The Ajax

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The Ajax

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THE PLAYS OF SOPHOCLES BY

J. C. KAMERBEEK Litt. Dr. Professor of Ancient Greek in the University of Amsterdam

COMMENTARIES PART I THE AJAX ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY DR. H. SCHREUDER REVISED BY A. PARKER B. A.

SECOND EDITION

LEIDEN E. J. BRILL 1963

Copyright 1963 by E. ]. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or translated in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means without written permission from the publisher.

PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

UXORI

PRAEFATIO Ratio nostrae editionis Sophoclis fabularum alia fuit atque nunc evasit; textum enim singularum tragoediarum apparatu critico in­ structum simul cum commentario in lucem edere volui. Cum autem pars prima prelo iam parata esset, scrupulum mihi iniecerunt quomi­ nus mea proferrem studia ad textum Sophocleum pertinentia ab AI. Turyn v. cl. publicata. Ille enim si veram imaginem traditionis nobis descripsit, fundamenta apparatus critici nostri non paulum mutanda sunt. Sed hucusque tempus mihi defuit ad perscrutandas conclusiones ad quas ille pervenit. Neque mirum: complures enim libros manu scriptos excutere necesse erit, neque iam singularum quarumque fabularum textum constituere licebit: notiones enim vulgatae de textu Sophoclis, de aestimatione librorum, de partibus Byzantinorum, de relationibus codicum funditus immutandae sunt, si recta sunt quae Turyn magna cum sagacitate autumat, digna profecto quae diligenter perpendantur, accurate explorentur. Prius­ quam igitur textum poetae edam, pro virili parte agam ut hanc Turynii imaginem probem. Mihi autem persuasum est hanc novam imaginem traditionis, ut apparatum criticum longe alium reddat quippe qui veram speciem historiae textus ostendere debeat, haudquaquam effecturam ut textus ipse multum distet a vulgato. Quod cum ita censerem, nihil obstare vidi quin commentarium Aiacis prelo subici iuberem, tex­ tum apparatu instructum una cum ceterarum fabularum in uno volumine post hos aliquot annos editurus. Quin etiam cum dolerem hunc in modum opus criticum ab exegetico separari tamen hic ordo edendi mihi arridere coepit: quaestiones enim ad apparatum per­ tinentes simul solvendae erunt neque fieri poterit quin unitati operis hoc prosit; tum lectoribus opinor gratum erit textum et commen­ tarium binis voluminibus ad manum habere. Interim commen­ tarius iuxta textum Oxoniensem consuli poterit; lectiones discre­ pantes separatim notavi.

Amstelodami, mense Iulio, MCMLIII

J. C. K.

AD EDITIONEM SECUNDAM Emendatior quidem — ut spero — sed non retractatus, adeo non „incudi redditus", commentarius noster iterum editus est. Tantum enim abest ut ratio haberi potuerit omnium disputationum et librorum ad tragoediam Graecam, ad Sophoclem, ad Aiacem per­ tinentium post annum Domini MCMLIII publici iuris factorum ut ne potiores quidem ad eum renovandum satis suum contribuerint. E quibus honoris causa hos nominare volo: Sophoclis textum cum apparatu et translatione tribus voluminibus editum a P. Mazon (j) et A. Dain (1955, 1958, i960), I. M. Linforth, Three Scenes in Sophocles' Ajax, Univ. of Calif. Pubi, in Class. Philol. XV. 1. 1954, H. Diller, Menschendarstellung und Handlungsfuhrung bei Sophokles, Antike und Abendland VI 1957, G. M. Kirkwood, A Study of Sophoclean Drama, Cornell Studies in Class. Philol. XXXI 1958, H. D. F. Kitto, Form and Meaning in Drama 1956 (de Aiace vide pp. 179-198), H. D. F. Kitto, Sophocles, dramatist and philosopher 1958, Albin Lesky, Die Tragische Dichtung der Hellenen 1956, T. B. L. Webster, Greek Theatre Production 1956, J. Jackson (t). Marginalia Scaenica 1955. Enimvero si de integro commentarium ad Aiacem composuissem, et illis et aliis compluribus libris quos hic praetermitto magno cum fructu usus essem. Nunc imprimis vitia non pauca in rebus minoribus et maioribus removere studui. Ad quod negotium perficiendum observationes a T. B. L. Webster necnon a W. Calder factae maximo mihi usui fuerunt. Tabulam autem locorum ubi textus ab Oxoniensi differt refeci libro Alexandri Turyn qui inscribitur Studies in the Manuscript Tradition of the Tragedies of Sophocles, apparatu ab Alphonso Dain confecto, meis ipsius collationibus adhibitis. Hic illic in rebus maioris momenti iudicium meum mutatum secutus commentarium vere mutavi sed spatium mihi inter angustos terminos circumscriptum fuisse lector benevolus scito. Santpoort pridie Kalendas Septembres MCMLXII

J. C. K.

HISCE LOCIS TEXTUS AB OXONIENSI QUEM CONSTITUIT A. C. PEARSON DIFFERT

In signis adhibendis quam maxime Alexandrum Turyn secutus sum nisi quod consensum codicum G R Q familiae Romanae quae dicitur littera Φ notavi qua usus est Alphonse Dain {Sophocle T. II, 1958). 45 έξεπράξατ’ L: έξέπραξεν Φ A Lrre Pearson. 61 φόνου codd. vetust.: πόνου Mosch. Pearson. 167 sqq. άλλ’ · δτε γάρ δή τό σόν δμμ’ άπέδραν, παταγοϋσιν άπερ πτηνών άγέλαι μέγαν αίγυπιόν· ύποδείσαντες τάχ’ άν, έξαίφνης εί σύ φανείης, σιγή πτήξειαν άφωνοι. Sic divisi: μέγαν αίγυπιόν ύποδείσαντες Dawes, Pearson. 179 ή τιν’ codd.: εϊ τιν’ Elmsley, Pearson. 190 μή μή μ’ άναξ έ'9’, codd.: μή μηκέτ’, ώναξ, Morstadt, Pearson. 194 στηρίζη: στηρίζει Pearson. 208 άμερίας codd.: ηρεμίας Thiersch, Pearson. 210 Τελλεύταντος A Lc ah: Τελεύταντος Porson, Pearson. 222 αίθοπος Llem Ls Lc (?) A Sud. s.v.: αίθωνος Φ Eustath.: α’ίθονος Lac (?) Pearson. 229 παραπλήκτω codd.: παραπλάκτω Blaydes, Pearson. 235 τήν μέν έσω LAS: έξω Φ: τά μέν εϊσω Τ Pearson. 235. 236 γαίας·.................... άνερρήγνυ· 26g νοσοϋντες codd.: νοσοϋντος Hermann, Pearson. 290 κλυών 297 εΰκερών τ’ codd.: εΰερόν τ’ Schneidewin, Pearson. 305 ένάξας Pap. Ox. 2093: άπάξας L (ex άπάξαις) R Q: έπάξας G A Vat 1332 (teste Peppink) Pearson. 309 έρειφθείς L (ex έρεφθείς) A έριφθείς Φ: έρεισθείς Στρ Pearson. 330 νικώνται, φίλοι codd. sic interpunxi: λόγοις Laud vp Stob. Pearson. 350 μόνοι τ’ codd.: μόνοι έτ’ Hermann, Pearson. 358 άλίαν codd.: άλιον Hermann, Pearson.

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I ποιμένων f codd.: πημονάν Reiske, edd. plerique, Pearson: possis ποϊ μόνων έπαρκέσεις; (έπαρκέσοντ’ codd.) 372 χερί μέν Hermann: χερσΐ μέν codd.: χεροΐν Tricl. Pearson. 378 έχειν codd.: έχοι van Herwerden, Pearson. 379 πάνθ’ όρών codd.: πάντα δρών Wakefield, Pearson. 380 κακών όργανον τέκνον Λαρτίου 384, 385 άτώμενος, / ίώ μοί μοι, .... 387 προπάτωρ codd.: πάτερ cod. ant. sec. Tricl. Pearson. 406 τοϊσι δ’ όμοϋ: τοϊσιδ’ Liv ρ: τοΐσδ’ όμοϋ codd.: τίσις δ’ έμοϋ Pearson. 417 ίστω · 427 πρόκειται Lac Λ Dain: πρόκειμαι ceteri Pearson 1) 428 ούθ’ codd.: ούδ’ Elmsley, Pearson. 441 δοκώ ■ 448 άπήξαν vel άπήξαν: άπεϊρξαν Φ ( άπεϊρξαν Blaydes): άπήξαν (vel άπηξαν) L A (in litura) Pearson. 451 έπεντύνοντ’ ΦΑΡ: έπευθύνοντ’ Lac Λ Pearson. 477 βροτόν codd.: βροτών C. E. Palmer, Pearson. 516 καί μητέρ’ άλλ* ή codd. καί μητέρ’ — άλλ’ ή tentavi: άλλη μοίρα edd., Pearson. 5548 Vindicavi. 573 μήθ’ ό codd.: μήτε Schaefer, Pearson. 601, 602 Ίδάιδι μίμνων ποια λειμωνίδι μήλων Wilamowitz: μίμνων άν’ Ίδαν λειμώνι ποαντι μηνών Pearson. 624 έντροφος codd.: σύντροφος Nauck, Pearson. 625 λευκώ δέ codd.: λευκψ τε Hermann, Pearson. 626 I φρενομόρως f vel j φρενομώρως f codd.: φρενοβόρως Dindorf, Pearson. 632 χερόπληκτοι codd.: χερόπλακτοι Erfurdt, Pearson. 636 I άριστα | vide comm. 641 τλάμων L A Q al.: τλαμον R G al. Pearson. 649 καί codd.: χαί Musgrave, Pearson. 656 έξαλεύσωμαι codd.: έξαλύξωμαι Pearson ex Hesychio. 660 Νύξ 668 τί μή; codd.: τί μήν; Linwood, Pearson. 714 Verba τε καί φλέγει servavi, lacunam post χορεϋσαι 701 extare ratus. 726 στρατού codd.: στρατώ Schaefer, Pearson. !) De R dissentiunt viri docti: πρόκειται Turyn, πρόκειμαι Dain, ego.

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743 758 780 784 802 811 8ΐ2 833 852 854 δθ9

885 886 893 896 901 902 910 921 966 1027 XO47 1132 1137 1159 1185 1190

1199 1205, 1211 1230 1268 1281 1293

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κέρδιστον codd.: κέρδιον Nauck, Pearson. κάνόνητα codd. testes: κάνόητα Vauvilliers, Pearson. τοιαϋθ’ L Φ al.: τοσαϋθ’ A al. edd., Pearson. δύσμορον codd.: δυσμόρων Pearson. δτ’ αΰτω L A: ήτ’ αΰτω Φ: δ τούτφ Pearson. οΰχ έδρας ακμή θέλοντας Lac: θέλοντες Lc Φ A2 Pearson. δς σπεύδη θανεΐν Α2: δς άν σπεύδη Lac: δς σπεύδει Φ Lc Pearson. ξύν άσφαδάστω καί ταχεϊ πηδήματι, μάτην, Θάνατε, Θάνατε έπίσταται codd.: έπισπαται Pearson. Sed versus fortasse cor­ ruptus est. Εδρες omisi. λεύσσων retinui. τλήμων codd.: τλάμων Pearson. οϊχωκ’ codd. ώχωκ’ Pearson ex Herodiano. ίώ μοι, άναξ, κατέπεφνες W.-B., Wilamowitz: ίώ μοι κατέπεφνες άναξ codd.: ώμοι, κατέπεφνες , ώναξ Pearson. τάλας Hermann, Jebb, Kuiper: ΐώ τάλας codd.: ώ τάλας Τ Liv ρ Pearson. άφρακτος codd.: άφαρκτος Dindorf, Pearson. ακμαίος codd.: άκμαϊ’ άν Wakefield, Pearson. ή cod.: ή Schneidewin, Pearson. άποφθίσειν codd.: άποφθίσαι Hermann (e Suda), Pearson. οδτος, σέ φωνώ, ού γάρ καλόν; καλώς L: κακώς ΦΡΑ Pearson. πύθοιτό τις, τις άρα νέατος, ές πότε λήξει άνά τάν εύρώδη Τροίαν codd.: τάνδ’ άν’ εύρυεδή Τροίαν Lobeck, Pearson. ού Hermann: οδτε codd. Pearson. 1206 ερώτων· / έρώτων δ’ L Α: ερώτων δ’ / ερώτων Φ Pearson. έννυχίου codd.: αίέν νυχίου G. Wolff, Pearson. έφώνεις Aac Lc: έφρόνεις Lac Ac Φ: έκόμπεις Schol. Ar. Ach. 638 Pearson. επί σμικρών λόγων codd.: επί σμικρόν λέγων Pearson. ούδέ συμβήναι codd.: οδ σύ μή, βήναι Madvig, Pearson. δυσσεβέστατον,

ί'

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1312 1348 1357 1373 1377 1398 1416

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I σοϋ θ’ όμιχίμονος f codd.: σοϋ γ’ άμαίμονος Bothe, Pearson. προσεμβήναι codd.: πρός έμβήναι Blaydes, Pearson. vtx? codd.: κινεί Pearson. ΖΡή codd.: χρής Dindorf, Pearson. codd.: ή Elmsley, Pearson. τάλλα codd.: τάμά Rauchenstein, Pearson. λωίονι Seyffert: λώονι Pearson (sed 1416 sq. suspecta putat).

INTRODUCTION ’Αρετά, πολύμοχθε γένει βροτέω, θήραμα κάλλιστον βίω,

σοΐς τε πόθοισ* Άχιλεύς Αίας τ’ Άίδα δόμον ήλθον. Aristoteles.

I Sophocles took the subject matter for the Ajax from the Trojan cycle of legends, the source of many of his tragedies *). As the Theban Oedipus was closely associated with the Athenians, soAjax to them was a familiar hero. He was the patron of Salamis, ( connected with Attica since the days of Solon. He was the epo-| nymous hero of one of Clisthenes’ tribes. Αίάντεια were celebrated! in his honour on Salamis 2), and perhaps also in Athens. In the Iliad Ajax appears as one of the greatest Achaean heroes before Troy, the bravest warrior next to Achilles, the bulwark of the Achaeans, and the rescuer of the ships. In the embassy to Achilles he is characterized as a man who is sparing of words; he distinguishes himself in his single combat with Hector, in the battle over the body of Patroclus; the wrestling-match between him and Odysseus remains undecided. The Iliad does not contain any reference to a tragic fate that is to befall him; there is no question of any υβρις towards the gods nor of any enmity towards Odysseus or other heroes. The Odyssey tells us quite another story. In the nether world the shade of Ajax refuses to hold converse with Odysseus: οϊη 8’ Αίαντος ψυχή Τελαμωνιάδαο νόσφιν άφεστήκει κεχολωμένη είνεκα νίκης, τήν μιν εγώ νίκησα δικαζόμενος παρά νηυσΐ τεύχεσιν άμφ’ ’Αχιλήος· έθηκε δέ πότνια μήτηρ, παϊδες δέ Τρώων δίκασαν καί Παλλάς Άθήνη. ώς δή μή δφελον νικάν τοιώδ’ έπ’ άέθλφΐ τοίην γάρ κεφαλήν ένεκ’ αύτών γαϊα κατέσχεν, *) Ath. VII 277 ®· Cf. Jebb-Pearson, The Fragments 0/ Sophocles, General Introduction, p. XXXI. ’) L. Deubner, Attische Feste, p. 228; P. v. d. Muhll, Der grosse Aias, p. 23. Kamerbeek

.

2

INTRODUCTION

Αϊανθ’, δς περί μεν είδος, περί δ’ έργα τέτυκτο των άλλων Δαναών μετ’ άμύμονα Πηλείωνα. τόν μέν έγών έπέεσσι προσηύδων μειλίχιο ισιν · "Αίαν, παΐ Τελαμώνος άμύμονος, ούκ άρ’ έμελλες ούδέ θανών λήσεσθαι έμοί χόλου εϊνεκα τευχέων ούλομένων. τά δέ πημα θεοί θέσαν Άργείοισιτοϊος γάρ σφιν πύργος άπώλεο · σεΐο δ’ ’Αχαιοί Ισον ’Αχιλλήος κεφαλή Πηληϊάδαο άχνύμεθα φθιμένοιο διαμπερές· ούδέ τις άλλος αίτιος, άλλα Ζεύς Δαναών στρατόν αίχμητάων έκπάγλως ήχθηρε, τείν δ’ έπί μοίραν έθηκεν............ ” (Od. XI543-560) From this we leam that Ajax and Odysseus had competed tor the possession of the arms of Achilles; Thetis had set them for a prize, Athena and some Trojan captives *) acted as judges. We do not, indeed, hear that Ajax, feeling himself to be dishonoured because he did not get the prize, committed suicide, but this may be inferred. His wrath against Odysseus remained irreconcilable, even after his death. Odysseus regrets his victory and considers the issue of events as a fate sent by Zeus. There is no mention whatever of Ajax planning to murder the Achaean chiefs, of a mental affliction which causes him to kill cattle instead of men, or of a dishonest decision made by the judges. Nor do the Iliad) and Odyssey mention any relationship between Ajax and Achilles.) The Aethiopis by Arctinus of Miletus gave a description of the death of Achilles: οί δέ ’Αχαιοί τόν τάφον χώσαντες άγώνα τιθέασι, καί περί τών Άχιλλέως όπλων Όδυσσεϊ καί Αϊαντι στάσις εμπίπτει. (Πρόκλου χρηστομάθειας γραμματικής τό δεύτερον, Allen ρ. Ιθ6,15-17)· From the name-list of C. I. G. Ital. et Sicil. 1284 (αίας [μανι]ωδης, Allen, p. 126, 7-8) we know that in the Aethiopis Ajax was struck with frenzy. Moreover, schol. B T Eust. A 515 cite from the Iliupersis of Arctinus: (Podalirius) δς ρα καί Αίαντος πρώτος μάθε χωομένοιο / 6μματά τ’ άστράπτοντα βαρυνόμενόν τε νόημα (Iliu Persis V, Allen, ρ. 139)· It is not unlikely (cf. Jebb, Introd. Ajax, XIII n. 2) that the poet Arctinus refers here to a more detailed treatment in the Aethiopis. In the Aethiopis Ajax slew himself about dawn: ό γάρ τήν Αίθιοπίδα γράφων περί τόν όρθρον φησί τόν Αϊαντα εαυτόν άνελεϊν. ι) Schol. Η ad Od. XI 547·

INTRODUCTION

3

(schol. Pind. Isthm. Ill 53—IV 36—, Aethiopis II, Allen, p. 126). The scanty information on the Aethiopis makes it impossible to discover whether this poem knew anything of the onslaught on the cattle, but probably it did not *). The Ilias Parva (commonly ascribed to Lesches) dealt i.a. with the δπλων κρίσις (Arist. Poet. c. 23, 1459 b). In the Chrestomathy of Proclus we read as follows (Allen, p. 106, 20-23): 'Η των δπλων κρίσις γίνεται καί Όδυσσεύς κατά βούλησιν ’Αθήνας λαμβάνει, Αίας 8’ έμμανής γενόμενος τήν τε λείαν των ’Αχαιών λυμαίνεται καί εαυτόν άναιρεϊ. The impression one gets is that the poet of the Ilias Parva has introduced the story of the onslaught on the cattle into the legend; furthermore it is worth noticing that Odysseus gets the arms through the will of Athena, as can also be read in Od. XI 547. About the judges a schol. ad Ar. Eq. 1056 tells: ή ιστορία τούτον τόν τρόπον έχει. 8τι διεφέροντο περί των άριστείων 8 τε Αίας καί δ Όδυσσεύς, ως φησιν ό την μικράν Ίλιάδα πεποιηκώς. τόν Νέστορα δε συμβουλεϋσαι τοΐς 'Έλλησι πέμψαι τινάς έξ αύτών ύπό τα τείχη των Τρώων, ώτακουστησοντας περί της άνδρείας των προειρημενών ηρώων, τούς δέ πεμφθέντας άκοϋσαι παρθένων διαφερομένων προς άλλήλας, ών τήν μέν λέγειν ώς δ Αίας πολύ κρείττων έστί τού Όδυσσέως, διερχομένην ούτως Αίας μέν γάρ άειρε, καί ίκφερε δηιοτητος ήρω Πηλείδην ούδ’ ήθελε δϊος Όδυσσεύς,

την δ’ έτέραν άντειπεϊν ’Αθήνας προνοία πώς έπεφωνήσω; πώς ού κατά κόσμον έειπες / ψεύδος;

(Ilias Parva II, Allen, p. 129). The words ’Αθήνας προνοία are in perfect agreement with the above-quoted κατά βούλησιν ’Αθήνας. It may be imagined that the poet invented this story in continuation of Od. XI 547 (or of the story given there in brief outline). The scholion says further: "Αλλως · τούτο έκ τού κύκλου άφείλκυσται. (i.e. Ar. Eq. 1056 sq.: καί κε γυνή φέροι άχθος έπεί κεν άνήρ άναθείη · άλλ’ ούκ άν μαχέσαιτο · χέσαιτο γάρ εί μαχέσαιτο) λέγεται δέ άπό τών Τρωάδων κρινουσών τόν Αίαντα καί τόν Όδυσσέα. λέγεται δέ δτι ού τό τού Αίαντος έργον αλλά τό τού Όδυσσέως. The Ilias Parva also told about the burial of Ajax: (Porphyrius ap. Eust. 285, 34) (ιστορεί δέ ό Πορφύριος) καί 8τι ό τήν μικράν Ίλιάδα γράψας Ιστορεί μηδέ καυθήναι συνήθως τόν Αίαντα, τεθήναι δέ ούτως *) Cf. A. Severijns, Le Cycle ipique dans I'icole d’Aristarque, 1928, p. 331.

4

INTRODUCTION

έν σορώ διά τήν όργήν τοϋ βασιλέως (Ilias Parva III, Allen, p. 130). No mention is made of wilful intrigue in the adjudgement of the arms, nor of an intervention of Athena inflicting frenzy upon Ajax when he seeks to murder the chiefs. We have to acquiesce in our ignorance on these important points. But the way in which "Apollodori” Epitoma 5, 21, 6 (epit. Vaticana) tells the story deserves attention: ή δέ πανοπλία αύτοΰ τώ άρίστω νικητήριον τίθεται και καταβαίνουσιν είς άμιλλαν Αίας καί Όδυσσεύς. προκριθέντος δέ Όδυσσέως Αίας ύπύ λύπης ταράττεται καί νύκτωρ επιβουλεύεται τφ στρατεύματι- καί ύπύ ’Αθήνας μανείς είς τά βοσκήματα ξιφήρης έκτρέπεται καί ταϋτα κτείνει σύν τοϊς νέμουσιν ώς ’Αχαιούς, ύστερον δέ σωφρονήσας κτείνει καί εαυτόν. ’Αγαμέμνων δέ κωλύει τύ σώμα αύτοΰ καήναι καί μόνος ούτος τών έν Ίλίω άποθανόντων έν σορώ κεϊται ■ ό δέ τάφος έστίν έν ’Ροιτείω. Since the last part of this account agrees with Ilias Parva III Allen (vide supra), it is possible that "Apollodorus” (i.e. his source) follows the Ilias Parva also in the other parts and that Sophocles, whose version is in keeping with Apollodorus’, except in the last part, likewise draws upon the Ilias Parva as regards the frenzy of Ajax and the interference of Athena. But this is by no means certain: "Apollodorus" may have borrowed these traits from the version of Sophocles l) and Sophocles may have been the first to represent Ajax as being in full use of his senses when he meditated revenge on the Achaeans but as being visited with madness after the interference of Athena, which led to the onslaught on the cattle. . In the epic versions, at any rate, there is, so far as we know them, not a single trace of a conscious dishonesty in the award of the arms of Achilles. This can also be said of Pind. Isthm. IV 34 sqq. But there is a reference in Pind. Nem. VIII 22 sqq.: δψον δέ λόγοι φθονεροϊσιν, / άπτεται δ’ έσλών άεί, / χειρόνεσσι δ’ ούκ ερίζει. / κείνος καί Τελαμώνος δάψεν υιόν, / φασγάνω άμφικυλίσαις. / ή τιν’ άγλωσσον μέν, ήτορ δ’ άλκιμον, λάθα κατέχει / έν λυγρώ νείκει · μέγιστον δ” αίόλφ ψεύδει γέρας άντέταται. / κρυφίαισι γάρ έν ψάφοις Όδυσση Δαναοί θεράπευσαν· / χρυσέων δ’ Αίας στερηθείς δπλων φόνω πάλαισεν2). Pindar does not speak of his madness, nor of the onslaught on the cattle, probably out of deference to the hero of the Aeginetans. *) Cf. Wilamowitz, Pindaros, p. 338 n. 3. *) Cf. M. C. van der Kolf, Quaeritur quomodo Pindarus fabulas tractaverit quidque in eis mutarit, diss. Leiden 1923, pp. 65-67.

INTRODUCTION

S

There is little to be said in support of the view of Blumenthal 2), that Pindar borrows this trait from Sophocles; either the reverse is true 2), or there is a common source unknown to us. (That the "Danaoi” vote themselves is a common trait found in represen­ tations on vases: Robert, Bild und Lied, pp. 213-221). In the trilogy of Aeschylus "Οπλων κρίσις, Θρήισσαι, Σαλαμίνιαι the fate of Ajax took the central place. In the first play Ajax and Odysseus argued their claims against each other (as is proved by Aesch. fr. 175 N.2= 286 Mette (1959) from schol. on Soph. Ai 189); it is not certain who formed the Chorus; perhaps the Nereids (Aesch. fr. 174 N.2 = 285 Mette (1959) from schol. on Ar. Ach. 883): if so, the element of deceit would meet with some difficulty in Aesch., granting the Nereids to have been the judges of the contest. It is a pity we cannot ascertain to which play Pap. Ox. 2256, fr. 71 (296 Mette = 284 Lloyd-Jones) belongs; here the deceit is men­ tioned. We do not learn anything from the fragments about Ajax’ madness and his onslaught on the cattle. Possibly the idea of suicide entered his mind immediately after the award of the arms, in view of the following line from the "Οπλων κρίσις: τί γάρ καλόν ζην βίον δς λύπας φέρει (177 Ν.2 = 289 Mette from Stob. Έκλ. Ill II, 14 Η.). In the following play, the Θρήισσαι, Thracian women who were captives of Ajax formed the Chorus (schol. Soph. Ai. 134). The sui­ cide of Ajax was related by a messenger (schol. Soph. Ai. 815). More­ over, Aeschylus made use of a tradition according to which Ajax was vulnerable only in the armpit or in the side, i.e. at that place which had not been covered by the lion-skin in which Heracles had wrapped the new-bom child: the place where Heracles’ quiver was attached (schol. Soph. Ai. 833; cf. schol. T Hom. II. XIV 404, schol. s s3 Lycophr. Alex. 455, cf. Pl. Symp. 219 e). (In Pind. Isthm. VI 42 sqq. Heracles prays that a son may be bom to Tela­ mon: τόν μέν άρρηκτον φυάν, ώσπερ τόδε δέρμα με νϋν περιπλαναται / θηρός, δν πάμπρωτον άέθλων / κτεϊνά ποτ’ έν Νεμέα · / θυμός δ’ έπέσθω. Probably owing to a misunderstanding, both the schol. ad Lycophr. 1.1. and the hypothesis of Sophocles’ Ajax ascribe the story of the invulnerability to Pindar 3). The words of Heracles are followed ’) R.E. s.v. Sophokles. *) For Pindar and Sophocles cf. T. B. L. Webster, An Introduction to Sophocles, Oxford 1936, p. 50. ·) Cf. Wilamowitz, Pindaros, p. 183.

6

INTRODUCTION

by the appearance of an αίετός and Heracles enjoins Telamon to name his son after this Αίας: Sophocles ignores the invulnera­ bility of Ajax as well as the name-giving after the αίετός.) The scene of the Σαλαμίνιαι was in all probability laid on Salamis and the play treated of Teucer’s return to Telamon and Eriboea, his exile and possibly the institution of festivities in memory of Ajax (thus Jebb). The passages in Sophocles 569 sqq. and 1018 sqq. seem to refer to this play of his predecessor.

II

To sum up, we may conclude that there is not so very much of Sophocles’ own invention in the μϋθος which he dramatized. But the data he made use of and the manner in which he handled his subject are such as to ensure the best effect for attaining his end: the dramatic interpretation of the tragic hero Ajax. For whereas Aeschylus in his trilogy interprets the myth, Sophocles puts upon the stage the tragedy of a hero. In order to give complete fulness to his character he prefers to choose the most complicated version. Ajax does not get the prize of his άρετή; he wants to take revenge on the Atreidae and Odysseus, he is demented by Athena, commits the disgraceful deed of the onslaught on the flocks x), comes to his senses again, deems further life impossible, and commits suicide. Whereas the epos is silent about any ΰβρις of Ajax towards the gods (cf. however schol. ad Ai. 127), 762 sqq. calls special attention to it *). (Schol. ad 762 observes that this is προσθήκη τοϋ ποιητοϋ). This does not mean, however, that the deeper meaning of the drama could simply be formulated thus: Ajax is a committer of ΰβρις and therefore he goes to ruin. For it should be remembered that the poet emphasizes in Teucer’s words (1135) that there has been foul play in the award of the arms so that there was some ground for the vindictiveness of Ajax. Then there is the question of his burial, with which a large part of the play is concerned after his death. By means of Odysseus, who is in the beginning of the play *) "His fury turns to madness and becomes the means to his humiliation” (Bowra, Sophoclean Tragedy, p. 33). ’) The hybris motif is of great importance in the early Sophocles: cf. Niobe, Thamyris, Ajax of Locri (Bowra, Sophoclean Tragedy, p. 32; Pohlenz, Die Griechische Tragodie2, Gottingen 1954, p. 170}.

INTRODUCTION

7

Athena’s disciple, full honour is at least restored to him. And finally the death of Ajax, so far from being represented as an ex­ piatory sacrifice for outrages committed, is regarded as saving him from an honourless life 1). Ajax saves his honour as a hero by finding death and by his death his honour as a hero finds its due recognition by the mouth of his rival in the contest for the arms. This means that death accords him the τιμή without which he, being essentially an epic hero, could not live. Weinstock rightly calls attention to this wounded honour as epic motif ’). The deed of suicide is part of his being and of his fate, of his δαίμων. Suppose for a moment that after vs. 692 he actually meant to purge his stains and that he had not committed the deed (after all, we may suppose this because Sophocles apparently makes him express this intention; moreover, there were mythic versions in which Ajax did not commit suicide, cf. Hypothesis in fine and Sophron fr. 32 K. (Demetrius de elocut. 147)). Under these circumstances, how would his honour as a hero have been preserved, if Aga­ memnon and Odysseus had come to inquire into his attempt to make an onslaught ? Or could it be that Odysseus would come to offer him the arms of Achilles ? s) As to the act of suicide it should be borne in mind that the Greeks of the 5th century (with the exception of the Pythagoreans) did not think it objectionable4).* It would be a mistake to look in Sophocles for anything like an integral theological system that should be adequate to account for or to justify the fate of Ajax. And therefore the part of Athena remains to us full of difficulties. (It is worthy of notice that in Megara Athena has as epiclesis Aiantis 6). A gold statue of Athena in Megara is said by Pausanias to come from Ajax e). The association Athena-Ajax reminds one of that between Aphrodite and Hippo­ lytus (Eur. Hipp. 32, 33)). There is good reason to assume that the poet uses her appearance in the prologue to show that against the x) Or as: "una prova di onore” (Massa Positano, L'Unitd dell’ Aiace di Sofocle, p. 55; cf. also Pohlenz, o.l.2, *p. 178). Cf. also K. v. Fritz, Zur Inter­ pretation des Aias, Rh.M. 1934, 113-128, esp. pp. 124 and 126. ’) H. Weinstock, Sophokles*·, p. 40. ’) According to Philostr. Heroic. XI Odysseus wanted to deposit Achilles’ arms on the mound of Ajax, an act which Teucer did not tolerate. 4) Cf. Eur. Hec. 1107 Pl. Leg. IX 873 c). Pohlenz, o.l2, p. 178. ’) Paus. I 52, 4, R.E. s.v. Aiantis. ·) Paus. I 52, 4, R.E. s.v. Aias, cf. Soph. Ai. 92, 93.

8

INTRODUCTION

omnipotence of the gods, who rule the universe by guarding the bounds set to man, even the greatest hero, when he exceeds these bounds in ύβρις, is powerless (cf. 127-133) 1). Conceptions such as cruelty or mercy are out of the question here. Athena is a power which states in an unconcerned manner what is Ajax’ condicio. To us his lot is not made acceptable by Athena but by Odysseus’ humanity. It is otherwise not devoid of interest to notice with regard to Sophocles’ conception of "tragedy” that Ajax, especially towards Athena, stands in the relation of a θεομάχος who in his delusion thinks the goddess his σύμμαχος (92). He is therefore the hero who in contradistinction to the natural phenomena does not know to είκειν or to σωφρονεΐν (670 sqq.). "Offence and greatness in the hero spring from the same root. The impassioned intensity for which we admire him is itself ύβρις” (H. Kuhn, The True Tragedy, Harvard Studies 1942, p. 61). To any one who sees in Sophocles a man of bigoted naive piety it must indeed seem surprising that he devotes little less than a third part of his tragedy to giving this hero the honour which is due to him. The character of Ajax—as indeed others of Sophocles—gives one the impression that the poet was fascinated by the hero who exceeds the bounds set to man, is annihilated, and in his annihilation finds the confirmation of his greatness.

Ill

When a μΰθος is narrowed down to a single play with a central figure it is inevitable that a large part of the former belongs to the time preceding the subject proper of the drama. But the total effect of what precedes is part of the central figure, of his memory and his mental content. Thus it is with Philoctetes, with Oedipus, with Electra, and to a high degree with Ajax. When the drama opens, the armorum iudicium, the resolve to murder the Achaean chiefs, the visitation with madness, and the onslaught on the cattle, belong already to the past; only the madness continues throughout the prologue. The Prologue (1-134) brings the spectator into the presence of Athena, Odysseus and Ajax. At the end of it the spectator is fully acquainted with the whole situation, and—even more than this— *) Not incorrect but too simple: "Athena is simply divine punishment personified". G. Norwood, Greek Tragedy, p. 135.

INTRODUCTION

9

he has heard and seen Ajax in his revolting infatuation. By the words of Odysseus has been measured the gulf between the greatness of a hero and his fall. Divine omnipotence and human insignificance are set against each other. The derision, also, of divine power is depicted contrasting with the commiseration of a man who recognizes the human limits from the example set before him. Nowhere else do we find a god in the prologues of Sophocles, twice with Aeschylus (Eumenides and Prometheus) and frequently with Euripides. The statement of Pohlenz (o.l.1, p. 174, not in o.Z.2), who calls this pro­ logue a “fabula docet” which is “unkiinstlerisch”, is inacceptable. The Parodos (135-200). The Chorus appear singing a marchingsong in anapaests; this is followed by a lyric ode in strophe, anti­ strophe, epode. This structure is archaic and occurs in the Supplices (without preceding prologue), the Persae (item) and the Agamemnon (after a prologue) of Aeschylus. In the parodos of the Antigone lyric strophes alternate with anapaestic systems. The Chorus consist of sailors, followers of Ajax, whose weal and woe are closely bound up with their master’s (cf. schol. ad 134: their dependence on and adherence to their master are greater than in the case of the Thracian slave-women in Aeschylus’ Threissae. They are disquieted about the rumours they have heard, but do not know the precise state of affairs. It is said in the camp that Ajax has murdered oxen and sheep. They know that the fate of Ajax is their fate and they call upon their master to come out of the hut. They are otherwise more concerned with their own con­ dition than with the sorry plight of the hero. First Epeisodion (201-595), consisting of a kommos between Tecmessa and the Chorus (201-262), a dialogue between Tecmessa and the Chorus (263-347; 333, 336, 339 interrupted by cries from Ajax; at 342 he says two lines), a kommos between Ajax, the Chorus and Tecmessa (348-429), a dialogue between Ajax, Tec­ messa and the Chorus (430-595) (at 541 a servant brings Eurysaces). As there is no stasimon between the two scenes, one had better not speak of two epeisodia. In the first kommos Tecmessa and the Chorus exchange tidings and give utterance to their great anxiety. Tecmessa knows that Ajax has become mad; she has seen him come to the hut with the cattle and been a witness to his rage. The Chorus are confirmed in their apprehensions and are of opinion that Ajax and they themselves must seek safety in flight. In the dialogue Tecmessa explains that Ajax has become sane again.

10

INTRODUCTION

and gives an account of what had happened that night, how Ajax had left the hut and how he had returned. She also speaks, in brief terms, of the scene with Athena at the door of the hut, but she does not appear to have understood the meaning of it. As to Tecmessa, she is, so far as we can know, an invention of Sophocles himself. In the Iliad thefe is no trace of her (it is not quite clear if Αϊαντος γέρας II. I 138 refers to a wife of Ajax). The scarce fragments of the Cyclic poets are silent about her, and so are the testimonia of the trilogy of Aeschylus. The Romans have written several tragedies entitled Tecmessa (or Tecumessa); we do not know of a Greek one. Quintus Smyrnaeus (V 538 sqq.) is based on So­ phocles. She, the daughter of the Phrygian Teleutas, is ληιδίη and made his άλοχος by Ajax. Sophocles borrows for her character elements from Briseis and Andromache. She is the embodiment of the tie which might bind Ajax to life (for he loves her—cf. 21X,12— and she is devoted to him with her whole being), if anything could. She realizes the desire of Ajax to find a refuge in death even before he has given utterance to it (326). Therefore she has come from the hut to call in the aid of the Chorus. The coryphaeus does not summon the servants to open the hut until he is certain that Ajax has recovered his senses (344). A second time the spectator gets a view of Ajax, whose frenzy is now past, sitting among his ludicrous victims. In the kommos the desire of Ajax to die becomes apparent. There is no remorse about the onslaught, only a sense of sorrow and shame about his failure and disgrace. His fury against the Atreidae and Odysseus remains undiminished. He does not heed the dismay and protests of the Chorus; he dismisses Tecmessa. He is conscious of Athena’s baleful part (401-403). He desires death because he, the greatest hero before Troy, has been disgraced (412-427). The way in which Ajax is depicted in this lyric scene renders the mental derangement by which he had been struck psychologically comprehensible; though he has come to his senses again, he gives the impression of a monomaniac of ambition and vindictiveness. In the following dialogue Ajax explains his situation. He did not receive the honour due to him, he was baulked of his revenge through Athena’s doing, his enemies mock at him, he is hated both by men and gods, he cannot appear before Telamon. Καλώς ζην is impossible for him; καλώς τεθνηκέναι remains (430-480). He lives up to the standard of a noble hero. He is untouched by Tecmessa’s personal appeal.

INTRODUCTION

11

Their words are lost on each other **). He has his son brought to him so that he may take his leave, and—holding him in his arms— teach him the rules of nobility. Teucer is to protect him and to take him to Telamon and Eriboea. At the end of the scene he has the hut closed, and a last appeal of Tecmessa is checked by a sharp rebuff. The part of the coryphaeus is limited to a single entreaty to restrain himself (481-484; 525, 26) and an expression of fright (583, 84). First Stasimon (596-645). Two strophes and antistrophes. The Chorus invoke Salamis, for which they yearn after their long stay before Troy. They are afraid to die in consequence of the insanity of Ajax. It is worthy of notice that the chorus call Ajax θεία μανία ξύναυλος (6ll, cf. 639, 40): they cannot understand the standard Ajax lives up to. They imagine the grief of Telamon and Eriboea when they will hear of Ajax’ infatuation. Second Epeisodion (646-692). Ajax comes forth, probably fol­ lowed by Tecmessa (with Eurysaces?). He delivers a speech in which he says that it is good to yield; he will go to a pasture near the sea to purge his stains and bury his sword. This speech is equi­ vocal throughout (see the commentary). Its whole tenor is to show that Ajax knows all arguments and understands why he would have to yield; it makes clear the “Zerwiirfnis des Helden mit dem Lauf der Welt” *). Just because the speech is ambiguous, it shows his stubbornness the more ineluctably. Indeed, the veiled wording of this speech shows us the real Ajax 3). With this "deception” he finds the solitude of nature to die *). Ajax leaves the scene. Second Stasimon (693-718). Strophe and antistrophe. A joyous ύπόρχημα; the Chorus are convinced that everything will come right now. Third Epeisodion (719-814-865). The Chorus are not in the orchestra 814-865. A messenger announces Teucer’s arrival in the camp (prepared by 342, 3 and 562 sqq.). He has met with a bad K. Reinhardt, Sophokles\ p. 32. *) K. Reinhardt, Sophokles\ p. 36. ’) On the gradual exposition of the character of Ajax See the very good remarks of L. Massa Positano, o.l.. pp. 53 sqq. 4) “If the speech is deception, Ajax dies without having made his peace with god and man" Bowra, Sophoclean Tragedy, p. 40. This is true; he dies without having made peace with them. Right, Weinstock, o.l., p. 51: “Wandel ware Selbstaufgabe, ihm bleibt nur die Selbstzerstorung”.

12

INTRODUCTION

reception but leamt from the seer Calchas that the life of Ajax depends on his staying within his hut for this one day; only so long will Athena’s wrath pursue the ϋβρις of Ajax, in that he declined her divine aid in the battle, ού κατ’ άνθρωπον φρονών. The Chorus and Tecmessa realize that Ajax is in great peril and go to seek him. This scene is laden with unparalleled dramatic tension and illustrates at the same time the inevitability of Ajax’ fate. He cannot yield to the gods, he refuses to submit to Athena, and therefore it is fated that he shall die '). The second scene shows Ajax alone in a meadow with bushes near the sea-shore; the sword is fixed by its hilt in the ground of the bushes. Ajax prays for a swift death and a burial by the hand of Teucer. He invokes the Furies to avenge him on the Atreidae and even on the whole Achaean army. So far his death is an in­ stance of suicide in revenge 2). It is possible that in the original myth this motif was central, but in the tragedy of Sophocles this is certainly not the case. His farewell is addressed to the sun, his native country, the plains of Troy. Then he falls upon his sword. The scene is in every respect exceptional on the Attic stage. Epiparodos (865-879). The two ημιχόρια enter the orchestra from opposite sides, searching for Ajax. Their search has been in vain. Ajax lies on the stage in such a manner that the Chorus cannot see him. Kommos (879-973): Chorus and Tecmessa. It may be said that the Epiparodos and the Kommos together take the place of a stasimon. For the rest the situation for the public is analogous to that of the Parodos, where Ajax is in his hut and the public knows everything; here the spectator has been a witness to the suicide of Ajax and knows where his body lies; in both cases the Chorus are still ignorant of what has happened. Formally, the exit and the re-entering of the Chorus accentuate the division of the drama into two parts. Tecmessa comes on probably centrally and finds Ajax’ body (Cf. Webster, Museum 1955, p. 27, Greek Theatre Production 1956, p. 18). There is much consistency in the relations Chorus-Tecmessa-Ajax: the finding of the body falls to Tecmessa’s share. Likewise in the *) Possibly we may at the same time find in this an indication that the wrath of the gods will not last (Campbell, Introduction, p. 3). *) M. Delcourt, Le Suicide par Vengeance dans la Grice ancienne, Rev. de ΓΗ. des Religions, Soix. ann. t. cent dix-neuv. 1939, pp. 154-171.

INTRODUCTION

13

naive egotism of the Chorus (ώμοι έμών νόστων, 1. 900). The kommos, in which Tecmessa speaks almost exclusively in iambic trimeters, further consists of laments and reflections on the death of Ajax. It is Tecmessa again who utters the profoundest words and who appears to have the keenest realization of the significance of what has happened. Fourth Epeisodion (974-1184). 974-1047: Teucer and Chorus (until 988 Tecmessa silent); 1047-1167: Teucer, Menelaus, Chorus; 1168-1184: Teucer (Tecmessa, Eurysaces, Chorus silent). Teucer appears (his appearance prepared at 804, 827, 921). After the exchange of complaints between Teucer and the coryphaeus, Teucer sends Tecmessa away to fetch Eurysaces (985 sqq.). Then follows a long speech in which he analyses—especially for himself—the situation after the death of Ajax, and sets forth the true significance of his death. This speech shows that Teucer was not designed merely "to fit the scheme”. Then comes the scene with Menelaus. It is dramatically fully warranted, nay even in­ dispensable that the enemies of Ajax should be put on the scene so that his greatness may be measured by their littleness I). No­ where does the weakness of Menelaus appear more clearly than from his desire to dominate Ajax at least after the latter’s death (1067). After speech and counterspeech follows the stichomythy resulting in the αίνοι; Menelaus departs without effecting his purpose. Tecmessa comes back with Eurysaces; Eurysaces is made to hold his father’s body as a suppliant. Teucer goes to seek a suitable place for the burning of Ajax, so that Eurysaces and Tecmessa are left on the stage with the body of Ajax. Third Stasimon (1185-1222). Two strophes and antistrophes. The Chorus complain of the endless war and their own sad con­ dition, especially now that Ajax has met his doom. They only long to be home again. Exodos (1223-1420). Teucer, Agamemnon, Chorus. From 13161374 the same persons and Odysseus. 1374-1401 Teucer, Odysseus, Chorus. From 1402-the end, Teucer and Chorus (Eurysaces and Tecmessa are also present but silent throughout). Speech and coun­ terspeech by Agamemnon and Teucer; both of them stoop to the exchange of personal taunts, a practice well-known in the Attic law-courts. A solution seems to be impossible, until Odysseus *) Excellent remarks by Pohlenz, Erl&uterungen', p. 76 ad p. 181 Z. 8 v.u.

14

INTRODUCTION

appears l), who, akin to Theseus in some other tragedies, succeeds with real Attic humanity in dissuading Agamemnon from his prohibition. Unreconciled, Agamemnon lets Odysseus have his way. Odysseus’ offer to take part in the burial is declined by Teucer. The scene ends with the carrying forth of the body of Ajax.

IV Let us with Corneille (Discours sur le Poeme Dramatique) consider "quelle grace a eue chez les Athemens la contestation de Menelas et de Teucer pour la sepulture d’Ajax, que Sophocle fait mourir au quatneme acte”. The Achaeans could not but see a traitor in Ajax on account of his onslaught. It is for this reason that his brother is threatened with stoning (728) 2); the Athenians could remember that Themistocles was refused burial in his own coun­ try3). Every one knows from the Antigone how important burial was. To the Athenians Ajax was a national hero, whose impor­ tance had certainly increased since the battle of Salamis (it is not for nothing that "Salamis” plays a great part in the tragedy). But—and this is the most important point—though it is true that Ajax has saved his honour as a hero by his suicide, yet this honour exists in the world only by the recognition of others 4) (cf. the semasiology of δόξα or such expressions as την εύσεβίαν κτασθαι); and after his death this recognition could manifest itself only in the bestowal of a right to be buried. The tragedy simply could not end with the death of Ajax, not because of his life after death (thoughts of the hereafter play a comparatively unim­ portant part in Sophocles), but on account of his immortality as a hero here on earth5). The problem was how to dramatize the con­ troversy concerning the burial and to elaborate it so as to form an organic whole with the first part of the tragedy. Instead of com*) There is much misunderstanding in the view of A. Platt, The Burial of Ajax, Cl. Rev. XXV, 1912, 101-104. When speaking of the anticlimax at the end, he says of Odysseus: "The cool head is a poor subject for tragedy". *) Cf. Bowra, Soph. Tragedy, p. 49; Hdt. IX 5; cf. Dem. De cor. 204. A. C. Pearson, Cl. Qu. XVI, 1922, pp. 124-137. Pearson argues that the second part of the tragedy is intended to show that Ajax is not a traitor. ·) Bowra ib. Thue. I 138, 6. ‘) Cf. the striking "justification de leur justice par le jugement d’autrui", Andr6 Chamson, Le Crime des Justes, ch. IV initio. Cf. the commentary ad 75· ·) Sikes, The Greek View of Poetry, p. 222, is excellent.

INTRODUCTION

IS

plaining of lack of unity or of a primitive construction one should be surprised at the coherence and unity which characterize the play as a whole. In the first place the scenic unity is preserved because the body of Ajax now takes a central place as much as the living Ajax did in the first part. The placing of the scene 719-815 causes an overlapping of the first and the second part. Teucer's appearance is as carefully prepared as the role he is to play: to act as protector of Eurysaces and to procure an honourable burial for Ajax. The motif of Hector’s sword appears for the third time in Teucer’s speech. A climax is built up with great care by the scene of Mene­ laus followed by that of Agamemnon, while in the meantime mea­ sures are taken for the protection of Eurysaces and the burial of the body. Eurysaces placed as a suppliant by the corpse of Ajax presents a scene full of pathos and forms a striking counterpart to the scene where Ajax takes leave of his son. But the most beautiful symmetry with the first part is attained by the appearance of Odysseus at the end and the part he plays. It may be admitted, indeed, that the altercations between Menelaus and Teucer and the discourses of Agamemnon and Teucer follow too much the taste of the Athenian public for lawsuit speeches, bearing in too high a degree the mark of their times. It has been rightly observed that the subsequent appearance of Menelaus and Agamemnon reminds one of the άγώνες of Comedy 1). The αίνοι of 1142 and 1150 are in accordance with this (see the Commentary). V

We possess no external information to fix the date of performance. The performance of the Antigone cannot be far from 441 B.C., and since the two tragedies have much in common, the Ajax is usually dated about the same time. Jebb,-v. Wilamowitz, Radermacher and others are inclined to date the Ajax somewhat later than the Antigone because in the latter we do not (yet) find άντιλαβαί2), whereas the Ajax contains some instances (591-594, 981-983). It would seem, however, that there are more important arguments in favour of an earlier date, although absolute certainty can of course not be obtained. K. Reinhardt, Sophokles\ p. 42. *) Pohlenz, Erlauterungen2, p. 77, is right in not attaching too much weight to this argument.

