphysis, is, f.

stapes, stirrup (bone in the middle ear) state symphysis (a site or line of union; a type of joint in which the apposed bony surfaces are firmly united by a plate of fibrocartilage) symptom system tegmentum (covering, cover) thrombosis (formation, development, or presence of a thrombus) tonsilitis (inflammation of the tonsils) trachoma (chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes) trauma (injury, wound) tuberculous

symptōma, atis, n. systēma, atis, n. tegmentum, ī, n. thrombōsis, is, f. tōnsillītis, ītidis, f. trāchōma, atis, n. trauma, atis, n. tūberculōsus, a, um

111

ūrētēr, ēris, m.

ureter (the tube that conducts the urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder) vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) venous (relating to, or of the nature of a vein) throwing up, vomiting

vāsculītis, ītidis, f. vēnōsus, a, um vomitus, ūs, m.

STEMS OF THE GREEK WORDS Stem adēn-o-

Meaning gland

Example adēnōma

Explanation a benign tumor of glandular origin and structure a degenerative disease of a joint an inflammation of the lip a chronic degenerative disease in which normal liver cells are damaged and are then replaced by scar tissue

arthr-ocheil-ocirrh-o-

joint lip tawny

arthrōsis cheilītis cirrhōsis

derm(at)-o-, -dermia encephal-oglauc-o-

skin

dermatītis

inflammation of the skin

brain green

encephalītis glaucōma

hepat-oophthalm-o-

liver eye

hēpatōma ophthalmia

ost(e)-oōt-ospondyl-othromb-o-

bone ear vertebra clot of blood

osteītis ōtītis spondylōsis thrombōsis

trāch-o-

rough

trāchōma

an inflammation of the brain a disease of the eye in which pressure within the eyeball damages the optic disc tumour of the liver tissue inflammation of the eye, especially of the conjunctiva inflammation of a bone or bone tissue inflammation of the ear degenerative disease of the vertabrae formation, development, or presence of a thrombus chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes

LATIN PROVERBS ad fontēs

conditiō sine quā nōn

crux medicōrum

cum grānō salis

inter arma silent Mūsae

per scientiam ad salūtem aegrōtī

aegrōtus, a, um - ill, sick; arma, ōrum, n. - arms, weapons; conditiō, ōnis, f. - condition; fons, fontis, f. source; grānum, ī, n. - grain; Mūsae, ārum - Muses (the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology); sal, salis, n. - salt; salūs, ūtis, f. - health; silent (3rd person pl. of the verb silere) - they are silent; sine quā - without which 112

UNIT 7 Adjectives of the 3rd declension 1) LATIN ADJECTIVES OF THE 3rd DECLENSION ALTHOUGH the great majority of Latin adjectives are of the 1st and 2nd declension type, there is a substantial number that belongs to the 3rd declension. All Latin adjectives are of one type or the other; the 4th and 5th declensions consist only of nouns. Like 3rd declension nouns, 3rd declension adjectives lack a predictable, easily recognized ending. However, since their vocabulary forms never end in -us/-er, -a, or -um, they aren’t likely to get confused with the 1st and 2nd declension type. They are compatible with nouns of all declensions in the same way like the 1st and 2nd type. Third-declension adjectives fall into three classes: 1) Adjectives of three terminations in the Nom. sg.; 2) Adjectives of two teminations in the Nom. sg.; 3) Adjectives of one termination in the Nom. sg. WITH rare exceptions, the 3rd declension adjectives follow the inflection of -I-stem nouns. In the Ablative sg. even the m. & f. end on -ī. sg. m. & f.

n.

Nom.

various

Gen.

-is

Acc. Abl.

pl.

-em

m. & f.

n.

-ēs

-ia -ium

= Nom.

-ēs

-ia -ibus



A) ADJECTIVES OF THREE TERMINATIONS ADJECTIVES of three termintion are the rarest type in MT and are similar to 1st and 2nd type as they end in Nom. sg. on three endings, one for each gender: m. -er,

f. -is, 113

n. -e

e.g.

ācer, ācris, ācre (sharp, acute, bitter)

► ācer, is, e (dictionary form)

ācer (m.)



vīsus ācer (sharp sight)

ācris (f.)



febris ācris (acute fever)

ācre (n.)



remedium ācre (bittter remedy)

The stem of the 3rd declension 3 termination adjective is obtained from the Genitive singular by removing the case-ending: Dictionary form

Gen. sg.

Stem

ācer, is, e

ācris

ācr-

N.B! To agree a noun and an adjective you should: 1. determine the gender and the declension of Latin noun; 2. determine the declension of the adjective by its dictionary form; 3. grammatically concord the adjective and the noun by gender, number and case.

e.g.

vīsus, ūs, m. + ācer, is, e

vīsus ācer (sharp sight)







4th m. 3rd 3 term. m. sg.

e.g.

pl.

Nom.

vīs-us

āc -er

vīs -ūs

ācr -ēs

Gen.

vīs -ūs

ācr -is

vīs -uum

ācr -ium

Acc.

vīs -um

ācr -em

vīs -ūs

ācr -ēs

Abl.

vīs -ū

ācr -ī

vīs -ibus

ācr -ibus

febris, is, f. + ācer, is, e



febris ācris (acute fever) ▼



3rd -i- stem 3rd 3 term. f. 114

sg.

e.g.

pl.

Nom.

febr -is

ācr -is

febr -ēs

ācr -ēs

Gen.

febr -is

ācr -is

febr -ium

ācr -ium

Acc.

febr -im

ācr -em

febr -ēs

ācr -ēs

Abl.

febr -ī

ācr -ī

febr -ibus

ācr -ibus

remedium, iī, n. + ācer, is, e ►

remedium ācre (bittter remedy) ▼



2nd n. 3rd 3 term. n. sg.

pl.

Nom.

remedi -um

ācr -e

remedi -a

ācr -ia

Gen.

remedi -ī

ācr -is

remedi -ōrum

ācr -ium

Acc.

remedi -um

ācr -e

remedi -a

ācr -ia

Abl.

remedi -ō

ācr -ī

remedi -īs

ācr -ibus

B) ADJECTIVES OF TWO TERMINATIONS THE adjectives of this group have identical Nominative masculine and feminine forms ending in -is and the neuter ending in -e.

m. & f. -is

e.g.

n. -e

brevis, breve (short) ► brevis, e (dictionary form)

brevis (m.)



mūsculus brevis (short muscle)

brevis (f.)



artēria brevis (short artery)

breve (n.)



caput breve (short head)

The stem of the 3rd declension 2 termination adjective is obtained from the Genitive by removing the case-ending:

115

e.g.

Dictionary form

Gen. sg.

Stem

vertebrālis, e

vertebrālis

vertebrāl-

temporālis, e

temporālis

temporāl-

mūsculus, ī, m. + brevis, e



mūsculus brevis (short muscle) ▼



2nd m.

3rd 2 term. m. pl.

sg.

e.g.

Nom.

mūscul-us

brev -is

mūscul -ī

Gen.

mūscul -ī

brev -is

mūscul -ōrum brev -ium

Acc.

mūscul -um

brev -em

mūscul -ōs

brev -ēs

Abl.

mūscul -ō

brev -ī

mūscul -īs

brev -ibus

artēria, ae, f. + brevis, e



brev -ēs

artēria brevis (short artery) ▼



1st f. 3rd 2 term. f. sg.

e.g.

pl.

Nom.

artēri -a

brev -is

artēri -ae

brev -ēs

Gen.

artēri -ae

brev -is

artēri -ārum

brev -ium

Acc.

artēri -am

brev -em

artēri -ās

brev -ēs

Abl.

artēri -ā

brev -ī

artēri -īs

brev -ibus

caput, itis, n. + brevis, e



caput breve (short head) ▼



3rd n. 3rd 2 term. n. sg.

pl.

Nom.

caput

brev -e

capit -a

brev -ia

Gen.

capit -is

brev -is

capit -um

brev -ium

116

Acc.

caput

brev -e

capit -a

brev -ia

Abl.

capit -e

brev -ī

capit -ibus

brev -ibus

THE adjectives of 2 terminations form the largest group of adjectives of 3rd declension, because of the most productive adjective suffix -ālis, e, which could be attached to the root of a great many Latin nouns of all five declensions to create new adjective forms. Latin adjectives in -ālis, e almost always evolved into English words in -al. In fact, if you set out to collect all English words that end in -al (and there are thousands), you would find that virtually every one of them either is derived from a Latin adjective in -ālis, e or has used this Latin suffix to create a hybrid English form (e.g. naval, floral, moral, ordinal, marginal etc.).

e.g.

Noun

Stem

Adjective of 2 terminations

vertebra, ae, f.

vertebr-

vertebrālis, e

intestīnum, ī, n.

intestīn-

intestīnālis, e

dorsum, ī, n.

dors-

dorsālis, e

rēn, rēnis, m.

rēn-

rēnālis, e

IN special phonetic circumstances, the Latin suffix -ālis, e had a variant form -āris, e, which comes into English as -ar (sometimes -ary). If the Latin word base ended in L, the derived adjective was hard to pronounce, so word like *ocul-ālis, e was changed to ocul-āris, e (ocular). In fact, if there was an L anywhere in the last two syllables of a noun base, this variant was used, as can be seen from *palm-ālis, e ► palm-āris, e (palmar). The exception to this rule is the word epithēlium ►epithēliālis, e.

C) ADJECTIVES OF ONE TERMINATION IN the medical terminology only a few adjectives of one termination are used. They have the same Nominative ending for all three genders and it can be -s, -x, -r, or -ns.

m. & f. & n. -s, -x, -r, -ns The dictionary form of such adjective consist not only of the Nom. sg. ending, but of the Gen. sg. too, as it may differ from the Nom. sg. greatly. 117

Gen.

Nom. e.g.

simplex, simplicis (simple)

► simplex, icis (dictionary form)

multiplex, multiplicis (multiple)

► multiplex, icis

teres, teretis (round)

► teres, etis

The stem of 1 termination adjectives is obtained from the Gen. sg. by removing the case-ending.

e.g.

e.g.

Dictionary form

Gen. sg.

Stem

simplex, icis

simplicis

simplic-

multiplex, icis

multiplicis

multiplic-

teres, etis

teretis

teret-

simplex (m.) ►

lobulus simplex (simple lobule)

simplex (f.)



articulātiō simplex (simple joint)

simplex (n.)



crūs simplex (simple limb)

lobulus, ī, m. + simplex



lobulus simplex (simple lobule) ▼



2nd m. 3rd 1 term. m. pl.

sg.

e.g.

Nom.

lobul -us

simplex

lobul -ī

simplic -ēs

Gen.

lobul -ī

simplic -is

lobul -ōrum

simplic -ium

Acc.

lobul -um

simplic -em

lobul -ōs

simplic -ēs

Abl.

lobul -ō

simplic -ī

lobul -īs

simplic -ibus

articulātiō, ōnis, f. + simplex

articulātiō simplex (simple joint)







3rd consonant f. 3rd 1 term. f. sg. Nom.

articulātiō

pl. simplex

articulātiōn -ēs

118

simplic -ēs

Gen.

articulātiōn -is

simplic -is

articulātiōn -um

simplic -ium

Acc.

articulātiōn -em

simplic -em

articulātiōn -ēs

simplic -ēs

Abl.

articulātiōn -e

simplic -ī

articulātiōn -ibus

simplic -ibus

e.g.

crūs, ūris, n. + simplex

crūs simplex (simple limb)







3rd n. 3rd 1 term. n. sg.

pl.

Nom.

crūs

simplex

crūr -a

simplic -ia

Gen.

crūr -is

simplic -is

crūr -um

simplic -ium

Acc.

crūs

simplex

crūr -a

simplic -ia

Abl.

crūr -e

simplic -ī

crūr -ibus

simplic -ibus

2) GREEK ADJECTIVES OF THE 3rd DECLENSION THE Greek adjectives of the 3rd declension are used mostly in the clinical terminology. They end in -ēs (m. & f.), and -es (n.) and follow the inflection of the 3rd consonant stem nouns. e.g.

endogenēs, endogenes (endogenous) ► endogenēs, es (dictionary form) sēpsis endogenēs (endogenous sepsis) sg.

Nom.

m. & f.

n.

m. & f.

n.

-ēs

-es

-ēs

-a

Gen. Acc. Abl.

pl.

-um

-is -em

-es

-ēs

-a -ibus

-e

119

EXERCISES

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! mūsculus mentālis, crista ampullāris, ansa cervīcālis, fasciculus gracilis, stria vāsculāris, ārea dorsālis, vās prōmīnēns, mūsculus articulāris genūs, lamina mūsculāris mūcōsae, corpus albicāns, forāmen ovāle cordis, torus mandibulāris, mūsculus vastus laterālis, jugum sphēnoīdale, līnea terminālis pelvis, artēria princeps pollicis, mūsculus fībulāris brevis, cōnus medullāris, zōna orbiculāris, dēcidua basālis, ductus dēferens, mūsculus extēnsor carpī ulnāris, sulcus pulmōnālis, ligāmentum teres hēpatis, limbus fossae ovālis, mūsculus vōcālis, rāmī commūnicantēs faciālēs46, strātum rēticulāre, stria medullāris thalamī, mūsculus spīnālis thōrācis, fovea centrālis maculae lūteae, rēte vēnōsum dorsāle pedis, vāgīna tendinum mūsculōrum extēnsorum carpī radiālium, dēcubitūs superficiālēs, arthrōsis dēformāns, epicondylītis laterālis, myosītis ossificāns, tābes dorsālis, sēpsis endogenēs, phlebītis migrāns, insufficientia rēnālis, dēmentia praecox

2. Translate the following English terms into Latin! spinal muscle of neck, superficial vein, costal arch, radial artery of index, capsular decidua, parietal lobe, short extensor (muscle) of fingers, oval fossa, sphenoidal yoke, lateral area, dorsal venous network of hand, prominent vertebra, orbicular muscle of eye, groove for radial nerve (groove of radial nerve), middle cranial fossa (= middle fossa of skull), left lumbar trunk, granular layer of dentate gyrus, medial rough muscle, terminal crista, superficial temporal artery, inflammation of medial epicondyle, deep bedsores, simple fracture of femur, multiple sclerosis, renal insufficiency

Body Cavities Internal organs are located within dorsal and ventral cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity (canal). The uppermost ventral space, the thoracic cavity,is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. There is no anatomical separation between the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity, which together make up the abdominopelvic cavity. The large membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the organs within it is the peritoneum. 46

The precursor term rr. commūnicantēs cum nervō faciālī contained a preposition, which is not compatible with the rules for Regular Anatomical Terminology.

120

3. Give the Latin names of body cavities! a) cranial cavity ► __________________________ b) vertebral cavity ► __________________________ c) thoracic cavity ► __________________________ d) abdominal cavity ► __________________________ e) pelvic cavity ► __________________________

4. Form gramatically correct medical terms and translate them! e.g

ārea

+

sēptālis, e



ārea sēptālis

sulcus

► _________________________

ligāmentum

► _________________________

caput

+

trānsversus, a, um

► _________________________

pars

► _________________________

cōlon

► _________________________

cornū

► _________________________

margō

► _________________________

angulus

+

frontālis, e

► _________________________

tūber

► _________________________

crista

► _________________________

cavitās

► _________________________

prōcessus

► _________________________

faciēs

+

articulāris, e

► _________________________

tūberculum

► _________________________

vēnae (pl.)

► _________________________

121

5. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

punctum fixum

____________________

____________________

os longum

____________________

____________________

intestīnum tenue

____________________

____________________

palātum dūrum

____________________

____________________

articulātiō composita

____________________

____________________

dēns dēciduus

____________________

____________________

mūsculus fībulāris brevis

____________________

____________________

cōlon dēscendens

____________________

____________________

6. Give the Latin names of the parts of the large intestine! a) vermiform appendix

► _________________________

b) cecum

► _________________________

c) ileocecal valve

► _________________________

d) right colic artery

► _________________________

e) ascending colon

► _________________________

f) right (= hepatic) flexure of colon ► _________________________ g) transverse colon

► _________________________

h) left (splenic) flexure of colon

► _________________________

i) descending colon

► _________________________

j) sigmoid arteries

► _________________________

k) sigmoid veins

► _________________________ 122

l) sigmoid colon

► _________________________

m) rectum

► _________________________

7) Write the noun of the body part for each of the following adjectives! alveolāris, e

e.g.



alveolus, ī, m.

articulāris, e

► ____________________

basālis, e

► ____________________

brachiālis, e

► ____________________

caudālis, e

► ____________________

cervīcālis, e

► ____________________

dentālis, e

► ____________________

dorsālis, e

► ____________________

faciālis, e

► ____________________

laterālis, e

► ____________________

nāsālis, e

► ____________________

peritoneālis, e

► ____________________

pharyngeālis, e

► ____________________

pleurālis, e

► ____________________

pulmonālis, e

► ____________________

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) os

1) prōmīnēns

b) vās

2) vēnōsum

c) dēcidua

3) simplex

d) forāmen

4) breve

e) ductus

5) frontālis

f) rēte

6) dēferens

g) arthrōsis

7) tenue

h) articulātiō

8) ovāle

i) intestīnum

9) basālis

j) margō

10) dēformāns 123

2. Give the Nominative plural of the following terms and translate them! Nom. pl.

English translation

e.g. dēcubitus superficiālis

dēcubitūs superficiālēs

superficial bedsores

a) alveolus dentālis

____________________

____________________

b) artēria alveolāris

____________________

____________________

c) rāmus sēptālis

____________________

____________________

d) cartilāgō et articulātiō pharyngis e) dēns permanēns

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

VOCABULARY ācer, is, e albicāns, antis alveolāris, e alveolus, ī, m. ampullāris, e angīōma, atis, n. ansa, ae, f. ārea, ae, f. articulāris, e ascendēns, entis basālis, e brachiālis, e brevis, e capsulāris, e carcinogenēs, es caudālis, e centrālis, e cervīcālis, e chondrōma, matis, n. cochleāris, e cōlicus, a, um commūnicāns, antis costālis, e dēcidua, ae, f. dēcubitus, ūs, m.

sharp, acute, bitter albicans (white, whitish) alveolar (pertaining to an alveolus) alveolus (small hollow or cavity) ampullary (referring to an ampulla) angioma (tumor of the blood vessels) ansa (handle, haft) area articular (of or relating to a joint) ascending (moving upward) basal (relating to, located at, or forming a base) brachial (pertaining to the arm or armlike structure) short capsular (relating to or resembling a capsule) carcinogenous caudal (of, at, or near the tail end of the body) central cervical (pertaining to the cervix or neck) chondroma (tumor of the cartilage cells) cochlear (pertaining to the cochlea, spiral shaped) colic (pertaining to the colon) communicating, joining, uniting costal (pertaining to the rib) decidua (a name applied to the endometrium during pregnancy, all of which except for the deepest layer is shed after childbirth) decubitus, bedsore 124

dēferens, ntis dēformāns, ntis dentālis, e dermatologia, ae, f. dēscendēns, entis dorsālis, e endogenēs, es epicondylītis, idis, f. epicondylus, ī, m. faciālis, e fībulāris, e fixus, a, um flexūra, ae, f. frontālis, e gracilis, e grānulāris, e gynaecologia, ae, f. gȳrus, ī, m.

deferent (conducting or progressing away) deforming dental dermatology descending dorsal endogenous (produced within) epicondylitis (inflammation of epicondyle) epicondyle facial fibular fixed flexure frontal gracile (slim, thin) granular (of, like, containing, or resembling a granule or granules) gynecology gyrus (one of the many convolutions of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres caused by infolding of the cortex, separated by fissures or sulci)

īleocaecālis, e insufficientia, ae, f. intestīnālis, e jugum, ī, n. laterālis, e lobulus, ī, m. lumbālis, e

ileocecal (pertaining to the ileum and cecum) insufficiency intestinal yoke lateral lobule (small lobe) lumbar (of, near, or situated in the part of the back and sides between the lowest ribs and the pelvis) mandibular medial medullary mental (e.g. facial muscle of chin) migratory mobile soft multiple myositis (inflammation of the muscle) nasal orbicular, circular ossifying (forming or turning into bone) oval parietal (of, relating to, or forming the walls or part of the walls of a bodily cavity or similar structure) peritoneal (of or relating to or affecting the peritoneum)

mandibulāris, e mediālis, e medullāris, e mentālis, e migrāns, antis mōbilis, e mollis, e multiplex, icis myosītis, idis, f. nāsālis, e orbiculāris, e ossificāns, antis ovālis, e pariētālis, e peritoneālis, e

125

peritoneum, ī, n.

peritoneum (the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (parietal peritoneum) and investing contained viscera (visceral peritoneum)

permanēns, entis pharyngeālis, e phlebītis, idis, f. pleurālis, e praecox, cocis princeps, ipis prōmīnēns, entis psychologia, ae, f. pulmonālis, e radiālis, e remedium, iī, n. rēnālis, e rēticulāris, e sclērōsis, is, f. sēpsis, is, f. sēptālis, e sigmoīdeus, a, um

permanent pharyngeal phlebitis (inflammation of the veins) pleural (of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax) premature, precocious princeps (first, main) prominent psychology pulmonary radial remedy, medicine renal reticular (resembling a net in form; netlike) sclerosis (abnormal hardening of body tissues, such as an artery) sepsis (infection of the blood by disease-causing microorganisms) septal sigmoid (1. shaped like the letter S; 2. of or relating to the sigmoid colon of the large intestine) simple sphenoidal (1. wedge-shaped; 2. of or relating to the sphenoid bone) spinal stria (furrow, channel, hollow) superficial (pertaining to the surface) tabes (a slowly progressive nervous disorder, from degeneration of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and sensory nerve trunks, resulting in disturbances of sensation and interference with reflexes and consequently with movements)

simplex, icis sphēnoīdalis, e spīnālis, e stria, ae, f. superficiālis, e tābes, is, f.

temporālis, e tenuis, e teres, etis terminālis, e thalamus, ī, m.

temporal (belonging to the temples) thin, fine, slight, small round, rounded terminal (of, being, or situated at an end, terminating in death) thalamus (a large ovoid mass of gray matter situated in the posterior part of the forebrain that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex)

tūberculum, ī, n. ulna, ae, f. ulnāris, e urocystītis, idis, f. vāsculāris, e

tubercle ulna (elbow) ulnar urocystitis (inflammation of urinary bladder) vascular (of, relating to, or having vessels that conduct and circulate liquids) rought, harsh

vastus, a, um

126

vermiformis, e vertebrālis, e vīsus, ūs, m. vōcālis, e

vermiform (wormlike) vertebral vision, sight vocal

STEMS OF THE GREEK WORDS Stem angī-ocarcin-o-cystis, cyst-ogyn(aec)-o-

Meaning vessel cancer cyst woman

Example angīōma carcinogenēs urocystītis gynaecologia

Explanation tumor of blood vessels causing cancer, carcinogenous inflammation of the urinary bladder the science of diagnosing and treating disorders of the female genital tract and reproductive system

chondr-o-logia, log-o-

cartilage science of

chondrōma dermatologia

my-, myo-, mysphleb-opsych-o-

muscle

myocardium

vein soul

phlebītis psychologia

tumor of cartilage cells the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the skin, diseases of the skin the middle layer of the heart, consisting of cardiac muscle inflammation of the vein the science dealing with the mind and mental processes, especially in relation to human and animal behavior

sclēr-o-

hard

sclērōsis

abnormal hardening of body tissues

LATIN PROVERBS First aphorism of Hippocrates

Ὁ βίος βραχύς,

Vīta brevis,

Life is short,

ἡ δὲ τὲχνη μακρή,

ars longa,

art long,

ὁ δὲ καιρὸς ὀξύς,

occāsiō celeris,

opportunity fleeting,

ἡ δὲ πεῖρα σφαλερή,

experimentum periculōsum, experience is deceitful,

ἡ δὲ κρίσις χαλεπή.

iūdicium difficile.

judgement is difficult.

ars, artis, f. - art, study; celer, is, e - fleeting, fast; difficilis, e - difficult; experimentum, ī, n. - experiment, experience; occāsiō, ōnis, f. - occasion, opportunity; periculōsus, a, um - dangerous, deceitful; iūdicium, iī, n. - opinion, sentence, judgement

127

UNIT 8 Comparison of Adjectives, Numerals 1) COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVES are compared in Latin in the same manner as in English. There are three degrees of comparison:

1) Positive – long, short, tall; 2) Comparative – longer, shorter, taller; 3) Superlative – the longest, the shortest, the tallest

POSITIVE DEGREE THE positive degree of adjectives expresses a quality of thing or person, without comparing it to a similar quality of other things or persons. It is the basic form of adjective we were using in previous units and which is written in the dictionaries. e.g.

longus, a, um (long); accessōrius, a, um (accessory); brevis, e (short); teres, etis (round); simplex, icis (simple) etc.

COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE DEGREE A GREAT part of adjectives has an ability to create two forms which express higher degree of quality – comparative & superlative. There are adjectives that create neither comparatives nor superlatives (e.g. trīceps, cipitis means "with three heads", there is no sensible comparative or superlative form). In English, some comparisons are: regular (like the ones that add -(i)er and -(i)est to the adjective = old, older, the oldest); some are descriptive (like the ones that use more and most = beautiful, more beautiful, the most beautiful)47; some are irregular (like good, better, the best);

47

Latin adjectives of the 1st and 2nd declension ending in -eus or -ius form the descriptive comparative with magis and the descriptive superlative with maxime: e.g. idōneus, a, um (= suitable) ► magis idōneus, a, um (more suitable) ► maxime idōneus, a, um (the most suitable). This type of comparison is not used in MT.

128

and some are defective (like former, latter48). So too in Latin: there are some adjectives that show predictable changes and some that do not.

a) Regular comparison COMPARATIVE TO form the comparative of most Latin adjectives we add the ending -ior for the masculine and feminine forms and the ending -ius for the neuter form to the stem of adjective. The stem is taken from the Gen. sg. of the 1st & 2nd & 3rd declension adjective type:

m. & f. -ior

n. -ius

e.g. Adjective

Gen. sg.

Stem

Comparative

longus, a, um (1st & 2nd)

longī, ae, ī

long-

longior (m. & f.) / longius (n.)

lātus, a, um (1st & 2nd)

lātī, ae, ī

lat-

lātior (m. & f.) / lātius (n.)

brevis, e (3rd)

brevis

brev-

brevior (m. & f.) / brevius (n.)

simplex, icis (3rd)

simplicis

simplic-

simplicior (m. & f.) / simplicius (n.)

THE stem of the adjectives in the comparative degree coincides with the Nominative sg. of m. & f. form ended in -ior. The Genitive singular form in the comparative degree is formed by adding the ending -is to this stem. The comparative adjective is then declined as a regular 3rd consonant stem. sg.

Nom.

m. & f.

n.

m. & f.

n.

-ior

-ius

-ēs

-a

Gen. Acc. Abl.

48

pl.

-um

-is -em

-ius

-ēs

-a -ibus

-e

These words are properly adjectives of comparative degree.

129

sg.

Nom.

m. & f.

n.

m. & f.

n.

long-ior

long-ius

long-iōr-ēs

long-iōr-a

Gen. Acc.

pl.

long-iōr-is long-iōr-em

Abl.

long-iōr-um long-ius

long-iōr-ēs

long-iōr-e

long-iōr-a long-iōr-ibus

AS can be seen, the neuter ending -ius occurs only twice: in Nom. sg. & in Acc. sg. IN the most of the cases the adjectives in the comparative degree were in MT placed at the end of medical term. However, Terminologia Anatomica prefers the Genitive case noun at the end, placing adjectives in the Nominative case before Genitive complement:49 e.g.

nervus cutāneus brachiī laterālis īnferior – inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm

TA

nervus cutāneus laterālis īnferior brachiī – inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm SUPERLATIVE THE superlative degree expresses a highest quality of thing or person as compared with

the same quality of other things or persons. To form the superlative of most Latin adjectives we use the ending -issimus for the masculine form, -issima for the feminine form, and -issimum for the neuter form. These forms decline like adjectives of 1st and 2nd declension (i.e. mūsculus, vēna, ligāmentum).50 m. -issimus

e.g.

49 50

f. -issima

n. -issimum

Adjective

Stem

Stem + Suffix

Superlative

longus, a, um

long-

long+issimus, a, um

longissimus, a, um

lātus, a, um

lat-

lat+issimus, a, um

lātissimus, a, um

brevis, e

brev-

brev+issimus, a, um

brevissimus, a, um

simplex

simplic-

simplic+issimus, a, um

simplicissimus, a, um

Unfortunately TA is not consistent in applying the rules. Only a few Latin superlatives have -limus, -lima, -limum (and not -issimus, a, um) added to the stem of the positive form that ends in -ilis, but these are not used in MT: facilis, e ► facillimus, a, um; difficilis, e ► difficillimus, a, um; gracilis, e ►gracillimus, a, um; similis, e ►simillimus, a, um; dissimilis, e ►dissimillimus, a, um; humilis, e ►humillimus, a, um.

130

THE superlative for adjectives, that in the Nom. sg. masculines end in -er is formed by suffix -rimus (m.), -rima (f.), -rimum (n.). This suffix is added to the whole Nominative sg. masculine form: Adjective e.g.

Stem

pulcher, chra, chrum pulchracr-

ācer, is, e

Nom. sg. m. + Suffix

Superlative

pulcher+rimus, a, um

pulcherrimus, a, um

ācer+rimus, a, um

ācerrimus, a, um

WHEN it comes to translating Latin comparatives and superlatives, be aware that their meanings are more flexible than those in English and can be expressed in a variety of different ways. The comparative can mean longer (as in English), but also very long (more, too, rather, somewhat). The superlative can mean the longest (as in English), but also rather long, too long, very long, extremely long. e.g.

dysfūnctiō gravior = a very severe dysfunction dysfūnctiō gravissima = an extremely severe dysfunction

b) Irregular comparison SOME adjectives (as in English) have in their comparison irregular forms and simply must be memorized. These irregularities arise from the use of different stems in comparative and superlative degree. The following adjectives are irregular:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

good

bonus, a, um

melior, melius

optimus, a, um

bad

malus, a, um

pēior, peius (pējor, pejus)

pessimus, a, um

big

magnus, a, um

māior, māius (mājor, mājus)

maximus, a, um

small

parvus, a, um

minor, minus

minimus, a, um

many

multī, ae, a

plūrēs, plūra

plūrimī, ae, a

These comparatives and superlatives are grammatically regular (i.e. use normal comparative & superlative set of endings.

c) Defective comparison SEVERAL adjectives denoting spatial relations lack the positive form (the positive is adverb / preposition, not adjective) and have only comparatives and superlatives (some even 131

lack the superlative form). However, meaning of comparative form is usually equal to English positive. These defective forms are grammatically regular (i.e. use normal set of endings for comparative and superlative) and are used mostly in anatomical nomenclature.

above

Positive suprā

below

īnfrā

in front of

ante

behind

post

outside

extrā

inside

intrā

near by

prope

beyond, over

ultrā

Comparative superior, superius (superior, upper) īnferior, īnferius (inferior, lower) anterior, anterius (anterior, in front of) posterior, posterius (posterior, behind) (exterior, exterius) (outer) (interior, interius) (internal, inner) (propior, propius) (nearer) (ulterior, ulterius) (ulterior, farther)

Superlative suprēmus, a, um / summus, a, um (the highest, topmost) īnfimus, a, um / īmus, a, um (the lowest) -----postrēmus, a, um (the last, the hindmost) extrēmus, a, um (extreme, utmost) intimus, a, um (the innermost) proximus, a, um (the nearest) ultimus, a, um (the farthest beyond, last)

The comparatives exterior, ius; interior, ius; propior, ius; and ulterior, ius are not used in MT. From the superlative proximus, a, um the positive form proximālis, e (= proximal) is derived. It´s opposite is distālis, e (= distal). In MT comparative forms are used instead of the pure positives if two objects (either a structure or an organ) of unequal size exist in the body. Such comparatives used to be translated as positives, but TA prefers comparative translations: e.g.

spīna tympanica mājor (greater tympanic spine ≠ great tympanic spine); spīna tympanica minor (lesser tympanic spine ≠ small tympanic spine); forāmen ischiadicum mājus (greater sciatic foramen); forāmen ischiadicum minus (lesser sciatic foramen).

If there is no opposite structure or organ, the Latin positive form of adjective is used: e.g.

forāmen magnum ossis occipitālis (large foramen of occipital bone).

2) NUMERALS LATIN numbers are essentially adjectives as they are in English in nearly every way. They describe nouns. The only difference is that numbers answer a different question than 132

conventional adjectives. Rather than answering qualitative characteristics, numbers answer quantitative characteristics. Rather than specifying what kind of a finger it is (i.e. digitus minimus), we want to know in what order the finger is (i.e. digitus quīntus). In English, numbers have two forms: the word form and the numeric form. For instance, "ten" is the word form, and "10" is the numeric form. Latin has the same structure, except that the numerals are Roman and not Arabic. The Romans had no zero51 and they used letters to represent numerical values. Just as there are types of nouns and adjectives, there are also types of numbers as well and they serve different purposes. Type of numerals Cardinals Ordinals Multiple Distributive Numeral Adverbs

Description

Two

These simply tell how much of something there is, giving duo, ae, o direct quantity to a group (i.e. two). Ordinal numbers determine in what order a series of things are secundus, a, in, usually specifying the position of a particular thing (i.e. um second). These end in -plex, -plicis and denote how many times duplex something is done / happened (i.e. double). These denote a number that belong to each of several groups bīnī, ae, a (i.e. two each). These are used adverbially, describing verbs rather than nouns bis (i.e. twice).

THE most frequently used numerals in MT are cardinals and ordinals. The cardinals are used in medical prescription, the ordinals are used in anatomical and clinical terms. The complete list of numerals is in Appendix 3. ORDINAL NUMERALS ORDINAL numerals end in -us, a, um and are declined like 1st and 2nd declension adjectives. They follow the noun they qualify (e.g. digitus prīmus = first finger, thumb; fissūra prīma = first / primary fissure; crūs prīmum = first crus). In the anatomical terminology only the first twelve ordinals are used. MULTIPLE NUMERALS MULTIPLE numerals end in -plex, plicis and they follow the behavior of the adjectives of the 3rd declension 1 termination. They are used in anatomical (e.g. lobulus simplex = simple lobule) and clinical terminology (e.g. frāctūra multiplex = multiple fracture). 51

The Latin adjective nūllus, a, um was sufficient.

133

simplex, icis = simple, single duplex, icis = double, twofold triplex, icis = triple, threefold quadruplex, icis = quadruple multiplex, icis = multiple CARDINAL NUMERALS CARDINAL numerals are indeclinable except for 1, 2, 3, 200-900. Declinable cardinals have to follow the gender, number and case of the noun they qualify. The cardinal numerals 200-900 are declined like the adjectives of the 1st & 2nd declension in plural. The first three cardinal numerals are declined as follows: 1

Nom.

m.

f.

n.

ūnus

ūna

ūnum

Gen.

ūnīus

Acc.

ūnum

ūnam

ūnum

Abl.

ūnō

ūnā

ūnō

m.

f.

n.

Nom.

duo

duae

duo

Gen.

duōrum

duārum

duōrum

Acc.

duōs

duās

duo

Abl.

duōbus

duābus

duōbus

2

3

Nom.

m. + f.

n.

trēs

tria

Gen. Acc.

trium trēs

tria

Abl.

tribus

134

EXERCISES

1. Put the following nouns and adjectives into the correct declension! Pay attention to the endings as not all words are in the Nominative case! herniās

digitālem

fētuum

amnēsiae

speciērum

exterioribus

triplicis

faciēbus

I.

lātissimōs

rheum urea optimum

II.

genitāle

sēmina

embolīs pūris

serī

interius

pējor

ratiōnis

superius

purpurā

faecēs

psoās vīsus

III.

stapēs anatomiīs

audītūs meliora

IV.

V.

The word rheum comes from a Greek word ῥεῦμα, a word related to the verb ῥέω and meaning "that which flows". The ancient Greek used the word to refer to anything that flowed (river, current, stream, eruption of lava). Hippocrates used it in the sense of a discharge of liquid from the body, from the nostrils. Rheumatismus was thought to be caused by a flowing of the humors (liquids) in the body, and was thus named.

Normal hand

Rheumatic hand

135

2. Translate the following Latin terms into English! tūberculum quādrātum, mūsculus lātissimus dorsī, sulcus bicipitālis laterālis, ārea postrēma, digitus tertius pedis, rāmus mēningeus anterior, gȳrus angulāris, labium mājus pudendī, mūsculus extēnsor digitī minimī, concha nāsālis suprēma, vēna cava superior, artēria basilāris, curvātūra minor gastris, rāmus posterior ductūs hēpaticī dextrī, mūsculus longissimus capitis, ductus reūniēns, nervus occipitālis tertius, striae medullāres ventriculī quartī, bursa superior mūsculī bicipitis femoris, ossa membrī superiōris, mūsculus levātor labiī superiōris, tūberculum anterius vertebrārum cervīcālium, artēria thyreoīdea īma, mūsculus rhomboīdeus minor, plexus choroīdeus ventriculī tertiī, mūsculī levātores costārum brevēs, arcus sēnīlis īridis et corneae, dēlīrium tremens, dosis lētālis minima, medicīna crīminālis, vīta minima

3. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

prognōsis optima

____________________

____________________

vēna cava superior

____________________

____________________

mūsculus glūteus maximus

____________________

____________________

artēria cerebrī anterior

____________________

____________________

cornū mājus

____________________

____________________

phalanx distālis

____________________

____________________

mūsculus oblīquus capitis īnferior

____________________

____________________

dosis minima

____________________

____________________

membrum superius

____________________

____________________

mūsculus psoās minor

____________________

____________________

Psoas minor muscle originates from the vertical fascicles inserted on the last thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae. The psoas minor is considered inconstant and is often absent, only being present in about 27% of human specimens studied. It has an average length of about 24cm, of which about 7.1cm is muscle tissue and about 17cm is tendon.

136

4. Translate the following English terms into Latin! lateral bicipital groove, inferior hollow vein, third occipital nerv, anterior communicating artery, angular gyrus, supreme nasal concha, biceps muscle of arm, posterior cranial fossa (posterior fossa of skull), third molar tooth, roof of fourth ventricle, anterior tubercle of cervical vertebrae, greater curvature of stomach, tendon of valve of inferior hollow vein, vascular nerves (= nerves of vessels), external oblique muscle of abdomen, inferior nasal meatus (= inferior meatus of nose), tuberosity of fifth metatarsal bone, abscess of lower eyelid, minimal dose of medicament

5. Complete the following Latin phrases to match the given meaning! a) nervus __________ __________ anterior one of the anterior gastric branches of the anterior vagal trunk that extends along the lesser curvature of the stomach b) pelvis __________ the part of the pelvis superior to a plane passing through the ileopectineal lines; called also false pelvis and greater pelvis c) cornū superius __________ __________ one of the pair of upward prolongations from the thyroid cartilage to which the lateral hyothyroid ligament attaches d) lobus __________ __________ the posterior portion of the cerebellum below the primary fissure, that plays an important role in fine motor coordination; it also has activation linked to happiness e) pars __________ __________ the posterior surfaces of the ciliary processes are covered by a bilaminar layer of black pigment cells, which is continued forward from the retina

6. Choose the correct form of the adjective and translate! e.g.

prōcessus + vōcālis, e

► prōcessus vōcālis (vocal process)

vēna + vertebrālis, e + anterior, ius

► _________________________

plicae (pl.) + villōsus, a, um

► _________________________

cornū + minor, us

► _________________________

nūcleī (pl.) + vestibulāris, e

► _________________________

systēma + lymphoīdeus, a, um

► _________________________ 137

mūsculus + auriculāris, e + posterior, ius

► _________________________

membrum + superior, ius

► _________________________

faciēs scapulae + anterior, ius

► _________________________

ānulus īridis + mājor, mājus

► _________________________

forāmen + magnus, a, um

► _________________________

7. Look at the picture below with the names for cranial nerves! Give their second name using ordinal numerals!

nervus olfactōrius

=

nervus crāniālis prīmus

nervus opticus

=

__________________________

nervus oculomōtōrius

=

__________________________

nervus trochleāris

=

__________________________

nervus trigeminus

=

__________________________

nervus abdūcēns

=

__________________________

nervus faciālis

=

__________________________

nervus vestibulocochleāris

=

__________________________

138

nervus glōssopharyngeus

=

__________________________

nervus vagus

=

___________________________

nervus accessōrius

=

___________________________

nervus hypoglōssus

=

___________________________

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) labium mājus

1) maximus

b) mūsculus glūteus

2) anterior

c) vēna cava

3) īma

d) curvātūra minor

4) minor

e) artēria cerebrī

5) prīmus

f) nervus crāniālis

6) mājor

g) ossa membrī

7) superior

h) mūsculus psoās

8) gastris

i) artēria thyreoīdea

9) superiōris

j) ānulus īridis

10) pudendī

2. Fill in the blanks: a) Monoclonal cells are defined as a group of cells produced from a __________ ancestral cell(s) by repeated cellular replication. b) Multifocal means arising from or pertaining to ___________ sites or locations. c) Unity is the quality of being united into ___________. d) The term semilunar is used for objects shaped like a __________ moon or crescent. e) The quadrant divides the human abdomen into __________ region(s).

