Srimad Bhagavatam (All cantos 1 - 10)

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Srimad Bhagavatam (All cantos 1 - 10)

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"Srimad Bhagavatam – First Canto" by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. COPYRIGHT NOTICE: This is an evaluation copy of the printed version of this book, and is NOT FOR RESALE. This evaluation copy is intended for personal non-commercial use only, under the "fair use" guidelines established by international copyright laws. You may use this electronic file to evaluate the printed version of this book, for your own private use, or for short excerpts used in academic works, research, student papers, presentations, and the like. You can distribute this evaluation copy to others over the Internet, so long as you keep this copyright information intact and do not add or subtract anything to this file and its contents. You may not reproduce more than ten percent (10%) of this book in any medium without the express written permission from the copyright holders. Reference any excerpts in the following way: “Excerpted from “Srimad Bhagavatam First Canto” by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, courtesy of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, www.krishna.com.” This book and electronic file is Copyright 1972-2004 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, 3764 Watseka Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90034, USA. All rights reserved. For any questions, comments, correspondence, or to evaluate dozens of other books in this collection, visit the website of the publishers, www.krishna.com.

About the Author His Divine Grace AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the world’s most distinguished teacher of Vedic religion and thought, is the author of Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Srimad-Bhagavatam, The Nector of Devotion and many other English versions of Vedic literature. He is the founderacarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, which has hundreds of centers throughtout the world.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

2

First Canto

Preface We must know the present need of human society. And what is that need? Human society is no longer bounded by geographical limits to particular countries or communities. Human society is broader than in the Middle Ages, and the world tendency is toward one state or one human society. The ideals of spiritual communism, according to Çrémad-Bhägavatam, are based more or less on the oneness of the entire human society, nay, of the entire energy of living beings. The need is felt by great thinkers to make this a successful ideology. Çrémad-Bhägavatam will fill this need in human society. It begins, therefore, with the aphorism of Vedänta philosophy janmädy asya yataù [SB 1.1.1] to establish the ideal of a common cause. Human society, at the present moment, is not in the darkness of oblivion. It has made rapid progress in the field of material comforts, education and economic development throughout the entire world. But there is a pinprick somewhere in the social body at large, and therefore there are large-scale quarrels, even over less important issues. There is need of a clue as to how humanity can become one in peace, friendship and prosperity with a common cause. Çrémad-Bhägavatam will fill this need, for it is a cultural presentation for the respiritualization of the entire human society. Çrémad-Bhägavatam should be introduced also in the schools and colleges, for it is recommended by the great student-devotee Prahläda Mahäräja in order to change the demoniac face of society. kaumära äcaret präjïodharmän bhägavatän ihadurlabhaà mänuñaà janmatad apy adhruvam arthadam (Bhäg. 7.6.1) Disparity in human society is due to lack of principles in a godless Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

civilization. There is God, or the Almighty One, from whom everything emanates, by whom everything is maintained and in whom everything is merged to rest. Material science has tried to find the ultimate source of creation very insufficiently, but it is a fact that there is one ultimate source of everything that be. This ultimate source is explained rationally and authoritatively in the beautiful Bhägavatam, or Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the transcendental science not only for knowing the ultimate source of everything but also for knowing our relation with Him and our duty toward perfection of the human society on the basis of this perfect knowledge. It is powerful reading matter in the Sanskrit language, and it is now rendered into English elaborately so that simply by a careful reading one will know God perfectly well, so much so that the reader will be sufficiently educated to defend himself from the onslaught of atheists. Over and above this, the reader will be able to convert others to accepting God as a concrete principle. Çrémad-Bhägavatam begins with the definition of the ultimate source. It is a bona fide commentary on the Vedänta-sütra by the same author, Çréla Vyäsadeva, and gradually it develops into nine cantos up to the highest state of God realization. The only qualification one needs to study this great book of transcendental knowledge is to proceed step by step cautiously and not jump forward haphazardly like with an ordinary book. It should be gone through chapter by chapter, one after another. The reading matter is so arranged with its original Sanskrit text, its English transliteration, synonyms, translation and purports so that one is sure to become a God-realized soul at the end of finishing the first nine cantos. The Tenth Canto is distinct from the first nine cantos because it deals directly with the transcendental activities of the Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa. One will be unable to capture the effects of the Tenth Canto without going through the first nine cantos. The book is complete in twelve cantos, each independent, but it is good for all to read them in small installments one after another. I must admit my frailties in presenting Çrémad-Bhägavatam, but still I am hopeful of its good reception by the thinkers and leaders of society on the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

strength of the following statement of Çrémad-Bhägavatam (1.5.11): tad-väg-visargo janatägha-viplavo yasmin prati-çlokam abaddhavaty api nämäny anantasya yaço ’ìkitäni yac chåëvanti gäyanti gåëanti sädhavaù “On the other hand, that literature which is full with descriptions of the transcendental glories of the name, fame, form and pastimes of the unlimited Supreme Lord is a transcendental creation meant to bring about a revolution in the impious life of a misdirected civilization. Such transcendental literatures, even though irregularly composed, are heard, sung and accepted by purified men who are thoroughly honest.” Oà tat sat A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Dated at Delhi December 15, 1962

Introduction The conception of God and the conception of Absolute Truth are not on the same level. The Çrémad-Bhägavatam hits on the target of the Absolute Truth. The conception of God indicates the controller, whereas the conception of the Absolute Truth indicates the summum bonum or the ultimate source of all energies. There is no difference of opinion about the personal feature of God as the controller because a controller cannot be impersonal. Of course modern government, especially democratic government, is impersonal to some extent, but ultimately the chief executive head is a person, and the impersonal feature of government is subordinate to the personal feature. So without a doubt whenever we refer to control over others Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

we must admit the existence of a personal feature. Because there are different controllers for different managerial positions, there may be many small gods. According to the Bhagavad-gétä any controller who has some specific extraordinary power is called a vibhütimat sattva, or controller empowered by the Lord. There are many vibhütimat sattvas, controllers or gods with various specific powers, but the Absolute Truth is one without a second. This Çrémad-Bhägavatam designates the Absolute Truth or the summum bonum as the paraà satyam. The author of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, Çréla Vyäsadeva, first offers his respectful obeisances unto the paraà satyam (Absolute Truth), and because the paraà satyam is the ultimate source of all energies, the paraà satyam is the Supreme Person. The gods or the controllers are undoubtedly persons, but the paraà satyam from whom the gods derive powers of control is the Supreme Person. The Sanskrit word éçvara (controller) conveys the import of God, but the Supreme Person is called the parameçvara, or the supreme éçvara. The Supreme Person, or parameçvara, is the supreme conscious personality, and because He does not derive any power from any other source, He is supremely independent. In the Vedic literatures Brahmä is described as the supreme god or the head of all other gods like Indra, Candra and Varuëa, but the Çrémad-Bhägavatam confirms that even Brahmä is not independent as far as his power and knowledge are concerned. He received knowledge in the form of the Vedas from the Supreme Person who resides within the heart of every living being. That Supreme Personality knows everything directly and indirectly. Individual infinitesimal persons, who are parts and parcels of the Supreme Personality, may know directly and indirectly everything about their bodies or external features, but the Supreme Personality knows everything about both His external and internal features. The words janmädy asya [SB 1.1.1] suggest that the source of all production, maintenance or destruction is the same supreme conscious person. Even in our present experience we can know that nothing is generated from inert matter, but inert matter can be generated from the living entity. For instance, by contact with the living entity, the material body develops into a working machine. Men with a poor fund of knowledge mistake the bodily machinery to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

be the living being, but the fact is that the living being is the basis of the bodily machine. The bodily machine is useless as soon as the living spark is away from it. Similarly, the original source of all material energy is the Supreme Person. This fact is expressed in all the Vedic literatures, and all the exponents of spiritual science have accepted this truth. The living force is called Brahman, and one of the greatest äcäryas (teachers), namely Çrépäda Çaìkaräcärya, has preached that Brahman is substance whereas the cosmic world is category. The original source of all energies is the living force, and He is logically accepted as the Supreme Person. He is therefore conscious of everything past, present and future, and also of each and every corner of His manifestations, both material and spiritual. An imperfect living being does not even know what is happening within his own personal body. He eats his food but does not know how this food is transformed into energy or how it sustains his body. When a living being is perfect, he is aware of everything that happens, and since the Supreme Person is all-perfect, it is quite natural that He knows everything in all detail. Consequently the perfect personality is addressed in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam as Väsudeva, or one who lives everywhere in full consciousness and in full possession of His complete energy. All of this is clearly explained in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, and the reader has ample opportunity to study this critically. In the modern age Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu preached the Çrémad-Bhägavatam by practical demonstration. It is easier to penetrate into the topics of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam through the medium of Çré Caitanya’s causeless mercy. Therefore a short sketch of His life and precepts is inserted herein to help the reader understand the real merit of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. It is imperative that one learn the Çrémad-Bhägavatam from the person Bhägavatam. The person Bhägavatam is one whose very life is Çrémad-Bhägavatam in practice. Since Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu is the Absolute Personality of Godhead, He is both Bhagavän and Bhägavatam in person and in sound. Therefore His process of approaching the Çrémad-Bhägavatam is practical for all people of the world. It was His wish that the Çrémad-Bhägavatam be preached in every nook and corner of the world by those who happened to take their birth in India. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the science of Kåñëa, the Absolute Personality of Godhead of whom we have preliminary information from the text of the Bhagavad-gétä. Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu has said that anyone, regardless of what he is, who is well versed in the science of Kåñëa (Çrémad-Bhägavatam and Bhagavad-gétä) can become an authorized preacher or preceptor in the science of Kåñëa. There is a need for the science of Kåñëa in human society for the good of all suffering humanity of the world, and we simply request the leaders of all nations to pick up this science of Kåñëa for their own good, for the good of society and for the good of all the world’s people. A short sketch of the life and teachings of Lord Caitanya, The Preacher of Çrémad-Bhägavatam Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu, the great apostle of love of God and the father of the congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord, advented Himself at Çrédhäma Mäyäpura, a quarter in the city of Navadvépa in Bengal, on the Phälguné Pürëimä evening in the year 1407 Çakäbda (corresponding to February 1486 by the Christian calendar). His father, Çré Jagannätha Miçra, a learned brähmaëa from the district of Sylhet, came to Navadvépa as a student because at that time Navadvépa was considered to be the center of education and culture. He domiciled on the banks of the Ganges after marrying Çrématé Çacédevé, a daughter of Çréla Nélämbara Cakravarté, the great learned scholar of Navadvépa. Jagannätha Miçra had a number of daughters by his wife, Çrématé Çacédevé, and most of them expired at an early age. Two surviving sons, Çré Viçvarüpa and Viçvambhara, became at last the object of their paternal affection. The tenth and youngest son, who was named Viçvambhara, later became known as Nimäi Paëòita and then, after accepting the renounced order of life, Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu exhibited His transcendental activities for forty-eight years and then disappeared in the year 1455 Çakäbda at Puré. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

For His first twenty-four years He remained at Navadvépa as a student and householder. His first wife was Çrématé Lakñmépriyä, who died at an early age when the Lord was away from home. When He returned from East Bengal He was requested by His mother to accept a second wife, and He agreed. His second wife was Çrématé Viñëupriyä Devé, who bore the separation of the Lord throughout her life because the Lord took the order of sannyäsa at the age of twenty-four, when Çrématé Viñëupriyä was barely sixteen years old. After taking sannyäsa, the Lord made His headquarters at Jagannätha Puré due to the request of His mother, Çrématé Çacédevé. The Lord remained for twenty-four years at Puré. For six years of this time He traveled continuously all over India (and especially throughout southern India) preaching the Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Lord Caitanya not only preached the Çrémad-Bhägavatam but propagated the teachings of the Bhagavad-gétä as well in the most practical way. In the Bhagavad-gétä Lord Çré Kåñëa is depicted as the Absolute Personality of Godhead, and His last teachings in that great book of transcendental knowledge instruct that one should give up all the modes of religious activities and accept Him (Lord Çré Kåñëa) as the only worshipable Lord. The Lord then assured that all His devotees would be protected from all sorts of sinful acts and that for them there would be no cause for anxiety. Unfortunately, despite Lord Çré Kåñëa’s direct order and the teachings of the Bhagavad-gétä, less intelligent people misunderstand Him to be nothing but a great historical personality, and thus they cannot accept Him as the original Personality of Godhead. Such men with a poor fund of knowledge are misled by many nondevotees. Thus the teachings of the Bhagavad-gétä were misinterpreted even by great scholars. After the disappearance of Lord Çré Kåñëa there were hundreds of commentaries on the Bhagavad-gétä by many erudite scholars, and almost every one of them was motivated by self-interest. Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu is the selfsame Lord Çré Kåñëa. This time, however, He appeared as a great devotee of the Lord in order to preach to the people in general, as well as to religionists and philosophers, about the transcendental position of Çré Kåñëa, the primeval Lord and the cause of all causes. The essence of His preaching is that Lord Çré Kåñëa, who appeared at Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Vrajabhümi (Våndävana) as the son of the King of Vraja (Nanda Mahäräja), is the Supreme Personality of Godhead and is therefore worshipable by all. Våndävana-dhäma is nondifferent from the Lord because the name, fame, form and place where the Lord manifests Himself are all identical with the Lord as absolute knowledge. Therefore Våndävana-dhäma is as worshipable as the Lord. The highest form of transcendental worship of the Lord was exhibited by the damsels of Vrajabhümi in the form of pure affection for the Lord, and Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu recommends this process as the most excellent mode of worship. He accepts the Çrémad-Bhägavata Puräëa as the spotless literature for understanding the Lord, and He preaches that the ultimate goal of life for all human beings is to attain the stage of premä, or love of God. Many devotees of Lord Caitanya like Çréla Våndävana däsa Öhäkura, Çré Locana däsa Öhäkura, Çréla Kåñëadäsa Kaviräja Gosvämé, Çré Kavikarëapüra, Çré Prabodhänanda Sarasvaté, Çré Rüpa Gosvämé, Çré Sanätana Gosvämé, Çré Raghunätha Bhaööa Gosvämé, Çré Jéva Gosvämé, Çré Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämé, Çré Raghunätha däsa Gosvämé and in this latter age within two hundred years, Çré Viçvanätha Cakravarté, Çré Baladeva Vidyäbhüñana, Çré Çyämänanda Gosvämé, Çré Narottama däsa Öhäkura, Çré Bhaktivinoda Öhäkura and at last Çré Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Öhäkura (our spiritual master) and many other great and renowned scholars and devotees of the Lord have prepared voluminous books and literatures on the life and precepts of the Lord. Such literatures are all based on the çästras like the Vedas, Puräëas, Upaniñads, Rämäyaëa, Mahäbhärata and other histories and authentic literatures approved by the recognized äcäryas. They are unique in composition and unrivaled in presentation, and they are full of transcendental knowledge. Unfortunately the people of the world are still ignorant of them, but when these literatures, which are mostly in Sanskrit and Bengali, come to light the world and when they are presented before thinking people, then India’s glory and the message of love will overflood this morbid world, which is vainly searching after peace and prosperity by various illusory methods not approved by the äcäryas in the chain of disciplic succession. The readers of this small description of the life and precepts of Lord Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Caitanya will profit much to go through the books of Çréla Våndävana däsa Öhäkura (Çré Caitanya-bhägavata) and Çréla Kåñëadäsa Kaviräja Gosvämé (Çré Caitanya-caritämåta). The early life of the Lord is most fascinatingly expressed by the author of Caitanya-bhägavata, and as far as the teachings are concerned, they are more vividly explained in the Caitanya-caritämåta. Now they are available to the English-speaking public in our Teachings of Lord Caitanya. The Lord’s early life was recorded by one of His chief devotees and contemporaries, namely Çréla Muräri Gupta, a medical practitioner of that time, and the latter part of the life of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu was recorded by His private secretary Çré Dämodara Gosvämé, or Çréla Svarüpa Dämodara, who was practically a constant companion of the Lord at Puré. These two devotees recorded practically all the incidents of the Lord’s activities, and later on all the books dealing with the Lord, which are above mentioned, were composed on the basis of kaòacäs (notebooks) by Çréla Dämodara Gosvämé and Muräri Gupta. So the Lord advented Himself on the Phälguné Pürëimä evening of 1407 Çakäbda, and it was by the will of the Lord that there was a lunar eclipse on that evening. During the hours of eclipse it was the custom of the Hindu public to take bath in the Ganges or any other sacred river and chant the Vedic mantras for purification. When Lord Caitanya was born during the lunar eclipse, all India was roaring with the holy sound of Hare Kåñëa, Hare Kåñëa, Kåñëa Kåñëa, Hare Hare/ Hare Räma, Hare Räma, Räma Räma, Hare Hare. These sixteen names of the Lord are mentioned in many Puräëas and Upaniñads, and they are described as the Täraka-brahma näma of this age. It is recommended in the çästras that offenseless chanting of these holy names of the Lord can deliver a fallen soul from material bondage. There are innumerable names of the Lord both in India and outside, and all of them are equally good because all of them indicate the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But because these sixteen are especially recommended for this age, people should take advantage of them and follow the path of the great äcäryas who attained success by practicing the rules of the çästras (revealed scriptures). The simultaneous occurrence of the Lord’s appearance and the lunar Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

eclipse indicated the distinctive mission of the Lord. This mission was to preach the importance of chanting the holy names of the Lord in this age of Kali (quarrel). In this present age quarrels take place even over trifles, and therefore the çästras have recommended for this age a common platform for realization, namely chanting the holy names of the Lord. People can hold meetings to glorify the Lord in their respective languages and with melodious songs, and if such performances are executed in an offenseless manner, it is certain that the participants will gradually attain spiritual perfection without having to undergo more rigorous methods. At such meetings everyone, the learned and the foolish, the rich and the poor, the Hindus and the Muslims, the Englishmen and the Indians, and the caëòälas and the brähmaëas, can all hear the transcendental sounds and thus cleanse the dust of material association from the mirror of the heart. To confirm the Lord’s mission, all the people of the world will accept the holy name of the Lord as the common platform for the universal religion of mankind. In other words, the advent of the holy name took place along with the advent of Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. When the Lord was on the lap of His mother, He would at once stop crying as soon as the ladies surrounding Him chanted the holy names and clapped their hands. This peculiar incident was observed by the neighbors with awe and veneration. Sometimes the young girls took pleasure in making the Lord cry and then stopping Him by chanting the holy name. So from His very childhood the Lord began to preach the importance of the holy name. In His early age Lord Çré Caitanya was known as Nimäi. This name was given by His beloved mother because the Lord took His birth beneath a nimba tree in the courtyard of His paternal house. When the Lord was offered solid food at the age of six months in the anna-präçana ceremony, the Lord indicated His future activities. At this time it was customary to offer the child both coins and books in order to get some indication of the future tendencies of the child. The Lord was offered on one side coins and on the other the Çrémad-Bhägavatam. The Lord accepted the Bhägavatam instead of the coins. When He was a mere baby crawling in the yard, one day a snake appeared Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

before Him, and the Lord began to play with it. All the members of the house were struck with fear and awe, but after a little while the snake went away, and the baby was taken away by His mother. Once He was stolen by a thief who intended to steal His ornaments, but the Lord took a pleasure trip on the shoulder of the bewildered thief, who was searching for a solitary place in order to rob the baby. It so happened that the thief, wandering hither and thither, finally arrived just before the house of Jagannätha Miçra and, being afraid of being caught, dropped the baby at once. Of course the anxious parents and relatives were glad to see the lost child. Once a pilgrim brähmaëa was received at the house of Jagannätha Miçra, and when he was offering food to the Godhead, the Lord appeared before him and partook of the prepared food. The eatables had to be rejected because the child touched them, and so the brähmaëa had to make another preparation. The next time the same thing happened, and when this happened repeatedly for the third time, the baby was finally put to bed. At about twelve at night when all the members of the house were fast asleep within their closed rooms, the pilgrim brähmaëa offered his specially prepared foods to the Deity, and, in the same way, the baby Lord appeared before the pilgrim and spoiled his offerings. The brähmaëa then began to cry, but since everyone was fast asleep, no one could hear him. At that time the baby Lord appeared before the fortunate brähmaëa and disclosed His identity as Kåñëa Himself. The brähmaëa was forbidden to disclose this incident, and the baby returned to the lap of His mother. There are many similar incidents in His childhood. As a naughty boy He sometimes used to tease the orthodox brähmaëas who used to bathe in the Ganges. When the brähmaëas complained to His father that He was splashing them with water instead of attending school, the Lord suddenly appeared before His father as though just coming from school with all His school clothes and books. At the bathing ghäöa He also used to play jokes on the neighboring girls who engaged in worshiping Çiva in hopes of getting good husbands. This is a common practice amongst unmarried girls in Hindu families. While they were engaged in such worship, the Lord naughtily appeared before them and said, “My dear sisters, please give Me all the offerings you have just brought for Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Lord Çiva. Lord Çiva is My devotee, and Pärvaté is My maidservant. If you worship Me, then Lord Çiva and all the other demigods will be more satisfied.” Some of them refused to obey the naughty Lord, and He would curse them that due to their refusal they would be married to old men who had seven children by their previous wives. Out of fear and sometimes out of love the girls would also offer Him various goods, and then the Lord would bless them and assure them that they would have very good young husbands and that they would be mothers of dozens of children. The blessings would enliven the girls, but they used often to complain of these incidents to their mothers. In this way the Lord passed His early childhood. When He was just sixteen years old He started His own catuñpäöhé (village school conducted by a learned brähmaëa). In this school He would simply explain Kåñëa, even in readings of grammar. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé, in order to please the Lord, later composed a grammar in Sanskrit, in which all the rules of grammar were explained with examples that used the holy names of the Lord. This grammar is still current. It is known as Hari-nämämåta-vyäkaraëa and is prescribed in the syllabus of schools in Bengal. During this time a great Kashmir scholar named Keçava Käçméré came to Navadvépa to hold discussions on the çästras. The Kashmir paëòita was a champion scholar, and he had traveled to all places of learning in India. Finally he came to Navadvépa to contest the learned paëòitas there. The paëòitas of Navadvépa decided to match Nimäi Paëòita (Lord Caitanya) with the Kashmir paëòita, thinking that if Nimäi Paëòita were defeated, they would have another chance to debate with the scholar, for Nimäi Paëòita was only a boy. And if the Kashmir paëòita were defeated, then they would even be more glorified because people would proclaim that a mere boy of Navadvépa had defeated a champion scholar who was famous throughout India. It so happened that Nimäi Paëòita met Keçava Käçméré while strolling on the banks of the Ganges. The Lord requested him to compose a Sanskrit verse in praise of the Ganges, and the paëòita within a short time composed a hundred çlokas, reciting the verses like a storm and showing the strength of his vast learning. Nimäi Paëòita at once memorized all the çlokas without an error. He quoted the sixty-fourth çloka and pointed out certain rhetorical and literary Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

irregularities. He particularly questioned the paëòita’s use of the word bhaväné-bhartuù. He pointed out that the use of this word was redundant. Bhaväné means the wife of Çiva, and who else can be her bhartä, or husband? He also pointed out several other discrepancies, and the Kashmir paëòita was struck with wonder. He was astonished that a mere student of grammar could point out the literary mistakes of an erudite scholar. Although this matter was ended prior to any public meeting, the news spread like wildfire all over Navadvépa. But finally Keçava Käçméré was ordered in a dream by Sarasvaté, the goddess of learning, to submit to the Lord, and thus the Kashmir paëòita became a follower of the Lord. The Lord was then married with great pomp and gaiety, and at this time He began to preach the congregational chanting of the holy name of, the Lord at Navadvépa. Some of the brähmaëas became envious of His popularity, and they put many hindrances on His path. They were so jealous that they finally took the matter before the Muslim magistrate at Navadvépa. Bengal was then governed by Pathans, and the governor of the province was Nawab Hussain Shah. The Muslim magistrate of Navadvépa took up the complaints of the brähmaëas seriously, and at first he warned the followers of Nimäi Paëòita not to chant loudly the name of Hari. But Lord Caitanya asked His followers to disobey the orders of the Kazi, and they went on with their saìkértana (chanting) party as usual. The magistrate then sent constables who interrupted a saìkértana and broke some of the mådaìgas (drums). When Nimäi Paëòita heard of this incident He organized a party for civil disobedience. He is the pioneer of the civil disobedience movement in India for the right cause. He organized a procession of one hundred thousand men with thousands of mådaìgas and karatälas (hand cymbals), and this procession passed over the roads of Navadvépa in defiance of the Kazi who had issued the order. Finally the procession reached the house of the Kazi, who went upstairs out of fear of the masses. The great crowds assembled at the Kazi’s house displayed a violent temper, but the Lord asked them to be peaceful. At this time the Kazi came down and tried to pacify the Lord by addressing Him as his nephew. He pointed out that Nélämbara Cakravarté referred to him as an uncle, and consequently, Çrématé Çacédevé, the mother of Nimäi Paëòita, was his sister. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

He asked the Lord whether his sister’s son could be angry at His maternal uncle, and the Lord replied that since the Kazi was His maternal uncle he should receive his nephew well at his home. In this way the issue was mitigated, and the two learned scholars began a long discussion on the Koran and Hindu çästras. The Lord raised the question of cow-killing, and the Kazi properly answered Him by referring to the Koran. In turn the Kazi also questioned the Lord about cow sacrifice in the Vedas, and the Lord replied that such sacrifice as mentioned in the Vedas is not actually cow-killing. In that sacrifice an old bull or cow was sacrificed for the sake of receiving a fresh younger life by the power of Vedic mantras. But in the Kali-yuga such cow sacrifices are forbidden because there are no qualified brähmaëas capable of conducting such a sacrifice. In fact, in Kali-yuga all yajïas (sacrifices) are forbidden because they are useless attempts by foolish men. In Kali-yuga only the saìkértana yajïa is recommended for all practical purposes. Speaking in this way, the Lord finally convinced the Kazi, who became the Lord’s follower. The Kazi thenceforth declared that no one should hinder the saìkértana movement which was started by the Lord, and the Kazi left this order in his will for the sake of progeny. The Kazi’s tomb still exists in the area of Navadvépa, and Hindu pilgrims go there to show their respects. The Kazi’s descendants are residents, and they never objected to saìkértana, even during the Hindu-Muslim riot days. This incident shows clearly that the Lord was not a so-called timid Vaiñëava. A Vaiñëava is a fearless devotee of the Lord, and for the right cause he can take any step suitable for the purpose. Arjuna was also a Vaiñëava devotee of Lord Kåñëa, and he fought valiantly for the satisfaction of the Lord. Similarly, Vajräìgajé, or Hanumän, was also a devotee of Lord Räma, and he gave lessons to the nondevotee party of Rävaëa. The principles of Vaiñëavism are to satisfy the Lord by all means. A Vaiñëava is by nature a nonviolent, peaceful living being, and he has all the good qualities of God, but when the nondevotee blasphemes the Lord or His devotee, the Vaiñëava never tolerates such impudency. After this incident the Lord began to preach and propagate His Bhägavata-dharma, or saìkértana movement, more vigorously, and whoever Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

stood against this propagation of the yuga-dharma, or duty of the age, was properly punished by various types of chastisement. Two brähmaëa gentlemen named Cäpala and Gopäla, who also happened to be maternal uncles of the Lord, were inflicted with leprosy by way of chastisement, and later, when they were repentant, they were accepted by the Lord. In the course of His preaching work, He used to send daily all His followers, including Çréla Nityänanda Prabhu and Öhäkura Haridäsa, two chief whips of His party, from door to door to preach the Çrémad-Bhägavatam All of Navadvépa was surcharged with His saìkértana movement, and His headquarters were situated at the house of Çréväsa Öhäkura and Çré Advaita Prabhu, two of His chief householder disciples. These two learned heads of the brähmaëa community were the most ardent supporters of Lord Caitanya’s movement. Çré Advaita Prabhu was the chief cause for the advent of the Lord. When Advaita Prabhu saw that the total human society was full of materialistic activities and devoid of devotional service, which alone could save mankind from the threefold miseries of material existence, He, out of His causeless compassion for the age-worn human society, prayed fervently for the incarnation of the Lord and continually worshiped the Lord with water of the Ganges and leaves of the holy tulasé tree. As far as preaching work in the saìkértana movement was concerned, everyone was expected to do his daily share according to the order of the Lord. Once Nityänanda Prabhu and Çréla Haridäsa Öhäkura were walking down a main road, and on the way they saw a roaring crowd assembled. Upon inquiring from passers-by, they understood that two brothers, named Jagäi and Mädhäi, were creating a public disturbance in a drunken state. They also heard that these two brothers were born in a respectable brähmaëa family, but because of low association they had turned into debauchees of the worst type. They were not only drunkards but also meat-eaters, woman-hunters, dacoits and sinners of all description. Çréla Nityänanda Prabhu heard all of these stories and decided that these two fallen souls must be the first to be delivered. If they were delivered from their sinful life, then the good name of Lord Caitanya would be even still more glorified. Thinking in this way, Nityänanda Prabhu and Haridäsa pushed their way through the crowd and asked the two Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

brothers to chant the holy name of Lord Hari. The drunken brothers became enraged upon this request and attacked Nityänanda Prabhu with filthy language. Both brothers chased them a considerable distance. In the evening the report of the preaching work was submitted to the Lord, and He was glad to learn that Nityänanda and Haridäsa had attempted to deliver such a stupid pair of fellows. The next day Nityänanda Prabhu went to see the brothers, and as soon as He approached them one of them threw a piece of earthen pot at Him. This struck Him on the forehead, and immediately blood began to flow. But Nityänanda Prabhu was so kind that instead of protesting this heinous act, He said, “It does not matter that you have thrown this stone at Me. I still request you to chant the holy name of Lord Hari.” One of the brothers, Jagäi, was astonished to see this behavior of Nityänanda Prabhu, and he at once fell down at His feet and asked Him to pardon his sinful brother. When Mädhäi again attempted to hurt Nityänanda Prabhu, Jagäi stopped him and implored him to fall down at His feet. In the meantime the news of Nityänanda’s injury reached the Lord, who at once hurried to the spot in a fiery and angry mood. The Lord immediately invoked His Sudarçana cakra (the Lord’s ultimate weapon, shaped like a wheel) to kill the sinners, but Nityänanda Prabhu reminded Him of His mission. The mission of the Lord was to deliver the hopelessly fallen souls of Kali-yuga, and the brothers Jagäi and Mädhäi were typical examples of these fallen souls. Ninety percent of the population of this age resembles these brothers, despite high birth and mundane respectability. According to the verdict of the revealed scriptures, the total population of the world in this age will be of the lowest çüdra quality, or even lower. It should be noted that Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu never acknowledged the stereotyped caste system by birthright; rather, He strictly followed the verdict of the çästras in the matter of one’s svarüpa, or real identity. When the Lord was invoking His Sudarçana cakra and Çréla Nityänanda Prabhu was imploring Him to forgive the two brothers, both the brothers fell down at the lotus feet of the Lord and begged His pardon for their gross behavior. The Lord was also asked by Nityänanda Prabhu to accept these Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

repenting souls, and the Lord agreed to accept them on one condition, that they henceforward completely give up all their sinful activities and habits of debauchery. both the brothers agreed and promised to give up all their sinful habits, and the kind Lord accepted them and did not again refer to their past misdeeds. This is the specific kindness of Lord Caitanya. In this age no one can say that he is free from sin. It is impossible for anyone to say this. But Lord Caitanya accepts all kinds of sinful persons on the one condition that they promise not to indulge in sinful habits after being spiritually initiated by the bona fide spiritual master. There are a number of instructive points to he observed in this incident of the two brothers. In this Kali-yuga practically all people are of the quality of Jagäi and Mädhäi. If they want to be relieved from the reactions of their misdeeds, they must take shelter of Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu and after spiritual initiation thus refrain from those things which are prohibited in the çästras. The prohibitory rules are dealt with in the Lord’s teachings to Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé. During His householder life, the Lord did not display many of the miracles which are generally expected from such personalities, but He did once perform a wonderful miracle in the house of Çréniväsa Öhäkura while saìkértana was in full swing. He asked the devotees what they wanted to eat, and when He was informed that they wanted to eat mangoes, He asked for a seed of a mango, although this fruit was out of season. When the seed was brought to Him He sowed it in the yard of Çréniväsa, and at once a creeper began to grow out of the seed. Within no time this creeper became a full-grown mango tree heavy with more ripened fruits than the devotees could eat. The tree remained in Çréniväsa’s yard, and from then on the devotees used to take as many mangoes from the tree as they wanted. The Lord had a very high estimation of the affections of the damsels of Vrajabhümi (Våndävana) for Kåñëa, and in appreciation of their unalloyed service to the Lord, once Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu chanted the holy names of the gopés (cowherd girls) instead of the names of the Lord. At this time some of His students, who were also disciples, came to see Him, and when they saw that Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Lord was chanting the names of the gopés, they were astonished. Out of sheer foolishness they asked the Lord why He was chanting the names of the gopés and advised Him to chant the name of Kåñëa. The Lord, who was in ecstasy, was thus disturbed by these foolish students. He chastised them and chased them away. The students were almost the same age as the Lord, and thus they wrongly thought of the Lord as one of their peers. They held a meeting and resolved that they would attack the Lord if He dared to punish them again in such a manner. This incident provoked some malicious talks about the Lord on the part of the general public. When the Lord became aware of this, He began to consider the various types of men found in society. He noted that especially the students, professors, fruitive workers, yogés, nondevotees, and different types of atheists were all opposed to the devotional service of the Lord. “My mission is to deliver all the fallen souls of this age,” He thought, “but if they commit offenses against Me, thinking Me to be an ordinary man, they will not benefit. If they are to begin their life of spiritual realization, they must some way or another offer obeisances unto Me.” Thus the Lord decided to accept the renounced order of life (sannyäsa) because people in general were inclined to offer respects to a sannyäsé. Five hundred years ago the condition of society was not as degraded as it is today. At that time people would show respects to a sannyäsé, and the sannyäsé was rigid in following the rules and regulations of the renounced order of life. Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu was not very much in favor of the renounced order of life in this age of Kali, but that was only for the reason that very few sannyäsés in this age are able to observe the rules and regulations of sannyäsa life. Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu decided to accept the order and become an ideal sannyäsé so that the general populace would show Him respect. One is duty-bound to show respect to a sannyäsé, for a sannyäsé is considered to be the master of all varëas and äçramas. While He was contemplating accepting the sannyäsa order, it so happened that Keçava Bhäraté, a sannyäsé of the Mäyävädé school and resident of Katwa (in Bengal), visited Navadvépa and was invited to dine with the Lord. When Keçava Bhäraté came to His house, the Lord asked him to award Him the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

sannyäsa order of life. This was a matter of formality. The sannyäsa order is to be accepted from another sannyäsé. Although the Lord was independent in all respects, still, to keep up the formalities of the çästras, He accepted the sannyäsa order from Keçava Bhäraté, although Keçava Bhäraté was not in the Vaiñëava-sampradäya (school). After consulting with Keçava Bhäraté, the Lord left Navadvépa for Katwa to formally accept the sannyäsa order of life. He was accompanied by Çréla Nityänanda Prabhu, Candraçekhara Äcärya, and Mukunda Datta. Those three assisted Him in the details of the ceremony. The incident of the Lord’s accepting the sannyäsa order is very elaborately described in the Caitanya-bhägavata by Çréla Våndävana däsa Öhäkura. Thus at the end of His twenty-fourth year the Lord accepted the sannyäsa order of life in the month of Mägha. After accepting this order He became a full-fledged preacher of the Bhägavata-dharma. Although He was doing the same preaching work in His householder life, when He experienced some obstacles to His preaching He sacrificed even the comfort of His home life for the sake of the fallen souls. In His householder life His chief assistants were Çréla Advaita Prabhu and Çréla Çréväsa Öhäkura, but after He accepted the sannyäsa order His chief assistants became Çréla Nityänanda Prabhu, who was deputed to preach specifically in Bengal, and the six Gosvämés (Rüpa Gosvämé, Sanätana Gosvämé, Jéva Gosvämé, Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämé, Raghunätha däsa Gosvämé and Raghunätha Bhaööa Gosvämé), headed by Çréla Rüpa and Sanätana, who were deputed to go to Våndävana to excavate the present places of pilgrimage. The present city of Våndävana and the importance of Vrajabhümi were thus disclosed by the will of Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. The Lord, after accepting the sannyäsa order, at once wanted to start for Våndävana. For three continuous days He traveled in the Räòha-deça (places where the Ganges does not flow). He was in full ecstasy over the idea of going to Våndävana. However, Çréla Nityänanda diverted His path and brought Him instead to the house of Advaita Prabhu in Çäntipura. The Lord stayed at Çré Advaita Prabhu’s house for a few days, and knowing well that the Lord was leaving His hearth and home for good, Çré Advaita Prabhu sent His men to Navadvépa to bring mother Çacé to have a last meeting with her son. Some Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