16

INTRODUCTION

The close researches of F. R. Earp *) lend support to the sup­ position that the Ajax and the Trachiniae fall in that period of the development of Sophocles’ stylistic workmanship preceding that which begins with the Antigone !). That the general structure of the Ajax, the Trachiniae and, for that matter, also of the Anti­ gone, in contradistinction to the other dramas that have come down to us, shows the character of a diptychon (to use Webster’s term), is in agreement with this supposition. Another circumstance which speaks for an early date is the comparative importance of the ΰβρις-motif. This trait, which shows us Sophocles still within the bounds of Aeschylus’ mental world, corroborates the stylistic argument again: of all his dramas it is the style of the Ajax which comes nearest to that of Aeschylus. With regard to the exhibition of the hero in his infatuation and miserable plight Reinhardt 3) rightly pointed to the analogy with the new IWofe-fragment, not­ withstanding his interpretation of it is uncertain. Scenes such as that found in the prologue (with the appearance of the goddess) and that of Ajax amidst the butchered cattle have no parallel in the later works of the poet. In addition to this comes the structure of the parodos (anapaests and choral song), which reminds one of Aeschylus. To this may be objected, of course, that a poet may, especially as regards the style, return to a former manner. As to Sophocles, however, this is hardly likely, considering his own statement on his style (Plut. de prof. in virt. p. 79 b) *). If we accept these arguments for an early date of the Ajax, we may, perhaps, go a little further, though somewhat hesitatingly. We must be very careful of course, especially when it concerns Sophocles, in assuming allusions to contemporary events in tragedy. Yet it must be admitted that the particularly unkind picture of Menelaus, added to Σπάρτης άνάσσων ήλθες, ούχ ημών κρατών (ιΐ02), may be best imagined in a period of war or strained relations be­ tween Athens and Sparta, the more so, as the expression of antiSpartan sentiments would hardly be expected of Sophocles. This ’) The Style of Sophocles, Cambridge 1944. *) Cf. also the chapter "Style" in T. B. L. Webster, Introduction to Sopho­ cles, pp. 143 sqq. ·) O.l. pp. 22 sqq. *) Cf. C. M. Bowra, Sophocles on his own Development, Am. J. of Phil. LXI, 1940, pp. 385-401.

INTRODUCTION

17

would yield as terminus ante quern 446 *), when the thirty years’ peace between Athens and Sparta was concluded. (Reinhardt is quite right when he says on p. 245 that he does not see why 1. 1102 should have been taken from Eur. fr. 723 N.2—Telephos 2)—and not the reverse; the same holds good for the relation between 1295 sqq. and Euripides’ Κρήσσαι). And finally: if we ask ourselves when there can have been a question of competency between an Athenian chief and a Spartan, we can (apart from the Persian wars) think only of Cimon’s failure in 461. Is it too far-fetched to assume that in his conception of the relation between Ajax and the Atreidae Sophocles has thought of this event3), which must have affected him the more because it was Cimon who procured him his first triumph?4). Moreover, Cimon belonged to the family of the Philaidae, who had Ajax as their ancestor5). It would of course be absurd to put Cimon and Ajax on a par, just as it would be absurd to do this for Oedipus and Pericles. But Sophocles, as Webster6) has rightly argued, was in his youth closely associated with Cimon and his circle (Polygnotus, Ion, Archelaus). Taking all these things into consider­ ation, it would not be surprising if the tragedy of Ajax appeared to have been written shortly after Cimon’s death (449), when his remembrance was still fresh, when he could be thought of as a hero whose honour had been restored and when the peace with Sparta had not yet been concluded ’). *) If the time of the Peloponnesian war is excluded; cf. Reinhardt, o.Z., p. 246. ’) This also against the view of W. Buchwald, Studien zur Chronologie der attischen Tragodie, Diss. K'o'nigsberg 1939, pp. 49, 50. 3) Cf. C. M. Bowra, Sophoclean Tragedy, p. 52. *) Plut. Cim. 8. ») Hdt. VI 35; Joh. Toepffcr, Altischc Ccnealogie, p. 269; Pherecvd. Ath. fr. 2 Jac. ·) O.l. pp. 8-10. ’) Pohlenz takes a similar view as regards the chronology (Die Griechisclte TragOdie2, p. 183; Erldulcrungen2, p. 77); cf. also G. Dalmcyda, Sophocle. A jax, R.-E.-G.' 1933, x-14. For the chronology see also the note ad 1102.

Kamerbeek

COMMENTARY Prologue, vss. 1-133 Athena is seen on the "theologeion”, prob, the roof of Ajax’ hut; Odysseus entering from the right is searching for foot-marks.

1. ’Αεί μέν: μεν correlate of καί 3; "the great majority of the examples are poetical”. (Denniston, G. P. 374). Cf. Track. 689-691. Λαρτίου: κτητικόν άντί κυρίου (schol.). Same form in 380; ό τοΰ Λαερτίου ΙΟΙ; Λαέρτου 1393; τώ Λαρτίου Phil. 402; παϊ Λαερτίου (Λαρτίου A) Eur. Hec. 402; it would seem that this form is used metri causa; Λαέρτης is the only form used by Homer. (Cf. also Ύρραδίου Call. Epigr. I 2). δέδορκά: perf. praes, (intensive; K.-G. I, 148). 2. Odysseus is seen to steal cautiously upon the hut of Ajax, like a hunter approaching the lair of an animal. The spectator’s impression of a hunter following a track is confirmed by the huntingmetaphors, which begin at 2 (θηρώμενον) and are continued to 8, that is to say, θηρώμενον is so far only partly metaphorical. (Sopho­ cles does not prolong his metaphors to the same extent as Ae­ schylus). πείραν άρπάσαι: “to be quick at an enterprise”, εχθρών is gen. obj. The schol., which says: άεί όρώ σε, ώ Όδυσσεΰ, τήν παρά των εχ­ θρών σοι γινομένην βλάβην ζητοϋντα προϋφαρπάσαι κτλ. is mistaken. In his desire to hear too much in θηρώμενον the scholiast has suffered himself to be carried away by his subject, as also where he says: έκ μεταφοράς τών κυνηγών ο£ τά μικρά θηρία φονεύουσι προφυλαττόμενοι τήν έξ αύτών έσομένην βλάβην. It is evident that the expression πείραν άρπάσαι is suggestive of the cunning energy of Odysseus. πείραν· δόλον (schol.) goes somewhat too far: πειρατής does not occur until Polybius. Jebb is right in saying that Athena’s words are illustrated by the actions of Odysseus against Palamedes and Philoctetes, by his theft of the Palladium, and by II. X; note also how he άρπάζει τον καιρόν (arripit momentum') against Thersites in II. II. 3. σκηναϊς: this may be a poetical plural (cf. 754, 985); cf. how-

20

COMMENTARY

ever II. XI 5-9. Should the plural be genuine, however, it contains no indication of what the spectator sees. 3, 4. Cf. II. XI 5-9, X 113. τάξιν έσχάτην: a light metaphor taken from the military sphere; cf. Rhes. 612. 5. πάλαι: here, as elsewhere, to be taken in a comparative sense only; cf. 20. κυνηγετοϋντα: Odysseus is seen as the hunter tracking out game, μετρούμενον: figurative sense: “taking in with the eyes”. For the middle cf. σκοπεϊσθαι; Ap. Rh. I 724, Mosch. 2. 157 (Jebb) are not very instructive. This is certainly the case with την ώρην συμμετρήσασθαι Hdt. IV 158, and ξυνεμετρήσαντο Thue. Ill 20. 3 (as here in the sense of: "measuring with the eye”). 6. νεοχάραχθ’: άπαξ (cf. the list in F. R. Earp, The Style of Sophocles, p. 65); cf. χάραξις των τροχών Hesych. s.v. άματροχιάς. ("imprint"). The wording and the scene are reminiscent of the tracing satyrchorus in the Ichneutae·. Ichn. 44 D.: άν πως τό χρήμα τοϋτό σοι κυνηγέσω. 75 D.: λείαν άγραν σύλησιν έκκυνηγέσαι 88 D.: ρινηλατών όσμ[αϊσι 104 D.: α^τ’ έστί τούτο μέτρον [έ]κμε[τρού]μ[ε]νον '). This is the more striking if one considers that Ajax has carried away pieces of cattle. Another instructive parallel is found between 1. 32 τά μέν σημαίνομαι and Ichn. IOO σαφή γάρ αΰθ’ εκαστα σημαίνει τάδε and 102 καί τούπίσημον αύτό των όπλων πάλιν. The contrast between the two scenes—the concrete, literal diction of the Ichn., the semi-metaphorical diction here—is determined by the difference between satyr-play and tragedy. 7. είτ’ ένδον είτ’ ούκ ένδον: the second member of a dependent, disjunctive question may have either μή or ού (K.-G. II, 191 A. 2). Moreover, ούκ ένδον means here abroad. έκφέρει: "brings to the desired end”. Cf. Pl. Phaed. 66 b. 8. εύρινος: may be gen. of εΰρις or nom. In Aesch. Ag. 1093 Cassandra is said to be εΰρις; Xen. Cyn. 4. 6 εΰρινες; Opp. Cyn. 4· 357 εύρίνεσσι κύνεσσιν, but ib. 2. 456 εύρίνοιο κυνός; Babrius 43. 8 σκύλαξιν εύρίνοις, Opp. Hal. 4. 275 εύρίνοιο κυνός. Libanius Ecphr. T. IV p. 1065 (= VIII p. 488 Foerster) seems to have Soph. ') Suppi. Hunt.

PROLOGUE, VSS. 3-14

21

in mind: εύρίνφ βάσει τό λανθάνον άνιχνεύοντες (Cobet, Mnemos. VII (1857). Ρ· 424 rejects εδρινος in Soph. (ν. d. Wijnpersse, de Terminologie van het Jachtwezen bij Sophocles, diss. Utrecht 1929, p. 80)). With Jebb, the nominative is to be preferred on account of its place in the sentence. That the adjunct to βάσις logically belongs to the dependent genit, is by no means uncommon and the distri­ bution of adjectives is satisfactory. Moreover, εδρινος βάσις is a striking picture of a sniffing dog. For the sentence does not read: "your course leads you to your goal, as of a Laconian dog” but "to your goal leads you a course keen-scenting as of a Laconian dog” (or even: "as it were a course with keen scent of a Laconian dog”). κυνύς Λακαίνης: the Laconian dog (a cross between a dog and a fox, thus Arist. H. A. 607 a 3) was used to lead the pack in hunting: Xen. Cyn. 10.4; cf. Pl. Farm. 128 c: ώσπερ γε αί Λάκαιναι σκυλάκες εδ μεταθεϊς τε καί ιχνεύεις τά λεχθέντα. Whereas the hunter is led to his goal by his hounds (cf. Od. XIX 435 sqq.), Odysseus is his own sleuth-hound. Image and scene are closely associated with each other. 9. τυγχάνει: sc. ών (K.-G. II, 67 c). The omission here, where ών would be no copula, may be best compared with Od. XII 106 μή σύ γε κεϊθι τύχοις, El. 3Ι3> Eur. Andr. m3· 9, 10. κάρα / ... . ξιφοκτόνους: Sweat streaming from his hands is not very appropriate here: ξιφοκτόνους implies αίματι. Cf. αίματι / στάζοντα χεϊρας Aesch. Eum. 41. Eur. Elei. 354: ξιφοκτόνον δίωγμα λαιμορρύτου σφαγας. 11. παπταίνειν: cf. II. XVII 115: παπταίνων Αίαντα. 12. έργον: with inf. as in 852, and with negation and following positive contrast: cf. ib. and El. 1372. 13. σπουδήν έθου τηνδ’: Soph, makes frequent use of this peri­ phrasis; cf. e.g. 536, O.T. 134. It should not, of course, be argued that Athena has no need to hear from Odysseus that which she knows herself already. It is Odysseus who has to speak in the order of the proceedings, and this happens in quite a natural way. 14. The relation between Odysseus and Athena is depicted as in the //. X 278 and the Odyssey e.g. XIII 300 sqq. *). Athena kept watch over him in Eur.’s Philoctetes·, cf. also Rhesus 595 sqq. esp. 608. Cf. infra 34, 35. *) For this relation and its origins cf. Μ. P. Nilsson, The Minoan-Myctnaean Religion etc.’, p. 500.

22

COMMENTARY

Άθάνας: This form has been transmitted, here as elsewhere {Phil. 134 by Eustath.) and is remarkable for being used in the dialogue. Even the oldest Attic inscriptions have for instance τάθενάαι (Schwyzer Syll. App. I, p. 383, 5.6). Cf. however ib. p. 384, 6.3 (on a bronze vase of the 6th cent.) hiepa Άθαναίαι άνέθεκε. A fact like this makes one hesitate to explain Άθάνας in the dialogue off-hand as a dorism due to the influence of the choral songs; it also throws some light on the phenomenon of "dorisms” in general *). 14. 15. ώ φθέγμ’ Άθάνας .../... δμως: Nowhere does it appear that Athena is visible to Odysseus or to Ajax later on. As a rule the dramatis personae are not supposed to see the gods when they appear on the scene but to become aware of their presence by their voice or fragrance: cf. Hippolytus and Artemis in the final scene of Eur.’s Hipp.: it does not appear from 1440 that Hippolytus sees Artemis (cf. also 85 sq.). But she is visible to the spectators (no doubt on the θεολογεΐον: cf. Pollux IV 129-130: he cites Aeschylus for making use of it in the Psychostasia (M. Bieber, History of the Greek and Roman Theater, 1939, 148)); for Athena’s presence cf. also Rhesus 595 sqq. Schol.—not badly—έστι μέντοι έπΐ της σκηνής ή Άθηνα· δει γάρ τοΰτο χαρίζεσθαι τφ θεατή. 15. εύμαθές: "clearly perceptible”; cf. Track. 614. άποπτος: not "seen at a distance”, but "hidden from view”;cf. El. 1488 (active sense on the other hand in O.T. 762; cf. Phil. 467). For δμως in the dependent clause see e.g. Aesch. Cho. 115 (K.-G. II, 280. 4). 16. ξυναρπάζω φρενΐ: cf. Ar. Hub. 775 (see van Leeuwen a.l.); Latin arripere. The present tense is general (Campbell, rightly). For amplification and its frequency in the Ajax as compared with the other plays, cf. F. R. Earp, The Style of Sophocles, ch. V, 102 sqq. 17. κώδωνος: usual meaning is bell, or clock (there is no reason to reject this meaning in Ar. Pax 1078—an obscure passage—and Dem. XXV 90; wrong in Muller’s Diet.). The Schol. is probably right in his explanation: κώδων καλείται τδ πλατύ της σάλπιγγος, άπο μέ­ ρους δέ την σάλπιγγά φησι·. The scholium enumerates some kinds of trumpets, including the Etruscan, which is often mentioned in literature, e.g. Aesch. Eum. 567 διάτορος Τυρσηνική σάλπιγξ. The simile is based on /Ζ. XVIII 219: the εύμαθές of Athena’s voice >) But cf. G. Bjorck, Das Alpha Impurum und die Tragische Kunstsprache, 1950. P· J34·

PROLOGUE, vss.

15-24

23

reminded of the άριζήλη φωνή of the trumpet. Moreover there was in Argos a sanctuary of ’Αθηνά Σάλπιγξ, founded by Hegeleos, the son of Tyrsenos, who invented the σάλπιγξ (Paus. II 21.3). 18. καί νϋν: echo of Athena's words 1. 3; transition from the general statement in 11. 14-17 to the present case. 19. βάσιν κυκλοΰντ’: this poetic diction parodied by Ar. Av. 1379. Cf. Ant. 226, Eur. Or. 632. σακεσφόρω: the heavy shield of seven ox-hides is by tradition the attribute of Ajax: cf. 576, ZZ. VII 219 (cf. P. v. d. Miihll, Der grosse Aias, pp. io, 38, Basel 1930). 21, 22. ήμάς . . . περάνας: περαίνειν has a double accus. here, just as δράν, ποιεΐν etc. έχει περάνας: periphrasis of the perf.; cf. O.T. 577, 699, 731. πραγος: poetical for πράγμα (Pind., Tragg., parodied by Ar. Av. 112). 21. άσκοπον: in Homer in an active sense, thus “imprudent” (II. XXIV 157, 186); Aesch. Ag. 462 "not heeding”. Passive: Aesch. Cho. 816 (άσκοπον έπος “obscur” Mazon, “ongelooflijk” Groeneboom), O.C. 1681, Phil. IIII (άσκοπα κρυπτά τ’ έπη); in the sense of "extending beyond the reach of the eye": Track. 246 τόν άσκοπον χρόνον — ήμερων άνήριθμον; “inconceivable” El. 1315 ειργασαι δέ μ’ άσκοπα, El. 864 άσκοπος ά λώβα. So here: “incon­ ceivable”, “of unimaginable horror”. 22. εϊργασται: Though 5th cent, poets are not usually induced to vary their choice of words for rhetorical reasons, Sophocles certainly seems to be so here and elsewhere. Cf. Bruhn, Anhang, 125, 5. 23. τρανές: σαφές; the adverb Aesch. Ag. 1371, Eum. 45; Eur. El. 758, Rhes. 40. άλώμεθα: “to be uncertain”: τω νώ άλώμεθα (schol.) (άλάσθαι does not occur in this sense, though πλανάσθαι does: Hdt. VI 37, Pl. H. Mai. 304 c, Isocr. XV 52; cf. ψυχής πλάνημα O.T. 'JZ'J·, άλάσθαι, on the other hand, is used figuratively in the sense of “to be deprived of”: εΰφροσύνας άλάται Pind. 01. I 58; Eur. Troad. 640). 24. ΰπεζύγην: as we say in Dutch: “zich voor iets spannen” (to take the matter in hand). Other examples of this metaphor in Groeneboom ad Aesch. Prom. 108, my edition of Eur. Androm. 98. κάγώ: καί has the value of: “for that reason” (“we are in un­ certainty as to how it all happened and for that reason I have taken charge of the search”). So 1. 23 explains εϊπερ εϊργασται τάδε; 1. 24 explains 1. 23; γάρ in 1. 25 refers back to νυκτός .... περάνας.

24

COMMENTARY

26. λείας άπάσας: i.e. the spoils consisting of the cattle, κατηναρισμένας: έναίρειν already used by Homer for the slaying of animals, κατηναρίσθης (Agamemnon) Aesch. Cho. 347; έναρίζειν Track. 94, O.C. 1733. 27. έκ χειρός: "by the hand of man” (and not by wild animals). (As a rule έκ χειρός means in a hand-to-hand fight: Xen. Hell. VII 2. 14). With this cf. El. 455 έξ ύπερτέρας χερός. The well-known manu, "by human hand”, affords to some extent a parallel. αΰτοΐς . . . έπιστάταις: This dat. soc. is found with the poets and prosewriters of all periods from Homer onwards. έπιστάταις: cf. O.T. 1028 όρείοις ποιμνίοις έπεστάτουν; Pl. Leg. 906 a ποιμνίων έπιστάταις. 28. αιτίαν νέμει: this expression is not common. Soph, says in other places: έν αιτία βάλλειν O.T. 657, αιτία βάλλειν Track. 940; Eur. βάλλειν είς Troad. 305. προστιθέναι Ion 1525. νέμει, therefore, need not be accounted for as an explanation of τρέπει (L al., equally uncommon). Perhaps the reverse has taken place (D has the gloss: είς έκεϊνον πας τις κατηγορίαν τρέπει Blaydes). 29. όπτήρ: here most probably not used in the technical sense of a "spy”, but of “one who sees”: cf. Ichn. 77 D. των εϊ τις όπτήρ έστιν ή κατήκοος. 29, 30. μόνον .... ξίφει: The words give the hearer a sober and sombre picture of the frenzied man; they are also impressive by their harmony of sound and sense. For the acc. (of "the sphere of motion”) πεδία see K.-G. I, 312.5; Theocr. XIII 66 sq., Call. H. Ill 193 sq. σύν νεορράντφ ξίφει: The first time that Ajax is signalized, it is with the very sword upon which he is to fall. Undoubtedly on purpose in the speech before the suicide, 1. 828: με . ... / πεπτώτα τωδε περί νεορράντω ξίφει ("Fernverbindung”). The compound here for the first time; ραίνειν and φόνος are often connected, e.g. Pind. Isth. VIII 55: ραίνων φόνω πεδίον. 31. φράζει τε κάδήλωσεν: the historical present and the aor. alternate: cf. A nt. 406. There is some difference: he came telling me and gave me an account of it. (In reversed order Eur. Ale. 176, El. 821, 2). It is not unlikely that έδήλωσε is a hunting-term, just as κατ’ ίχνος άσσω, σημαίνομαι, probably also έκπέπληγμαι (cf. v. d. Wijnpersse, o.l., pp. 41-43). Cf. Xen. Cyn. 6. ΙΟ καί δηλούτω τώ κυνηγέτη ότι έάλωκεν άναβοήσας; Λ. 6. ι6, ι8; cf. Pl. Resp. 432 b; O.T. 475 (τόν άδηλον άνδρα πάντ’ ιχνεύειν).

PROLOGUE, vss. 26-35

25

32. σημαίνομαι: purely middle: "I make clear for myself” (σηματίζομαι, διά σημείων γινώσκω schol.); cf. ad 1. 6. That σημαίνειν is also a hunting-term is proved by v. d. Wijnpersse, o.l., p. 42; he omits, however, to state that Xen. Cyn. 6. 22 ένσημαινόμεναι has approximately the same meaning as σημαίνεσθαι here. κατ’ ίχνος: Aesch. Ag. 695. 33. εκπέπληγμαι: seems to mean: "I have lost my bearings, I am at a loss” (άπορώ schol.). (Eur. Ion 635 has έξέπληξ’ όδοϋ, but in another connection). Cf. schol. ad 32: otov σημεία έμαυτω τινα συντίθημι άπό τοΰ ίχνους τά δέ άπορώ · τοιοϋτον γάρ συμβαίνει περί τούς ίχνευτάς έπιταραττομένων των ιχνών, διά δέ την μανίαν δυσίχνευτος καί έπιτεταραγμένη ή βάσις γέγονε τοΰ Αϊαντος. δτου: the choice between δτου and δπου is difficult, δτου sc. τά ίχνη (ά έκπέπληγμαί) έστιν makes better sense than δπου, especially on account of μαθεϊν. (Cf. on this passage Ch. Josserand, Notes sur un passage de I'Ajax (32, 33). Mel. Boisacq II, pp. 5-10: τά μέν, τά δε: ίχνη). 34. καιρόν: this adv. acc. of time (in prose εις καιρόν) as early as Pind. Pyth. I 81; infra 1316. Lat. commodum. Cf. την ώρην (Hdt. II 2), άωρίαν, αρχήν etc. καιρώ O.T. 1516 (cf. C. W. Vollgraff, Le decret d’Argos pour Knossos et Tylissos, Verh. Kon. Ak. N.R LI 2, p. 27, n. 80). 34, 35. πάντα τά τε πάρος τά τ’ είσέπειτα: for "ever”: "polar” enunciation is dear to Sophocles. (Cf. also Ant. 611 sq.) The present κυβερνώμαι is quite logical. τ’ ουν: “On the analogy of οΰτ’ ούν ( . . . . ούτε e.g. Eur. Andr. 329) we should expect τ’ ούν ("both”) to be fairly common. It is, in fact, surprisingly rare, its place being filled by τε δή, and S. Aj. 34 seems to be the only instance" (Denniston, G.P. 420. 3). ούν emphasizes the polarity of the expression. 35. ση κυβερνώμαι χερί: Διάς τοι νόος μέγας κυβέρνα / δαίμον’ άνδρών φίλων. Pind. Pyth. V 122; this may account for the origin of the v.l. φρενί. Besides the metaphor for the government of the state (in Pind. and Aesch.: πολίων κυβερνάσιες Pyth. X 72, Groeneboom ad Prom. 149 and Sept. p. 79 n. 13), Antiph. I 13 δίκη δέ κυβερνησειεν is worthy of note. Odysseus’ speech, beginning with the confidential invocation φιλτάτης έμοί θεών, ends with the assurance that hers is the hand that will ever guide his course.

26

COMMENTARY

36. έγνων: there is no reason why this aor. should fall under the categories described by K.-G. I, 163.9, where we should render with a present (ξυνηκ’ infra. 99 is a case in point). This would certainly be the case if έγνων were to be taken as an answer to Odysseus’ last words, as Jebb seems to do (“I know it”). But this makes an insipid impression. Nor does the view of Raderm., who supplies the object κυναγίαν, fully satisfy. The aor. is entirely on a par with έβην and the object that should be mentally inserted is: all this (what he tells of all he has done); seen in this light έγνων states the reason for έβην. 36. 37. φύλαξ .... κυναγία: "I came full of willingness on the path, a guardian to your chase”, τη ση κυναγία depends on φύλαξ έβην πρόθυμος, not specially on πρόθυμος: the expression has the value of a verbum auxiliandi, οδόν is neither specifically the way of Ajax, nor that of Odysseus; it is therefore not obviam ii, though the place of εις οδόν might suggest this. 37. κυναγία: dorism ? Cf. ad 14. ("Attic Tragedy used κυναγός, κυναγία, κυνηγετεϊν, κυνηγέτης” Jebb; Raderm. compares ποδαγός and λοχαγός) *). 38. ή καί: “inquires with a certain eagerness” (Jebb ad El. 314) ; cf. Deimiston, G.P. 285.6II; infra . Ill 411 e). οδποτε .... έβας τόσσον: Jebb, by translating "Never of thine own heart ... wouldst thou have gone so far astray” avoids the little problem which οδποτε offers: its force is something like: "on no account” (cf. nunquam). That the Chorus should mean "never < yet > have you gone so far astray as to ...” is of course out of the question. 184. έν ποίμναις πίτνων: the partic. (where ώστε πίτνειν might be expected) may be explained by comparing τόσσον έπ’ αριστερά βαίνειν with τολμάν or ύπομένειν (see e.g. El. 943 τλήναί σε δρώσαν άν εγώ παραινέσω). For έν ποίμναις πίτνειν cf. Ant. 782 "Ερως, δς έν κτήμασι πίπτεις (κτήμασι has here the meaning of κτήνεσι, cf. Coral, "Ατακτα pp. 260 sq., H. Pemot, Lefond’ ouverture, 1913, p. 29). 184, 185. ήχοι γάρ άν θεία νόσος: Just as the preceding οδποτε γάρ explains the strophe in a negative sense, these words do so positively; the two words γάρ are exactly parallel. There is no question of a causal sentence introduced by γάρ, nor is the sentence given in parenthesis (cf. G.P., 64 (6) and the examples quoted there). θεία νόσος: cf. 279 θεού / πληγή, similarly with ήκειν as predicate. Full emphasis falls on θεία (= έκ θεοϋ) and also on ήχοι (ήκειν is here equivalent to ingruere and probably perfective). “For the possibility exists that he may have been stricken with a disease from some deity”. Cf. 611 θεία μανία ξύναυλος; Phil. 192 θεία γάρ, .... καί τά παθήματα κείνα προς αύτόν .... έπέβη, .... 185, 186. άλλ’ .... φάτιν: These words hardly form a logical whole with what precedes; they are to be explained from the dis­ position of the Chorus. For they do admit that a θεία νόσος may have fallen on him, it is true, but they can hardly believe it and therefore desire Zeus and Apollo to ward off, not the νόσος, but the φάτις of the Greeks, δ’ in 187 therefore = "and”, not "but”. 187, 188. ύποβαλλόμενοι / κλέπτουσι μύθους: κλέπτειν stands with many objects with the meaning "to do secretly”; thus κλέπτειν μύθους "to speak cunning words” (cf. e.g. Phil. 57). ύποβάλλεσθαι

58

COMMENTARY

has probably pretty much the same meaning: ύποβλήτως λέγειν (Suid. and schol.); ύποβάλλειν means in Pl. Gorg. 491 a "to suggest”, ύπο- in our place has the well-known "unfavourable” meaning; Lys. XIII 25 has ύπο- in ύποβάλλειν, "to suggest”, in the same sense, ύποβάλλεσβαι med. stands in Ar. Thesm. 564 for: "to appropriate the child of another”, but this does not explain the medium in our case, nor is there any question of any metaphor (as Jebb will have it). The med. used here should rather be taken as a "real one” (or perhaps "causative”: "causing slander to be spread about at the cost of Ajax”), ύπόβλητος supposititious, spurious, stands per metaphoram, infra 481. 189. ή τας ασώτου Σισυφιδάν γενεάς: From οί μεγάλοι βασιλής — the Atreidai—something like ό βασιλεύς (or οί βασιλής as general pi.) is to be deduced. (E. Nachmansson, Partitives Subfekt im Griechischen, Goteb. Hogsk. Arsskr. 48, 2, 1942, pp. 21, 22 takes the genit, as a gen. partit, with the function of a subject. I think it hardly possible 2). It is, perhaps, possible to take the genit, with μύθους,, thus: — ή μύθους originated with the άσωτος Σ. γ. = Odysseus —.) Of course, Odysseus is meant. άσωτου: άσωτος = perditus, Aesch. Ag. 1597. (τούς άκρατεϊς καί είς άκολασίαν δαπανηρούς άσωτους καλοϋμεν Arist. Eth. N. 4 ·1 · ΙΙΙ9 b.) It was said that Anticleia, the mother of Od., was with child by the inveterate rascal Sisyphus before she married Laertes. It is even added that Autolycus, another rascal, had abetted Si­ syphus in order to propitiate him when he discovered that Auto­ lycus had stolen his cattle. The character of Sisyphus has often been treated by the tragic poets: Satyr play by Aesch. (N.2 p. 74), Soph. (N.2 p. 251 = II p. 184 P.), Eur. (N.2 p. 572), Kritias (N.2 p. 771 sq.). Odysseus is often called the son of Sisyphus: Aesch. (Jr. 175), Soph. (fr. 142 N.2 = 567 P.), Eur. Cycl. 102 sqq. See van Leeuwen ad Ar. Ach. 391. 190. The great difficulty in this line is μ*. All the MSS have μή μή μ' άναξ έθ’. μ’ cannot be taken as an acc. and the reading μοι is generally rejected because elision of -ot in the 5th cent, is rare, μοι, σοι and τοι are sometimes elided in Homer (K.-Bl. I, 239, v. Leeuwen Ench. D.E.2 79). According to K.-Bl. ib., elision of -01 only occurs with οίμοι before ω (cf. infra 354, 587). Eur. Med. yj, I.A. 491, Ba. 820 offer no reliable examples. Nevertheless Koster *) I am indebted to Prof. W. J. Verdenius for the reference.

parodos,

vss. 189-194

59

(Traitp p. 46) does not deny the possibility of this elision. In defence of μ(οι) it may perhaps be argued that μ(οι) has here the same function as in οΐμοι, i.e. that of an ethical dat.; the meaning of μ (01) is practically negligible. Moreover, the whole song of the Chorus has a strong Homeric colouring. The hiatus after άνα, 1.192, is defended by referring to II. IX 247: άλλ’ άνα, εΐ μεμονάς γε. Furthermore a licentia antistrophica has to be accepted (ξϋν----έθ’), which need not surprise us in this place of an iambelegus, while it is moreover not at all certain that Soph, used ξυνός with 0, since the ΰ may have been subject to correptio attica. The schol. ad 191 says emphatically: τό πλήρες μή μή μοι. έφάλοις κλισίαις: local dat. and general plur. (cf. II. XII l). 191. 8μμ’ όχων: δμμα stands for “countenance”, as infra 462 καί ποιον δμμα πατρί δηλώσω φανείς, δχων with the locat, some­ thing like: “keeping hidden in”. άρη: just as supra 129 from αϊρεσθαι: "do not burden yourself with an evil name”. The a is long, as seen from λώβαν ιδι. 192. άνα: = άνάστηθι, Homeric use, cf. II. VI 331, IX 247 (with hiatus, vide supra), Od. XVIII13. But see also infra ad 193sq. (Cf. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Cho. p. 262 n. 8). έξ έδράνων: almost exclusively in the pi. (cf. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Pers. 4 p. 73 n. 14, to which may be added O.C. 176); here (as O.C. l.c) "the place where you sit” (f'Adsignificatur sessio et mora” E.). 193. 4. ποτέ: of course to be taken with όπου. στηρίζη: The form στηρίζει (MSS) is as the 2nd p. ind. pres. med. hardly acceptable for the 5th cent. Reading this one should take it as the 3rd p. and intransitive (as e.g. Thue. II 49.3 οπότε ές την καρδίαν στηρίξειε); άνα must then be taken as άναστήτω. As here στηρίζειν = "to set fast” or (intr.) "to be firmly fixed" is also used by Homer with a local dat. (II. XVI in). μακραίωνι: conspicuously placed it expresses the impatience of the sailors (μακραίων δέ αύτοϊς δοκεϊ διά την εύνοιαν). This μακραίων σχολή had begun, we should suppose, after the όπλων κρίσις. ταδ’ άγωνίω σχολά: It is impossible to take these words in the sense of otium negotiosum to indicate that Ajax in his σχολή had been busily employed in slaughtering the cattle, for the Chorus do not believe this. The schol. ad 194 explains: τόν αγώνα έμποιοϋντί σοι, i.e. while Ajax rests, his foes seize the opportunity to let him run all sorts of risks. But it seems unlikely that so much should

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be contained in these words. Perhaps they only imply a “keeping far from the battle”, (or even a state of idleness after the struggle, i.e. after the δπλων κρίσις — cf. 934 sq.: δπλων έκειτ’ άγων πέρι, cf. 1240). Or is it admissible to hear in άγώνιος the mental agony ? Cf. άγωνιώντα καί τεθορυβημένον, Pl. Lys. 210 e, and άγωνία Dem. XVIII 33 and in Arist. 195. άταν ουρανίαν φλέγων: άτα is the ruin which Ajax brings upon himself by keeping his face hidden. This ruin is represented as a blaze reaching up to heaven (ουρανίαν, cf. Ant. 418). φλέγων is trans., as infra 714. Similarly, the δβρις of his foes (in the following lines) is seen as a fire (cf. Heracl. fr. 43 D., and Hdt. V 77 έσβεσαν ύβριν in the votive inscription). 196, 197. έχθρών .... βάσσαις: A schol. ad 198 rightly observes: λείπει < ώς πϋρ >, ώς πϋρ έν εύανέμοις βήσσαις. Sophocles had in his mind: II. XV 605, 6 μαίνετο δ’, ώς δτ’ "Αρης έγχέσπαλος ή όλοόν πϋρ / οδρεσι μαίνηται βαθέης έν τάρφεσιν ΰλης and II. XIV 39^, 7 οΰτε πυρός τόσσος γε πέλει βρόμος αίθομένοιο / οδρεος έν βήσσης, δτε τ’ ώρετο καιέμεν ΰλην. On the όρμασθαι of the fire cf. II. XVII 737· ® ήύτε πϋρ, τό τ’ έπεσσύμενον πδλιν άνδρών / δρμενον έξαίφνης φλεγέθει (though δρνυμι and όρμάω are probably not etymologically related). The comparison with fire is implied; the connection with what precedes is established by ώδε (sc. ώστε άταν ούρανίαν φλέγεσθαι). εύανέμοις βάσσαις: as πτύχας ήνεμοέσσας, Od. XIX 432; χώρω έν εΰαέι, Hes. Op. 599· (It is not certain whether the a of εύανέμοις is long or short. The meaning of the word is not sufficiently bome out by fr. 342 N.2 = 371 P. (εύανέμου λίμνας), while the context of Eur. Andr. 749 would seem to require the meaning "sheltered from the winds”. But the idea that the δβρις may have its course in "glens sheltered from the winds” is frigid. It seems better to take Andr. 749, as also Lucian, άποκηρ. 27 εύήνεμος as: “where the winds are favourable" or "can do no harm": cf. Eur. fr. 316, 2 N.2 (Danae) καλόν δέ πόντου χεΰμ’ ίδεϊν εύήνεμον.) άτάρβητα: adverb to a verb of motion, as O.T. 883, O.C. 1696, Eur. Ion 717 λαιψηρά πηδά:. 198. καχαζόντων: Hesych.: κακχάζει· άτάκτως γέλα, ασμένως, άθρόως. Lat.: cachinnari, καγχαζόντων is the best transmission, but in At. Eccl. 849 the trimeter requires καχάζειν. Ichn. 348 D. runs: δπως θέλεις κά]χαζε καί τέρπου φρένα. This is of course no

parodos,

vss. 195-200

61

absolute evidence for the form καχαζόντων. (Cf. Pl. Euthyd. 300 d.) 199. βαρυάλγητα: only here. Cogn. acc. to καχαζόντων: "which causes us sore grief", (άλγέω = "to suffer pain”, so *άλγητος "that for which one suffers pain”), βαρέα καί άλγεινά (schol.). 200. έστακεν: with similar meaning the aor., infra 950. Similarly, Hom. II. XI 658: πένθεος, δσσον δρωρε κατά στρατόν; άχος γένετο XII 392 etc. Sense and metre coincide.

First Epeisodlon, vss. 201-595 First κομμός. 201-262. Tecmessa and Chorus. On κομμός cf. E. Diehl in R.E. XI 1, 1195-1207. The spectators know by this time that Ajax had left his hut at night to take vengeance on the Atreidae and Odysseus; that he was struck with frenzy by Athena, rushed upon the cattle, butchered a number of oxen and sheep, and carried some of them to his hut. As far as the spectator knows, Ajax is still mad. The Chorus have learned of the onslaught on the cattle etc., and that Ajax is charged with the deed; but they cannot believe it. The Chorus think that Ajax has remained in his hut. Tecmessa now comes forth. She knows that Ajax has been out that night and has brought some cattle back with him. She is aware also of his madness, but she does not know of the charge against Ajax or whence the cattle have come.

201. ναός άρωγοί; "you who serve on ...." cf. 357. ναϋς may be the fleet, as δόρυ, Eur. 2.Γ. 1326. According to the Iliad (II 557) Ajax came to Ilium with twelve ships. 202. γενεάς χθονίων άπ’ Έρεχθειδάν: “belonging to the race that springs from....” Cf. fr. ad. 274 N.a: (Hesych.) χθονίους Ίναχίδας· αύτόχθονας καί οόκ έπήλυδας. Cf. ν. Wilamowitz, Gl.d.H., I 211 n. 2. It is in the myth of Erechtheus (originally not distinguished from Erichthonius), son of Gaia, that the Athenians have symbo­ lized their autochthonous claim. That the Salaminian sailors are thus called is, of course, due to the patriotic pride which laid claim to the possession of Salamis already in heroic times. The schol. ad 202, rightly: διά τό τήν Σαλαμίνα συνήφθαι τή ’Αττική καί περισπούδαστον τοΐς ’Αθηναίοις αύτήν κτήσασθαι · πρός εύνοιαν ουν των άκροω-

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μενών τοϋτό φησιν. Such a verse doubtless wanned the hearts of the spectators. 204. τοϋ Τελαμώνος τηλόθεν οϊκου: "the house of Telamon far from here”. With the first plur. Tecmessa at once makes the Chorus share in the affliction. 205. δεινός μέγας ώμοκρατης: Tecmessa's description bears testimony to the dreadful awe she feels for her lord, ώμοκρατης, “of grim might”; as ώμοδακής in Aesch. Sept. 692 = "with grim bite”. Ajax is called ώμόθυμος infra 885, ώμόφρων 930; cf. 548. Cf. Kamerbeek, Studien over Sophocles, diss. Utrecht 1934, p. 105. 206. 207. θολερω: prop, “muddy” (of water, rivers etc. opp. καθαρός). The full richness of the image, Aesch. Prom. 88g (Io) θολεροί δέ λόγοι πταίουσ’ είκή / στυγνής πρός κύμασιν άτης. Cf. Eur. Ale. 1067, θολοί δέ καρδίαν (and Ar. Vesp. 696, ώς μου τόν θϊνα ταράττεις). Connected with χειμώνι, = "confusing”, “turbid” (cf. turbidus). χειμώνι; χειμών stands fig. for "strife” in Ant. 670. χειμών καί κακών τρικυμία Aesch. Prom. 1015. χειμάζω = "to distress”, Aesch. fr. 99, 15 NA Phil. 1193-95 οδτοι νεμεσητόν άλύοντα χειμερίω λύπα καί παρά νοϋν θροεϊν. In a similar way, infra 351-3, ϊδεσθέ μ’ οΐον άρτι κϋμα φοινίας ύπό ζάλης άμφίδρομον κυκλεϊται. From this it appears that the rendering of the schol. ad 206 (έν ταραχώδει ζάλη κεϊται) is not quite correct; χειμώνι is dat. causae, not locativus; ζάλη is all but the same as χειμών. (Cf. Aesch. Ag. 656; Hes. s.v. ζάλη · συστροφή άνέμων μεγάλων · ένιοι δέ μετά όμβρου πνοή.) 208, 209. τί δ’ . .. . βάρος: apart from της άμερίας the rest is well rendered by Triclinius: τίνα βαρεϊαν εναλλαγήν ένήλλακται. The middle is sufficiently warranted by the frequent use of the med. άλλάττομαι. The construction άλλάττειν or άλλάττεσθαί τί τίνος is normal. Accordingly the meaning of ή άμερία is, "the condition of the day” (i.e. of the day preceding this night), βάρος may suggest some such addition as μοίρας, καταστάσεως. From a logical point of view the addition ώρας is hardly satisfactory. The conjecture of Thiersch, adopted by Pearson, has the merit of being simple and natural while continuing the image of χειμώνι; but is the word ηρεμία as spoken by the Chorus compatible with what is said in 11. 928-932? The same applies to Hermann’s εύμαρίας. 210. Τελλεύταντος: there seems to be little objection to fol­ lowing the traditional reading (where the second λ denotes length by position cf. 331). λ in non-epic poetry seldom or never lengthens

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 204-216

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the syllable, but we may surely ask whether such a thing cannot be tolerated in the anapaests of Sophocles. (The licence used by Aesch. Sept. 488 is quite another thing.) If λλ is rejected, it becomes neces­ sary to insert with Porson σύ, or to read Φρυγίοιο (Jaeger, Rader macher; but we have not a single genit, of this form in Soph.: Berl. Kl. T. V 2, 64 (= Page LPP 3) probably belongs to Eur.’ Telephus). 211. 212. σε λέχος δουριάλωτον / στέρξας άνέχει: cf. Eur. Hec. 121: της μαντιπόλου Βάκχης άνέχων / λέκτρ’ ’Αγαμέμνων. Erroneously a schol. ad 211: παρέλκεται ή άνά. Correctly schol. ad 212: άνέχει: άνυψοΐ, τιμά, άνέχειν = “to hold up”, “to hold in honour”. Cf. Pind. Pyth. II 88 sq.: χρή δέ πρός θεόν ούκ έρίζειν, δς άνέχει τοτέ μέν τά κείνων, τότ’ αύθ’ έτέροις έδωκεν μέγα κϋδος. λέχος δουριάλωτον: λέχος stands for άλοχος, as Traeh. 360, εύνή Eur. Andr. 907. In apposition to σε (not separate object to στέρξας). 212. θούριος: "impetuous”. Homer only θοϋρος; Aesch. has both forms (Groeneb. ad Prom. 354); with Soph, only in Ajax (613 Ares, 1213 Ajax). 213. άϊδρις: Homeric adj. Also infra 911 the second syll. is long by position (different in O.C. 548). ύπείποις: though the meaning "to suggest” (like ύποτίθεσβαι, cf. Eur. Suppl. 1171) or "to hint”, "to give a clue” (L.-Sc.) is quite possible, "to answer" would perhaps be better (cf. ύποκρίνεσβαι; ύπαγορεύειν = "to answer” occurs later). 214. άρρητον: nefandum, as El. 203. 215. θανάτω .... έκπεύση: the word has an ominous connotation and depicts the fate of Ajax better than Tecmessa can suspect; there is a tragical irony in it. πάθος is not only "calamity”, but that which Ajax "πέπονθε”, as is borne out by the passive forms in the next line. Cf. the answer of the Chorus 228 sqq. 216. ήμίν: The dat. with short 1 in Homer, some lyrical poets, Ar. and Soph.; rarely with Aesch. and Eur. Only the metre decides the question. It is not certain whether in such cases the writing is ήμιν (as advocated by Ellendt2 p. 192, K.-B. I, 339 anm. 2). The grammarians know of this internal inclinatio, cf. K.-B. l.c. The traditional writing is often ήμ'ιν but this is of course not reliable. The forms with ϊ may be secondary (Chantraine, Morph, hist, du grec, p. 144). Ellendt enumerates 26 cases in Soph, where 1 is cer­ tainly short. On γάρ in two successive clauses, cf. supra 183, 185. Here γάρ is each time explanatory of the preceding sentence. There is a striking

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rhythmical parallelism between 11. 2r5, 216. (Cf. E. M. FraenkelNieuwstraten, Correspondecrende Woordpositie in het Vers, diss. Utrecht 1946, p. 38. 6·.) θανάτω .... μανία, parallel to each other, are symbolic of the contents of the play. ό κλεινός: pathetic after μανία άλούς. 217. νύκτερος: adj. for adv. in the manner frequent since Homer; it is evident that νύκτερος, referring to Ajax and placed between i> κλεινός and Αίας, is much more impressive than νύκτωρ (K.-G. I. 273. 274 b.). άπελωβήθη: άπολωβάω only here: "to dishonour”. The active λωβάω is very rare; άρτάναισι λωβαται βίον “brings her life to a shameful end by a halter” (L.-Sc.), Ant. 54. More literal sense, Track. r03t. άγωγ’ έξελωβήθην, Phil. 330: "the disgrace I met with”, άπελωβήθη: “was dishonoured”, "disgraced himself”, (άπο-denotes that he got into the condition of a λωβητός, cf. άποδείκνυμι etc.; Brugmann-Thumb, p. 500.) 218. τοιαϋτ’: confirming her statement of 2T6-2T7. 219. χειροδάικτα: probably coined by Soph. (cf. χειρόδεικτος Ό.Τ. 902; χειροποίητος—Hdt. cf. χειροποιεΐται Trach. 891—has become usual). Similarly αίμοβαφή. 220. χρηστήρια: σφάγια καί χρηστήρια, Aesch. Sept. 230. χρηστήριον = “sacrificial animal slaughtered before consulting an oracle”, as clearly appears from Eur. Ion 4T9 (cf. my note ad Eur. Andr. IIT2). Groeneboom ad Sept. 230 (p. 127, n. 314) therefore rightly says that χρηστήρια denotes "sacrifices which are ominous of the future”. The emphatic genit, κείνου.. . τάνδρός (which may be subj. or obj.) also points in this direction. Radermacher is certainly wrong when he explains: "σφάγια, deren Schicksal sich durch diesen Mann vollzogen hat”; especially in view of the sacramental meaning of σφάγια (Xen. An. I 8.15). 221. 222. οίαν έδήλωσας.... αγγελίαν: οίαν is used predicatively; the words of Tecmessa have clarified the αγγελία about Ajax so that the true purport now appears, (άνδρός is gen. as with περί: cf. σου infra 998, Ant. rr.) The choice between αΐθοπος and αίθονος is difficult. Both are supported by MS and other authority, αίθων by Eustath. 1072, 6 αίθων άνήρ παρά Σοφ., id. 862, ro φέρεται αίθων βοϋς καί σίδηρός καί άνθρωπος καί λέων· αίθοψ δέ ούδείς αύτών λέγοιτ’ άν, άλλα τούνομα οϊνφ μέλανι επιτίθεται. However, Hes. Op. 363 says: αίθοπα λιμόν (preserved by Rzach and v. Wilam., but changed into αϊθονα by Bergk and Mazon, for in the epigram

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 217-226

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Aeschin. III 184 we read: λιμόν τ’ αίθωνα (cf. Plut. Cim. 7, simi­ larly Callim. Η. VI 67 λιμόν / αίθωνα, while schol. Lycophr. 1396 says: Έρυσίχθων Αϊθων εκαλείτο, ώς 'Ησίοδός φησι, διά τόν λιμόν; cf. Hellanic. apud Ath. X 416 b (cf. v. Wilam. Hellenistische D. II 39)). Furthermore Timoth. Pers. 223 has αίθοπι μώμω (cf. Agath. A.P. V217. ιοαίθοπα βασκανίην). Hesych. writes αίθοπος- διάπυρου, Suidas αίθων ό βίαιος λιμός. From this we may conclude that αϊθοψ and αίθων were felt to be synonymous. (Jebb is wrong when he states that αίθοψ can only refer to complexion; an ending like -οψ loses its original meaning.) An argument against αίθονος is the occurrence of o instead of ω, as found as a rule elsewhere (vide supra 147 *)). That Ajax is called by Menelaus αϊθων ύβριστης (io88) is no reason for not reading αϊθοπος here. “Heated” with passion—schol. (and likewise Suidas) ex­ plains θερμού έν ταϊς μάχαις- ή τό θερμόν νΰν έπϊ τοΰ παρακεκινηκότος κείσθω—makes good sense. Of course, the 0 of αίθονος may be explained by adducing analogies, but νήφοσι in Theogn. 481, 627 is hardly a case in point, cf. K.-Bl. I, 281 anm. 1. Then there are the cases summed up ib. 511 anm.i; they are of greater value, but even here the question in a word like πρηών is more complicated than it seems. Αϊσων is the only form that remains. It seems better, therefore, to say that a form like αίθονος must be explained on the analogy of the ordinary adj. in -ων. αϊθων λήμα, Aesch. Sept. 448; cf. Eur. Rhes. 122. See now K. J. Me Kay, Studies inAithon I and II, Mnemosyne 1959, 198-203 and i960, 16-22. 224. άτλατον: cf. O.T. 792 γένος δ’ /άτλητον άνθρώποισι δηλώσοιμ’ όραν. ούδέ φευκτάν: "and from which there is yet no escape”. 225. τών μεγάλων Δαναών: the chiefs, esp. the Atreidae and Odysseus; cf. 187. The reading φευκτάν (without a comma) and ύποκληζομεναν is quite possible (as is indeed found in most MSS, although this is not conclusive), ύποκλήζειν is then identical with ύποβαλλόμενοι κλέπτουσι (187), Δαναών gen. subj. (κλήζειν Track. 659, with about the same meaning as here.) 226. ό μέγας μϋθος: cf. μεγάλα Φάτις 173—the rumour among the Greeks spread by the chiefs, άέξειν: “to increase”, “foster”. (Cp. viris acquirit eundo, mensura ficti crescit.)

x) Cf. αίθωνι Κλέωνι, Hermippus 46. 7. K. Kauerbeek

5

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227. τό προσέρπον: Aesch. Prom. 127 παν μοι φοβερόν τό προσέρπον, ib. 272 τάς προσερπούσας τύχας. Though it is true that in tragedy έρπειν is often synonymous with ίέναι (cf. e.g. El. 900) so that τό προσέρπον becomes "what is going to happen”, it still often carries a suggestion of danger and alarm. Cf. O.T. 539 τοόργον .... δόλω προσέρπον; of the sickness of Philoctetes (787) προσέρπει, προσέρχεται τόδ’ εγγύς. Of imminent punishment infra 1255 (with τό φάρμακον as subject). 228. περίφαντος: cf. supra 66 περιφανής, 8l περιφανώς, infra 599 περίφαντος. Predicative adj. instead of an adv. (K.-G. I, 275); with which may be compared personal constructions such as δήλός είμι a.o. (φανερός έστιν ό άνήρ θανούμενος). 229. θανεϊται: cf. 215. Here, too, there is dramatic irony. The Chorus do not, of course, think of suicide: θανεϊσθαι also = fut. pass, of άποκτείνειν. παραπλήκτω: τη μανική (schol.). The usual adj. is παραπλήξ. Cf. Eur. Her. 935 γέλωτι παραπεπληγμένω; also παραπλάζω already in Od. XX 346. 230. συγκατακτάς: cf. ad 123. The Homeric aor. also Trach. 38. συν- has similar force as in συγχέω (or in συνέλεν II. XVI 740). συγκατακτείνειν, "to help to murder”, in Eur. Or. 1089. 231. κελαινοΐς: This reminds one of μελάνδετος, II. XV 713 (cf. Aesch. Sept. 43 with schol. M). Pind. Nem. X 84 says: κελαινεγχεϊ τ’ “Αρει, cf. Trach. 856 κελαινά λόγχα; ξίφος κελαινόν Eur. Βα. 628, Hei. 1656, Or. 1472. Dodds observes ad Ba. 628 that "the pri­ mary reference is presumably to the colour of the metal (μέλας σίδηρος Hes. Op. 151), but both words have also the sinister asso­ ciations of Lat. "ater"...." Bloodstains are probably not to be thought of. (These are suggested-—if the restoration of the text is correct—at Eur. Oincus Hibeh Pap. I 21 sqq. = v. Arnim S.E. 39, 4, x: λαμπρόν σί]δηρον μ[έλανι βάψαν]τες φόνω.) ξίφεσιν is a striking instance of pluralis poeticus. βοτά: cf. 145· 232. βοτηρας: cf. 27 αΰτοϊς ποιμνίων έπιστάταις. In 297 the shepherds’ dogs are called κύνες βοτηρες. ίππονώμας: cf. Eur. Hipp. 1399, Ar. Nub. 571: the passages on which this reading (Porson’s) is based (Adv. p. 186). Transl. “driving horses”. The shepherds are on horseback, unless the word is used catachrestically for "horse-feeding” (cf. comm, ad 143).

