Studies in Maritime Archaeology 9780860549031, 9781407318844

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Studies in Maritime Archaeology
 9780860549031, 9781407318844

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF TABLES
FOREWORD
INTRODUCTION
SECTION 1.0: MARITIME ARCHAEOLOGY
PAPER 1.1: MARITIME ARCHAEOLOGY PRESENT AND FUTURE
PAPER 1.2: MARINE ARCHAEOLOGY IN BRITAIN
PAPER 1.3: TRAINING MARITIME ARCHAEOLOGISTS
SECTION 2.0: MARITIME STRUCTURES
PAPER 2.1: MEDIEVAL BOATS, SHIPS, AND LANDING PLACES
PAPER 2.2: THE INTERPRETATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR MARITIME STRUCTURES
PAPER 2.3: EARLY LANDING PLACES
SECTION 3.0: ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDIES
PAPER 3.1: BOAT ETHNOGRAPHY AND MARITIME ARCHAEOLOGY
SECTION 4.0: CLASSIFICATION STUDIES
PAPER 4.1: TOWARDS A CLASSIFICATION OF WATER TRANSPORT
SECTION 5.0: WOODWORKING TECHNIQUES
PAPER 5.1: PREHISTORIC BOATS, TIMBER, AND WOODWORKING TECHNOLOGY
PAPER 5.2: EARLY BOATBUILDING TECHNIQUES IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND — DATING TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
SECTION 6.0: LOGBOATS
PAPER 6.1: SEARCHING FOR PATTERN AMONG THE LOGBOATS OF ENGLAND AND WALES
PAPER 6.2: A MEDIEVAL LOGBOAT FROM GIGGLESWICK TARN, YORKSHIRE
PAPER 6.3: ASPECTS OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE
PAPER 6.4: ASPECTS OF WOOD SCIENCE
PAPER 6.5: A MEDIEVAL LOGBOAT FROM THE RIVER CALDER AT STANLEY FERRY, WAKEFIELD, YORKSHIRE
SECTION 7.0: PREHISTORIC PLANK BOATS
PAPER 7.1: THE BRIGG 'RAFT'
PAPER 7.2: PREHISTORIC SEAFARING IN THE CHANNEL
PAPER 7.3: THE BRIGG 'RAFT: A FLAT BOTTOMED BOAT
SECTION 8.0: CELTIC BOATS AND SHIPS
PAPER 8.1: BOATS AND BOATMANSHIP IN THE LATE PREHISTORIC SOUTHERN NORTH SEA AND CHANNEL REGION
PAPER 8.2: ROMANO—CELTIC BOATS AND SHIPS: CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES
SECTION 9.0: MEDIEVAL BOATS AND SHIPS
PAPER 9.1: THE FUTURE OF THE DESIGNATED WRECK SITE IN THE R. HAMBLE
PAPER 9.2: THE BOATS AND SHIPS OF TENTH TO THIRTEENTH CENTURY DUBLIN
PAPER 9.3: SHIPS TIMBERS FRO M WOOD QUAY, DUBLIN AND OTHER MEDIEVAL SITES IN IRELAND
SECTION 10.0: SEAFARING AND NAVIGATION
PAPER 10.1: CROSS CHANNEL SEAMANSHIP AND NAVIGATION IN THE LATE FIRST MILLENIUM BC
PAPER 10.2: THE SHIPMENT OF TRADED GOODS AND OF BALLAST IN ANTIQUITY
PAPER 10.3: PILOTAGE AND NAVIGATION IN THE TIMES OF ST. BRENDAN
PAPER 10.4: EARLY SEA VOYAGES
PAPER 10.5: BRONZE AGE SEAFARING IN THE MEDITERREAN: A VIEW FROM NW EUROPE
SECTION 11.0: EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE ESTIMATION OF PERFORMANCE
PAPER 11.1: MODELS, REPLICAS AND EXPERIMENTS IN NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
PAPER 11.2: ASPECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL BOAT ARCHAEOLOGY
PAPER 11.3: THE BRIGG 'RAFT —PROBLEMS IN RECONSTRUCTION AND IN THE ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE
PAPER 11.4: EXPERIMENTAL BOAT ARCHAEOLOGY —SOME METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
PAPER 11.5: ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ANCIENT BOAT - THE HASHOLME LOGBOAT
PAPER 11.6: THE THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF A HYPOTHETICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CLAPTON LOGBOAT
PAPER 11.7: REPLICAS, RECONSTRUCTIONS AND FLOATING HYPOTHESIS
PAPER 11.8: EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE TRIREME

Citation preview

Studies in Maritime Archaeology

Sean McGrail

aterfront ter trans

BAR British Series 256 1997

Published in 2019 by BAR Publishing, Oxford BAR British Series 256

Studies in Maritime Archaeology © Seán McGrail and the Publisher 1997 The author’s moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780860549031 paperback ISBN 9781407318844 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780860549031 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com BAR Publishing is the trading name of British Archaeological Reports (Oxford) Ltd. British Archaeological Reports was first incorporated in 1974 to publish the BAR Series, International and British. In 1992 Hadrian Books Ltd became part of the BAR group. This volume was originally published by John and Erica Hedges in conjunction with British Archaeological Reports (Oxford) Ltd / Hadrian Books Ltd, the Series principal publisher, in 1997. This present volume is published by BAR Publishing, 2019.

BAR PUBLISHING BAR titles are available from: BAR Publishing 122 Banbury Rd, Oxford, OX2 7BP, UK E MAIL [email protected] P HONE +44 (0)1865 310431 F AX +44 (0)1865 316916 www.barpublishing.com

9 . 0 9 . 1

CONTENTS

9 . 2 9 . 3

L i s to fi lu s t ra t ion s p2 L i s to ft a b le s p4 F o r ewo rd b yD rB a s i lG r eenh i l l p5 I n t rodu c t ion p7 A cknow ledgmen to fc opy r igh tm a t e r ia l p9

1 0 .0 1 0 .1 1 0 .2

1 . 0 1 . 1 1 . 2 1 . 3

MAR IT I ME ARCHAEOLOGY p1 Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy -p r e sen t &f u tu r e p1 3 Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy i nB r i ta in p2 5 T ra in ing m a r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t s p3 5

2 . 0 2 . 1 2 . 2 2 . 3

MAR IT I ME S TRUCTURES p3 9 Med ieva lb oa t s ,s h ip s &l a nd ing p l a ce s p4 1 T h e i n t e rp re ta t ion o f a r chaeo log ica l e v id ence f o r m a r i t ime s t ruc tu r e s p4 9 E a r ly l a nd ing p l a ce s p6 5

3 . 0 3 . 1

E THNOGRAPH IC S TUDIES p7 3 B oa tE thnog raphy & Ma r i t ime A r cha eo logy p7 5

4 . 0 4 . 1

CLASS IF ICAT ION S TUDIES p7 7 T owa rd s ac l a s s i f i ca t ion o fw a te rt r an spo r t p7 9

5 . 0 5 . 1

WOOD WORK ING TECHN IQUES p8 9 P r eh i s to r ic b oa t s ,t i mb e r &w oodwo rk ing t e chno logy p9 1 E a r ly b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn iq ue s i nB r i ta in & I r e land d a t ing t e chno log i ca lc h ang e p9 7

1 .5

LOGBOATS p1 0 1 S ea r ch ing f o rp a t t er na mong t h e l o gboa t s o fE ng land & Wa le s p1 03 A m ed ieva l l o gboa t f r om G igg le sw ick T a rn , Y o rk sh i r e p15 A spe c t so fn ava la r ch i tec tu r e p1 35 A spe c t so fw ood s c ien c e p1 49 Am ed ieva ll o gboa tf r om S t an ley F e r ry , Y o rk sh i r e p1 57

1 .8

1 0 .3 1 0 .4 1 0 .5

1 .0 1 .1

5 . 2

6 . 0 6 . 1 6 . 2 6 . 3 6 . 4 6 . 5

7 . 0 7 . 1 7 . 2 7 . 3

PREH ISTOR IC P LANK BOATS p1 61 T h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p1 63 P r eh i s to r ic s ea fa r ing i nt h eC hanne l p1 89 T h eB r igg ' r a f t ' : af l a t-bo t tomed b oa t p1 99

8 . 0 8 . 1

CELT IC BOATS & S H IPS p2 05 B oa t s &b oa tman sh ip i nt h e s ou ther n N o r th S ea & C hanne lr e g ion p2 07 R omano-Ce l t i c b oa t s & s h ip s : c ha ra c te r i s t ic f e a tu r e s p2 23

8 . 2

1 .2 1 .3 1 .4

1 .6 1 .7

1

MEDIEVAL BOATS & SH IPS p2 29 T he f u tu r e o f t h e d e s igna t ed w reck s i te i n t h e R . H amb le p2 31 B oa t s &s h ip so f1 0 th t o1 3 th c en tu ry D ub l in p2 39 S h ip t imbe r s f r om Wood Q uay , D ub l in & o t he r m ed ieva ls i te si nI r e land p2 57 S EAFAR ING & NAV IGAT ION p2 63 C ro s schanne l s eaman sh ip & n av iga t ion i nt h e l a t e i s tM i l len ium BC p2 65 T he s h ipmen t o f t r aded g ood s & o f b a l la s t i n A n t iqu i ty p2 89 P i lo tage & n av iga t ion i nt h et i me so f S t .B rendan p2 93 E a r ly s ea v oyage s p2 99 B ron ze A ge s ea f a r ing i nt h e Med i t e r ranean -av i ew f r om NW E u rope p3 07 EXPER I MENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY & THE E STI MATION OF P ERFOR MANCE p3 13 Mod e l s , r e p l ica s & e xp e r imen t s i n N au t ica l A r chaeo logy p3 17 A spec t so fe xp e r imen ta lb oa ta r chaeo logy p3 21 T he B r igg ' r a f t ' -p rob lem s i nr e con s t ru c t ion & t h e e s t ima t ion o fp e r fo rman ce p3 31 E xpe r imen ta l b oa t a r cha eo logy s ome m e thodo log ica lc on s id e ra t ion s p3 47 A s se s s ing t h e p e r fo rman ce o f a n a n c ien t b oa t -t h e H a sho lme l o gboa t p3 55 T he t h eo re t ica l p e r fo rman ce o f a h ypo the t ica l r e con s t ruc t ion o ft h eC lap ton l o gboa t p3 63 R ep l ica s ,r e con s tr uc t ion s &f l oa t ing h ypo the se s p3 67 E xp e r imen ta la r cha eo logy & t h et r i reme p3 69

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy L IST OF I LLUSTRAT IONS

1 . 1 .2 1 . 1 .3 1 . 1 .4 1 . 1 .5 1 . 2 .1 1 . 2 .2 1 . 2 .3 2 . 1 .1 2 . 1 .2 2 . 1 .3 2 . 1 .4 2 . 1 .5 2 . 1 .6 2 . 1 .7 2 . 1 .8 2 . 1 .9 2 . 2 .1 2 . 2 .2 2 . 2 .3 2 . 2 .4 2 . 2 .5 2 . 2 .6 2 . 2 .7 2 . 2 .8 2 . 2 .9 2 . 2 .10 2 . 2 .11 2 . 2 .12 2 . 2 .13 2 . 2 .14 2 . 2 .15 2 . 2 .16 2 . 2 .17 2 . 3 .1 2 . 3 .2 2 . 3 .3 2 . 3 .4 2 . 3 .5 4 . 1 .1 5 . 1 .1

5 . 1 .2 5 . 1 .3

Mucke l roy ' sd ef in i t ion o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy p2 0 T he s c ope o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy — v e r s ion 1 p2 0 Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy & A r chaeo logy p2 1 H ypo the t ica lr e con s t ruc t ion s p2 1 F low d i ag ram o ft h er e sea r ch p ro ce s s— v e r s ion 1 p2 2 T he s c ope o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy — v e r s ion 2 p2 5 Ma ry R o se u nde rc on se rva t ion p3 0 A1 9 th c en tu ry b a rge e xcava ted a tT redunno c , Gwen t p3 1 Ar e ed r a f ti n2 0 th c en tu ry C o .R o scommon p4 2 Med ieva lb oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion s p4 2 1 3 th c en tu ry s ea lo fW inche s te r p4 3 1 4 th c en tu ry s ea lo fE lb ing p4 3 1 3 th c en tu ry s ea lo fN ew S ho reham p4 4 Mode lo ft h e 11 t hc en tu ry E gem sund b oa t p4 5 T ran sve r se s e c t ion s o f t h e B r emen C og & f o u r N o rd ic v e s se l s p4 5 C oa s t ing k e t ch C ha r lo t te o nt h eb each a t S t . I v e s p4 6 A2 0 th c en tu ry N ew found land b oa tbu i ld ing s i te p4 7 T imbe r s f r om a n 1 th c en tu ry b l o ckage i nH e lnae s B ay ,D enma rk p5 5 H e lnae sp i le s &f l oa t ing t imbe r s p5 5 H e lnae sb l ockage —r e con s t ruc t ion d r aw ing p5 6 A1 9 th c en tu ry f i sh—we i rh ead p5 7 D raw ing o fa no ak t imbe rf r om S ea sa l te r , K en t p5 7 P ho tog raph o ft h eS ea sa l te rt imbe r p5 8 P o s s ib le u se o ft h eS ea sa l te rt i mbe r p5 8 P reh i s to r ic w ickerwo rk o nN .F e r r iby f o re sho r e — 1 p5 9 P reh i s to r ic w icke rwo rk o nN .F e r r iby f o re sho re —2 p5 9 P reh i s to r ic t imbe r se xcava ted a tN .F e r r iby i n 1 978 p5 9 P reh i s to r ic t imbe re xcava ted a tF e r r iby i n 1 980 — 1 p5 9 P reh i s to r ic t i mbe re xcava ted a tF e r r iby i n 1 980 —2 p6 0 S pa r sf r om t h e4 t hc en tu ry AD N ydam b oa t p6 0 R econ s t ruc t ion d raw ing o ft h eN ydam b oa t p6 1 S pa r sf r om e xcava t ion sa tT ho r sb je rg & V imo se p6 1 L ough S w i l ly l oop n e t p6 1 S e ine n e tf i sh ing p6 2 Ar e con s t ruc t ion o ft h eL adby b oa t ,w i th h o r se s p6 5 Mode l o f a1 0 th c en tu ry l a nd ing p l ace a tG raven ey , K en t p6 A2 0 th c en tu ry b each c ap s tan p6 7 Map o f SW E ng land p6 8 i s tc en tu ry BC c r o ss—Channe lr ou te s p6 8 Ac l a s s i f ica t ion s cheme f o rw a t e rt r an spo r t p8 4 A pp leby l o gboa t —s t i t ched r e pa i r p9 4

5 . 1 .4 5 . 2 .1 6 . 1 .1 6 . 1 .2 6 . 1 .3 6 . 1 .4 6 . 1 .5 6 . 2 .1 6 . 2 .2 6 . 2 .3 6 . 2 .4 6 . 2 .5 6 . 2 .6 6 . 2 .7 6 . 2 .8 6 . 2 .9 6 . 2 .10 6 . 2 .11 6 . 2 .12 6 . 2 .13 6 . 2 .14 6 . 2 .15 6 . 3 .1 6 . 3 .2 6 . 4 .1 6 . 5 .1 6 . 5 .2 7 . 1 .1 7 . 1 .2 7 . 1 .3 7 . 1 .4 7 . 1 .5 7 . 1 .6 7 . 1 .7 7 . 1 .8 7 . 1 .9 7 . 1 .10 7 . 1 .11 7 . 1 .12 7 . 1 .13 7 . 1 .14 7 . 1 .15 7 . 1 .16 7 . 1 .17 7 . 1 .18 7 . 1 .19 7 . 1 .20 2

A pp leby l o gboa t —r e pa i rb yw ooden c l amp p9 4 L ogboa tH o lme P i e r r epon t 1—l e ad p a t ch r e pa i r p9 5 T he s t em o ft h eP oo le l o gboa t p9 5 T he H a sho lme l o gboa tr e con s t r uc ted p9 9 S h r inkage f a c to r s p1 04 T h eP oo le l o gboa tr e co rded i n1 974 p1 06 H ypo the t ica lr e con s t ru c t ion o ft h eP oo le l o gboa t p1 06 H yd ro s ta t ic c u r ve sf o rt h eP oo le l o gboa t p1 08 T he G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t t empo ra r i ly r e a s semb led p12 G ig g le sw ick T a rn l o gboa ti nf r agmen t s p15 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa ti n1 883 p16 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa ti n1 888 p 16 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa tr e a ssemb led i n1 977 p18 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t &D av id Wa te r s p18 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t —m ea su r ed d r aw ing p1 20 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t —i n te r io ro fb ow p1 21 G igg le sw ick T am l o gboa t —i n te r io ro fs t em p1 21 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t —v e r t i ca lv i ew o f s t em p1 22 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t —v e r t i ca lv i ew o fb ow p1 23 G igg le sw i ck T a rn l o gboa t —h o r izon ta lv i ew o fb ow p1 23 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t —s t em t imbe r p1 25 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t —b ow t imbe r p1 25 G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t —r e con s t ruc t ion d r aw ing p1 27 Map o ft h eG igg le sw ick r e g ion p 1 30 S t ab i l i ty d i ag ram p1 37 D iag ramma t i cl o gboa tg l o s sa ry p 1 44 E l l ip t ica lh o le si n al o gboa tf r om L ough E rne p1 51 T he S t an ley F e r r yl o gboa to nd i sp lay p1 58 T he S t an ley F e r ry l o gboa t —r e a s semb led d r aw ing p1 59 V e r t ica lv i ew o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t 'i n1 974 p1 64 1 888 d r aw ing o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p1 65 1 888 p ho tog raph o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p1 66 1 974 p ho tog raph o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p1 67 P ho tog ramme t r ic c on tou rp l o to ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p1 68 F e r r iby b oa t 1o nt h eH umbe rf o r esho r e i n1 946 p1 70 Two v i ew so f aP o l i sh g a la r p1 71 P l ank f a s ten ing so nF e r r iby b oa t 1 p1 72 A2 0 th c en tu ry s ewn b oa to ft h eR .N ige r p1 74 B r igg ' r a f t 'b u i ld ing s e quen ce — 1t o 3 p1 75 B r igg ' r a f t 'b u i ld ing s equen ce —4& 5 p1 77 B r igg ' r a f t 'b u i ld ing s e quen ce —6 p1 77 B r igg ' r a f t 'b u i ld ing s e quen ce —7& 8 p1 78 1 888 t r an sve r se s e c t ion o ft h e' r a f t ' p1 78 P l ank f a s t en ing so nt h eR .N in b oa t p1 79 S t ru c tu r eo ft h eL jub l jana b oa t p1 79 S ec t ion st h rough t h e' r a f t ' s 'p l ank e dge s p1 80 Mode lo fF e r r iby b oa t 1 ,w i th d unnage p1 82 C ro s ss e c t ion o ft h e' r a f t ' s 's t rak e 6 p1 84 R epa i ro nF e r r iby b oa t 1 p1 84

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy 7 . 1 .2 1 7 . 2 .1 7 . 2 .2 7 . 2 .3

9 . 2 .10 9 . 3 .1 9 . 3 .2 9 . 3 .3 9 . 3 .4

O u t l ine r e con s t ru c t ion o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' 1 85 T h eA t lan t ic c oa s to fE u rop e & NW A f r ica p1 90 T he B ro ig , h te rb oa tm ode l p1 92 Ap r eh i s to r ic p l ank f r agmen tf r om C a ld ico t , Gwen t p1 93 M in imum r e con s t r uc t ion m ode lo fF e r r iby b oa t 1 p1 95 i s tc en tu ry AD c o in so fC unob e l in —d r aw ing p1 95 E a r ly s ound ing l e ad s p1 96 R e con s t ruc t ion m od e lo ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p1 99 C ompo s i te p l an o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p1 99 O n— s i te p l an o ft h e' r a f t ' p2 00 P ho tog ramme t r ic d e ta i lp l o to ft h e' r a f t ' p2 00 T h e ' r a f t 'd u r ing e xcava t ion p2 01 Ar e pa i ro nt h eH a sho lme l o gboa t p2 08 R econ s t ruc t ion m od e lo ft h eH a sho lme l o gboa t p2 09 Map o ft h e SW A pp roa ch e s p2 11 A1 7 th c en tu r yd raw ing o f ac u ra ch p2 12 Ap on to o n a3 r dc en tu ry AD m o sa i c— p ho tog raph p2 16 Ap on to o n a3 rd c e n tu ry AD m o sa i c— d r aw ing p2 16 Av e s se lo n ai s tc e n t u ry BC c o in o ft h e A t reba te s p2 16 9 t h c en tu ry AD e ng rav ing f r om L odd ekopp inge , S weden p2 16 i s tc en tu ry AD c o in o fC unobe l in — p ho tog raph p2 17 B lack f r ia r s 1—r e con s t r uc t ion o fm a s t— s tep r e g ion p25 S t . P e te r P o r t 1— r e con s tr uc t ion o f at r an sve r se s e c t ion p2 25 P ho tog ramme t r ic & f i e ld d r aw ing s o f t h e B a r land ' s F a rm b oa t p2 26 V e r t i ca lp ho tog raph o ft h eR .H amb le a tL ow Wa te r p2 33 P lan o ft h eR .H amb le w re ck s i t e p2 34 F a s ten ing si nt h eR .H amb le w r eck p2 35 C on jec tu ra lm ap so fe a r ly D ub l in p2 40 S chema t ic s e c t ion o fD ub l in ' sw a t e r f ron t p2 41 1 3 th c en tu ry s ea lo fD ub l in p2 42 R econ s t ru c t ion d r aw ing o fS ku lde lev 3 p2 43 T he p l ank ing— f i r s ts e quen ce o fc on s t r uc t ion p2 43 C l inke rp l ank ing f a s t en ed b yi r on n a i l s p2 43 C l inke rp l ank ing f a s t ened b yt r eena i l s p2 44 P a ren tt r ee so fs h ip s 't i mb e r s p2 45 G raph o fl e ng th /b r ead th —D ub l in T G 3& TG 6 / 9 p2 46 G raph o fl e ng th /b r ead th —S ku lde l ev 3 p2 47 Med ieva lc l en ched n a i l sf r om D ub l in p2 59 Map s how ing t h eD ub l in e x cava t ion s i te s p2 59 D ub l in p l ank ing TG 9 p2 60 G ok s tad b oa t 2 p2 61

9 . 3 .5 1 0 .1 .1 1 0 .1 .2 1 0 .1 .3 1 0 .1 .4 1 0 .1 .5 1 0 .1 .6

D ub l in t i mb e r T5 c ompa r ed w i th o t he r s p2 62 D iag ram s h ow ing f a i r &f o u lw ind s p2 66 D iag ram i l u s t ra t ing l e eway & d r i f t p2 66 T ida ls t ream c ha r t s p2 69 i s tc en tu ry B Cc r o s s—Channe lr o u t e s p2 71 T h ew e s te rn C hann e l p2 73 N o r ther np a r t so ft h eB ay o fB i scay p2 77

7 . 2 .4 7 . 2 .5 7 . 2 .6 7 . 3 .1 7 . 3 .2 7 . 3 .3 7 . 3 .4 7 . 3 .5 8 . 1 .1 8 . 1 .2 8 . 1 .3 8 . 1 .4 8 . 1 .5 8 . 1 .6 8 . 1 .7 8 . 1 .8 8 . 1 .9 8 . 2 .1 8 . 2 .2 8 . 2 .3 9 . 1 .1 9 . 1 .2 9 . 1 .3 9 . 2 .1 9 . 2 .2 9 . 2 .3 9 . 2 .4 9 . 2 .5 9 . 2 .6 9 . 2 .7 9 . 2 .8 9 . 2 .9

1 0 .1 .7 1 0 .2 .1 1 .2 .1 1 .2 .2 1 .2 .3 1 .2 .4 1 .2 .5 1 .2 .6 1 .2 .7 1 .2 .8 1 .2 .9 1 .2 .10 1 .2 .11 1 .3 .1 1 .3 .2 1 .3 .3 1 .3 .4 1 .3 .5 1 .3 .6 1 .3 .7 1 .3 .8 1 .3 .9 1 .3 .10 1 .3 .11 1 .3 .12 1 .3 .13 1 .3 .14 1 .4 .1 1 .4 .2 1 .4 .3 1 .4 .4 1 .4 .5 1 .5 .1 1 .5 .2 1 .5 .3 1 .5 .4 1 .5 .5 1 .5 .6 1 .6 .1 1 .8 .1 1 .8 .2 1 .8 .3

3

S t ra i to fD ove r p2 81 S tab i l i ty d i ag ram p2 90 Ar e con s t ruc t ion o ft h eN ydam b oa t p3 21 A n 1 893 r e con s t ruc t ion o ft h eG ok s tad s h ip — 1 p3 22 A n 1 893 r e con s t ruc t ion o ft h eG ok s tad s h ip —2 p3 22 A1 949 r e con s t r uc t ion o ft h eG ok s tad s h ip p3 23 A No r land ' so t t r ing p3 23 C on s tr uc t ion p l an o ft h eG ok s tadf ae r ing p3 25 T he b ow so ft h eG r eenw ich f ae r ing r e con s t ruc t ion p3 26 T he b ow so ft h eH an sen f ae r ing r e con s t r uc t ion p3 26 G reenw ich f ae r ing —r udde rb o s s p3 26 G reenw ich f ae r ing —u nde ro a r s p3 27 G r eenw ich f ae r ing —u nde rs a i l p3 27 Map o ft h eB r igg r e g ion p3 32 V e r t ica lv i ew o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p3 33 C lea t5 4o nt h e' r a f t ' p3 34 A2 0 th c en tu ry b ox— l ike b oa t p3 35 A2 0 th c en tu ry P o l i sh g a la r p3 35 A n 1 8 th c en tu ry P o l i sh k om iega p3 37 A n 1 8 th c en tu ry P o l i sh f e r ry p3 37 As e c t ion t h rough t h e' r a f t ' s 'c l ea t4 6 p3 38 Ar e p r e sen ta t ive t r an sve r se s e c t ion o ft h e ' r a f t ' p3 39 A ne l l ip t ica lh o le i nt h e' r a f t ' s 'p l ank ing p3 40 O u t l ine r e con s t ruc t ion o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p3 40 Ar epa i rt ot h e' r a f t ' p3 41 Mode l sd ep ic t ing t h e' r a f t ' s 'b u i ld ing s equence p3 41 R e con s t ruc t ion mod e lo ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p3 44 F e r r iby b oa t 1o nt h eH umbe rf o r e sho r e p3 47 R econ s t ruc t ion m ode l o f F e r r iby 1 — m in imum s o lu t ion p3 47 R econ s tr uc t ion mode lo fF e r r iby 1—m o re c omp lex p3 48 T he G raveney b oa td u r ing e xcava t ion p3 51 T he G raveney b oa tr e con s t ruc t ion p l an s p3 51 T he H a sho lme l o gboa t —h yd ro s ta t ic c u r ve s p3 55 S tab i l i ty d i ag ram p3 56 T he H a sho lme l o gboa td u r ing e xcava t ion p3 58 T he H a sho lme l o gboa tr ea ssemb led p3 58 T he H a sho lme l o gboa t —r e con s t r u c t ion d raw ing s p3 59 T he H a sho lme l o gboa tu nde rway p3 59 T he C lap ton l o gboa t —h yd ro s ta t i cc u r ve s p3 63 F low d i ag ram o ft h er e sea r ch p roce s s— v e r s ion 2 p3 70 T he A then ian t r i r eme —r e con s t r uc t ion d raw ing s p3 71 R econ s t ruc ted t r an sve r se s e c t ion so ft h eN ydam b oa t p3 72

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy L IST OF TABLES 1 . 1 .1 1 . 1 .2 2 . 2 .1 2 . 3 .1 4 . 1 .1 4 . 1 .2 4 . 1 .3 5 . 1 .1 5 . 1 .2 5 . 2 .1 5 . 2 .2 6 . 1 .1 6 . 1 .2 6 . 4 .1 7 . 2 .1 8 . 1 .1 8 . 1 .2 8 . 1 .3 8 . 1 .4 9 . 1 .1 9 . 2 .1 9 . 2 .2 9 . 3 .1 1 0 .1 .1 1 0 .1 .2 1 0 .1 .3 1 0 .1 .4 1 0 .2 .1 1 0 .4 .1 1 0 .4 .2 1 .3 .1 1 .3 .2 1 .4 .1 1 .4 .2 1 .4 .3 1 .5 .1 1 .5 .2 1 .6 .1 1 .6 .2

I n fo rma t ion l o s s p1 5 NW E u ropean p l ank b oa tf i nd s p1 6 C ha ra c t e r i s t ic so fm a r i t ime s t ruc tu r e s p5 1 C ro s s—Channe lr ou te si nt h e i s t M i l len ium BC p7 0 Ac l a s s if ica t ion s c heme b a sed o nt h ree a t t r ibu t e s p8 3 B oa tc l a s se sl i s ted b yt r ad i t iona ln ame s p8 5 T rad i t iona l ly—named b oa tt yp e sc l a s s if ied p8 6 R ad io ca rbon d a te sf o rB r i t i sh l o gboa t s p9 1 P reh i s to r ic l o gboa t s &p a ren tl o g s p9 3 D a te r a nge so fl o gboa tf e a tu re s p9 7 D a te r a nge so fb oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s p9 8 L ogboa tp e r fo rman ce c oe f f ic ien t s p10 L ogboa t sc l a s s i f ied b yf u nc t ion p11 P rop e r t ie so fm oder nt imbe rs pec ie s p1 50 D e s i rab le q ua l i t ie si n as eago ing v e s se l p1 91 T h eo r e t ica la s se s smen to fp reh i s to r ic w a te r t r an spo r t p2 08 L oad c apa c i ty o ft h eP oo le & H a sho lme l o gboa t s p2 09 L oad c apac i ty o fF e r r iby 1 ,B r igg 2 ,& H jo r t sp r ing p2 13 L a t e—p r eh i s to r ic b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s i n NW E u rop e p2 14 D imen s ion s &c a rgo c apa c i ty o fs e lec ted v e s se l s p2 31 D imen s ion so fs e lec ted m ed ieva ls h ip p l ank s p2 47 B oa t s &s h ip sr e p re sen ted b yt h eD ub l in t imb e r s p2 51 S i ze & l e ng th o fN o rd ic v es se l s p2 58 B i scay & C hanne lr ou te si nt h e i s t M i l len ium BC p2 72 V i s ib i l i ty d i s tan ce sf r om s eawa rd p2 73 D a ta o nn i ne c r o s s—Channe lr ou te s p2 83 C ompa ra t ive s a f e ty e s t ima te s f o r r ou te s i n T ab le 1 0 .1 .3 p2 86 S towage f a c to r s p2 91 V i s ib i l i ty d i s tan ce sf r om s ea l e ve l p3 00 P reh i s to r ic s e ago ing w a te rt r an spo r t p3 03 P a r en tt r ee so ft h eB r igg ' r a f t 'p l ank ing p3 39 D i sp la cemen t &s t ab i l i ty d a ta f o rt h eB r igg ' r a f t ' p3 44 L eve l so fe xpe r imen ta lr e sea r ch p3 48 R econ s t ruc t ion e xpe r imen t sc l a s s i f ied p3 48 E xp e r imen ta lp ro jec t s —s equence o fa c t ion p3 49 P e r fo rmance d a ta f o rt h eH a sho lme l o gboa t p3 60 S peed a s se s smen t sf o rt h eH a sho lme l o gboa t p3 60 P e r fo rmance d a ta f o rt h eC lap ton l o gboa t p3 64 S peed a s se s smen t sf o rt h eC lap ton l o gboa t p3 65

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy

FORE WORD b yD rB a s i lG r reenh i l l T he f i r s t t i me Ih eard o fS eän M cG ra i l w a s i nD e cembe r , 1 963 . My w if e ,A nn G if f a rd ,a nd Ih ad h i r ed ac h a rm ing s ma l l h ou se a bove at r ibu ta ry c r e ek o ft h er i v e rT o r r id ge ,j u s tw e s t o fB id ef o rd , w he r e , o n l e ave f r om t h eD ip loma t i cS e r v i ce , w e w o rk ed o n ab ook a bou tD evon s e t t l e r si nC anada ( G r eenh i l l &G if f a rd , 1 974 ) . W hen w e l e f t t or e tu rn t od u ty i nL ondon o u r l a nd lo rd t o ld u s t h a t t h e n e x t o c cupan t w ou ld b e aM r s . M cGra i l a nd h e r c h i ld r en , w if e o f a y oung S quad ron C ommand e ri nt h eF l ee tA i rA rm o ft h eR oya lN av y ,w ho w a s a way a ts e a .

a st ow hy ,g ave t h ep e rf e c tr e p ly , ' Iw i sh t ob e com et h eB r i t i sh C rum l in—Ped e r sen ' . A ppo in t ed ,w et o ld h im t ow o rk f o r aD o c to ra te o fP h i lo sophy i nA r chaeo logy o ft h e U n ive r s i ty o fL ondon . W o rk ing u nd e r D av id W i l son , l a t e r D ir e c tor o f t h e B r i t i sh Mu seum , h i s p ub l i shed t h e s i s , ' L ogboa t s o fE ng land a nd W a l e s ' ( M cG ra i l , 1 978 ) —h a s b e come o ne o ft h e b a s i c t e x tbook s o fm a r i t ime a r chaeo logy . R e turn ing t of u l l— t ime w o rk a t t h e N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum h e p ro ceed ed t o b u i ld u p ac e n t r e o f m u l t i—d i s c ip l ina ry r e sea r ch a nd s t udy s e cond o n ly t ot h a to f t h e D an i sh N a t iona l Mu seum a tR o sk i ld e n ea r C openhagen , a s t h a t c e n t r e t h en w a s . A n umbe r o f e x cava t ion s , i n te rna t iona l c onf e r ence s , e xpe r imen ta l w o rk i n s p e c ia l i s t a r chaeo log ica l m e thod a nd t h e p rob l em s o fc on ser va t ion o f m ar i t im e a r chaeo log i ca l m a te r ia l , a nd a f o rm idab l e p ub l i ca t ion r e co rd g ave t h e C en t r e , a nd t h e Mu seum , a n i n te r na t iona l r e pu ta t ion . O n ap e r sona l l e ve l , d ur ing t h e se y ea r s S eän a nd Ib u i l t u p ac l o se w o rk ing a s so c ia t ion a nd f r iend sh ip w h ich h a s , t om y g r ea t p l ea sur e , c o n t inued e v e r s i n c e .

S eän w a si n d e ed t h en C ommand e ro f8 49 S quad r on , as e aman o f i ce rw ho a l so h e ld aM e r chan tS h ip M a s t e r ' sC e r t if i ca t eo f C ompe t en c e , w ho h ad t u rned t of l y ing i nt h ee a r l y1 950 sa nd w a s aq ua l if ied p i lo t o fb o th f i gh te r s a nd h e l i cop te r s . T h i s w a s al i f e w h i ch r e qu i r ed g r ea ts k i l la nd p r e c i s ion , b u tg ave l i t l e i n t e l l e c tua l s a t i sf a c t ion . N o t s u rp r i s ing l y , S e än l e f t t h e n avy a nd f ound a p l ace a tB r i s to l U n iv e r s i ty a s am a tu r e s t ud en t . T he r e h e t o ok aF i r s t i nM a thema t i c s , H i s to ry a nd E conome t r i c s , a s i tp rov ed a n e x c e l l en tf ounda t ion f o r w ha t w a s t of o l low . T h e d egr ee r e qu i r ed t h e p r e sen ta t ion o f a d i s se r ta t ion o n a n h i s to r i ca l t h eme a nd , w o rk ing u nd e r t h e g u idan ce o f t h e m ed ieva l i s t , Mau r e en B a r ry ( n ow L ad y M e r r i son ) S ean p r epa red a p ape r o n A ng lo S axon W a te r T ran spo r t .I ns od o ing ,h eb e came e n th ra l l ed w i th t h ew o rk o f O l eC rum l in—Ped e r sen o ft h eD an i sh N a t iona lM u seum , t h en ay oung n ava l a r ch i t e c t , w ho se w o rk o n t h e d e v e lopm en t o f v e s se l so ft h eV i k ing p e r iod w a st oe s tab l i sh h im b yt h e1 990 s a so ne o ft h ew o r ld ' sl e ad ing m a r i t ime a r cha eo log i s t s .

U nf o r tuna te ly , s e ve ra l y ea r s a f te r Ih ad r e t ir ed i nt h e e a r ly 1 980 s , t h e T ru s tee s o ft h e Mu seum ,f o r r e a son sf o rw h i ch n o p ub l i c e xp lana t ion h a s e v e r b een g i ven , t o ok t h e d e c i s ion t o c l o se d own a cad em i c w o rk o ft h i s k i nd a nd t h e C en t r e w a s d i sband ed . S ean , h oweve r , w a s a ppo in ted P rof e s so r o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy a tt h e U n ive r s i ty o fO xf o rd a nd w a s a b l et oc on t inue h i s o wn r e sear che s , w o rk w i th s t ud en t s , a nd p ub l i ca t ion , i n an ew a nd s t imu la t ing e nv ironmen t , b e com ing aD o c to r o f S c ien ce o f t h e u n ive r s i ty i n t h e p ro c e s s . H e c o n t inued a t O xf o rd u n t i l h i s r e t i r emen t i n 1 993 . H e w a s a ppo in t ed V i s i t ing P rof e s sor o f Ma r i t im e A r chaeo logy a t S ou thamp ton U n ive r s i ty i n1 99 1 a nd c on t inue sh i sw o rk t h e r e a tt h et i me o fp ub l i ca t ion o ft h i sb ook .

H av ing , l i k e S eän , c hanged m y c o u r se i n l i f e , a nd b e en a ppo in ted D i r e c to r o ft h eN a t iona lM a r i t im e M u s eum , Ih ad e s tab l i shed c l o se p e r sona l l i nk s w i th O l e C rum l in—P ed e r sen a nd , a f t e r t h e d i s cov e ry a nd e x cava t ion ( i n w h i ch O l e t o ok p a r t ) o ft h e G raven ey B oa t , ac o n tempo ra ry o ft h ep e r iod o f t h e V ik ing e xpan s ion , i nK en t i n1 970 , w e a tt h e M a r i t im e Mu seum a dop ted ap o l i cy l e ad ing t owa rd s t h es e t t ing u po fa m ar i t ime a r chaeo log i ca lr e sea r ch c e n t r ei nB r i ta in .

Ar e cen t ly p ub l i sh ed b i b l iography o fS eän ' s w o rk ( G r eenh i l l & Mo r r i son , 1 995 ) s how s 9 8 b ook s a nd p ape r s p ub l i shed b e tw een 1 974 a nd 1 995 .A l la r ei mpo r tan tt ot h ed eve lopmen t o ft h ed i sc ip l ine o fm a r i t im ea r chaeo logy b u tn o ta l la r ee a s i ly a c ce s s ib l e . T h i s b ook c omp r i se s as e l e c t ion , ac r o s s—se c t ion o fS ean ' s w o rk , n ow m ad e a va i lab l e t ot h e g row ing b od y o f s t ud en t s a nd r e sear che r s w ho a r e w o rk ing i n t h i s f i e ld t h roughou tt h ew o r ld .

W e b egan b y a d ve r t i s ing f o r a p o t en t ia l m a r i t im e a r chaeo log i s tw ho se j ob w ou ld b e t oc r ea te a nd b u i ld u p t h e C en t r e . T h i s w a s ag amb l e . B u tf o r tuna te l yf o r t h ef u tu r e o f t h e d i sc ip l in e i n B r i ta in t h e r i gh t n umbe r c am e u p . S eän a pp l ied f o rt h ej ob a nd w hen c h a l l enged b yt h es e l e c t ion b oard

B a s i lG r eenh i l l U n ive r s i ty o fE x e te r1 996

5

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r cha eo logy R ef e r enc e s G r e enh i l l l B . &G if f a rd A . 1 974 W e s t coun t rymen i nP r in ce E dwa rd ' sI s l e ,T o ron to U n ive r s i ty P ape rba ck s . M cG ra i l S . L ogboa t s o f E ng land a nd Wa l e s , B r i t i sh A r chaeo log i ca lR epo r t s ,O xf o rd ,1 978 . G r e enh i l lB . & Mo r r i son J .T he A r chaeo logy o fB oa t s &S h ip s , L ondon ,1 995 .

6

S t ud ie si n Mar i t im eA r chaeo logy

I NTRODUCT ION . b yS ean McG r a i l T h i s b ook c on ta in s as e lec t ion o f m y p ape r s o n Ma r i t ime

o n c l a s s i f ica t ion ( 4 .0 ) ; as ho r t s e c t ion ( 5 .0 ) o n w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s ; f o u r s e c t ion ( 6 .0 —9 . 0 )d ea l ing w i th l o gboa t s a nd p l ank b oa t s ; t h en ag r oup o fp ap e r s ( 1 0 .0 ) o n b oa t a nd s h ip o p e ra t ion s ; a nd f i na l ly , w i th t h eg r ea te s tn umb e ro fp ap e r s , a s e c t ion ( 1 1 .0 ) o n t h e c u r ren t ly c on t en t iou s s ub je c t o f e xp e r imen ta l a r chaeo logy . E a ch s e c t ion h a s a n i n t roduc to ry c ommen ta ry , a nd , w i th in e a ch s e c t ion ,p ap e r s a r e a r ranged i n

A r cha eo logy w h ich w e r eo r ig ina l ly p ub l i shed ,i n aw id er a nge o fj o u rna l s a nd b ook s ,b e tween 1 975 & 1 995 . T he p ub l ica t ion o ft h i sc o l le c t ion m ay b ej u s t i f ied o nt wo ma in g r ound s . F i r s t , s t uden t s a nd p rac t i t ione r so f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy g ene ra l ly a pp roa ch t h a t s ub jec t f r om o ne o f t wo d i rec t ion s , a r cha eo log i ca l o r m a r i t ime : a n i n teg ra ted v i ew , t h ough v e ry d e s i rab le , i sr a re . A r chaeo log i s t s a mong s t t h e se r e sea r che r s w i l l k now o f m a r i t ime—o r ien ta ted p ape r s i n t h e O xf o rd J ou rna lo fA r chaeo logy , t h e r e sea r ch r e po r t s o ft h e C BA , t h e P r o ce ed ing so ft h eP r eh i s tor i cS o c ie ty , a nd s im i la rm ed ia . O n t h eo t he rh and ,t h e se a r chaeo log i s t s m ay n eve rh ave s e en a ny o f t h e M ar i t ime Monographs f o rme r ly p ub l i shed a t G r eenw i ch , t h e p ub l ica t ion s o f t h e V ik ing S h ip Mu seum a t R o sk i lde , D enma rk , o r t h e d e l ig h t fu l ly—named a nd e l egan t ly—p roduced Ma r ine r ' s M i r ro r : a l l t h e se a r e a r cha eo log i ca l ly—o r ien ta t ed , a tl e a s ts ome o ft h e t i me . A tt h e o t he r e nd o f t h e s pec t rum , m any o f t h o se m a r i t ime a r cha eo log i s t s w ho a r e ' b oa t—bu f f s ' , d i ve r s o r s ea f a r e r s p r obab ly h ave a s im i la r ly p a r t ia l , b u t o ppo s i te , v i ew o f t h e l i t e ra tu r e .

o rde ro fp ub l ica t ion . C lea r ly t h e se e l even s e c t ion s a r en o t s e pa ra ted b y w a te r t igh t c ompa r tmen t s . S eve ra l o f t h e p ap e r s d ea l w i th an umbe r o f i n te r— r e la ted t o p ic s w h ich c u ta c ro s sb ounda r ie s :f o re xamp le , m o s t o f t h e p ap e r s o n b oa t s i ns e c t ion s 6 . 0 t o 9 . 0 i n c lude d e ta i l s o f w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s ( a l so i n 5 . 0 ) ; w h i l s t e xp e r imen ta la r chaeo logy ( 1 1 .0 )p e rfo r c e d ea l sw i th l o gboa t s a nd p l ank b oa t s ( a l so i n6 . 0 t o9 . 0 ) . T h e se r e la t ion sh ip s a r e h i gh l igh ted a nd c r o s s— r e f e r enced i nt h e i n t roduc t ion t oe a ch s e c t ion . T he r e a r e o t he r r e cogn i sed t o p i c s w h ich a r e d i scu s sed i n s e ve ra l a r t ic le s , b u t w h ich a r e n o t f o rma l ly g r oup ed t o ge the r h e r e .T he se i n c lude : E nv i ronmen ta ls t ud ie s —s e ep ap e r s 1 . 1 , 1 . 3 , 6 . 4 , 7 . 1 , 9 . 2 a nd 1 .3 Q uan t i ta t ive m e thod s —s e ep ape r s 1 . 1 , 1 . 3 , &6 . 1 N ava la r ch i t ec tu r e —s e ep ap e r s6 . 3 , 1 0 .2 , &1 .1 t o1 .8 S ou rc ec r i t ic i sm i se s sen t ia li na ny d i sc ip l in e ,b u th a s s e ldom b een d i scu s sed f o rma l ly i n t h e c on tex t o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy .I ti si mp l ic i ti ns e ve ra lp ap e r si nt h i sc o l lec t ion , b u tf o ra ni n t rodu c t ion t ot h i st o p ic s e e ,f o re xamp le , McG ra i l ( 1 98 1 ,6 10 ; 1 987 ,2 -3 )a nd McG ra i la nd F a r r e l l( 1 979 ) .

Mo r eove r , s e ve ra l o f t h e p ape r s p ub l i shed h e r e , f i r s t a ppea red i nt h eN a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum 's A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s , w h ich w a s p ub l i shed f o r t h a t m u seum b y B r i t i sh A r cha eo log ica lR epo r t sb e tween 1 977 a nd 1 987 :t h e se e l even v o lume s a r e n ow o u t o f p r in t . O th e r s w e r e f i r s t p r in t ed i n p ub l i ca t ion s w i th o n ly a l im i ted d i s t r ibu t ion : f o r e xamp le A t lan t i c V i s ion , p ub l i shed i n D un L aogha i r e , B u l län , p ub l i shed i n O x fo rd , a nd S t ud i e s i n Med i te r ranean A r chaeo logy ,p ub l i shed i nJ on se red . T h i ss e le c t ion o fp ap e r s s hou ld t h e re fo r ep rove u se f u lt ot h o se s e ek ing t ob r oaden t h e i r a pp roach t o Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy a nd t ot h o se w ho a r e , a tp r e sen t , f r u s t ra ted i nt h e i rp u r su i to f o b scu r e r e f e r ence s o r r a re c op ie s o f s ho r t— run p ub l ica t ion s . T h e t e x t o f e ach a r t ic le o r e x t ra c t a ppea r s h e r e a s i tw a s o r ig ina l ly p ub l i shed , ' wa r t s a nd a l l ' . T he r e a r e , h oweve r , m ino r c h ange s t o t h e i lu s t ra t ion s : w he r e t h e r e w a s d up l i ca t ion , f i gu re s h ave b een d e le ted a nd ac r o s s— r e f e rence s u b s t i t u t ed ; a nd e x t ra i lu s t ra t ion s h ave b een i n se r ted w h e r e a n e x t ra c t f r om a b ook i sn o t s e l f— con ta ined a nd n eed s a n i n t rodu c t ion .

C overage I nt i me , t h i sc o l lec t ion o fp ape r sr a nge s f r om c .4 0 ,000 BC t o t h e l a t e—med ieva l p e r iod . I np l a c e , t h e p ap e r s g ene ra l ly d ea l w i th , o r a r e s e t w i th in t h e c on tex t o f , N o r th We s t E u rope , w he r e m o s t o f m y f i e ldwo rk h a s b een d on e . H oweve r , t h e d i scu s s ion so np r in c ip le s a nd t h eo ry ( f o re xamp le ,i n2 . 2 , 3 . 1 , 4 . 1 ,6 . 3 , 8 . 2 , a nd i nS ec t ion 1 .0 )a r eg ene ra l ly i n tended t ob e u n iv e r sa li na pp l ica t ion .F u r th e rmo r e ,p ap e r so ns ea fa r ing a nd n av iga t ion ( S e c t ion 1 0 ) d e sc r ibe m e thod s a nd t e chn ique s w h ich c an b e r e la t ed t o aw id e r c on tex t ; a nd Ih ave v en tu red i n to t h e Med i te r ran ean i nt h r ee p ap e r s —1 0 .5 , o nB ronze A ge S ea f a r ing ; 1 0 .2 , ad i scu s s ion o n B a l la s t w h ich w a s i n sp i red b y s quabb le s a mong s t Med i te r ranean p o t te ry s p ec ia l i s t s ; a nd 1 .8 ,e xp e r imen ta l a r cha eo logy i nt h ec on tex to ft h eA then ian t r i r eme , a5 t hc en tu r y BC o a r ed w a r sh ip .

C on ten t s T he t h i r ty— s ix a r t ic le s h ave b een g r ouped u nd e r e l even h ead ing s : a n i n t roduc to ry s e c t ion ( 1 .0 ) c en t r ed o n t h e q ue s t ion : w ha t i s Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy ? : t h en t h r ee p ape r s ( 2 .0 ) o n t h e f i xed , a s o ppo sed t o t h e f l oa t ing , s t ruc tu r e s w e d ea l w i th ; t wo s e c t ion s o n t h e u se s o fe t hnog raphy ( 3 .0 ) a nd

A s t o t h e t y pe s o fw a te r t r an spo r t d ea l t w i th — t h e c ho ice c l o se ly r ef lec t s t h er a nge e xcava t ed : l o gboa t s ( S e c t ion 6 )a nd 7

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy p l ank b oa t s ( Sec t ion s 7 t o 9 ) . H oweve r , p ap e r 4 . 1 o n

t h e U n ive r s i ty o f L ondon ; B a r ry C un l if f e a nd A nd rew S h e r ra t t , a tt h e U n ive r s i ty o fO x fo rd a nd my s t uden t s i nt h e I n s t i tu t eo fA r chaeo logy . Ic on t inue t oh ave t h ef r iend sh ip a nd g u idan ce o fm any o ft h e se , a nd a l so o fJ ohn C oa tes a nd O le C r um l in—Pede r sen , t wo n ava l a r ch i tec t s w ho h ave , f o r m any y ea r s , g u ided m y m a thema t ica l e n thu s ia sm f o r i d ea l mode l s t owa rd s t h e p rac t ica l c onc er n s o f b oa t ' d e s ign ' a nd b oa tbu i ld ing . F ina l ly I w i sh t o a cknow ledge t h e

C la s s if i ca t ion d ea l s w i th a l lf o rm so fw a te rt r an spo r t —f l oa t s , r a f t s a nd b oa t s ; a nd l o gr a f t s , b und le r a f t s a nd h i d e b oa t s a r e s pec i f ica l ly c on s ide r ed i np ape r s7 . 2a nd 8 . 1 .

F ur ther R ead ing

' p r e—a cad em ic ' d eb t s Io we t os e ve ra l , n ow n ame le s s , p e t ty o f f ic e r sw ho s t rove t oc onve r tm ef r om l a nd sman t os eaman i n m ye a r ly y ea r sa ts ea .

R ef e rence s a r e g i ven t o o t he r b ook s a nd a r t ic le s i n t h e i n t roduc t ion t o e a ch s e c t ion . B ook s c ove r ing a n umbe r o f t o p ic s , w h ich t h e r e ade r m igh t a l so w i sh t oc on su l t , i n c lud e : D r B a s i l G reen h i l l ' s A r chaeo logy o f B oa t s a nd S h ip s 2 nd e d i t ion ( 1995 ) ; t h ef i r s tt h r ee v o lume s i nC onway ' sH i s to ry o f t h e S h ip — E ar l ie s t S h ip s ( 1 996 ) , A ge o f t h e G a l ley ( 1 995 ) a nd C og s , C arav e l s &G a l l eon s ( 1 994 ) ;a nd m y o wn R af t s , B oa t s & S h ip s ( 1 981 ) , a nd A n c ien t B oa t s i n NW E u rope ( 1 987 ) . T he i n dex o f t h e I n te rna t iona l J ou rna lf o r N au t i ca l A r chaeo logy h a s e n t r ie s u nde r m any , b u t n o t a l , o f t h e h ead ing s ma r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t sw ou ld w i sh t oc on su l t .

T he p ub l i she r s a nd Ia r e v e ry g r a te fu l t ot h e m any h o lde r s o f c opy r igh tw ho h ave r e ad i ly g i ven t h e i rp e rm i s s ion f o r a r t ic le s a nd e x t ra c t s t ob e r e—p r in ted h e r e . S pec if i c a t t r ibu t ion s a r e l i s ted o ve r lea f . S ean M cG ra i l D ep t .o fA r chaeo logy U n iv e r s i ty o fS ou thamp ton

A cknow ledgemen t s

i s tA ug u s t , 1 996 .

D u r ing t h e p a s t t wen ty—f ive y ea r s I h ave b en e f i t ed e no rmou s ly f r om t h e a dv i se , h e lp a nd c r i t ic i sm o fn ume rou s c o l league s . Among s t t h e se Im en t ion i np a r t icu la r : Mau r een B a r ry ( n ow L ady Me r r i son ) , w h i l s t Iw a s a tt h eU n ive r s i ty o f B r i s to l ; B a s i l G reenh i l l , D av id Wa te r s , T ed Wr igh t , H a ro ld K imbe r , Owa in R obe r t s a nd A rne—Em i l C h r i s t en sen , d u r ing m y y ea r s a t t h e N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum , G reenw i ch ; D av id W i l son ,J ame sG raham—Campbe l l a nd R oy H od son ,a t

R e f e rence s McG ra i lS .1 981 R af t s ,B oa t s &S h ip s , HMSO /N MM . McG ra i l S1 987 A n c ien tB oa t si n NW E u rop e ,L ongman . McG ra i l S . & F a r re l l A . 1 979 ' Row ing : a spec t s o f t h e e t hnog raph ic & i c onog raph ic e v idence . ' m t . J . N au t i ca lA r chaeo logy ,8 ,1 5 5-166 .

8

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy ACKNO WLEDGE MENT OF COPYR IGHT MATER IAL T he a u tho r a nd t h e p ub l i sh e r g r a t e f u l ly a cknow ledge p e rm i s s ion t o r e—p r in t a r t ic le s i n t h i s v o lume f r om t h e f o l low ing c opy r igh th o lde r s .

I n s t i tu te o f A r chaeo logy , O x fo rd /B lackwe l l . P ape r s 1 0 .1 . 1 0 .2 . 1 .5 . E d i to r , Mar ine r ' sM ir ror .P ap e r 1 .1 . S oc ie ty f o r Med ieva lA r chaeo logy .P ape r6 . 5 . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum .P ape r s 1 . 1 ,2 . 2 ,6 . 2 . N au t i ca l A r chaeo logy S oc ie ty . P ape r s 3 . 1 , 5 . 2 , 7 . 3 , 8 . 2 , 9 . 1 , 1 0 .4 , 1 .6 , 1 .7 . P r eh i s to r ic S o c ie ty .P ape r s5 . 1 ,7 . 2 . R oya l I r i sh A cad emy /Na t iona l Mu seum o f I r e land . P ape r 9 . 2 . T r i reme T ru s t .P ape r 1 .8 . E d i to r ,W o r ld A r chaeo logy .P ape r4 . 1 .

S oc ie ty o fA n t iqua r ie so fL ondon .P ap e r 1 . 2 . P au lA s t rom sF o r lag ,J on se r ed ,S wed en .P ape r 1 0 .5 . E d i to r s ,A t lan t i cV i s ion .P ape r 1 0 .3 E d i to r ,B u l län .P ap e r9 . 3 . C en t r e f o r Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy , R o sk i ld e , P ape r s 1 . 3 , 1 .4 . C ounc i lf o rB r i t i sh A r chaeo logy .P ape r s2 . 1 ,8 . 1 . H i s to r i sk Mu seum ,B e rgen .P ape r2 . 3 .

D enma rk .

9

S t ud ie s i n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

1 0

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

S ECT ION 1 . 0 MAR IT IME ARCHAEOLOGY I n troduc t ion

c on t inua t ion o f t h e a ge—o ld a l iena t ion b e tween s eamen & l a nd smen ( G r eenh i l l , 1 995 , 1 516 ) . T oday , g en e ra l ly s peak ing , A r chaeo logy h a s m o r e u nde r s tand ing o f i t s m a r i t ime s ub—d i sc ip l in e t h an i t d i d ad ecade a go . F o r e xamp le : t h e I n s t i tu te o fF i e ld A r chaeo log i s t s h a s a n a c t ive m a r i t ime s e c t ion ; c oope ra t ion b e tween l a nd—ba sed & b oa t—ba sed a r chaeo log i s t s i sm o r e e v id en t , e spec ia l ly i nt h e i n te r— t ida l z on e &i nt h e c oa s ta l r e g ion s g ene ra l ly — a s , f o r e xamp le ,o nt h e We l sh s i de o ft h eS ever ne s tua ry ; a nd s e ve ra l A r cha eo log ica l U n i t s h ave e x tended t h e i r s ph e r e s o fi n t e r e s t b e low h i gh w a t e rm a rk —We s sex A r chaeo logy ,f o re xamp le .

T h i s s e c t ion b eg in s w i th t wo p ape r s p r ima r i ly s e ek ing t o a n sw e r t h e q ue s t ion ' Wha t i s Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy? ' . T he f i r s t p ap e r w a s o r ig ina l ly p r e sen ted t o aN a t iona l ' Ma r i t ime Mu seum s em ina r o n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy & E thnog raphy ' , h e ld a tt h e U n ive r s i ty o f B r i s to l i n Ma r ch 1 982 . T he s e cond p ap e ri sa ne xpanded v e r s ion o f al e c tu r e g i ven a tt h e S oc ie ty o fA n t iqua r ies i nS ep tembe r 1 988 . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e B r i s to l s em ina r , t h e A r chaeo log ica l R e sea r ch C en t r e ( ARC ) a tt h e Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum , G r eenw ich w a s i nt h e m idd le o fi t s b r ief t e n y ea r s ' e x i s tenc e . I th ad b een s e tu pi n1 976 , b y B a s i l G r eenh i l l , D i rec to ro ft h e NMM , a s ar e sea r ch—o r ien ta t ed e n la rgemen to ft h em u seum ' s D ep t o f t h e A r chaeo logy o f t h e S h ip , i t se l f s t a r ted b y D r G r eenh i l l t h ree y ea r s e a r l ie r . I tw a s t o d i sappea r i n 1 986 , s u nk a lmo s t w i thou t t r ace b y D r G r eenh i l l ' s s ucce s so r , N e i l C o s son s , a s h e m oved t owa rd s t h e e s tab l i shmen t o f a r e sea r ch— f r ee z one . T h e d e f in i t ion o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy g i ven t o t h e B r i s to l s em ina r ( F ig . 1 . 1 .2 ) r ef lec t ed ARC ' s p r ima ry c once rn a tt h a t t ime : t h e s t udy o f a nc ien t b oa t s & s h ip s . B y t h e t i me o f t h e A n t iqua r ies l e c tu re , Ih ad b een a t O x fo rd f o r t wo y ea r s a nd m y d e f in i t ion w a s t h en a m uch b r oad e r o n e ( F ig . 1 . 2 .1 ) , w h ich i n c luded , n o t o n ly w a te r t r a n spo r t , b u t a l so t h e s t udy o f l a nd ing p l ace s , b oa tbu i ld ing s i t e sa nd a l lt h eo t h e rm a r i t ime s t ruc tu r e s f ound i nt h ec oa s ta l z o n ea nd i nt h ev i c in i ty o fr i ve r sa nd l a ke s .

A no the rc on ce rn , n o tab ly o ft h e 1 984 p ap e r , w a s t oe s tab l i sh r e sea r ch p r io r i t ie s . I n t h e f i e ld o f w a t e r t r an spo r t i tw a s s ugg e s t ed t h a tp r io r i ty s h ou ld b eg i ven t o : ( a ) P r eh i s to r i cb oa t s ( b ) V e s se l so ft h eR omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion ,a nd ( c ) R a f t s &n on—p lank b oa t s . D u r ing t h e i n te r ven ing y ea r s t h e r e h ave b een t h r ee i mpo r tan t f i nd s o fp r eh i s to r ic s ewn—p lank b oa t s o rf r agmen t s o fb oa t s s e e t h e i n t rodu c t ion t oS ec t ion 7 . 0 F u r th e rmo re , B la ck f r ia r s b oa t 1 , t h e f i r s t v e s se l t o b e r e cog n i sed a s o f t h e R omano—Ce l t i c t r ad i t ion , h a s b een r e—app ra i sed ; as h ip o f t h i s t r ad i t ion h a s b een e xcava ted i nS t . P e te r P o r t H a rbou r , G ue rn sey ; a sh a s ab oa t f r om t h e S eve rn e s tua ry m a rg in s a t B a r land s F a rm , Gwen t —s e e S ec t ion 8 . 0 O n t h e o t h e rh and , n o n on—p lank b oa t s o r r a f t s h ave b een f o und , a pa r t f r om l o gboa t s — a n i mpo r tan t o ne i n t h i s c a t ego ry b e ing t h e H a sho lme b oa to fc .3 00 BC :s e eS ec t ion 6 .

A r chaeo log ica lR e s earch

T h ev e s se l s t h a th ave b een e xcava ted h ave b een c han ce f i nd s : i th a s n o t y e t p r oved p o s s ib le t o moun t ap l anned r e sea r ch e xcava t ion f o cu sed o n ap a r t icu la re a r ly b oa tt y p e ,a pa r t ,t h a t i s , f r om t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' p ro jec t ( Se c t ion 7 . 0 ) w h i ch w a s a r e— excava t ion .I nB r i ta in , ab r oad d i v i s ion ,n o t ed i nt h e se t wo p ape r s , r ema in s t o day : v e s se l s f o und u nd e rwa te r a r e s h ip s a nd a r e o f r e la t ive ly r e cen t a ge ; w he rea s , e a r ly v e s se l s a r e f o und i nt h e i n te r— t ida l z on e o ro n l a nd , a nd t h ey a r e b oa t s .

T h e f l ow d i ag ram r e p re sen t ing t h e p ro ce s s o fa r cha eo log ica l r e sea r ch ( F ig . 1 . 1 .5 )w a sb a sed o no n et h a t ,f r om c .1 975 ,h ad b e en d i sp layed i n t h e N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum g a l le ry d ea l ing w i th a nc ien t b oa t s . In ow p r e f e r as l igh t ly m o re c omp lex d i ag ram ( s ee F ig . 1 .8 .1 ) w h ich e mpha s i se s t h a t r e sea r ch i s ac on t inuou sp roce s s ,n o te nd ing a tt h eP ub l ica t ion s t age , a s i td o e s i n F ig . 1 . 1 .5 , b u t mov ing o n t h rough R e—a s se ssmen t( s e l f &b yo t he r s )t o aR e sea r ch p ha se ,t h ence b a ck t oE xcava t ion , a nd s o o n a r ound t h e c i r cu i t a ga in ( F ig . 1 .8 .1 ) .

T h i sm ay c hang e . T h e 1 989 p ape r , i np a r t icu la r , h i gh l igh t ed t h e a dm in i s t ra t ive , l e ga l a nd f i nan c ia l d i f f e r en ce s b e tween s u r vey & e x cava t ion o n l a nd a nd s im i la r w o rk u nd e rwa te r : i ns u ch m a t te r s m a r ine a r chaeo logy i sa t ad i sadvan tage . D u r ing t h e p a s t d ecade , a dm in i s t ra t ive r e—o rgan i sa t ion h a s r e su l t ed i n as omewha t m o r e e ven—handed a nd am o r e h e r i tage—o r ien ta ted t r ea tmen t o f u nd e rwa t e r a r chaeo logy . G ove rnmen ta l r e spon s ib i l i ty h a s b een m oved f r om t h e D ep t . o fT ran spo r t ( F l inde r & McG ra i l ,

P rob lem si n Mar i t ime A rchaeo logy An umbe r o f p r ob lem s ,m any o f t h em p ecu l ia r t o B r i ta in , w e r e h i gh l igh ted i nb o th t h e 1 984 a nd t h e 1 989 p ape r s . A N o t— ea s i ly s o lved o ne w a s t h e e v iden t b a r r ie r b e tween Ma r i t ime a nd ' Ma in s t ream ' A r cha eo logy — s u r e ly a 1

Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy a r chaeo log i s t s . T he r e a r en ow s e ve ra l u n ive r s i t ie s i nE u rope , Ame r ica a nd A u s t ra l ia w i th c ou r se s i n Ma r i t ime

1 990 ) , v i a t h e D ep t . o fE nv i ronmen t t ot h e D ep t o fN a t iona l H e r i tage i nE ng land & t oc ompa rab le ( b u t m o r e r e spon s ive ) b od ie s i n t h e o t he r c oun t r ie s o f t h e U n i ted K ingdom . F o r E ng land t h i s r e—a r rangemen t c an o n ly b e ah a l f—way h ou se , s i nce f u l lp a r i ty w i l ln o tb ea ch ieved u n t i lm a r ine a r chaeo logy i su nde r t h e s ame a dm in i s t ra t ion a s l a nd a r chaeo logy — j e w i th in E ng l i sh H e r i tage .

A r cha eo logy . I n B r i ta in t h e p r inc ipa l p lace s f o r a p o s t—g radua t e q ua l if i ca t ion a r e S t . A nd rew s i nS co t land a nd S ou thamp ton i nE ng land ; t h e re a r e o t he ru n ive r s i t ie s w he re a g ene ra l i n t rodu c to ry c ou r se m ay b e t a k en a t u nde rg radua te l e ve l . P ape r 1 . 3 s t r e s se s t h a t e n t ry t ot h e p ro f e ss ion s hou ld n o t b e r e s t r ic ted t oa r chaeo log i s t s , a nd t h a t n ava l a r ch i te c t s , ma s te r m a r ine r s a nd o t h e r s w i th a b oa tbu i ld ing o r s ea fa r ing b a ckg round c a n c on t r ibu te m uch t o Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy , p rov id ing t h ey a r e t r a ined i n a r chaeo log ica l t h eo ry a nd p r a c t ice ; a r chaeo log i s t s s im i la r ly n eed t o l e a rn a bou t t h e m a r i t ime e n v i ronmen t , t h e n i gh t s ky , b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s a nd s e a f a r ing . T h i s p o in t w a s o ne o f s eve ra l Imade i n a p ub l ic l e c tu r ea tt h eA s luno lean Mu seum ,O xfo rd o n 1 4 th May , 1 9 93 .P a rk e r( 1 995 ,9 3 )h a sc l a imed t h a t Ia rgued t h en t h a t' ma r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t s s hou ld b e ma s te r ma r ine r s ' . Im ade n os u ch p o in t ,e i th e ri nt h a tl e c tu r eo ri np ape r 1 . 3 . No r d i d Is t a t et h a tt o day ' s Ma s te r Ma r ine r sc ou ld i n te rp re tw reck s i te s b y u s ing e xpe r ien ce ' wh ich i st h ough t t ob e s ha red w i th a n c ien t s e a f a r e r s ' ( Pa rk e r , 1 995 , 9 3 ) . R a th e r , i nb o th l e c tu re a nd p ape r , Iu r ged t h a t t h o se w ho p rac t ise Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy s h ou ld b e t r a ined i n a l l a spec t s o f t h i s m u l t i—d i sc ip l ina ry s ub jec t .

A no the r s t ep f o rwa rd i nr e cen tt i me s h a s b een t h a tt h e R oya l C omm i s s ion s o n H i s to r ica l Monumen t s a r e n ow r e spon s ib le f o rc omp i l ing ar e co rd o fw r eck s i t e s w i th in t e r r i to r ia l w a t e r s t ot h e s t anda rd su sed f o rl a nd s i te s . F u r the rmo r e , t h e D ep to f N a t iona l H e r i tage h a s i n c rea s ing ly m ad e u s e o f i t s A rchaeo log ica l D iv ing U n i t i n ap r o—a c t ive m anne r , t h e r eby a dd ing t ot h e e f f ic iency o fh i s to r ic w r eck d e s igna t ion a nd t h e g ene ra l managemen to fi mpo r tan tu nderwa t e rs i te s . T he ADU i sa l so n ow t a sked b y t h e o t he r c oun t r ie s w i th in t h e U n i ted K ingdom . N eve r the les s ,p rob lem sr ema in :t h e r ea r et h ree p r in c ipa lo ne s : ( a ) T oe n su r e ( i )t h a te ve ry d e s igna ted h i s to r ic w reck s i t e i s s u r veyed & , w he r e p e rm i t ted , e x cava ted t o r e cogn i sed s t anda rd s ; a nd ( i ) t h a t t h e se s i te s a r e a dequa te ly p ub l i shed . ( b ) T om ake t h e l aw o nt h ed i spo sa lo fu nde rwa te rf i nd s ( McG ra i l , 1 991 ) c ompa t ib le w i th h e r i tage m anagemen tp r in c ip le s . ( c ) T o p e r suade t h e a pp rop r ia te G ove rnmen t D epa r tmen t o r A gen cy t oa s sume r e spon s ib i l i ty f o r t h e s t ab i l i sa t ion a nd i n s i tu c on ser va t ion o f d e s igna ted h i s to r ic w reck s i t e s , a nd t o i n s t iga t e r e sea r ch i n to t h e se t e chn ique s( s ee P ap e r9 . 1 ) .

R e f e renc e s F l ind e rA . & McG ra i l S .1 990 ' T he UK Adv iso ry C omm i t tee o n h i s to r ic w reck s i te s . ' I n t . J . o f Nau t i ca l A r chaeo logy , 1 8 ,9 3-99 . G r eenh i l l B . 1 995 T h e A r chaeo logy o f B oa ts a nd S h ip s , C onway . McG ra i l S . 1 99 1 ' F ind s f r om m a r i t ime s i tes i n B r i ta in . ' i n

T ra in ing Mar i t ime A rchaeo log i s t s T he t h i rd p ape r i nt h i s S ec t ion w a s p ub l i sh ed i n af e s t sch r if t f o r O le C ru rn l in—Pede r sen , e xcava to r o f t h e S k u lde lev & m any o t he r w r eck s , a nd d oyen o f m ed ieva l m a r i t ime

S ou thwo r th E . ( e d ) Wha t ' s M in e i sY ou r s , Mu seum A r chaeo log i s t , 1 6 , 2 3-29 . S oc ie ty o f Mu seum A r cha eo log i s t s . P a rk e r A . J . 1 995 ' Ma r i t ime c u l tu r e s a nd w reck a s semb lage s i n t h e G raeco—Roman w o r ld . ' m t . J . o f N au t i ca l A r chaeo logy ,2 4 ,8 7-95 ,

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S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 1 . 1 MAR IT IME ARCHAEOLOGY PRESENT AND FUTURE

I n t roduc t ion o fr af t s , b oa t s a nd s h ip s f o und u nderwa te r( D ) i sc ommon t o a l l t h ree t o p ic s . O n t h e o t h e r h and , Mucke l roy ' s d e f in i t ion d oe s n o t p e rm i t t h e m a r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t t o s t udy r a f t s , b oa t s o r s h ip s f o und i n g r ave s ( A ) , a nd h i s n au t i ca l a r chaeo log i s t m ay n o t d ea l w i th m a te r ia l f r om d ra ined s i t e s ( C ) o r n on—boa t r ema in s f r om u nde rwa te r s i t e s ( E ) . Mu cke l roy ' s p r e f a ce s t a t e s t h a t h i s a im i nw r i t ing t h i s b ook w a s t o e s tab l i sh a t h eo r e t ica l b a s i s f o r s c ien t if i c a r chaeo log ica l i n ve s t iga t ion s u nde r w a te r ; t h i s l im i ted a im c au sed h im t ob i a sh i sd e f in i t ion o f Ma r i t ime A r cha eo logy s o t h a t i t w a s b a sed o n t h e l o ca t ion o f t h e f i nd— spo t i . e . u nde rwa te r .

T h e s y s t ema t i c s t udy o f a n c ien t b oa t s m ay b e s a id t o h ave s t a r ted w hen C on rad E nge lha rd tp ub l i shed t h e N ydam f i nd i n 1 865 . O l sen a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen g ave a 2 0 th c en tu ry o r ien ta t ion t ot h es u b jec tw i th t h e i rp r e l im ina ry p ub l ica t ion o f t h e S ku lde lev f i nd s i n1 967 , b u t i ts e em s t om e t h a t w eh ave a lmo s te xhau s t ed t h ei mp e tu sg i ven b yt h e i rw o rk a nd w en ow n e ed t oe xam in e w ha t w e a r e a t temp t ing t od o a nd p e rhap s r e con s ide rh ow w em igh tb e s ta ch ieve o u ra im s . T h e s ub jec td i scu s sed a tt h e B r i s to l s em ina r , o ra spec t s o fi t , h a s b een k nown b y s e ve ra l n ame s : N au t ica l A r chaeo logy ( L TNA ) ; N ava l A r chaeo logy ( Ba sch , 1 972 ) ; A r chaeo logy u nde r w a te r ( Ba s s , 1 966 ) ; Ma r ine A r cha eo logy ( B lackman , 1 9 73 ) ; A r cha eo logy o f t h e B oa t ( G reenh i l l , 1 976 ) ; A r chaeo logy o f Wa te r T ran spo r t ( g a l le ry a t Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum , G reenw ich ) ; a nd Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy ( I n s t i tu te s a tR o sk i lde a nd S tA nd rew s ) . A l l o ft h e se n ame s i n c lude t h e w o rd ' a r chaeo logy ' ; a n a dm i rab le d e f in i t ion o f w h ich h a sr e cen t ly b een g i ven b yG a rd in ( 1 980 ,5 ) : ' . .t h e s um o fs t ud ie s b ea r ing o n m a t e r ia l o b je c t s w h ich may t h row s ome l i gh t ,i nc on junc t ion w i th o t he rd a ta ,o nt h eh i s to ry a nd w ay o fl i f eo fa n c ien tp eop le . . . ' H i s to r ian s i n v e s t iga t e r e la ted m a t te r s b y t h e s t udy o f c on t empo ra ry d o cumen ta ry a nd i c onog raph ic e v idence ; w h i l s t o t he r s c ho la r s e xam ine s u ch m a t te r s f r om a n e t hnog raph ic v i ewpo in t . A r chaeo log i s t s m ay a l so u nd e r take t h e se t a sk s , b u t o u r d i s t in c t ive c on t r ibu t ion t ok now ledge i st h e s t udy o f m a t e r ia le xcava ted o rs u r veyed b yo u r se lve sa nd o t he r s .

My p r e f e r r ed d e f in i t ion ( F ig . 1 . 1 .2 ) i sl i nked t o Man ' s u s e o f a l l t y p e s o fw a t e rway s ( l ake s , r i ve r s , s ea s ) w i th i t s f o cu s o n t h e v eh ic le s o ft h a t u se , t h e r a f t s , b oa t s a nd s h ip s : h ow t h ey w e r e b u i l t , f r om t h e s e lec t ion o f t h e r aw m a te r ia l t o l a un ch ing ; a nd h ow t h ey w e r eu sed . T hu s w es e ek a n swe r st o s u ch q ue s t ion s a s :h ow , w h en , w he r e , w hy , a nd b yw hom w a s t h i s r a f t /boa t / sh ip b u i l t a nd u sed ? T he s t udy o f b oa t u sage e x tend st h e d oma in o fo u rs u b jec tw ay o u t s ide t h ec on f in e so f B oa t A r chaeo logy ( s en su s t r ic tu ) t o t h e s t udy o f t h e d i s t inc t ive r a nge o fm a r i t ime a nd i n land w a te rway a c t iv i t ie s ( McG ra i l , 1 983A ) . T he e v idence f o r t h e se t o p i c s m ay c ome f r om a ny s i t e , u nderwa te r , i n te r— t ida l o r o n l a nd , a nd i ss upp lemen ted b y r e levan t d o cum en ta ry a nd i c onog raph ic e v id enc e . E thnog raphy , N ava l A r ch i t e c tu r e , B o tan ica l s c ien ce s a nd e xpe r imen ta lA r chaeo logy m ay t h row f u r th e rl i gh to ns ome o f t h eq ue s t ion sr a i sed b yt h ee xcava ted m a te r ia l .

O f t h e a d jec t ive s u s ed a bove t o q ua l i fy ' a r chaeo logy ' , t h e m o s t c omp reh en s iv e i s' ma r i t ime ' . B u t t h i s w ou ld l im i t o u r s t ud ie s t o t h e s e a a nd s ea fa r ing , w he rea s t h e i n c lu s ion o f m a t te r s c onne c t ed w i th i n land w a t e rway s w ou ld m ake t h e s u b je c t i n te rna l ly c ohe s ive a nd s u ff i c ien t ly d i f f e ren t ia ted a t t h em a rg in s t of o rm a nh omogenou s a spec to rt h eme o f Man ' s l i f e : h i s i n t e ra c t ion w i th , a nd u se o f , t h e w a terway s o f t h e w o r ld . T he r e i sn o o ne w o rd w h ich s a t i sfa c to r i ly d e sc r ibe s t h e se a c t iv i t ie s , l e av ing ' Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy ' a s t h e l e a s t i n adequa te d e sc r ip t ion , a nd It h e r e fo r e r e commend w e u se t h i st e rm . K e i th Mucke l roy

a l so u sed ' Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy '

E a ch f i nd i ss e ti n to i t sm a r i t ime c on t ex ta nd t h en i n to i t s a r chaeo log ica l c on t ex t s o t h a t i t s r e levan ce t o t h e b ody o f g ene ra l a r chaeo log ica l k now ledge i s m ade c l ea r . Wh e r e p o s s ib le , t h i s a r chaeo log ica l d a ta m ay t h en b e r e la ted t oa n h i s to r ica l c on t ex t . T h i s p o s s ib i l i ty m u s t n o t , h oweve r , b e a l lowed t o d om ina te r e sea r ch ( C la rke , 1 978 , 1 ; C un l i f f e , 1 978 , 3 45 ) . T he t emp ta t ion t oe qua te a na r cha eo log ica le n t i ty ( ab oa t f i nd ) w i th a n h i s to r ica l ly d o cumen ted o ne ( e .g . t h e c og ) i ss t rong b u t s u ch ar e la t ion sh ip m u s t b e d emon st r a t ed a nd n o ta s sumed .H oweve r ,i fr i go rou sa r gumen tc an e s tab l i sh al i nk b e tween t h e t wo f o rm s o f e v id en ce b o th d i sc ip l in e s b ene f i t .I c onog raph ic e v iden ce m ay s im i la r ly b el i nked .

t o

d e sc r ib e t h e s u b jec t h e s t ud ied , a nd h i s b ook o f t h a t t i t le i n c lude s ad i ag ram ( r ep roduced h e r e a s F ig . 1 . 1 .1 d ef in ing t h i sr e sea r ch a r ea a nd s how ing i t sr e la t ion sh ip t oA r chaeo logy u nd e r w a t e r a nd t o N au t ica l A r chaeo logy ( wh ich b y i mp l ica t ion h e d ef ined a s t h e s t udy o f w a te r t r an spo r t ) . I n Mucke l roy ' s d i ag ram , t h e se t h r ee s e t s i n t e r sec t : f o r e xamp le t h es t udy o ft h e' ma r i t ime t e chno logy ' ( = ?b u i ld ing t e chn ique s )

A f te r t h e i n ve s t iga t ion o f s e ve ra l f i nd s , c ompa rab le i nt i me a nd p l ace ,w em ay a t t emp tt og ene ra l i se t os u ch m a t te r sa s :

1 3

Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy ( a )

( b )

A r chaeo logy a r e a bou t p o s t—med ieva l f i nd s . T he t r ad i t iona l a r cha eo log i s t r ema in s u nconv inced o ft h e n e ce s s i ty f o r w o rk i n t h i s p e r iod o f p l en t i fu l d o cumen ta ry s ou r ce s , a nd c ompa r e s i tu n favou rab ly w i th t h e r e qu i r emen t s o fe a r l ie rp e r iod s : h e t e nd s t o a g r e e w i th P ro f e s so r P e te r S awye r ' s r ema rk t h a t

T he i d en t if ica t ion o f ' b oa tya rd s ' i nt h e s e n se o f a n a r ea w he r e ' c e r ta in l o ca l p ra c t ice s ' ( C rum l in—Pede r sen , 1 977 , 1 64 ) w e r eu s ed a t ag i ven p e r iod .A su sed h e r e' b oa tya rd 'h a sp a ra l le l sw i th t h e t e rm ' wo rk shop ' u sed i nt h e s t udy o fm ed ieva lc r a f t s , a nd ( t o al im i ted d eg r ee )w i th t h eu se o f' a xe f a c to ry ' i n p r eh i s to r ic s t ud ie s . S uch a ' b oa tya rd ' h a s b een p rov i s iona l ly i d en t i f ied i nt h e m idd le r e a che s o ft h e 1 2 th c en tu ry AD R ive r Me r sey , L an ca sh i r e ( McG ra i la nd S w i t su r , 1 977 ) . Ma in t r ad i t ion s o f b oa tbu ik i ing , p o s s ib ly w i th r e g iona l a nd t empo ra l v a r ian t s . F ou r s u ch t r ad i t ion s h ave b een p o s tu la ted b y C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1 978 ) f o r n o r ther n E u rope i nt h e m ed ieva l p e r iod : N o rd ic o rV ik ing ; C og ;H u lc ; a nd ' P un t ' ; t h e re m ay b eo t he r s s t i l lt ob er e cogn i sed .

s u ch w o rk i s' a ne xp en s ive w ay o ft el ing u sw ha tw e a l r eady k now ' . U nd erwa t e r w o rk i s c e r ta in ly m o re e xpen s ive t h an l a nd e xcava t ion :n eve r th e le s s ,i nc e r ta in s phe r e s o fr e sea r ch i tmay b e t h e o n ly w ay t or e cove ri n fo rma t ion , a nd i na ny c a se t h e re i sm uch m o r et om a r i t ime a r chaeo logy t h an w o rk u nde rw a te r . We m u s t c onv in ce o u r m a in s t ream c o l league s o ft h i s b y t h e b r ead th a nd t h ed ep th o fo u rr e sea r ch . P e rhap s w e c ou ld a l so h e lp t h em b e t t e r t o u nd e r s tand w ha t w e w r i te b y n o t o ve r load ing o u rp ape r s a nd b ook s w i th u nnece s sa ry s a l twa te r i d iom s a nd t e chn ica l t e rm s w hen m o r e w ide ly u nde r s tood w o rd sa r ea va i lab le a nd c a nb eu sed w i thou tl o s so fp r ec i s ion . I fc ove i ss y nonymou s w i th g roove , l e t u s u se g roove : t h e m a in s t r eam a r chaeo log i s tw i l lg a in u nde r s tand ing a nd w ew i l l g a in h i s a c t iv e i n te r e s t . T h e d i s t in c t ive s t rake b e tween t h e b o t tom a nd t h e s i de o f af l a t—bo t tomed b oa t h a s s ome t ime s b een c a l led a c h in e g i rd e r , b u t s u ch a t e rm i s p robab ly i n comp r ehen s ib le t o m any ; w he r ea s , t r an s i t iona l s t rak e i s p r e c i se , f u n c t iona l ly d e sc r ip t ive a nd r e ad i ly u nde r s tood , a nd h a st h ea dded m e r i to fh av ing b een u sed ( u b e rgang sp lanke )b y C rum l in—Ped e r sen ( 1 969 ,2 7 ) .

R e la t ion sh ip sw i th A rchaeo logy a nd o the rD i s c ip l ine s Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy i sa n i n teg ra l p a r t o ft h e d i sc ip l ine o f A r chaeo logy ( F ig . 1 . 1 .3 ) . A rea s o f i n t e r e s t c ommon t o m a r i t ime a r chaeo logy a nd ' ma in s t ream ' a r chaeo logy ( d e f in ed a s t h a t p rac t i sed b y t h e m a jo r i ty o f a r chaeo log i s t s ) i n c lud e t o o l s a nd b u i ld ing t e chn ique s ( ma in ly w ood a nd m e ta lwo rk ing ,b u ta l so s ew ing ,b i nd ing a nd b a ske t ry ) ;l a nd ing p l ace s , h a rbou r s a nd o t he r w a te r f ron t s i t e s ; a nd a n a r ray o f c a rgo i t em s , m any o f t h em h av ing d i r ec t r e levan ce t o i n te rna t iona lt r ade . A spec t so fw a te rbo rne o pe ra t ion sa r ea l so r e levan t t ob o th t ype s o fs t udy : f i sh ing a nd t h e c ho ice o fs e a r ou te s , t o q uo te b u t t wo . S ea l e ve l c hange s a r e am u tua l p rob lem , a nd i n ve s t iga to r s o f s t one a l ignmen t s a nd s t uden t s o f e a r ly m e thod s o f n av iga t ion a r e d ea l ing w i th s im i la r a spec t s o f Man 's k now ledge a nd t e chn i ca l a b i l i ty ( McG ra i l , 1 983B ) .

U n t i l t h e I n t e rna t iona l J ourna l o f N au t ica l A r chaeo logy a t ta in s a w id e r r e ad e r sh ip a mong s t ma in s tream a r chaeo log i s t s , i t s v e ry e x i s t en ce m ean s t h a t t h ey a r e n o t e xpo sed t om a r i t ime i n f luen ce s ,a si mpo r tan tp ap e r sa nd b ook r e v iew s w h i ch m igh t b e a c cep ted b y o ne o f t h e n a t iona l o r r e g iona l j o u rna l s a r e ' s i d e t r a cked ' i n to t h i s s pec ia l i s t p ub l ica t ion . N eve r the le s s , t h e r e a r e s i gn s o f i n c r ea s ing a wa r en e s s o f t h e m a r i t ime d imen s ion a s , f o r e xamp le , i n c e r ta in B r i t i sh u n ive r s i t ie s w he re a spec t s o f m a r i t ime a r chaeo logy a r e t a ugh t t ou nde rg radua te s . I ft h i s c ou ld b e e x tended t op o s t—g radua t e t e a ch ing a nd r e sea r ch t h e w ho le A r cha eo log i ca ld i sc ip l ine w ou ld b ene f i t .

T he se o ve r lapp ing i n te r e s t s a r e c e r ta in ly r e cogn i sed b y t h e m a r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t , b u tt h e a wa r ene s s o ft h e m a in s t r eam a r chaeo log i s ti sn o ts oe v iden t . I n deed ,i ns ome q ua r te r st h e r e a ppea r s t ob e a lmo s t a n a n t ipa thy t oa ny f o rm o f m a r i t ime a r chaeo logy . Why i st h i s ? Io f f e rt h ree p o s s ib le r e a son s : ( a ) Many a r chaeo log i s t sa vo id t e chno log ica ls ub jec t s . ( b ) T h e g ene ra l a l iena t ion o f s e aman a nd l a nd sman . B a s i l G reenh i l l h a s f r equen t ly a l luded t o t h i s a n t ipa thy a nd m i sunde r s tand ing , a nd t h e r e a son s f o r i th ave b een d i scu s sed b y L e thb r idge ( 1 952 , 2 3-34 ) , a mong o t he r s . ( c ) T he i d en t if ica t ion o f ma r i t ime a r chaeo logy s o le ly w i th u nderwa te r w o rk . U n t i l r e la t ive ly r e cen t ly u nderwa te r e xcava t ion h a s n o t b een p u r sued i n a r i go rou s , d i sc ip l ined m anne r a nd , a s m y c o l league Ma r t in D ean h a s p o in t ed o u t t o m e , i n fo rma t ion a bou t e xcava ted m a te r ia l w a s m o r e l i ke ly t o b e f ound i nt h e s a le room c a ta logue t h an i n as c ho la r ly j ou rna l . I n a dd i t ion , l a te 1 6 th t o1 8 th c en tu ry w re ck s i te s h ave p redom ina ted a mong s t t h e f i nd s m ad e i n t h e w a te r s a round B r i ta in a nd I r e land a nd i nm o s t o t he r r eg ion s a pa r t f r om t h e B a l t i c a nd t h e Med i te r ranean . T h i s i mba lan ce i sr ef lec t ed i n t h e f a c t t h a t 6 1 o u t o f 9 5 m a jo r p ap e r s i nt h e f i r s t 1 v o lume s o f t h e I n te rna t iona l J ourna l f o r N au t i ca l

Ma r i t ime a r chaeo logy t h en f e e l s i t se l ft ob ea ne l emen to ft h e a r chaeo log i ca l d i sc ip l in e , b u t t h e d i sc ip l ine i t se l f i s n o t a lway s a wa r e o f t h i s r e la t ion sh ip . T h i s p u ta t ive s ub—d i sc ip l in ea l so h a sr e la t ion sh ip s w i th o t he rd i sc ip l ines a s i l u s t ra t ed i nF i g . 1 . 1 .3 . U n le s s t h e m a r i t ime a r chaeo log is t i s t r u ly ap o lyma th , ab oa t e xcava t ion c an o n ly b e s u cce ssfu l ly p u r sued a nd p ub l i sh ed w i th t h e c o—op e ra t ion o fs pe c ia l i s t s i n m any ,i fn o ta l ,t h ef i e ld st h e r en amed . Wh e the rA r chaeo logy i ng ene ra l c a nc l a im t ob e ad i sc ip l ine a nd a na r chaeo log is tt o b e o f p ro f e s s iona l s t and ing , h a s b een d eba ted i n t h e p a s t . S ome w ou ld h ave a na r cha eo log i s tt ob e at e chn ic ian o r aj ack o f a l l t r ade s a nd m a s t e r o f n one : f o r s u ch a v i ew s ee K ay ( 1 978 ) ; a nd f o r ac oun t e r v iew s e e McG ra i l ( 1978C ) . B e t h a t a si tm ay ; o u rw o rk m u s td emon s t ra te o u rp ro f e ss iona l i sm t o o t he r s . T he r e i s n o d o ub t , h oweve r , t h a t h e w ho wou ld p r a c t i se m a r i t ime a r cha eo logy m u s t , i n a dd i t ion t o h i s a r chaeo log ica l k now ledg e , b e f am i l ia r w i th t h e s ea , s e aman sh ip a nd n av iga t ion , h ave ag ood k now ledge o fw ood s c ience , n ava l a r ch i te c tu r e a nd b oa tbu i ld ing , a nd b e s u f f ic ien t ly f am i l ia r w i th a sp ec t s o f t h e o t he r d i sc ip l ine s 1 4

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy ( a )

m en t ion ed i nF i g . 1 . 1 .3 t h a t h e c an c onduc t ad i a logue w i th s p ec ia l i s t si nt h o se f i e ld s .

P rob lem si n Ma r i t ime A rchaeo logy T o t h e d i f f icu l t ie s o fe s tab l i sh ing o u ri d en t i ty a nd c onv in c ing o t he r s o fo u r i n t e l le c tua l p r ob i ty , p ro f e s s iona l i sm a nd a b i l i ty t oi n c r ea se k now ledge o f Man ' sp a s t ,m u s tb ea dded p rob lem s o f s t ra tegy a nd t a c t ic s w h ich a r e c ommon t o t h e w ho le o f A r chaeo logy b u t w h ich a r e f e l t e spec ia l ly a cu t e ly i n a s u b—d i sc ip l in e a t t emp t ing t o e s tab l i sh i t se l f . T ab le 1 . 1 .1 s h ow s h ow i n fo rma t ion i sl o s t b e tween a n t iqu i ty a nd t o day d u e t o ac omb ina t ion o f n a tu ra l , g ene ra l ly u navo idab le , c i r cum s tan ce s a nd h uman , g ene ra l ly a vo idab le , f a i l ing s . P a r t icu la rp rob lem a r ea sm ay b ei d en t i f ied :

( b )

( c )

( d )

H ow t oe xpand o u rd a ta b a se a nd w he re b e s tt od o s o w i th l im i ted r e sou r ce s t h a t i s , t o i d en t i f y t h e s i gn if ican t t y p e s o fw a te r t r an spo r t i nG roup 4 B a nd l o ca t e e xamp le s o ft h em ; a nd t oe x tend o u rr e sea r ch t oo t he ra spec t so fm a r i t ime a r chaeo logy a sd e f in ed i n F ig . 1 . 1 .2 H ow t om in im i se t h e l o s s o fi n f o rma t ion d ue t ot h e d e s tr u c t ion o f e xpo sed f i nd s b e fo r e r e co rd ing c an t a ke p l a ce ( G roup 5 B ) , a nd d ue t o i n ad equa t e r e co rd ing ( G roup 6 B ) . H ow t o m in im i se t h e l o s s o f i n fo rma t ion d ue t o n on—pub l ica t ion ( G roup 7 B ) a nd t o i n ad equa t e p ub l ica t ion ( G roup 8 B ) . H ow t oh and le t h ei n fo rma t ion e f f ic ien t ly .

T ab le 1 . 1 .1 I nforma t ion L o s s RAFTS AND BOATS I NU SE D epo s i t ed (1 A )

R e—u sed o rd e s t royed ( 1B )

S ea led ( 2A )

D i s in teg ra ted b yb i o log ica la nd m echan ica la c t ion ( 2B )

S u r v iv ing ( 3A )

D i s s ipa ted b ys eabed movemen to rb ys a lvage ( 3B )

E xpo sed ( 4A )

N o ty e tl o ca ted ( 4B )

E xcava ted ( 5A )

D e s t royed ( 5B )

R eco rd ed ( 6A )

I n adegua te ly r e co rded ( 6B )

P ub l i shed ( 7A )

N o tp ub l i shed ( 7B )

C omp r eh en s ive ly p ub l i sh ed ( 8A )

I n adequa te ly p ub l i shed ( 8B )

r e la t ive ly f ewe rf i nd s ,b u tn one o ft h em i so fs e ago ing v e s se l s i n ap e r iod w hen Man u ndoub ted ly d i d m ake s ea v oyage s . F u r the rmo r e ,e xcava t ion a nd r e co rd ing t e chn ique sc an n ow b e u sed w h ich w e r e n o t a va i lab le w hen t h e se f i ve b oa t s w e r e f i r s te xcava ted . T hu s t h er e la t ive i n c rea se i nk now ledge t ob e g a ined f r om a na dd i t iona lp r eh i s to r ic f i nd w ou ld b ei mmen se .

R e s earch P r io r i t ie s T ab le 1 . 1 .2 l i s t s t h e n umb e r s o f p l ank b oa t f i nd s f r om n o r th er na nd w e s te rn E u rope ,d a t ed e a r l ie rt h an AD 1 500 a nd a s se s sed a si mpo r tan tb e cau se o ft h eq uan t i ty o rq ua l i ty o ft h e r ema in s , a nd a sh av ing b een p ub l i sh ed t o am in imum ( b u tn o t v e ry d emand ing )s t anda rd . Many l o gboa tf r agmen t sh ave a l so b een n o ted , b u t g en e ra l ly t h e se a r e w o r se r e co rd ed t h an p l anked b oa t s a nd m o s ta r eu nda ted : t h ep r io r i ty h e r em u s tb e as y s tema t ic i n ve s t iga t ion , i n c lud ing d a t ing , o f t h e b oa t s a l r eady i nm u seum s . F i nd s o fo t he r f o rm s o fw a t e r t r an spo r t ( b oa t s o fb a rk ,r e ed a nd s k in a nd t h er a f t s ) a r ev e ry r a re . T he c r ud e f i gu r e s i nT ab le 1 . 1 .2 m a sk r e g iona l a nd f u n c t iona l d i f f e r en ce s , a nd t h e r e i su ndoub ted ly m uch w e d o n o t k now a bou t4 t h —1 5 th c e n tu ry m a r i t ime E u rope . N eve r the le s s , t h i s p e r iod i sr e la t ive ly w e l l r e p r e sen ted ( 5 .55 f i nd sp e rc en tu ry ) . I na dd i t ion , i n fo rma t ion i sa va i lab le f r om d o cumen ta ry a nd i c onog raph i c s o u r ce s , a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1 978 , 1 981 ) , D e t lev E l lme r s ( 1 972 , 1 979 ) a nd o t h e r s h ave i d en t if i ed t h e b r oad t r end s a nd a r e t a ck l ing s ome o f t h e o u t s tand ing p rob lem s . T h i s i sn o t t h e c a se i nt h e p r eh i s to r ic p e r iod ( 1 s t c e n tu ry B C a nd e a r l ie r ) : n o t o n ly a r e t h e re a b so lu te ly a nd

T en o f t h e e l even f i nd s f r om t h e e a r ly c en tu r ie s AD a r e t h ough tt ob em embe r so f as i ng le t r ad i t ion —R omano—Ce l t ic . Ih ave a r gued e l sewhe re ( 1 981 ,3 8 ) t h a tt h e se b oa t s a r e ak ey t o t h e u nde r s tand ing o f t h e b oa t s a nd s h ip s o f t h e l a te r m ed ieva lp e r iod ,b u tf o ro n er e a son o ra no the rf ewe rt h an h a l f t h e se f i nd s h ave b een c omp rehen s ive ly p ub l i shed . F u r the r f i nd sa r en eeded t oe x tend t h ed a ta b a se . G i l lme r ( 1 982 ) h a s q ue s t ioned w he the r a t ten t ion s hou ld b e g i ven t oe a r ly r a f t sa nd n on—p lank ed b oa t so nt h eg round st h a t t h e se w e re n o t t h e f o rm s o f w a te r t r an spo r t w h ich w e r e d eve loped i n to t h e s h ip s o f t h e l a te r m ed ieva l p e r iod . T h e c oun te r t o t h i s a r gumen t i st h a t s t ud ie s o f d eve lopmen t a r e s e cond— s tage p ro jec t s ; o u rp r ima r yj o ba sa r chaeo log i s t s i st o s e ek t ou nd e r s tand w ha t h app ened a t ap a r t icu la r t i me i na l l 1 5

Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy i t s a spec t s , r e ga rd le s s o f w he th e r sme m an i f e s ta t ion s a ppa ren t ly p roved t ob ed ead—end si nt h c :l o ng r u n .

a . b . c .

P r eh i s to r ic p l ank b oa t s R omano—C e l t i cp l ank b oa t s B oa t s o f s k in , r e ed o rb a rk a nd a l l r a f t s , f r om a ny p e r iod . I n a dd i t ion , b oa t s a l r eady i n m u seum s , e spec ia l ly t h e n ume rou s l o gboa t s , s h ou ld b e r e — exam ined , d a t ed a nd r e —pub l i sh ed w he r en e ce s sa r y .

T hu s o u r r e sea r ch m u s t b e e x tended i n to t h e f i e ld s o f n av iga t ion , s eaman sh ip , b u i ld ing s i te s , l a nd ing p l a ce s a nd t h e o t he ra spec t so fm a r i t ime a r chaeo logy g i ven i nF ig . 1 . 1 .2 A nd t h e re a r e t h ree g roup s o f w a te r t r an spo r t w he r e h i gh ly a dvan tageou s r e tu rn s w i l l a c c rue i fw e c an l o ca te a nd r e co rd f u r the re xamp le s :

T ab le 1 . 1 .2 P lank b oa tf i nd sf r om n or th ern a nd w e s t ern E urope

P e r iod

F ind s

F ind sp e rc en tu ry

2 000BC t o BC /AD 1 s tt o3 rd c en tu ry AD 4 t ht o7 t hc en tu ry AD 8 t ht o1 2c en tu ry 1 3 th t o1 5 th c en tu ry

5 1 1 0 4 0 1 9

0 . 25 3 . 66 2 . 50 8 . 00 6 . 33

S ou rce : s e eA ppend ix 1 N o te :T he r ea r en of i nd se a r l ie rt h an t h eF e r r iby b oa t so fc .1 500 b c .

a nd u nde r take t h e p o s t— excava t ion r e sea r ch . O n t h e o t he r h and ,f i nd s w h ich a r en o tt ob el i f t ed m u s tb er e co rded o ns i te b y as p ec ia l i s t , w ho m u s t b e a l lowed t o s amp le d i agno s t ic p a r t sf o rf u r the re xam ina t ion .

I nadequa te R e cord ing T he l o s s o fi n fo rma t ion d ue t ot h e d e s t ruc t ion o ff i nd s b e fo r e r e co rd ing ( G roup 5 B i nT ab le 1 . 1 .1 i s ap rob lem c ommon t o t h e w ho le a r chaeo log ica l d i sc ip l ine : i tm ay b e m in im i sed b y m ak ing t h ep ub l ic m o re a r chaeo log ica l ly a wa r e . B oa tf i nd si n G roup 6 B p o se ad i f f e ren t p rob lem . A r chaeo log ica l o b je c t s a r e f r equen t ly e xcava ted a nd r e co rded b y n on— spec ia l i s t s , i n t h e s e n se t h a t g r ave s a r e n o t e xcava ted s o le ly b y g r ave—d igge r s , u nde r take r s o r o s teo log i s t s , n o r p o t s e xc lu s ive ly b y p o t te r s . N eve r the le s s , Ib e l ieve t h a t , u n t i l m a r i t ime a wa r ene s s a nd c apab i l i t ie s b ecome m o r e w id e ly d i f fu sed , i tm ay b e a rgued t h a t , a t t h e v e ry l e a s t , w a te r t r an spo r ts hou ld b er e co rded , i fn o t e xcava ted ,b y am a r i t ime s p ec ia l i s t . My r e a son ing i sb a sed o n k now ledge o f s e ve ra l r e cen tb oa tf i nd sa nd m ay b es umma r i sed :

A d equa t e r e co rd ing h a s b een d e f ined b y C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1 982 , 7 3 ) a s t h e m in imum i n fo rma t ion ' ac ompe ten t m ode l b u i ld e rw ou ld n eed t ob u i ld am ode lo ft h e s t ruc tu re s ot h a ti t i sc o r r ec ti na l ld e ta i l 'C o r r ec tn e s so fd e ta i li se s sen t ia lf o r ,a s C r um l in—Ped e r sen a l so p o in ted o u t , t h e e l emen t s o f ab oa t f i nd w h en j o ined t o ge the r d e f ine t h e f o rm o f t h e h u l l , t h e u nde rwa t e rs h ape o fw h ich l a rge ly d e t e rm in e s p e r fo rmance — c apa c i ty , s p eed , s t ab i l i ty , e t c . Ad i f f e r en ce o f af ew d eg ree s i nt h e b eve l a ng le a l ong t h e e dge s o f c l inke r— la id p l ank ing c ou ld l e ad t os i gn i f ican t ly d i f f e r en tr e con s t ruc t ion .T h i sp l ank e dge a ng le i sa l so s i gn i f i can t i nt h e f l u sh— la id s t y le o fs h e l l b oa tbu i ld ing ( a s i nt h eC la s s ica lt r ad i t ion ) . U n le s sp l ank s a r e h o l lowed i nc r o s ss e c t ion i ti si mpo s s ib le t oo b ta in ah u l lw i th ac u r ved t r an sve r se s e c t ion w i thou t s u ch ab eve l o n o n e o r o t he r o f a d jo in ing s t rak e s , y e t s u ch d e ta i l s a r e o n ly i n f r equen t ly p ubl i shed . D e ta i l s o fc on s t ruc t ion a r e a l so mo s t i mpo r tan tf o rc l a s s i f ica t ion s t ud ie s a nd i na t temp t st oi d en t ify r e g iona lt r ad i t ion s a nd l o ca l ' b oa tya rd s '( Fenw ick , 1 972 , 1 78 ; A rno ld , 1 977 , 2 93 ) : y e t c ha ra c te r i s t ic f e a tu re s , s u ch a s t h e c au lk ing d e ta i l s o fs ome o ft h e R oma n—Ce l t ic b oa t s , a r e n o t a lway sn o t ed i np ub l i sh ed r e po r t s . Af u r the re xamp le m ay b e t a ken f r om o u t s ide E u rope — t h e C h eop s b oa t . A l though C r um l in—Ped e r sen ( 1 977 , 1 7 3 )h a s c ommended t h e p ub l i shed r e co rd s o f t h i s b oa t ( Abubak r a nd Mu s ta f a , 1 971 ) , Id oub t w h e the rt h ey t r u ly r e a ch t h e s t anda rd h eh a s s e t : f o re xamp le n o d e ta i l s a r e g i ven o f h ow t h e p l ank ing w a s f a s t ened a nd m ad e w a t e r t igh t : n od e ta i led mod e l c ou ld b e m ad e f r om t h i s p ub l ica t ion . I np a s s ing , w e m ay a l so n o te t h a t mod e l s c ou ld

a .

b oa t s a r e t h e mo s t c omp lex s t r uc tu r e l i ab le t o b e e xcava ted b . b oa t s a r e n o t a tp r e sen t u nde r s tood b y t h e m a jo r i ty o fa r chaeo log i s t s a nd t h e r i gh t q ue s t ion s m ay n o tb e a sked d u r ing r e co rd ing : t h u s i n fo rma t ion w i l l b e l o s t i ft h er ema in s a r en o tl i f ted ,o ra r el i f ted a nd a l lowed t od r yo u t . T he d ec i s ion w he the rt ol i f t o rr e—bu ry b oa tr ema in s m u s tb e t a ken i nt h e l i gh t o f t h e r e sou r ce s a va i lab le t ol i f t , c on se r ve a nd d i sp lay o r s t o r e t h em , a nd i nr e la t ion t o t h e i r r e sea r ch v a lue a s d e f in ed a bove , a nd i n t h e l i gh t o f a ny l o ca l o r r e g iona l f a c to r s . O n— s i te r e co rd ing b y n on—ma r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t s c ou ld b e a pp rop r ia te f o rr ema in s w h ich a r e t o b e l i f ted p rov id ing t h a t t h e t imbe r s a r e k ep t w e t a nd , c omp r ehen s ive ly p ho tog raphed , a nd t h a t a s pec ia l i s t i s a l lowed t oe xam ine t h e r ema in s o n s i t e , s upe rv i se t h e l i f t ing 1 6

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy w i se t o c on c lude t h a t , i n t h e p r e sen t s t a te o f k now ledge , af u l lr e con s t ru c t ion i sn o tp o s s ib le . ( b ) T h e r e m ay b e s e ve ra l e qua l ly—val id h ypo th e se s f o r t h e r e con s t r uc t ion o f ab oa t f i nd . I n t h e s e lec t c a tego ry o f f i nd s f o r w h ich t h e r e i s o n ly o ne h ypo the s i sm ay b ep l a ced t h e2 4l o gboa t sf r om s ou th B r i ta in r e con s t r uc ted o u t o f at o ta l o f 1 79 n o ted ( McG ra i l , 1 978A ) . S u ff i c ien t d e ta i l s h ad b een r e co rded , a nd t h e b oa t s w e r e o f s u ff i c ien t ly s imp le f o rm , t h a t e a ch c ou ld b e r e con s t r uc ted i no n ly o ne w ay .A t temp t st or e con s t ru c t at y p ica lG r eek t r i r eme m ay a l so r e su l t i n as i ng le s o lu t ion : t h i s i sb ecau se t h ep l en t i fu l d o cumen ta ry a nd i c onog raph ic e v idence i mpo se s s e ve r e c on s t ra in t s o n t h e d e s ig n ( Coa te s , 1 983 ) . I no t h e r c a se s , w i th l e s se r e v iden ce , t wo o r m o r e r e con s tr uc t ion s m ay b e e xp ec ted , e ach o ne c ompa t ib l e w i th t h e e xcava t ed e v idence . F o r a n e xamp le s e e t h e v a r iou s F e r r iby b oa t r e con s t ruc t ion d r aw ing sb yJ ohn C oa t e s( 1 977 ,f i g s .2 ,3 ,4 ) . A sp e r fo rman ce d epend s o nt h er e con s t r uc t ed f u l l f o rm o ft h e b oa ta nd o nt h es t r uc tu ra ls t r eng th o ft h ev a r iou se l emen t si ti s e s sen t ia lt h a tt h el o g ica ls t ep st a ken t oc onve r tt h eo n— s i te a nd p o s t—excava t ion d a ta i n to ar e con s t ru c t ion d r aw ing o r l i ne s a nd c on s t ruc t ion p l an s , b e w e l l d o cumen t ed s o t h a t o t he r s m ay j udge t h ev a l id i ty o ft h i st r an s fo rma t ion .I np a r t icu la r ,a l l l o g ica l p o s s ib i l i t ie s s hou ld b e e nume ra t ed a te ach s t ep i nt h e a r gumen t a nd r e a son s g i v en w hy c e r ta in s o lu t ion s a r e p r e f e r r ed a nd o t h e r sd i sca rd ed .T he p rob lem o fd emon s t ra t ing t h e v a l id i ty o f a n i n t e rp r e ta t ion i s ag ene ra l w eakn e s s i n A r chaeo logy : C la rke ( 1 973 , 1 5 )e mpha s i sed i t si mpo r tan ce t o t h e e s tab l i shmen t o fa r chaeo log ica l i n t eg r i ty ; w h i l s t t h e m a in t h eme o f G a rd in ' s ( 1 980 ) w o rk o n a r cha eo log ica l t h eo ry i s t h a t m uch a r chaeo log ica l r e a son ing i s n on— r igo rou s a nd

o ff r agmen ta ry r ema in s ) ;n o te ven J ame sH ome 1 1e s cape st h i s c r i t ic i sm . R eco rd ing s t anda rd s m ay b e i mp roved b y t h eu se o fa t t r ibu t e l i s t sw h ich s hou ld e n su re t h a tn of ea tu re i sm i s sed a nd t h a tt h e r i gh t q u e s t ion s a r e a sked a bou t t h e s t a te o f e ach a t t r ibu t e . P rov i s iona ll i s t s a r e a va i lab le f o rl o gboa t s ( McG ra i l , 1 978A , 1 4 0-2 , 31-7 ; 1 978B ,4 5 ; McG ra i la nd S w i t su r , 1 979 , 13— ) a nd f o r o p en p l anked b oa t s (McG ra i l a nd D en fo rd , 1 982 , 4 8-65 ) . A t G reenw ich , G i l l ian H u t ch in son i s c u r ren t ly e xpand ing t h e s e c t ion s d ea l ing w i th p l ank ing a nd o t he r e l emen t s , w h i l s t t h e s c h eme u sed b y E r ic McKee ( 1 983 ) t o d e sc r ib e t h e s h ape o fm odem b oa t s c an p robab ly b e a dap ted t oa r cha eo log ica l n eed s . T h e t wo p ub l i shed a t t r ibu te l i s t s a r e i n t e r im s t a t emen t s b a sed o n al im i ted n umbe r o f f i nd s : t h ey n e ed t o b e t e s ted o n m a te r ia l f r om o u t s ide B r i ta in a nd m od i f ied i n t h e l i gh t o f e xper ience — f o r e xamp le , n ew f e a tu r e s a dded o r e x i s t ing f e a tu re s p a r t i t ioned i n to m o r e u s e f u ls t a te s . F ea tu r e l i s t s e ngende r as y s tema t ic a pp roa ch t o t h e r e co rd ing a nd d e sc r ip t ion o f af i nd , w i th a pp rop r ia t e q uan t if ica t ion , a nd i n t h a t s en se a r e n o t n ew : O l sen a nd C r um l in—P ede r sen ' s( 1967 ,9 6152 ) s t ruc tu red d e sc r ip t ion so f t h e f i ve S ku lde lev b oa t s a r e a t t r ibu te l i s t s t r an s la ted i n to p r o se . T h e m a jo r i ty o f t h e se a t t r ibu te s c an o n ly b e a dequa te ly a s se s sed d u r ing p o s t— excava t ion w o rk i nt h e l a bo ra to ry . I f , h oweve r , af i nd i sn o t t o b e l i f ted , a s m any a t t r ibu te s a s p o s s ib le s h ou ld b e n o ted o n s i te a nd s t anda rd m e thod s o f r e co rd ing s hou ld b e s upp lemen ted b y d e ta i led p ho tog raphy , a n d b y s t e r eo—pho tog ramme try i fa ta l l p o ss ib le . I na dd i t ion t ot h e i r r o l e a s a n a id e—memo ire , a t t r ibu te l i s t s h ave o t he r a dvan tag e s ( McG ra i l a nd D en fo rd , 1 982 , 4 6 ) , n o t l e a s t t h a t t h ey c an f o rm t h e b a s i s o f a n a u toma ted d a ta s t o rage a nd r e t r ieva ls y s tem ( s ee b e low ) .

c l ea r ly i n adequa te . I ti su sua l ly p o s s ib le t o d i sp lay s u ch a r gumen t s c l ea r ly i n s ymbo l ic f o rm s o rf l ow d i ag ram s , b u tp e rhap so u rr e ade r sh ip i sn o t q u i te r e ady f o r t h i s . S u ch a i d s t oc l ea r t h ink ing a nd o rde r ly p r e sen ta t ion o f f a c t s a r e , h oweve r , o f g r ea t v a lue w hen p l ann ing ar e sea r ch p r o je c t a nd a ta lmo s t e ve ry s t age d u r ing t h e w o rk , i np a r t icu la r d u r ing t h e p r epa ra t ion o f t h e r e po r t : a l though t h ey m ay n o ta ppea ri nt h er e po r tt h ey s hou ld f o rm i t s i n v i s ib le s k e le ton . T h e m in imum r equ i r emen t f o r c l ea rp r e sen ta t ion o fi n t e rp r e ta t ive a r gumen t si st h a to b ser ved f a c t s ( i n c lud ing ' a s f o und ' a nd p o s t— ex cava t ion d raw ing s ) s hou ld b e c l ea r ly s e pa ra ted f r om t h eo r ie s a nd h ypo the se s ( i n c lud ing r e con s t ruc t ion d r aw ing s ) ; a nd t h e t wo e l emen t s

I nadequa t eP ub l ica t ion E x cava to r s o f b oa t s n o t y e t p ub l i shed ( G roup 7 B ) c an b e e n cou rag ed t o p ub l i sh , i f n ece ssa ry b y w i thd rawa l o f p e rm i s s ion f o r f u r the r e xcava t ion , a s s ugge s ted b y t h e C BA a nd DOE w o rk ing p a r ty o n t h eP ub l i ca t ion o fA r chaeo log i ca l E x cava t ion s ( 1 982 . p a ra 4 . 4 ) . T he i n adequa te ly p ub l i shed f i nd s( G roup 8 B ) a r em o re o f ap rob lem i nt h a ti tm ay n ow b e t o o l a te t o r e cove r t h e i n fo rma t ion w h ich c ou ld m ake t h e r e po r t s a d equa te . S uch r epo r t s a r e o f ten t h e d i rec t c on sequenc e o fi n adequa t e w o rk a tt h e r e co rd ing , a na ly t ica l a nd s yn th e s i s s t age s . Two a spec t s m ay b e h i gh l igh t ed f o r f u r the r d i scu s s ion ( a ) I n te rp re ta t ion : t h e p roce s s o f t h eo r e t ica l ly t r an s fo rm ing e xcava ted e v idence i n to a r e con s t r uc t ion — f r om d a ta t o t h eo ry . ( b ) P re sen ta t ion : t h e m e thod o fp r e sen t ing d a ta ( e xcava ted a nd d educed ) s ot h a t i t i so fm ax imum u se t ot h eu se r .

m u s tb el i nked b ys u c c in c t ,l o g ica ld i scu s s ion . T he B r igg ' r a f t ' r e po r t( McG ra i l , 1 981B )w a s i n tended t of u l f i lt h e se p r ecep t s a s f a r a s p ra c t icab le : o t he r s m u s t r u le o n i t s s u cce s s o r o t h e rw i se . O n r ef l e c t ion It h ink t h a t t h i s r e po r t w ou ld h ave b een i mp roved b y t h e i n c lu s ion o f o ne f l ow d i ag ram s umma r i s ing t h e l o g ica l s t ep s a nd l i s t ing t h e p ha se s o f t h e r e sea r ch w h ich a r e d i s t in c t y e t r e la ted b y f e edback . S uch a d i ag ram w ou ld h ave b een s im i la r t oF i g . 1 . 1 .5 , b u t w ou ld h ave d ea l ts pe c if ica l ly w i th t h eB r igg r e sea r ch r a the rt h an t h e g en e ra lp ro cedu r ei l u s t ra t ed h e r e .

I n te rp r e ta t ion m e thod s F igu re 1 . 1 .4 s how st wo q u i te d i f f e r en t r e con s t r uc t ion s m ade f r om t h e s ame m inu scu le s t one f r agmen t s . I ts e rve s t of o cu s a t ten t ion o n t wo p o in t s o fg r ea t i mpo r tan ce i nm a r i t ime a r chaeo logy : ( a ) E n thu s ia s t ic r e con s t ruc t ion c an o u t run a nd o v e r s t r e t ch t h e e v idence . I n c e r ta in c a se s i tm ay b e 1 7

Mar i t im eA r chaeo logy p ub l i sh ed d r aw ing s o f s t anda rd s t ruc tu ra l d e ta i l ( e .g . t h e m e thod s o f p l ank f a s ten ing i lu s t ra ted b y E r ic McKee i n G r eenh i l l , 1 976 , 2 6 ) , t h e r eby a l so m in im i s ing l a nguage

P re s en ta t ion o fd a ta T he b a s ic d a ta r e co rded o n s i te a nd i nt h e p o s t— ex cava t ion l a bo ra to ry m u s tb e r e ad i ly a va i lab le s ot h a tc on c lu s ion s m ay b e v a l ida ted . Y e t t oi n c lude i ta l l , e spe c ia l ly i nt h e d e ta i led f o rm Ih ave r e commended a bove , i n t h e p ub l i sh ed r e po r t w ou ld l e ad t oo ve r— long a nd t h e r e fo r e u n r ead a nd e xp en s ive r epo r t s . T h i s i s ag ene ra l p rob lem i n t h e A r cha eo log ica l d i sc ip l ine : s e e ,f o re xamp le , L ave 1 1( 1 981 ) ; A lco ck ( 1 977-8 ) ; a nd t h er e po r tb y t h eC BA /DOe w o rk ing p a r ty o nP ub l i ca t ion o fA r chaeo log ica l E x cava t ion s ( 1 982 ) . T he g en e ra l ly a g r eed s o lu t ion i s t h a t s yn th e s i s r epo r t s s h ou ld b e p ub l i shed , s uppo r ted w he r e n e c e s sa ry b y m ic ro f iche i n se r t s . T h i s p ub l i shed r epo r t w ou ld b e b a sed u pon t h e s i t e a r ch ive , c on s i s t ing o ft h e f i nd s , e nv i ronmen ta l a nd o t he r s amp le s , a nd o n— s i te r e co rd s ( o b jec t c a rd s , c on tex t c a rd s , s i t e l o g s , p l an s , p ho tog raph s , e t c ) a nd t h e p o s t—excava t ion r e sea r ch a r ch ive c on s i s t ing o f d e ta i led d raw ing s a nd p ho tog raph s , m ea su remen t s , a na ly se s o fd a ta a nd s amp le s , c ompu t e rl i s t s , e t c .T he se t wo a r ch ive sw ou ld b ei n dexed a nd m ad ea va i lab le f o re xam ina t ion b yo t he r s , a nd t os uppo r tt h ea s se r t ion sm ade i nt h ep ub l i shed s umma ry o rs yn th e s i sr e po r t .

t r an s la t ion p rob lem s . S uch s e t s o f o rde red a r ch ive m a te r ia l , l o ca ted i n m any c en t re s , w ou ld i n e f f ec t c on s t i tu te a n i n te rna t iona ld a ta b ank ,t h ei n d iv idua lp a r t so fw h ich c ou ld ( i n t h eo ry , b u t v e ry i n e f f ic ien t ly ) b e i n te r roga ted b y c o r r e sponden ce o rb y p e r sona l v i s i t . I n te rna t iona l d a ta b ank s h ave b een c r i t ic i sed ,b u tt h ey c an w o rk —i n deed t h ey m u s tb e m ad e t o w o rk i f p rog re s s i s t o b e m ade i n m a r i t ime a r chaeo logy w h ich i si n ter na t iona l b y n a tu r e . Un ive r sa l d a ta b ank s a r e o bv iou s ly i mp ra c t icab le b u t w h en p l anned f o r a s p e c i f ic p u rpo se t h ey c an b e s uc ce s sfu l : b oa t s i nn o r the rn a nd w e s t er n E u rop e u p t o c . AD 1 300 s e em t o b e s u ch a s p ec ia l i sed a nd w e l ld ef ined t o p ic . D a ta b ank s c an b e m anua l ly o pe ra ted , b u t o n ly a m ach ine s y s t em c an s t o r ea nd s y s t ema t ica l ly i n ve s t iga te t h e a moun to f d a ta g ene ra t ed b y t h e d e ta i led r e co rd ing o ft h e b oa t f i nd s o f n o r th e rn a nd w e s t e rn E u rope . C ompu t e r i sed d a ta s y s tem s f r om p r e l im ina ry p l ann ing s t age , t h rough e xcava t ion a nd p o s t—excava t ion r e sea r ch , t o a r ch ive p repa ra t ion a nd p ub l ica t ion m u s t b e t h e a im ( Boo th , 1 983 ) . S uch a s y s t em w ou ld h ave t h ef o l low ing a dvan tage s a . P r epa ra t ion o f t h e s y s tem r equ i re s c l ea r l o g ica l t h ink ing a nd t h e d e f in i t ion o f c a tego r ie s a nd a t t r ibu te s . U se o ft h e s y s tem n ece s s i ta te s s y s t ema t ic p ro ce s s ing o ft h ed a ta : t h ef a c t t h a ta spec t s h ave n o t b een r e co rded i sn o t iced ; a noma l ie s a nd a mb igu i t ie s h ave t ob ee l im ina ted ; a nd r i go rou sl o g ic u sed . b . L a rge q uan t i t ie so fd a ta c an b ep roce s sed . c . A t t r ibu te s a nd t h e i r s t a te s c an b e c hanged , r e—o rde r ed ,e xpanded ,r ep laced ,r edef ined ,e t c . d . D e r ived a t t r ibu te s s uch a s L eng th /Beam o r B eam /D raf t( a nd m o re c omp lex o ne s )c an r e ad i ly b e c a l cu la ted a nd u sed t o i n te rp r e t f u nc t ion , a nd e s t ima t ep e r fo rman ce , a nd f o r c ompa r i son w i th d a ta f r om o t he r f i nd s . S uch a t t r ibu te s c an b e s t o red i nt h e u n i t si nw h ich t h ey a r e m ea su red o ra s ar a t io ,r a the r

A s i ts t and s , t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' r epo r t i sa lmo s t s e l f— con ta ined , a l be i t s uppo r ted b y a r ch ive s a tG r eenw ich . I fi tw e r e t ob e p ub l i shed i n t h e s yn th e s i s f o rm r e commended a bove , J ohn C oa te s ' p ape r o n t h e s a f e c a r ry ing c apa c i ty o f t h e r e con s t ruc ted b oa t( 1 981 ,2 6 1-9 )c ou ld b et r an s f e r r ed e n t i r e ly t o t h e r e sea rch a r ch ive a nd h i s r e su l t s q uo ted i n ag en e ra l p ape r b r ing ing t o ge the r a l l c on c lu s ion s a bou t t h e ' r a f t ' . N ine teen o t he r s pec ia l i s t r e po r t s i nt h i s p ub l ica t ion c ou ld b e s im i la r ly t r ea ted o rp ub l i shed i ns pe c ia l i s tj ou rna l s . S ome o f t h e i lu s t ra t ion s c ou ld a l so b e t r an s f e r r ed t oo n e o f t h e t wo a r ch ive sa l though t h em a jo r i ty o fe xp lana to ry d i ag ram sw ou ld b er e ta ined ; i lu s t ra t ion sc op ied f r om o t he rp ub l ica t ion sc ou ld b e r ep la ced b y ar e f e rence . T he r e su l t o f a pp ly ing s u ch p r in c ip le s t h roughou t t h e b ook w ou ld b e t or edu ce t h e t e x t f r om 1 38 t oc .5 7 p age s a nd t h ep age s w i th i lu s t ra t ion s f r om 1 36 t o c . 6 0 . I n t h e se f o rma t ive y ea r s o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy s u ch d r a s t ic p run ing c ou ld b e c oun te r— p roduc t ive . I n c on t ra s t t o a n e s tab l i shed s ub jec t , m a r i t ime t e chn ica l i n fo rma t ion a nd k now ledge a r en o t w ide sp r ead a nd p o s t—excava t ion t e chn ique s a r e n o t w e l l k nown , a nd t h e r e i s t h u s an eed t o p ub l i sh t h em i nf u l l . N eve r the le s s , i fw e d o p e rm i t o u r se lve s t h e ' l uxu r y ' o f t r ad i t iona l r e po r t s f o r t h e p r esen t , a c r i t ica l a pp roach t o t h e i r p r epa ra t ion a nd p r e sen ta t ion i s e s sen t ia l i f w e a r e t o c omp ly w i th in t h e r equ i remen t s o f as c ien t i f ic d i sc ip l ine . Whe the r at r ad i t iona l o r s yn thes i s t ype o f r e po r t i sp ub l i shed i ti se s sen t ia l t h a t max imum u se c an b e m ade o f t a bu la ted a nd d i ag ramma t ic i n fo rma t ion a nd t h er e po r tm u s tb et a i lo r ed t ot h eu s e ra nd n o t j u s tt h er e ade r .

e .

