• Commentary
• Supplementary material for Math 109 at Western Washington University. CC Non-commercial licensed but only available in internal systems (until now, ofc)

Introduction to Studying College Mathematics - Page 1
Study Skills Activity 1: Attendance Matters - Page 2
Study Skills Activity 2: Scheduling Your Time - Page 4
Creating Your Weekly Schedule - Page 4
Study Skills Activity 3: Considering the Results of Active and Passive Learning - Page 9

PART I. Read the short introduction to an education research study and answer the following questions - Page 9

PART II. Examining the Test Scores data - Page 10
Read the sentences and accompanying graph below and answer the following questions - Page 10

Part III. Examining Feeling of Learning survey data - Page 12

Part IV. Examining Feeling of Learning Survey data in relation to the Test Scores data - Page 13

Study Skills Activity 4: Notetaking to Enhance Learning - Page 14
Why take notes in math class? - Page 14
Notetaking Tips for Math Class - Page 14

Study Skills Activity 5: Reflecting on Exams and Quizzes - Page 15

References - Page 16
Acknowledgements - Page 16

##### Citation preview

Study Skills for Academic Success Written by Jen Nimtz, Ph.D. Adapted by Andrew Richardson

Table of Contents Introduction to Studying College Mathematics ............................................................................................. 1 Study Skills Activity 1: Attendance Matters .................................................................................................. 2 Study Skills Activity 2: Scheduling Your Time ............................................................................................. 4 Creating Your Weekly Schedule ................................................................................................................................................... 4

Study Skills Activity 3: Considering the Results of Active and Passive Learning ........................................... 9 PART I. Read the short introduction to an education research study and answer the following questions. ........................ 9 PART II. Examining the Test Scores data. ................................................................................................................................ 10 Read the sentences and accompanying graph below and answer the following questions. ................................................... 10 Part III. Examining Feeling of Learning survey data. .............................................................................................................. 12 Part IV. Examining Feeling of Learning Survey data in relation to the Test Scores data. .................................................... 13

Study Skills Activity 4: Notetaking to Enhance Learning............................................................................ 14 Why take notes in math class? .................................................................................................................................................... 14 Notetaking Tips for Math Class .................................................................................................................................................. 14

Study Skills Activity 5: Reflecting on Exams and Quizzes ........................................................................... 15 References................................................................................................................................................. 16 Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................................... 16

Colophon © 2023 Jennifer (Jen) Nimtz Permission is granted to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA. Note: The above text is used with permission from creativecommons.org.

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Why does this solution method work? How are each of the steps of a symbolic solution justified? How is this new mathematical idea similar to or different from the mathematics that I already know or that we have recently learned in this class? How are the characteristics of this equation or function represented symbolically, in a table, and in a graph? What are the connections between these representations? How might I solve this problem in a different way? How might I solve this problem using an equation, a table, or a graph?

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College Requires Practicing Metacognition. In addition, you are expected to reflect on your own learning and use metacognitive skills. Metacognition can be thought of as thinking about your thinking, or “an awareness or understanding of one’s own thought processes” (New Oxford American Dictionary, 2005). Some strategies for practicing metacognition are: • • •

Verbalizing and writing the steps to solving a problem as you work in groups with other students. Writing out each step to solve a problem as well as the justification for each step. Reflecting on your learning and seeking assistance when needed.

These strategies are a large part of the last three Study Skills Activities (see bullets below) in this booklet and are also incorporated into the Support for Functions and Algebraic Methods course text. • • •

Study Skills Activity 3: Considering the results of active and passive learning Study Skills Activity 4: Notetaking to enhance learning Study Skills Activity 5: Reflecting on quizzes and exams

In summary, to succeed in college mathematics courses, students need to: • Attend class regularly. • Schedule study time to review and revise class notes and complete assignments and pre-read the text section for the following class. • Practice self-assessment. • Strive to learn both how to solve problems and to understand why the solutions work. • Engage in active learning. • Practice Metacognition.

