Talkabout Theory of Mind: Teaching Theory of Mind to Improve Social Skills and Relationships [1 ed.] 1138608173, 9781138608177

Theory of mind is a key consideration in autism spectrum conditions and is frequently associated with social, emotional,

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Talkabout Theory of Mind: Teaching Theory of Mind to Improve Social Skills and Relationships [1 ed.]
 1138608173, 9781138608177

Table of contents :
Contents
Introduction
Section One – This is Tom!
Section Two – Thoughts
Section Three – Feelings
Section Four – Actions
Section Five – Thoughts, feelings and actions
Section Six – Knowledge and beliefs
Section Seven – Respect
Index

Citation preview

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Theory of mind is a key consideration in autism spectrum conditions and is frequently associated with social, emotional, behavioural and mental health diffculties. The latest practical workbook in the TALKABOUT series, this book is designed to support those for whom theory of mind does not come naturally. It teaches strategies that can be used to identify others’ thoughts and feelings based on their behaviour, as well as how to adapt behaviour in order to competently manage social situations and have positive interactions. With fully illustrated activities covering topics such as thoughts, feelings and actions, knowledge and beliefs, and respect, the programme outlined in this book can be used with children and young people to develop and confdently implement an awareness of theory of mind. Key features include: • • • •

Assessments, targets, lesson plans and over ninety activities to support theory of mind Structured activities which progress from simple concepts to more complex skills Opportunities for skills to be practised and recapped Fully photocopiable and downloadable resources

Packed full of fexible activities to suit different levels and ages, this is a vital resource for educators and therapists looking to support children and young people with theory of mind diffculties as they develop the skills necessary to create positive interactions. Katherine Wareham is a Speech and Language Therapist with eight years’ experience of working with children and young adults with social communication diffculties, specialising in working with individuals on the autism spectrum and teenagers with social, emotional and mental health needs. She graduated from the University of Reading in 2011 with an MSc in Speech and Language Therapy and joined Speaking Space Ltd in 2016.

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Alex Kelly is a Speech and Language Therapist with over thirty years’ experience of working with both children and adults with an intellectual disability (learning disability) and specialising in working with people who have diffculties with social skills. She runs her own businesses (Alex Kelly Ltd and Speaking Space Ltd) with her husband Brian Sains and is the author of a number of books and resources, including the best-selling TALKABOUT series. Alex is based in Hampshire, in the south of England. Alex Kelly Ltd provides training and consultancy work to schools and organisations in social skills, self-esteem and relationship skills around the UK and abroad. Speaking Space Ltd also provides speech and language therapy in schools in and around Hampshire, training in all aspects of autism and communication, and a Total Communication day service for adults with an intellectual disability or autism. In 2019 Speaking Space Ltd was Autism Accredited by the National Autistic Society with advanced status.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND MORE BRILLIANT PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES FROM BESTSELLING AUTHOR ALEX KELLY! TALKABOUT Each practical workbook in this bestselling series provides a clear programme of activities designed to improve self-awareness, self-esteem and social skills. “All in all, Alex, what a wonderful world for kids it would be if your social skills programme were in all schools across the continents”– Catherine Varapodio Longley, Parent, Melbourne, 2013 “I feel very lucky to work in a school where our pupils get the opportunity to utilise TALKABOUT resources and to see the beneft that this has made to them and their peers. You are making a difference!” – Nicole Thomas, Teacher, 2017 Title

Focus

Age-range

Talkabout (2nd edition)

Developing Social Skills for all ages

7+

Talkabout for Children 1 (2nd edition)

Developing Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem

4–11

Talkabout for Children 2 (2nd edition)

Developing Social Skills

4–11

Talkabout for Children 3 (2nd edition)

Developing Friendship Skills

4–11

Talkabout for Teenagers (2nd edition)

Developing Social and Emotional Communication Skills

11–19

Talkabout Transitions

Moving from Education to Employment

16+

Talkabout for Adults

Developing Self-Awareness and SelfEsteem in adults

16+

Talkabout Theory of Mind

Developing Social Skills and Relationships

11+

Talkabout Relationships

Developing Relationship Skills

11+

Talkabout Sex and Relationships 1

Developing Intimate Relationship Skills

11+

Talkabout Sex and Relationships 2

Sex Education

11+

Talkabout Assessment

Social Skills Assessment Tool

7+

Talkabout DVD

Developing Social Skills

7+

Talkabout Board Game

Developing Social Communication Skills, Self Esteem and Friendship Skills

7+

Talkabout Cards: Group Cohesion Games

Group Cohesion

7+

Talkabout Cards: Self Awareness Activities

Developing Self Awareness

7+

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND TEACHING THEORY OF MIND TO IMPROVE SOCIAL SKILLS AND RELATIONSHIPS Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly

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First published 2020 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© 2020 Alex Kelly and Katherine Wareham The right of Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly to be identifed as authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. The purchase of this copyright material confers the right on the purchasing institution to photocopy pages which bear the photocopy icon and copyright line at the bottom of the page. No other part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identifcation and explanation without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Wareham, Katherine, author. | Kelly, Alex, 1963– author. Title: Talkabout theory of mind : teaching theory of mind to improve social skills and relationships / Katherine Wareham, Alex Kelly. Other titles: Talk about theory of mind Description: Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 2020. | Series: Talkabout | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifers: LCCN 2019054031 (print) | LCCN 2019054032 (ebook) | ISBN 9781138608177 (paperback) | ISBN 9780429466724 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Philosophy of mind--Study and teaching. | Social skills--Study and teaching. Classifcation: LCC BD418.3 .W367 2020 (print) | LCC BD418.3 (ebook) | DDC 616.89/1--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019054031 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019054032 ISBN: 978-1-138-60817-7 (pbk) ISBN: 978-0-429-46672-4 (ebk) Typeset in ITC Flora by Servis Filmsetting Ltd, Stockport, Cheshire Visit the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/speechmark

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND

Contents

Page

Acknowledgements

x

About the authors

x

Introduction

xi

Section One:

This is Tom!

Session Plans: Section One 2 Talkabout Targets – Thinking about others 5 Feelings board 6 Activity One: Name that thought! 8 Activity Two: Do you fnd…? 11 Activity Three: Group rules 14 Activity Four: This is Tom! 15 Activity Five: Who am I? 20 Activity Six: This is Mary! 23 Activity Seven: Things in common – Tom and Mary Activity Eight: Things in common 30 Activity Nine: Stand up if… 32 Activity Ten: Things in common 33 Activity Eleven: Find someone who 36 Activity Twelve: Our group 38

Section Two:

1

28

Thoughts

39

Session Plans: Section Two 41 Talkabout Targets – Thoughts 45 Activity Two: What is a thought? 46 Activity Three: Things I like to think about 48 Activity Four: Things I like to think about 50 Activity Five: What do you think about…? 52 Activity Six: How much I think about… 57 Activity Seven: How much I think about things 61 Activity Eight: Two way thinking 65 Activity Nine: Our thoughts about… 68 Activity Ten: How can we tell what people are thinking? 70 Activity Eleven: Are you seeing what I’m seeing? 72 Activity Twelve: Are you thinking what I’m thinking? 74 Activity Thirteen Part One: Can you see what I’m thinking? 76 Activity Thirteen Part Two: Can you see what I’m thinking? 78 Activity Fourteen: Walking, looking, thinking… 80 Activity Fifteen: Spot the thought! 82 Activity Sixteen: Good thought or bad thought? 86 Activity Seventeen: Snapshot! 90 Activity Eighteen: Same thought or different thought? 91 vii

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND

Section Three:

Feelings

Session Plans: Section Three 94 Talkabout Targets – Feelings 96 Activity One: Name that feeling! 97 Activity Two: Feelings 98 Activity Three: Feelings alphabet 100 Activity Four: In the manner of the word 103 Activity Five: How can we tell how someone is feeling? Activity Six: Freeze frame game 111 Activity Seven: How Tom and Mary feel 113 Activity Eight: How we feel 117 Activity Nine: How I feel 119

Section Four:

93

108

Actions

123

Session Plans: Section Four 124 Talkabout Targets – Actions 126 Activity One: Name that action! 127 Activity Two: What is an action? 130 Activity Three: My actions 132 Activity Four: How actions make me feel 135 Activity Five: How feelings make me act 138 Activity Six: Tom’s actions and feelings 142 Activity Seven: How would we feel? 145 Activity Eight: Tell me why 150 Activity Nine: Captain Action! 153

Section Five:

Thoughts, feelings and actions

157

Session Plans: Section Five 158 Talkabout Targets – Thoughts, feelings, actions 160 Activity One: Tom’s thoughts, feelings and actions 161 Activity Two: Thoughts, feelings and actions 163 Activity Three: My thoughts, feelings and actions 167 Activity Four: Tom’s bad day 169 Activity Five: I only speak the truth 173 Activity Six: To say or not to say? 176 Activity Seven: Thinking thoughts and saying all sorts 179 Activity Eight: Think before you speak 182 Activity Nine: What would I say to you? 185 Activity Ten: If I tell you that… 189

Section Six:

Knowledge and beliefs

Session Plans: Section Six 193 Talkabout Targets – Knowledge, beliefs and intentions Activity One: Knowledge quiz 199

191 198

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Activity Two: Knowledge 201 Activity Three: What do I know? 203 Activity Four: What do we know? 205 Activity Five: I know you don’t know 207 Activity Six: I know you don’t know 208 Activity Seven: Types of knowledge 211 Activity Eight: Types of knowledge in our group 213 Activity Nine: They don’t know we know they know we know… 215 Activity Ten: What I know 216 Activity Eleven: Guessing 218 Activity Twelve: Clues I could use to make a good guess 221 Activity Thirteen: Thinking about Tom’s perfect day 224 Activity Fourteen: Consequences 226 Activity Fifteen: How do we improve our knowledge about people? 227 Activity Sixteen: Fact or opinion? 228 Activity Seventeen: Differing opinions 232 Activity Eighteen: Giving opinions 233 Activity Nineteen: Beliefs 235 Activity Twenty: My box of beliefs 237 Activity Twenty-one: Impact of beliefs 240 Activity Twenty-two: Using our knowledge 244 Activity Twenty-three: Time to talk 247 Activity Twenty-four: What are intentions? 251 Activity Twenty-fve: Good or bad intentions 252 Activity Twenty-six: Spotting intentions 254 Activity Twenty-seven: My intentions 255

Section Seven:

Respect

257

Session Plans: Section Seven 258 Talkabout Targets – Respect 260 Activity One: What is empathy and sympathy? 261 Activity Two: Putting yourself in their shoes 263 Activity Three: Showing empathy and sympathy 265 Activity Four: What is respect? 267 Activity Five: Who do you respect? 268 Activity Six: Find out what it means to me 270 Activity Seven: Showing respect by age 273 Activity Eight: Showing respect by place 278 Activity Nine: Showing respect by person 282 Activity Ten: Showing respect to myself 286 Activity Eleven: This is me! 287

Index

288

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND

Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following people for their support in writing this book: Alex, thank you for giving me the opportunity and the time to write this book as part of my working life. Thank you for your time and enthusiasm in making it look so brilliant. Thank you to all my lovely colleagues at Speaking Space for listening to me go on about Theory of Mind, trying out the activities for me, and giving me feedback. An extra special thank you to Chris, Zara and Abby for using this resource enthusiastically right from the beginning. Finally, thank you to my Mum, Dad and Stuart. Thank you for your never-ending love, support and encouragement and for everything you do for me. This book is dedicated to Iris x.

About the authors Katherine Wareham is a Speech and Language Therapist with eight years’ experience of working with children and young adults with social communication diffculties, specialising in working with individuals on the autism spectrum and teenagers with social, emotional and mental health needs. She graduated from the University of Reading in 2011 with an MSc in Speech and Language Therapy and joined Speaking Space Ltd in 2016. Alex Kelly is a Speech and Language Therapist with over thirty years’ experience of working with both children and adults with an intellectual disability (learning disability) and specialising in working with people who have diffculties with social skills. She runs her own businesses (Alex Kelly Ltd and Speaking Space Ltd) with her husband Brian Sains and is the author of a number of books and resources, including the best-selling TALKABOUT series. Alex is based in Hampshire, in the south of England. Alex Kelly Ltd provides training and consultancy work to schools and organisations in social skills, self-esteem and relationship skills around the UK and abroad. Speaking Space Ltd also provides speech and language therapy in schools in and around Hampshire, training in all aspects of autism and communication, and a Total Communication day service for adults with an intellectual disability or autism. In 2019 Speaking Space Ltd was Autism Accredited by the National Autistic Society with advanced status.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND

Introduction An overview of this book Talkabout Theory of Mind is a practical resource to help teachers and therapists to develop theory of mind skills in individuals who have diffculty understanding the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of others. It is a stand-alone resource including targets, session plans and activities to provide a complete resource ready to use.

What is theory of mind? The term theory of mind was coined to describe the human ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others (Premack and Woodruff, 1978). It explains the relationship between mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, intentions, desires and the behaviour of others. Premack and Woodruff (1978) discuss that by assuming others have these mental states, despite not being directly observable, you can infer and predict in anticipation the behaviours of others.

Why do we need it? Being able to understand that others have thoughts and feelings and that our own behaviour can impact on these thoughts and feelings is a core part of having successful social interactions with others. When communicating with others we have intentions and expectations of how they will respond. Leslie (1987) notes theory of mind appears in early communication, for by the very nature of the infant making the vocalisations intends the listener to recognise the message. Theory of mind is needed in order to achieve social competence as we must adapt our social skills to suit the situation and person. To make these adaptations we must frst interpret the situation and person based on our perception of their thoughts, feelings and beliefs. This is not to say that people who lack theory of mind do not have social skills. Individuals with poor theory of mind may be able to use social skills such as making eye contact, initiating a conversation or using gesture. However, they may lack the social competence to use these skills effectively, such as initiating a conversation with a person at the appropriate time using an appropriate topic. To know what is appropriate for a person or situation we must frst know what the other person’s mental states are to determine the context for social interaction. Within the feld of autism, Baron-Cohen et al. (1985) note that it is the failure to employ theory of mind that results in the social communication diffculties associated with autistic individuals. They note the inability to represent mental states leads to an inability to identify xi

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND others’ beliefs which in turn puts them at a disadvantage for predicting the behaviour of others. We need those children struggling with interacting with others or using socially unexpected behaviours due to poor theory of mind, to understand the importance of others’ beliefs, thoughts and feelings on when and how to use social skills effectively to be socially competent. How, even when they use all the right social skills, if they haven’t thought about the other person frst then it might not work.

How can we teach theory of mind? As Premack and Woodruff (1978) note, theory of mind and the ability to make these inferences about others is not taught explicitly like reading or arithmetic but is more naturally acquired like walking or talking. But similar to when walking or talking is not acquired naturally the skills can be explicitly taught, so too in theory can the skills for theory of mind be taught. Uta Frith (2012) notes that in principle explicit compensatory strategies to predict the mental states of others can be taught and whilst it may not result in spontaneous, implicit theory of mind, individuals with poor theory of mind can learn there are mental states and that these cause behaviours. This resource aims to explicitly teach the need and the skills to predict others’ mental states in order to be able to predict their behaviour and have successful social interactions.

Who is this book aimed at? This book is aimed at individuals who struggle to understand other people’s thoughts and feelings and as a result often have negative or unsuccessful social interactions with others. They may be keen to interact with others but never seem to quite get it right or have diffculty making and sustaining friends. Theory of mind is a very abstract concept that requires abstract skills. This book is aimed at individuals who require a more concrete and visual approach to learning theory of mind. • Individuals on the autism spectrum typically have weak theory of mind skills, a cognitive defcit which impacts on their social competence ranging from ‘passivity through repetitive pestering’ (Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith 1985 p. 38) requiring explicit teaching to understand the thoughts, feelings and beliefs of others. • Individuals with social, emotional and mental health needs may need additional support to understand their own and others’ feelings and behaviours and how these impact on social interactions. Having poor self-other awareness and low self-esteem signifcantly impacts on an individual’s ability to interact positively with others; this resource helps to develop an awareness of others and focuses on the positives to establish meaningful relationships with others. xii

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND • Individuals with an intellectual disability may fnd it diffcult to understand the abstract nature of using theory of mind to interact successfully with others. This resource teaches theory of mind at a simple, concrete level with opportunities for repetitive learning. • Groups with a mixed profle of needs that lack understanding of one another’s abilities and needs. This resource will not only help those students who lack theory of mind but also those with theory of mind to better understand and accept others who are working on strengthening their theory of mind.

The TALKABOUT series This resource is part of the TALKABOUT series. It can be used before, alongside or after other titles in the TALKABOUT series to further develop individuals’ social skills. The TALKABOUT books use a hierarchical approach to teaching social skills and this is a useful addition to the series. This book aims to help take children from being socially skilled to socially competent, teaching them to apply their social skills knowledge to different scenarios.

Session plans and targets At the beginning of each section there are session plans to provide a clear direction for using the activities and resources. These are for guidance only – depending on an individual’s or groups’ ability activities may take longer or less time than planned. Activities can be used one-to-one or as a group. Mix students with weaker and stronger theory of mind to help model and practise activities. Within the session plans there are suggestions for opportunities to practise specifc skills outside of the session or to provide ideas to recap on specifc parts. Each section comes with a set of targets to measure an individual’s progress and determine how well they are able to demonstrate the concepts. The targets provide a record of achievement and allow for areas to be revisited and worked on further to improve understanding of key concepts in a range of situations.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND References Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 37–46. Frith, U. (2012). Why we need cognitive explanations of autism. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(11), 2073–2092. Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretense and representation. The origin of ‘Theory of Mind’. Psychological Review, 94, 412–426. Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a Theory of Mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 515–526.

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Section One – This is Tom! This section introduces the purpose of the book and the characters Tom and Mary, who appear throughout the book to help individuals understand the targeted concepts. Tom and Mary can be used as examples of how different concepts relate to one another and the impact they have on individuals and other people. The characters Tom and Mary provide concrete examples of situations that individuals will be able to relate to and learn from. This section introduces that people are different by focussing on concrete interests, that individuals may have some awareness of already and be able to relate to easily. Feelings board Activity One:

Name that thought!

Activity Two:

Do you fnd…?

Activity Three:

Group rules

Activity Four:

This is Tom!

Activity Five:

Who am I?

Activity Six:

This is Mary!

Activity Seven:

Things in common: Tom and Mary

Activity Eight:

Things in common

Activity Nine:

Stand up if…

Activity Ten:

Things in common

Activity Eleven:

Find someone who

Activity Twelve:

Our group

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2

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3

2

1

To introduce the character of Mary.

To introduce the concept of identifying information about ourselves and others.

To introduce the concept of thinking about others.

To introduce the character of Tom.

To build group rapport and establish group rules.

To introduce purpose of group.

Week / Date Aim of session

Opportunities for generalisation

• Feelings board • Label your own thoughts in • Pictures with thought different situations. bubbles • Ask others to label their • Individual laminated thought thoughts in specifc situations. bubbles and dry wipe pens • Ponder what other people • Scenario cards might be thinking to • Flipchart paper and pens encourage discussion.

Resources needed

1. Feelings board • Feelings board • Play the game within a 2. Activity Five: Who am I? • Activity Five: Who am I? cards different scenario e.g. at a wet 3. Recap on Tom – who is printed and laminated break, or in after school club he? • Activity Six printed and cards or with a different group of 4. Activity Six: This is Mary! cut out people.

1. Feelings board • Feelings board • Identify hobbies and interests. 2. Activity One: Name that • Pictures with thought • Focus on asking individuals thought! bubbles about themselves e.g. what do 3. Activity Four: This is • Individual laminated thought you like to do? Tom! bubbles and dry wipe pens • Activity Four printed and cards cut out • Photocopies of worksheet

1. Feelings board 2. Activity One: Name that thought! 3. Activity Two: Do you fnd…? 4. Activity Three: Group rules 5. Group cohesion game

Plan

Session Plans: Section One – This is Tom! TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

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To develop understanding that different people have different likes and dislikes.