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 227-238

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233. κεϊθεν κεΐθεν: purely local sense. ήμΐν: either plur. modestiae, or Eurysaces has to be taken into account. άρ’: cf. the sober but correct remark of the schol.: ώς οικου­ ρούσα τά έξω ή Τέκμησσα ήγνόει · δει ούν τον μεν χορον τά ένδον άπ’ αύτης γνώναι την δέ άπδ τοΰ χοροϋ τά έξω. 234. δεσμώτιν: cf. 105. ήλυθε: this epic form only here in Soph.; rather frequent in Eur.; cf. Denniston ad Eur. El. 168. 235-244. Tecmessa relates what she has seen without having understood the background of the sinister happenings. It is there­ fore wrong to object that the representation of the facts does not in every respect tally with what was said in 11. ioo-iii. It is certainly difficult to make out whether one has to read in 1. 235 (with Tricl.) τά μέν είσω (so Brunck and Pearson) or την μέν έσω (MSS, Jebb, al.). To expunge 236 on account of the slight error τάς δέ (as Radermacher does) would be wrong. Seeing that την μέν — τά δέ is lectio difficilior (τάς δέ may be due to την μέν being taken as a real singularis and not as a collective idea), this seems preferable. 235. ών την μέν: ών because ποίμναν is a collective noun, τήν μέν also collective: “one part”. έσω: within the hut. σφάζ’: in the proper sense, = “to cut the throat”, επί γαίας: while standing on the ground. 236. τά δέ . . . . άνερρήγνυ: best to be taken διά μέσου, άνερρήγνυ: “to rip up”, as lions do (II. XVIII 582). πλευροκοπών: κατά των πλευρών τύπτων, probably coined by Sophocles. 237. δύο δ’: If one reads 236 διά μέσου, δύο δ’ is contrasted with την μέν. Of these δύο one is certainly Odysseus; the other is uncertain. According to 1. 57, Ajax believes that he had already killed the Atreidae when attacking the cattle. He comes out with a scourge in his hand intending to flog Odysseus, which, according to T., he had already done (299). The Schol. makes conjectures (e.g. Nestor: ad 238 τοΰ μέν κεφαλήν καί γλώσσαν: ίσως τούτον ένόμιζε Νέστορα ώς ψευδομαρτυρήσαντα κατ’ αύτοΰ). 237. άνελών: άναιρέω here lit. “to lift up”. 238. Cutting out the tongue (γλώσσαν άκραν, the point of the tongue) is customary in the case of animals slain for sacrifice, but

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there may be an element of truth in the schol. ad 238 (vide supra}. It would be necessary to know whether the Ilias Parva makes mention of evidence given by Nestor against Ajax. In Ovid. {Met. XIII 63 sqq.) one of the arguments of Ajax against Odysseus is that the latter has failed Nestor. 239. ριπτεϊ: form supported by MSS and by E.M. p. 463, 56 ρίπτω, άττικόν ή ποιητικόν. It is doubtful if this form has special intensive force. θερίσας: "to cut off” (cf. Aesch. Suppl. byj, “to mow down’·’). 241. ίπποδέτην ρυτηρα: ίπποδέτης and ρυτηρα are both nothing but nomina agentis for “rein” (ρυτηρες = “reins” already in II. XVI 475). Ajax makes himself a "double lash” by holding the rein in a strap. 242. λιγυρά: of the lash, already in II. XI 532. διπλή: heightens the pathos, as O.T. 809. Cf. also van Leeuwen ad Ar. Av. 1463 sq. 243. δεννάζων: Hesych.: λοιδορών; cf. Ant. 759 (with personal object). Schol.: βλάσφημων· περιστέλλει δέ καλώς τόν λόγον φάσκουσα τά ρήματα μή είναι τοϋ Αϊαντος άλλα θεών τίνος ύποβολή. δεννάζειν also Theogn. 1211, Eur. Rhes. 925. δέννος Hdt. IX 107. 243, 244. δαίμων / κούδείς άνδρών: cf. Aesch. Ag. 663 θεός τις, ούκ άνθρωπος; Ο.Τ. 1258 sq. λυσσώντι δ’ αΰτφ δαιμόνων δείκνυσί τις · / ούδείς γάρ άνδρών, οΐ παρήμεν έγγύθεν. 245. The Chorus, which consist of common men, draw from the condition of Ajax with genuine Greek directness the conclusion which, with a view to their safety, is most evident. Cf. the reaction of the Chorus, 900 sqq. ώρα: The use of ώρα (= καιρός) here the same as O.T. 466 ώρα viv . .. . φυγα πόδα νωμαν. Cf. Eur. Heracl. 288. τιν’: Schol. rightly observes: άντΐ τοϋ έκαστον ημών. 245, 246. κάρα καλύμμασι / κρυψάμενον: The head was veiled from a sense of shame or grief: see already Hom. Od. VIII 92, άψ ’Οδυσεύς κατά κράτα καλυψάμενος γοάασκεν. Perhaps Hes. Op. 198. Cf. Eustath. II. p. 1343, 62; Ar. Ran. 911 (Nauck T.G.F. p. 50 in praefatione Aesch. Niob.); Pl. Phaed. 117 c. (Similarly at the approach of death.) 246, 247. ποδοΐν κλοπάν άρέσθαι: in spite of Aesch. Pers. 481, αίρονται φυγήν, and Eur. Rhes. 54, 126, the form is from άρνυμαι (cf. K.-B. II, 350). (See also Elmsley ad Eur. Heracl. 505.) (L.-Sc. = λαβεϊν.)

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 239-254

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κλοπή = "deceit", "secret deed”, also Phil. 1025. In similar context Eur. Ion 1254: κλοπή S’ άφϊγμαι διαφυγοϋσα πολεμίους. Cf. κλέπτειν supra 188, injra 1137. Together therefore ποδοΐν κλοπάν άρεσθαι = "to fly secretly over land". For the contrast with "in a ship" cf. Od. I 173, II. IX 329. 249. έζόμενον: apparently aor. (cf. Eur. Phoen. 1516). For the acc. see Aesch. Eum. 3. θοόν είρεσίας ζυγόν: the rowing-benches of the ship, which is quickly rowed on. 250. μεθεΐναι: Lobeck is probably right when he explains this with εαυτόν μεθεΐναι, ‘‘navi se immittere" sive "committere". Cf. έφιέναι in PL Resp. Ill 388 e, Tim. 59 d, Prot. 338 a. Lobeck’s explanation is in accordance with the schol. ad 250: έκαστον, φησί, δει μεθεΐναι τουτέστι ρΐψαι εαυτόν έν νηί καί φυγεϊν. Making ζυγόν εΐρεσίας object of μεθεΐναι gives a wrong idea. 251. τοίας: For the causal asyndeton with τοΐος cf. Ant. 125: τοΐος άμφί νώτ’ έτάθη. έρέσσουσιν άπειλάς: έρέσσειν is orig. “to row”. It may therefore be taken for granted that the metaphor has been called forth by είρεσίας in 1. 249. But it is also in accordance with the image of Ant. 159: τίνα δή μήτιν έρέσσων (another usage, Phil. 1135). Schol.: άντί εύτόνως κινοϋσιν. άπό τών έρεσσόντων άντί έλαύνουσι (cf. κολφόν έλαύνετον II. I 575). κινοϋσιν. It may be observed that έλαύνειν in Homer is used both of the driving on of ships (e.g. Od. VII 109) and of the beating of the sea by the oars (II. VII 6). (v. Leeuwen ad Ar. Eq. 628 is of course wrong in changing our text into άράσσουσιν.) 252. δικρατεΐς Άτρεϊδαι: "the two chiefs, the Atreidae”. Cf. δισσάρχας infra 390. δικρατεΐς λόγχας, Ant. 145: "two spears which were both victorious”. 253. καθ’ ημών: The expression of fear of the Chorus on their own behalf is continued consistently. 254. λιθόλευστον 'Αρη: "death by stoning” (a traitor’s death, cf. 728 and Introduction (p. 14). Cf. Hom. II. Ill 57. Άρης denotes here a violent death; cf. O.C. 1679. Euripides uses several expres­ sions with λεύσιμος: λευσίμω πετρώματι Or. 50, λεύσιμοι καταφθοραί Ion 1237, θανάτου λεύσιμον άταν ib. 1240 (this whole passage, where the Chorus fear Creusa's death and their own ruin, may be well compared with our passage). (Heracl. 765: text prob, corrupt.)

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Cf. also Aesch. Sept. 199, λευστηρα δήμου δ’ o(S τι μή φύγη μόρου (cf. Groeneb. a.h.l. with n. 277 and ad Ag. 1118) and Ag. 1616. Jebb rightly remarks that λιθόλευστον “Αρη is object acc. to πεφόβημαι as well as “cognate” acc. to ξυναλγεϊν (cf. 283, 790) and perhaps also to τυπείς. τυπείς: This aor. already in Homer. 256. αϊσ’ άπλατος: a fate to which none may approach, terrible and dragging along any one who approaches it into its doom. Cf. ισχύς άπλητος Hes. Theog. 153, Hes. Scut. 230 (the Gorgons), ib. 250 (Κήρες). άπλατον θρέμμα (Track. 1093, of the Nemean lion). Cf. also Page ad Eur. Med. 151, 2. αΐσ’ . . . ϊσχει: cf. e.g. O.C. 369, 70. 257. οΰκέτι: cf. Ar. Ach. 471. 257, 258. λαμπράς. . . . λήγει: The difficulty which this simile has caused disappears when στεροπή is taken not as "flash of lightning” but as “the shining light” (of the sun), as Track. 99: ώ λαμπρά στεροπά φλεγέθων. "For, after having raged like a fierce Notus, without brillant radiance, he now ceases”. Thus the words quoted by Jebb from Arist. Probl. 942 a 34 ό νότος, δταν μέν έλάττων ή, αίθριος έστιν, δταν δε μέγας, νεφώδης form a perfect elucida­ tion. The explanation of Jebb: “Attended by the lightning-flash no more, the storm in his soul is subsiding, after a sharp outburst, like the wind of the south”, seems unsatisfactory. It is just the emphasis on the darkness in which Ajax was en­ veloped which forms a good contrast with 259, 260, and is in har­ mony with the image 206, 7. 259. φρόνιμος: mentis compos. Cf. Ελίτ. Hipp. 247: τύ γάρ όρθοϋσθαι γνώμην όδυνα. 260. οικεία πάθη: οικείος suggests here the idea of "being caused by his own fault”, just as El. 215. 261. παραπράξαντος: The difficulty is whether παραπράττειν means here συμπράττειν, μετέχειν των αμαρτημάτων, as schol., Lobeck and Jebb assume, or "to fail”. The first meaning does not occur elsewhere. Hdt. V 45 says of Dorieus: .... τοϋτο δε αύτοϋ Δωριέος τδν θάνατον μαρτύρων μέγιστον ποιεϋνται, δτι παρά τα μεμαντευμένα ποιέων διεφθάρη · εΐ γάρ δή μή παρέπρηξε μηδέν κτλ. Here it clearly means “to act contrary to”. Since Ajax is described as παραπλήκτω χερί συγκατακτάς (229), and since παραφρονέω (Phil. 815), παραφρόνιμος (O.T. 692), and the like are used by Sophocles, the latter view seems preferable.

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 256-269

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262. μεγάλας οδύνας ύποτείνει: ύποτείνειν fairly often stands for deluding a person with false hopes, wages etc.; cf. v. Leeuwen ad Ar. Ach. 657. So here, “to suggest”, "to inspire”. (This seems preferable to L.-Sc.: “intensifies”.) 263. What was said ad 245 also holds good for this verse, δοκώ: mihi videor, άλλ’: cf. Denniston, G.P., 19 III b. 264. φρούδου: cf. O.C. 660. μείων λόγος: on the value of λόγος cf. fr. 346 N.2 (Laocoon} = 375 P. μόχθου γάρ ούδείς τοϋ παρελθόντος λόγος, φρούδου τοΰ κακού is obj. gen. to λόγος. 265. The alternative as put by Tecmessa becomes clear through 271 sqq. It is essential to consider the case from the point of view of Ajax. The Chorus say in 263 that they are happy because they think the misery of Ajax is over. Tecmessa, on the other hand, proceeds to explain that the misery of Ajax is now much greater and that therefore they too (Tecmessa and the Chorus) will be even more unhappy than before, because their fate will be identified with that of Ajax. λάβοις: "to prefer”, just as O.T. 599: πώς δήτ’ έγώ κεϊν’ άν λάβοιμ’ άφεΐς τάδε. 267. κοινός έν κοινοϊσι: "a partner among partners”. For κοινός = κοινωνός, cf. O.T. 240 κοινόν ποεϊσθαι, Ar. Vesp. 9T7 (cf. schol. a.l.). For the figura cf. infra 617, O.T. 222: άστός εις άστούς τελώ, Ant. φίλη μετ’ αύτοϋ κείσομαι, φίλου μετά. ξυνών: cf. 273· 268. τοι: the origin of τοι is apparent here, “in truth, you are right”. At the same time the use is quite common, as the answer bears a gnomic character. Moreover, there is a fine logical correlation with Sp’ in 269. διπλάζον: the intransitive use of διπλάζειν here (cf. Eur. Suppl. 781) gives the impression of a catachresis (νϋν ούν δεδιπλασίασται τό κακόν says the schol. ad 265). 269. ημείς.... νϋν: The reading νοσοϋντος as proposed by Hermann has to be rejected. Tecmessa identifies her condition and that of the Chorus with the condition of Ajax. “Now above all, now that we do not suffer (i.e. now that Ajax is no longer in the clutches of the νόσος, the disease of mind—so, very aptly, the schol.; we also know this use of the 1st pers.pl.) we are a prey to perdition”. Radermacher’s explanation (which takes τό διπλάζον μεϊζον κακόν as an internal acc. to άτώμεσθα) is wrong. The meaning

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of άτώμεσθα appears clearly from Ant. ly. οΰτ’ ευτυχούσα μάλλον οΰτ’ άτωμένη, and from Ant. 314: έκ τών γάρ αισχρών λημμάτων τούς πλείονας / άτωμένους ϊδοις αν ή σεσωμένους. Cf. infra 384· For the whole line of thought, cf. Eur. jr. 205 N.2 (Antiope}·. φρονώ δ’ δ πάσχω, καί τόδ’ οΰ σμικρόν κακόν · το μή είδέναι γάρ ηδονήν έχει τινά νοσοϋντα, κέρδος δ’ έν κακοϊς άγνωσία. Cf. infra ad 554 s O.C. Π93 sq. The MSS are unanimous in reading φίλοι; most editors read with Stob. IV 48 b. 19 Η. λόγοις. The reading of Stob. however, seems to have originated outside the context. By reading a comma before φίλοι (the possibility' was suggested by Lobeck, but rejected), the verse assumes the character of a pathetic appeal, ) See now T. B. L. Webster, Greek Theatre Production, 1956, p. 9, p. 17

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 32S-338

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which fits in very well with the situation. The interpretation is also possible without a comma; in this case the accent would fall on the mutual relation of the φιλία. νικώνται: with gen. (as ήττασθαι) also infra 1353; Eur. Med. 315. 331. 332. The position of δεινά brings this word out in full relief. Bentley, who conjectured δεινοΐς, rightly felt that it does not belong to λέγεις, but the conjecture is not necessary: δεινά is internal acc. to διαπεφοιβάσθαι. The "dreadful and lasting (δια-) frenzy” is the result of the κακά (κακοϊς, dat. causae) which have fallen on him. There remains the problem whether ήμϊν goes with λέγεις or is to be taken as "ethicus” to what follows. The whole structure of the sentence seems to show that ήμϊν stands άπο κοινού. 332. διαπεφοιβάσθαι: the compound occurs only here, φοιβάζειν prop, “to bring in mantic ecstasy”, derived from Phoibos Apollon in that function (v. Wilamowitz, Glaube d. Hellenen, I 325 n. 2). Thus Lycophron 6 says φοίβαζεν έκ λαιμών δπα (“made her voice sound in ecstasy”); περί ύψους 8-4, πάθος φοιβάζον τούς λόγους. 333. For a similar cry of despair from the protagonist behind the scenes cf. El. 77 and, at greater length, Eur. Med. 96 sqq. 334. τάχ’, ώς έοικε, μάλλον: the scholium does not understand these words: τάχα, ώς φαίνεται, μαλλαν στενάζει. She says to the Chorus "Soon he will be even more in a frenzy” or "soon you will have even more cause to say so”. ή ούκ: with synaloephe, cp. e.g. O.T. 539. 335. Αϊαντος: the subject of the subordinate clause is anticipated as often, but here in the genitive depending on ήκούσατε. θωύσσει: cp. note on 308. The Scholiast gives a note that may be traced back to a stage-direction: έμφαντικώς δέ το θωύσσει· καί γάρ δει τύν ύποκρινόμενον το τού Αϊαντος πρόσωπον άπηνεστέρω χρήσασθαι τω φθέγματι καί κυνικώτερον βαυζειν - διά τούτο είπεν θωύσσει (with the sense of “yelping”). The impression made by this wailing is a ghastly one. 337. The Chorus have pity on their master, but are far from feeling the passionate commiseration aroused in Tecmessa. Their statements have a dispassionate touch. See, for instance, άνήρ έοικεν ή νοσεϊν as compared with άνήρ φρονεϊν έοικεν (344)· νοσεϊν: cf. swpra 207, 269. 337, 338. The words echo more or less Tecmessa’s verse 267. νοσεϊν and λυπεΐσθαι are sharply contrasted. Kamerbeek

6

L

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τοΐς πάλαι νοσήμασι ξυνοϋσι: "the results of the frenzy which has fallen upon him not long ago (πάλαι is often used in connection with things that have just happened), which form his company”. These νοσήματα are realized in the pieces of slaughtered cattle in the midst of which Ajax finds himself, πράγη 347 is used in exactly the same way. παρών rounds off the picture emphatically; its re­ lation to ξυνοϋσι is much the same as that of φιλών φιλοϋντα etc. This desire for completeness is akin to that for the so-called polar form of expression. 339. As 1. 531 shows, Tecmessa has sent Eurysaces to a safe place lest Ajax should murder him. 340, 341. Note the admirable form in which Tecmessa gives voice to her άπορεϊν (άπορούσης τό ήθος, schol.). The verses are broken up into small parts whose mutual relation and rhythm determine the mood. 342, 3 form a pendant to 340, 341. άμφί σοί βοα: for άμφί cf. El. 1180 άμφ’ έμοί στένεις. (Somewhat different, supra 303 άμφ’ Όδυσσεϊ.) μενοινα: vox Homerica, occurs only here in Soph, (in Eur. only Cycl. 448); used as at Od. XI 532 κακά δέ Τρώεσσι μενοίνα. (μενοινα: φροντίζει, μέριμνα, προθυμεϊται, όρέγεται, Hesych.) 340-343. It is part of Sophocles' high qualities as a dramatist that the spectator should in a natural way, by observing the cha­ racter and moods of the persons in the drama, be prepared for the motives which actuate them subsequently. Thus the cry for his son arises from Ajax’ desire to see him before his death, for his decision to die has already been taken. Equally natural is his desire to see his brother, to whom, moreover, he wishes to give instructions (cf. 562, 688, 827). From the point of view of the economy of the drama, the scenes in which Eurysaces and Teucer appear are prepared in this way. Schol. ad 342 further rightly remarks: τό δέ άπεϊναι Τεϋκρον χρήσιμον τη οικονομία· παρών γάρ εκώλυεν αύτόν πράξαι & έβούλετο, νυν δέ μόνης της γυναικός έγένετο κρείττων. 342, 343. These are truly the words and mood of ό δεινός μέγας ώμοκρατής Αίας. είσαεί: see also infra 570; Ο.Τ. 275, ΙθΙ3,' Track. 1202. λεηλατήσει: cf. Eur. Rhes. 293. So Teucer is on a predatory expedition such as the Greeks before Troy must have regularly undertaken (cf. Thue. I n.x). έγώ δ’ άπόλλυμαι: The parataxis has a much more penetrating effect than would a hypotaxis. Cf. e.g. II. XXII 237.

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 339-347

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344. άνήρ φρονεϊν έοικεν: see ad 337. The humanity of Ajax is conceived on a much higher plane than that on which the Chorus move. The relation between the members of the Chorus to the protagonist often carries a suggestion of that between Polonius and Hamlet. ανοίγετε: it remains doubtful to whom this is said. The reference made by Jebb to Aesch. Cho. 877 is possibly not a case in point. It is possible that the Coryphaeus summons servants who are sup­ posed to be within (not stage-hands, of course, as Tycho von Wilamowitz wants us to believe). 345. The Coryphaeus thinks that even a glance at them, simple sailors, may cause αιδώς in Ajax after his οίμωγαί λυγραί. “αιδώς steht offenbar im Gegensatz zur besinnungslosen und rasenden Wut”, C. E. Frhr. v. Erffa. ΑΙΔΩΣ. Phil. Suppi. XXX 2, 1937, p. 114. βλέπειν έπί τινι does not occur. It seems better, therefore, to combine αιδώ κάπ’ έμοί λάβοι βλέψας, i.e. "perhaps he will get αιδώς, even because of us, when he has looked upon us”, αίδέομαί τινα is of course normal, but αίδέομαί έπί τινι also occurs (Dion. Halic. VI 92). The whole is such a close group, however, that the question is rather immaterial to the sense. 346. ίδού, διοίγω: Tecmessa is represented as opening the hut; in reality it is the eccyclema which is pushed outwards. (This also happens in Ant. 1294 and El. 1464.) 347. τά τοϋδε πράγη: πραγος (cf. supra 2l) is vox tragica', cf. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Pers. 248, not differing much from πραγμα. The πράγη, the deeds of Ajax, are manifest in the slaughtered cattle, cf. note to 338 νοσήμασι. The meaning of scenes in which the eccyclema is made use of is clearly illustrated by the figurative use of έξώστρα (the same as έκκύκλημα, Poll. 4.128) in Pol. XI 6. 8 τής τύχης έπί τήν έξώστραν άναβιβαζούσης την ΰμετέραν άγνοιαν. κυρεϊ: cf. 3Σ4· Second κομμός 34θ'429 The first thing that deserves notice in this long kommos is that only the protagonist sings. Tecmessa and the Coryphaeus speak only occasionally one or two lines, at the end of a strophe or anti­ strophe, sometimes in the middle; these verses belong to the metrical structure. The whole passage is divided into three strophic

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pairs. On account of the prevalence of the dochmiacs the rhythms are expressive of the pathetic state of Ajax. In this scene, after all the preparations, his situation and character are brought into full relief. First strophe and antistrophe 348-355 = 356-363. The changes by Hermann in 350 (έτ’ instead of τ’) and 358 (άλιον instead of άλίαν) are unnecessary, άλίαν can be read with synizesis (cf. Aesch. Sept. 288 κάρδιας; the accent should probably be άλιαν). Reiske’s πημονάν 1. 360 instead of ποιμένων is accepted by most com­ mentators. I am now convinced that the words are corrupt; Reiske’s conjecture seems unavoidable though not, in my opinion, entirely convincing.

348, 349. μόνοι έμών φίλων, / μόνοι τ’ έμμένοντες όρθώ νόμω: "you alone of my friends < who remain faithful to me > and alone per­ severing in ....”. Instead of the somewhat zeugmatic construction it might also be said that this τε is used where an apposition would be more appropriate (Denniston, G.P. 502). (There is perhaps something to be said for the reading γ’: "yea, alone persevering...” cf. id. ib. 138, 139.) έμμένειν in Soph, also at O.T. 351. 350. ορθός νόμος is to be understood as the right rule, or con­ ception, of life, almost “standard of life”. He who keeps to it as a friend is loyal. Rightly schol.: ορθόν νόμον τόν της φιλίας φησίν. 351-353. ίδεσθέ μ’ οίον: the suffering hero resembles here Pro­ metheus 92: ιδεσθε μ’ οΐα . .. . πάσχω. Cf. also Ant. 940. The middle είδόμην is rather frequent with Soph. (cf. Groeneboom ad Prom. 1.1.). There is here no prolepsis of the subject of the in dir. question as at Prom. 92, but of the object, which can be supplied to άμφίδρομον κυκλεϊται. As ζάλη means "gust of wind” (in association with im­ petuous sea: πνεύμα θορυβώδες, συστροφή και συρμός μεγάλων άνε­ μων, ταραχή ύδάτων καί κλόνος, etc., cf. supra ad 207) the image remains within the sphere of 205-207, 257-258. The storm of rage is blood-red because Ajax has made the onslaught (but cf. also O.T. 23). The gust is over but he feels like one amidst the seething waves without a way out. He is not έν εΰδία. κυκλεϊται is not middle but refl. pass, and με is not the object of κυκλεϊται but of άμφίδρομον κυκλεϊται ("move(s) in a circle about me”). The stage­ setting is symbolic of the inward state of Ajax and thus runs parallel with the metaphor contained in his words.

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 348-363

85

354, 355. The leader of the Chorus addresses Tecmessa, the only person to whom the words έοικας μαρτυρεϊν could be directed. 355. τούργον: used in much the same way as πράγη 1. 347. As this verse obviously points back to 347, there can be no doubt that the subject to έχει is Ajax. άφροντίστως: schol. μανικώς, which is correct, but the word has a euphemistic connotation. 357. γένος.... τέχνας: cf. supra 201. "You who assist in navigating the ships.” For the genit, with αρωγός cf. Aesch. Eum. 486 (Jebb). 358. δς: used κατά σύνεσιν and anticipating σέ. With έπέβας supply (from ναίας) νεώς (ναός) or νεών. The tech­ nical meaning of έπιβάτης "marine" is out of the question here, άλίαν έλίσσων πλάταν paraphrases the idea of “rowing”, έλίσσειν is said of a quick rhythmical movement (έλίσσειν πόδα, etc.). For άλίαν πλάταν ci. fr. 142 P., Page L P P 3, 1. 10 (prob, from Eur.’ Telephus) άλίων έρετμών, 360. έπαρκέσοντ’: έπαρκεϊν abs. means "prevail”, “hold good”: cf. Ant. 611-13 τό τ’ έπειτα καί τό μέλλον καί τό πριν έπαρκέσει νόμος δδ’. So the verb might express here about the same idea as conveyed by έμμένειν όρθφ νόμφ 1. 350, "to remain a true support and refuge”. If we read with Reiske πημονάν the meaning must be "ward off”. I ποιμένων f: if sound this has to be interpreted asagenit.partit.in the sense of των κηδομένων, των βοηθών ώς καί ποιμαίνειν τό φροντίζειν (schol.). των έμέ ποιμαινόντων καί θαλπόντων (schol.). But this course is impossible because 1) we cannot do without the article 2) Ajax cannot "call his crew shepherds” (Webster, Museum 1955, p. 26). If we read (with a colon after δέδορκα) ποϊ μένων έπαρκέσεις, the cor­ ruption is easily understood as resulting from false word division and mixing up two sentences into one; “how long will you delay to help me”. 361. συνδάιξον: mostly explained in accordance with the gloss in Suid. σφάξον σύν τοϊς θρέμμασιν. It would be more in harmony with the line of thought to render "help me to slay myself”. 362. 363. εύφημα φώνει: as infra 591 and El. 1211, this ex­ pression has not yet assumed the fixed meaning of "to be silent”. μή κακόν .... άκος: a proverb from the medical sphere underlies this phrase. Cf. Aesch. fr. 349 N.2 μή κακοϊς ίώ κακά; Soph. fr. 74 N.2 = 77 P.; fr. 530.4, 5 N.2 = 589.4, 5 P ένταϋθα μέντοι πάντα τάνθρώπων νοσεί, / κακοϊς δταν θέλωσιν ίασθαι κακά. A variation, Eur. Ba. 839 κακοϊς Θήραν κακά (Winnington-Ingram, Euripides and

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Dionysus, 1948, 104 n. 2). Hdt. Ill 53.4 (Periander to his son) μή τω κακω τό κακόν ίώ. Thue. V 65.2 διανοείται κακόν κακώ ίασθαι. The whole idea complete in Plato Prot. 340 e καί είμί τις γελοίος Ιατρός· Ιώμενος μεϊζον τό νόσημα ποιώ. The schol., which says πήμα άτης κατά περίφρασιν την άτην, is of course right on account of πημα κακοΰ Od. Ill 152 (cf. Phil. 765 τό πημα τής νόσου; Eustath. ρ. 1461, 68 'Ομήρου είπόντος πημα άτης ό ζηλωτής αύτοΰ Σοφοκλής πήμα άτης φησίν, δ εστιν άτη περιφραστικώς). Mr. Bowra disagrees and translates: "Nor adding ill / To ill make sorrow greater than your doom”, Sophoclean Tragedy, 31. 364. τόν θρασύν, τόν εύκάρδιον: the repeated article has the same force as in Track. 1105, 6 ό τής άρίστης μητράς «ονομασμένος, / ό τοϋ κατ’ άστρα Ζηνός αύδηθείς γόνος. θρασύν: favourable sense, as in Hom. (esp. of Hector), εύκάρδιον: not in Hom. (θρασυκάρδιος does occur). Elsewhere, PAiZ 535, explained by schol. with καρτερικός. 365. άτρεστον: not in Hom., often with the tragedians; cf. Aesch. Prom. 416 μάχας άτρεστοι. δαίοις: "doric” form, frequent in choral song, of ion. δήιος, as δήιος πόλεμος II. VII 119 (for the masculine ending cf. Eur. Troad. 1301, Her. 915): “hostile, destructive strife” (cf. Aesch. Sept. 222; Eur. Phoen. 1023; and probably Aesch. Prom. 352, see Groeneb. a.h.l.). Cf. further injra 784, where the form with 5 is also used in the trimeter, but where the meaning is different. 366. έν άφόβοις με θηρσί δεινόν χέρας: these words present some difficulty. l° The prepos. έν may have a local meaning but it also contains the connotation "as regards”. Cf. 1092 έν θανοϋσιν ύβριστης (and the Lat. in with abl., frequently used, e.g. by Tacitus). 2° The meaning of άφόβοις1) may be "not fearing”, e.g. Pl. Lack, vyj b, or "that are not feared”. The latter is the choice of the schol.: άφόβοις · τοϊς μή φόβον εμποιοϋσι. The first meaning may be explained as "undaunted” or “fearing no harm ”. 3° In connection with this the word θήρ forms a problem. Is it used in the usual sense of "wild beast” or (in general) of "animal” (opp. man) ? The words άφόβοις θηρσί may indeed in a sarcastic way ("undaunted wild beasts”) denote the cattle. But I prefer "tame beasts”, on account of the contrast to δαίοις (v. Wilamowitz, Gr. Vsk. L) Cp. C. W. Vollgraff,

L'Oraison fun&bre de Gorgias, p.

57.

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 364-371

87

505: ‘‘harmlos”) not "fearing no harm from man", as Jebb ex­ plains it. 367. οίμοι γέλωτος: the genit, causae is normal. Cf. e.g. O.C. 1399, where there also follows an exclamatory sentence with otov. Schol. rightly observes: ότι ούδέν αύτοΰ άλλο άπτεται ώς τά τής άσχημοσύνης δτι κατά των μηδενύς άξίων ήνδρίσατο. Cf. 382, the laugh which he fears from Od.; and 1. 79, Athena to Od. In con­ nection with this the laugh of Ajax (303) is noteworthy—that scornful laugh which Ajax laughs in the midst of his frenzy and fears for himself, but which Odysseus rejects is a leit-motif of the drama (cf. also 957 and esp. 383). What he means exactly with ύβρίσθην is shown by a comparison of vs. 217 Αίας άπελωβήθη with 560 οδτοι σ’ ’Αχαιών, οίδα, μή τις ύβρίση / στυγναϊσι λώβαις, ούδέ χωρίς 8ντ’ έμοΰ. 368. τάδε: with the meaning of τοιάδε (as often). 369. The responsion with 384 is imperfect; either the second ούκ of 369 should be omitted or some such particle as δή should be inserted after ίδοιμι in 384 (Triclinius). V. Wilamowitz (Gr. Vsk. 506) is in favour of the first but Tecmessa and the Coryphaeus speak here in full trimeters and the fierceness of the outburst, so characteristic of Ajax, would thus be weakened.—Jebb rightly quotes O.T. 430 sq. The absence of the verb in ούκ εκτός; is quite natural; complete at O.T. 676 οδκουν.... κάκτός εϊ; = abi. έκνεμή: There is a gloss in Hesych.: έκνενέμηται· έξήλθεν. προνέμεται El. 1384 has about the same meaning as progreditur (per­ haps we may think here of the progress of a fire). Cf. also Pind. Nem. VI 15 ίχνεσιν έν Πραξιδάμαντος έόν πόδα νέμων.. There is nothing strange about έκνέμεσθαι = “to go forth”. It should be borne in mind that νέμεσθαι “to browse” easily develops the notion "to move forward” and note the intensive νωμασθαι: good example at Bacch. V 26. πόδα in this connection does not differ from the same word in the well-known expression βαίνω πόδα (Eur. El. 94; many loci in Denniston’s note); it is to be taken as a sort of int. acc. which underlines the action. άψορρον: prob, adv., as often already with Hom., though Soph, also knows the adjectival use (Ant. 386, O.T. 431). 371. Though tradition—if not unanimously—assigns this verse to the Coryphaeus, there is something to be said for giving it to Tecmessa, in which case the parts between Tecmessa and the Coryphaeus are in this strophic pair equally divided. Furthermore

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the cry πρές θεών has a more touching note than would be expected of the Chorus in this κομμός. Dain-Mazon give the line to T.. ΰπεικε: cf. infra 669, 70 και γάρ τά δεινά και τά καρτερώτατα / τιμαϊς ΰπείκει. Ant. yi$ δσα δένδρων ΰπείκει (and II. I 294)· 372 ώ δύσμορος:: “Wretch that I am” (exclamative). It seems better to read in 372 χερ'ι μέν (best tradition χερσί μέν; corr. Herrmann) and in 387 προπάτωρ (best tradition), than in 372 χεροΐν (Tricl.) and in 387 πάτερ (“cod. ant. sec. Tricl.”). Empedocles 100.20 D. has είσόκε χειρ! μέθη. 373. άλάστορας: άλάστωρ often the name for the evil-doer. (Orestes about himself Aesch. Eum. 236, Men. Circumt. 408). 374, 375. έλίκεσσι βουσι .... κλυτοϊς αίπολίοις: epic style (κλυτά μήλα, Od. IX 308). πεσών: cf. είσπεσών 55> 184; πίπτειν is often: "to plunge oneself”. 376. έρεμνύν: a word belonging to epic and tragedy. Here simply = “black”. ίδευσα: "I shed”. Lobeck quotes Pind. Nem. X 75 θερμά δέ τέγγων δάκρυα, Track. 848 τέγγει δακρύων άχναν. Cf. Ο.Τ. ~i2y Dem. XVIII 127.) κακοπινέστατον: cf. Aesch. Ag. yy(> σύν πίνω χερών. 382. ή που πολύν .... άγεις: II. III 43 ή που καγχαλόωσι.... ’Αχαιοί. Cf. the words of the Coryphaeus 957, 8: γελά .... πολύν γέλωτα. The phrase γέλωτα άγεις has the value of non cessas ridere, with which may be compared such expressions as εορτήν άγειν, σχολήν άγειν, ήσυχίαν άγειν, κτύπον άγειν (Eur. Or. 181). 383. Of course the Coryphaeus does not merely want to say that Od. laughs and Ajax weeps by divine will and that Ajax had better acquiesce in it: άκουστέον ούν ούτως, ούχ δτι θεώ άρέσκει γελάν εκείνον άλλ’ δτι θεών βουλομένων και τά κακά μεθίσταται εις τέρψιν (schol.). This means: "every man should bear in mind that his joy and sorrow is dependent on the divine will” (not the will of a particular deity; the tragedians and Plato constantly hover between οί θεοί, b θεός, τύ θειον, so that one should beware of reading ξύν τοι θεώ). The consolation given here is similar to that in Track. 132 sqq. This verse should be considered in the light of 79, 303, 367 (cf. ad 367). 384. All words spoken to Ajax lose their effect on him. He is caught in the consciousness of his tainted honour and is implacable: ούκ άφίεται ό Αίας άλλ’ ϋπδ τής ίδιας δυνάμεως έπαίρεται (schol.). ϊδοιμι δή νιν: δή is very frequent with the imperative δρα etc. It is emotional and does not belong to the elevated style. Examples

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with the opt. are given by Denniston, G.P., 218 V. It is far from certain whether this reading of Triclinius (metri causa) is correct; but (Dindorf, Jebb) seems worse (cf. Denniston. G.P., 331 sq.). There is much to be said in favour of omitting the stop after άτώμενος, so that ίώ μοί μοι interrupts the sentence and the leader of the Chorus tries to forestall the curse, which nevertheless is uttered by Ajax. 386. μηδέν μέγ’ εϊπης: the schol. rightly compares El. 830 μηδέν μέγ’ άυσης. It expresses the same as εύφημα φώνει 362. Cf. Eur. Her. 1244 ίσχε στόμ’, ώς μή μέγα λέγων μεϊζον πάθης. (έπος έξερώ μέγ’ infra 422 sq. is different). ούχ όρας tv’ εΐ κακοΰ: cf. Ο.Τ. 413 (κού βλέπεις tv’ εΐ κακοϋ), Track. 1145 φρονώ δή ξυμφορας ίν’ έσταμεν; Hdt. I 213 έμαθε ϊνα ήν κακοϋ, etc. The frequent occurrence of this kind of expression in Soph, (absent in Aesch., si quid video) is due to the importance of the tragical situation of his dramatis -personae. 387. προπάτωρ: general for “forefather”, a term which should be understood without precision. The appeal of the hero, who is διογενής, to Zeus is quite natural. 388. πώς άν: this manner of uttering a wish (corresponding with Lat. utinam) is very frequent in tragedy. The main point of the wish is conveyed by όλέσσας, 390. αίμυλώτατον: Aesch. Prom. 2θ6αΐμύλας δέ μηχανάς,Άτ. Lys. 1270. αίμυλαν άλωπέκων. αΐμυλομήτην Hom. Hymn. Merc. 13. 389. The use of άλημα, repeated after vs. 381, is by no means contrary to the pre-rhetorical style of tragedy. δισσάρχας: cf. 252 δικρατεϊς Άτρεϊδαι. 390. όλέσσας: the use of the simplex (cf. θάνοιμι) increases the crispness of the expression. βασιλής: unusual form of the acc., possibly modelled on the nom. (Chantraine, Morphologic hist, du grec p. 102); cf. however Άχιλή Eur. El. 439 and the synizesis of ’Οδυσσέα supra 104. 392. κατεύχη: κατεύχεσθαι: τό καταρασθαι. οΰτω Πλάτων καί Σο­ φοκλής (Suid.). Cf. Ο.Τ. 246; Aesch. Sept. 633 οΐας άράται καί κατεύχεται τύχας. 394, 395. σκότος.... έμοί: a double oxymoron, at once a cry from the heart of Ajax and an image summarizing his situation, as was well understood by schol. ad 395: ώς εί τις τόν θάνατον σω­ τηρίαν νομίσειεν. Death, in his eyes, is his deliverance (σεσωσμένον 692). To Tecmessa θανεϊν is that from which she must σωζειν him, 812.

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 386-402

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For the possibly heraclitic element in an oxymoron composed of antonyms cf. J. C. Opstelten, Sophocles en het Griekse Pessimisme p. 51 n. 4; J. C. Kamerbeek, Sophocle et Heraclite, Studia Vollgraff p. 95. σκότος and έρεβος, “darkness of death” and “underworld” are synonymous. ώς έμοί: ώς gives a qualification to the dat. iudicantis. Cf. Ant. 1161 Κρέων γάρ ήν ζηλωτός, ώς έμοί, ποτέ. (Cf. Anecd. Bekker I p. 74. 3.) There is, however, no objection to taking έμοί as a dat. commodi. Cf. K.-G. I, 421, 22 and for restrictive ώς in general id. II, 493, 94. The meaning is: "for me anyway”. 396. έλεσθ': αίρεϊσθαι does not mean here "choose”, as is often the case in Homer. οίκήτορα: Ellendt observes that with the exception of O.C. 728, οίκήτωρ in Soph, is used of the dead in the underworld (Trach. 282, 1161; infra 5x7). If this is not accidental, it is probably to be attributed to the somewhat archaic and solemn sound of the verbal substantive in -τωρ. (Soph, knows οίκητήρ O.C. 627 and οίκητής O.T. 1450.) 398-400. ούτε .... ανθρώπων: the most plausible construction runs: οΰτε γάρ < είς > θεών γένος ούτε είς δνασίν τινα άμερίων άνθρώπων βλέπειν ότι άξιός . (For the ellipse of the finite verb cf. e.g. O.T. 769.) είς therefore goes άπό κοινού with the first member also, which is quite common (cf. e.g. Ant. 1176); further there is variation in the manner of expression, since the notion of "benefit” is only expressed in the second member, βλέπειν είς often occurs with the connotation "praesidii vel auxilii exspectandi": Ant. 922 τί χρή με την δύστηνον ές θεούς δτι / βλέπειν. Infra 514» -ΕΙ- 888, 958 ές τίν’ έλπίδων / βλέψασ’ έτ’ ορθήν; ib. 954· άμερίων άνθρώπων: cf. Ant. 79°· άξιος deserves special notice; his frenzy makes Ajax feel himself an unworthy man. 401, 402. άλλά .... αίκίζει: Ajax realizes that Athena is ruining him; Sophocles assumes, therefore, that he remembers the scene with Athena (91 sqq.). The case is different from that of Euripides’ Heracles (χορευέτω δή Ζηνός ή κλεινή δάμαρ Her. 1303). to whom Hera has always been hostile; and from Hippolytus (ώμοι- φρονώ δή δαίμον’ ή μ’ άπώλεσεν Hipp. 14ΟΧ), where Artemis has told him this. ά Διός: the idiom is really the same as 'Αλέξανδρος ό Φιλίππου.

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άλκίμα: it is quite natural that the goddess of war should be thus called; said of Heracles, Track. 956. 402. όλέθριον: prob, not adverbial (for which one would expect όλέθρια) but predicative-proleptic. The explanation of the schol. μέχρι θανάτου is correct, but does not show how the construction is to be considered. όλέθριος (dc re) mostly = "destructive”; the passive meaning (de homine) is self-evident, "lost”, "undone”. The two parallels in Soph, are not quite certain: O.T. 1341 (if the reading of the MSS ολέθρων is correct, the meaning may also be active) and Track. 878 (the reading άλεθρίδ makes it all but synonymous with the preceding τάλαινα; if one reads όλέθριδ—with ellipse of κλύω—the meaning becomes active again). αίκίζει: cf. supra hi; Track. 838; Tim. Pers. 189. 403. 7toi τις ούν φύγη: this deliberative in the 3rd p. properly replaces the normal one in the 1st p., cf. O.C. 170 ποϊ τις φροντίδος έλθη (K.-G. I, 221). The alternation with the fut. μενώ may be explained by the close affinity between the subjunct. and the future, as it appears repeatedly in Homer. An echo of these words injra 1006 (Teucer.) 405, 406. εί. . . . πέλας: τά μέν φθίνει, compare 364-366· τά μέν refers to his heroism. The MSS have 406 φίλοι, τοϊσδ’ όμοϋ πέλας. Liv. a (reading of Livineius in the margin of an Aldina) τοϊσιδ’. Read τοϊσι 8’ (the form may be defended with Phil. 956) όμοΰ πέλας. Ellipse of είμί; τοΐσι δ’: (έν) άφόβοις θηρσί. "And I am in the com­ pany of these”, πέλας with the dative, Aesch. Suppl. 208 (θέλοιμ’ άν ήδη σοΐ πέλας θρόνους έχειν); here it is pleonastic. Metrically this yields---- as against ----------------- (or if one reads ούτιν’ ά) so that choriambic and iambic dimeter mutually correspond (or so that there is a variation in the two choriambic dimeters). A schol. Jenense (according to Lobeck) runs: ώφειλεν είπεϊν τά δ’ όμοϋ, ϊνα ή ακόλουθον πρός τό, εί τά μεν. έποίησε δέ έναλλαγήν. This means that instead of τά δέ όμοΰ πέλας έστίν sc. έμοί, he says τοϊς δέ όμοΰ πέλας sc. είμί. The full contrast τά μέν . . . . τά δέ is very frequent with Soph. Cf. e.g. Ant. 1279. 407. προσκείμεθα: προσκεϊσθαι "to be closely joined with”, "to be bound up with”, "to suffer from”: cf. El. 1040; κακοϊς γάρ οΰ σύ πρόσκεισαι μόνη, Eur. jr. 418 ΝΑ (Without much difference έγκεϊσθαι, see my note ad Eur. Andr. 91.) Ajax means to say that

FIRST EPEISODION, VSS. 402-412 SQQ.

