The administration and supervision of a program of home-school relationships for the guidance of children at the kindergarten-primary level

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The administration and supervision of a program of home-school relationships for the guidance of children at the kindergarten-primary level

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THE ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OP A PROGRAM OF HOMESCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS FOR THE GUIDANCE OF CHILDREN AT THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY LEVEL

A P ro ject P r e se n te d to th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u ca tio n The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e M a s te r o f S c i e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n

by Thomas B e n n e t t W yatt A ugust 1950

UMI Number: EP46662

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP46662 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

>si uj°nk This p r o j e c t report, w ri t te n under the direction of the candidate’s a dv is e r a n d a p p r o v e d by him, has been pres ent ed to and a c c e p t e d by the F ac u lt y of the Sc h o o l of E d u c a ti o n in p a r t i a l fu lfillment of the requirements f o r the de gre e of M a s t e r of Science in Education.

Adviser

Dean

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE 1

INTRODUCTION.................................................................. The p r o b l e m ............................................. S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m

3

...............................................

3

I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s t u d y ....................................................

3

D e f i n i t i o n s o f te r m s u s e d ....................................................

4

A d m in istr a tio n

. . . . .

...............................................

4

...............................

4

...............................................

5

.......................................................................................

5

S u p e r v is io n . . . . . . . . . . H o m e -s o h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s G u id a n c e

K in d e r g a r te n -p r im a r y

.........................................................

The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e m a in d e r o f t h e p r o j e c t . II. III.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

6

.

6

..........................

8

WAYS TO IMPROVE HOME-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS . . . .

24

Some r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p rogram

24

Im p rovem en t o f h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s th ro u g h p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s and p a r e n t t/-

c o n f e r e n c e s ................................................................................. :

26

Im provem ent o f h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h t h e p r im a r y r e a d i n g p r o g r a m .....................

31

Im provem ent o f h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s th ro u g h th e u s e o f k in d e r g a r t e n handbooks . IV .

BUILDING UNDERSTANDING THROUGH GROUPS . . . . . .

.

42 50

lii CHAPTER

PAGE I m p r o v in g h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s th ro u g h i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s

. . .

50

. . .

59

..........................

66

..........................

68

...............................

71

I m p r o v in g h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s th r o u g h th e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n I m p r o v in g h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s through th e l o c a l t e a c h e r s 1 c lu b I m p r o v in g h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h o t h e r com m unity g r o u p s V. V I.

GOALS IN HOME-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS

.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS....................................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY

........................................................

79 90

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I n S e p te m b e r , rung,

1945,

when t h e f i r s t

s c h o o l b e l l h ad

i t was e v i d e n t by w h at was a p p r o a c h i n g t h e k i n d e r ­

g a rten door,

th a t th e b a t t l e o f th e

‘war b a b i e s '

S i n c e t h e n a t i o n was e n g a g e d i n a g r e a t e r w ar,

was o n .

to w a r d t h e

w i n n i n g o f w h ic h su p rem e e f f o r t was b e i n g p u t f o r t h ;

th e

s c h o o l s w ere cau gh t a lm o st w h o lly u n prep ared f o r t h i s r e a r ­ guard a t t a c k . g a rten in

B ecause o f th e e a r ly en tra n ce age to k in d e r ­

C a lifo r n ia ,

o n -w a v e o f t h i s b a t t l e

f o u r and o n e - h a l f y e a r s ,

th e f i r s t

str u c k a t th e b each es o f t h i s

sta te.

In t h e m onth s and y e a r s t h a t h a v e f o l l o w e d t h e im p a c t o f s u c c e e d i n g and g r e a t e r w a v es h a v e b e e n f e l t U n ite d S t a t e s . a b ility ,

th ro u g h o u t th e

The l a s t f e w y e a r s h a v e t a x e d o u r u tm o s t

n o t o n ly to p la n th e p rop er s t r a t e g y o f approach

t o t h e m u l t i t u d i n o u s p r o b le m s a r i s i n g a s t o h o u s i n g and p r o v id in g o th er f a c i l i t i e s ;

th e s c h o o ls have la c k e d th e

t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l t o p r o p e r l y e d u c a t e s o many k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n .

A 1 9 4 8 - 4 9 s u r v e y sh ow ed t h a t an

i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f c l a s s r o o m s was t h e p r o b le m o f f i r s t im p o r t a n c e f a c i n g s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n C a l i f o r n i a ,

and

t h a t t h e s h o r t a g e o f p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s was n e x t i n im p o r ta n c e .

The p r o b le m s w e r e a g g r a v a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t

t h e p a r e n t s o f a l a r g e number o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n w e r e you n g

and d i s t u r b e d by t h e w a r.

The c h i l d r e n h a d b e e n d e p r i v e d

o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o grow up i n a home w i t h two p a r e n t s , o r w i t h e i t h e r p a r e n t a g r e a t s h a r e o f t h e day when m o th e r s w o rk ed i n war p l a n t s o r e l s e w h e r e , w h i l e f a t h e r s w e r e i n th e m ilita r y s e r v ic e . th ese

Under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s many o f

‘ war b a b i e s ’ who w ere now e n t e r i n g s c h o o l h a d d e v e l ­

o p e d b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s and a t t i t u d e s a b n o rm a l t o c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age group.

I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y w e re d i s t u r b ­

e d t o an e x t e n t u n iq u e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f m an k in d . w ere th e p r o d u c ts o f d o t in g g r a n d p a r e n ts, liv in g

c o n d itio n s,

w i t h l o v e and a f f e c t i o n o f th e f a t h e r s .

of u n sa tisfa c to r y

as w e ll as o f d istu r b e d p a r e n ts.

h a d n o t h a d en o u g h l o v e ,

They

Some

w h i l e o t h e r s h a d b e e n sh o w e r e d i n an abn orm al way i n t h e a b s e n c e

Some h a d b e e n s p o i l e d a n d o t h e r s w ere

a b u s e d an d n e g l e c t e d .

Some h ad l o s t

th e ir fa th ers.

Many

h a d n o t d e v e l o p e d c o n s i s t e n t h a b i t s o f r e g u l a r l i v i n g and some had n o t b e e n w e l l n o u r i s h e d .

Some w e re sh y a n d r e ­

p r e s s e d w h i l e o t h e r s w e re c a l l o u s e d and a g g r e s s i v e .

A few

who h ad t h e p r i v i l e g e o f l i v i n g a r o u n d m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h ­ m e n ts c o u l d sw e a r l i k e

top s e r g e a n t s .

th e a r t o f th r o w in g ta n tru m s.

Some h a d p e r f e c t e d

Many w e r e s i m p l y n orm a l

A m erica n c h i l d r e n r e a d y f o r s c h o o l . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s

stu d y i s

t o i n v e s t i g a t e what h a s

b e e n don e t o p r o p e r l y g u i d e t h e s e k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n who h a v e now f i l l e d

our c la ssr o o m s to o v e r flo w in g ,

to e v a lu a t e th e r e s u l t s o f our s e v e r a l y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e w i t h them and t h e i r p a r e n t s ,

and t o map o u t a p ro g ra m o f

h o m e -sc h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r th e g u id a n c e o f t h e s e c h i ld ­ r e n a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f s u c h a program .

The p u r p o s e s w i l l b e s t a t e d more c l e a r l y i n t h e

paragraph to fo llo w . I.

THE PROBLEM

S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem . is

(l)

The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y

t o s u r v e y a n d d i s c o v e r t e c h n i q u e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n and

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a program f o r t h e g u i d a n c e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n p r im a r y c h i l d r e n ;

(s)

to e v a lu a te th e r e s u l t s o f our r e c e n t

y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l a r g e num bers o f them a n d t h e i r p a ren ts;

(3)

and t o s u g g e s t m eth o d s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and

s u p e r v i s i o n t h a t w i l l l o o k to w a r d im p r o v e d h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r th e b e t t e r g u id a n c e o f c h ild r e n a t th e k in d e r g a r te n -p r im a r y l e v e l . Im p ortan ce o f t h e s t u d y .

The g r e a t number o f c h i l d r e n

i n t h e k in d e r g a r te n -p r im a r y g r a d e s a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e w a r tim e a c c e l l e r a t i o n o f b i r t h s a s w e l l - a s t h e tr e m e n d o u s I n f l u x i n t o C a l i f o r n i a d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g W orld War I I ,

make t h e p r o p e r e d u c a t i o n o f them o f p a r a ­

m ount i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s t a t e and n a t i o n . p o i n t o f num bers i n v o l v e d ,

From t h e v i e w ­

from t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e p l a c e

A m e r ic a i s

t o p l a y among t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d ,

and i n

v i e w o f t h e more r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y and d e v e lo p m e n t o f know­ l e d g e o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,

t h e 'p r o p e r t r a i n i n g o f t h e s e

c h ild r e n i s

t h e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e t h a t h a s f a c e d A m erican

e d u c a tio n .

I t i s a c h a l l e n g e t h a t c a n n o t b e t a k e n by t h e

p u b lic sc h o o ls a lo n e ,

b u t o n e t h a t m ust e n l i s t

th e co­

o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s and o f a l l c i t i z e n s o r g r o u p s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r ic a a n d o f t h e w o r ld ,

a s w e l l a s i n th e s u c c e s s and h a p p in e s s

o f each in d iv id u a l c h ild . II.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

A d m in istr a tio n .

A d m i n i s t r a t i o n may b e d e f i n e d a s

t h e management o f t h e a f f a i r s

o f t h e s c h o o l i n s u c h a way

a s t o s e t up t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The v i e w p o i n t i n t h i s

s t u d y i s from t h a t o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y

s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l w i t h e m p h a s is b e i n g p l a c e d upon t h e p r o ­ gram i n v o l v e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n ,

r a t h e r t h a n from t h e v ie w ­

p o i n t o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t w i t h e m p h a s is upon t h e manage­ m ent o f s c h o o l b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s .

No a t t e m p t i s made t o

s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n from s u p e r v i s i o n . 1 S u p e r v isio n . B arr d e f i n e s s u p e r v is io n in lo w in g w ords,

th e f o l ­

" E xp ert, t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d

1 A. S. B a r r , a n d o t h e r s , S u p e r v i s i o n A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 2 0 .

(New York:

w i t h s t u d y i n g and b e t t e r i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t s u r r o u n d l e a r n i n g . 11

He g o e s on t o s t a t e t h a t i t

c o n d itio n s le a r n in g .

i s a n y th in g th a t

In t h i s s tu d y s u p e r v i s i o n w i l l be

th ou gh t o f a s a n y th in g th a t th e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l o r o th e r p e r s o n n e l do t o im p r o v e t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n th ro u g h o b s e r v a t io n ,

c o n su lta tio n ,

r e s e a r c h and o t h e r w i s e ,

i n c l u d i n g s c h o o l and comm unity p l a n n i n g and l e a d e r s h i p . H o m e -S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . t e a c h e r and p a r e n t , and p a r e n t ,

R e l a t i o n s h i p s b etw een

s c h o o l c h i l d and p a r e n t , p r i n c i p a l

o r any c o m b in a tio n o f t h e s e w i l l be th o u g h t

o f a s h o m e-sch o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

At tim e s s p e c i a l p e r so n ­

n e l w i l l be b rough t in t o th e p i c t u r e o f h om e-sch ool r e l a ­ tio n sh ip s

f o r th e g u id a n c e o f c h ild r e n .

G u id a n c e .

G u id a n ce h a s b e e n d e f i n e d i n many w a y s .

I t h as o f t e n b een th o u g h t o f a s v o c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e i n th e c h o i c e o f an o c c u p a t i o n . few e d u c a to r s to d a y , m odern d e f i n i t i o n

W h ile t h i s

th e in v e s t ig a t o r

th a t is

c o n c e p t i s h e l d by chooses to use a

q u ite i n c lu s iv e .

"G uidance i s

t h e m eth o d o r t e c h n i q u e by w h ic h we s e e k t o know more a b o u t each c h ild ,

h i s p r o b le m s,

and t h e m o st e f f e c t i v e way o f h e l p ­

i n g him t o make t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e a d j u s t m e n t , " le n t in c lu siv e d e fin itio n

is

an e x c e l ­

fo u n d i n a r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n . ^

2 11Home and S c h o o l Work T o g e t h e r f o r C h i l d r e n , 11 T w e n t y - F i r s t Y e a rb o o k o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l A d m in istr a to r s1 A s s o c ia tio n . 1949, p . 89.

K in d e r g a r te n -P r im a r y .

The k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y

grades' a r e d e f in e d a s th e g ra d es o n e, e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l,

tw o ,

and t h r e e o f t h e

as w e ll as th e k in d e r g a r te n .

C h ild r e n

f r o m . f o u r and o n e - h a l f t o e i g h t o r n i n e y e a r s o f a g e a r e u s u a lly in c lu d e d in th e s e g ra d es. THE ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THE PROJECT C h a p te r I I p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n w i t h e m p h a s is upon h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d t h e i r e f f e c t upon c h i l d g u i d a n c e fro m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and su p e r v isio n . C h a p te r I I I d e s c r i b e s p r a c t i c e s o b s e r v e d a n d i n v e s ­ t i g a t e d t h a t h a v e a s t h e i r p u r p o s e t h e p r o m o t io n o f im prov­ ed h o m e -sc h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r th e g u id a n c e o f k in d e r ­ g a r te n -p rim a ry c h ild r e n . C h a p te r IV c o n t i n u e s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e s o b s e r v e d o r s t u d i e d a n d d e a l s w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f some o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e im p r o v em e n t o f c h i l d g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h im p r o v e d h o m e - s c h o o l r e la tio n sh ip s

i n an a c t u a l k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y s c h o o l

situ a tio n . C h a p te r V t a k e s a l o n g v i e w i n t o t h e f u t u r e a n d s u g ­ g e s t s w h at i s h o p e d t o b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e im p ro vem en t o f t e c h n i q u e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f hom e-

s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t th e k in d e r g a r te n -p r im a r y l e v e l ,

and

n o t e s some a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s a l r e a d y made. A summary w i t h c o n c l u s i o n s a r e g i v e n i n C h a p te r V I.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The s a c r e d b o o k s o f t h e H ebrews s t a t e d t h a t t h e d i s ­ o b e d i e n t s o n s h o u l d b e s t o n e d by t h e t r i b e w i t h s t o n e s u n t i l he d ie d .

T h is e x t r e m e v i e w o f a p h i l o s o p h y o f c h i l d g u i d a n c e

th a t once e x is t e d i s

g i v e n t o show t h e g r e a t c h a n g e t h a t h a s

come a b o u t i n t h e t h i n k i n g o f m ank ind .

The c h a n g e h a s come

a b o u t s l o w l y w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t a d v a n c e m e n t s b e i n g made d u r ­ in g th e p a s t c en tu ry .

A l t h o u g h some o f t h e l o f t i e s t

t i o n s o f c h i l d h o o d a p p e a r i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t ,

concep­

G e s e l l ' 1’

s t a t e s t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e o f c h i l d d e p r a v i t y was p r o c l a i m e d and p r a c t i c e d from S a i n t A u g u s t i n e t o J o n a t h a n E d w ard s. T h e s e i d e a s o f c h i l d n a t u r e w e re b r o u g h t t o A m e r ic a and h a n d e d down from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n , to s t a t e th e fo llo w in g : s t e r n n e s s - and r e p r e s s i o n ,

( r e s e l l g o e s on

"The p u r i t a n i c a l s p i r i t o f abnorm al w h ic h i n t e r p r e t e d s i m p l e c h i l d i s h

m i s c h i e v o u s n e s s a s t h e work o f S a t a n , was d i r e c t l y d e s c e n d e d fro m t h i s h o n e s t b e l i e f i n t h e u t t e r d e p r a v i t y o f human

2

n a tu r e ."

From t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e m odern s c h o o l o n e

w o u ld s h u d d e r a t t h o u g h t o f t h e im p a c t o f s u c h p h i l o s o p h y upon p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e la tio n sh ip s,

if

n o t to m en tio n h o m e-sch o o l

su ch e x is t e d .

J- A r n o l d L . G e s e l l , The Normal C h i l d and P r im a r y E d u c a tio n (New York:: Ginn and Company, 1 9 1 2 ) , P* 3 - 4 . ^ Loc.

c it.

By t h e c l o s e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o w e r f u l l i b ­ e r a l i z i n g and h u m a n iz in g i n f l u e n c e s w e r e a t w ork.

The w o r t h

o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y was co m in g t o b e r e c o g n i z e d .

R o u s s e a u an d

o t h e r s h a d w orked t o b r i n g t h i s

P e sta lo z z i

change a b o u t.

b e l i e v e d t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d b e u n d e r s t o o d and l o v e d a b o v e a ll

e ls e ,

and t h a t i n them l a y t h e h o p e f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n o f 3 th e w o r ld . In 1 9 1 2 G e s e l l im p lie s th a t he b e lie v e s as d id

H u x le y ,

t h a t th e p u b l i c a t i o n o f D a r w in 's O r ig in o f th e

S p e c i e s c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e d t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s and a im s o f stu d e n ts o f l i v i n g n a tu re. is

a p a r t o f l i v i n g n a tu re.

He a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c h i l d In t h e same work G e s e l l g i v e s

c r e d i t t o G. S t a n l e y H a l l f o r t h e m o st i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u ­ t i o n t o c h i l d - s t u d y l i t e r a t u r e up t o t h a t t i m e , n a m e ly , H a l l ' s m onum ental w ork, A d o l e s c e n c e .

T h i s work f o l l o w e d

t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f modern c h i l d s t u d y by D arwin i n t h e d ia r y o f h i s

son ,

a n d by P r y e r i n Germany.

C h ild s tu d y a s

an o r g a n i z e d movement t o o k sh a p e a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Con­ g r e s s ; o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e W o r ld 's C olu m b ia n E x p o s i t i o n w i t h th e fo u n d in g o f a n a t io n a l s o c i e t y f o r th e stu d y o f c h ild r e n . D u r in g t h e same y e a r t h e B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h i l d S t u d y 4 was o r g a n i z e d . From t h e s e and o t h e r b e g i n n i n g s , s l o w but, i n ­ s u r e p r o g r e s s in th e u n d e r s ta n d in g and g u id a n c e o f c h i ld r e n h a s b e e n made down t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , 3 Ib id . . p.

20.

4 Ib id . . p.

23.

when t h e r e i s a

v e r ita b le flo o d o f id e a s,

c o n cep ts,

and l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n ­

in g to th e proper t r a in in g o f c h ild r e n . The p h i l o s o p h y o f J o h n Dewey h a s a d d ed m i g h t i l y t o t h e s e h u m a n ita ria n i d e a l s o f c h i l d t r a i n i n g . th e

The a d v e n t o f

‘p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l m o v em e n t’ h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t g r e a t

c o n tr i1

"

" *-

s c h o o l and b e t t e r p a r e n t t h a t from t h e e a r l i e s t

c h ild

d a y s i n t h e Town andX^Jountry S c h o o l t h e y knew t h a t i t \

was *

n o t p o s s i b l e t o do g o o d work w i t h l i t t l e

c h ild r e n w ith o u t

th e h e lp o f t h e i r p a r e n ts .^ /A p p a r e n tly th e id e a o f b r in g in g p aren ts in to

t h e s c h o o l h a s g a i n e d g r e a t e r im p e t u s i n t h e

U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a n i n G re a t B r i t a i n .

A t l e a s t two e x c h a n g e

t e a c h e r s fro m E n g la n d who w ere i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a ­ t o r s t a t e d t h a t p a r e n t s s e ld o m v i s i t e d was from B r i s t o l ,

school th e re .

and t h e o t h e r was from M a n c h e s t e r .

One They

s a i d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n E n g la n d w o u ld f e e l a p a r e n t v i s i t t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l t o b e an i n s u l t , a b ility

to teach .

an a f f r o n t t o t h e i r

N e it h e r has t h e h u m a n ita ria n i n f l u e n c e

p e n e t r a t e d so d e e p ly th e r e as i t h as in th e U n ite d S t a t e s . T h e s e E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t c h i l d r e n w ere g i v e n much le ss

c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e r e t h a n i n A m e r ic a ,

s p e a k m ore h a r s h l y t o them .

and t h a t t e a c h e r s

They s a i d t h a t A m e r ic a n c h i l d ­

r e n a r e ; q u i e t e r and m ore c o o p e r a t i v e a n d r e s p o n s i v e i n t h e 5 C a r o l i n e P r a t t . I L e a rn from C h i l d r e n Simm an d S c h u s t e r , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 1 9 0 .

(New York:

c la ssr o o m ,

e s p e c ia l ly th e b oys.

An A m e r ic a n t e a c h e r who

w e n t t o E n g la n d t o s e r v e a s an e x c h a n g e t e a c h e r c o r r o b o r a t e d th e sta tem en ts o f th e B r it is h te a c h e r s .

She s a i d t h a t a l l

t e a c h e r s t h e r e s p o k e h a r s h l y t o c h i l d r e n and g a v e them v e r y little

c o n sid e r a tio n .

The m ain e m p h a s is t h e r e i n t h e p a s t

h a s a p p a r e n t l y b e e n upon t e s t p a s s i n g f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e h ig h e r s c h o o ls .

T h is i s

c h a n g in g , how ever, w it h th e p r e s e n t

c u r r i c u l u m b r o a d e n i n g program i n s t i t u t e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e c e n t war and t h e a d v e n t o f t h e L ab or g o v e r n m e n t,

a c co r d in g

t o word o f t h e e x c h a n g e t e a c h e r s . 1

p a r e n t s b e g a n t o v i s i t f r e e l y a t t h e Town and

C o u n tr y S e h o o l t h e y f o u n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o b e f a r more ‘ "

' *



"

"

' it c h i l d r e n

co u ld be,

" I ' l l be darned i f

a c co r d in g I ever

d ream ed a Sunday w a lk down t h e s t r e e t w i t h my s e v e n - y e a r o l d s o n w o u ld b e an e x c i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . "

P aren ts w il l

o f t e n b e a s t o n i s h e d a t t h e f r e s h n e s s and l i v e l y

in te r e st

w h ic h f a m i l i a r t h i n g s t a k e on when s e e n t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f a c h i l d t r a i n e d i n a modern s c h o o l ,

a s t h i s f a t h e r was

w h i l e t a k i n g a w a lk w i t h h i s s o n a f t e r h e h a d a t t e n d e d C a r o l i n e P r a t t ' s Town and C o u n try S c h o o l . t h i s p i o n e e r o f t h e modern s c h o o l ,

/ I n h e r own w o r d s ,

C a r o lin e \P r a tt,

" S et t h e

p a r e n t s i m a g i n a t i o n s s p i n n i n g a r o u n d new e x p e r i e n c e s to

6 I b i d . . pn. 1 9 1

7 sh a re w ith t h e i r c h i l d r e n . " en jo y ed t h e i r c h ild r e n .

The p a r e n t s a l r e a d y n a t u r a l l y

The s c h o o l m e r e l y g a v e a d d e d s t i m ­

u lu s to t h i s n a tu r a l im p u lse .

The r e s u l t was t h e g r o w th o f

a new d e m o cr a cy b e t w e e n p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , in g to C a r o lin e P r a t t .

accord­

She s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t w h i l e t h e

m odern p a r e n t i s a s a c r i f i c e t o c h i l d r e n , have to w a it a l i f e t i m e fo r r e s u l t s ,

and s i n c e p a r e n t s

t h e y c a n n o t b e b la m ed

f o r h a v i n g m i s g i v i n g s a b o u t modern t r a i n i n g .

H o w ev er,

she

d o e s b la m e p a r e n t s f o r n o t a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n m ore. Her e x a c t w ords a r e :

" I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t work t o s e l l

p a r e n t s on t h e charm ,

i n t e l l i g e n c e , w i t , and g e n e r a l e x c e l 8 \ le n c e o f t h e i r c h ild r e n ]" ) I t i s p o s s i b l e th a t p a r e n ts be­ come s o a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ’ s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s t h a t t h e y becom e b l a s e t o them .

It is

a ls o p o s s ib le th at

p a r e n t s s e ld o m s e e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r b e s t . It

is

th e c o n te n tio n o f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t the

modern s c h o o l ca n h e l p p a r e n t s t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d ­ i n g o f t h e i r own c h i l d r e n ,

an d a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f

t h e i r e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t i e s t h r o u g h t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f more p a ren t-tea ch er co n feren ces, parent v is it a t io n s c la ssr o o m s, p a r e n t-te a c h e r stu d y groups, h o m e s,

etc.

tu rn g iv e

to sch o o l

tea ch ers v is it in g

The s t i m u l a t i o n o f s u c h t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d i n

c h ild r e n a g r e a t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ,

^ P ra tt,

lo c .

c lt.

® I b id ., p. 199.

13 and t e a c h e r s a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f b o t h w i t h a r e s u l t o f b e t t e r r e l a t io n s h ip s a l l around. W h ile t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s

in v e s tig a tio n

i s n o t to

r e v i e w t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a l s ,

th ese

i d e a l s a r e s o t i e d up w i t h t h e Im p rovem en t o f s u p e r v i s o r y te c h n iq u e s

th a t th e I n v e s tig a to r f e l t

t h a t t h e r o o t s o f some

o f t h e s e d e v e lo p m e n ts s h o u ld be i n c lu d e d .

T h is se em s t o b e

n e c e s s a r y to g iv e a b e t t e r u n d e r sta n d in g o f s u p e r v is o r y te c h n iq u e s d is c o v e r e d or a d v o c a ted , a s w e ll as to p r o v id e a b a s is fo r e v a lu a tio n o f th e r e s u l t s n iq u e s in

o f u se o f su ch te c h ­

c h i l d g u id a n c e.

A r e v ie w o f th e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i o n s was a l s o made.

in th e f i e l d

W h ile I t i s

o f p u b lic

th e in te n t o f t h is

s t u d y t o r e m a in e l o s e t o p a r e n t - c h i l d ,

te a c h e r -c h ild ,

tea ch er-

p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s to g e th e r w ith th e n e c e s s a r y a d m in istr a ­ t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y p r o c e d u r e s ' t o p r o p e r l y p r o m o te and s t i m u l a t e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f p r im a r y e d u c a tio n ;

i t w&s f e l t

t h a t some o f t h e b r o a d e r a s p e c t s o f

t h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p rog ram oi" a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w e r e i n ­ v o l v e d I n t h e p r o b le m ,

and w o u ld o f n e c e s s i t y

p ic t u r e . ^ E d u c a tio n a l in t e r p r e t a tio n is

e n ter in to th e

in a l l o f i t s p h ases

c o m in g t o b e r e c o g n i z e d by m odern s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n

a s a n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e f u n c t i o n .