139

VOCABULARY abdūcēns, entis amnēsia, ae, f. anatomia, ae, f. angulāris, e anterior, ius ānulus, ī, m. audītus, ūs, m. auriculāris, e basilāris, e biceps, cipitis bicipitālis, e bonus, a, um bradycardia, ae, f. brevior, ius ciliāris, e concha, ae, f. crāniālis, e crīminālis, e curvātūra, ae, f. cutāneus, a, um decimus, a, um dēlīrium, iī, n. digitālis, e distālis, e dosis, is, f. duodecimus, a, um duplex, icis dysfūnctiō, ōnis, f. embolus, ī, m.

exterior, exterius extrēmus, a, um faex, faecis, f. fētus, us, m. genitālis, e gigantismus, ī, m. glōssopharyngeus, a, um

abducent (abducting, drawing away) amnesia, forgetfulness anatomy angular anterior ring, border hearing, listening auricular (pertaining to an auricle or ear) basilar (pertaining to a base or basal part) biceps (with two heads) bicipital (having two heads) good bradycardia (slow heart rate) shorter ciliary (of or relating to the ciliary body and associated structures of the eye) concha (a shell shaped structure) cranial criminal curvature cutaneous (of, relating to, or affecting the skin) tenth delirium, madness digital (of or belonging to the finger) distal (situated farthest from the centre, median line, or point of attachment or origin) dose twelfth double, twofold dysfunction embolus (a clot or other plug, usually part or all of a thrombus, brought by the blood from another vessel and forced into a smaller one, thus obstructing circulation) exterior, outer extreme, utmost feces (stool, excrement) fetus (the developing young in the uterus) genital gigantism (excessive growth) glossopharyngeal (pertaining to the tongue and pharynx) 140

gravior, ius gravis, e gravissimus, a, um hernia, ae, f.

more serious, more severe heavy, hard, serious, grave, severe the most serious, the most severe hernia (a bulge or protrusion of an organ through the structure or muscle that usually contains it) hypoglōssus, a, um hypoglossal īmus, a, um the lowest īnferior, ius inferior (lower) īnfimus, a, um the lowest interior, interius interior, internal, inner intimus, a, um the innermost ischiadicus, a, um ischiatic, sciatic (pertaining to the ischium - the inferior, dorsal portion of the hip bone) lātissumus, a, um the widest lētālis, e deadly, fatal, mortal longior, ius longer longissimus, a, um the longest macroglōssia, ae, f. macroglossia (abnormally large tongue) major (bigger) māior, ius (mājor, jus) malus, a, um bad maximus, a, um the biggest, the largest medicīna, ae, f. medicine melior, ius better membrum, ī, n. limb micrōtia, ae, f. microtia (abnormally small auricle of the ear) minimus, a, um smallest minor, minus minor, smaller molāris, e molar (a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food, located behind the premolars) monoarticulāris, e monoarticular (referring to one joint) multī, ae, a many nephromegalia, ae, f. nephromegaly (enlargement of the kidneys) nōnus, a, um ninth nūllus, a, um none occipitālis, e occipital octāvus, a, um eighth oligūria, ae, f. oliguria (scanty urination) optimus, a, um the best pēior, peius (pējor, pejus) worse pessimus, a, um the worst plūrēs, plūra more plūrimī, ae, a the most polymyalgia, ae, f. polymyalgia (pain of many muscles) posterior, ius posterior 141

postrēmus, a, um prognōsis, is, f. propior, propius proximālis, e proximus, a, um pseudoicterus, ī, m. psoa, ās, f. (greek) pudendum, ī, n. pulcher, chra, chrum purpura, ae, f.

the last, the hindmost prognosis nearer proximal the nearest pseudoicterus, false jaundice groin pudendum (external genitalia of the female) beautiful purpura (a hemorrhagic disease characterized by extravasation of blood into the tissues, under the skin, and through the mucous membranes, and producing spontaneous bruises, ecchymoses, and petechiae on the skin)

pūs, ūris, n.

pus (fluid product of inflammation, consisting of a liquid containing leukocytes and the debris of dead cells and tissue elements) quadruple fifth ratio (an expression of the quantity of one substance or entity in relation to that of another) reuniting, connecting rheum (a mucous or watery discharge) rhomboid (shaped like a rectangle that has been skewed to one side so that the angles are oblique) seed (fluid discharged at ejaculation in the male) senile (belonging to old people) seventh serum (the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the solid elements have been separated out) sixth the highest, the topmost superior (upper, higher) the highest, the topmost tachyphylaxis (acute, rapid & sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration) roof shaking, trembling, quivering triple trochlear (either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes) ulterior, farther the farthest, the last eleventh

quadruplex, icis quintus, a, um ratiō, ōnis, f. reūniēns, entis rheum, ī, n. rhomboīdeus, a, um sēmen, inis, n. sēnīlis, e septimus, a, um serum, ī, n. sextus, a, um summus, a, um superior, ius suprēmus, a, um tachyphylaxis, is, f. tegmen, inis, n. tremens, entis triplex, icis trochleāris, e ulterior, ulterius ultimus, a, um undecimus, a, um

142

urea, ae, f. vestibulāris, e vestibulocochleāris, e villōsus, a, um

urea (the diamide of carbonic acid found in urine, blood, and lymph, the chief nitrogenous constituent of urine) vestibular vestibulocochlear (pertaining to the vestibulocochlear nerve) villous (hairy, shaggy, rough)

STEMS OF THE GREEK WORDS Stem bradygigant-omacr-omegal-o-, -megalia mīcr-omon-o-

Meaning slow big, great large large

Example bradycardia gigantismus macroglōssia nephromegalia

Explanation slow heart rate excessive growth abnormally large tongue enlargement of the kidneys

small, little one

abnormally small auricle of the ear referring to one joint

olig-opolypseudotachy-

small, scanty many, several false fast

micrōtia monoarticulāris, e oligūria polymyalgia pseudoicterus tachyphylaxis

scanty urination pain in many muscles false jaundice acute, rapid & sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration

LATIN PROVERBS ā priorī

prīmā faciē

citius, altius, fortius

vīs mājor

testis ūnus, testis nūllus

salūs aegrōtī suprēma lēx

omnium artium medicīna nōbilissima

altus, a, um - high; citus, a, um - fast; fortis, e - strong; lēx, lēgis, f. - law; nōbilis, e - noble; omnis, e all, every; prior, prius - former, earlier; testis, is, m. - testicle, witness; vīs, vim, f. - power

143

UNIT 9 Repetition of Units 5-8

N.B.! 1) LATIN nouns of the 4th declension end in the Nom. sg. in -us (masculines) ► plexus, ūs, m., and in -ū (neuters) ► cornū, ūs, n. 2) THE 5th Latin declension is a very small group of feminine nouns that always end in -ēs ► faciēs, ēī, f. The Nominative plural is identical to the singular. 3) GREEK nouns of the 3rd declension resemble those in the Latin 3rd declension. Many have been completely latinized and are declined exactly as Latin nouns. The rest of the nouns belongs to 4 patterns depending on their gender and number of syllables. Imparisyllaba ► sphinctēr, ēris, m. ► īris, idis, f. ► trauma, matis, n. Parisyllaba

► basis, basis, f.

4) THE medical terms denoting

► INFLAMMATORY DISEASES are formed by the suffix -ītis, ītidis, f.; ► TUMOURS are formed by the suffix -ōma, ōmatis, n. ► DEGENERATIVE DISEASES are formed by the suffix -ōsis, ōsis, f.

5) LATIN adjectives belong either to the 1st & 2nd declension type (-us/-er, a, um), or to the 3rd declension type. Third-declension adjectives are declined as 3rd declension -i-stem nouns and can have: 1) three terminations in the Nom. sg. ► -er, is, e 2) two teminations in the Nom. sg. ► -is, e 3) one termination in the Nom. sg. ► -s, -x, -r, -ns. 6) THERE are three degrees of comparison of the adjectives: a. positive – long;

b. comparative – longer;

c. superlative – the longest

7) THE comparison can be: ► regular (-ior, -ius / -issimus, a, um) ► irregular (5 adjectives only) ► defective (adjectives without positive degree) 144

► descriptive (not used in MT)

EXERCISES

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! caput epididymidis, mūsculus massētēr, līnea terminālis pelvis, systēma dīgestōrium, aditus laryngis, vās prōmīnēns, rīma glottidis, nūcleus tractūs opticī, faciēs gastrica, mūsculus sphinctēr ductūs cholēdochī, corpus spongiōsum pēnis, fovea centrālis maculae lūteae, cornū uterī, jējūnum in sitū, trauma capitis clausum, rāmus sinūs carōticī, regiō genūs, mūsculus extēnsor carpī ulnāris, organum olfactōrium, pancreas accessōrium, rāmī genūs capsulae internae, rēte vēnōsum dorsāle pedis, tractus mesencephalicus nervī trigeminī, partus praemātūrus, mūsculus lātissimus dorsī, forāmen ovāle cordis, īnfarctus myocardiī acūtus, syndrōma caudae equīnae, collāpsus meatūs acūsticī internī, basis stapedis, porta hēpatis, ōstium ūrētēris, pars autonomica systēmatis nervōsī periphericī, lamina mūsculāris mūcōsae, ligāmentum teres hēpatis, rāmī commūnicantēs faciālēs, ossa membrī superiōris, sulcus bicipitālis laterālis, labium mājus pudendī, mūsculus extēnsor digitī minimī

2. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

trauma capitis apertum

____________________

____________________

palātum dūrum

____________________

____________________

abortus complētus

____________________

____________________

dēns dēciduus

____________________

____________________

intestīnum tenue

____________________

____________________

prōlapsus congenitus

____________________

____________________

cariēs sicca

____________________

____________________

os longum

____________________

____________________

cōlon dēscendens

____________________

____________________

phalanx distālis

____________________

____________________

membrum superius

____________________

____________________

dosis minima

____________________

____________________

145

3. Match the pairs! a) incīsūra pancreatis

1) the cell layer of the epidermis lying between the stratum lucidum and the stratum spinosum

b) torus mandibulāris

2) a notch separating the uncinate process of the head of the pancreas from the neck

c) ductus dēferens

3) hyperextensibility of the knee joint

d) plexus choroīdeus

4) a nerve loop in the neck attached in front and above to the hypoglossal nerve and behind to the upper cervical spinal nerves

e) strātum grānulōsum

5) a bony growth in the mandible along the surface nearest to the tongue

f) sulcus pulmōnālis

6) a ligament on the neck of the femur formed by the circular fibers of the articular capsule of the hip joint

g) ansa cervīcālis

7) a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

h) zōna orbiculāris

8) the deep vertical recess formed on either side of the thoracic cage by the posterior curvature of the ribs and containing the posterior portions of the lung

i) genū recurvātum

9) the upper portion of the spiral ligament (which forms the outer wall of the cochlear duct) contains numerous capillary loops and small blood vessels

j) stria vāsculāris

10) a vascular plexus of the cerebral ventricles that regulate intraventricular pressure

The ancient Greeks were unaware of the existence of capillaries in the human body simply because they did not have the optical devices with which to see these microscopic vessels. It was not until the 17th century that their existence was demonstrated by the Italian anatomis Marcello Malpighi as a result of his discovery of capillary anastomosis in the lungs. The word capillary is from Latin capillāris, pertaining to hair (capillus). But many terms for abnormal conditions of the capillaries have been formed from the Greek elements tel- (end), and angi- (vessel), as both the arterial and the venous systems terminate in capillaries. Telangiōsis denotes any disease of capillaries, and telangiōma is a tumor made up of dilated capillaries. 146

4) Give the names of inflammatory diseases from the following nouns! From the words in the right collum choose one that could be best used together with inflammatory disease! e.g.

rētina



rētinītis

bone

► ____________________

acūta

ear

► ____________________

neonatōrum

mēninx

► ____________________

fibrōsa

kidney

► ____________________

externa

skin

► ____________________

rheumatica

cellula

► ____________________

chronica

muscle

► ____________________

laterālis

vein

► _____________________

tūberculōsa

epicondylus

► _____________________

migrāns

brain

► _____________________

atopica

liver

► _____________________

orbitae

stomach

► _____________________

ossificāns

5. Translate the following English terms into Latin! knee joint (= joint of knee), abscess of lower eyelid, inferior nasal meatus (= inferior meatus of nose), internal carotid artery, digits of foot, coeliac plexus, palpebral fissure (fissure of eyelids), ureteric orifice (= orifice of ureter), biceps muscle of arm, vascular nerves (= nerves of vessels), transverse ligament of knee, aortic arch (= arch of aorta), arch of thoracic duct, greater curvature of stomach, region of middle finger, third molar tooth, posterior cranial fossa (posterior fossa of skull), deep facial vein (= deep vein of face), anterior communicating artery, granular layer 147

of dentate gyrus, oval window (= window of vestibule), buccal fat pad (fat body of cheak), sense organs (= organs of senses), external acustic meatus, tooth decay (= decay of tooth), tegmentum of pons, sellar diaphragm (= diaphragm of sella), pubic symphysis, accessory cuneate kernel, parietal lobe, prominent vertebra, simple fracture of femur, edema of glottis

EXAMPLE OF THE 2nd TEST Translate the following terms into English! Each correct word has a value of one point! 1) plexus choroīdeus ventriculī quartī

► _____________________________________

2) basis ossis sacrī

► _____________________________________

3) sinus vēnārum cavārum

► _____________________________________

4) siphōn carōticus

► _____________________________________

5) adēnōma prostatae

► _____________________________________

6) prōcessus mastoīdeus

► _____________________________________

7) regiō indicis

► _____________________________________

8) rīma ōris

► _____________________________________

LATIN PROVERBS sapienti sat

repetītiō est māter studiōrum

sensū strictō

suī generis

tertium comparātiōnis

vāde mēcum

vōx ūnīus, vōx nūllīus

comparātiō, ōnis, f. - comparism; genus, eris, n. - kind, origin, sort; mēcum (cum me) - with me; repetītiō, ōnis, f. - repetition; sapiens, entis - wise; sat(is) - enough; strictus, a, um - strict; sensus, ūs, m. - sense, meaning; suus, a, um - his, her, its (suī - Gen. sg.); ūnus, a, um (ūnīus - of one) - one; vāde (imperative mood of the verb vadere) - come; vōx, vōcis, f. - voice

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UNIT 10 Word Formation Processes Word Parts & Word Derivations Prefixes 1) THE WORD FORMATION PROCESS IN all languages, a simple word may be expanded and changed in meaning by the attachment or insertion of one or more units of meaning called MORPHEMES. Consider, for example, the English adjective true, which can be converted into the noun truth by the addition of the morpheme -th. Truth, in turn, may become the adjective truthful, or its negative untruthful; similarly, the new adjective truthful may be expanded into the adverbs truthfully and untruthfully, or the new nouns truthfulness and untruthfulness. LATIN nouns were converted by various morphemes into adjectives too; or conversely simple adjectives were expanded to become nouns. The process of adding a morpheme in order to modify the meaning of a word is called AFFIXATION. Depending on its placement in relation to the original word, an AFFIX can be identified as a: PREFIX (P), INFIX (I), or SUFFIX (S). LATIN used a variety of prefixes and suffixes to create from NON-DERIVED words new, DERIVED forms. Another word part / element used to form a new word is called ROOT (R).52 Roots are used to create COMPOUND words. non-derived words: rēn (kidney); costa (rib); crānium (skull); derived words:

rēn-ālis (renal) R + S; inter-cost-ālis (intercostal) P + R + S; intrā-crāni-ālis (intracranial) P + R + S;

compound words:

haem-o-rrhagia (haemorrage) R1 + I + R2; cost-o-clāvi-cul-āris (costoclavicular) R1 + I + R2 + S1 + S2.

52

It si called STEM too, but as the -S- is used to denote suffixes, we use the word ROOT (R).

149

THE ability to recognize prefixes, suffixes, roots and combining vowels is essential in MT in determining a word's meaning.53 While the number of possible roots is extremely large, prefixes and suffixes are relatively few. Many of the prefixes will already be familiar to you, so the transference of their basic meanings to medical terminology will usually not require a great deal of effort.

2) PREFIXES PREFIXES are morphemes / word elements that are added to the beginning of words in order to alter their meaning. They are the most frequently used elements in the formation of words in Latin.54 Most of the common Latin prefixes had an independent existence as Latin prepositions or adverbs. They consist of one or more syllables placed before the word to show various kinds of relationships (e.g. spatial relationship as in intrācellulāris / extrācellulāris; time period as in praenātālis / postnātālis; negation as in complētus / incomplētus). In joining the stem, the final letter of the prefix undergoes certain changes due to pronunciation reasons – phonetic changes known as ASSIMILATION.55 The prefix is modified to "fit more neatly" with the root. For example, if a prefix ends in a vowel and the root begins with one, the final vowel of the prefix is usually dropped: e.g.

para + ōtidea =

parōtidea (gl.) (parotid gland)

The final consonants of a prefix are changed to match the initial consonant of the root, in other cases the final consonant of the prefix becomes different letter altogether or dissapears completely: e.g.

53

54 55

-n of a prefix changes before:

- b, m, p, ph

►M

Whatever changes of form occurred originally in Latin are sure to be reflected in English words derived from Latin. Eventually you will understand how a simple Latin noun like via (= way, road) could give rise to English words like impervious [im-per-vi-ous], “not allowing a way through” or deviation [de-vi-at-ion] “a going off the road.” And in English too. It is important to realize that if you know the meaning of a Latin prefix in Latin, you will almost certainly be able to observe that meaning in any English derivative that contains the prefix. The principle of ASSIMILATION can be observed in English too when, for example, in- is placed before certain consonants. In Latin, as in any language, the sequence of sounds inp- will inevitably change to imp-, because of the position of the human teeth and lips. Thus the negative of pius (= pious) is impius (= impious). By a full assimilation of consonants, *in-legalis became illegalis (illegal = unlawful); *in-mortalis became immortalis (immortal = undying); and *in-regularis became irregularis (irregular = unruly).

150

syn + pathicus = sympathicus; -s

► dropped

syn + stēma = systēma. ALL possible variants / alternative forms of one prefix are listed in the chart below together with the standard form of prefix. The assimilation does not change the meaning of the prefix but only its form. The prefixes in MT are of Latin and Greek origin, thus there may be two different prefixes with the same meaning. The Greek ones appear in their latinized form. Greek forms are capitalized in the chart, Latin are in normal case. As a rule, Latin prefixes are combined with Latin roots, Greek prefixes with Greek roots, but hybrid forms occur as well (e.g. perivāsculāris, e = perivascular).

PREFIX Aabadambi-

ALTER. FORMS

ENGLISH TRANSLATION

not, without AN(away) from ā-, absac-, af-, ag-, to, toward ap-, aboth, on both ambōsides

LATIN EXAMPLE anaesthēsia m. abductor adrēnālis appendix

DEFINITION lack of sensation leading away near the kidney hanging upon

accepting both, a substance in the blood, an immune body formed in the blood during infection amphodiplōpia double vision in both eyes ambōceptor

AMPHI- AMPHO-

on both sides, around

ANA-

up, back again, upward

anamnēsis

recollection, a medical history of patient

before against, opposed to, opposite of

anteflexiō antisēpticum

bending forward against infection

off, away from

apoplēxia

bleeding from / within internal organs

bicuspidālis catatonia circumōrālis congenitus collāpsus

having two points depression, apathy, stupor around the mouth to be born with to fall together, extreme prostration

anteANTI-

AN-

ANT-

APObisCATAcircumcom-

contrā-

bi-

twice, double down, downward around circuco-, con-, with, together colagainst, opposed

contrāindicātiō rendering a particular treatment undesirable 151

dē-

DIAdis-

dēs-

DIdi-, dif-

DYS-

down; off, away from; absence, reduction; deterioration

dēmentia dēhydratātiō

without mind, mental deterioration deprivation of water

through, across diarrhoē apart, asunder, dissectiō in two; sometimes difficilis negation

flowing through, fluid discharge cutting apart, to cut up difficult

bad, difficult, defective

dyspnoē

difficult breathing

ECTO-

EXŌ-

outside

exorotātiō ectoderma

external rotation outer layer of the skin

ENENDOEPI-

EM-

in within on, over, upon

encephalon endocardītis epidūrālis

in the head inflammation within the heart located on or over the dura mater good nourishment a boiling out, an inflammation of the skin something drawn out, extracted outside the skull

EP-

good, normal eutrophia EUex-, EX- ē-, ec-, ef-, out (of), outward, eczema removal ECextractum outside of, outer extrācraniālis extrāextro-, side extrHYPER-

over, above, excessive

hypertrophia

excessive nourishment, overgrowth

HYPO-

HYP-

under, below, insufficient

hypophysis

a growth under the brain, attachment underneath, pituitary gland

in-

il-, im-, ir-

in(to), inside; against; not, negation

incīsiō inoperābilis

cutting in, a cut unsuitable for a surgical procedure

below between, among within, inside, into, inward

īnfrāorbitālis intercostālis intrāuterīnus

below the eye socket between the ribs within the uterus

beside, near down, through after, behind beyond; change

juxtāpositiō catabolismus metacarpālis metastasis

an adjacent position breaking down next to the wrist change in position

īnfrāinterintrājuxtāKATAMETA-

intro-

CATAMET-

ob-

oc-, of-, op- against; behind; face-to-face, in front of

obstructiō obstētrix

the act of blocking or clogging midwife standing in front of a woman

PARA-

PAR-

paranāsālis paraplēgia paranoia

near the nose near stroke, paralysis of legs abnormal in mind

near; apart from; abnormal, disorder

152

perPERIpost-

through, thorough; excessive about, around

perforāns

to pierce, bore through

pericardium

around the heart, membrane covering the heart

after; behing, backward

postraumaticus after injury

before, ahead; surpassing

praesacrālis

before os sacrum

prognōsis prōlapsus

knowing before, forecast to fall, sink forward

reflexus rētrōcaecālis

a bending back behind the i. caecum

sēcrētiō

a dividing, separation (esp. of various substances from the blood) under the liver

prae-

pre-

pro-, PRO-

prō-, pros- before, forward, in advance, in front of back, again redback(ward), behind apart, sundering, separation

rerētrōsēsubsuper-

su-, suc-, suf-, sus-, supsuprā-

under (in position subhēpaticus or degree), beneath over, above superacūtus suprāsternālis

excessively acute above the sternum

SYN-,

SYM-, SY- with, together, union

symptōma

a falling together, a sign

trāns-

tra-, tran-

trānsfūsiō

pouring across, transfer of blood

ultrā-

across, through over, beyond

beyond, in excess ultrāligātiō

tying or closing off a blood vessel beyond the point where it branches

N.B.! The prefix -IN has two different meanings: 1) negation: inoperābilis, impotentia; 2) spatial force: incīsiō, injectiō

EXERCISES

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! mūsculus hypoglōssus, nervus intermedius, nūcleus rētrōambiguus (NRA), tunica albuginea ōvāriī, mūsculī interspīnālēs lumbōrum, lamina mūsculāris mūcōsae intestīnī crassī, 153

epicondylus laterālis humerī, tēla submūcōsa oesophagī, zōna glandulārum periūrethrālium prostatae, vēna anterior sēptī pellūcidī, mūsculī interosseī dorsālēs, glandula parathyroīdea superior, infundibulum tubae uterīnae, substantia alba hypothalamī, mūsculus vastus intermedius, hyperemesis gravidārum, ablātiō rētinae, hypoxia intrāuterīna, asthma bronchiāle, empyēma parapneumonicum, peritonītis peracūta, spīna bifida, avītaminōsis, stenōsis cervīcis uterī, paraplēgia dolōrōsa, īnsomnia chronica, sub poenā, diagnōsis ex (remediīs) iuvantibus

2. Give the Gen. sg. and the Nom. pl. of the following terms and translate them! Gen. sg.

Nom. pl.

English translation

e.g. tunica albuginea

tunicae albuginae

tunicae albugineae

white membrane/s

a) sequēla

_______________

_______________

_______________

b) sȳrinx

_______________

_______________

_______________

c) lamina suprāchoroīdea

_______________

_______________

_______________

d) strātum corneum

_______________

_______________

_______________

e) zōna pellūcida

_______________

_______________

_______________

f) sinus paranāsālis

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

g) ligāmentum metacarpāle interosseum _______________ h) mūsculus interspīnālis cervīcis _______________ i) organum lymphoīdeum prīmārium _______________

j) mūsculus intertransversārius posterior laterālis collī Gen. sg.

_________________________________________

Nom. pl.

_________________________________________

Transl.

_________________________________________

3. Explain the following terms! agenesis

dysfūnctiō

hyperalgēsia

ablātiō

anūria

dysūria

hyperaemia

abductiō

aphagia

dystopia

hyperphagia

abstinentia

aphasia

dysmetria

hyperōpia

abscessus

aplasia

dyspnoē

hyperplasia

abortus

154

arrhytmia

dystrophia

hyperpyrexia

ataxia

dyslexia

hyperemesis

absentia

The Greek diphthong αι became regularly adapted in Latin as AE. That convention is reflected in the derivatives of γυναικ- (gynaik– “woman”), παιδ- (paid– “child”), and αἱμ- (haim-, “blood”). What can be confusing is that this AE may be either maintained in Medical English or reduced further to E. Thus there are two correct spellings for the medical specialist who treats children – paediatrician or pediatrician. The same is true of gynaecology or gynecology, haemorrhage or hemorrhage. In usage, there is an overwhelming trend towards the simpler E spelling (we already met with aqueductus ◄ aquaeductus in Unit 5). The only problem with this simplification is that it can sometimes create minor confusion. A perfect example is the Greek root παιδ- (paid-, “child”). If it is kept as paed-, the etymology of its derivatives will be clear; if, however, it is reduced to ped-, it becomes identical in form to the unrelated Latin root for “foot”. Because of Latin derivatives like pedal and pedicure one may run the risk of associating orthopedic (= orthopaedic) with feet, or of wrongly viewing pedophilia as some kind of foot fetish.56 If your physician is a foot specialist, (s)he is perhaps a podiatrist (“foot healer”). However, if the medical practice is concerned with hands and feet, the doctor will be a chiropodist (< χειρ-ο-ποδ-ιστης).

4. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

hyperthermia

____________________

____________________

endocytōsis

____________________

____________________

avītaminōsis

____________________

____________________

punctum mōbile

____________________

____________________

mūsculus suprāspīnātus

____________________

____________________

organa lymphoīdea secundāria

____________________

____________________

mūsculus oblīquus capitis superior ____________________

____________________

56

Other derivatives of παιδ- include pedagogue (G παιδ-αγωγος, “child-leader” > L paedagōgus), encyclopedia (derived from G παιδεια, paideia “education” (of children), pederast (“child-lover,” now almost completely supplanted by pedophile, a word that dates only from 1951), and pedodontist (< παιδ-οδοντ-ιστης, a dentist who works on children’s teeth).

155

lamina profunda fasciae temporālis ____________________

____________________

5. Look at the picture below with the names for brain parts! Explain the meaning of given terms!

a) prosencephalon

____________________

b) metencephalon

____________________

c) diencephalon

____________________

6. Choose the correct form of the adjective and translate! splēn

+

accessōrius, a, um

► _________________________

abortus

+

incomplētus, a, um

► _________________________

cuspis

+

posterior, ius

► _________________________

abscessus

+

intrācrāniālis, e

► _________________________

ulcus

+

inoperābilis, e

► _________________________

absentia

+

epilēpticus, a, um

► _________________________

cōlon

+

ascendēns, entis

► _________________________

rāmus

+

cochleāris, e

► _________________________

āla

+

minor, minus

► _________________________

7. Translate the following English terms into Latin! fixed end, left inferior parathyroid gland, lamina of vertebral arch (= lamina of arch of vertebra), subclavian muscle, intermediate nerv, lateral epicondyle of femur, intertransversal lateral 156

muscles of loins, mucous membrane of auditory tube, glomerulous zone of suprarenal gland, dorsal metatarsal ligaments, sublingual fossa, articular facet, branches to hypothalamic kernels (= branches of kernels of hypothalamus), paraduodenal recess, supraclavicular nerv, descending aorta, atypical inflammation of lungs, retinal detachement (= detachement of retina), acute inflammation of veins

How to say a fossa (depression) in MT: 1) fossa - denotes greater and more deep depressions e.g.

fossa crāniī anterior (anterior cranial fossa) fossa digastrica mandibulae (digastric fossa of mandible)

2) fovea - denotes round, shallow and slight depressions e.g.

fovea sublinguālis mandibulae (sublingual fossa of mandible) fovea submandibulāris (submandibular fossa)

- in the other instances the term fovea is translated into English either as fovea, or as facet e.g.

fovea capitis femoris (fovea of head of femur / fovea for ligament of head of femur) fovea dentis (facet of tooth / facet for dens) fovea articulāris (articular facet)

3) fossula - literally means small fossa, it is used as fossa only twice in TA fossula fenestrae cochleae (fossa of round window) fossula fenestrae vestibulī (fossa of oval window) 4) recessus - used only in three medical terms to denote fossa, other terms denote recess or space e.g.

recessus duodēnālis īnferior / superior (inferior / superior duodenal fossa) recessus piriformis (piriform fossa) recessus infundibulī (recess of infundibulum / infundibular recess) recessus subhēpaticus (subhepatic space)

157

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) tunica

1) rētinae

b) sinus

2) paranāsālis

c) nūcleus

3) endogenēs

d) punctum

4) pellūcida

e) zōna

5) submūcōsa

f) ligāmentum

6) albuginea

g) tēla

7) rētrōambiguus

h) ablātiō

8) metacarpāle

i) sēpsis

9) bifida

j) spīna

10) mōbile

2. Identify and define the prefixes in the following English words! Prefix

Meaning of the prefix

_______

______________________

b) replacement, recovery, and rehabilitation _______

______________________

c) avascular

_______

______________________

d) anesthesia and analgesic

_______

______________________

e) bipolar and bicuspid

_______

______________________

a) displace and dislocate

158

VOCABULARY abductiō, ōnis, f. ablātiō, ōnis, f. absentia, ae, f. abstinentia, ae, f. adrēnālis, e agenesis, is, f. albugineus, a, um ambōceptor, ōris, m. amphodiplōpia, ae, f. anaesthēsia, ae, f. anamnēsis, is, f. anteflexiō, ōnis, f. antisēpticum, ī, n. anūria, ae, f. aphagia, ae, f. aphasia, ae, f. aplasia, ae, f. apoplēxia, ae, f. arrhythmia, ae, f. asthma, atis, n. ataxia, ae, f. atypicus, a, um avītaminōsis, is, f. bicuspidālis, e bifidus, a, um bronchiālis, e catabolismus, ī, m. circumōrālis, e collāpsus, ūs, m. contrāindicātiō, ōnis, f. corneus, a, um costoclāviculāris,e

abduction (movement of a body part away from the median plane) ablation (detachement) absence abstinence, self-restrain adrenal (near the kidney) agenesis (absence or incomplete development of an organ or body part) white, whitish amboceptor (an immune body formed in the blood during infection) amphodiplopia (double vision in both eyes) anesthesia (1. lack of feeling or sensation; 2. artificially induced loss of ability to feel pain, done to permit the performance of surgery or other painful procedures) anamnesis (1. the act of remembering; 2. the medical or developmental history of a patient) anteflexion (bending forward) antiseptic medicament anuria (absence of urine formation) aphagia (difficulty with or incapacity for eating) aphasia (speechlessness, partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally) aplasia (defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue) apoplexy (sudden massive haemorrhage) arythmia (an irregularity in the force or rhythm of the heart beat) asthma ataxia (loss of the ability to coordinate muscular movement) atypical, irregular avitaminosis (lack of vitamins) bicuspid (having two points) bifid (cleft or divided into two parts) bronchial catabolism (the metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy) circumoral (around the mouth) collaps contraindication (any condition that renders a particular line of treatment improper or undesirable) horny, of horn costoclavicular (pertaining to the ribs and clavicle) 159

dēhydratātiō, ōnis, f. dēmentia, ae, f.

dehydratation dementia (loss of cognitive abilities, including memory, concentration, communication, planning, and abstract thinking, resulting from brain injury or from a disease such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease)

diagnōsis, is, f. diencephalon, ī, n. difficilis, e dissectiō, ōnis, f. duodēnālis, e dyslexia, ae, f.

diagnosis (determination of the nature of a cause of a disease) diencephalon (the posterior part of the prosencephalon) difficult dissection, dismemberment duodenal dyslexia (a learning disorder that interferes with a person's ability to recognize and understand written words) dysmetria (hard to measure, wrong length; a lack of coordination of movement typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended position with the hand, arm, leg, or eye; it is a type of ataxia)

dysmetria, ae, f.

dystopia, ae, f. dystrophia, ae, f. dysūria, ae, f. ectoderma, atis, n. eczema, atis, n. empyēma, atis, n. encephalon, ī, n. endocardītis, idis, f. endocytōsis, is, f. epidūrālis, e epilēpticus, a, um eutrophia, ae, f. exōcytōsis, is, f. exorotātiō, ōnis, f. extrācellulāris, e extrācraniālis, e extractum, ī, n. glomerulōsus, a, um haematūria, ae, f. haemorrhagia, ae, f. humerus, ī, m. hyperaemia, ae, f. hyperalgēsia, ae, f. hyperemesis, is, f. hyperōpia, ae, f.

dystopia (malposition, wrong position) dystrophy (nutritional disorder) dysuria (painful or difficult urination) ectoderm (outer layer of the skin) eczema (an inflammation of the skin) empyema (the presence of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity) encephalon (brain) endocarditis (inflammation of the endocardium) endocytosis (the uptake by a cell of material from the environment by invagination of the plasma membrane) epidural (on or over the dura mater) epileptic (pertaining to or affected with epilepsy) eutrophia (good nourishment) exocytosis (the discharge from a cell of particles that are too large to diffuse through the wall) exorotation (external rotation) extracellular (situated or occurring outside a cell or cells) extracranial (outside of the cranial cavity) extract glomerulous (related to a small ball) haematuria (presence of the blood in the urine) haemorrhage, bleeding humerus (the bone that extends from the shoulder to the elbow) hyperemia (the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body) hyperalgesia (an extreme sensitivity to pain) hyperemesis (extreme and unrelenting vomiting) hyperopia (far-sightedness) 160

hyperphagia, ae, f.

hyperphagia (abnormally increased appetite for and consumption of food, thought to be associated with a lesion or injury in the hypothalamus)

hyperplasia, ae, f.

hyperplasia (an abnormal increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ, with consequent enlargement of the part or organ) hyperpyrexia, ae, f. hyperpyrexia (abnormally high fever) hyperthermia, ae, f. hyperthermia (abnormally high fever) hypertrophia, ae, f. hypertrophy (enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to increase in size of its constituent cells) hypervītaminōsis, is, f. hypervitaminosis (the condition resulting from the chronic excessive intake of vitamins) hypoglycaemia, ae, f. hypoglycemia (an abnormally small amount of sugar in the blood) hypophysis, is, f. pituitary gland hypothalamus, ī, m. hypothalamus (the part of the diencephalon forming the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle) hypothermia, ae, f. hypothermia (abnormally low fever) hypoxia, ae, f. hypoxia (deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues) impotentia, ae, f. impotency (lacking physical strength or vigor; weak) incīsiō, ōnis, f. incision īnfrāorbitālis, e infraorbital (below the orbita) infrāspīnātus, a, um infraspinous (beneath the spine of the scapula) infundibulum (any of various funnel-shaped bodily passages, infundibulum, ī, n. openings, structures, or parts) injectiō, ōnis, f. injection inoperābilis, e inoperable (unsuitable for a surgical procedure) intercostal (between the ribs) intercostālis,e interspīnālis, e, interspinal (between two spines) intertransversārius, a, um intertransverse (situated between or connecting the transverse processes of the vertebra) intracellular (within a cell) intrācellulāris, e intrācrāniālis, e intracranial (within the skull) intrauterine (within the uterus) intrāuterīnus, a, um iuvans, ntis helping, supporting juxtāpositiō, ōnis, f. juxtaposition (apposition; a placing side by side or close together; the condition of being side by side or close together) metacarpālis, e metacarpal (pertaining to the metacarpus) metastasis, is, f. metastasis (the spreading of a disease, esp. cancer cells, from one part of the body to another) metatarsālis, e metatarsal (pertaining to the metatarsus) metencephalon, ī, n. metencephalon (hindbrain) mūsculāris, e muscular neuralgia, ae, f. neuralgia (pain of nerv) midwife obstētrix, īcis, f. obstructiō, ōnis, f. obstruction 161

oesophagus, ī, m. organum, ī, n. ōvārium, iī, n. paraduodēnālis, e paranāsālis, e paranoia, ae, f. paraplēgia, ae, f. parathyroīdeus, a, um pellūcidus, a, um perforāns, antis pericardium, iī, n. peritonītis, idis, f. periūrethrālis, e perivāsculāris, e piriformis, e poena, ae, f. postnātālis, e posttraumaticus, a, um praenātālis, e praesacrālis, e prīmārius, a, um prosencephalon, ī, n. reflexus, ūs, m. rēn, rēnis, m. rētrōambiguus, a, um rētrōcaecālis, e sēcrētiō, ōnis, f. secundārius, a, um sequēla, ae, f. splēn, ēnis, m. stenōsis, is, f. subclāvius, a, um subhēpaticus, a, um sublinguālis, e submandibulāris, e submūcōsus, a, um superacūtus, a, um suprāclāviculāris, e suprāchoroīdeus, a, um suprārēnālis, e suprāspīnātus, a, um

esophagus (the passage between the pharynx and the stomach) organ ovary paraduodenal (near, or around the duodenum) paranasal (near or adjacent to the nose) paranoia (delusional disorder) paraplegia (complete paralysis of the lower half of the body including both legs, usually caused by damage to the spinal cord) parathyroid (near the thyroid gland) pellucid, transparent perforating pericardium (the fibroserous sac enclosing the heart) peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum) periurethral (around the urethra) perivascular (of, relating to, occurring in, or being the tissues surrounding a blood vessel; around the vessel) piriform (having shape of pear) penalty, punishment postnatal (occurring after birth) posttraumatic (following injury) prenatal (preceding birth) presacral (anterior to the sacrum) primary prosencephalon (forebrain) reflex (a bending back; an involuntary action or response) kidney retro-ambiguous (having more than one direction behind, wandering back, behind) retrocecal (behind the i. caecum) secretion (separation esp. of various substances from the blood) secondary sequel, consequence, result spleen stenosis (a constriction or narrowing of a duct or passage) subclavian (below the clavicle) subhepatic (below the liver) sublingual (beneath the tongue) submandibular (below the mandible) submucous (beneath the mucous membrane) superacute supraclavicular (above the clavicle) suprachoroid (situated above the choroid - middle, vascular coat of the eye) suprarenal (above the kidney) supraspinous (above any spine) 162

suprāsternālis, e sympaticus, a, um sȳrinx, ngēs, f. trānsfūsiō, ōnis, f. ultrāligātiō, ōnis, f. vertebra, ae, f.

suprasternal (above the sternum) symphatetic (pertaining to the sympathetic nervous system) syrinx (fluid-filled neuroglial cavity within the spinal cord or in the brain stem) transfusion (transfer of blood) ultraligation (tying or closing off a blood vessel beyond the point where it branches) vertebra

STEMS OF THE GREEK WORDS Stem -aemia

Meaning presence of something in the blood

Example Explanation hypercalcaemia a heightened level of calcium in the blood

-aesthēsia -algia, alg-ocardi(o)-, -cardia -genēs, es

ability to feel pain heart

anaestēsia neuralgia endocardītis

loss of sensation nerve pain inflammation of the endocardium

relating to origin development, origin blood water

endogenēs

originating from inside

agenesis

-metria -ōpia -ox(y)

measuring vision 1. presence of oxygen; 2. rapid, sharp

dysmetria hyperōpia hypoxia

absence or incomplete development of an organ or body part presence of blood in the urine the loss of water and salts essential for normal body function hard to measure, wrong length far-sightedness deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues

-phagia -plasia

eating development, formation stroke, paralysis

aphagia aplasia

-genesis haem(at)-ohydr-o-

-plēgia

py-opyr(et)-o-rrhagia

57

pus57 fire, heat bursting forth, bleeding

haematūria dēhydratātiō

paraplēgia

empyēma hyperpyrexia haemorrhagia

difficulty with or incapacity for eating defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue complete paralysis of the lower half of the body including both legs, usually caused by damage to the spinal cord) the presence of pus in a body cavity abnormally high fever bursting of blood, bleeding

a thick yellowish or greenish opaque liquid produced in infected tissue

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-stasis

standing, stoppage, stagnation

metastasis

transfer of disease from one organ or part of the body to another not directly connected with it

-thermia top-o-, -topia -trophia, troph-oūr-o-, -ūria

heat place, position nutrution, growth urine

hyperthermia dystopia dystrophia

abnormally high fever bad position, malposition bad nutrition

anūria

absence of urine formation

LATIN PROVERBS apertīs oculīs

audiātur et altera pars

pede claudō

medice, cūrā tē ipsum

manus manum lavat

ubī bene, ibī patria

est modus in rēbus, sunt certī denīque fīnēs

alter, a, um - other; audiātur (3rd person sg. present passive subjunctive of the verb audīre) - to be listened to; certus, a, um - certain; claudus, a, um - lame, halting; cūrā (3rd person sg. present imperative of the verb cūrāre) - to cure; denīque - finally; fīnis, is, m. - limit; ipse, a, um - self; lavat (3rd person sg. of the verb lavāre) - he, she, it washes; modus, ī, m. - mode, way; tē - you (Acc.)

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UNIT 11 Suffixes – Noun Suffixes, Adjective Suffixes 1) SUFFIXES A SUFFIX is an affix which is placed after the root of a word. Suffix can't stand alone, it does not have meaning on its own, but needs to be connected to the root. There are two types of suffixes: 1) inflectional or grammatical suffixes = case-endings which modify a word to form different grammatical categories (case of nouns and adjectives) without changing its core meaning (e.g. English determines, determining, and determined, from the root determin-; Latin vēnae, vēnārum, vēnīs, from the root vēn-); 2) derivational suffixes, which form a new word from an existing word; they are usually applied to words of one lexical category (part of speech) and change them into words of another category (e.g. the English derivational suffix -ly changes adjectives into adverbs: slow → slowly; the Latin derivational suffix -ālis changes nouns into adjectives: lingua → linguālis). THE difference between derivational and inflectional suffixes is, that derivation produces a new word, whereas inflection produces grammatical variants of the same word. 2) DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES FOR medical terminology two types of Latin derivational suffixes are important: Noun suffixes Adjective suffixes NOUN SUFFIXES SUFFIX MEANING -āgo / -īgo, inis, f. idea of activity

EXAMPLE lumbāgo vertīgo

-ēr, ēris, m.

agent

massētēr

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DEFINITION a painful condition of the lower back the sensation of dizziness, a turning or whirling round a thick muscle in the cheek that closes the jaws during chewing

-ia, ae, f.

pathological state / illness

-iāsis, is, f.

pathological state /condition

agōnia mania ophthalmia lithiāsis trichiniāsis

-iō / -tiō / -siō, action / function ablātiō / process dēhydratātiō ōnis, f. incīsiō condition alcoholismus -ismus, ī, m. rheumatismus

suffering madness inflammation of the eye formation of stones a disease caused by intestinal worms detachment dehydratation incision alcohol dependence any of various rheumatic diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis

-itās, ātis, f.

abstract quality / cavitās state graviditās senīlitās

cavity state of being pregnant a condition whose cause is primarily advanced age

-ītis, idis, f.

inflammatory disease

ōtītis phlebītis

inflammation of the ear inflammation of the veins

-ma / -ema, atis, concrete pathological n. condition

eczema exanthēma

an inflammation of the skin a disease accompanied by a skin eruption

-mentum, ī, n.

instrument

medicāmentum medical drug, remedy, instrument of healing

-ōma, atis, n.

tumor disease

osteōma carcinōma

-or / -sor / -tor/ agent / state -xor, ōris, m.

tumor of the bone tissue a cancerous tumor, a malignant growth rubor redness abductor (m.) drawing away from midline dēpressor (m.) draw down a part of the body flexor (m.) any muscle whose contraction serves to bend a joint or limb

-ōrium, iī, n.

designates place sānātōrium tentōrium

a health resort an anatomical part resembling a tent or covering

-ōsis, is, f.

degenerative disease

spondylōsis

degeneration of the spinal column, especially that resulting in abnormal fusion and immobilization of the vertebral bones

-sis, is, f.

production / increase / invasion

sēpsis

systemic infection by pathogenic microorganisms, especially bacteria, that have invaded the bloodstream, usually from a local source

-tūdō, inis, f. -tūs, tūtis, f.

state / quality state

longitūdō senectūs

length state of being old

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-ulus, a, um -illus, a, um -olus, a, um -ellus, a, um -culus, a, um

diminutive

capitulum papilla artēriola cerebellum canāliculus

a small head a small projection or protuberance a small artery a small brain a small canal

-ūra, ae, f.

effect of the activity / state

apertūra commissūra

opening lining, junction

Suffixes denoting state: -ia, ae, f.