To develop understanding that different people have different likes and dislikes.

To develop understanding that different people have different likes and dislikes.

4

5

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1. Feelings board 2. Activity Eleven: Find somone who 3. Activity Twelve: Our group

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Nine: Stand up if… 3. Activity Ten: Things in common

• Explicitly label what people have in common.

Feelings board Copies of Activity Eleven Flipchart paper and pens Pictures of students or name cards • Card shapes

• • • •

• Feelings board • In different situations or with • Multiple copies of Activity Ten different people refect and so students can have several label things they have in turns common. • Play ‘Stand up if…’ with different people.

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Recap on Tom and • Two copies of Activity Eight Mary – what do we worksheet for each student. remember about them? Use posters. 3. Activity Seven: Things in common – Tom and Mary 4. Activity Eight: Things in common

Session Plans: Section One – This is Tom!

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

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Suggestions for improvements / additional activities:

Feedback on how the term has gone:

Session Plans: Section One – This is Tom!

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

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2 3 Skill emerging Skill emerging with prompting with occasional prompting

Signed: __________________________________________________

To be able to identify someone else’s interests

To be able to identify my own interests

To be able to compare two people’s likes and dislikes

To be able to describe 3 things someone else likes and dislikes

To be able to describe at least 3 things I like and dislike

My targets

1 Skill not present

Name: _________________________________________

Talkabout Targets – Thinking about others

4 Skill present in a structured situation

5 Skill present in some other situations

6 Skill present and consistent across most situations

Date: ___________________________

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Feelings board Objectives:

To establish vocabulary to describe different feelings. To establish group trust in sharing feelings and reasons why.

Materials:

Feelings board printed and laminated

Instructions: • Introduce the feelings board scale noting that individuals do not need to share a specifc feeling but can indicate if they are feeling positive or negative. • Pass the board around the group and ask each individual to label how they are feeling. • Encourage the individual to identify a specifc feeling and share why they are feeling that way if they can. You will note that every session starts with this activity. Initially individuals may only identify the same feeling each week or not be able to give a reason why, and then after a few weeks they start to enjoy the activity and share more with the group. It also helps you determine how each individual is feeling and therefore what their engagement may be like in the session. You can then manage your expectations of them accordingly. The feelings scale avoids specifc feelings vocabulary as it is important for individuals to use their own vocabulary to describe how they are feeling. Alternatively, if they don’t have the vocabulary to label it, it is easier to identify if it is positive or negative.

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Because…

Positive

I’m feeling…

How are you feeling?

ok

Negative

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity One: Name that thought! Objective:

To determine individual levels of understanding of thoughts.

Materials:

Photos or pictures of people in different scenarios or situations. You can use Colourcards or fnd examples on the internet and add in your own thought bubbles. Have a variety of positive and negative thoughts. Put the pictures up around the room or have them printed off and laminated. Create laminated thought bubbles for individuals to write their answers on.

Instructions: • Explain you are going to show the group different pictures and you want them to label what the animal / person or people are thinking. • Individuals could put their hands up with their suggestions or write what they think on a laminated thought bubble. Then they can take it in turns to tell the group what they think the person is thinking. • Discuss why individuals put the thought they did e.g. context, own experience or guessed.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity One: Name that thought!

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Two: Do you fnd…? Objectives:

To introduce theory of mind in a practical and relatable way. To provide purpose for the sessions. To set the scene of when individuals might need to use theory of mind.

Materials:

Copy of scenario cards to aid discussion

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to talk about different scenarios you may have experienced. • Read out the scenarios one at a time. Select the scenarios that are most appropriate to your group. You may want to add some of your own that you know are relevant. • Facilitate discussion around each scenario: • Who has experienced this? • What happened? • What did they do? • How did it make them feel? • You may want to go frst to model the kind of information or discussion you are expecting. • Continue reading out scenarios or hand them out for members of the group to read out. • Once a selection of scenarios has been discussed, ask individuals to pick out three scenarios they relate to most. Make a note of these so that these can be used as an informal baseline of their current skill level.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Two: Do you fnd…? …you know what to say to someone new in your class? …you know what to say to a girl or boy you like? …it diffcult trying to agree on what activity to do with friends after school? …it diffcult doing things your parents ask you to e.g. tidying your room? …it easy to listen to people talking about things you’re not interested in? …it easy talking to people who don’t have the same interests as you? …you get annoyed at people only talking about what they’ve done? …that people keep asking you what you’ve done at school? …that people ask you questions they should know the answer to? …people ask obvious questions? …people make conversation about pointless stuff? …you fall out with friends easily because they don’t do what you want or always agree with you? …people keep talking to you even though you’re clearly upset?

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Two: Do you fnd…? …it hard to understand why people sometimes do things? …people ask you a lot how you are feeling? …that teachers teach you things you already know? …people don’t have the same reactions to you about Pokemon? …people don’t have the same reactions to you about Eastenders? …people don’t have the same reactions to you about __________________ (insert interest here)?

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Three: Group rules Objective:

To establish group rules that explicitly state expected behaviours for participating positively in the group.

Instructions: • Tell the group that as you will be meeting every week it is important to establish rules for the group so everyone knows what is expected of them. Note that we should treat others in the group as we expect / would like to be treated ourselves. • Ask the group to identify rules they think are relevant and appropriate to the group. • Facilitate discussion around ideas such as: • Take turns • Listen to one another • Acknowledge ideas positively • Don’t make personal comments • Accept others’ ideas even if you don’t agree with them • Make suggestions calmly rather than argue • Show you are part of the group by using good body language • Respect others’ opinions • Be kind • What happens in the group, stays in the group – trust one another to keep others’ contributions to the group private Write up the fnal list of rules and keep them to refer to each week or as and when needed. You may want to display them in the room where you meet each week.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Four: This is Tom! Objectives:

To introduce the character Tom. To introduce thinking about others.

Materials:

Print, cut out and laminate the picture of Tom and his interests Photocopies of the picture of Tom for individuals to create their own poster if needed

Instructions: • Introduce the picture of Tom to the group. Tell the group that he is going to be a character that is part of the group and will be considered in activities to help think about other people. • For younger children you could use a puppet or action fgure to help represent Tom to make it more concrete and engaging for them. If using a puppet or action fgure you may want to use a photo or picture of it to represent Tom rather than the given drawing so it is clear who Tom is. • Read out the story about Tom. Ask the group what they think about Tom. • Get the group to identify information about Tom based on what they heard in the story. • When someone identifes a piece of information about Tom accurately stick the corresponding picture to the poster. This could be done as an individual activity or as a whole group activity. You may want to make the poster A3 size if completing the activity with a larger group so that everyone can see it.

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Activity Four: This is Tom!

Tom

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Four: This is Tom! Tom is a 13 year old boy from Southampton. He’s tall with short brown hair and brown eyes. He is slim and likes to keep ft by playing lots of sport. His favourite sport is football, he loves it! He supports Southampton Football Club and likes to go and watch them play with his Dad. Tom lives at home with his Dad, Mum and younger sister Mary. They also have a dog called Baxter and a cat called Fred. Tom loves his family very much and likes spending time with them especially when they all take Baxter for long walks on the beach together. Sometimes his younger sister Mary can be a bit annoying when all she does is watch music videos when he wants to watch football on TV. Tom is in his second year at Secondary school. He thinks school is ok, it can be a bit boring sometimes but he likes spending time with his friends and playing football at break times, lunchtimes and after school. His favourite subjects are science and PE. He hopes to become a football coach or PE teacher when he’s older. He’d love to be a professional footballer but doesn’t believe he’s good enough. Tom’s favourite food is pizza, he also loves spaghetti bolognaise but hates spicy food like curry. He likes to drink water especially when it’s hot or he’s playing sport, but he doesn’t like tea or coffee. Tom spends his free time playing on his games console, usually football games. Tom’s best friend is Mike who lives opposite him. Mike is almost as football mad as Tom and most nights they will play football together either outside or if the weather’s bad on Tom’s games console! When his Mum asks him Tom will help out around the house washing up or hoovering which he doesn’t mind, but he gets annoyed when his sister gets away with not doing anything apart from tidying her room! Tom believes this is because she’s younger so gets away with not having to do so much.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Four: This is Tom!

Likes pizza

Hates spicy food

13 years old

Loves sport

Drinks water

Games console

Loves football

Tall, slim, brown hair and brown eyes

Lives opposite Mike

Does the washing up

Family

Pet dog Baxter

Does the hoovering

Goes to Secondary school

Pet cat Fred

Walking on the beach

Hates tea and coffee

From Southampton

Likes Science

Wants to be a footballer

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Four: This is Tom!

Tom

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Activity Five: Who am I? Objective:

For individuals to identify and share information about themselves.

Materials:

Print out the cards and laminate so you can use them again

Instructions: • Place the cards in the centre of the circle or pass around the group to each member in turn. • Group members take turns to share something about themselves by completing the sentence. • Continue until everyone has had a couple of turns. • Include the characters Tom and Mary (once she has been introduced). • Ask everyone to add their ideas for each topic. • Point out if individuals have given similar answers ‘George, Thomas likes football too like you.’

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Five: Who am I?

I live in…

I describe myself as…

My favourite sport is…

I live with…

I have a pet called…

I like spending time with…

I like playing…

My favourite subject is…

When I’m older I want to be…

My favourite food is…

I hate eating…

My favourite item of clothing is…

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Five: Who am I?

I like to drink…

I hate to drink…

In my spare time I like to…

To help around the house I…

Something that annoys me is…

Something that makes me feel happy is…

With my friends I enjoy…

My hobbies are…

I worry about…

A place I like to visit is…

My favourite music is…

I like watching…

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Six: This is Mary! Objectives:

To introduce the character Mary. To introduce thinking about others.

Materials:

Print and cut out the picture of Mary and her interests Photocopies of Mary’s picture for individuals to create their own individual poster if needed

Instructions: • Introduce the picture of Mary to the group. Tell the group that she is going to be a character that is part of the group and will be considered in activities to help think about other people. • For younger children you could use a puppet or action fgure to help represent Mary to make it more concrete and engaging for them. If using a puppet or action fgure you may want to use a photo or picture of it to represent Mary rather than the given drawing. • Read out the story about Mary. Ask the group what they think about Mary. • Get the group to identify information about Mary based on what they heard in the story. • When someone identifes a piece of information about Mary accurately stick the corresponding picture to the poster. This could be done as an individual activity or as a whole group activity. You may want to make the poster A3 size if completing the activity with a larger group so that everyone can see it.

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Activity Six: This is Mary!

Mary

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Six: This is Mary! Mary is an 11 year old girl from Southampton. She’s tall with long blonde hair and brown eyes. She likes fashion and putting on fashion shows with her friends. She loves animals and has a pet dog called Baxter and a pet cat called Fred. Mary hopes she will become a vet when she’s older. Mary lives at home with her Dad, Mum and older brother Tom. Mary loves her family very much even if her brother can be a bit annoying sometimes as all he thinks about is football. Boring! Mary is in her last year at Primary school and is really excited about moving up to Secondary school. She’ll have to start getting the bus to school by herself, although her friend Jane will be getting the bus too. She really wants to be in the same class as Jane at their new school. She’s worried about having to go to different teachers for different lessons. Tom has told her all about how busy school is and how big the year 11 kids are. It would be really great if she had Jane in her class so they could help each other out and get lost together! Mary likes singing and dancing. She does ballet and tap lessons every week. She enjoys being in big school productions where she can have her make-up and hair done as a treat. She isn’t usually allowed to wear make-up as her Mum and Dad believe girls shouldn’t wear make-up or get their ears pierced until they’re a teenager. Mary thinks this is stupid as she’s already grown up enough. When she’s older Mary would like to be a performer in musical theatre, singing and dancing on stage. She believes she’s good enough to have a starring role in a musical but knows that it is a competitive business. She believes she’s got what it takes.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Six: This is Mary!

11 years old

From Southampton

Family

Pet dog called Baxter

Pet cat called Fred

Tall, long blonde hair, brown eyes

Loves fashion

Wants to be a vet

Primary School

Friend Jane

Likes dancing

Likes singing

Likes hair and make up

Theatre

Brother Tom

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Six: This is Mary!

Mary

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Seven: Things in common – Tom and Mary Objective:

To develop understanding that different people have different likes and dislikes and that this is ok.

Materials:

Posters of Tom and Mary from previous sessions

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to identify what Tom and Mary have in common or don’t have in common. You may need to explain to younger individuals what ‘in common’ means. • Display the posters of Tom and Mary from previous sessions. • Ask students to identify what Tom and Mary have in common using the worksheet. You may want to have additional copies of the pictures used to create the posters so individuals can cut out and stick pictures as their answers for the worksheet. • When everyone has fnished ask the group to share their answers.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Seven: Things in common – Tom and Mary

Tom

Mary

Things they have in common

Things they don’t have in common

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Eight: Things in common Objective:

To develop understanding that different people have different likes and dislikes and that this is ok.

Materials:

Posters of Tom and Mary from previous sessions

Instructions: • Ask individuals to pick either Mary or Tom. • Display the posters of Tom and Mary from previous sessions. • Ask individuals to identify what they have or don’t have in common with either Tom or Mary using the worksheet. • When everyone has fnished ask the group to share their answers. • Compare individuals’ answers highlighting how they differ and how they are similar.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Eight: Things in common

Things we have in common

Things we don’t have in common

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Nine: Stand up if… Objectives:

To develop understanding that different people have different likes and dislikes and that this is ok.

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to say aloud a statement and if they agree with it then they need to stand up. • Begin each statement with “Stand up if…” and fnish with a feature they can relate to. • Examples are: • Stand up if you have brown hair • Stand up if you like football • Stand up if you like Brussels sprouts After each statement compare who is standing up or not labelling who has what in common.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Ten: Things in common Objective:

To develop understanding that others may have different likes and dislikes or interests to us.

Materials:

Photos of group members cut to size to ft in the top boxes (optional)

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to work out what things they have in common with each other. These might be interests or hobbies, or likes and dislikes. • Ask individuals to draw a picture of themselves, write their name, or stick their photo in the top left hand box. Ask them to fll in the answers to the statements in the boxes below. • Ask the individuals to get into pairs and put the picture or name of the other person in the right hand box. • Ask individuals to ask one another the questions and fll in the boxes in the right hand column. • Using the second part of the worksheet get individuals to pick out what they have or don’t have in common. Encourage them to think of other things that may not have been on the frst part of the worksheet e.g. sports, drinks etc. • Individuals to repeat the worksheet again with different pairs. • Enlarge a copy of the second page of Activity Ten to A3. Use it to collate the groups’ answers and determine what the group as a whole has or doesn’t have in common.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Ten: Things in common

I like to eat…

I like spending time with…

My hobbies are…

I like to go to…

Something that annoys me is…

Subjects I like are…

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Ten: Things in common

Things we have in common

Things we don’t have in common

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Eleven: Find someone who Objectives:

To learn new things about others. To identify that sometimes people are similar and sometimes they are different.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Explain that you are going to be looking at what we have in common with other people. • Give each person a copy of the worksheet. They have to move around the room and fnd a person to sign their name in the box that applies to them. They will need to ask questions to fnd out the answers e.g. Do you have a pet cat? Do you have a brother? • Model how to ask questions prior to starting the activity. • Depending on the number of people in the room it could be that a person is limited to signing a maximum of one, two, or three boxes.

Variation: • You could do this as a whole class activity to support integration / generalisation of the individual’s skills across settings and for them to identify on a larger scale things they have in common with others. • You could do this as an activity across the school site, moving to different areas of the school to ask different people questions about themselves.

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… speaks another language.

… gets the bus to school.

… lives in a bungalow.

… has been to America. … likes the colour purple.

… likes swimming.

… is an only child.

… likes football.

… likes pizza.

… doesn’t like chocolate.

Copyright material from Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly (2020), TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Routledge

… plays a musical instrument.

… walks to school.

… has a sister.

… likes rugby.

… is afraid of the dark.

… has a brother.

… has been to France.

… has a pet cat.

Activity Eleven: Find someone who

… likes Brussels sprouts.

… likes going to the cinema.

… was born outside of the UK.

… has a pet dog.

… likes eating cake.

… likes video games.

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND This is Tom!

Activity Twelve: Our group Objective:

To develop understanding of what others in the group like and dislike and to determine what the group has in common as a whole.

Materials:

Large piece of paper or wall space where information can be collated Card shapes for key statements to be written on Name cards or pictures of individuals in the group

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to make a display about your group based on what you know about one another or have in common. • On the card shapes ask group members to put things they have in common e.g. food, activities, sports, flms etc. Individuals can draw pictures or cut out pictures from magazines to decorate the cards. • Draw lines linking individuals’ pictures to the interests.

Example:

Football David

Aaron

Ice cream

Our Group

Colin

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Billy

Copyright material from Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly (2020), TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Routledge

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Section Two – Thoughts This section introduces the concept of thoughts and how different people may have different thoughts about the same or different things. It encourages individuals to think about their own thoughts and how these might relate to others. Feelings board Activity One:

Name that thought! (See section One)

Activity Two:

What is a thought?

Activity Three:

Things I like to think about

Activity Four:

Things I like to think about

Activity Five:

What do you think about…?

Activity Six:

How much I think about…

Activity Seven:

How much I think about things

Activity Eight:

Two way thinking

Activity Nine:

Our thoughts about…

Activity Ten:

How can we tell what people are thinking?

Activity Eleven:

Are you seeing what I’m seeing?

Activity Twelve:

Are you thinking what I’m thinking?

Activity Thirteen Part One:

Can you see what I’m thinking?

Activity Thirteen Part Two:

Can you see what I’m thinking?

Activity Fourteen:

Can you see what I’m thinking?

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts

Activity Fifteen:

Spot the thought!

Activity Sixteen:

Good thought or bad thought?

Activity Seventeen:

Snapshot!

Activity Eighteen:

Same thought or different thought?

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To introduce the concept of a thought.

To teach the concept that people have different thoughts.

To teach the concept that people have different thoughts.

To develop understanding that people have different thoughts.

1

2

3

4

Week / Date Aim of session

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Copyright material from Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly (2020), TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Routledge

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Eight: Two way thinking 3. Activity Nine: Our thoughts about…

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Six: How much I think about… 3. Activity Seven: How much I think about things

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Four: Things I like to think about 3. Activity Five: What do you think about…?

1. Feelings board 2. Activity One: Name that thought! 3. Activity Two: What is a thought? 4. Activity Three: Things I like to think about

Plan

Session Plans: Section Two – Thoughts Opportunities for generalisation

• Feelings board • When two individuals have a • Individual laminated thought disagreement use this template bubbles and dry wipe pens to visually explain their • Copy of worksheets differing views or highlight similar things they think about.

• Feelings board • Example rating scales for different ages or interests • Example thought wheels for Tom and Mary • Copy of worksheet for each individual and staff member

• Feelings board • Use visual boards to display • Individual laminated thought when it is time to think about bubbles and dry wipe pens different things e.g. you need to • What do you think about…? think about maths for 15 mins cards then you can think about Lego.

• Feelings board • Label thoughts explicitly when • Pictures with thought explaining feelings or actions bubbles e.g. “I think…” • Individual laminated thought bubbles and dry wipe pens • Copies of worksheets for each activity

Resources needed

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5

Resources needed

• Feelings board • Are you thinking what I’m thinking? cards • Activity Fourteen quotes enlarged to A3

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Ten: How can • Activity Ten picture enlarged we tell what people are to A3 thinking? • Are you seeing what I’m 3. Activity Eleven: Are you seeing? cards seeing what I’m seeing?

