Tests in Selected Physical Education Service Courses in a College

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TESTS IN SELECTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION SERVICE COURSES IN A COLLEGE

by Rosemary B essie F ish e r

A d is s e r ta t io n subm itted in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e n t o f th e requirem ents f o r th e degree o f Doctor o f Philosophy, in th e Department o f P h y s ic a l E ducation f o r Women, in th e Graduate C ollege o f th e S ta te U n iv ersity o f Iowa June 1950

ProQuest Number: 10902157

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uest ProQuest 10902157 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The w r ite r w ishes to e x p re ss h e r s in c e re a p p r e c ia tio n to D r. M. Gladys S c o tt o f th e S ta te U n iv e rs ity o f Iowa f o r h e r guidance and h e lp f u l c r i t i c i s m d u rin g th e developm ent o f t h i s s tu d y . The w r ite r a ls o acknowledges h e r in d e b te d n e ss to Mrs. C h a rlo tte G regory, M iss Ruth Andrews, M iss Mary P r i c e , and Dr. C e c ile G ilb e r t who a s s i s t e d i n con d u ctin g t h i s stu d y .

i ft)

O '

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pag© I n t r o d u c t i o n .......................................

1

S tatem en t o f Problem • * ............................................

2

Review o f L ite r a tu r e

3

P rocedure •» ............................

15

D ata and Summary

20

Summary C onclusions

........................................................ ...............

69

....................................................................

A p p e n d ix ................................ B ib lio g r a p h y

72 73

..........................................................

iii

320

TABLE OF TABLES Table I

Page Combined A n aly sis o f Q uestions i n Soccer T e sts f o r 1948 and 1949 .......

22

A n a ly sis o f Q uestions in th e B a s k e tb a ll T est f o r t h e W inter Q u arter o f 1948-1949 . . . . . .

26

III

Combined A n aly sis o f B a s k e tb a ll Q uestions*

28

IV

A n aly sis o f th e Item s o f th e V olley B a ll Exam ination as Given in th e F a ll Q u arter o f 1948 ........................................................................

32

A n aly sis o f th e Item s of th e V olley B a ll Exam ination as Given in th e W inter Q u arter, 1948-1949, and th e Spring Q u arter 1949 ••*

34

Combined A n aly sis o f th e Item s on th e V olley B a ll Exam inations ........................................

36

A n aly sis o f th e Q uestions in th e Beginning Swimming T est f o r th e F a ll Q u arter 1948 ••

41

A n aly sis o f Q uestions on th e B eginning Swimming T est f o r W inter 1948-1949 and F a ll 1949 ..............................................................................

42

Combined A n aly sis o f th e T est Q uestions fo r B eginning Swimming ..........

43

In te rm e d ia te Swimming Q uestion A n aly sis f o r W in te r, 1948-1949, and Spring Term, 1949 •

47

Combined A n aly sis o f th e T est Q uestions f o r In te rm e d ia te Swimming.....................

48

Combined A n aly sis f o r Q uestions on Advanced Swimming .........

51

A n aly sis o f Item s o f th e S o f tb a ll T est as Given in th e S pring Q u a rte r, 1949 ..........

53

II

V

VI V II V III

IX X XI X II X III

iv

Table XIV

Page Combined A n aly sis o f S tu n ts and Tumbling Q u estio n s f o r Academic Year o f 1948-1949, f o r F a ll Term o f 1949, and f o r W inter Term o f 1949-1950 ...............................................................

58

A n aly sis o f T ennis Q uestions f o r th e S pring Q u a rte r o f 1949 .....................

60

XVI

Combined A n aly sis o f th e A rchery Q uestions

65

XVII

Combined A n aly sis o f Table Texmis Q uestions

66

XVIII

Combined A n aly sis o f the Bowling Q uestions

67

D is tr ib u tio n o f Tennis W allboard Scores

73

D is tr ib u tio n o f th e Sum o f Five T r ia ls o f th e V olley B a ll Serve T est . , ••

74

D is tr ib u tio n o f th e Sum o f F iv e T r ia ls cf th e V o lley b a l l W all V olley T e s t ...............

75

D is tr ib u tio n o f th e Sum o f Four T r ia ls o f th e Com bination Soeoer S k ills T est f o r F a ll Term 1949 . ..............................................................................

76

D is tr ib u tio n o f th e Sum o f Three T r ia ls o f th e S o f tb a ll R epeated Throw.• .................................

77

D is tr ib u tio n o f th e Sum o f Four T r ia ls o f th e B a s k e tb a ll S k ill s T est .........................................

78

D is tr ib u tio n of Bowling S co res, Average f o r Two Games • • • . ................... ..........

79

D is tr ib u tio n o f Table Tennis S k ill T est Scores

80

D is tr ib u tio n o f In d o o r A rchery S c o re s .

81

XV

XIX XX XXI XXII

XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI XXVII

v

1

INTRODUCTION There i s a common m isco n cep tio n among bo th h ig h sch o o l and c o lle g e s tu d e n ts a s to th e b a s is f o r g ra d in g in p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n programs*

Too f r e q u e n tly em phasis i s p la c e d on c la s s a tte n d a n c e and

o th e r s im ila r f a c t o r s r a t h e r th a n achievem ent o f knowledge and s k i l l i n th e a c t i v i t i e s *

T his stu d y was done to la y th e fo u n d a tio n f o r a

u n if ie d t e s t i n g program f o r e v a lu a tin g achievem ent in both s k i l l and knowledge in th e p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n s e rv ic e co u rses f o r women a t B a ll S ta te T eachers College* In any e d u c a tio n a l s itu a tio n th e re should be some type o f measurement so th a t th e te a c h e r may e v a lu a te h e r te a c h in g and so th e s tu d e n t may be aware o f h e r achievem ent and perhaps be m otiv ated to improve*

There seems to be a growing tre n d f o r w r itte n knowledge t e s t s

to be in c lu d e d w ith s k i l l t e s t s f o r e v a lu a tio n purposes*

Knowledge

t e s t s o v er r u l e s o f an a c t i v i t y a re more common th an w r itte n t e s t s over te c h n iq u e s , e t i q u e t t e , and game stra te g y * For th e most p a r t , th e t e s t s in c lu d ed h e re a r e n o t o ffe re d a s a com pleted p r o je c t b u t only a s a s t a r t in a program which w ill tak e s e v e ra l y e a rs to develop to a s a ti s f a c to r y l e v e l .

I n d iv id u a l and team

s p o r t a c t i v i t i e s have been th e a re a o f co n ce n tratio n *

Measurement in

rhythm co u rses i s under th e d ir e c tio n o f a n o th er teacher*

2

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM I t i s th e purpose o f t h i s stu d y to d e v ise knowledge t e s t s and to s e l e e t s k i l l t e s t s t h a t may be s u ita b le e v a lu a tio n in stru m e n ts i n th e fo llo w in g p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n s e rv ic e c o u rse s:

beg in n in g

swimming, in te rm e d ia te swimming, advanced swimming, r e c r e a tio n a l s p o r t s , s tu n ts and tu m b ling , s o c c e r, b a s k e tb a ll, v o ll e y b a ll , te n n is , and s o f tb a ll* This stu d y was lim ite d to th e p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n s e rv ic e c o u rse s f o r women a t B a ll S ta te T eachers C ollege*

3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE A r tic l e s in c lu d e d i n t h i s rev iew a r e p r im a r ily concerned w ith s p o r t s k i l l and knowledge t e s t s f o r g ir ls *

However, some r e f e r e n c e s a re

in c lu d e d which d e a l w ith t e s t s f o r boys i f th e a r t i c l e i n any way seemed to be r e l a t e d to o r concerned w ith th e same ty p e o f problem a s t h i s study*

A tre n d showing in c re a s in g i n t e r e s t in t e s t i n g o f s p o r t s k i l l s

and knowledge b e g in s to be a p p a re n t in p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n p u b lic a tio n s ab o u t 1950*

From th e n on, th e re i s an in c re a s e in th e number o f a r t i c l e s

p u b lish e d co n cern in g s p o r t t e s t s through 1941*

From 1941 to 1946 emphasis

i n t e s t i n g tu rn e d tow ard m easures o f p h y s ic a l f i t n e s s , a movement which, no d o u b t, gained im petus from World War II* Rodgers th e teach er's need

and H eath (75)

su p p o rted t e s t i n g w ith

f o r co n cre te evidence in g rad in g , th e

such

re a so n s a s

s u p e r v is o r 's

i n t e r e s t i n th e q u a lity o f te a c h in g , th e a d m in is tr a to r 's i n t e r e s t in h av in g p h y s ic a l ed u catio n be on an e d u c a tio n a l b a s is , and th e p u p il s ’ in te r e s t in th e ir

own p ro g ress* I n an a tte m p t to m eet th e se needs in

one phase o f p h y s ic a l

e d u c a tio n ,

they s e le c te d elem ents

in a

b a t te r y to

measure playground b a s e b a ll and d ev ised a knowledge t e s t f o r use in th e f i f t h and s ix th grades* f a l s e statem en ts*

The knowledge t e s t in c lu d ed one hundred t r u e -

The s k i l l t e s t s g iven a t th e b eginning and th e end o f

th e season were used to show achievem ent*

The a u th o rs "hoped t h i s

experim ent' may g iv e o th e rs a p o in t o f d e p a rtu re in to th e f i e l d o f s c i e n t i f i c in v e s tig a tio n in s k i l l and knowledge t e s t s in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n * " (75, p . 127)

4

K nighton (46) publiished a so c c e r t e s t w ith t r u e - f a l s e sta te m e n ts and m u ltip le ch o ice q u e s tio n s which, she hoped would h e lp b eg in n in g so ccer p la y e r s u n d erstan d th e game* Murphy (59) p u b lish e d a g o lf knowledge t e s t a s used f o r re q u ire d c o u rse s i n freshm en and sophomores i n p h y s ic a l ed u c a tio n a t Texas S ta te T eachers C ollege f o r Women*

T h is t e s t in c lu d ed f i f t y tr u e - f a l s e s t a t e ­

m ents, t h i r t e e n r e c a l l ite m s , and t h i r t y m atching item s* Moser (5 6 ), b e lie v in g i n s k i l l t e s t s a s a means o f m o tiv atio n and a s a means o f ju d g in g te a c h e r e f f ic ie n c y , v i s i t e d f i f t e e n h ig h sch o o ls o f v a rio u s s iz e s and ty p e s and found t h a t th e y were n o t u sin g any s k i l l te s ts *

The te a c h e rs in te rv ie w e d in d ic a te d i n t e r e s t in u s in g

t e s t s i f a c c u ra te and e a s ily a d m in iste re d t e s t s were made a v a ila b le * In con n ectio n w ith th e s e f in d in g s g rad u ate s tu d e n ts a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f S outhern C a lif o r n ia in v e s tig a te d p r a c t i c a l and w r itte n b a s k e tb a ll t e s t s and c o n s tru c te d a b a tte r y o f f iv e t e s t s in c lu d in g speed p ass a g a in s t th e w a ll, moving t a r g e t , f r e e jump, Edgren b a l l h a n d lin g t e s t , bounce and shoot* Wagner (9 7 ), a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a rs o f ex p erim en tatio n w ith methods o f g rad in g beg in n in g te n n is c la s s e s a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f N ebraska, s ta t e d t h a t th e fo llo w in g t e s t s seemed most s a tis f a c to r y ! forehand d riv e w ith no footw ork,^ backhand d riv e w ith no footw ork, f o re ­ hand d riv e and footw ork, backhand d riv e and footw ork, f iv e serv es from th e rig h t-h a n d c o u r t and f iv e s e rv e s from th e le f t- h a n d court*

The

p r a c t i c a l t e s t c o n s titu te d 66 p e r c e n t o f th e nu m erical g rad e ; and th e

5

w r i t t e n t e s t on r u l e s , c o u r t p o s iti o n , t a e t i e s , and knowledge o f good form i n s tro k e s was v alu ed a s 55 p e r c e n t o f th e grade*

The knowledge

t e s t in c lu d e d inco m p lete sta te m e n ts w ith s e v e r a l ch o ic e s p ro v id ed from which th e s tu d e n t was to s e l e c t th e b e s t one to com plete th e statem ent* EQrer (2 4 ,2 5 ) d esig n ed th e backboard t e s t o f te n n is a b i l i t y f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes*

The t e s t was given a t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t

c o lle g e s to 756 s tu d e n ts between F eb ru ary , 1952, and May, 1954.

The

d eg ree o f v a l i d i t y was determ ined in d i f f e r e n t ways a t each c o lle g e . At T eachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e rs ity , th e judgm ent o f th e p la y e r s 1 a b i l i t y by th re e e x p e rts c o r r e la te d w ith t e s t sc o re s re v e a le d a co­ e f f i c i e n t o f .8 4 .

Goucher C ollege used th e ran k in g o f one judge a s a

c r i t e r i o n and found a c o r r e la tio n o f .8 4 .

Mt. Holyoke u sed th re e

c r i t e r i a , th e sem ester g rad e, ran k in g by one ju d g e , and a ran k o rd e r l i s t o f a group o f f i f t e e n p la y e rs who p a r tic ip a te d in a round ro b in to u rn am en t.

R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t s ranged from .84 to .9 0 .

h a lv e s method re v e a le d a c o e f f i c ie n t o f .8 4 ; a r e t e s t , .9 0 .

