Thai-English Student’s Dictionary

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'With the assistance of yeorge 'V. yrekoff Ruchira C. Jvtendiones 'Waiwit Buddhari Joseph R. Cooke Soren C. Egerod


This work was developed pursuant to a contract between the United States Office of Education and the University of California, Berkeley, and is published with permission of the United States Office of Education.

Stanford University Press Stanford, California Copyright© 1964 by Mary R. Haas Printed in the United States of America ISBN 0-8047-0567-4

PREFACE The principal aim of this dictionary is to provide a convenient reference work for the English-speaking student of Thai. Existing Thai- English dictionaries- -at least those prepared within the last two decades--are invariably geared to meet the needs of the Thai-speaking student of English, since that is the market they are intended to reach. But such dictionaries fail in certain crucial respects to satisfy the legitimate needs of the American student. In particular it has been noticed that: (1) They fail to provide a scientifically accurate and up-to-date guide to the pronunciation of Thai words. (2) They neglect to distinguish important levels of usage, e.g., vulgar, common, elegant, colloquial, literary, etc., which are well known to Thai speakers but are impossible for the culturally-unoriente d American student to figure out. (3) They lack many important idioms, compounds, and other specialized combinations of words. (4) Examples, when given, are more likely to be chosen to clarify the peculiarities of English than those of Thai. The present dictionary contains the following types of information with each of its entries: (1) The traditional Thai spelling as shown in the official Thai monolingual dictionary (the Thai Ministry of Education, Bangkok, 1950). (2) A carefully worked out phonemic transcription using Roman letters. (3) An abbreviation designating the word class, where pertinent. (4) The level of usage, both social and technical, where pertinent. (5) The English definition or equivalent. (6) Many synonyms and antonyms. (7) Examples showing a variety of uses, when the definition alone is insufficient. The dictionary also contains some special kinds of entries which are missing from many dictionaries. Among these are: (1) Most of the common place names of Thailand, including abbreviated and colloquial (but not dialectal) place names and also most of the common foreign place names likely to be found in newspapers. (2) Common abbreviations of titles, organizations, dates, and the like that are frequently encountered in newspapers. Although this dictionary has been prepared especially to meet the needs of the American student who wishes to read Thai newspapers and other Thai source materials, the Thai student of English will also find much useful information in this dictionary. The reason for this is that we have tried very hard to find the best and most natural English translation for as many words as possible. The numerous subentries and examples will also often be of interest to the Thai student as well as the American student. The Thai-English Student's Dictionary is one of two dictionaries being compiled at present by those engaged in work on the Thai Dictionary Project. The other, larger dictionary will be entitled Modern Thai- English Dictionary. Materials for the master file have been gleaned from the context of modern periodicals, newspapers, government reports, and advanced textbooks on literature, history, and the sciences. Idiomatic and colloquial usages have been collected



from novels and short stories and from examples supplied by educated native speakers. The Student's Dictionary contains selected items from the master file. Paz:ticular attention has been paid to items likely to be found in standard prose source materials, including the daily newspapers. The foundations of analysis and description of Thai that are needed for the compilation of a dictionary were worked out by the editor during the course of many years of research. The special needs of American students have become familiar through several years (1947-60) of teaching Thai in the Department of Oriental Languages, University of California, Berkeley. Since 1953 teaching duties have been primarily devoted to courses in general linguistics in the Department of Linguistics, but from time to time Thai has been used as a demonstration language in a field methods course. In 1956-57 the problems of intonation at terminal points and of stress within the rhythm group were given special emphasis in such a course. All of the assistants aided materially in the compilation of the Student's Dictionary, though mostly at different stages of the work and for differing periods of time. The responsibility of combing the master files to find the selections they considered important was assumed in succession, by Dr. Soren C. Egerod (now of the University of Copenhagen), Dr. Waiwit Buddhari (now of Chulalongkorn University), and Dr. Ruchira Chinnapongse Mendiones. Dr. Buddhari and Dr. Mendiones have also provided many illustrative examples and have served as models for the normal pronunciation or pronunciations shown in romanized phonemic transcription included with each entry. Dr. Mendiones has further served as consultant in regard to many definitions and has assisted in the overall editing. Mr. George V. Grekoff (now of the University of Washington) carried out instructions for maintaining overall consistency in editing and for the cross checking of references, in so far as there was time for this. He also cooperated in working out details of format and layout and undertook the first proofreading as the offset typing proceeded up to August, 1962. Since then the cross checking and proofreading have been done by Mr. Joseph R. Cooke. The writing of all of the front matter, many grammatical comments, notes, and definitions,and finally another overall proofreading fell to the editor. The extensive master file could not have been accumulated without the assistance of a great many educated speakers of Thai. In particular we wish to express our indebtedness to the following: Miss Boonchom Chaikosi, Mr. Banvech Chantrasmi, Dr. Vichien Diloksambandh, Dr. Phaitoon Ingkasuwan, Mr. Niphon Kantasewi, M. R. W. Sobhak Kasemsanta, Miss Pensri Kiangsiri, Miss Punnee Kiangsiri, Mr. Ratana Oonyawongse, Dr. Kaw Swasdi Panish, Mr. Chamnan Pradithavanis, Mr. Somprasongk Prathnadi, Mr. Suchat Pusavat, Miss Krisna Tantranon, and Miss Charuwan Thirawat. A number of linguistics research assistants also assisted materially in the compilation of the master files, especially at all levels of the cross-referencing process, including the typing of phonetics and English onto slips and also in proofreading and filing the slips as they were typed. Those who helped in this capacity at different times are Dr. Roy A. Miller (now of Yale University), Dr. David DeCamp (now of the University of Texas), Dr. Karl V. Teeter (now of Harvard University), Dr. Wick R. Miller (now of the University of Utah), and Dr. Catherine A. Callaghan. Of especially great importance has been the excellent



work of two Thai typists, Mrs. Sarapee Oonyawongse, who typed many thousands of slips for the master file, and Mrs. Boonsiri Donom, who continued the typing of slips and also typed the prefinal manuscript and the offset copy for the present dictionary. The Thai Dictionary Project was begun in 1951 under the auspices of the Institute of East Asiatic Studies (since 1955 subsumed under the Institute of International Studies) of the University of California, Berkeley. Up until June 15, 1960, most of the funds for the support of this research came out of the research funds of the Institute. In 1956-57, and again in 1958-59, the American Council of Learned Societies provided two grants specifically earmarked for work on the Student's Dictionary. Since June 15, 1960, the continuing work on both dictionaries has been provided for under a government contract (U.S. Office of Education, Language Development, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare). An IBM Executive typewriter with Heritage type was especially selected to blend with the only available IBM Thai typewriter. The typewriters were purchased during the time the Project was being supported by the Institute. The editor and her assistants acknowledge the various kinds of financial aid and assistance from all of these quarters with deep gratitude. M.R.l-1. September, 1963. Berkeley, California.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND PRINTING We have taken the occasion of the second printing to remove a few errors that have been discovered by us or brought to our attention by friends.

The corrections cover the page

references in the introductory sections as well as a few mistakes in cross reference, spelling, or transcription scattered throughout the volume.

Owners of copies of the first printing are

reminded that most of the corrections are minor or easily detectable by the user. exception is that


was misspelled everywhere as

Til] .

The only

This correction has been made

on p. 2, col. I, I. 36 and in the following subentries together with their cross references throughout the book.

M. R. H. September, 1964. Berkeley, California.

CONTENTS Dictionary Order of Vowel or Vowel+ Consonant Symbols



Brief Description of Thai I.









Some References on the Thai Language


Explanatory Notes

xxiv xxiv

The Main Entry Subentries and Examples




List of Abbreviations and Labels








f1 ~


























































































tl ll


































v v




Symbol + cons.





sinlapa?', sinlapa::: arts fl'\.1 'IJ ~~'Yl

b:>:>risad' company

'I.IFI 1




'IJ 1 S ~ 1

bandaa' all



S 1 HI

tham' dharma



61 'l'\.1

suan' garden





to ask for, 'lHH

ns:: ~ n

pa? / to patch,


:::; -1


wan' day


hua' head maa' to come, '1J 1'1.1 Man' house tham' to do, make



tl ?/to criticize, '1\'1.1 hin' stone





. Iii

sli' color, ~'IJ

hlib' box

ty?l faintly, ~~


khyyn' night


myy' hand

th}'D' to reach








thee' to pour, L'1'161 ~


L[;)" :1.1

tern' to be full


naajl butter

.~! l-tJ



bb?/ to line,


thug' sack, bag

duu' to look,


thuug' to be right

L- 8

-a a

L S El

thaa' you



L £1 El::


a whole lot to kick

·-~ l -1 L- 1::





raw' we






11-:: 1l-






kradbug' bone




khon' person





Value -a(?)



phleeg' song

kh;5?/ to knock daan' to walk

L~tJ~ slag' sound


mia' wife,


phla?/ sound of a slap, bang


sya' tiger, L'11'1.18£1


mte' mother,


nyajl to be tired

lb'!Jiil pted' eight


khtg' to be hard


phf?/ goat


too' to be big t6?1 table


najl in


pajl to go

In arranging the order of words in a Thai dictionary consonants always take precedence over vowels. Symbols which are sometimes read as consonants, sometimes as vowels, are alphabetized as consonants. The chart above shuws the dictionary order of all common symbols having a vowel or vowel +consonant reading. Any intervening initial or final consonant symbols will fall in their proper alphabetical order.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THAI The minimum words of the Thai language are predominately monosyllabic, but unanalyzable polysyllabic words also occur. Besides consonants and vowels, each syllable has one of five phonemically differentiated tones. Morphology is restricted to derivation since the language makes no use of inflection. In syntax the order of words is usually quite rigid though minor variations are occasionally permissible. Thai is like English in that the typical sentence contains subject, verb and object, in that order. But Thai attributive constructions differ from those of English in that the head must always precede the attribute. Additional features of Thai are described in the following paragraphs under the headings Phonemes, Derivation, and Syntax. I.





Velar -g

Vd. Unasp.



Vl. Unasp.





Vl. Asp.






Vl. Unasp.




Vd. Semivowels


Vd. Nasals







Vd. Lateral


Vd. Trill or Retroflex

rExamples of Consonants

U'\J bin' to fly,

~'U slb' ten, A'\J din' earth, Lii61 hed' mushroom, '!Jn n6g' bird .


lil1 V taajl' to die, 'l S~

pajl' to go,

lln:: k£?1' sheep.


I!J1'\J pMan' to pass,

;1 faa' sky, ~l-J1



kin/ to eat, e:Jl-J ?im' to be


thajl' Thai, '111~ cMau' elephant, ~1 kMa' to kill.

sjy' to buy, ;1 Ma' five.

mila' dog, lii1J.J taam' to follow, '\J1 naa' field,

.W ~ ~~



ciu' to be true,

STW raan' store,


uuu' snake,

fau' to listen.

liu' monkey, 'IIs ruu' to know.

Rare Anglicized finals: L


(also ?:)fffdl), L61'\J'd

?ech/ (the letter) H,



lens 'lens (also len'),

~lii'U 86Hl

Front Central Unrounded



88'1'l'WA ?:)ff!s/ office


flldb:J:Jl' football (also fudb:Jnl). Back Rounded


i, ii, ia

y, yy, ya

u, uu, ua


e, ee

a, aa



c, cc

a, aa

:J, :J:J


Brief Description of Thai


Examples of Vowels

"' lin' tongue, ~ mii' to have; there is, ~~ mtid' knife, ~ tJ?' to criticize, ~'\.I to lick, L~tl ~ te?l


pht?' goat,


sian' sound, (vocal) noise, tone (of the spoken language). l~n'

to kick, L61'\.1


s khry?'



to play, L'11 thee' to pour out,

khtn' to be hard,

to be old-fashioned,


L~ eH




nyu' one,



L'Vi Iii heed'

' LL'W~

myy' hand,


phccn' to be expensive.


L ~ eJ sya'

phyY!l' floor,

myau' town.

j~?/ to be a whole lot, L ~'W


L~tl lia'


nan' silver, money,

L'IJeJ s~a' to be foolish, L'\.11.1

butter. kh~'


'\.J:; pA?I topatch,

yes! (w.sp.),



phad' toblow, :W1 maa' to come,


laan' grandchild, niece, nephew. ~



du?l to be fierce, head,



Fl 'J



hun' to cook (rice),


mi:iu' pig,


khU.ud' to scrape, 'Vi'J hila'

khuan' ought to.


to starve,


L'Vi&l ltJ' two.

TONES (in nonterminal position).


j Middle





NOTE: The middle tone is shown by no mark, the low tone by (' ), the falling tone by ( A), the high tone by ( '), and the rising tone by ( v


Thai grammarians call the middle tone the "common"

tone and refer to the low, falling, high, and rising tones as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th tones respectively. This is in reference to the tones as sounds, not as written symbols.

Examples of tones 'W 1 naa' field,

'W vtl'Vi'W 1 n:S::>jnAa' custard apple, 'Vi'W 1

or aunt (yg.),



'W 1 naa' maternal uncle

'Vi'W 1 naa' to be thick.

" phed' to be hot (peppery), Le.J~ be much. Rare:


phed' diamond, 'Vi:W1n

mAag' areca, :W1n

L tleJ:; tha?' [sic) imperative particle,


maag' to

kha' yes (w. sp.), V'ti:;

chfcrui' interjection of contempt.

EMPHATIC TONES. Any of the five tones can be accompanied by the phoneme of emphasis. This is indicated by placing an exclamation point(!) in front of the syllable receiving this treatment. Such tones are uttered at a higher pitch level than their corresponding normal tones and also have a somewhat "screechy" quality. They occur in exclamatory utterances. A high emphatic tone may replace any one of the five normal tones in emphatic repetitive expressions.

Brief Description of Thai


Examples of Emphatic Tones "-'



!?ujtaajl! exclamation expressing dismay,


'lf1[Jiil'JIJ chOaj!dtlajl! Help! (an urgent

call), f:lt! !thujl imitative of a sound uttered to spurn someone. Emphatic repetitive expres-

~~ !dfidiil Very good!






q rv


Hl'\J"l !r5::mr5;,n' Frightfully hot!

!?fm?lm' Awfullyfull!






!khemkhem1 Terriblysalty!

STRESS. This is marked by a heavy acute ( / ) placed after any syllable which is uttered with full strength. All unmarked syllables are "reduced" in strength, i.e. are considerably shortened and weakened. The stress is not necessarily always placed on the same syllable. Sometimes the difference is simply a matter of free variation (or individual variation) but at other times it implies a different connotation for the phrase. Each rhythm group has at least one stressed syllable. There is no spacing between the syllables of a single rhythm group, but when more than two stressed syllables occur within a rhythm group, a hyphen is used to indicate a slightly lesser amount of cohesion. Examples of Stress Jl1'tl-1 phaasiia' language; 'W11 naa'wii/ navy;

'l~ 1'\J;1'\J capajbaan/ 1~ L~'\Jvl'l L~'\Jiii'\J majpentua'penton1


mAjdW not good, bad; LrlvA'\J,ff


khyyn'nfi/ last night;

will go home; L~8'Wil'W1A:J-J dyanmiinaa'khom'


to be unformed, amorphous; ;L:J.I'tftl!1 qJ


sanaa' advertiser; 1n&111111n6'11'l klajltaa'-klajlcajl out of sight, out of mind . ..., .... 'ti11'U 1'\J n'Wiil6'1 U chaawbaan' -raan'talaad 1 the whole neighborhood. TERMINALS. There are three terminal markers to indicate the intonation of a phrase or sentence: the raised high in which the whole utterance is raised in pitch (

t ),

the sustained in

which there is little if any drop in pitch before pause (- ), and the falling or dropping intonation (! ). These markers are rarely needed in a dictionary since complete utterances are entered only in the case of a few fixed phrases or in the illustrative material needed for some of the entries. L ~~

Examples of Terminals

U~ 1~1'\JL s ~ L ~IJ'\J L s 8~

!?tV- jaumAjpaj'roourian'rnf Haven't (you) gone to school yet?

A€JIJ'l'WLL6'11'l'WHllil kh;,;,jl-conleew'conr~bd'- (We) waited and waited (but he didn't come). ... .... L S 1 'l ~ 1'\J1l-!'Wn 11il rawcapajni1j'k~aajl! We can go anywhere we like.

Permitted Initials Every syllable must begin in a consonant, but not more than two consonants are permitted here. All single consonants shown in the chart on page xi with the exception of/-g/ may occur in initial position. Initial clusters begin in /p, t, k, ph, th, kh/ followed by


/t, th/ are followed only by /r/ and /w/ follows only /k, kh/. CONSONANT CLUSTERS:















kh khl


khr khw

r, w/, but


Brief Description of Thai

Examples of Consonant Clusters Ll611 plaa' fish,

mJ s ~

n611 ~

klaan' middle, L'W61

preen' brush, ~ n

phleeu' song, Fl61 eH


tron' to be straight, n H

thrfsadii' theory,

khbon' canal.

krou' cage, 'W HJ

ph rom' rug, 'YltJ'I!l-D

Fl S khruu' teacher. The /tr/ cluster is relatively rare; /thr/ is 'II

extremely rare, perhaps limited to the example quoted.

n 11 kwaa' (more) than,

khwiian' ax.

cd 11'W

Permitted Finals The term "final" is used here in a special sense meaning the vowel plus the tone plus the final consonant if any. In other words it includes everything except the initial consonant or consonant cluster. Thai permitted finals are divided into two main types, (1} smooth and (2) stopped or abrupt, as described below. TYPE I. SMOOTH FINALS (ON ALL FIVE TONES) 1. Doubled vowel or vowel cluster.

2. Short vowel, doubled vowel or vowel cluster+ /m, n, u/. 3. Short front vowel, doubled front vowel or /ia/ + /w/. 4. ,Short back vowel, doubled back vowel or /ua/ + /j/. Also /ya/ + /j/ and very rarely /y/ or

/yy/ + /j/. 5. Mid and low central vowels /a, aa, a, aa/ + /j/ or /w/. TYPE II. STOPPED OR SHORT FINALS (ON LOW, FALLING, HIGH, AND MID TONES) R. Short vowel+ /b, d, g,


I on low or high tone, rarely falling tone. Very rarely short vowel

+ j? I on mid tone. Occasionally short vowel on high or falling tone; or frequently on mid tone except before pause. 7. Doubled vowel or vowel cluster+ /b, d, g/ on low or falling tone. Very rarely on high tone. 8. Vowel cluster+ j? I on low or high tone, but this is extremely rare. Examples of Permitted Finals 1. ij

mii' to have,


thee' to pour out,



to be foolish, ~ 1 phaa' to cut, slice, father, 2. w:w'W

L:WU mia' wife,

"' Fll.J


to see,

khiim' tongs, 'J' W'W phyyn' floor,



jtam' to visit,


L'W €J'W

3. ~1

hiw' to be hungry,

4. Flrl

khuj' to chat, l~V dooj' by,



L S1



go fast!



~W, ~W

s'fy 1 to buy, l~o' dozen, 'W €J pMo'

phua 1 husband.

which, 61


Ion' to descend.

kh:Son' thing.

friend, 611


luau' to deceive. J'

leew' to be bad, L61U1

Fl€JV kh::>oj' to wait, 81V J'

1~1LJ1~LLJV m.1jpaj'm1tjpaj' won'tgo, J


rew' to be fast, L611

nyaj' to be tired. Rare:

L~ 1

Vl~ muu' pig,

~ ~ s9D 1



witan' to have a sweet tooth (be sweet-necked): 3. Verb + verb (coordinate compound): VERB '1.)'~


lii:W huut6m' to cook (general term):

~ 'J tJ ~ 1 :w suajuaam' to be d LLIG1t:J'WLLUG1~ pllanpl££U'

to cook (rice) + lii:W

beautiful: 6i 'J tJ to be pretty + ~ 1 :w to alter:


to be beautiful.


LU6W'W to change+

'IJ'W8 ~ kh(lnsou' to transport: 'IJ'W to carry back and forth + 6i ~ J'

LL!St:J'J'Vl'J1'W prtawwaan' to be sweet and sour: 1;

lillillil ~ tldtau' to install:

to change, transform.




to be boil (food).




Iii Iii to connect, stick (to) +

to send.

to be sour+ 'Vl'J1'W to be sweet. 1;


to set, place.

Brief Description of Thai


Important types of compounding resulting in nouns include the following;

1. Noun + verb (head + attribute): NOON 'IJ 8 ~ D'W kh~::Jl]kin' eatables, foodstuff: 'IJ 8 ~ thing, stuff + D'W to eat. ~




mimkhtu' ice:'W'1


uansbd' cash: L~'W



money, silver + 611i1

d18FI6'1:J..I s9akhlum 1 overcoat: r




to be fresh.

coat+ f16'1:J..I to cover over.




~'W:J..J'Yi phQuphim' publisher, printer: ~ person, one who + 'W:J..J'Yi to print. qj




'li1 ~'W:J..J'Yi cMauphim' printer:

'li1 ~ artisan, smith (bound stem, see pp. 142-3) + 'W:J..J'W. "'



to be rumored.

'IJ 1 'J 6'1 e:J khaawlyy' rumor: 'IJ 1 'J news + 6'18

LS ~~e:J:J..I roous~::Jm'

repair shop:


place+ LL'V'J'W

'tlLL'IJ'l'W thtikhwtm' peg or hook for hanging things: '11 F1'1tl1 khamnam' preface (leading word): f1'1 fl'l1:J..JLnss khwaamkrood' anger:


L S ~ building, structure (seep. 469) +


to mend.

to hang.

word (see pp. 89-90) + 'W'1

to lead.

fl'l1:J..J state, condition (see pp. 81-2} + 'tnss


be angry. FI11:J..ISe:J'W khwaamr:.S::m' heat: fl'l1:J..I + Hl'W .l

n 1 S 'l


kaanwtu' running, the act of running: .l

and notes) + 'l


to be hot . n 1 S activity, -ing (see p. 29, mng. 3

to run.

2. Noun + verb with object (head + attribute): NOUN FI'W person, -er (see

fl'W'IJ 1 t:Jiff''l khonkhi!.ajtua' ticket seller (ticket-selling person): ~


~ 1 ~ &i'ii1 ~ :J. I

lil'l ticket.

cMau'tadpMm' barber (hair-cutting person):


artisan, smith (see

to cut hair: &i'lil to cut, ~:l-1 hair of the head.

pp. 142-3) + &i'lil~:J..I






to sell,

to sell tickets: 'IJ1tJ

pp. 73-4) + 'V1!HI'l


'11 L'IJ tJ~'v1 S thtikhla'burli' ash tray (cigarette-flicking place): '11 place+ b'VtJ~'v1 S d

flick (off ashes from) a cigarette: L'VtJ


to flick,

d ~VIS



~ " khr9ausagpMa 1 washer, washing machine (clothes-washing apparatus): Lf1S81't!n~1 "

LFl HH gear, apparatus, implement (see pp. 97 -8) + .Jn ~ 1 to wash cloth: d



.Jn to

1 cloth.

3. Noun + noun (head + attribute): NOUN S b11 'W r6dfajl train:

S b1 vehicle, car + 1 'W

1'W;1 fajfaa' electricity: 1'\'l 'V'Wlil1 kh1lntaa' eyelashes:


fire + 'W1 faa' sky. 'V'W hair (except of the head) + lil1 eye.

n 1 s L~8 ~ kaanmyau' politics (country affairs): n 1 S affairs of, matters of (seep. 29, mng. 2) +

"' .


L~ 81 country (nation); town.

khr9aumyy' tool:



Lf1S8.:J apparatus, implement(see pp. 97-8) + :J..I8



A'Wn s::: LlJ 1 khonkrapi!.w' fare collector (purse-person): fl'W person, -er (see pp. 7 3-4) +


ns::: LlJ1 purse. I



cMauth::J::JU' goldsmith:


artisan, smith (see pp. 142-3) + '1181 gold.

't/1 'l L~ 8 ~ chaawmyau' native, native inhabitant; townspeople: dweller in (see pp. 146-7) +



country (nation); town.

't/1 'l inhabitant of,

Brief Description of Thai


4. Noun + noun (coordinate compound): NOUN 'I'HHl:W ph~bm~c' parents: 'VW

father + U:W



'I'HHH phtin:S::>u' brothers and sisters: 'W eJ'J


phUamia' married couple: eJ'J

~n'Vl611'W I

liluglb' {liiu') N shack, hut. ~


n S::: M1 in 'W n n S::: 011


( Iii 1 )

n6gkratOa' (tua') ~

cockatoo (Kakatoe). [ n~:::lil1

stir, move, shake, have an impact on. 2. to be shaken. Fl11 :J.J--


n s::: 'Yl'U

f. Mal.]

n ~:::m1n krataag' imit. hen's cackle. ( ii11) krat~ajl (tua')

insinuatingly about, insinuate (something) about. ns::md'l

sisting of a small bench with a toothed metallic


krasuau' {krasuau') N min-

istry (of the government). NOTE. The hierarchical structure of the Thai government is as

Vln J::: Iii 1£1 ( el'W, Vl) hUukrat~ajl (?an', hUu') ~


follows: n J ~II n 'I ministry; n ~ :J.J department (within a ministry);

1. bow tie. 2. bowknot.

n J::: ~ n ( 1'U) kratlg' (baj')

krath6b'thyu:::: to touch on, concern, affect.


blade attached to one end. ~

i:i 1

effect, influence, impact.

o 'WfilnJ::II'UQ'I ph0ud'krath6b'-thyu:::: to speak

N 1. rabbit, hare.

2. a coconut grater, in its primitive form con-

N 1. jug (for water).

ment); Lbt:J'Wn also

2. canteen. 3. thermos bottle.

n~ ~ ~ 8 ~ eJ Hl

krathou' (baj') N small fruit tray

n J:; l'I'U krath6b' V 1. to strike, strike against, bump

a bridge.

nS::: lvl ( nS::: llil)


made of banana leaves, paper, etc.

to hop

and skip about (merrily, as children do).

n J::: 011 tJ


n ~:; '!1 'I (;:) ( 1'lJ)

n~:::1~~i;1:;'W1'W kradbod'saphaan'

a count (in an indictment).

exhaustively, in every detail.

kradboctnl!am' v to jump into the



N spittoon.

ing. 2. an aspect of a matter. o



n s:; '!1 'I F\11 :J.J krathou'khwaam' N 1. sense, mean-

1. to jump, leap. 2. to hop.


ns::: 11illil t Gi lil L;'W

N 1. earthen flower-

2. a section, clause {of a text).


N 1. cyl-

cession, line, train (of moving persons, ani-

inder. C 2. elf. for cylindrical objects, e.g.

mals, vehicles). 2. in the matter of, as regards

gun; also for an eye socket.

(short for

lwn 5 ::'\J1'W).

3. artfulness, eva-



siveness; see 1st example. C 4. elf. for pro-

n ' :: '\J i) nU'W

krab~::>gpyyn' N gun barrel.

cessions, lines, trains. 5. procedure, method,

n :i ::'U eJ n m'\J krab~::>gsuub' N cylinder (of an engine).

strategy, technique.


in mng. 5 'ti'\J ~U.

NOTE. In ref. to trains 'ti'\J ~kl is the usual form.

o L'iJ 1ijn :i ::'U ~ 'W~ 1 n 'l ~'I kho!wmiikrabuan'- maagl:::: cig' She sure hedges a lot: "has a great deal

1J611n:i::'\JeJn Ol~)


o Lb'VIn~::'\J1'W'WtJ1~:JJ1n hf:c 1 krabuannfil jaaw::::

i.ll n n :i ::;'IJ eJ n ( i.ll n J pAagkrab~::>g' (p~ag')


muzzle (of firearms).

( Pl'l ) hUnkrab~::>g'


N marionette,


n:i ::'U €l 'I

( tJ'W)

If item is not found under n :i::- ,


maag' this procession is very long.

plaakrab~::>g' (tual) N sea

mullet (Mugilidae).

:i n.J €J n

of artfulness."

N eye socket.

krab::>::>lJ' (?ani) N club, staff, stick. n ~- , ·u- .

12 n ~ :::'U:::

( 1 'U) kral:JA?/ (bai') N 1. small wooden

N canned milk.

n '~ ~ n ( ~ n , 1'U) krapug' (!Oug'. baj ') N piggy bank

tray. 2. hand truck, handcart.

~ bln ~ :::'U::: ( rfW) r6d'kral:JA?I (khan/) N hand

n :J::: b'U• 1 ( n ~::: b01 , 1'U) krapaw' (krapawl, bajl) N

truck, handcart. n ~ ::: 'U TW krabaan'. See n ~ :::'U 1 tJ

(a small pot or jar with a small slit opening).

1. pocket. 2. pocketbook, purse.

n 'U 1 fi .

( ~ n , 1 'U) krabaai' (bajl, lOug') N small

collector on public conveyances. n ~::: b01 b ~'WTI 1-1

bamboo basket, bamboo dish (with unreinforced

'U 1 fi krabaan'. See

n~:::\i~1 in

n:J ~

n'U 161 .

n~:::\i~lnH'U1'W krabld'krabuan'


blj IQ8 ( 1'IJ, ~ n) krapawthyY/ (bajl, lOugl)



have loads of money.

krablil (?an') N 1. sword. 2. bay-

( 8'\.l)

n 5~ l

onet. d

n~:::VeJ (A1) krabyy'(tua') N eleg.waterbuffalo. [f. Camb.] -+S y n.



n l::: b1J 1:::

fl11 tJ com.


( n~::: l'U 1:::)


(krap:'l?l) N 1.

(glass) bulb. 2. bot. receptacle (part of a flower). 3. base on which a precious stone is mounted.

a square bottom and a circular opening. 1J011n ~:::, 'U'W ( n1

( 1 'U, fin) krapawhtw' (bajl, lOug')

pocketbook (having handles).

( 1'U) krabun' (bajl) N a bushel basket with

n ~:::, 'U'W in

J 1~'l

N 1. carrying bag, carrying case. 2. handbag,

krabli 1 pN Krabi (inS Thailand).



n ~::: b1J 1 ~ 'l krapawrOal v c 011 0 q. to be broke. n'::: b'U+ 1VliTn krapawn~g/ v c 0 11 0 q. to be rich,

rh-- idem.

n~ :::'U


N handbag, pocketbook.

hedge, manifest reluctance in an artful way.



( 1 'U, fin)

(bajl, lOug') N 1. traveling bag. 2. suitcase.



fi'W-- fare

l plaakrabeen' (tua'l

n~:::L'Un in

01nn~:::hJn (i>ln) lOugkrapbog' (lOug') ~



N com., vulg. testicles. -Syn.

N ray, skate.

n~::: bDtJ 01


quarter of an inch. -+See

n 5 ~ lu1 -1

'iJ 1 .


( n1, 8u)

n1::: lv n Ju 1'W


~n ") n '::: bDtJ01-d'1

deJ -1

na b

kraproou' channajl N slip (a

woman's undergarment).

thl1gthl1g'krabladn!w' each

and every minor detail, each and every little bit.

kraproon' N 1. skirt (tua').

2. hood of an automobile (?an').

na::: bDtJii1'01 krablad'nfw' C one quarter of an




krablad' C a unit of length equal to one



kraphl'>m' P eleg. def. m. sp. I, me.

-Syn. See

(bbr.J'W) krab51an' (phtn') N tile.



n :J::: bV€1 -1 bfl~ il'll krab51ankhl5labl N enameled

Lnc11n:J:::r.J:W kl1iawkraph1'>m' P elab. eleg. def.

m. sp. I, me.

tile, glazed tile. n l::; 1J r 'U n :J ::; 1J HltJ kraprl b'krapr::J::>j/ V to be light

n ~ :::'l'lr'U,-- ~ ·1 kraphr!b', kraphr!b'taa' V to blink, blink the eyes. -Also 'l'lr'Uiil1.

and intermittent, to occur a little at a time.


n' nl n'::: b1J; 1



to be active,

nl ~ ~I[J

sprightly. n5:::\J.€1-1



mon, or in salutation).

N water bucket, pail. b A~ €1 -1

n ~ :::'U eH





plaakrap:"in' N

canned fish (tua' for fish that is canned;

'W;J.Jn a :::'U€1 -1




b'1'11::: • ~

lOug'. bajl) kra:::

p:Sn' for a can of canned fish). •

-->Com p.

l 1-1;.

-+S y n.

rrw:w, 1J ~ :::bii:W.

( n1 tJ 8-1) khryaukrap:'Sn' (kra:::

p:"in') N canned goods, canned food.


,--n€1 kraph0m 1 , kraph0m 1 myy' V to hold as a sign of respect (as when listening to a ser-

(1'U,ii1n) krap">nnaam' (baV. Iaug'l •

1. to flap, flutter, shake. 2.

the hands together at the chest, palm to palm,

C 3. elf. for things packed in tin caus.

n') If item is not found under


n ' cl 'U)

kraph6? / (kraph6? '·

N stomach.

kraph6?'khti' N com.,vulg. bowel,


n!::;l'l1l~tJc1c111::: n ~'- ,


kraph:5?'padsaawa?' N eleg.

n:::- , tJ-



n J::;

urinary bladder.

n~ ~

t 'W 1::; 8 I'l-l 1 S kraph:S?I?' N stomach.


na::; t 'Wel:W

kraph9am' V 1. to throb, oscillate. 2.


firearms and ammunition.


projectile. 61'II nnJ::; ~'W ( Ufil, 61 n) lOugkrasun' (mfdl, lOugl) N q 'II

ting, wave-like motion. n a~ iJ 'I kramu'tMaw'

n S1'W kraan' V to be hard, rough, coarse, weathered. n S1'U "> kraab' V to prostrate oneself (in obeisance).

to tiptoe,

The palms are pressed together and the hands

walk on tiptoe.

rest on the floor; the forehead rests against the

n a ~'Vial,! krajlm' V to be happy, satisfied, proud. ns~'V11!1


kraMajl V 1. to be thirsty. 2. to desire,

to wish for.

1'1 'l1 J.J-


n s 1'UU61

thirst; strong desire.

kraabthuun' V to address highranking



n a ~'V11 tJ"W'l kraMajlniiaml V to be thirsty. ..

n a ~'VIJ.J, n l

d ~ 'VIJ.J

n ~ 1 'U l '111 kraabthiiaw' V 1. to prostrate oneself

krahym', krahyml V 1. to roar, be

at someone' s feet (as a sign of very high respect).

roaring. N 2. roar.

2. a term used in the salutation of a letter to

n ~ ~'lllil n s ::.:1-HJ'U krahtyd'krahJ::>b' V to be out of

show respect (followed by the title of the ad-

breath, to pant.

dressee); more commonly

ni::.: l'VI~Iilna~U'VIJ.J kramM'kramte' V to be thrifty, frugal, economizing. n l::;

'i; in

1Jdkb::>n' V to unbolt, unlatch (a door,

dessert. ~

n si'liJ lil1 n ( ~ n , 1 u) klO.ajt/lag' (', bajl) N

window). fl 'l n 618'W loukl::>::>n' V to bolt, latch (a door, window).

dehydrated banana (dried in the sun).


(filn,1u) klO.ajpttJ' (',bai')

nfileJ'W 1-'1 (U'YI) kl::>::>n' (bM') N a kind of Thai verse

roasted banana.

n~ nmol-1 ( 61 n, 1u, ~61) k10ajh3::>m' ('. bajl,

form .

'Jl1n01 el'W ('Jll) bbdkb::>n' (bbd') N a verse or

phOn') N banana (fragrant variety).






-Also ol'WnfileJ'W, 1gklO.ajmaajl (d':l::>g 1 )

n01' ell-Jb' kl':lmcaj' V to lull, soothe, calm (the

heart, the feelings).

N orchid (the flower). nfil eJn kl':l::>g' V to turn, roll (e.g. one's eyes). m1unt18n kl/lbkl~::>g' V 1. to go back on one's




V to serenade the bride and

groom on their wedding night.





2. to turn eggs over (in the pan).

kltakl;,mt V to persuade, talk some-

to sing lullabies, to lull

na'\JA01 n61'\JA'IJ


na'U1~ kl1tbcajl v 1. to change one's mind, to

one into doing something. i'1.Jn 61 a:w li' a little bit better than.


v to herd.

2. fig. to purge, eliminate, kill off.

dii 1 kwAapenb:>tJ" to be much

n J H1~ ltJii11 kwaad'sllajtaa' to sweep (with one's

better. o .r


'lm1~n 11 h~amajkwAa'

over five miles (but

1Jiil n111il'U 1\.J

less than six). o

( Lt~ 1, 'II l

N antlers.

kwAa", kwil.a:::: sV 1. more (to a greater degree), -er (often followed by ll'\..1); more than, -er than.



N construe-

tion site. n iJVI 1 €J Iii k~:JW~:Jd' V to start, cause (trouble,

N poetry. This includes all

kinds of verse forms, viz.



o f1fl1tJl1neJ61:l11

~t!;, n 1'11V~,


niJ 1.; bnIll

k~o'Mjk8lJ 1 j

He has a heap of money.

n8'\J l 'llill

colloq. a lot, a whole lot, heaps; a lot of, a


na1.18'W k"Jon?}ryn' first of all, before anything else. 1;


whole lot of, heaps of.

l~'Wl~'Wna'!~v'lnn'* in the past, in former

:Wln:WltJnltJnv'! m!tagmaaj'kaajbou' elab.

co 11 o q. so much, so many, a whole lot, a great deal.

last month.

times, previously. 'lJ~~

4 ' llilt.Jlnaw pradfawk"J;,nl (for) a moment; just

a minute.

; bpli'* N carbon



b tJ 'l


C;) k:ljl*(nfw')

hAalJkath f?l

N dilute coconut cream,


n::; bl'll::; V to consist of, com-

prise. -Also spelled nD1J. "!

n~ ii

obtained after the coconut meat has been pressed

paper. [f. Eng. copy]

n JU

part (of anything).

-Syn. Ul ::;niJ1J.

2. to crack, shell (nuts, seeds).

n::; bb i1

N the little finger.

little fingers hooked. Cf. Eng. "walk arm in


m?l V 1. to flake, chip off, be chipped.

kabalJ' (?an')

N weir, a dam combined

with an underwater fish trap. n~'ll kabl?' C a chunk, a lump (of anything).



N shrimp paste.

If item is not found under n~- see n ~


'll- .

24 n:::: lt:~ ~ ~ ksansl!ed'thakld' economy; eco-

( fl'W, flQI:;; , ~Iii) kammakaan' N 1. com-

mittee member (khonl). 2. committee, commission (khana?l, chl1d').

nomic affairs.

n11~111~ kaancMaum~aj'

cross reference. n ~ ~ :wn 1 ~


n~::'Uhlnl ~

( n~~'U1'W)

krabuankaanl (krabuan')

30 N 1. procedure; administration. 2. movement

n1nhbVI!'jeJHl~ kaantham'myaur~~' N ore-mining.

(as in "liberation movement"). 3. tech. proc-

n l s 'Yl kaan'thti::;


v to instigate (an affair, a dis-

i'kaankhaa' N chamber of com-


n 1 ~A n'l/1 kaansygsaa' N education. 'W n--



n1 s ~ s l' kaansitau' N construction, building


n1 ~ 'l 1V kaanuaan' N work (in general).


(i.e. the activity), n 1 S 61 eJV kaans:'l::>n'


n 1 s l ~V kaanuan' N money matters, finance, financial affairs; (as n. mod.) financial. o J111 ~ n1 s L ~ V phaawa? 'kaanuan' N financial condition, financial situation. n 1 s 'l ~ 1 'l S kaancaraa'c::>:m' N traffic. n1s'l611'l6l kaancalaa'con' N unrest, disorder,

n 1 s 'l1 ~ n s s l.J kaancaarakam' N espionage,

charge of things.

n 1 S L01 tJ ~ 1 ~ kaandoojsaan' N 1. traveling (in a vehicle). 2. taking (a vehicle). N fight, struggle, battle.

' ~ n 1 Hl1 'l'IJ s ~ l 'YlA kaantaauprath!led' N foreign

affairs. n 1 ~ l1"1l.J 1VIl iiv kaanthammaa'hllakin' N 1. making

a living, earning a living. 2. occupation, liveli-


director, head, the per-

son in charge of things. n'1VI'WM n 1 s kamnaktin!i' idem. ~

n 1!1 in

...., Jl




V tobea

37 busybody, a meddler; used esp. of one who takes

( ~n, Avn, eltl)


(10ug 1, d~;,g").

on a responsibility, obligation or function of his


own accord, at the same time involving others


kunc~:~:' N 1. lock, padlock 2. key


( '111', ~)




3. wrench (?an'). (khttau". khOu")

N handcuffs .

in the obligation without their knowledge or .j



n kfi".

Variant form of



turn the key (in order to unlock).

klidkhwaau' V to be in the way of, to

bar (the way), obstruct.

N (athletic) sport, sports.

n1 ~--


athlete. -Also n'Vl1.

lilt! Qbl!Ll'l








CiJ •

a t;lnA 1

r6d 1 kudau' (khan') N (motor) truck.

the cyclical years is given under


Q'W kun/ V sew. tobind(withabinding). [f.Chin.] Ql-1 kum' V to seize, hold.



.nnn" 8

i .kYgk~u"*








judkyg" idem. V to echo, to resound;


to be very loud, noisy.

v v v

to arrest, detain. to arrest. 1. to fit well (of clothes). 2.

to be airtight, i.e. without any loopholes (e.g.

n i .kYu' N half, middle.

of rules) .


n'1n' ( lltl) kllm.kYu' (kan") V 1. to be half (this) and half (that). 2. to be about the same (as


each other). sV 3. about equally.

~1l1Hni:1lJ (oUn)

kyu'souklom' (stig') N eleg.

hemisphere. d

n 1 ~ 1'!1n 1 a .kYu"rlladchakaam" semi-official. Q kU?I V co 11 o q. 1. to be groundless, false, fake. 2. to fake, make up. ~

kugkug" i mit. "cluck, cluck" (the clucking

l ~ 81..1--

idem. -The names of all the months are listed


( eHI'I)

l ~ 8tl. kumaan" (?ou"l N roy. boy.

n l 1:11 in 1.H11 n liil'l ( fii'1 ) plaakulaw" (tua') N a



kind of salt water fish.

QAiil kus6n", kus6nla:::: N good deeds, merits. n 1 ~-­ charity. Q'VIiill'U


N rose. AeJn--

flower). 1111..1-- (lilt!)




Q kuu" P s p. to i nf. I, me. Rude word, paired

of a hen). n 1 ( A'l) kOu' (tua')


kumphaa"phan' N February.


n in 1:1 l -1 ktuklaau' N 1. center, middle. 2. (as

n. mod.) central, middle, center.

Abbrev. for QlJJll'W'W6

Q:WJl Tl1'tlo




Q'W kun-' (Year of the) Pig. -The complete list of



( A'W)




kudau' (lau". roou') N warehouse,



'VI~Ann l;J


See entries below.

'lh ~n n chaua:g'.kYg" V to stop suddenly, stop


V to lock.

godown. [f. Malay] -Also

stadium. 2. playing field, sports field. d

N key.

QA kud" V 1. to be shortened. 2. to be amputated.

b~·wn'Vl1 l@n/kiilaa' V to play (athletic) games.

k~8d 1 (h£n'l


colloq. to be lazy.

b '11 1 b u ~ khAwkia' to put in gear, engage the gears.

taammii/taamk~8d' according to

'rlll ~ b lllil thamMjk~8d'

nu q

v v

written b tJ .

b fllil6ln'VIC1l'W k~8d'l0ugl!' to have descendants. lil1 :w:W lill :1-1 b Iii



\nlii:W'IJ'W Iii ?ltadcak~8d'mii/-kh9ndAaj/



;, b

may occur, might occur.

1J€1 bfllil

V to argue over, disagree as to who will

b tJ 'l • See entries below.

1. to happen that; there hap-

happen to have. o


b nt:1 ~ klan'

to (e.g. get sick).


1. to be extraor-

do it (put it up to the other person).

born, to have been born. 2. co 11 o q. to happen

b !il:i'l


tntJnn1tJ klagkaaj' N milit. commissary .

good. b lil:l.Jl


dinary, terrific. 2. to be awful, terrible.

k~8d'khwaamkhfd' to get an idea.

b fllilfld 1:WA!il

~ bn'W 10a!Jk88n' to trespass against, offend,

b'VI~ i'J b n'W lyak88n', lyak;;>an' very, extremely,



b nlii'IJ'W k~8d 1 kh9n' V 1. to occur.

not to exceed, not more than,

no more than.

ntJ ~ ~



to be disgraced, de-

graded. N birthday.

to exceed, be in excess of.

b 1 bil'Wn 1ii1 kllw'k8ankaan' to be out-of-date,


b ntJ 'l d




to hook, hitch.


Lntnnou ( nu) klawk5jl(kan) V to hook each other's little fingers (of lovers or intimate



friends of the same sex, esp. w.).

o 6 il'U1'lnfi'W ky-ab'thugkhon' almost every person. 9



o 6'111n 6 llil'UltJ kh11wk:lky-ab'paj~ He almost (e.g.

6 lil'W b n tJ 1 n 8 tJ daan'klawk:lj/ V to walk with


little fingers hooked. Cf. Eng. "walk arm in

got hit) too. 6nwu 'l ~ ky-abca~ AA almost, nearly, on the verge

arm. d

bntJ 'l l£l klaw' V 1. to cut (as with a sickle). 2.



to harvest, reap. ~

6 O'U (


bn'U b nUl kebklaw' V "




o div'lJ'l::; l~ltJ6b~~1.U

to harvest.

cyduu'kebklaw' N harvest, har-

::>lJ' V to be related (of kindred). d


6 n1J 1 ww klawphan'

v to be related (to). n1 ~--

relation, connection. d

fi1'U bntJ 'l




1:w bn1J 'l

V to overlap, be overlap-

m!tjklaw' 1. not to be concerned, not



6 nu 'l ( n'U)


V to associate with,

ktawphaa'raasli/ V elab. colloq.