T h is f a c t i s

a ttest­

e d t o by t h e p r e s e n c e o n t h e s t a f f s o f l a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f p u b lic r e la t io n s p e r so n n e l. tr ic t

su p e r in te n d e n t,

In s m a lle r d i s t r i c t s

th e d i s ­

t h e p r i n c i p a l s a n d t e a c h e r s c a r r y on

14 p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work c o n t i n u o u s l y t h r o u g h t h e i r many con ­ t a c t s w i t h t h e com m unity and i t s

m em bers.

C u s t o d i a n s and

o t h e r s c h o o l w o r k e r s a s w e l l a s members o f t h e b o a r d o f e d u c a tio n a l l

i n t e r p r e t t h e s c h o o l s t o t h e p u b l i c i n many

w ays t h r o u g h com m unity c o n t a c t s . Sessarego,

In a s t u d y p r e p a r e d b y

th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n ap p ears,

w ill r e a liz e

“The p r i n c i p a l

th a t th e b e st p u b lic .r e la t io n s are not b u ilt

upon p i e c e s o f p a p e r s e n t from h i s o f f i c e th a t th e f i r s t

step

. . .

.,.

. but ra th er

t h e o f f e r i n g t o t h e com m unity 9 o f a s o u n d e d u c a t i o n a l p ro gram f o r i t s c h i l d r e n . M One a u t h o r i t y f e e l s

is

th a t th e c h ild r e n are th e a g e n ts

o f e d u c a tio n a l in te r p r e ta tio n .

10

A c co r d in g to th e i n v e s t i g a ­

t o r ’ s e x p e r i e n c e a s an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , is

th ere

a g r e a t d e a l o f t r u t h i n t h e a s s u m p t io n t h a t t h e y a r e

e i t h e r a g e n t s o f g o o d w ill o r o f m is u n d e r s ta n d in g betw een home a n d s c h o o l ,

as i s

a s s e r t e d i n t h i s work c i t e d .

The

s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l can h a v e a v e r y g r e a t i n f l u e n c e i n form ­ u la tin g a ttitu d e s s h ip s w ith p u p ils ,

tow ard t h e s c h o o l th ro u g h h i s r e l a t i o n ­ t e a c h e r s and p u b l i c .

The f o l l o w i n g

® A l b e r t Jo h n S e s s a r e g o , “A Handbook f o r P a r e n t s o f K i n d e r g a r t e n P u p i l s o f t h e W i l l i a m Land S c h o o l o f S a c r a m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a , " ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s P r o j e c t , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 14 1 0 F rank W. Hubbard, e d i t o r , “H e l p i n g C i t i z e n s t o Know T h e i r S c h o o l s , “ C r i t i c a l P r o b le m s i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a ­ t i o n . T w e l f t h Y e a r b o o k . W a s h in g t o n , D. C , : The D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r in te n d e n c e o f th e N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1934. p . 215.

is

q u o t e d from t h e a b o v e r e f e r e n c e : P r o b a b l y t h e m a j o r i t y o f c i t i z e n s , when t h e y g i v e any t h o u g h t t o e d u c a t i o n , t h i n k i n te r m s o f t h e s c h o o l w h ic h t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d . In o t h e r w o r d s , upon t h e p r i n c i p a l o f e a c h u n i t f a l l s t h e e x e c u t i o n o f many p h a s e s o f t h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p ro g ra m d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c en tra l o f f ic e . Most p r i n c i p a l s a l s o d e v e l o p p r o c e ­ d u r e s o f t h e i r own w h ic h s u p p le m e n t and e x t e n d t h e g e n ­ e r a l p ro g ra m o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H Such s t a t e m e n t s as th e above s u b s t a n t i a t e th e f a c t

t h a t th e sch o o l, p r in c ip a l i s

an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e

modern p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p i c t u r e . h is tr a in in g ,

r a is e h is sa la r y ,

The t e n d e n c y t o i n c r e a s e f r e e him from r o u t i n e d u t i e s

and r a i s e h i s p r e s t i g e in g e n e r a l a l l

t e n d t o p l a c e more

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work upon t h e p r i n c i p a l . The s c h o o l b u l l e t i n

is

o n e o f h i s m o st e f f e c t i v e w ays o f

in t e r p r e t in g th e sc h o o l to i t s p a tr o n s, G r in n e ll.

12

a c c o r d in g to

He o u t l i n e s s e v e r a l p r i n c i p l e s

by t h e p r i n c i p a l when m ak in g up b u l l e t i n s , d i r e c t n e s s and s i m p l i c i t y .

He a l s o

to be f o l lo w e d among w h ic h a r e

says th at b u lle t in s

s h o u l d b e i n f o r m a l and c o u r t e o u s w i t h e m p h a s is upon t h e a p p r o a c h from t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e p a r e n t s and p u p i l s r a t h e r t h a n fro m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r s . The p u r p o s e o f b u l l e t i n s ,

he s t a t e s ,

is

t o e d u c a t e and t o

in fo r m .

11 I b i d . . p .

221.

-*•2 J o h n E r i e G r i n n e l l , "Keep i n T ou ch w i t h t h e P a r e n t s , The A m e rica n S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l . 1 1 5 : 4 1 , S e p te m b e r , 1 9 4 7 .

16 S u r v e y o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e sh ow s t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n grew v e r y s l o w l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , in g about a cen tu ry ago.

sta rt­

I t was i n s p e c t o r i a l i n n a t u r e

an d was o f t e n i n t h e h a n d s o f la y m e n .

The p o s i t i o n o f su p ­

e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s was c r e a t e d upon p o p u l a r demand f o r g r e a te r c o o r d in a tio n o f e f f o r t . eommon d u t y a s s i g n e d t o h im .

V i s i t i n g c l a s s r o o m s was a

G r a d u a lly b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n

d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r t h e manage­ m ent o f e d u c a t i o n a l and b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s o f t h e d i s t r i c t . S p e c i a l s u p e r v i s o r s l a t e r came up on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s c e n e . T h ey u s u a l l y h e l p e d i n

c e r t a i n s u b j e c t a r e a s and w e r e o f t e n

p a r t-tim e tea ch ers or p r in c ip a ls . th e le a r n in g o f su b je c t-m a tte r . w e r e e m p lo y e d . r e sp o n s ib ility

L a ter g e n e r a l s u p e r v is o r s

They w e r e o f t e n f i n e t e a c h e r s who w e r e g i v e n to h e lp o th e r te a c h e r s .

p l a c e d upon t h e c h i l d . about h is

Em phases was p l a c e d upon

g u id a n c e.

There i s l i t t l e

L ittle

in th e l i t e r a t u r e

The k i n d e r g a r t e n came l a t e

A m e r ic a n e d u c a t i o n a l p i c t u r e ;

e m p h a s is waa:

in th e

b u t i t was i n d e e d t o h a v e i t s

e f f e c t i n h e l p i n g t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n upon t h e c h i l d ,

h is

n e e d s and h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . /

The f i r s t A m e rica n k i n d e r g a r t e n s w e r e s t a r t e d i n

W isc o n sin ,

a c c o r d i n g t o Hahn.

Prom 1 8 5 5 on t h e y becam e

J u l i a Hahn, A C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n o f a S u p e r v i s o r y P rogram f o r K l n d e r g a r t e n - P r l m a r y G r a d e s . ("Teachers 1 C o l l e g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n , n o . 4 9 5 , New'York: C olu m b ia U n iv e r s ity , 1 9 31 ), p . 4.

1? e s t a b l i s h e d th ro u g h o u t th e U n ite d S t a t e s , sch o o l sy stem s. g a rten s. y et.

th o u g h n o t i n a l l

The l a r g e r c i t i e s h a v e u s u a l l y h a d k i n d e r ­

Many s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s

h a v e n o t p r o v i d e d f o r them

E ven i n C a l i f o r n i a o n l y a b o u t h a l f o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f

k in d e r g a r te n age are a c t u a lly e n r o lle d in s c h o o l .\ The f i r s t k i n d e r g a r t e n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n W i s c o n s i n w e re b ilin g u a l

i n c h a r a c t e r t o t e a c h German s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n t h e

E n g lis h la n g u a g e b e f o r e th e y s t a r t e d to s c h o o l . t h e r e was much v a r i a t i o n , a f t e r th e e f f o r t s to o k p l a c e .

th e f i r s t a tte m p ts w ere p a t t e r n e d

o f F r o e jp e l.

L a t e r , much e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n

The k i n d e r g a r t e n was n e v e r l i k e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l

sc h o o l o f th e day. m itte d .

A lth o u g h

H ow ever,

Much more fr e e d o m o f a c t i v i t y was p e r ­ t h i s a c t i v i t y was a l w a y s t h o u g h t o f a s

h a v in g a pu rp ose in c h i ld t r a in in g . them p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y

The i d e a was t o g i v e

in a s it u a t io n o f n a tu r a ln e s s ,

g i v e m o ra l and i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g a s w e l l , su b d u e c h i l d r e n .

to

but n o t to

The wave o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r m anual t r a i n ­

i n g o f t h a t day had i t s

e f f e c t upon k i n d e r g a r t e n t r a i n i n g .

M u sic and d r a w in g w e r e a l s o u s e d a g r e a t d e a l . ^The k i n d e r g a r t e n movement i n A m e r ic a h a d i t s im p a c t v upon t h e p r im a r y s c h o o l a s a w h o l e . C h ild r e n t r a i n e d in k in d e r g a r te n ju s t d id n ot f i t th e day,

so a c t i v i t y

th e p a tte r n o f th e sc h o o l o f

t y p e work b e g a n t o b e c a r r i e d up

t h r o u g h t h e p r im a r y g r a d e s . A m e rica n e d u c a t i o n h a d i t s

The p r o g r e s s i v e mdvement i n r o o ts in th e c o n tr o v e r sy over

18 m a k in g t h e p r im a r y c u r r i c u l u m more l i k e g a rten .

th a t o f th e k in d e r ­

K in d e r g a r te n p r i n c i p l e s o f c h i l d t r a i n i n g w ere

soon c a r r ie d in t o

Sunday s c h o o l w o rk .

The l a t t e r

statem en t

was made t o show how w i d e s p r e a d t h e m ovement b ecam e. The f i r s t k i n d e r g a r t e n s w e r e p r i v a t e ,

and t h e e s t a b ­

l i s h m e n t o f them i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s came a b o u t r a t h e r s l o w l y . As l a t e a s 1 8 8 4 - 8 5 t h e o f f i c e s i o n e r o f E d u c a tio n r e p o r t s ,

o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Commis­ " L i t t l e p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n made

in e s t a b l i s h in g k in d e r g a r te n s a t p u b lic expense or as a p a r t o f th e p u b l i c s c h o o l sy stem ; n e v e r t h e l e s s th e sy stem h as had a m arked e f f e c t i n i m p r o v in g t h e m eth o d s o f t r a i n i n g i n t h e 14 p r im a r y g r a d e s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . " O th e r s o u r c e s show t h e same t r e n d to w a r d r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r im a r y s c h o o l .

San F r a n c i s c o ,

w e r e among t h e l e a d i n g c i t i e s g a rten s.

S t . L o u is,

in e s t a b l i s h in g p u b lic k in d e r ­

T h e s e w e r e s t a r t e d b e t w e e n 1 8 8 0 and 1 8 8 7 .

One o f t h e e n ig m a s i n e d u c a t i o n i s t

and P h i l a d e l p h i a

th a t su p e r v isio n

came i n w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n s a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e y w e r e e s t a b lis h e d .

T h i s s u p e r v i s i o n was s o o n e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e t h e

p r im a ry s c h o o l ,

and i t had a g r e a t e f f e c t

in u n ify in g tec h ­

n i q u e s a n d m e th o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r im a r y s c h o o l an d t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n .

E d u c a tio n a l m a g a zin es o f l e a r n e d o r ­

g a n i z a t io n s began to app ear a t t h i s

tim e and t o s t r e s s t h e

B e p o r t o f U n i t e d S t a t e s C o m m iss io n e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 188 4 -8 5 , p . c x l v i i .

19 need fo r su p e r v isio n . lis h e d in 1890. 1907.

K i n d e r g a r t e n M a g a z in e was f i r s t pu b­

I t becam e K i n d e r g a r t e n P r im a r y M a g a z in e i n

By 1 9 0 7 t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f Educa­

t i o n was d o i n g i n t e n s i v e work i n t h e a r e a o f u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n and t h e p r im a r y s c h o o l s .

The y e a r b o o k s o f

s e v e r a l s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s were d e v o te d t o th e s t u d y .

Dr.

Jo h n Dewey h ad d o n e c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a l work w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n C h ic a g o by t h i s

t i m e , and h e l e d t h e way 15 in a d a p tin g th e sc h o o l to th e c h ild . The work o f D r.

Edwin A. K i l p a t r i c k and o t h e r s ,

a n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon

t h e modern p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n i s w e l l known.

The

u n i f i c a t i o n o f k i n d e r g a r t e n m eth o d s w i t h p r im a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e s u l t i n g s u p e r v i s o r y m eth o d s t h a t w ent w i t h t h e m ovement h a s h a d g r e a t e f f e c t upon t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t r a i n i n g o f p r im a r y t e a c h e r s a s a w h o l e .

The f i e l d o f

s u p e r v i s i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n was a l s o n a r r o w e d down,

so

s u p e r v i s o r s becam e e x p e r t s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y e d u c a ­ tio n ,

r a t h e r than m e r e ly e le m e n ta r y s u p e r v i s o r s a s b e f o r e .

Pew o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s u p e r v i s o r s h a d h ad t r a i n i n g i n t h e lo w e r a r e a s ,

b u t now s u p e r v i s o r s t h e r e becam e e x p e r t s i n

c h ild tr a in in g ,

and l e s s

e m p h a s is was p l a c e d upon s u b j e c t -

m a t t e r , m ore upon t h e c h i l d i n t h i s a r e a .

The l a t e r

cre­

a t io n o f th e ju n io r h ig h s c h o o l a l s o p r o v id e d o p p o r tu n ity

Hahn, o p .

c i t . , p. 17.

to e s t a b l i s h s u p e r v is io n o v e r k in d e r g a r te n and th e f i r s t s i x grades o n ly ,

w h ic h h e l p e d t h e l o w e r a r e a s so m ew h a t.

U n t i l r e c e n t y e a r s a g r e a t d e a l m ore i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t k i n d e r g a r t e n and l o w e r p r i m a r y th a n a b o u t u p p e r p r im a r y c h i l d r e n .

T h is i s

t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y m ovem ent. c lu d e d i n t h i s

a d ir e c t r e s u lt of

A g a in ,

a lth o u g h not in ­

s t u d y , more h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e ado­

l e s c e n t th a n a b o u t t h e p r e - a d o l e s c e n t a g e c h i l d .

R e c e n tly ,

a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f G - e s e ll and o t h e r s , t h e h i g h e r p r im a r y a g e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e a g e g r o u p s h a v e come i n f o r an e v e r i n c r e a s i n g number o f b o o k s , th eses, p ro jects,

and a r t i c l e s .

L earned o r g a n iz a t io n s have

a l s o made c o n s i d e r a b l e s t u d y o f t h e s e

'n e g le c te d a r e a s .'

The r e s u l t h a s b e e n a new e m p h a s is and a g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d u p o n t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r s t u d y i n g t h e c h i l d fro m s e v e n to tw e lv e .

L ik e w ise ,

g r e a t e r e m p h a s is i s

c u r r e n tly b e in g

p l a c e d upon t h e p e r i o d o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l ed u c a tio n .

The C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E le m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n

f o r February, ed u c a tio n .

1949,

d e a l t e x c l u s i v e l y w ith e a r ly c h ild h o o d

L ik e w ise , a b u l l e t i n

e n title d ,

A S tu d y o f E a r l y

C h ild h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a p u b l i s h e d i n J u n e , was d e v o t e d t o t h i s p e r i o d o f e d u c a t i o n .

1949,

B o th a r e p u b l i s h e d

b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n .

T hey show

t h a t e m p h a s is i s b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a t l o w e r l e v e l s by C a l i f o r n i a .

As t o s u b s t a n c e ,

t h e y show

I

21

c le a r l y th e n e c e s s i t y o f e n lig h t e n in g p a r e n ts o f young c h ild ­ ren in reg a rd to t h e ir r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

in g u id in g th e d e v e l-

’ ^ opm ent o f p r o p e r m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r i n t h e i r r e l a ­ t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s a t an e a r l y a g e .

Q u o t i n g from t h e

f i r s t o f t h e two a b o v e m e n t io n e d p u b l i c a t i o n s : N e v e r th e le s s c h ild r e n e n te r k in d e r g a r te n or f i r s t g r a d e i n s c h o o l w i t h ' im p o r t a n t p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r a lr e a d y s e t . F or i n s t a n c e t h e y h a v e a l r e a d y l e a r n e d t o t r u s t o r t o d i s t r u s t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o do w h at i s e x p e c t e d o f them ; t h e y h a v e l e a r n e d t o t r u s t o r t o d i s t r u s t o t h e r p e o p l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r own d e s i r e s and c o m f o r t ; t h e y h a v e p e r s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e s to w a r d t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s and t h e p o s s e s s i o n s o f o t h e r p e o p l e ; t h e y a l r e a d y l o o k upon t h o s e who r e p r e s e n t a u t h o r i t y a s t h e i r n a t u r a l e n e m ie s t o b e r e s i s t e d a t any c o s t , o r a s t h e i r f r i e n d s and p r o t e c t o r s t o b e t u r n e d t o i n c a s e o f d i f f i c u l t y ; t h e y a r e d e f i n i t e l y c o n f u s e d and m i s i n f o r m e d a b o u t s e x , o r h a v e a w h o le so m e a t t i t u d e to w a r d i t ; an d t h e y h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d m eth o d s o f g e t ­ t i n g t h e i r own w ay. T h e s e i m p o r t a n t b i t s o f l i v i n g e q u ip m e n t a r e o u tc o m e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s d e t e r m i n e d b y p a r e n t s . P a r e n t s n e e d much o f t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t h a t tea ch ers need. They n e e d t o know a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r ­ i s t i c s o f human g r o w th from c o n c e p t i o n t o o l d a g e . They n e e d t o know a b o u t m e n t a l h y g i e n e ; t h e m e a n in g o f in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s , th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f p la y , h e a l t h , s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n ; how t o u s e g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s o f a l l k i n d s , and t h e b r o a d s o c i a l s i g n i f i ­ can ce o f f a m i l i e s in a d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y . E x p e r ie n c e has c o n firm e d th e b e l i e f t h a t su ch m a t e r ia ls a r e u s e . f u l and a c c e p t a b le in p a r e n t s 1 stu d y g r o u p s, and t h a t t h e y make l i f e i n f a m i l i e s more s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d im­ p r o v e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n home and s c h o o l . 1 6 The a b o v e s t a t e m e n t i s ly w r itte n .

t y p i p a l o f many b e i n g c u r r e n t ­

T h ese w r i t i n g s p o in t tow ard a d e f i n i t e tr e n d

o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e im p rovem en t o f human r e l a t i o n s

C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E lem e n ta r y E d u c a tio n ( S a c r a m e n to : S t a t e D e p a r tm en t o f E d u c a t i o n , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 9 ) , p . 19G.

i n g e n e r a l and o f h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n p a r t i c u l a r . A r e v i e w o f p u b l i c fo r u m s i n s t i t u t e d b y j u n i o r c o l l e g e s a n d o t h e r s sh ow s a s i m i l a r t r e n d i n s t u d y i n g human r e l a t i o n sh ip s.

A t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s show a g e n u i n e i n t e r e s t on t h e

p a r t o f p a r e n t s i n p s y c h o l o g y and o t h e r human r e l a t i o n s areas. The P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n i s in s t im u la t in g I n t e r e s t in such s t u d i e s , t h e program s o r s p e a k e r s . F u lle r to n , under th e

a d e fin ite fa cto r o f t e n sp o n so r in g

S u ch m e e t i n g s h a v e b e e n h e l d i n

C a l i f o r n i a f o r t h e p a s t two s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s j o i n t sp o n so rsh ip o f th e F u lle r t o n J u n io r C o lle g e

and th e P a r e n t-T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n w it h c o n s i s t e n t l y h ig h atten d an ce.

D u r in g t h e Autumn m onth s o f 1 9 5 0 a s e r i e s o f

s u c h m e e t i n g s w i l l b e h e l d u n d e r t h e same s p o n s o r s h i p w i t h t h e p u r p o s e i n m ind o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s c h o o l , c u r r i c u l u m t o t h e p u b l i c a n d d e v e l o p i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p rog ram o f e d u c a tio n in g e n e r a l.

S c h o o l p e o p l e from a l l a r e a s and

l a y p e o p l e w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o g r a m s and d i s c u s s i o n s O t h e r c o m m u n it ie s i n t h i s a r e a o f C a l i f o r n i a a r e p l a n n i n g sim ila r s tu d ie s . T h i s c h a p t e r h a s a t t e m p t e d t o sh o w t h e g r a d u a l h u m a n i z in g o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .

I t has p o in te d

o u t t h e t r e n d to w a r d and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r i m p r o v in g hom es c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r th e b e n e f i t o f young c h ild r e n and t h e i r t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s .

Some o f t h e h i s t o r y and

p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f m odern e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a l s w ere in c lu d e d to c r e a t e a background f o r under­ s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a g e s t o com e.

No a t t e m p t was made t o

i n v e s t i g a t e a n d r e p o r t upon e v e r y t h i n g w r i t t e n o r d o n e t h a t w o u ld e f f e c t t h e p r o b le m a t h a n d ; b u t e n o u g h was r e c o r d e d t o show a d e f i n i t e

t r e n d to w a r d a v i e w p o i n t o f

s c h o o l s u p e r v i s i o n and a d m i n is t r a t i o n t h a t , su c c e ssfu l,

in ord er to be

i t m ust i n c l u d e t h e c h i l d a n d h i s p a r e n t s i n

t h e i r t o t a l l i v i n g s p h e r e s and f o l l o w t h e n a t u r a l la w s o f human g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t . ly ,

it

is

v isio n i s

If it

is not sta te d d ir e c t­

im p lie d th a t th e p r o c e s s o f s u c c e s s f u l su p er­ a c o n t i n u o u s and an e v o l v i n g p r o b le m ,

ever

c h a n g i n g i n t h e l i g h t o f new s c i e n t i f i c k n o w le d g e i n t h e r e a l m o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s w e l l a s i n t h e f i e l d human g r o w t h .

of

The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l f o r t h e

e d u c a t i o n and e n l i g h t e n m e n t o f p a r e n t s i s

a m a jo r o n e .

S c h o o l p e r s o n n e l t h e m s e l v e s m u st f o r e v e r k e e p a b r e a s t o f t h e tim e s by s t u d y in g and a c c e p t i n g ,

as w e ll as p a s sin g

on t o c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s t h e l a t e s t s u c c e s s f u l s c i e n t i f i c d e v e lo p m e n ts i n e d u c a t io n .

In o r d e r t o b r o a d e n g e n e r a l

u n d e r sta n d in g s, w ith t h e i r r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t s o f b e t t e r i n g e d u c a tio n ,

t h e s c h o o l m ust h e l p t o e n l i g h t e n t h e g e n e r a l

p u b lic in m a tters e d u c a tio n a l.

T h rou gh b e t t e r human r e ­

l a t i o n s h i p s we w i l l im p r o v e e d u c a t i o n ;

and t h r o u g h b e t t e r

e d u c a t i o n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l im p r o v e .

CHAPTER III WAYS TO IMPROVE HOME-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS Some r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . has been s t a t e d p r e v io u s ly in t h i s stu d y th a t i t

It

i s necessary

t o work w i t h p a r e n t s i n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t a n d and g u id e sm a ll c h ild r e n .

S in c e th e p u rp ose o f th e s c h o o l has

g r a d u a l l y e v o l v e d fro m t h e m ere t e a c h i n g o f a c a d e m i c su b ­ j e c t - m a t t e r and s k i l l s

to th e broader co n cep t o f r e s p o n s i­

b i l i t y f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y ;

it

is

im­

p e r a t i v e t h a t s c h o o l s d e v e l o p p r o g r a m s w h ic h w i l l , m ee t t h e d e v e lo p m e n ta l n e e d s o f c h ild r e n ,

and w h ic h w i l l i n t e r p r e t

t o p a r e n t s th e b a s e s f o r change i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f th e p rim a ry s c h o o l .

S u ch o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s t h e C a l i f o r n i a E l e ­

m e n ta r y S c h o o l S u p e r v i s o r s A s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h ild h o o d E d u c a t i o n h a v e r e c e n t l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r e n t e d u c a tio n i s

a n e c e s s a r y and i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a n y program

f o r th e e d u c a tio n o f young c h ild r e n .

Some s c h o o l s and some

i n d iv i d u a l t e a c h e r s have d e v e lo p e d c o n s i s t e n t program s o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n w h ic h h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d on o v e r a p e r i o d of years.

