Stone Vessels in the Levant 1904350976

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Stone Vessels in the Levant
 1904350976

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I

I

l THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND ANNUAL VIII

Series Editor

Jonathan N. Tubb

Stone Vessels in the Levant

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STONE VESSELS IN THE LEVANT 1• RAcHAEL THYRzA SPARKS

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3 0 APR 2008

MANEY 2007

.\ II ri~h t~ n·,erYcd. :\o part of thi · pu blication ma y be rep rodu ced .. stored in ~ rctr 1!'\·. tl ~,·,rem. ur transm iurd in am· form or by any means. electronrc. mcchanl\al. p hotur:ljl\'lll.l{ o r othcm isl'. wi thot; t the written consent of the copHight holder. Rc·quc~b for ·uch permission ~h ould be addressed to ~1 aney Publishing.

© 2007 Rachael Sparks and the Pales tine Exploration fund Tht· right of Rae hat'! Sparks to be identified as author of this W ork has been by her in accordance 11·ith the Copyright. D esigns and Pa ten t Act 1988.

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Sta temr nts in Stone l'esseiJ in the Lem nl rrflect the views of the a uthor, and not necessarilv those of the Palestine Explo ration fund, editors or publisher. .

ISBN 978 I 904350 97 ISSN 1753-9234

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Cover photograph by Rachael Sparks. Cat. nos 19, 290, 607, 843 and 1643

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Published by Maney Publishing, Suite rc,J o eph'

Leed LS3 rAB, UK

Well, Hano\·er Walk,

W\\W.mant>y.co.uk Maney Publishing is the trading name of\V S :\1 ·



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aney & Son Ltd

Printed and bound in the CK bv The Ch . arles.."'·onh Group

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CONTENTS

PAGE

.\ cknowledgements

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[.i,t nf lllu'> trations

XV

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of l 'able-.

XV1U

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

·on the back · of giants;': previou l

stone , ·esse! research

Defining the re ·earch parameters

3 Problems inherent in the dataset 4- .\ longer than u. uallife-cycle: the impact of heirlooms and tomb looting on vessel chronology J

IMPORTED STONE VESSELS

:\1inoan stone , ·essels 1.1 Minoan forms found in the Levant 1.1 . 1 Lamp 1.1. 2 T ables 1.1.3 Cups 1. 1·+ Small bowls or jars 1. 1. 5 Fragm entary examples of pos ·ible Minoan origin 1.2 ~linoa n decorative elem r nt 1.3 T he ·ignificance of Minoan imports in the levant 2 Cypriot . tone vessel. 3 Egyptia n stone vessels 3·' Egyptian forms found in the Levant 3- 1. I Rectangular palette 3.1 .2 Pla tes 3- 1.3 Bowl 3· 1.3. 1 Hemispherical bowls 3- 1.3-2 Carinated bowl 3- I .3-j Zoom orphic bowls 3-•·+ ·swimming-girl ' poon 3.1.5 Pyxjdes

3.1.6 Tazze 3- 1-7 Goblets 3- r.8 Alahastra g.1.8.1 Drop-shaped alabastra I t.

.....

6

6

ln. cribed stone , ·esse! : ble 'ling or curse?

CHAPTER T\VO

3 4

8 8 8 9 II II II

12 12

13 14 14 14 16 16 16

17 18 19 20

22

23 25 26

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Conica l :~ l.,b. stra Conit·al abb.t tra '~ith fu n n('l-~ h apcd mou.ths :$.l .R.'2. 2 Conical alabastra "~th broad ll a H oppe~ r~.m j. I.H.'.I .;{ Conical alabastra \\1 lh lug handle abO\ e lim J. 1.8.'2 . 1 Fragmentary conical alabastra :l·' ·ll Jug~ and juglet> :3· I. ~J . t High shouldered juglcts (type 1) :p.q.:< Dipprrjuglets (type 2) . :-! · 1.y.:3 juglets with a.labastra-shaped bod1cs (type 3) 3.1.9.4 juglets imita ting Cypriot base-ring ware (type 4) :l·' ·9·.5 Ovoiclj ugleh (type 5) 3· 1.9.6 Pirifonn juglets (rype 6) :-!. 1.9.7 Broad-mouthed j ugs (type 7) J. I. I O Stirrupjars 3. 1. I 1 Flasks 3.1.12 Pilgrim fla k 3.1.13 Tube j ars J. r.1 3.1 Simple tube with upright sides (type 1) 3. 1.1 3.2 Skcuomorphic vessels (type 2) 3· 1.13.3 Monkev holding tube-shaped j ar (type 3) 3.1. I4 Cylindrical jars 3· !.1 ,5 Shouldered cylindrical jars 3.1.16 jars of a rchaic form 3. 1.1 7 Small piriform j ars 3. 1.1 8 Drop jars 3.1.19 Ovoidjars 3. 1. 20 Footed jars 1

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J .I.20.I Footed jars without handles (type 1) 3.1.20.2 Footed j ars •Nith horizontal loop handle (type 2) 3. 1.2I Amphorae 3.1. 22 Fish-shaped j ar 3· I.23 Anthropomorphic statue jars 3. 1.24 Stands 3.1.25 Lids 3· r.26 Diag nostic fragment of Egyptian type 3.1. 26. 1 Egyp tia n rim types 3.1.26.2 Egyptia n handle types 3. 1.26.3 Eg]p tia n base sherds 3.2 Egyprian decora tive styles J.2 . J Incised decoration 3.2.:2 lnci.~ion with inlaid colour 3.2.3 Painted decora tion J .2.-f. Added metal 3-2.5 Sculpted decoration 3-2.6 Egyptian cone vessel with orientalising decoration

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32 3~

32 34 35 35 j8 38 39 39 40 41

4:1 43

43 45

46

49 51

52 55 57

sa

sa 6o

62 6s 6j 66 68

72 72 72 72 73 74 74 77 8o 81

83

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CO , TF. :'Ill~

~-:~ FeatUfl''i characteristic or Egyptian WO I k ·hop!> I ~ E,l. . ") pti.m palace or tl·mplr \\'orbhop. ·1 -l Ll'\ antit H' in!lue1u e:-. on E10p1ian . tone \ TS el '"'orkshop: Egyptian w r u. 'Egyptianising'.

