Th. Nast. His Period and His Pictures

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TH. Ills

NAST

PERIOD AND HIS PICTURES

BY

ALBERT BIGELOW PAINE

JCcu’

\|ork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY LONDON: MACMILLAN & 1904 All rights reserved

CO., Ltd.

COPYRIGHT,

1904,

BY

THE PEAUSON PUBLISHING COMPANY COPYRIGHT,

1904,

BY

ALBERT BIGELOW PAINE

AND ELECTUOTYPED PUBLISHED NOVEMBER, 1!H)4

SET CP

TO THE MEMORY OF

FLETCHEll HARPER MHOSE UNFAILING HONESTY AND UNFALTERING COURAGE MADE POSSIRI,E THE GREATEST TRIUMPHS OF

THOMAS NAST

CONTENTS A full

Index and Contents

will be

found

at the

end of this volume

List op Illustrations

Introduction

PART OXE: THE ROVER I.

A

Little Lad of Landau. Early Art.

Cliildhood. II.

A New Land

(1840)

Arrival in America.

....

and a New Life. (1846) The “Big Six” and its “Tiger.”

First School.

Art and

Drama. III.

In the

Way

op Art.

Early Instructors. World. IV.

(1855)

At the Academy.

At Leslie's. (1856) New Work and New Fight.

The

A Place

in the

New 21

The Morri.ssey-Heenan

Friends.

First Picture for Harper’s.

V. Love and a Long Journey. (1859) The “Jolly Edwards Family.” A Pictorial Picnic. Assignment Abroad. VI.

The IIeenan-Sayers Fight. “The Little Dragsman.”

On the

Way

to G.\ribaldi.

The “ Liberator.”

36

(1860)

A

Great

Ileenau to the Rescue. VII.

.30

An

(1860)

Soldiers of Fortune.

“Drawn”

Battle.

.... “

It’s

Garibaldi

45 !

CONTENTS

VI

VIII.

With

Garibaldi.

The “Reel

51

(1860)

A

Shirts.”

Trip to Naples.

Garibaldi, Dic-

tator of Italy.

IX.

On to Naples.

56

(1860)

Conquering Heroes.

“Joe, the Fat Boy.” Victor over All.

X. Home.

Garibaldi.

64

(1861)

Goodbye

Once More

to Italj'.

at

A Wedding

Landau.

Journey.

PART TWO: THE PATRIOT XI. Meeting

Abraham Lincoln.

With Lincoln

in

New

Yoi’k.

The Days op Conflict. The Outbreak

At

Philadelphia, Baltimore

The Star-spangled Banner.

and Washington. XII.

69

(1861)

77

(1861-3)

War.

Domestic Cartoons for Harper’s Weekly.

XHI. In the Draft

of

Riots.

A Reign of Teri’or.

Felicity.

The

War 92

(1863)

Long

Strides to the Front.

The

First

Santa Claus.

XIV. The War’s Last Days. (1864-5) The Great “Compromise” Cartoon. coln.

A Nation’s Tragedy,

XV. Reconstruction “

J

97

The

Battle for Lin-

and Peace. 106

(1865-6)

Thomas Nast.” Johnson the Apostate. Nast and Nasby. The Beginning of American Caricature.

think,

XVI. National Politics and Domestic Happiness. (1867-8) “Match Him ” A Cottage in Harlem. Fletcher Harper, Curtis and Nast. .

118

!

XVII.

A

Campaign and a Recognition.

(1868)

....

Grant and Colfax, and Seymour and Blair. of Sheridan and the Pencil of Nast.” the Union League.

....

XVIII. The Beginnings of a Crusade. (1869) The First Tweed Cartoon. The Savings Bank Letter. The Gathering of a Storm that Would Not “Blow Over.”

124

“The Sword Honor from 135

CONTEXTS

Vll

PART THREE: THE REFOP.MER Glory. (1870) Personnel and Methods of the Rin^. Nast and the New York Times. The Donkey Symbol. FrancoPrussian War. The Battle for Better Government.

XIX. Thk Ring Tlie

in its

1G6

Guilt. (1871) Tlie Temptation of were Obtained. Proofs How the George Jones. Tlie First Exposure and a Riot.

XX. The Proofs of

XXL

The “

Ring’s B.\ttle for Life.

The House

(1871)

Tweed Built.” “ loot's Stop them Damn The Temptation of Thomas Nast.

that

Pictures! ”

XXII. The Coll.^pse of the Ring. (1871) The Thunderbolts Fall. The Stolen Vouchers. “Stop “The Tammany Thief.” The Entry of Mr. Tilden. Tiger Loose.” What the People Did About It. XXIII. After the B.\ttle. (1871) Honors. Nast's First Almanac. Congratulations and

202

The

Tiger Symbol.

PART FOUR: THE DEFENDEl XXIV. “Anything to

Be.vt Grant.”

Domestic Annals.

The

206

(1872)

Charles

Cabal against Grant.

Sumner and Alabama Claims.

XXV.

AND Curtis, and a Conflict of Policies. (1872) “Children Cry for It.” The Cartoon that Made a Dis.

N-A.ST

turbance.

A

Prophetic Greeley Cartoon.

XXVI. W.\sHiNGTON Honors and Some Lessons SHIP.

in St.\tesman-

(1872)

Home. The Confidant of a Morgan — a Rival from Abroad.

Letters

XXVII. Grant and Wilson, and Greeley and Brown.

A



Liberal ” Convention

Nast and Carl Schurz. Sumner Greeley, Nominee. “All Tom Nast’s Work.” ‘

s

Matt

President.

(1872) ;

I

.

lorace

Attack upon Grant.

214

CONTENTS

viii

XXVIII.

A

Campaign of Caricature.

246

(1872)

Matt Morgan vs. Tlioinas Nast. “Shaking Hands over tlie Bloody Chasm.” The Defeat and Death of Horace Greeley.

XXIX. Quiet and

Congratul.\tions.

The Power

of the Cartoon.

262

(1873)

Collap.se

A

from Overwork.

Plan for a Vacation.

XXX.

Credit Mobilier, and Inauguration.

“Where

is

Nast?”

(1873)

,

.

.

The Credit Mobilier Cartoon.

267

The

Louisville Courier E.xpedition.

XXXI. A Trip Abroad and an Engagement at Home. London and Old The First Cry

XXXII.

Friends.

An Agreement

(1873)

.

of Cicsarism.

A March

of Triumph and Much Profit. (1873) The “Prince ” AS a Lecturer. “ The Blackboard Martyr.” Forty Thousand Profit. .

XXXIII. The Skirmish Line of Events. The Conviction

275

to Lecture.

of Tweed.

.

....

(1873)

Panic and Inflation.

283

286

Butler

Bottled Again.

....

XXXIV. New Symbols and C^sarism. (1874) Nast Champion of the Army and Navy. The One toon against Grant.

XXXV.

First Elephant

Various Issues and Opposing Policies. The Bayonet “

XXXVI.

The

I

in Louisiana.

Forgive

The Ghost

Tom Nast” — Andrew

Politics and a Notable Escape.

Symbol.

(1875)

of

292

Car-

.

.

302

Cmsar Walks.

John.son.

(1875)

....

309

Nast Comi)liments Tilden. The First Rag Baby Symbol. Boss Tweed In and Out of Jail.

XXXVII. The Heavy Burden Laid upon Grant.

(1876)

.

.

319

Christmas in the Nast Household. The Tiger and the Lamb. Corruption in High Places. Hamilton h'ish, Patriot.

XXXVIII. An

Exposition, a Campaign and a Capture. “

(1876)

.



Preparations for the Centennial. The Plumed Knight Convention. Nast Prophesies Hayes. The TwoHeaded Tiger of Reform. The Dramatic Capture of

Tweed.

328

CONTEXTS XXXIX. An Election and

a Contest.

IX

....

(1876)

338

Tildeu and Hendricks, and Hayes and Wlieeler. Zach. Chandler’s Historic Telegram. The Electoral ComA Generous Testimonial mission and the Result. Declined.

PART FIVE: THE STATESMAN XL.

A

Distinguished Guest and a Great Loss.

A

Dinner

to Grant.

“Give the XLI.

A

The Death

Fletcher

Harper.

President’s Policy a Chance.”

Defeat and a Triumph.

A

of

350

(1877)

358

(1877)

.James Parton Asks for Tlie Unpublished Cartoon of Lowell. Particulars. “ Tlie Journal Made Rest for a Rich Cartoonist. Famous by Thomas Nast.” The Tiger and the Lamb

ilysterious Disappearance.

Lie Together.

XLH. The

First Battle for Gold.

(1878)

.

.

.

.

375

The Demonetization of Silver. “St. Matthew’s” Resolution. The Rag Baby Swallows the Silver Dollar. XLIII.

A Dull

Spring and a Trip Abroad.

(1878)

385

.

Blaine and Chinese Exclusion. Tempting Proposals. London, Pains and Old Friends.

XLIV. The Tribune Cipher Disclosures.

389

(1878)

“A Bit of Work Just from the Potter.” The Cryptograms of 1876. How a Great Plot Fell Through. Was Mr. Tilden Guilty

?

XLV. A Testimonial from the Army and Navy. (1870) “Our Patient Artist.” Resumption. The Presentation of the Army and Navy Va.se. .

XLVI. Quiet Issues and a Notable Return.

Tammany

vs. Tilden.

fection.

XLVII. Chronicles

A New

404

410

(1879)

The Beginning of Republican De-

Grant Returns from His Trip Abroad.

— Domestic

and Political.

Baby in the Na.st Household. Blaine. “Greenback the Weaver.”

(1880)

A

.

Protest from

417

CONTEXTS

X

....

424

....

430

XLVIII. The Great Convextiox of 1880. (1880) Grant and a Third Term. Conkling’s Great Ap{)omattox Speech. Garfield and Arthur.

XLIX. “Tariff FOR Revenue Only.” Mr.

“Who L.

A

John Kell 3 Tariff and whj’^

Tilden and

X.ATioNAL

i.s

is

Hancock and English. he for Revenue Only ?”

Feud and a Tragedy.

Garfield and Civil Service. Assa.ssination

LI.

(1880)

'.

...

(1881)

441

The

Conkling's Lost Head.

and Death of Garfield.

The Dawn of Reform.

452

(1882)

Chester A. Arthur, President. The Death of Garibaldi. Grover Cleveland, Governor of New York.

LH.

A

Period of Investment and Rest. Grant and Ward. Abroad.

A Wedding Journe 3

'

land.

LIV.

to the

Weekl 3

.

.

463

(1884)

.

.

.

473

Apiiroval of Grover Cleve-

’.

Criticism of the “

.

and a Trip

Repeated.

LI II. The Brewing of Political Revolt.

The Return

(1883)

Tem])orar}' Retirement

Plumed Knight.”

A Wreck

....

483

....

488

axd a Revelation. (1884) The Failure of Grant and Ward. Tito Time.s, Harper’s AVeekl 3 and Blaine. A I’l-esident's Confession. ',

LV.

A

Mighty Making of History. (1884) At Chicago in 1884. Tlie 0])portunit3' Weekl 3 Will not Support Blaine.

The

of Cui’tis.

'

LVI. For President, Grover Cleveland. (1884) The Declaration of Revolt. Na.st and Curtis Accounted Traitors. Tiie Nomination of Cleveland. .

LVH. The Upheaval of

A

1884.

.

.

494

500

(1884)

Nast Assailed with His Own “Blaine! Blaine! James G. Blaine!” Weapons. Gillam's “Tattooed Man.” Cleveland’s Majorit3 in New York, 1,047.

Political

Civil

War.

'

LYIII. Again in the Lecture Field.

(1884)

....

Congratulations and Tempting Offers. Clemens, Cable, and Thanksgiving. The Nast-Pelham Combination.

509

COXTEXTS

XI

LIX. Cleveland and Reform. (1885) General Grant on the Retired List. “ Some Disappointment about the Offices.” “The Everlasting Hungry

514

Wail.”

LX. The Final Year. “Tweed Again.”

520

(1886)

Anarchy in Chicago. “ Not in Bitterness but

Cartoon.

The Last Great in Sorrow they

Parted.”

I’ART SIX:

THE CONSUL

LXI. At the End of Power. “ Nast Lost His thing.”

Tour.

A

Tlie First Presidential Defeat.

LXH. A Paper of His Own at Various Engagements. Nast’s

tion.

“A

528

(1887)

Forum.” “ Nast Has about Done EveryJourney to the Mines. The Last Lecture

Last.

(1889-93)

Senator

Weekly,

Its

.

.

Depew and His

Beginning and

.

534

Retalia-

End.

Its

Lincoln, a Grant and a Nast.”

LXHI. The Last Congenial Occupations.

(1894-1901)

.

.

545

The Later Days of Nast. and Acknowledgments to Friends. Mr. Roose-

Three Important Paintings. Visits velt's

Tribute to Nast.

LXIV. The Consul.

556

(1902)

A Letter from John

Hay.

The Hour

of Surrender.

Sail-

ing Out of the Harbor. Letters that Tell All the Tale. The Days of Fever. “It is coming very near.” “ Last Scene of All.” Colonel Watte rson’s Tribute.

LXV. At the End of the Long Journey The Friends and Enemies by J. Henry Harper.

Thomas

576

An

Estimate Nast’s Genius and AchieveCartooias of Then and Now. A Partisan of of

Nast.

ments. the Right.

Index to Text Index to Illustr.xtions

i

xvii

ILLUSTRATIONS A full Index of Illustrations will be found at The

Illustrations in this volume,

the

when not otherwise

end of this volume

stated, are reproduced from

the pages of Harper’s Weekly, by permission of the publishers, to

whom

all

acknowl-

edgments are due.

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PORTRAIT OF THOMAS NAST THE CHRIST.MAS PICTURE OF 1866 THE ORIGIXAL OF THE TAMMANY TIGER A SCENE FROM “TWELFTH NIGHT,” DRAWN ABOUT 1853-4 A SCENE FROM “OLD CURIOSITY SHOP ” (1856) NAST’S CARICATURE OF HIS FIRST INTERVIEW WITH FRANK LESLIE ALL ABOARD FOR THF ELYSIAN FIELDS! NAST’s FIRST ASSIGNMENT SCENE FROM “ RICHELIEU ” (1856) A SCENE FROM “ GIL BLAS ” (1857-8) FROM “GIL BLAS ” (1857-8) A SCENE FRO.M “GIL BLAS ” (1857-8) FROM “gIL BLAS ” (1857-8) “police scandal PICTURES.” NAST’s FIR.ST HARPER CONTRIBUTION L.\ST

PAGE

Frontispiece

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.

3 9 13 15 18

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19

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20 26 26 27 27 29

THOMAS N.AST IN 18.59 31 MISS SARAH EDWARDS (NAST) (18.59) 31 CARICATURE OF THE ARTIST OF THE “ PICNIC BOOK,” BY HIMSELF 32 “the company ” AND “THE FIRST EXCURSION” 32 “the poet and the artist 33 “THACKERAY AND THE PICNIC ” 33 PICTORIAL SOUVENIR OF THE VOYAGE TO EUROPE, 1860 .35 A PAGE FROM N.A.ST'S LONDON SKETCH-BOOK .36 SINGING HEENAN-SAYERS SONGS .37 THE RECEPTION OF “ OUR SPECIAL ARTIST ” BY JOHN C. HEE.NAN, THE “ BENICIA BOY ” 38 THE RECEPTION OF “oUR SPECIAL ARTIST” BY THO.MAS SAYERS 39 VIEW OF THE FARM HOUSE OF JACOB POCOCK 40, 41 THE CHAMPIONSHIP FIGHT BETWEEN HEENAN AND SAYERS, ON APRIL 17, 1860 42 REPORTER OF THE LONDON “ SPORTING LIFE 43 .

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XIV

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

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THE TROPHIES FOR WHICH HEEXAN AND SAYERS FOUGHT THE “ CAFE DELLA CONCORDIA ” AT GENOA THE EMBARK.ATION FOR SICILY ON THE “OREGON” AND THE “WASHINGTON”

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GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI IN I860

GENERAL MEDICI, 1860 GARIBALDI WELCOMING HIS REINFORCEMENTS

NAST AS A GARIBALDIAN (jULY, 1860) GENERAL BOSCO GARIBALDI, “ DICTATOR OF ITALY BOUND FOR NAPLES. ONE OF THE DAYS WHEN “jOE” HAD A HORSE “in CALABRIA.” A HALT AT A WAYSIDE HOSTELRY GARIBALDI APPEARS IN THE THEATRE AT NAPLES THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY OF GARIBALDI INTO NAPLES SHORTHAND BATTLE SKETCH ON THE VOLTURNO FAREWELL VISIT OF GARIBALDI TO ADMIRAL MUNDY LINCOLN AT THE CONTINENTAL HOTEL, PHILADELPHIA THE “salute of ONE HUNDRED GUNS ” LINCOLN AT BALTIMORE PENCIL SKETCH .MADE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENT.\TIVES A SOUTHERNER GIVING HORACE GREELEY A PIECE OF HIS MIND OFFICE SEEKERS IN THE LOBBY OF THE WILI.ARD A ZOUAVE THE MARCH OF THE SEVENTH REGI.MENT DOWN BROADWAY, APRIL 19, 1861

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PAGE

44 46 47 48 49

50 52 53 54 .56

.58 59

60 62 65 71

72 73 74

75 76 77 78 79

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THOMAS NA.ST IN 1862 ABRAHAM LI.NCOLN AN EARLY PHOTOGRAPH OF JOHN HAY THE DESPATCH ANNOUNCING THE FALL OF FORT SUMTER MRS. NAST AND HER FIRST BABY THE CHRI.STMAS PICTURE OF 1862-3 “KINGDO.M COMIN’ ONE OF THE EFFECTIVE WAR P;CTURES THE FIRST HARPER CARICATURE

.

“balloon observations” CAPTURE OF THE HEIGHTS OF FREDERICKSBURG “the result OF THE WAR “BLUEBEARD OF NEW ORLEANS” ORIGINAL .SKETCH FOR “THE DOMESTIC BLOCKADE

.

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.

80 80 81

83 85 86

.

.

.

88 89 90 91

92



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.

.

.

NAST’s FIILST PUBLISHED SANTA CLAUS (1863-4)

94

SPECIMEN ILLUSTRATION FROM “ROBINSON CRUSOE ” “a CHRISTMAS FURLOUGH” THE GREAT “COMPROMISE CARTOON” TITLE PAGE FOR “MRS. GRUNDY ” THE CHICAGO PLATFORM OF 1864 THE UNION CHRISTMAS DINNER COLUMBIA MOURNS THE CARTOONIST AND THE KINO ANDREW JOHNSON THOMAS NAST IN 1866 THE FIRST “ANDY” JOHNSON CARTOON

95 96 99

100

101

103

105 106

107

107

108

LIST OF

I

LLV ST HAT loss

XV

8KCKETAKY STANTON SECRETAHY SEWARD GIDEON WEI-LES CARICATtlRES A PAGE OK THE OPERA RATE THE SANTA CEAUS OK 1H()4 an “aNDY” JOHNSON CARTOON OF IHW) THE MEETING OF NAST AND NASRY JOHNSON AS KING, SUPPORTED HY SEWARD AND W I,LKS OF ANDUK;w JON TICKET OF ADMISSION TO THE IMPEACHMENT TRIAI IMI ACHMKNT THE OF RESUET THE AT JOY president’s THE .

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.

108 100

100

no 111

.

AMPHITHEATRUM JOHNSONIANUM GENERAL ULY’SSES S. GRANT FLETCHER HARPER GEORGE WM. CURTIS HORATIO SEYMOUR

n;i 114 11.1

no no 117 1‘20

122 123

124 12.1

A WILD-GOOSE CHASE SEYMOUR AS LADY MACBETH “lead us not into temptation” SEYMOUR PLUNGED INTO A SEA OF TROUBLES .

PATIENCE ON A MONUMENT

120 127

128 120

.

MATCHED (?) THE YOUNGEST INTRODUCING THE OLDEST MULTITUDE OF THIE\ ES A RESPECTABLE SCREEN COVERS A all MY GREATNES.S to farewell, “farewell, a long THE “union league” VASE NOT “love,” but justice (bLACK FRI “WH.AT A FALL WAS THERE, MY COUNTRYMEN.”

130 131

132

....

THE DEMOCRATIC SCAPEGOAT.

(tHE FIRST

TWEED

1.33

134 1.3.1

\Y)

130

“the ECONOMICAL COUNCIL” THOMAS NAST, 1871 GEORGE JONES, 1871 THE “white-washing COMMITTEE” LOUIS JOHN JENNINGS ” THE FIRST USE OF THE “ DONKEY SYMBOL “who goes there?” “a friend” .

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141

143 144 141

140



“the seat of war” NAPOLEON “DEAD MEN’s CLOTHES SOON WEAR THROWN COMPLETELY INTO THE SHADE THROWING DOWN THE LADDER BY WHICH THEY SHADOWS OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS SEN.\TOR TWEED IN A NEW ROLE



EXCELSIOR

.

147

147

.

.

.

137 138

CARTOON')

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OI

148

t”

140 1.10

R< )SE

111 1.12

..... ...... ......

153



THE POWER BEHIND THE THRONE OUR MODERN F.ALSTAFF REVIEWING HIS ARMY TWEEDLEDEE AND SWEEDLEDUM THE NEW BO.ARD OF EDUCATION “gross IRREGULARITY,” NOT “FRAUDULENT”

THE REHEARSAL THE CHAP TH.AT CLOSES MANY A GOOD ESTABLISH.ME.NT

155 1.16 1.18

150

160 160 162

.

,

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

xvi

............

“move on!” ONDER THE THUMH “some are horn great; some achieve greatness” “the gi.orious fourth.” (an address hy tweed as ILLU.STRATED HY NAST) THE TAMMANY I.ORDS AND THEIR CONSTITUENTS “th.at’s what’s the matter” .

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1()4

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PAGE

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Ifi.")

1()0

171 17.3

the “brains” .177 two great questions .ISO wholesale and retail 182 na.st’s selection for a tweed national ticket and cabi.net 183 A GROUP of vultures, WAITING FOR THE STOR.M TO “BLOW OVER.” “LET US prey” 18.5 “too thin!” 187 WHY IS the treasury e.mity? 189 THE AMERICAN RIVER GANGES 191 “stop thief!” .193 THE BO.SS .STILL HAS THE REINS 194 THE ONLY THING THEY RESPECT OR FEAR 195 THE TAMM.ANY TIGER LOOSE— “what ARE YOU GOING TO DO ABOUT IT?” 197 “what are you laughing at?” 198 MR. SWEENY RETIRES FROM PUBLIC LIFE 199 something that did blow over NOVEMBER 7, 1871 200 WHAT THE PEOPLE .MUST DO ABOIT IT 201 LET THE GOOD WORK (hOUSE-CLEANI.NG) GO ON 202 THE LA.ST THORN OF SUMMER 20.T HAUL “turned up” 200 CAN THE LAW REACH HIM? 207 NO PRISON IS BIO ENOUGH TO HOLD THE BOSS 208 20!t CHARLES SUMNER .

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PEACE TO JU.STICE: “ A ITER YOU, MADAME ” .211 “ WELL ROARED, LION,” AND “ WELL SHONE, MOON 212 “LI;T US CLASP HANDS OVER (WH.\T .MIGHT HAVE BEEN) A BLOODY CHASM ” 213 “children cry for it” 215 THE OVERTHROW OF THE ERIE RING 217 THE DISAFFECTED SENATORS CONSIDER THE SELECTION OF MR GREELEY AS 219 THEIR PRESIDENTIAL CANDID.\TE CINCINNATUS. H. G., THE FARMER, RECEIVING THE NOMIN.ATION FROM H. G., THE 223 EDITOR 225 COLONEL N. P. CHIPMAN, 1872 .

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SEN.\TOR FENTON

HORACE GREELEY, 1872

carl’s boomerang THE BATTLE-CRY OF SUMNER “the tower of strength” THE ONLY “emergencies” WE NEED FEAR THE CINCINNATI CONVENTION, IN A PICKWICKIAN SENSE CHIEF JU.STICE CHASE ADMONISHES JUDGE DAVID DAVIS WHICH IS THE BETTER ABLE TO POCKET THE OTHER WILL ROBINSON CRUSOE (sI’MNER) FORSAKE HIS MAN FRIDAY?

.... ..... ..... .

226 227 228 229 231 232 233 234 235 236

LIST OF ILLi’STRATWXS

xvii

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“great expectations” HURRAH FOR HORACE GREELEY FOR PRESIDENT

A TAG TO Greeley’s coat THE last shot HE PULLED THE LONG BOW ONCE TOO OFTEN “drop ’em” “played out!” wh.at’s in a name? “.SO.METHING that WILL BLOW OVER” WEIGHED IN THE BALA.NCE. A .MORGA.N CARTOON AGAINST GRANT anything to get in ANOTHER FEATHER IN HIS II.\T “red hot!” “WH.AT ARE YOU GOING TO DO ABOUT IT?” THE WHITED SEPULCHRE ONE OF THE CARTOONS .AGAIN.ST CURTIS AND NAST, BY BELLEW AS USUAL, HE PUT HIS FOOT IN IT SURE THING. BETWEEN TWO STOOLS, YOU KNOW “none but the BRAVE DESERVES THE FAIR” THAT “tidal wave” “WE ARE ON THE IIO.ME STRETCH” MR. GREELEY ON THE .MORNING AFTER ELECTION CLASPING HANDS OVER THE BLOODLESS (sAR)c(h)ASM MR. GREELEY DISMOUNTED FRO.M THE DEMOCRATIC .STEED COLUMBIA .AT THE BURNING OF HER BIRTHPLACrE

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carl’s POSITION A PAGE FROM NAST’s ALMANACK

BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT THE C.AME OF FOX AND GEESE; OR, LEGAL TRIALS OF THE PERIOD EVERY PUBLIC QUESTION WITH AN EYE ONLY TO THE PUBLIC GOOD THE MEETING OF NA.ST AND W.ATTERSON IN CENTRAL .lERSEY blindman’s-bluff. how long will this ga.me last? S.MALL POT.ATOES

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........ ..... ............. ............ ........... ....... ...... .... ........ ....... ..... ....... ... .... ... ...... ...... ........ is

.a

committee he can’t respect our flag, send him where he belongs A GENERAL “bU.St” UP IN THE “sTREET” when asked to refund the BACK-PAY' GRAB by inflation you will burst (the inflation baby) THE cradle of LIBERTY IN DANGER THE CRADLE OF LIBERTY OUT OF DANGER “peevish schoolboys, worthless OF SUCH honor” “there is NOTHING MEAN ABOUT Us” NAST’s one CARTOON AGAINST GRANT “there it is again” THE CAP OF LABOR AND THE DIVIDED DOLLAR THE HOBBY IN THE KINDERGARTEN if

24()

247 247 2.51 2.51

2.52 2.53

2.55

255 2.56 2.57

2.58

259 260 261

262 264 267 268 273 274 278 279 280

re.medy” (ridi-

cule) “shoo, fly!” fine-a.ss

24.5

271

.... ...........

JOSH BILLINGS A MIDSUM.MER NIGHT’s DREAM THE graphic’s CARTOON OF NAST AT WORK AGAI.N “where there is an evil” (c.esarism sc.are), “there

242

2.54

.

.

237 238 240

.241

.

.

PAGE

.

.

282 285 286 287 287 288 289 290 291

292 293 2!)4

295 295 296

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

xviii

...... ... ............ ...... ..........

THE JIERE SHADOW HAS STILL SOME BACKBONE THE EIKST APPEARANCE OF THE REPUBLICAN ELEPHANT CAUGHT IN A TRAP. THE RESULT OF THE THIRD-TERM HOAX MAKING A FUSS THE “funny” little BOY IN TROUBLE WHY IT IS NOT PARTISAN CAN A MAN BE A NURSE? THE JUBILEE, 1875 A -MOONSHINE SCENE THE TRUNK IN SIGHT. FIRST APPEARANCE SINCE THE FALL (ELECTIONS) ANOTHER MY.STERIOUS DISAPPEARANCE CAPTURED AT LAST (.lUNE 3, 1875) AND THEY SAY, “lIE WANTS A THIRD TER.M ” .

.

.......... ........... ........... ........ .... ........... ...... .......... ........... ............ ..... ........... ...... .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

BABY (fIRST RAG-BABY)

TAMMA.NY DOWN AGAIN CALLING I.N FRAUDS OFF THE SCENT “the upright bench,” WHICH

OUR MODERN

MU.M.MY

IS

ABOVE CRITICISM

......

BLIGHTING EFFECT OF THE PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE “there’s some ill planet reigns” THE (l). D.) FIELD OF GOLD, OR THE LION’s LEGAL (?) SHARE THEY BOTH LIE TOGETHER IN THE WASHI.NGTON ARENA “ a.mnesty”; or, the end of the peaceful (democratic) tiger THE TIGER GONE .MAD

....

BELKNAP

.

.

