# Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences [3 ed.] 0135265266

Assuming no prior knowledge of statistics, these authors combine their varied backgrounds—one a statistician, the other

1,087 196 11MB

English Pages 643 [720] Year 1997

Contents......Page 6
Preface......Page 11
1.1 Introduction to Statistical Methodology......Page 15
1.2 Description and Inference......Page 18
1.3 The Role of Computers in Statistics......Page 21
1.4 Chapter Summary......Page 23
2.1 Variables and Their Measurement......Page 26
2.2 Randomization......Page 31
2.3 Sampling and Nonsampling Variability......Page 36
2.4 Other Probability Sampling Methods......Page 39
2.5 Chapter Summary......Page 40
3.1 Tabular and Graphical Description......Page 47
3.2 Measuring Central Tendency - The Mean......Page 57
3.3 The Median and Other Measures of Central Tendency......Page 60
3.4 Measures of Variation......Page 68
3.5 Sample Statistics and Population Parameters......Page 76
3.6 Chapter Summary......Page 77
4 Probability Distributions......Page 92
4.1 Probability distributions for Discrete and Continuous Variables......Page 93
4.2 The Normal Probability Distribution......Page 98
4.3 Sampling Distributions......Page 106
4.4 Sampling Distributions of Sample Means......Page 111
4.5 Review: Population, Sample, and Sampling Distributions......Page 119
4.6 Chapter Summary......Page 122
5 Statistical Inference: Estimation......Page 133
5.1 Point Estimation......Page 134
5.2 Confidence Interval for a Mean......Page 137
5.3 Confidence Interval for a Proportion......Page 143
5.4 Choice of Sample Size......Page 147
5.5 Confidence Intervals for a Median......Page 153
5.6 Chapter Summary......Page 156
6 Statistical Inference: Significance Tests......Page 166
6.1 Elements of a Significance Test......Page 167
6.2 Significance Test for a Mean......Page 171
6.3 Significance Test for a Proportion......Page 179
6.4 Decisions and Types of Errors in Tests of Hypotheses......Page 185
6.5 Small-Sample Inference for a Mean - The r Distribution......Page 192
6.6 Small-Sample Inference for a Proportion - The Binomial Distribution......Page 199
6.7 Calculating p(Type II error)......Page 205
6.8 Chapter Summary......Page 208
7 Comparison of Two Groups......Page 222
7.1 Quantitative Data: Comparing Two Means......Page 224
7.2 Qualitative Data: Comparing Two Proportions......Page 228
7.3 Small-Sample inference for Comparing Means and Proportions......Page 232
7.4 Comparing Dependent Samples......Page 238
7.5 Nonparametric Statistics......Page 244
7.6 Chapter Summary......Page 245
8 Analyzing Association Between Categorical Variables......Page 260
8.1 Contingency Tables......Page 261
8.2 Chi-Squared Test of Independence......Page 265
8.3 More on Testing Independence......Page 272
8.4 Measuring Association in 2x2 Tables......Page 277
8.5 Association Between Ordinal Variables......Page 284
8.6 Inference for Ordinal Associations......Page 290
8.7 Measuring Association: Proportional Reduction in Error......Page 294
8.8 Chapter Summary......Page 297
9 Linear Regression and Correlation......Page 313
9.1 Linear Relationships......Page 315
9.2 Least Squares Prediction Equation......Page 319
9.3 The Linear Regression Model......Page 326
9.4 Measuring Linear Association - The Correlation......Page 330
9.5 Inference for the Slope and Correlation......Page 338
9.6 Model Assumptions and Violations......Page 347
9.7 Chapter Summary......Page 352
10 Introduction to Multivariate Relationships......Page 368
10.1 Association and Causality......Page 369
10.2 Controlling for Other Variables......Page 371
10.3 Types of Multivariate Relationships......Page 377
10.4 Inferential Issues in Statistical Control......Page 383
10.5 Chapter Summary......Page 384
11 Multiple Regression and Correlation......Page 394
11.1 Multiple Regression Mode!......Page 395
11.2 Example with Multiple Regression Computer Output......Page 400
11.3 Multiple Correlation and R-squared......Page 406
11.4 Inference for Multiple Regression Coefficients......Page 410
11.5 Modeling Interaction......Page 416
11.6 Comparing Regression Models......Page 420
11.7 Partial Correlation......Page 423
11.8 Standardized Regression Coefficients......Page 427
11.9 Chapter Summary......Page 431
12 Comparing Groups: Analysis of Variance Methods......Page 450
12.1 Comparing Several Means: One-Way Analysis of Variance......Page 451
12.2 Multiple Comparisons of Means......Page 457
12.3 Performing ANOVA by Regression Modeling......Page 461
12.4 Two-Way ANOVA......Page 464
12.5 Two-Way ANOVA and Regression......Page 468
12.6 Repeated Measures ANOVA......Page 474
12.7 Two-Way ANOVA with Repeated Measures on a Factor......Page 478
12.8 Violations of ANOVA Assumptions......Page 485
12.9 Chapter Summary......Page 487
13 Combining Regression and ANOVA: Analysis of Covariance......Page 502
13.1 Comparing Means and Comparing Regression Lines......Page 503
13.2 Analysis of Covariance Model......Page 506
13.3 Analysis of Covariance, Permitting interaction......Page 511
13.4 inference for Analysis of Covariance Models......Page 515
13.6 Chapter Summary......Page 528
14.1 Mode! Selection Procedures......Page 539
14.2 Regression Diagnostics......Page 546
14.3 Multicollinearity......Page 553
14.4 Nonlinearity: Polynomial Regression......Page 555
14.5 Generalized Linear Models......Page 562
14.6 Exponential Regression and Log Transforms......Page 568
14.7 Chapter Summary......Page 573
15 Logistic Regression: Modeling Categorical Responses......Page 587
15.1 Logistic Regression......Page 588
15.2 inference and Multiple Predictors in Logistic Regression......Page 593
15.3 Logic Models with Qualitative Explanatory Variables......Page 597
15.4 Loglinear Models for Categorical Variables......Page 601
15.5 Logit and Loglinear Model Goodness of Fit......Page 606
15.6 Logit Models for Ordinal Variables......Page 611
15.7 Chapter Summary......Page 618
16.1 Event History Models......Page 632
16.2 Path Analysis......Page 636
16.3 Factor Analysis......Page 642
16.4 Structural Equations with Latent Variables......Page 646
16.5 Markov Chains......Page 650
Appendix: SAS and SPSS for Statistical Analyses......Page 656
Tables......Page 679