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SUGGESTED ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN FOR A GUIDANCE PROGRAM FOR TRONA JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
A Project Presented to The Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Mary Kinsella Del Sant August 1950 "
UMI Number: EP46271
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T h is project report, w ritten under the direction of the candidate's adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of Ed u catio n in p a r t ia l fu lfillm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree
of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
A d v is e r
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.
Need for the program in T r o n a .................
PREVIOUS PERTINENT LITERATURE ....................
Review of the l i t e r a t u r e .....................
C o n c l u s i o n s ...........................
BACKGROUND FACTORS IN TRONA ......................
Setting in the community and school ...........
Aims in terms of student needs in Trona . . . .
FACTORS TO BE I N C L U D E D ..........................
Types of guidance to be o f f e r e d ...............
Participants in the p r o g r a m ...................
P L A N .............................
of the p r i n c i p a l ....................
of the teacher-counselors ...........
of the social studiesteachers
The school nurse
. . . . .
The l i b r a r i a n ..................................
All t e a c h e r s .....................
RECORDS AND T E S T S ................................
The cumulative record ..........................
PAGE T e s t i n g ........................................
Use of testr e s u l t s .............................
IN SERVICE T R A I N I N G ............................. .
INITIATING THEORGANIZATIONAL P L A N ..............
S U M M A R Y ...........................................
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .............................................
CHAPTER I BACKGROUND DATA The purpose of this study is to outline an organ izational plan for a guidance program which can be presented to the faculty of Trona Junior-Senior High School in September for discussion. Need for the program in Trona.
The need for the study
grew out of concern on the part of parents and teachers regarding students whose achievement is inferior to their estimated capacity.
This need is amplified by the rapid
growth of school enrollment in the past five years which has necessitated the addition of many facilities, new teachers and staff members.
As the facilities grew, though provision
was made for certain guidance services, the faculty group felt that some organizing force was needed.
The subject was
discussed at a number of faculty meetings throughout the year and the views of parents and community leaders reported. The consensus of opinion expressed by the group was that a study should be made by one of the members interested in such a project and a report made at a special faculty meeting in the Fall.
It is believed that such a procedure
will not only consolidate the work that has been done, but will also acquaint faculty members who have joined the group
within the past year* or will join in September, with the guidance program. The faculty may accept the program as outlined or may make certain changes as the members decide. Procedure.
The organizational plan presented in this
study is based on a review of recent literature pertinent to the organization of guidance programs in high schools through out the nation and on certain conditions peculiar to the community and school situation in Trona. Chapter II reviews pertinent literature which points out the need for such a program.
Attention is brought to
literature written by authorities in the field of guidance specifying basic "musts1* of a guidance program.
clusion of this Chapter relates the literature to this study of an organizational plan for a guidance program in Trona. Chapter III presents factors which make up the setting for the program in the community and in the school.
states aims for the program in terms of student needs in Trona Junior-Senior High School. Chapter IV states the types of guidance to be offered and set up a total school organization by specifying who is to participate in the program. Chapter V sets up the organizational plan and outlines the duties of the participants.
Chapter VI outlines a minimum testing program and specifies records to be kept. Chapter VII brings the attention of the administration to the problem of in-service training. Chapter VIII deals with a brief plan for initiating the program. Chapter IX gives a summary of the organizational plan. An annotated bibliography of source materials completes the study.
CHAPTER II PREVIOUS PERTINENT LITERATURE Review of the literature.
Authorities agree that
there is no Mbestn guidance program for all schools. also agree that there is no best way to begin.3 important that a beginning is made.
The direction the
program takes will depend on the training, interest and awareness of need of school administrators, faculty members and community leaders. The need for guidance has been stressed by numerous studies.
In Virginia, a survey of 356 our of 480 accredited
schools recommended a more effective program of guidance for 1P
An experiment was conducted in Washington, D. C . , to discover the difficulties experienced by low achieving high school pupils and to effect a correction of these difficulties through the application of various guidance services adapted - -
to individual pupil needs. x The essentials of a good guidance program for secondary schools have been described by Ruth Strang in her book The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work.® Erickson and Happ^ present an account of what schools of all sizes and from nearly every section of the country are doing in the way of guidance and show those activities selected as
most effective and most desirable.