HAMILTO.V FISH

........... ............ ........... .......... ....... ......... ....... .......... ... ... .... ........... ...... .

BETWEEN TWO FIRES C-HA.NGE POLICT

THE LION- THE LAMB UNCLE Sammy’s bar’l A NATIONAL GAME THAT IS PLAYED OUT FIRE AND WATER MAKE VAPOR “one touch of nature makes” even henry WATTER.SON GIVE “one good ‘report’ deserves another” A MODERN DON tlUIXOTE “another such VK.TORY and I A.M undone” TICKET TO THE ELECTORAL COUNTING .

that’s lect

‘‘NAY, PATIENCE,

.

....... ...... ........... ........... ...... ..........

THE CROWNING INSULT TO HIM WHO OCCUPIES THE PRESIDE.NTIAL CHAIR THE “rag” (baby) at THE .MASTHEAD THE “mURDEDED” RAG-BABY WILL NOT BE .STILL GETTING IN TUNE SAMUEL J. TII.DEN THE DEFORMED TIGER .SOLVES THE PROBLEM HE.N (dricks) pecked TWEED-LE-DEE A.ND TILDEN-DUM. THE CARTOON THAT CAPTURED TWEI'.D

h’ai.l

.

.......... ............ ............ .

OR WE BREAK THE SINEWs”

.

IN

.

297 299 .301

.302 30.3 .30.")

3(K)

300 307 30K 309

.311

“l’ho.m.me ql'i rit”

TH.AT IRREDEE.MABLE

PAGE

312 313 314 315 310 317 317 318 320 320 321

322 323 324 325 1320

327 328 329 331

332 .334

335 .337 .3.38

3.39

340 341

343 345 345 340 347 348 349 353 3.55

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

XIX PAKF.

357

” THK FIRST ISSUE OF “ PUCK PEACE RUMORS OUR PRESENT ARMY CAN IT HE CUT DOWN? the chivalrous press, one might escape

35!)



300 .301

fire, hitt

302 303 304 305 305 307

N.APOLEON SARON\ THE UNPUBLISHED CARTOON OF MINISTER LOWELL .lAMES PARTON THOMAS N.AST, 1H77 \

C-ARIC-ATI^RE P.AINTING O?'

.



.

MRS. NAST, 1877

PERSONAL DRAWING SE.NT TO GEORGE W. HILDS THE MILLENNIUM THE CIRCULAR SENT TO THE .ARMY .AND N.AVY BY COL. AND NO. 2 THANKSGIVING ON THE OTHER SIDE— NO. SAVED (?) WAKING I’P— 1878 INTO THE .LAWS OF DEATH THE FIRST .STEP TOW.ARD N.ATION.AL B.ANKRUPTCY TH.AT DOLLAR THE MANDARIN IN THE SENATE. GIVING U. S. HAIL COLUMBIA DANCE TO YOUR DADDY ” HARD TO PLEASE THE “WHITE TRASH AMERICA ALWAYS PUTS HER OAR IN DE.ATH IN THE TUNNEL OUR ARMY AND NAVY AS IT WILL BE IT IS EVER THUS WITH ARBITRATORS Bismarck’s “ a?ter dinner” speech LIGHT SUMMER READING A BIT OF WORK .lUST FROM THE POTTER
air of lioriis— also,

to the entertainment of his soldier friends.

lesson in misplaced confidence.

lie accpiired other impressions,

some

of

which were

On Sunday

and perhaps color the coming years.

to linger

afternoons he

used to walk with his mother and sister past a triangle called the

“ Napoleon Hat ”

brothers lay buried.

to

a

little

graveyard where his two

Box grew about

these graves, and

its faint

odor was ever afterward associated with the scene.

His early religious impressions were confusing.

There were

both Protestants and Catholics in Landau, and once at a Catholic

church he saAV two

little girls

hustled out rather roughly for

repeating some Protestant prayers. deeply.

He

The

incident disturbed

resented the treatment of these

little girls.

It

him

may

have marked the beginning of a bitteniess which long after was

mature in those relentless attacks upon bigotry which won for him the detestation, if not the fear, of Pope and priest. But on Christmas Eve, to Protestant and Catholic alike, came the German Santa Claus, Pelze-Nicol, leading a child dressed as to

the C’hristkind, and distributing toys and cakes, or switches,

made

was this Pelze-Nicol— a fat, fur-clad, bearded old fellow, at whose hands he doubtless received many benefits— that the boy in later years was to present to us as his conception of the true Santa Claus— a pictorial according as the parents

reiiort.

It

type which shall long endure 'With his father, local

when

the regiment band

theatre, he attended

A

for the

plays, mostly of a military char-

acter and strongly French in sentiment.



made music

His favorite play was

Daughter of the Pegiment,” whose dashing followers had

borrowed the musicians’ hats It is l)ut

to com])lete their costumes.

natural that the boy’s earliest art impidses should

LAD OF LANDAU

A LITTLE liave

and

Everywhere were

been of a military nature.

suc'h

7 tlie

soldiers,

pictures as he saw were either portraits of the nation’s

heroes or scenes of war.

In his

own home hung

prints of the

]\ing and Queen, while in the parlor of an aunt there

was an

engraving of Napoleon’s tomb and another of “ AVho Goes There? ” in which Napoleon finds one of his pickets asleep. It

was not long

nimble fingers began to give expres-

until the boy’s

sion to something of

what he saw.

He

fashioned

little

soldiers

beeswax— perhaps from his mother’s work-basket — and these he pressed against the window panes. They attracted the attention of some ladies who often looked from the upper windows across the way, and the young modeller received his first reward in the form of cookies— brown cookies with holes in them— lowered to him at the end of a

—not with

pencil or brush, but of

string.

But now came a sudden change

in the affairs of the

Nast

The German revolution was brewing. Europe was in a turmoil. The elder Nast, though far from being a disturber, was a man of convictions which he took little pains to conceal. Some of his sentiments were not in accord with the existing Government. Called aside one day by the friendly Commandant, he was advised that America was really the proper place for a household.

man

so fond of free speech.

to join a

He

French man-o’-war.

took his departure from Landau,

Later he enlisted on an American

vessel.

The family remained

for a brief time in the old place.

Then,

made ready to go. They would sail for New York, to be joined there when the father’s enlistment had expired. They left Landau by diligence for Paris in the summer

presently, they, too,

of 1846, probably in June, as the child noticed fireflies about their door for the first time on the night of their departure.

Now and

then a

iirelly

soared high into the zenith.

the shells of military practice,

They were

THOMAS NAST

8

The journey to Paris was a rare joy to the Nast children. There was the ever-changing scenery— Strasburg with its wonderful clock— inns and villages where refreshments were to be had. Then came Paris, and some friends who took them to see the sights.

Three lasting impressions remained

to the little

boy from

this

The first was the distinctly different odors The second was the vastness of the Notre The third and best of all was the memory

wonderful journey.

of the various cities.

Dame

Cathedral.

some daintily dressed little Parisians, who were sailing toy boats such as he had never seen in Landau. Then came Havre, where, with a cousin, they took passage for New York in a of

beautiful

American

brig.

Their stateroom was near the captain’s, and the captain’s wife,

who was

aboard, became friendly with the

and doctored him during a brief

When America was darkened.

sea

screamed in the

illness

little

Bavarian

with wine and quinine.

almost in sight a great stonn arose.

The

vessel

gale.

The

rolled

little

The

and pitched— the cordage

German boy saw the American

captain’s wife at her prayers and followed her example in his

own

tongue.

been

little

Next morning all was clear again. The brig had damaged, though other vessels in sight had lost

masts and rigging.

Coming up

By

evening the sea was calm and beautiful.

made ansix, who now

the Narrows, the sceneiy on either side

other deep and enduring impression on the lad of for the first time

announced himself as glad he had come.

Well

he might have been, for he was entering the world which he

was

to conquer, in his

own good time and way.

CHAPTER A

II

NEW LAND AND A NEW

LIFE

They took up

their residence in

(ireenwich Street, then a neighbor-

hood of respectal)le dwellings. There

was a school near l)oy,

little

word It

was

TIGEH.

not

all

that

by, to

which the

could not speak a

was

of English,

him on THE ORKJI.NAL OF THE TAMMANY

who

sent.

foreign and strange to

first

moniing, and he did

know where

to go.

Mischievous

children directed him here and there.

Loaned by W. C. Montanye

line that

man

seemed

to

One rogue be some sort of a

lad took his place in

it.

of a class,

hoy

i)ointed

and the

little

to

a

Ger-

Those were the old days of rod

marked for punishment. The moment later to perform her duty. She could not understand German, and tlie little boy’s fervid explanation in that tongue was of no avail. He hurried home at recess and refused to return to a school where the first lesson was applied to the patch on a little boy’s trousers. His mother tried to explain that a mistake had been made. It was no use. He had tried to explain that, himself. He preferred not to risk another mistake— at least not in the same spot. and

ruler,

and

sharp-faced

this

woman

was the

line

principal entered a

THOMAS XAST

10

second American experience was hardly

Ills

ing.

It

took place next morning when he was strolling

down

new world.

Sud-

Greenwich

Street, enjoying the sights of the

from a

denly,

less discourag-

cellar directly in front of him, there leaped a

rude boy wearing a tireman’s hat, and Avith a long trumpet,

upon

Avhich he hlcAV a blast that carried terror to the heart and

flight to the heels of the small

mother soon remoA’ed her

Ilis

Ihuairian.

family to the

little

But the house was

borhood of William Street, near Frankfort.

Some former

said to be haunted.

occui)ant

belieA'ed to

aauis

liaAm acquired the habit of AA'alking about at night, tAA’chm

and one

a

lad

little

o’clock,

between

and these were not peaceful hours for

who happened

less sure that

neigh-

(juiet

Altogether he became

to be uAA’ake.

he Avas glad they had come to this land of unusual

things.

Yet there

AA’ere

William Street house Often there

artists.

Next door

conq)ensations. aa'us

AA^ere

man

a

aa'Iio

made crayon

German

aaxus

a circulating

other pupils. a lion

One

— excited

—a

new

medium— and drew

]n*esidents,

big

little

aa'Iio

Avas one

had Avon

day

on the young artist’s

boy— perhai)S

in

to destroy evil-doers

the one

feAA’

days

who had

the habit of imposing upon

Nast boy endured

it

later, at the

The

little

and make

was found necessary

same

exhibited his

him

this for a season.

suddenly turned u])on his tormentor that

to the teacher.

his first triumph in the Ncav AVorld.

second conquest came a

Ilis

A

fall

it

Instead of which, there were laurels of praise.

lad of Landau,

was

pictures for the

Also, perhaps, their envy,

their admiration.

was expected that punishment would

head.

where

school,

of these— a picture of an African capturing

for a larger boy, seizing the slate, hurried with It

sticks for

faulty ones, and these ho gaA-e to the

Xast boAq who took them to school

little

the haunted

to

AA’ith

at

school.

drawing— The

play-time.

Then, one day, he

such fury and Adolenco

to rescue the big

screaming bully

LAND AND A NIAf LIFE

A XFAV save

to

Ills

deed, ho

The

life.

became something

America was not such lie

fire,

-was not molested again.

of a hero,

running

in

at first thought.

In Landau he had

to fires.

when

except once

In-

and decided that perhaps

bad place as he had

a

found a great joy

never seen a

boy

little

11

the coal yard

had smoked

and the regiment had paraded with beating drums, as if the world were coming to an end. Now, there were fires almost

a

little

The

daily.

made a

boy was

little

fire

own and became chief Six— the

engine of his

Less than a dozen blocks away the Big of

which big

Bill

the engine of the

view with

fierce

He

at first terrified, then fascinated.

Tweed was chief— had Big Six was painted a

its

of the crew.

company lieadcpiarters. On

tiger’s

fire

head— a

front

distended jaws, reproduced from a French litho-

graph, a copy of which hung in an art store on the northeast

The boy Nast used

corner of James and Madison Streets.*

regard this tiger’s head, as

upon the engine of the Big

it

appeared in the lithograph and

Six, with admiration

make

could he guess then what use he would

emblem

go with Tweed into the

For

in later days.

man and

it

was

Tammany

cartoonist,

to

and awe.

Little

of that sinister

was to was Thomas Nast,

the Big Six tiger that

Hall,

who was

and

first

it

to

emblazon

it

as the

symbol of rapacious plunder and of civic shame.

But

in that long

ago time, the Big Six boys with tneir

pol-

ished engine and glaring tiger meant only excitement and joy.

He pursued them when

fires

broke out — running and shouting

with a crowd of other boys that mingled with a tangle of fright-

The Big Eight, a hated also had headquarters not far awajq and sometimes it happened that the two companies would forget the fire to enened teams and a score of yelping curs. rival,

gage in a bloody * Tlip liPiul

copy of

AYhatever

may

believed to liave been netually jiainted from another borrowed by Tweed from the father of W. C. Monwliose possession tlie picture still remains. (See page 9.)

tliis

lanye, in

on

conflict in the public streets.

llip

engine

is

tiger litliograpli,

THOMAS NAST

12

New York

be the present conditions,

a model of law and order and good government.

and Forrest

riot,

was hardly The Macready

in those days

perhaps the most remarkable event in

all

dramatic history— a city plunged into lawless bloodshed because of a jealousy between two actors— took place at this period, an episode

tomed

which the

little

boy,

now

nine and accus-

He

both witnessed and enjoyed.

to scenes of carnage,

saw the burning of the old Park Theatre— on Park Eow opposite the present post-office— a fine big fire from which only a wooden statue of Shakespeare suiwived. And all the time he drew— anything and everything. His desk at school was full of his efforts, and the walls of the haunted house on William Street were decorated with his masterpieces. also

It

may have

been for this reason that the ghost gave up

its

nightly rambles.

him into difficulties. A l)Oster on a dead-wall, at the corner of Houston and Eldridge Streets, attracted his attention one (]uiet Sunday morning, when his mother and other good people were at services. It was a picture of a beautiful full-rigged ship, and he wished to draw it. He cut it out with his knife, though not before a big policeman had slipped across the street and seized him quite suddenly from behind. But the young artist was versaSometimes his love of

tile.

He

art

led

voiced a yell that rent the Sabbath stillness and caused

the terrified policeman to drop the district appeared

him

hastily.

The captain

of

on the scene, also the landlord of the

haunted house, who interceded for the youthful draftsman.

The

incident closed with a lecture from the captain on the evil of

over-enthusiasm, even in

art.

But now a very impoHant thing happened.

This was noth-

ing less than the arrival of the elder Nast, whose term of enlistment had ended.

His coming had been announced by a

comrade, and great excitement immediately ensued.

The

little

I

AEff

LAND AM)

A XEff LIFE

IH

boy was despatched hastily to the corner bakery to buy an extra large pfann-kncben for the great occasion. Returning,

was passed by a

lie

a

man

The

closed cab which suddenly stopped.

Then

leaped out and, seizing him, thrust him quickly inside.

little

boy thought he was kidnapped, but an instant

later

found himself in his father’s arms, with the precious big pfann-kuchen being crushed between them.

Of course he was

happy, but the prospect of his mother’s grief at sight of the ruined cake saddened him. a total

Its slight

loss.

damage was quickly forgotten

of treasures

from

afar,

of travels in

many

lands.

was ten years

However, the cake did not prove

and

in listening to the father’s tales

This was in 1850, when young Thomas

old.

Nast senior was a skilled musician and a

He became band place,

done

a

in the joy

member

man

to

make

of the Philhannonic Society,

friends.

and of the

Chambers Street. To the latter Nast junior often accompanied him— sitting, as he had

at Burton’s Theatre in

in the little theatre of

Landau, in a special seat in the

A SCE.VE FUOM “ TWELFTH NIGHT,”

DRAWN ABOUT

1853 4

THOMAS XAST

14

making crude sketches that time. It was from

orcliestra— storing nieinorios and often of

Burton and other popular actors of

these sketches

and memories that

years later he painted

fifty

the fine character porti'ait of Jlurton which hangs in the Players’

Club to-day.

Frecpiently he carried his father’s big trom-

bone to the theatre, and to

remain

to the

this

was a

performance.

l>oucicault, Charlotte

privilege, as

it

him

entitled

Lester Wallack, ^Ir. and

i\Irs.

Cushman, Placide, Ceorge Holland— these

were among his favorites of those days. heard denny land.

At Castle Harden he The hoy saw and sketched them all in his

untrained way, and the inlluence of those early efforts and

roundings was continually cro])])ing out

in the great

sui’-

work

of

after years.

AVhen young Thomas Nast was about thirteen years

number

of foi'eign military celebrities

Europe was

still

came

to

old,

New York

a

City.

disturbed and their recent enterj)rises there

Kossuth was one of those visitors, and whom, a few years later, the boy would join in his grand march from iMarsala to Naples, but who now was ignominiously making tallow candles on Staten Island. The young

had become unjiopular. (laribaldi,

artist

had heard something of these heroes and their struggles

for freedom.

Y’itb his father, he saw Kossuth in a ])arade, after

which he wore a Kossuth hat and drew

])ictures of the dilTerent

Kossuth — a copy from Gleeson’s Pictorial, with a rising sun marked “ Hungary ” in the

One picture

exiled noblemen.

backgi'ound

— was

hung by the

])raised

of

and fi'amed by the school-teacher and

principal’s desk.

This school,

it

may

l)e

said,

was

on Chrystie Street, near Hester— a most respectable neighbor-

hood

at that time.

attended a left

German

when required

A

little later,

school,

by advice

He many

though only for a brief period.

to confess, regarding his sins as too

and too dark for the confidences of the 'period at

of his father, he

priest’s box.

A

another German school followed, and a term

brief at

a

A

.\i:ir

LAXn AXn

a

xi-av

A SCENE EKO.M “ OLD CUlllOSlTV SHOP ”

Fort5’-seventli Street It

was “

all

15

(1850)

academy, considered then very far uptown.

of no avail.

Clo finish

him.

ufk

“ You

your picture, Nast,” the teacher would say to

will

never learn to read or figure;”

(]uestion lieing usually a

file

tlie

picture in

of soldiers, a pair of prize fighters,

a character from ” Hamlet,” or perhaps something remembered

from

far-off

Landau, such as a

old Pelze-Xieol with his pack.

Efforts

made by

leading a

This was his

jiet

lamb, or

last school.

his father to induce liim to learn music or

The boy was an any other education did him little good.

a trade also ended in failure. at

little girl

artist.

Attempts

m

CHAPT?]K IX TIIK

He

WAY

OF AllT

attended a drawing class taught by Theodore Kaufmann,

a historical painter, a graduate from a

emy.

Kaufmann taught

in his studio

German painting at 442

acad-

Broadway, and

on the same floor were the studios of Pratt, Loup and Alfred

Fredericks— all well-known painters of those days.

Of

these,

Fredericks in particular became a valuable friend and adviser of the

hoy

artist,

who immediately

joined in the bohemian

life

One day a fire broke out. Kaufmann ’s studio and pictures were ruined— his class abandoned. The l)oy’s art education came to a temporary halt, though he pursued his studies at home, aided by a set of “ Harding’s Drawing Copies.” Through the guidance of Alfred Fredand customs of the old

ericks,

liuilding.

he entered the Academy of Design, having been admitted

on a drawing from a east— the

first offered.

The Academy was then on Thirteenth Street, just west of Broadway. Young Nast was soon elected to the life class, of which Mr. Cummings was the head. Academy methods were somewhat primitive in those days, and it was mainly due to Fredericks that the young man received proper guidance. Fredericks was at the time painting a panorama of the Crimean War, and allowed his protege to help him. Once, when the day was cold and both money and fuel were short, young Nast

WAY OF ART

IX THE

17

painted their stove red, vdiich was regarded as a huge joke by

One of these showed his appreciation by inviting both Fredericks and his assistant to luncheon. Thus the red stove

visitors.

supplied genuine comfort.

At the Academy with young Nast were a number of students who have since become well known. Samuel Coleman was there, also Eugene Benson, Hennessy, 'Whittaker, Walter Shirlaw and others destined to make their mark. "With Fredericks and his fellows he spent

many

spare

moments

in visiting the art gal-

leries— studying, admiring and criticizing, as art pupils do

day — have always done and always picture It

is

will

do until

this time that a

last great

New York

wealthy man, named Thomas

a collection of paintings,

which were a number of genuine old masters.

now

to-

painted.”

was about

Bryan, brought to

is

the “

the property of the

considered of great value.

New York

The

among

collection

Historical Society, and

Yet for some reason

its

genuineness

was questioned at first, and its popularity waned. But to the students, and especially to young Nast, it became a mine of wealth. Nast was allowed to take his easel there and to copy some of the rare paintings. 'V^isitors were attracted by the fat little boy’s work (he was very fat and German in those days) and prophesied well for his future. Bryan himself took an interest, and eventually made him door-keeper, allowing him all he took in over a certain number of admission fees of twentyfive cents each. It is possible that Bryan might have done something further for the lad, had not the latter, all at once, created an opportunity of his own.

He

gathered up a bundle of his drawings one morning, and

went over

to call

the "\Yeekly which

on Frank Leslie, who had already founded

The great publisher looked at the roiand-faced German boy of fifteen and remarked that he was pretty young— a fact already known. Then Mr. still

bears his name.

THOMAS NAST

18

Leslie

examined the

^ood— a

and

sketclies

fact equally obvious.

and stood looking down on the of

they were pretty

obsei’\’ed

Presently he rose from his chair

moon-faced lad— a scene

short,

which Nast has left us a caricature. “ So you want to draw ])ietures for my paper? ” he said. The small (lerman looked up at the great man and nodded. “ A"ery well. Go down to (’hristopher Street next

Sunday morning, where the

are

hoarding the ferry for the

])eople

LIysian Fields

resort

(a

ken), and of the

make me a

crowd

of ‘All

call

beyond Hoboi)icture

just at the last

Al)oard!



Do

you understand? ”

The

hoy once more

fat

nodded. “ Yes, sir,” he said. ” All right.”

That was easy

to say; Imt

was not

easy, even

the job for

a

skilled

man.

Leslie

afterwards told James Parton that he had ” no ex])cctation of the

and gave him the to his youthful

jol)

little

fellow’s doing

it,

merely for the purpose of bringing home

mind the absurdity

of his application.”

Nevertheless the l)oy went early and worked

late.

Patiently,

between boats, he drew the details of the scene— the ajqu'oach with

its

heavy uprights,

its cross-]>ieces

and

its

hoisting chains;

the huge balance weight; the swinging sign-card; the wide out-

Then when the ])oat came, and the gates opened to let the crowd push through, he made swift mental pictures, and when all was quiet again, added to his drawing the racing boy, the barking dog and look to the river, with the

liills

outlined beyond.

IX THE the stenclier-goiiig

come

ff'.lY

men and women,

OF ART

19

wliose holiday attire has be-

There would seem

so (jnaint with the lapse of time.

have been some curious foreshadowing

to

in this first assignment,

was from this very spot that through all his Thomas Xast was to cross into Xew Jersey to reach foi- it

later years

his ^lorris-

town home.

On ]\londay moiaiing he appeared once more before Mr. Leslie, who looked at the di-awing and tlnm at the young artist.

“Do

that alone?

“ Ves,

’’

he asked.

sir.’’

Leslie turned to his desk and took therefrom a half-page

engraving block.

“ Take

this ui)-stairs,

’’

he said, “ to

INFr.

Alfred Berghaus,

STKEET FEKIiY.

KIELD.s! AT THE CTUtlSTOl’HEU nast’s FIHST ASSIGN.ME.NT.

ALL AUOAKD FOH TliE KLYSIA.N

onr staff

artist,

lie will

show you how

to

whiten

it.

draw your picture on this block.” The hoy went eagerly. Berghaus was a

large,

with the arrogant, ])onipous mannei- of

Pnissian

a

Then

re-

blond German officer.

THOMAS NAST

20

“ So Mr. Leslie send you,

how

to viten?

And

I

Vat does Mr. Leslie dink

I

lieli?

was

am

show you

to

here for, heh?

Well, here are de dings— I guess you can do it.”

The boy took

the things and went at

Berghaus watched

it.

tempts. or

awkward

rather

his

at-

Then, out of

})ity,

took

the

impatience,

and

materials

completed

the work.

” Xow, ” he admonished, ” make your drawing on dis block just der opposite

you

as

paper.

have

Carefully,

took

(1856;

hoy

obeyed.

was finished, he the boxwood block

looked ”

dot

it

hack to “scene FKOM KICHELIEU

on

and with great

the

pains,

MTien

it

’ ’

at

Mr. it,

Leslie,

who

smiled,

and

oom Sti Clj 1



What do you make where you



Tt

are? ”

differs— sometimes twenty-five cents a week

— sometimes

six dollars.”

” Will it average four dollars? ” ” Perhaps.” ” Very well, I will give you four dollars a week to come and

draw

A

for Leslie’s AVeekly.”

great luni]>

came

into the hoy’s throat.

lie could not an-

swer at once for joy.

The

little

lad of

Landau had found

his place in the

New

World.

ClIAPTEli IV AT Leslie’s

The

Leslie office proved a great practical school to the young

Photography had not yet become the “ handmaid of art,” and on a weekly illustrated paper there was much to do. artist.

Even before the ferryboat jiicture was engraved a big fire broke out up-town and the new man was assigned to the job. Daily papers were not then illustrated, and fire and flood pictures were the favorite material of the weekly press. They took precedence over most other features; hence it happened that young Nast’s first public appearance was made with his fire picture, instead of the “ All Aboard ” which had won him his place. The Leslie })ublication office was at that time on Frankfort between William and Xassau.

Street,

It

comprised a front and

a rear building— the front for ])ul)lishing, the rear for the presses. ill

In the rear, also, were the editorial

offices,

and

here,

a large room, together with Col. T. B. Thorp and Henry

Watson, editors of that time, worked Alfred Bergliaus, the arrogant but capable chief of the art

staff; Sol

Eytinge, after-

humorous negro drawings of the “ Small Breed Family,” and young ” Tommy ” Nast. IVIr. Leslie also had a desk there which he sometimes used, perhaps when he

ward celebrated

for his

wished to seclude himself from too

The

Leslie editorial office

jiersistent callers down-stairs.

was frequented hy most

of the illus-

THOMAS NAST

22

and writers of that i>eriod. i\liss Croly, who signed her“ Jenny .June,” was often there. Also eaine Kichard Henry

trators self

Stoddard, then in the fulness of early inanhood and power;

Thompson, whose pen-name was ” Doesticks and ” ” all the rest of that blithe and talented crew. Doesticks was regularly employed on the Tribune, but did frecpient assigniMortiiner

ments for

and Eytinge or Nast, sometimes both,

Leslie’s,

ac-

companied him. Often in their rounds they brought up at Pfaff’s beer-cellar,

on Broadway near Bleecker Street— a bohemian resort, long

and now become historic. Here they would find “ Miles O’Keilly,” George Arnold, Frank Bellew, Fitz-.Tames since vanished

The boy was happy that he was get-

O’Brien and a host of other good fellows.

crowd

to be seen in this

of notables

and

felt

In tuni, they doubtless found the ” fat little Dutch ” boy amusing. They took him to theatres and other cozy re“ showed him the town.” It was not so l)ig a town sorts and ting on.

then,

one

but

radeship,

more

somehow,

feels,

that

there

more

characteristic personality,

more com-

Avas

of the feeling

and flavor of art than we find here to-day.* IMeanlinie, “ Little Tommy Nast ” was in truth progressing. *

Anion" the

frii'iids

niaile liy

Nast

wliile at Loslie’s

was

Aniprica’s leadiii" wood-ciifiravcrs, tlien of Hip Li'slip pinploy.

.lolin

P.

Davis, one of

In a rpcpnt letter to

the writer Mr. Davis refers to this early aeiinaintanee as follows:

“With Nast

espeeially

married, and the visitiii"

my home

little

I

formed the pleasantest relationship. he was but a lad of seventeen

fellow



a couple of evenin"s a week.

years; with an outlook upon

life

He was

entirely unsophisticated, a (plaint

at this time.

The walls

of his

with them.

jileasurc

I

humor

was partly

He took me room were hung with many

doubt, but wholly charming to the American sense. ings and the closet drawers were also filled

had hut recently in

seriously inclined for his

ing his expression of opinion or narrative of events, which

home

T

— found

brightenracial,

to visit his

no

own

of Tom’s drawwas surprised by the

The subjects were generally chosen from plays in vogue; the style drawing a simulation of that of John Gilbert, the English illustrator coupled with remnants of Fri'derick’s inlluence. But industry was the principle master; the only token of originality was noticeable in the crudeness with which his pencil had traced boy’s industry. of

the lead of his protagonists.”

AT LESLIE’S He

rose at four iu the

far into

morning

21 ]

to practice

He was hound

night to complete his work.

tlie

his employer’s

ning.

He

Frank

Leslie

good opinion— to

to justify

the promise of his begin-

way under

well-nigh gave

was

fulfil

drawing and labored

the strain but

it

paid.

likely to be peculiar in his business methods,

but he appreciated industry and talent and pushed the boy along.