The chance The au th o r

th o u g h t th e t e s t was o b je c tiv e in a s much a s th e re i s no e x p ressio n o f o p in io n a s to s k i l l , s c o rin g does n o t depend on judgm ent o f w orth, and th e t e s t i n g media a r e k e p t c o n s ta n t. S n e ll (9 0 , 91, 92) r e p o rte d a s e r ie s o f knowledge t e s t s in a rc h e ry , b a s e b a ll, b a s k e tb a ll, fu n d am en tals, hockey, g o lf , r id i n g , s o c c e r, te n n i s , v o lle y b a l l , and hygiene used a s p r e te s t s in c l a s s if y in g s tu d e n ts and a s p o s tte s t s f o r g rad in g stu d e n ts a t th e U n iv e rsity o f M innesota. E x p ert o p in io n was th e means used to determ ine v a l i d i t y . odd and even s c o re s was used to d eterm ine r e l i a b i l i t y .

C o rre la tio n o f

6

French and Cooper (31) a f t e r h av in g surveyed th e l i t e r a t u r e and a f t e r h av in g experim ented w ith s e v e r a l v o lle y b a l l t e s t s , decid ed a d ap ta­ t i o n s would need to be made o r some new s k i l l t e s t s would have to be c o n s tru c te d f o r c l a s s i f y i n g h ig h sch o o l g i r l s .

I n t h e i r stu d y they

concluded t h a t th e b e s t s in g le t e s t i s th e re p e a te d v o lle y t e s t and th e b e s t com bination i s th e re p e a te d v o lle y w ith th e s e rv ic e t e s t . b a t te r y i s d e sc rib e d i n S c o tt and French (8 6 , p . 1 0 3 ).

T his

T hat th e two

t e s t s measured, d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s was shown by an i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .3 9 . Schw artz (78) d ev ised a w r itte n b a s k e tb a ll t e s t f o r h ig h sch o o l g i r l s to be used f o r o b je c tiv e m arking, f o r m o tiv a tio n o f te a c h in g and f o r measurement o f te a c h in g .

The v a l i d i t y o f th e w r itte n t e s t was

e s ta b lis h e d by a sk in g f i f t y - f o u r women co n sid ered a s a u t h o r i t i e s in b a s k e tb a ll f o r g i r l s to c r i t i c i z e th e t e s t and o f f e r su g g estio n s f o r im provement.

For f u r th e r means o f checking on th e v a l i d i t y freshman

women o f th e U n iv e rs ity o f S outhern C a lif o r n ia took th e t e s t .

The t e s t

i n a r e v is e d form in c lu d e d f i f t y t r u e - f a l s e sta te m e n ts, f i f t e e n com pletion q u e s tio n s , tw enty b e s t answer q u e s tio n s , and f i f t e e n p i c t o r i a l q u e s tio n s . S k i l l t e s t s c o n s is tin g o f a bounce over a s ix f o o t a r e a , jump and re a c h , p a ss and catch a g a in s t th e w a ll, accuracy throw f o r g o al were given to one thousand sch o o l g i r l s .

S c a le s were th en e s ta b lis h e d f o r both th e

w r itte n and th e p r a c t i c a l s k i l l t e s t s . B a s s e tt, Glassow, and Locke (3) ex p ressed concern because no p ro o f o f v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y was given f o r c e r t a in t e s t s ap p earin g i n th e R esearch Q u a rte rly .

As a r e s u l t they made a study o f a v a ila b le

7

v o lle y b a l l t e s t e , s e t up proposed t e s t s , and t r i e d to r e f i n e th e t e s t item s i n accordance w ith ac c e p te d c r i t e r i a .

G lassow, C o lv in , and Schwartz

(15) d id a s im ila r stu d y on b a s k e tb a ll t e s t s . Hyde (41) e s ta b lis h e d s ta n d a rd s o f achievem ent in a rc h e ry f o r c o lle g e women. H ew itt (58) c o n s tru c te d a knowledge t e s t i n te n n is to c l a s s i f y s tu d e n ts in i n s t r u c t i o n a l gro u p s, to use a s a marking d e v ic e , and to d eterm in e th e amount o f improvement a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n .

H is two hundred

q u e s tio n s were based on h i s t o r y , equipm ent, r u l e s , p la y in g s it u a t i o n s , fu n d am en tals, a l l o f which a re phases o f te n n is co n sid ere d im p o rtan t by a u th o ritie s .

A fte r th e t e s t had been given to 405 s tu d e n ts , q u e s tio n s

c o n sid e re d ambiguous, p o o rly worded, to o easy o r to o d i f f i c u l t were e lim in a te d .

Thus th e t e s t was c u t to one hundred q u e s tio n s .

A re lia b ility

c o e f f i c i e n t o f .9 0 was determ ined by c o r r e la tin g odd a g a in s t even item s and s te p p in g up t h a t c o e f f i c ie n t w ith th e Spearman-Brown Prophecy fo rm u la. The t e s t in c lu d ed t r u e - f a l s e s ta te m e n ts , y e s and no ite m s , m atching, and diagram m atic ite m s . S c o tt (88) i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Use o f S k i l l T e sts" o ffe re d s u g g e stio n s f o r s e le c tin g t e s t s to meet o b je c tiv e s ; f o r e v a lu a tio n o f th e t e s t i n term s o f o b j e c t i v i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y ; f o r e f f i c i e n t a d m in is tra tio n ; and f o r se cu rin g i n t e r e s t and c o o p era tio n o f th e t e s t e e s . Rodgers (74) i n "The S ta n d a rd iz a tio n and Use o f O b jectiv e Type In fo rm atio n T e sts in Team Game A c tiv itie s " s ta t e d needs f o r t e s t s , common p i t f a l l s to av o id in t e s t c o n s tr u c tio n , d ir e c tio n s f o r t e s t a d m in is tr a tio n ,

8

and s c o rin g m ethods.

In c lu d e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e i s th e R odgers-H eath

playground b a s e b a ll in fo rm a tio n t e s t . D e itz and F reeh (SO) p u b lish e d a hockey t e s t w ith tr u e ~ f a ls e and m u ltip le ch o ice item s s u ita b le f o r u se w ith h ig h sch o o l g ir ls * S ch au fele (78) a ttem p ted to f in d a t e s t o r b a tte r y o f t e s t s to e v a lu a te so c c e r p la y in g a b i l i t y o f n in th and te n th grade g i r l s .

She

concluded i n h e r stu d y t h a t th e b e s t s in g le t e s t f o r m eeting t h i s pur* pose i s th e so c c e r v o lle y t e s t d e sc rib e d i n h e r th e s i s o r i n S c o tt and French (8 6 , p . 7 1 ). Schmith&ls and French (8 0 ), a f t e r making a survey o f a v a ila b le f i e l d hockey t e s t s and f in d in g none t h a t com pletely met t h e i r needs f o r d eterm in in g s ta t u s o f s tu d e n ts re g a rd in g t h e i r need f o r f u r th e r in s tr u c ­ t i o n , d esig n ed some s k i l l t e s t s to use f o r t h i s p u rp o se.

S cores on th e se

t e s t s were compared w ith s u b je c tiv e r a ti n g s to see how w e ll th e t e s t s m easured p la y in g a b i l i t y .

These a u th o rs concluded t h a t th e b e s t s in g le

t e s t f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o lle g e women in f i e l d hockey i s th e d r ib b le , dodge, c i r c u l a r ta c k le , and d riv e t e s t .

The a u th o rs in t h e i r co n clu sio n s

made s e v e r a l su g g estio n s f o r f u r th e r s tu d ie s i n s k i l l t e s t i n g i n f i e l d hockey. The R esearch Committee o f th e C e n tra l A sso c ia tio n o f P h y s ic a l Education f o r C ollege Women (85) undertook th e p r o je c t o f dev elo p in g knowledge t e s t s and some s k i l l t e s t s so t h a t s u ita b le t e s t s may be a v a ila b le f o r c o lle g e i n s t r u c t o r s .

" I t i s a ls o hoped t h a t t h i s work

w i l l encourage th e p r a c tic e o f ex p ec tin g in c re a s e in knowledge and u n d erstan d in g a s w e ll a s developm ent o f s k i l l s in c o lle g e c l a s s e s . ”

9

(85 * p . 40)

T h is committee i n p re p a ra tio n f o r c o n s tru c tio n o f e l e m e n t a l

and In te rm e d ia te swimming knowledge exam inations s e n t q u e s tio n n a ire s to fo rty -tw o c o lle g e s i n th e C e n tra l D i s t r i c t to g e t in fo rm a tio n ab o u t te a c h in g p ro ced u res and needs f o r te s ts *

The c o n te n t o f th e exam ination

was b ased on th e m a te r ia l ta u g h t i n tw enty-seven c o lle g e s which re p lie d * The t e s t was made up o f m u ltip le choice q u e stio n s and t r u e - f a l s e s t a t e ­ ments*

The in d ex o f d is c rim in a tio n and th e d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g o f eaeh

q u e s tio n were th e b a s e s f o r r e ta in in g o r e lim in a tin g item s* As a c o n tin u a tio n o f t h i s p r o je c t th e R esearch Committee (84) d esig n ed elem en tary and in te rm e d ia te te n n is knowledge t e s t e and v a rio u s te n n is s k i l l t e s t s were a ls o suggested*

Also t h i s B esearch Committee

(82) h a s p u b lish e d a badminton knowledge exam ination and h as su g g ested th e use o f th e s e rv e and c l e a r t e s t s a s badminton s k i l l t e s t s f o r c o lle g e women* R u s s e ll and Lange (7 6 ), tiho were w anting v o lle y b a l l t e s t s t h a t a r e s u ita b le f o r u se i n th e seventh* e i ^ r t h , and n in th grades* s tu d ie d th e a v a ila b le s k i l l t e s t s f o r th e h ig h sch o o l and c o lle g e l e v e l s ; and th ey decid ed to u se Breach and C o oper's s e rv in g t e s t and re p e a te d v o lle y t e s t w ith s l i g h t m o d ificatio n * Jo n e s (44) d id a s tu d y on e v a lu a tio n o f knowledge t e s t s on b a s k e tb a ll r u l e s and game ta c tic s * v is u a liz a tio n te s ts * and s k i l l t e s t s f o r g i r l s i n th e ju n io r y e a r in h ig h school*

She concluded t h a t th e

w r itte n t e s t in c lu d e d i n h e r study was s a tis f a c to r y * t h a t th e Edgren b a l l h a n d lin g t e s t was th e b e s t s in g le s k i l l te s t* and t h a t th e b a s k e t sh o o tin g (50 seconds) was th e second b e s t te s t*

The knowledge t e s t

10 in c lu d e d f o r ty - s e v e n m u ltip le resp o n se and t h i r t e e n diagram q u estio n s* I n 1942 two th e s e s d e a lin g w ith s k i l l t e s t s were su b m itted a t th e S ta te d i v e r s i t y o f Iow a.

B o n tz 's stu d y (5) in c lu d e d a t e s t f o r

m easuring a b i l i t y in th e fundam ental s k i l l s used by f i f t h and s ix th grade c h ild r e n i n p la y in g soccer*

B uchanan's stu d y (10) in c lu d e d

recom mendations f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y measurement o f sp e e d b a ll s k i l l s f o r h i g i sc h o o l g ir ls * B en n ett (4) s ta t e d t h a t th e o f f i c i a l method o f r a t i n g d iv e s a s d e s c rib e d i n "A q u atics w ith O f f i c i a l B uies f o r Swimming M eets 1940*" R a tio n a l S e c tio n on Women's A th le tic s o f th e American A sso c ia tio n f o r H ealth* P h y s ic a l E ducation and R ec re a tio n i s to o d i f f i c u l t f o r th e s tu d e n ts to p ass more th an one o r two dives*

Because o f h e r i n t e r e s t

i n t h i s problem* she d ev ised a t e s t o f f i f t y item s which range from sim ple s tu n ts to d i f f i c u l t dives* t r i a l s a s th e y choose on each item*

The s u b je c ts a r e allow ed a s many Tw enty-six s tu d e n ts a t th e

U n iv e rs ity o f C a lif o r n ia took th e t e s t ; and th e degree o f v a l i d i t y was determ ined by comparing th o se r e s u l t s w ith a r a t i n g by e x p e rt ju d g e s who used th e o f f i c i a l te n p o in t r a t i n g scale*

The d iv e rs were

ran k ed acco rd in g to t o t a l s c o re s ; and t h i s ra n k in g p o s itio n was com­ p ared w ith th e s c o re s made by th e same d iv e rs on th e o b je c tiv e t e s t d esig n ed by B e n n e tt.

The v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c ie n t was *94*

The r e l i a b i l i t y

c o e f f i c ie n t was determ ined by c o r r e la tin g t o t a l s c o re s made on odd numbered item s o f th e t e s t w ith t o t a l sc o re s made on even numbered item s* T his c o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c ie n t step p ed up w ith th e Spearman-Brown Prophecy fo rm u la was *95*

11 French (52) c o n s tru c te d knowledge t e s t s to m easure achievem ent f o r women s tu d e n ts m ajo rin g i n p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n a t th e S ta te U n iv e rs ity o f Iowa*

These t e s t s were over body m echanics, badm inton, b a s k e tb a ll,

can o ein g , f i e l d hockey, rhythm s, f o lk d an cin g , g o lf , s o c c e r, s tu n ts and tu m b lin g , r e c r e a tio n a l s p o r ts , s o f t b a l l , swimming, te n n is , v o lle y b a l l , and tr a c k and f ie ld *

Q uestions were r e ta in e d in th e se t e s t s on th e

b a s is o f t h e i r w orth a f t e r th e in d ex o f d is c rim in a tio n and th e degree o f d i f f i c u l t y had been d eterm in ed . C onelly (14) a d m in iste re d a s e le c te d b a tte r y o f achievem ent t e s t s and e s ta b lis h e d sta n d a rd s c o re s i n b a s k e tb a ll, s o c c e r, s o f t b a l l , and v o lle y b a l l f o r use w ith th e n in th grade g i r l s i n Blue I s la n d Community High S chool. P h i l l i p s (69) c o n s tru c te d and s ta n d a rd iz e d a badminton know­ led g e t e s t f o r u se i n c o lle g e p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n c la s s e s o f v ary in g in s tru c tio n a l le v e ls .