Jane W a r t e r s b o o k
analyzes the literature to date and points out developments in the field of guidance. In Organization and Administration of Guidance? Erickson and Smith^ deal with ways in which a guidance program can be improved or initiated in large and small schools from the point of view of those responsible for directing the development of the program. Hamrin and Erickson'7 present material especially of value to classroom teachers in relating guidance services to the every day problems of students. Techniques in personal guidance? especially in the field of vocational guidance? are presented by Germane and Germane in Personnel Work in High Schools.^ Traxler's Techniques of G u i d a n c e 9 concentrates on guidance tools including tests.
John G. Darley1 also deals
with tests? especially their selection and interpretation for the purpose of identifying student problems and disabilities. The guidance program suggested by the Education Policies Commission?^ in Education for All American Youth for the ideal rural and urban high school of the future? combines the core curriculum and special.counselor plan. Conclusions.
The need for guidance in general seems to
be quite well established.
This need in Trona has been
realized by the administrative personnel, community leaders and junior and senior high school teachers.
It remains to
decide which elements of a good guidance program shall be included in this study. The "musts" for a successful personnel program set up O
by Ruth Strang0 agree with Erickson's ideas in his three requisites for a guidance program.(35413-444)
elements of trained personnel, time and total school organ ization are incorporated to a certain extent in this study. In a small school such as Trona has, it is hardly possible that a single teacher will be excluded from guidance services.
All teachers may not have guidance training.
is important that one or two members of the staff at least have considerable training and continue to specialize in the field of guidance. Time should be made available for all students to spend at least one hour each semester discussing their most pressing problems with an assigned teacher-counselor who understands him and is interested in him.
Time must also
be provided for group informational activities. It seems logical for both elementary and secondary divisions in Trona to join together in the development of a program since all twelve grades are under one roof and are guided by one Superintendent.
However, other than the fact
7 that the two teacher-counselors become acquainted with the elementary school program and make contacts with sixth grade students and teachers in the spring for records and pertinent information, this coordinating activity is left to the Superintendent and this study wiil be chiefly concerned with the organizational program of the junior-senior high school.
CHAPTER III BACKGROUND FACTORS IN TRONA Setting in the community and school.
for which this high school guidance program is intended is primarily industrial.
No one lives in Trona who is not
employed by the American Potash and Chemical Corporation or the school.
There is no unemployment in Trona proper since
company workers only are allowed to live in company houses. The school bus brings a few students from Westend* which is also company owned) and from Argus? which has no industry of its own but depends on Trona and Westend for employment.
of the students are from families of executives) but the greatest number are from families of plant workers.
administrative and accounting divisions of the company are located in Los Angeles* 180 miles West.
The theatre* drug
store* department store, hospital, and other community services are owned by the company and operated by company employees. There is no fresh water within a radius of 25 or 30 miles of Trona.
The soil is laden with many chemicals and
minerals; hence, there is no agriculture of any kind. temperature during the school year is fairly moderate.
the summer months* it may rise to 120°. Trona has a unified school.
The junior-senior high
school enrolls about 275 students.
The elementary school is
in a separate wing of the same building that houses the high school.
Records started in kindergarten follow the pupil from
sixth grade to junior high school and are continued through senior high.
The Superintendent of the high school is also
Superintendent of the elementary school. That portion of the school plant which has been com pleted is thoroughly up-to-date and has every modern facility. Additions are being made each year in the same Southern California architectural style. A high percentage of the students continue with their education in the junior colleges and technical schools of Southern California and elsewhere. universities and four-year colleges.
Many of them go on to This situation seems to
be due to the job security of parents in Trona as well as to stimulation brought about by a very generous scholarship plan financed by the company.
The company also makes a great
effort to employ students part-time during vacations? both while in high school and later. It can hardly be.said that the community and school situation described is that of an "average American" town of 3000 population.
Rather? it is difficult for the casual
observer to visualize life in such a community. Aims in terms of student needs in Trona.
10 in her book High School Personnel Work Today states!
writings of the authorities show that they consider the primary objective of personnel work to be the optimum
development of each student as a group member." d ° :229) Clifford E. Erickson corroborates this thought when he says!
"Building a guidance program on determined problems
and needs of pupils is the best procedure.»‘(3J444) The purpose of guidance in Trona Junior-Senior High School is to acquaint the student with his new environment and associates as soon as possible after the beginning of the school year, or when he enters, and to help him adjust to them; to help him know himself, his interests and abilities so that he can be motivated in his work by scheduling in harmony with his vocational plans. The word "associates" in this instance is meant to include staff members as well as students.
includes all the facilities which he will use in his high school work with special attention given the library. When he knows himself thoroughly, he will adjust to his surroundings and will be able to form worthwhile plans for the future.
