Sustainability in Fashion and Apparels: Challenges and Solutions 9385059297, 9789385059292

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Sustainability in Fashion and Apparels: Challenges and Solutions
 9385059297, 9789385059292

Table of contents :
Content: PrefaceCHAPTER 1: Eco-testing of textilesCHAPTER 2: A study of natural dyeing in sustainable product developmentCHAPTER 3: Application of vetiver extract on cotton fabric for developing healthcare productsCHAPTER 4: Bio-polymers derived from renewable plant sources and application in apparelsCHAPTER 5: Design and development of eco-friendly nebuliser face maskCHAPTER 6: Development of green compositesCHAPTER 7: Textile recycling - creating a new industryCHAPTER 8: The rise of sustainability in textile manufacturing life cycleCHAPTER 9: Sustainable fashion - a reviewCHAPTER 10: Bio-processing of textilesCHAPTER 11: Development of UV protective garment finished with herbal leaf extractCHAPTER 12: A sustainable step towards the application of micro-encapsulated activated charcoal for anti-microbial finishCHAPTER 13: Enzymatic desizing of hemp cotton fabricsCHAPTER 14: Effect of neem finishing on water hyacinth/cotton blend non-woven fabricsCHAPTER 15: Eco-fashion handbagsCHAPTER 16: A study on chemical treated modal fabricsCHAPTER 17: An optimisation of knitting parametre on anti-microbial treatment by using Box-Behnken designCHAPTER 18: Development of new fibre Girardinia HeterophyllaCHAPTER 19: Assessment of anti-microbial activity on jute cotton blended fabric with aloe vera finishCHAPTER 20: Review on eco-friendly fibres in fibre-reinforced concreteCHAPTER 21: Study on silk fabric using some selected natural dyesCHAPTER 22: Investigation of anti-fungal activity on cotton fabric using natural herbsCHAPTER 23: Study on polyacrylic acid treated silkCHAPTER 24: Eco-friendly technology options available for textile industryCHAPTER 25: Study on comfort properties of apparels produced from bamboo/micromodal blended air vortex yarnsIndex

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SUSTAINABILITY IN FASHION AND APPARELS Challenges and Solutions

SUSTAINABILITY IN FASHION AND APPARELS Challenges and Solutions

Editors Dr. M. Parthiban Dr. M. R. Srikrishnan Dr. P. Kandhavadivu

Woodhead publishing india pvt ltd New Delhi

Published by Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd. Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd., 303, Vardaan House, 7/28, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002, India www.woodheadpublishingindia.com

First published 2017, Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd. © Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd., 2017 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publishers cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials. Neither the authors nor the publishers, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without ermission in writing from Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd. The consent of Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd. does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd. for such copying. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd. ISBN: 978-93-85059-29-2 Woodhead Publishing India Pvt. Ltd. WebPDF e-ISBN: 978-93-85059-78-0

Contents

Preface ix 1 Eco-testing of textiles

1

K. Amutha and K. Saranya 2 A study of natural dyeing in sustainable product development

11

N. Nanthagopal and M. D. Jothilinkam 3 Application of vetiver extract on cotton fabric for developing healthcare products

21

S. Ampritha and Dr. V. Krishnaveni 4 Bio-polymers derived from renewable plant sources and application in apparels

29

R. Sukanyadevi, Vaishnavi Muralidharan and C. Kavya 5 Design and development of eco-friendly nebuliser face mask

35

K. Amutha and R. Priyanka 6 Development of green composites

41

Dr. S. Grace Annapoorani, S.Yamuna Devi and D. Sheebamercy 7 Textile recycling – creating a new industry

49

Pratibha Sharma 8 The rise of sustainability in textile manufacturing life cycle D. Gopalakrishnan

55

vi Contents 9 Sustainable fashion – a review

73

Mrs. E. Devaki, Ms. M. Suganya and Ms. S. Sreelakshmi 10 Bio-processing of textiles

83

G. Abinaya Parameswari and M. V. Reenna Priya 11 Development of UV protective garment finished with herbal leaf extract

93

C. Mohan Bharathi, M. R. Deepika, J. K. Gowtham, R. Suganyaa, R. Godson Silas and J. Sathish Kumar 12 A sustainable step towards the application of micro-encapsulated activated charcoal for anti-microbial finish

101

R. Pragadheeswari and K. Sangeetha 13 Enzymatic desizing of hemp cotton fabrics

107

R. Umamaheswari and Dr. S. Amsamani 14 Effect of neem finishing on water hyacinth/cotton blend non-woven fabrics

115

S. Punitha, Dr. K. Sangeetha and M. Bhuvaneshwari 15 Eco-fashion handbags

123

M. Ghousia Amrin and G. Bagyalakshmi 16 A study on chemical treated modal fabrics

131

K. Gnanapriya and J. Jeyakodi Moses 17 An optimisation of knitting parametre on anti-microbial treatment by using Box-Behnken design

141

Dr. K. M. Patchiyappan and Dr. B. Senthilkumar 18 Development of new fibre Girardinia Heterophylla T. Vijayalakshmi and Dr. G. Manonmani

151

Contents

19 Assessment of anti-microbial activity on jute cotton blended fabric with aloe vera finish

vii

159

P. Benitta Christy and S. Kavitha 20 Review on eco-friendly fibres in fibrereinforced concrete

163

E. Devaki, K. Sangeetha and S. Karthika 21 Study on silk fabric using some selected natural dyes

171

J. Jeyakodi Moses and P. Sathish 22 Investigation of anti-fungal activity on cotton fabric using natural herbs

183

M. Sumithra and M. Lalitha 23 Study on polyacrylic acid treated silk

189

J. Jeyakodi Moses and E. Saraswathi 24 Eco-friendly technology options available for textile industry 199 Dr. K. Sangeetha, T. Abirami and A. Keerthana Sri 25 Study on comfort properties of apparels produced from bamboo/micromodal blended air vortex yarns

211



M. Sriraj, J. Srinivasan and G. Ramakrishnan

Index 223

Preface

Ecological consideration in the apparel manufacturing industry is a permanent feature that attracts industrialists, public, government and many NGOs. In this aspect; it becomes imperative to provide alternative solutions to preserve the ecological wealth and natural resources. Sustainable fashion, also called eco fashion, is a part of the growing design philosophy and trend of sustainability, the goal of which is to create a system which can be supported indefinitely in terms of human impact on the environment and social responsibility. Sustainable clothing refers to fabrics derived from eco-friendly resources, such as sustainability grown fiber crops or recycled materials. It also refers to how these fabrics are made. Ethical Fashion is an umbrella term to describe ethical fashion design, production, retail, and purchasing. It covers a range of issues such as working conditions, exploitation, fair trade, sustainable production, the environment, and animal welfare. While environmentalism used to be manifest through a percentage of sales being donated to a charitable cause, fashion designers have recently adopted the idea of sustainability, using more environmentally-friendly materials and methods in clothing production. Designers say that they are trying to incorporate these sustainable practices into modern clothing, rather than producing “dusty, hippy-looking clothes. Sustainable fashion is typically more expensive than clothing produced by conventional methods. A growing range of factors distinguish ethical processes, alternative energy, and low-impact dyes in manufacturing. However, to the extent that fashion consumers make an effort to choose an ethical wardrobe, they usually do so by trying to pick an eco-friendly fabric. Three criteria are primarily used to extinguish the creation of eco-friendly from ordinary fabrics: 1. the use of fewer toxic chemicals, 2. the use of less land or water, and 3. The reduction of greenhouse gases. Some fabrics perform better than others across all three of these criteria. However, in many cases, one fabric is more preferable according to one of the criteria, but less preferable according to another, making for complicated choices even without factoring in differences in fabric qualities, cost,

x Preface labor conditions, or carbon footprint of product transportation. The future of sustainable fashion lies in the hands of all the stakeholders within the industry. In order to improve the current situation, innovation and collaboration is needed. Everyone active in the industry should take its responsibility. The fashion sector should become more transparent. A good start is to share knowledge and best practices. The main objective of this conference is to create an opportunity to enrich knowledge on sustainability in fashion and apparels by providing a platform to interact with industrial experts, product manufacturers, retailers, designers, academicians, researchers, and students. The conference also provides an opportunity for sharing knowledge through paper presentation by industrial experts, academicians, research scholar, designers and students from various parts of India. This conference will be adopting a case study method to identify and communicate practical challenges and solutions to apparel manufacturers. The specific challenges in apparel industry related to sustainability are to be highlighted with respect to product value, quality, and aesthetics.

Dr. M. Parthiban Dr. M. R. Srikrishnan Dr. P. Kandhavadivu

1 Eco-testing of textiles K. Amutha and K. Saranya Department of Textiles and Apparel Design, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India E-mail: [email protected] Abstract: Textile industry is considered as the most ecologically harmful industry in the world. The eco-problems in textile industry occur during production processes and are carried forward up to the finished product. In the production processes like bleaching and dyeing, the effluent generated contains toxic substances that swell up into our eco-system. During the production process, pollution control is as vital as making a product free from the toxic effect. Petroleum-based products are harmful to the environment. In order to safeguard our environment from these effects, an integrated pollution control approach is needed. Today in Europe, ecological and toxicity factors are gaining prime importance in the business of fabric and apparel trade. In 1992, Germany banned the use of metallic components in all consumer articles, which contained nickel. Thereafter followed restrictions on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and azo dyes, which liberated banned amines. Pollutants, allergens and carcinogens are now being severely restricted in the manufacturing of consumer goods sold all over Europe. Therefore, a proper selection of processes is essential in confirming to standards demanded by the customer. Keywords: eco-system, banned chemicals, testing factors

1.1 Introduction The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world’s worst offenders in terms of pollution because it requires a great amount of two components: Chemicals: There are as many as 2,000 different chemicals used in the textile industry (1), from dyes to transfer agents, and Water: It is a finite resource that is quickly becoming scarce, and is used at every step of the process both to convert the chemicals used during each step and to wash them out before beginning the next step (2). The water becomes full of chemical additives and is then expelled as wastewater, which in turn pollutes the environment (3). By the effluent’s heat, by its increased pH, and because it’s saturated with dyes, de-foamers, bleaches

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detergents, optical brighteners, equalizers and many other chemicals used during the process (4).

1.1.1

Importance of eco-testing of textiles

• To ensure safety of the product (outer and inner garments, furnishing fabrics, etc.). • To maintain green consumerism. • To ensure consumer health and safety. • For safer environment.

1.2 Eco-testing Eco-testing are tested for certain parameters for • • • • • • • • •

1.2.1

Heavy metals Azo dyes Formaldehyde pH value Pesticides Ozone depletion Phthalates Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Flame retardant

Heavy metals

Heavy metals are metallic elements that have relatively high-density and are toxic in low concentrations. They are considered as carcinogenic and found in dyes as metal complex dyes in finishes. Chromium-based dye of mordant black-II is highly toxic and it is used commonly for dyeing of black colour. Though metal and metal complex dyes are hazardous in nature, they are not prohibited since certain colours like turquoise, green, blue, violet and blue shades cannot be achieved without these dyes components. Many National and European standards do not permit these dyes, but many voluntary organizations check these parameters for their eco-labelling and certification. Ecolabel and Oeko-Tex standard 100 establish limits on permitted levels of pesticides, heavy metals, and toxic substances in both raw materials and products as listed in Table 1.1.



Eco-testing of textiles

3

Determination of heavy metals There are several methods to determine the heavy metals in textile material. • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) • UV-VIS spectrometry • Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) • Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) ICP-MS is a good instrument for measuring ultra-trace metals from many materials in a few minutes. Table 1.1 Permissible limits of heavy metal content in baby wear

Limits for baby wear (mg/kg) Baby wear

With skin contact

Without skin contact

Antimony (sib)

30.0

30.0

30.0

Arsenic (As)

0.2

1.0

1.0

1.0

Accessories

Lead (Pb)

0.2

1.0

1.0

1.0

Cadmium (Cr)

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Cobalt (Co)

1.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Nickel (Ni)

1.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Mercury (Hg)

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

Copper (Cu)

25.0

50.0

50.0

50.0

Chromium (Cr)

1.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.2.2

Azo dyes

Azo dyes are characterized by the presence of one are more azo groups (-N=N-) and constitute numerically the most important class of synthetic colouring matters (about 70%). They have no analogues in natural colouring matters and are produced by a common process involving two reactions. They are as follows: 1. Diazotization of a primary amine and 2. Coupling of the diazonium salt with a phenol or aromatic amine with free ortho or para position or components having active methylene groups such as acetoacetanilide, pyrazolones, etc.

4

Sustainability in Fashion and Apparels

There are about 27 amines which are banned. Some of them are Benzidine, 2-Napthylamine, 4-Amino biphenyl, Amino azotoluene, p-Chloraniline.

1.2.3 Formaldehyde It is a gas. It is present in nature in small quantities. For example, human blood has traces of formaldehyde and so do apples. However in larger quantities, formaldehyde can cause skin allergies or skin irritations. In textiles, formaldehyde has traditionally been used in anti-shrinking treatments, resin finishes for wrinkle/crease-free properties and dye fixing agents. It may be tested as free formaldehyde or released formaldehyde. Legal limits are quite high, though buyers ask for lower limits for their purchases. Possible hazards • Exposure to low-levels of formaldehyde does not present a health concern but exposure to high-levels of formaldehyde can cause adverse health effects including significant sensory irritation, breathing difficulties and allergic contact dermatitis. • Temporary skin irritations: Skin rashes can result due to exposure of formaldehyde. • Allergic reactions: People have suffered dermatitis after wearing clothing or using cosmetic products that contained high-levels of formaldehyde. • Irritation of the nose, eyes, and other adverse effects. Breathing formaldehyde vapour can result in irritation of nerves in the eyes and nose. • Cancer: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) currently classifies formaldehyde as being “carcinogenic” to humans. Determination of formaldehyde in textile materials Formaldehyde can be measured in a variety of ways which are as follows: • Spot test using phenyl hydrazine, sulphuric acid, ferric chloride and water solution (Qualitative Method). • “Free” is the measurement to determine the level of formaldehyde present in the fabric or product, this will give an indication as to the “risk” in handling the product. “Released” is the measurement to determine the level of formaldehyde given-off by the fabric into the atmosphere; this will give an indication as to the “risk” of respiratory problem.



Eco-testing of textiles

5

• The most commonly used method for the determination of free formaldehyde in fabric material is the Pentane-2, 4-dione method, also known as acetylacetone method. In acetic acid and ammonium acetate buffer condition, acetylacetone and formaldehyde react to form dimethyl pyridine (DDL). Dimethyl pyridine is slightly yellow and its absorption maximum in aqueous solution is 412 nm. The intensity of the colour of the aqueous solution is proportional to the formaldehyde concentration. This is the basis to determine the content of free formaldehyde. • Source: Dye fixing agents/resin finishing. • Limits: 100 mg/kg for textiles directly in contact with skin. 300 mg/ kg for textiles not directly in contact with skin. • Effects: Weakens the immune system and suspected carcinogen.

1.2.4

pH value pH = log[H+]

• pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. • pH stands for “power of hydrogen”. To be more precise, pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration as shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 pH scale

• A pH of 7 is neutral. • A pH less than 7 is acidic. • A pH greater than 7 is basic (alkaline).

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Sustainability in Fashion and Apparels

pH measurement pH in an aqueous solution can be measured in a variety of ways. The most common way uses a pH‐sensitive glass electrode, a reference electrode and a pH metre. Figure 1.2 demonstrates the alternative methods for determining the pH of a solution using indicators and colorimeters.

Figure 1.2 Colorimeter

1.2.5 Pesticides Pesticides are used during cotton plants cultivation to protect the plants from pets attack. Similarly wool producing animals are produced from parasites using pesticides. It is possible to absorb pesticides from textile through the skin and also by sucking on the garments. A variety of poisoning symptoms can appear from the various pesticides such as headache, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, etc. right up to the fatality depending upon the dose. In the longterm contact, pesticides have a carcinogenic effect or mutagenic and teratogenic. There is no standard legal regulation for pesticide residue in textiles. The prohibition of chemical ordinance applies to DiChloro-Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT), but other pesticides mentioned in the highest concentration of Residue Ordinance of the food and Consumer Goods Act. Limits and restrictions is F

Model

11.08

9

1.23

1.25

0.4237

A-Yarn count

7.13

1

7.13

7.24

0.0433

B-Loop length

0.13

1

0.13

0.13

0.7362

C-Finishing percentage

0.73

1

0.73

0.74

0.4292

AB

0.25

1

0.25

0.25

0.6358

AC

0.17

1

0.17

0.17

0.6952

BC

0

1

0

0

1

A2

0.75

1

0.75

0.76

0.4228

B2

0.15

1

0.15

0.15

0.7104

0.098

0.7665

0.97

0.5423

Source

C2

0.097

1

0.097

Residual

4.92

5

0.98

Lack of fit

2.92

3

0.97 1

Pure error

2

2

Cor total

16

14

Not significant

Not significant

The “Model F-value” of 1.25 implies the model is not significant relative to the noise. There is a 42.37% chance that a “Model F-value” this large could occur due to noise. Values of “Prob >F” less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant. In this case yarn count value is significant with the response.