-iāsis, is, f.

-itās, ātis, f.

-or / -sor / -tor/ -xor, ōris, m.

-tūdō, inis, f.

-tūs, tūtis, f.

-ūra, ae, f.

Suffixes denoting a quality: -itās, ātis, f.

-tūdō, inis, f.

Suffixes denoting the agent noun: -ēr, ēris, m.

-or / -sor / -tor/ -xor, ōris, m.

Suffixes denoting activity, action: -āgo / -īgo, inis, f.

-iō / -tiō / -siō, ōnis, f.

-ūra, ae, f.

Suffixes denoting diseases and pathological conditions: -ia, ae, f.

-iāsis, is, f.

-ismus, ī, m.

-ītis, idis, f.

-ma / -ema, atis, n.

-ōma, atis, n.

-ōsis, is, f.

SOME GENERAL REMARKS ON NOUN SUFFIXES 1) In English, as in Latin and in many other languages, an adjective can be used as a noun without any change of form at all. We saw examples like mūcōsa and rēctum. No suffix is required to create these adjectival nouns, which can be described as a simple adjectives used substantively.

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2) The latin suffix -itās58 was regularly attached to the base of Latin adjectives to form literally hundreds of abstract nouns, almost all of which, it seems, have survived as English derivatives ending in -ity. The historical process is so dependable that you can confidently reconstruct a Latin noun in -itās for almost any English word in -ity. (e.g. Latin sānitās ► English sanity; brevitās ► brevity; gravitās ► gravity).59 3) The Latin suffix -itās can not only turn a simple adjective into a derived noun but it can be added to the base of already derived adjective to create a new derived noun. (e.g. Latin noun mors = death ► derived adjective mortālis ► noun derived from derived adjective mortālitās = mortality). 4) The Latin suffix -tūdō (English -tude) is less productive than -itās, but it has exactly the same function and meaning. There appears to be no logical reason why the Latin language attached -itās to some adjectives and -tūdō to others (e.g. Latin lātitūdō ► English latitude; longitūdō ► longitude). This suffix could be attachet to other parts of speech (e.g. nouns servus, ī, m. = slave ►servitūdō = servitude, slavery). 5) A diminutive60 is a word denoting something small or little. Most languages in the Indo-European family have suffixes that “diminish” a word so as to create a smaller or younger version of that word. In English, a little book is a booklet, a tiny duck is a duckling, and a small dog is a doggy or doggie. Latin language was extraordinarily fertile in its capacity to diminish words. Many Latin diminutives have left their mark on English, though we may no longer recognize them all as “little” words (e.g. English chapter ◄ Old French chapitre ◄ Latin capitulum). Latin language has regular diminutive suffixes -ulus and -culus, and variant diminutive suffixes -olus, -ellus and -illus. The standard rules for Latin diminutives are quite straightforward. For nouns of the 1st or 2nd declension, the regular diminutive suffix is -ulus (M), -ula (F), or -ulum (N), depending upon the gender of the original noun; e.g.

58 59

60

vēna, ae, f.



vēnula, ae, f.

nōdus, ī, m.



nōdulus, ī, m.

If the adjective base/stem ends in -i-, the suffix is not -itās but -etās (e.g. varietās = variety). If the adjective base ends in -r- or -t-, the derived noun will end in -tās (e.g. pūbertās = puberty). Sometimes the English derivative has been further modified in form because of phonetic factors in its transmission. The noun charity, for instance, comes from Latin cāritās (< cārus, “dear”); English cruelty is even more transformed, having evolved from Latin crūdēlitās (< crūdēlis, “cruel”). The examples given here represent a deliberate oversimplification. There were several important historical steps between, say, Latin gravitās and English gravity. The normal progression was Latin -tātem (Acc. case) > Old French -tet > OF te [mod F -té] > Middle English -tie > Modern English -ty. The term originated with the ancient Roman grammarians, who called a “diminishing” word of this sort a dēminūtīvum.

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circus, ī, m.



circulus, ī, m.

frēnum, ī, n.



frēnulum, ī, n.

For words of the 3rd, 4th, or 5th declensions, the suffix is -culus, -cula, -culum. As the suffix will suggest, the gender of the original noun is maintained in the gender of its diminutive; e.g.

canālis, is, m.



canāliculus, ī, m.

auris, is, f.



auricula, ae, f.

corpus, oris, n.



corpusculum, ī, n.

For reasons of historical phonetics, a Latin diminutive word sometimes assumed a form that used a suffix other than the standard -ulus or -culus. If the original noun had a base ending in the vowel -e-, -i-, or -u-, the suffix was not -ulus, but –olus; e.g

ārea, ae, f.



āreola, ae, f.

artēria, ae, f.



artēriola, ae, f.

The -ellus variant is more complicated - some nouns with -r- stems underwent a series of phonetic changes that led to diminutive forms; e.g.

cerebrum, ī, n.



cerebellum, ī, n.

scalprum, ī, n.



scalpellum, ī, n.

There are, of course, exceptions to all these rules. There were parallel developments that led to a few diminutive forms in -illus (-a, -um) or -ollus (-a, -um). e.g.

glomus, eris, n.



glomerulus, ī, m.

papula, ae, f.



papilla, ae, f.

ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES SUFFIX -āceus, a, um

MEANING EXAMPLE DEFINITION resemblance / membrānāceus, a, um similar to membrane sēbāceus, a, em similar to sebum similarity

-ālis, e / -āris, e relationship / reference

spīnālis, e mandibulāris, e

pertaining to spina pertaining to mandible

-āneus, a, um

relationship / reference

calcāneus, a, um cutāneus, a, um

pertaining to calcar pertaining to skin

-ārius, a, um

relationship / reference / resemblance

corōnārius, a, um mammārius, a, um

encircling in the manner of a crown pertaining to the mammary gland or breast

-ātus, a, um

resemblance / cuneātus, a, um similarity dentātus, a, um

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similar to wedge similar to tooth

-bilis, e

possibility / option

mōbilis, e inoperābilis, e

movable uncapable ot being operated

-eus, a, um

relationship / reference

parōtideus, a, um osseus, a, um

pertaining to parotid gland pertaining to bone

-icus, a, um

relationship / pertaining to

thōrācicus, a, um tympanicus, a, um

pertaining to thorax pertaining to tympanum

-īlis, e

relationship / reference

sēnīlis, e infantīlis, e

belonging to old people, aged belonging to babies

-īnus, a, um

relationship / reference

fēminīnus, a, um uterīnus, a, um

pertaining to female pertaining to uterus

-lentus, a, um -oīdēs, es / -oīdeus, a, um

full of pūrulentus, a, um resemblance / cricoīdeus, a, um similarity lymphoīdeus, a, um typhoīdēs, es

-ōrius, a, um

relationship / reference

-ōsus, a, um

relationship / submūcōsus, a, um reference / full vēnōsus, a, um of

full of pus, purulent ring-shaped similar to lymph resembling thypus

oculomōtōrius, a, um pertaining to the movement of eye olfactōrius, a, um pertaining to olfaction pertaining to submucosa pertaining to veins

Suffixes denoting relationship / reference: -ālis, e / -āris, e

-āneus, a, um

-ārius, a, um

-eus, a, um

-icus, a, um

-īlis, e

-īnus, a, um

-ōrius, a, um

-ōsus, a, um

Suffixes denoting similarity / resemblance: -āceus, a, um

-ārius, a, um

-ātus, a, um

-oīdēs, es / -oīdeus, a, um

Suffix denoting possibility / option: -bilis, e

Suffixes denoting fullness: -lentus, a, um

-ōsus, a, um

SOME GENERAL REMARKS ON ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES 1) For information about the most productive suffix -ālis, e / -āris, e see Unit 7.

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2) All Latin adjectives derived from a diminutive noun with the base ending in -L- use the addjectival suffix -āris, e, rather than -ālis, e (e.g. circus ► circulus ► circulāris, e; mūs ► mūsculus ► mūsculāris, e). 3) There is a rather small number of Latin adjectives formed by adding the suffix -īlis, e to the noun base. These regularly appear in English as words ending in -ile, occasionally in -il. Most conspicuous, perhaps, are the adjectives relating to the periods of human life (especially, a man’s life). e.g.

infans (baby)



infantīlis, e (infantile)

puer (boy)



puerīlis, e (puerile)

juvenis (young man) ►

juvenīlis, e (juvenile)

4) The suffix -īnus, a, um was consistently used with animal words, that regularly came into English as derivates in -ine: e.g.

canis (dog)



canīnus, a, um (canine)

equus (horse)



equīnus, a, um (equine)

5) The Latin adjectives in -ārius, a, um with the usual meaning "pertaining to" were sometimes used as nouns: e.g.

aqua (water)



aquārium (a place for water)

ōvum (egg)



ōvārium (ovary, place for eggs)

6) The suffix -ōsus, a, um regularly meant "full of". Latin adjectives in -ōsus, a, um appear in English in one of two forms, -ous or -ose. e.g.

squāma (scale)



squāmōsus, a, um (squamous, full of scales)

adeps (soft fat)



adipōsus, a, um (fatty, adipous, full of fat)

EXERCISES

1. Identify Latin adjective from which each of the following English adjectives is derived! e.g. a. b. c. d. e.

capital ◄ capitālis, e accessory coronary lateral palmate senile

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

f. g. h. i. j.

intracranial cavernous mammary mobile acustic

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___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

2. Translate the following Latin terms into English! ductus artēriōsus persistēns, caliculus gustatōrius, mūsculus compressor ūrethrae, fasciculus cuneātus, glomus choroīdeum, glandula vēsīculōsa, rēticulum trabeculāre sclērae, mūsculus rīsōrius, ductulī efferentēs testis, lamina lūcida, alveolus dentālis, organum vāsculōsum laminae terminālis, mūsculus flexor hallūcis longus, tonsillae tūbāriae, interstitium intrālobulāre, strātum spīnōsum, nūcleī anteriōrēs thalamī, fasciculus prōprius laterālis, ductulus aberrāns īnferior, circulus artēriōsus īridis mājor, asthma cardiāle, hypostasis pulmōnum, apoptōsis, diplōpia postraumatica, adēnōmatōsis ōris, ischaemia rētinae, salpingītis isthmīca nōdōsa, athērōma regiōnis femoris, atelectasis pulmōnum tōtālis, nystagmus bulbī oculī, lupus erythēmatōsus (LE), dysmēnorrhoea, sclērōsis tūberōsa, ultimum refugium, mors ē bolō

The name for lupus (wolf in Latin) has been used since the 12th century because physician Rogerius Salernitanus (1140-1195) thought that the shape and color of the skin lesions resembled the bite of a wolf.

3. Form adjectives from the following nouns! cauda

► _______________

febris

► _______________

occiput

► _______________

lumbus

► _______________

pulmo

► _______________

pectus

► _______________

labium

► _______________

pars

► _______________

caput

► _______________

epithēlium

► _______________

nāsus

► _______________

vertebra

► _______________

dorsum

► _______________

palma

► _______________

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The Latin term labium denotes three different body structures: ► lip

labium superius (ōris) = upper lip labium īnferius (ōris) = lower lip

► margin

labium internum = internal margin (of a bone) labium externum = external margin (of a bone)

► fold

labium majus pudendī = outer / big fold of vulva labium minus pudendī = inner / small fold of vulva

4. Form nouns from the following adjectives using different noun suffixes and translate them! e.g. acquīsītus, a, um ►

acquīsītiō, ōnis, f. (acquisition)

adipōsus, a, um

► _______________

laesus, a, um

► ______________

apertus, a, um

► _______________

frāctus, a, um

► ______________

gravidus, a, um

► _______________

cavus, a, um

► ______________

ruptus, a, um

► _______________

circumflexus, a, um ► ______________

fragilis, e

► _______________

complicātus, a, um

► ______________

contūsus, a, um

► _______________

extrēmus, a, um

► ______________

5. Form diminutives from the following nouns and translate them! e.g.

auris ► auricula, ae, f. (auricle)

caput

► _______________

vās

► _______________

canālis

► _______________

rādix

► _______________

nūcleus

► _______________

glomus

► _______________

testis

► _______________

lingua

► _______________

cutis

► ________________

os

► _______________

ductus

► ________________

corpus

► _______________

6. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

cartilāgō ālāris mājor

____________________

____________________

ostium ūrethrae externum

____________________

____________________

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mūsculus flexor digitōrum longus

____________________

____________________

ductulus aberrāns īnferior

____________________

____________________

rēticulum trabeculāre dextrum

____________________

____________________

sinus intercavernōsus posterior

____________________

____________________

mūsculus gemellus superior

____________________

____________________

7. Translate the following English terms into Latin! tooth sockets, coccygeal body, big adductor (muscle), tubal tonsil, fissure of vestibule, taeniae of colon, lateral proper fascicle, taste buds, uvula of urinary bladder, quadrate muscle of sole, death from choking, hypotonia of uterus, symptoms of inflammation of the face skin, glandular tumor of liver, nodose isthmic inflammation of salphinx, paralysis after spinal anaesthesia, ankylosis of tooth, juvenil dorsal kyphosis, necrosis of head of femur, apoplexy of right ovary

8. Match the pairs! a) tunica dartos

1) the folded and most anterior portion of the ciliary body of an eye

b) mūsculus sartōrius

2) a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in the epidermis named for its translucent appearance under a microscope

c) pars plicāta

3) the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body, over one millimeter in length

d) macula densa

4) a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing

e) lamina orbitālis61

5) a long, thin, superficial muscle that runs down the length of the thigh; the longest muscle in the human body

f) mūsculus stapēdius

6) a layer of connective tissue found in the penile shaft and scrotum

g) strātum lūcidum

7) is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object

h) asphyxia

8) a powerful muscle in the back part of the lower leg running from just below the knee to the heel

i) strabismus

9) a smooth, oblong bone plate which forms the lateral surface of the labyrinth of the ethmoid bone in the skull

61

In older textbooks called lamina papȳrācea.

174

j) mūsculus soleus

10) an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the cortical thick ascending limb

The name of sartorius muscle is derived from the Latin word sartor meaning tailor. The actions of this muscle position one into the traditional position of a tailor – thigh flexed, abducted and laterally rotated, leg flexed at the knee joint.

How to express position in MT – part 1: 1) General terms a) locus, ī, m. (place)

locō typicō (Abl.) = in the typical place eōdem locō (Abl.) = in the same place locō cicātricis = in the place of scar

b) situs, ūs, m. (site)

in sitū = on site; in its normal place; confined to the site of origin

c) locālis, e (local)

anaesthēsia locālis = local anesthesia

d) positiō, ōnis, f. (position) dextrōpositiō = reversal of an organ to the right sinistrōpositiō = reversal of an organ to the left e) topo-, -topia (place)

dystopia = malposition, bad place

2) Lateral position a) lateris dextrī (l. dx.)

= on the right side, the right one frāctūra scapulae l. dx. = fracture of the right scapula

b) lateris sinistrī (l. sin.)

= on the left side, the left one īnfarctus rēnis l. sin. = infarction of the left kidney

c) lateris utrīusque (l. utr.) = on both sides, both 175

hyperplasia corticis ōvāriī l. utr. = hyperplasia of cortex of both ovaries d) (bi)laterālis, e (lateral)

dēcubitus laterālis = lateral bedsore

e) marginālis, e (marginal) gingīvītis marginālis = marginal inflammation of the gums f) acrālis, e (acral)

cyanōsis acrālis = acral cyanosis

3) Internal position a) internus, a, um (internal)

auris interna = internal ear

b) intrā- (prefix)

haemorrhagia intrācrāniālis = intracranial haemorrhage

c) endo- (prefix)

endocardītis = inflammation of the endocardium

4) External position a) externus, a, um (external)

axis bulbī externus = external axis of the eyeball

b) extrā- (prefix)

graviditās extrāuterīna = extrauterine pregnancy

c) ecto- / exō- (prefix)

ectoderma = ectoderm, outer layer of the skin

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) caliculus

1) densa

b) fasciculus

2) vēsīculōsa

c) glandula

3) spīnōsum

d) interstitium

4) aberrāns

e) rēticulum

5) intrālobulāre

f) tonsillae

6) gustatōrius

g) strātum

7) dartos

h) ductulus

8) tūbāriae

i) tunica

9) cuneātus

j) macula

10) trabeculāre

2. Choose from the following words and complete the sentences! signum

diagnōsis

sequēla

176

prognōsis

symptōma

a) The medical term that refers to disorder or condition that results from a previous disease or injury is called _______________ . b) A _______________ is departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed subjectively by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease and cannot be measured directly. c) The process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs is called _______________ . It is abbreviated to Dx or Ds. d) The objective evidence of disease that can be seen or verified by others is called _______________ . e) The doctor's statement about predicting the outcome of disease is called ______________ .

VOCABULARY aberrāns, antis acquīsītiō, ōnis, f. acrālis, e adēnōmatōsis, is, f. adeps, adipis, m. adipōsitās, ātis, f. agōnia, ae, f. ālāris, e alcoholismus, ī, m. ankylōsis, is, f. apoptōsis, is, f. aqua, ae, f. aquārium, iī, n. artēriola, ae, f. asphyxia, ae, f. atelectasis, is, f. athērōma, atis, n. auricula, ae, f. bolus, ī, m. brevitās, ātis, f.

aberrant (wander from, stray, or deviate from) acquisition acral (pertaining to or affecting a limb or apex) adenomatosis (a condition characterized by multiple glandular overgrowths) fat, soft fat adiposity, obesity agony, suffering alar (pertaining to wing) alcoholism ankylosis (the union or consolidation of two or more bones or other hard tissues into one) apoptosis (death, a pattern of cell death affecting single cells, marked by shrinkage of the cell) water aquarium arteriole (small artery) asphyxia (a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing) atelectasis (a collapse of lung tissue affecting part or all of one lung) atheroma (an abnormal fatty deposit which develops within the walls of arteries) auricle (small ear) morsel, bit brevity (shortness) 177

caliculus, ī, m. canīnus, a, um canis, is, m. capitālis, e capitulum, ī, n. cardiālis, e cāritās, ātis, f. circulāris, e circulus, ī, m. circumflexiō, ōnis, f. circus, ī, m. complicātiō, ōnis, f. contūsiō, ōnis, f. corpusculum, ī, n. crūdēlitās, ātis, f. cuticula, ae, f. cyanōsis, is, f. ductulus, ī, m. dysmēnorrhoea, ae, f. efferens, ntis epithēliālis, e epithēlium, iī, n. equus, ī, m. erythēmatōsus, a, um exanthēma, atis, n. extrāuterīnus, a, um extrēmitās, ātis, f. febrīlis, e frāctus, a, um fragilis, e fragilitās, ātis, f. frēnum, ī, n. gemellus, a, um gingīvītis, idis, f. glomerulus, ī, m. gravidus, a, um gravitās, ātis, f. hypomania, ae, f. hypostasis, is, f. hypotonia, ae, f.

bud (small cup) canine (pertaining to a cuspid (canine) tooth) dog capital (pertaining to the head) capitulum (small head) cardial (pertaining to the esophageal opening of the stomach) charity circular small circle circumflexion circle complication contusion corpuscle (small body) cruelty cuticle (small skin) cyanosis (a blue discolouration of the skin due to the circulation of blood low in oxygen) ductule (small duct) dysmenorrhea (the occurrance of painful cramps during menstruation) efferent (conducting away) epithelial (pertaining to or composed of epithelium) epithelium horse reddish exanthema (a disease, such as measles or scarlet fever, accompanied by a skin eruption) extrauterine (located or occurring outside the uterus) extremity, limb febrile fractured, broken fragile fragility bridle, curb gemellus (twin, paired, double) gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) glomerulus (plexus of capillaries) pregnant, burdened gravity (weight) hypomania (less severe than full mania) hypostasis (poor or stagnant circulation, often with a deposit or sediment, in a dependent part of the body or an organ) hypotonia (a deficiency of muscle tone) 178

infans, ntis, m. infantīlis, e intercaverōsus, a, um interstitium, iī, n. intrālobulāris, e ischaemia, ae, f.

baby infantile intercavernous (between the cavernous sinuses, cavities) interstice (a space between) intralobular (inside lobes or lobules) ischemia (local anemia due to mechanical obstruction - mainly arterial narrowing - of the blood supply; often marked by pain and by organ dysfunction)

isthmīcus, a, um

isthmic (pertaining to isthmus - a narrow connection between two larger bodies or parts) juvenile young man kyphosis (an abnormally excessive convex kyphotic curvature of the spine) labial (pertainint to the lips or labia) laesion latitude small tongue lithiasis (formation of stones) lucid (containing light, bright, shining) lumbago (a painful condition of the lower back) lupus (wolf; a chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity) madness marginal medicament, remedy mortal mortality mouse necrosis (death of cells through injury or disease) nodose (having many nodes) little kernel nystagmus (a condition of involuntary eye movement) occiput (the back part of the head) ocular (of, pertaining to, or for the eyes) orbital (of or denoting an orbit) ossicle (small bone) palmar (of or relating to the palm of the hand) partial pectoral (of or relating to the chest, breast, or thorax) persistent sole folded position

juvenīlis, e juvenis, is, m. kyphōsis, is, f. labiālis, e laesiō, ōnis, f. lātitūdō, inis, f. lingula, ae, f. lithiāsis, is, f. lūcidus, a, um lumbāgo, inis, f. lupus, ī, m. mania, ae, f. marginālis, e medicāmentum, ī, n. mortālis, e mortālitās, ātis, f. mūs, mūris,m. necrōsis, is, f. nōdōsus, a, um nūcleuolus, ī, m. nystagmus, ī, m. occiput, itis, n. oculāris, e orbitālis, e ossiculum, ī, n. palmāris, e partiālis, e pectorālis, e persistēns, ntis planta, ae, f. plicātus, a, um positiō, ōnis, f.

179

pūbertās, ātis, f. puer, ī, m. rādīcula, ae, f. refugium, iī, n. rēticulum , i, n. rheumatismus, ī, m. rīsōrius, a, um rubor, ōris, m. ruptus, a, um salpingītis, idis, f. sānātōrium, iī, n. sānitās, ātis, f. sartōrius, a, um scalpellum, ī, n. scalprum, ī, n. senīlitās, ātis, f. servitūdō, inis, f. servus, ī, m. signum, ī, n. soleus, a, um squāma, ae, f. stapēdius, a, um tēlangīectasis, is, f. testiculus, ī, m. tonsilla, ae, f. tōtālis, e trabeculāris, e trichiniāsis, is, f. tūberōsus, a, um typhoīdēs, es typicus, a, um varietās, ātis, f. vāsculōsus, a, um vāsculum, ī, n. vertīgo, inis, f. vēsīculōsus, a, um,

puberty (virility) boy rootlet (small root) resort, refuge reticule (fine network or net-like structure) rheumatism (any of various rheumatic diseases and disorders) risorius (smiling, a facial muscle that draws the angle of the mouth outward and is used when smiling) redness (from ruber = red) ruptured salpingitis (inflammation of the salpinx - part of uterine tube) sanatorium sanity (soundness of mind, health) related to tailor, sewing scalpel (small knife) knife senility servitude, slavery slave sign soleus (broad and flat; pertaining to sole) scale pertaining to stapes, stirrup telangiectasis (dilation of the small blood vessels at the end) small testicle tonsil total trabecular (resembling a litle beam) trichiniasis (a disease caused by intestinal worms of Trichinella type) tuberous (of, relating to, or having warty protuberances or tubers) typhoid (resembling typhus) typical variety vascular, vasculose small vessel vertigo (the sensation of dizziness, a turning or whirling round) vesiculous, seminal

STEMS OF THE GREEK WORDS Stem cyan-o-

Meaning blue

Example cyanōsis

Explanation a blue discolouration of the skin 180

cyt-o-, -cytus

cell

endocytōsis

(-)emesis eryth(r)-oglōss-o-, glōttoglyc-o-

vomiting red tongue

hyperemesis erythēmatōsus hypoglōssus

sweet

lithos-, -lithiāsis (-)mania necr-o-ptōsis

stone

hyperglycaemia an abnormally large amount of sugar in the blood ūrolithiāsis formation of stones in urinary tract

-rhoē, -rhoea tēl-e, tel-o-tonia

madness death, dead dropping, falling flowing distance, end tension, pressure

hypomania necrōsis apoptōsis

the uptake by a cell of material from the environment by invagination of the plasma membrane extreme and unrelenting vomiting reddish below the tongue

less severe than full mania death of cells falling out of the sight, dying

dysmēnorrhoea bad menstruation tēlangīectasis dilation of the small blood vessels (at the end) hypotonia a deficiency of muscle tone

LATIN PROVERBS littera scrīpta manet

optimum medicāmentum quies est

sērō venientibus ossa

surge et ambulā

ubī pūs ēvacuā

ultima ratiō

ambulā (imperative mood of the verb ambulāre) - walk; ēvacuā (imperative mood of the verb evacuāre) - remove; littera, ae, f. - letter, record; manet (3rd person sg. of the verb manēre) - he, she, it remains; quies, ētis, f. - rest, quiet; sērō - late; surge (imperative mood of the verb surgere) - stand up; ubī where; venientibus (present participle of the verb venīre in Dative pl.) - to those who are coming, arriving

181

UNIT 12 Compound Words & Combining Vowels 1) COMPOUND WORD IN correct linguistic use, the term "compound" describes a word that consists of two or more words or word stems. As we already know prefixes and suffixes are morphemes that cannot stand alone as independent words62; in contrast, the elements of a compound have that capacity (free roots

bound roots). The Latin and Greek (and English too63) are strongly

predisposed to compounding which plays an important role in word formation within those languages. MOST compound words and their derivatives can be divided into two classes: In DESCRIPTIVE compounds, the first element (usually an adjective or numeral) describes the second (usually a noun). A good example is aequ-i-lībr-ium (= equilibrium), where the first stem is the adjective aequus, a, um (= even) and the second is the noun lībra, ae, f. (= balance). Another is mult-i-later-ālis (= multilateral, manysided), where the first stem is the adjective multus, a, um (= many) and the second is the noun latus, lateris, n. (= side). In DEPENDENT compounds, the first element (typically a noun or adjective) is dependent on the second (usually a verb). For example, carn-i-vor-a (= carnivora, carnivores) are "eaters of flesh" (caro, carnis, f. = meat, flesh; vorāre = swalow, eat), and a lact-i-fer (= lactifer) is a "bearer of milk" (lac, lactis, n. = milk; ferre = bring, carry). FROM a syntactic point of view, the compounds can be classified as: a) noun-noun compound: blephar-o-spasmus (spasm of eyelid) b) noun-verb compound:

lact-i-fer (carrying milk)

c) numeral-noun compound:

62

63

bi-ceps (biceps = with two heads)

In traditional Latin grammar, forms like convocāre (to call together, assemble), intermittere (= omit, neglect), and circumvenīre (to be around, to encircle, encompass, surround) have been described for centuries as COMPOUND VERBS. Though one may argue that most Latin verb prefixes can stand alone as prepositions, modern linguists would not necessarily identify these words as compounds. Though not nearly so flexible, English is rich in compounds, most of them two elements in length: firebreak, goalkeeper, folktale, dogcatcher, flashlight, brainwash, handmade, homesick etc. Modern German, in particular, can boast many words that stretch across half a line of print.

182

d) adjective-noun compound:

brady-pnoē (bradypnea = slow breathing)

e) adjective-verb compound:

vīv-i-sectiō (vivisection = cutting of living)

IN practical terms, it is more important to observe how Latin compounds are formed: the two stems are linked by a COMBINING VOWEL64 which serves to make a term easier to pronounce. The vowel used most of the time is -O, but other vowels such as -I and -A are also used. Combining vowels are often used between roots and suffixes or roots and other roots, but they are not used between prefixes and roots. No such vowel is needed if there is already a vowel at the juncture of the two stems: e.g.

cephal-algia (headache) poly-neur-ītis (inflammation of many nervs)

SOME of the elements of compound words can occur only at the beginning of the word, others as second, or the last, some can occur in both positions. 2) MOST COMMON ROOTS ROOTS can be grouped in many categories: roots denoting state, process, disease or branch roots denoting surgical or diagnostic procedure roots denoting parts of human body roots denoting body fluids, secretions, substances roots denoting state, quality, quantity and color Following list of roots is ordered alphabetically:

Word Meaning component acr-oextremity, tip, end actīn-oadēn-o-aemia

64

Example acrocyanōsis

ray, beam actīnotherapia gland adēnītis presence of anaemia something in the blood

Definition decrease in the amount of oxygen delivered to extremities sunlight or ultraviolet light therapy inflammation of a gland a condition in which there is reduced delivery of oxygen to the tissues

It is sometimes called linking or connecting vowel.

183

aēr-o-

air, gas; aerial, gassy -aesthēsia ability to feel -algia, algo- pain andr-oman

aērophagia

ingested abnormally and forcefully by swallowing, windsucking

anaesthēsia

loss of sensation

myalgia andrologia

angī-o-

vessel

angīopathia

muscular pain the branch of medicine concerned with diseases in men, esp. of the reproductive organs any of several diseases of the blood or lymph vessels

arthr-oaut-o-

joint self

arthrītis autointoxicātiō

inflammation of joints poisoning by a toxin formed within the body itself

bi/ntwo bio-, -biōsis life

(m.) biventer biopsia

(muscle) with two bellies the removal and examination of a sample of tissue from a living body for diagnostic purposes

blephar-obrachybradycarcin-ocardi-o-, -cardia

eyelid short slow cancer 1. heart; 2. entrance to stomach

blepharītis brachycephalia bradycardia carcinogenēs cardiovāsculāris cardiospasmus

inflammation of eyelid having a relatively broad, short skull an abnormally slow heart rate carcinogenous relating to the heart and vessels spasm of cardiac sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach

-centēsis

puncture amniocentēsis and aspiration

cephal-o-, -cephalia

head

cephalicus, a, um of or relating to the head, located on, in, or near the head

cheil-o-

lip

cheiloschisis

a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip

cheir-o-, chīr-ochlōr-o-

hand

chīragra

a form of gout that occurs in the hands

green

chlōrōsis

an iron-deficiency anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenishyellow discoloration of the skin

chol(ē)chondr-o-cīsiō cleid-ocoeli-o-

bile cartilage cutting clavicle abdomen

cholēcystis chondromalacia incīsiō cleidocostālis, e coeliacus, a, um

gall bladder softening of the cartilage incision, cut, notch pertaining to the clavicle and the rib of or relating to the abdomen or abdominal cavity

a procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted in the abdomen

184

colp-o-

vagina

colposcopia

examination of the vagina and the cervix through a colposcope

cyan-o-

blue

cyanōsis

a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes resulting from inadequate oxygenation of the blood

-cystis cyst-o-

cyst bladder

hydrocystis cystoscopia

cyst containing water procedure in which a tube with a camera and light is inserted through the urethra into the bladder

cyt-o-, -cytus

cell

erythrocytus

one of the formed elements in the peripheral blood, red blood cell

dacry-o-

tear

dacryocystītis

an inflammation of the tear sac (lacrimal sac) at the inner corner of the eye

dactylomegalia dermatōsis

abnormally large fingers or toes any non-inflammatory disorder of the skin

dactyl-ofinger derm(at)-o-, skin - dermia desm-o-

halter, syndesmōsis band, bond

a joint in which the bones are united by fibrous connective tissue forming an interosseous membrane or ligament

dididym-o-

two testicle

diplēgia epididymis

paralysis of both sides an elongated, cordlike structure along the posterior border of the testis, whose coiled duct provides for the storage, transport, and maturation of spermatozoa

long double expansion, dilatation, or distention -ectomia surgical removal -emesis vomiting encephal-o- brain enter-o-, intestine -enteria

dolichocōlon dūplicitās bronchiectasis

abnormally long colon duplicity permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung

appendectomia

surgical removal of the appendix

haematemesis encephalītis dysenteria

vomiting of blood inflammation of the brain type of gastroenteritis that results in diarrhea with blood

erythr-o-fer, a, um -ficātiō -formis, e

erythrocytus lactifer calcificātiō cuneiformis, e

red blood cell milk bringing, producing milk calcification, accumulation of calcium of, relating to, or being a wedge-shaped bone or cartilage

dolich-odūplic-ectasia, -ectasis

red conveying production denoting shape

185

galact-o-

milk

galactorrhoea

excessive flow of milk from the breasts during lactation or spontaneous milk flow not associated with childbirth or the nursing of an infant

-genēs, es

relating to

glycogēnes

relating to the formation of sugar in the liver

-genesis

development, origin chin, jaws

osteogenesis

development of bones

progenīa

abnormal protrusion of one or both jaws

ger(ont)-o- old age gigant-ogiant glauc-ogreen

gerontologia gigantismus glaucōma

glōss-o-, glōtt-o-

tongue

glōssodynia

geriatrics, gerontology giantism (excessive growth) group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss sometimes referred to as 'burning mouth syndrome

glyc-o-

sugar, sweet

hypoglycaemia

an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the circulating blood

-gnath-ogon(y)-o-, gonat-o-

jaw knee

prognathia gonarthrōsis

abnormal protrusion of one or both jaws arthrosis of the knee

-gramma

written record

audīogramma

graphic redord audiometry

act, method of recording gyn(aec)-o- woman

dysantigraphia

inability to copy writing or printed letters

gynaecologia

gynecology, the branch of medicine that is particularly concerned with the health of the female organs of reproduction

haem(at)-o- blood

haematōma

swelling of clotted blood within the tissues

hēmiheter-o-

half different, various sweat tissue same

hēmisphērium heterochrōmia

hemisphere difference in coloration

hidrōsis histologia homeostasis

excessive sweating study of the organic tissues a tendency to equilibrium or stability in the normal physiological states of the organism

hydr-o-

water

hydrocephalus

condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain

hyster-o-

uterus, womb

hystereopathia

any disease of the uterus

genī-o-, -genia

-graphia

hidr-ohist-ohom-o-, home-o-

186

of

the

findings

by

iātr-o-, -iātria

doctor, cure

kerat-o kinēsi-o-

cornea keratītis movement, kinēsialgia motion

inflammation of the cornea pain caused by muscular movement

lal-olapar-olept-o-

talk abdomen thin, slender white

lalopathia laparotomia leptodactylia

any disorder of speech surgical incision into the abdominal cavity slender fingers

leucopenia

reduction in the number of white cells in the blood

lip-ofat lithos-, stone -lithiāsis -logia, log- science of o-

lipōma cholēlithiāsis

fatty tumour presence of stones in the gall bladder

venerologia

the branch of medicine concerned with venereal diseases

lymph(at)o-

lymph

lymphōma

any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue

lysis macr-omal-

dissolution haemolysis large macrōtia bad malformātiō

rupture or destruction of red blood cells excessive enlargement of the auricle distortion of any part or of the body in general

-malacia -mania mast-o-, -mastia mega(l)-o-, -megalia

softening madness breast

osteomalacia hypomania mastalgia

softening of the bones less severe than full mania breast pain

large

megalocardia

abnormally large heart

melan-omes-o-metria

black middle measuring

melanōma mesencephalon biometria

tumor comprised of darkly pigmented cells middle brain statistical analysis of biological observations and phenomena

mētr-o-, -mētra mīcr-omon-omy-, myo-, mysmyel-o-, -myelia

uterus, womb small/ little one muscle

mētrodynia

pain in the uterus

mīcrocephalia monoplēgia myosītis

disproportionately small head paralysis of a single part inflammation of a muscle

medulla, marrow

myelītis

inflammation of the white matter or gray matter of the spinal cord

narc-o-

drug, chemical substance

narcōsis

condition of deep stupor or unconsciousness produced by a drug or other chemical substance

leuc-o-

paediātria

pediatrics, field of medicine that is concerned with the health of infants, children, and adolescents

187

necr-one-o-

death, dead new, strange nephr-okidney neur-onerve noct-, nyct- night odont-otooth -odynia, pain, ache odyn-oolig-osmall, scanty onych-onail ophtalm-o- eye ost(e)-obone ōt-oear pān(t)-oall -para birth giving woman -pathia, non pathospecific disease -penia deficiency, lack of

necroticus, a, um dead when referring to tissue neonātus, a, um newborn

-pēxis, -pēxia

fixation

nephropathia neurītis nyctūria odontalgia ōtodynia

any disease of the kidneys inflammation of a nerve excessive urination at night pain in a tooth pain in the ear, earache

oligūria

scant urine production

onychōma ophtalmia osteoporōsis ōticus, a, um pānōtītis prīmipara

tumor arising from the nail bed inflammation of the eye porous bones pertaining to the ear inflammation of all structures of the ear woman giving birth to her first child

myopathia

any affection of the muscles or muscular system

leucopenia

abnormally low number of leukocytes in the circulating blood

cōlopēxis

surgical fixation or suspension of the colon

pharmac-o- drug, medicament

pharmacopaedia information concerning drugs and their preparation

phleb-o-phobia

vein abnormal fear mind

panphlebītis arachnophobia

inflammation of all veins irrational fear of spiders

schizophrēnia

psychotic disorder, split mind

growth, development paralysis

displasia

abnormal development of the tissues

hemiplēgia

paralysis affecting only one side of the body

lungs

pneumonia

inflammation of the lungs

breathing several false

eupnoē polyneurītis pseudoicterus

normal relaxed breathing inflammatory lesions of several nerves yellowish discoloration of the skin not due to bile pigments

phrēnia, phrēn-o-plasia -plēgia pneum(on)o-pnoē polypseud-o-

188

psych-o-

soul

psychogenēsis

origin and development of the psychic processes including mental, behavioral, emotional, personality, and related psychological processes

-ptōsis

dropping, falling down renal pelvis

carpoptōsis

paralysis of the extensor muscles of the hand and fingers, wristdrop

pyelocystītis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and the bladder

py-opyr(et)-o-

pus fire, fever

copious discharge of pus medicaments against the fever

quadrirach-

four spine, backbone

pyorrhoea remedia antipyretica quadriplēgia rachītis

-rhoē, -rhoea -rrhagia

flow, discharge bleeding, excessive flow surgical suture split, cleft

logorrhoea

schizophrēnia

psychotic disorder, split mind

sclēr-o-scopia

hard visual examination

sclērōsis cōlonoscopia

abnormal hardening of body tissues medical procedure where a long instrument is used to view the entire inner lining of the colon and the rectum

-sectiō sēmisōmat-o-, -sōmia

cutting half body

vīvisectiō sēmicanālis mīcrosōmia

any cutting operation on a living animal semichannel abnormally small size of the body

spasm-o-, -spasmus

spasm, spasmolysis contraction

arrest, relaxation of a spasm or convulsion

splēn-o-

spleen

rarely used term for a painful condition of the spleen

spondyl-o-stasis sten-o-

vertebra spondylītis stagnation haemostatis contracted, stenōsis narrow

inflammation of the vertebrae interruption of blood flow to a part narrowing of a passage or opening

stomat-o-stomia

mouth mouth, artificial opening

any disease of the oral cavity surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body

pyel-o-

-rrhaphia schiz-o-, -schisis

stomatorrhagia

paralysis of all four limbs rickets, a disease mainly of children, characterized by softening of developing bone, and hence bow legs, deficiency of vitamin D abnormal talkativeness bleeding from the gums or other part of the oral cavity

blepharorrhaphia suture of eyelid

splēnalgia

stomatopathia cōlostomia

189

tachyfast tēl-e, tel-o- end

tachycardia tēlangīectasis

very fast heart rate dilation of the small blood vessels at the end

thanat-o-, -thanasia

death

euthanasia

the deliberate ending of life of a person suffering from an incurable disease

-therapia

therapy, treatment section, incision tension, presure

psychotherapia

therapeutic use of physical agents

thōrācotomia

surgical incision of the chest wall

hypertonia

extreme tension of the muscles or arteries

tonsil position, place poison

tōnsillītis dystopia

inflammation of the tonsils malposition

toxicomania

strong physiological and psychological dependence on a drug or other agent

triplex lithotrīpsia lipotrophia

threefold, triple the use of ultrasound, often generated by a lithotripter, to pulverize kidney stones and gallstones in situ increase of bodily fat

ūnilaterālis, e ūrētērītis dysūria xanthōma xenophobia xērōsis

occurring on, or involving one side only inflammation of ureter difficult urination yellow nodule in the skin abnormal fear of strangers abnormal dryness

-tomia -tonia tōnsill-o-topia, topotox(ic)-otri-trīpsia, trīpsis

three rubbing, pounding, crushing nutrition, -trophia, troph-ogrowth ūnione ūrētēr-o ureter ūr-o-, -ūria urine xanth-oyellow xen-ostranger xēr-odry

N.B! The same root may have different meanings in different fields of study. The root myel- means marrow and may apply to either bone marrow or -the spinal cord. The root sclēr- means hard but may also apply to the white of the eye (sclēra). Cyst- means a filled sac or pouch (cystis) but also refers specifically to the urinary bladder (cyst-o-). You will sometimes have to consider the context of a word before assigning its meaning.