He

did not always pay salaries, but he always did furnish

He

work, which was of vastly more importance. to si)end

Sunday with him

at

invited the

boy

Long Branch, and allowed him

to

put in the day making sketches of the Ocean Jlouse, then owned

by "VVarren Leland and the most fashionable resort on the coast.

At

times, however, the financial situation

became

acute.

Once,

Avheu the art department had not been paid for three weeks, a general demand was made on the treasure!-, an Fnglishman named Angel Wood, who told them to come back after luncheon.

Kejoicing in the belief that they were to be

})aid,

the staff in-

dulged in a rather expensive repast, and lingered over longer than usual.

reached the

office.

The item

Wood

of delay

was

fatal.

it

When

a bit

they

informed them, with averted gaze,

]\Ir. Leslie had just taken what money there was and gone. “ Gone! Took the money! ” “ Yes, he’s bought a yacht and needed the money to pay for it.”

that

There was but one thing to do.

Two days

later,

when Hr.

found the easels empty, and sketches.

He promptly

api)cared, he

made

flies

sent

a plea,

The

art

department struck.

Leslie returned

from

his trip, he

crawling over the half-finished

for the desei'ters.

by the side of which

address seemed but a feeble thing.

He shed

When

]\lark

they

Antony’s

tears himself and

They went back to work, ashamed, and with never a hint of money for a week. Then all were paid. Immediately aftei-ward there was a meetbrought tears to the eyes of his hearers.

ing of Leslie’s creditors, and his affairs experienced one of those periodical readjustments which were a necessary part of his

THOMAS NAST

24

Nevertheless he was a good general— persuasive

early career.

in his manner, brilliant in his conceptions less of

and methods,

puqjose and excellent in discipline.

fear-

Once young Nast

from an assignment with the report that there was

retui-ued

nothing there to sketch.

“ Go back,” commanded I will be the

judge of

its

Leslie.

” Do just what I told you.

value.”

The boy hurried away and

did not forget this lesson in obedience.

He was

receiving seven dollars a week at this time, which

have made him proud.

may

Also he was doing important work.

Single-handed, Leslie had nndertaken to demolish the “ swill

milk ”

evil,

making the

then the city’s bane, and Berghaus and Nast were sketches.

and as

It ])roved a fight as bitter

fierce,

though not so prolonged, as the Tweed Bing battle of later years. Leslie’s life

and

office

were threatened by owners of the diseased

cows that were milked rotting in league

Gity

in their stalls.

with the wretches, and

Leslie did not desi>air or flinch.

was hard

it

He

sent his

officials

were

to get action.

men

directly into

week gave more space to depicting the vile conditions. The end was a complete triumph for It brought great and deseiwed credit to Frank the paper. Leslie, and it gave to young Thomas Nast his first insight into the miserable bams, and each

corrupt city government, likewise a striking illustration of the ])ower of the pencil in correcting

From

Sol Eytinge the

training.

evil.

boy received much of

Eytinge was a master of his

the gospel of art, allowing his pupil to in return.

his technical

craft, willing to

work

expound

as hai’d as he liked,

Comradeship and even intimacy existed l)etween the

They planned for the future together, and when in 1857 the first number of Harper’s "Weekly appeared, they resolved to associate themselves with the new sheet. But in October of 1858 Nast was still on Leslie’s, assigned with Thompson to report the Morrissey-Heenan prize fight. two.

AT LESLIE'S

25

a contest between John Morrissey, the prize-fighting politician,

and John

fornia), one of the

The

“ Benicia Boy ” (of Benicia,

C. Pleenan, the

Cali-

husbands of Ada Isaacs Menken.

battle took place

on October 20th, at Long Point, Canada,

— the j)arty on this

embarking from Buffalo Nast and “ Doein three top-heavy, unseaworthy steamers. sticks ” were on the “ Kaloolah,” of which “ Doesticks ” in a place of sand

side

his account says:

At 11.30 the floating coffin left the dock and steamed in a dismal manner up the lake. The crowd gave her a mournful cheer as she shoved off, and several persons on the shore, who knew the boat and had friends on board, bade them a sad farewell aud weeping turned away. John and Paddy Hughes, Mike C'udney, Tom the Boatman, Big-headed Kelly of Buffalo, Izzy Lazarus and many other celebrated and distinguished individuals, now happily dead, were aboard, and among these “ Doesticks ” was rather startled to see Billy Mulligan, a notorious gentleman

whose criminal record

the jounialist had elaborated for the Tribune not long before.

left

San Francisco by order

may

be noted in passing that

In earlier days Mulligan had

and

of the Vigilance Committee,

it

eventually he met his death there for a double murder.

But Mulligan was very much alive at this ])articular time, aboard the “ Kaloolah,” and ” Doesticks ” could think of no good way

to get ashore.

])ointed out to

That the newspaper

“ Billy ” was almost

certain,

man would

aud

be

in that law-

crowd the chance of escaping the ruffian’s vengeance seemed poor. ” Doestick’s ” conceni, however, was chiefly for his companion, the young artist, whom he cautioned to “ make himself

less

scarce ”

if

he saw iMulligan coming

Then suddenly the

journalist

was

in that direction.

seized wjlh an inspiration.

"With jaunty bravado he walked over to Mulligan, and holding out his

hand invited the outlaw

to the bar.

THOMAS XAST

20

A SCENK

worked

I'he plan

P'liO.M

•'

})erfeetly.

GIL ULAS ”

^Mulligan acce])ted the invitation

good natin-e, and a little sticks ” the story of his wi'ongs. witli

The sey,

^Iorrissey-]I(“enan fight

llSoi-S)

was confiding seemed a narrow

later It

was a sangninary lie

Doe-

escape. [Morris-

affair.

being over confident of success, was nearly killed round.

‘‘

to

in the first

was

in

])er-

^

fect

and

condition,

liowever,

presently

recovered

and lasted long enough to wear out lleenan, who,

' .

being

from

ill,

became exhausted

the

very

inimmell ing

The

[\1

effort

of

orrissey.

latter closed the con-

test in the eleventh

round,

a tottering tower of lilood,

but victorious.

raO.M “ GIL ULAS ”

(1857-8)

lie was too far gone to speak, says “ Doesticks,” but lie made an attemjit to smile, which was a most ghastly thing to see. llis

AT LESLIE'S

” A SCKXE FROM “UIL. HLAS

Id-' 0

cat Ills lips m..1 tongue eves were noa.lv elose.l, liia ni...Uli llco..a.i o to Ins face Hat sWollon, liis nose lite.-ally battoie.l beaten been liaving niai'l;, a sliowod the coiiti-nry, sea.eely through shoor weariness.

“Doestieks”

and

Xast,

“ Benicia B>oy,” returned and with pugilism in gen

Yet

eral.

it

results

torial

was the of

to

hotli

New

ardent

supporters

pic-

the en-

counter that were to win for Xast the more iml)ortant

— the

Ileenan-Savers hat-

y-reat tie,

assignment

in

Kngland— the

fol-

lowing year.

For the present he contented himself with regular assignments, complet-

ing

at

rather

odd

times

ambitious

some sepia

sketches— illustrations for “ Gil Bias ” begun the

the

York disgusted with the affair

FROM



GII.

RI.AS ” 1857 8

THOMAS NAST

28

These

year before.

lie

exhibited iu the National

Academy

of

Design, then on Broadway, between Prince and Spring Streets,

over a church.

The young illustrator’s art influences at this time were likely humorous in their tendency. Plytinge was humorous, at his best, while the three great Plnglish Johns— Leech, (iilbert and Tenniel— were the boy’s avowed and exalted models. A cartoon — the British Lion and the Bengal Tiger— one of Tenniel ’s earliest and best, fired him with a desire for like achievement. Yet his daily work was purely jounialistic— serious and prosaic enough— important only in the added skill it gave to to be

his pencil

and the

literal

knowledge

it

brought to him. y

Eytiuge meanwhile began to do occasional work for Harper’s.

Nast helped him on the drawings, and the Harper ambi-

Then

tion grew. spirit,

at last,

and the boy

Eytinge went

felt left

behind.

to the

paper

in

body and

In any event he could not

was upon the land, and the Leslie salaries had been reduced. This was now important, as his father, the gentle-souled musician, had recently died, and remain at

the lad

Leslie’s, for a financial stress

was obliged

He gave

to contribute to the family’s support.

up, one day, and walked out of the old place where,

more than three years

had been three

made

before, he

priceless years,

his beginning.

crowded with

They

vital experience

and valuable instruction. In return, he had rendered faithful service, and now, still a boy, being but little past eighteen, he felt read}" to

face the world.

Naturally he drifted to Eytiuge, his

own and allowed Nast

financial result.

friendship that his

for

first

P’redericks

Yet the “

it

to assist

was due

litte

fat

who worked

in a studio of

on his drawings, with some

to Alfred Ph-edericks,

whose

Dutch boy ” never wavered,

entry into the alluring Harper pages was made,

was himself on the Harper

staff,

and recognizing

the creative ability of his former pupil, one day said.

A7'

l>

Those geQtlemert, hnduig the g»iivbQg business the decline^ revive to become gunnlians of

i>u

law and order,

29

THE NEW YORK METROPOLITAN POLICE. A N A L rSIS 0 TUB REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE

PICTORIAL

A

.

LESLIE’S

anil enter the

Metropolitnu Po-

lice.

Policemen are but men, and when young and fasunatmg woQien bappen to get irtio the police-stiitionn, who can blame them if they are and gnltaul ?

As to poor deviSs, houseless wieichea, wuli no good looks, aud steeped io poverty and luucry, can a high-bred policeman expected to erioi^c to such as these? Ko, no; let them eat the bread of sorrow.

The couscqueuce of which is, that the pour patrolman 18 unabledo procon the food wnich nis sick wife require and bis chUdreo go without stockings and without new frocks.

The pubce service ooolmues, however, to bo ad mirably effiuent, and quite a number of hackcarriages are actively employed on pressing bee duty, as above depicted.

m

civil

The powers that be ask no lavoi , but when they waiit new clothes a friendly captain goes round with the bat, and as for the patrolman who declines to out in a Quarter, he better emigrate to Caliiomta by the neat iieamcr.

W

SOME OF THE (From Nast's

first

“ POLICE

SCANDAL ” PICTIIUES

contribution to Harper’s \W‘ekly,

“ Wliy don’t you make us a page of



March

Police Scandal’

Police scandal, a perennial development in then, as ever, a subject of unfailing interest.

page and prompt acceptance followed. 1850,

was

it

to

was

make

19, IfflQ)

Xew

?



York, vras

Nast prepared the

Pnlilished in March,

his first appearance in tlie great

weekly where he

seems

should have been

his fame.

It

a protest against civic abuse.

fitting that

it

C’lTAPTEU V LOVE AND A LONG JOUUNEY

More

two years were

tlian

to elai)se before

nection with Harper’s "Weekly began. idle.

Encouraged by the success of the

sailed the

gambling houses.

rounds, and a

work.

lie

])a])er called

also

Monthly and

to

AVith the

contributed

a

any regular con-

Young Xast was not j)olice sketches,

frequently

Yankee Notions— the

made

detective he

Sunday Courier

quite

he

as-

the

i)ublished his to

Comic humorous

the

illustrated

papers of that day.

But now somethiiig wholly unexpected came man’s

life.

dence later in 1850 the

He

fell

in love.

occu])ieath,

finally

Winchester, they were

Bortsea,

left

undis-

THE turbed.

lii

who wanted The

Men

II

EES AN -SAYERS EIGHT

u'J

Derbyshire, Heenan had beeu arrested, but crowds, to see the tight,

battle finally

came

whooped and

off at

called for his release.

Aldershot, on April 17, I860.

Charles Dickens had

of every degree were at the ringside.

money laid on the outcome. Even Thackeray is said to have ])een among the spectators, though this he subsequently denied. Business of every sort was suspended.

I’arliainent

adjourned

for the occasion.

Lord Ihdmerston, the Queen’s Prime

^Minister,

public importance of a sporting event of so

mean an

deplored the order.

“ Nevertheless,” thoughtfully continued his lordship, “

come off, I hope Sayers will win.” On the moniing of the event London forgot business

if

the affair must

in a general holiday.

From

to join

the railroad station to the ringside

was a wild rush over hedge and marsh. Noblemen, shopmen and professional “ sports ” raced and scrambled over one there

another in their

TITE

mad

haste to reach the scene of conflict.

RECEPTION OF OXTR SPECIAL ARTIST, MH. THOMAS NAST, BY THOMAS SAYERS, THE ENGLISH (’HAMPION, AT HIS UKSII>K\CE, NEWMARKET

Mr. Bryant, eoi ri‘s|>im(lent of the N. Y. Clipper .Mr. Th. Nast .Mr.

Thomas Sayers (KoprtMhjced from the New York

Col. Wilkes, editor of Wilkes’ Spirit of the

Illustrated

News)

Times

THOMAS XAST

40

VIEW OF THE FARM-HOUSE OF JACOB

I’OCOCK, NEAR BATH, ENGI.AND, THE SECOND ON ACCOUNT OF A COMPLAINT BEING LODGED

From

a sketch taken on the spot

(Reproduced from the

Elnglisli

sucli as

New

papers had freely eondenined American I'owdyism,

had been shown

at the Morrissey-1 leenan contest,

but

nothing in America ever outdid the rowdyism disiilayed on this occasion.

The

figlit

lasted forty-two rounds,

and the

fair play

was thoroughly in keeping with those tactics which had made it hard for the American chanpjion to train. From beginning to end it was lleenan’s tight. Sayers was knocked down so continuously that one only wonders ability to stand jmnishment.

His friends and backers repeat-

edly endeavored to take a hand, and called on the fere.

]\[ore

at his

than once his seconds got

received well-deserved punishment.

At

in

|)olice to inter-

llcenan’s

last

it

way and

became simply

an elfort on the part of Sayers to keej) alive until the police should come to his rescue.

This they did, at

last, in

the forty-

second round, when Sayers’s friends rushed in and lleenan

promptly and jn’operly cleaned up the whole

ring.

THE IlEESAN-HAYERti FIGHT

TRAIN’IXG PLACE OF

THE “ BEXICIA

BOA’,”

41

WHICH HE WAS AGAIN OBLIGED TO LEAVE

AGAINST HIM BEFORE THE MAGISTRATES by our

York

artist,

Thomas

Illustrated

“It

is

Nast, Esq.

News)

too bad,’’ said the police, “ that two

should continue to



siicli

good men

punish each other,’ ” and the “ Benicia

Roy ” was dragged from

the melee and started for the train

amid an excitement that was well-nigh a general riot. emerged from the ugly, snarling crowd, he saw Nast. “ Hello, Dragsman,” he said, “ Avasn’t it pretty? ’’

The

Knglisli sporting public decided that

render the

belt,

it

As he

could not sur-

hnt awarded one to each of the chami)ions in

appreciation of the great “ to give exhibitions together,

drawn

battle,’’

and permitted them

which on the whole were doubtless

moi’e profitable than the fight.

The News made a vast “ our

s])ecial artist.”

It

disiilay of the i)ictoi'ial

report of

devoted an entire issue to the great

battle, Avith portraits of all concerned, including a large

Nast himself, and another of A. V.

who had hurried

S.

one of

Anthony, the engraA’er,

across Avith the blocks, engraving on ship-

THE IlKEXAN-SAYERS EIGHT hoard as ho came.

had no choice

In extenuation they announced that they

Pugilism had assumed the first not only in America, hut “ in the

in tlie matter.

])lace in i)uhlic iin])ortanee,

whole civilized

mark,” they

43

Avorld.

said,

.

.

^Ve must not only he up to the

.

” hut put

competition under our feet hy

ail

the superiority of our record.”

same

Leslie’s efforts in the

direction they denounced in no feehle terms.

Yet Leslie, with his usual enterprise, had printed a vast ” extra ” in London, and this, with a four-page ” authentic ” ])icture (also supposed to

have been

London, hut really

])rc])ared in

in

Xew

York), was

sell when the steamer touched the The News shrieked ” Fraud! ” at

ready to dock.

and displayed flaring

his achievement

dences of Still it

artist



its

own

trium])h and prosj)erity.

did not remit, and ” our special

was

means.

evi-

])resently

he

Doubtless

wholly

without

was greatly

sus-

tained dui'ing this trying period hy those UEl’OKTEK OF THE LON-

DON SPORTING LIFE (From pen

sketcli)

are not negotial)le,

steamer; hut such notes, however welcome,

and there are certain material comforts which

mere sentiment cannot

And now,

which came hy every

missives

delicate

su))ply.

came news

of the invasion of Italy

hy Garibaldi, the Italian ” Liberator.”

In spite of homesick-

all at

once, there

ness and the girl beyond the sea, the

horn in the barracks of Landau

tary revive within him, and with legions of the red shirt,

on the

young

felt all it

artist

who had been

the old love of the mili-

an eagerness

to join the

whereby he might draw pictures of

battle

field itself.

There was an inviting nuwket for his work, for besides the pa])er in

Xew

York,

in

which he

still

had

ho])o, the

London

Xews was

willing to use his sketches, though ho did not feel

justified in

asking them for expense money.

He was

beginning

THOMAS AAST

-14

when

to despair,

lie

met lleeuan,

to

whom

he confessed his

diffi-

culties.

“ Why,” said Ileenan, “ we’ll fix that. I’ve no money, hut I’ll get an advance from the fellow that’s going to have Sayers and me

in a jiuhlic exhiliition.”

lie did, in fact,

Xast gave him

hundred

mother,

in



produce twenty pounds that same afternoon.

exchange an order on the

New York News

amount on his case the one on the News should not be imid. Heeuan

for one

up the

tore

in

dollars,

oi’der

and a second for a

like

on Nast’s mother.

make them pay me,'’ he said, and he did. A\'hen asked how he accomplished it— for the News was in difficul-

I’ll

later

ties— he laughed.



I told

heads off,” he exjilained, he had given Ileenan his



them if

full

I’d

punch their

d Dutch

they didn’t pay,” and Nast wished

account for collection.

THE TKOI’HIES FOK WHICH HEEXAN AND SAYERS FOUGHT (From

d.

jioncil

sketch)

Yll

('IlArTKK*

ox

No

fi^^ure in all

WAY TO

TIIK

(;AltIHALl)I

more pictures(]UO ])atriot whose religion

the woi'M’s wai’fare can bo

or nol)le than that of Giusoi)])o (Jaribaldi, a

and whose motto were eomhined

in

the one word, “ Liberty.”

I?rave to the ])oint of rashness, sim])le-hearted, unselfish and

he

may

be eonnted the military Sir (Jalahad of

])iire in

spirit,

modern

times, forever seeking the golden grail of

The name sonnd of

it,

of Garibaldi

was

literally

Freedom.

one to eonjnre with.

At

armies ecpiipped and eager for war spr’ang np as

if

by magie. In youth, exiled from his native land for insurrection, he had become the foremost hero of Sontli America, where, against fearful odds, he had battled on, ])enniless, half-fed, clothed; captured, imprisoned and tortured}

lialf-

wounded again and

again, yet never despairing and never sheathing his sword.

Triumphant, and a world’s land, once

more

gifts of earth

to cjffer his

sword

he had returned to his native in that

cause which of

all

the

he held most dear.

lie liad found Italy

in a pitialde state.

government and no union. tria

hei-o,

There was no central

Petty dynasties dominated by Aus-

were wrangling among themselves and allowing a beautiful

was

country to go to ruin.

It

to conquer, to abolish

and

for Garibaldi, the fisherman’s son,

to reform.

AVliat

been to France, so Garibaldi became to Italy.

Joan of Arc had

THOMAS XAST

4G

Inspired and aided by the patriot Mazziiii,

made a

follower he was, he had

AA’liose

pupil and

noble and well-nigh successful

effort in 1848, defeated only

through the treachery of France.

XoAV, in I860, the hour once

more seemed

THE

**

proi)itious.

Though

CAFE DELLA CONCORDIA,” AT GENOA, THE PRINCIPAL ilEETING PLACE OF THE FRIENDS AND SYMPATHIZERS OF GAHIIiALDI From

a sketch taken on the spot (

Ui'IT xlured

from the

l)y

our

New York

own

artist, 'I’h. Nast,

lllustratetl

Es«p

News)

ostensil)ly

discoui’aged by most of the monai’chs of Europe,

including

his

Emmanuel, ho

own

in alliance Avith

mont

the

Avas secretly indorsed

money and arms, Avith

sovereign,

Piedmontese king, Victor

by such PoAvers as

Austria, and Avas assisted to

Avere not

some extent

Avith

(’haracterized as the “ Great Eilibustei’, ” and

no regular orders from king or country, he ])anner at Genoa,

set u]) the

and the veterans of 1848,

Avith a

Pied-

horde

of other soldiers of fortune, rallied to his standard.

was this great final attem))t for Italian union and freedom The j)ictiirAA'hicli young Thomas Xast had determined to join. It

ox THE escjiie,

IV

AY TO GAIUHALDI

impetuous (Jaribaldi was just the figure

artist, full of

Xast’s

47

to attract a

boy

roiuauee aud military memories.

fiiiaueial

eomplicatious bad

made

late

liiiii

iii

starting.

Already, upon bis arrival at Genoa, Garibaldi had conveyed two shiploads of bis recruits to Sicily

aud

had

conquered

at

— the

C^alatafimi

famous “ thousand,”

aud

captured

Palermo.

Through the American consul, however, the artist learned that two more vessels, the ” 'Washington ” aud the ” Oregon,” were making ready to follow. At the Cafe della C^oncordia, the favorite resort of Garibaldians in Genoa, he was introduced to Caj^tain (afterwards Colonel) .John AV. I’eard, one of the veter-

THE EMBARKATION EUR SICILY ON THE (From the

aus of 1848, aud

known



OREGON



AM) THE

as “ Garibaldi’s

WASHINGTON

Englishman ”;

others of that valiant and variegated band.

made





original sketch)

also to

Nast must have

a favorable impression on the Garibaldians, for he was

allowed to join the second expedition, which was to be com-

manded by

Colonel

]\redici,

an Italian nobleman, devoted to

THOMAS XAST

4S

On June

riiiribaldi.

boai'd

‘‘

tlie

and

doubtless

on

To

was

an

she

vessel,

with

the

foi-

floated

Stri])es

went

"Washinpdon.”

a]>pearances

all

American

with

9th,

Xast

Peard,

ra])tain

Stars

al)Ove

her,

connivance,

the

certainly with the consent, of the

United States

At mid-

officials.

way

night they were under Sicily

for

and war.

was much to enliven the voyage. The Garibaldians There

were of every rank and nation. Their

was

talk

a

confused tongues.

were bearing their own

officers,

name

ing any

of

title

as

wear-

as privates,

Men had

forsaken every

and trade, their homes and their sweethearts,

in the trade of war.

ex])edition that

they sang.

them

of

that might suit the occasion and perhai)s conceal

a past that was better forgotten. fession

iMen of

there— some

names— othei’s

])abel

]\len

was

had even broken out

to five Italy,

to

j)ro-

engage

of jail to join the

They danced, they gamed and

Their music floated out over the Mediterranean, and

brought joy to such as were not too seasick to be hajipy. fl’here

were

De Jvohan, a fretful

soul

otlu'r diversions.

An

officer

fire-eating soldier of fortune

— was

who

—a

called himself

brave

man

Imt a

constantly hurrying aliout the deck, giving

orders and jireparing for an attack from those Xeapolitan gunboats which he avowed must ])resently swoop

them.

TT))on the

young

artist in ])articular

down and destroy

he strove to impress

the fierce dangers of war, as well as the desiraliility of getting

back to Ids molhei-

at the first opjiortunity.

'When

at last a sus-

ON THE JVAY TO GAIUBALDI

41

picious vessel really api)enre(l ui)on the horizon, l)e Koliaii striding

aft,

»

came

shonting, “ ]\lak'o yourself useful, young man! ” And the young man promptly made himself

Don’t

flinch!

useful

by helping

to hoist the

American

kept handy for

flag,

such emergencies.

They reached

Sicily safely, arriving off Castelamare, on the

night of June 17th.

how

Earh' next morning Nast, standing on the “ AVashington,” saw a fishing boat coming through It was pulled by sturdy red-shirted men, and one of

of the

the mist.

came under the bow, leaned over to wash hands in the sea. Captain Peard came up just then. “ "Why,” he said, “ it’s Caribaldi! ” these, as they

And

so

it

was.

The great leader with

rowed over from Palermo,

a distance of

receive his reinforcements, and to

Amid

cheers of welcome, he

Medici and Peard.

a

his

few fishermen had

perhaps forty miles, to

make known

came on board

commands.

his

confer with

to

Then, once more, he took his seat

in the

fishing boat, laid hold of an oar, like the others,

and pulled away

into the mist.

The

tentiousness

of

(piiet

this

unpre-

man who

held in his hand the fortunes of

a nation made an impression on the young artist which the years

never effaced.

Garibaldi was his

hero from that hour.

They

landed

th rough the

and

marched

country already pos-

sessed by the “ thousand.”

It

was rough life and hard marching. Sometimes the artist had a horse, ajid he learned to sleep in GENEHAI, MEDICI, (From

Niist’s

18ti0

sketch-book)

the saddle.

Once he travelled

all

THOMAS XAST

50

GAltlUALDI WELCOMING HIS HEINFORCEMENTS (From a damagcU sketch. l)y Nast)

night in a springless

wagon with

presently beeaine “ doe, the

Yet

whom

hoy of Pickwick,” and

was a triunpihal march. freedom from the galling yoke

friend.

their

fat

(’aptain IVard, to

The

it

lie

a close

Sicilians rejoiced in

of the Xea})olitans— the

troops were greeted with hands of music, and lavishly entertained.

The expedition reached Palermo and Garibaldi rode out to meet the

June.

with the wildest enthnsiasm.

arrayed only

in

A

little

(larihaldi on the 21st of

army and was greeted later the patriot chief,

gray trousers and the red fisherman’s

which he has given his name, welcomed his ]:>alace,

.shiid

to

officers to the royal

Upon De Po-

where he had established head(piarters.

han’s introduction the Liberator held out his hand to Xast.



T

am

glad to

are a friend of

make your acquaintance,” he

my

friend

De Kohan, you are

said.

my

“ As you

friend also.”

CHAPTER VHl WITJI (GARIBALDI

Peard and other

AVitli

nacria,

officers,

and next morning

now, for the

Xast stopj)ed at the Hotel Tri

set out early to

view the

And

city.

some of the horrors of war. Tliere had been a fierce bombardment from the Neapolitan vessels, also from the Palermo citadel and royal palace, before the surrender.

final

districts

burned

were

a

in

careful

Ruined palaces were on every hand. Whole ashes. ]n some of the houses, families had been

A multitude of men and women,

alive.

armed with capture had

time, he realized

first

])ickaxes,

cost

them

sketch,

led

were destroying the hated so

which

much.

Of

a])peared

by monks and citadel

this scene the artist

the

in

whose

made

London News

of

July 28th.

was wild with excitement. “ Garibaldi ” was the name on every lip. Red shirts, red skirts, red feathers and All Palermo

red ribbons billowed everywhere

The

like’

a tossing vennilion sea.

price of red cloth doubled, trebled, quintupled.

artist

The young

hastened to secure himself a red shirt before the supply

was exhausted,

also the proper trousers,

and a hat as nearly

like

Then he strapped on a large knife, such as the Sicilian grocers use to cut cheese, and felt ecpiipped

Garibaldi’s as he could find.*

* Giirihiildi once told Nast that the idea of nsinji the siijigested to

‘‘

reera

l)ouffe.

not warfare, save as

it

may

over one another to surrender their arms and he safe. firing

sometimes took place, hut only for stage

very long range.

The cannon

hounding along

like baseballs,

the soldiers. 3’et

had

At one

be pre-

Tlie Neapolitan troo]>s literally fell

balls,

effect

when they did

Heavy and

and were sometimes caught by

point, Neapolitan officers

who had

not as

a chance to surrender, sent a messenger to apologize for

the shots of the night before, offering as an e.xcuse that the

were restive and

difficult to control.

They were eager

for the

its

at

came

reach,

moment

men

Doubtless this was true.

of surrender, and celebrating

approach.

The Garihaldian pleased.

officers

now

travelled

as rapidly as they

Colonel Peard had been ordered to go ahead and spy

out the promised land, and Nast accompanied him.

Peard rode

ON TO NAPLES a rather

bony horse, while “

mounted on a

.Joe,

57

the fat boy,”

was usually

small, but loud-lunged jackass, so that the

two

bore considerable resemblance to Don (j)uixote and his faithful

weary with riding, the “ would nod, and Peard would call to him: “ Now, Joe, you're asleep again,” or, “ Don’t go to

Now and

squire.

again,

fat

boy ”

slee}), .Joe,

you rascal! ”

And so they wiled away the long, hot Italian Much of the time they were wholly unescorted; yet,

afternoons. in the

midst of the enemy’s country though they were, they did

had been awestricken by the name of the ai)})roaching Garibaldi, and were only too anxious to fire their last few shots in the air and come

not feel especially afraid, for the Neapolitans

cai)ering into their conqueror’s camp.