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Percentage contribution Percent contribution to the total sum of square can be used to evaluate the importance of a change in the process parameter on these quality characteristics. Percent contribution is calculated by the following equation: Percent contribution (P) = (SS’A / SST) × 100 Table 17.6 shows individual percentage contribution of parameters under study. Table 17.6 Percentage contribution S.No 1 2 3

Parameter A-Yarn count B-Loop length C-Finishing percentage

Rank 1 3 2

Percentage contribution 44.5625 0.8125 4.5625

Regression analysis The results obtained from the 15 experimental runs carried out according to the Box-Behnken design are summarised in Table 17.4. The proposed second degree polynomial was fitted to the data presented in Table 17.5 using multiple linear regressions to determine the optimum fermentation conditions that resulted in the maximum ZOI value .The effects of yarn count, loop length and finishing percentage on ZOI of the anti-microbial treated fabrics were quantitatively evaluated using response surface curves. By applying multiple regression analysis on the experimental data, the following second degree polynomial was as follows: ZOI =22.94–1.03 * A+0.13 * B+0.36 * C+0.25 * A * B-0.28 * A * C+0.000 * B * C+0.48 * A2–0.21 * B2–0.18 * C2.

17.4

Conclusion

The following conclusions have been derived and studied from the research work. • The effects of process parameters such as yarn count, loop length and finishing percentage on the ZOI against the E.coli microbes on cotton single jersey knitted fabric have carried out. It is observed that the optimised ZOI from contour analysis is from 25 to 27 mm. The optimised process value falls in the following manner, such as yarn count value range from 22 Ne to 25 Ne; finishing percentage value from 1.0% to 1.25% and similarly the loop length range from 2.6 mm to 2.75 mm. • ANOVA table shows that except yarn count other parameters are not significant towards the ZOI against microbes. Subsequent to that the percentage analysis has been done to measure the contribution of

An optimisation of knitting parametre 149



individual process parameter on the outcome. In this case the yarn count contributes highest level such as 44.5% on the result, subsequent to that finishing add on percentage contributes second level.

References 1. Aly, A.S., Mostafa, A.B.E., Ramadan, M.A., Hebeish, A. (2007). Innovative Dual Antimicrobial & Anticrease Finishing of Cotton Fabric. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering. 46(7):703–707. 2. Freedonia Group, ‘Dinsinfectant & Antimicrobial Chemicals’, November 2009. 3. Gao, Y., Cranston, R. (2008). Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Treatments of Textiles. Textile Research Journal. 87:60–72. 4. Lee, S., Cho, J., Cho, G. (1999). Antimicrobial and blood repellent finishes for cotton and nonwoven fabrics based on chitosan and fluoropolymers. Textile Research Journal. 69(2):104–112. 5. Mahltig, B., Bottcher, H. (2003). Modified silica sol coatings for water-repellent textiles. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 27(1):43–52. 6. Mahltig, B., Fiedler, D., Bottcher, H. (2004). Antimicrobial sol-gel coatings. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology.32(1):219–222. 7. Mahltig, B., Haufe, H., Bottcher, H. (2005). Functionalisation of textiles by inorganic sol–gel coatings. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 15:4385–4398. 8. Tomsic, B., Simoncic, B., Orel, B., Cerne, L., Tavcer, P.F., Jerman, I., et al. (2008). Sol-gel coating of cellulose Fibres with antimicrobial and repellent properties. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology.47(1):44–57.

18 Development of new fibre Girardinia Heterophylla

T. Vijayalakshmi1 and Dr. G. Manonmani2 PSG College of Arts and Science and

1

Mother Theresa Women’s University

2

E-mail: [email protected] Abstract: Girardinia heterophylla (Family: Urticaceae) roots has not been studied so far. The swollen base of roots were collected from and extracted with petroleum ether. The dried petroleum extract was subjected to column chromatography and TLC. Three compounds were isolated from the roots of Girardinia heterophylla. On the basis of spectral analysis they were identified as β-sitosterol, γ-sitosterol and ursolic acid. In this study the presence of γ-sitosterol and Ursolic acid in roots of Girardinia heterophylla has been reported for the first time. Girardinia heterophylla is developed from the nettle leaf which is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. It is native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and western North America and introduced elsewhere. The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals. The plant has a long history of use as a source of medicine, food, and fibre. Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, nettle fibre, properties, collection, extraction and evaluation

18.1 Introduction The common name of Girardinia Heterophylla is Nilgiri Nettle. It is found in the tropical regions like Nilgiris and Anamalai Hills and Himalayas. The plant is identified by pointed leaves and white to yellowish flowers. This leaf and the stem of this plant have virulent stinging hairs. The plant grows to heights of 5 feet. Stinging Nettle is a perennial plant found in temperate and tropical wasteland areas. The popular Hindi name is Bichuaa means scorpion. Nettles lost their popularity when cotton arrived in 16th century, because cotton was easier to harvest and spin. Nettles made a brief comeback during the First World War when Germany suffered a shortage of cotton and Nettles were used to produce German army uniforms. Clothing made from Nettles has been worn by the people for the last 2000 years. Nettle fibre have been used since the Bronze Age to

152

Sustainability in Fashion and Apparels

weave sails for boats sand mesh fabrics for shifting flours and filtering honey. Nettles, on the other hand, are a hardy plant and don’t require that type of protection. Nettle is described as the only efficient cotton substitute. Grieve views that the German army orders dated in March, April and May of 1918 give a good insight into the extent to which use was made of cloth woven from Nettle fibre. In Austria, also, Nettles were cultivated on a large scale. The length of the Nettle fibre varies from ¾ ″ to 2 ½ ″: all above 1 3/8 ″is equal to the best Egyptian cotton. It can be dyed and bleached in the same way as cotton, and when mercerised is but slightly inferior to silk. It has been considered much superior to cotton for velvet and plush.

18.1.1

Properties of Nettle fibre

According to the opinion of Charlotte (1989) Nettle fibres have special characteristics in the fact that they are hollow which means they can accumulate air inside thus creating a natural insulation. To create cool fibre for summer the yarn lengths are twisted closing the hollow core and reducing insulation. In winter with a low twist the hollow fibre remains open maintaining a constant temperature. Common names Chinese English Hindi Telugu

Da Xie Zi Cao Himalayan Nettle, Itching Plant, Nilgiri Nettle Bichuaa (Bihu As Urtica Heterophylla) Gaddanelli

Taxanomy Domain Kingdom Subkingdom Phylum Subphylum Infra phylum Class Subclass Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus

Eukaryota Plantae Viridaeplantae Tracheophyta Euphyllophytina Radiatopses Magnoliopsida Dilleniidae Urticanae Urticales Urticaceae Rhododendroideae Rhododendreae Girardinia



Development of new fibre Girardinia Heterophylla

153

The aims and objectives of the study include • To study the history of Nettle fibre • To extract the Nettle fibre form the plant • To evaluate the Nettle fibre

18.2 Methodology The study is systematically done in the following stages: • Collection of Nettle fibre • Extraction of the Nettle fibre • Evaluating the properties of the Nettle fibre

18.2.1

Collection of Nettle fibre

Nettle is found in the tropical regions like Nilgiris and Anamalai Hills and Himalayas. The Nettle fibre was collected in the foothills of Nilgirs. The stem of the plants are cut 10 cm above the ground. The leaves are removed from the stems. The barks of the stem is separated from the stem using the knives and peeled completely. The barks of the plant were laid in sunlight for three days to dry and then it was processed biologically (Figures 18.1 and 18.2).

Figure 18.1 Nettle leaves

18.2.2

Figure 18.2 Stem of Nettle plant

Extraction of Nettle fibre

Fibre was extracted using water retting method. Water retting process employs the action of bacteria and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and gummy substances surround the bast-fibre bundles. Thus facilitates separation of the fibre from the stem. The barks of

154

Sustainability in Fashion and Apparels

the plant are placed in the slow stream. Stones are laid over the bark to restrict movement of the bark. This process was continued for about 15 days (Figure 18.3).

Figure 18.3 Running water retting

The retted bark was taken out and beaten with wooden hammer and washed thoroughly to remove the impurities. The fibre is taken and boiled with ash for smoothening of the fibres after which the clean fibre is taken and dried thoroughly. The fibre extracted is purely eco-friendly. There was no chemical used in any stages of extraction of the fibres (Figure 18.4).

Figure 18.4 Nettle fibres



18.2.3

Development of new fibre Girardinia Heterophylla

155

Opening and cleaning

Opening was done in order to lose the hard lumps of fibre and disentangle them. The fibres were fed into opening machine which passes through rollers with metal hooks which opens the clusters of fibres and separates the fibres. Cleaning was done to remove the trash such as dirt and burrs. Since the natural fibre has a lot of impurities, it is necessary to clean them. Now the fibre is clean and ready to use for further process (Figure 18.5).

Figure 18.5 Opening and cleaning machine

18.2.4

Evaluation – fibre tests

The fibres are tested for the following characteristics: 1. Linear Mass Density of a Nettle fibre. 2. Strength of the single fibre. 3. Elongation of the single fibre.

18.3

Result and discussion

18.3.1

Linear mass density of Nettle fibre

The linear mass density refers to the mass in grams per 9000 m. Denier is the unit measure of linear mass density.

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Sustainability in Fashion and Apparels

S.No

Fibre denier

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

16.38 15.82 15.97 18.18 15.96 16.32 19.08 15.75 18.63 19.14

MEAN

17.12

Linear Mass Density of a Nettle fibre is 17.12 Denier

18.3.2

Breaking strength and elongation of the fibre

The breaking strength measures the resistance of a material to failure, given by applied stress (or load per unit area). Strength of the fibre is found using Instron machine. Strength measurements are reported in terms of grams per tex. A tex unit is equal to the weight in grams of 1,000 meters of fibre. Elongation measures the percentage change in length before fracture. Elongation of the fibre is found using Instron machine.

S.No

Maximum load (gf)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

78.71 79.46 99.32 91.63 87.57 90.12 87.5 80.15 78.24 79.4

Tensile strain at maximum load (%) 3.00 3.00 4.11 3.12 3.03 4.12 3.00 3.15 3.11 3.04

MEAN

85.21

3.27

Tenacity at maximum Load (gf/ den) 4.60 4.64 5.80 5.35 5.12 5.26 5.11 4.68 4.57

4.64 4.98

Breaking strength of the single fibre is 85.21%. Elongation of the single fibre is 3.27%.



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18.4 Conclusion The study clears shows the Nettle fibre maybe spun into a yarn and finally woven or knitted into a fabric.

References 1. Rita Bhusan. (1999). A weavers garden: growing plants for natural dyes and fibers. Dover publication. 2. Robert R. Frank, ‘Bast and other plant fibers’, Woodhead Publication. 3. Darcy Williamson, ‘The Rocky Mountains wild food cookbook’, The Caxton Printers. 4. Norman K. Risjord, ‘Shinning Big Seawater: The story of Lake Superior’, The Minnesota Historical Society press. 5. J. Gordon Cook. (1984). Handbook of Textile Fibers. vol 1, Marrow publication, p. 106.

19 Assessment of anti-microbial activity

P. Benitta Christy1 and S. Kavitha2 Bharathiar University, Coimbatore & Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal. Email Id: [email protected] 1

2

Abstract: Cotton, as a natural cellulosic fibre, has a lot of characteristics, such as comfortable soft hand, good absorbency, colour retention, good strength, drapes well, easy to handle. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibres. The fabric made from jute is popularly known as burlap in North America. Blended jute cotton yarns are selected for the study. Blended jute cotton yarn are loosely woven, which enables airy feel for the wearer makes them comfortable and cool in summer season. Aloe vera content helps to keep the skin feeling soft and revitalised. So the herb selected for the study is aloevera, to find its anti-microbial activity. Keywords: jute, aloe vera, finish, blend fabric, anti-microbial

19.1 Introduction Cotton is the most important apparel fibre throughout the world. The fibres obtain better lustre and sorption during mercerisation. Jute is a natural fibre with golden silky shine and hence called The Golden Fibre. It is the cheapest vegetable fibre procured from the bast or skin of the plant’s stem. The fibres are used alone or blended with other types of fibres. Blended jute cotton yarn are loosely woven, which enables airy feel for the wearer makes them comfortable and cool in summer season. A finish with anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of micro-organism. Herbal plant extract is used for anti-microbial finishing in textiles because of the excellent anti-microbial and eco-friendly properties exhibited by them. Aloe vera is an herb which has the anti-microbial property of its own.

19.2 Review The promise of technical and performance textiles is an emerging generation of products combining the latest development in advanced flexible

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materials with advances in computing and compensations technology, bio materials, nanotechnology and novel process technologies such as plasma treatment, says Venkatachalam (1).The rapid growth in technical textiles and in their end uses has generated many opportunities for the application of innovative finishes. Novel finishes of high added value for apparel fabrics, home textiles are also greatly appreciated by a more, discerning and demanding consumer market, indicates Holmes (3). The modern trend is towards the production of durable and lasting finishes. The term technical textiles was coined in 1980s to describe the growing variety of product and manufacturing techniques being developed primarily for their properties and performance rather their appearance or aesthetic characteristics (5). Technical textiles are one of the fastest growing sectors of the global textile industry, reveals Gulrajani (2).

19.3

Experimental procedure

19.3.1

Selection of yarn

The 40s count mercerised yarn of cotton and jute was blended in plain weave fabric making in 70/30 ratio. The GSM of the fabric was 1.21 g.

19.3.2

Selection of finish

The anti-microbial finish protects wearers of the textile product against bacterial, dermatophytic fungi, yeasts, viruses and other deleterious micro-organisms, states Jasuja (4). Aloe vera gel is an extraordinary demulcent compound, composed of mannuronic and glucuronic units combined to form a polymer of high molecular weight. Aloe vera gel, they may take part in the healing process by stripping toxic materials of their harmful irritation (6).

19.3.3

Extraction of aloe vera for finishing

The aloe extraction was done on aqueous method. The gel is scraped from aloe leaf and the extraction mixer is made ready with distilled water. The mixer is kept for 24 hours with frequent stirring. After the period of time the extract was filtered using filter paper.

19.3.4

Finishing on fabric

For finishing, 100% concentrated solution of extract is taken and pad dry cured for its improved washing fastness of up to 30 laundry wash cycles.

Assessment of anti-microbial activity 161



19.4 Results 19.4.1

Fabric weight

Fabric weight was found out for both treated and untreated jute-cotton fabric. Five random samples were taken from both finished and unfinished fabrics are tested to find out average result of 1.26 cm2 of untreated sample and 1.31 cm2 of treated sample. The aloe vera treated sample has more weight than untreated sample because of the surface deposition of aloe vera.

19.4.2

Cloth thickness

Cloth thickness is found for both treated and untreated jute-cotton fabric. Five random samples were taken from both finished and unfinished fabrics are tested to find out average result as 43 mm of untreated sample and 48 mm of treated sample. The aloe vera treated sample has better thickness, because of surface deposit of aloe vera finish on the fabric.

19.4.3

Fabric stiffness

The average stiffness of the untreated fabric is 2.6 cm in warp direction and 2.1 cm in weft direction and for treated fabric the stiffness is 2.8 cm on warp and 2.7 cm on weft. The aloe vera treated sample has better stiffness than untreated sample. This is because of surface deposit of aloe vera essence in the fabric layer.

19.4.4

Fabric tearing test

Cloth tearing strength is to find out for the jute-cotton fabric. The random samples were taken from both finished and unfinished fabrics to find out average result of 12.1 g on untreated sample and 17.6 g on treated samples. The aloe vera treated sample has better tearing strength than untreated sample. This is because of surface deposit of aloe vera in the fabric layer.

19.4.5 Anti-microbial activity assessment using agar diffusion method (Sn195920) After incubation the sample was tested for the microbial growth. Here the broad spectrum of anti-microbial activity is good in aloe vera finished jute cotton fabric. The incubated plates were examined for the interruption of growth over the inoculums. The size of the clear zone was used to evaluate

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the inhibitory effect of the test sample with aloe vera finished against the test organisms in contrast with control fabric which allowed the growth of gram positive bacteria S. aureus and gram negative bacteria E.Coli.

19.5

Conclusion

Cotton and jute are the most abundant fibre in the textile market. Aloe vera essence can modify the surface of jute cotton fabric and thus drastically increase the anti-microbial effect on the fabric. The result of aloe vera finishing gives an effective textile product. To overcome the microbial activity on the products and its effects, the project handles vital finish with aloe vera to improve anti-microbial activity. Also aloe vera finish has been given to make the wearer feel cool. Apart from the anti-microbial activity, it also has some additional functions like absorbing bad smell. This will be more beneficial for making kids usage fabric as well for home textile products.

References 1. Venkatachalam, A., Ramachandran, T., Thilagavathi, G., Senthil Kumar, M. and Vigneswaran, C. (2007). Recent advances in medical textiles. Functional Textiles and Apparel. Vol. II, Pee Vee Publishers, Coimbatore, P. 1. 2. Gulrajani, M.L. (2008). Finishing techniques for medical textiles. Asian Technical Textiles. 2(1):29. 3. Holme, I. (2007). Colouration Technology. 123:59. 4. Jasuja, (2004). Antibacterial and anti-insect finishes. New Cloth Market. 18(12):13. 5. www.fibre2fashion.com/...article/textile...articles/...antimicrobial.../an-eco-friendly-herbal-antimicrobial-finish1.asp. 6. www.textileweb.com/article.../Agions-Antimicrobial-Textile-Technology-0001.