unscrupulous people say that Lord Caitanya met His wife also after taking sannyäsa and offered her His wooden slipper for worship, but the authentic sources give no information about such a meeting. His mother met Him at the house of Advaita Prabhu, and when she saw her son in sannyäsa, she lamented. By way of compromise, she requested her son to make His headquarters in Puré so that she would easily be able to get information about Him. The Lord granted this last desire of His beloved mother. After this incident the Lord started for Puré, leaving all the residents of Navadvépa in an ocean of lamentation over His separation. The Lord visited many important places on the way to Puré. He visited the temple of Gopénäthajé, who had stolen condensed milk for His devotee Çréla Mädhavendra Puré. Since then Deity Gopénäthajé is well known as Kñéra-corä-gopénätha. The Lord relished this story with great pleasure. The propensity of stealing is there even in the absolute consciousness, but because this propensity is exhibited by the Absolute, it loses its perverted nature and thus becomes worshipable even by Lord Caitanya on the basis of the absolute consideration that the Lord and His stealing propensity are one and identical. This interesting story of Gopénäthajé is vividly explained in the Caitanya-caritämåta by Kåñëadäsa Kaviräja Gosvämé. After visiting the temple of Kñéra-corä-gopénätha of Remuëä at Balasore in Orissa, the Lord proceeded towards Puré and on the way visited the temple of Säkñi-gopäla, who appeared as a witness in the matter of two brähmaëa devotees’ family quarrel. The Lord heard the story of Säkñi-gopäla with great pleasure because He wanted to impress upon the atheists that the worshipable Deities in the temples approved by the great äcäryas are not idols, as alleged by men with a poor fund of knowledge. The Deity in the temple is the arcä incarnation of the Personality of Godhead, and thus the Deity is identical with the Lord in all respects. He responds to the proportion of the devotee’s affection for Him. In the story of Säkñi-gopäla, in which there was a family misunderstanding by two devotees of the Lord, the Lord, in order to mitigate the turmoil as well as to show specific favor to His servitors, traveled from Våndävana to Vidyänagara, a village in Orissa, in the form of His arcä incarnation. From there the Deity was brought to Cuttack, and thus the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

temple of Säkñi-gopäla is even today visited by thousands of pilgrims on the way to Jagannätha Puré. The Lord stayed overnight there and began to proceed toward Puré. On the way, His sannyäsa rod was broken by Nityänanda Prabhu. The Lord became apparently angry with Him about this and went alone to Puré, leaving His companions behind. At Puré, when He entered the temple of Jagannätha, He became at once saturated with transcendental ecstasy and fell down on the floor of the temple unconscious. The custodians of the temple could not understand the transcendental feats of the Lord, but there was a great learned paëòita named Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya, who was present, and he could understand that the Lord’s losing His consciousness upon entering the Jagannätha temple was not an ordinary thing. Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya, who was the chief appointed paëòita in the court of the King of Orissa, Mahäräja Pratäparudra, was attracted by the youthful luster of Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu and could understand that such a transcendental trance was only rarely exhibited and only then by the topmost devotees who are already on the transcendental plane in complete forgetfulness of material existence. Only a liberated soul could show such a transcendental feat, and the Bhaööäcärya, who was vastly learned, could understand this in the light of the transcendental literature with which he was familiar. He therefore asked the custodians of the temple not to disturb the unknown sannyäsé. He asked them to take the Lord to his home so He could be further observed in His unconscious state. The Lord was at once carried to the home of Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya, who at that time had sufficient power of authority due to his being the sabhä-paëòita, or the state dean of faculty in Sanskrit literatures. The learned paëòita wanted to scrutinizingly test the transcendental feats of Lord Caitanya because often unscrupulous devotees imitate physical feats in order to flaunt transcendental achievements just to attract innocent people and take advantage of them. A learned scholar like the Bhaööäcärya can detect such imposters, and when he finds them out he at once rejects them. In the case of Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu, the Bhaööäcärya tested all the symptoms in the light of the çästras. He tested as a scientist, not as a foolish sentimentalist. He observed the movement of the stomach, the beating of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

heart and the breathing of the nostrils. He also felt the pulse of the Lord and saw that all His bodily activities were in complete suspension. When he put a small cotton swab before the nostrils, he found that there was a slight breathing as the fine fibers of cotton moved slightly. Thus he came to know that the Lord’s unconscious trance was genuine, and he began to treat Him in the prescribed fashion. But Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu could only be treated in a special way. He would respond only to the resounding of the holy names of the Lord by His devotees. This special treatment was unknown to Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya because the Lord was still unknown to him. When the Bhaööäcärya saw Him for the first time in the temple, he simply took Him to be one of many pilgrims. In the meantime the companions of the Lord, who reached the temple a little after Him, heard of the Lord’s transcendental feats and of His being carried away by the Bhaööäcärya. The pilgrims at the temple were still gossiping about the incident. But by chance, one of these pilgrims had met Gopénätha Äcärya, who was known to Gadädhara Paëòita, and from him it was learned that the Lord was lying in an unconscious state at the residence of Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya, who happened to be the brother-in-law of Gopénätha Äcärya. All the members of the party were introduced by Gadädhara Paëòita to Gopénätha Äcärya, who took them all to the house of Bhaööäcärya where the Lord was lying unconscious in a spiritual trance. All the members then chanted loudly the holy name of the Lord Hari as usual, and the Lord regained His consciousness. After this, Bhaööäcärya received all the members of the party, including Lord Nityänanda Prabhu, and asked them to become his guests of honor. The party, including the Lord, went for a bath in the sea, and the Bhaööäcärya arranged for their residence and meals at the house of Käçé Miçra. Gopénätha Äcärya, his brother-in-law, also assisted. There were some friendly talks about the Lord’s divinity between the two brothers-in-law, and in this argument Gopénätha Äcärya, who knew the Lord before, now tried to establish the Lord as the Personality of Godhead, and the Bhaööäcärya tried to establish Him as one of the great devotees. Both of them argued from the angle of vision of authentic çästras and not on the strength of sentimental vox populi. The incarnations of God are determined by authentic Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

çästras and not by popular votes of foolish fanatics. Because Lord Caitanya was an incarnation of God in fact, foolish fanatics have proclaimed so many so-called incarnations of God in this age without referring to authentic scriptures. But Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya or Gopénätha Äcärya did not indulge in such foolish sentimentalism; on the contrary, both of them tried to establish or reject His divinity on the strength of authentic çästras. Later it was disclosed that Bhaööäcärya also came from the Navadvépa area, and it was understood from him that Nélämbara Cakravarté, the maternal grandfather of Lord Caitanya, happened to be a class fellow of the father of Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya. In that sense, the young sannyäsé Lord Caitanya evoked paternal affection from Bhaööäcärya. Bhaööäcärya was the professor of many sannyäsés in the order of the Çaìkaräcärya-sampradäya, and he himself also belonged to that cult. As such, the Bhaööäcärya desired that the young sannyäsé Lord Caitanya also hear from him about the teachings of Vedänta. Those who are followers of the Çaìkara cult are generally known as Vedäntists. This does not, however, mean that Vedänta is a monopoly study of the Çaìkara-sampradäya. Vedänta is studied by all the bona fide sampradäyas, but they have their own interpretations. But those in the Çaìkara-sampradäya are generally known to be ignorant of the knowledge of the Vedäntist Vaiñëavas. For this reason the Bhaktivedanta title was first offered to the author by the Vaiñëavas. The Lord agreed to take lessons from Bhaööäcärya on the Vedänta, and they sat together in the temple of Lord Jagannätha. The Bhaööäcärya went on speaking continually for seven days, and the Lord heard him with all attention and did not interrupt. The Lord’s silence raised some doubts in Bhaööäcärya’s heart, and he asked the Lord how it was that He did not ask anything or comment on his explanations of Vedänta. The Lord posed Himself before the Bhaööäcärya as a foolish student and pretended that He heard the Vedänta from him because the Bhaööäcärya felt that this was the duty of a sannyäsé. But the Lord did not agree with his lectures. By this the Lord indicated that the so-called Vedäntists amongst the Çaìkara-sampradäya, or any other sampradäya who do not follow the instructions of Çréla Vyäsadeva, are mechanical students of the Vedänta. They Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

are not fully aware of that great knowledge. The explanation of the Vedänta-sütra is given by the author himself in the text of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. One who has no knowledge of the Bhägavatam will hardly be able to know what the Vedänta says. The Bhaööäcärya, being a vastly learned man, could follow the Lord’s sarcastic remarks on the popular Vedäntist. He therefore asked Him why He did not ask about any point which He could not follow. The Bhaööäcärya could understand the purpose of His dead silence for the days He heard him. This showed clearly that the Lord had something else in mind; thus the Bhaööäcärya requested Him to disclose His mind. Upon this, the Lord spoke as follows: “My dear sir, I can understand the meaning of the sütras like janmädy asya yataù [SB 1.1.1], çästra-yonitvät, and athäto brahma jijïäsä of the Vedänta-sütra, but when you explain them in your own way it becomes difficult for Me to follow them. The purpose of the sütras is already explained in them, but your explanations are covering them with something else. You do not purposely take the direct meaning of the sütras but indirectly give your own interpretations.” The Lord thus attacked all Vedäntists who interpret the Vedänta-sütra fashionably, according to their limited power of thinking, to serve their own purpose. Such indirect interpretations of the authentic literatures like the Vedänta-sütra are hereby condemned by the Lord. The Lord continued: “Çréla Vyäsadeva has summarized the direct meanings of the mantras in the Upaniñads in the Vedänta-sütra. Unfortunately you do not take their direct meaning. You indirectly interpret them in a different way. “The authority of the Vedas is unchallengeable and stands without any question of doubt. And whatever is stated in the Vedas must be accepted completely, otherwise one challenges the authority of the Vedas. “The conchshell and cow dung are bone and stool of two living beings. But because they have been recommended by the Vedas as pure, people accept them as such because of the authority of the Vedas.” The idea is that one cannot set his imperfect reason above the authority of the Vedas. The orders of the Vedas must be obeyed as they stand, without any Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

mundane reasoning. The so-called followers of the Vedic injunctions make their own interpretations of the Vedic injunctions, and thus they establish different parties and sects of the Vedic religion. Lord Buddha directly denied the authority of the Vedas, and he established his own religion. Only for this reason, the Buddhist religion was not accepted by the strict followers of the Vedas. But those who are so-called followers of the Vedas are more harmful than the Buddhists. The Buddhists have the courage to deny the Vedas directly, but the so-called followers of the Vedas have no courage to deny the Vedas, although indirectly they disobey all the injunctions of the Vedas. Lord Caitanya condemned this. The examples given by the Lord of the conchshell and the cow dung are very much appropriate in this connection. If one argues that since cow dung is pure, the stool of a learned brähmaëa is still more pure, his argument will not be accepted. Cow dung is accepted, and the stool of a highly posted brähmaëa is rejected. The Lord continued: “The Vedic injunctions are self-authorized, and if some mundane creature adjusts the interpretations of the Vedas, he defies their authority. It is foolish to think of oneself as more intelligent than Çréla Vyäsadeva. He has already expressed himself in his sütras, and there is no need of help from personalities of lesser importance. His work, the Vedänta-sütra, is as dazzling as the midday sun, and when someone tries to give his own interpretations on the self-effulgent sunlike Vedänta-sütra, he attempts to cover this sun with the cloud of his imagination. “The Vedas and Puräëas are one and the same in purpose. They ascertain the Absolute Truth, which is greater than everything else. The Absolute Truth is ultimately realized as the Absolute Personality of Godhead with absolute controlling power. As such, the Absolute Personality of Godhead must be completely full of opulence, strength, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation. Yet the transcendental Personality of Godhead is astonishingly ascertained as impersonal. “The impersonal description of the Absolute Truth in the Vedas is given to nullify the mundane conception of the absolute whole. Personal features of the Lord are completely different from all kinds of mundane features. The living Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

entities are all individual persons, and they are all parts and parcels of the supreme whole. If the parts and parcels are individual persons, the source of their emanation must not be impersonal. He is the Supreme Person amongst all the relative persons. “The Vedas inform us that from Him [Brahman] everything emanates, and on Him everything rests. And after annihilation, everything merges in Him only. Therefore, He is the ultimate dative, causative and accommodating cause of all causes. And these causes cannot be attributed to an impersonal object. “The Vedas inform us that He alone became many, and when He so desires He glances over material nature. Before He glanced over material nature there was no material cosmic creation. Therefore, His glance is not material. Material mind or senses were unborn when the Lord glanced over material nature. Thus evidence in the Vedas proves that beyond a doubt the Lord has transcendental eyes and a transcendental mind. They are not material. His impersonality therefore is a negation of His materiality, but not a denial of His transcendental personality. “Brahman ultimately refers to the Personality of Godhead. Impersonal Brahman realization is just the negative conception of the mundane creations. Paramätmä is the localized aspect of Brahman within all kinds of material bodies. Ultimately the Supreme Brahman realization is the realization of the Personality of Godhead according to all evidence of the revealed scriptures. He is the ultimate source of viñëu-tattvas. “The Puräëas are also supplementary to the Vedas. The Vedic mantras are too difficult for an ordinary man. Women, çüdras and the so-called twice-born higher castes are unable to penetrate into the sense of the Vedas. And thus the Mahäbhärata as well as the Puräëas are made easy to explain the truths of the Vedas. In his prayers before the boy Çré Kåñëa, Brahmä said that there is no limit to the fortune of the residents of Vrajabhümi headed by Çré Nanda Mahäräja and Yaçodämayé because the eternal Absolute Truth has become their intimate relative. “The Vedic mantra maintains that the Absolute Truth has no legs and no hands and yet goes faster than all and accepts everything that is offered to Him in devotion. The latter statements definitely suggest the personal features Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

of the Lord, although His hands and legs are distinguished from mundane hands and legs or other senses. “Brahman, therefore, is never impersonal, but when such mantras are indirectly interpreted, it is wrongly thought that the Absolute Truth is impersonal. The Absolute Truth Personality of Godhead is full of all opulences, and therefore He has a transcendental form of full existence, knowledge and bliss. How then can one establish that the Absolute Truth is impersonal? “Brahman, being full of opulences, is understood to have manifold energies, and all these energies are classified under three headings under the authority of Viñëu Puräëa [6.7.60], which says that the transcendental energies of Lord Viñëu are primarily three. His spiritual energy and the energy of the living entities are classified as superior energy, whereas the material energy is an inferior one which is sprouted out of ignorance. “The energy of the living entities is technically called kñetrajïa energy. This kñetrajïa-çakti, although equal in quality with the Lord, becomes overpowered by material energy out of ignorance and thus suffers all sorts of material miseries. In other words, the living entities are located in the marginal energy between the superior (spiritual) and inferior (material) energies, and in proportion to the living being’s contact with either the material or spiritual energies, the living entity is situated in proportionately higher and lower levels of existence. “The Lord is beyond the inferior and marginal energies as above mentioned, and His spiritual energy is manifested in three different phases: as eternal existence, eternal bliss and eternal knowledge. As far as eternal existence is concerned, it is conducted by the sandhiné potency; similarly, bliss and knowledge are conducted by the hlädhiné and saàvit potencies respectively. As the supreme energetic Lord, He is the supreme controller of the spiritual, marginal and material energies. And all these different types of energies are connected with the Lord in eternal devotional service. “The Supreme Personality of Godhead is thus enjoying in His transcendental eternal form. Is it not astounding that one dares to call the Supreme Lord nonenergetic? The Lord is the controller of all energies, and the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

living entities are parts and parcels of one of the energies. Therefore there is a gulf of difference between the Lord and the living entities. How then can one say that the Lord and the living entities are one and the same? In the Bhagavad-gétä also the living entities are described as belonging to the superior energy of the Lord. According to the principles of intimate correlation between the energy and the energetic, both of them are nondifferent also. Therefore, the Lord and the living entities are nondifferent as the energy and the energetic. “Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and ego are all inferior energies of the Lord, but the living entities are different from all as superior energy. This is the version of Bhagavad-gétä [7.4]. “The transcendental form of the Lord is eternally existent and full of transcendental bliss. How then can such a form be a product of the material mode of goodness? Anyone, therefore, who does not believe in the form of the Lord is certainly a faithless demon and as such is untouchable, a not to be seen persona non grata fit to be punished by the Plutonic king. “The Buddhists are called atheists because they have no respect for the Vedas, but those who defy the Vedic conclusions, as above mentioned, under the pretense of being followers of the Vedas, are verily more dangerous than the Buddhists. “Çré Vyäsadeva very kindly compiled the Vedic knowledge in his Vedänta-sütra, but if one hears the commentation of the Mäyäväda school (as represented by the Çaìkara-sampradäya) certainly he will be misled on the path of spiritual realization. “The theory of emanations is the beginning subject of the Vedänta-sütra. All the cosmic manifestations are emanations from the Absolute Personality of Godhead by His inconceivable different energies. The example of the touchstone is applicable to the theory of emanation. The touchstone can convert an unlimited quantity of iron into gold, and still the touchstone remains as it is. Similarly, the Supreme Lord can produce all manifested worlds by His inconceivable energies, and yet He is full and unchanged. He is pürëa [complete], and although an unlimited number of pürëas emanate from Him, He is still pürëa. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

“The theory of illusion of the Mäyäväda school is advocated on the ground that the theory of emanation will cause a transformation of the Absolute Truth. If that is the case, Vyäsadeva is wrong. To avoid this, they have skillfully brought in the theory of illusion. But the world or the cosmic creation is not false, as maintained by the Mäyäväda school. It simply has no permanent existence. A nonpermanent thing cannot be called false altogether. But the conception that the material body is the self is certainly wrong. “Praëava [oà], or the oàkära in the Vedas, is the primeval hymn. This transcendental sound is identical with the form of the Lord. All the Vedic hymns are based on this praëava oàkära. Tat tvam asi is but a side word in the Vedic literatures, and therefore this word cannot be the primeval hymn of the Vedas. Çrépäda Çaìkaräcärya has given more stress on the side word tat tvam asi than on the primeval principle oàkära.” The Lord thus spoke on the Vedänta-sütra and defied all the propaganda of the Mäyäväda school.*(1) The Bhaööäcärya tried to defend himself and his Mäyäväda school by jugglery of logic and grammar, but the Lord defeated him by His forceful arguments. He affirmed that we are all related with the Personality of Godhead eternally and that devotional service is our eternal function in exchanging the dealings of our relations. The result of such exchanges is to attain premä, or love of Godhead. When love of Godhead is attained, love for all other beings automatically follows because the Lord is the sum total of all living beings. The Lord said that but for these three items—namely, eternal relation with God, exchange of dealings with Him and the attainment of love for Him—all that is instructed in the Vedas is superfluous and concocted. The Lord further added that the Mäyäväda philosophy taught by Çrépäda Çaìkaräcärya is an imaginary explanation of the Vedas, but it had to be taught by him (Çaìkaräcärya) because he was ordered to teach it by the Personality of Godhead. In the Padma Puräëa it is stated that the Personality of Godhead ordered His Lordship Çiva to deviate the human race from Him (the Personality of Godhead). The Personality of Godhead was to be so covered so that people would be encouraged to generate more and more population. His Lordship Çiva said to Devé: “In the Kali-yuga, I shall preach the Mäyäväda Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

philosophy, which is nothing but clouded Buddhism, in the garb of a brähmaëa.” After hearing all these speeches of the Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu, the Bhaööäcärya was struck with wonder and awe and regarded Him in dead silence. The Lord then encouraged him with assurance that there was no cause to wonder. “I say that devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead is the highest goal of human life.” He then quoted a çloka from the Bhägavatam and assured him that even the liberated souls who are absorbed in the spirit and spiritual realization also take to the devotional service of the Lord Hari because the Personality of Godhead has such transcendental qualities that He attracts the heart of the liberated soul too. Then the Bhaööäcärya desired to listen to the explanation of the “ätmäräma” çloka from the Bhägavatam (1.7.10). The Lord first of all asked Bhaööäcärya to explain it, and after that He would explain it. The Bhaööäcärya then explained the çloka in a scholarly way with special reference to logic. He explained the çloka in nine different ways chiefly based on logic because he was the most renowned scholar of logic of the time. The Lord, after hearing the Bhaööäcärya, thanked him for the scholarly presentation of the çloka, and then, at the request of the Bhaööäcärya, the Lord explained the çloka in sixty-four different ways without touching the nine explanations given by the Bhaööäcärya. Thus after hearing the explanation of the ätmäräma çloka from the Lord, the Bhaööäcärya was convinced that such a scholarly presentation is impossible for an earthly creature.*(2) Before this, Çré Gopénätha Äcärya had tried to convince him of the divinity of the Lord, but at the time he could not so accept Him. But the Bhaööäcärya was astounded by the Lord’s exposition of the Vedänta-sütra and explanations of the ätmäräma çloka, and thus he began to think that he had committed a great offense at the lotus feet of the Lord by not recognizing Him to be Kåñëa Himself. He then surrendered unto Him, repenting for his past dealings with Him, and the Lord was kind enough to accept the Bhaööäcärya. Out of His causeless mercy, the Lord manifested before him first as four-handed Näräyaëa and then again as two-handed Lord Kåñëa with a flute in His hand. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The Bhaööäcärya at once fell down at the lotus feet of the Lord and composed many suitable çlokas in praise of the Lord by His grace. He composed almost one hundred çlokas in praise of the Lord. The Lord then embraced him, and out of transcendental ecstasy the Bhaööäcärya lost consciousness of the physical state of life. Tears, trembling, throbbing of the heart, perspiration, emotional waves, dancing, singing, crying and all the eight symptoms of trance were manifested in the body of the Bhaööäcärya. Çré Gopénätha Äcärya became very glad and astonished by this marvelous conversion of his brother-in-law by the grace of the Lord. Out of the hundred celebrated çlokas composed by the Bhaööäcärya in praise of the Lord, the following two are most important, and these two çlokas explain the mission of the Lord in gist. 1. Let me surrender unto the Personality of Godhead who has appeared now as Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. He is the ocean of all mercy and has now come down to teach us material detachment, learning and devotional service to Himself. 2. Since pure devotional service of the Lord has been lost in the oblivion of time, the Lord has appeared to renovate the principles, and therefore I offer my obeisances unto His lotus feet. The Lord explained the word mukti to be equivalent to the word Viñëu, or the Personality of Godhead. To attain mukti, or liberation from the bondage of material existence, is to attain to the service of the Lord. The Lord then proceeded towards South India for some time and converted all He met on the way to become devotees of Lord Çré Kåñëa. Such devotees also converted many others to the cult of devotional service, or to the Bhägavata-dharma of the Lord, and thus He reached the bank of the Godävaré, where He met Çréla Rämänanda Räya, the governor of Madras on behalf of Mahäräja Pratäparudra, the King of Orissa. His talks with Rämänanda Räya are very important for higher realization of transcendental knowledge, and the conversation itself forms a small booklet. We shall, however, give herewith a summary of the conversation. Çré Rämänanda Räya was a self-realized soul, although outwardly he belonged to a caste lower than the brähmaëa in social status. He was not in the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

renounced order of life, and besides that he was a high government servant in the state. Still, Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu accepted him as a liberated soul on the strength of the high order of his realization of transcendental knowledge. Similarly, the Lord accepted Çréla Haridäsa Öhäkura, a veteran devotee of the Lord coming from a Mohammedan family. And there are many other great devotees of the Lord who came from different communities, sects and castes. The Lord’s only criterion was the standard of devotional service of the particular person. He was not concerned with the outward dress of a man; He was concerned only with the inner soul and its activities. Therefore all the missionary activities of the Lord are to be understood to be on the spiritual plane, and as such the cult of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu, or the cult of Bhägavata-dharma, has nothing to do with mundane affairs, sociology, politics, economic development or any such sphere of life. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the purely transcendental urge of the soul. When He met Çré Rämänanda Räya on the bank of the Godävaré, the varëäçrama-dharma followed by the Hindus was mentioned by the Lord. Çréla Rämänanda Räya said that by following the principles of varëäçrama-dharma, the system of four castes and four orders of human life, everyone could realize Transcendence. In the opinion of the Lord, the system of varëäçrama-dharma is superficial only, and it has very little to do with the highest realization of spiritual values. The highest perfection of life is to get detached from the material attachment and proportionately realize the transcendental loving service of the Lord. The Personality of Godhead recognizes a living being who is progressing in that line. Devotional service, therefore, is the culmination of the culture of all knowledge. When Çré Kåñëa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appeared for the deliverance of all fallen souls, He advised the deliverance of all living entities as follows. The Supreme Absolute Personality of Godhead, from whom all living entities have emanated, must be worshiped by all their respective engagements, because everything that we see is also the expansion of His energy. That is the way of real perfection, and it is approved by all bona fide äcäryas past and present. The system of varëäçrama is more or less based on moral and ethical principles. There is very little realization of the Transcendence as such, and Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu rejected it as Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

superficial and asked Rämänanda Räya to go further into the matter. Çré Rämänanda Räya then suggested renunciation of fruitive actions unto the Lord. The Bhagavad-gétä (9.27) advises in this connection: “Whatever you do, whatever you eat and whatever you give, as well as whatever you perform in penance, offer to Me alone.” This dedication on the part of the worker suggests that the Personality of Godhead is a step higher than the impersonal conception of the varëäçrama system, but still the relation of the living being and the Lord is not distinct in that way. The Lord therefore rejected this proposition and asked Rämänanda Räya to go further. Räya then suggested renunciation of the varëäçrama-dharma and acceptance of devotional service. The Lord did not approve of this suggestion also for the reason that all of a sudden one should not renounce his position, for that may not bring in the desired result. It was further suggested by Räya that attainment of spiritual realization freed from the material conception of life is the topmost achievement for a living being. The Lord rejected this suggestion also because on the plea of such spiritual realization much havoc has been wrought by unscrupulous persons; therefore all of a sudden this is not possible. The Räya then suggested sincere association of self-realized souls and hearing submissively the transcendental message of the pastimes of the Personality of Godhead. This suggestion was welcomed by the Lord. This suggestion was made following in the footsteps of Brahmäjé, who said that the Personality of Godhead is known as ajita, or the one who cannot be conquered or approached by anyone. But such ajita also becomes jita (conquered) by one method, which is very simple and easy. The simple method is that one has to give up the arrogant attitude of declaring oneself to be God Himself. One must be very meek and submissive and try to live peacefully by lending the ear to the speeches of the transcendentally self-realized soul who speaks on the message of Bhägavata-dharma, or the religion of glorifying the Supreme Lord and His devotees. To glorify a great man is a natural instinct for living beings, but they have not learned to glorify the Lord. Perfection of life is attained simply by glorifying the Lord in association with a self-realized devotee of the Lord.*(3) The self-realized devotee is he who surrenders unto the Lord fully and who does not have Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

attachment for material prosperity. Material prosperity and sense enjoyment and their advancement are all activities of ignorance in human society. Peace and friendship are impossible for a society detached from the association of God and His devotees. It is imperative, therefore, that one sincerely seek the association of pure devotees and hear them patiently and submissively from any position of life. The position of a person in the higher or lower status of life does not hamper one in the path of self-realization. The only thing one has to do is to hear from a self-realized soul with a routine program. The teacher may also deliver lectures from the Vedic literatures, following in the footsteps of the bygone äcäryas who realized the Absolute Truth. Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu recommended this simple method of self-realization generally known as Bhägavata-dharma. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the perfect guide for this purpose. Above these topics discussed by the Lord and Çré Rämänanda Räya, there were still more elevated spiritual talks between the two great personalities, and we purposely withhold those topics for the present because one has to come to the spiritual plane before further talks with Rämänanda Räya can be heard. We have presented further talks of Çréla Rämänanda Räya with the Lord in another book (Teachings of Lord Caitanya). At the conclusion of this meeting, Çré Rämänanda Räya was advised by the Lord to retire from service and come to Puré so that they could live together and relish a transcendental relationship. Some time later, Çré Rämänanda Räya retired from the government service and took a pension from the King. He returned to his residence in Puré, where he was one of the most confidential devotees of the Lord. There was another gentleman at Puré of the name Çikhi Mähiti, who was also a confidant like Rämänanda Räya. The Lord used to hold confidential talks on spiritual values with three or four companions at Puré, and He passed eighteen years in that way in spiritual trance. His talks were recorded by His private secretary Çré Dämodara Gosvämé, one of the four most intimate devotees. The Lord extensively traveled all over the southern part of India. The great saint of Mahäräñöra known as Saint Tukäräma was also initiated by the Lord. Saint Tukäräma, after initiation by the Lord, overflooded the whole of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Mahäräñöra Province with the saìkértana movement, and the transcendental flow is still rolling on in the southwestern part of the great Indian peninsula. The Lord excavated from South India two very important old literatures, namely the Brahmä-saàhitä(4) and Kåñëa-karëämåta, and these two valuable books are authorized studies for the person in the devotional line. The Lord then returned to Puré after His South Indian tour. On His return to Puré, all the anxious devotees of the Lord got back their life, and the Lord remained there with continued pastimes of His transcendental realizations. The most important incident during that time was His granting audience to King Pratäparudra. King Pratäparudra was a great devotee of the Lord, and he considered himself to be one of the servants of the Lord entrusted with sweeping the temple. This submissive attitude of the King was very much appreciated by Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. The King requested both Bhaööäcärya and Räya to arrange his meeting with the Lord. When, however, the Lord was petitioned by His two stalwart devotees, He flatly refused to grant the request, even though it was put forward by personal associates like Rämänanda Räya and Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya. The Lord maintained that it is dangerous for a sannyäsé to be in intimate touch with worldly money-conscious men and with women. The Lord was an ideal sannyäsé. No woman could approach the Lord even to offer respects. Women’s seats were accommodated far away from the Lord. As an ideal teacher and äcärya, He was very strict in the routine work of a sannyäsé. Apart from being a divine incarnation, the Lord was an ideal character as a human being. His behavior with other persons was also above suspicion. In His dealing as äcärya, He was harder than the thunderbolt and softer than the rose. One of His associates, Junior Haridäsa, committed a great mistake by lustfully glancing at a young woman. The Lord as Supersoul could detect this lust in the mind of Junior Haridäsa, who was at once banished from the Lord’s association and was never accepted again, even though the Lord was implored to excuse Haridäsa for the mistake. Junior Haridäsa afterwards committed suicide due to being disassociated from the company of the Lord, and the news of suicide was duly related to the Lord. Even at that time the Lord was not forgetful of the offense, and He said that Haridäsa had rightly met with the proper punishment. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

On the principles of the renounced order of life and discipline, the Lord knew no compromise, and therefore even though He knew that the King was a great devotee, He refused to see the King, only because the King was a dollar-and-cent man. By this example the Lord wanted to emphasize the proper behavior for a transcendentalist. A transcendentalist has nothing to do with women and money. He must always refrain from such intimate relations. The King was, however, favored by the Lord by the expert arrangement of the devotees. This means that the beloved devotee of the Lord can favor a neophyte more liberally than the Lord. Pure devotees, therefore, never commit an offense at the feet of another pure devotee. An offense at the lotus feet of the Lord is sometimes excused by the merciful Lord, but an offense at the feet of a devotee is very dangerous for one who actually wants to make progress in devotional service. As long as the Lord remained at Puré, thousands of His devotees used to come to see Him during the Ratha-yäträ car festival of Lord Jagannätha. And during the car festival, the washing of the Guëòicä temple under the direct supervision of the Lord was an important function. The Lord’s congregational saìkértana movement at Puré was a unique exhibition for the mass of people. That is the way to turn the mass mind towards spiritual realization. The Lord inaugurated this system of mass saìkértana, and leaders of all countries can take advantage of this spiritual movement in order to keep the mass of people in a pure state of peace and friendship with one another. This is now the demand of the present human society all over the world. After some time the Lord again started on His tour towards northern India, and He decided to visit Våndävana and its neighboring places. He passed through the jungles of Jharikhaëòa (Madhya Bhärata), and all the wild animals also joined His saìkértana movement. The wild tigers, elephants, bears and deer all together accompanied the Lord, and the Lord accompanied them in saìkértana. By this He proved that by the propagation of the saìkértana movement (congregational chanting and glorifying of the name of the Lord) even the wild animals can live in peace and friendship, and what to speak of men who are supposed to be civilized. No man in the world will refuse to join the saìkértana movement. Nor is the Lord’s saìkértana movement restricted to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

any caste, creed, color or species. Here is direct evidence of His great mission: He allowed even the wild animals to partake in His great movement. On His way back from Våndävana He first came to Prayäga, where He met Rüpa Gosvämé along with his younger brother, Anupama. Then He came down to Benares. For two months, He instructed Çré Sanätana Gosvämé in the transcendental science. The instruction to Sanätana Gosvämé is in itself a long narration, and full presentation of the instruction will not be possible here. The main ideas are given as follows. Sanätana Gosvämé (formerly known as Säkara Mallika) was in the cabinet service of the Bengal government under the regime of Nawab Hussain Shah. He decided to join with the Lord and thus retired from the service. On His way back from Våndävana, when He reached Väräëasé, the Lord became the guest of Çré Tapana Miçra and Candraçekhara, assisted by a Mahäräñöra brähmaëa. At that time Väräëasé was headed by a great sannyäsé of the Mäyäväda school named Çrépäda Prakäçänanda Sarasvaté. When the Lord was at Väräëasé, the people in general became more attracted to Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu on account of His mass saìkértana movement. Wherever He visited, especially the Viçvanätha temple, thousands of pilgrims would follow Him. Some were attracted by His bodily features, and others were attracted by His melodious songs glorifying the Lord. The Mäyävädé sannyäsés designate themselves as Näräyaëa. Väräëasé is still overflooded with many Mäyävädé sannyäsés. Some people who saw the Lord in His saìkértana party considered Him to be actually Näräyaëa, and this report reached the camp of the great sannyäsé Prakäçänanda. In India there is always a kind of spiritual rivalry between the Mäyäväda and Bhägavata schools, and thus when the news of the Lord reached Prakäçänanda he knew that the Lord was a Vaiñëava sannyäsé, and therefore he minimized the value of the Lord before those who brought him the news. He deprecated the activities of the Lord because of His preaching the saìkértana movement, which was in his opinion nothing but religious sentiment. Prakäçänanda was a profound student of the Vedänta, and he advised his followers to give attention to the Vedänta and not to indulge in saìkértana. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