P arent e d u c a tio n has too o f t e n been l e f t

i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r o r p s y c h o l o g i s t who i s th e p a r e n t-te a c h e r a s s o c ia t io n .

to th e

in te r e ste d ,

or to

E d u c a t o r s a r e c o m in g t o

r e a l i z e t h a t p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n m ust b e a c c e p t e d a s an i n t e ­ g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l p rog ram a n d a ss u m e d a s t h e r e s p o n -

25 sib ility

o f th e c la ssr o o m t e a c h e r .

a sso c ia tio n

The p a r e n t - t e a c h e r

ca n v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y p l a y i t s p a r t ,

but th e

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to p a r e n t s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s and p r o g r e s s can b e made o n l y b y t h e t e a c h e r s who h a v e d a i l y c o n ta c t w ith th e c h ild r e n . P a re n t e d u c a tio n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a lu a b le d u rin g th e c h i l d ' s b e g i n n i n g y e a r s i n s c h o o l when p a r e n t s a r e c l o s e s t t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d when a g o o d s t a r t

in sch o o l in su r e s

t h e c h i l d ' s p r o p e r d e v e lo p m e n t a n d p r o m o t e s g o o d w i l l b e t w e e n home and s c h o o l . s p e c ia lists ,

is

The t e a c h e r ,

in a key p o s itio n

w ith th e h e lp o f

to in t e r p r e t th e p ro­

gram o f t h e s c h o o l a s w e l l a s t o g u i d e t h e c h i l d . A c c o r d i n g t o a r e c e n t C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm en t p u b lic a tio n , o p e r a tio n

an e f f e c t i v e p rog ra m o f p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o ­

can b e c a r r i e d o u t o n l y u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g

c o n d itio n s: 1 . The p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p l a n m u st h a v e b e e n c a r e ­ f u l l y t h o u g h t t h r o u g h and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t m ust b e .a c c e p t e d by th e t e a c h e r s . 2 . T e a c h e r s m ust r e c e i v e p r e r s e r v i c e o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a in in g in th e p a r e n t e d u c a tio n f i e l d . 3 . T e a c h e r s m ust f e e l f r e e t o c a l l upon s u p e r v i s o r s , p r i n c i p a l s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s f o r needed a s s is t a n c e . 4 . S c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s m u st g i v e s u p p o r t t h r o u g h p u b l i c i t y , e n t h u s i a s m , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and m a t e r i a l s . 1 1 A~ S t u d y o f E a r l y C h ild h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S a c r a m e n t o : S t a t e D e p a r tm en t o f E d u c a t i o n , J u n e , 1 9 4 9 ) , p . 4 4 .

26 Im p rovem en t o f h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s and p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e s .

th rou gh

The I n g l e w o o d

C i t y S c h o o l s h a v e a c h i e v e d a g r e a t d e a l i n t h e m arch to w a r d th e g o a l o f p a r e n t e d u c a tio n th ro u g h r e p o r t in g th e progress? o f p u p ils

to p a r e n ts.

B e s i d e s a m eth o d o f c h e c k i n g t h e d e ­

g r e e o f a c h i e v e m e n t i n work h a b i t s and t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s , t h e r e p o r t form c o n t a i n s a s p a c e f o r comment b y t h e t e a c h e r . A l o n g w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s r e p o r t g r e a t e m p h a s is i s p l a c e d upon th e v a lu e o f th e p a r e n t-te a c h e r c o n fe r e n c e . in d iv id u a l co n feren ces are used . r eq u ire d ,

B o t h gr o u p a n d

In d iv id u a l co n feren ces are

and n e a r l y a l l p a r e n t s m e e t w i t h t e a c h e r s a t some

tim e d u r in g th e y e a r .

Group c o n f e r e n c e s a r e h e l d f o r t w o -

h o u r p e r i o d s d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g when b o t h p a r e n t s

c a n com e.

The g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d e a r l y i n t h e s c h o o l y e a r . is

It

c o n d u c t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r and h a s f o r i t s p u r p o s e s t h e

g e t t i n g o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r a c q u a in t e d w ith ea ch o t h e r , a c q u a in tin g p a r e n ts w ith o th e r p a r e n ts , w it h t h e program o f t h e y e a r ,

and i t

a c q u a in tin g p a r e n ts

g i v e s t h e t e a c h e r an

o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l a i n t o p a r e n t s how a c h i e v e m e n t i s e d by t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m .

a p p r a is­

In d iv id u a l co n fer en ce s f o llo w th e

group c o n f e r e n c e a b o u t s i x w eeks a f t e r t h e o p e n in g o f s c h o o l . T h ey g i v e t h e t e a c h e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l a i n t o t h e p a r e n t th e s t a t u s o f th e in d iv id u a l c h ild in r e l a t i o n to

th e g o a ls

o f th e s c h o o l. The I n g le w o o d s y s t e m h a s h a d an I n t e n s i v e i n - s e r v i c e

t r a i n i n g p rogra m w h ic h no d o u b t e x p l a i n s t h e n e a r l y o n e hundred p e r c en t p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n .

In g lew o o d i s a l s o

a la r g e r system fa v o r a b ly s i t u a t e d a s t o t o .e x p e r t h e lp and a d v i c e . l a t e d upon i t s

The s y s t e m i s

c l o s e p r o x im ity to be co n g ra tu ­

e f f e c t i v e u s e o f s u c h h e l p from t h e L os

A n g e l e s s y s t e m and fr o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y u n i t s n e a r b y . Many s m a l l e r s y s t e m s m ig h t w e l l u s e I n g l e w o o d a s a p a t ­ te r n to f o llo w tio n sh ip s,

i n i m p r o v in g t h e i r own h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a ­

and l a r g e r s y s t e m s c o u l d p r o f i t from u s i n g i t

a s an e x a m p le ,

to o .

I t i s m ore d i f f i c u l t

t o s e e t h e com­

p l e t e p i c t u r e in a l a r g e s y s te m l i k e Los A n g e le s th a n i t is

t o s e e th e p i c t u r e in In g lew o o d . In g lew o o d h as had t h e h e lp o f a s c h o o l new sp ap er in

its

effo rts.

ed i n

At p r e s e n t i t

jo u r n a lism ,

P aren ts f in d i t fa v o r a b le

e d i t e d by a s e c r e t a r y t r a i n ­

and i s p r e p a r e d by t h e I n g l e w o o d S c h o o l s .

t o b e r e a d a b l e and i n f o r m a t i v e and many

comments a s t o i t s

P o lic y

is

v a lu e are r e c e iv e d .

ch an ges a r e i n s t i t u t e d a t In g lew o o d w it h t h e

h e l p and a d v i c e o f a p a r e n t - t e a c h e r g r o u p w h o se recommenda­ t i o n s a re su b m itte d f o r a p p ro v a l to th e board o f e d u c a tio n by th e s u p e r in te n d e n t .

A number o f s c h o o l s y s t e m s a r e

u s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and l a y g r o u p s t o h e l p a d v i s e on m a t t e r s s u c h a s s c h o o l f i n a n c e and b u i l d i n g p r o b l e m s . m en tio n ed a c t i v i t i e s

T hese l a s t

a r e o f t e n o u tc o m e s o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n .

T h ey may b e f o r e r u n n e r s o f l a y p a r t i c i p a t i o n

i n c u r r ic u lu m

28 p la n n in g ,

w h ic h h a s n o t made t o o much p r o g r e s s y e t .

I n 1 9 4 8 and 1 9 4 9 t h e O range C o u n ty S c h o o l s O f f i e e made g r e a t u s e o f c o u n t y - w i d e t e a c h e r g r o u p s , o f p a ren t groups, p o r t fo r m .

and some u s e

i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a new p r o g r e s s r e ­

T e a c h e r c o m m i t t e e s a t t h e s e v e r a l l e v e l s met

a t v a r i o u s t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l y e a r w i t h members o f t h e C ou nty S c h o o l s O f f i e e s t a f f . t o a t t e n d some o f t h e m e e t i n g s .

P a r e n t s w ere i n v i t e d

The r e s u l t was a r e p o r t

fo rm w h ic h v a r i e d f o r t h e t h r e e a r e a s , and u p p e r g r a d e g r o u p s .

p r im a ry , m id d le ,

A t h r e e colum n c h e c k i n g p l a n was

d e v i s e d f o r t h e a p p r a i s a l o f b e h a v i o r t r a i t s and a c a d e m ic a c h i e v e m e n t ; b u t m ore s i g n i f i c a n t was t h e l a r g e r s i z e o f t h e c a r d w i t h q u i t e a d e q u a t e s p a c e f o r t e a c h e r comment and p a r e n t r e s p o n s e .

A g u i d e f o r t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a ­

t i v e u s e o f t h e Ibrm was p r e p a r e d , w h ic h s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e and n e c e s s i t y o f u s e o f t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n fer en ce w ith th e card. grade card,

as l i s t e d

The p u r p o s e s o f t h e f i r s t

in t h is

g u id e,

a r e q u o t e d b e lo w :

1 . To p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y fbr a so u n d w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n home a n d s c h o o l . • 2 . To s t i m u l a t e t e a c h e r s t o beco m e b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w ith t h e i r c h ild r e n . 3 . To a s s i s t p a r e n t s t o b e t t e r g u i d e t h e i r i n s c h o o l and e v e r y d a y l i f e . 2

c h ild r e n

2 L . T. Sim m ons, “G uide f o r T e a c h e r s and A d m i n i s t r a ­ t o r s on U se o f t h e P r o g r e s s R e p o r t t o P a r e n t s , 11 (m im eograp h­ e d b o o k l e t , O range C ou nty S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s O f f i c e , S a n t a Ana, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 9 ) , p." 3 .

29 Many s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t a r e h e l p f u l i n m a r k in g t h e c a r d s a n d i n w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s a r e made i n t h e b o o k l e t . p u r p o s e s l i s t e d a b o v e show c l e a r l y

t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e im­

p o r ta n c e o f p rop er h o m e-sch o o l r e l a t io n s h i p s a n c e a t t h e p r im a r y l e v e l .

The

i n c h i l d g u id ­

T hey w e r e l i s t e d ,

to o ,

t o show

t h a t s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s a r e a a r e c o m in g t o r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t p r o p e r h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e im p o r ­ t a n t i n c h i l d t r a i n i n g and t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g p o s i t i v e about i t

fo r th e b e n e f it o f c h ild r e n .

The i n v e s t i g a t o r h ad t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f w i t n e s s i n g th e i n i t i a t i o n

o f u s e o f t h e new O range C ounty P r o g r e s s

R e p o r t Form i n a l a r g e C a lifo r n ia ,

e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l In F u l l e r t o n ,

i n t h e Autumn o f 1 9 4 9 .

C o n sid e ra b le p r e p e r a -

t i o n was made by t h e c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e in a u g u r a tio n .

fo r i t s

E a r l y i n t h e y e a r t e a c h e r s w ere i n s t r u c t e d

t o h o ld group m e e tin g s w ith p a r e n t s f o r th e p u r p o se o f i n ­ t e r p r e t i n g u s e o f t h e new c a r d s ,

and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g

m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d t o p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e g r o u p m e e t­ in g s.

B u l l e t i n s w e n t o u t fro m t h e s c h o o l o f f i c e

sta tin g

t h a t t h e r e was g o i n g t o b e a new c a r d form p u t i n t o u s e a n d i n v i t i n g p a r e n t s t o come t o t h e g ro u p m e e t i n g s . teach ers th em .

in v it e d p a ren ts

Then

t o come a t a t i m e c o n v e n i e n t t o

M ost o f t h e m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d i n t h e a f t e r n o o n o f

o n e o f t h e d a y s i n A m e rica n E d u c a t i o n Week. was made b y p a r e n t s .

A good resp o n se

Had t h e m e e t i n g s b e e n h e l d d u r i n g t h e

e v e n i n g h o u r s more f a t h e r s w o u ld h a v e a t t e n d e d .

F o llo w in g

t h e gro u p m e e t i n g s ,

a n d b e f o r e c a r d s w e r e s e n t home a t t h e

en d o f t h e q u a r t e r ,

a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e O range C ou nty

S c h o o l s O f f i c e was i n v i t e d t o d i s c u s s t h e c a r d and i t s

.

use

w i t h t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r g ro u p a t an e v e n i n g m e e t i n g w i t h t h e f a t h e r s and m o th ers p r e s e n t .

I t was f o u n d t h a t s i n c e

t h e m o t h e r s h a d a t t e n d e d t h e e a r l i e r group, m e e t i n g s t h e y h a d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b le m th a n d i d t h e fa th ers.

As a c o n s e q u e n c e ,

t h e f a t h e r s a s k e d many q u e s t i o n s

and made a number o f c r i t i c i s m s . b u t a l l r e c e iv e d e n lig h te n m e n t.

The m e e t i n g was s p i r i t e d , M ost w e n t away f e e l i n g t h a t

t h e new c a r d and t h e c o n f e r e n c e t e c h n i q u e s it

w e r e s t e p s to w a r d p r o g r e s s .

th a t went w ith

They w e r e r e a d y t o a c c e p t

t h e c a r d b e f o r e t h e c h i l d r e n b r o u g h t i t hom e.

T h e r e was: a

n o t e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e number a n d t y p e o f p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e s th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r . num erous t i m e s ,

Some p a r e n t s w e r e c o n t a c t e d

and more a n d more p a r e n t s f e l t

sc h o o l as th e sc h o o l y ea r p r o g r e ss e d .

f r e e to v i s i t

V isito r s l i s t s

w ere

lo n g e r th a n th e y had e v e r been in th e h i s t o r y o f t h e s c h o o l. Some t e a c h e r s who s e ld o m h e l d c o n f e r e n c e s b e g a n t o h o l d them r e g u l a r l y ,

when n e e d e d .

r e s o lv e d i n th e c o n fe r e n c e s.

C h ild p ro b lem s w ere u s u a l l y D is c ip lin e c a se s s e n t to th e

p r i n c i p a l d e c l i n e d i n number and w ere l e s s L a c k in g s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,

se r io u s

in n a tu re.

s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s came t o b e

l o o k e d upon a s c o m p e t e n t a d v i s o r s t o p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n

31 w it h p r o b le m s. r e la tio n sh ip s

I t I s q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e im p r o v e d came a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e i n c r e a s e d number o f

p a r en t-tea c h e r co n feren ces. A number o f b o o k s f o r p a r e n t s t o r e a d a b o u t c h i l d r e n had been p u rc h a sed th e y ea r b e f o r e by th e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c ia t io n a t su g g e s tio n o f th e p r in c ip a l. itie s

a r o s e i n w h ic h t e a c h e r s c o u l d r e f e r

p a r t s o f them ,

Many o p p o r tu n ­

th e s e books, or

to p a r e n ts f o r r e a d in g abou t p a r t i c u la r prob­

le m s f a c i n g c h i l d r e n .

The b o o k s w ere b e i n g c h e c k e d i n a n d

o u t c o n tin u o u s ly th rough ou t th e y e a r .

T h is y e a r th e p u rc h a se

o f a d d i t i o n a l , b o o k s f o r p a r e n t s w i l l b e made. Im p rovem en t o f h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h t h e p r im a r y r e a d i n g p r o g r a m .

A l t h o u g h t h e new p r o g r e s s r e p o r t

c a r d form s t r e s s i n g u s e o f t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e t e c h n i q u e was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t i m u l a t i n g Im p roved hom eschool r e la tio n s h ip s ; th is

i t was n o t t h e o n l y o n e i n v o l v e d a t

e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l in F u l l e r t o n .

same y e a r ,

S ta r tin g e a r ly in th e

an a t t e m p t was made t o e n l i g h t e n p a r e n t s a s t o

th e g o a ls and t e c h n iq u e s o f t e a c h in g r e a d in g th ro u g h a p a ren t-tea ch er a ss o c ia tio n

sponsored p a n e l d is c u s s io n .

The p a n e l was p l a n n e d -th e p r e v i o u s y e a r when t h e n e w ly e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s met w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l t o p l a n p r o g r a m s f o r t h e c o m in g y e a r . e x c e lle n t

teach ers,

Two s e l e c t e d p a r e n t s ,

th ree s e le c te d

a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l c o m p o sed t h e p a n e l .

A s u p e r io r t e a c h e r a c t e d a s c o o r d in a t o r and m o d era to r.

The a u d i e n c e was i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e .

The p r o g r a m was

p l a n n e d w e l l i n a d v a n c e t h r o u g h t h e members m e e t i n g t o ­ g e th e r s e v e r a l tim es.

Key q u e s t i o n s w e r e p l a n t e d among

p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s in th e a u d ie n c e . q u e s tio n s b ers.

A n sw ers t o t h e s e

and t o o t h e r s w e r e p r e p a r e d by t h e p a n e l mem­

E a ch t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t o n , t h e p a n e l f i r s t

gave a

b r i e f t a l k on some p h a s e o f c h i l d t r a i n i n g t h a t w o u ld c o n ­ t r i b u t e tow ard r e a d in e s s in r e a d in g .

The p r i n c i p a l g a v e

a t a l k u p on t h e g o a l s o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m , som e s p e c i f i c f a c t s

and h e s t a t e d

a b o u t t h e t e a c h i n g o f p r im a r y r e a d i n g .

I t was i m p r e s s i v e how w e l l e a c h f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g came o u t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n and q u e s t i o n s . and a c t i v i t y ,

th e e m o tio n a l l i f e

H ea lth , p la y

o f th e c h ild ,

a ttitu d e s,

p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l m a t u r i t y , m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g , p h o n ic s,

d isc ip lin e ,

oth er to p ic s

p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s and a number o f

came i n f o r t h e i r s h a r e o f d i s c u s s i o n .

The

p a r e n t group;' was e x t r e m e l y w e l l p l e a s e d w i t h t h e d i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d .

T hey w e n t away w i t h a f e e l i n g o f

s a t i s f a c t i o n and o f s e c u r i t y i n t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i n i t i a l s t e p s i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d w e re b e i n g h a n d l e d b y c a p a b l e p e o p l e who n o t o n l y knew how t o t e a c h r e a d i n g , b u t who u n d e r s t o o d t h e w h o le c h i l d a s w e l l . had i t s

e ffe cts

The d i s c u s s i o n

i n g o o d w i l l f o r m o n th s t o come, a n d g a v e

p a r e n t s a b a s i s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g l y i n room and i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s i n th e f u t u r e .

P a r e n t s on t h e

33 paneH w ere e s p e c i a l l y p l e a s e d t h a t t h e y c o u ld c o n t r i b u t e s o a b l y i n an a c a d e m ic d i s c u s s i o n , d ia n ce l e f t

and p a r e n t s i n

th e au-

f e e l i n g t h a t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s a t home i n

se n d in g a h e a lth y ,

s ta b le ,

w e ll-r o u n d e d c h i ld to s c h o o l

was a s g r e a t a c o n t r i b u t i o n a s c o u l d b e made.

G iv in g p a r­

e n t s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s and s h o w in g them w h at t h e y c a n do i s p e r h a p s o n e o f t h e s c h o o l ’ s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u ­ tio n s ly

to i t s

own p ro g ra m o f e d u c a t i o n .

T h i s was e f f e c t i v e ­

a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h a g rou p o f p a r e n t s a t t h i s m e e t i n g ,

a n d t h e t e c h n i q u e c a n b e u s e d i n any com m u n ity. The b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t r e a d i n g p r o g r a m i n t h e F u l l e r t o n E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l s s t a r t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r 1 9 4 7 - 4 8 w it h a c u r r ic u lu m s tu d y p la n i n i t i a t e d by th e s u p e r in t e n d e n t . The S c o t t ,

F oresm an a n d Company s e r i e s

b o o k s was a d o p t e d a t t h a t t i m e . was o b t a i n e d t o i n i t i a t e

o f f i r s t grade r e a d in g

E x p e r t o u t o f d i s t r i c t help:,

th e program ,

and th e r e s u l t i n g i n -

s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s was an e x c e l l e n t stim u lu s.

The c u r r i c u l u m a t e a c h l e v e l was s t u d i e d a n d a

m im e o g r a p h e d -v o lu m e o f t h e r e s u l t s was p r e p a r e d .

I t. has

s e r v e d a s an e x c e l l e n t g u i d e f o r b o t h p e r m a n e n t a n d new te a c h e r s to th e system .

The s e r i e s o f r e a d i n g b o o k s adop­

ted fo r f i r s t

grad e l e v e l h a s s i n c e b een e x te n d e d th rou gh

th ir d grade.

E ach y e a r t h e t e a c h e r s o f e a c h g r a d e h a v e

h e ld m ee tin g s w ith e a c h o th e r ,

and m e e t i n g s on r e a d i n g h a v e

b een h e l d by th e g r a d e s a s a w h o le .

P arent co n feren ce tech ­

n i q u e s h a v e b e e n w o r k e d o u t and m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g h a v e b e e n som ewhat u n i f i e d .

F i r s t g ra d e t e a c h e r s o f t e n m eet

in th e a fte r n o o n in fo r m a lly to d is c u s s r e a d in g o v er a 'C o k e .1 Much b e n e f i t i s d e r i v e d ,

e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e new t e a c h e r s from

t h e s e in fo rm a l d i s c u s s i o n s .

The p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l

b e i n g d i s c u s s e d o f t e n m e e t s w i t h them . v i t e s fr e e d o m o f d i s c u s s i o n . ou t,

a ll fir s t

The i n f o r m a l i t y i n ­

Among o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s w o rk ed

grade groups u s u a lly have t h e i r f i r s t

co n fer­

e n c e on r e a d i n g w i t h p a r e n t s a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e e a r l y in th e y e a r.

T h is b r in g s s a t i s f y i n g e x p e r ie n c e s t o th e p a r ­

en ts o f th e f i r s t

grad e p u p i l s a s a w h o le .

s i m p l e and t o t h e p o i n t .

I n v ita tio n s are

A copy o f t h e f i r s t one f o l lo w s :

D ea r P a r e n t , On T h u r sd a y , S e p te m b e r t w e n t y n i n t h , a t 2 : 0 0 P .M ., th e m o th ers o f our f i r s t g ra d e w i l l m eet to g e t ac­ q u a i n t e d and t o t a l k a l i t t l e a b o u t o u r p l a n s f o r t h e year. T h e r e w i l l b e s u p e r v i s i o n on t h e y a r d i f y o u w ish your c h i l d to w a it a t s c h o o l d u r in g th e m ee tin g . We w i l l t r y t o f i n i s h by 3 : 1 5 . I h o p e y o u c a n come. Mary Lemke, T e a c h e r ^ When t h e d ay o f t h e grou p c o n f e r e n c e a r r i v e s , procedure s im ila r to th e fo llo w in g l i s t 1.

is

a

fo llo w e d :

P a r e n t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d and p r o v i d e d w i t h names

o f s e l f and c h i l d . 2.

The t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s t h e p l a n f o r i n d i v i d u a l con­

feren ces. 3 " L e t t e r s t o P a r e n t s " , F o rd A ven u e S c h o o l P r in c ip a l's F ile , F u lle r to n , C a lifo r n ia .

35 3.

R e a d in g r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s

a r e e x p l a i n e d an d mimeo­

g r a p h e d s h e e t s t o t a k e home a r e p a s s e d o u t t o p a r e n t s . 4.

The r e a d i n g p ro gram f o r t h e y e a r i s

e x p la in e d .

5.

I n d iv id u a l d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een c h ild r e n a r e d i s ­

c u s s e d a n d e x p l a i n e d w i t h s t r e s s upon p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 6.

Work h a b i t s t a n d a r d s a r e e x p l a i n e d and d i s c u s s e d .

7 . P a r e n t s a r e i n v i t e d t o come t o s c h o o l a n d v i s i t th e r e a d in g c l a s s e s . 8.

P a r e n t s a r e d i s m i s s e d a t 3 : 1 5 t o go hom e.

The m im eog rap h ed s h e e t s p a s s e d t o p a r e n t s i n c l u d e a number o f q u e s t i o n s w h ic h h e l p . t h e p a r e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d th e m a tu r ity t r a i t s

t h a t a r e r e q u ir e d f o r r e a d in g r e a d in e s s .

A c o p y o f a s h e e t t h a t was u s e d f o l l o w s : T h ese q u e s t io n s d e s ig n e d e s p e c i a l l y to d eter m in e p h y s i c a l , m e n ta l, e m o tio n a l and s o c i a l m a t u r ity w i l l g iv e a good in d e x to r e a d in e s s f o r r e a d in g . The a b i l i t i e s a b o u t w h ic h q u e s t i o n s a r e a s k e d a r e r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s i n r e a d in g . P h y s ic a l m a tu r ity 1 . Can h e c o n t r o l h i s e y e m ovem ents? 2 . Can h e s e e l i k e n e s s e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i m p l e fo r m s ? 3 . Can h e l i s t e n ? 4 . Can h e d i s t i n g u i s h s i m i l a r so u n d s and c l a s s i f y them? 5 . Can h e s i t s t i l l f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s ? 6 . Can h e s p e a k p l a i n l y , o r d o e s h e u s e 'b a b y t a l k 1 w o rd s? 7. Does he h a ve s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l o f h i s l a r g e m u scle s t o u s e c o l o r c r a y o n s and k e e p r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o t h e o u t ­ lin e s o f la r g e fig u r e s? M e n ta l m a t u r i t y 1 . Can h e r e l a t e e v e n t s i n s e q u e n c e ? 2 . Can h e s t a y on t h e s u b j e c t , o r d o e s h e w ander o t h e r i n a s h o r t t im e ? 3 . Can h e m em o r ize s i m p l e rhym es? 4 . Can h e remember d i r e c t i o n s ?

to

an­

36 5. 6. 7. S. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Can h e a n sw e r q u e s t i o n s i n t e l l i g e n t l y ? Can h e a n t i c i p a t e e v e n t s i n s t o r i e s ? Can h e e x p r e s s h i s t h o u g h t s ? ; Can h e g i v e t h o u g h t f u l a t t e n t i o n ? Does he want t o know t h e m e a n in g s o f w o rd s? D oes he l i k e t o h e a r and t e l l s t o r i e s ? D o e s h e know a b o u t a g o o d many common t h i n g s ? I s h e c u r i o u s a b o u t new t h i n g s ?

E m o tio n a l m a tu r ity 1 . I s h e hap py i n a s c h o o l e n v ir o n m e n t ? 2 . I s he s e lf - c o n f id e n t ? 3 . Does h e t a l k f r e e l y ? 4 . I s he w i l l i n g to ta k e tu r n s w ith o th e r s in th e u se o f t o y s and p l a y g r o u n d e q u ip m e n t? 5 . I s h e c o u r t e o u s and t h o u g h t f u l ? S o c ia l m a tu r ity 1 . D o e s h e a ssu m e h i s s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y when h e g e ts in t o tr o u b le ? 2. I s he fr ie n d ly ? 3. I s he c o o p e r a tiv e ? 4 . Does he r e s p e c t th e r i g h t s o f o th e r s ? 5 . D o e s h e p r o t e c t h i s r i g h t s b y an a p p e a l t o f a i r p l a y , by r e l y i n g upon c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t y f o r j u s t i c e , o r d o e s h e r e l y upon h i s own f o r c e ? When f a c e d w i t h work b e y o n d h i s p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , em o tio n a l or s o c i a l l e v e l o f m a tu r ity th e c h i l d f e e l s i n a d e q u a t e , s t u p i d and o u t s i d e t h e g r o u p . The damage t o t h e c h i l d ’ s f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y and s e n s e o f a c h i e v e ­ ment f r e q u e n t l y fo r m s a l a s t i n g b l o c k t o s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l a n d i n a d j u s t m e n t t o l i f e and w o r k . 4 The a b o v e l e t t e r

and t h e l i s t

o f r e a d in g r e a d in e s s

q u e s t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d t o show e x a c t l y how o n e s c h o o l w en t ab ou t c o n t a c t in g p a r e n t s abou t th e r e a d in g program . r e a d in e s s m a te r ia l i s o r sh o u ld n o t be don e.