Plan

To develop 1. Feelings board understanding of how 2. Activity Twelve: Are people’s behaviours you thinking what I’m can indicate what thinking? 3. Activity Thirteen: Can they are thinking you see what I’m about. thinking? To specifcally 4. Activity Fourteen: introduce the concept Can you see what I’m of using our eyes to thinking? show others what we (For older students) are thinking about.

To introduce the concept we can use people’s behaviour to determine what they are thinking about.

Week / Date Aim of session

Session Plans: Section Two – Thoughts

• Practise this skill in different situations or with different people. • Make sure individuals have a go at not only being the person looking at something but also the person guessing what the other person is looking at. • Play it as a silent version of i-spy. Rather than giving a verbal clue, give them a visual clue by looking at the object.

• Practise this skill in different situations or with different people. • Set little homework tasks for individuals to go and see how they can recognise what people are thinking.

Opportunities for generalisation

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts

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To develop 1. Feelings board understanding of how 2. Activity Seventeen: people’s behaviours Snapshot! can indicate what they are thinking about.

1. Feelings board To develop • Feelings board • When completing refections understanding of how 2. Activity One: Name that • Individual laminated thought or debriefs with individuals thought! people’s behaviours bubbles and dry wipe pens ask them to consider whether 3. Activity Eighteen: Same can indicate what they were having the same or thought or different they are thinking a different thought to the other thought? about. person involved in the social situation (positive or negative).

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• Feelings board • Complete this activity within • Individual laminated thought the curriculum for example, bubbles and dry wipe pens when learning about events • Camera in history or learning about a novel or play.

• Label and explain why you think someone might be having a good or bad thought. • Do some people watching in the playground or lunch hall to try to work out if people are having good or bad thoughts.

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• Feelings board • Copy of worksheet enlarged to A3 • Copies of worksheet

To develop 1. Feelings board understanding of how 2. Activity Sixteen: Good people’s behaviours thought or bad can indicate what thought? they are thinking about.

• Practise this skill in different situations or in the wider group.

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1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Fifteen: Spot the • Copy of worksheet enlarged thought! to A3 • Copies of worksheet • Spot the thought cards

To develop understanding of the concept of using our eyes to show others what we are thinking about.

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Session Plans: Section Two – Thoughts

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts

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Suggestions for improvements / additional activities:

Feedback on how the term has gone:

Session Plans: Section Two – Thoughts

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts

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Copyright material from Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly (2020), TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Routledge

2 3 Skill emerging Skill emerging with with prompting occasional prompting

Signed: __________________________________________________

To be able to describe 3 behaviours that show what someone is thinking about

To be able to use someone’s eye gaze to identify what they are thinking about

To identify what someone else is thinking

To identify 2 things they like to think about

To describe what a thought is

My targets

1 Skill not present

Name: _________________________________________

Talkabout Targets – Thoughts

4 Skill present in a structured situation

5 Skill present in some other situations

6 Skill present and consistent across most situations

Date: ___________________________

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts

Activity Two: What is a thought? Objective:

To introduce the concept of a thought.

Materials:

Print out the ‘thought’ bubble to stick in the middle of a large piece of paper. Print out the thought bubble with the relevant defnition. You may want to enlarge this.

Instructions: • Tell the group you will be thinking about thoughts. • Write ‘thought’ in the middle of the page with a thought bubble around it or use the ‘thought’ bubble. • Ask the group to describe what a ‘thought’ is. • Use the different defnitions depending on what level individuals are.

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Activity Two: What is a thought?

THOUGHT

• A thought is an idea you have in your head. • No-one else knows what you are thinking unless you tell them.

• A thought is an idea or opinion you have in your mind. • They occur suddenly in the mind. • It is the process of considering or reasoning about something. • It is something only you know unless you tell someone. • People can guess what you are thinking based on your behaviour or what they know about you.

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Activity Three: Things I like to think about Objective:

To introduce the concept that people have different thoughts.

Materials:

Your own copy of the thought bubble with things you think about in it

Instructions: • Explain that you are going to be thinking about thoughts. Having described what a thought is show the group your thought bubble explaining what things you typically think about. • As a group identify what Tom typically likes to think about based on what you know about him. • As a group identify what Mary typically likes to think about based on what you know about her. Compare the two thought bubbles to see if they think about similar things and if they do why this might be. • Ask each individual to write down things that they think about that are appropriate to share with the group. • Once everyone has written down some things, ask individuals to share their thoughts with the group. • Highlight that some people have similar thoughts and some people have very different thoughts. • If a member of the group shares thoughts that are not appropriate encourage discussion about why some thoughts are private.

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Activity Three: Things I like to think about

Things I like to

think

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about

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Activity Four: Things I like to think about Objective:

To introduce the concept that people have different thoughts.

Materials:

Your own copy of the worksheet with things you think about in it

Instructions: • Explain that you are going to be thinking about thoughts in specifc situations. Show the group your thought bubble explaining what things you typically think about. • Ask each individual to write down things that they think about that are appropriate to share with the group for the specifc situations. • Once everyone has written down some things, ask individuals to share their thoughts with the group. • Highlight that even in the same situation some people have similar thoughts and some people have very different thoughts.

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Activity Four: Things I think about

Things I

When playing a video game

think

about

On a long car journey

When I’m with my friends

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At lunchtime

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Activity Five: What do you think about…? Objective:

To develop understanding that different people have different or similar thoughts about the same situation.

Materials:

Group set of thought bubbles cut out and laminated Non-permanent markers to write on the thought bubbles Set of thought bubble scenario cards cut out and laminated

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to read out a scenario and you would like them to write down what they might think in that situation. • On a count of three, individuals hold up their thought bubbles to show the group what their thoughts would be. • Discuss their thoughts highlighting any similarities and differences. • Acknowledge all thoughts as valid even if they do not seem appropriate or relevant. Discuss with the group why this might be or why people reacted a certain way to specifc thoughts. There are two different sets of cards to use depending on your group’s age and ability. There are also some blank cards to create your own scenarios specifc to your group.

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Activity Five: What do you think about…?

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts Activity Five: What do you think about…? Your friend gets picked for the school football team and you don’t.

England win the world cup in football.

Instead of 6 weeks school holidays in the summer there will be 10 weeks.

You get to sit next to your best friend in maths.

You forget to bring your lunch to school.

For school dinner today it is curry.

Your Dad brings you some chocolate home from work.

Your friends are coming round for tea after school.

You get picked for the school football team.

You’re going to get a new pet and it can be any animal you want.

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Activity Five: What do you think about…? You get told off for wearing trainers instead of school shoes.

You’re late for school.

Someone tells you your hair looks nice today.

Your teacher tells you you’ve got a surprise exam this afternoon.

You break your games console.

You fall over in front of a group of people.

Your friend falls over in front of a group of people.

You break your friend’s games console.

You’re going to the school disco tonight.

A lady pushes in front of you in a queue at the supermarket.

You receive £100 for your birthday.

School is closed because of bad weather so you get the day off.

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Activity Five: What do you think about…?

Brussels sprouts

Monday mornings

Christmas

The Royal Family

Lego

Hot chocolate and marshmallows

Snakes

Flying

Maths

Dinosaurs

Football

Reading

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Activity Six: How much I think about… Objective:

To develop understanding that people think about things in different amounts.

Materials:

Copy of scale and cards for each individual Scissors and glue for each individual or to share

Instructions: • Explain to the group that you are going to think about how much time you spend thinking about certain things. • Introduce the cards and ask individuals to rate them in order of how much they think about them from lots to sometimes to rarely using the rating scale. • Before individuals stick down the pictures ask them to consider how they might change if they were different people e.g. as an 8 year old you may spend a lot of time thinking about Pokemon but as a 15 year old you may not spend so much time. Would they change their pictures and ratings? • Ask individuals to stick their responses on to the worksheet. There are blank cards to create topics relevant to your group if required.

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Activity Six: How much I think about…

Lots

Sometimes

Rarely

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Activity Six: How much I think about…

Music

The weather

Going on holiday

My friends

My family

Food

Films

What I will be when I’m older

My toys

Playing outside

Sport

Lego

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Activity Six: How much I think about…

Pokemon

What I’m doing at the weekend

What I’m doing after school

Favourite TV show

My pets

Games console

Bad things happening to me

Internet

YouTube

Football

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Activity Seven: How much I think about things Objective:

To understand people think about different things and pay different amounts of attention to these things.

Materials:

Print off copy of Tom and Mary’s example wheels Create your own version of the wheel to demonstrate how an adult’s might differ to an individual’s version Copy of the blank wheel for each individual

Instructions: • Explain to the group that we all think about different things for different amounts of time. • Use Tom and Mary as examples using their wheels. • Ask individuals to complete their own wheel with each section representing a block of time. • You may want to brainstorm some suggested categories or events e.g. food, sport etc. • You may want to compare some people will think about lots of different things where as others may not e.g. Tom – lots of different things, Homer Simpson – not so many e.g. just beer and doughnuts!

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Activity Seven: How much I think about things

Friends & Family

Football

Sleep

Tom

Console

Food

Baxter

Sport Music

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Activity Seven: How much I think about things

Dancing Mary

Food

Music

Make Up

Family Friends School Animals

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts Activity Seven: How much I think about things Name: ____________________________________

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Date: __________________________

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Activity Eight: Two way thinking Objective:

To introduce the concept that people have thoughts about one another.

Materials:

Prepared worksheet of Tom and Mary’s thoughts about one another using the stories in Section One Print out the two way thinking page and cut out the templates Photos of each group member

Instructions: • Introduce the idea that people have thoughts about one another and the things that person likes / doesn’t like etc. • Introduce the two way thinking page with Tom and Mary pictured. Explain the example of the thoughts Tom and Mary have about one another using your prepared worksheet. • Ask the group to get into pairs. Give each pair their photographs to put in the box or ask them to write their names. They are going to describe what they think about one another (using kind words). • They can then identify what can go into their communication channel.

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Activity Eight: Two way thinking

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Activity Eight: Two way thinking

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts Activity Nine: Our thoughts about… Objective:

To introduce the concept that people have thoughts about one another.

Materials:

Example worksheets for Tom and Mary with their photos in the middle box Have a photo of each member of the group to put in the middle box Each person in the group will need a blank square of paper for every other person in the group Prepared example thought about each person in the group, e.g. Polly is kind and helpful. She likes animals.

Instructions: • Tell the group that you are going to think about each person in the group in turn and identify what we think about them. • Introduce examples of Tom and Mary. Ask students to say what they think about Tom and Mary. • Prompt individuals to think carefully about what they are going to say. • Give examples of the kind of things they might comment on • What they’re good at e.g. I think X is good at football • What they’re like e.g. I think X is kind • What they like e.g. I think X likes cartoons. • Ask individuals to write or draw what they think about a person. • Show the group your examples for each of them and stick them on the page as an example.

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Activity Nine: Our thoughts about…

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts Activity Ten: How can we tell what people are thinking? Objective:

To introduce the concept that other people’s behaviour can tell us what that person might be thinking.

Materials:

Enlarge the picture for Activity Ten to A3 so there is room to write on it

Instructions: • Discuss with the group that you have been looking at the different thoughts people have but you have known this information because the person has said what they are thinking or you’ve guessed based on what you know about them. • Ask the group how you can tell what someone is thinking. Some individuals may note that it is impossible as you can’t mind read. Acknowledge this is true and that we can never know exactly what someone is thinking but we can guess what they might be thinking about. • Show the group the picture of Tom. • Ask the group to think about which parts of Tom we can look at to guess what he might be thinking about. • Facilitate discussion so the following parts are added to the picture: • Hands / feet / body – We can guess what people are thinking by what they are doing. • Brain – We can guess what people are thinking by what we know about them. • Eyes – We can guess what people are thinking by where they are looking. • Mouth – We can guess what people are thinking by what they are saying.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts Activity Ten: How can we tell what people are thinking?

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Activity Eleven: Are you seeing what I’m seeing? Objective:

To teach that eye gaze can indicate what a person is thinking about.

Materials:

Print out, cut out and laminate the ‘Are you seeing what I’m seeing?’ cards

Instructions: • Introduce the concept eye gaze can show others what we are thinking about. “We can use our eyes to show other people what we are thinking about. Usually what we are looking at is what we are thinking about. This is not always the case, but mostly. We can look at other people’s eyes to try and guess what they are thinking about.” • This game can be played as a group or in pairs. Ask one person to think about an object within the room and look at that object. The rest of the group then have to try and guess what object they are thinking about by where they are looking. • For those individuals able to, encourage them to think of their own object. • For younger group members use the ‘Are you seeing what I’m seeing?’ cards as prompts of things to look at. • For some of the objects, individuals might name an associated thought to the object, e.g. looking at a clock means you are thinking about the time. Discuss whether they can think of any other examples. Then play the game ‘Are you thinking what I’m thinking?’ • For older, more able individuals you may want to go straight for the ‘Are you thinking what I’m thinking?’ game.

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Activity Eleven: Are you seeing what I’m seeing?

Clock

Pencil case

Wall display

Whiteboard

Teacher

Book shelf

Shoes

Person sat next to you

Empty chair

Door

Window

Lunchbox

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Activity Twelve: Are you thinking what I’m thinking? Objective:

To teach that eye gaze can indicate what a person is thinking about.

Materials:

Print out, cut out and laminate the ‘Are you thinking what I’m thinking?’ cards

Instructions: • Introduce the concept of using our eyes to show others what we are thinking about. “We can use our eyes to show other people what we are thinking about. Usually what we are looking at is what we are thinking about. This is not always the case, but mostly. We can look at other people’s eyes to try and guess what they are thinking about.” • This game can be played as a group or in pairs. Ask one person to think about an object within the room and look at that object. The rest of the group then have to try and guess what they are thinking about based on what they are looking at. • Explain that we can guess what they are thinking about by what they are looking at, as there are associated thoughts with certain objects. Use the clock card as an example e.g. “I am looking at the clock because I am thinking about the time.” • For those individuals able to, encourage them to think of their own thought / object. • For younger individuals use the ‘Are you thinking what I’m thinking?’ cards as prompts of things to look at.

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Activity Twelve: Are you thinking what I’m thinking?

What’s the time?

What’s the date?

I wonder what they‘re thinking?

What lesson do I have next?

What is she saying?

What book shall I read next?

Who will come into the classroom next?

The weather

Our work

The person next to you

What I’ve got for lunch

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Activity Thirteen Part One: Can you see what I’m thinking? Objective:

To teach that eye gaze can indicate what a person is thinking about.

Materials:

Enlarge the next page to A3 so it can be used as a record of the class discussion

Instructions: • As a group discuss all the things about eye contact that can suggest what someone is thinking. • Facilitate discussion about: • Direction of gaze • Duration of gaze • Lack of gaze • Movement of gaze.

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Activity Thirteen Part One: Can you see what I’m thinking? Brainstorm all the things you know about eye gaze and how it is related to people’s thoughts. What can eye gaze tell us about someone’s thoughts?

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Activity Thirteen Part Two: Can you see what I’m thinking? Objective:

To consider the importance of eye gaze when showing others what you are thinking about.

Materials:

Copy of the quotes for each group member

Instructions: • One at a time share the quotes with the group. • Discuss each quote in turn and make notes as a group. • Have an individual copy of the quotes for each person – ask them to fll in what they think the quotes mean and how it relates to thinking about others and eye gaze. • Discuss each person’s individual answers as a group.

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Activity Thirteen Part Two: Can you see what I’m thinking? Read the following quotes. What do you think they mean? How does this relate to eye gaze and what people are thinking?

“The eyes are the window of your soul” –Traditional Proverb

“Present to the eye, present to the mind” –Chinese Proverb

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Activity Fourteen: Walking, looking, thinking… Objectives:

To develop the ability to recognise eye gaze in others to determine what they might be thinking about.

Materials:

Worksheet You may want to ‘plant’ people to ensure you are able to observe people

Instructions: • Tell the group that you are going to take a walk around a specifc area to observe other people around you to see if you can work out what they might be thinking about. • Talk through the worksheet explaining that the group will need to identify a person to observe, make a note of what they are looking at or doing and then guess what they are thinking. • Explain to the group that when observing people they will need to be quiet. You might want to warn others in advance and plan a route or specifc places to observe. • The number of people you observe will be dependent on the attention span and engagement of your group as well as the availability of people around you to be observed. • Set a time limit for the walk / observation to take place. At the end of this time come back together as a group and share what you found.

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Person

What they are doing / looking at?

Guess what they are thinking. How can you tell?

Observe other people around you to see if you can work out what they might be thinking about. Fill in each column.

Activity Fourteen: Walking, looking, thinking…

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts

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Activity Fifteen: Spot the thought! Objective:

To determine what behaviour clues can suggest whether someone is having a good or a bad thought about something or someone.

Materials:

Cards cut out for sorting game for younger individuals or those that need a visual

Instructions: • Explain to the group that you have been thinking about thoughts and how we can use eye gaze to determine what someone is thinking. • Explain to the group that people might have good thoughts or bad thoughts about something. • Discuss how we might be able to guess whether someone is having a good or a bad thought. For younger or less able individuals use the sorting game cards to brainstorm. Write good thoughts and bad thoughts on a board or piece of paper. Individuals then take it in turns to pick a card and place it either under good or bad thoughts. • Ask individuals to complete the worksheet distinguishing between the two.

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Activity Fifteen: Spot the thought!

Frowning

Smiling

Closed eyes

Arms crossed

Slouched shoulders

Staring

Looking away

Blank expression

Head up and alert

Pointing at someone

Sarcasm

Talking behind their hand

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Activity Fifteen: Spot the thought!

Continuing the conversation

Asking questions

Using kind words

Avoiding eye contact

Muttering

Using mean words

Ignoring you

Changing topic

Fiddling

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The way we talk

Conversation skills

Gesture

Eye contact

Facial expression

Body language

Clues

Good thought

Identify what different clues can tell us that someone might be having a good or a bad thought.

Activity Fifteen: Spot the thought!

Bad thought

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Activity Sixteen: Good thought or bad thought? Objective:

To demonstrate understanding of which behaviour clues can suggest whether someone is having a good or a bad thought.

Materials:

Cut out and laminate ‘good thought’ or ‘bad thought’ cards Each person will need a ‘good thought’ and ‘bad thought’ thought bubble cut out and laminated Cut out and laminate topic suggestions if needed

Instructions: • This can be played in pairs or as one big group. • Explain to the group that one person (Person A) is going to talk about a topic. • The other half of the pair (Person B) is going to listen to Person A talking and act out whether they are having good or bad thoughts according to the card they’ve been given. • If playing in pairs Person A has the thought bubbles and when they fnish talking hold up their thought bubble to show whether they thought Person B was having good or bad thoughts. • If playing as part of a big group Person A and Person B can act out their cards in front of the rest of the group or you can have multiple people being Person B. At the end of the topic the rest of the group then hold up their thought bubbles to show whether they think Person B is having good or bad thoughts about Person A.

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Activity Sixteen: Good thought or bad thought?

Good Thought

Bad Thought

Good Thought

Bad Thought

Good Thought

Bad Thought

Good Thought

Bad Thought

Good Thought

Bad Thought

Good Thought

Bad Thought

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Activity Sixteen: Good thought or bad thought? Topic cards Talk about your favourite flm.

Talk about something you are looking forward to.

Talk about what you had for dinner last night.

Talk about what you are doing at the weekend.

Talk about your favourite subject at school and why you like it so much.

Talk about your favourite food.

Talk about a food you hate.

Talk about somewhere you would like to go on holiday.

Talk about your family.

Talk about what you want to be when you are older.

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Activity Sixteen: Good thought or bad thought?