D a ta S torage a nd R e tr ieva l I fs t anda rd r u le s c an b e e vo lved f o r d e sc r ib ing ab oa t f i nd , b a sed , Is ugge s t , o ni n ter na t iona l ly a g reed a t t r ibu t e l i s t s , t h en c ompa r i son s b e tween f i nd s b ecome p o s s ib le , a nd d a ta a bou t s im i la rf i nd s m ay b ev a l id ly p oo led . O b jec t ive c l a s s i f ica t ion s o ff e a tu re sb ya t t r ibu te s t a te sm ay b ea ch ieved b yr e f e r ence t o 1 8

t h an h av ing t o b e s t o red a s m embe r s o f h i g h /med ium / low g roup d i f f e r en t ia ted a lmo s t a r b i t ra r i ly , a si n am anua ls y s tem . T he ma ch in e m ay t h en s e a r ch f o r' n a tu ra l 'g roup ing sw h ich may b eu sed u n t i lc hange i ni n pu td a ta s ugge s t sb e t te ro n e s . D a ta c an b e s o r ted a nd a na ly sed s y s tema t ica l ly ; s t a t i s t ica l a na ly se s a nd p a t te rn— sea r ch ing t e chn ique s m ay b e u sed ; s e lec t ed d a ta a nd — ana ly se s c an b e p r in ted o u t i n av a r ie ty o f c omb ina t ion s . I fa l l t h e p u ta t ive m embe r s o ft h e R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion o f b oa t b u i ld ing h ad b een c omp rehen s ive ly r e co rded , a c ompu te rc ou ld s oon c l a r i fy w h e th e rt h i s w a s av a l id p o ly thene g r oup ing a nd i d en t i fy w h ich a t t r ibu te s d ef ined a ny s ub—g roup s . We w e r e r em inded a tt h e s em ina r t h a t q ua l i ty o f o u tpu t i so n ly a s g ood a s q ua l i ty o f i n pu t ; b u t t h e m e thod s c ho sen t oa na ly se t h e d a ta c an a l so i n f luence t h e o u tpu t : t h i s i so n e r e a son w hy t h e c o r re la t ion s p roduced a nd t h e p a t t er n s s ugge s ted b y t h e c ompu te r m u s t b e c ompa red w i th t h e p r ima ry d a ta ; a nd a n a t temp t m u s t b e m ade t ou nde r s tand t h e c au se s b eh ind t h e p a t t e rn sr e vea led .

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy f .

Mu l t ip le o r e ven r a ndom a cce s s t o t h e d a ta i s p o ss ib le . I th a s b een s ugge s ted ( C rum l in—Pede r sen , 1 977B ) t h a t t h e I n te rna t iona l J ourna lf o r N au t i ca l

t r eena i l s ) o r o f m o r e c omp lex i ty ( c l inke r w i thou t c l en ched n a i l sb u tw i th m o s so rh a i r ) .

A r chaeo logy i s ad a ta b ank w i th t h e i n dex g i v ing t h e p o in t s o f e n t ry : b u t t h e n umbe r o f a cce s s p o in t s i s l i m i ted , d a ta m ay b e m i s sed a nd r edundan t d a ta g ene ra ted .C omp r ehen s ive c a ta logue sh ave a l so b een s ugge s ted a s r epo s i to r ie s o f d a ta . I tm ay w e l l b e t h a t , f o r e xamp le , E l lme r ' s c a ta logue ( 1 972 , 2 71-341 ) c on ta in s a l l a va i lab le i n fo rma t ion a bou t m ed ieva l c a rgo b oa t s , b u t s ho r t o f r ead ing e ve ry e n t ry a nd m ak ing l i s t s , c omp rehen s ive i n fo rma t ion o n ap a r t icu la ra t t r ibu te o rg r oup o fa t t r ibu te s , i sn o t r e ad i ly r e t r ievab le , a s i tw ou ld i n deed b e i ft h i s c a ta logue i n fo rma t ion w e r e t o b e s y s tema t ica l ly c ompu te r i sed . R e t r ievab le i n fo rma t ion w ou ld t h en n o t b e l i m i ted t o s i ng le f e a tu re s ( mo s s ) o r e ven a dd i t ive c omb ina t ion s ( mo ss a nd t r eena i l s ) , b u t c ou ld b e n ega t ive ( mo s s w i thou t

Ma r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t s n eed t o u p—da te t h e i r t e chn ique s e s pe c ia l ly i n t h e a r ea s o f r e co rd ing , d a ta s t o rage a nd r e t r ieva l , a nd p ub l ica t ion . T he c o ro l la ry o ft h i s i st h a t m o r e t i me m u s tb e s p en t o nf ewe r , b u ti mpo r tan t , p ro je c t s . Q ua l i ty r a th e r t h an q uan t i ty o fr e sea r ch a nd p ub l ica t ion m u s t b e o u r a im .

A cknow ledg emen t s T h i s p ap e r h a s b een i mp roved b y d i scu s s ion w i th m y c o l league s i n t h e A r chaeo log ica l R e sea r ch C en t r e a t G r eenw ich , i np a r t icu la r G i l l ian H u t ch in son , B en B oo th a nd D r R icha rd C la rke r e ad a n e a r l ie r d r a f t a nd m ad e s e ve ra l u s e f u l s ugge s t ion s . T he i l u s t ra t ion s a r e c opy r igh t , N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum .

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Ma r i t ime S t ruc tur e s p o s t s , c .1 0 cm i nd i ame te r , w e r e u sed t or e ta in t h e l a t e-9 th c en tu ry AD G raveney b oa t i np o s i t ion a t at i da lr i ve r l a nd ing p lace ( Fenw ick , 1 978 , 1 8 1-5 ) . C ompa rab le m e thod s w e r e a l so u sed t o r e s t ra in t wo u nda ted I r i sh l o gboa t s ( McG ra i l , 1 978 , 9 0 ) . T h e s i te o f al a nd ing p l a ce m ay a l so b e i n d ica ted b yp a ra l le l r ow s o fs t one s o n t h e f o re sho r e a tr i gh t a ng le s t o t h e w a te r , o r c l ea red a r ea s o n a n o t he rw i se s t ony b ea ch , a s n o ted b yR o l f son ( 1 974 , 1 36 )i ns ou th-we s tN o rway .A n cho r s a nd o t he r i t em s o f b oa t ' s e qu ipmen t , a nd o t he rw i se i n exp l icab le c l u s te r s o f a r t i fac t s o n t h e s ho re l ine m ay a l so s ugge s tf o rme ru se a s al a nd ing p l ace .

o f ap o s t , w i th ar ow o fs t ak e s o ne a ch s i de r e s t ra in ing t h em a ga in s t t h e t i da l c u r r en t . O n t h e n ont ida l r e a che s o f r i ve r s p a r t icu la r ly a t t ra c t ive ' l and ing s i te s m ay b e f o rmed w he re a r e la t ive ly s l ow r i ve r j o in s af a s te r o n e . D epo s i t ion f o rm s a g r adua l ly s h e lv ing b ea ch b e tween t h e t wo r i ve r s , j u s t u p s t r eam o ft h e c on f luenc e , w he r e b oa t s m ay e a s i ly m ake a l a nd ing . B y a na logy w e w ou ld e xpe c t t o f i nd s im i la r i n fo rma l i ty i n a n c ien t E u rop e ( o u t s id e t h e i nf luen ce o f t h e C la s s ica l c i v i l i sa t ion s ) u n t i l s ome t ime i nt h e Med ieva l p e r iod w hen a r e la t ive ly h i gh s t a t e o f t e chno logy w a s a ch ieved , w i th e conom ic a nd c omme r c ia l c omp lex i ty . F l emm ing ' s s u rvey ( 1 980 , 1 64 5 ) o f t h e l a nd ing p l a ce s o f t h e p r ec la s s ica l e a s ter n Med i te r ranean l e nd ss uppo r tt ot h i sh ypo the s i s .O nt h e o t he r h and N eedham a nd L ong ley ( 1 980 , 4 18 ) h ave a r gued t h a t t h e l i n ea r w ooden f e a tu r e e xcava ted n ea r aL a t e B ron ze A ge r i ve r s id e s e t t lemen ta tR unnymede B r idge i st h er ema in s o f a' wha r fa ga in s t w h ich c r a f t m igh t m oo r ' b u t ap r io ry t h i s s e em s u n l ik e ly t ob e t h e p r in c ipa lu se o ft h i s s t r uc tu re . F rom o t he r c on s ide ra t ion s i ts e em s m o r e p robab le t h a t i tw a s e r ec ted t os t ab i l i se t h e r i ve rb ank a nd p r even te r o s ion n ex t t o t h es e t t lemen t( McG ra i l ,f o r th com ing ) .

S l ipway sw he re b oa t sc an b e mo re r e ad i ly d ragged i na nd o u t o f t h e w a te r m ay b e f o und a s so c ia ted w i th l a nd ing s i t e s . L und s t röm ( 1 971 /2 ) e xcava ted t wo t r en ch e s 2 0m l o ng a nd 0 . 5m d eep s l op ing d own t h e s ho re a tt h e V ik ing A ge s i te o f P av iken ,G o t land , w h ich h ei n te rp r e ted a ss l ip s ;r e-u sed b oa t p lank ing s e em s t oh ave p e r fo rmed a s im i la r f u nc t ion a tt h e l a te 8 t h c en tu ry s i te a tN ew F r e sh Wha r f , L ondon ( Ma r sd en , 1 981 , 1 ) . T he d ec l iv i ty o r s l ope o f as l ip i sa n i mpo r tan t f e a tu re b ecau se o n as t eep s l ipway s e ve r e s t ra in s c an b e i mpo sed o nt h eb oa ta ss h ee n te r st h ew a te r sa nd t h e r em ay b e s t ab il i ty p rob lem s . Moder n s l ip s h ave a s l op e o f c . 1i n2 0 ( c .3° ) , b u t s l ip s i n t h e c l a s s ica l Med i te r ranean h ave b een r e co rded w i th s l ope s b e tween 1i n 4( 1 5° ) a nd 1i n1 4 ( 4 ° ) s e e Hemm ing , 1 980 , 1 69 .

I ti sd oub t f u l w he the rt h e r ew ou ld h ave b een a ny a dvan tage i n t a k ing t h ek nown i n d igenou s b oa t sf r om p r e-h i s to r ic n o r the rn a nd w e s ter n E u rope a l ong s id e aw ha r f , a l though a l a nd ing s t age e x ten s ion t o ac au seway ( s ee b e low ) m igh t h ave b een u se fu l w hen r i ve r ine o r e s tua r ine d epo s i t ion p r even ted l a rge b oa t sf r om c om ing c l o se i n sho r e .L ogboa t s ,s k in b oa t sa nd t h e H jo r t sp r ing ,F e r r iby a nd B r igg s ewn p l ank b oa t s c ou ld a l lb e s u cce s s f u l ly o p e ra ted f r om r i ve r b ank s o rp ro tec ted b ea che s ; i n deed t h e F e r r iby a nd B r igg c r a f t w e r e e xcava ted f r om p r ec i se ly s u ch c on tex t s ( W r igh t , 1 976 ; McG ra i l , 1 981A ) . S ewn b oa t s o f 1 s t /2nd c e n tu ry AD w e re c e r ta in ly u sed o f f b eache s i nt h e I n d ian O cean ( P e r ip lu s o ft h eE r thy raean S ea , C h s . 1 5 ,16 ,3 6s e eH un t ing fo rd , 1 980 ) ; a si n deed t h ey w e r ei n t h e 1 9 th a nd 2 0 th c en tu r ie s ( Fo lka rd , 1 870 , 3 10 ; H or n e l l , 1 946 ,2 36 ) .

H ard s O n s o f t b ea ch e s , w hen i t i s r e qu i red t o l e ave a b oa t t empo ra r i ly o u t o fw a te r , s imp le h a rd s tand ing s o fh o r i zon ta l h u rd les o rp o le s a nd o t he rl i gh tt imbe r sm ay b ec on s t r uc ted t o p reven tt h eh u l ls i nk ing i n to t h em ud . F o r ar e cen te xamp le i n F ran ce s e e B eaudouü i ( 1 970 , 7 5 ) . O n t i da l s i te s t h e se h a rd s a r eg ene ra l ly s i ted a bove a l lb u tt h eh i ghe s to fh i gh w a te r s s o t h a tt h eb oa ti sn o rma l ly a g round y e tm ay b ef l oa ted o f fo na s p r ing t i d e . S l ipway s m ay l e ad f r om ah a rd i n to t h e w a t e r , a l though t empo ra ry r o l le r so ro a r sm ay a l so b eu sed . T he re i si n c rea s ing a r chaeo log ica l e v idence f o rh a rd s . P a r to f t h e N eo l i th ic B ake r s i te i n t h e S ome r se t L eve l s h a s b een i n te rp re ted a s ah a rd o r p l a t fo rm o f b r u shwood w i th a s l ip l e ad ing t o al owe r l e ve l ( Co le s , 1 980 , 8 15 ) , a nd a l i gh t t imbe rh a rd d a ted t ot h e R oman p e r iod h a s b een r e co rded a t B en tume r s ia l o n t h e R . Em s ( E l lme r s , 1 975 , 36 ) . T he 9 t h c en tu ry G raveney b oa t w a s f ound p u l led u p o n t o ah a rd ma in ly o f w i l low ( S a l ix s p . ) ( Fenw ick , 1 978 , 1 81-5 ) , a nd a s im i la r s t ruc t u r e h a s r e cen t ly b een e xcava ted n ea r t h e m ed ieva l w a te r f ron t a t N o rw ich ( Ay r e s , 1 981 , 2 79 ) . I ti s p o s s ib le t h a t t h e u nda ted l o gboa t f r om D eep ing F en , L in c s . w a sa l so l y ing o n ah a rd ( McG ra i l , 1 978 , 1 85 ) .

T u rn ing t ot h e Med ieva lp e r iod ,w em ay n o te t h ei n fo rma lu se o f l a nd ing p l ac e s s hown o n t h e n th c en tu ry AD B ayeaux t a pe s t ry w h er e t h e re a r e s c ene s w i th o ne b oa tb e ing b ea ched , a no the rc om ing t oa ncho ri nt h e s ha l low s , a nd o t he r s f a s tened t o am oo r ing p o s t( S ten ton , 1 9 57 ,f i g s .3 6 ,3 9 ,4 5 ) .I n ar e v iew o f m ed ieva l w r eck s i n D an i sh w a te r s , C rum l in-Pede r sen ( 1 981 )h a sn o ted t h a tm any o ft h em h ave b een f o und l y ing o f f ' b ea ch m a rke t p l ace s ' . T he m ed ieva l w reck s f r om S ku lde lev ( O l sen a nd C rum l in-Ped e r sen , 1 967 , 1 08-9 , 17-8 , 1 30 , 1 44-5 ) a nd U t r ech t b oa t 1( E l lme r s , 1 972 , 1 38 ) , a mong o t he r s , h ave w ea r o n t h e i r k ee l s o r b o t tom p l ank ing s c on s i s ten t w i th t h em h av ing t a ken t h e g r ound o n s and o r g r ave l b ea che s . T he w ea rp a t te rn o nt r an sve r se h o le s t h rough t h e l owe r s t em s o f o t h e r m ed ieva l f i nd s ( Ken tme r e 1 , G raveney , N ydam 2 f o r e xamp le ) i n d ica t e t h a t t h e se b oa t s w e r ep robab ly p u l led u pt h eb ea ch b yr ope .

B oa ts he l ter sa nd b oa th ou se s When n o t i n u se , e spe c ia l ly f o r l o ng p e r iod s , b oa t s n eed p ro tec t ion f r om e x t reme s o f t empe ra tu r e a nd t h e e f f ec t s o f h i gh w ind s . T h i s may b e s imp ly a ch ieved b y p u l l ing t h eb oa t w e l l a bove h i gh w a te r m a rk , t u rn ing h e r o ve r , a nd p o s s ib ly c ove r ing h e r w i th b ough s o rb r u shwood ( McG ra i l , 1 978 , 9 0 ; R udo lph , 1 974 , 1 6 ) . O n t h e o t he r h and , s p ec ia l b oa t h ou se s a r eb u i l t i ns ome o ft h e P a c i f ic i s land s ( Haddon a nd H ome 1 1 ,

A r chaeo log ica l e v idence f o r t h e se i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l ac e s m ay b e m in ima l , h oweve r s i ng le m oo r ing p o s t s w e r e f o und w i th t h e 1 3 th / 14 th c en tu r y K en tme r e b oa t 1a nd t h e u nda ted Wa l tham s tow l o gboa t ( McG ra i l , 1 978 ) , a nd s e ve ra l o ak 5 2

n Mar i t im eA r cha eo logy S t ud ie si B r igg t r a ck ,b u tl o ca l ly a st h e ' c au sey ' )g ave d ry— shod a c ce s s t o t h e r i ve r s ome 1 20m s ou th o f t h e p o s i t ion o f t h e ' r a f t ' ( Sm i th , 1 981 , 1 43 ; McG ra i l 1 981A , 2 77 ) . T h e e x i s t en ce o fa m ed ieva l c au seway a t B r igg h a s b een d educed f r om p l acename e v idence b y P ro f e s so r K . C ame ron ( McG ra i l , 1 981A ,2 7 1 ) .

1 936-7 ; F ola rd , 1 870 , 2 83 , 2 93 ) . S u ch b u i ld ing s g ene ra l ly h ave o p en e nd s a nd a r e o r ien ta ted w i th t h e i r l o nge r a x i s a t r i gh t a ng le s t ot h e f o r e sho r e ; t h ey m ay b e c onnec ted t ot h e w a t e rb y as l ip o fp av ing s t on e s ,l o g so rh a rd p acked s and a nd e a r th ( Ro l f son 1 974 , 1 3 8148 ) . G en e ra l ly s p eak ing i n p r e— indu s t r ia l s o c ie t ie s b oa t s a r en o tb u i l ti nb oa th ou se s b u t r e pa i r sa nd r e f i t sm ay b eu nde r taken t h e r e .

O the r m ed ieva l c au seway s a r e k nown f r om 8 t h /9 th c en tu ry e xcava t ion s a t K aupang , N o rway w h e r e t h ey w e r e b u i l t o f s t one a nd h o r izon ta l w ooden p o le s . As t one s t r uc tu r e i nt h e 11t h / 12 th c en tu ry l a ye r s a t B ryggen , B e rgen i s a l so

Med ieva l s t ruc tu r e s i n te rp r e ted a s b oa t h ou se s h ave b een e xcava ted i n s ou th w e s t N o rway ( Ro l f son , 1 974 ) a nd a t L 'An se a ux Meadow s , C anada ( Ch r i s t en sen , 1 977B ) . T he N o rweg ian s t r uc tu r e s h ad o u twa rd c u r v ing s i de w a l l s o ft u r f o n s t one ; t h e e nd f a c ing t h e s e a w a s o pen a nd t h e r e a r w a l l e i the ro pen o ro fw ood .T h e r ew e r en oi n t e r io rr oo fs uppo r t ing t i mbe r s e xcep t c l o se t ot h e w a l l s ; t h e r oo f s w e r e d educed t o h ave b een m ad e o f t i mb e r s c ove red w i th b i r chba rk a nd t u r f . Who le a nd f r agmen t ed b oa t n a i l s w e r e f o und i n s ide t h e se h ou se ss ugge s t ing t h a tr e pa i r sh a sb een c a r r ied o u t .

c on s ide r ed t o b e o n e ( E l lme r s , 1 972 , 1 401 ) , a nd t h e C o lche s t e rA r chaeo log ica l T ru s th a sr e c en t ly e xcava ted a6 t h c en tu ry c au seway c onn ec t ing Me r sea I s land t o t h e E s sex ma in land ( H i l lam , .1981 , 3 7 ) . C au seway s a r e s ome t ime s m en t ioned i nm ed ieva ld o cumen t s : f o re xamp le , a ne a r ly 1 3 th c en tu ry c au seway a c ro s s H igham Ma r sh , K en t ( Tho rnh i l l , 1 977 , 1 23 ) .

E a r ly b oa t h ou se s a r e a l so k nown f r om I c e land , G r een land a nd D enma rk ( Ch r i s ten sen , 1 977B , 1 22 ) a nd E l lme r s ( 1 972 , f i g . 1 03 ; 1 974 , 1 38 ) h a s n o ted a 7 t h c e n tu ry G e rman b oa t h ou se a t H e s sen s , W i lh e lm shaven w i th a n 1l m w ooden s l ipway .

I ti sp o s s ib le t h a tc au seway r ema in sm ay b em i s in t e rp r e ted a s t h o se o f ac o l lap sed o rv e s t ig ia l b r idge . C lea r e v idence t h a t t h e s t ruc tu r e s panned aw a te r c hanne l i sn eeded t os uppo r t a b r idge i n te rp r e ta t ion . B r idge f ounda t ion s m ay b e e xp ec ted t o b e g ene ra l ly d eepe r a nd m o re s ub s tan t ia l t h an t h e i n f ra s t r uc tu re o f ac au seway .

C au seway s C au seway s a r e l i nea r s t r uc tu r e s s l igh t ly r a i sed a bove t h e i r s u r round ing s a nd u s ed t oc r o s s w e t o rm a r shy g r ound . T hey m ay b e o f w ood o r s t on e o rh a rd p acked a nd c on so l ida ted s a nd ,g r ave lo rs im i la rm a te r ia l s .C au seway sl e ad ing t or i ve r s g i ve d ry— shod a c ce s s a c ro s s m a r shy g r ound t of e r ry o rf o rd . I nt i da lr e g ion st h ey l e ad d own t h ef o re sho r et ol a nd ing p l ace s a nd t h e i rl owe rs e c t ion s a r e s u bme rged a th i gh w a te r . Whe r e c au seway s a r e u sed t oc r o s s at i da l i n le t o r r i ve r t h ey m ay o n ly b e u seab le d r y— shod f o r ap e r iod e i the r s i de o f l ow w a t e r , a sf o re xamp le i nB o sham h a rbou r , S u s sex a nd t h e R . D eben n ea r S u t ton H oo , S u f fo lk : t h e t e rm ' h a rd ' m ay b eu sed o n2 0 th c en tu ry m ap sa nd c ha r t sf o rs u ch c au seway s .

Whar f sa nd j e t t ie s E v iden ce f r om A n c ien t E gyp t , t h e P hoen ic ian E ra a nd t h e C la s s ica l Wo r ld s ( S haw 1 972 ; Muck le roy 1 978 ,75-84 ; F lemm ing , 1 980 ) i n d i ca te s t h a t f o rma l h a rbou r f a c i l i t ie s ( whe re b oa t s m ay l i e a f loa t a l ong s id e as t r uc tu r e f r om w h ich t h ey c an b e d i rec t ly m anned a nd t h e i r c a rgo l o aded a nd d i scha rged ) b ecame n e ce s sa ry w hen s e t t lemen t b ecame c on cen t ra ted i nc i t ie s w i th c omp lex e conom ic o r gan iza t ion s a nd t e chno log ica l s p ec ia l i sa t ion . L a rge r v e s se l s o f g r ea t e r d ra f tw e r e t h en r equ i r ed t os a t i s fy i n c r ea s ing d emand a tt h e se f o ca l p o in t s f o r l ow d en s i ty , m a s s c on sump t ion g ood s . D ef ence r e qu i remen t s ,t h ec en t ra l i sa t ion o fp o l i t ica la u tho r i ty , t h e c o l lec t ion o fc u s tom d ue s , t h e r e qu i remen t t oa c cumu la t e s t ock s i nw a r ehou se s a nd t h e s i l t ing o fn a tu ra l l a nd ing p l a ce s w h ich f o r ced v e s se l s t ob each i n c rea s ing ly f a r the ra way f r om w he r e t h e i r c a rgo w a s r e qu i red , l e d t o t h e c on s t ru c t ion o f h a rbou r s w h ich i n co rpo ra ted t h e d eep w a te r b e r th s n ec e s sa ry f o rb i gge rv e s se l s .

C au seway s o f l o g s a nd b r u shwood a r e t h ough t t oh ave b een d e sc r ibed b y H ome r , a nd R eed ( 1 975 ) h a s a r gued c onv in c ing ly t h a t , i n c . 1 0 BC , N e ro D ru s su s b u i l t a n e mbanked c au seway a c ro s sm a r shy g r ound b e tween B onn a nd B ou logn e . I n B r i ta in , N eo l i th i c a nd B ronze A ge w ooden c au seway s h ave b een e xcava ted o n t h e S ome r se t L eve l s w he re t h ey a r e k nown a s i t r a ckway s ' ( Co le s , 1 975-81 ) , a nd t h e r e a r e I r on A ge e xamp le s a t G la s tonbu ry , t h e e a r l ie r s t r uc tu r eb e ing o fh o r izon ta lh u rd lewo rk , t h el a te ro fp l ank ing a nd g r ave l ( E l lme r s , 1 972 , 1 40 ) . A t B r igg i n s ou th H umbe r s ide t h e r e s e em s t oh ave b een al o ng t r ad i t ion f o rt h e u s e o f c au seway s . L a rge h o le s t h rough t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' ( 6 50 b c ) h ave b een i n te rp r e ted a si n d ica t ion s o fs e conda ry u se o f t h eb o t tom o ft h i s b oa ta sp a r to f ac au seway g i v ing a c ce s st o t h e e s tua r in e c hann e l o f t h e p r eh i s to r ic R . A ncho lme ( McG ra i l , 1 981A , 2 49-250 ) . I ti sp o s s ib le t h a tt h e l owe re nd o ft h i s s t ruc t u r e m ay h ave b een a f loa t a th i gh w a te r a c t ing a s as imp le l a nd ing s t age . A t as l igh t ly e a r l ie rd a t e , ac au seway o f t r an sve r se t i mb e r s l y ing u pon l o ng i tud ina l ly— la id t r ee—bo le s a nd b r anche s ( k nown i na cadem ic p ape r s a s t h e

T he f i r s t s t age o f d eve lopmen t i nt h e e a s t er n Med i t e r ranean a ppea r s t o h ave b een t h e c on s t r uc t ion o f b r eakwa te r s t o p ro te c t l a nd ing p l a ce s f r om p r eva i l ing w ind s a nd s we l l ; s ub sequen t ly f o rma l w a te r f ron t s w e r e c on s t ruc ted , a nd b eacon s a nd l i gh thou se s w e r e b u i l t ( F lemm ing , 1 980 , 1 68175 ) . T he a b i l i ty t ob r ing w a te rbor n e g ood s c l o se t ot h e ma rke tp l ace m in im i sed h and l ing a nd t h u s m ad e t h e se m a jo r c on s tru c t ion sv i ab le .N eve r the le s sw ide sp r ead u se o fi n fo rma l l a nd ing p l a ce s c on t inued i nt h e l e s s d eve loped r e g ion s a s i s a l so t h e c a se t o day : s e e , f o r e xamp le , E dwa rd s , 1 965 , f i g . 1l ba nd H o rne l l , 1 946 , p l a t e X I I IB , w h e r eb oa t s a r eb ea ched r a the rt h an b rough ta l ong s ide n ea rby w ha r f so rj e t t ie s . I n n o r th er n a nd w e s ter n E u rope t h i s e conom i c a nd t e chno log ica l t a ke—o f f p o in t s e em s t oh ave b een r e ached i n 5 3

Ma r i t im eS t ru c tu r e s t h e 1 0 th t o 1 2 th c en tu ry AD . T h e r e i s w id e sp read a r chaeo log ica l e v idence f r om t h i s p e r iod f o r t h e c on s t r u c t ion o fw ha r f s a nd j e t t ie s w i th d eep w a te rb e r th s f o rt h e f i r s tt i me s i n ce t h eR oman Emp i r e ( M i lne a nd H ob ley , 1 981 , 7 ,1 3-14 , 1 9-22 ,5 6 ,8 24 ) .

d )E a r then b ank s( s ome t ime ss t one— fa ced ) .

Aw ha rf m ay b ed e f ined a s as t one s t ruc tu re ,o r aw ooden o n e s uppo r ted o n p i le s , a l ong s ide w h ich v e s se l s c an l i e . I ti s g ene ra l ly p a ra l le l t o t h e s ho r e l ine a nd m ay e i th e r b e i n c on t inuou sc on ta c tw i th t h el a nd o ro f f— se ts l igh t ly f r om i ta nd c onnec ted t oi tb y t wo o r mo re a pp roa ch s t ruc tu r e s . Aj e t ty i s s im i la r ly c on s t ruc ted b u t i tp ro jec t s a tr i gh t a ng le s f r om t h e s ho r e l ine o rf r om aw ha r f .

O b s truc t ion st ow a te rway sa nd h a rbour d e f ence s T h i r t een th c en tu ry c h ron ic le sr e la t et h a tD an e so ft h ep r ev iou s t wo c en tu r ie s u s ed u nde rwa t e ro b s t r u c t ion s t ob l o ck b ay s a nd c hann e l s a ga in s t S l av s e abo rne r a id s ( C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 973 , 3 1 ) , a nd C r um l in—Ped e r sen h a s i n ve s t iga ted s e ve ra l

S ee E l lme r s ( 1 972 , 1 39 ) , a nd N eedham a nd L ong ley ( 1 980 , 4 25 ) .

u nde rwa te r s i te s w i th l i nea r s t ru c tu r e s o f w ood a nd s t one w h ich a pp ea r t od a t e f r om t h i s p e r iod . S h ip s c ou ld a l so b e u sed t o b l o ck c h ann e l s a s a t t h e w e l l —k nown s i t e o f S ku lde lev i nt h eR o sk i lde F jo rd , D enma rk w he re f i ve V ik ing A ge s h ip s w e r e s u nk i n a g roup ( O l son a nd C nun l in—Pede r sen , 1 967 ) . L and ing p l ace s may a l so n eed p ro t ec t ion a s a tt h e V ik ing A ge s i t e o f H a i thabu ( Hedeby ) w he r e t h e r e w a s am u l t ip le p a l i sad e t o s eawa rd ( E l lme r s , 1 974 , 1 38 ; E l lme r s , 1 972 , f i g . 1 2 3 ) ; t h e r e may h ave b een s im i la r d e f en ce s a r ound B i rka , S weden ( C r um l in—Pede r sen , 1 973 , 3 2 ) . F o rd s m ay b e m ad e d i ff i cu l t t o u se : d u r ing h i s s e cond i n va s ion o f B r i ta in i n5 4 B C C ae sa r f ound t h a t t h e B r i ton s h ad o b s t ru c ted af o rd a c ro s s t h e T hame s b y d r iv ing s t ake si n to t h er i ve rb ed a nd b ank s( Hand fo rd , 1 951 , 1 37 ) .

M i lne a nd H ob ley ( 1981) d e sc r ibe m any w a te r f ron ts t r uc tu re s b u tn o t a l l a r ej e t t ie s o r w ha r f s ; t h e se m ay b e s tb e i d en t if i ed b y c on s ide ra t ion o f t h e p a t ter n o f t h e s u r v iv ing r ema in s , t h e s i ze o f t imbe r s u sed , t h e s t ra t ig raoh ic c on tex t , a nd e nv i ronmen ta l e v idence . T he d ep th o f w a te r g ene ra l ly a l ong s ide t h e s t ruc tu re s h a s t o b e e s tab l i shed w he r e a pp rop r ia te , s ome e s t ima te o f t h e t i da l r a nge o b ta ined ; w i thou t e v idence f o r w a te r o f s u ff i c ien t d ep th f o r l o aded c a rgo v e s se l s t o c ome a l ong s ide a t s ome s t a t e o f t h e t i de , l i n ea rs t ruc tu r e sp a ra l le lt ot h es ho re l in em ay m o r er e ad i ly b e i n te rp re ted a s b ank r e in fo r cemen t , f l ood d ef en ce s o r w a l l s b u i l tt oe nc lo se a nd g a in l a nd ( s ee n ex ts e c t ion ) . M i lne ( 1 981 , 3 6 ) h a s n o ted t h a t 2 0 th c en tu ry t imb e r p i le s i nt i da l r e g ion s d e cay m o s t r e ad i ly a r ound t h e c on tempo ra ry l e ve l o f Mean H igh Wa te r N eap s ( MH WN ) . I tt h u s s e em s r e a sonab le t o d educ e , a sM i lne h a sp ropo sed , tha tw he r et h e r ea r er e pa i r so r r e p lacemen t t imbe r s a t ac on s i s t en t l e ve l i n a n e xcava ted w a te r f ron t s t r uc tu r e t h i s l e ve l w a s p robab ly n ea r t h e

As e c t ion o fa n 1 th c en tu ry b l o ckage a c ro s s o ne e n t rance t o H e f nae s B ay o n t h e s ou th w e s t c oa s t o f F yn h a s b een i n ve s t iga ted i ns ome d e ta i l ( C r um l in—Ped e r sen , 1 973 ) . T he r ema in s a r e i ns ha l low w a te r a nd c on s is t o f t wo e l emen t s : v e r t i ca l p i le s ; a nd h o r i zon ta l t i mb e r s o f ad i s t inc t ive s hape ( F ig s2 .2 .1 a nd 2 . 2 .2 ) . T he v e r t i ca lp i le s ,i nt wo p a ra l le lr ow s , w e r e 2 . 8m-3 .6m i nl e ng th o fw h ich c .1 . 5m h ad b een d r iven i n to t h e s e ab ed , a nd h ad d oub le— f luk ed a nd p o in ted l owe r e nd s . T he r ow s w e re c .1 . 7m1 .9m a pa r t a nd t h e p i le s a t l m1 .4m i n t e r va l s . T h e h o r i zon ta l t imb e r s h ad b een f a sh ion ed f r om h a l f o f as p l i t l o g , a nd w e r e 3 . 6m-3 .9m i n l e ng th a nd 8 14cm t h ick , w i th v e r t i ca l r e c tangu la r h o le s c u t t h rough t h e t i mbe r s n ea r t h e i r e xpand ed e nd s . B o th t y pe s o f t i mb e r f r om H a sna e s w e r e b eech ( Fagus s p . ) , b u t a no the r f r agmen to f ah o r izon ta lt i mbe rr e cove red f r om n ea rby S l iv s c p w a so fo ak ( Qu e r cu ss p . ) .C r um l in—Pede r sen d educed t h a tt h e d i s t inc t ive ly— shaped t i mbe r s w e r e f i t ted a c ro s s t h e r ow s o f p i le s , p a ra l le l t o t h e a x i s o f t h e c hanne l ( F ig . 2 . 2 .3 ) ; t h ey w ou ld h ave b een a wa sh a nd t h u s w ou ld d amage as h ip a to r n ea rt h ew a te r l in e .

c on tempo ra ry MH WN . S uch o b se r va t ion s m ay c on t r ibu te t owa rd s ad emon s t ra t ion t h a t ap a r t icu la r s t ruc tu r e w a s i n deed i nr e la t ive ly d eepe r w a te r a nd t h e re fo r e p robab ly a w ha r fo rj e t ty .

F lood d e f ence sa nd s e aw a l l sb u i l tt og a in l and S ome l i nea r w a te r f ron t s t ruc tu re s a r e b u i l t t o day w i thou t t h e i n t en t ion o f p rov id ing a d eep w a te r b e r th b u t r a the r t o c on so l ida te ar i ve rb ank o r as ea sho r e , o rt og a in n ew g r ou nd b y e n c lo s ing t h e m a r shy o r i n te r— t ida l m a rg in s o f ar i ve r o r o t he r w a terway : b o th f u nc t ion s m ay b e c omb ined i n o ne s t r uc tu r e . S and , g r ave lo rp ebb le f o re sho r e s m ay a l so r e qu i r e s t ab i l i sa t ion a ga in s tl a te ra l movemen t :i nr e cen tt i me st h i sh a s b een d one b y b u i ld ing w ooden g royn e s g ene ra l ly a t r i gh t a ng le st ot h es ho re l ine .

S t ak e sd e f end ing af o rd m ay b ei na ni regu la rp a t te rn i nf r e sh w a t e r s h a l low s o ri nt i da l w a t e r s w h ich a r e s ha l low a tl ow w a t e r .L and ing p l a c ed e f en ce sa r ei nr e la t ive ly d eepwa te ra nd m ay h ave a c u r ved a l ignmen t . C hann e l o b s t ru c t ion s a r e i n w a t e rd eep e nough t oa l low t h ep a s sage o fb oa t s a nd t h ey a r e g en e ra l ly a l igned a tr i gh ta ng le st ot h es ho r e l ine .

T he m e thod s u sed t oc on so l ida te a w a te r f ron t , a nd t ob u i ld f l ood d e f ence s a nd s ea w a l l s , f o r w h ich t h e r e i s a r chaeo log i ca le v idence ,m ay b es umma r i sed ; a )C lo se ly— se tp i le si ns i ng le o rd oub le r ow s , s ome t ime sw i th i n te rwoven h u rd le s . b )H u rd le so rb und le s o fp o le s , s ome t ime s i nc on jun c t ion w i th s t one s .

F i sh We ir sa nd S take N e t s When ' f i xed e ng in e s ' ( Wen t , 1 964 , 1 9 1 ) a r e u sed f o r f i sh ing t h e r e m ay b e s i gn i f ican t s t ru c t u ra l r ema in s t o b e e xcava ted . We i r s a nd s t ake n e t s m ay b e u s ed i nf r e shwa te r r i ve r s , t i da l e s tua r ie sa nd t h es e as ha l low s ,a nd i n ap ape rd i scu s s ing t h e

c )H o r izon ta l l o g s l a id o n t o p o f o n e a no the r o r a ga in s t a s l op ing b ank ,s ome t imes h e ld i np l ace b yv e r t ica lp o s t s .

5 4

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy

F igu r e2 . 2 .1 P i le sa nd f l oa t ing t imb e r sf r om a n 11 t hc en tu ry u nde rwa te rb l o ckage a to ne e n t ran ce t oH e lnae sB ay ,s ou th w e s t c oa s to fF in ,D enma rk .A f te rC rum l in—Ped e r sen , 1 973 .

t h e Va lmo s tp a ra l le lt ot h ef i sh r ou te : i nt i da lw a te r st h ea pex i sg ene ra l ly t os e awa rd a nd n ea rl ow w a t e r ma rk , a nd f i sh a r e t r app ed o n e bb ( f a l l ing ) t i de s ; i n an on— t ida l r i ve r , w e ir s d e s ign ed t o c a t ch s a lmon f a ce d own s t ream , w he r ea s s t ake n e t s e r ec t ed t oc a t ch e l s , f a ce u p s t r eam , a nd t a ke t h em a s t h ey m ig ra t es e awa rd s( W en t , 1 964 ,2 15 ; Whee le r , 1 979 ,6 1 ) .

m e thod s u sed t oc ap tu re s a lmon , Wen t ( 1 964 ) h a s d e sc r ib ed s e ve ra ld i f f e r en tv e r s ion so ft h e se s t ruc tu r e s . I n t h e s t ake n e t m e thod o f t r app ing f i sh , b a ske t s o r n e t s ( v e r t ica l o r b ag— shaped ) a r e s t reamed b e tween a s e r ie s o f s t ake s i nt h e s ea o r( p a r t ly ) a c ro s s ar i ve r( Whee le r , 1 979 f i g . 3 ;S a lmon f i she r ie s o fS co t land , f i g . 4 ;B u rdon , 1 954 , f i g . 1 0 , J e nk in s , 1 974B , 4 1-3 ; H o j rup , 1 974 , f i g s . 2a nd 3 ;D av i s , 1 9 58 , 2 5 ) . T h e p a t t er no fs t ak e h o le s w h i ch w ou ld b e l e f t b y s u ch s t ruc tu re s c ou ld b e s im i la r t o t h o se o f b i rd t r app ing d ev ice s s ome t ime s u sed o n f o re sho r e s a s w e l l a s i n land . T he r e i sl i t t le o r n o t i de i ne a s te rn D an i sh w a te r s b e tween J u t land a nd F yn a nd s o s t ake n e t s t ruc tu r e s u sed t h e r e h ave a g angway f a s t ened t ot h e s t ake s s o t h a tt h e n e t s c an b e t e nded w i thou t ab oa t ( Ho j rup , 1 974 ) . Whe r e t h e b o t tom i st o oh a rd f o rs t ake s ,n e t s a r e e r ec ted b e tween s t ak e s f a s tened t ot i mbe r b oxe s f i xed w i th b a l la s t ( Ho jr up , 1 974 , f i g s . 4a nd 5 ) : s u ch s t ruc tu r e sm ay l e ave n ot r a ce . T he g en e ra l p r in c ip le o ff i sh w e i r o pe ra t ion s i st h a t ab a r r ie r i sb u i l t a c ro ss ak nown f i sh r ou te , a nd t h i sd e f lec t s t h e f i sh t o a n o pen ing w he r e t h e re i s at r ap f r om w h ich t h ey a r e s u b sequen t ly t a ken ( f ig .2 .2 .4 ) T he m e thod h a s w id e sp r ead u s ei nc on t inen ta lE u rop e( C la rk 1 952 ,4 3-4 ) , Wa le s( J enk in s , 1 974A ,7 ) , S co t land ( S a lmon f i sher ie so fS co t land ) ,Lamu E a s t A f r ica ( P r in s , 1 965 , 1 37 ) , S i ngapo r e ( Bu rdon , 1 954 ) , C h ina ( Needham . 1 971 , 1 47 ) a nd V i rg in ia ( Dav i s , 1 956 , 2 ) f o r e xamp le . T he b a r r ie ri so f ten V — shaped w i th t h e l o ng a x i s o f

F igu r e2 . 2 .2 P i le sa nd f l oa t ing t i mb e r sf r om H e lnae s .P ho to : 0 .C r um l i n—Pede r sen 5

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A

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F igu r e2 . 2 .3 R econ s t ruc t ion p l an a nd s e c t ion so fp a r to ft h eH e lnae sb l o ckage . A f t e r Cnun l in—Pede r sen , 1 973

i n te r lo ck ing a nd r ep laced V— shaped s t ruc tu r e s o r ien ta ted d own s t ream . C ola rd r epo r ted t h a t t h e se p o s t s w e r e o f o ak ( Que r cu ss p . ) a nd t h ey v a r ied i nh e igh ta bove g r ound f r om l f t ( 30 cm )i n sho re t o6 f t( 1 .83m )n ea rt h et r ap

We i rb a r r ie r s a r eg ene ra l ly m ade o fw a t t le s c r een s d r iven i n to t h e s ea o rr i ve rb ed , o rw a t t lewo rk m ay b ew oven b e tween t h e s t ake si ns i tu .I nt h el a t te rc a se t h es t ak e sa r et y p ica l ly 1 0 cm i n d i ame te ra nd s paced c .60 cm a pa r t . S t ake so ft h i s s i z e m ay b e d r iven f i ve o rm o re f e e ti n to am ud a nd c l ay f o r e sho r e a tl ow w a te r b y t h e u s e o f ad ropp ing 5 61b ( 2 5kg ) w e igh t ( Edmund E g l in ton ,p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) . T h e a rm s o ft h e w e i rm ay b e u p t o4 00m i nl e ng th w i th w a t t lewo rk 2 -3m i nh e igh t a nd t h e s t ruc tu r e m ay b e s t ab i l i sed b y s t on e s . o r b y b a ske t s o f r o ck s a t ta ched t o t h e d own s t r eam s i d e . I n t i da l w a t e r s t h e w a t t lewo rk t a p e r s f r om 2 -3m i nd eep w a t e r t o l m o r l e s s i n sho r e ( Dav i s , 1 958 , 2 54 ) . O n s ome We l sh w e i r s l a ye r s o f b r u shwood a nd m a t t ing a r ep l aced a l ong s ide t h e a rm sn ea rt h e a pex t o r e ta in w a te r a r ound t h e t r ap d u r ing S p r ing t i de s ( J enk in s , 1 974B , 3 7 ) . I n r e cen t t i me s t h e w a t t l ewo rk h a s s ome t ime s b een r ep la ced b yn e t s w h ich d e f le c tt h e f i sh b u t d o n o te nme sh t h em . We i r s o fl o o se s t on e s a r e a l so k nown ,o ne i n D oonbeg B ay , I r e land , h av ing w a l l s 6 00m i nl e ng th ( Wen t , 1 964 , 2 04 ) ; o t he r s a r e u sed i nQ ueen s land , A u s t ra l ia ( Dav i s , 1 9 58 ,2 ) .

I r i sh f i sh w e i r s a r e k nown t o h ave b een u sed f r om t h e 1t h c en tu ry ( Wen t , 1 964 , 2 03 ) a nd p o s s ib ly e a r l ie r i n t h e H ib emo—No r se p e r iod ,and We l sh o ne s a r e k nown f r om t h e 1 5 th c en tu ry ( J enk in s , 1 974A , 7 ) . T he D ome sday b ook h a s s eve ra l r e f e r ence s t o f i sh w e i r s o n t h e ma in r i ve r s ( Da rby , 1 977 , 2 79-285 ) , a nd s ea w e i r s —f e nce s w i th n e t s a l ong t h e s ho re — a r e a l so m en t ioned a tS ou thwo ld a nd a nu n iden t i f ied s i te , ' R i sebu r c ' . Two m ed ieva l w e i r s h ave r e cen t ly b een e xcava t ed a tC o lw ick n ea r No t t ingham ( po ss ib ly t h e s i te o fa D ome sday f i sh e ry ) i n a f o rme r b ed o f t h e R . T r en t ( Lo sco—B rad iey a nd S a l i sbu ry 1 980 a nd 1 98 1 ) . T he 9 t h c en tu ry w e i rw a sb u i l to fw a t t le h u rd le s , s ome 5 0t o9 0cm i n h e igh t , h e ld b e tween ad oub le r ow o fv e r t i ca l p o s t s , 7 14 cm i n d i ame te r , w h ich w e re o r ig ina l ly c . 2 . 4m l o ng w i th l m b u r ied i nt h e r i ve r b ed . T hese v e r t ica l s w e r e s uppo r ted b y a ng led p o s t s w ho se h ee l s w e re h e ld i np l ace b yb ou lde r s . T he 11 t h / 12 th c en tu ry w e i r w a s c omp lex i np l an , b u t g ene ra l ly V— shap ed a nd c .1 00m i nl e ng th . T h i sc omp lex i ty m ay b ed ue t ot h e r e p lacemen t o f ad amaged a rm o rp o s s ib ly t wo w e i r s i n te r locked t h e r e —b o th a r e k nown e t hnog raph ica l ly . T he v er t ica lp o s t s , s ome 1 0-15cm i nd i ame t e r ,w e re c .5 0 cm a pa r t a nd w e re l i nked b y v er t ica l h u rd le s w h ich w e r e s t ab i l i sed a t t h e b a se b y b ound b und le s o f b r u shwood e mbedded i nc l ay . N ea r t h e a p ex t o t h e w e i r w e re f ound w a t t le s t ake s a nd h o r izon ta l w a t t lewo rk w h ich t h e e xcava to r s c on s ide r m ay h ave b een p a r to f ap la t fo rm a bove t h et r ap .

T he o pen ing a tt h ea pex o ft h e se V — shaped w e i r si sc l o sed b y ab a ske to r an e tw h ich m ay b ee mp t ied f r om ab oa to rf r om a p l a t fo rm e r e c ted b e tween f o u rs t ou tp o s t s( F ig . 2 . 2 .4 ) . A tl ow w a te rs p r ing s , h oweve r , s ome t r ap s m ay ( n ea r ly ) d r yo u t a nd i tm ay t h en b e p o s s ib le t oa pp roach t h em o n f o o t ( Co l la rd , 1 902 )o re ven w i th c a r t s . Af i sh w e i rw a s s t i l li nu s e a tS ea sa l t e rn ea rG raven ey ,K en t , i nt h e e a r ly 2 0 th c en tu ry o n t h e s ou th s i de o f t h e T hame s E s tua ry ( Co l la rd , 1 902 , 7 9 8 1 ) a nd t h e s t ump s o ft h e p o s t s c an b e s e en a t l ow w a te r t o day i n ac omp lex p a t te rn o f 5 6

F i g u r e2 . 2 .5 O ak t i mbe rf o und b yT .E .P o r te ri na s soc ia t ion w i th t h er ema in so f af i shwe i rn ea rS ea sa l te r ,K en t 5 7

Mar i t ime S t ru c tu r e s

F i gu r e 2 . 2 .6

p r e sen td ay s u r f a ce o ft h e e s t ua r in ec l ay , s h o r tl e ng th s o fo ak ( Que r cu s s p . ) r o undwood , w i th s ome w ilow ( S a l ix s p . ) a nd b i r ch ( B e tu la s p ) o f 3 -5cm d i ame te r h ave b e en e xcava ted ; t h e se h o r izon ta l s t i ck s w e r e g ene ra l ly o n an o r th / sou th a l ignmen t , w i th s ome l y ing e a s t /we s t ( F ig s . 2 . 2 .10 , 2 . 2 .11 , 2 . 2 .12 ) T he r e w e r e a l so a f ew v e r t ica l s t i ck s w i th w o rked p o in t s e x tend ing d own s ome 5 10 cm i n to t h e c l ay , a nd s amp le s f r om t h r ee o f t h e se h ave b een d a t ed b y A .E .R .E . H a rwe l l : HAR2759 : 3 150 ±8 0b p( c . 1 200 b c ) HAR3682 : 3 540 ± 1 00 b p( c . 1 5 90 b e ) HAR4204 : 3 420 ±9 0b p( c . 1 470 b e ) T hu s t h e se s t ick s a r e f r om t h e s ame g ene ra l p e r iod a s t h e t h r ee F e r r iby b oa t s .H oweve r ,n os t i ck so rh u rd le sw e r ef o und a s so c ia ted w i th t h eb oa t s w hen t h ey w e r ee x cava ted , t h u s t h e p o s s ib i l i ty t h a t t h e b oa t s a nd t h e se l i gh t w ooden s t ru c tu re s w e r e p r ec i se ly c on t empo ra ry c anno tb e c on f i rmed [ Th i s f i na l s e n tenc ei sw rong :w ooden s t r u c tu r e sw er ef o und w i th F e r r iby b oa t 2—n o te a dd ed t o1 997 p ub l i ca t ion . ]

O ak t imbe r f r om S ea sa l te r . 2m e t re r a ng ing

p o le .P ho to :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum

T he g ene ra l p a t ter n o f l i gh t t i mbe r s s o f a r e xcava ted i s c on s i s t en t w i th t h i s b e ing t h e v e s t ig ia l r ema in s o fh o r izon ta l w icke rwo rk h e ld i n p l ac e b y s h o r t v e r t i ca l s t ake s . E .V . Wr igh t ' s e a r l ie rf i nd s o fh u rd le s ( wh ich n o l o nge r s u r v ive ) i n t h i s v i c in i ty g i ve s ome s uppo r t t ot h i s i n te rp r e ta t ion . S uch a s t ru c tu r e c ou ld e i th e r b e ah a rd , i n land o f t h e b oa t l a nd ing p l a ce , o r ac au seway g i v ing d r y— s hod a c ce s s t o t h e l owe r f o r e sho re w h e r e b oa t s w e r e b ea ched . I n t e rp r e ta t ion m ay b ecome c l ea r e r w h en t h e e x ten t o f t h e r ema in s h a s b een d efmed .

F igu r e 2 . 2 .7 D ig ram s how ing t h e u se o f ad i sc t inc t ive ly— s h aped t imbe r ( s ee F ig s 5& 6 ) a s as o le—p la te i n a2 0 th c e n tu ry f i shwe i r n ea r S ea sa l te r , K en t . D raw ing : N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum .

O b je c t sf ound w i th t he N ydam b oa t s N ydam b oa t 2w a s d i scove r ed i n A ugu s t 1 863 d u r ing E nge lha rd t ' s a r chaeo log ica l i n ve s t iga t ion s o ft h e p ea t b og a t N ydam , 5 0nde rbo rg , S l e sv ig ( Enge lha rd t , 1 866 ) . T h i s o ak ( Que r cu ss p . )r ow ing b oa t ,c .2 4m i nl e ng th ,h a sb een d a ted t o t h e e nd o f t h e 4 t h c en tu ry AD b y t h e s t y l e o fn i ne f i bu lae ( b rooche so fs a f e ty—p in f o rm )f o und i nt h eb o t tom o ft h eb oa t .

I n terpre ta t ion o f Ma ter ia lf r om Two Mar i t ime S i te s F ind sf r om N or th F err iby I ns e ve ra l s ea son s o fe xcava t ion a tN . F e r r iby , Humb e r s id e , E .V . Wr igh t ( 1 947 , 1 976 , 1 978 ) r e cove red t h e r ema in s o f t h r ee s ewn p l ank b oa t so ft h e2 nd m i l len ium BC f r om t h et i da l f o r e sho r eo ft h eR . H umbe r .I nt h ev i c in i ty o ft h e se f i nd s , a nd a l so o ne m i le t o t h e w e s t a t Me l ton , h e a nd C .W . Wr igh t n o ted t r ace s o fh o r izon ta l w ickerwo rk h u rd le s ( F ig s2 . 2 .8 a nd 2 . 2 .9 ) a nd o ne g r oup o f c l e f t o ak ( Que r cu s s p . ) p o le s ; i n a mong s t t h e se r ema in s a nd n ea rby w e r e s ma l lv e r t ica l p o s t s . T h e e xcava to r i n te rp re ted t h e se f r agmen ta ry r ema in s a s e v idence f o r t r ackway s , g ene ra l ly o r ien ta ted n o r th / sou th a c ro s s t h e f o re sho re . ( No te s d epo s i ted a t Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ) .

Wh en f ound , t h e b oa t h ad f a l len a pa r t a nd w a s n o t r e—a s semb led a nd m ea su red u n t i l s ome 4 5 mon th s a f te r e xcava t ion . I n 1 877 t h e b oa t w a s d i sman t led a nd a ga in r e—a s semb led ; a nd i n1 925 a nd a ga in i n1 94 1 s h e w a s m oved t o n ew l o ca t ion s ; s h e r e a ch ed h e r p r e sen t s i t e i n t h e S ch le sw ig—Ho l s t e in L and e smu seum i n1 948 . S ome p a r t so ft h eb oa tw e re n o tr e cove r ed d u r ing e xcava t ion , a nd o t he r p a r t s w e r e d amaged o rs u b sequen t ly r o t ted , t h u s a s i gn if ican tp ropo r t ion o ft h eb oa tn ow o nd i sp lay i so f mod e rn t i mbe r ( Enge lha rd t , 1 866 , 3 0 O r sn e s , 1 970 , XV ) . T h ree t h eo r e t ica l r e con s t r uc t ion s o f t h e b oa t ' s o r ig ina l f o rm h ave b een m ad e ( Enge lha rd t , 1 866 ; S h e t e l ig a nd J o hanne sen , 1 930 ; Ä k e r lund , 1 963 ) ; o n ly Ä ke r lund ' s d r aw ing sm ak e s a l lowan ce f o r t h e c on s ide rab le s h r inkage t h a t m u s t h av e t a ken p l a ce , c . 1 4% i n t h e t a ngen t ia l p l an e o f e a ch t i mbe r . Äke r lund ' s r e con s t ruc t ion d r aw ing s a r e p r obab ly a sa c cu ra t e a sc an n ow b e e xpec ted : t h ey g i ve t h e b oa t ab r oad e rb eam a nd am o re r o unded t r an sve r se s e c t ion t h an e a r l ie rr e co n s t r u c t ion s .

I n1 978 t h eN a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum l a id o u t a6 0m x2 0m r e c tangu la ra r ea o nt h e f o r e sho r e a tF e r r iby w i th t h e s e awa rd b a se l ine r u nn ing e a s t /we s tj u s t t ot h e n o r th o f t h e t h r ee b oa t t r en che s w h ich a r es t i l lr e cogn i sab le a tl ow w a te r . W i th in t h i s a r ea o f i n te r— t ida l z one i n d iv idua l l m x2 m r e c tang le s w e re e xcava ted d u r ing 1 978-80 . S ome o ft h e se w e r e o nt h e s i te o f e xpo su re so fw ood i d en t if ied b yE .V . Wr igh t ; o t he r sw e r ed ug i na n a t temp t t od ef ine t h e l im i t s o f d epo s i ted ma te r ia l . N o i n d i spu tab le e v iden ce f o r w ickerwo rk h u rd le s w a s f o und i n t h e se r e cen t e xcava t ion s , b u t , s ome 3 0-40cm b e low t h e

F rom h i s d r aw ing s Ä k e r lund ( 1 963 ,63 ) d edu c ed t h a t t h e b oa t w ou ld l a ck l o ng i tud ina l s t reng th i n as e away , a nd h e t h e r e fo r e e xam ined t h eo b jec t sw h ich h ad b e en f o und w i th t h eb oa tt os e e 5 8

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F igu r e 2 . 2 .10 P lan o f s ome o f t h e w ooden r ema in s e xcava t ed o n t h e f o r e sho re a t No r th F e r r iby i n 1 978 . D raw ing :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum

F igu r e 2 . 2 .8 W i ck e rwo rk f o und b y E .V . Wr igh t o n t h e f o r e sho r e a tN . F e r r iby , H umbe r s id e i n 1 937 . S ca le : f o lded t wo f oo tr u le r .P ho to :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum .

F igu r e 2 . 2 .11 L igh t t i mbe r s e xpo sed d u r ing e xcava t ion a t N o r th F e r r iby i n1 980 . N o te t h e modem e l t r ap s e xpo sed a t l ow w a t e r .P ho to : Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum

F igu r e2 . 2 .9 O b l iqu ev i ew o ft h ew ick erwo rk s h own i nF igu r e 8 .P ho to :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum 5 9

Mar i t ime S t ru c tu r e s

E nge lha rd t d educ ed t h a t t h e t h ree N ydam b oa t s h ad b een d epo s i ted i nw ha tw a st h en a ni n le to ft h eA l s sund w i th a c ce s s t ot h e o pen s ea . S ub sequen tm ea su r emen t s o fr e la t ive h e ig h t s a bove s e a l e ve l a nd c on s ide ra t ion o f o t he r t o pog raph ica l f e a tu r e s h a s l e d l a te r s c ho la r s t oc on s id e r t h a t a tt h e t i me o f d epo s i t ion t h e N ydam a r ea w a s ab og i na n e n c lo sed b a s in ( Or sne s , 1 970 , I X—X ) o rp o s s ib ly a ni n land b ody o fw a t e ri n t h ep ro ce s s o fb ecom ing ab og . T h eb oa t sh ad b een h o led a nd m any o f t h e o b jec t s f o und w i th a nd n ea r t h em h ad b een d amaged . I ti sn ow g ene ra l ly h e ld i nS cand inav ia t h a t t h e se w e r ev o t ive o f f e r ing s o fw a rb oo ty , d epo s i ted d u r ing t h e 3 r d t o5 t h c en tu ry AD i n al a ke o rb og , i nf o u r g r oup s , p o s s ib ly c en t red o n t h e t h r ee b oa t s a nd o ne o t h e r s po t , ( O r sne s , 1 970 , X I I I—XV ) . N o t a l l t h e a r t i f a c t s d epo s i ted a tN ydam w e r e n au t i ca l o r m i l i ta ry : t h e r e w e r e a l so w oodwo rk ing t o o l s a nd i t em s o f p e r sona l , d ome s t ic a nd e conom i cu se ( Enge lha rd t , 1 866 , 3 78 , 6 25 , 7 4-80 ) .Thu s t h e t wo p uzz l ing g r oup s o f o b je c t s ( F ig s . 2 . 2 .13B a nd 2 . 2 .13A ) n eed n o t n ece s sa r i ly h ave b een p a r t o f ab oa t ' s s t ruc tu r e . I n d eed , o b jec t s s im i la r t ot h e l i gh t s pa r s( F ig 2 . 2 .13A )b u tw i th n o t che sr a th e rt h an h o le sn ea rt h e e nd s( F ig 2 . 2 .15 )w e r ef o und b yE nge lha rd td u r ing e xcava t ion o f o t he r D an i sh b og s i te s a t T ho r e sb je rg ( 1 863 , p l a te 1 8 , f i g .710 )w he re t h es pa r sw e r ef o und ' b yt h eh und r ed s 's p r ead o ve rt h ef i nd sl a ye r .

F igu r e2 . 2 .12 F u r the rl i gh tt imbe r se xpo sed a t No r th F e r r iby i n1 980 .P ho to :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum .

> C I w h e the ra ny c ou ld h ave b een u sed t of o rm ah ogg ing t r u s s o r o t h e r s t r eng then ing a r rangemen t w h ich w ou ld l e ssen t h e r i sk o ft h e s e am s s p r ing ing . Two g r oup s o f t imbe r s h ad i n deed b een f o und i nt h i s b oa t a nd i na nd a r ound b oa t 3( t he p i ne ( P inu s s p . ) b oa t ) , f o rw h ich E nge lha rd t ( 1866 , 3 4 ) c ou ld f i nd n oo bv iou su s e .T he se e n igma t ic t i mbe r sw e re ,f i r s t ly ,s e ve ra l b und le s o f s pa r s c . 3 f t ( 9 1cm ) l o ng ; a nd 1 i n ( 2 .54 cm ) d i ame te r w i th a p e r fo ra t ion n ea r e a ch e nd ( F ig . 2 . 2 .13A ) ; a nd , s e cond ly , t i mbe r s o f ad i s t in c t ive w a i s ted s hape , 4 1-62 i n . ( 1 .0 41 .57m ) i nl e ng th , w i th h o le s t h rough t h e e n la rged e nd s ( F ig . 2 . 2 .13B ) . N one o f t h e f i r s t g roup a ppea r t oh ave s u r v ived a nd E nge lha rd td i dn o ti d en t i fy t h et imb e rs pec ie so r g i ve o t h e rd e ta i l sa bou tt h em . S eve ra le xamp le so ft h es e cond g r oup o f t i mbe r s a r e n ow w i th t h e b oa t i n t h e S ch le sw ig— Ho l s te in i sche L ande smu seum a tS ch lo s s G o t to rp : t wo o f t h e se o b jec t s a r e o f p i ne ( P inu s s p . ) a nd o ne o f o ak ( Que r cu ss p . )( Ak e r lund , 1 963 ,6 4 ) . Ä ke r lund ( 1 963 . f i g s ,4 8 , 4 9 )p o s tu la ted t h a tt h e se t imbe r sh ad b een u sed w i th r ope s o f w a l ru s o rs ea l s k in t oc on s t ruc t ad i smoun tab le l o ng i tud ina l b r a c ing f o r t h e b oa t ( F ig .2 .2 .14 ) T h i s i n te rp re ta t ion i s i n gen iou s b u tu n conv in c ing . I ti sb y n o m ean s c e r ta in t h a t t h e N ydam b oa t n eeded s t reng th en ing l o ng i tud ina l ly . A s C r um l in—Ped e r sen ( 1 977 , 2 0 ) h a s p o in ted o u t i n a no the r c on tex t , t h e c omb ina t ion o f r i b a nd c r o s sb eam a ta bou t l m i n t e rva l s a nd t h icken ed t o p s t rak e c on t r ibu te s ub s tan t ia l ly t o l o ng i tud ina ls t reng th . T hough N ydam b oa t 2m ay n o th ave h ad

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F igu r e 2 . 2 .13A O ne o f t h e s pa r s f o und i nN ydam b oa t 2 . A f t e rE nge lha rd t , 1 866 ,N ydam p l a te I If i g .2 3

F igu re 2 . 2 .13B O ne o ft h et i mb e r so fd i s t in c t ive s hape f o und w i th N ydam b oa t2 .A f te rE nge lha rd t , 1 866 ,N ydam ,p l a te I V f i g .2 6

L ong w ooden o b jec t s w i th a w a i s ted c en t ra l p o r t ion a nd p i e r ced b y r e la t ive ly l a rge h o le s , a nd t h u s g en e ra l ly s im i la ri n f o rm t ot h e N ydam s e cond g r oup o f t i mbe r s ( F ig . 2 . 2 .13B ) , h ave b een f o und a s so c ia ted w i th a 2 0 th c en tu ry f i sh w e i r a t S ea sa l t e ri nt h eR . T hame s ( F ig s .2 .2 .5 a nd 2 . 2 .6 ) a nd w i th a n

t h e t h eo r e t ica l ly d e s i rab le r e s i s tance t oh ogg ing a nd s agg ing f o r ce s r e qu i r ed b y m odem s t anda rd s , s he w ou ld h ave b een o p e rab le i na tl e a s t m ode ra te s ea s t a t e s . T he f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e n o s i g n s o fh ogg ing t r u s s f i t t ing s i na ny o f t h e b oa t s a nd s h ip s i nt h i s n o r ther n c l inke r—bu i l t t r ad i t ion f o und t o d a te , f u r the re mpha s i se st h eu n l ike l ine s so fÄ ke r lund ' sp ropo sa l s . 6 0

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy

F igu r e2 . 2 .14 Ä ke r lund ' sr e con s t r uc t ion d r aw ing o fN ydam b oa t 2s how ing h i sm e thod o fu s ing t h et imbe r ss hown i nF ig 1 3B t o s uppo r t ah ogg ing t r u s s .A f t e rÄ ke r lund , 1 963 ,P la te I V u nd e rwa te rb l o ckage i nH e lnae s i nD enma rk ( F ig s . 2 . 2 .1 a nd 2 . 2 .2 ) . T imbe r s o f s im i la r f o rm t ot h o se f r om H e lna e s w e r e u s ed i n m ed ieva l w ooden b r idge s n ea r T r e towe r , Meck lenbu rg a nd i nO be rU ke r see ( C r um l in—Ped e r sen , 1 973 , 4 5 ) , a nd a s im i la r , b u t s ma l le r t i mb e r o f t h i s g ene ra l s h ape h a s b een u sed i nt h e p r e sen t c en tu ry i nL ough S w i l ly , C o . D onega l , a to ne e nd o f t h e f l oa tab le f r amewo rk o f a' l oop ' h and— f i sh ing n e t ( Wen t , 1 9 56 ) . T h i s L . S w i l ly t i mb e r ( F ig . 2 . 2 .16 ) w i th r e c tangu la rh o le s c .4 i n x3 i n ( 1 0 x7 . ;cm ) n ea r

T he se f ou rp rope r t ie s a r eg ene ra lo ne s w h ich c ou ld b eu sed i n o t he rc on tex t s a nd t h e re fo re i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t t h e r e a r e , o r h ave b een , u s e s o f w ooden o b jec t s w i th t h i s c ha ra c t e r i s t ic s h ape o t h e r t h an t h o se d e sc r ibed i nt h i s p ape r . T he N ydam w a i s ted t i mbe r s ( F ig . 2 . 2 .13B ) a r e n o t p r ec i se ly s im i la r t o a ny o ft h et h r ee q uo ted a na logue s , a nd i tr ema in s ap o s s ib i l i ty t h a t t imb e r s w i th ad i f f e ren t f u n c t ion , y e t w i th af o rm m o r e r e ad i ly c ompa rab le w i th t h e N ydam t imb e r s , r ema in t o b e d i scove red i nt h e e t hnog raph ic r e co rd . N eve r the le s s , w i th in t h e l i m i ted r a nge o f p a ra l le l s a va i lab le a tp r e sen t , t e n ta t ive c on c lu s ion sm ay b ed rawn . T he Nydam w a i s ted t imbe r s ( F ig . 2 . 2 .13B )d on o th ave t h ep o in ted e nd so ft h eb l ockage t imbe r s o ro ft h e f r ame n e t , ( F ig , 2 . 2 .16 ) ; t h u s , a s ap o in ti se s sen t ia l t ot h ef u n c t ion o ft h e se t wo a r t if ac t s ,i ts e em su n l ike ly t h a tt h e N ydam t i mbe r s h ad e i the r o f t h e se u se s . T he p o s s ib i l i ty r ema in s , t h e r e fo re , t h a t t h e se N ydam t imbe r s ( F ig . 2 . 2 .13B ) w e r e u sed a s s o le p la te s i n af i sh w e i r o r i n as t ake—ne t s y s t em . T he h o le s t h rough t h e e nd s o f t h e t imbe r s w e r e p r obab ly o r ig ina l ly c i r cu la r a nd s t ake s o f c .1 0cm d i ame te r c ou ld h ave b een d r iven t h rough t h em t of o rm A f r ame s w h ich w ou ld s uppo r tw icke rwo rk h u rd le so rn e t s .

t h ee nd s ,o ne o fw h ich i sp o in t ed s ot h a ti tc an b ep r e s sed i n to t h es e ab ed t om a in ta in t h ef r ame a tr i gh ta ng le st ot h ef l ow o f w a te r . When af i sh s w im si n to t h en e tt h ef r ame i sa lowed t o f l oa th o r izon ta l ly . T h e c ha rac te r i s t ic f o rm o ft h e S ea sa l te r , H e lnae s a nd S w ily a r t i fa c t sh a st h r ee d i s t in c tp rope r t ie s : a )I tc an b e u sed t ol i nk t wo o t h e r t i mb e r s a pp rox ima t e ly a t r i gh ta ng le s t oi t se l f , t h e r eby f o rm ing as t ab le s t r uc tu r ei nt h e c a se o ft h e S ea sa l te r f i sh w e i r a nd t h e S w i l ly f r ame n e t , a nd p r ov id ing r e s t ra in ing g u id e l ine sf o rt h eH e lnae st i mb e r s . b ) I tg i ve s t h e l i gh te s t w e igh t c on s i s ten t w i th f u n c t ion : a n a dvan tage d u r ing t r an spo r ta nd a s semb ly . c )T he w a i s ted p o r t ion m ake st h et i mbe r se a s ie rt oh and le .

T h e o t he re n igma t ic Nydam t imbe r s ( F ig 2 . 2 .13A ) may h ave b een p a r t s o ft h e f r ame o f ah and—f i sh ing n e t ( Dav i s , 1 958 , 1 4 5-9 ) s im i la rt ot h o se ma rked C a nd F i nF igu r e 2 . 2 .16 ; o r t h ey m ay h ave b een u sed t oh o ld o p en t h e e nd s o f as e ine o r d r a f tf i sh ing n e t , a s s ugges ted t om e b y D r Wen t . F igu r e 2 . 2 1 7s how s t h ee nd o fs u ch an e tb e ing h e ld o pen b y s l im p o le s s ome 3 f t( 9 1cm )l o ng w i th h o le sa te i the re nd .

I na dd i t ion , t h e a b i l i ty o f o b jec t s o fb ee ch , o ak a nd p i ne t o f l oa t a to r n ea r t h e s u r fa ce o f t h e w a t e r i se s sen t ia l t ot h e f u n c t ion o ft h eH e lnae sa nd S w i l ly o b jec t s . A

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F igu r e2 . 2 .15

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( A ) As p a r f r om t h e T ho r sb je rg Mo s s e x cava t ion . A f t e rE nge lha rd t , 1 863 ,p l a t e 1 8 ,f i g .2 6 ( B ) S pa r s f r om t h e V imo se e xcava t ion . A f te r E nge lha rd t , 1 869 ,p l a t e 1 9f i g s7 10 .

F igu r e 2 . 2 .16 T he w ooden f r ame o f aL ough S w i l ly ' l oop ' n e t . N o te t h e d i s t in c t ive ly s haped t imbe r a tA . A f te r Wen t , 1 9 56 ,f i g . 1 6 1

Mar i t ime S t ru c tu r e s R e f e rence s

F i sh ing e qu ipmen tw ou ld n o tb ei n app rop r ia te i nt h eN ydam ' s a s semb lage s : ' w icke rwo rk m a t s ' w e r e f ound i nt h e b o t tom o f b oa t s 2a nd 3 ( Enge lha rd t , 1 866 , 3 7 ) ; d e ta i l s w e re n o t r e co rded a nd t h e ' ma t s ' d o n o t s u rv ive , b u t t h e i r u se i nf i sh w e i r b a r r ie r s s e em s a tl e a s t a s l i ke ly a s t h e u se b y r owe r s p o s tu la t ed b y Ä ke r lund ( 1 963 , 5 7 ) . I n a dd i t ion , E nge lha rd t ( 1 866 , 6 5 ) n o t ed t h a t k no t ted a nd p la i t ed f a b r ic s , c o rd s a nd s t r ing s o fb a s t w e r e f r equen t ly f o und a tN ydam , a nd b oa t 3 c on ta ined ( o rh ad n ea rby ) an e t f a s tened t o ap o le ( 1 866 , 3 8 , 6 5 , p l a te X IV , f i g . 1 4 ) : n e t s o n p o le s a r e u sed i nf i sh w e i r s ( F ig . 2 . 32 .4 ) a nd i nh and— f i sh ing n e t s ( F ig . 2 . 32 .16 ) . T h i s N ydam n e ts e em st oh ave h ad am e sh o f 21 /t 2 o3 M( 6-7 .5cm ) s i de s , w h ich w ou ld b e s u i tab le f o r c a tch ing f i sh o f 3t o 8l b s ( 1 .3 t o3 . 6k g )( Wen t , 1 964 ,2 31 ) .

Äke r lund H . 1 963 N yd c zm sk eppen G o tebo rg . A y re sB .' No rw ich . 'C ur r en tA r chaeo logy 8 0 ,2 78-280 . B eaudou in F .1 970 L e sB a t eaux d el ' Adou rB ayonn e . B ou rdon T .W . 1 9 54 ' F i sh ing m e thod so fS i ngapo r e ' . JMBRAS , 2 7p t .2 . ,5 -76 . C a s son L . 1 971 S h ip s a nd s e aman sh ip i nt h eA n c ien t W o r ld , P r in ce ton . C h r i s ten sen A .E . 1 977A ' C ommen t . ' i n McG ra i l S . ( e d ) S ou r ce s a nd T e chn ique s i nB oa t A r chaeo logy , 12 , NMM G r eenwh ich A r chaeo logy S e r ie s 1 . B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica lR epo r t s ,O x fo rd S 29 . C h r i s tended A .E . . 1 977B ' T e s te xcava t ion o ft h eb oa t— sh ed s . ' i n I n g s tad , A .S . , ( e d ) D i s cove ry o f a N o r se S e t t l emen ti n Am e r i ca , 1 09127 . C la rke J .G .D . 1 9 52 P r eh s i to r i cE u rope —t h eE conom i cB a s i s , Meu then . C la rke J .G .D . 1 9 53 ' A r chaeo log i ca l t h eo r ie s a nd i n te rp r e ta t ion s . ' i nK roebe r A .L . ( e d ) A n th ropo logy T oday ,3 43-360 ,C h icago . C o le sJ .M . 1 975-81 S ome r se tL e ve l sP ap e r s . C o l la rd A .O . 1 902 O y s t e r s a nd D r ed ge r s o f W h i t s tab l e ,

A s r e con s t r u c ted t h e N ydam b oa th a s r ow ing p o s i t ion s a l ong m o s t o fh e r l e ng th , l e av ing l i t t le s pace f o ro t he r a c t iv i t ie s o r t h e c a r r iag e o fc a rgo . O n e o fh e r ma in r o le s t h u s m u s t h ave b een t h a t o f t r an spo r t ing p eop le , e i the r a s f e r ry i n w h ich ( s ome o f t h e ) p a s senge r s w e r e a l so o a r smen ( a s i nt h e 2 0 th c en tu ry S cand inav ian c hu r ch b oa t s ) o ra sw a rboa to rd e spa tch v e s se l . T h e e v id ence c on s ide r ed i n t h i s p ape r s ugge s t , h oweve r , t h a t a tl e a s t f o r s ome o f h e r t i me a f loa t s h e m ay h ave b een a s so c ia ted w i th s ome f o rm o f f i sh ing a c t iv i ty , p o ss ib ly i nt h ee r ec t ion o f af i sh w e i ro rs t ake—ne ts y s tem , o r i nt e nd ing t h e i rt r ap s .

L ondon C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 973 ' He lnae s— spa e r r ingen ; F yn sk e M ind e r ,2 9-48 . C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 981 ' S j ibe p ah avbunden . 'H and e l s—og f a r tmu see t s ,Ä rbog , 1 98 ,2 8-6 5 . D a rby H .C . 1 977 D om e sday E ng land ,C amb r idge . D av i s F .M . 1 9 58 A n a c coun t o ft h ef i sh ing o fE ng land a nd Wa l e s . F i she ry I n ve s t iga t ion S e r ie s Iv o l XX IN o8 , HMSO 4 t hE d i t ion . d e B r i say K .W . 1 975 ( e d ) S a l t , t h e s t ud y o f a n a n c i en t i n du s t ry ,C o lch e s te r . E dwa rd s C .R . 1 965 A bo r ig ina l W a t e r c raf t o n t h e P a c if i c c oa s t o f S ou th Am e r i ca , U n ive r s iyy o f C a l i for n ia P r e s s . E l lme r s D . 1 972 F rum i t te la l t e r l i che H and e l s s ch tf f ah r t i n M i t te lu nd N o rd eu ropa ,N eumun s te r . E l lme r sD . 1 975 ' Nau t i ca l A r chaeo logy i nG e rmany . 'I JNA 4 , 35-343 . E l lme r s D . 1 981 ' P o s t—Roman w a te r f ron ti n s ta l la t ion s o n t h e R h ine . 'i nM i ln ea nd H ob ley , 1 981 ,8 8-95 . E nge lha rd tC . 1 863 T ho r sb j e rg Mo sef und C openhagen . E nge lha rd tC . 1 865 N ydam Mo sef und ,C op ehangen . E nge lha rd tC . 1 866 D enma rk i nt h eE a r l yI r on A ge L ondon . E nge lha rd tC . 1 869 V imo se F und e tC op enhagen . E ske rod A . 1 970 B ä ta rf r än E k s to ck t i l lT ra lar e ,L und . F enw ick V . 1 978 G rav eney B oa t NMM G r eenwh ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s 3 . , B r i t i sh A r chaeo log i ca l R epo r t s ,O xfo rd 5 3 . F i lgu ie ra O .L . 1 977 ' T h e X avega b oa t . ' i n McG ra i l S .( e d ) S our ce s a nd T e chn ique s i nB oa t A r chaeo logy , 71 1 . NMM G r eenw ich A r chaeo logy S e r ie s 1 ,B r i t i sh A r cha eo log ica lR epo r t s ,O x fo rd ,S 29 . F inch R . 1 976 S a i l ing c r af t so ft h eB r i t i sh I s l e s F lemm ing N .C . 1 980 ' S t r uc tu r e s u nde r w a t e r . ' i n Muck le roy , K . ( e d ) A r chaeo logy u nd e r w a te r 1 64175 . McG raw—H i l l . F o lka rd H .C . 1 870 S a i l ing b oa t 4 t h e d i t ion . R ep r in ted 1 973 Wake f ie ld .

T h e c onf i sca t ion a nd s ub sequen t d e s tr uc t ion o f t h e b oa t a nd h e r f i sh ing e qu ipmen t c ou ld h ave b een a n a pp rop r ia te a c t ion a f te rs ome d i spu t e :i n d eed s u ch a c t ion h a s modem p a ra l le l s .

F igu r e2 . 2 .17 H au l ing i n ad r a f to rs e in ef i sh ing n e t . No te t h e s pa r su sed t oh o ld o pen e nd s .A f te r Wen t , 1 964 ,f i g . 2 2

A cknow ledg em en t s Ia m m o s tg r a te f u l t oM r . T .E .P o r te rw ho d r ew m y a t ten t ion t ot h e S ea sa l t e rw e i r s , a nd t o ld m e a bou tt h e i rf o rme ru se a nd a l lowed m e t o e xam in e t h e r e cove red t i mbe r . Ia m a l so g r a t e fu lt oD r . A . J . Wen tf o rd i scu s s ion a nd a dv ice a bou tf i sh w e i r s , a nd t o A nne McG ra i l , V e ryan H ea l , A rne Em i l C h r i s ten sen a nd O le C nun l in—Pede r sen w ho r ead a nd c ommen ted o n a n e a r ly d ra f t ; a nd t oE .V . Wr igh t a nd E r ic K en t ley w ho c r i t i c i sed s e c t ion s o f t h a t d ra f t . F ig . 2 . 2 .7 w a s d r awn b y C h r i s G r eg son , a nd J ohna than H unn r e—d rew f i g s . 1 ,3 ,5 ,1 3 , 1 5 , 1 6i n d 1 7f o rp ub l ica t ion .

6 2

S t ud ie si n Mar i t im eA r chaeo logy O l sen ,0 . , a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen ,0 . , 1 967 ,' S ku ld e lev S h ip s ' A c ta A r chaeo log i ca ,3 8 ,7 3174 . O r sn e s , M . , 1 970 ( e d ) Mo sef und 2 : N ydam Mo sef und

H addon A .C . a nd H or n e l lJ .1 936-7 ,C anoe so fO cean ia ,v o l s 1a nd 2 .H awa i i . H and s fo rd S .A . 1 9 51 ( e d ) C ea sa r : T he c onque s t o f G au l P engu in . H a s s lö f 0 . 1 972 ' Ma in p r in c ip le s i n t h e t e chno logy o f s h ipbu i ld ing . 'i nH a s s lö fe ta l , 1 972 ,2 7-72 . H a s s lö f 0 . H enn ing sen H . a nd C h r i s tenden A .E . 1 972 ( e d ) S h ip s a nd S h ipya rd s , S a i lo r s a nd F i she rmen , C openhagen . H i l lam J .1 981 ' An E ng l i sh t r ee— r ing c h rono logy . ' Med ieva l A r cha eo logy ,2 5 ,3 1-44 . H o jr up 0 . 1 974 ' E n a l ega rd p a K l ippe rg rund . ' i n S t ud ie r t i l lagnad eA lbe r tE sk e rod , 1 43-155 . H ou ran iG .F . 1 963 A rab S eaf a r ing B e i ru t . H ome l l J .1 946 W a t e r T ran spo r t C amb r idge . R ep r in ted 1 970

( i nc lude sE nge lha rd t , 1 865 ) . P r in s ,A .H . J . , 1 965 ,S a i l ing f r om L amu ,A s sen . R eed ,N . , 1 975 , ' D ru su s a nd t h eC la s s i sB r i ta nn ica ' ,H i s to r ia , 2 4 ,3 15-23 . R o l f son ,P . , 1 974 ,B a tnau s tp aJ ae r ky s t en S t avange r . R udo lph , W . , 1 974 , I n sho r e f i sh ing c r af t o f t h e s ou the rn B a l t i c NMM G reenw ich Monog raph 1 4 . S a l i sbu ry , C . , 1 980 , ' T he T r en t , t h e s t o ry o f ar i ve r ' C u r r en t A r chaeo logy ,7 4 , 8-91 . S a l i sbu ry , C . , 1 981 , ' An A ng lo—Saxon f i sh w e i r a tC o lw ick , N oo t s . 'T ran sT ho ro ton S o c ie ty 8 5 ,2 6-36 . S haw ,J .W . , 1 972 ,' G r eek a nd R oman h a rbou rw o rk s ' ,i nB a s s , G .F . ( e d )H i s to ry o fS eaf a r ing , 8 7112 ,T hame s a nd

N ew ton A bbo t . H o rne l l J . 1 948 ' Mak ing a nd s p r ead ing o f d ugou t c anoe s . ' Ma r in e r ' sM i r ro r ,3 6 ,4 6-52 . H un t ing fo rd G .W .B . 1 980 ( e d ) P e r ip lus o fE ry tha r ean S ea , H a lkyu tS o c ie ty 2 nd S e r ie s No 1 51 . J e nk in s J .G . 1 974A ' F i she rwe i r s a nd t r ap s . 'F o lk L if e , 1 2 , 5 9 . J e nk in sJ .G . 1 974B N e t sa nd C o ra c le sN ew ton A bbo t . J o hn s ton eP .1 980 S ea craf t so fP r eh i s to ry R .K .P . L ea ch E . 1 977 ' Av i ew f r om t h eb r idge . 'i nS p r igg s 1 977 1 611 76 . L ong s ta f f ,F .V . , 1 930 , ' B r i t i sh C o lumb ia I nd ian C eda rd ugou t c anoe s ' Ma r in e r ' sM ir ro r , 1 6 ,2 59-62 . L o sco—B rad ley , P .M . , a nd S a l i sbu ry , C .R . , 1 979 , ' A m ed ieva l f i shwe i r a t C o lw ick , No t t s . ' T ran s . T ho ro ton S o c . ,8 3 , 1 5-22 . L und s t röm , P . , 1 971 ,-2 , ' K l inknag la rna v i t tne sbö rd ' , S j öh i s to r i sk A r sbok ,8 1-8 . M cG ra i l , S . , 1 978 , L ogboa t s o fE ng land a nd Wa l e s , NMM G r eenw ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s 2 . BAR ( Ox fo rd ) 5 1 . M cG ra i l , S . , 1 981A , B r igg ' r af t ' a nd h e r p r eh i s to r i c e nv ironmen t NMM G reenw ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s6 . BAR ( Ox fo rd )8 9 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 981B , ' Med ieva l b oa t s , s h ip s a nd l a nd ing p l a ce s 'i nM i lne a nd H ob ley , 1 981 , 1 7-23 . M cG ra i l , S . , f o r th com ing . I n te rp r e ta t ion o f t h e R unnymead t i mbe rs t r uc tu re s . Ma r sden , P . , 1 981 , ' E a r ;y s h ipp ing a nd t h e w a te r f ron t s o f L ondon 'i nM i lne a nd H ob ley , 1 981 , 1 016 . M i ln e , G . , 1 981 , ' Med ieva l r i ve r f ron t r e c lama t ion i nL ondon ' i nM il ea md H ob ley , 1 981 ,3 2-6 . M i ln e , G . , a nd H ob ley , B . , ( e d ) Wa ter f ron t A r chaeo logy i n B r i ta in a nd N o r the rn E u rope CBA R e sea r ch R epo r t 4 1 .

H ud son . S he t e l ig , H , a nd J ohanne sen ,F . , 1 930 , ' Da s N ydham sch i ff , A c ta A r chaeo log i ca 1 ,1 -30 . S m i th ,A .G . ,e ta l , 1 981 ,' E nv i ronmen ta le v iden ce f r om p o l len a na ly s i s a nd s t ra t ig raphy ' , i n McG ra i l , 1 981A , 1 351 45 . S mo la r ek ,P . , 1 981 ,' S h ip s a nd p o r t si nP omo r z e 'i nM i ln ea nd H ob ley , 1 981 ,5 1-60 . S p r igg s , M . , 1 977 , A r chaeo logy a nd A n th ropo logy BAR ( Ox fo rd )S 19 . S t en ton ,F . , 1 957 ,B ay eux T ape s t ry T hor nh i l l ,P . , 1 977 ,' Al owe rT hame sf o rd a nd t h eC ampa ign s o f 5 4 BC a nd AD 4 3 ' A r chaeo lg ia C an t iana , 9 2 , 19128 . Wen t , A .E . J . , 1 9 56 , ' Sw i l ly" loop"ne t f o r s a lmon ' , J .R oy . S o c .A n t iquar ie sI r e land ,8 6 ,2 15-7 . Wen t , A .E . J , 1 964 , ' P u r su i t o fS a lmon i nI r e land ' P ro c . R oy . I r i sh A cad emy 6 3 , 1 9 1-244 . Wh ee le r ,A . , 1 979 ,T ida lT hame s ,L ondon . Wr igh t , E .V . , a nd C .W . , 1 947 , P r eh i s to r ic b oa t s f r om N . F e r r iby 'P PS 1 3 , 14-38 . Wr igh t , E .V . , 1 976 , N o r th F e r r iby B oa t s , NMM G r een ich Monog raph 2 3 . Wr igh t , E .V . , 1 978 , ' A r t i fa c t s f r om t h e b oa t— s i t e a tN o r th F e r r iby ' ,P PS ,4 4 , 1 87-202 .

A bbrev ia t ion s JMBRAS : J ou rna l o f t h e Ma layan B ran ch o f t h e R oya l A s ia t i cS oc ie ty . DNA :I n t e rna t iona lJ ou rna lo fN au t ica lA r cha eo logy . P PS :P ro cced ing so ft h eP r eh i s to r ic S o c ie ty .

Mu c lde roy , K . , 1 978 , Ma r i t ime A r cheo logy , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s . N eedham , J . , 1 971 ,S c ienc e a nd C iv i l i sa t ion i nC h ina , v o l 4 , p a r t3 ,C amb r idge . N eedham , S . , a nd L ong ley , D . , 1 980 , Runnymead B r idge , E g ham : aL a te B ronze A ge R ive r s ide S e t t lemen t , i n B a r r e t , J . , a nd B rad ley , R . , ( e d ) S e t t lemen t a nd S o c ie ty i n t h e B r i t i sh L a te r B ron z e A ge . BAR ( Oxfo rd )8 3 ,3 97-436 . N i l s son N . , 1 972 , ' S h ipya rd s a nd S h ipbu i ld ing a t aw ha r f i n s o u th er nS weden 'i nH a ss lo fe ta l , 1 972 ,2 60-329 .

R ep r in ted w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : A nn i s ,P .( e d )S ea S t ud ie s : 3-46 , NMM G r een ich ( 1 983 )

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S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 2 . 3 EARLY LAND ING PLACES

Wa ter f ron t sa nd L and ing P lace s T he r ema in s o f t h e m a jo r w a te r f ron t s t r u c tu re s a s soc ia ted w i th h a rbou r s a r e g ene ra l ly r e ad i ly r e cogn i sed a nd s e ve ra l m ed ieva l e xamp le s h ave b een e xcava ted . O n t h e o t he rh and , i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l ace s h ave r a re ly b e en l o ca ted . T h i s p ap e r w i l lt h e r e fo r er e v iew t h e e v idence f o rr e gu la r ly—u sed l a nd ing p l ace s , a nd a t temp t t oe nume ra te t h e i rc ha ra c t e r i s t ic f e a tu r e s a s a n a i d t o t h e i d en t if i ca t ion o f a r chaeo log ica l r ema in s . F ac to r s w h ich i n f luen ce t h e c ho ice o fs u ch s i te s w i l l a l so b e d i scu s sed : t h i sm ay h e lp i nt h ep r ed ic t ion o fw h e r et ol o ok f o r e a r ly l a nd ing p l ace s . T h ed i scu s s ion w i l lg ene ra l ly b el i m i ted t ot h o se p a r t s o f No r th e rn a nd We s t er n E u rope o u t s ide t h e d i rec ti n f luence o fC la s s ica lt e chno logy .

T he l a te m ed ieva l h a rbou r s o fN o r th er na nd We s te rn E u rop e w i th t h e i r w ha r f , j e t t ie s , w a rehou se s a nd c r ane s ; m o le s a nd b r eakwa te r s ; l i g h thou se s , b ea con s a nd l e ad ing m a rk s w e r e p r eceded b y t h e w id e sp r ead u s e o f i n fo rma l l a nd ing s i te s ( b oa tp l ace s ) . E v iden ce f r om t h e Med i t e r ranean ( S haw , 1 972 ; Mucke l roy 1 9 78 , 7 5-84 ; F l em ing 1 980 ) i n d ica te s t h a t t h e f a c to r s w h i ch e n cou rage t h e c hange f r om i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l a ce t of o rma lh a rbou ri n c lud e : aT ran sfo rma t ion o f c e r ta in w a t e r s ide s e t t lemen t s i n to d en se ly p opu la ted t own s w i th c omp lex e conom ic o r gan i sa t ion a nd t e chno log ica ls p ec ia l i sa t ion . bD e f en ce r e qu i r emen t sa nd t h ec o l le c t ion o fc u s tom d ue s . cI n c rea s ing d emand a tt h e se f o ca l p o in t s f o r l ow d en s i ty , m a s s c on sump t ion , i mpo r t ed g ood s . T h i s d emand c ou ld b e b e s t s a t i s f ied b y v e s se l s o fl a rge rc apac i ty a nd g r ea te r d r a f t w h ich c ou ld n o t b e e f f ic ien t ly l o aded a nd u n loaded a ti n fo rma l l a nd ing p l ace s . T he s i l t ing o f l owe r r e a ch e s o f r i ve r s e xace rba ted t h i s p rob lem . D eep w a te r b e r th s a l ong s ide w a te r f ron t s f a c i l i ta ted c a rgo h and l ing f o r t h e se l a rge r v e s se l s , a nd b r eakwa te r s i n c r ea sed t h e i rp ro tec t ion f r om w ind a nd s we l li nt h eo pen s e c to r .

T he c r i t ica l ' t ake—o ff p o in t , w hen f o rma l h a rbou r s w i th w a te r f ron t s t ruc tu re s b e came t h e o p t imum s o lu t ion t o ar a nge o f i n te rac t ing p rob lem s , w a s r e a ched e a r l ie r i ns ome r e g ion s t h an o t he r s : o n p r e sen t e v idence t h e e a r l ie s t w a te r f ron t s s e em t oh ave b een b u i l t i nt h e 9 t h c en tu ry AD ; a nd mo s t e conom i c r e g ion s s e em t oh ave h ad a tl e a s t o ne s u ch s i t e b y t h e 1 2 th c en tu ry AD . N eve r th e le s s , a way f r om t h e ma in p opu la t ion c en t r e s , d u r ing a nd a f t e r t h i s c hangeove r p e r iod , b oa t s , a nd i n deed s h ip s , o f s u i tab le f o rm a nd s t ruc tu re c on t inued t ob e o pe ra t ed f r om t h ef o re sho r e ,t a k ing t h eg round o n af a l l ing t i de ,

F igu r e2 . 3 .1 I mm eG ram , am od er nr e p l ica o ft h eV ik ing A ge L adby b oa t ,u s ing a ni n f roma ll a nd ing p l ace i nV e j le F jo rd , D enma rk .P ho to :0 .C rum l in—Pede r sen 6 5

Ma r i t ime S t ru c tu r e s d a ted b y r ad io c a rbon ( HAR2759 , 3 682 , 4 204 ) t o t h e g ene ra lp e r iod o ft h eF e r r iby b oa t sh ave b een l o ca ted i nr e c en t e xcava t ion so nt h ef o r e sho r e( M cG ra i l 1 983A ,4 1-43 ) .

T he R unnymed e' wa t er f ron t ' T hu s t h e l i m i t ed a moun t o f a r chaeo log ica l e v idence s upp lemen ted b y a na log ie s f r om 2 0 th c en tu ry c u l tu r e s ( s ee McG ra i l 1 983A , 3 4 f o r e xamp le s f r om t h e I n d ian O cean , P o land , G e rmany , C a l i fo rn ia a nd E cuado r ) , s ugge s t s t h a t , u n t i l t h e s p r ead o f C la s s ica l c i v i l i sa t ion , l a nd ing p l a ce s i n N o r the rn a nd We s te rn E u rop e w e r e i n fo rma l o n e s . Y e t N eedham a nd L ong ley ( 1 980 a nd 1 9 81 ) h ave a rgued t h a t t h e L a t eB ron ze A ge s e t t lemen ts i te ( 9 th /8 th c en tu ry BC )n ea rt h e R .Thame s a t R unnymed e ( s ome 3 0 m i le s u p s t ream f r om L ondon )h ad a' t imb e rw a te r f ron t 'w i th a' wha r fa ga in s tw h ich c r a f t m igh t m oo r ' a nd p o s s ib ly w i th a' j e t ty ' e x tend ing f r om t h e ' wha rf i n to t h e r i ve r . T h i s w ou ld b e t h e e a r l ie s t k nown e xamp le o f aw a t e r f ron t s t r uc t u r e i nN o r the rn a nd We s te rn E u rope ; h oweve r , t h e r e a r e r e a son s f o r s ugge s t ing t h a t t h i s h ypo the s i s m ay n o t b e s uppo r ted b y t h e e v iden ce . F i r s t ly , N eedham a nd L ong ley ' s ' w ha rf ( 1 980 , 3 97-9 ; 1 981 , f i g 4 7 ) 4 7 )h a st h ef o rm o f as e r ie so fa r c sa nd a ny b oa tl o nge rt h an c 2 m w ou ld b e u nab le t ol i e s e cu r e ly a l ong s ide ( a l though s u ch b oa t sc ou ld t h eo r e t ica l ly m oo rb ow o rs t e rn— to ) . S econd ly t h e e xcava to r s ( 1 980 , 4 18-22 ) c on c lud e t h a t t h i s ' wha rf w ou ld d ry o u ti ns umme ra nd w ou ld o n ly b eu sab le b yb oa t s i nt ime s o f ' t yp ica l l ow f l ood ' w h ich t h ey e qua te w i th w in te r h i gh w a te rl e ve l s —ad i s t in c tl im i ta t ion t or e gu la rb oa to pe ra t ion s . A nd t h i rd ly t h e r ew ou ld b el i t t le o rn oa dvan tage i nt a k ing a ny o ft h eb oa t sf o rw h ich w eh ave e v id en ce i n NW E u rope i nt h e p r eh i s to r ic p e r iod , a l ong s ide a w ha r f ( i f o ne h ad e x i s ted ) : l o gboa t s , s k in b oa t s a nd t h e F e r r iby , B r igg a nd H jo r t sp r ing p l anked b oa t s c ou ld h ave b een o p e ra ted f r om t h e r i ve r m a rg in s w i th m o r e r e gu la r i ty a nd e f f ic iency . P eop le a nd g ood sc ou ld h ave b een r e ad i ly m oved t oa nd f r om t h e se b oa t s moo red o r a g round i nt h e s h a l low s o r o n t h e f o r e sho re . I f f u r th e r e nv i ronmen ta l w o rk s h ow s t h e L a t e B ron ze A ge r i ve rbed t oh av e h ad g r ave l m a rg in s ( a s i th a s t o day ) t h e r e w ou ld p r obab ly h ave b een n o n ec e s s i ty t ob u i ld ah a rd . T he o u t ly ing s t ak e s a nd t h e l o o se s t ru c tu r e o fp o le s a nd w i th ie s n o ted b y N eedham a nd L ong ley ( 1 980 , 4 20 ) m ay t h en p o s s ib ly b ei n t e rp r e ted a st h er ema in so f af i sh w e i ro rs im i la r s t ru c tu r e . O n t h e o t h e r h and , i ft h e r i ve rbed w a s s o f t m ud , t h e se o b jec t sm ay h ave b een t h er ema in so f ah a rd .

F igu r e 2 . 3 .2 A 1 : 100 s ca le mode l o fw ha t t h e l a nd ing p l ace a tG raveney , N K en t , w a s p robab ly l i ke i n t h e e a r ly 1 0 th c en tu ry AD .P ho to : Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum

a ncho r ing o r f a s ten ing t o moo r ing p o s t s o rs t on e s o n t h e s e a b ed . S uch l a nd ing p l ace sc on t inued t ob eu sed i nN o r ther na nd We s ter nE u rope i nt h ep re sen tc en tu ry a nd i n deed ,t h ep r ac t ice i sw o r ldw id e ( McG ra i l 1 983A , 3 4 ) . S ome t ime s l i gh t l a nd ing s t age s a r e u sed a tt h e e nd o f ac au sewayed a pp roa ch t ot h e w a te r s ide , a nd s imp le h a rd s tand ing ( ba rd s ) m ay b e c on s tr uc ted o ns o f tm ud ma rg in s ,b u to f ten t h e r e a r en o f i xed s t ruc tu r e s —s e e ,f o re xamp le F ig 2 . 3 .1 w he r e aD an i sh r e pl i ca o f t h e 1 0 th c en tu ry L adby b oa t i sb ea ched i nt h e s ha l low s a wa i t ing t h e l o ad ing o f h o r se s . S uch a s c ene w i th a w ide v a r ie ty o f c a rgo , w ou ld h ave b een f am i l ia r t h roughou t m ed ieva l E u rop e a nd i n deed l a te r i n r u ra l a r ea s . B each o pe ra t ion s a r e n o t l im i ted t os ma l l b oa t s : t h e c oa s t ing k e tch C har lo t te w h ich o pe ra ted f r om t h e b ea che s o f SW E ng land s upp ly ing l o ca lc ommun i t ie si nt h ee a r ly y ea r s o ft h i sc en tu ry ( McG ra i l 1 981A , f i g 2 2 ) , h ad a c a rgo c apac i ty ( dw t ) o f 8 0-100 t o n s( F ig 2 . 1 .8 ) a nd E g l in ton ( 1 982 )h a sd e sc r ib ed h i s e a r ly l i f e i n2 0 th c en tu ry v e s se l s o fs im i la rc apa c i ty c a r ry ing l o ad s o f s t one s t o i s o la ted m ud l a nd ing p l a ce s o n t h e N S ome r se tc oa s t . F rom e a r l ie r t ime s w e h ave b each o pe ra t ion s c ene s o n t h e B ayeux t a pe s t ry , b o th No rman a nd A ng lo S axon . T he s ma l l 1 0 th / 1l t h c en tu ry c a rgo v e s se l , S ku lde lev 3 ,s how s s i gn s o f h av ing b een o pe ra ted f r om s and o r s h ing le b ea che s ( McG ra i 1 ,1981A , 2 2 ) ; a nd t h e 9 t h / 10 th G raveney b oa t ( Fenw ick , 1 978 ) w a s e xcava ted f r om al a nd ing p l a ce o n t h e m uddy i n te r— t ida l ma rg in o f at r ibu ta ry o f t h e R T hame s w he re s h eh ad b een b er thed o n ah a rd ( ma in ly o fw i l low ,S a l ix s p ) f o r r e pa i r a nd /o r u n load ing ( F ig 2 . 3 .2 ) . ' Wa t t le m a t s ' i n te rp r e t ed a sh a rd s h ave b een e xcava ted f r om aL a te S axon w a te r s ide s i te a t Norw ich ( Aye r s 1 981 , 2 78-9 ) ; a nd f r agmen t s o f l a t e 8 t h c en tu ry b oa t p l ank ing a ppea r t oh ave b een u s ed a s ah a rd a tN ew F re sh Wha r f o n t h e RT hame s f o re sho re ( Ma r sden 1 979 ) .

T he s e t t lemen t a tR unnymede w a s p robab ly a t ac onf luence w he r e at r ibu ta ry e n te r ed t h e e a s twa rd f l ow ing T hame s f r om t h en o r th , o re ven o n a ni s land . T h e r e w a s t h u su ndoub ted ly a l a nd ing p l a ce t h e r e ,b u tp robab ly o ft h ei n fo rma l t y pe a nd t h e p r ec i se s i te h a s n o t y e t b een i d en t i f ied . O n p re sen t e v idence t h e m a in l i nea rw ood en s t r uc tu r e s e em s b e s t i n te rp r e ted , n o t a sa n' i mp re s s ive w ha rf w i th ' ap e rman en tf l ee to fr i ve rc r a f t ' a l ong s id e ( 1 980 ,421 ) b u ta sa ne a r ly e xamp le o fo ne , o rt wo , p ro t ec t ive r e ve tmen t ( s ) ( ' s t r uc tu ra l c on so l ida t ion ' 1 980 , 4 22 ) t o s t ab i l i se t h e r i ve r b ank a nd p r even t e r o s ion n ex t t o t h e s e t t lemen t . I ti sn o tewo r thy t h a tt h e s e t t lemen t w a s e v iden t ly s e ve r e ly f l ooded l a t ei nt h eo c cupa t ion w h i ch m ay h ave l e dt o t h ea bandonmen to ft h es i te ( 1 980 ,4 0 1 ) .

T he t h ree m id 2 nd m i l len ium BC b oa t s f r om N F e r r iby ( W r igh t 1 976 ) a nd t h e m id i s t m i l len ium b oa t f r om B r igg ( McG ra i l 1 981B ) w e re o pe ra ted f r om t h e f o r e sho r e o f t h e H umbe r e s tua ry . I n ve s t iga t ion s i n 1 937 o n t h e N . F e r r iby f o re sho r e r e vea led f r agmen ted l i gh t t imbe r s ( F ig 2 . 2 .9 ) , n ow l o s t , w h ich m ay h ave b een t h e r ema in s o f ah a rd o r a c au seway l e ad ing t o t h e l a nd ing p l a ce , a ! though t h e p o ss ib i l i ty t h a t t h i s w a s ac o l lap sed f i sh w e i r s hou ld n o t b e o ve r looked .I n1 963 ah a rd— s tand ing o fa l de r( A lnu ss p )p o le s w a s f o und ( 1 ) u nde r F e r r iby b oa t 3 ;a nd o t he r l i gh t t i mb e r s

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S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

F igu r e2 . 3 .3 Mod er nb ea ch c ap s tan i nu se o nt h eB a l t ic c oa s to fG e rmany ( DDR ) .P ho to : Wo l f gang R udo lph

aw a te r s ide s e t t lemen t h ad a cce s s t o as e t t led h i n te r land i t

L and ing p l ace sc harac te r i s t ic s

c ou ld w e l l b ecome a n i n land t r ad ing p l ac e . T h i s w ou ld e sp ec ia l ly b e t h e c a se w i th a s i t e n ea r t h e h ead o f at i da l e s tua ry ( wh ich m igh t a l so b e n ea r t h e l owe s t f o rdab le p o in t ) w hen d e c r ea s ing d ep th so fw a te rc ou ld f o r ce ac hange t ob oa t s

I fo ne a c cep t st h et h e s i so u t l ined a bove t h a tt h e r ew a sl i t t le ,i f a ny , f i xed s t ru c tu r e a ta n e a r ly l a nd ing p l ace , i tf o l low s t h a t p r eh i s to r ic a nd e a r ly m ed ieva l l a nd ing p l a ce s i nN o r ther na nd We s te rn E u rope m ay b e d i f f icu l t t o r e cogn i se a r chaeo log ica l ly ,e xcep to nt h e f ew o c ca s ion s w h en b oa t s a r e f o und b eached . T he r em ay ,h oweve r ,b ei n d i rec te v iden ce ,a nd i f aw a t e r s ide s i t e i s f o und t o h ave t wo o r m o r e o f t h e f o l low ing c ha ra c te r i s t ic s o ft h e a pp rop r ia t ep e r iod t h e r em u s t b e as t rong p r e sump t ion t h a t ar e gu la r ly—u sed , e a r ly l a nd ing p l a ce h a sb een l o ca ted :

o fl e ss d raugh t ( o r as h i f t t ol a nd t r an spo r t ) a nd t h u s t h e s i t e w ou ld b ecome an a tu ra lb r eak p o in t f o rr i ve rt r a ff i c . L and ing p l ace s may a l so b e f o und w he r e t r a ck s l e ad t ou n fo rdab le w a te rway s a nd f e r r ie sh ave t ob eu sed . Med ieva l s i te s o ft h i s t y pe a r ek nown a nd p r eh i s to r ic e xamp le s a r ea tN F e r r iby a nd B r igg i nH umbe r s ide , w he re e nv i ronmen ta l e v id en ce a nd t h e s t ruc tu r e , f o rm a nd s i ze o ft h e e xcava ted b oa t s i n d ica te t h e se s i te sw e re l a nd ing p l a ce sf o rf e r r ie s .

1H a rd ,s l ipway o rc au seway 2A c l ea r ed a r ea o n a n o t he rw i se s t ony f o r e sho r e , p o s s ib ly m a rked b y p a ra l le l r ow s o f s t one s a t r i gh t—ang le s t o t h e s h o re l in e( Ro l f son 1 974 , 1 36 )

C oa s ta l S he l te r ed l a nd ing p l a ce s c an g en e ra l ly b e f ound i ne s tua r ie s , r i ve r mou th s a nd b ay s ( s ee t h e s e c t ion b e low o ni n te rna t iona l m a r i t ime t r ade ) , b u t l a nd ing p l ac e s o n o p en c oa s t s u np ro te c ted f r om w ind a nd s we l lb yo f f sho r ei s land so rb yt h e a rm s o f ab ay m ay b e u sed b y f i sh e rmen a nd t r ade r s w hen s i te s w i th g r ea te r s h e l te r s a r e n o t a va i lab le ; o r b y r a ide r s w hen s e c r ecy i sp a ramoun t . L and ing a nd l a un ch ing t h rough t h e s u r f o f f s u ch p l ace s m ay b e d i ff i cu l t b u t t e chn ique s a r e w e l l—known ( s ee , f o r e xamp le , A dm i ra l ty S eaman sh ip Manua l] ( 1 926 )2 46-52 ) .

3T h er ema in so fi s o la ted m oo r ing p o s t so rs t one s 4A n cho r s( of t en d i ff i cu l tt od a t ea c cu ra te ly )o ro t he ri t em so f b oa t ' se qu ipmen t 5R ema in s o f b each c ap s tan s . S ee f i g 2 . 3 .3 f o r am ode r n e xamp le 6A r t i fa c tc l u s te r sn ea rt h e s h o r e l ine , t h ep o s i t ion o fw h ich i s o t herw i se i n exp l icab le

L and ing p lace s a r eo f ten c l o se t os e t t lemen t s ,b u tt h ey a r ea l so n eeded i nr emo te , u n inhab i ted l o ca t ion so rn ea rt empo ra ry a nd s ea sona l s e t t lemen t s ( s ee , f o r e xamp le , t h e p ape r o n K ing O y s te in 's h a rbou r a t A gdene s b y K a l le S og r in e s i n t h i s v o lume ) . T hu s , f i she rmen m ay o pe ra te f r om a f o rwa rd b a se m uch n ea re r t h e f i sh ing g round s t h an w he r e t h ey l i ve , a s r e cen t ly p ra c t i sed i n S he t land ( S and i son 1 9 54 ) . T h e r equ i remen t s o fd e f ence , r e venue c o l lec t ion a nd p i lo tage m ay l e ad t o t h e e s tab l i shmen t o f l a nd ing p l ace s i n s h e l te r ed p o s i t ion s n ea r ar i ve rm ou th o rt h e e n t rance t o ab ay , f j o rd o r n a tu ra l h a rbou r , b u t f a r f r om p e rmanen t s e t t lemen t s . L and ing p l ace s m ay a l so b e f o und o n e i the r s i de o f h ead land s ,

L oca t ion o fl and ing p l ace s I n land Whe r e ar e la t ive ly f a s t r i ve r j o in s as l owe r o ne d epo s i t ion f r equen t ly c r ea te s ag r adua l ly s h e lv ing b ea ch w he r e b oa t s m ay e a s i ly b e p u t a s ho r e . U n le s s d e f ence w a s p a ramoun t , s e t t lemen tn ea rs u ch l a nd ing p l ac ew ou ld b ep r e f e r r ed t os i te s o ns t r e t ch e so ft h er i ve rw i th p oo ro rn ol a nd ing p l ace s . When 6 7

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F igu r e2 . 3 .4 SW E ng land : ap o r tage o ve r land f r om Moun t sB ay t oS tI v e sB ay w ou ld o bv ia t et h ed i f f icu l tp a s sage a r ound L and sE nd .D raw ing :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum i n d ica t e s a s im i la r s i tua t ion i n e a r ly m ed ieva l E u rope ( Hodg e s 1 982 ) a nd , a l though c e r emon ia lg i f t sm ay h ave b een r e la t ive ly m o r e c ommon i nt h e p r eh i s to r ic p e r iod , m a r i t ime t r ade , r e gu la t ed t o a d eg r ee b y p o l i t i ca l a u tho r i ty , u ndoub ted ly t o ok p l a ce b e tween t h e e a r ly a na logue s o f e mpo r ia o nt h en o r th e rn a nd w e s t e rn s eaboa rd o fp r e—Roman E u rop e .

e sp ec ia l ly w he r e t h e re i sa cce s s t o d r ink ing w a te r : c oa s ta l v e s se l sw ou ld w a i th e r e f o r af a i rw ind a nd /o rt i da ls t ream s o t h a tt h ey c ou ld r ound t h ep o in t .

I n terna t iona l Mar i t ime T rade MacKn igh t 's s t udy ( 1 973 ) o f t r ade w i th in t h e I n done s ian a r ch ipe lago s how s ( i n t e r a l ia ) t h a t b e fo r e t h e a dven t o f w e s ter n c u l tu ra l i d ea s t h e re w a s u ndoub ted ly r ea l a nd r e gu la ted m a r i t ime t r ade , a l though s ome a r t i fa c t s a nd r aw m a te r ia l s m igh t b e e xchanged f o r c e remon ia l o r n on—econom ic r e a son s . A nd ap r inc ipa lo u tcome o ft h i s t r ade w a s t h e c r ea t ion o fe mpo r ia ( ' po r t s o ft r ade ' —P o lany i 1 963 ; ' g a teway c ommun i t ie s ' —H i r th 1 978 ) . D ocumen ta ry e v iden ce

T heo r e t ica l a na ly s i s s ugge s t t h a t t h e re a r e t h r ee m a in v i ewpo in t s i n f luen c ing t h e c ho ice o f l a nd ing p l ace f o r s u ch t r ad e : t h e s e aman , t h e t r ade r a nd t h e p ol i t i ca l a u tho r i ty ( t wo o ft h e se r o le s m ay b e c omb in ed ) e a ch w i th d i f f e r en ti d ea s a s t ow ha t c on s t i tu t e s t h e i d ea l l a nd ing p l a ce ( M cG ra i l 1 983C , 3 11-313 ) . " .. . .... g ..... ....

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S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy c r o s s—Chann e l r o u t e s ( F ig 2 . 3 .5 ) m ay b e s u gge s ted , a nd t h e l o ca t ion o f t h e s e t t lemen t s i t e s ( empo r ia ) i n t h e i r t e rm ina l a r ea s m ay b e t e n ta t ive ly i d en t i f ied ( Tab le 2 . 3 .1 ) , b u t t h e l o ca t ion o f t h e l a nd ing p l a ce s a s so c ia ted w i th t h e se i n ter na t iona l t r ad ing s e t t lemen t s i sm u ch m o re d if icu l t t o d e te rm ine . N eve r the le s s , w i th t h e e xcep t ion o ft h e We s t P a s d e C a la i s r e g ion ( wh e r e W i s san t a nd B ou logn e m ay h ave b een m o r e i mpo r tan t m i l i ta r i ly t h an c omme r c ia l ly ) , e ach t e rm ina la r ea l i s ted i nT ab le 2 . 3 .1 h a ss t r e t che so fc oa s t l ine i n t h e v i c in i ty o ft h e e mpo r ia w i th l a nd ing p l ac e s w h ich c ou ld h ave s a t i sf ied t h e s eaman , t h e t r ade r a nd t h e p o l i t ica l a u tho r i ty . A s m o r e d a ta b e come s a va i lab le o n t h e e a r ly s ea l e ve l s a nd g eomo rpho logy i n t h e se t e rm ina l a r ea s i tm ay b ecome p o s s ib le t os ugge s t t h e m o s t l i ke ly s i te s f o r l a nd ing p l a ce sa s so c ia ted w i th k nown e mpo r ia .E a r ly u se o ft h em a jo r r i ve r si nF rance a nd t h eR h ine land f o rt r ade i sr ea sonab ly w el d o cumen ted ( M cG ra i l 1 983C ) b u t t h e r e i s l i t t le d i re c t e v idenc e t h a t t h e m idd le a nd u pp e r r e a che s o fB r i t i sh r i ve r s w e r es im i la r ly u s ed i nt h i sp e r iod .F u r th e ri n ve s t iga t ion o ft h e f o rme r c ou r se s , g r ad ien t s , d ep th s a nd s p eed o f t h e r i ve r s f e ed ing B r i t i sh n a tu ra lh a rbou r si sn e ce s sa ry b e fo re w ec an b e c e r ta in t h a t t h ey c ou ld h ave b een r e gu la r ly u sed f o r i n land t r an spo r t .