The

n o t g i v e n a s a s a m p le o f w h a t s h o u l d O b v io u sly ,

t h e q u e s t i o n s w o u ld h a v e

to b e h a n d le d s k i l l f u l l y by a t r a i n e d t e a c h e r .

^ M im eograp hed s h e e t , C a lifo r n ia .

F o r d A venu e S c h o o l ,

T hey a r e

F u lle r to n ,

37 u s ’e d m ore t o show p a r e n t s t h a t r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d i n g h a s a g r e a t d e a l to i t , ab ou t.

much o f w h ic h t h e p a r e n t can do s o m e t h i n g

The q u e s t i o n s a r e m e a ty a n d s t i m u l a t e t h i n k i n g among

p a ren ts.

T hey g i v e s o m e t h i n g f o r t h e p a r e n t s t o a s k q u e s ­

t io n s ab o u t.

The t e a c h e r h a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a n s w e r t h e s e

q u e s t i o n s i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l w ay. n o t b e t a k e n up a t t h e f i r s t

A l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s can ­

group c o n f e r e n c e .

P a ren ts w i l l

come t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e o n e s t h e y can ­ n o t a n s w e r t o t h e i r own s a t i s f a c t i o n . A s e t o f q u e s tio n s th a t p a r e n ts ask about r e a d in g h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d and c o p i e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o p a r e n t s o f a ll

fir st

grade c h ild r e n ,

in t h e p rim a ry g r a d e s .

an d t o t h e p a r e n t s o f new c h i l d r e n

T h ese a r e t y p i c a l q u e s t io n s t h a t a l l

s c h o o l s a r e a s k e d a n d an y s c h o o l c o u l d p r e p a r e a s e t . p u b lis h e r o f th e r e a d in g s e r i e s ,

S co tt,

The

F o resm an a n d Company,

h a s p r e p a r e d a s t a n d a r d s e t w h ic h can b e u s e d a s a p a t t e r n and w h ic h may b e d u p l i c a t e d .

The q u e s t i o n s h a v e p r o v e d t o

be v ery h e l p f u l in e n lig h t e n in g p a r e n ts about r e a d in g . T h i s e x a m p le o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e b u l l e t i n be v a r ie d to f i t

th e s it u a t i o n ,

th e p a ren ts o f a f i r s t

t h a t could,

c a r ie s a d e f i n i t e m essage to

grade p u p il b e g in n in g to rea d .

What i s R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s ? We w ant t o t a l k t o y o u b r i e f l y b y means o f t h i s l e t ­ t e r r e g a r d i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n o f _______ y e a r s who a r e j u s t e n t e r i n g t h e f i r s t g r a d e o f e l e m e n t a r y sc h o o l. When c h i l d r e n e n t e r t h e f i r s t g r a d e , t h e y d i f f e r fro m o n e a n o t h e r i n many w a y s . In a g e , t h e y r a n g e fro m f i v e

38 y e a r s a n d s i x m onth s t o s i x y e a r s a n d s i x m o n t h s . Even c h i l d r e n o f t h e same a g e d i f f e r i n p h y s i c a l g r o w t h , s o ­ c i a l d e v e lo p m e n t, c o o r d in a t io n , and m en ta l m a t u r ity . In o r d e r to p r o g r e s s i n r e a d in g a t a d e s i r a b l e r a t e , * t h e c h i l d s h o u l d h a v e an a d e q u a t e . s p e a k i n g v o c a b u l a r y , and be a b le to l i s t e n a t t e n t i v e l y , t o f o l l o w group d i ­ r e c t i o n s , t o m a tc h o b j e c t s , and t o r e c o g n i z e c o l o r s . Our p rogram f o r f i r s t g r a d e r e a d i n g b e g i n s w i t h a r e a d in g r e a d in e s s program . T h i s i n c l u d e s m a t c h i n g ob­ j e c t s , s e e i n g l i k e n e s s e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , c o m p a r in g s i z e s i n o b j e c t s and p i c t u r e s , d e v e l o p i n g e y e movement fro m l e f t t o r i g h t , b e i n g a b l e t o u s e s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s s u c h a s c r a y o l a s , p a i n t , p a s t e , s c i s s o r s , b l o c k s , and c o n str u c tio n m a te r ia ls . C h i l d r e n grow r a p i d l y a n d h a p p i l y i n m e n t a l , p h y s i ­ c a l , and e m o tio n a l b a la n c e i f th e y a r e g iv e n an oppor­ t u n i t y t o make t h i n g s , t o p a i n t a n d draw and m o d e l, t o i n v e s t i g a t e , t o q u e s t i o n , t o l i s t e n t o s t o r i e s and make them u p , t o p l a y d r a m a t i c a l l y , t o d a n c e and s i n g and l i v e v ig o r o u sly . They make a n d r e a d s t o r i e s a b o u t a c t i v i t i e s o r ob­ j e c t s th ey have a l l sh ared . I n t h i s way t h e y b u i l d up a r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y t h a t e n a b l e s them t o r e a d w i t h e a se in th e f i r s t books a s s ig n e d . The b o o k s i n c r e a s e i n d i f f i c u l t y u n t i l by t h e en d o f t h e f i r s t g r a d e i t i s o u r aim t o h a v e t h e c h i l d r e n r e a d i n g f l u e n t l y i n b o o k s w it h a v o c a b u la r y o f a p p r o x im a te ly 200 w ords. From t i m e t o t i m e y o u w i l l r e c e i v e an i n f o r m a l r e p o r t fro m t h e t e a c h e r r e g a r d i n g y o u r c h i l d ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s . We i n v i t e y o u t o v i s i t y o u r s c h o o l t o o b s e r v e t h e t y p e o f a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h a r e b e i n g c a r r i e d on a n d t a l k t o t h e t e a c h e r and t h e p r i n c i p a l r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o g r e s s y o u r c h i l d i s m a k in g .b . As t h e s c h o o l y e a r p r o g r e s s e s a b u l l e t i n

o f th e f o l ­

l o w i n g t y p e m ig h t b e s e n t t o p a r e n t s . D ear P a r e n t s , Many o f y o u h a v e a s k e d t h a t y o u r c h i l d h a v e h i s book ov er th e h o lid a y s b e c a u se o f th e i n t e r e s t o f gran d p aren ts and f r i e n d s i n h i s p r o g r e s s . We g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e y o u r i n t e r e s t and y o u r c o n s t a n t h e l p and e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t h e c h ild r e n . W h ile we h a v e n o t f i n i s h e d t h e l a s t f i v e s t o r i e s o f 5 "Home and S c h o o l Work T o g e t h e r f o r C h i l d r e n " , p.

45.

op.

c i t .,

39 t h i s b o o k , t h e y a r e r e v i e w s t o r i e s and o n l y two w ords w i l l b e new, two and h o u s e . Our aim a t t h i s s t a g e i n r e a d i n g i s t o know who i s t a l k i n g , and t r y t o r e a d s o we w i l l so u n d l i k e t h e o n e who i s t a l k i n g . C h ild r e n o f t h i s a g e sh o u ld n o t r e a d lo n g a t a s i t t i n g . Ten m i n u t e s o r l e s s i s l o n g e n o u g h . P r a c t i c e i s w o n d e r fu l, b u t i t s h o u ld be e n j o y a b le , n o t h ard work. Frequent r e a d in g w i l l s e r v e to p r e v e n t f o r ­ g e t t i n g o f t h e w o rd s l e a r n e d s o f a r . R e a d i n g t h e new s t o r i e s and e n j o y i n g t h e s t o r i e s t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n o f th e p i c t u r e s sh o u ld be fu n f o r your c h i l d . Thank y o u a g a i n f o r y o u r i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n . A v e r y m erry C h r is t m a s t o y o u and y o u r f a m i l y . J a n e S m ith , T e a c h e r S u ch a l e t t e r

s e n t t o t h e home a l o n g w i t h t h e r e a d i n g

b o o k w i l l make t h e c h i l d h ap p y and g i v e t h e f a m i l y a f e e l i n g o f b e in g h e lp fu l in te a c h in g t h e ir

c h i l d how t o r e a d .

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c h i l d and t h e f a m i l y w i l l b o t h g e t p l e a s u r e and a f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n from h a v i n g t h e c h i l d r e a d s o w e l l a t hom e. i

S i m i l a r n o t e s can b e d e v i s e d t o f i t th e y ea r.

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ta k in g a tu rn , l i t t l e th em .

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c l o s e h o m e-sch o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s w e ll as in fo r m in g p a r e n ts about th e te a c h in g o f r e a d in g . Toward t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r a l e t t e r

or n ote

m im eo g r a p h ed f o r t h e o c c a s i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e b e l o w , may b e s e n t home t o t h e p a r e n t s o f a d v a n c e d f i r s t

grade or se c ­

ond g r a d e p u p i l s . D ear P a r e n t s , J u s t ab ou t t h i s tim e o f y e a r I ta k e in v e n t o r y o f a number o f t h i n g s . T h is i n v e n t o r y i n c l u d e s t h e number o f

40 b o o k s r e a d d u r i n g t h e y e a r b y e a c h p u p i l , b o o k s l o s t and f o u n d , s u p p l i e s on h a n d , e t c . M ost i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , h o w e v e r , i s an i n v e n t o r y o f how much t h e c h i l d r e n h a v e p r o g r e s s e d e m o t io n a lly and s o c i a l l y . I have s i n c e r e ly t r i e d t o make e a c h c h i l d f e e l t h a t h e i s an i m p o r t a n t member o f o u r g r o u p , and t o g i v e e a c h o n e a f e e l i n g o f su ccess. Tomorrow, T u e s d a y , t h e c l a s s i s g o i n g t o v i s i t t h e p u b lic lib r a r y . The c h i l d r e n who do n o t a l r e a d y h a v e l i b r a r y c a r d s w i l l b r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s home f o r p a r e n t s to s ig n . The p u b l i c l i b r a r y h a s an e x c e l l e n t l y o r g a n ­ i z e d b o o k c l u b f o r c h i l d r e n ’ s summer r e a d i n g . P le a se e n c o u r a g e y o u r c h i l d t o j o i n t h e c l u b and t h e n t o r e a d b o o k s t h a t a r e e a s y f o r h im . Remember, we w ant him t o l i k e r e a d in g , but he w i l l n ot l i k e i t i f th e books are t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r him t o r e a d r e a d i l y . It is b etter f o r a c h i l d t o r e a d many e a s y b o o k s t h a n t o p u z z l e o v e r a few d i f f i c u l t o n e s . The l i b r a r i a n s a r e e a g e r t o h e l p your c h ild f in d th e r ig h t books. I h a v e b e e n more t h a n p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t shown b y m o st o f y o u r c h i l d r e n i n r e a d i n g l i b r a r y b o o k s . You p a r e n t s h a v e h a d much t o do w i t h t h i s f o r i t i s t h e i n ­ t e r e s t e d p a r e n t w h o se c h i l d u s u a l l y c h o o s e s t o r e a d many e x tr a book s. P l e a s e make y o u r c h i l d f e e l t h a t y o u e n j o y h e a r i n g him r e a d . T h is i s m ost im p o r ta n t f o r h i s f e e l ­ in g o f s u c c e s s. You m ig h t b e i n t e r e s t e d t o know how many b o o k s w e re r e a d t h i s y e a r by t h e c h i l d r e n f o r e x t r a r e a d i n g . The h i g h e s t number r e a d by a n y c h i l d was f i f t y - f o u r . The a v e r a g e was e i g h t e e n . T h is i s v e r y good. I hope th a t you w i l l c o n tin u e to encourage your c h ild to r e a d books f o r f u n d u r i n g t h e summer m o n th s . I w i l l be happy t o c o n tin u e to g i v e p u p ils c r e d it f o r r e a d i n g b o o k s from t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y f o r t h e l a s t f e w d a y s o f s c h o o l i f y o u w i l l s e n d me a n o t e n a m in g t h e books your c h ild has read . A g a in , b e c a u s e c h i ld r e n f o r g e t v e r y q u ic k ly , p l e a s e en cou rage you r c h i l d to r e a d books d u rin g v a c a t io n . I s h a l l e n jo y w a tc h in g you r c h i l d p r o g r e s s in th e fu ­ t u r e a n d s h a l l a l w a y s c o n s i d e r i t a p l e a s u r e t o h e l p him or to a d v is e you i f th e r e i s a n y th in g th a t you f e e l I can d o. T h is h as b ee n a v e r y s a t i s f y i n g y e a r . V ery s i n c e r e l y , B e t tie P r ic e ,

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41 p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g n e e d s i n many o t h e r w a y s .

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s p e c i a l c o n f e r e n c e t o d i s c u s s how t o s e c u r e h e l p t o rem edy some s p e c i f i c h a n d i c a p , a p h y sic a l d e fe c t.

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t e a c h e r w i l l n o t i c e t h e s e n e e d s and c a l l th e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s t o them .

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th rou gh th e

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books p rep a red f o r p a r e n ts o f k in d e r g a r te n c h ild r e n -'in th e p a s t show s t h a t t h e y a r e p r e p a r e d f o r a d i s t r i c t a s a w h o le r a t h e r th a n f o r o n e p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l .

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l e t l e s s p e r s o n a l and i n t i m a t e and t h e r e f o r e l e s s

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from t h e t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l o f a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l t o

th e p a r e n t s .

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made f o r j u s t o n e s c h o o l .

43 The W i lm e t t e ,

I l l i n o i s K i n d e r g a r t e n Handbook® i s

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c o u l d a l s o b e an e f f e c t i v e

6 E t h e l F r i g a a r d , e t a l . , K i n d e r g a r t e n H andbook, W i l m e t t e , I l l i n o i s : The B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 3 9 , 1 9 4 7 . 7

K e n n e th E. O b e r h o l t z e r , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a n d S t a f f , " D avid G oes t o K i n d e r g a r t e n " ( D e n v e r , C o lo r a d o : The B oard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 4 8 ).



44 f a c t o r in g u id in g c h ild r e n th rou gh p a r e n t e n lig h te n m e n t. . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n t a k e n fr o m t h e D e n v e r b o o k l e t w i l l g i v e some i d e a o f i t s

co n ten t.

In some b u i l d i n g s a s e r i e s o f s p e c i a l v i s i t i n g d a y s i s p la n n e d . F o r e x a m p le , i n o n e s c h o o l p a r e n t s a r e i n ­ v i t e d a t i n t e r v a l s o f s i x w eeks to o b s e r v e th e la n g u a g e work o f t h e k i r t d e r g a r t e n . In a n o th e r , p a r e n t s a r e i n ­ v i t e d t o come i n s m a l l g r o u p s t o t a l k o v e r p r o b l e m s w i t h p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r . W ith t h e h e l p o f p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s , s t u d y g r o u p s l e d by m o t h e r s h a v e b e e n o r g a n ­ iz e d in s e v e r a l s c h o o ls to g iv e p a r e n ts th e o p p o r tu n ity t o d i s c u s s s p e c i a l p r o b le m s and t o f i n d h e l p i n many a s ­ p e c ts o f c h ild ca re, in c lu d in g h a b its of e a tin g , s le e p in g and d i s c i p l i n e , a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . D a v i d ’ s m o th e r may j o i n o r may e v e n h e l p t o form s t u d y g r o u p s f o r t h e p a r e n ts o f k in d e r g a r te n c h ild r e n . It

ca n r e a d i l y b e s e e n t h a t t h i s

ty p e o f in fo r m a tio n

i s p r e p a r a tio n f o r stu d y groups and c o n fe r e n c e s to f o l l o w . The v i g o r a n d i n t e r e s t d e v e l o p e d i n s u c h g r o u p s b y t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l a d m in is t r a t i o n w i l l d e te r m in e th e s u c c e s s o r f a i l ­ ure o f th e a c t i v i t i e s

su g g este d in th e b o o k le t.

c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s e n c o u r a g e p a r e n t s t o v i s i t ten d stu d y groups, teach ers,

see e x h ib its,

U n le ss p r in ­ sc h o o ls,

a t­

c o n f e r w i t h p r i n c i p a l s and

r e a d b o o k s and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ,

p a r e n t s p e r p e t u a t e an e d u c a t i o n a l l a g ,

th e

a c c o r d i n g t o Farnum.

The F u l l e r t o n E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ,

8

F u lle r to n ,

C a lifo r n ia ,

h a s p r e p a r e d a b r i e f h an d b o ok t o g i v e t o k i n d e r 9 g a r te n p a r e n ts a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e sc h o o l y e a r . I t was

® M artha Farnum, e t a l . , " H e lp in g P a r e n t s U n d e r s t a n d t h e S c h o o l , " T w enty- F i r s t Y e a rb o o k o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a E lem en ­ ta ry School A d m in istr a to r s’ A s s o c ia t io n , ( n .p ., 1 9 4 9 ), p . 31. S c h o o l"

9 D. R u s s e l l P a r k s , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , e t a l . , "We Go To ( F u l l e r t o n , C a l i f o r n i a : The B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n ) .

45 p r e p a r e d by a c o m m it t e e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r s in c o n n e c tio n w ith a d i s t r i c t - w i d e 1 9 4 8-4 9.

c u r r i c u l u m s t u d y made i n

The i n t r o d u c t o r y r e m a r k s f o l l o w :

We Go To S c h o o l i s a l i t t l e b o o k l e t f o r y o u - - t h e p a r e n ts o f a c h ild e n te r in g k in d e r g a r te n . The k i n d e r ­ g a r te n te a c h e r s o f F u lle r t o n p rep a red t h i s b o o k le t in t h e h o p e t h a t i t may c o n t r i b u t e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g - o f t h e s c h o o l p r o g r a m , and t h a t t h r o u g h i t s u s e y o u may b e a s ­ su red g r e a te r c o n fid e n c e in l e a v i n g your c h ild f o r th e f i r s t tim e. T h i s b o o k l e t i s an e f f o r t t o b r i d g e t h e gap b e t w e e n home a n d s c h o o l and make y o u r c h i l d ' s a d j u s t m e n t t o s c h ­ o o l l i f e a n o r m a l a n d a- h a p p y o n e . We s u g g e s t t h a t y o u r e a d t h e f o l l o w i n g ' p a g e s c a r e f u l ­ ly . T h ey may a n s w e r many q u e s t i o n s a n d r e l i e v e y o u r m ind o f any a n x i e t i e s t h a t y o u may h a v e r e g a r d i n g t h e sch o o l l i f e o f your c h ild . F o llo w in g th e above in t r o d u c t io n , p a r e n ts about th e age f o r a d m issio n , o f d a ily se s s io n s ,

r e g istr a tio n

ten d a n ce in fo r m a tio n ,

in fo r m a tio n i s g iv e n

tim e o f a d m is s io n ,

t im e

i n f o r m a t i o n , h e a l t h and a t ­

in fo r m a tio n about th e k in d e r g a r te n

e n v ir o n m e n t a n d c u r r i c u l u m , p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c h i l d f o r k i n d ­ erg a rten a tten d a n ce,

an d v i s i t i n g

in fo r m a tio n .

The m a t e r i a l

i s w r i t t e n i n s i m p l e l a n g u a g e t h a t can b e u n d e r s t o o d by any p a ren t. At o n e s c h o o l w h ere t h i s b o o k l e t was u s e d t h e p a r e n t r e g iste r e d

th e c h ild ,

t a l k w ith th e c h i l d ' s

r e c e iv e d th e b o o k le t a f t e r a b r i e f tea ch er,

and was t h e n e s c o r t e d b y a

room m o th e r t o a t e a w h ere c o f f e e and d o u g h n u ts w e r e s e r v e d . A number o f o t h e r p a r e n t s w e r e t h e r e ,

so th e k in d e rg a r ten

m o t h e r s h a d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l o o k o v e r t h e b o o k l e t an d t o d isc u ss i t

and t h e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n w i t h o t h e r m o t h e r s o f

46 k in d e r g a r te n c h ild r e n .

T h is g a v e t h e p a r e n t s a f e e l i n g o f

s e c u r i t y a n d a s e n s e o f " b e lo n g in g . to th e te a c h e r , a d istin c t

I t a lso l e f t

th e c h ild

w ith o u t th e p a r e n t b e in g p r e s e n t ,

w h ic h i s

ad van tage to th e t e a c h e r .

A number o f o t h e r C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l s h a v e p r e p a r e d handbooks f o r p a r e n ts o f k in d e r g a r te n c h ild r e n , a d e fin ite b ottom .

w h ic h show s

t r e n d t o w a r d b u i l d i n g p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s fro m t h e

T hese b o o k le t s

th e d i s t r i c t

can o f t e n b e s e c u r e d by w r i t i n g t o

su p e r in te n d e n t.

S e v e r a l k i n d e r g a r t e n h a n d b o o k s o f a more d e t a i l e d n a t u r e p r e p a r e d f o r an i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l h a v e r e c e n t l y ap­ peared.

Among them i s

S c h o o l a t S acram en to,

o n e p r e p a r e d f o r t h e W i ll i a m Land C a lifo r n ia ,

by S e ss a r e g o .

I t has.

b e e n q u o t e d from on p a g e f o u r t e e n .

T h is ty p e o f b o o k le t

can go i n t o much g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n

s c h o o l p r o c e d u r e s and

p r a c tic e s,

s o p o s s i b l y w i l l p r o v e t o b e much more e f f e c t i v e

in in fo r m in g p a r e n ts

th a n t h e d i s t r i c t - w i d e

ty p es d e sc r ib e d .

A n o t h e r v e r y c o m p l e t e i n d i v i d u a l - s c h o o l t y p e o f han d­ b ook f o r p a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n - was p r e p a r e d , b y 11 Danky. T h is book d e s c r i b e s th e k in d e r g a r t e n c u r ricu lu m

I® S u p r a . . p .

14.

11 E l i z a b e t h Jam es Danky, “Handbook f o r P a r e n t s o f K i n d e r g a r t e n C h i l d r e n , 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s p r o j e c t , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 9 ) .

47 fo r p a r e n ts in c o n sid er a b le d e t a i l .

I t c o n ta in s e x c e lle n t

m a t e r ia l f o r th e e n lig h te n m e n t o f p a r e n t s .

An e x c e r p t from

th e in tr o d u c tio n fo llo w s : The day y o u r c h i l d e n t e r s k i n d e r g a r t e n i s an im por­ t a n t day f o r your c h i l d . Baby d a y s a r e o v e r . He i s g r o w i n g up. I n t h e m onth s t o come h e w i l l h a v e o p p o r ­ t u n i t i e s t o form h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s , an d s k i l l s t h a t w i l l h a v e a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on a l l o f h i s l a t e r l e a r n ­ in g s and d e v e lo p m e n t. H is r e l a t i o n s a t home a n d a t s c h o o l mean much t o t h e y o u n g c h i l d . T h is y e a r w i l l o f f e r an i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n it y f o r b u i l d i n g a f i n e , w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y . Your c h i l d ' s f i r s t y e a r i s o f t h e u tm ost im p o r ta n c e . I n o r d e r t h a t h i s k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i e n c e may b e a s happy and as p r o f i t a b l e a s p o s s i b l e , your c h i l d w i l l .n e e d t h e g u i d a n c e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b o t h p a r e n t s and teach ers. We h o p e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s b o o k l e t w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a m ore c o m p l e t e u n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g o f t h e s c h o o l p rog ram and a s s i s t i n m a k in g t h e t r a n s i t i o n from home t o s c h o o l e a s i e r f o r y o u r c h i l d * We a r e a n x i o u s f o r t h i s a d v e n t u r e t o b e a s u c c e s s from th e f i r s t day. We o f f e r y o u o u r f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n . We h a v e o n e g r e a t common i n t e r e s t - t h e w e l f a r e o f y o u r c h ild . I t i s ou r g o a l t o h e l p him becom e t h e h a p p y w e l l a d j u s t e d i n d i v i d u a l y o u w an t him t o b e . 1 2 The h an db ook n e x t g o e s on t o e x p l a i n i n d e t a i l a b o u t r e g istr a tio n ,

a tten d a n ce,

le a r n in g s a fe ty r u le s , in g by e x p e r ie n c e , parent v i s i t s , e x a m in a tio n s, c o n tr o llin g nurse, fir st

c lo th in g ,

sh a r in g ,

co n feren ces, im m u n i z a t io n ,

f e e lin g secu re,

d e n titio n ,

a u d io -v is u a l a id s , 6.

sp eech ,

to ile t

le a r n ­ h a b its,

en cou ragem en t, p r o g r e s s ,

co m m u n ic a b le d i s e a s e s ,

Ib id .., p .

fo o d ,

a c c e p tin g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,

gam es and p l a y , m u s i c , a id ,

rest,

rest, e tc.

n u tr itio n ,

e x c lu sio n ,

h e a lth

illn e s s ,

th e sc h o o l

m id - m o r n in g l u n c h ,

48 To h e l p p a r e n t s s e e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f k i n d e r g a r t e n t r a in in g to f i r s t

grade e x p e rien ce ,

Danky made t h e f o l l o w ­

i n g s t a t e m e n t s t o p a r e n t s a t t h e end o f t h e h a n d b o o k . The k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d w i l l b e b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r f i r s t g r a d e t h a n h i s f r i e n d s who h a v e n o t h a d k i n d e r ­ g a rten e x p e r ie n c e . K in d e r g a r te n w i l l ta k e th e rough edges o f f . A fte r k in d e r g a r te n your c h i ld w i l l p la n n a t u r a l l y t o go on t o f i r s t g r a d e . H is b e g in n in g s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t w i l l h a v e b e e n m ade. In f i r s t g r a d e y o u r c h i l d w i l l n e e d t o u s e t h e work h a b it s he has d e v e lo p e d in k in d e r g a r te n . He w i l l u n d e r ­ s t a n d how t o s h a r e m a t e r i a l s , t a k e t u r n s , and p a r t i c i ­ p a t e i n g ro u p p l a n n i n g a n d e v a l u a t i o n . He w i l l h a v e h a d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b e a l e a d e r and a f o l l o w e r . He w i l l h a v e made a p l a c e f o r h i m s e l f i n a l a r g e g ro u p o f c h i l d ­ r e n h i s own a g e . More a n d more we a r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d i n g d e p e n d s on a number o f f a c t o r s . Some o f t h e s e may b e d e v e l o p e d a t home, o t h e r s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , and o t h e r s w i l l come n a t u r a l l y a s t h e c h i l d grow s a n d ma­ tu res. K in d e r g a r te n e n r ic h e s th e c h i l d ' s b ack grou n d f o r b e g in n in g r e a d in g . Your c h i l d w i l l h a v e l e a r n e d t o l o v e and a p p r e c i a t e b o o k s . He may u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e c h a n ic s o f r e a d i n g from l e f t t o r i g h t and down t h e p a g e . He may u n d e r s t a n d .a f e w w o r d s . A lth o u g h r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d in g v a r ie s as c h ild r e n th e m se lv e s v a ry , h i s k in d e r g a r te n ex­ p e r i e n c e w i l l h ave s t r e n g t h e n e d your c h i l d ' s b a c k g r o u n d .13 The C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n h a s r e c ­ o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r a h a n d b oo k f o r t e a c h e r s o f y o u n g c h i l d ­ ren.