Good thought

Bad thought

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Activity Seventeen: Snapshot! Objective:

To demonstrate understanding of what someone might be thinking and how the environment can impact on this.

Materials:

Camera

Instructions: Part 1: • Explain to the group that you can guess what someone is thinking by their communication such as their body language, facial expression, eye contact, tone of voice etc. It can be thought of as taking a snapshot of someone or a snapshot in time. • Explain to the group that they are going to make their own snapshot photos. • In groups they need to act out a scenario in a freeze frame. Then take the photos.

Part 2: • Print off the photos and use them to play ‘Name that thought!’ the following week. This doesn’t have to be done using photos. Instead one group or pair at a time can create a freeze frame / snapshot and the others in the group can guess it. For those small groups or individuals who need a bit more time to prepare, you could invite friends or staff members into the group to look at the freeze frame and guess what they are thinking.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts

Activity Eighteen: Same thought or different thought? Objective:

To demonstrate understanding that we can tell by people’s communication whether they are thinking the same thing or not.

Materials:

Copy of pictures printed Find additional pictures or flm stills of two people looking at the same thing Choose pictures relevant to the group members’ age and interests

Instructions: • Show the group the pictures. • Ask them to decide whether the two people are having the same thought or a different thought. • Discuss why the group chose the answer they did and how they could tell.

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Activity Eighteen: Same thought or different thought?

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Section Three – Feelings This section introduces the concept of feelings and how different people may have different feelings about the same or different things. It introduces that our feelings and thoughts are linked together and they can impact on one another. It encourages individuals to think about their feelings and how these relate to their own and others’ thoughts. Feelings board Activity One:

Name that feeling!

Activity Two:

Feelings

Activity Three:

Feelings alphabet

Activity Four:

In the manner of the word

Activity Five:

How can we tell how someone is feeling?

Activity Six:

Freeze frame game

Activity Seven:

How Tom and Mary feel

Activity Eight:

How we feel

Activity Nine:

How I feel

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4

3

2

1

Week / Date

Plan

1. Feelings board 2. Activity One: Name that feeling! To introduce the 3. Activity Two: Feelings vocabulary to describe 4. Activity Three: Feelings feelings. alphabet 1. Feelings board To develop understanding of how 2. Activity Three: Feelings alphabet behaviour is linked to 3. Activity Four: In the feelings. manner of the word 4. Activity Five: How can we tell how someone is feeling? To develop 1. Feelings board understanding of 2. Activity Six: Freeze feelings in different frame game situations. 1. Feelings board To develop 2. Activity Seven: How Tom understanding of and Mary feel feelings in different 3. Activity Eight: How we situations. Feel

To introduce the concept of feelings.

Aim of session

Session Plans: Section Three – Feelings Opportunities for generalisation

• Feelings board • Worksheets

• Feelings board • Freeze frame cards

• Use this activity in different lessons e.g. English, RE, history or drama to help teach different perspectives.

• Play manner of the word as a simple group cohesion game or lesson fller.

Feelings board • As you discuss different feelings Emotion pictures continue to add to your feelings Heart shape defnition alphabet. Flipchart paper and pens Copy of alphabet worksheet

• Feelings board • Feelings alphabet • In the manner of the word cards

• • • • •

Resources needed

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

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To develop understanding of our own feelings in different situations.

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Nine: How I feel

Suggestions for improvements / additional activities:

Feedback on how the term has gone:

5

Session Plans: Section Three – Feelings • Feelings board • Worksheets

• Use the template as a debrief tool to refect on both positive and negative social interactions. • Use this activity in different lessons e.g. English, RE, history or drama to help teach different perspectives.

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

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2 Skill emerging with prompting 3 4 Skill emerging Skill present in with occasional a structured prompting situation

Signed: __________________________________________________

To be able to distinguish between a behaviour and a feeling

To be able describe how someone else might feel in a situation

To be able to describe how they might feel in a situation

To be able to describe the link between feelings and behaviours

To describe what a feeling is

My targets

1 Skill not present

Name: ________________________________________________________

Talkabout Targets – Feelings

5 Skill present in some other situations

6 Skill present and consistent across most situations

Date: _______________________

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity One: Name that feeling! With pictures Objective:

To determine an individual’s level of understanding of feelings and reading facial expressions.

Materials:

Photos of feelings (e.g. colourcards or take photos of the individuals posing beforehand) stuck on the walls around the room and numbered Have a variety of core feelings

Instructions: • Ask group to move around the room and look at the photos. • Get them to name / write down what the feelings are. • For younger or less aware individuals you may want to provide multiple choice options. • You may also want to let the group know the categories / numbers e.g. there are four happy faces, there are four angry faces etc. • Come back together as a group and share answers. • Discuss why they put the feeling they did e.g. facial features, eyes, mouth, context etc.

With videos Objective:

To introduce how to tell how someone is feeling.

Materials:

You will need to some large pieces of paper to write down discussion ideas Find pictures or short video clips from popular programmes (relevant to the group) of a range of different feelings e.g. happy, sad, angry, scared, worried, surprised, tired

Instructions: • Watch one video clip at a time. Ask the group to identify what feeling they think the person is feeling. • Ask the group to identify how they can tell the person is feeling that way. • Write down discussion / ideas of how they know what the person is feeling.

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Activity Two: Feelings Objective:

To introduce the concept of feelings.

Materials:

Heart shaped defnitions enlarged to A4 size Select the defnition of ‘feeling’ that best suits your group

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to be talking about feelings. • Stick the ‘feeling’ heart in the middle of a large piece of paper. Ask the group to think of as many different feelings as they can and write these around the edges. • Using three different coloured pens discuss as a group which feelings are positive, which are negative and which are neutral. Underline or circle the feelings using the pens to categorise them by colour. Suggested colours are red = negative, green = positive, yellow = neutral. • Ask the group to defne what a feeling is. How do you describe what it is? Write their ideas down using a separate colour pen. Use the defnitions in the hearts to generate ideas.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Two: Feelings

A way to describe what happens in our bodies as a reaction to something.

An emotional state or reaction.

FEELING

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Activity Three: Feelings alphabet Objective:

To establish vocabulary to describe different feelings.

Materials:

Alphabet printed and enlarged to A3 size

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to think of as many different feelings as you can for each letter of the alphabet. • Prompt individuals to take it in turns to name a feeling for each letter. • See the next page for suggestions.

Variation: • Split the group into smaller groups or pairs and get them to name as many feelings as they can in one minute. The group with the highest number wins. • Split the group into smaller groups or pairs and get them to complete as much of the alphabet as they can in one minute, then compare answers. • This could be repeated in different sessions to see if they can beat their score. • Make the feelings alphabet into a poster / laminated board that can be added to as you come across new or different feelings.

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Activity Three: Feelings alphabet

A = angry, annoyed, amazed

N = nervous, naughty

B = brave, bored

O = optimistic, out of sorts

C = confdent, confused

P = pleased, paranoid

D = disgusted, disappointed

Q = queer

E = excited, embarrassed

R = relieved

F = frightened, fed up

S = sad, scared, silly

G = guilty

T = tired

H = happy, hurt

U = unwell, undecided

I = indifferent

V = vulnerable

J = jealous

W = worried

K = kind

X=

L = low, loved

Y = yucky

M = miserable

Z = zapped, zany

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Activity Three: Feelings alphabet

A

N

B

O

C

P

D

Q

E

R

F

S

G

T

H

U

I

V

J

W

K

X

L

Y

M

Z

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Activity Four: In the manner of the word Objective:

To think about different ways we show how we are feeling.

Materials:

Cut out the picture cards and the feeling cards. You may want to put these on two different colour cards so you can easily tell the difference between action and feeling cards.

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to act out different actions using different feelings. • Individuals take it in turns to pick an action card and a feeling card. They then act out the action as if they are feeling the feeling. • The rest of the group have to name the action and the feeling.

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Activity Four: In the manner of the word

Brush your teeth

Get dressed

Watch television

Wash your hair

Pack your bag

Make breakfast

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Four: In the manner of the word

Read a book

Draw a picture

Sweep the foor

Do the washing up

Eat your dinner

Make a cup of tea

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Activity Four: In the manner of the word

Angry

Happy

Amazed

Bored

Miserable

Annoyed

Confused

Naughty

Worried

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Four: In the manner of the word

Disgusted

Nervous

Tired

Excited

Pleased

Surprised

Frightened

Sad

Silly

embarrassed

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Activity Five: How can we tell how someone is feeling? Objective:

To think about different ways we can tell how someone is feeling.

Materials:

Copies of the worksheet for each person

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to think about how we can tell how someone is feeling. Refer back to in the manner of the word and how our body language and actions changed depending on what the person’s feelings were. • This activity can be done individually or as a whole group or both. Perhaps brainstorm ideas as a whole group frst and then fll in the worksheet afterwards. • Depending on the ability of your group you may just want to use the frst page of the worksheet for core feelings.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Five: How can we tell how someone is feeling? Create a checklist of ways to identify how someone might be feeling. Face

Eyes

Hands

Distance

Posture

Legs

Happy

Sad

Angry

Tired

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Worksheet Five: How can we tell how someone is feeling? Create a checklist of ways to identify how someone might be feeling. Face

Eyes

Hands

Distance

Posture

Legs

Surprised

Worried

Frustrated

Excited

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Six: Freeze frame game Objective:

To think about different ways we show how we are feeling.

Materials:

Cut out the scenario cards Create your own scenarios using the blank cards if needed

Instructions: • Tell the group they are going to act out different actions in a freeze frame. • The others then have to guess what the scenario is and how the person is feeling.

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Activity Six: Freeze frame game

It’s Christmas morning

You’ve won the lottery

You’ve lost a football match

You’ve got a presentation

You’re seeing your best friend after school

Your pet has died

You’re going to be late for school

You’ve broken your new phone

You get what you wanted for your birthday

You’ve forgotten your homework

You’ve forgotten your homework again!

You’re going to be late home

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Seven: How Tom and Mary feel Objective:

To introduce the idea that other people feel different things to us and we can identify these.

Materials:

Worksheet and pens This can be done individually or as a group activity If a group activity you may want to enlarge it to A3 size

Instructions: • Tell the group you are now going to identify how other people feel based on what you know about them. Remind the group that people feel different things so it may not be the same as them. • Ask the group to generate ideas as to what might make Tom and Mary feel different things. • If individuals are unable to do this because they don’t know how Tom and Mary feel get them to guess based on what they know about Tom and Mary. If their favourite activity is tennis and tennis makes them happy how do they think Tom will feel when he gets to do his favourite activity?

Variation: • For lower ability group members use the matching worksheet frst to introduce the idea of different things making Tom and Mary feel different feelings.

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Activity Seven: How Tom feels Match the item to the feeling for how you think it might make Tom feel. There may be more than one item for a feeling.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Seven: How Mary feels Match the item to the feeling for how you think it might make Mary feel. There may be more than one item for a feeling.

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Activity Seven: How Tom and Mary feel Feeling

Things that might make Tom feel this way

Things that might make Mary feel this way

Happy

Sad

Angry

Tired

Annoyed

Disappointed

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Eight: How we feel Objective:

To think about our feelings in different situations and how our bodies react.

Materials:

Copies of the worksheet for each group member Copy of the worksheet enlarged to A3 to use as a summary for the whole group

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to think about how they might feel in different situations and how their bodies react in these situations. • Ask individuals to complete the worksheet to generate discussion points. • Once fnished ask the group to share their worksheets and create an A3 summary page of all their ideas. • You could display this in the room.

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Activity Eight: How we feel Feeling

Things that make us feel this way

How our bodies react

Happy

Sad

Angry

Tired

Annoyed

Disappointed

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Feelings

Activity Nine: How I feel Objective:

To think about our feelings in different situations.

Materials:

Copies of the worksheets for each person

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to think about how they might feel in different situations. • The group will be thinking about what makes them feel a certain way and how their body responds to these situations. • Individuals complete the worksheet on their own for the different scenarios and then as a group discuss their different feelings and reactions. • Individuals can then complete the next worksheet generating their own situations that they may have recently experienced. Have any of the group members experienced the same thing and felt the same or different ways?

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Activity Nine: How I feel Name: ___________________________________ The situation…

Date: ________________________ The situation…

I am late for school

I have lost my phone

What did I feel?

What did I feel?

What happened to my body?

What happened to my body?

The situation…

The situation…

I get an A+ for my project

I get to see my favourite band in concert

What did I feel?

What did I feel?

What happened to my body?

What happened to my body?

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Activity Nine: How I feel Name: ___________________________________

Date: ________________________

The situation…

The situation…

What did I feel?

What did I feel?

What happened to my body?

What happened to my body?

The situation…

The situation…

What did I feel?

What did I feel?

What happened to my body?

What happened to my body?

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Section Four – Actions This section introduces the concept of actions and how our actions are a direct result of our thoughts and feelings whether we realise it or not. It introduces that thoughts, feelings and actions are all linked not only for ourselves but for other people. It encourages individuals to think about their actions and how they might be able to control these. Feelings board Activity One:

Name that action!

Activity Two:

What is an action?

Activity Three:

My actions

Activity Four:

How actions make me feel

Activity Five:

How feelings make me act

Activity Six:

Tom’s actions and feelings

Activity Seven:

How would we feel?

Activity Eight:

Tell me why

Activity Nine:

Captain Action!

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To develop understanding of how actions can make you feel a certain feeling.

To develop understanding of how other people’s actions can make you feel a certain way.

To develop understanding that other people may do different actions for different reasons.

2

3

4

Feelings board Action cards Feelings cards Emotion boards

• Label the link between actions and feelings.

• Label actions across different scenarios and situations.

Opportunities for generalisation

• Facilitate discussions on why individuals think someone might be doing something.

• Feelings board • Use the how would we feel • Action cards from Activity template across different Six scenarios or to support social • ‘You’ and ‘Other Person’ problem solving. cards • Activity Six worksheet: How would we feel?

• • • •

Feelings board Action cards Action arrows Paper and pens (writing pens and highlighters) • Example list of activities you’ve done that morning

• • • •

Resources needed

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Eight: Tell me • Action cards from Activity why Seven

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Six: Tom’s Actions and Feelings 3. Activity Seven: How would we feel?

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Four: How actions make me feel 3. Activity Five: How feelings make me act

To introduce the concept of 1. Feelings board actions. 2. Activity One: Name To introduce the vocabulary that action! to describe actions. 3. Activity Two: What is an action? 4. Activity Three: My actions

Plan

1

Week / Date Aim of session

Session Plans: Section Four – Actions TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

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To develop understanding that our actions can be purposeful in making others feel good.

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Nine: Captain • Captain Action! outline Action! • Captain Action! strikes again worksheet

Suggestions for improvements / additional activities:

Feedback on how the term has gone:

5

Session Plans: Section Four – Actions • Use Captain Action! outside of the group to highlight actions that have made others feel good.

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

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2 Skill emerging with prompting 3 Skill emerging with occasional prompting

Signed: __________________________________________________

To identify 3 things they could do to make a person feel good

To be able to distinguish between an action and a feeling

To be able describe how someone else might act in a situation

To be able to describe how they might act when feeling a specifc feeling

To be able to describe the link between feelings and actions

To describe what an action is

My targets

1 Skill not present

Name: ________________________________________________________

Talkabout Targets – Actions

4 Skill present in a structured situation 5 Skill present in some other situations

6 Skill present and consistent across most situations

Date: ___________________________

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity One: Name that action! Objective:

To determine individuals’ levels of understanding of actions.

Materials:

Cut out and laminate action cards

Instructions: • Take it in turns to take a card from the pile and act out the action depicted on the card. • Other members of the group have to guess the action the person is performing. • Once everyone has had a go, discuss what actions they had to perform. How did they know what the specifc actions were? Who has had to do these actions in real life? You can use the action cards within this book or use picture cards from verbs Colourcards or similar.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity One: Name that action!

Playing golf

Writing

Making a cup of tea

Talking on the telephone

Skipping

Dancing

Brushing your teeth

Driving a car

Wrapping a present

Waiting for a bus

Making a cake

Sneezing

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity One: Name that action!

Scoring a goal

Meeting someone

Taking a photograph

Planting a seed

Taking a selfe

Painting your nails

Playing the violin

Having a drink

Eating a hot curry

Watching a flm

Going on a rollercoaster

Singing a song

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Activity Two: What is an action? Objective:

To introduce the concept of an action.

Materials:

Print out the action arrows to stick in the middle of a large piece of paper. Print out the action arrows with the relevant defnition. You may want to enlarge this.

Instructions: • Tell the group you will be thinking about actions. • Write ‘action’ in the middle of the page with an arrow around it or use the arrow shape. • Ask the group to describe what an action is. • Use the different defnitions depending on the level of understanding of the group.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Something you do

The process of doing something

ACTION

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Three: My actions Objectives:

To introduce the concept of an action and that actions happen all the time with some being on purpose and some being automatic.

Materials:

Paper and pens (writing and highlighters) An example list of actions you have done that morning

Instructions: • Ask individuals to think back to the moment they woke up. What actions have they done since then? Share your example list of actions with the group. • Ask them to write a list of every action they’ve taken so far that day. • Some individuals may spend a lot of time giving specifc actions whilst others may give broader, general actions. • When everyone has a list ask them to highlight the actions they thought about or planned and those actions they did automatically. See the next page for an example.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Three: My actions – example

Today I have… • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Woken up Turned my alarm off Laid in bed snoozing Got up Went to the bathroom Went to the toilet Washed my hands Brushed my teeth Had a shower Washed my face and moisturised Got dried Put deodorant on Got dressed Went into the kitchen Put the kettle on Fed the cat

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Activity Three: My actions

Today I have…

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Four: How actions make me feel Objective:

To introduce the concept an action can make you feel a certain feeling.

Materials:

Actions cards. Use the blank cards to create your own actions relevant to the group. Feelings cards (from Section Three)

Instructions: This can be played in three ways: 1. Take it in turns to pick a card from the pile and answer the card individually. 2. As a group share the action card with the whole group and they select a feelings card to represent how they feel about that action. 3. Complete a group survey: Read out an action and a feeling e.g. walking makes me feel happy and those that agree have to stand up or put their hand up.

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Activity Four: How actions make me feel

Walking

Running

Sleeping

Eating

Arguing

Drawing

Climbing

Reading

Swimming

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Four: How actions make me feel

Tickling

Hugging

Jumping

Dancing

Resting

Teasing

Playing

Writing

Learning

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Activity Five: How feelings make me act Objective:

To introduce the concept a feeling can make you act a certain way.

Materials:

Action cards Feelings cards

Instructions: This can be played in three ways: 1. Take it in turns to pick a card from the pile and answer the card individually. 2. As a group share the action card with the students and they select what they would be feeling to make them act that way. 3. Each student has a board of feelings. They match the action to the feeling.

Examples: Go to bed early – tired Eat cake – hungry Be on my own – sad / angry

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Angry

Calm

Sad

Excited

Happy

Frustrated

Activity Five: How feelings make me act

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Activity Five: How feelings make me act

Going for a walk

Going for a run

Going to bed early

Eating

Arguing

Sitting by myself

Talking to a friend

Reading a book

Ignoring someone

Resting

Telling a joke

Making fun of someone

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Five: How feelings make me act

Playing music

Playing on my games console

Playing a game

Talking to my parents

Talking to my teacher

Watching TV

Crying

Laughing

Yoga

Waking up at 9am

Dancing

Having time out

Hugging

Asking how they are

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Activity Six: Tom’s actions and feelings Objective:

To identify in others how feelings are linked to actions.