20 Review on eco-friendly fibres in fibrereinforced concrete

E. Devaki,1 K. Sangeetha2 and S. Karthika3 1,3

PSG College of Arts And Science, Coimbatore 2 Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Email Id: [email protected]

Abstract: This research is to investigate the behavioural study of natural fibre. There are many types of natural fibre are available such as sugarcane, rice husk and coir and they are easily available. These composites have high impact strength and they can be regarded as an environment friendly material. The materials chosen for structural upgradation must, in addition to functional efficiency and increasing or improving the various properties of the structures, should fulfil some criterion, for the cause of sustainability and a better quality. For example, these materials should not pollute the environment and endanger bioreserves. We have enough natural resources and we must keep on researching on these natural resources. Development of plant fibre composites has only begun. In many smaller towns and villages in southern part of India, materials such as coir, sugarcane bagasse and rice husk are available as waste. So, here it has been made to investigate the possibility of reusing these locally available rural waste fibrous materials as concrete composites. Economic and other related factors in many developing countries where natural fibres are abundant, demand that scientists and engineers apply appropriate technology to utilize these natural fibres as effectively and economically as possible for structural upgradation and also other purposes for housing and other needs and also for various other applications etc. Keywords: Natural fibres, coir, jute, bamboo, sisal and hemp.

20.1

Introduction

The design of a durable and low cost fibre reinforced cement concrete for building construction is a technological challenge in developing countries. Fibre reinforced concrete is a concrete consisting of fibrous material which increases its structural integrity. It has short discrete fibres that are uniformly distributed and oriented randomly. Fibres include synthetic fibres and natural

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fibres - each of which contributes varying properties to the concrete. In addition, the character of fibre reinforced concrete changes with varying concretes, fibre materials, geometrics, aspect ratios, distribution, orientation, and densities (1). Natural fibres have the potential to be used as reinforcement to overcome the inherent deficiencies in cementitious materials. Considerable researches are being done for use of reinforcing fibres like jute, bamboo, sisal, akwara, coconut husk, sugarcane bagasse in cement composites mostly in case of building materials. Natural fibres are gaining importance in this application due to various advantages over synthetic fibres such as low cost due to availability in abundance, bio-degradability, flexibility, low density, relatively high tensile and flexural modulus, minimum health hazards, etc. Thus, natural fibres can be used economically, effectively and in abundance to produce good quality fibre reinforced cementitious composite with low cost (2). Latest development is the use of composites to protect man against fire and impact and a tendency to a more environmental friendly design, leading to the reintroduction of natural fibres in the composite technology, natural fibres. They can be formed on site into complicated shapes and can also be easily cut to length on site. These include wood fibres, jute, sisal, coconut, bamboo and banana leaves. Such fibres could be added alone or in hybrid composites, in partial substitution for industrial fibres. Natural fibres such as sisal, bamboo, coir and jute can be used successfully in composite components in order to realize reduction of weight and cost (3). In India a great amount of Municipal Solid wastes and Agricultural wastes is produced everyday. Reuse of such waste materials in concrete construction is happening nowadays. But they are in the form of Aggregates, Cement (for example fly ash, brick wastes, crusher powder, etc.). Similarly only small quantity of work is concentrated on composites, particularly on natural waste materials. In many smaller towns and villages in the southern parts of India, materials such as rice husk, coir, nylon fibre and sugarcane stems result in the form of fibres and granular materials as waste. Such materials were chosen and properly treated and shaped in the form of fibres or granules and introduced in concrete beams in critical zones for accessing the properties by testing under middle third loading. The materials used in this investigation were: ordinary Portland cement, coarse aggregate of crushed rock with a maximum size of 20 mm, fine aggregate of clean river sand and portable water. A 8 mm dia HYSD bars were used as main reinforcement. A 6 mm dia MS bars were used as stirrups. Commercially used MS wires (binding wires) were used as steel fibres. Locally available materials such as nylon, plastic, tyre, coconut coir, sugarcane bagasse, rice husk were taken from the waste stream and converted in to fibres of required length and diameter. The detailed properties are given in subsequent contents (10).



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20.2 Cement Ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade conforming to IS 8112-1989 was used. Tests were carried out on various physical properties of cement.

20.3

Fine aggregate

Natural river sand was used as fine aggregate. The properties of sand were determined by conducting tests as per IS: 2386 (Part- I). The results obtained from sieve analysis are furnished. The results indicate that the sand conforms to Zone II of IS: 383 – 1970 32.

20.4

Coarse aggregate

Crushed granite stones obtained from local quarries were used as coarse aggregate. The maximum size of coarse aggregate used was 20 mm. The properties of coarse aggregate were determined by conducting tests as per IS: 2386 (Part – III).

20.5 Water Portable water free from salts was used for casting and curing of concrete as per IS: 456 – 2000 recommendations.

20.6

Natural fibres

Natural fibres are prospective reinforcing materials and their usage until now has been more traditional than technical. They have long served many useful purposes but the application of materials technology for the utilisation of natural fibres as the reinforcement in concrete has only taken place in comparatively in recent years. The distinctive properties of natural fibre reinforced concretes are improved tensile and bending strength, greater ductility, and greater resistance to cracking and hence improved impact strength and toughness. Besides its ability to sustain loads, natural fibre reinforced concrete is also required to be durable. Durability relates to its resistance to deterioration resulting from external causes as well as internal causes (5). Natural fibres are prospective reinforcing materials and their use until now has been more traditional than technical. They have served many useful purposes but the application of materials technology for the utilisation of natural fibres as the reinforcement in concrete has only taken place in comparatively in recent years. The distinctive properties of natural fibre reinforced concretes are improved tensile and bending strength, greater ductility and greater resistance to cracking and hence improved impact

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strength and toughness. Besides its ability to sustain loads, natural fibre reinforced concrete is also required to be durable. Durability relates to its resistance to deterioration resulting from external causes as well as internal cause. Coir is an inexpensive fibre among the natural fibres available in the most part of the world. Furthermore, it possesses the advantages of a lignocelluloses fibre. The sisal plant is a monocotyledonous, whose roots are fibrous, emerging from the base of pseudo stem. The fibres of Sisal are made of elementary fibres of 4–12 m diameter that are aggregated by natural bound forming small cells of 1–2 m. Bamboo has been used as a construction material in certain areas for centuries, but its application as reinforcement in concrete. Bamboo was given recent consideration for use as reinforcement in soil-cement pavement slabs in which the slabs behave inelastically even under light loads.

20.6.1 Coir Coir is the name given to the fibre that constitutes the thick mesocarp or husk of the coconut. Coir is extracted by bearing it manually using a mechanical extractor machine. It is an abundant, versatile, bio-degradable, cheap lignocellulosic material. Coir fibres are highly ductile, strong, and light and can easily withstand heat and salt water. Inclusion of coir fibres into cement matrix has resulted in better tensile strength (splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture) but lesser compressive strength. Even in composites with multiple fibre inclusions, coir fibre inclusions were found to further increase the strength and ductility of the composite member (6). Boiled and washed coir fibres contain high lignin and holocellulose. Lignin acts as the cementing agent in fibre, binding the cellulose fibres together. Cellulose is the primary constituent of fibre. Boiled and washed coir fibre is stiffer and tougher. The stiff and tough fibres are difficult to beat, do not conform and collapse against each other so well. With regard to durability of coir fibres in cement composites, it was concluded that these fibres remained undamaged even for 12-year-old house panels (7). Being organic fibre, coir fibre does not rot or disintegrate under moisture content conditions and shrinkage has been found to be negligible for coir reinforced composites.

20.6.2 Jute Jute is abundantly available in many developing nations and is a suitable lowcost, strong and durable building material. Jute fibres, as natural reinforcing agents are about seven times lighter than steel with reasonably high tensile strength values (in range of 250–300 MPa). The inclusion of jute fibre has proved to be instrumental in increasing physical physical characteristic and mechanical strengths of cement composites(7). Study on the fracture and impact properties



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of short discrete jute fibre reinforced cemetitious composites confirmed that such composites can be effectively used for high strength applications or where higher impact resistance is required. But as far as young’s modulus in tension and compression is concerned. The fibre only has little influence, as is with compressive strength. Although these fibre reinforcements have an immense potential, standardisation and definition of correct construction practices still present some difficulties. Since the quality and production efficiency of these fibres depends on natural conditions, it becomes difficult to predict their exact behaviour sometimes. Also the heterogeneity of the properties of these fibres subject to different extraction, production, and processing techniques poses a problem. Another problem is the hydrophilic behaviour of these fibres which creates problem due to water absorption in the composite systems (8).

20.6.3 Hemp Hemp fibre has high tensile strength and strong tolerance for an alkali environment (8, 9). These properties make hemp fibre a good reinforcement material. In this paper, the technical competencies of using hemp fibre for the application of fibre-reinforced concrete were discussed.

Compressive strength Compressive tests were carried out on a 385KN MTS Servo Hydraulic Universal Testing machine. All the specimens were surface dried before testing. The pre-load was 10KN and the loading rate was 2.5KN/Sec (about 20 Mpa/min with reference to AS 1012.9-2000). The tests were ended when the displacement reached 10 mm. Flexural strength (modulus of rupture) The flexural tests were carried out on the same testing system using a four point bending configuration, with a loading rate of 0.13KN/Sec acting on two upper points (AS 1012.11-2000). The tests ended when the displacement at mid-span reached 5 mm. Specimens were 350 mm in length and 100 mm × 100 mm in cross-section. Flexural toughness and index Toughness, which is the concrete property represented by the area under a load-deflection curve, is a measure of the energy absorption capacity of a material and is used to characterise the material’s ability to resist fracture when subjected to static strains or to dynamic or impact loads. According to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 544 method of characterising toughness (9), the toughness is defined as the whole area under a flexural load-deflection curve up to a midspan deflection of 1.9 mm divided by the area of broken section. This definition was

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adopted in this paper for calculating the toughness. Toughness indices are defined as the whole area under the flexural load-deflection curve divided by the area under the curve up to the deflection at first crack (the first-crack toughness). Normally, the difference between first-crack strength and maximum strength of composite samples is very small. For convenience in calculation, the area under the deflection of maximum load was used in this study instead (peak load toughness indices). To find the main effect factor and interaction among the three factors (aggregate size, fibre content and fibre length) in the wet mix method, the SPSS® statistical analysis package (release 11.5) was used to analyse the compressive and flexural strength, toughness and toughness index results from the experiments.

20.6.4 Bamboo Being available abundantly in tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions. Bamboo has tremendous advantages as it has elevated mechanical strength, low specific weight. Its low-cost presents good prospects for its future market (11).Due to its high strength to weight ratio, the reformed bamboo can remarkably strengthen the mortar and reduce the total weight of the laminate. Bamboo is a natural perennial grass like composite and contains lingo-cellulosic based natural fibres. Although bamboo has been used in various forms in the construction industry, there is limited information in the scientific literature concerning the use of bamboo pulp fibre (12,13). Though bamboo is remarkably strong in tension, previous investigations showed little promise of the possible replacement of steel by bamboo mainly due to its low elastic modulus, poor bond with concrete, high water absorption potential, low modulus of elasticity, low durability and low resistance to fire. Untreated bamboo absorbs a significant amount of water from wet concrete resulting in swelling, and it subsequently shrinks as the concrete dries out (14). The impact of fibre content on various properties of bamboo fibre reinforced composites decreases and the water absorption increases. This because bamboo fibre have low density and the hydrophilic. Also packing of fibre and matrix becomes less efficient and void volume increases on increasing fibre content leading to the results. The numerous attempts have been made in order to improve the composite properties. Addition of chemical admixtures was found to be necessary counteract the adverse effect of sugars present in bamboo flakes on setting and strength development of PC matrix (15).

20.6.5 Sisal The plants look like giant pineapples, and during harvest the leaves are cut as close to the ground as possible. The soft tissue is scraped from the fibres by hand or machine. The fibres are dried and the brushes remove the remaining dirt, resulting in a clean fibre. Sisal produces sturdy and strong



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fibres. Sisal fibre is one of the prospective reinforcing materials that its use has been more experiential than technical until now. The use of 0.2% volume fraction of 25 mm sisal fibres leads to free plastic shrinkage reduction. Sisal fibres conditioned in a sodium hydroxide solution retain respectively 72.7% of its strength and 60.9% of their initial strength has been retained after 420 days. As for the immersion of the fibres in a calcium hydroxide solution, it was noticed that original strength was completely lost after 300 days. According to those authors the explanation for the higher attack by Ca(OH)2 can be related to a crystallisation of lime in the fibres pores. Agave Sisalana Perrini is a native species to the Yucatan peninsula, and known worldwide, the plant and also the fibres, as sisal, belonging to the class of natural hard fibres. Presently, sisal represents the first natural fibre in commercial application, in which it is estimated in more than half of the total of all natural fibres used. The sisal plant is a monocotyledonous, whose roots are fibrous, emerging from the base of pseudo stem. The fibres of sisal are made of elementary fibres of 4–12 μm diameter that are aggregated by natural bound forming small cells of 1–2 μm. Such arrays are placed along the length of the plant on a regular shape, with lengths of 45–160 cm. The leaves of sisal are an example of natural composite with lignocellulosic material presenting in 75% to 80% of the total weight of the leaves, reinforced by helical micro-fibres of cellulose, which represent about 9%–12% the total weight. The composition of sisal fibre is basically of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. The failure strength and the modulus of elasticity, besides the lengthening of rupture, depend on the amount of cellulose and the orientation of the micro-fibres. As a natural product these characteristics have a wide variation from one plant to another. The sisal fibres are found commercially in several formats: fabric, cords, strips, wire, rolls, etc.

20.7 Conclusion In this review discussion regarding different natural fibres and its effect on fibre reinforced concrete has been studied. Natural fibres have the potential to be used as reinforcement to overcome the inherent deficiencies in cementations materials. Natural fibres are gaining importance in this application due to various advantages over synthetic fibres. The compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness and toughness indices, specific gravity, and water absorption ratio of FRC are all correlated with aggregate size parameters, fibre factors and matrix initial mechanical properties. These relationships can be presented in simple empirical regression equations in the form of a composite mechanical approach. Fibre content by weight is the main factor that affects compressive and flexural properties of FRC, regardless of the mixing method used. Using of coir fibre reduces the environmental pollution and save the important minerals. It

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also improves the many properties of concrete such as compressive strength and shear strength. It also increases the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture. It increases the resistance against sulphate attack.It also reduces the micro-cracks which are usually developed in the conventional concrete.

References 1. K. Ramadevi. Fiber reinforced concrete, course material on technical textile manufacturing, testing, design, analysis of products and their application. 2. S. Mukhopadhyay, S. Khatana. A review on the use of fibers in reinforced cementitious concrete, Journal of Industrial textiles. 3. Tara Sen, H. N. Jagannatha Reddy.(2011). Application of Sisal, Bamboo, Coir and Jute Natural Composites in Structural Upgradation. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology. 2(3): pp. 186–191. 4. M. Sivaraja. Application of Coir Fibres as Concrete Composites for Disaster prone Structures. 5. M. A. Aziz, P. Paramasivam, S. L. Lee. (1984). “New concrete reinforcement with natural fibres” , New Reinforced Concrete, Vol. 2, Surrey Univaty Press, pp. 106–139. 6. Yan L., Chouw N. (2013). Dynamic and static properties of flax fibre reinforced polymer tube confined coir fiber reinforced, construction. Build Mater. 40:6917. 7. Paramasivam, P. Nathan O.K., Gupta N.C. (1984). Coconut fiber reinforced corrugated slabs. Int J Cem Comp Lightweight Concr. 6:19. 8. Zhou, X., Ghaffar, S.H., Dong, W, et al. (2013). Fracture and impact Properties of Short discrete Jute fibre- reinforced cementitious composites. Mater Des. 49:35. 9. American Concrete Institute. C. State-of-the-art report on fiber reinforced concrete: American Concrete Institute; 1982. 10. Zhijian Li, Xungai Wang, Lijing Wang. Properties of Hemp Fibre Reinforced Concrete Composites. 11. Yao, W., Li, Z. (2003). Flexural behavior of bamboo fiber reinforced mortar laminates. Cem Concr Compos. 33:15. 12. Sinha, U.N., Dutta, S.N., Chahha, B.P., et al. (1975). Possibilities of replacing asbestos in asbestos cement sheet by cellulosic pulp. Ind Concr J. 9:228. 13. Pakotiprapha, B., Pama, R.P., Lee, S.L. (1983). Behavior of a bamboo fiber cement paste composite. J Ferrocement. 13:235. 14. Mansur, M.A. Aziz, M.A. (1982). A study of jute fiber reinforced cement composites. Int J Cem Comp Com Lightweight Concr. 4:75. 15. Sudin, R., Swamy, N. (2006). Bamboo and wood fiber cement composites for sustainable infrastructure regeneration. J Mater Sci. 41:6917.