S u ch a b o o k l e t h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r t e a c h e r s

o f k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y g r a d e s e n t i t l e d Home a n d S c h o o l Work T o g e t h e r f o r Young C h i l d r e n .

I t was p r e p a r e d u n d e r t h e d i ­

r e c t i o n o f M is s H e l e n H e f f e r n a n , A s s i s t a n t

C h ie f,

D iv isio n

o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n C h arge o f E le m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n f o r o r n ia .

Mr. R a lp h E c k e r t ,

15 I b i d .,

pp.

C a lif­

C o n su lta n t in P a r e n t E d u c a tio n ,

7 0 -7 1 .

49 prepared th e f i r s t p a r t o f th e b o o k le t.

He i n d i c a t e s f i v e

ways i n w h ic h t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n o r p r i m a r y t e a c h e r c a n work e f f e c t i v e l y w ith p a r e n ts , teach ers,

n a m e ly ,

t h r o u g h home c a l l s by

o b s e r v a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p a r e n t s ,

in d i­

v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s a s a s u p p le m e n t t o o r a s u b s t i t u t e f o r rep ort card s, a lib r a r y

group c o n f e r e n c e s and d i s c u s s i o n s ,

and th rou gh

s e r v i c e c e n t e r e d a b o u t a f e w o f t h e m o st h e l p f u l

books fo r p a r e n ts . F a ith S m itte r ,

In t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e h a n d b o o k , Mrs.

C o n s u lta n t in E lem en ta ry E d u c a tio n ,

has p re­

p a r e d an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i v e and s i x - y e a r o l d d e s i g n e d t o p r o m o te u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n o r m a l p a t t e r n s and p r o b le m s o f d e v e lo p m e n t on t h e p a r t o f b o t h t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s . A t t e m p t h a s b e e n made h e r e t o a c q u a i n t t h e r e a d e r w ith o n ly a few o f th e handbooks t h a t a r e p r e p a r e d f o r u se in th e k in d e r g a r te n a r e a . use have been su g g e s te d .

A lso ,

a few te c h n iq u e s f o r t h e i r

I t w i l l be w is e f o r anyone p r e ­

p a r i n g a h an db ook t o s e c u r e a number o f them fro m t h e s m a l l d istr ic t

to s t a t e l e v e l ,

w ith te a c h e r s ,

su p e rv iso r s,

f u l m e th o d s o f u s e . u c a tio n ,

s t u d y them t h o r o u g h l y ,

and c o n s u l t

and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s t o s u c c e s s ­

The C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f Ed­

b e in g a l e r t to p r e se n t tre n d s in k in d e r g a r te n -

p r im a r y e d u c a t i o n ,

is

w e ll p rep a red to su p p ly v a lu a b le in ­

f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e i n t h e m a t t e r .

CHAPTER IV BUILDING UNDERSTANDING THROUGH GROUPS I m p r o v in g h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s tr a in in g o f te a c h e r s. th at i t

is

th ro u g h I n - s e r v i c e

D iffe r e n t a u t h o r it ie s have su g g ested

n o t p o s s i b l e t o h a v e a p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p rogra m

u n t i l t e a c h e r s a r e t r a i n e d i n m e th o d s o f i n f o r m i n g p a r e n t s . O th ers h a v e s a i d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n o r im p r o v e m e n t d e p e n d s upon t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u r r i c u ­ lum d e v e l o p m e n t .

The i m p l i c a t i o n o f s u c h s t a t e m e n t s i s

t h a t s t a n d a r d s o f t e a c h e r s m ust b e r a i s e d .

In o t h e r w o r d s ,

t e a c h e r s beco m e a d e p t i n m e th o d s o f w o r k in g w i t h p a r e n t s th ro u g h i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , d istr ic t-w id e

an d s u c h t r a i n i n g com es t h r o u g h

c u r r ic u lu m s tu d y p la n n in g .

i s r e s p o n s ib l e f o r su ch p la n s . p o lic ie s

He m ust f i r s t

th a t o p era te to c o n ta c t p a r e n ts .

becom e b o a r d p o l i c i e s .

The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t d e sig n th e

H is p o l i c i e s m u st

R ecent e x p e r ie n c e in d ic a t e s

m e th o d s m u st b e d e m o c r a t i c .

th at h is

He m u st s t a r t w h ere t h e p e o p l e

t h a t h e w o r k s w i t h a r e and c a r r y a m a j o r i t y o f them a l o n g w i t h h im .

He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p i c k i n g a c a p a b l e s t a f f and

o r g a n i z i n g them f o r s u c c e s s f u l work w i t h p a r e n t s a n d com­ m u n ity .

He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u b l i c i t y a n d i t s

of o u tle t.

c h a n n els

The p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s m ust b e c l e v e r l y p l a n ­

n e d a n d m a n i p u l a t e d b y him i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e an a t m o s p h e r e f o r t e a c h e r g r o w t h i n s e r v i c e and p a r e n t r e s p o n s e .

T h is i s

51

no s m a l l o r d e r upon t h e h e a d a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f a d i s t r i c t , but i t

is

a n e c e s s a r y one i f

or i n d iv i d u a l is t ic

effo rt is

n o t to be sp o ra d ic

in n a tu re.

A su rv ey o f th e su p e r v iso r y s i t u a t i o n

in C a lifo r n ia

by Wood'*" i n 1 9 4 3 i n d i c a t e d a t r e n d t o w a r d c u r r i c u l u m r e v i ­ s i o n o r im p r o v em e n t a n d i n - s e r v i c e

t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s by

d e m o c r a t i c m eth o d s t h r o u g h c o m m it t e e p a r t i c i p a t i o n

o f teach ­

ers,

and

p r in c ip a ls,

o th ers.

su p e r v iso r s,

o u ts id e s p e c i a l i s t s ,

The same s t u d y I n d i c a t e d t h a t u s e o f r a t i n g s c a l e s

f o r t e a c h e r s a s a m eth o d o f im p ro vem en t was d e c l i n i n g and t h e u s e o f t e a c h e r s e l f - c h e c k i n g d a t a was i n c r e a s i n g . S u p e rv iso rs l i s t e d h o ld in g in d iv id u a l c o n fe r e n c e s , c la ssr o o m s,

l e a d i n g i n c u r r ic u lu m d e v e lo p m e n t,

t e c h n i q u e s and m e t h o d s ,

v isitin g

d em o n stra tin g

and c o n d u c t i n g w o r k s h o p s a s t h e f i v e

h ig h e st d u tie s o f su p e r v iso r s.

R e q u e s t s f o r g u i d a n c e by

t e a c h e r s w e r e on t h e i n c r e a s e .

S i n c e t h a t t im e a number o f

s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have co n d u cted su ch i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n in g p r o g r a m s a l o n g d e m o c r a t i c l i n e s f o r t e a c h e r g r o w t h w i t h ap­ parent e x c e lle n t r e s u lt s . expanded t h e i r s e r v i c e s

C ounty s c h o o l s o f f i c e s ,

to o , have

i n t h e form o f a d d i t i o n a l m e e t i n g s

fo r tea c h ers in th e ir s p e c ia l f i e l d s

of in te r e st,

a d d itio n a l

1 E l D o r i s Wood, “T r e n d s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n - P r i m a r y S u p e r v is io n in th e S t a t e o f C a lif o r n ia ," (u n p u b lish ed M a ster 's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 3 ), pp. 7 7 -1 1 0 .

52 su p e r v iso r s or c o n su lta n ts,

and t h e r e h a s "been an i n c r e a s e

i n t h e number o f a r e a s i n w h ic h t h e s e c o n s u l t a n t s w o rk . F or i n s t a n c e , fic e

it

i s n o t u n u su al f o r th e cou n ty s c h o o ls o f ­

to have p s y c h o l o g is t s ,

c o n su lta n ts,

sp eech c o n s u lta n ts ,

g u id a n c e

and p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l w o r k e r s w h ere s u p e r v i ­

s i o n was o f f e r e d f o r m e r l y o n l y i n t h e g e n e r a l f i e l d s e le m e n ta r y or se co n d a r y e d u c a t io n , a rt.

of

and p e r h a p s m u s ic and

Few s u p e r v i s o r s w e r e s p e c i a l i z e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n -

p r im a r y t e c h n i q u e s ,

a n d now many a r e .

The p u r p o s e o f t h i s

stu d y i s n ot to

m e th o d s o f t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e , be a s e p a r a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n

in i t s e l f .

exhaust th e

b e c a u s e t h a t w o u ld I t i s r a th e r to

i n d i c a t e a number o f m eans o f t e a c h e r im p r o v em e n t t h a t can be u se d i n th e f i e l d

o f h o m e-sch o o l r e l a t io n s h ip s a s w e ll

as in o th e r a r e a s. The t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s f e w p r i n c i p l e s b e k e p t i n m in d . a n eed f o r such t r a i n in g . co n tin u o u s p r o c e s s . t o work t o w a r d ,

in s e r v ic e r e q u ir e s th a t a The t e a c h e r s m u st b e shown

I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g m ust b e a

T h e r e m ust b e c e r t a i n a t t a i n a b l e g o a l s

a n d t e a c h e r s m ust h a v e an i n t e r e s t

a c h ie v in g th e se g o a ls . fe r in g in te r e s ts ,

in

P r o v i s i o n m ust b e made f o r t h e d i f ­

n e e d s and c a p a c i t i e s o f t e a c h e r s .

The

m eth o d o f b r e a k i n g t h e p r o b le m down i n t o i n t e r e s t a r e a s ta k e s care o f th e v a r ie d i n t e r e s t s . t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d b e m ade.

A d e q u a te a p p r a i s a l o f G eneral u n d e r s ta n d in g

53 and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p r o j e c t s h o u l d b e s u c u r e d .

The p u b l i c

s h o u ld b e in fo r m e d .

T eacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n

p o in t o f d ep a rtu re.

A d e q u a te m a t e r i a l s a n d f a c i l i t i e s

be p r o v id e d .

m ust

The p l a n s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r r e l e a s i n g t e a c h e r s

from some o f t h e i r r e g u l a r d u t i e s . feel

sh o u ld be th e

secu re in t h e ir

effo rts.

T e a c h e r s m u st b e made t o

Some o f t h e m e th o d s o f i n -

se r v ic e tr a in in g tr a in in g o f tea c h e rs,

as l is t e d

by B a rr and

o t h e r s a r e p a r a p h r a s e d and l i s t e d b e l o w . 1 . The i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t e a c h e r an d su p e r v iso r . 2.

T e a c h e r s ’ m e e t i n g s a n d g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s .

3.

B u lle tin s,

handbooks,

and o t h e r p r e p a r e d r e a d i n g

m a te r ia l. 4 . D ir e c te d r e a d in g . 5.

I n s t i t u t i o n a l c o u r s e w ork.

6. D ir e c t o b s e r v a tio n d e v ic e s . 7. D ir e c t c o n ta ct le a r n in g d e v ic e s ,

su ch a s ,

tea ch er

p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n s and p o lic ie s, ^ m a te r ia ls,

i n c u r r i c u l u m m a k in g ,

in c h o o sin g i n s t r u c t i o n a l

i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f c r i t e r i a b y w h ic h t e a c h i n g

may b e e v a l u a t e d ,

a n d i n p r o b le m s o l v i n g . ^

The a l e r t a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i l l e m p lo y a number o f t h e a b o v e m e th o d s c o n t i n u o u s l y .

p

A c o m b i n a t i o n o f many o f them

A. S . B a r r , a n d o t h e r s , S u p e r v i s i o n A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 6 6 6 - 7 0 9 .

(New York:

54 w i l l b e u s e d i n an y i n - s e r v i c e is

tr a in in g p la n .

W hether t h e r e

a p l a n o r n o t t h e r e w i l l b e nu m erou s t a l k s w i t h t e a c h e r s ,

b o th fo r m a l and in f o r m a l,, a b o u t c h i l d g u id a n c e p r o b le m s. I n f o r m a t i o n w i l l r e g u l a r l y b e d i s s e m i n a t e d th r o u g h b u l l e t i n s . R e g u la r f a c u l t y m e e tin g s w i l l be u s e d t o d i s c u s s and s o l v e p r o b le m s o f a g e n e r a l n a tu r e a s th e y a r i s e . o f te a c h e r s w ith l i k e or in s tr u c t tea ch ers

S p e c ia l m ee tin g s

i n t e r e s t s o r n e e d s w i l l s o l v e p r o b le m s in s p e c i f i c a r e a s.

T e a ch er s w i l l be

a d v i s e d t o r e a d a l o n g c e r t a i n l i n e s o f p r e s e n t e m p h a s is ,

and

encouraged to tak e s p e c i f i c needed i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o u r se s. Time w i l l b e a l l o w e d t e a c h e r s t o a b s e r v e p r a c t i c e s n iq u e s under c u r r e n t stu d y . o b s e r v a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e ,

It

is

or te c h ­

th e i n v e s t ig a t o r 's

how ever,

t h a t o r g a n iz e d te a c h e r

p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e v i c e s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e im p r o v em e n t o f any s p e c i f i c a r e a . sh ip s,

I n an a r e a s u c h a s h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n ­

w h i l e t e a c h e r g r o w th on a b r o a d p l a i n

tea c h e rs need s p e c i f i c

v a lu a b le ,

tr a in in g in a d e fin e d area,

i m p r o v in g p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e t e c h n i q u e s . te a c h e r s in s e r v ic e i s

is

o f c o u r s e w e lc o m e ,

such a s ,

Any im p rovem en t o f but i f

sp e c ific

g o a l s a r e t o b e a t t a i n e d t h e p l a n o f s t u d y m ust b e d i r e c t e d to w a r d t h o s e g o a l s . once.

The p r o c e s s i s

A few g o a l s o n ly s h o u ld be a t t a i n e d a t c o n tin u o u s w ith d i f f e r e n t g o a ls b e in g

s t r e s s e d a t d if f e r e n t tim e s. group,

W ith a f a i r l y

sta b le fa c u lty

im p r o v em e n t i n s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t a r e a s ca n b e accom ­

p l i s h e d w it h in a few y e a r s o f tim e.

For i n s t a n c e ,

a school

m ig h t o r g a n i z e i t s

te a c h e r s fo r stu d y o f p aren t c o n fer en ce

t e c h n i q u e s on e y e a r .

The f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e r e l a t e d t o p i c

o f r e p o r t i n g t o p a r e n t s m ig h t b e s t u d i e d .

E ach g r o u p o r

g r a d e w o u ld m ee t t o g e t h e r an d s t u d y t h e p r o b le m a s r e l a t e d to i t s

own l e v e l .

M e e t i n g s o f t h e w h o le grou p w o u ld b e h e l d

a t f i r s t and o c c a s io n a lly t h e r e a f t e r to c o o r d in a te

e ffo rt

and t o w id e n t h e c o n c e p t s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l .

The

p r i n c i p a l o r s u p e r in te n d e n t c o u ld p o i n t o u t th e l a r g e r g o a ls a t su ch tim e s .

S p e c ia lists

to a l l a t su ch tim es.

c o u ld p r e s e n t f a c t s o f im p o r ta n c e

Not t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t ,

sh o u ld be se r v e d a t g e n e r a l m e e tin g s . fa tig u e in

th e a fte r n o o n ,

sp e c ia lis ts is,

refresh m en ts

T h ey n o t o n l y r e l i e v e

th e y b u i l d m o ra le .

At o t h e r t i m e s

w i l l m e e t w i t h t h e s m a l l c o m m it t e e g r o u p s .

That

an e x p e r t i n p a r e n t c o u n s e l i n g a t t h e p r im a r y l e v e l

w o u ld m e e t w i t h p r im a r y t e a c h e r s ,

and a s p e c i a l i s t

in th e

a d o l e s c e n t a r e a m ig h t m e e t w i t h u p p e r g r a d e o r j u n i o r h i g h school tea ch ers.

A c c u r a t e r e c o r d s o f c o m m it t e e a c c o m p l i s h ­

m e n ts m ust be k e p t and r e p o r t s m ade.

The w h o le s h o u l d b e

su m m a rize d and c o n c l u s i o n s s h o u l d b e m ade. be d is t r ib u t e d to a l l ,

C o p ie s s h o u l d

and p l a n s f o r f o l l o w - u p work m ust

b e m ade.

The p r a c t i c e s a d v o c a t e d s h o u l d becom e d i s t r i c t

p o lic y

th e stu d y i s

if

to be w o r th w h ile .

I n a n y s u c h s t u d y a s t h e a b o v e g r e a t c a r e m u st b e t a k e n s o a s n o t t o i n f r i n g e upon t h e t e a c h e r ’ s t i m e .

The

day may b e s h o r t e n e d a t t i m e s when l o n g m e e t i n g s a r e n e c -

essary.

The t i m e o f a l l m e e t i n g s can b e l i m i t e d t o a d e f i n i t e

p e r i o d , o f t h e d ay a f t e r c h i l d r e n a r e d i s m i s s e d , s tip u la te d fo r c lo s in g .

Some t e a c h e r s may b e r e l e a s e d from

c l a s s r o o m d u t y t o do s p e c i a l work i n r e l a t i o n and s u b s t i t u t e s p r o v i d e d . hours.

w it h a tim e

to th e stu d y

T h is w i l l p r e v e n t overw ork a f t e r

W ith r e a s o n a b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s ,

th e s c h o o l a d m in is tr a to r u n d e rta k in g o r g a n iz a t io n f o r t r a i n ­ in g o f te a c h e r s in s e r v ic e

can a c c o m p l i s h t h e g o a l s a s s i g n e d

w i t h e x c e l l e n t m o r a le a n d c o o p e r a t i o n ,

w h ic h d e t e r m i n e s s u c ­

c e s s or f a i l u r e o f th e p la n . S u ch an o r g a n i z e d s t u d y e f f o r t a s t h e o n e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e was u n d e r t a k e n by t h e F u l l e r t o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l D is t r ic t a t F u lle r to n ,

C a lifo r n ia ,

th ree years ago.

i n t e r e s t a r e a s d e te r m in e d w ere a r i t h m e t i c , w r itin g , la n g u a g e ,

s p e llin g , h e a lth ,

p rim a ry r e a d in g , sa fety ,

in s t r u m e n t a l m u sic ,

s o c ia l stu d ie s,

u p p er-gra d e r e a d in g ,

p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n ,

and k i n d e r g a r t e n .

C o m m itte e s c o u l d m eet

a n d many m et s e v e r a l t i m e s a m onth .

The work' o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m was e v a l u a t e d . m a t e r i a l s and m e th o d s w e r e s u r v e y e d , w e r e made i n e a c h a r e a .

v o c a l m u c ic ,

M ee tin g s w ere h e ld

o n c e e a c h m onth t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . as o ften as n ecessary,

The

The t e a c h i n g

and r e c o m m e n d a t io n s

At t h e end o f t h e y e a r t h e r e s u l t s

and r e c o m m e n d a tio n s w e r e m im eo g ra p h ed ,

and e a c h t e a c h e r r e ­

c e iv e d one o f th e s e v e n t y - f i v e p age c o p i e s .

A ll tea ch ers

p r o f i t e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s u c h a

57 stu d y .

T h ey a l s o d e v e l o p e d b r o a d e r c o n c e p t s o f t h e l a r g e r

g o a ls o f th e sc h o o l.

Many p r o f i t e d by t h e s p e c i f i c m eth o d s

and t e c h n i q u e s s u g g e s t e d .

Numerous c h a n g e s i n c u r r i c u lu m

m a t e r i a l s r e s u l t e d fro m t h e s t u d y .

T h ereafter,

t h e r e was

m ore c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t i n t h e s y s t e m a l o n g many l i n e s o f endeavor. pared.

A k i n d e r g a r t e n h a n d b o o k ’ f o r p a r e n t s was p r e ­

P a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e t e c h n i q u e s w e r e im p r o v e d ,

t h i s was n o t t a k e n up d i r e c t l y . procedures r e su lte d .

More u n i f o r m p l a y g r o u n d

When t h e s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d a l l mem­

bers o f th e te a c h in g s t a f f

se em e d t o h a v e a c l e a . r e r c o n c e p ­

t io n o f th e p u rp oses o f th e sc h o o l, s o n was d o i n g ,

a lth o u g h

o f w h at e a c h o t h e r p e r ­

and o f h i s own p l a c e i n t h e s y s t e m .

The

g r o u p was m ore t e a m - l i k e w i t h b e t t e r s p i r i t .

P a r e n t s w e re

h a p p ie r about r e s u l t s

F o r e x a m p le ,

t h e r e was much l e s s

o b t a i n e d i n many w a y s .

change in e x p e r ie n c e s f o r

c h i l d r e n when

t r a n s f e r r i n g from o n e s c h o o l t o a n o t h e r i n t h e m i d d le o f t h e year.

Out o f t h e s t u d y grew some s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s w h ic h

h a v e s i n c e b e e n fo llo x ir e d up, en ts,

g rea ter in te r e s t

such a s th e c o u n s e lin g o f p ar­

in p sy ch o lo g y ,

group stu d y ,

etc.

T h e r e se em s t o b e b e t t e r f e e l i n g b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t b u i l d i n g s and a r e a s ,

w h ic h l e a d s

p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a l l around. a d m in istr a tio n i s

to a h a p p ie r

F e e l i n g to w a r d t h e

e v e n more d e m o c r a t i c .

In 1945 t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s a t B rea ,

C a lifo r n ia ,

c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y among t e a c h e r s o f t h e L a u r e l S c h o o l f o r

58 t h e im p r o v e m e n t o f p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e t e c h n i q u e s .

R e su lts

w e r e su m m a rize d a n d e a c h t e a c h e r r e c e i v e d a c o p y . fro m t h e p r e p a r e d f a c u l t y r e p o r t o f t h i s

An e x c e r p t

group f o l l o w s :

I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e p r o g r e s s and n eed s o f i n d iv i d u a l c h i l d r e n can b e s t ' b e a c c o m p lis h e d th r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l con­ f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p a r e n t and t e a c h e r . T hese c o n t a c t s s h o u ld n o t be l e f t t o ch a n ce m e e tin g s a t s o c i a l g a t h e r ­ in g s , in th e p o s t o f f i c e , or a t th e bus s t a t i o n . U n le ss t h e y a r e made p r o f e s s i o n a l and u n l e s s t h e y a r e c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d i n a d v a n c e , much v a l u a b l e b e n e f i t w i l l b e l o s t . C o n f e r e n c e s h e l d w i t h p a r e n t s i n a c a s u a l o r u n p la n n e d m ann er, a t a t i m e when t h e c h i l d h a s g o t t e n i n t o d i f f i ­ c u l t y (a n d t h e p a r e n t i s c a l l e d i n a s a p a r t o f t h e d i s ­ c ip lin a r y proced ure) fr e q u e n tly le a d p a ren ts to f e e l t h a t th e te a c h e r i s i n d i f f e r e n t or even p r e ju d ic e d a g a in s t th e c h ild . A p e r m a n e n t a n t a g o n i s t i c a t t i t u d e may b e t h e r e s u l t o f s u c h an u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e . E ach p a r e n t i s e a g e r t o know how h e r c h i l d , w i t h h i s p e c u l i a r i t i e s and n e e d s , i s g r o w i n g and a d j u s t i n g w i t h i n th e e d u c a t io n a l program . I t i s o n ly as p a r e n ts s e e th e d e v e lo p m e n t and u n d e r s t a n d t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e i r c h i l d ­ r e n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n t h a t t h e y grow i n u n d e r s t a n d ­ i n g o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n a s d i f f e r i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i n u n d e r s ta n d in g o f e d u c a tio n a s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s . T e a c h e r s m u st a ssu m e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i n t e r ­ p r e t a t i o n o f each c h i l d ' s grow th and p r o g r e s s t o p a r e n t s . G r a d in g and m a r k in g a r e i n e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e t h e y p r e s e n t an i n c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e and f r e q u e n t l y d i s t o r t t h e f a c t s an d d i s t u r b t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e a c h e r a n d p a r e n t . ^ The r e p o r t g o e s on t o s u g g e s t t e c h n i q u e s and p r e p a r ­ a tio n n ecessa ry fo r su c c e s s fu l parent co n feren ces. be r e a d i l y

seen th a t c o o p e r a tiv e e f f o r t o f t h is

It

can

ty p e under­

t a k e n by a f a c u l t y g r o u p and d r a w in g s u c h c o n c l u s i o n s a s t h e above,

can r e s u l t o n l y i n t e a c h e r g r o w t h .

A c co r d in g to th e

p r in c ip a l,

p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e s w e r e much m ore e f f e c ­

tiv e a fter

t h e s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d .