One devotee brähmaëa, who became a devotee of the Lord, did not like the criticism of Prakäçänanda, and he went to the Lord to express his regrets. He told the Lord that when he uttered the Lord’s name before the sannyäsé Prakäçänanda, the latter strongly criticized the Lord, although the brähmaëa heard Prakäçänanda uttering several times the name Caitanya. The brähmaëa was astonished to see that the sannyäsé Prakäçänanda could not vibrate the sound Kåñëa even once, although he uttered the name Caitanya several times. The Lord smilingly explained to the devotee brähmaëa why the Mäyävädé cannot utter the holy name of Kåñëa. “The Mäyävädés are offenders at the lotus feet of Kåñëa, although they utter always brahma, ätmä, or caitanya, etc. And because they are offenders at the lotus feet of Kåñëa, they are actually unable to utter the holy name of Kåñëa. The name Kåñëa and the Personality of Godhead Kåñëa are identical. There is no difference in the absolute realm between the name, form or person of the Absolute Truth because in the absolute realm everything is transcendental bliss. There is no difference between the body and the soul for the Personality of Godhead, Kåñëa. Thus He is different from the living entity who is always different from his outward body. Because of Kåñëa’s transcendental position, it is very difficult for a layman to actually know the Personality of Godhead, Kåñëa, His holy name and fame, etc. His name, fame, form and pastimes all are one and the same transcendental identity, and they are not knowable by the exercise of the material senses. “The transcendental relationship of the pastimes of the Lord is the source of still more bliss than one can experience by realization of Brahman or by becoming one with the Supreme. Had it not been so, then those who are already situated in the transcendental bliss of Brahman would not have been attracted by the transcendental bliss of the pastimes of the Lord.” After this, a great meeting was arranged by the devotees of the Lord in which all the sannyäsés were invited, including the Lord and Prakäçänanda Sarasvaté. In this meeting both the scholars (the Lord and Prakäçänanda) had a long discourse on the spiritual values of the saìkértana movement, and a summary is given below. The great Mäyävädé sannyäsé Prakäçänanda inquired from the Lord as to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the reason for His preferring the saìkértana movement to the study of the Vedänta-sütra. Prakäçänanda said that it is the duty of a sannyäsé to read the Vedänta-sütra. What caused the Lord to indulge in saìkértana? After this inquiry, the Lord submissively replied: “I have taken to the saìkértana movement instead of the study of Vedänta because I am a great fool.” The Lord thus represented Himself as one of the numberless fools of this age who are absolutely incapable of studying the Vedänta philosophy. The fools’ indulgence in the study of Vedänta has caused so much havoc in society. The Lord thus continued: “And because I am a great fool, My spiritual master forbade Me to play with Vedänta philosophy. He said that it is better that I chant the holy name of the Lord, for that would deliver Me from material bondage. “In this age of Kali there is no other religion but the glorification of the Lord by utterance of His holy name, and that is the injunction of all the revealed scriptures. And My spiritual master has taught Me one çloka [from the Båhan-näradéya Puräëa]: harer näma harer näma harer nämaiva kevalam kalau nästy eva nästy eva nästy eva gatir anyathä. [Adi 17.21] “So on the order of My spiritual master, I chant the holy name of Hari, and I am now mad after this holy name. Whenever I utter the holy name I forget Myself completely, and sometimes I laugh, cry and dance like a madman. I thought that I had actually gone mad by this process of chanting, and therefore I asked My spiritual master about it. He informed Me that this was the real effect of chanting the holy name, which produces a transcendental emotion that is a rare manifestation. It is the sign of love of God, which is the ultimate end of life. Love of God is transcendental to liberation [mukti], and thus it is called the fifth stage of spiritual realization, above the stage of liberation. By chanting the holy name of Kåñëa one attains the stage of love of God, and it was good that fortunately I was favored with the blessing.” On hearing this statement from the Lord, the Mäyävädé sannyäsé asked the Lord what was the harm in studying the Vedänta along with chanting the holy name. Prakäçänanda Sarasvaté knew well that the Lord was formerly known as Nimäi Paëòita, a very learned scholar of Navadvépa, and His posing as a great Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

fool was certainly to some purpose. Hearing this inquiry by the sannyäsé, the Lord smiled and said, “My dear sir, if you do not mind, I will answer your inquiry.” All the sannyäsés there were very much pleased with the Lord for His honest dealings, and they unanimously replied that they would not be offended by whatever He replied. The Lord then spoke as follows: “Vedänta-sütra consists of transcendental words or sounds uttered by the transcendental Personality of Godhead. As such, in the Vedänta there cannot be any human deficiencies like mistake, illusion, cheating or inefficiency. The message of the Upaniñads is expressed in the Vedänta-sütra, and what is said there directly is certainly glorified. Whatever interpretations have been given by Çaìkaräcärya have no direct bearing on the sütra, and therefore such commentation spoils everything. “The word Brahman indicates the greatest of all, which is full with transcendental opulences, superior to all. Brahman is ultimately the Personality of Godhead, and He is covered by indirect interpretations and established as impersonal. Everything that is in the spiritual world is full of transcendental bliss, including the form, body, place and paraphernalia of the Lord. All are eternally cognizant and blissful. It is not the fault of the Äcärya Çaìkara that he has so interpreted Vedänta, but if someone accepts it, then certainly he is doomed. Anyone who accepts the transcendental body of the Personality of Godhead as something mundane certainly commits the greatest blasphemy.” The Lord thus spoke to the sannyäsé almost in the same way that He spoke to the Bhaööäcärya of Puré, and by forceful arguments He nullified the Mäyäväda interpretations of the Vedänta-sütra. All the sannyäsés there claimed that the Lord was the personified Vedas and the Personality of Godhead. All the sannyäsés were converted to the cult of bhakti, all of them accepted the holy name of the Lord Çré Kåñëa, and they dined together with the Lord in the midst of them. After this conversion of the sannyäsés, the popularity of the Lord increased at Väräëasé, and thousands of people assembled to see the Lord in person. The Lord thus established the primary importance of Çrémad-Bhägavata-dharma, and He defeated all other systems of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

spiritual realization. After that everyone at Väräëasé was overwhelmed with the transcendental saìkértana movement. While the Lord was camping at Väräëasé, Sanätana Gosvämé also arrived after retiring from office. He was formerly one of the state ministers in the government of Bengal, then under the regime of Nawab Hussain Shah. He had some difficulty in getting relief from the state service, for the Nawab was reluctant to let him leave. Nonetheless he came to Väräëasé, and the Lord taught him the principles of devotional service. He taught him about the constitutional position of the living being, the cause of his bondage under material conditions, his eternal relation with the Personality of Godhead, the transcendental position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, His expansions in different plenary portions of incarnations, His control of different parts of the universe, the nature of His transcendental abode, devotional activities, their different stages of development, the rules and regulations for achieving the gradual stages of spiritual perfection, the symptoms of different incarnations in different ages, and how to detect them with reference to the context of revealed scriptures. The Lord’s teachings to Sanätana Gosvämé form a big chapter in the text of Çré Caitanya-caritämåta, and to explain the whole teachings in minute details will require a volume in itself. These are treated in detail in our book Teachings of Lord Caitanya. At Mathurä, the Lord visited all the important places; then He reached Våndävana. Lord Caitanya appeared in the family of a high-caste brähmaëa, and over and above that as sannyäsé He was the preceptor for all the varëas and äçramas. But He used to accept meals from all classes of Vaiñëavas. At Mathurä the Sanoòiyä brähmaëas are considered to be in the lower status of society, but the Lord accepted meals in the family of such a brähmaëa also because His host happened to be a disciple of the Mädhavendra Puré family. At Våndävana the Lord took bath in twenty-four important bathing places and ghäöas. He traveled to all the twelve important vanas (forests). In these forests all the cows and birds welcomed Him, as if He were their very old friend. The Lord also began to embrace all the trees of those forests, and by doing so He felt the symptoms of transcendental ecstasy. Sometimes He fell Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

unconscious, but He was made to regain consciousness by the chanting of the holy name of Kåñëa. The transcendental symptoms that were visible on the body of the Lord during His travel within the forest of Våndävana were all unique and inexplicable, and we have just given a synopsis only. Some of the important places that were visited by the Lord in Våndävana were Kämyavana, Ädéçvara, Pävana-sarovara, Khadiravana, Çeñaçäyé, Khela-tértha, Bhäëòéravana, Bhadravana, Çrévana, Lauhavana, Mahävana, Gokula, Käliya-hrada, Dvädaçäditya, Keçé-tértha, etc. When He saw the place where the räsa dance took place, He at once fell down in trance. As long as He remained at Våndävana, He made His headquarters at Akrüra-ghäöa. From Våndävana His personal servitor Kåñëadäsa Vipra induced Him to go back to Prayäga to take bath during the Mägha-melä. The Lord acceded to this proposal, and they started for Prayäga. On the way they met with some Pathans, amongst whom there was a learned Moulana. The Lord had some talks with the Moulana and his companions, and the Lord convinced the Moulana that in the Koran also there are descriptions of Bhägavata-dharma and Kåñëa. All the Pathans were converted to His cult of devotional service. When He returned to Prayäga, Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé and his youngest brother met Him near Bindu-mädhava temple. This time the Lord was welcomed by the people of Prayäga more respectfully. Vallabha Bhaööa, who resided on the other bank of Prayäga in the village of Äòäila, was to receive Him at his place. but while going there the Lord jumped in the River Yamunä. With great difficulty He was picked up in an unconscious state. Finally He visited the headquarters of Vallabha Bhaööa. This Vallabha Bhaööa was one of His chief admirers, but later on he inaugurated his own party, the Vallabha-sampradäya. On the bank of the Daçäçvamedha-ghäöa at Prayäga for ten days continually the Lord instructed Rüpa Gosvämé in the science of devotional service to the Lord. He taught the Gosvämé the divisions of the living creatures in the 8,400,000 species of life. Then He taught him about the human species. Out of them He discussed the followers of the Vedic principles, out of them the fruitive workers, out of them the empiric philosophers, and out of them the liberated souls. He said that there are only a few who are actually Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

pure devotees of Lord Çré Kåñëa. Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé was the younger brother of Sanätana Gosvämé, and when he retired from service he brought with him two boat fulls of gold coins. This means that he brought with him some hundreds of thousands of rupees accumulated by the labor of his service. And before leaving home for Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu, he divided the wealth as follows: fifty percent for the service of the Lord and His devotees, twenty-five percent for relatives and twenty-five percent for his personal needs in case of emergency. In that way he set an example for all householders. The Lord taught the Gosvämé about devotional service, comparing it to a creeper, and advised him to protect the bhakti creeper most carefully against the mad elephant offense against the pure devotees. In addition, the creeper has to be protected from the desires of sense enjoyment, monistic liberation and perfection of the haöha-yoga system. They are all detrimental on the path of devotional service. Similarly, violence against living beings, and desire for worldly gain, worldly reception and worldly fame are all detrimental to the progress of bhakti, or Bhägavata-dharma. Pure devotional service must be freed from all desires for sense gratification, fruitive aspirations and culture of monistic knowledge. One must be freed from all kinds of designations, and when one is thus converted to transcendental purity, one can then serve the Lord by purified senses. As long as there is the desire to enjoy sensually or to become one with the Supreme or to possess the mystic powers, there is no question of attaining the stage of pure devotional service. Devotional service is conducted under two categories, namely primary practice and spontaneous emotion. When one can rise to the platform of spontaneous emotion, he can make further progress by spiritual attachment, feeling, love, and many higher stages of devotional life for which there are no English words. We have tried to explain the science of devotional service in our book The Nectar of Devotion, based on the authority of Bhakti-rasämåta-sindhu by Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé. Transcendental devotional service has five stages of reciprocation: 1. The self-realization stage just after liberation from material bondage is Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

called the çänta, or neutral stage. 2. After that, when there is development of transcendental knowledge of the Lord’s internal opulences, the devotee engages himself in the däsya stage. 3. By further development of the däsya stage, a respectful fraternity with the Lord develops, and above that a feeling of friendship on equal terms becomes manifest. Both these stages are called säkhya stage, or devotional service in friendship. 4. Above this is the stage of paternal affection toward the Lord, and this is called the vätsalya stage. 5. And above this is the stage of conjugal love, and this stage is called the highest stage of love of God, although there is no difference in quality in any of the above stages. The last stage of conjugal love of God is called the mädhurya stage. Thus He instructed Rüpa Gosvämé in devotional science and deputed him to Våndävana to excavate the lost sites of the transcendental pastimes of the Lord. After this, the Lord returned to Väräëasé and delivered the sannyäsés and instructed the elder brother of Rüpa Gosvämé. We have already discussed this. The Lord left only eight çlokas of His instructions in writing, and they are known as the Çikñäñöaka. All other literatures of His divine cult were extensively written by the Lord’s principal followers, the six Gosvämés of Våndävana, and their followers. The cult of Caitanya philosophy is richer than any other, and it is admitted to be the living religion of the day with the potency for spreading as viçva-dharma, or universal religion. We are glad that the matter has been taken up by some enthusiastic sages like Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Gosvämé Mahäräja and his disciples. We shall eagerly wait for the happy days of Bhägavata-dharma, or prema-dharma, inaugurated by the Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. The eight çlokas completed by the Lord are: 1 Glory to the Çré Kåñëa saìkértana, which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated for years and extinguishes the fire of conditional life, of repeated Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

birth and death. This saìkértana movement is the prime benediction for humanity at large because it spreads the rays of the benediction moon. It is the life of all transcendental knowledge. It increases the ocean of transcendental bliss, and it enables us to fully taste the nectar for which we are always anxious. 2 O my Lord, Your holy name alone can render all benediction to living beings, and thus You have hundreds and millions of names like Kåñëa and Govinda. In these transcendental names You have invested all Your transcendental energies. There are not even hard and fast rules for chanting these names. O my Lord, out of kindness You enable us to easily approach You by chanting Your holy names, but I am so unfortunate that I have no attraction for them. 3 One should chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking oneself lower than the straw in the street; one should be more tolerant than a tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige, and ready to offer all respect to others. In such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly. 4 O almighty Lord, I have no desire to accumulate wealth, nor do I desire beautiful women, nor do I want any number of followers. I only want Your causeless devotional service birth after birth. 5 O son of Mahäräja Nanda [Kåñëa], I am Your eternal servitor, yet somehow or other I have fallen into the ocean of birth and death. please pick me up from this ocean of death and place me as one of the atoms of Your lotus feet. 6 O my Lord, when will my eyes be decorated with tears of love flowing constantly when I chant Your holy name? When will my voice choke up, and when will the hairs of my body stand on end at the recitation of Your name? Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

7 O Govinda! Feeling Your separation, I am considering a moment to be like twelve years or more. Tears are flowing from my eyes like torrents of rain, and I am feeling all vacant in the world in Your absence. 8 I know no one but Kåñëa as my Lord, and He shall remain so even if He handles me roughly in His embrace or makes me brokenhearted by not being present before me. He is completely free to do anything and everything, for He is always my worshipful Lord unconditionally.

Chapter One Questions by the Sages

TEXT 1 p NaMaae >aGavTae vaSaudevaYa JaNMaaÛSYa YaTaae_NvYaaidTarTaêaQaeRZvi>aj" Svra$( TaeNae b]ø ôda Ya Aaidk-vYae MauùiNTa YaTSaUrYa" ) TaeJaaevairMa*da& YaQaa iviNaMaYaae Ya}a i}aSaGaaeR_Ma*za DaaMana SveNa Sada iNarSTaku-hk&- SaTYa& Par& DaqMaih )) 1 )) oà namo bhagavate väsudeväya janmädy asya yato ’nvayäd itarataç cärtheñv abhijïaù svaräö Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

tene brahma hådä ya ädi-kavaye muhyanti yat sürayaù tejo-väri-mådäà yathä vinimayo yatra tri-sargo ’måñä dhämnä svena sadä nirasta-kuhakaà satyaà paraà dhémahi SYNONYMS om—O my Lord; namaù—offering my obeisances; bhagavate—unto the Personality of Godhead; väsudeväya—unto Väsudeva (the son of Vasudeva), or Lord Çré Kåñëa, the primeval Lord; janma-ädi—creation, sustenance and destruction; asya—of the manifested universes; yataù—from whom; anvayät—directly; itarataù—indirectly; ca—and; artheñu—purposes; abhijïaù—fully cognizant; sva-räö—fully independent; tene—imparted; brahma—the Vedic knowledge; hådä—consciousness of the heart; yaù—one who; ädi-kavaye—unto the original created being; muhyanti—are illusioned; yat—about whom; sürayaù—great sages and demigods; tejaù—fire; väri—water; mådäm—earth; yathä—as much as; vinimayaù—action and reaction; yatra—whereupon; tri-sargaù—three modes of creation, creative faculties; amåñä—almost factual; dhämnä—along with all transcendental paraphernalia; svena—self-sufficiently; sadä—always; nirasta—negation by absence; kuhakam—illusion; satyam—truth; param—absolute; dhémahi—I do meditate upon. TRANSLATION O my Lord, Çré Kåñëa, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Çré Kåñëa because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmäjé, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Çré Kåñëa, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth. PURPORT Obeisances unto the Personality of Godhead, Väsudeva, directly indicate Lord Çré Kåñëa, who is the divine son of Vasudeva and Devaké. This fact will be more explicitly explained in the text of this work. Çré Vyäsadeva asserts herein that Çré Kåñëa is the original Personality of Godhead, and all others are His direct or indirect plenary portions or portions of the portion. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé has even more explicitly explained the subject matter in his Kåñëa-sandarbha. And Brahmä, the original living being, has explained the subject of Çré Kåñëa substantially in his treatise named Brahma-saàhitä. In the Säma-veda Upaniñad, it is also stated that Lord Çré Kåñëa is the divine son of Devaké. Therefore, in this prayer, the first proposition holds that Lord Çré Kåñëa is the primeval Lord, and if any transcendental nomenclature is to be understood as belonging to the Absolute Personality of Godhead, it must be the name indicated by the word Kåñëa, which means the all-attractive. In Bhagavad-gétä, in many places, the Lord asserts Himself to be the original Personality of Godhead, and this is confirmed by Arjuna, and also by great sages like Närada, Vyäsa, and many others. In the Padma Puräëa, it is also stated that out of the innumerable names of the Lord, the name of Kåñëa is the principal one. Väsudeva indicates the plenary portion of the Personality of Godhead, and all the different forms of the Lord, being identical with Väsudeva, are indicated in this text. The name Väsudeva particularly indicates the divine son of Vasudeva and Devaké. Çré Kåñëa is always meditated upon by the paramahaàsas, who are the perfected ones among those in the renounced order of life. Väsudeva, or Lord Çré Kåñëa, is the cause of all causes. Everything that exists emanates from the Lord. How this is so is explained in later chapters of this work. This work is described by Mahäprabhu Çré Caitanya as the spotless Puräëa because it contains the transcendental narration of the Personality of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Godhead Çré Kåñëa. The history of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam is also very glorious. It was compiled by Çré Vyäsadeva after he had attained maturity in transcendental knowledge. He wrote this under the instructions of Çré Näradajé, his spiritual master. Vyäsadeva compiled all Vedic literatures, containing the four divisions of the Vedas, the Vedänta-sütras (or the Brahma-sütras), the Puräëas, the Mahäbhärata, and so on. But nevertheless he was not satisfied. His dissatisfaction was observed by his spiritual master, and thus Närada advised him to write on the transcendental activities of Lord Çré Kåñëa. These transcendental activities are described specifically in the Tenth Canto of this work. But, in order to reach to the very substance, one must proceed gradually by developing knowledge of the categories. It is natural that a philosophical mind wants to know about the origin of the creation. At night he sees the stars in the sky, and he naturally speculates about their inhabitants. Such inquiries are natural for man because man has a developed consciousness which is higher than that of the animals. The author of Çrémad-Bhägavatam gives a direct answer to such inquiries. He says that the Lord Çré Kåñëa is the origin of all creations. He is not only the creator of the universe, but the destroyer as well. The manifested cosmic nature is created at a certain period by the will of the Lord. It is maintained for some time, and then it is annihilated by His will. Therefore, the supreme will is behind all cosmic activities. Of course, there are atheists of various categories who do not believe in a creator, but that is due to a poor fund of knowledge. The modern scientist, for example, has created space satellites, and by some arrangement or other, these satellites are thrown into outer space to fly for some time at the control of the scientist who is far away. Similarly, all the universes with innumerable stars and planets are controlled by the intelligence of the Personality of Godhead. In Vedic literatures, it is said that the Absolute Truth, Personality of Godhead, is the chief amongst all living personalities. All living beings, beginning from the first created being, Brahmä, down to the smallest ant, are individual living beings. And above Brahmä, there are even other living beings with individual capacities, and the Personality of Godhead is also a similar living being. And He is an individual as are the other living beings. But the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Supreme Lord, or the supreme living being, has the greatest intelligence, and He possesses supermost inconceivable energies of all different varieties. If a man’s brain can produce a space satellite, one can very easily imagine how brains higher than man can produce similarly wonderful things which are far superior. The reasonable person will easily accept this argument, but there are stubborn atheists who would never agree. Çréla Vyäsadeva, however, at once accepts the supreme intelligence as the parameçvara. He offers his respectful obeisances unto the supreme intelligence addressed as the para or the parameçvara or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And that parameçvara is Çré Kåñëa, as admitted in Bhagavad-gétä and other scriptures delivered by Çré Vyäsadeva and specifically in this Çrémad-Bhägavatam. In Bhagavad-gétä, the Lord says that there is no other para-tattva (summum bonum) than Himself. Therefore, Çré Vyäsadeva at once worships the para-tattva, Çré Kåñëa, whose transcendental activities are described in the Tenth Canto. Unscrupulous persons go immediately to the Tenth Canto and especially to the five chapters which describe the Lord’s räsa dance. This portion of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the most confidential part of this great literature. Unless one is thoroughly accomplished in the transcendental knowledge of the Lord, one is sure to misunderstand the Lord’s worshipable transcendental pastimes called räsa dance and His love affairs with the gopés. This subject matter is highly spiritual, and only the liberated persons who have gradually attained to the stage of paramahaàsa can transcendentally relish this räsa dance. Çréla Vyäsadeva therefore gives the reader the chance to gradually develop spiritual realization before actually relishing the essence of the pastimes of the Lord. Therefore, he purposely invokes a Gäyatré mantra, dhémahi. This Gäyatré mantra is meant for spiritually advanced people. When one is successful in chanting the Gäyatré mantra, he can enter into the transcendental position of the Lord. One must therefore acquire brahminical qualities or be perfectly situated in the quality of goodness in order to chant the Gäyatré mantra successfully and then attain to the stage of transcendentally realizing the Lord, His name, His fame, His qualities and so on. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the narration of the svarüpa of the Lord manifested Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

by His internal potency, and this potency is distinguished from the external potency which has manifested the cosmic world, which is within our experience. Çréla Vyäsadeva makes a clear distinction between the two in this çloka. Çré Vyäsadeva says herein that the manifested internal potency is real, whereas the external manifested energy in the form of material existence is only temporary and illusory like the mirage in the desert. In the desert mirage there is no actual water. There is only the appearance of water. Real water is somewhere else. The manifested cosmic creation appears as reality. But reality, of which this is but a shadow, is in the spiritual world. Absolute Truth is in the spiritual sky, not the material sky. In the material sky everything is relative truth. That is to say, one truth depends on something else. This cosmic creation results from interaction of the three modes of nature, and the temporary manifestations are so created as to present an illusion of reality to the bewildered mind of the conditioned soul, who appears in so many species of life, including the higher demigods, like Brahmä, Indra, Candra, and so on. In actuality, there is no reality in the manifested world. There appears to be reality, however, because of the true reality which exists in the spiritual world, where the Personality of Godhead eternally exists with His transcendental paraphernalia. The chief engineer of a complicated construction does not personally take part in the construction, but he knows every nook and corner because everything is done under his direction. He knows everything about the construction, both directly and indirectly. Similarly, the Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme engineer of this cosmic creation, knows every nook and corner, although affairs are being carried out by demigods. Beginning from Brahmä down to the insignificant ant, no one is independent in the material creation. The hand of the Lord is seen everywhere. All material elements as well as all spiritual sparks emanate from Him only. And whatever is created in this material world is but the interaction of two energies, the material and the spiritual, which emanate from the Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, Çré Kåñëa. A chemist can manufacture water in the chemical laboratory by mixing hydrogen and oxygen. But, in reality, the living entity works in the laboratory under the direction of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Supreme Lord. And the materials with which he works are also supplied by the Lord. The Lord knows everything directly and indirectly, and He is cognizant of all minute details, and He is fully independent. He is compared to a mine of gold, and the cosmic creations in so many different forms are compared to objects made from the gold, such as gold rings, necklaces and so on. The gold ring and the gold necklace are qualitatively one with the gold in the mine, but quantitatively the gold in the mine is different. Therefore, the Absolute Truth is simultaneously one and different. Nothing is absolutely equal with the Absolute Truth, but at the same time, nothing is independent of the Absolute Truth. Conditioned souls, beginning from Brahmä, who engineers the entire universe, down to the insignificant ant, are all creating, but none of them are independent of the Supreme Lord. The materialist wrongly thinks that there is no creator other than his own self. This is called mäyä, or illusion. Because of his poor fund of knowledge, the materialist cannot see beyond the purview of his imperfect senses, and thus he thinks that matter automatically takes its own shape without the aid of a superior intelligence. This is refuted in this çloka by Çréla Vyäsadeva: “Since the complete whole or the Absolute Truth is the source of everything, nothing can be independent of the body of the Absolute Truth.” Whatever happens to the body quickly becomes known to the embodied. Similarly, the creation is the body of the absolute whole. Therefore, the Absolute knows everything directly and indirectly that happens in the creation. In the çruti-mantra, it is also stated that the absolute whole or Brahman is the ultimate source of everything. Everything emanates from Him, and everything is maintained by Him. And at the end, everything enters into Him. That is the law of nature. In the småti-mantra, the same is confirmed. It is said that the source from which everything emanates at the beginning of Brahmä’s millennium and the reservoir to which everything ultimately enters, is the Absolute Truth or Brahman. Material scientists take it for granted that the ultimate source of the planetary system is the sun, but they are unable to explain the source of the sun. Herein, the ultimate source is explained. According to the Vedic literatures, Brahmä, who may be compared to the sun, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

is not the ultimate creator. It is stated in this çloka that Brahmä was taught Vedic knowledge by the Personality of Godhead. One may argue that Brahmä, being the original living being, could not be inspired because there was no other being living at that time. Herein it is stated that the Supreme Lord inspired the secondary creator, Brahmä, in order that Brahmä could carry out his creative functions. So, the supreme intelligence behind all creations is the Absolute Godhead, Çré Kåñëa. In Bhagavad-gétä, Lord Çré Kåñëa states that it is He only who superintends the creative energy, prakåti, which constitutes the totality of matter. Therefore, Çré Vyäsadeva does not worship Brahmä, but the Supreme Lord, who guides Brahmä in his creative activities. In this çloka, the particular words abhijïaù and svaräö are significant. These two words distinguish the Supreme Lord from all the other living entities. No other living entity is either abhijïaù or svaräö. That is, no one is either fully cognizant or fully independent. Even Brahmä has to meditate upon the Supreme Lord in order to create. Then what to speak of great scientists like Einstein! The brains of such a scientist are certainly not the products of any human being. Scientists cannot manufacture such a brain, and what to speak of foolish atheists who defy the authority of the Lord? Even Mäyävädé impersonalists who flatter themselves that they can become one with the Lord are neither abhijïaù or svaräö. Such impersonalists undergo severe austerities to acquire knowledge to become one with the Lord. But ultimately they become dependent on some rich disciple who supplies them with money to build monasteries and temples. Atheists like Rävaëa or Hiraëyakaçipu had to undergo severe penances before they could flout the authority of the Lord. But ultimately, they were rendered helpless and could not save themselves when the Lord appeared before them as cruel death. This is also the case with the modern atheists who also dare to flout the authority of the Lord. Such atheists will be dealt with similarly, for history repeats itself. Whenever men neglect the authority of the Lord, nature and her laws are there to penalize them. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gétä in the well-known verse yadä yadä hi dharmasya gläniù. “Whenever there is a decline of dharma and a rise of adharma, O Arjuna, then I incarnate Myself.” (Bg. 4.7) That the Supreme Lord is all-perfect is confirmed in all çruti-mantras. It is Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

said in the çruti-mantras that the all-perfect Lord threw a glance over matter and thus created all living beings. The living beings are parts and parcels of the Lord, and He impregnates the vast material creation with seeds of spiritual sparks, and thus the creative energies are set in motion to enact so many wonderful creations. An atheist may argue that God is no more expert than a watchmaker, but of course God is greater because He can create machines in duplicate male and female forms. The male and female forms of different types of machineries go on producing innumerable similar machines without God’s further attention. If a man could manufacture such a set of machines that could produce other machines without his attention, then he could approach the intelligence of God. But that is not possible, for each machine has to be handled individually. Therefore, no one can create as well as God. Another name for God is asamaurdhva, which means that no one is equal to or greater than Him. Paraà satyam, or the Supreme Truth, is He who has no equal or superior. This is confirmed in the çruti-mantras. It is said that before the creation of the material universe there existed the Lord only, who is master of everyone. That Lord instructed Brahmä in Vedic knowledge. That Lord has to be obeyed in all respects. Anyone who wants to get rid of the material entanglement must surrender unto Him. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gétä. Unless one surrenders unto the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, it is certain that he will be bewildered. When an intelligent man surrenders unto the lotus feet of Kåñëa and knows completely that Kåñëa is the cause of all causes, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gétä, then only can such an intelligent man become a mahätmä, or great soul. But such a great soul is rarely seen. Only the mahätmäs can understand that the Supreme Lord is the primeval cause of all creations. He is parama or ultimate truth because all other truths are relative to Him. He is omniscient. For Him, there is no illusion. Some Mäyävädé scholars argue that Çrémad-Bhägavatam was not compiled by Çré Vyäsadeva. And some of them suggest that this book is a modern creation written by someone named Vopadeva. In order to refute such meaningless arguments, Çré Çrédhara Svämé points out that there is reference to the Bhägavatam in many of the oldest Puräëas. This first çloka of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Bhägavatam begins with the Gäyatré mantra. There is reference to this in the Matsya Puräëa, which is the oldest Puräëa. In that Puräëa, it is said with reference to the Gäyatré mantra in the Bhägavatam that there are many narrations of spiritual instructions beginning with the Gäyatré mantra. And there is the history of Våträsura. Anyone who makes a gift of this great work on a full moon day attains to the highest perfection of life by returning to Godhead. There is reference to the Bhägavatam in other Puräëas also, where it is clearly stated that this work was finished in twelve cantos, which include eighteen thousand çlokas. In the Padma Puräëa also there is reference to the Bhägavatam in a conversation between Gautama and Mahäräja Ambaréña. The king was advised therein to read regularly Çrémad-Bhägavatam if he desired liberation from material bondage. Under the circumstances, there is no doubt about the authority of the Bhägavatam. Within the past five hundred years, many erudite scholars and äcäryas like Jéva Gosvämé, Sanätana Gosvämé, Viçvanätha Cakravarté, Vallabhäcärya, and many other distinguished scholars even after the time of Lord Caitanya made elaborate commentaries on the Bhägavatam. And the serious student would do well to attempt to go through them to better relish the transcendental messages. Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura specifically deals with the original and pure sex psychology (ädi-rasa), devoid of all mundane inebriety. The whole material creation is moving under the principle of sex life. In modern civilization, sex life is the focal point for all activities. Wherever one turns his face, he sees sex life predominant. Therefore, sex life is not unreal. Its reality is experienced in the spiritual world. The material sex life is but a perverted reflection of the original fact. The original fact is in the Absolute Truth, and thus the Absolute Truth cannot be impersonal. It is not possible to be impersonal and contain pure sex life. Consequently, the impersonalist philosophers have given indirect impetus to the abominable mundane sex life because they have overstressed the impersonality of the ultimate truth. Consequently, man without information of the actual spiritual form of sex has accepted perverted material sex life as the all in all. There is a distinction between sex life in the diseased material condition and spiritual sex life. This Çrémad-Bhägavatam will gradually elevate the unbiased reader to the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

highest perfectional stage of transcendence. It will enable him to transcend the three modes of material activities: fruitive actions, speculative philosophy, and worship of functional deities as inculcated in Vedic verses. TEXT 2 DaMaR" Pa[aeiJ‡TakE-Tavae_}a ParMaae iNaMaRTSaraaSTaT+aaGavaNa( badraYaavTaa YaiÜiNaiêTaMa( ) Pau&SaaMaek-aNTaTa" é[eYaSTaà" Xa&iSaTauMahRiSa )) 9 )) tatra taträïjasäyuñman bhavatä yad viniçcitam puàsäm ekäntataù çreyas tan naù çaàsitum arhasi SYNONYMS tatra—thereof; tatra—thereof; aïjasä—made easy; äyuñman—blessed with a long duration of life; bhavatä—by your good self; yat—whatever; viniçcitam—ascertained; puàsäm—for the people in general; ekäntataù—absolutely; çreyaù—ultimate good; tat—that; naù—to us; çaàsitum—to explain; arhasi—deserve. TRANSLATION Please, therefore, being blessed with many years, explain to us, in an easily understandable way, what you have ascertained to be the absolute and ultimate good for the people in general. PURPORT In Bhagavad-gétä, worship of the äcärya is recommended. The äcäryas and gosvämés are always absorbed in thought of the well-being of the general public, especially their spiritual well-being. Spiritual wellbeing is automatically followed by material well-being. The äcäryas therefore give directions in spiritual well-being for people in general. Foreseeing the incompetencies of the people in this age of Kali, or the iron age of quarrel, the sages requested that Süta Gosvämé give a summary of all revealed scriptures because the people of this age are condemned in every respect. The sages, therefore, inquired of the absolute good, which is the ultimate good for the people. The condemned state of affairs of the people of this age is described as follows. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 10 Pa[aYaeaUrqiaUirk-MaaRiaaGaXa" ) ATa" SaaDaae_}a YaTSaar& SaMaud(Da*TYa MaNaqzYaa ) b]Uih >ad]aYa>aUTaaNaa& YaeNaaTMaa SauPa[SaqdiTa )) 11 )) bhüréëi bhüri-karmäëi çrotavyäni vibhägaçaù ataù sädho ’tra yat säraà samuddhåtya manéñayä brühi bhadräya bhütänäà yenätmä suprasédati SYNONYMS bhüréëi—multifarious; bhüri—many; karmäëi—duties; çrotavyäni—to be learned; vibhägaçaù—by divisions of subject matter; ataù—therefore; sädho—O sage; atra—herein; yat—whatever; säram—essence; samuddhåtya—by selection; manéñayä—best to your knowledge; brühi—please tell us; bhadräya—for the good of; bhütänäm—the living beings; yena—by which; ätmä—the self; suprasédati—becomes fully satisfied. TRANSLATION There are many varieties of scriptures, and in all of them there are many prescribed duties, which can be learned only after many years of study in their various divisions. Therefore, O sage, please select the essence of all these scriptures and explain it for the good of all living beings, that by such instruction their hearts may be fully satisfied. PURPORT Ätmä, or self, is distinguished from matter and material elements. It is spiritual in constitution, and thus it is never satisfied by any amount of material planning. All scriptures and spiritual instructions are meant for the satisfaction of this self, or ätmä. There are many varieties of approaches which Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

are recommended for different types of living beings in different times and at different places. Consequently, the numbers of revealed scriptures are innumerable. There are different methods and prescribed duties recommended in these various scriptures. Taking into consideration the fallen condition of the people in general in this age of Kali, the sages of Naimiñäraëya suggested that Çré Süta Gosvämé relate the essence of all such scriptures because in this age it is not possible for the fallen souls to understand and undergo all the lessons of all these various scriptures in a varëa and äçrama system. The varëa and äçrama society was considered to be the best institution for lifting the human being to the spiritual platform, but due to Kali-yuga it is not possible to execute the rules and regulations of these institutions. Nor is it possible for the people in general to completely sever relations with their families as the varëäçrama institution prescribes. The whole atmosphere is surcharged with opposition. And considering this, one can see that spiritual emancipation for the common man in this age is very difficult. The reason the sages presented this matter to Çré Süta Gosvämé is explained in the following verses. TEXT 12 SaUTa JaaNaaiSa >ad]& Tae >aGavaNa( SaaTvTaa& PaiTa" ) devKYaa& vSaudevSYa JaaTaae YaSYa ick-IzRYaa )) 12 )) süta jänäsi bhadraà te bhagavän sätvatäà patiù devakyäà vasudevasya jäto yasya cikérñayä SYNONYMS süta—O Süta Gosvämé; jänäsi—you know; bhadram te—all blessings upon you; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; sätvatäm—of the pure devotees; patiù—the protector; devakyäm—in the womb of Devaké; vasudevasya—by Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Vasudeva; jätaù—born of; yasya—for the purpose of; cikérñayä—executing. TRANSLATION All blessings upon you, O Süta Gosvämé. You know for what purpose the Personality of Godhead appeared in the womb of Devaké as the son of Vasudeva. PURPORT Bhagavän means the Almighty God who is the controller of all opulences, power, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation. He is the protector of His pure devotees. Although God is equally disposed to everyone, He is especially inclined to His devotees. Sat means the Absolute Truth. And persons who are servitors of the Absolute Truth are called sätvatas. And the Personality of Godhead who protects such pure devotees is known as the protector of the sätvatas. Bhadraà te, or “blessings upon you,” indicates the sages’ anxiety to know the Absolute Truth from the speaker. Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appeared to Devaké, the wife of Vasudeva. Vasudeva is the symbol of the transcendental position wherein the appearance of the Supreme Lord takes place. TEXT 13 Taà" éué[UzMaaavaYa c )) 13 )) tan naù çuçrüñamäëänäm arhasy aìgänuvarëitum yasyävatäro bhütänäà kñemäya ca bhaväya ca SYNONYMS tat—those; naù—unto us; çuçrüñamäëänäm—those who are endeavoring for; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

arhasi—ought to do it; aìga—O Süta Gosvämé; anuvarëitum—to explain by following in the footsteps of previous äcäryas; yasya—whose; avatäraù—incarnation; bhütänäm—of the living beings; kñemäya—for good; ca—and; bhaväya—upliftment; ca—and. TRANSLATION O Süta Gosvämé, we are eager to learn about the Personality of Godhead and His incarnations. Please explain to us those teachings imparted by previous masters [äcäryas], for one is uplifted both by speaking them and by hearing them. PURPORT The conditions for hearing the transcendental message of the Absolute Truth are set forth herein. The first condition is that the audience must be very sincere and eager to hear. And the speaker must be in the line of disciplic succession from the recognized äcärya. The transcendental message of the Absolute is not understandable by those who are materially absorbed. Under the direction of a bona fide spiritual master, one becomes gradually purified. Therefore, one must be in the chain of disciplic succession and learn the spiritual art of submissive hearing. In the case of Süta Gosvämé and the sages of Naimiñäraëya, all these conditions are fulfilled because Çréla Süta Gosvämé is in the line of Çréla Vyäsadeva, and the sages of Naimiñäraëya are all sincere souls who are anxious to learn the truth. Thus the transcendental topics of Lord Çré Kåñëa’s superhuman activities, His incarnation, His birth, appearance or disappearance, His forms, His names and so on are all easily understandable because all requirements are fulfilled. Such discourses help all men on the path of spiritual realization. TEXT 14 AaPaà" Sa&Sa*iTa& gaaera& YaàaMa ivvXaae Ga*aa" ) l/Il/a ivdDaTa" SvErMaqìrSYaaTMaMaaYaYaa )) 18 )) athäkhyähi harer dhémann avatära-kathäù çubhäù lélä vidadhataù svairam éçvarasyätma-mäyayä SYNONYMS atha—therefore; äkhyähi—describe; hareù—of the Lord; dhéman—O sagacious one; avatära—incarnations; kathäù—narratives; çubhäù—auspicious; lélä—adventures; vidadhataù—performed; svairam—pastimes; éçvarasya—of the supreme controller; ätma—personal; mäyayä—energies. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