She analyzed c o n te n ts o f co u rses o f study and

t e x t books on badm inton to l i s t th e m ost commonly emphasized p h ases. T his l i s t was s e n t to badm inton e x p e rts f o r a p p ro v a l.

These e x p e rts

were a ls o asked to a s s ig n a p ercen tag e v alu e to in d ic a te th e p ercen tag e o f th e t e s t q u e s tio n s t h a t should be devoted to each o b je c tiv e . ran g e o f p erce n tag es a s in d ic a te d by th o se e x p e rts i s a s fo llo w s!

The from

10$ to 65$ w ith a mean o f 54$ f o r r u l e s ; 19$ to 65$ w ith a mean o f 51$ f o r fundam entals o f s tr o k e s ; from 5$ to 20$ w ith a mean o f 8$ f o r s tr a te g y i n th e s in g le s games; from 5$ to 20$ w ith a mean o f 8$ f o r s tr a te g y in th e d o u b les game; from 1$ to 10$ with" a mean o f 6$ f o r f l i n t s and r e tu r n s ; & om ;,2$^te«l^$uw ith a mean^Of 6$ f o r term in o lo g y ; from 1$ to 8$ w ith a

12 mean o f Z>% f o r h i s t o r y .

When th e t e s t was c o n s tru c te d , 648 s tu d e n ts

from sev en teen d i f f e r e n t c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s to o k t h i s t e s t ,

from

th e s e r e s u l t s an a n a ly s is was made} and q u e s tio n s y ie ld in g a d e s ir a b le degree o f v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and d i f f i c u l t y were r e ta in e d . C r itz (18) d ev ised a perform ance t e s t s f o r beg in n in g c a n o e is ts . H er t e s t i s d esig n ed to e lim in a te h e lp from a p a r tn e r c a n o e is t. L ockhart (49) i n nT e s tin g Can Improve Teaching*1 s ta t e d t h a t th e war h a s n e c e s s ita te d t h a t p h y s ic a l ed u c a to rs show r e s u l t s i n term s o f a b i l i t y and achievem ent.

She a l s o s ta te d t h a t s ta n d a rd iz e d s k i l l

t e s t s w ith a c c e p ta b le d eg rees o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y a re a v a ila b le , f o r u se i n p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n . some means o f m easurem ent.

"Achievement can be determ ined o n ly by

W ithout t e s t i n g to e v a lu a te r e s u l t s we

c an n o t change o u r program req u ire m en ts from m erely a tim e sen ten ce to an em phasis on th e m eeting o f s a ti s f a c to r y achievem ent s ta n d a rd s .

It

seems q u ite in e v ita b l e , l o g i c a l , and d e s ir a b le t h a t we must la y more s t r e s s on d e f i n i t e s ta n d a rd s in our p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n program s." (49, p . 627)

L ockhart f u r th e r em phasized t e s t i n g a s a m o tiv a to r, a

cheek on te a c h in g e f f ic ie n c y , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s e c tio n in g , d ia g n o sis and r e s u l t a n t program m o d ific a tio n , and p ro o f o f a t t a i n in g ou r g o als a s a p ro fe s s io n . fre n c h and S t a l t e r (53) d id a fo llo w up study o f th e badminton serv e and c le a r t e s t s a s p u b lish e d in th e R esearch Q u a rte rly May, 1941. They concluded i n t h i s stu d y t h a t th e com bination o f th e s e rv e , c l e a r , w r is t v o lle y , and s h u ttl e fo ot-w ork t e s t s were th e b e s t measure o f p la y in g a b i l i t y i n badminton a s conducted in t h e i r stu d y .

15

L ockhart and McPherson (48) to m eet a need f o r c l a s s if y in g and g ra d in g s tu d e n ts a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f N ebraska r e v is e d a badminton v o lle y te s t *

I n t h i s t e s t th e s h u ttl e i s v o lle y e d a g a in s t th e w all*

By r e t e s t ­

in g f i f t y g i r l s and c o r r e l a ti n g t h e i r s c o r e s , th ey found th e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t to be *90*

The degree o f v a l i d i t y was e s ta b lis h e d by h av in g

th r e e ju d g e s r a t e th e p la y in g a b i l i t y o f s ix ty - e ig h t g i r l s ; and th e com posite r a t i n g o f th e ju d g es was c o r r e la te d w ith th e s c o re s made on th e v o lle y te s t*

The v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c ie n t was *71*

VKhen th e p ercen tag e

o f tw en ty -sev en p la y e rs in a round ro b in tournam ent was c o r r e la te d w ith th e s c o re s on th e v o lle y t e s t , th e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c ie n t was *60 w ith a s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f *12* The N a tio n a l S e c tio n on Women's A th le tic s h a s developed w r itte n t e s t s to be u sed in co n n ectio n w ith o f f i c i a l s ' r a ti n g s i n s e v e ra l s p o r ts such a s te n n is , swimming and d iv in g , b a s k e tb a ll, s o f t b a l l , and v o lle y b a ll*

These t e s t s d e a l w ith th e r u le s o f th e a c t i v i t y and th e o f f i c i a t i n g

techniq u es* In more r e c e n t y e a r s a u th o rs have shown concern ab o u t im proving th e q u a lity o f te s ts *

Some people were u n w illin g to a c c e p t and use th e

s k i l l t e s t s i n th e o r ig i n a l form ; and e f f o r t s have been made to improve them in term s o f o b j e c t i v i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y . a ls o been e x e rte d to improve w r itte n ex am in atio n s.

E f f o r ts have

The t r u e - f a l s e , y e s -

n o , and m atching q u e s tio n s had been th e type most fre q u e n tly u sed ; and th e c o n te n t o f th e t e s t was m o stly over r u l e s .

Trends i n evidence a t

p r e s e n t in d ic a te t h a t th e t r u e - f a l s e sta te m e n t, and m u ltip le choice q u e stio n s

14

a r e more common and t h a t em phasis i s b ein g p la c e d on q u e s tio n s r e q u ir in g a p p lic a tio n o f knowledge•

The scope o f th e t e s t s h a s been broadened to

in c lu d e n o t on ly r u l e s b u t a ls o game s tr a t e g y , te c h n iq u e s , e t i q u e t t e , and c a re o f equipm ent.

Many o f th e s e t e s t s have been re v is e d and improved

by u sin g te c h n iq u e s such a s th e in d ex o f d is c r im in a tio n and th e degree o f d i f f i c u l t y d e s c rib e d i n r e c e n t t e x t books on te s tin g * Some o f th e se p u b lish e d s tu d ie s on t e s t i n g have been h e lp f u l in d e sig n in g a t e s t program f o r our c o lle g e ; b u t th e re i s no one p a r t i c u l a r t e s t i n g program a v a ila b le t h a t com pletely m eets ou r needs*

15

PROCEDURE The p ro ced u re used in t h i s study i s a s fo llo w s: A.

F or th e w r itte n t e s t s 1*

review o f o b je c tiv e s and course c o n te n t

2*

p re p a ra tio n o f t e s t item s

5.

c r it ic i s m o f t e s t item s and re v is io n

4.

a d m in is tra tio n o f th e t e s t s

5.

e v a lu a tio n o f th e t e s t item s a f t e r th e t e s t had been

given 6* r e v is io n o r r e o rg a n iz a tio n o f th e t e s t f o r f u tu r e use B.

F or s k i l l t e s t s 1.

rev iew o f o b je c tiv e s

2.

survey o f v a rio u s p r a c t i c a l t e s t s

5.

s e le c tio n o f t e s t s t h a t seemed to f i t our need

Review o f O b je c tiv e s and Course C ontent For every co u rse ta u g h t a re v is e d s y lla b u s , which In clu d es o b je c tiv e s and c o n te n t, i s p laced on f i l e in th e o f f ic e o f th e dean of in s t r u c t i o n .

These s y l l a b i , a v a ila b le f o r use by any s t a f f member,

o ffe re d a co n v en ien t means o f a c q u a in tin g th e au th o r w ith th e courses a s th ey had been ta u g h t or were b ein g ta u g h t fcy o th e r i n s t r u c t o r s . The a u th o r was f a m ilia r w ith th e co u rses too f o r she had ta u g h t a l l o f th e s e rv ic e co u rses in c lu d e d in t h i s stu d y w ith th e ex cep tio n o f s tu n ts and tum bling.

16

P re p a r a tio n o f T e s t Item s The co u rse s y l l a b i f a c i l i t a t e d th e d esig n in g o f a l i s t o f p o in ts concerning r u l e s , s k i l l s , s tr a t e g y , and e t iq u e tt e t h a t th e s tu d e n ts were ex p ected to know a f t e r th e com pletion o f th e co u rse. Q uestio n s were c o n s tru c te d to examine th e s tu d e n t over th a t m a te r ia l. I n some a r e a s t r u e - f a l s e sta te m e n ts were included*

I n most

in s ta n c e s , m u ltip le choice q u e s tio n s were used because o f th e fo llo w in g ad v an tag es: 1*

They a r e o b je c tiv e *

2*

They a r e sco red e a s ily *

3*

The s tu d e n t i s r e q u ir e d to s e l e c t th e c o r r e c t answer a s

w e ll a s e lim in a te th e in c o r r e c t re s p o n s e s . 4*

R esponses t h a t do n o t fu n c tio n may be e lim in a te d i n

r e v is io n o f th e t e s t . In th e c o n s tru c tio n o f m u ltip le choice ite m s, A dkins1 c r i t e r i a o f e v a lu a tio n (1 , P* 56) were used i n so f a r a s th e y were p r a c t i c a l . Those c r i t e r i a a r e a s fo llo w s: 1*

I s th e item r e a l i s t i c and p r a c tic a l?

2.

I s th e item im p o rta n t and u se fu l?

5*

I s th e item p h rased i n th e working language o f th e job?

4*

Does th e item av o id tex tb o o k language?

5*

I s th e item s p e c if ic ?

6*

Does th e q u e s tio n demand knowledge?

7*

Does th e q u e s tio n r e v e a l answ ers to o th e r q u e stio n s

in c lu d e d in th e t e s t ?

17

8.

I s th e q u e s tio n s ta te d c l e a r l y , b r i e f l y b u t com pletely?

9*

Are th e d i s t r a c t o r s o r f o i l s im p o rtan t?

Do th e y p re s e n t

common e r r o r s and m isconceptions? 1 0. I s th e b e s t answer given away by i r r e l e v a n t d e t a ils ? 11.

Are th e a l t e r n a t i v e s ex p ressed in p a r a l l e l form?

IS .

I s th e item v a l i d and r e l i a b l e ?

IS .

Does th e item have f a c e - v a lid ity ?

A fte r th e q u e s tio n s had been w r itt e n , they were c r i t i c i z e d and e v a lu a te d f o r fa c e v a l i d i t y by th e p h y s ic a l ed u catio n s t a f f members who ta u g h t th e c o u rs e s .

Also books by s o - c a lle d a u t h o r i ti e s were used to

v e r if y th e answer a s th e c o r r e c t one. C r i t e r i a f o r S e le c tio n o f S k i l l T ests The c r i t e r i a f o r s e le c tio n o f th e s k i l l t e s t s a r e a s fo llo w s: 1.

Does th e t e s t have a s a ti s f a c to r y degree o f r e l i a b i l i t y

and v a l id it y ? 2.

I s th e t e s t easy to ad m in iste r?

3.

Does th e t e s t r e q u ir e a sm all a re a f o r t e s t a d m in is tra tio n ?

4.

I s th e t e s t econom ical from th e s ta n d p o in t o f time?

5.

Can th e t e s t be ad m in iste re d to many people a t one tim e in

o u r a v a ila b le t e s t i n g a re a s? 6.

I s th e t e s t in k eep in g w ith th e o b je c tiv e s o f th e course?

A d m in istratio n o f th e T e sts The w r itte n t e s t s were given ty th e i n s t r u c t o r o f each c la s s d u rin g th e r e g u la r c la s s p e rio d .

A c a r e f u l check was made to be c e r ta in

18

a l l o f th e t e s t p a p e rs had been re tu r n e d a t th e end o f th e t e s t period* S k i l l t e s t s were a d m in iste re d by th e in s t r u c t o r o f th e c l a s s , by p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n m ajor s tu d e n ts , and by th e author* B a sis f o r T e st R ev isio n A fte r th e w r itte n t e s t s had been g iv e n , th e degree o f d i f f i c u l t y and th e in d e x o f d is c rim in a tio n were computed f o r each question* Flanagan tech n iq u e was u se d .

The

I n t h i s method th e h ig h e s t and th e lo w est

27# o f th e t o t a l t e s t s c o re s a re used i n d eterm in in g th e se computations* The d is c r im in a tio n index i s found try th e fo llo w in g s te p s :

( l ) determ ine

th e p erce n tag e o f th e h ig h e s t 27# o f th e t o t a l t e s t sc o re s who chose th e c o r r e c t answ er, (2) d eterm ine th e p ercen tag e o f the lo w est 27# o f t o t a l t e s t sc o re s who chose th e c o r r e c t answ er, (S) lo c a te th e se two p erce n tag es on th e Flanagan c h a r t (7 1 , P. 204). I t i s g e n e ra lly acc ep ted t h a t 27# o f th e cases should t o t a l a t l e a s t tw e n ty -fiv e eases*

I n some in s ta n c e s th e t o t a l number o f t e s t cases

was to o sm all to meet t h i s req u ire m en t.