Materials:

Cut out and laminate fashcards if required

Instructions: • Introduce to the group you are going to read a story about Tom’s day. • Tell the group you would like them to listen out for how Tom is feeling and what action has made him feel this way. • Individuals can identify the feelings and actions by using the fashcards, holding them up when they spot a feeling or action. • Read the story. • Discuss how Tom is feeling and what has made him feel this way. Do members of the group experience similar feelings for the same or different actions? For example, how would having pizza for lunch make them feel. • Give a copy of the story to each person. • Ask them to highlight in one colour Tom’s feelings and in another colour highlight his actions.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Six: Tom’s actions and feelings

FEELING ACTION Copyright material from Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly (2020), TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Routledge

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Activity Six: Tom’s actions and feelings Highlight Tom’s feelings in one colour and Tom’s actions in another colour. This morning Tom woke up at 6:14am, 46 mins before his alarm went off. ‘Eugh, I can’t believe I’ve woken up so early’ thought Tom. He yawned and stretched feeling sleepy. He got up, jumped in the shower and then got dressed feeling a little more awake. For breakfast he made porridge and had a glass of milk. Tom rode his bike to school with his friend Mike, they were both taking part in the school football tournament later today so were excited to get to school early to have a chance to practise. Before the tournament Tom had to get through double English. “Eugh” said Tom to Mike “I hate English”. They sat down and opened their reading books. Tom felt bored reading his book, and the lesson seemed to go on for hours. Finally the bell rang and Tom could go to lunch. He ate macaroni cheese with a slice of pizza, it made him feel happy having his favourite. After lunch he played a kickabout game with his friends. Then it was time to get changed for the tournament. Tom started to feel nervous, it was time to start. Tom put his captain’s armband on and stepped onto the pitch. “How did your tournament go?” asked Tom’s Mum as he came in the front door and dumped his bag at the bottom of the stairs. Tom looked up and smiled, “We won!” he shouted punching the air with glee and holding up a gold cup feeling ecstatic. “That’s brilliant Tom! Well done, I’m so proud of you!” said his Mum. “Let’s have pizza for tea to celebrate!” “Great!” said Tom “I love pizza!”

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Seven: How would we feel? Objectives:

To introduce the concept other people’s actions can make you feel a certain way and your actions can make other people feel a certain way.

Materials:

Action cards ‘Me’ and ‘Them’ title cards

Instructions: • Introduce that you are going to be talking about the impact of actions on your own and other people’s feelings. • Put the title cards up on the board. Explain you will be refecting on actions from the perspective of each person. • Individuals may struggle to identify the perspective of others at this point. In this case assign one person to be the ‘Me’ and another person to be ‘Them’ to demonstrate the different perspectives. Then get them to share their feelings in relation to the action. • Compare and contrast the feelings they describe. If they can, ask them to explain why. Ask other members of the group to comment on whether they would agree or disagree. • Once you have completed a couple of examples ask the group to work in pairs to work through the examples on the worksheet together. Encourage them to ask one another and compare answers. • When the worksheets have been completed, compare answers as a group.

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Activity Seven: How would we feel?

ME THEM 146

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Seven: How would we feel?

Laughing

Fighting

Ignoring someone who is being mean

Teasing

Inviting someone to join in

Asking how you are

Shouting

Ignoring someone being friendly

Pinching

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Activity Seven: How would we feel?

Calling someone names

Pulling hair

Ripping up work

Excluding someone from a game

Kicking someone

Talking to someone

Crying

Telling a joke

Giving someone a compliment

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Seven: How would we feel?

Me

Them

You exclude the other person from the game

You ask how the other person is

You tease the other person

You hit the other person

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Activity Eight: Tell me why Objective:

To understand that other people may do different actions for different reasons.

Materials:

Action cards

Instructions: • Take a card from the pile and talk about why someone might do this action. • Ask individuals why would they do this particular action. • Discuss how there might be several different reasons for doing the same action. • For example – going for a walk: • Because it’s a nice day • Because you need some fresh air • To escape your annoying housemates • Because you’ve missed the bus • To get some fresh milk.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Eight: Tell me why

Going for a walk

Going for a run

Sitting by themselves

Arguing

Resting

Ignoring someone

Reading a book

Going to bed early

Talking to a friend

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Activity Eight: Tell me why

Telling a joke

Making fun of someone

Dancing

Having time out

Hugging

Ask how they are

Eating

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Activity Nine: Captain Action! Objectives:

To understand that our actions can be purposeful in making others feel good.

Materials:

‘Captain Action!’ outline ‘Captain Action!’ worksheet

Instructions: • Introduce the idea that you are going to create a superhero ‘Captain Action!’ whose superpower is to do actions that make others feel good. • Ask group members to decorate their superhero and then use the outline to brainstorm as many actions they can think of that would make others feel good. • These can be generic actions such as ‘make a cup of tea’, ‘give a compliment’, ‘carry a heavy bag’, ‘say hello’, ‘do a funny dance’. • Compare one another’s superheroes. • Then ask each person to choose specifc actions that would make specifc people feel good.

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Activity Nine: Captain Action!

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Actions

Activity Nine: Captain Action!

Captain Action strikes again! Things I could do to make people feel good.

Tom

Mary

Teacher

Mum

Dad

Classmate

Brother

Sister

Neighbour

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Activity Nine: Captain Action!

Captain Action strikes again! Things I could do to make people feel good.

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Section Five – Thoughts, feelings and actions This section further develops individuals’ understanding of how thoughts, feelings and actions are linked. It introduces that other people’s actions can impact on our own thoughts and feelings which then impact on our own actions. It encourages individuals to consider how their actions can impact on other people’s thoughts, feelings and actions for both good and bad. Feelings board Activity One:

Tom’s thoughts, feelings and actions

Activity Two:

Thoughts, feelings and actions

Activity Three:

My thoughts, feelings and actions

Activity Four:

Tom’s bad day

Activity Five:

I only speak the truth

Activity Six:

To say or not to say?

Activity Seven:

Thinking thoughts and saying all sorts

Activity Eight:

Think before you speak

Activity Nine:

What would I say to you?

Activity Ten:

If I tell you that …

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1. Feelings board 2. Activity One: Tom’s thoughts, feelings and actions

Plan

To apply understanding of thoughts, feelings and actions to a social situation.

To identify the link between one person’s thoughts and other people’s feelings.

4

• • • • •

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Five: I only speak the truth 3. Activity Six: To say or not to say?

• • • • •

• Label your own thoughts, feelings and actions and how they are related. • Give concrete examples of things that have made you feel a certain way.

Opportunities to generalise

Feelings board Story Speech bubble cut outs Copy of ‘think’ poster Scenario cards

• Have a copy of the ‘think’ poster on display and refer to it when required across all situations.

• Use the worksheet for debriefs with individuals or to teach the impact of an individual’s behaviour for specifc scenarios.

Feelings board • As and when situations occur Title cards break down a scenario into Print and cut out the cards the separate thoughts, feelings A3 paper and actions. Gluesticks

• Feelings board • Activity One worksheet

Resources needed

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Four: Tom’s bad • Worksheets for both Tom day and Polly

To introduce the concept 1. Feelings board of the link between 2. Activity Two: Thoughts, thoughts, feelings and feelings and actions actions. 3. Activity Three: My thoughts, feelings and To determine an actions individual’s ability to identify the link between their own thoughts, feelings and actions.

To introduce the concept of link between thoughts, feelings and actions.

3

2

1

Week / Date Aim of session

Session Plans: Section Five – Thoughts, Feelings and Actions TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts and feelings

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To understand that you can only say some things to some people depending on how well you know them.

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1. Feelings board 2. Activity Nine: What would I say to you? 3. Activity Ten: If I tell you that…

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Seven: Thinking thoughts and saying all sorts 3. Activity Eight: Think before you speak

Suggestions for improvements / additional activities:

Feedback on how the term has gone:

To identify when it is expected to say what you are thinking.

5 Feelings board Activity Seven worksheet Copy of ‘think’ poster Activity Eight worksheet

• Across the curriculum use the ‘think’ poster to consider theory of mind in a range of scenarios e.g. reading comprehension or English literature texts.

• Feelings board • For different situations and • Thoughts and people cards environments agree who it is • Activity Nine worksheet appropriate to say what to. • With individuals create “Things we can talk about” posters and prompt cards.

• • • •

Session Plans: Section Five – Thoughts, Feelings and Actions

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts and feelings

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2 3 Skill emerging Skill emerging with with prompting occasional prompting

Signed: __________________________________________________

To identify the impact of positive and negative statements

To identify an inappropriate thought that shouldn’t be shared

To identify an appropriate thought to share

To accurately describe the causal link between a thought, feeling and action relating to someone else

To accurately describe the causal link between a thought, feeling and action relating to themselves

My targets

1 Skill not present

Name: _________________________________________

Talkabout Targets – Thoughts, feelings, actions

4 Skill present in a structured situation

5 Skill present in some other situations

6 Skill present and consistent across most situations

Date: ___________________________

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts and feelings

Copyright material from Katherine Wareham and Alex Kelly (2020), TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Routledge

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts and feelings

Activity One: Tom’s Thoughts, feelings and actions Objectives:

To determine an individual’s level of understanding of thoughts, feelings and actions. To determine an individual’s ability to accurately distinguish between a thought, feeling and action.

Materials:

Story of Tom’s day Coloured pens Worksheet

Instructions: • Introduce to the group you are going to read a story about Tom from the last section. Explain that last time you discussed his feelings and actions but this time you are going to work out what he might be thinking. • If needed, recap on what a thought is. • Read out the story of Tom’s Day (this is an extended story from the last section). Pause to facilitate discussion about what he might be thinking, feeling and doing. • Once you have discussed key points and how his thoughts, feelings and actions are linked ask individuals to highlight the thoughts, feelings and actions in the story. • Discuss what individuals have highlighted and why.

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Activity One: Tom’s Thoughts, feelings and actions Highlight Tom’s thoughts, feelings and actions using different colours. Thoughts

Feelings

Actions

This morning Tom woke up at 6:14am, 46 mins before his alarm went off. ‘Eugh, I can’t believe I’ve woken up so early’ thought Tom. He yawned and stretched feeling sleepy. He got up, jumped in the shower and then got dressed feeling a little more awake. As he went downstairs he thought about his day ahead, ‘I’m going to need a big breakfast’. For breakfast he made porridge and had a glass of milk. Tom rode his bike to school with his friend Mike, they were both taking part in the school football tournament later today so were excited to get to school early to have a chance to practise. They talked about what a big deal it was; ‘we could be champions’ thought Tom. Before the tournament Tom had to get through double English. “Eugh” said Tom to Mike “I hate English”. They sat down and opened their reading books. Tom felt bored reading his book, and the lesson seemed to go on for hours. Finally the bell rang and Tom could go to lunch. He ate macaroni cheese with a slice of pizza, it made him feel happy having his favourite. After lunch he played a kickabout game with his friends. Then it was time to get changed for the tournament. He considered what he needed from his gym bag. Tom started to feel nervous, it was time to start. Tom put his captain’s armband on and stepped onto the pitch. “How did your tournament go?” asked Tom’s Mum as he came in the front door and dumped his bag at the bottom of the stairs. Tom looked up and smiled, “We won!” he shouted punching the air with glee and holding up a gold cup feeling ecstatic. “That’s brilliant Tom! Well done, I’m so proud of you!” said his Mum. “Let’s have pizza for tea to celebrate!” “Great!” said Tom “I love pizza!” Tom thought his Mum was the best.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts and feelings

Activity Two: Thoughts, feelings and actions Objective:

To determine an individual’s level of understanding of thoughts, feelings and actions.

Materials:

Title cards: thought, feeling, action Print and cut out the cards A3 paper Gluesticks

Instructions: • Recap with the group the meaning of thought, feeling and action. • Tell the group they will be given a set of cards they need to sort into each category: e.g. thought = he’s not listening to me, feeling = annoyed, action = walk off. • Individuals can sort the cards by each category. • Talk through the scenarios and answers. • Individuals can stick the cards into a grid on paper if required. This activity can be completed individually, in pairs, in small groups or as a whole group discussion. The task can be broken down into three levels: 1. Simple – use the frst set = 6 core feelings 2. Medium – use the frst and second sets = 12 feelings in total 3. Complex – use the frst, second and third sets = 18 feelings in total

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Activity Two: Thoughts, feelings and actions Set 1 = 6 feelings

THOUGHT

FEELING

ACTION

Happy

Angry

Sad

I love dancing with my friends

He’s telling me off for something I didn’t do

My friend is moving away so I won’t see her everyday anymore

Tom smiles, laughs and dances

Tom stamps his foot, shouts and walks out the room

Tom is crying

Annoyed

Worried

Tired

He’s not listening to me

I need to tell her I haven’t done my homework

I didn’t get enough sleep last night

Tom is avoiding her

Tom yawns a lot and doesn’t do much

Tom raises his voice then ignores him

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts and feelings

Activity Two: Thoughts, feelings and actions Set 2 = 6 feelings

Out of sorts

Bored

Fed up

Something isn’t right but I don’t know how I feel

I’m not interested in talking about cars

Why am I always picked last for football?

Tom is fdgeting and can’t concentrate

Tom is yawning and playing on his phone

Tom isn’t trying very hard

Excited

Low

Surprised

It’s my birthday party tomorrow

I will never have a girlfriend

I wasn’t expecting that

Tom is telling everyone about it

Tom is quiet and on his own

Tom jumps and has his mouth open

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Activity Two: Thoughts, feelings and actions Set 3 = 6 feelings

Unwell

Loved

Embarrassed

I’ve got a sore throat and headache

My Mum always makes my favourite dinner on my birthday

That was the wrong thing to say

Tom has taken a paracetamol

Tom hugs her

Tom’s cheeks have gone red and he can’t look at them

Jealous

Frustrated

Hurt

Sam likes Jane more than me

I can’t do this

They think my painting is rubbish

Tom gives up

Tom doesn’t show them again

Tom tells them they’re stupid

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Activity Three: My thoughts, feelings and actions Objective:

For individuals to identify the link between their own thoughts, feelings and actions.

Materials:

Feelings board Worksheet

Instructions: • Explain to the group that you’ve considered hypothetical scenarios about Tom but that you’re now going to think about their own thoughts, feelings and actions. • As a group consider the feelings board – why was each person feeling the way they were? What are their thoughts about it? What are their actions or will their actions be, based on it. • Introduce the worksheet. Each person needs to complete the gaps in the table to link the thoughts, feelings and actions for themselves. • Compare and contrast answers if individuals feel comfortable doing so.

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Activity Three: My thoughts, feelings and actions Name: _____________________________________

Date: ___________________________

Fill in the gaps in the table to show the link between your thoughts, feelings and actions. Scenario

Thoughts

Feelings

Actions

Happy

1km Fun Run

Going for a run

I can’t do this

Annoyed

Calling someone the wrong name

Disco

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Dancing

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Thoughts and feelings

Activity Four: Tom’s bad day Objective:

To apply understanding of thoughts, feelings and actions to a social situation.

Materials:

‘Tom’s bad day’ story TFA worksheet blown up to A3 Copies of TFA worksheet A4 for each person

Instructions: • Read the story of Tom’s Bad Day to the group. • Ask the group to identify why it was a bad day for Tom. • Using the TFA worksheet work through the situation with the group. • What did Tom think? • What did Tom feel? • What happened to his body? • What did he choose to do? • Complete the worksheet from Polly’s perspective too. • Ask the group to think of a time they have had a negative or positive social situation. Support the group to think of appropriate examples or provide examples you have observed the individual experiencing.

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Activity Four: Tom’s bad day Tom woke up with a jolt. He had been dreaming he was late for school and missed his maths exam. He took a minute to come round from his bad dream, “phew” thought Tom “it was just a dream”. Tom’s heart was racing. “What is the time?” he thought? 8:30am, wait what? I am late for school. He’d forgotten to set his alarm. He rushed out of bed, threw his school uniform on, fattened his hair with some water and rushed downstairs. His Mum had left a note with his lunch “have a good day”. He’d forgotten she was going to work early, Mum was always his back up alarm. Thank goodness Tom lived three doors down from his school, the late stragglers were just going through the school gates. Tom rushed past them “I’m going to miss my exam, I’m going to miss my exam” he kept thinking to himself. He rushed into school with his head down, feeling his heart racing and his hands sweaty. As he got to the school entrance his friend Polly saw him and said “Hi Tom” smiling and waving. Tom pushed past her head down, he had no time to stop he was going to miss his exam. Polly looked sad, “why was Tom being so mean?” she thought, he didn’t even say hello. Tom rushed into the classroom and sat down. He was just in time. He took his coat off and turned over the page to start his exam. Later that morning at breaktime, Tom sat outside in the fresh air eating a chocolate bar. He was so relieved he had done his exam. He felt it had gone well. He spotted his friend Polly, he walked over “Hi Polly”, she just turned around and walked off.

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Activity Four: Tom’s bad day TFA Name: _____________________________________

Date: _________________________

The situation…

What did Tom think?

What did Tom feel? ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... What happened to Tom’s body?

Choose

to do?

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Choice

What did Tom

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Activity Four: Tom’s bad day TFA Name: _____________________________________

Date: _________________________

The situation…

What did Polly think?

What did Polly feel? .............................................................. .............................................................. What happened to Polly’s body?

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Choose

to do?

Choice

What did Polly

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Activity Five: I only speak the truth Objective:

To identify the link between one person’s thoughts and other people’s feelings.

Materials:

‘I only speak the truth’ story Speech bubble cut outs

Instructions: • Recap on Tom’s bad day and note that his actions made other people feel bad and react to him negatively. Discuss how words can also have the same effect on people. Your thoughts shouldn’t always turn into actions. • Ask if the group can think of any time something they have said has had a positive or a negative effect on someone. • Read out the story about Tom – what happened? Why did people have a negative reaction to him? What could he have said differently? • Write out what Tom could have said instead on the speech bubbles.

Variation: Act out each scenario as a role play. Explore different responses and different things each person could say to change the other person’s feelings.

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Activity Five: I only speak the truth Tom has been getting into a lot of trouble recently for always telling the truth just like his Mum told him to. Mum said the rule was to always tell the truth but now Tom is starting to think that’s not quite the rule. It doesn’t seem that other people like him always telling the truth. Yesterday Tom got into trouble four times for telling the truth. At breakfast Tom told his Mum that his toast was too burnt to eat and she should provide him with a better breakfast even if she is in a rush. At lunchtime at school he told his friend Kate that he didn’t like her new haircut when she asked what he thought and now she’s ignoring him.

During his science lesson a boy in his class said that cheetahs were the fastest animals in the world but then got upset when Tom said that was a stupid answer. Tom was confused, it was a stupid answer as surely everyone knew peregrine falcons are the fastest just as he knew it was.

After school when a teacher suggested he show them how to do a football trick, Tom told him there was no need as he was so old and not as good as Lionel Messi so it wouldn’t be worth it.

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Activity Five: I only speak the truth

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Activity Six: To say or not to say? Objective:

To understand what one is expected to say and what is not expected.

Materials:

Increase the ‘Think!’ poster to A3 size Laminated copy of the poster Scenario cards

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to think about what impact thoughts and words might have on others. • Refect on Tom’s bad day – his actions had a negative effect on his friend and this can also happen with words. • Remind the group a thought is something that no-one else knows until you tell them. Explain that some thoughts if said aloud will make people feel good things and some thoughts said aloud will make people feel bad things. • Explain that you are going to think about some rules together to help decide whether a thought is one you can say aloud or not. • Using the scenarios and the rules get the group to decide whether the comment in the situation ticks all of the rules. Work your way through the checklist point by point and tick or cross the laminated copy to work out whether to say or not to say.

Variation: Laminate a copy of the poster and stick it up in the room to remind individuals of using the rules before saying something. For individuals who continue to struggle with this perhaps you could reduce the poster to a small A6 size that they can have as a prompt card in their pocket or on their desk.

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Activity Six: To say or not to say? To help us know whether what we think is something we should actually say aloud we can test it against the ‘Think!’ rules. Only if your thought ticks all fve boxes should you say it, and even then make sure it’s said in a friendly way.