CHAPTER IV FACTORS TO BE INCLUDED Guidance problems of youth change.
For that reason
it is necessary to institute means for determining student problems from year to year within a certain school.
there are certain broad classifications of guidance services which authorities agree should be included in a student personnel program. Types of guidance to be offered.
Orientation has for
some time been given attention by schools concerned with personal adjustment of students.
In Trona where the school
is small and the sixth grade students are in the same building as the junior high school, this problem of orientation is not as great as in larger schools.
Nevertheless, adjustment to
new scheduling, new teachers, a new library situation and a new activity program causes anxiety on the part of students. Since it is the seventh graders first experience in junior high school, it is our first concern. Closely following orientation is the need for personal and social adjustment.
Teachers and counselors must work
together to inspire good study habits and to help the students to learn the need for and the importance of planning. program of self-testing and analysis of character and
12 personality to develop practical competence} common sense judgment, emotional balance, social fitness and physical fitness must be organized. As the student progresses, he finds educational guidance to be another need.
This is closely associated
with the need for vocational guidance.
A good educational
and vocational guidance program will stimulate and guide the student toward a better understanding of his own personality, abilities and interests.
Each individual student must be
encouraged to acquire a wide knowledge of areas of occupations. This knowledge will encourage scheduling of high school work in harmony with vocational planning.
As the student
progresses toward the time when he will leave the school, whether at graduation time or earlier, information must be made available to him regarding further educational oppor tunities.
Information must be made available to counselors
and teachers to determine which students should attend college and which college will best fit their needs.
also know about scholarships available. Briefly we have touched on the student's needs from orientation through personal and social adjustment and future planning.
To this should be added follow-up by the school
either as research or as adjustment service. Participants in the program.
The principal, as
13 leader in all administrative work, is the important coordinating figure in the guidance program and will head the guidance committee. Working closely with him are two teacher-counselors free at least two periods a day.
They should be provided
with files for student records, results of standardized tests, and health examinations, in a comfortable, pleasant private room with facilities for interviewing.
It is assumed that
these two people and the principal will have special aptitude and training for guidance. The up through
teachers of social studies from seventh grade on senior high school
should also be members ofthe
These people may or may not be trained
in guidance but as social studies teachers they should be enthusiastic regarding the personal development of each individual student. Though the school nurse will not be asked to attend all guidance committee the entire
meetings? she must be acquainted with
program and sit in
on special meetings and
conferences. The'librarian will have somewhat the same .status as the nurse, since her services are invaluable in a good guidance program.
If circumstances permit, it might be well
to make her a teacher-counselor and give her a major part in the guidance program.
However, this will be dependent on the
14 interests and training of the particular librarian involved. All other teachers must feel that they are an essential part of the program and will attend certain special guidance meetings, individually or collectively, as requested by the principal.
Though the teachers may often be helpful in supply
ing information about a particular student, they should also make use of guidance records and facilities to learn more about each of their students. Every member of the staff must realize that the purpose of education is to assist the student in realizing his full capacity for growth and development.
CHAPTER V ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN Small school systems present special problems in organizing a guidance program.
Individuals responsible for
the functions of the program are also responsible for many other school functions.
Usually these functions have to do
with routine classroom work.
The very fact that they are
routine means that the teacher is inclined to give his time and effort to these duties first and to use what is left over for the "extra11 work of guidance. For this reason the principal has the important duty of organizing the program and assigning the work in such a way that all the phases of the program will be taken care of. He must provide favorable conditions for carrying on the work such as providing time in the schedule.
Time must be provided
in the teacher’s schedule and in the student's schedule.
must make the records accessible to all the teachers and see that they are properly interpreted. provided the counselors.
Clerical help must be
A vigorous program of in-service
training must be determined and properly supervised. Functions of the principal.
Briefly outlined, the
functions of the principal as executive haed of the guidance program and chairman of the guidance committee will be:
To be responsible for the coordination of
guidance activities and guidance functions. 2.
To revise the school program, time schedule, and
curriculum in such a way as will be most practicable to meet the needs of the students. 3.
To carry out or delegate the authority to carry
out the testing program. 4.