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Study Skills Activity 1: Attendance Matters In some math classes, the instructor takes attendance. In a Fall 2022 Math 112 Functions and Algebraic Methods class section, the instructor took attendance but did not count attendance as a component of students’ grades. What do you observe about the relationship between student success and class attendance? (Table 1 & Figure 1). Table 1. Attendance and Grade ≥ C Grade ≥ C No Yes Attendance ≥ 75% No 10 6 Yes 8 34 Totals 18 40

Totals 16 42 58

Attendance < 75%

Attendance ≥ 75%

Figure 1. Attendance and Grade of C Discussion Questions & Assignment: 1. What do you notice about Table 1 and Figure 1?

2. What percent of students who did not attend class at least 75% of the time did not pass the class with at least a C-grade? Hint: Locate the row with the data about students who did not attend class at least 75% of the time. In that row, find the number of students who did not pass and the total number who did not attend class at least 75% of the time. Write a ratio of those two values and use that ratio to calculate a percent. Use a similar process for questions 3, 4, and 5.

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3. What percent of students who did not attend class at least 75% of the time ended up passing the class with at least a C-grade?

4. What percent of students who did attend class at least 75% of the time did not pass the class with at least a C-grade?

5. What percent of students who did attend class at least 75% of the time ended up passing the class with at least a C-grade?

6. Based on the data, what do you recommend about student attendance?

7. Why might it be that some students who do attend class at least 75% of the time do not pass the course with at least a C-grade?

8. Why might it be that some students who do not attend class at least 75% of the time do pass the course with at least a C-grade?

Even though attendance did not directly contribute points to students’ grades, we can see that students who attend class at least 75% of the time are much more likely to pass the course with at least a grade of C. 3

Study Skills Activity 2: Scheduling Your Time First, read the WWU Registrar Class and Class Status webpage with a focus on the Credits and Credit Load section, then read about Creating Your Weekly Schedule below.

Creating Your Weekly Schedule One of the most important strategies for college success is time management. Time management helps us be proactive instead of reactive. It helps us avoid procrastination and “cramming” for tests, an ineffective way to retain information. Time management also helps college students get adequate sleep. Overall, good time management will improve your academic performance. • • • • •

• •

Discussion Questions & Assignment. The next two pages (pages 4 & 5) include examples of two students’ weekly schedules. Review these schedules and use them to answer the following questions. 1. According to the schedule, how many hours in class is does each student spend each week? Student A Student B 2. According to the schedule, how many hours has each student scheduled to study each week? Student A Student B 3. According to the readings, calculate the number of hours each student needs to schedule for study time for their classes. Student A Student B 4. Based on the readings, what suggestions, if any, would you make to each student regarding their schedule? Write suggestions for Student A below their Schedule on page 4. Write suggestions for Student B below their Schedule on page 5. 5. Use the blank schedule on page 6 to create your weekly study schedule. 6. Use the blank calendar on page 7 to record dates of quizzes and exams and projects for ALL of your classes this quarter. 4

Student A Weekly Schedule Sunday Monday Summary MATH 112 MATH 109 5 CR 2 CR of courses