True It’s real or genuine. It’s in agreement with fact.

Helpful It is a help to the person or gives them extra information they didn’t have before.

Interesting It is relevant and adds meaning to the discussion.

Necessary It is needed or required.

Kind It is friendly and will make them feel good.

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Activity Six: To say or not to say? Your friend turns up at school wearing a lovely new coat.

Your Mum has come down to Boys in your class are talking breakfast in a new outfit for an about football so you tell them important meeting. what you think about football.

I like your coat. You look nice today. Your friend got a question wrong in your maths lesson.

You’re stupid if you like football, it’s boring.

The person you sit next to in You have to pick teams for your English got an A on her project. PE lesson.

You’re the worst at maths.

You’re really good at English.

I don’t want you on my team, you’re rubbish.

Your teacher is asking who would like to take part in sports day.

You can see your friend is struggling to do her art work.

You are at your friend’s house for dinner but you didn’t like the dinner.

I am the best in the class at sport. You are at your friend’s house for dinner but you didn’t like the dinner. That was disgusting.

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Would you like some help with that? You’re finding the maths work difficult. You tell your teacher. I’m fnding this work really hard.

Thank you for dinner. Your friend turns up at school wearing a new coat the same as yours. Why have you got the same coat as me? You’ve copied me!

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Activity Seven: Thinking thoughts and saying all sorts Objective:

To identify when it is expected to say what you are thinking.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Describe to the group that you are going to be looking at the difference between thinking, feelings and talking. Sometimes these match and sometimes they don’t. • Sometimes it is ok to think our thoughts and say them, and other times we can think our thoughts but shouldn’t say them or we need to adapt how we say them. • For the different situations do you think the person should just think them or say them?

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Activity Seven: Thinking thoughts and saying all sorts

Your friend who you haven’t seen for a while has put a lot of weight on.

Your friend has got a fact wrong on her project.

Your friend has got a sticker on her back.

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Activity Seven: Thinking thoughts and saying all sorts Your friend is talking about their boring hobby.

Your Mum has had her hair cut and it looks really nice.

The boy you sit next to in maths smells really bad.

Your friend is talking about their boring hobby again!

You’re late for your friend’s party.

You forgot your sister’s birthday.

You’ve fallen over and grazed your knee.

You stub your toe on the end of your bed.

You spent the £5 your Mum gave you for milk and bread on junk food.

The man sat in front of you at the cinema is eating his popcorn really loudly.

You need the toilet desperately and there’s a long queue in front of you.

A person on the bus is taking up two seats and there’s nowhere else left to sit.

Your best friends have started dating.

Your Mum tells you that you are moving house.

You’ve got to compete in the relay race at school.

A dog has just jumped up and put their muddy paws on your new jeans.

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Activity Eight: Think before you speak Objective:

To identify when it is expected to say what you are thinking.

Materials:

Copies of the ‘Think!’ poster ‘Think before you speak’ worksheet

Instructions: • Introduce to the group you are going to use the Think! Poster to practise what you can say to other people. • Ask individuals to put their thoughts down for a situation. • Then in pairs role play what they would say based on their thoughts. Check it meets the Think! rules.

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Activity Eight: Think before you speak Situation:

Situation:

Your thought:

Your thought:

Situation:

Situation:

Your thought:

Your thought:

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Activity Eight: Think before you speak

Think! Before you speak!

True It’s real or genuine. It’s in agreement with fact.

Helpful It is a help to the person or gives them extra information they didn’t have before.

Interesting It is relevant and adds meaning to the discussion.

Necessary It is needed or required.

Kind It is friendly and will make them feel good.

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Activity Nine: What would I say to you? Objective:

To understand that you can only say some things to some people depending on how well you know them.

Materials:

Each person will need a copy of the table worksheet and a red and a green pen Thoughts and people cards

Instructions: • Take it in turns to pick a card from the “Say” cards and the “People” cards. The person has to decide whether it would be ok or not ok to say the “Say” card to that person and why / why not. • As a group discuss in what context it would be ok or not ok. There may be some disagreement, this is ok. Group members should identify that it depends on who they are saying it to as to whether it is ok or not. If not, facilitate discussion to this point by asking whether they could say that to you, or the person they are sitting next to. Question why / why not and get them to justify their reasoning if possible e.g. it will make them feel sad. • Discuss with the group why it is ok to say it to some people and not others. This will be different for every person and their relationships with others. • Ask the group to defne who they consider a close friend, family member etc. and why we might say different things to different people. • Tell the group members that we tell different people different things because we know them better / not as well and so we know how they might react to something and whether it is relevant to that person. • Talk through the scenarios / statements on the left hand side of the table. Discuss that these might be thoughts we have had or they might not. Discuss that it will depend on how well we know a person as to whether we can tell them exactly what we think or not. • Using the worksheet, for each situation colour in the square green if they could say that thought to that person or red if not. Alternatively group members could tick or cross. Some may want to put a question mark if they are unsure.

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Activity Nine: What would I say to you?

SCOUT LEADER

PEOPLE

MUM

DAD

NEIGHBOUR

BEST FRIEND

FRIEND

DOCTOR

BUS DRIVER

STRANGER

CLASSMATE

PARTNER

COLLEAGUE

SHOP ASSISTANT

GRAND PARENT

TEACHER

ACQUAINTANCE

MUM’S FRIEND

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Activity Nine: What would I say to you?

I’ve had a sore throat for 2 weeks now.

I’m going to the town centre.

I’d like to do raft building.

Have you seen my Mum?

Excuse me, do you have the time?

Please can I go for ice-cream on my birthday?

I can’t wait to see the new superhero flm.

Isn’t it hot?

What am I having for dinner?

I hate liquorice.

You look tired!

I am so tired!

It’s so unfair you get to go frst.

Why do I have to do it?

Your trainers are cool.

Your dog is ugly.

I shouldn’t have eaten all those sprouts!

I’ve got a verucca.

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Myself Mum Dad Teacher Close friend Friend Acquaintance Doctor Stranger

Thoughts

Activity Nine: To say or not to say…

Person

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Activity Ten: If I tell you that… Objective:

To predict what might happen if you say something unexpected to someone.

Materials:

Cards from Activity Nine

Instructions: • Recap on the last activity and how you determined whether it was ok to say something to someone. • You’re going to use the same cards again but this time predict what would happen next if you did say that to the person. • This can also be done as a role play. One person is the person named on the card, the other person says the “Say” card. The pair then have to act out how they would respond to one another.

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Section Six – Knowledge and beliefs This section introduces the concepts of knowledge and beliefs and how these can differ from one another based on our experiences and interests. It explores the idea that we don’t all have the exact same knowledge or beliefs even if there may be huge areas of overlap. It also considers that knowledge (or lack of ) signifcantly impacts on our thoughts, feelings and actions and is therefore a key part of understanding how to behave around others. This section also looks at the difference between fact and opinion and how this can impact on interactions. Finally this section considers the concept of intentions and that people may behave a certain way to purposefully cause a person to feel or behave in a specifc way both positively and negatively. It introduces the idea that we have to consider others’ intentions when we are interacting with people and the consequence of others’ intentions on how we feel about them and behave around them. Feelings board Activity One:

Knowledge quiz

Activity Two:

Knowledge

Activity Three:

What do I know?

Activity Four:

What do we know?

Activity Five:

I know you don’t know

Activity Six:

I know you don’t know

Activity Seven:

Types of knowledge

Activity Eight:

Types of knowledge in our group

Activity Nine:

They don’t know we know they know we know…

Activity Ten:

What I know

Activity Eleven:

Guessing

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Activity Twelve:

Clues I could use to make a good guess

Activity Thirteen:

Thinking about Tom’s perfect day

Activity Fourteen:

Consequences

Activity Fifteen:

How do we improve our knowledge about people?

Activity Sixteen:

Fact or opinion?

Activity Seventeen:

Differing opinions

Activity Eighteen:

Giving opinions

Activity Nineteen:

Beliefs

Activity Twenty:

My box of beliefs

Activity Twenty-one:

Impact of beliefs

Activity Twenty-two:

Using our knowledge

Activity Twenty-three:

Time to talk

Activity Twenty-four:

What are intentions?

Activity Twenty-fve:

Good or bad intentions

Activity Twenty-six:

Spotting intentions

Activity Twenty-seven:

My intentions

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1. Feelings board 2. Activity Four: What do we know? 3. Activity Five: I know you don’t know 4. Activity Six: I know you don’t know

To introduce the concept that everyone has different knowledge about different things although there may be overlaps.

1. Feelings board To introduce there 2. Activity Seven: Types of are different types of knowledge knowledge based on 3. Activity Eight: Types of our experiences and knowledge in our group interactions with others.

To introduce there are different levels of knowledge that might not always be clear.

2

3

4

Feelings board Worksheet Pens and paper Question cards

• Feelings board • Knowledge cards • Worksheet

• • • •

• Feelings board • Quiz sheet • Pens and paper if required • Knowledge defnitions • Worksheet

Resources needed

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Nine: They don’t • Film clip – if using know we know they know • Worksheet we know… 3. Activity Ten: What I know

To introduce the concept 1. Feelings board 2. Activity One: Knowledge of knowledge and how it is based on our quiz 3. Activity Two: Knowledge experience. 4. Activity Three: What do I know?

Plan

1

Week / Date Aim of session

• Use other video or flm clips to demonstrate the link between knowledge and behaviour.

• Relate the different types of knowledge to different scenarios. • Consider different occasions when individuals are learning new things and link it to social knowledge.

• Explicitly label individual’s knowledge. • Label and explain when individuals do or don’t share knowledge and the impact this has on their behaviour and interaction.

• Within the group and across situations label when individuals have the same or different knowledge.

Opportunities for generalisation

Session Plans: Section Six – Knowledge, Beliefs and Intentions

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Plan

To understand how we can make good guesses about others.

To understand the impact of having knowledge or lack of knowledge about something.

7

• • • •

Feelings board Good guess poster Questions about Tom Worksheet

• Feelings board • Large A4 picture • Set of six smaller pictures per pair

Resources needed

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Fourteen: • A4 paper and pens Consequences • Large sheet of paper 3. Activity Fifteen: How do we improve our knowledge about people?

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Twelve: Clues I could use to make a good guess 3. Activity Thirteen: Thinking about Tom’s perfect day

To teach that if we don’t 1. Feelings board know something about 2. Activity Eleven: Guessing someone we can make a good guess based on clues observed.

6

5

Week / Date Aim of session

• Play consequences within other scenarios or situations such as linking it to other parts of the curriculum. • Base a consequence story on a specifc topic to help demonstrate link between knowledge and behaviour.

• Label when individuals make good or bad guesses about others. • Prompt individuals to use good guesses when they are unsure about a social scenario.

• Take this session outside of the group to practise making good guesses about other people.

Opportunities for generalisation

Session Plans: Section Six – Knowledge, Beliefs and Intentions TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs

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To understand the difference between a fact and an opinion.

To be able to give an opinion effectively.

To identify what beliefs are.

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10

• Feelings board • Large sheet of paper and pens • Cards printed and laminated

• Remind individuals of the positive ways to give opinions effectively. • Practise giving opinions across different scenarios and situations.

• Feelings board • Label and explain facts and • Defnition cards cut opinions across all settings. out and laminated • Ask individuals to recognise if • Flashcards something is a fact or an opinion. • Worksheet • Two buzzers • Two mini whiteboards and pens • Two chairs

1. Feelings board • Feelings board • Label and explain different beliefs 2. Activity Nineteen: Beliefs • Defnition cards as and when they impact on social 3. Activity Twenty: My box of • Large piece of paper interactions or relationships. beliefs and pen • Stories about Tom and Mary from Section One • Worksheet for each member of the group

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Eighteen: Giving opinions

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Sixteen: Fact or opinion? 3. Activity Seventeen: Differing opinions

Session Plans: Section Six – Knowledge, Beliefs and Intentions

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To understand what an intention is.

To see the link between knowledge, beliefs and intentions.

13

14

Feelings board Stopwatch Topic cards Pen and paper Worksheet

• Use this visual for individuals in different situations if required. • Use it as a prompt card to remind individuals what they can talk to other people about.

• Apply the fowchart to different situations or topics. • Use the fowchart as a visual debrief for social situations positive and negative.

Opportunities for generalisation

• Across different scenarios and topics label and explain intentions

• Feelings board • Explicitly label and explain • Defnition cards intentions to model the link. • Cut out and laminate • Question others’ intentions across shapes different scenarios outside of the • Topic cards session.

• • • • •

• Feelings board • Copy of completed fowchart • Belief statements cut out and laminated • Blank fowcharts • Worksheet

Resources needed

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Twenty-six: • Copy of story Spotting intentions • Worksheet 3. Activity Twenty-seven: My intentions

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Twenty-four: What are intentions? 3. Activity Twenty-fve: Good or bad intentions

To identify the impact of 1. Feelings board 2. Activity Twenty-three: knowledge and beliefs Time to talk on what they talk to other people about and for how long.

To identify the impact of 1. Feelings board knowledge and beliefs 2. Activity Twenty-one: on interactions with Impact of beliefs others. 3. Activity Twenty-two: Using our knowledge

Plan

12

11

Week / Date Aim of session

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Suggestions for improvements / additional activities:

Feedback on how the term has gone:

Session Plans: Section Six – Knowledge, Beliefs and Intentions

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Date: _______________________

2 3 4 5 6 Skill emerging Skill emerging Skill present in Skill present Skill present and with with occasional a structured in some other consistent across prompting prompting situation situations most situations

Signed: __________________________________________________

To differentiate between a good and bad intention

To demonstrate how beliefs can impact on others’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviours

To accurately differentiate between knowledge and belief

To accurately differentiate between a fact and an opinion

To be able to make an accurate good guess

To identify where they have got a piece of knowledge from (type of knowledge)

To accurately identify 3 things they know and 3 different things a peer knows

My targets

1 Skill not present

Name: ________________________________________________________

Talkabout Targets – Knowledge, beliefs and intentions

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs

Activity One: Knowledge quiz Objectives:

To introduce the concept of knowledge and that we know different things based on our experiences.

Materials:

Pens and paper if you would like the group to write their answers down

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to have a quick general knowledge quiz. • Individuals can write down their answers if you would like to mark them or you can ask the group to put their hands up. • Point out to the group that the quiz is general knowledge so it will cover lots of different areas of knowledge – some of which they will know, some of which they might not know. • Depending on the ability of your group you may want to ask fewer questions or use a selection rather than all the questions. • Once you have fnished the quiz and marked the answers facilitate a group discussion about who knew what and how they knew that. For example, who knew the capital of France was Paris? Was it because they have been there or they’ve learnt it in school? Refect there are different ways to know things.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs Activity One: Knowledge quiz Knowledge quiz 1. What is the capital of France? (Paris) 2. How many wives did Henry the VIII have? (Six) 3. How many letters are there in the alphabet? (26) 4. What is the lowest prime number? (2 – A prime number is a number that is only divisible by itself and 1) 5. In Toy Story what is the character Woody? (Cowboy) 6. What three sports make up a triathalon? (Swimming, Cycling, Running) 7. What school does Harry Potter attend? (Hogwarts) 8. What type of animal is Baloo in The Jungle Book? (Bear) 9. What island do lemurs come from? (Madagascar) 10. Who invented the telephone? (Alexander Graham-Bell) 11. Who wrote ‘Sense and Sensibility’? (Jane Austen) 12. In which American state is the city of Boston? (Massachusetts) 13. How many countries are in the world? (195) (Correct at the time of printing) 14. What are the two main elements steel is made from? (Iron and carbon) 15. Who won the football world cup in 2018? (France)

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs

Activity Two: Knowledge Objectives:

To introduce the concept of knowledge.

Materials:

Hexagon shaped defnitions enlarged to A4 size Select the defnition of ‘knowledge’ that best suits your group

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to be talking about knowledge. • Stick the ‘knowledge’ hexagon in the middle of a large piece of paper. Ask the group to think of as many different categories of knowledge as they can and write these around the edges e.g. people, Science, English, Geography, Pokemon, Harry Potter, number plates, cars … • Ask the group to defne what knowledge is. How do you describe what it is? Write their ideas down. Discuss whether it is concrete and how we know what others know. Use the defnitions in the hexagons to generate ideas.

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Activity Two: Knowledge

KNOWLEDGE

facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education stored in your brain

information you have learnt and stored in your brain

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs

Activity Three: What do I know? Objectives:

For individuals to identify things they have knowledge about.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Introduce the idea that we all know different things and have areas of knowledge that may or may not differ from our peers. Following on from the previous discussion about what knowledge is, identify that we all store different knowledge in our brains. • Ask individuals to write down or draw things they have knowledge about. This might be general knowledge, personal knowledge (e.g. date of birth, parents’ names) or specialist knowledge (e.g. Harry Potter books).

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Activity Three: What do I know? Draw a picture or write about the things you know about that you have stored in your brain.

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Activity Four: What do we know? Objectives:

To introduce that within a group, knowledge may be the same or different between people. It also introduces the idea that individuals can have knowledge of other people’s knowledge.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Explain to the group that you are going to think about what you know about other people in the group. • Ask individuals to complete the worksheet flling in something they know about each person in the group in each circle e.g. Katherine has a cat, Abby likes Harry Potter. • Encourage everyone to write down one thing they know about Tom, including him as part of the group. • Once everyone has completed their worksheet ask them to share what they know. • Facilitate group refection – do you know the same things about one another. Is there something someone else knows that you didn’t?

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Activity Four: What do we know? Our Group What do we know? Identify one thing you know about each person in the group. Compare your answers – do you know the same things about each other?

Our Group

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Activity Five: I know you don’t know Objective:

For individuals to understand when others don’t know something and why.

Materials:

Paper and pens

Instructions: • Tell the group you will be thinking about knowledge. • It is important to emphasise that different people have different knowledge and this is ok. Emphasise that we must be kind about others and their knowledge even if it is not the same as they will know things we don’t, just as we know things they may not know. • Brainstorm as a group what different areas of knowledge individuals have e.g. Joe is very knowledgeable about music, Charlie is very knowledgeable about sport. • Each person writes down a question that they know the answer to based on their knowledge. • Take it in turns to ask the questions around the group. • Refect that whilst some people knew the answers others didn’t, this is all because we have different areas of knowledge.

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Activity Six: I know you don’t know Objectives:

For individuals to understand when others don’t know something and why.

Materials:

Cut out and laminate the question cards

Instructions: • Tell the group you will be thinking about knowledge and how we can tell who knows what. • Some things for example, we will only know because we saw them or experienced them, we were there when they happened. This means that anyone not there won’t know what happened. • Tell the group that we are going to ask each other questions and see who will know or not know the answer and why. • There are blank cards to add your own specifc questions.

Variation: • Play the game again with the group next time. Has our knowledge of the person / their questions changed? Why?

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Activity Six: I know you don’t know

What did I have for breakfast this morning?

What did I have for dinner last night?

What was my frst pet?

What did I do at the weekend?

Who do I sit next to in maths?

What is my Mum’s name?

Which football team do I support?

What is my middle name?

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Activity Six: I know you don’t know

What is my favourite flm?

What colour eyes do I have?

How did I get here today?

Do I have any brothers or sisters?

Where did I go on holiday last year?

Where am I going on holiday next year?

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Activity Seven: Types of knowledge Objective:

To introduce there are different types of knowledge based on our experiences and interactions with others.