190

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following medical phrases using the words from chart below!

hyperglycemia65

hypercalcemia hypernatremia

hypercapnia

hyperkalemia

hypercholēsterolemia

a) The presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood is called _______________ . b) An abnormally high concentration of potassium ions in the blood is called _____________ . c) A heightened level of calcium in the blood is called _______________ . d) An abnormally high plasma concentration of sodium ions is called _______________ . e) An abnormally large amount of sugar in the blood is called _______________ . f) An abnormally high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood, usually caused by acute respiratory failure from conditions such as asthma and obstructive pulmonary disease is called _______________ .

2. Translate the following Latin terms into English! mūsculus multifidus cervīcis, mesocōlon ascendēns, cavitās abdominopelvica, artēria thōrācoacrōmiālis, arcus superciliāris, mūsculus abductor pollicis brevis, sulcī paracōlicī, vēnae subcutāneae abdominis, ligāmentum acrōmioclaviculāre, plicae sēmilūnārēs cōlī, zōnula ciliāris, regiō sternocleidomastoīdea, mūsculus brachioradiālis, articulātiōnēs sternocostālēs, membrāna atlantooccipitālis anterior, rāmus nōdī sinuaatriālis, portiō supravāgīnālis cervīcis, corpus ānococcygeum, organum vestibulocochleāre, ligāmentum hēpatocōlicum, tūberculum intercondylāre mediāle, tendō mūsculī pūbococcygeī, fibrodysplasia ossificāns prōgressīva (FOP), erythroblastōsis fētālis, mēralgia paraesthētica, paralysis agitāns (Parkinson's disease), kernicterus neonātōrum, status post laparoscopiam, vēnostasis organōrum omnium, osteochondrōsis dissecāns (OCD), cholēcystectomia propter cholēlithiāsim, trachēostomia acūta, ūrētērītis cystica, gastroduodenostomia, keratoderma palmoplantāre

65

Another example of reducing AE to E.

191

3. Identify the word parts of following medical terms and give their definition! e.g.

tachycardia



tachy – card – ia (R1 + R2 + S) fast – heart – pathological state

pyogenēsis

► __________________________ __________________________

adēnītis

► __________________________ __________________________

angīomegalia

► __________________________ __________________________

carcinophobia

► __________________________ __________________________

quadriplēgia

► __________________________ __________________________

chondrocrānium

► __________________________ __________________________

pyelonephrītis

► __________________________ __________________________

thrombocytopenia

► __________________________ __________________________

ōtosclērōsis

► __________________________ __________________________

psychotherapia

► __________________________ __________________________

osteomalacia

► __________________________ __________________________

thōrācotomia

► __________________________ __________________________

panphlebītis

► __________________________ __________________________

stomatopathia

► __________________________ __________________________

xanthōma

► __________________________ __________________________

4. Translate the following English terms into Latin! anococcygeal body, superciliary arch, paracolic nodes, sinu-atrial nodal branch (= branch of sinu-atrial node), cardiovascular system, sternocleiodomastoid region, iliococcygeal muscle, hypoglossal nerv, common interosseus artery, nasofrontal vein, red blood cell, inflammation of 192

the vertebrae, copious discharge of pus, narrowing of the vein, earache, development of the bones, vomiting of the blood, paralysis of one side, abnormal smallness of head, pain of breast, fatty tumour, inflammation of the cornea, surgical removal of the gall bladder, excessive sweating, stagnation of the blood, abnormally long colon, wristdrop, medicament against fever

5. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

nervī ciliārēs longī

____________________

____________________

m. dēpressor labiī īnferiōris

____________________

____________________

canālis semicirculāris anterior

____________________

____________________

artēria circumflexa īlium profunda ____________________

____________________

pars īnfrāclaviculāris

____________________

____________________

circulus artēriōsus īridis minor

____________________

____________________

macrosōmia

____________________

____________________

tachypnoē

____________________

____________________

hyperplasia

____________________

____________________

phlebostenōsis

____________________

____________________

6. From the following nouns and adjectives form compound names for muscles! e.g.

mūsculus

mūsculus

+

īlia + costa

+

vēsīca + prostata

► _________________________

+

pūbes + rēctum

► _________________________

+

bulbus + spongiōsus, a, um ► _________________________

+

īlia + psoa

► _________________________

+

vēsīca + vāgīna

► _________________________

+

occiput + frons

► _________________________

+

palātum + pharynx

► _________________________

+

pūbes + vēsīca

► _________________________

► mūsculus īliocostālis

193

How to express position in MT – part 2: 1) Medial position a) medius, a, um (middle)

auris media = middle ear

b) mediānus, a, um (median)

līnea mediāna = median line

c) mediālis, e (medial)

caput mediāle = medial head

d) intermedius, a, um (intermediate, located between two things) nōdus intermedius = intermediate node e) mes-o- (prefix)

mesencephalon = midbrain

f) centrālis, e (central)

os centrāle = central bone

2) Anterior position a) anterior, ius (anterior)

rādīx anterior = anterior root

b) anter-o (prefix)

faciēs anterolaterālis = anterolateral surface

c) ante- (prefix)

antepositiō uterī = anteposition of uterus

d) prae- (prefix)

transfūsiō praeoperātīva = transfusion before operation

e) pro- (prefix)

prognathia = abnormal forward projection of one or of both jaws

f) ventrālis, e (ventral)

pars ventrālis = ventral part

3) Posterior position a) posterior, ius (posterior)

margō posterior ulnae = posterior border of ulna

b) poster-o (prefix)

sulcus posterolaterālis = posterolateral groove

c) post- (prefix)

gȳrus postcentrālis = postcentral gyrus

d) rētr-ō (prefix)

vēna rētrōmandibulāris = vein behind the mandible

e) meta- (prefix)

ligāmentum metacarpāle = metacarpal ligament

f) dorsālis, e (dorsal)

artēria dorsālis penis = dorsal artery of penis

4) Superior position a) superior, ius (superior)

mūsculus sphinctēr superior = superior sphincter (muscle)

b) supero- (prefix)

nōdī superolaterālēs = superlateral nodes

c) suprā- / super- (prefix)

pars superficiālis = superficial part

d) epi- (prefix)

recessus epitympanicus = epitympanic recess 194

e) hyper- (prefix)

hypernephrītis = inflammation of adrenal glands

f) crāniālis, e (cranial)

pars crāniālis = cranial part

5) Inferior position a) īnferior, ius (inferior)

palpebra īnferior = lower eyelid

b) īnfero- (prefix)

flexūra īnferodextra laterālis = lateral inferodextral flexure

c) īnfrā- (prefix)

nervus īnfrāorbitālis = infraorbital nerv

d) sub- (prefix)

bursa subcutānea = subcutaneous bursa

e) hypo- (prefix)

nervus hypogastricus = hypogastric nerv

f) caudālis, e (caudal)

retināculum caudāle = caudal retinaculum

Directional Terms IN describing the location or direction of a given point in the body, it is always assumed that the subject is in the anatomical position, that is, upright, with face front, arms at the sides with palms forward, and feet parallel. Planes of section are directions in which the body can be cut. A frontal plane, also called a coronal plane, is made at right angles to the midline and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts. A sagittal plane passes from front to back and divides the body into right and left portions. If the plane passes through the midline, it is a midsagittal or medial plane. A transverse plane passes horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. 195

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 1. Match the pairs! a) trachēostomia

1) a woman giving birth to her first child

b) syndesmōsis

2) an iron-deficiency anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenish-yellow discoloration of the skin

c) prīmipara

3) excessive urination in the night

d) chondromalacia

4) creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck

e) hypertonia

5) softening of the cartilage

f) chlōrōsis

6) jaundice associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin, or in small premature infants with more modest degrees of bilirubinemia

g) kernicterus

7) pain in the thigh

h) laparoscopia

8) a joint in which the bones are united by fibrous connective tissue forming an interosseous membrane or ligament

i) mēralgia

9) extreme tension of the muscles or arteries

j) nyctūria

10) visual examination of abdominal cavity

2. Select the best answer and write the letter of your choice to the left of each number! _____ a) Which of the following is a compound word? a. ūrinārius, a, um b. secundārius, a, um c. gastrointestīnālis, e d. corōnārius, a, um e. artēriālis, e _____ b) Dē- in dēmentia is a: a. root b. suffix c. combining form d. prefix e. derivation _____ c) The adjective for thōrāx is: a. thōrāxicus, a, um 196

b. thōrācicus, a, um c. thōrālis, e d. thōriālis, e e. thōrāxiālis, e _____ d) The adjective form of the noun anaemia is __________, and the field of health science devoted to the study of blood is called __________. a. anemicus; haematologia b. haematōsis; haematismus c. dēhemia; hematomegalia d. anemicus; parasitologia e. microhaematicus; haemacologia

VOCABULARY abdominopelvicus, a, um abdominopelvic (pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis) acrocyanosis (a decrease in the amount of oxygen delivered to the acrocyanōsis, is, f. extremities) acrōmioclaviculāris, e acromioclavicular (pertaining to the acromion and clavicle) actīnotherapia, ae, f. actinotherapy (sunlight or ultraviolet light therapy) adenitis (inflammation of the gland) adēnītis, idis, f. aequilībrium, iī, n. equilibrium (balance) aequus, a, um even aērophagia, ae, f. aerophagia (the swallowing of excess air) agitāns, antis shaking amniocentēsis, is, f. amniocentesis (a procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle) anaemia, ae, f. anemia andrologia, ae, f. andrology (the branch of medicine concerned with diseases in men, esp. of the reproductive organs) anemicus, a, um anemic (pertaining to anemia) angīopathia, ae, f. angiopathy (any of several diseases of the blood or lymph vessel) ānococcygeus, a, um anococcygeal (pertaining to the anus and coccyx) anterolaterālis, e anterolateral (situated in front and to one side) antipyreticus, a, um antipyretic (against fever) appendectomia, ae, f. appendectomy (surgical removal of any appendage, esp. the vermiform appendix ) arachnophobia, ae, f. arachnophobia (irrational fear of spiders) arthritis (inflammation of the joint) arthrītis, idis, f. 197

atlantooccipitālis, e audīogramma, ae, f. autointoxicātiō, ōnis, f. biometria, ae, f. biopsia, ae, f. biventer, tris, tre blepharītis, idis, f. blepharorrhaphia, ae, f. brachioradiālis, e brachycephalia, ae, f. bronchiectasis, is, f. bulbospongiōsus, a, um calcificātiō, ōnis, f. cardiovāsculāris, e carnivorus, a, um caro, carnis, f. carpoptōsis, is, f. cephalalgia, ae, f. cephalicus, a, um cheiloschisis, is, f. chīragra, ae, f. chlōrōsis, is, f. cholēcystectomia, ae, f. cholēcystis, is, f. cholēlithiāsis, is, f. chondromalacia, ae, f. cleidocostālis, e cōlonoscopia, ae, f. cōlopēxis, is, f. cōlostomia, ae, f. colposcopia, ae, f. commūnis, e cuneiformis, e cystoscopia, ae, f.

atlanto-occipital (pertaining to the atlas and occiput) audiogram (a graphic record of the findings by audiometry) autointoxication (self-poisoning caused by endogenous microorganisms, metabolic wastes, or other toxins produced within the body) biometry (the statistical analysis of biological observations and phenomena) biopsy (the removal and examination of a sample of tissue from a living body for diagnostic purposes) biventer (with two bellies) blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid) blepharorraphia (suture of the eyelid) brachioradial (pertaining to brachium and radius) brachycephalia (short skull) bronchiectasis (a condition in which an area of the bronchial tubes is permanently and abnormally widened) bulbospongy calcification cardiovascular (pertaining to the heart and blood vessels) carnivorous, feeding on flesh meat wristdrop headache cephalic (of or relating to the head) cheiloschisis (a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip) chiragra (a form of gout that occurs in the hands) chlorosis (an iron-deficiency anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenish-yellow discoloration of the skin) cholecystectomy (the surgical removal of the gallbladder) gall bladder gallstone chondromalacia (softening of the cartilage) cleidocostal (pertaining to the clavicle and the ribs) colonoscopy (visial examination of colon) colopexy (surgical fixation or suspension of the colon) colostomy (surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body) colposcopy (examination of the vagina and the cervix through a colposcope) common cuneiform (of, relating to, or being a wedge-shaped bone or cartilage) cystoscopy (procedure in which a tube with a camera and light is inserted through urethra into the bladder) 198

dacryocystītis, idis, f.

dacryocystitis (an inflammation of the tear sac (lacrimal sac) at the inner corner of the eye) dactylomegalia, ae, f. dactylomegaly (abnormally large fingers or toes) dermatōsis, is, f. dermatosis (any non-inflammatory disorder of the skin) diplēgia, ae, f. diplegia (paralysis of both sides) dissecāns, antis dissecting, cut in pieces dolichocōlon, ī, n. dolichocolon (abnormally long colon) duplicity dūplicitās, ātis, f. dysantigraphia, ae, f. dysantigraphia (inability to copy writing or printed letters) dysenteria, ae, f. dysenteria (type of gastroenteritis that results in diarrhea with blood) epitympanicus, a, um epitympanic (pertaining to the epitympanum) erythroblastōsis, is, f. erythroblastosis (two potentially disabling or fatal blood disorders in infants: Rh incompatibility disease and ABO (haemolitic) incompatibility disease) erythrocytus, ī, m. erythrocyte (red blood cell) eupnoē, ēs, f. eupnea (normal respiration) euthanasia, ae, f. euthanasia (the deliberate ending of life of a person suffering from an incurable disease) fētālis, e fetal (pertaining to fetus) fibrodysplasia, ae, f. fibrodysplasia (abnormality in development of fibrous connective tissue) galactorrhoea, ae, f. galactorrhea (1. excessive flow of milk from the breasts during lactation; 2. spontaneous milk flow not associated with childbirth or the nursing of an infant) gastroduodenostomia, ae, gastroduodenostomy (a surgical operation in which the f. duodenum is joined to a new opening in the stomach, esp. to bypass an obstruction) gerontologia, ae, f. gerontology, geriatrics glōssodynia, ae, f. glossodynia (pain in the tongue) glycogenēs, es glycogenous (relating to the formation of sugar in the liver) gonarthrōsis, is, f. gonarthrosis (arthrosis of the knee) haematemesis, is, f. hematemesis (vomiting of the blood) haematologia, ae, f. hematology haematōma, atis, n. haematoma (an accumulation of free blood anywhere in the body, that has partially clotted to form a semi-solid mass) haemolysis, is, f. hemolysis (rupture or destruction of red blood cells) haemostasis, is, f. hemostasis (stagnation of the blood) hēmisphērium, iī, n. hemisphere hēpatocōlicus, a, um hepatocolic (relating to the liver and colon) heterochrōmia, ae, f. heterochromia (diversity of color in a part normally of one color) hidrōsis, is, f. hidrosis (excessive sweating) histologia, ae, f. histology (study of the organic tissues) homeostasis, is, f. homeostasis (a tendency to equilibrium or stability in the normal physiological states of the organism) 199

hydrocephalus, ī, m.

hydrocephalus (condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain) hydrocystis, is, f. hydrocyst (a cyst with watery contents) hypercalcaemia, ae, f. hypercalcemia (a heightened level of calcium in the blood) hypercapnia, ae, f. hypercapnia (an abnormally high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood) hyperglycaemia, ae, f. hyperglycemia (an abnormally large amount of sugar in the blood) hypercholēsterolemia, ae, hypercholesterolemia (the presence of an abnormal amount of f. cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood) hyperkalemia, ae, f. hyperkalemia (an abnormally high concentration of potassium ions in the blood) hypernatremia, ae, f. hypernatremia (an abnormally high plasma concentration of sodium ions) hyperplasia, ae, f. hyperplasia (abnormal increase in volume of a tissue or organ caused by the formation and growth of new normal cells) hypertonia, ae, f. hypertonia (extreme tension of the muscles or arteries) hypogastricus, a, um hypogastric (pertaining to the hypogastrium) hypoplasia, ae, f. hypoplasia (incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue) hysteropathia, ae, f. hysteropathy (any disease of uterus) icterus, ī, m. jaundice (a condition in which a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased level of bile pigments in the blood resulting from liver disease) īliococcygeus, a, um iliococcygeal (relating to the ilium and the coccyx) īliocostālis, e iliocostal (pertaining to the ilium and ribs) īliopsoās (Gen.) iliopsoas (one of the pair of muscle complexes that flex, adduct, and laterally rotate the thigh and the lumbar vertebral column, consisting of the psoas major and the iliacus) īnferodexter, tra, trum inferodextral (inferior and to the right side) īnfrāclaviculāris, e infraclavicular (below the clavicle) intercondylāris, e intercondylar (between two condyles) keratītis, idis, f. keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) keratoderma, atis, n. keratoderma (hypertrophy of the horny layer of the skin) kernicterus, ī, m. kernicterus (jaundice associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin, or in small premature infants with more modest degrees of bilirubinemia) kinēsialgia, ae, f. lac, lactis, n. lalopathia, ae, f. laparoscopia, ae, f. laparotomia, ae, f. leptodactylia, ae, f. leucopenia, ae, f. lībra, ae, f.

kinesialgia (pain caused by muscular movement) milk lalopathy (any disorder of the speech) laparoscopy (visual examination of abdominal cavity) laparotomy (surgical incision into abdominal cavity) leptodactylia (having slender fingers) leucopenia (reduction in the number of white cells in the blood) balance 200

lipōma, atis, n. lipotrophia, ae, f. lithotrīpsia, ae, f. logorrhoea, ae, f. lymphōma, atis, n. macrosōmia, ae, f. macrōtia, ae, f. malformātiō, ōnis, f. mastalgia, ae, f. megalocardia, ae, f. melanōma, atis, n. mēralgia, ae, f. mesocōlon, ī, n. mētrodynia, ae, f. mīcrocephalia, ae, f. mīcrosōmia, ae, f. monoplēgia, ae, f. multifidus, a, um multilaterālis, e multus, a, um myelītis, idis, f. myopathia, ae, f. nāsofrontālis, e neonātus, a, um nephropathia, ae, f. neurītis, idis, f. nyctūria, ae, f. occipitofrontālis, e odontalgia, ae, f. omnis, e osteogenesis, is, f. osteochondrōsis, is, f. osteomalacia, ae, f. osteoporōsis, is, f. ōtodynia, ae, f. ōtosclērōsis, is, f. paediātria, ae, f. palātopharyngeus, a, um

lipoma (fatty tumour) lipotrophy (increase of bodily fat) lithotripsy (the use of ultrasound, often generated by a lithotripter, to pulverize kidney stones and gallstones in situ) logorrhea (abnormal talkativeness) lymphoma (any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue) macrosomia (abnormally large body) macrotia (excessive enlargement of the auricle) malformation (distortion of any part or of the body in general) mastalgia (pain of breast) megalocardia (abnormally large heart) melanoma (tumor comprised of darkly pigmented cells) meralgia (pain in the thigh) mesocolon (the peritoneal process attaching the colon to the posterior abdominal wall) metrodynia (pain in the uterus) microcephaly (abnormal smallnes of head) microsomia (abnormally small body) monoplegia (paralysis of one part, side) multifid (with many clefts or segments) multilateral many myelitis (inflammation of the white matter or gray matter of the spinal cord) myopathy (any affection of the muscles or muscular system) nasofrontal (pertaining to the nose and forehead or to the nasal and frontal bones) newborn nephropathy (any disease of the kidneys) neuritis (inflammation of the nerves) nycturia (excessive urination at night) occipitofrontal (pertaining to the occiput and the forehead) odontalgia (pain in the tooth) all osteogenesis (development of the bones) osteochondrosis (orthopedic diseases of the joint that occur in children and adolescents and in rapidly growing animals) osteomalacia (softening of the bones) osteoporosis (porous bones) earache otosclerosis (an excessive growth in the bones of the middle ear which interferes with the transmission of sound) pediatrics (field of medicine that is concerned with the health of infants, children, and adolescents) palatopharyngeal (pertaining to the palate and pharynx) 201

palmoplantāris, e pānōtītis, idis, f. panphlebītis, idis, f. paracōlicus, a, um paraesthēticus, a, um paralysis, is, f. pharmacopaedia, ae, f. phlebectasia, ae, f. phlebostenōsis, is, f. polyneurītis, idis, f. portiō, ōnis, f. postcentrālis, e prīmipara, ae, f. progenīa, ae, f. prognathia, ae, f. prōgressīvus, a, um psychogenēsis, is, f.

psychotherapia, ae, f. pūborēctālis, e pūbovēsīcālis, e pyelocystītis, idis, f. pyelonephrītis, idis, f. pyorrhoea, ae, f. quadriplēgia, ae, f. rētrōmandibulāris, e schizophrēnia, ae, f. sinuatriālis, e spasmolysis, is, f. splēnalgia, ae, f. spondylītis, idis, f. sternocleidomastoīdeus, a, um sternocostālis, e stomatopathia, ae, f. subcutāneus, a, um superciliāris, e superolaterālis, e supravāgīnālis, e

palmoplantar (pertaining to palms and soles) panotitis (inflammation of all structures of the ear) panphlebitis (inflammation of all veins) paracolic (near the colon) paresthetic (denoting numbness and tingling) paralysis (complete loss of strength in an affected limb or muscle group) pharmacopedia (information concerning drugs and their preparation) phelebectasia (dilation of vein) phlebostenosis (narrowing of the vein) polyneuritis (inflammation of many nervs) part postcentral primipara (a woman giving birth to her first child) progenia (abnormal protrusion of one or both jaws) prognathism (abnormal forward projection of one or of both jaws) progressive psychogenesis (origin and development of the psychic processes including mental, behavioral, emotional, personality, and related psychological processes) psychotherapy puborectal (concerning the pubis and rectum) pubovesical (pertaining to the pubis and bladder) pyelocystitis (inflammation of the renal pelvis and the bladder) pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis) pyorrhea (copious discharge of pus) quadriplegia (paralysis of all four limbs) retromandibular (behind the mandible) schizophrenia (split mind) sinu-atrial, sinoatrial (relating to the sinus venosus and the right atrium of the heart) spasmolysis (arrest, relaxation or relief of the spasm) splenalgia (pain of the spleen) spondylitis (inflammation of the vertebrae) sternocleidomastoid (pertaining to the sternum, clavicle, and mastoid process) sternocostal (pertaining to the sternum and ribs) stomatopathy (any disease of the oral cavity) subcutaneous (beneath the layers of the skin) superciliary (pertaining to the eyebrow; situated above the eyelashes) superolateral (above and to the side) supravaginal (above the vagina) 202

syndesmōsis, is, f. tachycardia, ae, f. thōrācoacrōmiālis, e thōrācotomia, ae, f. thrombocytopenia, ae, f. toxicomania, ae, f. trachēostomia, ae, f. ūnilaterālis, e ūrētērītis, idis, f. venerologia, ae, f. ventrālis, e vēsīcoprostaticus, a, um vēsīcovāgīnālis, e vīvisectiō, ōnis, f. xanthōma, atis, n. xenophobia, ae, f. xērōsis, is, f. zōnula, ae, f.

syndesmosis (a joint in which the bones are united by fibrous connective tissue forming an interosseous membrane or ligament) tachycardia (very fast heart rate) thoraco-acromial (pertaining to the chest and acromion) thoracotomy (surgical incision of the chest wall) thrombocytopenia (an abnormally low level of platelets in the circulating blood) toxicomania (strong physiological and psychological dependence on a drug or other agent) tracheostomy (creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck) unilateral (on the one side) ureteritis (inflammation of ureter) venerology (the branch of medicine concerned with venereal diseases) ventral (directed toward or situated on the belly surface; opposite of dorsal) vesicoprostatic (pertaining to the bladder and prostate) vesicovaginal (pertaining to the bladder and vagina) vivisection xanthoma (yellow nodule in the skin) xenophobia (fear of strange things) xerosis (abnormal dryness) zonule (small zone)

LATIN PROVERBS multa nocent

ignōrantia factī nōn excusat

nōmen (est) ōmen

senectūs ipsa est morbus

nosce tē ipsum

ūsus magister est optimus

verba movent, exempla trahunt

excūsat (3rd person sg. of the verb excūsāre) - he, she, it excuses; exemplum, ī, n. - example; ignōrantia, ae, f. - ignorance; magister, trī, m. - teacher; movent (3rd person pl. of the verb movēre) - they move; nocent (3rd person pl. of the verb nocēre) - harm; nōmen, inis, n. - name; nosce (imperative mood of the verb noscere) - know, understand; ōmen, inis, n. - sign; senectūs, ūtis, f. - old age; trahunt (3rd person pl. of the verb trahere) - they attract; verbum, ī, n. - word

203

UNIT 13 Repetition of Units 1-12 Example of the Final test

EXERCISES

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! sēptum nāsī osseum, mūsculī interosseī dorsālēs, apertūra mediāna ventriculī quartī, mūsculus quādrātus lumbōrum, incīsūra tentōriī cerebellī, crista collī costae, structūrae oculī accessōriae, nōdī lymphoīdeī popliteī profundī, nūcleus raphēs magnus, caput obliquum mūsculī adductōris hallūcis, vulnus sclopetārium, angina pectoris, pēs plānus, commōtio cerebrī, mons pūbis, cavitās ōris propria, mūsculus splēnius capitis, vāsa vāsōrum, febris ē causā ignōta, tūberculōsis ossium, faciēs glūtea, cornū coccygeum, arcus cartilāginis cricoīdeae, partus praemātūrus, faciēs Hippocratica, arcus costālis, plexus pharyngeālis, ligāmentum laterāle, skeleton membrī inferiōris, pollex (digitus prīmus), index (digitus secundus), digitus medius (tertius), digitus ānulāris (quartus), digitus minimus (quintus), tēla submūcōsa oesophagī, zōna glandulārum periūrethrālium prostatae, vēna anterior sēptī pellūcidī, glandula parathyroīdea superior, infundibulum tubae uterīnae, substantia alba hypothalamī, mūsculus vastus intermedius

2. Give the term with opposite meaning and translate! opposite

translation

pelvis mājor

____________________

____________________

āla nāsī sinistra

____________________

____________________

mūsculus obtūrātōrius externus

____________________

____________________

lobus medius pulmōnis dextrī

____________________

____________________

vitium cordis congenitum

____________________

____________________

mūsculus abductor pollicis

____________________

____________________

frāctūra radiī lateris sinistrī

____________________

____________________

genū valgum

____________________

____________________

ganglion superius

____________________

____________________

204

vēna labiālis īnferior

____________________

____________________

Latin and Greek component elements of drug names MANY pharmaceutical terms include in their names Greek and Latin component elements of frequent occurrence similar to the clinical terminology. Drugs, in the majority of circumstances, have 3 types of names: chemical names, generic or nonproprietary names, and trade names (brand names). The chemical names are the scientific names, based on the molecular structure of the drug and are typically very long and too complex to be commonly used in referring to a drug. The generic names usually indicate via their stems what drug class the drug belongs to. The trade name is the name given to the drug by the pharmaceutical company. With a knowledge of elements / stems you will be able to write complicated drug names with a correct spelling and to understand their meaning. Greek and Latin elements carry information about pharmaceutical characteristics of a drug. List of some stems is in the Appendix 7. e.g.

-aestes-

= local anestetic

Anaesthesin

-cardi-/-cor-

= cardiovascular drugs

Cardiovalen

-pan-

= Greek everything

Panadol

-alg-/-dol-

= analgetic

Nalgesin

3. Read drug names, find component elements carrying information about pharmaceutical characteristics, give their meaning (check the Appendix 7)! Geroprostan, Afloderm, Cardalis, Euthyrox, Alprostan, Ocuvite, Adenuric, Femoston, Aknemycin, Eryfluid, Hypnogen, Bisocard, Milurit, Nephrostat, Bicillinum, Apressin, Coronal, Vectavir, Hydrolysin, Curatoderm, Vidisic, Myfungar, Acilpyrin, Glucophage, Betoptic, Mycoseptin, Gynazol, Aerius, No-Spa, Biseptol, Cardilopin, Deoxymykoin, Femara, Urinal, Cardilan, Flixonase, Framykoin, Gerodorm, L-Thyroxin, Movalis, Renovite

Unfortunatelly, not all names of drugs are indicating the main characteristic of drug. Warfarin, for example, is an acronym for Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation + ar (no meaning) + chemical suffix -in. Aspirin is an abbreviation of acetylated spiraeic acid + in, Amphetamine is an abbreviation of alphamethylphenethylamine and Ibuprofen of isobutylphenylpropionic acid with euphonic reversal of the syllabes phen (=fen) and pro.

205

4. Match the pairs! a) -lithos

1) hand

b) -ptōsis

2) tumour

c) cheir-o-

3) paralysis

d) -ōma

4) downward displacement

e) -odynia

5) cutting out

f) -pathia

6) cramp

g) -plēgia

7) surgical suture

h) -ectomia

8) stone

i) -rrhaphia

9) disease

j) -spasmus

10) pain

5. Translate the following English terms into Latin! superior lip, isthmus of uterus, accessory kernels of oculomotor nerve, fracture of acromion, left ala of nose, joint of head of rib, orbital fat body (= fat body of orbit), transverse pontine fibres (= transverse fibres of pons), small tubercle, anterior leg, mucous membrane of auditory tube, glomerulous zone of suprarenal gland, dorsal metatarsal ligaments, sanguineous vessels of internal ear, calcaneal spur (= heel spur), chronic cough, complicated fracture of calf bone, sense organs (= organs of senses), digits of foot, external acustic meatus, knee joint (= joint of knee), gluteal surface, deep facial vein (= deep vein of face), abscess of nasal septum (abscess of septum of nose), tooth decay (= decay of tooth), fibrous capsule of thyroid gland, aperture of frontal sinus, pulmonary surface, palatine process, vertebral ganglion, costal arch, small tympanic spine, lower articular process, superior hypogastric network, anterior longitudinal ligament, small horn, anterior arch, superior angle

6. Choose the correct answer! 1) __________flexiō = bend before a) anti-

b) re-

c) dē-

d) ante-

e) rētrō-

2) __________cardia = displacement of the heart outside a) exō-

b) para-

d) peri-

d) endo-

e) apo-

3) __________phylaxis = a measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease a) post-

b) anti-

c) prō-

d) dē-

4) __________arthrītis = inflammation of several joints 206

e) cata-

a) multi-

b) poly-

c) dolicho-

d) ana-

e) pan-

5) __________ductor = muscle that causes movement away from the median plane of body a) ad-

b) epi-

c) dia-

d) ab-

e) endo-

6) __________vāsculāris, e = around a blood vessel a) hypo-

b) in-

c) para-

d) super-

e) peri-

d) quadro-

e) mono-

d) an-

e) dys-

7) __________plēgia = half paralysis a) hēmi-

b) sub-

c) ultrā

8) __________ūria = absence of urine formation a) nyct-

b) poly-

c) oligo-

9) __________logia = the branch of medicine concerned with diseases in men a) gynaec-

b) psycho-

c) andro-

d) histo-

e) venero-

10) __________phobia = fear of stranger, strange things a) xeno-

b) xēro-

c) arachno-

d) cancero-

e) thanato-

7. Match the pairs! a) thōrācocentēsis

1) reduction of the number of leukocytes in the blood below about 5000 per mm3

b) leucopenia

2) lack or loss of appetite

c) myōpia

3) impairment or loss of motor or sensory function in areas of the body served by the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral neurological segments owing to damage of neural elements in those parts of the spinal column

d) glomerulonephrītis

4) dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon

e) paraplēgia

5) an inheritable disease, usually affecting only males, characterized by loss or impairment of the normal clotting ability of blood so that a minor wound may result in fatal bleeding

f) spīnocerebellum

6) an inflammation of the glomeruli, bundles of tiny vessels inside the kidneys

g) megacōlon

7) surgical puncture and drainage of the thoracic cavity

h) anorexia

8) the neural portion or posterior lobe of the hypophysis

i) haemophilia

9) nearsightedness

207

j) neurohypophysis

10) the portion of the cerebellum including most of the vermis and the adjacent zones of the cerebellar hemispheres rostral to the primary fissure

EXAMPLE OF THE FINAL TEST Final test N. X Name and date: ………………………………………

1. Translate the following Latin terms into English! (60) rāmī ad medullam oblongātam (4) speciēs arōmaticae (2) regiōnēs corporis et capitis (4) diameter trānsversus pelvis (3) dentēs dēciduī (2) status post partum praemātūrum (4) vēna trānsversa faciēī (3) cavitās ōris (2) corpus adipōsum orbitae (3) mūsculus flexor digitī minimī brevis (5) operātiō rēnis duplicis (3) curvātūra gastrica minor (3) ganglia sacrālia (2) syndromata arcūs aortae (3) vās auris internae (3) basis ossis sacrī (3) plicae tunicae mūcōsae (3) eczema unguium (2) lobus medius pulmōnis sinistrī (4) geniculum nervī (2)

208

2. Give the term with opposite meaning! (10) articulātiō composita (1) dēns dēciduus (1) dosis maxima (1) ganglion superius (1) nervus fībulāris superficiālis (1) os longum (1) phalanx proximālis (1) prognōsis pessima (1) cornū mājus (1) dextrōpositiō (1)

3. Match the pairs! (10) A

B

1. pain

a/ sēmi

(1)

2. dilation

b/ brachy-

(1)

3. blood

c/ prīm-i-

(1)

4. short

d/ xēr-o-

(1)

5. half

e/ phag-o-

(1)

6. many

f/ -aemia

(1)

7. first

g/ hydr-o-

(1)

8. eat

h/ -odynia

(1)

9. water

i/ -ectasia

(1)

10. dry

j/ mult-i-

(1)

4. Identify word parts (P-prefix, R-root, S-suffix, CV-combining vowel) and translate! (10) encephalomalacia (2) hyperthyreōsis (2) pseudotuberculōsis (2) neuromyelītis (2)

209

adenectomia (2)

5. Translate the following English terms into Latin! (20) enlargement of the kidneys (2) paralysis of the both sides of the body (2) degenerative disease of the vertebrae (2) relating to the liver and the kidneys (2) visual examination of the bronchi (2) tongue pain (2) contraction of a muscle (2) below the clavicle (2) malposition (2) uncapable of being operated (2)

A = 150 - 139 B = 138 - 127 C = 126 - 114 D = 113 - 102 E = 101 – 90 FX = 89 – 0

VOCABULARY anorexia, ae, f. ānulāris, e exōcardia, ae, f. glomerulonephrītis, idis, f.

anorexia (lack or loss of appetite) anular, ring-shaped exocardia (displacement of the heart outside) glomerulonephritis (an inflammation of the glomeruli, bundles of tiny vessels inside the kidneys) 210

haemophilia, ae, f.

hemophilia (an inheritable disease, usually affecting only males but transmitted by women to their male children, characterized by loss or impairment of the normal clotting ability of blood so that a minor wound may result in fatal bleeding)

hēmiplēgia, ae, f. megacōlon, ī, n. myōpia, ae, f. neurohypophysis, is, f. polyarthrītis, idis, f. prōphylaxis, is, f.

hemiplegia (half paralysis, of one side of the body) megacolon (dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon) myopia (nearsightedness) (the neural portion or posterior lobe of the hypophysis) polyarthritis (inflammation of several joints) prophylaxis (measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease) skelet spasm, cramp spinocerebellum (the portion of the cerebellum including most of the vermis and the adjacent zones of the cerebellar hemispheres rostral to the primary fissure)

skeleton, ī, n. spasmus, ī, m. spīnocerebellum, ī, n.

thōrācocentēsis, is, f.

thoracocentesis (surgical puncture and drainage of the thoracic cavity)

LATIN PROVERBS Last aphorism of Hippocrates

Quae medicāmenta nōn sānant,

What medicaments will not cure,

ferrum sānat,

iron will cure,

quae ferrum nōn sānat,

what iron will not cure,

ignis sānat,

fire will cure,

quae vērō ignis nōn sānat,

what fire will not cure,

īnsānābilia putārī oportet.

must be considered utterly uncurable.

ferrum, ī, n. - iron, medical instruments; ignis, is, m. - fire; īnsānābilis, e - incurable; oportet (present infinitive oportēre) - it must be; putārī (passive infinitive of the verb putāre) - to be considered; quae those (diseases) which; sānant (3rd person pl. of the verb sānāre) - they treat, cure, heal; vērō - however

211

PART 3

„The learning of medicine can be compared to the growth of plants in the earth. Our inherent ability is the soil. The precepts of our teachers are the seeds. The place of learning is like the nourishment that arises from the surrounding air to the seeds that are planted. Love of work is the labor. Time strengthens all of these things so that their nurture is completed.“ (Hippocrates, Laws 3)

212

APPENDICES Appendix 1 - Answer Key to Additional Exercises

PART 1 Syllables 1. ac-ces-sō-ri-us, ac-qui-sī-tus, ā-ër, a-neu-rys-ma, a-or-ta, a-pex, au-ris, au-to-no-mi-cus, biop-si-a, bra-chi-um, ca-ry-on, ce-re-brum, coc-cyx, del-to-ī-de-us, di-ar-rho-ē, en-ce-pha-lon, e-ry-thē-ma, eu-tro-phi-a, ex-ter-nus, fe-bris, fel-le-us, fos-sa, func-ti-ō, gan-grae-na, gas-trecto-mi-a, hy-dro-thō-rāx, ī-li-a-cus, in-farc-tus, īn-suf-fi-ci-en-ti-a, is-chae-mi-a, ma-cros-to-mia, mā-ius (mājus), ma-nū-bri-um, me-a-tus, mē-tror-rha-gi-a, ne-o-plas-ma, oe-dē-ma, oe-sopha-gus, oph-thal-mi-a, os-te-o-chon-dro-pa-thi-a, pal-pe-bra, pneu-mo-ni-a, pro-gnō-sis, pseudo-ic-te-rus, qua-dro-plē-gi-a, re-sis-ten-ti-a, san-guis, sa-phē-nus, schi-zo-phrē-ni-a, spas-mus, thy-re-o-ī-de-us, trāns-ver-sus, ū-re-thra 2. cerebrum, eutrophia, gangraena, gastrectomia, hydrothōrāx, macrostomia, manūbrium, mētrorrhagia, neoplasma, palpebra, quadroplēgia

PART 2 Unit 1 1. a4, b9, c7, d1, e10, f2, g3, h6, i5, j8 2. in artēriam nūtrīciam tībiae; in vāgīnam carōticam; in ūrethram fēminīnam; in glandulam endocrinam; in vēnam orbitae Unit 2 1. a7, b4, c10, d1, e9, f2, g5, h6, i3, j8 2. sub atriō dextrō; sub costīs spuriīs (pl.); sub labiō externō; sub ligāmentō tarsī; sub cōlō trānsversō Unit 3 1. a8, b6, c1, d5, e10, f9, g3, h7, i2, j4 2. adductōrum – Gen. pl., m., 3rd decl.; mūsculum – Acc. sg., m., 2nd decl.; dorsum – Nom. & Acc. sg., n., 2nd decl.; capita – Nom. & Acc. pl., n., 3rd decl.; digitīs – Abl. pl., m. 2nd decl.; lateris – Gen. sg., n., 3rd decl.; marginēs – Nom. & Acc. pl., m., 3rd decl.; diabētēs – Nom. sg., m., 1st decl.; graviditās – Nom. sg., f., 3rd decl.; artēriās – Acc. pl., f., 1st decl. Unit 4 Example of the 1st test:

213

1) nōdī lymphoīdeī popliteī profundī – deep popliteal lymphood nodes; 2) fovea oblonga sinistra – left oblong fovea (small pit); 3) mūsculus rēctus abdominis – straight muscle of abdomen; 4) palātum dūrum – hard palate; 5) ligāmenta flāva – yellow ligaments; 6) tussis sicca – dry cough; 7) artēriae pontis – arteries of pons (bridge); 8) tunica serōsa – serous membrane Unit 5 1. a10, b7, c2, d9, e4, f8, g1, h3, i6, j5 2. acum – Acc. sg., f., 4th decl.; laryngum – Gen. pl., m., 3rd decl.; mēcōnium – Nom. & Acc. sg., n., 2nd decl.; manuum – Gen. pl., f., 4th decl.; mēniscum – Acc. sg., m., 2nd decl.; partium – Gen. pl., f., 3rd decl.; corpōribus – Abl. pl., n., 3rd decl.; genua – Nom. & Acc. pl., n., 4th decl.; palmae – Gen. sg. & Nom. pl., f., 1st decl.; osteon – Nom. sg. & Acc. sg., n., 2nd decl. Unit 6 1. a2, b5, c8, d10, e7, f9, g3, h1, i4, j6 2. a) one lens; b) two equal parts; c) four feet; d) toward the right; e) three things; f) one cell; g) two atoms; h) seven parts; i) 5 members Unit 7 1. a4, b1, c9, d8, e6, f2, g10, h3, i7, j5 2. a) alveolī dentālēs – dental alveoli (small cavities); b) artēriae alveolārēs – alveolar arteries; c) rāmī sēptālēs – septal branches; d) cartilāginēs et articulātiōnēs pharyngis – pharyngeal cartliges and joints; e) dentēs permanentēs – permanent teeth Unit 8 1. a10, b1, c7, d8, e2, f5, g9, h4, i3, j6 2. a) one ancestral cell; b) many sites; c) one; d) half moon; e) four regions Unit 9 Example of the 2nd test: 1) plexus choroīdeus ventriculī quartī – choroid plexus of fourth ventricle; 2) basis ossis sacrī – base of sacral bone; 3) sinus vēnārum cavārum – sinus of hollow veins; 4) siphōn carōticus – carotid siphon; 5) adēnōma prostatae – glandular tumor of prostate; 6) prōcessus mastoīdeus – mastoid process; 7) regiō indicis – region of index (finger); 8) rīma ōris – oral fissure / fissure of mouth Unit 10 1. a6, b2, c7, d10, e4, f8, g5, h1, i3, j9 2. a) dis-; absence, removal, separation; b) re-; again, back; c) a-; not, without; d) an-; not, without; e) bi-; two, twice 214

Unit 11 1. a6, b9, c2, d5, e10, f8, g3, h4, i7, j1 2. a) sequēla; b) symptōma; c) diagnōsis; d) signum; e) prognōsis Unit 12 1. a4, b8, c1, d5, e9, f2, g6, h10, i7, j3 2. a) c; b) d; c) b; d) a

215

p l u r a l

s i n g u l a r

II.

III.

ē

ae

ae

am

ā

Gen.

Acc.

Abl.

Nom. ae

216

1 decl. F

st

Adj. of

īs

Abl.

īs

īs

ās

ās

Acc.