To make final decisions in the disposition of
serious disciplinary problems or cases of emotionally disturbed students. 5.
To supervise in-service training.
To evaluate the school program by follow-up studies,
determine needed curriculum change, or give additional assist ance to •‘drop-outs” and graduates.
(This function may be
delegated to a committee of two or three teachers.) 7.
To coordinate community and school activities to
obtain the assistance of organizations in the community interested in guidance.
Organizations such as the Lions
Club, Labor Union, and the Apprenticeship Training Department of the company should be contacted. 8.
To provide space, facilities and clerical help
for guidance services. Functions of the teaeher-counselors.
At the present
time the teacher-counselors have two periods a day of about
17 forty-five to fifty minutes each available for guidance work. The remainder of the school day is devoted to classroom teaching.
It is apparent that in this length of time they
will not be able to administer to all the guidance needs of
high school students in addition to attending guidance con ferences and keeping records up to date.
For this reason
they must depend on the other teachers for certain guidance services. Many of these services will have to do with group activities planned in cooperation with the counselors.
few of the group activities will include the entire student body.
Others will be carried on in the classroom during class
time in social studies groups of a particular grade level. Special units such as orientation, study habits, personal adjustment, occupations and use of the library will be planned for grades seven through the twelfth.
As a result of
these group activities, problems of individual students often arise which can be and are ably handled by the teacher concerned.
However, the teacher should know when to make
referrals to the principal and teacher-counselors. In brief outline the functions of the teachercounselors will be: 1.
To become acquainted with the' biementary school
program to some extent to learn what the guidance background
18 of students has been. 2.
To visit the sixth grade rooms in the Spring to
make initial contacts with students and obtain relevant in formation from the teacher who knows them best. 3.
To keep records up to date.
To arrange personal interviews with every student
at least once a year and with special cases or those requesting conferences when necessary. 5.
4s a member of the guidance committee, to plan
assembly programs of a distinctly guidance nature for the entire student body, 6.
To work with Social Studies teachers in planning
group guidance activities on each grade level.
include orientation, social and personal adjustment, selfappraisal, occupational guidance, educational guidance and use of the library and study habits. 7.
To confer with teachers on special case problems
growing out of group guidance activities or classroom problems. 8.
To confer with parents regarding problems of certain
To prepare, case studies for faculty group dis
cussions when needed. 10.
As a member of the guidance committee, to work
with the principal on special cases and problems.
19 Functions of the Social Studies teachers.
of the group guidance activities must be scheduled on grade levelsj the best time available seems to be the period set aside- for social studies.
The group guidance functions will
then become a part of the social studies curriculum and units will be set up by the teachers to handle particular group student problems. As a member of the guidance committee* the social studies teachers attend guidance committee meetings for the purpose of coordinating activities in these classes.
these meetings the members of the committee should decide which units are to be taught and on what grade level they will be taught. These units are to be based on the needs of the students and for that reason it is impossible to set up a static program. By class discussions* individual conversations with students* interest inventories, and class assignments it is expected that the teacher will be able to determine the needs of students which seem to apply to the group and can be handled in a group situation. There are certain problems common to all students of a given age which can definitely be provided for in the program.
Orientation, social and personal adjustment, study
habits and use of the library, and vocational and educational adjustment are some of the topics that can and will be given
20 a definite place in the social studies program. To summarize, the duties of the social studies teacher will be: 1.
To attend guidance committee meetings for the
purpose of planning guidance assemblies and coordinating activities in social studies classes throughout the curriculum. 2.
To plan and provide for units of study on the
grade level they are teaching.
The total program should
Units on social and personal adjustment, specific interests and hobbies.
Units on occupational areas, specific jobs and avocational interests.
Units on particular problems such as study habits, use of the library, and orientation. The library unit should be worked out in cooperation with the librarian.
Units on educational adjustment.
To plan class discussions and activities to
determine certain problems and needs of the students that arise from time to time which can be handled in a group situation. 4.
To assist the principal on request in carrying
out the minimum testing program. 5.
Administration of "Career Day" when it is held.
The school nurse.
The school nurse as an associate
21 member of the committee, will; 1.
Make home calls where absence of more than two
days is caused by illness. 2.
Approve the return to class of students absent
for two days or more because of illness. 3.
Make provision for and supervise health
Furnish health reports for permanent records.