'ii1:W, rll) kfaw' (chaam', tua') N wanton


[f. Chin.]


old person.

-syn. 1. 'tin,


-Dis t.


N c hem. concentrated acid.

6 n l 6b n


un-< El:W


V to be old, of long standing. V to be overripe.

bbn ol'l ksetua' V to age. fl wb liiJ 1 flt.lbb n

kfa?l N Chinese wooden slippers

(kh!tan' for one of a pair; khOu' for a pair).




66n'ln a:w kteu~m' V to be very old (of people).

bfl1J lllil kiawtoo' pN Kyoto. [f.Japan.] ('II 1 'I, fl)

accustomed to. 1.

(Chinese ravioli). [f. Chin.]

b fltJ ~

e.g. people, animals, plants). 2. to be ripe,

nS li1 6b n

to court, woo; to make love to. (


4. to be strong, concentrated (of coffee, tea,

'l ktaw' V to court, woo, seduce.

b fltJ 'l

YIU n phtikee' co 11 o q. he, that fellow; she, that

and other liquids). 5. to be an old hand at, be

get involved with.


Q'W "I,me."

mature (of fruit). 3. to be dark (of colors).

to concern. 2. to be unrelated. ~ -1



bbn 'il k1:e' V 1. to be old, aged (of living things,

ping, extend over (into).








lil6ll8'lJ~::;l~veJn duuky-ab'cam~j?~::>g' (them); (it) can hardly be made out.

b ntJ 'l'V ~'I ( n'U) klawkh~n'(ka~) V 1. to be re-



can hardly make (it) out, can hardly distinguish

cern, be related (to), concerned (with). d


almost didn't go.

vesttime, harvesting season. d

b nu d b n'U klawkeb'

'l::;) l~ ky-ab(ca)m~j~ AA hardly, scarcely.


fill Jlbbn khan'k~e' V e 1eg. 1. to be at full preg-

nancy. N 2. full pregnancy. eleg. to help.

N e 1 a b. co II o q.

old people, elderly people, the aged.

-s y n.

118 Hbn




b €1 n1:1 k})akuun' 'U"'



V e I e g. to aid, support.

kyag' N com. shoes(kh!tau' for

one of a pair; kh0u 1 for a pair).

-s yn.


il 'I

nil nm

( el'W, 'II 1 'I) kyagma:a' ?an', kh!tau') N

N 1. a go-between

bfl iJ n

jaakhAdkyag' N shoe polish.


b eJ'U ky-ab' qM 1. almost, nearly, about.

almost, nearly, on the verge of. ' 'l :w • 2. 'l 'l 'W • 66 11'U •

Chinese man. temk1:r' in the highest degree, extremely,

exceedingly. o 'H'l'IJl'l 6~:Wbbn hiwkh!taw'temk~e' to be exceed-

horseshoe. 1Jl i li1

tMwk1:e' (khan')

who arranges a marriage. 2. an aged, wealthy b ~:Wbbn

6111 eleg. b

( fl'\.1)




u l 1 i£l.

ingly hungry. AA 2.

-s y n.


8 l 'l 66n ( fi'W)

saawktr' (khan')

N spinster, old

maid. Hbn

( fl'\.1)



N eleg. old woman.


-syn. tJltJLln Lln llJ


thing) to (someone).


AA too much. k~e"phfiud"

o Un'Wiil '


to talk too much.



?aaj/kacaj/, -He- to be ashamed.

V 1. to untie, undo, unwrap. 2. to undo,


Lln m He:::, k£:::, ka:::

to (with indirect object), for.

take off (clothes). 3. to undo (an error), correct,

NOTE. (1) The pronunciation ka::: is often reflected in the orthography; see



revise, alter. 4. to mend, repair. 5. to solve.


6. to remedy, relieve (an illness). 7. to explain

Subentries in which variant pronunciations of Lln are indicated give the usual pronunciation

away, make an excuse.

remedy, cure.

unneJtHLfl'l r:Sojktew" N prose.

N percussion cap. [f.

um.J t.J ( el'W) ktb"*(?an")

( iil1)


LLfl11 !fl.

LL n ~ 1 krew"* V to pass the time idly, hang around

kw1:u"*V toswing.

n -l171LLn

,J, kw~dkwcu'

V 1. to swing, brandish.

2. to oscillate, swing.

45 L~ 0 G1

, L~ n G1 k!:':Edl, ki!:Es' N gas, i.e. gaseous sub-

stance. [f.Eng.] -Also




L~O::: "' ( f>i'1) kt?' (tua') N sheep.


( A'W)

d~g'1fauk~? 1



N 1.


( f>i'1) lOugkt?' (tua')


0 O'U LOtJ k:'>;,bkoojl V to gather in, scoop together

N lamb .

be carved. 3. to pick out, remove (tiny objects

(in large amounts).




1. to blow gently (of the wind). 2.

to be breezy, windy; to be open, airy, exposed

with the tip of the finger).

~tn:::61~o kt?'sal!tg' V to carve. ' V1HLO::: (A'W) cMauk~?l(khon 1 ) N sculptor,

to the breeze. L0;-1


kroou' (bajl) N apothecary's mortar.

LOSO krood' V com. to be angry. A1UJ--


L; kOo'

N razor blade.

koobee' pN Kobe. [f. Japan.]

run quickly.

kt?' V 1. to carve, carve out, etch. 2. to


L~:J.J) mtidkoon 1 (l@m 1 ) N razor.

LOt! koojl V 1. to scoop together. 2. to scamper,

shepherd boy. 2. one who cries wolf. lilOUn:::


o L'Ui'lliiLO'W bajlmtidkoon' (bajl)

Lo ~ 'U

'tJ'WUO::: khi:ink~?/ N wool, lamb's wool.


the beard).

-Dist. n161.

ktdsooliin' N gasoline. -Also

~Iii o ~ &W H~ o:::

L O'W'VI'W 1 Iii koonnuad' V to shave (literally, shave

V co 11 o q. to be grand, elegant, beautiful,

below). -Syn.

of1 roy.,

~'W, 't:J.JL'VI

(see com.


smart, all dressed up.


LOH'tJ'I krbod'kh9u' V to be angry.

'1 kllokllo' sV grandly, elegantly, smartly,

LOHA~Iil '1 krbod 1 -tanld1 tauld' somewhat an-

in a chic manner.



gered, a little angry.

'1 l@n'kllokOo' for fun, for the fun of


FI11:J.JLOH khwaamkrood' N anger. -syn. L'Yl61:::

LOL; kookllo' N cocoa, chocolate. (£.Eng.]

Ln 1

koou' V 1. to be bent, crooked. 2. to cheat,

eleg .. 't:J.JL'VI, Al1:J.J't:J.JL'VI

L0 ~·'W

chisel, deceive, take unfair advantage of others;

L n L ~ 10 L 61 kooroo'koosi:io'

commitment, avoid one's duties or obligations.

1Oiil n

- a cheat, a swindler. -s y n. 1, 2. filii .

ch!'bkoou' V to cheat, defraud, swindle.

sion, melee. V 2. to be tumultuous, turbulent. A11:J.J--

tumult, turbulence.

(LOA, ~n ,1'\J)

(as from a deformity). 2. to be round-shoul-


dered, stooped over; to have one's shoulders

LOVIn koohOg' V com. to tell a lie.

koon' V 1. to bend upward, to arch. 2. to

koou' raakhaa' to raise the price; to

1n; kl~i'' back (as

a cat).


(rl'W) r6d'kooctau' (khan')

truck. L O'W koon' V to shave (beard, hair).

Qlil 'I.

-s y n.


'tJ'lJiil e 1eg.

V 1. to be near, close, nearby. 2. to be

close to. -Ant. 1 n uton' one's own.


( t1 D)

bfi~ucham' N dry foodstuff, food suscep-

kh5ouw1lan 1 N dessert, sweetstuff.

'!J nmltajl

(th!'l::>nl) N

h!'lukhilu' (h:Ju')

N cell. detention


lcJ •



~ 1V'I

See kh~d'


V 1. to obstruct, hinder, interrupt,

refuse, disagree (with}, conflict (with). 3. to

over, be woven, interlaced. 5. (an animal) to pN Khqnkren, a township in

NE Thailand.

be injured, crippled. 6. (one's bones) to feel sore, broken.

( 'u 8'U) kh~ob' (kh~ob')

N edge, rim.

margin. (

'IJ 'I

fasten, latch. 4. to cross, extend across and

'U8'W. See fi81.J 0J.



V 1. to serve the purpose tem-

porarily (as a means of relief), to tide one over.

5u) kh~obkheed' (?an') N limit,

boundary, confines. 'II iJ'U :fn n 1'W

2. to relieve one's soreness (as by massage). V171tl'U

kh~ob'cagkrawaan' N e I eg.

horizon. -Syn. 'tl8'UI11


('II fl'U) kh~::>b'thanl5n' (kh~ob')

khad 1 ka::: to conflict with, be contradictory

to, disagree with. Vlil'll11'1

N curb

(along the edge of a street). 'tJ tl'Ul1 < b G1


interfere (with}. 2. to oppose, resist, object,

log, section of unhewn timber.

'tJ 8'U mm

( V!8


'tJ 8 Iii lcJ kh~odl V to knot.

'II 8'U b'tJ Lil



pot. o 'tJ" 11 'tJ 8 liiV!:W El

'II 8'U 0J

t; fl:;tJ'Wfl~tl8.

cage, jail. 2. to be confined, to be caught (as

kh~od 1 kled' to scale (a fish}.

'tJ 8 Iii b n Al'l

FS. Also written

khil!J' V 1. to shut up, pen up, confine, detain,


the bottom (of a container).




'IJ;;;tJI.J'tJ:;tJ8 khaj:tn'khaj::>o' V to urge, press, pres-




to be serious, determined, earnest, energetic.

kh~dkh!'lu' V to object, have objections;

~'\.1;8~1'1 '

b 'u :W ~ .

modern term

v~l7n b'U:W'W kham~g'kham@nl, khamltg'kham~n'


V171 'II eH

N 1 it. Cambodia; Cambodian. This

term is used in historical chronicles. See the

kh!'lucajl V to be in doubt (about), dubious

(about), unclear in one's mind (about). fl1 1:1-J--

'IJgkhaw'l She was amused by his words.

'uU~'W khbbkhiin' V to be funny, humorous, comi-

V to be in conflict,

to disagree (with one another), contradict (one

cal, amusing.

~ 1 ~'W


't!ol~'W kh1lds6n' V 1. to lack, be short of, be in need of. 2. to be poor, in want, needy.

nlia'khiin', nliakhiin' V to be funny, comical,

amusing. ridiculous. 1-;

'ti'W khlin/ C step (of ladder, stairs); step (in a pro-



5 khadsamaad'

cedure); rank, level; stage (of development).

V to sit with knees

apart and legs crossed under (usually on the



tr1-- kha.dhuu', fa!J'kh1ldhuu' V to be dis-

'l pen'khlinkhlin' step by step, in stages.






~1JV'W5 dil.bkhan/ V lit. to die (of Buddha).


'" khab/ V 1. to drive, operate (a vehicle).

pleasing to the ear, jarring, not sound right.

2. to drive (a herd). 3. to drive away, chase away. 4. to secrete (excrete). 5. to tease.

belt. d

fi'W-- driver, chauffeur, pilot.

bJ..JeJtJ'tlli1 m9aj'kh1ld 1 V to feel stiff and sore.




'tili1 lcJ khad' V 1. to rub (against), scrub. 2. to

polish, shine. ~


kh1ldman' V to be polished, shiny, glossy.


bajkhabkhli' (bai')

N operator's

khabkhtaw' V to drive or exert (oneself)

vigorously, relentlessly.

~1J Iii eJ'W khab't:J:>n' V to drive, herd, urge on.

'ti'W ® kh1ln' V 1. to tighten by turning or twisting.

iJu S 1:1

2. to force oneself to try something (against

great odds), to make a diligent or daring effort.

kh1lbr6d' to drive a car.





kMnk5g' to turn the faucet off.


nJii1'ti'W kuadkhan' V to be strict (with).



•u1J b~1J 'l

n 1 ~-- friction; abrasion.

~'Wlh'D 1, wu i

operator, driver (of a vehicle).

license, driver's license.

'dli1~ khad'siil V 1. to scrub. 2. to polish.


khabkhli' V to drive, operate a vehicle.


khad'thuu' V to burnish. furbish, polish up.






khankhtn'. khtnkhan' V to be

khabllij/ V to drive away, chase away, repel. d



bfiSeJ11J'W'ti1J 6'1



( bFlSeJ1)


N pursuit plane, fighter plane.


diligent, industrious; to do things assiduously,

'ti'\J l£1 kh1lb/ V to sing, recite.

-Chiefly in cpds.


'tJ'U "' V'Un::>!Jkhltam" V to overlook, disregard.

8l'W( ... )'ii1:W 'l ?aan"( ... )kh§amkhltarn' to

exception. sV 4. definitely, absolutely. 5.

.i'lil 'll11il


seller, vendor; also ~--. 'lilU'iJ8~

L~U5UV1!11 pen?ankh~ad' definitely, decidedly,




•l'1'1ii'WltJ eleg.

V to sell, sell things. FI'W--

salesperson, seller, vendor.

positively, absolutely, under any circumstances.

o Sl'W'u 11.1'!18 ~ raan'khaajkh:'>::>lJ' N store, shop.

L sed in negative or prohibitive constructions.

'!lltJ'illFJ khaajchltad' V to betray one's country,

o cW1 ... L~'W5U'!I1Vl j~a::: ... pen?ankh~ad' do not {do so and so) under any circumstances;

commit treason.

oo~V1;1:Wbi'W'WFI'\.I LAU'l


khi!ajdlb"khaajdii' V e lab. co 11 o q. to have good sales; to sell well.


'iJ 1 1.1 'l khaa j tua / V to sell tickets.

under any circumstance cross the street alone. n t 1" phuugkhaad' V to monopolize.

n ll - -


Fl 'W- -


seller. 'iJ ltJ 11 D!11lil mkheJJ' (khelJ'• khOu')

N Chinese pastry in the shape of a basket.

Often sold in pairs, hence elf.

with great military power (prathl!ed'). 'Wn'lJ'WrW 'I

( L'lJ 'I,~)

'(MJ L't! 'I

military leader, war lord (khon'). 2. a nation

najkheed' within the boundaries of.

Vi:l.Jiill'illil mod'kheed' to be past the deadline; (applications) to be closed. 81~1

L'lJiil ?aanaakheed' N border, boundary,

frontier, territory.

65 L~'W






kheenl (?ani)


n1 ~ L~'W

b~:1-J'~'W khi'!mkhlln' V to be concentrated, thick.

N a round shield.

( el'W) kaagkheenl (?an')

L~:WLL;~ kh~mkh~g' V 1. to be strong, powerful,



vigorous, ardent. sV 2. sedulously, hard and

"' kMnl V to push; to move forward by pushing L~'W

persistently (as of working).

and pulling.

power, ardor.

b~'W ( ••• ) 1~ltJ khi:\n( ... )mltjpajl

1. can't budge

L'li:W ~ 1 01 khi'!tn\)Oad' V 1. to be strict, rigid. 2. to

(something); (it) won't budge. 2. (a person) to

( A'W)

curb. b ~~ 1 khameu' rM used with ~ €J -1 "gaze," :J.JJ 1

be unteachable, dumb. S L1 b~'W

r6dkh""nl (khan/)

N pushcart,

"look" in the sense of "fixedly, rigidly."

buggy (esp. baby buggy).

b'li:W'W khamen'* V 1. (muscles) to twitch. 2. slang

L~'W khenl* V to beat hard.

to find irritating, be irritated by; to be irritating,

L~'W L~i'J 1 kh41mkhiawl V to gnash the teeth,

get on one's nerves. '

( b kh::lan' V to be lacking (in some essential),

be amiss, incongruous, out of keeping.


(jaau'. wfchaa')

LVtJ'Wvt'IT~ ~ 8 khlan'nausty' V to write.

L~ 1 L'111 rew'khdw~ Hurry up!



N written examination (as opposed to oral).

can't put it in or on;

pertinent, nonsensical.

~'W;1 L;l


; 8 Lii tJ'W ( eJ 1 ~ , 1'11 1 )

Liiv'W ~~ khlan'thY:n::::: V 1. to write about. 2.

(it) won't go in, go on.



can't close it; (it)

won't close.

gkhrttab' V 1. to molt, slough.

fl S 1:1-J

sl!~ bV'Wfl S11

bV'Wfl S 11

b ~:Wfl S 1'9J temkhrttabl idiom., co 11 oq. to the


chOakhraaw' temporarily, for the time

desire or inclination (to do something); to be

ditJ~fl;1'W fl

11VIn 1 the time before, on the

last occasion.

fl~81lif1n s1•J khrfd'tasagkaraad', khrfd'sagkaraad' the Christian era. -Abbrev.


A~ Ellll An khrid'tasog' 1 it. fl ~81i1 A18'W 1 khrid'tasaadsanaa', khrfd'saadsanaa'

N Christianity. ~

Fl s 11 61 ~ khraawla::: each time.

fl. A.

FI~Ellii:J.Jl::ls:'>:::>' A. D. (the Christian era). Abbrev. for FIS~Iilf1nnti.

the content (as of a book); subject matter.

FIV!- in fiV!'U~ ( FI'W)

-Syn.l~FI'll:W. cl

1Jl1FI'll JJ ( 1Jl1, b ~ 0 ~) bOdkhwaam' (bOd', cyau') N an article (in a newspaper, magazine, etc.). 6DnA 1 1 :w ba:::>kh~::ld'


N isthmus.

ness, disappointment). sV 2. (with) drooping head, crestfallen. Fl tJ Iii tl kh::l::lt:'!::l' N nape.

84 FlO'UVIt (Fl'W) kh:>:>'burlil (khon1 ) N idiom.


a heavy smoker.



to have a goiter.

unnoticed: "grass (by) the barn door." FlO~ kh~od'

N l. collar (of

a shirt, coat, etc.). 2. neck (of a garment). FlOVI11'W' to have a sweet tooth.

to be worn away. A€JA€J~

Fl eJ'W '"

throat. Fl a LVl'


Ae!n'VIl.J (A an)

Fl eJLL'U~ kh:>:>b£?1 having lapels (e.g. a coat). Fl eJ'W an

(for animals); stable, cowbarn.

eJ eJ:WFI e!l.J

o above.



e!:WFI e!l.J

V to be indirect, roundabout.


to speak eva-

sively, to beat around the bush. r

' to float with the head above


Fl eJ:w:l"htloilil khoommiwnfs', -nfd' N communism; communist. [f. Eng.] r

' (lamkhoo')

N throat.

d) tH FlO ?ialJkhoo' V to cock one's head (e.g. in order to listen). Fl eJ n ( Fl eJ n)

kh~og' (kh~og')

~'UFieJ:Wi'htloiiii ciin'khommiwnfs' N Communist China; Chinese communist. Aav kh:>:>j' V l. to wait, wait for, await. AA 2.

N enclosure, pen, sty

keep( ... -ing).




eJ, m.

See also




name, title, or kin term to address or to call


the attention of someone; 6th example. 4. Yes?

kh:J:JjdiJ?' keep(s) scolding (someone).

o AiJ11S~1~ kh:J:Jjrawau' keepwatchingout,

(as a reply when called or spoken to). -Syn.

keep on the alert. AiJ11 'I~ kh:J:Jjca::: AA waiting (for an opportunity)

l'I1A~ eleg. def. w. sp.


s p. -see also

and also the variant


, '!J 1 l!J,

Ai\.1 def. m.


to, interested (solely) in. -Syn. o








o nLJJW::>1Jkham" (th~D"· k~bn")

N gold; yellow gold. 1'1'1 [;:)

( Fl'1)

kham" (kham")

(oral) speech. C 2. mouthful, bite. 3. elf.

1. fh

-s y n.

blel tJ .

is frequently placed in front of

verbs of speaking, saying, asking, etc., to form noun derivatives. It is usually rendered in Eng-

( f1"1)

kham"- karijaa"wiseed"

N gram. adverb.


('tiel, 'UTI)

khamklilaw" (kMo",bOd')


a saying.

F1'1n~11'V!1 (;eJ,tl~~nu ,1'1.1) (kh~ol,


N accusation, charge.

~ LrJ'l;f

( ; 8, 'lJ


~ ~ n 1 ~)




N apology, excuse.

Fl"1'118;8 1 ( ,; ~ , 'i!1J'U) kham"kh3:Jdou'



N petition; request (for help). ~

F1"1V 11il

N gram.

-Usually F1"1n~tJ1.

verb. Fl'1'tl

prakaanl, kham')

( 1'1'1) kham"kirijaa" (kham")

F1'1iHtJ 1

N 1. word, words,

for an utterance, a word. NOTE

(kham') F1'1nfil11

-syn. TieJ1. mH 1'1'1

gram. verb. -Also F1'1!Hu1.


bat (mammal). Fl'1 ® kham'

(fl'1) kham'karijaal, -krl- (kham") N

F1"1 n 1tJ 1 ::1 b f'l'l;f!ll

raw meat, blood, fish. fl11 [;:)in FI11FI11

n.l'UFI.1 klabkham" V to go back on one's word.


raw foods (often esp. raw meats).


( V eJ, 'i!'U'U) khamkhaad" (kh~o". chabilb')

90 Fi'l'li~b]! 1fi! ( 'U eJ, '\J S::: n IS)

N ultimatum.

kham 1 patljaan/ (kh~J/,


A'IAfi!rlW'Yl (A':>l)/tf:utua.l things to wear (includ-

ing ornaments);



apparel, attire, finery, (complete) wardrobe.

bound element used to form noun derivatives;

NOTE 3. Classifiers used with derivatives

see notes 1 and 2. -com p. - Jlrn'f'l

based on



Lfl ~ El ~ are usually one of the follow-

ing, depending on appropriateness: NaTE 1.



Fl ~ a ~ is very productively used as

a bound element placed in front of either nouns


for objects int~cately bound together; sets or suits;


1V~, for

for a piece, particularly a


or verbs to form new noun derivatives. In this


use it has the sense of "gear, apparatus, device,

for a kind or sort; t1u, as a general elf. for

contrivance. preparation (concoction), ware,

units; or occasionally some other classifiers.

goods, implement, implementation, instrument, paraphernalia." The English suffixes -er, -or





LA a Hl' 1 ( LR a 1 ) khr\)!llJchag 1 (khi1'4J'l scales,



LFIHH balance.

(jaau'. chanfd')

( trA) khr9"agb~eb'

t Fl! en mJ'U

(chdd') uniform.

Lfl~V-lL~'I.I (~Vl,~'W) khz-9an:n~n 1 (chddl,



mark, symbol, signal.

ch!nl, a piece) silverware.

~R!rmJ;~ ~ ) khr)}aukhum'?aakaad'






l '; LFl s iJ 1 'l n s e:J'W 1



u-1 )

'VI81 l FIS 8 1 ( vt8 1 ) Mukhr)}au' (Mu')


khr)}aut~::Jbtheen' N (a) recipro-

khled' N (refined) means, tactic, technique.

nique. LFl ~ ~ i>J khlect' V to be sprained, get sprained. LFilii 'W . See

(jaau'l N alms.

LA~eHL"W (~'W)

khr)}aunai' (chfn') N internal

LA HH'U 1 Ls s

against (the legs).

( e>ti 1 ~)


Fl ~ ~ LF1 ::>n' V 1. to bend, curve; to curve upwards

or sucking organ of the bee.

(as the elephant's tusk). 2. to pout, show dis-


pleasure (esp. of women, children); to feign dis-

( -11-1)

uuaumaphraawl (uuau') N

spadix of the coconut palm.



HHHJ'Il1 n


pleasure, pout coquettishly (of women).


uuauMjtMag' (uuau') N

'I eJ'W il eJ lJ::>::>lllJ:S::>' V to try to humor, assuage, be

protruding eye stalk of the land snail.

nice to an offended or sulking person (in order

11 'l uOau' V to be sleepy, drowsy.

to make up with him).


' -1 ::>Maj-' co 11 o q. to double up with (violent) laughter.




. ' ~'W'W:::oU bli\1

-see eJtJ l'l'W'W.



be nice to an offended person (in order to make

lJan'n!tsiil!tw"' That's it. That's the

point. That's why ....




o ~'WVi~eJ lJan'ry'), -1"8'-. -r.'I::J'- Is that so?

up with him). 1. to sprout, bud. 2. to grow, increase,

Is that it? -see Vi! i'l . '



:w 11J 1'W, l:w -1 'W

multiply (esp. of plants). C 3. sprout, plumule, bud.

m!tajuanl, m!tjuan' co 11 o q. other-

wise, or else, if not. u:l::>guaam"' V to grow, develop, thrive

~'\J uab'

(of plants). l EJ n b 'tJ IJ!'l::>guaaj'


-short for ~

iJtJ" 'l'W.

eJ'W ~ eJ lJ::>::>lliJ5::>' V to try to humor, assuage,


ntu'uan' V to be silent, speechless.


-'I'W uan' colloq. like that.

-1 iJ u:S::>' V to humble oneself in order to conciliate.


to be overripe.

u!'li'* v to be lame.

" ~ iJtl 6 \J~tJ IJ!'Ijplta' V to be lame.

-11 tJ in 11 tJ 'I -1 , 'I -1 -1 d tJ lJUajlJOIJI, lJOIJIJUaj' V tO be




~ i)tJ

absorbed (in).


N a kind of hat made of palm


-Short for




l:w:>lJth:>:>lJ 1


money. d

finances, money.


L61 f.J:W Li"W ltamnan' V 1. to plate, cover, be plated,

covered with a thin sheet of silver. 2. to en-

N colloq. money matters, financial matters.

frame, be enframed with a thin strip of silver.

L~'W L~ eJ'U nandyanl N monthly salary.

'VI1 L~'U hl!.auan' V to earn money, earn a living.

L~'Wbblil -1 nandeen' N counterfeit money.

o VIH ~'\JVI1'YliH hil.ananiM.ath:>:>lJ/ elab. colloq.

L~'U o

l; uanctaajl


N income.


phaasiilnanditajl N incometax.

LltJ in

L~'Wiii'U nantOn' N finance principal, capital

L~ 1J in

sum. L~'Wiil ~ 1 uantraa' N minted currency.

colloq. money.

-seealso L~'W

'1 'Ylel-1 '1


L'I f.J 'I


ntan' (ntan 1 ) N hook; barb.

( L-1 f.J -1)

L-1 f.J"W ntan' V 1. to lust, be desirous (sexually).

b 1f.J1J utah' V to be quiet, still, silent, soundless. Ln1J ( ••• ) L ~f.J1J keb( ... )ntabl to keep (some-

b ~'W ~'W nanthunl N capital (money in an invest-


thing) in secret. nan 1 panphbn 1

Llf.J1Jn ~U ntabkrlb' to be completely soundless.

dividend (given to a

b 1t:~u

shareholder). L~'Ue.l iJ'U uanph:,:>n' N installment.

Dbl!V L~urJ 1 n

1. silent, quiet, taciturn.


Llf.J1JQU utab'chlbl to be very silent, not let one-

banchiilnanfaagl N bank account.

self be heard from at all.

L~'U L~:W~ LFl'i'l nanpMam'phf seed' N special

L~f.JU LVf.J1J ntabchtabl to be dead silent. L ~f.J1J 61 'I ntab'lolJI to quiet down.

auxiliary allowance for employees (in addition

L~ri1J LVIi 1 ntabnawl V to be silent and lonely.

to the regular salary). L ~'WiJiil ~ 0 1 nanlmadcaml N deposit (down pay-



L'IU'l nfaw' N Shan.

-Syn. 'd1'U,

LfeJ uyal V to raise (the hand, a weapon) in a

L~'U ~ li1 uansod' N cash.

threatening gesture; to gesture menacingly

LhJ'VI~'U L1vv nanlmunwianl N currency (money

(by raising the hand, preparing to strike).


in actual use, in circulation).

~1 'I L~'W ( fl'W) ch1taunan1 (khon') N silversmith. ~el b ~'W ( ~eJ) b:J:>nan' (b:J:>') N silver mine. L1i n L~'U ~ag'nanl V to withdraw money (as

(l1J) bajlooagnan' (bajl)

strike). L~on

( .l'l) n?ag' (tual) N 1. mermaid. 2. dugong, an aquatic mammal (Dugong).




L-1 el"W ( b '01.1, 1.1 ~ ~ n1 l) u)1anl N l. knot (n)1anl).

bank. withdrawal slip. 1.1611 L~'\.11.1611 'Yl8 -1 plaanan'plaath:>:>lJ' N small

carp with gold and silver coloring.

2. joint (n9an'). 3. hint, clue (prakaan'). d

o l1J rJ 1 n L~"W ( 11J) bajlfaagnanl (bajl) N



L'I el"W lii

( '11 eJ)

N clue.

l))1ankhajl (kh~'\::JI) N condition,

stipulation, proviso. 'LI



o fJ el:IJLL'WLOW l:w:w LHl'\.1 1'11 j:>:>mphte 1 -doojm1tjmii'

bank. deposit slip. o G1:WLiH.J 1 n L~"W ( L61,W) samud 1 faagn~ml (l@ml)


Lfl1L'Iel"W ('d8) khawn9an 1 (kh~:>')

r,l 1 n b ~'U faaglnanl to deposit money (in the bank).

N bankbook, passbook.

uyau1ta 1 idem.

L~ el~ 0 uyalmyyl to raise the hand (in order to

from the bank).

1'u LDn L:ru

'1 ntabntab1

silently, quietly, in silence.

L~'WrJ 1 n nanfaag' N money on deposit.


ntahuulfan/ to cock the ears, i.e.

2. to have a craving for (narcotics).

L~'W 'Y1 eJ'U nanth:>:>n/ N change (money returned).







b £1 V!.W-1

try hard to listen.

L~'U'IleH nan'th::J::JD' N 1. gold and silver. 2.


.i''l LltJ nuanial V to feel sleepy, drowsy,

not fully awake.

u9ankh!1jl to surrender unconditionally. d b 'I


el'W i 1 u9annaml N l. clue, key to a solution. 2. hidden point, catch.

108 See entries below.


( LL~')


d finally.

uyamphil.a' (h£u'}

N precipice,


cou' AA lit., e leg.


overhanging rock, projecting cliff. "' ' I LJ"" ~ e.J:W:We.J uyammyy

adv. -aux: "let's; come on (and); go (and)." May also be used by sup. to inf.

N idiom. control, clutches,

power, hands. juunajuyammyy1 kMou:::: to


be in the clutches of. ~~'I


long period.

the traffic police. very; so very

'Yl11 'l


into the flesh).

t 'l~n

( ~)

N nose; snout.

(ruu') N nostril.

c:>:>n/, c:>:>n:::, c:>:>ra::: V I it. to go, wander, move about. FIV--

factual basis; there is an element of truth. 'l

( FI'\.J)

khonc:>:>ncad', khonc:>:>racad'

o l U'\.Jn 1S 'l ~ i

,f, penkaan/ciucau.l to be earnest,

'< ~ 1l'< ciucaj.l V to be sincere, heartfelt. Fl1 1:W-sincerity. o

LFI 'l S khooe:>:>n' V to travel (of celestial bodies).

('H) WO!Je:>:>n'(wou'l

N elect. circuit.



s11 'I

s1 OtJ ( \1) ~


V to be insincere.

ciu.ljuu'-(th!i:::) it's true (that); actu-

ally, in fact. cajcin' N (one's) true feelings, frank





frankly, candidly-


~- i, ~'l 1 cl dii'ciul. dii.lciuciu-'! That's fine!





1 "< 'l S1

'l S ~ l 'tJ •

'1 Slil carod' V eleg. to touch, reach, join, abut.


really, se-

an earnest matter; earnestly, with all one's heart.


'l S l ·~ . See

ciucau' V 1. to be serious, earnest. sV

riously, truthfully_

(khan') N vagrant, vagabond, homeless wan-


~ ciuciu' sV really, very.

2. seriously, earnestly. 8[J 11--

N 1. itinerant,

traveler, wanderer. 2. temporary guest (in a

s1 s

'1 1 ~1

hotel). FI'\.J '1 ~~A

khwaamcin' (prakaan') N

o J:l:W:>n' (khon')


truth (e.g. of Buddhism).

kh)rycamuug' N the nasal septum. ruucamuug 1

(see below). -Ant. lTI'l

1. truth; the facts; in fact, in reality. 2. (a)

lapse, fall (as a government). ( '1~n) camuug' (camuug')

sV 2. truly,


Cl :W ':W li'lmcom' V 1. to go bankrupt. 2. to col-


'l S thaau-'-caraa'c:>:>n' N traffic lane.

truthfully. FI11:W--

2. to penetrate completely (as a knife blade



'l ~ 1 cin-' V com. 1. to be true, real.

'l:Wl'JVI com'mfd' V 1. to be entirely submerged.



(khon', naaj.l) N traffic patrolman, traffic cop;




place, remain in one's place for an inordinately 'l :w ll.l UW com'pajh:>.lthedciu.l N facts,

111 evidence, the facts of the matter: "points false

the verge of overtaking one (as when one is pur-

and true."

sued by an enemy, confronted by an urgent issue).

b~ 1 iil1 ~

~ ~ th!tw"tuacig" life- size, actual size.

S'l th£~::"cig/ V to be real, genuine, actual. b~'U ~ S1 pencig" to come true, be realized; to

'l1'1J in

Lb 'Yl ~

'l eJ

list of the cyclical years is given under 'l eJ


'l eJ




~ ~

'llil'l eJ ( eJ~tl'IJ)



?an"thticig" in fact, as a matter of fact

(followed by a clause).

mannerism, airs.

~~'lfl~1.11 carld"klrijaa' N (personal) way, manner (esp. of women).

insane person.

( 'W 1 tJ, fl'W) caree" (naaj/, khon")

N inspector.

khon") N police inspector.



n 1 S-- idem.

changwat, province.

1 n cuag" rM intensifier used with

'!J 11


'l 1 1 cOag" V to plunge (into with full force). 'l1'U



V16i'1) cuan" (lihJ")

N official residence

of the governor of a province. ~

1'U l!:l cuan" AA almost, nearly, on the verge of.

Used also as a verb in some special expressions, e.g.

1.11 ~




-Syn. Ln~'IJ, tlti'IJ,

santly; eloquently." @J


'l 'U)

c~::>g" (baj ")

N a small cup or glass.

'l eJn

l::>tJ" V to reserve, make a reservation. 'l eJ 'I 'l'1 c::>::>gcam" V to imprison (with fetters). .t.

'l eJ i lil1 c::>::>l)tlia' to reserve a ticket, make a res-

ervation. 'l eJ 1 ll S , - - 'l eJ 1 nS l ;l.l ( lil iJ) c::>::>tJkam"(t~::>::::)

C:J:Jl)Ween/, C:J:Jl)Ween 1 :::

V 1. to hold a grudge (against).

2. to seek revenge.

-s y n.

8 1~ 1~ .

~'U 'l eH cabc::>::>tJ" V to lay claim to (a piece of nonpossessed land), preempt. 'l eJ 1 c~u"*

V l. to gaze at, stare at, gaze, stare.

V 2. to be waiting, watching, biding one's time.


'l1'W'l:o cuanca::::


noisily, loudly.


( fl H , VI'W) calaa"con" (khrau". hOn")

unrest, disorder, rebellion.



the lower ranks.

( 'U 1 tJ, fi'W) caree"tamruad" (naaj",

'l. 1. Abbrev. for


'l 8 n

'l eJ n in

L~U'l s~ sia"carld" 1. to lose one's mind. 2.

~ 611 'l61



plant (Araceae).

1ml'l~lil wfkon"carld" to be insane.

'l b ~ r;(l s 1 'l

'ti'W m

l "(juuka::::)

(on), to pay close attention (to). c~b"

'l eJ

LeJ 1 'l ~ 1 ?awciu" V to be serious, earnest; to

to be insane.

V 1. to point (at), hold close (to). sV 2.

against (someone's) chest.

o LVILVI'U~H Mjh~n"cig" convincingly. ~

N screen

o L81iili1 ,· eJ eJ n ?awmtid" -c:,::>/?og" hold a knife

co 11 o q. to perceive and understand clearly.


c::>::>", c::>::>ni!g" (c::>::>')

( 'l eJ)

to, toward, up to, close to, against.

o ~ u" N (Year of the) Dog. -The complete



s!acig" colloq. really, so very (much).


the Thai minor era, beginning March

21, 633 A. D.

ph0ud"m1ljcig" V com. to tell an

untruth. -Syn. See


the actual facts; (in) actuality.

dlu 'l s~

c::>::>s3::>". Abbrev. for 'l~rl'nntl cun"lasagka::::


materialize (as a dream, a plan). fl11 ~-­

'Wiil1~~ S'l 'II

'ld'IJ'l'W cuab"con" Pp until. In rare use

also a conjunction.

AA idem.

'l1'W l ~ U'W cuancian" AA idem. 'l1'Uiil1 cuantua" something to be imminent, on

AA 3. waiting (for an opportunity) to, interested

" 'l:o. (sole:y) in. -See 3. 'leJ1 "

'llil 'l eJ i

codc:'lu" v to pause, hesitate (because of


indecision or mental block). «



'l eJ 4 b'tJlJ -1

T 3. title placed in front of the first name of a

to stare fixedly (at).

lesser concubine. -see 61'l.I:W.

to, interested (solely) in. -s y n. Fl €J tJ" ~ . o 'W1n.O;fl4'ldhJ't11


(ref. to facial expression); to look sick, spirit-

ested solely in (getting) to eat. "IJ



'l flf'J ®

cakin'-tMadiaw'le? j These people are inter-




'l eJ -1 "~ c:}g'ca::: AA waiting (for an opportunity)

1. will, shall; would, should. 2. to (in

the Eng.infinitive). Used in ref. to future or un.l

N a coward.

realized events. See also Note 2 under 't1 I!! •

'1 C:Sgc:Sg' sV slavishly. +


NOTE. 't::: is commonly used together with

'III'W llill" 8 ~ n!tataac:Sg' (with) a submissive ex-

other adverb-auxiliaries. In such instances,

pression, being quiet and looking dumb.

a fixed relative order is observed. Certain

'l t1 -1 VI€! ~ c::>gh:Su'* to be haughty, unduly proud, vain.

adverb-auxiliaries must follow but not precede '", e.g.

'l tlbb'l c::>::>c£E:' V to be crowded, congested, in



camaj' ''will not" (where

confusion. 'leJnbl'ln'HHb'l

"will have to," '• 1~


is not in turn

followed by another adverb-auxiliary). Most c~gc~g 1 c::>xcc 1

V 1. to be noisy,

adverb-auxiliaries, however. must precede 'i:::, which is then usually best rendered by the Eng-

loud (as a large crowd). sV 2. noisily, loudly.

lish infinitive marker "to," e.g.

'l eJ lil co::>d' V 1. to stop, to park (a car), moor (a ' J (bb'lll~,'tl)



n·,;~ , di o1.1, ~ ~ , m 1 , 1~;, ~ 1\J, ~ 1 ,ll'n, ~.

boat). 2. slang to die, be killed. J

A1) .q::

to." Other such sequences are found under

thti'co::>dr6d 1 (htg',thti') N



L;;\J, ~ olJ,

~ lJ~ 1l , Ll~\l, "~ 1 n , a • n , • 1' .

parking space; parking lot. ~

'l Wl.l in

'l EJ'l.ltr ( ~ l ~ )

c::>::>nbO.u' (kh!tau') N 1.


sideburns. 2. lock of hair growing from in o

behind it.

( b61:1-1) co::>b' (ll'm')

o 'I::: bV'W 111 'lJ capen'rajpajj It doesn't matter.

o ~el'W'I dl'W mii?an'cakin' to be well off, well-

Chiefly in




a'l.l~~'l ~'t1°1 jindii'thticatham' to be glad to do. o Ln'l~l-t.J1'111'Wfll; rawcapajniljlk~dAajj Wecan

c::>::>mpluag 1 ( 1 ) N termite


hill. «


(FI'l.l) c::>::>m 1 phaded'kaan" (khon')

N dictator. ('Wlf'J, Fl'l.l)

go anywhere we like. dl/ Pt sp. to inf. or int. 1. the final particle



(naaj', khon') N

of statements and certain commands; 1st and

1. field marshal. T 2. Field Marshal --. 'l eJ:W'¥161 bSeJ

catham'jaaurajl 1. what's to be

2. no matter what (one) does.

N hoe.

'l eJ:W c::>::>m' highest, supreme; head of.



done, what one should do; what shall (one) do?

'l tl'l.l in 61 eJ'W'ltl'l.l 1:'\nc:'ln'* V to be nude, naked, bare.


k:,::>n 1 cakh!twn::>::>n' before going


to bed.

front of a woman's ear, and worn tucked up

'l eJ'U


2nd examples. 2. Yes (in answer to a question);

( '1.11 tJ , FI'W) c::>::>mphonrya' (naaj', khon')

3rd example. Used when sp. to servants, chil-

N 1. admiral of the fleet. T 2. Admiral --.

dren, intimates.

'l eJ:W s l 'li c::>::>mr~ad' N king.



def. m. sp.,


def. w. sp.


b 'll 'l€1:1-1 c~wc::>::>m' N 1. a lesser concubine of

the king. 2. a rank for lesser concubines.

o Abb;1;::: diiltcw"cA'j, dii'ltcwc4'j That's fine! o


chaan"thac4 1 l Goahead!

113 1
n' N e I e g.

" ., ..... q( lfl) .~n b61'W

ctii-Mjthuug's~n', cti'-thuug's~n'

fig., co 11 o q. to hit the right spot, touch the right chord (for successfully evoking a desired




'i~~~~ CYUca:::: AA eleg. so that, inorderto.

response). Jt


-Syn. 5~'1:::

'Wfl ~ ( FJ'W) nagcti' (!chon') N s 1 a ng a hold up o

man. 1t 1J 1 ~ ~






€1'1.!) ctil (?an') N pendant of a necklace .



~ (;) c}ryd' V 1. to be fresh (of water). 2. to be unseasoned, insipid, flat in taste.

intensifier used with (;)'J'W "urgent,"

; €J'W "hot (in temperature)," L~ rn "hot (in "' 'J "fast," .:'J ~ "run." taste)," LS w


LLn ~ ~ lil keeuc}ryd' N mildly seasoned soup.

~lil~1 cwd'taa'

L'IJHJ'J "sour."

clin' N el eg. China, the Chinese. -Syn.

away. 2. (it's) too insipid! 1 ~ ~ [;] cajc}ryd' V to be unsympathetic, unrespon-

Thai vermicelli, which comes in bunches.

sive, unthoughtful.

FI'Wq''W ( Fl'W) khonciin' (!chon') N eleg. a

"' lil'W'I[;I "' u·1~1il ~


qum11~'f.l1~ ciin'-khana?'cMad' N Chinese ~


'f.l1 'l ~'W ( FI'W) chaawciin' (!chon') N a Chinese,

kincu?' to eat heartily. FI'W- -

a hearty

~l~, ciJ?Icaj' tobesatisfy)ng. -Syn. 61:1-11~.



, l tJ ,

N e 1 a b. co 11 o q. Chinese children. N eleg. China. -Syn. L~eHq''W


from a text. ~

Chinese (the language).

'l cu?cu?l "tut, tut! ", "tch, tch!" (the suction click). Frequently used as a mild rebuke, espe-


LLVH ) rnyauciin' N corn. 1.

cially to enjoin silence; also used to indicate

China (rnyau'). 2. Chinatown (as a part of anothercity)(heu'). -syn. 1.

that one is moved, affected.


~'IJ 1 n



to tut, go "tch, tch!"

~ n ( el'W, ~ n) cug' (?ani, cug') N 1. stopper (of


~1J clib' N 1. pleat. V 2. to pleat, gather in folds. 3. slang to try to gain the favor of, to woo.

q'lJLn~rn clib'klect' V sew. to make darts. qf~ ciirau' V eleg. to last long, endure. q') S ( ~'W) ciiw:J:Jn' (ph~n') N the robe of a Buddhist priest. CYU' AA eleg. so, then, as a consequence. -Syn. ~~ colloq.


cu? '· Variant spellings for an exclarna-

spelling pronunciation is often used when reading

Jl1~1 ~'W ( Jl1~1) phaasiiaciin' (phaaslia') N

~ ,


tion normally pronounced as a click, though a

'IJ ~ ~ LrJA ~'W ( 'IJ s ~ LrJA) pratMedciin' (prath~ed'}


iiu ~ '


eater, big eater.

the Chinese. Llil n L~ n Lrn n~'W ( FI'W) degceg'degciin' (!chon')




ity. -cf. o

Chinese Red(s), the Red Chinese.




sV 3. amply, in large amounts. Fl'J 1:1-1--

quLLrn ~ ciindeeu" N 1. Red China. 2. the


narnctyd' N freshwater.

hold (such and such an amount). 2. to be ample.

Communist China. 2. Chinese Cornrnunist(s).


dincY"Yd' N depleted soil.

cu?l V 1. to have (such and such) a capacity,

~'WFI€J~ihil61~ ciin'kh:Jrnrniwnfs', -nfd' N 1.

Ll.J €1 ~ ~ 'W ( Ll.J €1

to be colorless, dull, dull-

looking, drab, uninteresting.

'V'W~~'W ( -f1J, oH'l) khanllrnciin' (c~b', hila') N



~rn l'IJ (1) cY"Yd'paj'; (2) c}ryd'pajj V 1. to fade

L~ n corn.


fl 'W - - i d i o rn.

a passive, unimposing, unassuming person.


~lil cfid' rM intensifier used with

flb\I,;€1Hl1'W'i~'l:::; khunt~!J?'-cYUcaruu 1 j ' ~ You have to read it, so you will know.