3 M im eograp hed s h e e t , L a u r e l S c h o o l , B r e a , C a l i f o r n i a .

59 I m p r o v in g h o m e - s o h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s T eacher A s s o c ia t io n ,

th rou gh th e P a r e n t-

A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Bye Laws o f 1 9 2 9 o f t h e

N a t io n a l C on gress o f P a r e n t s and T e a c h e r s ,

th e p u rp oses of

p a r e n t-te a c h e r a s s o c ia t io n s are: 1 . To p r o m o te c h i l d w e l f a r e i n hom e, s c h o o l , c h u r c h , a n d c o m m u n it y ; , t o r a i s e t h e s t a n d a r d s o f home l i f e ; ' t o s e c u r e more a d e q u a t e l a w s f o r t h e c a r e a n d p r o t e c t i o n o f women a n d c h i l d r e n , 2 . To b r i n g i n t o c l o s e r r e l a t i o n t h e home a n d t h e s c h o o l t h a t p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s may c o o p e r a t e i n t e l l i ­ g e n t l y i n th e t r a i n i n g o f th e c h i l d , and t o d e v e lo p b e­ tw een e d u c a to r s and th e g e n e r a l p u b l i c su ch u n i t e d e f f o r t s a s w i l l s e c u r e f o r e v e r y c h i l d t h e h i g h e s t ad­ v a n t a g e s i n p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , m o r a l, a n d s p i r i t u a l e d u c a tio n .4 The t a s k o f t h e s c h o o l i s teach er a ss o c ia tio n p lish m e n t o f i t s above,

t o work w i t h t h e p a r e n t -

i n s u c h a way a s t o a s s i s t

own g o a l s ,

i n t h e accom ­

because th e se g o a ls ,

as sta ted

a r e e x a c t l y w hat t h e s c h o o l w i s h e s t o a c c o m p l i s h .

T h rou gh t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n chance fo r

e n lig h te n m e n t.

th ere is

e x c e lle n t

The p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n

w i l l a c t s o l e l y a s an a d v i s o r y g ro u p t o t h e s c h o o l , school w ill g o a ls.

co o p era te w ith i t

and t h e

i n th e a cco m p lish m en t o f i t s

The p r i n c i p a l w i l l h e l p g u i d e t h e work o f t h e p a r e n t -

t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n b y s e r v i n g a s a member o f o r a s an ad­ v is o r to th e e x e c u tiv e board o f th a t o r g a n iz a tio n . t h e work w i l l b e c a r r i e d on l a r g e l y by l a y m em bers. e r s may a s s i s t ' w i t h p r o g r a m s b u t m a jo r o f f i c e s

O th e rw ise T e a ch ­

sh o u ld be

4 P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n , Handbook N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f P a r e n t s a n d T e a c h e r s ( N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f P a r e n t s and T e a c h e r s , W a sh in g to n : 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 2 7 .

60 fille d

by l a y m em bers. Moehlman s a y s ,

"An a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e e m o t i o n a l

stim u lu s th a t th e p a r e n t-te a c h e r o r g a n iz a tio n c o n ta in s rep ­ r e s e n t s a p o t e n c y o r a p o w er t h a t r i s e s

f a r beyond t h a t o f

a t y p i c a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p . E x p r e s s e d fr o m

an oth er a sp e c t,

t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n a r e t o d e­ v e lo p c o o p e r a tio n w ith th e s c h o o l, h e lp

c r e a te p u b lic o p in io n ,

t o s e r v e a s an a g e n c y t o

t o p r o m o te g e n e r a l c h i l d w e l f a r e ,

t o s t i m u l a t e and e l e v a t e home l i f e ,

an d t o t a k e a s i g n i f i ­

c a n t p a r t i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f e s s e n t i a l l e g i s l a t i o n th e se pu rp oses.

fo r

A p a r e n t-tea c h e r a s s o c ia tio n needs a pro­

gram b u i l t a r o u n d s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s f o r w h ic h i t A p a n e l o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s

is

t o w ork.

can d i s c u s s

w i t h p r o f i t a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o o l p rogra m u n d e r t h e l e a d e r ­ sh ip o f th e p r in c ip a l or a te a c h e r .

D i s c u s s i o n s may b e

p l a n n e d t o d e a l w i t h a n y s u b j e c t o f common i n t e r e s t ,

su ch

as h e a lth ,

etc.

p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n ,

r e p o r tin g to p a r e n ts,

I n a h e a l t h p a n e l m ig h t b e a d o c t o r ,

a d e n tist,

nurse,

a teach er, p a ren ts,

a p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n te a c h e r ,

and t h e p r i n c i p a l .

th e sch o o l

I n a p a n e l on c h a r a c t e r e d u c a t i o n m ig h t

be a m in is t e r ,

b o y and g i r l

c h ild w e lfa r e ,

a tea ch er,

scout le a d e r s,

and a p a r e n t .

a c o n s u lta n t in

A p a n e l on t h e

k i n d e r g a r t e n c o u l d b e made up o f a k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r ,

5 A. B. Moehlman, S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 3 1 3 .

(New York:

a

fir st-g r a d e

teach er,

a c h ild p s y c h o lo g is t,

and a m o t h e r .

A p a n e l on b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g m ig h t h a v e a f i r s t - g r a d e : t e a c h e r , a r e a d in g c o n s u lta n t ,

and i n t e r e s t e d p a r e n t s .

A n other p a n e l

m ig h t b e made up o f a gro u p o f p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s ­ i n g c h a n g i n g m eth o d s i n t e a c h i n g . su ch d i s c u s s i o n s ,

The s c h o o l s h o u l d l e a d

and i t s p h ilo s o p h y s h o u ld be im p la n te d

w herever p o s s i b l e .

H o w ever,

be g iv e n e v er y c o n s id e r a t io n .

t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f p a r e n t s m ust The p r i n c i p a l w i l l a d v i s e t h e

p r o g r a m c h a ir m a n a s t o who s h a l l s e r v e on p a n e l g r o u p s , he w i l l a s s i s t c u ss io n .

and

in th e p r e p a r a tio n o f s u b je c t-m a tte r f o r d i s ­

I f th e s e l e c t io n

o f m a te r ia l i s l e f t

to l a y le a d ­

e r s th e v ie w p o in t o f th e s c h o o l w i l l n o t ta k e p ro m in en ce, a n d a c t u a l harm may b e d on e t o h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P a r e n t s may i n n o c e n t l y p o r t r a y t h e s c h o o l program a s t h e y rem em ber i t

from c h i l d h o o d d a y s and t h u s i n c u l c a t e a r c h a i c

im p r e ssio n s. To b e e f f e c t i v e ,

t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n m ust

h a v e a w id e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p a r e n t s , w e ll as te a c h e r s .

It

in c lu d in g fa th e r s ,

as

i s up t o t h e l o c a l u n i t t o f i n d ways

o f g e t t i n g f a t h e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e and t o s e r v e on c o m m i t t e e s , t o b r i n g i n t h o s e p a r e n t s who n e e d t h e c o n t a c t s a n d i n f o r ­ m a tio n ,

a n d t o i n c l u d e t e a c h e r s i n t h e p ro g ra m p l a n n i n g .

every in sta n c e i t to g iv e f u l l

is

In

n e c e s s a r y f o r b o t h p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s

t i m e and e n e r g y i n p r e p a r a t i o n t o make t h e p r o ­

gram a s u c c e s s .

The r e w a r d i n i n c r e a s e d f r i e n d l i n e s s ,

in

62 c l o s e r ha rm o n y , c h ild ,

in b e t t e r I n t e r p r e t a t io n

o f th e n eed s o f th e

and i n d e v e l o p i n g w e l l - r o u n d e d c h i l d r e n ,

e f f o r t w o r th w h ile .

m akes t h e

E f f o r t s o f p a r e n t s a l o n e can n e v e r b r i n g

about b e t t e r u n d e r sta n d in g .

The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f and

.th e t e a c h e r s m ust h a v e s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i o n .

T each ers,

u su a lly

h a v in g b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n s ' and g r e a t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g o f c h i l d needs,

s h o u l d l e a d t h e way i n b e i n g f r i e n d l y w i t h p a r e n t s . The p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n

is

th e b e s t agency f o r

p r o m o tin g and a r r a n g in g p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e s . c h ie f c o n tr ib u tio n s t i n g in fo r m a tio n ,

can b e c r e a t i n g f r i e n d l i n e s s ,

and c o n t a c t i n g p e o p l e .

g r o u p , by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s

Its

d istr ib u ­

The room m o th e r

and t e le p h o n e c a l l s ,

can b e ex­

t r e m e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n b r i n g i n g t h e home and t h e s c h o o l i n t o c l o s e h arm ony.

T e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s s h o u l d s e e e a c h o t h e r

o f t e n enough th a t th e c h i ld f e e l s th e te a c h e r .

no f e a r when m o th e r v i s i t s

The p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n

can b r i n g ab ou t

t h i s k in d o f s i t u a t i o n . I f p a r e n t s c a n b e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t o work i n g r o u p s , to stu d y to g e th e r ,

t o p u t on a d i n n e r ,

or f o r any good r e a so n

f r i e n d l i n e s s w i l l d e v e l o p b e t w e e n them . b e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t o s e r v e on a p a n e l . le ss

S e v e r a l p a r e n t s can P aren ts a re u s u a lly

sh y o f o th e r p a r e n t s th a n th e y a re o f t e a c h e r s o r s c h o o l

a d m in istr a to r s.

The l a r g e m e e t i n g w i t h a g o o d s p e a k e r s h o u l d

be f o l l o w e d by s m a lle r m e e tin g s o f th e p a n e l ty p e ;

An a l l ­

p a r e n t p a n e l m ig h t p r o v e a v a l u a b l e a i d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e

home t o t h e t e a c h e r s . w h at i s

T h i s may seem t o b e t h e r e v e r s e o f

n e e d e d , b u t t h e s c h o o l n e e d s t o know much more a b o u t

th e h o m e - lif e o f th e c h ild r e n i f p ro p er g u id a n ce i s g iv e n .

T e a c h e r s and s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m ust make p a r e n t s

f e e l w e lc o m e a t s c h o o l .

S c h o o l p e o p l e f e e l a t home t h e r e

and t h e y s h o u l d t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e hom e.

to be

t o make p a r e n t s f e e l a t

The p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e t h e d r i v e

t h a t makes t h e b u i l d i n g o f b e t t e r h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s u c c e s s f u l p ro g ra m f o r t h e b e t t e r g u i d a n c e o f c h i l d r e n . I f ad eq u a te s c h o o ls a r e to be m a in ta in e d , m u st a ssu m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p u b lic .

ed u ca to rs

to in te r p r e t th e sc h o o ls

The s c h o o l s b e l o n g t o t h e p e o p l e ,

to th e

and p e o p l e gen­

e r a l l y h a v e t h e r i g h t t o know w hat t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p rog ra m is

a ll

a b o u t.

P e r h a p s some o f o u r f a i l u r e s i n t h e p a s t a r e

due t o t h e f a c t t h a t e d u c a t o r s a r e e i t h e r u n p r e p a r e d o r u n t-jillin g to

t a k e t h e t i m e and e f f o r t n e c e s s a r y t o p r o p e r l y

in te r p r e t th e sc h o o ls

to th e p e o p le .

I t w o u ld n o t b e h a r d

t o t r a c e i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g and m a t e r i a l e q u ip m e n t t o t h i s fa ct.

It

i s a b ig o rd er, but a n e c e ssa r y one,

t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h o u l d do h i s p a r t .

and each It is

th e .

o n l y way i n w h ic h t h e p u b l i c w i l l e v e r r e a l i z e and p r o v i d e fo r th e needs o f c h ild r e n .

Time a n d p a t i e n c e a r e r e q u i r e d

t o b r i n g a b o u t c o n f i d e n t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f sch ool p r a c tic e s ,

b u t th e v a lu e o f even a sm a ll group o f

p a r e n t s who u n d e r s t a n d and s u p p o r t t h e p r o g r a m c a n n o t b e

64 m easured.

T h e s e p a r e n t s a r e o f im m ense v a l u e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g

th e sc h o o l to o th e r p a r e n ts. T e a c h e r s m ust u s e t a c t i n t a l k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s .

Many

p a r e n ts a r e w e ll e d u c a te d a n d 'a r e c a p a b le o f u n d e r s ta n d in g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l term s o f t e a c h e r s . s ta te m e n ts p u t in t o sim p le term s. down t o p a r e n t s ,

how ever.

O th ers w i l l n eed th e T ea ch ers sh o u ld n o t t a lk

They s h o u l d a l l o w p a r e n t s t o t a l k

and t h e y w i l l l e a r n much a b o u t t h e c h i l d t h r o u g h th em .

By

u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e home t o t h e c h i l d ' s t o t a l ed u c a tio n ,

t e a c h e r s w i l l be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o h e lp

s t r e n g t h e n t h e c h i l d ' s r e s p e c t f o r h i s hom e. sh o u ld n e v e r c r i t i c i z e m o st p a r e n t s f e e l

T eachers

what a p a r e n t h a s d o n e , b e c a u s e

i n a d e q u a t e anyw ay,

b u i l d up t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f p a r e n t s

and t e a c h e r s n e e d t o

in th e m se lv e s.

T eachers need to in te r p r e t th e a b i l i t i e s m e n ts o f c h i l d r e n t o p a r e n t s . a v o id e d i f itie s

th e p a ren t i s

M i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g can o f t e n b e

I n f o r m e d a s t o a t t r i b u t e s an d a b i l ­

o f a e h ild e a r ly in h is sch o o l l i f e ,

g u id a n c e i s

and a c h i e v e ­

and b e t t e r

c h ild

th e r e s u l t .

E d u c a t i o n w i l l make p r o g r e s s o n l y a s p e o p l e a r e w i l l ­ in g to su p p ort i t , not u n d erstan d .

and t h e y w i l l n o t s u p p o r t what t h e y do

P a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r can

le a r n to u n d erstan d e a ch o th er ,

to u n d erstan d c h ild r e n ,

and

b r in g th e g e n e r a l p u b l i c to u n d e r sta n d and p r o v id e f o r th e needs o f c h ild r e n .

65 C o o p e r a t i v e s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n "by p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s is

o n e o f t h e b e s t w ays i n w h ic h t h e w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n can

be p ro m o ted .

S tu d y g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e com m u nity l e a d t o

g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p r o b l e m s ,

and

p r o v i d e an u n e m o t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n w h ic h t o d i s c u s s p r o b le m s of c h ild r e n . o ffer,

In s u c h a g ro u p p a r e n t s h a v e a g r e a t d e a l t o

b e c a u s e i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r s c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e m o st

o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g from p a r e n t s , s c h o o l a b i g s h a r e o f t h e day i s

and a f t e r still

th ey s t a r t to

s p e n t a t hom e.

If

t h e p a r e n t ca n b e e n l i g h t e n e d i n s t u d y g r o u p s t h e c h i l d b e n e fits,

and i f

t h e p a r e n t can e n l i g h t e n t h e t e a c h e r a b o u t

t h e home t h e c h i l d a g a i n b e n e f i t s .

E v i d e n c e sh ow s t h a t

when p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s s t u d y t h e p r o b l e m s o f c h i l d r e n t h e y b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e m s e l v e s and e a c h o t h e r . C o o p e r a t i v e s t u d y m u st b e c a r e f u l l y g u i d e d b y q u a l i f i e d , p e r s o n n e l l e s t q u e s t i o n a b l e b ook s o r p o o r ly in fo r m ed sp eak ers be u sed as a b a s is o f stu d y .

R ecent r e se a r c h has

p r o v i d e d a m p le e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l i n t h e f i e l d n eeds,

o f grow th

a n d i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s among g r o u p s a n d b e t w e e n

in d iv id u a ls,

t o form a b a s i s f o r s u c c e s s f u l s t u d y g r o u p s .

No e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f e d u c a t o r s w i l l b r i n g g r e a t e r r e s u l t s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and g o o d w i l l ,

a n d no e f f o r t w i l l h e l p t h e

c h i l d m ore th a n e f f o r t t o e n l i g h t e n h i s p a r e n t s a n d d e v e l o p u n d e r sta n d in g in t e a c h e r s . An a p p r e c i a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f p a r e n t s f o r a g o o d

66 s o u n d w e l l - f u n c t i o n i n g s c h o o l p rogram i s f e e lin g of se c u r ity . medium f o r

a h a sis of th e ir

The p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n

is

th e

c r e a tin g th e ty p e o f i n t e r a c t in g r e l a t io n s h ip

b e t w e e n home a n d s c h o o l t o d e v e l o p t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n .

School

p e o p l e h a v e n e e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e home a n d p a r e n t s n e e d t o u n d ersta n d th e s c h o o l. ces,

p a n e ls,

co n feren ­

a n d s t u d y g r o u p s c a n b r i n g a b o u t t h i s m u tu a l

u n d e r s ta n d in g . g u id a n c e.

P a ren t-sch o o l d is c u s s io n s ,

S u ch u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s

th e b a s is fo r c h ild -

'When p a r e n t and t e a c h e r can come t o g e t h e r w i t h

m u tu a l c o n f i d e n c e and b r i n g t o b e a r a l l f o r c e s f o r p e r g u id a n c e o f th e c h i l d , w ill so c ie ty .

a ll

th e pro­

c h i l d r e n w i l l b e n e f i t and so

The h a l o o f a f i n e

in d iv id u a l i s

so g r e a t

t h a t p a r e n t - t e a c h e r g ro u p s a l l o v e r th e n a t i o n w o r k in g in c l o s e harm ony w i t h t h e s c h o o l s

c a n b r i n g a b o u t an im m eas­

u r a b l e am ount o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t to . a d u l t s a n d g u i d a n c e t o c h ild r e n .

Y es,

su ch e f f o r t s - m i g h t even h e lp to p ro d u ce th e

human r e l a t i o n s h i p s n e c e s s a r y t o s a v e a t r o u b l e d w o r l d , w e l l a s t o g u i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e I m p r o v in g h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t e a c h e r s * c lu b . b ility

Moehlman

sta tes

th at i t

as

in i t . th ro u g h th e l o c a l is

th e r e s p o n s i­

o f th e te a c h in g p r o f e s s io n to p o in t out to th e p e o p le

th e v a lu e ,

c o n d itio n ,

and n e e d s o f th e p u b l i c s c h o o l s in a

much more a g g r e s s i v e m anner th a n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e

6 Ib id . , p.

279.

67 sch o o l o r g a n iz a tio n . th at i t

is

I m p lic a tio n s o f t h i s

sta tem en t are

l e g i t i m a t e f o r t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n a s an

o r g a n i z a t i o n t o e n d e a v o r t o m old p u b l i c o p i n i o n f o r w e lfa r e o f th e s c h o o ls .

W it h in t h e s c h o o l i t s e l f

th e

tea ch ers

a r e l i m i t e d a s t o w h at i s d i s c r e e t a n d c o o p e r a t i v e .

W ith in

t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e y h a v e more fr e e d o m to a d v o c a te ch an ges i n p o l i c y o r reform o f p r o c e d u r e . W it h in t h e t e a c h e r s ' encouraged,

c lu b stu d y grou p s s h o u ld be

a n d i n f o r m a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s g l e a n e d t h e r e b y

s h o u l d b e d i s s e m i n a t e d among t h e l a y i n t e r e s t g r o u p s t h r o u g h tea c h e r p a r t ic ip a t io n

i n th e program s o f t h e s e g r o u p s.

Com­

m u n it y g r o u p s w i l l i n t u r n a c t a s a g e n c i e s i n c o n v i n c i n g o th ers.

S p e c i f i c o p i n i o n s and d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e n e e d s o f

t h e s c h o o l s d i s s e m i n a t e d t h r o u g h t h e L e a g u e o f Women V o t e r s , and t h r o u g h t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f Womens' th e se groups,

C lu b s w i l l go f a r i n

and i n t u r n c o n v i n c e c e r t a i n m a le g r o u p s w i t h ­

i n t h e com m u n ity.

T h i s p r o c e s s w i l l go on u n t i l a m a j o r i t y

can b e o b t a i n e d f a v o r a b l e t o d e s i r e d s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n ,

or

u n t i l g o a l s a r e c h a n g e d and d e s i r e s m o d i f i e d . The work o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' b e k e p t u p on a h i g h l e v e l . th e p ic t u r e .

P a r tisa n a llia n c e s are out of

Teacher w e lfa r e i s

v o r a b le sc h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n .

o r g a n i z a t i o n m u st a lw a y s

o n ly a b y -p ro d u c t o f fa ­

The i n t e r e s t o f t h e c h i l d and

t h e com m unity and t h e w e l f a r e o f A m e r ic a i n i t s

id e a l of

e d u c a t io n a l e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n it y s h o u ld a lw a y s b e k e p t

68 fo rem o st.

C o n f i d e n c e w i l l come o n l y i f

th e p e o p le f e e l th a t

c h i l d r e n a n d t h e s o c i a l o r d e r come f i r s t . The l o c a l t e a c h e r s '

c l u b s h o u l d s e t up a p l a n n i n g

board f o r th e d ir e c t io n o f a c t i v i t y . out a d m in is t r a t iv e pow er. board,

It

s h o u ld be w ith ­

P r o g r a m s may b e p l a n n e d b y t h i s

and d i s t r i c t a n d r e g i o n a l m e e t i n g s a r r a n g e d f o r c o ­

o p e r a tio n w ith o th e r c lu b s . c o n su lta tio n .

E x p e r t s may b e c a l l e d i n f o r

C on tact s h o u ld be k e p t w ith th e r e s e a r c h

and s t a t i s t i c a l d ep artm en ts o f u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d 'w ith th e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n .

News and p u b ­

lic ity

p l a n s s h o u l d b e made f o r g i v i n g t h e p u b l i c s t r a i g h t

fa cts,

n a m e s,

e d ito r ia ls

and e v e n t s u n c o l o r e d b y p r o p a g a n d a .

and a r t i c l e s

sh o u ld be h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l .

Space in new spapers sh o u ld be so u g h t. s h o u ld be u s e d .

R a d io b r o a d c a s t s

E x h i b i t s and p a g e a n t s can be a r r a n g e d . A

lo b b y s h o u ld be m a in ta in e d a t th e s t a t e c o m b in e d e f f o r t o f a l l l o c a l t e a c h e r s '

c a p i t a l th ro u g h th e c lu b s .

I m p r o v in g h o m e - s o h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s com m unity g r o u p s .

A ll

th rou gh o t h e r

In a n y f a c u l t y g r o u p e d u c a t o r s r e p r e s e n t

m em b ersh ip i n a v a r i e t y o f com m u nity g r o u p s .

The p a r t t h a t

s c h o o l p e o p l e m ig h t p l a y t h r o u g h t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r grou p and t h r o u g h t h e t e a c h e r s '

c lu b h as been d e s c r ib e d .

How t h e

g o a l s o f t h e s c h o o l s m ig h t b e f o s t e r e d t h r o u g h some o t h e r com m unity g r o u p s w i l l b e b r i e f l y

e x p la in e d .

T e a c h e r s and

s c h o o l a d m in is t r a t o r s sh o u ld b e lo n g to su ch o r g a n iz a t io n s

as R otary, Women,

K i w a n i s , L i o n s , A m e r ic a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y

Chamber o f Commerce, E l k s ,

and c h u r c h g r o u p s .

M a son s, K n i g h t s o f C olum bus,

W it h in t h e s e g r o u p s e d u c a t o r s h a v e an

o p p o r t u n i t y t o m old o p i n i o n t h r o u g h e x p r e s s i o n a n d p a r t i c i ­ p a tio n .

T h ey s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o s e e k p l a c e s on program

c o m m i t t e e s and o t h e r p l a c e s o f i n f l u e n c e .

Any t a i n t o f

p r o p a g a n d a m ust b e a v o i d e d t h r o u g h s u c h a c t i v i t y by members o f th e te a c h in g p r o fe s s io n . r e la tio n sh ip s

H o w ev er,

sc h o o l-c o m m u n ity

ca n c e r t a i n l y b e f u r t h e r e d b y s i n c e r e

coop­

e r a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f s c h o o l p e o p l e i n t h e e n d e a v o r s o f th e se groups, th ereb y .

and b y t h e f r i e n d l y a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s

I f f r i e n d li n e s s o n ly i s

th e r e s u l t ,

c o o p e r a tio n

an d u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l b e f o s t e r e d by f a c u l t y members and com m unity members g e t t i n g a ' c l o s e l o o k '

a t each o th e r .

A d u lt sp o n so red c lu b s f o r c h ild r e n a re e x c e l l e n t mediums t h r o u g h w h ic h g o o d s c h o o l - c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s may b e b u i l t .

Among t h e s e a r e t h e Boy S c o u t s ,

Cub S c o u t s , 5Young Mens'

C h r istia n A s s o c ia tio n ,

Womens' C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , S c h o o ls w i l l f in d i t p r o f i t a b l e o f t h e F o u r H C lu b s a l s o . th ro u g h i t s

sp e c ia liz e d

lo d g e groups, to

Y oung

and o t h e r s .

c o o p e ra te w ith le a d e r s

In f a c t ,

tr a in in g ,

G-irl S c o u t s ,

sc h o o l p e r so n n e l,

may o f t e n p r o v i d e p a r t

o f th e a d u lt le a d e r sh ip o f th e se groups.

T h is p r o v i d e s

an e x c e l l e n t w o r k in g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l a y a n d s c h o o l l e a d e r s f o r th e b e tte r m e n t and g u id a n c e o f c h i l d r e n .

70 A b ou t s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l w o r k i n g w i t h a d u l t s p o n s o r e d c h ild r e n s '

c lu b s ,

K y te s t a t e s :

The e d u c a t i o n a l a im s w h ic h a c t u a t e a d u l t s i n d i r e c t ­ i n g t h e p ro gram o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e sam e a s c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d w e lco m e them b e c a u s e o f t h e e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e s w h ic h t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ca n r e n d e r b o y s and g i r l s . P hases o f t h e i r in s t r u c t io n a l p r o b r a m s , s u c h a s n a t u r e i n t e r e s t s , h a n d i c r a f t s , and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , r e l a t e c l o s e l y t o t h e work o f t h e s c h o o l.? I t has been th e e x p e r ie n c e o f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r th a t work w i t h a d u l t s i n t h e com m unity i n d i r e c t i n g t h e work o f Boy S c o u t s and o t h e r c l u b s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s h a s p r o v e d t o b e an e x c e l l e n t b a s i s f o r b u i l d i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n s c h o o l p e r so n n e l, m u n ity ,

d e v e l o p i n g g o o d w i l l b e t w e e n s c h o o l and com­

and c r e a t in g a s p i r i t o f f r a t e r n i t y t h a t can n ot

be g a in e d o th e r w is e . in a p o s it io n it

o ffers

I t n ot o n ly p la c e s

school personn el

t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e home b a c k g r o u n d s o f p u p i l s ;

e x c e ll e n t o p p o r t u n it ie s to i n s t i l l

th e g o a ls o f

t h e s c h o o l i n t o t h e p r a c t i c e s o f com m unity a d u l t l e a d e r s h i p . S u c h a s e t t i n g can b e an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p r o m o t i n g g o o d h om e-sch ool r e l a t io n s h ip s ,

and i n i m p r o v in g c h i l d g u i d a n c e .