ās

ārum

ae

ē/ā

ēn / am

ae

ēs

Gen. ārum ārum

ēn

ēs

a

ē

nd

Adj. of 2 decl. M

īs

ōs

ōrum

ī

ō

um

ī

us

nd

Adj. of 2 decl. N

īs

a

ōrum

a

ō

um

ī

um

īs

ōs

ōrum

ī

ō

on

ī

os

īs

a

ōrum

a

ō

on

ī

on

ibus

a

um

a

e

Nom.

is

...

ibus

ēs

ium

ēs

e

em

is

...

ibus

ia

ium

ia

ī

Nom.

is

e/al/ar

Compara- Compara- Adj. of Adj. of tive forms tive forms 3rd decl. 3rd decl. M+F N M+F N

ibus

ēs

um

ēs

e

em

is

...

vēna raphē diabētēs mūsculus ligāmentum nephros ganglion cartilāgō corpus auris rēte f. f. m. m. n. m. n. m. + f. n. m. + f. n.

I.

Nom.

Pattern Gender

Declens. V.

ibus

ēs

ium

ēs

ī

im

is

is

ibus

ūs

uum

ūs

ū

um

ūs

us

ibus

ua

uum

ua

ū

ū

ūs

ū

ibus

ēs

ērum

ēs

ē

em

ēī

ēs

febris plexus cornū faciēs f. m. n. f.

IV.

Appendix 2 - Grammatical charts (Latin & Greek)

Appendix 3 – Latin Numerals

CARDINALS

ORDINALS

DISTRIBUTIVES

ADVERBS

1

ūnus, ūna, ūnum

prīmus, a, um first

singulī, ae, a one by one

semel, once

2

duo, duae, duo

secundus, a, um second

bīnī, ae, a two by two

bis

3

trēs, tria

tertius, a, um third

ternī (trīnī) etc.

ter

4

quattuor

quārtus, a, um fourth

quaternī

quater

5

quīnque

quīntus, a , um fifth

quīnī

quīnquiēs

6

sex

sextus, a, um

sēnī

sexiēs

7

septem

septimus, a, um

septēnī

septiēs

8

octō

ctāvus, a, um

octōnī

octiēs

9

novem

nōnus, a, um

novēnī

noviēs

10

decem

decimus, a, um

dēnī

deciēs

11

ūndecim

ūndecimus, a, um

ūndēnī

ūndeciēs

12

duodecim

duodecimus, a, um

duodēnī

duodeciēs

13

tredecim

tertius decimus

ternī denī

terdeciēs

14

quattuordecim

quārtus decimus

quaternī denī

quaterdeciēs

15

quīndecim

quīntus decimus

quīnī dēnī

quīnquiēs deciēs

16

sēdecim, sexdecim

sextus decimus

sēnī dēnī

sexiēs deciēs

17

septendecim

septimus decimus

septēnī dēnī

septiēs deciēs

18

duodēvīgintī

duodēvīcēsimus

duodēvīcēnī

octiēs deciēs

19

ūndēvīgintī

ūndēvīcēsimus

ūndēvīcēnī

noviēs deciēs

20

vīgintī

vīcēsimus

vīcēnī

vīciēs

21

vīgintī ūnus, ūnus et vīgintī

vīcēsimus prīmus, ūnus et vīcēsimus

vīcēnī singulī, singulī et vīcēni

vīciēs semel

217

22

vīgintī duo, duo et vīgintī

vīcēsimus secundus, alter et vīcēsimus

vīcēnī bīnī, bīnī et vīcēnī

vīciēs bis

30

trīgintā

trīcēsimus

trīcēnī

triciēs

40

quadrāgintā

quadrāgēsimus

quadrāgēnī

quadrāgiēs

50

quīnquāgintā

quīnquāgēsimus

quinquāgēnī

quīnquāgiēs

60

sexāgintā

sexāgēsimus

sexāgēnī

sexāgiēs

70

septuāgintā

septuāgēsimus

septuāgēnī

septuāgiēs

80

octōgintā

octōgēsimus

octōgēnī

octōgiēs

90

nōnāgintā

nōnāgēsimus

nōnāgēnī

nōnāgiēs

100

centum

centēsimus

centēnī

centiēs

101

centum ūnus, centum et ūnus

centēsimus prīmus, centēsimus et prīmus

centēnī singulī, centēnī et singulī

centiēs semel

200

ducentī, -ae, a

ducentēsimus

ducēnī

ducentiēs

300

trecentī, -ae, a

trecentēsimus

trecēnī

trecentiēs

400

quadringentī, -ae, -a

quadringentēsimus

quadringēnī

quadringentiēs

500

quīngentī, -ae, -a

quīngentēsimus

quīngēnī

quīngentiēs

600

sescentī, -ae, -a

sescentēsimus

sescēnī

sescentiēs

700

septingentī, -ae, -a

septingentēsimus

septingēnī

septingentiēs

800

octingentī, -ae, -a

octingentēsimus

octingēnī

octingentiēs

900

nōngentī, -ae, -a

nōngentēsimus

nōngēnī

nōngentiēs

1,000

mīlle

mīllēsimus

singula mīlia

mīliēs

2,000

duo mīlia

bis mīllēsimus

bīna mīlia

bis mīliēs

centum mīlia

centiēs mīllēsimus

centēna mīlia

centiēs mīliēs

100,000

218

1,000,000

deciēs centēna mīlia

deciēs centiēs mīllēsimus

219

deciēs centēna mīlia

deciēs centiēs mīliēs

Appendix 4 – Pharmaceutical Terminology and Standard Prescription Phrases INTRODUCTION THE pharmaceutical terminology is the terminology used in Pharmacology, which is the study of medicinal substances called pharmaceuticals. The International Drug Nomenclature amounts at the present time to 400,000 drugs. Pharmaceutical form (drug form) is a form of the drug suitable for a definite method of administration. These forms are divided into: liquids (solutions, infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, mucilages, emulsions, suspensions, mixtures and liniments); semisolids (ointments, pastes, suppositories, plasters); solids (tablets, dragee, powders). A pharmaceutical drug, also called medication or medicine, is any material or substance, whether natural or synthetic, that can be used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. The names of drugs can be officinal or magistral: officinal drugs (from Latin officīna – drugstore) are drugs which are manufactured by the pharmaceutical industry and preparations of such drugs are made in accordance with the prescriptions authorized by a pharmacopoeia; such drugs can have: International nonpatent names given by the WHO. These are mostly the chemical names of drugs. Under these names the drugs can be used in any country. Trade name (proprietary or brand name) is the copyrighted name assigned by the drug company making the drug and is followed by the symbol ®. magistral drugs (from Latin magister – teacher) are called the drugs that the pharmacist must prepare in pharmacy; the pharmacist, along with his/her team of technicians, combines, according to precise instructions, the necessary ingredients to obtain the medication; this may consist of creams, ointments, liquids, capsules, etc.; the magistral preparation of products is a practical way for your doctor to personalize your treatment according to your needs; it also makes medications available in formulations that do not exist commercially. Who can issue prescriptions is governed by local legislation in every country. In most countries physicians, veterinarians, dentists, and pediatrists have full prescription power. Many countries 220

allow mid-level practitioners different prescription privileges. Nurse practitioners, physician assistants, optometrists, homeopathic physicians, registered pharmacists, naturopathic physicians, and doctors of oriental medicine currently represent the spectrum of mid-level practitioners. Each country regulates what (if any) prescription powers members of the above group are allowed. Prescriptions are typically written on preprinted prescription forms that are assembled into pads. Preprinted on the form is text that identifies the document as a prescription, the name and address of the hospital or the prescribing doctor. The prescription traditionally consist of six parts:

Inscriptiō (Doctor's Identification Number, Number of prescription) Persōnālia Aegrōtī (Personal data of patient)

Invocātiō (Rp./ Rx. = Recipe – Take!) Ordinātiō

- Praescriptiō (Ingredients and quantities) - Subscriptiō (tells the pharmacist how to compound the medicine) - Signatūra (Dā = Give!; Signā = Write on a label!)

Datum (Date) Sigillum et nōmen medicī (Stamp & Signature)

The only part of a prescription where Latin appears today in some English-speaking countries, however, is in the directions for taking the drug. This use has become a kind of medical shorthand. Some of these abbreviated terms have the potential to cause medication errors because they look so similar in handwriting, so their use is on the decline. e.g.

ante cibum

a.c.

before meal

post cibum

p.c.

after meal

prō diē

p. diē

per day

per ōs

p.o.

through the mouth

prō rē nāta

p.r.n.

as needed 221

quāquē 3 hōra

q.3.h.

every 3 hours

ter in diē

t.i.d

3 times a day

MAIN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMS

a) liquids

1. solūtiō, ōnis, f. (solution) 2. mūcilāgo, inis, f. (mucilage = an aqueous solution of a gummy substance, used as a vehicle or soothing agent) 3. ēmulsum, ī, n. (emulsion) 4. suspensiō, ōnis, f. (suspension) 5. infūsum, ī, n. (infusion) 6. dēcoctum, ī, n. (decoction) 7. tinctūra, ae, f. (tincture) 8. extractum, ī, n. (fluidum) (extract) 9. mixtūra, ae, f. (mixture) 10. linīmentum, ī, n. (liniment = a medicinal fluid rubbed into the skin to soothe pain or relieve stiffness) 11. gutta, ae, f. (drop) 12. syrupus, ī, m. (syrup) 13. oleum, ī, n. (oil)

b) semisolids 1. unguentum, ī, n. (ointment) 2. pasta, ae, f. (paste) 3. suppositōrium, ī, n. (suppository) 4. emplastrum, ī, n. (plaster)

c) solids

1. tabuletta, ae, f. (tablet) 2. dragée (dragée = a sugar-coated pill or capsule) 3. pulvis, eris, m. (powder) 4. grānulum, ī, n. (granule) 5. pilula, ae, f. (pill) 6. speciēs, ērum (pl.), f. (species = tea blend)

222

d) other drug forms 1. capsula, ae, f. (capsule = a drug in powdered or pellet form that has been enclosed in a soluble gelatin-like capsule) 2. aёrosōlum, ī, n. (aerosol = a colloid system in which solid or liquid particles are suspended in a gas, especially a suspension of a drug or other substance to be dispensed in a cloud or mist) 3. membrānula, ae, f. ophthalmica (ophthalmic film = absorbable gelatin films containing drug substance)

GRAMMAR STRUCTURE OF PHARMACEUTICAL TERMS THE drug names can be prescribed by international nonpatent names and trade names. International nonpatent names - in prescriptions after Recipe are in Genitive singular without inverted commas e.g.

Tetracyclīni Vaselīni

Trade drug - are prescribed as follows: the drug name is placed after the pharmaceutical form in Nominative and is in inverted commas e.g.

Suppositoria «Anaesthesōlum» - suppositories of anaesthesol

One-word terms 1. All Latin drug names are neuter nouns of the 2nd declension ending by -um. They are written with the first capital letter as the names of chemical elements, medicinal plants: Tetracyclīnum, ī, n. 2. A few exceptions to this rule are drug names by -a: No-spa, Do-pa (1st declension). Multiword terms 1. If the drug preparation name includes a pharmaceutical form it is on the first place: solūtiō, unguentum, tinctūra etc. 2. The drug name is placed after the pharmaceutical form and begins with the capital letter: e.g.

solūtiō Streptocīdī - solution of streptocid unguentum Tetracyclīnī - ointment of tetracycline tinctūra Menthae - tincture of mint 223

3. Adjectives are written at the end of the prescription line or are placed after a noun: e.g.

solūtiō Synoestrōlī oleōsa - oil solution of synoestrol tinctūra Menthae piperītae - tincture of peppermint tabulettae Acidī glutaminicī obductae - coated glutaminic acid tablets

STANDARD PRESCRIPTION PHRASES INDICATING ORDERS AND INSTRUCTIONS IN the Latin part of a prescription some verb forms are used which indicate orders and instructions. They are required in order to give to a pharmacist instructions how to make up and dispense drugs. You should learn these verb forms as standard prescription phrases. The meaning “order, instruction, direction” is expressed in the Latin part of a prescription by imperative mood and conjunctive mood of a Latin verb. Prescription phrases in imperative and conjunctive modes have the same meaning, therefore they are completely equal and interchangeable. You may use each of them. Imperative mood From all imperative mood forms only the 2nd person singular form is used in prescriptions. You will have to memorize standard prescription phrases in the imperative mode: • dā (give)

• recipe (take, receive)

• signā (write on a label)

• miscē (mix)

• sterilisā! (sterilize!)

• adde (add)

• dā tālēs dosēs (give of such doses)

• dīvide (divide)

• filtrā (filter)

• solve (dissolve)

Conjunctive mode The Latin conjunctive mode has many meanings. Only one meaning "order, instruction, direction" is used in prescriptions. These forms are translated from Latin into English with the word-combination "let it be". You will have to memorize standard prescription phrases in the conjunctive mode as follows: • dētur (let it be given)

• signētur (let it be labeled)

• misceātur (let it be mixed)

• sterilisētur! (let it be sterilized!)

• dentur tālēs dosēs (let it be given of such doses) • repetātur (let it be repeated) 224

IN the prescriptions, the verb fierī (to do, to make, to create) is often used, with conjunction ut (usually omitted). e.g.

miscē, (ut) fīat (mix to make) + pharmaceutical form in the Nominative miscē, fīat pulvis (mix to make a powder) miscē, fīat unguentum (mix to make an ointment) miscē, fīat linīmentum (mix to make a liniment) miscē, fīant speciēs (pl.) (mix to make tea blend)

REQUIREMENTS TO THE LATIN PART OF A PRESCRIPTION 1) The Latin part of a prescription begins with shortening for Recipe (take) = Rp., this is a form of address of a physician to a pharmacist. 2) Every prescription line, as well as all drug names begin with the capital letter. 3) Every drug name is written in a separate prescription line. In doing so a blank space is left after Recipe. If there is not enough space for a drug name in one line it is carried over to the next line with the left indent: Rp. Phenyliī salicylātis 2,0 Spiritus aethylicī quantum satis ad solutiōnem Vaselīnī ad 20,0 Miscē, fīat unguentum Dā. Signā: Apply to the skin of the face 4) The drug names after Recipe are in the Genitive. 5) After the drug name its quantity (in the Accusative) is indicated. The doses of drugs are indicated in the decimal numeration system: • Gram amounts - the abbreviation «gr» is not indicated, the quantity is indicated with decimal points - 20.0 (20 gr.); 0.55 (0,55 gr.) etc. • Milliliter amounts - 15 ml, 0.5 ml; • Units of activity - ЕD: 10000 ЕD (10000 units of activity). 225

• Drops amounts (are used seldom) - the number of drops is indicated with Roman figures - singular guttam (one drop - guttam I), plural guttās (five drops - guttas V); • Tablets & Suppositories are in the Accusative: e.g.

tabulletās numerō 30 (30 tablets) scatulās orīginālēs numerō duās (2 original packages)

• Sometimes a physician does not indicate the dosage but affords to a pharmacist an opportunity to determine the quantity of a drug on his own; in that case quantum satis is written in the prescription. 6) If several drugs are prescribed in the same amount, the dose is indicated only after the last one and the abbreviation ana (of each) is written: e.g:

Take:

Rp. Cupri citrātis

Coper citrate

Lanolīni

Lanoline

Vaselīni

ana 6,0

Vaseline

of each 6,0

7) Avoid unneccessary decimal points: e.g.

10 mL instead of 10.0 mL to avoid possible misinterpretation of 10.0 = 100

8) Always zero prefix decimals: e.g.

0.1 instead of .1 to avoid misinterpretation with .1 = 1

9) Never have trailing zeros on decimals: e.g.

use 0.5 instead of .50 to avoid misinterpretation with .50 = 50

10) Avoid decimals altogether by changing the units: e.g.

0.1 g = 100 mg

THE MOST-USED PRESCRIPTION PHRASES ante cibum (a.c.)

before meal

adde (ad)

ad

ad libitum (ad lib.)

as you desire or need

ad scatulam (ad scat.) in the box

ad ūsum externum

for external use

ad ūsum internum

for internal use

ad vitrum (ad vitr)

into bottle

ampulla (amp.)

ampule

bis in diē (b.i.d)

twice a day

caveat (c)

caution

compositus (comp.) composed

concentrātus (conct.) concentrated

cum cibō (c.c.)

with food

dā (D.)

give

dēstīllātus (dest)

destiled

diēbus alternīs

every other day

226

dīlūtus (dil.)

diluted

expedītiō orīginālis (exp. orig.)

dīvide (div.)

divide

extrāctum (extr.)

extract

original package gutta (gt.)

drop

hōra somnī (h.s)

at bedtime

iv

intravenous

miscē (M)

mix

nihil per ōs (n.p.o)

nothing by mouth

per ōs (p.o.)

by mouth

miscē fīat pulvis (M.f. pulv) mix to make powder partēs aequāles (p. aeq) equal parts per rēctum (p.r.)

by rectum

post cibum (p.c.)

after meal

prō rē nātā (p.r.n.)

as needed

prō diē (p. die)

for day, daily

quantum satis (q.s.)

as much as needed

quater in die (q.i.d.) four times a day

quāquē hora (q.h.)

hourly

recipe (Rp.)

take

sactula (scat)

box

signā (S.)

sign

sine (s)

without

solutio (sol)

solution

sub signō venēnī (s.s.v.)

suppositorium (supp) suppository

under the sign of poison syrupus (syr)

syrup

tabulettae (tbl)

tablets

ter in diē (t.i.d.)

3 times a day

unguentum (ung)

ointment

vitrum (vitr.)

bottle

227

Appendix 5 – Abbreviations MEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS This appendix is a list of commonly used medical abbreviations (Latin & English) which are authorized to be used in medical records.

a./aa.

artery/arteries

A/a

before

AAE

acute allergic encephalitis

Ab

antibodies

abd hyst

abdominal hysterectomy

ABE

acute bacterial endocarditis

ABP

arterial blood pressure

ABR

absolute bed rest

ABS

acute brain syndrome

ac

before meals

ACA

adenocarcinoma

ACH

acetylcholine

ACI

adrenal cortical insufficien.

ACTH

adrenocorticotrop. hormone

acut.

acute

ACVD

acute cardiovascular disease

ad

add

AD

right ear

A&D

admission and discharge

ADD

average daily dose

adhib

to be administered

ADL

activities of daily living

ad lib

as desired

adm

admission

ad ma. med.

for doctor´s use only

admit

admitted

ADS

antibody deficiency syndrome

ad scat

into the box

ad us ext

for external use

ad us int

for internal use

ad vitr

into the bottle/test-tube

AE

above the elbow

AF

acid-fast

AFB

acid-fast bacilli

afeb

afebrile; without fever

AF/F

atrial fibrillat. and/or flutter

AGG

agammaglobulinemia

AHD

atherosclerotic heart disease

AI

aortic insufficiency

AID

acute infectious disease

AIHA

autoimmune hemolytic anemia

AJ

ankle jerk

AK amp

above the knee amputation

ALMI

anter. lat. myocardial infarct

alt die/dieb

alternate days

alt noc/noct

every other night

ALVF

acute left ventricular failure

AMA

against medical advice

amb

ambulatory

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

ant./A

anterior

AOB

alcohol on breath

228

ap

before dinner

A&P

anterior and posterior

APB

atrial premature beat

APC

aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine

aq

water

AS

left ear

ASA

acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)

ASAP

as soon as possible

ASHD

arteriosclerot. heart disease

ASS

anterior superior spine

AU

both ears

ax

axillary

B

born

BA

blood alcohol

B/A

backache

BBB

bundle branch block

BC

bone conduction

BCP

birth control pills

BE

barium enema

BH

bundle of His

bib

drink

bid

twice a day

bin

twice during the night

B/J; B&J

bone and joint

BM

bowel movement

BMR

basal metabolic rate

bol

pill

BOM

bilateral otitis media

BP

blood pressure

BPH

benign prostat. hypertrophy

BPI

blood pressure increased

BS

bowel or breath sound(s)

BSO

bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

BTL

bilateral tubal ligation

BUE

both upper extremities

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

BUQ

both upper quadrants

BV

blood volume

BW

body weight

Bx

biopsy

C1 to C7

cervical nerves or vertebrae 1 to 7

CI to CXII

cranial nerves

c

with/around

CA

cardiac arrest

Ca

calcium; cancer; carcinoma

cath

catheter

CBC

complete blood count

CBD

common bile duct

CBS

chronic brain syndrome

CBV

central blood volume

CC

chief of current complaint

CCK

cholecytokinin

CDC

Center for Disease Control

CF

complement fixation

CGTT

cortisone glucose tolerance test

CHB

complete heart block

ChE

cholinesterase

CHF

congestive heart failure

CHO

carbohydrate

chr/chron

chronic

CI

cardiac insufficiency

CIS

carcinoma in situ

Cl

chlorine

CN

cranial nerves

229

CNS

central nervous system

CO

carbon monoxide

CO2

carbon dioxide

COD

cause of death

comp

composed

compl.

complicated, complication

conct

concentrated

cong

congenital

conj

conjunctiva; conjunctivitis

CR

closed reduction

cran/C

cranial

CrI to CrXII cranial nerves

CRD

chronic respiratory or renal disease CrP

creatine phosphate

CS

cesarean section

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

C S resp

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

CV

cardiovascular

CVA

cardiovascular accident

CVC

central venous catheter

CVD

cardiovascular disease

CVP

central venous pressure

CVS

cardiovascular system

cytol

cytology

D

dorsal/day/dose/give/divide

D1 to D12

dorsal/thorac. vertebrae

DA

development age

D/A

date of accident/admission

DAP

direct agglutination pregnancy (test) DBP

diastolic blood pressure

D&C

dilatation and currettage

dc./dcc.

duct/s

dest

destiled

dg/Dx

diagnosis

DI

diabetes insipidus

dil

diluted

dis

disease

disc

discontinue

dist

distal

div

divide

div in p aeg

divide in aequal parts

DJD

degenerative joint disease

DM

diabetes mellitus

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNR

dorsal nerve root

DNS

deviated nasal septum

DOA

dead on arrival

DOE

dyspnea on exertion

dors

dorsal

DOS

day of surgery

D/S

dextrose in saline/give-sighn

DTR

deep tendon reflexes

DU

duodenal ulcer

DUB

dysfunction. uterine bleeding

Dx/dg

diagnosis

EAC

external auditory canal

EBL

estimated blood loss

ECG; EKG

electrocardiogram

E coli

Escherichia coli

ECS

electroconvulsive shock

EDC

estimated date of confinement

EKG; ECG

electrocardiogram

EM

electron microscopy

EMB

eosin methylene blue

230

EMS

emergency medical service

ENT

ear, nose, and throat

eos

eosinophil

epis

episotomy

ER

emergency room

Ery

erytrocit

EST

electroshock therapy

etiol

etiology

ETOH

ethyl alcohol

ex/exc

excision

exam

examine

exp. orig.

original package

ext

external

extr

extract

f

to make

F

Fahrenheit

FA

fluorescent antibody

fac

facies, surface

fasc

fascia

FB

foreign body

FBS

fasting blood sugar

ff

force fluids

FH

family history

FHR

fetal heart rate

fib

fibrillation/fibular

FROM

full range of motion

front

frontal

FS

frozen section

FTSG

full thickness skin graft

FUO

fever of unknown origin

Fx

fracture

g

gram(s)

GB

gallbladder

GC

gonococcus; gonococcal

gl/gll

gland/s

glu

glucose

gr; grav

pregnant

Grav I

1 pregnancy

GS

General Surgery

gt; gtt

drop; drops

GU

genitourinary

GYN; Gyn

gynecology

H

hydrogen

H20

water

HA

hemagglutinating antigens

HAI

hemagglutin.-inhibit. antibody

Hb; Hgb

hemoglobin

HBP

high blood pressure

Hct

hematocrit

HCVD

hypertens. cardiovascul. dis.

hd

at bedtime

HEENT

head, eyes, ears, nose, throat

Hgb; Hb

hemoglobin

HGH

human growth hormone

HLH

Human lutenizing hormone

hn

tonight

H&P

history and physical

HPI

history of present illness

HR

heart rate

HVD

hypertens. vascular disease

Hx

history

IA

intraarterious

IC

intracutaneous

IH

infectious hepatitis

231

IHD

ischemic heart disease

IM

intramuscular (injection)

inf

inferior/infusion

inj

injection

int

internal

I&O

intake and output

IOP

intraocular pressure

IQ

intelligence quotient

IV

intravenous (injection)

jej

jejunum

K

potassium

kg

kilogram

KUB

kidney, ureter, and bladder

K-wire

Kirshner wire

L

lumbar vertebra

l.a.

by the law of the art

lag

bottle

lat

lateral

LBBB

left bundle branch block

LD

lethal dose

l.dx

right side

Leu

leucocyte

lig/ligg

ligament/S

LH

luteinizing hormone

LOS

length of stay

LP

lumbar, puncture

L-S

lumbosacral

l.sin

left side

LTF

lipotrophic factor

l.utr

both sides

Lues I, II, III primary, secondary, tertiary syphilis LV

left ventricular

LVN

Licensed Vocational Nurse

m./mm.

muscle/s

M

meter/mix

M1 M2

mitral first, second sound

MB

methylene blue

MBP

mean blood pressure

MD

muscular dystrophy

MDR

minimum daily requirement

ME

middle ear

med

medial

mg

milligram

mg

millimicrogram

MH

menstrual/marital/military history

mHg

milliliters of mercury

MI

myocardial infarction

ml

milliliter

MR

metabolic rate

mr; mR

milloroentgen

MS

multiple sclerosis

MV

mitral valve

n./nn

nerv/s

N

normal (concentration)

NaPent

sodium Pentothal

NB

newborn

NBS

normal bowel sounds

NC

noncontributory

N/C

no complaint

ND

normal delivery

NDF

no disease found

NE

norepinephrine

neg

negative

NIH

National Institutes of Health

232

NKA

no known allergies

NOR; Noradr noradrenaline

NP

neuropsychiatric

NPH

no previous history

npo

nothing by mouth

NR

normal range

nr

not to be repeated

NS

nervous system

NSA

no significant abnormality

NSR

normal sinus rhythm

O

eye

OB

obstetrics

OBD

organic brain disease

OB-GYN

obstetrics and gynecology

OHD

organic heart disease

OL; OS

left eye

omn bih

every two hours

omn hor; oh

every hour

omn noct; on every night

OPC

outpatient clinic

OPD

outpatient department

ophth

ophthalmology

OR

operating room

Orth

orthopedics

OS; OL

left eye

OT

occupational therapy

OU

each eye

P

phosphorus

P/3

proximal one-third (long bones)

p1, p2, etc.

para 1, para 2, etc.

PA

Physician's Assistant

P&A

percussion and auscultation

PAB, PABA para-aminobenzoic acid

Pap test

Papanicolaou's test

Para

parous

path

pathology

PB-Fe

protein-bound iron

PBI

protein-bound iodine

pc

after meal

PCV

packed cell volume

pd

for dose

PDA

patent ductus arteriosus

p.die

for day

PDR

Physician's Desk Reference

PE

physical examination

Ped

pediatrics

PEG

pneumoencephalography

PGH

pituitary growth hormone

PH

past history

Phe

phenylalanine

phys

physical; physician

PI

present illness

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

Pit

Pitocin

PKA

prokininogenase

PM

post mortem

PMH

past medical history

PMS

post-menopausal syndrome

PNa

plasma sodium

PO; postop

postoperative

po

by mouth; orally

PO2

oxygen tension

233

pos

positive

post

posterior

postop; PO

postoperative

PP

post partum

PPB

positive pressure breathing

pr

per rectum

pro adult

for adults

pro inf

for children

prog

prognosis

ps

per second

Psy

psychiatry; psychology

PT

physical therapy

pt

patient

PTA

prior to admission

PULHES

physical profile factors:

pv

per vaginam

P-

physical capacity or stamina

U-

upper extremities

L-

lower extremities

H-

hearing and ears

E-

eyes

S-

psychiatric

PVC

premature ventricular contractions PVD

peripheral vascular disease

pvt

private

qd

every day

qh

every hour

q2h, q3h

every 2 hours, every 3 hours

qid

four times a day

qn

every night

QNS

quantity not sufficient

qs

as needed

qv

as much as you please

R

right

r

roentgen

r./rr.

branch/es

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

Ra

radium

rad

radial

RAIU

radioactive iodine uptake

RAP

right atrial pressure

RAS

reticular activating system

RBBB

right bundle branch block

RBC

red blood cells or corpuscles

RD

respirat. disease/retinal detachment RDS

respirat. distress syndrome

rehab/RHB

rehabilitation

RES

reticuloendothelial system

RHD

rheumatic heart disease

RHF

right heart failure

RN

Registered Nurse

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RO

routine order

R/O

rule out

ROM

range of motion

ROS

review of systems

Rp/Rx

take

RR

recovery room

234

R&R

rate and rhythm

RT

reaction time

RTC

return to clinic

RUE

right upper extremity

RUQ

right upper quadrant

S

left/sign/dissolve

S-1 to S-5

sacral vertebrae or nerves

sa

sarcoma

S-A; SA node sino-atrial node

SAA

Stokes-Adams attacks

sag

sagittal

SB

stillborn

SBE

subacute bacter. endocarditis

SB

test Stanford-Binet test

SC

subcutaneous

scat

little box

SCD

service connected disability

SCM

sternocleidomastoid

SD

standard deviation

SDS

sudden death syndrome

SEM

standard error of the mean

SF

spinal fluid

sg

specific gravity

SH

serum hepatitis

SI

seriously ill

sib

sibling

simpl

simple

sin/sinn

sinus/es

SIW

self-inflicted wound

SM

systolic murmur

SMA

superior mesenteric artery

SN

student nurse

SNS

sympathetic nervous system

SO

salpingo-oophorectomy

SOAP

progress note format S-

subjective

O-

objective

A-

assessment

P-

plans

SOB

shortness of breath

sol

solution

S-O-R

stimulus-organism-response

SQ

subcutaneous

s.s.v.

under the sighn of poison

staph

staphylococcus

stat

immediately and once only

STH

somatotropic hormone

Strep

streptococcus

STSG

split thickness skin graft

subj

subjective

sup

superior

susp

suspected

SVC

superior vena cava

sx

signs; symptoms

Sz

schizophrenia

T

Temperature/Thoracic vertebra

T&A

tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy

TAH

total abdominal hysterectomy

TB; TBC

tuberculosis

235

TBLC

term birth, living child

TBV

total blood volume

tds

to be taken 3 times a day

TFA

total fatty acids

TH

thyroid hormone

tid

three times a day

TL

tubal ligation

TM

tympanic membrane

TNTC

too numerous to count

TOA

tubo-ovarian abscess

TT

tetanus toxoid

TTH

thyrotropic hormone

U/3

upper third (long bones)

UA

urinalysis

UE

upper extremity

UGI

upper gastrointestinal

ULQ

upper left quadrant

ung

oitment

unk

unknown

UQ

upper quadrant

UR

unconditioned response

URI

upper respiratory infection

urol

urology; urological

URQ

upper right quadrant

us

usage

UTI

urinary tract infection

UV

ultraviolet

V

Volume

v./vv.

vein/s

vag

vaginal

VBP

venous blood pressure

VC

vital capacity

VD

venereal disease

VDG

venereal disease-gonorrhea

VDH; VHD

valvular disease of the heart

vent

ventral

VIG

vaccinia immune serum globulin

vit

vitamin

vitr

bottle, test-tube

VO

verbal order

VP

venous pressure

VPC

volume of packed red cells

VRI

viral/virus respirat. infection

VS

vital sign

WB

whole blood

WBC

white blood cell

WCC

white cell count

wd

ward

WHO

World Health Organization

WIA

wounded in action

wk

week

WNL

within normal limits

WR

Wassermann reaction

wt

weight

X

times

YOB

year of birth

236

Appendix 6 - Names of chemical elements, acids, oxides, peroxides, hydroxides I. LATIN NAMES OF SOME CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ALL Latin names of chemical elements are neuter nouns of the 2nd declension: e.g.

Bromum, ī, n. (bromine) (Br) Iodum, ī n. (iodine) (I)

There are two exceptions to this rule:

sulfur - Sulfur, uris, n. (3rd declension) (S) phosphorus - Phosphorus, ī, m. (masculine) (P)

Important chemical elements: Chemical element Bi

Latin

English

Bismuthum, ī, n.

bismuth

Сa F Fe H Hg K Mg Na O Pb S Zn

Calcium, ī, n. Fluōrum, ī, n. Ferrum, ī, n. Hydrogenium, ī, n. Hydrargyrum, ī, n. Kalium, ī, n. Magnesium, ī, n. or Magnium, ī, n. Natrium, ī, n. Oxygenium, ī, n. Plumbum, ī, n. Sulfur, uris, n. Zincum, ī, n.

calcium fluorine iron hydrogen mercury potassium magnesium sodium oxygen lead sulfur zinc

II. LATIN NAMES OF ACIDS THE Latin names of acids consist of the noun "acidum" (acidum, ī, n, - acid) and the concordant adjective of the 2nd declension: acidum + stem of the chemical element name + -ic/ōs- + -um а) Latin adjectives with the suffix -ic- and the ending -um correspond to English adjectives ending by -ic. e.g.

arsenic acid - Acidum arsenicicum (Arsenicum, ī, n. → arsenic + ic + um); 237

sulphuric acid - Acidum sulfuricum (Sulfur, uris, n. → sulfur + ic + um); silicic acid - Acidum silicicum (Silicium, iī, n. → silic + ic + um); b) Latin adjectives with the suffix -ōs and the ending -um correspond to English adjectives ending by -ous. nitrous acid - Acidum nitrōsum (Nitrogenium, ī, n. → nitr + ōs + um);

e.g.

sulphurous acid - Acidum sulfurōsum (Sulfur, uris, n, → sulfur + ōs + um); arsenicous acid - Acidum arsenicōsum (Arsenicum, ī, n. → arsenic + ōs + um). c) Latin acid names with the prefix hydro- ending by -icum correspond to English acid names with the prefix hydro- ending by –ic. Acidum hydrochloricum – hydrochloric acid

e.g.

N. B.! Acid names used as drugs after pharmaceutical forms are written with the first capital letter: Tabulettae Acidī folicī - tablets of folic acid

e.g.

Dragée Acidī ascorbinicī - dragée of ascorbic acid

III. LATIN NAMES OF OXIDES, PEROXIDES, HYDROXIDES LATIN names of oxides, peroxides and hydroxides consist of two words: First one: name of a chemical element in the Genitive Second one: word oxydum (oxide), peroxydum (peroxide) or hydroxydum (hydroxide) in the Nominative e.g.

Zincī oxydum - zinc oxide Ferrī oxydum - ferric oxide Hydrogeniī peroxydum - hydrogen peroxide Calciī hydroxydum - calcium hydroxide N.B.!

Names of oxides, peroxides and hydroxides are written after pharmaceutical forms with the first capital letter: e.g.

Solutio Hydrogeniī peroxydiī dilūta - diluted solution of hydrogen peroxide

238

Appendix 7 - Latin and Greek component elements of drug names STEM

MEANING

EXAMPLE OF DRUG NAME

-(a)zin-, -zol-, -(a)zid-aesthes-, -cain-aeth-alg-, -dol-andr-, -ster-, -test-angi-, -vas-,

containing nitrogen

Aminazinum, Corazolum, Saluzidum Anaesthesinum, Novocainum Aethinalum Pentalginum, Panadolum Testosteronum, Androfortum Angiotensinamidum, Vasographinum Lydasum Antiasthmocrinum Audiclean Barbitalum Benzonalum Cardalis, Cardiovalenum, Corazolum Streptocidum Bicillinum Corticotrophinum Cyanidum Vitacyclinum Cytamenum Clorexyderm, Dermosolonum Erythromycinum Aflamil, Afloderm Flector

-as-asthm-audi-, au-barb-benz-cardi-, -cor-/d-cid-cillin-cort-cyan-cycl-cyt-derm-erythr-fla-, -flo-, -flam-flect-glyc-, gluc-haem-, -aem-hepat-, -hepar-hydr-chlor-chol-lys(in)-menth-meth-morph-muc-, muk-my(o)-myc-myel(o)-neo-, -nov-

local anesthetic containing ethyl analgetic male sex hormone spasmolytics, referring to vessels enzymes against asthma for treatment of the ear soforific, hypnotic containing benzol cardiovascular drugs antimicrobic antibiotics-penicillins adrenal cortex hormone (from Greek "cyanus" - blue) antibiotics-tetracylcines antianemic drugs for treatment of skin diseases (from Greek "red"), antibiotics anginflammatory flextion, movement espec. joints (from Greek "sweet") drugs influencing hemopoesis extracts from liver water, hydrogen containing chlorine cholagogic, bile-expelling drugs for destruction and excretion containing mint containing methyl narcotics breaking down mucs, mucolytic (from Greek "muscle") against fungi, antimycotic referring to brain (from Greek "new") 239

Glucomed, Glycerophosphatum Haematogenum Liquaeminum Vitohepatum, Heparin Hydrocortisonum Chloraminum Chologonum Pleumolysin, Sarcolysinum Boromentholum Methacinum Apomorphinum Solmucol, Mucosolvan Myostatinum Amycazolum Myelosanum Neocidum, Novandrolum

-ocu-, ocul-, -optic-, -ophthalm-oestr-oxy-pan-phen-phosph-phthor-phyll-physi(o)-poly-pres(s)-, -tens-prost-pyo-pyr-sed-sept-sicc-spa-sulfa-the-thi-thyr-ur-, uri -vir-vit-yl-

for treatment of the eyes

Ocuvite, Ophthalmo-Septonex

Female sex hormone containing oxygen (from Greek "total") containing phenyl containing phosphorus containing fluorine (from Greek "phyllon" - leaf) referring to physical properties (from "many") hypotensives for treatment of prostate related problems antipurulent drugs antipyretic drugs sedatives antiseptics, desinfectant against dryness (eyes) spasmolytics sulfamides from tea-leaf containing sulfur drugs influencing functions of the thyroid gland urinary tract antiviral

Oestronum Oxylidinum Pantocidum, Panadol Phenolum Phosphacolum Phthoracizinum Theophyllinum Physiolactinum Polyvaccinum Apressinum, Angiotensinamidum Prostakan, Prostenal Pyocidum Acylpyrin, Pyramidonum Valosedanum Pharyngosept, Septonex Siccaprotext No-Spa Sulfasalazin, Sulfadiazinum Thealbinum Thiophosphamidum Euthyrox, Methothyrinum

Milurit, Urinal Vectavir, Denavir, Fenivir, Aciclovir vitamins Hexavitum containing hydrocarbon radical Methyluracilum

240

PART 4

„It is impossible to pursue financial gain at the same time as training oneself in so great an art as medicine; someone who is really enthusiastic about one of these aims will inevitably despise the other.“ (Galen, Opt. Med. 2)

241

Latin – English Dictionary

A abdōmen, inis, n. abdominopelvicus, a, um abdūcēns, entis abductiō, ōnis, f. abductor, ōris, m. (m.) aberrāns, antis ablātiō, ōnis, f. abortus, ūs, m. abrāsus, a, um abscessus, ūs, m. absentia, ae, f. abstinentia, ae, f. accessōrius, a, um ācer, is, e achalasia, ae, f. acnē, ēs, f. acquīsītiō, ōnis, f. acquīsītus, a, um acrālis, e acrocyanōsis, is, f. acrōmioclaviculāris, e acrōmion, iī, n. actīnotherapia, ae, f. acus, ūs, f. acūsticus, a, um acūtus, a, um ad (+ Acc.) adductor, ōris, m. (m.) adductōrius, a, um adēnītis, idis, f. adēnōma, atis, n. adēnōmatōsis, is, f. adeps, adipis, m.

abdomen abdominopelvic abducent (abducting, drawing away) abduction (movement of a body part away from the median plane) abductor (muscle) aberrant (wander from, stray, or deviate from) ablation, detachement abortion abraded (worn off or down by scraping or rubbing) abscess absence abstinence, self-restrain accessory sharp, acute, bitter achalasia (failure of the cardiac sphincter of the oesophagus to relax, resulting in difficulty in swallowing) acne (a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin) acquisition acquired, not present at birth acral acrocyanosis (a decrease in the amount of oxygen delivered to the extremities) acromioclavicular (pertaining to the acromion and clavicle) acromion (the outermost extremity of the spine of the shoulderblade) actinotherapy (sunlight or ultraviolet light therapy) needle acustic acute to, toward adductor (muscle) adducent, adductor adenitis (inflammation of the gland) adenoma (a benign tumor of glandular origin and structure) adenomatosis (a condition characterized by multiple glandular overgrowths) fat, soft fat 242

adipōsitās, ātis, f. adipōsus, a, um aditus, ūs, m. adrēnālis, e adultus, a, um aegrōtus, a, um aequālis, e aequilībrium, iī, n. aequus, a, um aērophagia, ae, f. aērophobia, ae, f. afferēns, ntis agenesis, is, f. agitāns, antis agōnia, ae, f. āla, ae, f. ālāris, e albicāns, antis albugineus, a, um albus, a, um alcoholismus, ī, m. alga, ae, f. aliēnus, a, um allergicus, a, um alveolāris, e alveolus, ī, m. alvus, ī, f. ambiguus, a, um ambōceptor, ōris, m. amnēsia, ae, f. amniocentēsis, is, f. amphodiplōpia, ae, f. ampulla, ae, f. ampullāris, e anaemia, ae, f. anaesthēsia, ae, f.

adiposity, obesity fat, fatty, adipose aditus (opening, inlet, entrance) adrenal (near the kidney) adult sick, ill, diseased, suffering equal equilibrium even aerophagia (the swallowing of excess air, resulting in abdominal bloating and belching) aerophobia (a pathological fear of draughts of air) afferent, conducting, carrying forth agenesis (absence or incomplete development of an organ or body part) shaking agony, suffering ala (wing) alar (pertaining to wing) albicans (white, whitish) white, whitish white alcoholism alga (unicellular or multicellular organisms formerly classified as plants, occurring in fresh or salt water or moist ground) foreign, alien allergic alveolar (pertaining to an alveolus) alveolus (small hollow or cavity) belly, bowels ambiguous (obscure, doubtful, uncertain) amboceptor (an immune body formed in the blood during infection) amnesia, forgetfulness amniocentesis (a procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted in the abdomen) amphodiplopia (double vision in both eyes) ampulla ampullary (referring to an ampulla) anemia (a condition in which there is reduced delivery of oxygen to the tissues) anesthesia (1. lack of feeling or sensation; 2. artificially induced loss of ability to feel pain, done to permit the performance of surgery or other painful procedures) 243

anamnēsis, is, f. anatomia, ae, f. andrologia, ae, f. anemicus, a, um aneurysma, atis, n. angina, ae, f. angīōma, atis, n. angīopathia, ae, f. angulāris, e angulus, ī, m. animal, ālis, n. ankylōsis, is, f. ānococcygeus, a, um anōmalia, ae, f. anorexia, ae, f. ansa, ae, f. anserīnus, a, um anteflexiō, ōnis, f. anterior, ius anterolaterālis, e antipyreticus, a, um antisēpticum, ī, n. antrum, ī, n. ānulāris, e ānulus, ī, m. anūria, ae, f. ānus, ī, m. aorta, ae, f. apertūra, ae, f. apertus, a, um apex, icis, m. aphagia, ae, f. aphasia, ae, f. aplasia, ae, f. apnoē, ēs, f. apoplēxia, ae, f.