Mac til V to be extremely ticklish. ~





bottle). 2. topknot; short for oH'J ~ n (see below).


3. colicky pain. V 4. to stop up, shut. 5. to suffer from colic. ~fl'V'llil


cugkhhad"(cug') N stopper(for


~ nl~; eJ n '

( ~ n) cug'rnajk5g' (cilg') N cork


(for bottle).

oH'l 'In ( el'W, ~ n) htlacug" (?an', cug') N 1. topknot. ?aakbd"diil-



2. certain things or parts resembling a topknot

khawcY!Jjilag"d:>mo?lph:>x;')?/ V e lab.

colloq. to be just right, fit exactly. L'VIl,J1 n 'l1::; mo?lco?l V to fit perfectly, be just

125 b ~ el'W'l1 i

right. l ~ -1 dl8!J'·


L~Iii in l ~A~ 1

c~8dc~a' V to be brilliant.

fade, evaporate . .!'

l ~:W C88m' V to anoint, consecrate.

b 'l elrl

l~rJiil clad' V touseonlyatinyportionof,to

esp. the voice). sV 2. flowingly. .!' 'M'l1'W l 'l eJ[J waanc)lajl' to be melodious, dulcet,

off, spare a little time (for some purpose). l ~m.l



l ~rJ A l 'l jcajl V to feel slighted, feel inferior,


liiS::VI'Wn eleg ..

'!J'Jqjii'W idiom.


composed. -0 p p.

; eJ'W 1 'l •

; eJ'W 1'l d::>ncaj' V to be worried, anxious, per-

turbed. -opp.



;bbrlL ~ "

ruu 1 keecaj/ to know full well, to be fully

'iln chog' V 1. to snatch, grab. 2. to strike (as a



l;11.:) L~



to trust, have faith in.

Qn ~

~ ~

61 ilL '1 sl\ncaj/ V to be interested (in), absorbed

extreme. 2. to be fierce, cruel. 3. to be ablebodied, adult (of a man 18-30 yrs. old).


~ eJ '~Iii~ eH L~ s:"ioucld's~oucaj' e 1 a b. co 11 o q.


eJnil1 'l'll1 'iW n ~


cided; to hesitate. 61 8 'I 1~ s:"ioucajl V idiom. to be unfaithful, to

stncaj' V to die.

badly. ~



1. to be strong, fierce,

'iln 1 'l chakaad' V to be bold, brave, daring, fierce,

spondent, heartsick.


ferocious. 'il-'lil chauOn' V l. to be puzzled, perplexed, confused.

to be depressed, heavy-hearted,

anxious; to have a weight upon one's mind, a

2. to be uncertain, in doubt, skeptical. Q.:jiiL~ cha!JOn'caj' V to be puzzled, bewildered.

burden upon one's heart. ( vl'lL 'l) hi:iacaj' (huacaj/)



Fl 'l Ul--

N the heart

Q'lil'iH ltJ chauOn'chauilaj' V to be puzzled, per-

(organ of the body).


£J 'iln n 'l

-lv'ilnn'l wajchakan' N youth, young adulthood.

hodhuucaj' V to be downhearted, de-

wwn1~ nagcaj'

vl'lL "l

chaajchakan' (khon') N able-

cruel, bad. sV 2. extremely, very.

b ~VL 'l siacaj' V to be sorry, feel sorry, feel

'lllil~L "l


bodied, adult man (approx. 18-30 yrs. old).


have two loves.

kh:'loklaawhlia'chakan' a serious


to be of two minds (about something), be unde-

iil1 ~

chakan' V 1. to be strong, severe, grave,


rOog'htiacajl N heart disease.

'\l1£JL~ Majcaj' V to breathe.

Q'lltJ. 'ilil'lil


Q'liiQ'I1tJ above.

( eJV 1 'I, bb'll'l)

chanuan' N 1. insulator (jaau').

o &i:!J'\l1tJL~ lom 1 hil:ajcaj' N breath.

2. a screened-off passageway or walk for ladies

b~ilL 'I

of the court (htu').

h~ncaj' V 1. to sympathize (with), be

sympathetic (toward). 2. to see someone's

Qil1 n in

true nature or feelings. eJrJ1.:jL'l jaaucaj' according to one's wishes. 08WL"l(rl1J,Lil)


Q1J1J chabab' C elf. for an issue, edition (as of a

V to

newspaper), a copy (as of a book), letters (epis-

feel weary (of), discouraged (about).


ties), documents, banknotes, lottery tickets. -Also Q~D1J

?adcaj' V 1. toholdone'sbreath. 2. to

be depressed (in spirits). b eJ 1L 'l ?awcaj' V to please, humor, try to please,

a 11 'lL~

lilil QD1J

( QD1J) tllnchabab' (chabab')

N original

manuscript, source document.

?aw'cajsaj' to cake an interest in, pay

, eJV 1 'I) bteb'chabab' (?an', jaau'l

attention to.

N pattern, example, model, style (esp. what is

b eJ 1 Lb~ 1 'llilil ?aw'-t!:caj/ton' to be self-centered,

consider only one's own interests or wishes.

FS. NOTE. As a elf. for bank-

notes and lottery tickets, L1J may also be used.

be indulgent (toward). b

tJ6l1 Qil1 n (lil'l) plaachanaagt (tua') N

sawfish (Pristis).

traditionally accepted as worthy of imitation). Q:W 'l n

1~ caj' C skein.


chamuag' (?an') N a three-pronged

fish spear, trident. Qil. See


Q6l 8 .:j chal:'5::l!J' V to celebrate.

n1 ~-- festival,

celebration. 0

Q ch~o'

HIGH consonant. Pronounced ch initially;

not used as a final consonant.


QOJ eJ' -lil b lil chal:'50!J 1 Wankaad' to celebrate a

birthday. t;

'11iiQ6l eJ'


-1) uaanchal:'5::J!J' (khrau') N festival,



Qel'iliii ch~::>chl\n'

bQ~l.lll.Gl eJ ~ chalg 1

'Uiln in

Eng. "knife and fork."

do something). 3. to be pleased, satisfied.


4. to be right, appropriate.

V1Vil -1 cMmch:>:>1J' V to be expert, skillful,


ch~gl*(ch~g') N 1. opening, hole

conforms to certain rules or standards. 2.

(through something), cavity, space, gap. 2.

fondness (for doing something, expressed by

fig. opportunity, opening.

a following verb).



Vil -1 ~qJLb~

( Vil -1) ch~gkuncee' (ch~g') N keyhole.


Vil -1 L'til

for eating. Vil'U061

( 'tl eJ -1 ) ch~1Jkhl1w' (ch~g')

N mountain


funny, strange, peculiar. ~


(eMu') N eleg.


nary, funny, strange, peculiar. o VlVeJ'Unb'dO.ajkOdmllajl to be lawful, legitimate.

VeJ'U~'l:: ch!'l:>b'thtica::: ought to. Vel'U Gl ~ l.J ch!'l:>b'tham' V to be righteous, just,


counsel, advise.


strange, peculiar.

Vil'Ul'l ch~:>bcajl V 1. to be pleased, happy,


(Vel -1 , LL'IH) cMgwdag' (ch~g', hf:g')

~~eJ -1 chfilch~'· Short for ~tiil -1 Yl1 -1 • ~~il -1 Yl1 -1 chfi'cMgthaau' to point the way,

"priate, funny,

'llil'UV11tJ ch~:>b'dO.aj:::

Vel-ll.Jil-1 ch!'11Jm:>:>lJ' N peephole, small window. I

Vl1~'Uil'Un61 duu'mltjch~:>bkon' to seem inappro-

'Will'l, bln1'l.

spaces between letters or words. I


amused. 2. to be satisfied, gratified.

N idiom.


Vil -111 -1

ch!'l:>bkon' V to be out of the ordinary,

o VlVeJ'Unli1 duu 1 ch!'l:>bkon' to seem out of the ordi-

Vil-1Flb' V 1. to like, be fond of. 2. to like (to

[f. Eng.]

tia -1


silverware, consisting of fork and spoon. Cf.

V to be bruised.

~ilfl, ;ilfl ch:Sg' V to be shocked. [f. Eng.] .Jilfl ( U~-1) ch:Sg'*(tMu') N chalk. -Also VeH in

1. ser-

penis. " Vil'W ( A'W) ch:S:>n' (khan') V 1. to scoop, dip up,

'1111 chawaa' pN Java. '1111611

plaach~:>n 1 (tua') N

penthead, a kind of fresh water fish. 2. euphem. n 1 ~--

'111 La 'tl chawal@eg' N shorthand.


'\Ja 1tiil'W ( ~1)

Vil'W in


'Ul'WVil-1 Manch!'lg' N colloq. home, house. Vil'W ch:>:>n' V to bore, dig, burrow (in a winding or

honest. VeJ'Uun'UeJ'U'Vl'W 1 ch!'l:>bnag'ch!'l:>bnll.a' V e 1 a b.

co 11 o q. to favor highly, to like very much. VeJ'U'WeJ ch!'l:>bph:>:>' V to be fond of, to love.


i:ltieJ'U mfche:Jb' to be wrong, illegal, inappropri-

'ih Lin

ate, bad, dishonest. o Aiiii:l'iJeJ'U k:hfd'mfche;,bl to have evil intentions,

1'W fl1 -1 i:JtleJ'U

najthaag'mfche;,b' in an unlawful

one's star to have fallen; to have bad luck; to meet an unfavorable fate.

1. to dislike, be displeased.

~n 'iJ ~

2. to be inappropriate, improper, out of keeping


one on first sight, strike one as just right,

l~tieJ'Ub~J tJ n[]'fl:ln tJ m~jch:'bb'dOajkodmllaj'

"click" with one, arouse a feeling of natural

to be against the law, unlawful, illegal.

empathy with one.


o l:wtieJ'Ufl'l ~ m~jch:I:Jb'thtica:::

ought not, should


;'U~ iii'il8'U rabphldch~bb' (for). FI11:W--


to be responsible

'1.1:::'W1'W FS. See •Junl. ti:::'W::: FS. See


ti:::Uiil FS. See


tl:::iJ ( i1) chanii' (tua/) N gibbon.


ti:::'U 1 FS. See ti'U 1.

bVJ'WA bVl'WtleJ'U ( tl'U) hl"ndii'henche:Jb'(ka:::) V e I a b. co II o q. to agree (with), approve, be


in favor (of).

•J::::wou FS. See •U:w;;w.


Fl 1 1 \.J--

approval. -Also


wrong for right, bad for good.

ti::: Iii 8 chab;,/ V to slow down. ti:::fileJ:W (11J) chab;,m/ (bai') N a kind of bamboo

in manner (used of women).

basket used for fruit. It has loose strips on

bb'iJ:!J'l.leJtJ cMmch:S:Jj' V to be beautiful, cute, charming.

-Also ®


top which can be opened Widely or tied shut. tl:::~~ in

ch:Sg'*(tMg') N chalk. [f.Eng.]

" ti8FI.

cha?um' rM modifier used with

and thin (as a flagpole).


'lh bbil'

ration only). -Sometimes also 'il~:W.


l.!l ®

cha?um' V to be dark, cloudy, overcast.

'iJ::: '1 eM". cMcM/f E excl. indicating

tin LA~ n ( ~' el'W) cMgkhr6og'

chagag" V to stop abruptly.

shiny, glossy.


o 1hilutin b i l namman'chaggaw' N varnish. •Jn 'I i chagcuug' V to urge, persuade, induce, 'IJ


chagad 1 V to be effective, sure, certain.

tl::: b i 8 chag62 1 V to stretch one's neck out to see. tl~

1. to flush (the

tin b i 1 cMggaw" V 1. to shine, polish. 2. to be

~lilt!::: fn tld 1 chagag' V to be stuck, get stuck.



toilet). N 2. flush-toilet (thti', ?an').

tl::: 1nnn chauag 1 k)rg" V to stop suddenly, stop


(see below).

having spasms, convulsions.

'iJ::: i O'W chagen'* N overhanging rock.


chag" V 1. to pull, draw out, pull at. 2. to

A'Wtin khoncMg/ N spastic (person); one who is

reproach, anger, contempt.


chaleeg 1 (?an/) N crowbar.

-syn. 1. ~'.

cha?/ V to rinse, to wash away.



( 5'W)

have spasms, convulsions. A'W--

'i.l:::6lli cha?Jaag" V to rinse, wash away.


~iti:::~lil sl!ug'cha!Oud' V to be very tall

•J::: bCW FS. See b•UoW.

"green" in the sense of "bright, fresh" (of vege-


FS. See •U:wltJ.

'lh ~ 8tJ chan:Jj' Cj probably; perhaps, maybe.

'illiltleJtJ ch6dch5:Jj' V to be gentle, soft, graceful


N civet cat.


'iJeJtJ. See entries below.


( i1) cham6d" (tua")

ti:::il~,- -6]11~ chamad' chamad/j~ad" colloq. very,


bVl'W~~ b'UW'JeJ'U Mnphld'penche:Jb' to mistake


lil1 thuugchataa" V (a person) to appeal to




'illil1, 't111il1.

'tl:::lil11ilnlilo1 chataa"togtam" to fall on bad days;

manner, illegally.

l~'iJeJ'U m~jche:Jb'

to thrust

(one's head) in or out of a window.

tl::: lil1 chataa' N fate, destiny. -Also

have unrighteous thoughts. o

chag6og' V to poke (one's head) out, lean out.



N the final year of secondary schools.



1u.J'WLL s n

forever, for all time, eternally.

.a-, Fl S 1 'l chOakhraaw' temporarily, for the time

ning stage.

being; temporary. downstairs, lower story, lower

layer, lower shelf.

J'W61Eli chans:S::>tJ' second class (accomodations); the second story, level, stage, etc.

J'Wu'rOamcMad' (one's) fel-


low citizens. b'1'16H 'til A

'l.!eln'tll'W ('l.!vn'til'W, UVI') n~ogchaan' (n~ogchaan',

( b'1'16H)

phleeucMad 1 (phleeu'l



national anthem.

N (uncovered) porch, open patio (adjoining

the house). :!1

:W'l:J~t!'J1A mam1dlsajach1iad' N mankind.

tll'W l£J chaan' N Shan. [prob.f.Eng.)-Syn. L'£!1.

S~'\!11 l ''til A rawaauch1lad'

'!11:1-J (l.u,~n) chaam' (baj',')



1'W'tl1~ wancMad' N National Day. bf1 S~~

fl ~ '!JeH 'til~

seedthakld'kh::'q)ch1iad' the


national economy.


(lu,ii1n) tho.ajchaam' (baj',') N 'II

the dishes, dishware.

iQI'ti1~ sll.ncMad' N law citizenship. -Dist.

b~el'tl1~. oi'QI't11~D b:W~rl'W b~ei'd1~lmJ

N 1. bowl, dish.

C 2. bowl, as a measure of quantity.


;~'HJ'li1:W 'II

( ;, 1u) tO.u'tho.ajchaam' (tO.u'. baj') 'II

N cupboard. sll.ncMadl?amee:::



chaaj' (khon') N com. 1. man. 2.


rikan1-chyach1lad'thaj' (of) American citizen-

male (of people only). -Chiefly in compounds.

ship, Thai nationality.



oi'u-GulWdlA'cMad' N the League of



mals). -Syn. for "man" is

-Dist. 2. m1~ male(ofani· 'US~.


~'til tJ ,

NOTE. The usual term as below, but in special


8 ~An 1 HiVI'li s ~'til 'lilA ?oukaan 1 sahaprachaacMadl N the United Nations Organization (l.JN, UNO).

1ei'W 'til~

?ooncMadl to become naturalized, to

change one's citizenship. to nation-




o 'YHVIQI·Hb6l~tl1t'l tMujiu'-lechaaj' both men and


('Wl£J,Fl'W) krathaa'chaaj' (naaj',khon')

N a man. An old word, used only jokingly. N (a)life.

'ti1Arlei'W ch1iadko::>n 1 (one's) previous life, exist-




1ei'W b1J'IJ'!J 0 1 'J 1 A ?oon'penkh~::>ucMad' 'tilA l£J ('ti1A) ch1lad 1 (cMadl)

cases 'til£! occurs alone, as in the following

AU ~m 'ti 1 tJ kh6bchliu 1 - suu'chaaj' V (a woman) to

have a lover or lovers, have men. Fl11:UL1J'I.!ti1£J khwaampenchaaj' N masculinity.


.., (BHI) c~wchaajl(?on")


N prince.

hen") N beach.




chaajchakan"(khon") N able-

iiHJtJ't11tJ b:>jchaajl V 1. tosaunteralong(e.g.

bodied adult man (approx. 18-30 yrs. old). 't11tJL611il (Fl'W) chaajsood"(khon")

N bachelor.

't11tJ'I'I'\f:W ( Fl'W) chaajnilm" (khon")

N young man,


afternoon sun). 'tl1tJ ~ chaajl V to blow gently (of the wind) .

a youth. (Fl'W) n:S:>nchaajl (khon")


when speed is needed). sV 2. saunteringly. '!l1tJ m chaajl V todecline, beindescent(ofthe

N 1. younger

brother. 2. s 1 a ng m. s p. (younger) partner,

LotltJ't/1tJ choojchaaV V idem.

~1 tJ

bud, buddy (in addressing someone). ~~~'!11tJ






(Fl'W) phfiuchaaj/(khon") N 1. man. 2.

( Fl'W) degphOuchaaj/, -phuu- (khon")

boy, lad. -Also L~n'tl1tJ.

N 1. older

bud, buddy (in addressing someone).



N male

N son. -Syn.

derivatives. NOTE. All nouns in the subentries

marked and

( Fl'W) is therefore omitted.

people, Englishmen. 't/11 n n:wn ~ chaawkammak:>:>n" N laborers,


lllii1'W't11tJ ( Fl'W) lilanchaajl (khon")

N grandson,


workers. 't/11 n ~ 'l chaawkrun" N city people.

w ( 'tl1tJ, LL'H'l)

chaaV (chaajl, hen") N 1. edge,

rim, border, periphery. 2. at the edge of, beside, near, along. V 3. to saunter by, saunter up.

't/11 Ln1::: chaawk~?/ N islanders. 't/11 L'll1'11111ileJtJ chaawkhllw"chaawd:>:>jl N elab.

co 11 o q. mountain people. -Also

'1111 L'll 1.

't111Flbl!::: chaawkhami?/ N members of a group, ('t11tJFl1) chaajkhaa" (chaajkhaa") N

of an association. 't/11 ~'W chaawciin/ N a Chinese; the Chinese.

eaves. 't11tJLLiil'W ( LL'H'l) chaajde:e:n" (hen")

N border,


't11tJ't1::: Llil


( LL'H'l) chaajthalee" (hen") N seashore. '

(LL'H'l) chaajf~n" (hen")

N coast, shore;

bank, edge (of river).

"' 'l 'tl1tJ L:WeJ

't/11 ~lil11il chaawtal~ad" N an unrefined, common


't/1 tJ lil1 chaajtaa" V to glance sidewise. .!,

hen") N (railroad) station platform. 't/11- . Bound stem meaning "inhabitant of, dweller

'ti'W't111el'l nq~ chonchaawnankrld" N the British

(Fl'W) lOugchaaV (khon")


'111'W'tl11i11,'!11'W'tl11i11ii1m11 ('ti1'W'1111i11,LL1·n) chaan:::

below take Fl'W as their elf. unless otherwise (Fl'W) ph?anchaajl (khon")




platform (for a railroad station, or between two

in," and placed in front of nouns to form noun

L'I'IA't11tJ phl!edchaajl N male sex; masculine



('!111i11 ,LLll'l) chaalaa" (chaalaa", hen")

chaalaa", chaanchaalaa/sathllanii/ (chaanchalaa",

( Fl'W) phtichaaV (khon")

brother. 2. s 1a ng m. s p. (older) partner,


chaajaa/, phnichaajaa" N roy. wife,

palace buildings; normally not for a house).

men's, male.


used to repre-

consort. 't111i11

j;J1tJ'tl1tJ f~ajchaajl N 1. the man's side. 2. d

1~1 ~,




Variant of

ond syllable. 't11tJ1,'1'1~:::--

male (of people). gmalf?l (do::Jg 1 ) (VIeJn) do::Jgmaaj' (do::Jg 1 )

N jasmine.

see note in main entry.

agreement. 4. to get along well (with somebody).

unobserved. li18'W d::J::Jn' V 1. to be high (of land). N 2. highland. d

'Yllil iJ'W thtid:J:Jn'

Aau L quet, corsage. o 1110 nl~ L'1'1~ 4 (A an) do::Jgmaajphlaau' (do::Jg') N e 1 eg, pyrotechnic display, fireworks.

111anl;l>1 com.

pr::J::JU'd::J:>!J' V 1. to reconcile. 2. to

VI a li1 do:>d' V 1. to sneak (in), be unobserved, come

N flower,

blossom (of any kind). This is a general term;



compromise. 3. to reach an agreement, be in

lilan~'W (lilan) do:>gfin' (d:'l:>g') N poppy.


See entries below.

i£J. cl

LntJ 'llil iJ 1 klawd::J:>!J' V to be related (of kindred).

compound interest. lil8nJ-~::a

1. to pickle. 2. to be pickled. 3.

slow fermentation.

fil€Jn vGtJ d:J::Jgbta' N finance interest. 0


fileJ '1' N pickled vegetable.

(term of abuse). li1 €J



field) for a long time.


1 Prostitute!


-s yn. 'IU an

(a liquid) to flood, soak, cover (e.g. a paddy

li1 a nTID 1 d:J:>gth:>::J!J' N co 11 o q., de r og. a loose

o ~lileJnmH

dog', d::Jg 1 , do:>g' Pt writ. panicle often

N the highlands.

1 d::J::JnmyalJ' pN Don Muang international

airport N of Bangkok.

lilo :W d~m'* V to steal (in), sneak (in), be stealthy unobserved.

111 atJ ( ~ n) d:>:>j' (lOug') N 1. mountain, 2. Mount --.

164 '!111 b'tl1'!111~8tJ


\J:w~ 8tJ

( 8tJ 1 'l, 'tl8)






Iii 'I


ii''!lil dadchanii'

sV at random, haphazardly, indiscrimi-


ii'lilbbti(H dadpleeu' V to change, modify, adapt.

dag' V 1. to set (a trap). 2. to trap, snare,


ii'lilrJ:W dadphl5m' V 1. to curl the hair. 2. to have

catch (by means of a trap). 3. to lie in wait.

one's hair waved, get a permanent wave.

fi8£Jfi1n kh::>::>jdag' V 1. to wait (for someone to


come along his intended route). 2. to wait lying

~ 1'1 ii'Iii~ :w

N reformatory school.

-l n "' in ~ n liii'W


2. to be tamed.

dagdaan' v 1. to suffer hardship

liiU dan' V 1. to push. 2. to insist stubbornly, dog-

for a long period of time. 2. to be in a dead-


lock, at a standstill.

"' 'I, Iii

( ~1) dagd~e' (tua')

Iii nbblil

N chrysalis.



ii'u'YI ;, dan'thurau' V to be obstinate, A-1 ii'u dylJdan' V to be obstinate. 9

L~'lii''l dooudalJ' V to be famous, renowned.


~~m1u phlag'dan' V 1. to push, shove. 2. phys.

as a limited type of elf. meaning "manner, "-"


"-" Jt

n'" 11

to repel. 3. to put pressure on, influence. bb ~ -1 ii'u reeudan 1 N pressure.

below. ~

dalJklaaw' as mentioned, as stated;




lii'Wiii'W, lii'WFIU d!tndOn', dOnd!tn' V 1. to brave the way,


make a way through, push forward, force one's

;,,~n61,11~81tid daucaklaaw't~::>pajnfi'


follows, as below.

;, 1'l


iiiii'u du?dan' V to be angry, furious, fierce.

dau' like, as, according to. Often functions

kind," as in lil'l'WU, lil'l'W

pressure; oppression. -Ant.

no16i'-1 iJu kamlaudan' N pressure.

resounding through

the whole forest.



nlilii'u kod 1 dan' V to press; to oppress.

dau' V 1. to be loud, noisy. 2. to be heard.

® ~

Iii 'll \J'tH tJ 1 dau'pajthaupaa'

dad'h~jch~au' 1. to tame, domesticate.

ii'lil1 11 b'118 'I

(11'":1-1) lumdag' (lum') N pitfall (for 9

trapping large animals).

way through. 2. to venture. lii'U dab' V 1. to extinguish, snuff out, put out.

daucajl as one wishes, as one has in mind,


to suppress, abolish (thoughts, emotions). 3.

as desired.

to abate, die out. sV 4. extremely, shockingly.

ii''l b~:W dalJdn'dabchtib' colloq. to be awfully

hot, murderously hot.

ii''Ub'/1~-1 dabphl


(hf:u') N land registration office. ( ~'W,

1;~1J1;~ daajdlb'd~ajdii'

V elab. colloq. 1.



m1:mdlb' N unboiled water. (Water must be


L1Jri'W1101'W ( bb'll~) h3othabian'thtidin"

u'1l7'W~'W mimman'din' N tar, coal tar.


~1J '1 ~n '1 dlbdlb'sugsug' not well-cooked, half-

to attain power, rank, prominence. 2. to be N

piece of land; lot (for a house or building). o

( u~~) doudlb'. paa"doudlb" (h1:u")

N tropical evergreen forest.


~'1.1 L'l!t'Jri 1 ( n eJ'W) dinniaw' (k!Jon') N clay.



fl'W~1J kindlb" V 1. to eat raw or while still unripe.

bb~'W~'W) ph1:ndin' N

1. earth, ground,


before it is safe for consumption). -+Ant.

u'1~ n .


( bb~~) paadlb' (hf:u')

N tropical evergreen


land (phtyn"). 2. nation, kingdom, realm

~ 1 ~1J ( ~'W) pMadlb" (phtyn') unbleached muslin.

(phendin"). C 3. reign.

tJ" 1 rJ ~ 1J f~ajdl b' N raw cotton.

~. ~ ~



1m1 ~

diil the English letter "D." [f. Eng.] "J

dii' V l. to be good, fine, nice. sV 2. well, nicely; nice and (e.g. cool), quite.

f111 :W--

goodness, virtue, good. eW 1 ~--

good, of good

quality; well. _,.Ant. '111 , bb'(ka:::) V

~ n~"1t1 ~ ~'1'1 dyg-'damban-' V to be ancient, belonging

e 1a b. co 11 o q. to agree (with), approve, be

to antiquity.

in favor (of). -Also b~'W~, b~'W'lieJtl. ·~A toj eJ~~n'W~

~ n~ n b;1

juudii-'kindii-' V to live and eat well,

impertinent. 2. to dare, i.e. have the nerve


tJ 1:J.J~n jaamdyg-' late at night.


dyg-' V to pull, draw, tug.



€l 1 ~ :J.J;~ ?aarom-'dii-' V 1. to be in a good humor;


~'I~~ dygduud-' V to attract. ~

N 2. good humor.

A11 :J.J-- attraction,


~ irisad'daanrya' N shipping company. b ~'W b ~'W

ryadaan'thalee' (lam') N

ocean-going steamer.

along the main roads. b ~\I b'111 daanthaaw' V to go by foot, on foot.


( lilo1)

sea-going steamer.

b ~'\.1'111 'l 1!1 daan'thaau:::: to walk by way of, along.

d ~

an ordinary human being (in the sense of not

s::: 1J::: b~\I raja?" daan' walking distance.

o a an b~'\.1'111'1 ?::,::>gdaanthaau' to start out, set


mam1d'daandin' (khon') N

possessing supernatural powers).

trunk, footlocker.

b ~'W b; 1 b'IJ~ 1

a more general term. thaaudaan' (thaau'. s~ajl)

b ~ 1J 'l

diaw' V 1. to be single, sole (when preceded by a elf.). 2. to be the same (identically the

daanl~n' to stroll, walk for pleasure.



(see below).


1 'l--

b ~'W b'i~'W daanhilan' V colloq. to walk.

solely, alone (see also below). -Syn.

b ~'W


-sometimes coupled with 'll'W'l



a 1 n1 f'l



to go by air.

-Chiefly in compounds. o 1.J ~~'Yib ~'W a 1 n 1 f'l b::>risad'daan?aakaad 1 N airlines, airline company. ~

l1 a'l b ~'W th:S::>udaan'


1. to have diarrhea, have

sole, d bfil~'l,





o au 'll'W 'l a 'W b ~W 'l ? annY1J l?andiaw' 1. one and the same. 2. single, united, inseparable. A'W b ~ 1J 'l khondiaw' alone, unaccompanied, by one-




6~1J 'l cajdiaw' V to be faithful, constant (esp.

nearby, now far away. ~


6Iiili 'l b Iii tJ 1 d!awdiaw' in just a moment.

in love): "single-hearted."

~1Lb~'\H~1J'l chOawtbldiaw' (for) a split second. 6~'W L~tJ 1 tl1J ch@ndiaw'ka::::

b ~ 1J 'l


in the same way as. 6 ~tJ 1 tl'W diawkan' the same. ~




b ~ eJ ~




geneous; to be well-blended, smoothly joined. o 6'U'WL~1J~ L~1Jdtl'W pensia1J'diawkan' in one

~ L~ eJ ~ du?dyad' to be furious, ferocious, savage


(as in fighting).

juu'diawdaaj' to be

A'll :W-- anger, fury.


L~ 1J 1 b A11 'l diawdiaw' (in) just a moment.

rl L~111

dyadkhtcn' V to be furious, boiling

l~eJ~~1i1 dyaddaan' V to be furious, boiling mad.

lonely, alone. j


mad (at), very angry (with).

the same as.



dyad' V 1. (a liquid) to boil. 2. to be boiling

6~ €1 ~

voice, in unison.

L~1J'l~11J in eJ1J L~1J'l~11J



o 61J'W L'WeJ 6 ~tJ 1 n'W pennya'diawkan' to be homo-

6 ~1J 1 tl1J diaw 1 ka::::

dla?l rM modifier used with

(mad), in a rage. -Dis t. 1. OI:W "to boil

at that very same moment. ~'i

diawnfi' now, at present, at the present

Ms 1 "straight," M1:1J "follow."

, 'W'lJbJ!::; 6 ~1J 1 n'W'W'W najkhanaU-diaw'kannan'




1. the same as. 2.

thiidiaw' 1. a single time. 2. at once.

3. exactly, quite, very. See cross reference.

iJ~ L~111 nfddiaw' 1. to be tiny. 2. a tiny bit. 6L1J1J L~f:l'l rl1J bhb'diawka::::

in the same style as,

on the same pattern as, the same as. 'W S 'l ~ 6~ 1J 1 phrOaddiaw' all at once, in one gulp,




6lileJ~6'WeJSilWl'l dyadnya'r5;,ncaj' elab. colloq.

to worry, be upset. -See l ~ eJ~ s eJ'W.

l~eJ~'Wi11V dyadphl!tan' V 1. to boil vigorously. 2. colloq. to be furious, boiling mad. l ~ eJ ~ Hl'W dyadr5;,n' V 1. to be in trouble. 2. to worry, feel anxious, unhappy, upset. Fl'l1:1J-trouble, worry. 6~ eJ'W "' (Iii 'l ~)

in one fell swoop.

eJU1H~1J1rl1J jaaudiaw'ka:::: 1. thesameas. 2.

dyan' (dua11'l N 1. moon. C 2.

month. -Syn. 1. 66'U lit.

in the same way as. d b~1.11


dlaw' V to be single, sole; to be alone.

-s y n. -

L ~ rn

, 1~ ~ .

L~Cll.J~:JJJl1.Wua dyankumphaalphan' February.


b ~~ L~1.1 'l deddlaw' V 1. to be definite, absolute,

decided. 2. to be determined, resolute. d


6~tJ1Liillil,LiillilLiil1J'l dlawdood',dooddlaw' V ~


L~8'1HJJ\t1tl\l dyanmee"s4ajon' April.

'~ o'IJ\1q

,.m A~

dyanphcysaphaa'khom' -phcydsa-


,ma'IJnlnDlAJ.J dyankar~gkadaa'khom' July.

?ags3;,ndlaw' N 1. the set of conso-

n~s b liW 'l

l merwihJ 1 Fll.J dyanmiinaa'khom' March.

L~8'W:Q~'W1£J'W dyanmfthunaa/jon/ June.

to be single, lone, isolated. d

L~tl\UJnSlfl:f.; ....dyanm6gkaraa.tkhom' January.

nant symbols which have no counterpart in another tonal class; namely, the semivowel, liquid, or nasal symbols which require a preposed 'H or eJ for conversion from the low tonal class

'~o'IJ~Hl1AJ.J dyansiuhlla'khom' August.

~ ~8tnltw 1 tJU dyankanjaa'jon' September. L~ fl'W~bl 1fl11 dyantulaa'khom' October.

'~81Jl1q~~n1~1J dyanphcysaclkaa'jon'. -phcydsaNovember.

L~€1'WfilJ11fllJ dyanthanwaa'khom' December.

to the high tonal class. 2. any member of this LUNAR MONTHS

set. -Opp. 5mlsA.

1~le.I'Wel 1 t1 dyan?4ajl the first lunar month, approx.



b Iii tJ

1 d!awl C 1. moment. 2. in a moment; sudj

denly. -Also1Jsnliltn. o AeJU





'ITWeJtJ Llil1J'lbbn1LLMn'H:Wiil kh~jkh~j'n:,j-

d!awkhw'-th:g'mod'~ Easy; all the glass-

ware will be broken in a moment! j



b~tJ1ln61b~1J1ln18~:: liii (1) ph1acad.1j:::; (2) ph9acad.1aj:::, -d.1ajl

1. in order to, in order that, in order to get to

l ~l A as adv. -aux. 'll1lAl~ Mad~ajlm.1jl eleg. cannot. Equiv. to l~lA as sec. verb. LVr'WLLnlA h~n'khd~ai' to be acquisitive, covetous. -syn. LoW. 811 1 nl; jaagd.1aj' to desire, to wish to have. 81 ~ ... lA ?aad::: ... d~ai' might, may. o 81~n~11lA ?aadklaaw'd-1aj::: it may be said. lAfi'W d.1jjin' V to hear. lAU'Wtl'U'11 d.1jjin 1 kahtJul to hear with one's own Equiv. to


(do something). 2. in order to get, obtain. ,J

L'>18 ~:: ...

"' "' iii 'l 'Ill



ph9aca::: ... Mjd.1ajl in order

d4jjin'd-1jfau' elab. colloq. 1. to

hear. 2. to have heard of.

to be able to.


hi1a'daj::: ... m.1jl eleg. did not, has

not, have not, not (often refers to past time).

~-1 1~1Afiv

(1) mfd.1ajl; (2) mfd.1j:::; (3) mfdbjl; (4)

mfd.1ai'l e 1 e g. 1. not get, gain, obtain, pro-

of noise).


cure. 2. didn't; not get to, didn't get to. 3. cannot. 4. No! (general negative). -Syn.

fau'm-1jdajjin' can't hear (e.g. because

?£cb'd.1jjin' to overhear (unintentionally).



o ~llA't11lil mfd.1jkhaad' incessantly; regularly. o :illAEJ:: l ~ (1) mfd.1j?arajl; (2) mfd.1ajl?arajl 1. is of no use. 2. (one) will not gain anything.

o 'll1A1:WlA Makh.1a'mfd.1ajl


too' MIDDLE consonant. Pronounced t initially, d finally. The sound t as an initial middle con-

eleg. to be invalu-

sonant is also very rarely written with

able. May be used by some speakers in the ~

meaning "valueless."


(1) m.1jd.1j:::, m.1jd.1ajl; (2)


IJ .

n tbg' v 1. to drop, fall; to fall (straight) down (from, into, onto). 2. to fall off. drop off. de-


m.1jd.1ajl; (4) m~jdaajll com. 1. not get, gain,

crease, diminish. 3. to droop (as ears, tail).

obtain, procure. 2. didn't; not get to, didn't

4. to set (of the sun, moon). 5. to set in (as

get to. 3. can't, cannot, unable to. 4. No! (in

afternoon). 6. ho rt. to set (of fruit, pods, seed).

lAl 'll~ ; also used prohibitively). -see cross ref. -Syn. :WlA eleg. o eJ~l~lAl'\Jl'llv pMm 1 m.1jdajpajn11jl I didn't

7. eleg. to lay (eggs). B. colloq. to come to

answer to

(such and such an amount), be approximately, come close to. 9. to fade (of colors). sV 10. down, through (completive sense); conclusively.

go anywhere.

o ~l-11'\Jl~lA ph1lmpajlm.1jd.1ajl I can't go. o ~1l~lA fau'm.1jdaajl 1. to sound awful,

-Dist. 1. un-







0. ~


pleasant; can't bear to listen (to it). 2. to

o Iii n L n1 5 tog' k.1w?ti' to fall off (one's) chair.

sound unbelievable, unreasonable, invalid.


~ 1 Fl11i1 n



1~ L ~11 1~1A m.1jsia'm~jdaajl

to neither lose nor


raakhaa'tog' prices to fall, drop off.

hllu'tog' to have drooping ears.



o L~ U' to become the property

be solvable.

of, become (someone)'s.

fl eJ Iii n kh::>::>'tog' V 1. to drop the head, have a

~ nj:J ~ n tog'phalyg' v to crystallize, deposit

drooping head (because of sadness, disappointment). 2. to feel dejected. sV 3. (with) droop-

crystals. 91n'l'leJ~

ing head, crestfallen.

v to be freckled.

Iii nn1:11 togkl~a'

v to sow germinated rice grain.


the floor." Iii nlJ'W togman' V (an elephant) to be in must, rut.

eleg. tolay eggs. -syn. See

Iii n fJ l n togj~ag' v

V to be left over, left behind.

lilnHI togr6d' V to miss one's bus, train, etc.

to sink into poverty, become

impoverished; to suffer hardship.

liln Lfl1D togkhrya' V (a bunch of bananas) to set.

liln n


~ n~ n1VID.! tog' c~gjajl co 11 o q. (rain) to pour


Iii ns 1 ~ ~n&H

~ n1 'l togcajl V com. to get frightened, scared,

to take fright.


Iii m11 n togf~ag' V co 11 o q. to be born: "drop to

-+Syn. '11eJiiln&11.

lilnl~ togkhajl v eJeJnl~ com. Iii nfl1 ~ togkhaau'

togf::>::>u' V lit., e1eg. to lay eggs.

-Syn. See

Iii nn s ~ togkra?'



"to marry

~ n~'IllS tog'thtt)myy' to come to the hand of,

o Iii n s eJ tJ'U 1 '11 togl"O::>jlbitad' co 11 o q. it comes

o lJton/ to live the life (of, e.g. a

See examples below.

bachelor, a hermit, etc.).

o lilneJulwl'leJ togljuunajmyy/ to fall into the 'II

lii'W 6 8 ~

hands (of). o

t),lilneJUl'W'I.i~~ 6'tlfi6~um

" th~edlkham~en/

emphatic than Iii\.! alone.


still remains in, falls in

ton?eeu" oneself, one's own self. More

n ll


un Fl s 8' lii'W 6 eJ'


N self- government.



tog?ab/ V 1. (a person) to fall, sink into



poverty, reach the depths of (his) downfall. 2.

as oneself, personally. o lill:Wl 'I~ w l;;' taamcaj/ton?eeu" to do as one

to be fallen.

iii:::':luiiin tawantogl com. west. -Syn. 'I.I~~~+J lit., eleg.

likes, follow one's own wishes. 6U'W lii'W mlijpentualpentonl to be unformed,

-The literary and the common

amorphous, not to have taken shape.

terms for the eight chief points of the compass are listed under ~fl

~ :W Iii\.! lyymtuaiJyymton/ V to forget oneself.

rlcJ Iii n ( rll) tuatogl (tual) N omitted character

'll i lii'W waauton/ V e leg. 1. to behave, conduct

oneself. 2. to place oneself.

or letter (in printing, typing). 'tl'l ( . . . ) Iii n tham( ... )tog" to drop (something),


( 6l1n)

'1.161 'Iii n

cetics, and the like .

ruimtogl (hf:u-')

N waterfall; falls.

Iii\.! t6n-'

N 1. beginning, source. 2. trunk, stalk.

C 3. elf. for trees and plants of all kinds; for

ploutogl V 1. to realize, become aware,

come to the realization. 2. to know life (be

stalks, stems, posts, and the like. 4. class term

aware of the vicissitudes of life).

for trees and plants of all kinds.

Iii n phladtog-' v

ui Iii n jiutog/

term. The general term for "tree" is

to fall down, drop down.



Specific trees and plants are named by using

V to shoot down, to drop (by shoot-

the class term followed by specific terms, e.g.

ing). ,j 81J 1~ Iii

-Ant. 1.

ti 6lllJ . NOTE. lil\.! is a class term, not a general

rJ'Wiiln fontog-' it's raining; it rains.


lil'Wmm 1'\J "rosebush" 9

lii'W 0 iJ "giant reed." lJ 1 1 lil\.! kh1l1Jt6n' at the beginning, at the outset.

colors that fade.

~1~lil n

"banana tree,"

lii'Wn6l J (;

n s?J::>blitjtog-' V to fail an examination.

~liln slitogl 1. the colors fade. V 2. to have


C elf. for giants, demons, hermits, as-

Iii\.! l)

t6nphudsaa 1

N the betel vine.

(t6n 1 )

N the jujube

tree. lil1.1lYI~i

( lil'W)

tllnjaau' (tlln')

N rubber tree, i.e.

the tree from which latex is derived.

N poppy plant.





( ol'W)


tllnjtithl)o' (tlln')

( lil'W)

t6nrakam' (tlln')

N oleander. N a type of palm

which bears red, edible fruit. (ll'l·H) tilnphlddu' (hru')




N eleg. the com.

lil'W61:; ~Iii


tllnlamud" (t6n")

N a kind of fruit

tree. ~

;whdi ( ;'W)

tl'lnphoo' (tiln')

N pipal, bo tree


( lil'W)

tllnsl)n 1 (tlln')

N 1. pine tree (Pinus).



2. any closely related coniferous tree. lii'\Hi:J.J ( lii'W) tOnsOm' (tOn') ;u.rn

( lii'W) tOnsag' (ton')


( FI'W) tllnMn' (khan')

N orange tree.


N the teak tree.

b61 :w 81i1 'W L61 :W 81J I'll tJ

N navigator, steers-




green s;a turtle. Its eggs are called

tab' V 1. to slap, clap, pat. 2. s 1 a ng to bribe.


lii1J lil1

jaagl) N cause, origin. (Iii'\.!) tlln?~b' (tlln')



N sugarcane.

to marry off, arrange a marriage. -Comp. '

Iii nLLiili.

( ;'\.!) tllnl-?in'thaphalam' N the

date palm. -Also written

- rJ l 6l lJ.

( lil8'W) t:>:mtlln' (t:>on')


o lii1JbLiiH s 11 n 1 tJ

N 1. the begin-

1i11J:Wa tobmyy' V to clap the hands.


lilt! t~gtlln' V to begin, commence.


Lblillii'W teetlln' from the beginning. LiteJ ~ ; '\.! tJ9agtlln'

tli'Wiii:J.J pentom' V to be muddy. lil:W tllm' V 1. to boil (food).

L~ €1 Iii "(a liquid) to boil."

bli'W;'W pentlln' as a beginning. Commonly used

in expressions of the type show below.

'!J 111ill-i

ch@n' ... pentlln' for example;


introduces the list and Lli'W;'W follows it:

of someone, make a dupe of someone.

oranges, and bananas, for

~ 1 lii:J.J


the police, a policeman.

1 trog' V 1. to be straight, direct. 2. to be

maa' from that day on.


honest, upright. 3. to correspond, coincide, for instance.

agree. 4. to be accurate, exact. sV 5. exactly,

YltlqJV'I..I~ Iii'\.! ( &11) phajanchana?'tlln' (tua 1 ) N

sharp (of time). 6. directly, frankly. 7. (directly)

initial consonant. tJll.Jiii'W jaamtlln1

at, in, to.

N the first watch period, i.e.


6-9 P.M.

-Ant. 1, 2. Alii.

b'l;;Jl~Ll.JHn 1 weelaa'slimooutrou' at four o'clock sharp.

~'Wiii'W jyyntlln' V to remain growing, hence, to be perennial.




NOTE. This expression serves to encompass a

"such~ apples,

khltawtllm' N rice boiled to soupy con-

sistency, rice porridge.


such as (a list of things), for example.


2. (food) to be boiled.

2. slang to cheat, swindle, deceive. -Dist.


tiu ... LU'W;'W


lill.J tom' N mud, mire.

elementary part. 2. at the beginning. 3. (as

o L

tob'?aw' V slang to extort.


N e l e g. 1. the beginning part,

n. mod.) introductory, preliminary. -Opp.


V to dress

lii1JDn tobplig' V to flap the wings.

lii8'W'\J6lltJ. :!;



ning part. 2. at first, to begin with. -Opp.


tobtaa' V co 11 o q. to deceive, fool the eyes

(e.g. by placing the best on top). ' tobteg' V 1. to decorate, embellish. 2.

N giant reed.


{lilt!) tOn?~jl(tOn')


l V'l,; fl::


(lilt!) tOn'iii'. tlln'lOugjli' (tlln')

N a type of tree which bears a sour fruit. ... ' Iii'\.! bVI~ ( '\J S ~ n1 S, 8tJ l ~) tllnheed 1 (prakaanl,


L~ 11il'W ( &11 ) taw 1 tam)?/ (tua') N a large


N arecapalm.


mt!VIV, lii'\J6lOVIU

sam;:la'tlln'- sam8a'plaajl

V 1. to be consistent. sV 2. consistently.


(lii'W) tOnmaag'(tlln')

lamtlln' (lamtlln') N trunk (of a

( i'hlii'W)


man, captain of a vessel. lii'\JVI:J.J1n



Fl 'l Ul-- honesty.

LliltJiil S' doojtrou' directly. d

N perennial plant.