17 G e o r g e C. K y t e , The P r i n c i p a l a t Work (New York: G inn a n d Company, 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 4 3 2 .

CHAPTER V GOALS IN HOME-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS The l e a d e r i n c h i l d s t u d y , A r n o l d G e s e l l ,

sta tes:

The i n t r i n s i c charm and g o o d n e s s o f c h i l d h o o d s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e th e b e s t gu aran tee o f th e fu tu r e p e r f e c t a b i l i t y o f m a n k in d . I n a m ore s i n c e r e l y s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d r e n , men a n d women o f m atur­ i t y w i l l b e t t e r c o m p reh en d t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r f e l ­ lows.-*The d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e a b o v e s t a t e ­ ment g i v e s u s o u r g r e a t e s t h o p e f o r p r o g r e s s i n t h e f u t u r e . I f we w i s h t o do j u s t i c e t o a c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y we m ust 4*

th in k i n term s o f gro w th ,

a c c o r d in g to G e s e ll.

t h i s grow th th e o r y d e v e lo p m e n ta lis m .

p

He c a l l s

D ev elo p m e n ta lism

a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t h e c h i l d and c o n c e d e s th a t h is b e h a v io r i s

s u b j e c t t o t h e n a t u r a l l a w s o f human

grow th .

T h e s e n a t u r a l l a w s can b e u n d e r s t o o d o n l y t h r o u g h

sc ie n c e ,

a n d s u c h l a w s w i l l h a r m o n iz e w i t h t h e h u m a n i t i e s

because th ey w i l l

im p r o v e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

The r i s i n g

g e n e r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s can and w i l l a b s o r b a s c i e n c e o f c h i l d d e v e lo p m e n t w h ic h a c q u a i n t s them w i t h t h e m ec h a n ism s o f grow th . I n a p r e v i o u s work G e s e l l a n d I l g

sta te,

"Our modern

-*- A r n o l d G e s e l l , The C h i l d from F i v e t o Ten (New Y ork: H a rp er and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 4 5 4 . i 2 I b id ., p.

452.

72 \

c u ltu r e Is

d e v e l o p i n g new a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o m e n t a1l

e x a m in a tio n s,

c h ild g u id a n c e,

a n d p a r e n t g u i d a n c e . M3

The The

^

\ i

b ook g o e s o n t o s t a t e t h a t p a r e n t s a r e o v e r c o m i n g u n d u e se n s itiv e n e ss c h ild r e n ,

\

c o n c e r n in g th e b e h a v io r t r a i t s o f t h e i r

and t h a t th e y u n d e rsta n d t h a t a r e a l i s t i c

a ttitu d e

w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e m ec h a n ism s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l g r o w th p r o m o t e s w h o le s o m e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

A c c o r d in g

t o t h e s e a u t h o r s , p a r e n t s a r e c o m in g t o r e a l i z e

t h a t ab­

i

I

s o l u t e c o n c e p t s o f c h i l d r e a r i n g a n d m anagem ent d e v i c e s h a v e v e ry l i m i t e d u s e s under th e d e v e lo p m e n ta l th e o r y . A lso su ch a p h ilo s o p h y e n a b le s p a r e n ts t o e n jo y t h e i r c h ild r e n . A q u o t a t i o n fro m t h e b oo k f o l l o w s b e l o w . An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i n g e n u i t y a n d i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e g r o w t h m e c h a n ism s r e d u c e s t e n s i o n s and r e l i e v e s many an i l l f o u n d e d a n x i e t y . One d o e s n o t h a v e t o b e ^ s o s o b e r l y s o l i c i t o u s and g r i m l y d e t e r m i n e d a f t e r a l l . I f we a r e t o em b race t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o o p e r a t i o n c a n n o t and sh o u ld n o t be a v o id e d j sh o u ld be in a u g u r a ted ,

P o s i t i v e program s o f p a r e n t e d u c a tio n and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . t r a i n i n g i n un­

d e r s t a n d i n g o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p s y c h o l o g y ,

an d c h i l d

s t u d y m u st b e s t r e n g t h e n e d i n o r d e r t o i n c u l c a t e s u c h know -

y

l e d g e o f human g r o w t h t o h i g h s c h o o l a n d j u n i o r c o l l e g e a g e 3 A r n o l d G e s e l l and F r a n c e s L. I l g , I n f a n t a n d C h i l d i n t h e C u l t u r e o f Today (New Y ork: H a rp er a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 286. 4 Ib id . . p.

297.

73 s t u d e n t s b e f o r e t h e y becom e p a r e n t s .

A c o n tin u a tio n o f su ch

t r a i n i n g a f t e r t h e y do b ecom e p a r e n t s w i l l r a i s e

th e le v e l

o f s u c h k n o w le d g e o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s from t h a t p o s s e s s e d by p a r e n ts

o f th e p r e s e n t day.

The n u r s e r y s c h o o l m u st b e e x t e n d e d t o a g r e a t e r p o r ­ t io n o f our p r e -k in d e r g a r te n age c h ild r e n b ecau se i t

is

com­

in g to be r e c o g n iz e d as a " c u lt u r a l in str u m e n t f o r s t r e n g t h 5 e n in g t h e norm al f u n c t i o n s o f t h e h o m e ." In many i n s t a n c e s , s u c h a s t h e Y a l e G u id a n c e N u r s e r y ,

th e n u rsery sc h o o l i s

a s s o c i a t e d w ith r e s e a r c h c e n t e r s and s c i e n t i f i c p s y c h o l o g y and c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t .

stu d y o f

A lth o u g h n u r s e r y s c h o o l s

o r i g i n a t e d more t h a n o n e - h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o i n E n g la n d , a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f A m e r ic a n c h i l d r e n a t t e n d .

o n ly

E ven t h e p e a k

o f a t t e n d a n c e t h a t was r e a c h e d d u r i n g W orld War Two h a s s u b ­ sid e d .

A lso ,

o n ly about h a l f o f th e c h ild r e n o f G a lifo r n ia

a tte n d k in d e r g a r te n , m o st o t h e r s t a t e s .

a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n i s much s m a l l e r f o r O b v i o u s l y much e a r l y

c h ild h o o d e d u c a tio n

i s b e in g n e g le c te d . - '

A r e c e n t C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n 6 b u l l e t i n p r e p a r ed by S m itte r l i s t s th e f o llo w in g s ta te m e n ts c o n c e r n in g p la n n in g f o r

5 I b id ., p.

th e e d u c a tio n o f young c h i ld r e n in

259.

F a i t h S m i t t e r , " P l a n n i n g A head f o r t h e Y oung C h i l d r e n i n C a l i f o r n i a , " A S tu d y o f E a r l y C h il d h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S a c r a m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , June, 1 9 4 9 ), pp. 5 2 -5 5 .

74 th e f u t u r e . 1 . Means s h o u l d b e f o u n d t o e x t e n d k i n d e r g a r t e n edu­ c a tio n to a l l c h ild r e n o f k in d e r g a r te n age. 2 . E ach s c h o o l d i s t r i c t com m u n ity g r o w t h .

sh o u ld con d u ct a s u r v e y o f

3 . L on g term p l a n s f o r s c h o o l h o u s i n g a r e i m p e r a t i v e . 4 . C a l i f o r n i a e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d come t o a common a g r e e m e n t on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r im a ry g r a d e s . 5 . P u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t o f e d u c a t i o n i s i m p e r a t i v e i f s c h o o l s a r e t o go f o r w a r d on t h e b a s i s o f p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d d e v e lo p m e n t and t h e p s y c h o l ­ ogy o f le a r n in g . 6. L e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d in g e a r ly c h ild h o o d e d u c a tio n s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t d e s i r a b l e and a t t a i n a b l e g o a l s . 7 . S u p e r v is o r y s e r v i c e and o t h e r i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a tio n p r o c ed u r es have n o t k e p t p a ce w ith th e tim e s. T here­ f o r e , c o u n t y and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s s h o u l d ex p a n d t h e i r s e r v i c e s s o t h a t no s c h o o l w i l l b e w i t h o u t a d e ­ q u ate s u p e r v is o r y s e r v i c e . 8 . The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f m odern l i f e and t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h ic h c h i l d r e n a r e e d u c a t e d make t h e e x p a n s i o n o f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s to c h ild r e n a n e c e s s i t y . 9 . A g r ee m en t s h o u l d b e r e a c h e d by t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n c e r n in g th e b a s ic p r o f e s s i o n a l r e q u ir e ­ m e n ts a n d t h e optim um p a t t e r n o f c o u r s e work f o r t e a c h ­ in g c r e d e n tia ls . 10.

Im provem ent i n t e a c h e r r e c r u i t m e n t i s

needed.

The a b o v e s t a t e m e n t s a r e- e n u m e r a t e d m e r e l y t o i n d i c a t e th e d ir e c t io n

o f f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i n c h i l d t r a i n i n g and g u id ­

an ce p o in t e d out by one C a lif o r n ia a u t h o r it y . e n l a r g e d upon i n t h e r e f e r e n c e c i t e d .

The i m p l i c a t i o n i s

c l e a r l y d e p ic t e d t h a t c h i l d g u id a n ce i s c a t e d p r o b le m when c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s

E ach p o i n t i s

a broad and c o m p li­

e n tir e ty .

S in c e th e

75 p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n v i e w s t h e p r o b le m fr o m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l ,

m ore n e e d n o t b e s a i d

h e r e about th e l a r g e r g o a l s o f e d u c a tio n a s a w h o le . The i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l o r d i s t r i c t h a s t h e r e s p o n s i ­ b ility

to s e e th a t a l l

e n r o lle d in sc h o o l.

o f i t s k in d e r g a r te n age c h ild r e n are

Much work t h r o u g h p a r e n t - t e a c h e r and

o th e r groups w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m p lish t h i s g o a l. E very e f f o r t sh o u ld be

made t o e n l i g h t e n p a r e n t s a n d

th e

p u b lic as to th e v a lu e

o f nu rsery sch o o l e d u c a tio n .

If

n u r s e r y s c h o o l s can b e e s t a b l i s h e d i n e v e r y co m m u n ity ,

th is

w i l l b e a tr e m e n d o u s s t e p t o w a r d p r o p e r g u i d a n c e o f e a r l y a g e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s , h om e-sch o ol r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

and w i l l

e sta b lish

im p r o v e d

S ch o o l p e r s o n n e l w i l l h ave to

work h a r d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s g o a l . E ach t e a c h e r m u st b e e n c o u r a g e d and h e l p e d t o i n ­ c r e a s e t h e number o f p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h e a c h p a r e n t and t o b r o a d e n t h e b a s e o f p a r e n t s c o v e r e d . p r e se n t average of about f i f t y

The

p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s con­

t a c t e d s h o u ld be r a i s e d to o n e-h u n d red p e r c e n t a s h a s b een d o n e i n some d i s t r i c t s

and s c h o o l s .

s c h o o ls can be s t u d i e d

and a d o p t e d .

The m e th o d s o f t h e s e

W h ile t h e s e r v i c e s o f c o u n t y an d d i s t r i c t

school

o f f i c e s h a v e b e e n e x p a n d e d i n p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l a n d new ty p es o f su p e r v isio n ,

th ere i s

room f o r s t i l l g r e a t e r ex­

p a n sio n to p r o v id e f o r th e needs o f c h ild r e n .

A h ig h p e r -

76 c en ta g e o f

school o f f ic e s

s t i l l p r o v id e l i t t l e

o r no s u p e r ­

v is o r y s e r v ic e s to C a lifo r n ia k in d e r g a r ten te a c h e r s . o th er s itu a tio n s tea ch ers g e t very l i t t l e

In

s u p e r v is o r y h e lp

a t any l e v e l . A l i g h t e r p u p i l lo a d f o r t e a c h e r s and b e t t e r

eq u ip ­

m ent and m a t e r i a l s a r e i m p e r a t i v e n e e d s i n many i n d i v i d u a l sc h o o ls. is

The m e d ia n k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s

about t h ir ty -o n e p u p ils ,

h ig h as e ig h t y .

O b v io u sly ,

siz e

in C a lifo r n ia

w i t h some c l a s s e s r u n n i n g a s under su ch c o n d i t i o n s ,

n ot p o s s i b l e f o r a te a c h e r to have s u f f i c i e n t

it

is

con feren ces

w i t h p a r e n t s t o p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t a n d and g u i d e t h e c h i l d r e n . A m a jo r ity o f C a lifo r n ia te a c h e r s o f k in d e r g a r te n c h ild r e n i n d i c a t e t h e n e e d f o r m ore a d e q u a t e e q u ip m e n t. P sy c h o lo g ic a l

se r v ic e i s

a n o t h e r n e e d e x p r e s s e d by

n e a r ly h a lf o f th e te a c h e r s o f C a lifo r n ia s c h o o ls . The i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s h o u l d p r o v i d e b e t t e r tr a in in g fo r i t s much o f w h a t i s T here i s capped c h ild . still

tea ch ers.

The a l e r t p r i n c i p a l

in -se r v ic e

can s e e t h a t

needed i s done. n e e d f o r m ore c o m p l e t e s t u d y o f t h e h a n d i ­ C e r t a i n t y p e s a r e b e i n g c a r e d f o r b u t many

a r e i n n e e d o f s t u d y and h e l p .

t o 'be m e r e l y s l o w ,

The c h i l d who seem s

or does not le a r n to read w e ll but s t i l l

sh o w s no a p p a r e n t h a n d i c a p c a n come i n f o r s p e c i a l

stu d y.

W ith an e x p a n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n and an i n c r e a s i n g number o f young c h ild r e n in C a lif o r n ia ,

th ere i s

th e ever p r e sen t

77 n eed f o r e x p a n d in g h o u s in g f a c i l i t i e s . w ill

c o n t i n u e t o b e a m a jo r o n e ,

e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls b u t a l s o

T h i s p r o b le m a l o n e

n o t o n l y f o r p r im a r y and

fo r secon dary sc h o o ls a l l

too

s o o n when t h e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n o f t h e p r e s e n t a r e r e a d y t o e n t e r th e m .

The p u b l i c w i l l b e i n d e e d f o r t u n a t e i f

com es s u f f i c i e n t l y

it

be­

e n lig h te n e d to p r o v id e fo r th e needs o f

th e s e c h ild r e n in tim e.

S c h o o l p e r s o n n e l w i l l h a v e m a jo r

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o in t in g out such n e e d s. F u rth er stu d y o f th e k in d e r g a r te n -p r im a r y s c h o o l is

needed.

Due t o d i f f e r i n g r a t e s o f m a t u r i t y o f y o u n g

c h i l d r e n som e s c h o o l s a r e e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h u n g r a d e d s i t ­ u a tio n s d u rin g th e f i r s t

few y e a r s .

The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f

t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y o f c h i l d g r o w t h w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t su ch e x p e r im e n ta tio n s a re in o rd er a s n e v e r b e f o r e . T h e r e i s n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e ex ­ p e r im e n ta l p r a c t i c e s

s o t h a t t h e k n o w le d g e g a i n e d may b e

s h a r e d b y a l l who a r e I n t e r e s t e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f y o u n g c h ild r e n .

T h er e w e r e n e v e r more y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e

s c h o o ls th an a t p r e s e n t;

T hey a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s w i l l n e e d

a l l o f t h e g u i d a n c e t h a t ca n b e g i v e n them i n p r e p a r a t i o n fo r l i f e

i n a f a s t c h a n g in g w o r ld .

Numerous o t h e r p r o b l e m s f o r f u t u r e s o l u t i o n

c o u ld

be l i s t e d ,

b u t many o f them w o u ld b e s o l v e d by p r o p e r a t ­

te n tio n

th o se l i s t e d

to

above,

su ch a s r e d u c in g c l a s s

t o p r o v i d e more t i m e f o r p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e s .

siz e

The b u r d e n o f

a d e q u a t e r e c o r d k e e p i n g and c l e r i c a l d u t y w o u ld a l s o b e s o lv e d by r e d u c in g th e s i z e

of c la s s e s .

P o s s ib ly tea ch er

r e c r u i t m e n t p r o b l e m s w o u ld b e l a r g e l y s o l v e d i f

th e teach -,

ers

j o b w e r e made m ore p l e a s a n t b y p r o v i d i n g s m a l l e r c l a s s ­

es,

b e tte r b u ild in g s,

an d more a d e q u a t e e q u ip m e n t.