anamnesis (1. the act of remembering; 2. the medical or developmental history of a patient) anatomy andrology (the branch of medicine concerned with diseases in men, esp. of the reproductive organs) anemic aneurysm (an abnormal, blood-filled sac formed by dilation of the wall of a blood vessel or heart ventricle) angina (spasmodic, choking, or suffocative pain) angioma (tumor of the blood vessels) angiopathy (any of several diseases of the blood or lymph vessel) angular angle animal ankylosis (the union or consolidation of two or more bones or other hard tissues into one) anococcygeal (pertaining to the anus and coccyx) anomaly, irregularity anorexia (lack or loss of appetite) ansa (handle, haft) goos-like, of or pertaining to geese anteflexion (bending forward) anterior anterolateral (situated in front and to one side) antipyretic (against fever) antiseptic medicament antrum (cavity or chamber) anular, ring-shaped ring, border anuria (absence of urine formation) anus (an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth) aorta opening, aperture open apex, point, summit, top aphagia (difficulty with or incapacity for eating) aphasia (speechlessness, partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally) aplasia (defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue) apnea (absence of breathing for short periods) apoplexy (sudden massive haemorrhage)

244

apoptōsis, is, f. appendectomia, ae, f. appendicītis, idis, f. appendix, icis, f. aqua, ae, f. aquaeus, a, um aquārium, iī, n. aqueductus, ūs, m. aquōsus, a, um arachnoīdeus, a, um arachnophobia, ae, f. arbor, oris, f. arcuātus, a, um arcus, ūs, m. ārea, ae, f. āreola, ae, f.

arōmaticus, a, um arrhythmia, ae, f. artēria, ae, f. artēriola, ae, f. artēriōsus, a, um arthrītis, idis, f. arthrōsis, is, f. articulāris, e articulātiō, ōnis, f. ascendēns, entis ascītēs, ae, m. asphyxia, ae, f. asthma, atis, n. ataxia, ae, f. atelectasis, is, f. athērōma, atis, n. atlantooccipitālis, e atopicus, a, um

apoptosis (death, a pattern of cell death affecting single cells, marked by shrinkage of the cell) appendectomy (surgical removal of any appendage, esp. the vermiform appendix ) appendicitis (inflammation of the appendage) appendage water aqueous, watery aquarium aqueduct moist, humid, full of water arachnoid (1. resembling a spider's web; 2. the delicate membrane interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater, and with them constituting the meninges) arachnophobia (irrational fear of spiders) arbor (tree) arcuate arch area areola (a small circular area on the body with a different histology from the surrounding tissue, most commonly used to denote the pigmented area on the human breast around the nipple) aromatic arythmia (an irregularity in the force or rhythm of the heart beat) artery arteriole (a small artery) arterial, concerning arteries arthritis (inflammation of the joint) arthrosis (a degenerative disease of a joint) articular (of or relating to a joint) joint ascending (moving upward) ascites (an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen) asphyxia (a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing) asthma ataxia (loss of the ability to coordinate muscular movement) atelectasis (a collapse of lung tissue affecting part or all of one lung) atheroma (an abnormal fatty deposit which develops within the walls of arteries) atlanto-occipital atopic (related to the predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions)

245

ātrium, iī, n. atypicus, a, um audīogramma, ae, f. audītīvus, a, um audītus, ūs, m. auricula, ae, f. auriculāris, e auris, is, f. autointoxicātiō, ōnis, f. autonomicus, a, um avis, is, f. avītaminōsis, is, f. axilla, ae, f. axis, is, m. azygos (on, Greek)

atrium (a chamber affording entrance, especially the upper chamber on either side of the heart) atypical, irregular audiogram (a graphic record of the findings by audiometry) auditory hearing, listening auricle, small ear auricular (pertaining to an auricle or ear) ear autointoxication (self poisoning) autonomic bird, spur avitaminosis (lack of vitamins) axilla (armpit, underarm) axis (axle around which a round body turns) azygos (unpaired)

B bacillus, ī, m. basālis, e basilāris, e basis, is, f. benignus, a, um biceps, cipitis bicipitālis, e bicuspidālis, e bifidus, a, um biometria, ae, f. biopsia, ae, f. biventer, tris, tre blepharītis, idis, f. blepharorrhaphia, ae, f. blepharospasmus, ī, m. bolus, ī, m. bonus, a, um brachiālis, e brachioradiālis, e brachium, iī, n. brachycephalia, ae, f. bradycardia, ae, f. bradypnoē, ēs, f. brevior, ius

bacillus (bug, germ) basal (relating to, located at, or forming a base) basilar (pertaining to a base or basal part) base benign biceps (with two heads) bicipital (having two heads) bicuspid (hawing two points) bifid (cleft or divided into two parts) biometry (the statistical analysis of biological observations and phenomena) biopsy (the removal and examination of a sample of tissue from a living body for diagnostic purposes) biventer (with two bellies) blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid) blepharorrhaphia (suture of the eyelid) blepharospasm (spasm of the eyelid) morsel, bit good brachial (pertaining to the arm or armlike structure) brachioradial (pertaining to the arm and radius) arm brachycephalia (short skull) bradycardia (slow heart rate) bradypnea (slow breathing) shorter 246

brevis, e brevitās, ātis, f. bronchiālis, e bronchiectasis, is, f. bronchus, ī, m. bucca, ae, f. buccinātor, ōris, m. (m.) bulbospongiōsus, a, um bulbus, ī, m. bursa, ae, f.

short brevity (shortness) bronchial bronchiectasis (a condition in which an area of the bronchial tubes is permanently and abnormally widened) bronchus (one of two subdivisions of the trachea serving to convey air to and from the lungs) cheak buccinator (facial muscle of cheek) bulbospongy bulb (any rounded organ / mass) bursa (a small fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur)

C caecālis, e caecum, ī, n. (i.) caecus, a, um caementum, ī, n. calcāneus, a, um calcaneus, ī, m. calcar, āris, n. calcificātiō, ōnis, f. caliculus, ī, m. callōsus, a, um callus, ī, m. canāliculus, ī, m. canālis, is, m. cancer, crī, m. canīnus, a, um canis, is, m. cannula, ae, f. capitālis, e capitulum, ī, n. capsula, ae, f. capsulāris, e caput, itis, n. carcinogenēs, es cardiacus, a, um cardiālis, e cardiovāsculāris, e cariēs, ēī, f. carīna, ae, f. cāritās, ātis, f.

caecal cecum, blind gut blind cement calcaneal calcaneus (heel bone) spur calcification bud (small cup) callous (with a hard skin, hard-skinned, thick-skinned) callus (thick, hard skin) small canal canal cancer canine dog cannula (a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid) capital capitulum (a small head) capsule capsular (relating to or resembling a capsule) head carcinogenous cardiac cardial (pertaining to the esophageal opening of the stomach) cardiovascular (of or relating to the heart and the blood vessels) caries (decay) carina (a ridge of cartilage in the trachea) charity 247

carnivorus, a, um caro, carnis, f. carōticus, a, um carōtis, idis, f. (a.) carpoptōsis, is, f. carpus, ī, m. cartilāgō, inis, f. catabolismus, ī, m. cauda, ae, f. caudālis, e causa, ae, f. cavernōsus, a, um cavitās, ātis, f. cavum, ī, n. cavus, a, um cellulītis, idis, f. centrālis, e cephalalgia, ae, f. cephalicus, a, um cerebellum, ī, n. cerebrum, ī, n. cērumen, inis, n. cervīcālis, e cervīx, īcis, f. cheilītis, idis, f. cheiloschisis, is, f. chīragra, ae, f. chīrurgicus, a, um chlōrōsis, is, f. cholaemia, ae, f. cholēcystectomia, ae, f. cholēcystis, is, f. cholēlithiāsis, is, f. chondrōma, matis, n. chondromalacia, ae, f. chorda, ae, f. chorēa, ae, f. chorion, iī, n.

carnivorous, feeding on flesh meat carotid carotid artery wristdrop wrist cartilage catabolism (the metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy) tail caudal (of, at, or near the tail end of the body) cause, reason cavernous (full of hollows or cavities) cavity cavity hollow, excavated, concave cellulitis (an acute, spreading, bacterial infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues) central headache cephalic (of or relating to the head) cerebellum (small brain) brain earwax cervical (pertaining to the cervix or neck) cervix (neck, necklike structure) cheilitis (an inflammation of the lip) cheiloschisis (a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip) chiragra (a form of gout that occurs in the hands) surgical chlorosis (an iron-deficiency anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenish-yellow discoloration of the skin) cholemia (a toxic medical condition indicated by the presence of bile in the blood) cholecystectomy (the surgical removal of the gallbladder) gall bladder gallstone chondroma (tumor of the cartilage cells) chondromalacia (softening of the cartilage) cord chorea (the ceaseless occurrence of rapid, jerky involuntary movements) chorion (an extraembryonic outermost fetal membrane around the embryo) 248

choroīdeus, a, um chronicus, a, um chȳlus, ī, m. cicātrix, īcis, f. ciliāris, e cilium, iī, n. cinereus, a, um circulāris, e circulus, ī, m. circumflexiō, ōnis, f. circumflexus, a, um circumōrālis, e circumscrīptus, a, um circus, ī, m. cirrhōsis, is, f. cisterna, ae, f. clausus, a, um clāvicula, ae, f. cleidocostālis, e clitōris, idis, f. coccygeus, a, um coccyx, ȳgis, m. cochlea, ae, f. cochleāris, e coeliacus, a, um cōlicus, a, um collāpsus, ūs, m. collum, ī, n. cōlon, ī, n. cōlonoscopia, ae, f. cōlopēxis, is, f. cōlostomia, ae, f. colposcopia, ae, f. cōma, atis, n. commissūra, ae, f.

choroid chronic juice (milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats) cicatrice, scar ciliary (of or relating to the ciliary body and associated structures of the eye) eyelash grey, ash-colored circular small circle circumflexion circumflex (bending or curving around) circumoral (around the mouth) circumscribed (to draw a line around; encircle) circle cirrhosis (a chronic degenerative disease in which normal liver cells are damaged and are then replaced by scar tissue) cistern closed clavicle cleidocostal (pertaining to the clavicle and the ribs) clitoris coccygeal coccyx (a small triangular bone at the base of the spinal column in humans and other apes, consisting of several fused rudimentary vertebrae; also called tailbone) cochlea (the auditory portion of the inner ear, a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth) cochlear (pertaining to the cochlea, spiral shaped) coeliac, celiac (relating to the abdomen) colic (pertaining to the colon) collaps neck colon (the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum) colonoscopy (visial examination of colon) colopexy (surgical fixation or suspension of the colon) colostomy (surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body) colposcopy (examination of the vagina and the cervix through a colposcope) coma commissure, lining, junction, juncture (a site of union of corresponding parts, such as the angle of the lips or eyelids) 249

commōtio, ōnis, f. commūnicāns, antis commūnis, e compactus, a, um complētus, a, um complicātiō, ōnis, f. complicātus, a, um compositus, a, um concha, ae, f. condylus, ī, m. congenitus, a, um conjūnctīva, ae, f. (t.) contractiō, ōnis, f. contrāindicātiō, ōnis, f. contūsiō, ōnis, f. contūsolacerus, a, um contūsus, a, um cōnus, ī, m. cor, cordis, n. cornea, ae, f. corneus, a, um cornū, ūs, n. corōna, ae, f. corōnārius, a, um corpus, oris, n. corpusculum, ī, n. corrūgātor, ōris, m. (m.) cortex, icis, m. costa, ae, f. costālis, e costoclāviculāris, e coxa, ae, f. crāniālis, e crānium, iī, n. crassus, a, um cremastēr, ēris, m. (m) crībrōsus, a, um cricoīdeus, a, um crīminālis, e

commotion (a violent shaking or motion) communicating, joining, uniting common compact complete complication complicated composed, regular, good-looking concha (a shell shaped structure) condyle (a rounded projection on a bone, usually for articulation with another bone) congenital, existing at birth conjunctiva (the delicate membrane lining the eyelids (palpebral conjunctiva) and covering the eyeball (ocular conjunctiva) contraction contraindication (any condition that renders a particular line of treatment improper or undesirable) contusion bruised and torn bruised conus, cone (a cone-shaped structure) heart cornea (the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber) horny, of horn horn, any horn-like structure garland, wreath coronary body, pad corpuscle, small body corrugator (muscle; a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle close to the eye, wrinkler of the eyebrows) cortex (the outer layer of an organ or other structure, as distinguished from its inner substance or medulla) rib costal (pertaining to the rib) costoclavicular (pertaining to the ribs and clavicle) hip cranial cranium (skull) thick, large cremaster (the muscle which raises and lowers the testicles) cribrate (sievelike; containing many perforations) cricoid (ring-shaped) criminal 250

crista, ae, f. crūdēlitās, ātis, f. crūs, ūris, n. cubitus, ūs, m. cumulus, ī, m. cuneātus, a, um cuneiformis, e cūpula, ae, f. curvātūra, ae, f. cuspis, idis, f. cutāneus, a, um cuticula, ae, f. cutis, is, f. cyanōsis, is, f. cysticus, a, um cystis, is, f. cystoscopia, ae, f.

crest cruelty crus (lower leg, limb; the section of the leg or hind limb between the knee and foot; any leg-like part; shank) elbow a mass, a heap cuneate (pointed like a wedge - a triangular shaped tool, can be used to separate two objects, wedgeshaped) cuneiform (of, relating to, or being a wedge-shaped bone or cartilage) cupula (dome, dome-shaped roof) curvature cusp (a pointed or rounded projection) cutaneous (of, relating to, or affecting the skin) cuticle, small skin skin cyanosis (a blue discolouration of the skin due to the circulation of blood low in oxygen) cystic cyst (1. in pathology - any abnormal membranous sac or blisterlike pouch containing fluid or semisolid material 2. in anatomy - any normal sac or vesicle in the body) cystoscopy (procedure in which a tube with a camera and light is inserted through your urethra into the bladder)

D dacryocystītis, idis, f. dactylomegalia, ae, f. dartos (ē, on, Greek) dēcidua, ae, f. dēciduus, a, um decimus, a, um dēcubitus, ūs, m. dēferens, ntis dēformāns, ntis dēhydratātiō, ōnis, f. dēlīrium, iī, n. deltoīdēs, es dēmentia, ae, f.

dacryocystitis (an inflammation of the tear sac (lacrimal sac) at the inner corner of the eye) dactylomegaly (abnormally large fingers or toes) dartos (flayed, causing contraction) decidua (a name applied to the endometrium during pregnancy, all of which except for the deepest layer is shed after childbirth) deciduous (falling off; subject to being shed, such as deciduous primary teeth) tenth decubitus, bedsore deferent (conducting or progressing away) deforming dehydratation delirium, madness deltoid (shaped like a Greek capital delta, Δ; triangular) dementia (loss of cognitive abilities, including memory, concentration, communication, planning, and abstract thinking, resulting from brain injury or from a disease such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease) 251

dēns, dentis, m. densus, a, um dentālis, e dentātus, a, um dēpressor, oris, m. (m.) dermatītis, idis, f. dermatologia, ae, f. dermatōsis, is, f. dēscendēns, entis dexter, tra, trum diabētēs, ae, m. diabēticus, a, um diagnōsis, is, f. diameter, trī, f./m. diaphragma, atis, n. diarrhoē, ēs, f. diastolē, ēs, f. diencephalon, ī, n. diēs, ēī, m. / f. difficilis, e digastricus, a, um dīgestōrius, a, um digitālis, e digitus, ī, m. dīlātātor, ōris, m. (m.) diplēgia, ae, f. diploē, ēs, f. dislocātiō, ōnis, f. dissecāns, antis dissectiō, ōnis, f. distālis, e distractiō, ōnis, f. diūrēticus, a, um dīvīsio, ōnis, f. dolichocōlon, ī, n. dolōrōsus, a, um dorsālis, e dorsum, ī, n. dosis, is, f. ductulus, ī, m. ductus, ūs, m.

tooth dense, thick dental dentate depressor (muscle) dermatitis (inflammation of the skin) dermatology dermatosis (any non-inflammatory disorder of the skin) descending right diabetes diabetic diagnosis (determination of the nature of a cause of a disease) diameter diaphragm (separating membrane or structure) diarrhea (increased frequency or decreased consistency of bowel movements) diastole (part of the cardiac cycle when the heart refills with blood following contraction) diencephalon (the posterior part of the prosencephalon) day (m.), appointed day (f.) difficult digastric alimentary, digestive, promoting digestion digital (of or belonging to the finger) finger dilatator (muscle) diplegia (paralysis of both sides) diploe (the spongy, porous, bony tissue between the hard outer and inner bone layers of the cranium) dislocation, displacement dissecting, cut in pieces dissection, dismemberment distal (situated farthest from the centre, median line, or point of attachment or origin) parting, dividing diuretic division dolichocolon (abnormally long colon) painfull, full of pain dorsal back (noun) dose ductule (small duct) duct 252

duodecimus, a, um duodēnālis, e duodēnum, ī, n. duplex, icis dūplicitās, ātis, f. dūrus, a, um dysantigraphia, ae, f. dysenteria, ae, f. dysfūnctiō, ōnis, f. dyslexia, ae, f. dysmēnorrhoea, ae, f. dysmetria, ae, f.

dyspnoē, ēs, f. dystopia, ae, f. dystrophia, ae, f. dysūria, ae, f.

twelfth duodenal duodenum (the first or proximal portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum) double, twofold duplicity hard dysantigraphia (inability to copy writing or printed letters) dysenteria (type of gastroenteritis that results in diarrhea with blood) dysfunction dyslexia (a learning disorder that interferes with a person's ability to recognize and understand written words) dysmenorrhea (the occurrance of painful cramps during menstruation) dysmetria (hard to measure, wrong length; a lack of coordination of movement typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended position with the hand, arm, leg, or eye; it is a type of ataxia) dyspnea (difficult breathing) dystopia (malposition, wrong position) dystrophy (nutritional disorder) dysuria (painful or difficult urination)

E ē, ex (+ Abl.) ecchymōsis, is, f. ectoderma, atis, n. eczema, atis, n. efferens, ntis elasticus, a, um embolus, ī, m.

ēminentia, ae, f. emphȳsēma, atis, n. empyēma, atis, n. encephalītis, idis, f. encephalon, ī, n. endocardītis, idis, f. endocrinus, a, um endocytōsis, is, f. endogenēs, es

from, out of ecchymosis (a discoloration of the skin due to extravasation of blood, as in a bruise) ectoderm (outer layer of the skin) eczema (an inflammation of the skin) efferent (conducting away) elastic embolus (a clot or other plug, usually part or all of a thrombus, brought by the blood from another vessel and forced into a smaller one, thus obstructing circulation) eminentia, eminence, tuberosity emphysema (the abnormal presence of air in a tissue or part) empyema (the presence of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity) encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain) encephalon (brain) endocarditis (inflammation of the endocardium) endocrine (secreting internally) endocytosis (the uptake by a cell of material from the environment by invagination of the plasma membrane) endogenous (produced within) 253

epicondylītis, idis, f. epicondylus, ī, m. epidēmicus, a, um epididymis, idis, f. epidūrālis, e epilēpticus, a, um epithēliālis, e epithēlium, iī, n. epitympanicus, a, um equīnovalgus, a, um equīnus, a, um equus, ī, m. erythēma, atis, n. erythēmatōsus, a, um erythroblastōsis, is, f. erythrocytus, ī, m. et eupnoē, ēs, f. euthanasia, ae, f. eutrophia, ae, f. exanthēma, atis, n. exhumatio, ōnis, f. exōcardia, ae, f. exōcrinus, a, um exōcytōsis, is, f. exorotātiō, ōnis, f. extēnsor, ōris, m. (m.) exterior, exterius externus, a, um extrācellulāris, e extrācraniālis, e extrāctiō, ōnis, f. extractum, ī, n. extrāuterīnus, a, um extrēmitās, ātis, f. extrēmus, a, um exulcerātiō, ōnis, f.

epicondylitis (inflammation of epicondyle) epicondyle epidemic epididymis (an elongated cordlike structure along the posterior border of the testis) epidural (on or over the dura mater) epileptic (pertaining to or affected with epilepsy) epithelial epithelium epitympanic equinovalgus (raised, everted and abducted from the body midline) equine, of or belonging to horses horse erythema (redness of the skin, usually occurring in patches, caused by irritation or injury to the tissue) reddish erythroblastosis (two potentially disabling or fatal blood disorders in infants: Rh incompatibility disease and ABO incompatibility disease) erythrocyte (red blood cell) and eupnea (normal respiration) euthanasia (the deliberate ending of life of a person suffering from an incurable disease) eutrophia (good nourishment) exanthema (a disease, such as measles or scarlet fever, accompanied by a skin eruption) exhumation exocardia (displacement of the heart outside) exocrine exocytosis (the discharge from a cell of particles that are too large to diffuse through the wall) exorotation (external rotation) extensor (muscle) exterior, outer external, outer extracellular (situated or occurring outside a cell or cells) extracranial (outside of the cranial cavity) extraction extract extrauterine extremity extreme, the outermost, utmost exulceration 254

F faciālis, e faciēs, ēī, f. faex, faecis, f. fascia, ae, f. fasciculātus, a, um fasciculus, ī, m. febrīlis, e febris, is, f. felleus, a, um fēminīnus, a, um femur, oris, n. fenestra, ae, f. fētālis, e fētus, us, m. fibra, ae, f. fibrodysplasia, ae, f. fibrōsis, is, f. fibrōsus, a, um fibula, ae, f. fībulāris, e fīlum, ī, n. fissūra, ae, f. fistula, ae, f. fixus, a, um flāvus, a, um flexor, ōris, m, (m.) flexūra, ae, f. forāmen, inis, n. fornix, icis, m. fossa, ae, f. fovea, ae, f. frāctūra, ae, f. frāctus, a, um fragilis, e fragilitās, ātis, f. frēnulum, ī, n. frēnum, ī, n. frondōsus, a, um frons, ntis, f. frontālis, e

facial face, surface, impression feces (stool, excrement) fascia (band or sheet of connective tissue) fasciculate, fasciculated fascicle (bundle of structures) febrile fever biliary feminine, female femur (the thigh bone, extending from the pelvis to the knee) window fetal (pertaining to fetus) fetus (the developing young in the uterus) fibre fibrodysplasia (abnormality in development of fibrous connective tissue) fibrosis (degenerative disease of the fibrous tissue) fibrous fibula (calf bone) fibular thread, cord, fiber (any threadlike anatomical structure) fissure fistula (a permanent abnormal passageway between two organs in the body) fixed yellow flexor (muscle) flexure foramen (opening, aperture, hole) fornix (vault, arch) fossa (a depression, a hollow) fovea (a small pit or depression, facet, fossa) fracture fractured, broken fragile fragility frenulum (little bridle, a small fold of tissue that secures or restricts the motion of a mobile organ in the body) bridle, curb full of leaves, leafy forehead frontal 255

functiō, ōnis, f.

function

G galactorrhoea, ae, f.

galactorrhea (1. excessive flow of milk from the breasts during lactation; 2. spontaneous milk flow not associated with childbirth or the nursing of an infant)

gallus, ī, m. ganglion, iī, n.

gallus (cock bird) ganglion (a small, usually hard bump above a tendon or in the capsule that encloses a joint) gangraena, ae, f. gangrene (death and decay of tissue as the result of interrupted blood supply, disease, or injury) gastēr, tris, f. stomach gastrectomia, ae, f. gastrectomy (surgical removal of all or part of the stomach) gastricus, a, um gastric gastritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach) gastrītis, idis, f. gastroduodenostomia, ae, gastroduodenostomy (a surgical operation in which the f. duodenum is joined to a new opening in the stomach, esp to bypass an obstruction) gastrostomia, ae, f. gastrostomy (surgical formation of an artificial opening into the stomach from the skin surface: used for feeding) gemellus, a, um gemellus (twin, paired, double) genitālis, e genital genū, ūs, n. knee gerontologia, ae, f. gerontology, geriatrics gigantismus, ī, m. giantism (excessive growth) gingīvītis, idis, f. gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) glandula, ae, f. gland glans, ndis, f. glans (acorn, oak nut) glaucōma, atis, n. glaucoma (a disease of the eye in which pressure within the eyeball damages the optic disc) globus, ī, m. globus, globe (a round body, a ball) glomerulonephrītis, idis, glomerulonephritis (an inflammation of the glomeruli, bundles of f. tiny vessels inside the kidneys) glomerulous (related to a small ball) glomerulōsus, a, um glomerulus, ī, m. glomerulus (plexus of capillaries) glomus, eris, n. body, ball, enlargement glōssodynia, ae, f. glossodynia (pain in the tongue) glōssopharyngeus, a, um glossopharyngeal (pertaining to the tongue and pharynx) glottis, idis, f. glottis (the vocal apparatus of the larynx) glūteus, a, um gluteus, gluteal glycogenēs, es glycogenous (relating to the formation of sugar in the liver) gonarthrōsis, is, f. gonarthrosis (arthrosis of the knee) gonorrhoea, ae, f. gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the genitals and urinary tract) gracilis, e gracile (slim, thin) 256

gradus, ūs, m. grānulāris, e grānulōsus, a, um gravida, ae, f. graviditās, ātis, f. gravidus, a, um gravior, ius gravis, e gravissimus, a, um gravitās, ātis, f. gustatōrius, a, um gynaecologia, ae, f. gȳrus, ī, m.

grade granular (of, like, containing, or resembling a granule or granules) granulous pregnant woman gravidity, pregnancy pregnant, burdened more serious, more severe heavy, hard, serious, grave, severe the most serious, severe gravity (weight) gustatory gynecology gyrus (one of the many convolutions of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres caused by infolding of the cortex, separated by fissures or sulci)

H haematemesis, is, f. haematologia, ae, f. haematōma, atis, n. haematūria, ae, f. haemolysis, is, f. haemophilia, ae, f.

haemorrhagia, ae, f. haemostasis, is, f. hallūx, ūcis, m. hēmiplēgia, ae, f. hēmisphērium, iī, n. hēpar, atis, n. hēpaticus, a, um hēpatītis, idis, f. hēpatocōlicus, a, um hēpatōma, atis, n. hēpatōsis, is, f. hernia, ae, f. heterochrōmia, ae, f. hiātus, ūs, m. hidrōsis, is, f. hīlum, ī, n.

hematemesis (vomiting of the blood) hematology haematoma (an accumulation of free blood anywhere in the body, that has partially clotted to form a semi-solid mass) haematuria (presence of the blood in the urine) hemolysis (rupture or destruction of red blood cells) hemophilia (an inheritable disease, usually affecting only males but transmitted by women to their male children, characterized by loss or impairment of the normal clotting ability of blood so that a minor wound may result in fatal bleeding) haemorrhage, bleeding hemostasis (stagnation of the blood) hallux (great toe of the foot) hemiplegia (half paralysis, of one side of the body) hemisphere liver hepatic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver tissue) hepatocolic (relating to the liver and colon) hepatoma (tumour of the liver tissue) hepatosis (degenerative disease of the liver) hernia ( a bulge or protrusion of an organ through the structure or muscle that usually contains it) heterochromia (diversity of color in a part normally of one color) hiatus (opening, gap, aperture, cleft) hidrosis (excessive sweating) hilum (a little thing, a trifle) 257

hippocampus, ī, m.

hippocampus (a curved elevation of gray matter on the floor of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle, a major component of the brain) Hippocraticus, a, um Hippocratic histologia, ae, f. histology (study of the organic tissues) homeostasis, is, f. homeostasis (a tendency to equilibrium or stability in the normal physiological states of the organism) humerus, ī, m. humerus (the bone that extends from the shoulder to the elbow) hūmidus, a, um humid hydrocephalus, ī, m. hydrocephalus (condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain) hydrocystis, is, f. hydrocyst hydrothōrāx, cis, m. hydrothorax (accumulation of serous fluid in one or both pleural cavities) hyperaemia, ae, f. hyperemia (the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body) hyperalgēsia, ae, f. hyperalgesia (an extreme sensitivity to pain) hypercalcaemia, ae, f. hypercalcemia (a heightened level of calcium in the blood) hypercapnia, ae, f. hypercapnia (an abnormally high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood) hyperemesis, is, f. hyperemesis (extreme and unrelenting vomiting) hyperglycaemia, ae, f. hyperglycemia (an abnormally large amount of sugar in the blood) hypercholēsterolemia, ae, hypercholesterolemia (the presence of an abnormal amount of f. cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood) hyperkalemia, ae, f. hyperkalemia (an abnormally high concentration of potassium ions in the blood) hypernatremia, ae, f. hypernatremia (an abnormally high plasma concentration of sodium ions) hyperōpia, ae, f. hyperopia (far-sightedness) hyperphagia, ae, f. hyperphagia (abnormally increased appetite for and consumption of food, thought to be associated with a lesion or injury in the hypothalamus) hyperplasia, ae, f. hyperpyrexia, ae, f. hyperthermia, ae, f. hypertonia, ae, f. hypertrophia, ae, f. hypervītaminōsis, is, f. hypogastricus, a, um hypoglōssus, a, um

hyperplasia (an abnormal increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ, with consequent enlargement of the part or organ) hyperpyrexia (abnormally high fever) hyperthermia (abnormally high fever) hypertonia (extreme tension of the muscles or arteries) hypertrophy (enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to increase in size of its constituent cells) hypervitaminosis (the condition resulting from the chronic excessive intake of vitamins) hypogastric hypoglossal

258

hypoglycaemia, ae, f. hypomania, ae, f. hypophysis, is, f. hypoplasia, ae, f. hypostasis, is, f. hypothalamus, ī, m. hypothermia, ae, f. hypotonia, ae, f. hypoxia, ae, f. hysteropathia, ae, f.

hypoglycemia (an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the circulating blood) hypomania (less severe than full mania) pituitary gland hypoplasia (incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue) hypostasis (poor or stagnant circulation, often with a deposit or sediment, in a dependent part of the body or an organ) hypothalamus (the part of the diencephalon forming the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle) hypothermia (abnormally low fever) hypotonia (a deficiency of muscle tone) hypoxia (deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues) hysteropathy (any disease of uterus)

I icterus, ī, m. ignōtus, a, um īleocaecālis, e īlia, īlium, n. īliacus, a, um īliococcygeus, a, um īliocostālis, e īliopsoās (m.) impotentia, ae, f. īmus, a, um in (+Acc. / Abl.) incīsiō, ōnis, f. incīsīvus, a, um incīsūra, ae, f. incomplētus, a, um incontinentia, ae, f. index, icis, m. infans, ntis, m. infantīlis, e īnfarctus, ūs, m. īnferior, ius īnferodexter, tra, trum īnfimus, a, um īnfrāclaviculāris, e īnfrāorbitālis, e

jaundice unknown ileocecal (pertaining to the ileum and cecum) ilium (the groin, that part of the abdomen which extends from the lowest ribs to the pubes) iliac iliococcygeal (relating to the ilium and the coccyx) iliocostal (pertaining to the ilium and ribs) iliopsoas (m.) (one of the pair of muscle complexes that flex, adduct, and laterally rotate the thigh and the lumbar vertebral column, consisting of the psoas major and the iliacus) impotency (lacking physical strength or vigor; weak) the lowest in, on, into incision incisive, incisor incisure, notch incomplete incontinence index (forefinger) baby infantile infarction inferior (lower) inferodextral the lowest infraclavicular (below the clavicle) infraorbital (below the orbita) 259

infrāspīnātus, a, um infundibulum, ī, n.

infraspinous (beneath the spine of the scapula) infundibulum (any of various funnel-shaped bodily passages, openings, structures, or parts) injection injectiō, ōnis, f. inoperābilis, e inoperable (unsuitable for a surgical procedure) insipidus, a, um tasteless, insipid insufficientia, ae, f. insufficiency intentiō, ōnis, f. intention, design intercaverōsus, a, um intercavernous (between two cavernal sinuses, cavities) intercondylāris, e intercondylar (between two condyles) intercostālis,e intercostal (between the ribs) interior, interius interior, internal, inner intermedius, a, um intermediate internus, a, um internal, inner interosseus, a, um interosseous (placed between bones) interphalangeus, a, um interphalangeal (between two phalanges) interspinal (between two spines) interspīnālis, e, interstitium, iī, n. interstice (a space between) intertransversārius, a, um intertransverse (situated between or connecting the transverse processes of the vertebra) intestīnālis, e intestinal intestīnum, ī, n. intestine intimus, a, um the innermost intrācellulāris, e intracellular (within a cell or cells) intrācrāniālis, e intracranial (within the skull) intrālobulāris, e intralobular (within a lobule, inside lobes or lobules) intrauterine (within the uterus) intrāuterīnus, a, um īris, idis, f. iris (the circular pigmented membrane behind the cornea) ischaemia, ae, f. ischemia (local anemia due to mechanical obstruction - mainly arterial narrowing - of the blood supply; often marked by pain and by organ dysfunction) ischiadicus, a, um isthmīcus, a, um iuvans, ntis

ischiatic, sciatic (pertaining to the ischium - the inferior, dorsal portion of the hip bone) isthmic (pertaining to isthmus - a narrow connection between two larger bodies or parts) helping, supporting

J jējūnum, ī, n. jugum, ī, n. jūnctūra, ae, f. juvenīlis, e juvenis, is, m.

jejunum (part of the small intestine extending from the duodenum to the ileum) yoke juncture juvenile young man

260

juxtāpositiō, ōnis, f.

juxtaposition (apposition; a placing side by side or close together; the condition of being side by side or close together)

K karyon, ī, n. keratītis, idis, f. keratoderma, atis, n. keratodermia, ae, f. kernicterus, ī, m.

kinēsialgia, ae, f. kyphōsis, is, f.

karyon (the nucleus of a cell) keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) keratoderma (hypertrophy of the horny layer of the skin) keratodermia (any skin disorder consisting of a growth that appears horny) kernicterus (jaundice associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin, or in small premature infants with more modest degrees of bilirubinemia) kinesialgia (pain caused by muscular movement) kyphosis (an abnormally excessive convex kyphotic curvature of the spine)

L labiālis, e labium, iī, n. labyrinthus, ī, m. lac, lactis, n. lacer, era, erum lactifer, fera, ferum lacūna, ae, f. laesiō, ōnis, f. lalopathia, ae, f. lamina, ae, f. laparoscopia, ae, f. laparotomia, ae, f. larynx, ngis, m. laterālis, e lātissumus, a, um lātitūdō, inis, f. lātus, a, um latus, eris, n. lens, ntis, f. leptodactylia, ae, f. leptomēninx, ngis, f. lētālis, e lēthargicus, a, um leucaemia, ae, f. leucopenia, ae, f. levātor, ōris, m. (m.) līber, era, erum lībra, ae, f.

labial 1. lip; 2. liplike structure; 3. margin; 4 fold labyrinth milk lacerated, torn to pieces lactifer (milk-bringing) lacuna, space laesion lalopathy (any disorder of the speech) lamina laparoscopy (visual examination of abdominal cavity) laparotomy (surgical incision into abdominal cavity) larynx lateral the widest latitude broad, wide, deep flank, side lens leptodactylia (having slender fingers) leptomeninx (arachnoid mater and pia mater) deadly, fatal, mortal lethargic (drowsy; apathetic, feeling a lack of energy) leukemia (malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues) leucopenia (reduction in the number of white cells in the blood) levator (muscle) free balance 261

ligāmentum, ī, n. līmen, inis, n. līnea, ae, f. lingua, ae, f. lingula, ae, f. lipōma, atis, n. lipotrophia, ae, f. lithiāsis, is, f. lithotrīpsia, ae, f. lobulus, ī, m. lobus, ī, m. locus, ī, m. logorrhoea, ae, f. longior, ius longissimus, a, um longitūdō, inis, f. longus, a, um lūcidus, a, um lumbāgo, inis, f. lumbālis, e lumbus, ī, m. lupus, ī, m. lūteus, a, um lymphaticus, a, um lymphoīdeus, a, um lymphōma, atis, n.

ligament treshold, boundary line line tongue small tongue lipoma (fatty tumour) lipotrophy (increase of bodily fat) lithiasis (formation of stones) lithotripsy (the use of ultrasound, often generated by a lithotripter, to pulverize kidney stones and gallstones in situ) lobule lobe place logorrhea (abnormal talkativeness) longer the longest longitude long lucid (containing light, bright, shining) lumbago (a painful condition of the lower back) lumbar (of, near, or situated in the part of the back and sides between the lowest ribs and the pelvis) loin lupus (wolf; a chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity) yellow lymphatic lymphoid lymphoma (any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue)

M macroglōssia, ae, f. macrosōmia, ae, f. macrostomia, ae, f. macrōtia, ae, f. macula, ae, f. magnus, a, um māior, ius (mājor, jus) malformātiō, ōnis, f. malignus, a, um malleus, ī, m. malus, a, um mamma, ae, f. mammārius, a, um

macroglossia (abnormally large tongue) macrosomia (abnormally large body) macrostomia (abnormally large size of the mouth) macrotia (excessive enlargement of the auricle) a spot, mark, stain great, large, big major (bigger) malformation (distortion of any part or of the body in general) malignant malleus, hammer (the outermost and largest of the three ossicles of the ear) bad breast mammary (pertaining to the mammary gland or breast) 262

mandibula, ae, f. mandibulāris, e mania, ae, f. manūbrium, ī, n. manus, ūs, f. marginālis, e margō, inis, m. masculīnus, a, um massētēr, ēris, m. (m.) mastalgia, ae, f. mastoīdeus, a, um māter, tris, f. maxilla, ae, f. maximus, a, um meātus, ūs, m. mēcōnium, iī, n. mediālis, e mediānus, a, um medicāmentum, ī, n. medicīna, ae, f. medius, a, um medulla, ae, f. medullāris, e megacōlon, ī, n. megalocardia, ae, f. melanōma, atis, n. melior, ius mellītus, a, um membrāna, ae, f. membrānāceus, a, um membrum, ī, n. mēningeus, a, um mēningītis, idis, f. mēninx, ngis, f. mēniscus, ī, m.

mentālis, e mentum, ī, n.

mandible mandibular madness manubrium (a handle, hilt, haft, that which is grasped or held in the hand) hand marginal margin, border masculine, male masseter (a thick muscle in the cheek that closes the jaws during chewing) mastalgia (pain of breast) mastoid (1. resembling a mamma; breast-shaped; 2. relating to the mastoid process, antrum) mother maxilla (upper jawbone) the biggest, the largest meatus (opening, passage) meconium (the first intestinal discharges of the newborn infant, greenish in color and consisting of epithelial cells, mucus, and bile) medial median medicament, remedy medicine middle medulla (the middle of something) medullary (containing or consisting of or resembling bone marrow) megacolon (dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon) megalocardia (abnormally large heart) melanoma (tumor comprised of darkly pigmented cells) better honey-sweet membrane membranaceous limb meningeal meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) meninx (membrane) meniscus (a crescentic fibrocartilaginous structure of the knee and the acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and temporomandibular joints) mental (e.g. facial muscle of chin) chin 263

mēralgia, ae, f. mesencephalon, ī, n. mesocōlon, ī, n. metacarpus, ī, m. metacarpālis, e metastasis, is, f. metatarsālis, e metatarsus, ī, m. metencephalon, ī, n. methodus, ī, f. mētrodynia, ae, f. mētrorrhagia, ae, f. mīcrocephalia, ae, f. mīcrosōmia, ae, f. mīcrōtia, ae, f. migrāns, antis minimus, a, um minor, minus mōbilis, e molāris, e mollis, e monoarticulāris, e monoplēgia, ae, f. mons, ntis, m. morbus, ī, m. mors, rtis, f. morsus, a, um mortālis, e mortālitās, ātis, f. mūcōsus, a, um multī, ae, a multifidus, a, um multilaterālis, e multiplex, icis multus, a, um mūs, mūris,m. mūsculāris, e mūsculus, ī, m.

meralgia (pain in the thigh) mesencephalom, midbrain mesocolon (the peritoneal process attaching the colon to the posterior abdominal wall) metacarpus (the five bones of the hand between the carpus and the phalanges) metacarpal (pertaining to the metacarpus) metastasis (the spreading of a disease, esp. cancer cells, from one part of the body to another) metatarsal (pertaining to the metatarsus) metatarsus (the part of the foot between the ankle and the toes) metencephalon (hindbrain) method metrodynia (pain in the uterus) metrorrhagia (any irregular, acyclic bleeding from the uterus between periods) microcephaly (abnormal smallnes of head) microsomia (abnormally small body) microtia (abnormally small auricle of the ear) migratory the smallest minor, smaller mobile molar (a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food, located behind the premolars) soft monoarticular (referring to one joint) monoplegia (paralysis of one part, side) mons (mountain, mass, heap) disease, illness death bitten mortal mortality mucous (1. pertaining to or resembling mucus; 2. covered with mucus; 3. secreting, producing, or containing mucus) many multifid (with many clefts or segments) multilateral multiple many mouse muscular muscle

264

myelencephalon, ī, n. myelītis, idis, f. myocardium, iī, n. myopathia, ae, f. myōpia, ae, f. myosītis, idis, f.

myelencephalon (afterbrain, the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which medulla oblongāta develps) myelitis (inflammation of the white matter or gray matter of the spinal cord) myocard (the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle) myopathy (any affection of the muscles or muscular system) myopia (nearsightedness) myositis (inflammation of the muscle)