O wise Süta, please narrate to us the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Godhead’s multi-incarnations. Such auspicious adventures and pastimes of the Lord, the supreme controller, are performed by His internal powers. PURPORT For the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material worlds, the Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead Himself appears in many thousands of forms of incarnations, and the specific adventures found in those transcendental forms are all auspicious. Both those who are present during such activities and those who hear the transcendental narrations of such activities are benefited. TEXT 19 vYa& Tau Na ivTa*PYaaMa otaMaëaek-iv§-Mae ) YaC^*aGavaNa( GaU!" k-Pa$=MaaNauz" )) 20 )) kåtavän kila karmäëi saha rämeëa keçavaù atimartyäni bhagavän güòhaù kapaöa-mänuñaù SYNONYMS kåtavän—done by; kila—what; karmäëi—acts; saha—along with; rämeëa—Balaräma; keçavaù—Çré Kåñëa; atimartyäni—superhuman; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; güòhaù—masked as; kapaöa—apparently; mänuñaù—human being. TRANSLATION Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead, along with Balaräma, played like a human being, and so masked He performed many superhuman acts. PURPORT The doctrines of anthropomorphism and zoomorphism are never applicable to Çré Kåñëa, or the Personality of Godhead. The theory that a man becomes God by dint of penance and austerities is very much rampant nowadays, especially in India. Since Lord Räma, Lord Kåñëa and Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu were detected by the sages and saints to be the Personality of Godhead as indicated in revealed scriptures, many unscrupulous men have created their own incarnations. This process of concocting an incarnation of God has become an ordinary business, especially in Bengal. Any popular personality with a few traits of mystic powers will display some feat of jugglery and easily become an incarnation of Godhead by popular vote. Lord Çré Kåñëa was not that type of incarnation. He was actually the Personality of Godhead from the very beginning of His appearance. He appeared before His so-called mother as four-armed Viñëu. Then, at the request of the mother, He became like a human child and at once left her for another devotee at Gokula, where Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

He was accepted as the son of Nanda Mahäräja and Yaçodä Mätä. Similarly, Çré Baladeva, the counterpart of Lord Çré Kåñëa, was also considered a human child born of another wife of Çré Vasudeva. In Bhagavad-gétä, the Lord says that His birth and deeds are transcendental and that anyone who is so fortunate as to know the transcendental nature of His birth and deeds will at once become liberated and eligible to return to the kingdom of God. So knowledge of the transcendental nature of the birth and deeds of Lord Çré Kåñëa is sufficient for liberation. In the Bhägavatam, the transcendental nature of the Lord is described in nine cantos, and in the Tenth Canto His specific pastimes are taken up. All this becomes known as one’s reading of this literature progresses. It is important to note here, however, that the Lord exhibited His divinity even from the lap of His mother, that His deeds are all superhuman (He lifted Govardhana Hill at the age of seven), and that all these acts definitely prove Him to be actually the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Yet, due to His mystic covering, He was always accepted as an ordinary human child by His so-called father and mother and other relatives. Whenever some herculean task was performed by Him, the father and mother took it otherwise. And they remained satisfied with unflinching filial love for their son. As such, the sages of Naimiñäraëya describe Him as apparently resembling a human being, but actually He is the supreme almighty Personality of Godhead. TEXT 21 k-il/MaaGaTaMaajaYa +ae}ae_iSMaNa( vEZaaYa ih SMa*Ta" )) 9 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

dharmasya hy äpavargyasya närtho ’rthäyopakalpate närthasya dharmaikäntasya kämo läbhäya hi småtaù SYNONYMS dharmasya—occupational engagement; hi—certainly; äpavargyasya—ultimate liberation; na—not; arthaù—end; arthäya—for material gain; upakalpate—is meant for; na—neither; arthasya—of material gain; dharma-eka-antasya—for one who is engaged in the ultimate occupational service; kämaù—sense gratification; läbhäya—attainment of; hi—exactly; småtaù—is described by the great sages. TRANSLATION All occupational engagements are certainly meant for ultimate liberation. They should never be performed for material gain. Furthermore, according to sages, one who is engaged in the ultimate occupational service should never use material gain to cultivate sense gratification. PURPORT We have already discussed that pure devotional service to the Lord is automatically followed by perfect knowledge and detachment from material existence. But there are others who consider that all kinds of different occupational engagements, including those of religion, are meant for material gain. The general tendency of any ordinary man in any part of the world is to gain some material profit in exchange for religious or any other occupational service. Even in the Vedic literatures, for all sorts of religious performances an allurement of material gain is offered, and most people are attracted by such allurements or blessings of religiosity. Why are such so-called men of religion allured by material gain? Because material gain can enable one to fulfill desires, which in turn satisfy sense gratification. This cycle of occupational engagements includes so-called religiosity followed by material gain and Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

material gain followed by fulfillment of desires. Sense gratification is the general way for all sorts of fully occupied men. But in the statement of Süta Gosvämé, as per the verdict of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, this is nullified by the present çloka. One should not engage himself in any sort of occupational service for material gain only. Nor should material gain be utilized for sense gratification. How material gain should be utilized is described as follows. TEXT 10 k-aMaSYa NaeiNd]YaPa[qiTal/aR>aae JaqveTa YaavTaa ) JaqvSYa TatviJajaSaa NaaQaaeR Yaêeh k-MaRi>a" )) 10 )) kämasya nendriya-prétir läbho jéveta yävatä jévasya tattva-jijïäsä närtho yaç ceha karmabhiù SYNONYMS kämasya—of desires; na—not; indriya—senses; prétiù—satisfaction; läbhaù—gain; jéveta—self-preservation; yävatä—so much so; jévasya—of the living being; tattva—the Absolute Truth; jijïäsä—inquiries; na—not; arthaù—end; yaù ca iha—whatsoever else; karmabhiù—by occupational activities. TRANSLATION Life’s desires should never be directed toward sense gratification. One should desire only a healthy life, or self-preservation, since a human being is meant for inquiry about the Absolute Truth. Nothing else should be the goal of one’s works. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The completely bewildered material civilization is wrongly directed towards the fulfillment of desires in sense gratification. In such civilization, in all spheres of life, the ultimate end is sense gratification. In politics, social service, altruism, philanthropy and ultimately in religion or even in salvation, the very same tint of sense gratification is ever-increasingly predominant. In the political field the leaders of men fight with one another to fulfill their personal sense gratification. The voters adore the so-called leaders only when they promise sense gratification. As soon as the voters are dissatisfied in their own sense satisfaction, they dethrone the leaders, The leaders must always disappoint the voters by not satisfying their senses. The same is applicable in all other fields; no one is serious about the problems of life. Even those who are on the path of salvation desire to become one with the Absolute Truth and desire to commit spiritual suicide for sense gratification. But the Bhägavatam says that one should not live for sense gratification. One should satisfy the senses only insomuch as required for self-preservation, and not for sense gratification. Because the body is made of senses, which also require a certain amount of satisfaction, there are regulative directions for satisfaction of such senses. But the senses are not meant for unrestricted enjoyment. For example, marriage or the combination of a man with a woman is necessary for progeny, but it is not meant for sense enjoyment. In the absence of voluntary restraint, there is propaganda for family planning, but foolish men do not know that family planning is automatically executed as soon as there is search after the Absolute Truth. Seekers of the Absolute Truth are never allured by unnecessary engagements in sense gratification because the serious students seeking the Absolute Truth are always overwhelmed with the work of researching the Truth. In every sphere of life, therefore, the ultimate end must be seeking after the Absolute Truth, and that sort of engagement will make one happy because he will be less engaged in varieties of sense gratification. And what that Absolute Truth is is explained as follows. TEXT 11 vdiNTa TatatvivdSTatv& YaJjaNaMaÜYaMa( ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

b]øeiTa ParMaaTMaeiTa >aGavaiNaiTa XaBÛTae )) 11 )) vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvaà yaj jïänam advayam brahmeti paramätmeti bhagavän iti çabdyate SYNONYMS vadanti—they say; tat—that; tattva-vidaù—the learned souls; tattvam—the Absolute Truth; yat—which; jïänam—knowledge; advayam—nondual; brahma iti—known as Brahman; paramätmä iti—known as Paramätmä; bhagavän iti—known as Bhagavän; çabdyate—it so sounded. TRANSLATION Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramätmä or Bhagavän. PURPORT The Absolute Truth is both subject and object, and there is no qualitative difference there. Therefore, Brahman, Paramätmä and Bhagavän are qualitatively one and the same. The same substance is realized as impersonal Brahman by the students of the Upaniñads, as localized Paramätmä by the Hiraëyagarbhas or the yogés, and as Bhagavän by the devotees. In other words, Bhagavän, or the Personality of Godhead, is the last word of the Absolute Truth. Paramätmä is the partial representation of the Personality of Godhead, and impersonal Brahman is the glowing effulgence of the Personality of Godhead, as the sun rays are to the sun-god. Less intelligent students of either of the above schools sometimes argue in favor of their own respective realization, but those who are perfect seers of the Absolute Truth know well that the above three features of the one Absolute Truth are different perspective views seen from different angles of vision. As it is explained in the first çloka of the First Chapter of the Bhägavatam, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Supreme Truth is self-sufficient, cognizant and free from the illusion of relativity. In the relative world the knower is different from the known, but in the Absolute Truth both the knower and the known are one and the same thing. In the relative world the knower is the living spirit or superior energy, whereas the known is inert matter or inferior energy. Therefore, there is a duality of inferior and superior energy, whereas in the absolute realm both the knower and the known are of the same superior energy. There are three kinds of energies of the supreme energetic. There is no difference between the energy and energetic, but there is a difference of quality of energies. The absolute realm and the living entities are of the same superior energy, but the material world is inferior energy. The living being in contact with the inferior energy is illusioned, thinking he belongs to the inferior energy. Therefore there is the sense of relativity in the material world. In the Absolute there is no such sense of difference between the knower and the known, and therefore everything there is absolute. TEXT 12 TaC^\ÕDaaNaa MauNaYaae jaNavEraGYaYau¢-Yaa ) PaXYaNTYaaTMaiNa caTMaaNa& >a¢-ya é[uTaGa*hqTaYaa )) 12 )) tac chraddadhänä munayo jïäna-vairägya-yuktayä paçyanty ätmani cätmänaà bhaktyä çruta-gåhétayä SYNONYMS tat—that; çraddadhänäù—seriously inquisitive; munayaù—sages; jïäna—knowledge; vairägya—detachment; yuktayä—well equipped with; paçyanti—see; ätmani—within himself; ca—and; ätmänam—the Paramätmä; bhaktyä—in devotional service; çruta—the Vedas; gåhétayä—well received. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The seriously inquisitive student or sage, well equipped with knowledge and detachment, realizes that Absolute Truth by rendering devotional service in terms of what he has heard from the Vedänta-çruti. PURPORT The Absolute Truth is realized in full by the process of devotional service to the Lord, Väsudeva, or the Personality of Godhead, who is the full-fledged Absolute Truth. Brahman is His transcendental bodily effulgence, and Paramätmä is His partial representation. As such, Brahman or Paramätmä realization of the Absolute Truth is but a partial realization. There are four different types of human beings—the karmés, the jïänés, the yogés and the devotees. The karmés are materialistic, whereas the other three are transcendental. The first-class transcendentalists are the devotees who have realized the Supreme Person. The second-class transcendentalists are those who have partially realized the plenary portion of the absolute person. And the third-class transcendentalists are those who have barely realized the spiritual focus of the absolute person. As stated in the Bhagavad-gétä and other Vedic literatures, the Supreme Person is realized by devotional service, which is backed by full knowledge and detachment from material association. We have already discussed the point that devotional service is followed by knowledge and detachment from material association. As Brahman and Paramätmä realization are imperfect realizations of the Absolute Truth, so the means of realizing Brahman and Paramätmä, i.e., the paths of jïäna and yoga, are also imperfect means of realizing the Absolute Truth. Devotional service, which is based on the foreground of full knowledge combined with detachment from material association and which is fixed by the aural reception of the Vedänta-çruti, is the only perfect method by which the seriously inquisitive student can realize the Absolute Truth. Devotional service is not, therefore, meant for the less intelligent class of transcendentalist. There are three classes of devotees, namely first, second, and third class. The third-class devotees, or the neophytes, who have no knowledge and are not detached from material association, but who are simply attracted by the preliminary process of worshiping the Deity in the temple, are called material devotees. Material Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

devotees are more attached to material benefit than transcendental profit. Therefore, one has to make definite progress from the position of material devotional service to the second-class devotional position. In the second-class position, the devotee can see four principles in the devotional line, namely the Personality of Godhead, His devotees, the ignorant and the envious. One has to raise himself at least to the stage of a second-class devotee and thus become eligible to know the Absolute Truth. A third-class devotee, therefore, has to receive the instructions of devotional service from the authoritative sources of Bhägavata. The number one Bhägavata is the established personality of devotee, and the other Bhägavatam is the message of Godhead. The third-class devotee therefore has to go to the personality of devotee in order to learn the instructions of devotional service. Such a personality of devotee is not a professional man who earns his livelihood by the business of Bhägavatam. Such a devotee must be a representative of Çukadeva Gosvämé, like Süta Gosvämé, and must preach the cult of devotional service for the all-around benefit of all people. A neophyte devotee has very little taste for hearing from the authorities. Such a neophyte devotee makes a show of hearing from the professional man to satisfy his senses. This sort of hearing and chanting has spoiled the whole thing, so one should be very careful about the faulty process. The holy messages of Godhead, as inculcated in the Bhagavad-gétä or in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, are undoubtedly transcendental subjects, but even though they are so, such transcendental matters are not to be received from the professional man, who spoils them as the serpent spoils milk simply by the touch of his tongue. A sincere devotee must, therefore, be prepared to hear the Vedic literature like the Upaniñads, Vedänta and other literatures left by the previous authorities or Gosvämés, for the benefit of his progress. Without hearing such literatures, one cannot make actual progress. And without hearing and following the instructions, the show of devotional service becomes worthless and therefore a sort of disturbance in the path of devotional service. Unless, therefore, devotional service is established on the principles of çruti, småti, puräëa or païcarätra authorities, the make-show of devotional service should at once be rejected. An unauthorized devotee should never be recognized as a Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

pure devotee. By assimilation of such messages from the Vedic literatures, one can see the all-pervading localized aspect of the Personality of Godhead within his own self constantly. This is called samädhi. TEXT 13 ATa" PauiM>aiÜRJaé[eïa vaaGaXa" ) SvNauiïTaSYa DaMaRSYa Sa&iSaiÖhRirTaaezaadYaê Yae ) ceTa WTaErNaaivÖ& iSQaTa& Satve Pa[SaqdiTa )) 19 )) tadä rajas-tamo-bhäväù käma-lobhädayaç ca ye ceta etair anäviddhaà sthitaà sattve prasédati SYNONYMS tadä—at that time; rajaù—in the mode of passion; tamaù—the mode of ignorance; bhäväù—the situation; käma—lust and desire; lobha—hankering; ädayaù—others; ca—and; ye—whatever they are; cetaù—the mind; etaiù—by these; anäviddham—without being affected; sthitam—being fixed; sattve—in the mode of goodness; prasédati—thus becomes fully satisfied. TRANSLATION As soon as irrevocable loving service is established in the heart, the effects of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

nature’s modes of passion and ignorance, such as lust, desire and hankering, disappear from the heart. Then the devotee is established in goodness, and he becomes completely happy. PURPORT A living being in his normal constitutional position is fully satisfied in spiritual bliss. This state of existence is called brahma-bhüta or ätmä-nandé, or the state of self-satisfaction. This self-satisfaction is not like the satisfaction of the inactive fool. The inactive fool is in the state of foolish ignorance, whereas the self-satisfied ätmänandé is transcendental to the material state of existence. This stage of perfection is attained as soon as one is fixed in irrevocable devotional service. Devotional service is not inactivity, but the unalloyed activity of the soul. The soul’s activity becomes adulterated in contact with matter, and as such the diseased activities are expressed in the form of lust, desire, hankering, inactivity, foolishness and sleep. The effect of devotional service becomes manifest by complete elimination of these effects of passion and ignorance. The devotee is fixed at once in the mode of goodness, and he makes further progress to rise to the position of Väsudeva, or the state of unmixed sattva, or çuddha-sattva. Only in this çuddha-sattva state can one always see Kåñëa eye to eye by dint of pure affection for the Lord. A devotee is always in the mode of unalloyed goodness; therefore he harms no one. But the nondevotee, however educated he may be, is always harmful. A devotee is neither foolish nor passionate. The harmful, foolish and passionate cannot be devotees of the Lord, however they may advertise themselves as devotees by outward dress. A devotee is always qualified with all the good qualities of God. Quantitatively such qualifications may be different, but qualitatively both the Lord and His devotee are one and the same. TEXT 20 Wv& Pa[SaàMaNaSaae >aGavÙi¢-YaaeGaTa" ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

>aGavtatvivjaNa& Mau¢-Sa®SYa JaaYaTae )) 20 )) evaà prasanna-manaso bhagavad-bhakti-yogataù bhagavat-tattva-vijïänaà mukta-saìgasya jäyate SYNONYMS evam—thus; prasanna—enlivened; manasaù—of the mind; bhagavat-bhakti—the devotional service of the Lord; yogataù—by contact of; bhagavat—regarding the Personality of Godhead; tattva—knowledge; vijïänam—scientific; mukta—liberated; saìgasya—of the association; jäyate—becomes effective. TRANSLATION Thus established in the mode of unalloyed goodness, the man whose mind has been enlivened by contact with devotional service to the Lord gains positive scientific knowledge of the Personality of Godhead in the stage of liberation from all material association. PURPORT In the Bhagavad-gétä (7.3) it is said that out of many thousands of ordinary men, one fortunate man endeavors for perfection in life. Mostly men are conducted by the modes of passion and ignorance, and thus they are engaged always in lust, desire, hankerings, ignorance and sleep. Out of many such manlike animals, there is actually a man who knows the responsibility of human life and thus tries to make life perfect by following the prescribed duties. And out of many thousands of such persons who have thus attained success in human life, one may know scientifically about the Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa. In the same Bhagavad-gétä (18.55) it is also said that scientific knowledge of Çré Kåñëa is understood only by the process of devotional service (bhakti-yoga). Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The very same thing is confirmed herein in the above words. No ordinary man, or even one who has attained success in human life, can know scientifically or perfectly the Personality of Godhead. Perfection of human life is attained when one can understand that he is not the product of matter but is in fact spirit. And as soon as one understands that he has nothing to do with matter, he at once ceases his material hankerings and becomes enlivened as a spiritual being. This attainment of success is possible when one is above the modes of passion and ignorance, or, in other words, when one is actually a brähmaëa by qualification. A brähmaëa is the symbol of sattva-guëa, or the mode of goodness. And others, who are not in the mode of goodness, are either kñatriyas, vaiçyas, çüdras or less than the çüdras. The brahminical stage is the highest stage of human life because of its good qualities. So one cannot be a devotee unless one at least qualifies as a brähmaëa. The devotee is already a brähmaëa by action. But that is not the end of it. As referred to above, such a brähmaëa has to become a Vaiñëava in fact to be actually in the transcendental stage. A pure Vaiñëava is a liberated soul and is transcendental even to the position of a brähmaëa. In the material stage even a brähmaëa is also a conditioned soul because although in the brahminical stage the conception of Brahman or transcendence is realized, scientific knowledge of the Supreme Lord is lacking. One has to surpass the brahminical stage and reach the vasudeva stage to understand the Personality of Godhead Kåñëa. The science of the Personality of Godhead is the subject matter for study by the postgraduate students in the spiritual line. Foolish men, or men with a poor fund of knowledge, do not understand the Supreme Lord, and they interpret Kåñëa according to their respective whims. The fact is, however, that one cannot understand the science of the Personality of Godhead unless one is freed from the contamination of the material modes, even up to the stage of a brähmaëa. When a qualified brähmaëa factually becomes a Vaiñëava, in the enlivened state of liberation he can know what is actually the Personality of Godhead. TEXT 21

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

i>aÛTae ôdYaGa]iNQaiX^ÛNTae SavRSa&XaYaa" ) +aqYaNTae caSYa k-MaaRiai¢&- ParMaYaa Mauda ) vaSaudeve >aGaviTa ku-vRNTYaaTMaPa[SaadNaqMa( )) 22 )) ato vai kavayo nityaà bhaktià paramayä mudä väsudeve bhagavati kurvanty ätma-prasädaném SYNONYMS ataù—therefore; vai—certainly; kavayaù—all transcendentalists; nityam—from time immemorial; bhaktim—service unto the Lord; paramayä—supreme; mudä—with great delight; väsudeve—Çré Kåñëa; bhagavati—the Personality of Godhead; kurvanti—do render; ätma—self; prasädaném—that which enlivens. TRANSLATION Certainly, therefore, since time immemorial, all transcendentalists have been rendering devotional service to Lord Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead, with great delight, because such devotional service is enlivening to the self. PURPORT The speciality of devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead Lord Çré Kåñëa is specifically mentioned herein. Lord Çré Kåñëa is the svayaà-rüpa Personality of Godhead, and all other forms of Godhead, beginning from Çré Baladeva, Saìkarñaëa, Väsudeva, Aniruddha, Pradyumna and Näräyaëa and extending to the puruña-avatäras, guëa-avatäras, lélä-avatäras, yuga-avatäras and many other thousands of manifestations of the Personality of Godhead, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

are Lord Çré Kåñëa’s plenary portions and integrated parts. The living entities are separated parts and parcels of the Personality of Godhead. Therefore Lord Sri Kåñëa is the original form of Godhead, and He is the last word in the Transcendence. Thus He is more attractive to the higher transcendentalists who participate in the eternal pastimes of the Lord. In forms of the Personality of Godhead other than Çré Kåñëa and Baladeva, there is no facility for intimate personal contact as in the transcendental pastimes of the Lord at Vrajabhümi. The transcendental pastimes of Lord Çré Kåñëa are not newly accepted, as argued by some less intelligent persons; His pastimes are eternal and are manifested in due course once in a day of Brahmäjé, as the sun rises on the eastern horizon at the end of every twenty-four hours. TEXT 23 Satv& rJaSTaMa wiTa Pa[k*-TaeGauRaJaiNTa ùNaSaUYav" )) 26 )) mumukñavo ghora-rüpän hitvä bhüta-patén atha näräyaëa-kaläù çäntä bhajanti hy anasüyavaù SYNONYMS mumukñavaù—persons desiring liberation; ghora—horrible, ghastly; rüpän—forms like that; hitvä—rejecting; bhüta-patén—demigods; atha—for this reason; näräyaëa—the Personality of Godhead; kaläù—plenary portions; çäntäù—all-blissful; bhajanti—do worship; hi—certainly; anasüyavaù—nonenvious. TRANSLATION Those who are serious about liberation are certainly nonenvious, and they respect all. Yet they reject the horrible and ghastly forms of the demigods and worship only the all-blissful forms of Lord Viñëu and His plenary portions. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa, who is the original person of the Viñëu categories, expands Himself in two different categories, namely integrated plenary portions and separated parts and parcels. The separated parts and parcels are the servitors, and the integrated plenary portions of viñëu-tattvas are the worshipful objects of service. All demigods who are empowered by the Supreme Lord are also separated parts and parcels. They do not belong to the categories of viñëu-tattva. The viñëu-tattvas are living beings equally as powerful as the original form of the Personality of Godhead, and They display different categories of power in consideration of different times and circumstances. The separated parts and parcels are powerful by limitation. They do not have unlimited power like the viñëu-tattvas. Therefore, one should never classify the viñëu-tattvas, or the plenary portions of Näräyaëa, the Personality of Godhead, in the same categories with the parts and parcels. If anyone does so he becomes at once an offender by the name päñaëòé. In the age of Kali many foolish persons commit such unlawful offenses and equalize the two categories. The separated parts and parcels have different positions in the estimation of material powers, and some of them are like Käla-bhairava, Çmaçäna-bhairava, Çani, Mahäkälé and Caëòikä. These demigods are worshiped mostly by those who are in the lowest categories of the mode of darkness or ignorance. Other demigods, like Brahmä, Çiva, Sürya, Gaëeça and many similar deities, are worshiped by men in the mode of passion, urged on by the desire for material enjoyment. But those who are actually situated in the mode of goodness (sattva-guëa) of material nature worship only viñëu-tattvas. Viñëu-tattvas are represented by various names and forms, such as Näräyaëa, Dämodara, Vämana, Govinda and Adhokñaja. The qualified brähmaëas worship the viñëu-tattvas represented by the çälagräma-çilä, and some of the higher castes like the kñatriyas and vaiçyas also generally worship the viñëu-tattvas. Highly qualified brähmaëas situated in the mode of goodness have no grudges against the mode of worship of others. They have all respect for other demigods, even though they may look ghastly, like Käla-bhairava or Mahäkälé. They know very well that those horrible features of the Supreme Lord are all Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

different servitors of the Lord under different conditions, yet they reject the worship of both horrible and attractive features of the demigods, and they concentrate only on the forms of Viñëu because they are serious about liberation from the material conditions. The demigods, even to the stage of Brahmä, the supreme of all the demigods, cannot offer liberation to anyone. Hiraëyakaçipu underwent a severe type of penance to become eternal in life, but his worshipful deity, Brahmä, could not satisfy him with such blessings. Therefore Viñëu, and none else, is called mukti-päda, or the Personality of Godhead who can bestow upon us mukti, liberation. The demigods, being like other living entities in the material world, are all liquidated at the time of the annihilation of the material structure. They are themselves unable to get liberation, and what to speak of giving liberation to their devotees. The demigods can award the worshipers some temporary benefit only, and not the ultimate one. It is for this reason only that candidates for liberation deliberately reject the worship of the demigods, although they have no disrespect for any one of them. TEXT 27 rJaSTaMa"Pa[k*-TaYa" SaMaXaql/a >aJaiNTa vE ) iPaTa*>aUTaPa[JaeXaadqNa( ié[YaEìYaRPa[JaePSav" )) 27 )) rajas-tamaù-prakåtayaù sama-çélä bhajanti vai pitå-bhüta-prajeçädén çriyaiçvarya-prajepsavaù SYNONYMS rajaù—the mode of passion; tamaù—the mode of ignorance; prakåtayaù—of that mentality; sama-çéläù—of the same categories; bhajanti—do worship; vai—actually; pitå—the forefathers; bhüta—other living beings; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

prajeça-ädén—controllers of cosmic administration; çriyä—enrichment; aiçvarya—wealth and power; prajä—progeny; épsavaù—so desiring. TRANSLATION Those who are in the modes of passion and ignorance worship the forefathers, other living beings and the demigods who are in charge of cosmic activities, for they are urged by a desire to be materially benefited with women, wealth, power and progeny. PURPORT There is no need to worship demigods of whatsoever category if one is serious about going back to Godhead. In the Bhagavad-gétä (7.20,23) it is clearly said that those who are mad after material enjoyment approach the different demigods for temporary benefits, which are meant for men with a poor fund of knowledge. We should never desire to increase the depth of material enjoyment. Material enjoyment should be accepted only up to the point of the bare necessities of life and not more or less than that. To accept more material enjoyment means to bind oneself more and more to the miseries of material existence. More wealth, more women and false aristocracy are some of the demands of the materially disposed man because he has no information of the benefit derived from Viñëu worship. By Viñëu worship one can derive benefit in this life as well as in life after death. Forgetting these principles, foolish people who are after more wealth, more wives and more children worship various demigods. The aim of life is to end the miseries of life and not to increase them. For material enjoyment there is no need to approach the demigods. The demigods are but servants of the Lord. As such, they are duty-bound to supply necessities of life in the form of water, light, air, etc. One should work hard and worship the Supreme Lord by the fruits of one’s hard labor for existence, and that should be the motto of life. One should be careful to execute occupational service with faith in God in the proper way, and that will lead one gradually on the progressive march back to Godhead. Lord Çré Kåñëa, when He was personally present at Vrajadhäma, stopped Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the worship of the demigod Indra and advised the residents of Vraja to worship by their business and to have faith in God. Worshiping the multidemigods for material gain is practically a perversity of religion. This sort of religious activity has been condemned in the very beginning of the Bhägavatam as kaitava-dharma. There is only one religion in the world to be followed by one and all, and that is the Bhägavata-dharma, or the religion which teaches one to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead and no one else. TEXTS 28–29 vaSaudevPara veda vaSaudevPara Ma%a" ) vaSaudevPara YaaeGaa vaSaudevPara" i§-Yaa" )) 28 )) vaSaudevPar& jaNa& vaSaudevPar& TaPa" ) vaSaudevParae DaMaaeR vaSaudevPara GaiTa" )) 29 )) väsudeva-parä vedä väsudeva-parä makhäù väsudeva-parä yogä väsudeva-paräù kriyäù väsudeva-paraà jïänaà väsudeva-paraà tapaù väsudeva-paro dharmo väsudeva-parä gatiù SYNONYMS väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; paräù—the ultimate goal; vedäù—revealed scriptures; väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; paräù—for worshiping; makhäù—sacrifices; väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; paräù—the means of attaining; yogäù—mystic paraphernalia; väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; paräù—under His control; kriyäù—fruitive activities; väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; param—the supreme; jïänam—knowledge; väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; param—best; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

tapaù—austerity; väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; paraù—superior quality; dharmaù—religion; väsudeva—the Personality of Godhead; paräù—ultimate; gatiù—goal of life. TRANSLATION In the revealed scriptures, the ultimate object of knowledge is Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead. The purpose of performing sacrifice is to please Him. Yoga is for realizing Him. All fruitive activities are ultimately rewarded by Him only. He is supreme knowledge, and all severe austerities are performed to know Him. Religion [dharma] is rendering loving service unto Him. He is the supreme goal of life. PURPORT That Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead, is the only object of worship is confirmed in these two çlokas. In the Vedic literature there is the same objective: establishing one’s relationship and ultimately reviving our lost loving service unto Him. That is the sum and substance of the Vedas. In the Bhagavad-gétä the same theory is confirmed by the Lord in His own words: the ultimate purpose of the Vedas is to know Him only. All the revealed scriptures are prepared by the Lord through His incarnation in the body of Çréla Vyäsadeva just to remind the fallen souls, conditioned by material nature, of Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead. No demigod can award freedom from material bondage. That is the verdict of all the Vedic literatures. Impersonalists who have no information of the Personality of Godhead minimize the omnipotency of the Supreme Lord and put Him on equal footing with all other living beings, and for this act such impersonalists get freedom from material bondage only with great difficulty. They can surrender unto Him only after many, many births in the culture of transcendental knowledge. One may argue that the Vedic activities are based on sacrificial ceremonies. That is true. But all such sacrifices are also meant for realizing the truth about Väsudeva. Another name of Väsudeva is Yajïa (sacrifice), and in the Bhagavad-gétä it is clearly stated that all sacrifices and all activities are to be conducted for the satisfaction of Yajïa, or Viñëu, the Personality of Godhead. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