T h ere fo re , i f few er than tw enty-

f iv e c a se s were u se d , th e term "estim a te d index" and "estim a te d d if f i c u lty " have been used i n t h i s stu d y .

Any d e v ia tio n from t h i s procedure i s s ta te d

in th e a c t i v i t y lo g o r on th e ta b le o f data* The d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g i s th e p ercen tag e o f th e s tu d e n ts who chose th e c o r r e c t answer i n th e two extrem es. In g e n e ra l, q u e s tio n s were r e ta in e d i f th e in d ex o f d is c rim in a tio n was e ig h te e n o r h ig h e r and i f th e degree o f d i f f i c u l t y was w ith in th e range o f from f iv e to n in e ty - f iv e .

I n th e m u ltip le choice q u e stio n s resp o n ses

19

which were chosen by few er th a n Z% o f th e t o t a l group b ein g te s te d were re v is e d o r elim in ated *

O ccasio n a lly a q u e s tio n which seemed u n s a tis f a c to r y

was r e ta in e d a r b i t r a r i l y f o r f u r th e r study* I n in s ta n c e s i n vifcich th e same q u e stio n was used in t e s t s d u rin g th e d i f f e r e n t sch o o l te rm s, th e d is c r im in a tio n index and d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g were computed by combining th e h ig h e s t 27% o f th e s c o re s f o r a l l t e s t s and hy com bining th e low s c o re s a ls o so th e re would be a g r e a te r 9 w ith which to work* T e sts which were r e v is e d f o r use in th e s p rin g q u a rte r o f 1950 and f o r th e school y e a r o f 1950-1951, were re a rra n g e d so t h a t th e o rd e r o f q u e s tio n s p ro g ressed from th e e a s i e s t to th e most d i f f i c u l t * Marking No a tte m p t was made to determ ine a uniform p a ssin g mark f o r a l l th e c la s s e s because th e t e s t s a re s t i l l in a developm ental s ta g e .

Marks

i n th e s e rv ic e co u rses in our c o lle g e a r e e i th e r p ass o r f a il * R e lia b ility No a tte m p t h a s been made to determ ine th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e w r itte n te s ts * S u b je c ts and G lass D e s c rip tio n The s u b je c ts i n t h i s stu d y a r e women s tu d e n ts o f a te a c h e rs c o lle g e w ith a s tu d e n t en ro llm en t o f approxim ately 3000*

The p h y s ic a l

e d u c a tio n s e rv ic e c la s s e s range from ab o u t te n to t h i r t y - f i v e p u pils* =p > th e c la s s e s meet f o r f o r t y - f i v e m inutes tw ice a week f o r elev en weeks*

20 DATA AND SUMMARY S occer Log

P rocedure A w r itte n so ccer t e s t m s c o n s tru c te d and ad m in iste re d to f i f t y - f o u r c o lle g e g i r l s i n th e f a l l o f 1948*

The degree o f d i f f i c u l t y

and in d e x o f d is c rim in a tio n could n o t be computed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is because o f th e sm all number o f c a se s; b u t each q u e s tio n was s tu d ie d to determ ine by o b se rv a tio n w hether th e q u e stio n fu n c tio n e d .

R ev isio n th e n was done m ostly by appearance o f r e s u l t s

r a th e r th a n by s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly sis* The r e v is e d w r itte n t e s t was given in th e f a l l o f 1949 to f o r t y - s i x stu d en ts*

R ev isio n f o r 1950 was based on an a n a ly s is o f

item s from th e combined s c o re s o f both a d m in is tra tio n s o f th e te s t* The so ccer s k i l l t e s t la b e le d th e Combination o f S k i l l s T e s t d e s c rib e d by S c o tt and French (8 3 , p . 79) was chosen f o r th e s k i l l t e s t i n th e f a l l o f 1948.

T his au th o r th o u g h t i t would be a s u ita b le

t e s t f o r i t in c lu d e d p a s s in g , d r ib b lin g , re c e iv in g th e b a l l and d riv in g f o r th e g o a l, a l l o f which a re im p o rta n t s k i l l s i n s o c c e r.

However,

th e a d m in is tra tio n took so lo n g t h a t th e t e s t had to be d iscontinued* By th en th e w eather was so co ld and i t was so l a t e in th e term , th a t a n o th e r so ccer s k i l l t e s t could n o t be s u b s titu te d . I n th e f a l l o f 1949 th e so ccer v o lle y in g t e s t as d e sc rib e d by S c o tt and French (8 5 , P . 71) was a d m in iste re d .

Four t r i a l s were adm inis­

te r e d in s te a d o f two in accordance w ith th e su g g estio n fo llo w in g th e

21

d e s c r ip t io n o f th e t e s t .

A ll fo u r t r i a l s were given on th e same day.

A n a ly sis o f Data The fo llo w in g item s o f th e w r itte n t e s t f o r th e f a l l o f 1948 seemed to need r e v is io n :

resp o n se d in q u e stio n 16, resp o n se e in q u e s tio n

17, resp o n se c in q u e s tio n 21; resp o n se d o f q u e s tio n 25, and resp o n se e o f q u e s tio n 28*

These ite m s, chosen by too few s tu d e n ts , were re p la c e d ;

and th r e e q u e s tio n s were added in th e 1949 r e v is io n . Table I shows th e r e s u l t s o f th e a n a ly s is o f th e combined sco res from th e w r itte n t e s t s o f 1948 and 1949. n a te d o r re p la c e d a r e a s fo llo w s: and 41.

Q uestions 'which had to be e lim i­

2 , 5 , 14, 17, 18, 24, 29, 34, 36, 38,

Some f o i l s a ls o had to be re p la c e d .

Reasons f o r 'these changes

a r e g iven on Table I . In S ch au fele* s study (8 6 , P . 73) a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t o f .67 was determ ined f o r th e f i r s t and second t r i a l s o f th e Combination S k i l l s T e s t.

The s u b je c ts were e ig h ty -fo u r h ig h sch o o l g i r l s .

This low r e l i a b i l i t y

c o e f f i c ie n t may p o s s ib ly be th e reaso n f o r th e su g g estio n t h a t th e number o f t r i a l s be doubled.

A v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c ie n t o f .57 was re p o rte d when th e

c r i t e r i o n used was th e s u b je c tiv e r a t i n g o f th re e te a c h e rs and two s e n io r s tu d e n ts .

ffoen th e t e s t r e s u l t s were T -scored and a l l o f th e T -sco res

were added and used a s a c r i t e r i o n , a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c ie n t o f .77 was o b ta in e d . In t h i s stu d y no a tte m p t was made to determ ine th e degree o f v a l i d i t y o f th e s k i l l s t e s t .

The c o e f f i c ie n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y wqs .83 a s

determ ined by th e odd-even method when th e sco res o f fo u r t r i a l s o f

22

T able I Combined A n a ly sis o f Q uestions i n S occer T e sts f o r 1948 and 1949

Q uestion a s numbered in 1949

N or

Degree o f D if f ic u l ty

Index o f D iscrim ­ in a tio n

1 2

27 27

38 90

74 53

5

27

85

15

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 25 24 26 27 29

27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27

85 96 55 35 74 59 72 58 44 29 92 66 53 85 96 92 87 59 79 59 61 50 64 92

72 0 53 51 61 56 75 45 56 47 0 16 27 -1 3 55 49 40 61 69 55 04 10 35 25

50

27

85

15

31 52 35 54 35

27 27 27 27 27

57 40 75 94 64

39 57 27 14 47

Reason q u e s tio n was n o t re ta in e d i n th e o r ig i n a l form

R esponses c and d d id n o t fu n ctio n * Response b d id n o t fu n c tio n ; in ad eq u ate index* In ad eq u ate index? too easy*

In ad eq u ate index* Response c d id n o t fu n c tio n . N egative in d ex . Too easy*

In ad eq u ate in d ex . Response b d id n o t fu n c tio n . R esponses c and d d id n o t fu n c tio n . Response b d id n o t fu n c tio n ; in ad eq u ate in d ex . Response c d id n o t fu n c tio n . Response a d id n o t fu n c tio n . Inad eq u ate in d ex .

23

Combined A n a ly sis o f Q u estio n s i n S occer T e s ts f o r 1948 and 1949

Q uestion a s numbered in 1949

N or Zl%

56 57 58 59 40

27 27 27 27 27

41 42 45 25 28

12 12 12 12 12

Degree o f D if f ic u l ty

55 64 74 81 50 E stim ated D if f ic u l ty 54 54 66 21 78

Index o f D iscrim ­ in a tio n

07 47 0 67 40 E stim ated Index 08 42 56 40 52

Reason q u e s tio n was n o t re ta in e c i n th e o r ig i n a l form

In ad eq u ate index* In ad eq u ate index* Response a d id n o t fu n ctio n *

In ad eq u ate index*

24 fo r ty - s e v e n c o lle g e g i r l s were u sed .

S tepped up w ith th e Spearman-Brown

Prophecy fo rm u la, a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .9 0 i s o b ta in e d . The sum o f th e s c o re s f o r th e fo u r t r i a l s o f th e s k i l l t e s t f o r th e c o lle g e g i r l s ranged from 35 to 156.

The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e se

sc o re s a s shown in th e appendix in d ic a te t h a t th e t e s t i s d is c r im in a tin g . C onclusions 1.

The w r itte n so ccer t e s t w i l l r e q u ir e f u r th e r stu d y .

2.

E ig h t t r i a l s o f th e Combination S k i l l s T e st w i l l p ro b ab ly

r e s u l t in a h ig h e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t th an th e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t f o r fo u r t r i a l s . S.

Four t r i a l s o f th e s k i l l t e s t a re s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r th e c o lle g e

s e rv ic e c o u rs e s . B a s k e tb a ll Log

Procedure A w r itte n t e s t o f six ty -tw o q u e s tio n s was d esig n ed f o r th e w in te r q u a r te r o f 1948-1949.

S ev en ty -n in e stu d e n ts took th e t e s t .

The h ig h e s t

tw e n ty -fiv e t e s t sc o re s and th e lo w est tw e n ty -fiv e sco res were analyzed to determ ine an e stim a te d d eg ree o f d i f f i c u l t y and an e stim ated in d ex o f d is c r im in a tio n . f u r th e r stu d y .

Many o f th e q u e s tio n s seemed poor b u t were r e ta in e d f o r However, new q u e s tio n s were a ls o added to th e 1949-1950

re v is io n to in s u r e a s u f f i c i e n t number o f fu n c tio n in g ite m s. p u p ils took th e re v is e d t e s t .

F ifty -o n e

25

A b a s k e tb a ll s k i l l t e s t which i s a v a r ia tio n o f th e Edgren b a l l h a n d lin g t e s t (87) was used i n bo th term s t h a t th e b a s k e tb a ll stu d y was conducted* A n aly sis o f D ata I n th e 1948 t e s t , q u e s tio n s 4 , 6 , and 7 were e lim in a te d because o f an u n s a tis f a c to r y index o f d is c rim in a tio n o r d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g .

Many

q u e s tio n s were r e ta in e d which showed evidence o f need f o r f u r th e r stu d y . They were a s fo llo w s : The a n a ly s is o f th e s e

5 , 9 , 1 0 , 11, 19, 20, 4 7 , 49, 54, 58, 59, 60, and 62. t e s t item s ap p ears on Table I I .

The r e s u l t s o f th e com posite a n a ly s is o f t e s t item s (T able I I I ) show t h a t from th e group o f q u e s tio n s l i s t e d above, th e fo llo w in g q u e stio n s d id prove s a t i s f a c t o r y when used a second tim e: 54-56, 58-60, 59-61, 60-63.

9 , 24, 25, 56-39*, 37-40,

Those q u e stio n s which s t i l l showed unfav o rable

outcomes were 3 , 1 0 , 1 1, 1 9 , 20, 21, 22, 23, 34-36, 35-37, 39-41, 41-43, 44-4 5 , 4 7 -4 9 , 62-64. For re a so n s l i s t e d on Table I I I th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s had to be e lim in a te d o r re v is e d :

3 , 10, 1 1 ,

14, 16, 1 8 , 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27,

51, 32, 37, 4 1 , 42, 43, 4 5 , 4 6 , 4 9 , 61, 62, and 64. The b a s k e tb a ll s k i l l t e s t proved s a ti s f a c to r y in re g a rd to th e tim e and space re q u ire d to a d m in is te r th e t e s t .

The t o t a l s c o re s f o r fo u r

*The f i r s t number i s th e number o f th e q u e stio n a s i t appeared on th e t e s t In 1948. The second number i s th e number o f th e q u e stio n a s i t appeared on th e 1949-1950 t e s t and on Table I I I .

26

Table I I A n a ly sis o f Q u estio n s i n th e B a s k e tb a ll T e s t f o r th e W inter Q u arter o f 1948-1949

Q uestion number

a?

N 25

Degree o f D if f ic u l ty

E stim ated In d ex o f D iscrim ­ in a tio n

1 2 5 4

58 62 96 92

29 55 55 0

5 6

•24 1

21 0

7 8 9 10 11 12 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 25 24 25 26 27 28 29 50

94 58 50 56 90 56 60 52 50 88 88 50 84 24 92 74 70 06 64 60 28 52 54 52

45 46 12 17 09 26 24 46 44 56 58 29 05 0 0 15 04 14 -09 34 50 25 52 18

51 52

82 80

52 24

Reason q u e s tio n was n o t r e ta in e d i n th e o r ig i n a l form*

R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped la te r * Inad eq u ate in d e x ; f o i l a d id n o t fu n ctio n * In ad eq u ate in d ex ; f o i l s a , b , d d id n o t fu n ctio n * R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped la te r * R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped l a t e n . R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped l a t e r .

