Sustainable Power Generation: Current Status, Future Challenges, and Perspectives 0128170123, 9780128170120

Sustainable Power Generation: Current Status, Future Challenges and Perspectives addresses emerging problems faced by th

647 159 15MB

English Pages 620 [598] Year 2019

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Sustainable Power Generation: Current Status, Future Challenges, and Perspectives
 0128170123, 9780128170120

Table of contents :
Contents
About the author
Preface
Acronyms
Part 1 Introduction to energy and energy systems
1 Concept of energy
1.1 What is energy
1.1.1 Concept of energy
1.1.2 Forms of energy
1.1.3 Sources of energy
1.2 How to measure energy and power
1.3 Basic principles of energy conversion
1.3.1 Chemical energy
1.3.1.1 Conversion of chemical energy into heat
1.3.1.2 Conversion of chemical energy into electricity
1.3.2 Nuclear energy
1.3.3 Mechanical energy
1.3.4 Radiant energy
1.3.4.1 Natural conversion to heat
1.3.4.2 Natural conversion to chemical energy
1.3.4.3 Conversion into electricity
1.3.4.4 Conversion to heat
1.3.5 Heat
1.4 Electricity as the energy carrier
1.5 Motivation and structure of this book
References
2 Evaluation of energy resources
2.1 Fundamental energy sources
2.1.1 Solar radiation
2.1.2 Geothermal energy
2.1.3 Tidal energy
2.2 Major planetary cycles
2.2.1 Water cycle
2.2.2 Carbon cycle
2.2.3 Nitrogen cycle
2.2.4 Global wind circulation
2.2.5 Ocean currents
2.3 Biomass resources
2.3.1 Land cover and use
2.3.2 Biomass energy potential and its conversion
2.4 Valuation and forecast of fossil fuels
2.4.1 Solid fuels
2.4.1.1 Production of coal
2.4.1.2 Coal reserves
2.4.2 Crude oil
2.4.2.1 Production and processing of crude oil
2.4.2.2 Oil reserves
2.4.3 Natural gas
2.4.3.1 Natural gas production
2.4.3.2 Natural gas reserves
2.4.4 Comparison of fossil fuels
2.5 Nuclear fuel
References
3 Energy system and basic electricity market
3.1 Fundamentals of energy system
3.2 Energy industry
3.2.1 Power industry within energy industry
3.2.2 Concept and types of power plants
3.2.2.1 Traditional power plants
3.2.2.2 Emerging power plant technologies
3.3 Electric energy system beyond generation
3.3.1 Transmission and distribution of electricity
3.3.2 Consumption of electricity
3.4 Basics of electricity market
3.4.1 Major stakeholders
3.4.2 Models of market relationship
3.4.3 Types of energy contracts and markets
3.5 Energy system safety as part of energy security
References
Part 2 Sustainable energy and power generation
4 The system boundaries of sustainability
4.1 Introductory basics from systems theory
4.1.1 Definition of a system
4.1.2 Goal and limitations of a system
4.2 Definitions and principles of sustainable development
4.3 Sustainability paradigms and frameworks
4.3.1 Triple bottom line
4.3.2 Weak sustainability
4.3.3 Strong sustainability
4.4 Sustainability goals and metrics
4.4.1 Sustainable development goals
4.4.2 Sustainability metrics
4.5 Concluding remarks
References
5 Sustainable energy development
5.1 Challenges for sustainable energy development
5.1.1 Historical outlook of energy development
5.1.2 Exponential growth
5.1.3 Limits to growth
5.2 Global energy production and consumption
5.2.1 Energy production
5.2.2 Energy demand and consumption
5.2.3 Electricity generation
5.3 SDGs related to energy system
5.3.1 SDG 7: ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy
5.3.2 SDG 12: ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
5.3.3 SDG 13: take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
5.4 Energy system within the sustainable solution space
References
6 Power system and the environment
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Potential environmental threats
6.3 Greenhouse effect
6.4 Environmental consequences related to climate change
References
Part 3 Thermal power as a bridging technology towards sustainability
7 Concept of a thermal power plant
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Thermal power generation within global power mix