Vll

84 85

88

CHAYfER T HREE LOCAL STONE VESSELS

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Palc!\t inian ~V'>U nl n~ cl · 1. 1 T he de\Tiopmrnt of Palrstinian stone ve el forms 1.1.1 Plate 1. 1. '2 Bowl · 1.1.2.1 E\'erted bowl. 1. 1. 2.2 Hemispherical bowls 1.1. 2 .:~ Carinated bo\\·ls 1.1. 2 .+ Ram·. -head handled bowls 1.1. :3 Semi-circular pyxides or howls 1.1 .4 I.ug-handled pyx ide 1.1.5 Tazze 1.1. G Goblets 1.1 .7 AJabastra 1.1. 7.I Drop- haped alabastra 1. f.7 .:! Conical alaba 'lra 1.1.8 Boules 1.1.9 Jugs andjuglets 1.1.g. t Unfinished juglets 1. r.g.2 J uglets \rith high rounded shoulders (type 1) 1.1.9 .3 Dipper j uglets (type 2) 1.1.94 J uglet with alabastra-shaped bodies (type 3) 1.1.9.5 Globular juglets (type ..J.) 1.1.9.6 Spouted j ugs 1. 1. 10 flasks 1 • 1. 1 1 Pilgrim flasks 1. 1. 12 Shouldered cylindrical jar 1.1.1 3 Squat jars 1.1. q Lug-handled jars 1.1.15 Stoppers 1. 1.1 6 Diagnostic fragments 1.2 Palest in ian decorative styles 1 .2. 1 Palestine decorative tyles of the .MBII-LBI period 1.2. 1.1 T he J ericho group 1.:2.1.2 T he Pella group 1.2.:2 Palestinian decorative style of the Late Bronze and early Iron Age 1.3 lnfluenct· and interaction: the impact of other products on the development of the Pale tinian gypsum vessel industry Syrian tone vessels 2 . 1 T he r yal workshop at Atchana 2 .2 Syrian . erpentine workshops

92 92 92 92 92 92 94 94 96

96 g6 99 99 99 102 10 3

103 103 104

106 106 106 106

107 107

107

tog 109 III

Ill

11 2 112 112

115 118

118 120 120

122

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( hlo •H•· "nrk hop' ~•I Ra., Shaull a 2 .1. 1 2 . 1.1

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123 124 125

R'1"l' ,\ li111atun· r); The Trustees ofthe Briti ·h J\luseum {john Curti , Pamela \lagrili,J onathan Tubb): C ni\'(' rsity of Lced (B. ls crlint ); L' niwr ity of Penn. yh'ania .\lu eum. Philadelphia (Pal rick \lcGO\Tfll, ~laud e de Schaucn ee. Richarcl Zettler); C niversit) of Sydney (Sam Eame. +, Li. a Giddy. and Dan Potts). Special thanks are due to th e numerou cholars whose generouJy di~cu d their m~n \\ork with mt', including Alexander Ahr n_, Andrew Be\'an, Chri ta Clamer, J o Clarke, J ennie Ebeling, ~larian Feldman. Phil \Iacumber. Andre\\ .\liddleton. Graham Philip. J ackc Phillip . ~largaret Sax. Deny Stocks and J ame \\' in tein.

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~ fO"'F \'E~St. l ~

l;\ TH I:: LE \ ' A"'T

"uh , 1wr1.1l t han k~ to Christine Lil)qui ~ t lor he r de tailed co rre po ndence a nd lwlptid Ill Sight• on man~· lllall t'f S. A pa rticular de bt is OV\ ed to Ba ·iJ He nne r .md ~teJ.>he n Ro urke. ''hu j ointly introduced me to fi eldwork in the \I iddle East, ,r im ula t.-d m\ i ntt'rt'~l in stone ves rls a nd p rO\·ided unwawring support througho ut. Finalh I wo~ld like to tha nk both m v husba nd. Gra ha m R eed , a nd Ill\'. pa rents fo r their pa tie nn ' ttnd encourageme nt in seeing thi prq ject through to completion . .\JI maps a nd ill ustrations were created by G ra ha m R eed based on published image~, d r:.m ings p ro, ·iclecl by the Pella Exca1·a tion Project a nd o riginal ketche by the a uthor. Photographs we re prO\·ided courtesy of the Chicago Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (Fig. 26), a nd the Institu te of Archaeology, University CoJJege Lo ndon (Figs 63 and 64). .

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Figurr Figun FiRUf< Figurr hgun Figun Figun Figun Figun Figun Figun Figure Figun Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figtw F~r·

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LIST OF IL:LUSTRATIONS Flgt tn · 1. '

Figlll r- 2 . Fig·uJ(' l Figun· I· Figurt' -)· Fig-t.Jrc b. Figure ;. Figure B. Figu re ~l· Figu n· 10. Figurr 11 . Figure 12 . Figure 1:;. Figure q . Figure 15. Figure 10. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 2 1. Figure 22 . figure 2J Figure 24. Figure '2j. Figure 26. Figure 27. Figure 28. Figure 29. f igure 30. Figure 31. Figure 32. Figure 33Figure 34· Figure 35· Figure 36. Figure 37· Figurr 38. Figurr 39· Figure 40. Figure 41. Figure 42.

~li noan ~tone

,·e: ds found in the Levant Cypriot tone \ 'C''i els found in the Leva nt Egyptian palettes, plate and bowl Egyptian -;keuomorphic bowls and spoon Egypt ian ·s..,,,],mming-girl ' poon Eg~vtian pyxides, tazzc and goblets Thr changing popularity of drop-shaped and conical alabastra over time Egyptian alabastra Egyptian j uglets type· 1- 3 Egyptian j uglets type 4-7 Egyptian stirrup jars and fl asks Egyptian tube jar · Egyptian shouldered cylindrical jars and small piriform j ars Egyptian jars of archaic form Egyptian drop jars and ovoid jars Egyptian footed j ars Scenes from the tomb of Rckhmire, depicting stone vessels in use E~ptian amphorae Egyptian skeuomorphic jars Egyptian stands Egyptian lids Decorative treatment of Egyptian stone vessel according to material type Egyptian incised decoration Egyptian incised and inlaid decoration Egyptian painted decoration Egyptian se1pentine and hematite vrssds v.rith gold trim Egyptian vessels with sculpted decoration Eg)ptian vessels \\rith orientalising decoration Egyptian stone vessels belonging to the footed jar family Eg)'}Jtian stone \·e-scls belonging to the ovoid jar family Eg)'}Jtian or Eg)'Ptianizing vessels of unusual manufacture Palestinian plates. bowls and pyxides Ram's-head handled bowls atjericho in alabaster and wood Palestinian tazze and goblets Regional distribution of Eg)p tian and Palestinian tazze Palestinian alabastra and bortles Distribution of Eg)'Ptian and Palestinian type I drop-shaped alabastra Palestinian jugs and juglets Pale tin ian pilgrim flasks, jars, lids and stoppers Pale ·tin ia n lug-handled jars from Beth Shan level VIII- III Comparative proportions of decorated to undecorated \'e sd s in the Pal tinian gyp urn and Levantine ground tone ve el industries Palestinian decoratiYe element typical of theJ ericho workshop