21 Study on silk fabric using some selected natural dyes



J. Jeyakodi Moses and P. Sathish



PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore Email Id: [email protected]

Abstract: The natural silk synthesised by the silkworm and spun in the form of a silk is originally synthesised in the silk gland. The posterior g l a nd part, about 15 cm long and is composed of about 500 secretary cells, which synthesise silk fibroin. The middle silk gland in the lumen of which silk proteins are stored until spinning, is about 7 cm long and contains about 300 secretory cells producing silk sericin, the protein which cements the fibroin thread of the cocoon. The anterior part about 2 cm long is a thin duct composed of about 250 cells with no known secretory function. The silk gland has the capacity to produce large amount of silk proteins. Besides sericin, raw silk also contain other natural impurities namely, fat and waxes, inorganic salts and colouring mater. Silk fibres consist of 97% protein – fibroin, a filamentous protein (approximately 75%) and sericin, a non-filamentous protein (nearly 25%). Fibroin forms the inner layer or the core of the fibres, which is insoluble in hot water. The sericin, which forms the outer layer, is a form of gum. Nowadays, natural dyes are considered for some specific applications on textile fibre substrates, as they are environmental-friendly and their production and composition will help in maintaining the ecological balance. These dyes are considered to be non-toxic and health hazards like allergies could be avoided, and are aesthetically appealing too. Natural dyes can be broadly sorted into three categories: natural dyes obtained from plants (indigo), those obtained from animals (cochineal), and those obtained from minerals (ocher). The natural sources selected for this study are Berberis vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Terminalia chebula, Punica granatum, Allium cepa, Citrus paradise, Rubia cardifolia, Pterocarpus santallinus, Vitex negundo, and Emblica officinalis. These dyes after application on silk fibrous substrates are undergone for some testings like K/S values, fastness properties, anti-microbial behaviours. The results obtained from the study is convincing for the further development. Keywords: silk, dye extraction, colorimetric values, color fastness & antimicrobial activity

21.1 Introduction Silk is one of the oldest fibres known to man. Its discovery as a weave able fibre is credited to the Lady Xi Ling Shi, the 14-year-old bride

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of the Emperor Huang Ti, the so-called “Yellow Emperor”. One day in 2640 BC, according to Confucius, she was sitting under a mulberry tree, drinking a cup of tea into which a silk cocoon fell from above. She noticed the delicate fibres start to unravel in the hot liquid and has been credited as the first person to “reel” or unravel a silk cocoon and use the filament to create a yarn for weaving. Whether or not the legend holds true, it is certain that the earliest surviving references to silk production place it in China and that for nearly 3 millennia, the Chinese had a global monopoly on silk production. The Chinese kept the secret of the beautiful and value added material that, they were produ11cing from the rest of the world for more than 30 centuries. Travellers were searched thoroughly at border crossings and anyone caught trying to smuggle eggs, cocoons or silkworms out of the country were summarily executed. Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now known as the “Silk Road,”. of which mention is made as early as 300 BC in the days of the Han Dynasty, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and wools to the East. Silk is a way of life in India. Over thousands of years, it has become an inseparable part of Indian culture and tradition. No ritual is complete without silk being used as a wear in some form or the other. Silk is the undisputed queen of textiles over the centuries. Silk provides much needed work in several developing and labour rich countries. Sericulture is a cottage industry par excellence. It is one of the most labour intensive sectors of the Indian economy combining both.agriculture and industry, which provides for means of livelihood to a large section of the population i.e., mulberry cultivator, co-operative rearer, silkworm seed producer, farmer- cumrearer, reeler, twister, weaver, hand spinners of silk waste, traders etc. It is the only one.cash crop in agriculture sector that gives returns within 30 days. This industry provides employment nearly to three five million people in our country. Sericulture is cultivated in Karnataka, Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, and Orissa.

21.2

Materials and methods

21.2.1

Materials

The materials used in this study are as mentioned in Table 21.1.



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Table 21.1 Details of silk fabric and natural sources S.No.

Silk fabric

Natural sources

Parameters

Details

Common name

Botanical name

1

Warp count

2/80s

Madder

Rubia cardifolia

2

Weft count

2/80s

Red sandal wood

Pterocarpus santallinus

3

Ends / inch

100

Barberry

Berberis vulgaris

4

Picks / inch

60

Annatto

Bixa orellana

5

GSM

95

Myrobalan

Terminalia chebula

6

Cloth width

44″

Pomegranate

Punica granatum

7

-

-

Onion

Allium cepa

8

-

-

Grape

Citrus paradisi

9

-

-

Nocchi

Vitex negundo [Vn]

10

-

-

Amla

Emblica officinalis [Eo]

The natural sources from serial numbers 1–8 are used for the colouration purposes; and serial numbers 9 and 10 are used for other functional (anti-bacterial effect) application purposes used individually and also in combinations on the silk fabric with the colouring natural sources. The chemicals and auxiliaries mentioned elsewhere for this study were in AR grade

21.2.2

Methods

Pre-treatment on silk The silk materials were treated with 10 gpl hydrochloric acid for 60 minutes in a suitable separate baths with material to liquor ratio 1:30 at 30°C to get rid of the substrates added during weaving. After that the silk materials were degummed using sodium carbonate (2% owm) at 85°C for 2 hours. Finally the degummed materials were washed thoroughly and dried. Extraction of natural sources and its application on silk fabrics The selected natural sources such as, Berberis vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Terminalia chebula, Punica granatum, Allium cepa, Citrus paradise, Rubia cardifolia, Pterocarpus santallinus, Vitex negundo, and Emblica officinalis are extracted in aqueous medium as per the standard methods. After the extraction, the dyeability of silk fabrics was investigated using natural dyes. Dyeing was carried out at boil for 2 hours with a material to liquor ratio of 1:20

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as per the established technique of dyeing for natural dyes. The dyed samples were washed, soapaed and dried.

Determination of colorimetric data of natural dyed silk fabrics Colorimetric data of natural dyed silk fabric was determined by AATCC 135-1985 (2003) technique using a Datacolor SF 600 plus spectrophotometer interfaced to a PC. Measurements were taken regarding colour presence, brightness, dullness and colour intensity with the specular component of the light excluded and the UV component included using illuminant D65 and 10° standard observer. Each fabric was folded once so as to give two thickness and average of five readings were taken each time. Colour fastness analysis of the natural dyed silk fabrics The natural dyed silk fabric samples were washed under condition IIIA of AATCC test method 124-2001 (2003) to determine the colour change effect of dyed fabrics. Light fastness tests were carried out according to AATCC test method 16 E-1998 (2003). The samples were exposed to 5, 10 AFUs (AATCC Fading Unit) to determine the colour change AATCC 16-1998 (2003). AATCC standardised crock meter was used to determine the rubbing fastness of natural dyed fabrics under wet and dry condition to assess the colour change and staining property AATCC 611996 (2003). Anti-bacterial activity of silk fabrics applied with natural sources The silk fabrics applied with natural sources were tested for anti-bacterial effects according to AATCC standard methods against the standard test strains Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

21.3

Results and discussion

21.3.1

Colours obtained on silk fabric by natural dyes

The natural sources such as madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape are applied on silk fabric after extraction for the colouring purpose and the results are shown in Table 21.2. From Table 21.2 it is visible that there is a generation of very good attracting colour like red, orange red, yellow, orange, green, brown, red orange, and purple respectively on silk fabric. These colours are considered very important for the textile as well as apparel/garment materials.



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Table 21.2 Colours obtained on silk fabric by natural dyes S.No.

Common name

Botanical name

Colours obtained

1

Madder

Rubia cardifolia

Red

2

Red sandal wood

Pterocarpus santallinus

Orange Red

3

Barberry

Berberis vulgaris

Yellow

4

Annatto

Bixa orellana

Orange

5

Myrobalan

Terminalia chebula

Green

6

Pomegranate

Punica granatum

Brown

7

Onion

Allium cepa

Red Orange

8

Grape

Citrus paradisi

Purple

21.3.2 Colorimetric data of natural dyes applied on silk fabric The colorimetric data of natural dyed silk fabric using madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape are presented in Table 21.3. From Table 21.3, it is seen that there is a good K/S values for all the natural dyes applied on silk fabric. The K/S value of pomegranate is in the top list among the entire natural dyed applied on silk fabric. The difference in K/S values is very less among the natural dyed applied silk fabric.

Table 21.3 Colorimetric data of natural dyes applied on silk fabric S.No

Natural Dye Application

L*

a*

b*

C

h

K/S

1

Madder

35.45

-6.65

-16.62

23.35

252.65

14.32

2

Red sandal wood

36.62

-5.30

-14.41

22.32

244.98

14.59

3

Barberry

26.65

-5.98

-14.65

21.09

253.01

13.95

4

Annatto

36.15

-5.52

-15.65

22.65

265.50

14.30

5

Myrobalan

26.65

-5.23

-16.65

21.32

249.32

13.98

6

Pomegranate

36.74

-5.65

-14.15

21.65

257.60

14.65

7

Onion

27.65

-5.65

-14.65

22.80

244.32

14.02

8

Grape

33.95

-5.32

-14.65

22.32

244.50

14.30

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21.3.3

Colour fastness ratings of natural dyed silk fabric

The colour fastness rating data like light fastness, washing fastness and crocking fastness of natural dyed silk fabric using madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape are shown in Table 21.4. From Table 21.4, it is seen that there is a good to moderate fasteness properties for all the natural dyes applied on silk fabric. The fastness properties are based on the application of dyes on the silk fabric. The difference in fastness properties among the dyes are not very significant, however the wet crocking fastness is very less.

Table 21.4 Colour fastness ratings of natural dyed silk fabric S. No.

Natural dye application

Light fastness

Washing fastness

Crocking fastness Wet

Dry

1

Madder

4

4

2

3

2

Red sandal wood

4

3-4

1-2

3

3

Barberry

4-5

3-4

2

3-4

4

Annatto

4

4

1-2

3

5

Myrobalan

4-5

4

2

3-4

6

Pomegranate

4-5

4

2

3-4

7

Onion

4

3-4

1-2

3-4

8

Grape

4

3-4

2

3

21.3.4 Anti-microbial assessment of natural dyed silk fabric The data of anti-microbial properties of natural dyed silk fabric using madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape are shown in Table 21.5. From the Table 21.5, it is evident that there is a drastic decrease in the bacterial count of gram positive (Gram +ve) and gram negative (Gram –ve) categories in the silk fabric dyed with natural dyes compared with the undyed sample. It is also evident that the percentage reduction of the bacterial count both for gram positive and gram negative is more than 60%.



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Table 21.5 Anti-microbial assessment of natural dyed silk fabric S.No.

Natural dye application

B.C

B.C

%R

%R

Gram +ve

Gram –ve

Gram +ve

Gram –ve

1

Undyed

1942

1985

-

-

2

Madder

730

745

62.41

62.47

3

Red sandal wood

725

741

62.67

62.67

4

Barberry

733

748

62.26

62.32

5

Annatto

726

743

62.62

62.57

6

Myrobalan

730

747

62.41

62.37

7

Pomegranate

722

740

62.82

62.72

8

Onion

734

751

62.20

62.17

9

Grape

728

745

62.51

62.47

Gram +ve: Gram positive, Gram –ve: Gram negative, B.C: , R:

The data of anti-microbial properties of natural dyed silk fabric using madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape in combination with amla (Aa) are shown in Table 21.6. Table 21.6 clearly shows that there is a drastic decrease in the bacterial count of gram positive and gram negative categories in the silk fabric dyed with natural dyes in combination with amla compared with the undyed sample. There is some steady increase of percentage bacterial reduction when the natural dyed silk fabric is also treated with amla. The percentage bacterial reduction in the case of gram +ve and gram –ve is between 63% and 65% for amla combined natural dyed silk fabric which is nearly 2% higher than that of the one without amla. Table 21.6 Anti-microbial assessment of natural dyed silk fabric with amla (Aa) S.No.

Natural dye application

B.C

B.C

%R

%R

Gram +ve

Gram –ve

Gram +ve

Gram –ve

1942

1985

-

-

1

Undyed

2

Madder + Aa

711

710

63.34

64.23

3

Red sandal wood + Aa

706

708

63.65

64.33

4

Barberry + Aa

712

710

63.34

64.23

5

Annatto + Aa

706

714

63.65

64.03

6

Myrobalan + Aa

708

715

63.54

63.98

7

Pomegranate + Aa

700

710

63.95

64.23

8

Onion + Aa

710

718

63.44

63.83

9

Grape + Aa

708

712

63.54

64.13

Amla: Aa

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The data of anti-microbial properties of natural dyed silk fabric using madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape in combination with nocchi (Ni) are shown in Table 21.7. Table 21.7 clearly shows that there is a drastic decrease in the bacterial count of gram positive and gram negative categories in the silk fabric dyed with natural dyes in combination with noccchi compared with the undyed sample. There is some steady increase of percentage bacterial reduction when the natural dyed silk fabric is also treated with nochi. The percentage bacterial reduction in the case of gram +ve and gram –ve is between 64% and 66% for nocchi combined natural dyed silk fabric which is more than 1% higher than that of the one with amla and 3% higher than that of without finishing combination (amla and nocchi). Table 21.7 Anti-microbial assessment of natural dyed silk fabric with nocchi (Ni) S. No. 1

Natural dye application Undyed

B.C Gram +ve

B.C Gram –ve

%R Gram +ve

%R Gram –ve

1942

1985

-

-

2

Madder + Ni

691

685

64.42

65.49

3

Red sandal wood+Ni

686

681

64.68

65.69

4

Barberry+ Ni

692

680

64.37

65.74

5

Annatto + Ni

686

682

64.68

65.64

6

Myrobalan + Ni

688

685

64.57

65.49

7

Pomegranate + Ni

680

678

64.98

65.84

8

Onion + Ni

690

686

64.47

65.44

9

Grape + Ni

686

683

64.68

65.59

Nocchi: Ni

The data of anti-microbial properties of natural dyed silk fabric using madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape in combination with both amla (Aa) and nocchi (Ni) are shown in Table 21.8. Table 21.8 clearly shows that there is a drastic decrease in the bacterial count of gram positive and gram negative categories in the silk fabric dyed with natural dyes in combination with amla and noccchi compared with the undyed sample. The Aa and Ni combined natural dyed silk fabric shows significant increase of percentage bacterial reduction compared with other applications such as: no finishing combination, Aa combination only and Ni combination only. The percentage bacterial reduction in the case of gram +ve and gram –ve is between 66% and 70% for Aa and Ni combined natural dyed silk fabric which is between 2% and 6% more than that of the other applications such as: Ni combination only, Aa combination only, and no finishing combination.



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Table 21.8  Anti-microbial assessment of natural dyed silk fabric with Aa and Ni S. No.

Natural dye application

B.C

B.C

%R

%R

Gram +ve

Gram –ve

Gram +ve

Gram –ve

Undyed

1942

1985

-

-

1

Madder + Aa & Ni

641

625

66.99

68.51

2

Red sandal wood + Aa & Ni

636

611

67.25

69.22

3

Barberry + Aa & Ni

642

610

66.94

69.27

4

Annatto + Aa & Ni

636

612

67.25

69.17

5

Myrobalan + Aa & Ni

638

615

67.15

69.02

6

Pomegranate + Aa & Ni

630

608

67.56

69.37

7

Onion + Aa & Ni

640

616

67.04

68.97

8

Grape + Aa & Ni

636

613

67.25

69.12

21.4 Conclusion The natural sources such as madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape applied on silk fabric give very good attracting colour like red, orange red, yellow, orange, green, brown, red orange and purple, respectively on silk fabric. These colours are considered very important for the textile as well as apparel/garment materials. The colorimetric data of natural dyed silk fabric is seen to be very good. The difference in K/S values is very less among the natural dyed applied silk fabric. The colour fastness rating data like light fastness, washing fastness and crocking fastness of natural dyed silk fabric are between good to moderate. The difference in fastness properties among the dyes are not very significant, however the wet crocking fastness is very less. The anti-microbial properties of natural dyed silk fabric using madder, red sandal wood, barberry, annatto, myrobalan, pomegranate, onion and grape without finishing combination and also in combination with both amla (Aa) and nocchi (Ni) are very good. The Aa and Ni combined natural dyed silk fabric shows significant increase of percentage bacterial reduction compared with other applications such as: no finishing combination, Aa combination only and Ni combination only.

21.5 Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Management and Principal, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore for given the permission and providing the necessary

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infrastructure. The authors also thank The Head, Department of Applied Science, PSG CT for the kind help rendered in the completion of this work.

References 1. Charu, V., David, L. K. (2007). Silk as a biomaterial. Progress Polymer Science. 32(8–9):991–1007. 2. Freddi, G., Pessina, G., Tsukada, M. (1999). Swelling and dissolution of silk fibroin (Bombyx mori) in N-methyl morpholine N-oxide. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 24(2–3):251–263. 3. Gulrajani, M. L., Purwar, R., Prasad, Kamal, R., Joshi, M. J. (2009). Studies on structural & functional properties of sericin covered from silk degumming liquor by membrane technology. Applied Polymer Science. 113(5):2796–2804. 4. Ha, S.W., Tonelli, A.E., Hudson, S.M. (2005). Structural studies of Bombyx mori silk fibroin during regeneration from solution and wet fiber spinning. Biomacromolecules. 6(3):1722–1731. 5. Sen, K., Babu, M. K. (2004). Studies on Indian silk. I. Macrocharacterization and analysis of amino acid composition. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 92(2):1080–1097. 6. Sen, K., Babu, M. K. (2004). Studies on Indian silk. II. Structure property correlations. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 92(2):1098–1115. 7. Konishi, T. (2000). Structure of fibroin – α in Structure of silk yarn. Hojo, N. (ed) Oxford and IBH publication Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 267–277. 8. Jin, H. J., Park, J., Karagiorgiou, V., Kim, U. J., Valluzi, R., Cebe, P., Kaplan, D. L. (2005). Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content, Advanced Functional Materials. 15 (8):1241–1247. 9. Robson, R.M. (1985). Silk composition, structure and properties; in Hand book of fibre Science and Technology, vol IV, Lewin, M and E.M pearce (ed), Mercel. Dekker Inc, New York, pp. 649–700. 10. Shimizu, M. (2000). Structural basis of silk fibre; in Structure of silk yarn vol I biological and physical aspects. N. Hojo (ed.), Oxford & IBH Publication Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 7–17. 11. Yamaguchi, K., Kikuchi, Y., Takagi, T., Kikuchi, A., Oyama, F., Shimura, K., Mizuno, S. (1989). Primary structure of the silk fibroin light chain determined by cDNA sequencing and peptide analysis. J. Mol. Bio. 210 (1):127–139. 12. Tsukada, M. (1983). Structure of silk sericins removed from wild silk by boiling in water. J. Sericult. Sci. Japan. 52(4):296–299. 13. Sadov, F., Korchagin, M., Matetsky, A. (1987). Chemical technology of fibrous materials. Mir Publication, Moscow, pp. 306–307. 14. Yazdankhah, S.P., Scheie, A.A., Hoiby, E.A., Lunestad, B.T., Heir, E., Fotland, T.O., Naterstad, K., Kruse, H. (2006). Triclosan and Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria: An Overview. Microb. Drug Resist. – Mech. Epidemiol. Dis. 12(2):83–90.