T h e s e aman 's i d ea l l a nd ing p lac e i s s h e l te r ed f r om t h e p r edom inan t w ind a nd s we l l ; i t m u s t h ave a r e ad i ly i d en t i f iab le l a nd fa l l n ea rby a nd t h e a pp roa che s t oi tm u s t b e d ef ined b y l a ndma rk s a nd s eama rk s ; i ts hou ld b e u sab le a lmo s t r e ga rd le s s o fw ind d i rec t ion o r t i da l s t a te ; a nd t h e r e s h ou ld b ea c ce s st od r ink ing w a te r . S u ch s i te s a r e t ob e f ound w i th in n a tu ra l h a rbou r s s u ch a s e s tua r ie s , e spec ia l ly w he r e t h ey h ave w id e , u n c lu t te red a pp roache s w i th a s ho r t f e t ch ( o pen w a te r ) a nd a n o pen s e c to r a way f r om t h e p r edom inan t w ind . T h e t r ade r , o n t h e o t he r h and , r equ i re s al a nd ing p l ace i mmed ia te ly a d ja cen t t o t h e e mpo r ium f o r t h e r e g iona l e conomy , w h i ch m ay l i e w e l l i n land . T he t h i rd p a r ty i nt h i s i n t er na t iona l m a r i t ime t r ade ( po l i t ica l a u tho r i ty ) r e qu i r e s t h e l a nd ing p l ac et ob en ea rt h ec oa s t ,i ea sn ea ra sp o s s ib le t ot h e c ommon ' f r on t ie r ' , i n ar e ad i ly d ef ined a r ea w he r et r ade r s a nd s e amen c an b es eg r ega t ed ,p ro tec ted a nd s upe rv i sed ,a nd t o l l s i mpo sed . L and ing p l ace s o nc oa s ta l p romon to r ie s ,p en in su la s o rr i ve r sa r et h u ss u i tab le f r om t h ep o l i t ica lv i ewpo in t . T h e se t h r ee s omewha td i f f e ren ts e t so fr equ i remen t sm ay b e s t b em e tb y : a )T h e u se o f l a nd ing p l ac e s w i th in n a tu ra l h a rbou r s , o n a n i s land , o n a w e l l—de f ined p romon to ry , o r a t a r i ve r c on f luence , w he r e s u ch h a rbou r s a r e f e d b y ar i ve r s y s t em g i v ing a c ce s s t ot h e r e g iona l e mpo r ium ( i fo ne e x i s t s ) a nd t o o t he r s e t t lemen t s . F o r e xamp le : a s i te o n C h r i s tchu r ch H a rbou r , D o r se t ; o r as i te o n t h e i s land o fB i rka i n L Ma la r , S wed en ; o r as i te b e tween t h e R l i chen a nd R T e s t i n S ou thamp ton Wa te r . o r b ) l a nd ing p l a ce s w i th in a r ch ipe lagoe s o r i n t h e l e e o f s k e r r ie s , w i th a cce s s b y w a te r t oo t he r c oa s ta l s i te s o r t oa h i n te r land . F o re xamp le :B e rgen i nW N o rway . o r c ) l a nd ing p l a ce s a tp ro tec ted s i te s n ea r t h e b a se o f a n i s thmu sw he re r i ve rt r ave la nd l a nd p o r tage so bv ia te al o ng o r d i f f icu l t s ea p a s sage . F o r e xamp le : s i te s a t H edeby a nd L ubeck a tt h e b a se o f t h e J u t land p en in su la w he r e p o r tage s

F u tu re R e search O the r r e g ion s a nd p e r iod s w i th e v id enc e f o r m a r i t ime t r ade m ay b e s im i la r ly i n ve s t iga ted t o i d en t i f y t h e a r ea s w i th in w h ich i n d iv idua l l a nd ing p l a ce s w e r e p r obab ly l o ca ted . O n ly s y s tema t ic f i e ldwo rk , m uch o f i ta ppa r en t ly u np roduc t ive , o ve r al e ng thy p e r iod , t o ge the r w i th c han ce f i nd s o r t h e b y—p rodu c t so fs e t t lemen te xcava t ion s ,w i l le nab le t h ep rec i se l o ca t ion o fs u ch e a r ly l a nd ing p l a ce st ob ed e te rm ined . I n ve s t iga t ion o f e a r ly l a nd ing p l a ce s i s a n e l emen t o f Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy w h ich m ay b e d ef in ed a st h e s t udy o f Man ' su se o fa l l t y p e s o fw a te rway s ( l ak e s , r i ve r s a nd s ea s ) : t h e s t udy o fh ow e a r ly r a f t s , b oa t s a nd s h ip s w e r e b u i l t a nd h ow t h ey w e r e u s ed ( McG ra i l 1 983B ) . R e sea r ch i n to u se s o f w a t e r t r an spo r t e x tend s t h e d oma in o ft h e s u b jec t ( F ig 1 . 2 .1 ) w e l l o u t s ide t h e b ound s o f w ha t h a s b een c a l led ' b oa t

c an c onnec tt h eN o r th S ea a nd t h eB a l t ic ; S tM ichae l ' s Moun t , o f f SW C o rnwa l l . P ea cock ( 1978 , 4 9 ) h a s s ugge s t ed t h a t , i n t h e R oman w o r ld , o ve r land p o r tage s c o s t a tl e a s t 2 2 .6 t i me s a sm uch p e rm i le a st r an spo r t b y s ea . I fp a r t o ft h e o ve r land j o u rney c ou ld b e d one b y r i ve r t h en r e la t ive c o s t s w ou ld b e r e duc ed t o c5t ime s t h a t o f s ea t r an spo r t , b u t c o s t s d ue t o m u l t ip le h and l ing w ou ld b e i n c rea sed . When P ea co ck ' s f i gu r e s a r eu sed t oc ompa re ac oa s ta lv oyage f r om al a nd fa l l a tt h e L iza rd a r ound L and 's E nd t o ap o s i t ion 5 nm n o r th o f H ay le ( F ig 2 . 3 .4 ) w i th aj ou rney w h ich i n c lude s a n o ve r land p o r tage f r om S t M ichae l ' s Moun t , t h e l a t te r c o s t s o ve r 2/ 2 1 t i me s a s m uch a s t h e s ea v oyage . H oweve r , t h e p a s sage a r ound L and ' s E nd , e ven w hen t h e n o to r iou s S c i l ly I s le s a r e l e f tw e l l t ot h e w e s twa rd , c an b e d i ff i cu l t a nd m ay i n deed b e i mpo s s ib le f o r s e ve ra l c on se cu t ive d ay s u n t i l t h e r e i s a f a vou rab le w ind s h i f t . T hu s p o r tage m igh t n o t o n ly b e m o r e r e l iab le b u tc ou ld e ven b ec heape ri ft h ec o s t so fd e lay sd ue t o f o u lw ind sa r ec oun ted . f o r

a r chaeo logy ' t o i n c lude s u ch t o p ic s a s n av iga t ion a nd s e aman sh ip ; s pe ed , s t ab i l i ty , f r e eboa rd a nd c a rgo c apac i ty ; s e a l e ve l s , t i da l p a t te rn s a nd c oa s ta l g eomo rpho logy ; m e thod so fl o ad ing a nd o pe ra t iona le qu ipmen t ; a nd t h ew ho le r a ng e o f m a r i t ime s t r uc tu r e s ( McG ra i l 1 983A , 3 4-41 ) . Wa te r f ron t a r chaeo logy h a s a l so e xpand ed f r om i t s o r ig ina l b a se a nd s e em s n ow t o b e c onve rg ing w i th m a r i t ime a r chaeo logy . I nt h ep a s t i th a s b een v i ewed i n al a nd lubbe r ly f a sh ion a s am e r e e x ten s ion , o r as p ec ia l c a se o f u rban a r chaeo logy . B u t m any o ft h o se w o rk ing i n s pec ia l i s t f i e ld h ave c ome t or e a l i se t h a t t h e ' h i n te r sea ' i sa s i mpo r tan t t o w a te r f ron t s t ud ie s a st h e h i n te r land a nd , i fw e m ay j udge b y t h ep ro ceed ing s o ft h e f i r s t w a t e r f ron t c on f e r en ce ( M i lne a nd H ob ley 1 981 ) a nd , w i th e ven g r ea t e rc l a r i ty , b y t h e c ove rage o f t h i s p r e sen t v o lume , w a te r f ron t a r cha eo logy i sn ow v e ry s im i la r ,b u tn o t—p re c i se ly i d en t i ca l ,t om a r i t ime a r chaeo logy .

i n te rna t iona l t r ade a c ro s st h eE ng l i sh C hanne l ( La Ma cnhe )i n t h el a te i s tm i l le rüum BC may b ee xam ined i nt h e l i gh to ft h e f o r ego ing a na ly s i s ( McG ra i l 1 983C ) . F i ve ma in

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m a r i t ime a spec t s o fe a r ly c u l tu r e s . A n e s sen t ia l p r e r equ i s i te t o f u tu re r e sea r ch i sa n i mp roved u nde r s tand ing o f a n c ien t g eomo rpho logy , s e a l e ve l s a nd w ea the r . Q uan t i f ied d a ta o n f o rme r w ea th e r p a t te rn s , o n c oa s t l ine s a nd r i ve rc ou r se s , a nd o ng ene ra l s ea l e ve l s a nd s pec i f ic t i da lr a nge s e xpe r ienced a t p a r t icu la rt ime s a nd p l ace s , s h ou ld f a c i l i ta t e t h ep r ed ic t ion o f

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1S ee McG ra i l , 1 983C f o rd e ta i l s 2L im i t ed a cce s si n land b yw a te r 3P o s s ib le p o r tage t oH ay le i nS tI v e sB ay , NC o rnwa l l( s ee F i g2 . 3 .4 )

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H i r t h , KG , 1 978 I n te r— r eg iona l t r ade a nd t h e f o rma t ion o f p r eh i s to r ic g a teway c ommun i t ie s , Am er i can A n t iqu i ty ,4 3 ,3 5-4 5 H odge s , R , 1 982 E vo lu t ion o f g a teway c ommun i t ie s , i n R en f rew ,C , a nd S hennan ,S , ( ed s ) R ank ing , r e sou r ce s a nd e x change ,117-123 C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P r e ss McG ra i l ,S ,1 981A Med ieva lb oa t s , s h ip s a nd l a nd ing p l ace s , i nM i ln e ,G a nd H ob ley ,B 1 981 , 1 7-23 McG ra i l , S , 1 981B B r igg ' r af t ' a nd h e r p reh i s to r i c e nv i ronmen t , NMM G reenw ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s . BAR ( Ox fo rd )8 9 McG ra i l , S . 1 983A I n te rp r e ta t ion o fa r chaeo log ica l e v idence f o rm a r i t ime s t r uc tu re s i nA nn i s ,P , ( e d ) S ea S t ud ie s , 3-46 , NMM G reenw ich McG ra i l , S , 1 983B Ma r i t ime A rchaeo logy p r e sen t a nd f u tu r e i n McG ra i l ,S , ( e d ) A spe c t s o f Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy &E thnography , NMM G reenw ich M cG ra i l , S ,1 983C C ro s s—Channe l s eaman sh ip a nd n av iga t ion i n t h e l a te i s t m i l len ium BC , O xf o rd J ourna l o f A r chaeo logy ,2 ,2 99-337 . Ma cKn igh t , CC , 1 963 N a tu r e o fe a r ly m a r i t ime t r ade , W o r ld A r chaeo logy ,5 ,1 98-208 .

T h i s p ape r h a s b enef i ted c on s ide rab ly f r om c r i t ic i sm o f a n e a r ly d ra f t b y m y c o l league s i nt h e A r chaeo log ica l R e sea r ch C en t re a t G r eenw ich . F ig 2 . 3 .4 w a s k i nd ly d r awn b y E r ic K en t ley . F oo tno te 1 .T he s t a temen ti n McG ra i l 1 983A ,4 3 ( Pape r2 . 2 ) , t h a tn oh a rd w a sf o und u nde ra ny F e r r iby b oa t ,i sw rong .

B ib l iography A ye r s ,B ,1981 N o rw ich ,C u r r en tA r chaeo logy ,8 0 ,2 78-280 E g l in ton , E , 1 982 L a s t o f t h e s a i l ing c oa s te r s , HMSO , L ondon . F enw ick ,V . 1 978 T he s i t ea tG raven ey a nd i t sp o s s ib le u s ea s al a nd ing p lace , i nF enw ick , V( e d ) G raveney b oa t , 1 79192 NM M G r eenw ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s 3 . BAR ( Ox fo rd )5 3 F l emm ing , NC , 1 980 S t ruc tu r e s u nde r w a te r , i n Mu ck e l roy , K ( e d ) A r chaeo logy u nd e r w a t e r , 1 64175 . McG raw—H i l l .L ondon 7 0

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy Ma r sden , P , 1 979 , Med ieva l s h ip s o fL ondon , i nM cG ra i l , S . ( e d ) M ed ieva l S h ip s a nd H a rbou r s , 8 3-92 , NMM G r eenw ich A r cha eo log ica l S e r ie s 5 .BAR ( Ox fo rd ) S 66 . M i lne , G , &H ob ley , B , ( e d s ) 1 981 W a te rf ron tA r chaeo logy i n B r i ta in a nd N o r the rn E u rop e , C BA R e sea r ch R epo r t 4 1 . Muck le roy , K , 1 978 , Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s . N eedham , S .&L ong ley , D , 1 980 R unnymed e b r idg e , E gham : al a te b r onze a ge r i ve r s id e s e t t lemen t , i nB a r r e t t ,J ,& B rad ley ,R .( e d s ) ,B r i t i sh L a t e rB ron z eA ge ,3 97-436 , BAR ,( Ox fo rd )8 3v o l2 . N eedham , S . & L ong ley , D , 1 981 R unnymed e B r idge , i n

P ea co ck , D PS , 1 978 T he R h ine a nd t h e p rob lem o fG au l i sh w ine i nR oman B r i ta in , i nT ay lo r , Jd uP ,a nd C lee r e , H , ( e d s ) , R oman s h ipp ing a nd t r ad e , 4 951 C BA R e sea r ch R epo r t2 4 . P o lany , K , 1 963 P o r t s o f t r ade i n e a r ly s o c ie t ie s , J ourna l E conom ic H i s tor y2 3 ,30-45 . R o l f son ,P , 1 974 B ä tnau s tp aJ oerky s ten ,S tavenge r . S and in son ,C , 1 9 54 T he S ixa r een ,L erw ick . S haw , JW , 1 972 G reek a nd R oman h a rbou rw o rk s , i nB a ss , G F , ( e d ) H i s to ry o f s eaf ar ing , 8 7-112 , T hame s a nd H ud son . Wr igh t , EV , 1 976 Nor th F e r r iby b oa t s , NM M G reenw ich Monog raph 2 3 .

M i lne ,G , &H ob ley ,B , 1 981 ,48-50 . R ep r in ted w i th p e rm i ss ion f r om : H e r te ig ,A .E . ( e d )C onf ernece o n Wa te rf ron tA r chaeo logy N o2 1 2-18 .B e rgen ( 1 985 ) .

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ETHNOGRAPHIC S TUDIES I n troduc t ion

R e f e rence s .

T h e o ne p ap e ri nt h i s S ec t ion w a s w r i t ten o n t h e o cca s ion o f E r i c McKee ' s u n t ime ly d ea th i n1 983 . McKee b rough t t ot h e p o s t—excava t ion r e co rd ing o f t h e m ed ieva l G raveney b oa t ( F enw ick , 1 978 ) , t h e t a len t s h e h ad u sed t o r e co rd 2 0 th c e n tu r y w o rk ing b oa t s , t h e r eby s e t t ing h i gh s t anda rd s f o r m a r i t ime a r cha eo log i s t s t o f o l low . H i s Wo rk ing B oa t s o f B r i ta in ( 1 983 ) i se s sen t ia l r e ad ing f o r a r chaeo log i s t s w ho w an tt ol e a rn a bou tt h ef u ndamen ta l s o fb oa tbu i ld ing a nd u se . G r eenh i l l ( 1 995 ) p r e sen t s m any e xamp le s e t hnog raph ic b oa t s t ud ie s , w h i l s t E g l in ton ' s t wo b ook s ( 1982 ; 1 990 ) g i ve m uch i n fo rma t ion a bou ts a i l ing i nB r i t i sh c oa s ta l w a te r s e a r l ie rt h i s c e n tu ry .

B lue , L . K en t ley , E . a nd McG ra i l , S . f o r thcom ing A . A r chaeo logy ,e t hnog raphy a nd I n d ia ' sm a r i t ime p a s t . P ro ceed ing s o f t h e 1 996 L yo n C on f e r ence o n t h e I n d ian O c ean . B lue , L . K en t ley , E . a nd McG ra i l , S . f o r thcom ing B . T he p a t ia f i sh ing b oa t o fO r i s sa : ac a se s t udy i ne t hno— a r chaeo logy .S ou th A s ian S t ud ie s . E g l in ton ,E . 1 982 L a s to ft h eS a i l ing C oa s t e r s . HMSO . E g l in ton , E . 1 9 90 . T he Ma ry F l e t che r . U n ive r s i ty o f E xe te r P re s s . F enw ick ,V .( e d ) 1 978 .G raveney B oa t . BAR O x fo rd .5 3 . G r eenh i l l ,B . 1 995 .A r chaeo logy o fB oa t s &S h ip s .C onway . McG ra i l , S . 1 978 . L ogboa t s o f E ng land & W a l e s . BAR O x fo rd .5 1 McG ra i l ,S .1 981 .R af t s ,B oa t s &S h ip s . HMSO . McG ra i l , S .1 987 .A n c ien tB oa t si n NW E u rope .L ongman . McG ra i l , S . 1 996 . S t udy o fb oa t s w i th s t i t ched p l ank ing . i n R ay , H .P . & S a l le s , J —F . ( e d ) T rad i t ion & A r chaeo logy :2 25-238 . Manoha r .N ew D e lh i . McG ra i l , S . & F a r re l l , A . 1 979 . R ow ing : a spe c t s o f t h e e t hnog raph ic & i c onog raph ic e v iden ce . I n t . J . N au t i ca lA r chaeo logy .8 :1 5 5166 .

E t hnog raph i c a na logy i su sed t oi n te rp re t ma r i t ime s t r uc tu re s i np ap e r 2 . 2 , a nd i ti su sed e x ten s ive ly i n t h e h ypo the t ica l r e con s t ru c t ion o fb oa t s a s ap r e lude t ot h e e xpe r imen ta l w o rk d i scu s sed i nS e c t ion 1 . Ih ave a l so d i scu s sed e l sewhe r e , t h e l o g ic b eh ind t h e u se o f e t hnog raph ic e v idence w hen t a ck l ing a r cha eo log ica l p rob lem s ( M cG ra i l , 1 981 : 5 -10 ; 1 987 : 1 -3 ; 1 9 96 ) . E xamp le s o f s uch u se may b e f o und i n McG ra i l ( 1 978 :26-93 ) a nd i n McG ra i l & F a r re l l ( 1 979 ) . B lue e t a / . ( fo r th com ing A ) i n c lude s a d i scu ss ion o f t h e w ay s e t hnog raph ic & e t h r io—a rchaeo log ica l s t ud ie s a r e o fv a lue t o A r chaeo logy . Ad e sc r ip t ion o ft h ep a t ia , a2 0 th c en tu ry I n d ian f i sh ing b oa t w i th r e ve r se c l inke r p l ank ing i sg i ven i nB lue e t a / . ( fo r th com ing B ) . Ak now ledge o ft h ep a t ia ' s s t ruc tu re m ay , i nt i me ,h e lp a r chaeo log i s t su nd e r s tand h ow t h em ed ieva lh u l c w a sb u i l t( G reenh i l l , 1 995 :2 50-255 ) .

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PAPER 3 . 1 BOAT ETHNOGRAPHY AND MAR IT I ME ARCHAEOLOGY

E thnog raphy c a nb eo fg r ea tv a lue t oa r chaeo log i s t s a so ne o f t h e s ou r c e s t o b e u sed i n t h e i n te rp re ta t ion o f e xcava ted m a te r ia l . E t hnog raph ic s t ud ie s c an mak e t h e a r chaeo log i s t a wa r eo f ar a nge o fs o lu t ion s t og ene ra lp rob lem s s u ch a sa r e f o und i nh ou se b u i ld ing , b oa tbu i ld ing a nd o t he r t e chno log ie s . U s ing s u ch e t hnog raph i c a na log ie s a nd o t he r f o rm s o f

I n Wo rk ing b oa t s o fB r i ta in McKee n o t o n ly p ub l i shed t h e r e su l t s o f h i s f i e ldwo rk , r e co rd ing w ood en b oa t s s t i l l t ob e f o und i n u s e a r ound t h e c oa s t s o f B r i ta in , b u t h e a l so e xam ined t h e f a c to r s ( op e ra t ing e nv i ronmen t , f u n c t ion , p ropu l s ion m e thod , a va i lab le m a te r ia l s a nd t e chn ique s , a nd h yd rodynam ic s )w h ich i n f luen ce t h ec ho ic eo fb oa ts h ape ,a nd c on s id e r ed h ow s u ch s hape s m ay b e r e a l i sed i n p r a c t i ca l

e v idenc e t h e a r chaeo log i s t c an t h en p ropo se h ypo the t ica l r e con s t ru c t ion s o f i n comp le te o b je c t s o r s t ruc tu re s , s ugge s t t h e p o ss ib le f u n c t ion o f e n igma t ica l s t ruc tu ra l e l emen t s , a nd d e sc r ibe i ns ome d e ta i l h ow a n o b jec to rs t r uc tu re w a s m ad e a nd u sed .

t e rm s . I na dd i t ion h e p r e sen t ed as c h eme f o rc l a s s i fy ing b oa t s hap e s w h ich , w i th m ino r mod i f ica t ion , c an a l so b e u s ed t o d e sc r ib e a r chaeo log ica l f i nd s . T h i s b ook i su ndoub ted ly a m ine t ob e w o rked b yt h o se d ea l ing w i th t h eb u i ld ing a nd u s e o f e a r ly w ooden b oa t s . Whe r e e l se c ou ld b e f o und i no n e v o lume a ni n fo rmed d i scu s s ion o nt h ed if e r enc eb e tween b oa t a nd s h ip ; a u tho r i ta t ive d ef in i t ion s o f d eadwood k nee , f a l se s t em , a nd z oned d i scon t inuou s f r am ing ; t h eo p t imum p o s i t ion f o r a b a rge ' s t ow ing p o s t ; f a c to r s a f f ec t ing s a i l ing p e r fo rman ce ;r ow ing g eome t ry d a ta ; t h ed i f f e r en ce b e tween a s t ruc tu r ea nd am echan i sm ; e xp lana t ion o fr a ck ing a nd t o r s ion s t re s se s ; a nd a c l a s s if i ca t ion o f b ea che s i n r e la t ion t o p ra c t icab i l i ty o fb oa to p e ra t ion sa nd d eg re eo fe xpo su r et ot h e p r edom inan t w ind ? T he t e x t i st e r se a nd t e chno log ica l t e rm s a r e n o t a vo ided , b u t r e f e r en ce t o t h e g l o s sa r ie s p ub l i sh ed e l sewhe r e b y McKee ( 1 972 ; 1 976b ) a nd s t udy o f t h e m any f a c t—pa ck ed d i ag ramma t ic d raw ing s i nt h i sb ook h e lp t of i l l— o u tt h es u c c in c td i scu s s ion .

T h e m a r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t d ea l s w i th ar a nge o f s t ruc tu re s ( McG ra i l , 1 9 83 : 3 4-4 1 ) , b u t o ne o fh i s p r in c ipa l c on cer n s i s t h ei n te rp r e ta t ion o ft h ei n comp le t er ema in so fb oa t sa nd o t he r f o rm s o f w a te rt r an spo r t . When h e t u rn s f o r a na log ie s t ot h e e t hnog raph i c l i t e ra tu r e o n b oa t s h e f i nd s a v e r i tab le p o t—pou r r i , g ood i np a r t s . C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1982 : 7 3 ) h a s d e f ined t h e a d equa t er e co rd ing o f ab oa tf i nd a st h a ts t anda rd o f r e co rd ing w h ich c on ta in s t h e i n fo rma t ion ' a c ompe ten t m ode lb u i ld e rw ou ld n eed t ob u i ld amode lo ft h e s t ru c tu re s o t h a t i ti sc o r r e c t i na l l d e ta i l s ' . F o r a n e t hnog raph ic r epo r t t o b e ' a dequa t e ' , t o t h i s d e f in i t ion m u s t b e a dded ( a ) t h e r e co rd ing o f t h e f u n c t ion o f a l l f i t t ing s , a nd ( b ) ad e ta i led d e sc r ip t ion o f t h e u se s a nd o p e ra t iona l p e r fo rman ce o f t h e b oa t . S uch ' a d equa t e ' r epo r t s a r e r a r e : e ven t h e w ide— rang ing r e po r t sp ub l i shed b yJ ame s H or n e l l a nd s umma r ized i n Wa te r T ran spo r t( 1 946 )a r es e ldom u pt ot h i ss t anda rd .

T he t o p ic s w h ich McKee d i scu s se s i nW o rk ing b oa t s m u s tb e a pp rec ia ted b y a nyon e a t temp t ing t os t udy h ow a n c ien tb oa t s w e re b u i l t a nd u sed . McKee ' s s t anda rd o a r sman m ay b e b i gge r o r s ma l le r t h an t h e V ik ing A ge o a r sman , h i s b oa tbu i ld e r s m ay u se d i f f e r en t w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s a nd h ave aw id e rr a nge o ft o o l s t h an t h e b u i lde r s o ft h e F e r r iby b oa t s , a nd t h e 2 0 th c en tu ry c oa s t l ine , s e a l e ve l a nd c l ima t e m ay b e d i f f e r en t f r om t h o se o f t h e B ron ze A ge o re ven t h e Med ieva lp e r iod ,b u t McKee ' sp r in c ip le sa nd h i sf i e ldwo rk ing a nd a na ly t ica l m e thod s c an b e u sed w i th p rof i t b y m a r i t ime a r chaeo log i s t s . A nd i f d ue a l lowanc e c an b e m ad e f o r d i f f e ren ce s i n t h e m a in t e chno log i ca l a nd e nv i ronmen ta l p a rame te r s ,t h en s ome o f McKee 's f md ing s c an b e a pp l ied t o a r chaeo log ica lp rob lem s .

I nr e c en t y ea r s ,h oweve r , t h e s t anda rd o fe t hnog raph ic r epo r t h a s i mp rov ed , e spec ia l ly i nS cand inav ian a nd N . Ame r ican p ubl i ca t ion s : s e e f o r e xamp le , F a e royv ik a nd C h r i s ten sen ( 1 979 ) , C r um l in—Ped e r sen ( 1 980 ) ; C rum l in—Pede r sen a nd Mad sen ( 1980 ) ; H an sen a nd Mad sen (1981 ) ; P e te r sen ( n .d . ) ; A r ima ( 1 975 ) ; Z imme r ly ( 1 979 ) a nd T ay lo r ( 1 980 ) . I n B r i ta in , E r i c M cKee h a s m ade h i s m a rk b y h i s e t hnog raph ic r e sea r ch p ub l i sh ed i n t h e Mar ine r s M i r ror ( 1970 ; 1 971 ; 1 976a ; 1 977a ) , t h eF r en ch j ou rna lL eP e t i tP e roque t( 1 975 ) a N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum monog raph ( 1 972 ) , a nd i nh i s r e cen t m a s t e r ly W o rk ing b oa t s o f B r i ta in ( 1983 ) . W i th s y s tema t ic d e sc r ip t ion s a nd d e ta i led d raw ing s a nd d i ag ram s McKee h a s d o cumen ted b o th t h e g en e ra l t r ad i t ion s o fr e cen t B r i t i sh w ood en b oa tbu i ld ing , a nd s pec i f ic t y pe s s u ch a s t h e S ome r se tf l a tn e ra nd t h e D o r se t l e r r e t . I nh i s f i r s t m onog raph C l en ched l a p o rc l ink e r ( 1 972 ) McKee d e sc r ibed t h e b u i ld ing o f as ma l l c l inke r—bu i l t b oa t . B y i n c lud ing c u t—ou t d raw ing s w h ich t h e r e ade r c ou ld m ake i n to a c a rdboa rd h a l f—mode l McKee m o r e t h an f u lf i l led C rum l in—Pede r sen 's c r i t e r ia f o r ' a dequa te r e co rd ing ' . T h i sm ode l—mak ing a l so r e vea led t on o t a f ew a r chaeo log i s t s , t h e p rob lem o f p roduc ing a t h r ee—d imen s iona lo b jec tf r om t wo—d imen s iona l ma te r ia l .

I n a dd i t ion t op u r e e t hnog raph ic w o rk , McKee h a s h im se l f a pp l ied h i s e t hnog raph ic k now ledge a nd p r ac t ica l e xpe r ien ce t oa r chaeo log i ca lm a t te r s s u ch a s ag l o s sa ry o fb oa t—bu i ld ing t e rm s ( 1 977b ; 1 977e ) a nd t h e t e n ta t ive i n te rp r e ta t ion o ft h e d eve lopmen t o fb oa tbu i ld ing i n NW E u rop e ( 1 976b ; 1 977d ) ; b u th i s m a jo rc on t r ibu t ion t oa r chaeo logy h ave b een h i s w o rk o nt h eG raven ey b oa t( 1 978 ) ,h i si n vo lvemen ti ne xpe r imen ta l a r chaeo logy ( 1 974 ) , a nd h i s e va lua t ion o f h ypo th e t ica l r e con s t ru c t ion s o fi n comp le te b oa t f i nd s u s ing t h e c r i t e r ia o f p rac t ica l b oa tbu i ld ing a nd o pe ra t ion s a f loa t ( 1 977c ; 1 978 ; 7 5

E thnog raph i cS t ud i e s McKee ,E . , 1 975 ,L el e r r e td eC h e s i lB ank ,L eP e t i tP e roque t 1 7 :2 94 1 . McKee , E . 1 976a , T rad i t iona l B r i t i sh b oa tbu i ld ing m e thod s Ma r ine r sM i r ro r6 2 :3 14 . McKee , E . 1 976b , I d en t i f ica t ion o ft i mbe r s f r om o ld s h ip so f n o r th—we s t er nE u ropean o r ig in .I JNA 5 :3 -12 . McKee , E . , 1 977a , L e r re t s o fC he s i l B ank . Mar ine r s M ir ro r 6 3 :3 950 . McKee , E . , 1 977b , ' A g l o s sa ry o fB oa t A r chaeo logy t e rm s ' , i n McG ra i l , S .( e d . ) ,S ou r ce sa nd T echn ique si nB oa t A r cha eo logy : 9 13 , NMM G re enw ich A rchaeo logy S e r ie s 1 .BAR ( Ox fo rd )S 29 . McKee , E . , 1 977 c , H ypo tho t ica l r e con s t ruc t ion s i n B oa t A r cha eo logy , i n McG ra i l , S . ( e d . ) , S ou r ce s a nd T e chn ique s i nB oa t A r chaeo logy : 2 05-214 . NM M G r eenw ich A r chaeo logy S e r ie s I .BAR ( Oxfo rd ) S 29 . McKee , E . , 1 977d , R e jo ind e r t o McG ra i l ' s ' A c ommen t ' . I JNA ,6 :2 52-3 . McKee , E . , 1 977e , Ag l o s sa ry f o r n au t ica l a r chaeo log i s t s . I JNA 6 :2 535 . McKee , E . , 1 9 78 , ' S e t o f d r aw ing s o f p a r t s o f t h e h u l l a nd d r augh t sma n ' s n o te s ' , ' R econ s t r uc t ing t h e h u l l ' , ' Mod e l p l ank s ' : ' D raw ing t h e r ep l ica ' : ' T en ta t ive s equenc ef o rb u i ld ing t h er e p l ica 'i nF enw ick ,V . ( ed ) G rav en ey b oa t , 4 9-104 , 2 65-302 , 3 07-310 . NM M G r eenw ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s 3 . BAR ( Oxfo rd ) 5 3 . McKee , E . , 1 983 , W o rk ing b oa t s o f B r i ta in . C onway Ma r i t ime P r e s s . McKe e ,E . , 1 984 ,T e chn ique so ft h er e con s t ruc t ion ,i nC oa tes , J . , a nd M cG ra i l , S .( e d s ) , T he G r eek T r ireme o ft h e 5 t hc e n tu r yB C . NMM G reenw ich Monog raph . P e t e r sen ,H .C .n . d . ,I n s t ru c t ion i nK ayak b u i ldu ing R osk i ld e . T ay lo r , J .G . , 1 9 80 , C anoe c on s t ru c t ion i n aC ree C u l tu ra l t r ad i t ion ,C anad ian E thno logy S er v ice P ape r No . 6 4 . O t tawa . Z imme r ly , D . W . , 1 979 , H oope r B ay K ayak c on s t ruc t ion , C anad ian E t hno logy S e r v ice P ape r No .5 3 .O t tawa .

1 984 ) . T he m e t icu lou s m e thod s h e u sed t o r e co rd t h e G raveney b oa t t imbe r s a f te r e xcava t ion , a nd t h e s e a t r ia l s p rog ramme h ee vo lved f o rt h eG reenw ich f ae r ing r e p l ica h ave b ecome s t anda rd p rocedu re s . E r ic McKee ' s p ub l ica t ion s f u l ly b ea r o u t t h e i mpo r tan ce o f e t hnog raph ic b oa t s t ud ie s t o ma r i t ime a r chaeo logy . T h ey s h ou ld b e r ead a nd r e— read b y a l l i n vo lved i nt h i s f i e ld o f r e sea rch .

R e f erence s A r ima , E . Y . , 1 975 , C on tex tua ls t ud y o ft h e C ar ibou E sk imo K ayak , C anad ian E thno logy S e r v ice P ap e r N o .25 , O t tawa . C rum l in—Pede r sen , 0 . , ( e d ) 1 980 , N o rd lan sbad en , Wo rk ing P ape rN o . 1 2 .N a t iona l Mu seum o fD enma rk . C rum l in—Pede r sen , 0 . , 1 982 , ' C ommen t ' i n McG ra i l , S .( e d . ) Woodwo rk ing t e chn ique sb ef o r e AD 1 500 : 7 3 . NMM G reenw ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s 7 . BAR ( Ox fo rd ) S 129 . C rum l in—Pede r sen , 0 . & Mad sen , J .S . , ( e d s ) 1 980 Um iaq ' en f ra P ea ry L and .R o sk i lde . F ae r c pyv ik , B . &0 . &C h r i s ten sen , A . E . , 1 979 ,I n sho r ec r af t o fN on vay .C onway Ma r i t ime P r e s s . H an sen ,K . & Mad sen ,J .S . , 1 981 ,B arkbad e .R o sk i ld e . H o rne l l , J . , 1 946 , Wa te r T ran spor t . C amb r idge ( r epub l i shed 1 970 N ew ton A bbo t ) . McG ra i l S . 1 983 , T he i n te rp re ta t ion o f a r chaeo log ica l e v iden ce f o r ma r i t ime s t ruc tu r e s i nA nn i s , P . ( e d . ) S ea S t ud ie s : 3 3-46 . NMM G r eenw ich Monog raph . McKee ,E . , 1 970 ,F la tne r s , Mar ine r sM i r ro r7 0 :2 32-4 . McKee , E . , 1 971 , We s ton— supe r—Ma r e F la tne r , Ma r in e r s M ir ro r5 7 : 2 5-39 . McKee ,E . , 1 972 ,C lenched l a po rC l ink e r . NMM G r eenw ich . McKee , E . , 1 974 , B u i ld ing a nd t r ia l s o ft h e r e p l i ca o fa n a n c ien t b oa t : t h e G ok s tad f ae r ing p a r t 2 : t h e s e a t r ia l s . NM M G reenw ich Monog raph 1B .

R ep r in t ed w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : I n t e rna t iona lJ ou rna lf o r N au t i ca l A r chaeo logy , 1 3 : 1 49-150 ( 1 984 ) .

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S EC I1ON 4 . 0 CLASSIF ICAT ION S TUD IES I n t roduc t ion

C la s s if i ca t ion s c heme s a r e e s sen t ia l i n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy i fo n ly b ecau s e o ft h e w id e v a r ie ty o fm a t e r ia l s &t e chn ique s t h a th ave b een u s ed t ob u i ld r a f t s , b oa t s &s h ip s . T hey e nab le s ome o r de rt ob ei mpo sed o na na ppa r en t ly c hao t ic s e to fd a ta , a nd t h u s s c ho la r s a r ound t h e w o r ld c an b ec e r ta in t h a tt h ey a r e t a lk ing a bou ts im i la rs t ru c tu r e s ,f o rm sa nd t e chn ique s ;p a t te rn s c an b e r e cogn i sed ; a nd f u ndamen ta l s h i f t s i nt e chno logy m ay b e i d en t i f ied . S u ch s c heme s a r e ,h oweve r , a na pp rox ima t ion , a b e s t— f i t t o r e a l i ty ; t h ey c a nno t p r ec i se ly m a t ch t h e e nd le s s v a r ie ty a c tua l ly k nown , o t h e rw i se t h ey w ou ld b eu nw ie ldy a nd o ve rwhe lm o n e o f t h e i r m a in a dvan tage s — s imp l ic i ty . F u r the rmo r e , c l a s s i f ica t ion c anno t r ema in s t a t ic : a s f r e sh e v idence e me r ge s a nd n ew w ay s o f a na ly s ing t h e d a ta a r e e vo lved , s c heme s m u s t b e r e —exam ined a nd r e v i sed w he re n e ce s sa ry .

n a tu ra l g roup ing s . I nt h i s w ay , b oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion s s u ch a s t h e v e s se l s o f V ik ing A ge NW E u rope , o r t h e v e s se l s o ft h e e a s t e rn Med i te r ran ean i nt h e I r on A ge , m igh t b e d ef ined . A n e xamp le o f t h i s e x t ended p ro cedu r e , t h ough n o t f o rma l ly p r e sen ted , i sg i ven i nP ap e r 8 . 2 w he r e i ti sa r gued t h a t t h e c ha ra c te r i s t ic f e a tu r e s o f aR omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion c an b e i d en t if ied . C la s s i f ica t ion i sa l so d ea l t w i th , i mpl i c i t ly o r e xp l ic i t ly , i n P ap e r s 6 . 1 , 9 . 2 , a nd 1 0 .5 . Ac a se f o r t h e i d en t if ica t ion o f a g r oup o fm ed ieva l l o gboa t s i nt h e R . Me r sey r e g ion h a s b een m ad e b y McG ra i l a nd S w i t su r ( 1 979 ) ; a nd a no the r m ed ieva l g r oup ing h a s b e en t e n ta t ive ly i d en t i f ied i n t h e R . L ea ( a t r ibu ta ry o ft h eR .T hame s )b y McG ra i l ( 1989 ) .

R e f e rence s .

T h e s c hem e p r opo sed i nP ap e r 4 . 1 ( wh ich , a s f a r a s Ia m a wa r e , h a s n e ve rb een c r i t ic i sed , a l though i th a s b een q uo ted ) d ea l s o n ly w i th t h e v e ry e a r ly s t age s o f t h e c l a ss i f ica t ion o f w a te r t r an spo r t , m e r e ly s e pa ra t ing o u t t h e ma jo r g roup s ' f l oa t s ' , ' r a f t s a nd b oa t s ' , w i th s ome r ef inemen t o f t h e b oa t g r oup . F u r th e r s t age s i nt h i s c l a s s if i ca t ion ( b eyond t h e l owe s t l e ve l s hown o nF i g . 4 . 1 .1 ) c ou ld i n c lude t h e c on s ide ra t ion o fa w id e r a nge o fc h a ra c t e r i s t i c s , l e ad ing t ot h e i d en t if ica t ion o f

McG ra i l ,

S .

1 989 .

C lap ton

l o gboa t



b oa tbu i ld ing

c ha rac te r i s t ic s .I n t .J .N au t i ca lA r chaeo logy , 1 8 : 1 03 . McG ra i l , S .&S w i t su r , R . 1 979 . Med ieva l l o gboa t s o ft h e R . Me r sey . i n McG ra i l , S . ( e d ) Med ieva l S h ip s & Harbou r s i nN o r the rn E u rope : 9 3-115 . BAR O x fo rd S 66 .

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S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r cha eo logy

PAPER 4 . 1 TO WARDS A CLASS IF ICAT ION OF WATER TRANSPORT

b oa t s ; r a f t s . T h e G ene ra l d i d n o t s t a te t h e b a s i s f o r t h i s d i f f e r en t ia t ion b u ti tw a se v iden t ly b a sed o nm a te r ia la nd f o rm , a nd ( wh en d i f f e r en t ia t ing r a f t sf r om b oa t s )s t ru c tu ra la t t r ibu te s .

E ven a c u r sory g l ance t h rough t h e p age s o f J ame s H om e 1 1 ' s Wa ter T ran spo r t ( 1946 ) w il r e vea l s ome th ing o f t h e w ide r a nge o f o b je c t s Man h a s u sed , a nd c on t inue s t ou s e , i nh i s e xp lo i ta t ion o fl a ke , r i ve r a nd s e a . D u r ing t h e p a s t 1 00 y ea r s s eve ra l a t temp t s h ave b een m ade t o c l a s s i f y t h i s v a r ied m a te r ia l a s a n a i d t o f u r the r a r chaeo log ica l a nd e t hnog raph ic s t udy : t h a t t h e se w e re n o t e n t i r e ly s u c ce s s f u l i sd ue , i np a r t a t l e a s t , t o p rob lem s o f d e f in i t ion a nd m e thodo logy . N au t ica l t e rm s a r e n o t a lway s p rec ise ly d ef ined : t a k e , f o re xamp le , t h e p rob lem o f d i s t ingu i sh ing c l ea r ly b e tween ab oa t a nd a s h ip ( f o r au sef u l d i scu ss ion o f t h i s q ue s t ion s e e McKee ( 1 983 : 1 4-16 ) . A nd r e g iona l n ame s f o r s pe c if i c c r a f th ave o f t en b een u sed l oo se ly : t h e S . Ame r ican t y p e—name b a l sa h a s b een a pp l ied t o ab oa t p r inc ipa l ly b u i l t o fh i de a nd a l so t or a f t s o f l o g s a nd r a f t s o f r e ed b und le s ( Ho rne l l 1 946 : 1 50 ,4 1 ,81 ) ; c o rac le i st h e g ene ra l n ame f o r We l sh h i de—on— f rame b oa t s , b u ti th a s b een a pp l ied t oa ny b oa to fc i r cu la rf o rm ; c ano e c an s im i la r ly b e as pe c i f ic b oa t o r ag ene ra l b oa t s h ap e , a nd h a s i n deed b een a pp l ied t o r a f t s ( Hom e 1 1 1 946 : p l a t e V 1 1 ) . S econd ly , e a r ly a t temp t s a t c l a s s if i ca t ion w e r e s e ldom s y s tema t ic a nd mo s t a u tho r s w e r e d i ve r ted f r om t h i s g oa l b y f o ray s , w h ich f r equen t ly p roved s t e r i le , i n to t h e f i e ld o f ' e vo lu t ion ' o r ' d eve lopmen t ' , s e ek ing t o d emon s t ra t e , s ome t imes w i th c l adog ram s , g ene t ic r e la t ion sh ip s b e tween t y pe s o f w a t e r t r an spo r t : f o r e xamp le , t h a t p l ank b oa t s d eve loped f r om l o gboa t s ,o ro u t r igge rc ano e sf r om r a f t s .

S ud e r ' s p ape r p ub l i shed i n 1 930 w a s al a ndma rk i n w a te r t r an spo r t s t ud ie s . A l thoug h b ed ev i l led b y i d ea s o f ' e vo lu t ion ' ( a s t h e t i le V on e i nbaum u nd f l o s s z um s c h if f ,m igh t s ugge s t ) t h i s w o rk p r e sen ted a w ea l th o f w e l l—documen ted a nd i l u s t ra ted a r cha eo log ica l a nd e t hnog raph ic d a ta , w i th d i s t r ibu t ion m ap s .S ude rr e cogn i sed t h ef o l low ing ma in g roup s : Aw id ev a r ie ty o ff l oa t s . L og ,r e ed ,b a rk a nd b uoyed r af t s . L og ,b a rk ,s k in ,b a ske ta nd p l ank b oa t s . I na dd i t ion ,S ud e rh ad ac l a s so f' r ound b oa t s 'w h ich ,u n l ike t h e o t he r g r oup s w h i ch w e r e b a sed o n a t t r ibu te s s im i la r t o t h o se u sed b y P i t t—R ive r s , w a s e v iden t ly d ef ined o n ly b y f o rm : a t t h i sl e v e lo fc l a s s i f ica t ion t h i sc r i te r ion s e em si n adequa te . S ub sequen tw o rk e r si nt h i s f i e ld ( H ome l l 1 946 ; E ske rod 1 956 ; N eedham 1 971 ; D o ran 1 973 ; G r eenh i l l 1 976 ; P h i l l ip s—Bu r t 1 979 ) h ave f olowed S ude r t o ag r ea t e r o r l e s se r e x ten t , a l though n on e o f t h em i n c luded S ude r ' s c l a s s o f b a rk r a f t s . O the r a u tho r s ( Rudo lph 1 966 , 1 974a ; Ma r sden 1 976 ; C h r i s t end en 1 977 ; C nun l in—Pede r sen 1 978 ; E l lme r s 1 984 ; P r in s , f o r th com ing ) h ave d ea l t w i th c l a s s i f ica t ion a t a l e s s—g ene ra l l e ve l , a t temp t ing t o d ef in e s ub—g roup s , p r in c ipa l ly i nt h ep l ank b oa tf i e ld .

T he a im o ft h i s p re sen t p ape r i st or e v iew p r ev iou s w o rk a nd t h en t o a t temp t t od ev i se a g ene ra l c l a s s if i ca t ion s c heme f o r b oa t s a nd s ma l ls h ip s , t oi d en t i fy w ha tm ay b et e rmed p r ima ry c l a s ses e a ch c ompo sed o f i n d iv idua l m emb e r s w i th i n te rna l c ohes ion — r e la t ive ly s im i la rt oo t he rm emb e r so ft h e i rc l a s s— a nd e x te rna l i s o la t ion — r e la t ive ly d i s s imi la r t om embe r s o f o t he r c l a sse s ( Hod son 1 980 : 4 ) . S uch a s c heme s h ou ld b e c apab le o f b e ing s umma r i sed i n ad endog ram , w i th n o i mp l ica t ion s o f g ene t ic d e scen t . I ft h i s c an b e a ch ieved t h en e a ch o ft h e se p o ly the t ic c l a s se s s hou ld c onvey t h e s ame i mage t oa l l u se r s o ft h e s cheme , a nd n ew ly o b se r ved u n i t s o fw a t e r t r an spo r t m ay r e ad i ly b e a l lo ca ted t oo ne o ft h e se c l a s se s b y r e f e rence t ok ey ,d i agno s t ic a t t r ibu te s .

R e c en tw ork T h e l a t e s t g en e ra l s c h eme i s o ne p ropo sed b y McG ra i l ( 1 98 1a ) . T h i s s c h eme u se s S ude r ' sf l oa t a nd r af t c l a s se s , b u t m od i f ie sh i s c l a s s i f i ca t ion o fb oa t sb y a dd ing ar e ed c l a s s a nd o m i t t ing t h e r o und a nd b a ske t c l a s se s . B a ske t b oa t s ( s ee H or n e l l 1 946 :f i g . 1 2f o ra ne xamp le )w e re a s s igned t ot h es k in b oa tc l a s s ( 1 981a : 5 , 57 ) b ecau se t h ey w e re c on s ide red t oh ave ac on t inuou s w a t e r p roo f ing e nve lop e o f r e s in a nd d ung o r g r ound b amboo o u t s ide t h e i r w ooden ( woven , p la i ted o r t w i l led )b a sk e t ry : t h i sw a s t a ken t ob e a na logou s t os k in b oa t s w i th t h e i r h i d e c ove r o u t s ide a w ooden f r amewo rk . T h i s a s s ig nmen tn ow s e em s d oub t fu l ly v a l id a so n mo s t , i fn o t a l l , b a sk e t b oa t s t h e d ung m ix tu r e i sn o t s p r ead o ve r t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c eb u tu s ed t oc au lk t h e i n te r s t ice s o n ly ( N i sh imu ra 1 931 : 3 6 ;H or n e l l 1 946 : 10 ) .

E ar ly c l as s if i ca t ion s cheme s A s i n many o t he r f i e ld s G ene ra l P i t t—R ive r s w a s a n e a r ly c on tr ibu to r t o t h e s t udy o f w o r ldw ide w a te r t r an spo r t ( Lane—Fox 1 875 ) . B a s ing h i s s c heme o n t h e ' c on s t r uc t ive a r t s o f e x i s t ing s avage s ' ( 1 875 : 4 0 1 ) h e r e cogn i sed t h e f o l low ing m a in t ype s b y n ame , b u t n o t b y e xp l ic i t d e f in i t ion : t h e R . E uph ra te l o gboa t s ( d ugou t s ) ; p l ank b oa t s ; b a rk c ano e s ; s k in

Ar e ed b oa tc l a s sw a sd ef ined a s' b ound b und le so fr eed l a shed t o g e th e r ( c o i led b a ske t ry ) t o p roduc e ah o l low f o rm , a nd w a t e rp roo f ed w i th b i tumen ' ( 1 981a : 5 ) . A f u l le r d e sc r ip t ion w ou ld r e ad : b ound b und le s o f r e ed , g r a s s o r s t raw l a shed

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C la s s if i ca t ion S t ud ie s t o ge the rb y c o i led b a ske t ry o rs im i la r t e chn ique s t op r oduc e a h o l low f o rm w h ich i ss t r eng thened w i th al i gh tf r amewo rk a nd t h en w a t e rp roo f ed w i th b i t umen . R eed b oa t s a r e r e ad i ly d i s t ingu i shab le f r om r e ed r af t s w h ich a r e n o tm ad e w a te r t igh t , a nd m ay b e d i s t ingu i shed f r om o t he r b oa t s b ecau se t h e r e ed b oa t ' s s h ape i s d e t e rm in ed b y c o i l ed r e ed , g r a s s o r s t raw b a ske t ry o r as im i la r t e chn ique , r a th e r t h an b y s h ap ed h i d e o r w ood o r b y aw ov en w ooden b a ske t ry . T he r e i si n te rm i t ten t d o cumen ta ry e v iden ce f o rt h e u s e o fs u ch r e ed b oa t si nA rab ia f r om t h e r e ign o f S a rgon o f A kkad , c .2 300 BC ( Ande r son 1 978 : 4 9 ) , t h rough t h et i me o f Mo se s( Exodu s 2 ,3 )a nd t h e i s t c en tu ry AD ( S t rabo 1 6 .5 .15 ) , t o r e po r t s o f t h e 1 9 th c en tu ry t a rada ( Laya rd 1 853 : 52 ) . Twen t ie th c e n tu ry e xamp le s o f r e ed b oa t s f r om t h es ame r e g ion a r e ,f i r s t ly ,t h eq uf f a( McG ra i l 1 981a : p l a te 2 6 ; H ome 1 1 1 946 ; p l a te s I VB a nd XV I IB ) w h ich a ppea r s t o b e s im i la r i nc on s t ruc t ion t ot h e b oa t s H am i l ton n o ted o n t h e R .Euph ra te s i n t h e e a r ly 1 8 th c e n tu ry (Ho rne l l 1 946 : 1 04-5 ) ;and , s e cond ly , t h e e l onga t ed j i l lab ie ( Heye rdah t 1 978 :3 5 )a nd z a ima ( The s ige r 1 978 : 1 28 ,f i g .4 5 ) . K en t ley ( 1 984 ) h a s r e cen t ly c r i t ic i sed McG ra i l ' s b oa t c l a s s i f ica t ion s c heme a nd h a sp ropo sed t h a t : ( a ) b a ske t b oa t s s hou ld b ecome ap r ima ry c l a s s s ub— d i v ided i n to c o i led b a sk e t ry ( wh ich w ou ld i n c lud e McG ra i l ' s r e ed b oa t s ) ,a nd w oven o rt w i l led b a sk e t ry . ( b ) p i roga ( e x tended l o gboa t s ) s h ou ld b ecome a p r ima ry c l a s s . ( c ) s k in b oa t s s hou ld b e s u b—d iv ided i n to ' s haped f r ame 'a nd ' l a th f r ame ' . T h et h i rd p r opo sa li sc e r ta in ly w o r thy o fc on s ide ra t ion b u tm ay n o tb ed i re c t ly r e levan tt ot h ei d en t i f ica t ion o fp r ima ry c l a s se s . E x tended l o gboa t s a r e s ome th ing o f ah yb r id a s , w h en o n ly a f ew ( o ne o rt wo ? ) s t rak e s a r e a dded t ot h e s i d e s ( t he o ruwa o f S r iL anka —H or n e l l 1 943 ) t h e b oa ti ss t i l l c l ea r ly as ub— c la s s o f l o gboa t s ; w he r ea s w h en s e ve ra l s t rak e s a r e a dded , a s i n m any O c ean ic t y pe s ( f o re xamp le , t h o se f r om t h eG i lbe r tI s . — H addon a nd H o rne l l 1 936 : f i g . 2 45 ) , t h e l o gboa t b a se m ay s c a r ce ly b er e cogn i sab le a nd t h eb oa tm ay b e s tb ec l a s s i f ied a s ap l ank b oa t ; t h e 1 3 th / 14 th c en tu ry AD K en tme r e b oa t 1 ( W i l son 1 966 ) w h ich h a s f i ve s tak e s a dd ed t o a n o bv iou s l o gboa tb a se m ay b e t h oug h t t ob e i n t e rmed ia t e . B uoyed r a f t s ( s ee , f o r e xamp le , t h a t f r om t h e R . S wa t , P ak i s tan — McG ra i l 1 981a : p l a t e 3 ) p r e sen t s im i la r c l a s s i f ica t ion p rob lem s t h ey m ay b e t h ough to fa s as ub— se to ft h e l o gr a f tc l a s s w i th e x t ra b uoyan cy f r om f l oa t s , o r a s f l oa t s l i nk ed t o ge th e r b y al i gh t f r amewo rk a nd t h e r e fo r e ap r ima ry t y pe i nt h e i ro wn r i gh t .T h e n e t ted g ou rd r af t s o f S . Ame r ica ( Edwa rd s 1 96 5 : 5 9 ) a r e e qua l ly d i f f icu l tt oc l a s s i fy .

An ew a pproach K en t ley ' s s u gge s t ion t h a t S ud e r ' s b a sk e t b oa t c l a s s s hou ld b e r e— in s ta t ed h a s m uch i n i t s f a vou r . C on s ide ra t ion o f t h i s p ropo sa l , w i th i t s e mpha s i s o n s t ru c tu r e , a nd e va lua t ion o f e a r l ie rc l a s s if ica t ion s c heme s s ugge s t s t h a t an ew a pp roa ch t o w a t e r t r an spo r t c l a s s if i ca t ion m ay b e r e qu i red , o ne i nw h ich s t ruc tu ra l c on s ide ra t ion s t a k e p r eced en c e o ve r c ho ice o fr aw m a te r ia l s , a nd i n w h ich t h e a tr ibu te s i d en t i f y , w h eneve r p o s s ib le , c ho ice s w h ich h ave c u l tu ra l s i g n if i can ce . T h e

f o l low ing p r inc ip le s a r e a dvan ced a s ab a s i s f o r ag ene ra l c l a s s i f ica t ion s c heme f o rb oa t s . ( a ) T he i d en t if i ca t ion o f c l a s se s p r ima r i ly b y t h e m a t e r ia lu sed c an l e ad t oc on fu s ion w hen i ti sp o s s ib le t ou se o t he rm a te r ia l st ob u i ld w ha ti se s sen t ia l ly t h es ame b oa te . g . ( i ) c u rach s m ade o f t a r red f l ann e l o r c anva s i n s tead o fh i de a r es t i l lc a l led ' s k in 'b oa t s . ( i ) b oa t s a nd r a f t s o f g ra s s , s t raw , b a rk o r e ven l i gh tp o le s ( amba tch )b und le sa r e s t ruc tu ra l ly t h es ame a s t h o se b u i l to fr e ed b und le s . I na dd i t ion , b oa t s o ft h e s ame m a te r ia l s may b e b u i l tb y q u i t e d i f f e ren t c on s truc t ion m e thod s ( s ee b e low ) . A nd , a l though t h e s e lec t ion o fo ne ma t e r ia l f r om a mong s eve ra l s ub s t i tu te s m ay b e ac u l tu ra l c ho ice , t h e a va i lab i l i ty o f r aw m a te r ia l i s a n e nv i ronmen ta l ly r e la ted a t tr ibu te . ( b ) T he f o rm o r s hape r equ i r ed o f au n i t o f w a te r t r an spo r tw il v a ry w i th d e s i red f u n c t ion , a l though t h er ange o f p o s s ib le s hape s i n a ny o ne c a se m ay b e c on s t ra ined b y t h e n a tu r e o ft h e r aw m a t e r ia l s . T hu s t h e r e c an b e d i f f e ren t f o rm s o f h i d e—on— f rame b oa t s e . g . r ound o r e l onga ted . B u t t h i s d i s t in c t ion i s p r inc ipa l ly f u n c t iona l a nd n o t g ene ra l ly d e te rm ined b yc u l tu ra lc ho ice . ( c ) Empha s i s o n s t ruc tu ra l d i f f e ren ce s m ay r e vea l c u l t u ra l ly—de te rm ined p r in c ip le s . H ow ab oa t i sc once ived o r r e i f ied a s at h ree—d imen s iona l o b jec t i sp robab ly d e te rm ined b y c u l tu r e . T hu s t h e m e thod u sed b y t h e b u i lde r t o t r an s la t e i d ea i n to a r t i fa c t ( t he ' d e s ign ' o f t h e b oa t ) a nd t h e r eby o b ta in t h es t ruc tu ra lf o rm h er e qu i re s ,i s af u ndamen ta la t t r ibu te . I th a s b een r e cogn i sed f o r s ome y ea r s t h a t t h e r e a r e t wo d i s t inc t w ay s o f c once iv ing a nd b u i ld ing p l anked b oa t s : t h e s he l l s equence i nw h ich t h e f o rm i sd ef ined b y aw a te r t igh t e nve lope o r s he l l o fp l ank ing , a nd i n to w h ich as t r eng then ing t i mbe r f r amewo rk i ss ub sequen t ly i n se r ted ; a nd t h e s k e l e ton s equen ce i nw h ich t h e f o rm i sd e f ined b y at imb e r f r amewo rk o r s ke le ton , w h ich i s s ub sequen t ly w a te rp roo f ed b y a n e nve lop ing l a ye ro fs p l i t p l ank ing mou lded t ot h e s hape o ft h e f r amewo rk . ( G reenh i l l 1 976 : 6 0 ) . T h i s d i s t inc t ion m ay a l so b e a pp l ied t o b oa t s b u i l t o f ma te r ia l s o t he r t h an p l ank s : f o r e xamp le , w he rea s c e r ta in c u l tu r e s ( e .g . I r i sh a nd A leu t ) h ave t h ough t o f , a nd b u i l t b oa t s a s aw ooden , o r b one p l ank f r amewo rk a round w h ich aw a te rp roof ing e nve lope o fh i d e , o r w a te rp roo fed f l anne l o r c anva s w a s w rapped ( Hor n e l l 1 946 : 11-80 ) ,t h eb u i lde r so ft h e S . Ame r ican p e lo ta ( Hor n e l l 1 94 1 ; 1 946 : 1 50-4 ) , a nd c e r ta in N . Ame r ican ( Adn ey a nd C hape l le 1 964 : 2 19-20 ) a nd Mongo l ( S ino r 1 961 : 1 58 ) b oa tbu i ld e r s t h ough to f , a nd b u i l t , t h e i rb oa t sa s aw a te r t igh ts h e l lo fh i de ( a l e a the r b ag ) , w h ich w a s s ome t ime s b u t n o t a lway s r e in fo rc ed b y i n se r ted f r amewo rk . A ga in , w h e rea s m any c u l tu r e s ( Au s t ra l ian , C . A f r ican , N . a nd S . Ame r ican ) c once ive t h e i r b oa t s a s as he l l o f b a rk , p o s s ib ly w i th i n se r ted f r am ing ( G r eenh i l l 1 976 : f i g s 7 7 a nd 7 8 ; McG ra i l 1 981a : 7 8 , p la te 6 ; R o th 1 899 ; Ho rne l l 1 946 : 1 83 ) , t h e r e i ss ome e v iden ce f r om t h eS weden a nd S ib e r ia t h a tb oa t sw e r eb u i l tt h e r eb ys ew ing o r l a sh ing b a rk t o ap r ee r ec ted u sed f r ame . A1 934 f i nd f r om t h e R .V i skan n ea rB y s la t t , I s to rp S ok e , V a s te rgo t land a nd n ow i n G o t ebo rg Mu seum ( Humb la a nd v on P o s t 1 937 : 1 ; E ske rod 1 9 56 : 7 1 ; J ohn s tone 1 980 : —2 4 ; E l lme r s 1 972 : No . 3 18 ; H an sen a nd Mad sen 1 981 : 4 -5 ) c on s i s t s o f as h ee t o f e lm o r b eech b a rk c .3 . 5 m x0 . 7 mw i th f r agmen t s o ft h ree h aze l r i b s a nd j u n ip e r l a sh ing s . P o l len a na ly s i s i n d ica te s ad a te b e tween

8 0

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy w a t e rp roo f ing e l emen t s ( a s f o r t h e s h e l l—bu i l t b oa t s ) i s c on s id e r ed t ob e a na ly t ica l ly m o r e r ewa rd ing a tt h i s l e ve l o f c l a s s i f ica t ion . ( e ) T h e u se o fb oa t t y pe n ame s —e i th e r g enu ine o r r eg iona l o ne s ( m tepe ) —o rt h o se c ommon ly u sed b y E u rop ean s ( dhow ; j unk ; p rahu ) — i n ac l a s s if i ca t ion s c heme m ay l e ad t o c on f u s ion . F o r e xamp le , L aya rd ' s 1 9 th c en tu ry t a rada r e ed b oa ti sv e ry d i f f e r en tf r om t h e2 0 th c en tu ry t a rada d e sc r ibed b y T he s ige r ( 1 978 : f i g s 9 , 1 5 ) w h ich i s ap l anked b oa t : t h e c ommon l i nk m ay b e t h e u s e o fb i tumen ( t a r ) a s a n e s sen t ia l w a t e rp roof ing o nt h e 1 9 th c en tu ry r e ed b oa ta nd a sa no p t iona l p ay ing o r p r e se r va t ive o n t h e 2 0 th c en tu ry p l ank b oa t . A s a s e cond e xamp le w e m ay n o te H om e 1 1 ' s u s e ( 1 946 : 1 06 ) o ft h e n ame q uf f a t o d e sc r ibe t h e 5 t h c e n tu ry B .C . A rab ian b oa t s n o ted b y H e rodo tu s ( 1 .194 ) ; b u t t h e se p r eh i s to r ic c r a f t h ad a h i de o nw oven w ood f r amewo rk c on s t r uc t ion , w he rea st h e2 0 th

7 00 BC a nd AD 1 000 . H o le s t h rough t h eb a rk s ugge s tt h a t t h i s b oa tw a s b u i l tb y l a sh ing t h e b a rk t o af r amewo rk o fr i b s a nd o t he r t imbe r s . S eve ra l r epo r t s o f l a te 1 9 th c en tu ry / ea r ly 2 0 th c e n tu ry S wed i sh b a rk b oa t s s t a te t h a t t h e b a rk w a s s ewn o r l a shed t o aw ooden f r amewo rk ( E ske rod 1 956 : 7 1 ; We s te rdah l 1 982 ) . When d e sc r ib ing t h eb oa t so ft h eR . K un t ena ir e g ion ( S . B r i t i sh C o lumb ia a nd Wa sh ing ton a nd I daho ) a nd t h o se o ft h e R . Amu r r e g ion ( E . S ibeda ) B r ind ley ( 1 919 : 1 06 ) s t a te s t h a t t h ey h ad aw ooden f r ame , ' o fr i b s a nd h o r izon ta ls l a t so nw h ich s t r ip so fb a rk a r es ewn . T hu st h e r e a r et wo a pp roaches t ob u i ld ing b oa t so fp l ank s ,h i de a nd b a rk . O n t h e o t he r h and s he l l—bu i l t b und le b oa t s ( e .g . o f r e ed ) s e em i mp robab le , a s a no u t e rw a te rp roof ing l a ye rh a s t o b e a pp l ied t ot h e f r amewo rk o f b und le s t o t u rn t h i s f o rm o f c on s t ruc t ion i n to ab oa t —a nd t h i si st h es ke le ton s equen ce . ( d ) O the r s t ru c tu ra l d i f f e rence s m ay b e s e en i nt h e c ho ice o f t e chn ique s t h eb u i lde r make s w hen c onve r t ing h i s m a te r ia l i n to ab oa t . A na ly s i s b ecome s o ve r comp lex i fw e c on s ide r s u ch i n i t ia l p roce sse s a s f e l l ing a t r ee , o b ta in ing ah i de , c u t t ing a r e ed ,e t c . T hu s( i fw e d i s rega rd modem b oa tbu i ld ing m a te r ia l s s u ch a s m e ta l , GRP a nd c emen t a nd t h e i n f la tab le s ) t h e p r in c ip le m a te r ia l s f r om w h ich b oa t s h ave b een b u i l t m ay b e l i s ted a s :l o g s ,r e ed s ,h i de s , c l ay , t a ra nd b one /an t le r . A dap t ing t h e c oncep t s d ev i sed b y R udo lph ( 1 974b : 1 ) a nd McKee ( 1 972— 2 ; 1 983 : 4 4 ) t h ree ma in t e chn ique s m ay b e i d en t if i ed , w h ich b oa tbu i lde r su se t oc onve r tt h e se ma te r ia l si n to ab oa t : ( i ) R educ t ion ( o r s ub t ra c t ive t e chn ique ) . T h e r aw m a te r ia l i sr e duced i nv o lume a s i nt h e h o l low ing o f al o g t o m ake al o gboa to ri nt h ef a sh ion ing o f al o gt om ake ak ee l . N o t e : S t on em a son sh ave a na na logou sa pp roach . ( i )C on s t ruc t ion ( o r a dd i t ive t e chn ique ) . T he j u nc t ion o f s e ve ra l s ma l le r p a r t s ( s ome o f w h ich m ay h ave b een o b ta ined b y r e duc t ion t e chn ique s , e g . p l ank s o r b a rk ) . E xamp le s a r e : B ind ing r e ed st om ake b und les a nd l i nk ing t h eb und le st o ge the r a si nt h e c o i led b a ske t ry m e thod o fb u i ld ing aq uf f a ( Ho rne l l 1 946 : 1 0 1-8 ) . P roduc t ion o f f r amewo rk s b y w eav ing , t w i l l ing , p l a i t ing o r f a s ten ing l i gh t t imbe r s o r l a ye r o f s p l i t b amboo a s i n t h e f r amewo rk o f A r c t ic s k inboa t s , V ie tname se b a ske t b oa t s o r I r i sh c u rach s ( N i sh imu ra 1 931 ;Hor n e l l 1 946 ; 1 0911 ; H or n e l l 1 936-8 ) . T h ej u n c t ion o fp l ank s b y f a s ten ing s o fs ew ing , l a sh ing , w ood o rm e ta la si ne dge— fa s tened p l ank b oa t s . N o te : P o t te r s w ho m ake c o i l—bu i l t p o t te ry a nd t i nke r s a nd t a i lo r su se a na logou sm e thod s . ( i i )T ran sf o rma t ion ( o r mou ld ing t e chn ique ) . A l te r ing t h e s h ap e o ft h e m a te r ia l w i thou t a dd i t ion o rs ub t ra c t ion , a si n t h ee xpan s ion o f aS a takun ta l o gboa t( J ohn s tone , 1 980 ,f i g s5 . 5 a nd 5 . 6 )o rt h ei n f la t ion o f as k in f l oa to rt h eb end ing o f ap l ank t o an ew s h ape . N o te :P o t te r sw ho t h row p o t sa nd b l a ck sm i th sa nd f o und e r su se a na logou sm e thod s . O ne o r m o re o f t h e se t e chn ique s m ay b e u sed t o m ake t h e f o rm—de te rm in ing w a ter t igh te nve lope o fs h e l l—bu i l tb oa t s .T h e c o r r e spond ing ' d e s ign ' e l emen ti ns ke le ton b u i l tb oa t s ,f r om t h e i n n e rf r amewo rk , d oe sn o ta ppea rt os how m uch v a r ia t ion —a l l t h r ee t e chn iqu e s a r e u sed e xc ep t i nr e ed b oa t s w he r e t h e r e i s o n ly c on s t r uc t ion a nd t r an sfo rma t ion . T hu s c l a s s i f ica t ion o f s k e le ton—bu i l t b oa t s b y t h e t e chn ique s u sed t om ak e t h e o u te r

c en tu ry q uf f a i s ar e ed b oa t b u i l t b y t h e c o i led b a ske t ry t e chn ique . N eu t ra l , s t r u c tu ra l ly— r e la t ed d e sc r ip t ion s a r e t h e re fo r e t ob e p r e f e r red f o r c l a s s l a be l s . I ft h e se c anno t b e d ev i sed t h en t h e u s e o f s pe c if ic n ame s o f w e l l—do cumen ted r e g iona lt y p e sm ay b ea na c cep tab le a l t e rna t ive .

Ap ropo s ed s c heme Am e thod o f d e f in ing p r ima ry c l a s se s o f b oa t s w h ich w ou ld u ndoub t ed ly b e r i go rou s w ou ld b e t o r e co rd t h e m any i n d iv idua l t r a i t s o f al a rge r e p r e sen ta t ive s amp le a nd t h en t o s e a r ch f o r c l u s t e r s o f a t t r ibu t e s ( M cG ra i l 1 984 : 2 2 ) . T h i s i s c l ea r ly i mp ra c t i cab le i np r e sen t c i r cum s tan ce s : t h e re a r e n o c omp r ehen s ive g l o s sa r ie s o r a t t r ibu t e l i s t s ( a l though p rov i s iona lo ne sf o rl i m i t ed r a nge so fl o gboa t sa nd p l ank b oa t s h ave b een p ub l i shed — McG ra i l 1 978a : 1 40-2 , 31-7 ; 1 978b : 4 5 ; McG ra i l a nd S w i t su r 1 979 : 135 ; McG ra i l a nd D en fo rd 1 982 : 4 8-65 ) ; f ew u n i t s o fw a t e rt r an spo r t a r er e co rded i nt h e d e ta i l s u ch a na ly t i ca l p ro cedu r e s w ou ld r e qu i r e ; a nd t h e i n t er na t iona l c o—op e ra t ion n e ce s sa ry t ou nde r take t h i s t a sk i s n o ty e te v iden t . I ti si n t end ed i nt h i s p ape rt h e r e fo re t ou se t h e p r in c ip le s d e sc r ibed i nt h e p r ev iou s s e c t ion i na n a t t emp t t o i d en t i f y p r ima ry C la s s i f ca t ion c l a s se s , u s ing a t t r ibu te s w h ich a r ec on s ide red t ob ec u l tu ra l ly d i ag no s t i c . A l though f l oa t s ( p e r sona l a i d s t of l o ta t ion w i th t h e m an p a r t ly i mme r sed i nw a te r ) a nd r a f t s ( n o t i n tended t ob e w a te r t igh t ) h ave u ndoub ted ly m ade as i g n i f ican tc on t r ibu t ion t o Man 's u se o fi n land a nd i n sho r ew a t e r s —s e ef o re xamp le ,H o rn e l l( 1 946 : 1 4 ,5 ; 1 942 ; 1 945 ) , t h e s c h eme p r e sen ted h e r e w i l l d ea l p r in c ipa l ly w i th b oa t s . R af t s c an i n d eed b e u sed o na lmo s t a l l r i ve r sa nd l a ke sb u tt h e i ru s ea ts e ai sr e s t r ic ted t ot h ez one so f w a rme rw a te r s , p robab ly b e tween l a t i tude so f4 0 °N a nd 4 0 °S . T h i s e nv i ronmen ta l ly— r e la ted f a c to r a pa r t , t h e c ho ice b e tween b oa t a nd r a f t i sm a in ly a c u l tu ra l ly r e la t ed o n e : w he the r t o i n ve s t i n al ow l e ve l t e chno logy , o f ten r e la t ive ly s ho r t— l i f e , w a sh— th rough r a f t ; o ri n ar e la t ive ly d r y b oa t w h i ch r equ i r e s g r ea te ri n ve s tmen to fm a t e r ia l s a nd e f fo r ta nd t h eu se o fh i ghe r l e ve l t e chno logy b u t g en e ra l ly h a s al i f e m ea su rab le i ny ea r s a nd p o s s ib ly d ecade s . T h e a na ly t ica l m e thod u s ed i n t h i s p ape r m ay n o t b e t h e t h eo r e t ica l o p t imum , e spe c ia l ly i n v i ew o f t h e d oub t f u l a c cu ra cy a nd i n comp le t en e s s o f m any e t hnog raph ica l b oa t

8 1

C la s s if i ca t ion S t ud ie s r epo r t s ( McG ra i l 1 984 : 2 1 ) , b u t i t s u se m ay w e l l h a s ten t h e t ime w hen m o r e c omp rehen s ive m e thod s b e come a pp rop r ia t e , a s t h e r e su l t ing d i scu s s ion s hou ld c l a r i fy t h e q ue s t ion s t ob e a sked o f b oa t s a nd t h u s l e ad t h e w ay t ot h e c omp i la t ion o f r ea l i s t ic a t t r ibu te l i s t s . A s ub s id ia ry o u t come o f t h e g ene ra l r e cogn i t ion o fp r ima ry c l a s se sc ou ld b ee sp ec ia l ly i mpo r tan tt o p reh i s to r ic a r chaeo logy . K now ledge o f w a te r t r an spo r t u s ed b e fo re t h e i s t c en tu ry AD i nn o r ther n a nd w e s ter n E u rop e i s v e ry l i m i ted ( McG ra i l 1 984 : 1 819 ) : t h e r e i s e ven l e s s i n fo rma t ion o u t s ide t h i s r e g ion . I fp r ima ry c l a s se s c an b e i d en t if ied f r om t h er a nge o fw a te rt r an spo r tk nown e ve rt oh ave b een u sed a nd i fw e c an d ef in e t h e t e chn ique s , t o o l s a nd ma te r ia l sn e ed ed t ob u i ld t h em ,t h en i ts hou ld p rove p o s s ib l et o i n d ica te t h e e a r l ie s t p e r iod s i n w h ich t h e se t y pe s o f w a t e r t r an spo r t c ou ld h ave b een u sed b y a na logy w i th t h e k nown s t a te s o f t e chno logy i nt h e v a r iou s r e g ion s o f t h e w o r ld ( s ee McG ra i l 1 981a : t a b le 1f o ra na t temp tt od ot h i s ) .T he s c heme , s hown d i ag ramma t ica l ly i nF ig . 4 . 1 .1 a nd t a bu la ted i ni nT ab le 4 . 1 .1 , r e su l t s i n1 4 c l a s se s o fb oa t ( C l t oC 14 ) , d i s t ingu i shed b y t h e s t a te s o ft wo a t t r ibu te s : s h e l l o rs k e le ton ; a nd p r in c ipa l t e chn ique s .

t h i s c l a s s ; a s a r e t h e t u b—boa t s o f J apan a nd C h ina ( Hor n e l l 1 946 :f i g . 1a nd p l a te XV I I I ) . C 5S he l l—bu i l tb yr educ t ion a nd t r ansf o rma t ion E xpanded l o gboa t s a r e b u i l t b y r edu c in g al o g a nd t h en d e fo rm ing i tt ot h e r equ i red s hape a f te r h ea t t r ea tmen t . S u ch b oa t s a r e k nown f r om F in land , E s ton ia , I nd ia , B u rma , S i am , B r i t i sh C o lumb ia , T ie r ra d e l F uego , G u iana s , B raz i l , Amazon B a s in ( McG ra i l 1 978a : 3 8-9 ) . T ho se t h a t a r e a l so e x tend ed s h ou ld b ei nC 7 . T h e s imp le b a rk b oa t s o f A u s t ra l ia ( Ho rne l l 1 946 : 1 82-6 ; B i rd se l l 1 977 ) a nd o fS . Ame r ica a nd C en t ra l A f r ica ( Ho rn e l l 1 946 : 1 83-6 ) a r e made f r om ao ne—p ie ce b a rk s h el o b ta ined b y r e duc t ion f r om a l o g o r t r ee . T he b a rk i s t r an sfo rmed ( s ome t ime s a f t e r h ea t t r ea tmen t ) i n to t h e r e qu i r ed s hap e a nd t h ee nd sf a s tened ( McG ra i l 1 98 l a :6 5-6 ) . T h e S . Ame r ican p e lo ta ( Ho rne l l 1 941 ) a nd t h e s imp le h i d e b oa t s o f t h e Mongo l s s e en i n u se b y t h e m id-13 th c en tu ry t r ave l le r I o hann e s d e P lano C a rp in i ( S ino r 1 96 1 : 1 58 ;Se r r uy s 1 981 :w e r em ad ef r om as i ng le h i de ,c u tt os hap e( r educ ed )a nd t h en m ou lded t os hape b yt h ec a rgo c a r r ied o rs ome t ime sb ya n i n se r ted l i gh t f r amewo rk . T he b u l l b oa t s o f t h e N . Ame r ican I n d ian sm ay a l so h ave b een o ft h i s c l a ss , b u tt h e t wo p r in c ip le r e co rd e r s o f t h e se c r a f t ( Adney a nd C hap ele 1 964 : 2 19-20 ; H or n e l l 1 946 : 1 48-50 ) d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n te rp r e ta t ion o f t h e f u n c t ion o ft h ee l emen ta ry f r amewo rk .

C1S he l l—by r edu c t ion B a s ic l o gboa t s h o l lowed f r om a s i ng le l o g , s u ch a s t h e m ed ieva l o ne s f r om L lyn L lango r se ( McG ra i l 1 978a : 2 33-6 , f i g s 2 9 a nd 6 9 ) a nd K ew ( M cG ra i l 1 978a : 2 26-9 , f i g s 2 7 a nd 6 8 ) a nd t h e 2 0 th c en tu ry b oa tf r om t h e Wh i t eN i le d ep ic t ed b y Ho rne l l( 1 946 :p l a t e XXV I IA )a r em embe r so ft h i sc l a s s . C 2S he l l—bu i l tb yc on s t ru c t ion No e xamp le sk nown .

C 6S he l l—bu i l tb yt r an sf o rma t ion a nd c ons t ru c t ion I ft h ey e x i s t , b oa t s b u i l t o f c o i led p o t te ry , r a the r t h an t h rown p o t t e ry ,w ou ld b ei nt h i sc l a s s .

C 3S he l l—bu i l tb yt r an sf o rma t ion P o t te ry b oa t s s u ch a s t h e t i gar i f r om B enga l ( Ho rne l l 1 946 : f i g . 9 ) a r e m embe r s o f t h i s c l a s s ( b u t s e e C 6 ) . S h e l l—bu i l t s i ng le h i de b oa t sc ou ld b em embe r so ft h i sc l a s si ft h eh i d ew a s n o tc u tt os hape ( s eeC5 ) .

C 7S he l l—bu i l tb yr educ t ion ,t r an sf o rma t ion a nd c on s t ru c t ion L ogboa t s w h ich h ave b een e xpanded a nd t h en e x tended ( f o r e xamp le ,20 th c en tu ry b oa t s f r om S a tak un ta , F in land — J ohn s tone 1 980 :f i g s5 . 5t o5 . 7 )a r ei nt h i sc l a s s .

C 4S he l l—bu i l tb yr educ t ion a nd c on s t ruc t ion E x tended l o gboa t s s u ch a st h em ed ieva l K en tme r e 1( M cG ra i l

S h e l l—bu i l t p l ank b oa t s i nw h ich t h e p l ank ing i ss t re s sed a nd b en t( t ran s fo rmed ) i n to t h e r equ i red c u r ved s hape s ( r a the rt h an h ewn a si nC 4 ) a r e a l so i nt h i s c l a ss : t h ey i n c lude t h e9 t h / 1 0 th c en tu ry AD G raveney b oa t a nd a l l b oa t s b u i l t i nt h e V ik ing

1 981a : p la t e 1 6 ) a r e b u i l t b y a dd ing w a sh s t rake s ( p lank s r educed f r om l o g s )t o ah o l lowed l o g .

t r ad i t ion ( McG ra i l 1 981a : 3 1-6 ) . Med te r ranean b oa t s o f t h e C la s s i ca l p e r iod ( Ca s son 1 971 : 2 0 113 ) w e r e g ene ra l ly s im i la r . Many o f t h e p l ank b oa t s i nt h e I n d ian s ub c on t in en t t o day a r eb u i l ti nt h i sm anne r( G reenh i l l 1 976 :5 0-6 ) .

B a s ic l o gboa t s w h ich h ave a f i t ted t r an som a dd ed ( e .g . t h e p reh i s to r ic b oa t sf r om B r igg & P oo le ) ,o rt h o se w i th t r an sve r se s t reng then ing t imbe r s a c ro s s t h e e nd s ( e .g . t h e m ed ieva l b oa t s ( Cl t o C 14 ) , f r om Wa r r ing ton a nd f r om G igg le sw ick ) —s e e McG ra i l 1 978a a nd b a nd McG ra i l a nd S w i t su r 1 979 — a r e a l so i nt h is c l a s s .

T h e m o r e c omp lex A u s t ra l ian b a rk b oa t s a nd t h e ma jo r i ty o f t h o se r e cen t ly b u i l t i nN . Ame r ica ( G reenh i l l 1 976 : f i g s 7 7-8 ) a nd S . Ame r ica ( McG ra i l 1 981a : 7 7-8 , p l a te 6 ) w e re b u i l t f r om s e ve ra l s h ee t s o f b a rk s ewn t o ge th e r a nd mou lded t o s h ap e : t h e i n se r t ed f r amewo rk s t reng thened t h i s b a rk s h e l l a nd h e ld i ti ns h ape .

A s a r es h e l l—bu i l tp l ank b oa t sw h e re t h ep l ank ing i sn o tb en tt o s hape ( t ran s fo rmed )T he B r igg ' r a f t ' ( McG ra i l 1 981b )o fc .6 50 b c a nd t h e t h r ee F e r r iby b oa t s o fc .1 500 b c ( W r igh t 1 976 ) a r e p robab ly i n t h i s c l a s s . T he s o— ca l led ' r a f t ' w a s af l a t— b o t tomed ,s qua re s i ded b oa ta nd t h u st h ep l ank ing d i dn o th av e t ob eb en tt os hape : i nt h eF e r r iby b oa t s s h ap ew a sa ch ieved b y h o l low ing ( r educ ing ) t h e p l ank ing . S ome o f t h e s imp le 2 0 th c en tu ry p l ank b oa t s f r om t h e S . B a l t ic r i ve r s d e sc r ibed b y R udo lph ( 1 974a : 5 15 ) e . g . t h e Wamemund e p rahm , t h e D ievenow k nu t rkahn a nd t h e P ome ran ian k onge r a r e a l so i n

T he t empo ra ry o r e me rgen cy h i de b oa t s o f t h e N . Ame r ican Ma lec i te s w e r e b u i l to ft wo o r mo re s k in s i n as im i la rm ann e r t o t h e Ame r ican b a rk b oa t s ( Adney a nd C hape l le 1 964 : 2 19-20 )a nd t h u sa r ea l so m embe r so ft h is c l a s s .

8 2

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

T ab le 4 . 1 .1 C la s s if ica t ion S cheme d er ived f r om t hre ek ey a t tr ibu te s A t t r ibu te

S t a te s

1 .

1 . 1

B uoyan cy d e r iva t ion

1 . 2

2 .

F undamen ta lC oncep t ion o fB oa t( a pp l ied h e re o n ly t oc r a f ti nc l a s s 1 . 2

2 . 1 2 . 2

3 .

P r inc ipa lt e chn ique ( a p l l ied t oc l a s se s2 . 1 a nd 2 . 2 )

3 . 1 3 . 2 3 . 3 3 . 4 3 . 5 3 . 6 3 . 7

F rom t h ef l o ta t ion c ha ra c t e r i s t i co fi n d iv idua le l emen t s :t h e m a te r ia l s m u s th ave as p ec i f i cd en s i ty o fl e s s t h an 1 .S uch ac r a f t i s ar a f t t h ough s ome m ay s upe rf i c ia l ly r e semb le a b oa t i n s h ape — s e e f o r e xamp le t h e L ob i to B ay r a f t ( G reenh i l l 1 976 , f i g . 4 3 ) o rt h e a mba t ch ' c anoe ' r a f t f r om K enya ( Ho rne l l 1 946 ,p l a te V I I IA ) . F rom t h e f l oa t ion c ha ra c t e r i s i t c s o ft h e w ho le v e s se l : d ue t ot h e d i sp la cemen t o f w a t e r b y ah o l lowed f o rm w i th a c on t inou s w a te r t igh t o u te rs u r f a ce —t h es p ec i f ic d en s i ty o f t h em a t e r ia li sn o tr e s t r ic t ed .S u ch ac r a f ti s ab oa t S he l lb u i ld ing s equence i . e .p r ima r i ly a s aw a t e r t igh ts h e l l i n to w h ich f r am ing m ay s u b sequen t ly b ei n s t e r t ed . S ke le ton b u i ld ing s equen ce i . e . p r ima r i ly a s af r amewo rk w h ich i s s ub sequen t ly c ove r ed b y a w a te rp roo f ing e nve lope . R educ t ion ( s ub t ra c t ive )t e chn ique C on s t r uc t ion ( a dd i t ive )t e chn ique T ran sf roma t ion ( mou ld ing )t e chn ique R educ t ion a nd C on s tru c t ion t e chn ique s R educ t ion a nd T ran s fo rma t ion t e chn ique s C on s t r uc t ion a nd T ran s fo rma t ion t e chn ique s R educ t ion ,C on s t ru c t ion a nd T ran s fo rma t ion t e chn ique s

b i ada ra a nd b a ida rka o f t h e n o r the rn c i r cum—po la r l a nd s ( J ohn s tone 1 980 : f i g . 4 . 12 ; H or n e l l 1 946 : p l a te XX IVB ; McG ra i l 1 981a : 2 7 ) t h ep a r i s i lo fS .I n d ia ( Ken t ley 1 984 ) a nd o t he r s f r om Man chu r ia , K o r ea a nd T ibe t a r e m ad e b y c u t t ing h i de s t o s h ape ( r educ t ion ) , f a s ten ing t h em t o ge the r a nd m ou ld ing t h em t o t h e p r e— e r e c t ed w ood en f r amewo rk . T he b oa t sH e rodo tu s ( 1 .194 ) s aw o nt h er i ve ra tB aby lon i nt h e5 t h c en tu ry BC w e r e p robab ly b u i l t i n a s im i la r m anne r . Wa te rp roo f ed f l anne l o r c anva s h a s r e p la ced h i d e o n r e cen t I r i sh ,o t he rw i se t h e i rc ha ra c t e r i s t i c sa pp ea rt ob er e ta ined f r om

T he w ooden b a ske t ry o f t h e V ie tname se b oa t s d e sc r ibed b y N i sh imu ra ( 1 931 : 3 6-43 ) , H or n e l l ( 1946 : 1 0911 ) a nd C a i ro ( 1 972 ) a r e b u i l tf r om s p l i tb amboo ( r educ t ion ) w h ich i sw oven a nd t h u s p r e— s t r e s sed ( a dd i t ion a nd t r an s fo rma t ion ) . A s t h e r e s in a nd d ung m ix tu r e i sg ene ra l ly o n ly a pp l ied a s ac au lk ing t ot h e i n t e r s t ice s o f t h i s c l o se ly w oven b a ske t r y ( r a the r t h an a pp l ied o ve ra l l a s aw a te rp roo f ing e nve lope ) t h e b oa t b e long s i nt h i sc l a s s —b u ts e eC 12 . C 8 S k e l e ton b u i l t w i th w a te rp roof ng e nve lope m ad e b y r e du c t ion ,t r an sf o rma t ion a nd c on s t ruc t ion T h e p l ank ing o f m any s ke le ton—bu i l t b oa t s ( b u t s e e C 11 ) i s f a sh ion ed b y r e duc t ion a nd t h en f o r ced i n to s hap e ( t ran s fo rmed ) a r ound t h e f r amewo rk . I nn o r ther n a nd w e s ter n E u rop et h i s t e chn ique d oe sn o ts e em t oh ave b een u sed u n t i lt h e 1 4 th c en tu ry ( McG ra i l 1 981a : 4 2-3 )a l though a spec t so fi tm ay b e s e en i ns ome o f t h e b oa t s o f t h e R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion a nd p o s s ib ly i nt h e c og s o fN . E u rope ( McG ra i l 1 981a : 2 2-4 , 3 6-8 , 4 2-3 ) : t h e se b oa t s , a nd s u ch v e sse l s a s t h e i s t c en tu ry B .C . Mad ragu e d e G ien s a nd l a te r Med i te r ran ean c r a f t a r e p r obab ly b e s t i d en t i f ied , a t al owe r l e ve l o fc l a s s if i ca t ion , a s h yb r id t y pe s . F rom t h e 1 4 th c en tu ry t h e u se o f t h i s s ke le ton s e quen ce b e came i n c rea s ing ly c ommon i nE u rop e , e spec ia l ly f o r t h e l a rge r b oa t s a nd s h ip s ( G reenh i l l 1 976 : 6 0-88 ,268-30 1 ) .

e a r l ie rt i me s . C e r ta in b a rk b oa t si nS wed en ( Han sen a nd Mad sen 1 981 : 4 -5 ; We s te rdah l 1 982 ) a nd i n E . S i b e r ia a nd NW Ame r ica ( Br ind ley 1 9 19 : 1 06 ) s e en t o h ave , o r t oh ave h ad , ab a rk e nve lop e p roduced b y r e duc t ion a nd c on s t r u c t ion , a nd t h en m ou lded t op r e— e re c t ed w ood en o rb on e f r amewo rk : t h ey a r e t h e r e fo r et ob ec l a s s i f ied h e r e . C 9 S k e l e ton—bu i l t w i th w a t e rp roof ing e n v e lope m ad e b y t r an sf orma t ion a nd c on s t ru c t ion N on ek nown . C 10 S k e l e ton—bu i l t w i th w a t e rp roof ing e n v e lope m ad e b y r edu c t ion a nd t r an sf o rma t ion S i ng le h i d e a nd s i ng le b a rk b oa t sb u i l to n af r ame ,i ft h ey e x i s t , w ou ld b ei nt h i sc l a s s .

T h e h i de w a t e rp roo f tng e nve lope o f t h e B r i t i sh a nd I r i sh c o rac l e s a nd c u rach s ( Ho rne l l 1 936-8 ) , t h e u m iak k ayak , 8 3

C la s s if i ca t ion S t ud ie s

W a te r T ran spor t

F lo at s

K EY

w a te r t r an spor t

o o

a t t r ibu te

a t t r ibu te s t a te

R

r educ t ion

C

c ons t ruc t ion

T

t r an s format ion

F igu re 4 . 1 .1 A c l a ss if ica t ion s c heme f o rw a te rt r an spo r t —m a in ly b oa t s . D raw ing : N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum 8 4

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy C 1 3 S k e l e ton—bu i l t w i th w a t erp roof ing e nve lope m ad e b y c on s t ru c t ion N on ek nown .

C 1 S k e l e ton—bu i l t w i th w a te rp roof ing e nv e lope m ad e b y r edu c t ion a nd c o n s t ru c t ion S ke le ton—bu i l t b oa t s w ho se p lank ing i sn o t t r an s fo rmed b y b end ing i n to t h er e qu i r ed s h ap e w ou ld b e i nt h i s c l a s s —s ome o f t h e 2 nd-4 th c en tu ry AD R omano—Ce l t ic f l a t—bo t tomed b a rge— l ike b oa t s ( McG ra i l 1 981 a :2 3-4 ) o ft h eR . R h in e m ay h ave b een b u i l ti nt h i s w ay — p ub l ica t ion o ff u r the rd e ta i l s i s a wa i ted .

C 1 4 S k e l e ton—bu i l t w i th w a t erp roof ing e nve lope m ade b y r e du c t ion N on ek nown . D i sm i s s ion

C 1 2 S k e l e ton—bu i l t w i th w a t e rp roof ing e nve lope m ad e b y t r an sf o rma t ion T he r e ed b und le , c o i led b a ske t ry f r amewo rk o f t h e b oa t s o f S a rgon , ( And e r son 1 978 : 4 9 ) Mo se s ( Exodu s 2 ,3 )a nd S t rabo ( 1 6 .1 .15 ) , t h e 1 9 th c en tu ry t a rada ( Laya rd 1 8 53 : 52 ) a nd t h e modem q uf f a ( McG ra i l 1 981a : p l a te 2 6 ) , z a ima ( Th e s ige r 1 978 : 1 28 , f i g . 4 5 ) a nd j i l lab ie ( Heye rdah l 1 978 : 3 5 ) a r e c ove red w i th b i tumen w h ich i st r an s fo rmed f r om as o l id m a s s i n to aw a te rp roo f ing e nve lop e . S im i la rb oa t sb u i l to fm a te r ia l s o t h e rt h an r e ed w ou ld b ei nt h i sc l a s s .

I ti sa r gued a bove t h a t b oa t s s hou ld b e c l a s s i f ied u s ing t wo a tr ibu t e s : ( a ) t h e b u i lde r ' s c oncep t o f h i s b oa t e i the r a s a w a te r t ig h ts h e l lo ra s aw a te rp roo f ed f r ame a nd ( b ) t h e c omb ina t ion o f t e chn ique s ( r educ t ion , c on s t r u c t ion a nd t r an s fo rma t ion ) t h e b u i lde r c hoo se s t o mak e t h eb oa t ' so u te re nve lop e . T h i sr e su l t s i n1 4t h eo re t ica l c l a s se s C l— C 14 , a s i lu s t ra ted i n F i g . 4 . 1 .1 F ive o f t h e s e ven s h e l l—bu i l t c l a s se s a r e k nown t o h ave m embe r s a nd a s i x th m ay h ave m embe r s . O f t h e s even s k e le ton—bu i l t c l a s se s , t wo a r e k nown t oh ave m embe r s : t wo o t h e r sm ay h ave m embe r sb u t s t ruc tu ra li n fo rma t ion a tp r e sen t a va i lab le d o e s n o t p e rm i t t h i s b e ing mo re t h an a p o s s ib i l i ty . A l l t h e c l a sse s w i th c e r ta in a nd w i th d oub t fu l m embe r s a r e l i s ted i nT ab le 4 . 1 .1 .

A ny w oven w ooden b a ske tb oa t s ( p o s s ib ly s ome o ft h o se f r om V ie tnam ) w h i ch a r e g i ven ac omp le t e w a te rp roo f ing e nve lop e w ou ld b e i n t h i s c l a s s r a th e r t h an i n C 7 . A s a l so w ou ld s ke le ton—bu i l t b oa t s o f o t he r m a te r ia l s w i th a c omp le te w a te rp roo f ing e nve lope .

T ab le 4 . 1 .2 P ropo sed b oa tc l a s se sw i th t h e ir m ember sl i s ted b yt r ad i t iona lt ype n ame s C la s s A t t r ibu te s T rad i t iona lT ype Name C on cep t s T e chn iqu e s C1 C 3 C 4

S he l l S he l l S he l l

R T RC

C 5

S he l l

RT

( C6 ) C 7

S he l l S he l l

( TC ) RTC

C 8

S ke le ton

RTC

( C 10 )

S ke le ton

( RC )

( C 11 ) C 12

S ke le ton S ke le ton

( RC ) T

N o te s

1

B a s ic l o gboa t s P o t te ry b oa t s( s ome ) E x t ended l o gboa t s U n s t r e s sed p l ank b oa t s( s ome ) E xpanded l o gboa t s B a s ic b a rk b oa t s B a s ic h i de b oa t s P o s s ib ly s ome p o t te ry b oa t s L ogboa t se xpanded a nd e x tended S t r e s sed p l ank b oa t s( s ome ) C omp lex b a rk b oa t s( s ome ) C omp lex h i de b oa t s( s ome ) B a ske tb oa t s( s ome ) S t r e s sed p lank b oa t s( s ome ) C omp lex h i de b oa t s( s ome ) C omp lex b a rk b oa t s( s ome ) P o s s ib ly s ome b a s ic b a rk b oa t s P o s s ib ly s ome b a s ic h i de b oa t s P o s s ib ly s ome u n s tr e ssed p lank b oa t s B und le ( r eed )b oa t s P o s s ib ly s ome b a ske tb oa t s

U n l i s ted c l a s se sh ave n ok nown m embe r s 2 I t em si np a r en the s i sa r ed oub t fu l 3 T rad i t iona lt y p en ame sa r ed e f ined i nt h et e x tb yr e f e r en ce t os pec i f ic ,r ea sonab ly w e l l—documen ted e xamp le s 4 R =r e duc t ion T=t r an s fo rma t ion C=c on s t r uc t ion

8 5

C la s s if i ca t ion S t ud ie s I ts e em s u n l ike ly t h a t m embe r s o f c l a s se s C 9 , C 13 a nd C 14 ( s ke le ton ) a nd C 2 ( s h e l l ) e x i s t , a s s u ch c on s t ruc t ion s a r e d i ff i cu l t t o c once ive , e ven t h eo r e t ica l ly . N eve r th e le s s , f u tu r e r e sea r ch , e spe c ia l ly r i go rou s r e co rd ing o f b u i ld ing m e thod s , m ay r e su l t i nt h e i d en t i f ica t ion o f m embe r s o f t h e se e mp ty c l a sse s ,a nd m ay r e vea l a dd i t iona l m emb e r s o fk nown c l a s se s , o ri n deed s ugge s tr e—a l lo ca t ion o fe x i s t ing m embe r s .

L ogboa t sa r e a l l s h e l lc on s t ruc t ion a nd m ay b eb u i l tu s ing f o u r d i f f e ren t c omb ina t ion s o f t e chn ique s d epend ing u pon w h e the r t h ey a r e t o b e b a s ic , e x tended , e xpanded o r e xpanded a nd e x t ended l o gboa t s — t h e c omp lex i ty a nd t h e r a nge o f a ch ievab le s hape i n c r ea s ing i nt h a ts equenc e . P lank b oa t s m ay b e b u i l t i ns h e l l o r s ke le ton s equenc e , t h e c l a s s d e te rm inan t t h en b e ing w h e th e r o r n o t t h e p l ank ing i s h ewn a nd b en t t os hap e o ro n ly h ewn t os hap e —s i gn if i can t ly d i f f e ren ta pp roa che st ob oa tbu i ld ing .

B oa t sw h ich h ave i nt h ep a s tb een c l a s s if ied a sa nh omogenou s g r oup a nd g i ven as i ng le t y pe ( e .g . b a rk b oa t s o rp l ank b oa t s ) a ppea r i nT ab le 4 . 1 .2 , i ns e ve ra l c l a s se s . T h i s m ay b e m o r e c l ea r ly s e en i nT ab le 4 . 1 .3 w h ich i s ar e—a r rangemen t o f t h e d a ta i nT ab le 4 . 1 .2 .

T ab le 4 . 1 .3 T rad i t iona l ly—named b oa tt ype sc l a s s i f ied o nt wo s t ruc tura la t tr ibu te s T rad i t iona lT yp eN ame

L ogboa t s

P lank b oa t s

B a rk b oa t s

H ide b oa t s

B und le ( r eed )b oa t s P o t te ry b oa t s B a ske tb oa t s

C la s s

A t t r ibu te s C oncep t

T e chn ique s

S he l l S he l l S he l l S he l l S he l l S he l l S ke le ton S ke le ton S he l l S he l l S ke le ton S ke le ton S he l l S he l l S ke le ton S ke le ton S ke le ton S he l l S hel S he l l S ke le ton

R RC RT RTC RC RTC RTC ( RC ) RT RTC RTC ( RT ) RT RTC RTC ( RT ) T T ( TC ) RTC ( T )

C l C 4 C 5 C 7 C 4 C 7 C 8 ( C11 ) C 5 C 7 C 8 ( C10 ) C 5 C 7 C 8 ( C10 ) C 12 C 3 ( C6 ) C 7 ( C 12 )

N o te :I t em si np a r en the s i sa r ed oub t fu l

w ide sp r ead c hange f r om s h e l ls equen ce t os ke le ton s equen ce i n l a te r Med ieva lE u rope .

B a rk a nd h i d eb oa t s f e a tu r ei nt h e s ame c l a s se s , t wo s h e l l a nd o n e s k e le ton , w i th a f u r the r p o s s ib le s ke le ton c l a s s . T h e d i f f e r en ce b e tween t h e t wo g r oup s o ft e chn ique s ( RT o r RTC ) i sw he the rt h ed e s ign r e qu i r e s as i ng le h i d e o rb a rk , o rs e ve ra l t ob e u sed : t h i s i sm o r e aq ue s t ion o fs i ze t h an a s i gn i f ican t s t ruc tu ra l d i f f e r ence . T h e c ho ice o f s h e l l o r s ke le ton f o r h i d e a nd b a rk b oa t s ,w h i l s ta ni mpo r tan tc on cep tua ld i f f e ren ce ,m ay a l so b er e la ted t os i z e i nt h a t t h e d i f f icu l t ie s o fv i sua l i s ing t h e s h ap e o f l a rge r b oa t s a nd i n deed s t ab i l i s ing t h e h u l l d u r ing c on s t ruc t ion w ou ld s e em t oi n c rea se s i gn i f ican t ly w i th s i z e — a l thoug h t h i s m ay b e m e r e ly 2 0 th c en tu ry l a ck o fk now ledge a nd e xp e r t i se . O nt h e o t he rh and , s u ch c on s ide ra t ion s , p l u s t h e r e qu i remen t t o g i ve l a rg e , p l ank—bu i l t , s e a—go ing s h ip s s u f f ic ien t s t r eng th t ow i th s tand t h e s t r e s se s i mpo sed i n as ea w ay ( McG ra i l 1 981a : 4 2-3 ) u ndoub ted ly i n f luen ced t h e

B und le b oa t s b y t h e i rn a tu re n eed t oh ave t h e i rc o i led b a ske t ry f r amewo rk w a te rp roo f ed , m o s t r e ad i ly d one b y t h e t r an sfo rma t ion o fs ome m a s t ic— l ike s ub s tance ( e .g . t a r ) . O the r ma te r ia l s , s u ch a s h i de , m igh t b e u s ed b u t t h i s s e em s a n o ve rcomp lex s o lu t ion a nd o ne w h ich , a s f a r a si sk nown , h a s n o t b een t r ied — t h e q uf f a c ove red w i th s k in s w h ich L aya rd ( 1 849 : 3 80 ) m en t ion s , a nd w h ich H o rne l l ( 1 946 : 1 04 ) b e l ieve s h ad ar e ed b und le f r ame ,w a si na l lp robab i l i ty ah i d eb oa tw i th aw oven w ooden b a ske try f r ame . I ts e em s u n l ike ly t h e r e fo r e , t h a t b und le b oa t s o fr e ed , g r a s s o rs im i la r m a te r ia l s c ou ld b e r ep re sen ted i na ny o t h e rc l a s sb u tC 12 .

8 6

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy T he k nown p o t t e ry b oa t s ( C3 )a r e s a id t ob em ade b yt h row ing ( Hor n e l l 1 946 : 9 8 ) b u t i ti sc once ivab le t h a t s ome c ou ld b e m ade b yc o i lt e chn ique sa nd t h e re fo r em ay b ei nc l a s sC 6 . B a ske t b oa t s , l i k e b und le b oa t s , a ppea r t o h ave a v e ry r e s t r ic ted d i s t r ibu t ion - w i th in I n do C h ina - a nd t h e e x i s t ing d o cumen ta t ion a ppea r s t oi n d ica te t h a t t h ey a r e mo s t ly , i fn o t a l l , b u i l t w i th t h e t e chn ique s o f c l a s s C 7 , t h a t i s , t h e c l o se ly w oven s p l i t b amboo s h e l l i sv i r tua l ly w a te r t igh t a nd t h e re fo re r e qu i re s o n ly c au lk ing r a th e rt h an w a te rp roof ing . O n t h e o t he r h and , a ny b a sk e tb oa t s w i th ac omp le t e c ove r ing o fd ung m ix , e t c .w ou ld b ec on cep tua l ly t h es ame a sc l a s s C1 2 . I n d iv idua lb oa ttyp e s w h i ch a r e w e l ld e f ned m ay b e i d en t if ied b y e x t en s ion o f t h e p ropo sed C 8 c l a s s i f ica t ion s c heme ( n o t s h own i nF ig . 4 . 1 .1 )T hu s ag r oup o fI r i sh s k in b oa t s g ene ra l ly k nown a s c u ra ch s a nd ag r oup o fA r c t ic s k in b oa t s g ene ra l ly k nown . a s u m iak s a r e b o th i nc l a s s C 8 . T hey m ay b e s t b e d i s t ingu i shed f r om o ne a no th e r b y i d en t i fy ing t h e s t a te s o f c e r ta in s t ru c tu ra l a t t r ibu t e s : a n e xamp le w ou ld b e t h e d i s t inc t ion p r opo sed b y C h r i s ten sen ( 1 977 : 2 75 ) , a nd i n co rpo ra ted i n K en t ley ' s s c heme ( 1 984 , f i g . 1 ) a s a c r o s ssec t iona l , s h ap e-d e t e rm in ing a t t r ibu te . S ub-g roup s may b e f u r the r r e cogn i sed b y o t he r s t ruc tu ra l c on s ide ra t ion s ( woodwo rk ing t e chn ique s , m e thod s o f f a s ten ing ) a nd b y t h e a n swe r s t o q ue s t ion s a bou t f u nc t ion a nd f o rm a nd b y d i s t r ibu t ion si nt i me a nd s pa ce . T h ea t t r ibu t ea na ly s i sa pp roa ch u sed i nt h i sp ape rr e ad i ly l e nd s i t se l f t o t h e i d en t if ica t ion o f c l u s te r s . T h i s s hou ld b e a l o ngte rm a im o fb oa t c l a s s i f i ca t ion s t ud ie s . I ti si mpo r tan t , h oweve r , t h a t , b e fo r ep a t t e rn s a r e s ea r ched f o r a nd b e fo re a ny c u l tu ra l s i g n if i can ce i s d educed , t h e c l a s s if ica t ion s cheme p r opo sed h e r e b e s ub jec t ed t of u r the r c r i t ic i sm a nd , w he reve r p o s s ib le , d oub t f u l r e co rd s a bou t b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s a nd s e quen ce sb ev e r i f ied o ra mended .

A cknow ledgm en t Ia m v e ry g r a t e f u l t om y c o l league E r ic K en t ley w ho se r e cen t p ap e r ( 1 984 ) s t imu la ted m e t o r eth ink m y i d ea s a bou t t h e c l a s s if ica t ion o fb oa t s , a nd w ho h a s c r i t ic i sed e a r l ie rd ra f t s o f t h i s p r e sen t p ape r . Ia m a l so i n deb ted t o h im f o r s eve ra l s p ec i f ic e xamp le s o f g en e ra l b oa t c l a s se s . J ane t S to rey h a s t h r ee t ime s t u rn ed m y m anu sc r ip t i n to t y pe sc ip t , a nd f o r t h i s I a m mo s tg r a t e f u l .

R e f erence s A dney , E .T .a nd C hap e l le , H . I .1 964 . B ark C anoe s a nd S k in B oa t s o f N o r th Ame r i ca . Sm i th son ian I n s t i tu t ion , Wa sh ing ton . A nde r son ,B .W . 1 978 .L i v ing Wo r ld o ft h eO ld T e s tamen t . 3 rd e d i t ion . B i rd se l l , J .H . 1 977 . R e ca l ib ra t ion o f ap a rad igm f o r t h e f i r s t p eop l ing o fG r ea te rA u s t ra l ia . I nA l len , J .e ta l . ( e d s ) S unda a nd S ahu l ,p p . 1 1 3 -68 . A cadem ic P re s s .

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B r ind ley , H . H . 1 9 19-20 . N o te s o n t h e b oa t s o f S i b e r ia . T he Ma r ine r ' s M i r ro r 5 :6 6-72 , 1 0 1-7 , 1 30-42 ,184-7 ;6 : 1 518 , 1 87 . C a i ro , R . 1 972 . An o te o n S . V ie tname se b a sk e t b oa t s . T he Ma r ine r ' sM i r ro r5 8 : 1 3553 . C a s son , L . 1 971 .S h ip sa nd S eaman sh ip i nt h eA n c ien tW o r ld . P r ince ton . C h r i s ten sen , A . E . 1 977 . A n c ien t b oa tbu i ld ing - ap rov i s iona l c l a s s i f ica t ion . I n McG ra i l , S . ( e d . ) S ou r c e s a nd T e chn ique s i nB oa tA r chaeo logy , p p . 2 69-80 . NMM G reenw ich A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s 1 . B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica lR epo r t s( Ox fo rd ) .S 29 . C rum l in-Pede r son , 0 . 1 978 . T h e S h ip s o f t h e V ik ing s . I n A nde r son , T . a nd S and r ed , K . 1 .( e d s ) McG ra i l , S . T he V ik ing s .U pp sa la ,p p . 3 2-4 1 . D o ran , E . 1 973 . N ao , J unk a nd V aka . T exa s A . & M . U n ive r s i ty . E dwa rd s , C . R . 1 965 . A bo r ig ina l W a t er c ra t t o n t h e P a c if i c c oa s t o f S ou th Am e r i ca . l b e ro-Ame r i cana 4 7 . U n ive r s i ty o fC a l i fo rn ia . E l lme r s , D . 1 972 . F ruhm i t te la l t e r l i che H and e l s s ch zf f aho t i n M i t t e lu nd N o rd eu ropa .N eumun s te r E l lme r s , D . 1 984 . P un t , b a rge o rp r am -i st h e r e o n e t r ad i t ion o r s e ve ra l ? I n McG ra i l , S .( e d . ) Mar i t im eA spe c t s o f Ma r i t im e A r chaeo logy a nd E thnography . NMM ( G r eenw ich ) . E ske röd , A . 1 956 . E a r ly N o rd i c A r c t ic b oa t s . A r c t i ca . 1 9 56 : 5 7-87 .( S tud ia E thnog raph ica U p sa l ien s ia ) . G reenh i l l ,B . 1 976 .A r chaeo logy o ft h eB oa t . L ondon : A . &C . B la ck . H addon ,A . C . &H o rne l l ,J .1 936 .C ano e so fO cean ia . 1 .1 937 . C anoe s o fO cean ia . 2 . 1 938 . C ano e s o fO c ean ia . 3 . H ono lu lu . H an sen ,K . a nd Mad sen ,J .S .1 981 .B a rkbäd e .R o sk i ld e . H eye rdah l , T . 1 978 .E a r ly Man a nd t h eO c ean . L ondon : A l len &U nw in . H od son , F . R . 1 980 . C u l tu r e s a s t y pe s? S ome e l emen t s o f c l a s s i f ica t ion t h eo ry . B u l l e t in o f t h e I n s t i tu t e o f A r chaeo logy . 1 7 : 1 10 . H or n e l l , J . 1 936-8 . B r i t i sh c o ra c le s a nd t h e c u r ragh s o f I r e land . T he Mar ine r ' s M i r ro r . 2 2 : 5 -4 1 , 2 61-304 ; 2 3 :7 4-83 , 1 48-75 ;2 4 ;5 -39 . H or n e l l , J . 1 94 1 . P e lo ta o r h i de - b a l sa o f S ou th Ame r ica . Man .4 1 : 1 -4 . H or n e l l , J .1 942 . F loa t s ; as t udy i np r im i t ive w a te r t r an spo r t . J ou rna l o f t h e R oya l A n thropo log ica l I n s t i tu t e . 7 2 : 3-44 . H or n e l l , J . 1 943 . F i sh ing a nd c oa s ta l c r a f t o f C ey lon . T h e Mar ine r ' sM i r ro r .2 9 :4 053 . Ho rne l l , J . 1 945 . F loa t s a nd b uoyed r a f t s i n m i l i ta r y o pe ra t ion s .A n t iqu i ty . 1 9 :7 2-9 . Ho rne l l , J . 1 946 . W a te r T ran spo r t . C amb r idge . R ep r in ted N ew ton A bbo t t 1 970 . H umb la ,P .and v an P o s t ,L . 1 937 . G a l taba ck sba ten o ch T id ig t B a tbygge r i iN o rd en . J ohn s tone , P1 980 .S ea c raf to fP r eh i s to ry . R ou t ledge & K egan P au l . K en t ley , E . 1 984 . S k in b oa t s a nd b a sk e t b oa t s : an o t e o n t h e c l a s s i f ica t ion o fw a te rt r an spo r t .I n t e rna t iona lJ ourna l o fN au t i ca lA r chaeo logy . 1 3 :8 1-3 .

C la s s if i ca t ion S t ud ie s L ane-Fox , A . 1 875 . O n e a r ly mode s o fn av iga t ion .J ou rna lo f t h eR oya lA n th ropo log i ca lI n s t i tu t e .4 :3 99-437 . L aya rd ,A .H . 1 849 .N ineveh a nd i t sR ema in s .2 . L aya rd , A . H . 1 853 . D i scove r ie s i nt h eR u in s o fN inev eh a nd B aby lon. McG ra i l , S . 1 978a . L ogboa t s o fE ng land a nd Wa l e s . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G reenw ich ) A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s2 .B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica lR epo r t s( Ox fo rd )5 1 . McG ra i l , S . 1 978b . Med ieva l l o gboa t f r om G igg le sw ick T a rn ,Yo rk sh i re . I n A nn i s ,P . ( e d . ) I ng r id a nd o t he r S t ud ie s . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G r eenw ich ) . Monog raph 3 6 : 2 5-46 . McG ra i l ,S .1 981a .R af t s ,B oa t sa nd S h ip s . HMSO . McG ra i l , S . 1 981b . B r igg ' r af t ' . B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica l R epo r t s ( Ox fo rd ) 8 9 . Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G r eenw ich )A r chaeo log ica lS e r ie s6 . McG ra i l , S .1 984 . Ma r i t ime a r chaeo logy -p r e sen ta nd f u tu re . I n McG ra i l , S .( e d . ) .A spe c t so f Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy a nd E thnography . Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G reenw ich ) . McG ra i l . S .a nd D en fo rd , G . 1 982 . B oa t b u i ld ing t e chn ique s , t e chno log ica l c hange a nd a t t r ibu te a na ly s i s . I n McG ra i l , S .( e d ) W oodwo rk ing T e chn ique sb ef o r e AD 1 500 . 2 5-72 . NMM ( G reenw ich ) A r cha eo log ica l S e r ie s 7 . B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica l R epo r t s ( Ox fo rd ) S 1 29 . McG ra i l , S .a nd Sw i t su r , R . 1 979 . Med ieva l l o gboa t s o ft h e R ive r Me r sey . I n McG ra i l , S . ( e d . ) Med ieva l S h ip s a nd Harbour s , 9 3115 . B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica l R epo r t s ( Ox fo rd ) S 66 . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G reenw ich )A r chaeo log ica lS e r ie s5 . McKee E . 1 972 . C l enched L ap o r C l ink e r . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G reenw ich ) . McKee , E . 1 983 . Work ing B oa t so fB r i ta in . C onway Ma r i t ime P re s s .

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Ma r sd en , P . 1 976 . A b oa t o f t h e R oman p e r iod f o und a t B ruge s , B e lg ium i n 1 899 a nd r e la ted f md s . I n t erna t iona l J ou rna l o f N au t ica l A r chaeo logy . 5 : 2 3-55 . N eedham ,J .1 971 .S c i en c ea nd C iv i l i sa t ion i nC h ina . 4 :p a r t3 . C amb r idg e . N i sh imu ra ,S .1 9 31 . S k inboa t s .A n c ien tS h ip so fJ apan .5 ,6 ,7 , 8 .T okyo . P h i l l ip s-Bu r t ,D . 1 979 .B u i ld ing o fB oa t s . S t an fo rd Ma r i t ime . P r in s , A .H . J . F o r thcom ing . S ewn B oa t s . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G r eenw ich ) . R o th ,H .L . 1 899 A bo r ig in ie so fT a sman ia .2 nd e d . H a l i fax . R udo lph , W . 1 966 . H andbu ch d e r V o lk s tum l ichen B oo t e i m o s t l i chen N e id e r -Deu t s ch land .B e r l in . R udo lph , W . 1 974a . I n sho r e F i sh ing C raf t o f t h e S ou the rn B a l t i cf r om H o l s t e in t oC u ran ia . Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ( G reenw ich ) . Monog raph 1 4 . R udo lph , W . 1 974b . B oa t s , R af t s a nd S h ip s . L ondon : A d la rd C o le s . S e r r uy s , H . 1 981 . H unt 'o : t u lum , f l oa t s a nd c on ta ine r s i n Mongo l ia a nd C en t ra l A s ia . B u l l e t in o ft h e S choo l o f A f r i can a nd O r ien ta lS t ud ie s .4 4 : 1 05-19 . S i no r , D . 1 96 1 . O n w a te rt ran spo r t i n C en t ra l E u ra s ia . U ra l-A l ta i sch eJ ah rbd che r .3 :1 56-79 . S ude r , H . 1 930 . V om E inbaum u nd F lo s s z um S ch if f . B e r l in : M i t t le r . T he s ige r ,W . 1 978 . Ma r sh A rab s .H annond swo rd i :P engu in .

R ep r in t ed w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : W o r ld A r chaeo logy , 1 6 :2 89-303 ( 1 985 )

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

S ECT ION 5 . 0 W OOD WORK ING TECHN IQUES I n t roduc t ion

d a ta i nt h a tp ap e rc ame f r om t h e H a sho lme l o gboa tw h ich h ad r e cen t ly b een d a t ed b y d end roch rono lgy t ow i th in af ew y ea r s

T he f i r s t o f t h e t wo p ape r s i nt h i s S ec t ion p u t s t h e c a se f o r u s ing a l l f o rm s o f e v iden ce , i n c lud ing t h a t f r om b oa t s , i n s t ud ie s o f w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s , r a th e r t h an d ea l ing e xc lus ive ly w i th l a nd—ba sed m a te r ia l , a s w a s c u r r en tp r a c t ice i nt h e 1 970 s . I ti se qua l ly ap l ea t h a t b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn iqu e s s hou ld n o t b e s t ud ied i ni s o la t ion . T he i n te r change o f v i ew s t h a tt ook p l ace a s ar e su l to ft h i sp ape r , l e dt o ac on f e r en ce o n ' Woodwo rk ing T echn ique sb e fo r e AD 1 500 ' ,w h ich w a sh e ld a t G reenw ich i n 1 980 ( McG ra i l , 1 982 ) . A t t h a t t i me , P ro f e s so r J ohn C o le sa nd h i ss e lec tb and o fw a te r logged w ood s p ec ia l i s t s w e re r ega rded a s ' f r inge ' b y m o s t a r chaeo log i s t s . N owaday s , w e t land s t ud ie s s e em t ob e w e l l i n teg ra ted i n to t h e d i sc ip l ine ; o n t h e o t h e r h and , t h e r e s t i l l s e em s t o b e r e s i s tan ce t o t h e a s s im i la t ion o fb oa t— re la ted s t ud ie s .

o f 3 00 BC ( S e c t ion 6 ; P ap e r s 8 . 1 , 1 .5 ) . T he p ape r , a s p ub l i sh ed h e r e , i n co rpo ra te s a mmendmen t s made i n 1 987 i n I JNA , 1 7 :158 ; i ti s s t i l l , b y & l a rge , u p t o d a te b u t w i l l u ndoub t ed ly n eed t o b o a mmended w hen t h e m id-2nd . m i l lenn ium BC b oa t f r om D ove r i s p ubl i shed ( Sec t ion 6 ) . S ub sequ en t t ot h e c on f e r enc e , S w i t su r ( 1 989 ) p ubl i shed al i s t o fc a l ib ra ted r a d io ca rbon d a te sf o rm any e a r ly B r i t i sh b oa t s . T o—da t e , o n ly t h r ee B r i t i sh b oa t f i nd s h ave b een d a ted b y d end ro ch rono lgy , t h e H a sho lme & C lap ton l o gboa t s & t h e G o ld c l i f f p l ank b oa t f r agmen t s ( S ec t ion s 6& 7 ) . I th a s n o t p rov ed p o s s ib le t od a te o t he rp r eh i s to r ic B r i t i sh b oa t f i nd s b y t h i s t e chn ique : a l though s i te c h rono log ie s e x i s t f o rt h e F e r r iby , B r igg & C a ld ico tf i nd s ,t h ey c anno ty e tb e ma tched w i th d a ted s e qu en ce s e l sewh e r e . C u ra to r s a r e s ome t imes r e luc tan t t o a low d end ro— samp le s t o b e t a ken , h oweve r , i f max imum i n fo rma t ion i s t o b e o b ta ined f r om a n e xcava ted b oa t , d end ro log ica l e xam ina t ion ( i nc lud ing d a t ing w he re p o s s ib le ) m u s t b e u nd e r taken ( Mo rgan e ta l , 1 981 ) : t h e b e s t t ime t o s amp le t h e t i mb e r s i s a f te r p o s t— excava t ion r e co rd ing a nd b e fo r ec on se r va t ion .

T ha t c on f e r en ce i n 1 980 c ou ld h ave m a rk ed t h e b eg inn ing o f s yn the t ic s t ud ie s i n w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s ; b u t i td i d n o t . T he re i s , f o r e xamp le , n o s t udy o f B r i t i sh B ronze A ge w oodwo rk ing w h ich i n c lude sd a ta f r om t h eF e r r iby ,B r igg ,a nd C a ld ico tb oa t s , a l l o fw h ich h ave b een p ub l i sh ed i nd e ta i l ( s ee S ec t ion 7 ) . T he se n au t ica l s t ud ie s a l so i n c lude s u ch u s e fu l i n fo rma t ion a st h e s i ze s o fB ronze A ge o ak s , b u t t h i s d a ta h a s n eve rb een u s ed i ne nv i ronmen ta l p ub l ica t ion s , a sf a r a s Ia m a wa re . A t ar e cen t O x fo rd c on f e r ence o n t h e B r i t i sh B ron ze A ge , o ne s peake r r eg re t ted t h e l a ck o f e v idence f o r r op e s ; h oweve r ,p r eh i s to r ic r ope so fy ew a nd o fw i l low ,f r om c1i n ch t oo ve r 3i n che si ns i ze ( g i r th ; t h ed i ame te rw ou ld b e c1 0t o2 5 mm . ) a r e w e l l—documen ted i nb oa t p ub l ica t ion s . T h e r e i sa n u rgen tn eed f o rc omp rehen s ive s t ud ie so fa n c ien tw oodwo rk ing &b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s .

R e f e r ence s . McG ra i l , S . 1 9 82 . ( e d ) . Woodwo rk ing T e chn ique s b ef ore AD 1 500 . BAR O x fo rd S . 129 . McG ra i l , S . &D en fo rd , G . 1 982 . Woodwo rk ing t e chn ique s , t e chno log ica l c hange a nd a t t r ibu te a na ly s i s . i n McG ra i l( e d ) 1 982 :2 5-72 . Mo rgan , R .A . , H i I lam , J . , C o le s , J .M . & McG ra i l , S . 1 981 . R econ c i l ing t r ee— r ing s amp l ing w i th c on se rva t ion . A n t iqu i ty ,5 :9 05 . S w i t su r , R , 1 989 . E a r ly E ng l i sh B oa t s . R ad iocarbon , 3 1 : 1 0 1010 18 .