10 13

15 IR 20 21

26 '27 33

37 40

+4 47

50 s6 59

61 63 66 67 6g 73 75 78 79 8o 82 83 86 87 go

93 95 97 g8 100

10 1 105 108

110 11 3

114

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I ~ II .C' I I p,tf1 11 ll.lll dn, r .tll\< ,·1 1 nu nh l\})1( t~l of the Pt·ll;~ I n~t u • II ! At!< Ht clll/< .\ gt l',dt·,urn.uc dno1,1tiH· q ~ k.., l·it.:"tllt' 11· :-,1 l]ll'lllinc \L.,,,.J, li a datin~ tool in it 0 \\11 right. Thi'i \\ a a proct' s th ..n PetriS '•I ~t gro up~. lie, H T \ nttwlt 111 tl w l"itn tk tt it \\ a ~ n •mpilcd fi·om llldt t-ri.tl • ,,1ft·• l ed spc·cifipn.· . t"ntatin : bodi('~ m ataial for publicatio ns tha t ha , ·e gon e o n to becom e ta11da rd r eference wo rks has Jed to o bject · of excavated m a terial from pa rticular ~eographical a rea . Thi, tenden y ha-; been pa rticula rly m arked o f unconfi rmed da te or a uth enticity being u eel to in the last th ree d ec '>:-. the range of ,·ariations found \,·ithin 11 c i 11 rlu ·tr~ and the dc\·clopment of lonns O\Tr time rnorc· .te< uratrly than the muse um corpora that •)n·, c:dt·d them. I 1 \Iir~t i nia n . tone vc. sds ha\·e been less widely p·..,t·c~rl he I. \\'ith onl) l\\'O ignifi ant synthetic , 1udit·, ;1\·ailable up to thtone \TS~e l ~ in ;;ufliciemly hi~h t·, tc'~cl and ib ultimate dcpo ition. Stone w:-. els ha\'t' been occasionally found which preda te their d(·positional contexts to such a degree tha t it ·eems unlikely th n ·s-;c] producti o n. In tht' c,1 rl~ Se!'ond .\Iilk nnium He. tlri'i . itua tio n ch cwgc' and tlw q ua lltit y or tht'!o>l' impo rt:- rist':O. dram a til a ll\·. lead ing to the ~'TO\\ th of '' orbhop' " ·ith in the l..t·,·a nt th a t -;el·m de~ igncd to l'xplo it th e nc'' dem a nd for this kjnd of product . The f()lln\\·ing I\\ o ch.tpt crs p n•, cnt a -;tyli~ tic an a lysis uf these in du strit'~. b oth ft)reign a nd local. in o rder to iden t if~· the cha racte r a nd distin guish in~ k.nun:s or their products. Onct> thi.., has been e ta blished , it becom e~ po:.-;ible to consider how suc h industries m ay han· inte racted with o ne a no th er. In e-ach o r the- following sectio n . di. cu sio n begin. "'ith a n e xa mina tion of the typ ology of w· sc-I · according to cou ntry or region of manufacture. Thi. ha.! been cktem1ined through consideratio n o f the fon n. d ccoratin• s t~·le a nd m a nufacturing t echnique~ u. c-d to produce a n o bjcc t. whic h m ay the n be compa red "i th pu bli ~ h e-d m a te ria l from thc suggested t'OUlltry of' origin . \\'hile '>Olll t' cJa CS of StOll!:" \ 'CS. el ~~ LTC c·xtetr -i,·ely trad ed thro ugho ut tht> Nca r East, the o rigi lr.d home or a type can be de termine-d as the a n·..t ' ' hnc it appears a t a n earlier d a te th an els('\\·hcrc. \\'ith in each -;ectio n. \ 'C. els ha, ·e been organised in to t~vol ogica l fra m e\\'ork based o n the primm: · (Ti te rion of :-.hap c. a ltho ugh o th e r facto r. suc h as decora tion ha\'c a l. o been considered \\'here reltTant. J lw d eg-r ee ~ ubdi,· i ... io n t'mployed diffe rs con sidera b)~ be t'' Cl' ll o bject classes, with \·a ria bles c hosen th ro ug h a procc~=- o f experime nta tion to d ete rmine the m o t robmt a nd signifir ant grouping o f the d a ta fo r exa m ining i.-;s ues o f ch ronology a nd di tributio n . m o f the impo rted fC.mm sho w a ""idl'r ra nge of ubryp in tlw ir countr\' of m a nufacture tha n

I

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a ~~· m hlagc~

or

c\'ide nt h ere. Only tho e ,·aria tiom fo und in f' Xan1• pie - excavatcd ,,·ithin the J.c-,·an t it\elf ha,t· bn·n used to prO\ idt· la ta logu e di,-i, io n:,. Thi., ~' ~tl'm \\ill the n be U!->cd as a tool to addrcs" issue-; 'luch ct' the origin a nd chronological J n c lopment o f' d itfrrern d a ~l" CJ !' -;tu nc 'cs~cl throug hout the Second ~l illc nnium BC a nd the rc la tion:hip bet\l ren im portl·d ' l' in the Le\·ant , \\'here simple reramic dishn \\'ith a pinched nozzle for a single tl nat in ~ wick were the dominant fonn for th i'> purpos of 'marble' and feat ure~~~ flat projrc1ing rim \'\- ith a shallo\\' conca\·e depression in the rrntrr and ide ·loping concan·ly in to an upright pedc..,taJ lclot \\ ith ring base. The deprrssion in the upper ;,urface i'l quite broad and unlikely to han · lwen u e tlr rhe hantlle i~ mi sing. . o it is not clr;.tr "' hcther tlwn· was a wir k-nttting. Hmq·,·c·r. th t' ~U JYi,· ing port iott l)f the "n"el did llOt sho'' any tran·s of burning. In Crete, both ws. d t yprs ha\'t' i>cl'll found in rhloriu·. steatite and '>crprntinc. T ltr u•w uf horitontal rilling ju. t below the ri111 is al·o a dcror;:u iH· lt-aturc found on sc\Tral dillrren t t~vr of :-..linoan -.tone ' ('S~el · . ranging in datl' from E~III down to Udl !t.g. \\'arren 1gtig. P' +5· P1 77. P2:~G. P:ur. P467, Ps:.~ r .

TONE

F RAGMENTA RY EXAMPLL OF POS IBL I:.

' 0.'\:'\ OR Hil

A handful of inrompktc \T~sels ha\'e been t('ntatiw ly idemilif·d a-; \ finoan on the ha.-;is ur thcir t:.kcoration. Thi includes a chlorite body sherd with r uf\ ilinl'ar dt·t:'oratio n (g, Fig. r.5) and two fragment. from the royal palace at Ra!i Shamra decorated with running '11Jir,11 . ,,vhir h the cxcannors uggr. ted might be Minoa n (CtUbct tgg ra. 130. RS 15.257; 232, R,

\\'hilr the lp a nd bottom afl(l fcaturl''> an t>longated hod). Oaring in tn a rai~cd ridgt· ur t·ollar then conraH' below, po~sibl) a. pan of a trumprt-~haped foot. The attribution of thi~ ('Xarnplt• j., I ~~ certain. a~ nr ither form or ckruration has do e para llel in ~I inoan as~cmbl a gt · . Elliott compared it ,,·ith erpentinc \Ts-,cls fl·u m Zakro (Ellintt 1991. j2 .. \finoa n r halic('o.; ha\'c a . , im ilar lowrr hody ,r f\ \ 'arren rgGg. DrtG. P1 9,) i, but none haw -.im ilar decor..ttion and none arc uf -,imil.tr ~ra il' . The zig-t.dg motif doe~ ocra~ion a ll y appt'ar on (Jther lc>rnh l f .g. \\'an·t·n r9tig, P:)56). Thr s hapLllld a t ~itt'" -;ur h as fktlt Shan .uul H a;~or du ring the Lttl' Brott!.ror; tt ion. particula rly low rclif'f car\'ing, ~ compa ratiH·ly mon· ti·equent in ~liu oan stone \ e. · Is t h~ ttllo . 411 L ompartmrntrial u~rd f0r thr \'e I would appear to he lon· is no comprehen i,·e study a\·ailable for C~vriot q one ,·r~sel workshops. Referrnce material i, rr lricted to a brief sur\'e)' oft he Late Cypriot crafts (L. . trtim 1972 . .):)6 7, 57I -5) and r xr a\'ation rr ports from ite. " herr stone , .e sci. haw hren found (e.g

2 FIG l ' IH . 'l.

1::

F.L

Ka rageorgh i 11)6o: Jacobs..,on 1g88a, r~1H8 bJ. The c o f Ioc al \, ork! hop . . d . II I d n import 0 and may ha\'r been parua y Ja'>c , . 2 ra\\' matcriah (Elliott Iggo. I40: Peltcnbrr~ 1995• 3 ' .me I'Kate t he prc." t'IICC' oI. a

~l e rrill ee~

.

cn e~

o,wob).