Sometimes, at the villages, I’eard was mistaken for Garibaldi,

whom

he slightly resembled, and the inhabitants flocked about,

Even the

fat

This mistaking of Colonel Peard for Garibaldi resulted

in

kissing his

hand and

calling

him

their i)reserver.

boy on the noisy donkey received attention. certain incidents that should not be overlooked

Arriving one afternoon

opera bouffe.

advance guard of two suddenly found large Neapolitan detachment.

were

fired,

baldi

and his loyal

i.

e.,

by the writers

of

at tbe crest of a hill, the itself face to face

with a

Quick volleys of handkerchiefs

waved, on both

Then the pseudo Gari-

sides.

down and accepted

the joyful

surrender of an army, with artillery and side-arms.

Still far-

ther on,

when

the advance guard

for a brief siesta,

politan

anny

scpiire sallied

it

awoke

had

of seven thousand men.

be taken to the commander.

lain

to find itself

down

in a

vineyard

surrounded by a Nea-

Peard

proni{)tly

asked to

This time he did not impersonate

Garibaldi, but merely said,

“ You are our prisoners— Garil^aldi

is

close behind.”

The officer regarded him doubtfully— uncertain as to wlietber he was really their prisonei’, or they his. Nast was despatched

THOMAS NAST

58 to

bring

the General and thus settle the matter.

uj)

This he did

without loss of time.

He found

Garibaldi eoml)ing his hair sailor fashion, before a

small mirror, while his soldiers rested.

“ Tell them

I’ll

be along to accept their surrender by the time

they get the paj)ers ready,” he laughed.

Nast returned with the great commander’s message, and a later Garibaldi’s

IX

appearance

CALAUHIA.”

in ])crson

ended

all

dispute.

little

Far-

A HALT AT A WAVSIUK HOSTELKY (Krom

pencil sketch)

ther along. Colonel I’eard accomplished the evacuation of Salerno merely by sending a telegram over Garil)aldi’s signature.

The

Pinglish siiortsmen

who had come

out to

politans began to conpilain of their hard luck.

have

theii'

(*hance on the Voltunio,

made

])ot

a

few Nea-

They were

to

where the Bourl)on dynasty

For the present, however, they gruml)led at uneventful marclies under the hot sun and through the miasmatic swamps that set their l)ones aching and under Francis

filled

II.

its last

stand.

their veins with fever.

But

to return to

our gallant

]>air of coiupierors.

Just before

ON TO NAPLES

59

reaching Salenio, they were informed that some gendarmes were

coming

in that direction, seeking trouble.

Here was a

real dan-

The gendarmes were Neapolitan police and under no obligations to surrender. Peard drew his sword and Nast his trusty

ger.

Then they secluded themselves in the brush and the squad to pass. This was humiliating, of course,

cheese knife.

waited

foi-

after accei)ting the surrender of thousands, but the thousands in a surrendering

had been

mood.

They

lay in breathless silence,

praying fervently that the donkey would restrain any ambition

might have

lie

to voice his feelings.

situation, for he

Perhaps he was alive

merely wagged his ears

in silence,

to the

and the danger

])assed.

After Salerno, donkeys, horses and even carriages were no longer needed.

Here

(1

a r

i

-

baldi and his

ones

faithful

took the train for

But

Naples. it

was

a

train

t

h a

moved

a

t

snail’s

On

t

a

pace.

either side

was a vast cavalcade

of

cheering, wav-

ing

men and

women. times,

t

engineer

was

At h e

obliged to “

halt, to

avoid

APi-EAltS

l.\

(From

THK THKATUE,

)K'ticil

sketcli)

.\T

.NAPLES ”

THOMAS XAST

60

THE TRH"MI>HAL ENTRY OF GARIBALDI INTO NAPLES (F’roin a

cnisliiiig'

the

eaj»;er

New York

drawing

l>y

ones

who crowded

Nast

in the

Illnstnited

News)

ujion the ti’aek ahead.

every station, a throng- swarmed over the eoaehes and

filled

At the

engine.

Arrived

at

Naples, the guard kept a sendilanee of order in

the station Imt

jiist

pandemonium had broken

outside

loose,

(’rowds shouted and sang and daneed in a perfeet delirium of

‘Mdva

joy.

(farilialdi

ritalia! ” was on every St. p]lmo

took no

!

\'iva

Only

lij).

were those— Bourbon

])art in tlie

triumph.

Emmanuele! Viva the gloomy garrison of

^dttorio at

officers

and gunners— who as yet

Their guns were trained on the car-

riage of (Jaribaldi and his staff.

And

Crarihaldi

knew

that they

were there— that the guns were shotted— that the gunners stood by with lighted fuse. “ Drive slower,” he said

and

tlie

to the

nervous coaeliman.

carriage halted directly before the guns.

“ Stop! ”

UN TO NAPLES “ Fire! ” eommaiided the But Garibaldi had risen threw away

carriage and was looking di-

in liis

rectly at the artillerymen.

And

then,

at once, the

all

and dinging their

their fuses,

“ Fire! Fire!"

l>ourl)on officers.

ca})S

high

gunners

in the air

shouted with the multitude.

Viva Garihaldi

Xow came

Viva Vittorio Kmmannele! Viva

!

riotous days of rejoicing at Xaples,

I’ltalia!



and voting for

the annexation of X^aples and Sicily to Piedmont, with Victor

Emmanuel

as king.

The

result

was almost unanimous for union,

and the beginning of the great end for which Garihaldi had struggled and fought was at hand. election,

Xast made sketches of the

of the streets and of whatever appealed to him as

turescpie or important; also, a

number

of characteristic water-

color ]iaintings— striking hits of Italian of which are

still

shrine of Piedigrotta, and of

London Xews.

and scenery— four

life

He accompanied Garihaldi to this made a large drawing for

])reserved.

})ic-

September 27th being the

the the

artist’s birthday, his

military friends gave him a feast to be remembered.

On October

1st

began the fighting before Gai)ua and along

the Volturno, where Francis

made

11.,

with forty thousand adherents,

a final determined stand.

Here, at length, was genuine

Xast (‘limbed Santa

warfare.

At

first

there seemed to be panic

the great

Vet

it

J\laria Hill for a

the Garibaldians.

commander himself an-ived and

seemed

Kunaway

among

view of the

field.

Then

the troojis rallied.

to the observer that vast confusion reigned beloAV.

horses tore through the ranks.

Fallen

men were

all

wounded were dragging themselves from The English s])ortsmen had found amusement at last.

about, and scores of

the fray.

Presently a shell ex])loded not far away.



I’retty close,” said an officer

Another

“On

shell

passed

still

who

closer,

your faces!” shouted the

stood near.

and

fell

officer,

a

few yards

aiid

distant.

the spectators

THOMAS XAST rolled over like automatons.

the

spokesman a moment

“ All right!

later,

81ie’s

dead! ” called

and once more, though rather

reluctantly, the audience sat up.

“ Guess I’ve got sketches enough,” said Xast. Th’esently there

was

a little sally of infantry

up the

hill,

to

!

\

HAND TO

8110UTHAND BATrLE SKETCH ON THE VOLTUUNU.

capture the S]>ectators.

It

P'lGHT

was

a futile atteni})!.

Even the

were not handicapped with arms.

and laden with



HAND

a sketch hook, escaped.

He

The spectators

artist, short

and

fat

decided that he had

seen enough war, and returned to Naples that night.

A to

few days

him

later, at Caserta, Garibaldi, victor

for his imrtrait.

over

The great general— foremost

all,

sat

figure in

the public eye, lauded to the skies, besieged and beset for favors

by thousands of men and women of polite during the sketching,

and

all

left,

nations— was

])atient

and

as usual, the impression

of being the gentle-hearted patriot that he was.

And

so the

of Gaeta,

war ended. King Francis had

and Garibaldi

at last

retired to the citadel

confronted the

Army

of the North,

ON TO NAPLES commanded by Victor Emmanuel, king morning

early, each at the

the sovereign

crown.

It

()3

of Italy united.

head of his army, these two

On

a

met—

and the fisherman’s son who had won for him a

was the supreme moment

of (laribaldi’s

vast concourse looking on were for an instant silent.

The

life.

Then,

as,

leaning from their horses, king and soldier clasped hands, there arose once

more the

oft-rei)eated shout that told of Italy free.

The conqueror’s mission was accomplished. lie had defeated the invader, he had united a nation, he had crowned a king. Alas, that nations are not always just, nor kings often grateful!

A few

days later the Liberator bade good-by to his friends and

followers.

Among

his soldiers he distril)uted medals.

failed as he took leave of them, while they, in turn,

parting.

Ilis voice

wept

at the

Then, penniless as he had begun the struggle, having

borrowed a few pounds with which

to

pay

his debts, he set out

for his home, (^aprera, a small barren island off tbe Sardinian coast.

had

In return for his great gifts to Italy and her king, he

acce):)ted

only the assurance that his

for— a promise readily made, and never for the last

army should be

car(‘d

Nast saw him time on board the English flagship “ Hannibal,”

where Garil>aldi

l)ade farewell to

fulfilled.

Admiral Mundy, who had

ren-

dered him faithful service.

was the “ Lil)erator’s ” final word of good-by. The steamship “ Washington ” was waiting for him, and a little laloi was hull-down on the horizon, leaving a free and united Italy It

behind.

X

(’IIAPTKH. llOMK

On

Friday,

November

30,

ISbO,

the

young

Nast, bade good-by to his friends of Italy.

him, as a father would a son.

had made them

artist,

Thomas

Colonel Peard kissed

Their adventurous association

lifelong friends.

In his journey northward he passed l)y CJaeta, where Francis

A

and desultory bombardment was

II.

was

in

progress, and Nast and two travelling companions paused

still

besieged.

feeble

was sketching, when suddenly they were surrounded by soldiers and put under arrest, bhuends were far behind, at Naples. The strange soldiers jeered at them as they were marched away. They were taken before the commanding officer, who was dining in good style on the veranda of a handsome hotel. A band near by was making excellent music. The cai)tain ex])lained who

to observe

it.

Xhist

the pi'isoners were and added that they seemed hungry; whereu))on

th('

commandant

invited

highly ])leased at their

ca])tui’e.

near by, but the music did not

was the

last s))ectaeular

them

Now

stoj),

^fhey acce])ted,

to dine,

and then a

shell burst

and the dining went

on.

It

touch of a picturesque and theatrical

war.

After dinner they were discharged, and Nast

Here he visited the

set out for Koine.

galleries, also the Coliseum,

which made a

r

Thomas)

L. W. NAPLES

by

AT

Engraved



Gilbert. HANNIBAL



John

by THE

wood

BOARD

ON

on

Redrawn

MUNDY

Nast.

Thomas

ADMIRAL

by TO Drawn

GARIBALDI

OF

News.

Illustrated

VISIT

London

the FAKEWELL

from

(Reproduced

5



THOMAS XAST

GG

mighty impression on the which toons.

artist,

later l)ecame a factor in

lie

some

made a sketch of his

of the ruins,

most important car-

Florence and iMiian followed, and (Jenoa, where he

re-

tnmk which he had abandoned to join the GaribalFrom (Jenoa, via St. (iothard to Switzerland— thence to

covered a dians.

How

(Jermany and his childhood’s home. its

cathedral had

grown

small Strasburg and

since the visit with his mother, fourteen

years before.

“ AVhat have you under your coat

?

” asked the customs

offi-

beyond the Kbine. “ The other steeple of the cathedial,” answered Xast.

cer,

He had

intended this as a joke, but the

the steeple and

On

tlu‘ jokei-

l)eceinl)er 21st

I'he

could not find

nan'owly escaped an-est for deception.

he reached Landau

the old phi(*e just as be had l)ortions.

officer

left

it,

l>y diligence,

and found

only shrunken in

guard house seemed no longer grim and

its

pro-

terril)le.

The drawbridges were miniatures— the city walls almost a joke. The parade ground had dwindled to a mere i)atch. He found his aunt alive, and on her walls were the same old It was (’hristmas-time in ))ictures of Xajjoleon and his tomb. liandau, and while far acioss the sea, at the “ Theatre des

Fdwanls,” they were reciting

lines

about their brave and absent

comrade,



We have a friend this year with glorious (Jaribaldi, Of Theatre des Fdwai’ds the cai)ital (Jrimaldi, Xot least in our esteem, though mentioned last. Health and a swift return to artist hero, X^ast—

the “ artist hero ”

was being feasted and wined in that tiny Bavarian fortress at all hours of the day and iiiglit. The hardships of Italy were forgotten, except as he Avas called upon to recite them. Perhaps the crowning joy of his Landau visit was the payment to

him

of forty dollars

claimed to have borrowed

it

by a distant

from his mother.

relative,

who

HOME But there.

g;

was homesick for America aud the girl he had left From Landau he jounieyed to London, by way of Stutt-

lie

gart, i\Iunich,

Nahhurg— the

last

being his father’s birthplace—

where he saw another aunt, whose husband was kapelmeister. Here, he remained over night and slept in the

where, as a boy, his father had

steeple

little

room

same hard bed. In the evening he was serenaded, and the burgomeister and slept,

and

in the

priest called to hear the story of his adventures.

Through Germany his and cathedrals. He saw which

to him, fresh

crude and unreal.

of art galleries

tourists rhajisodizing before jiictures

from the stirring action of ’Fhe tourists

rather than a reality.

He was

real life,

own

tired of

it

all

and wanted

a few days

W.

to

war brewing

at the

Bound Table

and remained

Inn,

London

straighten financial matters with the

Thomas, an engraver on the News, had looked

L.

after Nast’s pictures ti’ied to

to get

land.

Once more he stopped News.

seemed

were worshipping a tradition,

(’rossing the channel, he heard talk of the

home, in his

was a succession

tri])

and remittances while

persuade him to remain with the

(loid)le ])age is

not the Avay of wealth.

in Italy,

iiajier.

He

and now

But £2

sailed on

2s.

per

January

19th at noon, on the steamer “ Arabia,” and on Februaiw 1861, after a year’s absence, arrived in

dollar

and

a

half in his ])ocket.

It

condition for a returned Garihaldian. self

had been not much poorer on

His paper, the News, was

New York

was the

(’ity

1,

with a

])roper financial

The great

patriot him-

his return to Gaiirei’a.

in a

very bad

way

indeed.

The

The company Avas soon reorganized by Leggett Brothers, who had lent the firm money, and noAV took charge. The old })roi)rietors had not paid, but they had been most lavish in their advertising of ” our special artist,” which, on the whole, had been of value. The new coml>any employed him at a modest salary, with a quantity of work. owners could

])ay

nothing at

all.

THOMAS XAST

as

as usual.

lie

liO])eful

Take it all in all, and full of health,

llis

mained

faithful.

He

was

liaiipy.

He was

j’ouug and

sweetheart and friends had

re-

was resolved to be To this, ^liss Edwards’

beg-an saving at once for a home, for he

married on his twenty-first birthday.

had given consent, regarding a lack of funds as no obto a young man of talent, industry and exemiilary habits.

jiarents

stacle

Ilis first

imrchase was a three hundred and

on credit.

With

fifty dollar piano,

his fondness for music, he could not resist the

temptation, and the weekly jiayments on this joy of the house-

hold continued through the

first

year of married happiness.

The wedding came off the day before his birthday, which fell It was in that dark and gloomy time following the outbreak of the Civil War. September 2()th was a day of prayer, on Friday.

offered for the torn and stricken Union, so they were married

early in the morning, that their jiastor might hurry public services.

children, for they were little

started

away

to the

Then, after breakfast, the jiarents took their

more than

that, to the train

and

them for Niagara Falls— that Mecca where the honey-

moon never sets— where, by

its

light,

ncAvly-wed lovers have

watched the tumbling waters from generation to generation, and shall continue so to watch, It

was not

until they

“ as long as the river Hows.”

were on the train and the train had

young man realized what he had done. Those had gone off and left him with a wife. The dangers

started that the

older ])eople

of Italy suddenly dwindled to a poor thing in comparison.

In

had been only himself. Now, there were two, and one of them a young woman, who was wholly in his charge. This was responsibility. This was life. The curtain had fallen upon the Italy there

epoch of early youth.

PART two: THE PATRIOT ('IIAPTKR XI MEETING AHRAIIAM LINCOLN “ Thomas Xast has

lieeii

Abraham Lincoln near

our best recruiting sergeant,” said



the close of the Civil AVar.

em-

Jlis

blematic cartoons have never failed to arouse enthusiasm and patriotism, and have always seemed to articles

come

just

when

these

were getting scarce.”

The emblematic

semi-historical drawings referred to

by Presi-

dent Lincoln did not begin until near the end of the second year of the struggle,

though from the very commencement of his war

work there had been strong sentiment and pictorial value in the young artist’s drawings, undoubtedly due to his own intense loj'alty to the Union; and these did not fail, through the medium awaken

and eager response. Sixty-one was a turbulent time, es})ecially in Xew York

of his forceful skill, to

a wide

City,

where Uernando AVood, then Alayor, not only a})i)lauded the ceding South, but advised the secession of the metropolis.

was

in

Xew

A"ork a large element of foreign immigrants

se-

Tliere

whose

natural instinct seemed to be to destroy the nation that had sheltered them.

Also, there

had sold goods south for

them war might

be lukewarm in

its

a multitude of merchants

was

of the Alason s])ell

ruin.

and Dixon

Uven the

line,

]>ress

who

and knew that

was

inclined to

patriotism, and to ai’gue rather liberally on

the right of the Southern States to secede.

Union

talk

was

THOM AH NAST

70

plentiful enough, but

and “ Peace

at

it

was

“ Union without war ” who were for “ Union before

likely to be

Men

any price.”

all,”

and especially those who declared for abolition, were apt

to be

roughly dealt with, and at times found police protection

welcome, not only in

New

York, but on the streets of patriotic

Poston.

The policy of the newly

He had

awaited.

elected President, Lincoln,

was eagerly

declared against slavery, ajid expressed his

and half free could not endure. Yet,

belief that a nation half slave

during his debate with Douglas, he had protested mainly against extending the

no definite plans for correcting

evil, offering

His enthusiastic reception

in

New York

it.

City, on his journey to

’Washington, showed that the larger element believed

tliat

the

iMan from the West, with his gentle spirit and wide humanity,

would avoid a war. On Pebruary 19,

18(31, at

Avenue, Thomas Nast, a arrival of

from his

Thirty-fourth Street and Kleventh

l)oy not yet

twenty-one, awaited the

Abraham Lincoln, after that long triumphal journey home in Spi'ingfield. Thei’e were ]>oor police regulaThe

tions in those days.

President-elect and his conii)anions were

hustled and almost overwhelmed by the eager crowds.

Nast,

however, got a glimj)se of Lincoln, and ol)served that the latter

wore

a beard

and did not much resemble the sketches and

catures which had ali’eady appeai'cd.

on his

own

('ity Hall.

The

artist

made

cari-

a sketch

account and later attended the recei)tion given at

Here he made additional sketches, and was almost

torn to ))ieces, trying to get near the guest of honor.

Peing young and

sti’ong,

he pushed his

way

through.

denly he found himself face to face with Lincoln,

had sulfered

at the

hands of the

who

Sud-

likewise

The great man’s cloak but he was trying to look

i)oi>ulace.

was torn and his hair dishevelled, jdeased. With an air of mutual (*ommiseration, Nast held out his hand.

I

MEETING AHRAIIAM LINCOLN “

I

71

have the honor, sir.”

Lincoln’s face lighted np as he acknowledged the salute. smiled, but

tragedy of

it

was

it all,

Tie

a smile of sadness— a token of the underlying

concealed

foi’

the

moment by

the

humors

of cir-

cumstance and the fanfare of welcome. Xast was ordered by his paper, the News,

to

proceed to Phila-

delphia and on to 'Washington for the inaugural ceremonies,

lie

was near Lincoln during the celebrated speech and Hag-raising at

Independence Hall, where Lincoln laid

olf his coat that

he

might with greater ease hoist the Stars and Stripes above the birthplace of Liberty.

Later, the artist heard the address

from the balcony of the Continental Hotel, his party were staying. It

was nearly

streets

night,

at

which Lincoln and

and the hotel windows were

were thronged and jammed.

]\len

made

lit.

The

were jjushed and tram-

pled by the masses of humanity, half crazed in a desire to see

r
rivate citizens,

four aldermen and one supervisor, with AVilliam A. Booth as

chairman, was appointed for this the following

day,

.Judge

George

pui*|)ose,

S.

Sei)tember

(1.

On

Barnard, formerly an

associate of the King, granted an injunction restraining

Tweed

and his associates from further levies or use of public funds. This was a serious blow.

Following Baniard’s exami)le, recruits,

by the wholesale were now added to the ranks of reform. The German Democrats repudiated the King, and Nast’s cartoon shows the doomed four l)eing flung bodily from the good ship “ Geimania.” “ A Group of Vultures "Waiting for the Storm to Blow Over,’ ” in the same issue, was one of the surest hits ‘

of the cam])aign.

THE COLLAPSE OF THE RING On Saturday, September troller

9,

187

the Booth Committee asked Con-

Connolly to produce certain vouchers on the following

Tuesday.

Curiously enough, before ]\Ionday morning these very

vouchers disappeared from the Controller’s

office.

Somebody

with a diamond had cut a hole in the window, large enough to

admit a man’s arm.

By

this

means the window had been unfast-

ened and the intruder had been able to enter and

"we know nothing about*'"*"

THE STOLEN VOUCHERS:

select the

very

t'WEARE INNOCENT.”

THOMAS XAST

188

vouchers demanded by the Booth Committee for beginning the examination. It

seemed

expressed

remarkable coincidence, and the general opinion

a

when Connolly and

his friends protested their inno-

cence was that the device was “ too thin,” a for a cartoon that

was afterward used

title

adopted by Xast

as an election document,

distributed by the thousand.

Wild

Oats, a small illustrated paper, published an adaptation

of this cartoon, entitled ”

Too Thick,” showing the Bing, fattened with plunder, handcuffed together, and in stripes. It has been stated that Xast was first to depict the Eing in stripes; but the credit

is

due, not to the great master of caricature, but

The sale of Wild Oats was forbidden on the news-stands by Mayor Hall under penalty of revoked licenses, and a similar edict was prepared to

one of his countless followers, C. Howard.

against IIar]>er’s Weekly, but never enforced.

!Mayor Hall

now made

a ludicrous

show

Connolly’s resignation for gross negligence to be robbed.

Connolly replied

of virtue, in

allowing his

was almost a

office

was as much On September

in effect that Hall

implicated as he was, and declined to abdicate. 13 there

demanding

riot in front of his office,

caused by the

unpaid city workmen demanding their wages, which, because of Barnard’s injunction, Connolly could not distribute.

Men

grew savage and endeavored to force an entrance. “ Bring out Slipi)ery Dick,’ ” they called; ” we’ll make him ‘

sign the rolls.”

Connolly

in

an interview with his friends was advised to quit

more ado. Instead, he took legal counsel of Samuel J. Tilden, who had thus far shown but a general interest in the movement for reform. This was pure luck for Tilden— a play directly into his hand. His advice was that Connolly, under promise of protection, should resign in favor of Andrew H. Green — a man in whom the country without

THE COLLAPSE OF THE RING

£KPTr 10 THE WOK.KPEEM

WHY

IS 0-0»«M

DOWN with

the

fOUR MA5TE.KS TKAT

EMPTIED

IT.

THE TKEASURY EMPTY? iW

«»a

-Bm

HILLIOXS

toMii*.

THE

180

"iMk

KO?(C



HIUJOB HF DnUAIU«aN>

X. .«U..

CITI THIEVES.

VOTE

the

«.l (M

^

REFORM

(This picture and the printing below

un.

TICKET. it

show the use made

of the cartoons as campaign documents)

the public liad the utmost confidence, and a business friend of Tilden.

This Connolly did, and took heart.

The remainder

of the

Ring was now

in a

bad way.

the leadership of Hall, they endeavored to stir

the unpaid street and park laborers.

up

a riot

Under

among

Such journals as were

left

them declared that there should be a great meeting at the Fifty-ninth Street park entrance, and that, failing to get their money, the mob should proceed to the homes of the villains who had brought about this state of affairs— said villains being the to

leaders in the refonn crusade, whose carefully

given

— and



pull

their

names and addresses were houses

down about

their

ears.”

But the

riot did not

lic

treasury,

come

off.

The

who were the villains and to make this truth

to understand

laborers were beginning

that still

had emptied the pubmore clear Nast gave

THOMAS NAST

190

the public a cartoon entitled “

The City Treasury— Empty to the 'Workmen, and the Four i\[asters who Emptied it.” Thousands of workmen who did not read the daily papers could understand that picture at a glance, and ously displayed on the stands.

Later

it

it

was conspicu-

was included

paign pamphlet and scattered broadcast.

in a

cam-

In another cartoon

summed up the Eing’s attempt to retain power through concessions to the Church in the “ American Eiver Ganges ” Nast

which stands to-day as the most

terrible

arraignment of secta-

rianism in the public schools, as well as one of the most power-

Thomas Nast ever drew. “ The Only Way to Get Our Tammany Eulers on the Scjuare,” the “ Square ” being that of a carpenter, set up as a gallows with a noose at the end, and “ Honest Democracy Kicking Mayor

ful pictures that

Hall into Space ” were two smaller cartoons in the same issue.

The shots were dropping thickly now, and the withering fire Every respectable journal in laid waste the ranks of infamy. New York was in line at last, and every organization was crying “ thief.” Even the “ 'W. M. Tweed ” Association denounced the corruption of the city

were

engaged

chiefly

officials,

and

published October is

withal so

to join in the

Yet power.

one another.

It

and Nast’s cartoon of that

and action that one

feels impelled

race and to take up the accusing cry.

Tweed himself was still a was comTilden did, in fact, make a show of dissent, rebuked, and, realizing that the time was not

in the obscure

At

7,

”,

themselves

so exactly portrays the situation,

full of spirit

mad

officials

in recriminations against

was clearly a case of “ Stop Thief! title,

while the

Land

of Politics

the State convention held at Eochester he

plete master.

]\[r.

but was scornfully

instantly succumbed. In the '\Yeekly Nast shows the “ Brains ” of the Eochester

ripe for his denouements

for October

1,

convention— that now famous picture of Tweed with a money bag for a head, and no features save those expressed by the

CAN'C.rS

a

THOMAS NAST

192

dollar mark.

The same

issue contained

“ The Mayor’s Grand

Jury ’’—twelve pictures of the Mayor himself— and that fearful front page— the King in the shadow of the gallows— Tweed and the others cringing cravenly

lifting his hat,

at

sight of

The only thing they respect or fear.” It is doubtful if caricature in any nation had ever approached in public importance such work as this. Certainly America had never seen its like. The crushing of the King had become a ‘‘

Thomas Xast, as leader refonn movement Xew York City had ever

national issue and, next to Grant himself, of the greatest

known, had become the conspicuous national figure. Carlyle once said: “ He that would move and convince others must first

moved and convinced himself.” Thomas Xast had long been moved and convinced in his crusade against the King. Xow in be

a perfect frenzy of battle he had risen to achievements of attack

and slaughter hitherto undreamed.

And trance.

just here

came Samuel

J. Tilden’s great

moment

of en-

His appearance on the stage was as dramatic as

it

was the moment in the melodrama when the avenger rushes from the wings, holding high the damning proof that makes conviction sure. The Booth Committee was ready to make its report. Through Andrew II. Green, Mr. Tilden knew precisely what that report would be. Two or three days previous he “ happened causually,” as he says in his affidavit, to drop into l\Ir. Green’s office, and was there shown some startling figures from the books of the was

effective.

It

Broadway Bank. figures

sum to

showed

Traced through the bank’s just

of $6,312,641.37

how an account

— had

against

entries,

the

these

city—

netted a clear profit of $6,095,309.17

Tweed and his friends^ and just in what measure the transachad been arranged. AVhy the bank had not rendered so

tion

important a public service before, does not matter now. does

it

matter

why Mr.

Tilden,

who

later

Xeither

acknowledged that he

I

Twist."

Puvt»



n«.”—

Good

like

pursuit

the

in

joined

too,

Thief!’

13

THOMAS NAST

194

knew

as far back as 1869 that the Ring “ was opposed to all good government,” should have waited until this particular and supreme instant for strenuous action. It is enough that it

was the supreme instant, and with his affidavit and the clear and full statement of the Broadway Bank, iMr. Tilden strode into the lime-light, and the Public rose up in a concord of cheers and commendation. Til-

den in that moment must have believed that the greatest gift

American people would

of the

be his reward.

On of

the next day the report

the

moved THE BOSS STILL HAS THE HEINS

Booth Committee

re-

breath

of

the

last

doubt.