This is the case also with the yoga systems. Yoga means to get into touch with the Supreme Lord. The process, however, includes several bodily features such as äsana, dhyäna, präëäyäma and meditation, and all of them are meant for concentrating upon the localized aspect of Väsudeva represented as Paramätmä. Paramätmä realization is but partial realization of Väsudeva, and if one is successful in that attempt, one realizes Väsudeva in full. But by ill luck most yogés are stranded by the powers of mysticism achieved through the bodily process. Ill-fated yogés are given a chance in the next birth by being placed in the families of good learned brähmaëas or in the families of rich merchants in order to execute the unfinished task of Väsudeva realization. If such fortunate brähmaëas and sons of rich men properly utilize the chance, they can easily realize Väsudeva by good association with saintly persons. Unfortunately, such preferred persons are captivated again by material wealth and honor, and thus they practically forget the aim of life. This is also so for the culture of knowledge. According to Bhagavad-gétä there are eighteen items in culturing knowledge. By such culture of knowledge one becomes gradually prideless, devoid of vanity, nonviolent, forbearing, simple, devoted to the great spiritual master, and self-controlled. By culture of knowledge one becomes unattached to hearth and home and becomes conscious of the miseries due to death, birth, old age and disease. And all culture of knowledge culminates in devotional service to the Personality of Godhead, Väsudeva. Therefore, Väsudeva is the ultimate aim in culturing all different branches of knowledge. Culture of knowledge leading one to the transcendental plane of meeting Väsudeva is real knowledge. physical knowledge in its various branches is condemned in the Bhagavad-gétä as ajïäna, or the opposite of real knowledge. The ultimate aim of physical knowledge is to satisfy the senses, which means prolongation of the term of material existence and thereby continuance of the threefold miseries. So prolonging the miserable life of material existence is nescience. But the same physical knowledge leading to the way of spiritual understanding helps one to end the miserable life of physical existence and to begin the life of spiritual existence on the plane of Väsudeva. The same applies to all kinds of austerities. Tapasya means voluntary Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

acceptance of bodily pains to achieve some higher end of life. Rävaëa and Hiraëyakaçipu underwent a severe type of bodily torture to achieve the end of sense gratification. Sometimes modern politicians also undergo severe types of austerities to achieve some political end. This is not actually tapasya. One should accept voluntary bodily inconvenience for the sake of knowing Väsudeva because that is the way of real austerities. Otherwise all forms of austerities are classified as modes of passion and ignorance. passion and ignorance cannot end the miseries of life. Only the mode of goodness can mitigate the threefold miseries of life. Vasudeva and Devaké, the so-called father and mother of Lord Kåñëa, underwent penances to get Väsudeva as their son. Lord Çré Kåñëa is the father of all living beings (Bg. 14.4). Therefore He is the original living being of all other living beings. He is the original eternal enjoyer amongst all other enjoyers. Therefore no one can be His begetting father, as the ignorant may think. Lord Çré Kåñëa agreed to become the son of Vasudeva and Devaké upon being pleased with their severe austerities. Therefore if any austerities have to be done, they must be done to achieve the end of knowledge, Väsudeva. Väsudeva is the original Personality of Godhead Lord Çré Kåñëa. As explained before, the original Personality of Godhead expands Himself by innumerable forms. Such expansion of forms is made possible by His various energies. His energies are also multifarious, and His internal energies are superior and external energies inferior in quality. They are explained in the Bhagavad-gétä (7.4–6) as the parä and the aparä prakåtis. So His expansions of various forms which take place via the internal energies are superior forms, whereas the expansions which take place via the external energies are inferior forms. The living entities are also His expansions. The living entities who are expanded by His internal potency are eternally liberated persons, whereas those who are expanded in terms of the material energies are eternally conditioned souls. Therefore, all culture of knowledge, austerities, sacrifice and activities should be aimed at changing the quality of the influence that is acting upon us. For the present, we are all being controlled by the external energy of the Lord, and just to change the quality of the influence, we must endeavor to cultivate spiritual energy. In the Bhagavad-gétä it is said that those Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

who are mahätmäs, or those whose minds have been so broadened as to be engaged in the service of Lord Kåñëa, are under the influence of the internal potency, and the effect is that such broadminded living beings are constantly engaged in the service of the Lord without deviation. That should be the aim of life. And that is the verdict of all the Vedic literatures. No one should bother himself with fruitive activities or dry speculation about transcendental knowledge. Everyone should at once engage himself in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. Nor should one worship different demigods who work as different hands of the Lord for creation, maintenance or destruction of the material world. There are innumerable powerful demigods who look over the external management of the material world. They are all different assisting hands of Lord Väsudeva. Even Lord Çiva and Lord Brahmä are included in the list of demigods, but Lord Viñëu, or Väsudeva, is always transcendentally situated. Even though He accepts the quality of goodness of the material world, He is still transcendental to all the material modes. The following example will clear that matter more explicitly. In the prison house there are the prisoners and the managers of the prison house. Both the managers and the prisoners are bound by the laws of the king. But even though the king sometimes comes in the prison, he is not bound by the laws of the prison house. The king is therefore always transcendental to the laws of the prison house, as the Lord is always transcendental to the laws of the material world. TEXT 30 Sa Wved& SaSaJaaRGa]e >aGavaNaaTMaMaaYaYaa ) SadSad]UPaYaa caSaaE GauaaiTa ivjaNaeNa ivJa*iM>aTa" )) 31 )) tayä vilasiteñv eñu guëeñu guëavän iva antaù-praviñöa äbhäti vijïänena vijåmbhitaù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS tayä—by them; vilasiteñu—although in the function; eñu—these; guëeñu—the modes of material nature; guëavän—affected by the modes; iva—as if; antaù—within; praviñöaù—entered into; äbhäti—appears to be; vijïänena—by transcendental consciousness; vijåmbhitaù—fully enlightened. TRANSLATION After creating the material substance, the Lord [Väsudeva] expands Himself and enters into it. And although He is within the material modes of nature and appears to be; one of the created beings, He is always fully enlightened in His transcendental position. PURPORT The living entities are separated parts and parcels of the Lord, and the conditioned living entities, who are unfit for the spiritual kingdom, are strewn within the material world to enjoy matter to the fullest extent. As Paramätmä and eternal friend of the living entities, the Lord, by one of His plenary portions, accompanies the living entities to guide them in their material enjoyment and to become witness to all activities. While the living entities enjoy the material conditions, the Lord maintains His transcendental position without being affected by the material atmosphere. In the Vedic literatures (çruti) it is said that there are two birds in one tree.*(7) One of them is eating the fruit of the tree, while the other is witnessing the actions. The witness is the Lord, and the fruit-eater is the living entity. The fruit-eater (living entity) has forgotten his real identity and is overwhelmed in the fruitive activities of the material conditions, but the Lord (Paramätmä) is always full in transcendental knowledge. That is the difference between the Supersoul and the conditioned soul. The conditioned soul, the living entity, is controlled by the laws of nature, while the Paramätmä, or the Supersoul, is the controller of the material energy.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 32 YaQaa ùvihTaae viödaRåZvek-" SvYaaeiNazu ) NaaNaev >aaiTa ivìaTMaa >aUTaezu c TaQaa PauMaaNa( )) 32 )) yathä hy avahito vahnir däruñv ekaù sva-yoniñu näneva bhäti viçvätmä bhüteñu ca tathä pumän SYNONYMS yathä—as much as; hi—exactly like; avahitaù—surcharged with; vahniù—fire; däruñu—in wood; ekaù—one; sva-yoniñu—the source of manifestation; nänä iva—like different entities; bhäti—illuminates; viçva-ätmä—the Lord as Paramätmä; bhüteñu—in the living entities; ca—and; tathä—in the same way; pumän—the Absolute Person. TRANSLATION The Lord, as Supersoul, pervades all things, just as fire permeates wood, and so He appears to be of many varieties, though He is the absolute one without a second. PURPORT Lord Väsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by one of His plenary parts expands Himself all over the material world, and His existence can be perceived even within the atomic energy. Matter, antimatter, proton, neutron, etc., are all different effects of the Paramätmä feature of the Lord. As from wood, fire can be manifested, or as butter can be churned out of milk, so also the presence of the Lord as Paramätmä can be felt by the process of legitimate hearing and chanting of the transcendental subjects which are especially treated in the Vedic literatures like the Upaniñads and Vedänta. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the bona fide explanation of these Vedic literatures. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The Lord can be realized through the aural reception of the transcendental message, and that is the only way to experience the transcendental subject. As fire is kindled from wood by another fire, the divine consciousness of man can similarly be kindled by another divine grace. His Divine Grace the spiritual master can kindle the spiritual fire from the woodlike living entity by imparting proper spiritual messages injected through the receptive ear. Therefore one is required to approach the proper spiritual master with receptive ears only, and thus divine existence is gradually realized. The difference between animality and humanity lies in this process only. A human being can hear properly, whereas an animal cannot. TEXT 33 ASaaE GauaaRvE>aURTaSaU+MaeiNd]YaaTMai>a" ) SviNaiMaRTaezu iNaivRíae >au»e >aUTaezu Tad(GauYaJaaYaTa ) Sa YaaMaaÛE" SaurGaauvaNTarMa( )) 12 )) tataù saptama äkütyäà rucer yajïo ’bhyajäyata sa yämädyaiù sura-gaëair Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

apät sväyambhuväntaram SYNONYMS tataù—after that; saptame—the seventh in the line; äkütyäm—in the womb of Äküti; ruceù—by Prajäpati Ruci; yajïaù—the Lord’s incarnation as Yajïa; abhyajäyata—advented; saù—He; yäma-ädyaiù—with Yäma and others; sura-gaëaiù—with demigods; apät—ruled; sväyambhuva-antaram—the change of the period of Sväyambhuva Manu. TRANSLATION The seventh incarnation was Yajïa, the son of Prajäpati Ruci and his wife Äküti. He controlled the period during the change of the Sväyambhuva Manu and was assisted by demigods such as His son Yama. PURPORT The administrative posts occupied by the demigods for maintaining the regulations of the material world are offered to the highly elevated pious living beings. When there is a scarcity of such pious living beings, the Lord incarnates Himself as Brahmä, Prajäpati, Indra, etc., and takes up the charge. During the period of Sväyambhuva Manu (the present period is of Vaivasvata Manu) there was no suitable living being who could occupy the post of Indra, the King of the Indraloka (heaven) planet. The Lord Himself at that time became Indra. Assisted by His own sons like Yama and other demigods, Lord Yajïa ruled the administration of the universal affairs. TEXT 13 AíMae MaeådeVYaa& Tau Naa>aeJaaRTa oå§-Ma" ) dXaRYaNa( vTMaR DaqraaYaaRicTaae >aeJae NavMa& PaaiQaRv& vPau" ) duGDaeMaaMaaezDaqivRPa[aSTaeNaaYa& Sa oXataMa" )) 14 )) åñibhir yäcito bheje navamaà pärthivaà vapuù dugdhemäm oñadhér vipräs tenäyaà sa uçattamaù SYNONYMS åñibhiù—by the sages; yäcitaù—being prayed for; bheje—accepted; navamam—the ninth one; pärthivam—the ruler of the earth; vapuù—body; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

dugdha—milking; imäm—all these; oñadhéù—products of the earth; vipräù—O brähmaëas; tena—by; ayam—this; saù—he; uçattamaù—beautifully attractive. TRANSLATION O brähmaëas, in the ninth incarnation, the Lord, prayed for by sages, accepted the body of a king [Påthu] who cultivated the land to yield various produces, and for that reason the earth was beautiful and attractive. PURPORT Before the advent of King Påthu, there was great havoc of maladministration due to the vicious life of the previous king, the father of Mahäräja Påthu. The intelligent class of men (namely the sages and the brähmaëas) not only prayed for the Lord to come down, but also dethroned the previous king. It is the duty of the king to be pious and thus look after the all-around welfare of the citizens. Whenever there is some negligence on the part of the king in discharging his duty, the intelligent class of men must dethrone him. The intelligent class of men, however, do not occupy the royal throne, because they have much more important duties for the welfare of the public. Instead of occupying the royal throne, they prayed for the incarnation of the Lord, and the Lord came as Mahäräja Påthu. Real intelligent men, or qualified brähmaëas, never aspire for political posts. Mahäräja Påthu excavated many produces from the earth, and thus not only did the citizens become happy to have such a good king, but the complete sight of the earth also became beautiful and attractive. TEXT 15 æPa& Sa JaGa*he MaaTSYa& ca+auzaediDaSaMâve ) NaaVYaaraePYa MahqMaYYaaMaPaaÜEvSvTa& MaNauMa( )) 15 )) rüpaà sa jagåhe mätsyaà cäkñuñodadhi-samplave Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

nävy äropya mahé-mayyäm apäd vaivasvataà manum SYNONYMS rüpam—form; saù—He; jagåhe—accepted; mätsyam—of a fish; cäkñuña—Cäkñuña; udadhi—water; samplave—inundation; nävi—on the boat; äropya—keeping on; mahé—the earth; mayyäm—drowned in; apät—protected; vaivasvatam—Vaivasvata; manum—Manu, the father of man. TRANSLATION When there was a complete inundation after the period of the Cäkñuña Manu and the whole world was deep within water, the Lord accepted the form of a fish and protected Vaivasvata Manu, keeping him up on a boat. PURPORT According to Çrépäda Çrédhara Svämé, the original commentator on the Bhägavatam, there is not always a devastation after the change of every Manu. And yet this inundation after the period of Cäkñuña Manu took place in order to show some wonders to Satyavrata. But Çré Jéva Gosvämé has given definite proofs from authoritative scriptures (like Viñëu-dharmottara, Märkaëòeya Puräëa, Harivaàça, etc.) that there is always a devastation after the end of each and every Manu. Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté has also supported Çréla Jéva Gosvämé, and he (Çré Cakravarté) has also quoted from Bhägavatämåta about this inundation after each Manu. Apart from this, the Lord, in order to show special favor to Satyavrata, a devotee of the Lord, in this particular period, incarnated Himself. TEXT 16 SauraSauraa]ÕETYaeNd]MaUiJaRTaMa( ) ddar k-rJaEæraverk-a& k-$=k*-ÛQaa )) 18 )) caturdaçaà närasiàhaà bibhrad daityendram ürjitam dadära karajair üräv erakäà kaöa-kåd yathä SYNONYMS caturdaçam—the fourteenth in the line; nära-siàham—the incarnation of the Lord as half-man and half-lion; bibhrat—advented; daitya-indram—the king of the atheists; ürjitam—strongly built; dadära—bifurcated; karajaiù—by the nails; ürau—on the lap; erakäm—canes; kaöa-kåt—carpenter; yathä—just like. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

In the fourteenth incarnation, the Lord appeared as Nåsiàha and bifurcated the strong body of the atheist Hiraëyakaçipu with His nails, just as a carpenter pierces cane. TEXT 19 PaÄdXa& vaMaNak&- k*-TvaGaadßr& ble/" ) Pad}aYa& YaacMaaNa" Pa[TYaaidTSauiñiPaíPaMa( )) 19 )) païcadaçaà vämanakaà kåtvägäd adhvaraà baleù pada-trayaà yäcamänaù pratyäditsus tri-piñöapam SYNONYMS païcadaçam—the fifteenth in the line; vämanakam—the dwarf brähmaëa; kåtvä—by assumption of; agät—went; adhvaram—arena of sacrifice; baleù—of King Bali; pada-trayam—three steps only; yäcamänaù—begging; pratyäditsuù—willing at heart to return; tri-piñöapam—the kingdom of the three planetary systems. TRANSLATION In the fifteenth incarnation, the Lord assumed the form of a dwarf-brähmaëa [Vämana] and visited the arena of sacrifice arranged by Mahäräja Bali. Although at heart He was willing to regain the kingdom of the three planetary systems, He simply asked for a donation of three steps of land. PURPORT The Almighty God can bestow upon anyone the kingdom of the universe from a very small beginning, and similarly, He can take away the kingdom of the universe on the plea of begging a small piece of land. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 20 AvTaare [email protected] PaXYaNa( b]ød]uhae Na*PaaNa( ) i}a"Saák*-Tv" ku-iPaTaae iNa"+a}aaMak-raeNMahqMa( )) 20 )) avatäre ñoòaçame paçyan brahma-druho nåpän triù-sapta-kåtvaù kupito niù-kñaträm akaron mahém SYNONYMS avatäre—in the incarnation of the Lord; ñoòaçame—the sixteenth; paçyan—seeing; brahma-druhaù—disobedient to the orders of the brähmaëas; nåpän—the kingly order; triù-sapta—thrice seven times; kåtvaù—had done; kupitaù—being engaged; niù—negation; kñaträm—the administrative class; akarot—did perform; mahém—the earth. TRANSLATION In the sixteenth incarnation of the Godhead, the Lord [as Bhågupati] annihilated the administrative class [kñatriyas] twenty-one times, being angry with them because of their rebellion against the brähmaëas [the intelligent class]. PURPORT The kñatriyas, or the administrative class of men, are expected to rule the planet by the direction of the intelligent class of men, who give direction to the rulers in terms of the standard çästras, or the books of revealed knowledge. The rulers carry on the administration according to that direction. Whenever there is disobedience on the part of the kñatriyas, or the administrative class, against the orders of the learned and intelligent brähmaëas, the administrators are removed by force from the posts, and arrangement is made for better Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

administration. TEXT 21 TaTa" SaádXae JaaTa" SaTYavTYaa& ParaXaraTa( ) c§e- vedTarae" Xaa%a d*îa Pau&Saae_LPaMaeDaSa" )) 21 )) tataù saptadaçe jätaù satyavatyäà paräçarät cakre veda-taroù çäkhä dåñövä puàso ’lpa-medhasaù SYNONYMS tataù—thereafter; saptadaçe—in the seventeenth incarnation; jätaù—advented; satyavatyäm—in the womb of Satyavaté; paräçarät—by Paräçara Muni; cakre—prepared; veda-taroù—of the desire tree of the Vedas; çäkhäù—branches; dåñövä—be seeing; puàsaù—the people in general; alpa-medhasaù—less intelligent. TRANSLATION Thereafter, in the seventeenth incarnation of Godhead, Çré Vyäsadeva appeared in the womb of Satyavaté through Paräçara Muni, and he divided the one Veda into several branches and subbranches, seeing that the people in general were less intelligent. PURPORT Originally the Veda is one. But Çréla Vyäsadeva divided the original Veda into four, namely Säma, Yajur, Åg, Atharva, and then again they were explained in different branches like the Puräëas and the Mahäbhärata. Vedic language and the subject matter are very difficult for ordinary men. They are understood by the highly intelligent and self-realized brähmaëas. But the present age of Kali is full of ignorant men. Even those who are born by a Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

brähmaëa father are, in the present age, no better than the çüdras or the women. The twice-born men, namely the brähmaëas, kñatriyas and vaiçyas, are expected to undergo a cultural purificatory process known as saàskäras, but because of the bad influence of the present age the so-called members of the brähmaëa and other high-order families are no longer highly cultured. They are called the dvija-bandhus, or the friends and family members of the twice-born. But these dvija-bandhus are classified amongst the çüdras and the women. Çréla Vyäsadeva divided the Vedas into various branches and subbranches for the sake of the less intelligent classes like the dvija-bandhus, çüdras and women. TEXT 22 NardevTvMaaPaà" Saurk-aYaRick-IzRYaa ) SaMaud]iNaGa]hadqiNa c§e- vqYaaRaiSa MaegaaEgaae rea" )) 31 )) yathä nabhasi meghaugho reëur vä pärthivo ’nile evaà drañöari dåçyatvam äropitam abuddhibhiù SYNONYMS yathä—as it is; nabhasi—in the sky; megha-oghaù—a mass of clouds; reëuù—dust; vä—as well as; pärthivaù—muddiness; anile—in the air; evam—thus; drañöari—to the seer; dåçyatvam—for the purpose of seeing; äropitam—is implied; abuddhibhiù—by the less intelligent persons. TRANSLATION Clouds and dust are carried by the air, but less intelligent persons say that the sky is cloudy and the air is dirty. Similarly, they also implant material bodily conceptions on the spirit self. PURPORT It is further confirmed herein that with our material eyes and senses we cannot see the Lord, who is all spirit. We cannot even detect the spiritual Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

spark which exists within the material body of the living being. We look to the outward covering of the body or subtle mind of the living being, but we cannot see the spiritual spark within the body. So we have to accept the living being’s presence by the presence of his gross body. Similarly, those who want to see the Lord with their present material eyes or with the material senses are advised to meditate on the gigantic external feature called the viräö-rüpa. For instance, when a particular gentleman goes in his car, which can be seen very easily, we identify the car with the man within the car. When the President goes out in his particular car, we say, “There is the President.” For the time being we identify the car with the President. Similarly, less intelligent men who want to see God immediately without necessary qualification are shown first the gigantic material cosmos as the form of the Lord, although the Lord is within and without. The clouds in the sky and the blue of the sky are better appreciated in this connection. Although the bluish tint of the sky and the sky itself are different, we conceive of the color of the sky as blue. But that is a general conception for the laymen only. TEXT 32 ATa" Par& YadVYa¢-MaVYaU!GauaRv" )) 32 )) ataù paraà yad avyaktam avyüòha-guëa-båàhitam adåñöäçruta-vastutvät sa jévo yat punar-bhavaù SYNONYMS ataù—this; param—beyond; yat—which; avyaktam—unmanifested; avyüòha—without formal shape; guëa-båàhitam—affected by the qualities; adåñöa—unseen; açruta—unheard; vastutvät—being like that; saù—that; jévaù—living being; yat—that which; punaù-bhavaù—takes birth repeatedly. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION Beyond this gross conception of form is another, subtle conception of form which is without formal shape and is unseen, unheard and unmanifest. The living being has his form beyond this subtlety, otherwise he could not have repeated births. PURPORT As the gross cosmic manifestation is conceived as the gigantic body of the Lord, so also there is the conception of His subtle form, which is simply realized without being seen, heard or manifested. But in fact all these gross or subtle conceptions of the body are in relation with the living beings. The living being has his spiritual form beyond this gross material or subtle psychic existence. The gross body and psychic functions cease to act as soon as the living being leaves the visible gross body. In fact, we say that the living being has gone away because he is unseen and unheard. Even when the gross body is not acting when the living being is in sound sleep, we know that he is within the body by his breathing. So the living being’s passing away from the body does not mean that there is no existence of the living soul. It is there, otherwise how can he repeat his births again and again? The conclusion is that the Lord is eternally existent in His transcendental form, which is neither gross nor subtle like that of the living being; His body is never to be compared to the gross and subtle bodies of the living being. All such conceptions of God’s body are imaginary. The living being has his eternal spiritual form, which is conditioned only by his material contamination. TEXT 33 Ya}aeMae SadSad]UPae Pa[iTaizÖe SvSa&ivda ) AivÛYaaTMaiNa k*-Tae wiTa Tad(b]ødXaRNaMa( )) 33 )) yatreme sad-asad-rüpe Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

pratiñiddhe sva-saàvidä avidyayätmani kåte iti tad brahma-darçanam SYNONYMS yatra—whenever; ime—in all these; sat-asat—gross and subtle; rüpe—in the forms of; pratiñiddhe—on being nullified; sva-saàvidä—by self-realization; avidyayä—by ignorance; ätmani—in the self; kåte—having been imposed; iti—thus; tat—that is; brahma-darçanam—the process of seeing the Absolute. TRANSLATION Whenever a person experiences, by self-realization, that both the gross and subtle bodies have nothing to do with the pure self, at that time he sees himself as well as the Lord. PURPORT The difference between self-realization and material illusion is to know that the temporary or illusory impositions of material energy in the shape of gross and subtle bodies are superficial coverings of the self. The coverings take place due to ignorance. Such coverings are never effective in the person of the Personality of Godhead. Knowing this convincingly is called liberation, or seeing the Absolute. This means that perfect self-realization is made possible by adoption of godly or spiritual life. Self-realization means becoming indifferent to the needs of the gross and subtle bodies and becoming serious about the activities of the self. The impetus for activities is generated from the self, but such activities become illusory due to ignorance of the real position of the self. By ignorance, self-interest is calculated in terms of the gross and subtle bodies, and therefore a whole set of activities is spoiled, life after life. When, however, one meets the self by proper culture, the activities of the self begin. Therefore a man who is engaged in the activities of the self is called jévan-mukta, or a liberated person even in the conditional existence. This perfect stage of self-realization is attained not by artificial means, but Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

under the lotus feet of the Lord, who is always transcendental. In the Bhagavad-gétä the Lord says that He is present in everyone’s heart, and from Him only all knowledge, remembrance or forgetfulness take place. When the living being desires to be an enjoyer of material energy (illusory phenomena), the Lord covers the living being in the mystery of forgetfulness, and thus the living being misinterprets the gross body and subtle mind to be his own self. And by culture of transcendental knowledge, when the living being prays to the Lord for deliverance from the clutches of forgetfulness, the Lord, by His causeless mercy, removes the living being’s illusory curtain, and thus he realizes his own self. He then engages himself in the service of the Lord in his eternal constitutional position, becoming liberated from the conditioned life. All this is executed by the Lord either through His external potency or directly by the internal potency. TEXT 34 YaÛezaeParTaa devq MaaYaa vEXaardq MaiTa" ) SaMPaà WveiTa ivduMaRihiMan Sve MahqYaTae )) 34 )) yady eñoparatä devé mäyä vaiçäradé matiù sampanna eveti vidur mahimni sve mahéyate SYNONYMS yadi—if, however; eñä—they; uparatä—subsided; devé mäyä—illusory energy; vaiçäradé—full of knowledge; matiù—enlightenment; sampannaù—enriched with; eva—certainly; iti—thus; viduù—being cognizant of; mahimni—in the glories; sve—of the self; mahéyate—being situated in. TRANSLATION If the illusory energy subsides and the living entity becomes fully enriched Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

with knowledge by the grace of the Lord, then he becomes at once enlightened with self-realization and thus becomes situated in his own glory. PURPORT Because the Lord is the absolute Transcendence, all of His forms, names, pastimes, attributes, associates and energies are identical with Him. His transcendental energy acts according to His omnipotency. The same energy acts as His external, internal and marginal energies, and by His omnipotency He can perform anything and everything through the agency of any of the above energies. He can turn the external energy into internal by His will. Therefore by His grace the external energy, which is employed in illusioning those living beings who want to have it, subsides by the will of the Lord in terms of repentance and penance for the conditioned soul. And the very same energy then acts to help the purified living being make progress on the path of self-realization. The example of electrical energy is very appropriate in this connection. The expert electrician can utilize the electrical energy for both heating and cooling by adjustment only. Similarly, the external energy, which now bewilders the living being into continuation of birth and death, is turned into internal potency by the will of the Lord to lead the living being to eternal life. When a living being is thus graced by the Lord, he is placed in his proper constitutional position to enjoy eternal spiritual life. TEXT 35 Wv& JaNMaaiNa k-MaaRiaGavNTa wTQa& YaÜaSaudeve_i%l/l/aek-NaaQae ) ku-vRiNTa SavaRTMak-MaaTMa>aav& Na Ya}a >aUYa" PairvTaR oGa]" )) 39 )) atheha dhanyä bhagavanta itthaà yad väsudeve ’khila-loka-näthe kurvanti sarvätmakam ätma-bhävaà na yatra bhüyaù parivarta ugraù SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

atha—thus; iha—in this world; dhanyäù—successful; bhagavantaù—perfectly cognizant; ittham—such; yat—what; väsudeve—unto the Personality of Godhead; akhila—all-embracing; loka-näthe—unto the proprietor of all the universes; kurvanti—inspires; sarva-ätmakam—one hundred percent; ätma—spirit; bhävam—ecstasy; na—never; yatra—wherein; bhüyaù—again; parivartaù—repetition; ugraù—dreadful. TRANSLATION Only by making such inquiries in this world can one be successful and perfectly cognizant, for such inquiries invoke transcendental ecstatic love unto the Personality of Godhead, who is the proprietor of all the universes, and guarantee cent-percent immunity from the dreadful repetition of birth and death. PURPORT The inquiries of the sages headed by Çaunaka are herewith praised by Süta Gosvämé on the merit of their transcendental nature. As already concluded, only the devotees of the Lord can know Him to a considerable extent, and no one else can know Him at all, so the devotees are perfectly cognizant of all spiritual knowledge. The Personality of Godhead is the last word in Absolute Truth. Impersonal Brahman and localized Paramätmä (Supersoul) are included in the knowledge of the Personality of Godhead. So one who knows the Personality of Godhead can automatically know all about Him, His multipotencies and His expansions. So the devotees are congratulated as being all-successful. A cent-percent devotee of the Lord is immune to the dreadful material miseries of repeated birth and death. TEXT 40 wd& >aaGavTa& NaaMa PauraaGavaNa*iz" )

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

iNa"é[eYaSaaYa l/aek-SYa DaNYa& SvSTYaYaNa& MahTa( )) 40 )) idaà bhägavataà näma puräëaà brahma-sammitam uttama-çloka-caritaà cakära bhagavän åñiù niùçreyasäya lokasya dhanyaà svasty-ayanaà mahat SYNONYMS idam—this; bhägavatam—book containing the narration of the Personality of Godhead and His pure devotees; näma—of the name; puräëam—supplementary to the Vedas; brahma-sammitam—incarnation of Lord Çré Kåñëa; uttama-çloka—of the Personality of Godhead; caritam—activities; cakära—compiled; bhagavän—incarnation of the Personality of Godhead; åñiù—Çré Vyäsadeva; niùçreyasäya—for the ultimate good; lokasya—of all people; dhanyam—fully successful; svasti-ayanam—all-blissful; mahat—all-perfect. TRANSLATION This Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the literary incarnation of God, and it is compiled by Çréla Vyäsadeva, the incarnation of God. It is meant for the ultimate good of all people, and it is all-successful, all-blissful and all-perfect. PURPORT Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu declared that Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the spotless sound representation of all Vedic knowledge and history. There are selected histories of great devotees who are in direct contact with the Personality of Godhead. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the literary incarnation of Lord Çré Kåñëa and is therefore nondifferent from Him. Çrémad-Bhägavatam should be worshiped as respectfully as we worship the Lord. Thereby we can derive the ultimate blessings of the Lord through its careful and patient study. As Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

God is all light, all bliss and all perfection, so also is Çrémad-Bhägavatam. We can have all the transcendental light of the Supreme Brahman, Çré Kåñëa, from the recitation of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, provided it is received through the medium of the transparent spiritual master. Lord Caitanya’s private secretary Çréla Svarüpa Dämodara Gosvämé advised all intending visitors who came to see the Lord at Puré to make a study of the Bhägavatam from the person Bhägavatam Person Bhägavatam is the self-realized bona fide spiritual master, and through him only can one understand the lessons of Bhägavatam in order to receive the desired result. One can derive from the study of the Bhägavatam all benefits that are possible to be derived from the personal presence of the Lord. It carries with it all the transcendental blessings of Lord Çré Kåñëa that we can expect from His personal contact. TEXT 41 Taidd& Ga]ahYaaMaaSa SauTaMaaTMavTaa& vrMa( ) SavRvedeiTahaSaaNaa& Saar& Saar& SaMaud(Da*TaMa( )) 41 )) tad idaà grähayäm äsa sutam ätmavatäà varam sarva-vedetihäsänäà säraà säraà samuddhåtam SYNONYMS tat—that; idam—this; grähayäm äsa—made to accept; sutam—unto his son; ätmavatäm—of the self-realized; varam—most respectful; sarva—all; veda—Vedic literatures (books of knowledge); itihäsänäm—of all the histories; säram—cream; säram—cream; samuddhåtam—taken out. TRANSLATION Çré Vyäsadeva delivered it to his son, who is the most respected among the self-realized, after extracting the cream of all Vedic literatures and histories of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the universe. PURPORT Men with a poor fund of knowledge only accept the history of the world from the time of Buddha, or since 600 B.C., and prior to this period all histories mentioned in the scriptures are calculated by them to be only imaginary stories. That is not a fact. All the stories mentioned in the Puräëas and Mahäbhärata, etc., are actual histories, not only of this planet but also of millions of other planets within the universe. Sometimes the history of planets beyond this world appear to such men to be unbelievable. But they do not know that different planets are not equal in all respects and that therefore some of the historical facts derived from other planets do not correspond with the experience of this planet. Considering the different situation of different planets and also time and circumstances, there is nothing wonderful in the stories of the Puräëas, nor are they imaginary. We should always remember the maxim that one man’s food is another man’s poison. We should not, therefore, reject the stories and histories of the Puräëas as imaginary. The great åñis like Vyäsa had no business putting some imaginary stories in their literatures. In the Çrémad-Bhägavatam historical facts selected from the histories of different planets have been depicted. It is therefore accepted by all the spiritual authorities as the Mahä-Puräëa. The special significance of these histories is that they are all connected with activities of the Lord in a different time and atmosphere. Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé is the topmost personality of all the self-realized souls, and he accepted this as the subject of studies from his father, Vyäsadeva. Çréla Vyäsadeva is the great authority, and the subject matter of Çrémad-Bhägavatam being so important, he delivered the message first to his great son Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé. It is compared to the cream of the milk. Vedic literature is like the milk ocean of knowledge. Cream or butter is the most palatable essence of milk, and so also is Çrémad-Bhägavatam, for it contains all palatable, instructive and authentic versions of different activities of the Lord and His devotees. There is no gain, however, in accepting the message of Bhägavatam from the unbelievers, atheists and professional reciters who make a trade of Bhägavatam for the laymen. It was delivered to Çréla Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Çukadeva Gosvämé, and he had nothing to do with the Bhägavata business. He did not have to maintain family expenses by such trade. Çrémad-Bhägavatam should therefore be received from the representative of Çukadeva, who must be in the renounced order of life without family encumbrance. Milk is undoubtedly very good and nourishing, but when it is touched by the mouth of a snake it is no longer nourishing; rather, it becomes a source of death. Similarly, those who are not strictly in the Vaiñëava discipline should not make a business of this Bhägavatam and become a cause of spiritual death for so many hearers. In the Bhagavad-gétä the Lord says that the purpose of all the Vedas is to know Him (Lord Kåñëa), and Çrémad-Bhägavatam is Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself in the form of recorded knowledge. Therefore, it is the cream of all the Vedas, and it contains all historical facts of all times in relation with Çré Kåñëa. It is factually the essence of all histories. TEXT 42 Sa Tau Sa&é[avYaaMaaSa MaharaJa& Parqi+aTaMa( ) Pa[aYaaePaiví& Ga®aYaa& ParqTa& ParMaizRi>a" )) 42 )) sa tu saàçrävayäm äsa mahäräjaà parékñitam präyopaviñöaà gaìgäyäà parétaà paramarñibhiù SYNONYMS saù—the son of Vyäsadeva; tu—again; saàçrävayäm äsa—make them audible; mahä-räjam—unto the emperor; parékñitam—of the name Parékñit; präya-upaviñöam—who sat until death without food or drink; gaìgäyäm—on the bank of the Ganges; parétam—being surrounded; parama-åñibhiù—by great sages. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Çukadeva Gosvämé, the son of Vyäsadeva, in his turn delivered the Bhägavatam to the great Emperor Parékñit, who sat surrounded by sages on the bank of the Ganges, awaiting death without taking food or drink. PURPORT All transcendental messages are received properly in the chain of disciplic succession. This disciplic succession is called paramparä. Unless therefore Bhägavatam or any other Vedic literatures are received through the paramparä system, the reception of knowledge is not bona fide. Vyäsadeva delivered the message to Çukadeva Gosvämé, and from Çukadeva Gosvämé, Süta Gosvämé received the message. One should therefore receive the message of Bhägavatam from Süta Gosvämé or from his representative and not from any irrelevant interpreter. Emperor Parékñit received the information of his death in time, and he at once left his kingdom and family and sat down on the bank of the Ganges to fast till death. All great sages, åñis, philosophers, mystics, etc., went there due to his imperial position. They offered many suggestions about his immediate duty, and at last it was settled that he would hear from Çukadeva Gosvämé about Lord Kåñëa. Thus the Bhägavatam was spoken to him. Çrépäda Çaìkaräcärya, who preached Mäyäväda philosophy and stressed the impersonal feature of the Absolute, also recommended that one must take shelter at the lotus feet of Lord Çré Kåñëa, for there is no hope of gain from debating. Indirectly Çrépäda Çaìkaräcärya admitted that what he had preached in the flowery grammatical interpretations of the Vedänta-sütra cannot help one at the time of death. At the critical hour of death one must recite the name of Govinda. This is the recommendation of all great transcendentalists. Çukadeva Gosvämé had long ago stated the same truth, that at the end one must remember Näräyaëa. That is the essence of all spiritual activities. In pursuance of this eternal truth, Çrémad-Bhägavatam was heard by Emperor Parékñit, and it was recited by the able Çukadeva Gosvämé. And both the speaker and the receiver of the messages of Bhägavatam were duly delivered by the same medium. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 43 k*-Za" Sah ) k-l/aE Naíd*XaaMaez PauraaMaNYauSauTa& SaUTa Pa[ahu>aaRGavTaaetaMaMa( ) TaSYa JaNMa MahaêYa| k-MaaRiaveidh ) wiTa >aarTaMaa:YaaNa& k*-PaYaa MauiNaNaa k*-TaMa( )) 25 )) stré-çüdra-dvijabandhünäà trayé na çruti-gocarä karma-çreyasi müòhänäà çreya evaà bhaved iha iti bhäratam äkhyänaà Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kåpayä muninä kåtam SYNONYMS stré—the woman class; çüdra—the laboring class; dvija-bandhünäm—of the friends of the twice-born; trayé—three; na—not; çruti-gocarä—for understanding; karma—in activities; çreyasi—in welfare; müòhänäm—of the fools; çreyaù—supreme benefit; evam—thus; bhavet—achieved; iha—by this; iti—thus thinking; bhäratam—the great Mahäbhärata; äkhyänam—historical facts; kåpayä—out of great mercy; muninä—by the muni; kåtam—is completed. TRANSLATION Out of compassion, the great sage thought it wise that this would enable men to achieve the ultimate goal of life. Thus he compiled the great historical narration called the Mahäbhärata for women, laborers and friends of the twice-born. PURPORT The friends of the twice-born families are those who are born in the families of brähmaëas, kñatriyas and vaiçyas, or the spiritually cultured families, but who themselves are not equal to their forefathers. Such descendants are not recognized as such, for want of purificatory achievements. The purificatory activities begin even before the birth of a child, and the seed-giving reformatory process is called Garbhädhäna-saàskära. One who has not undergone such Garbhädhäna-saàskära, or spiritual family planning, is not accepted as being of an actual twice-born family. The Garbhädhäna-saàskära is followed by other purificatory processes, out of which the sacred thread ceremony is one. This is performed at the time of spiritual initiation. After this particular saàskära, one is rightly called twice-born. One birth is calculated during the seed-giving saàskära, and the second birth is calculated at the time of spiritual initiation. One who has been able to undergo such important saàskäras can be called a bona fide twice-born. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