. and taII ring :\ shallo\\' plate with rounde d nm . .foot v · Tl hapc Itself wast·xc::l\·atcd atBvblo (II. rig. 2. I). 1e . . o.; oI' rrng. ba-.e d Platr'i found is similar to the scnt· ( in ,·ar·ious ba. alt workshop. tI1roughout tItr r~·\'a. nt during the Late Bronze :\gc (see chapter 3· secuon 3.1.1. plate~ L)'lX' 1 B). Howc\Tr, similar form were also produced by contemporary Cypriot workshop · focusing on \'ariou~ member.., of the chlorite family (f.g. Schaeffer 1952, fig. 66.r o anci 6G.II : Karageorgh~ 1960, fig. 73). The origin of this particular example is theref ore likely to depend on the material from which it has bren made. Dunand described 1his a. a 'pierre .chisteu e. noidilre· !Dunand 1958. 6031· Thi · identification wa not made by a e;eologi:.t and it i common for \'ariou~ material. of imilar appearance to be misidentified as schist (Lucti · and Han i · 1962, .pg; B. Aston 199+· 6I). \\'hile one cannot be crtain without locating the howl in question. it i · po !)ible that it wa. made of a chloritr or chlorite .('hi'it. If thi'i

t.c.•c.•c====l•P----~==~2pcm

C priot tont· ' c \t·ls f(Jlmd in the l,c, Jnt; rat. no . 11 ,

12.

tlw a t'. d ( \ priot on~n for the pice -.rt'm., lil..rh . • Ill) I ht>r 'e 2': both rom1' ffi;l\ be cmbelli. hed \\'ith a lu~ or bar handle. Tnw 1 i, tht· simple t and most popular ,·ariety. apprarin~ at ~hr Amma n T f·mplc and I..achish in r ontexh daun~ from LBll:\ B (20 23 . 25: Fi~. H .H and .111 Iron I context at T ell 7'-. l iqne 2 4 ). Similar bO\d' " 1·rr produced h) cuntempora 0 " nrbhop'i in othd material. ~uc h as fait"nce. metal, iH'0 and potter)' (t.g. Petrie and Brunton 192+a . pl. XU .1 1; Pt'trie t9S7•

IMP ORTf~D

pl. '\1. ·14 . .p i-3· .'li-; Haye. 1959. fig. 77; N. Reeves 11 ~1 ) . tlili: Hopr 19H9. -..rrtion II. fig~ 1k. 6~. np q. uk m. I :{r. I .) •t ts that the Late Brun:te .\ gc \Trsion: de,·doped independently. HemispiH'riraJ bmd. of type 2 arc di~tingui hed h~ their cwrted rims. with all known example being made lrom calcite. C:atalog'lH' 26 would appear to be unique. \·\'ith a ... imple rounded rim Oaring in to a hroarl. well delined neck on a squat bod) (Fig. 3-j). Thi-., prrdatt·~ the rr~t of the group. appearing at .\tchana kn•l \ 'II at the r nd of the ~I iddle Bronze .\~1·: it i" probabl~ of E~vtian manuf~rturc, hut ha: Ill > oh\ iou~ paralld-.. T ype 2B ha a much learrr hi:tnry. The hap and may ha\'t' bf'en made in imitation of :"\ew Kingdom ceramic bowl' i3o 32. Fig. :q, cf Hope 1987. section I fifo{') ya < and t". qa. t'Ction II figs 2h i, ti e i. 12r. 15i. Ifilone tazza with omemporary ceramic form tFig. 3.8, cf ata.logu~ 1222).

STONE \ 'E

ELS IN

3. 1.3.3 -oonwrphic bou·b

'1\-pr

durk or birrl-'ihaped .Fig. i ·l ' T) J)(' 1: ...imil.tr bon) fom1, not wonH >qJhir (Fig. -P l T )l1l' ~r hn" I ,,·ith zoomorphic handles ~Fig. + 3' 7uta/ namplo 1:

rat. 33 36

4

cat. 37 39

:5

rat. 40

8

.\ notlwr \ ariel\ or hll\d i~ chararteri'ird by the presr nre of an extended ledge handk at one end and a bod~ "hir h has zoomorphic or skeuommvhic t'lcment tu it: dr~i~1. The nature of the lattt'r ha~ hn·n u:-.ed to subdiYidc thi. woup. T>Vl' 1 i..., cksigned tu imitillt' a durk; l)l)l' '2 i~ a ~i mplifird Ycrsion of thi ~ l(>rnl a11d type 3 u e~ zoommvhil image~ a.-, relief decoration around the outsiclt of tlw bowl. In Eg)VL the rangr or form:; in thi . clas . is t'\'t'll greater. Animal-ht,tded bowl · imilar to type t co-exist with ·hape · ~u h a!\ trus ed animals and birds. !ish and mirror· \Petrie 1937, ph XX\'.8go-8g t, XXXII.771,

0

5

nfl::

LE\' lliT

X..XX\ '.886; Clanwr 1o86. r 1• j)l. II.·> ·B \ :' >• . • 1on t type zoz: T. Dothan 1973· pl. ++-\: Prtnt· ~ . Ior11· 1 ~137 · pI. 93:~ . \ Jan, ,,f tttru .> pl. ,~X \ .1.:1; S . t t' lll( art> more common!) fou nd in material., 1nhrr t~ I ,.. ltcU, . I r: stone an d range 111 c atr •rom tIt' ·-t~ht ernrh n,, down to tlw Third lnremwdiate Period. · IJ."'' Duck-~haped bowl" prohabl~ uri'!int~trd .

E~-ptian

\\ oocl enth Dynast~ IEngelhach 19:.1 :~ . pl. \ L\ '[11. 11 ,1. Brumon and Eng,·lbach 19'27, pl. .\:\Lt.) JIJd continued down to the later :"\i!H'tl't'nth 0~ na~t\ at k al't. although it i · diflicult tn C\tabli"h exactly" hen production ceao;ed (for later exam pb 'il'l' Pt·tri( 18gta, pl. X\ ' II l. 27~ D.. \:,ton 19gG. I(j~ Brunton 1948. pl. XIXI.n t. Stone \'t'r'iions art' rare in tlw U"\ ant. with a fe\1 examples appearing in LBII context Jt

IDem

~--~~----~--~========~'

Fl r.t:Rl

4· Egyptian keuomorphic bowl and poom. rat. nos. 36. 39 and 40.