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15. Trotman, E. R. (1984). Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibers, 6th edition, Edward Arnold, London, pp. 187–217. 16. Shenai, V.A. (1977). Technology of Dyeing, Sevak Publications, Mumbai, India. 17. Peters, R.H. (1975). The Physical Chemistry of Dyeing, Textile Chemistry, Vol. III, Elsevier Scientific Publications Company, Amsterdam. 18. BIS Test Method IS:764-1979, (1979). Test 3, Indian Standard Method for Determination of Colour Fastness of Textile Materials to Washing, Bureau of Indian Standards. 19. AATCC Test Method 16E-2004, (2004). Colour Fastness to Light, Technical Manual of the AATCC, Research Triangle Park, U.S.A. 20. AATCC Test Method 8-2007, (2007). Colour Fastness to Crocking, Technical Manual of the AATCC, Research Triangle Park, U.S.A. 21. BSI, BS 5058:1973, (1990). British Standard Method for the Assessment of Drape of Fabrics, BS Handbook 11:, London. 22. Zeinab, S., Abdel-Rehim., Saad, M. M., El-Shakankery, M., Hanafy, I. (2006). Textile Fabrics as Thermal Insulators. AUTEX Research Journal. 6(3):148–161. 23. Anjalikarolia, Snehal Mendapara. (2007). Imparting antimicrobial and fragrance finish on cotton using chitosan with silicon softener. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research. 32(2):99–104. 24. Bajaj, P. (2001). Finishing of textile materials. Indian Journal for Fiber and Textile Research. 26 (1&2):162–186.

22 Investigation of anti-fungal activity on cotton fabric

M. Sumithra, and M. Lalitha Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Email:[email protected], [email protected] Abstract: Anti-fungal agents that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi. This study is used to evaluate the anti-fungal properties of natural herbal extracts. The cotton fabric is chosen and the herbs such as Hibiscus, Marigold and Henna extract was applied on cotton fabric by dip method and tested for its activity using AATCC 30, with two fungal pathogens namely Mucor and Aspergillus niger and it is concluded that marigold finished fabric shows good anti-fungal activity in mucor pathogens when compared to other two herbs. Keywords: Anti-fungal activity, herbs, pre-mordanting & post mordanting

22.1

Introduction

Anti-fungal are used to kill or prevent further growth of fungi. In medicine, they are used as a treatment for infections ringworm and thrush and work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells. They killoff the fungal organism without dangerous effects on the host. Unlike bacteria, both fungi and humans are eukaryotes pointed by Verma et al. (1999). As well as their use in medicine, anti-fungal are frequently sought after to control mold growth in. Another anti-fungal serum applied after or without blasting by soda is a mix of hydrogen peroxide and a thin surface coating that neutralises mold and encapsulates the surface to prevent damp or wet home materials. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) blasted on to surfaces acts as an anti-fungal spore release. Other anti-fungal surface treatments typically contain variants of metals known to suppress mold growth e.g., pigments or solutions containing copper, silver or zinc. These solutions are not usually available to the general public because of their toxicity pointed by Nakahara et al. (2003). Microbes are the tiniest creatures not seen by the naked eye. They include a variety of micro-organisms like fungi, algae and viruses. Bacteria are uni-cellular organisms, which grow very rapidly under warmth and moisture. Some specific types of bacteria are pathogenic

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and cause cross infection. Fungi, molds or mildew are complex organisms with slow growth rate pointed by Subramanian et al. (1996). Fungi are significant destroyers of foodstuffs and grains during storage, rendering them unfit for human consumption by retarding their nutritive value and often by producing mycotoxins pointed by Janardhana et al. (1998). Little is known about how variations in fungicide treatment affect the selection pressure to evolve resistance to that fungicide. Evidence shows that the doses that provide the most control of the disease also provide the largest selection pressure to acquire resistance, and that lower doses decrease the selection pressure pointed by Metcalfe et al. (2000).

22.2 Objective To collect and identify the herbal plant from natural source. To select the cotton fabric To bleach the cotton fabric To dye the cotton fabric using selected herbs on marigold, hibiscus and henna to evaluate the anti-fungal activity of the dyed cotton fabric using AATCC 30

22.3

Material and methods

22.3.1

Selection of fabric

Based on market survey and consumer survey 2 m of 100% cotton fabric were purchased at the cost of Rs. 90 from National textile corporation limited (A government of India undertaking), 35, Somasundaram mills Road, Coimbatore-641 009, India. Warp count of the fabric - 66s Weft count of the fabric - 56s Fabric thickness of the fabric - 0.24.

22.3.2

Selection of herbs

There are three natural herbs henna, marigold and hibiscus was selected.

22.3.3 Extraction Herbs extracted from the dried 120 g dry herb were boiled in 3 l of water for about 20–30 minutes at 90°C–100°C.

22.3.4

Selection of mordant

Alum is soluble in water react regular octahedral this is heated they liquefy and if the heating is continued, the water of crystallisation is driven off, the salt froths and swells, and at last an amorphous powder remains.



22.3.5

Investigation of anti-fungal activity on cotton fabric

185

Dip method

Fabric – 2 m Marigold – 120 g Water – 3 L Duration – 20 –30 Minutes Temperature – 90° Minutes C–100°C

22.3.6 Pre-mordant The fabric dipped into the mordant bath for 30 minutes after that the same fabric carried out to the required dye bath for 30 minutes.

22.3.7 Post-mordant In this process alternatively fabric treated with dyeing solution after that the same fabric finished with the mordant solution.

22.3.8 Anti-fungal activity assessment by AATCC-30 test method An inoculum of 1.0 ml was evenly distributed over the surface of the agar. The fabric discs were pre-wetted (not rubbed or squeezed) in water containing 0.05% of a non-ionic wetting agent (triton X-100) and placed on the agar surface. Treated fabric samples were placed in intimate contact with potato dextrose agar, which has been previously inoculated (mat culture) with both suspension culture of test organisms (Mucor and Aspergillus niger). After incubation, a clear area of uninterrupted growth underneath and along the side of the test material indicates anti-fungal effectiveness of the fabric.

22.3.9

Test micro-organism

The fungal strains used were Mucor and Aspergillus niger.

22.3.10 Anti-fungal assay The powder that showed better anti-fungal assessment. The activity of the short listed powder on various fungal strains was assayed by agar cut method. The fungicidal effect of the oil can be assessed by the inhibition near the agar plugs. This medium was prepared and poured on to the Petriplate. A fungal plug was placed in the centre of the plate sterile discs immersed in the source respectively were placed above the gel in the plate.

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22.3.11

Culture medium

Potato, Dextrose, Agar, Distilled Water

22.3.12 Nomenclature UMC - Unfinished Marigold Cotton FMC - Finished Marigold Cotton FHC - Finished Hibiscus Cotton FEC - Finished Henna Cotton

22.4

Result and discussion

22.4.1

Anti-fungal assessment by AATCC 30 test method

The anti-fungal activity of the finished cotton fabric with marigold, hibiscus and henna herbs was tested according to AATCC-30 standard. Sample pre-mordant – mucor, Aspergillus niger; post-mordant – mucor, Aspergillus niger 1 FMC 1.3 0 2 0 2 FHC 0 0 0.9 0 3 FEC 0 0 0 0 Figure 22.1. From the Table 22.1 and Figure 22.1 its finished the sample marigold, hibiscus and henna. Anti-fungal activity of the pre-mordant using mucor FMC(1.3), FHC(0), FEC(0), post-mordant using mucor FMC(2), FHC(0.9), FEC(0) pre-mordant using Aspergillus niger FMC(0), FHC(0), FEC(0) and post-mordant using Aspergillus niger FMC(0), FHC(0) and 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Mucor A. niger Mucor A. niger pre-mordant post-mordant 1.3 0 2 0 0 0.9 0 FMC FHC FEC Anti-fungal property 49 FEC(0). To compare with the samples finished cotton fabric shows high result post mordant mucor (2) it may be done the marigold finished fabric. Mucor (pre,fmc)10 Mucor (post,fhc) 14 mucor (post,fmc)19 PLATE (XI) PLATE (XII) PLATE (XIII). Table 22.1  Antifungal activity of pre-mordanted and post-mordanted cotton fabrics



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187

Figure 22.1 Antimicrobial efficacy of sample pre-mordant – mucor, Aspergillus niger; post- mordant – mucor, Aspergillus niger

22.5

Summary and conclusion

The demand for eco-friendly products is always growing throughout the world. Anti-fungal are used to kill or prevent further growth of fungi. Surfaces acts as an anti-fungal spore release fungi, molds or mildew are complex organisms with slow growth. Cotton is considered as “white gold” states. Cotton has different kind of physical properties depending on its fines and length of fibre. Longer of cotton fibre are considered as the higher quality and only have three percent production worldwide. Immature fibre and less, strong, high end produces separate the mature and immature fibre to ensure high durability. An anti-fungal is a compound that helps protect the cells from

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damage caused by free radicals, or hazardous molecules. Only the flower heads of marigolds are used medicinally.

22.6

Finding of the study

From the above Table 22.1 and Figure 22.1 it’s finished the sample marigold, hibiscus and henna. Anti-fungal activity of the pre mordant using mucor fmc(1.3), fhc(0), fec(0), post-mordant using mucor FMC(2), FHC(0.9), FEC(0), pre-mordant using Aspergillus niger FMC(0), FHC(0), FEC(0) and post mordant using Aspergillus niger FMC(0), FHC(0) and FEC(0). To compare with the samples finished cotton fabric shows high result post mordant mucor (2) it may be done the marigold finished fabric.

22.7 Conclusion The above study interprets that the natural ailing herb can be used in the recent trends to cure many skin tissue and hence it is used in the healing of wounds such as burns, scrapes as well as irritated skin problems. The recent approaches that are dealing with English medicine are taking a back step leaving the herbal medicine forward. Herbal medicine are the naturally produces product that are used in the treatment of many skin problem with no chemical thus no side effect.

References 1. Verma, S et.al (1998), “P. Piriformospora indica, gen. species, a new root-colonizing fungus”, Mycologia, vol. 95, pp. 896–903. 2. Nakhara et. al (2003), Spatial variation in nitrogen deposition over five adjacent catchments in a larch forestSoil Sci. Plant Nutr., 49 (5) (2003), pp. 741–746. 3. Subramanian KN., Padmanaban G., & Sarma S (1996),” Folin-Ciocalteu reagent for the estimation of siderochromes”, Anal Biochem. vol. 12, pp. 106–112. 4. Janardhana G.R., Raveesha K.A. and Shetty H.S (1998), “Modified atmosphere storage to prevent mould-induced nutritional loss in maize”, Journal of Science Food and Agriculture Vol. 76, pp. 573–578. 5. Metcalf D et.al (2000), “Gigantism in mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signalling-2”, Nature. Vol.29; pp.1069–73.



23 Study on polyacrylic acid treated silk

J. Jeyakodi Moses1 and E. Saraswathi2 PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 2 Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore Email Id: [email protected]

1

Abstract: Silk is a natural fibrous polymer consisting of amino acids. Silk fibres consist of 97% protein – fibroin, a filamentous protein (approximately 75%) and sericin, a non-filamentous protein (nearly 25%). The smoothness and translucence shown by the degummed silk is related to its different extents of surface reflections, internal transmitted light, internal reflected light and diffused light. Silk fabric is famous for its soft handle, gloss, fineness, higher strength, high wearing comfort, appearance and other desirable aesthetics used for luxurious fashionable apparel, interior decorations. Hence, silk is rightly called “Queen” of textile fibres. In this work, the silk fibrous substrate was treated with polyacrylic acid (PAA). The treated silk materials were then subjected for different studies like absorbency, water retention, wicking and anti-microbial behaviours Keywords: Polyacryrlic acid, silk, absorbency, wicking & water retention

23.1 Introduction Natural silk fibre is obtained from wide variety of insects during their life cycle. Major insects which produce silk fibre are Bombyx mori, Antheraea mylitta, Antheraea assama and Antheraea ricini. The varieties of silk fibre produce by these insects are known as mulberry, tasar, muga and eri, respectively. The tasar, eri and muga varieties of silk are also known as non-mulberry silk. A single cocoon may provide over 1,000 m of fibre by a simple process known as reeling that essentially consists of immersing the cocoon in boiling water. The silk fibres obtained from silkworm have two major protein constituents. Core is made of fibroin protein which is surrounded by outer sericin protein. The core fibroin is made up of two chains known as heavy chain and light chain, mainly constitute of alanine, tyrosine and glycine. Sericin is a globular protein, soluble in hot water, mainly constitute of the amino acids serine, alanine and glycine. Silk worms produce a protein fibre discovered in 2,700 BC. Silk fibres consists of 97% protein – fibroin, a filamentous protein and sericin (gum), a non-filamentous protein – and also

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other impurities such as pigments, wax, carbohydrates, and inorganic salts. The proteins in silk fibre are approximately 75% fibroin and 25% sericin by weight. The sericin strengthens the silk fibre and makes it lack lustre; therefore, it must be degummed before dyeing. Silk fibre is well-known for its water absorbency, dyeing affinity, thermal tolerances, insulation properties, and lustre. Silk fibre can be used in many products such as precious fabrics, parachutes, tire lining materials, artificial blood vessels, and surgical sutures. Some properties of silk fibre such as crease recovery, wash and wear properties, photo-yellowing, water and oil staining resistance, dyeability, and colour fastness are weak and they should be improved. For this purpose, surface treatment of silk by some physical and chemical techniques has been developed. In this work, the silk fibrous substrate was treated with polyacrylic acid (PAA). The treated silk materials were then subjected for different studies like absorbency, water retention, wicking and anti-microbial behaviours.

23.2

Materials and methods

23.2.1

Materials

The silk fabrics used in this study are mentioned in the following Table 23.1. Table 23.1 Silk fabric details S. No.

Parameters

100% Silk

1

Warp count

2/80s

2

Weft count

2/80s

3

Ends / Inch

100

4

Picks / Inch

60

5

GSM

95

6

Cloth width (Inch)

44

The chemicals and auxiliaries mentioned elsewhere for this study were in AR grade

23.2.2

Methods

Pre-treatment on silk The silk materials were treated with 10 gpl hydrochloric acid for 60 minutes in a suitable separate baths with material to liquor ratio 1:30 at 30°C to get rid of the substrates added during weaving. After that the silk materials were degummed using sodium carbonate (2% owm) at 85°C for 2 hours. Finally the degummed materials were washed thoroughly and dried.



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Treatment of silk with polyacrylic acid The degummed silk is treated with PAA (concentration of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, % 6.0% w/v) in 0.25 N NaoH for the time between 5 and 60 minutes by the addition of five at 80°C with MLR 1:30. After PAA treatment the silk materials were squeezed, dried at 105°C for 30 minutes, and cured at 140°C for 60 seconds. Finally the materials were washed and ready for next treatments. Absorbency of silk Absorbency is the time taken for a water drop to penetrate into the textile material. The wettability of silk material was determined as per AATCC test method 79-2010. Water retention in silk Water retaining capacity of silk material was measured by standard AATCC 21-1978 test method. Absorptive capacity provides a measure of the amount of liquid held within a test specimen after specified times of immersion and drainage. The fabric samples were left immersed in water for 20 minutes. The samples were removed from water and allowed to drain for 10 seconds prior to weighing. The water absorptive capacity or water retention is given as percentage of the original mass of the fabric sample. Water retention =

(B – A ) × 100 A

Where, A = fabric weight before immersion (g) &

B = fabric weight after immersion (g)

Wicking behaviour of silk The wicking height of the silk materials was determined. Fabric samples measuring 10 cm × 2.5 cm were taken. Each of the sample pieces was clamped to a scale and held at a position such that the tip of the sample just touched the water taken in a beaker. Then 1% reactive dye (Reactive Red M8B, CI No.: Reactive Red 11) was added for tracking the movement of water. The height of water reached after 5 minutes was measured. Measurement of physical properties of silk The physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation (%), drapeability, thermal resistance, and stiffness of the silk fabrics were measured by the standard established methods such as grab tensile test method, Elmendorf

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tear tester as per ASTM D1424 – 2009, Cusik Drapemeter, Rth = L/k, ((m2 ºC)/W), and Shirley stiffness tester, respectively.

Anti-bacterial property of dyed silk fabric The anti-bacterial activity on the dyed fabric samples was assessed qualitatively according to the AATCC test method 147-2004 by the parallel streak method.