' ... L ~l.Jiii'W r~amtlln' V to begin, start, commence.

Iii 5 1 n6l 1 i , 11-- trouklaan'· thtitrouklaau' in the

middle, at the center.

If a word is not found under Iii :i ,


nS .

185 U 11'J Iii n 'I

lilnnu;1:W(thJ) troukankMam'(ka:::) 1. to be

opposite, the opposite of, contrary (to). 2. on

(i.e. ticket-inspector on a train or bus).

1'Uiil ~ 1'l

the contrary, conversely. 3. to be right across from each other.


Iii s 1i1

trou'ka::: to correspond exactly to.



trou'kh1lwl1li' to set out to chase,

truan' (s~n') N fetter, ankle chain

( tii1U)

(for prisoners). Iii S 8 n

start in chasing.


(Iii S 8 n ) tr::.og' (tr::.og')


have no way out. Iii

s 8 n w tr:,::Jg'



N lane, alley.

'lUiiiHJn contr::.og' V idiom. tobeatanimpasse,

Iii H l ~I'J ~ troudia?l absolutely straight, very


N certificate

( 'ii1J'U) bajtruad' (chabab')

(certifying inspection).

H V 1:W ( rl1.J) troukMam(ka:::). See Iii~' rlUV 1:W.

Iii~ 'I l;1l~

(FlU) naajtruad' (khon') N conductor

trounan' right over there.


V to fill in, fill out (a blank). More

ns 8 n.


Iii~ 1

t 'l1 'I troupeu' V 1. to be absolutely correct.

Iii SEH troou' V e leg. to consider, think (it) over,

2. to be absolutely straight.

think carefully. -Also

lil~1l'IJ1i1H:W1 troupajltroumaa' V colloq. 1.

Iii S €J:W troom' V to be sorrowful. Chiefly in com-

to be straightforward, honest, frank. sV 2. frankly, openly, straightforwardly . Iii~'

..s trourti'

pounds. -See also Iii S:W. Iii s :Wiil S €J:J.J tromtroom' V to be melancholy, sor-

V to advance directly and quickly


rowful, heartsick. lil~~neH

liiS1 l 1611 trouweelaa' V to be on time, punctual. Iii~ n~u 1

troun1la' right in front of, before.

Iii s ~

~Iii~ 1

-Op p. 1111 8 8:W .

'1 b:,og 1 troutrou' speaking frankly,

2. lineage, ancestry.

sorrowful. heartsick.

inspection, examination, investigation. lil ~ 'l q n1S truadkaan' V to inspect things, carry

truadkh6n 1

lill'l 'I FlU


V to search (e.g. a person

or place for concealed objects). Iii S 'l 'I~ truadduu' V to go over (something) care-

fully, examine for, check. Iii~ 'l 'I iii~



l1U traween' V 1. to patrol. 2. to roam, wander

' ~ Iii S::: l 'l1WN'Wiii'W traween'ph£ndin' to roam the coun-

y;61 Iii S ~ L'JU (FlU, 'W 1 tJ) phontraween' (khon', naaj') N patrolman, policeman on his beat 611 ~ lilS ~ l 'l'W l1ladtraween' V to patrol, make the rounds to inspect (a place, an installation). o l~iJ~1~1ilS:::l1'W (fl"l) rya'l~adtraween' (lam') N cruiser (a class of warship). '

lilS :::'1-H 1'1.! trauilan' V e 1 eg. to be majestically tall,

stately, lofty.

1 truadtraa' V to inspect, check.

'l y; 61 truadphon' V to review troops.

Iii~ 'l 'I~ 1 'lin 1 ~ truadr~adchakaan' V to make an

official inspection (of government offices, af-


tranbg' V eleg. to be frightened, alarmed.

-Syn. See lii01'l


lil~:t:VI'!Jn(.J1,5'!) tranag'(w~a',-thY!J:::)

V eleg. to

realize, perceive, become aware (of). d

fairs). Iii~ 'l 'I i:1 81.J


try, tour, travel about.

Iii ~ 'l ~ truad' V to inspect, examine, check. n 1 ~ - -


Iii~ :t:



:WiiiS €J:W tromtr::Jom' V to be melancholy,

out an inspection.

trakuun' N 1. family, clan, stock, tribe.


pounds. -See also lill 8:W.

Iii S::: n 1 S Iii 1 trakaan':::

Iii~:: llii~I'J:W tra?triam' V to prepare, make ready.

frank! y, to tell the truth. Iii HI trom' V to be sorrowful. Chiefly in com-


trakaan' e 1 e g., 1 it. beautiful, appealing.

taa' eye-appealing. lii~~Qfl

thtitrou::: (directly) at, in; (right) at, in.

1.J €J nIii s'


Chiefly in the combination

thaautrou' N 1. the straight path, the

direct way. 2. directly.

trakoou' V eleg. to hug, embrace. -syn.

n81ii com.

Jii1:WiiiH taamtrou' straight (of speaking), frankly. '1111 Iii H

Iii~-- ,lil~n-- ,llils'--.

liiS ~VI'W tranli~ V e 1 e g. to be stingy, miserly.

truads::.ob' V to check, verify.



If a word is not found under Iii a , see

ns .


186 JJ



tranlilthliniaw' V elab. eleg. Iii f1 tram' V to endure, undergo.

to be stingy, parsimonious. Iii~

Iii~ 1 n Iii s'1 traagtram'

::;VIIii'\J tralob' V e 1 eg. to diffuse (of itself), be

diffused widely (as odor, dust). -Also lillii'\J

V to endure, undergo hard-

ship (esp. physical hardship).


Iii flr.i'W tramfl>n' V to be exposed to rain. lil ~ in

Iii~ Iii~ 8 i trl ?troou' V e I e g. to consider,

Iii~ i

trag' pN Trang, a township in S Thailand.


trll.b' V eleg. to listen. Chiefly in the follow-

think (it) over, think carefully. -Also Iii~ nIlls J' ,

ing expressions.


Iii i''Uti i ' £1 ol'\J-- trab'falJ'· sadab' -trab'fau' v

trii' eleg. Nm three. Chiefly in compounds.


elab. eleg. to listen (to), listen (to) carefully,

-Syn. 81:1-i com. -Seealso lilHJ.



lilHJ traj' Nm eleg. three.

Of very restricted

use. -See also Iii S.

N 1. major general. T 2. Major General --.

i.J SbJibJillil ~ ( tl SbJibJil) parin'jaatrii', prin'- (parin=

Gems (of Buddhism, viz. Buddha, his teaching, his disciples).

jaa') N bachelor's degree.

lili'61 trad' V roy. to speak, talk, say, tell.


1;1il ~

~ tradsaruu' V 1. sac e r. to attain enlighten-

- D i s t.



l) traa' (traa')

N brand (as indicated

lil ~ i

(to). Iii

~ ~ TI'IJ ''IJ'W' Iii i 'IJ'W) t:,ogtraa'(pratMb',

r 11 'I

to impress deeply. 2. to be impressive, make


-Syn. tiS ~TI'Uiil S 1

~AWl U1 S1el"' tldtaa'tryl)caj' V 1. e I a b. e I e g. to impress. 2. to be impressive.

el eg.

'IJ~::;TI'\JiilS1 prathab'traa' V eleg. to stamp, -Syn. ~


Iii r~ trud' N new year observances. Chiefly in com-

~lilS1,1i18nliln com.



(lil'U'U) saan'traat~u' (chabab')


Iii Hfr.i H



Sin in lilS1nlilf1 traagtram' V to endure,


Iii SI'U traab' e I e g. until. Usually as in the follow-



as long as.

o lilli'Ullil(~) .. ,lilSI'UcfW ... traab'dai'(thti=) '

truu' V to swarm together (to), to run up

truu' V I it. to be beautiful.


-Chiefly in


I'IJ l A ( '11) traab'daj'(thti=)

... tra.ab'nan'...

N (Thai) New Year.

together in crowds. -More commonly n ~.

ing examples. d


undergo hardship (esp. physical hardship).


trud'farau' N occidental New Year.

lil'l,"eH1inSI'Wlil trud 1 soukraan 1



tryutaa'tryucaj' V 1. elab. eleg.

an unforgettable impression.

Mlil S 1 tiitraal V to stamp.


tryucaj' V e I e g. to fascinate.

lilS 'WlliiS d'l

tl ~ ~ TI'IJ!il s l e I e g.


~ ~ S i: 1 ,

up. 3. to transfix. 4. to be held in place, fixed

s 'l ~Iii~ 1 truadtraa' V to inspect, check.



(to the floor), pin down; to nail (to the wall), pin

niiljaako:>n' (duag') N postage stamp.

bon=. Ioubon=l V to stamp, seal.

"high tone."

try!)' V 1. e 1 e g. to fasten, fix. 2. to nail down

(lil'li) duagtraa' (duau'l N seal.

o Iii 'l HI n1 'IJ nf!iEJ 1 n S ( lil'l i) duautraal -prajsa=



trygtroou' v eleg. to consider,



l1''Wiil ~ 1 u;:~ntraa' N minted currency.

lil8 n Iii~ l ( i.J


L 1H lil

think (it) over, think carefully.

by a mark, stamp, etc.), trademark, seal.


) of the Thai writing system.

lilrn in lilrnliiSJ·1

ment (of Buddha). 2. colloq. to know. 1

majtrii' (?an') N the third tonal

( el'W)

marker (



chantrii' the third rank (from the top) in

'Wlti'V11iilil~ ('W1£J, Fm) naajphontrii' (naajl,khon')

'V1~::;f'1si'mJiili'£J phraslilradtanatraj' the Three

Iii i'61


ci vii service.

as long as ... just so long ...

Iii n '\J L'Yl1 traab'tMw' until, till.

-s y n.




b'U llil ~

sV very early (in the morning). chaawtrilu' N I. the early morning, dawn.

2. very early (in the morning). lilliln talog' V 1. to be funny, comical, farcical.

If a word is not found under Iii S ,

see n ~ .


187 to joke, to clown. fl'W-o A'WDiilfln'l



clown, jester.



chaawtalaad' (khon')



tuatalog' (tua',khon')

N colloq.

an unrefined, common person.

khonnfi 1 -talog'ciu'l He's a very

comical fellow. He's a real card. ol'llilGJn


N clown,




N e I a b. co II o q. the whole neighbor-

(khon') hood.

lilflllill'llil talaad'm?Yd' N black market. lilflllilLfl n talaad'l6og'

farce, comedy. lilfl1J

talob' V to fold back, turn back, pull back.


spread widely (as dust, odor). -Also lil ~ ~'Hfl1J

sold. Jll"efllilii1llil phaasaa'talaad' N the language of

lil61 81il tal':l::>d'

Pp 1. through, throughout. sV 2.

the common people; the unrefined speech of the

throughout. -Comp. G1

J lil


market place, of the lower classes.

Pp all the way through,

l'l~' (lil~1)


up or dipping up in a container of standard caelab.

colloq., idiom. safe and sound. lil61 d'khyyn' all night long, throughout

the night.

( lil8)

N original cause; source, origin.

6::>' (tua') a kind of wasp, solitary



wasp. Usually lil11il8


lil il 1' V 1. to join, connect, put together, con-


struct. 2. to continue, extend, add (on). 3. to

I·H11 tal':l::>d'thyu:::; and including.


Pp 1. including.

2. upto

bargain, haggle. 4. to decoy (animals). sV

all the way to.

5. further, on, next. fl. to, towards, against.

lilfl81il11l 1 tal~:::>d'thaau' all the way, all along

7. per. Cj 8. when, at the time that. -Cf. 7. 61 ~


~ ; see note under rJ'\.IuliJ~ l fant3::>'w~a:::;



the way.

AU tal':l::>d'pii/ throughout the year, all the

year round.

11lLJ tal':l::>d'paj/ on and on, all the time. I.

lilflillil ~ ~ ml1 tal~::>d'r~::>dfau'



to dream further that.

saam't::,::>nyu' (the odds are) three to

' connection.

0 n b d fll tal;,::>d'weelaa / all the time.

nfl Hl ( ll'H1) talaad' (hE:u') N 1. market (place).

d fl ~


11il eJ fl ~ 1 kh!Ju 1 t':l::>khr9iJ 1 half and half, fiftyfifty, (in) equal (parts).

fl 8iiliJ kh::>:::>t::,;:,t N nape.


2. e con. market. khaad'talaad 1

V (a commodity) to be

scarce, out to stock. 'I ·1 tJ Fl flllil caajtalaad'

lil iJ

M8V below.

one. ...

idiom. all the way

lilfl81il61 UJl tal':l::>d'loumaa' all the way down to.

'I! llillilflllil


N stump (of a tree).


Pp 1. including. 2. (extend-

ing) all the way to. 3. even to (what is speci-

t::>::>' (t::>::>')

lil'Wiil8 t6nt:::>::>' lil8 "'

lilfl 8 lil 'l 11. tal ':l::>d' con::;

!il iJ

V 1. to be sluggish, slow.

sV 2. sluggishly, very slowly. lil1llil tawaadl V 1. to yell threateningly, scold loudly.

the way up to.

lil G1 J

volumetric device.



!il R J


b fl S 81--

J.J t1lamttaml

l'l1l-J b

1. forever, indefinitely,

lilfl81il'IJ'Wl-Jl'l'lHH tal':l::>d'-kh?nmaatconthY1J' all



lil11 tuau' V to measure (the volume of) (by scooping


Lb'tllil6181il~ulilt1 doojtal;,:::>d'r~bdfau'

il A'W

tallu'(tallu'l N bank(ofariver,

canal). -Syn.

LlilEI lilfl 8 ol doojtal':l::>d' thoroughly; with thorough-


N food market,

market in which raw, perishable foodstuffs are

el eg.

'l 'Wiil

( bl'\-H ) talaad' sod' (hE:u')

lil 61 l i!H11il

lilfl1J 1khraj' person after person;

anyone, almost everyone. Used when the speaker cannot or does not wish to specify names.

V to buy the groceries.



chaau6::>' N tame elephant used as a decoy.

188 L~eJ:W~ eJ ch9am'too' V to connect, ~~eJ dii'too::: V to be good to. ~l ~~




eJ:W 1 too'maa', to:::>maa'. to:::>maa::: sV 1. next,

following, later on (in time). 2. next, further on

eJ L 1 o'thoorasab' V to make a phone

call. too'paagkbam' 1. to talk back, argue

back and forth. 2. to have words (with someone).

~ eJ'lJ

past). ' ~eJ

~ eJ'IJ 1 nfll

Distinguish the positions of

il w1ta'to:::>kb!'


to:JsOu' V com. 1. to resist, stand up

against, combat, oppose. 2. to fight, battle.



fight, struggle, battle. -syn.


najkaan'toopaj' in the future, at


( b'l.llil) kheed'to:::>sOu' (kheed')

0 I



o ~ill'lJ'W too'pajnfi', to:::>pajnfi' 1. from now on. 2. following, (as) follows. n ~ 11 ~ iJ l 'lJ klaaw'to:::>paj' to go on continue.

(talking); to say further.


combat zone. "

o Fllilill:5o'toothiau' V elab. colloq.


NOTE. This expression implies direction in time or space from the focus of interest toward



grievance, express one's displeasure (to), comsV 1. next,

on (in space). 3. on (i.e. in continuation).

1'W n 1il ~ eJ l 'IJ



following, later on (in time). 2. next, further


cMauto:::>rya' (kbon') N

to talk back; to argue back and forth, keep argu-

gets a thousand bahts annually. toopaj', too'paj:::. to:::>paj:::


boatbuilder, shipbuilder.

gets a thousand bahts per year. o l;L hrV61::;'!1'W'IJ1TI d1tju;}n'-piilaphan'baad'

~ iJ lou~::; L~'Wn 1 HLG\~H f11 ~

. ..




o l;L ~'i.l'W'W'IJ1TI~eJi! d1tju;}n'phanbaad'-6opiV


to:::>'r:J:::>U' V to bargain, haggle.

eJ L ~ eJ toorya' V to build a boat.

o I

apointbeyondit. -Dist.


L:WeJ to:::>m9a' 1. when, only when, at the time

~ eJ l 8' OJ

toopii' per year. -Cf.

in the examples below.

~ eJ lu

toomaa'-?lignoj'nYtJ, to:J:::

maa?iignoi'nYU a little bit later on. ~


to:::>maa'- m1tjnaan'mig not long

afterwards. o


t0:Jmaa'm1ljkliwan' not many days


dooj'- majtoo'taa' without meeting

(his) gaze. '

Afterwards he changed his mind.

~ eJ:I-11 l~fi 'i''W


(someone) in the eyes.





o ~eJ:W1 L~1n L'llil1J'WL~ to:J'maa'-kMwk~pllan'caVl

?aakilad'sajaan' (krabo:::>g') '

li1 eJ'III'W 1 tO:::>n1la'

N anti-aircraft gun.

in the presence of, in front of,


~ v1 ~


1. to give an advantage, a head

start, a handicap to. 2. even given the advantage


189 of (such and such a provision or circumstance); even with (such and such a person's) advantage.



toot?aaju?' V 1. to renew, i.e. extend

the time (as of a passport). 2. to lengthen




Iii eJ ~, 1'lJ--


( n'W, n'U) tidtoo'(kan', ka:::)

V 1. to get in

nected (with), adjoin. sV 3. without interrup-

with ll'W ).

Iii il i


many, a great deal of.


eJ ~

,;j eJ ~Iii eJ ~ eJ i


AA will have to, must.



to hold, handle, touch (with the


~·11il eJ i


AA have to, be needed to, be

compelled to.

~·1 L.Vu;a i campen't~g:::

saduag'tookaanchaj' convenient

AA be compelled to,

forced to; must, have to; it is necessary to.

s3o!J'toos5o!J' just the two (persons),

to agree, be in agreement (of

people, of figures, etc.). liiEH n U

t@te-a-H!te, in privacy.


V 1. to want, need, require .



tempr[:?l to be very full, filled to t~e

limit. b ~:W

lu;1 U

tem'pajdOaj::: to be full of, filled with.

temmyy' to fill the hand, fill the hands;


i~'WYI (1-161-1, L~'WYI) ten'*(I4u'. ten') N tent. [f. Eng.]

to be covering the hands, all over one's hands.

208 r.:

...t1:eg'satau' to ask for (some)

LLiili L'I'HH tcuphleeu' V to write a song.


ruined. LLiilmi'n t1:eg'hag' V 1. to be broken. 2. to be

LLiiiH:i'ltJ t1:umia' V colloq. totakeawife. ' Lblil i 'll'W 1 t1:unlla' V to make up (the face).

·tJ; i LLiil 'I

criticaL decisive, resolute. sV 3. decisively. I! ~ '!I'WLL~nmm


song writer.

LL!nnii16111.1 tceg'salllaj' V togo to pieces, be


t1:u'prajoog' V to compose sentences.

khlln 1 -tceg'hag' the stage when the

final issue is decided.

~HLiiln tMuthg' V slang

pound, concoct. 2. to touch up, dress up, decorate. LLiillil tted' N com., vulg. clitoris. Lblii'W

to be broke (have no



( Dl1)

teen' (tua') N hornet. C sually

lil1-- .

ttem' V 1. to daub, smear, anoint. N 2. (a) daub, smear. C 3. point, score (in game or

'YJ1 ( ••• ) LLiiln tham'( ... )t1:eg" to break, smash


pruu't1:u' V 1. to prepare, combine, com-

contest). ~'WLLiii:W

1.11 'I LLiiln jaaut1:eg' V to have a flat (tire), a blow-

conttem 1 V to be checked, blocked, cor-

nered, brought to an impasse. ~


L ~'WLblii:W ddanttem' colloq. to maneuver, make

Vl1Uiiln huat1:eg' V to have a cut on the head (on

the scalp).

a tactical move (in politics, chess). ~

'll1LL!n:W Mattern' V 1. idiom. to commit a faux

Lblil 'I teen' N class term for cucumbers and melons.

pas, make a foolish or embarrassing mistake.

[f. Chin.] u~n 'In 11 ( 11J, ~ n , t:J fl) teeukwaa' (baj', loug'.

N 2. faux pas, foolish or embarrassing mistake. LLiiiS

( el'W) tree' (?an')

N horn, trumpet, bugle.

211 lblil ~ 1'

( 1')

lllil ~ t£? I

tru:wou' (wou')

N brass band.

V to touch.


lllil ~ lil8' t£?t~DI V to touch (with the hand), to

Lliln'tu tookl?oo' 'tlillntJ'l.

L~HntJ1 tookiawl pN Tokyo. [prob.f.Japanese]




l tlllllil ~ ( ~, '1J l ~ )

~ 81

roouthaawti:? I (khOu',

pN Tokyo. [prob.f.Eng.] -see

't;~ ('l1)

t6? 1 (tua')

N table, desk. [f.Chin.]


khllau 1 ) N slippers.


l~'WLlil~ daant6?1 V to serve, wait on a table.


too' V to be big, large, mature. -s y n. -Ant.


Fl'\.l- - waiter, waitress.

1;~ lDU'W'H1!'1~€l ( ~'l)

l~n, i.JJtJ.

~[J Llil khujtool V co 11 o q. to boast, talk big. l ~'U Llil ta8btoo 1 V to grow, grow up, develop,

t6?1khiannaustyl (tua 1 )

N writing table, desk. d



mature. -s y n. l ~h(l 'Hij.

,. . .

l Fl ~a Hl'IJ'


(Iii 1) t6?1khcyaup~e:u 1 {tual)


dressing table, vanity {table), dresser (with



too 1 kh9n' V to grow up, get big, get bigger.

11il l n1 tooltM.w:::: to be as big as. 'Yl~l1 'Hij1'l 1lil n4ajaj'cajtool V to


be lavish (in

jajtoo' V 1. to be big, large, immense.

enormous, huge. 2. to be high (in position),



1; t~ajl*



lit., eleg.


eight chief points of the compass are listed

penjaj'pentoo' colloq. 1. to

under ~A. J;

ttlo 1 V 1. to counter. sV 2. back, back and

1; tiilttlo 1


V 1. to retaliate, counterattack. 2.

ttlo6obl(kanl) V 1. toanswerback

and forth, perform some action back and forth (of conversing, exchanging letters, engaging in musical or poetic dialogue, retaliating back and

ttlothiaul V 1. to argue, dispute, quarrel.

ttlojee:ul V 1. to argue, dispute. 2. to

( ;eJ)

kh~olttlojte:u 1 (kh~b')

N point

ttlo 1 rOu' 1. colloq. to stay up all night.

2. until dawn.

L;llrl ttlo'waathiil V for n l ~-- debate.

1; ~n')

plant. A

' m 1lill

force one's eyes to stay open (as when sleepy).

a colloquial variant.


edible podded pea. ~

m 1 thaau' JV to part, separate, spread apart.

the peanut plant. -See

( rrw)

( f.J n ) thualantaw' (fag')

6'11 fi'U b li11

1:11 fl

(e.g. through the jungle).

N long-


cowpea plant. ~

e 1a b.


m Wnu 11

mtHH (

hagraau'th1lauphou' v

co 11 o q. 1. to clear land. 2. to clear a path

taathua' V co 11 o q. to be unable to see


1. colloq. to rub it in.

2. to criticize sarcastically, satirize.

m thua' V co 11 o q. to find the average. -s y n.


in that case, in that event,

zontal motion), chip off lengthwise (as with an

thadpaj' next (in a series).

l:l'U th1ln'


if that is so, if that is the case.

buttocks). 2. to be next to, next after. sV 3.

t;1A~ 10'U'U

if, supposing that,

in the event that. m €1 u 11 'U il

next, next to. !c

if, if by chance.

1:11'1110 ( 11) tMahaag'(w~a:::)

thad' V 1. to scoot along on the bottom (the


one might say, one

1:11 bb:W tMamte' but if, if.

r6dth1l!J' (khan') N m i 1 it. tank.

people). t;)A

~1~::;.J11ti th~acaw~a'pajl

-Dis t.



1, n s ::~) kratMu'th1lam'


!;110 ~ :::'lJ'lJ tM.akranan' if so, in such a case. !;11~:::


tMaca::: AA might, (it) could be, maybe.

~l"l:::1~:Wl tMa'cam~jmaa'l

(I. he, etc.) might

(kh:'\:> 1, z1au'. khathUu') N question posed in a legislat~ve


body (parliamentary practice).

('IJ€1,Fio1t;11:!J) khamthilam' (kh~:> 1,kham:::


tures. -Syn.

thllam') N question. o


mv ( ••• ) 88n tbaaj( ... )?oog' V 1. to excrete

( el"l.l) khcyagmll.ajlkham::::

(something). 2. to drain off (something).' (?an') the question mark.


ifn 1:11:U sagtMam' V 1. to interrogate, question.

fecal matter, have a bowel movement, defecate.

question (esp. in an official interrogation).



1J 11:111J

soobtMam' V 1. to inquire into. 2. to

~'U m:u s}rybthllam' V to inquire into, make

com.,vulg .



( '!J"I.I1"1.1)

jaathaaj' (khanllan') N purgative,

'\J , LL ~ "1.1 , 1'U ) Iil.ubthAaV (Iil.ub', phf:nt, .. bajl) N com. photograph, picture. -Syn.



1:11 1J l£1 thaajl C side.

-Chiefly in the following



2. to excrete, secrete. 3. to transfer (e.g.

1:11 ~ ~ thll.awoon' V e 1 e g. to be permanent, enduring, 1:11 ~ s r~ 1:1 ( €)~ 1 ~

m!l't18Pl thaajtMod' V 1. to relay. 2. to trans-



progress, advance 'everlastingly; to progress

in order to keep air or water fresh). 2. to

and be enduring. 2. to be everlasting. ., ' N com. cave,


1:1"1 ( 1:1"1, LL'V!~) tMm' (tMm', heu')

in order to evade unpleasantness).

eleg. ., tunnel. -Syn. Fl'V!1 .. !:i"1:U8~ ( el"l.l) th4mmoou' (?ant) N 1. slide viewer .

mmL'U'U thAajb~eb' V to copy, make a copy (of).

~11J,Yoh11~:: thAaj~dsll.awa?l V eleg. topas ..

2. kaleidoscope.

com., vu lg.


1:111J.n1'1'1 thaajpMab' V eleg. to take pictures,




V el eg. to com.

' 1:111JS'\J thAajlil.ub' V com. to take pictures, to '


photograph. -syn. 1:111J.n1'1'1 eleg.

L q 1'!J8~ a1.1 ( Fl"l.l, 'l'l~n) c4wkh3ogthln' (khon', phfiag')

N natives, local inhabitants. ,.f


co 11 o q. to look down upon someone because of .I

knowledge on, transmit knowledge. thaajnilg' V com. to take moving pic-


1:1"1.1_2 1"1.1 ( Lb'V!~) thlnthllan' (heu')

N 1. place. 2.

place of residence . .I '11€1~ 1:1"1.1

( Lb'V!~) thoogthln' (Mu')

area, district,


blood transfusion.

~1V1'll1 thaajlwfchaa' V to teach, to pass (one's)

duumln'thlnkhleen' V e 1a b.

his lower status.

?an') N com. camera.


o 'l11~mvs'\J (fl"l.l) cMagthaajlil.ub'(khon') N .. ' com. photographer. -syn. 'li1Hl1'1'1 eleg. ' 1J La" 8 Pl thAajl~ad' V to transfuse blood, have m


~'V!:U"I.II:I"I.ILLFl a "!.I

' o na8~1:111JS'\J (na8~,eJ"I.I) kl~u'thaajlil.ub'

a blood transfusion. n 1 s - -

N 1. place, location,

locality, domain, domicile. C 2. place, area,




1:1"1.1 ( 1:1"1.1, Lb 'VI~ ) thln' (thln', h~g')

' to photograph. -Syn. 1:111J~'\J com. take moving pictures. -Syn.

thllawoon'wadthU?/ (jaag',

f'lili"W1 1:11 1S wadthanaa'thllawoon' V e 1 eg. 1. to

air or water, provide a through current (e.g.

. S thAajlpMabphajon'

'~ ~)

a building, a monument).

1:11 1J L'11 thAajthee' V 1. to provide a change of

change a situation (by some trick or stratagem

permanency, enduringness.

slu') N e 1e g. permanent, enduring object (as

mit, hand down (e.g. to the next generation).




goods from one conveyance to another). '

urine, urinate. -Syn. L!J!J ~



m 1J LPl!J ~ thAajdiaw' one- sided.

mv (;) thAajl V 1. to let flow, evacuate, drain off.


:>' LOW consonant. Pronounced th initially,

d finally. The sound th as an initial low consonant is also sometimes written with 6 , very rarely with '11

patience, endurance. L'VI~ 8l'l'W lyathon', lya'thon' V to be unbearable,


or ill. The initial combi-


nation l'll- is often, but not always, pronounced s, as in l'll1'U

sltab'. The same combination

is also pronounced th:>:>ra:;, as in 11 ~ :W 1'1.1 th:>:>:;




l1 ~ th6d'

thontMo' V colloq. 1. to be obvious, clear, apparent. sV 2. obviously, clearly, apparently.

TILLn iii 1l1'VI1$


?odthon' V to be tough, enduring, patient.

l'l'W th6n' V 1. to overflow. 2. to rise (as of the tide).

ramaan'. TIUn Wl

mim?od'mimthon' N elab. colloq.


( FI'W) thakl~Ew'thahilan'




N soldier, brave warrior.

Mn'juuthontMo' (it) is clearly

seen, is plain to see, is obvious.

V 1. to raise to a higher level (as water

11'1.1 1 tJ

( FI'W)

thanaajl (khon')

N 1. lawyer, attorney.

by means of a dam). 2. to carry (a number,

2. co II o q. one who represents another person

when adding).

in some action, hence, a representative.

11VlLLl'l'W th6dtheen' V 1. to repay, do in return.

11'1.1 1 tJ Fl11 :W

2. to replace. sV 3. as a replacement, a sub-

thanaajkhwaam' (khon 1 )


lawyer, attorney, counselor; (Brit.) barrister,




11Vl'\,(1 LtJ TW 1 th6dmiam'khltwnaa' to irrigate a


FS. See


pay (for something) pending reimbursement.



h~u'th6dl:>:>u 1 (Mu'l


"army," and for l1'VI1S1.Jn

"soldier." 'Yl'U

th6b' V 1. to fold (in layers). C 2. fold, layer

'Ylliliii€H th6dl:>:>lJ' V to experiment, test, try out.

(of something folded in layers). Jt

n1l-- experiment, test, trial.

l'l::'W. q

Abbrev. for


11r1HH th6dr:>:>lJ' V to lay out money in advance,

o 'VIeH'YllililO'I

( FI'W)


lil€Jn L'lH.I'Yl'Uiii'W d:,:>gbta'th6bt0n' N finance



compoundinterest. 'Yl'U't11'W th6bthuan' V 1. to go over, review. sV


sab'phajaak:>:>n' (jaau') N re-

sources. -+Cf.

to be torture, tonneht. n 1,--

lagsab' (jaau'l N property,

possessions or holdings used as security.


T1' )J 1'1.1 th:>:>ramaan' V 1. to torture, tonnent. 2.




l;mi1~. LHll;m;;~ kh~jlth:>:>raphid',

-+Syn. a~1~

t is used, and

not m 1'\J. LL;'lL;m 1'\J


eleg. to inform, let

it be known . .U)Jm 1'\J syms~ab' V co 11 o q. to know thoroughly,

F111)J L~'U com. -+Also spelled rll"l'U::.


( 8 tJ 1 ~ ) sab' s/Smbad' (jaau ') N pro-

T1 i''11 o..

perty, possessions, wealth.

o '11'::)J'I'f1n"l!i'lilstJ..m~ LV'U'IJ,::)J'!J'!JB~'IJ':: LTlf"l phra::;


slang to become penniless,


live the King!



T1 i''l'lv..1 u6i'I.I~'W1 uJ1 sab'najdin' -sin'najnaam'

roy. "to

o '!J BT1 n '11 H Lq Sqj kh:S:>' souphracaraan'! Long

miht in


khi1msab' N 1. treasure

is found or kept (hen'). Tli''VltJ:Uiil sabstid'

have no specific royal counterpart. Although verbs which are already royal do not require



(often buried) (khllm'). 2. place where treasure

is nor-

mally placed in front of common verbs which


know well.

'ti ( B~ F1, Fl'U) th:>:>rarbd' (?ou'. khon') N

LoU'I.ITlS 1'\J sens~ab' V to sign an ?.cknowledgment.

lit. eleg. tyrant.

Tl' 1'U11

suau' N eleg. chest, breast. -+Syn. 8n

s~ab'w~a::;, sbbw~a'

it was learned that. i''Um1'U rabs~ab'


eleg. to know that;

,H 1 ~en suau?og' N e 1 eg. chest, breast.


1. eleg. toacknowledge.

2. to bear (something) in mind.







TIS 1J.J saam' V 1. eleg. to be low, inferior, mean,

If a word is not found under

T1 1 , see also 'tl.

225 disgraceful. 2. 1 it. to be young, small. -s y n.

'Yl1 1


LGl1 , 1 c o m.


1~ 'Yl ~ ll-1


cajsaam' V to be base, vile, immoral

o 111 1 L8 n s 1 'ti thuau'?eegkar~ad' V to demand

(at heart).


'Yl~ 1:lJ'JtJ saamwajl N lit. young woman; sweetheart.

thfiautMa' N presence, attitude, bearing,

'111 ''Yl1

manner, poise. 'Yl11 TI

ness. lfl1'YlS1:W leewsaam 1 V tobebad,vile.

o 111 1 TI 11 ~ 1 thOanthii'waacaa' N manner and

N sand (med' for grains; th41J' and others

( lleJ'W) kradaadsaaj' (phtn')

speech. o TI'W ~ 1 1 Ti

for sand in containers or measured units). n s ~ li11'17m 1 tJ

thfiauthiil N presence, attitude, deportment,

bearing, manner.

(l~li1,ii'1,"1fl"1) saajl(mect'.tMu'.etc.)


See entries below.

111 1 •

hfl~rlm 1:W r6og'cldsaam' N feeble-minded-


thuau' V to ask for, demand (what is due); to




n6111~'Wnfl11'YlS11J klaaudin'klaausaaj' colloq.

than'thfiauthii' in time (with respect

to circumstances), in the nick of time.


on the ground.


tham'thfiauthii' to put up a front.

thlia1J' V 1. to direct attention to (undesirable facts, dangers, flaws), to pick flaws in. 2. to

~'W11 ~ 1 tJ dinsaaj' N sandy soil.

protest, object (as in a discussion), give a coun-

~'W'\J'W11S 11J dinponsaaj' N loam, sandy soil.

teropinion. ~

11dgn:Sojl N the lower abdomen; an at.

TIEl -1 '\.18 tJ

N com. 1. belly,

the hypogastrium, the hypogastric region. I

stomach, abdomen. 2. bottom (of a ship, of


the sea); bed (of a canal). 3. expanse (of a field, of water, of the sky); area (of water, of a road).

th:Sounaa" (h1::u"l N paddy field,

( LLV\-1)

expanse of a paddy field.

4. pregnancy. V com. 5. to be pregnant.

thOogphuug" V to be constipated. " .. Tl 8 n'l S~ LH thOogphniroou' N throne hall.

-+Also 5. ~'11€1'1.


-syn. 1. ~-1. 4.




n ~ ~ i n'U.;;B nu:: h ~ (1'U) kratMon'th:bgphra:= roou' (bajl) N idiom. a scape-goat.


o '\h mw -1 puadtho::>g' to have a stomachache,


a bellyache. " -1 L~ e:J tho::>grya' the bottom of a ship. o TIEl

T181n-1 thoouraau' V eleg. 1. tohavediarrhea.

N 2. diarrhea.


o Tl EJ -1 '\.1'1 th:S::>gnaam' water area, expanse of


o TI€H Lb Sn thoogrteg' first pregnancy.


mH t4gthoou' V com. 1. to conceive, be in r




fi 'l

-+Also 'lln'U::

;8 -1 L~tl

V 1. to have diarrhea, have

bowels; diarrhea. -+Comp. TIB-1 L~'\.1. o

and sisters.

dle of the road, the road proper (i.e. exclusive of shoulders, edges). N area, dis-

trict, municipal area, locality.

sfu 1 u' V colloq. to be in the family ~'t18 way, be pregnant. -+Cf. eJ:W'IleJ-1. r

region under the administration of a sheriff. '118-1'\.18-1

(tl1-1) th:S::>un~u' (kh4au')

the leg).

flinajth5og-', r6og'fiinajth5og'

N co 11 o q. pulmonary tuberculosis. -Cf.

'118 -1 a'\.1 ( LL'IH) th:Sogthln' (hf:g')


stomach (causing discomfort). 'll11ii'll81 puadth:Sou' V to have a stomachache,

'118 -1 (1'\.1'\.1 thoou'than~n' N the road area, the mid-


rllog'th:Sogsia-' N colloq. diar-



the market, the market place.


L~F1.;;8-1 L~tJ

LL'\.1'\.I'Ilil -1 ntnth:Sou' V to have a full feeling in the

Tl BHI g'diawkan' full brothers, sisters, brothers



thoogsla' V 1. to have a disorder of the

digestive tract, of the bowels; to have diarrhea.

a running of the bowels. N 2. diarrhea.


( LLV\-1) th5ogr4jlth:Sounaa' (h1::u')

Bangkok where all official ceremonies are held.

-+Dis t. TJeH n 1 -1 •

.;;,H di'W thoogdaan'

'118 -1 '11

(hf:u") N field, expanse

Phra Men (Phra Meru) Ground, the place in


'YW HJ'\.1 th:S::>gkh~n' V 1. to be bloated. N 2.

sfu 161.;;8 -1 a'\.1

; ( LL ~ -1 ) . th5ou r4V

't1 e:J HI '\.I UIV\gklw' V s 1a ng to be very hungry.



;8-1 1;.;;81'\.11


'll8HLn th:S::>gkh' V com. to be at full pregnancy. r


of a field.

belly. -+Dist. TIEJHI'\.1, TJeH


essence of a story, the story itself.

TI€H n 1 -1 thoogkaau' V 1. to have a full belly,

bulging with food or water. sV 2. with a full

rtlog'th:Souraau' N eleg. diarrhea.

s B -1)

irrigation ditch.

; 8 -1 l


(TIEl -1

TIB-1 L~B-1

early pregnancy. 2. to be pregnant. -+Syn. ~


TIB -1 ~ B -1

water. ~ ~H

th:Soufaa' N the sky, the heavens.

N calf(of


r 9

~AnJl eleg., 'YISiAnJl roy. e>n'th~bddiaw' to walk one

N log, piece of wood.

toss from a low level (aiming at something). rJ DtJ nD' th::J::Jjb::ltJ' N a kind of gambling game in

b~'W rJ 8lii'W eH de>e>n'th~::ldn~tJ' to walk in a leisurely

which players throw coins at a stack of cards

manner, at a leisurely pace.

or coins which serve as the stake.

togtM::Jd' V 1. to be handed down. 2. to

rJ::'W ~ thanou' V to be proud, arrogant, haughty,

be passed from hand to hand. t:l1tJ'YieJ!il

th::l::ln'satau' V to give change.

rJDtJ th::1::1j' V topitch(e.g.apenny),tothrowor


nrJ 8lil


N change (money returned).


iflilrJeJ!il sadth~bd' V to shift the blame to some-


V 1. to relay. 2. to trans-

overly confident. A 'l1 :W-rJ::'W 1'!.1 ( 1 'U)

mit, hand down (e.g. to the next generation). o

n::J::ln'th!'l::ldhuj' V colloq. to lie

down completely relaxed, stretch out lazily.

fried patty made of fish, prawns, or meat. th~::1d'

V to cast a fishing net.

terest; to despair. 'WeJ'W'YI€llill;ltJ

a fish, an egg). 2. to be fried. -Dist. ~Iii. rJeJ!ill7'W ( ~'W, '11'W)



rleJ!ileJ1.i'tJ th~::Jdl?aalaj' V to lose hope, lose in-


rJ8lil "' th~::ld' V 1. to fry (by the piece, e.g. a steak,


V idiom. to meet

someone (as a woman encouraging a man).

(i.e. to be pregnant). -Cf. ilmH .

r18lil 1n)


N lake.

11:0 L6l'HWl 1 thaleeli:iag' N a big sea.


u'111:o bCl naamthalee' N sea water. ( ,], ) plaa 1 thalee' (tua')

-See also 11 ~ LtHJ

( Lb~')

J'Hl:;; b6l

N 1. seashore,

fau'thalee' (heu')

seacoast, coast. 2. (as n. mod.) coastal.

under 'YJ:;; LtJil.

'YJ:ot.J1'Wl' thajaancaj' V to become overly bold,

1;'W 'YI:;; b10

ph6on'thalee' overseas.

L! iJ L~'W11~ b6l


LlillilLt:l'WL''W'Yl~tl 1'W lOodphl\on'-coon'thajaan'

( lil'1)

ryad~an'thalee' (lam') N

sea-going steamer, ocean liner.

V e lab. co 11 o q. to be exciting, thrilling,

10 JJ'Yl:o bfl lom'thalee' N sea breeze.


i'W'Yl:o b10

iJ in 'Yl~ LtJ il'Yl~t.l 1'W

'YI~ b tJ


ambitious. Fl11 lJ- -

V to be

aspiration, ambition.


FS. See '

11 ~ 6l H

thaluag' V 1. to thrust. 2. to make a hole

or passage through. tl:o .ln thalag-' V 1. to gush out, burst forth. 2. to

be forced out abruptly by pressure. 'Yl~6l1tl

u' both. Used with and without

khon 1 thaupuau' everybody.

as in


tM!J' qM all, all of, the whole of.

t; fl'W'l1'lrJ~'I

khon 1 tMuph3::>!J' lit. all people.


a following elf.

'11 ~ L~ tM!]phee.l co 11 o q. all (of it), the whole



'11~ 1:11:W


~~ ~


thausaam' all three.

thing, in (its) entirety, in toto. '


and also, and in addition, to~

gether with, withal. -Also


n'U'l1 ~ ... 61 ~ 1:1.

of them; none of them. I!


t; "'

tl HI'W tMukhyyn' all night, the whole night. '

m f1

t; ~ '11 HI~

thaukhOu' both.


tMutua' 1. all over (the body). 2. the

.•• t;

t; '11~ .•• • t; ~

thau:::: ... tMu::: ... both ... and ...

o '11 ~ 'l 1'11 nJ S1J tMucam 1 tha!Jprab' both fine and

thaumuan.l lit.,eleg. all, all (of them). B

m'\J~ ~.

-cf. I!

... B


..• tMu:::: ... IE:::: ...

both ... and ...


o 'l1~'m!i'lLL~::o'l111J tMuji!J'lechaaV both men and

whole of (anything that takes ~~ as elf.). t; '11~

-ct. ~'I'\J1 ~.


o l:whl'l11 L~ m.:l:jcMJ'tMuphee' co 11 o q. neither

thau s l i' all four.

n'U'YH kabtMu'




of you.

~'I LV'W

anvil. t; '11 ~



under firi.



every description. -Cf. also '11 ~'W'W, '11 'I fJ ~ ~, !!

'11 ~

thaunya'tMutua' 1. all over (the

women: "women and men" (the customary order 1J ~ in Thai). -Also '11'l'i-lt]!-1'l111J. B ~ '11'11'\J tM!]wan' all day. t; .,

imprisonment; "both to imprison and to fine." t;

'11 ~ ~'W tM!]sfn.l all, all of (it); entire(ly), total(ly).

' t;

-ct. ~'l'\J1 ~.

o '11 HL:W'l1 ~ ~ n thaumte 1 tM!]lOug' both mother

B "

o 'l.1'W1'W'l1~~'W camnuan.ltha!]stn' the total amount.

and child. t; d I! '11 ~ '11, 'Y1 ~

I! .,


'l 11 tM!J'thti::::, tM!]tha!J'thti::: even

though, although, in spite of, in spite of the fact


that. I!



2. all the same, either way. I~



I! 'l1nJ~ ~

everyone, everybody. o

not either of them; none of them, not any of them. o

~1 '1-!'W •.. ~~ J'W at all.

tMulaajl all, the whole (group). -Cf.

o fl'W'l1'1'1-lf11tJ khon'tMulaaj/ people(ingeneral),


o l:whl'l1 H.ltJ m.:l:jcMj'tMunan' neither of them,

-ct. ~~'\J1 'l.

B 'l1~'\J1'1.

any of them, all or any of them, every last one; everything, anything, everything and anything.

kyab.lthaustn' almost entirely.

thaumoct' com. all (of it, of them), the

whole lot.


'111'\J'W tMunan', thaunan' com. 1. all of them,


Lfl ~'\J'l1 'l ~'W





-Syn. '


khruu'tMulaajl com. all teachers.






1:1.ll1~1J nH1 ~ ~'l1B'I ~;,j/ N colloq. 1. ahun-

dred percent chance. 2. the whole, everybody. ~

than/thOagthii/ in time (with respect to

(animal) to have intercourse. -Dist. '!11'\1.

tMdthaan/ V 1. to withstand,

'tl'l.l b1:JJ tMbthOm/ V 1. to pile up. 2. idiom. to

oppose, resist. 2. to advise against, warn

criticize, defame.

against. v

rJ'l.Jfo)'l'i; tMbsab' V 1. to borrow a word (from

rJ'W than' V 1. to be on time, in time. 2. to over-

take, catch up with, to. sV 3. in time, on time.

another language); to transliterate. 2. to be bor-

4. able to overtake, catch up with, to.

rowed; to be transliterated.

'WeJ'W'VIi'l.lrl'l.l~rJ( n;,;,nlab/-tMb'sld/

'li''WFI'l'W thankhwan' idiom. immediately, right

to be neglectful in exercising one's rights (as

away, suddenly.