On

:\farcy

Twood wus

that

and, though released on a million dollar bond,

day IVilliam aiTostod,

supplied by

Jay Gould and others, that first arrest marked the beginning of the end. Samuel J. Tilden, like an avenging angel, with all the skill and knowledge and ambition of his kind, had linked his legal acumen with the brilliant daring of the Times and the relentless genius of Nast! The glory of dishonor was waning dim. In its declining day, long shadows of sombre prison walls reached out to enclose the Ring.

Yet perhaps hope was not wholly dead.

In the issue of the

"Weekly prior to election week there was but one small cartoon,

and It

this represented

may

Tweed

holding the Democratic reins.

be the Ring gleaned a grain of comfort from this con-

fession of the

“ Boss’s ” strength, and believed

small shot of battle.

fling into their

it

to be the last

Little did they guess that with the next

number— issued two days would

still

before the election— Thomas Xast

midst a pictorial projectile so

terrific in

THE COLLAPSE OF THE RING its

power, so far-reacliing in

its

results,

that

195

Ring rule and

plunder the world over shall never cease to hear the echo of

its

fall.

was a great double page of that Coliseum at Rome which the young (larihaldian had paused to sketch on his way out of It

THE ONLY THING THEY RESPECT OR FEAR We “ We

say that the one consequence of thievinjr which they would now dread is a I^ihlic scorn, or even the penitentiary, has little terrors for them.” do not know how the atfair mav end. hut we do know that if they close their careers in peace, and ease, and affluence, it will be a terrible blow to political and private morality.”— T/ie Nation. **

presume

Tiolent death.

it

is

strictly correct to

THOMAS XAST

196

Seated in the imperial enclosure, gazing down, with

Italy.

brutal eager faces are

Tweed and

his dishonored band, with

the Americus emblems above and below. of the amphitheatre that

we

see.

But

it is

only the centre

There, full in the foreground,

with glaring savage eyes and distended jaws,

its

great, cruel

paws crushing down the maimed Republic, we behold the first complete embodiment of that fierce symbol which twenty 3’ears before had fascinated a little lad who had followed and shouted behind the engine of the Big Six. The creature of rai)acity and stripes, whose savage head Tweed had emblazoned on the Tammany Banner, had been called into being to rend and destroy him.

In

all

the cartoons the world has ever seen none has been

so startling in its conception, so splendidly picturesque, so endur-

motive of reform as “ The Tammany Tiger Loose— "What are you going to do about it? ” In the history of pictoing in

its

rial caricature it

— to-day as then, and for

stands alone

all

time

— unapproached and unapproachable. Two it.

days later the people declared what they would do about

The Ring had

plotted to stuff the ballot and use their anuies

of repeaters, but so great

was

their craven fear at this

moment

that a Nast picture of citizens voting into a waste-basket, with

the Ring to do the counting, published with four others in the great Tiger issue (six altogether), frightened them into a fairly honest count

which swept them out of power.

The Ring

was shattered. It existed but in the history of its misdeeds. The Nast pictures of the results of the great defeat were worthy of the man who had made them possible. Tweed, wounded, bandaged, disgusted and disgusting, is shown as Marius among the ruins of Carthage. The “ Boss,” it is true, had been reelected

to the State Senate

—the vote in his district

not being a matter of moral conviction sire to claim his seat.

On

— but

he had

lost all de-

another page, “ Something That Did

Blow Over ” graphically and humorously portrayed

the ruins of

? it

about

do to

going

you

symbol)

are

Tiger

What

famous

“ —

the

of LOOSE.

use

lirst

(The TIGER

TAMMANY

THE

THOMAS XAST

108

House

the

of

Tam-

many— the Eing and

adherents

its

either

or

eruslied

escaping, with only

whose term

Hall,

had

not

expired,

clinging to a

still

tottering fragment.

Opposite to this still

is

another page,

“ The

Political Peter

Suicide

of

‘Brains’

Sweeny”

— Sweeny

having

resigned from

office

withdrawn

and

from public

life

the

day following the fatal election.

forth his ing.

in

official

iMr.

trip to

In his letter of resignation he declared that hence-

duty would be confined to the single act of vot-

Sweeny,

it

may

be added, subsequently made a flying

Canada, later to join his brother James, also concenied

Ring

financiering, in France.

Eventually he

])aid

dred thousand dollars to the city and was forgiven.*

four hun-

It

has been

Sweeny’s “Bill of Ilealtli” was obtained and the inonej’ restored to the name of James M. Sweeny, who had died subsequent to tlie Ring exposures. This subterfuge was freely condemned at the time, as the following brief extracts will show: * ^Ir.

city in the

Evening Post, June 7, 1877: Of course, nobody will be deceived by suit of the people was not against James

this disgraceful ^1.

Sweeny.

The The proceed-

and offensive sham.

He

is

dead.

ings are not against the estate. It is not believed that he had any estate. It is known that he lived by the breath of his brother, that he was but a mere miserable tool, and that nolwdy woidd have been more astonished than himself if it had been suggested that he should pay to the city of New York, or to anybod}’ else, several hundred thousand dollars, or any other sum.

THE COLLAPSE OF THE RING said that

lie

199

never

really participated in the

King

profits.

If this be true, then

the writer

may

pennitted

to

that

Sweeny

]\Ir.

he

add

paid a veiy large price for the privof

ilege

keeping

very had company. ^Ir. Tilden,

with

who,

James

O’Brien, had been

elected to the Legislature,

must

THt political suicide or

PniK‘‘BKMMS »WrtKV.

have forgotten his agreement to protect

Connolly, for

on November 25th the latter

was sud-

denly arrested on a

>THS

MU.

complaint to which the only affidavit

^opy C0£S

TO

SWEENY RETIRES FROM PUBLIC

was made by Tilden

himself.

LIFE

Connolly realized

Evening Express, June 8, 1877: The release of Sweeny on the payment of $400,000 is an insult to the tax-payers of the city and an outrage on jnstiec. It is nominally paid out of his dead brother’s estate, but even Lawyer Peekham admits that this pretence is too thin to be believed; and it is justified on the scoundrers ground that compounding with felony pays better than to exact sciuare-handed justice of the felon. And then to give Sweeny a certificate of character on toj) of this transaction, shows that .somebody’s ideas of decency are strangely demoralized and that the “Brains” of the old King still has his pals where they can do the most good.

...

There was much more of

and the sentiment was echoed by the public and made to rehabilitate Mr. Sweeny’s reputation; but these efforts have met, and are likely to meet, with slight encouragement. The official obloquy recorded against his dead brother’s memory remains a serious flaw in Mr. Sweeny’s title to exoneration. the press generallj’.

this,

Several later attempts have been

THOMAS NAST

200

SOMETHIN'G THAT DID

that he liad been trapped lars.

A

BLOW OVER

— NOVEMBER

and offered

million and a half

7,

1871

to settle for a million dol-

was demanded. Connolh'’s

wife,

who

was present, demurred. “ Kichard, go to jail,” she said, and “ Slippery Dick ” that night slept behind the bars and remained there until January. Then he secur-ed bond and joined the “ Arrrericans Abroad,” the irnrrrber of which increased with each outgoing steamer. Alrrrost a score of indictnrents were prepared against

was not

until the winter of 1873 that

and then for Street jail

irr

rrrisderrrearror.

Tweed, but

it

he was behind prison bars,

Later he was irnprisorred in Ludlow

default of a three-mill iorr-dollar bond.

escaped to Europe, to be captured, as we shall see

manner which would add the

final

Thence he later,

irr

a

touch to a ti’iurnpharrt

crusade.

Hall— br-azen, defiant and shameless to the last— clrrng to the wreckage until his terrrr of office expir'ed, “ The Last Thonr of Surnrrrer, ” as Xast depicted hirrr. Neither the Iler’ald nor the

THE COLLAPSE OE THE RIXG Tribune was ever fully convinced of cartoon,

liis

guilt,

201

and Nast,

in a

showed the younger Bennett and Mr. Greeley white-

was almost lost. In another “ discovering ” him as the one place Greeley as Diogenes is “ Elegant Oakey ” must have honest man. One reflects that washing him

until his real identity

had a most winning personality to have inspired ever so little confidence in these shrewd journalists, when ruin and wreck lay all about him, and only oblivion and exile before. The colony of expatriates claimed him in due season, and when, long after,

he retunied to his native land, broken in body and fortunes,

he eked out a paltry living by a petty law practice, and through contributing archaic

Of

all

humor

to the

the fortunes acquired

comic weeklies.

by the Ring and

its

scarcely the remnants of a single one exist to-day.

adherents,

Less than

was recovered by the city, but the men who had sold themselves for plunder had not the ability to preseiwe Some of them died in exile, others in their ill-gotten price. prison. Some were allowed to retuni and testify against their fellows, and all, or nearly all, have perished from the sight of a million of the loss

men, and

left

only dishonored names behind.

WHAT THE PEOPLE MUST DO ABOUT

IT



LET THE GOOD

WORK (hOUSE-CLEANINg) GO ON

Miss Columbia — Uncle Sum, you keep on cleaning the ballot-box, while knows, it needs it! ”

I

give this a scrubbing— goodness

CHAPTER XXIII AFTER THE BATTLE Xast had done

irmeli besides the

Ring work

in 1871, for

he

was an indefatigable worker, and two booklets, one entitled “ Dame Europa’s School,” a humorous portrayal of affairs in Europe, and another, “ Dame Columbia’s Public School, or Something that did Not Blow Over ” — both of which were numerously illustrated with Nast drawings— had a world-wide, though of course brief, popularity. The first “ Nast Almanac ” also appeared this year, an amusing booklet of the months, to which Mark Twain, Josh Billings, Nasby and most of the “ funny men ” of the time contributed. Then there had been regular cartoons in Phunny Phellow, also social and moral cartoons in both Haqier’s Bazar and 'Weekly, and these had not failed to arouse discussion, for no matter what the subject might be, the cartoons of

mand

Thomas Nast were

attention.

likely to be radical

and

to

com-

AFTER THE BATTLE But with the overthrow of the Bing,

203

all else

was

forgotten.

Letters of congratulation and even telegrams poured of the latter,

from “

Two

in.

One

Patriots of Vermont ” said:

God alone can fully appreciate the blessings you have conferred upon the country by your noble reform. IMaj' your health be spared to enjoy the perfect happiness you deserve.

From Bear

the Vice-President

^Ir.

came an

enthusiastic line.

Nast:

With

a heart full of joy over the magnificent results of last Tuesday, 1 write you again, as I did in the fall of 1868, to recognize the large share you have had in its achievement. Week by week I have looked at and studied your telling and speaking pictures and wondered how you could find so many new and striking ideas for your pictorial bombardment. Everybody I have heard speak of the campaign concurs with me that nothing has been more effective. Kejoicing with you that these returns prove that General Grant can be elected far more triumphantly in 1872 than in 1868, I am, sincerely your friend, Schuyler Colfax.

In an editorial on the Bing’s downfall the Nation said: INIr.

Nast has carried political illustrations during the

last

months to a pitch of excellence never before attained in this country, and has secured for them an influence on opinion such as they never came near having in any country. It is right to say that he brought the rascalities of the Bing home to hundreds of thousands who never would have looked at the figures and printed denunciations, and he did it all without ever for one moment being weak, or paltry, or vulgar, which is saying much for a man from whose pencil caricatures were teeming every week for so long. six

The Post (Nov.

23, 1871),

quoted the above, and added.

The fact is that Mr. Nast has been the most impoidant single missionary in the great work, and it is due to him more than to any other cause that our municipal war for honesty has, from a local contest,

No

widened

to a national struggle.

respectable paper

Even those who, perhaps

was bold enough

to

defame him now.

in a spirit of rivalry, refused to accord

THOMAS NAST

204 credit to the

Times for

travagant praises of

its

great work, united in the most ex-

Thomas

The Times itself generously Nast, which even the illiterate

Nast.

acknowledged that the pictures of

could read at a glance, had been the most powerful of

all

the

engines directed against the stronghold of civic shame,

Eveiy

leading paper in America had an editorial in his honor.

Poets

sang his praises and ministers of the gospel offered blessings

from the

pulpit.

The

circulation of llari)er’s AVeekly

had

in-

creased from one hundred thousand to three times that number, a result accredited almost entirely to the

King cartoons

Collectors began to gather his pictures.

iMany wrote for infor-

of Nast.

Among them was Auguswhose collection was to become world-famous. was not only in the market-place that his name and

mation conceniing his earlier work. tine Daly,

But

it

achievements were recognized.

In the most isolated farmhouse woodsman’s hut and in the miner’s cabin, carTweed and his fellows decorated the walls, and the men

of the West,

toons of

in the

and women who put them there knew that they were drawn by

They knew

that with his marvellous pencil and

his unfaltering courage he

had triumphed over these men who

Thomas

Nast.

had brought a great city to the verge of ruin, and who, but for him, might have destroyed the Nation, They told these things to each other about the fire at evening and the stories grew with the telling. Nor was this honor confined were

By

filled

to

America

alone.

London papers

with the story of his achievements and his fame.

the Times, the Spectator, and other

London journals he was John

hailed as the Hogarth, the Dore, the Cruikshank, the

Leech, of America.

Such papers meant to be generous, com-

plimentary and sincere. the

Thomas Nast

But Nast was as none of

these.

He was

of America, an individuality as absolute,

whom

and

he had been compared. as noble as any of those with Most of them surpassed him in mere technique, and Nast him-

AFTER THE BATTLE self

was always the

tility of

first to

them

this admission.

But

in fer-

thought, in originality of idea, in absolute convictions

and splendid moral courage,

men

make

205

in

achievements that shall make

name and memory, Thomas Nast was

revere his

the peer of

all.

Ilis great

triumph had been accomplished

of early study

color value

among Neither

was

artists tlien

studied for

and academic training. then,

and

Ilis

in s})ite of his lack

mastery of

line

and

and remains to-day, a matter of discussion is a matter of small moment. The Tammany Tiger Loose ” or for the lack of it. It was accepted

critics.

It

nor later was

its teclmicpie

without a question as “ the most impressive political ])icture ever produced in this country ”* and every American cartoonist at

once appropriated

it

as his

own

—not

surreptitiously hut

The symbols and ideas of the first American cartoonist became without question the property of his followers. In the AVeekly for December 2, 1871, C. S. Reinhart, then young and devoted to Nast, made use of the Tiger symbol without hesitation. To him and to others it was like the sudden discovery in science of some new element or prinIt belonged to the world— the world of art. ciple. openly, as the pupil copies the master.

Times.

THE LAST THORN OF SUMMER

PAKT FOUR: THE HEFEXDEK CHAPTER XXIV “anytiiixg to beat gkaxt”

The beginning

Thomas

of 1872 found

Xast surrounded by comfortable conditions

and a hai)py

liouseliold.

His earn-

ings for the year just closed had aggre-

gated more than eight thousand dollars, of

which about

five

thousand had been

paid to him by Harper and Brothers for his cartoons against the King.

HAUL “turned up “ Here we

that he might have

are a^ain ”

The

fact

had one hundred

named amount for discontinuing the crusade did not disturb him. He had won the fight, and the approval of worthy men. His loyal vafe rejoiced with him in his triumph. His own health and that of his family had been regained. With times the

last

fair prospects

Morristown

ahead they planned the purchase of the beautiful

home— a

place of ample grounds and spacious rooms

— an ideal abode for a successful man with a sturdy and growing The new house was acquired in March, and they took possession in August. IMrs. Xast, who a year before had come to the countin’ expecting to remain but a brief time, never saw the inside of the little Harlem cottage again. Of the children there were now four— Julia, Tom, Edith and

family.

Mabel— the

last a

December baby

of the year just gone.



We

i



a had fourth

307

glorious



on



ANYTIIiyG TO BEAT GRANT”

the

Fifth ” he had an-

by

nounced graph

tele-

Fletcher

to

Harper, in the char-

and joy-

acteristic

manner which remained with him ous

to

Less

end.

the

thirty-two

than years

with

old,

an

fame,

health,

household—

ideal

with long years of almost

pi’osperity

certainly

assured—

fortune

had

smiled

upon

the

young

artist

who

truly

had begun with the beeswax soldiers in the dim old bar-



CAN THE LAW REACH HIM? THE DWARF AND THE GIANT THIEF

racks of Landau.

Tweed and his had somewhat neglected those who, another sort, found their interest and

In the midst of the fierce campaign against fellows,

the

cartoonist

clamoring for reform of

pleasure in decin'ing the administration and personality of General Grant.

Now

that the

Ling was

in flight,

he began to give

attention to such individuals and party elements as were assail-

ing the hero of Donelson, Vicksburg and Appomattox Court

House.

Being a presidential year, national

importance.

affairs

were of

first

Besides the natural enemies of the Bepublican

THOMAS NAST

208

had developed

party, there

In

ranks.

New York

a formidable opiDosition in its

City, the

own Sun had long been printing a

double-column headed “ Useful Horace Greeley ” and

daily

“ Useless

The Post and the Herald criticised or The Tribune, which only a little time before had declared that Grant was the logical candidate, better fitted for the presidency in 1872 than he had been in 1868, now united in the outcry against him, asserting that there were Grant.”

S.

denounced the Administration.

at least half

a dozen better candidates, of which galaxy Mr.

Greeley perhaps believed himself to be the bright particular star.

At Washington

the anti-Grant faction consisted of a group

of Eepublican senators, led

by

Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts,

and including such men

as Carl Schurz, of ]\Iissouri;

Reuben E. Fenton, York; Thomas Nebraska,

of

Lyman Trumbull

and— though somewhat jn’ominently of Illinois.

New

AY. Tipton, of

less

— John A. Logan,

A curious

cabal

it

was, whose able members had '*8TONE

submerged the various ques-

upon which they

tions

fered, to unite

issue

and

dif-

**Ko FttaoH

a

u

The causes which had

hold the Bom." «HB OtREm.

If ARE.**>,

«n> eer

t

he twice

\ekified

on the single

in the hostile battle-crj',

walls DO NOT A PRISON

»io taoi'CM to

“ Anything

to beat Grant!



led to this defection were, in the main,

a i^ersonal opposition to the President’s foreign! policy and to his distribution of political patronage.

Party leaders, failing to

for their chief constituents, were loud “ corruption ” at every reported irreguin their outcries of

obtain profitable

larity,

was

and eager

offices

in their

demands

for a civil seiwice reform.

inevitable under the prevailing custom that

many

It

offices

‘AXYTIIING TO BEAT GHAXT



209

by unworthy canunduly recommended, didates and the President had made some For unfortunate appointments. should be

this

filled

now

he was

and

responsible,

held personally

when

frauds

developed here and there, as they

have

every

in

administration

since the formation of the Ke-

Grant was charged as be-

public.

ing directly to blame

if

not actu-

alh' a participant in the profits of

dishonesty.

That Charles Sumner, with

a

noble record behind him, should

have been a leader in

this ignoble CHARLES SUMNER

warfare upon America’s greatest soldier

and

(From

who would

a pleasant recollection for those

statesman as the embodiment of cipled

lina,

down

all

and splendid— the Bayard of

debate.

It

was

a photograph)

one of her most honored Presidents,

that

is

not

revere that great

is unselfish,

high-prin-

politics, the Chesterfield of

in 1856 that Preston S. Brooks, of

South Caro-

incensed at Sumner’s arraignment of slavery, struck at his

desk with a gutta-percha cane.

and when, after a long

illness,

him

Neither then nor

afterward did the Massachusetts statesman ever taliation,

now

make any

re-

he returned once more

was welcomed as a martyr and honored as a demi-god. It has been said that from the blow of “ Bully ” Brooks he never fully recovered, and perhaps we may

to his accustomed place he

accept this as an excuse for the fierce intolerance and personal vindictiveness of his closing days.

Sumner was a man

of debate

fiercely passionate eloquence 14

and

and

finely

oratory’’

—a

chevalier of

rounded periods.

Grant

THOMAS NAST

210





was a soldier a man of deeds with words few and simple. Sumner was splendid in physique and bearing. Grant was small, unpretentious, almost uncouth. Sumner was willing to honor Grant as a soldier and a hero, hut the man from Galena must have been weighed and found lacking in much that the Massachusetts senator would have deemed gratifying in the nation’s Chief j\Iagistrate. As Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Kelations, Sumner resented the military simplicity and policy of his little commander, and was likely to appear condescending in their enforced intercourse.

On

the other hand.

Grant was altogether willing to pay tribute

to

Sumner’s

superior culture and exi)erience, and to accord deference to his desires. It

was

to the

this inclination

on the part of the President that led

break in their friendly relations.

Grant’s "West India

policy tended to the annexation of San Domingo, and in January, 1870, he

had

called one evening at

question and secure cooperation.

and perha25s did not wish

Sumner’s house to discuss the

The Senator was

to he disturbed

at dinner

during that function.

Furtheimore, though favoring, himself, the annexation of Canada, he vigorously ojiposed, as

coming from the President, any

annexation in the direction of the "West Indies.

He

afterwards

had come to him under the influence of liquor. "Whatever may have been the details of the meeting, it is recorded that from that night Sumner became the bitter l^ersonal opi^onent of Grant— decrying in public, and to any

avowed

one

that the President

who would

listen,

not only the administration hut the char-

acter of Grant in the most violent and opprobrious terms.

Those who knew and loved him best were amazed behavior. One of them, P. II. Dana, wrote:

...

at his

If I could Sumner has been acting like a madman. hear that he was out of his head from opium, or even New England rum, not indicating a habit, I should be relieved. ]\Iason,

“ANYTIIIXG rO BEAT GRANT



211

Davis and Slidell were never so insolent and overbearing as he was, and his arguments, his answers of questions, were boyish or crazy, 1 don’t know which. '

If Charles

Sumner’s mind was clear

easy to apologize for his demeanor. tile,

at this period,

it

is

not

Openly and abusively hos-

both to the administration and the President, he might

with perfectly good taste have resigned his post of honor instead of using

impede legislation and

to

it

justment, then for the

first

to delay the

Alabama

For England, who had permitted Confederate privateers

to be

constructed in Brit-

and

ish

waters

sail

through British

statutes

to

to

destroy

American shipping,

had long ized

since real-

that

established

she

had

a

dan-

gerous precedent which might be

fol-

her

own

vast undoing.

She

lowed

to

had made

for her-

bed not con-

self a

ducive

to

especially

repose,

after

Grant’s declaration, in

his

annual mes-

sage, 1871, that “ Our firm and unalterable convictions

are

just

the

re-

verse ” (of those of

ad-

time made possible.

Peace to Justice: “After you, madame”

THOMAS XAST

212

England), and

liis

announcement that the United States 'would

take over the ownership of nationally responsible for

all

all

the private claims and thus be

demands against Great

Britain.

The eagerness of England to make an end of the matter now became acute. Through Hamilton Fish— Grant’s Secretary of State— and Sir John Bose, of England, was consummated the Treaty of ’Washington, an international agreement looking to the settlement of the Alal)ama claims and questions concerning certain fisheries and

boundaries. deferring

Still

the

to

Massachusetts Senator, the Presi-

dent sent Secretary'

mem-

Fish with a

orandum

of

the

proposed Alabama clause to Sumner’s

house to obtain his

approval. ner’s

Sum-

reply

was,

that as a condition of

settlement

the

withdrawal of the

“WELL ROARED, LION!” AND “WELL SHONE, MOON!”

SECRETARY FISH AND GENERAL GRANT AJIUSED AT THE ENGLISH OUTCRY' OVER THE ALABAMA CLAIMS

the settlement complete, the

from

British

flag

Canada

could not

he abandoned, and added, “ To make

withdrawal should he from

hemisphere, including ]u*ovinces and islands.”

this

*

demand would virtually have stopped negotiations. General Grant, who had paid little attention to Sumner’s per-

As *

this

Address by Charles Francis Adams, N. Y. Hist. Society, November

19, 1901.

“ANYTHING TO HEAT GRANT ” sonal attacks,

now made up

Ins

mind

213

that the Senator’s removal

from his post of influence was not only desirable, but necessary. Being a military man, he did not hesitate to reduce, in any manner that might prove effective, a subordinate

was

On

likely to destroy, a

who impeded, and

measure of such manifest importance.

the 9th of i\Iarch, 1871, in a Eepublican senatorial caucus,

Charles Sumner was deposed from the chainnanship of the

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations— a position he had held with honor for many years. The Treaty of 'Washington was

concluded

— the

Alabama Claims being

finally

Geneva, Switzerland, in the summer of 1872. to

American shipping England paid

arbitrated

to the United States the

of $15,500,000— an amicable adjustment, due to the efforts of President Grant, Secretary Fish, It will

sum

combined

and Sir John Rose.

how naturally Sumner time— had been made leader

be seen from the foregoing

—still the foremost statesman of the

of the anti-Grant senatorial faction of 1872.

grievances

and

ambitions

of

his

own,

Carl Schurz, with

espoused

cause and became his closest adherent and counsellor.

Sumner’s Fenton,

Trumbull, Tipton and others,

each with his

own axe

to grind, rallied about them,

rejoicing in the leadership of one

who

time

had

down

’’—this

was then

for a second

been

“ struck

time,

as

it

declared, “because

of his opposition to the

San

Domingo scheme ”— a martyr to “ military rule,” a victim of the ruthless ,

sol-

HANDS OVEU (WHAT MIGHT have been) a bloody chasm”

“ LET US CLASP ^

at

For damages

dier. Grant.

CHAPTER XXV NAST AND CURTIS AND A CONFLICT OF POLICIES Nast began the campaign of 1872 by dividing bis attention chiefly

between the Greeley movement in Printing House Square

and those who waged war upon the President at the capital. Early in January he published a cartoon entitled “ VTiat I on the one hand, the “ Sage of Chapknow about Greeley

paqua ”

in the

“ sacred old white hat and coat ” offering bail

to Jefferson Davis,

turbable Grant.

and on the

other, flinging

at the imiier-

Later in the month there appeared a picture

which made a most decided

Grant had been by no means

stir.

deaf to the cry for Civil Service Reform. first

mud

He

was, in fact, the

President to show any interest in tne theory.

sage he had declared for

it

in

In his mes-

unmistakable tenns.

Perhaps

was not altogether a pleasant surprise for those who had been denouncing him as a military despot and spoilsman. Civil this

Servdce, after

long

all,

accustomed

rendered.

might not prove a savory broth to Senators to

arbitrary

appointments

for

services

Nast’s cartoon represents their disgust at being

compelled to take the potion they had been so clamorously

demanding.

The picture was a shot liome and contained a humor which perhaps the disaffected Senators failed to see. They cried out against any such treatment of their dignified body.

It

also

XAST AXD

CL’ NT IS

215

brought a protest from Curtis, himself chairman of the Civil Service Commission at 'Washington, editing the range.

Weekly at long members

Curtis Avas the intimate friend of most of the

of the anti-Grant cabal, especially of Sumner, for

V.

a

C.

“CHILDREN CRY FOR ‘ IF VOL- CAN STAND

whom

he

IT.”

IT

I

CAN.*

“ If had men have secured places, it has heen the fault of the system estahlishM by law and custom for making; appointments, or the fault of thosi? who recommend for government ))ositinns persons hot sutlieiently well known to them personally, or w’ho give letters indorslnir the charav».%TiC4nc (Pr^sicn) Pir

be President

Sumner and Schurz found

for

New

Sumner.

necessary to prepare a

ing the presidential period to one temi only.

quarry in Seneca,

by

again, perhaps even a third it

AVar



made by Schurz and

He

time—

bill restrict-

He owned

a stone

York, whence large quantities of stone

govenmient building were said

had appointed countless

to

have been taken.

He

and was therefore word which did not fail to find place He was accused of being in Sumner’s classic vocabulary. fond of fast horses and expensive cigars. AVorst and most heinous offence of all, it was said that he drank whiskey! Sumner had smelled it on his breath that eventful night of the San Domingo quarrel. It was the same charge which had been made against him during the war, and to which Lincoln, who never himself touched a drop of liquor, had replied: ” AVell, if Grant drinks whiskey, I wish some of the other generals would get hold of the same brand.” To portray Grant as a besotted despot in the midst of a saturnalia was hardly convincing to those who had followed his march from Donelson to Appomattox, and under his administraguilty of “ nepotism,” a

relatives to office,

WASHINGTON HONORS tion

220

had seen the national debt reduced at the rate of nearly one Lacking the touch of humor, such

hundred millions a year.

was more than

become a boomerang, or a lighted grenade, tossed straight into the air. “ All that goes up must come down,” and the Grant cartoons by Morgan fell a picture

likely to

destructively on the heads of those

On

who had given them

flight.

the other hand, Horace Greeley was accused of none of

was unnecessary to charge him with anything save the fact that he had not remained steadfast in his faith and works. His career had been one of brilliant vacillations these sins.

It

and distinguished

His own printed utterances,

credulities.

re-

printed categorically, became his accusation and his conviction.

Adding together the evidences of his erratic record, his eccentricities of dress and manner, his own fondness for fierce invective and wordy warfare, with the further addition of Xast’s unfailing touch of humor, and the Greeley cartoons were bound Indeed, if to become the effective weapons of the campaign. there was ever an ideal subject for pictorial satire it was found in the person

and career of Horace Greeley.