R etain ed R etain ed R etain ed R etain ed R etain ed R etain ed R etain ed

fo r fo r fo r fo r fo r fo r fo r

stu d y ; dropped stu d y ; dropped stu d y ; dropped stu d y ; dropped stu d y ; dropped f u r th e r stu d y . f u r th e r stu d y .

la te r. la te r * la te r * la te r. la te r.

Rule change n e c e s s ita te d an a d d itio n a l resp o n se.

27

A n a ly sis o f Q u estio n s i n th e B a s k e tb a ll T e st f o r th e W inter Q u arter o f 1948-1949

Q uestio n number

25 54 25 26 57 58 59 40 41 42 45 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 55 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

N 25

Degree o f D if f ic u l ty

90 88 52 82 90 62 82 52 46 84 48 62 26 62 88 62 78 -S8 16 62 42 52 64 54 60 56 64 68 60 30

E stim ated Index o f D iscrim ­ in a tio n

55 17 0 06 09 39 19 09 -04 28 40 04 17 50 17 59 -4 0 21 28 50 29 16 25 29 50 17 07 10 29 14

Reason q u e stio n was n o t r e ta in e d i n th e o r ig i n a l form.

R etain ed R etain ed R etain ed R etain ed

fo r fo r fo r fo r

stu d y ; dropped stu d y ; dropped f u r th e r stucfcr. f u r th e r study*

R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped N egative in d e x .

R etained f o r f u r th e r stu d y .

R etain ed f o r f u r th e r stu d y . R etain ed f o r f u r th e r stu d y . R etained f o r f u r th e r stu d y . R etain ed f o r stu d y ; dropped

28

Table I I I Combined A nalysis o f B a sk etb a ll Questions

Q uestion a s numbered in W inter 19491950

N or 27%

Degree o f D iffic u lty -

In d ex o f D iscrim ­ in a tio n

1 2 3

35 35 35

51 66 97

22 51 40

5 8 9 10 11 12 15 15 16

35 35 35 35 55 35 35 35 35

24 57 39 67 89 41 79 50 89

19 43 51 16 08 27 22 52 13

17 18 19

35 35 35

79 53 73

22 27 17

20 21

35 35

33 89

09 04

22 23 24 25 26 27

35 35 35 35 35 35

80 64 10 66 61 26

18 15 26 20 45 08

29 35 34 55 36 37 38 39

35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35

46 84 50 84 71 61 57 90

51 46 54 65 57 15 35 33

Reason q u e s tio n was n o t r e ta in e d in o r ig i n a l form

Too e a sy ; f o i l s a , e , and d d id n o t fu n c tio n .

In ad eq u ate in d e x . In ad eq u ate in d e x .

F o ils a and b d id n o t fu n ctio n in ad eq u ate in d ex . F o il d d id F o il a d id in ad eq u ate In ad eq u ate F o il c d id in ad eq u ate F o il d d id In ad eq u ate

n o t fu n c tio n . n o t fu n c tio n ; in d e x . in d ex . n o t fu n c tio n ; in d e x . n o t fu n c tio n . in d ex .

F o il c d id n o t fu n c tio n ; in ad eq u ate in d e x .

In ad eq u ate in d e x .

29

Combined A n alysis o f B a sk etb a ll Q uestions

N or 27%

Degree o f D if f ic u l ty

In d ex o f D iscrim ­ in a tio n

40 41 42 45 44 45 46 4i 48 49 50 51 52 55 54 85 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 65 64

55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 35 35 55 55

4 6 7 14 28 50 51 52

14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14

86 90 74 47 59 57 57 55 59 87 59 85 60 59 25 40 56 44 57 55 54 60 59 71 37 E stim ated d iffic u lty 93 61 59 36 61 21 64 39

33 04 15 -0 4 47 06 04 57 46 04 46 -1 6 19 55 19 19 31 25 29 65 25 19 08 41 13 E stim ated Index 46 21 21 0 38 20 15 39

Q u estio n a s numbered In W inter 19491950

Reason q u e s tio n was n o t r e ta in e d in o r ig i n a l form

In ad eq u ate in d ex . In ad eq u ate in d e x . n e g a tiv e in d ex . In ad eq u ate in d e x . Inad eq u ate in d e x . In ad eq u ate in d ex . N egative in d e x .

In ad eq u ate in d ex . In ad eq u ate in d e x .

In ad eq u ate in d ex . In ad eq u ate in d ex . F o il a d id n o t fu n c tio n .

30

t r i a l s ranged from one to sev en ty -sev e n . sc o re s i s in c lu d e d i n th e ap p en d ix .

Ih e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e se

The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t o f .87

was o b ta in e d by c o r r e la tin g th e odd and even numbered t r i a l s o f 116 c o lle g e s tu d e n ts .

T h is c o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c ie n t i s .92 when stepped up w ith th e

Spearman-Brown Prophecy fo rm u la. C onclusions 1.

The b a s k e tb a ll w r itte n t e s t a s re v is e d f o r 1950-1951 and

th e p r a c t i c a l s k i l l t e s t a p p a re n tly a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r use in th e s e rv ic e co u rse c l a s s e s . V o lley B a ll Log

Procedure A w r itte n t e s t o f f o r ty m u ltip le ch o ice item s was c o n stru c te d f o r th e f a l l q u a r te r o f 1948.

Tw enty-four g i r l s took t h i s t e s t ; and i t

was re v is e d on th e b a s is o f e stim a te d in d ex o f d is c rim in a tio n , d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g , and o b s e rv a tio n o r re -e x a m in a tio n o f th e ite m s. I n th e W inter q u a r te r o f 1948-1949 and th e s p rin g q u a r te r o f 1949, 180 g i r l s took th e r e v is e d t e s t .

These q u e stio n s were e v alu ate d

(Table V); and th e t e s t was a g a in r e v is e d .

T ru e -fa ls e statem en ts were

added to t h i s r e v is io n . In th e f a l l q u a r te r , 1949, only tw e n ty -g irls to o k th e w r itte n t e s t so r e v is io n was based on o b se rv a tio n o f th e t e s t r e s u l t s .

I n th e

w in te r term o f 1949-1950 one-hundred and f i f t e e n g i r l s took th e w r itte n te s t.

I n t h i s r e v is io n some q u e s tio n s from S n e ll1s "P h y sical E ducation

31

Knowledge T e s ts *n (90)* were in c lu d e d .

The t e s t was a g a in r e v is e d on

th e b a s is o f th e combined a n a ly s is o f a l l th e v o lle y b a l l t e s t s (T able VI)* The p r a c t i c a l t e s t s used were th e re p e a te d v o lle y (8 5 , P* 101) and th e v o lle y b a l l serv e (85* P. 105)* A n aly sis o f Data The w r itte n t e s t used in th e f a l l q u a r te r o f 1948 needed many re v is io n s*

T his a n a ly s is I s shown on Table IV .

Table V shows th e

a n a ly s is o f th e item s a f t e r th e t e s t had been g iven in th e w in te r q u a rte r o f 1948-1949 and th e s p rin g q u a r te r o f 1949. I n th e f a l l q u a r te r o f 1949 q u e s tio n s 12* 17, 55* and 44 seemed too

easy and had to be rep laced *

A fte r th e

t e s t had been given in th e

w in te r term o f 1949-1950, th e b a s is f o r f u r th e r r e v is io n was th e combined a n a ly s is o f a l l o f th e v o lle y b a l l t e s t r e s u lts * on Table VI*

This a n a ly s is i s shown

Q uestions 1 , 4* 24, and 29* which had been a r b i t r a r i l y r e ­

ta in e d in s p ite o f th e low r a t i n g in th e e v a lu a tio n o f th e f a l l term te s t* had to be e lim in a te d because t h e i r poor r a ti n g continued in th e l a t e s t te s t* A c o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c ie n t f o r r e l i a b i l i t y a s determ ined by th e odd-even method based on te n t r i a l s o f th e w a ll v o lle y i s .8 8 .

Stepped

up w ith th e Spearman— Brown Prophecy form ula th e c o e f f ic ie n t i s .9 4 . sco res o f 197 g i r l s were used to determ ine t h i s c o e f f i c ie n t .

The

However, in

o rd e r to see i f th e number o f t r i a l s could be reduced, th e sum o f th e f i r s t f iv e sc o re s was c o r r e la te d w ith th e sum o f th e l a s t f iv e s c o re s .

A c o rre la ­

tio n c o e f f i c ie n t o f .86 was o b ta in ed which seemed to j u s t i f y a d m in is te rin g

32

Table XV A n aly sis o f the Item s o f the V o lle y b a ll Examination a s Given in the F a ll Quarter o f 1948

Q uestion number

N 6

E stim ated Degree o f D if f ic u l ty

E stim ated In d ex o f D iscrim ­ in a tio n

1 2 5 4 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

1 1 60 91 83 66 75 25 1 50 83 91 91 16 80 91 66 1 66 08 75 33 33 1

0 0 17 51 66 78 72 72 0 34 65 51 51 63 0 51 80 0 80 49 20 0 79 0

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

66 1 33 66 1 1 58 33 83

17 0 79 0 0 0 86 0 -6 5

Reason q u e s tio n was n o t r e ta in e d in th e o r ig i n a l form*

In ad eq u ate in d ex ; too easy* Inad eq u ate in d ex ; too easy* F o ils b and c d id n o t fu n c tio n . F o il c d id F o il c d id F o il c d id In ad eq u ate F o il d d id F o i l c d id F o il a d id

n o t fu n ctio n * n o t fu n ctio n * n o t fu n ctio n * in d ex ; to o easy* n o t fu n c tio n . n o t fu nction* n o t fu n ctio n *

F o il a d id n o t fu n ctio n * F o il b d id n o t fu n c tio n . In ad eq u ate in d ex ; too easy* F o il c d id n o t fu n c tio n . F o il c d id n o t fu n c tio n . R etain ed because o f need f o r b e t t e r teaching* In ad eq u ate F o il c d id F o il a d id Inad eq u ate

index; too easy . n o t fu n c tio n . n o t fu n ctio n * index; too easy*

A r b itr a r i ly re ta in e d *

33

A n aly sis o f the Item s o f the V o lle y b a ll Examination as Given in the F a ll Quarter o f 1948

Q uestion Number

N E stim ated E stim ated 6 Degree o f In d ex o f D if f ic u l ty D iscrim ­ in a tio n

54 55 56 57 58 59

85 50 16 35 SO 50

66 54 63 39 66 -55

40

£5

72

Reason q u e s tio n was n o t r e ta in e d in th e o r ig i n a l form.

F o il a d id n o t fu n c tio n .

R etain ed because o f need f o r b e t t e r te a c h in g . F o il a d id n o t fu n c tio n .

34

Table V A n aly sis o f th e Item s o f th e V o lle y b a ll Exam ination a s Given in th e W in ter Q u a rte r, 1948-1949, and th e S p rin g Q u arter 1949

Q uestion number

N 50

Degree o f Index o f Reason q u e s tio n was n o t D if f ic u l ty D iscrim - A p la y e r w ith th e b a l l jumped, lan d ed , and used th e l e f t f o o t a s th e p iv o t f o o t

25, 6 .

F or which o f th e s e should a p la y e r b e . d is q u a lif ie d from th e game? a* two p e rs o n a l f o u ls and two te c h n ic a l f o u ls b. th r e e p e rs o n a l f o u ls c . fo u r te c h n ic a l f o u ls d . th r e e te c h n ic a l fo u ls and two p e rso n a l f o u ls

6, 7.

Which o f th e fo llo w in g com binations o f o ffe n s e s ex a c ts th e most s e rio u s p e n a ltie s ? a. gu ard in g an opponent a lre a d y guarded, ste p p in g over th e l i n e , bouncing th e b a l l th r e e tim es b . p u sh in g , h o ld in g an opponent, b lo ck in g c . g u ard in g an opponent a lre a d y guarded, i l l e g a l bounces, s te p ­ p in g ov er a li n e d . s n a tc h in g th e b a l l from an opponent, h o ld in g an opponent, combining a bounce and a ju g g le e . sn a tc h in g th e b a l l , making an i l l e g a l bounce, step p in g over th e c e n te r li n e

26, 8*

When you a r e an o ffe n s iv e p la y e r , which coaching h i n t would you d is re g a rd ? a* be a b le to dodge o r change d ir e c tio n q u ic k ly b . m aster a l l th e v a rio u s p iv o ts c . keep th e b a l l o u t toward th e sid e li n e s d. be a b le to r e g u la te th e speed o f p asses e. t r y to c u t between th e guard and th e b a s k e t

26, 9 .

A p la y e r h as done each o f th e fo llo w in g th in g s ifoen u sin g p iv o ts d u rin g a game. Which should th e in s tr u c to r c o r r e c t f i r s t ? a. p iv o te d a b ru p tly causing opponent to fo u l b . c ro sse d le g s on a r e a r p iv o t c . k e p t w eight low d . jumped a s h e r opponent s ta r t e d to shoot

8 , 10 * What i s co n sid ered a good use o f th e bounce? a. a means o f r e s t b efo re sh o o tin g a b ask et b* a method o f c o n tro l o f th e b a l l b efo re p a ssin g c. a means o f evading an opponent d . a means o f g a in in g t e r r i t o r y on th e i n i t i a l c e n te r throw in (Go r ig h t on to the next page.)