'li''WL~ thancaV fast, fast enough. 'li''WLiil thandaj/ suddenly, immediately. -comp. 'll'W r1


'tl'W~ 1 LVl'W thantaa/hi!n/ 1. immediately; in time. 2. in time to see (it): "in time for the eyes to see."

V idiom.

when failing to vote in an election). rJ'l.l


( '1'16\'1)

tMb/ {lag/) N dwelling place.

rl'l.ITI:JJ ( 6l n, 1'l.l, !'HI, L~lil) tMbthim/ N 1. pomegranate


(lOug/, baj/, ph~n/), 2. ruby (mect').

rl'l'i ( rll'i) thab/ (tMb') N troop, army. -Chiefly in compounds.

233 n eH '11'\'1 ( n eH rJ'W l




k:>:>lJtMb' (k:>:>utMb') N 1.


the armed forces (of a country). 2. an army,

rlA'W 1 q s thadsanaa'c:>:>n'* V e 1 eg. to sightsee.

force; troop, forces.

'tlr1'i:ltJJl1'W tMdsanii'japMab'* N eleg. (natural)


k:>:>l)thab'bOg' N army. -Abbrev.

TI'U .

scenery. 'n 1 thaa' V 1. to paint, smear. 2. to coat, apply,

o neJ~rJ'W b~eJ b:>utMb'rya' N navy. -Abbrev.

spread (on). 3. to be painted.


'n 1 L'\JtJ thaanddi' to spread butter (on), to butter.

o n~1rJ'WeJ1n1r1 b:Juthab'?aakaad' N airforce.

'n1 Ll1 n thaapaag' V to put on lipstick, apply lip-

-Abbrev. 'riel. rJ'W'Un


( rl'\'1) thab!JOg' (thab')

Tl1~ thaaslil V 1. to paint, cover with paint.

N army, military


land forces.



2. to be painted, covered with paint. "d11--


( fl'W, 'W 1 v)

(khon', naajl) general,

painter (workman).


commander in chief, leader of an army. rJ'W'i1 ( 011:1.1, el'W) thabphii' (d1tam', ?an')

N ladle.




sHthaa' N paint. (

' 'n1, LbVI1) tMa' (tMa'. h£u 1 )

N 1. port,


'n1 thOa' V 1. to be all over, to be general. sV 2. ./,

harbor. 2. pier, wharf, landing.

~ 1 ~'W

thoroughly, all over. -comp. liliileJOI, '111n'W thOa'kan' everybody, all (without omitting

ii1~'nS1J' colloq. rhrir1u"' ( U~1)


'n1 m

that are given to some but not to all).

rlr1'W~ in


colloq. to take a bath, to shower.

used figuratively of an event that does not include everyone or everything (e.g. salary raises


tMdsana?l*(thadsana?t, jaau'l

N e 1 eg. 1. point of view, opinion. 2. vision, sight. -Also spelled m s r1'W::.

-s y n.


manner, poise. 'n1 L~tJ 'l thlladiaw' 1. one pose. 2. solely, only

(to ... ), nothing but( ... -ing).