It

has been charged

against Nast that he assailed a feeble old man.

On

the con-

trar>% Greeley was not yet sixty-two at his death, and certainly

during the earlier months of the campaign was anything but feeble.

Even had both charges

been true he would have been the

more

unfit for the

high

all

office

he sought; and, always unsparing in his

own warfare, he could

hardly have hoi)cd for mercy in return,

especially

as

Grant,

Xast’s hero, was continuously reviled

a

and

drunkard,

thief.

caricatured

a

loafer,

as

and a TBG BATTLB'CRT OF STnOTEK

C 8.

*'Hrr«

cobm MBroniiir

CHAPTER XXVII GRANT AND WILSON, AND GREELEY AND DROWN The cartoons tinued,

of Sclmrz,

Sumner and

becoming more drastic with each

protest again, and presently found editorial strictures,

it

their associates conissue.

Curtis did not

necessary to tighten his

whether from his own inclinations or because

from Franklin Square cannot now be known. of March 28 he said:

of urgent hints

In an editorial

AVhen Senator Sclmrz declared that the Ceneral Order swindle a power higher than the Secretary of the Treasury, he hinted that it was the President, because he is the only power which, in that sense, is higher than the Secretary. Those who in the investigation of frauds in the Administration seem much more anxious to smear the President than to punish guilty agents, ought to consider whether by so clear an exhibition of personal animosity they do not harm the cause of simple,

was sustained by

.

.

.

honest reform.

Nast had made another trip to Washington earlier

in

the

month, and while there, had been presented to Schurz, who looked down with sinister contempt on the little man before him.

“ You

will not be allowed to continue

he said rather



Why

not,

fiercely.

Senator?” queried Nast.

Your paper “ Oh,

your attacks upon me,”

T think

will not it

penuit them!”

will,” ventured the artist pleasantly. In the

New York

Ctistoni-liouse.

GRANT AND WILSON, AND GREELEY AND BROWN CaPI.

ScKUHZ.

THE BUVI



231

” declared the tall statesman with a threatening air. “ I shall publicly chastise you! ” "Well, then, I will not!

Nast laughed his happy, infectious laugh, in

which many joined. That the man who had

defied

and destroyed the Tweed King, with

legions of bullies

its

and thugs, could be intimi-

dated by Senator Schurz perhaps seemed to them humorous. In the issue with the Curtis editorial above noted appeared “ Carl Schurz the Brave ” as a “

Tower

of Strength,” the

most pronounced caricature thus far of the ]\rissouri senator.

On

the same page Roscoe

Conkling, as ]\Iacduff, the fearless defender of Grant, later

makes

we

find

little

Schurz as Quixote, fighting the

XL S. Windmill. cartoons

and a

his first appearance,

now,

or

Logan was

left

out of the

appeared very dimly

in

the background, sometimes turning his back

on his former associates. Colonel Chipman, always a faithful friend of Nast,

was very

close to

Grant and in

fre-

quent letters kept the artist posted as to the situation at the capital.

In one of these the

President had sent word:

Logan

remember him in the and fault-finding until the order came to move. Then he was in the front rank and ready to charge. Logan is loyal. field.

is all right.

He was always

I

critical

So Logan escaped after one or two hard knocks, hut as the conventions drew nearer, Vhc TOWER or

STRENGTH

dissentiiig faction grew,

and

its

members

with the Democratic leaders were combined by Nast in a motley

:

THOMAS NAST

232

assembly, of eral

wliicli

spokesman and

dressing

number

a of

Horace Greeley was portrayed as genchief.

convention his

of

Greeley,

as

Pickwick,

]\rr.

ad-

Republicans and a former enemies, including Horatio Reymour, “ Andy ” Johnson disalfected

Fern

an d

an d o

was a hu-

AVood,

morous summary of liberal ” political



conditions.

Chipman

Colonel

was

a faithful corre-

spondent.

end

of

Near the March he

wrote

Your last pictures are excellent. I fell in with the President this morning during bis moniing He says you are not only a genius but one of the

M’alk,

greatest wits in the countiy. He says your pictures are full of fine

THE ONLY “ emergencies” M E NEED FEAR Don

(?)

Carlos Quixote and Sancho Tiptoe Panza on “the Path of

humor.

am

glad you are WOl’king Oil tllO SuI

Duty”

ppcmC

The

(^OUl’t ])icturO.

fact

is,

(David)

Davis, Field and Chief Justice Chase are really the only members that have the fever at all. Nelson would have, but he is too old

now. I spoke of your idea to Judge Atiller; he thinks it excellent, but he hopes he will not be brought out as a President-seeker, as he surely is not. He is a sturdy, straight-out Grant man and Kejuiblican, with no ambition beyond the Bench, and with fair outlook for the Chief Justiceship in Chase’s place.

I infer

^

r

O ®

o

C:

K ^ S

•2 (3

I

(n

w 5 J'.

.

W

'2

CO

g

K %

O A

a s

0 O

3

„ ^

£

o

^1 ^

a

o P y. -

0

^

a

«

w ^ CO

^ G

S

^ X

o p^ «

THOMAS NAST

234

from your not asking any points that you have all the infonnation you want on these details. Did you see what Greeley said of you the other day, editorially? Speaking of Ilaqier’s he spoke of you as the “ blackguard of the paper, paid to defame,

etc.,

etc.”

The Patriot has a mean attack on Harper, Curtis and Nast, and quotes the Tribune, so you see you catch it all around.

infer that

I

gives up the Phila. Convention to Grant. So far as I can dis-

Greeley

cover,

the

Cin.

movement does not strengthen. I

have very

little

gossip to send you.

Again

in

April,

Chipman General wrote to Nast: THE PRESIDENTIAL **Mark but

Judse

rE\'ER

my

£>a«iit, 1

fb)l.

Greeley’s conis now worth

duct

ON THE SUPREME BENCH.

»nd

cbargo

that that roin'd thl/\\vi»iir Vrtlirsj»lf and you can not make it

In

you

j

bursts—

appearance

December 20, The symbol 1878. on

thus

has

invented

let well enough alone, and don-t make

been frequently used Money

is light,

but

let

it

recover itwlf

it worse Stimulants or inflation only bring

by later cartoonists. sounder ” “ bill— a measure championed by General The Salary Grab Butler — which increased the pay of congressmen and senators from five thousand to seven thousand five hundred dollars a bttsis

pay for time served, had proven a most unpopular bit of legislation and its repeal was imminent. The situation of certain members who had drawn the back pay and were now asked to refund was humorously depicted by Nast. The law year, with back

was abolished

early in seventy-four, except in so far as

it

con-

cerned the President, whose salary had been doubled, and the

THOMAS NAST

290

Supreme

in-

was consid-

crease

ered

Court

whose

Judges,

Many

just.

members liad not drawn their back pay and most of those who had done so retunied it. Thus was public indignation appeased.

Seventy-four was a

year

with

big

events — some tliem

great,

of

others

small, l)ut often fore-

shadowingthelarger I

or

rte.

T^^Fi-Fo-F'umr

OnOM

DANOKR. MuMcbuMttM ma*Ua Blu* IN

of

*

Blood.

1



1

J )G

11 1 11

j

01

I

tll0

The cartoons were many, and the fact that during the first half of the year Xast was on his lecture tour did not lessen them either in number or effect.

future.

Financial conditions continued troublesome.

General Butler, ” “ Salary Grab and Inflation, was jiortrayed the genie of the “ The Cradle of Liberty,” frightening iNlassaas a menace to chusetts with his grim and growing power.

Again, as one of the

shades conjured l>y the })ress, he was shown declaring that ” Grant will not veto the Inflation Bill.” But this was a mis-

evil

taken sentiment on the part of Butler, for the expansion measure which, under the lead of Senator Morton of Indiana, Logan of Illinois,

and General Butler, had been carried through both

prompt veto from General Grant. Koscoe leading opponent, avowed that the bill ” spumed

houses, met with a

Conkling,

its

the ex])erience of

all

history and trampled upon the plighted

THE SKIRMISH LINE OF EJ'ENTS faith

of

day of

291

nation.” Stewart of Xevathi added that the passage was “ the saddest he had ever seen in the

the

its

Senate, and would long be

remembered by the American people.” The President’s veto of this questionable financial measure was declared by Curtis to be the ” most important event of the adNast recorded

ministration.”

it

in the

“ Cradle of Liberty

Out of Danger,” showing the genie, Butler, bottled again. Once

more the New York approval of Grant.

were unstinted

moment united Even those who had been most

dailies for a brief

in their critical

in their praises.

Yet Grant himself was desirous of some measure of financial Earlier in the year he had expressed a belief that the

relief.

medium was unnecessarily small, and had ” free l)anking ” as a possible remedy. To a layman suggested amount

it

is

of circulating

un-

difficult to

derstand

how

this

would have helped matters, as, indeed, it

alwaj's difficult

is

to

understand

method

any

of financial

whether

easement,

of government or individual,

which does

not proceed from the

pledge

of

property

of

or

sale

some

undoubted value

in

exchange for a me-

dium whose

integ-

rity is unquestioned

and

likelv to

unimpaired

remain

THF.

CRADIX OF LIBERTY OUT OF DANOER.

V

“peevish SCHOOJ.BOYS, WOKTHLESS OF SUCH HONOU ” (Senators Logan, Morton, Cameron and Carpenter annoyed. Tipton, Schurz, P'enton, Conkling and others in the di.stance)

XXXI

CITAPTKK' ^'E^V .SYMltOL.'^,

Financial tlissensions

now

AND

divided and weakened

and the (Jreenback leaders did not from

X"ast,

who had

fLESAHISM

little ])atience

the circulating value of stamped

fail

to receive

Itotli

parties,

punishment

with their theories concerning

])a])er liased

on a jtledge which

did not exist— a promise never meant to be fulfilled. In the AVeekly for ^lay 2d, 1874, is a small cartoon entitled

“ Inflation

Easy as Lying.’ ” Capital is tearing the dollar into two })arts to pay Labor, the latter personified in the square cap and apron we have learned to know so well in the cartoons of to-day. The labor symbol he had made use of earlier in the year (Feb. 7) in a small cartoon, entitled “ The American Twins,” but the idea of dividing the dollar, which has since done duty in a hundred fonns, was here used for the first time. is



as

XEJr SYMIWLS,

AND

CAESAltlSM

293

The faces of Logan, O. P. Morton, Simon Cameron, and Matthew II. Carpenter often appeared in the inflation pictures, and statesmen were considerably annoyed in consequence.

these



Little

‘‘

Never mind, Logan,” said Colonel Chipman, consolingly,

Xast thinks he can teach statesmen how to run the government! ” Logan growled one day. “ Anybody might think he runs it himself! ”



it is

what

a distinction to be really caricatured

it

would be

Curtis, with

to

Just think

be indicated by a tag.”

whom

moment, wrote an

by Nast.

Xast was on terms of great amity

at this

editorial defence of the inflation caricatures,

while Xast poi'trayed the “ Greenback ” group as ” Peevish Schoolboys, "Worthless of Such Honor,” though it is doubtful they ever discovered the point of ” honor ” in his attentions. It

was the

ot

Army

in

1874 that Xast began a series of i)ictures in defence

Kegnlar Xavy and

against those parsi-

monious

legislators

who sought

to gain

credit with their constituents

by

re-

ducing the expense of

maintaining the

country’s defenders.

Such economists were

quite

willing

that the uneasy In-

dians

should

be

quieted, and that the

nation’s dignity and

commerce oared

for

if

sliould be

on

the

“there

is

nothing mean ahout rs”

Ukcle Sam— “ What Congress proposes

to reduce

our Army end Xavy

to.”

THOMAS NAST

2!J4

liigli seas,

but they saw an opportunity of personal aggrandise-

ment

in offering bills to

tered

little to tlieni

meanly

reduce public expenditures, and

that soldier

and

it

mat-

went poorly clad and

sailor

fed.

Xast symbolized the heroes on sea and shore as the “ Skeleton Anny and Xavy,” reduced by the farce of “ Retrenchment ” until they

tier,

It

to the

government they pro-

These pictures brought many and grateful

tected. officers

had become a reproach

who were

or cruising the high seas, afar from

was

letters

from

battling Indians in the sage-brush of the fron-

just at this time that Xast

came as the

drew

home and

kindred.

his only picture against

by the President of Alexander R. Shepherd as Governor of the District of ColumGrant.

bia,

It

result of a reap])ointment

and the ovei'whelming rejection of the nomination

l)y

the

Senate.

Shepherd,

known

afterwards

as “ As])halt ” Shep-

herd,

had spent vast

sums

the

in

]u*ovement capital,

and

generally

im-

of

the

it

was

believed

had made a personal ])rofit from that he

these

As

ex]ienditures.

a result, the gov-

eniment of the District

had

ganized,

l)een reor-

and

President’s

pointment Dou’t

let

us have any more of this nonsense. by one's friends; but

— It”

is

a Rood trait to stand

nast’s one cartoon against GR.\NT

the

reapof

the

man who had made this step necessary

NEJr SYMBOLS.

was regarded as indiscreet, in Shepherd— a faith which

AND CAESARISM

despite the fact of

liis

later years are said to

295

implicit faith

have

justified.

Lavish and even extravagant Shepherd may have been, hut it is not now believed that he profited by the money he spent, while to him personally is due the fact that ’Washington, “ from an ill-paved,

ill-lighted,

and beauty.”*

regularity, cleanliness

known

could not be

unattractive city, became a model of

then,

Yet the truth of this

and for the President — already held resi)onsible for

many

unfortunate

appointments— to have thrust personal face

of

friend

directly

the people

in

his

the

who would

have none of him, would seem have

to

justified this single stroke

of censure

from his ablest and

most faithful defender, Thomas Xast.

“THEUE

Grant.

IT IS

again!”

The Tribune

coming the pendent

The cartoon made a great stir, and it was loudly proclaimed that Nast had finally abandoned

of July 10 printed a

column

artist as the latest recruit to the

.Journalism,”

editorial wel-

ranks of ” Inde-

which

had character” a forty jackass ized as having power.” mud-throwing General

Butler

Perhaps on the strength of the anti-Grant cartoon, and the fact that Nast for

a

had taken

brief

trip

his family

abroad,

the

renewing

its

noisy cry of Cnesarism, and

its

Herald

felt safe in

1KFT.ATION IS “AS EAST AS LYING “

• Blaine.

the cap of labor and the divided dollar



THOMAS NAST

290

protests against a third tenn

— an

honor which Grant, at that

time, neither sought nor desired.

But

if

Mr. Bennett believed that the cartoonist had forsaken

was not long deceived. “ There it is again ” (a block despatched hastily from London), was one of Nast’s most humorous burlesques of the Ciesarism scare, and “ Ca'sarphobia ” was an effective summary of the situation. the Administration he

In this picture, the Herald owner, as Nick J3ottom,

about Grant, the Lion, and saying to him “ Do you

ning for a third term! quick,

or— or— or

Do you

insist

Lll bray! ”

is

prancing

insist

Later,

when

on run-

Answer

on being a Coesar?

the Tribune joined in the cry, Mr.

Ben-

was depicted as mounted on the “ Third Term Hobnett

by,” insisting that AV h

i

t

e

should

w

a

1

Rei d

content

l)e

with riding behind.

These

were

really

remarkable carinotably good-humored, and catures,

doubtless enjoyed as

much by

them

jects of

the

public.

AVatterson,

Courier

-

sub-

the

by Henry as

in

Journal

the



himself opposed to

Grant and inclined to

THE HOBBY IN THE KINDEU-GARTEN Junior Bknnett— You must take a

l>at*k scat.

I

was on

first.”

the

echo

Tonil CfY •'

Third

refOlTOCl

XEJr SYMBOLS, them

to

most

207

AXD CAESARISM

“ the

as

jnci’aphic

utter-

ances from that side of the]iolitiealaligu-

meiit.”

The Herald

merely

suggested

that

:\I r.

seemed

to

Nast

have “exthe

hausted

gro-

tesque resources of his trade in endeav-

oring to show that (Ciesar-

issue

the

had no

ism) ence.

exist-

’ ’

and Xast

Curtis

ai)pear to have been

on

excellent .

.

the mere shadow has still some backbone

tenns .

" Our Standing

T

during this period.

Among

the letters

we

from

stands in Bpite of political false economy

J.

.

who was always

“ Joe Brooklyn

as

find one

Army ”

Haiqier, Jr. a

friend

(knovn to

Xast,

complimentary editorial hy Curtis on artist send to the the recent cartoons, and suggesting that the That X^ast must have editor a word of acknowledgment. a few done so is indicated hy a letter to him from Cuitis, dated conasks and days later, in which the editor expresses thanks, that he has sent ceiTiing the artist’s welfare and ])lans. lie adds copy of that beautia copy of his “ Sumner Address,’’ and this

calling attention to

ful

a

eulogv on the dead statesman

Benewed Indian outbreaks and the

Army

is still

preser^ ed.

the promptness and bravery of

picture of of the Frontier, offered occasion for another hampered hy red tape yet still at its post,

the “ skeleton army,’’

and further

letters of appreciation

came from

officers

at the

:

:

THOMAS XAST

298

One

front.

of these,

from Major John Burke,

of Colorado,

said

Your

caricatures, in the opinion of the enlisted

men

of the

anny, do us more real good than all the political speeches made. The one representing “ Anny Backlmne ” is suiter excellent, and all men out on the frontier service thank you for it. AVe expect after having spent all our ammunition in target practice, to have to put up a large sign-hoard with the lettering “ All Indians AVill Please Keep Off the Keseiwation, as Ammunition is Expended. The II. S. being Unable to Allow more than $3.00 per

Annum

for

Ammunition.”

General John C. Kobinson, Lieutenant Governor of

New

York,

wrote

As an old officer of the Army and one having its interests at heart, 1 desire to thank yon for the admirable illustrations in llarj)er’s

Weekly.

In addition to the bill for reductions of the Army, there is now pending in the senate a bill to reduce the rank and pay of the officers, retired from active service on account of wounds received in battle. How soon the promises made have been forVery truly yours, gotten!

John

As

C. Robinson.

autumn elections drew on, it became evident that the political tide had tunied and that Democracy was likely to win a measure of triumph. The Nation’s financial condition had not improved, and the party in power was held responsible for conthe

ditions of agriculture, manufacture

and

trade.

In the South,

anti-negro societies — known under the name of the White Leaguers — were organized to secure a “ white man’s goveni-

ment,” old ku-klux practices were revived, and reports of

and bloodshed began

Samuel ship,

J.

to disgrace the nation.

and his

election over

Governor

State

seemed probable.

Ilis

Tammany Ring

three years before,

Washington liy way of Albany appeared broad was believed that he would make a worthy State

his path to It

l)ix

from the moment he had so opportunely

entered the fight against the

plain.

New York

Tilden was the legitimate candidate for the Govenior-

active leadership dated

and and

In

riot

waadenoA*.'

bU iu

with

met

bo

Aoloialj

fooIUb

tbo

all

Irigbtuuuig

bj huuself

amuMd

aad

ForMt,

tb«

la

about

ro»n«leased at this, and at the oveinrhelming endorsement which their action received at the election following. But it must he remembered that all the sacrifices except that of comfort had been made in accepting the first term. Then, too, such a fire of personal abuse and slander had been kept up for four years, notwithstanding the conscientious performance of my duty to the best of my understanding— though I admit, in the light of subsequent events, subject to fair criticism— that an endorsement from the people, who alone govern republics, was a gratification that it is only human to have appreciated and enjoyed. Now for a third term, I do not want it any more than T the first. I did would not write or

tirement, with

I so

much

utter

a

word

change the

to will of exin

the people pressing or having their

The

choice. idea that

any

man

could elect himself ]>resident, or

even renominate himself, is preposterous. It is a reflection on the intelligence and patriotism of the ])eo])le to sup])ose such a thing possible.

Any man

can destroy his chances for the office,

AND THEY SAY,



HE WANTS A THIRD TERM”

but no one can

force an election, or CVeil a llOmination.

POLITICS

AND

NOTABLE ESCAPE

A

313

recapitulate, T am not, nor have I ever been, a candidate for renoinination. I would not accept a nomination if it were tendered, unless it should come under such circumstjuices as likely to to make it an imperative duty— circumstances not

To

arise.

Xast celebrated the publication of the Grant letter with a caricature of himself, surrounded by little caricatures of his

numerous cartoons against Cnpsarism,” his coat decorated

with a peacock appendage.

may

It

he said here that Nast has

been charged with conceit, hut

no one ever charged

him more himself,

it

against

directly than he did

and no one ever

cari-

catured him more savagely than

he did his own features. X l0ciSG S011Q US VOUr ..

1

-LiUKjnnu wu*

I

l)llOtO“

J c B.Jim. ••IfC«*’tTi»ni««fu1.

nilenUWiM

ABinwUtooM

ftgaio.*

” Those pictures you make of

graph,” wrote an unknown lady. yourself are horrid.”

As

the most ])ositive political factor of his time,

many

he denied that Nast belonged in

it

will

of its pictures.

hardly

Other

and no other maker of pictures was ever so continuously and fiercely cartooned as was Thomas

caricaturists recognized this,

Xast.

The Grant

letter

was variously received by the

Friendly journals declared that non-candidacy. sufficiently it

was

Critical

direct.

it

settled the question of his

was not it that avowed anti-Grant papers

editors

A iolent

])rotested

clearly a hid for the nomination.

nett declaring,

” If Grant

press.

that

Nast depicted Mr. Ben-

isn’t careful. I’ll let the

wild animals

loose again.” It

was

just at this period that

we meet with another

pictorial

invention of Xast in the Greenback “ Bag-baby,” which Senatoi



THOMAS XAST

314

Tliunnau of Ohio, on the moniing of September 4th ’Weekly), finds dejmsited

riag-hahy

tlie lineal

Grant’s veto

The

descendant of the Inflation Baby killed hy

— became

money and other

hy

Harper’s

(in

Ids party on his door-step.

immediately the enduring symbol of

bodiless and boneless measures.

fiat

Like Xast’s

was immediately adopted by his fellow illustrators and became a cartoon ])roperty that would not die. "We see it crying “ Holy ^furder!!! ” however, about a month later, when Governor Tilden, whose financial instincts promised him to the ])olicy of former inventions

it

hard money,

choking

covered at

the

dis-

is

Ohio

it

sena-

tor’s

threshold.

little

later

we

A find

the Bag-bahy tossed

an

into

with

ash-barrel,

pertinent

the

query ‘Hs

dead?”

it

The serial element in Xast ’s work is

well

illustrated

in this brief

He

comedy.

seldom drew one

])icture

others

that

of a like nature did

not folloAv

logical

it

in

a

sequence,

terminating

in

a

climax effective and complete. THAT IHUEDEEMABLE BABY THIS

IS

A yiCE POSITION FOR A ”

II

AHI»-MoNKT ” BACHEU)R TO BE PLACED IN

(First nse of the Ila{;-baby pynilK)!)

“ I follow your ])ictures just as I do a St01\ iu pUltS,

POLITICS

AND

A

NOTABLE ESCAPE

315

correspondent w i'ote. “ I know Avlien yon l)egin a subject it will be continned in our next,’ and the end will be worth waiting for.” ‘

Time proved that the Ivag-baby was not dead, and with its relatives it became an important feature in the i)olitical cartoons. ^leantime !Mr. Tilden’s war record had been raked up, as of course it would be, and it was shown that during 1863 he had ])een associated with other doubtful patriots in forming the ” Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge,” which issued “ pamphlets deciwing the

blessings

the



usurpation



of Lincoln,

and showing

of

slavery, the failure of emancipation, and

way

in every

of

short

making an appeal

to arms, giving aid to

who were

those

engaged

ing

attack-

in

Govern-

the

ment.”* These and other developments

have had fect, for

must

their

the

ef-

autumn

elections of 1875 in-

dicated gains,

Eepul)lican

and a new exof

])ression fidence

began

manifest that party.

publican *

con-

itself

to

in

The ReElephant

Harper’s Weekly, Xovem. ber 20, 1875.

tammany down

again,

the



reform



trap smashed

THOMAS XAST

31G

climbed out of the ruins of

pitfall

Tammany

Hall.

and stood

Had

it

triiimi)liant

again amid the

not been for the “ 'Whisky

King ” exposures, which began about

this period, the prospects

of the Eleijhant remaining out of the pitfall might

have been

more hopeful. The 'Whisky King was made up of a number of prominent Kepublican officials, who had been assessing the distillers, ostensibly for

campaign

pui’i^oses,

but pocketing, themselves, a large

portion of the funds thus obtained.

It is true that Secretary’ of

the Treasury, Benj.

IT.

Bristow,

promptly and mercilessly tuted

war against

insti-

the offenders,

and not only punished them, but recovered a large portion of the stealings.

Yet the disgrace was

regarded as a stain on the Administration,

and

remains

as

such to this day.

The CAXXnfO IN FRAUDS **St«p Bp, Gentteiaeo. (I)

release of

“ Boss ” Tweed

after a year’s imprisonment,

Dod'i b«

and

the clutch of the King attorney, David Dudley Field, upon Tweed’s ‘‘



Dig Six



i\[illions

” became a part of the pictorial history of

money bag wore the stripes of crime at this period, though this, it would seem, made it none the less fascinating to INfr. Field. The hound of justice hampered by red tape, and Tweed balancing gleefully upon the upturned, 1875.

It is

noticeable that even the

though “ upright ” bench, recorded a brief period of the Boss’s

But the State was desirous of obtaining for itself millions of stolen money, and ere long we have Tweed,

triumidi.

the six

with the

stri])ed

money bag

the heavy tomes of the law. self

for a body, about to be squeezed by

He

did in fact presently find him-

once more secluded— this time committed to Ludlow Street

prison, in default of a three million dollar bail.

"

THOMAS NAST

318

Yet Nast’s prophecy that no prison would be big enough to liold the

year.

Boss was to be verified again before the end of the

Tweed

in

had the freedom

Ludlow was allowed of the city,

He

of liberties.

all sorts

and could drive out

in the

morning

with a keeper for his coachman and a warden for his footman. In the evening he could dine at his Fifth Avenue

home with

a

bailiff for his butler.*

was at Tweed’s home (Dec. 4) that he made his escape. The Deputy Sheriff had been invited to dine with him, and Tweed had It

requested that he might go up-stairs to see his wife,

lie did not

return,

and

after

hiding

about

New

York for a time, fled to Cuba and eventuThat

ally to Spain.

the great public of-

fender in whose conviction he had been a chief instni-

ment been

have

should

allowed

to

escape was a humiliation to Nast.

Yet

the day approached

which would bring

OUR MODERN MUMMY T.vmmany Tweedlkdkk— She

Is

Canal Tweedledum-** That's the

pictorial

sade,

begun

before,

to punish us.”

best joke yet.”

Herald, December

that

5,

1875.

to

cni-

so long its

matic

and

phant

close.

dra-

trium-

C'HAPTEK

XXXMI

THE HEAVY BUKDEY LAID UPON OUANT

The Centennial year began in Ilaqier’s Weekly ’with one of Xast’s happy Christinas pictures— two sleepy children, watching for Santa Claus. The ('hristmas spirit was always a distinct element in Xast’s work and a mighty influence in his household. Ilis own childhood in far-off Bavaria had been measured by the yearly visits of Pelze-Xicol and the Christkind, while the

girl-

hood of the woman who had become his wife was, as we have intimately associated with brilliant and joyous holiday

seen,

celebrations.

At the door

of the

now prosperous Xast household Christmas

purchases were delivered in relays far into the dusk of Christmas

Eve, and these the happy jiarents took a vast delight in arranging in an original and unconventional manner to

brood of early

risers

remember to-day dolls

that there

become

half a

child

extinct.

And

was always

glad the

The children

on Christmas ]\loniing.

—marvellously big and

since

make

a multitude of paper

elaborate paper dolls

— a race

long

these the artist father— more than

himself at the Christmas season— arranged

in

processions and cavalcades, gay pageants that marched in and

about those larger presents which could not be crowded into the

row

of stockings along the studio mantel.

It

was

a time of

splendor and rejoicing— the festive blossoming of the winter

THOMAS XAST

320

BLIOHTINO EFTCCT Or THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAOC

season— and

it

was

merry Christmas But

fair

and

Kinc» 4it doobikM Ui«

a beautiful

riot in the

(lory of Ihe bolureiMi

FmoMBML

and sturdy family that made

spacious home.

fleeting are the joys of Christmas-tide, while the

march hy

weary multitude. The year did not oi:»en with perfect harmony in the Harper office. The third tenn spectre had alarmed not only the daily ])ress, but Curtis as well, and the first ])olitical caidoon of the year the “ Blighting Effect of the President’s ^Message ” on

affairs of nations

in





Newspaper Bow was as much to he a])i)lied to the editor of Harper’s Weekly as to those whose faces appeared in the picture. In fact, in the same issue Curtis printed a two column leader which he referred and ^Message. ” in

to the

“ evasion of the President’s

letter

Commenting on this fact, the New York Times said: The editor of Har]ier’s Weekly is evidently seriously disturbed by the Third Term talk, and we should judge that i\Ir. Nast’s caricatures have not had much effect upon his mind. Becently an article apjieared in the Weekly complaining that thd President in his ^Message had made no reference to the suhjecty and in the same number there was a drawing hy ^Ir. Nast, ridiculing the editors who took up the cry. The faces of some were shown, hut in the background there was one whose hack only was revealed to the public, thus giving rise to the horrible suspicion that this unknown personage must have been the editor of Harper’s Weekly himself.