If the father and the mother do not undertake the process of spiritual family planning and simply beget children out of passion only, their children are called dvija-bandhus. These dvija-bandhus are certainly not as intelligent as the children of the regular twice-born families. The dvija-bandhus are classified with the çüdras and the woman class, who are by nature less intelligent. The çüdras and the woman class do not have to undergo any saàskära save and except the ceremony of marriage. The less intelligent classes of men, namely women, çüdras and unqualified sons of the higher castes, are devoid of necessary qualifications to understand the purpose of the transcendental Vedas. For them the Mahäbhärata was prepared. The purpose of the Mahäbhärata is to administer the purpose of the Vedas, and therefore within this Mahäbhärata the summary Veda of Bhagavad-gétä is placed. The less intelligent are more interested in stories than in philosophy, and therefore the philosophy of the Vedas in the form of the Bhagavad-gétä is spoken by the Lord Çré Kåñëa. Vyäsadeva and Lord Kåñëa are both on the transcendental plane, and therefore they collaborated in doing good to the fallen souls of this age. The Bhagavad-gétä is the essence of all Vedic knowledge. It is the first book of spiritual values, as the Upaniñads are. The Vedänta philosophy is the subject matter for study by the spiritual graduates. Only the post-graduate spiritual student can enter into the spiritual or devotional service of the Lord. It is a great science, and the great professor is the Lord Himself in the form of Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. And persons who are empowered by Him can initiate others in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. TEXT 26 Wv& Pa[v*taSYa Sada >aUTaaNaa& é[eYaiSa iÜJaa" ) SavaRTMake-NaaiPa Yada NaaTauZYad(Da*dYa& TaTa" )) 26 )) evaà pravåttasya sadä bhütänäà çreyasi dvijäù sarvätmakenäpi yadä Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

nätuñyad dhådayaà tataù SYNONYMS evam—thus; pravåttasya—one who is engaged in; sadä—always; bhütänäm—of the living beings; çreyasi—in the ultimate good; dvijäù—O twice-born; sarvätmakena api—by all means; yadä—when; na—not; atuñyat—become satisfied; hådayam—mind; tataù—at that. TRANSLATION O twice-born brähmaëas, still his mind was not satisfied, although he engaged himself in working for the total welfare of all people. PURPORT Çré Vyäsadeva was not satisfied with himself, although he had prepared literatures of Vedic value for the all-around welfare of the general mass of people. It was expected that he would be satisfied by all such activities, but ultimately he was not satisfied. TEXT 27 NaaiTaPa[Saqdd(Da*dYa" SarSvTYaaSTa$e= éucaE ) ivTakR-YaNa( iviv¢-SQa wd& caevac DaMaRivTa( )) 27 )) nätiprasédad dhådayaù sarasvatyäs taöe çucau vitarkayan vivikta-stha idaà coväca dharma-vit SYNONYMS na—not; atiprasédat—very much satisfied; hådayaù—at heart; sarasvatyäù—of the River Sarasvaté; taöe—on the bank of; çucau—being purified; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vitarkayan—having considered; vivikta-sthaù—situated in a lonely place; idam ca—also this; uväca—said; dharma-vit—one who knows what religion is. TRANSLATION Thus the sage, being dissatisfied at heart, at once began to reflect, because he knew the essence of religion, and he said within himself: PURPORT The sage began to search out the cause of not being satisfied at heart. Perfection is never attained until one is satisfied at heart. This satisfaction of heart has to be searched out beyond matter. TEXTS 28–29 Da*Tav]TaeNa ih MaYaa ^Nda&iSa Gaurvae_GanYa" ) MaaiNaTaa iNaVYaRl/Ike-Na Ga*hqTa& caNauXaaSaNaMa( )) 28 )) >aarTaVYaPadeXaeNa ùaManaYaaQaRê Pa[diXaRTa" ) d*XYaTae Ya}a DaMaaRid ñqéUd]aidi>arPYauTa )) 29 )) dhåta-vratena hi mayä chandäàsi guravo ’gnayaù mänitä nirvyalékena gåhétaà cänuçäsanam bhärata-vyapadeçena hy ämnäyärthaç ca pradarçitaù dåçyate yatra dharmädi stré-çüdrädibhir apy uta SYNONYMS dhåta-vratena—under a strict disciplinary vow; hi—certainly; mayä—by me; chandäàsi—the Vedic hymns; guravaù—the spiritual masters; agnayaù—the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

sacrificial fire; mänitäù—properly worshiped; nirvyalékena—without pretense; gåhétam ca—also accepted; anuçäsanam—traditional discipline; bhärata—the Mahäbhärata; vyapadeçena—by compilation of; hi—certainly; ämnäya-arthaù—import of disciplic succession; ca—and; pradarçitaù—properly explained; dåçyate—by what is necessary; yatra—where; dharma-ädiù—the path of religion; stré-çüdra-ädibhiù api—even by women, çüdras, etc.; uta—spoken. TRANSLATION I have, under strict disciplinary vows, unpretentiously worshiped the Vedas, the spiritual master and the altar of sacrifice. I have also abided by the rulings and have shown the import of disciplic succession through the explanation of the Mahäbhärata, by which even women, çüdras and others [friends of the twice-born] can see the path of religion. PURPORT No one can understand the import of the Vedas without having undergone a strict disciplinary vow and disciplic succession. The Vedas, spiritual masters and sacrificial fire must be worshiped by the desiring candidate. All these intricacies of Vedic knowledge are systematically presented in the Mahäbhärata for the understanding of the woman class, the laborer class and the unqualified members of brähmaëa, kñatriya or vaiçya families. In this age, the Mahäbhärata is more essential than the original Vedas. TEXT 30 TaQaaiPa bTa Mae dEùae ùaTMaa cEvaTMaNaa iv>au" ) ASaMPaà wva>aaiTa b]øvcRSYaSataMa" )) 30 )) tathäpi bata me daihyo hy ätmä caivätmanä vibhuù asampanna iväbhäti Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

brahma-varcasya sattamaù SYNONYMS tathäpi—although; bata—defect; me—mine; daihyaù—situated in the body; hi—certainly; ätmä—living being; ca—and; eva—even; ätmanä—myself; vibhuù—sufficient; asampannaù—wanting in; iva äbhäti—it appears to be; brahma-varcasya—of the Vedäntists; sattamaù—the supreme. TRANSLATION I am feeling incomplete, though I myself am fully equipped with everything required by the Vedas. PURPORT Undoubtedly Çréla Vyäsadeva was complete in all the details of Vedic achievements. Purification of the living being submerged in matter is made possible by the prescribed activities in the Vedas, but the ultimate achievement is different. Unless it is attained, the living being, even though fully equipped, cannot be situated in the transcendentally normal stage. Çréla Vyäsadeva appeared to have lost the clue and therefore felt dissatisfaction. TEXT 31 ik&- va >aaGavTaa DaMaaR Na Pa[aYaeaaGa >avTa" k-iÀdaTMaNaa ) PairTauZYaiTa Xaarqr AaTMaa MaaNaSa Wv va )) 2 )) närada uväca päräçarya mahä-bhäga bhavataù kaccid ätmanä parituñyati çäréra ätmä mänasa eva vä SYNONYMS näradaù—Närada; uväca—said; päräçarya—O son of Paräçara; mahä-bhäga—the greatly fortunate; bhavataù—your; kaccit—if it is; ätmanä—by the self-realization of; parituñyati—does it satisfy; çäréraù—identifying the body; ätmä—self; mänasaù—identifying the mind; eva—certainly; vä—and. TRANSLATION Addressing Vyäsadeva, the son of Paräçara, Närada inquired: Are you satisfied by identifying with the body or the mind as objects of self-realization? PURPORT This was a hint by Närada to Vyäsadeva regarding the cause of his despondency. Vyäsadeva, as the descendant of Paräçara, a greatly powerful sage, had the privilege of having a great parentage which should not have given Vyäsadeva cause for despondency. Being a great son of a great father, he should not have identified the self with the body or the mind. Ordinary men with a poor fund of knowledge can identify the body as self or the mind as self, but Vyäsadeva should not have done so. One cannot be cheerful by nature Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

unless one is factually seated in self-realization, which is transcendental to the material body and mind. TEXT 3 iJajaiSaTa& SauSaMPaàMaiPa Tae Mahdd(>auTaMa( ) k*-TavaNa( >aarTa& YaSTv& SavaRQaRPairb*&ihTaMa( )) 3 )) jijïäsitaà susampannam api te mahad-adbhutam kåtavän bhärataà yas tvaà sarvärtha-paribåàhitam SYNONYMS jijïäsitam—fully inquired; susampannam—well versed; api—in spite of; te—your; mahat-adbhutam—great and wonderful; kåtavän—prepared; bhäratam—the Mahäbhärata; yaù tvam—what you have done; sarva-artha—including all sequences; paribåàhitam—elaborately explained. TRANSLATION Your inquiries were full and your studies were also well fulfilled, and there is no doubt that you have prepared a great and wonderful work, the Mahäbhärata, which is full of all kinds of Vedic sequences elaborately explained. PURPORT The despondency of Vyäsadeva was certainly not due to his lack of sufficient knowledge because as a student he had fully inquired about the Vedic literatures, as a result of which the Mahäbhärata is compiled with full explanation of the Vedas. TEXT 4 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

iJajaiSaTaMaDaqTa& c b]øYataTa( SaNaaTaNaMa( ) TaQaaiPa XaaecSYaaTMaaNaMak*-TaaQaR wv Pa[>aae )) 4 )) jijïäsitam adhétaà ca brahma yat tat sanätanam tathäpi çocasy ätmänam akåtärtha iva prabho SYNONYMS jijïäsitam—deliberated fully well; adhétam—the knowledge obtained; ca—and; brahma—the Absolute; yat—what; tat—that; sanätanam—eternal; tathäpi—in spite of that; çocasi—lamenting; ätmänam—unto the self; akåta-arthaù—undone; iva—like; prabho—my dear sir. TRANSLATION You have fully delineated the subject of impersonal Brahman as well as the knowledge derived therefrom. Why should you be despondent in spite of all this, thinking that you are undone, my dear prabhu? PURPORT The Vedänta-sütra, or Brahma-sütra, compiled by Çré Vyäsadeva is the full deliberation of the impersonal absolute feature, and it is accepted as the most exalted philosophical exposition in the world. It covers the subject of eternity, and the methods are scholarly. So there cannot be any doubt about the transcendental scholarship of Vyäsadeva. So why should he lament? TEXT 5 VYaaSa ovac ASTYaev Mae SavRiMad& TvYaae¢&Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TaQaaiPa NaaTMaa PairTauZYaTae Mae ) TaNMaUl/MaVYa¢-MaGaaDabaeDa& Pa*C^aMahe TvaTMa>avaTMa>aUTaMa( )) 5 )) vyäsa uväca asty eva me sarvam idaà tvayoktaà tathäpi nätmä parituñyate me tan-mülam avyaktam agädha-bodhaà påcchämahe tvätma-bhavätma-bhütam SYNONYMS vyäsaù—Vyäsa; uväca—said; asti—there is; eva—certainly; me—mine; sarvam—all; idam—this; tvayä—by you; uktam—uttered; tathäpi—and yet; na—not; ätmä—self; parituñyate—does pacify; me—unto me; tat—of which; mülam—root; avyaktam—undetected; agädha-bodham—the man of unlimited knowledge; påcchämahe—do inquire; tvä—unto you; ätma-bhava—self-born; ätma-bhütam—offspring. TRANSLATION Çré Vyäsadeva said: All you have said about me is perfectly correct. Despite all this, I am not pacified. I therefore question you about the root cause of my dissatisfaction, for you are a man of unlimited knowledge due to your being the offspring of one [Brahmä] who is self-born [without mundane father and mother]. PURPORT In the material world everyone is engrossed with the idea of identifying the body or the mind with the self. As such, all knowledge disseminated in the material world is related either with the body or with the mind, and that is the root cause of all despondencies. This is not always detected, even though one may be the greatest erudite scholar in materialistic knowledge. It is good, therefore, to approach a personality like Närada to solve the root cause of all Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

despondencies. Why Närada should be approached is explained below. TEXT 6 Sa vE >avaNa( ved SaMaSTaGauù‚ MauPaaiSaTaae YaTPauåz" PauraavTaaNauidTaPa[aYa& YaXaae >aGavTaae_Mal/Ma( ) YaeNaEvaSaaE Na TauZYaeTa MaNYae TaÕXaRNa& i%l/Ma( )) 8 )) çré-närada uväca bhavatänudita-präyaà yaço bhagavato ’malam yenaiväsau na tuñyeta manye tad darçanaà khilam SYNONYMS çré-näradaù—Çré Närada; uväca—said; bhavatä—by you; anudita-präyam—almost not praised; yaçaù—glories; bhagavataù—of the Personality of Godhead; amalam—spotless; yena—by which; eva—certainly; asau—He (the Personality of Godhead); na—does not; tuñyeta—be pleased; manye—I think; tat—that; darçanam—philosophy; khilam—inferior. TRANSLATION Çré Närada said: You have not actually broadcast the sublime and spotless glories of the Personality of Godhead. That philosophy which does not satisfy the transcendental senses of the Lord is considered worthless. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The eternal relation of an individual soul with the Supreme Soul Personality of Godhead is constitutionally one of being the eternal servitor of the eternal master. The Lord has expanded Himself as living beings in order to accept loving service from them, and this alone can satisfy both the Lord and the living beings. Such a scholar as Vyäsadeva has completed many expansions of the Vedic literatures, ending with the Vedänta philosophy, but none of them have been written directly glorifying the Personality of Godhead. Dry philosophical speculations even on the transcendental subject of the Absolute have very little attraction without directly dealing with the glorification of the Lord. The Personality of Godhead is the last word in transcendental realization. The Absolute realized as impersonal Brahman or localized Supersoul, Paramätmä, is less productive of transcendental bliss than the supreme personal realization of His glories. The compiler of the Vedänta-darçana is Vyäsadeva himself. Yet he is troubled, although he is the author. So what sort of transcendental bliss can be derived by the readers and listeners of Vedänta which is not explained directly by Vyäsadeva, the author? Herein arises the necessity of explaining Vedänta-sütra in the form of Çrémad-Bhägavatam by the self-same author. TEXT 9 YaQaa DaMaaRdYaêaQaaR MauiNavYaaRNauk-IiTaRTaa" ) Na TaQaa vaSaudevSYa MaihMaa ùNauvia" ) Na k-ihRicTKvaiPa c du"iSQaTaa MaiTa‚ lR/>aeTa vaTaahTaNaaEirvaSPadMa( )) 14 )) tato ’nyathä kiïcana yad vivakñataù påthag dåças tat-kåta-rüpa-nämabhiù na karhicit kväpi ca duùsthitä matir labheta vätähata-naur iväspadam SYNONYMS tataù—from that; anyathä—apart; kiïcana—something; yat—whatsoever; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vivakñataù—desiring to describe; påthak—separately; dåçaù—vision; tat-kåta—reactionary to that; rüpa—form; nämabhiù—by names; na karhicit—never; kväpi—any; ca—and; duùsthitä matiù—oscillating mind; labheta—gains; väta-ähata—troubled by the wind; nauù—boat; iva—like; äspadam—place. TRANSLATION Whatever you desire to describe that is separate in vision from the Lord simply reacts, with different forms, names and results, to agitate the mind as the wind agitates a boat which has no resting place. PURPORT Çré Vyäsadeva is the editor of all descriptions of the Vedic literatures, and thus he has described transcendental realization in different ways, namely by fruitive activities, speculative knowledge, mystic power and devotional service. Besides that, in his various Puräëas he has recommended the worship of so many demigods in different forms and names. The result is that people in general are puzzled how to fix their minds in the service of the Lord; they are always disturbed about finding the real path of self-realization. Çréla Näradadeva is stressing this particular defect in the Vedic literatures compiled by Vyäsadeva, and thus he is trying to emphasize describing everything in relation with the Supreme Lord, and no one else. In fact, there is nothing existent except the Lord. The Lord is manifested in different expansions. He is the root of the complete tree. He is the stomach of the complete body. pouring water on the root is the right process to water the tree, as much as feeding the stomach supplies energy to all parts of the body. Therefore, Çréla Vyäsadeva should not have compiled any Puräëas other than the Bhägavata Puräëa because a slight deviation from that may create havoc for self-realization. If a slight deviation can create such havoc, then what to speak of deliberate expansion of the ideas separate from the Absolute Truth Personality of Godhead. The most defective part of worshiping demigods is that it creates a definite conception of pantheism, ending disastrously in many religious sects detrimental to the progress of the principles of the Bhägavatam, which alone Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

can give the accurate direction for self-realization in eternal relation with the Personality of Godhead by devotional service in transcendental love. The example of the boat disturbed by whirling wind is suitable in this respect. The diverted mind of the pantheist can never reach the perfection of self-realization, due to the disturbed condition of the selection of object. TEXT 15 JauGauiPSaTa& DaMaRk*-Tae_NauXaaSaTa" Sv>aavr¢-SYa MahaNa( VYaiTa§-Ma" ) YaÜaKYaTaae DaMaR wTaqTar" iSQaTaae Na MaNYaTae TaSYa iNavarad]Ma>aUdMauZYa ik&k-ae vaQaR Aaáae_>aJaTaa& SvDaMaRTa" )) 17 )) tyaktvä sva-dharmaà caraëämbujaà harer Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bhajann apakvo ’tha patet tato yadi yatra kva väbhadram abhüd amuñya kià ko värtha äpto ’bhajatäà sva-dharmataù SYNONYMS tyaktvä—having forsaken; sva-dharmam—one’s own occupational engagement; caraëa-ambujam—the lotus feet; hareù—of Hari (the Lord); bhajan—in the course of devotional service; apakvaù—immature; atha—for the matter of; patet—falls down; tataù—from that place; yadi—if; yatra—whereupon; kva—what sort of; vä—or (used sarcastically); abhadram—unfavorable; abhüt—shall happen; amuñya—of him; kim—nothing; kaù vä arthaù—what interest; äptaù—obtained; abhajatäm—of the nondevotee; sva-dharmataù—being engaged in occupational service. TRANSLATION One who has forsaken his material occupations to engage in the devotional service of the Lord may sometimes fall down while in an immature stage, yet there is no danger of his being unsuccessful. On the other hand, a nondevotee, though fully engaged in occupational duties, does not gain anything. PURPORT As far as the duties of mankind are concerned, there are innumerable duties. Every man is duty-bound not only to his parents, family members, society, country, humanity, other living beings, the demigods, etc., but also to the great philosophers, poets, scientists, etc. It is enjoined in the scriptures that one can relinquish all such duties and surrender unto the service of the Lord. So if one does so and becomes successful in the discharge of his devotional service unto the Lord, it is well and good. But it so happens sometimes that one surrenders himself unto the service of the Lord by some temporary sentiment, and in the long run, due to so many other reasons, he falls down from the path of service by undesirable association. There are so many instances of this in the histories. Bharata Mahäräja was obliged to take his birth as a stag due to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

his intimate attachment to a stag. He thought of this stag when he died. As such, in the next birth he became a stag, although he did not forget the incident of his previous birth. Similarly, Citraketu also fell down due to his offenses at the feet of Çiva. But in spite of all this, the stress is given here to surrendering unto the lotus feet of the Lord, even if there is a chance of falling down, because even though one falls down from the prescribed duties of devotional service, he will never forget the lotus feet of the Lord. Once engaged in the devotional service of the Lord, one will continue the service in all circumstances. In the Bhagavad-gétä it is said that even a small quantity of devotional service can save one from the most dangerous position. There are many instances of such examples in history. Ajämila is one of them. Ajämila in his early life was a devotee, but in his youth he fell down. Still he was saved by the Lord at the end. TEXT 18 TaSYaEv heTaae" Pa[YaTaeTa k-aeivdae Na l/>YaTae Yad(>a]MaTaaMauPaYaRDa" ) Taç>YaTae du"%vdNYaTa" Sau%& k-ale/Na SavR}a Ga>aqrr&hSaa )) 18 )) tasyaiva hetoù prayateta kovido na labhyate yad bhramatäm upary adhaù tal labhyate duùkhavad anyataù sukhaà kälena sarvatra gabhéra-raàhasä SYNONYMS tasya—for that purpose; eva—only; hetoù—reason; prayateta—should endeavor; kovidaù—one who is philosophically inclined; na—not; labhyate—is not obtained; yat—what; bhramatäm—wandering; upari adhaù—from top to bottom; tat—that; labhyate—can be obtained; duùkhavat—like the miseries; anyataù—as a result of previous work; sukham—sense enjoyment; kälena—in Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

course of time; sarvatra—everywhere; gabhéra—subtle; raàhasä—progress. TRANSLATION Persons who are actually intelligent and philosophically inclined should endeavor only for that purposeful end which is not obtainable even by wandering from the topmost planet [Brahmaloka] down to the lowest planet [Pätäla]. As far as happiness derived from sense enjoyment is concerned, it can be obtained automatically in course of time, just as in course of time we obtain miseries even though we do not desire them. PURPORT Every man everywhere is trying to obtain the greatest amount of sense enjoyment by various endeavors. Some men are busy engaged in trade, industry, economic development, political supremacy, etc., and some of them are engaged in fruitive work to become happy in the next life by attaining higher planets. It is said that on the moon the inhabitants are fit for greater sense enjoyment by drinking soma-rasa, and the Pitåloka is obtained by good charitable work. So there are various programs for sense enjoyment, either during this life or in the life after death. Some are trying to reach the moon or other planets by some mechanical arrangement, for they are very anxious to get into such planets without doing good work. But it is not to happen. By the law of the Supreme, different places are meant for different grades of living beings according to the work they have performed. By good work only, as prescribed in the scriptures, can one obtain birth in a good family, opulence, good education and good bodily features. We see also that even in this life one obtains a good education or money by good work. Similarly, in our next birth we get such desirable positions only by good work. Otherwise, it would not so happen that two persons born in the same place at the same time are seen differently placed according to previous work. But all such material positions are impermanent. The positions in the topmost Brahmaloka and in the lowest Pätäla are also changeable according to our own work. The philosophically inclined person must not be tempted by such changeable positions. He should try to get into the permanent life of bliss and knowledge where he will not be Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

forced to come back again to the miserable material world, either in this or that planet. Miseries and mixed happiness are two features of material life, and they are obtained in Brahmaloka and in other lokas also. They are obtained in the life of the demigods and also in the life of the dogs and hogs. The miseries and mixed happiness of all living beings are only of different degree and quality, but no one is free from the miseries of birth, death, old age and disease. Similarly, everyone has his destined happiness also. No one can get more or less of these things simply by personal endeavors. Even if they are obtained, they can be lost again. One should not, therefore, waste time with these flimsy things; one should only endeavor to go back to Godhead. That should be the mission of everyone’s life. TEXT 19 Na vE JaNaae JaaTau k-QaÄNaav]Jae‚ NMauku-NdSaeVYaNYavd® Sa&Sa*iTaMa( ) SMarNMauku-Ndax(ga]yuPaGaUhNa& PauNa‚ ivRhaTauiMaC^eà rSaGa]hae JaNa" )) 19 )) na vai jano jätu kathaïcanävrajen mukunda-sevy anyavad aìga saàsåtim smaran mukundäìghry-upagühanaà punar vihätum icchen na rasa-graho janaù SYNONYMS na—never; vai—certainly; janaù—a person; jätu—at any time; kathaïcana—somehow or other; ävrajet—does not undergo; mukunda-sevé—the devotee of the Lord; anyavat—like others; aìga—O my dear; saàsåtim—material existence; smaran—remembering; mukunda-aìghri—the lotus feet of the Lord; upagühanam—embracing; punaù—again; vihätum—willing to give up; icchet—desire; na—never; rasa-grahaù—one who has relished the mellow; janaù—person. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION My dear Vyäsa, even though a devotee of Lord Kåñëa sometimes falls down somehow or other, he certainly does not undergo material existence like others [fruitive workers, etc.] because a person who has once relished the taste of the lotus feet of the Lord can do nothing but remember that ecstasy again and again. PURPORT A devotee of the Lord automatically becomes uninterested in the enchantment of material existence because he is rasa-graha, or one who has tasted the sweetness of the lotus feet of Lord Kåñëa. There are certainly many instances where devotees of the Lord have fallen down due to uncongenial association, just like fruitive workers, who are always prone to degradation. But even though he falls down, a devotee is never to be considered the same as a fallen karmé. A karmé suffers the result of his own fruitive reactions, whereas a devotee is reformed by chastisement directed by the Lord Himself. The sufferings of an orphan and the sufferings of a beloved child of a king are not one and the same. An orphan is really poor because he has no one to take care of him, but a beloved son of a rich man, although he appears to be on the same level as the orphan, is always under the vigilance of his capable father. A devotee of the Lord, due to wrong association, sometimes imitates the fruitive workers. The fruitive workers want to lord it over the material world. Similarly, a neophyte devotee foolishly thinks of accumulating some material power in exchange for devotional service. Such foolish devotees are sometimes put into difficulty by the Lord Himself. As a special favor, He may remove all material paraphernalia. By such action, the bewildered devotee is forsaken by all friends and relatives, and so he comes to his senses again by the mercy of the Lord and is set right to execute his devotional service. In the Bhagavad-gétä it is also said that such fallen devotees are given a chance to take birth in a family of highly qualified brähmaëas or in a rich mercantile family. A devotee in such a position is not as fortunate as one who is chastised by the Lord and put into a position seemingly of helplessness. The devotee who becomes helpless by the will of the Lord is more fortunate than Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

those who are born in good families. The fallen devotees born in a good family may forget the lotus feet of the Lord because they are less fortunate, but the devotee who is put into a forlorn condition is more fortunate because he swiftly returns to the lotus feet of the Lord, thinking himself helpless all around. Pure devotional service is so spiritually relishable that a devotee becomes automatically uninterested in material enjoyment. That is the sign of perfection in progressive devotional service. A pure devotee continuously remembers the lotus feet of Lord Çré Kåñëa and does not forget Him even for a moment, not even in exchange for all the opulence of the three worlds. TEXT 20 wd& ih ivì& >aGavaiNaveTarae YaTaae JaGaTSQaaNaiNaraeDaSaM>ava" ) TaiÖ SvYa& ved >ava&STaQaaiPa Tae Pa[adeXaMaa}a& >avTa" Pa[diXaRTaMa( )) 20 )) idaà hi viçvaà bhagavän ivetaro yato jagat-sthäna-nirodha-sambhaväù tad dhi svayaà veda bhaväàs tathäpi te prädeça-mätraà bhavataù pradarçitam SYNONYMS idam—this; hi—all; viçvam—cosmos; bhagavän—the Supreme Lord; iva—almost the same; itaraù—different from; yataù—from whom; jagat—the worlds; sthäna—exist; nirodha—annihilation; sambhaväù—creation; tat hi—all about; svayam—personally; veda—know; bhavän—your good self; tathä api—still; te—unto you; prädeça-mätram—a synopsis only; bhavataù—unto you; pradarçitam—explained. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead is Himself this cosmos, and still He is aloof from it. From Him only has this cosmic manifestation emanated, in Him it rests, and unto Him it enters after annihilation. Your good self knows all about this. I have given only a synopsis. PURPORT For a pure devotee, the conception of Mukunda, Lord Çré Kåñëa, is both personal and impersonal. The impersonal cosmic situation is also Mukunda because it is the emanation of the energy of Mukunda. For example, a tree is a complete unit, whereas the leaves and the branches of the tree are emanated parts and parcels of the tree. The leaves and branches of the tree are also the tree, but the tree itself is neither the leaves nor the branches. The Vedic version that the whole cosmic creation is nothing but Brahman means that since everything is emanating from the Supreme Brahman, nothing is apart from Him. Similarly, the part-and-parcel hands and legs are called the body, but the body as the whole unit is neither the hands nor the legs. The Lord is the transcendental form of eternity, cognition and beauty. And thus the creation of the energy of the Lord appears to be partially eternal, full of knowledge and beautiful also. The captivated conditioned souls under the influence of the external energy, mäyä, are therefore entrapped in the network of the material nature. They accept this as all in all, for they have no information of the Lord who is the primeval cause. Nor have they information that the parts and parcels of the body, being detached from the whole body, are no longer the same hand or leg as when attached to the body. Similarly, a godless civilization detached from the transcendental loving service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is just like a detached hand or leg. Such parts and parcels may appear like hands and legs, but they have no efficiency. The devotee of the Lord, Çréla Vyäsadeva, knows this very well. He is further advised by Çréla Närada to expand the idea so that the entrapped conditioned souls may take lessons from him to understand the Supreme Lord as the primeval cause. According to the Vedic version, the Lord is naturally fully powerful, and thus His supreme energies are always perfect and identical with Him. Both the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

spiritual and the material skies and their paraphernalia are emanations of the internal and external energies of the Lord. External energy is comparatively inferior, whereas the internal potency is superior. The superior energy is living force, and therefore she is completely identical, but the external energy, being inert, is partially identical. But both the energies are neither equal to nor greater than the Lord, who is the generator of all energies; such energies are always under His control, exactly as electrical energy, however powerful it may be, is always under the control of the engineer. The human being and all other living beings are products of His internal energies. Thus the living being is also identical with the Lord. But he is never equal or superior to the Personality of Godhead. The Lord and living beings are all individual persons. With the help of the material energies the living beings are also creating something, but none of their creations are equal or superior to the creations of the Lord. The human being may create a small playful sputnik and may throw it into outer space, but that does not mean that he can create a planet like the earth or moon and float it in the air as the Lord does. Men with a poor fund of knowledge claim to be equal to the Lord. They are never equal to the Lord. This is never to be. The human being, after attaining complete perfection, may achieve a large percentage of the qualities of the Lord (say up to seventy-eight percent), but it is never possible to surpass the Lord or to become equal with Him. In a diseased condition only, the foolish being claims to be one with the Lord and thus becomes misled by the illusory energy. The misguided living beings, therefore, must accept the supremacy of the Lord and agree to render loving service to Him. For this they have been created. Without this, there cannot be any peace or tranquillity in the world. Çréla Vyäsadeva is advised by Çréla Närada to expand this idea in the Bhägavatam. In the Bhagavad-gétä also the same idea is explained: surrender fully unto the lotus feet of the Lord. That is the only business of the perfect human being. TEXT 21 TvMaaTMaNaaTMaaNaMaveùMaaegad*k(Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ParSYa Pau&Sa" ParMaaTMaNa" k-l/aMa( ) AJa& Pa[JaaTa& JaGaTa" iXavaYa Ta‚ NMahaNau>aava>YaudYaae_iDaGaaRi¢-" Pa[v*taaTMarJaSTaMaaePaha )) 28 )) itthaà çarat-prävåñikäv åtü harer viçåëvato me ’nusavaà yaço ’malam saìkértyamänaà munibhir mahätmabhir bhaktiù pravåttätma-rajas-tamopahä SYNONYMS ittham—thus; çarat—autumn; prävåñikau—rainy season; åtü—two seasons; hareù—of the Lord; viçåëvataù—continuously hearing; me—myself; anusavam—constantly; yaçaù amalam—unadulterated glories; saìkértyamänam—chanted by; munibhiù—the great sages; mahä-ätmabhiù—great souls; bhaktiù—devotional service; pravåttä—began to flow; ätma—living being; rajaù—mode of passion; tama—mode of ignorance; upahä—vanishing. TRANSLATION Thus during two seasons—the rainy season and autumn—I had the opportunity to hear these great-souled sages constantly chant the unadulterated glories of the Lord Hari. As the flow of my devotional service began, the coverings of the modes of passion and ignorance vanished. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Transcendental loving service for the Supreme Lord is the natural inclination of every living being. The instinct is dormant in everyone, but due to the association of material nature the modes of passion and ignorance cover this from time immemorial. If, by the grace of the Lord and the great-souled devotees of the Lord, a living being becomes fortunate enough to associate with the unadulterated devotees of the Lord and gets a chance to hear the unadulterated glories of the Lord, certainly the flow of devotional service takes place like the flow of a river. As the river flows on till she reaches the sea, similarly pure devotional service flows by the association of pure devotees till it reaches the ultimate goal, namely, transcendental love of God. Such a flow of devotional service cannot stop. On the contrary, it increases more and more without limitation. The flow of devotional service is so potent that any onlooker also becomes liberated from the influence of the modes of passion and ignorance. These two qualities of nature are thus removed, and the living being is liberated, being situated in his original position. TEXT 29 TaSYaEv& Mae_Naur¢-SYa Pa[ié[TaSYa hTaENaSa" ) é[ÕDaaNaSYa bal/SYa daNTaSYaaNaucrSYa c )) 29 )) tasyaivaà me ’nuraktasya praçritasya hatainasaù çraddadhänasya bälasya däntasyänucarasya ca SYNONYMS tasya—his; evam—thus; me—mine; anuraktasya—attached to them; praçritasya—obediently; hata—freed from; enasaù—sins; çraddadhänasya—of the faithful; bälasya—of the boy; däntasya—subjugated; anucarasya—strictly Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

following the instructions; ca—and. TRANSLATION I was very much attached to those sages. I was gentle in behavior, and all my sins were eradicated in their service. In my heart I had strong faith in them. I had subjugated the senses, and I was strictly following them with body and mind. PURPORT These are the necessary qualifications of a prospective candidate who can expect to be elevated to the position of a pure unadulterated devotee. Such a candidate must always seek the association of pure devotees. One should not be misled by a pseudodevotee. He himself must be plain and gentle to receive the instructions of such a pure devotee. A pure devotee is a completely surrendered soul unto the Personality of Godhead. He knows the Personality of Godhead as the supreme proprietor and all others as His servitors. And by the association of pure devotees only, one can get rid of all sins accumulated by mundane association. A neophyte devotee must faithfully serve the pure devotee, and he should be very much obedient and strictly follow the instructions. These are the signs of a devotee who is determined to achieve success even in the existing duration of life. TEXT 30 jaNa& GauùTaMa& YataTSaa+aaÙGavTaaeidTaMa( ) ANvvaecNa( GaiMaZYaNTa" k*-PaYaa dqNavTSal/a" )) 30 )) jïänaà guhyatamaà yat tat säkñäd bhagavatoditam anvavocan gamiñyantaù kåpayä déna-vatsaläù