'tll "' eJCJ 1 n ~


~~~ ~ 1!, ~tJ d !,l'Vl61 ~

lf:? ~ (I) want only to sit down. th~athaag/

'tll 'tll 'I

~eJ -1 'tl1 'I

tJ 'I 1~:W~ 1 i1 jagm~jmii/ -tMa/thii/

there is still

manner. 2. to act, strike a pose. 'W;:>n/thaauthanOnjil.j/ to walk along the main roads. 1. by way of. 2. by (such

and such) means, in (such and such a) way. tMathaag/ N actions, manner, mien,

'tl1'tl1 'I

1. to be awkward, ungainly.


2. awkwardly, ungracefully; not in the usual

'tl1 'n 11:! thaagkaaj/ physical; physically, bodily.

manner, not in the accepted manner.

'tl1 1 n 1 S thaaukaan/ N 1. official source, govern-


1 'I 'tl1

bVi'W 'tll MntMa /

V to put on airs, to pose. V to get an indication of (a situa-

tion), sense a situation.

ment source. 2. (as n. mod.) official. o 'U 11 'tl11 n 1 ~ khaaw/thaagkaan/ official news. o


to sense a bad


1 :W111 in 1 ~ taam/thaagkaan/ officially.

o 6VW'tl11 n ll penthaag/kaan/ officially. 'tl1 'n 1 ~ d'le:~'


1~~1 Mjth~a/

V idiom. (a woman) to encourage

(a man's) advances; to play Cupid, encourage


thaagkaanmyau/ political, politically.

eJ01'W 1 ~ 'tl1 'n 1 s b~ eJ 1 ?amn1l:ad/thaaukaanmyag/

political power.

or arrange for a fellow and a girl to get to-

'tl1 'I 1 n iO thaauklaj /


'tl1 'I '!J ~ 1 ~ eJ

tMa/ V to wait. ~s

y n. AaI:J

Fl eJ I:J 'tl1 ' ~8'tl1



kh::J::Jjth~a/ D::Jth~a/


in compounds.

eJ .

V to wait, wait for.


l~1J1~~8~1 dooj/-m1l:jn::J/tMa/ withoutwaiting, without hesitation.

tMag/ (tua/) N 1. land leech. 2. gar-

den slug. 'l'leli:J'tlln

N land snail,




N (pedes-

( 'tl H)

thaaukh9fl/ (thaau/) N runway

(for planes). thaaukh~tw/


in. 2. entrance, entryway, inlet. 'tl1 -1

~ ~



N 1. a way ~Opp.


thaau/caraac::J::Jn/ N traffic lane.

'tl1 -1 ~Iii, 'tl1 'I~ lil1 ~

thaaucld/, thaaucldcaj/ mental,


( m1) h~jtMag/ (tua/)

garden snail (Gastropoda). n/ (thaau/) N e leg. way, path, procedure. 'tll n A'W ( m' , 61 11:!, 6;'W)

thaaudaan/ (thaau/,

saaj/, sen/) N 1. path, trail. 2. channel.

235 '111 ~ ~ ~ ~ thaautrou' N 1. the straight path, the

way. 2. detour. 3. indirectly, by indirect means.

direct way. 2. directly. -Opp. tl1 ~ eHJ:lJ. 'Y111'l'I'Y11


-Opp. 'fl1 HI n . '111 i 8 1 n 1 A thaau? aakAad' by air.

thaauthahiian' military.

'Yl1 ~~fib wi'l8 thaauthidnya' to the north, on the


north, northward.

air power.

" thaaumiam' N 1. waterway. 2. by water. '111H.!1 ;}/


-cf. m ~ ~ 1't1n u.


) thaauphaan' (thaau')

N passage-

( 'fl1 ~ ) thaaujteg' (thaau')

a way. 2. on the way, along the way. NOTE.

N 1. side

road, road or path branching off the main thor-

to English -ly; see examples. o 1'W'Yl1 'IJJV8'U najthaau'mfch!bb' in an unlawful

oughfare, roads branching from a fork. 2.

manner, illegally. o 1'W'Yl1'1 bAS~jn'l najthaau'-seedlthakld' 1.

branch line. ( 'Yl1 1 , ~ 1 tJ) thaau'r6dfaj' (thaau',

'fl1 i Hill1

from the economic standpoint. 2. in an econom-

saaj') N 1. railway, railroad. 2. by rail. o L~tJ'I11'1 Hll'11 doojthaau'r6dfaj' by railway.

ical way; economically.

b~'W'I1H penthaau' 1. asaway(to). 2. intheform

by rail. '111 'I HW'Wiil

of a line, in a line. ~

( ~ 1 tJ)

thaau'r6djon' (s:Iaj') N 1.

b'lliill'IH pa;)dthaau' V 1. to open the way (to).

highway. 2. by automobile. )J


2. to yield the right of way.

'Yl1 'I • ~ 1 tJ) thaaurOam' (thaau'. saaj')

~'Yl" miithaau' there is a way, a means; it is

N junction or merging street or highway.


tin l ~ thaaurltadchakaan' 1. official(ly).

2. co II o q. the government, the authorities.

-ct. m ~ 1J 1'W .

possible. o

l~il'Yl1 -1

mltjmiithaau' there is no way, no

means; it is impossible. bWn '111 -1 jtegthaau' to go separate ways.

'Yl11 b~ 8'il'W ( :llJ') N 1. mel-


1. to throw aside, discard,

neglect (things). 2. to forsake, desert, abandon

manner of, like.

(a person).

V najthamno:>!J'khuu' ~



in a threatening


thfn'cOdmilaV V to mail a letter;

(Brit.) to post a letter.

~'l ( ... ) 1'\J

o lwrh'Wfl'llAtJ'lrl'W(n\J) najthamnoou'-diaw'kan~ (ka~)

in the same manner (as), in the same

'YJ1'Wfl -1 b'\'W 'l

l'l". TI 'l61 n a::; b-u ~



( rl1'W8 'l) thamnoou'phleen' (tham~

ticate. 1'1"1--


la?'thf!J' .:"








Vto abandon, desert, neglect.


to desert, be a

deserter from duty (e.g. a soldier, civil servant).


~ 1 ATI" -1 L'YITI" -1 saadthfn'theethfn' V e I a b. co II o q.

n'1LiJtJU'W1tJn thamntab'naaj6g' N the prime

minister's residence. n'1 bi!tJU :ij U 161 thamntab'radthabaan' N the

to throw out.

n.[. TIIJ3

prime minister's office; the government office.


for? how come? NOTE. Possibly originally


n_[:wo'W:: thfdthi?-maanaU N eleg. pride and

"to do what," with assimilation

perseverance, pride spurring one to perseverance.

'li''\JTI:W ( l~A, 61n, 11J, t.ili)




thtm' V 1. to pierce, thrust in, stab. 2. to be

n'1611 tJ thamlaav v 1. to destroy, demolish, wipe

out, ruin. 2. sport. to break (e.g.a record).

thidthi?' N e I eg. 1. viewpoint, opinion.

2. stubbornness, obstinacy, stubborn pride.

rh1:w thammaV 1. why, what for. 2. why? what

to :W.

thfn'( ... )sfa to throw (something)

away. -Dist.


thamntab' (hl:!J'• tham:::

N e 1 eg. residence (of high government



( ... ) l~tJ.

-«, (... )L~tJ

improv;. -Comp. 't1~~'\l1~'l.

rh 1 ~

V to leave (something) J-'

'Yl1~'lf1~ 'l thamm1?'bamruu' V 1. to nour-


to drop bombs,

(incertainplace). -Dist.l'H( ... )1'\J, rl'l

prophecy. [conv.f. 'YIItJ]

ish. 2. to tend with care (as plants). 3. to



" ( ... ) rh

to bomb.

-«, (... )1; thin'( ... )waj'

to foretell, prophesy, prognos-

r1'1 L1JtJ'\J ( LLVI'l, r1'1L1JtJ'\J)

to throw (something)

thfn'lOugrab~ 1 thii'l, kh3::>thii 1 j colloq. Please,

each one in a different direction.

TIAiil::o1'Wiiln thfd 1 tawantog' N west. TI1'1--


just this once! (requesting that something be stopped).

the west, on the west, westward. o TIA~::o1'Wiiln b~tH bVIU8 thfd 1 -tawantog'chlagnya'

o 'lJ 8L TI~rl kh3othl\od 1 thii' I Excuse me! o 'lJ8 L~tlrl kh3o'sfathii'j* idem 'U8rl.

N northwest.

TIA Iii::: 1'W8 8n thid'tawan?oog' N east. TI1 'I--


to the east, on the east, eastward.


as a particle of emphasis derives from a

examples. d Lii~ 11; tawantog 1 chiautaav



o VI'W Hl, TIVI'W 'l nY!Jthii', thii'nyg' one time, once.

) kh11il'Yl1tJ



thtisud' most, -est. -comp. n1H'VieJ'W. d


'Yli>1~ q


under TI



NOTE. Tit1~ is often q

TIOFI'W thUgkhon' everyone, everybody. q


vn Fl n

tMgkhrau' every time.

used to express what corresponds to the super-

vn F1 ~ 11 tMgkhraaw' every time.

lative in English (e.g. biggest, most beautiful).

Tinfl'W tMgkhyyn' every night. q


o ~TI~~ dii'thtisud' best, greatest. '

.. d

ooeJU 1 ~ lilTI~Iil jaagdiilthtisud' 1. the best. 2.

at best. 3. best, in the best way. de\ • • . TI~


d 'dl t ht"tea::: ... u.>aJ _. ... , lilTI"::;. • . 1lilv ..• t ht"ISU

as ... as possible. ~





oo \ s 1'Yl~q lil'Yl"::; l ~ 1 lil rew'thtisud'-thticarew':::

d4aj' as fast as possible. o


th9lJ' V to be interested (in). -Syn. • d



\ 1 iil1~ weelaa'thti::: when, the time when.


li1 eJ'W~IO 1 Fll.J

suppose, assume (without evidence).


ph1lu'thti::: (the person) who.

J11 fTI~IO ~ TI phaajllig'thti:::



thygthag' V to jump to a conclusion; to pre-

n~. See






thOn" V to save (on), economize (on), cut down


~ ~, LLVI1)

thOu" (thOu". h£u") field, meadow,

open field. -co mp. '\J 1.

~HL;, (~1 1 LL~1) tMuc~eu"(thOu",hcu"l '


{lam/) N mine layer.



thOn/ (thQn/) N float, buoy.


o LS8'111~'\JS:; L'U~ (a"1)

r5::>utMg" V to complain, make a com-

l'l"nnv"' wajthug" V to wear mourning. @)




something). Cf. Eng. "to be hot and bothered."


louthun"loureeu" elab. colloq.

'ri'!J H L'li~ thOn"rabaad/ N explosive underwater

colloq. to be dejected, worried, bothered (about


n 1 s --

to put money and effort into (a project).

o LV'u'lq1n 'tl LV'u s eJ'W penthug"penr5::m" V e lab.


naajthun" (khon") N capitalist.


and down of life. Cf. Eng. "for better or worse."

~'W~n 'tl.. penthUg"

( FI'W)


N eleg. ankle. -Syn.


cMau-'tMawlll.u' N 1. thehindlegs



L'lfl1 L'111J ~ weelaathtau' at noon. v


lll.uthtau' P.M.; after noon. -Abbrev. ~

( :W€J) ?aahll.anthtau' (m;'ry')

N lunch,

luncheon, midday meal. di1J'W ( Lfl:W)

thian' (lem') N candle.

L~ 'l LTI1J'W ( el'W) chaauthian' (?an') ..)'k

utMaw' N eleg. shoe, (kh~tau'

for either one of a pair; khQul

(HI1J) r:>:>jthaaw'(r:>:>j')


comparable to, on the same level as. 4. to be artificial, synthetic, counterfeit. -Syn. 3. See L't11.

4. L; colloq.,



lill 'l LTiti:W (Iii 'l 1) daawthiam' (duau'l

N artificia,l

earth satellite. L~ 1 Lii t:J :W tMwthiam' V to equal, be equal to, be

for a pair). ~81Jbrl1

L1JS1J'\JLTI1J'\J prlabthtab' V tocompare.

2. to hitch up, harness, yoke. 3. to be equal,

~·1 b;(1 jltmthaaw' V to mark time (with the feet). o L~'W~"1l ;.l daan'jltmtMaw' to march (as


alongside (of). LTI1J'U L~ €J thtabrya' to bring a boat up alongside.

at full speed.



(esp. in order to compare).

~ 8 Iii LTI 1J '\J co:>dthtabl to park parallel to, pull up

flitMaw' N eleg. speed(offoot), pace.





o L~'W L;(1 L1J~ 1 daan'thaawplaaw' to walk bare-



€J 1'1'11 ~ L't11J ~

FI'W- - person on foot, pedestrian.





L~'W L;(1 daanthaaw' V to go by foot, on foot.


thtaupl!u' at noon sharp.


L'111J n'W thtauwan 1 M midday, noon.

of an elephant. 2. idiom. follower, one who always follows someone else.

with fairness, impartially.


L'111J ~ L1J 'l

ti8M'W com.

81J 1 'l--,

for certain, for sure.

L'111J 'l 6 ~ s dJ thtautham' V to be upright, just, fair,




b't11J 'l FJ'W thtaukhyyn' N midnight.

L~ 1J- - , LV'W- -

o n n'U Lrt1 FJ(l!l'HJ'tl LFlu~ 81J 1-1 ~


k:J:>nthtau' A.M.; before noon. -Abbrev.


the addressee). J


sad'slitMaw' (tua') N eleg.

steady, stable. 3. to be just (lacking in bias).

respect). 2. term used in the salutation of a





at someone's feet (as a sign of very high





~'W .

" n S 1'\J L't11 kraabthaaw' V 1. to prostrate oneself



-Also '!I'Wl'l11.

l; b{(1 L't11


N eleg.

on the same level as. LiitJ:WLL'I'l'W thiamtheen' V 1. to be a comparable

LL rl'W


substitute for. sV 2. in place of, substituting

thtc' V 1. to be real, genuine, authentic. 2.

LLrJ ">

to be pure (e.g. in race, strain). sV 3. really,

for. L'Wt:J

dim.J ( n eJ'IJ)

naajthiam' (k~::m') N margarine.

e.i'IJ LlimJ fOnthiam' N artificial rain.

truly, genuinely, very, very much. -Ant. 1. '\Ji'leJl.J, Llit:Jl.J •



£J 1 ~ Llit:Jl.J jaauthiam' N synthetic rubber.


fiH Llit:Jl.J siluu'thiam' V to be as high as.

L'Yli'J HL'Yl thtauthtc 1 certain, sure.


Llit:! 1 thiaw' quite, exactly, very.

form of li L~t:J 1 under li


U rl~ ~ ~

-See also




Lrlt:J 1 thtaw 1 V 1. to roam, wander, go (from place

to place). sV 2. around (here and there for

m::>n'rltad'chaslimaa' pN

milk. 'W:W~\f

Nakhqn Ratsima (Nakorn Rajsima), a township

projection on which the gun cap is placed.

in NE Thailand. -Colloquial name is LFI S 1'tl. 'WFI a 1~ nakh::>::>n'wad' pN Angkor Wat, ancient


temple of the Khmer (in Cambodia).

nurse. -Syn. ":W'W:W


land. -Colloquial name is 'lJ 1 mi1 't 'W.

- - ( Fl 'W ) nakh::>::>n' siSopheenii,


to milk.

i'l'W:W ( el'W, i'l) hiianom' (?an', hlla') N nipple. 'W:W


in '\J:W'W 1'\J, 'W 1'\J'\J:W nomnaan', naannom' sV for a long time; long (ago). -co mp. 'W 1'W.

prostitute. ('WFl~ .~~'VI1)

nakh::>::>n'luau' (nakh::>::>n',



nomnaan'maaltew' long, long ago.

'WL1J1J11J ( el'W) najoo'baaj' (?an')

h!::g') N eleg. capital (of a country). phranakh::>::>n'* pN 1. Phra Nakhqn, the

N policy.

'WL1J1J11J~111J~~ ~'11A najoo'baaj'-taa:gprath~ed' N foreign policy.

township in which Bangkok is located. N 2.

'l11'WL1J1J11J waa:g'-najoo'baai' to lay down,

capital city. o til 'l'W a ~'Wfl S ( FI'W) chaaw'phranakh::>::>n' (khon')

establish a policy. 'W. S.

N the people of Bangkok, Bangkokians. non'tMburii' pN Nonthaburi, a township

' in C Thailand.

'W1J in

N com. wet nurse.


'l 'l'W:W ( iil1) wuanom' (tua') N milch cow. ' ~1J 1'W:W jaa'nom' V to wean.

(Nakorn Sawan), a township inN central Thai-

'W'W'I11J i'

mee:nom' (khon')

r~'W:W rtid'nom'

'Wfl a 61 'l a a Fl nakh::>::>n'sawan' pN Nakhqn Saw an


( FI'W)

-Syn. 'W11'W:W

Sridhamaraj), a township in S Thailand.

jl:g'-nakh::>::>n'soopheeniil (khon') N courtesan,


N milk. -Usually 'W:W mng. 2.

1h'Wl.J mimnom'

Nakhqn Sithamarat (Nakorn Sritamarat or


naagnom' (khon') N eleg. wet

( FI'W)


'WF1S~rsaam1'!I nakh::>::>n'-siilthammarltad' pN

'W F1 s 't 61 ~ mil , ~ij ~

nomnllu' N 1. (carburetor) jet. 2. nipple,

Abbrev. for '\Jn ~ ~1J'W student, pupil.

'W s n nar6g' N hell. Vl'l1 'Wan h0ag'nar6g' N hell (implying vastness,

'W1J'W S1J, 'W S1J'W1J


depth, dreadfulness).

n!'bbn6b' V to pay

respect by pressing the palms together; to lower 'W a 1 6'l161 naraa'thiwltad' pN Narathiwat, a township inS Thailand.

the body and press the palms together. 'W'W n6b',n6bpha::; Nm lit. nine. -Syn.




1111 'l'W'W ~ F1 S1 ~VI ( ~ 1 ~) daaw'n6bphakhr:J?I (dua:g') N the nine planets. 'WJl1 naphaa' N eleg.,lit. sky, firmament. -Syn. 'Yll com.,

~ 'l~1

'W'lill'!l1'l nOadkhttaw' V to thresh rice.


(tltw', khlta:g'). 2. milk (khuad' or other appro-



-syn. 1. u:wns~'lJeH




(ns::1JS1) nomkrap:S:g' (krap:Sg') N

blib'nOad' V idem.

VI:W S'W 'l ~ ( FI'W) m:'>::>nOad' (khon') N masseur,

priate container elf.). 3. any protuberance or appendage resembling a breast or nipple.

nOad'fan' V to massage by kneading (the



'WJ.J ( ~ lill , '!11 ~ , '11 'l ~) nom' N 1. breast, udder

nOad' V 1. tothresh(rice). 2. tomassage,

masseuse. ~

'W'l'W1J11J (



nawanfjaajl (r9au')

N lit. a

n~vel. -co mp. U1J 11J. 'W'l:l.J ('1111,W'W)

nuam' N 1. padding. 2. boxing

256 gloves (khaa_u'). 3. quilt, comforter (phyYil'). "'~


l n 1 il'W 1 :U ( lil1 ) kaw?ti/nuam' (tua')

the subject.

V idiom. to quit box-

'W 8 n



'W:U,~:U,ilil'W. '

(the face) to be radiant; (the face) to be nicely

over and above,



o 'WeJn b'I'I'Wil~ 1n'W'W



besides that, above and beyond that.

~n l ~1.1'\J'WeJn ( FJ'W) nagrian'n!bg' (khon') N 1.

sV 3. tenderly, graciously; smoothly, grace· -s y n. 't:U'W 1 iii .

Abbrev. for 'W1,ii111

( el'W) n;,;,l (?an')

a student studying abroad. 2. one who has received his education abroad. ' \J1'W'WeJn (U'Vl') Mann~:>g' (h£u'l


N colloq.

1. the country (as opposed to the city), country-

N hom (of the rhinoceros).

side, rural area. 2. (as n. mod.) rural, coun-

n:>:>reed' (?an') N rhinoceros

trified. -syn. 'ti'W\J'I1

eleg. -Cf. ~1l~eH.

l'IJ~eJn'WeJn ( l'IJ~eln, eJ'W) plyagn:">:>g' (plyag', ?an')

hom. n~:>g'

sV 1. outer external. 2. outside. 3.

outside of. -Ant. khaun~:>g'

'!J 1 ''WeJn

( A'W)

N outermost shell, e.g. epicarp (of the coconut).

l'IJ'WeJn,l'I.Jl~eJ,'WeJn pajn!bg'. pajlmyagn~:>g' to


outside, the outside.


go abroad.

(khon') N an outsider,


ueJnnlJ'Vl:U11.1 n!bg'kbdmilajl to be unlawful,


illegal, illegitimate.


(A'W) lQug'n~:>gkh~:>g' (khon')

myagn~:>g'myagnaa' N elab.

co II o q. foreign country; abroad (usually the

to be beside the point.

V colloq. toveeroffthe

proper or expected course (of action). ~n'WeJnAeJn

N outside, exterior; external.

myaun~:>g' N foreign country; abroad.

Ll'j8,'WeJn Ll'j8,'U1




n 1 S-- external affairs.



e 1a b. co 11 o q.

aside from (that).

gracious. 2. to be graceful, smooth (in action).

'WeJU s Iii ( el'W)


'WeJn l'VlileJ~ 1n n~;,g'

powdered . .I

'W:U'W1iil ntmnuan' V 1. to be gentle, tender,


l s eJ' phOud'n~:>gryau' to talk irrele-

off the track, on the wrong track.

2. (the complexion) to be delicately beautiful;



'W 8 n ~'W eJ n'l11'

-Ant. llV,,ns::liiH.

'W1iil nuan' V 1. to be soft-colored, cream-colored.


to be off the subject.



'W 1 :U nQam' V to be soft, flaccid, lacking firmness.



'WeJn l s eJ'



n~:>gmyau' out- of- town.

dl 8 ' J

(~'W) ph4anuam' (phiTn') N quilt, com-


n!bglpanhila' to be beside the point.



ing: "to hang up the boxing gloves." f.J1'W1:U

'WeJn'tJs:; l~'W n~;,glpraden' to be irrelevant, off

N over-

stuffed chair. U'!J1'W'W1:U


U.S. A. or in Europe). S eJ\J'UeJn


1. outside, outer area; periph-

ery, outer part, outer layer. 2. outside {of),


a black sheep, a prodigal.

around the periphery (of). ' ii11'W'Wiln


aside from. 2. except, other than, excluding,

l !8'\JeJn

( ii11)


~1'\JeJn hilan~:>g' colloq. apersonbroughtupor

U8n ~ 1n


o 'W eJ n ~ 1 n 11

1. besides, outside of,


1. unless. 2. pro-

vided ti:Iat.

ing the house).

-+Often used of flooding with other

liquids besides water. -s y n. 1. 111 :U . 'UeH L~ 81il

'WeJn'111'W ('Wiln'ti1'W, Ll'Vl') n~:>gchaan' (n~:>gchaan',

h£u') N (uncovered) porch, open patio (adjoin-

N coat, outer coat.

n:>:>!J' V 1. to flood, inundate. 2. to be flooded, inundated.

n 1 ~-- infidelity, being un-

faithful (esp. toward one's spouse). '


educated abroad. 'U €1'

'W €1 n 1~ n:">:>g' cajl V to be unfaithful (to) (of hus-

band and wife).

the outer part.


n:>:>!J'l9ad'' V to be bloody, covered with

blood, sanguinary. el1.1 1 '-'W iJ'

in a bloody manner.

( '!J 11 , 'W eH ) n~u'*(khdau'. n:"lu'l N calf (of the




fellow citizens.

'l1 eH 'lHH th:S:Jl]n~lJ' N idem. th~:Jdn~u'


sV in a leisurely manner, at

'\.!8'~' n~u'tYU' V to have a charley horse in

d ~ n'>1~

'\.! eJ'\.l

the leg. '\.! 8'


( 1'1'\.l) n:S:llJ' (khon')



l(lugphti'lOugn:S:llJ' N cousins in general.

n'W 8 -1

n:J:Jn' V 1. to lie, recline (of animate beings

or statues). sV 2. lengthwise, on its side.

N com. 1. younger


sibling, i.e. younger brother or sister. P 2.

NOTE. Sometimes coupled with '\.l-1 "to sit."

I, me (yg. sibling to older sibling, wife to hus-


band, younger person to slightly older person).





n'W'\.leJ'\.l kinn:J:Jn' v

below. 1. to eat and sleep (at a certain

3. you, he, him, she, her (sp. to or about one's

place, esp. when done habitually, frequently, or

yg. sibling, one's wife, a slightly younger per-

for a period of time). sV 2. modifier used as

son). T 4. title used before the first name of a

the equivalent of Eng. "boarding," as in the



following example.

Comp. '>1 "older sibling."

yg. sibling.

(1'1'1.!) n:S:Jl)kh;laj' (khon') N brother-in-

'\.!8' b'!W


L~H~EJ'l.ln'l.l'l.leJ'W (bb~-1,LsH~EI'\.l) kinn:J:Jn' (hf:U'· roourian')

" law who is the husband of one's younger sister. ~

(1'1'\.l) n:S:Juchaaj' (khon 1 )


N 1. younger

khti'haawn:J:Jn 1




N boarding school.

to be a sleepy head .

brother. 2. slang m. s p. (younger) partner,

LtJ 1'W 8'W khttwn:J:Jn' V to retire, go to bed.

bud, buddy (in addressing someone).

-1 'l -1'\.!8'\J uOaun:J:Jn' V to be sleepy, drowsy.

'1 n:S:Jun:S:Jl] 1 1. younger brothers and sis-




N bed.

tiaun:J:Jn 1 (tiau'l

LMEJHJ8'\.l ( LmtH) J

N mattress.

thtin:J:Jn' (?an', thtil)

ter. 2. co 11 o q. secondary to, inferior to,

'11'\.l 8'\.l ( eJ'\.l, 11)

next in importance after. -used mostly with

'W 8'\.ln'\.l n:J:Jnklln' V to settle on the bottom, pre-


a preceding elf. 'W eJ' ~1 ( Fl'\.l)

n:S:llJphlla' (khon') N brother- or



N brother- or

(Fl'\.l) n:S:Jl]mia' (khon')


in-law who is the wife of one's younger brother. '1.!8 -1



'W 8'W 1~'1-11'\.l 8 -111-1 '1-1011 El phtin:S:Ju'tMulaaj 'j Friends! (used when making an address). d

:>n'labpllj' to sleep soundly,

sleep like a log, be fast asleep. ~

o '1.!8'\.l'Hil'U




sleep fitfully.

'1 n:J:Jn 1 -lablab'ryynryyn' to


'IHl'W "> 'W eJ'W LVlff !:!Iii noonj lad' V to lie stretched out, lie

down at full length. ~



'W Hllil'W eJ'Wfllil

'WEW ">

?oonn:Sorn'(too::::} V 1. to submit

e:J e:J'W'We:J:W (Iii e:J}

(e.g. to sorneone's authority). 2. to be respectful


V to think


(toward), mindful (of)( e.g. one's elders). 'We:l!:l "> n:Sojl V 1. to be little, less, small, slight

'U1'WLOiilLi'leJ-1'Wunaa' N e 1 a b. co 11 o q.

1. to know

how to count. 2. to be considered, reckoned as;

fields of all kinds. 'Yl·Tw 1

counted by (e.g. the millions). u'U l~


thamnaa' to farm, do rice farming.

U'U'i''WLL!il nabwan'tee:::: day by day, as days go by. U'U ~ 1 nab'wda:::: to be regarded, counted as, taken

'li'W 1 Ol1 )

nab'mdithaan' countless, innumerable.


as, considered to be.

bl:ieJ-1'\Hln d:ieJ-1'W1

N field crab, a small

myaun~::>g'myaunaa' N elab.

co 11 o q. foreign country, abroad (usually the

2. hint, intimation.

o '111i1 b~'WUt.l 1 ( ; 1) phOud'pennajnaj' -(wda 1 )

U.S. A. or in Europe).


1~ i'W 1 ( 1~ 1)

to hint, intimate (that). d

o eJn'Wt.J'Vi'Wi ?lignaj'nyu in other words; in

roounaa' (roou') N farm shack,

farm shed.

l ;'W 1

another sense. 'Wt.I'W naj', najja::::.

puunaa' (tua')

fresh-water crab.

'Wt.l naj' C 1. sense, meaning, way (of explaining).


n1 S--

l; .

rice farming. -com p. th ' ~-1'W1 (LL'fH) th0unaa 1 (heu'l N field.



( lbUfl 1)

ritj'naa' (pleeu')

N field, farm.

Vi'W l'W 1 ndanaa' N rice-planting season.

See entries below. -com p.


'WJ'W 1 . Ut.J'Wiill


( li11 -1, '!J 1-1)

year in and year out, forever.

najtaa' (duau'. kMau'l N

com. eye. -Syn. See !ill com.

'Wl rn.

o n 1'W'Wt.I'Wii11 kuan'najtaa' V slang to offend


'W 1

com. eye. --Syn. See !ill.



ball. -Also


N eye-




'W 1 ,.,


l;. --co mp.


n:ta::::, nita':::

NOTE. 'W 1

1. bound stem placed in front of

in mng. 1 has such translations as

"leading to, inducing to, arousing to, attracting

naa' (pleeu'. rdj') N 1. paddy

below). --Dis t.


k~uan'siin:ta' that's it!

ought to, might like to; usually used in combina' tion with ~::; ; see 'W 1 ~::: below.

-Syn. See !ill com.

field, rice field. 2. field, farm. 'd11--


verbs to make new verb derivatives. AA 2.

naj'janaa' (duau') N eleg.,lit. eye.

( mJnaam' (bo::>')

N 1. well (for water).

272 2. pool.

paper or hide). Mng. 2 used esp. in the south


p4nnaam'-pentua' idiom. to make

up a story out of whole cloth, fabricate a lie.



where shadow plays are still seen.

'il~ in LV'W'il~ pennfd' constantly, regularly, always.

paagnaam'(heu') Nl.mouthof

a river; estuary. pN 2. Paknam, a common

-See also 'illilrJ. nfd' V to be tiny, little, small. -chiefly in


name for Samutprakan ( 61~m'lJ s 1n 1 s), a town-

compounds. 'illi1 L~(I 'J nfddiaw' 1. to be tiny. 2. a tiny bit.

ship at the mouth of the Chaophraya R. -Also 'lJ 1 nLL~,j1.


'illi1VI'I.IeJrJ nfdnojl little, tiny, small, wee; a little

LV'I.I,j1 pennaam' V 1. to be liquid (not solid).

bit, a wee bit. NOTE. Uli1 and

sV 2. fluently, flowingly.

coupled in semirepeated expressions; 2nd ex-

o 'I'Hl ( ..• ) LV'l.l,j1 phOud'( ... )pennaam' 1. to

ample below .

o Lliln 11 .•• 'illi1VI~oumiam'

N 1. bubbles; foam {lOug', foou'). 2. sponge


'il~n n lJ nftlkam' N 1 a w juristic act, legal act.

'il~U(J nftlnajl N law legal sense. Lli1rJ-- ,lil1lJ--

nel, the deeper part of a stream or waterway.


legally, de jure. -Opp. 'l'lt]~U(J.


V!lJeJ'I.Io1 (V!lJeJ, 'lu) m~onaam' (m~ot, bajl)

'il~'t!b]l~~ nftlbanjad', nit!?- N 1 a w 1. legislation.

N -1.

water pot. 2. boiler. 3. water heater. 4.

2. (as n. mod.) legislative. o 61J1 1'1l~'\Jbll~~ ( i.'1J11)

radiator (of a car).






h~unaam 1 (h~:g 1 )

N bathroom. 0

" ?aabnaam' V to bathe, take a bath, shower. a 11!'1.1°1


entity. U~J11'J~ nftlphaawa?l, nftl?- N law

'ilL fill nfk(lnl* N nickel. [f. Eng.) -Sometimes also 'ilL n ll nfk@n1 •



competency. o 1Jn!il'il~J11'J~ banlt]?lnftlphaawa?t law to

nikhom' (nfkhom',hf::g') N set-


tlement, colony.


el"1'1.11 ~ u~'t!b]l~~ ?amn~adlnftlbanjad' legislative

'il~~l'll'l!il nitlbugkhon', nftl?- N law juristic

?ajmiam' N steam, vapor.

'iln 11J nfkaajl C sect, denomination, branch.


saphaalnftlbanjad' (saphaar

N legislative body.

" hiwnaam' V to be thirsty. 'ii'J'Wo1


-see also U~.


lln'l.lo1 ( m'J) H\ugnaam' (tua') N mosquito larva.

.... ....

See entries below.

LV'I.IUiiW~ pennfd' always, regularly, constantly.

HH'I.Io1 ( LL'IH, HH) r~unaam' (h£u 1, r~u') N chan-


tiny; a tiny bit, a little bit.

'il~- . Bound form meaning "law."

2. to sprinkle holy water over. I


LileJ~UiilrJ nya:g'nfd' always, regularly, constantly.

N seal; sea lion.




'l.lli1VI'I.I ~

Hl'l.lo1 r6dmiam' V 1. to pour water on; to water. I

nidnid'nojnojl trivial; a very


'"' LLl-1'1.1°1 ( 611rJ) mtenaam' (saajl) N river. ~

'I-!~ a~ 'l

little bit, a very tiny amount. Q

(?an'). 3. foam rubber (?an', chin', phen', etc.).



a little bit here, a little bit there.

~'1.1 J'l.l, LL~'I.I, ill i)

LLlJ'J'I.Io1 ( lii'J) meewnaam' (tua 1 )


o LL(;llJ'illi1LLiillJVI'I.IeW ttemnid'ttemnojl to daub

bank of a watercourse. 'WeHJ1 ( lln, 'WeH,

Vl'l.leJ(J are often

come of age, reach legal age, attain one's ma-

nt:g' V 1. to be still, quiet, motionless. sV 2.

jority. ~

U~A1611i1S nitisaad' N eleg. law (as a subject

still, quietiy. v to put

o g' can't think; can't


'tn n91J' V 1. to steam (food), cook with steam. 2. to be steamed. nOu' V to dress, put on, wear (lower garment, e.g. trousers, the phanung, etc.).

't H1 l.JVIl.J'\1 1

( ~'W)

(phJyn') N net (e.g. for tennis


game). [f. Eng.] b'Wiil s

( 01"

, 'iJ")

eleg. eye. 'W ~ ~ b'W Iii~ b'W~1Tbl!ofilil


Vl'l'WUfl hl\an'nyg' to think back, recall.

't ~

-s y n.


~l.Jti:w nOmntm' V to be soft, yielding, gentle. o ~ 1 '111 ~~l.JU:w thltathaau'nOmntm' gentle manner,



nOmnuan' V 1. to be soft, gentle (of man-

manner). sV 3. softly, gently; smoothly, grace-

'Wfl'lhlw'l'< nygkhl1m'najcaj' to be inwardly



ner, voice). 2. to be smooth, graceful (in action,

I'm still amused by the

thought of that (matter, affair,etc.).

i'in ~'W




rJaunan 1 juuli'l

kapok tree (Ceiba

nOm' V to be soft, spongy, yielding. -c om p.


a:: o 01 'il'W!J 1 'W n 'tJ'W b HH 'W'W 8 ~ 6 ~ tJ dichan'- jaunyg::: .,_,


t6nn0n' (tOn')


(of something).


N the phanung, a

one end twisted and hitched between the legs.



pManOu' (phh'n')

lower garment made of a wide strip of cloth with

khrOn'nygl, nyg'khrlln' V to keep


khl1n 1






nOulyau'homlyau' to wear the

yellow robe, i.e. be in the priesthood.

Fl'l1:WVnAV~ khwaamnygkhfd' N thinking, thought,



b Fl ~ 8 ~-- garment, clothing.

n 1 J-- dressing.


examples see cross reference.

q.v.below). -Camp.

nOuhom' V to dress, clothe oneself; to wear.

nl!ed' (duau'. khilau')

phran@ed' roy. eye.

( FI'W)


N attorney;

barrister-at-law. t u~1Tbl!ti!il

~J11 nee'tl.bandl.d'saphaa' N bar as so-

ciation. t 'W b't1€Jbb6l'W neeth baan' C elf. for doors, window sashes, mir-

rors, picture frames, etc.

zling. o 6111'.1'\J 1 A~ 1 silajlbaadtaa' co 11 o q. to be strikingly beautiful, dazzlingly beautiful. ( u'VI~ ) Jnadphl~e' (hen')

N wound, cut.

'IJ 1 A Lt11i11J ~ ~ ::>n 1 N elab. colloq. motherland, homeland. -Syn.

N family doctor. 0"'




rnuuMan 1 (muu 1,heu 1 ) N

village, group of houses.



·~ I 1J1'WVO'l Manch~u' N colloq. horne, house. "'

~nn:w;1'Wti8'l cygraarn'Manch~u'

N elab.

co 11 o q. buildings (of all kinds, collectively). 1J1'Wlffl:W


11J TW ( ~ 1)

colloq. much, a lot. -See

( ll'Hi) bdank~:Jgbia' N interest (on money loaned


or deposited). ~




LDvu, LiltJ~ L'iltJ'Vl bladbian'

V 1. to oppress,


LiJ1J'W8VVI€JV'IHW btan:S:Jj/hojn:S::>j/ elab. colloq.

persecute. 2. to sponge off (of somebody), be

poor, having little money.

an expense (to somebody). r


L'lJuli'1'W 1qJ bta'bamnaan' N pension.

L'lJtJ~ bia' N beer. [f. Eng.]


L'IJV ~ btaw' V to be out of shape, distorted, irregular

bta'-prakan'phaj/ N insurance


fee, premium. ~

(uneven), misshapen.



LtltJ L~Vi btalfau' N special allowance (as for

l , L0 u l ~Iii buudbtaw', btawbuud' V 1. to

travel. special expenses, etc.). .:\"

be sullen. 2. to be twisted, distorted .


L1J lJVI~ ~ btawad' N annual salary . .'i


L'U'W L1J lJ'IJ'W pen'btabon' idiom. 1. to be supe-

rior, on top. 2. to have the advantage, have the upper hand. 3. to outdo.

FS. See d


6ii tJ W.

bya 1 V to be tired of (something), bored (with) .



i.! l L'U 2 n1labya 1 to be tiresome, boring, tedious.

fl ~ 1 :W-- tiresomeness, tediousness.




b'U €J'VI'W 1 tJ cyanAajl V to be tired of (something),

bored (with).

Lb~ ~

fl11:W-- boredom.

o 'W 1 b'U eJ'VI\11 tJ n4a'cyanAajl to be tiresome, irksome, tedious, wearisome. fl11 :W--

or responsibility. u

LL'U~ ~'ULL'U~~

someness, irksomeness. J

b'VI:W'W b'U €J m~ncya' V co 11 o q. to be fed up,

L eJ ( ~1 } !J9a' (tua') N wild animal (general



L'ii'W L €J pen!J9a' V co 11 o q. to be mute, silent,

1. to share, divide proportionately. 2. to appor-

LL~ ~ eJ eJn LV'W A


k b'U eJ ~ tJ 11 !J9agkhwlla' at the right.

elementary part. 2. at the beginning. 3. (as n. mod.) introductory, preliminary. -+Ant. k

!J9agplaajl eleg. 1. the final part, k L'UeJHI'W.

suanbeg' (suan')

( ii11'W}

U'U~nr1 LL'U~flr1 LL;~flr (LL~~

N dividend,


L'U} beg', btg'* N 1. bank

(hf:g'). 2. bank note (bajl). [f. Eng.] U'U Iii LIii €J ~

k L'U €J ~ 'U'W !J9agbon' upper part, top; above.

salaag'kinbf:g' N eleg. lotteryticket.


share, portion, quota.



endpart. 2. attheend. -Ant.


ii11'WU'U ~

L.ff€J ~ ;,. !J9agt0n' e 1 e g. 1. the beginning part,




1J9ag' C elf. forside,part.


bf:g'?oogpen= V to be divided

up into (e.g. parts).

dumb, speechless.



( 'VI:W €J , Tl €J'l.l}



bE:dtaarti', btdtaartil* N th~on',

large type;

flashlight type).



LL'U'l.l been' V to be flat (as of a pancake, lid, roof). +


L'U €J ~ Lb ~ n !J9agreeg' at first. k L'U eJ ~ lil1 ~ !J9agl4ag' below, beneath.

L €J ~ 11 !J9ag'w4a= 1 it. as for, as to.


k L'U eJ ~'VI'W 1 !J9agn4a' ahead, in front; in the future.


LL'U'l.llil:; L'VIll'WLb'tJ'W been'tal~np~n'

rM to be very

flat. beeb' (beeb')


N 1. model, type, style.

2. pattern, form. C 3. clf.for same. -Syn.


L'U €J ~ 'VIIil ~ IJ9aglag' behind, in the rear; in the past. L\l eJ'W byan' V to turn away.

'illil LVeJ'l.l

bld'byan' V 1. to twist, distort, mis-

represent. 2. to worm out of (a commitment). Lb'U bee' V to stretch out, spread out, open. LL'Ui'leJ beemyy' V 1. to open up the palm of the

1, 3. Tin



o fl'WLL'U'U{j khon'beebnfi' a person of this type. J

Lfl ~ eJ ~ LL'U'U


khr9agbeeb' (chlld') N uniform.

lii1:WLL'U'U taambeeb' V to imitate (in style), follow

the style or pattern of. (leJ!iiLL'U'U thoodbf:eb' V 1. to reproduce, copy,

hand. 2. co 11 o q. to extend the palm, stretch

duplicate. 2. to resemble in every minute detail.

out the hand, i.e. to beg.

3. to pattern after.

U'Un beeg' V 1. to carry on the shoulder, support

with the shoulder; to shoulder. I

bf:g'san'-pan'suan' elab. colloq.




bf:grab'bf:gsllu' V colloq. to make

a noncommittal statement.


bored, disgusted (with).


1. to divide into (e.g. parts).

U'U ~.n 1 ~ ~ bf:g'phaara?t V to distribute the burden



bV'W beg'pen=

2. to be divided into.



U'U'U ®

mmL'U'U thaajbf:eb' V to copy, make a copy of. 'W 1 ~ U'U'U

( fl'W}

naagbeeb' (khon') N a model (i.e.


fl1 ~ 1 ~ U'Un

khllacllag'beeg' N carrying cost,

porte rage. LL 'U n .n 1 ~ ~ beeg'phaarli?l V to shoulder respon-

a woman model for an artist or photographer). LL'U'U ~ 1 tJ



sibility, carry the burden. Lb'Un'VI1:W beegMam' V to bear, carry (on the

shoulder). Lb'U ~ beg'* V 1. to divide, to share. 2. to be divided. Lb'U ~ L'U 1 begbaw' V to lessen, ease, lighten (as

a burden, task).

u~ ~V'W

beg' pan' to share.

bf:eb'g4ajg4ai' a simple pattern, com-

mon style, ordinary style. u


LL'U'UQ'U'U ( eJ'W, €Jt.J 1 ~}

bE:eb'chabB.b' (?an', jaag')

N pattern, example, model, style (esp. what is traditionally accepted as worthy of imitation). d

LL'U'UTI eJ ~ LTit! 1

bhb'tMgthtaw' N (in) the style of

a tourist. u 'U'UU~ A'U

beeb'bagkMb' N rules.

LL'U'UL 'U!iiJJfl ~

beeb'bajsamag' N application form,




1'lJ n6 'l

application blank. ( LL'U'U) beebphOm' (beeb')


N hair style.

bOogthon' V to wave a flag (as in signaling).

L'Un~eJ bOogmyy' V to wave the hand (as in saying


( eW 1 ~)


beebpMen' (jaan') N 1. cus-

tom, tradition, established pattern or system, conventional rules. 2. standard reference. LL'U'Uan-H01

(;eJ 1 'U'I1)






colloq. to wave the hand.


L'U11'&1 boonad', boonas'

N exercise, drill (in a textbook).

N bonus. [f. Eng.)

't'UtJ booj' V l. to whip, beat hard, flog.

LL'U'U~lJ'i'i ( LL'U'U, eJ'W, 1'lJ) bE:ebphim' (beeb', ?an', bajl) N 1. a blank form, printed form with

2. to fly

(of winged creatures). 1mru'W boojbin' V to fly (of winged creatures).

blank spaces to be filled in. 2. a mold.

LL'U'U~'W '1


1 'lJ S 11l! booraan', booraan'na=: V l. to be ancient,

bhb 1phyYr!phyYn' simple or everyday


old, antique. 2. to be primitive (i.e. belonging to a former time).

1 LL~'W)

LL'U'U'I'l eJ slJ ( 'U,

beebfoom' (bajl, phen') N

a form (to be filled in, as an application form).

r1•1 1 'US 11l! kham'booraan' N old saying, adage.


'US lJ 'U S11J! borom'booraan' co 11 o q. extremely


LL'U'U L ~ tJ'W

( LfillJ)

beebrian' (ll!m') N textbook.

LL'U'U 6\ 1 n fil beeb'saakon' modern, occidental style. LL'U'U eJtJ 1 ~

( U'U'U, el'W) beebjAan' (bE:eb', ?an')


ancient, very old.

't 'US 11l!n 1 a

former times, antiquity.

1'lJ S 11l!FI ~

a set example, pattern. LV'WLL'U'U penb£eb' in the style of, on the pattern of.

booraan'nakaan' 1 it. ancient times,

booraan'nakhadii' N l. account of antiq-

uities. 2. short for the following entry. 'Wn--


mteb£eb' N model, pattern.



L'U nll!FI ~ ~'111J 1

LfltJ'WLL'U'U lianb£eb' V to imitate. eJeJnLL'U'U ?:'JogbE:eb' V to design. LL'U'U "",

LL'ii'U beeb', beb' V 1. to be in a state of

L'US11l!oJiilf:l booraan'wadthu?' N relics, ancient


severe prostration (as from illness, serious

objects, ruins; archeological finds.

L'U s·1 L'lJ ~ 11l!

injury). 'W el'WLL'U'U noon'beb' V to lie helpless, spent (from

2. to be

2. in ancient times.

ofOI'l~~L;1L'Unll! 2.

to be slim, slender, thin. LL'U'l. See

2. to be spread apart, laid open. Aelbb'U::: khoob£?1 having lapels (e.g. a coat)(usu-

ally as n. mod.).

( el'W) boo' (?an')

(tua') e I e g., 1 it. a primitive quadruped.

L'U61b~ ( L'U~ ;, 'VIoli)

hOod' (hOod', Ian')

L'U bajl N l. leaf.

N 1. temple.

2. blade (as of fan). 3. sail.

C 4. elf. for leaves, fruit, eggs, various kinds of containers (e.g. baskets, boxes, cups, bags,

N bow. [f. Eng.]

boodeeu' N blue ribbon (literally a "red

ribbon" or "bow" which in Thailand symbolizes

(e.g. notes, certificates, tickets). -Mngs. 1-3 chiefly in compounds. -Syn. 4. (when referring to fruit)


n com. , t:HI e 1 e g. ; (when referring

to eggs) ~n com.,

an award for the best).



basins, etc.); also for slips or sheets of paper

Vi'W 1 LL'U::: nltab£?1 N broad face with wide cheeks.

1'UbLIII ~


2. a chapel in a temple compound. 3. church.


Lb'U::: b£?1 V l. to split open, lay open (e.g. fruit).


historical. &1iJtJ 'U nll! samajlbooraan' N l. ancient times.

frail (of a person), fragile-looking. LL'U'U'U 1 'l bE:ebbaau' V 1. to be delicate, frail.

boorllm'booraan' co II o q. ancient,


overexhaustion, serious injury, illness). 'Uei'ULL'U'U b:'lbb£b' V l. to be fragile.

booraan'nakhadii'wfdthajaa' N


NOTE (1)


'l'leJ'l eleg.

in mng.l is a· class term, not

bOog' V 1. to wave, fan. 2. to apply (mortar)

a general term. The general term for "leaf"

with a waving motion; to cover superficially


(with mortar).


Specific kinds of leaves are named

by using the class term followed by specific

298 terms, e.g. l1H1n

N certificate, document required to establish

"betel leaf. leaf of the

betel vine." (2) All nouns based on

1U as


"nipa palm leaf."

"bamboo leaf." lvw~


one's eligibility for something; identification



their classifier unless otherwise marked; ( 1'U) is omitted in the derivatives





bajlsamkhan'-taaud:taw' N

1. passport. 2. alien identification card.

1 'U-0''\J~ bajlkhabkhli/ N operator's license,

1 '\J ~ 'llG

driver's license.

bajslldthf?' N certificate showing level

of attainment in school.

1 '\J b61 ~ '1 bajsed' N receipt (showing payment has

1 'U'li1 bajchaal N tea leaves. 1 '\Jiil n '1 ( 'il1Y'U) bajtruad' (chabab') N certificate

been made).


(certifying inspection).

bajjlta' N blade of grass.

1 '\J Iii 8 i bajt::>::>lJ' N banana leaf, plantain leaf.

1 '\JVI,;1 bajnlta' N face, countenance.

1'Ub'ilnb~'W bajloo~gu~n' N bank. withdrawal

1 '\J bVIUtJ'\JU'l bajljlabj!tm' N land certificate (issued on the condition of use and improvement,


1'U1J ~ 1 bajpliw' N hand bill, leaflet.

e.g. as to a homesteader).

1 '\J>J 1n b~'W bajlfaagu~n' N bank. deposit slip.

1 '\J 8'Wb\! 11i1 bajl?am1j!tad' N permit, license.

1 'U'l1'lil ( 1 '\J, eJ'W) bajphad' (bajl, ?an') N 1. pro-

t:J11'U (~'W) pMabajl (phtyn') N canvas, sailcloth.

peller. 2. fan (for a car radiator), fan blades.




~a i b;1;11 '\J ( ~, J1 i



bajlmaphraaw' N leafletofthecoco-

(khOu', khltau')

nut palm.

b!a1'U (::>lJthaaw'ph!tabajl



ltn'bajl V to sail.

Mjl V to gesture, signal silently. -com p.


(bllil) ryduu 1 bajmaajrOau 1 (ryduu 1 )



FI'W1; (fi'W) khonbltj' (khon') N mute person.

N fall, autumn.


1 '\JtJ l bajjaa' N tobacco leaf. 1 '\J :imJ a -1 bajlrabkh:5::>lJ' N 1. bill of lading. 2.

chajbltjl V to communicate by signs, ges-

tures; to signal.

'\Jan 1; b:,;:,gbltjl V to tell by making signs (when

receipt (acknowledging receipt of merchandise).

1 '\J :i'U b~'W bajlrabu~n' N receipt.

speech is to be avoided); to give a high sign to.


~l '\J :i'U ~ 8 i bajlrabr::>::>lJ' N certificate (in regard to qualifications, health, etc.).

bOjbltjl V to signal by means of the lips

and gestures.


1 '\J b'5 eJ bajrya' N sail (of a boat).

penbltjl V to be dumb, mute.

l'Ufl ~i'W bajlaphan' N 1000-tical bill.


bajlar5::>jl N 100-tical bill.

1 '\J 01 1 bajlaa' N application or request for a leave of absence.


bajlsoukh:5::>lJ' Ninvoice.

tJ p::>::>' MIDDLE consonant. Pronounced p initially,

1 'U8i!FI ~ bajsamag' N application, written

b finally. The sound p as an initial consonant is always spelled with iJ .

request. o bl'U'U1 'U8iJFI ~ b£o:b'bajsamag' N application



1 'Uff1Ab\! ( 1 '\J, Q1)'\J) bajlsAmkhan' (bajl, chabab')

artillery, and for '111!11


U'W1 VI~ the artillery; artilleryman.

blank, application form.

1 '\J k-11J 1 bajlsaujaa' N medical prescription.

Abbrev. for V'W1 VI~

u. i£J.

Sometimes used as an abbrev. for mail, post.

-See also 1J . bl!.

l iJ ~"eerntJr




tin pbg" N 1. cover. 2. book-cover. V 3. to cover.

tlnFIHH. See next main entry. tlnFI~:W

ui]t!~n 1 s patibad'kaan'

pbgkhlum" V 1. to cover. 2. to be cov-



to conduct matters,

do things; to perform, operate, execute, carry

tlniJ!il pbgpld" V to cover; to conceal. keep secret. o

cover design, cover photo.


n 1 s--,

n 1 stln F1 S8 i kaanpbgkhroou' N governing; government (as in "form of government"), rule, administration. -o is t. ' 1'1.1n 1 s ( ~18)'\.lnFIS8i

( ;8 1) Mu"-patibad"kaan' (Mu')

uijlJnw patipag 1 N lit. adversary, opponent, enemy. tlij Jll Fl patiphltag' N mat h. proportion.

(see below).


;,Htlijv~n 1 s N laboratory.

tin Fl s 81 pogkhroou' V to rule, govern. FI11:W--,

n 1 S-- operation, action.


Jl1tltln ( JlTW) phltabpog" (phltab') N eleg.


nammaacMj'patibAd' 1. to be put

into effect, put into use, put into practice.

tii]nJ patirOub' V eleg. to reform. ~

ui]LOJ:W patiloom' sV lit. in the reverse direction;

£"~ '\J16l .

in reverse order. -Ant.

( FI'W, 'W1tJ) khtiarltad:::

chakaan'(faaj)pbgkhr:>:JU' (khon', naaj')


uii 1~ patiwad' N e 1 e g. 1. revolution, overthrow


of a government. V 2. to revolt, stage a revolu-

government official (esp. an administrative or


law enforcement official).


n 1 S--


'Wn-- a revolution-


FI11:WtlnFIS8i khwaam'pogkhroou' N rule, pro-

tJiji'!'IJSbl! patl.sil.lJkh:'>on" V lit., eleg. 1. to repair,

tection, supervision, custody.·

rehabilitate. N 2. repair, rehabilitation; also

" ~tin Fl s 8 i ( A\.J) philu'pogkhn:Ju' (khon') N 1. ruler. 2. guardian. 3. parents.

n1s--. uiji'Wt;lU' V lit., eleg. 1. to greet.

tin~ pbgkatl.?t, pakatl?/ V 1. to be normal, routine,

usual. 2. to be regular, steady (of the wind).

2. to chat with. N 3. greeting (to an inferior).

tlij b61S patiseed" V eleg. 1. to deny, refuse (e.g.

The second pronunciation is literary. -Also

a request). sV 2. negative; in the negative.

tlsn~. -Ant. 8'\.ln~.

n 1 S-- refusal, refusing.

lii1:W'\Jn ~ taam'pbgkatl ?I normally, ordinarily,

Iii el'Utlij L615

as usual, usually.

bU\.Jun~ pen'pogkatl?' 1. to be normal. 2. as



path6m", pathom'ma::: first; primary, elementary. -see also

~-1'\.ln~ phl.d'pogkatl?' V to be unusual, abnor-

'\)~ :J.J'VW

mal, irregular.

l'U 1 &l path6m"phajaabaan' N 1. first aid.

1J~:W18 path6m'mawaj' N lit. youth, the early

tii)n~81 patl?'klrijaa' N reaction. -Also uijn ~81

period of life.

1J~:~J~n~1 path6m'sygsll.a' N primary education.


L~'W 1J ~ :W pen"pathbm" 1. in the first place. 2.

u~b]!1'W piHijaan' V to promise (by an oath), to vow.

" ('UO,us~n1n promise, vow. -Also

ui]b]!b]! 161( patin"jaan'. uiibl!bl! 1


tlij~w ( lltJ'U) patithin' (chaoob") N calendar.

originally, first.

1J . bl! . Abbrev. for

2. to apply, put into practice, carry out. 3. to

'\Jill pod" V eleg. to lie, tell a lie. -Syn. See

n ·1 l-- conduct, behavior,

LWf'lfl com.

DLJ~,JJA b~~

FI\.J-- tender, attendant.

2. obligation (e.g. toward a friend).

mail, post; post office.

lation of intent, determination.

performance, operation (of), treatment (of).

; oui)'\J~ kh!'lo"patibad 1 N 1. procedure, practice.


urns HI panithaan 1 N lit., e leg. resolution, formu-

tJij'\J~ patibad' V 1. to do, act, perform, practise.

attend, tend, serve.

'\.1 s::; t;l:W.

V 2. to administer first aid.

tJ1:Wtln~ jaam'pogkatl?/ normal times; peacetime.


t:Job"patiseed" to refuse, answer in

the negative.

khtipod'-m6d"thed" V elab. eleg.

to tell a lie, prevaricate.


lil. 8. p:J:>t:J:J'1 :J:J".

Abbrev. for

anti -aircraft gun.

300 U'tll'\fn~:w

( 6A:W) pa.thaa'm1krom'


n,1.f,u~:W161! kamlau'paramaanuu' N atomic power.

N dic-


'Wi'l 'l

UTil-I 51U pathum'thaanii' pN Pathumthani, a town-




:i~L'Um.l~l-11~ (~n)

ship inC Thailand.

UTI:WcJ' W pathum'wan' pN Pathumwan, an amphoe 9

raooad'paramaanuu' (lfiug')

N atom bomb, atomic bomb.

1J SJ'W in 6lU S'I.J S 1'W pn:£pruan' V to change, vary,

in Bangkok.

U'W pan' V 1. to mix. 2. to be mixed, blended.



1'WU~:W161! phalauuaanlparamaanuu' N atomic

fluctuate, be uncertain. -+Also

cMj'pon'kan (several people) to use

1J S 'Jhlll'l.l :i.

pD:>1Jdoou' V 1. to reconcile. 2. to com-


(something) together, share (something, e.g.

promise. 3. to reach an agreement, be in agree-


ment. 4. to get along well (with somebody).

A'WU'IJ11 ~ l tJ dinponsaajl N loam, sandy soil.

uHI11 par:Jod' N 1. mercury. 2. thermometer. 3.

U'IH 1J ponpee' V 1. to mix together. 2. to mix, be mixed in a disorderly or confused way.

1J ~Uhl pa?pon' V 1. to mix, mingle, combine,

temperature. '1..1

~ ~ tJ


s ~ pra?l V 1. to add, affix. 2. to touch lightly,

intermingle, mix up. 2. to be intermingled,

prooj' V to be sparse, light.

daub. 3. to sprinkle, scatter here and there. u~~'l.lntJ

mixed. 3. to be shared (in use by several peaple).

rain). sV 2. sparsely, lightly, sporadically, here


U'W pon' V to grind, pulverize.


pra?praajl v 1. to be sprinkling (as of

and there, in scattered fashion.

pbnp1i' co 11 o q. to be utterly ruined.


~hi Anu :i ~u

U:W porn' N 1. knot. 2. a complex.

:i1 tJ fontog'pra?praajl It is drizzling,

raining lightly.


'IJ :i ~ 't1 :i J.J pra ?phrom 1 V to sprinkle. psych. inferiority complex. ' "' ( ~ tJ 1 'l , '!J ~) pomd1m' (jaau'.

' u:w 61ilhl

6'IJ ~ o ~ tJ s ~ pr8?pra?l V to be spotted, stained, kh~o')





psych. superiority complex. '

~:wu:w 0

pum'pom' N knots, kinks.


s ~ n1J ( rl'W) prakob'(kan') v 1. to be placed (to-

6uuJ:wu:w penpum'pom' to be knotted, kinked. 9

gether) face to face. 2. to be joined (together),

6ibu:w penpom' to be knotted, knotty. u~n

spliced (together) (as of the ends of two pieces

prog' V to cover, hang down over, fall (e.g.

of timber overlapped and joined surface to sur-

of hair).


1J ~ n ~ progkatl? '· See 1J n ~ . U~'W

s!'lnpra?' N broken line, dotted line.

1J :i ~ WHI praki.tad' V 1. to contest. 2. to compete.

n 1 :i

.., in f.len.!U:iV ph:Jonpron' V to reduce, ease,



lessen (e.g. terms, restrictions, requirements).

1J :i hi





1J ~ ~ n 1 t:J l 'W prakaajfaj' N spark.

to consist of, be

composed of

'I.Js:::nu prakaan' C 1. eleg.,lit. kind, sort, thing,

'IJ~~ni'J'Ui'llV"tt prako:::>bl?aachtib/ eleg. to earn

item, respect, means. 2. point, item. 3. law

a living.

"' com. 61 blTW eleg., •d'W~ com. 2, 3. 'tli'l

J11 'W'IJ ~ ~ n 8'\J pMab/prako:::>b' N e 1 e g. illustration ~Syn.

(e.g. for a text).


~ 1 tJ iJ s::: n 1S Q:::cff


m!tjsbm'prako:::>b' V to be imper-

dOajprakaan'chanfi/ 1 it. in this

manner; for this reason.

vmh::: n1 s

fect, defective, deformed, abnormal.

1. 'I.Js::: LJ111,


count (as in an indictment).

l~61l-J'IJ ~ ~ n i'l'U


-Opp. 1. ~111JS~'l'1Li'JeH.

eleg. to do good.


a young beauty; a young

( t'IJ) roub'prako:::>b' (roub') N

thUglprakaan/ every, everything; in

every respect.

'U 1 ~'IJ S::: n 1 S baauprakaan' of a certain kind, cer-

com. illustration (i.e. for a text). '

611'W'IJ ~ ~n i'l'U suanprako:::>b" N component, constit-

tain, of some sort, some sort, some.

1Js::n1s"l~ prakaan"daj/ 1. what, whatever; what-

uent. l1 U'IJ ~ :::n i'l'U'prako:::>b' N compound.

soever; how, however. 2. what? whatever?

i'J 1 Fi'IJ ~::: n 8'\J ?ou'prako:::>b' N component, constit-

how? however?



1J ~ ~rl'W prakan' V 1. to guarantee, insure. 2. to bail (out). N 3. bail, security, guaranty. n 1 ~--


khamlprakan' V 1. to guarantee, stand





whatsoever (in it).

'IJ ~::: n 1 s"l~'IJ~ ~ n 1 ~Vl~ -1 prakaan'daj/ -prakaan'nyu"


any one (of these things), one thing or the other.

'W11J'IJ~~rl'W (fi'W) naajprakan' (khon 1 ) N insurer,


1J ~ ~ n 1S1161 i'J 1 prakaan'thtis:S:::>u' secondly, in the

guarantor, bondsman.

second place.

'IJ~~rl'WV1iil prakan 1 chiiwfd' V 1. to insure one's

v l::: n l s lb' n prakaanrt£g/ the first (reason) being;

life. N 2. life insurance.

for one thing; in the first place.

'IJ~ ~nuilt:J prakan'phaj/ V 1. to insure (against loss or damage). N 2. insurance.

n1 ~--

s n 'I~ £1'1A11! penprakaanlsil.mkhan' as the


(most) important thing. ~



i'Jn'IJ~~n1~Vl'W-1 ?J.igprakaan'nYD furthermore, also.

o n~l-IS~~l-I'IJ~~nuilt:J krommathan'-prakan'phaj/ N 1 it. insurance policy. '

e 1a b. co 11 o q. to procrastinate, put off.

i\J'IJ ~ ~ n 'i.l rablprakan/


to guarantee, insure,


n 1 A ( Q1)'U) prakAad' V

1. to announce, proclaim,

claration (chabab').


( 'tl i'J,


i'lrl 1-1)


~'IJ~:::n 1A (~)

thtiprakaad' (thti/) N signboard,


VJ.i'n'IJ ~ :::nu lag'prakan' N security, surety, collateral, guaranty.


1.1 ~ t

declare. N 2. announcement, proclamation, de-

~~cJ'W'IJ~~rl'W'Wn phadlwan'-prakan 1 phrOu' V


l~~:J.IJ l 'W 1J ~:; ~ khltaphaan'pratuu' N admission


(l'U) badphaan'pratuu'(bai') N

( 'U l'W) baanpratuu' (baan')

~'W com.

night. 1J ~:; rl'U [;] prathab' V 1. to press, press against.

admission ticket. 'U l'W1J S:; ~


1JS~TI'UL~~:w prathab'r££m' V roy. to stay over-

charge, gate fee.


com. 2. 'Wi.

1Js~TI'U~'W prathab'jyyn' V roy. to stand. -Syn.

(baan'). C 2. sport goal. '


N door

panel; door.

" pratuunaam' N 1. lock (as in a canal), 1J s ~ ~'W·l water gate. pN 2. Pratunam (Pratoonam), name

2. to imprint, impress, stamp (as with a seal). sV 3. against, on.

1Js~ri'U1'l prathab'caj' V to impress (one); to be impressive.

305 '\J ~::: TI'U lil n

pratMb'traa' V to stamp, seal.

-Syn. ~liln,lil8nliln l'U1:::'\J~:::TI'UiilS1


1.h" Ln~il~n1 prath@ed'laukaa' N eleg. Ceylon. \Js"Lfi~o11


(el'W) b:J?-pratMb'traal(?an')


N stamp pad. '\J~:::'YI1'W

\JsnnAv1'11S'U prsth@ed/?aarltbl N eleg. Arabis.

\JlzLn~ID"UL~~ prsth@ed'?india' N eleg. India.

prathaan' V roy. to give, offer, bestow.


-Syn. See '!J8'\J~:::'YI1'W


kh:"i:Jprathaan' V eleg. def. to beg,


klum'pratMed'(klum') N

1. group of nations. 2. bloc, coalition. ' lil1 1 '\J ~ ~ l 'Yir1 taaupratMed' 1. a foreign country;

o 'lJ 8'\J ~::: 'YI1'W 1mf kh:"i:JprathaanthOod' e I e g. de f.

abroad. 2. (as n. mod.) foreign.

Kindly pardon me. Kindly excuse me. -Syn.

n1 ~-- foreign

affairs . .L

'lJ 8 1'YI'l1 com.

'YI 'l '\J ~ ::: L'YI r1 thtlaprath@ed' all over the country.

o 'lJ 8'\J ~ :::'YI1'W l61'W8 kh:"i:Jprathaan'san::la' e I eg.


l'Yir1n~:WFI8:W~'l'il61f!~ '


de f. I respectfully submit (this matter for your

nfd' the communist bloc of nations.

consideration). Used especially in official cor-

'\J~~ l'Yir1'li1~ pratMed'cMad' N country.


'\J~~ l'Yir1:W'H18.1'W1~

't/dphaj/ N all-

Ud" V l. to be free from, lacking in, empty

\.1 1 'l\J gl~:>g'

a bellyache.

ache. -syn. ti11i1~1

N dragonfly.

bL:!.HtieJ colloq.

ti an p:J:>g'

pain, painfulness.

ti11il'YHH piiadth:S:>!J' V to have a stomach ache,


puajlpenr0og 1 to have a disease, be

afflicted with a disease. '

thligpuau' com. all, (of) every kind, (of) I;

puajlpenkh!ijl to have a fever, be siCk

J1 tJ L~'\.! h Fl

to be limp (lacking firmness, stiffness). ti~ ~


sickness, illness, being sick.


p:lgpad' V to ward off (e.g. blows, danger).

p:lghuu' V to put one's hand to one's ear

in order to hear better.


Dlil~eJ'l pidp~u'

V to defend, guard; to cover up


n 1 ~-- collision, clash, crash.

in defense, protect by covering. ('111~


n 1 ~1..1~ '11~ rl'W kaan' -patha?lkan N 1. clash. 2.

,tleJOI) pood' N 1. lung, the lungs

(kh1iau', pood'). V 2. to be flattened. 2. sIang

military engagement.

LLS ~1..1~'11~ reeu'patha?/ N force of impact.

to be scared, to flinch.

'UEJOI'U'J:I.J poodbuam' N pneumonia.

LSfl-- idem. 1J~'i1~tl~TI~ patha?lpathau' V colloq. 1. to sustain,

o LV'WtleJOI'U'l:W penpoodbuam' to have pneumonia. tleJiiiiileW pooct'bojl V 1. slang to be timorous,

keep from falling. 2. to alleviate temporarily.



faint-hearted. 2. to be scared out of one's wits.

ph::>opatha? 'pathau'- khwaamhiw'pajkoon' to

tleJiilL~1.1 po::>d'sia' idem. ~

have a snack just to alleviate one's hunger temporarily.

11Jtl eJ Iii phi\ajpo::>d 1 V to administer artificial

·tJ ~ ~ pathu?' V 1. to burst, explode. 2. to break out.


Ls fltl eJ 01


J' 1J~~'0U

r6ogpo::>d' N lung disease.

1..1 eJ'W in LD1.1 ntl eJ'W plagp::>on' V to be soaked,


pathu?'kh)hl' V to pop, explode.

pa?pon' V 1. to mix, mingle, combine, intermingle, mix up. 2. to be mixed, intermingled.

drenched, completely wet.

1..1 eJ'W p:'\::>n' V 1. to feed (to the mouth). 2. to supply.

3. to be shared (in use by several people).

1J eJ'WOI p::>::>n' C 1. pound. 2. elf. for a loaf of bread


tl~'IT' in

(i.e. a pound). [f. Eng.]

tleJ:W "' ("ll::>jl C lock, tuft, bunch (e.g. of hair).


'\J ~ "' pa?l V to patch, mend (e.g. clothing). ~ 81J1J~ '\J~



( ~ eW) n::>jpa?l {n::>jl) N patch.

pa?l V to meet, encounter.


-s y n.


N flower vase.

1Tn L'iJ Iii /ilr pagkheed' V to set a boundary. in

V::>'paagkham-' 1. to talk back, argue

back and forth. 2. to have words (with someone).

p!ta-'sapMj.l (khan')

N wife of

elder uncle, elder aunt-in-law. 'lJ 1 n ( 'lJ 1 n ) pAag-' (pAag-')

'W~~ 18~{

N 1. mouth, beak, lips.




hltjlpaagkham-' to testify, give testi-

mony. make a statement.

2. orifice. C 3. elf. for mouths, cast nets. -Syn. 1.

to be loose-tongued.

2. testimony, statement.


J161 ~ 1; (Fl1..1)




1J 1 n A1J ( el1..1) paagkhtib' (?an-')

N forceps.

1J1n~lll paagcad' V to have a sharp tongue, be sharp-tongued, sarcastic, given to giving a


'V'll1n khtipAag' N 1. colloq. gossip, idle talk.


2. the parroting of another's words. 3. a victim of gossip. Fl1..11J 1 n khanpilag-'


c 0110 q. to be itching to

say something. ~'ll1n


~) p1lagch~1J'

(h£1]-'. ch~1J')


entrance to a passageway.


1J1n~ p1lag 1 dii' V to have a loose tongue. Lit., "fine-mouthed"; hence used ironically.

to tut, go "tch, tch!"

1J1n 611..11..1 ( Ll'\1~) paag'thanl:in' (h£1]1)

~lll'll1n tldpilag' V to be addicted to the use of


a certain word or expression.

L~:IJ'll1n tempaag' idiom. freely, without qualms,

N entrance

to a road, street. paagthaa1J' N the beginning of a way,

passage, or route. o L~ €l ~'\.J 1n111 -1 mya1J'paagthaa1J-' N town located

without restraint (of speaking). 'l111J1n thaapaag-' V to put on lipstick, apply


at the beginning of a route.



1J 1n1..1'1 ( LlVI 1) paagmiam-' (h£1]-')

N 1. mouth of

1J 'l1..11J 1 n bDanpaag-' V to rinse the mouth.

a river; estuary. pN 2. Paknam, colloquial name

1J~1J1n prl?paag.l V 1. to open one's mouth (to


speak). 2. to utter. 1J 1 n n ~ ~1J eJ n


61 ~ 'l1 ~ 1J ~ 1 n 1 ~ Samutprakan, a township at

the mouth of the Chaophaya R. -Also 1. 1J1n N muzzle (of firearms)

" paagkl!ta' V 1. to use bold, strong words. 1J1n nil1


LL:W1..1'1 paag-'mtcnaam'. 1J 1 nJ11 'W paagnaamphoo' pN Paknampho, colloquial r

2. to be fresh (in talking). 1J 1 n n 1 ( ~1 :W , ol'l , 1J 1 n ) paagkaa I

name for 'UFI ~ 61 'l ~ S Fl Nakhqn Saw an, a township N 1. pen

(d!tam'). 2. pen-point (tua-') (short for



. 3. craw's beak (pAag-').

" o lll1:W1J 1 n n 1 ( lll1:1J) d!tam-'paagkaa' (d!tam 1 ) N penholder.

inC Thailand. 1J1n1J€JW paagb::>::>n' V colloq.

to be a blabber-

mouth, tale-bearer, tattler. 'll1n

L'll~ 1~

paagpr'J?I V 1. to be ever ready to

greet. 2. to be ever ready to criticize. 3. (a



1.11tJ something).

dog) to be ever ready to bark (i.e. unnecessar-

811.11 n ?1tapaag' V to open one's mouth, to gape. ' Lg' to pass through,

~lilrl'W phld~"kanl" to be of different kinds, to differ,

in and out.

be distinguishable from one another.

~Twl'\J phaan~"pajl" to pass by, pass on (going

~0101.J phld~"ka::; to differ from, be different from,

away from the point of reference).

~ 1'W l '\J:U 1 phaan~"pajmaa'


to pass by (going back

~lilFI101 phldkh1tad' V 1. to be contrary to expecta-

and forth).

tion, disappointing. 2. to be disappointed (in

~ 1'W l '\J Ld' V to administer artificial

ried at all in this life. ~!ilL 'I phldcaj' V to have a falling out, to be sore

respiration. fJ11J:Jn'

the legislature).


naajl) N judge.

" "' ' rJVl:I.J'I'l~'1VI'W1tJ phQuphim'camnaajl N publisher. " .... Also r.Jrl:I.J'I'l. " "'

N selling or distributing agent. 0

N e 1e g. policeman.

" rJVl'l110~1 (fl'W,'W1tl) phQuphipMag'slia' (khon 1 ,

with his superior. 2. entourage. "J




rJ M~ ~ 1:1-J ph(lutldtaam' N 1. an aide who travels


man, president.


phtlusuuul?aaju?l N lit.,eleg. an


elderly person.

N director, administrator, executive.

~ L ~ 'W eJ phOusan~d/



N e leg. a speaker for the

€1'1.1 phOu?Y.Yn' e 1 e g. (the) other people, others,

affirmative; one who makes a motion or pro-

the others. ~


posal (as in a debate). ~LL~IiH


phOusadeeu' N eleg. player, performer; ~

the cast. o


n phuug' v tie, bind, fasten. , L61'W)

raajnaam'phOusadeeu' N eleg.

the cast (in a performance). 'V

(ofpeople). -Also




monopoly; monopolizing.


~ 'I'W

(of animals). -Opp. f.I'!I1U. o


n'V 1 A' V to monopolize. n 1 s--


eleg., Blil~ lit. -Dist. 2. iil'l L~tJ ~

phltaphuugkh::>::>' N 1.

scarf (ph.YYn'). 2. tie (?an',

t:J'VIij'l phOujl:o' N com. l. woman. 2. female

"' ~ Lliln~'VIbll'l

phOu'?ubpakaa'ra?t N eleg. patron,

1'\J 111 phuug'' V to be vengeful,

vindictive, bear a grudge.


' degphtlujl:g'. -phuu-

little girl. -Sometimes written

N girl, lass, -~-.


L ~n'VIij'l.

o '111'\JWVIij'l tMnphOuji:o' T 1. Lady--. P 2. 'II Her Ladyship, Madame. -See cross reference. o ; Vlij 'l A'W L~ [J 'J phOuj l!J 1 khonthtaw 1 N prostitute, 'II

streetwalker. o ;VIijii611'l ph0ujl:g 1 saaw 1 N youngwoman, 'II

teen- age girl.

t:.Jni'W phuugphan' V 1. to tie, bind, be tied, bound. 'II

2. (the heart, mind) to be absorbed (with), preoccupied (with), wrapped up (in) (e.g.loved ones, work, obligations). n 1 S--

ties, bonds; being

absorbed (in}, being wrapped up (in), preoccupation (with).


o ''phuugphan' (kh:J:>') N

obligation, binding condition; restriction, strings (attached to a deal).





~n~~ phuugmad' v to tie, bind. nu-- tie,


L~ 1.1 eJ ~ 1

bond, obligation.


o '!Jv~n~~ ('!.If!) kh:'l::>'phuugmad' (kh:'l::>')

"' obligation,

binding condition; restriction, strings

parted lips. L~ el fJ phl~8/ V 1. to forget oneself, let one's mind

~ n:il ~ ~ phuugm f d' V to make friends.

"' "'

wander for a moment. 2. to be unaware, off

V to make friends.


r:1 n ( ... ) 11 phuug( ... )wajl

one's guard. L~~ 81 'IJ phli'i8'paj' V to forget oneself for a mo-

1. to tie, bind up,

keep tied up. 2. to be tied, tied up, kept tied up.

Lr:J~t;y phachaan' V to confront, to face.


V to raise oneself from a

" b~tlfJU:W phaj~a'jfm' V to smile with slightly


(attached to a deal).

"~n 1:wl'l S phuuglmajtrii'


prone position.

ment. L~ ~t;y pha?88n' by chance, by accident, accidentally,

phach8ann1ta' V to face, meet face to

unexpectedly; it happened that. -Also

D~ L~t;y.

L~ 1 pM.w' V 1. to bum, bum up, consume by burning;

face. be."J Iii phed' V to be peppery, hot (in taste, not tem-

to cremate. 2. to heat with an open flame, to



un" Le."J Iii ktEphed' V to get back at (someone).

n 1 ~ L~ 11 'Vi~ kaan'philwmltjl N combustion.

un ~ L~Iii kEE!Jphed' N a variety of hot curry.

~'W be.J 1 dinpMw' N the baked or hardened clay

"' .t phedch' to be extremely peppery, hot (to


of earthenware.


Le.JiiiQ phedchli' to be extremely hot (to the taste).


" be.J~HJ'W

J1Ylsn Le.J1 m1mphrfg'pMw' N a condiment of

food). 2. to be biting, acrimonious (of things,

roasted pepper and other ingredients combined

words, an argument, a song).

to form a paste. Le.J 11 'Yl phil.wfajl V to bum.

Le.J ~ 'l n 1 ~ phaded'kaan' V to exercise absolute

Le.J1AYl phil.wsob' V com. to cremate. -Syn.

'IJ~H)Yl,CI1'1J'Wii'l eleg.

control, be dictatorial. e.J- - dictator. o HJ:Wbe.J~'ln1~

"' c::>::>m'-phacted'kaan'

N dictator.


L~ 1 ( Le.J 1) phaw' (phaw') N 1. race, tribe, group

o ll'YISLrJ~'ln1s ladthf?'-phaded'kaan' N dicta-

(of people). C 2. elf. for same. L~'W in the following entries.

torship. ph~m'*

~ 1 L~'W phlwpM8n' sV 1. superficial, skin- deep.

V 1. to jump, leap. 2. to flee.

LfJ'WYI n Iii phenphrt1ad1 V to jump, leap suddenly.

2. superficially. L~'W 'l ph~8nph~8n' superficially, uncritically.

b e.J 1.1 ph~ai' V to reveal, make known, uncover,

expose, open.

Lillil bfJ 1.1

L~tl~ phla?l imit. 1. thesoundofaslap(aswhen

p@adph~ai' V 1. to disclose, reveal,

uncover, expose; to open up. 2. to be open,

slapping a child's wrist). C 2. a slap. d

Le.J 8 phya' Cj 1. provided that; if; in case. Pp 2.

frank, outspoken.

for (in the sense of "for the benefit of, as a kind-


fJ 1 LfJ 1.1 phaapMajl V 1. to be dignified, majestic, proud. sV 2. majestically, proudly.

ness to"). -Dist. 1. d • LrJ 8 Lb~

' b wtJ bbfJ ph~ajphb:' V to propagate, popularize,

spread out. LrJtJU'\'1~

L~1.1 8

N 1. furnace.

2. kiln. 3. incinerator. 4. crematory.

phedr5::>n' V 1. to be hot and spicy (of

Le.J ~ 'l phaded' V 1 it. e leg. to cut.



L~ 1 Le.J 1 ( L~ 1) tawpMw' (taw')

the taste). "


LF1 ~ eJ ~--

pMajphrtE' idem.


V 1. to part (the lips) slightly, open

phyaph€:E' V 1. to be generous, generous

to. 2. to share. d


L~ 811 phya'w1ta::::, phya'w1ta' if, supposing, in case. L~ 8 n


phyagl V to be white (in special senses),

(a door) slightly. 2. to be slightly parted, open.


3. to raise, lift slightly. 4. fig. to be haughty,

J1 'l L~ 8 n

act big.



( L:U fJ n)

chaauphyag' (ch9ag')

elephant (i.e. an albino elephant).

N white



LlfJ lil'U

L~iln t.~ (~1) phyag' N taro (hila' for the rhi-

of paper, boards, phonograph records, plates


of glass, etc. 2. class term for such items.

L~ iJ ~ phyad' V to be pale, pallid, wan.

UfJ'W~'IJ ( ~'U, LLfJ'U~'W) phendinl N 1. earth, ground,

oiJ~L~8~,L~8~oiJ~ stid 1phyad',phyad'stid') V

land (phtyn'). 2. nation, kingdom, realm (ph£n:::

to be very pale, white as a sheet.

~1oiJ~ L~ eJ ~


din'). C 3. reign. o fl S8 ~ LLfJ'W~'W khr::l::llJ'ph£ndin' V to reign.

nh'- stid'phyad' to turn pale

(in the face); the face to turn pale.


L~ 8 ~ lil ~ phyad'lou to tum pale.



m.l1 LfJ8~ n~a'phyad' V 1. to become crestfallen,

have one's face fall. 2. to turn pale (in the

o o

face); the face to turn pale.

erally), extend. '

LL~'U~'W1 mY 1'111

I ~ LLfJ'W~'IJ

phendin'jajl N the mainland. I;

( fl s ~) phf:ndin'wl!jl {khrau'l

o 'W s:; L'11 um&w {phni?ou'. ?ou'l

LL~'U L~ tJ'

'UeJ'IJLLfJ n::J:mphec' V to lie sprawled out (esp.

on one's back).


( LL~'W)

( m:: eH Fl , rommawou::::

~l.l L~ ~ L~ 1~ 1 ' "' and whose mother is at least a 'l'i~ eJ ~ L~ 1 • (?og 1, phra?ou')



'W s:::'\J S~1 ~A 1~ 1 ~A ('W s::: eJ ~ fl)

of the king, whose father is a


N 1. term

phrab:>rommar1lub' N eleg. picture

or statue of the king •

N 1. prince. T 2.

Prince --, Princess --. -Used for a grandchild



Majesty the Queen.

~~Liii~'WS:::L~1~nL6eJL~1~1,'WS:::L~1~nL6eJ 'WS:::eJ~flL~1.


for the highest rank held by a queen. T 2. Her


(phra?ou') N 1. roy. son. T 2. title for a son of the king, added to other titles, as in


~~ Llii'I'WS:::'W 1 H '11'WS:::'\J s~s 1'!J'W s~mdect'phra:::: naau'c~awl-phrab:>rommaraa'chinii 1

(phra?ou') N king: ruler of the earth.


(hf:u') N e 1 eg. the grand palace.

'WS:::'\JS~S1VV phrab:>rommaraa'chinii' N eleg.




the Queen. (eHfl) phra?IJ:Jaadluau' (?au")

'W s::: TJ'W ~ phrathtin~u' N throne.

N 1. Roman Catholic priest. 2. any robed

'W s::: 6 n

Christian clergyman. -Also spelled 'i1 S :::'\J 11il

~ phratham~

phratham'ma:::: N the

Dharma, the Buddhist teachings. o 'WS::: 6 S S~ LTIA'W 1 phratham 1 matMe 1 saniia',



-thee'sanaa' N Buddhist sermon, preaching. 'W s : : 'W fl s phramikh:>:>n' pN 1. Phra NakhQn, the

royal signature, name . 'W S :::'IJ s::: 61'\J ( eJ ~ fl) phraprathaan' (?au')

. ( fl).

township in which Bangkok is located. N 2.

o '!l11'WS :::'\Jfl S ( fl'W) chaaw'phranakh:>:>n' (khan')

n'!J.J~ ( LL~~)


phrapraau' (?au')


N stupa.


S :::~'!16 b ~ 1 ( 'WS::: a Hl)





'W s :::'IJ eJ'W ( eJ ~ fl) phra?n:>:>n' (?au') N a reclining

Buddha (i.e. Buddha image).

€l ~

'i1 S::: 'WTI6 phraphlld' N the Lord Buddha. q


N the people of Bangkok, Bangkokians.

N the

principal Buddha statue in a Buddhist temple. 'W s :::'IJ s 1 ~ fl

capital city.

'W S :::'\J S~~'l'i1

1 ~.

'WS:::'IJS~1Ji161J phraparamaa'phfthajl N roy.



(phni?ou") N the Lord Buddha . (eJ~fl)

N image of Buddha.

phraphud"thar1lub 1 (?ou')

359 the highest rank. NOTE. The element ~ 1 '1.1-

o 'W ~ ::::~'115 A1 61'W 1 phniphud'thasaad' sanl1a',

means "king." It may be often be translated

-saasanl1a' N Buddhism.

m::::Jin~,--ii1~; (~1.J,eHflr) phraphigsi\?1, phra::: 9 .. phigsu?'sllu' (rOub', ?ou') N Buddhist priest,

into English as "royal."

o 'W ~:::: ~ 1'!/nq~~n 1 ( \loU1J) phrar~ad'chakrldsa:::


diikaa' (chabab')

'W ~:::: .n5J phraphuum' N the guardian spirit of


one's land.


'W~ ::::ll'l-!1n~rl r1

royal speech (speech made by the king). ( eH f1, 11 ~:::: ~ 'l f1) phramahl1a'ka:::

oom 'l'W ~:::: ~ 1 'illi1"1i'ii1 sou'phrar~ad'chadamrad'

sad' (?ou 1, phni?ou') N king: "great king." 'W~::::ll'VI1'Wfl~

phramahl1a'nakh:>:m' N capital city.


roy. to speak, to order.

o 'W~::::n'il'll1'W phrardadchathaan' V roy. to

'W ~::; Lll ~ • See entries below.

give, present, grant, confer. -s y n. See


o ' TW'W S::::

N royal decree.

o 'W~::::S1'!1Wi"1i'ii1 phradad'chadamn1d' N roy.

L:W ~ uaan'phrameen' N roy. crema-



tion ceremony.

'tl ~11 ~::: ~


1 'l.l'llTW kh:5o'phrar~adchathaan' V

roy. to beg, request.

o ~ 'l'W ~::: Lll; thOU'phrameen' pN Phra Men

"' < lloU1J J phrardad'chanfphon'

o 'W~::: n'!lil'W'Wa

(Phra Meru) ground in Bangkok. Used for spe-

(chabab') N writing or literary work of the

cia! ceremonies, including the cremation of


members of the royal family. -Also 'IHJ 'l

o 'W~::::n'!/oUqJ'!/1 phrar.1ad'chabanchaa' N roy.

ii1'W1ll'VIiil1'l colloq.

royal order.

'W ~::; rJ 1 phrajaal N 1. term for persons of the


11 ~::; n 'iloUbJ!ij~


~· 1 'l'W ~:::: ~ 1 'iloUbJ!ij'M

second highest rank of conferred nobility. T 2. title placed before the honorific name conferred


( \loU1J)


N law, act. r.1au' -phrar.1ad'chabanjad'

with the rank. 3. title used in animal stories

N 1. bill, proposed legislation. V 2. to draft

for the leaders or kings of the animals, as in


'W ~::; rJ 1 n1J phrajaa'kob' the frog leader, the

king of the frogs. -see 1, 2. list of conferred titles.


term of address for 'W ~:::: t:l 1 .

~'W'W 1


b 'l 1 flU! 9

for a common


spelled "Phya" in English transliteration. v


o L 'l 1'W s:::: U 1 ( 'Yl1 'W, FI'W) dtwphrajaa' (tMn', khon')

N 1. term for persons of the highest

rank of conferred nobility. T 2. title placed in front of the honorific name conferred with the rank. -see 't9i'W'W 1 'l for a list of conferred

'W ~:::

~ ~ 'l

ship, diplomatic relations.

oo L'l ~qJm:::: ~ 1 '!lllllil ~ ( rl1J) car phon' N 1. troop, troops, forces. 2. soldier;

paratrooper. 2. slang an illegal voter. ~

o n1~~'l'rliil~:IJ kaanthfu'phonr11m' N 1. paratroop

member of military or police force.

landing. 2. sIang balloting by illegal voters.

n eJ 'l'rlll ( n eJ -1, n eJ 'l'rlll) k::>::>lJphon' (k:J::>u'. k::>::>u=:

'rliil bS eJ lil i' ( 'W 1 [J , FI'W) phonryatriil (naaj', khon')

phon') N mil it. division. ~

o n eJ 'l'rliil'WeJ11 ( n eJ 'l, n eJ 'l'rluphonn5::>j'

N 1. rear admiral. T 2. Rear Admiral --.

(k::>::>lJ',b::>uphon') N milit. brigade.

'rliilbSeJLrJ ('W1tJ,FI'W) phonryathoo' (naajl,khon')



(neJ'l,neJ'l'rlll) k::>::>uphonjaj' (b::>u'.


N mil it. division.


N 1. vice-admiral. T 2. Vice-Admiral--. 'rl1lbSeJLeJn ('W1tJ,FI'W)

N 1. admiral. T 2. Admiral --.

( FI'W) khilnphon' (khon') N 1. military

'rliil eJ 1 n 1 Fl . • • phon?aakaad=:.. . designation for

commander. 2. war lord. ~

the highest commissioned ranks of the air force.

eJl.J'rl!'l ( Fl'W, 'W 111) c::>::>mphon' (khon', naajl) N

'rliil LeJn ('W111,FI'W) phon?eeg' (naajl,khon') N

1. field marshal. T 2. Field Marshal --.

~ eJl.J'rlll b~ eJ ( 'W 111, FI'W) c::>::>mphonrya' (naaj',

1. (full) general (the rank). T 2. General --. ~::

khon') N 1. admiral of the fleet. T 2. Admi-


li1 l.J'rl 01 radom'phon' V to mobilize troops, armed forces.

ral --. .I



thtilchumphon' N assembly point for

rfilphon' N troops, fighting forces.

Li'tJn'rliil rtagphon' V to mobilize troops. n 1 ~-­

troops. 'W 1 11'rliil ( 'W 1 tJ , FI'W) naajphon' (naaj', khon 1 )

mobilizing, mobilization of troops.


mil it. general (of unspecified rank). -See


cross reference.

'rliil rn phala=:

'W 1 tJ'rliillil"1 ~ 1 'l

phonrya?eeg' (naaj',khon')

( 'W 1 [J , FI'W)


(naajl, khon') police general (of unspecified rank). 'W 1 tJ'rliil li(1 n 'l LrJ ( 'W 1 tJ , FI'W) naajphon'tamruad=:



~ltJ ph9anmanud' N fellow man. d





l Yl D'W n d-l'll'W phS'an'rOamcMn' N classmate. Q

l'WD'WS1J.JV11il ph~an'rOamch~ad' N fellow coun'

l'I1D'Wo'ld-ll'Wf1 phS>an'rOampMed' N friendof

the same sex. l ~ O'W; n d


l o i l ~· u W ph5'anl rOamroourian'




('IJ1tJ, Fl'IJ) than'taphted' (naaj', khon')

Ll'W'l11J~'W eleg.,

'VI:WeJ~'IJ com. ('W11J,Fl'W) naajphted' (naaj',khon')

N eleg. (male) physician, doctor. -Syn.


VI:WOWd1tJ com. ~


N playmate.


l'W€J'W61'Wl1 ph5'ansanld' N intimatefriend. (bb'I'I,VIoli) pht:s' N 1. raft



cld'taphted' (naaj',khon')

N tech. psychiatrist .


schoolmate. l 'W O'W l m.;


N eleg. dentist. -Syn.

tryman. d

1 bl'l'l'l1ll canjaa'phted' N medical ethics.

N eleg. woman physician, doctor. -Syn.

(phe:e:'). 2. house-

boat (lau'l· bl'Wllhllil~

(lb'W,iih) phe:e:'jon'(phe:e:',lam')


S€1 be'W

rya'phe:e:' N co 11 o q. watercraft, lit.

boats and rafts, house-boats (coli. term). ~

0-1 U'VI


V to transport, travel on a raft

Ll'YI ph£r' V 1. to be defeated; to give in, lose. 2.

to be defeated by, beaten by. 'W 1 tHl'¥1" phtiajphtf;l V to be defeated, to lose.

phtrth6:Jl) 1

(in pregnancy).

V to have morning sickness

( Fl'W) phted'-phadu!J'khan1 (khon')

N e 1 eg. obstetrician .


be'W'l1tJ f11 iillil ~ phtedsaad' N medicine (as a subject

of study).



Ll'W'YieJ -1


N e 1 e g. modern doctor.

lb'W'YitHJ ~ i Fl n Jl

ferryboat. l



1 ( ·w 1 u, Fl'W) pMedsad' (naajl, khon')


N e 1 e g. veterinarian . 1•J1llVIl1tJ wfchaa'phte:d' N medicine (as a sub-

ject of study). rl61tilll'l'l1tl.. (W1U ,flhl) san 1 japhtrd' (naaj',khon 1 ) N eleg. surgeon. -Syn.



380 LL'WS phn:el N silk.

Lew LL'W S

ph~ajphrte' V to propagate, popularize,

phroon' (phroon')

N hole, cavity.

L~'W 'W S 'I penphroon' to be hollow.


1 'Wg')

fireworks. -Syn.


N com.


b~€1 1J fyaj' rM intens. used with 1J 1 1 "long."

~1J 1 '1'1 dabfaj' V com. 1. to put out a fire. 2.

bb"'l ~ ( ::>u') N bonfire. 1 n H LU'W11'W LUtl1 '1'1 krood'-penfyyn'penfaj' idiom. to be furiously angry, to burn with rage.

b;11; b·~11 '1'1

e 1 e g.


V e 1 a b.

co 11 o q. to be getting dark, be twilight.

flcJ'W lvl khwanfaj' N smoke.

LI:.Jl l'l'l pMwfaj' V to burn.

'WP11I1l'fl::m' N revenue, i.e.all

l)phuurn' V co 11 o q. to test the know-

taxes, duties, fees collected by the government. LHJl1.g:


ledge of, measure the educational level or back-

roouphaasli' (roou'.hf:u')

ground of (usually in an attempt to catch someone,

N customs building. L~tJJl1.g: sia'phaasli' V to pay taxes.

expose sorneoneos ignorance).


81J!V!Jl;n ?un'haphuurn' N temperature. q 'II


eJiil ~ 1Jl1-Q: ?adtraa'phaasli' N tax rate.






(~tl,eJ~rl) phigsu?', phraphigsuu


dignified, grand, majestic. See cross reference.

(rOub', ?ou') N eleg. Buddhist priest, monk. ~


L'IJ 1 ( ~ n)


phuukh1lw' (lOug') N mountain.

in the following entries.

Jl1 rlJl;n pMagphuurn' V 1. to feel proud. 2. to be




'illilJl:n. "'

Jl:n'l ~ ('l 'W) 'II

phuurncajl(naj:::) V 1. to be proud

(of). 2. to have a feeling of accomplishment.


LU'WJl L'IJ 1 penphuukh1lw' to be mountainous.

rl11 :W- - pride.


Jl L'IJ 1l 'W ( Gl n) phuukh1lwfaj' (lOug') N volcano. 'II

~;nj1'W' V to be dignified, grand.


Jl L'IJ1~:W1oi'tJ phuukh:Jm6d' (khan') N wizard, sorcerer.





N womb,

uterus. J.Jii11-1:WO

( Fl'W)

m6d 1 m3:J' (khan') N colloq.

doctor, physician. -Syn.

VI:W8 com., LL'W'YitJ

eleg. Lll-I:Wlil l-1 m:J:J 1

LOW consonant. Pronounced m both ini-

tially and finally. l-In~

1Fil-l m6gkaraa'khom'

N January.

. Llil eJ'W--

6~ 8

:wm matl?l N resolution, decision; opinion, idea, view. 'IJ~:::t11:wm prachaa'mftJ.?I N eleg. public resolu-

tion, opinion. :J.J~l-IVI1'il'W matl?l-mah!l.a'chon' N public opinion.

idem. -The names of all the months are listed under

miilmatf? 1 -h~j:::


called Bihar. 2. Pali, the language of this kingdom.

61 HIA Iou 1 matl ?I to resolve, pass a resolution, come to a decision.

Jl1'i'f1l-IFI6 phaasaa'makh6d' N the Pali language. ,l-1 i ~D) moukild' (?an', moukud 1 ) N crown.

:W.G.n. m:J:Jth:J:Jb:J'. Abbr. of :W'\11l'YitJ1.1tJ5n:w~

l-1 i Flfl moukhon'

to resolve that, come to

a decision that.

l-1Fl6 makh6d' N 1. an ancient kingdom in India, now

l-1 i ~D

( Fl'W) me£m6d 1 (khan') N witch, sorceress.


N 1. e 1 e g. auspicious sign. 2.



propitiousness, auspiciousness. 3. a cotton

thammasaad'l£kaanmyau' University of Political

hand worn on the head (e.g. by bride and groom)

and Moral Sciences.

for its auspiciousness. D'li:WHlfl


?ab 1 pamoukhon 1

:,.J W GJ

N 1. eleg. had omen. 2.

inauspiciousness. 3. (as n. mod.) inauspicious;

JI'W L8 in ~rllH.l

defamatory, injurious (to someone's reputation).

J.J'Wn ,J.J'Wiil~

bU'WD'li:WHHI pen'-''ab'pamoukhon' to be inaus-

{1-1.1i) mondob' (!au') N a structure with a

sacrificial formula, incantation, magic spell.

('U'YI) weedmon' (bod')

N magic

spell, charm.

(:Wbl!'l161) monthon' (monthon') N 1. province,

6111i1:W'W[;I,-:W'W[;I~ suadmon 1

monthon (manto!). 2. circle. NOTE. Thailand was formerly divided into ten monthon for administrative purposes. This system was dis-

ministrative subdivision is now the

Jl1 Fl,


which there are nine. For most practical purposes, however, the chief subdivision of the ~



'H Vl1ii1 . -See 'H

V 1. to pray. 2. to

chant sacred words, utter an incantation. :1-J'U!il

~ ( FI'I.J) montrii' (khan') N councilor, councilman. -Chiefly in compounds. 1

continued in 1933 (B. E. 2476). The largest ad-

country is said to be the

nammon' N holy water.

L 1'YI:W'W[;I, -:WW[;I1

pyramidal spire. :Wbl!"llfl

mWdmonl V to be dark, obscure.

('U11) mon' (ood 1 ) N sacred words, prayer,

hi 'lJ.J'W[;I,- JJhl[;l ~

picious, ominous. :Wbl!ll'lJ

man' V to be roundish, somewhat round (not sharply pointed).


N Security Council. 6 llA+;\Jiil ~·

( FI'W) theedsamontrii' (khan') N city

councilman. i'j :W'Wiil ~·

( Fl'W) radthamontrii' (khan') N minister,



392 to die. -Syn. See

i.e. cabinet minister.

Flbl!~r~lJ'I.IIiiS (Flbl!:t:) khana?lradthamontrii'


mliln RP:Jradog' N (one's) inheritance.


(khana?') N (the) cabinet, council of ministers.



trii' (khonl,


(Fl'l.l, TI1'1.1)



N prime minister, premier.

(TI1'1.1) ?on'khamontrii'


;'UlJSiilfl rab'm:J:Jradog' V to inherit.

lil1lJ:JJS StJ 1 '11 taam'manj~ad' by courtesy.


lJ. S . 'J . Abbrev. for 'l-YlJ~lJ S1V'J

ment; palace. Also spelled

:W S~;w m::J:Jrasum' N monsoon.


:>u-' V to look, look at.

at. 2. to look at (something) closely, fixedly.

tion. 2. to be in charge, have charge of.

:1-18:1-1 m:>m-', m:>:>m-' V to be dirty, smeared, covered

(e.g. with dirt, grease, paint) (usually of the face).

:1-18 -ln s 11il m:>:>ukraad-' V to look around.

:1-18:1-JLL:W:W m:>mmem-'* V to be dirty, covered with

:W8,n1s;lnfl m:>:>tJ-'kaanklaV V to be farsighted

dirt, dusty and dirty, filthy, bedraggled, be-

(have foresight), to foresee an incident or situa-

smirched. :W 8 :W'VI'W 1 m:>:>mn~a-' V to paint the face in order

tion. :1-18 ''111:1-1 m:>:>tJkh~am-' V to overlook; to disregard.

'tl~ -l m:>:>tJ-'kham~g-' V to stare at, look at

to conceal one's identity.

m:>:>ml~w-' V to trick (someone} into

:W 0:1-1 L'l-lfl1


getting drunk.

:1-10 i ~ m:>:>uduu-' V 1. to look. 2. to look at, regard. :1-18 i lii1:W m:>:>utaam-' V to follow (someone} with

:W81:J m~V* V to doze, doze off.

'1-l'i.l 1:W01:J

one's eyes.

thing with a pessimistic view. :1-18 -l l~ LVt'W


V 1. (one's} face to fall. 2.

to be crestfallen, have a long face.

:1-18 '1 'WU~; 11:J m:>:>u-'najueeraaj/ to look at some-


can't see (e.g. because

of darkness, mental block, etc.). :W€1H1'Uiil1 m:>:>u-'sobtaa-' V to meet somebody's

eyes, look somebody straight in the eyes. :W€1 i'l-11 m:>:>tJhlta-' V to look for, search for. :w €1 -l LVt'W m:>:>uMn-' V 1. to see, catch sight of.

2. to conceive (of). 3. to be able to see. L'1-l~I:J 1:1-1€1' liawm:>:>tJ-' V to turn (the head} and


:W8S8A1A m:>:>r5gkhoo-' pN Morocco. [f. Eng.] :W0ii1 Lfi:W m5:>slem-'* N Moslem. [f. Eng.] :w::::nslil •

(1'U,fln,t:Jfl} makruud-' (baj/,lOug-',phOn-') 'U



N Kaffir lime, bergamot. lii'W-- ( lii'W}


lime tree, bergamot tree. :w:::: n 8 n

( 1 'U, 61 n , t:J fl} mako:>g-' (baj-', lOug-', phg-' N olive oil. " " :1-J::::Ln~:>tJ-' V to glance at.


:W 8 i m~u-'* V s 1 a ng

-s y n.

1. to give, present, submit.

2. to assign to.

fix one's eyes on.

:W 0 H


:W0'U1 .;;(

V to stare at.

~'Uiii1:W8 -l cabtaa-'m:>:>tJ-' V to keep an eye on,

V to assign.

receive an assignment, responsibility, transac-

L'ti:W'W:i-18 -l kham~n-'m:>:>tJ-' V 1. to stare at, gaze

~ 0 -l:i-18 -l c~u-'m:>:>u-'


to die; to be dead, killed.

See lii11:J •

' :W€1HIIil m~uthOud-' idem. ' ~ ' J.J0-l L'YH m~uth~u-' idem.

J.J8-l1nL~1.1 m:>ukoolia-'* pN Mongolia. [f.Eng.] J.Jilll! m:>:>n-' N Mon (name referring to a people


(1'U,fln,ml} makhya-' (baV,lOug-',phOn-'}


N eggplant (the fruit}.


lii'W- -


( [;J'L.I}


(the plant). (1'U,fln,t:Jfl} makhyatMed-' (baj-', ~ " " [;J'L.I-- (lii'W} tomato


lOug-',phl\n-') N tomato. plant. J.J:::: L~ 8


1'U, fin, t:J61) madya-' ~

(baj/, lOug', phOn-') N





meat, copra.

( 1'U , iii n , ~Hl ) manaaw' (bajl, ltlug', ph6n')

:W :;'W 11


N lime, lemon. lii'W-- ( ~'W)


lime tree, lemon


'W'1:W ~'W 1 'l mimmanaaw' N 1. lemonade, limeade.

2. lemon juice, lime juice.

" marian plum.




( ~'W)

:W::: ~ 'l 'I

marian plum

tree. :W::'\'1;11

(1'\J,iiin,t:Jiii) maphraaw' (baj',lOug'.pMn')




(see below).

(iiln, 1'U) kaloog'maphraaw'

( 11J

mafyau' (bajl, lOug', pMn') N


, iii n , f.J iii)




( n 1'\J) kaabmaphraaw' (kaab')

l.J:: ~::


(lil'W) tOnmaphraaw' (tOn')


('111'1) thaaumaphraaw' (thaau')


:w:: L~'I

bitter melon plant. -See


mareu' N cancer. rOog'mareu' N cancer {the disease).

:W:: b S eJ i mar9au' N the third day from today, three



days from today (i.e. the day after the day after tomorrow). -See

(i.e. the liquid from a green coconut).



N ripe coconut.

o L eJ 1:W:o'W ~" 1 'l'\11 UJ 1'U 1 1H11il ?awmaphniawMaw'maakM.ajl suan' idiom. to tell someone what he already knows. Cf. "carry coals to Newcastle:' N dried coconut

malak:J::>' (bajl, !Oug', ph6n') ( ~'W)

papaya tree (Carica

papaya). :W:oiii1tl1 FS. See :Wiii1!J1. :W::iil1tl FS. See

N coconut husk.


N papaya. I'J'W--

J' ... b'Wil:W:o'WS1'l nyamaphraaw' N coconut meat.

leaflet of the coconut palm.

-The com-

plete list of the cyclical years is given under D. :W::iil::n 8 (l'U, iiin, f.Jiii)

N leaf or

:W:: S'W.

i.J:: LS 'I maroou' N (Year of the) Dragon.

" " 'W'1JJ'Wl-J::'W S1 'l namman'maphniaw' N coconut oil.


{ lil'W)



:W:o'W n 'l UVi'l maphraaw'hte:u'


:W:: ~'W'W maryynnfil the day after tomorrow.

'W'1:W::'W ~ 11 naam'maphraaw' N coconut milk


mara?' (bajl, ltlug', pMn') N

:W::S'W maryyn' N the day after tomorrow.

1. midrib of the coconut palm pinnate leaf. 2.

(1'U) bajmaphraaw' (bai')

" bitter melon.

1S A:W:: L~'I

N the

coconut palm, coco palm (Cocos nucifera).

coconut palm pinnate leaf. -Dist.

( 11J, iiin, f.! iii)


spadix, fruit- bearing stem of the coconut palm.

(1'\J, iiln, t:Jiil)


:W:: LHH.

('ld'l) uuaumaphraaw 1 (uuau')

L'li~eJn:W::'\'1;11 plyagmaphniaw'


complete list of the cyclical years is given under

coir; piece of coconut husk (of any size).



{j •


midrib of a leaflet of a coconut palm pinnate

ltlug-', philn')

mango tree

:W:o bb:W mamn::' N e I e g. (Year of the) Goat.

leaf. -Dist. '111'1:W::'Wn1.



( ~'W)


grated meat has been pressed.



carambola tree.

mamOau' (bajl, lOug', pMn')


n 1'W:W:o'W n 1 ( n 1'W) k~an'maphraaw' (Man')


( ~'W)


residue, i.e. the unusable residue left after the





:W:: Ll.JeJ:W mamtam' rM intensifier used with

n 1n:w::'W ~ 1 'l kaagmaphraaw' N coconut meat


( 11J, iii n , fHl)

complete list of the cyclical years is given under

the endocarp.



:W:: LijtJ mamia/ N eleg. (Year of the) Horse.




(Mangifera indica).

(ltlug', bai') N hard shell of the coconut, i.e.

n 1'\J:W::'W ~ 11


ltlugmaphraaw' (lQug')

N mango (the fruit).

N coconut (the fruit).



" carambola

mapraau' (bajl, Hlug', pMn')

( 1 'U, iii n, rHl)



coconut (with or without the outer husk). :W:o b~ eH

found in S Thailand.

maphraaw?;):)n' (bajl,

crown of the coconut palm. ~n:W::'WS1'l

:W:; 1 'Wiil1 manoo'laa' N a type of dance performance



" tJeJV1:W::'WS1'l


:w::'\.1 ~ 1 'l

(1'U,iiin ,t:Jiii)

ltlug', phOn') N young coconut.





malf?'(d;',:)g') N jasmine. Jii'W--


jasmine plant or bush. A8nl.J::~

(lil8n) d'J::>gmalf?l(d;',:)g')

N jasmine

{the flower). :W:: L1\ i

mas~u' N e I eg. (Year of the) Snake. -The

complete list of the cyclical years is given under


396 lJ ~ b'fl ~ n maueeg/ N co 11 o q. knuckle (of the hand).

lJ ~ F1 A ( L'U, Sl n , t:J Sl) "'


lJ ~ b'fl ~ n bl'IJ ~ maneeg/n~ a threatening expres-


N mangosteen.

sion usually uttered with the knuckle poised as




lJnFI'W in ~'lnlJnFI'W. '




See below.

death. -Syn. 2. Fl'l1lJiil1tJ




l7ti~l.Jtl 1lJ mad/chimmajaam/ N 1 it. midnight .



l7ti~Wltl mad/chimmawaj/ N lit.,eleg. middle

t'lnl-ln'1. Seebelow.


magn:SoV V 1. to be content with little,

be satisfied with what little one has. 2. to be v


unambitious. -Ant. 1. l-lnlJ1n.




middle. 2. tech. medium, mean.

~ mag/ca:::: AA likely to, usually. v....,


l7ti~lJ madchim/, mad/chimma:::: N 1. lit. mid,

sloppy, slovenly. ... J

mangosteen tree

l-l'l'il1 madcMa/ N lit. fish. -Syn. 'lJ::>jmaag" very few, very little, very

'1.1'1:1-J 1 n

whether many

lot, then (at least) some.

ple, a lot of people. kh~aum~ag'

l~:w1nn~81J mlljmllag"k~n:'>::>j/

or few, whether much or little; if not a (whole)

following expression.



so much, not so many. o

very. Nm 3. many, a lot of. -Ant. 'Wfl1J.

" o :W1nVI'W1VI::>j/ colloq. not

horse saddle. m~ag/


ferocious; the very worst.

eJ 1'1.1~1 ( 'lili1, el'W) ?aanmaa/ (child', ?an') N



~ 11J:I.J1n'Yl~li1

:W1n'W81J. See entries below. ' "' o fi:w1n'U81J klimAagn:'>::>V colloq. how much,

N decoy(onlyof

a person).


mllag"thtisud" the most, the very most.

1~ .•. :1.J1n'!Jn


mAj::: ... maag'nag" notsovery.

i:1'l'W:W1n suanmllag" mostly, the greater part. the flood level is above

normal, the flood is high, the tide is high.

b~'W~·1'W1'W:W1n pencamnuan"mllag" 1. in large quantity, in great numbers. 2. by a great quan-

Fl'W-- the majority (of people); most people. o


pensuan"mliag" for the most part,

,mostly. eJ 1J 1 ~ :w 1 n jaaumllag" 1. at most, at the maximum.


tity, by a large number.

horse. 2. to ride a horse. 'YIVI1 HJ1 ( Fl'W) thahaanlmaa' (khan') N cavalry-

bih.1 el'W:I.J 1 n pen?anmaag" 1 it. great, very much; in great quantity.

man; the cavalry. eJ1'!111:1.J1 (~'W) pMakhawmaa'* (phyYfi') N a



~::>mllag"-nag so much, so

horse-drawn vehicle. bb~ ~:I.J1

many, a great deal of. -Also

n:eumaa" C horsepower.


n·1u" elab.

b~1J'I;1~:W1n siau"kh~aumaag"

the majority

c o 11 o q. so much, so many, a whole lot, a great



LF11J:W1n doojm~ag/ by and large, for the most



mllag"jtukh?n"-thllgthii/ more and

more every minute; progressively more.

small in number. naam"m~ag"



part, mostly. 'Wfl1J:W1n n:'>::>jmaag" very few, very little, very

'1.1'1:1-J 1 n

whether many

lot, then (at least) some.

ple, a lot of people. kh~aum~ag'

l~:w1nn~81J mlljmllag"k~n:'>::>j/

or few, whether much or little; if not a (whole)

following expression.



so much, not so many. o

very. Nm 3. many, a lot of. -Ant. 'Wfl1J.

" o :W1nVI'W1VI::>j/ colloq. not

horse saddle. m~ag/


ferocious; the very worst.

eJ 1'1.1~1 ( 'lili1, el'W) ?aanmaa/ (child', ?an') N



~ 11J:I.J1n'Yl~li1

:W1n'W81J. See entries below. ' "' o fi:w1n'U81J klimAagn:'>::>V colloq. how much,

N decoy(onlyof

a person).


mllag"thtisud" the most, the very most.

1~ .•. :1.J1n'!Jn


mAj::: ... maag'nag" notsovery.

i:1'l'W:W1n suanmllag" mostly, the greater part. the flood level is above

normal, the flood is high, the tide is high.

b~'W~·1'W1'W:W1n pencamnuan"mllag" 1. in large quantity, in great numbers. 2. by a great quan-

Fl'W-- the majority (of people); most people. o


pensuan"mliag" for the most part,

,mostly. eJ 1J 1 ~ :w 1 n jaaumllag" 1. at most, at the maximum.


401 2. very, much, highly. 3. big, great, maximum.

L'ilu €J V1 ~ :1-J 1 n penjaaum~ag'


very most. 2. very much. fl1~:1.J1n ?aaju?'m~ag'

V to be old, aged; to be

an older person (as opposed to a young person).

m~admilajJ' V

to expect, anticipate,




LL:I.J:I.J 11J ( Flkl)

:1-J 1 tJ


N widower.

(khon') N widow.

1 ( eJ tJ 1 ~) maajaa' (iaau'l :1-J 1 S tJ

:I.J1 S ( rn1) maan' (tua')

at, aim for. :1-J


N widowhood.

deception. -Also

' ~~:I.J1 01 mOum~adl' V to expect, anticipate, aim

11il S in





Bound stem meaning "widowed."

-Also spelled 'H:I.J 1 tJ •

'HiU~:I.J1tJ (Fl'l.l) jiumaajJ'(khon') N widow.

:I.J101. Seeentriesbelow. :1-J 1 01'1-!:I.J 1 tJ


:I.J11J I.!J

1. at most, at the

N trick, artifice,


N 1. Mara, devil, demon,

evil spirit. 2. a person who ruins everything,

11il S 11 m~ad'w~a:::

even if, although.

:W11i1S11'l.l m1tadtrath1!an' N standard.

an evildoer, a devil. (rn1) tuamaan' (tua')


:W 11il S~ 1'l.l n 1 S Fl S eJ ~ V'l'l m~adtrathilan'kaankhroou:::

N 1. Mara, devil,

demon. 2. a person who ruins everything, an

chtib' N standard of living.

evildoer, a devil.

:W 11il S 1 m~adtraa'* N 1. system of measurement,

L'l'lfH:IJU'1i ( L'l'l'l ~)

:W1 s'1i in




(phleeu') N march music. (:i.J1 s'11 f. Eng.]

standard. C 2. section, clause (as of a law).


:1.1 11il s 1J,

N system of weight

(Fl'l.l) maandaa' (khon') N eleg. mother. ' -Syn. LL:I.J com.


measurement. :W1MS1 b:Wiil~n m~adtraa'mecttrlg' N metric



system. '

:1.1 11il S 1£1 'l'l.l m~adtraa'suan' N scale (indicating

:W1StJ1 ( eJ1J1') maanjaa' (jaau'l

deception. -Also '

proportionate size). eJ~:I.J11iln


N law


:1.111il in :I.J1iiiJl:iJ q


maa'tuphuum' N eleg. motherland,


etiquette. -Also :IJS11J1'11.

N curtain, drape.

:W 1iv maalaV N garland.

:W1'WFl1'l.l m~ankhwanl' N smoke screen.

'l'i1 UJ1itJ

( ~'l.l) maann~ataau' (ph)Tyn')




2. there is, there are.

el eg., roy. miitllnmamOau/laajkhanadl

There are several rows of mango trees.

n:W k!'lmii/ "is (are) found too." -see cross reference for examples.



l. to happen (that); there hap-

pened to be; to arise, occur, exist. 2. to happen to have.


taammiiltaamkaad" elab. colloq.

according to one's means, as one can afford.

things; what not. :W~'i\1 mfdchilal eleg. wrong, improper, illegal.


in transliterations from English. [f. Eng.]

regard to, with disregard for.

:W1 Vi' mfh~V not to let, not to allow, not to permit. a:::1H;a:Wa::ls ?arajlte'l::>mf?arajl all sorts of

N 1. mister. T 2. Mr.--

:W miil V 1. to have, possess.

over, worse than that. I

minlimeedl N millimeter. -Abbr.


mfraulr::J::>/ not to hesitate; unhesitatingly.

:iJ11tJ mfwaajl cannot help, cannot refrain from. v :Www'1•tl'1 mfnamsam" colloq. in addition, more"


:w.:w • :iJo1

"without stopping.



-The names of all the months are listed under L~ 8'\.l •



N eleg.

mfdlsamphanl N eleg. friendly

:iJ~'W1tJ'W mithunaaljonl N June.


that), even though. -Also incorrectly spelled

~· :W11

mfd"sahi'fajl (khon")



:illtJ mijaj/ regardless of, disregarding (the fact

:WS is eJ :Wn 1tJ


friend. llliiS


~ ~


:illilSJl1'1'1 mfdtraph!lab" N eleg. friendship.

to be invalu-

parable, incomparably.


N 1. relatives and friends.


meaning "valueless." ~

co 11 o q.

:iliiiS~IilS mfdtracldl N eleg. friendliness.

able. May be used by some speakers in the d

Ln ~a

~n:iJiils phuug"mfdl V eleg. to make friends.

(one) will not gain anything. o


qj 1 ~:i'Jj;] S j~admfdl

mictajkhaad" incessantly, regularly,

constantly, unfailingly. o

ba!J"( ... )mfdl to obstruct, hide (some-

:Wr~.UA mfdchfdl completely, entirely, closely,


without ... -ing,

( ... ):iJUI

thing) completely.

didn't; not get to, didn't get to. 3. cannot. 4.


:W ~ 'il1'ii:D j, :W ~ 'il1 TI'elj •

nals). -Also

that's not the case.


:W i


m~umiil .1-

1'1 i

e 1 e g. to be rich, wealthy.


-s y n .

n£J com.

;Jn:: 1 '1 miikacajl. Variant spelling of llLcn19.

:iln'11 S miikamrajl to profit, gain a profit. :iJ Lf( tJ S ~ miikladl e 1 e g. to be honorable (have


honor) (of a person).


an honorable person

ll'll1 'l1 miith4a'w4a:::: there are some indications

(i.e. one with rank, distinction).

that, it appears that.

lllln19 mii'kacajl, mii'k!:ecajl* 1. to have the

£1'111~ miithaau' there is a way, a means; it is

will, the spirit (to do something). 2. to be


thoughtful, considerate of others. 3. to be kind enough to, considerate enough to.

fl 'J 1:W--



l~£1'111 'I

spirit; considerateness, thoughtfulness. -Some-

ilL '11~

times also spelled lJ n~ 1 "l •


ll'IJ'W 11il L't11 'l . . . miikhanaad 1 -tMwtMw'- to be

miikhan 1 eleg. to be pregnant. -syn.


i'i't18 i .

i'irll1:W~'W~ miikhwaamljindii' el eg. to be pleased.

miikh4a' to have value (worth); to be valu-

:iJ~rn miikhun' 1. to be beneficial, useful, good.

known, renowned.

il'lJ ~ ~ Lu'tiU'

miiprajood' to be advantageous, useful.

miiph/\n' 1. to become effective. 2. to result

(in). 3. to bear fruit. o llfHWa'WVI~-'1 miipMn 1 j5::>nlau' to be retroactive,

2. to have value, be of value.

:iJ Lfl1 miikhaw' to show a trace, a vestige (of). :iJoifu miichaj' e 1 e g. to be victorious, win. iHJ1 ~

ii'W1:WL~Hli miinaam'dooudau' eleg. tobewidely known, renowned. -Syn. iJ~paj?lig'


systematic, in good order. €JIJ1 '1--

iJ n

n _2 1 'W miir:tagtMan' 1. to have a foundation.

2. (a person) to have a secure position or standing.

miithbm 1 paj there is plenty, there is a lot.

:iJ L~ a'W miiryan/ c o 11 o q. to be married, have a


ll't1 ;'I'< tJ miisab' e 1 e g. to be rich, wealthy; to have .L




money. -Syn. :W'IA'i ,:WHJ

il'tl a 'I






c 011 0 q. to be in the family

way, be pregnant. -Cf.

in good

lJS1f11 miiraakhaa' to be valuable, precious.

come (as of a story).


amusing; to be great sport.

order, in an orderly manner.

continued (on page ... ).

1. to be continued. 2. there is still more to

:iJ ll:W l

o llH1~~n miir6d'sanug' to be entertaining, iJ,~ LiitJ'\J miirablab' to be neat, well-organized,

iliiian miid:,;,gl to be in flower. -Dist.

iJ~ a miit:,::>' (it is) o rJill~€1,- -lvon

flavor. 2. to be tasty.

€J:W't1a 'I. -See cross


family (usually of women). -Also

iJ L'IW 1i'i L~a '\.I

elab. colloq. llmyy'.

ply, out of stock; the supply (of something) to run out.

b~~'Wi'JA dyanm9Yd' waning moon. ~Opp. b~O'W

A'Wl'leJ khan'myy' co 11 o q. to be itching to do


something (with the hands). ( U'\H) talaad 1 m9Yd 1 (hE:u')

N black


fl1na khaalmyy' in the act, red-handed. o :f'U1;Fl1n8 cab'dliajl-khaa'myy' to catch in

D'l!Jiii baum9Yd' to obstruct light.

the act, catch red-handed.

dark horse. [f. Eng.]

l.Jll'Jiil maam?yd' N pol it.

~lj 8 'II

"' J' :WAF! SJ.J m9Ydkhrym' to be overcast, cloudy; to

( b u:::

be in the clutches of.


be blind with passion.

hands." Here

uyammyy' N idiom. control, power, ~

spell. 2. idiom. to lose control of oneself,


to raise the hand in a striking

clutches, hands. 0

'\!I'W1~Iil n1iam9Yd' 1. to black out, have a dizzy

, 'J 1 ~)



1 tJfl iJ

b iJ

overcast, gloomy.

J'lr~61i'l m?yd'salua' to be dimly lighted.

J'l a



1. to shake hands. q




b ~ 1:W8


elab. colloq.

2. to hold hands.

cuuumyy' V to lead by the hand. ( A'W) dwmyy' (khon')

N 1. the dealer

(in card games); the banker (in gambling games). 2. co 11 o q. the one who treats.

·J'ltJrfWA'Wi1:: 1~A'Wi1::J'la


khonlamyy' idiom. (each one) to give a helping


craftsman .


.f !:J eJ

chfimyy' V co 11 o q. to point, point one's

'WhilJi:JeJ phanom'myy' V to place one's hands palm

finger. o

to palm in the attitude of adoration or salutation.

.ffl;.ff!:J eJ

chfimaajlchfimyy' V e lab. colloq.

to fight; to have a strong urge to do something

[;In~ 1 !:1 eJ tog'thttJmyy' to come to the hand of, come into the possession of.


tog'jlmnajmyy' to fall into the hands

(with one's hands, or with one's hands and teeth).




myykaw' (khon'. myy')

old hand (at some activity). -Opp.


man. 3. idiom. something one is good at, some-

L~lJi:JeJ tem'myy' to fill the hand, fill the hands;

thing one habitually does (either good or bad),

to be covering the hands, all over one's hands. For examples see cross reference.

something that is second nature to one. o n1S.i'01LieJLVhil'leJ'tl11'tlel'l Lt11 kaantads9a 1 pen::::

~'li:JeJ thYI:Jmyy' 1. to reach, get to. 2. to get

myykhwila'kh~ogkhaw' j •

into the hands of. '

N an

l'J eJ 't111 myykhwl!:a' N 1. right hand. 2. right hand

stage; the beginning.


Cf. Eng. "to feel like tearing into."

lJ 8 Ln 1 ( l'lhi ,lJ 8)

of. iii'Ui:J eJ tt'lnmyy' N idiom. the early phase or


. . . . ""'

lJhiL'ti1J1lJhilJeJ mankh!aw 1 manmyy' tobeeaget

to point, point one's finger.




Dressmaking is second

nature to her, comes natural to her. She is good



thl!gmyy'(khQu 1,kMau')


at dressmaking.

n8 ~

glove, gloves.



1. to be a good hand (at some

T11-1 'tl11i:J eJ thaagkhwAa'myy' to the right.

activity). N 2. a good hand, a good player.

T11-1J11Ji:JeJ thaagsaajlmyy' to the left.

-opp. i:la Lfl1.

J1i:JeJ nammyy' N one's own deed, act, action,

l'Ja L~'\J myy't~::lb' V 1. to have a lavish hand. sV

hand, hands. ':: o r;J 11J L'IU 1 ~hi 1lJeJ~n taajl-phr6nammyy'lOug'

i:J eJ L'lJ ~ 1 myy'plaaw' V 1. to be empty- handed.



2. with a lavish hand, lavishly, liberally.

to die by the hand of one's own son.

'ihi:J eJ


('(h )

nfwmyy' (nfw 1 ) N finger.

sV 2. empty-handed; with bare hands; freehand . l'Ja Lfl1 myy'leew' V 1. to be a poor hand (at some

LL'Ui:J eJ bc:c:myy' V to open up the palm of the hand.

activity). N 2. a poor hand, a poor player. -opp. l'lo~.

2. colloq. to extend the palm, stretch out the

neJ 11

hand, i.e. to beg. L'Uni:JeJ bOogmyy' V to wave one's hand (as in


saying goodbye).


'lJs'Ui:JeJ probmyy' V eleg. to applaud.

'lJs~rnlJ!Jo pranom'myy' V to place one's hands palm to palm in the attitude of adoration or 'lJ S ~hi lJi:J 8 .

'lls~611hil'leJ prasilan'myy' V to clasp one's hands, knitting the fingers together. ( ;1-1) taamyy 1 (kh.1au 1 ) N palm of the


2. something prepared with one's own hands.

n1 s--

(l'lhi,i:leJ) myymaj' (khon',myy')

N begin-



t:JhilJ eJ j9Ynmyy' V 1. to interfere, intervene. 2.

to offer one's services. ; 1lJ!J 8 rfiammyy' V to cooperate (with). 1'111l.l--

cooperation. i''Una nibmyy' V idiom. to encounter, meet,

confront, counteract (usually in a fight or contest involving the use of the hands). L; -1l'l8 r@gmyy' V to speed up doing one's work.

~i:JeJ fiimyy' N 1. manual skill, craftsmanship.


to be thievish, light- fingered.

ner, a new hand (at some activity). -Opp.l'Jo Ln1.

co 11 o q. to wave the hand.




who makes the first play (as in cards, tennis).

o L'Unl;1'Uni:la bOogmaaj'boogmyy' elab.

salutation. -Also



lJeJ'Vlhi-1 myynyg' V 1. to be first rate. N 2. one

handicraft, handiwork.

~1-1 ail a

( l'lhi) cMagfiimyy 1 (khon 1 ) N skilled

iiH:i'J8 loumyy' V idiom. to start, begin, undertake.

fi'Wl'l8 16nmyy' V to be too much, too many to

handle. f111Jl'J€l



( f111Ji:J8 ,'ii1, Lfi'U) laajmyy' N 1. hand-


writing (laajmyy"). 2. fingerprint (nfw'). 3.

~nlil1,~nlil ( b~lil) mugdaa', mug' (med') N 1. pearl.


the lines on the palm of the hand

2. moonstone.

l~l-ln lilr.

( FI'W) lOugmyy' (khon') N helper, assistant.

'Y' three ~Iii

mud' V to crawl under, go underneath, pass through (a low opening), burrow into; to duck

(neJ) m)Tyklaauwan' (mty') N lunch. .t • v mlFI'1 ( eJ) m)Tykh~m' (m)Ty') N dinner, evening

r;EJn:>1J' pN Mreklong (Me Klong),

U:Wn' not to exceed, not more than,

strange, peculiar. 'J,

o '-m!tjkaan>'ph~::J>' ~

1~ti'1 m!tjcbaa>' soon, in a short o lw1~ti'1 najm!tjchaa" idem. ''V



1:w Ln1J 1 m!tjklaw>' not to be concerned, not to


m!tjkhaad", m!tjkhaadsilaV without

a break, continously. -Comp.

-~ 'll' colloq. quite, really.

o 1~1ti'VI! 8 m!tjch!tjcyl, m!tjch!tVcyl

things one has no business touching (as of a

m!tjkhogs@n>'khogwaa" to be incon-

m!tjkhuan>' 1. should not, ought not. 2.


colloq. scarcely, hardly, not


1 it.,

1~i ~


com. -See cross reference.

to lack worldly wisdom (as of a child).


(1)mlljd!tj::, m!tjd!taV; (2) mltjd!tj::, (3) m!tj::

dltaV;(4)mltjd!taVl com. 1. notget,gain,

1~ LfltJ m!tjkhaaV never (e.g. "have never done"). 1~ Lf11J L'

'mltjdiV colloq. to be in a bad

1~ L~U -1 ~ 1 m!tjdiagsiia" to be innocent, naive,

to be improper, inappropriate.

quite, not very. -Syn.

Fl 'l 1J.J-- bad-

ness, (the) bad. o


1~AeJ1J m!tjkh~j::

Isn't it?

Aren't you? Don't you?

1~~ m!tjdiV to be bad, not good.





be unnecessarily meddlesome; to fiddle with


thura? >'m!tjch!tV co 11 o q. to be none

of one's business.

o 1J~1:WL'!J1 L~eJ~ jOg>'m!tjkh!twryag" colloq. to

1~f11 ~

~ 1~1 ti



1~fl ~ Liufl ~ 11

(1) m!tjch!tj::; (2) m!tjch!tVl 1. is not, are

o 'W 1:w1 'li~'W~ eJ nti>' -m!tjch!tjdins~i::l>' this is not a

unnecessarily. q.,


not, am not. 2. No, it's not! No! o 6~

impertinent, nonsensical. 2. irrelevantly, I

A special spelling of






1~ LtJ ~ mlljchaag" colloq. not exactly, not quite. o 1~ LV~ eJ 11i1 m!tjchaag>'?uad>' (it's) not exactly


co 11 o q. be neutral, impartial. '


used to represent a long-drawn-out pronunciation

fiu-- , "'!Jii1-iilu-- Dli1-- 1i-' t



of the second syllable.


the subentries of



1~·J11~'W 1'W m!tjcbaa>'m!tjnaan>' soon. il~:W11~·J1 juumaa>'m!tjchaa>' writ. not



"can't sever it." ·~ 1:w'!J'W, See


time, shortly.


concern; to be unrelated.

1~'!J 11i1, -- iil11J


o 1:w'd1n L~ 1 m!tjchaa"k~rew>' sooner or later.

he is no

taller than his father. '

to be inappropriate, funny,

1:w't11Uiil m!tjchtla>'t£c::: it is not only; not only.

no more than, no ... -er than.



o 1mleJ'U'Il'l ~ m!tjch~::Jb>'thtica:: ought not, should


obtain, procure. 2. didn't; not get to, didn't get to. 3. can't, cannot, unable to (as a temporary condition). 4. No! (in ans. to

1;1VIJ.J ; also

:111; eleg. -Note the 1~1; listed below.

prohibitively). -syn. various usages of

1. to dislike. 2. to be disPRIMARY VERB uSAGE (see mng. I above).


pleased. 3. to be inappropriate, improper, out


of keepin" (with); to be illegal.

as a primary verb.

1~'tieJ'U;1Un!.]'V!:JJ1U m!tjch~::Jb>'dtlajkodmiiaV




1~1;1~ \, g[j



and the latter functions

majdaaj'majsla' to neither lose


a screw loose, to be cracked, touched in the

nor gain; to break even.



(1.2) majdajkhwaam'; (3) majdaj=

head, not all there.

khwaam'l 1. to be nonsense, make no sense. 2. nonsensically, senselessly. 3. Nonsense! It doesn't make sense! o


majctajphOn' to get no result; to be of

1~tieJ611 m!tjth)Tysl!.a' V not to mind, take no offense. 1~rJ'W m!tjthan' not in time, late. o 1'\.ll~rl'WHl pajl-mdjthan'r6d' to miss one's

no avail, useless, unsuccessful, ineffective.


1~1; L~ eJ ~ majctajeyan'

bus, train, etc.

co 11 o q. 1. to be no

good, useless. 2. to get no result. 3. to make


no sense.