23.3

Results and discussion

23.3.1

Absorbency of PAA treated silk fabric

The values of the absorbency of silk materials treated with PAA (concentration of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, % 6.0% w/v) in 0.25 N NaOH for the time between 5 and 60 minutes by the addition of five at 80°C with MLR 1:30 are given in the Table 23.2. From Table 23.2 it is observed that there is a good absorbency in silk fabrics. As the concentration of PAA and the treatment time increase, there is a decrease in the time taken for the absorbency of water drops by the silk fabrics. The absorbency is increased steadily in the silk fabrics up to the PAA concentration of 4% w/v, after this concentration there is almost no considerable change in the absorbency values. This good absorbency is due to the application of PAA on the silk materials, which enhances the attracting character to the fibre polymers. Table 23.2 Absorbency of PAA treated silk fabric S. No.

Concentration of PAA (%w/v)

Treatment time (Min)

Drop absorbency (Sec)

1

0.5

5

27.5

2

1.0

10

27.2

3

1.5

15

26.9

4

2.0

20

26.5

5

2.5

25

26.2

6

3.0

30

25.8

7

3.5

35

25.5

8

4.0

40

25.0

9

4.5

45

24.9

10

5.0

50

24.9

11

5.5

55

24.8

12

6.0

60

24.8



Study on polyacrylic acid treated silk

23.3.2

193

Water retention in PAA treated silk fabric

The data of the water retention of silk fabrics treated with different concentrations of PAA are given in Table 23.3. Table 23.3 reveals that the water retention behaviour is due to the presence of hydrophilic groups present in the polymers of the selected fabrics. The amount of water retained by fibre mass increases with an increase in the hydrophilic tendency of the fibre. In the PAA treated fabric, in addition to silk, the fabric also has the presence of -COOH group which enhances the water attraction thereby leading for more water retention in the material. The water retention values are increased steadily in the silk fabrics up to the PAA concentration of 4% w/v, after this concentration there is almost no considerable change in the water retention values. Table 23.3 Water retention in PAA treated silk fabric S. No.

Concentration of PAA (%w/v)

Treatment time (Min)

Water retention (%)

1

0.5

5

288

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

291 295 299 305 310 315 322 322 323 323 323

23.3.3

Wicking behaviour of PAA treated silk fabric

The values of the wicking behaviour of silk fabrics treated with different concentrations of PAA are given in Table 23.4. Table 23.4 shows that the wicking values are good in all these treated fabrics. From Table 23.4 it is observed that when the concentration of PAA and the treatment time increase, there is a corresponding increase in the wicking behaviours of the silk fabrics steadily up to the concentration of 4% w/v, after this concentration there is almost no increase in the wicking values. Wicking is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of external forces like gravity. As the silk materials treated with PAA which contains the attractive -COOH group facilitates the additional good absorbency behaviour, the wicking is also increased correspondingly.

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Table 23.4 Wicking behaviour of PAA treated silk fabric S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

23.3.4

Concentration of PAA (%w/v) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

Treatment time (Min) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Wicking (cm) [for 60 min] 12.4 12.5 12.7 12.8 13.0 13.3 13.6 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.2 14.2

Physical properties of PAA treated silk fabric

The physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, drape co-efficient, thermal resistance, and stiffness / bending modulus value of the silk fabrics are presented in Table 23.5. From Table 23.5, it is seen that when the concentration and time duration for PAA treatment on silk fabric increase, there is a corresponding influence in the physical properties also. Tensile strength means the material under tensile stress in the largest deformation of homogeneous material stress. The warp way tensile strength of silk fabric is considerably high compared with that of the corresponding weft one. Elongation is the increase in length or deformation of a fibre as a result of stretching. Elongation is measured as a percentage of the original length. The elongation is of decisive importance since textile products without elasticity would hardly be usable. They must be able to deform (e.g., at knee or elbow) in order to withstand high loading (and also during processing), but they must also return to shape. Sometimes for functional textile goods, higher elongations are necessary. Higher elongations are needed particularly for corsetry, and stretch products. After the PAA treatment, there is marginal decrease in the elongation percentage accordingly. Drape is the term used to describe the way of a fabric hangs under its own weight. It has an important bearing on how good a garment looks in use. The draping qualities required from a fabric will differ completely depending on its end use. Therefore, a given value for drape cannot be classified as either good or bad. Measurement of a fabric’s drape is meant to assess its ability to do this and also its ability to hang in graceful curves. Similar to the elongation percentage, the drape co-efficient is also marginally reduced according to the treatment of PAA on the silk fabrics.



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Thermal properties of textiles are influenced by fabric properties such as structure, density, humidity, raw materials (fibres), type of weave, surface treatment, filling and compressibility, air permeability, surrounding temperature and other factors. The studies of thermal characteristics have gained importance since it is directly related to clothing comfort. From the Table 23.5, it is seen that the thermal resistance of silk fabric is slowly reduced due to the treatment of PAA from the concentration of 0.5% w/v to 6.0% w/v; the decrease of thermal resistance is steady up to the PAA concentration of 4% w/v, after that the difference is only negligible values only. This low thermal resistance of PAA treated silk fabric is due to the presence of additional hydrophilic group (-COOH) which easily dissipates the thermal behaviour. Stiffness test measures the bending stiffness of a fabric by allowing a narrow strip of the fabric to bend to a fixed angle under its own weight. The length of the fabric required to bend to this angle is measured and is known as the bending length. The higher the bending length, the stiffer is the fabric. The stiffness of a fabric in bending is very dependent on its thickness, the thicker the fabric, the stiffer it is if all other factors remain the same. The bending modulus is independent of the dimensions of the strip tested so that by analogy with solid materials it is a measure of “intrinsic stiffness”. Bending modulus = 12 × G × 103 / T3 N/m2; Where, T = fabric thickness (mm). The values of stiffness / bending modulus of 100% silk and the silk mixed fabrics are given in Table 23.5. There is a marginal increase in value of stiffness / bending modulus value in the increase concentration of PAA treated silk fabric. Table 23.5 Physical properties of PAA treated silk fabric S. PAA Time No. (%w/v) (sec) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Tensile strength (Kgf/ mm2) Warp 60.15 60.24 60.42 61.17 61.33 61.56 61.74 63.15 63.21 63.26 63.32 63.39

Weft 52.96 53.05 53.11 53.28 53.57 53.94 54.12 55.86 55.90 55.92 55.93 55.5

Elongation (%) Warp 15.6 15.6 15.5 15.2 15.0 14.8 14.6 14.0 13.9 13.9 13.8 13.8

Weft 14.7 14.6 14.5 14.3 14.1 13.9 13.6 13.0 13.0 12.9 12.9 12.8

Stiffness /ending Drape Thermal modulus coresistance Value efficient 0.676 0.676 0.675 0.675 0.674 0.674 0.673 0.670 0.670 0.670 0.669 0.669

98.86 98.81 98.74 98.70 98.62 98.48 98.26 97.86 97.83 97.81 97.80 97.79

0.0015 0.0015 0.0015 0.0016 0.0016 0.0016 0.0017 0.0020 0.0021 0.0022 0.0022 0.0023

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23.3.5

Anti-microbial property of PAA treated silk fabric

The data of anti-bacterial property of silk fabrics treated with different concentrations of PAA for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are given in Table 23.6. The anti-microbial activity of the PAA treated silk fabrics was assessed by qualitative test method. All these PAA treated silk fabrics show a higher zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus when compared to Escherichia coli as seen in Table 23.6. This could be also calculated based on quantitative method for the percentage bacterial reduction. From this it is seen that as the concentration PAA concentration increases the bacterial reduction (%) is also increased correspondingly; this increase is steady and marginal up to 4% w/v of PAA, after that there is no change in the bacterial reduction.

Table 23.6 Anti-microbial property of PAA treated silk fabric S. No.

PAA (%w/v)

Time (sec)

Qualitative method Zone of inhibition (mm)

Quantitative method Bacterial reduction (%)

Sa

Ec

Sa

Ec

1

0.5

5

27

24

98.2

97.3

2

1.0

10

27

24

98.2

97.3

3

1.5

15

27

24

98.2

97.3

4

2.0

20

27

24

98.2

97.3

5

2.5

25

28

25

98.3

97.5

6

3.0

30

28

25

98.3

97.5

7

3.5

35

28

25

98.3

97.5

8

4.0

40

29

26

98.5

97.7

9

4.5

45

29

26

98.5

97.7

10

5.0

50

29

26

98.5

97.7

11

5.5

55

29

26

98.5

97.7

12

6.0

60

29

26

98.5

97.7

Sa: Staphylococcus aureus, Ec: Escherichia coli



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197

Conclusion

The absorbency of PAA treated silk fabrics is good at the concentration of 4% w/v. The amount of water retained by a fibre mass increases with an increase in the hydrophilic tendency of the fibre. There is a very good water retention values in the PAA treated silk fabrics at the concentration of 4% w/v. Wicking is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of external forces like gravity. As the silk materials treated with PAA which contains the attractive -COOH group facilitates the additional good absorbency behaviour up to the concentration of 4% w/v. The physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, drape co-efficient, thermal resistance, and stiffness / bending modulus value of the silk fabrics are good in the silk fabrics after PAA treatment at the concentration of 4% w/v. The PAA treated silk fabrics show a higher zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus when compared to Escherichia coli. In general, the PAA treated silk fabrics in the concentration of 4% w/v gives very good percentage bacterial reduction.

23.5 Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Management and Principal, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore for given the permission and providing the necessary infrastructure. The authors also thank The Head, Department of Applied Science, PSG CT for the kind help rendered in the completion of this work.

References 1. Sonwalkar, T.N. Handbook of Silk Technology. New Age International (Private) Ltd., New Delhi, 2001. 2. Uddin, K., Hossain, S. (2010). A Comparative Study On Silk Dyeing With Acid Dye And Reactive Dye. International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 10(6):22–27. 3. Kadolph, S.J. Textiles, Prentice-Hall, Sydney, 2013. 4. Cynthia, M.Y.L. The Effect of Plasma Treatment on Fabric Properties of Silk Fabric. Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2011. 5. Kaylon, B.D. Olgun, U. (2001). Antibacterial Efficacy of Triclosan-incorporated Polymers. American Journal of Infection Control. 29(2):124. 6. Siamak, P., Yazdankhah, Anne, A., Arne Hoiby, Bjorn-Tore Lunestad, Tor Oysten Fotland.(2006). Microbial Drug Resistance. 12:83. 7. Isquith, A.J., Abbott, E.A., Walter P.A. (1972). Surface-Bonded Antimicrobial Activity of an Organosilicon Quaternary Ammonium Chloride. Applied Microbiology. 24(6):859–863.

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8. Billmeyer, F.W. Textbook of Polymer Science (John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd, Singapore), 1994. 9. Purwar, R., Joshi, M. (2004). Recent Developments in Antimicrobial Finishing of Textiles - A Review. AATCC Review. 4:22–26. 10. Mao, J.W., Murphy, L. (2001). Durable Finishes for Textiles. AATCC Review. 1:28– 31.. Menezes, E. (2002). Antimicrobial Finishing for Speciality Textiles. International Dyer. 187(12):13–16. 11. AATCC, Antibacterial Activity Assessment of Textile Materials–Parallel Streak Method: AATCC Test Method 147-2004, Technical Manual of the AATCC, Research Triangle Park, USA, 2004. 12. Saville, B.P. (2004). Physical Testing of Textiles. Wood Head Publishing Limited and CRC Press, Cambridge, England. 205–210. 13. ASTM D1424 – 09, Standard Test Method for Tearing Strength of Fabrics by Falling-Pendulum (Elmendorf-Type) Apparatus, 2013. 14. BSI, BS 5058:1973 - British Standard Method for the Assessment of Drape of Fabrics, BS Handbook 11:, London, 1990. 15. ASTM, ASTM Test Method 1388-96: Standard Test Method for Stiffness of Fabrics, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol.07.01, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2001. 16. Jeyakodi Moses, J., Mariyam Adnan. (2013). Effect of Antibacterial Finishing on Silk / Lyocell Fabric Using Aloe Vera Extract. Asian Dyer. 10:49–53. 17. Jeyakodi Moses, J., Mariyam Adnan. (2013). Investigations on the Effects of UV Finishes Using Titanium Dioxide on Silk and Lyocell Union Fabrics. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management. 8:1–12.

24 Eco-friendly technology options available for textile industry

Dr. K. Sangeetha,1 T. Abirami2 and A. Keerthana Sri2 Bharathiar University, Coimbatore PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore Email Id: [email protected] 1

2

Abstract: The themes which that dominating the present decade is the environmental issues. The eco problems in textile industry occur during some production processes and are carried forward right to the finished product. One of the eco-friendly regenerated cellulosic fibres which are becoming popular particularly in ladies fashion wear is lyocell, obtained by regeneration of cellulose using eco-friendly solvent N-methyl morpholine oxide. Among the natural fibres, organic cotton obtained by cultivation of cotton without the use of fertilisers and pesticides is gaining popularity. Those who are deeply concerned about the pollution and health hazard problems associated with synthetic dyes are propagating the use of naturally coloured cotton (2). During the production cycle, processes like bleaching and then dyeing, the subsequent fabric make toxic substance that swell into our eco-system. During the production process controlling pollution is as vital as making the product free from the toxic effect (1). In addition to eco-fibres presently major emphasis is given to eco-friendly production technologies where the concept of cradle to grave or womb to tomb is followed. In order to safeguard our environment from these effects, an integrated pollution control approach is needed (3). Luckily, there is an availability of more substitutes. The present paper critically discusses the environment-friendly technology options available for textile industry. The report contains rich information about two eco-friendly fibres (organic cotton and lyocell) that describe the brief history, biography, development, processing, application and uses of these fibres. Keywords: Organic cotton, Organic clothing, Production, Colored cotton, End-uses

24.1 Introduction Most of the textile industries and apparel industries are now using organic fabrics for their environment-friendly apparel production and reducing the use of synthetics. The introduction of dangerous fertilisers and pesticides that fibre crops, food crops, became treated with chemical toxins with damaging effects on the environment and farm workers who raised the crops. Thankfully, as consumers become more environmentally aware, the growing demand for organic

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fibres is now on the rise. Natural fibres include those made from plants (or vegetables), animal and mineral sources. Natural fibres can be classified according to their origin. Although they are from natural sources, not all natural fibres can be termed as organic fibres. Natural fibres coming from plants can be made organic for their further eco-friendly use. Some of the natural plant fibres are cotton, bamboo, hemp, ramie, tencel, modal.The environmental press has often heralded lyocell as a new fibre that represents a milestone in the development of environmentally sustainable textiles (4). Organic fibres are grown without pesticides and chemicals use during their farming. The chemicals used in farming of natural fibres pollute air, land and surface waters.

24.1.1

Organic clothing

Organic clothing is clothing made of materials that are raised or grown without the use of chemicals in the form of pesticides, herbicides or other chemicals. Chemicals from dyes to bleach and other chemicals to aid transportation to many thousands of miles from their manufacture in places such as India and China. Authentic organic fabric and clothing can help the environment in number of ways. • • • •

Manufacture of chemicals is not required. Chemical residues are not entered accidentally into the environment. Humans and animals are not exposed to chemicals. When the fabric is finished with chemicals, they are not returned to the earth in landfill, or enter into recycling process.

Out of the natural plant fibres, only some of them are modified organically. Organic cotton, organic hemp and organic bamboo are some of the organically grown natural fibres (8).Fibres make a distinction between regenerated fibres and lyocell which they describe as a “solvent spun fibre” that keeps the cellulose structure closer to that found in nature (4).The present paper focuses mainly on three organic fibres namely organic cotton, naturally coloured cotton and lyocell.

24.1.2

Organic cotton

The cotton fibre, in its pure form, and also in blends, is the principal clothing fibre of the world, accounting for about 50% of total world fibre production. Cotton cultivated without the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and all other plant chemicals is known as organic cotton. To determine the environmental impact connected to a product, it is necessary to do the Life Cycle Analysis



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(LCA), with a “cradle- to-grave” approach. The first step of this concept includes agricultural activities. From this point of view the conventional cotton is not eco-friendly in the true sense because of the use of shazardous chemicals in the form of fertilisers, pesticides and other plant chemicals used during the cultivation. Therefore, though cotton is natural fibre, beneath it lays a long chain of chemically intensive “unnatural” processes. To bring this delicate plant to harvest, it is heavily sprayed – 8–10 times a season in extreme cases – with pesticides so poisonous they gradually render fields barren, and pose a serious threat to the human, plant and aquatic life. It is just the beginning. Once the cotton is grown, ginned and manufactured, the textile processing necessary for aesthetics and desirable properties, requires the use of numerous environmentally dangerous materials. At least 8,000 chemicals are used to turn raw material into final product many of which are toxic and classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as moderately hazardous to extremely hazardous.

24.1.3 Reasons for organic cotton and against conventional cotton • Amount of conventional cotton produced per year: 25 million tons. • Amount of water needed for 1 kilogram of non-organic cotton: 29,000 litres. • High-levels of agrochemicals are used in the production of non-organic cotton: According to the “Pesticide Action Network” cotton uses 25% of the world’s insecticides and more than 10% of all pesticides – the cultivation of cotton accounts for only 2.4% of agriculturally used areas. Thus, cotton production uses more chemicals per unit area than any other crop. • Many of these plant protection products are highly effective neurotoxins, having been used as chemical weapons in the past. The chemicals used in the processing of non-organic cotton pollute air, surface waters and people. • Still the consumer suffers from chemicals in garments since non-organic cotton textiles irritate consumers’ skin, as they can also cause neurodermatitis (chemical residues stay verifiable even in the readymade garments.

24.1.4

Organic cotton production and the environment

• In organic cotton cultivation only organic herb mixtures, crop rotation and natural enemies are used in fighting pests.