177

1 8 ,1 1 .

P la y e r A i n a tte m p tin g to catch a b a l l p u ts one hand on i t a f t e r h e r opponent B h a s secu red i t ? b u t A im m ediately ta k e s h e r hand o f f . What i s th e r e f e r e e fs d e c isio n ? a . c a ll tie b a ll b . te c h n ic a l f o u l on A c . allo w p la y to co n tin u e d . c a l l tim e o u t e. award an o u t-o f-b o u n d s throw to B

1,12. Which i s good te ch n iq u e in c a tc h in g a b a l l below your w aist? a. b. e. d.

thumbs 4 o r 5 in c h e s a p a r t, thumbs 4 o r 5 in c h e s a p a r t , upward l i t t l e f in g e r s 4 o r 5 in c h e s outward and upward one hand should be above th e b a ll

f in g e r s p o in tin g upward f in g e r s p o in tin g d ia g o n a lly a p a r t , palms tu rn ed s l i g h t l y b a l l ; th e o th e r hand below th e

1 5 ,1 5 .

What i s th e fo u n d a tio n o f a l l o ffe n se play? a . b a l l h a n d lin g b . a n t ic ip a tin g opponent* s moves c . good u se o f p iv o t d . good gu ard in g te ch n iq u es

2 9 ,1 4 .

Team A had a p la y e r d is q u a l if ie d ; and th e re was no s u b s titu te f o r Team A. What i s th e outcome? a . Team A f o r f e i t s th e game b . Team A i s allo w ed to p la y w ith f iv e p la y e rs c . The game i s d is c o n tin u e d and to be played a t a l a t e r d ate d . The opponents a re asked to remove on o f t h e i r p la y e rs a ls o

1 2 ,1 5 .

When y our team i s on th e d efen se, which o f th e se i s th e b e s t su g g estio n ?" a . sh o o t f o r a b a s k e t q u ic k ly b efo re opponents move in to p o s itio n b . make lo n g p a sse s to g e t th e b a l l o u t o f th e opponents* t e r r i t o r y c . keep th e b a l l tow ard th e sid e li n e d . watch th e b a l l in s te a d o f th e opponent

7 ,1 6 .

Which o f th e fo llo w in g com binations o f le g a lly advancing th e b a ll? a . bouncing, ju g g lin g , s tr ik i n g th e b . bouncing, ju g g lin g , h i t t i n g th e c . bouncing, ju g g lin g , handing th e d . bouncing, ju g g lin g , k ic k in g th e

co n ta in s more th a n two methods b a l l w ith an open hand b a l l w ith f i s t s b a l l to an o th e r p la y e r b a ll

(Go r ig h t on to the next page.)

178

32,17*.. Y/hat i s o b s tr u c tio n ? a* s ta n d in g in f r o n t o f a p la y e r #10 does n o t have th e b a l l b . g u ard in g a p erso n w ith o u t p e rso n a l c o n ta c t e* im peding th e p ro g re ss o f a p la y e r who does n o t have th e b a l l d* im peding by p e rs o n a l c o n ta c t th e p ro g re s s o f a p la y e r who h as s t a r t e d to advance th e b a l l by means o f a bounce 9,18*

Ylhat i s th e fundam ental b a s is f o r zone d efense?

a* a p la y e r i s n o t dangerous u n t i l she i s in th e sc o rin g a re a b* c* d* 5 ,1 9 .

30,20*

2 4 ,2 1 .

th e g uards do n o t have to ru n as much a s in o th e r d efen ses th e forw ard s a re n o t concerned w ith guarding th e guards have an o p p o rtu n ity to r e s t

TWhich i s th e most d e s ir a b le d efen se a g a in s t th e bounce? a* d e f l e c t th e b a l l away from opponent b . t i e th e b a l l w ith th e opponent c . d e f l e c t th e b a l l toward your teammate d . c atch th e b a l l y o u r s e lf Forward A in th e a c t o f sh o o tin g f o r a b ask et i s guarded by two opponents—one s ta n d in g in f r o n t o f A and one stan d in g b’e hind A* A made th e b a s k e t. What i s th e r e f e r e e 's d ecisio n ? a . boxing up i s c a lle d on th e guard B who was stan d in g behind A; and one f r e e throw i s awarded A b« no p e n a lty i s given and a B forw ard re c e iv e s th e c e n te r throw in c . a te c h n ic a l fo u l i s c a lle d on guard B and two f r e e throw s a re awarded to forw ard A d* A! s b a s k e t countedj and A re c e iv e s th e b a l l o u t-of-bounds a t th e s id e li n e e* A r e c e iv e s a f r e e throw and then re c e iv e s th e b a l l out-of-bounds a t th e sid e li n e As a g u ard , w h ich coaching h i n t would

you d isre g a rd ?

a* av o id p asses a c ro s s th e b ask et b . keep th e b a l l tow ard c* t r y to keep between d* be a b le to dodge o r e . t r y to in t e r c e p t a l l

th e sid e li n e th e opponent and h e r b ask et change d ir e c tio n q u ic k ly p asses

P lace T on th e answer s h e e t i f th e statem en t i s tr u e . s h e e t i f th e s ta te m e n t i s f a l s e .

P lace F on th e answer

39,22*

I f a p la y e r changes from one p o s itio n to an o th er w ith o u t le a v in g th e f l o o r , she need n o t r e p o r t to th e scower.

4 0 ,2 3 .

The throw from th e r e f e r e e to th e c e n te r forw ard may beguarded. (Go r ig h t on to the next page.)

179

33*24*

F ouls may be c a lle d on two o r more p la y e rs a t th e same time*

35*25*

The same forw ard must re c e iv e a l l c e n te r throw s f o r h e r team*

36,26*

P la y e rs may le av e th e c o u rt between q u a r te r s w ith o u t p e rm issio n .

38,27*

A f r e e throw i s g iven to th e opponents i f a p la y e r commits v io la tio n *

44,28*

For a double v io la tio n tim e o u t i s tak en and a f r e e throw i s awarded each team*

29*

a

A p ic k - o f f p la y i s co n sid ere d a te c h n ic a l foul*

D ire c tio n s : l a c e on th e answer s h e e t th e c o r r e c t symbol f o r each s i t u a t i o n . V—V io la tio n L—Legal P—P e rs o n a l f o u l T—T ech n ical F oul TC— T echnical team fo u l 63,30*

Jumping i n p la c e w ith th e b a l l

52,51*

A team ta k e s a t h i r d tim e o u t

61,32*

O verguarding th e b a l l

55,33*

U nnecessary roughness i s committed by a p la y e r

48,34*

On a to s s e d b a l l , p la y e r tapped th e b a l l befo re i t reached i t * s h ig h e s t p o in t

50,55*

For a p la y e r on a to sse d b a l l to p lay th e b a l l b efo re i t .touched th e f lo o r o r was p layed by an o th er p la y e r

58,36*

U nsportsm anlike conduct

56,37*

D isc o n c e rt a p la y e r who i s a tte m p tin g a f r e e throw

60,38*

Cause th e b a l l to go o u t-of-bounds

59,39*

A fte r you have f a l l e n , you throw th e b a l l w hile you a re s t i l l th e f lo o r

5 7 .4 0 .

D e lib e ra te ly k ic k th e b a l l

5 5.41.

Guard a p la y e r w ith bo th arms in a co rn er where two boundary w a lls m eet (Go r ig h t on to the next page.)

on

is o

V—V io la tio n T—T e c h n ic a l F oul

L— L eg al TG—T ech n ical team fo u l

P—-Personal Foul

47,42*

On a to s s e d b a l l one p la y e r tapped th e b a l l s e v e r a l tim es i n a row

5 4 ,4 5 .

A team between th e f i r s t and second q u a r te r i s given su g g estio n s from t h e i r coach

44*

Hold th e b a l l f o r te n seconds b efo re ta k in g a f r e e throw

45*

To s te p on b u t n o t over th e f r e e throw li n e w hile sh o o tin g a f r e e throw

181

KEI BASKETBALL TEST Winter 1950-1951 1.

d

16,

a

31.

2.

d

17.

d

52.

S.

a

1 8.

a

35.

4.

b

19.

d

34.

5.

c

20.

b

35.

6.

d

21.

d

56.

7.

b

22.

F

37.

8*

e

25.

F

38.

9.

b

24.

T

39.

10.

c

25.

T

40.

11.

e

26.

F

41.

12.

e

27.

F

42.

15.

a

28.

F

43.

14.

b

29.

F

44 .

15.

d

50.

V

45.

182

Beginning Swimming F a ll 1948 Read a l l q u e s tio n s and a l l resp o n ses c a re fu lly # W rite th e l e t t e r o f th e b e s t resp o n se on th e answer sheet# Do n o t w r ite on th e t e s t paper# Example: 1 . Who w ro te “The Raven11? a# Tennyson Answer s h e e t b# Poe 1# b c , Byron d# Pope 1# How long does th e Red C ross recommend you w a it b e fo re you swim a f t e r hav in g eatdn? 1 a# u n t i l th e meal d ig e s ts b# h a l f hour t o an hour c# hour to an hour and a h a l f d# hour and a h a l f to two hours 2# For whom does th e Red Cross recommend t h a t swimming alo n e i s a s a fe procedure? a# an in te rm e d ia te swimmer b# an advanced swimmer c# a l i f e sav er d# no one 3# A b eg in n e r i n deep w ater about two f e e t away from th e sid e o f th e pool becomes panicky and does n o t swim# "What can you do to h elp t h i s in d iv id u a l? a# jump in and p u ll th e p erso n to th e sid e w ith a h a i r c a rry b# u se a wading a s s i s t c# ru n f o r th e p o le d# h o ld to s id e o f pool and ex tend an arm to v ic tim 4# Tour canoe has o v ertu rn e d in a lake# "What should you do to save y o u rs e lf? a# hang on to th e canoe b . have a good swimmer “carry*1 you i n to shore c# swim t o th e c l o s e s t shore d# do th e back f lo a s 5# I f you have t r i e d to swim to a g o al in deep w ater and you become ex trem ely t i r e d b e fo re you reach it # what should you do? a# swim th e craw l so you can g e t to th e g o al q u ick ly b# back f l o a t c# t u r n around and swim back to your s t a r t i n g p o in t d# tr e a d w ater (Co r ig h t on to the next page)

183

6* "Which o f .t h e fo llo w in g i s a good cue f o r b e g in n e rs w h ile le a r n in g th e elem en tary hack stro k e ? a* bend a t th e h ip s b , keep th e h ip s up o* b r in g head fo rw ard so t h a t you can lo o k tow ard your f e e t d , keep back and c h e s t as h ig h as p o s s ib le 7 , "Which o f th e s e i s e s s e n t i a l to m a in ta in a back f l o a t p o s itio n ? a* keep head back b , keep th e hands a t y our s id e s c • keep th e f e e t up a t th e s u rfa c e o f th e w ater d , keep th e arms extended sidew ard a t th e sh o u ld er le v e l 8 , I n what way oan you make th e f a s t e s t tu r n to your r i g h t w h ile swimming on y o u r back? a , s tr o k e s tr o n g ly w ith yo u r r ig h t hand w h ile th e l e f t hand r e s t s b , s tro k e s tr o n g ly w ith your l e f t hand w h ile th e r i g h t hand r e s t s c , s tro k e w ith b o th arm s, b u t s tro k e h a rd e r w ith th e l e f t d , s tro k e w ith b o th arm s, b u t s tro k e h a rd e r w ith th e r ig h t 9« Which a* A b, B c, G d, D 10

,

d iv e r i s most l i k e l y t t o do a f l a t dive or ’’b u s te r ”? d id not push o f f ev enly w ith b o th f e e t d id not keep h e r arms extended above h e r head d id not sp rin g h ig h enough r a is e d h e r head b e fo re e n te rin g th e w ater

10* Which method w i l l tu r n a swimmer from a back f l o a t to a f r o n t flo a t? ^ a , do a ”j e l l y f i s h ” f l o a t and th e n s tro k e w ith th e l e f t arm b , s tr o k e w ith th e l e f t arm making a wide c i r c l e c , c ro s s th e r i g h t le g over th e l e f t ; draw r ig h t arm a c ro ss th e c h e st d , h o ld your b r e a th , draw b o th knees to c h e s t, swing r ig h t a m acro ss body, and t u r n th e head to th e r i g h t 11, Which o f th e s e d e s c rib e s th e arm recovery f o r th e elem entary back s tro k e ? a , elbow l i f t e d h ig h above th e w a te r, hand and w r is t re la x e d b , palms c o n ta c t body, a s f a r as th e sh o u ld e rs, w ith f in g e r t i p s p o in te d outw ard re a c h o u t to th e sid e c , keep elbows s t r a i g h t , s t a r t i n g w ith th e hands a t th e h ip s ex ten d arms outw ard to th e s id e d , draw hands up d i r e c t l y over th e body, back o f th e hand p u llin g tow ard th e fa c e 12, "Which o f th e s e may cause th e w ater to ru n over th e fa c e o f th e swimmer doing th e elem en tary back stro k e? a . in e f f e c t i v e k ic k , la c k s d riv e b , arms p u ll h o r iz o n ta lly b u t w ith o u t power tow ard th e f e e t c» arms p u ll tow ard bottom o f pool and th e n tow ard h ip s d , s tro n g arm p u ll t h a t i s h o r iz o n ta l w ith th e su rfa c e of th e w ater (Go r i g h t on to th e n ex t page)