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS jïänam—knowledge; guhyatamam—most confidential; yat—what is; tat—that; säkñät—directly; bhagavatä uditam—propounded by the Lord Himself; anvavocan—gave instruction; gamiñyantaù—while departing from; kåpayä—by causeless mercy; déna-vatsaläù—those who are very kind to the poor and meek. TRANSLATION As they were leaving, those bhakti-vedäntas, who are very kind to poor-hearted souls, instructed me in that most confidential subject which is instructed by the Personality of Godhead Himself. PURPORT A pure Vedäntist, or a bhakti-vedänta, instructs followers exactly according to the instructions of the Lord Himself. The Personality of Godhead, both in the Bhagavad-gétä and in all other scriptures, has definitely instructed men to follow the Lord only. The Lord is the creator, maintainer and annihilator of everything. The whole manifested creation is existing by His will, and by His will when the whole show is finished He will remain in His eternal abode with all His paraphernalia. Before the creation He was there in the eternal abode, and after the annihilation He will continue to remain. He is not, therefore, one of the created beings. He is transcendental. In the Bhagavad-gétä the Lord says that long, long before the instruction was imparted to Arjuna, the same was instructed to the sun-god, and in course of time, the same instruction, being wrongly handled and being broken, was again instructed to Arjuna because he was His perfect devotee and friend. Therefore, the instruction of the Lord can be understood by the devotees only and no one else. The impersonalist, who has no idea of the transcendental form of the Lord, cannot understand this most confidential message of the Lord. The expression “most confidential” is significant here because knowledge of devotional service is far, far above knowledge of impersonal Brahman. Jïänam means ordinary Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

knowledge or any branch of knowledge. This knowledge develops up to the knowledge of impersonal Brahman. Above this, when it is partially mixed with devotion, such knowledge develops to knowledge of Paramätmä, or the all-pervading Godhead. This is more confidential. But when such knowledge is turned into pure devotional service and the confidential part of transcendental knowledge is attained, it is called the most confidential knowledge. This most confidential knowledge was imparted by the Lord to Brahmä, Arjuna, Uddhava, etc. TEXT 31 YaeNaEvah& >aGavTaae vaSaudevSYa veDaSa" ) MaaYaaNau>aavMaivd& YaeNa GaC^iNTa TaTPadMa( )) 31 )) yenaivähaà bhagavato väsudevasya vedhasaù mäyänubhävam avidaà yena gacchanti tat-padam SYNONYMS yena—by which; eva—certainly; aham—I; bhagavataù—of the Personality of Godhead; väsudevasya—of Lord Çré Kåñëa; vedhasaù—of the supreme creator; mäyä—energy; anubhävam—influence; avidam—easily understood; yena—by which; gacchanti—they go; tat-padam—at the lotus feet of the Lord. TRANSLATION By that confidential knowledge, I could understand clearly the influence of the energy of Lord Çré Kåñëa, the creator, maintainer and annihilator of everything. By knowing that, one can return to Him and personally meet Him. PURPORT By devotional service or by the most confidential knowledge, one can Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

understand very easily how the different energies of the Lord are working. One part of energy is manifesting the material world; the other (superior) part of His energy is manifesting the spiritual world. And the via medium energy is manifesting the living entities who are serving either of the above-mentioned energies. The living entities serving material energy are struggling hard for existence and happiness, which is presented to them as illusion. But those in the spiritual energy are placed under the direct service of the Lord in eternal life, complete knowledge and perpetual bliss. The Lord desires, as He has directly said in the Bhagavad-gétä, that all conditioned souls, rotting in the kingdom of material energy, come back to Him by giving up all engagements in the material world. This is the most confidential part of knowledge. But this can be understood only by the pure devotees, and only such devotees enter the kingdom of God to see Him personally and serve Him personally. The concrete example is Närada Himself, who attained this stage of eternal knowledge and eternal bliss. And the ways and means are open to all, provided one agrees to follow in the footsteps of Çré Närada Muni. According to çruti, the Supreme Lord has unlimited energies (without effort by Him), and these are described under three principal headings, as above mentioned. TEXT 32 WTaTSa&SaUicTa& b]ø&STaaPa}aYaicik-iTSaTaMa( ) Yadqìre >aGaviTa k-MaR b]øiaaivTaMa( )) 32 )) etat saàsücitaà brahmaàs täpa-traya-cikitsitam yad éçvare bhagavati karma brahmaëi bhävitam SYNONYMS etat—this much; saàsücitam—decided by the learned; brahman—O brähmaëa Vyäsa; täpa-traya—three kinds of miseries; cikitsitam—remedial measures; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

yat—what; éçvare—the supreme controller; bhagavati—unto the Personality of Godhead; karma—one’s prescribed activities; brahmaëi—unto the great; bhävitam—dedicated. TRANSLATION O Brähmaëa Vyäsadeva, it is decided by the learned that the best remedial measure for removing all troubles and miseries is to dedicate one’s activities to the service of the Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead [Çré Kåñëa]. PURPORT Çré Närada Muni personally experienced that the most feasible and practical way to open the path of salvation or get relief from all miseries of life is to hear submissively the transcendental activities of the Lord from the right and bona fide sources. This is the only remedial process. The entire material existence is full of miseries. Foolish people have manufactured, out of their tiny brains, many remedial measures for removing the threefold miseries pertaining to the body and mind, pertaining to the natural disturbances and in relation with other living beings. The whole world is struggling very hard to exist out of these miseries, but men do not know that without the sanction of the Lord no plan or no remedial measure can actually bring about the desired peace and tranquillity. The remedial measure to cure a patient by medical treatment is useless if it is not sanctioned by the Lord. To cross the river or the ocean by a suitable boat is no remedial measure if it is not sanctioned by the Lord. We should know for certain that the Lord is the ultimate sanctioning officer, and we must therefore dedicate our attempts to the mercy of the Lord for ultimate success or to get rid of the obstacles on the path of success. The Lord is all-pervading, all-powerful, omniscient and omnipresent. He is the ultimate sanctioning agent of all good or bad effects. We should, therefore, learn to dedicate our activities unto the mercy of the Lord and accept Him either as impersonal Brahman, localized Paramätmä or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It does not matter what one is. One must dedicate everything in the service of the Lord. If one is a learned scholar, scientist, philosopher, poet, etc., then he should employ his learning to establish the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

supremacy of the Lord. Try to study the energy of the Lord in every sphere of life. Do not decry Him and try to become like Him or take His position simply by fragmental accumulation of knowledge. If one is an administrator, statesman, warrior, politician, etc., then one should try to establish the Lord’s supremacy in statesmanship. Fight for the cause of the Lord as Çré Arjuna did. In the beginning, Çré Arjuna, the great fighter, declined to fight, but when he was convinced by the Lord that the fighting was necessary, Çré Arjuna changed his decision and fought for His cause. Similarly, if one is a businessman, an industrialist, an agriculturist, etc., then one should spend his hard-earned money for the cause of the Lord. Think always that the money which is accumulated is the wealth of the Lord. Wealth is considered to be the goddess of fortune (Lakñmé), and the Lord is Näräyaëa, or the husband of Lakñmé. Try to engage Lakñmé in the service of Lord Näräyaëa and be happy. That is the way to realize the Lord in every sphere of life. The best thing is, after all, to get relief from all material activities and engage oneself completely in hearing the transcendental pastimes of the Lord. But in case of the absence of such an opportunity, one should try to engage in the service of the Lord everything for which one has specific attraction, and that is the way of peace and prosperity. The word saàsücitam in this stanza is also significant. One should not think for a moment that the realization of Närada was childish imagination only. It is not like that. It is so realized by the expert and erudite scholars, and that is the real import of the word saàsücitam. TEXT 33 AaMaYaae Yaê >aUTaaNaa& JaaYaTae YaeNa Sauv]Ta ) Tadev ùaMaYa& d]VYa& Na PauNaaiTa icik-iTSaTaMa( )) 33 )) ämayo yaç ca bhütänäà jäyate yena suvrata tad eva hy ämayaà dravyaà na punäti cikitsitam Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS ämayaù—diseases; yaù ca—whatever; bhütänäm—of the living being; jäyate—become possible; yena—by the agency; suvrata—O good soul; tat—that; eva—very; hi—certainly; ämayam—disease; dravyam—thing; na—does it not; punäti—cure; cikitsitam—treated with. TRANSLATION O good soul, does not a thing, applied therapeutically, cure a disease which was caused by that very same thing? PURPORT An expert physician treats his patient with a therapeutic diet. For example, milk preparations sometimes cause disorder of the bowels, but the very same milk converted into curd and mixed with some other remedial ingredients cures such disorders. Similarly, the threefold miseries of material existence cannot be mitigated simply by material activities. Such activities have to be spiritualized, just as by fire iron is made red-hot, and thereby the action of fire begins. Similarly, the material conception of a thing is at once changed as soon as it is put into the service of the Lord. That is the secret of spiritual success. We should not try to lord it over the material nature, nor should we reject material things. The best way to make the best use of a bad bargain is to use everything in relation with the supreme spiritual being. Everything is an emanation from the Supreme Spirit, and by His inconceivable power He can convert spirit into matter and matter into spirit. Therefore a material thing (so-called) is at once turned into a spiritual force by the great will of the Lord. The necessary condition for such a change is to employ so-called matter in the service of the spirit. That is the way to treat our material diseases and elevate ourselves to the spiritual plane where there is no misery, no lamentation and no fear. When everything is thus employed in the service of the Lord, we can experience that there is nothing except the Supreme Brahman. The Vedic mantra that “everything is Brahman” is thus realized by us. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 34 Wv& Na*a+aui>aivRPa[viSaTae ivjaNaadeí*i>aSTav ) vTaRMaaNaae vYaSYaaÛe TaTa" ik-Mak-raeÙvaNa( )) 2 )) vyäsa uväca bhikñubhir vipravasite vijïänädeñöåbhis tava vartamäno vayasy ädye tataù kim akarod bhavän SYNONYMS vyäsaù uväca—Çré Vyäsadeva said; bhikñubhiù—by the great mendicants; vipravasite—having departed for other places; vijïäna—scientific knowledge in transcendence; ädeñöåbhiù—those who had instructed; tava—of your; vartamänaù—present; vayasi—of the duration of life; ädye—before the beginning of; tataù—after that; kim—what; akarot—did; bhavän—your good self. TRANSLATION Çré Vyäsadeva said: What did you [Närada] do after the departure of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

great sages who had instructed you in scientific transcendental knowledge before the beginning of your present birth? PURPORT Vyäsadeva himself was the disciple of Näradajé, and therefore it was natural to be anxious to hear what Närada did after initiation from the spiritual masters. He wanted to follow in Närada’s footsteps in order to attain to the same perfect stage of life. This desire to inquire from the spiritual master is an essential factor to the progressive path. This process is technically known as sad-dharma-påcchä. TEXT 3 SvaYaM>auv k-Yaa v*tYaa viTaRTa& Tae Par& vYa" ) k-Qa& cedMaudóa+aq" k-ale/ Pa[aáe k-le/vrMa( )) 3 )) sväyambhuva kayä våttyä vartitaà te paraà vayaù kathaà cedam udasräkñéù käle präpte kalevaram SYNONYMS sväyambhuva—O son of Brahmä; kayä—under what condition; våttyä—occupation; vartitam—was spent; te—you; param—after the initiation; vayaù—duration of life; katham—how; ca—and; idam—this; udasräkñéù—did you quit; käle—in due course; präpte—having attained; kalevaram—body. TRANSLATION O son of Brahmä, how did you pass your life after initiation, and how did you attain this body, having quit your old one in due course? Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Çré Närada Muni in his previous life was just an ordinary maidservant’s son, so how he became so perfectly transformed into the spiritual body of eternal life, bliss and knowledge is certainly important. Çré Vyäsadeva desired him to disclose the facts for everyone’s satisfaction. TEXT 4 Pa[a¡-LPaivzYaaMaeTaa& SMa*iTa& Tae MauiNaSataMa ) Na ùez VYavDaaTk-al/ Wz SavRiNarak*-iTa" )) 4 )) präk-kalpa-viñayäm etäà småtià te muni-sattama na hy eña vyavadhät käla eña sarva-niräkåtiù SYNONYMS präk—prior; kalpa—the duration of Brahmä’s day; viñayäm—subject matter; etäm—all these; småtim—remembrance; te—your; muni-sattama—O great sage; na—not; hi—certainly; eñaù—all these; vyavadhät—made any difference; kälaù—course of time; eñaù—all these; sarva—all; niräkåtiù—annihilation. TRANSLATION O great sage, time annihilates everything in due course, so how is it that this subject matter, which happened prior to this day of Brahmä, is still fresh in your memory, undisturbed by time? PURPORT As spirit is not annihilated even after the annihilation of the material body, so also spiritual consciousness is not annihilated. Çré Närada developed this Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

spiritual consciousness even when he had his material body in the previous kalpa. Consciousness of the material body means spiritual consciousness expressed through the medium of a material body. This consciousness is inferior, destructible and perverted. But superconsciousness of the supramind in the spiritual plane is as good as the spirit soul and is never annihilated. TEXT 5 Naard ovac i>a+aui>aivRPa[viSaTae ivjaNaadeí*i>aMaRMa ) vTaRMaaNaae vYaSYaaÛe TaTa WTadk-arzMa( )) 5 )) närada uväca bhikñubhir vipravasite vijïänädeñöåbhir mama vartamäno vayasy ädye tata etad akärañam SYNONYMS näradaù uväca—Çré Närada said; bhikñubhiù—by the great sages; vipravasite—having departed for other places; vijïäna—scientific spiritual knowledge; ädeñöåbhiù—those who imparted unto me; mama—mine; vartamänaù—present; vayasi ädye—before this life; tataù—thereafter; etat—this much; akärañam—performed. TRANSLATION Çré Närada said: The great sages, who had imparted scientific knowledge of transcendence to me, departed for other places, and I had to pass my life in this way. PURPORT In his previous life, when Näradajé was impregnated with spiritual Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

knowledge by the grace of the great sages, there was a tangible change in his life, although he was only a boy of five years. That is an important symptom visible after initiation by the bona fide spiritual master. Actual association of devotees brings about a quick change in life for spiritual realization. How it so acted upon the previous life of Çré Närada Muni is described by and by in this chapter. TEXT 6 Wk-aTMaJaa Mae JaNaNaq YaaeizNMaU!a c ik-ªrq ) MaYYaaTMaJae_NaNYaGaTaaE c§e- òehaNaubNDaNaMa( )) 6 )) ekätmajä me janané yoñin müòhä ca kiìkaré mayy ätmaje ’nanya-gatau cakre snehänubandhanam SYNONYMS eka-ätmajä—having only one son; me—my; janané—mother; yoñit—woman by class; müòhä—foolish; ca—and; kiìkaré—maidservant; mayi—unto me; ätmaje—being her offspring; ananya-gatau—one who has no alternative for protection; cakre—did it; sneha-anubandhanam—tied by affectionate bondage. TRANSLATION I was the only son of my mother, who was not only a simple woman but a maidservant as well. Since I was her only offspring, she had no other alternative for protection: she bound me with the tie of affection. TEXT 7 SaaSvTaN}aa Na k-LPaaSaqÛaeGa+aeMa& MaMaeC^Taq )

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

wRXaSYa ih vXae l/aek-ae Yaaeza daåMaYaq YaQaa )) 7 )) säsvatanträ na kalpäséd yoga-kñemaà mamecchaté éçasya hi vaçe loko yoñä därumayé yathä SYNONYMS sä—she; asvatanträ—was dependent; na—not; kalpä—able; äsét—was; yoga-kñemam—maintenance; mama—my; icchaté—although desirous; éçasya—of providence; hi—for; vaçe—under the control of; lokaù—everyone; yoñä—doll; däru-mayé—made of wood; yathä—as much as. TRANSLATION She wanted to look after my maintenance properly, but because she was not independent, she was not able to do anything for me. The world is under the full control of the Supreme Lord; therefore everyone is like a wooden doll in the hands of a puppet master. TEXT 8 Ah& c Tad(b]øku-le/ Oizva&STaduPae+aYaa ) idGdeXak-al/aVYauTPaàae bal/k-" PaÄhaYaNa" )) 8 )) ahaà ca tad-brahma-kule üñiväàs tad-upekñayä dig-deça-kälävyutpanno bälakaù païca-häyanaù SYNONYMS aham—I; ca—also; tat—that; brahma-kule—in the school of the brähmaëas; üñivän—lived; tat—her; upekñayä—being dependent on; dik-deça—direction Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

and country; käla—time; avyutpannaù—having no experience; bälakaù—a mere child; païca—five; häyanaù—years old. TRANSLATION When I was a mere child of five years, I lived in a brähmaëa school. I was dependent on my mother’s affection and had no experience of different lands. TEXT 9 Wk-da iNaGaRTaa& GaehaÕuhNTaq& iNaiXa Gaa& PaiQa ) SaPaaeR_dXaTPada SPa*í" k*-Paa]Mad(>a]Marié[Ya" )) 12 )) citra-dhätu-viciträdrén ibha-bhagna-bhuja-drumän jaläçayäï chiva-jalän nalinéù sura-sevitäù citra-svanaiù patra-rathair vibhramad bhramara-çriyaù SYNONYMS citra-dhätu—valuable minerals like gold, silver and copper; vicitra—full of variegatedness; adrén—hills and mountains; ibha-bhagna—broken by the giant elephants; bhuja—branches; drumän—trees; jaläçayän çiva—health-giving; jalän—reservoirs of water; nalinéù—lotus flowers; sura-sevitäù—aspired to by the denizens of heaven; citra-svanaiù—pleasing to the heart; patra-rathaiù—by the birds; vibhramat—bewildering; bhramara-çriyaù—decorated by drones. TRANSLATION I passed through hills and mountains full of reservoirs of various minerals like gold, silver and copper, and through tracts of land with reservoirs of water filled with beautiful lotus flowers, fit for the denizens of heaven, decorated with bewildered bees and singing birds. TEXT 13 Nal/veaui+aTa" ) òaTva PaqTva hde NaÛa oPaSPa*íae GaTaé[Ma" )) 14 )) pariçräntendriyätmähaà tåö-paréto bubhukñitaù snätvä pétvä hrade nadyä upaspåñöo gata-çramaù SYNONYMS pariçränta—being tired; indriya—bodily; ätmä—mentally; aham—I; tåö-parétaù—being thirsty; bubhukñitaù—and hungry; snätvä—taking a bath; pétvä—and drinking water also; hrade—in the lake; nadyäù—of a river; upaspåñöaù—being in contact with; gata—got relief from; çramaù—tiredness. TRANSLATION Thus traveling, I felt tired, both bodily and mentally, and I was both thirsty and hungry. So I took a bath in a river lake and also drank water. By contacting Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

water, I got relief from my exhaustion. PURPORT A traveling mendicant can meet the needs of body, namely thirst and hunger, by the gifts of nature without being a beggar at the doors of the householders. The mendicant therefore does not go to the house of a householder to beg but to enlighten him spiritually. TEXT 15 TaiSMaiàMaRNauJae_raGavTaae YataNMaNa"k-aNTa& éucaPahMa( ) APaXYaNa( SahSaaetaSQae vE©-VYaad(duMaRNaa wv )) 18 )) rüpaà bhagavato yat tan manaù-käntaà çucäpaham apaçyan sahasottasthe Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vaiklavyäd durmanä iva SYNONYMS rüpam—form; bhagavataù—of the Personality of Godhead; yat—as it is; tat—that; manaù—of the mind; käntam—as it desires; çuca-apaham—vanishing all disparity; apaçyan—without seeing; sahasä—all of a sudden; uttasthe—got up; vaiklavyät—being perturbed; durmanäù—having lost the desirable; iva—as it were. TRANSLATION The transcendental form of the Lord, as it is, satisfies the mind’s desire and at once erases all mental incongruities. Upon losing that form, I suddenly got up, being perturbed, as is usual when one loses that which is desirable. PURPORT That the Lord is not formless is experienced by Närada Muni. But His form is completely different from all forms of our material experience. For the whole duration of our life we go see different forms in the material world, but none of them is just apt to satisfy the mind, nor can any one of them vanish all perturbance of the mind. These are the special features of the transcendental form of the Lord, and one who has once seen that form is not satisfied with anything else; no form in the material world can any longer satisfy the seer. That the Lord is formless or impersonal means that He has nothing like a material form and is not like any material personality. As spiritual beings, having eternal relations with that transcendental form of the Lord, we are, life after life, searching after that form of the Lord, and we are not satisfied by any other form of material appeasement. Närada Muni got a glimpse of this, but having not seen it again he became perturbed and stood up all of a sudden to search it out. What we desire life after life was obtained by Närada Muni, and losing sight of Him again was certainly a great shock for him.

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TEXT 19 idd*+auSTadh& >aUYa" Pa[iaviSaNDauâvae d*íae hircYaaRNauvaYaaeRGaPaQaE" k-aMal/ae>ahTaae Mauhu" ) Mauku-NdSaevYaa YaÜtaQaaTMaaÖa Na XaaMYaiTa )) 35 )) yamädibhir yoga-pathaiù käma-lobha-hato muhuù mukunda-sevayä yadvat tathätmäddhä na çämyati SYNONYMS yama-ädibhiù—by the process of practicing self-restraint; yoga-pathaiù—by the system of yoga (mystic bodily power to attain the godly stage); käma—desires for sense satisfaction; lobha—lust for satisfaction of the senses; hataù—curbed; muhuù—always; mukunda—the Personality of Godhead; sevayä—by the service of; yadvat—as it is; tathä—like that; ätmä—the soul; addhä—for all practical purposes; na—does not; çämyati—be satisfied. TRANSLATION It is true that by practicing restraint of the senses by the yoga system one can get relief from the disturbances of desire and lust, but this is not sufficient to give satisfaction to the soul, for this [satisfaction] is derived from devotional service to the Personality of Godhead. PURPORT Yoga aims at controlling the senses. By practice of the mystic process of bodily exercise in sitting, thinking, feeling, willing, concentrating, meditating and at last being merged into transcendence, one can control the senses. The senses are considered like venomous serpents, and the yoga system is just to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

control them. On the other hand, Närada Muni recommends another method for controlling the senses in the transcendental loving service of Mukunda, the Personality of Godhead. By his experience he says that devotional service to the Lord is more effective and practical than the system of artificially controlling the senses. In the service of the Lord Mukunda, the senses are transcendentally engaged. Thus there is no chance of their being engaged in sense satisfaction. The senses want some engagement. To check them artificially is no check at all because as soon as there is some opportunity for enjoyment, the serpentlike senses will certainly take advantage of it. There are many such instances in history, just like Viçvämitra Muni’s falling a victim to the beauty of Menakä. But Öhäkura Haridäsa was allured at midnight by the well-dressed Mäyä, and still she could not induce that great devotee into her trap. The whole idea is that without devotional service of the Lord, neither the yoga system nor dry philosophical speculation can ever become successful. Pure devotional service of the Lord, without being tinged with fruitive work, mystic yoga or speculative philosophy, is the foremost procedure to attain self-realization. Such pure devotional service is transcendental in nature, and the systems of yoga and jïäna are subordinate to such a process. When the transcendental devotional service is mixed with a subordinate process, it is no longer transcendental but is called mixed devotional service. Çréla Vyäsadeva, the author of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, will gradually develop all these different systems of transcendental realization in the text. TEXT 36 Sav| TaiddMaa:YaaTa& YaTPa*íae_h& TvYaaNaga ) JaNMak-MaRrhSYa& Mae >avTaêaTMaTaaezaaZYa >aGavaàardae vaSavqSauTaMa( ) AaMaN}Ya vqau" )) 1 )) çaunaka uväca nirgate närade süta bhagavän bädaräyaëaù çrutaväàs tad-abhipretaà tataù kim akarod vibhuù SYNONYMS çaunakaù—Çré Çaunaka; uväca—said; nirgate—having gone; närade—Närada Muni; süta—O Süta; bhagavän—the transcendentally powerful; bädaräyaëaù—Vedavyäsa; çrutavän—who heard; tat—his; abhipretam—desire of the mind; tataù—thereafter; kim—what; akarot—did he do; vibhuù—the great. TRANSLATION Åñi Çaunaka asked: O Süta, the great and transcendentally powerful Vyäsadeva heard everything from Çré Närada Muni. So after Närada’s departure, what did Vyäsadeva do? PURPORT In this chapter the clue for describing Çrémad-Bhägavatam is picked up as Mahäräja Parékñit is miraculously saved in the womb of his mother. This was caused by Drauëi (Açvatthämä), Äcärya Droëa’s son, who killed the five sons of Draupadé while they were asleep, for which he was punished by Arjuna. Before commencing the great epic Çrémad-Bhägavatam, Çré Vyäsadeva realized the whole truth by trance in devotion. TEXT 2 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SaUTa ovac b]øNaÛa& SarSvTYaaMaaé[Ma" PaiêMae Ta$e= ) XaMYaaPa[aSa wiTa Pa[ae¢- ‰zqaaGavTaq& k*-TvaNau§-MYa caTMaJaMa( ) éuk-MaDYaaPaYaaMaaSa iNav*itaiNarTa& MauiNa" )) 8 )) sa saàhitäà bhägavatéà kåtvänukramya cätma-jam çukam adhyäpayäm äsa nivåtti-nirataà muniù SYNONYMS saù—that; saàhitäm—Vedic literature; bhägavatém—in relation with the Personality of Godhead; kåtvä—having done; anukramya—by correction and repetition; ca—and; ätma-jam—his own son; çukam—Çukadeva Gosvämé; adhyäpayäm äsa—taught; nivåtti—path of self realization; niratam—engaged; muniù—the sage. TRANSLATION The great sage Vyäsadeva, after compiling the Çrémad-Bhägavatam and revising it, taught it to his own son, Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé, who was already engaged in self-realization.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the natural commentation on the Brahma-sütras compiled by the same author. This Brahma-sütra, or Vedänta-sütra, is meant for those who are already engaged in self-realization. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is so made that one becomes at once engaged in the path of self-realization simply by hearing the topics. Although it is especially meant for the paramahaàsas, or those who are totally engaged in self-realization, it works into the depths of the hearts of those who may be worldly men. Worldly men are all engaged in sense gratification. But even such men will find in this Vedic literature a remedial measure for their material diseases. Çukadeva Gosvämé was a liberated soul from the very beginning of his birth, and his father taught him Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Amongst mundane scholars, there is some diversity of opinion as to the date of compilation of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. It is, however, certain from the text of the Bhägavatam that it was compiled before the disappearance of King Parékñit and after the departure of Lord Kåñëa. When Mahäräja Parékñit was ruling the world as the King of Bhärata-varña, he chastised the personality of Kali. According to revealed scriptures and astrological calculation, the age of Kali is in its five thousandth year. Therefore, Çrémad-Bhägavatam was compiled not less than five thousand years ago. Mahäbhärata was compiled before Çrémad-Bhägavatam, and the Puräëas were compiled before Mahäbhärata. That is an estimation of the date of compilation of the different Vedic literatures. The synopsis of Çrémad-Bhägavatam was given before the detailed description under instruction of Närada. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the science for following the path of nivåtti-märga. The path of pravåtti-märga was condemned by Närada. That path is the natural inclination for all conditioned souls. The theme of Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the cure of the materialistic disease of the human being, or stopping completely the pangs of material existence. TEXT 9 XaaENak- ovac Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Sa vE iNav*itaiNarTa" SavR}aaePae+ak-ae MauiNa" ) k-SYa va b*hTaqMaeTaaMaaTMaaraMa" SaMa>YaSaTa( )) 9 )) çaunaka uväca sa vai nivåtti-nirataù sarvatropekñako muniù kasya vä båhatém etäm ätmärämaù samabhyasat SYNONYMS çaunakaù uväca—Çré Çaunaka asked; saù—he; vai—of course; nivåtti—on the path of self-realization; nirataù—always engaged; sarvatra—in every respect; upekñakaù—indifferent; muniù—sage; kasya—for what reason; vä—or; båhatém—vast; etäm—this; ätma-ärämaù—one who is pleased in himself; samabhyasat—undergo the studies. TRANSLATION Çré Çaunaka asked Süta Gosvämé: Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé was already on the path of self-realization, and thus he was pleased with his own self. So why did he take the trouble to undergo the study of such a vast literature? PURPORT For the people in general the highest perfection of life is to cease from material activities and be fixed on the path of self-realization. Those who take pleasure in sense enjoyment, or those who are fixed in material bodily welfare work, are called karmés. Out of thousands and millions of such karmés, one may become an ätmäräma by self-realization. Ätmä means self, and äräma means to take pleasure. Everyone is searching after the highest pleasure, but the standard of pleasure of one may be different from the standard of another. Therefore, the standard of pleasure enjoyed by the karmés is different from that of the ätmärämas. The ätmärämas are completely indifferent to material enjoyment in every respect. Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé had already attained that Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

stage, and still he was attracted to undergo the trouble of studying the great Bhägavatam literature. This means that Çrémad-Bhägavatam is a postgraduate study even for the ätmärämas, who have surpassed all the studies of Vedic knowledge. TEXT 10 SaUTa ovac AaTMaaraMaaê MauNaYaae iNaGa]RNQaa APYauå§-Mae ) ku-vRNTYahETauk-I& >ai¢-iMaTQaM>aUTaGauaGavaNa( devk-IPau}aae Yae caNYae Yaaê YaaeizTa" )) 50 )) nakulaù sahadevaç ca yuyudhäno dhanaïjayaù bhagavän devaké-putro ye cänye yäç ca yoñitaù SYNONYMS nakulaù—Nakula; sahadevaù—Sahadeva; ca—and; yuyudhänaù—Sätyaki; dhanaïjayaù—Arjuna; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; devaké-putraù—the son of Devaké, Lord Çré Kåñëa; ye—those; ca—and; anye—others; yäù—those; ca—and; yoñitaù—ladies. TRANSLATION Nakula and Sahadeva [the younger brothers of the King] and also Sätyaki, Arjuna, the Personality of Godhead Lord Sri Kåñëa, son of Devaké, and the ladies and others all unanimously agreed with the King. TEXT 51 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Ta}aahaMaizRTaae >aqMaSTaSYa é[eYaaNa( vDa" SMa*Ta" ) Na >aTauRNaaRTMaNaêaQaeR Yaae_hNa( SauáaNa( iXaéUNa( v*Qaa )) 51 )) taträhämarñito bhémas tasya çreyän vadhaù småtaù na bhartur nätmanaç cärthe yo ’han suptän çiçün våthä SYNONYMS tatra—thereupon; äha—said; amarñitaù—in an angry mood; bhémaù—Bhéma; tasya—his; çreyän—ultimate good; vadhaù—killing; småtaù—recorded; na—not; bhartuù—of the master; na—nor; ätmanaù—of his own self; ca—and; arthe—for the sake of; yaù—one who; ahan—killed; suptän—sleeping; çiçün—children; våthä—without purpose. TRANSLATION Bhéma, however, disagreed with them and recommended killing this culprit who, in an angry mood, had murdered sleeping children for no purpose and for neither his nor his master’s interest. TEXT 52 iNaXaMYa >aqMaGaidTa& d]aEPaÛaê cTau>auRJa" ) Aal/aeKYa vdNa& Sa:YauirdMaah hSaiàv )) 52 )) niçamya bhéma-gaditaà draupadyäç ca catur-bhujaù älokya vadanaà sakhyur idam äha hasann iva SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

niçamya—just after hearing; bhéma—Bhéma; gaditam—spoken by; draupadyäù—of Draupadé; ca—and; catuù-bhujaù—the four-handed (Personality of Godhead); älokya—having seen; vadanam—the face; sakhyuù—of His friend; idam—this; äha—said; hasan—smiling; iva—as it. TRANSLATION Caturbhuja [the four-armed one], or the Personality of Godhead, after hearing the words of Bhéma, Draupadé and others, saw the face of His dear friend Arjuna, and He began to speak as if smiling. PURPORT Lord Çré Kåñëa had two arms, and why He is designated as four-armed is explained by Çrédhara Svämé. Both Bhéma and Draupadé held opposite views about killing Açvatthämä. Bhéma wanted him to be immediately killed, whereas Draupadé wanted to save him. We can imagine Bhéma ready to kill while Draupadé is obstructing him. And in order to prevent both of them, the Lord discovered another two arms. Originally, the primeval Lord Çré Kåñëa displays only two arms, but in His Näräyaëa feature He exhibits four. In His Näräyaëa feature He resides with His devotees in the Vaikuëöha planets, while in His original Çré Kåñëa feature He resides in the Kåñëaloka planet far, far above the Vaikuëöha planets in the spiritual sky. Therefore, if Çré Kåñëa is called caturbhujaù, there is no contradiction. If need be He can display hundreds of arms, as He exhibited in His viçva-rüpa shown to Arjuna. Therefore, one who can display hundreds and thousands of arms can also manifest four whenever needed. When Arjuna was perplexed about what to do with Açvatthämä, Lord Çré Kåñëa, as the very dear friend of Arjuna, voluntarily took up the matter just to make a solution. And He was smiling also. TEXTS 53–54 é[q>aGavaNauvac Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

b]øbNDauNaR hNTaVYa AaTaTaaYaq vDaahRaivRPa[E" PaUiJaTaE" Pa[iTaPaUiJaTa" )) 7 )) ämantrya päëòu-puträàç ca çaineyoddhava-saàyutaù dvaipäyanädibhir vipraiù püjitaiù pratipüjitaù SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ämantrya—inviting; päëòu-puträn—all the sons of Päëòu; ca—also; çaineya—Sätyaki; uddhava—Uddhava; saàyutaù—accompanied; dvaipäyana-ädibhiù—by the åñis like Vedavyäsa; vipraiù—by the brähmaëas; püjitaiù—being worshiped; pratipüjitaù—the Lord also reciprocated equally. TRANSLATION Lord Çré Kåñëa then prepared for His departure. He invited the sons of Päëòu, after having been worshiped by the brähmaëas, headed by Çréla Vyäsadeva. The Lord also reciprocated greetings. PURPORT Apparently Lord Çré Kåñëa was a kñatriya and was not worshipable by the brähmaëas. But the brähmaëas present there, headed by Çréla Vyäsadeva, all knew Him to be the Personality of Godhead, and therefore they worshiped Him. The Lord reciprocated the greetings just to honor the social order that a kñatriya is obedient to the orders of the brähmaëas. Although Lord Çré Kåñëa was always offered the respects due the Supreme Lord from all responsible quarters, the Lord never deviated from the customary usages between the four orders of society. The Lord purposely observed all these social customs so that others would follow Him in the future. TEXT 8 GaNTau& k*-TaMaiTab]RøNa( Üark-a& rQaMaaiSQaTa" ) oPale/>ae_i>aDaavNTaqMautara& >aYaivûl/aMa( )) 8 )) gantuà kåtamatir brahman dvärakäà ratham ästhitaù upalebhe ’bhidhävantém uttaräà bhaya-vihvaläm SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

gantum—just desiring to start; kåtamatiù—having decided; brahman—O brähmaëa; dvärakäm—towards Dvärakä; ratham—on the chariot; ästhitaù—seated; upalebhe—saw; abhidhävantém—coming hurriedly; uttaräm—Uttarä; bhaya-vihvaläm—being afraid. TRANSLATION As soon as He seated Himself on the chariot to start for Dvärakä, He saw Uttarä hurrying toward Him in fear. PURPORT All the members of the family of the Päëòavas were completely dependent on the protection of the Lord, and therefore the Lord protected all of them in all circumstances. The Lord protects everyone, but one who depends completely upon Him is especially looked after by the Lord. The father is more attentive to the little son who is exclusively dependent on the father. TEXT 9 otaraevac Paaih Paaih MahaYaaeiGaNdevdev JaGaTPaTae ) NaaNYa& Tvd>aYa& PaXYae Ya}a Ma*TYau" ParSParMa( )) 9 )) uttaroväca pähi pähi mahä-yogin deva-deva jagat-pate nänyaà tvad abhayaà paçye yatra måtyuù parasparam SYNONYMS uttarä uväca—Uttarä said; pähi pähi—protect, protect; mahä-yogin—the greatest mystic; deva-deva—the worshipable of the worshiped; jagat-pate—O Lord of the universe; na—not; anyam—anyone else; tvat—than You; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

abhayam—fearlessness; paçye—do I see; yatra—where there is; måtyuù—death; parasparam—in the world of duality. TRANSLATION Uttarä said: O Lord of lords, Lord of the universe! You are the greatest of mystics. Please protect me, for there is no one else who can save me from the clutches of death in this world of duality. PURPORT This material world is the world of duality, in contrast with the oneness of the absolute realm. The world of duality is composed of matter and spirit, whereas the absolute world is complete spirit without any tinge of the material qualities. In the dual world everyone is falsely trying to become the master of the world, whereas in the absolute world the Lord is the absolute Lord, and all others are His absolute servitors. In the world of duality everyone is envious of all others, and death is inevitable due to the dual existence of matter and spirit. The Lord is the only shelter of fearlessness for the surrendered soul. One cannot save himself from the cruel hands of death in the material world without having surrendered himself at the lotus feet of the Lord. TEXT 10 Ai>ad]viTa MaaMaqXa XarSTaáaYaSaae iv>aae ) k-aMa& dhTau Maa& NaaQa Maa Mae Ga>aaeR iNaPaaTYaTaaMa( )) 10 )) abhidravati mäm éça çaras taptäyaso vibho kämaà dahatu mäà nätha mä me garbho nipätyatäm SYNONYMS abhidravati—coming towards; mäm—me; éça—O Lord; çaraù—the arrow; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

tapta—fiery; ayasaù—iron; vibho—O great one; kämam—desire; dahatu—let it burn; mäm—me; nätha—O protector; mä—not; me—my; garbhaù—embryo; nipätyatäm—be aborted. TRANSLATION O my Lord, You are all-powerful. A fiery iron arrow is coming towards me fast. My Lord, let it burn me personally, if You so desire, but please do not let it burn and abort my embryo. Please do me this favor, my Lord. PURPORT This incident took place after the death of Abhimanyu, the husband of Uttarä. Abhimanyu’s widow, Uttarä, should have followed the path of her husband, but because she was pregnant, and Mahäräja Parékñit, a great devotee of the Lord, was lying in embryo, she was responsible for his protection. The mother of a child has a great responsibility in giving all protection to the child, and therefore Uttarä was not ashamed to express this frankly before Lord Kåñëa. Uttarä was the daughter of a great king, the wife of a great hero, and student of a great devotee, and later she was the mother of a good king also. She was fortunate in every respect. TEXT 11 SaUTa ovac oPaDaaYaR vcSTaSYaa >aGavaNa( >a¢-vTSal/" ) APaaaDaaTau& vE TvaMaik-ÄNaGaaecrMa( )) 26 )) janmaiçvarya-çruta-çrébhir edhamäna-madaù pumän Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

naivärhaty abhidhätuà vai tväm akiïcana-gocaram SYNONYMS janma—birth; aiçvarya—opulence; çruta—education; çrébhiù—by the possession of beauty; edhamäna—progressively increasing; madaù—intoxication; pumän—the human being; na—never; eva—ever; arhati—deserves; abhidhätum—to address in feeling; vai—certainly; tväm—You; akiïcana-gocaram—one who is approached easily by the materially exhausted man. TRANSLATION My Lord, Your Lordship can easily be approached, but only by those who are materially exhausted. One who is on the path of [material] progress, trying to improve himself with respectable parentage, great opulence, high education and bodily beauty, cannot approach You with sincere feeling. PURPORT Being materially advanced means taking birth in an aristocratic family and possessing great wealth, an education and attractive personal beauty. All materialistic men are mad after possessing all these material opulences, and this is known as the advancement of material civilization. But the result is that by possessing all these material assets one becomes artificially puffed up, intoxicated by such temporary possessions. Consequently, such materially puffed up persons are incapable of uttering the holy name of the Lord by addressing Him feelingly, “O Govinda, O Kåñëa.” It is said in the çästras that by once uttering the holy name of the Lord, the sinner gets rid of a quantity of sins that he is unable to commit. Such is the power of uttering the holy name of the Lord. There is not the least exaggeration in this statement. Actually the Lord’s holy name has such powerful potency. But there is a quality to such utterances also. It depends on the quality of feeling. A helpless man can feelingly utter the holy name of the Lord, whereas a man who utters the same Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

holy name in great material satisfaction cannot be so sincere. A materially puffed up person may utter the holy name of the Lord occasionally, but he is incapable of uttering the name in quality. Therefore, the four principles of material advancement, namely (1) high parentage, (2) good wealth, (3) high education and (4) attractive beauty, are, so to speak, disqualifications for progress on the path of spiritual advancement. The material covering of the pure spirit soul is an external feature, as much as fever is an external feature of the unhealthy body. The general process is to decrease the degree of the fever and not to aggravate it by maltreatment. Sometimes it is seen that spiritually advanced persons become materially impoverished. This is no discouragement. On the other hand, such impoverishment is a good sign as much as the falling of temperature is a good sign. The principle of life should be to decrease the degree of material intoxication which leads one to be more and more illusioned about the aim of life. Grossly illusioned persons are quite unfit for entrance into the kingdom of God. TEXT 27 NaMaae_ik-ÄNaivtaaYa iNav*taGauYaGaaTa( ) AJaSTvMaSYa +aeMaaYa vDaaYa c SauriÜzaMa( )) 33 )) apare vasudevasya devakyäà yäcito ’bhyagät ajas tvam asya kñemäya vadhäya ca sura-dviñäm SYNONYMS apare—others; vasudevasya—of Vasudeva; devakyäm—of Devaké; yäcitaù—being prayed for; abhyagät—took birth; ajaù—unborn; tvam—You are; asya—of him; kñemäya—for the good; vadhäya—for the purpose of killing; ca—and; sura-dviñäm—of those who are envious of the demigods. TRANSLATION Others say that since both Vasudeva and Devaké prayed for You, You have taken Your birth as their son. Undoubtedly You are unborn, yet You take Your Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

birth for their welfare and to kill those who are envious of the demigods. PURPORT It is also said that Vasudeva and Devaké, in their previous birth as Sutapä and Påçni, underwent a severe type of penance to get the Lord as their son, and as a result of such austerities the Lord appeared as their son. It is already declared in the Bhagavad-gétä that the Lord appears for the welfare of all people of the world and to vanquish the asuras, or the materialistic atheists. TEXT 34 >aaravTaarauvae Naav wvaedDaaE ) SaqdNTYaa >aUir>aareauvaiQaRTa" )) 34 )) bhärävatäraëäyänye bhuvo näva ivodadhau sédantyä bhüri-bhäreëa jäto hy ätma-bhuvärthitaù SYNONYMS bhära-avatäraëäya—just to reduce the burden to the world; anye—others; bhuvaù—of the world; nävaù—boat; iva—like; udadhau—on the sea; sédantyäù—aggrieved; bhüri—extremely; bhäreëa—by the burden; jätaù—You were born; hi—certainly; ätma-bhuvä—by Brahmä; arthitaù—being prayed for. TRANSLATION Others say that the world, being overburdened like a boat at sea, is much aggrieved, and that Brahmä, who is Your son, prayed for You, and so You have appeared to diminish the trouble. PURPORT