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the dishonour of his mad chase will always be attached to him. Conversely Ant. 1242 sq. δείξας έν άνθρώποισι την αβουλίαν / όσω μέγιστον άνδρί πρόσκειται κακόν. 408. δίπαλτος: the uncertainty as to the meaning goes back to antiquity. Schol. ad 1.: άμφοτέραις ταϊς χερσίν olov περιδεξίως με φονεύοι - παντί σθένει ώς Δίδυμος · ή ό στρατός με φονεύοι λαβών τα δ£παλτα δοράτια ώς Πϊός φησιν. Aesch. Sept. 985 (dubious passage) has τριπάλτων πημάτων. Eur. I.T. 323 δίπαλτα ξίφη is prob, a cata­ chresis for “the swords wielded by two men”. In Troad. 1102, 3 δίπαλτον κεραυνοφαές πΰρ reminds us of the zig-zag flashes of light­ ning. In any case -παλτος, if taken as a verbal adjective (δίπαλτος might be derived from παλτόν = “javelin”), is active here, as is very common, and the explanation of Didymus stands a fair chance of being right. Compare the frequent (in)geminare said of the throwing of spears or brandishing of the sword. I am inclined to render δίπαλτος with ictibus ingeminans. (On δίπαλτος cf. H. L. Lorimer, A.B.S.A. 37, 172-186.) 410, 411. τοιάδ’ . . . . φωνεϊν: acc. c. inf. in highly affective exclamation, cf. Aesch. Ag. 1662 άλλά τούσδ’ έμοΐ ματαίαν γλώσσαν ώδ’ άπανθίσαι; Eum. 837 έμέ παθεΐν τάδε. (K.-G. II, 23 c.) χρήσιμον: Schol. τοιαϋτα φωνεΐν ά πρότερον ούκ άν ετλη γενναιότατος ών. With the same concept, γενναίος, a schol. ad Eur. Phoen. 1740 explains τό χρήσιμον φρένων (Lobeck). Cf. O.C. 1636 (quoted above ad 319). Tecmessa’s despair is due to the fact that she no longer recognizes the Ajax she once knew. πρόσθεν: cf. 318. 412 sqq. This invocation shows clearly that Weinstock (Sophokles1 p. 43) is right in calling this άμοιβαϊον, as far as Ajax is concerned, essentially a monologue. For these words are not really different from the numerous passages in tragedy where the hero (or heroine) in his loneliness addresses nature (cf. Groeneboom, Prometheus p. 105). Groeneboom quotes the sober words of Apsines (Rhet. Gr. Sp. I p. 400): κινεί δ’ έλεον και λόγος προς τόπον τινά γενόμενος. There is, however, something of a deeper significance in our passage. The scenery round Troy, familiar to Ajax, is addressed because it has been a witness to his greatness (421 sqq.). Nothing is more classical and nothing does more to make man the centre of the universe than this hypostatizing of the surrounding scenery so that it may serve as the background of man in his greatness and fall.

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412. πόροι άλίρροθοι: Aesch. Pers. 367 is there to prove that the schol. (as also Suidas and Harpocration) is wrong in saying ποταμοί είς θάλασσαν ρόοντες. The meaning is "sounding straits of the sea”. Cf. also Eur. Hipp. 1205 and πόροι άλός Od. XII 259. It must remain undecided whether the sea in general is to be thought of here, or the straits of the Hellespont. 413. νόμος έπάκτιον: νόμος of rare occurrence; in Homer only at II. XI 480 έν νόμεϊ σκιερφ, a mountain pasture where there are also trees (Mazon translates "forft”). 601 infra may indicate that we must think of pasture-ground. (Prob, to be compared with Soph. fr. 505 N.2 = 549 P. όπακτίας / αύλώνας.) 414. πολύν πολύν: the geminatio, sparingly applied by Soph., has the same place here as in the strophe. δαρόν: the adj. δηρός in Hom. only in δηρόν χρόνον, II. XIV 206 = 305, where Aristarchus took it as an adv. (Schol. Aristonic. II. XIV 206 (ή διπλή), ότι παραλλήλως δηρόν καί χρόνον). In any case Soph, felt δηρόν to be an adj. and the combination is rather frequent with the tragedians (cf. χρόνος .... δαρός, Eur. Her. 702). 415. κατείχετ’: κατεχειν similarly used Track. 249. 416 sqq. After ίστω (4x7) the editors mark a full-stop, so that άλλ’ ούκότι μ’ has to be supplied with the verb καθεξετε. It seems to me that the text brings out the fierce embitterment of Ajax even more clearly if the words τοϋτό τις φρονών ίστω are taken διά μόσου. In this case ούκότι in 416 anticipates ούκότ’ in 421, μ’ in 416 άνδρα . .. τόνδε in 421, 2. 416. άμπνοάς not in the sense of αναπνέω in Hom., but “the act of breathing”; schol. άμπνοάς όχοντα · ζώντα. 417. τοϋτό τις φρονών ίστω: "let every sensible man know this”. 420. έύφρονες Άργείοις: the schol. ad 418, which reads . . . olov όμοί όχθρα'ι ροαί, εϋφρονες δέ τοϊς ’Αργείοις τοϊς όμοΐς < έχθροϊς >, is probably not mistaken (cf. 459 where Ajax expresses his belief that he is also hated by the plains of Troy). Schol. ad 420: εϋφρονες · διά τό ποτόν seems too matter-of-fact. 423 sqq. Ajax is emphatically pictured as the epic hero who is in deadly earnest about αΐέν άριστεύειν. His words echo those of Achilles at II. XVIII 105 ήμαι παρά νηοσίν, τοΐος όών οίος οΰ τις Αχαιών χαλκοχιτώνων έν πολεμφ. It is certainly not the intention of the poet to emphasize Ajax’ ΰβρις with these words. It should, on the contrary, be claimed that the behaviour of Ajax would be hard to explain if this were not his firm conviction, for it was

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on this that Ajax’ claim on the arms of Achilles was based (cf. 441-444). 424. στρατού is to be joined with οΰτινα; the genit, is partitive, which is so much the more natural because the idea is "the best of the army” (cf. 1300). 427. πρόκειται: προκεϊσθαι is said of the dead who lie exposed; cf. infra 1059. The full meaning of άτιμος is realized if one considers that the resentment of Achilles, also, is nourished by the fear of losing his τιμή. 428, 429. άπείργειν: Ellendt quotes άπείργω τινά βουλόμενον ένεργεΐν τι ... . (cod. Vat. 1410 ap. Bekk. p. 1331). This holds good for Soph. So the desire to "restrain” prob, refers to the intention of Ajax to commit suicide. έχω is construed zeugmatically, first with an inf., then with a dependent question; cf. Ant. 2jo. έώ dependent dubitative. Though ούδ’ instead of οΰθ’ is plausible, the change made by Elmsley seems superfluous; we know from many MSS-texts that ού ... οΰτε is by no means rare. Cf. El. 1412, O.C. 451, 496 (most editors change the transmitted text). Eust. p. 914, 32 explains: οΰτω καί Σοφ. έν Α tαντί δυσίν έννοίαις μίαν αιτίαν έπάγει, ένθα λέγει ώς οΰτε κωλύειν έχω σε τοϋ λαλεϊν οΰτε συγχωρεϊν, τοιαϋτα παθόντα κακά. The explanation seems only partly correct. It might even be argued that οΰτε goes partly από κοινού with the first member also: the construction does not then differ very much from Ant. 270. συμπεπτωκότα: συμπίπτειν = incidere in also at O.T. 113· Almost the same as έντυγχάνειν, 433. 430-595. Second Scene of the first efieisodion. Ajax, Tecmessa, Chorus. After the stirring lyrical scene follows the exposition of the situ­ ation in an iambic dialogue. Electra explains her situation in a si­ milar way, El. 254 sqq., after a preceding κομμός. 430. The exclamation αίαϊ introduces the exposition by Ajax of the connection between his name and his fate; he now begins to realize the evil portent that is inherent in his name. The play on names was a favourite occupation with the Greeks. It also occurs in later antiquity, plays an important part in Shakespeare, and is ultimately rooted in the magical force of names. The name is the person, the denomination is the thing (δς άν τά ονόματα έπίστηται, επίσταται και τά πράγματα, Pl. Crat 435 d). Cf. E. R. Dodds ad Eur. Ba. 367: "To us a pun is trivial and comic because it calls attention

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to the irrelevant; but the Greek felt that it pointed to something deeply relevant”. Powers and things can only be mastered by naming them. Sometimes mythical names seem to have been specially made for the story to which they become attached (e.g. perhaps Eteocles and Polynices—but these names may also be primary; Pentheus; cf. Aesch. Sept. 577; Eur. Phoen. 636 αληθώς δ’ όνομα Πολυνείκη πατήρ / έθετό σοι θεία προνοία νεικέων έπώνυμον; Eur. Βα. 5θδ ένδυστυχήσαι τοΰνομ’ επιτήδειος εϊ, ib. 367', Chaeremon fr. 4 N? Πενθεύς έσομένης συμφοράς έπώνυμος.. Legrand, Etude sur Theocrite 352, n. 2 gives instances with reference to Theocr. XXVI 26 and VII 99-100: Aesch. Prom. 85, 850, Ag. 681, 1081-82, Eur. Troad. 990, Phoen. 1494, Rhes. 158. Cf. Arist. Rhet. II 23, 1400 b), some­ times the art of έτυμολογεϊν seems to us to be still more a mere game (a number of examples are given by Platnauer ad Eur. I.T. 32). Whether Sophocles introduces an innovation here, or falls back on others (e.g. Aeschylus, who plays the game with Helena, Apol'o, Prometheus) as in jr. 880 N.2 (= 965 P. Σοφοκλέους γένος καί βίος 2θ) on Hom. Od. I 62, is difficult to make out. (Pindar Isthm. VI 53 derives Ajax from αίετός, later authors give the story of the hyacinth with the letters A I, which sprang from the blood of Ajax: Euphorion Υάκινθος 40 Powell (Schol. K Theocr. X 28, cf. Eustath. p. 285, 33), Theocr. X 28, Mosch. 3.6, Verg. Buc. Ill 106, Ov. Met. XIII 397.) The most important thing in this place, however, is that Ajax reflects on his fate in connection with his name, i.e. his person. 430. Sv .... ώεθ’: potential of the past. έπώνυμον: the adj. is already used in Homer (Od. XIX 409 of Odysseus in connection with 407) with a name which conveyed something particular; cf. II. IX 562; the name given after something; Hom. Hymn. Ap. 373, Aesch. Prom. 733 (cf. Eur. Phoen. 636, 37; ib. 1494; Ion 1594, El. 1275). One could render it here with “striking(ly)”. Vide infra 574 and 914. 431. έπώνυμον has to be closely connected with ξυνοίσειν; ξυμφέρειν is here = congruere and τοΐς έμοϊς κακοϊς is dependent on it. 432. πάρεστι: same use as in El. 959 ή πάρεστι μέν στένειν. δες .... και τρίς: cf. infra 94°· 432, 433. γάρ .... γάρ: cf. supra 184, 5· There is an intentional monotony in τοιούτοις κακοϊς, τοΐς έμοϊς κακοϊς (431), κακοϊς τοιοΐσδε (429)·

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 430-440

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434. Schol. περιπαθώς τά τοϋ πατρός κατορθώματα παραλαμβάνει · ούκ έλάσσονα γάρ τοϋ πατρός ποιήσας άτιμος έλαύνομαι. The father of Ajax, Telamon, took part of the expedition of Heracles against Troy and got Hesione as a reward: Diod. S. IV 32.5: ό S’ 'Ηρακλής έστεφάνωσε Τελαμώνα άριστείοις, δούς αύτω τήν Λαομέδοντος θυγατέρα 'Ησιόνην ούτος γάρ κατά την πολιορκίαν πρώτος βιασάμενος εΐσέπεσεν εις τήν πόλιν .... 435. καλλιστεϊ’: "the most beautiful part of the booty”. This is not the same as 464 άριστεϊα (cf. Phil. 1429; C. W. Vollgraff, Decret d’Argos, Kon. Ned. Akad. LI 2, 1948, p. 46 and Radermacher Berl. Phil. W. 1917 pp. 28-30; cf. Eur. I.T. 20 sqq.). There would be nothing notable in τά πρώτα άριστεύσας: cf. infra 1300 (which moreover shows that here, too, Hesione is meant, as the schol. rightly remarks), τά πρώτα καλλιστεία makes the locution pregnant, so that άριστεύσας acquires the meaning of “after having won by his prowess”. 436. πάσαν εύκλειαν: cf. 465. 437. There is a striking symmetry with 434: δτου πατήρ μέν τησδ’ άπ’ Ίδαίας χθονός - - - - έγώ δ’ ό κείνου παϊς, τόν αυτόν ές τόπον. There is a similar relation between 439 and 435, 440 and 436. 438. Τροίας: explicative or appositive genit, to τόπον. Τροία is used in the Homeric manner. έπελθών: it is possible but by no means certain that έπ- has here the meaning of "after him” (Jebb, Bruhn), as in έπιγίγνεσθαι, but a meaning intermediate between ingressus and aggressus seems more probable. For έπέρχεσθαι ές cf. Od. VII 280. σθένει: "fighting forces”, as prob. II. XVIII 274. 439. άρκέσας: the parallelism with vs. 435 in itself makes it plausible that άρκεϊν has the meaning of sufficere (trans.) or praestare; cf. also infra 590. The sense development of άρκεϊν seems to be: to ward off—to be strong enough—to suffice; if with the second meaning it takes a cognate accusative, we can translate “to perform”. Compare έπαρκεΐν Pind. Nem. VI 60 πέμπτον επί είκοσι τοϋτο γαρύων / εύχος άγώνων άπο, . . . . , τέ γ’ έπαρκέσαι (Ρ. Maas) κλειτά γενεά. (Aesch. Ag. 1170 is too doubtful.) έργα .... χειρός .... έμής: deeds of my hand. 440. άτιμος: cf. 426. Άργείοισιν belongs to it. Immediately upon άτιμος follows the argumentation about the armour of Achilles. The father won the prize of the άριστεία, to the son it was denied. Kamerbeek

7

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The schol. ad 433 rightly remarks: περιπαθώς τά τοΰ πατρος κατορ­ θώματα παραλαμβάνει (“zieht zum Vergleich herbei”). 441. καίτοι.... δοκώ: cf. Ο.Τ. 1455· £/. 33ζ· In a passage like this the exactness of Denniston's remark is realized: “There is usually a certain combative tone in καίτοι” (G.P., 556). (A striking instance also found in Ant. 502.) The translation should be "and yet”. There is a defiant note in the combination of the apparently restrictive γ’ and the very vigorous expression for “know” (έξεπίστασθαι), seemingly weakened by δοκώ. 442. ών: in a few cases Soph, has δς pron. poss. 443. κρίνειν: decernere. κράτος άριστείας: the triumph of being the best, κράτος, as with Homer repeatedly = “preponderance”, with Soph, often = "vic­ tory”, “triumph”, cf. El. 85, 476; infra 768. This κράτος applied to the concrete situation means the obtaining of the arms of Achilles. Cf. Pind. Isthm. VIII 5 άέθλων δτι κράτος έξεΰρε, by schol. explained in the following words: δτι δή των άθλων νίκην καί επικράτειαν εύρεν άνδρείως άγωνισάμενος. έμελλε: one of the numerous instances where an unfulfilled past is expressed by the imperfect. (“Seules les differences d’aspect font employer un theme de preference a l’autre”, J. Humbert, Syntaxe grecque § 113, p. 81.) 444. ούκ . . τις . . . άλλος άντ’ έμοϋ: cf. Ichn. 326 ούκ άλλος έστίν κλοπεύς / άντ’ εκείνου; O.C. 488; Track. 1226. Other examples in Groeneboom ad Aesch. Prom. 467. The verb μάρπτειν, which combines the meanings "to snatch away” and “to lay hold of”, has a strong plastic force. 445. παντουργω: Philolaus II D. has παντο-εργός, “accom­ plishing everything”. Soph, uses it here in the sense of πανούργος, as at Aesch. Ag. 221, 1237 παντδτολμος = πάντολμος (Jebb; the comment on this already in Eustath. p. 525, 40 and elsewhere, vide Lobeck; cf. παντορέκτης (Έρως) [Anacr.] 10.II (if not = παντ-ορέκτης)). For the whole phrase cf. Aesch. Sept. 671 φωτ'ι παντόλμω φρένας. The alliterations (playing with τ, h. 794 in a continued metaphor). Plut. de lib. ed. 18 (13 e), rather nicely: οΰτω σκιρτώσα νεότης πωλοδαμνεΐται. ώμοΐς έν νόμοις πατρός: ώμός is one of the key-words to denote Ajax’ nature, cf. ad 205; “in accordance with the standards of his father’s rugged nature”. It is to be observed: (1) that the poet causes Ajax to be conscious of his nature as it reveals itself also to others; (2) that his pride in his own being remains unshaken: his son must be like him. Luck has been against him; that is all. As the scholiast puts it: μεγαλοφρονών δέ νόμους την φύσιν ώνόμασεν κα'ι τό έθος τοϋ γεγεννηκότος. The φύσις of the father will be νόμος for the son. 550, 551. Cf. Hector’s wish II. VI 476-481. In the mouth of Ajax there is no equivalent for: πατρός γ’ όδε πολλόν άμείνων. There is in the nature of Ajax and in this tragical situation no place for any word that may cause him to be reconciled to his fate, or that may divert from the tragical centre, Ajax himself. (The idea that another who will take the place of the doomed speaker may be more fortunate is also found, in another context, Eur. Ale. 179-182— parodied Ar. Eq. 1250-1252.) Vergil had this place in mind when he wrote: Disce, puer, virtutem ex me verumque laborem, / Fortunam ex aliis Aen. XII 435. Cf. also Accius Arm. iudic. fr. 10: virtuti sis par, dispar fortunis patris. It is interesting to note that Dionys. Hal. Ant. VIII41') makes Coriolanus say: τρέφετε τά παιδία ταϋτα — οίς θεοί δοϊεν είς άνδρας έλθοϋσι τύχην μέν κρείττονα τοϋ πατρός, αρετήν δέ μή χείρονα. (Influence of the praetexta? Or simply a τόπος of Greek rhetoric?) 552. καίτοι: "As a matter of fact”. σε ... . έχω: Cf. fr. 525 N.2 = 584 P.: πολλά σε ζηλώ βίου, έχω x) Reference due to Lobeck.

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is here I have reason to, rather than I can·, as in O.C. 820 τάχ’ έξεις μάλλον οίμώζειν τάδε. 553. όθούνεκ’: supra 123. έπαισθάνη: with acc. also 996, O.T. 424 άλλων δέ πλήθος ούκ έπαισθάνη κακών. For this and the following verses (the happiness of ignorant youth), cf. Trach. 142 sqq. (esp. of women), O.C. 1229 sqq. ώς εύτ’ άν τό νέον παρή / κούφας άφροσύνας φέρον (Opstelten ο.Ι. 107 η. 3)· These lines were perhaps in the mind of Euripides at I.A. (yjy ζηλώ σε μάλλον ή ’μέ τοϋ μηδέν φρονεϊν. Different, id. ib. 1243 sq. αίσθημά τοι / κάν νηπίοις γε τών κακών έγγίγνεται. On the other hand, Med. 48 νέα γάρ φροντίς ούκ άλγεϊν φιλεϊ. 554, 555. 554 b *s omitted by most editors (not by G. Hermann); it is well transmitted and only wanting in Stob. IV 24.54 H. Jebb, who strikes the verse out, notes that it is quoted by Eusta­ thius (Eumathius) c. 2 § 7 {Erotici Script. II p. 174 Hercher, p. 530 Hirschig) who, as Lobeck observes, derives much from the Ajax. It is further translated by Publilius Syrus 876 sq.: Suavissima haec est vita, si sapias nihil: / Nam sapere nil doloris expers est malum. It should be included l) and taken διά μέσου. It is a bitter reflection of Ajax on his own condition: as long as he was in this madness, he was not conscious of his κακόν: καί νϋν φρόνιμος νέον άλγος έχει says Tecmessa in 1. 259 and the whole dialogue from 263-281 expounds the idea that conscious grief is a double evil (cf. Eur. jr. 205 N.2 quoted ad 269). Hence the schol. ad 554b, which says, very prudently, δει λαβεΐν τοϋτο ώς επί παιδιού · ού γάρ καθόλου την άφροσύνην προκρίνει, goes wrong in its appreciation of this passage through its moralizing standpoint. (Cf. H. D. F. Kitto, Greek Tragedy, 1939, pp. 117, 118: "no amount of morals will make a good play, and no moral analysis will explain a play".) For if it referred to the child, it would be absurd to call τό μή φρονεϊν a κακόν; when made to bear on Ajax’ madness, άνώδυνον κακόν is a splendid oxymoron summarizing the situation. L. 554, referring to the child (φρονεϊν μηδέν and μή φρονεϊν are not the same either), is elaborated in 1. 555, as the longer passage Trach. 144-147 is elabo­ rated by ές τοϋθ’ έως .... Here, too, the subj. generalis with έως is without άν (similar cases in K.-G. II, 449 a. 4). Moreover, it is to ή Such is also the opinion of L. Massa Positano, L'Unitd dell* Aiace di Sofocle, p. 58.

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be noted that 554 b is said by Ajax under the influence of his desire for death. Cf. Aesch. jr. 266 καί τούς θανόντας εί θέλεις εύεργετεΐν / εϊτ* ούν κακουργεΐν, άμφιδεξίως έχει / τφ μήτε χαίρειν μήτε λυπεϊσθαι φθιτούς, Electra (with the urn, El. 1170) τούς γάρ θανόντας ούχ όρώ λυπουμένους, and Ο.Τ. 139°· χαίρειν and λυπεϊσθαι are essential to the condition of man: Trach. 126-135, Eur. I.A. 31 δει δέ χαίρειν και λυπεϊσθαι’ θνητός γάρ έφυς. The adjective ανώδυνος {de homine "without grief”) Phil. 883 and frequent in the Corpus Hippocraticum (see H. W. Miller, Medical Terminology in Tragedy, T. A. Ph. A. LXXXV 1944, p. 159). 556. προς τούτο: προς το μαθεϊν τύ χαίρειν καί τύ λυπεϊσθαι. δει σ’ δπως: δπως with fut. indic, often indicates by itself a strong exhortation; so there is here a mixing of this construction and δει withacc. c. inf. Similarly Phil. 55, Cratin. ap. Athen IX 373 e (Crat. 108 K.): δεϊ σ’ δπως εύσχήμονος / άλέκτορος μηδέν διοίσεις τούς τρόπους (Κ.-G. II, 377 a. 6). 556, 557. πατρός: goes with έχθροΐς. By its position σ’.... πατρός preludes οίος έξ οΐου; it may even be said that in the second in­ stance σ’, which arose from the mixing of corstructions, may be considered as the proleptic object to δείξεις, while πατρός is a prolepsis of έξ οϊου. 557, οίος έξ οίου: cf. ad 5θ3· ’τράφης: cf. 1229, Phil. 3; it does not differ much from γέγονας. 558, 559. The best comment is given by the vss. Trach. 144 sqq. τέως: interim The κοϋφα πνεύματα, the light breezes which nourish young creatures, such as young plants, cf. Dio Chrysost. XII 30, 386 R., quoted by Lobeck, τρεφόμενοι τη διηνεκεΐ τού πνεύματος έπιρροή αέρα ύγρόν έλκοντες ώσπερ νήπιοι παΐδες (where the first generations of men are referred to). κοΰφος referring to youth also O.C. 1230. Schol.: κούφη καί απαλή ζωή · τή δέ μεταφορά των μικρών φυτών έχρήσατο άτινα ούδέν σφοδρόν δύναται ύποφέρειν, ού καύσωνα (hot wind), ούκ άνεμον. 558, 559. νέαν / ψυχήν άτάλλων: Hom. II. XIII 27 άτάλλειν intr. = "to gambol”, άτιτάλλειν in Homer = "to rear”, "to foster”, "to pet”. But in Hom. Hymn. Merc. 400 άτάλλετο is equivalent to έβόσκετο, Pind. fr. 214 S. άτάλλοισα equivalent to τρέφουσα. So it is possible that Soph, uses άτάλλων in the sense of τρέφων. If, as suggested by Jebb, he has thought of II. VI400 (παϊδ’ έπί κόλπφ έχουσ’ άταλάφρονα, νήπιον αδτως) the intr. meaning (with acc. of

FIRST EPEISODION, VSS. 556-565 SQQ.

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respect) is perhaps to be preferred (βόσκου and άτάλλων = τρέφων is not very elegant). μητρί τήδε χαρμονήν: the acc. stands in apposition to the action. Homer II. VI 481 χαρείη δέ φρένα μήτηρ is in the poet’s mind, though the context is different, χαρμονή: only here in Soph. 560. οίδα: “j’en suis sur”. 561. λώβαις: supra 181. ούδέ χωρίς 8ντ’ έμοϋ: cf. supra 166. He means: "bereft of me, my support”. 562. This explains why Ajax in 1. 342 calls for Teucer. If he had been present he would have entrusted him personally with the care of Tecmessa and Eurysaces. In the economy of the play, the way is thus paved for Teucer’s appearance and he is organically inter­ woven with the whole. Teucer comes too late to prevent Ajax’ resolution. The spectator is held in suspense wondering if and when Teucer will come. 562. πυλωρόν: used more or less metaphorically, as a schol. (quoted by E.) observes: από μεταφοράς των φυλασσόντων τάς πύλας. λέγει ούν άποσοβοϋντα καί μή έώντα προσβαλεϊν κακόν τι. φύλακα άμφί σοι: άμφί σοι, just as verbs of concern are used with άμφί, or περί, and the dative. 563. τροφής άοκνον: schol. "rec.”: άνατροφής πρόθυμον φροντιστήν. Cf. προθυμίαν άοκνοτάτην, Thue. 174.1. άοκνος impiger, Hes. Op. 495. All adj. with α privans can be construed with a genit, obj. For the rest τροφής may also go with φύλακα, in which case πυλωρόν is best taken substantively with φύλακα .... τροφής in explicative apposition; or else πυλωρόν may be regarded as adj. to φύλακα. έμπα: cf. ad 122 (schol.). Schol. a.h.l.: όμως. 564. τηλωπός οΐχνεΐ: the second member of the compound τηλωπός has a faded meaning, "far (away)”; οΐχνέω is much the same as οϊχομαι, "though he has now gone away”, τηλωπός, Phil. 216. Similarly θυραϊον οίχνεϊν, El. 313. The vv. 11. mentioned by the schol., τηλουργός and φρουράν, are hardly likely. δυσμενών Θήραν έχων: cf. 343 λεηλατήσει, and infra 720. Θήραν έχων: cf. Phil. 840. For the periphrasis cf. supra 540, infra 880. 565 sqq. Ajax turns to his men requesting them to see that Teucer gets the necessary instructions and Eurysaces is taken to his (i.e. Ajax’) parents, όπως .... δείξει καί.... θήσουσ’, therefore.

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forms the contents of (άγγείλατ’) έντολήν but at the same time (supply δπως δείξετε) of τήνδ’ έπισκήπτω χάριν. He addresses them with great warmth: κοινήν . .. χάριν: "a kind turn by you as well as by him (Teucer)”. This connection is made by τε . . .. τ’. He addresses them in their character of warriors and seamen (565 άσπιστήρ is the same as άσπιστής with Hom., άσπίστωρ Aesch. Ag. 404). It is perhaps no mere illusion to hear in the tribrach of the 4th foot the strong emotion which has taken possession of Ajax, while it cannot be mere accident that after the rigid άνδρες άσπιστηρες the verse surges on with the words ένάλιος λεώς. 569. δείξει: δεικνύναι = "to take to”; cf. Hom. Hymn. Ven. 134 άδμήτην μ’ άγαγών .... πατρί τε σφ δεϊξον καί μητέρι and Phil. 492, 609 .(See J. Gonda, Δείκνυμι, diss. Utrecht 1929, p. 38.) Έριβοία λέγω falls outside the construction; cf. Aesch. fr. 175 N.2 ’Αλλ’ Άντικλείας άσσον ήλθε Σίσυφος, / τής σής λέγω τοι μητρός, ή σ’ έγείνατο, and very often in Dem., as Lobeck observes. Full stress is thus laid on Έριβοία; the mother of Ajax has to be distinguished from Hesione, the mother of Teucer. Pindar also mentions Έριβοία as the mother of Ajax, Islhm. VI 43. She is also called Περιβοία (Apollodorus III 12.7, Pausanias I 42.2). 570. γηροβοσκός: on the importance attached to this by the Greeks, see H. Bolkestein, Wohltatigkeit und Armenpflege im vorchristlichen Alterlum, 1939, p. 80 (with notes 5, 6, 7). είσαεί: supra 343. 571. According to Jebb there are three objections to the best transmitted text (μέχρις ού μυχούς κίχωσι τοϋ κάτω θεού): (ι) μέχρις is a non-Attic form for μέχρι, cf. K.-B. I, 297 c (but it should be observed that Xenophon esp., often has μέχρις); the atticists reject μέχρις and άχρις, and the inscriptions confirm this view (Meisterhans3 pp. 212, 219). (2) Thus the first foot is an "anapeste dechire”. But this view is disputable as μέχρις οΰ can be taken as one word (Koster, Traiti V 14 and V 15). (3) μέχρι(ς) and άχρι(ς) do not occur in the tragedians. Because μέχρι οδ is quite common in prose, whereas έστε is less usual in prose and unknown in inscriptions, the words μέχρις οδ may have found their way in the text instead of έστ’ άν (conj. G. Hermann; μέχρις άν T Suid. vv. γηροβοσκώ et μυχός). On account of είσαεί and for reasons of method the rejection of the verse, as by Elmsley, Dindorf, Jebb, and Radermacher, is not to be recommended.

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 569-576

123

μυχούς .... τοϋ κάτω θεοϋ: cf. Anacr. 43-5 B·4 = 44-5 D. ’Αίδεω γάρ έστι δεινός μυχός, Aesch. Prom. 433. Eur. Heracl. 218, Her. 607. There is no objection to the combination μυχούς κίχωσι: cf. Eur. Ba. 903 λιμένα δ’ έκιχεν, and infra 657. τοΰ κάτω θεοϋ: cf. El. 292 οι κάτω θεοί. 572. His first care is for his γένος; the son of Tecmessa is to be his legal heir. His second care is of course for his arms, esp. his shield; what has happened to Achilles’ arms, shall not happen to his. A witty scholion remarks: πιθανώς τον Αϊαντα επί τόν περί των όπλων λόγον ϊέναι συνεχώς · άπτεται γάρ αύτοϋ μάλιστα ■ άνθρώπινον δέ και μάλα φυσικόν τό συνεχέστερον μεμνήσθαι περί ών έν νω έχομεν. άγωνάρχαι: άγωνοθέται (schol. and Suidas). 572, 573. μήτ’ άγωνάρχαι τινές. . . μήθ’ ό λυμεών έμός: "neither any stewards of games nor this destroyer of mine”. The article to λυμεών is all but indispensable and has virtually the force of a demonstrative. Though the position of έμός is uncommon (but found in Eur. Hipp. 683, Herod. I 30 (where see Groeneboom), cf. Theocr. IV 49 (cp. Cholmeley and Gow) it may be defended on the grounds that: (1) ό has demonstrative force so that Homeric examples like τοϋ βασιλήος άπηνέος in II. I 340 may be compared; (2) ό λυμεών έμός is felt as ό λυμαινόμενος έμέ or ό λυμηνάμενος έμέ just as in Eur. l.c. ά γεννήτωρ έμός = ό γεννήσας έμέ (thus rightly Radermacher). λυμεών: λυμαντής (Track. 793). Iuz pessumdat. γυναικών λυμεώνας, Eur. Hipp. 1068. 574. αύτό: announces έπτάβοιον άρρηκτον σάκος emphatically, έπώνυμον: here = "giving his name”, "after whom is called” (as the eponymous heroes Dem. XXIV 8, Eur. Ion 1577 and the eponymous officials. Cf. also Isyl. Epid. Paean 47 Powell). Cf. supra 430 *). (According to its formation the word simply means “to which is attached the name”. It is uncertain whether έπώνυμος is used in an active sense O.T. 210 τασδ’ έπώνυμον γας (of Dionysus and Thebes); Groeneboom thinks it is.) 575, 576. διά πολυρράφου .... πόρπακος: it is possible that Sophocles uses πόρπαξ instead of τελαμών and that πόρπαξ is nothing but the Spartan equivalent of it, as is claimed by van Leeuwen ad Ar. Eq. 849. It is also possible, however, that we have here merely an anachronism, as was already observed by Eustath. p. 995, 19. x) See also, Sulzberger, όνομα έπώνυμον, R.E.G., XXXIX, 1926, pp. 381-449.

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In this case it remains more than likely that he thought of a Spartan, not of an Athenian shield. The word occurs for the first time in Bacch. fr. 4.31 εν δέ σιδαροδέτοις πόρπαξιν (probably p.p.t.). It is understood to be a leathern thong attached to the inner side of the shield by means of πόρπαι, through which the hand could be put (cf. Eur. Hel. 1376) and which was used among the Spartans until the time of Cleomenes (Plut. Cleom. 11) instead of the όχάνη(-ον). (Cp. H. L. Lorimer, Homer and the Monuments, p. 167). 576. έπτάβοιον: έπταβόειος II. VII 220, XI 545. 577. τά δ’ άλλα .... τεθάψεται: the future perfect has almost the value of an order. κοίν’: adverbial, as Ant. 546 (uncertain ξύν’ O.C. 1752, conj. of Reisig). 578 sqq. After the pathos of the preceding long periods, rounded off by the significant words of vs. 577, the style changes into a series of impatient staccato sentences followed by a short dialogue culminating in the άντιλαβαΐ of 590-594. (Cp. O.T. 616-630.) 579. πάκτου: "close”. Cf. Ar. Lys. 264 μοχλοΐς δέ καί κλήθροισί μου / τά Προπύλαια πακτοϋν. (Acc. to Pollux X 27 as early as Archilochus (//. 187 B.)). πακτοϋν: κλείειν, άσφαλίζεσθαι Suid. Whether the eccyclema is accepted or not, the audience see the hut being shut up. έπισκήνους: before (in front of) the hut (so, in public). Cf. Ant. 1247 sqq. 580. φιλοίκτιστον γυνή: when the subject denotes a general conception, the predicate is mostly neuter (already in Homer, II. II 204). This saying is to be compared with Eur. Med. 928 γυνή δέ θήλυ κάπΐ δακρύοις έφυ (cf. Her. 536)· φιλοίκτιστον: apt to οίκτίζειν or οίκτίζεσθαι, "plaintive”. (But φίλοικτος "piteous", Aesch. Ag. 242, and φιλοικτίρμων “merciful”, Eur. I.T. 345.) For τοι in proverbs and general sayings cf. ad 520, Denniston, G.P., 543, infra 1350. 581. πύκαζε: πυκάζειν for "close” is etymologically (πυκνός cf. Dutch "dichtdoen”) and semantically (cf. Lat. operire) quite natural. Schol. άσφαλίζου (cp. mod. Gr. (ά)σφαλνώ). θάσσον: as in Homer. Cf. ocius and Fr. plus vite que fa. πρός: cf. supra ad 319. 582. θρηνεΐν .... πήματι: the vv. 11. θροεϊν and τραύματι probably owe their origin to a failure to see that image and reality overlap

FIRST EPEISODION, vss.

576-587

125

here. The weeping Tecmessa is compared to a doctor muttering formulae instead of plying the knife. έπωδάς: charms used for healing. Cf. Aesch. Eum. 649 τούτων έπωδάς ούκ έποίησεν πατήρ / ούμός, O.C. 1194- and Track. 1000 sqq.; Pl. passim·, Hippocr. π.ί.ν. I. τομώντι πήματι: τομής δεομένω. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 848 sqq. (and see Cho. 539): ότιρ δέ καί δει φαρμάκων παιωνίων, / ήτοι κέαντες ή τεμόντες εύφρόνως / πειρασόμεσθα πήμ’ άποστρέψαι νόσου (thus Porson; F has πήματος στρέψαι νόσον). These lines show that πήματι may denote the calamity as well as the complaint. Cf. Phil. 765 τό πήμα τής νόσου. Similar imagery supra 362 sq. τομάω is a desiderativum, as θανατάω “to long for death”, φαρμακάω “to need medicine” (Lucian. Lexiph. 4, quoted by Jebb). The verb does not occur in medical language (H. W. Miller o.l. p. 162). 583. προθυμίαν: this refers to the whole passage 578-82. For προθυμία, the ardent desire to act (with the danger of rashness), cf. Track. 669 (perhaps also O.T. 838). 584. μ’ άρέσκει: άρέσκειν often construed with the accus. in Attic, with Soph, only here (K.-G. I, 294 a. I. El. 147 άραρεν is aor. intr. of άραρίσκειν). γλωσσά σου τεθηγμένη: Van Leeuwen ad Ar. Nub. 1108 explains εύ μοι στομώσεις αύτόν as follows: "ei praebebis γλώτταν εύ τεθηγμένην”. Cf. O.C. 795 πολλήν έχον στόμωσιν (see also infra 651). For θήγω cf. further τεθηγμένους λόγους, Aesch. Prom. 311, and the loci ib. quoted by Groeneboom. The image in our passage derives a special pointe from the preceding τομώντι πήματι. Undoubtedly the second locution was prompted by the first. 585. δρασείεις: cf. ad 326. The use of the same word by Tecmessa depicts her agony; she is possessed by the question τί δρασείει; It is the same question which keeps the spectators in suspense till Ajax' suicide. The dactyl in the third foot is expressive of her anguish, (δρασείειν in comical parody Ar. Pax 62.) 586. κρίνε: κρίνειν often for άνακρίνειν, "interrogate”, e.g. Track. 195. εξέταζε: O.C. 211 (here, too, after preceding verbum interrogandi). By σωφρονεΐν he means the submission which is becoming to a woman. This line is charged with threatening portent. 587. άθυμώ: note the contrast with the προθυμία of Ajax. For the verb cf. El. 769.

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καί: "even so”. Her last appeal to him is once more by his son (emphatically τοϋ σοϋ τέκνου) and at last by the gods, by whom she had not yet conjured him (except πρύς έφεστίου Διάς, 492). 588. μή προδούς γένη: the periphrasis is much more emphatic than μή προδως would be. In a similar emphatic appeal, Phil. Η-ή σαυτόν θ’ άμα / κάμ’, ύντα σαυτοϋ πρόστροπον, κτείναςγένη. Cf. Ο.Τ. 957 αΰτός μοι σύ σημήνας γενοϋ. 589. άγαν γε λυπείς: cf. Ant. 573 δγαν γε λυπείς καί σύ καί το σύν λέχος. (Cyllene says, Ichn. 393» ήδη Η·ε πνίγεις καί σύ χαί βόες σέθεν.) For άγαν γε see also injra 983. With Eteocles Ajax might have said θεοϊς μέν ήδη πως παρημελήμεθα [Sept. 702). He owes them nothing for they have turned from him: in 1. 457 δστις έμφανώς θεοίς /έχθαίρομαι (cf. Aesch. Prom. 985). 589. 590. θεοίς .... έτι: είμ’ οφειλέτης is an emphatic οφείλω. Similarly with inf. Eur. Rhes. 965 όφειλέτις δέ μοι / τούς Όρφέως τιμώσα φαίνεσθαι φίλους. 590. άρκείν: schol. ad 589 explains: έπί τιμή πράττειν των θεών. For άρκείν cf. supra ad 439> 322, O.C. 262. The connotation is here “to be of service”. Cf. Verg. Aen. XI 51 iuvenem exanimum et nil iam coelestibus ullis Debentem. (The explanation of Ellendt, which goes back to Triclinius, is too far-fetched: nescisne me non amplius hoc debere diis ut opituler, sc. tibi.) 591. εύφημα φώνει: cf. supra 362. τοΐς άκούουσιν λέγε: perhaps Eur. Her. 1184sq. is an echo of this, but the context is quite different. (The reading of Theocr. XV 90 πεισομένοις επίτασσε quoted by Jebb is based on a needless conjec­ ture.) 592. σύ δ’ ούχι: "will you not ...”. 593. γάρ: "yes for ...". Cf. 1357. Denniston, G.P., 73 V 1. ού ξυνέρξεθ’ ώς τάχος: addressed to the attendants (541). Cf. note ad 344. The most probable explanation is that ξυνέργειν (Ionic form for ξυνείργειν, cf. O.T. 890 έρξεται, but είρξω Phil. 1407) is equivalent to πακτοϋν and πυκάζειν. (Different, schol. ad 593 and Suidas: τοΐς θεράπουσι κελεύει αύτήν άποκλείειν: in that case it is to be supposed that Tecmessa wants to rush in after Ajax, who orders to keep her out.) 594. μαλάσσου: μαλάσσεσθαι is the very last thing the ήθος of Ajax admits of; his φρένες are περισκελεΐς (649). 595. άρτι: nunc ipsum, nunc demum (έξακμάσαντος τοϋ καιρού

FIRST EPEISODION, vss. 588-595

12Z

schol.). The verse shows us the hero fully conscious of his own character and being.

First Stasimon 596-646 Strophe 596-609 = Antistr. 609-624 Strophe 624-635 = Antistr. 635-646

The situation is such that the spectator can only expect the suicide of Ajax. The Chorus sing of the happy fatherland and their own fate in a far country (str. a) and of Ajax’ reprobation (antistr. a); they depict the despair of the mother of Ajax when she comes to hear of it (str. β), and of his father (antistr. β). It is worth noticing that the Chorus do not appear to think that Ajax intends to commit suicide; what they do say is that it would be better if ό νόσων μάταν were dead (635). The Chorus do not really under­ stand the situation Ajax is in. Being ordinary people they cannot understand the absolute demand made upon Ajax by his heroic ethics. Nor is it clear to them that the frenzy has been long over. Suppose that Sophocles had depicted the Chorus as fully realizing that Ajax was going to commit suicide. Then there would be no background against which the heroic figure could stand out. The Chorus would either have to try to dissuade Ajax from his intention, or (as is the case here) remain inactive: both these possibilities would be unsatisfactory. Only in this way does the hero obtain the lone­ liness in which his greatness becomes clearly visible.

596-598. ώ κλεινά Σαλαμίς: cf. the oracle in Hdt. VII 141 and 142: Ώ θείη Σαλαμίς. Though κλεινά can only after 480 B.C. be applied with full justice to Salamis, there is here no anachronism. Of course the patriotic sentiment of the Athenian is resonant in these opening lines. σύ μέν: the address to Salamis is sustained even in the antistr. ναίεις: ναίειν = "lie”, “be situated”, as used by Homer (II. II 636, ναιετάειν IV 45); with later authors, οΐκεϊν. άλίπλακτος: Aesch. Pers. 307 (Salamis) θαλασσόπληκτον; Pind. Pyth. IV 14 άλιπλάκτου .... γάς Έπάφοιο, “lashed by the sea”. The reading best transmitted is άλίπλαγκτος, which is infra 695 used of Pan ("roving over the sea”). As in the end πλάζω and πλήττω spring from a common root, it is not impossible that Soph, has used άλίπλαγκτος in the same meaning as άλίπλακτος, as was

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already observed by Lobeck. (Cf. the vv. 11. at Aesch. Prom. 467). εύδαίμων: used predicatively with emphasis, πασιν περίφαντος αίεί: it is highly improbable that περίφαντος should mean “famous’’ here (L.-Sc.); it denotes the conspicuous position of the island. 600-604. As appears from 614, the reading of which is reliable, the words Ίδαία (Ίδαία) μίμνων (μίμνω) λειμωνία ποίαι μήλων must be corrupt. To this must be added the question of εΰνομαι, emended by Bergk; this requires the reading μίμνων. With v. Wilamowitz (Vsk. 509) we read: Ίδαδι μίμνων ποία λειμωνίδι μήλων, which forms though not a perfect, yet a satis­ factory responsion with 614:

In both an iambic metron followed by a choriambic dimeter or glyconic. παλαιός άφ’ ού χρόνος: properly παλαιός έστι χρόνος άφ’ ού in­ serted adverbially in the sentence; cf. Phil. 493 παλαιόν έξότου δέδοικ* (emendation by Triclinius). Accordingly “for a long time already’’. Cf. Is. V (Phil.) 47 ού πολύς χρόνος έξ ού. (There is another reading possible: έγώ δ’ ό τλάμων παλαιόν άφ’ ού [χρόνος] μενών Ίδαία λειμωνία ποία μη- / λων. 614 -------------- M-W-

Iambic dimeter and glyconic correspond.) λειμωνίς ποία μήλων: "the grass of the meadows in which the cattle are grazing’’. The dative is locative and goes with μίμνων and εύνώμαι. The reading of Bergk, Raderm. and Wilam. Ίδαδι is confirmed by the form Ίδηίς in Steph. Byz., λειμωνίς by Dionys. Perieg. 756. The complaint about bivouacking on the pastureland may be compared with Aesch. Ag. 559. For εύνή = "bivouac” cf. II. X 408. 604. άνήριθμος: schol. έν ούδενΐ άριθμώ ταττόμενος άλλα περιερριμμένος. άναρίθμητος “unregarded”, Eur. Ion 837. Hei. 1679· Μ the explanation of the schol. is correct, the use is catachrestic. έν άριθμώ είναι = "to be held in some account” is in later times a common expression (Dutch: “in tel zijn”). Cf. Theocr. XIV48 άμμες δ’ ούτε λόγω τινός άξιοι οΰτ’ άριθμητοί (οΰτ’ έν λόγω ούτ’ έν άριθμώ,

FIRST STASIMON, vss. 600-610

129

oracle in schol. a.l.). If this explanation is not accepted, it is necessary either to consider άνήριθμος χρόνω as a close group, so that they are the same as άνηρίθμω χρόνω in prose, or to read with Hermann and many editors μηνών instead of μήλων (cf. Track. 247, El. 232). 605. τρυχόμενος: cf. Track. Iio—there also followed by a par­ ticiple boding evil. 606. έλπίδ’: ελπίς often neutral or unfavourable. Cf. infra 1382. (On ελπίς in general see F. Martinazzoli, Ethos ed Eros nella poesia greca pp. 109 sqq.) έτι: used to denote a point of time in the future in an anxious or minatory way. Cf. El. 66, Track. 257 (minatory); El. 471 (anxious). με ... . άνύσειν: acc. c. inf. with same subject. Cf. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Prom. 268. The pers. pron. is usual in such cases, not the refl. pron. 607. άνύσειν: άνύειν is best explained as intr. (absol.) (= “to cover some distance”, Od. IV 357, XV 294, Track. 657 πρίν τάνδε πρός πόλιν άνύσειε) and 'Άιδαν as acc. of direction, cf. O.C. 1562, Eur. Suppl. 1142 (ποτανοί δ’ ήνυσαν τον "Αιδαν — άίδαν L Ρ). άπότροπον: schol. ad Ο.Τ. 1313 explains δ άν τις άποτρέψαιτο. άίδηλον 'Άιδαν; as the (perhaps correct) etymology of 'Άιδης (ά— f ιδ) was current among the Greeks (Pl. Gorg. 493 b), there is undoubtedly a play on words here, though it is uncertain whether άίδηλος is to be taken as άφανίζων, as “he whom one dare not look at” (the meaning of the preceding άπότροπος might point to this), or as “obscure” (The Homeric sense is "destroying”, "hideous” etc.; cf. Bacch. XIII (XII) 209 άϊδής.) 609. καί: to the evils summed up in 600-607 this one is added. Schol.: olov πρός τοϊς πρώτοις κακοΐς ώσπερ δεύτερόν έστί μοι κακόν τό τοϋ Αιαντος ξυνεστηκός·. δυσθεράπευτος: this word, which occurs in Hippocr. (Medic. 10), springs from medical usage (cf. θεραπεύειν with Pl. a.o.): in­ tractabilis (E.). 610. έφεδρος: one who is posted in reserve to fight the conqueror of two combatants. Cf. Ar. Ran. 792, where Sophocles έμελλεν .... έφεδρος καθεδεΐσΘαι during the match between Euripides and Aeschylus; Aesch. Cho. 866; Eur. Rhes. 119; Pind. Nem. IV 96 Xen. An. II 5.10. To the calamities against which the Chorus have to fight must therefore be added δυσθεράπευτος Αίας whom they now have to face (ένταϋθα ούν φησιν βτι έσχατος καί ώς έφεδρος Kamerbeek

ο

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έλείφθη μοι ό Αίας εις κακόν.). In ξύνεστιν there is a suggestion of "not being able to detach oneself from” {O.T. 303, O.C. 514). 611. θεία μανία: cf. supra 185 θεία νόσος. ξύναυλος: found literally in O.T. 1126 (cf. έναυλος Phil. 158). The μανία is felt as a living being: ξύναυλος = ξυνοικών ("dwelling with”), cf. Phil. 1167 (J. C. Kamerbeek, Sophoclea II, Mnemos. IV, I 198-204), O.T. 1205. 612. έξεπέμψω: "you have let go from you”. The middle also Od. XX 361; cf. Aesch. Pers. 137 (of which our passage is reminis­ cent), E. Lobel, A Greek Historical Drama, col. II 1. 12. (Proc. Brit. Ac. XXXV). πριν δή ποτέ: once, some day in the past, δή is often used em­ phatically with adv. of time, cf. Phil. 806 πάλαι δή; for the com­ bination cf. Thue. I 13.5 αίεί δή ποτέ. There is here strict correlation with νϋν δ’ αδ, 614. θουρίω: cf. ad 212. 614. κρατοϋντ’: κρατέω often found in absolute sense: infra 765, Track. 182, etc. φρενός οίοβώτας: schol. ώς Sv είποι τις αύτός έαυτοϋ διάνοιαν βόσκων καί μηδενί πειθόμενος, "feeding alone his thoughts", φρενδς is gen. obj. to the verbal idea. The Homeric οίοπόλος may have served as example, or perhaps οίόφρων, Aesch. Suppl. 795. 615. ηύρηται: passive (the middle is rare; see Dodds ad Eur. Ba. 203); the meaning does not differ appreciably from γεγένηται. 616. έργα χεροϊν: this combination is felt as one whole (cf. Pind. ΟΙ. VIII 42 χερός έργασίαις) to which μεγίστας άρετας is a genit, qualit., as 1004 τόλμης πίκρας (K.-G. I, 264 c). For the accumulation of genitives cf. 309. 617. άφιλα I παρ’ άφίλοις: see supra ad 267. "Ingrata ingratis”: the deeds won no kindness from the hostile Atreidae (άντί άχάριστα). 617 sqq. άφιλα .... έπεσ’: άφιλα is used proleptically. έπεσ’, metaphor from dice {Track. 62, Eur. El. 1100, Or. 603 etc.). (Diehl wrongly compares this place with Ichn. 11.) έπεσ’ έπεσε: such repetition becomes a mannerism with Eur. παρ’ .... Άτρείδαις: "in the estimation of”; παρά strengthens this meaning which is normal for the dative alone (cf. Track. 589; K.-G. I, 421 b). 620. μελέοις: the idea "unhappy” is tinged with indignation here, just as may be the case with "malheureux”, “ongelukkige”, "wretched".