184

13* I f you f e l l in t o a r i v e r with, a r a th e r s w ift c u rre n t* what co uld you do to h e lp y o u rs e lf? a * swim up stream to th e dock b* swim d ia g o n a lly w ith th e c u rre n t to th e s h o rt c* ‘' j e l l y f i s h ” f l o a t and r e s t u n t i l a id comes d* swim s t r a i g h t a c ro s s th e c u r r e n t to shore 14# W hile i n deep w a te r i n which o rd e r would you remove your c lo th in g ? &• shoes* s k ir t* b lo u se b* shoes* blouse* s k i r t o* s k ir t* shoes* b lo u se d . blouse* shoes* s k i r t 15* Which i s th e b e s t guide f o r a good arm recovery? a* o f f e r l i t t l e or no r e s is ta n c e to th e w ater b* keep palms p re s s in g tow ard th e bottom o f th e pool to p rev en t th e body from submerging c* keep hands i n p o s itio n to "catch " th e w ater d* keep a l l arm m uscles te n s e and read y fo r th e d riv e 16* I n choosing a swimming a re a which o f th e fo llo w in g should be ranked firs t? a . p io n ic a re a c lo se by b . com petent l i f e guard e . l i f e b o a ts a v a ila b le d . smooth cement or un g lazed t i l e su rfa c e s 17, Which o f th e fo llo w in g i s th e suggested method to come to a stan d in g p o s iti o n from a back f lo a t ? a* allo w f e e t to drop slow ly to th e bottom b# knees a re b e n t and le g s are drawn up and th e n s tra ig h te n e d to th e bottom c* grab sid e o f p o o l, and th e n stan d d . r o l l over to your fa c e ; g et up as you do from a fa c e flo a t 18. Which o f th e s e b e s t d e s c rib e s th e f l u t t e r kick? a . knees s tr a ig h t* k ic k up and downfrom th e h ip s b* k ic k le g s as f a r as th e knee o ut o f th e w ater, h o ld an k les r i g i d c* em phasize th e down k ic k , knees b e n t, an k les relaxed* k ic k to a d epth o f 6-8 in ch es d . le g s whip up and down a lte r n a te ly * emphasize up beat* k ic k up u n t i l th e h e e ls b reak th e w ater 19* What should you do i f you g e t a cramp in your r i g h t le g w h ile you a re swimming i n deep w ater? a , do a back f l o a t u n t i l th e cramp le a v e s b* tr e a d w a te r and r e s t th e muscle c . k ic k h a rd to r e le a s e th e cramp d . " j e l l y f is h " f l o a t and massage th e muscle (Go r ig h t on to the next page)

185

20. I f you were th row ing a r in g buoy to a: swimmer i n d i f f i c u l t y , which o f th e s e would be b e s t? a . throw buoy beyond swimmer and th e n p u ll i t up to swimmer b . throw i t d i r e c t l y to swimmer so she may grab i t im m ediately c . throw buoy to th e s id e o f swimmer so buoy does n o t h i t h e r d . throw th e buoy i n f r o n t of swimmer so swimmer h as to make a oouple o f s tro k e s tow ard th e shore o r th e sid e o f th e pool



21. "Which o f th e fo llo w in g may a id most in th e adju stm en t f o r an e a s ie r back f l o a t f o r one who h as tr o u b le i n assuming a f lo a tin g p o s itio n ? a , tu c k th e ch in tow ard th e c h e s t, bend th e knees s l i g h t l y b* ex ten d arms above th e head, hands p o in t upward o u t o f th e w ater c . keep arms c lo se to th e s id e s o f th e body d . l e t h ip s s in k , keep head back, arms extended sidew ard a t sh o u ld er le v e l 22. I f a. b. c. d.

two swimmers bump in to each o th e r, what should th e y do? l e t th e f e e t drop to th e bottom q u it swimming and move to an o th er p a r t o f th e pool swim o f f to th e s id e and co ntinue assume a v e r t i c a l p o s itio n to see i n which d ir e c tio n you may swim

23. How sh o u ld you go from a v e r t i c a l f l o a t p o s itio n to a back f lo a t? a . p u t head b ack , ta k e a couple of s tro k e s p a r a l l e l w ith s u rfa c e b . throw head fo rw ard , a rc h b ack, extend arms sidew ard c . t r e a d w a te r; th e n h o ld your b r e a th , tu c k ch in to c h e s t, ex tend arms above head d . p u t head b ack , bend a t th e h ip s , extend arms above head 24. "Why i s th e craw l s tro k e fa tig u in g ? a . because o f prone p o s itio n b . b ecau se o f s h o rt reco v ery p e rio d c . because o f r e l a t i v e l y long g lid e d . because o f ir r e g u l a r b re a th in g 25. A fte r you have jumped in to deep w ater, what should you do to g e t to th e s id e o f th e pool? a . v e r t i c a l f l o a t ; th e n tr e a d w ater b . throw head fo rw ard , le v e l o f f , and s tro k e c . come up i n a v e r t i c a l p o s itio n and reach f o r th e s id e d . le v e l o f f , drop y our head forw ard and do an elem entary o r r e s ti n g back s tro k e 26. "Why should th e hand be l i f t e d above th e w ater i n th e arm reco v ery i n th e craw l s tro k e ? a . o f f e r s le s s r e s is ta n c e to th e w ater b . makes th e stro k e look good c . makes b r e a th c o n tro l e a s i e r t d . m a in ta in s th e body in a face f l o a t p o s itio n (Go r i g h t on to th e n e x t page)

186 27* Why sh ould a swimmer keep h e r eyes* open? a* t o m a in ta in body b a la n c e b* to know where she i s going c* to improve h e r s tro k e d* to m a in ta in a prone p o s itio n 28* "What e f f e c t does p ro lo n g ed immersion i n v e ry co ld w ater have on many swimmers? a* e x h a u stio n b* e n e rv a tio n c* e x h i la r a t io n d. b u ild s endurance 29* Which o f th e s e i s th e b e s t tim in g o r c o o rd in a tio n f o r th e reco v ery p e r io d i n th e elem en tary back stro k e? &« The hands a re a t th e arm p i t s w h ile th e le g s a re s t i l l i n th e g lid e p o s itio n b« The le g s a re extended sidew ardj th e n th e arms a re drawn up to th e arm p i t s c* The arms and le g s are drawn up sim u ltan eo u sly d« The arms rem ain in th e g lid e p o s itio n u n t i l le g s a re extended sidew ard 30, "Which o f th e s e i s th e b e s t d e s c r ip tio n f o r b re a th in g in th e crawl s tro k e ? a . The head i s tu rn e d to th e l e f t sh o u ld er f o r in h a la tio n w h ile th e l e f t arm i s extended forw ard i n d riv e p o s itio n b* In h a le w ith head tu rn e d to th e l e f t as th e l e f t arm reco v ers c . In h a le by tu r n in g th e head a l t e r n a t e l y to th e r i g h t and l e f t s id e s d* "With th e head r a is e d o ut o f th e w ater and tu rn e d to th e l e f t s h o u ld e r, ex h ale q u ic k ly and th e n in h a le q u ic k ly .

187

Beginning Swimming Key F a ll 1948 H . 'a

16. b

2. d

17. b

3, d

18. d

4* a

19. d

5. b

20. a

6. b

21. b

7. a

22. 0

8. b

23. a

9. d

24. b

10* c

25. b

11. b

26. a

12. c

27. b

13. b

28. a

14. a

29. e

15. a

30. b

188

Beginning Swimming Winter 1948-1949; F a ll 1949-1950 Bead a l l q u e s tio n s and a l l resp o n ses c a re fu lly * W rite th e l e t t e r o f th e b e s t resp o n se on th e answer sheet* Do n o t w r ite on th e t e s t paper* Examples 1* F or whom does th e Red Cross recommend t h a t Answer s h e e t swimming alone i s a s a fe procedure? 1* d a# an " in te rm e d ia te " swimmer b* an "advanced" swimmer o* a l i f e sav er d . no one I . How lo n g does th e Red Cross recommend you w a it b e fo re you swim a f t e r having eaten ? a* u n t i l th e meal d ig e s ts b* h a l f hour to an hour c« hour to an hour and a h a l f d* hour and a h a l f to two hours 2* Your canoe has o v ertu rn e d in a la k e . What should you do to save y o u rs e lf? a* hang on to th e canoe b* have a good swimmer " c a rry " you in to shore c« swim to th e c l o s e s t shore d* do th e back f l o a t 3. Which o f th e fo llo w in g i s a good cue f o r b eg in n ers w h ile le a rn in g th e elem entary back stro k e ? a* bend a t t h e h ip s b« keep th e h ip s up c* b r in g th e head forw ard so t h a t you can look tow ard your f e e t 4 . Which of th e s e i s e s s e n ti a l to m a in ta in a back f l o a t p o s itio n ? a . keep head back b . keep th e hands a t your sid e s C«

keep the feet up at the surface

d* keep th e arms extended sidew ard

of the water

a t th e sh oulder le v e l

5* I n what wpy oan you make th e f a s t e s t tu r n to your r i g h t w hile swimming on your back? a . s tro k e s tro n g ly w ith your r ig h t hand w h ile th e l e f t hand r e s t s b* s tro k e s tro n g ly w ith your l e f t hand w hile th e r i g h t h a n d .r e s ts c* s tro k e w ith b o th arm s, b u t s tro k e h a rd e r w ith th e l e f t d* s tro k e w ith b o th arm s, b u t s tro k e h a rd e r w ith th e r i g h t (Go r ig h t on to the next page)

139

6« "Which a. A b. B c. C d. D

d iv e r d id d id d id r a is e d

i s m ost l i k e l y t o do a f l a t d iv e or ""buster11? not push o f f ev en ly w ith b o th f e e t not keep h e r arms extended above h er head not s p rin g h ig h enough h e r head b e fo re e n te rin g th e w ater

7 . "Which method w i l l tu r n a swimmer from a back f l o a t to a f r o n t f lo a t ? a* do a " j e l l y f i s h 11 and th e n s tro k e w ith th e l e f t a m b * .s tr o k e w ith th e l e f t a m making a wide c i r c l e c* c ro s s th e r i g h t le g over th e l e f t s draw r i g h t a m a c ro ss th e chest d» h o ld y our b r e a th , draw knees to c h e s t, swing r i g h t a m a c ro ss th e body, and tu r n th e head to th e r ig h t 3* Which o f th e s e d e s c rib e s th e a m reco v ery f o r th e elem entary back s tro k e ? a . elbow l i f t e d h ig h above th e w a te r, and hand and w r is t re la x e d b« palms c o n ta c t body, as f a r as th e s h o u ld e rs , w ith f in g e r s p o in te d outw ard reac h o u t to th e s id e c« keep elbows s t r a i g h t , s t a r t i n g w ith th e hands a t th e h ip s , ex ten d arms outw ard t o th e sid e d . draw hands d i r e c t l y over th e body, back o f th e hand p u llin g to w ard th e fa c e 9« Which o f th e s e may cause th e w ater to ru n over th e face o f th e swimmer doing th e elem entary back stro k e? a , in e f f e c ti v e k ic k , la c k s d riv e b* arms p u ll h o r iz o n ta lly b u t w ith o u t power tow ard th e f e e t c* anas p u ll tow ard bottom o f pool and th e n tow ard h ip s d« s tro n g a m p u ll t h a t i s h o r iz o n ta l w ith th e s u rfa c e of th e w ater 10* I f you f e l l in to a r iv e r w ith a r a th e r s w ift c u r r e n t, what co uld you do to h e lp y o u rs e lf? a . swim up stream to th e dock b . swim d ia g o n a lly w ith th e c u rre n t c . " j e l l y f is h " f l o a t and r e s t u n t i l a id comes d* Swim s t r a i g h t a c ro ss th e c u r r e n t to shore 11* W hile in deep w a te r in which o rd er would you remove your c lo th in g ? a* sh o e s, s k i r t , b lo u se b , sh o es, b lo u s e , s k i r t c« s k i r t , sh o e s, b lo u se d* b lo u s e , sh o es, s k i r t (Go r ig h t on to the next page)

190

12* THhioh i s th e b e s t guide f o r a good arm recovery? a . o f f e r l i t t l e or no r e s is ta n c e to th e w ater b . keep palms p re s s in g tow ard th e bottom o f th e pool to p rev en t th e body from submerging o . keep hands i n p o s itio n to " c a tc h ” th e w ater d . keep a l l arm m uscles te n s e and ready f o r th e d riv e 13* Which o f th e s e b e s t d e s c rib e s th e f l u t t e r kick? a . knees s t r a i g h t , k ic k up and down from th e h ip s b* k ic k le g s as f a r as th e knee o u t o f th e w a te r, h e ld an k les re la x e d c . em phasize th e down k ic k , knees b e n t, an k les r e la x e d , k ic k to a d ep th o f 6-8 inchds d . le g s whip up and down a l t e r n a t e l y , emphasize up b e a t, k ic k up u n t i l th e h e e ls b re a k th e w ater 14* I f of a, b« o. d.

you w ere th row ing a r in g buoy to a swimmer in d i f f i c u l t y , which th e s e would be b e s t? th ro w th e buoy beyond th e Swimmer and th e n p u ll i t up to swimmer throw i t d i r e c t l y to swimmer so she may grab i t im m ediately throw buoy t o th e s id e of swimmer so buoy does n o t h i t h e r throw th e buoy in f r o n t o f swimmer so swimmer has to make swimming m otions tow ard th e sh o re o r s id e o f th e pool