N narcōsis, is, f. nāsālis, e nāsofrontālis, e nāsus, ī, m. necrōsis, is, f. necroticus, a, um neonātus, a, um neonātus, ī, m. neoplasma, atis, n. nephrītis, idis, f. nephrōma, atis, n. nephromegalia, ae, f. nephropathia, ae, f. nephros, ī, m. nephrōsis, is, f. nervōsus, a, um nervus, ī, m. neuralgia, ae, f. neurītis, idis, f. neurohypophysis, is, f. niger, gra, grum nōdōsus, a, um nōdus, ī, m. nōnus, a, um nūcleuolus, ī, m. nūcleus, ī, m. nucha, ae, f. nūllus, a, um nūtrīcius, a, um nyctūria, ae, f. nystagmus, ī, m.

narcosis (a condition of deep stupor or unconsciousness produced by a drug or other chemical substance) nasal nasofrontal (of or relating to the nasal and frontal bones) nose necrosis (death of cells through injury or disease, especially in a localized area of a tissue or organ) necrotic (dead when referring to tissue) newborn neonate neoplasm (abnormal growth of new tissue such as a tumor) nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys) nephroma (tumour of the kidney tissue) nephromegaly (enlargement of the kidneys) nephropathy (any disease of the kidneys) kidney nephrosis (degenerative disease of the kidney) nervous nerv neuralgia (pain of nerv) neuritis (inflammation of the nerves) neurohypophysis (the neural portion or posterior lobe of the hypophysis) black nodose node ninth little kernel kernel nape none nutrient nycturia (excessive urination at night) nystagmus (a condition of involuntary eye movement) 265

O oblīquus, a, um oblongātus, a, um oblongus, a, um obstētrix, īcis, f. obstructiō, ōnis, f. obtūrātōrius, a, um occipitālis, e occipitofrontālis, e occiput, itis, n. octāvus, a, um oculāris, e oculomōtōrius, a, um oculus, ī, m. odontalgia, ae, f. oedēma, atis, n. oesophagus, ī, m. ōlecrānon, ī, n. olfactōrius, a, um oligūria, ae, f. omnis, e ōophorus, a, um ophthalmia, ae, f. opticus, a, um optimus, a, um ōra, ae, f. orbiculāris, e orbita, ae, f. orbitālis, e organum, ī, n. orīgo, inis, f. ōs, ōris, n. os, ossis, n. osseus, a, um ossiculum, ī, n. ossificāns, antis ossificātiō, ōnis, f. osteītis, ītidis, f. osteochondropathia, ae, f. osteochondrōsis, is, f.

oblique rather long, longish; oblong oblong, longish midwife obstruction obturate, obturator occipital occipitofrontal (pertaining to the occiput and the forehead) occiput (the back part of the head) eighth ocular oculomotor eye odontalgia (pain in the tooth) edema (an abnormal accumulation of fluid in intercellular spaces of the body) esophagus (the passage between the pharynx and the stomach) olecranon (the bony projection of the ulna at the elbow) olfactory oliguria (scanty urination) all bearing eggs ophthalmia (inflammation of the eye, especially of the conjunctiva) optic the best border, brim, edge, margin orbicular, circular orbit orbital organ origin mouth bone osseous, bony ossicle (small bone) ossifying (forming or turning into bone) ossification osteitis (inflammation of a bone or bone tissue) osteochondropathy (a disease of the bone and cartilage) osteochondrosis (orthopedic diseases of the joint that occur in children and adolescents and in rapidly growing animals) 266

osteogenesis, is, f. osteōma, atis, n. osteomalacia, ae, f. osteon, ī, n. osteoporōsis, is, f. ōstium, iī, n. ōticus, a, um ōtītis, ītidis, f. ōtodynia, ae, f. ōtosclērōsis, is, f. ovālis, e ōvārium, iī, n. ōvum, ī, n.

osteogenesis (development of the bones) osteoma (tumour of the bone tissue) osteomalacia (softening of the bones) osteon (the basic unit of structure of compact bone, comprising a haversian canal and its concentrically arranged lamellae) osteoporosis (porous bones) ostium (opening) otic (of or relating to the ear) otitis (inflammationf of the ear) earache otosclerosis (an excessive growth in the bones of the middle ear which interferes with the transmission of sound) oval ovary ovum (the female reproductive cell)

P paediātria, ae, f. pachymēninx, ngis, f. palātīnus, a, um palātopharyngeus, a, um palātum, ī, n. pallidus, a, um palma, ae, f. palmāris, e palmātus, a, um palmoplantāris, e palpebra, ae, f. pancreas, atis, n. pānōtītis, idis, f. panphlebītis, idis, f. papilla, ae, f.

paracōlicus, a, um paraduodēnālis, e paraesthēticus, a, um paralysis, is, f. paranāsālis, e paranoia, ae, f.

pediatrics (field of medicine that is concerned with the health of infants, children, and adolescents) pachymeninx, dura mater, dura (thick membrane) palatine (belonging to the palate) palatopharyngeal (pertaining to the palate and the pharynx) palate pale, pallid palm palmar palmate palmoplantar (pertaining to palms and soles) eyelid pancreas (a large, elongated, racemose gland located transversely behind the stomach) panotitis (inflammation of all structures of the ear) panphlebitis (inflammation of all veins) papilla (1. a small nipplelike projection, such as a protuberance on the skin, at the root of a hair or feather, or at the base of a developing tooth; 2. one of the small, round or cone-shaped protuberances on the top of the tongue that contain taste buds) paracolic (near the colon) paraduodenal (near the duodenum) paresthetic (denoting numbness and tingling) paralysis (complete loss of strength in an affected limb or muscle group) paranasal (near the nose) paranoia 267

paraplēgia, ae, f.

paraplegia (complete paralysis of the lower half of the body including both legs, usually caused by damage to the spinal cord) parathyroīdeus, a, um parathyroid (situated near the thyroid gland) wall pariēs, ētis, m. pariētālis, e parietal (of, relating to, or forming the walls or part of the walls of a bodily cavity or similar structure) parōtideus, a, um parotid parōtītis, idis, f. parotitis (inflammation of the parotid glands) pars, rtis, f. part partiālis, e partial partus, ūs, m. childbirth, delivery, parturition parvocellulāris, e parvocellular parvus, a, um small pecten, inis, m. pecten (comb, resembling a comb) pectorālis, e pectoral pectus, oris, n. front of the chest, breast pēior, peius (pējor, pejus) worse pellūcidus, a, um pellucid, transparent pelvis, is, f. pelvis pēnis, is, m. penis per (+ Acc.) through, during, by means of perforāns, antis perforating perforated, penetrated perforātus, a, um pericardium, iī, n. pericardium peripherīa, ae, f. circumference, periphery periphericus, a, um peripheral (pertaining to or situated at or near the periphery) peritoneālis, e peritoneal (of or relating to or affecting the peritoneum) peritoneum, ī, n. peritoneum (the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (parietal peritoneum) and investing contained viscera (visceral peritoneum) peritonītis, idis, f. periūrethrālis, e perivāsculāris, e permanēns, entis persistēns, ntis pertussis, is, f. pēs, pedis, m. pessimus, a, um petechia, ae, f. phalanx, gis, f. pharmacopaedia, ae, f. pharyngeālis, e

peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum) periurethral (around the urethra) perivascular (of, relating to, occurring in, or being the tissues surrounding a blood vessel) permanent persistent whooping cough foot, any footlike part worst petechia (purplish red spot caused by intradermal or submucous hemorrhage) phalanx pharmacopedia (information concerning drugs and their preparation) pharyngeal 268

pharyngeus, a, um pharynx, ngis, f. phlebectasia, ae, f. phlebītis, idis, f. phlebostenōsis, is, f. pigmentōsus, a, um piriformis, e pius, a, um planta, ae, f. plānus, a, um pleura, ae, f.

pharyngeus pharynx phelebectasia (dilation of vein) phlebitis (inflammation of the vein) phlebostenosis (narrowing of the vein) pigmentary piriform (having shape of pear) tender, delicate, pious sole flat, plane pleura (the serous membrane investing the lungs (visceral or pulmonary pleura) and lining the walls of the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)

pleurālis, e plexus, ūs, m. plica, ae, f. plicātus, a, um plūrēs, plūra plūrimī, ae, a pneumonia, ae, f. poena, ae, f. pollex, icis, m. polyarthrītis, idis, f. polymyalgia, ae, f. polyneurītis, idis, f. pons, ntis, m. popliteus, a, um porta, ae, f. portiō, ōnis, f. porus, ī, m. positiō, ōnis, f. post (+ Acc.) postcentrālis, e posterior, ius postnātālis, e postraumaticus, a, um postrēmus, a, um praecox, cocis praenātālis, e praesacrālis, e prīmārius, a, um prīmipara, ae, f. prīmus, a, um princeps, ipis

pleural (of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax) plexus (network of nerves / blood vessels) plica, fold folded more the most pneumonia (an inflammatory infection of the lung) penalty, punishment thumb polyarthritis (inflammation of several joints) polymyalgia (pain of many muscles) polyneuritis (inflammation of many nervs) pons (bridge) popliteal (at the back of knee) porta (gate) part opening, hole, passage, channel, pore position after postcentral posterior postnatal postraumatic the last, hindmost premature, precocious prenatal presacral primary primipara (a woman giving birth to her first child) first princeps (first, main) 269

prō (+ Abl.) prōcessus, ūs, m. profundus, a, um progenīa, ae, f. prognathia, ae, f. prognōsis, is, f. prōgressīvus, a, um prōlapsus, ūs, m. prōmīnēns, entis prōnātor, ōris, m. (m.) prōphylaxis, is, f. propior, propius prōprius, a, um prosencephalon, ī, n. prostata, ae, f. proximālis, e proximus, a, um pseudoicterus, ī, m. psoa, ās, f. (greek) psychogenēsis, is, f.

psychologia, ae, f. psychotherapia, ae, f. pūbertās, ātis, f. pūbes, is, f. pūbicus, a, um pūborēctālis, e pūbovēsīcālis, e pudendum, ī, n. puer, ī, m. pulcher, chra, chrum pulmo, ōnis, m. pulmonālis, e pulpa, ae, f. pulpōsus, a, um pulsus, ūs, m. pulvis, eris, m. punctum, ī, n. pūnctus, a, um pūpilla, ae, f.

for process deep, profound progenia (abnormal protrusion of one or both jaws) prognathism (abnormal forward projection of one or of both jaws) prognosis progressive prolapse prominent pronator (a muscle that turns a part into the prone position) prophylaxis (measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease) nearer proper prosencephalon (forebrain) prostate proximal nearest pseudoicterus (false jaundice) groin psychogenesis (origin and development of the psychic processes including mental, behavioral, emotional, personality, and related psychological processes) psychology psychotherapy puberty (virility) pubis (the lower part of the abdomen, especially the region surrounding the external genitals) pubic (of or relating to the pubes) puborectal (relating to the pubic bone and the rectum) pubovesical (pertaining to the pubis and bladder) pudendum (external genitalia of the female) boy beautiful lung pulmonary pulp pulpy, fleshy pulse powder point, puncture, end stabbed pupil (of the eye)

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purpura, ae, f.

purpura (a hemorrhagic disease characterized by extravasation of blood into the tissues, under the skin, and through the mucous membranes, and producing spontaneous bruises, ecchymoses, and petechiae on the skin)

pūs, ūris, n.

pus (fluid product of inflammation, consisting of a liquid containing leukocytes and the debris of dead cells and tissue elements) pyelocystitis (inflammation of the renal pelvis and the bladder) pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis) pylorus (the lower orifice of the stomach) pyorrhea (copious discharge of pus)

pyelocystītis, idis, f. pyelonephrītis, idis, f. pylōrus, ī, n. pyorrhoea, ae, f.

Q quādrātus, a, um quadriceps, cipitis quadriplēgia, ae, f. quadruplex, icis quartus, a, um quercus, ūs, f. quintus, a, um

quadrate, four-sided quadriceps (having four heads) quadriplegia (paralysis of all four limbs) quadruple fourth oak tree fifth

R radiālis, e

radiātus, a, um rādīcula, ae, f. radius, iī, m.

radial (1. relating to the radius, to any structures named from it, or to the radial or lateral aspect of the upper limb compared with the ulnar or medial aspect; 2. relating to any radius; 3. radiating; diverging in all directions from any given center) radiate (furnished with rays, irradiated, shining) rootlet, small root radius (1. the bone on the outer or thumb side of the forearm; 2. a line radiating from a center, or a circular limit defined by a fixed distance from an established point or center)

rādīx, īcis, f. rachītis, ītidis, f.

root rickets (defective mineralization or calcification of bones due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium, potentially leading to fractures and deformity)

rāmus, ī, m. raphē, ēs, f. ratiō, ōnis, f.

branch raphe (suture, seam) ratio (an expression of the quantity of one substance or entity in relation to that of another) recess rectum (the terminal portion of the large intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anal canal) straight, upright recurvate (bent back) reflex (a bending back; an involuntary action or response) resort, refuge

recessus, ūs, m. rēctum, ī, n. rēctus, a, um recurvātus, a, um reflexus, ūs, m. refugium, iī, n.

271

regiō, ōnis, f. remedium, iī, n. rēn, rēnis, m. rēnālis, e resectiō , ōnis, f. resistentia, ae, f. rēte, is, n. rēticulāris, e rēticulum , i, n. rētina, ae, f. retināculum, ī, n. rētinītis, ītidis, f. rētrōambiguus, a, um rētrōcaecālis, e rētrōmandibulāris, e reūniēns, entis rheum, ī, n. rheumaticus, a, um rheumatismus, ī, m. rhomboīdeus, a, um rigor, ōris, m. rīma, ae, f. rīsōrius, a, um rotātor, ōris, m. (m.) rotundus, a, um rubor, ōris, m. ruptūra, ae, f. ruptus, a, um

region remedy, medicine kidney renal resection resistance network reticular (resembling a net in form; netlike) reticule (fine network or net-like structure) retina (the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue) retinaculum, ligament (that which holds back or binds; band, halter, rope, cable) retinitis (inflammation of the retina) retro-ambiguous (having more than one direction behind, wandering back, behind) retrocecal (behind the i. caecum) retromandibular (behind the mandible) reuniting, connecting rheum (a mucous or watery discharge) rheumatic rheumatism (any of various rheumatic diseases and disorders, especially rheumatoid arthritis) rhomboid (shaped like a rectangle that has been skewed to one side so that the angles are oblique) rigor, stiffness, rigidity fissure, opening, cleft risorius (smiling, a facial muscle that draws the angle of the mouth outward and is used when smiling) rotator (muscle) rotund, circular, wheel-shaped redness (from ruber = red) rupture ruptured

S sacer, cra, crum sacrococcygeus, a, um salpingītis, idis, f. sānātiō, ōnis, f. sānātōrium, iī, n. sanguineus, a, um sanguis, inis, m. sānitās, ātis, f. saphēnus, a, um

sacral, saint sacrococcygeal (pertaining to the sacrum and the coccyx) salpingitis (inflammation of the salpinx - part of uterine tube) healing, curing sanatorium sanguineous, bloody, of blood blood sanity (soundness of mind, health) saphenous (relating to or associated with a saphenous vein) 272

sartōrius, a, um scāla, ae, f. scalpellum, ī, n. scalprum, ī, n. scapula, ae, f. schizophrēnia, ae, f. scissus, a, um sclēra, ae, f. sclērōsis, is, f. sclopetārius, a, um scotōma, ātis, n. scrōtum, ī, n. sēbāceus, a, um sēbum, ī, n. sēcrētiō, ōnis, f. sectus, a, um secundārius, a, um secundus, a, um sella, ae, f. sēmen, inis, n. sēmicanālis, is, m. sēnīlis, e senīlitās, ātis, f. sēpsis, is, f. sēptālis, e septimus, a, um sēptum, ī, n. sequēla, ae, f. serrātus, a, um serum, ī, n. servitūdō, inis, f. servus, ī, m. sextus, a, um siccus, a, um sigmoīdeus, a, um signum, ī, n. simplex, icis sinister, tra, trum sinuatriālis, e sinus, ūs, m.

related to tailor, sewing scala (a ladderlike structure) scalpel, small knife knife scapula (shoulder blade) schizophrenia (split mind) cleft, split, divided sclera (the white of the eye) sclerosis (abnormal hardening of body tissues, such as an artery) caused by projectile, shooting scotoma (dimness of vision) scrotum (a musculocutaneous sac containing the testes) sebaceous (pertaining to or secreting sebum, oily, fatty) sebum (the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands, whose ducts open into the hair follicles) secretion (separation esp. of various substances from the blood) cut secondary second a seat, chair, stool seed (fluid discharged at ejaculation in the male) semichannel senile (belonging to old people) senility sepsis (infection of the blood by disease-causing microorganisms, especially bacteria) septal seventh septum (a wall or partition dividing a body space or cavity) sequel, consequence, result serrated, sawshaped serum (the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the solid elements have been separated out) servitude, slavery slave sixth dry sigmoid (1. shaped like the letter S; 2. of or relating to the sigmoid colon of the large intestine) sign simple left sinu-atrial sinus (a curve, fold, a hollow) 273

siphōn, ōnis, m. sitis, is, f. situs, ūs, m. skeleton, ī, n. skeletālis, e soleus, a, um sōlitārius, a, um spasmolysis, is, f. spasmus, ī, m. spatium, iī, n. speciēs, ēī, f. speciēs, ērum, f. sphēnoīdalis, e sphinctēr, ēris, m. (m.) spīna, ae, f. spīnālis, e spīnocerebellum, ī, n.

spīnōsus, a, um splēn, ēnis, m. splēnalgia, ae, f. splēnicus, a, um splēnius, a, um spondylītis, idis, f. spondylōsis, is, f.

spongiōsus, a, um spurius, a, um squāma, ae, f. squāmōsus, a, um stapēdius, a, um stapēs, pedis, m. status, ūs, m. stenōsis, is, f. sternocleidomastoīdeus, a, um sternocostālis, e

siphon (a bent tube with arms of unequal length) thirst site (original position) skelet skeletal soleus (broad and flat; pertaining to sole) solitary spasmolysis (arrest, relaxation or relief of the spasm) spasm, cramp space species mixture of dried herbs / tea blend sphenoidal (1. wedge-shaped; 2. of or relating to the sphenoid bone) sphincter (constrictor muscle) spine, spina spinal spinocerebellum (the portion of the cerebellum including most of the vermis and the adjacent zones of the cerebellar hemispheres rostral to the primary fissure) spinous, spiny (thorny) spleen splenalgia (pain of the spleen) splenic (pertaining to the spleen) splenius (one of two muscles at the back of the neck, running from the back and sides of the vertebrae to the occipital bone of the skull; the splenius muscles rotate and extend the head) spondylitis (inflammation of the vertebrae) spondylosis (degeneration of the spinal column, especially that resulting in abnormal fusion and immobilization of the vertebral bones) spongy, porous spurious, false scale squamosal, squamous (full of or covered with scales, scaly) pertaining to stapes, stirrup stapes, stirrup (bone in the middle ear) state stenosis (a constriction or narrowing of a duct or passage) sternocleidomastoid (one of two thick muscles running from the sternum and clavicle to the mastoid and occipital bone) sternocostal (pertaining to, or located between the ribs and the sternum)

274

sternum, ī, n.

sternum (a plate of bone forming the middle of the anterior wall of the thorax and articulating with the clavicles and the cartilages of the first seven ribs)

stomachus, ī, m. stomatopathia, ae, f. strātum, ī, n. stria, ae, f. structūra, ae, f. sub (+Acc. / Abl.) subclāvius, a, um subcutāneus, a, um subhēpaticus, a, um sublinguālis, e submandibulāris, e submūcōsus, a, um substantia, ae, f. sulcus, ī, m. summus, a, um superacūtus, a, um superciliāris, e supercilium, ii, n. superficiālis, e superior, ius superolaterālis, e sūpinātor, ōris, m. (m.) suprāclāviculāris, e suprāchoroīdeus, a, um

stomach stomatopathy (any disease of the oral cavity) layer stria (furrow, channel, hollow) structure under subclavian (beneath the clavicle) subcutaneous (under the skin) subhepatic (below the liver) sublingual (beneath the tongue) submandibular (below the mandible) submucous (beneath the mucous membrane) matter, substance sulcus, furrow, groove the highest, topmost superacute superciliary (relating to or situated over the eyebrow) eyebrow superficial (related to the surface) superior (upper, higher) superolateral supinator (muscle) supraclavicular (above the clavicle) suprachoroid (situated above the choroid - middle, vascular coat of the eye) suprarenal (above the kidney) supraspinous (above any spine) suprasternal (above the sternum) supravaginal (above the vagina) the highest, topmost suture symphatetic symphysis (a site or line of union; a type of joint in which the apposed bony surfaces are firmly united by a plate of fibrocartilage symptom syndesmosis (a joint in which the bones are united by fibrous connective tissue forming an interosseous membrane or ligament) syrinx (fluid-filled neuroglial cavity within the spinal cord or in the brain stem) system systole (part of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles contract)

suprārēnālis, e suprāspīnātus, a, um suprāsternālis, e supravāgīnālis, e suprēmus, a, um sūtūra, ae, f. sympaticus, a, um symphysis, is, f. symptōma, atis, n. syndesmōsis, is, f. sȳrinx, ngēs, f. systēma, atis, n. systolē, ēs, f.

275

T tābes, is, f.

tabes (a slowly progressive nervous disorder, from degeneration of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and sensory nerve trunks, resulting in disturbances of sensation and interference with reflexes and consequently with movements)

tabula, ae, f. taenia, ae, f. tachycardia, ae, f. tachyphylaxis, is, f.

table, board, plank taenia, line tachycardia (very fast heart rate) tachyphylaxis (acute, rapid & sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration) talipes (foot deformity) talus (ankle bone) tarsus (1. the seven bones composing the ankle joint; 2. the fibrous plates giving solidity and form to the edges of the eyelids) roof tegmentum (covering, cover) tela (a thin weblike tissue or structure) telangiectasis (dilation of the small blood vessels at the end) temporal (belonging to the temples) tendinous (pertaining to, resembling, or of the nature of a tendon) tendon tensor (any muscle that stretches or makes tense) tentorium (an anatomical part resembling a tent or covering) thin, fine, slight, small round, rounded terminal (of, being, or situated at an end, terminating in death) third small testicle testicle (testis) thalamus (a large ovoid mass of gray matter situated in the posterior part of the forebrain that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex)

tālīpēs, pedis, m. tālus, ī, m. tarsus, ī, m. tegmen, inis, n. tegmentum, ī, n. tēla, ae, f. tēlangīectasis, is, f. temporālis, e tendineus, a, um tendō, inis, m. tensor, ōris, m. (m.) tentōrium, iī, n. tenuis, e teres, etis terminālis, e tertius, a, um testiculus, ī, m. testis, is, m. thalamus, ī, m.

thōrācicus, a, um thōrācoacrōmiālis, e thōrācocentēsis, is, f. thōrācotomia, ae, f. thōrāx, ācis, m. thrombocytopenia, ae, f. thrombōsis, is, f. thȳmus, ī, m.

thoracic (pertaining to the chest, thorax) thoraco-acromial thoracocentesis (surgical puncture and drainage of the thoracic cavity) thoracotomy (surgical incision of the chest wall) thorax (chest) thrombocytopenia (an abnormally low level of platelets in the circulating blood) thrombosis (formation, development, or presence of a thrombus) thymus (a ductless gland lying in the upper mediastinum beneath the sternum) 276

thyreoīdeus, a, um tībia, ae, f. tonsilla, ae, f. tōnsillītis, ītidis, f. torus, ī, m. tōtālis, e toxicomania, ae, f. trabeculāris, e tractus, ūs, m. trachēa, ae, f. trachēostomia, ae, f. trāchōma, atis, n. trānsfūsiō, ōnis, f. trānsversus, a, um trauma, atis, n. tremens, entis tremor, ōris, m. trigeminus, a, um trichiniāsis, is, f. triplex, icis trochlea, ae, f. trochleāris, e truncus, ī, m. tuba, ae, f. tūbārius, a, um tūber, eris, n. tūberculōsis, is, f. tūberculōsus, a, um tūberculum, ī, n. tūberositās, ātis, f. tūberōsus, a, um tumor, ōris, n. tunica, ae, f. turcicus, a, um tussis, is, f. tympanicus, a, um

thyroid (resembling a shield; denoting a gland (thyroid gland) and a cartilage of the larynx (thyroid cartilage) having such a shape) tibia (shinbone ) tonsil tonsilitis (inflammation of the tonsils) torus, elevation total toxicomania (strong physiological and psychological dependence on a drug or other agent) trabecular (resembling a litle beam) tract trachea (windpipe) tracheostomy (creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck) trachoma (chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes) transfusion (transfer of blood) transverse trauma (injury, wound) shaking, trembling, quivering tremor (a shaking, quaking, quivering, trembling) trigeminal (treefold, triple, triform) trichiniasis (a disease caused by intestinal worms of Trichinella type) triple trochlea (an anatomical structure that resembles a pulley, especially the part of the distal end of the humerus that articulates with the ulna) trochlear (either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes) trunk tube tubal tuber, protuberance tuberculosis (TB) tuberculous tubercle tuberosity tuberous tumor (a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive) membrane, coat Turkish cough tympanic 277

tympanum, ī, n. typhoīdēs, es typicus, a, um

tympanum (eardrum, tympanic cavity and tympanic membrane) typhoid (resembling typhus) typical

U ulcus, eris, n. ulna, ae, f. ulnāris, e ulterior, ulterius ultimus, a, um ultrāligātiō, ōnis, f. undecimus, a, um unguentum, ī, n. unguis, is, m. ūnilaterālis, e urea, ae, f. ūrētēr, ēris, m. ūrētērītis, idis, f. ūrethra, ae, f. ūrinārius, a, um urocystītis, idis, f. ūrologicus, a, um ūsus, ūs, m. uterīnus, a, um uterus, ī, m. ūvula, ae, f.

ulcer ulna (elbow) ulnar ulterior, farther the farthest, last ultraligation (tying or closing off a blood vessel beyond the point where it branches) eleventh oitment nail unilateral (on the one side) urea (the diamide of carbonic acid found in urine, blood, and lymph, the chief nitrogenous constituent of urine) ureter (the tube that conducts the urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder) ureteritis (inflammation of ureter) urethra (a tube connecting the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body) urinary urocystitis (inflammation of urinary bladder) urological use, using uterine uterus uvula (small pendant fleshy mass, small grape)

V vāgīna, ae, f. vagus, a, um valgus, a, um vallum, ī, n. valva, ae, f. valvula, ae, f. varietās, ātis, f. varix, icis, m. vārus, a, um vās, vāsis, n.

1. vagina; 2. any sheath or sheathlike structure vagus (strolling about, rambling, roving, roaming, wandering, unfixed, unsettled, vagrant) valgus (having the calves of the legs bent outwards, outward angulation) wall valve valvula, cusp, a small valve variety varix (an enlarged, tortuous vein, artery, or lymphatic vessel) varus (bent, stretched, or grown inwards, inward angulation) vessel

278

vāsculāris, e vāsculītis, ītidis, f. vāsculōsus, a, um vāsculum, ī, n. vastus, a, um vēlum, ī, n. vēna, ae, f. venerologia, ae, f. vēnōsus, a, um venter, tris, m. ventrālis, e ventriculus, ī, m. vermiformis, e vermis, is, m. vernix, cis, f. vertebra, ae, f. vertebrālis, e vertīgo, inis, f. vērus, a, um vēsīca, ae, f. vēsīcoprostaticus, a, um vēsīcovāgīnālis, e vēsīculōsus, a, um vestibulāris, e vestibulocochleāris, e vestibulum, ī, n. villōsus, a, um vīsus, ūs, m. vīta, ae, f. vitium, iī, n. vītrum, ī, n. vīvisectiō, ōnis, f. vōcālis, e vomitus, ūs, m. vulnus, eris, n.

vascular (of, relating to, or having vessels that conduct and circulate liquids, such as blood, lymph, or sap, through the body) vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) vascular, vasculose small vessel rough, harsh velum (veil) vein venerology (the branch of medicine concerned with venereal diseases) venous (relating to, or of the nature of a vein) belly ventral ventricle vermiform (wormlike) vermis (a worm) vernix (a white substance covering the skin of a fetus) vertebra vertebral vertigo (the sensation of dizziness, a turning or whirling round) true bladder vesicoprostatic (pertaining to the bladder and the prostate gland) vesicovaginal (pertaining to the bladder and vagina) vesiculous, seminal vestibular vestibulocochlear (pertaining to the vestibulocochlear nerve) vestibule villous (hairy, shaggy, rough) vision, sight life defect test-tube, test-glass vivisection (the act or practice of performing experiments on living animals, involving cutting into or dissecting the body) vocal throwing up, vomiting wound

X xanthōma, atis, n. xenophobia, ae, f. xērocheilia, ae, f. xērōsis, is, f.

xanthoma (yellow nodule in the skin) xenophobia (fear of strange things) xerocheilia (dryness of lips) xerosis (abnormal dryness)

279

Z zōna, ae, f. zōnula, ae, f.

zone, belt, girdle zonule

280

English – Latin Dictionary

A abdomen abdominopelvic abducent, abducting abduction abductor (muscle) aberrant (wander from, stray) ablation abortion abraded abscess absence abstinence accessory achalasia acne acorn acquired acquisition acral acrocyanosis acromioclavicular acromion actinotherapy acustic acute adducent adductor (muscle) adenitis adenoma adenomatosis adipose adiposity aditus adrenal adult aerophagia aerophobia afferent

abdōmen, inis, n. abdominopelvicus, a, um abdūcēns, entis abductiō, ōnis, f. abductor, ōris, m. (m.) aberrāns, antis ablātiō, ōnis, f. abortus, ūs, m. abrāsus, a, um abscessus, ūs, m. absentia, ae, f. abstinentia, ae, f. accessōrius, a, um achalasia, ae, f. acnē, ēs, f. glans, ndis, f. acquīsītus, a, um acquīsītiō, ōnis, f. acrālis, e acrocyanōsis, is, f. acrōmioclaviculāris, e acrōmion, iī, n. actīnotherapia, ae, f. acūsticus, a, um 1. acūtus, a, um; 2. ācer, is, e adductōrius, a, um adductor, ōris, m. (m.) adēnītis, idis, f. adēnōma, atis, n. adēnōmatōsis, is, f. adipōsus, a, um adipōsitās, ātis, f. aditus, ūs, m. adrēnālis, e adultus, a, um aērophagia, ae, f. aērophobia, ae, f. afferēns, ntis 281

after afterbrain agenesis agony ala alar albicans (white, whitish) alcoholism alga alien alimentary all allergic alveolar alveolus ambiguous amboceptor amnesia amniocentesis amphodiplopia ampulla ampullary anamnesis anatomy and andrology anemia anemic anesthesia aneurysm angina angioma angiopathy angle angular animal ankle bone ankylosis anococcygeal anomaly anorexia ansa anteflexion anterior

post (+ Acc.) myelencephalon, ī, n. agenesis, is, f. agōnia, ae, f. āla, ae, f. ālāris, e albicāns, antis alcoholismus, ī, m. alga, ae, f. aliēnus, a, um dīgestōrius, a, um omnis, e allergicus, a, um alveolāris, e alveolus, ī, m. ambiguus, a, um ambōceptor, ōris, m. amnēsia, ae, f. amniocentēsis, is, f. amphodiplōpia, ae, f. ampulla, ae, f. ampullāris, e anamnēsis, is, f. anatomia, ae, f. et andrologia, ae, f. anaemia, ae, f. anemicus, a, um anaesthēsia, ae, f. aneurysma, atis, n. angina, ae, f. angīōma, atis, n. angīopathia, ae, f. angulus, ī, m. angulāris, e animal, ālis, n. tālus, ī, m. ankylōsis, is, f. ānococcygeus, a, um anōmalia, ae, f. anorexia, ae, f. ansa, ae, f. anteflexiō, ōnis, f. anterior, ius 282

anterior anterolateral antipyretic antiseptic medicament antrum anular anuria anus aorta apathetic aperture apex aphagia aphasia aplasia apnea apoplexy apoptosis appendage appendectomy appendicitis aquarium aqueduct aqueous arachnoid arachnophobia arbor arcuate area areola arch arm armpit aromatic arterial arteriole artery arthritis arthrosis articular arythmia ascending ascites ash-colored

anterior, ius anterolaterālis, e antipyreticus, a, um antisēpticum, ī, n. antrum, ī, n. ānulāris, e anūria, ae, f. ānus, ī, m. aorta, ae, f. lēthargicus, a, um 1. apertūra, ae, f.; 2. forāmen, inis, n.; 3. hiātus, ūs, m. apex, icis, m. aphagia, ae, f. aphasia, ae, f. aplasia, ae, f. apnoē, ēs, f. apoplēxia, ae, f. apoptōsis, is, f. appendix, icis, f. appendectomia, ae, f. appendicītis, idis, f. aquārium, iī, n. aqueductus, ūs, m. aquaeus, a, um arachnoīdeus, a, um arachnophobia, ae, f. arbor, oris, f. arcuātus, a, um ārea, ae, f. āreola, ae, f. arcus, ūs, m. brachium, iī, n. axilla, ae, f. arōmaticus, a, um artēriōsus, a, um artēriola, ae, f. artēria, ae, f. arthrītis, idis, f. arthrōsis, is, f. articulāris, e arrhythmia, ae, f. ascendēns, entis ascītēs, ae, m. cinereus, a, um 283

asphyxia asthma ataxia atelectasis atheroma atlanto-occipital atopic atrium atypical audiogram auditory auricle auricular autointoxication autonomic avitaminosis axilla axis axle azygos (unpaired)

asphyxia, ae, f. asthma, atis, n. ataxia, ae, f. atelectasis, is, f. athērōma, atis, n. atlantooccipitālis, e atopicus, a, um ātrium, iī, n. atypicus, a, um audīogramma, ae, f. audītīvus, a, um auricula, ae, f. auriculāris, e autointoxicātiō, ōnis, f. autonomicus, a, um avītaminōsis, is, f. axilla, ae, f. axis, is, m. axis, is, m. azygos (on, Greek)

B baby bacillus back (noun) bad balance ball basal base basilar bearing eggs beautiful bedsore belly belt benign best better biceps bicipital bicuspid bifid big

infans, ntis, m. bacillus, ī, m. dorsum, ī, n. malus, a, um lībra, ae, f. glomus, eris, n. basālis, e basis, is, f. basilāris, e ōophorus, a, um pulcher, chra, chrum dēcubitus, ūs, m. 1. alvus, ī, f.; 2. venter, tris, m. zōna, ae, f. benignus, a, um optimus, a, um melior, ius biceps, cipitis bicipitālis, e bicuspidālis, e bifidus, a, um magnus, a, um 284

bigger biggest bile duct biliary biometry biopsy bird bird-spur bit bitten bitter biventer black bladder bleeding blepharitis blepharorraphia blepharospasm blind blind gut bloddy blood board body bone bony border boundary line bowels boy bradycardia bradypnea brachial brachioradial brachycephalia brain branch breast brevity bridge bridle bright brim broad

māior, ius (mājor, jus) maximus, a, um ductus cholēdochus felleus, a, um biometria, ae, f. biopsia, ae, f. avis, is, f. avis, is, f. bolus, ī, m. morsus, a, um ācer, is, e biventer, tris, tre niger, gra, grum vēsīca, ae, f. haemorrhagia, ae, f. blepharītis, idis, f. blepharorraphia, ae, f. blepharospasmus, ī, m. caecus, a, um caecum, ī, n. (i.) sanguineus, a, um sanguis, inis, m. tabula, ae, f. 1. corpus, oris, n.; 2. glomus, eris, n. os, ossis, n. osseus, a, um 1. margō, inis, m.; 2. ōra, ae, f.; 3. ānulus, ī, m. līmen, inis, n. alvus, ī, f. puer, ī, m. bradycardia, ae, f. bradypnoē, ēs, f. brachiālis, e brachioradiālis, e brachycephalia, ae, f. 1. cerebrum, ī, n.; 2. encephalon, ī, n. rāmus, ī, m. 1. mamma, ae, f.; 2. pectus, oris, n. brevitās, ātis, f. pons, ntis, m. frēnum, ī, n. lūcidus, a, um ōra, ae, f. lātus, a, um 285

broken bronchial bronchiectasis bronchus bruised bruised and torn buccinator (muscle) bud bug bulb bulbospongy bursa by means of

frāctus, a, um bronchiālis, e bronchiectasis, is, f. bronchus, ī, m. contūsus, a, um contūsolacerus, a, um buccinātor, ōris, m. (m.) caliculus, ī, m. bacillus, ī, m. bulbus, ī, m. bulbospongiōsus, a, um bursa, ae, f. per (+ Acc.)

C calcaneal calcaneus calcification calf bone callous callus canal cancer canine cannula capital capitulum capsular capsule carcinogenous cardiac cardial cardiovascular caries carina carnivorous carotid carotid artery cartilage catabolism caudal cause caused by projectile, shooting cavernous

calcāneus, a, um calcaneus, ī, m. calcificātiō, ōnis, f. fibula, ae, f. callōsus, a, um callus, ī, m. canālis, is, m. cancer, crī, m. canīnus, a, um cannula, ae, f. capitālis, e capitulum, ī, n. capsulāris, e capsula, ae, f. carcinogenēs, es cardiacus, a, um cardiālis, e cardiovāsculāris, e cariēs, ēī, f. carīna, ae, f. carnivorus, a, um carōticus, a, um carōtis, idis, f. (a.) cartilāgō, inis, f. catabolismus, ī, m. caudālis, e causa, ae, f. sclopetārius, a, um cavernōsus, a, um 286

cavity cecum celiac cellulitis cement central cephalic cerebellum cervical cervix chair chamber channel charity cheak cheilitis cheiloschisis chest childbirth chin chiragra chlorosis cholecystectomy cholemia chondroma chondromalacia chorea chorion choroid chronic cicatrice ciliary circle circular circumference circumflex circumflexion circumoral circumscribed cirrhosis cistern clavicle cleft (adj.) cleft (noun)

1. antrum, ī, n.; 2. cavitās, ātis, f.; 3. cavum, ī, n. (i.) caecum, ī, n. coeliacus, a, um cellulītis, idis, f. caementum, ī, n. centrālis, e cephalicus, a, um cerebellum, ī, n. cervīcālis, e cervīx, īcis, f. sella, ae, f. antrum, ī, n. porus, ī, m. cāritās, ātis, f. bucca, ae, f. cheilītis, idis, f. cheiloschisis, is, f. thōrāx, ācis, m. partus, ūs, m. mentum, ī, n. chīragra, ae, f. chlōrōsis, is, f. cholēcystectomia, ae, f. cholaemia, ae, f. chondrōma, matis, n. chondromalacia, ae, f. chorēa, ae, f. chorion, iī, n. choroīdeus, a, um chronicus, a, um cicātrix, īcis, f. ciliāris, e circus, ī, m. 1. circulāris, e; 2. rotundus, a, um peripherīa, ae, f. circumflexus, a, um circumflexiō, ōnis, f. circumōrālis, e circumscriptus, a, um cirrhōsis, is, f. cisterna, ae, f. clāvicula, ae, f. 1. scissus, a, um; 2. bifidus, a, um 1. hiātus, ūs, m.; 2. rīma, ae, f. 287

cleidocostal clitoris closed coat coccygeal coccyx cock bird coeliac cochlea cochlear colic collaps colon colonoscopy colopexy colostomy colposcopy coma comb, comb-like commissure common commotion communicating compact complete complicated complication composed concave concha condyle cone congenital conjunctiva consequence contraction contraindication contusion conus cord cornea coronary corpuscle corrugator (muscle)

cleidocostālis, e clitōris, idis, f. clausus, a, um tunica, ae, f. coccygeus, a, um coccyx, ȳgis, m. gallus, ī, m. coeliacus, a, um cochlea, ae, f. cochleāris, e cōlicus, a, um collāpsus, ūs, m. cōlon, ī, n. cōlonoscopia, ae, f. cōlopēxis, is, f. cōlostomia, ae, f. colposcopia, ae, f. cōma, atis, n. pecten, inis, m. commissūra, ae, f. commūnis, e commōtio, ōnis, f. commūnicāns, antis compactus, a, um complētus, a, um complicātus, a, um complicātiō, ōnis, f. compositus, a, um cavus, a, um concha, ae, f. condylus, ī, m. cōnus, ī, m. congenitus, a, um (tunica) conjūnctīva, ae, f. sequēla, ae, f. contractiō, ōnis, f. contrāindicātiō, ōnis, f. contūsiō, ōnis, f. cōnus, ī, m. 1. chorda, ae, f.; 2. fīlum, ī, n. cornea, ae, f. corōnārius, a, um corpusculum, ī, n. corrūgātor, ōris, m. (m.) 288

cortex costal costoclavicular cough covering cramp cranial cranium cremaster (muscle) crest cribrate cricoid criminal cruelty crus cuneate cuneiform cupula curb curvature curve cusp cut cutaneous cuticle cyanosis cyst cystic cystoscopy

cortex, icis, m. costālis, e costoclāviculāris, e tussis, is, f. tegmentum, ī, n. spasmus, ī, m. crāniālis, e crānium, iī, n. cremastēr, ēris, m. (m.) crista, ae, f. crībrōsus, a, um cricoīdeus, a, um crīminālis, e crūdēlitās, ātis, f. crūs, ūris, n. cuneātus, a, um cuneiformis, e cūpula, ae, f. frēnum, ī, n. curvātūra, ae, f. sinus, ūs, m. cuspis, idis, f. sectus, a, um cutāneus, a, um cuticula, ae, f. cyanōsis, is, f. cystis, is, f. cysticus, a, um cystoscopia, ae, f.