FIRST STASIMON, vss.

611-635

131

624. ή που: cf. supra 382. έντροφος: though the conjecture of Nauck, σύντροφος (Raderm., Jebb, Pearson a.o.j, makes good sense and completes the responsion, yet the transmitted δντροφος (with licentia antistrophica) is to be preferred, δντροφος is also found O.C. 1362 σύ γάρ με μόχθω τωδ1 δθηκας έντροφον, = “living in". The difference in meaning from σύντροφος is very slight. παλαια: time, thought of as a concrete thing, a living being, grows old like man himself. Dutch “oude dag” is the same. For the whole expression cf. νέα τροφή, O.C. 345. 624, 625. μεν ... . δέ: conveys little more than τε .. .. καί (as is often the case with anaphora). See Denniston, G.P., 370 I. 626. νοσοϋντα φρενομόρως: αντί είς την μοίραν των φρένων νοσοϋντα δ έστι φρενοβλαβώς, μανικώς. (Preserved by Jebb, ν. Wilamowitz, Masqueray; Radermacher considers it an impossible compound.) Generally compared with Eur. Her. 1024 λυσσάδι μοίρα. Dindorf’s φρενοβόρως (~ θυμοβόρος II. XIX 58, Aesch. Ag. 102—uncertain reading) may be correct. 627 sqq. αϊλινος: a fierce cry of grief (cf. Groeneb. ad Aesch. Ag. 121 with n. I on p. 143; Eur. Or. 1395). This cry is here con­ trasted with the complaining notes of the nightingale (the complaint of the latter, El. 107 τεκνολέτειρ’ ώς τις άηδών, ib. 148, 1077, Track. 963 όξύφωνος ώς άηδών, Ant. 423)· άηδοϋς: in apposition to οίκτρας δρνιθος, cf. Eur. Ba. 1365 δρνις .... κύκνος, and Dodds ad Eur. Ba. 1024-26. The form as if the nom. were άηδώ K.-B. I, 497,2. For the course of the whole sentence cf. O.T. 1278 sq. 631. όξυτόνους: cf. El. 242 πτέρυγας / ύξυτύνων γόων. 632 sqq. χερόπληκτοι .... πεσοϋνται δοϋποι: “the hands will beat the breast with a dull sound”, δοϋποι may be said to represent an internal acc. with a transit, verb (χεϊρες πατάξουσι δούπους). πεσοϋνται: a zeugma. With άμυγμα supply έσται. (Or one may say that πολιας άμυγμα χαίτας = πολιά χαίτα άμύξεται.) άμυγμα: used somewhat catachrestically. Strictly speaking άμύσσειν is "to scratch”, "to lacerate”, σπάραγμα "a tearing (of hair)": cf. Eur. Andr. 826 σπάραγμα κόμας όνύχων τε δάι* άμύγματα θήσομαι; Aesch. Cho. 24 πρέπει παρηΐς φοινίοις άμυγμοϊς. For the rest Eur. Hec. 656 shows that conversely σπαραγμός can also be used for the tearing of the cheeks. 635. κρείσσων .... μάταν: the correction δ for ή (Lobeck) is

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required for the metre and is supported by the schol.: ό γάρ μεμηνώς και τάς φρένας διεφθαρμένος κρείσσων 'Άιδα κεύθων οίον άμεινον τω μεμηνότι έξιέναι τοϋ βίου. Personal construction with partic. as in δήλός εΐμι etc. Cf. O.T. 1368 κρείσσων γάρ ήσθα μηκέτ’ ών ή ζών τυ­ φλός. (Of course ή in our passage with "he” as subject would also have given excellent sense.) νοσών μάταν: δ έσπ μεμηνώς (schol.). 636. 8ς . ... ’Αχαιών: The reading is uncertain; άριστα is a note by Livineius in an Aldina. (άριστος is an addition by Tricl.; a schol. ad 636 λείπει γάρ τό άριστος.) The general line of thought is clear ("Ajax, second to none as regards noble descent, no longer..." etc.) and may be compared with Phil. 180 ούτος, πρωτογόνων ίσως οίκων (there is a variant reading from Suidas ήκων) ούδενός ύστερος κτλ. Now the reading άριστος would be easy ("Ajax, noblest of the Achaeans by his descent from the line of his fathers”) but for a metrical objection (moreover ήκειν with reference to descent is not usual). Herodotus often uses εύ ήκειν τινός, "to be well off for something”. Without έκ and reading άριστα one may therefore interpret: "noblest of the Achaeans from the line of (his) fathers”, έκ by itself denotes the descent, while ήκων has more or less a double function (perhaps one may say that the expression has not yet become fossilized). 637. πολυπόνων: refers to the exertions of war. 639, 640. ούκέτι συντρόφοις όργαϊς έμπεδος: for οργή indoles cf. Groeneb. ad Aesch. Prom. 80. (Pind. Pyth. IX 43 μείλιχος όργά is not an oxymoron.) The plur. is easy to understand, if one compares τρόπος, τρόποι (cf. also Ant. 356). συντρόφοις: the disposition grows together with the person, just as Philoctetes’ step has become his σύντροφος {Phil. 203). In like manner Thue. II 50.1 calls the diseases which will occur in a country τά ξύντροφα (something like τά είωθότα); cf. Hdt. VII 102 τή Έλλάδι πενίη μέν αίεί κοτε σύντροφός έστι, άρετή δέ έπακτός έστι. ούκέτι όργαϊς έμπεδος: properly a variation of Hom., II. VI 352 τούτω δ’ ούτ’ άρ νΰν φρένες ίμπεδοι οΰτ’ άρ’ όπίσσω (cf. ib. XX 183). Ajax does not persevere in the qualities of character which belong to him. (One hesitates to say whether the dative is used as e.g. with έμμένειν or as a dat. instrum, of the type τοϊς σώμασιν άδύνατοι, ταΐς ψυχαϊς ανόητοι, Xen. Mem. II i.31; cf. K.-G. I, 317 a. 19. The schol. νΰν ούκέτι ήθεσιν εμμένει may be an indication of the first explanation; and see ad 640.)

FIRST STASIMON, vss. 636-645

133

640. άλλ’ έκτός όμιλεΐ: he does not stand on the firm ground of his own disposition, but being knocked loose from it, is conversant with . This is what Jebb’s explana­ tion comes to. It is better, perhaps, to take όμιλεΐ as a zeugma, so that it belongs as regards its meaning to the first member: Ajax is no longer conversant with his όργαί (which are felt as a being, cf. Phil. 203 and Eur. Or. 354 εύτυχία S’ αυτός όμιλεϊς) but roams outside them. “Not with his inbred thoughts / Dwells he assured, but a stranger outside them”, Bowra, Soph. Trag., p. 29. εκτός necessitates the assumption of some such idea as πλανάται in the second member, instead of όμιλεΐ. In this case it is not necessary to supply έστι in the first member, as Jebb does, and the dative όργαϊς depends on έμπεδος as well as on όμιλεΐ. For πλανασθαι "to wander in mind” cf. Aesch. Prom. 472 sq. αίκές πεπονθώς πημ’ (Heimsoeth, Groeneboom) άποσφαλείς φρένων/ πλανά . . . . Cf. Eury­ pylus (Suppi. Soph. D. p. 23 1. 36, 2x0.36 P., Page Gr. L. P. 4, 1) έπεί κτησίων φρένων έξέδυς. 641. ώ τλάμων πάτερ: this is the best reading, just as Eur. Andr. 348 ώ τλήμων άνέρ (here τλήμων is required by the metre; άνήρ is the usual reading). Nom. and voc. are combined as early as Homer (K.-G. I, 48). (For O.C. 978 the MSS are divided.) 643. δύσφορον άταν: δύσφορος here of course in the ordinary sense (cf. supra ad 51). 644, 645. αιών: here = “life-destiny", as Trach. 34, Phil. 179, O.C. 1736. έθρεψεν: τρέφειν, which does not differ much from ϊχειν, is a vox Sophoclea: cf. Trach. 117 (reading of the MSS). Conversely Phil. 793 τόν ΐσον χρόνον τρέφοιτε τηνδε την νόσον.

Second Epeisodion, vss. 646-692 Ajax comes out of the hut with his sword. The close of the first epeisodion shows clearly that he has the hut shut up and remains within. Consequently he is not on the scene during the choral song. It seems more difficult to decide where Tecmessa and Eurysaces are. Have they left the scene at 595, and if so, are they with Ajax or have they gone to another place, notably to the place where Eurysaces was before under the charge of the attendants (539) ? It seems probable that Tecmessa and Eurysaces are in the same apartment as Ajax and that they leave the hut with him

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at 646. For it is hardly likely that at the end of the preceding epeisodion Tecmessa should have left Ajax alone. (But see ad 593.) In that case there would have been nothing to prevent him from com­ mitting suicide in the hut. If 646 (or somewhat later) Tecmessa comes from another side, her appearance is not motivated; nor is it satisfactory to imagine her on the stage during the choral song. On Ajax’ "Trugrede" cf. J. C. Kamerbeek, Studien over Sophocles, 1934,115-125 and the literature of the subject quoted there; further C. M. Bowra, Sophoclean Tragedy, 1943, 39 sqq. (with whose views on this subject I cannot agree). The schol. ad 646 expresses the right view that Ajax έξερχεται ώς δή κατακηληθεϊς ύπδ Τεκμήσσης μή σφάττειν έαυτδν καί προφάσει τοϋ δεΐν εις ερημιάν έλθεϊν καί κρϋψαι τδ ξίφος έπί τούτοις άναχωρεΐ καί διαχρήται εαυτόν · Then it continues: παρίστησι δέ ό λόγος (fabula docet is a favourite reference in ancient criticism; for the rest, λόγος is the speech of Ajax) ότι καί οί ίμφρονες (mentis compotes', the schol. rightly understands Ajax to be in full possession of his faculties) καί παρακολουθοϋντες τη φύσει των πραγμάτων (et rerum naturae bene periti', this bears especially on 669-677) όμως ύπδ των τοιούτων παθών (passions) έπί τδ χείρον άπολισθάνουσιν......... Then follows a noteworthy comparison with Deianira’s words and behaviour, Track. 436 sqq. To this it only remains to add that the πάθος through which Ajax is carried away is inexorably inherent in his character. He knows exactly what the order of the universe requires of him but he would not be the man he is if he were to submit to it. This does not exclude his being in earnest at 652 sq.; he undoubtedly has tender feelings for Tecmessa and for his son, but he does not suffer himself to be dominated by them. He desires solitude to commit his deed and for that purpose he has recourse to this “Trugrede”; the greatness of this man, the significance of his deed, nay the tragedy of it all, culminates in the agonizing irony of his speech.

646. ό μακρδς .... χρόνος: γένοιτο δ’ άν παν έν τφ μακρω χρόνω Hdt. V 9· Restricted to the duration of man’s life, Phil. 305 sq. πολλά γάρ τάδε / έν τώ μακρω γένοιτ’ άν άνθρώπων χρόνφ (as Hdt. I 32). Cf. also Aesch. Ag. 551 where likewise a connection is made between πάντα and χρόνος (if Wilamowitz is right). See Kaibel Epigr. Gr. 27—4th cent., = Z.G.2 II 1680 = A.P. VII 245, wrongly ascribed to Gaetulicus: ώ Χρόνε, παντοίων θνητοΐς πανεπίσκοπε δαί­

SECOND EPEISODION, vss. 646-650

135

μων. At 1. 714 the motif of ό παγκρατης χρόνος is taken up by the Chorus. (Cf. O.C. 609: "Here the poet as a very old man remembers his own verses from an earlier period”, Kitto, Greek Tragedy, 389.) 647. φύει . . άδηλα: "brings to light what is hidden” (causes to grow like plants the seed of which has been hidden in the ground). κρύπτεται: "hides in its own bosom”. The middle also supra 246 and Track. 474. The chiasm is very significant and makes the double concept an indivisible whole, to which the play of sounds adds effect. 648. άελπτον: this motif is taken over by the Chorus at 716. Cf. Archiloch. 74 D. Χρημάτων άελπτον ούδέν έστιν ούδ’ άπώμοτον, Theogn. 659 Ούδ’ όμόσαι χρή τοϋτό τι ’ μήποτε πράγμα τόδ’ ίσται, and Eur. jr. 761 Ν.2 άελπτον ούδέν, πάντα δ’ έλπίζειν χρεών. 648, 649. άλλ’ .... φρένες: άλίσκεσθαι is often used with a partic. in the sense of "being caught in the act”, convinci. The idea is therefore that time checks the formidable oath (schol.: ότι καί όμόσαντές τινες έν μεταβολή γίνονται τω χρόνω) and likewise a stub­ born mind (φρένες, in my opinion, has the sense of a singular: φρήν and φρένες are used indiscriminately by Sophocles—E.) in their resolution, so that they appear to be less δεινός and less περισκελεΐς than was first thought. Excellently rendered by Jebb, "is -proved weak". Ajax has not sworn an oath, but he thinks of his περισκελεΐς φρένες. χώ: the article is used expressly, because the poet makes an allusion to the verse of Archilochus (as in Ant. 388, where the φύλαξ says: βροτοϊσιν ούδέν έστ' άπώμοτον). περισκελεΐς φρένες is compared with χώ δεινός όρκος: he thinks of his own φρένες, saying it first in a general sense without the article, after­ wards to make clear what he means by κάγώ γάρ. περισκελεΐς: the literal sense appears clearly from Ant. 475 τόν έγκρατέστατον σίδηρον όπτόν έκ πυρός περισκελή θραυσθέντα καί βαγέντα πλεΐστ’ άν είσίδοις. This is a prelude to the image he uses in 651. (From σκέλλειν "to cause to dry”, i.a. σκληρός, άσκελής. The schol. explains: αί άγαν σκληραί ψυχαί.) 650-652. κάγώ γάρ .... γυναικός: γάρ almost =γοϋν (Denniston, G.P., 66, 8). Leaving βαφή σίδηρος ώς apart, one may translate: " XXIV 462 έπίσπαστον κακόν). Groeneboom thinks the metaphor is taken from the act of hauling in the nets, as Hesych. says (2 p. 168): έπισπάσει · έπιτεύξεται. Σοφοκλής Άτρεϊ ή Μυκήναις (Soph. /ζ. 137 Ν·2 = 141 Ρ.) έπΐ των τοϊς λίνοις λαμβανόντων. (Instances of active forms where the middle would be expected are given by K.-G. I, no, 2. The present case may be compared with Ant. 464 κέρδος φέρει and supra 436 εύκλειαν φέρων.) 770. τοσόνδ’ έκόμπει μϋθον: the summing up of what precedes with έκόμπει, referring to ύψικόμπως, is in accordance with the archaic style of the whole passage. 771. δίας Άθάνας: the case to be expected with άντιφωνέω and other verbs of contradiction, such as άνταγορεύω, is the dative or the acc. (on the analogy of άπαμείβομαι, προσαυδάω etc.), as Phil. 1065 μή μ’ άντιφώνει μηδέν. It might be argued that the genit, depends on άντι-, but it should be remembered that άντί ‘'against” does not occur, strictly speaking (instead of it Hom. has άντα, άντία, cf. Διός άντα έγχος άεϊραι, II. VIII 424)> while άντί "over against” is almost exclusively restricted to Dorian: thus Cretan άντί μαιτύρον (Buck, Gr. D.2 § 136, 8). Xen. An. IV 7.6, however: άνθ’ ών, lit. "in the face of which”, and I.G. II, 2.2.1534.99 άντι τοϋ Μινωταύρου "opposite the Minotaur” (K.-G. I, 453). Whether O.C. 1326 άντι παίδων τώνδε (instead of the ordinary πρός) can be ex­ plained from the original meaning of άντί is not quite certain. A remarkable case is O.C. 1651 χειρ’ άντέχοντα κρατός “holding his hand before his face”, which seems to prove that Soph, could use a compound with άντι- in a local sense with a genit, depending on it. The next step would yield the meaning "against” in a hostile sense. It is possible that δίας Άθάνας was thought parallel to καλώς λέγοντος πατρός, and that the clause with ήνίκ’ took the place of the participle, after which the poet ventured upon the bold turn δίας Άθάνας ___ άντιφωνεϊ (the words might be rendered as follows: "As to Athena .... he hurled at her face”). The interpretation δεύτερον .... έπος with δίας Άθάνας depending on δεύτερον (Tournier) is impossible. είτα δεύτερον: "Then once again” (J.).

THIRD EPEISODION, vss. 768-779

161

772. ηύδάτ’: the middle not differing from the active form, as Phil. 130, 852, and in the sense of iubere, as O.C. 864, 1630. (A passive interpretation is not quite impossible.) έπ’ έχθροΐς: cf. supra 18. 773. άρρητον: nefandum dictu, cf. supra 214. 774. 775. τοϊς .... πέλας / ίστω: πέλας is mostly construed with the genit, though the dative also occurs (cf. πελάζω); the dative is the more understandable, as πέλας ίστω = βοήθει. 775. καθ’ ήμας: in that part of the line where we stand, έκρήξει μάχη: of course not "will break forth” (for then Ajax would not desire the battle), but as a late gloss says, ήγουν σχίσμα ποιήσει or ρήξουσιν ήμας (Lobeck). Cf. ρήξε φάλαγγα II. VI 6 (this does not seem to support the explanation of ρηξήνωρ given by M. Boas, Weekblad voor Gymnasiaal en Middelbaar Onderwijs, 14 Sept. 1939, p. 33.) (άναρρήγνυμι intr., O.T. 1075). 776. λόγοισι: it will be seen that there is hardly any difference here between μϋθος (770), έπος (773), and λόγος. τοιοΐσδέ τοι λόγοισι: to τοϊς (MSS) it may be objected that Sophocles nowhere else uses the predicative order in this way, with τοιοΰτος, τοσοϋτος, τοιόσδε, τοσόσδε. If, therefore, τοϊς is maintained, the predicative character of τοιοΐσδέ is emphasized in a way unu­ sual with Soph, but unimpeachable in itself. άστεργη: schol. άμάλακτον, άδιάθετον. Cf. O.T. 229. This rare word is used by Lycophron Al. 1166 (Lobeck). 777. έκτήσατ’ οργήν: cf. El. 1003, 4 μη μείζω κακά / κτησώμεθ’ .... οό κατ’ άνθρωπον φρονών: cf. 761 and for the archaic style see ad 770. For the phrase ού κατ’ άνθρωπον cf. Aesch. Isthm. i (17.1 Mette 1959)· The picture of Ajax as given by Calchas reminds us of some characters of the Seven as described by Aeschylus—an almost godless committer of ΰβρις. As of Capaneus, one might say of Ajax ό κόμπος δ’ ού κατ’ άνθρωπον φρονεί {Sept. 425)· Cf. also, for οό κατ’ άνθρωπον, Ant. 768 μεΐζον ή κατ’ άνδρα. 778. έστι: the present has much greater force than a future would have; similarly έστιν (ζή), 783. τηδε θήμέρα: cf. for the erasis ad 756. 779. γενοίμεθ’ αύτοΰ .... σωτήριοι: the object, genit, to σωτήριος as to λυτήριος El. 635, 1490 (if it is not a subst. there). Cf. also K.-G. I, 371, a. 19. σύν θεω: a conscious reference to 763 and in contrast to δίχα κείνων 768 sq. But there is a pathetic irony in the use of σύν θεφ Kamerbeek XX

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σωτήριοι, if one thinks of Ajax’ last word in the preceding scene: σεσωμένον (692). Cf. also infra 812. 780. τοιαϋθ’: This is the reading of L,G and R, neglected by all editors. It is to be preferred to τοσαϋθ’, for Calchas’ speech is rather long. δ δ’: specified by Τεϋκρος. εύθύς έξ έδρας: prob, "immediately after rising” (έδρα = "seat” and "the sitting”; ευθύς έξ can hardly be separated). The words in themselves could mean “immediately after the sitting” (cf. έδραν ποιεϊν “to convene a sitting” And. I in) but why should Teucer wait so long when he himself has no part in it (749 sq.) ? Moreover, if "immediately after the sitting” should be correct, it would be difficult to explain why he does not come himself; ap­ parently he is awaiting the results of the discussion. 781. έπιστολάς: on έπιστολή "commission "cf. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Prom. 3. 782. φυλάσσειν: epexegetic inf. to which έπιστολάς should be supplied as object: "to observe them” (same use of φυλάσσειν at Track. 616). An "absolute” rendering is also possible: “de faire bonne garde” (Masqueray). εί δ’ άπεστερήμεθα: "if we are deprived”, i.e. of the possibility of keeping Ajax in his tent; "if our mission is already in vain”, άποστερέω has the sense of frustrare or of decipere, fallere in spe decipi, falli. Cf. the nuance of άφαιρεϊσθαι, Phil. 1303 and Eur. Andr. 913. 783. ούκ έστιν: i.e. he is a lost man, vixit (for which Greek has no equivalent). σοφές: i.e. clever as a seer. The verse is called to the membeis of the Chorus in a loud and ominous way. Note the staccato effect of the many dissyllabic words and the alliteration of the x's. 784. Saia: “unhappy”, "wretched”. Supra 365 the word has the ordinary epic meaning; at Aesch. Cho. 429 sq. it is rather "hateful”. Cf. also Eur. Her. 1024. Homer does not know the mean­ ing "unhappy”. We may compare σχέτλιος and its various meanings. Schol.: δάιον κοινώς τύ πολέμιον, Άττικώς τό δύστηνον. γένος: "creature”. Probably after the example of II. VI 180, IX 538. 785. Spa: non de adspectu dictum, sed de considerando eius nuntio (E.) τόνδ’ is proleptic. θροεϊ: cf. supra 67.

THIRD EPEISODION, vss. 780-792

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786. ξυρεϊ γάρ έν χρφ τούτο: τούτο is subject, ξυρεϊ έν χρώ, lit. “grazes the surface of the skin” (so "threatens to wound”; “le rasoir est entre cuir et chair” (Masqueray); Hdt. IV 175 κείροντες iv χροί, Xen. Hell. I 7.8): έστι παροιμία έπΐ των έπικινδύνων πραγμά­ των (schol.). From the same province έπΐ ξυρού ίσταται ακμής, II. X 173, and the variation to it. Ant. 996, έπΐ ξυρού τύχης. The form χρφ (for χρωτί Ant. 246, χροί Track. 605) after the so-called attic 2nd deci, is found also in Xen. l.l. and Thue. II 84.1 (cf. K.-B. I, 511). Perhaps here used by Soph, because he is quoting a proverb. μή χαίρειν τινά: ώστε μή χαίρειν τινά, cf. infra 822. 787. Enter Tecmessa with Eurysaces on her arm (809). It would have been quite possible, of course, to let Tecmessa ap­ pear immediately upon the arrival of the Messenger. But by this arrangement Sophocles enlivens the dramatic effect of the scene and attains a climax through Tecmessa (who stands nearer to Ajax and to us than the Chorus) where it seems very hard to attain. There must have been a similar situation in Eur.’s Dictys (fr. 342 N.2), from which the schol. a.h.l. quotes the words: τί μ’ άρτι πημάτων λελησμένην / όρθοϊς; πεπαυμένην: as we say: "having come to rest from”. 788. άτρύτων: άτρϋτος inexhaustus; cf. Pind. Pyth. IV 178 έπ’ άτρυτον πόνον. έξ έδρας: έδρα here "the sitting down”, cf. note ad 780 and infra 811. 789. ώς: causal (not dependent question). 790. πραξιν: in concordance with εδ and κακώς πράττειν this word is often used of the situation (plight) or predicament in which a person finds himself, so that it can i.m.p. mean "misfortune”: cf. Aesch. Prom. 695 πέφρικ’ είσιδοΰσα πραξιν ’Ιούς, Track. 151 sq. τότ’ άν τις εΐσίδοιτο, την αυτού σκοπών / πραξιν, κακοϊσιν οΐς έγώ βαρύνομαι. The Messenger has explained how matters really are with Afax. ήν ήλγησ’ έγώ: for the aor. cf. 536 etc. 791. 792. όλώλαμεν: Tecmessa can speak thus because her weal and woe are bound up with Ajax. The Messenger does not understand this and answers somewhat bluntly “of your fortune I know not, but as to Ajax ....” The words are therefore not similar (as van Leeuwen ad Ar. Av. 893 thinks) to El. ιιιοούκοΐδα την σην κληδόν’, where τήν σην means "of which you speak”. Cf. Eur. Rhes. 866. On the other hand, Tecmessa’s 1st p.pl. invites comparison with Deianeira’s σεσώμεθα, Track. 83 (J.).

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792. 8τι: makes οΰ θαρσώ dependent on οίδα, while Αϊαντος depends on πέρι. 794. και μην Ουραίος: ‘‘Plato and Sophocles use καί μην, usually with an echoed word, in substantiating a required condition” (Denniston, G.P., 353 (3)). Cf. El. 556, 1045; O.T. 749. ώδΐνειν: though Homer uses the verb once of the Cyclops (Od. IX 415), it is nearly always found with a woman as subject, even when it does not mean "to have the pains of childbirth”. With Soph, further of Iole, Trach. 325. ώδίς of painful suspense (of Electra) Aesch. Cho. 211, of anxious distress (of Deianeira) Trach. 42. It is therefore not surprising that it is followed by a dependent question, explained in a sober but excellent way by a late schol.: ζητεϊν μετά πόνου (with dependent question also Eur. Heracl. 644). τί φής: τί έστιν δ λέγεις, i.e. quid dixeris, not quid dicas. 195, 796. A variation of the wording of 741, 2 and 753, 4. έξεφίεται: a strong έφίεται. 796. σκηνής υπαυλον: ΰπό σκηναϊσι. έναυλος is opposed to θυραϊος Phil. 158. The tum of expression is abundant, as Groeneboom ad El. 1386 (δωμάτων ύπόστεγοι) remarks; he further quotes δόμων έφέστιον, Aesch. Eum. 669. Cf. ένοικος πόλει Κεκροπία, Limenius, Paean 20. άφιέναι μόνον: clearer and more significant than άφέντ’ έαν, 754. 797. έπΐ τφ: "wherefore” (on what evidence). As with the verba affectuum (schol. διά τί); probably not "with a view to what” (the Messenger’s second answer suits the former interpretation better). 798. 799. τήνδε.... φέρειν: the schol. says φέρειν · άντι είναι, which at once states the difficulty. It is true that an intransitive φέρειν is not impossible: cf. Hdt. VIII 87 φέρουσα of a quickly moving ship and O.C. 1694 τό φέρον έκ θεοϋ and further φέρειν εις pertinere ad; on this last the conjectures of Jebb and others are based (Αϊαντος εις όλεθρον). Cf. Eur. Suppi. 295. It seems better, however, to take όλεθρίαν as an elliptical object to φέρειν, so that either φοράν, or μοίραν may be supplied, φορά is used by Soph. Trach. 1212 for “burial”, but the proper sense is “carrying”. "That this going forth of Ajax will carry min with it". It remains only to consider whether Αϊαντος depends on έξοδον or on όλεθρίαν (cf. Aesch. Ag. 1x57). Such an elliptical expression does not sound stranger than άνταίαν έπαισεν 1307 (cf. K.-G. I, 267). Lobeck’s explanation of the text: “Metuit Teucer ne hic exitus Ajacis, quem nunciat, perniciosus ei futurus sit”, is rendered impossible by the

THIRD EPEISODION, vss. 792-804

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fact that neither Teucer nor the Messenger announces the going forth of Ajax; the Messenger has only just heard of it. It is going too far to assume a mixing of όλεθρίαν είναι and εις όλεθρον φέρειν. See further ad 801-2. 800. τοϋ .... μαθών: this construction of μανθάνειν is very frequent with the poets. 801. τοϋ Θεστορείου μάντεως: II. I 69 Κάλχας Θεστορίδης. 801, 802. καθ’ ημέραν / την νϋν: the adjunct of time in connec­ tion with ελπίζει φέρειν (for the expression cf. supra 753). δτ’ . . .. φέρει: now that carries with it for him death or life (according as he is allowed to have his way or is frustrated). Arguments might be advanced against this interpre­ tation to the effect that the έξοδος can only bring him death. But what is meant here is that this έξοδος is to Ajax a matter of life or death, φέρειν is used much in the same way as El. 1042. It remains to investigate, in connection with these verses, whether in 799 the words of the Messenger may not be interrupted, so that όλεθρίαν is attribute to έξοδον and the object to φέρειν should have been θάνατον (for interruptions by another person cf. O.T. 325, O.C. 35 — Schmid-Stahlin I 2 p. 489), thus: “that this going forth of Ajax, baleful, carries with it....” Those present would already under­ stand what he means to say. After Tecmessa’s question the Messenger first gives answer to that question and says what he wished to say by means of another construction, or rather in three parts of a sentence which, being loosely constructed grammatically, depict the tension and excitement of the Messenger and of this moment in Ajax’ tragedy: θάνατος ή βίος. At all events the fact that έξοδος is most probably the subject to φέρει in 802 lends support to any interpretation which makes έξοδον the subject to φέρειν in 799. 803. πρόστητ’: "place yourselves in the way of ....” The preposition πρό is sometimes used in the sense of "screening from”, cf. Xen. An. VII 8.18 όπως τα όπλα έχοιεν πρό των τοξευμάτων. One may compare Eur. Andr. 221, where the nuance is somewhat different. Quite different El. 980. άναγκαίας τύχης: cf. ad 485. This implies the fate of Ajax as well as her own; indeed, her fate is involved in her husband’s. 804-806. σπεύσαθ’: construed with the acc. c. inf., as e.g. Hdt. I 74 έσπευσαν άμφότεροι ειρήνην έωυτοϊσι γενέσθαι, Pl. Crito 45c τοιαϋτα σπεύδεις περί σαυτόν γενέσθαι.

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σπεύσαθ’ ot μέν: the sentence does not run quite smoothly: in­ stead of the new imperative ζητεΐτ’ one would expect a second infinit. dependent on σπεύσαθ’. 805. εσπέρους .... αντήλιους: the acc. to be taken with ίόντες. For εσπέρους cf. Aesch. Prom. 348 πρός εσπέρους τόπους, άκτάν προς εσπέρου θεοΰ, of Pluto, Ο.Τ. 178. Infra 874· άγκών: “bend”, esp. of elbow; “angle”; here "bend of the coast” [not “ravine”), cf. of the Nile, Hdt. II 99 τόν πρός μεσαμβρίης αγκώνα. άντηλίους: “turned towards the sun”. The form is Ionic, cf. άπηλιώτης; also Aesch. Ag. 519 δαίμονές τ’ άντηλιοι and Groeneboom ib. p. 208 n. 6. The two divisions of the Chorus will leave the orchestra from two sides through the parodoi. The οί μέν (804) are undoubtedly the Messenger and some servants of Ajax. 807. φωτός ήπατημένη: the schol. paraphrases: οΐον St’ ών εύνοϊκώς έπραξα εις αύτόν ήπάτησέ με. This supposes a construction φωτός ήπ. = ύπό φ. ήπ., which is adopted by Jebb and Radermacher. But Denniston ad Eur. El. 123 and Murray rightly pro­ nounce Or. 497 to be corrupt and at El. 123 read with Hermann σφαγαΐς.*) Further, Groeneboom ad Aesch. Sef>t. 792 rightly pro­ nounces μητέρων τεθραμμέναι = ύπό μ. τεθ. to be doubtful Greek and interprets this passage and Phil. 3 differently (which, indeed, Jebb also does). Lobeck pointed to the two possibilities of inter­ pretation: της γνώμης αύτοΰ άμαρτοΰσα ΟΓ αύτοΰ εκείνου άποσφαλεΐσα. There is no objection to the rendering "deceived in the man” (i.e. deceived in the expectations built on him). 808. της παλαιας χάριτος έκβεβλημένη: the χάρις of which she spoke in 522 (της τοϋ γάμου καί της συνουσίας, schol.). For έκβάλλειν cf. Xen. An. VII 5.6 έδεισε μη έκ της Σεύθου φιλίας έκβληθείη. The homoeoteleuton is rendered by the Frenchman Masqueray, who seems to have the effect of the rhyming Alexandrines in his blood, in an excellent way by defue .... exclue. 809. τί δράσω: φησίν οδν έν άπόρφ γενομένη, τί δράσω; οΐον πώς μόνον σε καταλίπω; (schol.). ούχ ίδρυτέον: I must not stay here. For the meaning cf. II. Ill 78. 810. Tecmessa will find Ajax’ body nearer the hut than where the Chorus are seeking. There is a conscious reminiscence of 690, έγώ γάρ εΐμ’ έκεΐσ’ οποί πορευτέον. ι) But cf. Schwyzer-Debrunner p. 119 8, disputed by Koster, Mnem. IV, S. V, 1952, 89—94.

THIRD EPEISODION, vss. 805-814

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811. χωρώμεν, έγκονώμεν: for the asyndeton cf. supra 60, 115, infra 844, 988, 1414; Track. 1255, El. 115, Eur. Hec. 507. έγκονώμεν: in Homer only as partic., with later writers in the imper. or exhortative subjunctive; infra 988. έδρας; cf. 788. έδρας άκμή, cf. Phil. 12 άκμή μακρών λόγων, El. 22 έργων άκμή. Eur. Or. 1292 ούχ έδρας έργον, Phoen. 588 ού λόγων έθ’ άγών, II. XI 648 ούχ έδος έστί. 812. The reading followed here is from Jebb and goes back to Hermann. Only θέλοντας forms a good explanation for σπεύδη, while the latter accounts for the incorrect άν, which crept into the text because somebody did not lealize that the subjunctivus generalis in Attic poetiy can very well dispense with άν. The reading makes the sentence general and dependent on ούχ έδρας άκμή (= ούχ ίδρυτέον), which prevents the verse from hanging loosely and giving a βάθος, which would certainly be the case if one reads with Pearson σώζειν θέλοντες άνδρα γ’ δς σπεύδει θανεΐν thus tagging θέλοντες on to χωρώμεν, έγκονώμεν. It is of course absurd to assert that now Tecmessa does not foresee that Ajax is going to commit suicide, as Radermacher does, who rejects the verse (with Dindorf, followed by Masqueray). γ’ is used epexegetically to qualify the whole participle construction, so that it comes under Denniston’s division p. 139 II. My interpretation is therefore: “It is not the moment to sit idle when it comes to saving a man who is running into death”. 813. χωρεΐν έτοιμος: for the ellipsis of the copula with this and similar adjectives see K.-G. I, 40c. Cf. O.T. 92, Eur. Med. 612. Much less common is e.g. Aesch. Cho. 412. 814. With this verse the members of the Chorus leave the orchestra at a quick pace along the πάροδοι. The withdrawal of the Chorus from the orchestra during a tragedy (μετάστασις, Pollux IV X08) is rare in the extant dramas: Aesch. Eum. 231 (the change of scene from Delphi to Athens makes this necessary), Eur. Ale. 747 (the Chorus accompany the funeral of Alcestis) and Hel. 385 (the Chorus go into the palace with Helen). (In Ar., Eccl. 310.) It is clear that Sophocles wishes the suicide of Ajax to take place in solitude. The only possible way to effect this, if he did not wish to have it announced by a Messenger (φθάνει Αισχύλος έν Θρήσσαις την άναίρεσιν Αίαντος δι’ άγγέλου άπαγγείλας, schol. ad 815), was for the Chorus to withdraw from the orchestra. The contrivance is

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very ingenious seeing that the Chorus now leave to seek Ajax and the next scene shows him in a lonely spot. So there is a change of scene: a deserted place on the sea-shore; in the centre there must have been bushes (probably painted on panels; cf. Auct. ad Her­ ennium I ii Aiax in silva postquam rescivit quae per insaniam fecisset, gladio occubuit), where out of sight of the spectators he falls on his sword (this appears from 892, cf. A. W. Pickard-Cam­ bridge, The Theatre of Dionysus in Athens, Oxford, 1946, p. 49: it is otherwise not clear to me how exactly the latter understands πάραυλος 892). For the change of scenery nothing more will have been needed than the removal of the panels which represented the hut of Ajax and the fixing up of the panel for the νάπος. As regards the sword, it is possible that the point of it was visible to the spectators, although this need not for Sophocles’ time be inferred from Achilles Tatius III 20, 77 and from Hesychius s.v. συσπαστόν, which show that there was a time when mock-swords were used on the stage of which the blade ran back into the hilt when one fell on it (Hesych. Συσπαστόν των Τραγικών τι έγχειρίδιον έκαλεϊτο, ώς Πολέμων φησί, τδ συντρέχον έν Αϊαντος ύποκρίσει). Although the suicide is somewhat screened by the bushes, the words of the schol. έστι δέ τα τοιαϋτα παρά τοϊς παλαιοϊς σπάνια · είώθασι γάρ τά πεπραγμένα δι* άγγέλων άπαγγέλλειν, retain their value. It may be observed that the suicide is the central motif of this drama, different from the suicide of Haemon or Deianeira. It was the only way to do full justice to the grand sombreness of the deed. 815. σφαγεύς: the nomen agentis has its full force here; the sword is personified (cf. 822 εύνούστατον, and infra 1025 sq.), like the bow of Philoctetes Phil. 1128 sqq. In Eur. Andr. 1134 this nomen agentis is used in the same way as our duster, plunger, etc. (cf. τομεύς, a shoemaker’s implement, Pl. Ale. I 129 c). Personification of weapons is found everywhere in literature; perhaps the most grandiose instance in Aesch. Sef>t. 727, the ξένος .... Χάλυβος. ή: i.e. ούτως ώστε. τομώτατος: τομδν τδ τμητικδν (Suid.); Pl. Tim. 6l e. 816. εϊ τφ καϊ λογίζεσθαι σχολή: a striking proof of Sophocles' sense of psychic reality. Though a clause like this may be reckoned among the conventions of the dramatic monologue (the weakness and the strength of the genre), a similar criticism of one’s own thoughts will be found in the "monologue int6rieur” of the psycho-

THIRD EPEISODION, vss. 815-822

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logically most direct authors. "If a man—he means himself—has leisure even to consider the matter". 817. δώρον μεν κτλ.: The motif of 661 is taken up again. Ti> ρά ot δάνος ώπασεν Έκτωρ says Euphorion fr. 42, Powell (ex Et. M. p. 247). The motif of the sword coming from the enemy en­ hances the pathos; this appears even in a stronger measure with Vergil, where Dido stabs herself with the gift of Aeneas: non hos quaesitum munus in usus (Aen. IV 647; cf. Ον. Her. VII187: Quam bene conveniunt fato tua munera nostro). ξένων: in so far as they had exchanged ξένια Ajax may, in a grim way, call Hector his "guest-friend". The word as it is used here is a remarkable illustration of the semantic potentiality contained in ξένος (cf. Lat. hospes and the use of it by Dido, Aen. IV 323). 817. άνδρός 'Έκτορος: cf. II. XI 92 έλε δ’ άνδρα Βιήνορα, Od. XXI 26 φώθ’ Ήρακλήα; Aesch. Sept. 620 φώτα Λασθένους βίαν (it would seem that Λ. β. should not be placed between commas), El. 45 παρ’ άνδρός Φανοτέως, and perhaps O.C. 109 sq. οίκτείρατ’ άνδρός Οίδίπου / τόδ’ άθλιον εϊδωλον. The meaning does not differ much from that of a definite article. It seems to be used to counter­ balance γη of 819. 819. έν γη πολέμια: it seems better not to seek personal enmity in these words or to assume connection with 459. 820. σιδηροβρώτι: only here. έκβρώματα="saw-dust”, Track. 700. νεηκονής: what Homer calls νεήκης; Soph, derives it from άκόνη, a synonym of θηγάνη. 821. περιστείλας: i.e. carefully, but it should be remembered (in connection with 577 and 658) that περιστέλλειν is used specially of "committing to the earth” (infra 1170, Ant. 903). 822. διά τάχους: cf. 833. θανεϊν: ώστε θανεϊν. The idea expressed here may be paraphrased as follows: "most kindly to me to die a speedy death". Cf. supra 786. (The dative here depends on εύνούστατον so that the relation is different from Aesch. Sept. 731; quite different also O.C. 790, where ένθανεϊν stands in apposition to τοσοϋτον.) We hear that the sword is to be τομώτατος in three respects: it is the gift of Hector, his greatest enemy, it is planted in hostile soil only just whetted, and he has planted it with care, his greatest friend to give him a speedy death. The desire to convey the sarcastic grimness of Ajax in pregnant language leads to the syntactically not quite-rational last verse: εύνούστατον and θανεϊν are at the

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beginning and at the end. The sword will bring him the. benefit of death, will save him (σεσωμένον 692). 823. οΰτω μέν εύσκευοΰμεν: the word occurs only here. The ethos of this passage is perhaps conveyed better by Masqueray (“Ainsi nous νοίΐέ paris”) than by Jebb ("Thus on my part all is ready”), καλώς παρεσκευάσμεθα καί έχομεν πάντα ών δει προς θάνατον (schol.). έκ .... τώνδέ: έκ των παρόντων, cf. ad 537· The explanation of the schol., μετά δέ ταϋτα, and of Jebb, "in the next place”, is too weak. 824. καί γάρ είκός: Zeus is the forefather of his family, cf. 387. άρκεσον: h.l. "to aid”. 825. αίτήσομαι: for the future cf. supra ad 681. For the prayer cf. Theognis 14. μακρόν: used as in Track. 1217 πρόσνειμαι δέ μοι / χάριν βραχεΐαν πρύς μακροϊς άλλοις διδούς. αίτεΐσθαι is construed with two acc. (as e.g. Eur. Ale. 300 αίτήσομαι γάρ σ’ άξίαν); the inf. is epexegetic. 827. Τεύκρω: that Teucer was to take charge of him was al­ ready said in 688. βαστάση: "lift up” ; cf. 920, Eur. Suppl. 767 (βάσταγμα), Ale. 724. 828. πεπτώτα: the same form also Ant. 697, 1018. περί νεορράντφ ξίφει: echo of VS. 30 σύν νεορράντω ξίφει. For πεπτώς περί cf. φασγάνω περιπτυχής, 899, and cf. 9θ7> άποθνήσκων περί φασγάνω Od. XI 4241 φασγάνω άμφικυλίσαις Pind. Nem. VIII 23. We say "run through”. 829. 830. These words are a preparation for the action of the tragedy after Ajax' death. 829. κατοπτευθείς: in Soph, also at Phil. 124, μή κατοπτευθώ παρών. 830. Of course Soph, had II. I 4, 5 in his mind. Cf. also Aesch. Suppl. 800 sq. κυσίν δ’ ίπειθ’ έλωρα κάπιχωρίοις / ΰρνισι δεϊπνον ούκ άναίνομαι πέλειν. Further Ant. 205 sq., El. 1487 sq. Verg. Aen. IX 485 heu terra ignota canibus data praeda Latinis / alitibusque iaces. 831. τοσαϋτά: not more than this, ού μακρόν γέρας, προστρέπω: with two acc. as verb of supplication (this will be readily understood if one compares the etymology of Lat. rogare). The schol. rightly observes that προστρόπαιοι are the same as ίκέται; cf. προστρόπαιος εστίας μολών Aesch. Ag. 1587, θεούς δέ

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προστροπαϊς ίκνουμένη Aesch. Pers. 216. For προστροπή cf. Aesch. Cho. 21, 85, Eum. 718, O.C. 558. The intransitive use of τρέπειν is by no means exceptional (cf. K.-G. I, 91). Pind. Nem. IV 55 has the form προστραπών in the sense of "after having turned against”. As in our passage προστρεπειν is found at O.C. 50, Eur. Suppl. 1195; common is προστρέπεσθαι, Aesch. Eum. 205 (where the literal sense “to turn oneself towards" has been retained), Soph. /r. 760.3 N.2 = 844.3 P. 832. Έρμήν χθόνιον: i.e. Hermes ψυχοπομπός (a later name; Schol. πομπαΐον· τόν ψυχοπομπόν; ψυχοπομπός of Charon, Eur. Ale. 361; cf. also Aesch. Pers. 626), who is the leader of departed souls on their journey to the nether world and who lays them to rest in sleep. For κοιμίσαι see supra ad 675. (Cf. Eur. Hipp. 1386). The schol. points to II. XI 241 κοιμήσατο χάλκεον ΰπνον. Έρμης χθόνιος also El. in, Aesch. Cho. 1, 124, Eur. Ale. 743. On Thessalian inscriptions, I.G. IX 2. An offering was made to him on the third day of the Anthesteria. πομπαΐον: O.C. 1548 Έρμης ό πομπός. For Hermes in this function cf. Od. XXIV I sqq., Hymn, εις Έρμήν 572 οίον δ’ είς Άΐδην τετελεσμένον άγγελον είναι, Aesch. Cho. 622 (only as guide, not to the nether world, and with play upon words, Aesch. Eum. 91; similarly Eur. Med. 759, cf. Phil. 133). He also leads the souls out of the nether world (cf. Aesch. Pers. 629 and Ar. Pax 648 sq.). See especial­ ly Μ. P. Nilsson Gesch. d. Gr. Rel. I2 pp. 509 sq., from whom many of these particulars are taken. It is worthy of note that in Sophocles’ verse Hermes, the god of sleep and death, is united. "Man sagt, dass er Schlafgott sei, weil Tod und Schlaf Briider sind” (Nilsson, o.l. p. 509). Cf. Od. XXIV I sqq. Syntactically it is most natural to take πομπαΐον predicatively. 833. ξύν άσφαδάστω καί ταχεΐ πηδήματι: Ajax prays for εύθανασία, as Cassandra in Aeschylus (Ag. 1292 sqq. έπεύχομαι δέ καίριας πληγής τυχεΐν, / ώς άσφάδαστος, αιμάτων εύθνησίμων / άπορρυέντων, δμμα συμβάλω τόδε. σφαδάζειν = “to trample" with impatience (of a horse: Aesch. Pers. 194, Eur. fr. 821.3 N.2) and “to struggle convulsively ’’with death, Eur. fr. 1020 N.2 (quoted by the schol.). (On the question whether the correct spelling is άσφάδαστος see Groeneboom, Pers. p. 112, n. 142a.) Plato on the tyrant: σφαδασμών τε και οδυνών πλήρης, Resp. IX 579 eπηδήματι: cf. Eur. Hei. 96 (Teucer on Ajax), οίκεΐον αύτόν ώλεσ’ άλμ’ έπϊ ξίφος. This πήδημα was to him—to quote Euripides—at

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COMMENTARY

the same time πήδημ’ ές 'Άιδου (Theseus on Phaedra, Hipp. 829). Cf. further Lycophron, Al. 465 sq. 834. πλευράν .... φασγάνω: probably Euphorion thought of this: Πλευρά τε και θώρηκα διήρικεν ΐνίου άχρις (Jr. 41 Powell e schol. Pind. Nem. VII 39). According to the schol. ad 833 (a tradition followed by Aesch.) Ajax was invulnerable except in the armpit (because Heracles’ lion-skin had not covered him there). This legend, Jebb rightly remarks, is altogether ignored by Sophocles. 835. There may be some connection between the fact that Ajax calls for help to the Erinyes when on the point of committing suicide and what is said of Epicaste after her suicide, Od. XI 279 τω δ’ άλγεα κάλλιπ’ όπίσσω / πολλά μάλ’, όσσα τε μητρός έρινύες έκτελέουσιν. (Μ. Delcourt, Le Suicide par Vengeance dans la Grece ancienne, Rev. de l’Hist. des Rel. 1939, pp. 154-171, goes too far in assuming for Sophocles’ Ajax a suicide by way of vengeance: this may have been the significance of the original myth, it is not Sophocles’ meaning.) Otherwise the help of the Erinyes is called for in Homer i.a. against those committing perjury (in one breath with γη and ήέλιος, II. XIX 259). Furthermore it seems reasonable that after Hermes these maidens, being chthonic powers, should be invoked to take revenge for Ajax, who is on the point of becoming the possession of the earth. The Erinyes call themselves (Aesch. Eum. 417) Άραί. Cf. Electra’s prayer El. Ill sqq. ώ χθόνι’ Έρμή καί πότνι’ Άρά, / σεμναί τε θεών παϊδες Έρινύες, / αί τούς άδίκως θνήσκοντας όραθ’, κτλ. άρωγούς: like other similar words, means “aiding” as well as "avenging”; cf. El. 1392 παράγεται γάρ ένέρων δολιόπους άρωγός. τάς άεί τε παρθένους: cf. Aesch. Eum. 69 sq. For the use of τάς άεί cf. O.C. 1700 ώ τον άεί κατά γάς σκότον είμένος. We should also allow the possibility of tmesis here: Sappho has άιπάρθενος έσσομαι (inc. 1. 3 L. 1925) and compounds with άει- are common. 836. άεί θ’ όρώσας: O.C. 42 τάς πάνθ’ όρώσας Εύμενίδας. In the same way Helios, when summoned to witness, is called δς πάντ’ έφορας καί πάντ’ έπακούεις. 837. σεμνάς: as the Erinyes are called, esp. in Attica: O.C. 90, 458; cf. El. 112, Aesch. Eum. 1041. τανύποδας: the picture Aeschylus draws of them furnishes a striking illustration of this, καμψίπους, Sept, J91, means the same (cf. Groeneb. a.l.). They pursue through the air in “Knielauf”:

THIRD EPEISODION, vss. 834-840

173

ύπέρ τε πόντον άπτέροις πωτήμασιν / ήλθον διώκουσ’, οΰδέν ύστερα νεώς (£μ»ι. 250). μαθεϊν εμέ: μαθεΐν is a complementary inf. to καλώ δ’ άρωγούς; εμέ is proleptic. 838. Ajax once more states positively that he feels himself driven into death by the Atreidae. It is strange that Odysseus is not mentioned; it does not help very much to say with Ebeling, Hermes, 76 (1941) p. 300 n. 2: Odysseus is only the factotum of the Atreidae. 839. σφας; this form occurs only once in Homer (II. N 567), in Soph, a few times (Ant. 128 required by the metre, O.T. 1470, O.C. 486). κακούς κάκιστα κα'ι πανωλέθρους: while κακούς is in predicative apposition to σφας, πανωλέθρους has a predicative-proleptic function and is connected with the adv. κάκιστα by καί. For κακός κακώς cf. infra 1177, 1391, Phil. 1369. πανωλέθρους also El. 1009. 840. ξυναρπάσειαν: in keeping with the idea of the Erinyes as beasts or birds of prey. 841. 842. These lines are, at least partly, suspectl). Schol. ad 841: τώς αύτοαφαγεϊς; ταϋτα νοθεύεσθαί φασιν ύποβληθέντα προς σαφήνειαν τών λεγομένων. The poet can hardly make Ajax wish something that is in flat contradiction with what according to tradition has actually happened: neither Menelaus nor Agamemnon was murdered by his offspring and Odysseus is not mentioned here; φιλίστων does not occur as an adj. To reject 841 and 842 entirely would leave ώσπερ εΐσορώσ’ έμέ too abrupt; to reject 841 only (as Radermacher does) would leave the unsatisfactory τώς αύτοσφαγεϊς (in the acc.) at the end of the sentence. In the light of Aesch. Sept. 484 (and its occurrence in Homer) there can be no great objection to τώς = ούτως (Ichn. col. XII 296 τώς is relat. = ut, as Aesch. Sept. 637), no more than to the Ionism όλοίατο. So that Pearson’s reading τώς[ ] όλοίατο, though uncertain, seems to be the best solution. The reading προ (842) deserves notice; the meaning would be “under the eyes of". 840. εΐσορώσ’: with the Erinyes as subject and in connection with 836 in the plain sense of "they behold”. Neither of the Erinyes nor of the Atreidae can Ajax maintain that they "sit by with folded arms" when he falls by his own hand. *) D. L. Page, Actor's Interpolations inGreek Tragedy, Oxford 1934. P- IT7: 839-842: "explanatory interpolation”.