7.1.2 Thermal power as a transition technology
7.2 Steam power plant
7.2.1 Steam turbine cycle
7.2.2 Heat balance diagram and its optimization towards higher efficiency
7.2.3 Support systems and equipment areas
7.2.3.1 General process description and equipment areas
7.2.3.2 Modular configuration of a steam power plant
7.3 Gas turbine powered energy
7.3.1 Gas turbine simple cycle
7.3.2 Combined cycle as a way to increased efficiency
7.3.3 Major components and systems
References
8 Efficient and clean combustion of fossil fuels within boiler island
8.1 Boiler island configuration
8.2 Efficient fuel treatment
8.2.1 Coal handling
8.2.2 Liquid fuel treatment
8.2.3 Natural gas treatment
8.3 Boiler design and challenges
8.3.1 Introduction
8.3.2 Traditional boiler schematics
8.3.3 Configuration of evaporator
8.3.4 Efficient arrangement for various types of fuel
8.3.4.1 Pulverized coal combustion
8.3.4.2 Fluidized bed combustion
8.4 Emissions and process waste treatment
8.4.1 Furnace solid ash treatment
8.4.2 Flue gas handling
8.4.2.1 Fly ash
8.4.2.2 SOx control
8.4.2.3 NOx control
8.4.2.4 CO2 and other emissions control
8.4.3 Exhaust chimney
8.5 Development of sustainable boiler technology
References
9 Power island and balance of plant
9.1 Power island configuration
9.2 High efficiency steam turbine
9.2.1 Configuration of steam turbines
9.2.2 Major components
9.2.3 Accessories and auxiliary systems
9.3 Modern heavy duty gas turbine
9.3.1 Classes of efficiency
9.3.2 Major components
9.3.3 Accessories and supporting systems
9.3.3.1 Air inlet system
9.3.3.2 Exhaust system
9.3.3.3 Fuel module
9.3.3.4 Hydraulic and lubricating oil system
9.3.3.5 Compressor washing
9.4 Waste heat recovery equipment
9.4.1 Arrangement
9.4.2 Major components
9.5 Electrical generator
9.5.1 Concept of modern generator
9.5.2 Major components and accessories
9.6 Balance of plant systems
9.6.1 Scope and importance
9.6.2 Mechanical
9.6.2.1 Efficient heat rejection system
Surface condenser with cooling loop
Once-through cooling. Cooling pond
Cooling tower
Wet cooling tower
Dry cooling tower
Air-cooled condenser
9.6.2.2 Water treatment
9.6.3 Electrical
9.6.3.1 Circuit breaker
9.6.3.2 Control system
References
10 Fossil energy economics and project lifecycle
10.1 Planning and investment decision
10.1.1 Business model
10.1.2 Cost of electricity analysis
10.1.3 Site selection
10.1.4 Sustainability questions
10.2 Power plant project execution
10.2.1 Bidding process
10.2.2 Project schedule
10.2.3 Engineering, construction, and commissioning
10.2.3.1 Performance guarantees
10.2.3.2 Emissions guarantees
10.2.3.3 Commercial operation date
10.3 Efficiency increase and safe operation
10.3.1 General considerations
10.3.2 Power plant life extension
10.3.3 Reasons for repowering and upgrades
10.4 What is next with fossil power generation?
References
Part 4 Past, present, and future of sustainable nuclear power
11 Nuclear energy
11.1 Nuclear energy and fission reaction
11.2 Sustainable nuclear fuel cycle
11.2.1 Types of fuel cycle
11.2.2 Exploration for uranium and ore extraction
11.2.3 Processing and enrichment
11.2.4 Nuclear fuel fabrication
11.2.5 Fuel utilization and handling of spent fuel
11.2.6 Fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal
11.3 Applications of nuclear energy
11.3.1 Medical, food, and agricultural applications of radioisotopes
11.3.2 Radioisotopes in industry
References
12 Modern nuclear power plant
12.1 General arrangement and major components
12.1.1 Heat balance diagrams
12.1.2 Equipment areas
12.2 Nuclear island as the core element
12.2.1 Classification of reactors
12.2.2 Types of reactor and nuclear steam supply system
12.2.2.1 Types of reactor
12.2.2.2 Pressurized water reactors (PWR)
12.2.2.3 Boiling water reactor (BWR)