D dacryocystitis dactylomegaly dartos day deadly death decay decidua deciduous decubitus deep defect deferent

dacryocystītis, idis, f. dactylomegalia, ae, f. dartos (ē, on, Greek) diēs, ēī, m. / f. lētālis, e mors, rtis, f. cariēs, ēī, f. dēcidua, ae, f. dēciduus, a, um dēcubitus, ūs, m. 1. profundus, a, um; 2. lātus, a, um vitium, iī, n. dēferens, ntis 289

deforming dehydratation delicate delirium delivery deltoid dementia dense dental dentate depression depressor (muscle) dermatitis dermatology dermatosis descending detachement deviating from diabetes diabetic diagnosis diameter diaphragm diarrhea diastole diencephalon difficult digastric digestive digital dilatator (muscle) diplegia diploe direct gut disease dislocation dismemberment displacement dissecting, cut in pieces dissection distal diuretic divided into two parts dividing

dēformāns, ntis dēhydratātiō, ōnis, f. pius, a, um dēlīrium, iī, n. partus, ūs, m. deltoīdēs, es dēmentia, ae, f. densus, a, um dentālis, e dentātus, a, um fossa, ae, f. dēpressor, oris, m. (m.) dermatītis, idis, f. dermatologia, ae, f. dermatōsis, is, f. dēscendēns, entis ablātiō, ōnis, f. aberrāns, antis diabētēs, ae, m. diabēticus, a, um diagnōsis, is, f. diameter, trī, f./m. (TA) diaphragma, atis, n. diarrhoē, ēs, f. diastolē, ēs, f. diencephalon, ī, n. difficilis, e digastricus, a, um dīgestōrius, a, um digitālis, e dīlātātor, ōris, m. (m.) diplēgia, ae, f. diploē, ēs, f. (i.) rēctum, ī, n. morbus, ī, m. dislocātiō, ōnis, f. dissectiō, ōnis, f. dislocātiō, ōnis, f. dissecāns, antis dissectiō, ōnis, f. distālis, e diūrēticus, a, um bifidus, a, um distractiō, ōnis, f. 290

division dog dolichocolon dome, dome-shaped dorsal dose double doubtful dry dryness duct ductule duodenal duodenum duplicity dysantigraphia dysenteria dysfunction dyslexia dysmenorrhea dysmetria dyspnea dystopia dystrophy dysuria

dīvīsio, ōnis, f. canis, is, m. dolichocōlon, ī, n. cūpula, ae, f. dorsālis, e dosis, is, f. 1. duplex, icis; 2. gemellus, a, um ambiguus, a, um siccus, a, um xerōsis, is, f. ductus, ūs, m. ductulus, ī, m. duodēnālis, e duodēnum, ī, n. dūplicitās, ātis, f. dysantigraphia, ae, f. dysenteria, ae, f. dysfūnctiō, ōnis, f. dyslexia, ae, f. dysmēnorrhoea, ae, f. dysmetria, ae, f. dyspnoē, ēs, f. dystopia, ae, f. dystrophia, ae, f. dysūria, ae, f.

E ear earache eardrum earwax ecchymosis ectoderm eczema edema edge efferent eighth elastic elbow elbow bone elevation eleventh embolus

auris, is, f. ōtodynia, ae, f. membrāna (ae, f.) tympanica cērumen, inis, n. ecchymōsis, is, f. ectoderma, atis, n. eczema, atis, n. oedēma, atis, n. ōra, ae, f. efferens, ntis octāvus, a, um elasticus, a, um cubitus, ūs, m. ulna, ae, f. torus, ī, m. undecimus, a, um embolus, ī, m. 291

eminence emphysema empyema encephalitis encephalon end endocarditis endocrine endocytosis endogenous enlargement entrance epicondyle epicondylitis epidemic epididymis epidural epileptic epithelial epithelium epitympanic equilibrium equine equinovalgus erythema erythroblastosis erythrocyte esophagus eupnea euthanasia eutrophia even exanthema excrement exhumation exocardia exocrine exocytosis exorotation extensor (muscle) exterior external extracellular extracranial

ēminentia, ae, f. emphȳsēma, atis, n. empyēma, atis, n. encephalītis, idis, f. encephalon, ī, n. punctum, ī, n. endocardītis, idis, f. endocrinus, a, um endocytōsis, is, f. endogenēs, es glomus, eris, n. aditus, ūs, m. epicondylus, ī, m. epicondylītis, idis, f. epidēmicus, a, um epididymis, idis, f. epidūrālis, e epilēpticus, a, um epithēliālis, e epithēlium, iī, n. epitympanicus, a, um aequilībrium, iī, n. equīnus, a, um equīnovalgus, a, um erythēma, atis, n. erythroblastōsis, is, f. erythrocytus, ī, m. oesophagus, ī, m. eupnoē, ēs, f. euthanasia, ae, f. eutrophia, ae, f. aequus, a, um exanthēma, atis, n. faex, faecis, f. exhumatio, ōnis, f. exōcardia, ae, f. exōcrinus, a, um exōcytōsis, is, f. exorotātiō, ōnis, f. extēnsor, ōris, m. (m.) exterior, exterius externus, a, um extrācellulāris, e extrācraniālis, e 292

extract extraction extrauterine extreme extremity exulceration eye eyeball eyebrow eyelash eyelid

extractum, ī, n. extrāctiō, ōnis, f. extrāuterīnus, a, um extrēmus, a, um extrēmitās, ātis, f. exulcerātiō, ōnis, f. oculus, ī, m. bulbus oculī supercilium, ii, n. cilium, iī, n. palpebra, ae, f.

F face facial false far-sightedness farther farthest fascia fascicle fasciculate fat (adj.) fat (noun) fatal fatty febrile feces (pl.) feminine femur fetal fetus fever fibre fibrodysplasia fibrosis fibrous fibula fibular fifth fine finger first fissure

faciēs, ēī, f. faciālis, e spurius, a, um hyperōpia, ae, f. ulterior, ius ultimus, a, um fascia, ae, f. fasciculus, ī, m. fasciculātus, a, um adipōsus, a, um adeps, adipis, m. lētālis, e adipōsus, a, um febrīlis, e faex, faecis, f. (sg.) fēminīnus, a, um femur, oris, n. fētālis, e fētus, ūs, m. febris, is, f. fibra, ae, f. fibrodysplasia, ae, f. fibrōsis, is, f. fibrōsus, a, um fibula, ae, f. fībulāris, e quintus, a, um tenuis, e digitus, ī, m. prīmus, a, um 1. fissūra, ae, f.; rīma, ae, f. 293

fistula fixed flank flat flayed fleshy flexor (muscle) flexure fold folded foot deformity foot, footlike part for foramen forebrain forefinger forehead foreign forgetfulness fornix fossa four-sided fourth fovea fracture fractured fragile fragility free frenulum from frontal function furrow

fistula, ae, f. fixus, a, um latus, eris, n. plānus, a, um dartos (ē, on, Greek) pulpōsus, a, um flexor, ōris, m. (m.) flexūra, ae, f. 1. labium, iī, n.; 2. plica, ae, f.; 3. sinus, ūs, m. plicātus, a, um tālīpēs, pedis, m. pēs, pedis, m. prō (+ Abl.) forāmen, inis, n. prosencephalon, ī, n. index, icis, m. frons, ntis, f. aliēnus, a, um amnēsia, ae, f. fornix, icis, m. fossa, ae, f. quādrātus, a, um quartus, a, um fovea, ae, f. frāctūra, ae, f. frāctus, a, um fragilis, e fragilitās, ātis, f. līber, era, erum frēnulum, ī, n. ē, ex (+ Abl.) frontālis, e functiō, ōnis, f. 1. sulcus, ī, m.; 2. stria, ae, f.

G galactorrhea gall bladder gallstone gallus ganglion gangrene gap garland

galactorrhoea, ae, f. 1. cholēcystis, is, f., 2. vēsīca bīliāris (fellea) cholēlithiāsis, is, f. gallus, ī, m. ganglion, iī, n. gangraena, ae, f. hiātus, ūs, m. corōna, ae, f. 294

gastrectomy gastric gastritis gastroduodenostomy gastrostomy gate gemellus genital geriatrics germ gerontology gigantism gingivitis girdle gland glans glaucoma globe / globus glomerulonephritis glomerulous glomerulus glossodynia glossopharyngeal glottis gluteal / gluteous glycogenous gonarthrosis gonorrhea good goos-like gracile grade granular granulous gravidity gravity great grey groin groove gustatory gynecology gyrus

gastrectomia, ae, f. gastricus, a, um gastrītis, idis, f. gastroduodenostomia, ae, f. gastrostomia, ae, f. porta, ae, f. gemellus, a, um genitālis, e gerontologia, ae, f. bacillus, ī, m. gerontologia, ae, f. gigantismus, ī, m. gingīvītis, idis, f. zōna, ae, f. glandula, ae, f. glans, ndis, f. glaucōma, atis, n. globus, ī, m. glomerulonephrītis, idis, f. glomerulōsus, a, um glomerulus, ī, m. glōssodynia, ae, f. glōssopharyngeus, a, um glottis, idis, f. glūteus, a, um glycogenēs, es gonarthrōsis, is, f. gonorrhoea, ae, f. bonus, a, um anserīnus, a, um gracilis, e gradus, ūs, m. grānulāris, e grānulōsus, a, um graviditās, ātis, f. gravitās, ātis, f. magnus, a, um cinereus, a, um 1. īlia, īlium, n.; 2. psoa, ās, f. (Greek) sulcus, ī, m. gustatōrius, a, um gynaecologia, ae, f. gȳrus, ī, m.

295

H haematoma haematuria haemorrhage haft hairy hallux hammer hand handle hard hard skin hard-skinned harsh head headache healing heap hearing heart heavy heel bone helping hematemesis hematology hemiplegia hemisphere hemolysis hemophilia hemostasis hepatic hepatitis hepatocolic hepatoma hepatosis hernia heterochromia hiatus hidrosis higher highest hilum hindbrain

haematōma, atis, n. haematūria, ae, f. haemorrhagia, ae, f. ansa, ae, f. villōsus, a, um hallūx, ūcis, m. malleus, ī, m. manus, ūs, f. ansa, ae, f. dūrus, a, um callus, ī, m. callōsus, a, um vastus, a, um caput, itis, n. cephalalgia, ae, f. sānātiō, ōnis, f. 1. cumulus, ī, m.; 2. mons, ntis, m. audītus, ūs, m. cor, cordis, n. gravis, e calcaneus, ī, m. iuvans, ntis haematemesis, is, f. haematologia, ae, f. hēmiplēgia, ae, f. hēmisphērium, iī, n. haemolysis, is, f. haemophilia, ae, f. haemostasis, is, f. hēpaticus, a, um hēpatītis, idis, f. hēpatocōlicus, a, um hēpatōma, atis, n. hēpatōsis, is, f. hernia, ae, f. heterochrōmia, ae, f. hiātus, ūs, m. hidrōsis, is, f. superior, ius 1. summus, a, um; 2. suprēmus, a, um hīlum, ī, n. metencephalon, ī, n. 296

hindmost hip hippocampus Hippocratic histology hole hollow (adj.) hollow (noun) homeostasis honey-sweet horn, horn-like structure horny horse humerus humid hydrocephalus hydrocyst hydrothorax hyperalgesia hypercalcemia hypercapnia hyperemesis hyperemia hyperglycemia hypercholesterolemia hyperkalemia hypernatremia hyperopia hyperphagia hyperplasia hyperpyrexia hyperthermia hypertonia hypertrophy hypervitaminosis hypogastric hypoglossal hypoglycemia hypomania hypoplasia hypostasis hypothalamus hypothermia hypotonia

postrēmus, a, um coxa, ae, f. hippocampus, ī, m. Hippocraticus, a, um histologia, ae, f. 1. forāmen, inis, n.; 2. porus, ī, m. cavus, a, um 1. fossa, ae, f.; 2. sinus, ūs, m. homeostasis, is, f. mellītus, a, um cornū, ūs, n. corneus, a, um equus, ī, m. humerus, ī, m. 1. aquōsus , a, um; 2. hūmidus, a, um hydrocephalus, ī, m. hydrocystis, is, f. hydrothōrāx, cis, m. hyperalgēsia, ae, f. hypercalcaemia, ae, f. hypercapnia, ae, f. hyperemesis, is, f. hyperaemia, ae, f. hyperglycaemia, ae, f. hypercholēsterolemia, ae, f. hyperkalemia, ae, f. hypernatremia, ae, f. hyperōpia, ae, f. hyperphagia, ae, f. hyperplasia, ae, f. hyperpyrexia, ae, f. hyperthermia, ae, f. hypertonia, ae, f. hypertrophia, ae, f. hypervītaminōsis, is, f. hypogastricus, a, um hypoglōssus, a, um hypoglycaemia, ae, f. hypomania, ae, f. hypoplasia, ae, f. hypostasis, is, f. hypothalamus, ī, m. hypothermia, ae, f. hypotonia, ae, f. 297

hypoxia hysteropathy

hypoxia, ae, f. hysteropathia, ae, f.

I ileocecal iliac iliococcygeal iliocostal iliopsoas (muscle) ilium illness impotency in incision incisive incisure incomplete incontinence index infantile infarction inferior inferodextral infraclavicular infraorbital infraspinous infundibulum injection injury inlet inner innermost inoperable insipid insufficiency intention intercavernous intercondylar intercostal interior intermediate internal interosseous interphalangeal

īleocaecālis, e īliacus, a, um īliococcygeus, a, um īliocostālis, e īliopsoās (m.) (Gen.) īlia, īlium, n. (pl.) morbus, ī, m. impotentia, ae, f. in (+Acc. / Abl.) incīsiō, ōnis, f. incīsīvus, a, um incīsūra, ae, f. incomplētus, a, um incontinentia, ae, f. index, icis, m. infantīlis, e īnfarctus, ūs, m. īnferior, ius īnferodexter, tra, trum īnfrāclaviculāris, e īnfrāorbitālis, e infrāspīnātus, a, um infundibulum, ī, n. injectiō, ōnis, f. trauma, atis, n. aditus, ūs, m. interior, ius intimus, a, um inoperābilis, e insipidus, a, um insufficientia, ae, f. intentiō, ōnis, f. intercaverōsus, a, um intercondylāris, e intercostālis,e interior, interius intermedius, a, um internus, a, um interosseus, a, um interphalangeus, a, um 298

interspinal interstice intertransverse intestinal intestine into intracellular intracranial intralobular intrauterine iris irradiated irregularity ischemia ischiatic isthmic

interspīnālis, e, interstitium, iī, n. intertransversārius, a, um intestīnālis, e intestīnum, ī, n. in (+Acc.) intrācellulāris, e intrācrāniālis, e intrālobulāris, e intrāuterīnus, a, um īris, idis, f. radiātus, a, um anōmalia, ae, f. ischaemia, ae, f. ischiadicus, a, um isthmīcus, a, um

J jaundice jejunum joining joint juice junction / juncture juvenile juxtaposition

icterus, ī, m. jējūnum, ī, n. commūnicāns, antis articulātiō, ōnis, f. chȳlus, ī, m. jūnctūra, ae, f. juvenīlis, e juxtāpositiō, ōnis, f.

K karyon keratitis keratoderma keratodermia kernel kernicterus kidney kinesialgia knee knife kyphosis

karyon, ī, n. keratītis, idis, f. keratoderma, atis, n. keratodermia, ae, f. nūcleus, ī, m. kernicterus, ī, m. 1. nephros, ī, m.; 2. rēn, rēnis, m. kinēsialgia, ae, f. genū, ūs, n. scalprum, ī, n. kyphōsis, is, f.

L labial labyrinth lacerated

labiālis, e labyrinthus, ī, m. lacer, era, erum 299

lactifer lacuna ladderlike structure laesion lalopathy lamina laparoscopy laparotomy large larynx last lateral latitude layer leafy left lens leptodactylia leptomeninx lethargic leucopenia leukemia levator (muscle) life ligament limb line lip / liplike structure lipoma lipotrophy lithiasis lithotripsy liver lobe lobule logorrhea loin long longer longest longish longitude lower lower leg

lactifer, fera, ferum lacūna, ae, f. scāla, ae, f. laesiō, ōnis, f. lalopathia, ae, f. lamina, ae, f. laparoscopia, ae, f. laparotomia, ae, f. magnus, a, um larynx, ngis, m. 1. ultimus, a, um; 2. postrēmus, a, um laterālis, e lātitūdō, inis, f. strātum, ī, n. frondōsus, a, um sinister, tra, trum lens, ntis, f. leptodactylia, ae, f. leptomēninx, ngis, f. lēthargicus, a, um leucopenia, ae, f. leucaemia, ae, f. levator, ōris, m. (m.) vīta, ae, f. ligāmentum, ī, n. membrum, ī, n. 1. līnea, ae, f.; 2. taenia, ae, f. labium, iī, n. lipōma, atis, n. lipotrophia, ae, f. lithiāsis, is, f. lithotrīpsia, ae, f. hēpar, atis, n. lobus, ī, m. lobulus, ī, m. logorrhoea, ae, f. lumbus, ī, m. longus, a, um longior, ius longissimus, a, um 1. oblongus, a, um; 2. oblongātus, a, um longitūdō, inis, f. īnferior, ius crūs, ūris, n. 300

lowest lucid lumbago lumbar lung lupus lymphatic lymphoid lymphoma

1. īmus, a, um; 2. īnfimus, a, um lūcidus, a, um lumbāgo, inis, f. lumbālis, e pulmo, ōnis, m. lupus, ī, m. lymphaticus, a, um lymphoīdeus, a, um lymphōma, atis, n.

M macroglossia macrosomia macrostomia macrotia madness major malformation malignant malleus malposition mammary mandible mandibular manubrium many margin marginal mark masculine, male mass masseter (muscle) mastalgia mastoid matter maxilla meat meatus meconium medial median medicament medicine medulla

macroglōssia, ae, f. macrosōmia, ae, f. macrostomia, ae, f. macrōtia, ae, f. 1. dēlīrium, iī, n.; 2. mania, ae, f. māior, ius (mājor, jus) malformātiō, ōnis, f. malignus, a, um malleus, ī, m. dystopia, ae, f. mammārius, a, um mandibula, ae, f. mandibulāris, e manūbrium, ī, n. multus, a, um 1. labium, iī, n.; 2. ōra, ae, f.; 3. margō, inis, m. marginālis, e macula, ae, f. masculīnus, a, um 1. cumulus, ī, m.; 2. mons, ntis, m. massētēr, ēris, m. (m.) mastalgia, ae, f. mastoīdeus, a, um substantia, ae, f. maxilla, ae, f. caro, carnis, f. meātus, ūs, m. mēcōnium, iī, n. mediālis, e mediānus, a, um 1. medicāmentum, ī, n.; 2. remedium, iī, n. medicīna, ae, f. medulla, ae, f. 301

medullary megacolon megalocardia melanoma membranaceous membrane meningeal meningitis meninx meniscus mental meralgia mesencephalom mesocolon metacarpal metacarpus metastasis metatarsal metatarsus metencephalon method metrodynia metrorrhagia microcephaly microsomia microtia midbrain middle midwife migratory milk milk-bringing minor mixture of dried herbs mobile moist molar monoarticular monoplegia mons more morsel mortal mortality

medullāris, e megacōlon, ī, n. megalocardia, ae, f. melanōma, atis, n. membrānāceus, a, um 1. membrāna, ae, f.; 2. tunica, ae, f. mēningeus, a, um mēningītis, idis, f. mēninx, ngis, f. mēniscus, ī, m. mentālis, e mēralgia, ae, f. mesencephalon, ī, n. mesocōlon, ī, n. metacarpālis, e metacarpus, ī, m. metastasis, is, f. metatarsālis, e metatarsus, ī, m. metencephalon, ī, n. methodus, ī, f. mētrodynia, ae, f. metrōrrhagia, ae, f. mīcrocephalia, ae, f. mīcrosōmia, ae, f. micrōtia, ae, f. mesencephalon, ī, n. medius, a, um obstētrix, īcis, f. migrāns, antis lac, lactis, n. lacrifer, fera, ferum minor, us speciēs, ērum, f. mōbilis, e aquōsus, a, um molāris, e monoarticulāris, e monoplēgia, ae, f. mons, ntis, m. plūrēs, plūra bolus, ī, m. 1. lētālis, e; 2. mortālis, e mortālitās, ātis, f. 302

most mother mountain mouse mouth mucous multifid multilateral multiple muscle muscular myelencephalon myelitis myocard myopathy myopia myositis

plūrimī, ae, a māter, tris, f. mons, ntis, m. mūs, mūris,m. ōs, ōris, n. mūcōsus, a, um multifidus, a, um multilaterālis, e multiplex, icis mūsculus, ī, m. mūsculāris, e myelencephalon, ī, n. myelītis, idis, f. myocardium, iī, n. myopathia, ae, f. myōpia, ae, f. myosītis, idis, f.

N nail nape narcosis nasal nasofrontal nearer nearest nearsightedness neck necrosis necrotic needle neonate neoplasm nephritis nephroma nephromegaly nephropathy nephrosis nerv nervous netlike network neuralgia neuritis

unguis, is, m. nucha, ae, f. narcōsis, is, f. nāsālis, e nāsofrontālis, e propior, ius proximus, a, um myōpia, ae, f. 1. collum, ī, n.; 2. cervīx, īcis, f. necrōsis, is, f. necroticus, a, um acus, ūs, f. neonātus, ī, m. neoplasma, atis, n. nephrītis, idis, f. nephrōma, atis, n. nephromegalia, ae, f. nephropathia, ae, f. nephrōsis, is, f. nervus, ī, m. nervōsus, a, um rēticulāris, e 1. rēte, is, n.; 2. plexus, ūs, m. neuralgia, ae, f. neurītis, idis, f. 303

neurohypophysis newborn ninth node nodose none nose notch nutrient nycturia nystagmus

neurohypophysis, is, f. neonātus, a, um nōnus, a, um nōdus, ī, m. nōdōsus, a, um nullus, a, um nāsus, ī, m. incīsūra, ae, f. nūtrīcius, a, um nyctūria, ae, f. nystagmus, ī, m.

O oak nut oak tree obesity oblique oblong obscure obstruction obturate, obturator occipital occipitofrontal occiput ocular oculomotor odontalgia oitment olecranon olfactory oliguria on open opening

glans, ndis, f. quercus, ūs, f. adipōsitās, ātis, f. oblīquus, a, um 1. oblongus, a, um; 2. oblongātus, a, um ambiguus, a, um obstructiō, ōnis, f. obtūrātōrius, a, um occipitālis, e occipitofrontālis, e occiput, itis, n. oculāris, e oculomōtōrius, a, um odontalgia, ae, f. unguentum, ī, n. ōlecrānon, ī, n. olfactōrius, a, um oligūria, ae, f. in (+Abl.) apertus, a, um 1. aditus, ūs, m.; 2. forāmen, inis, n.; 3. hiātus, ūs, m.; 4. meātus, ūs, m.; 5. apertūra, ae, f.; 6. porus, ī, m.; 7. ōstium, iī, n.

ophthalmia optic orbicular orbit orbital organ origin osseous

ophthalmia, ae, f. opticus, a, um orbiculāris, e orbita, ae, f. orbitālis, e organum, ī, n. orīgo, inis, f. osseus, a, um 304

ossicle ossifying osteitis osteochondropathy osteochondrosis osteogenesis osteoma osteomalacia osteon osteoporosis ostium otic otitis otosclerosis out of outer outermost oval ovary ovum

ossiculum, ī, n. ossificāns, antis osteītis, ītidis, f. osteochondropathia, ae, f. osteochondrōsis, is, f. osteogenesis, is, f. osteōma, atis, n. osteomalacia, ae, f. osteon, ī, n. osteoporōsis, is, f. ōstium, iī, n. ōticus, a, um ōtītis, idis, f. ōtosclērōsis, is, f. ē, ex (+ Abl.) externus, a, um extrēmus, a, um ovālis, e ōvārium, iī, n. ōvum, ī, n.

P pad pachymeninx painfull paired palate palatine palatopharyngeal pale, pallid palm palmar palmate palmoplantar pancreas panotitis panphlebitis papilla paracolic paraduodenal paralysis paranasal paranoia paraplegia

corpus, oris, n. pachymēninx, ngis, f. dolōrōsus, a, um gemellus, a, um palātum, ī, n. palātīnus, a, um palātopharyngeus, a, um pallidus, a, um palma, ae, f. palmāris, e palmātus, a, um palmoplantāris, e pancreas, atis, n. pānōtītis, idis, f. panphlebītis, idis, f. papilla, ae, f. paracōlicus, a, um paraduodēnālis, e paralysis, is, f. paranāsālis, e paranoia, ae, f. paraplēgia, ae, f. 305

parathyroid paresthetic parietal parotid parotitis part partial parting parturition parvocellular passage pecten pectoral pediatrics pellucid pelvis penalty penetrated penis perforated perforating pericardium peripheral peritoneal peritoneum peritonitis periurethral perivascular permanent persistent pertaining to geese pertaining to stapes, stirrup petechia phalanx pharmacopedia pharyngeal pharyngeus pharynx phelebectasia phlebitis phlebostenosis pigmentary pious piriform

parathyroīdeus, a, um paraesthēticus, a, um pariētālis, e parōtideus, a, um parōtītis, idis, f. 1. pars, rtis, f.; 2. portiō, ōnis, f. partiālis, e distractiō, ōnis, f. partus, ūs, m. parvocellulāris, e 1. meātus, ūs, m.; 2. porus, ī, m. pecten, inis, m. pectorālis, e paediātria, ae, f. pellūcidus, a, um pelvis, is, f. poena, ae, f. perforātus, a, um pēnis, is, m. perforātus, a, um perforāns, antis pericardium, iī, n. periphericus, a, um peritoneālis, e peritoneum, ī, n. peritonītis, idis, f. periūrethrālis, e perivāsculāris, e permanēns, entis persistēns, ntis anserīnus, a, um stapēdius, a, um petechia, ae, f. phalanx, gis, f. pharmacopaedia, ae, f. pharyngeālis, e pharyngeus, a, um pharynx, ngis, f. phlebectasia, ae, f. phlebītis, idis, f. phlebostenōsis, is, f. pigmentōsus, a, um pius, a, um piriformis, e 306

pituitary gland place plane plank pleura pleural plexus plica pneumonia point polyarthritis polymyalgia polyneuritis pons popliteal pore porous porta position postcentral posterior postnatal postraumatic powder precocious pregnancy pregnant pregnant woman premature prenatal presacral prescription primary primipara princeps process profound progenia prognathism prognosis progressive prolapse prominent pronator (muscle)

hypophysis, is, f. locus, ī, m. plānus, a, um tabula, ae, f. pleura, ae, f. pleurālis, e plexus, ūs, m. plica, ae, f. pneumonia, ae, f. 1. apex, icis, m.; 2. punctum, ī, n. polyarthrītis, idis, f. polymyalgia, ae, f. polyneurītis, idis, f. pons, ntis, m. popliteus, a, um porus, ī, m. spongiōsus, a, um porta, ae, f. positiō, ōnis, f. postcentrālis, e posterior, ius postnātālis, e postraumaticus, a, um pulvis, eris, m. praecox, cocis graviditās, ātis, f. gravidus, a, um gravida, ae, f. praecox, cocis praenātālis, e praesacrālis, e Praescriptiō, ōnis, f. prīmārius, a, um prīmipara, ae, f. princeps, ipis prōcessus, ūs, m. profundus, a, um progenīa, ae, f. prognathia, ae, f. prognōsis, is, f. prōgressīvus, a, um prōlapsus, ūs, m. prōmīnēns, entis prōnātor, ōris, m. (m.) 307

proper prophylaxis prosencephalon prostate protuberance proximal pseudoicterus, false jaundice psychogenesis psychology psychotherapy puberty pubic pubis puborectal pubovesical pudendum pulmonary pulp pulpy pulse puncture punishment pupil (of the eye) purpura pus pyelocystitis pyelonephritis pylorus pyorrhea

prōprius, a, um prōphylaxis, is, f. prosencephalon, ī, n. prostata, ae, f. tūber, eris, n. proximālis, e pseudoicterus, ī, m. psychogenēsis, is, f. psychologia, ae, f. psychotherapia, ae, f. pūbertās, ātis, f. pūbicus, a, um pūbes, is, f. pūborēctālis, e pūbovēsīcālis, e pudendum, ī, n. pulmonālis, e pulpa, ae, f. pulpōsus, a, um pulsus, ūs, m. punctum, ī, n. poena, ae, f. pūpilla, ae, f. purpura, ae, f. pūs, ūris, n. pyelocystītis, idis, f. pyelonephrītis, idis, f. pylōrus, ī, n. pyorrhoea, ae, f.

Q quadrate quadriceps quadriplegia quadruple quivering

quādrātus, a, um Quadriceps, cipitis quadriplēgia, ae, f. quadruplex, icis tremens, entis

R radial radiate radius raphe ratio reason recess

radiālis, e radiātus, a, um radius, iī, m. raphē, ēs, f. ratio, ōnis, f. causa, ae, f. recessus, ūs, m. 308

rectum recurvate reddish redness reflex refuge region regular related to tailor, sewing remedy renal resection resistance resort reticular reticule retina retinaculum retinitis retro-ambiguous retrocecal retromandibular reuniting rheum rheumatic rheumatism rhomboid rib rickets right rigidity / rigor ring ring-shaped risorius roof root rootlet rotator rotund rough round, rounded rupture ruptured

rēctum, ī, n. recurvātus, a, um erythēmatōsus, a, um rubor, ōris, m. reflexus, ūs, m. refugium, iī, n. regio, ōnis, f. compositus, a, um sartōrius, a, um 1. medicāmentum, ī, n.; 2. remedium, iī, n. rēnālis, e resectiō, ōnis, f. resistentia, ae, f. refugium, iī, n. rēticulāris, e rēticulum , i, n. rētina, ae, f. retināculum, ī, n. rētinītis, ītidis, f. rētrōambiguus, a, um rētrōcaecālis, e rētrōmandibulāris, e reūniēns, entis rheum, ī, n. rheumaticus, a, um rheumatismus, ī, m. rhomboīdeus, a, um costa, ae, f. rachītis, ītidis, f. dexter, tra, trum rigor, ōris, m. ānulus, ī, m. 1. ānulāris, e; 2. cricoīdeus, a, um rīsōrius, a, um tegmen, inis, n. rādīx, īcis, f. rādīcula, ae, f. rotātor, ōris, m. (m.) rotundus, a, um villōsus, a, um teres, etis ruptūra, ae, f. ruptus, a, um

309

S sacral saint salpingitis sanatorium sanguineous sanity saphenous saw-shaped scala scale scalpel scaly scapula scar schizophrenia sciatic sclera sclerosis scotoma scrotum seam seat sebaceous sebum second secondary secretion seed self-restrain semichannel seminal senile senility sepsis septal septum sequel serrated serum servitude seventh shaggy

sacer, cra, crum sacer, cra, crum salpingītis, idis, f. sānātōrium, iī, n. sanguineus, a, um sānitās, ātis, f. saphēnus, a, um serrātus, a, um scāla, ae, f. squāma, ae, f. scalpellum, ī, n. squāmōsus, a, um scapula, ae, f. cicātrix, īcis, f. schizophrēnia, ae, f. ischiadicus, a, um sclēra, ae, f. sclērōsis, is, f. scotōma, ātis, n. scrōtum, ī, n. raphē, ēs, f. sella, ae, f. sēbāceus, a, um sēbum, ī, n. secundus, a, um secundārius, a, um sēcrētiō, ōnis, f. sēmen, inis, n. abstinentia, ae, f. sēmicanālis, is, m. vēsīculōsus, a, um sēnīlis, e senīlitās, ātis, f. sēpsis, is, f. sēptālis, e sēptum, ī, n. sequēla, ae, f. serrātus, a, um serum, ī, n. servitūdō, inis, f. septimus, a, um villōsus, a, um 310

shaking (adj.) shaking (noun) shank sharp sheat, sheatlike shinbone shining short shorter shortness shoulder blade side sight sigmoid simple sinu-atrial sinus siphon site sixth skeletal skeleton skin skull slave slavery slight slim small small artery small body small bone small brain small bridle small canal small circle small cup small depression small duct small ear small head small hollow or cavity small kernel small knife

1. agitāns, antis; 2. tremens, entis tremor, ōris, m. crūs, ūris, n. ācer, is, e vāgīna, ae, f. tībia, ae, f. 1. lūcidus, a, um; 2. radiātus, a, um brevis, e brevior, ius brevitās, ātis, f. scapula, ae, f. latus, eris, n. vīsus, ūs, m. sigmoīdeus, a, um simplex, icis sinuatriālis, e sinus, ūs, m. siphōn, ōnis, m. situs, ūs, m. sextus, a, um skeletālis, e skeleton, ī, n. cutis, is, f. crānium, iī, n. servus, ī, m. servitūdō, inis, f. tenuis, e gracilis, e parvus, a, um artēriola, ae, f. corpusculum, ī, n. ossiculum, ī, n. cerebellum, ī, n. frēnulum, ī, n. canāliculus, ī, m. circulus, ī, m. caliculus, ī, m. fovea, ae, f. ductulus, ī, m. auricula, ae, f. capitulum, ī, n. alveolus, ī, m. nūcleuolus, ī, m. scalpellum, ī, n. 311

small pit small root small skin small testicle small tongue small valve small vessel smaller smallest soft sole soleus solitary space spasm spasmolysis species speechlessness sphenoidal sphincter (muscle) spina spinal spine spinocerebellum spinous / spiny spleen splenalgia splenic splenius split spondylitis spondylosis spongy spot spur spurious squamosal / squamous stabbed stain stapes state stenosis sternocleidomastoid sternocostal

fovea, ae, f. rādīcula, ae, f. cuticula, ae, f. testiculus, ī, m. lingula, ae, f. valvula, ae, f. vāsculum, ī, n. minor, us minimus, a, um mollis, e planta, ae, f. soleus, a, um sōlitārius, a, um 1. lacūna, ae, f.; 2. spatium, iī, n. spasmus, ī, m. spasmolysis, is, f. speciēs, ēī, f. aphasia, ae, f. sphēnoīdalis, e sphinctēr, ēris, m. (m.) spīna, ae, f. spīnālis, e spīna, ae, f. spīnocerebellum, ī, n. spīnōsus, a, um splēn, ēnis, m. splēnalgia, ae, f. splēnicus, a, um splēnius, a, um scissus, a, um spondylītis, idis, f. spondylōsis, is, f. spongiōsus, a, um macula, ae, f. calcar, āris, n. spurius, a, um squāmōsus, a, um pūnctus, a, um macula, ae, f. stapēs, pedis, m. status, ūs, m. stenōsis, is, f. sternocleidomastoīdeus, a, um sternocostālis, e 312

sternum stiffness stirrup stomach stomatopathy stool (excrement) stool straight stray stria structure subclavian subcutaneous subhepatic sublingual submandibular submucous substance suffering sulcus summit superacute superciliary superficial superior superolateral supinator (muscle) supraclavicular suprachoroid suprarenal supraspinous suprasternal supravaginal surface surgical suture symphatetic symphysis symptom syndesmosis syrinx system systole

sternum, ī, n. rigor, ōris, m. stapēs, pedis, m. 1. gastēr, tris, f.; 2. stomachus, ī, m. stomatopathia, ae, f. faex, faecis, f. sella, ae, f. rēctus, a, um aberrāns, antis stria, ae, f. structūra, ae, f. subclāvius, a, um subcutāneus, a, um subhēpaticus, a, um sublinguālis, e submandibulāris, e submūcōsus, a, um substantia, ae, f. agōnia, ae, f. sulcus, ī, m. apex, icis, m. superacūtus, a, um superciliāris, e superficiālis, e superior, ius superolaterālis, e sūpinātor, ōris, m. (m.) suprāclāviculāris, e suprāchoroīdeus, a, um suprārēnālis, e suprāspīnātus, a, um suprāsternālis, e supravāgīnālis, e faciēs, ēī, f. chīrurgicus, a, um 1. raphē, ēs, f.; 2. sūtūra, ae, f. sympaticus, a, um symphysis, is, f. symptōma, atis, n. syndesmōsis, is, f. sȳrinx, ngēs, f. systēma, atis, n. systolē, ēs, f.

313

T tabes table taenia tachycardia tachyphylaxis tail tarsus tasteless tea blend tegmentum tela telangiectasis temporal tender tendinous tendon tensor (muscle ) tenth tentorium terminal testicle test-tube thalamus thick thigh bone thin third thirst thoracic thoraco-acromial thoracocentesis thoracotomy thorax thread threefold thrombocytopenia thrombosis through throwing up thumb thymus thyroid

tābes, is, f. tabula, ae, f. taenia, ae, f. tachycardia, ae, f. tachyphylaxis, is, f. cauda, ae, f. tarsus, ī, m. insipidus, a, um speciēs, ērum, f. tegmentum, ī, n. tēla, ae, f. tēlangīectasis, is, f. temporālis, e pius, a, um tendineus, a, um tendō, inis, m. tensor, ōris, m. (m.) decimus, a, um tentōrium, iī, n. terminālis, e testis, is, m. vītrum, ī, n. thalamus, ī, m. 1. crassus, a, um; 2. densus, a, um femur, oris, n. 1. gracilis, e; 2. tenuis, e tertius, a, um sitis, is, f. thōrācicus, a, um thōrācoacrōmiālis, e thōrācocentēsis, is, f. thōrācotomia, ae, f. thōrāx, ācis, m. fīlum, ī, n. trigeminus, a, um thrombocytopenia, ae, f. thrombōsis, is, f. per (+ Acc.) vomitus, ūs, m. pollex, icis, m. thȳmus, ī, m. thyreoīdeus, a, um 314

tibia to tongue tonsil tonsilitis tooth top topmost torn torus total toward toxicomania trabecular tract trachea tracheostomy trachoma transfusion transparent transverse trauma tree treefold trembling (adj.) trembling (noun) tremor treshold triform trigeminal trichiniasis triple trochlear true trunk tubal tube tuber tubercle tuberculosis (TB) tuberculous tuberosity tuberous tumor

tībia, ae, f. ad (+ Acc.) lingua, ae, f. tonsilla, ae, f. tōnsillītis, ītidis, f. dēns, dentis, m. apex, icis, m. 1. summus, a, um; 2. suprēmus, a, um lacer, era, erum torus, ī, m. tōtālis, e ad (+ Acc.) toxicomania, ae, f. trabeculāris, e tractus, ūs, m. trachēa, ae, f. trachēostomia, ae, f. trāchōma, atis, n. trānsfūsiō, ōnis, f. pellūcidus, a, um trānsversus, a, um trauma, atis, n. arbor, oris, f. trigeminus, a, um tremens, entis tremor, ōris, m. tremor, ōris, m. līmen, inis, n. trigeminus, a, um trigeminus, a, um trichiniāsis, is, f. 1. trigeminus, a, um; 2. triplex, icis trochleāris, e vērus, a, um truncus, ī, m. tūbārius, a, um tuba, ae, f. tūber, eris, n. tūberculum, ī, n. tūberculōsis, is, f. tūberculōsus, a, um 1. ēminentia, ae, f.; 2. tūberositās, ātis, f. tūberōsus, a, um tumor, ōris, n. 315

Turkish twelfth twofold tympanic tympanum typhoid typical

turcicus, a, um duodecimus, a, um duplex, icis tympanicus, a, um tympanum, ī, n. typhoīdēs, es typicus, a, um

U ulcer ulna ulnar ulterior ultraligation uncertain under underarm unilateral uniting unknown upper upper jawbone upright urea ureter ureteritis urethra urinary urocystitis urological use uterine uterus utmost uvula

ulcus, eris, n. ulna, ae, f. ulnāris, e ulterior, ulterius ultrāligātiō, ōnis, f. ambiguus, a, um sub (+Acc. / Abl.) axilla, ae, f. ūnilaterālis, e commūnicāns, antis ignōtus, a, um superior, ius maxilla, ae, f. rēctus, a, um urea, ae, f. ūrētēr, ēris, m. ūrētērītis, idis, f. ūrethra, ae, f. ūrinārius, a, um urocystītis, idis, f. ūrologicus, a, um ūsus, ūs, m. uterīnus, a, um uterus, ī, m. extrēmus, a, um ūvula, ae, f.

V vagina vagus valgus valve valvula variety varix varus

vāgīna, ae, f. vagus, a, um valgus, a, um valva, ae, f. valvula, ae, f. varietās, ātis, f. varix, icis, m. vārus, a, um 316

vascular vasculitis vasculose vault veil vein velum venerology venous ventral ventricle vermiform vermis vernix vertebra vertebral vertigo vesicoprostatic vesicovaginal vesiculous vessel vestibular vestibule vestibulocochlear villous vision vivisection vocal vomiting

vāsculāris, e vāsculītis, idis, f. vāsculōsus, a, um fornix, icis, m. vēlum, ī, n. vēna, ae, f. vēlum, ī, n. venerologia, ae, f. vēnōsus, a, um ventrālis, e ventriculus, ī, m. vermiformis, e vermis, is, m. vernix, icis, f. vertebra, ae, f. vertebrālis, e vertīgo, inis, f. vēsīcoprostaticus, a, um vēsīcovāgīnālis, e vēsīculōsus, a, um vās, vāsis, n. vestibulāris, e vestibulum, ī, n. vestibulocochleāris, e villōsus, a, um vīsus, ūs, m. vīvisectiō, ōnis, f. vōcālis, e vomitus, ūs, m.

W wall wandering wandering from water watery weakness wedge-shaped weight wheel-shaped white white, whitish whooping cough wide

1. pariēs, ētis, m.; 2. vallum, ī, n. vagus, a, um aberrāns, antis aqua, ae, f. aquaeus, a, um impotentia, ae, f. cuneātus, a, um gravitās, ātis, f. rotundus, a, um albus, a, um albugineus, a, um pertussis, is, f. lātus, a, um 317

widest window windpipe wing wolf worm wormlike worse worst wound wreath wrist wristdrop

lātissumus, a, um fenestra, ae, f. trachēa, ae, f. āla, ae, f. lupus, ī, m. vermis, is, m. vermiformis, e pēior, peius (pējor, pejus) pessimus, a, um 1. trauma, atis, n.; 2. vulnus, eris, n. corōna, ae, f. carpus, ī, m. carpoptōsis, is, f.

X xanthoma xenophobia xerocheilia xerosis

xanthōma, atis, n. xenophobia, ae, f. xērocheilia, ae, f. xērōsis, is, f.

Y yellow yellow (reddish yellow) yoke young man

lūteus, a, um flāvus, a, um jugum, ī, n. juvenis, is, m.

Z zone zonule

zōna, ae, f. zōnula, ae, f.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Internet sources: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com https://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/TA98%20Tree/Alpha/All%20KWIC%20W%20L A.htm

All used images are either publicly available on www.google.com or purchased on the site https://www.dreamstime.com.

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THE BASICS OF GRAECO-LATIN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Authors: Mgr. Alexandra Kavečanská, PhD.; PhDr. Pavol Šalamon

Publisher: Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice Specialist counselling: the UPJŠ University Library in Košice (http://www.upjs.sk/pracoviska/univerzitna-kniznica/) Year of issue: 2017 Print run: 250 copies Number of pages: 322 Number of authors' sheets: 14,13 AH First edition Print: EQUILIBRIA, s. r. o.

ISBN 978-80-8152-516-2

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