A s ugge s t ion t h a t t h e c h rono logy o f t e chno log ica l c hange s hou ld b ei n ve s t iga ted w a sm ade i no ne o ft h ep ap e r sp r e sen t ed a t t h e 1 980 c on f e ren ce ( McG ra i l & D en fo rd , 1 982 ) . T he s e cond p ap e r i nt h i s S ec t ion i sa n a t temp t t od o t h a t f o r e a r ly b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s i nB r i ta in & I r e land . Much o ft h en ew

e

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W oodwo rk ing T e chn ique s

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S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 5 . 1 PREH ISTOR IC BOATS ,T IMBER , AND WOOD WORK ING TECHNOLOGY

T he r e cen t p ape r b y C o le s e t a l . ( 1 978 ) o n t h e u s e a nd

1 .B oa t s

c ha ra c te r o fp r eh i s to r ic t i mbe r i s am o s t t i me ly r em inde r t h a t t h e s t udy o f w ooden a r t i fa c t s c an m ake a s i gn if i can t c on t r ibu t ion t oo u ru nde r s tand ing o fe a r ly m an . T h i s p o t en t ia l

U n t i lr e la t ive ly r e cen t ly a l lB r i t i sh a nd I r i sh l o gboa t s( =d ugou t c ano e s ) w e r e g en e ra l ly a s sumed t ob e p r eh i s to r ic , a nd W i l son ( 1 966 , 8 5 ) w a s a lmo s t al o n e v o ice w hen h e s ugge s ted t h a t s ome o f t h e B r i t i sh b oa t s c ou ld b e p o s t—Roman . W i l son ' s t h e s i sh a si nf a c tb een c onf i rmed b ys e ve ra lr e cen tr ad ioca rbon d e te rm ina t ion s , m any o f t h em o b ta ined b y S w i t su r o f t h e G odw in L abo ra to ry , C amb r idge u s ing s amp le s c o l lec ted b y McG ra i l i nt h e c ou r se o f h i s e xam ina t ion o f a l l a c ce ss ib le s u r v iv ing l o gboa t s i nE ng land a nd Wa le s ( McG ra i l 1 978a ) . O f t h e 2 4 d a t e s n ow a va i lab le f o r B r i t i sh l o gboa t s , 1 4 a r e R omano—B r i t i sh o r Med ieva l ,r a ng ing u pt oc .a d 1 335 f o r t h e G igg le sw ick T ar nl o gboa t( Q124 5 :6 15 b p +4 0 )

m ay n eve r b e r ea l i sed , h oweve r , u n le s s f u l l r e co rd s a r e c omp i led o n s i te w h i l s t t h e a r t i fa c t s a r e ma in ta in ed i n as t ab le s t a te b y ' p a ss ive ' c on se r va t ion t e chn ique s , a nd s amp le s o ft h e t i mbe r a r e r e cove red f o rp o s t—excava t ion r e sea r ch . I nt h ep a s t m uch i n fo rma t ion h a s b een i re t r ievab ly l o s t b e cau se t h e se a c t ion s w e r e n o t t a ken . I ti s a l so n ece s sa ry t o b e c au t iou s b e fo r e a ccep t ing t h a t w ooden a r t i fa c t s e xcava t ed o r f o und b e fo r e , s ay , 1 960 a r e n ece ssa r i ly f r om t h e p e r iod a s c r ib ed t o t h em .N o ta l ls imp le a r t i fac t sa r ep r eh i s to r ic .

T he t e np r eh i s to r i cd a t e sa r el i s t ed i nT ab le 5 . 1 .1 .

T ab le 5 . 1 .1 R ad iocarbon D a te sf o rP reh i s tor ic L ogboa t sf r om B r i ta in L abo ra to ry r e f e r en ce n umbe r S RR-326 Q -288 BM-213 Q -80 Q -79 Q -78 Q -357 Q -82 1 B i rm132 S RR-403

L ogboa t ( Ca ta logue N umb e r ) L ocha rb r igg s B ran thwa i te C hap e lF la tD yk e A pp leby S ho r tF e r ry B r igg S hapw ick P oo le H o lme P i e r rpon tI L och A r thu r( Lo tu s )

( 1 9 ) ( 2 8 ) ( 5 ) ( 1 26 ) ( 2 2 ) ( 1 24 ) ( 1 12 ) ( 5 7 )

b p

D a t e b c

3 754 3 520 3 450 3 050 2 796 2 784 2 30 5 24 5 2 180 2 051

1 804 1 570 1 500 100 8 46 8 34 3 55 2 95 2 30 1 0 1

1 25 1 00 1 50 8 0 1 00 1 00 1 20 5 0 10 8 0

N o te : C a ta logue n umbe r sr e f e rt ot h ec a ta logue p ub l i shed b y McG ra i l( 1978a )

T he r e a r e p rob lem s i ne s tab l i sh ing w he the r w ooden r ema in s , e spec ia l ly f r agmen ta ry o ne s , a r e i n deed f r om b oa t s ( McG ra i l 1 978a 1 8-19 ) ,a nd t h er ema in sf r om B ran thwa i te ,C umbe r land , a nd C hape lF la tD yke , Y o rk sh i r e a r eb yn om ean si n d i spu tab ly l o gboa t s .

b y m o rpho logy o r f r om t e chno log ica l c on s ide ra t ion s . T hu s d a t ing t h e m a t e r ia l s u s ed i nt h e c on s t r uc t ion o f t h e b oa t i s f r equen t ly t h e o n ly r e l iab le m e thod , a nd t h i s m ean s r a d io ca rbon d a t ing u n t i l d end ro ch rono logy b ecome s p r a c t icab le . I nt h e p a s t , h oweve r , d a te s h ave s ome t ime s b een a tr ibu ted t ob oa t s o n v e ry s l end e r e v idence . T h e o f t—quo ted m e so l i th ic d a t e f o r t h e l o gboa t f r om P e r th m ay b e u n r e l iab le , f o r G e ik ie ( 1 879 , 1 )d i d n o t v i s i t t h e s i te u n t i l a' n umbe r o f y ea r s ' a f t e r i th ad b een f o und , a nd b y t h en t h e f i nd h ad b een l a id a s ide o n ab ank f o r al o ng t i me . T he i d en t if i ca t ion o f i t s

T h es pec ia ln a tu re o fb oa t sa nd t h e i rf i nd— s i te s m ean st h a to n ly r a r e ly c an t h ey b e d a ted f r om t h e i r c on tex t o r b y a s so c ia t ion ( McG ra i l 1 978b , 2 39 ) . A nd t h e s t udy o ft h e f o rm a nd s t r uc tu r e o fe a r ly b oa t s i sa tt o o e a r ly as t age t oa t temp tp r ec i se d a t ing 9 1

W oodwo rk ing T e chn ique s s t ra t ig raph ic p o s i t ion o n w h ich i t s d a te d epend s w a s t h u s n o t f r om a ni ns i tu e xam ina t ion b yG e ik ie b u tf r om t h em emo ry o f t h em anage ro ft h eF r ia r ton b r ickwo rk s . D a t ing e v iden ce f o r s ome o f t h e o t he r f i nd s i nC o le s e ta l ' s c a ta logue ( 1 978 ,34-42 )m ay a l so b eq ue s t ion ed . E c c l e s ,L an ca sh i r e . T h i s l o gboa t i sa l so k nown a sB a r ton ( 1 1 ) a nd t h e r ema in s a r e i n Man che s te r U n ive r s i ty Mu seum . I ti s o n e o f t h e b oa t s r e c en t ly d a ted b y S w i t su r t o t h e m ed ieva l p e r iod :Q -1396 : 9 20 b p ±6 5 =c .a d 1 030 .E igh to t h e rl o gboa t s f r om t h e s ame s t r e t ch o ft h eR ive r s Me r sey a nd I rwe l la r ea l so n ow k nown t ob e f r om t h e 1t ha nd 1 2 th c en tu r ie sa d( McG ra i l a nd S w i t su r ,f o r thcom ing ) . G la s tonbu ry , S om e r se t . T h e f i r s t G la s tonbu ry ( 5 0 ) l o gboa t ( n ow i nt h e T r ibuna l , G la s tonbu ry )w a s f o und i n ad i t ch ' af ew f i e ld s d i s tan t ' f r om G la s tonbu ry L ake V i l lage ( Bu l le id 1 893 , 1 2 1 ;B u l le id 1 906 ,52 ) a nd t h u sc anno tb ed a ted t ot h eI r on A ge b ya s soc ia t ion a sF ox ( 1 926 , 1 50 )a t temp t ed t od o .T he s e cond l o gboa t( 5 1 ) , w h ich i sn ow l o s t , w a se xcava t ed f r om p ea ti nt h e s ub— s t r uc tu r eo ft h ev i l lage ( Bu l le id 1 906 ,52 ;B u l le id a nd G ray 1 9 11 ,333 ) a nd t h u s i t s d a t e m ay b e r e la ted t o t h a t o f t h e v i l lage . H o lm e—P ie r r epon t , N o t t ingham sh i r e . T h r ee l o gboa t s ( n ow r e—bu r ied ) w e r e f o und d u r ing g r ave l e x t ra c t ion f r om a n a bandoned m eand e r o ft h e R ive r T r en t . B oa t 1( 5 7 ) h a s b een d a ted b y r ad io ca rbon t o c .2 30 b c ( Tab le 1 ) , b u t w i th t h e se c ond i t ion so fd epo s i t ion a nd r e cove ry i tw ou ld b ei mp ruden tt o a s sume a s im i la r d a t e f o r B oa t s 2a nd 3 w i thou t f u r the r e v id enc e . Maud l in , N or f o lk . T h i s ( n ow l o s t ) l o gboa t i sa l so k nown a s Magda len B end ( 9 1 ) . I tw a s f o und i n al a ye ro fp ea t w he r e a R oman r oad w a sr e po r ted t ob eo nt h ep ea t( Ma r sha l l 1 878-9 ) . I tm ay t h e re fo r eb ec on s id e r ed p r e—Roman ,b u tn o tn e ce s sa r i ly N eo l i th ic . S ho r tF e r ry , L in co ln sh i r e . W i th ad a te o fc .8 46 b c ( Tab le 1 ) t h i sl o gboa t( 1 26 )m ay b ea s s ig ned t ot h eB ronz eA ge .

P lanked b oa t sa nd o ther w ooden a r t i fac t s F ou r p r eh i s to r ic B r i t i sh p l ank ed b oa t s a r e k nown : t h e t h r ee F e r r iby b oa t s ( W r igh t 1 976 , 1 978 ) ; a nd t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' ( McG ra i l 1 975 ) . T he l a t t e r h a s s e ve ra l r a d io ca rbon d a te s a r ound 6 00 b e ( McG ra i l a nd S w i t su r 1 975 ; a nd s u b sequen t u npub l i shed w o rk b y S w i t su r ) a nd m ay b ec on s id e r ed s e cu r e ly d a ted . O n t h e o t he r h and , a s Wr igh t ( 1 976 ) h a s p o in t ed o u t , t h e r e a r e p rob lem s i ni n t e rp r e t ing t h e d a t e s a va i lab le f o r t h e F e r r iby b oa t s : o np r e sen te v iden ce t h ey a r eb e s ta s c r ibed t ot h e p e r iod 1 776-960 b e . D end roch rono log ica l w o rk n ow b e ing u nde r taken b y H i l lam a t S he f f ie ld a nd f u r th e r r a d io ca rbon d a t ing b y S w i t su r a tC amb r idge m ay g i ve m o r e p r ec i se d a te s a nd h e lp d ec ide w he the r t h e t h r ee b oa t s w e r e c on tempo ra ry . C au t ion m u s t b e e xe r c i sed , h oweve r , w hen c on s ide r ing Wr ig h t ' s r e cen t s ugge s t ion ( 1 978 , 1 90 ) t h a t , ' i t i s af a i r a s sump t ion t h a t t h ey ( wooden o b jec t s f o und i n t h e N o r th F e r r iby e s tua r ine c l ay i nw h ich t h e b oa t s w e r e a l so f o und ) a r e

a l lo fB ronze A ge d a te ; a nd h i sc on c lu s ion ( 1 978 , 2 0 1 ) t h a tt h e n on—boa t w ooden o b jec t s f r om t h e e s tua r ine c l ay ' b e long f i rm ly t o t h e B ronze A ge ' . E xcava t ion s b y t h e Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ' s A r chaeo log ica l R e sea rch C en t re i n 1 978 a nd e a r ly 1 979 , b a sed o n a n e xpo su r e i d en t if ied b y E . V . Wr igh t , h ave i n deed r evea led f r agmen t s o fw ha t w a s p robab ly at r a ckway o r p o ss ib ly a h a rd s t and ing i n t h e v i c in i ty o f F e r r iby b oa t 2 ,w i th o ne C 14 d a t e i nt h e m id-2nd m i l lenn ium b e . N eve r the le s s , t h i s s t rand a t No r th F e r r iby h a sh ad l o ng u se a s ab oa t—p lac e , e x tend ing o n p l a ce—name e v iden ce i n to t h e V ik ing A ge a nd e ven t or e cen tt ime s ,a nd i ti sp o s s ib le t o day t o r e cove r u ndoub ted ly 2 0 th— cen tu ry a r t i f ac t s ' s ea led a tl e a s t i n p a r t ' ( W r igh t 1 978 , 1 90 ) i nt h e e s tua r in e c l ay s . A s Ik now m y c o l league E . V . Wr igh t i sw e l l a wa re , p o s i t ive e v idenc e i s r equ i red b e fo r e w ooden a r t i fac t s i nt h i s t y pe o fc on tex tc an b e g i ven af i rm d a te .

2 .T imber a nd Woodwork ing t e chno logy F ew l o gboa t s h ave b een r i go rou s ly e xam ined b e fo r e t h ey d r ied—ou t , s h rank a nd s p l i t , a nd t h e 1 974 r e cove ry o fp a r t o f t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' w a s ar e—excava t ion o f as i te f i r s t e xpo sed i n 1 888 . T hu s , a pa r t f r om E . V . Wr igh t ' s r e co rd s o ft h e F e r r iby b oa t s , t h e s ou r ce ma te r ia l f o r i n fo rma t ion a bou t s e le c t ion o f t i mbe r a nd w oodwo rk ing t e chno logy i s u np rom i s ing . N eve r the le s ss ome e s t ima te sa nd d educ t ion sc an b em ade . O ft h e s i x u ndoub ted l o gboa t s f r om E ng land a nd Wa le s , o n ly t wo ( Br igg a nd P oo le ) c an b e h ypo the t ica l ly r e con s t ru c ted u s ing t h ec r i te r ia Ih ave p o s tu la ted ( McG ra i l 1 978a , 1 27 ) .T hu s o n ly l im i ted d a ta i sa va i lab le f r om t h e o t h e r f ou r . T ab le 5 . 1 .2 l i s t ss ome p rop e r t ies o ft h e se s i xb oa t sa nd t h e i rp a r en tl o g s . A l ls i xl o g sw e r eo fo ak ( Que r cu ss p ) . O ft h eo n e sm ad ef r om , o rp o s s ib ly made f r om , aw ho le l o g , t h e A pp leby , S ho r tF e r ry a nd B r igg b oa t s h ad f i t ted t r an som s a c ro ss o p en s t em s ( t he b u t t—end o ft h e l o g ) . T he re i s ap o ss ib i l i ty t h e r e fo r e t h a t t h e se l o g s h ad ar o t k nown a s b r i t t le h ea r t ( a d i sea se p r eva len t i n modem o ak s o fa ny g r ea t s i ze ) i nt h e w o rked—away c en t r e o f t h e l owe r b o le . O n t h e o t he r h and H o lme P ie r repon t 1 ,w h ich w a sm ade f r om aw ho le l o g ,e v iden t ly h a sa ni n teg ra ls t em a nd t h e l o g f r om w h ich i tw a s m ade c anno t t h e re fo r e h ave h ad b r i t t le h ea r tr o t . T he a pp rox ima te a ge a t f e l l ing m ay b e d e t e rm ined b y s ome f u tu r ed end roch rono log ica l e xam ina t ion o ft h e s u rv iv ing b oa t s : f o rt h e p r e sen t , t h e d iame te ro ft h e i d ea l l o g s o rt h e max imum b eam o ft h eb oa t may b e s ome g u ide t ot h er e la t ive a ge so ft h e l o g s . A f t e r f e l l ing , t h e l o g s f o r S hapw ick a nd P oo le ( a nd p o s s ib ly S ho r t F e r ry ) w e r e s p l i t l o ng i tud ina l ly a nd o ne h a l f u sed f o r t h e b oa t . B r igg a nd H o lme P ie r repon t Iw e r e b u i l t f r om w ho le l o g s . 9 0 .8 p e r c en t o ft h e B r igg l o g a nd 9 3 .6 p e r c en t o f t h e P oo le l o g w a s w o rked—away e x te rna l ly a nd i n te rna l ly d u r ing t h e b oa tbu i ld ing . S ome s apwood i sr epo r ted t oh ave b een l e f to nt h eS ho r tF e r ry b oa t .

9 2

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

T ab le 5 . 1 .2 D a ta f o rs i xP reh i s tor ic L ogboa t sa nd t h e ir P aren tL og s L ogboa t

A pp leby S ho r tF e r ry B r igg S hapw ick P oo le ' H o lme P ie r r epon tI N o t e s :

1 .

A pp rox ima te d a te b c

L eng th

100 8 46 8 34 3 55 2 95 2 30

7 . 50m+ c7 . 5m 1 4 .78m c6 . 15m 1 0 .01m 6 . 40m+

B oa tr em a in s Max .b eam 1 . 46 0 . 94m 1 . 37m c0 . 70m 1 . 52m c0 . 90m

W ho l eo r h a l fl o gu s ed N .K . H a l f ( ? ) Who le H a l f H a l f Who le

V o lum e

P a r en tl o g2 Max .d i ame te r

3 7 .95m 3

1 . 90m

1 6 .76m 3

1 . 72m

T h e d a ta f o r P oo le i n c lude a n a l lowance f o r t h e s h r inkage t h e b oa t e xpe r ienced b e f o r e i tw a s r e co rd ed . T h e c a lcu la t ion w h ich i sb a sed o n m ea su remen t so fe l ip t ica lh o le si sd e scr ibed i n McG ra i l 1 978a , 1 23-8 .

2 .

T oe s t ima te t h es i ze o ft h ep a r en tl o g , t h em in imum r ad i it oc i r cum sc r ibe t h eb oa ta tb o th e nd s w a sc a lcu la t ed ,t a k ing i n to a ccoun tt h ep o s i t ion i nt h e b oa t o ft h e l o g ' s p i th . A n a l lowance o f0 . 10 m w a s t h en a dd ed f o r s apwood a nd b a rk a nd t h e v o lum e o ft h e l o g c a lcu la ted u s ing t h e l e ng th o ft h eb oa t .T he p a ren tl o gw a so bv iou s ly l o nge ra nd ar e a sonab le a s sump t ion m igh tb et h a tt h et r ee w ou ld b ef e l led c .0 . 70 m a bove t h e g round . D e ta i l so ft h ea s sumed t a pe ro ft h el o ga r eg i ven i nt h ea pp rop r ia t ec a ta logue e n t ry i n McG r a i l 1 978a : 1 43-306 .

p a i r ing t wo l o gboa t s o r b y f a s ten ing e x t e rna l h o r izon ta l t i mb e r sa tt h ew a t e r l ine o nb o th s i d e so fs i ng le l o gboa t s .T he re i sn o e v iden ce t h a t t h e b oa t s w e r e p r op e l led o t he r t h an b y

T h e l e ng th s o ft h e se p reh i s to r ic l o g s v a r ied f r om o ve r 6m t o o ve r 1 4 m , b u t t h i s i st oo s ma l l as amp le n ece s sa r i ly t ob e r e p r e sen ta t ive o ft h ep reh i s to r ic p e r iod . We m ay n o t e w i th d ue c au t ion , h oweve r , t h a t t h e o ak ( Quer cu s s p ) l o g s o f s i x w e l l—documen t ed m ed ieva l b oa t s h ad a m ean l e ng th o f o n ly 4 m±0 .05 .

p add le o rp o le .

T he r ema in s o f f o u r o f t h e se l o gboa t s ( B r igg n o l o nge r s u r v ive s , a nd H o lme P ie r repon t 1c anno ty e tb ee xam in ed ) a r e n ow i ns u ch ac ond i t ion t h a t t h ey r e vea l l i t t le e v iden ce o ft h e t o o l s u sed o r t h e s equence o f b oa tbu i ld ing—bu t f o r t h e l a t t e r , s ome c ompa ra t ive e t hnog raph ic e v idence i s a va i lab le ( McG ra i l 1 978a s 2 6-36 ) . We c an , h oweve r , a pp r ec ia te s ome o f t h e p r eh i s to r ic t e chno logy : D ove ta i led j o in t s a nd t r eena i l s w e r eu sed t oa t ta ch f i t t ing s t ot h eb oa t s . R epa i r s w e re m ad e i n t h e B ron ze A ge b y s ew ing o r t r eena i l ing o n p a t ch e s o rb y t h e u s e o f f l a t d ove ta i led— shaped c l amp s ( f ig 5 . 1 .1 , 5 . 1 .2 ) ; i r on—na i led ,l e ad p a t che sw e re u sed i nt h et h i rd c en tu ry b c( F ig 5 . 1 .3 ) . L ogboa t s h ave a g r ea t t e ndency t o s p l i t a l ong t h e m edu l la ry r ay sa tt h ee nd sa nd t h i sw a sc omba t ted b yf a s ten ing t r an sve r se s t r eng then ing t imbe r s , s ome o ft h em f a sh ion ed f r om n a tu ra l c r ook s s e lec ted s o t h a t t h ey f i t ted t h e c u r ve o ft h e e nd o ft h eb oa t . T ran som s( v e r t ica lb oa rd s )w e re f i t ted a c ro s so p en e nd s , l e t i n to t r an sve r se g roove s i nt h e b o t tom ( F ig 5 . 1 .4 ) a nd m ad e w a te r t igh t w i th mo sse s o ro t he rc au lk ing . T h e b o t tom o f t h e b oa t c ou ld b e g i ven a u n i fo rm t h ickne s s b y t h e u s e o f g auge s ( F ig 5 . 1 .4 ) r ad ia l ly o r ien ta ted h o le s b o r ed t o a p r e—de te rm in ed d ep th i n t h e p a r t o f t h e l o g w h ich w a s t o b ecome t h e b o t tom o f t h e b oa t . R ec tangu la r o r h a l f— round ed e nd s a nd t r an sve r se s e c t ion s c ou ld b e g i ven t ot h e b oa t ; f a l se s t em s ,o cu l i a nd o t h e rn on— f unc t iona l f e a tu r e s w e r es ome t ime s i n co rpo ra ted . T h e r e i sn o s i g n t h a t a f te r h o l low ing t h e se o ak ( Que r cus s p . ) l o g s w e re e xpanded t o g i ve g r ea te r b eam a nd h ence s t ab i l i ty , a s w a s r e cen t ly p rac t i sed i n E u rope a nd e l sewhe re w i th t i mbe ro t he r t h an o ak . H oweve r , t h e r e i ss ome e v idence t h a t l a te ra l s t ab i l i ty m ay h ave b een i mp roved b y

9 3

E xam ina t ion o ft h et i mbe rf r om t h eF e r r iby b oa t sa nd t h eB r igg ' r a f t ' i sn o t y e t f i n i shed , b u t Wr igh t ( 1 976 ,22 , f i g . 8 ) h a s p ub l i shed ad i ag ram s h ow ing t h a t o n e e l emen t o f t h e F e r r iby b oa t 2o ak ( Que r cu s s p . )k ee l—p lank h ad am in imum d i ame te r o f 1 . 10 m o ve r al e ng th o f6 . 38 m . P lank s f o r a l l f ou r b oa t s w e r e f a sh ion ed f r om l o g s w h i ch h ad b een s p l i t l o ng i tud ina t ly i n to h a lve s , g i v ing a m ax imum o f t wo p l ank s p e r l o g . T he p a r en t t r ee s m u s t h ave b e en s t ra igh t—g ra in ed , f o r e s t—g rown o ak s w i th f ew b r an che s o n t h e i r l owe rb o le s . T he s t anda rd o f w oodwo rk ing a c h ieved b y t h e se : B ronze A ge b oa tw r igh t s m ay b e g auged f r om t h e i n t r i ca t e m e thod u sed t o i n t e r lock t h e p l ank ing o f t h e F e r r iby b oa t s ( W r igh t 1 976 ,819 , f i g s . 4 ,5 ) a nd b y t h ep r ec i s ion w i th w h i ch t h e s i de s t rak e w a s f a sh ioned w i th ac u r ve i nt wo p l ane st om ee tt wo o ft h eb o t tom p l ank s .

3 .D a t ing t e chno log ica lc hang e T h e d a te o ff i r s t a nd l a s t a pp ea ran ce o fc e r ta in w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s m ay b e n o t ed t h u s d e f in ing t h e i r a ppa r en t f l o ru i t . T h i sh a sb een a t t emp t ed f o rt h el o gboa t so fE ng land a nd Wa le s u s ing t h e f ew r e l iab ly—da ted b oa t sw h ich h ave s u ch f e a tu r e s a s ah a l f— round ed t r an sve r se s e c t ion , at r an sve r se g roove a nd f i t ted— t ran som , o r ap a r t i cu la rt y pe o fr e pa i r . We c an s ay , f o r e xamp le ,t h a t ,o np r e sen te v id en ce ,d ove ta i led j o in t sw e re u sed o n t h e se l o gboa t s f r om c . 100 b c t ow e l l i n to t h e m ed ieva l p e r iod .D ove ta i led t i mb e r sa r ei nf a c tk nown t oh ave b een u sed i no t he r c on tex t s f r om a n c ien tE gyp tt h rough t om ode rn t i me s , a nd t ot r a ce t e chno log ica l c h ange i ti st h e r e fo r e n ece s sa ry t o p a r t i t ion s u ch g en e ra l f e a tu r e s a s d ove ta i l s i n to s e ve ra l w e l l—d e f ined t y p e s . I nt h i s w ay a ny c h ange s w i th t i me m ay b e r e vea led .

W oodwo rk ing T e chn ique s

F igu re 5 . 1 .1 T he a f t e re nd o ft h el o gboa tf r om A pp leby ,L in co ln sh i r e .N o te t h ev e r t ica lh o le st h rough t h eb o t tom o ft h eb oa to n e i the rs i d eo f as p l i t . At wo s t randed b i r ch ( B e tu la s p )r op e ,w edged w i th o ak ( Que r cu ss p )s l ip sh ad b een u sed t ob i nd t h es pl i t t o ge the r ,( S ca le c e n t ime t r i c ;N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum )

T o m ake t h i s a na ly s i s w o r thwh i le t h e e v idence f r om t h e p r eh i s to r ic p l anked b oa t sm u s tb ei n teg ra t ed w i th t h a tf r om t h e l o gboa t s a nd a s m o r e p r eh i s to r ic d a te s b ecome a va i lab le t h i s a na ly t ica lt e chn ique m ay e nab le t h ec ha ra c te r i s t ic b oa tbu i ld ing t e chno logy u sed i n ac e r ta in r e g ion d u r ing ad ef ined p e r iod t o b ei d en t i f ied . B u tb oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique sc anno tb eu nd e r s tood i ni s o la t ion : t h ea na ly s i s m u s tb ee x tended t ot h ew oodwo rk ing t e chno logy u sed i nt h e m anu fa c tu re o f o t h e r w ood en a r t i f a c t s d i scu s sed b y C o le s e ta l . ( 1 978 ) . B oa t s ( t hough p ou ib ly n o t l o gboa t s )a nd w hee l sm ay b ed epo s i ted f a rf r om t h e i rr e g ion o f o r ig in a nd t h u s t h e u se o f e v iden ce f r om t r a ck s , c o f f in s a nd o t he ra r t ifac t sw h ich i ng ene ra lw ou ld n o tb ee xpec ted t ot r ave l f a r , s hou ld p rov ide an ec e s sa ry c on t ro la sw e l la se n la rg ing t h e d a ta b a se .

,

,

F igu r e5 . 1 .2 A s e cond m e thod o fr e pa i ro nt h eA pp leby l o gboa t . Af l a tc l amp h ad b een i n se r ted i n o tt h i sd oub le— d ove ta i ls h ape c u ta c ro s s al o ng i tud ina ls p l i t( S ca le c , e n t ime t r ic ;N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ) 9 4

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy

F igu re 5 . 1 .3 T he s t e rn o ft h eH o lme P i e r rpon t Il o gboa t . Al e ad p a t ch ( c3 00 x9 0 x5mm )h ad b e en n a i led a c ro s s as pl i tu s ing r ound—headed n a i l sw i th s q ua r es h ank s . Aw ood en w edge h ad b e en i n s te r ted i n to as p l i tr ad ia t ing f r om t h ep i th o ft h el o g p robaba ly t ot i gh ten t h eb oa ta ga in s t ac on je c tu ra ls t r eng th en ing t i mb e rf i t ted i n to t h et r an sve r se g r oove i nt h eu pp e rs u r face o ft h e e nd ( No t t ingham Mu seum s )

F igu re 5 . 1 .4 T he s t e rn o ft h eP oo le l o gboa tf r om a bove . Av e r t ica ls l o th ad b e en c u tt or e ce ive as epa ra te t r an som b oa rd w h ich w a s c au lked w i th a n ima lh i d e .T he h o le t ot h er i gh ti so ne o ft h r ee v e r t i ca lh o le st h rough t h eb o t tom o ft h eb oa t .T he se w e re p robab ly u sed t og auge t h et h ick ne s so ft h eb o t tom ;t h i sa f t e rmo s to n em ay s u b sequen t ly h ave b een u s ed aad ra in h o le ( Poo le Mu seum s ) 9 5

W oodwo rk ing T e chn ique s R e f er enc e s McG ra i l , S . a nd S w i t su r , R . , 1 975 . ' E a r ly B r i t i sh b oa t s a nd t h e i r c h rono logy ' . I n t e rna t . J . N au t i ca l A r chaeo 1 .4 ,

B u l le id , A . , 1 893 . ' A n c ien t c ano e f o und n ea r G la s tonbu ry ' , S ome r se ta nd D o r se tN o t e sa nd Q ue r ie s3 ,12 1 . B u l le id , A . , 1 906 . ' P r eh i s to r ic b oa t f o und a tS hapw ick , 1 906 ' , P ro c eed ing s o ft h c S ome r se t sh i r eA r chaeo log i ca l a nd N a tu ra lH i s to ry S o c i e ty 5 2 ,51-54 . B u l le id , A , G ray , H . S tG . , 1 9 11 . G la s tonbu ry L ak e—V i l lage V o l .I ,G la s tonbu ry . C o le s , J .M . , H ea l , S .V . E . a nd O rme , B . J . , 1 9 78 . ' U se a nd c ha ra c te r o fw ood i nP r eh i s to r ic B r i ta in a nd I r e land ' , P PS 4 4 ,1-45 . F ox , C . , 1 926 . ' Dugou t c ano e f r om S ou th Wa le s ' ,A n t iq .J . 6 , 1 2 1151 .

1 91-200 . McG ra i l , S .a nd S w i t su r , R . , f o r thcom ing . ' Med ieva l l o gboa t s o ft h eR ive r Me r sey ' t ob ep ub l i shed b yB r i t . A r cheo l . R ep . ( Ox fo rd ) i nt h e p roceed ing s o ft h e B r eme r haven S ympo s ium o nB oa tA r chaeo logy . Ma r sha l l ,W . , 1 878-9 . ' On a na n c ien tc ano ef o und i mbedded i n

G e i l c i e , J . , I8 79 . ' D i scove ry o f a n a n c ien t c anoe i nt h e o l d a l luv ium o ft h eT ay a tP e r th ' ,S co t t i sh N a tu ra l i s t5 ,17 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 9 75 . ' B r igg " r a f t " r e —ex cava ted ' , L in co ln sh i r e H i s to ry a nd A r chaeo logy 1 0 , 5— 13 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 978a . L ogboa t s o fE ng land a nd W a l e s . B r i t . A r chaeo l . R ep . 5 1 . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum A r chaeo log ica lS e r ie sN o .2 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 978b . ' D a t ing a n c ien t w ooden b oa t s ' . I n J . F l e t che r ( e d . ) , D end ro chrono logy i n E u rope . B r i t .A r cheo l . R ep . S 51 . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum A r chaeo log ica lS e r ie sN o .4 ,239-258 .

9 6

t h e f e n—pea t n ea r Magda len B end o n t h e R ive r O u se i n t h e C oun ty o f N o r fo lk ' , C amb r idge A n t iquar ian C ommun i ca t ion s4 ,195-206 . W i l son , D . M . , 1 966 . ' A m ed ieva l b oa t f r om K en tme r e , We s tmo r land ' , Med ieva lA r chaeo logy 1 0 ,81-88 . Wr igh t , E . V . , 1 976 . N o r th F e r r iby b oa t s . N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum Monog raph N o .2 3 ,G reenw ich . Wr igh t , E . V . , 1 978 . ' A r t i f ac t s f r om t h e b oa t— s i t e a t N o r th F e r r iby ,H umbe r s ide ,E ng land ' ,P PS 4 4 ,187-202 .

R ep r in ted w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om P ro ceed ing so ft h eP r eh i s to r i cS o c ie ty ,4 5 : 1 59163 ( 1 979 ) .

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r cha eo logy

PAPER 5 . 2 EARLY BOATBU ILD ING TECHN IQUES I N BR ITA IN AND I RELAND — DAT ING TECHNOLOG ICAL CHANGE

b oa tbu i ld i ng t e chn ique s h ave b een p ub l i shed b y McG ra i l ( 1 978a , 32-3 , 1 978b , 4 1 ) , McG ra i l a nd Sw i s tu r ( 1979 , 1 09 )

T h e H a sho lme b oa t ( F ig 5 . 2 .1 ) o f c3 00 BC i s ac omp lex l o gboa t d i sp lay ing a w ide r a nge o f b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s , i n c lud ing a b ow e x ten s ion , af i t ted t r an som a t t h e s t em , w a sh s t rake s i nt h e f o re p a r t , a nd t r e ena i l f a s ten ing s l o cked b y w ooden k ey s o r c o t te r s ( McG ra i l & M i l le t t , 1 985 ; 1 986 ; M i l le t t & McG ra i l , 1 987 ) . D a te r a nge s f o rt h e u se o fs e lec t ed

a nd McG ra i l a nd D en fo rd ( 1 982 , t a b le 3 . 2 ) . T he H a sho lme d a ta h a sr e cen t ly b een i n t eg ra ted w i th t h e i n fo rma t ion i nt h o se e a r l i e r p ub l ica t ion s , a nd t h e r e su l t s a r e h e re p resen ted i nt wo t a b le s : T ab le 5 . 2 .1 l i s t s t e chn ique s s pe c i f ic t ol o gboa t s ; T ab le 5 . 2 .2 l i s t st e chn ique su s ed i np l ank b oa t sa nd i nl o gboa t s .

T ab le 5 . 2 .1 D a te R ange so fS e le c ted L ogboa tF ea ture s F ea tu re '

E ar l ie s td a t e '

C onve r s ion f r om w ho le l o g C onve r s ion f r om h a l fl o g

a d 1 3 35±40 G igg le sw ick T a rn 8 34 b c± 100 B r igg 1 a d 190±60 Wa r r ing ton 1 8 46 b c± 100 S ho r tF e r ry ( p robab ly )4 3 55 b c± 120 S hapw ick a d 1 3 35±40 G igg le sw ick T a rn 100 b c±80 A pp leby

R ec tangu la ro rf l a red t r an sve r se s e c t ion H a lf— round ed t r an sve r se s e c t ion C ompo s i te b ow T ran som f i t ted a ts t em T ran sve r se s t r eng then ing f i t t ing s a re nd s ' S tep s 'a to n ee nd ' F a l se 's t em B eak w i th h o le R idge sa c ro ss b o t tom T r eena i l si nt h ickne s sg auge s Wa sh s t rake s F i t ted r i b s S t ab i l i se r sa tw a te r l ine R ubb ing s t rak ea ts h ee r N o t e s

L a t e s td a t e '

1 550 b c±150 C hap e lF la tD yk e ( po s s ib ly )3 8 34 b c± 100 B r igg 1 3 32 t o2 77 BC H a sho lme ' 10 b c±80 A pp leby 8 46 b c± 100 S ho r tF e r ry ( p robab ly ) , 32 t o2 77 BC H a sho lme 2 30 b c± 110 H o lme P i e r rpon t 1 2 95 b c±50 P oo le a d8 14±60 L yn L lango r se 8 34 b c±100 B r igg 1 100 b c±80 A pp leby 3 32 t o2 77 BC H a sho lme a d9 90±70 S t an ley F e r ry a d9 00±70 S t an ley F e ry ( p robab ly ) a d 1 335±40 G igg le sw ick T a rn

a d 190 : 1. _ 6 0 Wa r r ing ton 1

2 9 5b c± 50 P oo le 32 t o2 77 BC H a sho lme a d1 3 35±40 G igg le sw ick T a rn

a d8 14±60 L yn L lango r se a d 1 300± 120 K en tme re 1 a d 190±60 Wa r r ing ton 1 a d 190±60 Wa r r ing ton 1 a d1 300± 120 K en tme r e 1 a d1 300± 120 K en tme r e 1 a d1 300± 120 K en tme r e 1 a d 1 300± 120 K en tme r e 1

1 .S ee McG ra i l &D en f o rd ( 1982 ,42-3 )o nt h ep rob lem so fa c cu ra t e ly d ef in ing f e a tu r e s 2 .S ee McG ra i l ( 1978a , 1 03-109 ; 1 978c ,2 39-258 )o nt h ep rob lem so fd a t ing b oa tf i nd s 3 .D a te si nt h et h i rd c o lumn a r et h el a t e s tk nown b efo re cAD 1 450 .S ome o ft h e se t e chn ique sc on t inued t ob eu s ed i nt h ep o s t—med ieva lp er iod 4 . Whe re af i t ing h a sn o ts u rv ived a nd i t sf r ome rp r e senc ei sd educed ,t h ed a t ei sf o l lowed b y( p robab ly ) 5 .I ti sn o tc e r ta in t h a tt h er ema in sf r om C hape lF l a tD yk ea r et h o s eo f ab oa t 6 .D a te sg i ve ' a d 'o r' b c 'a r er a d ioca rbon d a t e s .T he H a sho lm ed a t e( BC )i sf r om d end roch rono logy 7 .F u r the rd e ta i l so ft h eb oa tn amed m ay b ef ound i n McG ra i l( 1978a , 1 987 ,56-87 )

9 7

W oodwo rk ing T e chn ique s

T ab le 5 . 2 .2 D a te r ange so fs e le c ted w ooden b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s ' F ea tur e

E a r l ie s td a te

L a te s td a te

P lank c onve r ted f r om h a lf l o g

c1 500 b cF e r r iby 1

L a te 1 2 th c en tu ry AD Wood Q uay D ub l in ( p in e p l ank s )

R ad ia l ly o r ien t ed p l ank s

L a t e9 t hc en tu ry AD G raven ey

cAD 1 416 G race D ieu

F a s ten ing s : S ew ing t r eena i l s

c1 500 b cF e r r iby 1 100b c±80 A pp leby ( p robab ly ) 32-277 BC H a sho lme t r een ia l sl o cked b yk ey s 32-277 BC H a sho lme t r eena i l sl o ck ed b yw edge s L a t e-9 th c en tu ry AD G raveney d r aw— tongue j o in t s L a t e-3 rd c en tu ry AD C oun ty H a l l ' ( mo r t ice & t e non ) i r on n a i l s 2 30 b c± 110 H o lme P i e r r epon tI h ooked n a i l s 3 r dc e n tu r y AD B la ck f r ia r s 1 n a i l sc l en ched o ve rr o ve s 6 t hc e n tu ry AD S u t ton H oo 2

c6 50 B r igg 2 cAD 1 416 G ra ce D ieu

cAD 1 400 B la ck f r ia r s3

cAD 1 4 16 G race D ieu cAD 1 4 16 G race D ieu

C au lk ing cAD 1 416 G race D ieu

h i de h a i r w ood o akum

c1 500 b cF e r r iby I 2 95b c±50 P oo le L a t e9 t hc en tu ry AD G raveney 3 r dc e n tu ry AD B lack f r ia r s 1 cAD 1 4 16 G race D ieu

s ewn c l ea t t r eena i led w ooden b l o ck n a i led l e ad s h ee t n a i led b oa rd

100 b c±80 A pp leby 8 34 b c± 100 B r igg 1 32 t o2 77 BC H a sho lme 2 30 b c± 110 H o lme P i e r repon tI l a t e6 t hc en tu ry AD S u t ton H oo 2

a d 1 300± 120 K en tme re 1 l a te 1 2 c en tu ry AD Wood Q uay ,D ub l in

c 1 500 b cF e r r iby I

3 22 t o2 77 BC Ha sho lme

l a t e6 t hc en tu ry AD S u t ton H oo ( p robab ly ) l a t e9 t hc en tu ry AD G raveney l a t e3 r dc en tu ry AD C oun ty H a l l c1 500 b cF e r r iby 1

cAD 1 416 G race D ieu

MOSS

R epa i r

C lea ta nd t r an sve r se t i mbe r S ca r f s t h o r ugh— sp layed o ne dge s t op— sp layed o ne dge s t op— spayed o nf a ce e dge—ha l f ed O the rj o in t s i n te r lo cked e dge h a l fl a p e dge s p layed—up b u t ted d ove ta i l s

O cu l i N o te s :

l a te 9 th c en tu ry AD G raven ey

c1 500 b cF e r r iby 1 c1 500 b cF e r r iby 1 c6 50 b cB r igg 2 c6 50 b cB r igg 2 100 b c±80 A pp leby ' 8 46 b c± 100 S ho r tF e r ry

3 32 t o2 27 BC Ha sho lme a d 1 300± 120 K en tme r e 1 l a te 3 rd c en tu ry AD C oun ty Ha l l a d 1 335±40 G igg le sw ick T a rn

8 34 b c± 100 B r igg 1

3 32 t o2 77 BC H a sho lme

1 .S ee T ab le 1 ,n o te s 1 -4 a nd 6 2 .T h eA pp leby ' d ove ta i l 'i sI — shap ed 3 .F u r th e rd e ta i l so ft h eb oa t sn amed m ay b ef ound i n McG ra i l ( 1987 )

9 8

W oodwo rk ing T e chn ique s

R e f erence s M cG ra i l , S1 978a , L ogboa t s o f E ng land a nd Wa l e s NNM . A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s2 . BAR ( Ox fo rd ) ,p .5 1 . M cG ra i l ,S . , 1 978b , Med ieva ll o gboa tf r om G igg le sw ick T am , Y o rk sh i re , i nA nn i s , P .( ed . ) I ngr id a nd o t he rS t ud ie s NNM . Monog raph 3 6 ,p p .2 5-46 . M cG ra i l , S . ,1978c , D a t ing a nc ien t w ooden b oa t s i nF le tche r , J . ( e d ) D end ro chrono logy i n E urope NNM A r chaeo log ica l S e r ies 4 BAR ( Ox fo rd ) S . 5 1 , p p .239-58 . M cG ra i l ,S . , 1 987 ,A n c ien tb oa t si nN W E u rope . L ongman . M cG ra i l , S . & D en fo rd , G . ,1982 , B oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s , t e chno log ica l c hange a nd a t t r ibu te a na ly s i s , i n McG ra i l , S . ( e d . ) W oodwork ing t e chn ique s b ef o r e 1 500 NNM . A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s 7 . BAR ( Ox fo rd ) S .1 29 ,p p .2 5-72 .

1 00

McG ra i l , S . & M i l le t t , M . , 1 985 , T h e H a sho lme l o gboa t . A n t igu i ty 5 9 ,117-20 . McG ra i l , S . &M i l le t t , M . , 1 986 , R e cove r ing t h e H a sho lme l o gboa t .C u r r en tA r cha eo logy 9 9 ,112-3 . McG ra i l , S . & S w i t su r , R . , 1 979 , Med ieva l l o gboa t s o f t h e R ive r Me r sey , i n McG ra i l , S . ( e d . ) Med ieva l S h ip s a nd H a rbou r s i n N E u rope NNM . A r chaeo log ica l S e r ie s5 . BAR ( Ox fo rd )S .6 6 ,p p .9 3115 . M i l le t t , M . & McG ra i l , S . , 1 987 , T h e a r chaeo logy o f t h e H a sho lme l o gboa t .A r chaeo log i ca lJ ourna l( i np r e s s ) .

R ep r in ted w i th p e rm is s ion f r om : I n te rna t iona l J ou rna l f o r N au t i ca l A r chaeo logy 1 6 : 3 43-6 ( 1 987 ) ; 1 7 : 1 58 ( 1 988 ) .

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy

S ECT ION 6 . 0 LOGBOATS I n t roduc t ion

( I SBSA ) , a t G r eenw ich i nS ep t embe r , 1 976 . T h i s a cadem ic g a the r ing h a s p ro sp e r ed , a nd t r i enn ia l m ee t ing sh ave b een h e ld a t B reme rhaven , S t o ckho lm , L i sbon , Am s te rdam , R o sk i ld e a nd T a t ihou .I SBSA 8w i l lb ea tG dan sk i nS ep temb e r 1 997 .

L ogboa t s ( s ome t ime s c a l led d ugou t c anoe s ) a r e b oa t s b u i l tb y h o l low ing o u t as i ng le l o g . N owaday s s u ch b oa t s o f t en h ave a dd i t iona l f i t t ing s , b u t , o n a n c ien t l o gboa t s , t h e se s e ldom s u rv ive t ob ee xcava ted ( t he H a sho lme l o gboa ts e eP ape r 1 .5 —i s ar a r e e xcep t ion ) a nd a r chaeo log i s t s h ave t oi n te rp r e t t h e p a t te rn o fh o le s w h e re t imbe r s w e re f o rme r ly f a s tened t ot h e b oa t .

P ap e r s 6 . 2 &6 . 5 a r e d e ta i led s t ud ie s o f l o gboa t s w h ich h ad p r ev iou s ly b een o n ly s umma r i ly d e sc r ibed i nm y t h e s i s . T h e G igg le sw ick T a rn p ape rw a s w r i t t en f o r af e s t sch r i f tp r e sen ted t oD av id Wa te r s , f o rme r F l ee t A i r A rm p i lo t , d i s t ingu i shed h i s to r ian o f t h e n av iga t iona l s c ien ce s , a nd a n o u t s tand ing m en to r t oN a t iona l Ma r i t im e Mu seum c u ra to r ia l s t a f f i nt h e 1 970 s .Th e r e sea r ch p r e sen ted i nt h a t p ape r i sa n e xamp le o f t h e t e amwo rk f o rme r ly u nd e r taken i n t h e A r chaeo log ica l R e sea r ch C en t r e a t G r eenw ich : t h e r e—a ssemb ly , r e —a s se s smen t a nd c on se r va t ion o f av e ry f r agmen ted b oa t ( McG ra i l & O 'Conno r , 1 979 ) . S uch w o rk c ea sed w hen t h e ARC w a sd i sbanded i n1 985 /6 .

L ogboa t s a r e i n he ren t ly l im i ted i ns t ab i l i ty ( af u n c t ion o f t h e b eam m ea su remen t a t t h e w a t e r l ine ) a nd i nc apa c i ty b y t h e d imen s ion so ft h e i rp a ren t l o g . T he se c on s t ra in t sm ay b ee a sed b y u s ing o ne o r m o re o f t h e f o l low ing t e chn ique s ( McG ra i l , 1 978 : 3 8-55 ) : ( i ) . E x tend —a dd p l ank ing ( wa sh s t rake s ) t oi n e r ea se t h eh e igh t o ft h es i de s . ( i ) .P a i r .— j o in t wo s im i la rh u l l st o ge the r ,s i de b ys i de . ( i i ) . E xpand — a f te r h ea t t r ea tmen t , f o r ce o u t t h e s i d e s o ft h e b oa t . ( i v ) . O u t r igger !s t ab i l iser s —a dd t imbe rf l oa t se i the ro nt h ee nd o fa no u t r igge r ,o rf a s tened t ot h eh u l la tt h ew a te r l ine . I n g ene ra l ( i ) i n c rea ses c apac i ty , w h i l s t t h e o t he r s e nhan ce s t ab i l i ty . T he r e a r e o f ten d i ff i cu l t ie s i ne s tab l i sh ing w he th e r t h e se t e chn ique sh ad b een u sed o na ne xcava ted l o gboa t . T h i s S ec t ion i n c lude s as e le c t ion o f p ape r s c on ce rn ing t h e p r eh i s to r ic a nd m ed ieva l l o gboa t s o f B r i ta in . Two o f t h e p ape r s ( 6 .3 & 6 . 4 ) a r e t a ken f r om m y U n ive r s i ty o f L ondon t h e s is ( p ub l i sh ed a s McG ra i l , 1 978 ) : t h ey d ea l w i th t h e n ava l a r ch i tec tu ra l &w ood s c ien ce a spec t s o fl o gboa t s , b u tm uch o f t h e d i scu ss ion i nb o th p ape r s i sa l so r e levan t t op l ank b oa t s . N ava l a r ch i tec tu ra l ma t te r s a r e a l so c on s id e r ed i nP ape r 1 0 .2 , i nS e c t ion 1 a nd i n McG ra i l ( 1 987 : C h . 3& 1 ) ; ad e ta i led p r e sen ta t ion m ay b ef ound i nR aw son & T upp e r( 1 983 /4 ) . O n e o ft h e a ppend ice s t oP ape r6 . 3 i s ag l o s sa ry ; g l o s sa r ie s w i th a w ide rr a nge o ft e rm s may b e f o und i nG reenh i l l ( 1 995 ) a nd i n McG ra i l (1987 ) . Ad i scu s s ion o f Wood S c ience a s a pp l ied t o b oa t s g ene ra l ly m ay b e f ound i n McG ra i l ( 1 987 : C h .4 ) . T h e s i ze o fe a r ly l o g s i sm en t ioned i nP ape r s6 . 3 &6 . 4 , a nd a l so i n P ape r s5 . 1 , 1 .5 & 1 .6 . P ap e r 6 . 1 , ap r e l im ina ry d i scu s s ion o f a sp ec t s o f m y t h e s i s , w a s f i r s tp r e sen ted a tt h ei n i t ia l m ee t ing o ft h eg r and ly—named ' I n te rna t iona l S ympo s ia f o r B oa t & S h ip A r chaeo logy '

C nun l in—Ped e r sen ( 1 991 :26 1 ) h a s l i s ted t h e 1 0 th t o 1 3 th c en tu ry AD S t an ley F e r ry b oa t , d e sc r ibed i n P ape r 6 . 5 , a mong s tl o gboa t sh ec on s ide r st oh ave b een e xpanded .I ti st r ue t h a t t h i s b oa t w a s f o und w i th r i b s f i t t ed , a nd t h e o t he r t wo B r i t i sh l o gboa t s C rum l in—Ped e r sen m en t ion s — Wa l ton & S ma l lbu rgh — h ave p a t te rn s o fh o le s w h ich s ugge s t t h ey m ay a l so h ave h ad r i b s . N eve r the le s s ,h av ing f i t ted r i b s i so n ly o ne o fn i n e c r i t e r ia w h i ch C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1 99 1 : 2 54 ) s ugge s t s s hou ld b e u sed w h en e xam in ing l o gboa t s f o r s i gn s o f e xpan s ion , a nd n one o f t h e se b oa t s f u l ly m a t che s t h e se r e qu i r emen t s . F o r e xamp le ,a l l t h r ee l o gboa t s h ave s i de s a nd b o t tom s u p t o 6 0 mm t h ick ; C nun l in—Ped e r sen q uo t e s n o f i gu r e s , b u t Id oub t v e ry m u ch w he the r o ak l o gboa t s ( e ven o f ' g r een ' o ak ) o f t h i s t h ickn e s s c a n b e s u cce s s fu l ly e xpanded . F u r the rmo r e , t h e S t an ley F e r ry l o gboa th a s f l a red s i de s w h ich m ee tt h e b o t tom i n ac h in e ( F ig . 6 . 5 .2 ) a nd t h er i b s c on fo rm t o t h a t s h ap e : s u ch a n a ngu la r t r an sve r se s e c t ion i si n compa t ib le w i th e xpan s ion ( Cnun l in—Ped e r sen , 1 991 : 2 54 ) . U nde r t h e h ead ing ' ( c ) F i t t ing s ' , P ape r6 . 5 l i s t s f o u rr e a son s u nconne c ted w i th e xpan s ion , w hy l o gboa t s m ay b e f i t ted w i th r i b s ; i nt h e c a se o f t h e S t an ley F e r ry b oa t , r i b s w e r e p robab ly f i t ted t o s uppo r t c r o s sbeam s u sed a st hwa r t s b y p a s senge r s , ar o le f o r t h i sb oa te choed i nt h es i t en ame . L ogboa t s a r e a l so d ea l t w i th i nP ape r s 5 . 1 , 7 . 2 , 8 . 1 , 1 .5 & 1 .6 ; a nd i nC h 6o f McG ra i l( 1 987 ) .

1 0 1

L ogboa t s R e f erence s . C r um l in—Pede r sen , 0 . 1 99 1 . B ad grave o g G ravbad e p a S l u segard . S l u sega rdg ravp lad sen I I . J y sk A rkaeo log i sk S e l skab sS k r i f t e rX IV .3 .A a rhu s . G reenh i l l ,B . 1 995 .A r chaeo logy o fB oa t s &S h ip s .C onway . McG ra i l ,S .1 978 .L ogboa t so fE ng land & W a l e s . BAR O x fo rd . 5 1 McG ra i l ,S .1 987 .A nc ien tB oa t si n NW E u rope .L ongman . McG ra i l , S .&O 'Conno r , S . 1 979 . G igg le sw ick T a rn l o gboa t . Y o rk sh i r eA r chaeo log i ca lJ .5 1 :4 1-49 . R aw son , K . J . &T uppe r , E .C . 1 983 /4 . B a s i c S h ip T heo ry . 3 r d E d i t ion . Two v o lume s .L ongman .

N o te : T he f o l low ing r e f e ren ce c on ta in s t a b le s o f c a l ib ra t ed r a d ioca rbon d a t e sf o rB r i t i sh l o gboa t s : S w i t su r , R , 1 989 , ' E a r ly E ng l i sh B oa t s ' , R ad io ca rbon , 3 1 : 1 0 1010 18 .

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S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy

PAPER 6 . 1 S EARCH ING FOR PATTERN AMONG THE LOGBOATS OF ENGLAND AND W ALES

h a s o b se r ved ( 1 971 : 1 5 ) , a l l a r chaeo log i s t s u se i mp l ic i t m a thema t i ca l r e a son ing e ven t h ough t h ey may b e u nawa r e o f t h ef a c t ; w ha ti sn ow r equ i red i st h a tt h i sr e ason ing b ee x t ended

T he r equ ir em en t T h e f r agmen ted , d i s to r ted , a nd e pheme ra ln a tu r e o fb oa tf i nd s p roduce sp r ob l em sw h ich ,w h i l s tn o tu nknown i no t he rb r an che s o fA r chaeo logy , a r e p r e sen t ed t ot h e b oa t a r chaeo log i s t i na n a c u t e f o rm . T h e s ea r ch f o r p a t ter n —t h e r e cogn i t ion a nd i n t e rp re ta t ion o fr egu la r i t ie s ( Hod son , 1 97 1 :30 ) a mong s t t h i s a s so r ted j umb le o f e v iden ce m ay t h u s d egen e ra t e i n to t h e f o rmu la t ion o f h ypo th e se s b a sed o n i n adequa te f o unda t ion s , a nd o ve r c on f iden t a t temp t s t o e qua te f i nd s w i th k nown h i s to r ica lt y pe s . R ea lp rog r e s s c an o n ly b em ad e i fw e s t ick t o t h e s c ien t i f i c m e thod , o f w h ich q uan t i f ica t ion i sa n e s sen t ia l a spec t . B y q uan t if i ca t ion Im ean s ome th ing m o r e t h an t h eu s e o fn ume r ica l m e thod s : Im ean t h e r e co rd ing o fh a rd f a c t , a nd t h eu se o fc l ea r ly d ef in ed , o b jec t ive m e thod st oa na ly se a nd t o s yn the s i se t h i se v idence .I nt h i sw id e rs e n se Ih ope w es ha l ls e e r e f e rence s t o q uan t if i ca t ion i n a l l t h e t h eme s o f t h i s S ympo s ium .

a nd m ade e xpl i c i t . N o rd oe s m y a dvo cacy o ft h e se m e thod s i mp ly t h a t Ih ave n o c on f idenee i n t h e w o rk o f t h o se w ho h ave t h e a ppa ren t ly i n tu i t ive a b i l i ty t o c ompa re a nd c l a s s i fy a r t i fac t s , af a c i l i ty w h ich i so f ten t h e f r u i t o f l o ng y ea r s o f e xpe r ience . B u t I b e l ieve t h a tt h eo nu si su pon t h em t od emon s t ra te t h er e a son ing b eh ind t h i s a b i l i ty , a nd t od ef ine t h e i rt e rm s , s ot h a to t h e r s c an f o l low . A u tho r i ty i sn o t e nough ; t h e man w i th v i s ion m u s t d emon s t ra te b yq uan t i f ica t ion.

A ne xamp le o ft he u se o fq uan t i ta t ive me thod s

T h e g ene ra l c a se f o r q uan t i f ica t ion i na r chaeo logy h a s b een w e l l s umma r i sed b y D o ran a nd H od son ( 1 975 : 3 -7 , 9 3 ) . I ti s e spec ia l ly r e l evan t t o b oa t a r cha eo logy w h e r e w e a r e i n ve s t iga t in g n o t o n ly t h e f o rm b u t a l so t h e f u n e t ion a nd c apab i l i t ie s o fo u r f i nd s , f o rt h e se l a t te r q ua l i t ie s c an o n ly b e f u l ly e va lua t ed b y t h e q uan t i ta t ive m e thod s o f t h e n ava l a r ch i tec t . F o rm a nd f u n c t ion a r e i n ex t r i cab ly l i nk ed i n o u r s t udy , a nd t h i s i st o o u r g r ea t a dvan tage Ib e l ieve , b e cau se t h e reby w e c an a ch ieve a g r ea t e r u nde r s t and ing o f m an t h e b oa tbu i lde r a nd b oa tu se r . T he u se o f q uan t i f ica t ion , i n i t s b r oad e s t s e n se , a t a l l s t age s o f r e sea r ch s h ou ld e n su r e t h a t t e rm s a r e d ef ined , t h a t r e a son ing i sm ade e xp l ic i t , a nd t h a t a s sump t ion s , a b s t rac t ion s , a nd m e thod s c an b e c r i t ica l ly a pp ra i sed b y o t he rw o rke r s w ho , i ft h ey a r e c onv in ced b y t h i s d emon s t ra t ion c an t h en h ave f u l l c on f iden ce i nt h e p ub l i sh ed r e su l t s .Q uan t if i ca t ion a l so h a st h ef o l low ing a dvan tage s : ( i )Af u l l ,o b je c t ive r e co rd o fe v idenc ei so b ta ined w h i ch c an b e u s ed b ys ub sequen tw o rk e r s. ( i ) Ag r ea tq u an t i ty o fd a ta c an b ev a l id ly s umma r i sed . ( i i ) S e le c ted i n fo rma t ion c an b e d i sp layed i n e a s i ly c omp rehended w ay st a b le s ,d i ag ram s ,c u r ve s ,e t c . ( i v ) N ume r i ca l m e thod s , a nd c ompu ta t iona l a i d s , c an b e u s ed o nt h ed a ta t oi n ve s t iga te h ypo the se sr i go rou s ly .

a ) T he S ur vey . Iw i l l i lu s t ra te s ome m e thod s o f q uan t i f ica t ion b y d e sc r ib ing a spec t s o f my r e cen t s t udy o ft h e l o gboa t s o f E ng land a nd Wa le s .He r e Iw i l l n o t m en t ion t h e s e ve ra l f a l se s t a r t s Im ade , b u t Iw i l l s imp ly d e sc r ibe t h e m e thod If i na l ly d e c ided w a s t h e b e s t , a nd a sk y ou t oe va lua te i t a ga in s t m y d ef in i t ion — o r y ou r o wn d e f in i t ion — o f q uan t i ta t ive p ro cedu re s . D u r ing t h e t h r ee y ea r s o ft h i s i n ve s t iga t ion , t h e r e w e r en on ew l o gboa t f i nd s i nE ng land a nd Wa le s , a nd s o t h e r e sea r ch w a s p a r t ly b a sed o no t he rp eop le ' sd a ta , a l though i n as u rp r i s ing ly l a rge n umbe ro fc a se s Ir e co rded f o rt h ef i r s tt ime b ym ea su red d r aw ing , l o gboa t s w h ich h ad b een e xcava ted u p t o 5 0 y ea r s a go . My f i r s t s t ep w a s t ot r ace a l l d ocumen ta ry e v iden ce f o r t h e f i nd s , w he the r p ub l ished o r o t he rw i se , i nl e a rn ed j ou rna l , d a i ly n ew spape r o r o n mu seum r e co rd c a rd s . P a r t icu la r e mpha s i sw a sp l aced o nt r ac ing t h ee a r l ie s td raw ing o rt a b le o f m ea su r emen t s , a nd o n e s tab l i sh ing e v idence f r om w h ich t o j udge w he th e r t h e l o gboa t h ad b een r e co rded b e fo r e o r a f te r s i gn i f ican t s h r inkage h ad t a ken p lace . When d up l ica te s h ad b een e l im ina ted Ih ad r e co rd so f1 72 u nexpanded l o gboa t s .T he e v id en ce f o r e a ch o ne w a s s umma r i sed o n as t anda rd B a s ic D a ta r e co rd f o rm f r om w h ich I w a s a b le t o f o rmu la t e q ue s t ion s t o b e a n swe red d u r ing m y s u r vey o f t h o se 6 7 l o gboa t sw h ich s u rv ive i nv a r iou ss t age so fd eg reda t ion .

O u tw i t t ing t h o se f ew m u seum c u ra to r s w ho se a im s e emed t o b e t ok eep t h e i r l o gboa t s h i dden , p r e f e rab ly f i l led w i th o t he r a r t i fac t s , Im ea su red o r r emea su red 6 1 o f t h e se 6 7 : t h e o t he r s i x b e ing i n acce s s ib le . T he p re sen t s t a te o f t h o se Im ea su red w a s c ompa r ed w i th t h e i r e a r l ie s t r e co rded s t a t e ,a nd t h e se d e ta i l s w e r e n o ted o n as e cond s t anda rd f o rm , o n w h i ch w e r e a l so r e co rded t h e f e a tu re s a nd f i t t ing s s t i l l d e tec tab le , a nd t h e c ha rac te r i s t ic so ft h ep a ren tt r ee —s pec ie s ,p o s i t ion o fp i th ,

B ya dvo ca t ing t h eu se o fn ume r ica lm e thod s Id on o tm ean t h a t a l a r chaeo log i s t s m u s tn ece s sa r i ly u nde r s tand t h e f i ne rp o in t s o fm a th ema t i ca lt h eo ry ,b u t Id ob el ieve t h a tt h ey m u s tb ecom e a wa re o f t h e c apab i l i t ie s a nd l i m i ta t ion s o ft h e se p ro cedu r e s , a nd t h u s u s e t h em w i se ly . A n u nd e r s tand ing o f t h e u s e o f c on f idence l i m i t s a pp l ied t o r ad io ca rbon d a te s i s a l ready c ommon p l ac ea mong a r chaeo log i s t s , a nd i n d eed ,a sS pau ld ing 1 03

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S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

F igu r e6 . 4 .1 A v e r t ica lv i ew i n s ide al o gboa tf r om L ough Eme ,n ow i nt h e Na t iona l Mu seum ,D ub l in .T h eh o le sp i e r c ing t h ed r ied— o u tt i mbe ra r en ow e l l ip t ica l .P ho to : Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ,G r eenw ich .

s i zed o ak s w e r e g r ow ing i nh i s d ay a t , f o r e xamp le , C anon A shby ,N o r thamp ton .

p a ren t l o g o f c1 . 4 md i ame te r a ts ome p o in t i ni t s l e ng th , i s i n d ica t ed f o rt h i sS ku lde lev t imbe r .

E s t ima te so ft h es i z e so ft h ep a ren tl o g s o fe xcava ted m a te r ia l h ave s ome t i me s b een m ade , a l though t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c a lcu la t ion s i s r a r e ly s t a ted . T h e f o l low ing e s t ima te s a r e , h oweve r , w e l l—do cumen ted a nd m ay t h e re fo r e b e t a ken t ob e r e l iab le . A tk in son ( 1 887 :367 ) d educed t h a t t h e s ma l le s t c i r cum sc r ib ing c i r c le f o r t h e s t er n o f t h e 1 4 .78 m l o ng B r igg l o gboa tw a s 5f t4i n( 1 .63 m )i nd i ame te r , a nd t ot h i sh ea dded 6 i n ( . 15 m ) f o r s a pwood a nd b a rk , m ak ing ab o le d i ame te r o f 1 . 78 m . W r igh t ( 1 976 :22 f i g . 8 )d educed t h a t o ne e l emen t o f t h eo ak k ee l—p lank o fB ron ze—Age F e r r iby b oa t 2 ,c ame f r om at r ee o fm in imum d i ame t e r 1 . 1 mo ve r al e ng th o f 6 . 38 m . F l e t che r ( f o r th com ing ) h a s c a lcu la ted t h a t t h e o ak l o g f r om w h i ch s ome o ft h e m id 1 0 th— cen tu ry A .D . G raveney b oa t s p l i t p l ank ing c ame , h ad ad i ame te ro f c1m : t h e l o nge s t l e ng th o f p l ank h e r e i s c3 . 87 m . T he g r ea t e s t b r ead th o f o ak p l ank r e co rded i n t h e f i ve V ik ing—Age s h ip s f r om S ku lde lev , D enma rk ,i s .42 m ( O l sen a nd C r um l in P ede r sen , 1 967 :158 ) . A s e xp e r imen ta l e v id en c e ( u npub l i shed w o rk b y E gon H an sen a t Mo e sga rd , D enma rk ) i n d ica t e s t h a t t h e d i ame te r o ft h e p a ren t l o g m u s t b e s ome 3 .3 t i me s t h e b r ead th o fs p l i t p l ank ing , a

I tt h e re fo r e s e em s c l ea r t h a t o ak l o g s w h ich c omb in ed g r ea t l e ng th w i th g r ea t b r ead th w e r e m o r e r e ad i ly a va i lab le i nt h e p a s tt h an t h ey a r et o day .

1 5 1

C ompar i son w i th o the r s pec ie s : O ak ( Qu e r cu s s p ) i sd u rab le a nd t h u s p robab ly s u r v ive s f o r e xcava t ion i ng r ea te r q uan t i ty t h an o t he rs pec ie s . H oweve r ,A lde r( A lnu ss p ) ,L ime ( T i l ia s p ) , P ine ( P inu s s p ) , S p r uce ( P icea s p ) , E lm ( U /mu s s p ) , a nd C he s tnu t ( Ca s tanea s a t iva ) a r e s t a ted t oh ave b een u s ed f o r e xcava ted l o gboa t s ; i n a dd i t ion , B eech ( Fagu s s p ) , A sh ( F rax inus s p ) a nd A spen ( Popu lu s s p ) h ave b een u sed f o r n o r th—we s t E u rop ean l o gboa t s i n t h e p a s t t wo o r t h r ee c en tu r ie s . T ab le 6 . 4 .1 d emon s t ra te s t h a t o ak ( Que r cu s s p ) i st h e b e s t a l l— round c ho ice f o r al o gboa t , a s i ti sc l o se r t o t h e i d ea l r e qu i r emen t t h an o t he r s pec ie s . I t s r e la t iv e ly h i gh d en s i ty — w h ich g i ve s i ts t r eng th —m ean s , h oweve r , t h a t a n o ak l o gboa t i sn o t s oe a s i ly p o r tab le a s ,f o re xamp le ,o n em ade f r om a spen

L ogboa t s ( Popu lu s s p ) . F u r the rmo re , i ti sn o tc e r ta in t h a t a no ak l o gboa t c a nb ee xpand ed .

w h ich t h e n umb e r o f s apwood r i ng s v a r ie s w i th t h e m ean t h ickne s s o f t h e r e c en t h ea r twood r i ng s . T hu s , u s ing o ne o f t h e se f o rmu la e , t h e n umbe r o f r i ng s o u twa rd s f r om t h e s apwood / hea r twood t r an s i t ion , a nd h enc e t h e t h ickne s s o f t h e w ood , c an b e e s t ima ted . T o t h i s , m u s tb e a dd ed t h e t h ick ne s s o fb a rk t oo b ta in t h e d i ame te ro ft h e o r ig ina l t r ee ; t h i s g i r th i s t h en c ompa rab le w i th c u r r en tm ea su r emen t so fs t and ing t i mbe r . M i t che l l ( p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) h a s s ugge s ted t h a t e mp i r ica lt h i ckn e s se s t ima t e sf o rm a tu re o ak w ou ld b e 3i n( 76 mm )f o rs apwood , a nd 1i nt o1 2i n( 2 5-38 mm )f o rb a rk . T h i s g i ve s ar a nge o f1 02 mm t o 14 mm , a nd , a st h eb a rk e s t ima te

E xam ina t ion o ft he t imber I na dd i t ion t ot h e i d en t if ica t ion o f t h e t imbe r s pec ie s , c a r ef u l e xam ina t ion o f al o gboa t c an r e vea l i mpo r tan t i n fo rma t ion a bou tt h ep a ren tl o g .

T he o r ien ta t ion o ft he l o g I tm ay b ed i f f icu l tt oi d en t i fy b yv i sua l i n spec t ion , t h eb u t te nd o f al o g a f te r i th a s b een f a sh ioned i n to l o gboa t s hap e , a st h e t r ee w il p robab ly h ave b een f e l led a bove t h e p o in t w he r e t h e r oo t s y s tem i s e v iden t . G r ime s ( 1 931 :140 ) p o in ted o u t , h oweve r , t h a tb r an ch i n se r t ion i na n o ak t e nd s t ob e h o r izon ta l o ra ta n a ng le a bove t h e h o r izon ta l a nd t h u s t h e o r ien ta t ion o f t h e l o g c an b e d educed i ft h e d i re c t ion o f ak no t o rk no t—ho le r e la t ive t o t h e l o g a x i s c an b e a sce r ta ined . Whe r e t h e re a r e s e ve ra l k no t s s how ing t h e s ame d i rec t ion , t h e i d en t if i ca t ion o f t h eb u t t—end m ay b em ade w i th r e a sonab le c onf iden ce .

i ss ome th ing o f am ax imum , as t anda rd a l lowan ce o f 1 00 mm f o rs apwood a nd b a rk s e em sr e a sonab le .I ti so fi n te r e s tt on o t e t h a t , f r om t h e d i ag ram s p ub l i shed b y Wr igh t ( 1 976 :22 f i g . 8 ) a nd b yO l sen a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1 967 :153 f i g . 6 2 ) , i tc an b e c a lcu la ted t h a t t h e se a u tho r s u sed s apwood p l u s b a rk a l lowan ce o f c1 00 mm f o r aF e r r iby p a r en tl o g , a nd c8 0 mm f o r aS ku ld e lev l o g .

D egenera t ion o ft r ee s A l ter na t ive ly , o ri na dd i t ion , i ti sr ea sonab le t oa s sume t h a t i n at a pe red b oa t , t h e b roade re nd i st h e b u t te nd o ft h e l o g —t h e a l te rna t ive w ou ld b ep er ve r se . T h i sr ea son ing i si n dep enden to f a t temp t st oi d en t ify t h es t er no ft h eb oa t .

H ear tr o t

G row th i n e remen t s s how i n al o ng i tud ina l s e c t ion o ft h e l o g a s as e r ie so fc one sw i th t h e i ra p ice sp o in t ing t ot h et o po ft h et r ee ( J ane , 1 970 :71-2 ) . T hu s ad e ta i led d end ro log ica l e xam ina t ion w ou ld r e vea l l o go r ien ta t ion w i th mo r e p r ec i s ion ,b u tt h i s m ay h ave t ob ed one i nt h el a bo ra to ry .

T he p i th a nd g row th r i ng s A( pa r t ia l )c r o ss— sec t ion o ft h ep a ren tl o g may b ev i s ib le a tt h e e nd so ft h eb oa t , o ra t ab u lkhead l e f ti nt h e s o l id .T h ep o s i t ion o ft h e p i th m ay t h en b e n o ted d i rec t ly , i fi th a s s u r v ived , o ri t m ay b e d educed b y e s t ima t ing t h e c en t re o f t h e g r ow th— r ing p a t te rn , o r t h e p o in t o fi n te r sec t ion o f t h e m edu l la ry r a y s . A s l o gboa t s w h ich h ave b een a l lowed t od ry o u t m ay s p l i t a l ong t h e se r ay s ,r ad ia ls p l i t s may a l so b eu sed ,w i th c a r e ,t oi n d ica te t h ep i th p o s i t ion . T h e r e la t ion sh ip o ft h e t o p e dge s o ft h e b oa t t ot h ep o s i t ion o ft h ep i th w i l ls how w he the rt h eb oa tw a sm ade f r om aw ho le l o go rf r om o ne h a l fo f al o g i tud ina l ly— sp l i tl o g .

L a rge— s i zed a nd t h e r e fo r e o ve r—ma tu re , o ak s t e nd t od eve lop ar o t k nown a s b r i t t l e h ea r t ( J an e , 1 970 :228 ) . T h i s i sm o s t e x ten s ive ly d eve loped a t t h e b u t t— end a nd d ec r ea se s w i th h e igh t . A tk in son ( 1 887 :367 ) q uo ted W . S t ephen son , ' a n a u tho r i ty o n t r ee s a nd t i mb e r ' , f o r t h e s t a temen t t h a t t h e l o g f r om w h ich t h e B r igg l o gboa t w a s m ade w a s h o l low a t t h e h ea r t , t h e h o l low e x t end ing t ot h e f i r s t l a t e ra l b r an che s a tt h e b ow e nd o ft h eb oa t . T h ep r e c i se r e la t ion sh ip e x ten to fr o ta nd a g e o r s i z e o f o ak i s n o t k nown , b u t M i t che l l ( p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) b e l ieve s t h a t t h i s d ecay i sw el u nde r—way , a l though i n v i s ib le e x te rna l ly ,i na ny s ub s tan t ia lo ak ,a nd h eh a s n o ted t h a t a lmo s t a l l m odem o ak s g r ea te r t h an c 2 m i n d i ame te r a r e p a lpab ly h o l low . I t t h e r e fo r e f o l low s t h a t , a s sum ing as im i la r m ed ieva l a nd p r eh i s to r ic l i f ecyc le f o r t h e o ak , t h e r e m u s tb e al i m i t t ot h e b r ead th o fl o gboa tw h ich c an b e b u i l t w i th i n teg ra l e nd s ; f o r o ak s o fg r ea te r d i ame t e r t h an t h i s w i l l h ave ah o l low o rr o t ten c o r e a tl e a s t a to ne e nd . T he i n t rodu c t ion o f af i t ted— t ran som s t e rn m ay h ave b een as o lu t ion t ot h i sp rob lem .

E l lme r s ( 1 973A :4 ) r epo r ted t h a t r e cen t l o gboa t—bu i lde r s i n A u s t r ia t o ok c a re t oh ave t h e s i de w i th d en se s tg r ow th r i ng s a t t h eb o t tom ( o rt o p )o ft h e i rb oa t s . A ny s u ch a symme t r ic g row th m ay b e d e tec ted d u r ing e xam ina t ion o f t h e b oa t , b u t d e ta i led m ea su remen t sm ay h ave t ob eu nde r taken i nt h el a bo ra to ry .

I th a s b een s ugge s ted t h a t t h e l a rge r , h olow o ak s m igh t m o r e e a s i ly b eb l own o ve ra nd t h u sb er e ad i ly t oh and f o rt h el o gboa t b u i ld e r . I nf a c t t h i s s o r t o ft r ee r e ta in s g ood s t ab i l i ty a ga in s t w ind u n t i ld ecay i sw e l la dvan ced , s i n ce i ti st h ep e r ime te ra nd t h e r oo t h o ld w h ich a r e i mpo r tan t i nt h i s c on tex t . E ven tua l ly l o s so fv i gou r ,a nd a ny r o o td amage w i l lr e du ce t h i ss t ab i l i ty .

S apwood a nd b ark

I nduced r o t

I fs apwood c an b ei d en t if ied ,t h en n o to n ly c an am o r ea c cu ra t e e s t ima te o f t h e d i ame te r o f t h e p a ren t l o g b e m ade , b u t d end roch rono log ica l d a t ing o f t h e f e l l ing y ea r a l so b ecome s p ra c t icab le . S amp le s o f mode rn B r i t i sh o ak w i th m o r e t h an 8 0 g r ow th r i ng s , h ave b een s hown t oh ave 2 0 ± 5s apwood r i ng s , w h i l s t I r i sh s amp le s h ave 3 2 ±9( Ba i l ie , 1 973 :10 ) . F l e t che r ( f o r thcom ing ) h a s e vo lved a s omewha t d i f f e ren t a l lowance i n

K napp ( 1 924 :103-4 ) h a s s u gge s ted t h a t t h e Mao r i s o f N ew Z ea land i n du ced al o ng c r ev i ce o fd ecay t oe x tend u pt h et r unk s o ft o ta ra t r ee s w h ich w e r e t ob eu s ed f o r l o gboa t s ,b yn o tch ing as ap l ing s ome 2m f r om t h eg r ound . S uch d amage t oo n e s i de o f at r ee c ou ld w e l lc au se l o ca ld ecay ,w h ich m igh tt h en s p r ead v e r t ica l ly ( B raz ie r , F .P .R .L . , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) , b u t a n o t he rw i se h ea l thy t r ee w ou ld , i nt i me , c ove r t h i s d amage , a nd 1 5 2

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy t h e t r ee w ou ld h ave t ob e w ounded r e pea ted ly f o r as i g n i f ican t h o l low o f d ecay t o b e m a in ta in ed . T he p ra c t icab i l i ty o f t h i s m e thod t h e r efo r er ema in sq ue s t ionab le .

C onver s ion o ft imber T he e a s ie s t w ay t o s p l i t a n o ak i sr ad ia l ly , b ecau se i t s r a y s a s s i s t s t h e c l eav ing . T he f i r s t r ad ia l s p l i t w ou ld b e i n to t wo h a l f— log s , a nd w i th a l a rge t r ee a nd a g ood s p l i t , e a ch h a l f c ou ld b ecome a l o gboa t . T angen t ia l s p l i t t ing t o a ch ieve a h o r izon ta ls u r f a ce o nt h eu ppe rs i de o f af e l led o ak l o g( s e c t ion 3 .2 . 1 .4 ) w ou ld p robab ly b e d i f f icu l t , a l though t h e b u i lde r s o f a n U l s te r e xpe r imen ta l l o gboa t a r e r e po r ted t oh ave a ch ieved t h i sw i th w edge s . Whe the r made f r om aw ho le l o go rh a l f al o g , al o gboa ti nu s e w ou ld h ave t e nden c ie s t o s p l i t a l ong t h e r ay s : t h i s w ou ld b e e spec ia l ly s o a t t h e e nd s ( s ee , f o r e xamp le , R a smu s sen , 1 9 53 :17-8 ) . H en ce , t h e s e ve ra l m e thod s e vo lved t o f i t t r an sve r se s t reng then ing t i mbe r s n ea r t h e e nd s , w h ich w ou ld r e s i s tt h i st e ndency .

2 8% t o3 0% ) , i ts h r ink s d i f f e r en t ia l ly : t h e r e la t ive s h r inkage s f o rf r e sh E u rop ean o ak ( Que r cu s s p ) b e ing 1 : c1 2 : c2 5 i nt h e l o ng i t ud ina l , r a d ia l , a nd t a ngen t ia l p l ane s . T h i s l o ng i tud ina l s h r inkage i sl e s s t h an 1 % a nd m ay , f o r mo s t p u rpo se s , b e d i s r ega rd ed . T h e o t h e r m ea su re s o f s h r inkage a r e o f s i g n if i canc e : f o r e xamp le , w h en f r e sh o ak i sd r ied f r om t h e' g r een ' s t a t e t o am o i s tu r e c on ten t o f 1 2% , i ts h r ink s c7 . 5% m ea su r ed t a ng en t ia l ly , a nd c4% r ad ia l ly ( Fa rme r , 1 972 :147 ) . A c i r cu la r h o le b o r ed , i n to a 'g r een ' l o g o t he r t h an i n t h e l o ng i tud ina l d i r e c t ion , w i l l b e d i s to r ted i n to a n e l l ip se b y t h i s d i f f e r en t ia ls h r inkage ,a st h el o gd r ie s( F ig .6 .4 .1 ) . Ah o le b o r ed r a d ia l ly i n to a l o g w il h ave o ne a x i s o f i t s c r o s s— se c t ion i nt h e l o ng i tud ina l p l ane o f t h e p a r en t t r ee a nd t h e o t h e r a x i s i n t h e t a ngen t ia l p l ane . S h r inkage i n t h e l o ng i tud ina l p l an e d u r ing d ry ing w i l l b e n eg l ig ib le , a nd t h i s d imen s ion w i l lr ema in c l o se t ot h eo r ig ina ld i ame te ro ft h eh o le w h en b o r ed . S h r inkage i nt h et a ngen t ia lp l ane w i l l ,h oweve r ,b e s i gn i f ican t ,a nd t h u st h eh o le w i l lb ecome e l ip t ica l , t h er a t io o f i t s m a jo r t o m ino r a x i s b e ing a m ea su r e o f t h e t a ngen t ia l c omponen to fs h r inkage . Ah o le b o red t a ng en t ia l ly i n to af r e sh l o g w i l l , a f te r d r y ing , s im i la r ly g i ve am ea su r e o f t h e r ad ia l c ompon en to fs h r inkage .

D egenera t ion o fl o g s S hr inkag eo fw a ter logged w ood . R o ta nd t he u s eo ft i re

Wa te r logged w ood h a s e xpe r ienced c hem ica l a nd b i o log ica l d eg rada t ion w h ich h a s a l te r ed i t s n o rma l s t r uc tu r e , a nd t h u s s h r inkage e xp e r ien ced d u r ing d ry ing f r om t h e w a te r logged s t a t e w i l l b e a bno rma l ly h i gh a nd i reve r s ib le . B a rkman ( 1 975 :68 ) , f o r e xamp le , h a s c a lcu la ted , b y u n spec if ied m e thod s , t h a tt i mb e rf r om t h e Wa sa h ad at a ngen t ia l s h r inkage o f 1 6-24% , a nd ar a d ia l s h r inkage o f8 -12% . T h i s s h r inkage m igh t b e t h ough t t o b e s ome f u ne t ion o f t ime b u r ied , b u t i t u ndoub ted ly i sr e la ted m o r e d i rec t ly t o o t he r f a c to r s w h ich , d e t e rm ine t h e d eg r ee o f w a te r logg ing a nd b r eakdown o f t h e c e l l s t ru c tu r e , a nd w h ich t h u s d e t e rm ine t h e s h r inkage e xpe r ien ced o nd r y ing .

T he s u r face o f w ood t h a t h a s b een d ecayed b y d r y r o t ( wood—de s t roy ing f u ng i w h ich b r eak d own t h e c e l lu lo se a nd r e la ted s ub s tan ce s ) t y p ica l ly s how s c ubo ida l c r ack ing a ss p l i t s d eve lop a c ro s s a nd a l ong t h e g r a in . I nt h e a dvan ced s t age s o f d ecay , t h e t imbe r b ecome s d a rke r b r own i n c o lou r a nd c r umb le s t od r y p owde r w hen h and led ( J an e , 1 970 :230-2 , f i g . 1 20A ) . E xcava ted l o g—boa t s w h i ch a r e a l lowed t o d r y—ou t m ay b e a t tacked b y t h i s f u ng i a nd t h e e n su ing c ubo ida l c r ack ing m ay b e i n te rp re ted b y t h e i n exp e r ien ced e ye a s c ha r coa l p rodu ced b y t h e u se o ff i r e d u r ing t h e b u i ld ing o ft h e b oa t . S ee , f o re xamp le ,W i l son ( 1 851 :32 ) a nd G e ik ie ( 1 879 :2 ) . S im i la r m i s in t e rp r e ta t ion s m ay b e m ad e w hen e xam in ing w a te r logged t imb e r w h ich h a s d r ied o u t : t h e b i odeg rada t ion h e r ec au se sc ub ica lc r a ck ing o nt h es u r fa ce .

When aw a t e r logged l o gboa t i sa l lowed t od ry o u t —p rov id ing i th o ld st o ge th e r —i tw i l ls h r ink i nb r ead th a nd d ep th :t h a ti st h e s i de s a nd t h e b o t tom w i l l b e d r awn t o ge th e r , ( See S tamp fu s s , 1 96 1 :30 5 ,f o ra ne xamp le o ft h i se f f ec t ) .

v an Z e is t ( 1 957 :8 ) r e co rded t h a t o n t h e i n s ide a nd o u t s id e o f t h e P e s se l o gboa t a' t h in l a ye r o fc a rbon i sed w ood ' c ou ld b e s e en . T h i s m ay b e m o re a u then t ic , b u t e t hnog raph ic e v iden c e s h ow s t h a t w h en f i re w a s u sed a s a n a i d t oh o l low ing—ou t a l o gboa t , t h e c ha r red t i mbe r w a s s ub sequen t ly r emoved b y m e ta l o r s h e l l t o o l s .T hu s , o n ly a f te r s e conda ry u s e o ri na n u n f in i shed b oa t , w ou ld o ne e xp ec t t o f i nd c ha r coa l r ema in s . S a lmon sson ' sl o gboa t f r om S kane , S weden , h ad a s l igh t ly c a rbon i sed l a ye ri nt h eu nf in i shed p a r t( 1 957 :292 ) .

S hr inkage o ff r e sh wood Wood i s a n i so t rop ic m a te r ia l : t h a t i s , i t s p rope r t ie s v a ry a c co rd ing t ot h eo r ien ta t ion o ft h ea x i so ft h ec e l l s . When w ood i sd r ied f r om t h e 'a sf e l led ' o r 'g r een ' s t a t e , t ob e low i t s f i b r e s a tu ra t ion p o in t ( f sp ) , ( e qu iva len t t o m o i s tu r e c on t en t s o f c 1 5 3

T h e s h r inkag e o fw a t e r logged w ood i st h u s g r ea te r a nd mo r e c omp lex t h an t h es h r inkag eo ff r e sh w ood .L i t t le w o rk h a sb een p ub l i sh ed i nt h i s f i e ld , b u t i ti sa s sumed h e r e a s aw o rk ing h ypo th e s i s t h a t , a sw i th f r e sh w ood , t h e l o ng i tud ina l s h r inkage i sr e la t ive ly i n s ign i f ican t , a l i though d e J ong ( 1 977 :28 ) h a s r e cen t ly p ub l i shed e xpe r imen ta l d a ta w h ich i n d ica te t h a t t h e r e m ay b e a n a pp r ec iab le l o ng i tud ina l s h r inkage o f s ma l l s amp le s ,w h en f o r ced—d r ied . E l l ip t ica l h o le m ea sur emen t : T h e p r ec i se e f f ec t o f t h i s d i f f e ren t ia l s h r inkage o n ac i r cu la r h o le b o red i n to a l o gboa t w h ich s u b sequen t ly b ecome s w a te r logged a nd a f te re xcava t ion i sa l lowed t od r yo u t( F ig 6 . 1 .1 )w i l ld epend o ns u ch f a c to r s a s t h e e xa c to r ien ta t ion o ft h e h o le , t h e l o ca l r u n o ft h e g ra in , t h e p r e sen ce o r a b sen ce ( a nd i f a b sen t , t h e p o in t i n t h e w a t e r logg ing o rt h e d r y ing p ha se s w hen i tw a s l o s t ) , a nd t h e

L ogboa t s o r ien ta t ion o fa ny t r eena i l i nt h a th o le , a nd t h e t i mb e r s p e c ie s o f b o th t r eena i l a nd l o gboa t . F o r e xamp le , a n o ak t r eena i l i n se r ted i n to ar ad ia l ly b o red h o le i na no ak l o gboa ts ot h a tt h e t r eena i l ' sr ad ia l d imen s ion ( r e la t ive t oi t s o wn p a r en t t r ee ) i s a l ig ned w i th t h e h o le ' st a ngen t ia l d imen s ion , c ou ld c on s t ra in t h e t a ngen t ia l s h r inkage o ft h eh o le . H o le s i nd i f f e r en tp a r t s o f t h e b oa t m ay e xpe r ience d i f f e r en t d eg r ee s o f w a t e r logg ing w h ich o n d r y ing w i l l r e su l t i nd i f f e r en t a moun t s o fs h r inkage . T hu s , n o t o n ly w i l l d i f f e r en tw a te r logged b oa t s s h ow d i f f e r en t s h r inkage s , b u t t h e r e m ay a l so b e d i f f e r en t s h r inkag e r a te s i n d i f f e ren tp a r t so ft h e s ame b oa t . I ti sc on s id e r ed ,h oweve r ,t h a t ar e a sonab le e s t ima te o f t h e s h r inkage a w a te r logged a nd s u b sequen t ly d r ied—ou t l o gboa t h a s e xp e r ien ced b e tween t h e t i me t h eh o le w a sb o red a nd t h et i me t h em ino ra nd m a jo ra xe s o ft h eh o le a r em ea su red ,m ay b eo b ta in ed b yt h er a t io o ft h e se m ea su remen t s ,p rov id ing t h a t : ( i ) t h e m ea su remen t s a r e t a ken a tr i gh t a ng le s t ot h e a x i so ft h eh o le , ( i ) b o th f a ce s o f t h e h o le a r e m ea su r ed , w he r eve r p o s s ib le , ( i i ) t h e m ean o ft h e i n d iv idua lr a t io s ( i nd ice s ) f o ra l l t h e h o le s i n ab oa t i sc a lcu la t ed ; a ny 'w i ld ' r e ad ing s b e ing n o t ed ,b u tn o ti n c luded i nt h ec a lcu la t ion .

A p r in c ipa l d i ff i cu l ty i n a pp ly ing t h i s m e thod o f s h r inkage c a lcu la t ion i st oe n su r e t h a t c o r re spond ing m ea su r emen t s a r e t a ken a te xac t ly t h e s ame p a r t o f t h e s t ru c tu r e . A dd i t iona l ly , a l though m any l o gboa t s a ppea r t o h ave s h runk u n i fo rm ly , m a in ta in ing a s im i la r s hap e b u t o f r edu ced t a ngen t ia l a nd r ad ia l d imen s ion s s ome h ave s p l i t a l ong t h e b o t tom a l low ing t h es i de s t oo pen o u t , w h i l s to t he r sh ave r e ac ted t ot h e s t r e s se s i mpo sed b y s h r inkage b yf o r c ing t h es i d e sc l o se rt o ge the ra tt h e s h ee r . I n t h e se l a t te r c a se s c ompa r i son s o f d ep th s a nd s h ee r b r ead th s a r e i n va l id ; b u t w he re t h e b o t tom i s s ound , c ompa r i son o fb r ead th sa c ro s st h eb o t tom m ay b em ade . S hr inkage f a c tor s : S h r inkage i s u sua l ly t a ken t o b e a c ompa r i son o f t h e r educ t ion i n d imen s ion w i th t h e o r ig ina l d imen s ion ,a nd may b ee xp re s sed a s ap e rc en tage . Mo r eu se f u l i nt h e a r chaeo log ica lc on tex ti s ar a t io w h ich m ay b ec a l led t h e s h r inkage i n d ex , d ef ined a s t h e o r ig ina l d imen s ion c ompa r ed w i th t h e s h runken d imen s ion . I nt h e c a se o f a n e l l ip t ica l h o le , t h i s i n dex i s ( ma jo r a x i s /m ino r a x i s ) . T he m ean o f t h e i n d iv idua l s h r inkage i n d ic e s f r om t h e s e ve ra l h o le s i n ab oa t m ay b ec a l led t h em ean s h r inkage f ac to r . Mu l t ip l ica t ion b yt h i s f a c to r w i l l c onve r t ap r e sen t d ay s h runken d imen s ion t o t h e b e s te s t ima te o ft h eo r ig ina lp r e— sh r inkage d imen s ion .

R e f e rence s Ä ke r iund ,H . , 1 963 .N ydam skeppen G o t ebo rg A tk in son , A . , 1 887 No te s o n a n a n c ien t b oa t f o und a tB r igg A r chaeo log ia 5 0( p a r t2 ) : 3 6 1-370 . B a i l l ie , M . , 1 973 . D end roch rono logy : a n e xce r c i se i n a r chaeo log ica ld a t ing . I nS co t t ,B .G .( e d )P e r spe c t ive s i nI r i sh A r chaeo logy : 6 -16 . B e l fa s t . B a rkman , L . , 1 975 . P r e sr va t ion o ft h e w a r sh ip Wa sa i nO ddy , A . , ( e d ) P rob l em s i nt h e c on ser va t ion o fw a te r logged w ood :6 5-105 NMM Monog raph 1 6 .G reenw ich . d e Jong , J . , 1 977 . C on se r va t ion o f o l d w a te r logged w ood i n McG ra i l , S . , ( e d ) S ou r ce s a nd T e chn ique s i n B oa t A r chaeo logy :2 3-44 . BAR S 29 O x fo rd E d l in ,H .L . , 1 972 . T ree s ,W ood sa nd Man . E lme r s , D . , 1 973A . K u l tba rken , f a h ren , f i sche rboo t e , v o rge sch ich t l iche e i nbaume i n N iede r sa ch en . D ie K und e , NS24 :2 3-62 . F a rme r , R .H . , 1 973 . H andbook o f H ardwood s 2 nd e d i t ion

T h i s m ean m ay b e c a l led t h e s h r inkage f a c to r f o r ap a r t icu la r b oa t , a nd i tc an b e u sed t o e s t ima t e t h e b oa t ' so r ig ina l d imen s ion s . S can t l ing c ompar i son : A n a l t e rna t ive m e thod o f e s t ima t ing s h r inkage m ay b e u sed , e i th e r a s a n i n d epend en t c h eck o f e s t ima te s m ade f r om e l l ip t ica lh o le c a lcu la t ion s , o ri ni t s o wn r i gh t w hen a l o gboa t h a s n o m ea su rab le h o le s . I n h i s r e— eva lua t ion o f t h e r ema in s o f t h e N ydam p l ank b oa t , A ke r lund ( 1 963 : 1 5 5 ) c ompa r ed E ng leha rd t ' s 1 863 m ea su remen t s o f t h e " c i r cum f e r en ce o f t h e p l ank ing a m id sh ip s " w i th J ohanne s sen ' s1 929 m ea su r em en t s , a nd c a lcu la ted t h e s h r inkage ( o r ien ta t ion u n sp ec i f ied ) b e tween t h e se t wo d a t e s t ob e 9% . H e c on c lud ed t h a t , a s t h e N ydam b oa t h ad b een e xcava ted f o r f o u r m on th s b e fo r e E ng leha rd t t o ok h i s m ea su remen t s , 1 3% t o 1 4% w ou ld b e ar e a sonab le e s t ima t eo fs h r inkage b e tween e xcava t ion a nd 1 9 29 . When t h i s m e thod i sa pp l ied t od r ied—ou tl o gboa t s ,t o day ,s c an t l ing sm ay b e c ompa red w i th t h e e a r l ie s t r e co rded s c an t l ing s . I f t h e s h r inkage f a c to r , c a lcu la ted a st h em ean o fs e ve ra lc ompa r i son i n d ice s ,i si n s ign i f ican t , t h en i tm ay b ed edu ced t h a tt h ee a r l ie r m ea su remen t s w e re r e co rd ed a f t e r s h r inkag e , a nd t h u s w e r e n o t t h e o r ig ina l d imen s ion s o f t h e b oa t . A s h r inkage f a c to r c ompa rab le i nm agn i tude w i th t h o se c a lcu la ted f o r e l ip t ica l h o le s w ou ld , o n t h e o t h e r h and , i n d ica t e t h a t t h e e a r l ie r r e co rd ing h ad b een b ef o r e a ny s i g n i f ican t s h r inkag e h ad t a k en p l ace . I n t h e a b sence o f o t he r s h r inkag e d a ta , t h i s s h r inkage f a c to r c a lcu la ted f r om s c an t l ing c ompa r i son s m ay b e u s ed t o d educe t h e o r ig ina l d imen s ion s o f ad r ied—ou t l o gboa t w h ich s u r v ive s s u f f ic ien t ly w e l l t ob e r e co rded i ns ome d e ta i l s , b u t w ho se o r ig ina lr e co rd ing c on s i s t ed o f af ew m ea su r em en t s a nd n od e ta i led d r aw ing .

HMSO . F l e t che r ,J . ,e ta l , 1 978 . T ree R ing S t ud ies i nF enw ick ,V . , ( e d ) G raveney B oa t : 11-124 . BAR 5 3 .O x fo rd G e ik ie , J . , 1 879 . D i scove ry o f a n a n c ien t c anoe i n t h e o l d a l luv ium o ft h eT ay a tP e r th .S co t t i sh N a tu ra l i s t5 :1 7 . G r ime s , W .F . ,

1 931 .

Two

d ug—ou t b oa t s

f r om Wa le s .

A n t iquar ie sJ ourna l 1 : 1 36-144 . J ane ,F .W . , 1 970 .S t ru c tu r eo fW ood 2 nd e d i t ion . K napp , E .V . , 1 924 . C anoe—bu i ld ing t o o l s o ft h e T a sman B ay Mao r i s .J .o ft h eP o lyne s ian S o c3 : 1 03-113 . Ma cCo rm ick , A .G . , e ta l , 1 968 . T h ree d ugou t c ano e s a nd a w hee l f r om H o lme P ie r r epon t , N o t t ingham sh i re T rn s T ho ro ton S o c . 7 2 : 1 4-31 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 974 . B u i ld ing a nd t r ia l s o f ar ep l i ca o f a n a n c ien t b oa t : t h e G ok s tad f ae r ing P a r t 1 NMM Monog raph 1 .G r eenw ich . 1 54

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy M i t che l l ,A .F . , 1 974 . E s t ima t ing t h e a ge o fb i go ak si n Mo r r i s , M .G . a nd P e r r ing , F .H . , ( e d ) i nB r i t i sh O ak ; 3 55-6 . B o tan ica lS oc ie ty o ft h eB r i t i sh I s le s . O l sen ,0 . , a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen ,0 . , 1 967 . S ku lde lev S h ip sI A c ta A r chaeo log i ca 3 8 :7 3174 . P e ck ,W . , 1 815 . T opograph ica lA c coun t o ft h eI s l eo fA xho lme 1 . R a smu s sen ,H . , 1 953 . H a sse lo — Egen .K um l 1 5-48 . S a lmon s son , B . , 1 957 . D ecouve r te d ' une p i rogue p r eh i s to r ique e nS ca ine .L 'An thropo log ie ,6 1 : 2 89-294 . S t amp f u s s , R . , 1 961 . D e r e i nbaum v on G a r t rop—Buh l . B onne r J ah rbu cher ( Ko ln ) 1 6 1 : 3 00-307 . v anZe i s t , W . , 1 957 . D e Me so l i t lü sche b oo t v an P e s se N ieuw e D r en t se V o lk sa lmanak :4 -11 . A s sen .

1 5 5

Wh i t comb , N .R . , 1 968 . Two p r eh i s to r ic d ugou t c anoe s f r om t h e R . Wea ra tH y l ton n ea r S unde r land , C o . D u rham . A r chaeo log i ca A e l iana ,4 6 :2 97-301 . W i ld r idge , T .T . , 1 888 . A n c ien to ne— t r ee b oa t so fN o r thumb r ia N o r thumb r ia : 1 2 3137 . W i l son , D . , 1 8 51 . A r chaeo logy a nd P r eh i s to r i c A nna l s o f S co t land . Wr igh t , E .V . , 1 976 . N o r th F e r r iby B oa t s NMM Monog raph 2 3 .G reenw ich .

R ep r in ted f r om : McG ra i l , S . ,L ogboa t so fE ng land a nd W a l e s : 17-124 . B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica lR epo r t s5 1 ( 1 978 ) .

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 6 . 5 A MED IEVAL LOGBOAT FROM THE R IVER CALDER AT S TANLEY FERRY , W AKEF IELD , YORKSH IRE

H i s tory o ft h ef i nd

T he r e con s t i tu ted b oa t .

T h i s l o gboa t ( d ugou t c anoe ) w a s f o und i nt h e b ed o f t h e R .

T he r e i sn o e a r ly m ea su r ed d raw ing o ft h i s b oa t a nd t h e m a in e v id en ce f o r t h e o r ig ina l c ond i t ion a r e t wo p ho tog raph s f r om t h e p e r iod 1 89 11925 n ow h e ld i nt h e Y o rk sh i re Mu seum . T he r e con s t i tu t ion o f t h e f r agmen ted r ema in s w a s t h u s ad i ff i cu l t t a sk a nd t h e No r th We s ter n Mu seum S e r v ice a r e t o b e c ong ra tu la ted i n p roduc ing a d i sp layab le a r te fa c t , a pp rox ima t ing i nf o rm t ot h a te v iden t i nt h e e a r ly p ho tog raph s ( F ig 6 . 5 .2 ) N eve r the le s s , s ome o f t h i s w o rk i n ev i tab ly h ad t o b ed one s ub jec t ive ly a nd i ti sp o s s ib le t oq ue s t ion s ome o ft h e d e ta i l . I np l ace s t h eb oa th a s b een g i ven ar ounded f o rm w he r e t h e b o t tom m ee t s t h e s i de s : o n t h e e v iden ce o f o r ig ina l w ood t h i s s hou ld b e a n a ngu la rj u nc t ion w i th f l a red s i de s , a s i nt h e t r an sve r se s e c t ion CD i nF ig .6 .5 .2 . T he f r agmen t s o f o r ig ina l w ood g ene ra l ly n ow a pp ea r t ob e a to r c l o se t ot h e i r r e la t ive p o s i t ion s i na n t iqu i ty , b u t t h e s i de s hown i nt h e l o ng i tud ina l s e c t ion o fF ig . 6 . 5 .2 i sn o t c onnec t ed b y o r ig ina l t i mbe rt ot h e r ema inde r o f t h e b oa t a nd s hou ld p robab ly h ave b een r e—a s semb led a t al owe r l e ve l t om a tch t h e o t he r s i d e . I ta l so s e em sl i ke ly t h a tt h ef r agmen tw h ich f o rm st h es u r v iv ing e nd o f t h e b oa t a nd w h ich i sa l so u nconnec ted s hou ld b e n e i the r s o p rom inen tn o rs oh i gh .

C a lde r ( SE 3 56 1 2 30 5 ) d u r ing e xcava t ion s f o r a na quedu c t i n A ugu s t , 1 838 . I tw a s a qu i r ed b y t h e Y o rk sh i r e P h i lo soph ica l S o c ie ty i n1 840 a nd f o r at i me w a s d i sp lay ed i nt h e i rm u seum a tY o rk o n t o p o f ac a se o fs t one t o o l s ( F ig 6 . 5 .1 ) . D u r ing t h e p e r iod o f m y s u r vey o f t h e l o gboa t s o f s ou ther n B r i ta in ' t h e f r agmen ta ry r ema in s o f t h i s b oa t w e r e u nde r c on se rva t ion b y t h e No r th We s ter n Mu seum s S e r v ice a nd c ou ld n o t b e e xam ined —h oweve r , t h e d o cumen ta ry e v id en ce t h en a va i lab le w a s s umma r ized i n t h e p ub l i shed c a ta logue o f E ng l i sh a nd We l sh l o gboa t s .2 D u r ing c on se r va t ion t h e s u r v iv ing t i mbe r s w e r e c on so l ida t ed w i th PVA i n A ce tone a nd I MS , a nd t h ey w e r e t h en r e—a s semb led b y p i nn ing w i th b r a s s r od s , t h e m i s s ing a r ea s b e ing f i l led w i th e xpanded a l um in ium c ov e r ed w i th a p i gmen ted m ix tu r e o fp o lye s te rr e s in a nd s awdu s t . E l even r i b s o fn ew p i n ewood w e r e f i t ted u s ing m e ta l s c r ew st h rough s ome o f t h e o r ig ina l h o le s i n t h e b oa t . T he t wo p a r t s o f t h e r e con s t i tu ted b oa t w e r e m oun ted o n c r ad le s s o t h a t t h e b oa t w a s s andw iched b e tween c r ad le s a nd n ew r i b s . T h e b oa t w a s r e tu rned t o t h e Y o rk sh i re Mu seum i n 1 9 76 a nd b ecame a va i lab le f o re xam ina t ion .

I n terpr e ta t ion R e cord ing t h eb oa t T he p l an a nd s e c t ion s ( F ig . 6 . 5 .2 ) a r e o f t h e b oa t a s r e con s t i tu ted ; t h ey a t temp t t o d i f f e r en t ia t e b e tween o r ig ina l w ood a nd m oder n T h e t r an sve r se s e c t ion ( CD ) w a s t a k en a t ap o s i t ion t h ough tt og i ve t h em o s tr e p re sen ta t iv ef o rm o ft h e o r ig ina l b oa t . T he r e a r e 2 9 e a s i ly v i s ib le h o l e s t h rough t h e b oa t ' s b o t tom a nd s i de s w h ich a pp ea r t ob e o r ig ina l ; 2 1 o t h e r p o s s ib ly o r ig ina l h o le s , m a rk ed X o n t h e d r aw ing , a r e p a r t ly o b scu r ed b y m oder n r i b s . R emova l o f t h e se r i b s w h i l s t m a in ta in ing t h e s a f e ty o f t h e b oa t i s al e ng thy p r o cedu r e a nd w a sa t temp t ed o n ly o nce : s hou ld i ti nf u tu r ep r ove n e ce s sa ry t o r emove r i b s f o r o t he r r e a son s , t h e h o le s r e v ea led s hou ld b e c ompa red w i th F ig . 6 . 5 .2 . O nt h e d r aw ing t h e h o le sh ave b een a l lo ca ted e i the r al e t te r ( A t o 0 ) o r , i fi n t e rp r e ted a s f o r t r eena i l st of a s ten r i b s ,t h e l e t te r Ra nd an umb e r . O n eo r ig ina l r i b h a s s u r v ived , b u t b ecau se o f d i s to r t ion i ti si mpo s s ib le t o c onvey a n a c cu ra t e r e p re sen ta t ion o f i t s s h ap e i n a t wo—d imen s iona ld r aw ing .

( a )T he l o g T he l o gw a so ak ( Que r cu ss p . ) a nd t h ee a r ly p ho tog raph ss how i th ad a t l e a s t t wo mode ra te ly l a rge k no t s . T he p i th i sn o t v i s ib le i nt h e s u r v iv ing r ema in s b u t t h e p o s i t ion d educed f r om t h eg row th r i ng sv i s ib le o nt h e e nd f r agmen t i sm a rked o n F ig . 6 . 5 .2 , s o aw ho le l o g r a the r t h an h a l f as p l i t l o g w a s u sed . I f t h i s e nd f r agmen t w e r e t ob e r epo s i t ioned a s Ih ave s ugge s ted a bove , t h e p i th p o s i t ion w ou ld b e l owe red . T he max imum d i ame te ro ft h eo r ig ina ll o gc anno tb ee s t ima ted w i th p re c i s ion b u t i tm u s t h ave b een g r ea te r t h an H od son 's m ax imum i n s id e b eam m ea su remen t o f 1 . 17 m + c .0 . 12 m ( t h ickne ss o f t wo s i de s ) +0 . 10 m ( s apwood a nd b a rk ) =c . 1 .39 m . T he l e ng th w a s g r ea te r t h an 5 . 4 1 m . When c ompa red w i th p a ren t l o g s o f o t he r l o gboa t s t h i s l o g w a s w el a bove a ve rage f o r g i r th a nd a bove a ve rage f o rl e ng th .3 ( b )T he b oa t I n al e t te rt ot h e Y o rk sh i re Mu seum d a ted 3 rd A p r i l , 1 840 , H . H od son o f t h e A i re a nd C a lde r N av iga t ion O ff i ce a tG oo le g ave t h e s u rv iv ing l e ng th o ft h e b oa ta sc . 17 f t . 9i n s . ( 5 .4 1 m ) , a nd t h e i n ter na l b r ead th a s c . 3f t . 1 0 i n s . ( 1 .17 m . ) . A s

1S . McG ra i l ,L ogboa t so fE ng land a nd Wa le s( Na t iona lM a r i t im e Mu seum A rchaeo log ica lS e r ie s2 , BAR 5 1 , O xfo rd , 1 978 ) 2I b id . ,n o . 1 32

3I b id . , 3 09

1 57

L ogboa t s

F igu r e6 . 5 .1 L ogboa tf r om S t an ley F e r ry ,n ea r Wakef ie ld ,Y o rk s .P ho tog raphed i nt h eY o rk sh i r e Mu seum i nt h ee a r ly 2 0 th c en tu ry .P ho to :Y o rk sh i r e Mu seum ,Y o rk .

r e con s t i tu ted t h e r ema in s a r e n ow 5 . 55 m i n l e ng th w i th a m ax imum i n t er n a lb r ead th o f0 . 84 m . I ft h e e nd f r agmen tw e re t o b e p l a ced n ea r e r t h e o t he r o r ig ina l t imbe r s a s s ugge s ted a bove , t h e s u rv iv ing l e ng th w ou ld b e r educed t oc . 5 .41 m : t h e o r ig ina l f u l l l e ng th c anno t n ow b e d e te rm ined . T he d i f f e renc e b e tween o r ig ina l a nd p r e sen t max imum i n ter na l b r ead th m ay p a r t ly b e e xp la ined b y s h r inkage : t h e m ean s h r inkage f a c to r ' c a lcu la t ed f r om e i gh th o le s i s1 . 23 w h ich i n d ica te s a n o r ig ina l i n te rna lb r ead th o fc .0 . 84 x1 . 23 = 1 . 03 m .H od son d id n o tg i ve ah e igh t f o rt h i s b oa t , b u t t h e m ax imum e x te rna l h e igh t w he r e t h e r ei so r ig ina lw ood i sn ow 0 . 27 m ( e xc lud ing t h er a i sed e nd ) w h ich s u gge s t s a n o r ig ina l h e igh t o f c .0 . 33 m . T he b o t tom w ou ld o r ig ina l ly h ave b een c . 25 mm t h ick , a nd t h e s i de s a tt h e t o pe dg ec . 60 mm .W i th e x te rna lm ea su remen t so fl e ng th> 5 . 41 m ,b r ead th 1 . 29 m a nd h e igh t a m id sh ip s 0 . 33 m , t h i s b oa t w a s a bove a ve rage f o r l e ng th a nd w e l l a bove a ve rage f o r b r ead th b u t b e low a ve rage f o r h e igh t , w hen c ompa red w i th o t he r l o gboa t s .5

f i r s t m oder n r i b i nt h e r e con s t i tu ted b oa t a pp ea r s t ob e t o o c l o se t ot h e e nd . T h e o r ig ina l r i b s s e em t oh ave b een f a s tened w i th u p t of o u r t r eena i l s t h rough t h e b o t tom a nd o n e o r t wo t h rough e a ch s i de .T he o n es u r v iv ing r i b ,w h idh i sa no ak c r ook ( n a tu ra l ly c u rved t i mbe r ) , i s n ow v e ry d i s to r ted b u t i ti s p robab le t h a tt h ep o r t ion t ot h er i gh to fE Fo nF ig . 6 . 5 .2 w ou ld f o rme r ly h ave b een h o r izon ta l , t h u s m ak ing i tl i ke ly t h a t t h e n o t ch w a s al i mbe r h o le t oa l low f r ee p a s sage o fb i lg e w a te r a l ong t h e b o t tom o ft h e b oa t . A s o ak c r ook s w i th a pp rop r ia t e d oub le c u rve s w e r e p robab ly d i ff i cu l t t of i nd i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a tt h er i b sw e r e ' a l te rna t ing h a l f— r ib sp l u ss i de t i mbe r s '6 w i th t h e n ea r—ve r t ica l a rm o f t h e L — shaped , g r own t i mbe r s o n a l t er na t e s i de s . A no the r p o s s ib i l i ty , t h a t t h e se w e r e c l o se ly—pa i r ed , a l te rna t ing h a l f— r ib s , s e em s l e s s l i ke ly . R ib s pa c ing s a r e 3 20 a nd 4 50 mm b e tween t h e f i r s t t wo p a i r s a nd t h en 4 80500 mm f o rt h er ema inde r . T he r ea r es e ve ra lr e a son sw hy r i b sm ay b ef i t ted t ol o gboa t s : ( i )T oh e lp r e ta in t h es hap eo fa ne xpanded b oa t( s ide s f o r ced a pa r t ) .

T he s u r v iv ing e nd n eed n o t h ave b een t h e b ow , f o r l o gboa t s w i th s im i la rb ow a nd s t e rn a r ek nown ,n eve r the le s si tw ou ld b e as u i tab le s h ape f o r o ne , a l b e i t p robab ly n o t p ro t rud ing a s m uch a s n ow r e con s t i tu ted : t h e f o rm o f t h e o t he r e nd c anno t n ow b e d e te rm ined . T he t r an sve r se s e c t ion o ff l a tb o t tom w i th f l a red s i de s r e su l t s i ng ood c a rgo s pace : i ta l so e n su r e s g ood t r an sve r se s t ab i l i ty f o ra st h eb oa ti sh ee led t h er i gh t ing a rm i s i n c r ea sed . H av ing t h es i d e s t h icke rt h an t h eb o t tom r e su l t s i na r e la t ive ly h i ghe r c en t re o f g r av i ty a nd t h u s t e nd s t o r e duce s t ab i l i ty ,b u t t h i s t h ick t o pe dge a dd s t ot h eb oa t 's l o ng i tud ina l s t r eng th .

( i ) T o s uppo r t w a sh s t rake s ( e x t ra p l ank ing t oe x tend h e igh to fb oa t ) . ( i i )T os uppo r tt hwa r t s( c ro s sb eam su s ed a ss e a t s ) . ( i v )F o ru se a sf o o t r e s t s . ( v )A nu nnece s sa ry c opy ing o fp l ank b oa tf i t t ing s .

( c )F i t t ing s T he s e r ie so fh o le s s hown o nF ig .6 . 5 .2 w i th a n Ri d en t i f ica t ion a r ei n t e rp r e t ed a sf o rt r eena i l st of a s ten r i b s ( R1 t oR 11 ) . I nt h e e a r ly p ho tog raph s ( F ing 6 . 5 .1 ) t wo f i t ted r i b s a r e s hown a pp rox ima te ly i nt h e p o s i t ion o fm y R 1 a nd R 2 r ow s , b u t t h e

Wh e th e r t h i s b oa t w a s o r ig ina l ly e xpanded c anno t n ow b e d e te rm ined , b u t i ts e em s u n l ike ly a s t h e r e i sn o o ak l o gboa t i n d i spu tab ly k nown t o h ave b een e xpanded . ' I n o r de r t o s uppo r t w a sh s t rake s t h e r i b s w ou ld h ave t oe x tend a bove t h e t o p e dge o f t h e b oa t a nd t h e r e i sn o e v id en c e f o r t h i s i nt h e

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S t an ley F e r ry l o gboa t . N one o ft h e o t he rr e a son s s e em s l i ke ly b u t t hwa r t s f o r p a s senge r s t o s i t u pon s e em s t h e l e a s t i mp robab l e :5 00 mm b e tween t hwa r t si st o os ho r tf o rp add le r s ' b u ta dequa t e f o rp a s senge r s . I ft h i s b oa th ad i n deed b een u sed t oc a r ry p a s senge r s , c r ew w i th p add le s o r p o le s c ou ld h ave b een s t a t ioned a tb ow a nd s t em .

F ragmen t s o f w ood w h ich c ou ld n o t b e p o s i t ioned d u r ing r e—a s semb ly w e re l e f t u n t rea ted a nd s ome o f t h e se w e r e s ub sequen t ly d a ted b y t h e H a rwel C a rbon 1 4 /T r i t ium Mea su r emen t s L abo ra to ry : HAR 2 835 : 9 60 BP + 7 0 =c .a d 9 90 . I ti su n fo r tuna t et h a ts amp le sw i th ak nown l o ca t ion i nt h e l o g c ou ld n o t h ave b een m ad e a va i lab le . N eve r th e le s s i ti s l i ke ly t h a t t h e s amp le sp rov ided w e r ef r om n ea rt h eo u t s ide o f t h i s l o gboa t t h u sg i v ing at e rm inu sp o s tq uem f o rt h e f e l l ing o f t h et r ee a nd t h eb u i ld ing o ft h eb oa t ; a ne a r ly 11 t hc e n tu ry A .D .

H o le s Aa nd K ( a nd p o s s ib ly 0 )t h rough t h eb o t tom o ft h eb oa t a r e i n te rp re t ed a s t h ickne s s g auge s ' u sed t o i n d ica te t h e r e qu ired h u l l t h ick ne s s w hen h o l low ing t h e l o g . T he r e m ay h ave b een s im i la rh o le s i nt h e n ow m i s s ing p a r t s , a nd s ome o f t h eh o le su sed t of a s t en f i t t ing sm ay h ave h ad ap r ev iou su se a s t h ickne s sg auge s .

d a te s e em sl i ke ly .

S i gn if i cance o ft h ef i nd

T h e h o r izon ta l h o le s ( B , C , E , G , J ,M , N , a nd D , F , H , L ) a l ong e a ch s i de o ft h e b oa t , c .7 0-110 mm d own f r om t h e t o p e dge , c ou ld b e f o r t r eena i l s t o f a s ten e i the r w a sh s t rake s o r s t ab i l ize r s . T he se h o le s a r e s pa ced a ta n a ve rage o f 8 00 mm o ve r t h e c en tra l s e c t ion r edu c ing t o3 00-500 mm t owa rd s t h e s u r v iv ing e nd : t h i s i st o o w ide f o r aw a te rp roo fj o in t b e tween w a sh s t rake a nd h u l l . '" O n t h e o t he r h and , i n t h e s ou the rn B r i t i sh l o gboa t s s of a r a na ly sed t r an sve r se s t ab i l i ty i s mo r e o f ap rob lem t h an i n ad equa te f r eeboa rd" a nd t h u s i tm ay b e a r gued t h a t s t ab i l iz ing t imbe r s a r e m o r e l i ke ly t o h ave b e en f i t ted t h an w a sh s t r ak e s . T he e x t ra b uoyan cy p rov ided b y s u ch s t ab i l ize r sw ou ld c omp en sa te f o rt h er e la t ive ly l ow s i de h e igh t o f t h e S t an ley F e r ry b oa t . W i th s ma l l h a l f— log s t r eena i led a l ong t h e s i d e s a tt h e w a te r l in e a s s t ab i l iz e r s t h e b oa t w ou ld h ave h ad l i t t le f r eeboa rd , b u t e t hnog raph i c p a ra l le l s i n d ica te t h a t t h i s i so f ten t h e c a se i n l o gboa t o pe ra t ion s o n i n land w a t e rway s .'

T h i sm ed ieva lo ak l o gboa ti si mpo r tan tn o tl e a s tb e cau se s h ei s t h e e a r l ie s t—known l o gboa t f r om B r i ta in w i th d i r ec t e v idenc e f o r f i t ted r i b s . H e r u s e f u l b eam , f l a r ed t r an sve r se s e c t ion a nd ( p robab le ) s t ab i l ize r s m ean t h a t s h e w ou ld h ave h ad g ood s t ab i l i ty . T h i s a nd t h e f a c t t h a t s h e m ay h ave h ad t hwa r t s w ou ld m ake h e r s u i tab le f o r u se a s ap a s senge r f e r ry , ar o le e choed i nt h es i te n ame .

Aknow ledgemen t s Ia m g r a te fu l t oE l izab e th H a r t ley , K eepe r o fA r cha eo logy a t t h e Y o rk sh i r e Mu seum f o rf a c i l i t ie s t oe xam ine t h i sb oa t ; t oJ . A tk in son f o r i n fo rma t ion a bou t t h e c on se r va t ion a nd r e—a s semb ly o f t h e b oa t ; t o E va W i l son w ho p r epa r ed F ig .6 .5 .2 f r om m y m ea su r ed d raw ing ; a nd t o Ma ry McG ra i l a nd A p r i l Wh in cop w ho h e lped w i th t h em ea su r emen t .

2

T h e p r inc ipa l h o le s f ound i n t h i s b oa t h ad a n a ve rage p r e— sh r inkage d i ame te ro f2 0 mm : t h e r ec ou ld h ave b een 7 5 o r m o r eo ft h em o r ig ina l ly .T he r e a r ea l so m any s ma l le rd iame te r h o le s w h ich w e r e p r obab ly r e cen t o ne s u sed t o f a s ten m e ta l s u ppo r t sw h en t h eb oa tw a so nd i sp lay ( F ig 6 . 5 .1 ) .

T he S o c ie ty i sg ra tef u l t ot h cN a t iona l Mar i t ime Mu seum f o ra p ub l i ca t ion g ran tr e ce iv ed f o rt h i sp ap e r .

R ep r in t ed w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : Med ieva lA r chaeo logy ,2 5 : 1 60164 ( 1 981 ) .