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• Organic cotton farmers have a healthy work environment. The cultivation of the fields is sustainable. Organic cotton production and the people. • No secondary damage for factory workers in organic cotton production. • Organic cotton farmers and cooperatives are independent from the price and patent politics of multinational companies. • Consumers of organic cotton textiles are safe from skin irritations.

24.1.5

Where is organic cotton grown?

The first organic cotton project started 1990 in Egypt. Today organic cotton is grown in over 22 countries. Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali. As of 2007, the largest producers of organic cotton are Turkey and India. According to “Organic Exchange” China, Syria, Peru, Uganda, Tanzania, Israel, the United States and Pakistan are under the top ten organic cotton producing countries in the world (9).

24.1.6

 ow is the textile industry involved in organic H cotton?

Since textiles are too high percentage made frm cotton, the apparel industry plays a significant role for the cultivation of organic cotton. But the key role plays the consumer, which has to demand more organic cotton textiles, to force apparel companies to use organic cotton as raw material. When the demand of organic cotton in the textile industry increase, more and more developing programs for organic cotton can be set. But attention has to be paid to pseudo certificates of organic cotton which are used from some big companies for green washing reasons. Organic cotton certificates –– When sourcing organic cotton it is crucial to pay attention to certificates, since only they can guarantee real organic and fair production through controls of the farmers and manufacturing companies. Third-party certification organisations verify that organic cotton producers use only materials allowed in organic cotton production. Undoubtly the certificate with the highest ecological and social standards is the “Eco Sustainable Textile” Certificate conferred by the Control Union. Only organic cotton textiles which are produced after the GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard) can carry this certificate. It not only includes ecological and environmental standards, but also social standards. Here are some manufacturing guidelines for GOTS certified organic cotton textiles.



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• Safety regulations and machines have to be according to international ISO-standards. • In organic cotton manufacturing no organic halogens, no azo-dyestuffs, no chlorine bleaching, no formaldehyde is allowed and integrated sewage plant is mandatory. • Compliance of ILO “labour standards” und “fundamental principles and rights at work”, like free choice of employment and right of cancellation, freedom to form associations and unions, ban of child and forced labour, ban of corporal intimidation, payment of “living wages” (sufficient for food lodging and cultural activity). • Organic cotton workers work only in official employment contracts. • Organic cotton manufacturing is controlled through independent and unannounced inspections, with access to all production areas. • Workers of organic cotton textiles have the possibility to address the certifying agencies through pre-printed forms without knowledge of their supervisors.

24.1.7

Uses of organic cotton

The benefits derived from the use of organic cotton are many. To name a few among the many are the health of the planet and its population, nutritional concerns, protecting the next generation, well-being of the soil, global environment, etc. All the above benefits are important but the more important among the above is the global environment. Apparels made from organic cotton are slowly gaining acceptance as the awareness levels increased with the helped of a few apparel companies like Nike & Patagonia. Other designers like The Gap, Levi’s, etc., are slowly joining the fold of apparel manufacturer taking to the use of organic cotton in a big way.

24.2

Naturally coloured cotton

The cotton that grows with natural colours during cultivation is known as naturally coloured cotton i.e., the colour is obtained without the use of natural or synthetic dyes. The naturally coloured cottons are known over 5,000 years but because of the availability of inexpensive synthetic dyes in numerous colours and also the need for higher outputs in spinning, weaving, naturallycoloured cotton went out of cultivation. The present wave for environment protection has given impetus to the cultivation of

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naturally coloured cottons in various shades like green, brown, tan, yellow, pink, etc. Out of these, green and brown varieties are most common and cultivated in countries like USA, Israel, China, Russia, Peru, Mexico Australia and India. The basic reasons why naturally coloured cotton could not thrive in the commercially competitive markets were problems related to low-fibre length and fineness, very poor spinnability, non-availability in desired colours, poor colour fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration, light, bleaching agents, etc. The yield per acre is low along with other problems such as availability of seeds. However on environmental considerations, presently attempts are being made to revive the cultivation of naturally coloured cotton for the production of eco-friendly textiles without the use of toxic synthetic dyes and chemicals. Earlier due to its low strength and poor spin ability naturally coloured cotton was used for the production of yarns up to 10s and 12s count suitable for home textiles and coarser outer wears. However, the research in cotton breeding has led to improvement in yield, fibre fineness, length and strength and also the intensity of colours. Such cottons are suitable for spinning yarns up to 30s and 40s counts which can be used for knitting and weaving of both men and ladies outer and inner garments.

24.2.1

Cultivation of coloured cotton

The growing interest for eco-friendly products worldwide, coupled with the ban imposed on azo dyes and other chemicals has kindled the hopes of the growers, who had taken to cultivation of the naturally coloured cotton in a big way in the late 90s. The Cotton Project at the college of Agriculture, Khandwa and University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, are engaged in research on the various aspects to boost the production and productivity of cotton. In 1996, these centres have been successful in developing a variety of cotton having natural almond brown, cream and light green. But agriculture scientists anticipate a few problems. The cultivation of coloured cotton may result in the cross pollination of the white cotton fields resulting in their contamination. However, this can be prevented by growing coloured varieties in isolated patches. For this legislation would be necessary to ensure quality of the coloured cotton and to prevent the contamination or misuse of the seed. The coloured cotton plant physically resembles normal cotton. Coloured cotton varieties are insect and disease-resistant and are also drought tolerant. The colour range is centralised around green and brown. Blending these colours with each other and with white provides a wide selection of options. Colour retention and fastness has been found to be comparable with accepted apparel standards. Six principal varieties yielding cotton of cream, tan,



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205

medium brown, reddish brown, chocolate brown and mauve colours are cultivated. All bails of cotton are handpicked. Much of the lint is destined for craft production and domestic consumption within the rural villages where it is harvested, but a significant quantity in the form of finished products is circulated in popular urban markets. Unfortunately no textile industry has shown interest in this eco-friendly fibre. To commercialise cultivations, the cultivators plan to involve voluntary organisations and the local industries in the promotion of coloured cotton.

24.2.2

 enefits of naturally coloured cotton in textile B sector

Naturally coloured cottons are unique in that they grow in colours and do not have to be dyed in fabric manufacturing. Dyeing can be one of the most costly steps in fabric finishing due to water and energy use, and waste production. With naturally coloured cotton, textile mills can reduce processing costs by using less water and energy and thus comply more easily with EPA regulation (7). Broad use of coloured cottons is not effective yet due to their lower fibre qualities in comparison to conventional white cottons as well as the limited range of natural colours. It is wellknown that the properties of cotton fibres are highly influencing the spinning process as well as the quality parameters of the final products i.e. yarns and fabrics. Spinning machines and process parameters are adapted to the particular properties of white cotton, established after many years of research.

24.3

Materials and methods

Evaluation of material properties was carried out after each step of production. More precisely the following measurements were applied: • Laboratory measurement of the naturally coloured cotton properties by the AFIS instrument. • Application of coloured cotton quality parameters in yarn manufacturing. • Laboratory measurement of the properties of the produced yarns. • Designing of the woven fabric structures and patterns with the application of the naturally coloured yarns. • Production the woven fabrics. • Measurement of the structural, mechanical and biophysical properties of woven fabrics made of the naturally coloured cotton (6).

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24.4 Lyocell Lyocell is the generic name for a regenerated cellulosic fibre obtained by spinning of dissolved wood pulp in an organic solvent. The solvent spinning technique so adopted is totally environment-friendly. The name “lyocell”, fixed in 1989 for solvent spun fibres owes its genesis to the Greek word lyein (meaning – dissolve) from which comes lyo and cell from cellulose. This name is recognised as the generic name by BISFA (International Bureau for the Standardization of rayon and synthetic fibres), Brussels and the Federal Trade Commission (USA). This fibre which took 16 years for its development and is now made by different fibre manufacturers under different names.

24.4.1

Raw material

The raw material used for the manufacture of lyocell is wood which rapidly renewable natural source. This source is free from the environmental problems associated with the cultivation of cotton such as the use of large quantities of non-eco friendly synthetic fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc. The plant chemicals used for wood plantation put much less environmental burden.

24.4.2

Production process

The starting material for lyocell and viscose are the same i.e., wood pulp, but the manufacturing processes are different. Lyocell is manufactured by a direct dissolving process using an organic cyclic polar solvent namely N-methyl morpholine-N-oxide (NMMO, O(C4H6)NOCH3). This solvent is nontoxic and is easily recovered and recycled.

24.4.3

Dissolution of wood pulp and fibre regeneration

The wood pulp containing 96% cellulose has DP of 750. The starting point of the process is suspension of approximately 13% cellulose, 20% water and 67% NMMO. The dissolution of cellulose in NMMO is done at 120°C with high speed stirring, resulting in highly viscous solution. The viscous solution is filtered nand then extruded into an aqueous spinning bath through spinnerets where the cellulose is precipitated in the form of fibres. As the solvent is washed out, the fibre in the form of fine filaments are collected as tow, from which the staple fibre is produced. The regeneration and the washing baths containing NMMO are collected separately. The NMMO is concentrated by evapouration of water and recycled. The solvent recovery is 99.5%. The evapourated water is used for the washing of regenerated fibres.



Eco-friendly technology options available for textile industry

24.4.4

207

Envirnment friendliness of lyocell

Solvent In the production process for lyocell, N-methyl morpholine-N-oxide is used as the solvent. This substance belongs to the amine oxide group which has been used for some time as an active washing component in body care products; its applications in cellulose production are new. Numerous tests have passed this material as safe from a dermatological and toxicological point of view. Toxicological aspect For making the fibre production extremely eco-friendly, 99.5% of the solvent is recycled within the process. Very small quantities of NMMO emitted via waste water are readily degraded in the biological waste water treatment plants. The quantity of chemicals used in the process of manufacturing lyocell, do not pose environmental concerns. Waste water when purified by a biological waste water treatment plant contains only small amounts of organic chemicals and salt, mainly sodium sulphate. Lyocell fibre characteristics Lyocell is an exceptionally strong fibre. In a dry state, it is significantly stronger than other cellulosics, including cotton, and approximates the strength of polyester. In a wet state, lyocell retains 85% of its dry strength and is the only man-made cellulosic to exceed the strength of cotton in a wet state. Again, its dry and wet tenacity translates into exceptionally strong yarns and fabrics. Lyocell has a very high modulus, which means low shrinkage in water. Thus, fabrics and garments made from Lyocell demonstrate very good stability when washed (Table 24.1).

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Table 24.1 Comparison of fibre properties Property

Lyocell

Viscose

HWM

Cotton*

Polyester

1.5

1.5

1.5

--

1.5

Tenacity(g/den)

4.8–5.0

2.6–3.1

4.1–4.3

2.4–2.9

4.8 –6.0

Denier Elongation (%)

14–16

20–25

13–15

7–9

44 –45

Wet tenacity (g/ den)

4.2–4.6

1.2–1.8

2.3–2.5

3.1–3.6

4.8 –6.0

Wet elongation (%)

16–18

25–30

13–15

12–14

44 –45

Water imbibitions (%)

65

90

75

50

3

24.5

Applications

The application includes sportswear, casual wear (denim, chino, chambray, etc.), fashionable ladies garments, men shirts, luxurious peach skin finishes in jersey and knitwear, etc. Besides apparels, lyocell can also be available in home products including bath towels, sheets, pillowcases, etc. It also has industrial applications in making wipes, medical swabs and gauzes, filters, bio-composites, battery separators, etc.

24.6 Conclusion In the current scenario, the demand for eco-textiles have continued to grow. To meet this demand without sacrificing the human health and the planet health, one must find sustainable textile solutions. Those sustainable solutions are there in the form of organic cotton, naturally coloured cotton, hemp, lyocell, bamboo, etc. It is just up to ultimate consumers to make the conscious choice of selecting organic textiles and clothing.

References 1. Kumari, P., Singh, S.S. J. Rose, N.M. (2013). Eco – Textiles : For Sustainable Development. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 4(4):1379. 2. Chavan, R. B. “Eco-Fibers And Eco-Friendly Textiles”.http://rbchavan.yolasite.com/ resources/ECO%20fibres%20and%20eco%20friendly%20textiles%20final%20text. doc. 3. Ali, M.A., Sarwar, M.I. (2010). Sustainable and Environment Friendly Fibers in Textile Fashion: A Study of Organic Cotton and Bamboo Fibers. Master thesis, University of Boras. P 2.



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4. http://organicclothing.blogs.com/my_weblog/2005/11/tencel_sustaina.html 5. Matusiak. M. Institute of Textile Architecture, Piotrkowska 276, Lodz, 90-950, Poland. 6. Kechagia, U., Tsaliki, E. National Agricultural Research Foundation NAGREF, Cotton and Industrial Plants Institute. Sindos, Thessaloniki, 574 00, Greece. 7. Frydrych, I.K. Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, Lodz, 90-924, Poland. 8. http://www.voguefashioninstitute.com/blog/influence-of-organic-cotton-fibresin-textile-industry/ 9. http://www.organic-cotton.us/

25 Study on comfort properties of apparels

M. Sriraj,1 J. Srinivasan2 and G. Ramakrishnan2 Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore Email Id: [email protected] Abstract: This research work aims towards developing apparels from air vortex yarns using bamboo and micro modal fibres. Five different blend ratios of bamboo and micro modal fibres in the ratio of 100% bamboo, 100% of micro modal, 50:50 bamboo and micro modal, 70:30 bamboo and micro modal, 30:70 bamboo and micro modal will be used to make 40s Ne air vortex yarn using the Muratec air vortex spinning machine. The yarns produced from five different blend ratios will be used to make knitted fabrics of identical fabric construction using advanced knitting machines. The produced fabrics will be dyed and finished as per standard procedure. The dyed and finished knitted fabrics will be evaluated for comfort properties such as moisture vapour permeability, air permeability and thermal resistance besides evaluating the fabric hand values of the above fabrics using Kawabata fabric hand evaluation system. The result obtained will be analysed the statistically using statistical software and will be reported. Key words: bamboo, micro modal, vortex spun yarns, comfort properties

25.1 Introduction Good comfort properties are essential for any apparel so that the wearer can use it without any difficulties. The comfort of the fabric to a large extent depends upon the type of raw material and the method of fabric manufacture and also the construction parameters of the fabric comfort is broadly classify into mechanical comfort thermal comfort and moisture comfort air jet yarns are gaining more importance and widely finding place in the manufacture of intimate apparels thermal comfort characteristics of polyester cotton MVS yarn woven fabrics was reported by Tyagi & Sharma (2005). Sengupta and Patel observed the effects of fibre composition and yarn type on the wickability air permeability and thermal insulation of knitted fabrics they conclude that the wicking is mainly carried out by capillaries formed by fibres in yarns they further observed that the air permeability of fabric decreases with the increase in cotton

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content. Yoon and Buckly conclude that the thermal insulation air permeability and water vapour permeability are dependent mainly on fabric geometrical properties. The handle mechanical properties of polyester fabrics characterised by particular fibre forms and properties methods of yarn processing fabric construction and finishing procedures have been thoroughly studied however there has been no previous investigation concerning thermal, moisture comfort related work on bamboo/ micro modal knitted fabric produced from air vortex yarns. Hence the present investigation is therefore aimed at study of comfort properties of bamboo/ micro modal knitted fabrics made from air vortex yarns.

25.2

Materials and methods

25.2.1

Preparation of yarn and fabric samples

Single set of 40s Ne yarns were spun from five different blends of bamboo micro modal fibres on Muratec vortex spinning. The blending of bamboo and micro modal fibres having the specification was carried out on the mixing department. The blended fibres were processed in Lakshmi Rieter blow room line and carded on a MMC card. The carded slivers were drawn and then spun into yarns on Muratec vortex 810 MVS operating at 400 m/min. Different blend ratios of yarn produced were used to make single jersey knitted fabric on conventional and seamless knitting (Table 25.1). Table 25.1 Fibre material properties Material properties

Bamboo

Micro modal

Fibre length

38 mm

38 mm

Fibre denier

1.2 denier

0.8 denier

Fibre strength

34.3 g/tex

32–35 g/tex

20%

12%

Fibre elongation

Table 25.2 Fibre blends ratios S. No

Bamboo

Micro modal

1

Bamboo

100%

2

Micro modal

100%

3

Bamboo/ Micro modal

50:50

4

Bamboo/ Micro modal

70:30

5

Bamboo/ Micro modal

30:70

Study on comfort properties of apparels 213



25.2.2

Mixing

Mixing the fibres in different blend ratios namely bamboo 100%, micro modal 100%, bamboo/micro modal – 50:50, bamboo/ micro modal – 70:30, bamboo/ micro modal – 30:70, to the further process in blow room (Table 25.2).

25.2.3

Blow room

The given different blend ratios of fibres bamboo/ micro modal were processed in blow room and lap was taken out (Figure 25.1).

Figure 25.1 Blow room process

25.2.4

Carding

The prepared lap was fed to carding machine for production of carded slivers (Figure 25.2).

Figure 25.2 Carding process

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25.2.5

Draw frame

The carded sliver was fed to drawing machine when fibres are parallelized and improved in evenness (Figure 25.3).

Figure 25.3 Draw frame process

25.2.6

Spinning Muratec vortex spinning

Vortex spinning technology was introduced by Murata Machinery Ltd. Japan in 1997. This technology is best explained as a development of air jet spinning, making use of air jets for yarn twisting. The main features of Murata vortex spinning (MVS) are as follows: 1. Ability to produce yarn at 400 m/min which is almost 20 times greater than ring spinning frame production. 2. Low maintenance costs, a fully automated piecing system and elimination of roving frame. 3. The yarn and the fabric properties of MVS yarn are claimed by the manufacturer to be comparable to those of ring spun yarn.