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

ENG 101 5 CR

ART 109 Async 3 CR

X

Breakfast

Breakfast

Breakfast

Breakfast

Breakfast

Commute

Commute

Commute

Commute

Commute

7-8 am

X

8-9 am

X

9-10 am

X

Work

Work

Work

Work

Work

X

10-11 am

X

Work

Work

Work

Work

Work

X

11am – Noon

Work

Work

Work

Work

Work

Noon – 1 pm

Commute

Commute

Commute

Commute

Commute

Brunch Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

1-2 pm

Study ENG 101

ENG 101 HU 104

MATH 109 MH 114

ENG 101 BH 221

MATH 109 MH 114

ENG 101 BH 221

Study ART 109

2-3 pm

Study ENG 101

ENG 101

Study

ENG 101

Study

ENG 101

Commute

MATH 112

MATH 112

Study ENG

Study ART 109

3-4 pm

Work Out

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

Work Out

4-5 pm

Study ART 109

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

5-6 pm

Study ART 109

Study 112

Study 112

Study 112

Study 112

Study 112

Work Out

Work Out

Work Out

Work Out

Work Out

Study MATH 112

6-7 pm

Dinner

Dinner

Dinner

Dinner

Dinner

Dinner ART 109

Study

ART 109

Study

Study

7-8 pm

Prep for Math 112

Online ASYNC

ART 109

Online ASYNC

ART 109

ART 109

Hang out with friends

8-9 pm

Prep for ENG 101

Study MATH 109

Study ENG 101

Study MATH 109

Study ENG 101

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

9-10 pm

Study ART 109

Study MATH 109

Study ENG 101

Study MATH 109

Study ENG 101

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

10-11 pm

Relax

Relax

Relax

Relax

Relax

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

11 pm – Midnight

X

X

X

X

X

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

X

Brunch

Study ENG

Dinner

Suggestions for Student A:

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Student B Weekly Schedule Sunday Monday Summary MATH 112 MATH 109 5 credits 2 credits of courses

Tuesday

Wednesday

ENG 101 5 credits

ESCI 101 Asynchronous 3 credits

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

X

Breakfast

Breakfast

Breakfast

Breakfast

Breakfast

Commute

Commute

Commute

Commute

Commute

7-8 am

X

8-9 am

X

9-10 am

X

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

MATH 112 BH 217

X

10-11 am

X

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

X

11am – Noon

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Study MATH 112

Noon – 1 pm

Brunch

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

Brunch

1-2 pm

Work

MATH 109 MH 114

Study MATH 109

MATH 109 MH 114

Study MATH 109

Study MATH 109

Work

2-3 pm

Work ENG 101

Study

ENG 101

Study

ENG 101

3-4 pm

Work

HU 107

ENG 101

HU 105

ENG 101

HU 107

Work

4-5 pm

Work

Study ENG 101

Study ENG 101

Study ENG 101

Study ENG 101

Study ENG 101

Work

5-6 pm

Work

Work Out

Work Out

Work Out

Work Out

Work Out

Work

6-7 pm

Work

Dinner

Dinner

Dinner

Dinner

Dinner

Work

7-8 pm

Dinner

ESCI 101 Online ASYNC

ESCI 101 Online ASYNC

ESCI 101 Online ASYNC

ESCI 101 Online ASYNC

ESCI 101 Online ASYNC

Dinner

8-9 pm

Prep for Math 112

Gaming

Gaming

Gaming

Gaming

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

9-10 pm

Prep for ENG 101

Gaming

Gaming

Gaming

Gaming

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

10-11 pm

Prep for ESCI 101

Gaming

Gaming

Gaming

Gaming

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

11 pm – Midnight

X

X

X

X

X

Hang out with friends

Hang out with friends

X

Work

Suggestions for Student B:

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NAME:________________________________ Weekly Study Schedule Directions: Use the Study Schedule information on page 3 to create your weekly study schedule. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 6-7 am 7-8 am 8-9 am 9-10 am 10-11 am 11am – Noon Noon – 1 pm 1-2 pm 2-3 pm 3-4 pm 4-5 pm 5-6 pm 6-7 pm 7-8 pm 8-9 pm 9-10 pm 10-11 pm 7

Name: _______________________________Fall Quarter 2023 Calendar Directions: Record dates for (all known) quizzes, exams, papers & projects for ALL of your classes. Monday