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S EC I1ON 7 . 0 PREH ISTOR IC P LANK BOATS

P ape r s 7 . 1 & 7 . 3 a r e s p ec i f ica l ly c on cer n ed w i th t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' , w h i l s t 7 . 2 i s m o r e g ene ra l i nn a tu r e & c on s ide r s t h e s ea fa r ing a spec t s o f p r eh i s to r ic t r ad e b e tween t h e C on t inen t a nd B r i ta in . T he B r igg ' r a f f— a c tua l ly af l a t—bo t tomed b oa t— i so ne o f ah and fu l o fp l ank b oa t s f r om 2 nd & i s t m i l lenn ium BC No r th We s t E u rop e . T hey a r e a l l s ewn o r s t i t ched b oa t s : o ne i s f r om D enma rk , t h e H jo r t sp r ing b oa t o f c . 350 BC ( Ro senbe rg , 1 937 ; J en sen , 1 989 ; R ie ck , 1 994 ) ; t h e r ema ind e r a r e f r om s ou th er nB r i ta in : t h e F e r r iby b oa t s f r om t h e n o r ther n f o re sho re o f t h e H umbe r e s tua ry ( W r igh t , 1 990 ) ; t h e l a rge f r agmen tf r om C a ld ico to nt h e We l sh s i de o ft h eS eve rn e s tua ry ( Pa r ry & McG ra i l , 1 994 ) ; t h e D ove r b oa t ( Pa r f i t t , 1 993 ) ; t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' f r om t h e R . A n cho lme w h ich w a s f o rme r ly at i da l c r eek o f t h e H umb e r e s tua ry ( McG ra i 1 ,1981 ) ; a nd t h e f r agmen t s f r om G o ldc l if fo nt h e S eve rn f o r e sho r e , l e s st h an 1 0 m i le s f r om C a ld ico t ( Be l l , 1 992 ) . T he f i r s t t h r ee o f t h e se B r i t i sh f i nd s a r e d a ted t o t h e m id-2nd m i l lenn ium BC i n c a l ib ra ted r ad io ca rbon y ea r s ;B r igg i ss im i la r ly d a t ed t oc .8 00 BC , w h i l s t t h e G o ldc l i f ff i nd i sd a ted b y d end roch rono logy t o c .1 000 BC .

T he B r igg ' r a f t ' T he B r igg ' r a f t 'w a s f i r s te xpo sed i n1 888 b y w o rkmen d i gg ing f o r b r ick c l ay i n af i e ld b e tween t h e O ld a nd N ew R ive r s A ncho lme . T h e r ema in s w e re r e—excava ted i n 1 974 b y t h e N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ,s e ek ing t oa dd t ot h eb ody o fd a ta a bou t p r eh i s to r ic b oa t s w h ich , a tt h a t t ime , i n c lud ed o n ly t h e F e r r iby a nd H jo r t sp r ing b oa t s .P ape r7 . 1 i sa ne x t ra c tf r om o n e c hap te r i n t h e r epo r t o n t h a t r e—excava t ion . T he p r ob lem o f r e con s t ruc t ion , w h ich i so ne o f t h e t o p ic s c on s id e r ed i nt h a t p ape r ,i st a ken f u r the ri nP ap e r 1 .3 .

b oa tc apab le o fs ho r ts e ac r o s s ing s ,r a the rt h an af l a t—bo t tomed f e r ry u s ed o n t h e m idd le r e a che s o f at i da l c r eek . R obe r t s s u b equen t ly w ro te a r e spon se ( 1 995 ) t o my r e jec t ion o f h i s h ypo th e s i s .

S eago ing v e s s e l s . I nP ape r 7 . 2 i ti sc on c luded t h a t t h e k nown p reh i s to r ic p l ank b oa t sw e r en o tt r u ly s eago ing c r a f t , a nd i ti ss ugge s ted t h a tt h e h i d e b oa t m ay w e l l h ave b een t h e w o rkho r se o f t h e s ea s o f f e a r ly NW E u rop e . N o h i de b oa t h a s , s o f a r , b een e xcava ted , h owev e r , a nd t h e e a r l ie s t d o cumen ta ry e v idence f o r t h em i s f r om t h em id— is tm i l lenn ium BC .F o rf u r the rd i scu s s ion o ft h i s p r ob lem s e e McG ra i l ( 1 996 ) ; f o rt h ec apab i l i t ie s o fh ide b oa t s s e e J o hn s ton e 1 980 /8 : 2 6-44 , 1 2 1-139 ) ; McG ra i l ( 1987 : 1 7 3191 ) ;a nd G r eenh i l l( 1 995 :9 1-96 ) . T h eq ua l i t ie s c on s ide r ed t ob en eeded b y as eago ing v e sse l a r e l i s ted i nT ab le 7 . 2 .1 . T he se a r e t h e q ua l i t ie s a ga in s t w h ich t h e c h a ra c t e r i s t i c s o f k nown p r eh i s to r ic p l ank b oa t s , a nd o f h ypo th e t ica l e a r ly h i d e b oa t s , w e r e m ea su red i nP ape r 7 . 2 t o d e t e rm ine s e ago ing p o ten t ia l . S omeone , p o s s ib ly P e te r Ma r sd en , s ugge s ted t o m e t h a t ' a e s the t ica l ly—p lea s ing l i ne s ' s h ou ld b e a dded t ot h i s a s se s smen t t a b le . A s w i th s ub— son ic f i xed—w ing a i r c r af t ,b oa t sw i th e ye—p lea s ing l i ne su sua l ly h ave g ood p e r fo rman ce ; t o t h a t e x ten t t h i s c ou ld b e a no the r d e s i r eab le q ua l i ty , a l though u ndoub ted ly o ve r lapp ing w i th s om eo ft h eo t h e rc ha ra c te r i s t ic si nT ab le 7 . 2 .1 . Ah i gh C a rgo / C r ew r a t io m igh t a l so b e at a rg e t t o a im a t i n" des ign ing " a s e ago ing c a rgo v e s se l ; b u t t h e s i ze o fs h ip i nw h ich t h i s wou ld m a t t e rw a sn o tu sed i nA t lan t ic E u rope u n t i lR oman t ime s a nd , i na ny c a se , i ti sd i f f icu l t t o e s t ima te c r ew n umbe r s f r om a r chaeo log ica le v id enc ea l one .

P ape r7 . 3 w a sw r i t ten i nr e spon se t o ap ape rb y Owa in R ob e r t s ( 1 992 ) i nw h ich h ec on c luded t h a tt h e' r a f t ' w a s ar o und—b i lged

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P r eh i s to r ic P lank B oa t s P a r ry , S . a nd McG ra i l , S . 1 994 . B ronze A ge s ewn b oa t f r agmen t f r om C a ld ico t , Gwen t , Wa le s . i n We s te rdah l , C . ( e d ) C ro s s road s i n A n c i en t S h ipbu i ld ing ,2 1-28 .O xbow Monog raph 4 0 . R ieck , F . 1 994 . h on A ge b oa t s f r om H jo r t sp r ing & N ydam : n ew i n ve s t iga t ion s . i n We s te rdah l , C .( e d )C ro s s road s i nA n c ien t S h ipbu i ld ing : 4 554 . O xbow Monog raph 4 0 . R obe r t s , 0 . 1 992 . B r igg ' r a f t ' r e—a sse ssed a s ar ound b i lge B ron ze A ge b oa t . I n t . J .N au t i ca l A r chaeo logy , 2 1 : 2 45-258 . R ober t s ,0 . 1 995 . Ar e spon se .I n t .J .N au t i ca lA r chaeo logy ,2 4 : 1 59-160 . R o senbe rg ,G . 1 937 .H jo r t sp r ing f und e t .C openhagen . Wr igh t ,E .V . 1 990 .F e r r iby B oa t s .R ou t ledge .

R e f er ence s B e l l ,M . 1 992 .G o ld c l i f f , 1 992 .i nB e l l ,M .( e d )S eve rn E s tua ry L ev e l sR e sear ch C omm i t t ee A nnua lR epo r t : 1 5-30 . G r eenh i l l ,B . 1 995 .A r chaeo logy o fB oa t s &S h ip s .C onway . J en sen ,J .1 989 . H jo r t sp r ing b oa tr ec on s t ruc ted .A n t iqu i ty , 6 3 : 5 315 . J ohn s ton e ,P .1 980 /8 .S ea c raf to fP r eh i s to ry .R ou t ledge . McG ra i l , S . 1 981 . B r igg ' r af t ' a nd h e r P r eh i s to r i c E nv i ronmen t . BAR O x fo rd . 8 9 . McG ra i l ,S .1 987 .A n c ien tB oa t si n NW E u rope .L ongman . McG ra i l , S . 1 996 . B ronze A ge i n NW E u rop e . i nC h r i s ten sen , A .E . ( e d )E a r l ie s tS h ip s : 2 4-38 . C onway ' s H i s to ry o f t h eS h ip .v o l . 1 . P a r f i t t ,K .D ove rb oa t .C u r r .A r chaeo logy , 1 33 :4 -8 .

N o t e : T he f o l low ing r e f e ren ce c on ta in s at a b le o f c a l ib ra t ed d a te sf o rt h eF e r r iby b oa t sa nd t h eB r igg ' r a f t ' : S w i t su r , R . 1 989 . E a r ly E ng l i sh B oa t s . R ad io carbon , 3 1 : 1 010-1018 .

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S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 7 . 1 THE BR IGG ' RAFT

T h eE v iden c e I nt h i sp ap e ra l ls u r v iv ing e v id en ce a bou tt h e ' r a f t 'i se va lua ted , a n dt h em e thod sa nd s e quenc eo fc on s t ru c t ion a r ed educed .T he p o s s ib i l i ty o fh ypo the t ica l ly r e con s t r u c t ing t h eo r ig ina l c r a f ti s c on s ide red a nd h e r o pe ra t iona l u s e i s d i scu s sed ; a nd t h e c i r cum s tanc e sl e ad ing t od epo s i t ion a r ei n ve s t iga ted . I n d iv idua l ly , t h e t wo 1 : 12 s c a le m od e l s i nL in co ln Mu seum a dd l i t t le t ok now ledg e g a in ed f r om o t he r s ou r ce s a s t h ey d o n o t i n c lud e s u ch d e ta i l s a s t h e s t rake f a s ten ing s o r t h e c r o s s s e c t ion so ft h ep l ank ing . T h i si st ob er eg re t ted f o rb o th m ode l s i n c lude t h e s o u th e a s t e rn e nd o f t h e ' r a f t ' , i n p a r t icu la r t h e s ma l le r , i n comp le t e m ode l s h ow s p r ec i se ly t h o se c l ea t s ( 1 7 t o 10 ; 2 7 t o2 10 ; 3 7 t o3 10 ; 4 7 t o4 9 a nd 5 6 t o5 9 ) w h ich w e r e n o t e ncoun t e r ed d u r ing t h e 1 974 e xcava t ion . H oweve r s ome th ing m ay b e d educed w h en t h e d i f f e ren ce s b e tween t h e t wo mode l s a r e c on s id e r ed . T h e s ou th e a s te rn e nd o ft h e ' r a f t ' m u s tf i r s th ave b een e n coun t e r ed a st h e c l ay d i gge r s a dvanced a c ro s s I s land C an f r om t h ee a s to n af a ce a l igned n o r th / sou th . I ts e em s p robab le t h a t , w hen t h o se p a r t so ft h e ' r a f t ' s ou th e a s t o f al i ne f r om c l ea t 5 6 t o 1 7 ( F ig 7 . 1 .1 ) , h ad b een e xpo sed , t h ey w e r er e co rded i ns u f f ic ien td e ta i lf o rt h em t ob e modeled b yS am C o le sw i th t h e( a s y e tu n r e co rded ) t i mbe r st ot h en o r th w e s t l e f t i nt h e f o rm o fm ode l led h a l f— log s . I tm ay b e t h a t a t t h i s s t age t h e e xpo sed p l ank ing w a s e x t rac ted : s ome o f t h e p l ank s( e .g . s t rake 2s ou th e a s to fc l ea t2 6 )w e r es awn t h rough ; o t he r sw e r eb r oken o f f .P a r t so fe xpo sed c l ea t s5 10 ( =G 5 ) a nd 4 10 ( =G 4 )w e r el e f ti ns i tu t ot h es ou th— ea s t .

e nv i ronmen t ,f o l lowed b yb a ck f i l l ing w i th u n su i tab le m a te r ia l s r e su l ted i nt h e d amage a nd d eg reda t ion e ncoun te red i n 1 974 . N eve r the le s s , t h e ' r a f t ' w a s b ack f i l led , a nd d i d s u r v ive t ob e r e—excava ted . Apa r tf r om a l e r t ing u st ot h ed a t eo ft h e f i nd ing o ft h e' r a f t 'a nd i t s l e ng thy e xpo su re , c on tempo ra ry n ew spape r a c coun t s a dd l i t t le t oo u rk now ledge . Mo re s i gn if ican ta r et h er e f e ren ce st oa " pon toon b r idge " i n t h e t i le o f H un t ' s p ape r ( 1907 /8 ) ; t h e p h ra se " f loa t ing f o rd " u sed o n ap r e—publ i ca t ion c opy o f t h e p ho tog raph a ccompany ing t h i sp ape r ,n ow i nL inco ln Mu seum ; a nd t h e r e cogn i t ion b y a n a nonymou s r e v iewe ri nL in co ln sh i r e N o te sa nd Q ue r ie s , 1 889 , 1 60 ,t h a tt h e" r a f t "w a sr ea l ly ab oa t . T h ropp ' s p ape r ( 1 887 ) a nd m ea su red d raw ing ( F ig . 7 . 1 .2 ) p rov ide t h e m o s t s ub s tan t ia l a c coun t o f t h e " r a f t ' s " f o rm a nd s t ruc tu r e , b u t t h e se m u s t b e e va lua ted f o r i n ter na l c on s i s tan cy a nd i nt h el i gh to ft h e 1 974 e xcava t ion t od e te rm ine h ow m uch t h ey may b e r e l ied u pon f o r i n fo rma t ion a bou t e v idence a va i lab le i n1 888 b u tm i s s ing i n1 974 . T h ropp i sa sa ccu ra te a s c an b e e xpe c ted o n t h e p o s i t ion o ft h e ' r a f t ' i nr e la t ion t ot h e t wo r i ve r s , a nd o n t h e o ve ra l l d imen s ion s , 4 0 f tb y 9f t . T h e b r ead th g i ven f o r t h e n o r th w e s te rn e nd o f t h e b oa t i sa l so s im i la r t ot h a t f ound i n1 974 , a nd t h e g ene ra l f e a tu r e s o fo ak p l ank ing m ade w a te r t igh tb ym o s sa nd f a s tened b ys ew ing o ve r al o ng i tud ina l l a th w e r e a l so c on f i rmed o n r e—excava t ion ; a s w a s t h e p r e sen ce o f s ome f o rm o ft r an sve r se t imbe r s t h rough mo r t iced h o le si nt h ec l ea t sp ro jec t ing f r om t h ep l ank ing .

Wh en t h e f u l ls u r v iv ing l e ng th o ft h e' r a f t 'h ad b een r e vea led S . C o le s m u s th ave r e a l i sed t h a th eh ad l e f ti n su ff i c ien tt imbe rt o c omp le te t h e m od e l a nd t h u s as e cond o n e w a s m ade . T h i s i s c l ea r ly b a sed o n J .T h ropp ' s d r aw ing ( F ig 7 . 1 .2 ) h av ing t h e c u r ved n o r th—ea s te r ly e dg eo fs t rak e5 ,n ow k nown t ob ed ue t o s t rake 6 , a nd h av ing t h e t r an sve r se t imb e r s f i l l t h e h o le s t h rough t h ec l ea t s . T h e 1 888 p ho tog raph ( F ig 7 . 1 .3 )p ub l i shed b yt h eR ev .A .H un t ( 1 907 /8 ) , w a s t a k en b y t h e R ev . A . M . C lay f r om t h e s o u th— ea s t , p r oab ly f r om w i th in t h e a r ea w he r e p l ank ing h ad a l r eady b een e x t ra c ted . Many d e ta i l s a r e u n c lea r , s t rak e 6 c a nno tb e i d en t if ied f o r e xamp le , b u t w e c an s e e t h a t t h e ' r a f t ' w a s i n ab e t t e rc ond i t ion w h en t h e p ho tog raph w a s t a ken t h an w h en r e—exeava ted 1 974 ( F ig s 7 . 1 .1 , 7 . 1 .4 , 7 . 1 .5 ) . I ti sc l ea r , h oweve r , t h a tb yt h e t i me o ft h e 1 888 p ho tog raph l i t t le , i fa ny , o ft h em o s s ,l a th s a nd s t i t che s w a s i ns i tu b e tween t h e s t rak e s . I tc an a l so b e s e en t h a t t h e c l ay i nm any o ft h e m o r t iced h o le s t h rough t h e c l ea t s h ad b een c l ean ed o u t , l e av ing o n ly t h e i n sub s tan t ia l , f r agmen ted t r an sve r se t i mbe r s . T h e s ub sequen t c on t inued e xpo su r e o f t h e t i mbe r s t o a f l uc tua t ing 1 63

H oweve r ,T h ropp i sa tv a r iance w i th t h e 1 974 e v idence o n t h e f o l low ing s i gn if i can tp o in t s : ( a ) H e f a i led t o r e co rd t h e 6 t h s t rake e v id en t ly a b so rb ing i ti n to t h e 5 t h s t rak e a nd g i v ing t h e s ou th w e s te rn e dge o ft h e ' r a f t ' ( s t rake 1 ) ac o r re spond ing , b u tn on—ex i s tan t ,b u lge . ( b ) H e i mpo sed a n u n ju s t if iab le r egu la r i ty o n t h e s pa c ing , l e ng th a nd h e igh t o f t h e c l ea t s ; a nd af a l se s ymme t ry i n t h e b r ead th s o f s t rake 1 w i th 5 , a nd s t rake 2w i th 4 . ( c ) T he c r o s s s e c t ion o ft h e p l ank ing g i ven b y T h ropp d oe s n o t s h ow t h e s i gn i f ican t b eve l s o n t h e i n ne r e dge s , n o r t h e r e la t ive ly m uch t h i cke r o u te r e dge s o f s t rake s 1a nd 5 . T h ropp ' s e v idence m u s t t h e r e fo r e b e u sed w i th c au t ion i n r e con s t ruc t ing t h e o r ig ina l f o rm o f t h e ' r a f t ' . I t s e v iden t u n re l iab i l i ty i st ob e m uch r eg r e t ted , a s i ta nd i t s d e r iva t ive s

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F igu re 7 . 1 .3 T he ' r a f t 'p ho tog raphed f r om t h e s ou th e a s tb yR ev . A .N .C laye i n1 888 a nd p ub l i shed b yH un t( 1907 /8 ) .

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F igu re 7 . 1 .5 P ho tg ramme t r ic c on tou rp l o tf r om p ho tog raphy o n2 0 th May 1 974 .N o r th We s ti st ot h el e f t

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy a r et h e m a in s ou r ce f o rt h e s t a t eo ft h es ou th e a s te rn e nd o ft h e f i nd .

o n t h e R . V i s tu la , h a s as im i la r s equence : mo s s , j un ipe r l a th , t u rned n a i l s ,( G r eenh i l l ,p e r sona lc ommun ica t ion ) .

I n d i rec t e v iden ce m ay b e o f v a lue , h oweve r . F ou r m a in a t t r ibu te s o f t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' a r e r e la t iv e ly c ommon i n b oa t—bu i ld ing a nd s ome th ing m ay b el e a rned a bou tt h e' r a f t 'b y a ne xam ina t ion o fo t he rb oa t s .T h e se a t t r ibu te s a r e :

( c ) T he f l a t—bo t tomed f o rm o fb oa t i sa l so w ide ly k nown i n t ime a nd s pa ce .D eve loped a nd u sed f o r ap a r t icu la rf u ne t ion i n ap a r t icu la ro pe ra t ing e nv i ronmen ti ti sn o t t ob e t h ough to fa s " l e s s v a luab le " o r " mo r e p r im i t ive " t h an c r a f t o f t h e r ound—hu l led t r ad i t ion . C on t ra ry t o p opu la r o p in ion , af l a t— b o t tomed c r a f tc an b e p rope l led b y s a i l a nd c an b e s ea—go ing : s e e f o r e xamp le F i lgue i ra s , 1 980 . N eve r the le s s , t h e d e s ig n f e a tu re s o f s u ch a c r a f t a r e e spe c ia l ly u se fu l i n a l low ing a r e la t ive ly g ood p ay load t ob e c a r r ied i ni n land /i n sho re w a te r s w he r et h eb oa tc an b er u na sho re o ra l lowed t ot a ke t h eg round o n af a l l ing t i d e . T he C og o f 1 2 th13 th c en tu ry m ed ieva l E u rope w a s af l a tb o t tomed s h ip ,t h e mo s ta dvanced s ea—go ing v e s se l o fh e r t ime w i th c omp lex d es ign f e a tu re s . A t t h e o t h e r e nd o ft h e s pec t rum w e f i nd s imp le " box— l ike " f o rm s o fb oa t s u ch a s t h e m a s se i ra f r om P o r tuga l , t h e w e id l ing f r om S w i t ze r land a nd t h eg a lar f r om t h eR .V i s tu la ( F ig . 7 . 1 .7 ) . A ny

( a )s ewn p l ank ing ( b )t h ew a te r t igh tne s sa r rangemen t s ( c )t h ef l a t—bo t tomed f o rm ( d )c e r ta in w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s B oa t s w i th o n e o r m o r e o f t h e se f e a tu r e s a r e t o b e f o und w ide ly d i spe r sed i nt i me a nd s pa ce ,a nd t h u si tm ay b ep o s s ib le t om ake g en e ra l i sa t ion sa bou tm i s s ing a spe c t so ft h e ' r a f t 'w i th s ome m ea su r e o fc on f iden ce i nt h e i rp ra c t i cab i l i ty ,b u tw i th n o i mp l ica t ion o fc onnec t ion st h rough t i me o ra c ro s ss pa c e .

o ft h e se l a t te rt h r ee w ou ld h ave b een s u i tab le f o ro pe ra t ion s i n t h ep r eh i s to r ic R .A ncho lme r eg ion .

( a ) S ewn P lank ing . L ogboa t s f r om p r eh i s to r ic E u rope a nd 2 0 th c en tu ry O cean ia a nd e l sewhe r e h ave h ad p l ank s s ewn o n ( wa sh s t rake s ) t o g i ve e x t ra f r eeboa rd ( McG ra i l , 1 978A , 4 1-3 ) . S ew ing h a sa l so b een u sed i nr e pa i r s : t h eB r igg l o gboa t ; t h e A pp leby l o gboa t f r om t h e p r eh i s to r i c R . A n cho lm , ( McG ra i l , 1 978A . f i g s . 8 0 , 8 1 , 8 6 ) ; a nd t h e u nda t ed l o gboa t s f r om L .L aggan S co t land ( McG ra i l , 1 978A ,f i g . 15 ) a nd f r om F i ho lm , S weden ( L indqv i s t , 1 924 ) . B oa t s o fs ewn p l ank s a r e k nown f r om t h e B ron ze A ge t o moder n t i me s : t h e E gyp t ian C heop s b oa t o ft h e m id-3 rd m i l lenn ium B C ( McG ra i l , 1 9 81 ) ; t h e 2 nd m i l lenn ium b e F e r r iby b oa t s ( W r igh t , 1 976 ) —( F ig 7 . 1 .6 ) ; t h e L jub l jana b oa t d a ted b y Mü l ln e r ( 1 892 ) t o t h e p e r iod 5 00100 BC ; t h e D an i sh H jo r t sp r ing b oa t ( Ro senbe rg , 1 9 37 ) o f 3 50 t o3 00 BC ; ab oa t f r om t h e R . NM , Y ugo s lav ia ( B ru s ic , 1 968 ) t h ough t t ob e i s t t o3 r d c e n tu ry AD ; a nd t h e s ewn b oa t s o fm ed ieva l , a nd i n deed p o s t—med ieva l , n o r th er n E u rope a nd t h o se o f t h e 1 9 th a nd 2 0 th c e n tu ry i nt h e I n d ian O cean , O cean ia a nd Ame r ica ( M cG ra i l , 1 98 1 ) . S ome o ft h e se e xamp le s a r e w e l l—documen t ed , b u t m any a r e n o t . P ro f e s so r P r in s i su nd e r tak ing a n a na ly s i s o ft h e s ew ing t e chn ique su s ed i nc e r ta in b oa t s , a r cha eo log ica l a nd e t hnog raph i c , c l a i s i fy ing t h em e i the r a s c on t inuou s s t i t ch ing o r s i ng le l a sh ing s , a nd i d en t i fy ing t h e t y pe o f s t i t ch u s ed : d i agona l , p a i r ed , b u t ton—ho le , k no t ted , l o op ing a nd s o o n . U n t i l h i s w o rk i s a va i lab le n o to n ly a r ed e tai led d e sc r ip t ion s l a ck ing b u tt h e r ei s n o te ven a na g r eed t e rm ino logy .N eve r th e le s sc e r ta in b oa t sc an p r ov ide c ompa ra t ive e v idenc e . ( b ) Wa ter t igh tne s s a r rang emen t s T he s e qu en c e : a b so rban t m a te r ia l w ood en l a th / fa s t en ing ,h a s b een w id e ly u s ed t om ak e b oa t sw a t e r t igh tf r om t h e t i me o ft h ep r eh i s to r ic F e r r iby b oa t s a nd s ome o ft h eR omano—Ce l t ic b a rge s t ot h e 1 6 th c e n tu ry AD

Ap o s s ib le f l a t—bo t tomed b oa t o r r a f t f r om t h e B r igg r e g ion w a sn o ted b yt h e e d i to ro fd e l aP rynne ' s d i a ry ( 1 870 , 6 5 ) . H e r e co rded t h a t a" v e ry p r im i t ive " r a f t " f a s t ened t o ge the r w i th w ooden p eg s " h ad b een f ound a tG reenhoe , Y add le tho rpe n ea r S cun tho rp ei nt h e e a r ly 1 9 th c en tu ry . P a r t s o fi t s w e r e s a id t o h ave b een i n co rpo ra ted i n n ea rby f a rm b u i ld ing s ; h oweve r , t h e se t i mb e r sc anno tn ow b et r aced . ( d ) Woodwork ing t e chn ique s . I n n o r the rn E u rope m any l o gboa t f i nd s a nd t h e m a jo r e l emen t s o f a lmo s t a l l p l anked b oa tf i nd s a r e o ak ( Que r cu s s p . ) .O ak ' s d u rab i l i ty m ean s t h a t i ti sm o r e l i ke ly t o s u r v ive t ob e e xcava ted t h an m any o t he r t i mbe r s p ec ie s a nd t h u s f i nd s may b e u n r ep re sen ta t ive o f t h e r a nge o f t i mb e r f o rme r ly u sed . N eve r the le s s t h e re a r e s ound r e a son s f o r p r e f e r r ing o ak f o r b oa tbu i ld ing t o o t he r n o r ther n E u ropean s pec ie s ( McG ra i l , 1 974 , 3 9 ) : t h e r e w a s as t rong p r e f e r en ce f o r o ak , w he reve r i tw a s a va i lab le , in t h e l a te r m ed ieva l p e r iod a nd t h i s p r ef e ren ce p robab ly e x tended b a ck i n to e a r l ie rt i me s . S im i la r ly , t h e re i s al o ng h i s to ry o fc hoo s ing t h e p r e c i se t imbe r t o m a tch a n i n d iv idua l r equ i r emen t : t h u s n a tu ra l c r ook s w e re s e lec ted t of i t c u rved p o r t ion s o f ab oa t , t h e reby e n su r ing max imum s t reng th . I ti so n ly i nr e cen ty ea r s t h a tt h e a r chaeo log ica lv a lue o fw ood h a s b een s i g n if i can t ly e xp lo i ted a nd r e la t ive ly a c cu ra t e d a t ing o fs u ch d epo s i t s b ecome p rac t icab le ( Co le s e ta l . , 1 978 ) ; t h u s t h e c h rono log ica l d eve lopmen t o f w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s i s a sy e to n ly p oo r ly d o cumen ted ( McG ra i l , 1 979 ) . N eve r the le s s as t a r th a s b een made i ns ome a r ea s : i ti sp o s s ib le t os ay , f o r e xamp le , t h a t t h e f o l low ing t e chn ique s w e r e u sed i nl o gboa t b u i ld ing d u r ing t h eB r i t i sh B ronze A ge : T ran som f i t t ed i n to ag roove a nd m ade w a te r t igh t . T h ick ne s sg auge su sed t op re—de te rm ine t h ick ne s so ft i mb e r . R epa i r s b y s ew ing , b y d oub le d ove ta i l k ey a nd b y m ean s o fa c l ea t—pa t ch . P o s s ib ly t h eu se o ft r eena i l st of a s ten f i t t ing st o ab oa t .

N e the r land s , 1 7 th c en tu ry s ewn b oa t s o ft h e w e s t c oa s t o fS . Ame r ica a nd t h e 2 0 th c en tu ry m a su la o f s o u th e a s t e rn I n d ia ( McG ra i l , 1 981 , C h . 3 ,4 , 1 2 ) , a nd e ven i n at y p e o f m e ta l f a s tened b oa t , t h e w e id l ing i n r e cen t u s e o n S w i s s l a ke s ( A rno ld , 1 977 , 2 96 ) . T h e P o l i sh g a la r ( F ig . 7 . 1 .7 ) , s t i l l i nu s e

1 69

P r eh i s to r i cP lank B oa t s

F i gu r e7 . 1 .6 A ne xpo sed p o r t ion o fF e r r iby b oa t 1o nt h ef o r e sho re o ft h eR ,H umbe ra tN o r th F e r r iby i n1 946 1 70

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F i gu r e7 . 1 .7 Two v i ew so f ag a la ra tS zezvc in ,R .V i s t u la ,P o land .N o t et h em e thod o fm ak ing t h ep l ank ing w a te r t igh to nt h eu ppe r p ho tog raph 1 7 1

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F igu r e7 . 1 .8 Me thod o ff a s ten ing s i de s t rake st oo u te rb o t tom p l ank o ft h eF e r r iby b oa t s ;t h ej o in b e tween o u te rb o t tom p l ank sa nd t h ek ee l—p lank i ss im i la r

Me thod o fj o in ing t h eF e r r iby i s ta nd 2 nd s i de s t rak e s

A f te r Wr igh t , 1 976 ,F ig s 3a nd 6

f r om n ea rs t rake s 3a nd 4w e re o fD r epanoe ladu sa dun cu s : t h e f o rme r s p ec ie s w a s o ne o f t h o se u sed t oc au lk a s p l i t i nt h e B r igg l o gboa t ( A tk in son , 1 887 , 3 65 ) . Mo s sh a sb een u sed a sa b oa tc au lk ing i n aw ide r a nge o ft i me s a nd p l ac e s : t h e l o gboa t H o lme P i e r r epon t 2( MacCo rm ick , 1 968 , 2 9 ) ; V ik ing A g e b oa t so ft h ee a s te rn B a l t ic ( McG ra i l , 1 981 ,C h .4 ) ; a nd p l anked b oa t s o f t h e 1 6 th c en tu ry AD N e the r land s ( Re i nd e r s , 1 979 ) . Mo s s w a s a l so u sed t o p l ug s p l i t s i nh ou se t i mbe r s a t t h e m e so l i t lüc S t a r C a r r s i te ( C la rk , 1 954 ) a nd h a s b een f o und d u r ing e xcava t ion s a tR oman A ge V indo landa a nd V ik ing A ge Y o rk ( S eawa rd & W i l l iam s , 1 976 ) . I th a sb e en c l a imed t h a t a s pec i f ic s pe c ie s o f mo s sN e ck e ra c omp lana ta w a s s e lec ted f o r F e r r iby b oa t 3( S eawa rd & W i l l iam s , 1 976 , 1 74 )b ecau se o fi t s c au lk ing a b i l i ty . H oweve r ,a l lm o sse sa r ea b so rben ta nd c an b e mou lded t of i tg ap s a nd , i nt h e a b sen ce o fq uan t i ta t ive d a ta , i t s e em s m o r e a pp rop r ia te t o a dop t t h e l e s s d emand ing h ypo th e s i s t h a t w ha teve r s p ec ie s w e r e a va i lab le l o ca l ly w e r e

F u r th e rmo re , t h e F e r r iby b oa t s d emon s t ra te B r i t i sh B ronze A ge a b i l i ty t of a sh ion p l ank ing w i th c l ea t s f r om h a l fl o g s a nd w i th e dge sb eve l led s ot h a ta d ja cen tp l ank s i n te r lo ck i n af o rm o f " t ongu e a nd g r oove " w o rk ( F ig . 7 . 1 .8 ) . T he se b oa tbu i lde r s a l so h ad t h e a b i l i ty t op r oduce s t rake s f a sh ioned t o av a r iab le c r o s s s e c t ion s o t h a t t h ey n o t o n ly f o rmed t h e t r an s i t ion b e tween b o t tom a nd s i d e s b u ta l so m e tt h e o u te rb o t tom p l ank a nd t h e k ee l—p lank i nd i f f e r en tw a te r t igh tj o in t s . H a l f ed s ca r f s w e r eu sed b e twe en e l emen t s o ft h ek ee l—p lank , a nd t oj o in t h e s e cond s t r ak e t o t h e f i r s t ( F ig .7 .1 .8 ) . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e se t e chn ique s w e re u s ed a tN . F e r r iby i nt h e m id 2 nd m i l lenn ium b e d oe s n o t m ean t h a t t h ey w e re n e ce s sa r i ly u sed 1 000 y ea r s l a te r e ven o n as i t e o n ly 1 2 m i le s a way a nd i n t h e s ame d ra inage a r ea . T h i s a nd o t h e r s im i la re v idence d o e s , h oweve r , p rov ide s ome g u ide t ot h e s t a te o ft e chno logy i nB ronze A ge B r i ta in : t h e u se o fm o r e c omp lex t e chn ique s s hou ld t h e re fo r e n o tb ea s sumed .

u sed . Woodwo rk ing t e chn ique s u s ed i n t h e m anu fa c tu r e o f o t he r p r eh i s to r ic a r t i f a c t s— t ra ckway s , c o ff in s , h ou se s , e t c . —c ou ld a l so p rov ide e v iden ce o ft h e t e chno log ica l e nv i ronmen t w i th in w h ich t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' w a s b u i l t . H oweve r , t h e r e i sn o r ead i ly a cce s s ib le s i ng le s ou r ce f o r d a ted t e chn ique s , a l though t h e S ome r se t L eve l s p r o je c t i sa c cummu la t ing as ub s tan t ia l b ody o fd a ta .

D r . D . F . C u t le r o f t h e J od rel L abo ra to ry , R oya l B o tan ic G a rden s . K ew , i d en t i f ied w ood s amp le s f r om t h e v a r iou s e l emen t s o ft h e ' r a f t ' . L igh t H a ze l ( Co ry lu s a ve l lana ) s t em s o r s t ra igh t b r anche s s p l i t i nt wo w e r e u s ed f o r t h e l o ng i tud ina l l a th s a l ong t h e p l ank s eam s : t h e a ve rage d i ame t e r w a s c .5 mm , l e ng th s o f i n d iv idua l p i ece s c anno t n ow b e d e te rm ined . T he w o rk ed p o s td r iven t h rough t h eh o le b yc l ea t2 6w a s a l so a h a ze l s t em . W i l low ( S a l ix s p . )w i th ie s w e re s p l i t a nd t h e t wo h a lves t w ined t o ge the r t om ake t h e p l ank s t i t ch ing . W i l low i s r e la t ive ly l i gh twe igh t( 4 50 k g /m 3)a nd e a s i ly w o rk ed ,b u tf r om e t hnog raph ic e xpe r ien ce a nd f r om t h e e v idence o f t h e p r eh i s to r i c w i thy r ope s e x cava ted f r om B re idd in ( Mu s son , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) i t s e em s p robab le t h a t i t w a s w e l l— soaked a nd t w i s ted a l ong i t s l e ng th b e fo r eb e ing l a id—up i n to ' t h r ead ' o r' r ope ' . T he se B r igg w i th ie sh ad ad i ame te ro fc . 1 0 mm ;l e ng th su sed f o rs ew ing c anno tn ow b ed e te rm ined .

B u i ld ing t h e' r a f t' ( a )C ho ice o fr aw m a t e r ia l T he b oa t w a s b u i l t e n t i r e ly f r om o r gan ic m a te r ia l s : t h ree s p ec ie s o f t i mb e r a nd t h r ee d i f f e r en t m o s se s . A s amp le o f m o s s r e cove red f r om n ea r s t rake 6 c on ta ined T hu id ium t amar ix inum a nd a no th e r u n iden t i f ied mo s s , w h i l s t s amp le s 1 72

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

O ak ( Qu e r cu s s p . )w a s u sed f o r t h e p l ank ing a nd f o r t h e t r an sve r se t i mbe r s . T h e se l a t te r h ad a r e c tangu la r c r o s s— se c t io n a nd h ad g ene ra l ly b een w o rked f r om r ad ia l s p l i t s . I ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t e a ch o ne e x tended a c ro s s t h e ' r a f t ' a nd t h u s i n d iv idua l l e ng th s w ou ld h ave b een 2 . 2 7 m ; t h i ckn e s s w a s 3 0 mm b e fo re s h r inkage , w i th b r ead th s u p t o 1 30170 mm . H i l lam ' s d end ro ch rono log ica l e xam ina t ion r e vea l s t h a t t h ree t r e e s w e r eu s ed f o rt h eb o t tom p aank ing : t r ee 1 / 5 , t r ee 3 / 4 a nd t r e e 2 .H ilam a l so s how s t h a tf r agmen tG 5 w a s f r om t r ee 1 / 5 , a nd G 4 f r om t r ee 3 / 4 . A s G 5 h a s as im i la r c r o s s— sec t ion t o s t r ake 5a nd w a sf o und a lmo s ti nl i ne w i th i t ,i tb ecome sh i gh ly p r obab le t h a t s t rake 5 o r ig ina l ly e x tended a t l e a s t f r om c l ea t—un i t 5 1 t oc l ea t—un i t 5 10 (= G 5 ) . S im i la r ly , s t rake 4 p r obab ly i n c lud ed f r agmen t G 4 . T h i s h ypo the s i s r e c e ive s s u ppo r tf r om t h ef a c tt h a tt h eg i r th d educed f o rG 5 ' sp a r en tl o g i s2 .4 5 mi n d ica t ing an a tu ra li n c r ea se i ng i r th f r om t h e2 . 0 1 m a t c l ea t 5 . I ts e em s l i ke ly t h e r efo r e t h a t a l l f i ve b o t tom s t rake s w e r eo fs i ng le h a l fl o g s . T h ropp ' s d raw ing a nd t e x td o n o tc on t rad i c tt h i s . T he se t h r ee o ak s ( t r ee s 1 / 5 , 3 / 4 a nd 2 )w e r e t h e re fo r e a tl e a s t 1 2 . 2m i nl e ng th w i th t h ef o l low ing a pp rox ima te p r es h r inkage g i r th s : n ea r t h e u ppe r e nd ( a t c l ea t r ow 2 ) : —2 . 07 m ; 5 -6 m f r om t h e b u t t e nd ( a t c l ea t r ow 6 ) : —2 . 21 t o2 . 49 m ; a nd a t b r ea s t h e ig h t ( t h e f o r e s te r ' s p o s i t ion f o r c ompa r i son s ) : —2 . 70 mf o r t r e e 1 / 5 , a nd 3 .0 3 mf o r t r ee s 3 / 4 a nd 2 ( a s sum ing a n i n e r ea se i nb r ead th o ve rt h em i s s ing p o r t ion ss ou th e a s to fc l ea t r ow 6 s im i la r t ot h e i n e r ea se b e tween c l ea t r ow s 2a nd 6 ) . T h e se m ea su r em en t s m ay b ec ompa red w i th t h ep a ren to ak f o r F e r r iby 2k ee l—p lank w h ich h ad ag i r th o fc .3 . 45 m ( W r igh t , 1 9 76 ,2 ,f i g .8 ) . I th a sn o tp roved p o s s ib le t oe s t ima te t h es i ze o ft h ec o r r e spond ing p a r en to ak f o rF e r r iby 1a sm uch d epend s o nt h ee s t ima t e so ft h ee x t en ta nd o r ien ta t ion o ft h ec u rved e nd ; h oweve ri tm u s th ave b een a tl e a s t 2m i ng i r th . T he o ak f r om w h ich t h e B r igg l o gboa t w a s f a sh ioned w a s 1 4 .78 m i nl e ng th w i th ag i r th n e a rt h eb u t to f5 .9 0 ma nd o f5 .4 0ma t1 3 . 5m ; t h e P oo le l o gboa t ' s o ak w a s 1 0 . 0 1 mi nl e ng th w i th al owe r g i r th o f5 . 40 m a nd 3 . 77 m a t 9m ( McG ra i l , 1 978A , 19 , 1 70 , 2 56 ,3 0 9 ) . S t rak e 6w a sf r om ad i f f e r en to ak w h ich c ou ld h ave b een m uch l e s s s u b s tan t ia l , a nd i ti sp o s s ib le t h a t t h e t r an sve r se t imbe r s c ame f r om t h es ame t r ee , a l though t h i sc anno tn ow b ev e r if ied . T h en ow—m i s s ing e nd sa nd s i de so ft h e' r a f t ' ( s ee b e low ) c ou ld h ave b een f a sh ioned f r om t h i s l o g o r f r om t h e o t he r h a l f o f s t rake 2 ' sp a r en tl o g .

a sd r i f twood . I n d eed , the B r igg o ak so fc .1 70 y ea r s w ou ld n o t b e n ea r t h e e nd o ft h e i rn a tu ra l l i f e span a nd i ti su n l ike ly t h a t t h ey w ou ld h ave d eve loped h ea r tr o tw h ich t h e p a r en t o ak s o f t h e P oo le a nd B r igg l o gboa t s p robab ly h ad ( McG ra i l , 1 978A , 1 2 1 ) . T r ee s s u ch a s t h o se d e s t ined f o r t h e ' r a f t ' c an b e f e l led w i th as imp le t o o lk i t , i n av a r ie ty o fw ay s —s e e f o r e xamp le Mao r i m e thod s u sed i n aS ton e A ge c on tex t ( Be s t 1 925 , 4 2-54 ) . H ea l , i nh e r p ap e r o n t h e w ood—wo rk ing t o o l s t h a t m ay h ave b een u sed h a s s ugge s ted t h e u se o f f i r e . I ti sn o t p o s s ib le t o d e t e rm in e w hen t h e t r ee s w e r e f eled b u t w in t e r s e em s t h e m o s t l i ke ly s ea son ( McG ra i l , 1 974 , 3 9 ) . A f te r f e l l ing , t h e h ead a nd b r an che s w ou ld b e r emoved l e av ing a s ub s tan t ia l l o g . H i I lam s ugge s t s t h a t t h e se l o g s w ou ld h ave b een p a r t ly c onve r ted i n to p l ank ing o ns i te ,a nd i ti st r ue t h a tb y t h i s m ean s e x t ra c t ion f r om t h e f o re s t m ay b e s imp l i f ied . N eve r the le s s , t h e r e a r e a dvan tage s i nc onve r s ion c l o se t ot h e b u i ld ing s i te , a nd d o cumen ted Mao r i m e thod s ( Be s t , 1 925 , 5 4-5 ) d emon s t ra t e t h e i n gen iou s w ay s i nw h ich g r ea tl o g s c an b e m oved o ve r l o ng d i s tance s , a nd i ft h e b u i ld ing s i te i s d own s t r eam o ft h ef o r e s tl o g sm ay b ef l oa ted t h e r e . B uck land ' s e nv i ronmen ta l e v iden ce s ugge s t s t h a t t h e re w a s a n o ak f o r e s t n o tf a rf r om t h e' r a f t ' s 'f i nd spo t ,h oweve ri ti sn o tp o s s ib le t ob e p r ec i se a bou t t h e r e la t ive p o s i t ion s o f f o re s t , b oa tbu i ld ing ' y a rd ' ,a r ea o fu se ,a nd d epo s i t ion s i t ee xcep tt h a ti ti sp r obab le t h a ta l lw e r er e la t ive ly c l o se t o ge the r . ( b )C onve r s ion o fb o t tom p lank ing G reen ( u n sea soned ) o ak i se a s ie r t ow o rk t h an s e a soned a nd h a s o t he r a dvan tage s i nb oa tbu i ld ing ( McG ra i l , 1 974 , 3 9-42 ) . S oon a f te rf e l l ing t h en ,t h el o g sd e s t ined f o rt h e' r a f t 'w e r es p l i t l o ng i tud ina l ly i n to t wo h a lve s ,p robab ly u s ing w ood en w edge s . I tm ay h ave b een a t t h i s s t age t h a t al o g w a s s p ec if i ca l ly c ho sen f o r s t rake s 1a nd 5w h ich w e r e t oh ave t h ick p l a nk ing a l ong o ne e dge . I tm ay a l so h ave b een d u r ing c onve r s ion ( o r d u r ing f e l l ing ) t h a t d amage o c cu r r ed t ot h e l owe r s e c t ion o f t r ee 3 / 4 , r e su l t ing i nt h e r e la t ive ly n a r row b r ead th o f s t rak e b e tween c l ea t—un i t s 4 3 a nd G 4 , i n s tead o f t h e g ene ra l ly i n e r ea s ing b r ead th s f r om t o p ( = n o r th w e s t e nd ) t owa r f s t h e b u t to fa l lo t he rs u rv iv ing l e ng th s o fs t rake s . S uch ar e s t r ic t ion i na va i lab le b r ead th o fw ood m ay , h oweve r , h ave b een d ue t o ma l fo rma t ion o rd amage d u r ing g r ow th . A f t e r s p l i t t ing , t h e b a rk a nd m u ch o f t h e s apwood w e r e r emoved f r om e a ch h a l fl o g .T he g en e ra li n c rea se i nb r ead th o f s t rake f r om t h en o r th w e s tc o r r e spond ing t ot h en a t u ra lf o rm o f t h et r ee , a nd t h ef a c tt h a ts ome s apwood w a sl e f to ni na tl e a s t p a r t s o fe ach s t rake e mpha s i se t h a t t h e b u i lde r s w e r e s e ek ing t om ak e m ax imum u s e o f t h e t i mbe r a va i lab le t oo b ta in t h e g r ea te s tb r ead th o fp l ank ing . D amage o rn a tu ra l d e f e c t s a pa r t , t h e s ou th—ea s t e nd o fe ach s t rake w ou ld h ave b een p o t en t ia l ly a sb r oad , a nd m o s tp robab ly b road e r ,t h an t h eb r ead th sa tc l ea t r ow 6 ( i . e .h a l fway u p t h e t r unk s ) T h ropp ' s d r aw ing ( F ig . 7 . 1 .2 ) a ppea r s t o s h ow t h a t , e xc ep t f o r s t rake 3 , t h e se t h eo re t ica lb r ead th s w e re n o tu sed t ot h e f u l l , i n d eed s t rak e s 1 a nd 5a r ee v iden t ly s i gn if ican t ly r e du ced i nb r ead th t owa rd st h e s ou thea s t e nd . T he p o s i t ion g i ven b y T h ropp f o r t h e c l ea t s a t t h i s e nd o ft h e r a f t i ss omewha t c on t rad ic ted b y t h e e v idenc e f r om e xcava t ion , a nd u n le ss l o g 1 / 5 h ad an a tu ra l b end n ea r t h eb u t te nd t h e r e i sn o w ay t h a t t h ek i nk s s h own b y T h ropp i n s t rake s 1a nd 5s ou thea s to fc l ea tr ow 7c ou ld b eo b ta in ed f r om

T h eo ak s s l e c ted f o r t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' w ou ld h ave b een s t and ing f o r e s t o ak s o fs t ra igh t g ra in , w i th f ew , i fa ny , l ow b ranche s . K no t s w e r e i n d e ed f o und i na l l t h e s t rake s , e spec ia l ly t r ee 2 , b u tm any o ft h eb r anch es t h e se r e p r e sen t ed h ad d i ed b ack e a r ly o n a st h e c a nopy c l o sed a nd c ompe t i t ion i n c rea sed . T he t r ee s w ou ld a l so h ave b een c ho sen f o re a se o fa cce s s a nd e x t ra c t ion , a nd w ou ld i d ea l ly h ave h ad a d amage— f ree f e l l ing a r ea s u r round ing t h em . I tw ou ld n o tb en e ce s sa ry t ow a i t f o r s u ch t r ee s t ob e b r ough t d own b yn a tu ra le f f ec t so rt ob ep rov ided f o r tu i tou s ly b yf l ood s 1 73

P r eh i s to r i cP lank B oa t s as i ng le l o g . N eve r the le s s , e xam ina t ion o f f r agmen t s G S ( = c l ea t—un i t5 10 ) a nd G 4( =4 10 )s how t h a ta tt h e se ( b u t t )e nd so f t r ee s 1 / 5 a nd 3 / 4t h es take s w e re s ome 1 50-200 mm n a r rowe r t h an t h ey n eed h ave b een i f t h e t h eo re t ica l a moun t o f h ea r twood h ad i n deed b een a va i lab le . T h i s r e duc t ion i n b r ead th s c anno t b e a t t r ibu ted t o ad e s ign r e qu i r emen t a s s u ch b r ead th sc ou ld mo re e conom ica l ly h ave b een o b ta ined f r om t h e o t he r( u ppe r )e nd so ft h el o g s . I tt h u ss e em sl i ke ly t h a ta l lt h r ee t r ee s w e re d amaged a t t h e i r b u t t e nd s , w i th t h e d amage e x tend ing f u r the ru pt h et r unk o ft r ee 3 / 4i nt h eh a l ft h a tb e came s t rake 4 . B read th m ea su remen t s b e tween s u r v iv ing e dge s a nd b e tween o ppo s ing s ew ing h o le s o n t h e s ame s t rake s how t h a t , i n a dd i t ion t o t h e c on s tan t b r ead th s b e tween c l ea t s 4 3 a nd 4 6 , t h e re w e re s l igh t d epa r tu re s f r om t h e g ene ra l r u le o fs t ead i ly i n e rea s ing d imen s ion s t owa rd s t h e s ou th—ea s t e nd . F o r e xamp le , b r ead th m ea su remen t s b e tween s ew ing h o le s i n c rea se r e la t ive ly s ha rp ly a tc l ea t—un i t 3 3 a nd t h en i n c rea se l e s s q u ick ly t oc l ea t—un i t 3 6 . T h i s a nomo lou sr e g ion o n s t rak e 3c o r re spond s w i th t h e r e g ion o f a pp rox ima te ly c on s tan t _ b r ead th so n s t rake 4 .T he se c hange s i nb r ead th s a r e o n ly o ft h e o rde r o f 2 0-30 mm g r ea te r o r l e s s t h an w ou ld b e e xpe c ted f r om ar egu la r ly t a p e r ing t r ee o ve r al e ng th o f2 -3 m ,b u tt h ey a r en eve r the le s s s i gn i f ican t . I ts e em s l i ke ly , t h e re fo r e , t h a tt h e s t rake s d id n o t h ave a b so lu te ly s t ra igh t e dge s b u t as l igh t w av ine ss . T h i s w ou ld b e c on s i s ten t w i th t h e b u i lde r ' s a im t o o b ta in t h e max imum b r ead th a l ong t h e l e ng th o f e a ch s t rake : w he re t h e r e w a s n a tu ra l d amage , o r w hen m ino r m i s take s i n w oodwo rk ing l e d t o ar educ t ion i nb r ead th , t h e a d jacen ts t rake w a s f a sh ioned t o ma tch t h e c on t iguou s d e f ec t .

Al i ke ly t i me . f o r s u ch m i s tak e s t oo c cu r w ou ld b e d u r ing t h e w o rk ing o ft h es t rak ee dge b eve l s ,e spec ia l ly t h et h in o ne s . T he F e r r iby b oa t s m ay h ave h ad s im i la r w avy e dge s (W r igh t , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) a nd s u ch n on— l in ea r i ty may b e s e en o nm odem s ewn b oa t sf r om t h eR .N ige r , Ma l i( F ig . 7 . 1 .9 ) . I na dd i t ion t og ene ra l ly i n e r ea s ing i nb r ead th , b y s ome 5 c m o ve r as u r v iv ing l e ng th o fc . 7m , t h e s t rake s ( i n c lud ing c l ea t s ) i n c r ea se i nh e igh tt owa rd s t h e s ou th—ea s ter ne nd : t h i s a ga in i s r e la t ed t ot h e n a tu ra l t a p e r o f t h e l o g s . B u t t h e c l ea t s d o n o t i n c r ea se i nh e igh ti nt h er e gu la rm anne rd r awn b y T h ropp w i th t h ep l ank ing r ema in ing ac on s tan tt h ickn es s( F ig . 7 . 1 .2 ) . I nf a c t t h e p l ank ing l i e r ea se s i nt h i ckne s s f r om c . 2c m a tt h e n o r th w e s tt oc . 5c ma tc l ea tr ow 6 ,w h i l s tt h ec l ea t sg ene ra l ly r ange i nh e igh tf r om 1 2t o1 3c m . T h ec l ea t s a r en o te ven ly s paced a l ong e a ch s t rake ( 1 . 2 5 mt o 1 .3 1 m , c e n t r e t oc en t r e ) , t h ey v a ry i ni n d iv idua l l e ng th f r om 0 . 63 m t o1 .0 0m ,a nd t h el o ng i tud ina lp o s i t ion o ft h e mo r t iced h o le t h roug h t h em i sn o t s t anda rd . B u i lde r s o f ar e cen t D an i sh r e p l ica o f t h e p r eh i s to r ic H jo r t sp r ing b oa t , w h ich a l so h a s c l ea t s i n t eg ra l w i th t h e p l ank ing , f o und i td i ff i cu l t t o f a sh ion c l ea t s s o t h a t t h e m o r t iced h o le s w e r e p r ec i se ly i nl i ne w i th t h o se o n a d jac en t p l ank s . T hey t h e r e fo re c u t o ve r s ize , b l ank c l ea t s , a nd d i d n o t c u t m o r t ice s u n t i l a f te r t h e p lank ing h ad b een f a s tened ( Roa r L ind e 7 1 , p . 2 4 ) . I t s e em s p o s s ib le t h e r e fo r e t h a t t h e ' r a f t ' b u i lde r s f a sh ioned b l ank c l ea t s w h ich w e r e s im la r b u t n o t i d en t ica l t o e a ch o t he r , a nd made t h em o ve r s ize s ot h a tt h e r e w ou ld b e s ome l a t i t ude i ns pa c ing a nd i n l e ng th o fc l ea tt oa c commoda t e d i ff i cu l t ie s d ue t ot h ep o s i t ion o fk no t sa nd t h ev aga r ie so fw oodwo rk ing .

F igu re 7 . 1 .9 A d i sman t led s ewn b oa tf r om t h eR ive rN ige r 1 74

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3 F igu r e7 . 1 .10 C on jec tu ra lb u i ld ing s equnce f o rt h e ' r a f t ' 1 .L og s p l i t 2 .U nde r su r face w i th b eve l s w o rked 3 .U ppe rs u r face w i th b l ank c l ea t s f a sh ioned 1 75

P r eh i s to r i cP lank B oa t s

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1 .H a l f— log p laced f l a t s u r fa ce d own , b a rk a nd o u te r s apwood r emoved . 2 . H a lf— log c hocked f l a t s u r face ( p i th s i de ) u ppe rmo s t , d e f ec t ive a r ea t r immed , w edged s u r f a ce made s moo th a nd b eve l s c u t a l ong p l ank e dge s l e av ing s apwood o n ly w he r ee s sen t ia l( F ig . 7 . 1 .10 ) . 3 .H a l f— log r eve r sed . I tw ou ld b e p o s s ib le t of a sh ion t h e u ppe r s u r face o ft h e p l ank ing w i th t h e l o g o n t h e g round ;h oweve r , a sa c ce s s t ot h eu nde rs u r fa ce w ou ld b e r equ i red s ub sequen t ly i t i s p robab le t h a t t h e h a l f— log w a s p la ced o n " s to ck s " o f s ho r t t r an sve r se l og s a tt h i s s t age ( F ig 7 . 1 .10 ) . P lank w o rked a way t o l e ave o ve r s ize b l ank c l ea t s , a ccep t ing d ev ia t ion sf r om t h ei d ea li n te rva l .

( c )F a s ten ing t he b o t tom p lank ing a nd mak ing w a ter t igh t T h ropp ( 1887 , 9 6 ) s t a te s t h a t , " mo s s c au lk ing h a s b een f ound i nt h e j o in t s [ b e tween t h e p l ank s ] "a nd a s af u r the r e f fo r t t o m ake i t , t o s ome e x ten t , w a te r t igh t , t h e s i de s o f e a ch p l ank w e re p i e rced w i th 3 / 8 i n . h o le s 2o r 3i n che s a pa r t , a nd t h e j o in t s c ove red w i th s t ra igh t p i ece s o f w ood , 2i n . d i ame te r f a s tened b y l a sh ing , w h ich w a s p a s sed t h rough t h e h o le s a nd o ve rt h ese r ound p a ck ing p i ece s . " F igu r e 7 . 1 .14 i s ar e—d rawn e n la rgemen t o f T h ropp 's c r o s s s e c t ion o f t h e ' r a f t ' s hown i n F igu r e7 . 1 .2 . E ven a tt h is s ca le ,d e ta i l so ft h ef a s ten ing sc anno t b ed educed . O ne xcava t ion i n1 974 t h e p l ank ing w a s f ound t oh ave s h runk a way f r om a d jacen t s t rake s a nd a ny th ing c onnec t ing t h e p l ank ing t oh ave b een d i sp laced o rr emoved . Tw i s ted w i l low s t i tch ma te r ia l w a s , h oweve r , f o und w i th in mo s to ft h e s ew ing h o le s . Mo ss w a sn o tf ound i ns i tu b u tw ad so fi tw e r ef o und o n , o ri no ne c a se u nde r , t h e p lank ing . T he " r ound p ack ing p i ec e s " h ad a l so b een r emoved d u r ing t h e 1 888 e xpo su r e b u t f r agmen ted l e ng th s o f s pl i t h aze l s t em s w e r e f o und o n t o p o f t h ep l ank ing ,s ome t ime s a s soc ia ted w i th mo s s .

b oa tbu i ld ing . T h ey v a ry f r om s imp le , s i ng le l a sh ing s b e tween p a i r ed h o le s ( t he m e thod u s ed i n t h e F e r r iby b oa t s —s ee Wr igh t , 1 976 , 1 6 ) , t os ew ing w i th ac on t inuou s t h r ead , a s f o r e xamp le i n t h e R . N in s ewn b oa t s ( F ig 7 . 1 .15 ) , o r i n t h e L jub l jana b oa t ( F ig 7 . 1 .16 ) a s p ub l i shed b y Mu l lne r ( 1 892 ) . T he d r aw ing b y t h e l a t t e r i mp l ie s t h a t s ome f o rm o f d oub le s t i t ch ing w a s u s ed a st h e s pa ce b e tween e ve ry p a i ro fh o le s i s c r o s sed d i agona l ly b y s t i t ch ing . C on t inuou s s t i t ch ing c an b e ( a nd h a s b een ) u s ed w i th p a i r ed h o le s o r w i th d i agona l ly d i spo sed h o le s , b u ts i ng le l a sh ing s w ou ld s e em t ob e l o g ica l ly r e s t r ic t ed t op a i r ed h o le s . E v idenc e f r om t h e C heop s b oa t i s l i t t le h e lp i ni n t e rp r e t ing t h e B r igg m a te r ia l a s L and s t it im 's r e con s t r uc t ion d r aw ing s h ow s t h e r e t ob e c on t inuou s s t i t ch ing b u ta c ro s s t h ep l ank ing r a the rt h an a l ong t h e e dge s , a nd i na ny c a se t h ep ub l i shed w o rk t od a t e d o e sn o ts t a te w ha tw a s f ound a nd w ha ti sc on jec tu ra l . T h ee v idenc ef r om H jo r t sp r ing ,R . N in a nd L jub l jana a l so d o e s n o tm ak e t h i s d i s t in c t ion . I na dd i t ion , a sP ro f e s so r P r in s ( p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) h a s p o in ted o u t , t h e e v iden ce f o r t h e s ew ing o ft h e H jo r t sp r ing b oa t i se n t i re ly f r om i mp r e s s ion s i nt h er e s in p ay ing a nd i sa sc ompa t ib le w i th s imp le l a sh ing s a s w i th c on t inuou s s t i t ch ing . Mode rn s ewn b oa t s , f o r e xamp le t h e E a s t A f r ican M tepe ( Ho rn e l l , 1 941 ) , h ave s ew ing p a t te rn sm o r ec omp lex t h an t h a te v iden t ly u sed i n t h e L jub l jana b oa t ,w i th t h e t h r ead p a s s ing t wo o rm o r e t ime s t h rough e ve ry h o le . T h e m o s tl i ke ly i n t e rp r e ta t ion o ft h e B r igg e v iden ce i st h a tt h e ' r a f t ' p l ank ing w a s s ewn w i th s i ng le s t i tch ing w i th a t wo— s t r anded t h r ead o f s p l i t w i l low t h readed " c on t inuou s ly " t h rough h o le s w h i ch w e r e d i agona l ly d i spo sed t oo ne a no the r . T h eh o le s w e r eb o r ed a lmo s tv e r t ica l ly t h rough t h ei n ne re dge s o fp l ank ing , w he r et h ew ood w a s c .1 2 mm t h ick , s ome 2 0 mm f r om t h e e dge ( F ig . 7 . 1 .17 ) . O n ly o n e c a se w a s e ncoun te red w he r e ar e p lac emen t h o le h ad h ad t ob e b o red b e cau se t h e o r ig ina lo ne h ad b r oken ; h oweve r ,s e ve ra lh o le sn ea rt h ec en t re o ft h e ' r a f t 'h ad b een e n la rged u nd e rn ea th —t h e se a r ed i scu ssed f u r the ri nt h e s e c t ion b e low o n Ma in ten anc e . Mo s th o le s w e re p a ra l le l s i d ed , b u ts ome w e r eh ou r—g la s s s haped , h av ing b een w o rked f r om t o pa nd b o t tom f a ce s . T he s t i t ch ing i sp o t en t ia l ly a m o s t v u lne rab le a spe c t o f a ny s ewn b oa t , a nd b oa tbu i lde r s a n c ien t a nd modem h ave t aken v a r iou s m ea su r e s t o p r o t ec t i t , e spec ia l ly t h e o u tboa rd p o r t ion s . T h i s i se spec ia l ly i mpo r tan t f o r b oa t s o pe ra t ing o f f f o r e sho r e o r r i ve r b ank w h e r e t h ey r e gu la r ly t a k e t h e g round a nd m ay a l so b e d r agged i n a nd o u t o f t h e w a te r . Two w e l l—documen ted m e thod so fp ro te c t ion a r e : ( a )t oc oun te r s ink t h e s t i t ch e s a s i n Mao r i b oa t s ( Be s t , 1 925 , 7 2 ) ; a nd ( b ) t o w edge t h e s t i t che s w i th in t h e s ew ing h o le s a nd c u t o f f t h e e x te rna ls e c t ion s ot h a te a ch s t i t ch b e come si ne f f e c t as t ap le o r ' d og ' , a s i nt h e M t epe ( Home l l , 1 941 , 6 1 ) . I n t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' s t i t ch p ro t ec t ion i sa ch ieved b y w o rk ing t h e b eve l a l ong t h e i n ne r s t rak e e dge s w h ich " l i f t s " t h e s t i t che s s ome 1 5-30 mm a bove t h e b o t tom o f t h e p l ank ing , a nd a tt h e o u t e r e dges o f s t rake s 1a nd 5b yb r ing i ng t h e s t i t che s t h rough t h et h ick e dge s ( F ig . 7 . 1 .17 ) . T h e c ompa rab le t e chn ique u sed i nt h e F e r r iby b oa t si ss h own i nF i g7 . 1 .8 .

T h ropp 's d iag ram ( F ig . 7 . 1 .14 ) s how s t h e p lank ing ( w i th v e ry m i s lead ing c r o s s s ec t ion s ) b u t t ing t o ge the r a t t h e e dge s . A s h r inkage f a c to r o f c . 1 2% w ou ld i n deed b r ing t h e o r ig ina l e dge s o f a d jacen t p lank s , a s f ound , i n to c l o se p rox im i ty ; t h e s ew ing h o le sw ou ld t h en b ec .3 5 t o4 5 mm a pa r t . T h ropp g i ve s n oi n d ica t ion o ft h e r e la t ive d i spo s i t ion o ft h e se h o le s a nd a ny s l igh t movemen t o f i n d iv idua l p lank s a f te r d epo s i t ion c ou ld r e su l t i n am i s lead ing i mp re s s ion o n e xcava t ion . H oweve r , i n g ene ra l , h o le s o n a d jacen t p l ank s s e em t o b e d i spo sed d i agona l ly a nd n o t p a i red . T h i s d i agona l d i spo s i t ion i sa l so n o t iceab le i nt h e r epa ir s t oc l ea t—un i t 2 6 a nd t of r agmen t G 4 ; t h e se mu s tb et h e i ro r ig ina lr e la t ive p o s i t ion s . Aw ide v a r ie ty o f s ew ing t e chn ique s h ave b een u s ed i ne a r ly

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F i gu re 7 . 1 .12 C on je c tu ra lb u i ld ing s equence : 6 . Mo r t ic e sc u tt h o rough c l ea t sa nd t r an sve r se t i mbe r si n se r t ed .L owe rs i de s t rake s( = s t rake 6 )f a s t ened t oo u te rb o t tom s t rake ( = s t rake 5 ) 1 77

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F igu re 7 . 1 .13 C on jec tu ra lb u i ld ing s e quen ce 7 .S econd s i de s t rake f a s t ened t ol owe s ts i d es t rak e 8 .D unnage i n se r ted u nde rt r an sve r se t i mbe r s

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F i gu re 7 . 1 .15 Me thod o ff a s ten ing t h ep l ank ing o ft h eR ive rN in b oa to ft h e i s tt o3 r dc e n tu r ie sA .D .T he s t i t ch ing i sw edged i nt h e h o le sb yt r eena i l s .A f te rB ru s i c , 1 968 ,f i g8

F i gu re 7 . 1 .16 C on s t ruc t iona ld e ta i l so ft h e2 nd h a l fo ft h e i s tm i l len ium B .C .L jub l jana b oa t .A f t e r Mü l ln e r , 1 8 92 1 7 9

P r eh i s to r i cP lank B oa t s ( d )C lea t sa nd t r an sver s et imber s O n ce t h e b o t tom p l ank ing h ad b een f a s tened b y s ew ing , t h e r e la t ive p o s i t ion o ft h e s take s w a s f i xed . A s t h e s take s w e r e t ob e l i nked i ns ome m anne r b y t r an sve r se t imb e r s , mo r t iced h o le s w ou ld t h en b e c u tt h rough t h e c l ea t s s o t h a tt h ey w e re i n l i n e a c ro s s e a ch r ow ; t h e l owe r s u r faces o ft h e se h o le s w ou ld a l so n eed t ob e o n t h e s ame l e ve l ( F ig . 7 . 1 .12 ) . T hu s t h e se m o r t ic ed h o le s w ou ld n o t n ece s sa r i ly b e c en t ra l ly p o s i t ioned w i th in e a ch c l ea t a nd , w h i l s t s ome w ou ld b e f l u sh w i th t h e u pp e r s u r f ace o ft h ep l ank ing , o t he r s w ou ld h ave a' s t ep ' . T h i s i n deed w a s f o und t o b e t h e c a se o n p o s t—excava t ion e xam ina t ion . O ne f u n c t ion o f t h e se c l ea t s s e em s t h ere fo r e t oh ave b een t o m a in ta in t h e r e la t ive p o s i t ion o f t h e s take s b y m ean s o f t r an sve r se t i mbe r s t h rough t h e mo r t ic ed h o le s . I ti st h e refo r e h i gh ly l i ke ly t h a tt h e re w a so ne s i ng le t imbe rt h rough e ach r ow o fc l ea t s : t h i s i sn o tc on t rad ic ted b y e xcava ted e v idence . S uch t i mb e r s a r e n o t a k in t o t h e t imbe r s o f r e cen t s ke le ton—bu i l t b oa t s w h ich d e te rm ine t h e f o rm o ft h eh u l l a nd s upp ly ag r ea t p a r t o f t h e s t reng th : t h e B r igg t imbe r s c an o n ly h ave b een i n p o s i t ion a f t e rt h eb o t tom o ft h e ' r a f t ' h ad b een f o rmed , a nd , a s f a ra sc an b ed e t e rm ined ,h ad n op a r tt op lay i nd e te rm in ing t h e f o rm o ft h e s i d e s . N o rc an t h ey b e d i rec t ly c ompa r ed w i th t h e t i mb e r s o fs h e l l—bu i l tb oa t s w he r e t h ey a r e a dded a f te r ( s ome o f )t h eh u l lh a sb een b u i l t ,a nd r e in fo r ce t h e s t reng th o ft h eh u l l : t h eB r igg t i mbe r s , i ft h ey w e r e c on t inuou s , c an o n ly h ave b een f i t ted b ef o r et h es e cond s i de w a sa dded .

5 c m ä n o w= sm = z z a i l F igu re 7 . 1 .17 I d ea l i sed s e c t ion so ft h e' r a f t ' s 'e dge s :t h in e dge a bove ;t h ick e dge b e low

Wedge s a l so r educe l e akage t h rough t h e s ew ing h o le s a nd t h i s m ay h ave b een t h e i r p u rpo se i n t h e r e pa i r t o t h e A pp leby l o gboa t ( McG ra i l , 1 978A , 1 48 ) d a ted c . 100 b e ( Q-80 ) . T he s ew ing h o le s i nt h e H jo r t sp r ing b oa t o f c .3 00 BC a pp ea r t o h ave b een w a te rp roo f ed w i th ar e s in a s w e r e t h o se o f t h e R . N in b oa t ,a nd ap ay ing o fp i n eg um i sk nown t oh ave b een a pp l ied t o s ewn r e pa i r s t o t h e l o gboa t s o f r e cen t O r egon I nd ian s ( Fo lka rd , 1 870 , 3 51 ) . N o w edge s o r t r a ce s o f r e s in w e re r e cove red o nr e—excava t ion o ft h eB r igg ' r a f t ' ,b u ti nv i ew o ft h eh i s to ry o ft h i sf i nd t h e i ru se c anno tb ee n t i r e ly r u led o u t . T h ropp ' s s t a temen t t h a tm o s s a nd l a th s w e r e u s ed t om ake t h e ' r a f t 's eam sw a te r t igh tw a sc on f i rmed o nr e— excava t ion ,b u tt h e p r ec i se m e thod u sed i s n o t c l ea r . L ong i tud ina l l a th s a nd a b so rban t m a te r ia l s s u ch a s m o s s h ave b een u s ed i na n t iqu i ty a nd e t hnog raph ica l ly i n an umbe r o fw ay s . T h e F e r r iby b oa t s h ave a s i ng le l a th i n boa rd o n t o p o fm o s s ( F ig . 7 . 1 .8 ) ; S w i s s b oa t s o ft h e 1s t20 th c en tu ry r e co rded b y A rno ld ( 1 978 ) h ave t h e l a th o u tboa rd , b e low t h e a b so rban t m a te r ia l ; a nd Mao r i s ewn b oa t s h ad l a th s b o th i n boa rd a nd o u tboa rd ( Be s t , 1 925 , 7 7 ) .T h ropp ' s c r o s s s e c t ion ( F ig . 7 . 1 .14 ) a l though i n ac cu ra t ei n s eve ra l d e ta i l s , a ppea r s t os how t h e u s e o fi n boa rd l a th s a nd f o rl a ck o fc on t ra ry e v iden ce t h i sm u s tb et h ep r e f e r r ed s o lu t ion ( F ig 7 . 1 .11 d e ta i l ) . F ig . 7 . 1 .11 i lu s t ra te s t h e f o u r th s t age i n t h e p o s tu la t ed s equenc e f o r b u i ld ing t h e ' r a f t ' . H o le s w e re b o r ed t h rough t h e e dges o f t h e s take s a nd , w i th t h e h o le s d i spo sed d i agona l ly , t h ep lank sw e re f a s tened t o ge the rw i th ac on t inuou st h r ead o ve r t h e w a te r t igh t e l emen t s o f m o s s a nd l a th . I nO cean ia s imp le l e ve rage d ev ice s w e re u sed t ot i gh ten e a ch s t i tch a st h e s ew ing p rog re ssed : t h e Mao r i t a n ekaha ( Be s t , 1 925 ,7 9 ) a nd t h eC ook

T h ropp r e po r t ed t h a t t h e t r an sve r se t imbe r s w e r e " s ecu r ed b y w edge sd r iven i na tt h es i de so ft h eR a f t , a nd a l so i nt h em idd le r ow s o f c l ea t s " : t h i s e v iden t ly r e f e r s t o s tak e s 1 , 3a nd 5 . Wedge s w e r e n o t f ound o n r e—excava t ion a nd t h e t r an sve r se t i mb e r s h ad e v iden t ly b een m uch d i s tu rbed i n 1 888 . T h ropp d e sc r ib ed t h em a s " r ough b ranche s o f t ee s " , a nd h i s d raw ing ( F ig . 7 . 1 .14 ) s how s t h em e v iden t ly f l l ing t h e m o r t iced h o le s t h rough t h e c l ea t s . I ti sp o s s ib le t h a t d u r ing d epo s i t ion a nd e xcava t ion t h et r an sve r se t imb e r s s p l i ta long t h er ay s a nd w ha t w a sf o und o nr e— excava t ion w a s at h in l am ina t ion o fw ha th ad f o rme r ly b een as ub s tan t ia lt imbe r . H oweve r ,t h i si st h eo r i s ing , a nd T h ropp h a sb een s hown t ob ew rong i no t he ra spe c t s o fh i s r e po r t . I tt h e re fo r e s e em s a dv i sab le t oa ssume t h a t w ha t w a s f o und o nr e—excava t ion w a sw ha tw a sd epo s i ted ,b u ts h runken : c e r ta in ly t h e t r an sve r se t i mbe r s v i s ib le i nt h e 1 888 p ho tog raph ( F ig . 7 . 1 .3 ) a r e a s i n sub s tan t ia l a s t h o se f ound i n 1 974 . T he f r agmen t ed t i mbe r s w e re , i nf a c t , s qua red—o f fr ad ia l s pl i t s o f o ak , t h ep r e— sh r inkage d imen s ion s o fw h ich w ou ld h ave b een u p t o 3 0 mm t h ick a nd 1 30 mm170 mm w ide : t h ey w ou ld h ave o c cup ied l e s s t h an h a lf t h e v e r t ica l d imen s ion o f t h e m o r t ic ed h o le s w h ich w ou ld h ave b een c . 7 0 mm p r e— sh r inkage , b u t i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t t h ey w ou ld h ave f i l led t h em o r t ice h o r izon ta l ly . T h e se t i mbe r s w ou ld t h u s h ave b een u p t oc .2 .2 7 mi nl e ng th a nd w ou ld h ave b een p l a ced i np o s i t ion a f te rt h e p lank ing h ad b een p o s i t ioned a nd t h em o r t ice sc u t ,b u tb e fo re t h es e cond s i d e h ad b een a dd ed .I ti st h eo re t ica l ly p o s s ib le t h a tt h ey c ou ld h ave b een p r e sen t d u r ing t h e s ew ing o f t h e b o t tom p l ank ing f o r , b e ing s ot h in , t h ey c ou ld h ave b een l i f ted w i th in t h e i r mo r t ice s t op e rm i t s ew ing t ot a ke p l ace . H oweve r , i th a s b een a rgued

I s . k ek e ( Buck , 1 927 ; F i g . 12 ) , f o r e xamp le , a r e b o th Y — shaped c r ook s ; t h e M tepe s t i t ch e s a r e a l so t i gh tened b y l e ve r( Hom e 1 1 , 1 94 1 , 6 1 ) . Wedge s a r e u s ed t oh o ld e ach s t i t ch o nce i th a s b een t i gh tened ; s ome t ime s t h e se a r e l e f ti np o s i t ion b u t mo re u sua l ly a l l b u t t h e f i na l o ne a r e r emoved i n s uc ce s s ion .

1 80

S tud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy m ov e a c ro s s t h e b o t tom o ft h e ' r a f t ' i nr e spon se t o ah ee l . I n t h i sr e sp ec tt h e' r a f t ' i st e chn ica l ly m o r e a dvan ced t h a nF e r r iby b oa t 1 .

a bove t h a t m o r t ic e s w e r e n o t c u t u n t i l t h e r e la t ive p o s i t ion o f t h e s t rak e sh ad b een f i xed b y s t i t ch ing a nd t h u s i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t , o n b u i ld ing ( b u t n o t o n r e—a s semb ly ) t h e t imbe r s w e r e i n se r ted a f te rt h es ew ing h ad b een c omp le ted ( F ig .7 .1 .12 ) .

( e )T he s i de s S uch t i mb e r s , w edged a s T h ropp r epo r ted , w ou ld p r even t t h e c l ea t s a nd h e nc e t h e p l ank ing f r om r e la t ive movemen t i nt h e f o r e—and—a f t d i r ec t ion . T he T he ' r a f t ' , e v iden t ly d e s igned t o o p e ra te o f f m ud f la t s ( s ee b e low ) , w ou ld b e e xpo sed t os u ch r e la t ive , s l id ing m ovemen t s e spec ia l ly i f , a s s eem s p robab le ( s ee b e low ) t h e e nd s o f t h e b o t tom s t rake s d id n o t t u rn u p . U n le s s a l f i ve b o t tom s t rak e s t o uched t h e g round s imu l ta neou s ly t h em omen tum o ft h o se s t rake s s t i l lf u l ly a f loa t w ou ld t e nd t o s t r e s s t h e s t i tch ing : t r an sve r se t imbe r s w ou ld m in im i se o re ven p r even t s u ch movemen t . I nd iv idua l s t rake s w ou ld a l so e xp e r ien ce v a ry ing v e r t ica l f o r ce s b o th o n t a k ing t h e g r ound a nd w hen u nde rway : t h e se w ou ld s im i la r ly i mpo se s t r e s se s o n t h e s t i t ch ing , s ome t ime s w i th r ap id r e ve r sa l o f d i r ec t ion . T ran sve r se t imbe r s w edged f i rm ly i ns ome o f t h e i r m o r t ice sw ou ld a l so t e nd t om in im i se t h ee f f ec to ft h e se f o r ce s . T h e B r igg ' r a f t ' h ad t e n t r an sve r se t i mbe r s i n al e ng th o f c . 1 2 .20 m w he r ea sF e r r iby b oa t 1h ad c . 6i n al e ng th o fc .1 5 .35 m . H owev e r , F e r r iby 1p robab ly r e qu i red f ewe r , e ven t h ough s h ew a sa l so o p e ra ted o f fm ud f l a t s ,a sh e ru p tu rned e nd w ou ld a l low as moo th e ra r r iva l a nd h ence r e duce s hea r ing f o r ce s . O n t h eo t he rh and ,F e r r iby b oa t 2h ad c .1 8t r an sve r se t imbe r si nc . 1 . 2 5 m , b u t t h e f o rm o f h e r e nd s i su nknown . T he F e r r iby t r an sve r se t i mb e r s a r e s t ou te rt h an t h o se o ft h e ' r a f t ' , b e ing c .5 x4c m ,a nd t h ey j u s ta bou tf i l lt h em o r t iced h o le s i nt h ec l ea t s ; s om ewha t s t ou t e r o n e s m igh t t h e re fo r e s e em t ob e e ven mo re a pp rop r ia t et ot h e B r igg ' r a f t ' . P o s s ib le r e a son s may ,h oweve r , b e a dva nc ed f o r t h e i r t h inne s s r e la t ive t o t h e v e r t ica l d imen s ion s o f t h e m o r t ice h o le s . F i r s t ly , t h i s w ou ld p e rm i t b r ok en s ew ing t ob e r e pa i red o r mo s s c au lk ing t ob e a dded i n t h ei mmed ia t ev i c in i ty o ft h et r an sve r se t imbe r sw i thou th av ing t od i sman t le o n e s i de o ft h e b oa t s o t h a t t h e t imbe r s c ou ld b e r emoved . S e cond ly , t h e se t i mbe r s m ay h ave b een u sed t oh o ld ad unnage o fl i gh t t i mbe r s o f b ru shwood i np o s i t ion , t h e r eby p r o t ec t ing t h e i n boa rd s t i t ch ing f r om a c c iden ta l d amage ( F ig s . 7 . 1 .13 [ l owe r ] a nd 7 . 1 .18 ) a nd p ro tec t ing t h e c a rgo f r om t h e i n ev i tab le b i lge w a t e r . A s C oa te sp o in t s o u ti nh i sp ape ro nt h e c a rgo c apa c i ty o ft h e ' r a f t ' , s u ch d unnage w ou ld a l so i mp rove t h et r an sve r se s t ab i l i ty o ft h e' r a f t 'b yr e duc ing t h e a dve r se f r ee s u r f a ce e f f e c t s o ft h i s b i lge w a te r . T h i rd ly , t h e u ppe rp o r t ion s o f s ome o f t h e m o r t iced h o le s c ou ld h ave b een u sed a s t empo ra ry l a sh ing p o in t s : a l though c a t t le may h ave b een t h rown a nd h obb led , a nd s h eep p enned— in , i t may h ave b een a dvan tageou st ot i ed own g ood si nb a r r e l so rs a ck s . I n a dd i t io n t o t h e i r o p e ra t iona l f u n c t ion , t r an sve r se t imbe r s w ou ld b e a va i lab le t o r e—a l ign t h e p l ank ing a f te r a ny s u b s tan t ia l d i sman t l ing ( s ee b e low ) . T hey may t h e re fo r e b e t h ough to fa sc on s t r uc t iona la sw e l la ss t ruc tu ra l . T h ec l ea t st h u sh ad ar o le t op l ay i nm in im i s ing s t i t ch w ea rb y p r ov id ing h ou s ing s f o rt h et r an sve r se t i mbe r s , b u t t h ey w e r e o f e qua li mpo r t an c e i nh e lp ing t o ma in ta in t r an sve r se s t ab i l i ty b y r e duc ing f r ee s u r fa ce e f f ec t s . T en r e la t ive ly l a rge c l ea t s o n e a ch s t rak e f o rmed a d i scon t inuou s l o ng i tud ina l s i l l o r d am t h e r eby r e du c ing t h e t e nden cy f o rd e— s tab i l is ing b i lge w a te r t o 1 8 1

T he o u t e re dge so fs t rake s 1a nd 5a r e d i f f e r en tf r om a l l o t he r b o t tom s t rake e dge s b e ing r e la t ive ly t h ick w i th s ew ing h o le s l e av ing t h rough t h ee dge r a the rt h an u nd e rn ea th ( F ig . 7 . 1 .17 ) I t i sp robab le t h en t h a th e r ei st h et r an s i t ion f r om b o t tom t os i de s o f t h e b oa t . T h i s t r an s i t ion i s ap a r t icu la r p rob lem i n f l a t—bo t tomed b oa t d e s ign a nd h a s b een s o lved i nd i f f e ren t w ay s . T he L jub l jana b oa t a nd t h e f l a t—bo t tomed R omano—Ce l t ic c r af t h ave a t r an s i t ion s t rak e o f c u r ved c r o s s— se c t ion s o t h a t b o t tom i sb l ended i n to s i d e , t h e i n boa rd p a r t s o f t h e t r an s i t ion s t rake s f o rm ing p a r t o f t h e b o t tom p l ank ing ( F ig . 7 . 1 .16 ) . T he s t rake s n ex t t ot h e o u te r b o t tom p l ank s o f t h e F e r r iby b oa t s , o n t h e o t he r h and , a l thoug h h o l lowed o u t ,d on o ts oe v id en t ly f o rm p a r to ft h eb o t tom ; t h ey m ay b e t h ough t o f a s f l a red , l owe s t s i de s t rak e s i n t e r lock ing w i th t h e b o t tom p l ank ing a l ong a w a te rp roo f ed s e am ( F ig 7 . 1 .8 ) . O the r e a r ly s ewn b oa t s , t h e H jo r t sp r ing f i nd a nd t h e c r a f t f r om t h e R . N in , a r e r ound—hu l led . I ti sp e rm i s sab le , h oweve r , t on o te t h a t t h e 2 0 th c en tu ry S w i s s w e id l ing ( wh ich h a sb een s hown a bove t oh ave s ome f e a tu r e sc ompa rab le w i th , b u t b y n o m ean s i d en t ica l t o , t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' —( s ee A rno ld , 1 977 ) h a s af l a r ed l owe s t s i de s t rak e w h ich o ve r lap s t h e b o t tom p l ank ing . H oweve r , t h i s b oa t i sb u i l t i nt h e s ke le ton s equen ce ; t h a t i s t h e a ng le t a ken b y t h e s i d e p l ank ing i s d e te rm ined b y t h e f o rm o ft h e p r ev iou s ly f i t ted t i mbe r s . T he B r igg ' r a f t ' i nc ommon w i th t h e F e r r iby b oa t s , o n t h e o t he r h and , w a s s h el b u i l t ; t h a t i s t h e a ng le t a ken b y t h e s i d e p l ank ing w a s d e t e rm ined a s t h e l owe s t s i d e s t rake w a s f a s t ened t ot h e b o t tom p l ank a nd a s s ub sequen t s t rak e s w e r e f a s tened t oe a ch o t he r : t h e a ng le a tw h ich t h e p l ank ing e dge s m ee t a nd t h e c r o s s s e c t ion o f t h e p l ank ing b e ing t h e d e te rm in ing f a c to r s . T h ropp s t a te s , " I ti sn o t al i t t le d i f f icu l tt op r ove s a t i s f a c to r i ly w he the rt h eR a f th ad s i de sa nd ,i fs o ,i nw ha tm ann e rt h ey w e r e c onnec t ed w i th t h e f l oo r . T h e t r a c ing o fg r oov ing f o rt h e s i de s a r e v e ry s l igh t , b u t c e r ta in ly i n o ne o r t wo b oa rd s i tw a s o b se r ved " . G roov ing s e em s a n i n app rop r ia t e w o rd f o r a ny f e a tu r e o f t h e r ema in s f o und d u r ing r e—excava t ion . S t rake 6 , u n re co rded b yT h ropp ,m ay b ei n t e rp re t ed a sp a r to ft h el owe s t s i de s t rake f o rme r ly f a s tened t o s t rak e 5 . b e cau se o f i t s p o s i t ion a nd i t s c r o s s s e c t ion ( F ig 7 . 1 .19 ) e spe c ia l ly t h e b eve l o ni t so u te re dge a sf o und , a nd t h eh o le ' sa l ong b o th e dge s .I ti s a s sumed t h a tt h i ss i de s t rak ef e l lo u twa rd sa f t e rd epo s i t ion a nd t h a t e i the r t h en o r d u r ing 1 888 t h e t r an sve r se t i mb e r t h rough c l ea t s4 4a nd 5 4b ecame d i sp la ced a nd c ame t ol i eo nt o po fi t . Ap o s s ib le m e thod o ff a s ten ing s t rake 6t os t rak e 5i ss h own i n F ig . 7 . 1 .12 w i th t h e s i de s t rake s l igh t ly o ve r lapp ing t h e o u te r b o t tom s t rake a nd l y ing a ta bou t r i g h t a ng le s t oi t .Af l a red s i de s t rake w ou ld b eh yd ro s ta t ica l ly m o re d e s i rab le b e cau se o f i mp roved s t ab i l i ty c ha ra c te r i s t ic s , b u t t h e r e i sn o e v idence f o r s u ch af l a r e . Aq ua r te red r ound l a th , f i g u r ed b y T h ropp ( F ig . 7 . 1 .14 ) b u t n o t f o und o n r e—excava t ion , i su sed w i th m o ss t o m ake t h e s e am w a te r t igh t ; t h e s t i t ch ing i sd i agona lb y a na logy w i th t h em e thod d educed f o rt h eb o t tom p l ank ing .

P r eh i s to r i cP l ank B oa t s

F igu re 7 . 1 .18 D unnage o fb r u shwwod i n co rpo ra t ed i n to o ne s i de o f a1 : 10 m ode lo fF ee r iby b oa t 1 1 8 2

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r cha eo logy T h i s s i de s t rake e nd s i n ac u r ve t ot h e n o r th w e s tb y c l ea t5 2 c ompa rab le w i th t h a t o fF e r r iby b oa t 1b u t o n ly i no ne p l an e . S t rake 5h a s h o le s t h rough i t s o u tboa rd e dge o ve r t h e w ho le l e ng th e xcava ted a nd s o t h e re m u s t h ave b een f u r the r s i d e p l ank ing t ot h e n o r th w e s t o f s t rake 6 ,b u t h ow t h e se t wo ( o r m o r e ) e l emen t s f o rm ing t h e l owe s t s i de— s t rake w e r ej o ined t o e a ch o t he r i sn o t c l ea r . A s r e con s t r uc ted i nF i g . 7 . 1 .12 a nd 7 . 1 .13 t h e s i de s t rake e x t end s a bove t h e u pp e r s u r fa ce o ft h e b o t tom p l ank ing b yc .1 50 mm , b r ing ing i tt os ome 1 0-60 mm a bove t h e t o p o f t h e c l ea t s . I ti sa s sumed t h a t as im i la r s i d e s t rake w a sf a s tened t os t rake 1 . I tm igh t b e a r gued t h a t s t rak e 6d i d n o t s imp ly c olap se o u twa rd s a f te r d epo s i t ion , a s h a s b e en a s sumed i n t h e f o rego ing d i scu s s ion , b u t c o l lap sed i nwa rd s a nd t h en s l id o u twa rd s , s o t h a t t h e e dge f ound n ex t t o s t rak e 5w ou ld f o rme r ly h ave b een t h e t o pe dge o ft h el owe s ts i d e s t rak e . T he b eve la t Co nF ig . 7 . 1 .19 w ou ld ,h oweve r ,t h en b eo u tboa rd a nd l ow d own , t o n o a ppa r en t u se f u l p u rpo se : t h e p o s s ib il i ty i s t h e r e fo re d i scoun ted . O ve rt h eg r ea te rl e ng th o fs t rake 6a sr e cove red ,t h eu pp e re dg e h a s ab eve l w h ich h a s b een w o rk ed a l ong ar a y i nt h e t i mb e r ( F ig . 7 . 1 .19 l owe r ) . A s e cond s i d e s t rak e m ay t h u s b e p o s tu la ted , f a s t ened b y s ew ing t h rough h o le s a l ong b o th s i d e s o f ab eve l led o ve r lap ( F ig . 7 . 1 .13 ) , c ompa rab le w i th t h e H jo r t sp r ing b oa t ; b y a na logy w i th t h e B r igg b o t tom s t rak e s t h e r em ay h ave b een a ni n te rna ll a th a s so c ia t ed w i t ht h i ss e am . T he s ho r tl e ng th o fs t rake 6f ound a l ong s id ec l ea t5 a nd t ot h e s ou th e a s t h ad a d i f f e ren t c r o s s s e c t ion ( F ig . 7 . 1 .19 u ppe r ) : T h i s s e em s t o i mp ly t h a t o ve r t h i s s e c t ion o f t h e b oa t ( n ea r a m id sh ip s ) t h e j o in t b e tween f i r s t a nd s e cond s i d e s t rak e s c hanged f r om a no ve r lapp ing o ne t o ab u t t ed o ne s im i la rt ot h e b o t tom s t rakes . T h i s t r an s i t ion m ay h ave b een a ch ieved b y f o rm ing t h e s econd s i d e s t rak e o f t wo e l emen t s ( o r m o r e ) j o ined i ns ome m anne rn ea rt h i sb eve lc hange . T he b r ead th o ft h e p o s tu la ted s e cond s i de s t rake c an o n ly b e e s t ima ted , p o ss ib ly i tw a s s im i la rt ot h e l owe s t o n e , t h a t i sc . 1 70 mm , w h ich w i th a 2 0 mm o ve r lap w i th t h e l owe s t s i de s t rake w ou ld g i ve a n o ve ra l l h e igh t o f s i de s a bov e t h e l owe r s u r face o ft h e b o t tom p l ank ing o fs ome 0 .3 4 m . S i de s o ft h i s h e igh t w ou ld g ene ra l ly k eep o u t t h e w a t e r w h en o p e ra t ing o n s u ch aw a te rway a st h ep o s tu la ted e s tua r in ea rm o ft h eH umb e r ( s ee P r ima ry u se , b e low ) a nd y e t w ou ld n o t b e ag r ea t o b s tr uc t ion w h en l o ad ing a nd u n load ing , e ven t o w a lk ing a n ima l s . T hey w ou ld e a s i ly p e rm i t m en t ou s e ap add le , y e t w ou ld r e ta in a ny d unnage . T h e s i d e h e igh t i sf u r the rd i scu s sed i nH ypo the t i ca lR e con s t ru c t ion ,b e low .

( f )T he E nd s N o i n d ica t ion o f t h e f o rm o f t h e e nd s , t h e i r m e thod o f f a s ten ing , o r i n deed t h e i r p r ec i se p o s i t ion w a s f o und o n r e—excava t ion . T h ropp c a l led t h en o r th w e s te nd t h e " f o r e e nd " a nd s t a t ed t h a t a tb o th e nd s , " t he c l ea t sw e r e f i n i shed f l u sh w i th t h ep l ank ing " . O n e xcava t ion , h oweve r , t h e p l ank ing w a s f o und t oe x t end a t l e a s t 2 0 o r3 0mm t ot h e n o r th w e s t o ft h e c l ea t s i nr ow 1 .T o 1 8 3

t h e s o u th e a s t , f r agmen t s G 4 a nd G 5 w e re f ound t oh ave b een d amag ed d u r ing 1 888 a nd t h u s i ti sn o t p o ss ib le t ov e r i fy o r c on t rad ie t T h ropp ' s s t a t emen t h e r e . A s t h e e nd s m u s t b e c on jec t u ra l ,f u r the rd i scu s s ion o ft h em i sb e s tl e f tt ot h es e c t ion o nh ypo the t ica lr e con s t r uc t ion . ( g )P ropu l s ion a nd S te er ing N oe v idenc e f o rt h em e thod s o fp ropu l s ion w a s f o und e i the ri n 1 888 o r 1 974 . P ivo ted o a r s o n a5 t h c en tu ry BC g o ld mode l f r om D u r rnbe rg a r e t h e f i r s t i n d ica t ion o f r ow ing i nn o r the rn E u rop e ( E l lme r s , 1 978 , 1 ) , a nd t h e B ro ig h te r b oa t mode l o f t h e i s t c e n tu ry BC ( Fa r r e l l a nd P enney , 1 975 ) a nd C ae sa r ' s s t a t em en t a bou t t h e b oa t s o ft h e V ene t i ( d e B e l lo G a l l i co , I I , 1 3 )a r et h ee a r l ie s te v iden ce f o ri n d igenou ss a i l .T he u se o fs a i l o r o a r t o p rop e l t h e ' r a f t ' i s t h e re fo r e d i scoun ted , f o r t h e p r e sen t . P add le s h ave b een f o und g ene ra l ly t h roughou t n o r th a nd w e s t er n E u rope ( n o t a l l a r e f o r n au t ica l u se s ) i n c lud ing o ne f r om t h e m e so l i th ic s i te o f S t a r C a r r ( C la rk , 1 954 ) . A l though f ew o t he r s a r e w e l l—da ted , i ts e em s s a f e t oi n f e r t h a tp add le s w ou ld h ave b een a va i lab le i nm id1s tm i l lenn tum b c H umbe r s i d e . T h e r e i s n o d i re c t e v idence f o r p o l ing ( c o l loqu ia l ly " p un t ing " )u n t i lt h eR oman A ge ( Elme r s , 1 978 , 1 0 )b u ta st h i s r e qu i r e s o n ly s imp le e qu ipmen t ( a p o le , w h ich may n o t b e r e cogn i sab le a ss u ch o ne xcava t ion ) a nd i si nu se w o r ld—w ide , i ts e em s l i k e ly t h a tt h eB r igg ' r a f t 'c ou ld a l so h ave b een p o led . Wo rk ing ab oa tb y m ean so f al i ne h e ld o rp egged a tb o th e nd s i s p r a c t icab le a c ro s s an a r row w a te rway , b u t t h i s s e em s u n l ik e ly t oh ave b een t h ec a se a tB r igg . N oe v id en ce f o rt h e s t ee r ing a r rangemen t s h a s s u r v ived a nd i t i sd oub t fu l i ft h e re w e r e p e rmanen t f i t t ing s : t h e f i r s t e v idenc e f o rs p e c ia l i sed f i t t ing si nn o r ther nE u rop ea ppea rt ob et h o se o n t h e i s tc e n tu ry BC B ro igh te r mod e l . T he ' r a f t ' c ou ld h ave b een c on t roled d i r ec t iona l ly b y o rde r s t ot h ep add le r s o rp o le smen , i na dd i t ion t ot h e e f fo r t s o f s pec ia l i sed s t ee r smen w i th f r ee ly h e ld p add le sn ea rt h es t er n .

( h ) Ma in tenance T h e r ei sm uch e t hnog raph ic e v iden ce f o rt h ea nnua l o rp e r iod ic d i sman t l ing o fs ewn b oa tf o rt h es t i tch ing t ob er e newed .I nd ian O cean : H or n e l l , 1 941 , 6 2 ; H or n el , 1 946 , 2 36 ; Hou ran i , 1 963 , 9 4 ; F o lka rd , 1 870 , 3 09 . O c ean ia : F o lka rd , 1 870 , 2 91 ; Ma l inow sk i , 1 978 , 1 4 1 ; B e s t , 1 925 , 2 21 . I tw ou ld h ave b een n e ce s sa ry t oh ave a c ce s s t ot h e u nde r s ide t or e— sew t h e ' r a f t ' : t h i sc ou ld b e a ch ieved b yf l oa t ing l o g s t r an sve r se ly u nder n ea th t h ec r a f ta nd t h en l e t t ing t h e s e t—up d ry o u ta ta ne xcep t iona l ly h i gh s p r ing t i de . A l ter na t ive ly , t h e ' r a f t ' m ay h ave b een d i sman t led i ns ha l low w a te ra nd m anhand led p i ecemea l a bove h i gh w a te r . U nde r t h e c en t ra l l e ng th s o f s t rake s 2 , 3a nd 4 s e ve ra l o f t h e h o le s a r e e n la rged s o t h a t i n s e c t ion t h ey r e semb le at r un ca ted c one . T h e e n la rgemen t i sn o t a s syme t r ic a s w ou ld b e c au sed b y w ea r . Ap o ss ib i l i ty i st h a t d u r ing a p e r iod o fm a in tenan ce j ammed f r agmen t s o fs t i tch ing h ad t ob e b o r ed o u tb e fo r e t h e s t rake s c ou ld b e r e— sewn . S ew ing b r eak s e xpe r ienced i nb e tween t h e se m a jo rr e f i t s w ou ld h ave h ad t ob e r e pa i r ed b y a d h o c m ean s i n c lud ing m uch u se o f mo s s . T he

P r eh i s to r i cP lank B oa t s v a r iou s p r ecau t ion s t a ken t o p ro tec t t h e s t i t ch ing , d e sc r ibed a bove ,w ou ld r educe s u ch r epa i r st o am in imum . A s t h e s t ab i l i s ing e f f ec t o f t h e d unnage w ou ld b e g r adua l ly n eu t ra l i sed a s i ta b so rbed w a te r , i tw ou ld b e n e ce s sa ry t o c hange i ta t i n t er va l s , p o s s ib ly m o r e o f ten t h an a nnua l ly , d epend ing o nt h ep e rm iab i l i ty o ft h ew ood s pec ie su sed . S p l i t s w i th in t h e ' r a f t ' s ' p l ank ing o n s t rak e s 2a nd 4h ad b een r epa i red b y s ew ing . N o th ing b u t t h e h o le s a nd s ome f r agmen ta ry s t i tch ing w i th in t h em h a s s u rv ived b u t i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t mo s s a nd l a th s w e r e a l so u sed a s i nt h e F e r r iby r epa i r s ( F ig . 7 . 1 .20 ) a nd t h e u nda ted F iho lm b oa t . T he App leby l o gboa t r epa i r s t i t che s w e r e w edged b u t s e em n o t t o h ave h ad al a th a s soc ia ted ; o t he r s p l i t s i nt h i s b oa t w e re h e ld t o ge the rb yd oub le—dove ta i lf l a tk ey s( McG ra i l , 1 978A ,f i g .8 2 —s e e a l so F ig s 5 . 1 .1 a nd 5 . 1 .2 i nt h i s p r e sen t v o lume ) s o t h e r epa i r t e chn ique h e r e w ou ld s e em t or e ly o n b i nd ing t h e s p l i t w hen t h e w ood w a s r ea la t ive ly d r y a nd a l low ing e xpan s ion o n r e— imme r s ion i n w a te r t o " s ea l " i t . I n c ommon w i th t h e r epa i red s p l i to nF e r r iby b oa t 1( F ig . 7 . 1 .20 , th et wo s e c t ion so f r epa i r o n t h e ' r a f t ' ( b y c l ea t 2 6 a nd b y f r agmen t G 4 ) d o n o t s eem t oh ave b een c oun te r sunk i n to t h e u nde r s u r f a ce o f t h e p lank ing .T he h o le so no ne s i de o ft h es p l i ti nc l ea t—un i t2 6a r e , i nf a c t , s e t i n to af o r e a nd a f t g roove o n t h e u nde r s id e , b u t i t d oe s n o t s e em p o s s ib le t od ev i se ap a t te rn o f s t i t ch ing w h ich w ou ld b e c oun te r sunk o ve r i t s v u lne rab le s e c t ion s . T he se r epa i r sw ou ld t h u sb ei nd i r ec tc on ta c to ng round ing a nd s ub je c t t oa b ra s ion w hen t h e b oa t s w e re d r agged a c ro s s t h e f o r e sho re . Howeve r ,i n comp le te e v idence o ft h e' r a f t 'r e pa i r ss u rv ived a nd i tc ou ld b e t h a t t h e se r e pa i r s t i t che s h ad b een w edged a nd t h e u nde rnea th ,e xpo sed p o r t ion c u ta way f l ush w i th t h ep l ank ing — a k nown e t hnog raph ic t e chn ique ( Ho rne l l , 1 941 ) . A rno ld ( 1977 ,2 96 )h a sn o ted t h a ts p l i t si nt h ep l ank ing o f2 0 th c en tu ry Sw i s s w e id l ing b oa t s o f ten o ccu r d u r ing b u i ld ing r a the r t h an w hen i nu se ; i ti sp o ss ib le t h a tt h i sw a st h ec a se w i th t h e' r a f t ' .

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F igu r e7 . 3 .4 T he p ho tog ramme t r ic d e ta i lp l o to ft h en o r th—we s te nd o ft h e' r a f t 'f r om p ho tog raphy o n2 0 .5 .74 ( A f te r McG ra i l , 1 981 )( D raw ing :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ,G r eenw ich ) 2 00

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

F i gu re 7 . 3 .5 T he ' r a f t 'd u r ing e xcava t ion i n May , 1 974 ,p ho tog raphed f r om t h en o r th—we s te nd .T h ef i r s tb o t tom p l ank i st ot h e r i gh t ,t h ef i f th b o t tom p l ank a nd t h el owe s ts i d es t rak e ,t ot h el e f t .( P ho to :N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ,G reenw i ch ) 2 0 1

P r eh i s to r i cP lank B oa t s Owa in R ob e r t s h a s r e cen t ly r e—a s se s sed t h i s b oa t a nd c onc luded t h a t i tw a s ' al e an , r ound—b i lged , s t ab le , b uoyan t c r a f t h av ing a v e r sa t i le o pe ra t iona l c apa c i ty w h i ch w ou ld i n c lud e c oa s ta l p a s sage—mak ing a nd s ho r t s e a c r o s s ing s ' . ( Robe r t s , 1 992 : 2 45 , f i g . 1 9 ) . I nh i s v i ew , t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' w a s n o t f l a t—bo t tomed b u t r o und—hu l led . R ob e r t s ' a r gumen t i s b a sed m a in ly o nh i sb e l ie ft h a tt h eb o t tom p l ank s , w hen f o und , w e r e ' c lo se t o ge the ri nt h e m n idd le o ft h e ' r a f t ' a nd s p layed a t t h el e f t [ i . e . n o r th—we s t ] e nd ' ( Robe r t s , 1 992 : 2 4 5 , f i g s 1& 5 ) . A sh e r i gh t ly s ay s , s u ch a n a r rangemen t o ft h e p l ank ing c ou ld b e s tb ei n te rp re ted a st h es p r ing ing a pa r to ft h ee nd p l ank ing o f ar ound h u l led b oa t a s t h e s t i t ch ing b r ok e o r r o t ted a f t e r d epo s i t ion . T he b a s i s f o rR obe r t s ' t h eo ry ,a nd t h eo n ly d r aw ing o ft h eb oa t q uo ted b y h im , i sf i g . 2 . 1 .19 i n( McG ra i l , 1 981 ) . r e p rodu ced h e re a s F ig . 7 . 3 .2 . T h i s d raw ing i s , a s i t s o r ig ina l c ap t ion s t a ted , a ' c ompo s i t e p l an o f t h e ' r a f t ' p r epa r ed a f t e r p o s t—excava t ion r e co rd ing b y j o in ing t o ge the r p l an s o f i n d iv idua l c l ea t—un i t s ' , c l ea t—un i t s b e ing s e c t ion s o fp l ank ing a s l i f ted . A t f i r s t s i gh t , s ome o f t h e b o t tom p l ank ing o n t h i s d raw ing m ay a pp ea r t ob e s p layed o u t a tt h e n o r th—we s t e nd . Howeve r , t h e p o s t—excava t ion r e co rd ing o f t h i s b oa t w a s u nder taken s ome c on s ide rab le t ime a f t e r e xcava t ion a nd , s ad t o s ay , b y t h a t t ime f r agmen t s o f t i mb e r h ad b een l o s t ( McG ra i l , 1 981 : 6 0 ) ,e spec ia l ly f r om t h en o r th—we s te nd w h i ch h ad b een l e f te xpo sed f o rn ea r ly f i ve m on th si n1 888 ( McG ra i l , 1 975 : 7 ) a nd , a s ac on sequen ce , w a s f o und t o b e t h e m o s t d eg raded p a r to ft h ev e s se lw hen r e— excava ted 1 974 . O n s i te , t h e v e s se l w a s r e co rded i n an umbe r o f w ay s : 1 : 10 p l an s w i th p rof i le s ( F ig . 7 . 3 .3 ) ; s t e reo p ho tog ramme t r i c p l an s a nd p ro f i le s ( F ig . 7 . 3 .4 ) , b l a ck a nd w h i te ( F ig . 7 . 3 .5 ) , a nd c o lou r p ho tog raphy ; a nd i nd e ta i led n o te s r e la ted t ot h e c l ea t n umb e r ing s y s tem ( M cG ra i l , 1 981 : 2 9-46 ) . I n t h e p o s t— excava t ion p ha se , i n d iv idua lc l ea tu n i t so fp l ank ing w e r e r e co rded b y o r thogona l p ho tog raphy o fu ppe r , l owe r a nd e nd f a ce s l e ad ing t oc onven t iona l 1 : 10 p l an s w i th t r an sve r se a nd l o ng i tud ina l s e c t ion s ( M cG ra i l , 1 981 : 5 7-82 , f i g s 2 . 1 .4-2 .1 .14 ) . I tw a s t h e se t h i r ty m ea su red d r aw ing s w h i ch w e re c omb ined t op roduce t h ec ompo s i t ep l an u s ed b yR ob e r t s ( F ig . 7 . 3 .2 ) . T h i s c ompo s i te p l an i si n comp le te , h oweve r , a s c an b e s e en b y c ompa r i son w i th t h e s i te p l an ( F ig . 7 . 3 .3 ) , t h e t wo p ho tog ramme t r ic d raw ing s ( f o r e xamp le , F ig . 7 . 3 .4 ) , a nd o n— s i te p ho tog raph s ( F ig . 7 . 3 .5 ) . A l though m uch w a s m i s s ing f r om b o th e dge s o f t h e n o r th—we s t e nd o f t h e c e n t ra l b o t tom p l ank ( p lank 3 )w hen r e—excava ted ,t h es e am sb e tween t h ef i r s t a nd s e cond b o t tom p l ank s ( o n t h e r i gh t o f F i g . 7 . 3 .5 a nd t owa rd s t h e b o t tom o fF ig s 7 . 3 .3 a nd 7 . 3 .4 ) , a nd b e twe en t h e f ou r th a nd f i f th b o t tom p l ank s( l e f to nF ig 7 . 3 .5 ,n ea rt h et o po f F ig s 7 . 3 .3 a nd 7 . 3 .4 ) w e r e a lmo s t c omp le te : t h ey s h owed n o s p lay ing b u t h ad ar e la t ive ly c on s tan t g ap a l ong t h e i r l e ng th . S ou th—ea s t o f c l ea t— row 3 , t h e s e am s o n e i th e r s i d e o f t h e c en t ra l b o t tom p l ank w e r e s im i la r . T h e p l ank ing h ad s h runk a c ro s s i t sb r ead th b e tween d epo s i t ion a nd e xcava t ion b y 1 o r 1 2% a nd , i fa n a l lowan ce i sm ade f o r t h i s , o ppo s ing p l ank e dge s b u t t t o ge the r a l ong t h e i r s u r v iv ing l e ng th s ( McG ra i l , 1 981 :2 28 ; 1 985 : 1 78 ) . D end ro log ica l e xam ina t ion a nd t h e r i ng r a y p a t t e rn s r e co rd ed a te ve r ye xpo sed c r o s s s e c t ion o fe a ch b o t tom p l ank a nd o ft h e 2 02

t wo d e tach ed f r agmen t s G 4 a nd G 5 , s how t h a t t h e b o t tom o f t h e v e s se l h ad b een made f r om t h ree t r ee s a tl e a s t 1 2 .2 m i n l e ng th , w i th g i r th s o f2 . 07 m n ea r t h e i ru ppe r e nd s , 2 . 2 1-2 .49 m a t5 -6 m f r om t h e b u t t ( l owe r ) e nd , a nd 2 . 70-3 .03 m a t b r ea s t h e igh t , t h a t i s , c . 15m f r om t h e b u t t ( McG ra i l , 1 981 : 8 4 ,224 ; 1 987 : 3 9-40 ) . T he l o g s f r om t h e se p a ren t t r ee s w e re c onve r ted i n to p l ank s b y f i r s ts p l i t t ing t h em l o ng i tud ina l ly i n to t wo h a lve s . P lank s 1a nd 5 ( ou te r b o t tom p l ank s ) w e re f a sh ioned f r om o ne l o g ;p l ank s 3a nd 4f r om a no the r ;a nd p l ank 2f r om at h i rd . T he b u i lde r ' s a im s eem s t oh ave b e en t oo b ta in t h e g r ea te s t p o s s ib le b r ead th o f p l ank ing , s i nce t h e n a tu ra l t a pe ro f t h e p a ren t l o g s w a s r e ta ined a nd s ome s apwood w a s l e f t o n t h e e dge s o fe ve ry p lank . F u r the rmo re , a l though t h e se p l ank s g ene ra l ly h ad s t ra igh t e dge s , o cca s iona l ly t h e r e w a s a g en t le w av ine s s : w he re t h e re w a s n a tu ra l d amage o r w hen a m ino r w ood—wo rk ing m i s take l e d t o as l igh t r educ t ion p l ank b r ead th ,t h eb u i ld e rh ad f a sh ioned t h e a d jacen ts t rake ,t om a t ch t h ec on t iguou sd e f ec t . T he se p lank sd id n o th ave c u r ved e dge s : t h e r e w e r e v e ry m ino r a nd o c ca s iona l ' wave s ' i n o t he rw i se s t ra igh t e dge s . T he F e r r iby b oa t s p robab ly h ad s im i la r w avy e dge s , a nd t h ey m ay b e s e en o n 2 0 th—cen tu ry s t i t ched b oa t s ( McG ra i l , 1 981 :2 25 ,f i g .4 . 1 .10 ) . O nt h eb u i ld ing s i te ,t h ep l ank sw e re p o s i t ioned c l o se a l ong s ide o ne a no th e r w i th t h e i r n a r rowe r e nd s ( n o r th—we s t e nd , a s f o und )a d ja cen t ,t h e r eby g i v ing t h eb oa ta ne l onga ted t r apez ium s h ape i np l an .T h i st e chn ique i sw ide ly u sed w hen b u i ld ing t r ue r a f t s , a s i tr e su l t s i n a n e nhanced w a te r l ine s hap e w i th t h e n a r rowe r e nd b e ing f o rwa rd , l e ad ing t o i mp roved h yd rodynam ic c ha ra c te r i s t ic s . D u r ing f e l l ing o rc onve r s ion , a l l t h ree B r igg l o g s w e r e s i gn i f ican t ly d amaged n ea r t h e i r b u t t e nd s , w i th t h ed amage e x tend ing f u r the s t u p t h eb o le o fp a r en t t r ee i nt h eh a l ft h a tw a st ob ecome p lank 4 .T hu st h et r apez ium s hap e c ou ld n o t b e m a in ta ined r i gh t t o t h e a f te r e nd o f t h e b o t tom .T h er e su l tan t mod i f ied t r apez ium s hape m ay b es e en i n t h e s ma l l— sca le mode l ( F ig . 7 . 3 .1 ) , t h e o u t l ine r e con s t ruc t ion d r aw ing , a nd a l so , t o ad eg ree , i n T h ropp ' s i d ea l i sed 1 888 d r aw ing ( McG ra i l , 1 981 : f i g s4 . 1 .23 & 1 . 1 .4 ) .

D i s cu s s ion I ti sn o t p o s s ib le t o i n te rp r e t t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' , o r i n deed a ny b oa t—f ind , u s ing o n ly o ne e l emen t o f t h e o n— s i te a nd p o s t—excava t ion r e co rd : a l le l emen t s m u s tb eu sed f o rt h ey a r e c omp lemen ta ry t oo ne a no the r . F o re xamp le ,w hen t h ec on t ra s t b e tween c l ay a nd w ood i s i n su ff i c ien t o n b l a ck a nd w h i t e p r in t s , c o lou rp ho tog raph s o f ten r e so lve t h e ma t te r . Mo reove r , w h i l s t p ho tog ramme t ry i s g ene ra l ly mo re a c cu ra t e t h an t r ad i t iona l p l ann ing , d e ta i l s o n p ho tog ramme t r ic p l o t s c an s ome t ime s b e i n ac cu ra te d ue t o d i ff i cu l t ie s i n i n te rp r e t ing p ho tog raph ic i mage s w h ich a r e n o t a lway s w e l l—def ined a nd c l ea r ly o u t l ined ; t h e a r chaeo log ica l p l ann e r , o n t h e o t he rh and , c an h im se l fc l a r i fy t h ed e ta i l s a sh eg oe s . O n— s i te p l ann ing a nd p ho tog raphy , a l though e s sen t ia l , c anno t r ep la ce p o s t—excava t ion r e co rd ing ,n o to n ly b ecau se t h eu nde rs u r f ace s a r e s e ldom s e en o n s i te , b u t a l so b e cau se t h e d e ta i led e xam ina t ion o f f a s ten ing s a nd c au lk ing , t h e d i r ec t m ea su r emen to fb eve la ng le s a nd t h e l i ke , a nd t h er e co rd ing o f ' s hadow s 'o ff o rme rf i t t ing s a r eo n ly p ra c t icab le i n al a bo ra to ry o r w o rk shop . When r e con s truc t ing t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' i tw a s

S t ud ie si n Mar i t im eA r chaeo logy n e ce s sa ry t ou se a l l t h e se s ou r ce s o fi n fo rma t ion , a nd a l so t h e 1 888 m ea su red d r aw ing b y t h e L inco ln sh i r e C oun ty S u r veyo r , J .T h ropp , a nd t h ep ho tog raph o ft h e ' V ik ing p on toon b r idge o r r a f t ' p ub l i shed b y t h e R ev . A . H un t i nt h e e a r ly 2 0 th c en tu ry ( Th ropp , 1 887 ; H un t , 1 907 /8 ; McG ra i l , 1 981 : f i g s . 1 . 1 .4 & 1 . 1 .6 ) . T he B r igg ' r a f t ' d i d n o t h ave a r ound h u l l : s h e w a s f l a t—bo t tomed ( McG ra i l , 1 981 : f i g s 4 . 1 .11-4 .1 .14 , 4 . 1 .19 , 4 . 1 .21 , 4 . 1 .23 ) . T h i s b o t tom may , h oweve r , h ave b een r o cke r ed ,a nd t h eo ve ra l ll e ng th o ft h eb oa t , t h eh e igh to fs i d e s , a nd t h e f o rm o f t h e e nd s a r e b y n o m ean s c e r ta in ( McG ra i l , 1 985 : 1 78 , 1 84 , 1 85 ) . I ti sh oped t h a t Owa in R ob e r t s ' t i me ly p ap e r w i l l l e ad t of u r the r i n fo rmed d eba te o n t h e se p o in t s : a s em ina ra tG r eenw ich c ou ld p rove u se fu l , a f te rc on se r va t ion i s c omp le ted a nd b e fo re t h e t imbe r s a r e r e—a s semb led f o r d i sp lay . A l though t h i s b oa t w a s n o t t h e t r ade r v i sua l ized b y Owa in R ob e r t s , s h e u ndoub ted ly p l ayed a n i mpo r tan t p a r t i n t h e e ve ryday l i ve s o ft h e L a te B ron ze A ge f o lk w ho l i ved c .8 00 B C b e tween t h e l i me s tone L inco ln E dge t o t h e w e s t a nd t h e c ha lk L in co ln sh i r e t o t h e e a s t . S he w a s ap o led o r p add led f e r ry o nt h em idd le r e ache so f at i da l a rm o ft h eR . H umbe r ,a t an oda l p o in t i nt h e A ncho lme v a l ley . H e r r o le m ay n o t h ave b een s p ec ta cu la r — ac ommonp lace r i ve r f e r ry — a nd s h e w a s n o to ve r—eng inee r ed f o rt h i sf u n c t ion . N eve r the le s s , t h i s b oa t i sn o t t ob e t h ough t o fa s s e cond r a te ; s h eu ndoub ted ly m a t ched t h ed emand s made o nh e ra nd m ade a s i g n if i can tc on t r ibu t ion t ot h e e conom ic a nd s oc ia l w e l l—b e ing o ft h a t r e g ion , b e ing a b le t oc a r ry a s a f e l o ad o f b e tween 4 0 s h eep w i th 1 0 m en , a nd 3 0 c a t t le w i th 2 0 m en , d epend ing o n t h e h e igh t o f s i de s ( 0 .34m o r 0 -55m ) a nd t h e f r eeboa rd r e qu i r emen t s .

2 03

A cknow ledgmen t T h i s p ape r w a s w r i t ten w h i l s t Iw a s G ae s te P ro f e s so r a tt h e N a t iona l Mu seum o f D enma rk ' s C en t r e f o r Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy ,R o sk i ld e . Ia mg r a t e fu lt oO le C rum l in—Pede r sen f o rt h i si n v i ta t ion .

R e f e rence s H un t , A . , 1 907 /8 , V ik ing r a f to rp on toon b r idge ,S aga B ook o f t h eV ik ing C lub ,5 :3 55-362 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 975 , B r igg ' r a f t ' r e — excava ted . L in co ln sh i r e H i s tor y &A r chaeo logy , 1 0 :5 13 . McG ra i l , S . ( Ed . ) , 1 981 , B r igg " Raf t" & h e r P r eh i s to r i c E nv i rom en t .B .A .R . ( Ox f o rd )8 9 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 985 , B r igg ' r a f t ' —p rob lem s i nr e con s t ruc t ion & i nt h e a s se s smen t o fp e r fo rmance . I n McG ra i l , S . & K en t ley ,E .( Ed s )S ewn P lank B oa t s . B .A .R . ( Ox fo rd ) S . 276 : 1 65194 . McG ra i l , S . , 1 987 , A nc ien t B oa t s i n N o r th W e s t E urope . L ongman ,L ondon . R ob e r t s0 . T .P . , 1 992 ,B r igg ' r a f t 'r e a s se s sed a s ar ound b i lge B ronze A ge b oa t .I JNA ,2 1 :2 45-258 . T h ropp ,J . , 1 887 , A n a n c ien tr a f t f o und a tB r igg , L in co ln sh i r e . A s so c ia t ion o f A r ch i t e c tu ra l S o c ie t ie s R epo r t s & P aper s , 1 9 ,P a r t 1 :9 5-97 . [ No ti s sued u n t i l 1 889 ] .