1

IMPORT£!) STONE \'E

1c·ll cl-·,\_uul and Tc>ll Far'ah South in calcite (33, 35) ill linw'lllll '2 rcprf'se nt a ~illlpl i !iration or the duck-shaped bn\\'1. retaining the llat-toppr d rim and kdgc handle , but larking the scpa1,Jlc hc.-tci piece and bini-like dccorat iw r lemcnt three such bowls, coming from .\.in Shems (:2) and Lachish (1). Furthr r example-. in thr lsrarl ~fuseum are thought to be from the rrmetl'f) of Deir ei-Babh (Clamcr 1986, 24 25. pb Il.1 '2), whilr others \-\T IT found at Gezer in a lat er, Iron II ~tratum (~lacali ster 191'2. pis CCXI.tt , CCXII. sa). A. with the pre,·ious group, distributioll apprars to be restricted to southt>rn Pale~tine. Catalogue" 39 represents a \'ariation on the mual lcmn. with the body made up of two adjoining bowk link1~d by a deeply cut ,·-;;hapcrl channel IFig. 4.2). While this ha. no exact parallels in Egypt. ~imilar bowls have been found in L·uC' Cypriot rontexb in Cypru~ \\·here they are thought to he EgJvtian imports Uacoh. on 199+, cat. 15- rti. pis 1.1 l). :..!8. 1j ). The T . implified zoomorphic bowls appl'ar during LBIIB and continue through into the Iron .\!!;c' . Zoomurphic bo\\'IS of t)'lX j arc repre t>nted by a npentiw ' e. 'll"' from Tell rl-·.\jjul 140. Fig. +·3). Thi~ f1·a turc~ a circular ho\\'1 with sculpted openwork d(' w also produced by Eg)vtian tone w S('l \\ ork.shops, although it ''a not ~ popular in that material (\"andier d'Ahbadie 1972. cal. 1:-> 16. 18, 21: BrO\·a ki et a/. 1981. cat. 2+'..1 :. The earlie t pro\' nan ed rxample was found at ~1alkata and dat to the reign of Am nhotep lll, "hile the late t welldated appt>aran e is in a pit group at Gurob, da" d to

~ 1 0 . b \'1-: S

E L~ f "

"flff

f f \ ' A :--1 '1

a pht' of rrinterprt"ta rio n 111 lin \.\ irh tlwir 0 . 111cl ncnls. ~1l . k~L~a l ltliKf ion rn~y a l.,o h ave varied ,. 1 ' ' " ' th,. ~las'> . llw J.>re:-.,· r~cc of d1e l c~ng ha ndle en1 ,, 11 r,.~'" an ml c q )rt>l a tJOll o f '\llmc \TJ's Jo n s a~ a ladJ,. H 1 , . • ' ) \f"\(7 lik1 tlw /(JOJllorphw bowls dr TU\'>t'O ,tiJo\ ,. 1 · lrJth liddt>d a nd unliJd,·d example an· kno\.\n . 1 h 1• 1aid lfJ ha, ('Oil tclilled ~()Ill (' kind or re~idw· I Fr&dc;rifJC H• j ·>'f' - , . IJ S\\ imming gi rl :-.pooiiS \\Trc j u\ 1 one or lll a ll ) ·' I""· . ' r K. I L' •vvn r rJX" r urre nt 111 . 'I>\\· mgc om ···,t,rypt. m alt } ul \\ h1< h fea tured ~taw and ),(' ITa lll fi,~o;urc-. .J'\ a parr of their de ig" (r.g. Vandicr d'Abbadie 1972. car. '2j . 30 BrO\·ar ·ki eta/. 1982, ca t. 243. 245). '

belief~

>

3. f ..i

PYXIDES

Lug-handled pyx is with tenon

cat. 42

base (Fig. 6.1)

Total r.mmplt's

0 5 U cm ·--.c=----~----========~·

FI(, 1 ' Jt (Fig. li. 2

'1\vc

di~ nr rin g base rib 1Fig. h.:)l l it tlm ·c 1 iiJ.., Fig. h ..l-) T,,)(' ·r "cp.-u .Ltt> . t:llld

cat. 43 45

:~

2 : ' " ''

l. \ : t \ HJ

3· \ : t '' o ribs ' Fig. b.:1l ·~ B : thn' t' rib" t Fig. 6.6) Typ .r lr .tgnwnta ry examples + \ : t\\ o ribs ~B : thrce rib. -1C : unk11own number of ribs Total nampltl

ca t. 46 cat. 47 52 cat. 53- 58 cat. 59 76 cat. n - 78 rat. 7g-8o cat. 81

I ()

6 18 '2 2

39

Tht· t.ll.za i" a n ope n bo \\'l '' ith rim and base o f' app rox im.llcly equ al di variants. The foot is a nother maj o r source of va riatio n. ranging from a -;impk flat base, to a low loot, tall trumpetha ped lo ot or ~cpara t e l y m ad e sta nd. This gro up ha been subcli,·ided by fri.al. actua l exa mpk-, are rare and it is difficult to demo n tra te a clear c hronological prect>dcnce for

111 . I.L\' . T

tlt · m (for ·ome d a ted t>xa mple-s in ~old a nd ,, 1H"J(j \\'inlock H).fH. pl. XXX\".\ : \ 'a ndin d ' Ahh~cl I(• ' ,,·, . ~ • ra t. '.2'22 J. The wral u.t·s hmT been '>uggr~ted for the tazz . although it i~ po~~ ible that fonm or dilT«'rem ..,izc and foot type scrw·d dilfrrcnt function. . .-\s the tnJ jonry of example~ art' open w· srb found "ithr,ut lid!\. one ·uggested function ha.., been as a kind of drinking goblet tCiamcr 1y88. rog .. Howe\·er. a pinched or rounded lip would he expected i fthi~ \\ ere theca c. wherea:o mo. . t feature a narro'' Oar-topped collared rim. A mort' plam.ible fl.1nction i" to eli pen:unguenb or dr~ foodstufF uch as nut-;, fig:- or fruit during banquet"; while they could han~ been u:-.ed in pri,·ate a open hO\d. fo r holding a range or nbjccl~ which die! not need to be kr pt li·mn contr.ll i011 .,)th i t ing 1 )r o' oid \'('i1wd IolLI p e ta l-; and -.('pa l, ' L1it 1 qb:~ - ~lG!. It is an Eg -pt ian type w hic h fiN .tppt ·ar' i11 the carl~ Ei~lnecn tl1 D~ n a. ty and 1 nn t in ut·' 1hrou~hout the ~('\\ Kin gdom in a , ·arie l) ol' ditkn·nt m ateriab including ~ tone (nm Bi-;sing I~)"~ · pl. \'I.J tL(4o: Petrie 1937. pl. X..~'\.Il.Ht 8- 8 tg ). bn,n;c rPl'tric 19:n , pl. ~XXI:\ . 1 8) a nd fa ie nce BrO\ .tr-ki 1'1 a/. tC)8:l. q 7 cat. qG). Twn a\c itc e .mtpl,., h:l\ e lwc n li.>unrl in Pa lc:.. tine. Tht' ~imple~t ot' the'c i~ 83 . a miniatu re example !'rom Lac hish Fo-. c T e mple Ill. d a ting from LBJI:\ to e arly LBIIB. . \ .. imilar cx,unple was recent!~ found in a n Eig;htet'nth D yna ·t~ buria l at aqqara (K . Sowacla, p: T a it 1963. g6; B. ton + L) p1· 172; Fig . G.H I. Thi~ \'a riety appea . to date

I fH I Jo\' A:"'I

from the Eie;hteenth D~ Ita. I)· dm, n tr 1 Ilu . 1 Intrrmediate Pe 1·i d (1~ . •\~tnn tqg •.. 1- 1 1 lttr · "' .) · I I opul a r in fai nee th a n to n t> 1T ai t IQfp· \ ' lllt,"

P

-



.1 . cat. no 1., 1 1 1

Lilyqui. t a nd Brill 1993, fig. 3·F \ 'andie r cl'.\ hh o r· -19 72, cat. 44; Ho pe 19o7. 1g . bh 1. Thr

contain

fo ur examples ,., hich p robabh hdr

.