Coordinate activities between home* school,
doctor and hospital. The librarian.
The librarian shall be an associate
member of the guidance committee and wills 1.
Inform teachers and teacher-eounselors of up-to-
date publications and material available in the library. 2.
Build an occupational shelf of interest and value
to students and teachers. 3.
Select books of fiction and general reading to
help students in their process of "self-realization.11 4.
Use attractive posters to create interest among
pupils and to aid in guidance. 5.
Maintain a readily accessible file of unbound
occupational and training information. 6.
Build a film library for use in group guidance
22 All teachers.
All teachers must feel that they are
an essential part of the program and wills 1.
Stress occupational information related to their
subject field. 2.
Learn to know the student, his adjustment,
interests, hobbies and encourage development of special skills. 3.
Record information about the student which may
be valuable to those who have responsibilities regarding his future study and work. 4.
Act as sponsor for at least one extra-curricular
activity or one class. 5.
Make the school as personal and friendly as
Give individual assistance when sought out by
the student or make the proper referral.
CHAPTER VI RECORDS AND TESTS The need for a great deal of information about each individual student is an outgrowth of newer practices in education. not enough. different.
The knowledge that each student is different is Facts must be collected to show how he is Information about individual needs? interests
and abilities must be obtained and recorded for future reference. The cumulative record.
The cumulative record is the
basic source of information for Trona students. is started whenever the student enters school.
The record This may be
in kindergarten or any grade level up through the twelfth grade.
The record is in the form of a manila folder.
Information is recorded on the inside of the folder.
records transferred with the student or added later may be inserted into the folder. Cumulative records are kept in the central office Just outside the principal's office.
A secretary is on
duty there from early in the morning until late afternoon. Though the files are locked, the secretary makes them available to all teachers and counselors on request. The record includes personal and family data,
24 academic achievement, test record, personality estimate, significant health information, work experience, interests and activities in and out of school, data explaining extreme variance between testing results and actual achievement in class, educational and vocational plans, post-school data, guidance notes and photo. This cumulative personnel record was copyrighted in 1946 by the National Association of Secondary School Principals, Washington, D. C. Teachers are urged to make use of the records before the beginning of the term, or when new students enter, in order to become acquainted with individual student ability, interests and background.
In the junior high school,
teachers of social studies, English, reading, science and mathematics should use the records for dividing their classes into smaller instructional groups.
This may not be necessary
on the senior high level since the classes are smaller and by that time the teacher may be well acquainted with the student's abilities.
However, the practice may be useful
at times even on the higher level.
The reason for low
achievement in relationship to ability may be very obvious after consulting the test data or other information found in the cumulative record.
Ideas for extra work for high
achieving students may be suggested by the record. Teacher-counselors will want to consult the cumulative
25 record before advising students regarding any personal matter ranging from misbehavior problems and personal adjustment to school courses and college or vocational school. The principal uses the cumulative record in connect ion with many of his administrative functions.
before consulting with parents he should be sure to have all pertinent informatipn regarding the student at his fingertips.
This will also apply to teachers and teacher-
counselors. It has been found through experience in Trona that the cumulative records are used by all the members of the staff to such an extent at certain times that it has been necessary to set up regulations regarding their use. Records may not be taken from the principal’s reception room. However? an anteroom with a large table is provided where teachers may use the records and return them immediately to the secretary who files them.
The same rule applies to
counselors if they are using the files for recording or reference at a time when the teachers are not scheduled for classroom work.
Since the counselors’ offices are just off
this reception room? they may readily use the records and return them-to the secretary for filing. The principal and teacher-counselors are responsible for the recording of information in the cumulative.record.
Though they may be assisted in the task of recording by uncertified personnel, it is the function of the principal to see that the information is kept confidential and is correct. Anecdotal record.
An anecdotal record is also kept
while the student is actually in school attendance.
tributions may be made by any member of the staff who has contact with the student.
This may include report by
custodians, bus drivers, office girls and janitors. Teachers who sponsor a class from the seventh grade through the eleventh year are expected to make a short growth report on each member of the class at the close of the school year. Teachers and teacher-counselors have access to the anecdotal record since it is filed in the folder of the cumulative record.
The information is used in guidance
committee meetings in studying a particular case.
teachers attend these meetings in order to determine how to handle a difficult student problem. After the student graduates or leaves school the teacher-counselors go over all of the information to determine whether any of it may be of value as a part of the permanent cumulative record. recorded. discarded.