R ep r in ted w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : I n te r na t iona l J ou rna l f o r N au t i ca l A r cha eo logy , 2 3 : 2 83-8 ( 1 994 )

P r eh i s tor i cP lank B oa t s

2 04

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

S ECT ION 8 . 0 CELT IC BOATS AND SH IPS

I ti sd i f f icu l tt od ef in e t h ef l o ru i t o fC e l t ic c u l tu r e i nt i me a nd s pace ( G reen , 1 995 :3 -7 ) : i n deed ,s ome s c ho la r sd eny t h a tI r on A ge E u rop ean sc an b e i d en t i f ied a sC e l t s , a nd r e se r ve t h et e rm ' C e l t ic ' f o r ag r oup o f l a nguage s . O the r s s e e a r chaeo log i ca l e v iden ce i np a r t s o f E u rop e f o r c u l tu ra l c on t inu i ty f r om t h e m idd le o ft h e s e cond m i l lenn ium BC t h rough t oR oman t i me s , a nd u se t h e t e rm ' p ro to—Ce l t ic ' f o r t h e e a r l ie r c e n tu r ie s o ft h i s p e r iod . ( Audouze & B uch sen schu t z , 1 991 ) . F u r th e rmo r e , a c omm i t ted C e l t ic v i ew s e e s C e l t ic c u l tu ra l t r a i t s , i d en t if i ed i n R oman t i me s , c on t inu ing i n to t h e m ed ieva l p e r iod a nd b eyond i nI r e land , w e s ter n B r i ta in a nd B r i t tany , a nd p o s s ib ly o t he r p a r t so fA t lan t ic E u rope . T he a cadem ic a r gumen t s b eh ind t h e se d i f f e r ing s c hoo l s o f t h ough t c on ce rn t h e p r ec i se r e la t ion sh ip b e tween m a t e r ia l r ema in s e xcava ted i nc en t ra l a nd w e s ter n E u rop e , e t hn i c i ty c l a imed a nd a t t r ibu ted , a nd l a nguage . I fw e t u rn f r om s u ch m a t te r s t o t h e h i s to ry o f t e chno logy , l i m i t ed t h ough t h e e v iden ce i s , It h ink t h a t w e c an r e cogn i se a d eg r ee o f c on t inu i ty , i np a r t s o fA t lan t ic E u rop e , i nt h e m e thod su s ed t o b u i ld p l ank b oa t s a nd l o gboa t s f r om t h e 2 nd m i l lenn ium BC t h rough t ol a t e R oman t i me s ( S ec t ion s 5 ,6 , 7& 8 ) . T h e r e i s a l so ac on t inu i ty i nt h eu s eo fh i de b oa t s ,o ni n land w a t e r s a nd i nt h e s e a s b e tween NW F ranc e , B r i ta in & I r e land , f r om t h e m id1 s tm i l l enn ium B Ct ot h e Med ieva lp e r iod , a nd e ven o nt o t o day i nw e s te rn I r e land a nd p a r t s o f Wa le s ( McG ra i l , 1 995 : 2 64-265 ) .

b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s u sed i n l a te—p reh i s to r ic NW E u rope ( t ab le 8 . 1 .4 ) m ay b ec ompa r ed w i th t a b le s5 . 2 .1 & 5 . 2 .2 w h ich g i ve e a r l ie s t & l a te s t k nown d a te s f o r c e r ta in w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s . P ap e r 8 . 2 c oncen t ra te s o n o ne s ub—g roup o f C e l t ic w a t e r t r an spo r t —t h a t o ft h e p lank b oa t s a nd s h ip s b u i l t i nt h e e a r ly c en tu r ie s AD a nd g ene ra l ly k nown a s ' Romano—Ce l t i c ' . T he a n te ceden t s o f t h i s t r ad i t ion a r e u n c lea r , a l though c e r ta in p a ra l le l s m ay b e d rawn w i th a spec t s o f NW E u rop ean s ewn p l ank b oa t s( S ec t ion 7 ) . Wha th appened t ot h i ss t y le o fb u i ld ing a f te r t h e 4 t h c en tu ry AD i sa l so u n c lea r : E l lme r s ( 1 996 ) h a s a t temp ted t o d emon s t ra te t h a t G e rman ic p eop le s t o ok o ve r R omano—Ce l t ic t e chn ique s t ob u i ld t h e i rr i ve r a nd l a k e b oa t s , b u tt h i s a r gumen ti sn o te n t i r e ly c onv inc ing . O the rs c ho la r s s e e ac onnec t ion b e tween t h e R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion a nd t h e m ed ieva lC og —f o re xamp le ,R unyan ( 1 994 :4 7 ) .

C e l t ic I nnova t ion . T h e se C e l t ic w ooden b oa tbu i lde r s w e r e e v iden t ly g r ea t i n nova to r s : t h ey i n t roduced t o NW E u rope t h eh ooked i r on n a i l a nd u sed i tt of a s ten f r am ing t op l ank ing ; t h ey p robab ly w e r e t h e f i r s t i n d igenou s p eop le s t ou se s a i l i n NW E u rop e , w i th a f o re—&—a f t s a i l a s w e l l a s t h e s qua re s a i l , a nd t h ey w e r e t h e f i r s t b u i lde r s k nown t o u s w ho s e em t oh ave v i sua l i sed t h e i r v e s se l s i n t e rm s o f t h e f r am ing — t h ey b u i l t t h e i r v e s se l s f r ame— f i r s t( McG ra i l , 1 996 ) .

C e l t ic B oa tbu i ld ing . Whe the rw e a r ec omm i t ted—Ce l t s o ra n t i—Ce l t s i nt h e c u l tu r e/ e t hn ic i ty /l a ng uage d eba te , i ti se n t i re ly p e rm i s sab le , a sw e l l a s c onven ien t , t o r e f e r t o C e l t ic t r ad i t ion s o f b oa tbu i ld ing ( p lank ,h i de & l o g ) ,p rov id ing t h a t' t r ad i t ion 'i su nd e r s tood h e r e a s a n a r cha eo log ica l c on s t ru c t , ac on cep tua l t o o l w h i ch h e lp s u s u nde r s tand t h e p a s t . A ' t r ad i t ion ` i sa n a b s t ra c t ion f r om r e a l i ty , a nd i t s d e f in i t ion m u s t b e c hanged , o n o c ca s ion s , t o a b so rb n ew i n fo rma t ion a nd r ef lec tn ew c on cep t s .I nt h i ss e n se , t h e ' C e l t ic b oa t s a nd s h ip s ' o f t h i s S ec t ion a r e t h o se v e s se l s w h ich ,w i th in t h e i rg r oup ing so fl o gboa t s ,h i d eb oa t s a nd p l ank b oa t s , h ave m any t e chno log ica l c ha ra c te r i s t ic s i n c ommon . T he re i s ac o re p e r iod f o r t h e se t r ad i t ion s o f , s a y , 6 00 B C t o 6 00 AD , w i th e a r l ie r a nd l a te r ' t a i l s ' , a nd t h e c o r e r e g ion i s w e s te rn E u rop e . P ape r 8 . 1 b r ing s t o ge the r ar a nge o f e v idenc e f o r t h i s C e l t ic w a te r t r an spo r t , a nd d i scu s se s b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s a nd p e r fo rman c e e s t ima te s . N av iga t iona l m e thod s , t r ade r o u t e s , h a rbou r s a nd l a nd ing p l a ce s a r e a l so c on s id e r ed . T he t a b le o f 2 0 5

T h i s t h i rd C e l t ic i n nova t ion w a s mo s t i mpo r tan t f o r t h e l o ng t e rm f u tu re o f w ooden s h ip b u i ld ing . A l though f r ame—ba sed m e thod s s e em t o d i sappea r f r om NW E u rope a f te r t h e 4 t h c en tu ry AD , t h ey s u sequen t ly r e—appea r , i n as omewha t d i f f e ren tf o rm , i nt h e Med i te r ranean : a6 t hc en tu ry v e s se lf r om T an tu ra L agoon , I s rae l i a6 t h /7 th c en tu ry s h ip f r om t h e mou th o ft h e R . R hone ; a7 t h c en tu ry w re ck , Y a s s i Ada 2 ,f r om SW T u rkey ; a nd t h en ea rby 11 t hc en tu ry w r eck f r om S e r g e L iman i ( McG ra i l , 1 997 ) . I ts eem s l i ke ly t h a t t h i s Med i te r ranean t r end t owa rd s f r ame—o r ien ta ted s h ipbu i ld ing t h en s p read w e s twa rd s t oA t lan t ic E u rope ( Be l laba rba , 1 993 ; 1 996 ) , w h ich l e d , i nd ue c ou r se , t o t h e f r ame—ba sed , 3 —ma s ted , s qua r e a nd l a teen— r igged , o cean—go ing s h ip s i n w h i ch 1 5 t h / 16 th c en tu r y E u ropean s s a i led t h e s ea s o f t h e w o r ld ( McG ra i 1 ,1996 ) a nd , e ven tua l ly ,t ot h ef u l ly s ke le ton—bu i l ts h ip w i th t h es hap eo ft h e e n t i r e h u l l d e te rm ined b y a p r e—e re c ted f u l l f r amewo rk ( McG ra i l , 1 987 : 1 03105 ; G reenh i l 1 ,1995 :2 56-273 ) .

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s R e f er enc e s A udou ze , F . &B u ch sen schu tz , O . 1 991 . T own s , V i l lage s a nd C oun tr y s id eo fC e l t i cE u rope . B a t sfo rd . B e l laba rba , S . 1 993 . A n c ien t m e thod s o f d e s ign ing h u l l s . Ma r ine r ' sM ir ro r ,7 9 : 1 74-292 . B e l laba rba , S . 1 996 . O r ig in s o f t h e a nc ien t m e thod s o f d e s ign ing h u l l s : ah ypo th e s i s . Mar ine r ' s M i r ro r , 8 2 : 2 59-268 . E lme r s , D . 1 996 . C e l t ic p l ank b oa t s a nd s h ip s , 5 00 BC — AD 1 000 . i n C h r i s ten sen , A .E . ( e d ) E ar l ies t S h ip s . C onway ' sH is to ry o fS h ip s .v o l 1 . G r een ,M . J . 1 995 . ( e d )C e l t ic W o r ld .R ou t ledge .

2 06

G reenh i l l . B . 1 995 . A r chaeo logy o fB oa t s a nd S h ip s . L ondon : C onway . McG ra i l ,S .1 987 .A nc ien tB oa t si n NW E u rop e .L ongman . McG ra i l , S . 1 995 . C e l t i c s eaf a r ing a nd t r an spo r t . i nG re en . 1 995 :2 54— 2 84 . McG ra i l , S .1 996 .T he s h ip :c a r r ie ro fg ood s ,p eop le a nd i d ea s . i nR ice ,E .E . ( e d )S ea a nd H i s to ry .A l lan S u t ton . McG ra i l , S . 1 997 . E a r ly f r ame—ba sed m e thod s o f b u i ld ing w ooden b oa t s &s h ip s . Ma r ine r ' sM i r ro r ,8 3 :7 6-80 . R unyan , T . J . 1 994 . C og a s aw a r sh ip . i nU nge r , R .W . ( e d ) . C og s ,C a rave l s &G a l l eon s : 4 7-58 . C onway ' s H i s to ry o ft h eS h ip .v o l . 3 .

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy

PAPER 8 . 1 BOATS AND BOATMANSH I F 'I N THE LATE P REH ISTOR IC SOUTHERN NORTH S EA AND CHANNEL REG ION

A ge , r a f t s o fl o g s a nd o fr e ed b und le s a nd av a r ie ty o ff l oa t s c ou ld h ave b een u sed o n i n land w a te r s i nt h e l a nd s b o rde r ing t h es ou the rn N o r th S ea a nd t h eC hanne l .

Wa ter t ran spo r t T heo re t ica li n ve s t iga t ion s ,b a sed u pon : ( a ) t h e i d en t if i ca t ion o f t h e m a te r ia l s , t o o l s a nd t e chn ique s r e qu i red t o b u i ld t h e v a r iou s f o rm s o f w a te rt r an spo r ta nd

B oa t s T h ee v idence f o rb oa t s i s mo re p rom i s ing , a st h e re i se v iden ce f o rl o gboa t s ( d ugou tc anoe s ) , h i de b oa t s a nd p l ank b oa t s f r om b e fo r e ,a nd a c tua l ly i n ,t h ep e r iod u nde rd i scu s s ion .

( b )t h ed e te rm ina t ion o ft h ee a r l ie s t a ppea ran ce i nt h e a r chaeo log ica lr e co rd o ft h e se c ha ra c te r i s t i c s —a l b e i t n o ti n an au t ica lc on tex t

L ogboa t s i n d ica te t h a t , b y t h e e nd o f t h e N eo l i th ic , s ome 2 000 y ea r s b e fo r e t h e p e r iod u nde r c on s ide ra t ion , a lmo s t a l l t h e t y pe s o f f l oa t , r a f t a nd b oa t k nown t o Man c ou ld h ave b een b u i l t i n n o r th—we s t E u rope ( Tab le 8 . 1 .1 ) . T h e o n ly t y pe s o f w a t e r t r an spo r t w h ich b e came , t e cnno log ica l ly p o s s ib le a f t e r t h e N eo l i th ic ,a nd a r et h e re fo r en o tl i s t ed

L ogboa t s h ave b een d i scove red i n B r i ta in , I r e land , F rance , B e lg ium , t h e N e the r land s , G e rmany , a nd D enma rk ( E l lme r s 1 9 73 , McG ra i l 1 978 ; R ieck & C nun l in—Pede r sen 1 988 ) , b u t o n ly a bou th a l fo ft h e6 0 o rs o t h a th ave b een w e l ld o cumen ted a r e d a t ed t o t h e p r eh i s to r ic p e r iod ( Boo th 1 984 ; R ie ck & C r um l in—Ped e r sen 1 988 ) . O ft h e se , f i ve a r e f r om t h e l a te I r on A g e o f t h e s ou th er n No r th S ea r eg ion : H a sho lme , c3 00 BC ( M i l le t t & McG ra i l 1 987 ) ; S hapw ick ,2 305 ± 1 20 b p ( Q-357 ) ; P oo l e , 2 245+50 b p ( Q-821 ) ; Ho lme P ie r repon t 1 ,2 180 ± 10 b p ( B i rm-132 ) ; a nd L o ch A r thu r /Lo tu s , 2 050 ± 8 0 b p ( SRR-403 ) . T h i s i s av e ry l im i ted n umbe r o n w h ich t ob a se c o n c lu s ion s ; n eve r the le s s i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t , w he reve r t h e r e w e r es i zeab le t r ee s ,s imp le l o gboa t sw ou ld h ave b een b u i l ta nd u s ed o n i n land w a te r s f o r h un t ing , f i sh ing , f ow l ing , a nd a s

( i ) b und le b oa t s — f o r w h i ch t h e r e i s n o k nown t r ad i t ion o u t s ide A rab ia ( i )c omp lex b a rk b oa t s —f o rw h ich t h e r e i sn ok nown t r ad i t ion i n n o r th—we s t E u rope , a pa r t f r om s ome m ino ra nd l a te e v iden ce f r om F in land ( i i ) c omp lex p l ank b oa t s —o fw h ich t h e r e a r ei n d eed e xamp le s i n t h e B ronze A ge o f n o r th—we s t E u rope ( s ee b e low ) .

f e r r ie so fm en a nd o fc a rgo . I ns ome c a se s t h e se l o gboa t s m ay h ave c a r r ied a rmed m en , a s s een i n t h e R oo s C a r r , n o r th H umb e r s id e , m ode l s ( Sheppa rd 1 901 ; 1 902 ) , r e cen t ly d a ted t o 2 460 ±7 0b p( OXA-1718 ) .

F loa t sa nd r a f t s N o m a t te r h ow s t ruc tu ra l ly s e awo r thy t h ey m igh t h ave b een , f l oa t s a nd r a f t s a r e u n l ike ly t oh ave b een u sed a ts e a i ne a r ly n o r th—we s t E u rope b ecau se o f t h e r e la t ive ly c o ld s e a t empe ra tu re w h ich , w hen c omb ined w i th e xpo su r e t ow ind ,c an s oon l e ad t oh ypo the rm ia ( M cG ra i l , 1 987 :5 ) .O nt h eo t h e rh and i td oe s s e em l i k e ly t h a t s ome o ft h e f l oa t s a nd r a f t s l i s ted i n T ab le 8 . 1 .1 w e r eu s ed o nl a ke sa nd r i ve r si nt h i sr e g ion . N oa nc ien t f l oa t sh ave s u r v ived b u tt h e r ei ss ome e v id en ce f o r r a f t s . T he e a r l ie s t e xcava ted l o g r a f t s a r e t h e t wo f r om 2 nd c e n tu ry AD S t ra sbou rg n o ted b y E lme r s ( 1 972 , 1 06 , f i g s 8 3 , 8 4 ) ,b u t t h e r e a r e i s tc en tu ry BC r e f e r en ce s t ot h e i ru s eo nt h e R ive r R h ine ( Ca e sa rB e l lo G a l l ico , 1 . 12 , 6 . 35 ) . E a r l ie ru s e o n t h i s a nd s im i la rr i ve r s s e em sl i ke ly . B und le r a f t sh ave n o tb een e xcava ted ,b u tt h ey h ave b een u sed i nt h er e cen tp a s to ni n land w a te r s i n I r e la nd a nd e l sewhe r e ( McG ra i l 1 987 , 1 6 3 ) , a nd e a r ly u se s e em s l i ke ly w he r eve r r e ed s w e r e a va i lab le . T hu s , t h e l i t t le e v iden ce t h e r e i s , s u gge s t s t h a t , i n t h e l a t e I r on

S imp le l o gboa t sm ay b e mod i f ied i ns eve ra lw ay st og i ve t h em t h ee x t ra t r an sve r se s t ab il i ty a nd f r eeboa rd r equ i red t ob ecome u s ab le a t s e a . T he p a r en t l o g , p rov id ing i ti so f as u i tab le t i mbe r s pec ie s , m ay b e e xpanded , n o rma l ly a f te r h ea t t r ea tmen t , t o g i ve g r ea te r b eam a t t h e w a te r l ine a nd h en ce i n c r ea sed s t ab i l i ty , ( McG ra i l 1 978 , 3 8-4 1 ) . O r l o gboa t s m ay b e f i t t ed w i th s t ab i l i se r s ( a s o r t o f c l o se— in o u t r igge r ) w h ich a l so i n c rea se st h e i re f f ec t ive b eam ( i b id ,5 1-4 ) . A th i rd w ay o f i n c r ea s ing s t ab i l i ty i sb y p a i r ing t wo l o gboa t s s i d e—by s i de ( i b id , 4 4-51 ) . A dd i t iona l f r eeboa rd may b e o b ta ined b y e x t end ing l o gboa t sv e r t ica l ly b y a dd ing o ne o r mo re s t rak e s o f p l ank ing t ot h es i de so ft h eb a s ic b oa t( i b id ,4 1-3 ) . T he re i s ,i n f a c t , n o e v iden ce i n a ny o f t h e n o r th—we s t e rn E u ropean l o gboa t s d a ted t o p r e—Roman t ime s o f e xpan s ion , o r o f s t ab i l i se r s , o r o f p a i r ing . T hu s i ts e em s u n l ike ly , o n p r e sen t e v id en ce ,t h a tl o gboa t sw e re u sed a ts ea i np r eh i s to r ic t ime s .

2 07

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s

T ab le 8 . 1 .1 A t heor e t ica la s se s smen to ft he e ar l ie s tt e chno log ica ls t age t ha tc er ta in t ype so fw a ter t r an spor tc ou ld h ave b een u sed i nn or th—we s tE urope T e chno log i ca ls t age

W a t e rt r an spo r t

A ts ea o ri n land w a te r s

P a laeo l i th ic

l o gf l oa t b und le f l oa t h i de f l oa t s imp le l o gr a f t s imp le h i de—f loa tr a f t s imp le b a rk b oa t s imp le h i de b oa t

i n land w a t e r s i n land w a t e r s i n land w a t e r s i n land w a t e r s i n land w a t e r s ,b u tn ok nown t r ad i t ion i n land w a t e r s ,b u tn ok nown t r ad i t ion i n land w a t e r s

Me so l i th ic

c ompex l o gr a f t m u l t ip le h i de—f loa tr a f t b und le r a f t s imp le l o gb oa t m u l t ip le—h ide b oa t b a ske tb oa t

i n land w a te r s i n land w a t e r s ,b u tn ok nown t r ad i t ion i n land w a t e r s i n land w a t e r s a ts ea a nd o ni n land w a te r s a t s e a a nd o n i n land w a te r s , b u t n o k nown t r ad i t ion

N eo l i th ic

p o tf l oa t p o t—f loa tr a f t c omp lex l o gb oa t s s imp le p l ank b oa t s

i n land w a t e r s ,b u tn ok nown t r ad i t ion i n land w a te r s ,b u tn ok nown t r ad i t ion a ts e aa nd o ni n land w a te r s i n land w a t e r s

N o t e s :

1 .F o rd ef in i t ion o ft y pe ss e e McG ra i l 1 985c ; 1 987a ,4 -11 2 .F o rs ou rce so ft e chno log ica le v id ence s e e McG ra i l , 1 981 , 1 2 ; 1 987 ,5 3-54 , 8 5-7 ,9 6-7 , 1 71-2 , 1 85-7 , 1 91

I ti sg ene ra l ly a g r eed t h a t c omap r i son s o f t h eo r e t ica l c a rgo c apac i ty a r e b e s t m ade w hen b oa t s ( a nd n o tj u s tl o gboa t s ) a r e l o aded t o aw a t e r l ine w h e r e2 / 5 o ft h e b oa t ' sh e igh to fs i de s i s f r eeboa rd ( McG ra i l 1 987 , 1 98-20 1 ; 1 988 , 3 8 ) . T h e w a t e r l ine ( 2 / 5 f r eeboa rd o r3 / 5 d r a f t ) i st h e o n e g i ven f o r af u l ly l o aded v e s se l i nc hap te r 1 66 o f t h e m ed ieva l I c e land ic L aw C ode , G ragd s ( Mo r cken 1 980 ) . T ab le 8 . 1 .2 g i ve s c ompa ra t ive f i gu re s f o r t wo l a te I r on A ge l o gbao t s f r om P oo le i nD o r se t a nd H a sho lme , n o r th H umbe r s ide . I tc an b es e en t h a tt h eP oo le l o gboa t , w i th ad ra f t o fo n ly 0 . 30 m , c ou ld r e ad i ly h ave u sed t h en a tu ra lh a rbou ra tP oo le a nd t h el owe rr e a che so ft h er i ve r s F rome , P idd le a nd S h e r fo rd , c a r ry ing n ea r ly 1t o nn e o fc a rgo w i th ac r ew o ff o u r p add le r s ( McG ra i l 1 978 ) . T he H a sho lme l o gboa t , o pe ra t ing i n t h e R ive r H umbe r , i t s c r eek s a nd t r ibu ta r ie s , c ou ld h ave c a r r ied o ve r 5t o nne s o f c a rgo w i th a c r ew o ff i ve ( McG ra i l 1 988 ) .L ogboa t sc ou ld e v iden t ly m ake a s i gn if ican t c on t r ibu t ion t oe conom ic a nd s o c ia l l i f e i nt h e l a te I r on A ge .

t wo—pa r tb ow a sa ne x ten s ion t ot h e m a in l o g . T he l owe rb ow w a s f a s tened t o t h e l o g b y ac l ea t a nd t r an sve r se t i mbe r a s semb lage s how ing a f f in i t ie s w i th t h e F e r r iby s ewn—p lank b oa t s o f t h e 2 nd m i l len ium BC ( W r igh t 1 976 ; 1 985 ) a nd t h a t f r om B r igg o f t h e m id i s t n ü l len ium BC ( McG ra i l 1 981b ; 1 985a ) . Wa sh s t rake sw e r ef a s t ened t ot h ef o r ep a r to ft h em a in h u l lb y t r eena i l s l o cked i np o s i t ion b yk ey so rc o t te r s ( a s w e r e t h e r e pa i r s a t t h e s t em ( F ig 8 . 1 .1 ) a nd t h re e l a rge v e r t ica l t r eena i l s , 6 0mm i n d i ame te r , l o ck ed b o t tom , s i de s , w a sh s t rake sa nd b ow e l emen t st o ge the r . A tt h es t em s h eh ad a s epa ra te t r an som w edged i n ag r oove , a nd t h re e b eam t i e s c l amped t h e s i de s o ft h eb oa t f i rm ly a ga in s tt h i s t r an som , t h u s m ak ing t h e s t em w a te r t igh t . A l so s hown i nF igu re 5 . 2 .1 i sa h ypo the t ica l q ua r t e r d eck f o r t wo s t e e r smen u s ing l a rge p add le s ; i ti st h ough tt h a ts u ch ad eck c ou ld h ave r e s ted o nt h e s h e lve sf ound i nt h es t em shee t s( F ig 8 . 1 .2 ) .

CROSS S ECT ION

T h e H a sho lme b oa t i s al a rge a nd c omp lex l o gboa t a nd t h e re fo re m ay n o tb et y p ica lo ft h o se g ene ra l ly i nu se i nt h el a te p r eh i s to r ic p e r iod ( M i l ieu & McG ra i l 1 987 ) .N eve r the le s s , t h e t e chn ique s u s ed t o b u i ld h e r i l u s t ra te t h e h i gh s t anda rd o f w oodwo rk ing t h a t C e l t s c ou ld a ch ieve i n ar e g ion w h ich w a s n o t n ece s sa r i ly i nt h e f o r e f ron t o f t e chno logy i nt h o se t ime s . T he b oa t m ea su red 1 2 .78 x 1 . 40 x 1 . 25 m a nd h e r p a ren t l o g w a s c8 00 y ea r so l da nd o ve r 1 3 mi nh e igh t , w i th al owe rg i r th o fa tl e a s t5 . 40 m ( 1 .72 m o r c6f ti nd i ame te r ) . F igu r e 5 . 2 .1 , a n e xp loded d i ag ram , s h ow s t h a t t h e H a sho lme b oa t h ad a 2 08

B oa t ' ss i d e

R epa i r K ey

T reena i l

F igu r e8 . 1 .1 D iag ram o fr e pa i rt os t em o fH a sho lme b oa t . ( D raw ing : I n s t i tu t eo fA r chaeo logy ,O x fo rd )

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

F igu r e8 . 1 .2 1 : 10 s c a le m od e lo fr e con s t ru c t ed H a sho lme b oa t( Pho to :I n s t i tu te o fA r chaeo logy ,O x fo rd )

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1 .R a t io o fd r a f tt om ax imum h e igh to fs i d e se xp r e s s ed a s a% . I ti sc on s id e red t h a tt h e6 0% v a lue sa r eb e s tf o rc ompar i son o fb oa t sa sc a rgo c a r r ie r s ( s ee McG ra i l 1 988 ) 2 . We ig h to fc a rgo a nd c r ew 3 .D eadwe igh t /D i sp lac em en t . Am ea su r eo fa b i l i ty o fb oa t st oc a r ry c a rgo ,i np a r t icu la rh i gh d en s i ty ,l ow s t owage f a c to r , l o ad s 4 .A l t e rna t ive ly ,m a te r ia l so fg r ea t e rb u lk d en s i ty ( e gg r a in ,m ea t . ,t imb e r ,i r on o rs t one )m ay b ec a r r ied ,r e su l t ing i ni n c r ea s ed s t ab i l i l ty

2 09

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s I ns e ve ra l p a r t s o f t h e w o r ld t oday — f o r e xamp le , P ak i s tan ( G reenh i l l 1 971 ) o r S ou th Ame r ica ( Edwa rd s ( 1977 , 1 9 ) a nd o t he r sd a t e t ot h e 6 t hc en tu ry BC , b e fo r e 1 965 ) —l o gboa t s a r e u s ed i nt h e s ame r i ve r s y s tem s a sp l anked b oa t s . L ogboa t s f i t i n to a d if e ren t c u l tu ra l c on tex t f r om p l anked b oa t s , b e ing u s ua l ly f o und i n p e r iph e ra l r e g ion s ; t h ey a r e g ene ra l ly p r e f e r r ed t op l ank b oa t s f o r e conom ic r ea son s . T hu s i ti sn o t s u rp r i s ing t o f i nd p r eh i s to r ic l o gboa t s i n t h e R ive r H umbe r , w he r e p r eh i s to r ic p l anked b oa t s w e r e a l so u sed , a nd i ts e ems r e a sonab le t os uppo se t h a t b o th t y pe s w e re s im i la r ly u sed i n t h e l a nd s b o rde r ing t h e s ou ther nN o r th S ea a nd C hanne l i nt h e l a t el i on A ge .

H ide b oa t s T h e e v idence f o r t h e u se o fh i de b oa t s ( s ome t ime s k nown a s s k in b oa t s ) i n n o r th—we s t E u rop e b efo r e t h e I r on A ge i s m eag r e : a n t le rf r agmen t sf r om H u sum , S ch le sw ig—Ho l s t e in , o f d oub t fu lp rovenance ( E l lme r s 1 984 ) ; as o— ca l led b oa tg r ave a t D a lge ty , F i f e ( Wa tk in s 1 980 ) ; r o ck c a rv ing s i n S cand inav ia a nd n o r ther nR u s s ia , i n c lud ing s ome w h ich p robab ly r ep re sen t b oa t s ,t h ough t h e r ea r ed i f f e r ing v i ew so nd a t ing a nd o nt y pe o f b oa t d ep ic ted ( Ma r s t rande r 1 963 ; J ohn s tone 1 972 ; C o le s & H a rd ing 1 979 , 3 17 ) ; as ma l l s ha le b ow l f r om C ae rgw r le , Wa le s ( D en fo rd & F a r re l l 1 980 ; G reen e ta l1 980 ) , w h ich i ti s d i ff i cu l tt od emon s t ra te r e p r e sen t s ab oa t( e xcep ti n as ymbo l ic w ay ) l e t a l one t oi d en t i fy t h e t y pe o f b oa t ; a nd s ome m inu te g o ld m ode l sf r om N o r s ,D enma rk ( Mu l le r 1 886 )w h ich d oh ave a m o r e o bv iou s b oa t— l ike f o rm a nd w h ich J ohn s tone ( 1 980 ,126 ) b e l ieve s r e p re sen t B ron ze A ge h i de b oa t s , b u t w h ich C nun l in—Pede r sen ( t h i s v o lume ) h a s s ugge s t ed may r e p r e sen te xpanded l o gboa t so f5 t h /6 th c en tu ry AD . T h i s i sn o t t o i mp ly t h a t h i de b oa t s w e r e n o t u sed , f o r t h ey w e r e t e chno log ica l ly p o ss ib le f r om t h e Me so l i th ic , b u t t h e e v idence a va i lab le a tp r e sen t i st h in . H oweve r , i nt h e l i on A ge a nd t h e R oman p e r iod t h e re i sm o r e s ub s tan t ia l e v iden ce , a l though n o a c tua lh i d eb oa th a s y e tb een f ound , a pa r tf r om a' c o ra c le— l ike v e s se l ' w i th ah uman s ke le ton f ound n ea r t h e R ive r A n cho lme a tS ou th F e r r iby , S ou th H umbe r s ide , a nd t h ough tb y S heppa rd ( 1 926 )t ob eo fR oman d a t e —t h er ema in sn ol o nge re x i s t . As ma l l g o ld mode l f r om B ro igh te r , C oun ty D eny , I r e land , d a ted t ot h e i s t c en tu ry BC ( Fa r r e l l &P enny 1 975 ) o r ig ina l ly h ad n i n e r ow ing t hwa r t s w i th a s soc ia ted o a r s i ng r omme t s o n e a ch s i d e , a nd t h e r e a r e a l so t h ree p o le sf o rp rope l l ing t h eb oa t i nt h es ha l low s( F ig 7 . 2 .2 ) . Ay a rd o n ama s ts t epped t h rough a h o le i nt h ec en t ra l t hwa r t i n d ica te s t h a t t h i s b oa t c ou ld a l so b e s a i led , p r obab ly u s ing a s qua r e s a i l o f a spec t r a t io b e tween 0 . 75 a nd 1 . 38 , d epend ing o n w he re o n t h e ma s t t h e y a rd w a s p o s i t ion ed . S he w a s s t ee r ed b y as t ee r i ng o a r o ve rt h e q ua r te r a nd h ad af o u r—hook g r apn e l a ncho r . F rom t h e g ene ra l s hape a nd t h e p ropo r t ion s o f t h i s mode l i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t i t r e p r e sen t s as ea—go ing h i d eb oa to ft h ec u ra ch t ype . T he re a r es e ve ra lr e f e r en ce sb yR oman a u tho r s ( 1 s tc en tu ry BC —3 r d c en tu ry AD ) t ot h e c on tempo ra ry u se o f h i de b oa t s o n i n land w a t e r s , a nd a ts ea o f fn o r th—we s tE u rope ( Cea sa r ,B e l lo C iv i l i , 1 . 54 : P l iny , 7 . 206 ; L ucan ,P har sa l ia 4 ,1 30-8 ; S o l inu s , P o l yh i s to r , 2 3 ) . Two o t he r r e f e rnece s a r e i mpo r tan t b ecau se t h ey c on ta in i n fo rma t ion f r om m uch e a r l ie r s ou r ce s . P l iny ( 4 , 2 10

1 04 ) , w r i t ing i nt h e i s t c e n tu ry AD a nd q uo t ing f r om a ne a r ly 3 r d c en tu ry BC h i s to ry b y T imaeu s , s t a te s t h a t B r i ton s i n vo lved i nt h e t i n t r ade u s ed b oa t s w i th a w i thy f r amewo rk c ov e red w i th s ewn h i de s ( v i t i l ibu s n a s ig i i s c o r io c i r cum sa t i s ; s e ea l so P l iny N a tH i s t3 4 , 1 56 ) . I nh i s 4 t hc en tu ry AD p o em , O ra Mar i t ima , A v ienu s p r e se rved e x t rac t s f r om a n e a r ly p e r ip lu sw h ich H awke s a nd o t h e r s d a t e t ot h e 6 t hc e n tu ry BC , b e fo re t h e t i me w hen t h e C a thag in ian s a r e k nown t o h ave p r even ted G r eek s h ip s p a s s ing t h rough t h e S t ra i t o fG ib ra l ta r . P e r ip lo i w e r e o r ig ina l ly o ra l a i d s t o c oa s ta l p i lo tage f o r m a r ine r s a nd t r ade r s , a nd t h e Ma s sa l io t e p e r ip lu s q uo ted b y A v ienu s d e sc r ibe s t h e m a in f e a tu r e s o f av oyage s o u thbound a l ong t h e w e s te rn c oa s t o fA t lan t ic E u rope a nd t h en a l ong t h e n o r ther ns ho r e s o ft h e Med i t e r ranean t o Ma s s i l ia ( Ma r se i l le s ) . T he r e a r e u ndoub ted d i f f icu l t ie s i ni n t e rp r e t ing t h e n ame s o f p eop le a nd p l a ce s m en t ioned , d i ff i cu l t ie s i n c r ea sed b y t h e a ppa ren t i n te rpo la t ion o f e x t raneou s m a t te r —f o r e xamp le , H im i lco o f C a r thage ' s d e sc r ip t ion o f aw ind le s s , t i de le s s , s e aweed— s t r ewn s ea ( Mu rphy 1 977 , l i ne 17-29 , 3 80-9 , 4 0616 ) . N eve r the le s s , t h e m a in e l emen t s o f t h e d e sc r ip t ion a r e c l ea r , e ven i f s ome d e ta i l s r ema in a mb iguou s . T he i n fo rma t ion o fr e levan ce t ot h ep r e sen td i scu s s ion —t h o se l i n e s d ea l ing w i th s ea f a r e r s w ho l i ved i nt h e v i c in i ty o f ah ead land O e s t rymn in — m ay b e s t b e p r e sen ted b y p a raph ra s ing a nd i n te rp r e t ing Mu rphy ' st r an s la t ion ( 1 977 ) : T h eh a rdy a nd i n du s t r iou s p eop le s o ft h e i s land s a nd c oa s t s o f t h el a nd s a r ound U shan to rO ue s san t [ i et h ep r edec e s so r so ft h e V ene t i , O s i sm i i a nd C o r io so l i te s ] w e re h eav i ly i n vo lved i n m a r i t ime t r ade , m u ch o f i ti n t i n a nd l e ad . T hey u s ed h i de ( n e t i sque c umb i s )o nt h e se o cean ic v oyage s . [ L in e s9 4107 ] F rom U shan t /Oue s san t i ti st wo—day s ' s a i l t oI r e land [ s ee F ig 8 . 1 .3 ; at wo—day v oyage r e qu i r e s a n a ve rage o f c5k t s m ade g ood —w h ich i sn o ti mpo s s ib le ] a nd A lb ion [ B r i ta in ] i ss i gh t ed o nt h i sv oyage . [ L ine s 1 08112 ] Me r chan t s f r om T a r t e s su s [ ah a rbou r i nt h e G u l f o f C ad iz , s ou th—we s tS pa in ] , f r om C a r thage , a nd f r om t h ev i c in i ty o ft h e P i l la r s o f H e r cu le s [ S t ra i t o f G ib ra l ta r ] s a i led t o t h e U shan t /Oue s san tr e g ion t ot r ade . [ L ine s 13116 ] T hu s ,f r om a tl e a s tt h ee a r ly I r on A ge ,h i d eb oa t sw e r eu sed o n s e a—go ing t r ad ing v oyage si nt h ew e s te rn C hann e la nd t h en o r th B ay o fB i scay r e g ion ( F ig 8 . 1 .3 ) . C ae sa r ( Be l lo C iv i l i , 1 . 54 ) s t a te s t h a t B r i t i sh h i d e h ad k ee l s , a nd t h i s i ss ome t ime s t h ough t t oh ave b een am i s tak e a s2 0 th c en tu ry I r i sh a nd We l sh c u ra ch sa nd c o rac le sd on o th ave t h em , a nd o n ly c e r ta in t y pe s ( e g t h o se f r om C oun ty K e r ry ) h ave a c e n t ra ll a th w h i ch i sb r oade rt h an o t h e rl a th s i nt h ef r amewo rk . H oweve r , A domonnan i n h i s 6 t h / 7 th c en tu ry AD V i ta S t C o lumbae ( And e r son & A nde r son 1 96 1 ) a nd o t h e r m ed ieva l a u tho r s ( Ma r cu s 1 9 53-4 , 3 15 )r e f e rt oc u ra ch s w i th k ee l s , a nd al a te 1 7 th c e n tu ry d r aw ing b y C ap ta in P h i l ip s , n ow i n t h e P epy s L ib ra ry , Magda lene C o l lege , C amb r idge , s h ow s al a rge I r i sh s a i l ing c u ra ch w i th p rom inen tk ee la nd s t em ( F ig 8 . 1 .4 ) .I t s e em s v e ry p o s s ib le t h a t I r on A ge s e a—go ing h i d e b oa t s s im i la r ly h ad k ee l sa nd s t em s .

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F igu r e8 . 1 .4 C ap ta in ' sP h i l l ip s 'l a te 1 7 th c en tu ry d raw ing o fc u rach s( Pho to :P epy sL ib ra ry , Magda len eC o l leg ,C amb r idge )

t h u s i ng en e ra l t e rm s t h ey a r e m o r e s e awo r thy a nd s e ak ind ly t h an e qu iva len tp l ank b oa t s . T h ew oven f r amewo rk i sr e s i l ien t a nd e ne rgy a b so rben t , y e t i th o ld s t h e s h ape o f t h e b oa t a nd g i ve s s t r eng th t ot h e h u l l f o r l e a s t w e igh t . A l though S eve r in ' s B r endan m ay n o th ave b een a na u th en t ic r e p l ica o f ap r eh i s to r ic s ea—go ing h i de b oa t ,h e rt r ia l sd i dd emon s t ra t et h a ts u ch ab oa t h ad g ood s eakeep ing q ua l i t i te s a nd w a s g en e ra l ly r e l iab le ( S eve r in 1 978 ) .

P h i l ip ' s ' W i ld e I r i sh 'c u ra ch a l so h ad aw oven w ickerwo rk h u l l i n s id e t h e h i d e ( a s h a s a1 9 th c en tu ry S co t t i sh c u ra ch n ow i n E l g in Mu seum ; F en ton 1 976 ) , a nd n o tt h e u nwoven , f a s tened— l a th f r amewo rk o f r e cen t c u ra ch s . D e sc r ip t ion s b y C ea sa r ( B e l lo C iv i l i , 1 . 54 ) , L ucan ( Phar sa l ia 4 , 1 36-8 ) , P l iny ( Na t H i s t7 ,2 0 5-6 ; 3 4 , 1 56 ) a nd D io C a s s iu s ( 4 8 , 1 819 ) s t rong ly s ugge s t s t h a t t h e f r amewo rk o f e a r ly B r i t i sh a nd I r i sh h i de b oa t s a l so w a s aw oven w icke rwo rk . I ts e em s l i ke ly t h a tt h e se b oa t s , w h ich w e r e p robab ly t h e m o s t i mpo r tan t t ype i n p r eh i s to r ic n o r th—we s tE u ropean w a te r s f o re xp lo ra t ion s , t r ade a nd f i sh ing , w e r e s im i la r i nf o rm t ot h e 2 0 th c en tu ry S i be r ian b a ida ra o r t h e I n u i t u m iac ( McG ra i l 1 987 , 1 73-87 ) o f t h e c i r cumpo la rz on e ( t hem se lve sn o tu n l ike t h e B ro igh te r mode l ) ; a nd i ns i z e s a y , 1 .0 x 1 . 75 x 0 . 60m . T he se l a te I r on A ge h i deboa t s w e r e p r obab ly p rope l led b y as i ng le s qua re s a i l , o r b y o a r s i nf o u l w ind s , a nd s t ee r ed b y as t ee r ing o a r o ve r t h e q ua r te ra sw es e eo nt h eB ro igh te r mod e l ) .

T he re a r e s ome d i sadvan tage s t ot h e se b oa t s : t h e h i de c ove r , w h ich i sr e la t ive ly e a s i ly h o led c on t r ibu t e s l i t t le t os t r eng th , a nd t h u s b oa t s a r e l i m i ted i nl e ng th t o c1 2 m( o rp o s s ib ly 1 8 m ; McG ra i l 1 987 , 1 84 ) ; t h u s t h ey c ou ld n eve r h ave b een e n la rged i n to s h ip s . T h e l i gh tn e s s o f t h e s t r u c tu r e a nd c on sequen t g ood f r eeboa rd a l so m ean r educ ed r e s i s tanc e t o l e eway ( d e sp i t e h av ing a p ro t rud ing k ee l a nd t h e u s e o f a s t ee r ing o a r ) , t h u s w indwa rd p e r fo rman ce m ay n o tb e a sg ood a st h a to f ac ompa rab le p l anked b oa t . N eve r th e le s s , i nc e r ta in p hy s ica l e nv i ronmen t s a nd e conom ic c ond i t ion s , t h e h i d e b oa t h a s a dvan tage s a nd i sp r e f e r red t ot h e p l anked b oa t , a nd t h e r e i se ve ry r e a son t ob e l ieve t h a t t h ey w e r e w id e ly u s ed i nt h e e a r ly s ou ther n N o r th S ea a nd C hanne l r e g ion , b o th s e a—go ing t y pe s a nd o t he r s m o r e s u i tab le f o r i n land w a t e r s , e ven t h ough i nc e r ta in p a r t so ft h a tr e g ion t h ep l anked b oa tw a s a l so k nown a nd u sed ( s ee b e low ) .

H id e b oa t s f i tw e l l i n to a n e nv i ronmen t w i th e xpo sed c oa s t s , w he r e t h e r e a r e af ew l a rge t r ee s b u t ag ood s upp ly o fh i de s f r om l a nd o rs e a a n ima l s , a nd w he r e l i f e c an b e s u s ta ined b y a n ima l h u sband r y a nd b y s e a f i sh ing a nd h un t ing — a' c ro f te r ' e conomy . T h ey a r e q u ick ly b u i l t , a r e c heap w hen c ompa red t o ap l ank b oa to fs im i la rc apa c i ty ,a nd a r er e ad i ly r epa i red .H ide b oa t s c an b e o pe ra ted f r om a lmo s t a ny s ho r e f r om i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l ac e s , a nd a r e e xce l len t s u r fb oa t s . T he i r l i gh twe igh t s t r uc tu r e i sb uoyan t , g i v ing g ood f r eeboa rd e ven w hen l o aded ; 2 12

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f e a tu r e s a r e n on— f un c t iona l o n al o gboa t a nd t h u s m u s t h ave

B ron ze A ge p lanked b oa t s

b een c op ied f r om ap l anked b oa t ,o rp o s s ib ly ah i d eb oa t . D e sp i te t h e a ppa ren t d om inance o f h i de b oa t s a s s e a—go ing c r a f t i n t h e e a r ly I r on A ge o f t h e s ou the rn No r th S ea a nd C hanne lr eg ion ,t h ef u tu re w a st ol i e —a si nt h er e s to ft h e w o r ld —w i th t h ep l anked b oa tw h ich ,o fa l lt h eb oa tt y p e s ,w a s t h eo ne t h a tc ou ld b e s u cce s sf u l ly d eve loped i n to as h ip . T he re a r e f i ve p l anked b oa t s f r om n o r th—we s t E u rope d a t ed t ot h e B ron ze A ge : t h ree f i nd s f r om No r th F e r r iby , N o r th H umbe r s ide , d a ted t o t h e 2 nd m i l len ium BC (W r igh t 1 976 ; 1 985 ) ; t h e p l anked b oa tf r om B r igg , S ou th H umbe r s ide , o ft h e m id i s t m i l len ium BC ( McG ra i l 1 981b , 1 985a ) ; a nd t h e b oa t f r om H jo r t sp r ing , A l s , s ou the rn D enma rk , d a ted t o c3 50 BC ( Ro senbe rg 1 937 ) . T he se b oa t s w e re a l l s ewn—p lank b oa t s , n o i r on f a s ten ing s w e re u sed , a nd t h ey w e r e a l l s u i tab le f o rr i ve r a nd e s tua ry w o rk r a the rt h an o pen s ea v oyage s , t h eB r igg ' r a f t ' o f b ox— l ike f o rm b e ing e spec ia l ly s u i ted t o u p s t ream w o rk . T h e F e r r iby b oa t s w i th t h e i r h i gh l e ng th /b read th r a t io ( c6 : 1 ) w e r e e v iden t ly b u i l t w i th s peed i n m ind , e s sen t ia l w hen c r o s s ing t h e t i da l H umb e r e s tua ry . E s t ima te s o f t h e c a rgo c apa c i ty o ft h ese t h ree b oa t s a r e g i ven i nT ab le 8 . 1 .3 , a l though t h e se f i gu r e s a r en o td i re c t ly c ompa rab le a st h ey h ave n o tb een c a lcu la ted a ts im i la rw a te r l ine s .

E ar ly I ron A ge p l anked b oa t s T ab le 8 . 1 .4 a t t emp t s t os umma r i se t h e r a nge o f b oa tbu i ld ing t e chn ique s a va i lab le t o l a t e p r eh i s to r i c m an i n n o r th—we s t E u rop e , b a sed o n t h e e v id ence f r om b oa t— shaped c o f f in s , l o gboa t s , h i d eb oa t s a nd p l anked b oa t s . T hu s , a tt h e b eg inn ing o f t h e p e r iod u nde r r e v iew , s ome o r a l l o f t h e se t e chn ique s c ou ld h ave b een u s ed t ob u i ld t h ep l anked b oa t so ft h es ou ther n N o r th S ea r e g ion . Wh e th e r t h e r e w e r e i nf a c t e a r ly I r on A ge p l anked b oa t s w i th t h e se f e a tu r e s r ema in s t ob e d emon s t ra ted b y e xcava t ion , a nd w he th e r s u ch h ypo th e t ica l b oa t s w e r eu sed a ts e a , i na dd i t ion t oh i d e b oa t s , o r w e r e r e s t r ic ted t ol a ke s , r i ve r s a nd e s tua r ie s , a s w e r e t h e i r o n ly k nown B ronze A ge p r edec e s so r s ,m u s tr ema in a no p en q ue s t ion f o rt h ep r e sen t . L a ter I ron A ge p l anked b oa t s

N on eo ft h e se b oa t sh ad a ny e v iden ce f o rs a i l ing o rr ow ing ( t he e a r l ie s t e v idence i nn o r th—we s t E u rope o fo a red p ropu l s ion i s o nt h es ma l lg o ld m ode lf r om D u r rnbe rg o ft h e5 t hc en tu ry BC ; E l lme r s 1 978 ) , a nd i tm u s t b e a s sumed t h a t t h ey w ou ld h ave b een p rop e l led a nd s t ee red , b y p add le s , w h ich w e r e i n deed f o und w i th t h eH jo r t sp r ing b oa t . T h eB r igg ' r a f t 'i sk ee l— le s s : F e r r iby b oa t 1 ,o no t he rh and ,h a s ak ee l , i nt h e s en se t h a t t h ec en t ra l l o ng i tud ina l m embe ro ft h e b o t tom i so fg r ea te rs c an t l ing st h an t h er ema inde ro ft h eb o t tom p l ank ing , b u t i ti sn o t av e ry p rom inen t o ne a nd m ay b e b e s t c l a s s i f ied a s a' t h in—p lank ' k ee l ( McG ra i l 1 987 , 12-13 ) . T h e r e a r e s ugge s t ion s , h oweve r , t h a t , i n a dd i t ion t o t h e F e r r iby /B r igg t y pe o fp l anked b oa t , t h e r e w e re a l so b oa t s w i th p r om in en t k ee l s a nd s t em s i ne a r ly B r i ta in : t h e B ronze A ge b oa t— shaped l o g c o f f in f r om L oo se H owe , No r th Y o rk sh i r e ( E lgee & E lge ,e 1 949 ) h a s ap seudo—kee l a nd s t em ; a nd t h e h on A ge l o gboa tf r om P oo le , D o r se th a s ap seudo— s tem . S uch

2 13

T he e a r ly h on A ge p l anked b oa t i st h e r e fo r e c on je c tu ra l , b u t t owa rd st h e e nd o ft h eh on A ge ,i nt h e i s tc en tu ry BC a nd t h e e a r ly 1 s tc en tu ry AD , t h es e a—go ing p l ank b oa tb e come s m o re t a ng ib le a s t h e r e i sd o cumen ta ry a nd i c onog raph i c ( b u t n o t e xcava ted )e v idenc ef o rt h em i nt h eC hanne lr e g ion . T he V ene t ib oa t s C ae sa r ( B e l lo G a l l i co , 3 . 13 ) a nd S t rabo ( 4 .4 .1 ) h ave l ef t d e sc r ip t ion so ft h es e a—go ing b oa t so ft h eV ene t i , as ub—g roup o ft h e B e lgae o fn o r th—we s tF ran ce ( F ig 8 . 1 .3 ) . T he se v e s se l s w e r e s o l id ly b u i l t w i th h i g h b ow a nd s t er n , a nd b o t tom s t h a t w e r e f l a t t e r t h an t h o se o ft h e R oman s h ip s , e nab l ing t h em t o s a i l c l o se r i n sho r e a nd t o t a k e t h e g r ound r e ad i ly i n t i da l w a t e r s . T h e se C e l t ic c r a f t w e r e m o r e s e awo r thy t h an C ae sa r ' s s h ip s , y e tn o t s of a s t . Mo s t , i fn o t a l l , o ft h e se d i f f e r ence s a r e t ob ee xp ec ted w hen s a i l—p rope l led C hann e lt r ad ing v e s se l sa r e c ompa r ed w i th o a r ed w a r sh ip s w h ich , a l thoug h t h ey m ay h ave b een b u i l t o n t h e R ive r L o i r e ( B e l lo G a l l i co , 3 . 9 ) w e re u ndoub t ed ly t o a Med i t e r ran ean s p e c if i ca t ion . O the r p o in t s m ade b yC ae sa ra nd S t rabo m ay b em o r ed i agno s t i co ft h el a te h on A ge ,C e l t ic b oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion .

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s

T ab le 8 . 1 .4 T e chn ique sa va i lab le t ot h el a t ep r eh i s tor ic b oa tbu i ld er o fn or th—we s tE urope S hape S equence E nd s

K ee l s

P lank ing C au lk ing F a s ten ing s

O ccu l i

•f l a t—bo t tomed ( F e r r iby ,B r igg ) •r ound—hu l led ( H jo r t sp r ing ,L ogboa t s ) •s h e l l( Fe r r iby ,B r igg ,H jo r t sp r ing ) •s ke le ton ( H ideboa t s ) •w i th s t em s( Loo se H owe ,P oo le ) •w i th s t em sp l u sp ro tu s ion ( H jo r t sp r ing ) •w i thou ts t em s( Fe r r iby ,B r igg ) •w i th p rom inen tk ee l( Loo se H owe ) •w i thou tk ee l( B r igg ,H jo r t sp r ing ) •w i th ' l ow p ro f i le 'k ee l( Fe r r iby ) •o ve r lapp ing b u ts up e r f ic ia l ly f l u sh— la id ( F e r r iby ,B r igg ,H a sho lme ) •o ve r lapp ing c l inke r— s ty le ( H jo r t sp r ing ) •m o s s( Fe r r iby ,B r igg ,H a sho lme ) •h i de ( Poo le ) •s ewn ( Fe r r iby ,B r igg ,H a sho lme ) •c l ea t sw i th t r an sve r se t i mb e r s( F e r r iby ,B r igg ,H a sho lm e ) •l o cked t r eena i l s( Ha sho lme ) •m e ta l( Ho lme—P ie r r epon t 1 ) •b oa t ' se ye s( Logboa t sf r om B r igg ,L o ch A r thu r ,H a sho lm ea nd t h eR oo sC a r rm ode l )

S our ce s : Wr igh t 1 976 , 1 985 ; McG ra i l 1 981b ; 1 985a ;R o senb e r g 1 937 ;E lgee 1 949 ; McG ra i l 1 978 ;M i l le t t & McG ra i l 1 987

T he V ene t i s h ip s h ad o ak p l ank ing — p r e sumab ly ( a t l e a s t s upe r f ic ia l ly ) f l u sh— la id , o t he rw i se t h e d i f f e r ence f r om t h e C la s s ica l t r ad i t ion w ou ld h ave b een n o ted . T h i s p l ank ing w a s c au lked w i th w ha ti su sua l ly t r an s la ted a s' s eaweed 'b u tw h i ch may h ave b een m o s s ( E V Wr igh t , p e r s c omm ) o re ven r e ed s ( harund ine s )w h ich P l iny ( Na tH i s t , 1 6 .158 ) ,o ft h e i s tc en tu ry AD , t e l l s u s w a s u sed b y t h e B e lgae t oc au lk s e am s ' wh e r e i t h e ld b e t te r t h an g l ue a nd w a s m o r e r e l iab le t h an p i t ch ' . T he V ene t i b oa t s ' t hwa r t sh ip s t i mbe r s ( t ran s t ra — w h ich s h ou ld p robab ly b e t r an s la ted a s ' f r ame s ' o r' f l oo rt i mb e r s 'r a the rt h an ' c ro ssbeam s ' ) w e r e c 1f to r 0 . 30 m t h ick ( p eda l ibu s i n a l t i tud inem ) a nd w e r e f a s tened b y i r on n a i l s ( f e r r e i s d i g i t i ) , a t h umb o r 1i n ch ( 2 5 mm ) i nd i ame t e r . C ae sa r t e l l s u s t h e se s h ip s w e re p rope l led b y l e a th e r s a i l s b u t h e g i ve s n o d e sc r ip t ion o f m a s t , y a rd o r s t and ing a nd r u nn ing r i gg ing , e xcep t f o r ap a s s ing r e f e r en ce t or op e s ( f un e s ) w h ich f a s tened t h e y a rd t ot h e m a s t . T he re i sa l so n o m en t ion o ft h e s t ee r ing a r rangemen t s a nd s o ,p e rhap s , i tm ay b ec on c luded t h a ti tw a s b y s i de r udde r , g ene ra l ly s im i la r t o t h o se u s ed i nC la s s ica l s h ip s . C ae sa r d oe s , o n t h e o t h e r h and , t e l l u s t h a t t h e V en e t i u sed i r on c ha in s w i th t h e i r a n cho r s — t h e se c ha in s w e r e p robab ly f o re runne r s t oc ab le s o fo r gan ic m a te r ia l a nd s im i la r t ot h e6 . 5 mi r on c ha in f o und w i th ai s tc en tu ry AD i r on a n cho r a tB u lbu ry , D o r se t ,s ome 2 -3 m i le su pt h eR ive rS he l fo rd f r om P oo le H a rbou r( Cun l i f f e 1 972 ) . C ae sa r ( Be l lo G a l l ico , 3 . 8 ) a nd S t rabo ( Geog , 4 . 4 .1 )a l so d e sc r ibe t h e s ea fa r ing a c t iv i t ie s o f t h e V en e t i , h ow t h ey h ad n ume rou s s h ip s a nd e xe r c i sed a u tho r i ty o ve rc oa s ta l t r a ff i cb y mak ing ' a lmo s t a l l ' p ay t r ibu te . I nt h e t h eo ry a nd p r ac t ice o f s eaman sh ip t h ey h ad n o e qua l , a nd t h ey r e gu la r ly s a i led t oa n e mpo r ium i nB r i ta in .

2 14

T he d i s t r ibu t ion o fV ene t i g o ld c o in s ( Ga l l iou 1 977 ) i n d ica te s t h a tt h eV ene t i ,f r om t h e i rt e r r i to ry i n Mo rb ihan ,w e r ea c t ive u p t h e R ive r L o i r e b eyond A nge r s , a l ong t h e r i ve r s Au in e a nd E lo r n , a nd a sf a r a sR enne s o n t h e R ive r V i la ine ( F ig 8 . 1 .3 ) . O n t h e o t h e r h and , t h ey a r e n o t w e l l d ocumen ted i n t h e a r chaeo log i ca lr e co rd o fB r i ta in b u t , a s C un l i f f e ( 1982 , 4 3-5 ) a nd L angoue t ( 1 984 )h ave p o in ted o u t , t h e C o r io so l i tes a r e , i n b o th c o in s a nd p o t t e ry . T he l a t e s t d i s tr ibu t ion m ap s o f e a r ly a mpho ra e f i nd s ( Ga l l iou 1 984 ; F i tzpa t r ick 1 985 ) s e em t o r e f le c t ac oa s ta l t r ade f r om t h e G a ronne a nd t h e L o i r e t o U shan t , w i th t h e p o s s ib i l i ty t h ence o f a d i rec t c ro s s ing U shan t /L iza rd o r ac oa s ta l r ou te t o A le t , t h e C o r io so l i te s ' e mpo r ium . G al iou ( 1 977 ; 1 984 , 2 8 ) h a s p o in ted o u t t h e p o s s ib i l i ty a n o ve r land r ou t e b e tween Qu ibe ron B ay a nd Me t v i a t h e r i ve r s V i la ine a nd R an ce , w i th a p o r tage b e tween h eadwa te r s . E a r ly a mpho rae h ave a l so b een f ound i n t h e C o t en t in p en in su la a nd t h e C hanne l I s land s s ugge s t ing t h e i n vo lvemen t so ft h eU ne l l i /Vene l l ii nt h i sc r o s sC hanne lt r ade . A l though C a e sa rc r ea te s a n i mp re s s ion o ft h eu n ique ma r i t ime p owe ro ft h e V en e t i , h i s s t a temen t t h a t ' a lmo s t a l l ' p a id t h em t r i bu t e , i mp l ie s t h a t t h e r e w e r e o t h e r C e l t s i n dependen t ly i n vo lved i nt r ad ing v oyage s . I nt h e i r f i gh t a ga in s t C aesa r t h e V en e t iw e r eh e lped ,n o to n ly b yB r i t i sh a ux i l ia r ie s ,b u ta l so b y m o s t o ft h e t r i be s o fc oa s ta l Anno r ica a nd B e lg ic G au l , f r om t h e O s i sm i i n ea r U shan t t ot h e Manap i i a t t h e mou th o f t h e R h in e ,e x cep tf o rt h eC o r io so l i te so ft h eB r i t tany C o te d uN o rd a nd t h e V en e l l i /Une l l io ft h eC o ten t in p en in su la ( Be l lo G a l l i co , 3 . 9 ) . D o cumen ta ry a nd a r chaeo log ica l e v idence t h u s t e nd t o s u gg e s t t h a t , a l though t h e V ene t i may h ave s pec ia l i sed i n t r ad ing v oyage sa l ong t h eA t lan t ic c oa s tf r om t h eL o i re t on ea r U shan t a nd a c ro s s t h e w e s te rn C hanne l r ou te t o B r i ta in ( a nd p o s s ib ly t oI r e land a st h e i rp r edece sso r sh ad d one i nh i de b oa t s 5 00 y ea r se a r l ie r ) ,t h eC o r io so l i te s a nd V ene l l i /Une l l iu sed t h e

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy m id C hanne l r o u te , Med i te r ran ean g ood s h av ing b een b r ough t t oA le t a nd t h e C o ten t in p en in su la f o rt r an s— sh ipmen t , d e sp i te t h eV en e t i' monopo ly ' . S eve ra la t t emp t sh ave b een m ade t op u tf l e sh o nt h es k e le ton o f C ae sa r ' s d e sc r ip t ion o f t h e V ene t i v e s se l s . C r e s ton ( 1 956 ; 1 96 1 ) t h ough t t h a t t h ey m u s t h ave b een l i ke t h e e a r ly 2 0 th c en tu ry s i nago t( L eY ach t6 0 1 ( 1 4 98 9 ) ,3 1011 )o ft h eG u l fo f Mo rb ihan , w h i l s t B eaudou in ( 1 975 , 1 04 ) s aw s im i la r i t ie s w i th a1 9 th c en tu ry b oa tf r om B re s t ,t h el a nv eo c( Pa r i s 1 882 ,p l3 8 ) . O the r sh ave s e en a spec t so fC ae sa r ' sd e sc r ip t ion si nt h e R omano—Ce l t ic b oa t so ft h e2 nd-3 rd c en tu ry AD ,a nd t h e r ea r e m o r e s im i la r i t i e s h e r e t h an i n t h e e a r l ie r s pecu la t ion s ( s ee p ape r s b y R u le , A rno ld , Ma r sd en a nd L ehmann i n t h i s v o lume ) . T he p on to J ohn s tone ( 1 980 , 8 7-8 )a nd ,f o l low ing h im , Wea the rh i l l( 1 985 ) h ave s ugge s ted f u r the r c on s ide ra t ion s hou ld b e g i ven t o t h e p on to , av i ew f i r s t e xp re s sed b yJ u l ( 1 848 , 1 20 1 ) a nd t h en b y d e l aR on c ie re & C le r c—Rampe l (1934 , 2 -3 ) . S ome s i x y ea r s a f te rC ae sa rh ad f i r s te n coun te r ed t h eV ene t is h ip sh em en t ion s i nh i s b ook o n t h eC iv i l Wa r( Be l lo C iv i l i 3 . 29 )p on ton e s q uod e s tg enu s n av ium G a l l i ca rum , a' k ind o fG a l l ic c r a f t 'k nown a s ap on to , w h ich w a s an av i s o ne ra r ia , c apab le o ft r an spo r t ing t r oop s , a nd p o ss ib ly h o r se s . T h i s p on to p robab ly h ad a r e pu ta t ion a s ar e l iab le s a i l ing s h ip f o r A n tony l e f t t h i r ty o f t h em a tL i s su s i nn o r th—we s t G r eece s ot h a t C ae sa rm igh tu s e t h em t op u r sue P omp ey ( Be l lo C iv i l i3 . 40 ) . J ohn s tone ( 1 980 , 8 7-8 ) h a s d rawn a t ten t ion t o ap on to n amed a nd d ep ic ted o n am o sa ic f r om a c r o s s— shaped f l oo r i nt h e f r ig ida r ium o ft h e Ma i son d e s Mu se s a tA l th ibu ru s ( Med iena ) , T un i s , n ow i nt h e B a rdo Mu seum . T h i s m o sa ic , d a ted t ot h e s e cond h a l fo ft h e 3 rd c en tu ry AD b u tp robab ly c op ied f r om a n e a r l ie r s ou r c e , h a s i lu s t ra t ion s o f n ea r ly 3 0 s h ip s a nd b oa t s n amed i nL a t in a nd s ome t ime s i nG r eek ( Dunbab in 1 978 , 2 4 , 1 27 , 1 36 , p l 1 22 ) . T he p on to ( F ig 8 . 1 .5 & 8 . 1 .6 ) , w h ich , i s b e ing t owed b y ab oa to fs im i la rf o rm , a ppea r st ob e as h ip o f s ome s i ze , w i th ar e la t ive ly d eep h u l l ( l eng th /dep th = 3 . 36 ) . T he s h ee r l in ei sg ene ra l ly p a ra l le lt ot h ek ee le xcep ta tt h ee nd s w he r e i tr i se s s h a rp ly a nd , a tt h e s t e rn , c u r ve s f o rwa rd . T he r e a pp ea r s t ob e aw a le o r r u bb ing s t rake b e low t h e s h ee r . S he w a sp rope l led b y as qua r e s a i l ( a spe c tr a t io o f c1 )o n am a s t s t epped n ea r a m id sh ip s w h ich i ss uppo r t ed b y s h roud s . T h e y a rd , o n w h ich t h e s a i l i s f u r led , h a s s e ve ra l l i f t s t o t h e m a s t—head , a nd b ra ce s f r om t h e y a rd a rm s t ot h e d eck . O the r r i gg ing l e ad s t o an ow—ob l i te ra ted , s h a rp ly a ng led m a s tw h ich p robab ly h ad a na r temon s a i l o ve rt h eb ow s . T he r ei s ar u dde r o nt h ep o r tq ua r te rw h ich m ay b eo ne o f ap a i r . S t em p ro j ec t ions T h i s a ppea r s t ob e ar e p re sen ta t ion o f as h ip ' h i gh a nd d r y ' r a th e r t h an a f loa t , t h u s t h e l owe s t p a r t o ft h e h u l l v i s ib le m ay b e t a ken t o b e t h e k ee l w h ich m ee t s t h e c u r ved s t em i n a p ro je c t ing f o re foo t . P ro jec t ion s o fv a r iou s f o rm s m ay b e s e en , f o r e xamp le , o n t h e p r eh i s to r ic H jo r t sp r ing b oa t ( Ro senb e rg 1 937 ) ; o n l a te B ronze A ge a nd e a r ly I r on A ge S cand inav ian r o ck c a r v ing s ( Ch r i s ten sen 1 972 , 1 62 ) ; o n i s tc en tu r yB Cc o in s o ft h e C on t inen ta lA t reba te s ( F ig 8 . 1 .7 ) ; o nB r i t i sh c o in so ft h e e a r ly i s tc en tu ry AD ( s ee b e low ) ; o n ab r on ze m od e lr i ve rb oa t 2 15

f r om B le s sey n ea r t h e s ou rce o f t h e R ive r S e ine ( J ohn s tone 1 980 , f i g 1 2 .5 ) ; o n s e ve ra l l a te 3 rd c en tu ry AD c o in s o f A l le c tu s ( Ma r sden 1 964 ; D ove 1 971 ) ; a nd o n a n e ng raved s t one f r om L odd ekop inge , S weden , t e n ta t ive ly d a ted t ot h e9 t h c e n tu ry AD ( R ie ck & C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 988 , 1 31 , 1 43 ) ( F ig 8 . 1 .8 ) . T h ey a r e a l so f o und i nt h e Med i te r ranean r e g ion ; o n M inoan e ng rav ing s o f c2 000 BC ( Ca s son 1 971 , f i g3 6 ) ; o nt h e 7 t hc en tu ry BC b oa tm ode l s a nd e ng rav ing sf r om I t a ly ( Bon ino 1 975 ) ; o n t h e 3 rd c en tu ry BC P un ic s h ipw reck f r om Ma r sa la ( Ba sch & F ro s t 1 975 ) ; a nd o nt h e i s tc en tu ry BC Mad rague d e G ien sw reck ( T chem ia e ta l1 978 ) ; o n 1s t /2nd c en tu ry mo sa ic s a tO s t ia ( Ba sch 1 983 ,f i g 1 ) ; o n amo sa ic o ft h e i s tc en tu ry AD a t Magda la ( Raban 1 988 ) ; s e ea l so C a sson ( 1 971 ,f i g s3 0 , 1 37 , 1 40 , 1 4 5 , 1 9 1 ) . T hey h ave b een k nown i nt h e 2 0 th c en tu ry o n b oa t s o f t h e C e lebe s ( Ho rne l l 1 946 , 2 10 , f i g 3 9 ) ; i n L ake V ic to r ia ( Wo r th ing ton 1 933 ) ; S i be r ia ( Br ind ley 1 919 /20 ) ; a nd i nO cean ia a nd t h e I n d ian O cean ( Ha le 1 980 , 1 26 ) . T he se p ro jec t ion sa r et h u sw ide— rang ing i nt ime a nd s pac e . O n ly r a re ly d ot h ey r e p re sen tr am s , w h ich a r e o n ly p rac t icab le a tt h ew a te r l ine o fa no a red f i gh t ing v e s se l . T he re a r e an umb e r o fo t he rr e a son sw hy b oa t sm ay s u ch p ro jec t ion s : ( i ) f o r u se w h en b each ing b ow s f i r s t w hen t h e p ro t ru s ion p r even t st h eb ow sd igg ing i n , ( i ) t o i n c r ea se s peed p o ten t ia l , b y i n c r ea s ing t h e w a te r l in el e ng th ,b yr educ ing r e s i s tance o rd rag d ue t o t h e c an ce l la t ion o f t h e b ow w ave , a nd b y f a i r ing a n o t he rw i se b l un tb ow , ( i i ) t oi mp rove w indwa rd p e r fo rmance b y i n c rea s ing t h e l a t e ra l p l an e a r ea t h u s i n c rea s ing r e s i s tance t o l e eway , ( i v ) t oi mp rove s t ee r ing c ha ra c te r i s t ic s ( Mud ie 1 986 , 5 3 ) , ( v ) i n as ho r t , s t eep s ea i ti ss a id t ob e e f f ec t ive i n k eep ing u p ab oa t ' sh ead (Wo r th ing ton 1 933 , 1 61 )o r ( v i )a s as t ru c tu ra ls o lu t ion t ot h ep rob lem o fm ak ing a s t rong , w a te r t igh t j o in t b e tween k ee l a nd s t em b y r u nn ing t h e k ee l b eyond t h e s t em a nd s uppor t ing t h e l a t te rb ya ne x t e rna lk nee . S h ip so nC e l t ic c o in s T h e r e p re sen ta t ion o fb oa t s w i th s t em p ro jec t ion s , n ea re s t i n t i me a nd p l a ce t oC ae sa r ' s V ene t i , a r e t h e o n t h e i s t c en tu ry B C A t r eba te s g o ld c o in ( F ig 8 . 1 .7 ) a nd t h o se o n t wo b ron ze c o in s o f C unob e l in ( F ig s 8 . 1 .9 a nd 7 . 2 .5 ) . T he A t r eba t ic d ep ic t ion i ss t y l i s t ic a nd l i t t le mo r e t h an t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i sa r e la t ive ly d eep b oa tw i th ab ow p ro jec t ion c an b ed educed .T h e c o in s f r om C an te rbu ry a nd S heepen , w h ich w e r e i s sued b y C unob e l in o f t h e T r inovan te s /Ca tuve l laun i d u r ing t h e p e r iod 2 0-43 AD ( v an A r sd e l 1 989 ,408 , c a t n o 1 989-1 ,p 1 5 1 ) , show m o r ed e ta i l s . T he r e a r ep rob lem si ni n t e rp re t ing r e p re sen ta t ion so nc o in s : t h e e ng rave r i sc on s t ra ined b y t h e s hap e a nd s i ze o f t h e c o in ; h e

C e l t ic B oa t sa nd S h ip s

F igu re 8 . 1 .5 Ap on to o n3 r dc e n tu ry AD mo sa ic f r om Ma i son d e s Mu se sa tA l th ibu r u s ,T un i s ia ( Pho to :B a rdo Mu seum , T un i s )

m ay b e d raw ing s ome th ing t r om o u t s id e h i s o wn e xpe r ience a nd t h e m od e l h e u s e s m ay b e t a k en f r om a no the r c u l tu re a nd /o r a no th e r a ge ; t h e r e p r e sen ta t ion m ay b e s t y l i sed a nd d e ta i l s m ay b e d i f f icu l t t oi n te rp r e t ; a nd b oa t s a r e g ene ra l ly r e p r e sen ted b y al o ng i tud ina l e l eva t ion w he r ea s t r an sve r se s e c t ion sa r en eeded i fw o r thwh i le e s t ima te so fp e r fo rmanc ea r e t ob e m ad e . T h e d i f f i cu l t ie s h e r e h ave b een w e l l d e sc r ib ed b y C oa te s( 1 987 ) . E ven w h en i ti sc e r ta in t h a tt h er e p re sen ta t ion i s o f ab oa t o rs h ip , i ti sd i f f icu l t t ob e c e r ta in a bou t t h e p rec i se t y pe d ep ic ted . Ma r sd en ( t h i sv o lume )h a s , f o re xamp le , r a i sed t h e q ue s t ion o f w h e th e r t h e b oa t s d ep ic ted o n t h e t wo C unobe l in c o in s m ay b er e p r e sen ta t ion s o fC la s s ica lv e sse l s i n v i ew o ft h ef a c tt h a to nt h er e ve r se o fb o th c o in st h e r ei s ac opy o f aC la s s ica l m o t i f , as t and ing w inged V ic to ry . H oweve r , t h e re a r e o t h e r i n s tan ce s o f C e l t ic a nd C la s s ica l a r t f o rm s a ppea r ing o nt h es ame c o in ,f o re xamp le ,e a r ly i s tc en tu ry AD s i lve r c o in s o f V e r ica o f t h e A t r eba te s /Regn i ( v an A r sdel 1 989 , 1 64 ,c a tn o5 061 )h a s ab u l lo fA ugu s tu so nt h eo bve r se a nd aC e l t ic d e i ty o nt h er e ve r se ( And r ew B u rne t t ,p e r sc omm ) . Mo reove r ,t h e r ei sr e a son t ob e l ieve t h a tC unobe l in w a si n deed i nt h e p o l i t ica l ,e conom ic a nd g eog raph ic p o s i t ion a sl e ade ro f t h e T r inovan t e s / C a tuve l law i i t o u s e h i s o wn s h ip s i n t h e c r o s s—Channe lt r ade , t h em a in a x i s o fw h ich h ad , b y t h i s t ime , m oved f r om t h e w e s t er n a nd c en t ra l C hanne l t o t h e e a s te rn c r o s s ing s l i nk ing t h e R h ine m ou th a nd B e lg ic G au l w i th t h e T hame s a nd t h e E s sex S t ou r , B lackwa te r a nd C o lne ( Cun l i f f e 1 982 , 5 2-3 ; v an A r sd e l l 1 989 , 3 93 ) . F u r the rmo r e , i ti sn o t p o s s ib le t o s u gge s t aC la s s ica l r e p r e sen ta t ion o f as a i l ing v e sse lw i th t h eg r oup o ff e a tu r e s s hown o nt h eC unob e l in c o in s f r om w h ich t h ey m ig h t h ave b een c op ied . I t s e em s n o t u n r ea sonab le ,

F igu re 8 . 1 .7 D raw ing o fs h ip o ng o ld c o in o f1 s tc en tu ry B C A t reba te si nC ab ine td e s Meda i l le s ,P a r i s( A f te r Mu r e te t C ha rbou i l le t 1 889 ,p l3 5 ,c o in 8 6 11 )

t h en , t o c on s ide r t h e a l ter na t ive h ypo the s i s t h a t t h e e ng rav e r d ep ic ted a s h ip t y pe t h a t h e k new , a nd t h a t t h e se a r e r ep re sen ta t ion s o f as h ip o f t h e T r inovan te s / C a t uve l la tm i d u r ing t h e p e r iod 2 0-43 AD C a tuve l laun i w h ich C unob e l i n r e cogn i sed a s ap r ime s uppo r t t oh i s p o l i t ica l p r e s t ige w h i ch w a sb a sed o nc r o s s—Channe lt r ade , a ss ugge s ted b y Mu ck e l roy e ta l( 1 978 ) . T he s h ip o n t h e C an te rbu ry b r onze c o in ( F ig 8 . 1 .9 ) h a s a r e la t ive ly d eep h u l l ( L id = 3 . 2 ) , c ompa rab le w i th t h a t o ft h e A l th ibu ru s p on to . T h e s h ee r l i ne i sg ene ra l ly p a ra l le l t ot h e k ee l e xcep t a tt h e e nd s w h e r e i tr i se s , e sp ec ia l ly a tt h e b ow s . S he w a sp rop e l led b y as qua r es a i l( a spe c tr a t io o f c0 . 70 )o na ma s ts t epped j u s tf o rwa rd o fa m id sh ip s ,w h i ch i ss uppo r t ed b y f o r e s tay a nd b ack s tay . T h e m a s ti sc u ts ho r ta tt h ee dge o ft h i s c o in ,b u to nt h ec o in f r om S heep en ( F ig 7 . 2 .5 ) t h e r e a pp ea r s t o b e af e a tu re a tt h em a s th ead .T h ey a rd i sd ep ic t ed f o r ea nd a f t . a s i so f ten t h e c a se o n c o in s , a nd t h e r e a ppea r t ob e b r ac e s f r om t h e y a rd—a rm s ( o r p o s s ib ly t h e se l i ne s d ep ic t t h e s a i l ) . T he r ei s at r an sve r se s pa ra tt h eh ead o ft h e f o r e s t em ( a l so o n t h e S h eep en c o in ) w h ich m ay r e p re sen t ac l ea t f o r s e cu r ing a b ow l in e t o t h e w ea the r l e a ch o f t h e s a i l , t h e r eby i mp rov ing w indwa rd p e r fo rmance , o r i tm ay b e al e ad f o r a n a n cho r c ab le ;i ts e em st o ol ow t ob et h ey a rd f o ra na r t emom s a i l .

0

Trn m

F igu r e8 . 1 .8 D raw ing o f9 t hc en tu ry e ng rav ing f o und a t L öddeköpp inge ,S kane ( A f t e rR ieck & C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 988 , 1 43 )

F igu r e8 . 1 .6 D raw ing o ft h eA l th ibu r u sp on to a nd t u g( Af te r G au ck le r 1 905 ,p l s 9a nd 1 0 ) 2 16

S t ud ie si n Mar i t im eA r chaeo logy a nd t h e i r a b i l i ty t oo pe ra t e f r om i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l ac e s , w e r e n e ce s sa ry i nc r o s s—Channe l t r ad e ; t h ey a l so m a t ch a spe c t s o f C ae sa r ' sd e sc r ip t ion o ft h eV ene t ic r a f t .

T he p on to ,t h eC e l t ic c o in s h ip sa nd t he b oa t st h eV ene t i I n te rp r e ta t ion i so bv iou s ly l i m i t ed b yt h en a tu r ea nd q ua l i ty o f t h e se r e p r e sen ta t ion s ; n eve r the le s s i ti sp o s s ib le t or e cogn i se t h a t t h e A l th ibu r u sp on to a nd t h e C unobe l in s h ip h ave c e r ta in f e a tu r e si nc ommon : ( i ) t h ey b o th ( a nd t h e A t r eba t e s c o in ) h ave r e la t ive ly d eep h u l l s ,s ugge s t ing ac a rgo c a r ry ing f u n c t ion , ( i ) t h e m a in m a s t i ss t epp ed n ea r a m id sh ip s i n ap o s i t ion s u i tab le f o r as qua r es a i l ;t h em e thod o fs l ing ing t h ey a rd sf r om t h e i rm id—po in t sp rov ide ss uppo r tf o rt h i sh ypo the s i s , ( i i ) t h e p on to h a s b r ace s ; t h e C unobe l in s h ip p robab ly h a s t h em , ( i v )t h ep on to h a sw a le s ;t h eC unobe l in s h ip p robab ly h a st h em ,

F i gu r e8 . 1 .9 E a r ly i s tc en tu ry AD b ron ze c o in o fC unobe l in f r om C an t e r bu r y .S c lae 2 : 1 ( Pho to :C an te rbu ry A r chaeo log ica l T ru s t )

( v )b o th ( a nd t h eA t r eba te sc o in )h ave s t em p ro je c t ion s . T h i s a pp ea r s t ob e ar e p r e sen ta t ion o f as h ip ' h igh a nd d ry ' r a th e r t h an a f loa t , t h u s t h e l owe s t h o r izon ta l l i ne i st h e k ee l w h ich d i sp lay s s ome r o cke ro rl o ng i tud ina lc u r va tu r e .A si nt h e A l th ibu ru s p on to t h e k ee l m ee t s t h e f o re s t em ( h e re s t ra igh t r a th e r t h an c u r ved ) i n a p ro jec t ing f o re foo t . T he n ea r—ho r izon ta l l i ne s h a l f—way d own t h eh u l l may r ep r e sen t a w a le , o r p o s s ib ly t h e w a te r l in e . As i de r udde r a ppea r s t ob e d ep i c ted t ot h e l e f to ft h e c o in , i e , o n t h e s t a rboa rd q ua r te r o f t h ev e s se l .

T he d i f f e r enc e sm ay a l so b el i s ted : ( i )w he r ea s b o th s h ee r l ine sr i se m a rked ly a tt h e e nd s , t h e p on to ' s a f t e r p o s t i si n cu r v ing i ns t y lu s f a sh ion ( Ca s son 1 971 ,6 6-8 ) , ( i ) n e i the r s h ip h a s ah i g h a spe c t r a t io s a i l , b u t t h e p on to ' sr a t io i sg r ea t e r( 1c ompa red w i th 0 . 70 /0 5 0 ) ( i i )t h ep on to ' sy a rd i ss uppo r ted b yl i f t s ,

T h e c o in f r om t h e R ive r C oh ie a tS heepen , n ea r C o lche s te r , w a s f o und b y a n a nonymou s m e ta l d e tec to r a nd a nd i sn ow i n t h e B r i t i sh Mu seum ( 1 981 / 12 /34 / 1 ) . T he b oa t d ep ic ted i s g en e ra l ly s im i la r t ot h a t f r om C an te rbu ry b u t i sn o t f r om t h e s ame d i e a s c e r ta in p ropo r t ion s a nd m ea su remen t s a r e d i f f e r en t : t h e L id i s 3 . 5 ; t h e y a rd /ma s t r a t io i s c0 . 76 ( c ompa r ed w i th 0 . 64 ) ; t h e s qua r e s a i l w ou ld h ave h ad a n a sp ec t r a t io o f c0 . 48 ; a nd t h e r i se i ns h e e r a tt h e b ow i sn o t a b rup t ,b e ing s im i la rt ot h es t em . T h e s h ip s d ep ic t ed o n t h e se t wo c o in s , w i th t h e i r d i s t inc t ive s h ee r l ine , w e r e e v iden t ly d e s igned t o b e s eawo r thy c r a f t . F u r the rmo re ,t h ep o s s ib i l i ty t h a tt h ey w e r ef i t ted w i th b ow l ine s a nd w i th b r ac e ss u gge s t s t h a ta t temp t sh ad b een made t o make t h em w ea the r ly , a s d o e s t h e p ro jec t ing f o re foo t , f o r ( a s w i th

( i v ) t h e C unobe l in s h ip ' s s a i lm ay h ave h ad ab ow l ine t ot a ugh ten i t sl e ad ing e dge w hen c l o se t ot h ew ind , ( v )t h ep on to h a sa na r temon a sa na ux i l ia ry s a i l , ( v i ) t h e p on to m a s t i ss uppo r ted b y s h roud s w h e r ea s t h e C unobe l in ma s t h a s s t ay s . T h i s m ay n o t b e e spe c ia l ly s i gn i f ican ta ss h roud s a nd s t ay st o ge the ro n ar e p r e sen ta t ion h i de d e ta i l a nd t h e t wo c r a f t smen m ay h ave c ho sen t oo m i to ne o rt h eo t h e rf o rc l a r i ty , ( v i i ) b o th h ave s i de r u dde r s b u t t h ep on to m ay h ave h ad t wo ,

t h ep on to )t h i sw a sn o t ab ea ch ing a i d . I n( n ea r ) t i de— le s s s ea s , a si nt h e Med i t e r ranean , b each ing b y r u nn ing ab oa t a sho re i s o f ten p r a c t i cab le , b u t i n t i da l z one s , a s i n t h e C hanne l , a n a l te rna t ive a nd f r equen t ly b e t t e r m e thod i st o l e t t h e b oa t o r s h ip t a ke t h e g r ound o n af a l l ing ( e bb ) t i de a nd a t a bou t h a l f— t ide , t h u s a vo id ing b e ing n eaped ( s t randed a bove t h eh i gh w a t e r m a rk ) . T he r o cke r ed k ee l o f t h e C unobe l in s h ip s ( i n l o ng i tud ina l s e c t ion t h e k ee l h a s as l igh t r i se a way f r om m id sh ip s ) w ou ld h ave b een a u se f u l c ha rac te r i s t ic w hen b ea ched ,f o ri tw ou ld f a c i l i ta te r e— f loa t ing o nt h er i s ing ( f lood ) t i de . I f t h e se C unobe l in s h ip s h ad a w a te r l ine b eam i n p ropo r t ion t ot h e i rd ep th o fh u l l t h ey w ou ld h ave b een s t ab le , s e awo r thy s h ip so fg ood c a rgo c apac i ty ,b u tn o to u t s tand ing f o r s p eed . T h e se c ha rac t e r i s t ic s , t o ge the r w i th t h e i r w ea the r l ine s s 2 17

( v i i i ) t h ep on to k ee l i ss t ra igh t a nd i t s s t em i sc u r ved , w h e r ea st h e C unobe l in s h ip h a s ar o cke red k ee l a nd a s t ra igh ts t em . C ae sa r ' s a nd S t rabo ' s d e sc r ip t ion s u ndoub ted ly r e f e r t o at y p e o f C e l t ic s e a—go ing c a rgo s h ip u sed i nt h e C hann e l a nd t h e n o r ther n r e g ion o f t h e B ay o f B i scay i nt h e 1 s t c e n tu ry B C . Wh e the rt h i s w a s t h ep on to s u b sequen t ly m en t ion ed b y C a e sa r s e em s l i ke ly b u ti sn o t c e r ta in . We c anno t , h oweve r , p r e c i se ly e qua te t h e 1 s t c en tu ry BC p on to o f C a e sa r w i th t h e 3 r d ( p o s s ib ly 2 nd ) c en tu ry AD p on to o f A l th ibu ru s , f o r i ti s w e l l—known f o r s h ip t y p e s t oc hange o ve r t i m e , b o th i nf o rm a nd i nf u n c t ion ,a l though t h e s ame n ame c on t inue s i nu s e —f o r e xamp le , t h e p un t , t h e b a rge a nd t h e h u l c . O n t h e o t he rh and ,

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s C ae sa r w a s e v iden t ly i mp re s sed b y t h e c apab i l i t ie s o f t h e V ene t i c a rgo s h ip s a nd i ti sn o t u n l ike ly t h a t h e r e qu i s i t ion ed s ome f o r h i s o wn f l ee t . S uch a v e s se l w ou ld n eed s ome m od if ica t ion f o r u se i n Med i te r ran ean w a te r s a nd i ti sl i ke ly t h a t t h e r e w ou ld b e s ome i n t roduc t ion o fC la s s ica l t e chn ique s a nd p ra c t ice s . G a in s i n g ene ra l s h ipbu i ld ing k now ledge a nd c omp e tence a r e a l so l i ke ly t oh ave o c cu r red w i th t h e p a s sage o f t i me . T hu s a n a r temon s a i l a nd p a i red s i d e r u dd e r s c ou ld h ave b een f i t ted , a sw es e eo nt h eA l th ibu r u sp on to ,t oi n c r ea se m an ceuv rab i l i ty a nd i mp rove s t ee r ing . T he i n t roduc t ion o ft h e h ead s a i l w ou ld h ave n e ce s s i ta ted t h e m ov ing a f t o f t h e m a inma s tt owa rd st h ec en t re o ft h ew a t e r l ine l e ng th .T h eu s eo f a no a red t u g t ot ow t h e A l th ibu ru sp on to s ugge s t s n o to n ly t h e u se o fh a rbou r sr a the rt h an i n fo rma ll a nd ing p l a ce s ,b u ta l so a n i n c r ea se i ns i ze o f s h ip . L a rge s h ip s r e qu i r e l a rge r m a s t s a nd y a rd sa nd h eav ie ry a rd sr equ i re l i f t st ob ef i t ted .O th e rc hange s i nt h e r i gg ing a nd t h e a dd i t ion o f a n i n cu r v ing s t er n s ugge s t t h e r e m ay h ave b een l e s s r e qu i r emen t i nt h e 2 nd / 3 rd c en tu ry Med i te r ranean t os a i lc l o se—hau led a nd m o r et i me s p en tw i th a f o l low ing w ind a nd s ea . T he u se o ff o rma l h a rbou r s w he r e t h e c a rgo v e sse l c ou ld b e r th a l ong s ide a w a te r f ron t i mp l ie s n o t o n ly t h a t ar o cke red k ee l w a s n o l o nge re s sen t ia l b u t a l so t h a t t h e p on to s t em p ro jec t ion w a s n o t t o a s s i s t i nb ea ch ing b u t m o r ep robab ly t oi mp rove t h eh yd ro—dynam ic so ft h eh u l l .

T he C e l t ic t r ad i t ion o fb oa t— a nd s h ipbu i ld ing A s i s o f ten t h e c a se i n ap ro to—h i s to r ic p e r iod , t h e r e a r e p rob lems i n a t temp t ing t o c on f la te a r cha eo log ica l a nd d ocumen ta ry e v idence a nd t o i d en t i fy a r chaeo log ica l e n t i t ie s w i th h i s to r ica lf a c t s .N eve r the le s s ,t h e r ei ss u ff i c ien to ve r lap i n t h e s eve ra l f o rm s o f e v idence c on s id e r ed a bove t oa dvanc e a s aw o rk ing h ypo the s i s t h a t , i n C a e sa r ' s d e sc r ip t ion s o f t h e V en e t i c r a f t a nd o f t h e G a l l ic p on to , i nt h e s h ip s d ep ic ted o n t h e A t reba te s a nd C unobe l in c o in s , a nd i nt h e p on to o n t h e A l th ibu ru s mo sa ic , w e c an s e e d i f f e r en t a spe c t s o f a b oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion i n d igenou s t ot h es ou the rn N o r th s ea a nd C hanne l r eg ion , w h ich c hanged s omewha t o ve r t i me a nd w a s a dap ted f o r s eve ra l f u nc t ion s , i n c lud ing u s e i n t h e Med i te r ranean . A b oa t— o r s h ipbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion i s ab r oad c onc ep ta nd t h e r ei sn or equ i r emen tt h a ta l lv e s se l sb u i l ti nt h a t t r ad i t ion , e ven a t a ny o ne t ime , s h ou ld b e i d en t ica l . S u ch v a r iab i l i ty may b ed ue t od i f f e r ence si nf u n c t ion o ri no pe ra t ing e nv i ronmen t s ,o rt ot e chno log ica lp rog r e s s . I na ny o ne p l ank ed b oa to rs h ip t r ad i t ion ,f o re xamp le ,t h eV ik ing o rt h eC la s s ica l , w e m ay e xpec tt of i nd r i ve rb a rge s , f e r r ie s a nd c oa s ta l f i sh ing b oa t s a s w e l l a sf i gh t ing v e s se l s a nd o cean—go ing c a rgo s h ip s . At r ad i t ion i si d en t if ied , a nd m ay b e r e cogn i sed , b y ag en e ra l c on t inu i ty i n t ime a nd s pace a nd b y as e t o f d i agno s t ic a t t r ibu te s w h ich a r e m o r e l i k e ly t o b e t e chno log ica l c ha ra c te r is t ic s t h an m o rpho log ica l f e a tu r e s . S hape h a s a r e la t ive ly m ino rp a r tt op l ay i nd e f in ing t r ad i t ion s a si ti si t se l f g ene ra l ly d e temm ined b yt h ef u nc t ion t h ev e s se li st ou nde r tak e a nd b y t h e o pe ra t ing e nv i ronmen t . O n ly i n t h e c a se o f a n i n nova t ion i ns hap e , o r i nt h e c a se o f at r ad i t ion w i th av e ry l i m i ted r ange o f f u n c t ion s a nd o pe ra t ing e nv i ronmen t s , m ay t h i s o t he r a t t r ibu te make a s i gn if ican t c on t r ibu t ion t owa rd s d e f in ing as pec i f ic t r ad i t ion .

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T he r e i s ,t od a t e , n oe xcava ted s h ip o rb oa to ft h e i s t c en tu ry BC s ou th er nN o r th S ea a nd C hanne l r e g ion t og i ve s uppo r t t o t h i s w o rk ing h ypo th e s i s o r , a l te rna t ive ly , t o c au se i tt o b e q ue s t ion ed . T he r e a r e , h oweve r , ad ozen o r mo re b oa t s o ft h e 2 nd / 3 rd c e n tu r y AD , f r om t h e T hame s e s tua ry , t h e R h ine r e g ion a nd G ue rn sey w h ich h ave d i s t in c t ive b oa tbu i ld ing f e a tu r e s g en e ra l ly k nown a sR omano—Ce l t ic o rG a l lo—Roman ( d uP la tT ay lo r &C lee r e 1 978 ; McG ra i l 1 981a , 2 3-4 ; p ape r s b y R u le ; A r no ld ; Ma r sden ; d e Wee rd ; a nd L ehmann , t h i s v o lume ) . S ome c h a ra c t e r i s t ic s o ft h e se R omano—Ce l t ic c r a f t , t h e h eavy f l oo r t i mbe r s , t h e m a s s ive n a i l s , a nd p o ss ib ly t h e c au lk ing ( A rno ld 1 977 ) , r ef l e c t a spe c t s o f C ae sa r ' s d e sc r ip t ion o f t h e V en e t is h ip s . T h em a jo r i ty o ft h e se v e s se l sa r er i ve rb a rge sb u t t wo o f t h em , S t P e t e r P o r t , G ue rn sey a nd B lack f r ia r s 1 , L ondon , a r e c l ea r ly e s tau ry v e s se l s a nd p robab ly s ea—go ing , a l though t h e i r l a ck o f ap rom inen t k ee l w ou ld h ave l im i ted t h e i r o p e ra t iona l p e r fo rman ce s . T he m a s t s t ep s o f t h e se t wo a r ea pp rox ima te ly o n e— th i rd t h ew a te r l ine l e ng th f r om t h eb ow , a ni d ea lp o s i t ion f o r at ow ing m a s tf o rb ank t owage ,b u tn o ts o f o r am a s tw i th as qua re s a i l( McG ra i l 1 987 ,2 16-8 ) . I tm ay b y t h a tt h e se t wo v e s se l s w e r e t wo—ma s ted a nd t h e s econd ma s t s t ep h a s n o t b een f o und , b u t t h i s s e em s u n l ike ly . A no the r p o s s ib il i ty i st h a t t h ey w e r e d umb— l igh t e r s t owed b y l a rge r s h ip s o r o a r ed b oa t s . A n a l te r na t ive h ypo the s i s i st h a t t h e se v e s se l s w e r e f i t ted w i th as i ng le f o r e—and—a f t s a i l , s u ch a s a s p r i t o r l u g sa i l , w h ich w ou ld n eed t ob e s t epped f o rwa rd o f a m id sh ip s . E a rne r s ( 1 969 , p l 1 6 ; 1 975 , f i g 8 ;1 978 , f i g 3 )h a s s ugg e s t ed t h a tr e p r e sen ta t ion so fR omano—Ce l t ic r i ve rb oa t so f t h e 2 nd / 3 rd c e n tu ry AD o n am o sa ic a tB ad K reun iach a nd o n ag r ave s ton e f r om J unke ra th d ep ic t l e a the r l u g sa i l s w i th b a t ten s . I tm ay t h u s b e t h a tC e l t ic l u g sa i l s b egan t ob e u sed i n t h e2 nd c e n tu ry AD ,r e p la c ing e a r l ie rs qua r es a i l s . T h e w o rk ing h ypo the s i s f o rmu la ted a bove may n ow b e e x tend ed t oi n c lude t h e e v id ence f r om t h e R h ine , T hame s a nd G ue rn sey v e s se l so ft h e2 nd-3 rd c en tu r ies AD . T he h ypo the s i s t h en i st h a tt h e r ew a s at r ad i t ion o fp l ank b oa ta nd s h ipbu i ld ing e x tend ing f r om b e f o r e t h e 1 s t c en tu ry BC t o a f te r t h e s 3 rd c en tu ry AD . T h e d i agno s t i c a t t r ibu te s o f t h i s t r ad i t ion may t e n ta t ive ly b e i d en t if i ed a s t h e u se o f af o rm o f t h e s ke le ton s equen ce o f b u i ld ing , w i th p l ank ing t h a t w a s g ene ra l ly n o t e dg e— jo ined , b u t f a s t ened t o h eavy f l oo r t imbe r s a nd s i de t i mb e r sb yl a rge i r on n a i l sc l enched b yt u rn ing t h ep o in tt h rough 1 80" s ot h a tt h en a i l sb ecame J — shaped , a nd w i th ad i s t inc t ive c au lk ing b e twe en t h e s t rak e s ( s ee R u le ; A rno ld ; Ma r sden ; a nd L ehmann , t h i s v o lume ) . T he u se o fl e a the rs a i l s may a l so b e a d i s t ingu i sh ing f e a tu r e . A s t em p ro jec t ion m ay b e t yp ica l o f s ome o ft h em b u tn o tc ha ra c t e r i s t ic o ft h ee n t i r et r ad i t ion . T he m a jo r i ty o ft h e R omano—Ce l t ic v e sse l s s o f a r e xcava ted h ave af l a t—bo t tomed t r an sve r se s e c t ion w i th h a rd c h ine s ; b u t t h i s n eed n o t b e ad i agno s t ic a t t r ibu te o f t h e C e l t ic t r ad i t ion , r a th e r ar e qu i r emen t o f t h e i r f u n c t ion a s r i ve r b a rge s . T he e xcep t ion s a r e t h e B la ck f r ia r s 1a nd S t P e te r P o r t w r eck s w h ich h ave b o t tom s w h i ch a r e f l a t t i sh i n t h e f l oo r s w i th r o unded c h in e s . S u ch a t r an sve r se s e c t ion w ou ld i n deed b e f l a t t e r t h an t h o se o fC ae sa r ' s f i gh t ing s h ip s a nd w ou ld e n su re g ood c a rgo c apa c i ty , g i ve t h e n ece s sa ry t r an sve r se s t ab i l i ty , a nd e nab le t h e v e s se l s t os i t u p r igh t o n t h e b each f o r l o ad ing

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy a nd u n load ing . T he f a c t t h a t t h e se t wo v e s se l s d i d n o t h ave p rom inen t k ee l s n eed n o t p r ec lude o t he r ( a s y e t u n known ) s ea—go ing v e s se l s o f t h e C e l t ic t r ad i t ion h av ing t h em , a nd i t c an b e s e en f r om T ab le 8 . 4 .1 t h a ts u ch af e a tu r ew a sw i th in t h e t e chno log ica li n he r i tan ce o fl a te p r eh i s to r ic n o r th—we s tE u rop e . Ah u l l f o rm w i th ap rom inen t k ee l d oe s n o t p r even t av e s se l t a k ing t h e g r ound ; F igu r e 2 . 1 .8 s how s a1 00 t o n k e t ch o f r o und—hu l l f o rm w i th p rom inen t k ee l b ea ched f o r c a rgo u n load ing a t S t I v e s , C o rnwa l l . T he t r an sve r se s e c t ion s o f m ed ieva l c og s , w h ich a r e a l so k nown t oh ave b een b ea ched ( E l lme r s 1 979 , f i g 1 . 6 ; C r um l in—Pede r sen 1 979 , f i g 2 . 12 ) , a r e n o tu n l ike t h ose o ft h e B la ck f r ia r s 1a nd S tP e t e rP o r tv e s se l s , e xc ep tt h a tt h ef o rme rh ave am o r ep rom inen tk ee l . T he f o rego ing h ypo the t ica l d e sc r ip t ion o f t h e C e l t ic b u i ld ing t r ad i t ion i s b a sed o n t h ree d e sc r ip t ive p a s sage s , f o u r r e p r e sen ta t ion s , a nd a d ozen o r s o b oa t f i nd s . When m o r e e v id ence c ome s t o l i gh t , e spec ia l ly w reck s f r om t h e p e r iod 2 00BC—AD500 , i tm ay b ecome c l ea re r w he the r t h i s i si n deed o ne t r ad i t ion , w ha t t h e d i s t in c t ive c ha rac te r i s t i c s a r e , h ow t h e t r ad i t ion c hanged o ve r t i me , a nd h ow i tw a s a dap ted t ob u i ld v e s se l s f o r d i f f e ren t f u n c t ion s a nd f o r u se i n d i f f e r en t e nv i ronmen t s . S uch s t ud ie s s hou ld a l so i n c r ea se o u r u nde r s tand ing o f t h e e a r ly h i s to ry o f t h e m ed ieva l c og ( F l iedne r 1 964 ; C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 965 ; E l lme r s 1 979 ) : t h ey m ay a l so t h row s ome l i gh t o n t h e e a r ly h i s to ry o f s k e le ton b u i ld ing .

T rade r ou te sa nd n av iga t ion T h es eabor n ed i s t r ibu t ion o fs t one w i th in t h eB r i t i sh I s le si nt h e N eo l i th ic p e r iod ( F lanagan 1 975 ; C umm in s &C lough 1 988 , m ap s 1 ,2 ,3 ,6 ,9 ,1 0 , 1 , 1 2 , 1 6 ) a nd t h ec r o s s—Channe lm e ta l t r ade i nt h e M idd le B ronze A ge ( Muck le roy 1 981 ) i n d ica t e a l o ng e s tab l i shed s ea fa r ing t r ad i t ion i n B r i ta in , I r e land a nd F rance . T he i r s u c ce s so r s i nt h e l a te r B ron ze A ge a nd E a r ly h on A ge w e re t h u s a b le t or e spond t ot h e o ve r sea s d emand s f o rt i n . S ub sequen t ly i nt h e l a te l i on A ge c r o s s—Chann e l t r ad e w a s i ni n su la rg o ld , i r on a nd o t he rm e ta l s , g r a in , c a t t le ,h i d e s , s l ave s a nd h un t ing d og s ( S t rabo , 4 . 5 .2 ; C un l i f f e 1 988a , 9 8104 , 1 4 5-9 ) a nd t h e i mpo r t o f Med i te r ranean p roduc ed g ood ss u ch a sw ine ,f i g s ,g l a s sa nd p o t t e ry . F ou r o r f i ve c r o s s—Channe l r ou te s b e tween t h e C on t in en t a nd B r i ta in m ay b e i d en t if ied f r om e xcava ted a nd d o cumen ta ry e v idence a s h av ing b een u sed i n t h e i s t c en tu ry BC , a nd p robab ly e a r l ie r( McG ra i l 1 983a ) . I ts e em sl i k e ly t h a tt h eo p en s e a r ou t e f r om I r e land t o t h e C on t inen t w a s f r om C a rn so r e P o in t , Wex fo rd t ot h ev i c in i ty o fS c i l ly ( b o th l i ea pp rox ima t e ly o n l o ng i tud e 61 /" W 4 ) ; a nd t h en f r om L iza rd P o in t t o t h e v i c in i ty o f U shan t ( b o th o n c51 /"W 4 ) , t h i s l e g a l so b e ing t h e w e s te rnmo s t o f t h e p robab le B r i ta in /Con t inen t r o u te s ( F ig s 8 . 1 .3 a nd 2 . 3 .6 ) . T h e l i ke ly max imum s peed m ade g ood o n t h e se t wo l e g s c an h a rd ly h ave b een m o re t h an 5k t s : a tt h i s s p eed a nd w i th t h e r e qu i remen t t ot a ke d epa r tu r e f r om , s a y , C a rn so r e P o in t o rL iza rd P o in t i nd ay l igh t a nd a nd t om ak e a l a nd fa l l l a tS c i l ly o rU shan ta l so i nd ay l igh t , t h e r e w ou ld h ave b een ap e r iod o fa tl e a s t 1 0 h ou r s o u t o fs i gh t o fl a nd e ven i n m id summe r . T hu s f o r s u ch o pen s e a v oyage s d eep— sea

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n av iga t iona l t e chn ique s w e r e n e ce s sa ry , i n a dd i t ion t o t h e s k i l l so fc oa s ta lp i lo tage ( McG ra i l 1 983 ,3 14-9 ) . A s s im i la r v oyage s — o n t h e e v idence o f t h e Ma s sa l io te P e r ip lu s ( s ee a bove ) —w e r eu nde r taken i nt h e 6 t hc en tu ry BC , h on A ge s e amen m u s th ave b een c apab le o fo cean n av iga t ion f r om t h o se t i me s ,o re ven e a r l ie r . F u r the rmo re , i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a ts u ch v oyage sw e r eu nde r taken p r ima r i ly b ys a i lr a the rt h an u nd e ro a r s ( a l thoug ht h i s m e thod m u s tr ema in ap o s s ib i l i ty ) . I f t h i sp r opo s i t ion i sa ccep ted ,t h en t h ed a te f o rt h ee a r l ie s tu se o f i n d igenou ss a i li nt h ew ea te r so fn o r th—we s tE u rop ei sp u tb ack t o c6 00 BC , h a l f am i l lenn ium e a r l ie rt h an t h e B ro igh te rb oa t m od e l ' s m a s t a nd y a rd a nd t h e s a i l s o f t h e V ene t i s h ip s d e sc r ibed b y C ae sa r ( Be l lo G a l l ic i 3 . 13 ) a nd b y S t rabo ( Geog 4 . 4 .1 ) .

H arbour sa nd l a nd ing p lace s T h e s e a r o u te s d i scu s sed a bove a r e b a sed o n t h e e v idence o f C la s s ica l a u tho r s ( McG ra i l 1 983a ) a nd o ne xcava ted s i te s a nd a r t e f a c t s , l e ad ing t ot h e i d en t if i ca t ion o fn a tu ra l h a rbou r s w i th r i ve ra c ce s st ot h ei n te r io r .E xcava ted e v idence h a ss hown t h a t , b y t h e l a t e B ronze A ge , s i t e s w i th in c e r ta in h a rbou r s , a s f o r e xamp le a t Moun t B a t ten w i th in P lymou th S ound ( Cun l i f f e 1 988b ) , h ad b ecame t h e p r eh i s to r ic e qu iva len t o f p o r t s . B u t t h e se w e r e n o t p o r t s w i th b u i l t—up w a te r f ron t s a s w e r e t ob e f o und i n t h e C la s s ica l w o r ld a t t h a t t ime ( Ca s son 1 971 , 3 6 1-70 ) . T he i n d igenou s h i de a nd ( l a te r ) w ooden b oa t s a nd s h ip so ft h es ou th er n No r th S ea a nd C hanne lr eg ion ( e ven t h o se t h a t w e r e o cean—go ing ) u sed i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l ac e s a d jacen t t o t h e s e t t lemen t , w o rk shop s a nd t r ad ing a r ea s w h ich c omp r i sed t h e ' p o r t ' . H e r e t h ey w e re b eached b y t a k ing t h e g r ound o n af a l l ing t i de o rt h ey w e r e a n cho red o r moo r ed i nt h e s h a l low s a nd t h e i r g ood s u n loaded b y w ad ing m en o r i n to s ma l le r b oa t s ( l ogboa t s? ) o r i n to h o r se—d rawn c a r t s ( E l lme r s 1 985 , 2 5-30 ) , a s s t i l l h app en s i n c e r ta in p a r t s o f t h e w o r ld t o day ( M cG ra i l 1 981c ; 1 985b ) . W i th f ew , i fa ny , f i xed s t r uc tu r e s t h e p rec i se s i te s o f e a r ly l a nd ing p l a ce s m ay b ed i f f icu l tt oi d en t i fy a r chaeo log ica l ly b u t t h e r e a r e c e r ta in c ha ra c te r i s t ic s w h ich may h e lp i nt h e s ea r ch f o rt h em ( McG ra i l 1 983b , 3 4-41 ) . O ne s uch l a nd ing p lace h a s r e c en t ly b een i d en t if ied a t H eng i s tbu ry H ead w i th in C h r i s t chu r ch H a rbou rb yt h er e cogn i t ion o f aman—made g rave l h a rd c l o se t ot h e s i t e o f ai s tc en tu ry BC i n te rna t iona l t r ad ing p l a c e( Cun l i f f e ,t h i sv o lume ) . I nt h e l a t e 4 t h c en tu ry BC P y thea s s a i led f r om Ma s sa l ia t o e xp lo r e t h e n o r ther n s ea a nd b r ing b a ck c omme r c ia l a nd n av iga t iona l i n fo rma t ion ( Hawke s 1 977 ; 1 984 ) . P y thea s ' s u b sequen tb ook i sn ow l o s t , b u t S t rabo ( Geog ,p a s s im ) o ft h e i s tc e n tu ry BC a nd P l iny ( Na tH i s t4 ,1 02-4 )o ft h e i s tc en tu ry AD ,q uo t e f r om h im a nd f r om T imaeu so ft h e 3 rd c en tu ry BC , a nd f r om t h e se s e ve ra l a c coun t s i ti sd educed ( Hawke s 1 977 ; 1 9 84 ) t h a t P y thea s p robab ly m ade a l a nd fa l l a t B e le r ion ( Land s E nd i nC o rnwa l l ) , f o l lowed b y al a nd ing s omewhe r e i n t h e s o u th—we s t p en in su la , w he re h e w a s t o ld t h a t t i n , m ined n ea r by , w a s t a ken b y h i de b oa t t oM i c t is , a n i s land s ome s i x d ay s ' s a i l u p t h e C hanne l ( j e , t ot h e e a s t ) , w he re i tw a s m ad e a va i lab le t of o re ig n m e r chan t s . I ti sg ene ra l ly a g r eed t h a t t h i s

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s e mpo r ium w a sp robab ly o no rn ea rt h e I s le o fW igh t( V e c t i s i n l a te rt i me s ) . T h ep ra c t ic eo fu s ing a ni s land o r ap romon to ry a s am a r t o r e n t r epo t h a s b een , a nd i s , w ide sp r ead : o n s u ch i s o la t ed a nd r e ad i ly d e f end ed s i t e s t r ade r s c an b e s eg r ega ted , p r o tec ted a nd s upe r v i sed ,j u s t i ce d i sp en sed a nd t o l l s i mpo sed ( McG ra i l 1 983a ,3 11-3 ) . D iodo r u s ( 5 .22 .1-4 ) o ft h e i s tc en tu ry BC m en t ion s a n i s land / c t i s c onnec ted a t l ow w a t e r t o t h e B r i t i sh m a in land b y a c au seway w h e r e t i n , m ined i n t h e B e l e r ion p en in su la , w a s b r ough ti nw agon sf o rf o r e ig nm e r chan t st ob uy a nd t r an spo r tt o t h e Med i te r ranean v i aG au l . S i x teen o rm o re p l a ce s h ave b een s u gge s t ed f o r t h e l o ca t ion o f/ c t i s ( Maxwe l l 1 972 ) : t h e t wo c on s ide red m o s tl i ke ly b e ing t h ei s land o fS tM ichae l ' s Moun t , C o rnwa l la nd t h ep en in su la o f Moun tB a t ten o nt h ee a s te rn s i de o fP lymou th S ound ( Cun l i f f e 1 983 ; 1 988b ; H awke s 1 984 ) . A m a jo r d i f f icu l ty i st o e s tab l i sh w he th e r e i the r s i te i nt h e i s t c en tu ry BC w ou ld h ave b een a n i s land w h ich d r ied a t l ow w a te r l e av ing a ( n a tu ra l ) c au seway t o t h e m a in land . S t M ichae l ' s Moun t h a s s c a r ce ly b een i n ve s t iga ted a r chaeo log ica l ly , b u t t h e r e a r e an umb e r o ff i nd s f r om Moun t B a t t en w h ich i n d ica te t h a t i tw a s p r om inen t i ni n ter na t iona l s eabo rne t r ad e f r om t h e 4 t h c e n tu ry BC u n t i l j u s t b e fo re t h e R oman C onque s t ( Cun l i f f e 1 988b ) . A c ce s s m ay r e ad i ly b e g a in ed f r om Moun tB a t ten b yr i ve r sT avy a nd T ama rt ot i na nd c oppe r d epo s i t s o n D a r tmoo r a nd a r ound C al ing ton . T he se m in e ra l s w ou ld t h u s a lmo s t c e r ta in ly h ave b een b rough t t o Moun tB a t ten b yb oa t s , a l though o t he rm a te r ia l t ob e e xpo r ted c ou ld h ave b een b r oug h t b y w agon . Wagon s c ou ld a l so h ave b een u sed t ol o ad a nd u n load s h ip s a n cho red o rm oo r ed i nt h e s h a l low s o f fb o th Moun t B a t ten a nd S tM ichae l ' s Moun t . A n a l t e rna t ive i n te rp re ta t ion o fD iodo r u s ' c au seway m igh tb e t h a t i tw a s ah a rd o ft h e H eng i s tbu r y t y pe w h ich d r ied a tl ow t i de , a nd o nw h ich b oa t sw e r eb ea ched . T h e re a r eo t h e rn a tu ra lh aven so nt h es ou th c oa s to fB r i ta in ,f o r e xamp le i nP oo le H a rbou r a nd i n Weymou th B ay ( Cun l i f f e 1 982 , 4 6 ) , w i th s ome e v id en ce f o ru s e a si n te rna t iona l ' p o r t s ' . O nt h e e a s tc oa s tr e cen te xcava t ion s a tt h e i s tc en tu ry BC /AD s i t e a tR ed c l i f f o n t h e n o r th er n s ho r e s o f t h e R ive r H umbe r h ave a l so r e vea led e v iden ce f o ri n ter na t iona lt r ade , a l though i t i sn o ty e tc l ea rw he th e rt h i sw a sb y ad i r ec to ra ni n d i rec tr ou te ( C row the re ta lf o r th com ing ) . I ts e em sl i ke ly t h a t as im i la rs i te o rs i te s r ema in t ob e f o und i nt h e R ive rT hame s n ea rt h eh ead o ft i da l w a te r s . E xcava t ion s a tB o rd eaux o nt h eR ive rG i rond e ( Debo rd & G au th ie r 1 979 ) a nd a tA le tn ea r S t Ma lo , B r i t tany ( Langoue t 1 984 ) h ave r e vea led f u r the r e v idenc e f o r a n i n te rna t iona l t r ade w h ich l i nked A t lan t ic n o r th—we s t E u rope , e spec ia l ly t h e s ou the rn N o r th S ea a nd t h e C hanne lr e g ion , w i th t h e Med i te r ran ean . T he r e m u s tb en ume rou s s ma l le rs i te s w i th l a nd ing p l a ce s , a s so c ia ted w i th l o ca l c oa s ta l a nd r i ve r t r a f f ic , r ema in ing t ob ed i scove red .

E nd n o te 1

T he m ean ing o f ' l and fa l l ' i s s ome t ime s m i sund e r s tood . I nt h i sp ape ri tm ean s t h e s i gh t ing a nd i d en t i f ica t ion o f ap r om in en t c oa s ta l f e a tu r e , u sua l ly w hen a ts ome c on s ide rab le d i s tan ce f r om i t .

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R ef erence s A nde r son A .O . &A nde r son M . 0 . ( e d s ) , 1 96 1 A domnan ' s l i f e o fS tC o lumba . A rno ld B . 1 977 ' S ome r ema rk s o n c au lk ing i n C e l t ic b oa t c on s t ruc t ion a nd i t s e vo lu t ion i na r ea s n o r th—we s t o f t h ea l p ine a r c . 'I n t JN au tA r cha eo l6 ,2 93-97 . B a sch L . 1 983 ' Bow a nd s t em a ppendage s i n t h e a n c ien t Med i te r ranean . ' Ma rM i r ro r6 9 ,3 95-4 12 . B a sch L . &F ro s t H . 1 975 ' Ano the rP un ic w r e ck i nS i c i ly : i t s r am . 'I n t JN au tA r chaeo l4 ,2 01-28 . B eaudou in F .1 975 B a teaux d e sc o t e sd eF ran c e . B on ino M . 1 975 ' P icene s h ip s o ft h e 7 t h c en tu ry BC e ng raved a t Nov i la ra ( Pe sa ro , I t a ly ): I m ' JN au t A r chaeo l 4 , 1-20 . B oo th B . 1 984 ' Hand l i s t o fm a r i t ime r a d io ca rbon d a t e s . 'I n tJ N au tA r chaeo l 1 3 , 1 89-204 . B r ind ley H .H . 1 919 /20 ' No te s o n t h e b oa t s o f S i be r ia . ' Ma r M i r ro r 5 ,6 6-72 , 1 0 1-7 , 1 30-42 , 1 84-7 ; 6 , 1 518 , 1 87 . C a sson L . 1 971 S h ip s a nd s e aman sh ip i nt h e a n c ien t w o r ld ( 1 986 e d ) . C h r i s ten sen A .E . 1 972 B oa t so ft h eN o r th C oa te s J . F . 1 987 ' I n te rp r e ta t ion o f

a n c ien t

s h ip

r e p re sen ta t ion s . ' Ma rM i r ro r7 3 , 1 97 . C o le sJ .M . &H a rd ing A . F .1 979 T he B ron z eA ge i nE u rope . C re s ton R .Y . 1 956 ' Con s ide ra t ion s t e chn ique s s u rl af l o t t e d e s V ene te se td e sR oma in s . 'A nna l e sd eB r e tagne 6 3 . C re s ton R .Y . 1 961 ' L e s n av i r e s d e s V en e t e s . ' A c te s d u 1c C ongr e s I n terna t iona l d ' Ar cheo log i e S ou s—ma r ine 3 69-80 . C row the r D . , W i l l i s S . a nd C re igh ton J . f o r thcom ing ' T opog raphy a nd a r chaeo logy o f R ed c l i f f . ' i n C row the r D .R . a nd E l l i s S . ( e d s ) , H umbe r a nd i t s e nv iron si nh i s to ry a nd p r eh i s to ry . C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 965 ' C og—kogge—Kaag . ' H and e l s o g S j c pf ar t smu seum p aK ronbe rg A rbog 8 1144 . C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 979 ' Dan i sh c og— f ind s . ' i n McG ra i l S . ( e d ) , A r chaeo logy o f m ed ieva l s h ip s a nd h a rbour s BAR I n te rna t iona lS e r ie s6 6 , 1 734 . C umm in sW .A . a nd C lough T .H . McK , 1 988 S t one a x es t ud ie s v o lum e 2CBA R e sR ep 6 7 . C un l if f e B .W . 1 972 ' La te l i on A ge m e ta lwo rk f r om B u lbu ry , D o r se t . 'A n t iq J5 2 ,2 93-308 . C un l if f e B .W . 1 982 ' B r i ta in , t h e V ene t i a nd b eyond . ' O x f o rd J A r chae l 1 ,3 9-68 . C un l if f e B .W . 1 983 ' I c t i s : i si th e r e ? ' O xf o rd J A r cha eo l 2 , 1 23-6 . C un l if f eB .W . 1 988a G reek s ,R oman sa nd b a rbar ian s : s phe r e s o fi n te ra c t ion . C un l if f e B .W . 1 988b Moun t B a t t en , P lymou th , O xf o rd U n iv C omm A r chaeo l2 6 . d e l a R onc i r e C . a nd C le r c—Rampe l G . 1 9 34 H i s to i r e d e l a m ann ef ran ca i se . D ebo rd P . a nd G au th ie r M . 1 979 ' Bo rd eaux — l af o u i l le d e L ' I lo tS tC h r i s to ly . 'D o s s ie rA qu i ta ine 3 6-9 . D en fo rd G .T . a nd F a r rel A . W . 1 980 ' C a e rgw r le b ow l . ' I n t rJ N au tA r chaeo l9 ,1 83-92 . D ove C .E . 1 971 ' F i r s tB r i t i sh n avy . 'A n t iqu i ty 4 5 , 1 5-20 . D unbab in K .M .D . 1 978 Mo sa i c so fR oman N o r th A f r i ca .