·

~4-

c~d11 C . all of wh1ch rom e from an LBIJ 1\( . . . . m~ C a ta logue 84 from Detr cl-Ral ah 1. not typi al ofth g ro up. ,.,-jrh a n o fl set n~ck. \\'hie h ii~\·ite~ parallel ; ~ the much la rge r 'dro p Ja r class (rf 504 1. De pilr thi the small . calc o f the , ·e ·scl a nd it~ . implr roundd lip, simila r to those ecn on go bkt. o f ty pe 1 'll~~..,1 that it sh o uld b e interpre te d as a gobkt , rathn than

11 1

a Ja r. Ty-pe 3 goblets are c harac te ri ed by a n elongated. upright body with straig ht sides. There is onh onr example from thi. cla in the catalogue. an unusual calcite goble t fro m H azar 1\'hich wa~ found in a LBII ·cultic' context (fig . (i.g ). This \\'a made in

8S.

two separa te part : a n outer goble t o n a tall trumpet· sh ap ed fooL and a narrower inne r goblet 1\'hich rr~t ed inside. The uppe r parts of inner a nd o uter goblet · arc bo th missing . Altho ugh the re are no exact parallels for this hapc in Egyptian reperto ires, both material a nd d esign suggest a n E~-ptian origin. In particular, the use o r te non a nd mortiet' lO fit the l\\'0 pieces together is a peculia rly Egyptian practice . The te rm ·goblet· implie a drinkin~ cup and thr rr is evidence to indicate that m a ny \T'>seb in thi da we re used for that purpme . Se\'eral ~ce m· · are kno1111 \\'hic h d epict goble t of type 1 being u~cd flH· drink· ing, including example. from the T omb o f Huya. un a n unfinished relief from T ell d·. \mama. a fait'ncc pla que ofTutankhamen a nd dt· oratt'cl sih'('f brace· le ts from The ban Tomb sG ( l'ait 1963, gti 97. Tait : ugge ted tha t the 'blue lotw-." goble t or type '}. \\d rest ric ted to ritual u. e, e. p ec ially in the practice of funerary cult ( rait 1963. 99!· Thi'i wo uld be parti ·u· larly apt as the blue lolll h a b een linked \\ith the concept o r re birth a fte r d eath (BrO\·ar ki t l a/. 1982. 141). H o weve r , thi. form Wa.! probably not limited

,-

• I 1, , 111 n,·r.u

t r ~c· . "' ' uggc ll'd h~ it .tppt·aranrc in a

h.111dlullll ...cnd.u drinkin.l( ' l'~) ('~ ;t mplr'>. The alaba. tron \\·a., equeutl~ Ill I.Bll . " ·ll I !lie '"I lr k1·I I . . . I )>rec 1.1i ' . \ to lt durmg 111114 type 114). Hm-\ T \ '('1'. the Jack of contemporal) p~;a!~ leis mig ht suggc~t that this variant wa~ an isolated innovat io n . The ridge-necked a labastron i a variant on the previous type which features a series of parallel g rooves bet.,,'Cen the rim a nd the ba e of the neck (drop-shaped alabastra type :2 : Fig. 8.j). ThN can range bet\veen two a nd si.x in number, although three is the m ost common. The groo\·es themseln·s usuaU1 show som e irregularity. implying that they had n~t been added u sing a ny kind of turning dr\'ice. The rim te nds to be rounded or slightly flattened, loping in towards the n eck and c reating a funncl-~haped mouth. Variatio n occur in the treatm ent of the ba e. which m ay be rounded, po inted or have a low foot. The latter feature is m ost common on the material at Byblos. There is al o quite a \'ariation in the omall proportio ns of the body, from la rge, almost globular examples (Steindorff 1937, pl. 95.20; Kemp and ~ferrillees 1980, fig. 41.38) to elo ngated ,·ersions l156 and 157). It is also not uncommon for the rim and n eck to b e manufactured in a separate piece from the body (154; K emp and Merrillees 1g8o, fig ..p.38: R eisner 1923, fig. 159-7). The ridge-necked a la bastron appear to -~erclop alongside the earliest drop-shaped alaba tra. 1here b no immediate ance tor for thi shape v..; thin the swnr

· 1 ar ha\'r

vessel industrv it ·elf a nd a nother matena 111 . pro\·ided the . original prototYpe. Ben-Dor su~e '

. . · . · ·d bv hbrr that the nbbmg m a v haw been m:-.pm: · .



'.

01

-. ) 0~ ·

nngs fitted _on~o ~ tn ~ egg _( Ben-~ .. ~~')nd th~ Howc\'er, nbbmg 1. easLiy acluen :d tn da) . _ · . · · alabastfil. feature 1 Jound on conte mporar; ceramll

IMPORTED ' TONE \'1-. SEL.

~u~~c·,tin g a le:: exotic ongm for the de. ign (cf' I.ih cJIII' t t4q.1. fi~. 4-9· li·01n Dahshur: Buurriau and Quirk• ,~~~ ~H. lig. 1. 1o 1.1 '2 from Lahun j. Ridgn.l-neck ,tl.th.t 1r.t a n · mmt common in calcite. although they on ,1,j, lll.tlk

appear in other materials. such a:-, red ,ttld ,, hilt' limestone brt'ccia and anhydrite (Reisner I ll:.!:~· li~. tj9.1 0: \ 'andier d'Abbadie ' 9i2. cat. 564.). · r hr rno:-.t securely dat ed example · in Egypt rome fron ltnrnbs at ..;ite:-. such a-; Harageh , Dah hur, Rifeh and .\ h\ do~. suggesting a T,,·clfth Dvna. tv date ,Pct ric· ~~n7· 10 . pl. XXIX. tij7. G59 GG~1; B.· Aston , 9 ~+ t\ p!· It is not entire!) ckar when this shape \\Tilt out ol' production, although it srem:, likely that manuf'acturr continued into the Second Intc-r~ecli­ ate Period. as was the case with tht: ceramic example:. Some post-Twelfth Dyn ast~ w ·sels '' ere found in :\hydo~ T omb E:2:;h and Sedment Group 1300, a mixed clrpo..,it which may ha\'e been u ed as a dump for ~ Iiddle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period matnial looted from other burials in the ccmetcr~ 1Pctrie and Brunton 1924a, 19). Several ridge-necked alabastra were also recO\·cred from burial~ in and around Tumulus III and I\' at Kerma, prohabl) dating to the latter Second Imermcdiate Period or early Eighteenth Dyna ty. while the shape appear~ briefly in ~ ew Kingdom tombs at Aniba ,Rei.-ncr 19'23. fig. 159.~ ':>g .t o; Laco\·ara 199 1, fig. sb-r; Steindorff I93i , pl. 9,).11. 20). The~e later occurrence raise the possibility that 0iubian sites either made cxtensi\'e use of earlier, probably looted material, or that their \\'Orkshops had adopted the ridged-neck alabastron into their repertoires and continued to produce it after manufacture had cea ed in ~ lidd.le and Lower Egypt. There are 15 ridge-necked alabastra found in the Le,·ant: all made from calcite. The type was quite well repre. ented in Syria, with two example'. found in the tombs at Ebla, four in the 'royal tombs' of Byhl o~ !Tomb~ IJ , \'l and IX) and another from Tomb L\"11 at Ras Shamra. Three additional examples ol' this t~1w \\err recently discovered in downtmvn Beirut AlB Bullet in :~8 .1 /2, tgg6, 23). The example. from Byhlos and Ra.:. Shamra were particularly notablt> for their large ize. with height ranging from 205 tu 5'25 mm. On.ly onf' ve el from the .-outhcm Levant was able to rival the. e: this was a calcite alaba tron found