If it is of value it is
That material which is of a temporary nature is
Test information) properly interpreted)
gives valuable information to aid in scheduling a student and in motivating him to plan for his future work or education. This minimum testing program for Trona Junior-Senior High School is to be given early in the year by the principal assisted by the teacher of social studies for the group.
It is adapted from a program suggested by Clifford
E. Erickson) Director) Institute of Counseling) Testing and Guidance) Michigan State College.3 Specific tests are not named.
It is assumed that
the principal and teacher-counselors will formulate, from time to time) a testing policy.
The testing policy will be
dependent on the purpose of the testing program for Trona school.
Another factor to be considered is the introduction
of newer and perhaps better tests or improved or revised forms of tests.
To do this the guidance committee must
always be aware of student needs and of newer trends in the testing field. The program will includes 1.
An intelligence or mental maturity test admin
istered every three years.
It may be necessary from time
to time to re-test or to give another test to an individual student. 2.
A diagnostic achievement test administered every
28 year. 3.
An interest inventory administered at least every
three years beginning with the seventh grade. 4.
An inventory of social-personal adjustment to be
administered every three years. 5.
Special aptitude tests given to particular
students as the need arises. The results of all tests will be recorded in the cumulative record of each individual student. Use of test results.
This process of testing and
recording is useless unless a definite plan is followed in making use of test results.
A small school staff of sixteen
teachers in an isolated community must be their own test technicians and psychologists.
Their in-service training in
the use of tests will consist of the experience each of them has in using test data in helping a student adjust to himself and his environment. In discussing the use of test results Traxler states: '•The test scores are valuable both for conferences between counselors and individual teachers, and for staff clinic in which groups of teachers study the problems of different pupils and decide on the treatment for their difficulties. One of the essential elements of every testing program is a continuous program of educating teachers in the use of test results. Regard less of how a school's testing program is organized or how many counselors it has, its classroom teachers will do much of the actual guidance work, and the value of tests is almost directly proportional to the interest of teachers in them and their understanding of the
29 results." (9*197) The teachers in Trona have always been eager to obtain any bit of help they can get in solving their classroom problems and do make use of test results. . It is left to the principal to make sure that they understand the test results, and interpret them properly.
This may be done in group
meetings or in conferences with individual teachers, depending on the need. The test results may be interpreted in conference with students or their parents by the teacher-counselors and principal only. ’ Giving actual test scores to persons not familiar with limitations of the testing program is not recommended.
CHAPTER VII IN SERVICE TRAINING In service training in a very small school is a tremendous problem.
All of the teachers in Trona at the
present time teach at least six hours a day. them have seven hours of class work.
A few of
teach four hours and have two periods for counseling and guidance services.
All teachers handle at least two extra
curricular organizations. In the past, the only training in personnel work which the teachers received has been through faculty meetings and the use of records.
The very fact that they
expressed a desire for more organization in the guidance program proves that they have progressed in their thinking. For the coming school year, all of the faculty will participate in guidance functions and will make use of test results and records.
By doing so they will learn more
about guidance and guidance tools. For the years to come, it is suggested that the administration make an effort to lighten the teacher load, and provide funds for the hiring of at least one faculty member who is highly specialized in the guidance field and who will be able to devote the greatest part of his school day to guidance.
When specialized knowledge and training is available and time is permitted in the school day? a more forceful in-service training program can be set up.
CHAPTER VIII INITIATING THE ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN The first real step in initiating the plan has already been taken in that the administration and Board of Education have recognized the need and have made time, effort and trained leadership available. been discussed at faculty meetings.
The problem has
Common grounds of
understanding have been established and plans for this study "were made.
In addition, a "student needs" approach
has been established. The second step will be to present to the faculty in September the results of this study at a meeting held a few days before the beginning of classes.
A review of
the program will be made to acquaint new members with the entire plan.
Evaluation of the study may follow.
recommended will be incorporated into the plan. At the end of the school year, the plan will again be discussed, re-evaluated and changes and innovations made.
CHAPTER IX SUMMARY The purpose of this study is to outline an organizational plan for a guidance program which can be presented to the faculty of Trona Junior-Senior High School in September.
It is anticipated that the program
will aid students whose achievement is inferior to their estimated capacity. The need for the program has been amplified by rapid expansion of the school plant and the addition of new staff members.