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy d u P la t T ay lo r J .a nd C lee r e H . ( e d s ) , 1 978 R oman s h ipp ing a nd t r ad eC BA R e sR ep 2 4 . E dwa rd sC .R . 1 96 5 ' Abo r ig ina l w a te r c ra f to nt h eP a c if i cc oa s t o fS ou th Ame r ica . 'I b e r-Am e r i cana 4 . E l gee H .W . &E l gee F . 1 949 ' An E a r ly B ron ze A ge b u r ia li na b oa tshap ed w ooden c o f f in f r om n o r th-ea s t Y o rk sh i r e . 'P ro cP r eh i s tS o c 1 5 ,8 7106 . E l lme r s D . 1 9 69 ' Ke l t i sch e r S h i f fbau . ' J ah rbuch d e s R om i s ch-Ge rman i s chen Z en t ra lma seum s Ma in z 1 6 , 7 3122 . E l lme r s D . 1 9 72 F ruhm t t t e la l t e r l t che H and e l ss ch zf f ah r t i n M i t t e lu nd N o rd eu rope . E l lme r s D . 1 973 ' Ku l tba rken , f a h ren , F i sche rboo te v o rg e s ch ich th ch e E inbaume i n N iede r sach sen . ' D ie K und en s2 4 ,2 3-62 . E l lme r s D . 1 97 5 ' An t r ieb s te chn iken G e rman i sche r . ' S ch if f e i m 1J a h r tau send N CHR . 'D eu t s che sS ch zf f ahr t sa r ch iv 1 , 7 9-90 . E l lme r s D . 1 9 78 ' S h ipp ing o n t h e R h ine d u r ing t h e R oman p e r iod . 'i nd uP la tT ay lo r , C lee re ( e d s ) 1 978 , 1 -14 E l lme r sD . 1 9 79 ' C og o fB r emen a nd r e la ted b oa t s . 'i n McG ra i l S .( e d ) A r chaeo logy o fm ed ieva l s h ip s a nd h arbour s BAR I n te rna t iona lS e r ie s6 6 , 1 -15 . E l lme r s D . 1 9 84 ' E a r l ie s t e v iden ce f o r s k in b oa t s i n P a la eo l i th ic E u rop e . ' i n McG ra i l S . ( e d ) A spe c t s o f m a r i t im e a r chaeo logy a nd e t hnog raphy N a t Ma r i t Mu s Monog ,4 1-85 . E l lme r s D . 1 9 85 ' L oad ing a nd u n load ing s h ip s u s ing ah o r se a nd c a r t s t and ing i nt h e w a t e r . ' i nH e r te ig ( e d ) 1 985 , 2 5-31 . F a r re l l A .W . a nd P enny S . 1 975 ' B ro igh te r b oa t : a r e-a s se s smen t . 'I r i sh A r chaeo lR e sF o rum 2 . 2 , 1 5-26 . F en ton A . 1 9 76 ' C u r ragh i nS co t land . ' ,S co tS t ud 1 6 ,6 1-81 . F i tzpa t r ick , A , 1 9 85 ' D i s t r ibu t ion o f D re s se l 1a mpho rae i n n o r th-we s tE u rop e . 'O xf ord JA r chaeo l4 ,3 05-40 . F l anagan L .N .W . 1 975 ' S h ip s a nd s h ipp ing i n p r e V ik ing I r e land . 'C u l tu ra Ma r i t ima 1 ,3 -8 . F l iedne S .1 964 D i eB r eme rK ogge . F ro s tH . 1 976 ' P un ic s h ip . 'N o t i z ie D eg l iS cav i3 0 ,s upp lemen t . G a l l iou P . 1 9 77 ' L e s m onna ie s e tl e s a mpho re s . ' i nP rob leme s d e n a v iga t ion e n Man che O c c iden ta le a l ' epoque r oma in e ,C ae sa rodanum 1 2 ,4 96-9 . G a l l iou P . 1 984 ' Day s o fw ine a nd r o se s? ' i n Ma cReady a nd T homp son ( e d s ) 1 984 ,2 4-36 . G au ck le r P . 1 90 5 ' Un c a ta logue f i gu re d e l a b a t te l le r ie g r e coroma in e . L a m o sa ique a A l th ibu ru s . ' Monum en t s e t M emo ir e s p ub l ie s p a r l ' Acad em ie I n s c r ip t ion se tB e l l e s-Le t t r e s . G r een H .S . , S m i th A .H .V . , Y oung B .R . a nd H a r r i son R .K . 1 980 ' C a e rgw r le b ow l : i t s c ompo s i t ion , g eo log ica l s ou r ce a nd a r cha eo log ica l s i gn if i cance . 'R ep I n s tG eo l S c i8 0 . 1 ,2 6-30 . G r eenh i l lB . 1 9 7 1B oa t sa nd b oa tmen o fP ak i s tan . H a le J .R . 1 9 80 . P lank-bu i l t i nt h e B ronze A ge . 'A n t iqu i ty 5 4 , 18-27 . H awke s C .F .C . 1 977 P y thea s 8 t h J . L . My re s Memo r ia l L ec tu r e . H awke s C .F .C . 1 984 ' I c t i s d i sen tang led a nd t h e B r i t i sh t i n t r ad e . 'O x f o rd JA r chaeo l3 ,2 11-33 . H e r te ig A .E . ( e d ) 1 985 C onf e r en ce o n w a t e if ron t a r chaeo logy 2 . 2 21

H o rne l lJ .1 946 Wa t e rt r an spo r t( r epub l 1 970 ) . J a lA . 1 848 G lo s sa i r eN au t ique . J ohn s tone P . 1 972 ' B ron ze A ge s ea t r ia l . ' A n t iqu i ty 4 6 , 2 69-74 . J ohn s tone P .1 980 S ea c raf to fP r eh i s to ry ( 2 nd e d 1 988 ) . L angoue t L 1 984 ' Me t a nd t h e c r o s s-Channe l t r ad e . ' i n Ma c r eady & T homp son ( e d s ) 1 984 ,6 7-77 . McG ra i l S . 1 978 L ogboa t s o f E ng land a nd W a l e s B r i t i sh A r cha e ,o logo ca lR epo r tB r i t i sh S e r ie s5 1 . McG ra i lS .1 981a R af t s ,b oa t sa nd s h ip s . McG ra i l S . ( e d ) 1 98 l b B r igg ' r af t ' a nd h e r p r eh i s to r i c e nv i ronmen t B r i t i sh A r chaeo log i ca l R epo r t B r i t i sh S e r ie s8 9 . McG ra i l S . 1 981c ' Med ieva l b oa t s , s h ip s a nd l a nd ing p l a ce s . ' i n M i ln e G . a nd H ob ley B . ( e d s ) Wa te rf ron t a r chaeo logy i nB r i ta in a nd n o r the rn E u rope C BA R e s R ep 4 1 , 1 7-23 . McG ra i l S . 1 983a ' C ro sschanne l s eaman sh ip a nd n av iga t ion i nt h e l a te i s t m ilenn ium BC . ' O xf o rd JA r chaeo l 2 , 2 99-337 . McG ra i l S . 1 983b ' I n te rp r e ta t ion o f a r chaeo log ica l e v iden ce f o r m a r i t ime s t ruc tu r e s . ' i nA nn i s P .( e d ) S ea S t ud ie s Na t Ma r i t Mu s Monog ,3 3-46 . McG ra i lS .1 985a ' B r igg ' r a f t ' -p rob lem si nr e con s t ru c t ion a nd i nt h e a s se s smen to fp e r fo rmance . ' i n McG ra i l S .a nd K en t ley E . ( e d s ) S ewn p lank b oa t s B r i t i sh A r chaeo log ica l R epo r t s I n t er na t iona l S e r ie s 2 76 , 1 65-94 . McG ra i l S . 1 985b ' E a r ly l a nd ing p l a ce s . ' i nH e r t e ig ( e d ) 1 985 , 1 2-18 . McG ra i lS .1 985c ' T owa rd s ac l a s s i f ica t ion o fw a te rt r an spo r t . ' Wo r ld A r chaoe l 1 6 ,2 89-303 . McG ra i lS .1 987 A n c ien tb oa t si nn o r th-we s tE urop e McG ra i lS .1 988 ' A s se s s ing t h ep e r fo rmanc eo fa na n c ien tb oa t -t h eH a sho lme l o gboa tO xf o rd JA r chaeo l7 ,3 5-46 . Ma c ready S . a nd T hmp son F .H . 1 984 C ro s s-Channe l t r ad e b e tween G au la nd B r i ta in i nt h ep r e-Roamn I r on A ge S o cA n t iq L ondon O c ca sP ap ns e r4 . Ma r cu s G . J . 1 953-4 'F a c to r s i n e a r ly C e l t ic n av iga t ion . ' E tud ie sC e l t ique 6 ,3 12-27 . Ma r sd en P . 1 964 ' Wa r sh ip o n R oman c o in s Ma r M ir ro r 5 0 , 2 60 . Ma r s t rande rS . 1 963 O s tf o ld sJ o ro rdb ruk s r i s tn inge r : S k jebe rg 2v o l s . Maxwel I . S . 1 972 ' Lo ca t ion o fI c t i s . ' JR oy I n s t C o rnwa l l 6 , 2 93-319 . M i l le t tM . a nd McG ra i lS .1 987 ' A r chaeo logy o ft h eH a sho lme l o gboa t . 'A r chaeo l J1 44 ,6 9155 . Mo r cken R . 1 980 L ang sk ip ,K nar ro gK ogge . Mucke l roy K . 1 981 'M idd le B ron ze A g et r ade b e tween B r i ta in a nd E u rope : am a r i t ime p e r spe c t ive . 'P ro cP r eh i s tS o c 4 7 ,2 75-97 . Mu cke l roy K . , H a se lg rove C . a nd N a sh D . 1 978 ' A p r e-Roman c o in f r om C an t e rbu ry a nd t h e s h ip r e p r e sen ted o ni t . 'P ro cP r eh i s tS o c4 4 ,4 39-44 . Mud ie C . 1 986 ' D e s ign ing r e p l ica b oa t s . ' i nC rum l in-Ped e r sen 0 . a nd V inne rM . ( e d s )S a i l ing i n to t h ep a s t3 859 . Mu l le r S . 1 886 ' Vo t iv f und f r a S t en-ogB ron z ea lde r en . ' A arboge rf o rN o rd i sk O ldkynd ighed o gH i s to r ie . Mu r e ta nd C ha rbou i l le t 1 888 C ab ine td e sM eda i l l e s aP a r i s . Mu rphy J . P . 1 977 R uf u sF e s tu sA v ienu sO ra Ma r i t ima .

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s P a r i sF .E . 1 882 S ouven ir sd em a r ine c on ser ve s . P r in sA . J .H . 1 987 S ewn b oa t s . R aban A . 1 988 ' Boa tf r om M igda lN an ia a nd t h ea n cho rage so f t h e S ea o f Ga l i lee f r om t h e t ime o fJ e su s . 'I n t JN au t A r chaeo l 1 7 ,311-29 . R e ick F .a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 988 Bad ef ra D anma rk s O ld t id . R o senbe rg G . 1 937 H jor t spr ing f und e t . S eve r in T . 1 978 B rendan v oyage . S h eppa rd T . 1 901 ' No te s o n t h e a nc ien t mode l o f ab oa t a nd w a r r io r c r ew f ound a t R oo s i n H o lder n e s s . ' T ran s E a s tR id ing A n t iq S o c9 ,62-74 . S h eppa rd T . 1 902 ' Add i t iona l n o te s o n t h e R oo s C a r r i mage s .T ran sE a s tR id ing A n t iq S o c 1 0 ,76-9 . S heppa rd T . 1 926 ' Roman r ema in si nn o r th L inco ln sh i r e .T ran s E a s tR id ing A n t iq S o c2 5 ,170-4 .

T che rn ia A . ,P omey P .a nd H o sna rd A . 1 978 ' L 'Epave R oma in d el a Mad rague d eG ien s . 'G a l l ia ,3 4 th s upp le . Wa tk in s T . 1 980 ' P r eh i s to r ic c o ra c le i n F i f e . ' I n t JN au t A r cha eo l9 ,277-86 . Wea the rh i l l C . 1 985 ' S h ip s o ft h e V ene t i — af r e sh l o ok a tt h e h on A ge t i ns h ip s ,C o rn i sh A r cha eo l2 4 ,163-9 . Wo r th ing ton E .B . 1 933 ' P r im i t ive c r a f t o f t h e c en t ra l A f r ican l a ke s . ' Ma rM i r ro r1 9 ,146-63 . Wr igh tE .V . 1 976 N or th F e r r iby b oa t s ,N a t Ma r i t Mu s Monog 2 3 . Wr igh t E .V . 1 985 ' No r th F e r r iby b oa t s — ar e v i sed b a s i s f o r r e con s t r u c t ion . ' i n McG ra i l a nd K en t ley ( ed s ) 1 985 , 1 0 5-44 .

R ep r in ted w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : McG ra i l S .( e d ) Ma r i t im e C el s , F r i s ian s a nd S axon s 3 2-48 , C BA R e sea r ch R epo r t7 1 ( 1 990 )

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S t ud i e si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 8 .2 ROMANO—CELT IC BOATS AND SH IPS : CHARACTER IST IC FEATURES

I n troduc t ion

B oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion s

T h e R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion o f s h ip a nd b oa t b u i ld ing w a s f i r s t r e cog lu sed b y P e t e r Ma r sden i nh i s 1 967 p ub l ica t ion o f t h eB lack f r ia r s 1s h ip . S ub sequen t ly ,D e t lev E ime r si n1 969 s e t t h i s v e s se l a nd t h e b oa t f r om N ew G uy s H ou se , L ondon ( Ma r sden , 1 96 5 ) i n to t h e i r h i s to r ica l a nd a r cha eo log ica l c on t ex t i nh i s s em ina l p ub l i ca t ion K e l t i s che r S h if fbau . S i n ce t h a t t i me , t h e r eh ave b een f u r th e r f i nd s o fs im i la rb oa t s i nt h e N e the r land s ( d e Wee rd , 1 978 ; 1 988 ; L ehmann , 1 978 ) , G e rmany ( Ho ckmann , 1 982 ) , B e lg ium ( d e B o e , 1 977 ; Ma r sden , 1 976 ) , N o r th er nF ran ce ( A rno ld , 1 978 ) , S w i tze r land ( A rno ld , 1 992 ) , G ue rn sey ( Ru le & Monaghan , 1 993 ) , a nd S E Wa le s ( Nay l ing e ta l . , 1 994 ) . Ma r sden ( 1 994 : t a b le 1 6 , f i g . 1 46 ) h a s r e cen t ly p ub l i shed a l i s t o f t h e se f md s a nd a d i s t r ibu t ion m ap .

Ab oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion m ay b ed ef ined a s' t h ep e rc e ived s t y le o f b u i ld ing g ene ra l ly u sed i n ac e r ta in r e g ion d u r ing ag i ven t ime r a nge ' . A s w i th a l l c l a s s i f ica t ion s c heme s , b u i ld ing t r ad i t ion s a r e a n a b s t rac t ion f r om r e a l i ty . N o t b e ing ma s s—p roduced , f i nd s a r e b ound t ob e u n ique i ns ome w ay o r a no the r a nd , i nu l t ima te d e ta i l , e ach f o rm s ac l a s s o fi t s o wn . O n ly b y s imp l i fy ing c omp lex i t ie s o f s t ru c tu r e a nd f o rm , a nd i g no r ing p a r t icu la r d imen s ion s a nd d e ta i l s c an w e c l a im t h a t , f o r e xamp le , S ku lde lev w r e ck 3 a nd w re ck 6 ( O l sen & C rum l in—Pede r sen , 1 967 )a r es im i la ra nd t h e re fo r em embe r so f t h e s ame t r ad i t ion . Mo r eove r , f o r t h e p u rpo se s o f s u ch c l a ss if i ca t ion ,t h e se t r ad i t ion sm u s tb eg i ven a r b i t ra ry s t a r ta nd s t op d a te s , a l though i ti sc l ea rt h a ti nm any c a se s t h e i re a r l ie s t a nd l a te s t p ha se s m e rge i n to o t h e r t r ad i t ion s . I fc l a s s i f ica t ion s c heme s a r e t o o c omp lex , t h ey r u n t h e r i sk o f o b scu r ing p a t te rn s ; i ft o o s imp le , t h e c l a s s i f ie r m ay b e t emp ted t od r ive t h em t o of a ra nd d rawn u nwa r ran ted c on c lu s ion s . F u r th e rmo r e , t h e se s c heme s c anno tb e s t a t ic —a sf u r th e rf i nd s a r ee xcava ted o rf r e sh a na ly t ica lt o o l sb ecome a va i lab le ,t h ey m ay n eed t ob e r e v i sed t of i tt h ef a c t s .

Ma r sden a nd E l lme r sb o th r e cogn i sed t h a tt h i ss t y le o fs h ip a nd b oa tbu i ld ing w a sd i f f e r en tf r om t h a to ft h ee a r ly Med i te r ran ean a nd f r om t h a t o f e a r ly n o r th er n E u rope ; a s d i d B a sch ( 1 972 : 4 1 ) i nh i s i mpo r tan t a na ly t ica l p ape r o n b u i ld ing t e chn ique s . Ma r sden d r ew a t t en t ion t os im i la r i t ie s b e tween h i s t wo b oa t f i nd s a nd C ae sa r ' s d e sc r ip t ion o f t h e b oa t s o f t h e V ene t i ( Ma r sden , 1 967 : 3 4-5 ) , w h i l s t E l lme r s ( 1 969 ) c a l led t h i s d i s t in c t ive s t y le o fb oa tbu i ld ing ' C e l t ic ' . I nm o r e r e cen t t ime s , s ome o f t h e se u n ique f i nd s h ave b een d e sc r ibed a s ' Ga l lo—Roman ' ( A rno ld , 1 992 ; R u le & Monaghan , 1 993 ) , b u t ' R omano—Ce l t ic ' s e em s p r e f e rab le , n o tw i th s tand ing P a rke r ' s c r i t ic i sm ( 1 991 ) , a si tm o r e a c cu ra t e ly d e sc r ib e s t h e d a te a nd p l ac e o ft h e se f i nd s . T h e ' C e l t i c ' p a r t o ft h i s b i nom ia l r e f lec t s t h e i r s pa t ia l d i s t r ibu t ion w h ich i s , b y a nd l a rge , i nr e g ion s f o rme r ly o c cup ied b y C e l t i c— sp eak ing p eop le s ; a nd t h e ' R oman ' e l emen t r e f lec t s t h e t empo ra l d i s t r ibu t ion , i s t t o4 t h c en tu ry AD , a nd a cknow ledge s t h e p o s s ib i l i ty o f R oman t e chno log ica li n f luen ce .

No tw i th s tand ing t h e se d rawback s , c l a s s i f ica t ion s c h eme s a r e u sefu l i n m a r i t ime s t ud ie s b o th a r chaeo log ica l a nd e t hnog raph ica l , b ecau se o f t h e w ide r a nge o f m a t e r ia l a nd t e chn ique s t h a th ave b een u sed i nt h e p a s t t ob u i ld r af t s b oa t s a nd s h ip sT hey h ave t wo ma in a dvan tage s : ( a ) s upe rf i c ia l ly d i spa ra te d a ta c an b e o rde red a nd t h e r eby b ecome mo re r e ad i ly u nde r s tandab le ; ( b ) p a t ter n s c an b e r e cogn i sed , s i gn if i can t s im i la r i t ie s a nd d i f f e ren ce sh i g h l igh ted ,a nd ap i c tu re o fg r oup ing se me rge .

T he t i me— span o f t h e se s h ip s a nd b oa t s , a s k nown t o day , i s v e ry s ho r t —2 50 t o3 00 y ea r s —a nd i tm ay b et h a tb o th e a r l ie r a nd l a t e r f i nd s r ema in t ob e d i scove red . E a r l ie r f i nd s m igh t p o in t t owa rd s t h e p r eh i s to r i c o r ig in s o f t h e R omano—Ce l t ic s t y le o f b u i ld ing , a nd l a t e r o n e s m igh t s ugge s t l i ne s o f d eve lopmen t f r om t h a t t r ad i t ion i np o s t—Roman t i me s . S ome s c ho la r s h ave s e en p a ra l le l s b e tween t h e se R omano—Ce l t ic v e sse l s a nd t h e p r eh i s to r i c s t i t ched p l ank b oa t s o f t h e 1 5 th t o 8 t h c en tu ry B C , f r om F e r r iby , D ove r , C a ld ico t , B r igg & G o ld c l i f f ( Ba sch : 1 972 , 4 2 ; A rno ld , 1 977 ; Wr igh t , 1 990 ) ; w h i l s t o t h e r s b e l ieve t h a t t h e m ed ieva l c og m ay b e i ns ome w ay d e scend ed f r om t h e R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion ( Elme r s ,

W i th in o ne c l a s s o f a r t e f a c t s o r s t ruc tu r e s ( i n t h i s p r e sen t p ape r , ap a r t icu la r b oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion ) , i ti sn o t n e ce s sa ry t h a t a l l m embe r s h ave a l l a t t r ibu te s ( f ea tu r e s , c ha ra c te r i s t ic s ) i nc ommon . I np o ly the t ic g r oup s , w h ich a r e c on s ide red t ob e ' n a tu ra l ' b y n ume r ica l t a xonom i s t s , e ach m embe r s ha r e s w i th e ve ry m embe r al a rge n umbe r o f c ha ra c te r i s t ic s i nc ommon , b u t n o o ne c ha rac te r i s t ic h a s t o p o s se s sed b y a l l m embe r s , a l though , o f c ou r se , i tm ay ( Do ran & H od son , 1 975 : 1 60 ) . I n t h i sr e spec t , s u ch g roup ing sr ef l ec ta ni n tu i ta t ive u nde r s tand ing o ft h er ea lw o r ld .

T he R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion A l though m uch d e ta i li sm i s s ing f r om t h ep ubl i ca t ion s o fs ome o f t h e f i nd s t h ough t t ob e t h e R omano—Ce l t i c t r ad i t ion , i ti s p o s s ib le t o i d en t i fy t h o se c ha ra c te r i s t ic s w h ich a r e g en e ra l ly

1 994 : 3 4 ; R unyan , 1 994 : 4 7 ) .T he r e i ss ome th ing t ob e s a id f o r b o th t h e se s u gge s t ion s ,b u t ,u n t i lf u r the re v idence i se xcava ted , t h ey m u s tr ema in s p ecu la t ive . 2 23

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s p r e sen ti nt h e se v e sse l s . S uch c ha rac te r i s t ic s a r et h ef e a tu re sb y w h ich w er e cogn i se ,f o re xamp le ,t h a tt h eB a r land ' s F a rm b oa t ( Nay l ing e ta l . , 1 994 ) i sf r om t h e s ame t r ad i t ion a sB la ck f r ia r s 1( Ma r sden , 1 994 ) : t h ey a r e a l so t h e f e a tu r e s b y w h ich w e r e cogn i se t h a t N o rd ic b oa t s , s uch a s N ydam 2 ( C r um l in— P ede r sen , 1 990 )a r en o tm embe r so ft h i st r ad i t ion . I n g ene ra l t e rm s , w i thou t p rec ise d e f in i t ion s a nd w i th l i t t le a t t emp t a t q uan t if ica t ion , t h e c ha ra c te r i s t ic f e a tu r e s o f t h e R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion ,a sk nown a tp r e sen t ,s e em t ob e : 1 .B u i l tw i th n on—edge f a s tened f l u sh— la id p l ank ing . 2 .L a rge n a i l s ,d r iven t h rough t r eena i l s a nd c l en ched b yt u rn ing t h e e me rg ing p o in t t h rough 1 80 d eg ree s ( ' hooked ' ) , f a s ten p lank ing t of r amewo rk . 3 .T h e f r am ing c on s i s t s o f r e la t ive ly m a s s ive a nd r e la t ive ly c l o se ly— spaced g roup s o f f r am ing t imbe r s i n c lud ing f l oo r s s pann ing b o t tom a nd b i lge s , a symme t r ic t i mb e r s s pann ing t h e b o t tom a nd o ne s i de , a nd s i de t i mbe r s . A t a ny o ne s t a t ion f r am ing u n i t s m ay b e c ompo s i te , b u t i n d iv idua l t i mbe r s a r e n o t f a s tened t o ge the r( McG ra i l , 1 987 : 1 41146 ) . 4 . H u l l s a r e e i the r ( a ) f l a t—bo t tomed , k ee l— le s s a nd w i thou t s t em s , o r ( b ) f u l l—bod ied w i th s t em s a nd a p l ank—kee l . 5 .T he m a s t— s tep ,t ow ing a nd /o rs a i l ing ,i sp laced w e l lf o rwa rd o fa m id sh ip s S eve ra lo ft h eb oa t s a nd s h ip s s a id t ob eR omano—Ce l t ic h ave a l lt h e se f e a tu re s ,b u ts ome h ave o ne o rt wo f e a tu re sm i s s ing o r t h ee v iden ce i su nc lea r . B oa t s a nd s h ip si nt h e l a t te rc a tego r ie s a r en o tt h e reby e xc luded f r om t h i s t r ad i t ion a si ti s ap o ly the t ic g r oup ing . F u r the rmo re , i ti st h e c omb ina t ion o f t h e se g ene ra l c ha rac t e r i s t ic s ( o r as i gn i f ican t n umbe r o f t h em ) , a nd n o t i n d iv idua l f e a tu re s , t h a t d ef ine s t h i s g roup o f v e s se l s a s ' Romano—Ce l t ic ' , f o r e ach o ne o f t h e se c ha ra c te r i s t ic s , u n le s s d ef ined w i th e x t reme p r ec i s ion , m ay b e f o und i n o t he r t r ad i t ion s . F o r e xamp le : ' b u i l t w i th n on—edge f l u sh— la id p l ank ing ' a ppea r s i nt h e Med i te r ranean i nt h e 1l t h— cen tu ry AD s h ip f r om S e re L iman i ( S tef fy , 1 994 : 8 5-91 ) . Mo r eove r , t h e s e cond R omano—Ce l t ic e a ch o ne o fc ha ra c te r i s t ic l i s ted a bove —' l a rge n a i l s d r iven t h rough t r eena i l s a nd c l en ched b y t u rn ing t h e e me rg ing p o in t t h rough 1 80 d eg ree s ( ' hooked ' ) , fa s ten p l ank ing t of r amewo rk ' —m ay b e s een i n Med i te r ran ean s h ip s o ft h e i s t m i l lenn ium BC : f o r e xamp le , i nt h e 4 t h c en tu ry BC K y r en ia s h ip ( S te f fy , 1 994 : 4 2-59 ) . I nt h i sl a t te rc a se , as ub t le d i s t in c t ion m ay b e m ade : i n t h e K y ren ia s h ip t h e se n a i l s f a s tened f r am ing t op l ank ing ; w he rea s i nt h e R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion , t h ey f a s tened p l ank ing t o f r am ing , i . e . , ad i f f e r en t b u i ld ing s equence .

B a sch ( 1 972 : 4 1 ) c on c luded t h a t t h e B la ck f r ia r s 1s h ip w a s ' n e i the r s k e le ton n o r s h e l l t e chn ique ' Ma r sden ( 1 994 : 7 9 ) i s a l so u nde c ided f o r , a l though h e c on s id e r s B la ckf r ia r s 1t ob e ' p r ima r i ly s k e le ton—bu i l t ' , h e q ua l if ie s t h i s b y s ay ing t h a t t h i s s h ip w a s ' e s sen t ia l ly s k e le ton—bu i l t a tt h e s i de sb u tt h e b o t tom c ou ld h ave b een i np a r t s h e l l—bu i l t ' . I nl i ke m anne r , Ma rga r e t R u le b e l ieve s t h a tt h e S t . P e t e rP o r t 1s h ip w a s ' n e i the rw ho l ly s k e le ton— f i r s t , n o r s h el— f i r s t , b u t as t ep—w i se a l ter na t ion o f t h e t wo ' ( 1 993 : 2 8 ) . F u r the rmo r e , B ea t A rno ld h a s c on c luded t h a t t h e f l a t—bo t tomed L ake N eucha t e l b oa t s , B eva ix & Y ve rdon 1 & 2 , w e r e ' n e i th e r b a sed u pon t h e s h el—f i r s t p r in c ip le , n o r u pon s k e le ton c on s t ruc t ion b u t r a the r u pon a b o t tom—ba sed c on s t r u c t ion ; i n o t h e r w o rd s , t h e f l a t b o t tom c on s t i tu te s ab a se f o rt h ee n t i r ec on s t r u c t ion '( 1 992 : 1 20 ; 1 991 : 2 2-3 ) .

F rame—or ien ta ted a nd p l ank—or ien ta t ed a pproache s T he d i ff i cu l t ie s e xpe r ien ced b y B a sch , a nd R u le i nc l a s s i fy ing t h e se f i nd s s t em f r om t h e u s e o f t h e t e rm s ' s he l l—bu i l t ' , ' s he l l— f i r s t ' , ' s ke le ton—bu i l t ' a nd ' s k e le ton— f i r s t ' , w h ich f o cu se s t h e i ra na ly s i s o n to t h ep r ec i se s equen c eo fc on s t ruc t ion . T he se t e rm s a r e u ndoub t ed ly u se f u l a r chaeo log i ca l c on s t ruc t s a nd a na ly t ica l t o o l s , b u t n o t c on cep t s t h a t a n c ien t b oa t—bu i lde r s h ad a tt h e f o r e f ron t o ft h e i r m ind s . O n t h e c on t ra ry , t h e y h ad f i r s tt ow o rk o u th ow t ob u i ld t h er e qu i r ed s h ape o fh u l l( Ba sch , 1 972 : 3 4 ; P omey , 1 994 ) . B e fo r e d r aw ing s a nd m ode l s c ame i n to c ommon u se , b oa tbu i lde r s h ad , i ns om e w ay , t ov i sua l ize t h e h u l l s hap e o f t h e v e s se l a bou t t ob e b u i l t . A r chaeo log ica l a nd e t hnog raph ic e v id en ce , w o r ldw id e , s ugge s t s t h a t f o r k ee l b oa t st h i sv i sua l iza t ion m ay t a k et wo f o rm s :p r ima r i ly i nt e rm s o ft h ep l ank ing ;o rp r ima r i ly i nt e rm so ft h ef r am ing . A p r in c ipa l t h e s i s o f t h i s p ape r i st h a t t h e se ' v i sua l iza t ion ' c on cep t s a r e t ob e p r e f e r r ed t ot h e ' s equence ' c oncep t s w h en a na lyz ing a nd c l a s s i f y ing e a r ly b oa t a nd s h ip s t ruc tu r e s ( s ee a l so P omey , 1 994 ) . T h e t e rm s ' f r ame—o r ien ta ted ' a nd ' p lank— o r ien ted ' h ave d emon s t rab le a dvan tage s o ve r ' s ke le ton f i r s t ' a nd ' s he l l—f i r s t w h en d e sc r ib ing h u l l s w h ich d o n o t f u l ly c on fo rm t or e cen t p ra c t ice . ' F rame — o r ien ted ' d oe s n o t i mp ly t h a t f ul s k e le t en ( a s k nown i nt h e 1 9 th c en tu ry ) w a s e r ec ted b e fo r e a ny p l ank ing w a s u nd e r tak en : t h e f r amewo rk m ay b e e x t ended a st h eb u i ld ing p roce ed s ,p o s s ib ly o n ly j u s t a head o f t h e n ex t s e r ie s o f s t rake s ; i n deed , s ome f r ame s may n o t b e a dd ed u n t i l a f t e r t h e p l ank ing i sc omp le t ed . F u r the rmo r e , t h e f r am ing t i mbe r s a ta ny o ne s t a t ion d on o tn ec e s sa r i ly h ave t h e t ob e f a s tened t o ge the r . T he e s sen t ia l f e a tu r e i st h a t e l emen t s o ft h e f r am ing s hou ld d ef in e a nd d e t e rm in e t h e h u l l s hap e : i n t h e B a sch ( 1 972 ) t e rm ino logy , t h e se f r am ing e l emen t s a r e a c t iv e .C o r r e spond ing ly , ' p lank—o r ien ta ted 'd oe sn o ti mp ly t h a t t h e e n t i r e p l ank ing w a s c omp le t ed b e fo re a ny f r am ing w a s a dded ;t h ef r am ing ( p a s s ive )m ay b eb u i l tu pi ns t age s ,k e ep ing p a ce w i th , b u t a f t e r p ha se s o f p l ank ing : t h e p l ank ing d ef ine s a nd d e te rm in e st h eh u l ls h ap e( Ba sch , 1 972 ;P omey , 1 994 ) .

S ke le ton—bu i l t ,p ar t— ske le ton—bu i l to rb o t tom—bu i l t? R omano—Ce l t ic v e s s e l sw i th k ee l s I nt h e f r ame—o r ien ta t ed a pp roa ch t ot h e b u i ld ing o f ak ee led v e s se l ( k ee l o r p l ank—k ee l ) , t h e i n i t ia l s h ape o f t h e h u l l i s

T ho se s c ho la r s w ho h ave i n ve s t iga ted R omano—Ce l t ic v e s se l s i n d e ta i l h ave f ound i td i f f icu l t t o d e sc r ibe t h e i r b u i ld ing s equenc e u s ing t h e c onven t iona l t e rm ino logy . F o r e xamp le , 2 24

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy p l ank—kee l( t he t wo t h icke r ,c en t ra lp l ank s —s e eF ig .8 .2 .1 ) .A s Ma r sden ' s b u i ld ing s equence d i ag ram s how s , h e r s ub sequen t h u l ls hape w a s a l so d e t e rm ined b yf r am ing e l emen t s ; f l oo r su p t ot h e f o u r th s i d e s t rake , a nd , f r om t h e f i f th t ot h e n i n th s i d e s t rak e s , b y s i de t imbe r s ( 1 994 : f i g . 7 0 ) . T he b u i ld e r o f B lack f r ia r s 1 w a s ' f r ame—o r ien ta ted ' : t h i s s h ip w a s ' f r ame—ba sed ' . R u le ' s d e sc r ip t ion o ft h e l owe rh u l l o ft h e S t . P e t e rP o r t 1s h ip ( 1 993 : 1 3-28 ) s ugge s t s t h a t t h r ee s ma l l f r am ing t i mbe r s a t e a ch e nd w e r e f i t ted a f t e r t h e p l ank ing h ad b een f a s t en ed ( 1 993 : 2 7 , f i g . 1 4 , s t age s 1 3 a nd 1 5 ) , a nd t h u s t h e s h ap e o f t h e se s i x f l oo r s h ad t ob e m ad e t oc on fo rm t ot h e p l ank ing , w h ich , i n t h e ' s equen ce ' t e rm ino logy , w ou ld i n t rodu ce a ' s he l l—f i r s t 'e l emen ti n to t h eb u i ld ing s equenc e . H oweve r ,i ft h e e v id ence i se xam ined f r om t h e b oa tbu i lde r ' s v i ew o fh ow t h e s h ap eo ft h i sr o unded h u l lw a sd e t e rm ined ,i ti sc l ea rt h a tt h e se s i x t i mbe r s ( wh ich e x tend o ve r o n ly 2 . 5 m , t h a t i s a pp rox ima te ly 1 0% o ft h e o ve ra l l l e ng th ) h ad n o i n f luen c e o n h u l ls hape ,f o rt h ey w e r ef i t ted a f t e rt h er u no ft h ep l ank ing h ad b een f i xed a nd t h e l owe r h u l l o ft h e s hap e d e t e rm ined b y t h e p o s t s , t h e p l ank—kee l c ompo sed o ft h ree t h i ck e rc en t ra lp l ank s ( F ig . 8 . 2 .2 ) a nd s ome ( a l l ? )o ft h eo t he r3 4f l oo rt i mbe r s . O th e r

F igu r e8 . 2 . 1 R econ s t ruc t ion d raw ing o fp a r to ft h eh u l lo f B la ck f r ia r s 1 ,n ea rt h em a s t— s tep .T he t wo c en t ra lb o t tom p l ank sf o rm t h ep l ank—kee l( D raw ing :P e te r Ma r sd en )

d e t e rm in ed b y t h e k ee l a nd p o s t s , a nd t h en b y o t he r e l emen t s ( n o tn e ce s sa r i ly t h ee n t i re ty )o ft h ef r amewo rk o rs ke le ton . T he b u i lde r v i sua l i se s t h e h u l l i n t e rm s o f t h e f r am ing . I n t h e p l ank—o r ien ta ted a pp roa ch , t h e s hape o f t h e h u l l i si n i t ia l ly d e t e rm ined ( a s i nt h e f r ame—o r ien ta ted a pp roach ) b y k ee l a nd p o s t s : a f t e r t h i s t h e h u l l s hap e i sd e te rm ined b y t h e p l ank ing . T h eb u i ld e rv i sua l i se st h eh u l li nt e rm so ft h ep lank ing .

e v iden ce ( 1 993 : f i g . 1 4 ,s t age 1 6 ) s ugge s t st h a tt h es h ap eo ft h e u pp e rh u l l w a s d e te rm ined b y s i de t imbe r s . L ike t h eb u i ld e ro f B la ck f r ia r s 1 ,t h e b u i lde r o f S t P e t e r P o r t 1w a s ' f r am e— o r ien ta ted ' :t h i ss h ip w a s' f r ame—ba sed ' .

C ENTRE L INE

F rom Ma r sd en ' s a na ly s i s o ft h e s t r uc tu r e o f t h e r ound—hu l led B la ck f r ia r s 1s h ip ( 1 994 : 7 6 —9 ) , i ti sc l ea r t h a t t h e i n i t ia l s h ap e o f h e r h u l l w a s d e te rm ined b y t h e p o s t s a nd t h e PORT

7 12

1 10

STARBOARD

1 13 T8

7 2

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F i gu r e8 . 2 .2 R e con s t ruc t ion o ft h et r an sve r se s e c t ion o ft h el owe rh u l lo ft h eS tP e te rP o r t 1s h ip ,a tt h es t a t ion b yf l oo rt i mb e rT 42 . P lank sT 2 ,T i a nd T 3 f o rm t h ep l ank—kee l( D raw ing : Ma rga r e tR u le )

R omano—Ce l t i ck ee l— le s sb oa t s T h e t r u ly f l a t—bo t tomed b oa t s i nt h i s R omano—Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion —t h o se w i thou tk ee l —a r ed i f f icu l tt oa na ly se i nt e rm so f' s hel ' a nd ' s k e le ton ' s equen ce o fb u i ld ing . I ti sp o ss ib le t og a in s ome i n s igh t , h ow eve r , b y o nc e a ga in a sk ing h ow d id t h e b u i lde r v i sua l i se h i sb oa t —w a sh ep l ank— o rf r ame—o r ien ta ted ?

e dge s o f t h e b o t tom , a nd /o r o n t h e l owe r e dg e s o ft h e l owe s t s i de s t rake s . I nt h e s pec ia l c a se o f f l a t—bo t tomed b oa t s w i th t r an s i t ion s t rake s ( i l e s ; c h ine—g i rde r s ) , t h e s h ap e o ft h e l owe s t

A sA rno ld ( 1 991 )h a s s ugge s ted ,t h e i n i t ia l s hape o fs u ch h u l l s c ome sf r om t h es h ape o ft h eb o t tom p l ank ing w h ich i so b ta ined b y p l a c ing s h aped p l ank s o f e qua l t h ickne ss , a l ong s ide o n e a no the r . A tt h i ss t age t h ef l oo rt imbe r sc on fo rm t ot h es hape o f t h e b o t tom p l ank ing a nd m e re ly b i nd i tt o ge the r . T he s t a r t ing p o in t f o rt h e s i d e p l ank ing i sa l so t h e b o t tom — t h e p o s i t ion i n s p ac eo ft h eo u t e re dge so ft h eb o t tom . T he a ng le a tw h ich t h i s s i de—p lank ing l i e s t ot h e b o t tom m ay , h oweve r , b e d e t e rm ined i no ne o f t wo w ay s : i ft h e b u i lde r i sf r ame—o r ien ta ted , t h a t a n g le w i l l b e d e te rm ined b y t h e u p r i s ing e l emen t s o f t h e f r am ing ; o n t h e o t h e r h and , i ft h e b u i lde r i sp lank—o r ien ta ted , t h a t a ng le w i l l b e d e te rm ined b y ab eve l w o rked o n t h e o u te r 2 25

p a r to ft h es i de sm ay b ed e t e rm in ed b y t h eu p r i s ing e l emen to f t h i s s t rake , a sv i sua l i sed b y ap l ank—o r ien ta t ed b u i lde r ; o rt h i s t r an s i t ion s t rake m ay b e s h ap ed t o c on fo rm t o t h e u p r i s ing e l emen t s o f t h e f r am ing b y af r ame—o r ien ta ted b u i lde r . T h i s a na ly s i sm ay b ee x t ended t oh i ghe rs i de s t rak e s . I ti ss ugge s ted , t h en , t h a ta n c ien tb u i lde r sv i sua l i sed t h e s h ap e o ft h e i rf l a t—bo t tomed b oa t sa s ac omb ina t ion o ft wo e l emen t s : i n i t ia l ly b o t tom—ba sed ; a nd t h en e i th e r p l ank o r f r ame d e te rm ined . T h e 1 9 th— cen tu ry b oa t f r om T r edunno c o n t h e R ive r U sk , S E Wa le s , m ay b e q uo ted a s a n e xamp le o ft h i s d ua l a pp roa ch . T h eh u l l o ft h i s f l a t—bo t tomed c ana l b a rg e w a s i n i t ia l ly b o t tom—ba sed , b u t a f te r t h e f i r s t s i de s t rak e h ad b e en f i t ted ,h e rb u i ld e ra dop ted t h e f r ame—o r ien ta ted a pp roa ch , a nd t h e s h ap e o f t h e u pp e r h u l l w a s d e t e rm in ed b y t h e k n ee s ( McG ra i l &P a r ry , 1 991 ) . T he p ub l i shed d a ta o nt h o se b oa t so f

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F i gu re 8 . 2 .3 P lan o ft h eB a r la r id ' sF a rm b oa td e r ived f r om p ho tog ramme t ry a n df i e ld d r aw ing s .P l ank sS i a nd P 1 f r om t h ep l ank— k ee l( D raw ing :G lamo rgan Gwen tA r chaeo log ica lT ru s t ) 26

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy t h eR omano-Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion w h ich a r e k ee lle s s a nd h ave f l a t b o t tom s a r e , i nm o s t c a se s , n o t s u ff i c ien t ly d e ta i led f o r t h e i r b oa tbu i lde r s ' o r ien ta t ion t ob e d e te rm ined , b u t i tm ay b e t h a t , l i k e t h e b u i ld e r s o ft h e f l a t-bo t tomed b a rge f r om T redunnoc , t h ey w e re f r ame-o r ien ta ted . P e rhap s t h e e xcava to r s o f t h e se b oa t sw ou ld n ow p ub l i sh t h e i ro wn a na ly se s?

V e s s e l si no ther t r ad i t ion s

3 .S t ruc tu ra le l emen t s : Ai sk ee lle s s a nd w i thou t e nd p o s t s ; w he r ea s Bh a s b o th k e e l a nd p o s t s . I tm ay b er e levan ti nt h i sc on t ex t t o n o t e t h a t t h e p r eh i s to r ic r ound-hu l led F e r r iby s t i tched b oa t s h ad p l ank-kee l s ( W r igh t , 1 990 ) , w he r ea s t h e B r igg ' r a f t ' , o f ' l i d le s s b ox ' s hap e w a s k ee lle s s ( McG ra l l , 1 981b ) : p o s s ib ly ap o in te rt ot h e o ng in so ft h et wo R omano-Ce l t ic s u b-g roup s ?

T h e se v i sua l i sa t ion c oncep t s m ay a l so p rove u se fu l i n t h e a na ly s i s o fh ul s t r u c tu r e s f r om o t he r t r ad i t ion s . F o r e xamp le , t h e h u l l o f t h e 4 t hcen tu ry BC K y r en ia s h ip ( S t ef fy , 1 994 : 4 259 )w a s v i sua l ized b y h e rb u i ld e r i nt e rm s o ft h e p lank ing , w h i l s t t h e 1l t h c e n tu ry AD S e r 9e L iman i s h ip ( S te f fy , 1 994 :

4P ropu l s ion : Ab yp add le ,p o le , o a ro rt ow , a nd p o s s ib ly b y s a i l i n w ind sf r om t h es t em s e c to r ; Bb yo a ra nd b y as a i l ing r i g ( al u g sa i l ? ) w h ich p robab ly e nab led t h em t os a i l b y-andla rge ' .

8 5-91 ) w a s v i sua l iz ed i nt e rm s o f t h e f r am ing . O n t h e o t he r h and ,t h eb u i lde ro ft h e7 t hcen tu ry AD Y a s s iA da s h ip 2 ,w i th a' t r an s i t iona l ' s t ru c t u r e( S t e f fy 1 994 : 8 0-3 ) , a nd t h eb u i lde ro f t h e2 0 thcen tu ry S ou th V ie tname se s h ip n o ted b yB a sch ( 1 972 : 3 1-4 ) ,b o th h ad ad ua la pp roa ch : i nt e rm so ft h ep l ank ing t ot h e t u rn o ft h eb i lge ,b eyond t h a t ,i nt e rm so ft h ef r am ing . C e r ta in 1 7 thcen tu r y r o und-hu l led D u t ch s h ip s w e r e e v iden t ly b u i l t b y t empo ra r i ly c l amp ing t h e i r f l u shla id p lank ing t o ge the r , t h en i n se r t ing t h e f r amewo rk a nd p e rmanen t ly f a s ten ing t h ep l a nk ing t oi t( Maa r leve ld , 1 994 ) .I ti sd i f f icu l tt o d e sc r ibe t h e se h u l l si nt h e ' s equen c e ' t e rm ino logy . H oweve r , i n t h e ' s hap e v i sua l iza t ion ' t e rm ino logy a dvoca ted i nt h i s p ap e r , w e c an s ay t h a t t h e b u i ld e r s o f t h e se v e s se l s w e re c l ea r ly p l ank-o r ien ta ted . A l though t h i s p l ank ing w a s n o t f a s tened t o ge the rb u t w a sf a s t ened t ot h e f r am ing , t h e s hape o ft h e h u l l w a sd e r ived f r om t h ep l ank ing .

T he B a r land 's F arm b oa t P o s t-excava t ion w o rk o n t h e 3 r d-c en tu ry AD B a r land ' s F a rm b oa t f r om S E Wa le s , i ss t i l l u nd e rway ( Nay l ing e ta l , 1 994 ) , b u ti ti sa l ready c l ea rt h a tt h i s b oa th a sf e a tu r e s w h ich i d en t i fy i ta s am embe r o f t h e R omano-Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion ( F ig . 8 . 2 .3 ) . H e r b u i ld e r w a s u ndoub ted ly f r ame-o r ien ta ted a nd s h e w a s f r ame-ba sed : l a rge i r on n a i l s f a s ten t h e p l ank ing t om a s s ive a nd c l o se lyspa ced f r am ing ; h e r m a s t s t ep i sa bou t o neth i rd h e r o ve ra l l l e ng th f r om f o rwa rd ; a nd s h e h a s p o s t s a nd a p l ank-kee l . T h e se l a s t t wo f e a tu r e s , a nd o t he r c ha ra c te r i t ic s , p l ace h e r i ns ub-g roup B , w i th B la ckf r ia r s 1a nd t h e S t . P e t e r P o r t s h ip . S he m ay n o th ave b een f u l ly s e ago ing , b u t i ts e em s l i ke ly t h a t s h e w a s a n e s tua ry b oa t , c apab le o f v oyage s b e tween Wa le sa nd E ng land i na pp rop r ia t ew ea th e rc ond i t ion s , a nd o fu s ing t h e t i de s t og o u p a nd d own t h e m any r i ve r s t h a t e n te red t h eS eve rn E s tua ry .

F unc t iona ls ub-group sw i th in t h eR omano-Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion

A cknow ledgmen t s

T he r e a r e an umb e r o f t e chno log i ca l d i f f e r en ce s b e tween i n d iv idua l b oa t s a nd s h ip s o f t h e R omano-Ce l t ic t r ad i t ion ( M cG ra i l , 1 981a : 2 3-4 ) . S uch v a r iab i l i ty m ay b e d ue t o d i f f e r en ce s i n f u n c t ion o r i n o p e ra t ing e nv i ronmen t , o r t o c h ange s o ve r t i me , o ri tm ay i n d ica te r e g iona l g r oup ing s . T he e v idence a t p r e sen t a va i lab le s ugge s t s t h a t t h e re a r e t wo s u b-g roup s w i th in t h i s t r ad i t ion w h i ch d if e ri nt h e i ro pe ra t ing e nv i ronmen t . O n t h eon e h and , i ns ub-g roup A , a r e t h e l a ke , r i ve r a nd c ana l b oa t s s u ch a s B eva ix , Zwamme rdam a nd P onune roeu l( M cG ra i l , 1 981a :2 3 ) : a nd o nt h eo t h e rh and t h e r e a r et h e s e a-go ing v e s se l s o fs u b-g roup B , s u ch a sB la ck f r ia r s 1a nd S t . P e t e r P o r t 1( Ma r sd en , 1 994 ; R u le a nd Monaghan , 1 993 ) .

T h i sa r t ic le i s ar e v i sed v e r s ion o f ap ap e rg i ven t o as em ina ri n t h eC en t re f o r Ma r i t ime A r cha eo logy a tR o sk i ld e ,D enma rk i n S ep t embe r , 1 994 : i th a sb enef i ted f r om d i scu s s ion w i th D rO le C rum l in-Pede r sen a nd o t h e r m embe r s o f t h a t s em ina r . Ia m a l so g r a te fu lt oD rJ ohn C oa te sa nd D rB a s i lG re enh il f o rt h e i r c r i t ic i sm o f as ub sequen td ra f t .

T h e se t wo s ub-g roup sd i f f e ri nf o u rr e spec t s : 1 .H u l ls h ap ei nt r an sve r se s e c t ion : S ub-g roup A i sf l a t-bo t tomed w i th f l a r ed o rv e r t ica l s i de s ; s u b-g roup B h a s af u l l f o rm w i th r ounded s i de s . 2 .B u i lde r ' sv i sua l iza t ion o fs h ape : A , ad ua l a pp roa ch : f i r s t b o t tom-ba sed a nd t h en p robab ly f r ame- o r p o s s ib ly p l ank-o r ien ta ted ( t he p ub l i sh ed e v id en ce i sn o t c l ea r o n t h i s p o in t ) ; Bi s f r ame-o r ien ta ted . 2 27

R e f e rence s A rno ld B . 1 977 ' S ome r ema rk s o n c au lk ing i n C e l t ic b oa t c on s t ru c t ion a nd i t se vo lu t ion i na r ea sl y ing NW o ft h e A lp ine a r c . 'I JNA 6 ,2 93-297 . A rno ld B . 1 978 ' Nav iga t ion . 'A r cheo log ia 18 ,5 2-68 . A rno ld B . 1 991 ' Ga l lo-Roman b oa t o f B eva ix a nd t h e b o t tom-ba sed c on s t ruc t ion . ' I nR e inde r s R . a nd P au l K . ( Ed s ) C ar ve l C on s t ru c t ion T e chn ique s 1 9-23 . O xbow Monog raph , 1 2 . A rno ld B . 1 992 , B a t e l l e r ie g a l lo-roma in e s u r l e l a c d e N eu cha t e l . Two v o l s . A r cheo log ie N eucha te lo i se , v o lume s 1 2a nd 1 3 . B a sch L . 1 972 ' A n c ien t w r eck s a nd t h e a r chaeo logy o fs h ip s . ' I JNA 1 ,1 58 .

C e l t i cB oa t sa nd S h ip s C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 990 ' Boa t s a nd s h ip so ft h e A ng le s a nd J u te s . ' I n McG ra i l S . ( Ed . ) Ma r i t ime C el s , F r i s ian s a nd S axon s9 8-116 . CBA R e sea r ch R epo r t7 1 . d e B oe G . 1 978 ' Roman ' b oa t s f r om a s ma l l r i ve r h a rbou r a t P omme roeu l B e lg ium . ' I nT ay lo r Jd uP . a nd C lee r e H . ( Ed s ) R oman S h ipp ing a nd T rad e 2 2-30 . C BA R e sea r ch R epo r t ,2 4 . d e Wee rd M . 1 978 ' S h ip s o f t h e R oman p e r iod f r om Zwamme rdam . 'I nT ay lo rJ .d uP .a nd C lee r e , H( Ed s ) R oman S h ipp ing a nd T rad e 1 5-2 1 . C BA R e sea r ch R epo r t ,2 4 . d e Wee rd M . 1 988 S chepen v oo r Zwamme rdam H aa r lem . D o ran J . E . a nd H od son F .R . 1 975 Ma thema t i c s a nd C ompu te r s i n A r chaeo logy E d inbu rgh U n ive r s i ty P re s s . E l lme r s D . 1 969 ' Ke l t i sche r S ch i f fbau . ' J ah rbu ch d e s R om i sch—German i schen Z en t ra lmu seum s 7 3122 . Ma inz . E l lme r s D . 1 994 ' Cog a s ac a rgo c a r r ie r . ' I nU nge rR .W . ( Ed . ) C og s , C arave l s a nd G a l l eon s 2 9-46 . L ondon : C onway . Hö chmann 0 . 1 982 ' S pa t rom i sche s c h i f f s f unde i n Ma in z . ' A r chaeo l .K o r r e spond 1 2 ,231-50 . L ehman L .Th 1 978 ' A f l a t—bo t tomed R oman b oa tf r om D ru t en N e the r land s . 'I JNA 7 ,2 59-268 . McG ra i lS .1 981a R af t s ,B oa t sa nd S h ip s . HMSO . McG ra i l S . 1 981b T he B r igg ' R af t ' a nd H e r P r eh i s to r i c E nv i ronmen t . BAR ( Ox fo rd )8 9 . McG ra i l S . 1 987 A n c ien t B oa t s i n NW E urope . L ondon : L ongman . McG ra i l S . a nd P a r ry S . 1 991 ' F la t—bo t tomed b oa t f r om t h e R .U sk a tT redunno c , Gwen t , Wa le s . ' I nR e ind e r s R . a nd P au l K . ( Ed s ) C ar ve l C on s t ru c t ion T e chn iqu e s 1 61-170 .O xbow Monog raph , 1 2 .

Maa r leve ld T . J . 1 994 ' Doub le D u tch s o lu t ion s i n F l u sh—P lanked S h ipbu i ld ing : c on t inu i ty a nd a dap ta t ion a t t h e s t a r t o f Moder n H i s to ry . ' I n We s te rdah l C ( e d ) C ro s sroad s i n A nc ien t S h ipbu i ld ing 1 5 3163 .O xbow Monog raph ,4 0 . Ma r sd en P . 1 965 ' B oa to ft h eR oman p e r iod d i scove red o nt h e s i t e o f N ew G uy ' s H ou se B e rmond sey , 1 958 . ' T ran sac t ion s o f t h e L ondon a nd M idd le sex A r chaeo log i ca lS o c ie ty 2 1 ,118-131 . Ma r sd en P .R .V . 1 967 R oman s h ip f r om B la ckf r iar s , L ondon . L ondon :G u i ldha l l Mu seum . Ma r sden P . 1 976 ' B oa t o ft h e R oman p e r iod f ound a tB ruge s , B e lg ium i n1 899 a nd r e la ted t y pe s . 'I JNA 5 ,23-56 . Ma r sden P .1 994 S h ip so ft h eP o r to fL ondon :F i r s tt oE leven th C en tu r ie s AD .E ngl i sh H e r i tag e . N ay l ing N . , Mayna rd D . a nd McG ra i l S . 1 994 ' Ba r land ' s F a rm , Mago r , Gwen t : a R omano—Ce l t ic b oa t . ' A n t iqu i ty 6 8 ,596-603 . O l sen 0 . a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 967 ' S ku lde lev S h ip s I . ' A c ta A r chaeo log i ca 3 8 ,73174 .C openhagen . P a rk e r A . J . 1 99 1 ' R ev iew o f ' Ma r i t ime C e l t s , F r i s ian s a nd S axon s ': I JNA 2 0 ,363 . P omey P . 1 994 ' S h e l l c on cep t ion a nd s ke le ton p roce ss i n a n c ien t Med i t e r ranean s h ipbu i ld ing . ' I n We s te rdah l C . ( e d . ) C ro s s road s i nA nc i en t S h ipbu i ld ing 1 25-130 . O xbow Monog raph ,4 0 . R u le M . a nd Monaghan J .1 993 G a l lo—Roman T rad ing V e s se l f r om G ue r n sey .G uem sey Mu seum Monog raph ,5 . R unyan T . J . 1 994 ' C og a s aw a r sh ip . ' I n U nge r R .W . ( ed . ) C og s , C arave l s a nd G a l l eon s 4 7-58 . L ondon : C onway . S t e f f yJ . R . 1 994 W ood en S h ipbu i ld ing a nd t h eI n te rp r e ta t ion o f S h ipw r e ck s .T exa s A&M U n ive r s i ty P re s s . Wr igh tE .1 990 T he F e r r iby B oa t s .L ondon :R ou t ledge .

R ep r in t ed w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : I n t e rna t iona lJ ourna lf o r N au t i ca l A r chaeo logy , 2 4 : 1 39-145 ( 1 995 )

2 28

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo log y

S ECT ION 9 . 0 MED IEVAL BOATS AND S H IPS

T h i r ty y ea r s a go , O le C rum l in—Pede r sen p ropound ed t h e i d ea t h a t t h e r e w e r e t h ree ma in t y pe s o fm ed ieva l , s e ago ing , c a rgo s h ip i nA t lan t ic a nd B a l t ic E u rope : t h e N o rd ic s h ip ; t h e C o g ; a nd t h e H u lc — s e e P ape r 2 . 1 . N o th ing h a s a r i sen s i nce t o c hange t h a t h ypo thes i s s i gn i f ican t ly : m o r e N o rd i c v e s se l s , e spec ia l ly p o s t—V ik ing o ne s ,h ave b een e xcava ted ; t h en umbe r o f C og s h a s s i gn if ican t ly i n c r ea sed ; a nd t h e H uk , w e l l—documen t ed i n p o r t a nd c u s tom a c coun t s , r ema in s a r chaeo log ica l ly i n v i s ib le . T he r e i s ,h oweve r , m o r e a wa r ene s s t o day o ft h em e rg ing o ft y pe s i nt h e l a te rm ed ieva lp e r iod , a nd t h ee me rgen ce o fw ha t a r er e cogn i sed a sn ew t y p e s . A ccoun t s , s ome d e ta i led , s ome i n o u t l ine , o f v e s se l s f r om t h e se t h re e t r ad i t ion s a nd t h e i r s ucce s so r s m ay b e f o und i n : U nge r ( 1 994 : 1-58 ) , H u t ch in son ( 1994 : 4 -64 ) , G r eenh i l l ( 1 995 : 1 73-255 ) , F r ie l( 1995 ) ,a nd C h r i s ten sen ( 1 996 :7 2-88 ) .

T he N ord ic t r ad i t ion . T he t h re ep ape r si nt h i sS ec t ion a r eb a sed o nm yo wn f i e ldwo rk a nd t h u s d ea l o n ly w i th v e s se l s o f t h e N o rd ic t r ad i t ion . T h i s t r ad i t ion i ss ome t ime s r e f e r r ed t oa s ' V ik ing ' , b u t t h i s s t y le o f b u i ld ing h ad i t so r ig in sb e fo r et h eV ik ing p e r iod , a nd c on t inued a f te r i t , a nd ' No rd ic ' ( i n I r e land , ' No r se ' ) i s am o r e a p t t e rm . T he w re ck i nt h eR . H amb le , d i scu s sed i nP ap e r9 . 1 , i s av e ry l a te e xamp le o f t h i s s h ipbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion , w i th t r ip le— th ick ne s s c l inke r p l ank ing a nd c l o se ly— spac ed f r am ing . A f te rt h i s t i me ,g ene ra l ly s peak ing , o n ly b oa t so ft h i s t r ad i t ion w e re b u i l t .

D e s igna ted Wreck S i te s T he R . H amb le w reck ,p robab ly t h a to fH en ry V ' sG ra ce D ieu , i s aD e s igna ted H i s to r ic Wre ck , o ne o f 4 0 o r s o i nU n i ted K ingdom w a te r s . A l though c om ing u nde r d i f f e r en t l e g i s la t ion , s u ch s i te sh ave ac ompa rab le s t a tu st oH i s to r ic Monumen ts i t e s o n l a nd . S ome o f t h e p rob lem s c onnec ted w i th t h e se m a r in e s i te s h ave b een d i scu s sed i nt h e i n t roduc t ion t o S ec t ion 1 ;a f u r the rp rob lem — t h a t o ft h e i rp hy s ica l p ro tec t ion a nd o n— s i t e c on se rva t ion —i st a ken u pi nP ape r9 . 1 . A l though t h e r ei sm o r e

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a wa r en e s s o f t h i s p rob lem t o day , t h e g ove rnmen ta l b od ie s a dm in i s t ra t ing a n c ien t w r e sk s l e g i s la t ion h ave n o t y e t t a ck led i t ,n o r h ave t h ey f u l ly a c cep ted t h a t t h ey h ave r e spon s ib i l i t ie s f o rm anag ing s u ch s i te s .

R e—u sed b oa t &s h ip t imber s P ap e r 9 . 3 d e sc r ibe s s ome o f t h e p rob lem s f a ced w hen i n te rp r e t ing t h e r ema in s o fw ooden b oa t s a nd s h ip s r e—u sed i n m ed ieva l w a te r f ron t s i t e s . T he e xamp le s d i scu ssed a r e a l l i n I r e land : s e ve ra l s i te si nD ub l in ( s ee b e low ) ; as i te i nC o rk c i ty ( Hu r ley , 1 986 ) ;a nd o ne i n Wa t e r fo rd ( Hu r ley & S cu l ly , 1 997 ) . P ape r 9 . 2 i s t a k en f r om c hap te r 5o f my b ook d ea l ing s p e c if i ca l ly w i th D ub l in ( McG ra i l , 1 993 ) . S ix s i te s b e tween C h r i s t chu r ch C a thed ra l a nd t h e R . L i f f ey w e r e e xcava ted b e tween 1 962 & 1 981 ( F ig . 9 . 3 .2 ) ,a nd t h es h ip & b oa tt imbe r s a nd o t he r n au t ica l a r t i fac t s f o rm o n ly a s ma l l p a r t o f t h e m a t e r ia l e xcava t ed — s e e t h e s e r ie s o f Monog raph s , Med ie va l D ub l in E x cava t ion s p ub l i shed b y t h e R oya l I r i sh A cademy . P ap e r9 . 2u s e st h ee v iden ce d e sc r ibed i ne a r l ie rc hap te r so fm y D ub l in b ook t ob u i ld u p ap i e tu r e o f t h e b oa t s a nd s h ip s t h a t u s ed D ub l in , a s i tc hanged f r om a h a rbou r w i th i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l a ce s a nd a ncho rage st o ap o r tw i th f o rma lw a te r f ron t s t ru c tu r e s , b e tween t h e 1 0 th a nd 1 3 th c en tu r ie s AD — s e e S e c t ion 2 .N o t e t h at in t h i s p ape r a nd i n9 . 3 , TG = T imbe r G roup . T he o ppo r tun i ty t ou nde r take f u r the re xcava t ion si nt h ev i c in i ty o fd ubh l i nn , t h e ' b la ck p oo l ' e a s t a nd s ou th—ea s t o f D ub l in C a s t le ,o ro nt h ef o rme rs t rand w e s to f Wood Q uay h a sn o ty e t a r i sen . As e cond p ropo sa l made i nC h . 6o f t h e D ub l in b ook ( n o t r e—p r in t ed h e r e ) , t h a t f u r th e r t imbe r s s hou ld b e d a ted b y d end ro ch rono logy , i s s t i l l u nde r c on s ide ra t ion . A t h i rd p r opo sa l , f o r ar e—eva lua t ion o ft h e D ub l in n au t ica l e v idence , m u s ta wa i tp ub l i ca t ion o ft h eS ku lde lev & L ynae se xcava t ion s . T he m e thod s Iu s ed t oe s t ima t et h es i ze o ft h ep a ren tv e sse l so f t h e D ub l in t i mbe r s , a nd t h e t y po log ie s Id ev i sed f o r t h e c on s t i tuen tp a r t so fb oa t sa nd s h ip s ( k e e l s ,s t em s ,p l ank ing a nd t h el i k e )a wa i tc r i t ic ism .

M ed ie va lB oa t sa nd P lank s R e f erence s H u t ch in son G . 1 994 Med ieva l S h ip s a nd S h ipp ing . L e ice s t e r U n ive r s i ty P re s s . McG ra i l S1 993 Med ieva lB oa ta nd S h ip T imbe r sf r om D ub l in . R oya lI r i sh A cademy . U nge r R .W . 1 994 C og s , C arave l s & G a l l eon s C onway ' s H i s to ry o ft h eS h ip .v o l . 3 .

C h r i s ten sen A .E . 1 996 E a r l ie s tS h ip s C onway ' s H i s to ry o ft h e S h ip .v o l 1 . F r ie lI .1 995 G ood S h ip .B r i t i sh Mu seum P r e s s . G r eenh i l lB . 1 995 A r chaeo logy o fB oa t sa nd S h ip s .C onway . H u r ley M .F . 1 986 ' E xcava t ion s i nm ed ieva l C o rk : S tP e te r ' s m a rk e t . ' J . C o rk H i s to r i ca l a nd A r chaeo log i ca l S o c 9 1 , 1 -25 . H u r ley M .F . a nd S cu l ly O .M .B . ( e d ) 1 9 97 L a t e—V ik ing A ge a nd M ed i eva lW a t er f o rd . Wa te r fo rd C o rpo ra t ion .

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S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 9 . 1 THE FUTURE OF THE DES IGNATED WRECK S ITE I N THE R . HAMBLE

I mpor tanc eo ft h ew re ck T he e v iden ce r e v iewed b y I a n F r ie l ( I JNA 2 2 : 1 6-17 ) a nd a r a d io ca rbon d a t e o f AD 1 225 t o1 405 c a l . ( HAR4249 ) s how t h a t t h e D e s igna t ed W r eck i nt h e R . H amb le a t SU50 14 .1059 ( F ig s 9 . 1 .1 a nd 9 . 1 .2 ) i sl a t e-med ieva l i nd a te a nd a lmo s t c e r ta in ly t h er ema in so fH en r yV ' sG ra ce D ieu ( 1 4 18 ) . Whe the r o rn o t t h a t i d en t i f ica t ion i sc o r r ec t , t h i s i sa n i mpo r tan tv e s se l b y a ny s t anda rd s . T h i s w r eck i so ne o f t h e v e ry f ew k nown f r om ap e r iod o f g r ea t c hange i nt h e s h ipbu i ld ing a nd r i gg ing t e chn ique s u s ed i nA t lan t ic E u rope . D u r ing t h e 1 4 th a nd 1 5 th c en tu r ie s t h e r e w a s ac hange f r om as i ng le-ma s ted , s qua r er ig t o a t h r ee-ma s t ed r i g w i th s qua r e a nd l a teen s a i l s . F u r th e rmo r e , a ta bou tt h e s ame t i me , t h e r e w a s ac hange f r om as h elf i r s t s equence o fb u i ld ing , i nw h ich t h e h u l l s hape a nd m uch o ft h e s t reng th c ame f r om t h e p l ank ing , t o as equence i n w h ich i n c r ea s ing r e l ian c e w a s p l a ced o n t h e f r amewo rk f o r s t r eng th . B y t h e l a te 1 5 th / ea r ly 1 6 th c en tu ry t h e v e s se l s o ft h e o cean ic e xp lo re r s w e r e e v id en t ly b u i l t i n as ke le ton s equen ce , o n o ne o rt wo m a s t e r f r ame s w i th r i bband s , w h ich l e d i nd ue c ou r se t ot h e f u l ly p r e-e r e c t ed f r amewo rk o ft h e 1 7 th c en tu ry ( G reenh i l l , 1 976 : 6 5 , 7 2 ; M cG ra i l , 1 981 : 4 2-43 ; 1 987 : 1 04 ; G r eenh i l l , 1 988 :6 7-76 ) . T he se t e chno log i ca lc hange sa r en o tw e l l-do cumen ted a nd t h u s

e ach w reck f r om t h e p e r iod 1 4 th t o 1 6 th c en tu r ie s i so fg r ea t i mpo r tanc ei nh e lp ing u st os e ep r ec i se ly w hen ,h ow a nd w he r e t h e se c hange s t o ok p l ace , a nd p o s s ib ly t h row l i gh to nw hy t h e r e w e r e s u ch c hang e s . T he r e a r e s u ff i c ien tw e l lr eco rd ed w re ck s i nn o r ther n w a te r s f r om t h e p e r iod c . AD 8 00 t o 100 f o r t h e ma in c ha ra c te r i s t ic s o f t h e V ik ing /No rd ic t r ad i t ion o f s h ipbu i ld ing t ob ed o cumen ted . I nt h ef o l low ing c en tu r ie s ,u pt o c . AD 1 400 , a sp ec t s o f i t s d eve lopmen t c an b e t r aced i nt h e f ew w reck s s o f a r e x cava t ed ( C rum l in-Ped e r sen , 1 991 ; Ä ke r lund , 1 951 ) a l so i ns ome o f t h e t own s ea l s o f n o r the rn E u rope ( Ewe , 1 972 ) , a nd i nt h e f r agmen ted r ema in s o f s h ip s r e-u sed t ob u i ld w a te r f ron t s t ruc tu re s i nB e rgen ( Ch r i s ten sen , 1 985 ) , D ub l in ( McG ra i l , f o r thcom ing ) , L ondon ( Ma r sden , f o r th com ing ) a nd e l sewh e r e i n n o r th e rn E u rop e ( M ile & H ob ley , 1 981 ) . T he w reck i n t h e R . H amb le i s b u i l t o f r ad ia l lysp l i t , c l inke rla id s t rake s , e dgefa s tened b y c l en ch n a i l s , w i th a c au lk ing o f mo s s a nd t a r . T he se f e a tu r e s a r e c ha ra c t e r i s t ic o f t h eV ik ing /No rd ic t r ad i t ion a nd w em ay t h ink o ft h eR .H amb le w re ck a s al a te e xamp le o ft h i s m e thod o fs h ipbu i ld ing . B e ing a r oya l w a r sh ip , h oweve r , s h e m ay n o t b e e n t i r e ly r ep r e sen ta t ive o ft h eg ene ra l t y p eo fN o rd ic s h ip ,m o s to ft h em m e r chan tmen , b e ing b u i l t a tt h a t t i me : t h i s i sa lmo s t c e r ta in ly t r ue o fh e rs i ze . T ab le 1s h ow s t h a th e ro ve ra l l l e ng th o f4 0 m

T ab l e9 . 1 .1 E s t ima ted d imen s ion sa nd c argo c apac i ty o fs e lec ted m ed i eva lv e s s e l s V e sse l

T yp e

D a te ( AD a pp rox )

L eng th ( m )

Max b r ead th ( m )

D ep th o f h o ld ( m )

A pp rox c a rgo c apa c i ty ( t onn s )

1 .S ku lde lev 1 2 .H edeby 3 3 .L yna e s 4 .D ub l in ( TG .6 /9 ) 5 .B e rgen G rea tS h ip 6 .B r emen C og 7 .R .H amb le 8 .S an ta Mar ia

N o rd i c N o rd ic N o rd ic N o rd i c N o rd ic C og N o rd ic N ao

1 000 1 060 150 1 200 1 240 1 380 1 4 18 ( ? ) 1 492

1 6 .3 c2 5 c2 5 c2 5 c3 0 2 2 .7 c4 0 2 3 .6

4 . 5 5 . 7 6 . 0 6 . 5 9 . 5 7 . 6 c1 5 7 . 97

2 . 1 2 . 5 2 . 5 2 . 5 3 . 7 4 . 3 c6 . 5 (? ) 4 . 7

2 4 4 0 6 0 6 0 1 5 5 1 20 1 400 1 06

S ou rce f o r 1 ,2 ,3 ,5 ,6 :C r u rn l in-P ed e r s en , 1 991 ,7 7-80 ,f i g . 1 0 ; s ou rce sf o r4 : McG ra i l ,f o r thcom ing ; s ou rce sf o r7 :A nde r son 1 934a ;P rynne , 1 968 ;F r ie l ( L JNA 2 2 ,3 -19 ) ; s ou r ce f o r8 : Ma r t inez-H id lago , 1 966 . T he d imen s ion sa nd t o nnage o ft h eR .H amb le w r eck a r eg ene ra l ly c ompa rab le w i th t h o se o ft h eo t h e rv e s se l s ,b u tn o tp r ec is e ly s o ,a s ad if e r en tb a s i sf o re s t ima te s h a sb een u sed .

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M ed ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s b u i l tg ene ra l ly o f as i ng le l a ye ro fc l ink e rp l ank ing :h oweve r ,i n t h e p r e l im ina ry p ub l ica t ion o ft h e s i t e b y L 'Hou r a nd V ey ra t ( 1 989 :f ig . 1 3 ) t h e w r eck a pp ea r s t o h ave d oub le t h ickne ss p l ank ing i nt h e v i c in i ty o f h e r c r o s s—beam s . B y a na logy , i t c a nno tb e k nown w i th c e r ta in ty w he th e r t h e R . H amb le w reck h a s g ene ra l ly t h r ee t h ickne s se s o fp l ank ing o r o n ly t wo , u n t i l m uch m o r e p l ank ing h a s b een e x cava ted a nd c a r ef u l ly r e co rd ed .

a nd e s t ima ted m ax imum b r ead th o f 1 5m w e r e b o th m uch g r ea te rt h an t h el a rge s to ft h o se e a r l ie rv e s se l s i nt h i s t r ad i t ion w h ich i th a s p roved p o s s ib le t or e con s t ruc t t h eo r e t ica l ly . T he d imen s ion s o f t wo n on—No rd ic v e s se l s , t h e l a te 1 4 th— cen tu ry B r emen C og a nd C o lumbu s 'l a te 1 5 th— cen tu ry S an ta Ma r ia ,a r e a l so m uch l e s s t h an t h o se e s t ima ted f o rt h e H amb le w r eck . A s t h e R . H amb le w re ck ' s d ep th o f h o ld i sl i ke ly t oh ave b een s i gn if ican t ly g r ea te r t h an t h e 4 . 3 m o f t h e B remen C og , t h e v o lume o fh e r h o ld , am ed ieva l m ea su r e o f s i ze , w a s a lmo s t c e r ta in ly o f ad i f f e ren t o rde r o f m ag n i tude f r om t h e o t he r v e sse l sl i s ted i nT ab le 9 . 1 .1 .

T he H amb le p l ank ing i sa l so s a id , o n t h e b a s i s o fh ea r say , t o b e ' . m ad e u p o fp i e ce s n o tm o r e t h an 6o r 7f t( c . 1 . 8 t o2 . 2 m )l o ng ' ( Ande r son , 1 934a : 1 6 5 ) .W i thou td e ta i led r e co rd ing o f m any e xamp le s o f a l l l a ye r s o fp l ank ing i tc anno t b e c e r ta in

T ab le 9 . 1 .1 a l so l i s t s t h e a pp rox ima te c a rgo c apa c i ty ( t on s b u rden ) o ft h e se s even s h ip s . T he c apa c i ty o f t h e s h ip s i nt h e N o rd ic t r ad i t ion ( No s 1t o5 ) a nd t h e B r emen C og h ave b een e s t ima ted b y s t anda rd m e thod s ( C rum l in—Pede r sen , 1 9 91 ) , a nd t h e m e thod u sed f o r S an ta Mar ia i s s im i la r : t h e t o nnage m ea su r emen t sh e re a r e t h e re fo re g ene ra l ly c ompa rab le . O nt h e o t he rh and , t h e t o nnage g i ven f o r t h e R . H amb le w r eck i st h a t d o cumen ted f o r G race D ieu ( F r ie l , I JNA 2 2 : 1 617 ) . I nt h e i r e s t ima te s o f t h e t o nnage o f t h e R . H amb le w r eck , A nde r son ( 1 934a : 1 61 ) a nd P rynne ( 1968 : 1 23 ) u s ed al a te 1 6 th c en tu ry s h ipbu i lde r ' sr u le w h ich r e qu i re s t h ed ep th o fh o ld t ob ek nown a sw e l l a sk ee l l e ng th a nd max imum b r ead th o fh u l l . Wh e r ea s t h e o r ig ina l l e ng th a nd b r ead th o ft h i s w reck c an b e e s t ima ted w i th s ome c e r ta in ty , t h e d ep th o fh o ld i sm uch mo r e d i ff i cu l t , a nd o n ly b y a s sum ing t h i s t oh ave b een c .2 1 f t( 6 .5 m ) c an A nde r son a nd P rynne h ave a r r ived a tt h e i re s t ima t e o fc .1 400 t o n s ( wh ich c o in c iden ta l ly t u rn s o u t t o b e t h e s ame a s t h a t d o cumen ted f o rG race D ieu ) .

w he the rs u ch s h o r tp l ank sa r et h eg en e ra lr u le o rn o t . P rynne ( 1 938 : 2 82 ; 1 968 : 1 24 ; 1 973 : 2 31 ) h a s s t a ted t h a t a t l e a s t s ome , a nd p o s s ib ly a l , o f t h i s s ma l l p lank ing w a s f a s tened t o ge th e r b y n a i l s d r iven f r om i n boa rd a nd c l enched o u tboa rd , a nd A nde r son ( 1 934a : 1 60 )h a sc l a imed t h a tt h e re i s ' s ome e v id en ce f o rt h i s p r a c t i ce ' . O n ly t h e i mp re s s ion s o fn a i l h ead s a nd r o ve sa nd t r ac e so fs h ank s s u rv ive o nt h et imb e r s s o f a re xam ined , b o th o n s i t e a nd i nm u seum s , b u t i ts e em s c l ea r f r om t h i s e v idenc e t h a t r o und—headed n a i l s w e re d r iven f r om o u tboa rd t h rough t h e p l ank ing a nd c l en ch ed i n boa rd o ve r r e c tangu la rr o ve s . T h i s i st h eu sua lp r a c t ice i n No r th E u ropean c l inke r c on s t ruc t ion , a l though d u r ing r e pa i r s , o r o t he r s pe c ia l c i r cum s tan ce s , s ome n a i l s m ay b e c l en ched o u tboa rd . O n ce a ga in , o n ly d e ta i led e xam ina t ion o f m any mo re e xamp le s i n s i tu c an c l a r i f y w h i ch m e thod w a s g ene ra l ly u sed i nt h e R . H amb le w r e ck .

N eve r the le s s s u ch a n e s t ima te a ppea r s n o t u n r ea sonab le i n v i ew o f t h e s i ze a nd f o rm o f t h e r ema in s . T he se c a rgo c apa c i t ie s t h u s e mpha s i se t h e g r ea t d i f f e r ence i ns i ze b e tween t h e R . H amb le w reck /Grace D ieu a nd t h e o t he r v e s se l s i n T ab le 9 . 1 .1 . T he d raw ing P rynne ( 1 968 ) u sed t oi l u s t ra te h i s l e c tu re t ot h e S oc ie ty f o r N au t ica l R e sea r ch s t r ik ing ly s how s h ow t h e se e s t ima te s p lac e t h e R . H amb le w reck i nt h e s ame l e ague f o r s i ze a s t wo s ke le ton—bu i l t w a r sh ip s o f t h e 1 7 th c en tu ry , Wa sa a nd S ove r e ign o ft h eS ea s .

P rynne ( 1 968 : 1 24 ; 1 973 : 2 31 )ha s a l so t a ck led t h e d if icu l t q ue s t ion , e v iden t ly o ve r look ed b y o t h e r w o rke r s i nt h i s f i e ld , o f h ow a nd w hen t h e w r e ck ' s t r ip le— th i ckn e s s s t rake s w e re b u i l t u p . I n as h e l l—bu i l t , c l ink e r—p lanked b oa t i ti sg en e ra l ly t h e p ra c t i ce n owaday s t o s c a r f i n d iv idua l p l ank s t o ge the r b e fo re f i t t ing a n e n t i r e s t rak e a so ne u n i tt ot h e k ee l o rt ot h e s t rake s a l r eady p l ac e . Wh e th e rt h i s m e thod i sp ra c t icab le i na l a rge s h e l l—bu i l t s h ip i sn o t —t om y k now ledge — aq ue s t ion w h ich h a su pt on ow b een a sked ,b u t ad ef in i t ive a n swe ri nt h e a f f i rma t ive s e em s d oub t f u l . I nt h e c a se o f al a rge s h e l l—bu i l t s h ip w i th m u l t ip le— th i ckn e s sp l ank ing ,i ts e em sl i ke ly t h a ts u ch

C harac ter i s t ic so ft he R .H amb le

c ompo s i t e s t r ake s w e r e a s semb led o n t h e h u l l , b o th t h ick ne s s—w i se , a s P rynn e ( 1 968 ; 1 973 ) h a s s ugge s t ed , a nd a l so l e ng thw i se .

D ue t ot h e d i ff icu l t ie s o fe xcava t ion a nd r e co rd ing i n h e r en t i n t h e R . H amb le s i te , a ny a t temp t t os umma r ize w ha t i sk nown a bou t t h e w r eck c anno t b e e n t i re ly a c cu ra te . B o th A nde r son ( 1 934a : 1 62 ) a nd P rynne ( 1973 : 2 33 ) s u b sequen t ly h ad d oub t s a bou t t h e o b se rva t ion s t h ey made a nd t h e d raw ing s t h ey c omp i led i n1 933 a nd 1 936 , a nd t h e e xpe r ienc e o n s i t e o ft h e N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ' s t e am c on f i rm s t h a t t h e i r m i sg iv ing s w e re j u s t if ied . N eve r the le s s , a n a t temp t w i l l b e m ade h e re t op r e sen tt h em a in c ha ra c t e r i s t ic so ft h ew r eck a nd , i nt h en ex ts e c t ion ,d e ta i l so fi t ss t r uc tu r e . T he D e s igna ted Wreck i st h a t o f al a rge s h ip , b y m ed ieva l s t anda rd s , w i th h e r p l ank ing f a s tened i na n e l abo ra t e f o rm o f c l inke r . T h i s p l ank ing ( a ppea r s t o b e g ene ra l ly o f t h r ee t h ickne s se s ( F ig . 9 . 1 .3 ) h oweve r A nde r son ( 1 938 : 13 ) n o t ed t h a ti no ne s e c t ion i tmay h ave b een o n ly t wo p l ank st h i ck . T he m id15 th—cen tu ry w reck f r om A be r Wra c 'h , NW B r i t tany , i s 2 32

T he m e thod o fa s semb ly o u t l ined b yP rynne ( 1 968 : 1 24 ; 1 973 : 2 31 ) r e qu i r e s t h e i n n e r p l ank ing o f e a ch s t rake t o b e f i r s t f a s t ened t o' ma s te r f r ame s o rm ou ld s w h ich h ad a l ready b een s e t—up ' : t h a t i s , i nc on t rad ic t ion t oh i s s t a temen t s e l sewhe re , P rynne s ugge s t ed h e r e t h a t t h i s s h ip w a s b u i l t i nt h e s ke le ton s equence — ad i lemma w h i ch A nde r son ( 1 934b : 5 )a l so f a ced . I ti s ,h oweve r , u nn ece s sa ry t op o s t u la t e t h e s ke le ton s equen ce o fb u i ld ing i no rd e rt oe xp la in h ow t h ew r eck ' st r ip le— th ickne s s p l ank ing m ay h ave b een a s semb led . T he f o l low ing m e thod i s g en e ra l ly c ompa t ib le w i th t h ee xcava t ed e v iden ce a nd w i th t h e s he l ls equen ce o fb u i ld ing :

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r cha eo logy

F igu r e9 . 1 .1 V e r t ica la i rp ho tog raph ,t a ken i nA p r i l 1 9 79 ,s h ow ing t h eR .H amb le w r e ck ( A )a nd t h ep o s s ib le s e cond w reck ( B ) . T he p a ra l le ll i ne so nt h ef a rb ank o ft h er i ve ra r es a id t ob ew h e r ei n va s ion l a nd ing c r a f t ,b e long ing t ot h es h o r eb a se HMS C r ick e t , w e re m oo r ed d u r ing t h eS p r ing o f1 944 .P ho to :R CHM (E ) 2 33

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S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy —

F a s t en t h e o u te r p l ank t o t h e m idd le p l ank a l ong l owe r a nd u ppe r e dge s b y o c ca s iona l s ma l l n a i l s , s ome u sed a s s p ike s , s ome c l en ch ed b y t u rn ing t h e p o in t a l ong t h e i n boa rd f a c e o f t h e m idd le p l ank . P rynne ( 1 968 : 1 24 ; 1 973 :231 ; 1 976 :290 ) h a s d e sc r ib ed n a i l s i nt h e w re ck ' s p l ank ing w h ich w e r e s ma l le r t h an t h e c l ench n a i l s , w i th 1 / 4 i n ch ( 2 2mm ) d i ame te rr ound h ead sw h ich w e r ec oun t e r— sunk w i th in t h ep l ank ing . H et h ough tt h a tt h ey w e re u sed t of a s ten t h e m idd le l a ye r o f p l ank ing t o t h e s t rak e b e low ( 1 973 : 2 31 ) o r t h e m idd le l a ye r t o t h e i n ne r l a ye r ( 1 968 : 1 24 ) . R ecen te xam ina t ion o fp l ank ing r emoved f r om t h e w reck e a r l ie r t h i s c e n tu ry ( C la rke ,I JNA 2 2 : 2 6-31) ,w h i l s tn o tc on c lu s ive ,s u gge s tt h a tt h e se s ma l l n a i l s w e r e u sed t o f a s ten t h e o u t e r p l ank s t o t h e m idd le p l ank s .



F a s t en t h el owe re dge so ft h e se t wo p l ank s ( o u t e ra nd m idd le ) t ot h e u ppe r e dge o ft h e t h ree p l ank s i nt h e s t rak eb e low u s ing l a rge c l en ch n a i l ss pa ced a t0 . 15 t o 0 . 20 m .



P o s i t ion t h ei n ne rp l ank o nt o po ft h es t rake b e low a nd f a s ten t h e o u te r , m idd le a nd i n n e r p l ank s t o ge the r a l ong t h e m id— l in e o f t h e s t rak e b y c l en ch n a i l s s paced a t0 . 45 t o0 . 75 m .



S ub sequen t ly , f i t f r am ing t i mbe r s ; t h en n a i l a l l t h re e t h ick ne s se so fp l ank ing t ot h ef r amewo rk .

0

A nde r son a nd P rynne a l so t r ied t od e t e rm ine h ow t h e s hap e o f t h e h u l l w a s o b ta ined . A nde r son ( 1 934b : 5 ) c on s id e r ed t h a t ' t h e re m u s t h ave b een s ome s o r t o f f r amewo rk t o g i ve t h e p l ank ing i t s s hap e ' ; w h i l s t P rynne b e l ieved t h a t t h ey u sed ' mou ld s b ui l t—up o n t h ek ee l , made t ot h e s hape o fs e c t ion s o f t h es h ip ' ( 1 968 : 1 24 )o r' ma s te rf r ame sn o tt o of a ra pa r t ' ( 1 973 : 2 31 ) . T he se s ugge s t ion si mp ly t h a tt h eR . H amb le w r eck m u s t h ave b een b u i l ti nt h e s ke le ton s equence , a n i mpl i ca t ion w h ich c on t rad ic t s A nde r son ' s ( 1 934a : 1 60 , 1 66 ; 1 934b : 5 ) a nd P rynne ' s ( 1 938 : 2 82 ; 1 973 : 2 31 ) d emon s t ra t ion t h a t s h e w a s s h e l l—bu i l tf r om t h e f a c t t h a tt h e p l ank ing w a s f a s tened b e fo r e a tl e a s t s ome o ft h e f r ame s w e r e f i t ted a nd f r om t h e d i re c t ion i nw h ich s ome o f t h e f r ame e l emen t s w e re s c a r f ed t o e a ch o t he r . I nt h es ke le ton s equen ce o fb u i ld ing ,t h eh u l ls hap ec ome sf r om t h e p r e—e rec ted s ke le ton t o w h ich t h e p l ank ing i s m ad e t o c on fo rm . I nt h e p u r e s h e l l s equenc e t h e s hape c ome s f r om t h e p l ank ing i t se lf ; t h e s e t o f as t rake a nd h ence t h e d eve lop ing s hape o ft h eh u lk i sd e te rm ined b yt h er u no ft h eu ppe re dge o f t h e s t rake a l r eady i np o s i t ion a nd b y t h eb eve la ng le c u to nt h e o u te rs i de o ft h a te dge o r ,f o rh o l low c u r ve s ,b yt h eb eve l a ng le w o rked o n t h e l owe r i n boa rd e dge o f t h e s t rake b e ing f i t ted ( McG ra i l , 1 987 : f i g . 8 . 3 ) . S ome s c ho la r s b e l ieve t h a t h u l l s h ape i nt h i s s h e l l s equence c an b e a ch ieved b y e ye ' ; o t he r s t h a tb u i ld ing a i d sw e re u sed ( McG ra i l , 1 987 :9 8103 ) .

5 0 c m

F igu r e9 . 1 .3 D iag ram t os how t h ei d ea l i sed f o rm o ft h ew reck ' st r ip le t h ickne s sp l ank ing .D raw ing : Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum , G r eenw ich 2 35

Med ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s

F o r al a rge c omp lex s h ip s u ch a st h eR . H amb le w reck , w he r e b u i ld ing ' b y e ye ' w ou ld s e em t ob e i mp ra c t icab le , t h e re a r e , i n t h e a b senc e o fd raw ing s o r mode l s , t wo ma in p o ss ib i l i t ie s f o r b u i ld ing a i d s : t h e s h ip ' s s hap e w a s k nown a s as e t o f p l ank b r ead th s a nd b eve l a ng le s a t as e r ie s o f s t a t ion s a l ong t h e l e ng th o ft h ev e s se l —s uch i n fo rma t ion m ay b e s t o red e n coded o n ab oa tbu i lde r ' s l e ve l , ab oa tbu i ld ing a i d u sed f r om a tl e a s t t h e 1 7 th c en t u ry i n No rway ( McG ra i l , 1 987 : 1 00102 ) ; a l t e rna t ive ly , m ou ld s ( wooden t emp la te s o ft r an sve r se p ro f i le o ft h e s h ip )m ay h ave b een u sed , a m id sh ip s a nd a tk ey s t a t ion s w h e re t h e h u l l s hape w a s r ap id ly c hang ing . At h i rd p o s s ib il i ty i st h a t ac omb ina t ion o f t h e se t wo t y pe s o f b u i ld ing a i d may h ave b een u sed .( McG ra i l , 1 987 : 1 02 ) . T h e l im i ted e v iden ce f r om t h e R . H amb le w r eck d oe s n o t a low u s , a tp r e sen t ,t od ec ide p rec i se ly h ow t h eh u l ls hape w a s o b ta ined . T he p o ss ib i l i ty m u s t ,h oweve r ,b eb o rne i nm ind t h a t , a tt h i sl a t es t age i n — the N o rd ic c l inke r—bu i l tt r ad i t ion , a l though t h e R . H amb le s h ip h ad e dge— fa s tened p l ank ing , h e r g en e ra l s h ape m ay h ave b een o b ta ined ,a sP rynne a nd A nde r son a ppea r t os ugge s t , f r om a n e l emen ta ry s ke le ton o fk ee l , s t em s a nd a f ew f r ame s o fl i gh t s c an t l ing s e r ec ted b e fo r e p l ank ing b egan : s u ch af r amewo rk c ou ld b e t empo ra ry o rp e rmanen t . Whe the r t h i st e chn ique w a su sed c an n ow o n ly b ei n ve s t iga ted b yf u r the r e x cava t ion .

1 979 : f i g . 1 . 6 ) , a nd t h e 1 3 th / 14 th c en tu ry f i nd s f r om B e rgen —9 0357 , 9 0359 , 9 0395 , 9 0438 i nC h r i s tenden ( 1 985 ) -

b a l la s ta r ound t h em a s t— s t ep w a sl a rge r o unded f l in t s .

S t ru c tura ld e ta i l sn o ty e tk nown o rn eed ing c l ar if i ca t ion I n o rde r t o u nde r s tand t h e R . H amb le w r eck , f u l ly a nd d e te rm ine h e r p l ace i n t h e d eve lopmen t o f E u ropean s h ipbu i ld ing t e chn ique s ,t h ef o l low ing i n fo rma t ion i sn eeded : d e ta i led p l an a nd s e c t ion so ft h ee n t i r er ema in s a n swe r s t o g ene ra l q ue s t ion s : h ow w a s t imbe r s e lec ted ? Wha tw a s t h e s equence o fb u i ld ing a nd h ow w a s t h e s hap e o f t h e h u l l o b ta ined ? H ow w a s t h e p l ank ing s haped ,a s semb led a nd f a s tened ? -

s pe c if i cp rob lem st ob ei n ve s t iga ted :

P lank ing e n t i r e ly t r ip le— th ickne s s? r i ng / ray d i ag ram sa nd o t he rd e ta i l so fp a r en tl o g s s amp le sf o rd end roch rono log i ca le xam ina t ion

D e ta i l so ft h ew reck 's s t ruc ture

d i r ec t ion c l en ch n a i l sw e r ed r iven

T h e f o r ego ing d i scu ss ion a nd r epo r t s q uo ted t h e r e in s how t h a t t h e R . H amb le w reck h ad m u l t ip le t h ickn e s s c l inke rp l ank ing , c au lked w i th m o s s a nd t a r , a nd f a s tened b y i r on n a i l s , mo r e t h an 0 . 22 m i nl e ng th , w i th 2 0 mm s qua re— sec t ion s h ank s a nd d omed h ead s s ome 6 0 t o 7 0 mm i n d i ame te r , w h ich w e r e c l en ched i n boa rd o ve r c . 5 0 x7 0 mm r e c tangu la r r ove s . F ram ing t imbe r s a ve raged c . 0 . 28 m s i ded a nd c . 0 . 20 m ou lded a nd w e re c l o se ly s paced a tc .0 . 40 m c en t r et oc en t re . T h ey w e re f a s tened t ot h e p l ank ing b y o ak t T eena i l s o f c .3 8 mm d i ame te r , w i th d omed h ead s o u tboa rd . Whe r e t h e f r am ing d i dn o tc l o se ly f i tt h ep l ank ing ,w edge sw e re d r iven i n .

d i s t r ibu t ion a nd p u rpo se o f' s ma l ln a i l s ' d i s t r ibu t ion a nd p u rpo se o fm id—p lank c l en ch n a i l s s amp le a ny s u r v iv ing f a s t en ing s p o s i t ion a nd g r ad ien t so fp l ank s ca r f s l e ng th so fi n d iv idua lp l ank s

F ram ing O the rs t ru c tu ra lf e a tu re so ft h i sw reck i n c lude : -

a r e a l l f l oo r s a nd f u t to ck s s c a r f ed o r a r e s ome c onn ec ted b yp ro jec t ing d owe l s?

-

f u t to ck t imbe r ss c a r f ed t ot h ef l oo rt imbe r s

-

ak ee lo fc .1 30 f t( 4 0m )l e ng th

-

r i ng / ray d i ag ram sa nd o t h e rd e ta i l so fp a r en tl o g s

-

ak ee l son , 0 . 55m s i ded a nd 0 . 16m mou lded , w i th a s imp le m a s t— s tep c .0 . 58 x0 . 29 m a nd c .0 . 20 m d eep

-

s amp le sf o rd end ro ch rono log ica le xam ina t ion

-

a r ei n boa rd e nd so ft r eena i l sw edged ?

-

a r ef l oo r sf a s ten ed t ok ee l /k ee l son ?

-

e v id en ce f o ra ny f r am ing e r e c ted b e fo r ep l ank ing ?

-

c e i l ing p l ank ing s ome 3 0t o4 0 mm t h ick

-

s t r inge r so fv a r iou ss i ze s

-

c r o s sbeam s w i th p ro t rud ing h ead s ( Ande r son , 1 934a : f i g . 9 ;P rynne , 1 938 ; f i g s 9a nd 1 0 ) —s im i la ri nf o rm t ot h o se o ft h e m id15 th c en tu ry A be r Wrac 'h w re ck ( L 'H ou r &V ey re t , 1 989 :f i g s 1 2a nd 1 3 ) ; s e ea l so t h e c r o s sbeam s i nt h e 1 2 th—cen tu ry K a lma r 1( Äke r lund , 1 9 51 ) , t h e l a te 1 4 th—cen tu ry B remen C og ( E l lme r s ,

O th e rf i t t ing s d e ta i l s o ft h e f o l low ing t i mb e r s , t h e i r s c a r f s a nd t h e i r f a s t en ing s : k ee l , k ee l son , m a s t— s t ep s , s t em s , 2 36

S tud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy d eadwood s , s t r inge r s , c e i l ing p l ank ing , k nee s , c r o s sb eam sa nd a ny o t he re l emen t st h a ts u rv ive

B a l la s t —d e ta i l sa nd s amp le .

F u ture w ork o nt he s i te T h e i n d i spu tab le i mpo r tance o f t h e r ema in s o fh e R . H amb le s h ip t ot h eh i s to ry o fE u ropean s h ipbu i ld ing m o re t h an j u s t i f ie s i t sd e s igna t ion a sa nH i s to r ic Wreck . T he m in imum w o rk t ob e d one o ns i t ei nt h ef u tu re i st h er egu la r mon i to r ing o ft h ev i s ib le r ema in s t oe n su r e t h a t t h ey a r e n o t d e te r io ra t ing o r s u s ta in ing d amage . T he m a jo rp a r t o ft h e s i te i se xpo sed f o r o n ly af ew d ay se a ch y ea r ,a nd t h ew e s te rn p a r to ft h ew re ck i n c lud ing t h e p r e sumed s t e rnpo s t s e ldom , i fe ve r , d r ie s . T h e m a jo r i ty o ft h e t i mb e r si nt h ei n te r t ida lz one a r ep ro tec ted b ys i l t s :o n ly 0 . 10 t o 0 . 15 m o ft h e f r am ing p ro jec t s a bove t h e t h e p re sen t r i ve rb ed a nd t h ep l ank ing i sg ene ra l ly n o tv i s ib le . I nt h ep a s tf ew y ea r s , t h i s n a tu ra l p ro tec t ion h a s i n c rea sed a s s o f t mob i le s i l t s h ave e x tended f r om t h e e a s ter n r i ve r b ank o u t t owa rd s t h e m a in s t r eam c hanne l ( C la rke e ta l . , I JNA 2 2 : f i g s 1 6 a nd 1 7 ) . O n ly i no ne s ho r t s e c t ion o ft h e w re ck — o nt h e p r e sumed p o r t q ua r te ro ft h ev e s se l , b y d a tum p o in t J( C la rke e ta l . ,I JNA 2 2 : f i g s 1 6a nd 1 7 ) —h a st h ew reck b een u nde r cu tb yt h er i ve r , a nd , o n ar e c en t i n spe c t ion b y t h e H e r i tage D epa r tmen t ' s D iv ing U n i t , t h e d ep th o f t h i s u nde r cu t t ing a ppea r s t o h ave b een r e duc ed b ys i l t ing f r om c .0 . 50 m t oc .0 -32 m . S hou ld f u tu r e m on i to r ing r e vea l e i the r d e te r io ra t ion o f t h e v i s ib le t i mbe r so rr educ t ion i nt h en a tu ra lp ro tec t ion ,c o r r ec t ive m ea su re s m u s t b e t a ken . T he Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum ' s e xpe r imen t s ( C la rke e t a l . , UNA 2 2 : 3 7-43 ) d i d n o t c on c lu s ive ly d emon s t ra te t h a t p ro tec t ive s ed imen ta t ion c ou ld b e a r t if ic ia l ly i n duced a nd mo r e r e sea r ch i sr e qu i r ed h e r e t o e s tab l i sh t h e b e s tm e thod s o fp ro tec t ion ( t h i s p o in t i sr e tu rned t ob e low , i nt h e s e c t ion o n e xcava t ion ) . D e te r io ra t ion o f t h e t i mbe r s w h i ch c ou ld n o t b e h a l ted m igh t n e ce s s i ta te e xcava t ion . A pa r tf r om m on i to r ing w o rk ,f u tu re r e sea r ch o ns i te c ou ld t a ke o n e o ft h ree f o rm s w h ich , i no rde r o fi n c rea s ing i n t ru s ivene s s , a r e : r emo te— sen s ing s u r vey ; p a r t ia l e xcava t ion ; o r t o ta l e xcava t ion .

R emo te— sen s ing s urvey T h i sw ou ld c au se v i r tua l ly n od i s tu rbance t ot h es i te a nd s hou ld b e u nde r taken n o t o n ly o n t h e D e s igna ted S i te b u t a l so o n t h e s i t eo ft h ep o s s ib le s e cond w reck c .6 0 mt ot h eS SW ( C la rke e t a l ,I JNA 2 2 : 2 4 ) . T he a im o fs u ch s u r vey sw ou ld b et op roduce ap l an a nd , i fp o s s ib le , p ro f i le s o f t h e D e s ig na ted Wr eck a nd i t s d e ta ched t i mb e r s , a nd t o d e te rm ine w he the r mo r e a c t ive i n t e r ven t ion i n to t h es econd s i te w ou ld b ej u s t i f ied .

E xcava t ion O n ly t h e b o t tom p a r to ft h e h u l l , am e t r e o rs o a bove t h e k ee l , n ow s u rv ive s a nd i ti sd oub t f u l i fa ny c on tempo ra ry a r t e fa c t s 2 37

a r e n ow a s so c ia ted w i th t h e w re ck , a par t f r om b a l la s t . I ft h e e n t i r e h u l l , a s i ti sn ow , w e r e t ob e e xcava ted a nd l i f ted , t h e m ax imum h i s to r ica l ly—va luab le i n fo rma t ion c ou ld b e o b ta ined a nd t h e d i sp layed r ema in s w ou ld b e o f g r ea t i n te r e s t t o m a r i t ime a r cha eo log i s t s a nd h i s to r ian s . S u ch ad i sp lay w ou ld , o nt h eo t h e rh and ,h ave l i t t le a t t ra c t ion f o rt h eg ene ra lp ub l ic a s t h e s c an tr ema in sc ou ld g i ve l i t t le i d ea o ft h eo r ig ina l s i ze a nd a ppea ran ce o f t h e s h ip . I ti sd oub t fu l , t h e r e fo re , w he the r t h e r e sou r ce s r e qu i r ed t o l i f t , c on se r ve a nd d i sp lay t h i s w reck c ou ld b e j u s t if i ed i n t e rm s o f t h e e n l igh tenmen t o f n on— spec ia l i s t s , n o r c ou ld t h e r e sea r ch v a lue b y i t se l fj u s t i fy s u ch av a s ts um . A n a l t e rna t ive s t ra t egy w ou ld b e t o r emove t h e o ve rbu rden a r chaeo log ica l ly f r om t h ew r e ck a nd t op l an t h es i te ;t r ench a nd r e co rd u nde rt h ew r e ck i ns e lec t ed p l ac e s ; l i f t s e lec ted p a r t s o f t h es t r uc t u r e ; a nd f i na l ly b a c ld il t h es i te . I nt h i sw ay ,t h ec o s t s o fl i f t ing , c on se r va t ion a nd d i sp lay w ou ld b e l a rge ly a vo ided y e tn ea r—max imum t e chno log ica l i n fo rma t ion a bou tt h e w reck c ou ld b e o b ta ined . T h e o n ly v i ab le w ay t ou nde r tak e s u ch a n a r ea e xcava t ion w ou ld b e w i th in a c o f f e rdam , e xcava t ing e i th e r i na i r o r w i th in f i l te r ed w a t e r , a s s ugge s ted b y Ma r t in D ean ( C la rke e ta l . ,I JNA 2 2 : 3 7 ) . P ub l i c i n fo rma t ion d i sp lay s a bou t t h e w r eck c ou ld i n c lud e t i mb e r s l i f t ed f r om t h e w reck a nd s ma l l— sca le m od e l s o f t h e h u l l s t ruc tu r e b a sed o n t h e e xcava t ion f i nd ing s . A l e s s a mb i t iou s p l an w ou ld b e t o u nde r take l im i ted e xcava t ion w i th in t r en ch e s d e s ign ed t ot h row l i gh t o n s pe c if i c p rob lem s . Many o ft h e r e sea r ch q ue s t ion s p o sed a bove c ou ld b e i n ve s t iga ted b y e xp lo ra to ry t r en che s a l ong o ne s i de o f t h e s h ip , al o ng i tud ina l t r en ch a l ong t h e m idd le— l ine a nd o ne o r m o r e t r an sve r se t r en che s . T h e m o s t e f e c t ive w ay o ft a ck l ing t h i s t y p e o fe xcava t ion w ou ld b e t oe xcava te w hen t h e s i te i s u nde r w a te r a nd t os u r vey a s m uch a s p o ss ib le o f t h e a r ea s e xcava ted , i na i r a tl ow w a t e r . S e le c ted p a r t s o ft h e s t ruc tu r e c ou ld b e l i f t ed f o r d e ta i led e xam ina t ion , d end roch rono log ica l d a t ing a nd p ubl i cd i sp lay . Wh e th e rt ou nd e r tak e af u l la r ea e xcava t ion o rp a r t— excava t ion b y s e le c ted t r en che s c a n b e d e t e rm ined b y c ompa r ing t h e i n fo rma t ion w h ich w ou ld p robab ly b eg a ined w i th t h er e sou rc e s n eed ed i nb o th c a se s . I ts e em s l i k e ly t h a t , i na b so lu te t e rm s , m o r ei n fo rma t ion w ou ld b eg a ined b y a r ea e xcava t ion w i th in a c o f f e rdam , b u t t h i s w ou ld a l so b e t h e mo r e e xpen s ive o p t ion . T he p r ec i se t r ade—o f fb e tween c o s t s a nd i n fo rma t ion f o re ach o ft h e se m e thod sn e ed s t ob ee va lua ted a f te rw ide d i scu s s ion s . T he a u tho r ' s s ub jec t ive a s se s smen t , a tt h i s t i me a nd f o r t h i s p a r t i cu la r w re ck , i s t h a t t h e e x t ra c o s t s o f c o f f e rdam e xcava t ion w ou ld n o t b e c ommen su ra te w i th t h e a dd i t iona l i n fo rma t ion g a in ed . S e le c t iv e t r en ch e xcava t ion c ou ld , o n t h e o t h e r h and , p u t u s al o ng w ay t owa rd s t h e g oa l o f f u l ly u nde r s tand ing t h i sw r eck s i t e ,a t af r a c t ion o ft h ec o s t . Whe th e rt oe xcava t ea ta l lo rt or e s t r ic tf u tu r e s i te a c t iv i t ie s t o s u rvey c anno tb ed ec ided s o le ly b yt h ed ep th o fo ne ' sp u r se a nd o n ac o s t /ben e f i t a na ly s i s . O r , m o r e a c cu ra te ly , c o s t /b ene f i t a s se s smen t sm u s ti n c lude c on s ide ra t ion o fh ow e xcava t ion w i l l a f e c t t h o se r ema in s w h i ch a r e n o t l i f ted . A ny i n t ru s ive w o rk o n t h e s i te w i l l i nt h eo r y d i s tu rb t h e n ea r—equ i l ib r ium s t a te e s tab l i shed b e tween t h e s h ip a nd h e r e nv i ronmen t . I tm u s t b e

M ed ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s Ap r e r equ i s i t e o fa ny s u ch e xcava t ion mu s tb e t h e a va i lab i l i ty o f p roven m e thod s o f s a f e ly b a ck fi l l ing p a r t ly—excava ted u nderwa te r s i te s . R e sea r ch i n to t h e se ma t te r s w ou ld b e b e s t c o—o rd ina ted b y t h e D epa r tmen t o fN a t iona l H e r i tage , a s t h e p rob lem i sp o ten t ia l ly r e levan t t o a l l d e s igna ted u nd erwa t e r

a cknow ledged , h oweve r , t h a t n o tw i th s tand ing t h e a c t ion—pa ck ed e xcava t ion s u nd e r tak en i n 1 933 a nd 1 936 ( Ande r son , 1 934a ; 1 938 ) t h e e xpo sed t i mbe r s a r e s t i l l v e r y s ound j udged b o th b y v i sua l e xam ina t ion a nd b y m o i s tu r e c on ten t a nd c hem ica l a na ly s i s o fs amp le s ( C la rk e e ta l . ,I JNA 2 2 :4 3 ) .

s i te s .

F ewe rt i mb e r s w ou ld b e e xpo sed f o rl e s s t i me a nd t h u sb el e s s l i ke ly t ob ed eg raded , i fp a r t ia l e xcava t ion o ft h e w r e ck w e r e t ob e u nde r taken r a th e r t h an a n a r ea e xcava t ion . F u r the rmo r e , t h e re w ou ld b e l e s s t ob a ck f i l l a f te r e xcava t ion a nd i ti st h e q ua l i ty o fb a ck f i l l ing t h a t w i l l d e t e rm ine t h e l o ng— t e rm f u tu r e o ft h e s i te . O n ly l im i ted r e sea r ch i n to t h i s p rob lem h a s s of a r b een u nde r taken a nd i td oe s n o t s e em p o ss ib le i nt h e p r e sen t s t a te o f k now ledge t o r e commend a b e s t m e thod . T h e D epa r tmen to fN a t iona l H e r i tage a nd t h e e qu iva len tb od ie s i n S co t land a nd Wa le s a r e r e spon s ib le f o r t h e i mp lemen ta t ion o f t h eP ro tec t ion o f Wr eck s A c t , 1 973 a nd t h e i rp r e sen tp o l i cy i s , q u i te r i g h t ly , d i rec ted t owa rd s p ro te c t ion f r om u nau t ho r ized e xcava t ion . I n t h e l o nge r t e rm , m any d e s igna t ed u nd e rwa t e r s i te s a r e l i ab le , b y t h e i r v e ry n a tu r e a nd b y t h e i r p o s i t ion i n h i gh e ne rgy e nv i ronmen t s ,t ob e t h rea tened b y d eg rada t ion a nd d e te r io ra t ion d ue t on a tu ra lf o r ce s ,e sp ec ia l ly a f t e re xcava t ion s w h ich h ave n o ti n c luded f u l lr e cove ry o ft h e w r e ck s t ru c tu r ed t w ou ld b em o s ta pp rop r ia t e , t h e re fo re ,f o rt h e se h e r i tage b od ie s t o t a ke t h e l e ad i n t a ck l ing t h i s p rob lem a nd t o s pon so r r e sea r ch i n to t h e b e s t m e thod s o f b a ckf i l l ing a nd p r o te c t ing u nderwa te rs i te s .

C onc lu s ion S ome i n fo rma t ion a bou t m ed ieva l s h ipbu i ld ing i n n o r the rn E u rope h a s b een g a ined , o ve r t h e y ea r s , f r om t h e i mpo r tan t w r eck s i te i nt h eR .H amb le ,b u ts e ve ra lf u ndamen ta lq ue s t ion s r ema in u nan swe red . A t p r e sen t t h e r ema in s a r e i n ag ood c ond i t ion a nd a r e r e a sonab ly w e l l p ro tec ted b y t h e n a tu ra l e nv i ronmen t :i ti se s sen t ia lt h a tt h er e gu la r mon i to r ing o fw re ck a nd c on tex t s hou ld c on t inue . R emo t e— sen s ing s u r vey o f t h i s s i te a nd o ft h ep o s s ib le s e cond w re ck c .6 0mS SW ( f ig 9 . 1 .1 . ) s hou ld a l so b eu nde r taken w hen r e sou r ce sb ecome a va i lab le . T he U n ive r s i ty o f S ou thamp ton n ow u nde r take s t e a ch ing a nd r e sea r ch i nt h ef i e ld o fm a r i t ime a r cha eo logy . F u r th e rmo r e ,t h e U n ive r s i ty o wn s t h e R . H amb le w reck a nd , i na n e xchange o f l e t te r s w i th t h e M in i s t ry o f D e f en c e o n t h e o c ca s ion o f t h e t r an sf e rt ot h eU n ive r s i ty o ft h eC rown ' sr i gh t ,t i t le a nd i n t e r e s t , t h e U n ive r s i ty a g reed t o' u se i t s b e s te ndeavou ra ta l lt i me s a s f a r a s p o s s ib le t o p ro te c t a nd p r e se r ve t h i s w r eck ' ( MOD l e t te r s DC 2 2 (1 )51956 /69 o f 2a nd 3 0J anua ry 1 970 ) . I tw ou ld t h u s b e m o s t a pp rop r ia te f o rt h e U n ive r s i ty o fS ou thamp ton t o b ecome l i cen see o f t h e D e s igna ted S i te a nd t o u nd e r tak e r e gu la rp e r iod ic mon i to r ing .R emo te— sen s ing s u rvey so ft h eR . H amb le w i th in , s ay , 1 00 m o f t h e D e s igna ted Wr eck s h ou ld a l so b e u nde r taken . I nt h em ed ium t e rm , t h e U n ive r s i ty s h ou ld g i ve s e r iou s c on s ide ra t ion t o ar e sea r ch o r ien ta t ed e xcava t ion a nd , a f te r ac o s t—ben ef i ta na ly s i so nt h e l i ne s d i scu s sed a bove , s hou ld d ec ide w h ich m e thod o fe xcava t ion w ou ld g i ve t h eb e s t r e tu rn o f i n fo rma t ion , c on s i s ten t w i th m in imum h a za rd ing o f t h er ema in s .

2 38

R e f e renc e s Ä ke r lund H 1 951 F ar tyg sf ynen id en f orna h wnm en iK a lma r S t ockho lm . A nde r son R .C . 1 934a ' Bu r le sdon s h ip . ' Mar in e r ' s M ir ro r 2 0 , 1 58-70 . A nde r son R .C . 1 934b ' W reck i n t hR . Hamb le . ' A n t iqua r ie s J ourna l 1 4 , 1 -6 . A nde r son R .C . 1 938 ' Bu r le sdon s h ip . ' Ma r in e r ' s M i r ro r 2 4 , 12-13 . B ro ck E .P .L . 1 876 ' D i scove ry o f a n a nc ien t w a r sh ip n ea r B o t ley . ' J ourna l o f t h e B r i t ish A r chaeo log i ca l A s so c ia t ion 3 2 ,7 0-1 . C h r i s ten sen A .E . 1 985 ' Boa t f i nd s f r om B ryggen . ' B ryggen P ape r s 1 ,4 7-278 . C rum l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 991 ' S h ip t y pe s a nd s i ze s AD 8 00 t o 1 400 . ' A spe c t s o f Mar i t ime S cand inav ia AD 2 00 t o 1 200 e d i ted b y 0 . Cnun l in—Pede r sen , 6 9-82 . V ik ing S h ip Mu seum ,R o sk i lde . E a rne r s D . 1 979 ' Cog o fB remen a nd r e la ted b oa t s . ' Med ieva l S h ip s a nd H arbour s i n N E urope e d i ted b y S . McG ra i l 1 15 . BAR Ox fo rd S 66 . Ewe H . 1 972 S h if f ea uf s i ege ln .R o s tock G reenh i l lB . 1 976 A r chaeo logy o ft h eB oa tL ondon G reenh i l lB . 1 988 E vo lu t ion o ft h eW ood en S h ip .L ondon . L 'Hou rM . a nd V ey ra tE . 1 989 ' M id-15 th c en tu ry c l inke rb oa t o f ft h en o r th c oa s to fF rance , t h eA be r Wra c 'h w r eck . ' I JNA 1 8 ,2 85-98 . McG ra i lS .1 981 R af t s ,B oa t sa nd S h ip s . HMSO . McG ra i lS .1 987 A nc ien tB oa t si n NW E urope .L ondon . McG ra i l S .f o r thcom ing Med ieva lB oa ta nd S h ip T imbe r sf rom D ub l in .R oya lI r i sh A cademy ,D ub l in . Ma r sd en P . f o r thcom ing a n c ien t S h ipp ing o f t h e P o r t o f L ondon .E ngl i sh H e r i tage . Ma r t in ez—H ida lgo J .M . 1 966 C o lumbu s ' s h ip s . B a r r e , Ma s sa chu se t t s . M i ln e G a nd H ob ley B . 1 981 Wa terf ron t A r chaeo logy i n B r i ta in a nd N E urope . CBA R esea r ch R epo r t4 1 . P rynn e M .W . 1 938 ' Med ieva l man—o f—wa r . ' R oya lE ng inee r s ' J ourna l5 2 ,2 73-88 . P rynne M .W . 1 968 ' Hen ry V ' s G race D ieu . ' Ma r ine r ' sM i r ro r 5 4 , 15-28 . P rynn e M . 1 973 ' S ome g ene ra l c on s ide ra t ion s a pp ly ing t ot h e e xam ina t ion o f t h e r ema in s o f o ld s h ip s . ' I JNA 2 , 2 27-33 . P rynn eM . 1 976 ' C aw fo t t—na i l s a nd C a la fa t i . ' Ma r ine r ' sM i r ro r 6 1 ,2 89-90 .

R ep r in ted w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om : I n te rna t iona l J ourna l f o r Nau t ica l A r chaeo logy , 2 2 : 4 5-51 . ( 1 993 ) .

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t ime A r chaeo logy

PAPER 9 .2 THE BOATS AND SH IPS OF TENTH TO ' TH IRTEENTH CENTURY DUBL IN

D ub l in a s ap or t T h e b oa t s a nd s h ip s t imbe r s f r om m ed ieva l D ub l in r a nge i n d a te f r om t h e e a r ly t e n th c en tu ry ( t he H igh S t r ee t a nd F i shamb le S t ree t s i te s ) t o t h e m id— th i r teen th c en tu ry ( t h e Wood Q uay s i te ) . D ub l in h ad b een f ounded i nt h e m id—n in th c e n tu ry a s aV ik ing s e t t lemen to nh i gh g round t ot h ew e s to ft h e c on f luence o ft h eR . P odd le w i th t h e R . L i f f ey , a nd s epa ra t ed f r om t h e l a t t e r b y a n i n ter t ida l z one o f ma in ly s a l t—ma r sh ( M i tche l l 1 987 ) . B y t h e e a r ly t e n th c en tu ry i th ad b ecome a n i mpo r tan t c omme r c ia l c en t re , e spec ia l ly i nt h e o ve r sea s t r ade w i th B r i s to l ( She rbo rne 1 965 ) , C he s te r a nd c e r ta in We l sh p o r t s . T h e e a r l ie s t p o s t—Roman h a rbou r s i nn o r th—we s t E u rope w i th w a te r f ron ts t r uc tu re s a l ong s ide w h ich v e sse l s c ou ld b e r th w e r e b u i l ti nt h en i n th c en tu ry ( Hodge s 1 982 , 9 7-8 ; McG ra i l 1 981c , 1 9 85 ) . T he se e a r ly f o rma l h a rbou r s w e re f ew i n n umbe r , h oweve r , a nd t h e r e a r e n o s pec ia l r ea son s f o r t h ink ing t h a t D ub l in w a s i nt h e f o re f ron t o f s uch d eve lopmen t s : i ti sm o r e l i k e ly t h a tD ub l in ,l i ke h e r ma in t r ad ing p a r tne r s i nB r i ta in a nd S cand inav ia , c on t inued t ou se i n fo rma l l a nd ing p l ace s i nt h e

a nd p r even tf l ood ing , t oa l low t h et own t oe xpand t ot h en or th , a nd t o p rov ide t own d e f en ce s , a nd s h ou ld n o t b e s e en a s w a te r f ron t sa ga in s tw h ich s h ip sc ou ld b e r th . T he t we l f th c en tu ry w a s t o b r ing c hange . T he i n va s ion i n 169 / 1170 l e d b y t h e N o rman R icha rd d e C la r e ( S t rongbow ) w a s t h e f i r s t d i r ec t E ng l i sh i n t r u s ion i n to I r i sh a f fa i r s a nd a b r up t ly a l t e red t h ep o l i t ica l a nd s o c ia l s c en e i nt h e s ou th a nd e a s to fI r e land . A s ar e su l t , H iber no—No r se ( i . e . p o s t—V ik ing ) D ub l in b e came A ng lo—No rman D ub l in : I n ac ha r te ro f 171-2 , H en ry I g r an ted t h e c i ty t o t h e ' men o f B r i s to l ' , a nd t h e H ib emo—No r se w e r e b an i shed t oO xman s town , t ot h en o r th o f t h eR .L i f f ey ( Wa l lac e 1 987 ,2 81 ) . I n 192 P r inc e J ohn c o n f i rmed t h e 171-2 c ha r te r a nd e n cou raged t h ec i t izen so fD ub l in t ot a k ei nm o r el a nd f r om t h e i n te r t ida l s a l t—ma r sh n o r th o ft h e c i ty . F u r th e r p e rm i s s ion f o r e xpan s ion w a s g i ven i n 1 202 ( Wa l la c e 1 981 , 13-14 ) . T he a r chaeo log ica l r e a l i ty , c o r r e spond ing t ot h e se p ronounc emen t s i s af o u r th w a t t le—and—daub b ank o f c . 1200 , f o l lowed f r om c . 12 10 b y as u cc e s s ion o ff o u rw ood en r e ve tmen t s ( F ig . 9 . 2 .2 ) ; s h ip t i mbe r s ( TG3 ) w e r e i n co rpo ra ted i n to t h e s e cond o ft h e se ( n o . 1 A ) . T he f i r s t t h r ee r e ve tmen t s ( 1 , 1 Aa nd 2 ) w e re a l l f r on t—b ra ced a nd u n l ik e ly t oh ave b e en d e s igned a s w ha r f s . W i th t h e b ack—b ra ced f o u r th r e v e t f nen t ( n o . 3 ) , d a ted t o t h e l a t et h i r teen th c en tu ry ,t h ep o s s ib i l i ty a r i se st h a ts h ip si nt h eR . L i f f ey m ay h ave b een a b le t ob e r th a l ong s ide . T h i sp o s s ib i ) i ty b ecome s mo re l i ke ly w i th t h e b u i ld ing o f t h e s t on e q uay w a t e r f ron t i nc .1 300 o r i nt h e f i r s t d e cade o ft h e f ou r teen th c en tu ry ( Wa l lac e 1 981 , 1416 ) . I tm ay a l so h ave b een a tt h i s t i me t h a t as l ipway f o rf i sh ing b oa t s ( f y s s che s l yppe ) w a s b u i l t n ea r t h e n o r ther n e nd o f w ha t i s n ow F i shamb le S t r ee t ( Wa l la ce 1 981 , 16 ) . O the rv e s se l s m ay h ave b een b e r thed o n t h ef o r e sho r eo ft h eR .L i f f ey t ot h ew e s to fw ha ti sn ow Wood Q uay ,w h ich f o rme r ly h ad t h ep l ac ename S t rand ( F ig .9 . 2 .1B ) .

n i n th c en tu ry a nd f o r s ome c en tu r ie s a f terwa rd s . T h e e n v i ronmen ta l e v iden ce ( M i tche l l 1 987 ) a nd s u ch a r chaeo log ica le v idenc e a st h e re i ss ugge s tt h a tb oa t s a nd s h ip s a r r iv ing i na nd w o rk ing o u to fD ub l in i nt h e t e n th a nd e l even th c e n tu r ie s u sed a n a tu ra l h a rbou r o r h aven o u t o f t h e m a in s t r eam , i nt h e R . P odd le t ot h e e a s t o f t h e V ik ing t own ( F ig . 9 . 2 .1 ) T he se v e s se l s w ou ld h ave a ncho r ed i nt h i s d ubh l i nn o r ' b la ck p oo l ' ( b la ck ' b ecau se o f i t s r e la t ive d ep th ? ) , o r t h ey w ou ld h ave b een b eached o n a n a d jacen t s t rand , b e low t h e e a s t er ne nd o ft h e 1 8m ( 5 0 f t )r i dge o nw h ich D ub l in C a s t le n ow s t and s ,b yt a k ing t h eg r ound o n af a l l ing t i de . B each o pe ra t ion s a r en o tl im i ted t os ma l l b oa t s ( F ig 2 . 1 .8 ; McG ra i l 1 987 , 2 67 ) , a nd s h ip s o ft h e s i z e k nown t oh ave b een u sed i nt h e t e n th a nd e l even th c en tu r ie s c ou ld h ave b een r ead i ly o pe ra ted f r om f i rm b ea che s o r f r om m an—made h a rd s b u i l t u pon s o f t m ud o n t h e m a rg in so ft h eP odd le n a tu ra lh a rbou r . V e s se l s a ta ncho ri nt h e p oo l c ou ld h ave b e en u n loaded i n to s ma l le r c r a f t o r p o s s ib ly i n to h o r se—d rawn c a r t so ro n to p a ck a n ima l s( E l lme r s 1 985 ) . Wa l lac e ( 1 981) h a s d e sc r ib ed t h e t e n th— a nd e l even th— cen tu ry e mbankmen t o f t h e R . L if f ey , f i r s t b y t h ree s u cce s s ive c l ay b ank s w i th p o s ta nd—wa t t le s t ruc tu re s , a nd t h en , c1 1 0 0 ,b ya s t one w a l l( F ig 9 . 2 .2 ) .T he se w e re e r ec ted t oc on s t ra in t h er i ve r

2 39

I nt h e w ake o ft h e se s i g n if i can t c hage s i np o l i t ica l a l leg iance , i nt h e s i ze o fD ub l in a nd i nc i v ic e ng inee r ing p ro jec t s c ame a g ene ra l i n c rea se i no ve r sea s t r ad ing a nd i n ten s if i ca t ion o ft h e t r ad e w i th B r i ta in ( S h e rbor n e 1 96 5 ) a nd w i th F ran ce f r om R ouen t oB ayonne ( Dohe r ty 1 980 ) . S ea f a r ing b ecame o f s u ch i mpo r tance t o D ub l in t h a t w hen K ing J ohn a u tho r i sed t h e m ayo r a nd c i ty c ounc i l t oh ave ac ommon s e a l i n 1 229 t h ey c ho se t o d ep ic t as h ip o n t h e o bve r se ( S t r ick land 1 923 ; F ig . 9 . 2 .3 ) .