l.J

in an i ·alated an· burial near ~ebi R ubin . \~hi h had a height of 15n mm '1661. Thi i · all the mort> note\vorthy becau-;c tht>.'C e-xample-. an· largn th n aUr urrf'ntly knowll ver:.ion. from Ep;ypt it..rlC ,,·hich tend to ran~e bet ween jU and 200 mm in heigh t. Such large-scale stone ,·essels are u:-.uall~ found in only th e wealthiest of bu rial ·. typically thosr of th royal famil) (e.g. El-Khouli 1994; Carter 1916: Winlock ' 9-tB). Thi - might . ugge:t that the LeYantine versions re-prr~entcd diplomatic gili. exchanged between the rulers of Egypt and the more important Syrian sta t e~ (for a similar example in Crete ...ce Warren 1969. PGo7). Howe\·cr, thi~ theory doc · not satisfactorily explain the ~cbi Rubin example. who e i ·alated context implie the burial place of a "ealthy prO\·incial rather than any member of a ruling Canaanite family. Perhaps it represents something more unusual. , uch as the burial place of a former city-go,·ernor ent into political exile (S. J. Bourke, per . comm . 1997). The remaining ridge-necked alaba ·tra were found at Bet h Shan. Lar hi. h. Gezer. ei:Jisr, Tell )Jagila and j ericho, \\'ith height · rangi ng bet\veen 94 and 148 mm. much closer to thr gem·ra.l size of those found in Egyvt. The ea rlie ·t occ urrences of these alaba:-.tra arc probably contemporary with the latn pan of the Twdfth Dyna. t) in Egyvt. \\'ith t'xamplt~ found in f..lBliA runt ext:-. at :\'ebi Rubin and Byblo · T omb. II and IX f154 157. 166). Howewr. there are ~orne . ugge~t ion that the Royal Tomb~ from B~ blo: may be neither .ls n trly or as homogenouo; as u'>ually claimed (Tufi1ell1 g6y; Devn ' 9iG. 11: Lilyquist 1993. -ti - +f). Certain!) the..: remain in ~ oc.:currtnct' of the" ,-es~els are all latt>r. with example. from .\IBIIB deposit. (158, 159. 162. 165,. .\lBIIC: 160 and Beth Shan T omb -tl, datin~ to the later .\1 BIJ C and t>arly Late Bronze .\ ge 1 153· Fig. B.i . .\ inglc exampl~ which ''a found in later LBII depo5it wa. probably an heirloom l1641.

3. 1.8.2 Conical alabrutra T ype 1: funn el- haped mouth rA:' quat·. \lxD > Ht 1B: 'regular·. \lxD = Ht IFig. 8.B) 1C: ·tall', \lxD < Ht

a t. 168 202

-~-

cat. 203 210

8

STl>~F. VE

T 'Pcn identified, based on the proftlc of the rim. Conical alabastra t)lJe 1 feature the funnd-mouth rim that is characteristic of the dropshaped and ridged-neck \Trsion ·. a fact \\·hich serve to underline the rclation::.hip between these three lorms (Fig. 8.8). T)'Pl' 2 arc distinguished by the presl'ncc of a broad Oat-toppl'd rim, \\·hich leads directly to a . u·ai,ght neck interior 1 ,Fig. 8.g). Thi represent s a c\c, ·dopmem from the prniou · f)lX' that ocl'u rred in E~vtian \\'Orkshops during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Conical ala bastra type 3 han· a collar rim and only slightly sloping lip interior, but are easily distingui ·heel by the , ·enical loop hancllt' attaclwd to tht· rim (Fig. 8. W J. The last l)VC include incomplete or poorly publisllf'd material \\·hen" the body belongs to tbi:-. class. but the t'xact rim t)lJe cannot be dl'IC!11lint:cl.

3. 1.8.2. 1 Conical alaba tra with funn el--;haped mouths

This group is defined by the" prt>sence of an off et neck and funnel-shaped mouth. It i rquivalent to Aston type q 7, a squat \ 'l'l. ion\ hich he dates from

the T\, elfth Dyna. ty down to the end oft ht' ~ lnl cnncdiatf' Period \B. Aston 1 9~!4.. t.p . .11 ~( rJ!l(j . . I d Ill . tlw t'ctrl\ r· 1h( fr)rrr' wa:, Stl'II betng CllTU att' · • 1 ~ lr·r·1 1 Dynasty. as suggested by at ka. t two t">: a ;tlic1~~ mcltrator of when thts w rston hr:t appear-, , l'ulnr. Imported conical alaba. tra reach a peak during. thr ~ IBIIC and LBI periods. ,,·hiJc aft er LBI thnt· j, a sharp decrease in numbers which uggesL~ that thr t~lJC \\'a no longer in product ion (. ee Fig. ; •. TylJC 1 \Vas ·ubc\i,·idccl on the basis of general bOO. proportiom. into ·. quat·. 'medium' and 'tall' exam·· pies ( t~pe5 1A -C). It \\'as hoped that this might hdp determine the chronolo~ical de\'elopment or this form, perhaps from hon to tall. or ,·ice versa. l'nfor· tunatdy, no such pattern was e\·ident. Tall and squat versions appear from I he earliest through to thr latN context:-,, en·nly :-.pread onT thf' geographical rrl{ion im·estigaled. :\ onc tbeles~. these arbitrary di' i~iore wen· retained because they arc a good \\'ay to cxpr the ,·ariable proportiom of this group. Roughly half the . ample ldl into the CJUilt cate~ory (35 examplrL followed by elongated alabastra t2ti exampb ;md then the regular form 1H example ·:. Thr re•L~un for this diffnence is not clear, although at the rxtrrm ends of this range the hape~ are quite di .nnp1c a!) t he "1ze

r, .\

l l\IP O R11-.D '1 0:\ J- \~ . SFl

(ll 1I I

n,, lw in tlw h.1rdrr •

to

d efin e area of c u tame r

) tf' "'l' 11• l .

1 \J iu ,.__l,t ,, .1 ~ the fir~t to no t icc tha t :-e n oral impo rted . 11 ,. , •11 j, .tl .tlabastra in Pal e~ I inc h aH" a n O\'a l l · ' J( lan , j, ,, . 1.1thcr tha n a circ ular On m s sp ecifically f(H· export a nd the tailoring of ex po rt patte rns to ·uit specific regio ns a rc no t unkn0\\'11 p hen o m e n a in antiquit~ . S tudie oftradc in C)v rio t a nd .\lycenaean pottery haw dem o n strated similar practices during the Latf' Bro nze Age 1Gittkn 198 1. 52 55; Eriksso n 1993. ~9: Sh crratt1 g82. I 8 :) \. If this \\'as theca e. thC' fac t that a ro und on r third of Eg:1Jtia n imported alab~ tra fo und in the Le,·a nt con tinue to ha ,·e a round pla n , ·iew migh t indica te tha t the asse mblages there are a mi:xture of m a terial d e ri\'ed fi·01n tomb robbing as " ell a · legitima te trade .