THE

IIEAf Y

BURDEN LAID UPON GRANT

321

Nast never denied that the “ unknown personage ” was

in-

tended for Curtis, and no correspondence has been preseiwed

from that period.

Perhaps the controversy had passed beyond

the mere exchange of letters.

The line

Post, reprinting

from the Chicago Inter Ocean, added a to show that the estrangement had

which would seem

become public and a matter for taking

sides:

Nast and George 'William Curtis are journal. Harper’s Weekly. the head every time he strikes, because of purpose. Curtis strikes wildly, hurting

same

.

.

.

rival

editors on

Nast hits the

the

nail on

his great singleness of nobody, not even the

enemy.

there

Evidently

was a lack ical

of polit-

unity in Frank-

lin S(piare.

But other that

there

were

issues

than

of

the

Presi-

dency. Dudley Field

” claim-

as a “ Lion

ing his



legal

share ” of the

(

?)

six

millions

of

striped

plunder

left

behind

by Tweed, and Field’s head as Sat-

by the two Kings he had

uni, encircled

defended



the

“ Tweed ” and the

“Erie” phases

— of

recorded this

un-

lovely series of pubTHE

(d. D.)

field of GOLD, OR THE LION’S LEG.\L 21

(?)

SHARE llC OVOOtS.

THOMAS NAST

323

THEY BOTH Democratic Tiger.

It

**

I

LIE

TOGETHER IX THE WASHINGTON ARENA am tame now.” Repcbucan I.,amb. ” I—

have reformed, and

I

believe

it

” !

being the year of the Centennial Celebration there was a

disposition toward liannony between the ington,

tlie

make

desire being to

two parties

a pleasant

showing

at AVasb-

to such for-

eign nations as might send emissaries and exhibits to the big

The “ Tiger ” and the “ Lamb ” made an effort abide comfortably together, but it was no easy matter. Fraud

national show. to

and corruption were

rife in

both parties and in high places, and

charges and recriminations were not conducive to a semblance of that brotherly love which a national Exposition to be held at Philadelphia

might reasonably have been lioj^d

to ins])ire.

The amnesty discussion in January did not help matters. still a number of prominent leaders of Secession, including Jefferson Davis— about seven hundred altogether— whose political disabilities had not been removed. Samuel There were

Eandall of Pennsylvania offered a amnesty, but on a vote necessarj' to its passage.

it

fell

James

bill

providing for a general

a little slioiJ of the two-thirds

G. Blaine then

moved

to

amend

THE HEAVY BURDEN LAID UPON GRANT the

by excepting Jefferson Davis from

bill

its

323

benefits.

Ilis

made war upon

reasons as given were not that Davis had

the

Vnion, nor because he had been chosen as President of the ConBlaine’s argument

federacy.

supreme power, both

military'

against

and

Davis was

civil,

that,

in his hands,

with

he had

permitted unusual cruelties to be inflicted upon Xortheni prisonBlaine believed that by excepting Davis from

ers of war.

provisions the

bill

would pass; but the opposition refused

amended form. The debate became hostile and humorous by

on the measure

its

to vote

in its

Georgia denied the Andersonville charges. quoting a resolution offered by Hill to the effect that every

Union

lines should be put to death.

in the

tunis.

Hill of

Blaine replied by

Confederate congress

soldier within the Confederate S. S.

Cox

assailed Blaine with

reference

facetious

the “ colored heroes ” of the war to

and

the

to

exag-

reports

gerated

of

the Southera prison

Blaine crushed Cox with quotations from one his own old of speeches on the “ Crimes of Anabuses.

Cox

dersonville.”

shouted

Blaine

back

at



Dry

to

up! ” and referred

him

as “ the hon-

orable

hyena from

to

* .

"AMNESTY»;OR, THE END OF THE PEACEFIT. (DE^TOCRATTO TIGER

.

jA-S

n.

S0S-

tFernando Wood,

S. S.

Cox and others

fail to

hold him)

THOMAS NAST

324

sion looking to peace

and

forgiveness

Avas

hardl}"

it

a suc-

According to

cess.

Xast — in a picture

“ Amnesty ’’

entitled

— the

Tiger was

loose again,

in hot

pursuit of the lamblike

Blaine.

The

hundred unpardoned ones reseven

mained without the pale.

Nations look-

ing on were perhaps less

gratified

than

by

the

diverted THE TIGER GONE MAD

The Democratic of obstruction.

party,

SpeCtUCle.

now more than

ever,

became the party

AVith certain notable exceptions

it

opposed the

appropriation of a million and a half dollars for the Centennial

Fund.

"When L. Q.

of this measure,

C.

Lamar

of Mississippi spoke in support

Manton Marble

of the "World went so far as to

declare that the passage of such a

bill

would mean the

dissolu-

tion of the Democratic party.

Democracy lief

any measure for reof the Army of the Frontier. “ Retrenchment ” at the expense

of those

also continued its opposition to

who were keeping

the Indians from scalping the settlers

of the "West became a Democratic watchword, and, led

nando "Wood,

who

still

haunted the halls of

lowers of this peculiar economy were obstruct any

bill

able

by Fer-

legislation, the fol-

to

handicap

and

providing for improved militan” conditions.

Nast brought his biggest guns to bear on this “ starvation ” con-

THE and

tingent,

BURDEX LAID UPON GRANT

IIEAJ’Y

letters of gratitude

Gny

(“ Fighting

325

from Colonel Giiy V. ITeniy

”) and other brave officers engaged in sage-

brush warfare were his reward.

The crusade

of Secretary Bristow against the AVhisky

Bing

continued to be pushed with vigor and severity. The fact that the offenders were Bepublicans

— that Bristow himself was a Kepuh-

and that a Bepublican President had said, “ Let no guilty man escape ” inspired a degree of renewed confidence in the lican,



But

Administration.

little

or General Grant, guess

he found.

in

did the people, or Secretary Bristow,

what

a high place a guilty

Not, in-

deed, in connection

with

the

Bing,

but

was

still

"Whisky

what

in

worse, the

receiving of profits

from the sale of a miligovernment tary trading post— profits squeezed from the purses

of

the already reduced

who were obliged to buy

soldiers,

where

they

could,

and pay what they must.

No

one but

the committee of

a

tigation that

progress,

morning AVilliam

knew inves-

secret

was

until

in

one

General F.

Bel-

BELKNAP

man would

a

THOMAS NAST

32G

knap, Secretary of "War, and one of Grants most trusted called on the President,

and

in a

officials,

few broken, agitated sentences

confessed his disgrace and tendered his resignation.

The President was ovei-whelmed. It seemed to him that wherever he turned some new dishonor lay concealed. His administration had become like a nightmare. Strive as he might for good men, his search for incorruptibility seemed hopeless. Well

him then

for

that he could lean

on a patriot like Hamilton Fish, in

whose honor and integrity

and

moral

purity

has

there

never been found a flaw.

Grant was a

man

to stand

by

his friends— the last to believe

A

in their shortcomings.

ister to

England he was

Minreluc-

tant to recall, even after Secre-

tary

Fish

this official post.

had admitted that was unworthy of his

The President’s own

retary, Babcock, not only

sec-

had

been connected with the 'Whis-

ky Bing, hut had misused

his

HAMILTON FISH

opportunities in the matter of

private papers; yet the President was loth to

let

him

go.

To

have wilfully forfeited the trust and friendship of a loyal patriot like Ulysses S. Grant

on the

memory

of

is

as dark a stain as could be laid

any man.

Xast’s cartoon of Belknap was a terrible arraignment— vulture struck by lightning from a clear sky.

Grant being made

the “ Scapegoat ” by the howlers of the press, “ Insult to

Him 'Who

picture of equal

Occu})ies

power on the

The Crowning the Presidential Chair ” was a

side of the nation’s hero.

THE CROW'XIN'G

IN'SULT

TO HIM

WHO

OCCUPIES THE PRESIDENTIAL CHAIR

C'HAPTP]R XXXVIII

AN EXPOSITION, A CAMPAIGN AND A CAPTUKE During filled

tlie

early

summer

with preparation.

of 187G the land

was

Doubtless owing to the

interest in the Centennial Exposition, political

was somewhat

anticipation

THE “hag” (baby) AT THE MASTHEAD

less

eager than dur-

ing previous presidential years.

Certainly there

was

less of

hittemess than in 1872, and the pic-

f|i’awn

and the

editorials written

more

in the spirit of entertainment than of detennined warfare.

Of

the pictures by Nast, the illustrations of the eccentric i)rogress of the

now

rudderless (tail-less) Tiger were perhaps the most

amusing, though the Eag-baby refused to down in the halls of legislation

and continued

its

ludicrous career in the pages of the

IVeekly.

Concerning the Presidential candidates, Mr. Tilden was the inevitable selection of the Democracy, while in the Eepublican

ranks the crusade of Secretary Bristow against the Whisky

Ring had made him a noteworthy antagonist of this New Yoi’k Champion of Reform. Yet there were candidates more prominent than Bristow. CJrant leader,

of

campaign

in

Senator Conkling,

New York

in 1872,

who had

was regarded as a great

and was, moreover, favored by the President.

Maine was perhaps foremost

of

all,

led the

Blaine

while Morton of Indiana,

AN EXPOSITION, A CAMPAIGN AND

A

CAPTURE

329

Governor Hayes of Ohio, and Marshall Jewell of Connecticut were all entitled to consideration. That Grant, even had he so desired, could

become a candidate

disgrace of his appointed

officials

in the face of the

was out

The Kepublican National Convention on June

14,

of the question.

of 1876

and for a few days rivalled

accumulated

met

at Cincinnati

in public interest the

The foremost men of the nation were among its delegates, including George F. Hoar of Massachusetts, George William Curtis of New York, and Eobert G. Ingersoll of Illinois. The fact that its decision was wholly a matter of Centennial Exhibition.

surmise lent to

it

a

vastly added attraction.

In deferencetothe Centennial Celebrathe

tion

Platform

adopted was highly patriotic,

contain-

ing a good deal of the

Declaration

of

sup-

Independence,

plemented with rec-

ommendations as

to

the continued progress

toward specie

payment, protection

home industries, and monogamy in

of

Utah.

The claims candidates

of the

were

well considered. ]Mr. THE HAUNTED HOUSE;

THE ‘^MURDERED” RAG-BABY WILL NOT BE STILL OR,

TllOlUpSOllj

Of

IH-

THOMAS NAST

330

name of Senator Morton, whose Inflation had made him acceptable to that wing of the

diana, offered the

tendencies

Judge Harlan nominated Mr. Bristow, who was also the candidate of George AVilliam Cui-fis and Richard Henry party.

Dana.

The name

of Koscoe

Conk ling was presented by Stewart

AVoodford; Governor Hayes of Ohio was advocated by ex-

Ij.

Govenior Noyes and ex-Senator Wade, while Senator James G. Blaine was put in nomination by Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll, in that celebrated

equalled in the

and which

Plumed Knight speech which has never been

nominating s])eeches of any National Convention,

at once placed

Robert Ingersoll at the head and front

of political oratory in America.

The

fact that

it

was too

begin balloting at the close of

late to

The spell of Colonel was upon the assembly. Had a vote been taken then the “ Plumed Knight ” would have been chosen on the first ballot. But the sunlight faded from the west windows, and with it died Blaine’s moment of oppoilimity. “ The gatherthe speeches lost Blaine the nomination.

Ingersoll ’s eloquence

ing shades of evening compelled an adjournment,” he says, in his

book of

recollections,

and the sentence somehow has a

pathetic sound.

Yet Blaine led

in the balloting next

hundred and eighty-five on the to three

hundred and

first

trifle

of sixty-one.*

unanimous, and on the

count, increasing the

fifty-one as against three

eighty-four for Hayes of Ohio, the

morning, receiving two

who had begun

number

hundred and

the battle with

Hayes’s nomination was now made

first ballot

William A. Wheeler of

York was selected to complete the ticket. Thomas Nast was particularly pleased with this ticket, day or two before the convention he had come out with a *

On

tlie

first

ballot Roseoe Conkling of

wliieh figure included sixty-nine of

Curtis having been given to Bristow. taliated in due time.

Xew

Xew York

New for a front

obtained ninet3’-nine votes,

York’s seventy, that of George William

Conkling never forgave the defection, and

re-

AX EXPOSITIOX.

A

CAMPAIGN AND A CAPTURE

331

page caricature of himself “ making a slate ” upon which Secretary Fish led, with Goveraor Hayes as his running mate. Hayes’s anti-inflation record appealed to

Nast

forcil)ly.

The

ticket

made

good one-half his prophecy— a fair percentage, in view of the numerous candidates. The week following the convention the cartoonist depicted himself again, this time rejoicing over the partial fulfilment of his forecast

Hamilton Fish

general.



“Well,

said,

I’m glad Nast had

and approving the ticket

when he saw

to scratch

me

off.

I’ve got enough

of politics.” likewise,

Curtis,

indorsed the nomination of Hayes, and

once more the Har-

per

editorials

and

pictures were as one. “ Harper’s "Weekly

emphatically dorses

Hayes,

in-

and

Curtis and Nast are

brethren

again

gether ”

comment

to-

was

the

of

the

Evening Post. Throughout

the ” “ land Third Term ” “ Cacsarism and

were

laid aside

forgotten.

and

The Re-

publican forces were united for war.

Democratic

The

GETTING IN TUXE

.

Convention met

at

(Mr. Ueiil

and

Sir.

in

the picture:

Scburz in the right key

tliis

time)

THOMAS NAST

332

St.

Louis

(June 27)

with

hopes of party success.

many

Democ-

racy was more nearly a unit than

had been since the days of Buchanan, and it was heartened it

by

its

Samuel

victories J.

of

1874.

"With

Tilden, the most able

political leader of the day, in ab-

solute control of the party’s fortunes, there

was every reason for

One

of the

Democratic faith

at this

anticipating triumph. articles of

period was that Mr. Tilden could

do no wrong.

His signature to the

notorious fraud circular of 1868

a

member *

The

of

was declared a forgery.* That as the “ Barn-burners ” wing of the Free-soil party

circular referred to

Rooms ^Iy

Dear

was

as follows:

of the Democratic State Committee, October 27, 1808.

Sir: Please at once to communicate with some reliable per.son, in three

or four principal towns and in each city of your county, and reijuest him (expenses

duly arranged for at this end) to telegraph to William !M. Tweed, Tammany Hall, at the minute of closing the polls, not waiting for the count, such person’s esti-

mate of the

Let the telegram be as follows: “This town will show a Demo-

vote.

Or this one, if sulTiciently certain: cratic gain (or loss) over last year of “ This town will give a Republican (or Democratic) majority of There is, by a simultaneous transmission at the Opportunity can be taken of the usual half-hour lull in telegraphic communication over lines before actual results begin to be declared, and before the Associated Press absorb the telegraph with returns and interfere with individual messages, and give orders to watch carefullj’ the count. Very truly j’ours, Samuel J. Tilden, Chairman. of course, an important object to be attained

hour of closing the

The

moment

polls,

but not longer waiting.

was to learn approximately at the earliest possible votes the Ring would need to “ raise ” in ^7ew York City

object of this circular just

how many

to overtop the Republican majority “ beyond the Harlem.’’ “ Mr. Tilden subsequently denied that he had signed the certificate, but the testi-

mony

he and Mr. A. Oakey Hall each gave on that subject, in December of the same

j’ear,

before a Congressional committee, which sat on the election frauds of that

year, in this city circular

had been

(New York) makes issued.’’

— lion John

it apiiarent that he D. Townsend, in “ New

was well aware such a York in Bondage.”

AN EXPOSITION, in 1848 he

had been

Rebellion, a

briefly

bis admirers, while It is

it

later,

333

during the

facts either forgotten or

to the exigencies of the

Ilis recent brilliant

support.

A CAPTURE

an abolitionist, and

Seymour Democrat, were

remembered, according

AND

A CAMPAIGN

argument for bis

refonn career bad deified him with

bad well-nigh silenced

bis enemies.

true be was opposed to some extent by “ Honest ” John

Reformed Tammany, and an attempt was turn the tide to a Western candidate. Any such effort

Kelly, the bead of

made was

to

of small avail.

When the St. Louis Convention assembled Henry Watterson was made temporary chairman, and John A. McClernand of The names of Illinois was elected its Permanent President. Governor Hendricks of Indiana, General Winfield Scott Hancock and others were then put in nomination— the name of Mr. Tilden being presented by Senator Francis Kenian of New York. Tilden led on the first ballot, with 40L| votes, and before a second ballot was declared to be the Convention’s unanimous choice. Governor Hendricks, who bad received the second largest vote, was now selected to complete the ticket. With the strongest man from

each of the two most doubtful States, the Convention

would seem

to

have redeemed the errors of 1872.

The platform, said to have been prepared by Manton Marble, was a most exhaustive treatise on the subject and necessity of Reform.



As opposed

tariff for

to the Republican manifest,

it

declared for

revenue only,” and denounced the existing schedule

as “ a masteq:»iece of injustice, inequality and false pretense.”

condemned the resumption clause of the Act of 1875 and demanded its repeal. Blaine referred to the document as being at once “ an indictment and a stump speech.” The Republican It also

Platfonn was a sort of Fourth of July

flag of patriotism.

The

Democratic document was a luminous banner of Reform.

But although the two foremost Democratic leaders of the East and West bad been united in the

St.

Louis

ticket, it

was

THOMAS NAST

334

THE DEFORMED TIGER SOLVES THE PROBLEM

unfortunate that they were unable to pull precisely in one direction.

In

fact,

they pulled precisely in opposite directions on one

very important issue

calf

Tilden of the East was

Hendricks of the West was for greenbacks.

for hard money.

The golden

— that of finance.

and the Rag-bahy had been yoked together.

Nast, however, did not use this figure.

He supplemented

his

Tiger series with a cartoon of a tiger with two heads, pulling in opposite directions

— the tiger of “ Tilden

and Deform.”

The Democratic National Chainnan did not have altogether an easy time in managing this two-headed exhibit. “ Talk soft money in the West and harden it as you go eastward ” is reported to have been his counsel to Western speakers; while to those

hard money sunset.”

who were

in the

of the Atlantic States he said, “ Talk

East and soften

it

as you travel toward the

Nast’s cartoons of Governor Hendricks as Mother

making Father Tilden nurse the Rag-baby, while she attends to the more active duties of the canvass, such as stirring Tilden,

the

fire

The

of Reform, were the amusing pictures of the campaign. cartoonist

and his family, meanwhile, spent many days

at the wonderful Philadelphia Exposition,

for the first time in

where was displayed

America many of the rare things— sculpture,

AX EXPOSITION,

A CAMPAIGN

AND

CAPTURE

A

:V,i5

we have since Of these Nast, who was now out of debt

bronze, potterj' and antique curios— with which

become more and

familiar.

earning- an

income of twenty-five thousand dollars a year,

bought a large and rather lavish

home became

selection.

The Morristown

the abode of a luxurious collector able and willing

to gratify every taste

and whim.

His expenditures at the Ex-

position alone ran far into the thousands, and his purchases

included some of the choice gems of that splendid exhibit.

As

the campaign drew to an end

it

became evident that the

close.

The cartoons came thicker and

were somewhat more savage.

Bellew, no longer on the other

results

side,

were to be veiy

adopted Nast’s Eag-baby to good purpose, while Nast,

with the capabilities of fiercer warfare, was slashing about with

more vigorous weapons.

These

political pictures

tennial displays well-nigh filled the

Harper

and the Cen-

pictorial pages.

But just here developed one of those

wholly

unexpected

make

events which

complete the great

drama

human

of

existence.

view of the Eeform ” policy In

of

the

Democratic

Convention,

Nast

had published

in the

"Weekly, at the time,

a ‘



picture

entitled

Tweed-le-dee

Tilden-dum.” this picture

and In

Tweed,

in 111 OLlipco, iO flP'nTOTIUtrmuil

HENtDRicKS)PECKED Mrs.

Tii 4)KX-“

Nurse the Baby, while

I

stir

up the

Fire.’»

THOMAS NAST

336

strating

liis

New York

qualifications for the

any number of

his willingness to bring to justice



Governorship by lesser thieves

the “ thieves ” being symbolized by two street arabs,

be

The picture was

dragging to punishment.

is

moment who (as

at the time, but being

like bis caricatures,

of no special

an excellent delineation of Tweed,

the Boss himself one confessed) bad

and more

whom

it

was

grown

to look

more

to result in a climax as far

as possible from any puiqoose conceived It

by the artist. bad become known that Tweed was somewhere biding

As

Spanish territory.

him

in

early as September 30 Nast cartooned

marked Spain. Now sudone “ Twid ” (Tweed) bad

as a Tiger, appearing from a cave

denly came a report— a cable

— that

been identified and captured at Vigo, Spain, on the charge of “ kidnapping two American children.” This seemed a curious statement for whatever ;

may have

been

bad not been given to child-stealing. Then came further news, and the mysteiy was explained. Tweed had been identified and aiTested at Vigo through the cartoon “ Tweed-le-dee and Tilden-dum,” drawn by Thomas Nast. The “ street gamins to the Spanish officer, who did not read the Boss’s sins, be

English— were two children being forcibly abducted by the big man of the stripes and club. The printing on the dead wall they judged to be the story of bis crime. spell out the word “ EEWARD.”

Absurd

as

it all

Perhaps they could even

was, the identification was flawless.

Tweed,

on board the steamer Franklin, came back to America to

"When bis baggage was examined,

die,*

was found that be bad preserved every cartoon Nast bad drawn of him, save the few final ones published after bis escape, one of which bad placed him again behind prison bars.

it

On October

7 Ilaiqier’s republished

this picture with the story of the Boss’s capture.

The

pictorial

drama was complete.

In

Ludlow Street

Jcail,

April 12, 1878.

Tut

POLITICAL "CAPITAL lo a trrj puuM aod d*«poa to Wiluam M. TwtCD, Tammany Hall, at the minute of doaingthc polla.

Mv cut Sit.— PI«M< *1 MOK teltabt« peraoa. (hrve

Ml waiting for

the cooni. auch peraon'a caiimaie of the vote.

Let the telegraph be aa (oUowa

DemocratK gain Of this ooe.

if

1 his town will show a

;

(or loss] over last year of~>(n«mber|

auftcicntJy certain

" This town will give a

;

There is Kcpublican (or DemoctaticJ majority of of coune an important object to be aliaitied by a a>niuflaneous Iransmiasion ai the hour of dosing the polls, but not longer waiting. half-hour fore

lull

actual rcaulca begin

with

individual

watch ctrcfully the count (Signed)

THE PROSPECT

to put a slop to into the Sheriff's, and the Supervisors' offices in the City Hall Park, and say there must be no more uf it—say it so (hat (here shall no doubt that you inmn it and we shall have a lolerabW fair elecnon once mure. Probably a good part of the Twy Thousand supplied last Fall with t^ua

the Mayor's,



M

S'aturaliiaiion Certificatet will offer to register and to vote come of then pretending not to know that they arc no more citiaens of the UnitM Siiics than the King of Dahomey is— but very few will vote repeatedly unless paid



It , and we shall not be cheated more (ban Ten Thousand if you simply lell the boss workmen (hat there must be no more Illegal Voting instigated and paid for. Will you do radley

it

to the First, Third, h]ighth

was the

fifth

Justice finally chosen,

them

cir-

shall

Joseph P.

his associates

all

agreeing.

A and

remarkable contest ensued between men skilled craft of ])olitics.

Chairman

In

New York

City,

of the Democratic Committee,

of the Tilden contingent,

Abram

in the S.

game

Hewitt,

was most conspicuous

and his face appears numerously

in the

caricatures of Nast.

Henry AVatterson likewise continued “ red hot ” in his desire to win in this “ (Jreat American Game,” and on Feb. 3 Murat Halstead of the Cincinnati Commercial is shown as pouring ice water on the head of the Courier Journal editor, from whose sleeves are dropping the cards still unplayed. The cards were, of course, purely figurative, but somewhat later, when Nast and Watterson met, the latter said: “ What in the world did you Nast? The boys able to get into a

may

all

])ut

those cards in mj' sleeve for,

thought they were

game

real,

and

I

haven’t been

since.”

was often and severely caricatured by Nast, and while Nast was frequently and It

1)C

said here that though Watterson

THOMAS NAST

346

'0~-i:

c»0ep'

Mr«HT”PE$tftVf5

(PereoDal sketch sent to Col. Watterson after a jKTiod of warfare)

tlie two were always the warm“ Baby Watterson ” (March 10), a cartoon on

firmly castigated by Watterson, est of friends.

the advent of a

only one of the

new member in the "Watterson household, the 100,000 to amve, was highly appreciated and

duly framed by the Kentucky editor.

The play

for the great stake of the Presidency continued

through the entire month of February’, and the day of inauguration

was near

at hand.

startling boldness

of

The Democratic

and amazing

tactics.

leaders fought with

Putting aside the idea

obtaining an elector from any one of the three

disputed

Southern States, they sought out what appeared to be a weak spot in the North, and attempted to disqualify and displace a

The Electoral Commission, however, regarded with disfavor this somewhat doubtful proceeding, and on March 2 brought in a verdict for Hayes and \Mieeler. Mr. Tilden had lost the Presidency by one electoral Republican elector from Oregon.

AX ELECTION AND vote, as claimed

by Mr. Chandler.

A It

CONTEST

was the

first,

347

and thus far

has been the only ease of a disputed Presidency in our history.

The

upon the Democratic press

effect of the decision

of the

On all hands was renewed the cry ” “ Fraud! and Hayes was openly charged with being a of

country was extraordinary.

The outcry was continued

usurper, profiting by dishonor.

until

the Democratic party as a whole, as well as a large percentage of the Kepublican party, forgot that the Electoral Commission

bill

had been first reported from the Judiciary Committee by a Southeni Democrat * in a Demoand cratic House,

had been supported by an overwhelming Democratic

major-

AVhatever

ity.

may

have been the rights the

in

beginning

(and rights are not determined

easily

where purchase on one side and coercion on the other are

regarded

as

legiti-

mate methodsf), all must concede that *

A MODERN DON QUIXOTE (Mr. Hewitt’s predicament after

making

certain ctiarges against the Post

Office in connection with the election complications of 18T6)

Proctor Knott, of Kentucky.

The

l)ill

is

said

to

have originated with Mr.

iMeCrary, of Iowa. f

Tliomas Nelson Page, who

may

he accepted as authority on matters pertain-

ing to the South, says: “ In

some places the question was

seriouslj"

debated whether

it

was worse

force or fraud, the necessity for one or the other being simply assumed.

some negroes substantially auctioned

off

the Negro,” Scribner’s Magazine, July, 1904.

their votes.”

—“ The

to use

In others,

Disfranchisement of



THOMAS XAST

348

with the verdict of

Com-

the Electoral

mission

dency

P

n

t

the

he

rf o r

men

both

to

d

Yet

ITayes.

are

Presi-

belonged

B.

there

to-day, of

parties,

who

have not read, and

who would

a page of

to read,

the

not care

official

reports

of the controversy

who, with no actual

knowledge

of

the

sincerely

facts,

maintain that Samuel

J.

Tilden

was

lawfully

elected

President

of

the

United States, only be

to

seat

denied

through

his



another such victory and

Republican

legislative

i

and

am undone.”

— pyrrhus

military

powerU

Nast closed the contest pictorial ly with a humorous caricature of the

much

battered and bandaged Republican Elephant saying,

with Pyrrhus: “ Another such victory and

We may

fittingly

I

am undone.”

end this chapter with a

letter recently re-

ceived by the writer of these chronicles from a gentleman con-

nected with the National Republican Committee of 1876.

Nast

himself never referred to the incident which this letter recalls. * Mr. Tilden received a majority of the popular Pre.sidential vote.' he was the “ people’s choice.” Any other claim of his legal election

nothing more tangible than violent and prolonged assertion.

In this sense is

based upon

AN ELECTION AND Perhaps

it

consider

it

A

CONTEST

had jiassed from his memory. worth recording:

34y

Perhaps he did not

Roseburg, Ore., July

0,

1904.

Dear Sir: At the

close of the Hayes-Tilden campaign I was sent to ]\Iorristown by the Republican National Committee with a check for $10,000 drawn in favor of Thomas Nast as a recognition of the great services he rendered the committee in that famous campaign, and he declined to receive it. He said, “ You may tell the committee that I am very grateful for the recognition, but as I have been paid by Harper Brothers I cannot accept it.”