During the past year, the situation has been
discussed by Board members, administrative people and teachers.
Common grounds of understanding have been
established and plans for this study made. The study begins with a review of recent literature pertinent to the organization of guidance programs through out the nation.
The three elements of trained personnel,
time and total school organization are adopted from the literature and incorporated into the plan of organization for Trona school. The setting for the guidance program in the community and school is described.
Situations unique to
Trona are pointed out. The purpose of the program is student-centered and
34 is concerned with self-realization through knowledge of himself, his interests and abilities so that he will be motivated in his school work by scheduling in harmony with future plans. Types of guidance to be offered are orientation, personal and social adjustment, educational and vocational guidance, and follow-up as research or adjustment service. The core of the program is the guidance committee made up of the principal as leader and coordinating figure and two teacher-counselors.
The social studies teachers
will also be members of the committee and will help to coordinate guidance activities in the classroom.
nurse and librarian will be associate members of the committee and will attend special meetings
other teachers must feel that they are an essential part of the program and will attend certain meetings as directed by the principal. In the following chapter, the duties of each of these members are outlined in detail. Records to be kept are a cumulative
personal and family data, academic achievement, test record, personality estimate, significant health information, work experience, interests and activities, data explaining extreme variation between testing results and achievement, educational and vocational plans, post-school data,
35 guidance notes and a photo. An anecdotal record is kept while the student is enrolled in the school. A minimum testing program includes intelligence or mental maturity tests, diagnostic achievement tests, interest inventories, an inventory of social-personal adjustment and special aptitude test as the need arises. This organizational plan will be initiated by presentation to the faculty in a special meeting in September.
Changes recommended by them will be incorporated
into the plan.
At the end of the school year, the plan
will again be discussed, re-evaluated, changes and innovations made.
Darley, John G . , Testing and Counseling in The High School Guidance Program. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1943* A helpful book for the novice, on selection and interpretation. It number of approaches to those who with identifying student problems
matters of test suggests a are concerned and disabilities.
Educational Policies Commission, Education for All American Youth. Washington D. C.: National Education Association, 1944. The guidance program suggested for the ideal rural and urban high school of the future combines the core curriculum and the special counselor plan. Erickson, Clifford E . , editor, A Basic Text for Guidance Workers. New YorkT Prentice-Hall Book Company, 1947. Many specialists have contributed to this book which covers nearly every important phase of guidance services including organization of the guidance program in large and small schools. Erickson, Clifford E., and Marion C. Happ, Guidance Practices at -Work. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1946. Presents samplings of what other schools of all sizes and from nearly every section of the country are doing in the way of guidance services. It shows those guidance activities selected as most effective and most desirable. Erickson, Clifford E . , and Glenn E. Smith, Organization and Administration of Guidance Services. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1947. Deals with ways in which a guidance program can be improved or initiated in large and small schools. This book is for those responsible for directing the development of the guidance program.
Germane, Charles E . , and Edith G. Germane, Personnel Work in High Schools. New York: Silver Burdett Company, 194-1. Presents in detail accepted techniques in personal guidance especially in the field of vocational counseling.
7. Hamrin, Shirley A., and Clifford E. Erickson, Guidance in the Secondary Schools. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1939. Realistically relates guidance services to the every day problems of students. Presentation of the material is equally understandable to the classroom teacher and the trained counselor. 8.
Strang, Ruth, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work. New York: Teachers College Bureau of Publications, Columbia University, Revised, 194-6. Illustrations of the students' need for guidance are given. Suggestions of guidance techniques for the teacher are emphasized.
Traxler, Arthur E . , Techniques of Guidance. Harper and Brothers, 1945-
A good source for guidance tools including tests. 10.
Warters, Jane, High School Personnel Work Today. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1946. This recent publication analyzes the literature and points out developments in the field of guidance. B.
Fahey, George L . , and Carl H. Waller, "An Experimental Investigation of Certain Diagnostic and Guidance Procedures When Applied in Cases of Low School Achievement," Journal of Educational Research^ 34:335-345» January, 1941. An experimental study which concludes that guidance has a definite value.
Williams, N. M. Morris, "A Survey of Guidance in the Accredited High Schools of Virginia," unpublished Master's thesis, George Washington University, Washington, D. C., 1940 Surveyed accredited schools of Virginia in regard to- guidance services.
GALIJPORNIA l i b r a r y