~~~ll-1, like simple adv. -aux., occurs

o o

before the primary verb. 0


U~ l~rJ'W jaumitjthan' not yet, not yet in time to. u-, l~ri'W ... n... iaum!tjthan' ... -k~::: ... no sooner ... than ...




following entries in the list of derivatives below:

l ...




this usage it corresponds quite closely to the

'Y!t.I'U :W (H jlb'm~jthYl:J' can't get it, can't take it



kinds of secondary written symbols, such as

(it) won't go in, go on.

'Yl1£il~ Mamii'miti' 'Yl1l~'Yi'U h3:a'mlljph6b'


tonal markers, certain vowel symbols, etc. In

"1. ~l~ L;;1 saj 'mlljkhllw' can't put it in or on;


if the

first member of compounds referring to certain

fascinated with something).



NOTE 2. The word

heedless of advice, warnings, commands.



termforthespecies, as in l118nnllfi11.J


L!J 1 jaanjon' (b::llJ') l. department of motor vehicles. 2. mil it.

motorized unit.

~ l:ltJ'Wf'i ( A'W) r6djon' (khan1 ) N automobile.


IJ eJ1JbbiJ1J

424 ~

b ~ eJ tJ'\HI

( ~ 0 1) ryajon' (lam')

~'\W'\Jiil~ ( ~1) ' tJlJ in bb~J1tJlJ

hunjon' (tua') mtwaamjom 1

N 2. digest, abstract.

N motorboat.

IJ 8~1 j~:>tua' V to lower oneself (by bending the

N robot.


pN the Mreyom

(Me Yom), a tributary of the Chaophraya River

' "

tJ 8'!1 eJ j~:>th5:>' V 1. to lose heart, be discouraged.