174

COMMENTARY

841. αΰτοσφαγεΐς: in Eur. Phoen. 1316 said of Menoeceus. The fact that it has the wider sense of “killed by his own kinsfolk” (cf. Ant. 56) is not a strong argument for or against the spuriousness of this passage. Cf. αύτοφόνως Aesch. Suppl. 65. 843. ποίνιμοί τ’ Έρινύες: cf. Track. 808 ών σε ποίνιμος Δίκη / τείσαιτ’ Έρινύς τ’. 844. γεύεσθε, μή φείδεσθε: for the asyndeton see supra ad 811; cf. for the place of μή φείδεσθε Eur. Hec. 387 κεντεΐτε, μή φείδεσθ’. The metaphor of preying animals or blood-sucking demons appears in the verb γεύεσθε. πανδήμου στρατού: as πανδήμφ πόλει Ant. 7 (used differently supra 175). Cf. ad 1055. The curse is consistent for a man who considers himself at enmity with the universe and for whom personal honour comes before any other consideration. 845 sqq. It would not have been surprising if Ajax had invoked Helios specially to be a witness to the injustice done to him, just as Helios is often invoked as a witness to treaties and oaths. (II. Ill 276 sqq., XIX 258 sqq.; Zeus, Ge and Helios on inscriptions in oaths, Cook, Zeus II 729 sqq., Nilsson,o./.2 139). He asks him how­ ever,—and the conception is quite poetical—to tell his fate to his parents. (The idea of Helios, who sees everything, announcing something, is also found Od. VIII 270.) But what impresses most is this: the hero who is leaving the earth addresses himself to the sun, the symbol of cosmos and life. In his last attachment to life he addresses himself even a second and a third time to the light of the day. In like manner Dido addresses herself in her soliloquy to Sol (Aen. TV 607), but especially as a witness to the injustice done to her (the Dirae ultrices follow, whereas with Ajax the Erinyes precede). (Cf. Ennius, Medea XIV R., and for "Ηλιος πανόπτης Groeneboom ad Aesch. Prom. 91-92.) 845. τόν αίπύν ούρανόν: the sun climbs and descends, cf. Od. XI 17 sq. τόν .... ούρανόν διφρηλατών: similarly (parodying Euripides) Ar. Thesm. 1067 (Νύξ) άστεροειδέα νώτα διφρεύουσ’. Cf. Eur. Andr. 1010. 847. χρυσόνωτον: χρυσήνιος in Hom., epithet of Ares (Od. VIII 285) and of Artemis (II. VI 205). Other compounds with -νωτος: χαλκόνωτος, σιδηρόνωτος (Eur. Troad. 1136, Phoen. XI30), Ar. in parody γοργόνωτος, τυρόνωτος (Ach. 1124 sq.). The reins are adorned with gold-leaf.

THIRD EPEISODION, vss. 841-856

175

έπισχών: holding in (fig. supra 50). 848. άτας τάς εμάς: "my disasters” (caused by an unjust lot or unjust gods); cf. 643, where the nuance is somewhat different. 849. τροφώ: this word used for the mother has a somewhat pathetic ring (καί ταϋτα περιπαθή καί άνθρώπινα. Heracles to Hyllus: κάλει δέ την τάλαιναν ’Αλκμήνην, Trach. 1148). 850. ή που: cf. in this play 382, 624, 1008 (cf. Denniston, G.P., 286). 851. Jebb rightly points to the Homeric character of this con­ ception : Hecabe and Priam after Hector's death, II. XXII 405 sqq. 852. ούδέν έργου: ούδέν ώφελεϊ (somewhat different nuance, supra 12). The one word τάλαινα already makes him fear lest he allow himself to be carried away by his sentiments. 853. σύν τάχει τινί: the ethos of τινί has a grim character which any translation fails to convey. 854. Θάνατε: Thanatos is one of those deities who, not belonging to the gods with a cult and to what v. Wilamowitz calls "den Glaube” of the Hellenes, form part of the sphere of poetry and plastic art. In this capacity he appears in Euripides' Alcestis and on numerous sepulcral lecythoi and reliefs; as early as Homer he is, personified, the brother of Hypnos {II. XIV 231). From Aeschylus' Philoctetes we have {fr. 255 N.2): ώ θάνατε παιάν, μή μ’ άτιμάσης μολεϊν · / μόνος γάρ εΐ σύ των άνηκέστων κακών / ιατρός, άλγος δ’ ούδέν άπτεται νεκρού (cf. Eur. Hipp. 1373)· Similarly Phil, 797 ώ θάνατε θάνατε, πώς άεί καλούμενος / οΰτω κατ’ ήμαρ ού δύνα μολεϊν ποτέ; Seeing that the quotations from Aeschylus and Euripides speak of "Death, the Healer”, it may not be too far-fetched to regard έπίσκεψαι as springing from medical terminology: έπισκοπεΐν is especially used for visiting the sick, Xen. Cyr. VIII 2.25, cf. V4.10. (See J. D. Meerwaldt, Ad Antigones Exordium, Mnem. IV S. I, 1948, p. 293.) 855. καίτοι: belonging to the category described by Denniston as "used by a speaker in pulling himself up abruptly”; to be trans­ lated by "but” rather than by "yet” (G.P., 557). Cf. Aesch. Prom. ΙΟΙ καίτοι τί φημι etc. 856. The second address to Helios and the beam of the bright day is different in character from the first; it is a parting-word comparable to Eur. Ale. 244 "Αλιε καί φάος άμέρας and to Eur. Hec. 412. Cf. further Ant. 808 sq.

176

COMMENTARY

τδ νϋν σέλας: "the bright light which still I see”. 857. xat .... προσεννέπω: with a change of construction instead of a second vocat.; similarly 862; Aesch. Prom. 91-92; O.C. 1091 (K.-G. I, 50.7). (There is no good reason for reading with Radermacher a comma after 855 and to reject 857.) 858. πανύστατον .... ύστερον: κοδποτ’ αύθις Ant. 810; cf. Eur. Hec. 411 and O.T. 1072, extremum fato quod te adloquor hoc est Verg. Aen. VI 466. See the repetition ύστατον in 864. 859. ώ φέγγος, ώ .... πέδον / Σαλαμΐνος: philological elucidation is powerless to explain adequately the beauty of poetical vision displayed here. The ripple in the rhythm (ιερόν) adds to the intensity of emotion. The last words of Ajax, full of σέλας and φέγγος, are in accord with the search for the light of Dido, ϊερδν in this place and in the mouth of Ajax is of course much more them just an epitheton omans. 860. βάθρον: cf. supra 135. εστίας βάθρον represents a single concept (the hearth as I see it stand on its base); πατρώον "of my paternal home”. 861. κλειναί τ’ Άθήναι: the address to Athens arises of course from the poet’s national feeling. καί τδ σύντροφον γένος: the article as in Phil. 986 & Λημνία χθων καί τδ παγκρατές σέλας. The schol. explains: οι ομήλικες. The meaning seems rather “kindred to” (viz. me or us, the Salaminians). 862. 863. Something of the doctrine of the elements seems to glimmer through in the farewell to light, land and rivers though unintentionally and without any system (different in Aesch. Prom. 88 sqq.). 862. For the address to the rivers cf. supra 418. There is a pathetic wandering of Ajax’ thoughts: from the sun which he sees to the fatherland seen in a distant splendour and back to the rivers and plains before his eyes. καί .... προσαυδώ: cf. 857. 863. The fact that the rivers and plains where he has lived are called his τροφής is quite in accordance with the all-pervading Greek anthropomorphism. 864. Αίας: περιπαθώς καί τδ όνομα άνακαλεϊται (schol.). Cf. supra 98. 865. The motif of 855 comes back in a somewhat altered form. This last word of Ajax has an unpleasant sound.

THIRD EPEISODION, VSS.

8S7-86S—EPIPARODOS,

vss.

866-874

177

Έπιπάροδος of the Chorus, vss. 866-879

The two hemichoria enter the orchestra shortly after each other by the two entrances. 866. πόνος .... φέρει: a πολύπτωτον to be compared with Aesch. Pers. 1041 δόσιν κακάν κακών κακοϊς. Cf. infra 1197 arl(^ the places cited by Groeneboom a.l. “An Englishman would inevitably say ‘Toil, toil, toil’ ” (Webster, Introduction, p. 160). πόνος is strain and the feeling of fatigue caused by it. "Toil brings toil upon toil”. The dative as in μή τίκτειν σ’ άταν άταις, El. 235, is strictly speaking not dependent on the verb: cf. O.T. 175 άλλον δ’ άν άλλω προσίδοις instead of έπ’ άλλω, Eur. Or. 1257 μή τις πήματα πημασιν εξεύρη. Eur. Hei. 195 έμολε δάκρυα δάκρυσί μοι φέρων is a case which resembles ours to a high degree. The rhythm is so suggestive that it calls up the action before our eyes; with πα πα the Chorus make a brief halt. 869. κούδεις .... τόπος: if the reading of this verse is correct (which is doubted by many, i.a. v. Wilamowitz, Gr. Vsk. 288) the interpretation should be as follows: “And no place knows that I have learned it along with it” (learned it·, where Ajax can be found; with it: with the place; not bad is Masqueray’s: "Aucun lieu ne m’a vu decouvrir ce que je cherche”). It would be going too far to assume that συμμαθεϊν stands here for ώστε με συμμαθεϊν (Elmsley, Her­ mann) *); this cannot be defended by adducing e.g. 786. The view of Lobeck, who takes συμμαθεϊν in a causative sense (= συνδιδάξαι), is untenable. El. 93 τά δέ παννυχίδων ήδη στυγερά! / ξυνίσασ’ εύναί μογερών οϊκων, / όσα τον δύστηνον έμόν θρηνώ / πατέρ’, is a good parallel for τόπος έπίσταται. 870, 871. ιδού .... κλύω: cf. O.C. 1477 εα εα, ιδού μάλ’ αύθις άμφίσταται διαπρύσιος ότοβος, ΕΙ. 1410 ιδού μάλ’ αύ θροεϊ τις. 872. ημών γε .... ομιλίαν: “Yes our party, of your shipmates”: ήμάς γε τούς συνναύτας. The verse reminds us of El. 1104 ημών ποθεινήν κοινόπουν παρουσίαν, but the relation of things is different. 873. τί ούν δή: the cases of hiatus after τί are summed up by Groeneboom ad Aesch. Pers. 693 (Koster, Traite, p. 32). 874. έστίβηται: στιβέω is a synonym of στείβω and occurs prac!) Assuming this one might read τόπους. Kamerbeek

12

178

COMMENTARY

tically only here; it has the pregnant meaning of pervestigare, explained by the occurrence of στίβος = vestigium (e.g. Aesch. Prom. (yjq, Cho. 228; Soph. Ichn. 109; Xen. An. I 6.1). Cf. κύων στιβεύς Opp. Cyn. I 463, ή στιβεία Diod. Sic. IV 13.1 etc. (v. d. Wijnpersse o.l. pp. 82, 83). There is, therefore, a striking dramatic rhyme with the opening lines of the tragedy. The situation with respect to the spectators is the reverse of that of the initial scene, where both Odysseus and the spectators are informed by Athena of what has happened; here the Chorus are groping in the dark and calling in vain for the aid of the gods and others, while the spectator knows all. Whereas in the first scene the suspense of the spectators may be formulated in the question: what is going to happen—in what condition are we to see Ajax? in this scene the question that might be asked is: when will the Chorus find the dead? The only solution dramatically possible is given here by Tecmessa’s finding Ajax. 874. πλευράν: one of the numerous names for parts of the body which are used geographically (cf. Πλευρών). έσπερον: supra 805. 875. έχεις ούν: same tension expressed by the bacchius as 873. Correct, Masqueray: "As-tu trouve?”. 876. γε: ironically affirmative; the acc. goes with έχεις. Exactly the same Eur. Suppl. 818, Adrastus: έχεις (τά τέκνα). Chorus: πημάτων γ’ άλις βάρος. κούδέν εις 8ψιν πλέον: “but as regards seeing him no gain (pro­ gress)”. 877. άλλ’ ούδέ μέν δή: “and surely no more..μέν is the weak form of μήν. The same combination also El. 913, Track. 1128 (Denniston, G.P., 395). 877, 878. τήν άφ’ ήλίου βολών / κέλευθον: cf. άντηλίους 805. άφ’ ήλιου βολών = προς άνίσχοντος ήλίου. Eur. Or. 1258 sq. τρίβον .... τόν πρός ήλίου βολάς. 878. δηλοϊ φανείς: δηλόω used intransitively, as e.g. Ant. 242. As regards the acc. τήν .... κέλευθον, it is best taken as an acc. of space or way; poets also use it frequently with verbs denoting rest, such as κεϊσθαι, στηναι, ήσθαι etc. (K.-G. I, 313 a. 13). Accordingly the interpretation should be: “And clearly he has not been seen anywhere along the path at the eastern side of the ships’ camp”.

EPiPARODOs, vss. 874-878—kommos,

vss.

879-881

179

Κομμός, VSS. 879-973 In the strophe 879-890, which corresponds to 925-936, 11. 885, 886 present some difficulty. If in 885 ϊδρις (reading of most MSS) is retained (with Pearson), λεύσσων in 886 should be deleted in order to get an (imperfect) responsion with 931 (------------- -- ----- ); if ϊδρις is deleted (with Mosq. a, b) and λεύσσων retained, there will be a good responsion, ϊδρις may have found its way into the text to account for the genit, ποταμών and perhaps even as a gloss on λεύσσων (because the reader wants the result of the λεύσσειν). With Jebb, Radermacher, Masqueray, Dain it seems better not to read ϊδρις. 879. τις αν .... άπύοι: this form of expressing a wish has become a well-known formula with πώς. Cf. supra 388 sqq., Aesch. Ag. 1448 τίς άν .... μόλοι (K.-G. I, 235). δήτα with the interrogativa is very frequent (Denniston, G.P., 270 (1)). 879, 880. άλιαδαν: “sons of seamen”, used instead of "fishermen” (αλιεύς). Schol. Ar. Plut. 912 has οί τών άλιέων παΐδες (cf. Groeneb. ad Aesch. Pers. 402). Essentially υΐες ’Αχαιών is something similar and so is Δαναίδαι, Eur. Hel. 239 (and passim in I.A.). φιλοπόνων: the fisherman is “pre-eminently the pauper” (H. Hoppener, Halieutica, diss. Utrecht 1931, p. no). άύπνους άγρας: the fisherman’s trade is the only industry among the Greeks that requires night work. At A.P. VI 11 a fisherman is called νυκτερέτης; cf. Pl. Soph. 22od; Arist. H.A. IV 537 a 18 (Hop­ pener, o.l. pp. 100, 101, III n. 3). For έχων άγρας cf. supra 564. 881. ή τίς ’Ολυμπιάδων / θεάν: the reading of A θεών is possible provided it is taken as a gen. pi. of ή θεός; θεάν, however, is more probable. It is not likely that οί 'Ολυμπιάδες θεοί are meant, nor (when reading ’Ολυμπιάδάν) οί Όλυμπιάδαι θεοί; or αΐ ’Ολυμπιάδες θεοί or θεαί in the sense of “the goddesses of the (ordinary) Olym­ pus”. What are meant are the nymphs or Oreads of the Mysian Olympus (cf. supra 720). Cf. Strabo X 470 .... την τε ’Ίδην καί τόν "Ολυμπον συγκεχυμένως πολλάκις ώς τό αύτό όρος κτυποϋσιν. είσϊ μέν ούν λόφοι τέτταρες "Ολυμποι καλούμενοι της "Ιδης κατά την Άντανδρίαν, έστι δέ καί ό Μυσός "Ολυμπος, όμορος μέν ούχ ό αύτύς δέ τη "Ιδη. And further he quotes from Sophocles’ Polyxena the words of Menelaus to Agamemnon: σύ δ’ αύθι μίμνων που κατ’ Ίδαίαν χθόνα / ποίμνας Όλύμπου συναγαγών θυηπόλει (Soph. /r. 479 N.a = 522 P.).

180

COMMENTARY

882, 883. ή ρυτών Βοσπορίων ποταμών: to explain these words (with Jebb): τις θεάν τών .... ποταμών (with the genit, instead of the adj. ’Ολυμπιάδων, which is in itself possible), entails the dif­ ficulty that in this case λεύσσων after two feminine subjects would apply only to the first subject τίς άλιαδαν (this is not exactly im­ possible, but see K.-G. I, 81.5 and a. 3). There can be no ob­ jection to the construction τις ποταμών (for which cf. the part of Xanthos in II. XXI and cf. II. XX 7, 8 οΰτε τις οδν ποταμών άπέην, νόσφ’ Ώκεανοϊο, / οΰτ’ άρα νυμφάων κτλ.). 882. ρυτών: cf. O.C. 1598· 883. Βοσπορίων: also at Aesch. Pers. 723 and 746 the Hellespont is meant. Hence: streaming towards the Bosporus (= the Helles­ pont). 885. εί ποθι: sicubi = alicubi; cf. Phil. 1204 εί ποθεν. In the same way εί τις sometimes = τις. (Xen. An. V 3.3. See K.-G. II, 573, 574.) 885-887. άπύοι: the usual explanation, going back to the schol. εϊποι (‘Ofor tidings from some toiling fisher”—Jebb; “qui pourrait nous dire”—Masqueray), gives a distorted connection with λεύσσων. άπύειν (ep. ήπύειν) can very well be construed with a personal object: Od. IX 399 αύτάρ ό Κύκλωπας μεγάλ’ ήπυεν (“he called for the Cyclopes in a loud voice”); cf. Od. X 83; Eur. Or. 1253 τί δέ με τόδε χρέος άπύεις ("Why dost thou call on me for this task?”— N. Wedd); Aesch. Sept. 143 λιταϊς σε θεοκλυτοϊς άπύουσαι πελαζόμεσθα (thus the MSS; most editors read άυτοϋσαι, with Seidler). Hence: "Who .... could call for me the man of fierce spirit, if anywhere he saw him wandering about” (i.e. “Would there were somebody who” etc.). 885. ώμόθυμον: cf. supra 205 ώμοκρατής, 548 ώμοϊς έν νόμοις, injra 930 ώμόφρων. The wish that fishermen, nymphs, or rivergods may show him Ajax suggests the kind of landscape in which they are seeking. 887. σχέτλια: the predicate in the neutr. pi. to an inf. as subj., as injra 1126, Phil. 524 etc. (K.-G. I, 66, 67), with ellipsis of the copula, as with χαλεπόν, άξιον etc. (K.-G. I, 40). It is a matter of doubt whether this is to be regarded as an ionism; also Pind. 01.1 52 has έμοί δ’ άπορα. Cf. Ar. Eq. 30, 609; Lys. 142. See Groeneboom ad Herod. Ill 49 and ad Aesch. Cho. 960. σχέτλιος de re for the first time in the Odyssey (σχέτλια έργα); σχέτλιος in tragedy often = τλήμων (Aesch. Prom. 644); hence "It is a desperate-making thing”.

kommos,

vss. 882-892

181

888. τόν μακρών άλάταν πόνων: schol. τόν έπιπόνως πλανηθέντα. The πόνοι are to be taken as the internal object to άλασβαι, as Eur. Andr. 305 sq. μόχθους οΰς άμφί Τροίαν δεκέτεις άλάληντο νέοι λόγχαις. The attribute μακρών makes this even more plausible. (Aesch. Prom. 900 άλατείαις πόνων: Groeneboom would take πόνων in a qualitative sense here, which does not seem very likely in our passage; cf. also Eur. Hel. 523 άλατεία βιότου.) 889. ούρίω μή πελάσαι δρόμω: it is possible to take ούρίω δρόμω instrumentally and to supply αύτφ (Ellendt, Jebb and the scholia). But it seems more natural to consider ούρίω δρόμω as dependent on πελάσαι and to take the intransitive πελάζειν in the same way as the transitive in such instances as κράτει δέ πέλασον, Pind. 01. I 78, and παϊδα .... ποικίλαις τέχναις πέλασσαν, Bacch. X 32. With the v.l. ούριων δρόμων there is no choice. 890. άλλ’ .... όπου: άμενηνόν: schol. έφ’ έαυτοϋ, ούκ έπί τοϋ Αϊαντος, σχέτλια άν εϊη μή έπιτετυχηκέναι αύτώ άλλ’ ήσθενηκέναι με τη ζητήσει. It is indeed hard to imagine how the Chorus can call Ajax άμενηνός. Yet the separation of άμενηνόν and άνδρα is un­ satisfactory. The only solution seems to be this: after all that has happened to Ajax and after all his supposed wanderings the Chorus think he has become faint and feeble; the poet purposely makes them use this word on account of its sinister associations. άμ. άνδρα .... λεύσσειν όπου: prolepsis, and ellipsis of έστίν. 891. Tecmessa prob, entering centrally comes upon Ajax lying in the centre of the stage behind the bushes. Whatever dramatic effect the scene can give is attained by the poet. 892. τίνος βοή πάραυλος: the rendering near, close at hand, is possible (logically going with τίνος), πάραυλος = “neighbouring” in O.C. 785 and in fr. 462.2 N.2 = 503 P. (very uncertain and conjectural). More probable: "ill-sounding”, prop, "beside the flute­ playing”, "out of tune”, as παράμουσος Aesch. Cho. 467 (fig.), παρωδοϊς αϊνίγμασιν Eur. I.A. 1147 (fig·); to be compared with κώμον άναυλότατον Eur. Phoen. 791 and ϊτω ξύναυλος βοά χαρα Eur. El. 879. πάραυλος in the doubtful /r. ad. 93 N.2 μέλη πάραυλα κάκρότητα κύμβαλα. (Similar difficulty with έναύλοις, Eur. Her. 879: Tyrwhitt and others read άναύλοις; Soph. Phil. 158 uses it undeniably as the opposite of θυραϊος.) έξέβη νάπους: νάπος or νάπη, “woody dell” or "slope”, cf. Eur. Andr. 284 ύλόκομον νάπος. The genit, sep. dependent on έξέβη.

182

COMMENTARY

894. δουρίληπτον: the Ionic form metri causa, cf. supra 146 (It is the same as αιχμάλωτος, which occurs also in prose.) 895. οϊκτω .... συγκεκραμένην: cf. Ant. 13Π δειλαία δέ συγκέκραμαι δύα (Ar. Plut. 853 parodying οϋτω πολυφόρω ξυγκέκραμαι δαίμονι). The phrase means that she is possessed with the anguish which finds expression in her lament. For a similar use of έγκειμαι see my note ad Eur. Andr. 91. 896. οίχωκ’: the form II. X 252 (παροίχωκεν J)), Aesch. Pers. 13, Soph. fr. 220.1 N.2 = 241 P., Herod. II 37. The form is Ionic (Hdt. I 189 and elsewhere). The tradition of the MSS is every­ where in favour of οϊχωκα and notwithstanding Herodianus it seems better to write this form. The meaning is exactly the same as that of όλωλα; thus οίχομαι is found passim in tragedy: οίχομαι .... ίλωλα Trach. 1143 sq., διοίχεται infra 973. διαπεπόρθημαι: II. II 691, Aesch. Pers. 714; έκπεπόρθημαι Trach. X104. πέρθειν with men as object, infra 1198. 897. τί δ’ έστιν: cf. O.T. 319, I144; El. 921. 898. άρτίως νεοσφαγής: there is "Femverbindung” with 546 νεοσφαγη που τόνδε προσλεύσσων φόνον. Cf. the echo of 828 and 830. The same words Trach. 1130 τέθνηκεν (Deianeira) άρτίως νεοσφαγής (Eur. Hec. 894). The same pleonasm Pl. Leg. VII 792 d τόν άρτίως νεογενή (Lobeck). 899. κρυφαίφ φασγάνω περιπτυχής: cf. note ad 658 κρύψω τόδ’ έγχος. For περιπτυχής cf. ad 828 (cf. probably Od. XI 424 άποθνήσκων περί φασγάνω). He lies "wrapped round the sword”; a commoner use of περιπτυχής infra 915. He enfolds the sword so that it is hidden. 900. There remains a sharp difference between Tecmessa and the Chorus. The death of Ajax is her ruin because her whole existence rests on his; the Chorus feel their safety is threatened. Cf. 253 sqq. ώμοι έμών νόστων: the genit, with interjections of grief etc. is a genit, causae, as with the verba affectuum (properly speaking it indicates the starting-point). νόστων: if the plural has any significance, it may be "chances of return” as φυγαί, Ant. 363, signifies “means of escape”. 901. The text of these words is uncertain; 947, 8 are certainly right (cf. v. Wilamowitz, Gr. Vsk. 332 n. 4). If in 901 ώμοι is read instead of the ίώ μοι of the text, the palaeographic probability that in 900 ίώ μοι was erroneously written for ώμοι is removed. But ώμοι l) Thus Aristarchus (or παρώχωκεν; MSS παρώχηκεν).

kommos,

vss. 894-907

183

in 900 is necessary on account of the antistrophe. Hence I prefer in 901 the reading of G. Wolff and Wilamowitz (Z.c.) ίώ μοι, άναξ, κατέπεφνες to the unelegant ώμοι .... ώναξ. Pearson’s is not very convincing in view of the question infra 905. There is a contrast between κατέπεφνες (of the Chorus) and οϊχωκ’ κτλ. (of Tecmessa). 902. Hermann strikes out ίώ (before τάλας), so that the responsion becomes: 902---- ---------948--------

When reading ώ instead of ίώ the responsion becomes:

τόνδε συνναύταν: the words have a pathetic ethos; they call to mind 348 sqq. ίώ, φίλοι ναυβάται, μόνοι έμών φίλων.... 903. ταλαϊφρον: there is something to be said for the lectio rarior seeing that the MSS have Ant. 39 unanimously ώ ταλαϊφρον. (The adj. also Ant. 866, 877; Eur. Hel. 524.) 904. αίάζειν πάρα: πάρα has the sense of "there is every reason to”. Similarly 982 πάρα στενάζειν, El. 788 (after the announcement of Orestes’ death) νϋν γάρ οίμώξαι πάρα. For the structure of the sentence cf. A nt. 1179 ώς ώδ’ έχοντων τάλλα βουλεύειν πάρα, infra 981 sq. supra 281; Aesch. Ag. 1393. For the rest τοϋδ’ is masc.: cf. 923. It seems as if Tecmessa in the emphatic ώδε τοϋδ” έχοντας, were administering a reproof to the Chorus. 905. έπραξε: the term is vague: "did he perform it ?”, "did he attain his end?” It comes near to O.C. 1704 έπραξεν οΐον ήθελεν. Possibly: "has he fared?” άρα: instead of άρα after an interrogative (to be distinguished from άρα interrogative particle: Denniston, G.P., 45 (5)). 906. δήλον: there is little to be said for Radermacher’s view, that it is adverbial (it finds no support in O.C. 321). Nothing is more impressive than this short sentence. 906, 907. έν γάρ ot χθονί / πηκτόν τόδ’ έγχος: “his sword planted here in the ground”, oi can be regarded as the dat. auct. to πηκτόν. πηκτόν: cf. έπηξα δ’ αύτόν, 821. περιπετες: the adjective is passive: ώ περιπέπτωκεν. For περί- see ad 899. κατηγορεί: “indicates or proves this” (Dutch: "wijst uit”), as accusare, arguere. Cf. the reading defended by me at Ant. 1301, οΐδ’ όξύθηκτος ήδε, and Aesch. Ag. 271, Sept. 439 κατήγορος.

184

COMMENTARY

909. άτας: the context shows that άτα has here the full force of “blind folly”. οϊος: preluding άφρακτος φίλων, as Phil. 487 μή μ’ άφής έρημον ουτω χωρίς ανθρώπων στίβου. αίμάχθης: cf. Ant. 1175 «ΰτόχειρ 8’ αίμάσσεται. 910. άφρακτος: it may be that we ought to write άφαρκτος, but it is uncertain: Ant. 958 κατάφαρκτος L, κατάφρακτος A al., Eur. Hipp. 657 άφρακτος (Murray, with the MSS), O.T. 1387 φραγμός. The schol. paraphrases rightly: αφύλακτος, ού πεφραγμένος καί τετειχισμένος τοϊς φίλοις διά τό άπατηθέντας καταλιπεΐν σε. There is a reminiscence of εϊρξαι 753, είργειν 795. φίλων: for the genit, see ad 321. 911. εγώ δ’ ό πάντα κωφός, ό πάντ’ άιδρις: cf. Ο.Τ. 39^ sq. έγώ .... ό μηδέν είδώς Οίδίπους. ό κωφός: ό άναίοθητος. 912. κατημέλησα: Ajax έπραξε, because the Chorus κατημέλησεν. He could not carry out his design against the Atreidae because Athena was watchful: καν έξέπραξεν, εί κατημέλησ’ έγώ, 45πά πά: the Chorus wish to see Ajax, but are prevented by Tecmessa. 914. δυστράπελος: intractabilis, pertinax, does not differ much from δυσθεράπευτος, 609. ό αμετακίνητος έν όργή ή διαθέσει. A person is called εύτράπελος when he easily conforms to company and circumstances. δυσώνυμος: the words of Ajax 430sqq. form a commentary on this. 915. οδτοι θεατός: the connotation is: “he must not be seen”. The form of the words makes them almost a piercing cry. 915. 916. περιπτυχεΐ / φάρει: I can hardly imagine that "the φάρος has been brought by a πρόσπολος from the tent hard by” (Jebb). She enfolds him in her own φάρος, φάρος denotes a mantle worn by women or by men; the meaning “shroud” is undoubtedly also present to the author's mind. The a must be short: cf. Track. 916, jr. 333 N.2 = 360 P. The act of shrouding the body of amurdered person also in Eur. El. 1231. περιπτυχεΐ: a reference to 899. 916. παμπήδην: παντελώς (root πδ: πάομαι — κτάομαι; παμπησία Aesch. Sept. 817). Theogn. 615; Aesch. Pers. 729, and jr. 156 θεός μέν αιτίαν φύει βροτοΐς, / όταν κακώσαι δώμα παμπηδην θέλη. 917. δστις καί φίλος: "καί following a relative often gives an

kommos,

vss. 909-922

185

effect of limitation, by imposing an additional qualification” (Denniston, G.P., 295): "one at least who is a friend”. Cf. Eur. Ion 232 Πάντα θεάσθ’, S τι και θέμις, δμμασι. 918. προς ρίνας: Od. XXII 18 αύτίκα δ’ αύλός άνά ρίνας παχύς ήλθεν / αίματος άνδρομέοιο. Cf. 1411 sq. Our text says literally "to the nostrils”. The Messenger in Ant. says more drastically: καί φυσιών όξεΐαν εκβάλλει ροήν / λευκή παρειά φοινίου σταλάγματος (1238 sq.). Aesch. Ag. 1389 κάκφυσιών όξεΐαν αίματος σφαγήν. Cf. also Herod. II 72 έπεί το αΐμ’ άν έξεφύσησεν. Statius Theb. Ill go keeps to the tradition. 919. πληγής: with a slight shift of sense, the wound itself, μελανθέν: taking a dark colour (when it becomes clotted), άπ’ οικείας σφαγής: cf. Ant. 1176 προς οικείας χερός. 920. βαστάσει: cf. 827 with note. The first thing Tecmessa thinks of is the burial of Ajax. It must be performed by Teucer. The order in which the questions are uttered is therefore quite logical. 921. The reading of Wakefield and most editors: ώς άκμαϊ’ άν, εί βαίη, μόλοι, gives a highly unsatisfactory sense: “how timely would he come, if he came....” But the transmitted text gives much better sense: ώς = utinam, μόλοι pure optative, βαίη by attractio modi. Thus "Oh may his arrival be timely, if come he does”, ακμαίος and συγκαθαρμόσαι may then be connected more closely. For ώς = utinam cf. Hom. II. XVIII107 ώς ίρις έ'κ τε θεών εκ τ’ άνθρώπων άπόλοιτο, Od. XVII 243 ώς έλθοι μέν κείνος άνήρ, ΕΙ. 126 ώς ό τάδε πορών ολοιτ’, Eur. Hipp. 407 ώς όλοιτο παγκάκως. For the optative expressing a wish in the apodosis with εί + opt. in the protasis cf. Xen. An. V 6.4 εί μέν συμβουλεύοιμι ά βέλτιστά μοι δοκεί, πολλά μοι καί άγαθά γένοιτο ·, Eur. Or. 1086 μήθ’ αίμά μου δέξαιτο κάρπιμον πέδον, / μή λαμπρός αιθήρ, εί σ’ εγώ προδούς ποτέ / έλευθερώσας τούμον άπολίποιμι σέ. (K.-G. II, 478 a. 4; cf· § 573ι a· 2). άκμαϊος instead of an adverbial adjunct of time (for obvious reasons because the emphasis should fall on the person who comes in time to perform an action), in the manner of έσπέριος ήλθεν, χθιζός έβη (K.-G. I, 274). Cf. καιρίαν δ’ ήμϊν όρώ στείχουσαν Ίοκάστην Ο.Τ. 631, καίριος ήλυθες Eur. ΕΙ. 598· 922. πεπτώτ’: cf. 828 with note. συγκαθαρμόσαι: una componere; the schol. renders it with περιστεϊλαι (cf. injra 1170 and e.g. Eur. Or. 1066). (It is doubtful whether

186

COMMENTARY

Eur. El. 1228 καθάρμοσον σφαγάς really means ‘‘close the wounds” (whatever this may imply) rather than a further explanation of κάλυπτε, while σφαγάς stands for the murdered person.) 923. οίως: perhaps coined by the poet to get a combination like that of 557 (the tradition of the text at Ar. Vesp. 1363, quoted by Jebb, is divided). Cf. further supra 904. 924. ώς .... άξιος: Jebb denies the possibility of an ellipsis of είναι; and yet this is the first thing that occurs to an unbiased reader of the verse. The schol. explains: ώς καί τούς δυσμενείς έλεεϊν. This may point to an ellipsis of ών with άξιος; but in that case one would expect παρ’ εχθρών, παρ’ έχθροϊς, in any case, goes closely with άξιος: "in the eyes of”. Cf. Track. 589 δοκεϊς παρ’ ήμϊν ού βεβουλεϋσθαι κακώς, Hdt. I 32·9 ός άν τελευτήση εύχαρίστως τδν βίον, οδτος παρ’ έμοί τύ οΰνομα τοΰτο δίκαιός έστι φέρεσθαι, and supra 620. Of course, Jebb’s explanation also remains possible: ώς άξιος = "how worthy ....’’ etc. 925. 926. έμελλες .... άρ’ έξανύσσειν: expressed in a genuinely Homeric way, in the style of ούκ άρα μέλλον εγώ γε / εύφρανέειν άλοχον, II. V 686. "You were fated, it appears....” This makes an epic form such as έξανύσσειν (cf. άνύοσεσθαι, Od. XVI 373) all the more plausible. The Chorus use the same verb as supra 712 θεών δ1 αύ πάνθυτα θέσμι’ έξήνυσ’: cf. note there. The difficulty of the words έξανύσσειν κακάν μοίραν άπειρεσίων πόνων may be formulated as follows: is μοίραν objectum affectum or effectum, in other words is by μοίραν meant the fate of Ajax’ life which he has now ended, or the death which he has effected ? It cannot be said that the dying of Ajax is in itself a μοίρα άπειρεσίων πόνων (this may be true of the survivors but not of Ajax him­ self). The translation is therefore: “make an end of your evil doom, the doom of endless πόνοι”. This view is corroborated by 711, Αίας λαθίπονος πάλιν. "Mettre un terme douloureux ύ tes maux infinis” (Masqueray) may be read into the words. There is a pos­ sibility of this translation being correct, provided άπειρεσίων πόνων is taken as a freely constructed genitivus separativus and έξανύσσειν κακάν μοίραν as a pregnant phrase for έκπληρώσαι κακάν μοϊράν τε καί λήξαι .... There are instances of unusual separativi with Soph.: Phil. 1044 της νόσου πεφευγέναι, Ant. 488 άλύξετον μόρου. Finally there remains the possibility of "Satzhaplologie": άπειρεσίων πόνων. A notable place is Track. 1021 λαθίπονον δ’ όδυνάν οΰτ’ ένδοθεν ούτε θύραθεν έστι μοι έξανύσαι βίοτον, where έξανύσαι

kommos,

vss. 923-936

187

practically means reddere. In O.C. 1562 (according to probable conjecture) it refers to death. 926. στερεόφρων: “with your unbending soul”. Creon calls his own αμαρτήματα: στερεά θανατόεντ’ (Ant. 1262). Jebb cites from Plato's Politicus 309 b: τό στερεόν ήθος of the φύσεις επί την ανδρείαν μάλλον συντεινούσας. This shows that the meaning is more favour­ able than ώμόφρων, ώμόθυμος, ώμοκρατής. 927. τοϊά: meaning: that this would happen could be gathered from the complaints of bitter enmity which you etc. 928. μοι: kind of ethical dative: "so that I heard it”. 929. πάννυχα καί φαέθοντ’: schol. κατά νύκτα καί ημέραν. That the threats should continue throughout the night is quite common, but the remarkable thing is that the brightness of the day is trans­ ferred to the threats uttered in the daytime. Cf. νύκτερος Αίας, supra 217. 930. ώμόφρων: one of the epithets characteristic of Ajax. Cf. ad 885. 931. έχθοδόπ’: the Iliad has έχθοδοπέω, “to act in a hostile manner” (I 518). The other instance in Soph, is at Phil. 1137, στυγνόν τε φώτ’ έχθοδοπόν. The etymology of the second member is unknown. (See, however, M. Leumann, Homerische Worter. p. 158 n. 1). 932. ούλίιρ σύν πάθει: ουλιος is another epic word: II. XI 62. Also in Pindar. In tragedy only here. It is very doubtful whether πάθει can be rendered by “passion” (Masqueray), instead of "frame of mind” (cf. Phil. 899). (Thue. Ill 84.1, where διά πάθους occurs possibly in the sense of "with passion” l), is generally held to be spurious.) But cf. perhaps Democr. fr. 31 D. 934. μέγας .... χρόνος: "Now it appears clearly that that time was the great beginner of disaster”. The lateness of this realization is suggested twice in this song by άρα + imperf. For the time which introduces disaster or joy cf. Ar. Pax 435 σπένδοντες εύχόμεσθα την νϋν ημέραν / Έλλησιν άρξαι πασι πολλών καί άγαθών; see also Thue. II 12.3 and the opening words of the choral song, Eur. Andr. 274. 935, 936. άριστόχειρ άγών: the contest to decide which was the best warrior. Cf. supra 64 εύκέρων άγραν, El. 699 ώκύπους άγών. *) Cf. however, E. Topitsch, Wiener Studien 1942, 9-22, who translates: Bedrangnis.