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A . C on jec tu ra l m ap o fD ub l in c100 ( a f te rM i t che l l 1 9 87 , f i g . 2 a , a nd m ap s p ub l i shed b y t h e O rdnance S u r vey , 1 977 a nd 1 978 ) B .C on jec tu ra l m ap o fD ub l in c1 300 ( a f te rM i t ch e l l 1 9 87 , f i g . 2 b , a nd m ap s p ub l i shed b y t h e O rdnance S ur vey , 1 977 a nd 1 978 ) 2 40

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F igu re 9 . 2 .2 S chema t ic s e c t ion o fD ub l in ' sw a te r f ron t ,9 001300 ( a f t e r Wa l la ce 1 981 ,f i g . 1 07 )

Two q ue s t ion s a r i se f r om ac on s ide ra t ion o ft h e se e ven t s : a f te r t h e A ng lo—No rman t a ke—ove r , w a s t h e r e ac hange i nt h e t y pe a nd b u i ld o ft h ev e sse l su s ing t h ep o r to fD ub l in ,a nd w a st h e r e ac hange i nt h e m e thod s o fb e r th ing t h e se v e s se l s? T o a n swe r t h e se q ue s t ion si ti sn ece s sa ry f i r s tt oc ompa r et h eD ub l in b oa t s a nd s h ip s w i th t h o se k nown e l sewhe r e i nn o r th—we s tE u rope i n t h eV ik ing A ge a nd l a te r , a nd s e cond ly t oc on s ide rw h e th e rt h e t y pe s o f v es se l u s ing D ub l in i nt h e l a t e t we l f th a nd t h i r teen th c en tu r ie s w ou ld h ave n ece s s i ta ted ac hange f r om a n i n fo rma l h a rbou r o r h aven t o o ne w i th f o rma l s t r uc tu r e s . A s upp lemen ta ry q ue s t ion m u s t f i r s t b e t a ck led : w e r e t h e p a r en t b oa t s a nd s h ips o ft h e D ub l in t imb e r s i nt h e ma in s t r eam o ft h e V ik ing /No r se t r ad i t ion o rw e r et h ey ar e g iona lv a r ian t ?

V ik ing A ge T he c ha rac t e r i s t ic a t t r ibu te s o f t h e ( ma in s t ream ) V ik ing t r ad i t ion o f b oa t a nd s h ipbu i ld ing i n t h e t e n th a nd e l even t h c en tu r ie s m ay b e s umma r i sed u nde r f o u r m a in h ead ing s : s e lec t ion a nd c onve r s ion o f t imbe r ; f o rm ; s t ruc tu r e ; a nd p ropu l s ion a nd s t ee r ing . T h e e v iden ce i sd r awn m a in ly f r om O l sen a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 967 ; N ico lay sen 1 882 ; C h r i s ten sen 1 959 ; 1 968b ; 1 972 ; a nd C rum l in—Ped e r sen 1 981 ; 1 983b ; 1 986a ; 1 986b .

F orm . V ik ing A ge v e s se l s h ad ( n ea r ) s ymme t r ica l e nd s ( ' doub le— end ed ' ) i np l an , e l eva t ion a nd s e c t ion , w i th ap o s t a t b ow a nd s t em . I n l o ng i tud ina l s e c t ion , t h e r e w a s as moo th t r an s i t ion b e twe en k e e l a nd s t em , a nd ad i s t inc t ive s h ee r l ine , c u r v ing u pwa rd s t o h i g h e nd s . I n t r an sve r se s e c t ion t h e se v e s se l sh ad ag en e ra l ly r o unded b o t tom w i th f l a red s i de s . S t ruc tur e ( F ig 9 . 2 .4 ) . T h e se v e s se l s w e r e e s sen t ia l ly ' o p en b oa t s ' . T hey w e r e b u i l t i nt h e s h e l l s equence—p lank ing b e fo r e f r am ing ( F ig . 9 . 2 .5 ) . S t rake s , c on s i s t ing o f s eve ra l r e la t ive ly t h in p l ank s j o ined i nv e r t ica l s c a r f s , w e r e l a id o ve r lapp ing i n c l inke r f a sh ion a nd f a s t ened b y i r on n a i l s c l enched b y d e fo rm ing t h ep o in to v e r ar o ve ( F ig .9 .2 .6) . T he s c a r fb e tween k ee l a nd s t em sw a s av e r t ica l o ne s im i la ri nf o rm t ot h e p lank s c a r f s . T h e f l oo rt i mb e r s w e r e s ymme t r ica l ly p laced a bou t t h e m idd le l i n e o ft h e v e s se l a nd w e r e s paced mo r e o rl e ss e ven ly t h roughou t t h e l e ng th , w i th b u lkhead s n ea r t h e e nd s . Above e a ch f l oo rt i mbe rw e r ec r o s sbea rn s a nd k nee s ,a nd t h eh u l l w a s f u r the r r e in fo r ced b y s t r inge r s a nd b y s i de t imbe r s . F ram ing t i mb e r s w e r e f a s tened t o t h e p l ank ing b y t r eena i l s , w edged i n boa rd . P ropu l s ion a nd s t e er ing . O a r s i n b oa t s w e re u sed a ga in s t t h o le s t ow h ich t h ey w e r e l o o se ly c onnec ted b y g romme t s . I n l a rge b oa t s a nd i n o a r ed s h ip s o a r s w e re p i vo ted t h rough o a rpo r t s i no ne o f t h e u ppe r s t rake s . T h e s t y le o f r ow ing i n b oa t sw a s t wo o a r s / s i t /pu l l ( McG ra i la nd F a r r e l l 1 979 ) : t h a t i s e a ch m an p u l led t wo o a r s f r om as i t t ing p o s i t ion . I nf i gh t ing s h ip s s u ch a s S k u ld e lev 2 ,e a ch m an p u l led o ne o a r f r om a s i t t ing p o s i t ion . O a r s i n t h e e nd s w e re a l so u sed f o r m anoeuv r ing i n s ome c a rgo v e s se l s —l a rge b oa t s s uch a s S ku lde lev 3( F ig 9 . 2 .4 ) a nd s ma l l s h ip s s u ch a s S ku lde lev 1— a nd t h e r ow ing s t y le u s ed h e r e w a s p robab ly s im i la r t o t h a t u s ed i nf i gh t ing s h ip s . L a rge b oa t s a nd s h ip s w e re p rope l led b y al o o se— foo t ed s i ng le s q ua r e s a i l s e t o n ap o le ma s t s t epped n ea rm id sh ip . T h e a s pe c tr a t io o ft h e s a i l i su nce r ta in b u t w a s p r obab ly c . 1 , i . e . t h e s a i lw a s a sb r oad a si tw a s d eep . D e ta i l s o ft h e s t and ing a nd r u nn ing r i gg ing a r e a l so n o t c l ea r b u t t h e s imp le r i g s h own i nF i g . 9 . 2 .4 s e em s t ob e t h e mo s t l i ke ly . S ma l l o a r ed b oa t sp r obab ly h ad n or udde r , b u tl a rge b oa t s a nd s h ip s w e r e s t ee r ed b y as i de r udde r , g ene ra l ly f i t ted t o t h e

S e lec t ion a nd c onver s ion o f t imber . O ak ( Que r cu s s p . ) w a s u sed w heneve ri tw a s a va i lab le ;w he re i tw a sn o t ,a si nm o s to f N o rway . p i ne ( P inus s p . ) w a s u sed . P in e a nd a sh ( F rax inu s s p . ) w e r e a l so u sed f o r p l ank ing e ven t h ough o ak w a s a va i lab le , w hen p a r t icu la rl e ng th s a nd b r ead th s w e r er e qu i red . T h e t imbe r w a s c ho sen t om a tch t h ej ob i nh and ; f o re xamp le , l o g s a nd l imb s w i th c u r v ing g ra in , o r n a tu ra l c r ook s , w e r e c ho sen f o rc u rved s t ruc tu ra le l emen t s .O ak l o g sw e r ec onve r t ed i n to p l ank ing b y s p l i t t ing t h em i n to h a l ft h en h a l fa ga in , a nd s o o n , t o p roduce r ad ia l p l ank s . P ine l o g s w e r e c onve r ted i n to p l ank s f r om h a lf— log s . K ee l s , s t em s , f r am ing t i mb e r s a nd s o o n w e r e o b ta ined b y r educ ing a l o g o r ah a l f— log t o t h e r e qu i red s hape f o l low ing t h e n a tu ra l r u n o ft h e g r a in w he r eve r p o ss ib le .

2 4 1

M ed ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s

F igu re 9 . 2 .3 T h et h i r teen th— cen tu ry s ea lo fD ub l in ( s ee B r ind ley 1 913 a nd S t r ick land 1 923 ) .P ho to : Na t iona l Mu seum o fI r e land

s t a rboa rd q ua r te r , w h ich w a s r o ta ted a r ound ab o s s p r o je c t ing f r om t h es h ip ' ss i de . V ar ian t s C r um l in—Ped e r sen ( 1 969 ; 1 983a , 1 984 ; 1 988 ) h a s d emon s t ra ted t h a tt h e r ew a sp robab ly a ne a s t er nB a l t i co rS l av v a r ian tt r ad i t ion ,d i f f e r ing i ns ome d e ta i l sf r om t h em a in s t r eam t r ad i t ion : t h e c l inke rp l ank ing w a s f a s tened b y s ma l l t r e ena i l s ( F ig . 9 . 2 .7 ) r a the r t h an c l en ched i r on n a i l s , a nd t h e c au lk ing w a so fm o s sr a th e rt h an a n ima lh a i r .I ta l so s e em st h a tm a s t si n v e s se l s o ft h i s r e g iona l t r ad i t ion w e r e s t epped i n at r an sve r se f l oo rt imbe rr a th e rt h an i n al o ng i tud ina lk ee l son ,a nd t h a tk ee l s h ad a c r o s s— sec t ion w i th a l ow ( M /S ) r a t io , i . e . t h ey w e r e b r oade rt h an t h ey w e re h i gh . S eve ra l o ft h e v e s se l s t h ough t t o b eo ft h i s r e g iona l t r ad i t ion a r e n e i th e rw e l lr e co rded n o rw e l l p ub l i shed a nd t h u s , a l though t h e r e d oe s s e em t oh ave b een a v a r ian t t r ad i t ion i n t h e e a s t er n B a l t ic , m o r e e v iden ce i s r e qu i red b e fo re t h e d i agno s t ic f e a tu re s c an b e d ef ined w i th c e r ta in ty . O th e r s h ave a r gued t h a tt h e re w a s ad i s t in c t ive f o rm o fb oa tbu i ld ing i ns ou ther nE ng land ,e x tend ing f r om t h en i n th t o t h e f o u r t een th c en tu ry , w h i ch c an b e d i s t ingu i shed f r om t h e g ene ra l i ty o fb oa t s a nd s h ip s i nt h e V ik ing t r ad i t ion ( Fenw ick 1 978 ;C ame ron 1 982 ;G oodbu rn 1 986 ) . S ome o ft h ef e a tu re so f t h e n i n th / ten th— cen tu ry G raveney b oa t ( F enw ick 1 978 ) a r e c e r ta in ly d i f f e ren t f r om c o r r e spond ing f e a tu r e s i n t h e m a in s t ream V ik ing t r ad i t ion : t h e g en e ra l s h ap e ; t h e k ee l ' s c r o s s— se c t ion ; t h e h eavy , c l o se ly s pa ced f l oo r t i mb e r s ; t h e a ppa r en ta b sence o fc r o s sbeam s ; a nd t h e f o rm o ft h e s t empo s t w i th i t s p ronoun ced h ee l . H oweve r , m o s t , i fn o t a l l , o ft h e se d i f f e r en ce s s e em t o s ugg e s t as pec ia l i sed f u n c t ion a nd a s p ec ia l i sed o pe ra t ing e nv i ronmen t : al o ca l m od i f ica t ion t ot h e m a in s t ream V ik ing t r ad i t ion r a the r t h an a d i s t in c t ive a nd s e pa ra t et r ad i t ion . P o s t—V ik ing t r ad i t ion s C r um l in—Pede r sen ( 1 978 ) h a s i d en t i f ied t h r ee m a in t r ad i t ion s o f s e a—go ing v e s se l s i np o s t—V ik ing n o r th—we s t E u rop e : t h e N o r se s h ip , t h e c og , a nd t h e h uk ( F ig 2 . 1 .2 ) . T he s e cond a nd t h i rd o ft h e se t r ad i t ion s a r eo fv e ry l i m i ted u s ei nt h i s s t udy o f t h e m ed ieva l D ub l in s h ip s a nd b oa t s a so n ly t wo t i mb e r s m ay 2 42

h ave c ome f r om s u ch v e s se l s . D e sc r ip t ion s o f c og a nd h uk c ha ra c te r i s t ic s may b e f ound i n McG ra i l ( 1 981a , 3 6-40 ) , C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1965 ; 1 979b ; 1 983b ; 1 984 ) , E l lme r s ( 1 972 ; 1 976 ; 1 979 ) , G r eenh i l l ( 1 976 ; 1 989 ) a nd H o ek s t ra ( 1 975 ) . T he N o r se t r ad i t ion o f s h ipbu i ld ing , a s d i scu s sed h e r e , i s c on s ide red t o b e t h e c on t inua t ion i n to p o s t—V ik ing t i m e s ( t we l f th t of ou r teen th c en tu ry ) o ft h e V ik ing t r ad i t ion : i ti st h e e vo lu t ion o fo n e t r ad i t ion o ve rt ime . T h ee v iden ce c ome sf r om r e p r e sen ta t iona l e v iden ce s u ch a s m u ra l s i n t h e t h i r t een th—cen tu ry c hu r ch a t S ik jon , T e lema rk , N o rway , a nd f o u r teen th—cen tu ry o ne s a t S kam s trup , Z ea land , D enma rk ( C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 983b ) , a nd t we l f th— t of o u r te en th— cen tu ry t own s ea l s f r om I r e land , E ng land a nd F ranc e ( s ee , f o r e xamp le ,F ig 9 . 2 .3 ) ,a nd f r om s eve ra ls h ip f i nd st y p if ied b yt h e m id— twe l f th c en tu ry L ynae s s h ip ( Cnun l in—Pede r sen 1 979a ; 1 981 ; 1 983a ; 1 984 ; 1 986a ) . T he m ed ieva l E ng l i sh w o rd f o r t h i s s o r t o f c a rgo s h ip a ppea r s t o h ave b een c e o l o r k e e l ( McCu ske r 1 966 ,2 88-9 ) . T he l a rge s t No r se v e sse l s w e r e b i gge r t h an t h e i r V ik ing p r ed ece sso r s , a s e v idenc ed b y t h e a b il i ty t oc a r ry ab oa t o n b oa rd ( t h i r teen th—cen tu ry S andw ich s ea l ) a nd b y t h e u se o f a w ind la s s t o w e igh a ncho r ( t h i r t een th—c en tu ry W in che l sea a nd P even sey s ea l s ) a nd t o h o i s t a nd l owe r t h e y a rd , b u t t h ey a ppea r t oh ave r e ta ined t h e g ene ra l s hape o f t h e V ik ing A ge s h ip ( Ewe 1 972 ) . C er ta in c hange s i ns t ruc tu r e c an b e d educed f r om t h e i c onog raph ic e v idenc e : f o r e xamp le , t h e a dd i t ion o f c a s t le s f o rwa rd a nd a f t ( twe l f th—cen t u ry s ea l o f D unw ich , t h i r teen th—cen tu ry s ea l s o fD ub l in ( F ig 9 . 2 .3 ) a nd W in ch e l sea ; a nd c r o s sbeam s w h ich p ro t ruded t h rough t h e s i d e s ( t h i r teen th— cen tu ry W inche l sea ) . T he r e i s a l so d o cumen ta ry e v iden ce f o r t h e u se o f ma s t c r u t che s o r m yke s . T he L ynae s s h ip h a s , t od a te , b een p ub l i shed o n ly i na n a bb r ev ia ted f o rm , b u t f r om p ub l i shed c r o s s— sec t ion s i tc an b e s e en t h a t f l oo r t i mb e r s ,w h ich i nt h eV ik ing A ge h ad e x tended o ve rt h eb r ead th o f t h e b o t tom f r om b i lge t o b i lge , w e r e r e p la ced b y t wo t i mb e r s : as ho r t f l oo r t imbe r o ve r w h ich w a s am uch l o nge r t i mb e r ( b i t te ) , w h ich c omb ined t h e f u n c t ion s o f al owe r

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M ed ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s r e u sed m any m i le s f r om t h e i r p o r t o f o r ig in . F u r the rmo re , a l though m o s t b oa t s m ay s pend t h e i rw ho le l i ve s w i th in af ew m i le s o f w h e r e t h ey w e re b u i l t , m ed ieva l s h ip s s ome t ime s t owed o rc a r r ied b oa t so nb oa rd o no ve r sea sv oyage s , a nd t h u s b oa t s t o o m ay e n te r t h e a r chaeo log ica l r e co rd f a r f r om t h e i r h ome b a se a s C nun l in—Pede r sen ( 1 985 ) h a s p o in ted o u t . N o tw i th s tand ing t h e se u ndoub ted d i f f icu l t ie s , i t s e em s r e a sonab ly c e r ta in t h a tt h eg r ea t ma jo r i ty o ft h eD ub l in t imbe r s w e r ep a r t so fb oa t s a nd s h ip sb u i l ti nt h eD ub l in r eg ion :t h e re i s b o th :d i rec ta nd i n d i re c te v idenc et os uppo r tt h i sc on ten t ion .

F igu re 9 . 2 .7 C l inke rp l ank ing f a s tened b yt r eena i l s( af t e r C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 988 ,f i g .2 1 )

c r o s sbeam a nd t wo s i de t i mbe r s . T he s h ip s d ep ic ted o n t h e t h i r teen th— cen tu ry W inch e l sea s ea l a nd o n a n e a r ly f o u r teen th— cen tu ry s ea l o f P oo le , a nd s e ve ra l o t h e r s ( Ewe 1 972 ) , a ppea r t ob e d ecked s o t h a t t h e c r ew c ou ld e a t , s l e ep a nd s h e l te rb e low d eck s . T he L ynae s s h ip h ad s u ff i c ien th e igh t o f s i de s ( 2 .5m a m id sh ip s ) f o r h e r a l so t oh ave b e en d e cked , a l though C rum l in—Pede r sen ( p e r s . c omm . ) b e l ieve sh e rt oh ave b een o pen w i th o n ly h a l f—de ck sf o r ea nd a f t . A l though t h e r e w e re e v iden t ly s i gn i f ican t a dvanc e s i nr i gg ing , as i ng le s qua r es a i lr ema in ed s t anda rd u n t i lt o p sa i l sw e r es e ti n t h el a te f o u r teen th c en tu ry ( S andah l 1 9 58 ) : as e cond m a s td o e s n o ts e em t oh ave a ppea r ed i nn o r th—we s tE u rop eu n t i lt h ee a r ly f i f teen th c en tu ry ( F r ie l 1 983 ) . B ow l ine s m ay b e s e en o n t h e s ea lo fY a rmou th ( 1 300 ) ,a nd b ow sp r i t s a r eo nt h i ss e a la nd o n t h et h i r teen th— cen tu ry s ea lo fP oo le —b o th a r e i mpo r tan tw h en s a i l ing c l o se—hau led . T he a r ea o fu sab le s a i l m ay b ev a r ied b y r e ef ing a nd t u ree f ing , a nd r e e f p o in t s a r e s e en o n t h e t h i r teen th— cen tu ry s ea l s o fD ub l in ( F ig 9 . 2 .3 ) a nd B e rgen , a nd o nt h ef ou r teen th—cen tu ry s ea lo fR ye ( Ewe 1 972 ) . T h e s i ng le s i de r udde r , b u t o f g r ea te r s i ze , s e em s t o h ave c on t inued i nu se o n t h e N o r se s h ip u n t i l t h e e a r ly f o u r teen th c e n tu ry w h en t h e 1 325 s ea l o f P oo le d ep ic t s ac e n t r e— l in e r u dde r . T h ee a r l ie s ta ppea rance o ft h i st y pe o fr u dd e ri si nf a c t o nt h e l a te t we l f th— cen tu ry f o n t s a tW in che s te r a nd Z ed e lgem n ea r B r uge s , b u t t h e se v e s se l s a ppea r t o b e i n t h e h uk t r ad i t ion . A s t h e e a r ly f o u r teen th— cen tu ry s e a l s o fF ave r sham a nd W in che l sea d ep ic t s h ip s w i th s i de r udde r s i tm ay b e t h a t t h e m ed ian r udde ro n t h eP oo le s ea l w a s r a r e a nd t h a tt h e s i d e r udde rc on t inued i ng ene ra l u se o nN o r se s h ip s u n t i lt h ey w e r e s upe r seded b yt h ec og a nd t h eh u lk .

S h ipbu i ld ing i nD ub l in B e fo re r e v iew ing t h e e v idence f r om t h e D ub l in s h ip a nd b oa t t i mbe r s a nd c ompa r ing i tw i th t h e V ik ing a nd N o r se e v iden c e d e sc r ibed a bove , i ti sf i r s tn ece s sa ry t oe s tab l i sh w h e th e rt h e se t i mbe r s c ame f r om b oa t s a nd s h ip s b u i l t i nD ub l in . T h i s i sa w ide sp r ead p rob lem i nm a r i t ime a r chaeo logy , f o r s h ip s a r e d e s igned t o t r ave l a nd m ay b e w r ecked o r d i sman t led a nd 2 44

T he d i r ec t e v id ence i st h a t t h e d end ro ch rono log ica l p a t te rn o f s amp le s f r om TG9C /D b e s t ma tch t h e D ub l in m a s te r c h rono logy ( Ba i l l ie 1 978 ; 1 982 , 2 39 ) . T hu s t h e l a rge s h ip r e p r e sen ted b y TG9C /D mu s t h ave b een b u i l t f r om o ak g rown i nt h e D ub l in r e g ion a nd i ts e em s h i gh ly l i ke ly t h a t s h e w a s b u i l t i n t h i s r e g ion , i fn o t i n D ub l in i t se l f . T he p l ank ing i n TG9A a nd 9 B h a s s im i la r f e a tu r e s t o TG9C a nd 9 D a nd i s c omp lemen ta ry i ns hape , a nd t h u s m u s t h ave c ome f r om t h e s ame s h ip ; t h e re i s as t rong p o s s ib i l i ty t h a t TG6 i sa l so f r om t h i so ne l a rge s h ip . T h e l a te e l even th— cen tu ry w a r sh ip S ku lde lev 2 w a s a l so b u i l t o fo ak f r om t h e D ub l in r e g ion ( Bonde a nd C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 990 ) , a nd i ts e em s mo r e l i ke ly t h a t s h e w a s b u i l t h e r e t h an t h a t s h e w a s b u i l t i nD enma rk o f o ak i mpo r ted f r om I r e land ( a l though t h i sm u s tr ema in at h eo re t ica lp o ss ib i l i ty ) . F u r the rmo r e , t h e r e i sd o cumen t ary e v idence t h a t s h ip s w e r e b u i l ti nD ub l in i nt h ee a r ly t h i r teen th c en tu ry :i n1 222 H en ry I I o rd e red t h e m en o f D ub l in ( a nd o f Wa te r fo rd , D rogheda a nd L ime r ick )t ob u i ld g a l ley s ( PRO 1 875 ,C a lenda ro fD ocumen t s r e la t ing t oI r e land —G .D .K e l lehe r ,p e r s .c omm . ) ;a nd i n1 233 , a nd a ga in i n1 24 1 , t h e m en o f D ub l in w e r e t o ld t ob u i ld a nd m a in ta in a g r ea t g a l ley ( magna g a l ia ) f o r t h e k i ng ' s s e r v ice ( S t r ick land 1 923 ; Wa l lac e 1 981 ; Mu rphy 1 974 ) . T h i s e v iden ce f o r s h ipbu i ld ing i n o r c l o se t o D ub l in i n t h e e l even th a nd t h e t h i r teen th c en tu r ie s r e in fo r ce s t h e g r gumen t t h a tt h es h ip r e p r e sen t ed b y TG9 p l ank ing w a sb u i l tt h e r ei nt h e l a te t we lf th c en tu ry . T h i s a r gumen tc anno t .be d i rec t ly e x tended t ot h e s h ip s a nd b oa t s r ep re sen t ed b y t imbe r s o t he r t h an t h o se i n TG9 a nd TG6 ;n eve r th e le s s . o nb a lan ce ,i ts e em sr e a sonab le t oc on c lude t h a tt h e m a jo r i ty o ft h e D ub l in t imbe r s w e re f r om b oa t s a nd s h ip s d i sman t led a nd r e u sed c l o se t ot h e s i te w he r e t h ey w e r e b u i l t . T he f a c t t h a t c e r ta in t imbe r s w e r e u nf in i shed , h av ing n o f a s ten ing h o le s ( e . g . T 366 ) , f u r the r s uppo r t s t h e a r gumen t f o r ab oa t —a nd s h ipbu i ld ing ' y a rd ' i n m ed ieva l D ub l in . T h ed i sman t l ing o ft h e se s h ip sa nd b oa t sm u s th ave t a ken p la ce i nD ub l in , a nd w a s p robab ly u nde r tak en b y s h ipw r igh t s w ho w ou ld h ave t h e s k i l l s a nd t h e t o o l s t od i sman t le t h em i n aw ay t h a t w ou ld e conom ica l ly p rodu ce r e u sab le t imbe r s r a the r t h an j u s t f i r ewood : s e e L und s t rom ( 1 971 /2 ) f o r a n e xamp le o f a s pe c ia l i s t t o o l r e qu i r ed t o r emove c l en ched n a i l s ( McG ra i l 1 987 , 1 58-9 ) . Mo reove r , t h e r e i se v idence i nt h e D ub l in s h ip s t h em se lve s t h a t t imb e r s f r om o t he r d i sman t led s h ip s h ad b een u s ed t o b u i ld t h em F u r th e rmo r e , s eve ra l o f t h e se D ub l in t i mbe r s m ay h ave h ad a n i n te rmed ia te u se b e tween b e ing p a r t o f as h ip a nd b ecom ing p a r t o f aw a te r f ron t : s e e t h e c a ta logue

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy e n tr ie s f o r T 54 , T 55 , T 292 a nd T 293 . T h e p r ed ec e s so r s o f t h e se D ub l in s h ipw r igh t sw ho d i sman t led b oa t sa nd s h ip si nt h e e a r ly t h i r t een th c en tu ry c ou ld h ave b u i l tt h em i nt h el a te t we l f th c en tu ry . B oa t s , a nd i n deed s ma l l s h ip s , c an b eb u i l to n as i t e w i th v e ry l i t t le i n f ra s t r uc tu re , p o s s ib ly o n ly s ome s imp le s t o ck s ( b au lk s o ft imbe r ) t empo ra r i ly s e t u p i n ac l ea r ed a r ea o n o rn ea rt h e s h o re ( McG ra i l 1 981c ; 1 983 ; 1 985 ) . T he e v iden ce f o r t h i s a c t iv i ty t h a t w ou ld r ema in t o b e e xcava t ed w ou ld t h u s b e m in ima l . O n t h e o t he r h and , t h e l a rg e s h ip s f o r w h ich t h e r e i s e v idence i nD ub l in w ou ld r e qu i r e m o r e c omp lex a nd p o s s ib ly m o r e p e rman en t s t o ck s a nd o t he r f a c i l i t ie s , p a r t s o f w h ich m igh t b e r e cogn i sab le o n e x cava t ion . I n a dd i t ion t o w oodwo rk ing a nd m e ta lwo rk ing t o o l s , t h e r e c ou ld b e w ood , m e ta l ,t a ra nd c a t t le h a i r , a nd r ope w a s t e .T h eo n ly e xamp le o f s u ch f i nd s f r om r e cen tD ub l in e xcava t ion s ( a pa r tf r om t o o l s )i s ap o t s h e rd , a s so c ia ted w i th TG3 .2 / 3 .3 , w h ich h ad a t a r ry d epo s i to ni t si n ne rf a ce .O ne xam ina t ion ,t h ed epo s i tp roved t o b e w ood t a r w i th r o s in , w h ich w a s s h own b y g a s l i qu id c h roma tog raphy ( BM 6 170 / 1 ) t ob e s im i la r t ot h e t a r u sed i n t h e c au lk ing i n TG3 s eam s . S ome f u tu r e e x cava t ion s b e low D ub l in C a s t le n ea rt h e m a rg in s o ft h e ' b la ck p oo l ' , o rn ea r t h e f o rme r s t rand t ot h e w e s t o f Wood Q uay ( F ig . 9 . 2 .1B ) , m igh t r e vea lm o r es u b s tan t ia le v idenc ef o rs h ipbu i ld ing .

T he c harac t e r i s t ic f e a ture so ft h eD ub l in t imber s S e lec t ion o ft imber T he D ub l in t i mbe r s , i n c lud ing t h e t r eena i l w edge s , a r e a lmo s t a l o fo ak ( Que r cu ss p . ) ;t h ee xcep t ion sa r et wo ,p o s s ib ly t h r ee , p l ank s o fp i n e ( P inu s s p . ) ( T340 , T 34 1 , a nd p o s s ib ly T 387 ) ; o ne k nee /b r ea s thook ( T 366 ) , w h ich h a s b een t e n ta t ive ly i d en t i f ied a so fa l de r( A lnu ss p . ) ; o ne t r eena i lo fh o l ly ( hex s p . ) i nt h e p o s s ib le m a s t s t ep ( T54 ) , b u t t h i s w a s p robab ly f i t ted d u r ing a n i n t e rmed ia t e u s e o f t h i s t i mb e r ( a l l o t h e r t r eena i l s e xam ined w e r eo fw i l low ( S a l ix s p . ) ) ;t h ey ew ( Taxu ss p . )r ope ( T362 ) ; a nd p l ug s o fb i r ch ( B e tu la s p . ) i nf o rme rn a i l h o le s i n p l ank T 93 .

s l ow-g rown o ak s w i th f ew k no t s : t h e se m u s t h ave b een f o r e s t-g rown , w he re c ompe t i t ion w ou ld h ave r e su l ted i nl o ng s t ra igh t b o le s . R e la t ive ly f a s t-g rown o ak ( t ha t i s , w he r e t h e g r ow th r i ng b r ead th se xceed 3mm )w a so n ly f o und i np a r r e lr i b T 220 ,t h ep o s s ib le c l ea tT 363 ,t h e s t em T 364 a nd f r ame T 368 . S p i ra l g r a in , w h ich c an b e d i ff i cu l t t ow o rk , w a s f ound i nt h e p o s s ib le ma s ts t ep T 54 a nd s i de t imbe rT 274 . T he e v idence f o r s i ze o f p a ren t t r ee may w el b e b i a sed a s s ome o f t h e f r agmen ted a nd b roken t imb e r s w e r e o r ig ina l ly l o nge r a nd b roade r t h an w hen m ea su red . F rom s u r v iv ing e v id enc e ,h oweve r ,i ta ppea r s t h a tn one o ft h ek e e l sc ame f r om a n e xc ep t iona l ly t a l l t r ee , a nd t h e p a ren t t r ee s o f t h e l a rge s t o ak p l ank s ,1 282 a nd T 288 ,n eed h ave b e en o n ly 6 ma nd 5 mi n l e ng th o fb o le . T he l a rge s tp i ne b o le ,t h ep a ren to fp l ank T 340 , w a s a tl e a s t 6m i nl e ng th . T he l a rge s t o ak s w ou ld h ave h ad a g i r th i nt h e r ange 3 . 14-4 .29m ( 1-1 .36m i nd i ame t e r ) , w h i l s t t h e l a rge s t p i ne w ou ld h ave b een l m i n g i r th a ( 0 .32m i n d i ame te r )o rg r ea te r . T he l a rge s tf l oo rt imbe r( T 55 )c ame f r om at r ee o f r e la t ive ly s ma l l g i r th ( po s s ib ly 1 . 57m ) , a s d i d t h e k ee l s . T he p a r en t t r ee s o fo t he rt imbe r s w e r ee v iden t ly c ho sen n o t s o m uch f o r l e ng th o r b r ead th a s f o r an a t u ra l c u rva tu re o rs ome o t he r c ha rac te r i s t ic w h ich ma t ched t h e j ob i n h and . T hu s b u lkhead s( 1 187 , T 351 ) , k nee s ( 1218 ,T 352 a nd T 380 ) , f l oo r s ( 1368 a nd 1 372 ) , t h e p o s s ib le b eam w i th k nee ( 1225 ) . m yk e s ( T51 a nd 1 58 ) , b r ea s thook s ( 1366 a nd T 367 ) , p a r r e l s ( 1356 a nd 1 360 ) . a nd s t em s ( 152 , 1 224 a nd T 364 ) w e re f a sh ioned f r om ' c rook s ' ( c u rved l imbs )o rf r om an a tu ra lf o rk ,o rf r om t h e j u n c t ion o fb o le a nd s t em ( F ig . 9 . 2 .8 ) . F u r the rmo r e , t h ec u r v ing e nd so fs t rake s , b o th s i ng le p lank s , a si nT imb e rG roup s6 ,9 B a nd 9 C /D ,o ra sm u l t ip le e nd p l ank s ( T219 ,T 279 ,T 353 ,T 359 , 1 384 , 1 392 ) , h ad a n a tu ra l r u n o f g r a in w h ich g en e ra l ly m a t ched t h e i r c u rva tu re : i n t h i s w ay max imum s t r eng th w a s o b ta in ed . S ome o ft h e s hape s r equ i r ed c ou ld h ave c ome f r om f o rk s i nf o re s t-g rown o ak s , b u tt h e mo r e c ur ved s hape sw ou ld h ave b een mo re r ead i ly f ound i n f r inge o r i s o la ted o ak s . A va i lab le t imbe r d i d n o t a lway s e n t i re ly m a t ch t h e r equ i r ed c u rva tu re a nd s ome t imbe r s w e re w o rked a c ro s s t h e g ra in , a s c an b e s e en o n , f o r e xamp le , t h e l a rge f l oo r 1 55 , w he re t h e v e ry e nd s h ad b egun t o s pl i t w he re t h ey h ad b e en w o rk ed a c ro s s t h e g ra in , a nd o n f l oo r t imbe r s 1 222 a nd T 368 , w h ich h ad b r oken a l ong t h e c r o s s-g ra in l i ne . S t em s 1 357 a nd T 53 s im i la r ly h ad s ome s ho r tg ra in ,a sd i dt h em yke s1 51 a nd 1 58 . C onver s ion o ft imber I ts e em s l i ke ly , b u t c anno t b e d emon s t ra ted , t h a t t h e D ub l in t i mbe r s w e re c onve r ted t o s hape s oon a f t e r t h e i r p a ren t l o g s w e r e f e l led ; t h a t i s , t h ey w e re w o rk ed ' g reen ' ( McG ra i l 1 987 , 2 7-8 ) . S apwood w a s f ound o n o ne p l ank a nd m ay h ave b e en p r e sen t , t h ough u nde tec ted , o n o t he r s . S apwood , a nd o cca s iona l ly b a rk , w a s a l so f ound o n s ome n on-p lank t i mbe r s w h e re ap a r t icu la r d imen s ion w a s r equ i r ed , o f ten o n ac u r ve . T he se i n c luded k nee s1 2 18 ( a nd b a rk ) ,T 268 ,T 378 ( a nd b a rk ) , a nd T 380 ( a nd b a rk ) : b r ea s thook s 1 366 ( a nd b a rk ) a nd 1 367 ; m yk e sT 51 a nd 1 58 ; p a r r e l s 1 356 a nd T 360 ; f r ame 1 372 ; a nd p o s s ib le m a s t s t ep T 54 . O n S ku ld e lev 3 C nun l in P ed e r sen ( 1 986b , 1 39 ) f o und s apwood o n ly o n t h e v e ry t i p o ft h e s t em ; b a rk w a s f ound o n e l emen t s o f t h e f o u r teen th-c en tu ry V e jby c og ( i b id . , 1 47 ) .

F igu r e9 . 2 .8 T he p a r en tt r ee so fs t ra igh ta nd c u r ved t imbe r s . D raw ing :I n s i t i t u t eo fA r cha eo logy ,O x fo rd

T h e t r ee s s e lec ted f o r t h e k ee l s , m o s t o ft h e p l ank ing a nd t h e f l a t te s t o f t h e f l oo r s w e r e a l l s t ra igh t-g ra ined , r e la t ive ly 2 45

Med ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s

T h e D ub l in o ak p l ank ing , s t em s ( T52 , T 224 a nd T 364 ) a nd t r eena i l w edge s a nd t h e w i l low t r eena i l s w e re a l l f a sh ioned f r om r ad ia l s e gmen t s o f t h e i r p a ren t l o g s o r l imb s . I nt h eo ry , 3 2 r a d ia l p l ank s m igh t b e o b ta ined f r om a s i ng le l o g : i n p r a c t ica lt r i a l s C rum l in-Pede r sen ( 1 986b )h a s f ound s i x teen t o b e t h e m ax imum . T he r ema in ing D ub l in t imbe r s w e re w o rked e i the r f r om w ho le l o g s , l imb s o r c r ook s ( t ha t i s , t h e p i th w a s s t i l lv i s ib le i nt h ef i n i shed t i mbe r ) , o rt h ey w e re w o rked f r om a l o gw h ich h ad f i r s tb een s p l i t i n to h a lve so re ven i n to q ua r te r s . E xamp le so ft h e se c a tego r ie si n c lude : w ho le l o g s , l imb s ,c rook s : f l oo r1 55 ; l i gh t f r ame T 372 ; k ee l s T 56 , T 36 1 a nd T 381 ; k nee T 218 ; b r ea s thook T 366 ; p a r r e l s T 356 a nd 1 360 ; a nd t h ep o s s ib le b eam w i th k nee T 225 ; h a l flog s : f l oo r s 1 275 , T 278 , 1 280 a nd T 379 ; k ee l T 382 ; k n ee 1 352 ; s i de t i mbe r T 274 ; s t em T 53 ; a nd p i n e p l ank ing T 340 ,T 34 1 a nd T 387 ; q uar te rlog s : p o s s ib le ma s t s t ep 1 54 ; a nd t h e p o s s ib le s t em 1 224 . F ram ing t i mbe r s T 368 a nd 1 379 , b u lkhead T 351 , b r ea s thook T 367 a nd m yk e 1 58 a l l n ow s how a h a l flog i n t h e i r c r o s sse c t ion , a nd m yk e 1 51 s how s a n ea r-qua r te rlog . Whe th e rl a rge f o rked t imbe r so rc r ook sc an b es ucce ss fu l ly t h e s p l i t i n to h a lve s a nd i n deed i n to q ua r te r s t o p roduce s u ch t i mbe r s h a s n o t b een r epo r ted i n a ny p ub l i shed b oa tbu i ld ing

0 .40-

e xp e r imen t : t h e a l t er na t ive o f p o s s ib i l i ty i st h a t t h ey w e re w o rked d own f r om aw ho le c r ook o rf o rk . C rum l in-Pede r sen ( 1 986b , 1 39 ) h a s e s t ima ted t h a t , i n S ku lde lev 3 , 5 2% o f t h e t i mb e r s ( b y n umb e r ) w e r e r a d ia l ly s p l i tp l ank s , 2 4% w e r ef a sh ioned f r om aw ho le l o g , 8 % f r om a h a l flog a nd 1 6% f r om aq ua r te rlog . A s n o D ub l in b oa t o r s h ip c an b e f u l ly r e con s t r uc t ed , c ompa rab le d a ta a r e n o t a va i lab le . O ak p l ank ing w a sf a sh ioned f r om r ad ia ls e gmen t sb ecau se o ak r e ad i ly s p l i t s a l ong t h e l i ne o ft h er ay sa nd b ecau se o ak sg r ow t o s u ch a s i ze t h a t r e a sonab le b r ead th s o f p l ank ing c an b e o b ta ined e ven f r om o n eth i rd o ft h e d i ame te r . Mo r eove r , o ak b oa rd s w h ich a r e s p l i t r ad ia l ly a r e n o t o n ly s t ronge r b u t h ave f ewe rk no t s , a nd w h en d r y ing o u tf r om t h eg r een s t a t et h ey a r e m o r e s t ab le , s h r ink l e s s i nb r ead th a nd a r e n o t s o l i ab le t o w a rp , c h eck o r s p l i t ; i na dd i t ion , t h ey a r e m o r e r e s i s tan t t o f u nga l i n f ec t ion t h an t a ngen t ia l ly c onve r t ed b oa rd s . F u r the rmo r e , s u ch c l ove b oa rd s h ave t wo d i s t in c t a dvan tage s w hen u s ed i nc l inke rp l ank ing : ( a )t h ickne s sc h ange si nr e a c t ion t oc hang ing r e la t ive h um id i ty , a l though g r ea t e ra s ap e r cen tage t h an s h r inkage i nb r ead th , a r e s ma l l i na b so lu t e t e rm s a nd a r e c u sh ioned b y t h e c au lk ing a nd r e s i s t ed b y t h e c l en ched n a i l s ; ( b ) t h e se n a i l s a r e d r iven i n to ar ad ia l ly c onve r t ed p l ank a t r i gh t a ng le s t o t h e p l an e o f w eakn e s s , w he r ea s n a i l s i n a t a ngen t ia l ly o r ien ta t ed p l ank w ou ld b e d r iven p a ra l le l t ot h i s r ad ia lp l ane a nd t h u sh ave ag r ea t e rt e nden cy t os p l i tt h ep l ank ( McG ra i l 1 987 ,2 8-32 ) .





xx • x

0 .30

C . )•



B read th o f p lank ( m )



0 .20

x o ne p l ank 1TG 3 * t wo p lanks 0 . 10

• o ne 'p lank ®

1

1TG 6 /9

t wo p l anks

2

3

4

5

L eng th o f p l ank ( m ) F igu r e9 . 2 .9 G raph s how ing t h er e la t ion sh ip o fp l ank l e ng th t op l ank b r ead th i nD ub l in TG3 a nd TG6 /9 .D raw ing :I n s t i tu t eo f A r chaeo logy ,O x fo rd 2 46

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy F igu r e 9 . 2 .6 i s ap l o t o f l e ng th a ga in s t b r ead th o f t h o se i n d iv idua lp l ank s TG3 , 6a nd 9w h ich w e re u ndamaged , w h i l s t F i g . 9 . 2 .7 i s as im i la r p l o t f o r t h e r a d ia l ly s p l i t o ak p l ank ing f r om S ku lde lev 3 ( Cnun l in-Pede r sen 1 986a , 2 20 , f i g . 1 ; 1 986b , 1 46 , f i g . 7 ) . C rum l in-Pede r sen s ugge s t s t h a t t h e S ku lde lev d i s t r ibu t ion s how s t h a t t h r ee d i s t inc tl o g s w e r eu sed f o rt h i sp l ank ing ( 1 986a ,2 20 )a l thoug ht h i sh ypo the s i sd oe sn o t y e t a pp ea r t o h ave b een c on f i rmed b y d end ro log ica l e xam ina t ion . N o s u ch c l ea r p a t te rn e me rge s f r om t h e D ub l in d a ta f o ra ny o ne o ft h eT imbe rG roup s ,p robab ly b ecau se t h e r e a r er e la t ive ly f ew p o in t si nt h ep lo t .

Mo s t o f t h e D ub l in o ak p l ank s w e r e w o rked t o al e n t icu la r s h ape i nc r o s sse c t ion ,b u tt h ew a t e r l ine s t rak e si n TG6 /9 w e r e g i ven ab u lg ing c r o s ssec t ion o ve rt h e c en t ra lp a r to ft h e s h ip , d i re c t ly c ompa rab le w i th s im i la r ly p l a ced p l ank ing i n t h e L ynae s s h ip a nd a l so w i th c e r ta in p l ank s f r om B e rgen ( Ch r i s t enden 1 985 , 12 ,f i g .6 . 19 ) . P in e p l ank s w e r e u sed w ide ly i nr e g ion s w h e r e o ak w a s n o t r e ad i ly a va i lab le , f o r e xamp le i nm ed ieva l N o rway , a nd a l so e l sewh e r e w h en b r ead th , l e ng th a nd r e la t iv e l i gh tne s s o fp l ank w a sr e qu i r ed , a sf o re xamp le i nt h et o p s t rak e so fs ma l lb oa t s , a si n TG10 . F u r th e rmo r e ,t h en a tu ra lp l ane o fc l eavage o fp i ne i sa c ro s st h ed i ame t e r ,r e su l t ing i nt wo p l ank sf r om e a ch b o le .

T h em ean a nd s t anda rd d ev ia t ion d a ta a r en o ta va i lab le f o rt h e S ku lde lev3 p l ank ing , n o rf o rt h a to fL ynae s , a nd s ot h eD ub l in p l ank ing i sb es t c ompa red w i th t h em b y g i v ing t h e r a nge o f l e ng th sa nd b r ead th s ,a ss hown i nT ab le 9 . 2 .1 .

T ab le 9 . 2 .1 S i ze so fo ak p lank sf r om S ku lde lev 3 ,L ynae sa nd D ub l in TG3 a nd TG6 /9 ( Crum l in-P eder s en 1 986a ; 1 986b )

S ku lde lev 3 L ynae s TG6 a nd TG9 TG3

Da t e

L eng th ( m )

B r ead th ( m )

E a r ly e l even th c en tu ry M idtwe l f th c en tu ry 180-1225 1 230-75

2 . 5-5 .5 1 . 5-4 .5 1 . 7-4 .3 1 . 4-4 .2

0 . 25-0 .36 0 . 18-0 .30 0 . 21-0 .4 1 0 . 28-0 .36

• •

0 .40• • •









0 .30 . •

• 00 • •



••



• • •













• -

0 . 10

i

1

1

3

2

4

5

L eng th o f p l ank ( m ) F igu r e9 . 2 .10 G raph s how ing t h er e la t ion sh ip o fp l ank l e ng th t op l ank b r ead th i n ah ypo th e t ica lr e con s t ru c t ion o fS ku led ev 3a s b u i l t( a f te rC nun l in-Pede r sen 1 986a ,f i g . 1 ) 2 47

Medieval Boats and Planks For the non-plank timbers there is no comparable division by type, for framing timbers and keels were fashioned from whole (T55, T56, T361, T372, T381) or half-logs (T275, T278, T280, T368, T379, T382). Tha aim of the medieval shipbuilder was to select the log, limb or crook most appropriate to the form of timber required and then work away excess timber so that the necessary strength was there without excess mass: the first stage in this reduction process must often have been to split _the log (or limb or crook if this is indeed practicable) logitudinally into two halves. Joints apart from a morticed joint in the stock of rudder T369, the only woodworking joints in the Dublin timbers, as in Norse shuipbuilding in general, were scarfs and bevelled overlaps. Caulking of tarred animals hair was found in all these joints. Scarfs Scarfs were found in two places: where individual planks were extended to form strakes, and where keels were joined to stems, either directly or through an intermediate timber. There were two types of plank scarf: short scarfs with gradients in the range of 21-37% found in the late eleventh-century boat planking, and longer scarfs in the ship planking of the late twelfth/early thirteenth century with gradients between 8% and 17%. The keel/stem scarf evidence is not so impressive or clear owing to ends missing from both keels and stems and to distortion, the sum total being: T56, from a ship or large ship of c. 1180-1225, gradients of 40% amd 46%; T381, a keel with a notched scarf, from a large boat of c. 995-1000, 23%; and T357, a stem from an eleventh/twelfth-century boat similar to the Gokstadfaering, 39%. Thus, although boat keel T381 has a shortish scarf similar to those in its contemporary boat planking, ship keel T56 and boat stem T357 have very short scarfs in contradistinction to their near-contemporary ship planking. In comparison the plank scarfs of the eleventh-century Skuldelev boats are all short ones in the range 25-35%, whilst keel/stem scarfs are in the range 17-62% for boats 1 and 5 (Olsen and Crumlin-Pedersen 1967). These are all relatively short, as are the keel/stem scarfs of ninth-century Gokstad and Oseberg ships and boats and fifteenth-century Bergen stem B92384. The unusual scarfs are thus the long ones in the Dublin ship planking, for which there are, as yet, no published parallels from medieval times, although there are parallels from recent boatbuilding - twentieth-century woodworkers are recommended to use long scarfs of 8-14% gradient (McGrail 1987, 115). Bevelled overlaps. Bevelled overlaps were used to join together strakes at the seams and the garboard strake to the keel; they were also found, usually as back bevels, where the ends of strakes were joined to stems. The strake overlaps are discussed in detail above: in general the hood ends of strakes have not survived in sufficiently good condition for details to be recorded, but there are specially shaped ends to the strakes of TG9B and 9C/D.

(a)

clenched over roves: in the strake seams; at the head of framing timbers in the boat represented by TG10 timbers; to reinforce a potential split in such timbers as stem T53 and parrel T356; and in some plank repair patches (Fig. 9.3.1);

(b)

clenched by turning through 90°: in some plank repaiI patches;

(c)

spikes: in some plank repairs; to reinforce a plank scarf T86/f88; and in some plank fastenings to keels and stems where it was not possible to clench-fasten because of the thickness of the timber (T56, T52, T53).

These nails were all dome-headed; most shanks were round in section but, in special circumstances, nails with rectangular shanks were used. The special nails with points under their heads in the planking of TG9 are discussed above. Roves were four-sided, generally diamond- shaped. There were two main sizes of nails. (a)

Larger ones: heads 30-40mm, shanks 9-12mm, and roves c.30-50mm. These were used to fasten the majority of ship planking at the seams and to fasten breasthook T367 to the planking.

(b)

Smaller ones: heads 16-21mm, shanks 6-8mm, and roves c.20-25mm. These were used to fasten the boat planking in TG10, to fasten end planking of ships and boats to stems, to fasten bulkheads T351 and probably T187 to boat planking, and probably to fasten garboard strakes to keels of boats and ships (T56, T361, T381-3).

Treenails. These were all of willow (Salix sp.) with oak wedges. They were used to fasten framing timbers to the planking in boats and ships, and thole stringers to the boat planking in TG10. Exceptionally, they appear to have been used to fasten multiple end plank T279 to adjacent planking. It is also possible that they were used to fasten rigging fittings to planking (T107, T229/230, T310, T340, T341). There were two sizes of treenail. (a) Larger ones: heads c.40mm and shanks 28-38mm. These were used to fasten fittings to ship planking in TG3, TG6 and TG9. Fittings with holes for such treenails include floor timbers T55, T222, T277, T278 and T280: side timbers T274, T289, and T290; knee T352; and the possible cleat T363. (b) Smaller ones: heads c.28mm and shanks 18-25mm. These were used to fasten fittings to the boat planking in TG10, Tl-23, T147, T255-6, T264-6, and T387. Fittings with them include bulkhead T187; floor timbers T275, T372 and T379; knee T378; and multiple end plank T279. A Dublin timber of doubtful function, T221, has holes 29mm and 39mm in diameter. The possibility that this might be a treenail gauge is slightly strengthened as these sizes correspond to the upper and lower limits for the larger treenails. On the other hand, this

Fastenings Iron nails. These were used as fastenings in three ways in the Dublin timbers 248

S t ud i e si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy m ay j u s t r ef le c t t h e f a c t t h a t s im i la r t o o l s w e re u s ed t ob o r e t r e ena i lh o le s i nt h i s t i mb e ra sw e r eu s ed i nm any o t h e rD ub l in t i mbe r s . F ram ing p a t tern s F ram ing p a t ter n sm ay b es umma r i sed a sf o l low s . ( i )

TG10 , al a t e e l even th— cen tu r y b oa t . F ram ing t i mbe r s o fc . 60mm s i d ing w e r e s pa ced a ti n te r va l s o f0 . 98 ± 0 . 09m ( n =6 ) . T he se f r am ing t i mb e r s w e r e p r obab ly f l oo r t imbe r s , k nee s a nd c r o s sbeam s ( t hwa r t s ) , w i th s em i—bu lkh ead s a t t h e e nd s , s im i la r t o t h e a r rangemen t si nG ok s tad 2 ,t h es e k sae r ing

( i )

TG9 , al a te t we l f th— cen tu r y l a rge s h ip . F ram ing t i mbe r so f0 . 14-0 .22m s i d ing w e r es paced a ti n te r va l s o f 0 . 48-0 .6 1m t owa rd s t h e e nd s . I n t h e m id sh ip r e g ion t h e r e w e r e f r am ing t i mbe r s o f 0 . 2m s i d ing s paced a ti n te rva l s o f 0 . 4 1m . T he se f r am ing t i mb e r s m ay h ave c on s i s t ed o f f l oo r t i mb e r s p l u s k n ee s w i th s i de t imbe r s o n t h e u ppe r p l ank ing i n b e tween t h e f l oo r s , a s i nt h e S ku lde lev f i nd s , b u t i ts e em s m o r e l i ke ly t h a tt h e r ew e r ef l oo rt i mbe r sa nd k nee sa te ve ry s t a t ion ( w i thou t s i de t i mb e r s ) , s im i la r t o t h e a r rangemen t st h ough tt oh ave b een i nt h eL y na e ss h ip . Wha teve r t h e a r rangemen t s , i t s e em s l i k e ly t h a t , a l though t h e r e w e re p robab ly r e gu la r ly s pa ced c r o s sbeam s i n t h e e nd s , t h e re w e re f ew i f a ny c r o ssbeam si nt h er e g ion o ft h eh o ld .

( i i )

TG6 , al a t e t we l f th— cen tu r y l a rge s h ip , p o s s ib ly t h e s ame o ne a s TG9 . F ram ing t i mb e r s o f 0 . 14-0 .22m s i d ing w e r e s pa ced a t i n te r va l s o f 0 . 4 1-0 .67m t owa rd s t h e b ow . T he f r am ing a r rangemen t s w e r e p robab ly a si n TG9 .

( i v )

TG3 , al a rge s h ip o f t h e t h i r t een th c en tu ry . F ram ing t imb e r so f0 . 18-0 .22m s i d ing w e r es paced a ti n te r va l s o f 0 . 52-0 .62m o ve r t h e m id sh ip r e g ion . T he se f r am ing t i mb e r s w e r ep robab ly s im i la r t ot h o se i nt h e L ynae s s h ip . T he r e w ou ld h ave b een f ew c r o s sbeam s i nt h er eg ion o ft h eh o ld .

l a rge s h ip s c anno t a tp r e sen t b e e s t ima ted . T ha t t h e r e a r e f ew s i gn s o f f a s ten ing p o s i t ion s f o r l o dg ing k nee s i nt h i s p l ank ing m igh tb e b e cau se t h e re w e r e f ew , i fa ny , u ppe rc r o s sbeam s i n t h er e g ion o ft h eh o ld .H oweve r , i tw ou ld n o rma l ly b ee xpec ted t h a t t h e r e w ou ld b e c r o s sbeam s t owa rd s t h e e nd s , a way f r om t h eh o ld ,b u ti nt h i sp l ank ing ( TG6 , TG9B , a nd TG9C /D ) t h e re i s a l so m in ima l e v id ence t h e re f o r l odg ing k nee s a nd n o e v idence t h a t c r o s sbeam s p ro truded t h rough t h e s i de s —a s i s s e en , f o r e xamp le , o n t h e l a te t we l f th— cen tu ry s ea l o f W in che l sea ( F ig . 2 . 1 .3 ) a nd i sk nown f r om t h e B e rgen t imb e r s ( Ch r i s ten sen 1 985 , 5 9-83 ) . A n a l te rna t ive p o s s ib il i ty i st h a t a ny c r o s sbeam s o rb u lkhead s i nt h e e nd s o f t h e D ub l in l a rge s h ip sw e r ef a s tened i n aw ay t h a td id n o tu se l odg ing k ne e s . T h e e v idence f r om t h e D ub l in f l oo r t imbe r s , a l b e i t f r om d i f f e ren t t i mbe r g r oup s , c omp lemen t s t h a t f r om t h e p l ank ing , w h ich i s m a in ly f r om a bove t h e w a te r l ine , b y g i v ing a n i n d ica t ion o ft h et r eena i l ing p a t te rn i nt h el owe s ts t rak e s . F loo r t i mbe r T 55 f r om TG2 w a s f a s tened t ot h e 2 nd t o7 t h s t rake s b u tn o t t ot h e g a rboa rd s t rake s o rt h ek ee l . F loo rt imbe rT 222 f r om TG4 w a s a l so n o t f a s tened t ok ee l o rg a rboa rd , b u t w a s f a s tened t oa l te rna te s t rake s , 3 rd , 5 t h , 7 t h a nd 9 t h . T he o t he r n i ne f l oo rt i mbe r sw h ich p rov ide e v idenc eo nt h i sm a t t e ra r ea l l f r om TG7 : T 275 w a sn o tf a s tened t ok ee lo rg a rboa rd sb u t ,l i k e T 55 ,w a s f a s tened t ot h er ema in ing s t rake s . T he r e i sn of u r the r e v iden ce o n k ee l a nd g a rboa rd f a s ten ing s a s t h e o t he r e i gh t f l oo rt i mbe r s a r ef r agmen ta ry : f ou ro ft h em ( T252 ,T 280 ,T 292 a nd T 293 ) w e re f a s tened t o a l l s t rake s f o r w h ich e v idence s u rv ive s , w he r ea s T 245 , T 277 a nd T 278 w e re f a s tened t o a l te rna te s t rake s . F loo rt imbe rT 223 i n TG4 w a s f r agmen ta nd p oo r ly d o cumen ted , b u t a ppea r s t oh ave b een f a s tened b y t wo t r eena i l s t oe a ch o ft h e f i ve s t rake s i tc ove red — t wo t r eena i l s w e r e a l so u sed t o f a s ten k nee s i n t h e K lä s tad s h ip t o o n e p a r t icu la rs t rake ( Ch r i s ten sen a nd L e i ro 1 976 ) T hu s t h e r ed o e s n o t s e em t ob e o ne s i ng le p a t ter n i nt h e w ay t h e D ub l in f l oo r t i mbe r sw e r ef a s tened t ot h el owe rs t rake s .

A pa r tf r om t h el owe s tt wo s t rake ss u rv iv ing i n TG3 ,a l ls take s i nt h e se t imbe rg r oup sh ave g ap s i nw ha tw ou ld o t h e rw i se b e a r egu la rt r eena i l ing p a t te rn :t h a ti s ,i n TG3 .1 ,f i ve o u to ft h i r t een f r am ing t imbe r s a r e n o t f a s t ened t o a t l e a s t o n e s t rak e ; i n TG3 .2 , t h ree o u t o ff o u r teen ; i n TG9A , t h r ee o u t o fs e ven ; i n TG9B , t wo o u t o fe i gh t ; i n TG9C /D , f i ve o u t o fn i n e ; a nd i n TG6 ,f ou ro u to ft we lve f r am ing t i mb e r s . I nn o c a se d o e st h e r e a pp ea r t ob e a ny p a t t er n w h ich m igh t s ugge s t t h a t s u ch g ap s w e r ei ns t rakes w i th o n ly f r am ing u n i t so ff l oo r s a nd k n ee sa tC . 1 m s pa c ing o rw he r e t h e r e w e r e o n ly s i d e f r ame s a t as im i la r s pac ing :t h eo ve ra l li mp r e s s ion i so n eo ff r am ing u n i t sc ove r ing a l l s u r v iv ing s t rake s a t c . 0 .5m s pa c ing , w i th h apha za rd ly d i s t r ibu ted g ap si n ar e gu la rt r eena i l ing p a t te rn . I ts hou ld p rove p o s s ib le t oi n te rp r e tt h ef r am ing e v id en ce i nt h e l a rg e s h ip s r ep r e sen ted b y D ub l in TG3 a nd TG6 / 9 w i th m o r e c onf iden ce w h en t h e L ynae s s h ip i s p ub l ish ed i n d e ta i l . Mo r eove r ,t h en umbe ra nd p o s i t ion o fc r o s sbea rn si nt h eD ub l in 2 49

B u i ld ing s equence T o t h e e v iden ce f o r t h e s he l l b u i ld ing s equenc e ( F ig . 9 . 2 .5 ) w h ich c ome s f r om t h e p lank ing — c l en ched s t rak e f a s ten ing s a nd s c a r f f a s ten ing s u nde r t h e d educed p o s i t ion o f f r am ing t i mbe r s —m ay b e a dded t h e e v idence f r om s ome o ft h e f l oo r t i mbe r s ( e .g . T 278 a nd T 280 ) w he r e t h e r e a r e c l ea r i mp r e s s ion so fr ove so nt h e i ro u tboa rd f a ce s . T oo l mark sa nd d e co ra t ive mou ld ing s T he o n ly t o o l m a rk f ound o n t h e p l ank ing w a s t h a t o f ab i t w i th in t r eena i l h o le s . I n a dd i t ion , ma rk s made b y a7 0 n run s t ra igh t—edged b l ade w e re n o ted o n f l oo r t imbe r T 55 a nd o n b u lkhead T 351 , a nd g ouge m a rk s w e r e d e tec t ed i n t h e V — shaped d eco ra t ion c u to nt h i sb u lkhead . S c r ibed l i ne sc u tb y ak n i f ew e r ef o und o np lank T 124 ,m a rk ing t h e p o s i t ion o f af r am ing t imb e r ; o n p l ank s T 91 , T 124 , T 228 a nd T 333 , m a rk ing t h e b eg inn ing o f s ca r f s ; o n p l ank T 93 t o m a rk t h e l im i t o f ar e pa i r p a t ch : o n p l ank T 219 t om a rk t h e o ve r lap ; o n f l oo r t i mbe r s T 252 a nd T 293 a nd o n b r ea s thook T 367 t om a rk w h e r e n o t che s ( j ogg le s ' ) w e re t ob e c u t : a nd o n k ee lT 36 1 ,a sg u ide— l ine sf o rn a i l sf o rt h es t a rboa rd s t rake .

Med ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s Ac on s ide rab le n umb e ro fw oodwo rk ing a nd i r onwo rk ing t o o l s h ave b een f o und i nV ik ing a nd l a t e r c on t ex t s : m any o f t h e se c ou ld h ave b een u sed i n b oa t— a nd s h ipbu i ld ing ( s ee , f o r e xamp le ,O l sen a nd C r um l in—Pede r sen 1 967 , 1 54-62 ; McG ra i l 1 974 , 4 5-7 ; C h r i s ten sen 1 985 , 2 09-13 ; 1 986 ; McG ra i l 1 987 1 49-58 ) .A ne xh ib i t ion c a ta logue ,V ik ing a nd m ed ieva lD ub l in ( 1 973 ) ,p ub l i shed b yt h e N a t iona l Mu seum o fI r e land c on ta in s d e sc r ip t ion s a nd i l u s t ra t ion s o f s e ve ra l w oodwo rk ing a nd m e ta lwo rk ing t o o l s . S imu la ted p l ank ing w a s c a rved o n s t em s T 357 a nd T 364 a nd o nt h e m u l t ip le e nd p l ank s . I na dd i t ion t wo o ft h e m u l t ip le e nd p l ank s ( T353 a nd T 359 ) h ad s imp le d eco ra t ive mou ld ing s . A V — shap ed d e co ra t ive g roove w a s c u t o n o n e o f t h e f a ce s o f b u lkh ead T 351 , a nd ad eco ra t ive g r oove w a s a l so c u t o n b o th s l d e o f a nd p a ra l le l t o t h e i n ne r c u rve o f k nee T 352 . T he t e n th— cen tu ry p o s s ib le s t em T 386 w a s d eco ra ted mo re f i ne ly t h an a ny o t h e rs h ip o rb oa tt i mbe rf r om D ub l in ( s ee L ang 1 988 , f i g . 1 ) . L ang ( 1 988 , 9 ) d e sc r ib e s t h i s d eco ra t ion a s ' p u re ly S cand inav ian ' .A s t h i sd eco ra t ion w a sd on eb e fo r et h ep o s s ib le s t em w a sr e u sed a s at h re sho ld , t h e b oa t f r om w h ich t h i s s t em c ame w a s e i the rb u i l ti nS cand inav ia a nd b rough t t oD ub l in o n b oa rd as h ip ( o r t owed ) o rb u i l t ( o r a tl e a s t d e co ra ted ) i nt h e D ub l in r e g ion b y S cand inav ian c r a f t smen . O ne f l oo r t imbe r , T 278 , h ad t h e e dge s o f i t s u ppe r f a ce b eve l led , a s w e re t h e l owe ro u te re dge so f ah and f u lo fp l ank s ( T65 ,T 107 ,T 217 a nd T 282 ) . S uch b eve l s —a nd t h e d eco ra t ive m ou ld ing s —g i ve t h e i mp r e s s ion o f al i t t le e x t ra p r ide i nc r a f t sman sh ip . T he re may h ave b een o t h e re xamp le s w h ich w e r en o tn o t iced o w ing t ot h e p oo rs t a te o fs ome o ft h et i mbe r sw hen e xam ined . R epa ir s M ino r l e ak s t h rough p l ank s eam s w e r e s t aunched b y a dd ing e x t ra n a i l s :p l ank s c a r f sw e re r e in fo r ced b ys p ike s ; a nd t r eena i l f a s ten ing st i gh t en ed b yd r iv ing an a i lo r aw edge i n to t h eh ead . E l sewhe re , l o o sened t r eena i l s w e re r e p la ced b y a no the r o ne n ea rby : i ns ome c a se s n ew a nd o l d t r eena i l h o le s m e rged , n o t o n ly i nt h ep l ank ing b u ta l so i nk n ee T 2 18 ,s t em T 384 ,t wo s i de t i mb e r sT 290 a nd T 292 ,a nd f l oo rt imb e rT 55 . S p l i t s a nd l o o se k no t s i np l ank ing w e r e r e pa i red b y n a i l ing o n p a t ch e s :t h e se w e r em o s t ly o u tboa rd ,b u ts ome w e re i n boa rd i n p o s i t ion sw h e r ef r am ing t i mbe r sw ou ld h ave h ad t ob er emoved b e fo r e s u ch r e pa i r s w e re u nde r taken . I ns ome o ft h e se r epa i r s , f o r e xamp le t h o se o n p l ank s T 333 a nd T 341 , t h e n a i l s f a s t en ing t h e p a t ch w e r e c l en ched b y t u rn ing t h e i r p o in t s t h rough 9 0" a l ong t h e f a ce o f t h e p l ank r a the r t h an b y d e fo rm ing t h e p o in t o ve r ar o ve a s w a s i n va r iab ly t h e c a se i n p l ank f a s ten ing s . S p l i t s ,o rp o s s ib le i n c ip ien ts p l i t s ,i ns t em T 53 a nd p a r re lT 356 w e r e c on so l ida ted b y d r iv ing an a i l t h rough t h e t imbe r a c ro s s t h es p l i ta nd c l en ch— fa s ten ing i to ve r ar ove .

r owed i n t h e c onven t iona l m anne r ( s i t /pu l l ) w i th s t anda rd r ow ing g eome t ry ; t h e o a r smen i nT 50 ' s p a r en t v e s se l , o n t h e o t he rh and ,m ay h ave s t ood t ou s et h e i ro a r s . A l though n o m a s t s w e r e e xcava ted , t h e D ub l in t i mbe r s s how e v id ence f o rm a s t so fg i r th sf r om 0 . 45m , a pp rop r ia t et o al a rge b oa t o r s ma l l s h ip , t o2 . 70m w h ich w ou ld h ave b een f i t ted i n s h ip s o r , m o r e p robab ly , i nl a rge s h ip s . Two— t o f i ve— in ch ( 0 .05-0 .12m )r o pe sw e r eu sed f o rr i gg ing ,a nd f o rm oo r ing a nd t ow ing . A ncho rc ab le s ,o nt h eo t he rh and , m ay h ave b een u pt o 1 0i n che s( 0 .25m )i nc i r cum f e r ence . W indwa rd a b il i ty , a s m ea su red b y g a rboa rd d ead r i se a ng le s a nd ( MJS , )r a t io so nf l oo rt i mb e r s a nd k e e l s ,w a sc ompa rab le w i th t h e S ku ld e lev s h ip s , a nd i n deed m ay w e l l h ave b een g ene ra l ly b e t te r . T he r e i sn o c l ea r i n d ica t ion o f s i gn i f ican t i mp rovemen t so ve rt i me i nt h eD ub l in ma t e r ia l . T he r ei sm in ima le v iden ce f o rt h es t ee r ing a r rangemen t s —o n ly T 369 t h et i l le ra nd u ppe rs t o ck o f as ma l lb oa tr udde r :t h i si so f c onven t iona l V ik ing /No r se d e s ign e xc ep t f o rt h e a ppa r en t u s e o f am o r t iced j o in t.

D ub l in b oa t sa nd s h ip s T ab le 9 . 2 .2 p r e sen t s a ne s t ima t eo ft h es i ze o fb oa t s a nd s h ip s r ep r e sen ted i nt h e D ub l in t i mb e r s . I ti sn o t p o s s ib le t o g i ve a ccu ra te e s t ima te s o fn umbe r s o fv e s se l s f o r t wo r e a son s : ( i ) t h e w id e , a nd s ome t ime s o ve r lapp ing , r ange s o fd a t e s f o r t h e g roup s o f t i mb e r s ; a nd ( i ) t h e g en e ra l ( e .g . TG7 ) , r a th e r t h an s pe c if ic , c on t ex t s a va i lab le f o r s ome o ft h e t imbe r s . A l though t imbe r sw i th in at i mbe rg r oup w e r ed epo s i ted a tt h es ame t i me , u n le s s t h ey w e r e f o und a r t icu la ted t h ey a r e n o t n e ce s sa r i ly f r om t h e s ame v e s se l : t h i s i sc l ea r ly s o i nt h e c a se o f , f o r e xamp le , t wo t i mbe r s f r om t h e F i shamb le S t ree t s i te ; t h e b oa t s t em T 357 , s im i la rt ot h a to ft h e G ok s tad f aer ing ( Gok s tad 3 ) w a s f o und ' d i r ec t ly o n t o p ' o fb u lkhead T 351 , s im i la r t ot h a t f r om t h e l a rge b oa t S ku ld e lev 3 .C onve r se ly , t imbe r s w h ich w e r e d epo s i ted i n s epa ra t e s e c t ion s o f t h e D ub l in s i te s b u t w i th in a s im i la r d a te r a nge m ay h ave c ome f r om t h e s ame v e s se l : t h i s i st h ough t , f o re xamp le ,t oh ave b een t h ec a se w i th t h ep l ank ing f r om TG6 a nd t h a tf r om TG9 . E ach e n t ry i nT ab le 9 . 2 .2 r e la te s t ot imbe r si d en t if ied a sb e ing f r om ap a r t icu la r s i ze o fv e s se l ( b oa t , l a rg e b oa t , s ma l l s h ip e t c . )w h ich w e r ee xcava ted f r om t h es ame g en e ra lc on tex t :t h u s t h ey p robab ly r e p r e sen to n ev e s se l ,b u tt h ey m ay r e p r e sen tt wo o rm o r e . T he e v iden ce m ay c onven ien t ly b e g roup ed t o ge th e r i n f i ve p e r iod s . E ar ly t om id— ten th c en tury ( A .D .9 05-75 ) F rom t h i s p e r iod t h e r e a r e t h er ema in so f as ma l lb oa tt h e s i z e o ft h e Ä rby b oa t( A rbman 1 940 ) ; t wo b oa t s ; o ne o rm o re l a rge b oa t s ; a nd a s ma l l s h ip s im i la r i nf o rm t o S ku lde lev 5 b u t b i gge ri ns i z e ,t h ough n o ta sl a rg ea sS ku ld e lev 1 .

P ropu l s ion a nd s t e er ing S ma l l b oa t s w e r e p rope l led b yp add le s ( T355 a nd T 367 ) . T he o a r f r agmen t f r om D ub l in ( T377 ) , w i th a b l ade b r ead th o f 0 . 1m , w ou ld h ave b een u sed i n al a rge b oa t . T he p lank ing w i th o a rpo r t s ( T50 o fA .D . 1801225 , a nd T 217 o f A .D . 1601 200 ) p robab ly c ame f r om l a rge b oa t s o r s ma l l s h ip s w he r e r ow ing w a s a n c i l la ry t os a i l . T h e p a ren t v e sse l o f T 217 w a s 2 50

S t ud ie si n Mar i t ime A r chaeo logy T ab le 9 . 2 .2 B oa t sa nd s h ip sr epre sen ted b yt he D ub l in t imber s P ha se "

S i te

1E a r ly t om id— ten th c e n tu ry ( 9 05-75 )

H igh S t F i shamb le F i shamb le F i shamb le F i shamb le

2T en th / e leven th c e n tu ry ( 9 551040 )

F i shamb le F i shamb le F i shamb le F i shamb le

3E l even th / twe l th c e n tu ry ( 1 0551125 ) b

4Twe l th / th i r t een th c e n tu ry ( 1 1601125 )-

V e s se l

T imbe r s

S t S t S t S t

B oa t Sma l lb oa t B oa t L a rge b oa t ( s ) Sma l ls h ip

F loo r3 68 F loo r3 72 K ee l3 83 K ee l3 6 1 ;p l ank 3 84 K ee l3 82

S t S t S t S t

Sma l lb oa t B oa t ( s ) L a rge b oa t Sma l ls h ip

K nee 3 78 F loo r3 79 ;p l ank s3 88-92 K ee l3 81 K nee s3 52 ,3 80

F i shamb le S t F i shamb le S t

Sma l lb oa t B oa t ( s )

F i shamb le S t WQ .TG7 WQ .TG7

L a rge b oa t ( s ) B oa t ( s ) L a rge b oa t ( s )o r s ma l ls h ip ( s )

WQ .TG7 J ohn ' sL ane

S h ip S h ip

S t em 3 57 P lank TG 10 ( 3 3050 ) ;p l ank 3 87 ;b r ea s thook /knee 3 66 B u lkhead 3 51 ;o a r3 77 P lank s2 55-6 ;2 64-6 ;2 79 F ram ing 2 45 ,2 52 ,2 63 2 74-8 ,2 80 ,2 89 ,2 90 ,2 92 2 93 P lank s2 82-8 P lank s3 53 ,3 59

WQ .TG1 WQ .TG4 WQ .TG2

WQ .TG4

B oa t L a rge b oa t L a rge b oa t ( s ) o rs ma l ls h ip ( s ) L a rge b oa to r s ma l ls h ip Sma l ls h ip ( s )

WQ .TG4

S h ip ( s )

WQ .TG2

S h ip ( s )o rl a rge s h ip (s ) S h ip o rl a rge s h ip L a rge s h ip L a rge s h ip

WQ .TG2

WQ .TG1 WQ .TG2 WQ .TG6 a nd 9 5T h i r t een th c en tu ry ( 1 230-75 ) N o t e s :

WQ .TG3

P lank s TG1 ( 1-30 ) B u lkhead 1 87 S id et i mbe r5 7 ;m a s t s t ep (? )5 4 ;s t em s5 2a nd 5 3 P lank s TG2 ( 3 150 ) P lank s 1 47 , 1 67 ,2 17 ,2 19 ; f l oo r s2 22 a nd 2 23 K nee 2 18 ;p a r r e l2 20A ; p a r r e lr i b2 20 K ee l5 6 ;m yk e s5 1 a nd 5 8 S t r inge r3 0A F loo r5 P lank s TG6 a nd 9( 2 26-39 a nd 2 97-329 ) P lank s TG3 ( 5 9146 )

L a rge s h ip

a .t imb e r sf r om p ha se s 1 , 2a nd 3m ay b ea t t r ibu ted t ot h eH ibe rno—No r se p e r iod i nD ub l in ,a nd t h o s ef r om p ha se s 4a nd 5t ot h ee a r ly A ng lo—No rman p er iod ( i . e .p o s t-1169 ) b .B ra se thook T 367 ,P a r r e lT 360 a nd s t em f r agmen tT 36 4m ay a l so b ef r om t h i sp e r iod c .Two t imbe r sf rom TG6 ,c r o s sbeam ( ? )T 224 a nd s t em (? )T 225 ,a r en o ti n c luded a st h ey a pp ea rt oc ome f r om o u t s id et h eV ik ing /No r se t r ad i t ion

T en th / e leven th c en tury ( A .D .9 55-1040 ) T h e r ea r er ema in sf r om as ma l lb oa tt h e s i ze o ft h e A rby b oa t ; o n eo rm o r eb oa t s ; al a rge b oa ts im i la r i nf o rm t oS ku ld e lev 5 b u tp r obab ly s ma l le ri ns i ze t h an S ku lde lev 3 ;a nd as ma l ls h ip . E l ev en th / twe lf th c en tury ( A .D . 1 055-1125 ) I nT G10 f r om t h e F i shamb le S t r ee t s i te t h e re i sg ood e v idence 2 51

f o r ab oa t o r b oa t s s im i la r i n f o rm a nd s t ru c t u r e t o t h e m id—n in th— cen tu ry G ok s tad 2 ,t h es e k sa e r ing ( s ee J ohanne s sen 1 940 ) . T he o ak a nd p i n ep l ank s ( T33050 )a r e s im i la rt ot h e i r c oun te rpa r t s i nt h e N o rweg ian b oa t ( F ig . 9 . 3 .4 ) . T h e b r oken t r eena i l h o le s i nt h e t wo p i ne s t rake s ( T340 a nd 1 34 1 ) —1 31 7mm i n d i ame te r , s pa ced a t i n t er va l s o f 0 . 17-0 .26m — c o r r e spond w i th h o le s i nt h e p i ne t o p s take s o f G ok s tad 2 ,

M ed ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s w h ich a r e w he re ac . 2 .9m b oa rd w a s f a s tened o n e a ch s i de t o t a ke t h ree p a i r s o f t h o le s ( o a r p i vo t s ) . T he h o le s i nT 340 a nd T 341 e x tend o ve r al e ng th o f3 . 3m , a nd s ot h et i mbe r s f a s t ened t h e re c ou ld a l so h ave t a ken t h ree p a i r s o ft h o le s . T he s pac ing o f t h e s i x s e t s ao f f r am ing t i mbe r s e s t ima t ed f o r t h e TG 10 p l ank ing 0 . 941 . i m , i sc l o se t ot h a to ft h es i xf r am ing u n i t si n G ok s tad 2 ,0 . 92-0 .97m . T he c l en ched n a i lo np i ne p l ank T 34 1 i sp robab ly w he r e t h e h ead o f as i de t imbe rw a s f a s tened , a l so a si nG ok s tad 2 . P ine p lank T 387 a nd b r ea s thook /knee T 366 m ay a l so h ave c ome f r om t h i s o r as im i la r b oa t . I tt h u s s e em s r e a sonab le t o c onc lude t h a t a l l t h e se t imbe r s a r e t h e r ema in s o f as i x—oa r ed b oa t s im i la r i nf o rm a nd s t r uc tu re t o G ok s tad 2 . F rom t h i s s ame s i te , F i shamb le S t r ee t , a no the r b oa t o r b oa t s i s r e p re sen ted b y t h e p lank ing T 255-6 , T 264-6 , a nd T 279 ; a s ma l l b oa ts im i la rt oG ok s tad 3b y t h e s t em T 357 ; a nd al a rge b oa t s im i la rt oS ku lde lev 3b y b u lkhead T 351 a nd p o s s ib ly b y t h eo a rT 377 . TG7 t imbe r s ( f rom Wood Q uay ) , w h ich c ame f r om a l a rge b oa t t h e s i ze o f S ku lde lev 3 ( F ig . 9 . 2 .4 ) i n c lude f o u r f l oo r t imbe r s ( T263 , 1 275 , T 292 a nd 1 293 ) a nd t wo s i de t i mb e r s ( 1274 a nd 1 290 ) . Two o t he r f l oo r t imbe r s ( T245 a nd T 252 ) m ay h ave c ome f r om al a rge b oa to rs ma l l s h ip . T imbe r sf r om s ma l l s h ip s t h e s i ze o fS ku ld e lev 1i n c lude t h r ee f l oo rt i mbe r s ( 1277 , 1 278 a nd T 280 ) , as i de t imb e r ( 1289 ) a nd a k nee ( 1276 ) . P lank s T 282-8 f r om Wood Q uay , TG7 , c ame f r om as h ip , a s p robab ly d i dp l ank T 359 f r om J ohn ' sL ane . T he re a r e t h ree o t he r i mpo r tan t t imbe r s f r om t h e F i shamb le S t ree ts i te w h ich m ay b e f r om t h i s p e r iod b u t , a st h ey a r eo n ly d a ted t o t h e g ene ra l p e r iod o f t h i s s i t e ( e a r ly t e n th t oe a r ly t we lf th c en tu ry ) , t h ey h ave n o t b een i n c luded i n T ab le 3 0 . B rea s thook 1 367 w a s p robab ly u sed a s as ea ti nt h e s t em o fa l a rge b oa t o rp o s s ib ly as ma l l s h ip . T he p a r re l1 360 i sf r om a s ma l l s h ip ; a nd t h e s t em f r agmen t T 364 w a s p robab ly b r ok en o f ft h et i po f as h ip ' ss t em . Twe lf th / th ir te en th c en tury ( A .D . 160-1225 ) T he p lank si n TG1 w e r ef r om ab oa t ,w h i l s tt h o se i n TG2 w e r e f r om al a rge b oa t o r p o s s ib ly as ma l l s h ip . T he l ow b u lkhead 1 187 w a s f r om al a rge b oa ts im i la ri ns i ze t oS ku lde lev 3 .T h e p o ss ib le m a s t s t ep 1 54 , s t em s 1 52 a nd T 53 a nd s i de t i mbe r T 57 c ame f r om al a rge b oa t ( s )o r as ma l ls h ip ( s ) . P lank ing i n TG4 a nd f l oo r s1 222 a nd T 223 c ame f r om as ma l l s h ip ( s ) ; w h i l s t t h e k nee T 2 18 , p a r r e l T 220A a nd p a r r e l r i b T 220 c ame f r om s h ip s . K ee l 1 56 a nd mykc s T 51 a nd 1 58 o f TG2 a nd s t r inge r ( ? ) T 30A o f TG 1 c ame f r om s h ip s o r l a rge s h ip s . 1 56 h a s a s im i la r f o rm t o t h e k ee l o f S ku ld e lev 1 b u t i t s s c an t l i ng s i n d ica te t h a ti tc ome sf r om am uch l a rge rs h ip . F loo r t imbe r T 55 i n TG2 i st h e l a rge s t t i mbe r i nt h e D ub l in a s semb lage s a nd m u s t h ave c ome f r om a l a rge s h ip c ompa rab le i ns i ze w i th t h e L ynae s s h ip ( F ig . 9 . 3 .5 ) . P lank ing i n TG6 ( T226-39 ) a nd TG9 ( T297-329 ) c ame f r om l a rge

s h ip s ; i th a s b een a r gued a bove t h a t t h ey w e re f r om t h e s ame s h ip , w h ich h ad a d oub le— ended f o rm a nd w a s o f as i ze c ompa rab l ew i th t h eL ynae ss h ip . T h e r ei sa l so ap o s s ib i l i ty t h a t i nt h i s p e r iod v e s se l s n o t i nt h e V ik ing /No r se t r ad i t ion w e re u s ing t h e p o r t o f D ub l in : a f l a t—bo t tomed b a rge , p un t o r p raam t yp e o f b oa t i sp o s s ib ly r e p r e sen t ed b yT 225 , t h e c r o s sbeam w i th k nee — s uch av e s se l m ay h ave b een s im i la r t o t h e E gen i sund f i nd ( C rum l in—Ped e r sen 1 981 ,3 6-77 )( s ee F ig .2 . 1 .6 ) . T h ir teen th c en tury ( A .D .1 230-75 ) T h ep l ank ing i n TG3 ( T59— 1 46 )c ame f r om t h em id sh ip r eg ion o f al a rge s h ip c ompa rab le w i th L ynae si ns i ze .T h i sl a rge s h ip , a nd i n de ed t h o se o ft h e p r eced ing p e r iod , a r e u n l ike ly t oh ave b een g a l l e y s , at y pe o f l a rge s h ip s f r equen t ly m en t ioned i n a c coun t s o f t h i r teen th—cen tu ry s h ipbu i ld ing i n B r i ta in a nd I r e land ( Wh i twe l l a nd J ohn son 1 926 ; J ohn son 1 927 ; A nde r son 1 928 ; T inn i swood 1 949 ) , f o r s u ch v e sse ls w e re r oya l s h ip s , p r ope l led b y o a ra sw e l l a sb y s a i l , w h ich , a l though t h ey m ay h ave c a r r ied s ome g ood s , w e r e p r inc ipa l ly w a r sh ip s . T he r e i s n oe v iden c e f o rr ow ing i nt h eD ub l in l a rge s h ip s a nd t h e i rf o rm s e em sm o r ea pp rop r ia te t o ac a rgo v e sse lt h an ag a l ley .

D ub l in s h ipbu i ld ing a nd t he V ik ing /Nor se t r ad i t ion D u r ing t h e V ik ing p e r iod a nd u p t o t h e m id— twe lf th c en tu ry ( t he f i r s t t h r ee p ha se s i n T ab le 9 . 2 .2 ) t h e e v idence i s t h u s o verwhe lm ing ly t h a t t h e D ub l in s h ip s a nd b oa t s w e re i nt h e m a in s t r eam o f t h e V ik ing t r ad i t ion , i n t h e i r s equence o f b u i ld ing , i nt h e i r f o rm a nd s t ruc tu re , a nd i n t h e i r m e thod o f p r opu l s ion ( a nd p robab ly a l so s t ee r ing ) . T he p lank ing a nd a s so c ia ted f i t t ing s i n TG 10 ( T330-50 ) , f o r e xamp le , a r e a lmo s ti d en t i ca lt ot h o se o ft h eG ok s tad s ek sae r ing ,e ven t ot h e e x ten t o f u s ing p i ne t o p s t rake s ; a nd t h e p r inc ipa l V ik ing m e thod s o f c l o s ing t h e e nd s ( i . e . j o in ing t h e p lank ing t o t h e s t em s ) a r e a l so u sed i n D ub l in — b ack—beve l led p lank ing f a s ten ed t o at y pe A s t em ,w inged s t em s( t ype C ) , a nd mu l t ip le e nd p l ank s ; e ven t h e o cca s iona l u se o f t r eena i ls a s p l ank f a s t en ing s , a si nt h e S ku lde lev b oa t s , i sf ound i nD ub l in . T he D ub l in w oodwo rk ing t e chn ique s a r e i nt h e ma in s t ream , w i th l i t t le ,i fa ny ,s i g no fr eg iona lv a r ia t ion s . T h e c h rono log i ca l g roup ing s s hown i nT ab le 9 . 2 .2 c anno t b e r i g id o w ing t ot h e o ve r lapp ing d a te r ange s ; n eve r the le s s , t h e t i mb e r s i n t h e f o u r th a nd f i f th p ha se s may g ene ra l ly b e a t t r ibu t ed t ot h e e a r ly A ng lo—No rman p e r iod . i . e . p o s t1169 . T he t i mbe r s f r om t h e se t wo p ha se s s how n o ma rked c hange i n t e chn ique s f r om t h e p reced ing H ibe rno—No r se p ha se — r a the r t h e p r in c ipa l c hange i s i n s i ze o f v e s se l . F rom t h e H ibe rno—No r se p e r iod t h e re i s i n sub s tan t ia l e v idence f o r v e s se l sb i gg e rt h an s ma l ls h ip s ,i . e .b i gge rt h an , s ay , S ku ld e lev 3i ns i z e : o n ly s ome p l ank ing i n TG7 ( T282-8 ) a nd o ne p l ank ( 1359 ) f r om t h e J ohn 's L ane s i te . I n c on t ra s t , f r om t h e l a te t we l f th a nd t h i r teen th c en tu r ie s ( Ang lo—No rman ) t h e r e i s a mp le e v id en ce f o rs h ip s , a nd i n deed l a rge s h ip s i na dd i t ion t o s ma l le rc r a f t . F rom t h eD ub l in v i ewpo in tt h e se c hange s s eem t ob e t h er e su l t o f an a t u ra lp r oce s s o fd eve lopmen t r a the rt h an as udden s h i f t

2 52

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r chaeo logy i nt e chno logy : t h e s equen ce o fb u i ld ing a nd t h e d oub le—end ed f o rm a r e r e ta ined , b u t t h e p l ank ing b ecome s t h ick e r , t h e f a s ten ing s b i gge r , t h e s c a r f s l o nge r a nd t h e f r am ing c o r r e spond ing ly g r ea te r i nl e ng th a nd c r o s s— se c t ion , a nd m a s t s a r e o fc o r re spond ing ly g r ea te r g i r th . O th e r s h ip s a nd b oa t s o f t h ep o s t—V ik ing /No r se t r ad i t ion a r en o ty e tw e l lp ub l i sh ed a nd s oi ti sd i f f icu l t t oj udge t h e se d eve lopmen t s i nD ub l in a ga in s t a n i n ter na t iona l b ack c lo th , a l though i ti sc l ea r t h a t t h e D ub l in s h ip r ep re sen ted b y TG6 /9 p l ank ing h a s s ome a ff i n i t ie s w i th t h e L ynae s s h ip i nt h e b u lg ing c r o s s— sec t ion o ft h e w a t e r l ine p l ank ing a nd i n h e r g ene ra l s t ruc tu r e a nd f r am ing p a t t er n . Whe the r s ome o f t h e o t he r D ub l in c hange s —l o nge r p l ank s c a r f s , b i gge r n a i l s a nd t r eena i l s a nd s o o n —w e r e o n ly r e g iona lo rc o r r e sponded t oc hange se l sewhe r ew i l ln o tb ecome c l ea r u n t i l t h e S cand inav ian f i nd s a r e p ub l i shed i nd e ta i l . O f t h e se f e a tu r e s , p e rhap s l i pped p l ank s c a r f s , n a i l s w i th p o in t s u nde r t h e i rh ead s a nd n a i l s h ank s o fs qua r e c r o s s— se c t ion a nd t h e t e chn ique o f c l en ch ing n a i l s b y t u rn ing m ay b e r e g iona l a t t r ibu tes , b u ti nt h ep r e sen ts t a t e o fr e sea r ch t h i s m u s tr ema in o n ly c on jec tu re . O f d eve lopmen t s k nown o u t s ide t h e V ik ing /No r se t r ad i t ion f r om t h e t we lf th c en tu ry a nd l a te r t h e r e i sl i t t le s i g n i nt h e D ub l in ma te r ia l : n o e v idence f o r am ed ian r u dd e r , o r f o r a s e cond m a s t , o r f o r t h e p ro to— ske le ton s equen ce o fb u i ld ing . T he l i t t le e v iden ce t h e r e i s s ugge s t s t h a t f l a t—bo t tomed p un t /ba rge /p raam t y p e s m ay h ave b een i n t roduc ed a sl i gh te r s ( T225 ) ; a nd t imb e rT 226 , t h ep o s s ib le s t em , m ay a l so b ef r om an on—No r se t r ad i t ion .

C hange si ns h ip p er formanc ei nt h et we l f th c en tury T he i n t roduc t ion o f ac ompo s i t e p a r r e l w i th r i b s ( T220 ) a nd t r uck s i n s h ip p e r fo rmanc e i n t h e t h e l a t e t we l f th / ea r ly t h i r teen th c en tu ry m ay i n d ica te ac hange i nt h e s i ze o ft we l f th c en tu ry m a s t s a nd y a rd s r a the r t h an a m o r e w ea th e r ly p e r fo rmance ; n o r i si tp o s s ib le t o d e tec t a ny i mp rovemen t s h e r e f r om c hange s i nt h e u nderwa t e r s h ape d educ ed f r om t h e c r o s s— sec t ion o fk ee l sa nd f l oo rt imbe r s .O nt h eo t he rh and ,t h e d eve lopmen t f r om H ibe rno—No r se b oa t s a nd s ma l l s h ip s t o A ng lo N o rman s h ip s a nd l a rge s h ip s u ndoub ted ly r e su l ted i n i n c r ea sed c a rgo c apa c i ty . C rum l in—Pede r sen ( 1 989 , 4 24 , f i g . 1 0 ) h a s e s t ima t ed t h a t t h e L ynae s s h ip c ou ld h ave c a r r ied 6 0 t o nn e s o f c a rgo , w he rea s h i s e s t ima t e f o r S ku ld e lev 1( sma l l s h ip ) a tt h e s ame r e la t ive d ra f t ( 3 / 5 h e igh to fs i d e s a m id sh ip s ) i so n ly 2 4 t o nn e s , a nd f o r S ku lde lev 3( l a rge b oa t ) , 5t o nne s ( C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 986a , 2 26 ) . T he D ub l in t o nnage s w ou ld h ave s im i la r ly b een i n c rea sed . T h e i n c r ea se i nc apa c i ty m ay a l so b e m ea su red b y t h e l e ng th o ft h e c a rgo h o ld i nr e la t ion t o t h el e ng th o ve ra l l ( McG ra i l 1 987 ,2 03 , t a b le 1 .6 ) : t h i sr a t io i s 0 . 338 f o rS ku lde lev 1 ,w he r ea si ti s0 . 56 f o rL yna e s 1a nd w a s p robab ly s im i la rf o rt h eD ub l in s h ip s .

C hange si nb er th ing a rrangemen t si nt h et we l f th c en tury D ub l in b ank 4 a nd f r on t—b rac ed r e ve tmen t s 1a nd 1 A ( F ig . 9 . 2 .2 ) w e re b u i l t d u r ing t h e f i r s t 3 0 o r 4 0 y ea r s o f t h e A ng lo—No rman p e r iod . T hey w e r e u n l ik e ly t o h ave b een d e s igned a sw ha r f sa l ong s id e w h ich s h ip sc ou ld b e r th ,b u tw e r e 2 53

m o s tp robab ly b u i l t( a s w e r e b ank s 1 -3 a nd t h e s t on e w a l l ) t o r e s t ra in t h eR . L if ey t o am o r ec l ea r ly d e f ined c hanne l a nd s o r e duc e t h e r i sk o f D ub l in b e ing f l ooded , a nd a l so t o e nc lo se p a r t o ft h e i n t e r t ida l s a l t—ma r sh s o t h a t t h e c i ty c ou ld e xpand n o r thwa rd s . L a rge s h ip s s u ch a s L ynae s , D ub l in TG6 /9 a nd D ub l in TG3 m ay s t il b e o pe ra t ed f r om t i da l b eaches . T he m in imum d ep th o fw a te rt h a t al o ad ed L ynae s s i ze o fl a rge s h ip w ou ld n eed t o f l oa t i sc . 1 .5m ( i . e . 3 / 5 o f 2 . 5m ) a nd s o , p rov id ing t h e re w a s t h a td ep th ( e ven i fo n ly a ts p r ing t i de s ) i nt h e R . L i f f ey a nd i n t h e P odd le m ou th , t h e P odd le p oo l , d ubh l i nn , c ou ld h ave c on t inued t o b e u sed a f te r 169 , a s i t h ad b een i n H ibe rno—No r se t i me s , b y b eached a nd a ncho r ed v e sse l s . H oweve r , w i th t h e a dd i t iona l c apa c i ty o f t h e se l a rge s h ip s , d oub le— o r e ven t r eb le—hand l ing o f c a rgo w ou ld b ecome i n c r ea s ing ly u na t t ra c t ive , a nd t h e a dvan tage s o f aw a te r f ron t b e r th w he r ec a rgo h and l ing a i d sc ou ld b eu sed a nd w a r ehou s ing b u i l t w ou ld b e come v e ry a ppa ren t . T he re may a l so h ave b een a na dd i t iona li mpe tu sf o rc hange a st h eR . P odd le mou th s i l ted a nd s h ip s , a nd i n d eed b oa t s , h ad t ob e u n loaded a nd l oaded f u r th e r a way f r om t h e c i ty . S i l t ing d id i n deed b ecome s uch a p r ob lem i nl a te ry ea r st h a tb y 1 306 g rea ts h ip sc ou ld n ol o nge r r e a ch D ub l in f u l ly l a den a nd h ad t ob ep a r t ly o ff loaded ( e .g . 1 3 o u to f2 0t u n so fw ine )a tD a lkey I s land ,s ou th o ft h eR . L i f f ey m ou th ( M i l l s 1 9 14 ,3 1617 ) . B a ck—b raced r e ve tmen t 3( F ig . 9 . 2 .2 ) o f t h e l a te t h i r teen th c e n tu ry i st h e f i r s t o ne t h a t c ou ld c onven ien t ly b e u sed b y v e s se l s a nd m ay h ave b een b u i l t n o t o n ly t oc on s t ra in t h e R . L i f f ey b u t a l so t op rov ide aw ha r fa l ong s ide w h ich l a rge s h ip s c ou ld b eb e r thed ,a nd u pon w h ich d e r r ick s , s hee rl e g s a nd o t h e r c a rgo h and l ing d ev ice s ( s ee , f o r e xamp le , t h e h o i s t ing s pa r i n H e r t e ig 1 981 , f i g 8 8 ; E l ime r s 1 981 , 9 5 ) c ou ld b e e r ec ted a nd w ha r ehou se sb u i l t . T he s t one q uay p robab ly b u i l ti nt h ep e r iod 1 300— 1 0 ( Wa l la ce 1 981 , 17 ) s e rved a s im i la r p u rpo se a nd p r ov ided c ompa rab le f a c i l i t ie s , b u t i n a mo re s ub s tan t ia l a nd e ndu r ing w ay . Whe the r t h e l a rge s h ip s r ep re sen ted b y t h e D ub l in t i mbe r s l i s ted i n t h e f ou r th ( 1 1601225 ) a nd f i f th ( 1 230-75 ) p ha se s i nT ab le 9 . 2 .2 d id i n deed b e r th a l ong s ide r e ve tmen t 3c anno tb e k nown w i th c e r ta in ty , n o t l e a s tb ecau se o ft h e w ide d a t e r a nge s f o r t h e r e ve tmen t s a nd f o r t h e s h ip s ' t i mbe r s , b u ti tr ema in s as t rong p o s s ib i l i ty . O nt h e o t he rh and , i t s e em s l i k e ly t h a t s ma l le r v e s se ls , w h ich c ou ld b e e conom ica l ly l o aded a nd u n loaded b y i n fo rma l m ean s , c on t inued t o u s e t h e R . L i f f ey s t rand o r t h e p oo l i n t h e R . P odd le ( F ig 9 . 2 .1B ) .

R e f erence s A nd e r son R .C . 1 928 ' E n lg i sh g a l ley s i n 1 295: Mar ine r ' s M i r ro r 1 4 ,2 20-4 1 . A rbman H . 1 940 ' De r A rby— fund . ' A c ta A r chaeo log ica 1 , 4 3102 . B a i l l ie M .G .L . 1 978 Da t ing o f s ome s h ip s ' t i mber s f r om Wood Q uay , D ub l in . ' I n J F le tche r ( e d . ) D end ro ch rono logy i n E urope , 2 59-62 . B .A .R . I n te rna t iona lS e r ie sS . 51 O x fo rd . B a i l l ie M . 1 982 T r ee—r ing d a t ing a nd a r chaeo logy . L ondon . C room H e lm .

Med ieva lB oa t sa nd P lank s B a s s G .

1 972 H i s to ry o f S eaf a r ing , L ondon , T hame s & H ud son . B ond eN . a nd C rum l in-Ped e r sen 0 . 1 990 ' T h ed a t ing o fw re ck 2f r om S ku ld e lev ,D enma rk ' ,N ew swa rp . 7 ,3 -6 . C ame ron P .N . 1 982 ' S axon s , s a i l a nd s e a . ' m t . J . N au t i ca l A r chaeo l . 1 ,3 19-32 . C h r i s ten sen A .-E . 1 9 59 ' F a e r ingen f r a G ok s tad . ' V ik ing 2 3 , 5 7-69 . C h r i s ten sen A .-E . 1 968b B oa t s o f t h e n o r th . O s lo . N o r ske S am lage t . C h r i s ten sen A .-E . 1 972 ' S cand inav ian s h ip s f r om e a r l ie s t t ime s t o t h e V ik ing s . ' I nG .F . B a s s ( e d . ) H i s to ry o f s eaf a r ing , 1 5 9-80 .L ondon . T hame sa nd H ud son . C h r i s ten sen A .-E . 1 979 ' V ik ing A ge r i gg ing . ' I n S . McG ra i l ( e d . ) , A r chaeo logy o fm ed ieva l s h ip s a nd h a rbou r s , 1 83-94 .B .A .R .I n t er na t iona lS e r ie sS . 66 .O x fo rd . C h r i s ten sen A .-E . 1 985 ' B oa t f i nd s f r om B ryggen . ' B ryggen P ape r s 1 ,4 7-280 .O s lo U n ive r s i ty P r e s s . C h r i s ten sen , A .-E . 1 988 ' S h ip g ra f f i t i a nd mode l s . ' I n P . Wa l lace ( e d . ) , M i s ce l lanea I , 1 3-26 . Med ieva l D ub l in E xcava t ion s 1 962-81 , S e r . B , v o l . 2 .D ub l in . R oya lI r i sh A cad emy . C h r i s ten sen A .-E . a nd L e i ro , G . 1 976 K läs tad sk ipe t . V e s t fo ldm i rm e .T c pn sb e rg sA k t ie t rykk e r i . C rum l in-Ped e r sen 0 . 1 96 5 ' C og-kogge-Kaag . ' Hand e l s o g S j c pf a r t smu se e t p a K ronbe rg A rbog , 8 1 - 1 44 . H e l s ingo r . C rum l in-Ped e r sen 0 . 1 966 ' Two D an i sh s i de r udde r s . ' Mar ine r ' sM i r ro r5 2 ,2 51-6 1 . C rum l in-Ped e r sen 0 . 1 969 D a sH a i thaba sch if f .A u sg rabungen i n H a i thabu , B e r ich t 3 . N emün s te r . S ch le sw igHo l s te in i sche sL ande smu seum . C rum l in-Ped e r sen 0 . 1 972 ' Kael ingen o g K l c p f ten . ' H and e l s o g S j c pf a r t smu se e t p a K ronbar g A rbog , 6 4-80 . H e l s ing c p r . C rum l in-Ped e r sen 0 . 1 977 F rom V ik ing s h ip t o V i c to ry . G reenw ich .N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum . C rur n l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 978 ' S h ip s o f t h e V ik ing s . ' I n T . A nde r s son a nd K . I . S and r ed ( e d s ) , T he V ik ings , 3 2-4 1 .U n ive r s i ty o fU pp sa la . C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 979a ' L ynae s sk ib e to gR o sk i lde S ove j . ' I nF .A . B i rkeba ek ( e d) 1 3 B id rag t i lR o sk i ld e b y o g e gn ' sh i s to r ie ,6 4-77 .R o sk i ld e Mu seum . C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 979b ' Dan i sh c ogf ind s . ' I nS . McG ra i l ( e d . ) , A r chaeo logy o fm ed ie va l s h ip s a nd h a rbour s , 1 7-34 .B .A .R .I n t e rna t iona lS e r ie sS . 66 .O x fo rd . C r um l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 98 1 ' S k ibe p a H avbunden . ' Hand e l s o g S j c pf a r t smu seew t sA rbog ,2 8-65 H e l s ing c p r . C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 983a ' S ch i f f e u nd S eehande l s rou ten i m O s t see raum 1 0 501350 . ' L übeck e r S chr if t en z u r A r chäo log i eu nd K u l tu rge sch i ch te 7 ,2 29-37 . C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 983b F rom V ik ing s h ip t oH an sea t i c c og .T h i rd P au lJ ohn s tone l e c tu r eG reenw ich .N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum . C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 984 ' D e r S ee t ran spo r t : d i e S ch i f f e v on H a i thabu . 'A r chäo l og i s che u nd n a turw i ssen schaf t l i che U n te r su chungen a n S i ed lungen i m d eu t s chen K u s t engeb ie t2 ,2 4 1-8 A c ta H uman io ra . We inhe im . C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 985 ' S h ip f i nd sa nd s h ip b l o ckage sA .D . 8 001200 . ' I n K . K r i s t ian sen ( e d . ) , A r chaeo log i ca l

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f o rma t ion p ro ce s se s , 2 15-28 . C openhagen . N a t iona lmu see t. C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 986a ' A spec t s o f V ik ing A ge s h ipbu i ld ing . 'J .D an i sh A r chaeo l .5 .2 09-28 . C nun l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 986b ' A spe c t s o f w ood t e chno logy i n m ed ieva l s h ipbu i ld ing . ' I n0 . C nun l in-Pede r sen a nd M . V inne r ( e d s ) , S a i l ing i n to t h e p a s t , 1 38-49 . R o sk i lde T he V ik ing S h ip Mu seum . C rum l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 988 ' S ch i f f e u nd S ch i f fah r t swege i m O s t see raum w äh r end d e s 9 12 J ah rhund e r t s . ' I n M . Mü l le r- W i l le ( e d . ) , O ld enbur g , W o l in , S t a ra ja L adoga . N o rgo rod , K ie v , 5 30-63 . B e r ich t d e r R om i sch-Ge rman i schen K omm i s s ion 6 9 . Ma inz P . v an Z ab er n . C nun l in-Pede r sen 0 . 1 989 ' S ch if f s typen a u s d e r f r ühge sch ich t l ichen S ee sch i f f ah r t i n d en n o rdeu ropä i schen G ewä s ser n . ' U n t er su chungen z u H and e l u nd V e rk eh r d er v o ru nd J f r ühge s ch i ch i t l i chen Z e i ti nM i t te l- u nd N o rd-europa 5 ,4 05-30 . D ohe r ty C . 1 980 ' E xchange a nd t r ade i n e a r ly m ed ieva l I r e land . 'J .R .S o c .A n t iq .J r . 10 ,6 7-89 . E l lme r s D . 1 972 F rühm i t t e la l te r l i che H and e l s sch if f ah r t i n M i t t e lu nd N o rd eu ropa . N eumun s te r . K a r l Wa chho l t z . E l lme r s D . 1 976 K ogge , K ahn u nd K un s t s t eboo t . B r eme rhaven .D eu t schen S ch if f ah r t smu seum . E l lme r s D . 1 979 ' C og o f B r emen a nd r e la ted b oa t s . ' I n S . McG ra i l ( e d . ) , A r chaeo logy o f m ed ie va l s h ip s a nd h a rbour s , 1 -15 . B .A .R . I n t er n a t iona l S e r ie s S .66 . O x fo rd . E l lme r s D . 1 981 ' P o s t-Roman w a t e r f ron t i n s ta l la t ion s o n t h e R h in e . ' I nG . M i lne a nd B . H ob ley ( e d s ) , Wa te r f ron t a r chaeo logy i nB r i ta in a nd n or thern E urope , 8 8-95 . C .B .A . R e sea r ch R epo r t 4 1 . L ondon . C oun c i l f o r B r i t i sh A r chaeo logy . E l lme r s D . 1 985 ' L oad ing a nd u n load ing s h ip s u s ing ah o r se a nd c a r t , s t and ing i nt h e w a te r . ' I nA .E . H e r te ig ( e d . ) , C onf e r en ce o n w a t e rf ron t a r chaeo logy i n n o r the rn E uropean t own s , v o l . 2 , 2 5-30 . B e rgen . H i s to r i sk Mu seum . Ewe H . 1 972 S ch if f ea uf S i ege ln .R o s to ck .V .E .B .H in s to r f f . F enw ick V .H . ( e d . ) 1 978 T he G raveney b oa t . B .A .R . B r i t i sh S e r ie s .5 3 .O x fo rd . F r ie lI .1 983 ' E ng land a nd t h ea dven to ft h e3 -ma s ted s h ip . 'm t . C ong r e s s o f Ma r i t im e Mu seum s , 4 t h C on f e r en ce P ro ceed ing s , 1 30-8 .P a r i s . Mu see sd el a Ma r ine . G oodbu rn D .M . 1 986 ' Do w e h ave e v iden ce o f aS axon b oa tbu i ld ing t r ad i t ion ? ' I n t . J .N au t i ca lA r chaeo l . 1 5 , 3 9-47 . G reenh i l lB . 1 976 A r chaeo logy o ft h e b oa t . L ondon . A . a nd C . B lack . G r eenh i l l B . 1 989 E vo lu t ion o f t h e w ood en s h ip . L ondon . B a t s fo rd . H e r te ig A .E . 1 981 ' Med ieva l h a rbou ro fB e rgen . ' I nG . M i ln e a nd B . H ob ley ( e d s ) . Wa te r f ron t a r chaeo logy i n B r i ta in a nd n o r the rn E u rope , 8 0-7 . C .B .A . R e sea r ch R epo r t4 1 . L ondon .C oun c i lf o rB r i t i sh A r chaeo logy . Hodge sR . 1 982 D a rk A ge e c onom i c s .L ondon .D u ckwo r th . H o ek s t ra T . J . 1 975 ' U t rech t . ' I n t . J . N au t i ca l A r chaeo l . 4 , 3 90-2 .

S t ud ie si n Ma r i t im eA r cha eo logy J ohanne s sen F . 1 940 Sä ten e f r a G ok s tad sk ibe t ; V ik ing 4 , 1 25-30 . J ohn son C . 1 927 ' London s h ipbu i ld ing AD 1 295 . ' A n t iq . J .7 , 4 24-37 . L ang J .T . 1 988 V ik ing A ge d e co ra ted w ood Med ieva l D ub l in E xcava t ion s 1 962-81 , S e r B , v o l . 1 .D ub l in . R oya l I r i sh A cademy . L und s t röm P 1 971 /2 X l inknag la rna s v i t tne sbö rd . ' S j öh i s to r i sk Ä r sbok ,8 1-8 . S to ckho lm . McCu ske r J . J . 1 966 ' W ine p r i se a nd m ed ieva l m e r can t i le s h ipp ing . 'S pecu lum 4 1 ,279-96 McG ra i l S . 1 974 B u i ld ing a nd t r ia l s o f ar e p l i ca o fa n a n c ien t b oa t . Na t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum .Monog raph 1A . G reenw ich . McG ra i l ,S .1 981a R af t s ,b oa t sa nd s h ip s .L ondon .H .M .S .O . McG ra i l , S . 1 981c ' Med ieva lb oa t s , s h ip s a nd l a nd ing p l a ce s . ' I n G . M i ln e a nd B . H ob ley ( e d s ) , W a t e rf ron t a r chaeo logy i nB r i ta in a nd n o r the rn E u rope , 1 7-23 . C .B .A . R e sea r ch R epo r t 4 1 . L ondon . C oun c i l f o r B r i t i sh A r chaeo logy . McG ra i l S . 1 983 ' I n te rp r e ta t ion o fa r chaeo log ica l e v iden ce f o r m a r i t ime s t ruc tu r e s . ' I n P . A nn i s ( e d . ) , S ea s t ud ie s , 3 3-46 .G reenw ich .N a t iona l Ma r i t ime Mu seum . McG ra i l S . 1 985 ' E a r ly l a nd ing p l ace s . ' I nA .E . H e r te ig ( e d . ) , C onf er en ce o n w a t e rf ron t a r chaeo logy i n n o r the rn E uropean t own s , 1 218 . B e rgen .H i s to r i sk Mu seum . McG ra i l S . 1 987 A n c ien t b oa t s i n N . W . E urop e . L ondon . L ongman . McG ra i l S . a nd F a r re l l A . 1 979 ' Row ing : a spe c t s o f t h e e t hnog raph ic a nd i c onog raph ic e v id enc e . ' m t . J . N au t ica lA r chaeo l . 8 ,155-66 . M il s ,J .( e d . ) 1 914 C a l enda ro f ju s t i c ia ry r o l l so fI r e land ,v o l . 2 ,1305-7 . L ondon . M i tche l l G .F . 1 987 A r chaeo logy a nd e nv i ronmen t i n e a r l y Dub l in . Med ieva l D ub l in E xcava t ion s 1 962-81 , S e r . C ,v o l . 1 .D ub l in .R oya lI r i sh A cademy .

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Mu rphy P . J . 1 974 ' Med ieva l I r i sh s h ip s a nd t r ade . ' C u l tu ra Ma r i t ima 1 , 1315 . N ico lay sen N .1 882 V ik ing s h ip d i s cove red a t G ok s tad i n N orway .K r i s t ian ia .C a r rune rmeye r . NM I 1 9 73 V ik ing a nd m ed ieva l D ub l in , Na t iona l Mu seum e xcava t ion s 1 962-73 . C a ta logue o f e xh ib i t ion ( r ep r in ted 1 976 ) . D ub l in . N a t iona l Mu seum o f I r e land . O l sen 0 . a nd C nun l in—Pede r sen 0 . 1 967 ' S ku lde lev S h ip s A c ta A r chaeo log i ca 3 8 ,73— 1 74 . S and ah lB . 1 9 58 M idd l eE ng l i sh s ea t e rm s ,v o l .2 . Mas t s ,s pa r s a nd s a i l s . S t ud ia A ng l i s t ica Up sa l ien s ia 2 0 . U n ive r s i ty o fU pp sa la . S h e rbom e J .W . 1 96 5 P o r t o f B r i s to l i n t h e M idd ie A ge s . B r i s to l .H i s to r ica lA s so c ia t ion . S t r ick land W .G . 1 923 ' An c ien t o f f ic ia l s ea ls o f t h e c i ty o f D ub l in . 'J .R .S o c .A n t iq J r .5 3 ,121-31 . T inn i swood J . T . 1 949 ' E ng l i sh g a l ley s 1 272-1377; Mar ine r ' s M i r ro r3 5 ,276-315 . Wa l la ce P .F . 1 981 ' Dub l in ' s w a te r f ron t a t Wood Q uay : 9 001317 . ' I n G . M ile a nd B Hob ley ( e d s ) , W a t e rf ron t a r chaeo logy i n B r i ta in a nd n or the rn E u rope , 1 0918 .C .B .A .R e sea r ch R epo r t4 1 .L ondon . C oun c i lf o rB r i t i sh A r chaeo logy . Wa l la c eP .F . 1 987 ' T h e l a you to ft h e l a te r V ik ing A ge D ub l in — i n f e r en ce s f o r i t s r egu la t ion a nd p rob lem s o f c on t inu i ty . ' I n J . E . K n i rk ( e d . ) , P roceed ing s o f t h e T en th V ik ing C ongr e s s , 2 71-85 . O s lo . Un ive r s i te te t s O ld sak sam l ing sS k r i f te r . Wh i twe l l R . J a nd J ohn son ,C . 1 926 ' T he N ewca s t le g a l ley . ' A r chaeo log ia S e l iana ,4 t hs e r ie s , .2 ,142-96 .

R ep r in t ed w i th p e rm i s s ion f r om McG ra i l , S .M ed ieva l B oa t s a nd S h ip T imbe r sf rom D ub l in : 8 1100 .R oya lI r i sh A cad emy . ( 1 993 ) .

M ed ie va lB oa t sa nd P lank s

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S t ud i e si n Mar i t im eA r chaeo logy

PAPER 9 . 3 SH IPS T I MBERS FRO M W OOD QUAY , DUBL IN AND OTHER MEDIEVAL S ITES I NI RELAND T he Hu lc t r ad i t ion D u r ing t h e 1 2 th t o 1 4 th c en tu r ie s AD t h e r e w e r e t h ree m a in t y pe so fs e a—go ing s h ip si nN o r thwe s tE u rope ( F ig 2 . 1 .2 ) —t h e c og , t h e h u lc a nd t h e N o rd ic s h ip ( Cnun l in—Ped e r sen , 1 978 ) . E a ch o ft h e se t r ad i t ion s o fs h ipbu i ld ing sh ad i t sr o o t si ne a r l ie r t i me s a nd e a ch w a s t o c on t r ibu t e s ome th ing t o t h e d eve lopmen t , i n t h e 1 5 th c en tu ry , o f t h e s ke le ton—bu i l t , 3 — m a s ted s h ip i nw h ich E u ropean s f i r s t s a i led a l l t h e s e a s o ft h e w o r ld b e tween c1 480 a nd c1 530 ( G r eenh i l l , 1 989 ,6 7-76 ) .

T he N ord ic s h ip T h i s t r ad i t ion i ss ome t ime s k nown a s ' V ik ing ' , b u t i th ad i t s o r ig in s w e l l b ef o r e t h e V ik ing A ge , i nt h e 4 t hc e n tu ry AD a nd e ven e a r l ie r , a nd i te x t ended b eyond t h e V ik ing A g e ( s ay 8 00 t o 100 AD ) i n to h i gh m ed ieva l t i me s . W i th in t h i s t r ad i t ion t h e r e w e re n o t o n ly w a r sh ip s a nd c a rgo s h ip s b u t a l so s ma l l f e r r ie s a nd f i sh ing b oa t s . T he se b oa t s a nd s h ip s h ad a d i s t inc t ive s h ape i np l an a nd i np ro f i le a nd t h e i rm a in s t ru c tu ra l c ha ra c te r i s t ic l a y i nt h e w ay t h e i r o ve r lapp ing p l ank ing w a s f a s tened t o ge the r ( f i g .9 .3 .1 ) : b y i r on n a i l s c l en ched b y d i s to r t ing t h e p o in t o ve r ar o ve ( wa sh e r ) —a n e a r ly f o rm o f r i ve t ( McG ra i l , 1 993 , 8 4-5 ) . F rom i t s o r ig in s i nS cand inav ia , t h i s s t y le o f s h ipbu i ld ing s p r ead t o t h e S ou th B a l t i c , t h e n o r the rn i s le s , I r e land , B r i ta in a nd t h e E u rop ean A t lan t ic c oa s t s . A l though a f t e rt h e 1 5 th c en tu ry s h ip s w e r en o tb u i l t i n t h i s t r ad i t ion , b oa t sc on t inued t ob eb u i l ta nd u s ed , i n deed i n to o u ro wn t i me s ,i n We s tN o rway ,S he t land a nd O rk n ey .

T he C og t r ad i t ion T he o r ig in s o f t h i s t r ad i t ion a r e , a tp r e sen t , o b s cu r e , b u t t h ey p o ss ib ly l i e i nl a t e—Roman t i me s i nt h e r e g ion o f t h e R h ine e s tua ry a nd t h e n ea rby F r i s ian i s land s ( C rum l in—Pede r sen 1 965 , 1 979B , 1 983B ) . T h i r teen th a nd 1 4 th c en tu ry c og s , l a rge a nd s ma l l , h ave b een f o und i n t h e N e th e r land s , N o r th G e rmany , D enma rk a nd S weden . I n1 960 a n a lmo s t c omp le t e C og h u l l , d a ted 1 380 AD ,w a s e xcava t ed f r om t h er i ve r We se r a tB r emen ( E l lme r s , 1 979 ) .T he d i s t in c t ive f e a tu r e so ft h i st y pe o f s h ipbu i ld ing a r e f i r s t ly t h e s p ec ia l i sed s h ap e , w i th i t s r e la t ive ly f l a tb o t tom a nd i t s f u l l c r o s s— sec t ion ; a nd s e cond ly , t h ew ay t h eo ve r lapp ing s i d ep l ank ing w a sf a s ten ed t o ge the rb y n a i l s w h ich w e r e c l en ch ed b y t u rn ing t h e p o in t t h rough 1 80 ° , b a ck i n to t h ep l ank ing . T h eb o t tom w a sf l a t ma in ly s ot h a tc og s c ou ld t a ke t h e g r ound o n af a l l ing ( e bb ) t i de a nd b e u n loaded i n to b oa t s o r i n to c a r t s a nd w aggon s . T he f u l l f o rm , t o ge the r w i th g r ea t h e igh t o f s i de s , m ean t t h a t t h e se c og s c ou ld c a r ry r e la t ive ly l a rge a moun t so fc a rgo ( ' t un sb u rden ' ) .

D u r ing t h e 1 4 th c en tu ry h u lc s a r e f r equen t ly m en t ioned i n d o cumen t s r e f e r r ing t o o ve r sea s t r ade , e spec ia l ly w e s twa rd s a nd s ou thwa rd s f r om t h e R h ine e s tua ry . T he o r