12.2.2.4 Light-water graphite-moderated reactor (LWGR)
12.2.2.5 Pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR)
12.2.2.6 Gas-cooled reactor (GCR)
12.2.2.7 Fast breeder reactor (FBR)
12.3 Conventional island technology and balance of plant systems
12.3.1 Overview
12.3.2 Steam turbines and generators
12.3.2.1 Steam turbine
12.3.2.2 Generator
12.3.2.3 Accessories and auxiliary systems
12.3.3 Balance of plant systems and their importance
12.3.3.1 Mechanical BOP
Heat rejection system
Spent fuel storage ponds
12.3.3.2 Electrical BOP
Power transfer system
Auxiliary power supply
Instrumentation and control system
12.4 Nuclear power plant safety
12.4.1 Nuclear accidents and their consequences
12.4.2 Active and passive safety
12.4.3 Redundancy
12.4.4 Defense-in-depth
References
13 Development of sustainable nuclear power plant project
13.1 Nuclear power plant project justification
13.1.1 Feasibility study and project key drivers
13.1.1.1 Feasibility study
13.1.1.2 Electrical system analysis
13.1.1.3 System capacity
13.1.1.4 Siting
13.1.1.5 Preliminary site layout
13.1.1.6 Technology and fuel cycle assessment
13.1.1.7 Environmental impact assessment
13.1.2 Nuclear power plant financing mechanisms
13.1.3 Schedule and lifetime estimation
13.2 Nuclear power plant lifecycle management
13.3 Nuclear decommissioning
13.3.1 Nuclear decommissioning methodologies
13.3.2 Decommissioning strategy
13.3.3 Concluding remarks
13.4 Motivation for sustainable nuclear power generation
References
Part 5 Sustainable hydropower
14 Traditional hydropower plant technology
14.1 Concept of sustainable hydroenergy utilization
14.1.1 Hydroenergy cycle and conversion
14.1.2 Hydroenergy potential
14.2 Types and configurations of hydropower plant
14.2.1 Run-of-river and diversion
14.2.2 Reservoir and storage
14.2.3 Pumped storage
14.2.4 Head height classification
14.3 Modern hydropower plant
14.4 Civil structures and waterways
14.4.1 Dam
14.4.1.1 Rock-fill and earth-fill dams
14.4.1.2 Concrete dams
14.4.2 Spillway and overflow channel
14.4.3 Water intake, penstock, and tailrace
14.4.4 Other waterway structures
14.5 Energy conversion equipment within power block
14.5.1 Efficient hydroturbine
14.5.2 Hydrogenerator
14.5.3 Balance of plant systems
References
15 Hydropower project lifecycle
15.1 Introductory
15.2 Feasibility study and economic drivers
15.3 Design and construction
15.3.1 Bidding process
15.3.2 Design and construction
15.3.3 Commissioning
15.4 Lifecycle management
15.4.1 Operation and maintenance activities and costs
15.4.2 Hydroelectric power plant upgrades
15.5 Hydropower as part of sustainable energy system
References
Part 6 Emerging sustainable energy systems
16 Wind energy
16.1 Wind resources and installed capacity
16.1.1 Wind quality and speed
16.1.2 Installed capacity
16.2 Wind power plants
16.2.1 Wind turbine and its components
16.2.2 Balance of plant
16.3 Wind farm project lifecycle
16.3.1 Feasibility study
16.3.2 Wind park project execution
16.3.3 Repowering and decommissioning
16.4 Sustainability attributes
References
17 Solar energy
17.1 Solar energy potential and conversion
17.2 Concentrating solar power
17.2.1 Plant configuration
17.2.2 Solar receivers
17.2.2.1 Parabolic trough
17.2.2.2 Central receiver or power tower
17.2.2.3 Parabolic dish
17.2.3 Thermal storage
17.2.4 Power island and balance of plant
17.2.5 Project cost analysis
17.3 Solar photovoltaic system
17.3.1 Types of solar PV systems
17.3.2 Major technologies
17.3.2.1 Wafer-based systems
17.3.2.2 Thin-film
17.3.2.3 Emerging technologies
17.3.3 Project cost analysis
17.4 Sustainability attributes
References
18 Energy from municipal solid waste
18.1 Waste and its management strategies
18.2 Waste-to-energy concept
18.2.1 Traditional steam cycle