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COMMENTARY

936. The lacuna before όπλων (-««»-) cannot be filled up with certainty. The reading of Triclinius Άχιλλέως is not more than a gloss on όπλων. 938. χωρεΐ πρός ήπαρ: cf. Aesch. Ag. 791 δήγμα δέ λύπης ούδέν έφ’ ήπαρ προσικνεΐται, Eur. Suppi. 599· ήπαΡ as the seat of emotion repeatedly in tragedy and also in physiological theory (cf. Pl. Tim. 'j'i c and Arist. P.A. IV 676 b 24). γενναία: “genuine and strong” (cf. my note Mnem. Ill S. 8, 1939, p. 54, in connection with Aesch. Ag. 1198 πήμα γενναίως παγέν; the original meaning is "suitable to one’s hereditary character”, II. V 253). δύη: sorrow. This passage is a clear illustration of what is meant by δειλαία συγκέκραμαι δύα, Ant. 1311. 940. καί δίς: cf. supra 432. 941. άποβλαφθεΐσαν: with gen. sep. in the sense of orbatam. The genit, with βλάπτειν = “to hinder from” is found in Hom. and cf. Aesch. Ag. 120 βλαβέντα λοίσθιων δρόμων. Theogn. 223 νόου βεβλαμμένος έσθλοϋ, expers. 942. δοκεϊν: (with ταϋτ’, a vague word for Tecmessa’s suffering, as object) "to guess”, “to conjecture” (δοξάζειν schol.). φρονεΐν: “to understand”, "to realize”. Cf. Track. 1145 οΐμοι, φρονώ δή ξυμφορας 'ίν’ εσταμεν. 943. ξυναυδώ: ξύμφημι. 944. The fear expressed in 498 sqq. and 511 sqq. returns here. 945. 0I01: Jebb is right in supposing that it is to be taken in the sense of ότι τοιοϋτοι. Instances of this in Homer; cf. Groeneb. ad Aesch. Prom. 908 (ή μήν ότι Ζεύς καίπερ αύθάδη φρονών / εσται ταπεινός, οΐον έξαρτύεται / γάμον γαμεϊν....). σκοποί: of course the Atreidae are meant, who as her task-masters έπιτηροϋσιν her with hostility. As early as Homer σκοπός stands for "overseer” (δμωάων, Od. XXII 396), while Pindar uses the word more than once for “ruler” (e.g. 01. I 54 Όλύμπου σκοποί. Nem. V 27). έφεστασι: to be master, as των έφεστώτων in 1072, but the notion: "to watch over” is implied (this meaning only Ar. Vesp. 955). 946-948. άναλγήτων: “hard-hearted”, "ruthless”. Cf. injra 1333. Cf. O.T. 12 δυσάλγητος γάρ άν / εϊην τοιάνδε μή ού κατοικτίρων έδραν. άναλγήτων .... τωδ’ άχει: many commentators explain τώδ’ άχει as an instrumental: "by uttering such woe”. But it would be a forced interpretation to call Tecmessa’s fear expressed in 944, 45

kommos,

vss. 936-954

189

an άχος. The correctness of the schol. τώδ’ άχει · τη παρούση συμφορά! is self-evident. It remains to explain the dative, άναλγήτων is used predicatively: the Atreidae are ανάλγητοι if the άναυδον έργον (Eurysaces’ slavery) comes to pass; then it will appear that they have no compassion on the woe of the moment. The question arises whether τώδ’ άχει cannot belong to άναλγήτων as causal dative (= έπί τώδ’ άχει; or otherwise not differing from πρός or έν τή παρούση συμφορά). Cf. 958 γελά .... γέλωτα. My translation, there­ fore, is: "an unspeakable deed of the two Atreidae you uttered; then they will prove to have no compassion upon this woe”. άναυδος: the Chorus have used άναύδατον (supra 715) in the sense of novus, inauditus. The connotation of άναυδος here is nejandus dictu, like άρρητος. 950. ούκ .... τηδε: "Things would not have reached this state”. Cf. Ant. 1156 ούκ έσθ’ όποιον στάντ’ άν ανθρώπου βίον ουτ’ αΐνέσαιμ’ άν ούτε μεμψαίμην ποτέ, Track. 1271 τα δέ νϋν έστώτ’ οικτρά μεν ήμϊν, αισχρά δ’ έκείνοις. μή θεών μέτα: εί μή θεών μέτα τήδ’ έ'στη, "but for the gods”. 951. δ’ .... γε τάχθος: this correction and reading by Blaydes has great probability: (1) A has δ’, some mss. have γ’, F has τε άχθος. It is quite possible that the interchange of Γ and T has caused the uncertainty before άχθος;; (2) the reading gives excellent sense. The Chorus say “(true,) but then the gods have laid on us a burden too heavy” etc., and δέ .... γε in a lively answer containing a protest and an emphatic statement is very common. The subject to ήνυσαν is certainly οι θεοί (not as in schol.). ήνυσαν = ejjecerunt, reddiderunt', ύπερβριθές is used predicatively. With Cadmus the Chorus might say: έγνώκαμεν ταϋτ’ · άλλ’ έπεξέρχη λίαν (Eur. Ba. 1346). 952. μέντοι: "with assentient force, often after τοιοϋτος, τοιόσδε, όδε, οδτος usually at the opening of an answer” (Denniston, G.P., 400). Cf. injra 1358. Ζηνός: for the genit, cf. supra 172. 953. The poet does not hesitate to let his noble character Tec­ messa utter this protest against the goddess. That Όδυσσέως χάριν appears to be incorrect does not alter the mutinous character of her attitude towards Athena. 954. φυτεύει: the figurative use with as object, e.g. κακόν or κήρα, is found in Homer (ZZ. XV 134, Od. II 165). In Soph. cf. O.T. 347 (ξυμφυτεϋσαι τούργον) and in another way ib. 873 ΰβρις φυτεύει

190

COMMENTARY

τύραννον. For πήμα cf. Eustath. ad Od. XIV 338: τό έκ τής δύης καί άτης κακόν; cf. supra 363, Aesch. Ag. 1198. 955. κελαινώπαν θυμόν έφυβρίζει: the acc. is to be regarded as an acc. relationis, cf. II. VIII 559 γέγηθε φρένα (which is pretty much the same as κατά θυμόν at II. XIII 416). The schol. is correct: έξωθεν δέ ή κατά; wrong, or at least improbable, E. and others: θυμόν άποδεικνύει έφυβρίζων. The relation between predicate and acc. does not differ from that in άλγεΐν όδόντας. A dative (ήμΐν or τφ θανόντι) may be supplied (cf. infra 1385) or else άχεσιν may be taken with it άπό κοινού. κελαινώπαν: κελαινώπης is a good as κελαινώψ (ample discussion by Lobeck), as appears i.a. from στυγερώπης Hes. Op. 196, the feminine κελαινώπις Pind. Pyth. I 7, γλαυκώπις, δολώπις Track. 1050. The second member of the compound has little meaning, as little as in δολώπις l.c. When mention is made of Odysseus’ κελαινώπας θυμός, this means that Odysseus is κελαινόφρων (Aesch. Eum. 459, of Clytaemestra), cunning and malicious; the Erinyes, the daughters of the Night, are κελαιναί. 956. πολύτλας άνήρ: it would seem that Tecmessa uses τλήναι in the sense of "venture”, rather than in that of “suffer". 957. γελά: the dative, without differing from επί + dative, is quite common with the verba affectuum. Cf. supra ad 946-48 and infra 1042 sq. τοΐσδε μαινομένοις άχεσιν: just as in Dutch one can speak of “razende smart” (raging grief); cf. Hom. άλαστος. Somewhat dif­ ferent, Ant. 135 μαινομένα ξύν όρμά. I do not believe that we may assume a further reference to the source of the grief, viz. the rage or frenzy of Ajax (thus schol.: τοϊς διά την μανίαν συμβεβηκόσιν, and Jebb). 960. ξύν: adverbial. Cf. infra 1288, Ant. 85. 961. δ* ούν: permissive use of δ’ ουν. Verb in the imper., preceded by σύ or ό: "the tone is defiant and contemptuous” (Denniston, G.P., 466, 4). "Well, let them...." 962. βλέποντα: "while he lived”, see infra 1067, where the words of Menelaus are undoubtedly intended (by the poet) as a reminiscence of these. 963. έν χρεία δορός: "in the need of his spear”. Cf. φορβής χρεία Phil. 162. For the concepts ποθέω and χρεία cf. ib. 646 λαβών δτου σε χρεία καί πόθος μάλιστ’ έχει, Callinus I. ι8 sq. D. λαω γάρ σύμπαντι πόθος κρατερόφρονος άνδρός / θνήσκοντος, ζώων δ’ άξιος ημιθέων.

kommos,

vss. 955-966

191

Also Aesch. Prom. 169 ή μην έτ’ έμοΰ χρείαν έξει μακάρων πρύτανις. (Jebb’s explanation "in the straits of warfare” finds little support in 1275; Aesch. Sept. 506 έν χρεία τύχης would be more in favour of this view.) 964. κακοί γνώμαισι: the dativ. instrum, not materially different from the acc. limit., as in πρεσβυτάτην γενεη; Xen. Mem. II 1.31 τοϊς σώμασιν άδύνατοι, ταϊς ψυχαϊς άνόητοι (K.-G. I, 3Τ7· a- Ι9)· 965. έκβάλη: έκβάλλειν, "to throw away”, "to lose by one's own fault”, τις refers in a general way to the subject of ίσασι. A good illustration of έκβάλλειν is furnished by O.T. 611 sq. φίλον γάρ έσθλον έκβαλεϊν ίσον λέγω / καί τον παρ’ αύτω βίοτον, δν πλεϊστον φιλεϊ (Creon to Oedipus). Schol. Pal. (quoted by E.) πριν άν τις αύτοΰ στερηθη. 964, 965. There may be some hesitation as to which is the better construction: τάγαθέν οΰκ ίσασι, χεροϊν έχοντες, or οϋκ ϊσασιν έχοντες χεροϊν τάγαθόν. Logic seems to favour the first. 966. έμοί πικρές τέθνηκεν ή κείνοις γλυκύς: schol. μάλλον έμοί π. τέθ. ήπερ έκείνοις γλ. We have at Hdt. IX 26.7, an example which comes nearest to this use of ή without μάλλον: οΰτω ών δίκαιον ήμέας έχειν τέ έτερον κέρας ήπερ ’Αθηναίους (K.-G. II, 3°3 a· 2)· It may otherwise be said that we have here πικρές ή γλυκύς, where we might have expected πικρότερος ή γλυκύτερος or πικρές μάλλον ή γλυκύς or πικρές μάλλον ή γλυκύτερος (cf. Eur. Med. 485)· Further­ more, since the essential function of the suffix *-τερο is to mark a contrast (cf. άγρότερος, θηλύτερος etc.), it is easy to understand that the positive of two diametrically opposed words, contrasted by ή can take the place of the "comparativi” in -τερος. Compare with this in Latin tacita bona est mulier quam loquens (Plaut.), claris maioribus quam vetustis (Tac.) etc. Cf. also infra 1357· There is the related use of the genitive of comparison with a superlative: "Ανδρ’ άγαθέν πενίη πάντων δάμνησι μάλιστα / καί γηρως πολιοϋ, Κύρνε, καί ήπιάλου (Theogn. 173 sq.). An instance resembling our case more closely is Theogn. 577 'Ρήδιον (thus all MSS) έξ άγαθοΰ θεϊναι κακέν ή ’κ κακού έσθλόν. Cf. perhaps also Call. Epigr. 4 Τίμων, ού γάρ έτ’ έσσί, τί τοι, σκότος ή φάος, έχθρόν; et done, de Tombre ou de la lumiere, qui t'est le plus ennemi?” (Cahen). For γλυκύς opp. πικρός cf. Solon 1.5 D. είναι δέ γλυκύν ώδε φίλοισ’, έχθροΐσι δέ πικρόν. What she means is: the bitterness which his death brings upon me is greater than the pleasure which they will enjoy by it (for it is evident that they will miss him to their cost). Cf. supra ad 521.

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COMMENTARY

967. αύτώ δέ τερπνός: this is not affected by the comparatio of the preceding verse but is brought into relief by δέ (“but at all events”). ών γάρ ήράσθη τυχεϊν: cf. supra 686 τούμόν ών έρα κέαρ. 968. θάνατον όνπερ ήθελεν: apposition to the implied object of έκτήσαθ’, ταϋτα. 969. τί δήτα: as Ajax desired his own death and the result tends to the bitterness of Tecmessa more than to the joy of the Atreidae, there is no reason why they should triumph over the dead. έπεγγελώεν: cf. 454, 989 (with the dative), τοϋδε .... κάτα lends more emphasis, and may be supplemented by κακοϊς (cf. 961); cf. El. 277 άλλ’ ώσπερ έγγελώσα τοΐς ποιουμένοις (Electra speaking of Clytaemestra). The motif of εις εχθρούς γελάν is found already in the prologue (79). For κατά cf. O.C. 1339 καθ’ ημών έγγελών. 970. θεοΐς τέθνηκεν ούτος, οό κείνοισιν, oQ: "He has fallen a victim to the gods, not to them”. (“II a, par sa mort, satisfait aux dieux — aux Atrides, non!” Mazon.) His death, therefore, is no reason for joy or triumph on their part. This is preferable to taking θεοΐς and κείνοισιν as a “dativ. auctoris” (in itself a doubtful con­ ception), for then the words of Tecmessa would discharge the Atreidae, which is of course out of the question. One may perhaps paraphrase as follows: “His death is a matter between him and the gods, not between him and them". I don’t quite understand Bowra’s translation: "’T is the gods/Must answer for his death, not those men, no” (Soph. Trag. p. 47). 971. έν κενοΐς: for κενός cf. supra 287. A schol. renders it by ματαίως. For έν κενοΐς ύβρίζειν one may compare Aesch. Cho. 222 άλλ’ έν κακοΐσι τοΐς έμοΐς γελάν θέλεις, and Track. Iix8 sq. ού γάρ άν γνοίης έν οίς / χαίρειν πρόθυμη κάν δτοις άλγεΐς μάτην. “Then let Odysseus indulge in an overbearing attitude for which there is no ground”. 972. γάρ: explanatory to έν κενοΐς ΰβριζέτω. With άλλ’ έμοί Tecmessa turns back to what to her constitutes the reality of what has happened. For them Ajax is simply no more (which is no reason for joy in them—their γελάν and ύβρίζειν are κενά), but for her his loss means grief and mourning. 972, 973. άλλ’ έμοί .... διοίχεται: these words call to mind those of Deianeira: πλήν έμοί πικράς / ώδΐνας αύτοϋ προσβαλών άποίχεται, Track. 41 sq.

kommos,

vss. 967-973—fourth

epeisodion, vss.

974-982

193

άνίας: cf. 266, 1005; also II. V 156 πατέρι δέ γόον καί κήδεα λυγρά / λεϊπ', .... διοίχεται: cf. supra ad 896.

Fourth Fpeisodion, vss. 974-1184 974. The coming of Teucer is prepared in 804 and further in 688, 827, 921. It should not be assumed that at vs. 921 somebody goes to warn Teucer; this happened at 827. Teucer approaches the group, sees in the distance Tecmessa standing by the body and realizes what has happened; he has moreover been prepared for it by the tidings in the camp (978, 999), as Ajax wished (826 ~ 998). 976. The scream of Tecmessa was called a βοή πάραυλος; in the same way that of Teucer is called a μέλος επίσκοπον τήσδ’ άτης. έπίσκοπον: Hesych. έπίσκοπα ' τυγχάνοντα τοϋ σκοπού. Schol. ούχ ήμαρτηκός της συμφοράς άλλ’ έστοχασμένον. Cf. Aesch. Eum. 902 sq. τί ούν μ’ άνωγας τήδ’ έφυμνήσαι χθονί; / όποια νίκης μή κακής έπί­ σκοπα, and ib. 517 (codd.). Hdt. Ill 35 τίνα είδες ήδη πάντων ανθρώ­ πων οΰτω έπίσκοπα τοξεύοντα; the interpretation therefore is: ήκον έπΐ τόν σκοπόν τήσδε της άτης, i.e. "befitting this woe". The metaphor of words hitting the mark like arrows is very frequent. 977. ώ ξύναιμον 6μμ’ έμοί: όμμα for a person who is dear to us: Aesch. Cho. 238 ώ τερπνόν όμμα (in parody Ar. Ach. 1184). 978. ήμπόληκας: since (έμ)πολαν is etymologically probably a frequentative form of πέλω, the meaning πέπραγα for the perfect is not at all strange. Cf. Aesch. Eum. 631 sq. ήμποληκότα / τα πλεϊστ' άμεινον. Lobeck rightly quotes from Hippocrates (De morb. IV 49; II P· 353 Kuehn) κάλλιον έμπολήσει ό άνθρωπος — βέλτιον απαλλάξει, "he will fare better”. ώσπερ ή φάτις κρατεί: internal object to ήμπόληκας. For ή φάτις κρατεί cf. Aesch. Suppi. 294 φάτις πολλή κρατεί, Pers. 738; Plut. Dem. I ώς ό πολύς κρατεί λόγος. 980. άρα: "marking realization of the truth” (Denniston, G.P., 45 (2)). Cf. supra 738, infra 1238, 1368. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Cho. 435. For the genit, cf. ad 900. 981. ώς ώδ’ έχόντων .... πάρα στενάζειν: cf. supra 904· 982. ώ περισπερχές πάθος: the context shows that Teucer is speaking here of his own πάθος, of the "blow” (Jebb) that has fallen upon him in the death of Ajax, περισπερχής, therefore, does not Kamerbeek

13

194

COMMENTARY

mean “rash”, but "vehement” (prop, "being in constant and violent motion”; it is not formed from a subst., as περιπαθής, etc., but from the verbal stem σπερχ, and is to be compared with Hom. άσπερχές). Hippocr. speaks of an όδύνη όξεϊα καί σπερχνή (De morb. II 64, Nat. Mul. 35). Cf. Hes. Sc. 454 σπερχνόν κοτέων. Hesychius’ rendering περιώδυνος is not bad, but the formation is different. 983. φεΰ τάλας: "I, hapless man”. With γάρ Teucer passes on to a new point. Cf. supra 101. (See on this γάρ, which raises a new point without the answer to the question explaining anything of what precedes, Denniston, G.P., 82.2 II.) Immediately Teucer shows himself the man Ajax thought him to be (562), cf. 990 sq. 985. μόνος: κατά σύνεσιν referring to τέκνον. ούχ όσον τάχος κτλ.: to Tecmessa. 986. δήτ’: makes the agitated imperative question all the more urgent; the placing at the beginning of the verse is according to Denniston (G.P., 271 (5)) unparalleled and "characteristic of Sophoclean synaphea” (cf. Radermacher and Jebb a.l.). In this respect, as indeed in so many things, there is some agreement between the poetical workmanship and genius of Sophocles and Vergil. (Cf. 1089 sq.) 986, 987. ώς κενής / σκύμνον λεαίνης: the first explanation of the schol. (οί γάρ κυνηγοί τηροϋσι τόν καιρόν οπότε έρημοι των μητέρων γίνονται οί σκύμνοι) presents great difficulties, for only by the assumption of an impossible enallage does κενής allow of this interpretation. The other explanation: κεκενωμένης, έστερημένης τοϋ συζύγου, is quite simple; it takes κενός in the sense of viduus. It only remains to decide whether κενής λεαίνης is separ, or posses. The third possibility is to take κενής proleptically, as Ant. 424, Eur. Med. 435 τας άνάνδρου / κοίτας όλέσασα λέκτρον, and similar passages. In this case κενής belonging to the simile presents a certain difficulty: "as the whelp from a lioness, which thus is rob­ bed of her young”. “As the whelp from a lioness bereft of her lion” sounds more natural and seems more to the point ("comme on fait des petits d’une lionne veuve” Mazon). This interpretation finds support in the words τοΐς θανοϋσί τοι .... έπεγγελαν. 988. έγκόνει: cf. supra 811, also for the asyndeton, σύγκαμνε: cf. El. 987. τοι: cf. ad 520, 521. 988, 989. τοΐς θανοϋσί τοι .... έπεγγελαν: infra 1348· Aesch. Ag. 884 ώς τε σύγγονον / βροτοΐσι τόν πεσόντα λακτίσαι πλέον. With the

FOURTH EPEISODION, vss. 983-998

195

same κείμενος (to lie helpless), Ar. Nub. 550 κούκ έτόλμησ’ αύθις έπεμπηδήσ’ αύτω κειμένω. Like κεϊσθαι is the Latin iacere: ad Ag. 884, Groeneboom gives two striking instances, Iuv. X 86 dum iacet in ripa, calcemus Caesaris hostem; [Sen.] Oct. 455 calcat iacentem vulgus. έπεγγελάν: the motif found throughout the drama; cf. έφυβρίζει 955 and γελά 957; 79, 303, 367, 382, 454. After this Tecmessa leaves to return at 1168 as κωφόν πρόσωπον. 990. καί μην: the Coryphaeus intimates his emphatic agreement with Teucer’s order. τοϋδέ σοι μέλειν: cf. 689; the following ώσπερ ούν μέλει makes it less probable that we ought to take μέλειν as a personal verb, ώσπερ ούν μέλει: “as you do, in fact, care” (Denniston, G.P., 421 (Π)). 992. θεαμάτων: θέαμα in a similarly pathetic context O.T. 1295. It seems as though all the stops of pathos are pulled out; soundeffect and amplitude of the words combine to create this impression, δή is often used emphatically (and with a pathetic force, too) with adjectives expressing indefinite quantity or number (G.P., 205 (VI)). (Emphatic δή occurs here three times in four verses; in 994 with the whole clause,'in 995 with the relative.) 994. οδός: the schol. rightly observes that Teucer’s going to the body of Ajax is meant. Cf. also Ant. 1212 sq. 995. σπλάγχνον: σπλάγχνον is quite often used in tragedy (but not in Homer) for “heart”, the seat of the feelings, etc. Cf. άσπλαγχνος supra 472. Groeneboom ad Herod. Ill 42. 995-997. Constr. ήν έβην, διώκων κάξιχνοσκοπούμενος, ώς έπησθόμην τόν σόν μόρον. διώκων κάξ.: μόρον can hardly be considered as, the object; the words seem to mean "quickly following your footsteps”, i.e. with σε as object derived from τόν σόν μόρον, while the idea of seeking is especially implied in έξιχν,, that of quickness in διώκων. διώκειν, moreover, can be used (intr.) for “to move quickly”: Xen. An. VI 5.25 and perhaps Aesch. Sept. 90; cf. further the rather frequent διώκειν πόδα. έξιχνοσκοπεΐν in a very literal sense, Trach. 271. 998. όξεϊα .... τίνος: the manner in which Teucer has heard of Ajax’ death by Fama is as Ajax wished (cf. 826). όξεϊα: the difference between όξεϊα and ταχεία is best seen from Phil. 807 sq. ώς ήδε μοι / όξεϊα φοιτά καί ταχεϊ’ άπέρχεται. The idea

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COMMENTARY

of quickness is strengthened by the connotations "vehement” and "suddenly”. 998. 999. σου βάξις .... διήλθ’: σου has the value of περί σοϋ, cf. supra 221, Ant. n μύθος φίλων, El. 317, Track. 1122 (K.-G. I, 363 c). βάξις: = “fama” also at O.T. 519, El. 1006. ώς θεού τίνος: correct, Lobeck: sc. βάζοντος. 999. ώς οίχη θανών: οϊχεσθαι used as in 896, 973· 1000. έκποδών: this use deserves notice because the meaning is "being at some distance”; there is no trace whatever of the idea of “getting out of the way” or such-like (as e.g. in Aesch. Prom. 344 σαυτον εκποδών δχων, "keeping out of harm's way”). There may be a note of self-reproach in the words of Teucer. 1001. ύπεστέναζον: cf. supra 322. άπόλλυμαι: the nuance is much fainter than in Tecmessa’s δλωλα, 896. 1003. The contrast between the brother who wishes to see τό παν κακόν (right, Masqueray: "tout mon malheur”) and the woman who conceals it (915 sqq.) is a fine dramatic trait (cf. schol. ad 1024). Psychologically there is a resemblance between Teucer’s desire and Electra’s wish to keep the um (El. 1119 sqq.). 1004. δμμα: probably means here in the first place "face”, as e.g. supra 462. He says this when he uncovers the face of Ajax. But since δμμα is also said of the person (supra 977), it is by no means strange that on a par with δυσθέατον the genit, qualit. τόλμης πίκρας goes with it. (For genitives of the same kind cf. K.-G. I, 264 c; cf. supra 6x6 μεγίστας άρετας.) Yet the meaning "sight”, “appearance” for δμμα seems still more likely (cf. El. 903, where it may be translated by "image"), so that the genit, may be paraphrased as "giving evidence of, proceeding from τόλμη πικρά”. The view of Eustathius, who explains τόλμης πίκρας as a genit, exclam, is not very convincing: καί τώνδε γονάτων, Eur. Med. 497, is an uncertain parallel because there may have been attraction. πίκρας: i.e. of which the consequences are bitter, as supra 966 έμοί πικρός τεθνηκεν. A similar meaning in πικρόγαμος and in the predicative πικρός, Od. XVII 448 and in πικρόκαρπον άνδροκτασίαν, Aesch. Sept. 693. 1005. Whatever the sense of δμμα may be, Ajax is addressed by the preceding vocative, so that it is only natural that he should

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be taken as the subject with the participle in the masculine, φθίνεις: intr., as is normal for the present, cf. e.g. 405. For the pres. = pert. cf. K.-G. I, 137 d. άνίας: cf. supra ad 973. μοι κατασπείρας: not "having strewn over me”, but "having sown for me”, as the schol. says admiringly: δαιμονίως καί τδ σπείρας olov άρχήν κακών παρασχών. (Not as Masqueray renders: "quelles semences de douleur tu jettes en moi par ta mort”.) τόλμης πίκρας and κατασπείρας express together what Aesch. Sept. 693 calls πικρόκαρπος. 1006. ποϊ .... βροτούς: an echo of the words of Ajax in 403, 404. 1007. άρήξαντ’: άρήξαντα sc. σοι. An instance of a combined praedic, dativ. and accus. at El. 960-962. Cf. also Ant. 836-838. 1008. ή που: has ironical force strengthened by ίσως, ioog (ίσως is very frequent with the potential, cf. e.g. 962); cf. Lycurg. 71 (Denniston, G.P., 286 (I)). σός πατήρ έμόσ θ’: cf. Hom. II. VI 87 μητέρι σή καί έμή. άμα is not otiose: though Telamon is Teucer’s father as well as Ajax’.... 1009. ίλεως: of a person, = "kind” (with the nuance hilaris cf. Heracles, Track. 763 ίλεφ φρενί, when he receives the robe). 1010. χωροϋντ’: "when I return”. πώς γάρ οΰχ: irony approaching sarcasm. “Aye, surely”. Teucer’s words are true to life when he says how much Telamon resembles his son Ajax. Schol. ad 1008: άμα μεν πρός της ιστο­ ρίας δτι έκβέβληται άμα δέ καί πρός τό πιθανόν της ύπονοίας. After his return Teucer went into exile (cf. schol. Pind. Nem. IV 46). δτω πάρα: πάρεστι “sometimes denotes the possession of a habit or characteristic” (Page on Med. 659). For a more frequent use of πάρα cf. ad 904. 1011. ήδιον γελάν: more brightly, more kindly than usual. The unusual character of the expression ίλεων γελάν is in favour of this reading of L, A and the Roman class; it is further possible that somebody, versed in rhetoric, has changed ίλεων so shortly after ίλεως. Finally there may have been palaeographical reasons for the confusion of ίλεων and ήδιον. I cannot agree with Jebb, who calls the v.l. ίλεων for ήδιον “very inferior". 1012. τί κρύψει: κρύπτειν not, as often (e.g. Phil. 588 and in Hom.), "conceal”, "keep secret” but "keep back”, “leave unspoken”. κακόν: "abusive word” (as often). The omission of the comma

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after κακόν brings the construction (λέγειν τινά τι) into relief; but since the abusive words are at the same time included in the object, the use or omission of a comma makes little difference. (Not quite satisfactory, Masqueray; “Quelles injures ne m’adressera-t-il pas, au b&tard etc.”.) 1013. έκ Χορός .... πολεμίου: said with great scorn instead of έκ δυρυκτήτου. πολέμιος is bellicus, not hostilis (thus rightly Ellendt and Jebb). 1014. κακανδρία: the word is used by Aesch. Pap. Ox. 2163.4 — 216 Mette (1959); it belongs to the words which the Rhesus has in common with Soph. (cf. Rhesus ed.2 W. H. Porter p. XLV). 1015. σέ, φίλτατ’ Αίας: in the pathetic vocative preceded by σε placed in relief Teucer gives vent to his indignation at what will be said to him. Moreover, a remarkable effect is attained by the placing of σέ .... σά .... σούς. 1016. κράτη .... νέμοιμι: cf. Ο.Τ. 237 Ύήί / τήσδ’, ής έγώ κράτη τε καί θρόνους νέμω, κράτη and δόμους are both very frequent as objects to νέμειν. τά σά κράτη θανόντος: "Your royal dignity when you have died” (according to the same syntactical principle as τά ήμέτερα αυτών, meus ipsius etc.). 1017. δύσοργος: descriptive of Telamon’s character. έν γήρα βαρύς: this may mean the same as σύν γήρα βαρείς, Ο.Τ. 'ί'] (έν γήρα όντες καί ύπ’ αύτοϋ βαρυνόμενοι). But βαρύς also often means "unpleasant” (cf. e.g. /r. 99 N.2 = 103 P. τοϊς ξυνοΰσιν ών βαρύς) and έν γήρα is all but identical with γήρα “troublesome by (in) his old age”. The context makes this more plausible. 1018. πρός ούδέν εις έριν θυμούμενος: "who flies into a passion without cause (pour un rien) and thus sows discord”. So there are three things said of Telamon, in co-ordination. (Wrong, schol. πρός ούδέν] πρός ούδέν άληθές ή αίτιον έ μ ο ί.) For είς cf. Phil. Ill όταν τι δρας ές κέρδος. 1019. άπωστός: άπωθεϊν = “to banish” is common. Cf. Ο.Τ. 641 ή γης άπώσαι πατρίδος, and 670 ή γης άτιμον τησδ* άπωσθήναι βία. These passages make it probable that γης goes with άπωστός; άπορριφθήσομαι, in that case, is used absolutely, "I shall be driven away”, "become a castaway”, as Dem. XVIII 48 άπερριμμένοι "those cast away” ("comme un instrument dont on n’a plus que faire”, Weil). The fact that the caesura falls after άπωστός is not a sure indication to the contrary. It is of course also possible to

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connect γης with άπορριφθήσομαι and to regard άπωστδς as an amplification. 1020. λόγοισιν: ταϊς τοϋ πατρδς λοιδορίαις (schol.). φανείς cf. infra 1241. άντ’ έλευθέρου: instead of the free man . It is typical of Teucer, whose position as νόθος has a dubious character, that his great fear is to be considered as a δούλος. Indeed, it may be said of Teucer that he is a man who wishes to make himself felt. 1022. παϋρα δ’ ώφελήσιμα: the MSS have ώφελήσιμοι, while the Roman class and Suid. have παΰροι; Johnson concluded that the reading was παϋρα δ’ ώφελήσιμα; an explanation of this yielded ώφελήσιμοι. Cf. Schol. όλίγοι δέ ώφελήσιμοι Έλληνες, παϋρα 8’ ώφελήσιμοι would have to mean "only in a few respects are there useful ones”, i.e. those who can help me can do so only in small things. This is not altogether absurd, seeing the nature of the situation, for Teucer may depend on the enmity of all the Greeks, with the exception of the Salaminian sailors. Masqueray renders παϋρα 8* ώφελήσιμα elegantly with "rares mes soutiens”. 1023. ηύρόμην: cf. for εύρίσκεσθαι Ar. Ach. 640, Aesch. Ag. 1588. There is a grim irony, as εύρημα stands for an unexpected gain. Cf. εύρίσκεσθαι άγαθόν, Xen. An. II 1.8; ώφελίαν, Thue. I 31·2· 1024. άποσπάσω: correlative in meaning with πεπτώτα περί (828), περιπτυχής (899), τόδ’ έγχος περιπετές (907)· Schol. Pal. (quoted by Ellendt): άποσπαν · τδ βιαίως χωρίζειν τά κεκολλημένα. 1025. κνώδοντος: what a κνώδων really is, appears from Xen. Cyn. 10.3: the hunting-spear (προβόλων) must have κνώδοντας, i.e. cross-pieces half-way along the αύλός (the socket of the spear-head into which the shaft fitted). Cf. Ant. 1233 ξίφους / έλκει διπλούς κνώ­ δοντας. Etymology indicates the meaning "point” (vide Boisacq; in antiquity the word was associated with όδόντες, cf. schol. ad 1025). It is therefore possible that the word is used here “pars pro toto” for “sword” (thus certainly Lycophron Al. 466 πρός κνώδοντος αύτουργούς σφαγάς). On the other hand, Ajax, after falling upon his sword, lies on the κνώδοντες, if they are cross-pieces of the hilt, so that we might, in view of άποσπάσω, think of the cross-pieces; but then, the word is not in the plural (or dual) as might be expected. πικροΰ speaks for the meaning "point”, i.e. the whole sword, whether one wishes to translate "sharp” or give a more figurative translation (cf. Aesch. Sept. 729 κτεάνων χρηματοδαίτας πικρός). αίόλου: perhaps Sophocles had in mind Hom. II. VII 303 (Έκτωρ)

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δώκεν ξίφος άργυρόηλον. Finally it is to be observed that here, too, the sword is personified (φονέως), so that the poet may have used the word by associating it with κνώδαλον. For Soph, likes to use the ad), αίόλος with δρακών (Track, n and 834). This supposition is the more justified because a malicious power is thought to be operative in the sword, issuing from Hector, and to a certain degree comparable with the evil power lurking in the robe of Nessus (cf. ad 1027). 1025. 1026. ύφ’ οδ / φονέως άρ’ έξέπνευσας: for φονεύς, cf. σφαγεύς, 815. άρ’: φονέως, brought into full relief by its position, receives additional stress from άρα: the sword which, as we now see, became your murderer. 1026. The motif of 660 and 817 is taken up again. είδες: it is doubtful whether we may, with Jebb, compare this aor. with έγνως, Track. 1221. Teucer addresses Ajax, it is true, but of nothing is he more certain than of the latter’s death; moreover, Soph, might have been expected to write όρας (cf. O.T. 687, Ant. 735)· What Teucer means to say is “did you see, (or, "you saw”: the note of interrogation may be omitted, with Radermacher) when you fell upon your sword, or even before that time?” 1027. έμελλε .... καί θανών άποφθίσειν: for the part of the oxy­ moron in Sophocles, in his dramaturgy as well as in the formulations connected with it, cf. the imposing collection of loci by SchmidStahlin I 2.491 n. 4. The dead man who “kills” the living is found in Aesch. Cho. 886 τόν ζώντα καίνειν τούς τεθνηκότας λέγω (cf. El. 1417 sqq. ζώσιν οί / γας ύπαϊ κείμενοι, παλίρρυτον γάρ αΐμ’ ύπεξαιροϋσι των / κτανόντων οί πάλαι θανόντες). As Hector causes the death of Ajax by his sword, thus Nessus the death of Heracles by his robe. Heracles, according to legend, could be killed only by one dead: ((ό θήρ Κένταυρος) ζώντά μ’ έκτεινεν θανών (Track. 1163). Cf. also Track, mi. άποφθίσειν: though the aor. with ΐ is common in the Attic poets, and this future an exception, there is no sufficient reason to read (with Hermann and Pearson) άποφθίσαι (the inf. aor. with μέλλω is in itself of course excellent). 1028. The poet is like a musician who cannot disengage himself from a motif, delighted as he is with the happy find. Masqueray is right when he assumes that Teucer recites 11. 1028 sqq. after he has taken Ajax out of the sword, and that he keeps the sword in his hand.

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σκέψασθε: several commentators are of opinion that these words are addressed to the audience, but this is by no means certain. There is nothing to be said against Teucer’s addressing the Chorus. No more is Eur. Suppl. 549 sqq. to the audience: Theseus here addresses the Thebans through the medium of the Messenger. Another question is whether Sophocles is here pronouncing his own opinion through the mouth of Teucer. The passage gives this impression but it cannot be proved. 1029. ω .... ζωστηρι: τούτω τώ ζωστηρι ω. έδωρήθη: aor. pass, of a dep. med. as supra 217 άπελωβήθη, Track. 1218 έργασθήσεται, etc.; δωρεΐσθαί τινά τινι as Aesch. Prom. 778. 1030. πρισθείς ιππικών έξ άντύγων: "firmly bound (by the girdle) to the chariot rail”. The schol. explains πρισθείς by έξαφθείς, έκδεσμηθείς (sic), πρίειν can have the sense of άπριξ έχειν, mordicus tenere. Cf. a dog clutching a lion tightly with his teeth, τούς όδόντας έμπεπρικώς, Diod. XVII 92.3 (quoted by Lobeck); Herod. V 25 Σύσσφιγγε τούς αγκώνας, έκπρισον δήσας. Also Hesych. πρισμοΐςταϊς βιαίοις κατοχαϊς. Suidas: έμπρίσαντες, συσφίγξαντες, προσαρμοσαντες. Nevertheless, one gets the impression that Sophocles when he used this bold turn of phrase had also in his mind the girdle run through the feet (bound to the chariot by the girdle biting into the flesh like teeth). There is of course a reminiscence of 11. XXII 398 εκ δίφροιο δ’ έδησε, but there the piercing of the feet, through which the straps are pulled, precedes. 1031. έκνάπτετ’: κνάπτειν prop, “to card” (wool), hence “to tear”, “mutilate”. Cf. Pl. Resp. X 616 a τύν δέ Άρδιαϊον .... εΐλκον παρά τήν ύδύν έκτύς έπ’ άσπαλάθων κνάμπτοντες. κνάπτειν, not γνάπτειν, is the correct old-attic form of the word, cf. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Pers. 576. άπέψυξεν: άποψύχειν in Hom. = "to swoon” (cease to breathe), Od. XXIV 348; in Thue. (I 134.3, without βίον) = “to pass away”. Cf. Herod. IV 29. In contradistinction, therefore, to Homer Sophocles conceives of Hector being dragged along alive by Achilles. It is not known whether he derived this from an epic tradition or some other source (cf. E. E. Sikes, The Greek View of Poetry, 1931, p. 165, who wrongly seems to put Eur. Andr. 399 on a level with our passage and refers to G. Murray, Rise of the Greek Epic?, p. 145). Nothing of this appears Euripides’ Andr. 107 sq. or 399, where Hector is dragged

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round the town (in the Iliad only from the town to the ships’ camp and later on round the grave of Patroclus). It is probable that Vergil, at Aen. II 273, had in mind the conception of Soph., as he had that of Euripides at I 483. Henry observes very aptly that there could be a question of pedes tumentis (II 273) only if Hector were still alive. 1032. δωρεών: the evidence of the inscriptions seems to support this orthography instead of δωρεάν (Meisterhans-Schwyzer3 p. 40, 44; Groeneboom ad Aesch. Prom. 338, cf. ti. 616). τηνδε δωρειάν: "this as a present”; τηνδε is assimilated to the predicate. 1033. πρύς τοϋδ’: this is very imposing when Teucer is holding the sword in his hand. Personification of the sword also here, πρός = ab is very frequent in Ionic. θανασίμω πεσηματι: as πηδήματι 833· It needs hardly be pointed out how often πίπτειν means "to throw oneself into”, θανάσιμος is used as at Trach. 758 (θανάσιμον πέπλον), or O.T. 560 (θανασίμω χειρώματι). Different, supra 517. 1034. Έρινύς .... έχάλκευσε: the Erinys forges the sword here; cf. Aesch. Ag. 1535 and Cho. 64J προχαλκεύει δ’ ΑΙσα φασγανουργός (Soph, has this passage in mind: φασγανουργός ~ δημιουργός). El. 197 sq. is also comparable, to some extent. The robe of Nessus is called Έρινύων ύφαντόν άμφίβληστρον, Trach. 1051. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 1580 ΰφαντοϊς έν πέπλοις Έρινύων. Observe that Ajax at the moment when he falls upon his sword invokes the Erinyes, whereas Teucer sees the death of Ajax as the work of Erinys. 1035. κάκεϊνον: sc. ζωστήρα; έχάλκευσε is a zeugma (it would otherwise be a matter of dispute how far a girdle mounted with gold can be said to be "forged”). δημιουργός άγριος: "grim artisan”. It is doubtful whether the reference to δίκτυον "Αιδου (Ag. 1115) is correct. The conception in Soph, is that Hades has made the ζωστήρ, whereas δίκτυον "Αιδου is said in a more figurative way (to be paraphrased: "net, as used by Hades"). 1036. μέν ούν: ούν emphasizes μεν, which stands in correlation with δέ (1038); it does not mark an inference (cf. O.T. 498, Ant. 925; see Denniston, G.P., 473 (2), who makes no mention of this passage, perhaps because there is a v.l. άν instead of ούν). "As to me, I.... ταΰτα: probably = τοιαϋτα, as τάδε = τοιάδε at Ant. 302 (cf.

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τούτοις ib. 39), infra 1246, ταΰτα O.T. 368: ή καί γεγηθώς ταΰτ’ άεί λέξειν δοκεϊς; this would make the inf. praes, μηχαναν suit both objects. 1036. 1037. άεί: does not go with φάσκοιμ’ αν but with καί ταΰτα καί τά πάντ’ .... μηχαναν, especially with τά πάντα. 1037. μηχαναν: the active, in classical Greek only at Od. XVIII 143 and Soph. Inach. Pap. Tebt. 692 fr. 1.33 πάντα μηχανα τύ Δΐον ώς [τό Σισύφου γένος (pass. Track. 586 μεμηχάνηται τοθργον, and elsewhere). If we are justified in assuming that Teucer is voicing the opinion of the poet, we may conclude that the latter believes in the omni­ potence of the gods, even though under protest. For though Ajax is a committer of hybris, Hector is not, and in their exchange of arms their fates are linked together by the will and design of the gods. Note also the sinister associations of ambush and guile inherent in the verb μηχαναν. 1038. έν γνώμη: "in his judgment” (perhaps to be compared with the frequent έν νω έχειν or with έν έμοί = me iudice, O.C. 1213, not with Hdt. VI 37.1). 1039. εκείνα: the formulation is a natural consequence of τάδε ("what I say here”): "that which he thinks". With which is compared Euenos of Paros: σοί μέν ταΰτα δοκοΰντ’ έστω, έμοί δέ τάδε (1.4 D.). στεργέτω: has the connotation of -probare. The schol. observes that the verse has become proverbial; but perhaps Soph., like Euenos, follows here an existing saying. The pronouncement is not determined by Teucer's character but by the situation (cf. E. Wolf, Sentenz und Reflexion bei Sophokles, p. 43). 1040. μή τείνε μακράν: sc. ρήσιν (Pl. Resp. X605 d μακράν ρήσιν άποτείνοντα). Cf. Aesch. Ag. 916, 1296, Eur. Hel. 1017. The Cory­ phaeus says this when Menelaus appears accompanied by two pursuivants. This marks the beginning of the conflict about the funeral of Ajax, for which the spectator is prepared by several passages earlier in the drama. After a short introduction Menelaus and Teucer speak each a long ρήσις concluded by reflections on the part of the coryphaeus, after which there is an outburst of stichomythic altercation ending in the apologues, the two in key with each other. Cf. Electra and Chrysothemis £/.871 -1057, Creon and Antigone Ant. 441-525, Haemon and Creon ib. 635-780 etc. It is a regular άγων having its counterparts in comedy. 1040, 1041. βπως .... χώ τι: two questions dependent on φράζου.

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Note besides the imperative use of δπως with fut. in statu nascendi. 1041. μυθήση: after the Ajax and Antigone this epic word is no longer used by Sophocles. 1041. 1042. τάχα in 1041 is temporal, in 1042 modal. 1042. 1043. κακοΐς / γελών: for the dative cf. supra 957. For the motif of laughing ad 969. 1043. ά δή: very rare for άτε δή or οΐαδή (K.-G. II, 97.2); the omission of ών is very common (id. ib. 102). έξίκοιτ’: έξικνεΐσθαι = advenire', so El. 387. Combine κακούργος άνήρ. Menelaus the Spartan is depicted as unfavourably as the Menelaus of Euripides' Andromache. 1044. τίς .... δντιν’ άνδρα: = τίς δ’ άνήρ etc., echoing άνήρ in 1043· 1045. ώ δή: as in 1043 δή is here expressive of the Coryphaeus’ strained indignation against Menelaus (in 1029 it is used only for emphasis). For the dative cf. v. Leeuwen ad Ar. Av. 745. τόνδε πλοϋν έστείλαμεν: to the seaman the expedition against Troy is in the first place: δδε πλους. Cf. Phil. 911 προδούς μ’ εοικε κάκλιπών τδν πλοϋν στελεΐν. 1046. μαθεϊν......... δυσπετής: with ordinary personal construc­ tion. The adj. δυσπετής is very rare, εύπετής is common; the adv., Aesch. Prom. 752 (εύπετής, Aesch. Suppl. 995, and else­ where). 1047. ούτος, σε φωνώ: for ούτος cf. supra 71, 89; for φωνώ, 73. For the inf. pro imperat, in Soph. cf. O.T. 462, Phil. 57, 1080, 1411, El. 9 (K.-G. II, 21). φωνώ (with the omission of the comma) can of course also be taken in the sense of iubere with acc. c. inf. But the abrupt ούτος, σέ φωνώ, μή .... is much more characteristic of this Menelaus. 1048. συγκομίζειν: the meaning "together with others” for συνis not very likely here; as a matter of fact, this meaning is also uncertain in συγκαθαρμόσαι, 922 (1378 sq. infra is of course diffe­ rent). It has no other function than cum- in componere (συγκομίζειν is used in the sense of "to gather in the harvest”), i.e. "to inter”, "bury” (Masqueray is right). δπως έχει: αντί άθαπτον (schol.). 1049. άνήλωσας: άναλίσκειν = "to use up”, with the connotation “in a bad way”, "for a bad purpose”. For άναλίσκειν λόγον cf. Hyper. V 4 (Jensen) πολλούς λόγους άναλώσασα. τίνος χάριν: τίνος is perhaps neuter (thus most editors) but in view of 1050 the masc. also gives good sense. Phil. 1029 and (probably)

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El. 534 have τοϋ χάριν de re ("for what purpose”). Teucer may for instance have thought of Odysseus, for whose sake Menelaus was said to have acted in a deceitful way in the matter of voting for the arms (cf. 1135). τοσόνδε λόγον: not: “so many words”, but "such a haughty word”, cf. supra 770, τοσόνδ’ έκόμπει μϋθον. 1050. δοκοϋντ’: if τίνος is taken as masc., then δοκοϋντ’ is perhaps best regarded as referring to λόγον: " a word which etc.”. If τίνος is neuter, the view of Jebb and others (δοκοϋντ’ neut. pi.) gives a somewhat more satis­ factory sense; the construction is looser, in that case: " as seemed fit to me and —”, δοκοϋντ’ έμοί, δοκοΰντα δ’: the absence of μεν with anaphora is common. δς: sc. τούτφ δς. Cf. e.g. Phil. 957 παρέξω δαϊτ’ ύφ’ ών έφερβόμην. By δς κραίνει στρατοΰ, of course, Agamemnon is meant. 1051. ήντιν’ αιτίαν προθείς: SC. τοσόνδε άνήλωσας λόγον δοκοΰντα σοί καί τω Άγαμέμνονι. προθείς: mostly explained with Ε. as "pretend” (αιτία = ground, reason). But προτιθέναι never means this and one would expect the middle (cf. προβάλλομαι, σκήπτομαι, προφασίζομαι, προκαλύπτομαι, προίσχομαι). προτιθέναι λόγον = "to propose a thing to be examined and debated”, e.g. Hdt. I 206, cf. προβάλλειν. αιτία undoubtedly means here crimen (which makes excellent sense with όθούνεκα); προτιθέναι is something like "to bring forward”, “to declare openly”, while at the same time it should be borne in mind that with this the dispute begins, so that the αιτία which Menelaus προτίθησι is the theme of the conflict. (Cf. the use of προτιθέναι and πρόθεσις in Aristotle, e.g. Top. I 100 a 18.) 1052. 1053. άγειν: the v.l. άξειν arose from the need to find an inf. fut. with έλπίσαντες; but έλπίζειν can mean the same as νομίζειν. 1054. έξηύρομεν ζητοΰντες: the participle serves to obtain a full expression—a characteristic of Sophocles’ style. (The so-called “polar” expressions are related to it.) Cf. e.g. O.C. 252 ού γάρ ϊδοις αν άθρών βροτόν δστις άν κτλ. (L.). ζητεϊν is the natural correlate of εύρίσκειν, cf. Ar. Ran. 96 sq., Plut. 104 sq. Triclinius’ explanation, έξετάζοντες, seems unlikely. 1055. δστις: quippe qui. στρατω ξύμπαντι: there is hardly any exaggeration in the words

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of Menelaus; though the design had been only against the chiefs, his curse was directed against the whole army (844). 1057. πείραν: cf. supra 290. ϊσβεσεν: Homer says σβεννύναι χόλον, II. IX 678, σβεννύναι μένος, II. XVI 621. Cf. O.C. 421 sq. άλλ’ ol θεοί σφιν μήτε την πεπρωμένην / έριν κατασβέσειαν. Vide infra 1149· The use of the word is very striking seeing that the πείρα arose from Ajax’ δβρις, which is like a πυρκαίη ('Ύβριν χρή σβεννύναι μάλ­ λον ή πυρκαίην Heraclitus, jr. 43 D·)· Cf. infra 1088 αίθων ύβριστής. 1058 sqq. There is a sort of correspondence with the words of Ajax 839-841. I am inclined to see in this passage, which is built on the contrast death-life, a dramatic pendant of Heraclitus’ doc­ trine of μεταβολή. The schol. ad 1088 says: ήν τότε ύβριστής ούτος άλλα νΰν έν μεταβολή γέγονεν etc. The core of the meaning is: his life would have meant our death, his death is for us life. It may be said with Heraclitus (/r. 88): τάδε γάρ μεταπεσόντα έκεϊνά έστι κάκεϊνα πάλιν μεταπεσόντα ταϋτα. This to be transferred, of course, to the dramatic situation of two parties engaged in a life-and-death struggle. Cf. the words έρπει παραλλάξ ταϋτα (1087), reminding us of Heraclitus: cf. D.L. IX 8 έναλλάξ and ένήλλαξεν, io6o; further my paper Sophocle et Hiraclite, Studia Vollgraff, p. 90. 1058. 1059. τήνδ’ ήν 8δ’ εϊληχεν τύχην / θανόντες: τύχην is “cog­ nate" acc., as κακόν οϊτον όληαι II. Ill 417, άπόλωλε κακόν μόρον Od. I 166; supra 760 sq. άνθρώπου φύσιν βλαστών. One gets the impression that θανόντες takes as it were the place of a plainer and commoner παθόντες. 1059. προυκείμεθ’: cf. supra 427. It is the verb for "to be laid out for burial”. This is here out of the question of course; it simply means profectus jaceo (Ellendt). αίσχίστω μόρφ: they would have been murdered much in the same way as the cattle had been butchered. Ajax would have murdered each of them ώς τίς τε κατέκτανε βοϋν έπί φάτνη and they would have died οίκτίστω θανάτφ. Μόρος most often denotes one’s appointed doom or death: θάνατόν τε μόρον τε (Od. XI 4O9’412)· 1060. νΰν δ’ ένήλλαξεν θεός: in an epigram by Crinagoras, in which a mother mourns for a son who had always enjoyed good health, whereas another sickly one recovered, we read: Παίδων άλλαχθέντι μόρφ έπι and νΰν δ* οί μέν ές ύμέας ήμείφθησαν / δαίμονες (Α.Ρ. VII 638). νΰν δ’: the common transition from irrealis to realis.

FOURTH EPEISODION, vss.