Materials:

Cut out types of knowledge cards to use in brainstorm

Instructions: • Introduce the concept that there are different types of knowledge and it is an ever changing continuum. • Introduce the main types of knowledge: • Experiential – based on what you’ve experienced together e.g. you went to a Beyonce concert together so you know they like Beyonce • Informed – based on what that person has told you e.g. the person told you they went shopping with their husband at the weekend so you know they are married OR someone told you they went on a dog walk with them so you know they have a dog • Observed – based on what you’ve seen e.g. you saw the person drink tea so you know they like tea • Learnt – based on facts e.g. that every person has a birthday, that London is the capital of England • As a group think of examples for each person in the group.

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Activity Seven: Types of knowledge

EXPERIENTIAL

INFORMED

Something you know about someone because you experienced it together.

Something you know about someone because they have told you.

OBSERVED

LEARNT

Something you know about someone because you’ve seen it.

Something you know because you’ve been taught it, read it or told it.

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Activity Eight: Types of knowledge in our group Objective:

To teach individuals to consider different types of knowledge and apply this to a person.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Recap on the main types of knowledge. • Ask individuals to pick a person they know, ideally in the group so that the knowledge can be confrmed as correct or not later on! • Using the worksheet get each individual to identify something they know about the person for each different type of knowledge.

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Activity Eight: Types of knowledge in our group My knowledge about:

Experiential

Informed

Observed

Learnt

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs Activity Nine: They don’t know we know they know we know… Objectives:

To introduce there are different levels of knowledge that might not always be clear. This is an extension task.

Materials:

Video clip of Friends Series 5 Episode 14 ‘The One Where Everybody Finds Out’

Instructions: • Use this for higher level students to introduce the idea that we all have different levels of knowledge and that people do not always know other people know unless they are explicitly told. • Give a bit of background to Friends – they are 6 friends that live near each other in New York City. Two of the friends Monica and Chandler have started a relationship that is secret from the other friends. Two of the friends, Rachel and Joey, know that they are in a relationship but Phoebe and Ross don’t. Phoebe fnds out about the relationship but Monica and Chandler do not know this. • Ask the group to clarify – who knows what? Who knows about Monica and Chandler? Who do Monica and Chandler know knows? Why is there confusion as to who knows what? How could the situation be made clearer?

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Activity Ten: What I know Objective:

To teach individuals to consider that some things we know for defnite based on our experiences and what we’ve been told, but other things we only think we know.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Compare different types of knowledge and how only some things are for defnite and others we might just think we know. • Ask individuals to pick someone in the group. For that person they need to identify three things they defnitely know about them as they’ve experienced them or been told by the person. Then they need to identify three things they think they know based on what they’ve observed or been told by other people.

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Activity Ten: What I know What do you know about …………………………………?

What do you think you know about …………………?

Now check with the person … is what you think you know correct?

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Activity Eleven: Guessing Objective:

To teach that if we don’t know something about someone we can make a good guess based on clues observed.

Materials:

A set of six pictures per pair

Instructions: • Introduce the idea that if we don’t know something about someone we can guess. • Brainstorm ideas of what information about people we can use to guess information about them. • People give out information about themselves all the time without saying anything. • As a group look at the big picture to practise guessing. Then ask the group in pairs to look at the six smaller pictures. • Look at the pictures – what can we guess about these people based on what we see?

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Activity Eleven: Guessing

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Activity Eleven: Guessing

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Activity Twelve: Clues I could use to make a good guess Objective:

To teach the concept that guesses should be based on information you already know and things you can observe around you. This is a good guess.

Materials:

‘Good guess’ poster Question cards about Tom

Instructions: • Introduce to the group you are going to make good guesses about Tom. • Introduce what a good guess is using the poster on the next page. • Put the poster somewhere everyone can see. • Tell the group you are going to ask questions about Tom and they have to use a good guess to suggest answers.

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Activity Twelve: Clues I could use to make a good guess

• Is it related to something I know they like?

• Have they done it before?

• Is it a hobby?

• Have I heard them talk about it?

• Is it a commitment they have?

• Is it somewhere they like to go?

• Have I seen them doing it?

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• Do they know someone?

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Activity Twelve: Clues I could use to make a good guess My good guess What did Tom have for breakfast this morning?

What does Tom wear to football practice?

Who does Tom spend time with?

What lessons does Tom have at school?

What did Tom do at the weekend?

What does Tom like to eat?

How does Tom spend his time after school?

What would Tom like to do when he’s older?

What did Tom have for dinner last night?

What does Tom talk to his friend Mike about?

What does Tom talk to his parents about?

What does Tom do in school at lunchtime?

Where would Tom like to go on holiday?

What does Tom talk to Mary about?

What would Tom like for his birthday?

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Activity Thirteen: Thinking about Tom’s perfect day Objective:

For group members to demonstrate an ability to use knowledge about someone to demonstrate they can adapt their thoughts, feelings or actions to suit that person.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Tell the group that you are going to think about Tom and what you know about him. • You are going to use that knowledge to plan his perfect day for him. Facilitate the activity by discussing initial ideas such as: • What do we know about Tom? • How do we think he would like to spend his day? • Think about what time he would get up and go to bed. • What would he eat? What activities would he do and who with? • How do we know he might like to do these things? The group can complete this activity individually, in pairs, in small groups or as a whole group. Individuals do not have to use the worksheet, they can present their ideas as pictures, a poster or anyway they choose.

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Activity Thirteen: Thinking about Tom’s perfect day

Time

Activity

Details

Wake up Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Go to bed

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Activity Fourteen: Consequences Objective:

For individuals to understand the impact when others don’t know something.

Materials:

Pieces of paper Pens

Instructions: • Explain to the group that you are going to play ‘Consequences’. Some may be familiar with this game. • Explain that you are going to take it in turns to write down a sentence on a piece of paper. • Once they have written a sentence they will need to turn the piece of paper over to cover their sentence and pass it on to the next person. Then the next person writes the next sentence, covers it over and passes it on and so forth. • Facilitate discussion around the stories – what happens if other people don’t know what you’re talking about – there is confusion, things are harder to understand. Use the following topics to guide the stories: 1. A male character’s name 2. A description of the male 3. What the man is doing 4. A female character’s name 5. A description of the female 6. What the female is doing 7. Where they met 8. What he said to her 9. What she said to him 10. A big surprise 11. What happened next 12. An ending 226

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Activity Fifteen: How do we improve our knowledge about people? Objective:

To identify ways we can learn more about other people.

Materials:

Pens and large sheet of paper

Instructions: • Ask the group to identify ways they could fnd out more information about people to increase their knowledge. • Write down their suggestions. • Then ask individuals to generate specifc questions they could ask to improve their knowledge. • Practise asking one another the questions in pairs or as a whole group.

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Activity Sixteen: Fact or opinion? Objectives:

To introduce the vocabulary of fact and opinion and their meanings. To introduce the difference between fact and opinion and how this may impact on theory of mind.

Materials:

Defnition fashcards cut out and laminated worksheets

Instructions: • Write on the board in big letters the word FACT and the word OPINION next to each other. Ask the group to brainstorm what they know about each word and their meanings. • Next to the words stick the defnition fashcards up and discuss their meanings. • Introduce that you are now going to identify which is a fact and which is an opinion. • This activity can be used two ways – individually using the worksheet or as a whole group using the fashcards. Or to reinforce the learning you could use both activities, frst as a group and then using the worksheet as a follow up activity. • Group activity: Read out a statement from the sheet. Ask individuals to turn and show their fashcards to indicate whether they think it is a fact or opinion. • Individual activity: Give a copy of the worksheet to each person. Ask them to tick whether it is a fact or an opinion and highlight which parts are fact and which are opinion.

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Activity Sixteen: Fact or opinion? Tick the box to show whether the sentence is a fact or an opinion. Using two different coloured pens highlight which parts of the sentence are fact and which parts of the sentences are opinion. FACT

OPINION

Southampton Football club are the best team in the world. London is the capital city of England. 2+2=4 I think bananas are delicious. Having fve portions of fruit and vegetables a day is good for you. Elephants have ears. ‘c’ becomes before ‘t’ in the alphabet. Eating chocolate for breakfast is bad for you.

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Activity Sixteen: Fact or opinion? Fact or opinion statements Read these statements out to the group. Ask them to decide whether it is a fact or an opinion using their fashcards. 1. Snow is white. 2. There are 7 colours in a rainbow. 3. Eating chocolate for breakfast is good for you. 4. This is the best school in the world. 5. Birds have wings. 6. There is life on the planet Mars. 7. Christmas is the best time of year. 8. Beyonce is the best singer in the world. 9. Dinosaurs lived over 200 million years ago. 10. There is no such thing as aliens.

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Activity Sixteen: Fact or opinion? Fact or opinion fashcards

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Activity Seventeen: Differing opinions Objectives:

To develop understanding that different people have different opinions and this is ok. To teach respect for other people’s opinions even if you don’t agree.

Materials:

Two ‘buzzers’ (bells, shakers or noise makers) Two mini whiteboards and pens Two chairs side by side away from the group Categories or ideas of things to include

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to create a game show. Two members of the group will be asked to give an answer to the phrase “What is the best …” • They then have to write down their answer or use the buzzer to tell the group their answer. • When both have given their answer facilitate discussion around whether their answers are the same or different. Discussion prompts could include: • If their answers are the same does this make them fact? • If their answers are different does this make one of them wrong? • Who else in the group agrees or disagrees with their answers?

What is the best … fzzy drink

weather

animal

chocolate bar

car

country

place

lesson at school

sport

song

Marvel character

flm

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Activity Eighteen: Giving opinions Objective:

To introduce vocabulary for giving and acknowledging opinions appropriately.

Materials:

Large sheet of paper and pens Cards printed, cut out and laminated

Instructions: • Introduce to the group you are going to think about ways to give and acknowledge an opinion appropriately. • Brainstorm words the group know can be used to give an opinion and acknowledge an opinion e.g. think, believe, best, good, rubbish, ok, understand. • Put the pile of the cards in the middle of the table. Take it in turns to pick a card and give an opinion about the topic on the card. The rest of the group take it in turns to give their opinion or acknowledge the other person’s opinion. • Extension task: Use the agree or disagree cards to support individuals to consider their own and others viewpoints. For each turn hand out the cards and when the person has given their opinion the rest of the group have to give an opinion according to their card.

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Activity Eighteen: Giving opinions

AGREE

DISAGREE

OPINION

Pizza

Snow

Snakes

8pm Bedtime

Games Console

Pokemon

10 week summer holidays

Banning chocolate in schools

Starting school aged 7

Football

Fairies

Fizzy drinks

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Activity Nineteen: Beliefs Objective:

To introduce the concept of a belief.

Materials:

You will need to print out the belief star and laminate it You will need a large piece of paper and pens to record the discussion

Instructions: • Tell the group you will be thinking about beliefs. • Write ‘belief’ in the middle of the page with a star around it. • Ask the group to describe what a belief is. • Use the different defnitions depending on what level your group is.

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Activity Nineteen: Beliefs

BELIEF

Something that we think is true without proof

• A belief is an acceptance that something exists or is true without proof • If you believe in someone or something you have trust, faith, or confdence in them/it

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Activity Twenty: My box of beliefs Objectives:

For individuals to identify what a belief is. For individuals to identify what their beliefs are.

Materials:

Stories about Tom and Mary from Section One Each person will need a worksheet, pair of scissors and a pen

Instructions: • Refect back on what you know about Tom and Mary already. • Read their stories from Section One – what do they believe in? • It is important to emphasise that different people have different beliefs and this is ok. Emphasise that we must be kind about others and their beliefs even if they are not the same. • Refer back to the brainstorm completed earlier recapping on the meaning of a belief then suggest some examples. • Be aware that some younger children may still believe in things such as Father Christmas and the Tooth Fairy which may have an emotional impact if other students upset this belief. • Individuals can cut out and stick their beliefs into the box. • Older group members may want to write their beliefs in the box.

Variation: If working with an older group such as teenagers you may want to listen to the song ‘Affrmation’ by Savage Garden. This song details all different beliefs. Listen to the song, discuss the meaning using a copy of the lyrics printed out and then ask students to write their own version that summarises what they believe. The song lyrics do contain some idioms and fgurative phrases so ensure these are properly explained.

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Activity Twenty: My box of beliefs My box of beliefs

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Activity Twenty: My box of beliefs

Magic

Everyone has a soulmate

I must always win

Fairies

Destiny

Love at frst sight

No one likes me

I’m always right

Life’s unfair

I’m a good person

Unicorns

Animals have feelings

Everyone is born good

People go to heaven

Global warming

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Activity Twenty-one: Impact of beliefs Objective:

To develop the concept that a person’s beliefs will impact on their thoughts, feelings and behaviours.

Materials:

Flowchart, completed example of fowchart Pens and paper Belief statements cut out and laminated

Instructions: • Introduce to individuals that beliefs can impact on thoughts, feelings and behaviours causing changes to any of these. • Show the group the example fowchart. Cover up each of the boxes revealing the belief frst, then the thought and so on. Encourage individuals to guess what the next box might contain based on the boxes so far. • As a group work through the fowchart using one of the example beliefs. • If appropriate, ask individuals to complete the worksheet using the example beliefs and how this would impact on their thoughts, feelings and actions. • Remind the group that the belief is not necessarily their belief it is just an example and they need to be mindful and respectful that it is someone’s belief.

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Activity Twenty-one: Impact of beliefs

BELIEF I am the fastest at running in my class.

THOUGHT I’d like to do a running race on sports day.

FEELING Excitement, anticipation, happiness.

ACTION Run the 100m running race on sports day.

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Activity Twenty-one: Impact of beliefs

BELIEF

THOUGHT

FEELING

ACTION

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Activity Twenty-one: Impact of beliefs

BELIEF I believe people are born good.

BELIEF I am the best at running in my class.

BELIEF I believe animals have feelings.

BELIEF I believe unicorns are real.

BELIEF I believe the earth is fat.

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Activity Twenty-two: Using our knowledge Objective:

To understand we must consider a person’s knowledge to determine how we will initiate interaction with them.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Introduce the idea that now we know what we know about other people we need to use that knowledge to start interactions in an expected way. • When there is something we want to talk about, before we start we need to consider different factors: • How well do I know the person? • What do I know about their knowledge? Is the topic something they have knowledge of, or would like to have more knowledge of? Is it something they are going to be interested in? • Is the topic relevant to the scenario? • Based on the answers to the above questions the starter question can then be initiated either as a specifc or more general question. • Using the example worksheet discuss as a group why or why not the example topic is appropriate and whether the starter question is using the person’s knowledge well. • Group members can then complete the worksheet for themselves based on their own topic and context. You may need to make suggestions for them of which contexts they could include.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs

Activity Twenty-two: Using our knowledge – Example The context is: My topic is: Pokemon To a stranger at a Pokemon Convention.

Do we know the person well?

Do we know what knowledge they have about the topic?

To a classmate in a maths lesson.

















?

Is the topic relevant?

My starter is…

Which is your favourite Pokemon?

Do you want to play Pokemon at breaktime?

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To a teacher at lunchtime.

Have you seen the new Pokemon flm?

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Activity Twenty-two: Using our knowledge The context is: My topic is:

Do we know the person well?

Do we know what knowledge they have about the topic? Is the topic relevant?

My starter is…

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Knowledge and beliefs

Activity Twenty-three: Time to talk Objectives:

For group members to understand how they can use their knowledge and beliefs to be socially competent and have meaningful interactions with others. For individuals to understand the length of conversation relates to their conversation partner’s knowledge.

Materials:

Stop watch Topic cards – some have been left blank to add your own topics relevant to the group Pen and paper Worksheet

Instructions: • Introduce the idea to the group that there are some topics we can talk at great length about and some topics that we don’t spend very much time talking about. • Introduce the idea this will depend on how well we know the person, what their knowledge and beliefs are and how they feel about the topic. • For the frst activity you are going to take one of the topic cards each and take it in turns to talk about that topic. The length of time you talk about the topic will be timed. • When the individuals have had enough of you talking about the topic they have to raise their hands and you note down the length of time. Refect that everyone will raise their hands at different times and be able to tolerate different lengths of time. • Then take it in turns to each have a go. • Compare the times and the topics – when was it ok to talk at more length about things and when did you only talk about things for a short while? • Introduce the idea that the length we can talk about something is a bit like an algebraic equation – there are lots of different factors. • Share the different factors with the group using the visual prompt cards. • Using the worksheet take it in turns to colour in the factors to change the amount of time you could talk about it. The more circles you have coloured in the longer you can talk to someone about it.

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Activity Twenty-three: Time to talk Examples:

I’m talking to: My Mum My topic is: Going on holiday You know the person well.

The other person’s knowledge.

The topic is relevant to the interaction.

You’re both taking turns to contribute.

We’re likely to talk about this for a long time.

I’m talking to: The bus driver My topic is: Star Wars You know the person well.

The other person’s knowledge.

The topic is relevant to the interaction.

You’re both taking turns to contribute.

The topic is relevant to the interaction.

You’re both taking turns to contribute.

We won’t be talking about it for long.

I’m talking to: My Doctor My topic is: My sore throat You know the person well.

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The other person’s knowledge.

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Activity Twenty-three: Time to talk Time to talk – Topic cards

What you had for dinner last night

Your favourite TV programme

The best place you’ve ever been to

Your birthday

Your favourite sport

Your favourite animal

The Prime Minister

Trains

Growing vegetables

Star Wars

Harry Potter

Religion

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Activity Twenty-three: Time to talk I’m talking to … My topic is ….. You know the person well.

The other person’s knowledge.

The topic is relevant to the interaction.

You’re both taking turns to contribute.

The other person’s knowledge.

The topic is relevant to the interaction.

You’re both taking turns to contribute.

The other person’s knowledge.

The topic is relevant to the interaction.

You’re both taking turns to contribute.

The other person’s knowledge.

The topic is relevant to the interaction.

You’re both taking turns to contribute.

I’m talking to … My topic is ….. You know the person well.

I’m talking to … My topic is ….. You know the person well.

I’m talking to … My topic is ….. You know the person well.

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Activity Twenty-four: What are intentions? Objective:

To introduce the concept of an intention.

Materials:

Print out the ‘intention’ shape and laminate it A large piece of paper and pens to record the discussion

Instructions: • Tell the group you will be thinking about intentions. Note this leads on from knowledge and beliefs as what we know and believe about ourselves, others and the world inform our intentions. • Using the prompt cards ask the group to describe what an intention is. • Take it in turns to fnish the sentence “I intend to …” to share with the group what you plan to do for the day e.g. “I intend to go to the gym”, “I intend to have a coffee after this lesson”. They could be small plans for the day or bigger plans such as “I intend on learning to drive” “I intend on going to university”.

INTENTION

An aim or plan

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Activity Twenty-fve: Good or bad intentions Objective:

To understand that intentions can be good or bad depending on the person’s motivation or why it is they are doing something.

Materials:

Cut out and laminate the two shapes You may want to enlarge them Topic cards

Instructions: • Tell the group that there are two types of intentions. As you introduce each one stick the relevant shape on the wall / board / table. Explain that you will reading out some intentions and you would like the group to sort them into the two groups. • Then as a group come up with a defnition of a good intention, and the defnition of a bad intention. • Whenever possible label and model good and bad intentions as and when they arise or you come across examples.

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Activity Twenty-fve: Good or bad intentions

GOOD INTENTION

BAD INTENTION

So nobody is left out.

To get your own way.

To make someone happy.

To get someone into trouble.

To make someone else look bad.

To win.

To make something happen quicker.

To surprise someone.

To help someone.

To upset somebody.

Refuse because it is wrong.

To stop someone getting something you want.

To do as you’re told.

To be kind.

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Activity Twenty-six: Spotting intentions Objective:

To identify when someone is using good or bad intentions.

Instructions: • Recap on what the meaning of an intention is and remind individuals that intentions can be both good and bad. • Tell the group you are going to read a story about Tom and the group need to identify whether he has good or bad intentions. • What made them good or bad intentions based on what we know about Tom’s knowledge and beliefs?