;c,cN· ,

3.1.8.2.2 C onica l alab astra with broad fla t-topped run

Early in the E ightee nth D yn a ty a JH' \\ Ya rie ty of conical ala bastron a ppc-·a rs in E~vt \\·hidt rep laces the funnel- ·haped m o uth of pre\'io us \Trsin ns wi th a broad , flat-topped rim fl a ring d own to an o ff et neck (Petr ie 1937 typ es H6g 872: B. Aston 1~19+ type I8SJh wms likely tha t th e o rigin s of this ne'' rim tylJC lies in thf' · ubtrpe~ . suggesting tha t thi . ite" ac te d a~ tht· nJ ,lin di · tributio n ce ntr fo r the e copred cleme n ts from r n nt t·rnpo ral'\ and .. . . . . .· tar1lf'T Egypt ian :-.to nf' fo rms, creating a h yhnd prn t- 1:-. /Cawrc a ra ised T\\ c ntie th Dynasties lB. ston ' 99-t-- 1.)2. type 1- fj c·ord on .trn u nd tire upp('r llt'Ck a nd decora Ls a la rge, elo ngated m ·oid body ra isc ·d cordo n. In ..;o nlt' ca t"S, the !Ja ndle h as been o n a tall trumpe t-sh a p ed foot wi th d eep ring underpo.-.it io n cd to j o in the m iddk. rathe r tha n th e upper side . A single strap h a ndle h as been pre er\'ed part of dw n eck (323. 329. Fig. 10.3). These jugle ts exte n d ing up,,·ards fro m the sh o u ld e r. T hi has a \\'C" r c- fo un d a r .\ tc h a n a ( r), R as Ibn H a ni f1). K.amid raised ridge d m m the m iddlt' with fa imly incised d -Luz (:.? }, H a znr (! ), the Amman T e mple (1) a nd h o ri zonta l lines 0 11 e ither . id e. T hi!> p iece \\·o uld ecm l.ach i ~ h ('2J. to be of Eg~vti an m a nufac ture, but h~ no precise Tlw t·a rlicst jug le t of typ(' 41\ fo und in thc Le\ ·a m p ara llel" in the co rpo ra of \ ' O il Bissing, Pt"trie . Aston w a. a n imitation h il bil fi·orll T o mb ''57 a t T ell or Lilyquist. It b t·a rs general !>im ila r itie to the body el- 'Ajjul (305 1. \\'he re it \'\as found in as. ocia tion with sh a p e o r the 0\'0 id jar cia . ' while the la rge ale hla k Lustrous \\'hc(-1made ware a n d a toggle pin. A s suggc ts som e thing p e rha p _ clo:er to a n a mphora. th re a rc 11 0 stone \Tr sio n known in Egypt be fo r «" th e11rly Eigh tee nth D yn as ty, the ·c obj ects we re 3.1.9. 6 Pirff omt)ilf!,idJ (f)pe f1) p roha J,J;. d e-pos it e d a t ·o nw time during tlw_ LBIA Type 6: piriform bod y p criud . Ex:.ullplf's of typ es +Ai-iii next a~pear 111 con rr w rr·

rn"'

or

LBIB LBIIA p e n o d s, ·uc h a . the dw!.?./tau~ a t Kamid cJI-L oz, Hc;th S h a n level IX ,w d LachisJJ Fosse T e mple II. ronrc mporary w ith rhc 1r nJ.tin lloruit in E gyp t. T h ese Jo rms a ppear to tcxr-. d,1ting fi·om tlw

h tt\ ·c· rn llot~"

lx .

the Three Prince. e at Theb 5 ((.jl qui ·t 1995· rat. no · 38. () o, 76. 7B. 79. Z. fig:-. Gj. H-t-. 1+4-). L'nin..,crihed exampl e'~ are al o knovm from the T omb. of \mcnhott·p I, Tnthmo;,i Ill ancl Tmankhamcn (Carter 1916 type 12: Lilyqui t 1995. cat. nos :~8 . Z. fig. 144; el-Khouli 1994. cat. no:. '17 . 3Cf · r J. The suggc ·t that produCJion may haw continued until the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Sixteen Egyptian flasks ha,·e been found in the Le,·ant: the. rare made from calcite (13)· unidentified 'alabaster· (2) and serprntine (1 c- ·ampk1. The c import, are lairly r \·enly dispc..Tecl throughout the region. In Palc:tint>. they appear in the cuastal plain and .Judacan hill · at T ell d -'Ajjul. Lachi ·h, .\in Shems. Khirbct Kufin and Gezer: at .\tegiddo and Pe:> lla in the J ezreel and north j ordan \ 'alleys, and at Hazor in the eastern Galilee region. In Syria. a fe, example \\'ere found on the coa t at Ras . hamra and Byblos, and in the Amuq valley at Atchana. The earliest Oa k found in the Lrvam could be contemporary with the T\\'elfth Dyna ty in Egypt. if' e are to believe the ~IBIIA dates postulated for Byblo Tombs I and IX and Khirbet Kufin T omb 3· Additional material i found in contexts dating from l\1BIIB through to LBI. These are all well within the liddle Kingdom traditions and, like the !\'uhian examples, may reflect Hyksos period looting or heirloom material. HO\·\'C\'t'r. some or the fl asks found in Late Bronze Age contexts seem to repre ent the r..: w Kingdom ,·ersions. including examples (i·om Lac hi ·h (353, Fig. 11.3), Pella (354) and Ra: Shamra (356. 357, the latter inscribed with the cartouches of. \menhotep III). Clamer has suggested that a flattened base is more characteristic of the. e later f1a - ~ (Clamer 1986, 21). The function of this kind of n:~. e l is not certain, although their clo eel mouth~ and o ca ·ional association with variou lid type · suggc Lo; that there wa orne need to protect the e contents from either evaporation or pillage (e.g. Rei ner 1923. fig. 160.3).

3.1.1 2

PIL URIM FLA SK•

Type 1: flat base (Fig. 11.4) Typr 2: com't'x base 2A: . pherical body (Fig. I 1..))

cat. 358- 359

2

at. 36o- 365

6

S I0\1 ~

2H.,

\ ' f. .' ..,J .I ' " I Iff

l u n~;~ wd bod~ · Fi~

I I (,

f (){0/ f lflnt/l!t I

1:!

l'!h· p ih.:rim tb ... l,. i. ch a rancri ~cd b y a g-lo bular o r h.t!{ . hnd\ "ith broacl 11prighr twck. Jht t•·11 t ,, ir h ,, 1 . 'n· or thi~ t\l~ )t' fi·orn Ecn JH i t.~dr~ \\ ,·Ill .• ,. l ollf" I k rlf,\11 exa mples. One suc h i ca ta log-u1• X< "P 111j J 358 . ..t fl; ll·l 1 . I h · .I k d •l a · · wrt 1 a srng c a nd lc· rn rhe , hapt· ,,,. . ~· . 'l' llt' p Iac•-nwnt (Jf tlu· h a ''