C

~~~

P o s s i b l y t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f k n o w le d g e c o n c e r n i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n t o p a r e n t s o f p r e - p r i m a r y and p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n w i l l do more t o r e d u c e and e l i m i n a t e t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g e d u c a t i o n t o d a y t h a n any o t h e r o n e t h i n g . T h i s p l a c e s a g r a v e and i m p o r t a n t c h a l l e n g e d i r ^ c t l ^ O I j r ' t o p r i n c i p a l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and t o h i s sta ff.

At no p l a c e i n t h e w h o le p i c t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n can

e f f o r t s b e more d i r e c t o r e f f e c t i v e p aren t,

and p r i n c i p a l s i t

p r o b le m s.

The a t t i t u d e

t h a n w h er e t e a c h e r ,

down t o g e t h e r t o d i s c u s s a c h i l d ’ s

o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c may p o s s i b l y

b e e f f e c t e d t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e a t t h i s l e v e l t h a n by a n y ­ th in g e ls e

t h a t e d u c a t o r s m ig h t d o .

I t n eed n ot be s a id

t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r and p r i n c i p a l m ust t h e r e f o r e b e e d u c a t o r s o f t h e h i g h e s t t y p e / f o r upon them r e s t s

t h e w h o le

b a s i s o f t h e p rogra m o f c h i l d g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h p u b l i c r e l a ­ tio n s.

The a t t i t u d e s

o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t s to w a r d e d u c a t i o n

a s a w h o le a r e m o ld e d a t t h i s t e a c h e r - p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e \

le v e l.

Can we e d u c a t o r s s h i r k o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ?

CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS E a r ly b e l i e f s

i n t h e d e p r a v i t y o f man made' f o r a b n o r ­

m a l l y s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e from t h e t i m e o f t h e H ebrew s t o t h e n in e te e n th

cen tu ry .

L i b e r a l i z i n g and h u m a n i z in g i n f l u e n c e s

s p u r r e d on by t h e work o f R o u s s e a u , P e s t a l o z z i ,

P r y e r and

o t h e r s g a v e a new w o r t h t o i n d i v i d u a l i t y and a new u n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g o f c h i l d r e n and how t o t r a i n and manage th em . D a r w in 's

O r ig in o f th e S p e c ie s changed

and a im s

o f s t u d e n t s o f l i v i n g n a tu r e t o a s t u d y o f grow th

and t h e n a t u r e o f g r o w t h . h is

son ,

th e b a s ic c o n cep ts

S u ch w orks a s D a r w in ' s d i a r y o f

a n d A d o l e s c e n c e b y G-. S t a n l e y

t a l i n i n i t i a t i n g m odern c h i l d flo o d o f id e a s, p u b lic a tio n s,

H a ll w erein str u m e n ­

s tu d y . T here f o l l o w e d a o r g a n iz a tio n s,

e x p e r im e n ta tio n s,

s t u d i e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s a b o u t c h i l d t r a i n i n g .

The b e l i e f s

and p h i l o s o p h y o f J o h n Dewey c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e hu­ m a n ita r ia n tr e n d in

c h ild tr a in in g .

m ovem ent . c a r r i e d i t

fu rth er.

The p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l

We came t o r e a l i z e

t h a t k in d

treatm en t a lo n g w ith th e n a tu r a l l i n e s

o f g r o w th d e v e lo p m e n t

was m o st e f f e c t i v e

I t was a l s o

in

c h ild tr a in in g .

fo u n d to

b e n e c e s s a r y t o work w i t h a n d t h r o u g h p a r e n t s o f y o u n g c h i l d ­ ren. To work w i t h p a r e n t s r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f hu­ man r e l a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f t e a c h e r s a n d s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a -

80 to rs.

E d u c a tio n a l program s have t h e r e f o r e b een s t r e s s i n g th e

im p o rta n ce o f p a r e n t - t e a c h e r ,

and p r i n c i p a l - t e a c h e r - p a r e n t

r e la tio n sh ip s. A l t h o u g h s u p e r v i s i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n h a s grow n up s l o w l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d was r a t h e r s u b j e c t - m i n d e d in ste a d o f c h ild -c e n te r e d ,

i t h a s come t o b e a c c e p t e d a s an

i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l sy s te m s o f A m erica .

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o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n f o c u s e d s u p e r v i s o r y a t t e n t i o n up on t h e c h ild ,

and t h i s

tren d c a r r ie d over in to

th e p r im a ry s c h o o l.

By t h e en d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e s t u d y o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n h a d becom e s o m e t h i n g o f a s c i e n c e and nu m erous o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e c o n t i n u o u s l y p u b l i s h i n g i n f o r ­ m a tio n a b o u t i t .

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stu d y i s

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c a r r i e d on i n t h a t f i e l d b y ( r e s e l l and o t h e r s a t Y a l e C o l l e g e an d e l s e w h e r e .

A lso ,

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stu d y i s

b e i n g made o f

t h e p r e - a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d from s e v e n t o t w e l v e . The p a r t t h a t p a r e n t s p l a y i n f o r m u l a t i n g a t t i t u d e s an d e s t a b l i s h i n g h a b i t s o f b e h a v i o r i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n o f p r e - s c h o o l a g e h a s come t o b e known.

The r e s u l t h a s b e e n

an e f f o r t t o im p r o v e h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e p u r ­ pose. o f e n lig h t e n in g p a r e n ts .

T h is r e q u i r e s a c o n tin u o u s

e v o l v i n g program o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e l a t e s t so u n d s c i e n t i f i c k n o w le d g e o f c h i l d g r o w t h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t a n d o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

The i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l and i t s

s t a f f a r e f a c e d w i t h a v e r y r e a l and c o n t i n u o u s r e s p o n s i b i l ­

81 ity

f o r d i s s e m i n a t i n g t h r o u g h v a r i o u s m eans k n o w le d g e o f t h e

r e s u l t s o f m odern s c i e n t i f i c

stu d y o f c h ild r e n .

E d u c a t o r s a r e c o m in g t o r e a l i z e

th a t i f

c h ild r e n are

t o h e p r o p e r l y g u i d e d a t an e a r l y e n o u g h a g e l e v e l ,

parent

e d u c a t i o n m u st Come t o h e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l program .

H ow ev er,

r e sp o n s ib ility

fo r p a r e n t e d u c a tio n l i e s

l a r g e l y w it h th e c la s sr o o m t e a c h e r .

E d u c a tio n a l o r g a n iz a ­

t i o n s a n d t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a r e a t p r e s e n t s t r e s s i n g th e need fo r p a r e n t e d u c a tio n fo r th e p r o p e r g u i d a n c e o f c h i l d r e n a t an e a r l y a g e . t i o n i s m o s t s u c c e s s f u l when i t o f c o o p e r a tiv e e f f o r t .

is

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School a d m in is tr a to r s have th e r e ­

s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o n v in c in g t h e i r s t a f f s p a ren t ed u c a tio n ,

P a re n t educa­

o f th e v a lu e o f

a n d t e a c h e r s an d s p e c i a l i s t s m u st a c c e p t

a s t h e i r ta s k to p erfo rm .

T eachers need in - s e r v ic e t r a in ­

i n g t o - p r e p a r e them f o r p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e s a n d o t h e r t y p e s o f p u b lic c o n ta ct.

S u p e r v is o r s o f k in d e r g a r te n -p r im a r y

e d u c a t i o n m u st b e s p e c i a l l y

t r a i n e d i n t h e a r e a s i n w h ic h

th ey s e r v e . A number o f s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l

in In c r e a sin g

t h e number o f and i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n fe r e n c e s th rou gh p la n s o f r e p o r t in g to p a r e n t s .

B oth

g ro u p and i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s a r e a r r a n g e d fro m t h e e a r ly p a rt o f th e sc h o o l y ea r. t i a t i v e by e x t e n d i n g i n v i t a t i o n s

The s c h o o l t a k e s t h e - i n i ­ to p a r e n ts .

T eachers

82 co n d u ct t h e group c o n f e r e n c e s i n s t r u c t i n g p a r e n t s o f t h e i r own p u p i l s

a s t o g o a l s o f t h e s c h o o l a n d m e th o d s o f a t t a i n ­

in g th e s e g o a ls . p a ren ts.

P a r e n t s g a i n much b y c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r

The v i s i t a t i o n s an d c o n f e r e n c e s c a u s e p a r e n t s t o

h a v e g r e a t e r a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e s c h o o l and i t s p r o g r a m .

T h ey

c o n s e q u e n t l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s b e t t e r and a r e more a b l e t o p r o p e r l y g u i d e t h e i r c h i l d r e n .

T eachers

a n d p a r e n t s work t o g e t h e r i n t h e p r o g r a m o f c h i l d t r a i n i n g , e a c h c o m in g t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t o t a l l i f e s i t u a t io n o f th e c h ild . W ider r e a d i n g on t h e p a r t o f p a r e n t s i n p r o b l e m s o f c h i l d g r o w t h and d e v e lo p m e n t i s

b e in g s t im u la t e d th ro u g h

s u g g e s t i o n s made a n d b o o k s and m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d a t p a r e n t tea ch er c o n fer en ce s. P a r e n ts a re a l s o l e d to a g r e a t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e e d u c a t io n a l p r o c e s s th r o u g h t h e program o f t e a c h i n g b e g in n in g r e a d in g .

P a r e n t s o f p r im a ry c h i ld r e n v i s i t

school

t o o b s e r v e c h i l d r e n a t work and t o h a v e g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t e a c h e r s a t a t i m e .when c h i l d r e n a r e n o t p r e s e n t . T e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r e p a r e m im eo g r a p h ed m a t e r i a l s to be d is t r ib u t e d to p a r e n ts f o r u se a t c o n fe r e n c e s or to r e a d a t hom e.

The p r i n c i p a l ' s b u l l e t i n

ca n b e a c o n s t a n t

so u rce o f in fo r m a tio n to p a r e n ts .

Some s c h o o l s p r o v i d e a

s c h o o l new spaper.

t o p a r e n t s k e e p them

in fo r m ed a s t o

T eachers'

n o tes

cu rren t p r o g r e ss o f th e c h ild ,

and s u g g e s t

83 m e th o d s b y w h ic h t h e p a r e n t can h e l p . b u lle tin s

S p e c ia lly prepared

e x p l a i n i n g w hat i s m ean t by ’ r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s '

o r e x p l a i n i n g some o t h e r p h a s e o f s c h o o l work a r e e s p e c i a l l y in fo r m a tiv e to p a r e n ts. becau se i t gram ,

it

th is

ty p e o f

can tact

h e l p s them t o f e e l i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e s c h o o l p r o ­

g i v e s them a f e e l i n g o f c l o s e n e s s

a fe e lin g of s a tis fa c tio n is

P a ren ts l i k e

t o t h e s c h o o l and

th a t th e e d u c a tio n o f t h e i r

c h ild

in c a p a b le p r o f e s s i o n a l hands. T e a c h e r s c a n o f t e n a d v i s e p a r e n t s a s t o w h at s e r v i c e s

a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e h a n d ic a p p ed c h i l d .

T each er and p a r e n t

can work t o g e t h e r t o rem ed y m in o r s p e e c h d i f f i c u l t i e s

or

s o c i a l and e m o tio n a l p ro b le m s o f c h i l d r e n . H andbooks f o r p a r e n t s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n a r e c o m in g i n t o

q u ite g en era l u se.

A number o f d i s t r i c t s h a v e

p r e p a r e d them and i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s a r e p r e p a r i n g them . H andbooks a r e u s u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e school year.

The d i s t r i c t - w i d e

ty p e p r o v id e s g e n e r a l in ­

f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a t a t i m e when p a r e n t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y r e c e p t i v e and i n n e e d o f s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l t y p e c a n p e r h a p s b e more s p e c i f i c and p o s s i b l e m ore u s e f u l .

E i t h e r may i n f o r m t h e p a r e n t

a s t o how and w h ere t o r e g i s t e r a c h i l d f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n a tten d an ce,

o b j e c t iv e s o f k in d e r g a r te n t r a in in g ,

t i o n a b o u t v i s i t i n g and c o n f e r e n c e s , sh o u ld w ear, h e a lt h in fo r m a tio n ,

in fo r m a ­

c lo t h in g th e c h ild

in fo r m a tio n about th e

84 c u r r ic u lu m ,

etc.

T hese k in d e r g a r te n handbooks c o u p le d w ith

th e u se o f th e p a ren t c o n fer en ce are p r o v in g to be very e ffe c tiv e

in str u m e n ts o f p a r e n t e n lig h te n m e n t.

e v id e n c e t h a t th e i n t e r e s t e d p a r e n t c a r ie s

T here i s

th is in te r e st

i n t h e c h i l d ’ s p r o g r e s s on t h r o u g h s c h o o l w i t h g o o d e f f e c t s upon t h e g u i d a n c e p h a s e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . The C a l i f o r n i a ' S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n l i s t s f i v e ways b y w h ic h t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n o r p r i m a r y t e a c h e r may work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h p a r e n t s , by t e a c h e r s ,

n a m e ly ,

t h r o u g h home c a l l s

o b s e r v a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y p a r e n t s ,

d iv id u a l p a r e n t-te a c h e r co n feren ces,

in ­

group c o n f e r e n c e s ,

and

a l i b r a r y s e r v i c e c e n t e r e d a b o u t a f e w b o o k s t h a t a r e m o st h e lp fu l to p a r en ts. I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program s f o r t e a c h e r s o r g a n iz e d fro m t h e t o p a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s o f f i c e

and i m p le m e n t e d t h r o u g h ­

o u t t h e d i s t r i c t a r e t h e m o st e f f e c t i v e m eans o f i m p r o v in g p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e t e c h n iq u e s and h o m e -s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c a n g i v e im p e t u s t o t h e p ro gram by p r o v id in g a d eq u a te le a d e r s h ip , fo r m ee tin g s, lic ity ,

fa c ilitie s

and m a t e r i a l s

o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t ,

a n d e x p e r t a d v i c e fro m o u t s i d e t h e d i s t r i c t .

pub­ It

c an g e t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e s c h o o l b o a r d a n d t h e p u b l i c and g i v e s e c u r i t y t o t h o s e who a r e e n g a g e d i n work o f a n e x ­ p e r im e n ta l n a tu r e .

Much can b e a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h a p l a n

o f o r g a n iz e d c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n .

A number o f s c h o o l s i n

85 C a l i f o r n i a h a v e u n d e r t a k e n c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s t o im p r o v e tea ch ers in

se r v ic e .

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to w a r d u s i n g d e m o c r a t i c

m e th o d s o f c o m m it t e e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s . is

There

an o v e r - a l l p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c a p a b l e t e a c h e r s a n d

s u p e r v i s o r s from w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t a r e u s e d a s l e a d e r s . O u tsid e e x p e r ts a r e c a l l e d in to a d v is e .

R e su lts are very

g r a tify in g . C ou n ty s c h o o l s o f f i c e s m e th o d s t o

im p r o v e t e a c h e r s

a re a l s o u s in g d em o cr a tic

in s e r v i c e .

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c r e a s e i n t h e number o f m e e t i n g s o f i n t e r e s t sp e c ia l areas of In te r e s t,

an i n ­

to te a c h e r s in

and c o u n t y w id e r e p o r t i n g p l a n s

and c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n .

The number o f

s u p e r v i s o r s h a s b e e n i n c r e a s e d and a d d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f s u p e r ­ v i s i o n have been added,

in c lu d in g p sy c h o lo g y ,

speech,

g u id a n c e,

and p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work. C e r ta in p r i n c i p l e s o f i n - s e r v i c e lo w ed .

t r a i n i n g m u st b e f o l ­

T e a c h e r s m u st s e e t h e n e e d f o r i t .

be c o n t i n u o u s .

T h e r e m u st b e d e f i n i t e a t t a i n a b l e g o a l s .

P r o v i s i o n m u st b e made f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t and c a p a c i t i e s o f t e a c h e r s . made b e f o r e t h e p r o j e c t e v a lu a te d . ia ls

The p r o c e s s m u st

in te r e sts,

A d e q u a te a p p r a i s a l s h o u l d b e

i s u n d ertak en ,

a n d r e s u l t s m ust b e

The p u b l i c s h o u l d b e i n f o r m e d .

and f a c i l i t i e s

A d eq u ate m ater­

m u st b e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s t u d y ,

t e a c h e r s m u st b e made t o f e e l

needs,

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secu re in t h e ir e f f o r t s .

a l e r t p r i n c i p a l w i l l make t h e i n - s e r v i c e

An

t r a i n i n g p rogra m

86

c o n t i n u o u s by w o r k in g w i t h and t h r o u g h s m a l l g r o u p s and in d iv id u a l te a c h e rs,

and d u r i n g r e g u l a r f a c u l t y m e e t i n g s .

In any i n c l u s i v e

s t u d y p l a n r e p o r t s m ust b e made by

e a c h c o m m i t t e e and a c o m p o s i t e r e p o r t made f o r a l l

to s e e .

The p r a c t i c e s a d v o c a t e d s h o u l d becom e d i s t r i c t p o l i c y . The p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n e ffe c tiv e p u b lic fo r

is

an e s p e c i a l l y

a id to th e s c h o o l's need fo r e n lig h te n in g th e th e b e n e f i t o f c h ild r e n .

The s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l

w i l l a d v i s e t h e e x e c u t i v e b o a r d a n d t h e p ro gram c o m m i t t e e a s t o t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e m eans o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s c h o o l and t h e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , g o a ls are r e a lly

t h e sam e, n a m e ly ,

th e w e lfa r e o f c h ild r e n .

Lay l e a d e r s w i l l h o l d t h e p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e s . c o o p e r a te w ith program s, p a n e ls ,

w h ose

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and m eans m ust b e d e v i s e d t o g a i n

th e p a r t ic ip a t io n o f th e l e a s t i t m ost. A c tiv itie s n ers,

i n t e r e s t e d p a r e n t s who n e e d

E v e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s h a v e p r o v e d m o st e f f e c t i v e . t h a t g e t p a r e n t s t o work t o g e t h e r ,

c a r n iv a ls,

e x h ib its,

e tc .,

are e f f e c t i v e .

m o t h e r s g r o u p can b e an e s p e c i a l l y

su pp ort as th e p a r e n t-te a c h e r a s s o c ia t io n fo r e d u c a tio n .

d in ­

The room

s t i m u l a t i n g f o r c e th rou gh

m a k in g p r o p e r c o n t a c t s a t t h e r i g h t t i m e .

ad eq u ate l i g i s l a t i o n

su ch a s ,

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to g a in

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to g a in su p p o rt o f th e p a r e n t - t e a c h e r group.

P a r e n t s and

87 t e a c h e r s w i l l d i s s e m i n a t e i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s com m u n ity,

th ro u g h o u t th e

in t e r p r e t in g th e needs o f th e s c h o o ls to th e p u b lic

in g e n e r a l. C o o p e r a tiv e stu d y i s in g u n d e r sta n d in g .

o n e o f t h e b e s t m eans o f d e v e l o p ­

As p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s work t o g e t h e r t o

p r o m o te t h e w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n t h e y w i l l b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e m s e l v e s and e a c h o t h e r . tio n sh ip s

The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human r e l a ­

t h a t th e y d e v e lo p and i n c u l c a t e i n t h e i r

c h ild r e n

m ig h t w e l l p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r n a t i o n a l o r e v e n T ^ orld-w ide c o o p e r a tio n .

Secondary sc h o o ls

c a n p r o v i d e c o u r s e s i n human-

r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r y o u n g p e o p l e b e f o r e t h e y becom e p a r e n t s , and p r o v i d e a d u l t fo r u m s and c l a s s e s f o r p a r e n t s . The t e a c h e r s '

c l u b p r o v i d e s a m eans w h e r e b y t h e p r o ­

f e s s i o n may p o i n t o u t t h e v a l u e , p u b lic sc h o o ls

c o n d itio n ,

and n e e d s o f th e

i n a more e f f e c t i v e manner t h a n i s p o s s i b l e

w ith in th e sc h o o l o r g a n iz a tio n .

S tu d y g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e

c l u b may g l e a n I n f o r m a t i o n t o b e d i s s e m i n a t e d b y i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h o t h e r com m unity g r o u p s o f w h ic h t h e y a r e m em b ers.

Any t a i n t o f p r o p a g a n d a m u st b e a v o i d e d ,

and e f f o r t

t o i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c m u st b e k e p t upon a h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l b a sis.

N ew spapers, r a d io ,

e tc .,

m ust b e g i v e n s t r a i g h t f a c t s .

R e s e a r c h d e p a r t m e n t s o f u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n may b e r e l i e d Com bined c l u b e f f o r t c a p ita l.

upon t o p r o v i d e t h e f a c t s n e e d e d .

sh o u ld su p p ort a lo b b y a t th e s t a t e

88

E d u ca to rs can e f f e c t i v e l y

e n lig h t e n p u p lic o p in io n

i n r e g a r d t o s c h o o l n e e d s t h r o u g h m em b er sh ip and p a r t i c i p a ­ tio n

in s e r v ic e

c lu b s,

lo d g e s,

sp o n so red c lu b s f o r c h ild r e n .

church g rou p s,

and a d u l t -

T each ers or a d m in is tr a to r s

s e r v i n g a s y o u t h and c h i l d r e n ’ s c o m m i t t e e members o r a s le a d e r s o f c h ild r e n 's

c l u b s p r o v i d e s a m p le o p p o r t u n i t y t o

d e v e l o p f r i e n d s h i p a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h m u tu a l c o o p e r ­ a tio n .

The g o a l s o f t h e s e g r o u p s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f

th e s c h o o l. Some o f t h e g o a l s t h a t can b e l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o a s a r e s u l t o f im p r o v e d h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e i m p l ic a t i o n s o f th e d e v e lo p m e n ta l th e o r y o f c h i l d g r o w t h , b r o a d e n i n g —t h e —b a s -ts —o f k i n d e r g a r t e n t r a i n ­ in g ,

e x te n s io n ,o f th e n u rsery sch o o l to a l l

sib le ,

im p r o v e d h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s

c o m m u n it ie s p o s ­

fo r sc h o o ls,

t h e —expansl'crn

?

o f —s -u p e r v i-so r y s e r v i c e s , to c h ild r e n ,

e x p a n sio n o f th e s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s

im p r o v em e n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d m e th o d s o f

te a c h in g young c h ild r e n , in g o f te a c h e r s ,

im p r o v em e n t i n t h e t y p e an d t r a i n ­

and c l o s e r

c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n home and

s c h o o l in th e g u id a n c e o f c h ild r e n . The i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l and t e a c h e r h a s a g r e a t r e s p o n ­ sib ility

i n c a r r y i n g on a c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r a m o f p a r e n t en ­

lig h te n m e n t.

W ith t h e t r e m e n d o u s num bers o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n

a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e p r o b le m i s d ia te one.

The s c h o o l d o e s n ' t w ant t o f o r g e t t h a t

an imme­ th e b e s t

89 p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s program i s T here i s

an e x c e l l e n t

te a c h in g program .

n e e d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y and r e s e a r c h a s t o

t h e p l a c e a n d m e th o d s , o f t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l i n t h e e d u c a ­ tio n a l p ic tu r e . p r im a ry s c h o o l ,

The p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s o f t h e u n g r a d e d e sp e c ia lly ,

o f th e s t u d ie s d is t r ib u t e d

s h o u ld be s t u d i e d and r e s u l t s to ed u ca to rs g e n e r a lly .

F u r t h e r s t u d y a s t o t h e b e s t m e th o d s o f w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s f o r t h e g u id a n c e o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e p rim a ry s c h o o l and k i n d e r g a r t e n i s

needed.

It is

e s p e c ia lly n ec essa ry to

d e t e r m i n e w ays o f p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r t i m e f o r p a r e n t c o n f e r ­ ences. It

is p o ssib le

t h a t th e i n d iv i d u a l te a c h e r and s c h o o l

can t h r o u g h i n t e l l i g e n t g r e a te st in flu e n c e

e n lig h te n m e n t o f p a r e n ts be th e

in p r o v id in g f o r th e e d u c a t io n a l and

g u id a n c e n e e d s o f c h i ld r e n .

S c h o o l p e r s o n n e l m ust t h e r e ­

fo r e be o f th e h ig h e s t ty p e ,

if

t h e r e s p e c t and s u p p o r t o f

th e p u b lic are to be g a in e d f o r th e b e n e f i t o f c h ild r e n .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

B a l d w in , S a r a E m ily , H o m e -S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s , P h i l o s o p h y and P r a c tic e . P itts b u r g h : U n iv e r s ity o f P itts b u r g h , 1939. 52 3 p p . B a r r , A. S . , W i l l i a m H. B u r t o n , and L eo J . B r u e c k n e r , S u p e r v is io n . New Y ork: D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, I n c . , 1 9 3 8 . 981 pp . B e v e r l y , B e r t I . , I n D e f e n s e o f C h i l d r e n . New Y ork: Day Company, 1 9 4 1 . 2 3 3 p p .

The Joh n

C a s w e l l , H o l l i s L . , E d u c a t i o n i n The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . New York:- A m e r ic a n Book Company, 1 9 4 2 . 3 2 1 p p . G e s e l l , A r n o l d , How a Baby G row s. B ro th ers, 1945. 78 p p .

New Y ork: H a r p e r and

"‘^ ^ G e s e l l , A r n o l d , The F i r s t F i v e Y e a r s o f L i f e . H a rp er and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 4 0 . 376 pp.

New York:

/ ' ' ' ' R e s e l l , A r n o l d , The Norm al C h i l d and P r im a r y E d u c a t i o n . New Y ork: Ginn a n d Company, 1 9 1 2 . 342 pp. / - - G e ' s e l l , A r n o l d , a n d F r a n c e s L. I l g , The C h i l d fro m F i v e t o Ten. New Y ork: H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 4 6 . 454 pp. G e s e l l , A r n o l d , and F r a n c e s L. I l g , I n f a n t and C h i l d i n t h e C u ltu r e o f T oday. New Y ork: H a rp er a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 4 3 . 403 pp. H o c k e t t , R u th M an n in g, e d i t o r , T e a c h e r s 1 G u id e t o C h i l d D e v elo p m e n t. C a l i f o r n i a C u r r ic u lu m C o m m iss io n . S acram en to: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 5 . 658 p p . J e n k i n s , G la d y s G a rd n e r, H e l e n S h a s t e r , a n d W i l l i a m W. B a u e r , T h e s e A re Your C h i l d r e n . C h ic a g o : S c o t t F o re sm a n and Company, 1 9 4 9 . 192 pp. Koopman, G e o r g e R o b e r t , D em o cracy i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New Y ork: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, I n c . , 1 9 4 3 . 330 pp. K y t e , G e o r g e C . , The P r i n c i p a l a t Work. Company, 1 9 4 1 . 496 pp.

C h ic a g o :

G inn and

92 L e f e v e r , D. W e lt y , A r c h i e M. T u r r e l l , a n d H enry I . W e i t z e l , P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n i q u e s o f G -uldan ce. Hew Y ork: The R o n a ld P r e s s Company, 1 9 4 1 . 522 pp . Moehlman, A r t h u r B . , P u b l i c S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s . Me N a l l y a n d Company, 1 9 2 7 . 262 pp.

C h ic a g o : Rand

Moehlman, A r t h u r B . , S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . New Y ork: D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 2 7 . 262 pp. M oore, Mark E g b e r t , P a r e n t T e a c h e r and S c h o o l . The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 2 6 . 395 p p . f r a t t , C a r o l i n e , I. L e a r n From C h i l d r e n . S ch u ster, 1948. 204 pp.

New York:

New Y ork:

Simm and

R e e d e r , Ward G . , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s . Y ork: The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 4 0 . 260 pp. R e e d e r , Ward G-., P u b l i c S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s . M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 3 7 . 260 pp.

New

New Y ork: The

R i b b l e , M a r g a r e t A . , The R i g h t s o f I n f a n t s . New Y ork: C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 3 . 118 pp. T h o r p e , L o u i s P . , C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y an d D e v e l o p m e n t . Y ork: The R o n a ld P r e s s Company, 1 9 4 6 . 781 pp.

New

T r a v i s , Edward L e e , an d D o r o th y W a l t e r B a r u c h , P e r s o n a l P r o b le m s o f E v e r y d a y L i f e . New York:: D. A p p l e t o n C e n tu r y Company, 1 9 4 1 . 421 p p . W itty , P a u l, R ea d in g and th e E d u c a tiv e P r o c e s s . G inn a n d Company, 1 9 3 9 . 396 pp.

B oston :

W o o d r u ff, A s a h e l D . , The P s y c h o l o g y o f T e a c h i n g . New York: Longm anns, G reen a n d Company, I n c . , 1 9 5 6 . 180 pp. Y e a g e r , W i l l i a m A l l i s o n , H o m e -S c h o o l Community R e l a t i o n s . P i t t s b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y Book S t o r e , 1 9 3 9 . 523 p p . B.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

B a r i e , H . , " P a r e n t s a n d G u id a n c e i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , " E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n . March, 1 9 4 3 . E c k e r t , R a lp h C ., "A S m a ll Community P rogra m f o r P u b l i c Re­ l a t i o n s , " The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e . 6 6 : 1 - 1 0 4 , M arch, 1 9 4 7 .

93 G e s t i e , B. D . , "Team ing up w i t h P a r e n t s , 11 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l. 4 8 : 6 6 - 7 , O ctob er, 1 9 4 7 . G r i f f i t h , B. J . , " B o ard s o f E d u c a t i o n S h o u l d Have a Sound P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s P o l i c y , 11 S c h o o l M anagem ent. 1 5 : 4 4 8 - 4 9 , A p r il, 1946. G r i n n e l l , J o h n E a r l e , "Keep i n T ouch w i t h t h e P a r e n t s , " The A m e r ic a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l . 1 1 5 : 4 1 - 4 3 , N ovem ber, 1 9 4 7 . H a rd en , E d g a r L . , " P a r e n t s a n d T e a c h e r s Work T o g e t h e r , " The S ch o o l E x e c u t iv e . 6 5 :4 1 -4 3 , A u gu st, 1 9 46. L a n e , B. B . , " H om e-S ch oo l R e l a t i o n s , " P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n . 2 2 :2 3 -2 6 , January, 1945. Lennem ann, C. C . , " P a r e n t - T e a c h e r C o m m i t t e e s ," N a t i o n a l E lem en ta ry P r i n c i p a l . 2 5 : 1 1 6 - 1 9 , A u g u st, 1 9 4 5 . L i n n , H. H . , "Our B i l l i o n D o l l a r B a b i e s , " The A m e r ic a n S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l . 1 1 6 : 2 3 - 2 4 , J u n e , 1 9 4 8 . M is n e r , P a u l J . , " P a r e n ts * R o le i n C u r r ic u lu m P l a n n i n g , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l . 3 7 : 1 5 6 - 5 7 , May, 1948. R o g e r s , V i r g i l M ., "How D oes D em ocracy i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a ­ t i o n Work?" The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e . 6 5 : 6 8 - 6 9 , May, 1 9 4 7 . S t r i c k l a n d , R u th G . , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n , " J o u r n a l o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . 2 0 : 7 7 - 7 8 , February, 1931. T a y l o r , E t h e l R . , " H a p p ily t o K i n d e r g a r t e n , " A m e r ic a n C h i l d ­ hood. 3 1 :1 0 -1 2 , A p r il, 1946. C.

PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

A n d e r s o n , J o h n E . , " C h i ld D e v e lo p m e n t a n d t h e G row th P r o c e s s , " T h ir t y - E ig h t h Y earbook o f th e N a t io n a l S o c i e t y f o r th e Stu d y o f E d u c a tio n . P a rt I . B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 9 . P p. 1 5 - 4 9 . Hahn, J u l i a L . , "A C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n o f a S u p e r v i s o r y P rog ra m i n K i n d e r g a r t e n P r im a r y G r a d e s , " C olu m b ia C o n t r i b u t i o n No. 4 9 5 . New Y ork: T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia , 1 9 3 1 . 148 pp.

94 Handbook N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f P a r e n t s ' a n d T e a c h e r s . W a s h in g t o n , D. C . : N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f P a r e n t s a n d T each ers, 1929. 90 pp. H ubbard, F r a n k W., " H e lp in g C i t i z e n s t o Know T h e i r S c h o o l s , " T w e lfth Y earbook. W a s h in g to n , D. G . : The D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r in te n d e n c e o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , 1934. 383 pp. M u lla n , M ary, "Home a n d S c h o o l Work T o g e t h e r F o r C h i l d r e n , " T w e n t y - F i r s t Y e a r b o o k o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 1 A s s o c i a t i o n , 1949^ ( n . p . ) . 1 5 2 p p . N e te r e r , E liz a b e th , P o r t f o l i o f o r N ursery S ch ool T e a c h e r s. W a s h in g t o n 5 , D. C . : A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h ild h o o d E d u c a t i o n , 1946. 12 l e a f l e t s . N e te r e r , E l iz a b e t h , P o r t f o l i o f o r K in d e r g a r te n T e a c h e r s . W a s h in g t o n 5 , D. C . : A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h ild h o o d E d u c a t i o n , 1946. 12 l e a f l e t s . N e t e r e r , E l i z a b e t h , P o r t f o l i o f o r P r im a r y T e a c h e r s . W a s h in g to n 5 , D. C . : A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h ild h o o d E d u c a t i o n , 1946. 12 l e a f l e t s . R e p o r t o f U n i t e d S t a t e s C o m m is s io n e r o f E d u c a t i o n . 1 8 8 4 - 8 5 . W a s h in g t o n , D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n . S im p s o n , Roy E . , C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n . S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , F ebruary, 1949. 75 p p . S m i t t e r , F a i t h , A S tu d y o f E a r l y C h il d h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n C a lifo r n ia . Sacram en to: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm en t o f E d u c a tio n , June, 1 9 49. 65 p p . D.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

" C u r r i c u l u m . S t u d y , " F u l l e r t o n E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , C a lifo r n ia , 1948. 80 pp.

F u lle r to n ,

Danky, E l i z a b e t h J a m e s , "Handbook f o r P a r e n t s o f K in d e r ­ g a r te n C h ild r e n ." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s P r o j e c t , The U n iv e r s i t y of S ou th ern C a l i f o r n ia , Los A n g e le s , 1948. 71 p p . F r i g a a r d , E t h e l , " K i n d e r g a r t e n ." W i l m e t t e , I l l i n o i s : The B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 3 9 , 1 9 4 7 . 1 8 p p .

95 " L e t t e r s t o P a r e n ts," F o r d A v e n u e S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l ' s F i l e , F u lle r to n , C a lifo r n ia . M im eograp h ed s h e e t s . O b e r h o l t z e r , K e n n e th E . , and S t a f f , " D a v id Goes t o K in d e r ­ g a r te n ." D e n v e r , C o lo r a d o : The B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 4 8 . 25 pp. "Parent C o n feren ce T e c h n iq u e s ," L a u re l S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l ’ s F i l e , Brea, C a lif o r n ia . M im eograp hed s h e e t s . P a r k s , D. R u s s e l l , and S t a f f , "We Go To S c h o o l , " K in d e r ­ g a r t e n H andbook. F u l l e r t o n , C a l i f o r n i a : The B o a r d o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 4 8 . 10 pp. " Q u e s t io n s on M a t u r i t y , " F o r d A v en u e S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l ’ s F i l e , F u lle r to n , C a lifo r n ia . M im eograp hed s h e e t . S e s s a r e g o , A lb e r t g a r te n P u p ils C a lifo r n ia ." U n iv e r sity o f 63 pp.

J o h n , "A H andbook f o r P a r e n t s o f K in d e r ­ o f t h e W i l l i a m Land S c h o o l o f S a c r a m e n t o , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s P r o j e c t , The S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 4 8 .

Sim m ons, L. T . , "G uide f o r T e a c h e r s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s on U se o f t h e P r o g r e s s R e p o r t t o P a r e n t s . " S a n t a Ana, C a l i f o r n i a : O ran ge C o u n ty S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s O ffic e , 1949. 10 pp. Wood, E l D o r i s , "T ren d s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n - P r i m a r y S u p e r v i s i o n in th e S ta te o f C a lif o r n ia ." U n p u b lish e d M a s te r 's T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g ele s, 1943. 145 p p .

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LIBRARY