Tom’s Intentions: Tom woke up early, he had set his alarm for 7am so he could be up before anyone else. He crept into Mary’s room and shook her awake “Mary” he whispered, “get up and help me”. Mary jumped up out of bed and put her dressing gown on. Mary and Tom had planned to make their Mum a special breakfast for her birthday. They crept downstairs into the kitchen. Tom wanted to make it a special morning as his Mum was always looking after him. He put the kettle on, put some bread in the toaster and poured cereal into a bowl. Mary was chopping up some fruit to make a fresh fruit salad, Mum’s favourite. Tom could hear his Mum upstairs, she must be awake he thought. “Mary, hurry up! Mum’s awake” he hissed. As Mary reached across for the yoghurt, Tom reached across for the milk and knocked the yoghurt out of Mary’s hand. “Mary!” Tom shouted “you’ve spilt yoghurt all over the foor, it’s everywhere!”. Mary looked upset. “It’s your fault Tom, you were rushing me!” “I wasn’t, you should have been more careful” shouted Tom. “You knocked it out of my hand!” shouted Mary. “I did not!” shouted Tom. “What are you two shouting about?” asked Tom’s Mum from the doorway. “Mum! You should still be in bed” said Tom. “We’re meant to be bringing you breakfast in bed”. “Your arguing got me up” said Mum, “and who spilt the yoghurt? Oh it’s everywhere” “It was Mary” Tom said immediately rushing his Mum out the kitchen and back upstairs, “but its ok I’ll sort out her mess”. “Mary you clean up the mess and I’ll take this up to Mum” barked Tom. Mary muttered under her breath “I’d love to” whilst thinking of the ways she was going to get him back later. 254

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Activity Twenty-seven: My intentions Objective:

To see the link between knowledge, beliefs and intentions.

Materials:

Worksheet

Instructions: • Tell the group you are going to think about the relationship between our knowledge of others and our intentions. • Give each person a worksheet to complete. • Complete the frst example as a group.

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Activity Twenty-seven: My intentions Scenario

My knowledge

A good intention would be:

My Mum’s birthday.

She loves fowers, Getting her a gardening and family bunch of fowers for meals. her birthday and organising a family meal.

Not organising anything or making plans so she doesn’t see anyone on her birthday.

School project is due at the end of the week.

I still have a lot of work to do on it and my friend has asked for help to do the projects together.

Leave it to the last minute and just copy whatever your friend has done.

Your friend is feeling really poorly.

They’ve been off school for a week and they’re feeling bored and lonely. They love Star Wars.

Your teacher is struggling to carry books back to the library.

Your teacher has a bad back. You know where the library is. You have 10 minutes before your next lesson.

You go for dinner at your friend’s house and you have pizza for tea. You’re not keen on tomato sauce.

Your friend’s Mum has made a lot of effort to cook dinner, making pizzas from scratch.

Go to your friend’s house at the beginning of the week to get it done.

A bad intention would be:

Now choose your own scenario:

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Section Seven – Respect This section introduces the concept of respect and within this the concepts of empathy and sympathy as ways of showing you understand others’ thoughts, feelings and actions and are respectful of them. The section aims to tie together all the sections so far and fnish the programme with affrmation of the group and the individuals that make up the group. Feelings board Activity One:

What is empathy and sympathy?

Activity Two:

Putting yourself in their shoes.

Activity Three:

Showing empathy and sympathy

Activity Four:

What is respect?

Activity Five:

Who do you respect?

Activity Six:

Find out what it means to me

Activity Seven:

Showing respect by age

Activity Eight:

Showing respect by place

Activity Nine:

Showing respect by person

Activity Ten:

Showing respect to myself

Activity Eleven:

This is me!

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To practise demonstrating empathy and sympathy.

To understand what respect is.

To identify ways to show you respect someone.

3

4

To introduce the concept of empathy and sympathy.

2

1

Week / Date Aim of session • • • •

Feelings board Defnition cards Variety of different pictures Feet outline

Resources needed

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Six: Find out what it means to me

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Four: What is respect? 3. Activity Five: Who do you respect?

• Label when you observe individuals empathising and sympathising. • Label, model and explain when you use empathy and sympathy.

Opportunities for generalisation

• • • •

Feelings board Large piece of paper Worksheet Piece of poster paper

• Feelings board • Display rules of respect for the • Defnition cards group. • Large piece of paper for • Label, model and explain whole group discussion or respect across different individual pieces of paper for scenarios and situations. individual brainstorm • Worksheet

1. Feelings board • Feelings board 2. Activity Three: Showing • Scenario cards empathy and sympathy

1. Feelings board 2. Activity One: What is empathy and sympathy? 3. Activity Two: Putting yourself in their shoes

Plan

Session Plans: Section Seven – Respect TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect

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To celebrate what makes them individual and respected by others.

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Suggestions for improvements / additional activities:

Feedback on how the term has gone:

1. Feelings board 2. Activity Ten: Showing respect to myself 3. Activity Eleven: This is me!

To understand 1. Feelings board how respect differs 2. Activity Seven: Showing depending on context. respect by age 3. Activity Eight: Showing respect by place 4. Activity Nine: Showing respect by person

5

Session Plans: Section Seven – Respect

• Feelings board • Note from previous discussions • Worksheet • Photos of individual group members • Pictures or photos of things each person likes • Poster paper

• Feelings board • Scenario cards

• Celebrate and share the individual posters. • Revisit the posters and sharing and showing respect.

• Practise showing respect to different people in different scenarios. • When out and about in the community explore and label ways to show respect.

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2 Skill emerging with prompting

3 Skill emerging with occasional prompting

Signed: __________________________________________________

To demonstrate 2 ways to show sympathy

To demonstrate 2 ways to show empathy

To share a reason with someone why you respect them

To identify three ways of showing someone you respect them

To explain what respect is

My targets

1 Skill not present

Name: ________________________________________________________

Talkabout Targets – Respect

4 Skill present in a structured situation

5 Skill present in some other situations

6 Skill present and consistent across most situations

Date: _________________________

TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect

Activity One: What is empathy and sympathy? Objective:

To introduce the concept of empathy and sympathy.

Materials:

Print out the ‘empathy and sympathy’ shapes and laminate them A large piece of paper and pens to record the discussion

Instructions: • Tell the group you will be thinking about empathy and sympathy. • Write empathy and sympathy in the middle of the page with a shape around it. • Ask the group to describe what empathy and sympathy mean. • Discuss different examples and ask individuals to give examples of when they have empathised or sympathised with others.

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Activity One: What is empathy and sympathy?

EMPATHY Empathy is: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another I feel what you feel

SYMPATHY Sympathy is: • feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else’s misfortune • a common feeling between two people • support in the form of shared feelings or opinions • I know how you feel

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Activity Two: Putting yourself in their shoes Objective:

To introduce the idiom of empathy and to try out being empathetic.

Materials:

Piece of card for each person Different coloured pens

Instructions: • Introduce the idiom ‘put yourself in their shoes’. Discuss what do they think it means? Find a picture that is relevant to the idiom. Discuss that you don’t literally try on the person’s shoes. Note to be able to do this you need to think about everything you know about this person – their knowledge, feelings, beliefs. • Ask each group member to draw around their shoes or feet. If an individual isn’t comfortable with this then you can draw a pair of feet / shoes for them. Ask individuals to write their names on their feet and something that has happened to them recently. • Individuals swap footprints and then have to write in the shoes how that person is feeling / what they’re thinking, what they’re saying and what they might be doing.

Instructions (variation of activity): • Find a variety of different pictures showing different scenarios e.g. mother holding newborn baby, best friend getting married, winning a running race. • Stick the picture to the top of the worksheet then laminate the page. Put the pictures around the room. • Individuals have to move around the room, when you say stop they stand on the footprints of the nearest picture. They then have to describe how they are feeling based on the situation in the picture putting themselves in the shoes of the person in the picture. This activity can be adapted by making each page into a worksheet that individuals write on to record their answers. Or individuals could select their own pictures / drawings and swap for others to describe empathy in.

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Activity Two: Putting yourself in their shoes Putting yourself in their shoes.

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Activity Three: Showing empathy and sympathy Objective:

To teach expected behaviours for showing empathy and sympathy.

Materials:

Large piece of paper and pens Scenario cards

Instructions: • As a group brainstorm all the ways you can show empathy Facilitate answers such as: Being kind Acknowledging feelings Listening Making eye contact Show you’re interested (e.g. by nodding, commenting) Taking time to listen to them Sharing your experience Offering advice • Get into pairs. Give each person in the pair the same scenario card. They have to offer empathy to one another about their shared experience and feelings. • As a group brainstorm all the ways you can show sympathy Facilitate answers such as: Being kind Acknowledging feelings Listening Making eye contact Show you’re interested (e.g. by nodding, commenting) Taking time to listen to them • Get into pairs. Give each person in the pair a different scenario card. They have to offer sympathy to one another about their different experience and feelings. • Finally, give each person a scenario card asking them not to show anyone. Individuals must now move around the room and offer empathy or sympathy depending on whether their scenario matches or is different. • Come back together as a group and discuss what you said or did depending on whether it was a shared experience or not.

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Activity Three: Showing empathy and sympathy Your cat has died and you’re feeling devastated.

Your cat has died and you’re feeling devastated.

You’ve been told off at home for staying up too late on your games console and now you have a two-week ban.

You’ve been told off at home for staying up too late on your games console and now you have a two-week ban.

You’ve not made it into the school football team.

You’ve not made it into the school football team.

You’ve been dumped by your boyfriend and you’re feeling sad.

You’ve been dumped by your boyfriend and you’re feeling sad.

You forgot your friend’s birthday and now she’s not talking to you.

You forgot your friend’s birthday and now she’s not talking to you.

You’ve just been sick in the classroom in front of all your friends.

You’ve just been sick in the classroom in front of all your friends.

Your teacher is being observed by the headteacher.

Your teacher is being observed by the headteacher.

Your friend has to do a 5-minute talk in front of the whole school.

Your friend has to do a 5-minute talk in front of the whole school.

Your Mum is starting a new job today and feeling nervous.

Your Mum is starting a new job today and feeling nervous.

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Activity Four: What is respect? Objective:

To understand what respect means.

Materials:

Large piece of paper to brainstorm ideas on OR Worksheets for each person to do their own brainstorm individually or in pairs Defnition of respect

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to be thinking about Respect over the next couple of sessions and what this means. • Ask individuals to defne respect. Use the defnition cards.

RESPECT a feeling of deep admiration for someone or something elicited by their abilities, qualities or achievements

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Activity Five: Who do you respect? Objective:

For individuals to consider who they respect and why to generate vocabulary around respect.

Materials:

Prior to the session source photos or pictures of people that are respected by members of the group. You may be able to do this from your knowledge of the group or ask them to name people they respect in advance. Alternatively have a selection of photos of famous people from all different backgrounds and ask individuals to pick a picture of someone they respect. This will generate discussion around you they respect or don’t respect and why.

Instructions: • Ask individuals to choose a person and put their picture in the middle of the worksheet. • Encourage individuals to identify different features about that person that makes them respect them.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect Activity Five: Who do you respect? Knowledge

Feelings

I respect…

Actions

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Beliefs

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect Activity Six: Find out what it means to me Objective:

To identify and understand what respect means for them.

Materials:

Large piece of paper to brainstorm ideas on OR Worksheets for each person to do their own brainstorm individually or in pairs Defnition of respect

Instructions: • Introduce that the group will be thinking about what respect means to them. • Ask each person to complete the brainstorm. • If completed individually or in pairs, come back as a whole group and share what different ideas you came up with. • Use these ideas to create Respect rules for your group using an acrostic (each letter) of Respect. • Suggestions include: • R = reason, reasonable, right, regard, refect, relate • E = earn it, equals, educate • S = show it, same, spoken, smart • P = patience, politeness • E = empathy, establish, engage • C = calm, consider, courtesy • T = thoughtful, think, tolerate

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Activity Six: Find out what it means to me Brainstorm – what does Respect mean to you?

Find out what it means to me

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Respect our group

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect Activity Seven: Showing respect by age Objective:

To understand how to show respect in different social situations with different people.

Materials:

Two signs: ‘Respectful’ and ‘Disrespectful’. Cut out and laminate the behaviour cards (you may want an additional copy for the second task) Three signs: ‘Older’, ‘Younger’ ‘Us’

Instructions: • Explain to the group you are going to think about the different ways we show respect to people and the behaviours we use to do this. • Ask group members to categorise the behaviour cards into respectful or disrespectful. • Then put the behaviour cards considered respectful to one side. • Put up the three signs with older at the top, younger at the bottom, and us in the middle. • Ask the group to categorise which behaviours you would use with older people and which you would use with younger children. Discuss why they may place them differently for different ages.

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Activity Seven: Showing respect by age

Putting your feet on a chair

Interrupting

Giving your seat up on public transport

Greeting someone

Listening to someone

Questioning someone’s authority

Calling someone Mr or Mrs X

Calling someone by their frst name

Saying thank you

Ask questions to show interest

Ask someone to stop talking about their interests

Use information you know about others

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Activity Seven: Showing respect by age

Agree to disagree

Argue your point until the other person gives in

Judge someone on how they look or act

Say whatever is on your mind even if it’s horrible

Think before you speak to not hurt others feelings

Ask how the person is feeling

Commenting positively on how well someone has done

Complimenting someone’s achievement

Criticising someone

Being sincere

Being sarcastic

Offer help

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Activity Seven: Showing respect by age

Ignore someone when they might need help

Ignore someone

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Doing what someone asks

Ignore how someone’s feeling

Refusing to follow advice or instruction

Ignore someone’s opinion if it is too different from your own

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Activity Seven: Showing respect by age

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Activity Eight: Showing respect by place Objective:

To understand how to show respect in different situations.

Materials:

A set of cards cut out and laminated

Instructions: • Take it turns to go around the group and pick a card. • Each person then describes how they would show respect in that situation. • Others in the group can then add anything additional. Discuss with the group why they would use these behaviours and what impact it would have on others’ thoughts and feelings.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect

Activity Eight: Showing respect by place

At a funeral

At a meeting

Playing a video game

Playing in a football match

In a garden

At home

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect Activity Eight: Showing respect by place

At the doctors

To your teacher

At your grandparents’ house

In the playground

At a birthday party

At the skate park

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect Activity Eight: Showing respect by place

On public transport

At a friend’s house

In the classroom

At a wedding

To your headteacher in the corridor

In the cinema

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect

Activity Nine: Showing respect by person Objective:

To understand how to show respect to different people.

Materials:

A set of cards Poster for each person

Instructions: • Take it turns to go around the group and pick a card. • Each person then describes how they would show respect to that person. Does it differ for different people – e.g. how you might show respect to your mum may be different to how they show respect to their mum. Respect can mean different things in different cultures. • Discuss whether any of the group members know of any different ways of showing respect. For example in Asian cultures it is often a sign of respect to avoid eye contact. When introducing themselves people from Japan will typically bow rather than initiate a handshake. • Others in the group can then add anything additional. Discuss with the group why they would use these behaviours and what impact it would have on others thoughts and feelings. • Each individual can then choose a person within the room. With this person they should complete the poster identifying what behaviours they can use with one another to show respect e.g. taking turns, listening, avoiding personal space etc. • As a group identify how you can all respect the group. For example, maintain group confdentiality, take turns. Discuss which of these you are already doing and those that you need to be better at.

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Activity Nine: Showing respect by person

Your Mum

Your Dad

Your teacher

A neighbour

Your best friend

Your Headteacher

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Activity Nine: Showing respect by person

Bus driver

Shop assistant

Doctor

Person you sit next to in maths

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___________________ can respect me by I can respect ___________________ by

Find out what it means to me

R.E.S.P.E.C.T

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Respect

Activity Ten: Showing respect to myself Objective:

To understand how we can respect ourselves.

Materials:

Notes from previous discussions

Instructions: • Note to the group it is important to not only respect other people but also to respect yourself. • As a group discuss how you can respect yourself e.g. look after yourself physically, be true to you, follow your beliefs, treat others as you would like to be treated, respect others. • Consider what are respectful behaviours? • Encourage each person to complete a little Respect card highlighting ways they can respect themselves. • If they are willing to encourage individuals to share their cards with the rest of the group. Encourage individuals to think about how they would like to be respected by the rest of the group.

I Respect Me!

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Activity Eleven: This is me! Objective:

To celebrate each person as an individual and create respect between the group members.

Materials:

Photo of each group member Pictures or photos of things that person likes Piece of card or paper to create poster

Instructions: • Put the photo of the person in the middle of the card. They then create a poster about celebrating themselves as an individual. • Share the posters with the group. • Encourage group members to take turns giving one another respect by sharing a comment about that person “I respect you because …” • This can be done verbally or individuals can take turns to move around the room writing on one another’s posters. • Display the posters around the room and celebrate the respect of the group.

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Index

Index This is Tom! – Section One Session Plans – Section One Targets – Section One Feelings board Name that thought! Do you fnd…? Group rules This is Tom! Who am I? This is Mary! Things in common: Tom and Mary Things in common Stand up if... Things in common Find someone who Our group Thoughts – Section Two Session Plans – Section Two Targets – Section Two What is a thought? Things I like to think about Things I like to think about What do you think about…? How much I think about… How much I think about things Two way thinking Our thoughts about… How can we tell what people are thinking? Are you seeing what I’m seeing? Are you thinking what I’m thinking? Can you see what I’m thinking? Can you see what I’m thinking? Spot the thought! Good thought or bad thought?

1 2 5 6 8 11 14 15 20 23 28 30 32 33 36 38 39 41 45 46 48 50 52 57 61 65 68 70 72 74 76 80 82 86

Snapshot! Same thought or different thought?

90 91

Feelings – Section Three Session Plans – Section Three Targets – Section Three Name that feeling! Feelings Feelings alphabet In the manner of the word How can we tell how someone is feeling? Freeze frame game How Tom and Mary feel How we feel How I feel

93 94 96 97 98 100 103 108 111 113 117 119

Actions – Section Four Session Plans – Section Four Targets – Section Four Name that action! What is an action? My actions How actions make me feel How feelings make me act Tom’s actions and feelings How would we feel? Tell me why Captain Action!

123 124 126 127 130 132 135 138 142 145 150 153

Thoughts, feelings and actions – Section Five Session Plans – Section Five Targets – Section Five Tom’s thoughts, feelings and actions Thoughts, feelings and actions

157 158 160 161 163

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TALKABOUT THEORY OF MIND Index My thoughts, feelings and actions Tom’s bad day I only speak the truth To say or not to say? Thinking thoughts and saying all sorts Think before you speak What would I say to you? If I tell you that...

167 169 173 176 179 182 185 189

Knowledge and beliefs – Section Six Session Plans – Section Six Targets – Section Six Knowledge quiz Knowledge What do I know? What do we know? I know you don't know I know you don’t know Types of knowledge Types of knowledge in our group They don’t know we know they know we know... What I know Guessing What can you guess about me? Clues I could use to make a good guess Thinking about Tom’s perfect day Consequences How do we improve our knowledge about people?

191 193 198 199 201 203 205 207 208 211 213 215 216 218 219 221 224 226

Fact or opinion? Differing opinions Giving opinions Beliefs My box of beliefs Impact of beliefs Using our knowledge Time To talk What are intentions? Good or bad intentions Spotting intentions My Intentions

228 232 233 235 237 240 244 247 251 252 254 255

Respect – Section Seven Session Plans – Section Seven Targets – Section Seven What is empathy and sympathy? Putting yourself in their shoes Showing empathy and sympathy What is respect? Who do you respect? Find out what it means to me Showing respect by age Showing respect by place Showing respect by person Showing respect to myself This is me!

257 258 260 261 263 265 267 268 270 273 278 282 286 287

227

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