Tuesday

25

26

Wednesday 27

Thursday

Friday

2

3

4

5

6

9

10

11

12

13

16

17

18

19

20

23

24

25

26

27

30

31

1

2

3

6

7

8

9

10 Veterans Day

13

14

15

16

17

20

21

22

28

29

September

October

October/ November

November

23 Thanks-

November/ December

24 giving

Break

27

28

29

30

1

4

5

6

7

8

11

12

13

14

15

December

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Study Skills Activity 3: Considering the Results of Active and Passive Learning PART I. Read the following short introduction to an education research study and answer the following questions. In this activity, we examine the data from a research study in which education researchers compared college physics students’ self-reported perception of learning (measured by surveys) with their actual learning (measured by percent correct on exams). The research was conducted “under controlled conditions in largeenrollment introductory college physics courses taught using 1) active instruction, following best practices in the discipline, and 2) passive instruction, lectures by experienced and highly rated instructors. Both groups received the same class content and handouts, students were randomly assigned, and the instructor made no effort to persuade students of the benefit of either method” (p. 19251, Deslauriers, McCarty, Miller, Callaghan, and Kestin, 2019). The key difference between each class was that in the passive instruction class students were told directly how to solve each problem and students in the active instruction class were asked to try to solve the problems themselves in small groups before being given the solution. At the end of each class period, students completed a brief survey to measure their feeling of learning followed by a multiple-choice test of learning at the end of the week. Discussion Questions and Assignment. 1. Why do you think they conducted this research study? What questions do you think they were trying to answer?

2. Have you experienced a mathematics class based on active learning, in which you worked in small groups to solve problems? If so, how do you recall feeling about your learning in that class?

3. Have you experienced a mathematics class based on passive learning, in which the teacher lectured the majority of class? If so, how do you recall feeling about your learning in that class?

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PART II. Examining the Test Scores data. Read the sentences and accompanying graph below and answer the following questions. The data from the test scores for each class is represented in the graph below. The scores for one class are represented by the light gray bars and the other class is represented by the dark gray bars in the graph. There is a legend defining what the two shades of gray represent, but that is hidden for the purposes of this activity.

Legend hidden.

Figure 1. Test scores for the two different approaches to teaching (adapted from Deslauriers et al, 2019) Discussion and Assignment Questions. Use the graph in Figure 1 to answer the following questions. 1. a. What does the horizontal axis represent? b. What does the vertical axis represent? c. Describe what the bars of the graph generally represent? 2. What do you notice about the graph? Explain.

3. Predict which class you think engaged in “Active Learning” and which was “Passive Learning”? a. Light gray bars. b. Dark gray bars Explain your reasoning.

4. Based on the data represented in the graph, which class would you prefer to be in? (Circle below) a. Light gray bars. b. Dark gray bars Explain your reasoning.

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Legend Revealed

Figure 2. Test scores for the two different approaches to teaching (adapted from Deslauriers et al, 2019) 5. Does the revealed legend of the graph in Figure 2 influence your perspective on passive learning classes (in which the instructor provides clear lectures) or active learning classes (in which you work in small groups)? Explain why or why not.

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Part III. Examining Feeling of Learning survey data.

Legend hidden.

Figure 3. Survey data for the two different classes (adapted from Deslauriers et al, 2019) Discussion Questions and Assignment. Use the graph in Figure 3 to answer the following questions. 1. Which group enjoyed the class the most? Circle. a. Light gray bars.

b. Dark gray bars

2. Which group felt they learned the most? Circle. a. Light gray bars.

b. Dark gray bars

3. Which group do you think is the Active Learning class? Circle. a. Light gray bars. b. Dark gray bars Explain your reasoning.

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Part IV. Examining Feeling of Learning Survey data in relation to the Test Scores data. Average Test Scores Revealed

Legend Revealed

Figure 3. Test Score and Survey data for the two different classes (adapted from Deslauriers et al, 2019)

Discussion Questions and Assignment. Figure 3 displays the Test Score (evidence of learning) and the Survey data (feelings of learning). 1. What does the data from this research study suggest about active learning classes (classes in which students work in small groups) and passive learning classes (classes in which the instructor provides clear lectures)? a. Do students who feel they learn more actually learn more? How do you know?

b. Do students who scored better on the test feel they learned more? How do you know?

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Organization and Legibility (2 points): Notes are organized and easy to read.

Structure (2 points): Each page of the notes includes the Section Number, Topic, and Date.

Coding (2 points): Coding was used to help highlight important information. Include a separate sheet that describes how you use coding in your notes.

Elaboration (2 points): Space was left in one of the margins and some written elaborations on notes were added.

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