After spending a pleasant hour with J\lr. Nast, I returned to 'Washington and reported to the committee. To say that Senator Chandler was surprised and disappointed is putting it hut mildly. Mr. Hayes smiled and said, ” He (Nast) was the most powerful single-handed aid we had.” \’’erv respectfully,

R.

ADMIT

Jo pALLEF^Y OK ^OOSE OF

March

I,

187T.

BEAHER p.EPK^ESEMTATlVES

W.

Mitchell.

PART FIVE THE STATESIvIAN :

CHAPTER XL A DISTIXGUISIIED GUEST, AND A GREAT LOSS In the midst of the Tilden-IIayes Grant’s

last

document of

made

Annual Message— a farewell.

in political

In

it

controversy

dignified,

had

come

though rather sad,

he referred to the mistakes he had

appointments.

In part, he said:

History shows that no administration, from the time of AVashingion to the present, has been free from these mistakes; hut I leave comparisons to Histoiy, claiming only that I have acted in every instance from a conscientious desire to do what was right, constitutional, within the law, and for the verj^ best interests of the people. Failures have been errors of judgment, not of intent. It is not probable that public affairs will ever again receive attention from me, further than as a citizen of the republic, always taking a deep interest in the honor, integrity and prosperity of the whole land. .

.

.

Nast portrayed Columbia as soiTowfully contemplating the patriot’s

parting

Later

words.

“ Ulysses ” leaving

official

honors

he all

presented

behind— a

Grant

as

dignified con-

ception of the hero he had loved so long and defended so well.

Only once had the

artist criticised the soldier,

had long honored the

artist

and the soldier

with his friendship and his con-

fidence.

The bond between them now ripened into intimacy. On May 3, just prior to the celebrated “ Trip Around the World,” the ex-



AND

A DISTINGUISHED GUEST, President, with Mrs. Grant and visit to the

home

A GREAT LOSS

351

young Ulysses, made a family

at Morristown.

The Nasts gave a quiet dinner in honor of their guests. Josiah Fiske and General Corbin were there, and two of the Haiqrer tinn. Of course an eft’ort was made to have the affair as perfect as possible. The table was artistically arranged and decorated, the courses had been carefully chosen and came in due sequence, the coffee appeared at last to complete the successful round of

refreshment.

Then

all at

once the host was seized with a mortal agony of

Not being a smoker himself, he had forgotten the cigars!

spirit.

"With the most celebrated smoker in the nation at his table the

man whom

he had depicted as puffing serenely when assailed

by his enemies— with gotten the cigars!

this great visitor at his hoard,

Pale,

he had for-

and with beads of perspiration on his

brow, he glanced appealingly at the guest of honor,

who

smiled

reassuringly.



It

’s all

smoke.

right, Nast,

’ ’

he said.





I

remembered that you don’t

Besides, I never go into action without ammunition,”

and he drew forth a handful of his favorite Havanas. During the table talk that day the ex-President said: “

I

am

and of being a seiwant of the people. I am going once more how it seems to be a sovereign, as every

tired of abuse, to feel

American

citizen is.”

General Grant was seized with a the

table,

more

which made the

visit

chill

while

still

seated at

end rather unhappily



all

was obliged to take the train that evening was crowded with those who were and anxious to do him honor. He rallied as best he could and his visit proved a notable event in the little city, long remembered the

so as he

the station platfonn

by those who had an opportunity to the hand of, the foremost “ American

see,

and perhaps

citizen.”

to

shake

Two weeks later

he had begun his long triumphal journey around the world.

THOMAS NAST

352

The month

of

Fletcher Hari^er,

suddenly died.

May was to end sadly enough. On the 29tli, who had been ont of the office for several weeks, The stalwart, far-seeing man, who for fifteen

years had been Nast’s truest inspiration and finnest support, was

no longer to be a part in the policy and guidance of the journal

which the

artist

was

success

had given

his best years

to

and thought, and whose

No more

so identified with his own.

serious blow

than the death of Fletcher Harper could have befallen Thomas Friend, counsellor and champion he had been, with that

Nast.

unwavering no

faith

which inspires courage and promotes immortal

His successor,

deeds.

W.

J.

Harper, Jr. (“ Joe Brooklyn ”) was

but he was without the rugged fearless-

less a friend to Nast,

ness and initiative of his uncle.

by the

pacific policies

He was more

likely to be

and culture of Curtis, and

swayed

to accord

with

the idea that the pictorial pages should reiterate the editorial

columns.

Disagreements were certain to

and without the

arise,

intermediation of Fletcher Harper trouble was bound to ensue.

There was to be no delay in the beginning. in the election of

Hayes had been

Southern policy, as declared in his of pacifying the South

by removing

The President’s Inaugural Address— that

all military'

the colored voter— he firmly opposed.

known

Hayes was as Govenior

Nicholls,

When

to recognize the

that

Nast’s satisfaction

shortlived.

it

protection from

further became

Democratic candidate,

of Louisiana, whereas the election of

Packard, the Kepublican candidate, rested on a basis similar to that

of

the

President,

the cartoonist declined

to

introduce

Hayes otherwise than unfavorably into the pictures.* Curtis, on the other hand, was enthusiastic over the pacification idea, which appealed stringent

to his

measures.

own

A

spirit of gentleness

break

and avoidance

seemed imminent.

of

Yet Nast

remained good-natured, biding his time. It has been repeatedly asserted, though without proof, that Haj’es was party to a “ bargain ” agreeing to seat Nicholls and remove the troops as the price of his

Presidential seat.

A DISTINGUISHED GUEST.

AND

A

GREAT LOSS

lie contented liiniself for tlie nionient with social

and

353 inter-

mannerThe Army and Navy

national pictures, some of them being done in the old

drawn with wash instead cause he

still

esi)oused.

of pencil.

Also he noted a

Oakey Hall’s metropolitan

A.

a small picture bearing the

careoi’, in

very English legend, “ H’all That’s Left ” Hall’s glasses only

final incident of

— the cartoon being of

— their owner having taken

leave for

England

soon after Tweed’s published statement

he was ready to bear witness

that

against his old associates.

Hall’s ar-

England under the name of was reported iMarch 31 from London, where, like Tweed, he had rival in

Sutliffe

been

speedily

recognized

by

those

familiar with the King cartoons.

was not in

He

disturbed, however, and lived

H ALL THAT S LEFT

number

considerable respectability for a

the “ Finger of Sconi ” did not

James Bryce published

fail

to

of

follow

years.

But

him.

Pro-

The Amei-ican Commonwealth,” which contained a chapter contributed by Professor Goodnow, of Columbia College, relating the Tammany scandals and Hall’s connection therewith. Upon the appearance fessor

his book,

of the book. Hall sued Professor Biwce for libel, with laid at ten

thousand pounds.

damages

Professor Bin'ce regarded the

action as a blackmailing scheme and promptly prepared for

with depositions taken in

Weekly supplied by libel suits suit,

and

New York and

with

files

of

trial,

Hai7)er’s

Nast, whose cartoons had resulted in no

on this side of the water.*

in 1897 Professor

Biwce

liad

Hall failed to press the it

dismissed “ for want of

by which time Hall (1891) had retumed to Nast promptly caricatured him again, whereupon

ju’osecution,”

America.

has been stated that Professor Bryce withdrew the edition of his hook conTweed chapter. This is not true. The edition was sold out. In a second edition while the suit was in court the chapter was omitted, and subsequently restored in its present form, written hv Professor Bryce himself. 23 It

taining the

THOMAS NAST

354

Hall, with the old

sjoirit

marked “ Exhibit

him a late photograph, Identification,” and with it a brief

of bravado, sent

32, for

note:

Since the latter has INIr. Hall’s compliments to IMr. Xast. again deemed it necessary to bring the former into ])ictorial prominence, he begs to enclose the last photograph, showing a change of ap])earance rendered necessary by a pending event.

"What the “ pending event ” was cannot replied that a change in appearance ever, but that a

“ change

photograph were put

in principles

was

to

court

letter

to

and

show

rather than to shun the

was long the Ring’s downfall had died away, and we

notoriety incident to caricature. after the echoes of

The

would.”

by Professor Bryce

in evidence

that Hall’s tendency

now be known. Nast made no difference what-

All this, of course,

have gone far ahead of our narrative in following out “ Elegant Oakey’s ” career. He died in New York City, October 7, 1898.

As

the weeks went

by and Nast made no

pictorial

comment

on the presidential policy, despite the fact that the inside pages of the

Weekly were

filled

with complimentary editorials from

make commented on the matter, at

the pen of Curtis, the public began to wonder and to mises.

The

lightly,

then in serious editorials

daily papers

—favorable

surfirst

or otherwise to

Nast, according to their lights and affiliations.

Letters

both to the cartoonist and to the publishers, asking

came

why

the

former contented himself with matters apart from those upper-

most to

in the public

mind, and apparently of foremost importance

Mr. Curtis. “ Give us a picture from Nast.

to say on the subject,”

Let us hear what Nast has was the general demand from those who

did not find complete satisfaction in the President’s course.

“ I’m ready to give them something when you say the word! ” the artist said rather shortly to Mr. Harper,

him one

of these letters.

who had handed



AND

A DISTINGUISHED GUEST, “ But you want

him

to give



” Yes,

you

The general

me

let

it.”

who says, “ Our Pray.

and

works.” .

this

.

dowp

in the

in the policy chair

Stand back and give the President’s policy a chance,” was signed ” Gen. Disposition.” The picture conveyed .

precisely the conditions in PYanklin Square,

commented upon, fellow

that

Is

GIVE

and was widely

No nct

pus lic ’V#ATCM



“ Blue ” room

by Uncle Sam, artist must keep cool, and sit down, and see Above on the walls was the sign, ” AVatch and

of the AVhite House, held

it

disposition seems

put that in the fonn of a cartoon? ”

So Nast caricatured himself as being

how

-vN-ant

AVe believe he means well.”

you keep Hayes out of

if

AVe

back and give the President’s policy a chance.”

to be to stand AA’ill

Nast.

355

well but he doesn’t do well,” retorted Nast.

” But that’s just your opinion.



GREAT LOSS

to attack the President,

a chance.

He means

A

PftAY?

THC PRESIDENT'S

POLICY A CHANCE.

you

choking tended Air.

for

in-

me

GEN

DtSPOSiTiOM

or

Curtis? ”

Air.

Harper asked when he saw it. “ Neither,”

said

Nast, quietly.



It

doesn’t represent an individual,

hut

a

Policy

al-

ways strangles

in-

policy.

dividuals.”

In fact, an epoch closed, a

new

era had begun.

And

had this t

rue

was in

equallv ‘

ne wspapei

“ N’AY, PATIENCE, s.

* Our

artist

on

WE BREAK THE

must keep

cool,

ami

sit

siyEv:s."— Shakespeare

down, and see how

it

works.”



THOMAS NAST

356

aud

in national

but

they were

affairs.

Issues were perhaps no less vital,

differences were becoming academic rather than polemic. Parliamentary matters were to be shai^ed in the committee rooms rather than in the halls of eloquence and logic. In jounialism the individual would he merged more and more into the policy, and less

violent.

The man by the machine, and the machine is not

policies

would become

was

be rejilaced

to

Political

less

and

less clearly defined.

a thing of inspired purpose or sublime convictions.

Tlie death

of Horace Greeley, of the elder Bennett and of Fletcher

marked new.

Harper

the decline of the old order and the beginning of the

Such men would not he replaced, for they were the

of conditions that

result

had passed, or were swiftly passing away. the American people, busy with their trades,

The great mass of their farms and their ventures in commerce, were beginning not to care. With the passing of the great military President and the advent of Hayes, the change seems now clearly marked.

to

have been

Only during the heat of presidential campaign

would there be again a semblance of the old

fierce strife.

Even

then the bloody shirt would flap rather than wave, and oftener in deference to

some defunct and buried

issue

it

would be draped

at half-mast.

had already begun meant more than to any other living man. More than any other he was a knight in armor whose skill lay in dealing swift and heavy blows, whose purpose was to avenge wrong. When the crusade

To Nast

is

the change which

over the paladin does not lightly put aside his battle-a.ve

and buckler behest.

men

to

become a harlequin and entertain

Already there were plenty of such

at the public

pictorial acrobats

with swift clever pencils, adapted to the

new

idea, willing

draw what they were paid for and to use motives supplied from any authoritative source. Puck had been started, and Keppler, a man of great ability, and with few convictions beyond to

A DISTINGUISHED GUEST,

AND

A

GREAT LOSS

357

those of line and color, had leaped into immediate public favor.

The people who had ceased pleased

with

the

skilful

to care as in the old

caricature,

and

days were

laughed

at

the

and huge destrucThe day of his destiny was by no means

clever hits so unlike the penetrating thrusts tive blows of Xast. over.

He was

to

add other triumphs

to his record of victories

won. But the noon-tide of his glory had slipped by — the sun was already dropping

THE

FIH.ST

down

the west.

ISSVE OF Pl'CK.

THE LEADERS

A CARICATUHE BY KEPPLER OF IN

JOURNALISM

Dana, (Wliitelaw Reid, Ben. Wood, George Jones, Bennett Jr., Charles Win. Cullen Bryant, Frank Leslie and others are in the group. In the lower right-hand corner, Nast appears, with Harper's Weekly “ under his wing ”)

CHAPTER XLI A DEFEAT AND A TKIUMPII

The caricature ‘‘

of himself

was Nast’s only reference

to the

surrender policy ” of the Administration, and during the early

summer he continued cartoons,

and with

to

occupy his time with social and army

pictorial obseiwations on the

'War, then in progress.

He

Turko-Russian

did step aside to pay a negative com-

pliment to the Civil Service efforts of Hayes, by depicting the seiwice as it was under Andrew Jackson, whose administration had established the precedent that “ To the victor belongs the spoils.”* Hayes was making a sincere effort to further the

needed refonn which Grant had favored, and Xast did not hesitate to lend aid to the idea.

Perhaps Xast’s friends decided that he needed recreation, for

we

find evidence of a plan

arranged by Henry 'Watterson, iMurat

Halstead, and Samuel Bowles of tbe Springfield Republican, a trio

known

as the “ president makers,” to take the artist to

Kentucky, thence to Nashville, where Watterson was to deliver a Decoration

Day

address.

Watterson wrote

to Bowles,

urging

the arrangement.

AVhy can’t you and Tom Xast leave New York the evening of the 28th, arrive here next night, spend the 30th *A sentiment proclaimed in the Senate by William L. Marcy in 1832. In two years President Jackson had made ten times as many removals as all his predecessors

had made

in forty years.

A

DEFEAT AND A TRIUMPH

359

go with me that night to Nashville, return the next night and then spend two or three days in the Blue Grass? Halstead will join you at Cincinnati, and we will make a week of it. 1 mean to make the most earnest, ungrudgingly national speech 1 am able to prepare, and, as it is the tirst instance of the kind since the war, 1 hope to do some good to both here,

side+^.

Xast,

when

consulted, declared that he could not

make such

a trip until later, which brought a i)rotest from Bowles.

\Vicked Boy! Behold! cannot wait till it gets summer hot. Cannot you I Tell the great “ Joseph ” that it arrange to meet us! AVe will is necessary for your education in the new politics. pick up Halstead and we will not read the editorials, either of Har})er’s or the Springfield Kepublican all the while we are gone.

Let me have a word at the Brevoort House, where I may be Sam’l Bowles. Yours very truly, on Tuesday.

The “ President makers ” had their reunion in the land of Blue Grass, but this

not

time Nast did

make one

of the

happy party. It may be that work was pressing just or

the

then,

may

artist

have had reason think

that

later there

a

to

little

would be

more time for

recre-

ative pleasures.

In

June he presented a pretty

picture

of

Kate Claxtou, whose

PEACE Kl'MOHS Lut Us Have (A) Peace Piece)
]«o4 win tSMlii •UJl nor*

Orawr,

tola'

fwa. br>> sot sure of atrlktac a t«rr(Se blow at tba laix-

——

m

tbe rights of tho public creditor.'*

THE FIRST STEP TOWARD XATIONAL BAXKRUPTCY (Uncle

Sam

puts his foot into Ihc Stanley Matthews silver trap)



iabottr* of

tbW eeualry;

iCftinel tba capital tlai* of III

Bot be ibronlec obMaclr*

I

THOMAS NAST

380

once the jaws of a steel-trap, fastened to the leg of Uncle Sam. The trap was labelled “ St. Matthews’ liesolution ” and the picture entitled, “ It

The

First Step

was a remarkable cartoon, showing as

ability to give

human

for those

who have

it

did the artist’s

character to an inanimate thing, and

without gross caricature.

too,

Toward National Bankruptcy.”

It also

eyes to see there

this,

exemplified the fact that

is

a psychological relation

between the character of any human face and the peculiar deeds Matthews’s face distinctly suggested a trap.

of its owner.

Resolution was a

of





concurrent,





and sprung. A “ make the Resolution joint ” instead

]X)litical

proposition by Conkling to

His

trap, skilfully set

in order that

it

should require the President ’s

signature, did not meet with success.

The wily Matthews had

constructed his trap with such care as to avoid this necessity.

The play upon the Ohio Senator’s name, by which it was made to conform to the cartoon idea, was one of those added touches which proved Nast great among his kind. The much abused pun, so frequently the cheap resort of a shallow wit, was a favorite adjunct with Nast, and in his hands was likely to become a stroke of genius. The trap of St. Matthews, which so resolutely closed on the leg of Uncle Sam, is an excellent example of the less violent caricature of Nast. The features disappeared presently, but the trap, a trap pure and simple, remained, and the

memory

of its first ai)pearance remained so clearly estab-

lished that, to those

who had

seen

and Matthews was always the

it,

trap.

the trap

Clearly

was

it is

still

Matthews

not good policy

to challenge the possil)ilities of caricature.

Matthews was not alone son, soft

who had

in his distinction.

Ilemy

AYatter-

declared that universal suffrage could “ decree

soap to be money,”

who had announced

that

if it

chose to do

so,

and Alurat Halstead,

what the American people wanted was

a dollar so big that the eagle on

it

fan AVashington City, and with his

could, with his right wing, left,

waft the dust along the

rilE FIRST

BATTLE FOR GOLD

381

THAT DOI.LAU A' one around Fi-anklin Square, and telling him of a charming dinner (William) Black, Brunton and I had the night before I left London, and how kindly Black talked of him. He was I left General Grant on deck talking to his wife. down coming was I him told I tenn. third a for scheming The General stairs to" write to some people— you among them. sent you his kindest wishes, and his regards to J. W. II. Mrs. Grant sent you her love. Please do not tell Mrs. N. of this message. AYe think of returning home in October.

Yours

sincerely,

John Bussell Young. Nast was willing to regard this letter throughthan earnest. Seeing the situation as it was, he

It is likely that

out

more

as jest

preferred to lielieve that Grant did not really want a third tenn, or that at least he would change his this, in fact.

Grant was to do, as we A. E. Borie,

fir.st

mind

u])on his return;

shall see later.

Secretary of the

Navy under

Grant.

and

THOMAS NAST

412

The labor question was often uppermost

mind during the later seventies. Communism laid its blight upon industry, the anti-Chinese movement in Califomia was accompanied with riot and bloodshed. ^Meetings begun by Dennis Kearney in 1877, on the open sand lot fronting the new City Hall in San Francisco, had started a general war-cry, “ The Chinese Must Go! ” with the result of a combination of riotous foreign elements against the most peaceful and industrious of them all. Nast, whose sympathies were always with the oppressed, fought hard and

in the public

fiercely for the Celestial and, as well, for the red

man.

In a cartoon published in February, 1879, he has them together.

“ Pale-face ’fraid you crowd him out, as he did me,” says the Indian, and on the dead wall behind

is

a caricature of the red

man

driven

being

by

westward

the

locomotive, and an-

other of the yellow

man

trying to catch

the locomotive that

him

will l)ear east.

to the

Of course the

question at once be-

came })olitical, and those statesmen

who were

willing to

abrogate the terms of

the

treaty

in

order to

secure

a

Chinese

Exclusion

measure

were IN

THE MATRIMONIAL MARKET AGAIN

(General Butler as the

widow

of

many

parties)

Burlingame

severely

justly

handled

Nast.

Blaine

and

by

was

QUIET ISSUES AND A NOTABLE RETURN foremost of these, and was portrayed in a manner that man from Maine heartsick, rememhering that so soon

413

made lie

the

might

be before the people as a national candidate, and that Nast, who never yet in a campaign had been on the losing side, might refuse

him

He

his support.

attempted to explain and to justify his

position, but the artist could see in the Chinese

a

man and

a brother, trying to

make a

immigrant only

living in a quiet

and

was big enough for all. The Chinese Exclusion bill, introduced by INIr. Wren of Nevada, passed both Houses, but was firmly and bravely vetoed by Presipeaceful

manner

dent Hayes,

Eventually a

in a country that

who new

declined to abrogate a treaty fairly made. treaty

was concluded and

Celestial

immigra-

This was defeat for Nast, but Blaine’s political

tion restricted.

bid for California was one of the things that cost

him the

idency of the United States.

Mr. Tilden his

still in

cryptographic

and

casing

jMr.

Thunnan

pointing

the

financial

out

through

graveyard

which

the

nation

had passed

to reach

resumption

specie

were the

indi-

first

cations of iisual au-

tumn

stirring of the

political

pulse.

In

New

York

State

both

parties

were

badly divided,

many

Republicans having

THE CIVILIZATION OF BLAINE Am I not a Man and a Brother f”

John Confucius—**

pres-

THOMAS NAST

414

THE QUESTION AFTER THE NEW YORK ELECTION

deserted

tlie



” controlled by Conkling, while “ Honrevolted from the element known as the

niacliine

” Jolin Kelly

est

—WHAT KIND OF A TIME DID YOU HAVE?

liad

Tilden Democracy, preferring to throw his influence to the Ke-

pnhlican candidate for Governor, A. B. Comell, than to support Bohinson, of

who

represented those

still

loyal to the

“ Sage

Gramercy.” It is doubtful

interest

in

whether Mr. Tilden himself took any very deep

the result.

“ monkey-and-])arrot ” still

Nast depicted him as smiling at the fight

of Kelly

and Bobinson, and as

smiling and saying “ Bless you,

election

was over and both

had met

defeat.

my children,” when the Tammany and Tilden Democracy

Curtis, in the Saratoga Convention,

war and had

still

with Conkling, had 0 ])posed the nomination of Cornell,

at

continued to depreciate him in his editorials, to the discontent of

many

readers.

As a

result, in the issue of

lishers explained the paper’s position.

getically as

it

It

October 25th, the pubdeclared that, as ener-

had condemned unwise and unpatriotic practices

in

QUIET ISSUES AND A NOTABLE BETURN the Democratic ranks, so with equal force would evils

developed hy his own party.

purchase place,





Oidy hy

silence

it

resist the

and the

slav-

unwise and corrupt policies can any journal

ish following of ’



415

it

said.





If the success of the

Weekly must

de-

we would rather discontinue its puhlication.” In the same number Mr. Curtis tendered his resignation as Chairman of the Richmond County Convention. These pend iq)on such a

sacrifice,

incidents, in themselves of

among

no great national importance, were

the early beginnings of a dissatisfaction which culminated

in the great

^Mugwump

defection of 1884.

Nast had taken

less

than usual interest in the four-coniered fight, in

which there

had appeared little beyond principle that

of

office-seek-

Such sympathy

ing.

as he

had was

against

the

chine ” 1)}^

“ ma-

controlled

Conkling,

whom

he caricatured with considerable ity,

sever-

notwithstanding

the personal friend-

ship between them.

Conkling as a jack-

daw with borrowed plumes was the most notable of these, and

was

widely

re-

marked. '

COME INTO MY PARLOR,” SAID THE “ BOSS THE NEW YORK FLY

” SPIDER

TO

THOMAS NAST

41G

chief

event

autumn

of

the

of 1879

was

the return of General

Grant from his

around the world. He had been absent for more

trip

than two years, during which he had re-

an

almost

continuous

ovation

ceived

from foreign nations

and their sovereigns. No American abroad

ever

has

been so honored as General Grant, and BORROWED PLUMES

—MR. JACKDAW

no returning Amer-

COXKLING

Eagle-*' Perhaps you would like to pluck me.”

ican,

except

miral Dewey, was ever so extravagantly welcomed.

tember

1879, on the

20,

On

AdSep-

“ City of Tokio,” the Ex-President

arrived in San Francisco Bay.

The

entire city

was decorated with bunting and

flowers, while

the wild ringing of bells, the blowing of whistles and the firing of cannons

welcomed the hero

of Ulysses,”

was Nast’s

to his native land.

allegorical presentation of this episode.

There had been nothing partisan

The

feeling with

pride,

and a

“ The Return

in

Grant’s welcome home.

which he was greeted was one of universal

])atriotic desire to

pay tribute

to a great

commander.

was as an echo from the closing days of the war, when we knew of Grant was that he had given us victory. It

all

that

CHAPTER XLVII CHRONICLES

“ Another stocking

— DOMESTIC

to

fill

AND POLITICAL

” was the Christmas greeting of

The picture showed Santa Claus bending over the crib “ of the new baby ’’—the new baby being a late arrival in the 1879-80.

Nast household, the Cyril,

born August

first

was a hoy this time, said that the baby in the

for eight years.

and

28, 1879,

it is

It

crib is a true likeness, while the features of

unlike those of the proud and

happy

The new baby completed the

Santa Claus are not

father.

family, and with the beginning of

1880 the fortunes of the Nast household had reached their highest point.

The

artist still

owned the Harlem property, which

had a valuation of thirty thousand dollars, the price for which it was eventually sold. He had accumulated another sixty thousand dollars in Government ristown

home and

the combined

than

its

work

twenty

an unpaid-for

of

years j)iano,

securities, while the beautiful

rare contents were

all

his own.

Mor-

Solely

head and hands, the young man who before

had

begun

had acquired no

married less

life

by

less

with

a fortune than

one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars— an amount considered rather large in that day.

mained content with his

Well for him

success, doing such

his convictions, living on such income, his

work and investments provided. 27

work

whatever

if

he had

re-

as agreed with it

might

be, as

Not that his income had

THOMAS NAST

418

appreciably decreased, for

it

still

averaged considerably more

than twenty tlionsand dollars a year— five thousand of which

was the annual retainer from Harper Brothers, while something more than an equal amount came from his securities. The remainder was the additional received for drawings, and while it had become somewhat less than it had been prior to the death of Fletcher Haiq)er, it was still a very considerable sum, and sufficient to

many needs.

But the

artist

grew ever more

restive as he found

cult to express himself fully in the

it

more

diffi-

pages so long identified

with his individual utterances; and the idea of a paper of his

own— an endowed

man who had

jounial in which eveiy

some-

thing to say, and the ability and courage to say it— a paper un-

by any party or ]iolicy— became more and more a dream which he resolved to make real. controlled

But those

to

whom

he spoke of an endowed paper, while they

frequently expressed enthusiasm, were reluctant to invest in such

an enterprise. cially

it

Theoretically

it

seemed a good

did not appear 2)romising.

judgment himself, the

was

artist

financially reluctant friends,

With a

Commer-

idea.

total lack of business

inq)atient with these kindly but

and resolved

to acquire

through

si^eculative investments sufficient capital eventually to start the

paper on his own account.

beyond the comforts that creased tion social

journal

and

political

in the city realize.

itself

he did not care,

Ilis sole desire for in-

he might undertake the publica-

he

could

do

battle

careless of reform

at least rapidly

those

Two things he did not much larger, wealthier and

his adoi)tion.

than in those days following the Civil

paj:)er

for

reforms which seemed to him so needful

First, that the i-)ublic— so

the time for a

was

would buy.

wherein

and nation of

less primitive

grown

it

fortune was that a

of

For the money

and preferred

to

of the sort he dreamed,

waning.

War— had

be entertained— that if it

had not gone

by,

Second, he did not understand that

CHRONICLES—DOMESTIC AND POLITICAL HIGH in

tliG

^uisG of fiiGiidsliip

him

profit, to clivGst

Garibaldi,

liGi-o,

action and of honor. Gasily playGd

way

upon

l)y

thosG

who through

own 1ig

own

j^Gtty

Liko his old

fiold— a fiold of

was

guilGlGss

friondship

won

and

thoir

appoalod to his moral and patriotic

childhood— iGarnod of tliG pot lamb back of Landau— he had long since forgotten. He reTliG iGsson of his

in tliG field

membered only that })ought the Harlem lot,

iiiastGr in his

Also likG Garibaldi,

to his confidGncG or

impulsGs.

SGGk, for tliGir

of his hard-GariiGcl savings.

was a

1ig

coiilcl

41 !)

which as an

had

in-

vestment

had

turned

well.

out

once, through a friend’s advice, he

Other friends— some of

whom

them men

he had known for

years— learning that he

wished

profitable

ments,

other invest-

now brought

him this and opportunity mine,

that



perhaps,

a a

patent, or a railroad

undertaking

— until

within a single year

he had distributed a large

part

his

of

savings— those precious

Government

securities— into

vaSTRANGER things have happened

rious

channels, '

O' lui’lTl C’

st I‘Ornn