15* "Which o f th e fo llo w in g may a id most in adjustm ent f o r an e a s ie r back f l o a t f o r one who has tr o u b le i n assuming a f lo a tin g p o s itio n ? a* tu c k th e c h in tow ard th e c h e s t, bend th e knees s l i g h t l y b , ex tend arms above th e head, hands p o in t upward out o f th e w ater o» keep arms c lo s e to th e s id e s o f th e body d . l e t h ip s s in k , keep head b ack , arms extended sidew ard a t sh o u ld e r le v e l 16* How sh o u ld you go from a v e r t i c a l f l o a t p o s itio n to a back f lo a t? a . p u t head b ack , ta k e a couple o f s tro k e s p a r a l l e l w ith s u rfa c e b . throw head fo rw ard , arch back, extend arms sidew ard c . tr e a d w a te r; th e n h o ld your b r e a th , tu c k ch in to c h e s t, extend arms above head d* p u t head b ack , bend a t th e h ip s , extend arms above head 17. "Why i s th e craw l s tro k e fa tig u in g ? a . prone p o s itio n b . s h o r t reco v ery p e rio d c . i r r e g u l a r b re a th in g 18. A f te r you have jumped in to deep w a te r, what should you do to g e t to th e sid e o f th e pool? a . v e r t i c a l f l o a t ; th e n tr e a d w ater b . throw head fo rw ard , le v e l o f f , and s tro k e c . come up in a v e r t i c a l p o s itio n and re a c h f o r th e sid e d . le v e l o f f , drop your head forw ard and do an elem entary o r r e s ti n g b a c k stro k e (Go r ig h t on to the next page)

191

19# THhy sh o u ld th e hand be l i f t e d above th e w a te r i n th e a m reco v e ry i n th e oraw l s tr o k e ! a* o f f e r s l e s s r e s is ta n c e to th e w ater b* m a in ta in s th e body i n a fa c e f l o a t p o s itio n e* makes b r e a th c o n tr o l e a s ie r

20* “What e f f e c t does p ro lo n g ed im mersion in v ery c o ld w ater have on many swimmers? &• e x h a u s tio n b . e n e rv a tio n c . e x h ila ra tio n d* b u ild s endurance 21* TWhich o f th e s e i s th e b e s t tim in g o r c o o rd in a tio n f o r th e reco v ery p e rio d i n th e elem en tary back stro k e? a* th e hands a r e a t th e arm p its w hile th e le g s a re s t i l l in th e g lid e p o s itio n b . th e le g s a re extended sidew ard; th e n th e arms a re drawn up to th e a rm p its e» th e arms and le g s a re drawn up sim u ltan eo u sly d* th e arms rem ain i n th e g lid e p o s itio n u n t i l le g s are extended sidew ard 22* Which o f th e s e i s th e b e s t d e s c r ip tio n f o r b re a th in g i n th e eraw l stro k e ? a* The head i s tu rn e d to th e l e f t sh o u ld er f o r in h a la tio n w hile th e l e f t arm i s extended forw ard in d riv e p o s itio n b* In h a le w ith head tu rn e d t o th e l e f t a s th e l e f t arm re c o v e rs c* In h a le by tu r n in g th e head A lte rn a te ly to th e r ig h t and l e f t s id e s d* W ith th e head r a is e d out o f th e w ater and tu rn e d to t h e l e f t s h o u ld e r, ex h ale q u ic k ly and th e n in h a le qu ick ly T r u e - f a ls e , P lace T on th e answer sh e e t i f th e statem en t i s tru e * P la c e P on th e answer s h e e t i f th e statem en t i s w holly or p a r t i a l l y fa ls e * 23* I t i s sa fe to swim alone i f you know th e depth o f th e swimming area* 24. I f th e to p arm goes beyond th e th ig h during th e g lid e o f th e s id e s tr o k e , th e swimmer w i l l te n d to r o l l on h e r back* 25* At th e b eg in n in g o f th e s c is s o r k ic k th e to p le g mar es forw ard and th e low er le g moves backward* 26* I n th e s id e stro k e th e le g s should be s e p a ra te d w ith the same amount o f fo rc e t h a t i s u sed i n th e drive* 27* The le g s should be c ro s s e d s l i g h t l y a t th e end o f th e d riv e i n th e s id e stro k e*

192

28* The arms sh o u ld be moved f o r c e f u l ly durin g th e reco v ery movements i n th e s id e s tr o k e . 29. For a smooth e f f e c t iv e elem en tary back s tro k e th e le g s should be allo w ed to f l o a t to g e th e r r a th e r th a n be whipped to g e th er* 30* I n o rd e r to keep a s t r a i g h t co u rse th e anas must have an even p u ll in th e elem en tary back stro k e*

193

B eginning Swimming Key W in ter 1948-1949; P a ll 1949-1950

1* Q

16. a

2* a

17. c

3* b

18. b

4. a

19. a

5* b

20 . b

6. d

21. e

7. e

22 . b

8* b

23. F

9. e

24. T

10 * b

25. T

11 . a

26. F

12 . a

27. F

13. d

28. F

14. a

29. F

15. b

30. T

194

Beginning Swimming Test* Winter Term 1949-1950 Read a l l q u e stio n s and a l l resp o n ses c a r e f u l ly . W rite th e l e t t e r o f th e b e s t resp o n se on th e answer s h e e t. Do n o t w r ite on th e t e s t p a p e r. Example: 1 , For whom does th e Red Cross recommendt h a t swimming alone i s a sa fe procedure? Answer s h e e t a . an in te rm e d ia te swimmer 1* d b . an advanced swimmer o* a l i f e saver d . no one

1 . Yihat i s meant by tim in g i n a swimming stro k e?* * a . th e a l t e r n a t i o n o f th e d riv e w ith a r e s t o r g lid e b . th e r e la tio n s h ip betw een th e reco v ery and th e d riv e c . rhythm io b r e a th in g d . c o o rd in a tio n o f th e arms and le g s e . c o o rd in a tio n o f th e arm s, le g s , and b re a th in g Zm Your canoe has o v e rtu rn e d i n a la k e .

1/ifhat should you do to save y o u rs e lf? a* hang on to th e canoe b . have a good swimmer " c a rry " you in to shore c . swim to th e c l o s e s t shore d . do th e back f l o a t

3. What i s th e p ro p er method of b re a th in g i n swimming?** a . th e method most n a tu r a l t o th e in d iv id u a l b . v a r ie s w ith th e s tro k e c . i n th ro u g h th e nose and o u t through th e mouth d . i n th ro u g h th e mouth and o ut th ro u g h th e nose or mouth, or b o th e . i n and o ut th ro u g h th e nose 4 . Which o f th e s e i s e s s e n ti a l t o m a in ta in a back f l o a t p o s itio n ? a . keep head back b . keep th e hands a t your s id e s c . keep th e f e e t up a t th e s u rfa c e of th e w ater d . keep th e arms extended sidew ard a t th e sh o u ld er le v e l 5. In a. b. c. d. e.

which d ir e c tio n i s th e fo rc e a p p lie d in any swimming stro k e?* * i n th e d ir e c tio n i n which th e swimmer i s moving a t r i g h t an g les to th e d ir e c tio n in which th e swimmer i s moving o p p o site to th e d ir e c tio n in which th e swimmer i s moving tow ard th e s u rfa c e o f th e w ater tow ard th e bottom o f th e po o l (Go r i g h t on t o th e n e x t page)

♦ A ll Q uestions marked w ith double a s te r i s k s (**)" have been ta k e n from M. G. S c o tt, R esearch Q u a rte rly , 11: 100-111, May 1940.

195

•6 * Which d iv e r i s m ost l i k e l y to do a f l a t dive or " b u ste r" ? a . A d id n o t push o f f ev en ly w ith b o th f e e t b . B d id n o t keep h e r arms extended above h e r head c . C d id n o t s p rin g h ig h enough d . D r a is e d h e r head b e fo re e n te r in g th e w ater 7* "Which method w i l l t u r n a swimmer from a back f l o a t to a f r o n t f lo a t ? &• do a " j e l l y f i s h " f l o a t and th e n s tro k e w ith th e l e f t arm b* s tr o k e w ith th e l e f t arm making a wide c i r c l e c* c ro s s th e r i g h t le g over th e l e f t ; draw r ig h t arm a c ro ss th e chest d« h o ld your b r e a th , draw b o th knees t o c h e s t, swing r ig h t arm a c ro ss body, and t u r n th e head to th e r i g h t

8 * 'Which o f th e s e d e s c rib e s th e arm reco v ery f o r th e elem entary back s tro k e ? a# elbow l i f t e d h ig h above th e w a te r, hand and w r is t re la x e d bb .p alm s c o n ta c t body as f a r as th e s h o u ld e rs , w ith f in g e r t i p s p o in te d outw ard reac h o u t to th e s id e a* keep elbows s t r a i g h t , s t a r t i n g w ith th e hands a t t h e h ip s , ex ten d arms outw ard to th e sid e d* draw hands up d i r e c t l y over th e body, back o f th e hand p u llin g tow ard th e face 9* Which o f th e s e may cause th e w ater to z*un over th e fa c e of th e swimmer doing th e elem entary back stro k e? a . in e f f e c ti v e k ic k , la c k s d riv e b* arms p u ll h o r iz o n ta lly b u t w ith o u t power tow ard th e f e e t Cft sirms. p u l 1 p la y e r on th e l e f t w ith h e r forehand d« p la y e r on th e l e f t w ith h e r backhand 12* Which o f th e fo llo w in g s c o re s would c o n s titu te a women* s s in g le s game? a . 10—5 11-6 0 » 15—6 d . 21-5

13« Which o f th e fo llo w in g w i l l g iv e th e b e s t drop shot? @1 back sw ing, body w eig h t forw ard when s tr ik i n g s h u t t l e , l i t t l e fo llo w th ro u g h b« no back swing, body w eight forw ard when s tr ik i n g s h u t t l e , long fo llo w th ro u g h c* no back swing, body w eig h t back when s tr ik i n g s h u t t l e , l i t t l e fo llo w th ro u g h d« back sw ing, body w eight back when s tr ik i n g s h u t t l e , long fo llo w th ro u g h 14* I n th e serv e whieh o f th e fo llo w in g w ill most deceive th e opponent? a* a l te r n a t e foreh an d serv e w ith backhand serve b* u se th e same fo llo w th ro u g h i n a l l serv es u se th e same backswing i n a l l serv es a# a l t e r n a t e to s s d e liv e ry w ith out o f hand r e le a s e (Go r i g h t on to th e n ex t page)

‘15, What i s th e c o r r e c t f o o t movement f o r th e serve? a , p la y e r s te p s forw ard on l e f t f o o t as she serv es b« p la y e r s te p s forw ard on r i g h t f o o t as she s e rv e s e , p la y e r p iv o ts to r i g h t as s h u ttl e i s s tru c k n e i th e r f o o t moves d u rin g th e serve 16* When i s th e overhead h ig h c le a r used? a# when p la y e r i s in th e back c o u r t, to g a in tim e to r e tu r n t o p o s iti o n to c e n te r b* t o keep th e opponent as f a r away from th e n e t as p o s s ib le c , t o p a s s o v er opponent* s head when she comes to n e t ($} a l l o f th e above a re c o r r e c t 17* Which o f th e fo llo w in g i s fundam ental to badminton? (SX w atch th e s h u ttl e b . lo o k tow ard th e p o in t o f aim o* aim i n one d ir e c tio n b u t look in a n o th er to confuse opponent d« w atch opponent*s f a c i a l e x p re ssio n 18* What i s th e f o o t p o s itio n a t th e b eginning o f a s tro k e when th e fo reh an d g r ip i s used? a* r i g h t f o o t tow ard n e t , body fa c e s l e f t s id e l in e b« l e f t f o o t tow ard r i g h t sid e l i n e , body f a c e s r i g h t s id e lin e cu r i g h t f o o t tow ard l e f t s id e l in e , body fa c e s l e f t s id e li n e gp l e f t f o o t tow ard n e t , body fa c e s r ig h t s id e lin e 19# Which a . in b* i n a. in (d) i n

o f th e s e i s c o r r e c t f o r ^ s e ttin g " a game? s in g le s , when th e sco re i s 10 a l l , th e game may be s e t s in g le s when th e sco re i s 11 a l l , th e game may be s e t doubles when th e sco re i s 13 a l l , th e game may be s e t d o u b les yrhen th e sco re i s 14 a l l , th e game may be s e t

to 3 to 2 to 3 to 3

20* During a f a s t r a l l y which s tro k e may be e f f e c tiv e f o r a change o f pace? a , smash drop sh o t c . backhand d riv e d , d riv e ro u n d -th e-h e ad s tro k e (C ontinue on a second a c t i v i t y i f you have n o t a lre a d y done I I I * Bowling 1 , Which o f th e s e may be re s p o n s ib le i f th e b a l l c o n s is te n tly goes in t o th e l e f t g u tte r? a« tu r n in g forearm clockw ise b . r e le a s in g b a l l from thumb f i r s t S i dropping r i g h t sh o u ld er d u rin g d e liv e ry d* h o ld in g th e b a l l to o long (Go r i g h t on t o th e n ex t page)

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Bowling 2* Why i s th e fo llo w th ro u g h im portant? &• in s u r e s b alan ce b , p re v e n ts lo f t in g g u id es th e b a l l p re v e n ts fo u lin g ^ 5* What i s th e t o t a l sc o re f o r th e fram es given below? 1 s t b a l l 2nd b a l l 1s t frame 6 3 2nd frame 10 — 3rd frame 3 4 4 th frame 5 0 a , 31 b , 24 (§1 38 d , 34 4* Which o f th e s e i s th e aoeepted form when r e le a s in g th e b a ll? a , knees s t i f f , tru n k in o lin e d forw ard by bending a t h ip s