18.2.2 Combustion of syngas in gas turbines or gas engines
18.2.3 Use of landfill gas
18.3 Waste-to-energy plant configuration
18.3.1 Boiler island
18.3.1.1 Waste reception and treatment
18.3.1.2 Boiler
18.3.1.3 Emissions and process waste treatment
18.3.2 Power island and balance of plant
18.4 Project evaluation and economics
18.5 Sustainability challenges and environmental issues
References
19 Bioenergy
19.1 Bioenergy for electricity generation
19.2 Sources of biomass feedstock and their treatment
19.2.1 Sources of feedstock
19.2.1.1 Forestry residue and wood waste
19.2.1.2 Agricultural residue
19.2.2 Processes of treating feedstock
19.2.2.1 Pyrolysis
19.2.2.2 Gasification
19.2.2.3 Anaerobic digestion
19.3 Biomass power plants
19.3.1 Direct combustion of solid biomass
19.3.2 Integrated gasification
19.3.3 Biomass energy economics
19.4 Biomass energy sustainability questions
References
20 Geothermal energy
20.1 Geothermal resources, current use, and potential
20.1.1 Types of geothermal resources
20.1.2 Status and installed capacities
20.2 Types of geothermal power plant
20.2.1 Single flash system
20.2.2 Double and triple flash systems
20.2.3 Dry steam system
20.2.4 Binary cycle system
20.2.5 Mixed and combined cycles
20.3 Plant configuration
20.3.1 Steam gathering system
20.3.2 Power island
20.3.2.1 Steam turbine and generator
20.3.2.2 Balance of plant
20.4 Geothermal project development
20.4.1 Exploration and feasibility study
20.4.2 Investment decision
20.4.3 Project execution phases and lifecycle
20.5 Challenges and sustainability issues
20.5.1 Effects on climate-relevant emissions
20.5.2 Geologic impact
20.5.3 Water impact and land use
20.5.4 Perspectives of geothermal power
References
21 Ocean energy conversion
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Energy from the ocean streams and tidal range
21.2.1 Energy potential
21.2.2 Major approaches
21.2.3 Project economics and future perspectives
21.3 Energy from the ocean waves
21.3.1 Wave energy potential
21.3.2 Wave energy conversion technologies
21.3.3 Project economics
21.3.4 Challenges and perspectives
21.4 Ocean thermal energy
21.4.1 Technology and cycle
21.4.2 Economic perspectives
21.5 Salinity gradient energy
References
Part 7 Future of sustainable power generation
22 Can we build a sustainable power generation system?
22.1 Introductory
22.2 Long-term sustainable energy system
22.2.1 Available energy resources
22.2.2 Climate-relevant emissions
22.2.3 Economic comparison
22.3 The importance of climate change regulation
22.3.1 Current status of regulation
22.3.2 Climate engineering
22.4 How should we power the world?
References
23 Sustainable electricity management beyond generation
23.1 Energy system and future challenges
23.2 The concept of a smart grid
23.3 Energy storage
23.3.1 Flywheel
23.3.2 Pumped hydro
23.3.3 Compressed air
23.3.4 Thermal energy storage
23.3.5 Supercapacitors
23.3.6 Batteries
23.3.7 Comparison and trends
23.4 Hydrogen as an emerging energy carrier
23.4.1 Production and storage
23.4.2 Conversion of hydrogen and fuel cells
23.4.3 The future of hydrogen
References
24 Transitions towards a sustainable power generation system of the future
24.1 What is going on?
24.2 Major transitions in power generation industry
24.2.1 Centralized to decentralized power
24.2.2 Fossil to renewable power in the long run
24.2.3 Digitalization and analytics
24.2.4 Efficiency game
24.3 Transitions beyond energy system
24.3.1 Electrification of things
24.3.2 Digital transformation of industry
24.3.3 Sustainable cities
24.4 Sustainability education
24.4.1 The need for sustainability education
24.4.2 Desirable features of the sustainability education
24.4.3 Concluding remarks
24.5 Our common future
References
Index

Polecaj historie