2. to feel like giving up, yielding, withdrawing.

in N Thailand.


tJlJn in

majjam6g' N the repeat symbol

( '1) as in

li11 ~

j~:>n1ia 1

V to indent (as in writing).





tJ 8 n I!:J

jaau') N vehicle. tJ11i1 I!:J in

V to shrink (back),

eJtJ1itJeJ'l jaagj~:>j~:>' in brief.

in tJ1IiltJ1'\J (A'\J, 8tJ1i) jOadjaan' (khan',



tJ eJ'Vi'\J 1


ingenious. N 2. trick. tJ11i1

j~:>jtln 1 , jtlnj~:>'

lose one's courage, determination.

'1 •

bbtJ1JIJ61 jtebjon' V 1. to be tricky, cunning,

tJ61 in

' ' ' tJ eJtJ'\J, tJ'\JtHJ

tJ1Iilfii,fiHJ11i1 jOadjtg', jtgjOad' V 1.

to be extreme. sV 2. extremely. -Often ren-

V 1. to prick. 2. to ache (of muscles).

in the following entries. j~:>gj5:>n'

tJ 8 n tJ 8'\J

V to be complicated, devious.

tJntJ8n jagj~:>g' V to embezzle. J.,

n!ig 1 j:>:>lJj:>:>lJ' V to sit on one's

dered in English by "super-:· as in "superheated:' tJeJ-1 in '\JitJ8i'l

heels, to squat.

tJ 1'\J juan' V co 11 o q. 1. to be annoying, irritating,

provoking. 2. to be provoking, enticing, tempt-

tJ eJ i

tJ eJ i b'\J 1 j~gbaw' V to steal, pilfer by sneaking

ing. J.,

(into someone's house).

tJ 11J 1'\J jOajuan' V 1. to entice (sexually), to


(~'W,el'\J) khr9agj6d' (chfnl,?an') N

jlg'jasoo' V tobearrogant,


j~:>dkhaw' (j~:>d')

N mountain

the total. (tJeJiil)

j~:>d'maphraaw' (j~:>d')


crown of the coconut palm. (tJ81il)

j~:>dmaaj'(j~:>d') j~:>drag'


N treetop.

N the dearest

of the opposite sex). tJ 8'W j:>:>n' V to insert, gently pulling back and forth,

tJntJeJ j6gjo:> 1 V to flatter. tJeJbu;H j:>:>'s£eu' V to be dim, become dim {of

or turning round and round. tJ 8'\J j5:>n' V 1. to return, come back. 2. to retrace.

sunlight, at dusk). b6'WtJ 8 j;:J;:Jnj:>:>' V to speak highly of, praise,

3. to proceed in reverse.


tlntJ8'W nygj5:>n' V to think back.


P:> 1 V 1. to be brief, abridged. 2. to abbreviate, abridge, summarize; to reduce.


( Flo1)


't Iii tJ ~ 8 doojj~:>' o

( tJ DIii)

N top, tip, peak.

(one), best-beloved (sp. to or about someone

tJ a l!:l j:>:>' V to flatter, wheedle.

briefly, in brief, in short.

n~1'lLiilf:J~8 klaaw'doojj~:>'

' t1 8 F111lJ

jfmj~g'* V to smile joyfully.

j~:>d' (j~:>d')

tJ 81i1 S n ( FI'W)

'\.11 n) j:>:>' (paag') N dip-net.

tJ n t1 a j6gj:>:> 1 V to fish with a dip-net.

tJ 8

( tJ eJ Iii)


impudent. (i)



insignia of rank.

tJ eJ

to admire, praise,

tJellil'f1'W1'W j~od 1 camnuan' N the total number;

dl'tJSRtJA klad'tij6d' N honor.

tJLi:1 in 'VifiitJLi:1


top, peak, pinnacle.

N rank, position, authority.


tJ 81i1

tJ 81i1 b'lJ 1

cave in, fall in, collapse.



in 6:wtJ eJ i

tJ 8 i rn

tJ 1'\J jUab' V 1. to sink deeper (than before). 2. to



jiijuan' V 1. to excite sexually (by cares-

sing). 2. to be enticing.

tJ r1 j6d 1

in tJ n tJ 8'

tJ 8 i I!:J

flirt. 2. to be enticing.

iJ tJ 1 '\J

i~u'* V to walk quietly, stealthily; to tiptoe.


briefly speaking.


( b s 8', 1J'l1) j~:>khwaam' (r9au'. b0d 1 )

V 1. to condense, prepare an abstract, a digest.

~e1~tJ8'W'Violi miiph6n'-j5:>n'lau'

to be retroactive,

be effective retroactively (as of a law). v




j5on 1

V to be complicated, devious.

rooj' V to retrace (one's) steps,

return by the same route.

" 'Vi1'\JtJ eJ'W hi:ianj:Son 1 V to go back, turn back. ti81JbbtJ1J


V colloq. 1. to be too little, in-


l.J~n ~ eJtJ pllig'i~i' V 1. to be trivial, minor. o b!8 nJ~n~ eltJ cyau'-pllig'i~i' N small, trivial

sufficient. 2. to be running out, running low. 3. to be poor.

v Bl-1

j:nm' V 1. to let, allow. 2. to agree, consent.


1~~81J m!ljj~j'

3. to comply (with), submit (to), yield (to).

l~tJBl-1 0

(1) mltjj;:,;:,m'; (2) mltjjo;:,m'l 1. to refuse

"not insignificant."


to, decline, be unwilling to. 2. (I) won't have it!

£! 8 £!

l~Vill-lileJn b~tJ-; mltjj;:,;:,ml?~;:,gsiau' to abstain

V 8 tJ tl'U

from voting, refuse to vote.

j~jjab' V 1. to collapse, go to pieces, be


give in, yield (to). •.,


N 1. minorcase. 2. minor

party (e.g. to an agreement).


o tJ8l-lbb~LP1tJll-ll-ib-:)iJ1.Jl'11 j;:,;:,mpht£'-doojmltjmii/

1J 8 tJ j:S;:,jl V 1. to slip down. 2. to hang down, droop.

u9ankhi£jl to surrender unconditionally.

'IW P1 V 8 V jodj:S:Jjl V to be superb, beautiful.


j;:,;:,m1j6g1-Mjw1ta::: to concede,


grant, accept as true (that).


tJ ell-1 r'IJ j:J:Jmrab'

hinj:S;:,jl N stalactite.


ja' Pt used in questions, corresponding to

tJ ~

jlt' Pt used in statements, corresponding to

1. to admit, concede. 2. to

accept, agree to.

tJ~::>jyym 1 V to borrow, ask to borrow.



~ d~

jOl]jtlJ' V to be confused, confusing, entan-

gled, intricate, mixed up, in confusion.


~ ' LVIU ~ jOlJj~au' V to be in great confusion, disorder.





~ ~ eJ~ n1J

lapse. 4. to melt down (e.g. a metal object).

jO.u'juuka:::: co 11 o q. to be involved in,

engaged in, busy with. V~

( V ~,'VIi~)




5. to dissolve, abolish.

(jt1u 1• 14u')

V'UV'U jt1bjab' sV 1. heavily, severely (of loss).

N 1. barn, store-


house, storage bin (for rice). C 2. elf. for same.

~lil~. See


V 2. to lose heavily.


~ ~ jt1dtl ?I V to terminate, close, end, cease, con-

clude (of itself).

tic e.

n 1 s-- judicial affairs, justice. Fl11lJ--

1J11S1~u ~:W

viz., the


jO.jl V to be ready to fall apart at a touch (as of overcooked food, rotten wood). ' Ulil n~ V thg'jO.j' V to break up easily into bits,

ments). ~ v ~ 6 n lJ ?ajt1dtitham' V 1. to be unjust, unfair.

2. injustice.

fi11:W-- injustice.

disintegrate (of itself). ~1J

jlljl V 1. to protrude, be protruding. 2. (cheeks) to be round, chubby.

jt1d'tha::::, ::::jud', -jt1d'. Bound form

meaning "to fight, to battle," as in the entries

u1n.J 9




Same as LV 11 , L1.111~

kaanjt1d' N eleg. fighting, battle.




1S (A H) jud 1 thakaan 1 (khrau'l N e 1 e g.

military operation; battle.

formed during World War II. ~. ~

juu' the English letter "U." [f. Eng.] jO.u' V to be dented, distorted in shape. 'd

~'116'\JS b 1bl! ('US b m, WvH) jt1d'thab:J:Jriween'


V 1, un-~

V '116 Jlbl!'ll jt1dlthaphan' N military equipment,

tion. [f. Eng.] -Full name under eJ 1 An 1S.


jee' V to be leaning, aslant, not straight.


1;L; j6ojee'

~ '116 1'11 ~'IS jlid'thasaad' N military strategy;

military science. , -- n 1 ~ jlid'thanaa', judlthanaakaan' N



N eleg. war materiel.

jt1b' V 1. to diminish in size, intensity. 2. to sink, settle (of earth). 3. to cave in, give way, col-

V to be leaning, aslant, not straight,

crooked, out of plumb. LtJn. See

e 1 e g. military engagement, battle.

V'YI16'1Jns~ judthoo'pab:m'

N the com-



V't16::ifi' jud'thawithii' N mil it. strategy; tactics.

~ '116'\.l 1

juuu'. n6gjuuu' (tua')

mon peafowl (Paro cristatus).

jt1d'thaphuum' (heu'l N eleg.

battlefield, battleground.


( M'l)

V1'W juunoo' nN UNO, the United Nations Organiza-

implements of war.


jO.ujtil V to be wrinkled, mussed, crumpled up, distorted.

(b::>:niween',h£u') N mil it. battle zone, war zone; theater command.

N youth, young

people. -used esp. of youth organizations, as



jaw', jawwa::::.

1 '11'\.l ( fi'W) jt1wachon' (khon')

pral:>::>!J'jt1d' V eleg. to maneuver,

hold maneuvers. -Syn.


chaaw'juroob' (khon',')

1- jt1wa::::. Bound form meaning "young, youthful."

colloq. trick.


( fi'W ,111n)

N a European (khon'); Europeans (').

konlajt1d' (beeb',jaau') N

1. eleg. tactics, strategy. 2. strategem. 3.


juroob', juroob'* N Europe. [f. Eng.]

'u111J 1 n.J



V 1. to meddle, be meddle-

mass (as of worms).

courts, the police, various government depart-



of a beard, moustache). 3. to be a wriggling

' judicial administration (collectively,



not belong. 2. to be in disorderly profusion (as

of J us.tice.


N crown prince.

some, in the way, fool around where one does

ns::1J1'1.1n1~V~6nlJ krabuankaan'jt1dtitham' N

n::>' V to speak highly of, praise,

b IJ o1tJ

j~nj8a'* V

co 11 o q. to be lengthy,

jaam' V to ooze, exude.

"'tJ Fl btJ~0 i?YdiYa' V to be greatly prolonged,


b1J 8 in

to last a long time.


L~ 0 n


j?ag' V to be cold, very cold.


jiladjaam' V 1. to look honey-sweet,

jenj~ag',j~agjen' V tobe

rich and sweet, meltingly sweet (as of candied

very cold, bitterly cold.

fruit, honeycomb, a woman's eyes). 2. (music)

ness, calmness.

dl 0 nbb ~ -1 j~agkhtu'

to be rich and sweet, gorgeous, mellifluous. J'

b1J tJ in



tJ 'l b tJ tJ juaj fa' V to be crawling with,

b~ 0


be moving about in great numbers. jtau' like, in the same manner as, in (such

0 tJ 1 1 jtaujaau' N established example,

pattern. b iJ tJ Fl in the following entries.

V to be frozen solid.

j~ag' rM modifier used with

1~ 1



b 0-1

"' jyau' V to be diagonally opposite (from).

Lffo -1



bIJ~o' n11tl

jyaukraaj' V to walk slowly

and gracefully, walk with an air(mostly of women).

and such a) manner. b tJ tJ'


fi11:W-- chill, cool-

quiver, shake."

crowded with (e.g. people, creeping things); to


j?ajaj' N attachment, bond, tie (esp.

between related objects or persons).

laud. b~'W in b ~'W LtJ 0


0 b:W" 8 n j?am?ag' N mucous membrane.


L~ O'W jyan 1 V e 1 e g. to visit, call on. bbtJ


V 1. to be too bad. 2. to be in trouble, in

a bad way. 3. to be helpless.


unbb~unu'W jagi~£'iagjan'

v colloq. to hobble:

bb1.1 'I j££D' V 1. to contradict, conflict with. 2. to

to move haltingly, with difficulty, clumsily.

'!T~bb1.1' ( n'W)

bb1.1 VI'W eJ 1.1 j~£'n~jl too bad; kind of bad. ( ii11) je£' (tual)


object. 3. to oppose.

disagree (with one another), contradict (one

N a kind of ground lizard.

bb1.1 n jt£g' V com. 1. to separate, part, go apart.

2. to divide up (into). 3. to analyze.

-s y n.

another). L;bb;, t0oj££U' V 1. to argue, dispute. 2. to

'l"1u'Wn eleg.


n1Hb1.1nlii'W kaanjt£gton' N phys. fission.



~ .t bbtl 'I 'II'W jb:u'khj)n' V 1. to interrupt (in talking),

break in. 2. to contradict, utter a contrary

V 1. to

break up and separate (as a group of friends), to split up. 2. to break off (a friendship). 3.

n1 ~--

to be split off, separated.


statement. bliJ1J

('111') thaauj~£g 1 (thaau'l

N 1. side

V 1. to be ingenious, skillful,

ious. N 2. trick. bb1.11J i!J in 1.1€l1Jbb1.11J

branch line.

j~bjtb 1 *

V colloq. 1. to be

too little, insufficient. 2. to be running out, low.


3. to be poor. bW:W jst:m' V 1. to burst into bloom. 2. to open up,

bbtJn'l11' jtb' V math. to


in the following entries.

clever. 2. to be right, appropriate, wise.

road, road or path branching off the main thoroughfare; roads branching from a fork. 2.



dissociation; (act of) breaking a friendship. '!11 'bbi'Jn

khadje£u'(kan) V to be in conflict,

jt£!) 1

V to struggle to take; to scramble for;

to grab, snatch by force.

bb~ 'bb~'

k8ujt£D' V 1. to engage in rivalry, vie

(with). 2. to be at odds (with), at loggerheads (with).


jyYjt£!) 1


d:,::>gmaaj'rtu'ryar6b' (k::l::>u')



1 r6bniw' V to beg, beseech repeatedly.

b! 8 ~'U

samlor, pedicab. ~Also 611l.l:n'-palad'kra:::

sua:n' (naaj', khon')

18 n1n r5::>1Jthag' V to greet, hail, speak to

N deputy undersecretary

(loudly). ~

S eJ

(of a ministry). 10-1 i9J roo:nrab' V to catch (smthg.) in a con-



1. to entertain (guests).


to certify, guarantee, vouch; to confirm, sanc-

S eJ H

StJ n 1 eJ -1 L StJ"W

tion, recognize, approve; to sponsor; to second (a motion). n 1 a--

reception; confirmation,


(1\J) bajrabD:l1J' (baj')

ditch, furrow. 2. crack, space (e.g. between boards in the floor). 3. (vegetable) bed. ' 118 -110-1 ( 't'leH HH) th:So:nr~:n' (th5::>1Jr~:n') N irrigation ditch.


a 8 1 f;l'kl

FI"W- - pilot. ~

' €J


; tJ

~ L1 tJ 11 U

r5::>1J'woojwaaj' V co 11 o q. to shout,

cry, scream (as for help).


r5o:nh.'iaj'* Vtocry, weep. ~Dist. SelL ' ~ s'1SeJ1 r~mr5o:n' V to beg, ask, request, beseech repeatedly. ~


L tJ n S 81 rtagr5::>1J' V 1. to demand, claim, make

( ~ il1) r:'i1Jphag' (r:'l:n')




to cheer, hail, acclaim.

18 1 b ~ 01 r::>::>1Jmya1J' pN name of a street in Bangkok.

- pilot.

1) r:J:nnaam 1 (r:'l1J') N 1. channel.

2. the deeper part of a stream or waterway. ; il -1 f7n

r5::>1J'l-'in' V co 11 o q. to shout, scream,

a demand for.

' "W'l ~ 8-1 namr~1J' V to pilot, navigate (a ship). '

r5::>:n'rian' V e 1e g. to request, com-

cry out loudly. N certifi-

cate (in regard to qualifications, health, etc.). a o 1 (a' 81) r~:n'*(r:J:n') N 1. groove, channel,

1 [I ~"W·l (a

r5o:nr1ag' V to call, call out to.

plain, petition.

recognition; guarantee; sponsorship. 0

r5o:nthug' V to complain, make a com-

plaint. S eJ 1 L'Wii1-1 r5o:nphlee1J' V to sing, sing a song.

tainer placed underneath for the purpose.

;\J l 0'

~ ~n V

N vegetable bed.

StJ 1 S iltJ r:'l1Jr::>::>j' N trace, mark, sign, evidence. SO 1 r:S::>:n' V 1. to cry, utter characteristic cries

1 0 1661 'I r:'l1Jr1:1J' * to be hanging and swaying precariously (as a partly broken branch of a tree). 1 illil r:'\od' V to escape (from danger); to be safe, saved. ~


conlt£w'conr:'\::>d' colloq. onand



happiness, woe.

on, over and over. L611JiiiiHI61HJ61eh

doojtal~:xl'r~l:>:J') N hot spring.

"' 'lJ S ~ L'tlA S 8'\J ( 'lJ S ~ Lm1) pratMed'r:S:Jn' (prath@ed') N e 1e g. tropical country.

be safe, be saved. tLLii11pe161 n1ultew'n1ur~:xl' elab. colloq.

LD'W~O;L 11'W ;8'\J penthllg'penr:S:Jn' V e lab.

co 11 o q. to be dejected, worried, bothered (about

once and for all. LeJ 1V11il S eJ61 ?aw'-chiiwfd'r~:xl' to save one's

something). Cf. Eng. "to be hot and bothered."

'" " phedr:S:Jn' V 1. to be hot and spicy (of LeJ61S8'\J

own life. LeJ 1 ii11 S eJ 61 ? awtua' r~:Jd' 1. to save oneself, get

oneself to safety, to save one's own skin. 2.

food). 2. to be heated, acrimonious (of speech). d'l8'l S8'W ( L~e:H) myagr:S:Jn' (myag') N colloq.

tropical country.

to manage to live; to make something of one's


S eJ'I.J'ti'I.J r:S:Jn'kb9n' 1. to heat up, get hotter. 2.

life. o 'VioWLeJ1iii1SeJ61 niif-?awtua'r~:Jd' to flee to

to be warmer.

s 8'\J L~'W

safety, flee saving one's own skin.


SeJ'W r:J:Jn' V eleg. to cut, sever (something). lii61SeJ'W tad'r:J:Jnl V eleg. to cut, sever.

r:S:Jng::>jl V e 1 a b.

2. to hurry, rush (someone). 3. to be urgent,


ryduur5::m' N lit.,eleg. summer, the

baad' V roy. to follow in the king's footsteps. lil1 :W ~ 0 tJ taamr:J:Jj' V 1. to follow the track, mark,

hot season. l~Oiil~8'W 1Jadr5:m' V 1. tobewarm-blooded

or footprint, to track. 2. to follow in the steps

(as of animals, birds). 2. to be hot-tempered,

(of someone).


l ~'W 1 S 8 [J penrfw'T:J::>j' V to be scratched.

quick-tempered, hot-headed, hot-blooded, im-


u EJ'W S 81J j:S:Jnlr:J:Jj' V to retrace (one's) steps,




~ 8'W

1 sodsod'r:S::md::m' V 1. idiom.

return by the same route. ' Hl-1 HlU r:'lur::>::>j' N trace, mark, sign, evidence.

to be red-hot, fresh, new, most recent, the latest. sV 2. just now, freshly. 'II'W1~8'W

(sew) r::>::>jkhlid' (r::>::>j')

naar:S:m' N colloq. summer, the hot

season. ~


il'IJ r~::>b' 1. around. C 2. round, cycle.

8'1J'u 1 1 r:'l::>bkhaau' on all sides, all around.·


8'1J A8'1J r:'l::>bkh:'l::>b' to be careful, circumspect,



carefulness, circumspec-



n lil HJ1J lii1:W sakod'T:J::>j' -taam' to follow after,

OiJ lour:J:Jj' V idiom. to be in good harmony,

in agreement, to get along well (with someone).

to trail, track. ~

0 tJ in the following entries. '


S J'IJ1JOn r:'l::>bn:'l::>g' 1. outside, outer area, periph-

~ EWVi~

ery; outer part, outer layer. 2. outside (of), around the periphery (of).

s O'IJ'W o n'iJ o1

r:'I:Jbn:'I:Jg'kh3:J!)::: beyond, outside

1. thecompletionofayear;

SOU ">

iJ'IJ ~ r:'I:Jbnlu' V


naajr5:Jjtrii'(naaj',khon 1 )

1J 11J ;81J L'11 ( 'W 1 tJ, A'W)

naajr5:Jjthoo' (naajl, khon')

N 1. first lieutenant. T 2. Lieutenant--. to

know extensively, be well-

;; O'IJ L61 n r:'I:Jbl1'\og' around the world.

'W11:JSEltJ LEJn



618:WS 8'1J l5:Jmr:'l::>bl V to surround; to circle

around. S O'IJ munr:l::>b' V to rotate, revolve, turn


~fJJ.J in ~fh.JVIEUJSDJ..;~'U, q.v. under bJlU, ( ~tJJ-J is used to provide a rhyme for 'IIO:W).


S 8 :W S 8 r::>mmar:'I:J'* co 11 o q. almost, about, on the

point of. (~


N 1. second lieutenant. T 2. Lieutenant--.



r:J:Jj' Nm 1. hundred. C 2. elf. for hundreds.

r5:Jj') N m i 1 it. company.

all around. ~

0 r:'ljr:J:JI* V to decrease, become less and

no u " eltJ (niH , non"'o u) k:J::l!)r5:Jj' (k:J::>!J'· k::>::>u:::

anniversary. 2. the twelve-year cycle.

~ 8'1J '1 r:bbr:bb' around, around and around,

krac:'ljr:'lj'* V colloq. to be tiny.


of (e.g. the city limits).

~D'UU r:'bbpii' N

r::>::>jraaw'(r::>::>j') N crack,

61 i


tion, caution.




L01 U~ O'IJ dooj r~::>b' around, all around. 1'W 1 iJ'IJ najr~::>b' in the course of, in the period of. ~

N scratch.

Hli:Jl'l11 r::>::>jthaaw' N eleg. footprint.

O[J) r:J:Jj' (T:J:Jj') N 1. trace, mark, line,

('W11J ,~'W)

naajr5;,j?eeg' (naaj',

N 1. (army) captain. T 2. Captain--.

najd:Jj' (so and so much) in a hundred,

out of a hundred. o


slb'najr5:Jj' ten in a hundred, ten

out of a hundred.

1'IJ:>radog' V to inherit.

tion. 2. to be in charge, have charge of.

ruab1i:an' (rna') N fence around


rabfaag' V to accept taking care of

(something for someone). -See

takial:Jrlia' (duaJJ') N lantern.

a house.

A'l1 :w-- re-

(for), accept responsibility (for).



:i'U~el rabphld/ V to admit one's guilt or mistake.

rua' (rua') N fence. k1i:nrua' V to put up a fence.

ll 'W S 'l

(to) (verbally). :iu ~ lil'ii8'U rabphldch~:>b'

rOalajl V to leak, leak out (e.g. water;

raa 1 N I. mold, fungus. V 2. to break up, disband gradually. 3. to lessen, reduce, abate,

rabr:>:>lJ' V 1. to entertain (guests). 2.

subside. J'

to certify, guarantee, vouch; to confirm, sanetion, recognize, approve; to sponsor; to second (a motion).






r6d'raa' (khan') N colloq.

r1i:a' 1. cheerfully. 2. openly. r1i:arJJl) 1 V to be jovial, cheerful, in high

spirits. bS8 S1

rab'r1i:adchakaan' V to work for the


sV intrusively, awkwardly,


government, serve as a government official. ~


in HIS1 (A'W)

S1 b ~'

bajrabr:>:>lJ' (bajl) N certifi-

cat e. :i'U S 1•Jn 1 :l


kh?nraa 1 V to get mildewed, moldy.

vehicles (collectively).

reception; confirmation,

recognition; guarantee; sponsorship. o

'ii'W S1



rabr.1u 1 V 1. to acknowledge. 2. to take


in Ll611 S 1 plaaraa' N fish preserved with salt

s1 ~


erate price. 2. priced cheaply or moderately.

(often having roasted rice mixed with it).


( s 1n) r~ag' N 1. root (of a plant).

s 1n "'

-Often also spelled


eT ~ S 1 n falJr~ag' V 1. to be founded, rooted. 2.

to give a discount; to put on sale; to have a sale.

l~IJS1A1 sia'raakhaa' V togodowninprice,

to take root. S n ~ 1 n r6gdag' N birthplace, domicile, resi!;

decrease in value. 11:Wii1 s 1 Fl1 mod'raakhaa'

dence. Iii~~

n~ 1 n tll1J'r6gr~ag'

to settle down perma-

nently, take up residence. -Also el"'nnnn

S1 n b



N 1. root.

S 1 A raakhii' N 1 it. defect, flaw, blemish, stain,

S1 i


2. origin, source.

rllagthaan' N 1. foundation. 2. basis.

3. secure position or standing (of a person). S1 n ~ n

( S1 n) rdagtyg' (rdag') N foundation of


is 1 n~ n

lolJ'rdagryg' to lay the foundation

6H 11in1Tn S1 n


ns 11

S blS 1 i

rllagf!Sj' (rdag', st'!n') N

S1 i


S 11

V v u 1 g. to puke, vomit, throw up. S 11

1 raalJraalJ' V

1. to be vague, indistinct.

( S 1-1)

rllalJ' (rllalJ')

N typhus.

( S1 A 1) raakhaa' (raakhaa')

N price.

klalJ'raakhaa' V toargueoverthe

N 1. shape, structure.

2. e 1 eg. body. V 3. to make a draft, sketch,

N typhoid

lil'W S 1 ~



( 'ii\J'U) tllnrllalJ' (chabab')

N original

writing, manuscript. S11 n 1 tJ

( S11)

rlla1Jkaaj' (rllalJ') N e leg.

the body.

n VIs 1 A 1 kod'raakhaa' N to underprice. d

N track of a

sV 2. indistinctly.

raa'kha?l N eleg. lust. sexual desire.


N streetcar,

raalJ' V to be vague, indistinct, blurred

outline. -Syn. 2.

l;n n 611 c1Lvib.U kh~jr~agsaad'jaj'

o '111 S11J S 1-1 n 11J

thamniaj'dalJkaaj' V to assault,

do bodily harm.

price. ~

'rJ'W S 1 A1 kh~n'raakhaa' V to raise the price.



Iii 1 s 1 A 1 t~IJ'raakhaa' V to set a price.

~ S 1 Fl1 tii'raakhaa' V to name the price, put a

mii'raakhaa' V to be valuable, precious.

S 1 Fl1 \11 tJ 61 'l


raakhaa'thuug' 1. low price. 2. to be

cheap. inexpensive, low-priced. raakhaa'phbr!tab'kh!tabk~ew'

2. to be lined up; to be arranged in lines.


colloq. to give in, surrender, yield completely.



' ~ n s 1:W'U 1'W'dfJ 1 cygraam'b!tanch~lJ' N e lab.

S1:W in



buildings (of all kinds, collectively).

( S1 1J) raaj' (raajl)

s 1 1J

J1 , 6 'kaanraajl N trouble-

issues; persons, parties.



o S11J i£l 6lil€l'W raajlso:>udyan' bimonthly.

L~eJ'W raajlsliamdyan' quarterly.

F\ Iii S 11J khfdraai' V to intend to do harm, to plot

vthJS11J~1 penraajltua' one person at a time,

(S11Jn1S) raajkaan' (raajkaan')




1. to be alternately sane and insane. 2. to be

1. list, list of items. 2. item (in a list of

half crazy, mentally unhinged. 3. to be erratic,


changeable in temper.

s 11J ~ 1'1..1 raajuaan' N 1. report. V 2. to report.


against. FI:WAFI:WS1 tJ khumdii'khumraajl V ela b. colloq.

one by one, individually. S11Jn1S



n eJn 1 S S 11J k:'l:>'kaanniaj' to make trouble, cause

son, party. C 5. elf. for instances, cases;


r!tajraml, ramr!taj' V

niajl V to be fierce, cruel, wicked, bad. -s y n.

"accident case"). 2. issue (as of a newspaper).

o S11J

r!taj'mon' V to utter a magic

to dance.

N 1. instance, case (as

3. list, table (usually in compounds). 4. per-



incantation, formula. ' ' in S1tJs'1, s'1S11J


derived from the famous Ramayana epic of India.


11tl m

S 1 :W 6 1J S ~ raammakian' N Ramakian, a Thai epic

S 11J

r!tajl N a kind of Thai poetry.


S11J l£J

S1tl~1'1..!~11 (ns::o66~,6111J,'ilV'U)

6FIS1::o'VIS 11J khr5?raaj' V 1. to be unfortunate,

unlucky. 2. unfortunately, unluckily; it's un-

(1) raajuaan:::

fortunate (that). -Ant. 6FIS1

khaaw'; (2) raajlJaan'khaaw' N 1. news, report (krasee', sliajl, chabab'). V 2. to report news.


S11J du?raajl V to be ferocious.

S 11J 'l11J raajcaajl N expenditures, expenses.

' " rhs 1tl


" o b'thamraajl V eleg. to ambush,

raajch9J' N colloq. list of names, roll,

register. -sy n. o


S 1tJ'I..! 1:1J

S 11J 6 AeJ'W raajdyan' monthly.

S 11J

l; raajdaajl

S1tJ'W1:W raajnaam' N eleg. list of names, roll,






raajnaam'phOusadeeu' N

eleg. the cast (in a performance). ntJ0'n'ef raajpag' fortnightly. S 11J'iJ raajpii 1 annual, annually.


1J S ::o'Yl'd-S11'.1 prathud'saraajl V I it. to harm. 1J €1

N income, earnings.

register. -Syn.

attack or assault by surprise.

e I e g.

raajch9JI?aahaan' N menu.

S 11'.1 1'.1 DtJ raajj3j' N 1. minor case. 2. minor

thamraaj' V eleg. to do harm; to harm.



'Is 1 tJ p:>:>uraajl V 1 it. to intend to do harm. "

n' V to hurry, be in a big hurry. ~'U ~ li1 rtibrud' V to advance or move ahead

lajlrin' to flow slowly, trickle.


rfn' (tua') N gnat, sandfly.

hurriedly, go (somewhere) in a hurry.

~'U L ~ ~ , L ~· ~ ~'U

S'U rfb' V to confiscate (something).

Ln'U'l-leJ:lJ~eJ:lJS'U kebh:'bm'r::~:>mrfb' v elab.

rfbrlil V to be dim, faint (of light).




SJ.J) rim' (rim') N edge, edging, rim,

~J.J. See SJ.J



~11 riiwiw' N revue. [f. Eng.]

"'~ cy'

Cj 1. or. Pt 2. particle used to convert a

statement into a yes-or-no question. -Variant of 'l-1~ a.

SJ.J ~'1.1'1.1 rim'thanon' N roadside, edge of a road. SJ.J'Y11 ~ rimthaau' N wayside.

rtibr@u', r@urtib' V to expedite,

speed up, hasten, hurry.


SJ.J'1.1'1 rimnaam' N the water's edge, bank.


~'Un1:::1n~:::'J11i1 rtib'krawiilkrawdad' to hurry.

little by little.

colloq. to save up.


~'U rtib' V to hurry, hasten.

S'l.l rin' V 1. to decant, pour out. sV 2. slowly,


tawrtid' (taw', ?an') N iron

(for pressing clothing).

Slil~li11Hl1 rfdsfiduau'taa' N trachoma.

( r;J'J)

( L~ 1 , rl'l.l)

~lil'I.IJ.J rtidnom' V to milk.

Slil~li11 ~ rfdsfiduau'* N a class term for several

1vm s'l.l

rfi'phon' N troops, fighting forces.

ifn ~lil sag'rtid' V 1. to wash and iron, launder.

SeJ1'1.1 rf?l?aan' V 1. to plan. 2. to try, attempt.

"' S'l.l



~lil rtid' V 1. to squeeze (smthg.). 2. to press, iron.


hemorrhoids, piles.

trou'rtil V to advance, move quickly

straight (toward).


-Also more commonly ~:::~n. S rf?/ V to begin, start, originate.




ryyn' V to be refreshing, pleasant, merry . ~


1'U 1'1.1 rdabryyn' V to be smooth, progress




• .!'



enjoyment. -+Often A

S'W b S ~


;~ n-- .




~' ~

n 'l S-- amusement, enter-



1'W S'W b S ~

uaan 1

ryynraau' N a party, gather-

'1-11 8 1il.aryyl V to consult, confer.


n ~~ffltJ~eJSh!

be civilized. 9

2. to be bright, brilliant. ' s 'I 6l 'l1 'I rfiu 1 sawaaul at dawn, at daybreak. i ; ~ ii11 ~ rfiusaag' 1. day to break. 2. at dawn, at

V to tear up, tear apart, demolish, dis-

mantle. J'

V 1. to be glorious, flourishing.



s 8 ryyl

Fl ~ 1:W-- prosperity, civilization.

Si 1s "; rOur1'lod'

kratyy'ryyr6n' to be enthu-

siastic, eager, anxious, in a rush (e.g. to do J'

-s y n.

b~~l:\!,b~€H.2. 61~1'1.



~ eJ '" in in

Fl ~ 1 :W- - prosperity, civilization.

o b"' ~I:\! Sibs 8 ~ caraan'rOgryag' V to prosper, 9

ing for entertainment, festivity.


L"'S eJ ~ rOgryaul V 1. to be prosperous, flourish-



najwanlrfiukhJnl on the following day.

rOucMaw' at daybreak.

ing, thriving, civilized. 2. to be luminous, bril-

tainment. J

rOukhJnl, wanlrfiukhJnl the next day.



~ ~ L~1

ryynraau' V to be cheerful, jovial, gay,

hilarious, merry.


1'W ~'W S ·'i'ii'W


S'W S :Wtl ryynrom' V to be pleased, find pleasure, J


~ ~'ti'W, ~'W--




s 8 ~ Iii

ryy' cad' V to rearrange.

S ~ eJ Sbl! rOgl?arun' dawn; at dawn. q



tear down (a house, building).


day and all night; day and night.

s 'I

ryyfyynl V to revive, bring back.

( 6l11'J) ~11'J~i

1. to advance, advance into, invade.

2. to pursue or press an advantage.

ruul (saaj/) N rainbow.



ru?l V to clear off, clean out, get rid of.

; n rug! v


Vf1:W~~'fl1:WF1'1 hilamrOg'hil.amkh~m' colloq. all

S eJ Qf!'W ryyth5on' V to tear out (an installation),

(6l1ll) saajrlig' (saaj')

N 1. writ.

rainbow. 2. com. streamers, long and narrow

n1 S--

strips of colored paper or cloth, used as decora-

attack, invasion.

tion, for throwing at carnivals, etc. v

~ n~ n

bugrug' v 1. to invade. 2. to trespass.

n1 s - -

invasion; trespassing.

' I'J 11J ~ n faajrug' N the offense, the side on the


( Liil'W) s~nrugl (s~n')

Sq ~ i~ rug rag' V to be untidy, messy, unkempt, disorderly, disheveled.

sn s ~ ;~

offensive (in sports, war).



; n S1'W rugraan'


to invade, attack.



gressor, invader.

to be disorderly, cluttered,

; Iii

rud' V to move forward in a hurry, proceed with dispatch.


~ n.,..,



~'U; lil r!ibrudl V to advance or move ahead hur-

1. to intrude, trespass. 2. to

penetrate, advance into (by force).

riedly, go (somewhere) in a hurry.


( i.f 1 'U , n s ~ lil1 t.! ) maagrugl N chess

'fl:W 1 n Sq n


in l,WLS 1


rtln 1 C 1. period, age, time. 2. group, class,

(samrabl for sets; kradaan' for games).

i rfiu 1

N 1. dawn, daybreak. V 2. to get light

(in the morning), day to break. -+Syn. 1.

batch. V 3. to be young, adolescent, in one's



s'u~ 'J 9

el eg.

Fh.!tJi; 1 khyynjaurOu'

runrn:u' V to be severe, violent,

fierce, strong.

~~.See ~~H. ~


untidy, messy, a hodgepodge.

o i'J 11J S n S TW fiiaj/rugraan' N aggressor. v

N geog. latitude.

all night long.

rtlnclw' in the class of small things, of

the tiny variety, midget.

' q


bb S n ~'W

(Iii cl i, FIW) daawrOu 1 N 1. the morning

star (duau'). 2. a renowned beauty (khon', duaul).


-opp. lii1~'\Js~~·~

-~8~. '


u'1; ~ j!tmrOu' 6 A.M.; dawn, early in the morning.

adolescent, young.

8t.!'li'W;'W'flgmaaj'rt(;gjt(;m' a flower

SI:J.JLLS 1 lomr££1)' V to be windy.

which is just beginning to open. -Often used

it~ llS 1

as a simile for a young girl.

'II:WVILLS 1 m0dr£E1J' V to be exhausted, lose all

bl Sn ;'W rt(;grOn' adolescent, young.

blSOb~:Wb~:WTI r~egr~;3m'd;3;3mthii'

one's strength or energy. elab. origi-

nally, in the beginning. ll s n l n ~

,l;-- (eJ'W)

rtgkl"d', maajrtgkl"d'*(?an')

N racket (as for tennis). [ll~n l n M f. Eng.] ll S ~ rEEU 1

stnrecu' V to be exhausted.

N 1. power, force, strength, energy.




'111 bStJ1'111LbS i hUartaw'hilarE£1J' N elab.

colloq. mainstay, principal force.

~1 ll s i huarccu' N mainstay, principal force. L'II~8'U1n'l1bbH lyabaa 1kwaar££U' elab. colloq. to be more than one can do, take on, shoulder.

V 2. to be powerful, strong, energetic. sV 3.

88'\JbbS ~ ?o::>nrceu' V to be tired, weary, weakened.

forcefully, hard, powerfully, strongly.

b81 bb s 1 ?awncu' V to build up a reserve of

n,1GlHlS 'l kamlaurn:u' N power.

strength, energy.


rtu'*(?an') N sieve, strainer. lb s -1 t£J • See

s €1 ~us ~ .

(A~) rteu' (tua') N writ. com. vulture.

bb H

-Also bbHl

LL S'W in


lb S'Wllfi'W rtenkhtrn' V to be poverty-

1'Wlb S :W

kh~aun;o:m' J

(period of) the waning moon.

Fl'l wannem'nyukhdm' the first day

reem' V to spend (the night).

spend the night. -syn. LLS:WA'W



o 'Yn'lflLLS:W (tl,Ll'fH)

thti'phagreem 1

(thti 1 ,hE:u 1 )

undernourishment. Lsfl1;m'W-.r


pox. -Also

s €l'Wbl s :w r:nnro:o:m' V I it. to go on a trip (over-

night or longer), to journey spending the night out.

N eleg. small-

~li11'el com. rt\og'-kh~jdagsaad'n5ojl N

1;m'W-.r. -Syn.





Ls Fl Flu ~'U

N 1. overnight lodging. 2. campsite.

rClog'khootlib' N diphtheria.

LSFlflAtl~nlil rllog'khudthar~ad' N yaws. 9


('lii'lli1) rOogcld' (chanfd')

N mental


LL S :WA'W reemkhyyn' V e leg. to spend the night.

-s y n.

fl1 ~ A'W com.

- nempii', penreempii' for a year,

for a period of years.

1s~LlS:W (1s-1,bb~1) N hotel.

rt\ogcMg' N colloq. disease charac-

1 S fi~~1'W


LS Fllilllbfl-1

a month, for a period of months. Lb S :wtl, Li}w-

LSA tin

terized by convulsions.

bl S:W l ~ €1'W, l.;]'W-- reemdyan', penreemdyan' for


N jaundice.

rt\og'taadrru' N conjunctivitis. ('J'iliii)

rOog'tldt:,:Jt (chanfd:-')


contagious disease.

roounem 1 (roou 1,hE:u 1 )

-s y n. h l A61 •

Ls Fl;8 Hill ~

rt\og'th5:>lJphuug' N constipation.


LSFitlun·H rt\og'th5ouraau' N eleg. diarrhea.

( 5u) rtew' (?an') N snare, trap (that en-

Lsfl~~€1-1 L~ll


'is fi'U 11iltl~ Jn r6og'hladthajag' N tetanus. LS Flilli1 rt\ogbld' N dysentery. 'is fi'U S'el r6og'burud' N venereal disease (con'' ~ tracted by a woman). -ct. Ls mmij .. -1 • Ls Fl'lJ ~ lii'\J 'J:I-1 r6oglp:,odbuam' N pneumonia. Ls mJ~ 'l1J1-I rt\og'padcuban' N sudden illness

~ li1 bl n

tldrtew' v to get trapped, stuck in a trap.

roo' V (the abdomen) to be distended, swollen. r6o' sV 1. distinctly (such that it attracts attention); obviously, clearly. 2. quickly. o bbli1 1 Ls' drru 1 r6o 1 to be distinctly red, bright red.

1 Sfl

8 -w rt\ogklJan' N chloasma, a skin disease.

'[ s A1 ,;s 1n c111ii h1ij d





phagreem' V to camp, lodge, stay over-


1S 1s'

1s fl n s ~ li1.. n o8 '\.1 r6og'kraduug?~:m' N 1sA rClog'kudtMu' N leprosy. LHl bn

'lJS~rl'lHLS:W prathab'reem' V roy. to stay over-

LL s ~

l.U'W L S fl penrl\og' to have a disease, be diseased.

1 S fi'IJ 11i1 €11'1'11 S rt\og'khaad?aahaan' N malnutrition,

fl"l -1 LL s :w khaaureem' V com. to stay overnight,


a (contagious) disease.

cinal drug.

of the waning moon. LL S:w t£J

N disease germs.

lJ1;n~f1LSfl jaa'-ragsi!.a'rllog' N medicine, medi-

ru;ml V to wane (of the moon).

'IJ 1 ~-LL S :W

to be sickly, unhealthy.

~A 1S fl tld'r6og' V to contract a disease, catch

( 5u) n:>:>r~ed' (?an') N rhinoceros horn.

stricken, needy. LLHI

~'is A khtirOog' V l ~€11 S fl chyar6og'

A~Lsfl (A~) tuar6og'(tua') N microbe.

abbS~ com.

(A~) r~ed' (tua') N rhinoceros.

'W €Ill S li1

n 1'WL s Fl kaa'larClog' N plague.


(sometimes one which causes immediate death).

( eJ~ 1-1, 'lli'lA) rClog' (jaau', chanfd')

N disease,



( 'liUGl) r6og'phlwna.u' (chanfd 1 )


n 1l-J 1sA kaam 1 mar6og' N e leg. , tech. venereal

disease. -Syn.

rt\og'th5::Jusia' N colloq. diarrhea.

Lsfi'US'el, Lsfl;VIij-1,



'is fl;'l-lij-1 .

rl'loglphfiujilJ' N venereal disease

(contracted by a man).


L S fi'\J9 s9 'el.




rllog'fiinyaraajl N eleg. cancer.

1s fl nw 16 rookhaa'phajdad', rookhaa'phajaa 1 :::

Lsfl:i.J::; LS~ com.



thi?' N 1 it. disease, sickness.

rllog'fiinajthoon' N colloq. (pul-

monary) tuberculosis. -Syn. 'lb1!1~fl


1 s flj;"ef~ ~ l rllog'phfdsuraa' N alcoholism. 1Hiiiu1;L~'\J (eJU1'l,'iiUlil) rOogphajlkMjceb' (jaau'. chanfdl) N e lab. disease, sickness.

1sfi:W:::LS'I rllog'mareu' N com. cancer. -Syn. LsFI~

( 1H)

roon' (roon') N 1. building, structure;

normally not used alone except as elf. C 2. elf. for buildings whose names have

1s 'l

as theu

first element, except where otherwise noted in the list of derivatives below. ms1 H



phaanroon' (khon 1 )

N janitor,


iiS1tl eleg.

1S FIS :::'\J 1lil ( 1s fl, \)Ulil)


r0og 1

rabaad 1

(r0og 1,

U'W 1s 'I jyyn'roou' V 1. (someone)' to be a main-

stay. 2. to have the longest or most prominent

chanfd') N eleg. epidemic.


1 S Fl L eJ'W rllogryan' N leprosy.

role (as in a play); to have the same role every

1s Fl6ll s 1 n rOog'lonrdag' N v u I g. cholera.




1s 'l n s:::"ef1'\J;

vulg., LsfleJ'H'l1 eleg.

1s Fl6l :w;1 Vi:W r6og'-lom'Mamuu' N epilepsy. ~

1sA.lntloui'n L1llil

r6og'-l- whenever I happen to like (some-

n1 'l a'


2. to act up, show itself. 3. to show (its) effects

l6n a 'l kh'lou

(as of poison, drugs). 4. to show one's nature,

7J 1 i J' 'll'\.!::>-'-nal How could you have the heart to

toglou-' V to agree (to something).

o 'll viii n-'toglou-' (kh~::>')

N 1.

agreement, settlement. 2. points of agreement. o li1 niil-1 'l 'I

togloucaj' V to decide, to make up


one's mind.


'IL '11~

o t~'Wel'Wr!niil-1 pen?an 1 toglou'l It's agreed. tal~::~d'logmaa'

lili1 8lili1 Ul1

'11; Iii b'I~nku!aab'l '

n S ~ i111'W l6l'WAfi'W

numeral, number. 1'll1 b