Principle of operation The basic principle of operation is shown in Figures 25.1 and 25.2. The sliver is fed to 4-over-4 (or a four pair) drafting unit. As the fibres come out of the front rollers, they are sucked into the spiral-shaped opening of the air jet nozzle. The nozzle provides a swirling air current which twists the fibres. A guide needle within the nozzle controls the movement of the fibres towards a hollow spindle. After the fibres have passed through the nozzle, they twine over the hollow spindle. The leading ends of the fibre bundle are drawn into the hollow spindle by the fibres of the preceding portion of the fibre bundle being twisted into a spun yarn. The finished yarn is then wound onto a package.



Study on comfort properties of apparels 215

Figure 25.4 (A) Feed material passage

Figure 25.4 (B) Expansion of fibre edges due to whirling force of the jet air stream

The structure of vortex yarn compared to other yarns Vortex yarn has a two-part structure: a core surrounded by wrapper fibres. The number of wrapper fibres compared to the fibre core is higher compared to the air jet spinning. During yarn formation, the leading ends of the fibres are directed towards the yarn core and the trailing ends wrap around the core fibres. Such a structure provides the necessary fibre orientation and, at the same time, the required yarn strength. One problem with the vortex system is significant fibre loss during the yarn formation. This is related to the problem of variations in yarn quality which are not detectable by conventional evenness testers and sometimes only identified by weak points in the finished fabric. The path followed by the fibre in the currents

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created by the air jets play a crucial role in yarn quality. Most structural defects are cause by the deflection of fibres in the air jet from their ideal path. Both delivery speed and yarn count are significant factors for yarn evenness and imperfections. An increase in delivery speed results in deterioration of yarn evenness. This is the result of decreasing efficiency of the air jet stream at higher delivery speeds because there is less time for the wrapper fibres to wrap around the parallel core properly. This particularly affects finer yarns and means that vortex spinning is best suited for coarser grades of yarn. Nozzle pressure also has a significant effect on yarn properties. A higher pressure can improve strength because wrapper fibres wrap more tightly around the core. However, it can also lead to more lost fibres. This creates potential weak points and increases unevenness in the yarn. A low pressure leads to improved evenness though strength is reduced. The distance between the front roller nip point and the tip of the spindle (indicated by L in Figure 25.2) also affects yarn structure. The greater the distance, the higher the level of fibre wastage and yarn unevenness. In Vortex yarns, the centre of the yarn is not twisted. Twisting occurs at the outer sides of the yarn, as shown in Figures 25.3 and 25.4. Fibres at the centre of the yarn remain loose while those at the outer side are fully twisted. In ring spun yarn, twist is given to the entire yarn from the centre to the surface of the yarn (Figures 25.5 and 25.6). The yarn thickness in vortex yarns is uneven. Twisting is concentrated at the thinner sections, while twisting is loose at the thicker section, leading to greater yarn hairiness. In the case of rotor yarn all the fibres are twisted from the centre to the outer side (Figures 25.7 and 25.8). Twisting is more uneven for fibre s near the surface of the yarn. Table 25.3 provides a comparison between the three types of yarns.

Figure 25.5 Micrograph of vortex yarn structure

Figure 25.6 Vortex yarn cross-section

Study on comfort properties of apparels 217



The figure shows that at centre of vortex yarn there is zero twist in the fibres i.e., they form a parallel alignment at the very centre. Twist increases towards the outer part of the yarn and is greatest in the outer wrapper fibres. Rotor-spun yarns have a high twist at the centre of the yarn which decreases towards the surface of the yarn. Ring yarns have a relatively consistent twisted structure from the centre to the surface of the yarn body. Table 25.3 Comparison of ring rotor air jet Property Parallelisation and Fibre orientation

Ring Yarn

Rotor yarn

Max

Min

Vortex yarn

Hairiness

Max

Min

Pilling

Max

Min

Strength

Max

Min

Unevenness

Max

Surface smoothness

Max

Core fibres

Max

Min

Neps and thick places

Min

Max

Bulkiness

Min Min

Min

Max

Figure 25.7 Difference in twist distribution in vortex, rotor and ring yarns

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The thermal resistance value has been found by using Permetester. The Permetester conforms to the standard ISO 11092. It works on the principle based on heat flux sensing. Here the measuring head is heated to body temperature (33°C–35°C) and the room temperature is kept at 20°C–22°C. The output voltage is calculated with and without the sample. The difference between the heat flow with sample and without sample gives the dry thermal resistance of the fabric sample. The dry thermal resistance is given as follows:  1 1  Rt =(T1 − T0 ) ×  −  S .u1 S .u0  Where R is the dry thermal resistance; T and T are the temperatures with and without the fabric sample; µ and µ are the voltage outputs with and without the fabric sample; S is the sensitivity of the instrument. The working procedure for the Permetester is as follows: t

1

0

0

1

1. Switch on the instrument and the data acquisition system. 2. The ambient temperature should be 22°C–25°C and RH should be around 50%–65% (depending upon the lab conditioning system). Record the temperature as T . 3. Remove the spacer ring from the measuring head and set the temperature of the measuring head to 35ºC with the help of the temperature controller. Record the temperature as T . 4. Select the velocity of the wind tunnel. 5. Start the computer and “Run” the utility program. 6. Note the voltage output from the computer screen and after the value is stabilised record the output as u . 7. Put the fabric sample on the measuring head and note the fall in the output value. After stabilisation record the value as u . 0

1

0

1

 1 1  8. The dry thermal resistance is given by Rt =(T1 − T0 ) ×  −  S .u1 S .u0    where S is the sensitivity of the instrument.

Study on comfort properties of apparels 219



Figure 25.8 Air permeability tester

25.3 Conclusion Thorough literature review survey was carried out in this research work on “Study on comfort properties of apparels produced from bamboo/micro modal blended vortex yarn” and it was observed that the study on comfort properties of bamboo/micro modal knitted fabric/apparel has not been reported any where hence we propose to undertake the above research and report the findings.

References 1. K. R. Salhotra. An overview of spinning technologies: possibilities, applications and limitation. Indian Journal of fibre & textile research. Textile technology. IIT, New Delhi, published on 12 August 1992. 2. Md. Sultan Mahmud. Comparative study on ring, rotor and air-jet spun yarn. European Scientific Journal. January 2015 edition vol.11, No.3 ISSN: 1857–7881. 3. G. K. Tyagi. (2008). Comfort aspects of finished polyester cotton and polyester viscose Ring and MJS yarn fabrics. The technological institute of textile and science. Bhiwani, Indian Journal of fibre and textile research.

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4. G. K. Tyagi. (2010). Comfort behavior of woven bamboo cotton Ring and MJS yarns. The technological institute of textile and science. Bhiwani, Indian Journal of fibre and textile research. 5. G. K. Tyagi. (2012). Low stress and recovery characteristics of tencel blending ring rotor and mjs yarns. The technological institute of textile and science. Bhiwani, Indian Journal of fibre and textile research. 6. W. Oxenham. (1992). Influence of fibre properties in air jet spinning. Indian Journal of fibre and textile research. 7. W. Oxenham. (2003). Voretex spun yarn vs air jet spun yarn. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, AUTEX Research Journal. 3(3). 8. Bhavdip Paldiya. Air Jet Spinning System- Modern Yarn Production. Dept. of Textile Technology, Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Surat, India, textilelearner.blogspot.in. 9. H. Stalder. New spinning processes and their possible applications and development potential Lecture presented at meeting at ETH, Zurich, Switzerland. 10. Carl A. Lawrence. Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology. CRC Publications, 2003. 11. Yarn engineering, Yehiaelmogahzy, Department of Polymer and Fibre engineering, au burn university, Alabama, US, Indian journal of fibre and textile research.vol 31, 2006. 12. Ramesh kumar, Anand kumar, Senthilnathan, Jeevitha, Anbumani. (2008). Comparative studies on Ring rotor and vortex yarn knitted fabrics. Autex Research Journal. vol 8, no 4, December 2008.

13. Nazanerdumlu, Bulentozipek, William Oxenham. Vortex spinning technology. Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Textile technology and Design, Istanbul technical university, Istanbul, Turkey, North Carolina university, College of textiles, Raleigh, NC, USA. Textile Progress published on 1st October 2012. 14. Geoff Naylor. MVS spinning: A new spinning on textile processing. Cotton Textile Unit, CSIRO Textile and Fibre Technology and Australian Cotton CRC January-February, 2002 Vol 23, No 1, page 26 January-February, 2002 “The Australian Cotton grower”. 15. Vortex spinning for the future., conference paper “leading fibre innovation” tencel at 20 New Orleans December 5th, 2012, Hans leitner, project manager special projects business unit fibres. 16. Influence of the Yarn Formation Process on the Characteristics of Viscose Fabric Made of Vortex Colored Spun Yarns. Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Clean Dyeing and Finishing Technology, Shaoxing University, 508 West Hunching Road, Shaoxing 312000, P. R. China Fibres and textiles in eastern Europe, July–September 2015, vol 23. 17. “Comparative assessment & empirical modeling for aesthetic behavior of vortex & ring yarn knitted fabrics on laundering” Dinesh Bhatia1and S. K. Sinha2 Department of Textile Technology 1,2Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar (India) 144011 Cell: +91 8054603399, E mail: [email protected] com Received 10 September 2014; accepted 01 October 2014



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18. Inner wears product research, page industries 2012. 19. Muratec vortex technology on show at inter textile shanghai. exhibition and conferences details gathered from magazine knitting views at 2011. 20. http://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102038/new%20spinning%20systems/vortex%20spinning.htm 21. Textilelearner.blogspot.com/.../vortex-spinning-process-principle-of.html 22. C. Rameshkumar, P. Anandkumar, P. Senthilnathan, R. Jeevitha and N. Anbumani. (2008). AUTEX Res. J. 8: 100–105. 23. W.M. Johnson. The impact of MVS machine settings and finishing applications on yarn quality and knitted fabric handle. MSc. thesis, Institute of Textile Technology, Charlottesville, VA, 2002. 24. N. Erdumlu. An approach to investigate the spinnability of fine count yarns on vortex spinning system. PhD thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2011. 25. G. Basal. The structure and properties of vortex and compact spun yarns. PhD thesis, North Carolina State University, 2003. 26. Murata Machinery, Muratec Textile Machinery, MVS 861 Catalogue, Murata Machinery Ltd., Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. 27. Murata Machinery Murata Vortex Spinner No.861 Instruction Manual, Murata Machinery Ltd., Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan, 2006. 28. S. Sukigara, Y. Suzuki. Effect of vortex yarn structure on the fabric mechanical and tactile characteristics. Proceedings of the Textile Institute 86th World Conference, Hong Kong, China, 18–21 November 2008. 29. Aung Kyaw Soe, Masaoki Takahashi, MasaruNakajima. (2004). Structure and properties of MVS yarns incomparison with Ring yarns and Open-End RotorSpun Yarns. Textile research journal. p. 819–825. 30. Padmamabhan, A. R. (1989). A comparative study of the properties of cotton yarns spun on the Dref-3, Ring and Rotor Spinning systems. J. Text. Inst. p 555–562. 31. Stuart Gordon. (2002). The effect of short fibre and neps on Murata vortex spinning. CSIRO Textile and Fibre Technology. 23(1):28. 32. Subrata Ghosh. Effect of Yarn Characteristics on Knitting Performance. pp. 31–33. 33. Soe, A.K., Takahashi, M., Nakajima, M. (2004). Structure and Properties of MVS Yarns in Comparison with Ring Yarns and Open-End Rotor Spun Yarns. Textile Res. J. 74(9):819–826. 34. DuPont Bulletin, Producing Core-Spun Yarns Containing Lycra, Bulletin L-519, pp. 6–7, 1997. 35. Muratec Air Generations, General Catalog, Murata Machinery Ltd. 36. Soe, A. K., Takahashi, M., Nakajima M., Matsuo, T., Matsumoto, T. (2004). Structure and Properties of MVS Yarns in Comparison with Ring Yarns and Open-End Rotor Spun Yarns. Textile Res. J. 74(9):819–829. 37. Basal, G., Oxenham, W. (2006). Effects of Some Process Parameters on the Structure and Properties of Vortex Spun Yarn. Textile Res. J. 76(6):492–499.

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38. Drape and mechanical properties of ring and MJS yarns fabric melliand international. 2007;4(13):343. 39. Basal, G., Oxenham, W. (2003). Vortex spun yarn vs. air-jet spun yarn. Autex Research Journal. 3(3): 96–101. 40. Basal, G., Oxenham, W. (2006). Effects of some process parameters on the structure and properties of vortex spun yarn. Textile Research Journal. 76(6):492–499.

Index

A AATCC 96, 98, 104, 120, 133, 140, 174, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 191, 192, 198 Absorbency 104, 105, 106, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 159, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 197 Advantages 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 43, 46, 58, 83, 88, 90, 116, 164, 166, 168 Anti-fungal 21, 22, 24, 26, 101, 103, 104, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188 Anti-Odour 104, 105, 106 Apparel 107, 140, 158, 160, 162, 174, 179, 188, 198, 199, 202, 203, 204, 208, 211, 213, 219 Aqueous 5, 6, 27, 160, 173, 206 ASTM 133, 135, 140, 142, 192, 198 Azo-dyes 203

B Bacterial 21, 24, 25, 26, 62, 63, 83, 101, 103, 106, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 173, 176, 177, 178, 191, 192, 196, 197, 198 Bio-polishing 90 Bio-polymers 29, 31, 61, 62, 63 Bio-processing 83, 85 Biopsies 33

C Chemical Oxygen Demand 88 Components 1, 2, 3, 23, 24 Cotton 6, 16, 17, 18, 21, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 50, 59, 63, 66

D Degradation 108 Denims 32, 67

Desizing 87, 88, 91, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 132 Di-hydropyrans 16 Dimethyl pyridine 5 Dye fixing agents 4, 5 Dyes 1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 52, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 70, 89, 107, 108, 115, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 157, 171, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 199, 200, 203, 204

E E.coli 103, 120, 121, 144, 145, 148, 162 Eco-fashion 74, 81, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129 Eco-friendly 8, 9, 11, 19, 29, 35, 40, 56, 60, 69, 78, 83, 84, 89, 93, 101, 107, 108, 109, 112, 121, 123, 124, 129, 159, 162, 165, 187, 199, 200, 201, 204, 205, 207, 208 Ecological 1, 9, 12, 18, 41, 55, 77, 78, 81, 90, 107, 112, 124, 171, 202 Eichhornia Crassipes 115, 117, 122 Environmental 8, 11, 12, 18, 40, 41, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 88, 106, 107, 108, 112, 113, 124, 129, 131, 164, 169, 171, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 206, 207 Enzymatic 32, 63, 87, 89, 90, 91, 107, 109, 111 EPA 61, 205

F Flame retardant 2, 8 Formaldehyde 2, 4, 5, 68, 69, 203 Fungi 21, 22, 26, 64, 110, 160, 183, 184, 185, 187

224 Index

G Girardinia Heterophylla 151 Glucosamine 63 Glucosidic 85, 86

H Holocellulose 166 Humidity 136, 195 Hyacinth 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 129 HYSD 164 Hysteria 22

Myrobalan 132, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179

N  Nebuliser 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 Neurodermatitis 201 Neurotoxins 201

O  ODS 7 Oko-Tex 69, 70 Ozone 2, 6, 7, 94

I 

P 

ICP-MS 3 ICP-OES 3 Immersion 169, 191 Immobilise 67

PCP 1, 68 Pterocarpus santallinus 171, 173 Punica Granatum 132, 171, 173, 175 Pyrazolone 7 Pyridine 5 Pyrolysis 50

J  JOEL 133 JSM 133 Juglone 16

K Kawabata 211 Ketchup 32 Kum Kum 135 Kusum 12, 40

L  Lactic 29, 62 Lactose 63 Lucrative 172

M  Mask 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 Muga 47, 189 Mustard 32 Mutagenic 6 MVS 211, 212, 214, 220, 221

Q  QAC 143 Quarries 165 Quaternary 50, 143, 197

R  Red sandal wood 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179 Residual 15, 61, 147 Resilience 32 Resistance 31, 32, 33, 46, 66, 80, 106, 119, 156, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 180, 184, 190, 194, 195, 197, 211, 218 Rupture 166, 169, 170

S  Salad 89 Salts 17, 165, 171, 190 Sisal 22, 41, 42, 163, 164, 166, 168, 169, 170

Soluble 85, 86, 184, 189 Spliced  66 Staple fibre 206 Stretch 29, 31, 32, 62, 194 Swimwear 33

T  Tensile Strength 42, 109, 166, 167, 191, 194, 195, 197 Texture 32, 36, 39, 110, 123, 125, 127, 128 Thermoplastic 8, 29, 197 TWEEN20 102 Twigs 18 Twist 142, 143, 152, 172, 214, 216, 217

U  UPF 93, 96, 98, 99, 100 UV/Vis 96 UV 133, 174, 198

V  Vetiver 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 Vetiverol 22 Vetivone 22

Index

225

W  Warmth 183 Washing 15, 59, 69, 82, 90, 102, 107, 117, 132, 160, 176, 179, 181, 204, 206, 207 Welfare 73 Wetting 102, 103, 120, 140, 185 Wicking 119, 120, 140, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 197, 211

Y  Yeasts 64, 160 Yucatan 169

Z  ZOI 144, 145, 146, 147, 148 Zone 25, 26, 103, 104, 121, 126, 144, 145, 161, 164, 165, 196, 197