1057-1066

207

ένήλλαξεν: it is of course possible to regard την τοΰδ’ υβριν as the object to ένήλλαξεν, so that πεσεϊν is epexegetic. The sentence becomes more impressive—and the connection with 1087, έρπει παραλλάξ ταϋτα, more precise—if την .... ΰβριν .... πεσεϊν is taken as the object clause to ένήλλαξεν: "but now the deity has changed the state of things so that etc.”. The motif of the change or turn, inherent in Greek tragedy, denoted by ένήλλακται, also supra 208. (Polybius, speaking of the Theban and Athenian states, says διά τό .... μήτε τάς μεταβολάς ένηλλαχέναι μετρίως (VI 43 ·2)·) 1061. πρός μήλα και ποίμνας πεσεϊν: cf. supra 53, Ι841 Ichn. II [ώδε] πρός τόλμαν πεσεϊν. 1062. ών οΰνεκ’ αύτόν: the placing of αυτόν far from its verb (it is the object of τυμβεϋσαι and is defined more closely by σώμα; cf. O.T. 819) is due to a desire to make the words correspond closely to όθούνεκ’ αύτόν, 1052. 1063. σώμα τυμβεϋσαι τάφω: ritual formulation. Cf. Ar. Thesm. 885 αίαΐ, τέθνηκε; ποΰ δ’ έτυμβεύθη τάφω; (in tragical parody), τυμβεύειν = "bury”, also Eur. Hel. 1245. (Different at Soph. El. 406 πατρί τυμβεϋσαι χοάς, intr. Ant. 888.) 1064. άμφί χλωράν ψάμαθον: άμφί = "somewhere on.. .”.,asEur. Andr. 215, άμφί Θρήκην = "somewhere in Thrace”. (These cases are wrongly separated by K.-G. I, 490 because άμφί is supposed to be used here with a verb of motion; but the perf. expresses a state or condition.) Eur. Hel. 961 άμφί μνήμα, “at the sepulchral monument.” χλωράν: "yellow”, "yellowish”, "ashen” (with μέλι II. XI 631, Od. X 234). Jebb rightly quotes Verg. Aen. V 374, fulva moribun­ dum extendit arena (cf. Ον. Met. X 716). The schol. (διά τά έκεϊσε φυτά) is mistaken and probably thinks of Ant. 1132. It is not epi­ theton omans; it is, like fulva in Vergil, emotional. έκβεβλημένος: connoting the idea of outrage, of scorn. Cf. infra 1388, 1392, and repeatedly in the Phil. 1065. παραλίοις: this adj. (together with χλωράν) calls up the mental image the hearer is intended to see. The picture of a dead body cast away somewhere as a prey to birds haunts the imagination of the Greek poets. After 1065 Teucer flies into a passion or makes a threatening movement in the direction of Menelaus. 1066. μηδέν δεινόν έξάρης μένος: άείρειν μένος does not occur in Homer. O.T. 914 comes in for comparison: ύψοΰ γάρ αίρει θυμόν Οΐδίπους άγαν. Cf. also Eur. I.A. 919 ύψηλόφρων μοι θυμός αίρεται

208

COMMENTARY

πρόσω (where ύψηλόφρων is probably predicative), έξήρθης without defining adjunct in Eur. Rhes. 109, not much different from έπήρθης (“wast carried away”—by the news—W. H. Porter). No more does έξήρετ’ (έλπίσιν κεναΐς) in Soph. El. 1461 differ from έπήρετ’. The passion rises like waves in violent motion. 1067 sq. These words correspond to 962 sq. The rhyme of βλέποντος, θανόντος becomes even more pronounced by their placing in the verse. For βλέπειν cf. 962. 1068. πάντως θανόντος γ’ άρξομεν: it is the irony of the drama that this is not to happen. εί .... πάντως γ’: the relation between protasis and apodosis is the same as in sentences which have άλλ’ οδν (γε) in the apodosis (K.-G. II, 160 b). εί approaches a concessive εί: cf. Eur. Hel. 66 εί καθ’ Έλλάδ’ όνομα δυσκλεές φέρω. Though γ’ is limitative (Denniston, G.P., 141) and goes with θανόντος, there is also a certain correlation with the protasis. 1069. παρευθύνοντες: the explanation of the scholion (L), άντί τοΰ τιμωρούμενοι, is unacceptable (this scholiast was thinking of εύθύνειν = "punish”, cf. Pl. Prot. 326 ε). Jebb’s "guiding him with our hands” (with reference to 542) leaves παρ- out of account. In παρατρέπειν and παρασπαν {El. 732) παρα- means “aside", (to turn) "from the right way”. The explanations of a “late” scholion, έκτρέποντες · άπό των μή έώντων τινάς βαδίζειν την έαυτών όδόν, άλλά παρεκκλινόντων αύτούς, and of Hesych., παραφέρειν, βιάζεσθαι, seem plausible provided Teucer is not taken as the object to the parti­ ciple, as Tournier and Masqueray do. There is a bitter scorn in the words: during his life Ajax, like a refractory horse, did not suffer himself to be guided; now they will with their hands (i.e. by force) make him go the way they wish—the man who never listened to a word. 1069, 1070. λόγων: the place in the sentence and the verse brings out the contrast to χερσίν more clearly. The resentment of Menelaus, who was powerless against Ajax during the latter’s life (ζών con­ trasted to θανόντος), appears to be the motive of his behaviour now. ού γάρ όσθ’ όπου: cf. Ο.Τ. 448 ού γάρ όσθ’ όπου μ’ όλεΐς. 1071. κακοΰ προς άνδρδς: cf. supra 319. 581. καίτοι: the tone is adversative, but at the same time it intro­ duces the maior of a syllogism of which the preceding sentence is the minor. The unspoken conclusion is: Ajax was a bad man (Denniston, G.P., 563).

FOURTH EPEISODION, vss. 1067-1076

209

The succession άνδρός άνδρα should not be objected to in a poet of the 5th century. άνδρα δημότην: said of Ajax with great and foolish contempt; δημότης is diametrically opposed to βασιλεύς: Ant. 690 τό γάρ σόν δμμα δεινόν άνδρ'ι δημότη (Haemon to Creon). (Cf. e.g. Hdt. II 172). 1072. των έφεστώτων = τών έν τελεί δντων, cf. supra 9451073 sqq. Cf. Creon Ant. 663 sqq., where lawful order in the state and discipline in the army are likewise coupled together. The double άν is quite common. 1074. νόμοι καλώς / φέροιντ’ άν: καλώς φέρεσθαι is something like "thrive”. Cf. Thue. V 15.2 άλλ’ οί ’Αθηναίοι οΰπως ήθελον εύ φερόμενοι επί τή ίση καταλύεσθαι, "as long as all went well with them”, id. II 60.3 καλώς μέν γάρ φερόμενος άνηρ τό καθ’ εαυτόν διαφθειρομένης της πατρίδος ούδέν ήσσον ξυναπόλλυται, Xen. Hell. Ill 4 25 γνούς δέ καί ό Περσών βασιλεύς Τισσαφέρνην αίτιον είναι τοΰ κακώς φέρεσθαι τά αύτοϋ, id. Oec. 5 ■ 17 φερομένης τής γεωργίας έρρωνται καί αί άλλαι τέχναι άπασαι. Probably it is a faded nautical metaphor, so that Jebb’s rendering "have a prosperous course” is quite right. This is in harmony with the content of 1083. ένθα μη καθεστήκη δέος: for the subj. without άν with ένθα cf. also 1081 and O.T. 317; the subj. without άν with εί is of a similar nature (rather frequent in Soph., K.-G. II, 474 a. 1). With οΰ, in Thue. IV 17.2, where, however, άν may be supplied from the following sub-clause. καθεστήκη: the forms with κ are normal for the inscriptions of the 4th century; in the subj. Xen. and Pl. prefer the forms with κ, in tragedy they are comparatively rare. For the Spartan Menelaus δέος is primary (altar to Φόβος in Sparta, Plut. v. Cleom. 9; cf. also Thue. II 11.4). Cf. the words of Epicharmus quoted by the schol. ad 1074: ένθα δέος ένταΰθα καί αιδώς [fr. 221 Kaibel). Cf. Ζήνα δέ τόν θ’ έρξαντα καί δς τάδε πάντ’ έφύτευσεν / ούκ έθέλεις είπεϊν · ίνα γάρ δέος ένθα καί αιδώς, Stasinus, Cypria XXIII, Allen from Pl. Euth. 12 a (and schol.), where Socrates says that one ought to say: ίνα μέν αιδώς, ένθα καί δέος. It is also δίκη and αιδώς that in the myth of Protagoras Hermes brings to man. Sophrosyne daughter of Aidos, Kaibel Epigr. 34. 1075. σωφρόνως: so that discipline is preserved, modeste. 1076. φόβου πρόβλημα: the defence which fear affords. Cf. πύργου ρϋμα, 159. Fear is conceived as an armour preventing disorder. Kamerbeek

14

210

COMMENTARY

μηδ’ αίδοϋς: cf. Homer (in a military context, II. N 531): αΐδομένων δ’ άνδρών πλέονες σόοι ήέ πέφανται. φόβος and αιδώς, Ρ1. Epist. VII 337». 1077, άνδρα: "a man" (considered with all his limitations). The tragical theme of 131 sqq, has a coarse note here and comes from an insincere and derisive mouth (κάν σώμα γεννήση μέγα). γεννήση: here said for the usual φύση. I do not believe that these words are also meant to be figurative: it is the coarseness of the literal sense that makes them characteristic of Menelaus. Cf. further 758-761, 1250 sq. 1078, δοκεϊν: to think, fancy. Normal use in Ionic and quite frequent in tragedy; similarly 1085. καν: has become a mere formula, "even in case of” (καί άν, not καί έάν supplied by a subj., as Jebb thought): cf. Ar. Pl. 126 sq. οϊει γάρ είναι τήν Διός τυραννίδα / καί τούς κεραυνούς άξιους τριωβόλου, / έάν άποβλέψης σύ καν μικρόν χρόνον, ΕΙ. 1482 sq. άλλά μοι πάρες καν σμικρόν εΐπεΐν (K.-G. I, 244. 245)· 1079, 1080. The possibility of Soph, being influenced here by the philosophy of his time is far from being excluded. For the σωζεσθαι of mankind, Hermes brought them αιδώς and δίκη (Pl. Prot. 322 b, c), σωτηρία ("preservation”) is.the term put into the mouth of Protagoras (ib. 321 b). The idea of the preservation of the individual and the πόλις by the existence of δέος and αιδώς (or αισχύνη) are connected here. From a logical point of view the sequence of Menelaus’ arguments is not quite satisfying. "Who has no δέος will be punished” and "a πόλις where ύβρις has a free run will go to ruin” properly expresses a menace against people like Ajax and an argument why such people ought to be opposed. πρόσεστιν: inest cf. 521. Herod. I 19. αισχύνη: h.l. — αιδώς, αίσχύνομαι = αίδέομαι in Hom. Od. VII 305, XXI 323. 1081. ύβρίζειν: this is how a person acts who has no αίδώς. The subject of ύβρίζειν, δραν, βούλεται is: τις (τινά). For this ellipsis of τις, which occurs already in Homer, cf. K.-G. I, 35 g. παρη: for the subj. cf. ad 1074. 1083. έξ ούριων δραμοϋσαν: “after (first) sailing before the wind”. The use of έξ as in έξ ετοίμου, έκ παντός τρόπου. Cf. Ar. Lys. 550 ούρια θεϊτε. Lobeck quotes Himerius Or. V 16 όταν έξ ούριων ή τύχη φέρηται (Himerius abounds with quotations from or reminiscences of classical authors).

FOURTH EPEISODION, vss. 1077-1089

211

βυθόν: cf. O.T. 22-24 πόλις .... / ήδη σαλεύει κάνακουφίσαι κάρα / βυθών έτ’ ούχ ο'ία τε φοινίου σάλου. The ship of state also Ant. 163 sqq., 994. πεσεϊν: the use of the aor. is clear from the verbal aspect; to the modem reader the understanding is made easier by ποτέ. There must come a day when the town will be lost. The inf. need not express futurity, though this may also be possible (cf. the inf. aor. after μέλλειν at Eur. Andr. 571, Ion 1210; the inf. aor. is also rather frequent after έλπίζειν and similar words). 1084. έστάτω: has the value of καθεστάτω as appears from 1074 (cf. also 200). καίριον: καίριος = opportunus. Plato combines τό μέτριον καί καίριον (Phil. 66 a). Masqueray’s rendering "salutaire" goes too far. καί: this is said from the point of view of a person to whom δέος (and reverence for authority, discipline, etc.) essentially means everything, but who wants to make his claim plausible to others by attenuating it. Freedom of speech, equality before the law, that is all very nice, but some δέος will be highly appreciated; this adds a satirical touch to the picture of Menelaus. The claim is made more acceptable by the transition to the 1st pers. ph, by which the impression is given that Menelaus, with a large gesture, also wishes to make this δέος apply to himself. 1085, 1086. The sententious character of the two verses is under­ lined by the όμοιοτέλευτον (Masqueray: “notre plaisir .... repentir”). Cf. 807 (898 sq.). 1087. έρπει παραλλάξ ταΰτα: cf. supra ad 1058 and 1060. παραλλάξ: comparatively rare. A “late” schol. explains with κατά διαδοχήν. The Echinades he παραλλάξ καί ού κατά στοίχον, i.e. in such a way the gaps in the back row are covered by those in the front row. έρπει: same as our " gaat zo”, “as things go”, “le monde comme il va”. The idea is best understood if one renders νϋν δ” αΰ (io88) by "now comes my turn....” (It should be remembered that άλλάσσειν and άλλος are related: παραλλάξ = alternis.) 1088. αϊθων ύβριστής: cf. note ad 1057. For αϊθων cf. ad 221; άνήρ .... αϊθων λήμα, Aesch. Sept. 448; cf. Eur. Rhes. 122. 1089. καί σοι προφωνώ: καί has the value of “consequently". After his speech, which also holds a menace for Teucer, Menelaus returns to his starting-point. The use of θάπτειν may contain an

=

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COMMENTARY

indication that συγκομίζει (1048) simply means "to inter”. For προφωνώ cf. e.g. Eur. El. 685. 1089. 1090. δπως/ μή: cf. ad 986. 1090. If Teucer does not care about the warnings of Menelaus, he too will become subject to what was said in 1085 sq., and the turn of fate will be that for burying Ajax he will be buried himself, πέσης conveys a slight reminiscence of πεσεΐν, io6l. ταφάς: not "rites of sepulture” (Jebb) but "sepulchre”, as in 1109. (Hdt. IV 71.1; the plural often for one grave Hdt. II 170, III 10, V 63). The words have the character of a grim joke. 1091. γνώμας: "views” approaching “maxims”: the speech of Menelaus is full of sententious sayings. ύποστήσας: as ύφιστάναι is said of the erection of a pillar or sup­ porting-beam (used in a figurative sense, Pind. ΟΙ. VI 1), the question arises under what these γνώμαι are supposed to be planted as supports. The answer should be: under the command—or the prohibition—(and the whole attitude) of Menelaus. One may therefore paraphrase: you must not, leaning on a series of wise precepts, which you formulated, etc. These γνώμοα were directed against δβρις; but Menelaus himself betrays ΰβρις. 1092. έν θανοϋσιν ύβριστής: cf. 1151, 1315· Eur. Med. 206 τέν έν λέχει προδόταν. 1094. μηδέν ών: cf. supra (here too, for the same reason, μηδέν and not ούδέν). Cf. further also 1231. γοναϊσι: genere. Cf. O.T. 1469 ϊθ’ ώ γονή γενναίε. 1095. 6Θ*: may be paraphrased: "now that matters stand thus that”, δτε approaches εί, but also έπειδή. Cf. 1231; Phil. 428 τί δήτα δει σκοπεϊν, δθ’ ο£δε μέν τεθνασ’, Όδυσσεύς δ’ έστιν κτλ. οί δοκοϋντες: "those that are reckoned to be....”. 1096. τοιαϋθ’ ....έπη: "cognate accus.”, as 1107: "make such blunders in their discourse (λόγοις)”. 1097. φής άγειν: referring to 1052 sq. In direct speech it would run: ήγες. ή .... λαβών: full emphasis falls on σύ and άγειν; the placing of Άχαιοΐς makes it go with άγειν, and in the second place also with σύμμαχον. A separation of σύμμαχον and λαβών seems unnatural; even apart from this, λαβών gets some emphasis by its place in the verse. 1098. τόνδ’ άνδρ’: pointing at the corpse. The choice between τόνδ’ (only L) and τόν is very difficult.

FOURTH EPEISODION, vss. 1089-1104

213

1099. αυτός: of his own act, of his own accord. Cf. further 1234. 1100. ποϋ σύ στρατηγεϊς τοϋδε: for the present (and only for this) one may compare O.T. 390 ποΰ σύ μάντις εΐ σαφής; the present does not materially differ here from the perfect, ποϋ, however, is not only "on what occasion”, but "in what respect”. Phil. 451 comes nearest to it in meaning: ποϋ χρή τίθεσθαι ταΰτα, ποΰ δ’ αίνεΐν. We may paraphrase: "where is the right on the strength of which you call yourself the chief of this man”. (Right, Jebb: "On what ground hast thou a right”....). Cf. the use of πόθεν: "how could this be possible” (also for the negative purport of these questions). λεών: gen. pi. The plural of the “Attic” form occurs only here in Sophocles. The accentuation is uncertain; the one given here is according to the system of Herodianus, cf. K.-B. I, 407.4. 1101. ήγεΐτ’ οίκοθεν: the violation of Porson’s rule is only ap­ parent, because the preceding vowel has been elided (Koster, Traite de M. Gr.2105, V 15). Cf. Phil. 22, O.C. 664. The meaning of ήγεΐτ’ fits in much better than that of ήγαγ' (Pal.), ήγεν (Porson), and the like. 1102. Σπάρτης .... κρατών: reminiscent of Peleus’ words to Menelaus, Eur. Andr. 582 ούχ άλις σοι των κατά Σπάρτην κρατεϊν; cf the proverbial Σπάρτην έλαχες, κείνην κοσμεί, Eur. /r. 723 Ν.2 (Telephus}. Pohlenz (Erlauterungen2 p. 78) rightly rejects the view of Wilamowitz (Berl. Klassikertexte V 2 p. 71), who argues that a confrontation of these passages shows that the Ajax was not pro­ duced until after 438 (date of Euripides’ Telephus and Cressai). There is more reason to suppose that the performance of the Ajax cannot be too long after Athens’ coming to the support of Sparta against the Messenians (cf. for the confrontation, Bowra, Sophoclean Tragedy, p. 52). We should not, of course, forget the echo which these words found among the Athenian public, the more so because Ajax was considered to be an Attic hero. 1103. οδδ’ έσθ’ δπου: cf. 1069. The nuance of δπου, however, gives the impression of being rather similar to that of ποΰ, noo. κοσμήσαι: κοσμέω, in Homer a military term; construed with a personal object it stands here for “command”. Cf. τα κοσμούμενα, “the ordinances”. Ant. 677. 1104. άρχής θεσμός: "a right to rule over”, θεσμός is a dignified word for institution, law, right (θεσμοί in Ant. 802 are Creon’s commands).

I

214

COMMENTARY

ή καί: for this rather frequent use of και in a comparative sentence after a negation cf. Denniston, G.P., 299, 5; the meaning is: “you had no more right to command him than he to command you”, καί approaches here the meaning of αύ: “for him, on his part” (Jebb). Cf. El. 1146, Ant. 928. 1105. ύπαρχος άλλων: schol. άντί καί αυτός έτέροις ύπετέταξο. "As subchief under others”; the plural άλλων is used in a vague way to denote Agamemnon. ούχ όλων: in classical Greek δλοι never means "all (of them)”. Jebb remarks that taking όλων as a neuter form {summae rerum) is decisively condemned on account of the masc. άλλων (but the relation of the genitives to ύπαρχος and στρατηγός is really different) and the absence of the article (but Soph, also omits the article, occasionally, with πας, where it might be expected: supra 480, 734 —πάντα λόγον instead of τόν πάντα λόγον— Phil. 1240 cf. K.-G. 1,633 a. 8; Lobeck does not object to the gen. neut. pi.). One might, while avoiding these difficulties and the meaning "all of them”, look upon δλων as a predicative adjunct to an omitted : "in our entirely” (so that we may render: "of the whole expedition"). If this view is not accepted, the neut. pi. is to be preferred; the absence of the article is sufficiently accounted for by the syntactical correspondence with άλλων ("tu n’avais pas l’autorit0 supreme”, Masqueray). 1107. ώνπερ άρχεις άρχε: cf. Aesch. Eum. 574 ών έχεις αύτός κράτει. τά σέμν’ έπη: σεμνός = "arrogant”, as Eur. Hipp. 93 (Photius: έσθ’ δτε δέ καί έπΐ τού ύπερηφάνου τιθέασιν). 1107, 1108. τά σέμν’ έπη / κόλαζ’ έκείνους: pregnant construc­ tion with "cognate” accus. Triclinius' remark is good: έπεί ένταϋθα ή κόλασις διά λόγων ήν, διά τούτο τά έπη κόλαζ’ έκείνους φησίν (K.-G. 1,320. 3 b). Cf. Ο.Τ. 34° κλύων, ά νϋν σύ τήνδ’ άτιμάζεις πόλιν. τά has demonstrative force {ista). 1108, 1109. είτε .... στρατηγός: είτε σύ μή φής, ε{6’ άτερος στρατηγός μή φησιν: "no matter whether you or the other chief forbid it” (μή to be supplied with θεϊναι). άτερος στρατηγός need not imply that Menelaus is not subordinate to Agamemnon; the state­ ment is therefore not inconsistent with 1105. 1109. ές ταφάς: cf. ad 1090. 1110. δικαίως: "duly”. τό σόν .. στόμα: "Your words”. Cf. O.C. 981. For στόμα = "words”, also O.T. 426, 671; Ant. 997.

FOURTH EPEISODION,

vss. 1105-1116

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1111-1117. Though it must be conceded (with Rademacher) that Teucer’s argumentation is not unimpeachable—for if Ajax came to the war with the others because he was bound by his oath toTyndareos, he did it in away for the sake of Helen—this is no reason to condemn these verses. 1111, 1112. της σης ουνεκ’ .... γυναικός: the infringement of the rules of logic stated above is relieved by the great emphasis on τής σης: not for your wife’s sake. The latter was certainly the case with Menelaus’ own subjects, indicated by οί πόνου πολλοϋ πλέω. Jebb rightly quotes Eur. Andr. 695, where οί πονοϋντες denotes the "toil-worn soldiery”; of this οί π.π.π. is a paraphrase in which the note of contempt is strengthened by alliteration. Ajax is on a par with all others who swore the oath to Tyndareos βοηθήσειν, έάν ό προκριθείς νυμφίος ύπό άλλου τινός άδικήται περί τόν γάμον (Apollod. Bibi. 3.10.9; schol. ad Ai. 1113, ad Phil. 72; cf. Eur. l.A. 61, Thue. I 9.1). Therefore these cannot be meant by οί πόνου πολλοϋ πλέω. 1113. ένώμοτος: ένοχος τοΐς όρκοις. Cf. the common ένορκος, Phil. 72 (in Eur. Med. 737 it is a wrong reading). 1114. σοϋ δ’ ούδέν: after the positive statement of 1113 the negative of mi is repeated succinctly. This is a trait of Sophoclean style which is related to the so-called "polar” mode of expression. The words show once more that the emphasis in mi lies on τής σής, not on γυναικός (which would lead to somewhat singular consequences). τούς μηδένας: cf. ad 767,1094. "The worthless, the mere ciphers”. Cf. Eur. Andr. 700 (directed against Menelaus), φρονοϋσι δήμου μεϊζον, βντες ούδένες. Ι.Α. 371· ήξίου: άξιοϋν used absolutely ("to honour”); in the passive Eur. Hec. 319 τύμβον δέ βουλοίμην Sv άξιούμενον τόν έμόν όρασθαι. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 9°3 τοιοϊσδέ τοι νιν (MS τοίνυν) άξιώ προσφθέγμασιν, "I honour him with” (Eur. Or. 1210 καλοϊσιν ύμεναίοισιν άξιουμένη). Cf. Thue. V 16. i. 1115. πλείους κήρυκας: Menelaus had appeared probably at­ tended by two κήρυκες as in the case of the mission to Achilles (II. IX 170; Jebb). (κωφά δορυφορήματα, Plut. An sent resp. 791 c.) πρός ταϋτα: similarly at the conclusion of a speech in a dispute, O.T. 426; cf. τοΰδέ γ* οΰνεκα, El. 605. 1116. ήκε: "come back”. The imper. form is somewhat rare (Ar. Pax 275, Xen. Cyr. IV 5.25, Herod. V 63, VII 127; further

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probably in Novum Fragmentum Tragicum 1. 24, Mnem. Ill S. VI PP· 335 sq.). τοϋ δε σοϋ ψόφου: the empty words of Menelaus are called ψόφος, which is used for hollow sounds, etc. Cf. Soph. Inachiis col. II 7 = fr. 1.22 προς τά σά ψοφήματα. 1117. στραφείην: στρέφεσθαι has the meaning and the construction of έντρέπεσθαι, έπιστρέφεσθαι, φροντίζειν, ύποστρέφεσθαι (Ο.Τ. 728). έως Sv ής: the reading έως, just as in Phil. 1330 (-per coniecturam ex ώς), is necessary, since ώς Sv ής does not yield satisfactory sense and it cannot be proved that ώς can have the sense of έως *2). "So long as you are the man that you are”, i.e. a morally inferior man. Cf. Pl. Phaedr. 243 e Τοϋτο μέν πιστεύω, έωσπερ Sv ής δς εϊ. 1118-1119. The function of the Coryphaeus’ words in disputes like this is especially to frame the speeches of the litigants. Standing outside the passion of the disputants the Coryphaeus speaks words of moderation from a level of sobriety. This does not mean, of course, that the Chorus do not side with one of the two parties. 1118. ούδ’: referring to 1091 sq. έν κακοϊς: in distress. In the circumstances the Chorus urge a more judicious course. For έν κακοϊς cf. Aesch. Ag. 1612, O.T. 127, El. 335· 1119. τοι: cf. note ad 520 sq. σκληρά: σκληρός is said of anything hard and stiff; "stubborn”. Ant. 473 άλλ’ ίσθι τοι τά σκλήρ’ άγαν φρονήματα πίπτειν μάλιστα. Cf. infra 1361. It is the opposite of supple. ύπέρδικ’: Aesch. Ag. 1396 ύπερδίκως μέν ούν. δάκνει: for the frequent figurative use of δάκνειν in Soph. cf. e.g. Trach. 254 χοϋτως έδήχθη τοϋτο τοΰνειδος λαβών.... 1120. ό τοξότης: the prejudices which existed against “bowmen” may be seen in Lycus’ oration, Eur. Her. 157 sqq. (against this, Amphitryon’s defence of τό πάνσοφον εύρημα). Teucer in the Iliad is the bowman of the Achaeans, as Pandarus and Paris of the Trojans. From Diomedes’ contempt for Paris (II. XI 385) it appears that the objections of the heavily-armed to these bowmen were already old. It may be imagined, that they were normal also in the *) Pap. Tebt. Ill, 692 (1933). 2) Cf., however, O.C. 1361 and Schwyzer-Debrunner p. 650 with n. 5. (I am indebted for the reference to Dr. H. Bolkestein).

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eyes of fifth-century men, for various reasons: the bow was the weapon of the Persians, the city police of Athens were provided with it (and these Scyths were called τοξόται), and also the Cretans, for whom the bow had remained the national weapon, were held in little respect. Cf. v. Leeuwen ad Ar. Ach. 54, who compares the Dutch “rakker” (catchpole, Bow-Street runner, "de rakkers van de Schout”). Cf. ib. 707, 711. Bowra, Soph. Trag. p. 54 believes that here, too, the poet “appeals to Athenian sentiment against Spartan self-satisfaction and contempt for others’’. I doubt this. ού σμικρόν φρονεΐν: it is doubtful whether this reading, which has come down to us from the first hand of L, G (μικρόν) and A is really the best, σμικρά A Lc R is a lectio difficilior', σμικρά φρονεΐν is very rare (but is supported by μεγάλα δή φρονεί, Ar. Ach. 987) and the position made by φρ- is remarkable (cf. however Aesch. Pers. .782 νέα φρονεί). The reading σμικρά remains hard to explain, if σμικρόν was the original. 1121. βάναυσον: as of a craftsman, i.e. unworthy of a freeborn man. Cf. Pl. Leg. I 644 a βάναυσον καί άνελεύθερον και ούκ άξίαν τό παράπαν παιδείαν καλεϊσθαι. The word occurs for the first time in this passage; Hdt. uses βαναυσίη. 1122. Combine μέγα τι. άσπίδ’ κτλ.: i.e. if you were a hoplite. 1123. άρκέσαιμι: άρκεϊν has here the connotation “to be a match for”. ψιλός as contrasted with ώπλισμένω has here its technical military sense. The schol. is right in a way when it says: τά τοιαϋτα σοφίσματα ούκ οικεία τραγωδίας · μετά γάρ τήν άναίρεσιν έπεκτεΐναι τό δράμα θελήσας (here the aesthetic criticism becomes very dubious) έψυχρεύσατο καί έλυσε τό τραγικόν πάθος. 1124. “What doughtly courage resided in your tongue”. Soph, has a special liking for τρέφειν in the sense of a somewhat dynamic έχειν. Cf. O.T. 356, Ant. 897 (κάρτ’ έν έλπίσιν τρέφω). 1125. ξύν τω δικαίω: "with right on my side; as ξύν θεω. Cf. Phil. 1251 (Neoptolemus) ξύν τω δικαίω τον σόν ού ταρβώ φόβον. With this verse the stichomythia is raised to a higher level again and the true significance of the conflict set in its proper light. 1126. δίκαια: for the neut. pi. cf. ad 887. εύτυχεϊν: Masqueray: "qu’il triomphe’’—better than Jebb's "should have honour”. Obviously the funeral of Ajax will be the confirmation of his heroism.

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κτείναντά με: schol. ίσον ήκεν έφ’ έαυτώ. 1127. κτείναντα: this taunt had to be the consequence of Mene­ laus’ exaggerated κτείναντα. γ’ and καί (“indeed”) stress the tone. The observation of the schol., τό δέ τοιοΰτο κωμωδίας μάλλον, ού τραγφδίας, fails to appreciate the interplay of the conceptions of death and life with which the line of thought in 1057 sqq. is conti­ nued. The man who has died is a hero, the man who lives is a knight of the rueful countenance. 1128. θεός γάρ: cf. 1057, 1060. Menelaus has his mouth full of the divine intercession which has saved his precious life. Like κτείναντα, θεός pricks Teucer into making a cutting retort. τώδε: as τό έπΐ with dative or accus., often with ind. perf. or perfect, praes. (K.-G. I, 203.3). Cf. Phil. 1030 καί τέθνηχ’ ύμΐν πάλαι. The dative supra 970 has a different nuance. Cf. Eur. Ale. 666 τέθνηκα γάρ δή τούπΐ σέ ·. οϊχομαι: cf. note ad 896. 1129. άτιμα: άτιμαν is epic. Though not used by the tragedians, it should nevertheless be retained here. The word also occurs in Pind. Pyth. IX 80 (άτιμάσαντα). θεούς: with synizesis, cf. Eur. Troad. 1280 δούλας· ίώ θεοί, καί τί τούς θεούς καλώ; Herod. V 85 έορτήν έξ έορτης. . θεοϊς σεσωμένος: these words, too, have their remote associations: cf. 692 and especially σύν θεώ σωτήριοι, 779. This passage shows clearly that the so-called dativ. auctoris is only a special case of the dative of the person concerned, θεοϊς σεσωμένος being closely connected with τώδε δ’ οϊχομαι. 1130. ψέξαιμι: the connotation of ψέγειν is here "to belittle the importance of”. For a right understanding of the verse it should be noted that έγώ has the emphasis; γάρ expresses Menelaus’ virtuous indignation. 1131. The schol. justly remarks: ταϋτα καί έν ’Αντιγόνη, al­ luding to Ant. 450 sqq., 5x9, 1070. The νόμοι δαιμόνων (δαίμων being used here, as often, as a synonym of θεός) are Antigone’s άγραφοι νόμοι, though, to us at least, the situation is on a lower plane. Cf. infra 1343. ούκ: closely connected with έάς. παρών: far from being ex abundanti additum, this means: "and you being here” (to issue this prohibition). In like manner, but adversative, Phil. 410 εί παρών Αίας ό μείζων ταϋθ’ όρων άνείχετο. 1132. τούς γ’ αύτός αύτοϋ πολεμίους: to be supplied from what

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precedes with ούκ έώ θάπτειν. The plur. in accordance with τούς θανόντας. The reflexive of the 3rd p. strengthened by αύτός instead of the 1st or 2nd p. is very frequent (K.-G. I, 571 sqq.). It remains a matter of dispute whether in this and in similar cases the form αύτοϋ is to be preferred to αύτοϋ or the reverse (ib. I, 564 a. 4). The use of the 3rd p. may here have been favoured by the generalizing tendency of the sentence. Jebb’s "my country’s foes” gives the wrong accent: cf. Phil. 1302 τί μ’ άνδρα πολέμιον / έχθρόν τ’ (Odysseus) άφείλου μή κτανεϊν τδξοις έμοϊς. Menelaus means: "surely, the man with whom I was (or, am) on a war footing”. It is true, of course, that one immediately discerns the idea "hostis” in it; this is why it gives rise to Teucer’s rejoinder. If one reads a full stop after καλόν, as Jebb, Pearson and others do, the words έαν θάπτειν have to be supplied; this seems rather forced and conveys little meaning. I prefer to read with Dobree (Adv. II 45), Blaydes, Tournier and Radermacher (the latter gives adifferent explanation) ούγάρ καλόν; “is this perchance not proper?” (sc. ούκ έαν θάπτειν τούς αύτοϋ πολεμίους). Menelaus takes the same stand as Creon, at least in so far as πολέμιος conveys the notion of high-treason. For ού γάρ cf. infra 1348 ού γάρ θανόντι και προσεμβήναί χρή; 1133. προύστη: προίστασθαι is used here, where άνθίστασθαι might be expected; El. 1378 προύστην = ΐκέτευσα (properly: "I came and stood before", προστάτης = “supplicant”, O.C. 1x71, 1278). El. 980 τοϊσιν έχθροϊς .... προυστήτην φόνου: “they dealt with their enemies as champions of the murder" (cf. sufra 803). 1135. κλέπτης αύτοϋ ψηφοποιύς: a person who made votes where­ by he deceived him (Ajax). It may be supposed that by some intri­ gue or other Menelaus influenced the jury to the disadvantage of Ajax. The word ψηφοποιός, however, suggests something more concrete. Van Leeuwen may be right in arguing that Menelaus gave the members of the jury, who were favourably disposed toward Ajax, pieces of clay which did not come out of the voting urn (cf. 1285 sq.). There may be some connection between this and the words of the Hypothesis: ότι χρησμός έδόθη ΤρωσΙ πηλόν κατ’ αύτοϋ βαλεϊν · σιδήρω γάρ ούκ ήν τρωτός ■ καί οΰτω τελευτά. We need not regard αύτοϋ as dependent on κλέπτης ψηφοποιός (as Jebb does). It may very well be gen. obj. to κλέπτης; κλέπτης is the adj., ψηφοποιός the subst.

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Cf. for the tampering with the votes Pind. Nem. VIII26 Κρυφίαισι γάρ έν ψάφοις ’Οδυσση Δαναοί θεράπευσαν. 1136. έν .... έσφάλη: the interpretation "this mistake was made by the judges, not by me” (Ellendt, Masqueray and others), sug­ gests that Menelaus admits that some mistake or dishonesty has been committed; moreover, the words taken in this way form dubious Greek. The subject of έσφάλη is Ajax, as Dobree saw. “It was the jury’s doing, not mine, that he met with this rebuff”. Cf. 1243 and 1251 (άσφαλέστατοι). 1137. κλέψειας: for κλέπτειν cf. supra 189; El. yj. Schol. “rec." (E.): ήγουν μετά κλοπής έργάσαιο λάθρα. καλώς: while preserving an outward appearance of genuineness. A schol. read this (άντί τοΰ έμπείρως, a dubious interpretation) and the reading, which occurs only in L, seems more suggestive than κακώς. Jebb rightly points to Ant. 1046 sq.: δταν λόγους / αισχρούς καλώς λέγωσι τοΰ κέρδους χάριν. 1138. τινί: this accentuation occurs in all the texts and shows that the word is stressed. The threatening use of τις is excellently described by van Leeuwen ad Ar. Ran. 552 (κακόν ήκει τινί): "mi­ nantis vel irridentis est ita loqui de praesenti: certus quidam homo, quem nominare iam nolo”. Cf. Ant. 751 ή δ’ οδν θανεΐται καί θανοϋσ’ όλεΐ τινά (not quite the same case of course). είς .... έρχεται: “will result in”. 1139. ού μάλλον .... λυπησομεν: SC. τούτο τούπος ού μάλλον είς άνίαν έμο'ι έρχεται ή σέ λυπησομεν, λυπεϊν and άνιάν are fully synonymous. 1140. As in the peroration of his rhesis, Menelaus reverts to his starting-point, the prohibition. 1141. σύ δ* άντακούση: the use of the future tense, answering to φράσω, expresses necessity rather than a simple future. (From the point of view of the speaker it may be rendered by a future tense, as by Masqueray: "Et je te repondrai”). τούτον: proleptic, cf. Phil. 549 ώς ήκουσα τούς ναύτας ότι.... τεθάψεται: used differently from 577· Nor does it express: “dass er begraben sein und bleiben wird” (K.-G. I, 179. 1); we have here an emphatic future (Soph, may have had in mind II. VIII 286 σοί δ’ έγώ έξερέω, ώς καί τετελεσμένον έσται). 1142. The dispute winds up with an αίνος l) spoken by one to >) Ed. Frankel, Zur Form der αίνοι, Rhein. Mus. 73, 366-370.

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the other in a threatening way. This must have been an old populai form, e.g. in iambography'); a related form is asking each other riddles (cf. Cleobulina I and 2 D., both beginning with "Ανδρ’ εΐδον). It deserves notice that, whereas Menelaus gives a sort of allegory, Teucer keeps so close to the situation that he only speaks in the 3rd pers. instead of the first and second. (The same principle under­ lies this practice as in the case of τινί, 1138). Compare Ar. Ach. 1128-1131 (Lamachus) έν τώ χαλκίω / ένορώ γέροντα δειλίας φευξούμενον. (Dicaeopolis) καί ένθάδ’ εΰδηλος γέρων / κλάειν κελεύων Λάμαχον τον Γοργάσου. Further, the μύθοι of the Coryphaeus and the Dux Mulierum at Lysistr. 781 sqq. and 805 sqq. 1143. έφορμήσαντα: with the sense and constr. of a verb of ex­ hortation. τό πλεϊν: for the presence of the article cf. K.-G. II, 43, 44. 1144. The doubled άν (very characteristic for Soph., cf. supra 155 sq.) should not tempt one into making conjectures, as φθέγμ’ ov or ένηΰρες. ώ .... ηύρες: “in whom you would have found no voice” (in meaning not different from ω φθέγμ’ δν ούκ άν ηύρες). 1145. κρυφείς: this aor. II only here, fut. pass, in Eur. Suppl. 543 κρυβήσονται. The passage quoted by L. and J. from Pl. Theaet. 191 a: έάν δε πάντη άπορήσωμεν, ταπεινωθέντες οϊμαι τώ λόγω παρέξομεν ώς ναυτιώντες πατεϊν τε κα'ι χρήσθαι 8τι άν βούληται, seems to go back to the same popular story (or saying) as our verses, rather than being derived from the latter. ύφ’ εϊματος κρυφείς: On seasick passengers hiding their distress under their cloaks cf. Dio Chr. 3.63 (122 R.) όταν δέ καταλάβη χειμών, έγκαλυψάμενοι περιμένουσι τό συμβησόμενον. For another reason, Odysseus at Od. X 53, καλυψάμενος δ’ έν'ι νηί / κείμην. 1146. πατεϊν παρείχε: έαυτύν (or τό σώμα). Cf. van Leeuwen ad Ar Nub. 422 (cf. ib. 441 sq.). τφ θέλοντι ναυτίλων: cf. Eur. I.A. 340 τώ θέλοντι δημοτών. 1147. λάβρον: cf. λαβραγόρης II. XXIII 479. λαβρεύομαι ib. ib. 474, λαβροστόμει Aesch. Prom. 327, λάβρος στρατός (“bragging populace”) Pind. Pyth. II 87, άτηρός γάρ τοι λάβρος άνήρ τελέθει Theogn. 634· It is: "vehement”, "insolent”, "bragging”. (On λάβρος cf. Gundert, Pindars Dichterberuf, 113, a. 57). σέ καί τό σόν λάβρον στόμα: cf. Eur. I.A. 393 σύ κα'ι τό σόν σθένος, ') Archilochus’ Lycambes epode offers a good parallel.

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Ant. 95 ία με καί την εξ έμοΰ δυσβουλίαν, and see van Leeuwen ad Ar. Av. 893 (άπελθ’ άφ’ ήμών καί σύ καί τά στέμματα). 1147- 1149. σέ καί τδ σδν στόμα .... κατασβέσειε την πολλήν βοήν: rather than say that τήν πολλήν βοήν is an acc. resuming σέ and στόμα (as Jebb and others do), or speak of a mixing of constructions (Untersteiner), I should feel inclined to assume that, as in the case of άφαιρεΐσθαι etc., the verb is construed with two accusatives, as is seen, for instance, with διατρίβειν in Od. II 204: δφρα κεν ή γε διατρίβησιν ’Αχαιούς / δν γάμον, or with καρποΰσθαι in Eur. Andr. 935 (text of the MSS; see my note). Cf. also Phil. 1241 έστιν, δς σε κωλύσει τδ δραν. την πολλήν βοήν does not differ much from τδ μέγα βοαν. Cf. K.-G. I, 327 a. 9. 1148- 1149. σμικροΰ .... χειμών: the image of the αίνος is con­ tinued in its application to Teucer. With νέφος and χειμών the poet may have thought of Od. XII 405 sqq. Jebb reminds us of Arist. de Mundo 394 b 18 οί δέ κατά ρήξιν γινόμενοι.... έκνεφίαι καλούνται. 1148. τάχ’; modal, reinforcing the potential. 1149. κατασβέσειε: cf. έσβεσεν, 1057. A good parallel is furnished by Xen. Hell. V 3.8 (quoted by L.) δπως τό (τε) φρόνημα των νενικηκότων κατασβεσθείη.... 1150. δέ γ’: for this use "in retorts and lively rejoinders” see Denniston, G.P., 153 (1). Cf. e.g. O.T. 372. δπωπα: the perfect as opposed to εϊδον, 1142. Teucer hardly maintains the fiction of an example. μωρίας: ή δέ μωρία μάλιστ’ αδελφή της πονηριάς έφυ, Soph. fr. 925 Ρ. = 839 Ν·2· 1151. έν κακοϊς ύβριζε: cf. ad 1092 and ad 1118. των πέλας: on δ πέλας and οί πέλας cf. ν. Wilamowitz Herakles2 II ρ. 52, Groeneboom ad Aesch. Prom. 335. And yet, here as in many other places, the connotation is "the fellow-creatures”, rather than "the others” ("autrui”). See H. Bolkestein, Wohltdtigkeit und Armenpflege, p. 88. 1152. 1153. The distribution of the words over the verses gives an aggressive push to the sentence, thus anticipating the hard warning in 1154 sq. with the alliteration of ποήσεις, πημανούμενος. έμφερής .... όμοιος: cf. Aesch Cho. 206 (στίβοι) ποδών δμοιοι τοΐς τ’ έμοϊσιν έμφερεΐς. έμφερής in Soph, only here. 1153. όργήν: schol. τδν τρόπον. (French has a word that expresses the idea exquisitely: "humeur”.) 1154. 1155. These lines probably recall a current saying. The

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moral and religious duty to bury the dead (άταφον σώμα μή περιοράν, in the άραί Βουζύγιοι) and the aversion to mutilating corpses go back to early antiquity (cf. II. XXIV 50-54). The form of words reminds us of sayings such as: Γαμεϊν έκ των όμοιων · έάν γάρ έκ των κρειττόνων, δέσποτας, ού συγγενείς κτήση (ap. Stob. Δημητρίου Φαλ. τ. επτά σ. άποφθ. α' ig) or: Μή κακολόγει τούς πλησίον· εί δέ μή, άκούση έφ’ οίς λυπηθήση (»6. γ' 4)· Among the ύποθήκαι των έπτά σοφών of Sosiades we find: ’Επί νεκρω μή γέλα. Φθιμένους μή άδίκει. Remember how Herodotus exposes Cambyses, who mutilated the body of Amasis. Cf. Ant. 1030 τίς άλκή τόν θανόντ* έπικτανεΐν. 1155. πημανούμενος: passive meaning. 1156. άνολβον: wretched by his μωρία. Cf. Ant. 1025 κείνος ούκέτ’ έστ’ άνήρ / άβουλος ούδ’ άνολβος. Cf. perhaps Theogn. 288 (for άνολβος) and άθλιος in O.T. 372. Happiness rests on τό φρονεϊν: πολλώ τδ φρονεϊν εύδαιμονίας πρώτον ύπάρχει, Ant. 1347· Creon calls out (Ant. 1265) ώμοι έμών άνολβα βουλευμάτων. To this use of άνολβος may be traced back άνολβος = απαίδευτος (παρά Στωϊκοΐς schol. II. XXIV 536). παρών: as we should say, "face to face”. 1158. μών ήνιξάμην: the point is that the two men are opponents in a contest of riddles. But properly Teucer does not speak allegorically at all. "I have not spoken too obscurely, have I ?”, he adds in a taunting voice. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 269 ή τορώς λέγω; Ant. 405. 1159. άπειμι: similarly the Menelaus of Euripides' Andr. makes his exit irritus (Andr. 732 sqq.). 1160. πάρα: Jebb, Pearson, Raderm. and others are right in preferring πάρα (πάρεστι) to παρή here (different supra 1081): the subj. generalis gives a forced meaning. The construction may run as follows (1) καί γάρ αισχρόν έστιν, εί πύθοιτό τις λόγοις κολάζειν ω βιάζεσθαι πάρεστιν (J., Ρ,); or (2) with a comma after τις, κ.γ. αισχρόν έστιν, εί πύθοιτό τις, (or , at any rate as sub­ ject) λόγοις κολάζειν, ώ βιάζεσθαι πάρεστιν (R.); or (3) (cf. Ιΐ6ΐ) κ.γ. αισχρόν , ώ βιάζεσθαι πάρεστιν, λόγοις κολάζειν. The last construction seems to me most likely. 1161. αϊσχιστον: the symmetrical structure of this scene is con­ tinued to the end, both as regards the form and the meaning. When Menelaus says αισχρόν, Teucer, who ούδαμή ύπείκει (schol.), says αϊσχιστον. 1162. φλαϋρ’ έπη: cf. Ar. Hub. 834 καί μηδέν εϊπης φλαϋρον άνδρας

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COMMENTARY

δεξιούς / καί νοϋν έχοντας, φλαϋρος = "malus, vilis, spernendus”, cf. Groeneboom ad Aesch. Pers. 217. 1163-1167. The anapaestic system at the end of a scene—the only other play of Soph, where this occurs is Ant. 929, where it is applied before a choral song—is an archaic trait of the Ajax. The passage marks the transition from the exit of Menelaus to the entrance of Tecmessa. 1163. μεγάλης έριδός τις άγων: "grand assaut de querelles”. For the genit, cf. Track. 20 άγώνα μάχης and Eur. Andr. 725 μάχης άγων. 1164. ώς δύνασαι .... ταχύνας: quam celerrime potes. 1164. 1165. ταχύνας / σπεΰσον: cf. Ar. Eq. 495 καί σπεύδε τάχεως. ταχύνας: the verb is used absolutely, as in O.T. 861 πέμψω ταχύνασ’. With an object, infra 1404. 1165. κάπετόν: for "grave”, already in II. XXIV 797. ίδεϊν: "see to”. Cf. Theocr. XV 2 δρη δίφρον "see to a chair for her” (Cholmeley). Cf. also Groeneboom ad Herod. VI 33. (The grave is dug later by some Salaminians: 1403.) 1166. 1167. βροτοϊς τόν άείμνηστον / τάφον: τόν έσόμενον τοϊς άνθρώποις τάφον άείμνηστον. These lines show clearly the signi­ ficance of the grave as μνήμα. The importance of Ajax’ funeral does not only rest on the primitive thought-complex that a man should not remain unburied, but no less on the need for an eternal monument here on earth. For the place of the article cf. i.a. Eur. Andr. 215 άμφί Θρήκην χιόνι την κατάρρυτον (this word-order does not essentially differ from the case mentioned under d of K.-G. I, 623.8). Cf. π.ύ. VI τάς άνακεκραμενας κακίας τοΐς ύψηλοΐς. 1167. εύρώεντα: epithet of the realm of Hades in Homer. Radermacher rightly observes that epithets of the underworld may be transferred to the grave. Tecmessa returns with Eurysaces, whom Teucer sent her to fetch at 985 sqq. 1168. καί μήν: the usual combination marking the entrance of a new character upon the stage. Not usual in Aesch. (except Sept. 372), very common in Soph., Eur., Ar. (Denniston, G.P., 356 (6)). ές αύτόν καιρόν: cf. Aesch. Sept. 372sq. και μην .... εις άρτίκολλον (Groeneboom a.o.). είς καιρόν, Ar. Av. 1688, Eur. Her. 701. οίδε πλησίοι: there is no difference in meaning between πλησίοι and πλησίον. Tecmessa’s role is to the end of the play a silent one.

FOURTH

EPEISODION, vss.

1163-1175

225

The three actors available play the parts of Teucer, Agamemnon, and Odysseus. If my view is right that Andromache and Molossus are on the stage during the end of the Andromache (cf. Eur. Andr. 1246), the situation here is to a certain extent comparable. 1170. περιστελοϋντε: cf. supra ad 821. The phrase refers to the whole of the funeral rites. 1171, 1172. There is a pathetic but delicately strung parallelism with the scene 545 sqq. σταθείς: reflexive, as often. By laying his hand, as a suppliant, on the corpse of Ajax, Eurysaces is to protect the body against enemies, for anyone doing violence to it would at the same time interfere with the right of the suppliant. Moreover, the lad will hold locks of Teucer’s, Tecmessa’s and his own hair instead of a suppliant’s branch; these locks are at the same time meant as an offering to the dead. Therefore, anyone tearing him away from the body commits the same sin as Creon’s against Antigone, who is dragged away from the body of Polynices at the very moment when she is bringing her death-offerings. (For the hair cf. II. XXIII 135 and Orestes’ lock of hair on the tomb of Agamemnon.) Cf. S. Eitrem, Opjerritus und Voropjer der Griechen und Romer, Kristiania, 1915, pp. 344 sqq. (Das Haar), P. Schredelseker, De Superstitionibus Graecorum quae ad crines pertinent, diss. Heidelb., 1913, pp. 67, 68. 1173. θάκει: Oedipus to the supplicating citizens, θοάζετε (O.T. 2). προστρόπαιος: "as a suppliant”. Cf. προστροπαΐς ίκνουμένη, Aesch. Pers. 216; προστρόπαιος εστίας, Ag. 1587· Supra ad 831. 1174. τρίτου: the commentators rightly refer to O.C. η, 8 αί πάθαι .... χώ χρόνος .... καί τό γενναΐον τρίτον. Cf. τρίτου / Σωτηρος, Aesch. Rum. 760. σπονδή τρίτου κρατηρος, jr. 392 ·2 Ν.2 = 425·2 Ρ. (Hesych. 4, Ρ· Σ7$ τρίτος κρατηρ). (See Pearson’s note ad fr. 425 -2) · 1175. ίκτήριον θησαυρόν: "store the suppliant