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Brahmä, or the first living being born just after the creation, is the direct son of Näräyaëa. Näräyaëa, as Garbhodakaçäyé Viñëu, first of all entered the material universe. Without spiritual contact, matter cannot create. This principle was followed from the very beginning of the creation. The Supreme Spirit entered the universe, and the first living being, Brahmä, was born on a lotus flower grown out of the transcendental abdomen of Viñëu. Viñëu is therefore known as Padmanäbha. Brahmä is known as ätma-bhü because he was begotten directly from the father without any contact of mother Lakñméjé. Lakñméjé was present near Näräyaëa, engaged in the service of the Lord, and still, without contact with Lakñméjé, Näräyaëa begot Brahmä. That is the omnipotency of the Lord. One who foolishly considers Näräyaëa like other living beings should take a lesson from this. Näräyaëa is not an ordinary living being. He is the Personality of Godhead Himself, and He has all the potencies of all the senses in all parts of His transcendental body. An ordinary living being begets a child by sexual intercourse, and he has no other means to beget a child other than the one designed for him. But Näräyaëa, being omnipotent, is not bound to any condition of energy. He is complete and independent to do anything and everything by His various potencies, very easily and perfectly. Brahmä is therefore directly the son of the father and was not put into the womb of a mother. Therefore he is known as ätma-bhü. This Brahmä is in charge of further creations in the universe, secondarily reflected by the potency of the Omnipotent. Within the halo of the universe there is a transcendental planet known as Çvetadvépa, which is the abode of the Kñérodakaçäyé Viñëu, the Paramätmä feature of the Supreme Lord. Whenever there is trouble in the universe that cannot be solved by the administrative demigods, they approach Brahmäjé for a solution, and if it is not to be solved even by Brahmäjé, then Brahmäjé consults and prays to the Kñérodakaçäyé Viñëu for an incarnation and solution to the problems. Such a problem arose when Kaàsa and others were ruling over the earth and the earth became too much overburdened by the misdeeds of the asuras. Brahmäjé, along with other demigods, prayed at the shore of the Kñérodaka Ocean, and they were advised of the descent of Kåñëa as the son of Vasudeva and Devaké. So some people say that the Lord appeared because of the prayers of Brahmäjé. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 35 >ave_iSMaNa( i©-XYaMaaNaaNaaMaivÛak-aMak-MaRi>a" ) é[vYaa& Yadui>a" Sah Paaa]aTar" SaveR SadìE" SvaUizTaE" ) ANvGaC^Na( rQaEivRPa[a VYaaSaDaaEMYaadYaSTaQaa )) 2 )) tadä te bhrätaraù sarve sadaçvaiù svarëa-bhüñitaiù anvagacchan rathair viprä vyäsa-dhaumyädayas tathä SYNONYMS tadä—at that time; te—all of them; bhrätaraù—the brothers; sarve—all together; sat-açvaiù—drawn by first-class horses; svarëa—gold; bhüñitaiù—being decorated with; anvagacchan—followed one after another; rathaiù—on the chariots; vipräù—O brähmaëas; vyäsa—the sage Vyäsa; dhaumya—Dhaumya; ädayaù—and others; tathä—also. TRANSLATION At that time all his brothers followed him on beautiful chariots drawn by first-class horses decorated with gold ornaments. With them were Vyäsa and åñis like Dhaumya [the learned priest of the Päëòavas] and others. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 3 >aGavaNaiPa ivPa[zeR rQaeNa SaDaNaÅYa" ) Sa TaEVYaRraecTa Na*Pa" ku-ver wv GauùkE-" )) 3 )) bhagavän api viprarñe rathena sa-dhanaïjayaù sa tair vyarocata nåpaù kuvera iva guhyakaiù SYNONYMS bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead (Çré Kåñëa); api—also; vipra-åñe—O sage among the brähmaëas; rathena—on the chariot; sa-dhanaïjayaù—with Dhanaïjaya (Arjuna); saù—He; taiù—by them; vyarocata—appeared to be highly aristocratic; nåpaù—the King (Yudhiñöhira); kuvera—Kuvera, the treasurer of the demigods; iva—as; guhyakaiù—companions known as Guhyakas. TRANSLATION O sage amongst the brähmaëas, Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead, also followed, seated on a chariot with Arjuna. Thus King Yudhiñöhira appeared very aristocratic, like Kuvera surrounded by his companions [the Guhyakas]. PURPORT Lord Çré Kåñëa wanted the Päëòavas to be present before Bhéñmadeva in the most aristocratic order so that he might be pleased to see them happy at the time of his death. Kuvera is the richest of all the demigods, and herein King Yudhiñöhira appeared like him (Kuvera), for the procession along with Çré Kåñëa was quite appropriate to the royalty of King Yudhiñöhira. TEXT 4 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

d*îa iNaPaiTaTa& >aUMaaE idvXCYauTaiMavaMarMa( ) Pa[arÜaJa" SaiXaZYaae reaaGaaNauPal/>Ya vSaUtaMa" ) PaUJaYaaMaaSa DaMaRjae deXak-al/iv>aaGaivTa( )) 9 )) tän sametän mahä-bhägän upalabhya vasüttamaù püjayäm äsa dharma-jïo deça-käla-vibhägavit SYNONYMS tän—all of them; sametän—assembled together; mahä-bhägän—all greatly powerful; upalabhya—having received; vasu-uttamaù—the best among the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Vasus (Bhéñmadeva); püjayäm äsa—welcomed; dharma-jïaù—one who knows religious principles; deça—place; käla—time; vibhäga-vit—one who knows the adjustment of place and time. TRANSLATION Bhéñmadeva, who was the best amongst the eight Vasus, received and welcomed all the great and powerful åñis who were assembled there, for he knew perfectly all the religious principles according to time and place. PURPORT Expert religionists know perfectly well how to adjust religious principles in terms of time and place. All the great äcäryas or religious preachers or reformers of the world executed their mission by adjustment of religious principles in terms of time and place. There are different climates and situations in different parts of the world, and if one has to discharge his duties to preach the message of the Lord, he must be expert in adjusting things in terms of the time and place. Bhéñmadeva was one of the twelve great authorities in preaching this cult of devotional service, and therefore he could receive and welcome all the powerful sages assembled there at his deathbed from all parts of the universe. He was certainly unable at that time to welcome and receive them physically because he was neither at his home nor in a normal healthy condition. But he was quite fit by the activities of his sound mind, and therefore he could utter sweet words with hearty expressions, and all of them were well received. One can perform one’s duty by physical work, by mind and by words. And he knew well how to utilize them in the proper place, and therefore there was no difficulty for him to receive them, although physically unfit. TEXT 10 k*-Zaavj AaSaqNa& JaGadqìrMa( )

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ôidSQa& PaUJaYaaMaaSa MaaYaYaaePaataivGa]hMa( )) 10 )) kåñëaà ca tat-prabhäva-jïa äsénaà jagad-éçvaram hådi-sthaà püjayäm äsa mäyayopätta-vigraham SYNONYMS kåñëam—unto Lord Çré Kåñëa; ca—also; tat—of Him; prabhäva-jïaù—the knower of the glories (Bhéñma); äsénam—sitting; jagat-éçvaram—the Lord of the universe; hådi-stham—situated in the heart; püjayäm äsa—worshiped; mäyayä—by internal potency; upätta—manifested; vigraham—a form. TRANSLATION Lord Çré Kåñëa is situated in everyone’s heart, yet He manifests His transcendental form by His internal potency. This very Lord was sitting before Bhéñmadeva, and since Bhéñmadeva knew of His glories, he worshiped Him duly. PURPORT The Lord’s omnipotency is displayed by His simultaneous presence in every place. He is present always in His eternal abode Goloka Våndävana, and still He is present in everyone’s heart and even within every invisible atom. When He manifests His eternal transcendental form in the material world, He does so by His internal potency. The external potency, or the material energy, has nothing to do with His eternal form. All these truths were known to Çré Bhéñmadeva, who worshiped Him accordingly. TEXT 11 PaaavTaa& c YadiPa[YaMa( ) SaPaal/ae YaÜXae l/aek-ae vaYaaeirv gaNaavil/" )) 14 )) sarvaà käla-kåtaà manye bhavatäà ca yad-apriyam sapälo yad-vaçe loko väyor iva ghanävaliù SYNONYMS sarvam—all this; käla-kåtam—done by inevitable time; manye—I think; bhavatäm ca—for you also; yat—whatever; apriyam—detestable; sa-pälaù—with the rulers; yat-vaçe—under the control of that time; lokaù—everyone in every planet; väyoù—the wind carries; iva—as; ghana-ävaliù—a line of clouds. TRANSLATION In my opinion, this is all due to inevitable time, under whose control everyone in every planet is carried, just as the clouds are carried by the wind. PURPORT

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

There is control by time all over the space within the universe, as there is control by time all over the planets. All the big gigantic planets, including the sun, are being controlled by the force of air, as the clouds are carried by the force of air. Similarly, the inevitable käla, or time, controls even the action of the air and other elements. Everything, therefore, is controlled by the supreme käla, a forceful representative of the Lord within the material world. Thus Yudhiñöhira should not be sorry for the inconceivable action of time. Everyone has to bear the actions and reactions of time as long as one is within the conditions of the material world. Yudhiñöhira should not think that he had committed sins in his previous birth and is suffering the consequence. Even the most pious has to suffer the condition of material nature. But a pious man is faithful to the Lord, for he is guided by the bona fide brähmaëa and Vaiñëava following the religious principles. These three guiding principles should be the aim of life. One should not be disturbed by the tricks of eternal time. Even the great controller of the universe, Brahmäjé, is also under the control of that time; therefore, one should not grudge being thus controlled by time despite being a true follower of religious principles. TEXT 15 Ya}a DaMaRSauTaae raJaa GadaPaaiaae )) 17 )) tasmäd idaà daiva-tantraà vyavasya bharatarñabha tasyänuvihito ’näthä nätha pähi prajäù prabho SYNONYMS tasmät—therefore; idam—this; daiva-tantram—enchantment of providence only; vyavasya—ascertaining; bharata-åñabha—O best among the descendants of Bharata; tasya—by Him; anuvihitaù—as desired; anäthäù—helpless; nätha—O master; pähi—just take care of; prajäù—of the subjects; prabho—O Lord. TRANSLATION O best among the descendants of Bharata [Yudhiñöhira], I maintain, therefore, that all this is within the plan of the Lord. Accepting the inconceivable plan of the Lord, you must follow it. You are now the appointed administrative head, and, my lord, you should now take care of those subjects who are now rendered helpless. PURPORT The popular saying is that a housewife teaches the daughter-in-law by teaching the daughter. Similarly, the Lord teaches the world by teaching the devotee. The devotee does not have to learn anything new from the Lord because the Lord teaches the sincere devotee always from within. Whenever, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

therefore, a show is made to teach the devotee, as in the case of the teachings of Bhagavad-gétä, it is for teaching the less intelligent men. A devotee’s duty, therefore, is to ungrudgingly accept tribulations from the Lord as a benediction. The Päëòavas were advised by Bhéñmadeva to accept the responsibility of administration without hesitation. The poor subjects were without protection due to the Battle of Kurukñetra, and they were awaiting the assumption of power by Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. A pure devotee of the Lord accepts tribulations as favors from the Lord. Since the Lord is absolute, there is no mundane difference between the two. TEXT 18 Wz vE >aGavaNa( Saa+aadaÛae NaaraYaa¢e-zu PaXYa >aUPaaNauk-iMPaTaMa( ) YaNMae_SaU&STYaJaTa" Saa+aaTk*-ZaGavaNa( Pa[Taq+aTaa& k-le/vr& Yaavidd& ihNaaeMYahMa( ) Pa[SaàhaSaaåauRJa" )) 24 )) sa deva-devo bhagavän pratékñatäà kalevaraà yävad idaà hinomy aham prasanna-häsäruëa-locanollasanmukhämbujo dhyäna-pathaç catur-bhujaù SYNONYMS saù—He; deva-devaù—the Supreme Lord of the lords; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; pratékñatäm—may kindly wait; kalevaram—body; yävat—as long as; idam—this (material body); hinomi—may quit; aham—I; prasanna—cheerful; häsa—smiling; aruëa-locana—eyes red like the morning sun; ullasat—beautifully decorated; mukha-ambujaù—the lotus flower of His face; dhyäna-pathaù—in the path of my meditation; catur-bhujaù—the four-handed form of Näräyaëa (the worshipable Deity of Bhéñmadeva). TRANSLATION May my Lord, who is four-handed and whose beautifully decorated lotus face, with eyes as red as the rising sun, is smiling, kindly await me at that moment when I quit this material body. PURPORT Bhéñmadeva knew well that Lord Kåñëa is the original Näräyaëa. His worshipable Deity was four-handed Näräyaëa, but he knew that four-handed Näräyaëa is a plenary expansion of Lord Kåñëa. Indirectly he desired Lord Çré Kåñëa to manifest Himself in His four-handed feature of Näräyaëa. A Vaiñëava is always humble in his behavior. Although it was cent percent certain that Bhéñmadeva was approaching Vaikuëöha-dhäma just after leaving Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

his material body, still as a humble Vaiñëava he desired to see the beautiful face of the Lord, for after quitting the present body he might not be in a position to see the Lord any more. A Vaiñëava is not puffed up, although the Lord guarantees His pure devotee entrance into His abode. Here Bhéñmadeva says, “as long as I do not quit this body.” This means that the great General would quit the body by his own will; he was not being forced by the laws of nature. He was so powerful that he could stay in his body as long as he desired. He got this benediction from his father. He desired that the Lord stay before him in His four-handed Näräyaëa feature so that he might concentrate upon Him and thus be in trance in that meditation. Then his mind might be sanctified with thinking of the Lord. Thus he did not mind wherever he might go. A pure devotee is never very anxious to go back to the kingdom of God. He entirely depends on the good will of the Lord. He is equally satisfied even if the Lord desires him to go to hell. The only desire that a pure devotee entertains is that he may always be in rapt attention with thinking of the lotus feet of the Lord, regardless. Bhéñmadeva wanted this much only: that his mind be absorbed in thinking of the Lord and that he pass away thus. That is the highest ambition of a pure devotee. TEXT 25 SaUTa ovac YauiDaiïrSTadak-aqZMa ovac wiTa MaiTaåPak-iLPaTaa ivTa*ZaGaviTa SaaTvTaPau®ve iv>aUiMan ) SvSau%MauPaGaTae KviciÜhTau| Pa[k*-iTaMauPaeYauiz YaÙvPa[vah" )) 32 )) çré-bhéñma uväca iti matir upakalpitä vitåñëä bhagavati sätvata-puìgave vibhümni sva-sukham upagate kvacid vihartuà prakåtim upeyuñi yad-bhava-pravähaù SYNONYMS çré-bhéñmaù uväca—Çré Bhéñmadeva said; iti—thus; matiù—thinking, feeling and willing; upakalpitä—invested; vitåñëä—freed from all sense desires; bhagavati—unto the Personality of Godhead; sätvata-puìgave—unto the leader of the devotees; vibhümni—unto the great; sva-sukham—self-satisfaction; upagate—unto He who has attained it; kvacit—sometimes; vihartum—out of transcendental pleasure; prakåtim—in the material world; upeyuñi—do accept it; yat-bhava—from whom the creation; pravähaù—is made and annihilated. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Bhéñmadeva said: Let me now invest my thinking, feeling and willing, which were so long engaged in different subjects and occupational duties, in the all-powerful Lord Çré Kåñëa. He is always self-satisfied, but sometimes, being the leader of the devotees, He enjoys transcendental pleasure by descending on the material world, although from Him only the material world is created. PURPORT Because Bhéñmadeva was a statesman, the head of the Kuru dynasty, a great general and a leader of kñatriyas, his mind was strewn over so many subjects, and his thinking, feeling and willing were engaged in different matters. Now, in order to achieve pure devotional service, he wanted to invest all powers of thinking, feeling and willing entirely in the Supreme Being, Lord Kåñëa. He is described herein as the leader of the devotees and all-powerful. Although Lord Kåñëa is the original Personality of Godhead, He Himself descends on earth to bestow upon His pure devotees the boon of devotional service. He descends sometimes as Lord Kåñëa as He is, and sometimes as Lord Caitanya. Both are leaders of the pure devotees. Pure devotees of the Lord have no desire other than the service of the Lord, and therefore they are called sätvata. The Lord is the chief amongst such sätvatas. Bhéñmadeva, therefore, had no other desires. Unless one is purified from all sorts of material desires, the Lord does not become one’s leader. Desires cannot be wiped out, but they have only to be purified. It is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä by the Lord Himself that He gives His instruction from within the heart of a pure devotee who is constantly engaged in the service of the Lord. Such instruction is given not for any material purpose but only for going back home, back to Godhead (Bg. 10.10). For the ordinary man who wants to lord it over material nature, the Lord not only sanctions and becomes a witness of activities, but He never gives the nondevotee instructions for going back to Godhead. That is the difference in dealings by the Lord with different living beings, both the devotee and the nondevotee. He is leader of all the living beings, as the king of the state rules both the prisoners and the free citizens. But His dealings are different in terms of devotee and nondevotee. Nondevotees never care to take any instruction from the Lord, and therefore the Lord is silent in their case, although He Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

witnesses all their activities and awards them the necessary results, good or bad. The devotees are above this material goodness and badness. They are progressive on the path of transcendence, and therefore they have no desire for anything material. The devotee also knows Çré Kåñëa as the original Näräyaëa because Lord Çré Kåñëa, by His plenary portion, appears as the Käraëodakaçäyé Viñëu, the original source of all material creation. The Lord also desires the association of His pure devotees, and for them only the Lord descends on the earth and enlivens them. The Lord appears out of His own will. He is not forced by the conditions of material nature. He is therefore described here as the vibhu, or the almighty, for He is never conditioned by the laws of material nature. TEXT 33 i}a>auvNak-MaNa& TaMaal/vaÛMaaNa‚ Tvic ivl/SaTk-vce_STau k*-ZaMai>aSaSaar MaÜDaaQa| Sa >avTau Mae >aGavaNa( GaiTaMauRku-Nd" )) 38 )) çita-viçikha-hato viçérëa-daàçaù kñataja-paripluta ätatäyino me prasabham abhisasära mad-vadhärthaà sa bhavatu me bhagavän gatir mukundaù SYNONYMS çita—sharp; viçikha—arrows; hataù—wounded by; viçérëa-daàçaù—scattered shield; kñataja—by wounds; pariplutaù—smeared with blood; ätatäyinaù—the great aggressor; me—my; prasabham—in an angry mood; abhisasära—began to move on; mat-vadha-artham—for the purpose of killing me; saù—He; bhavatu—may become; me—my; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; gatiù—destination; mukundaù—who awards salvation. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION May He, Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead, who awards salvation, be my ultimate destination. On the battlefield He charged me, as if angry because of the wounds dealt by my sharp arrows. His shield was scattered, and His body was smeared with blood due to the wounds. PURPORT The dealings of Lord Kåñëa and Bhéñmadeva on the Battlefield of Kurukñetra are interesting because the activities of Lord Çré Kåñëa appeared to be partial to Arjuna and at enmity with Bhéñmadeva; but factually all this was especially meant to show special favor to Bhéñmadeva, a great devotee of the Lord. The astounding feature of such dealings is that a devotee can please the Lord by playing the part of an enemy. The Lord, being absolute, can accept service from His pure devotee even in the garb of an enemy. The Supreme Lord cannot have any enemy, nor can a so-called enemy harm Him because He is ajita, or unconquerable. But still He takes pleasure when His pure devotee beats Him like an enemy or rebukes Him from a superior position, although no one can be superior to the Lord. These are some of the transcendental reciprocatory dealings of the devotee with the Lord. And those who have no information of pure devotional service cannot penetrate into the mystery of such dealings. Bhéñmadeva played the part of a valiant warrior, and he purposely pierced the body of the Lord so that to the common eyes it appeared that the Lord was wounded, but factually all this was to bewilder the nondevotees. The all-spiritual body cannot be wounded, and a devotee cannot become the enemy of the Lord. Had it been so, Bhéñmadeva would not have desired to have the very same Lord as the ultimate destination of his life. Had Bhéñmadeva been an enemy of the Lord, Lord Kåñëa could have annihilated him without even moving. There was no need to come before Bhéñmadeva with blood and wounds. But He did so because the warrior devotee wanted to see the transcendental beauty of the Lord decorated with wounds created by a pure devotee. This is the way of exchanging transcendental rasa, or relations between the Lord and the servitor. By such dealings both the Lord and the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

devotee become glorified in their respective positions. The Lord was so angry that Arjuna checked Him when He was moving towards Bhéñmadeva, but in spite of Arjuna’s checking, He proceeded towards Bhéñmadeva as a lover goes to a lover, without caring for hindrances. Apparently His determination was to kill Bhéñmadeva, but factually it was to please him as a great devotee of the Lord. The Lord is undoubtedly the deliverer of all conditioned souls. The impersonalists desire salvation from Him, and He always awards them according to their aspiration, but here Bhéñmadeva aspires to see the Lord in His personal feature. All pure devotees aspire for this. TEXT 39 ivJaYarQaku-$u=Mb AataTaae}ae Da*TahYariXMaiNa TaiC^\Yae+aaGaviTa riTarSTau Mae MauMaUzaeR‚ YaRiMah iNarq+Ya hTaa GaTaa" SvæPaMa( )) 39 )) vijaya-ratha-kuöumba ätta-totre dhåta-haya-raçmini tac-chriyekñaëéye bhagavati ratir astu me mumürñor yam iha nirékñya hatä gatäù sva-rüpam SYNONYMS vijaya—Arjuna; ratha—chariot; kuöumbe—the object of protection at all risk; ätta-totre—with a whip in the right hand; dhåta-haya—controlling the horses; raçmini—ropes; tat-çriyä—beautifully standing; ékñaëéye—to look at; bhagavati—unto the Personality of Godhead; ratiù astu—let my attraction be; me—my; mumürñoù—one who is about to die; yam—upon whom; iha—in this world; nirékñya—by looking; hatäù—those who died; gatäù—attained; sva-rüpam—original form. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

At the moment of death, let my ultimate attraction be to Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead. I concentrate my mind upon the chariot driver of Arjuna who stood with a whip in His right hand and a bridle rope in His left, who was very careful to give protection to Arjuna’s chariot by all means. Those who saw Him on the Battlefield of Kurukñetra attained their original forms after death. PURPORT A pure devotee of the Lord constantly sees the presence of the Lord within himself because of being transcendentally related by loving service. Such a pure devotee cannot forget the Lord for a moment. This is called trance. The mystic (yogé) tries to concentrate upon the Supersoul by controlling the senses from all other engagements, and thus he ultimately attains samädhi. A devotee more easily attains samädhi, or trance, by constantly remembering the Lord’s personal feature along with His holy name, fame, pastimes, etc. Therefore, the concentration of the mystic yogé and that of the devotee are not on the same level. The concentration of the mystic is mechanical, whereas that of the pure devotee is natural in pure love and spontaneous affection. Bhéñmadeva was a pure devotee, and as a military marshal he constantly remembered the battlefield feature of the Lord as Pärtha-särathi, the chariot driver of Arjuna. Therefore, the Lord’s pastime as Pärtha-särathi is also eternal. The pastimes of the Lord, beginning from His birth at the prison house of Kaàsa up to the mausala-lélä at the end, all move one after another in all the universes, just as the clock hand moves from one point to another. And in such pastimes His associates like the Päëòavas and Bhéñma are constant eternal companions. So Bhéñmadeva never forgot the beautiful feature of the Lord as Pärtha-särathi, which even Arjuna could not see. Arjuna was behind the beautiful Pärtha-särathi while Bhéñmadeva was just in front of the Lord. As far as the military feature of the Lord is concerned, Bhéñmadeva observed this with more relish than Arjuna. All the soldiers and persons on the Battlefield of Kurukñetra attained their original spiritual form like the Lord after their death because by the causeless mercy of the Lord they were able to see Him face to face on that occasion. The Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

conditioned souls rotating in the evolutionary cycle from the aquatics up to the form of Brahmä are all in the form of mäyä, or the form obtained by one’s own actions and awarded by material nature. The material forms of the conditioned souls are all foreign dresses, and when the conditioned soul becomes liberated from the clutches of material energy, he attains his original form. The impersonalist wants to attain the impersonal Brahman effulgence of the Lord, but that is not at all congenial to the living sparks, parts and parcels of the Lord. Therefore, the impersonalists again fall down and get material forms, which are all false to the spirit soul. A spiritual form like the Lord’s, either two-handed or four-handed, is attained by the devotees of the Lord either in the Vaikuëöhas or in the Goloka planet, according to the original nature of the soul. This form, which is cent percent spiritual, is the svarüpa of the living being, and all the living beings who participated on the Battlefield of Kurukñetra, on both sides, attained their svarüpa, as confirmed by Bhéñmadeva. So Lord Çré Kåñëa was not merciful only to the Päëòavas; He was also merciful to the other parties because all of them attained the same result. Bhéñmadeva wanted the same facility also, and that was his prayer to the Lord, although his position as an associate of the Lord is assured in all circumstances. The conclusion is that whoever dies looking on the Personality of Godhead within or without attains his svarüpa, which is the highest perfection of life. TEXT 40 l/il/TaGaiTaivl/aSavLGauhaSa‚ Pa[a*Taa& virï" ) SahaNauJaE" Pa[TYavåÖ>aaeJaNa" Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

k-Qa& Pa[v*ta" ik-Mak-arzqtaTa" )) 1 )) çaunaka uväca hatvä svariktha-spådha ätatäyino yudhiñöhiro dharma-bhåtäà variñöhaù sahänujaiù pratyavaruddha-bhojanaù kathaà pravåttaù kim akärañét tataù SYNONYMS çaunakaù uväca—Çaunaka inquired; hatvä—after killing; svariktha—the legal inheritance; spådhaù—desiring to usurp; ätatäyinaù—the aggressor; yudhiñöhiraù—King Yudhiñöhira; dharma-bhåtäm—of those who strictly follow religious principles; variñöhaù—greatest; saha-anujaiù—with his younger brothers; pratyavaruddha—restricted; bhojanaù—acceptance of necessities; katham—how; pravåttaù—engaged; kim—what; akärañét—executed; tataù—thereafter. TRANSLATION Çaunaka Muni asked: After killing his enemies who desired to usurp his rightful inheritance, how did the greatest of all religious men, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, assisted by his brothers, rule his subjects? Surely he could not freely enjoy his kingdom with unrestricted consciousness. PURPORT Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was the greatest of all men of religion. Thus he was not at all inclined to fight with his cousins for the sake of enjoying the kingdom: he fought for the right cause because the kingdom of Hastinäpura was his rightful inheritance and his cousins wanted to usurp it for themselves. He fought, therefore, for the right cause under the guidance of Lord Çré Kåñëa, but he could not enjoy the results of his victory because his cousins were all killed in the fight. He therefore ruled over the kingdom as a matter of duty, assisted by his younger brothers. The inquiry was important for Çaunaka Åñi, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

who wanted to know about the behavior of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira when he was at ease to enjoy the kingdom. TEXT 2 SaUTa ovac v&Xa& ku-raev|XadvaiGaniNaôRTa& Sa&raehiYaTva >av>aavNaae hir" ) iNaveXaiYaTva iNaJaraJYa wRìrae YauiDaiïr& Pa[qTaMaNaa b>aUv h )) 2 )) süta uväca vaàçaà kuror vaàça-davägni-nirhåtaà saàrohayitvä bhava-bhävano hariù niveçayitvä nija-räjya éçvaro yudhiñöhiraà préta-manä babhüva ha SYNONYMS sütaù uväca—Süta Gosvämé replied; vaàçam—dynasty; kuroù—of King Kuru; vaàça-dava-agni—a forest fire set by the bamboos; nirhåtam—exhausted; saàrohayitvä—seedling of the dynasty; bhava-bhävanaù—the maintainer of creation; hariù—the Personality of Godhead, Çré Kåñëa; niveçayitvä—having reestablished; nija-räjye—in his own kingdom; éçvaraù—the Supreme Lord; yudhiñöhiram—unto Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira; préta-manäù—pleased in His mind; babhüva ha—became. TRANSLATION Süta Gosvämé said: Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the maintainer of the world, became pleased after reestablishing Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira in his own kingdom and after restoring the Kuru dynasty, which had been exhausted by the bamboo fire of anger. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT This world is compared to a forest fire caused by the cohesion of bamboo bushes. Such a forest fire takes place automatically, for bamboo cohesion occurs without external cause. Similarly, in the material world the wrath of those who want to lord it over material nature interacts, and the fire of war takes place, exhausting the unwanted population. Such fires or wars take place, and the Lord has nothing to do with them. But because He wants to maintain the creation, He desires the mass of people to follow the right path of self-realization, which enables the living beings to enter into the kingdom of God. The Lord wants the suffering human beings to come back home, back to Him, and cease to suffer the threefold material pangs. The whole plan of creation is made in that way, and one who does not come to his senses suffers in the material world by pangs inflicted by the illusory energy of the Lord. The Lord therefore wants His bona fide representative to rule the world. Lord Çré Kåñëa descended to establish this sort of regime and to kill the unwanted persons who have nothing to do with His plan. The Battle of Kurukñetra was fought according to the plan of the Lord so that undesirable persons could get out of the world and a peaceful kingdom under His devotee could be established. The Lord was therefore fully satisfied when King Yudhiñöhira was on the throne and the seedling of the dynasty of Kuru, in the person of Mahäräja Parékñit, was saved. TEXT 3 iNaXaMYa >aqZMaae¢-MaQaaCYauTaae¢&Pa[v*taivjaNaivDaUTaiv>a]Ma" ) XaXaaSa GaaiMaNd] wvaiJaTaaé[Ya" PairDYauPaaNTaaMaNauJaaNauviTaRTa" )) 3 )) niçamya bhéñmoktam athäcyutoktaà pravåtta-vijïäna-vidhüta-vibhramaù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

çaçäsa gäm indra iväjitäçrayaù paridhyupäntäm anujänuvartitaù SYNONYMS niçamya—after listening; bhéñma-uktam—what was spoken by Bhéñmadeva; atha—as also; acyuta-uktam—what was spoken by the infallible Lord Kåñëa; pravåtta—being engaged in; vijïäna—perfect knowledge; vidhüta—completely washed; vibhramaù—all misgivings; çaçäsa—ruled over; gäm—the earth; indra—the king of the heavenly planet; iva—like; ajita-äçrayaù—protected by the invincible Lord; paridhi-upäntäm—including the seas; anuja—the younger brothers; anuvartitaù—being followed by them. TRANSLATION Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, after being enlightened by what was spoken by Bhéñmadeva and Lord Çré Kåñëa, the infallible, engaged himself in matters of perfect knowledge because all his misgivings were eradicated. Thus he ruled over the earth and seas and was followed by his younger brothers. PURPORT The modern English law of primogeniture, or the law of inheritance by the firstborn, was also prevalent in those days when Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira ruled the earth and seas. In those days the King of Hastinäpura (now part of New Delhi) was the emperor of the world, including the seas, up to the time of Mahäräja Parékñit, the grandson of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira’s younger brothers were acting as his ministers and commanders of state, and there was full cooperation between the perfectly religious brothers of the King. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was the ideal king or representative of Lord Çré Kåñëa to rule over the kingdom of earth and was comparable to King Indra, the representative ruler of the heavenly planets. The demigods like Indra, Candra, Sürya, Varuëa and Väyu are representative kings of different planets of the universe, and similarly Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was also one of them, ruling over the kingdom of the earth. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was not a typically Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

unenlightened political leader of modern democracy. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was instructed by Bhéñmadeva and the infallible Lord also, and therefore he had full knowledge of everything in perfection. The modern elected executive head of a state is just like a puppet because he has no kingly power. Even if he is enlightened like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, he cannot do anything out of his own good will due to his constitutional position. Therefore, there are so many states over the earth quarreling because of ideological differences or other selfish motives. But a king like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira had no ideology of his own. He had but to follow the instructions of the infallible Lord and the Lord’s representative and the authorized agent, Bhéñmadeva. It is instructed in the çästras that one should follow the great authority and the infallible Lord without any personal motive and manufactured ideology. Therefore, it was possible for Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira to rule the whole world, including the seas, because the principles were infallible and universally applicable to everyone. The conception of one world state can only be fulfilled if we can follow the infallible authority. An imperfect human being cannot create an ideology acceptable to everyone. Only the perfect and the infallible can create a program which is applicable at every place and can be followed by all in the world. It is the person who rules, and not the impersonal government. If the person is perfect, the government is perfect. If the person is a fool, the government is a fool’s paradise. That is the law of nature. There are so many stories of imperfect kings or executive heads. Therefore, the executive head must be a trained person like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, and he must have the full autocratic power to rule over the world. The conception of a world state can take shape only under the regime of a perfect king like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. The world was happy in those days because there were kings like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira to rule over the world. TEXT 4 k-aMa& vvzR PaJaRNYa" SavRk-aMadugaa Mahq ) iSaizcu" SMa v]JaaNa( Gaav" PaYaSaaeDaSvTaqMauRda )) 4 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kämaà vavarña parjanyaù sarva-käma-dughä mahé siñicuù sma vrajän gävaù payasodhasvatér mudä SYNONYMS kämam—everything needed; vavarña—was showered; parjanyaù—rains; sarva—everything; käma—necessities; dughä—producer; mahé—the land; siñicuù sma—moisten; vrajän—pasturing grounds; gävaù—the cow; payasä udhasvatéù—due to swollen milk bags; mudä—because of a joyful attitude. TRANSLATION During the reign of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, the clouds showered all the water that people needed, and the earth produced all the necessities of man in profusion. Due to its fatty milk bag and cheerful attitude, the cow used to moisten the grazing ground with milk. PURPORT The basic principle of economic development is centered on land and cows. The necessities of human society are food grains, fruits, milk, minerals, clothing, wood, etc. One requires all these items to fulfill the material needs of the body. Certainly one does not require flesh and fish or iron tools and machinery. During the regime of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, all over the world there were regulated rainfalls. Rainfalls are not in the control of the human being. The heavenly King Indradeva is the controller of rains, and he is the servant of the Lord. When the Lord is obeyed by the king and the people under the king’s administration, there are regulated rains from the horizon, and these rains are the causes of all varieties of production on the land. Not only do regulated rains help ample production of grains and fruits, but when they combine with astronomical influences there is ample production of valuable stones and pearls. Grains and vegetables can sumptuously feed a man and animals, and a fatty cow delivers enough milk to supply a man Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

sumptuously with vigor and vitality. If there is enough milk, enough grains, enough fruit, enough cotton, enough silk and enough jewels, then why do the people need cinemas, houses of prostitution, slaughterhouses, etc.? What is the need of an artificial luxurious life of cinema, cars, radio, flesh and hotels? Has this civilization produced anything but quarreling individually and nationally? Has this civilization enhanced the cause of equality and fraternity by sending thousands of men into a hellish factory and the war fields at the whims of a particular man? It is said here that the cows used to moisten the pasturing land with milk because their milk bags were fatty and the animals were joyful. Do they not require, therefore, proper protection for a joyful life by being fed with a sufficient quantity of grass in the field? Why should men kill cows for their selfish purposes? Why should man not be satisfied with grains, fruits and milk, which, combined together, can produce hundreds and thousands of palatable dishes. Why are there slaughterhouses all over the world to kill innocent animals? Mahäräja Parékñit, grandson of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, while touring his vast kingdom, saw a black man attempting to kill a cow. The King at once arrested the butcher and chastised him sufficiently. Should not a king or executive head protect the lives of the poor animals who are unable to defend themselves? Is this humanity? Are not the animals of a country citizens also? Then why are they allowed to be butchered in organized slaughterhouses? Are these the signs of equality, fraternity and nonviolence? Therefore, in contrast with the modern, advanced, civilized form of government, an autocracy like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira’s is by far superior to a so-called democracy in which animals are killed and a man less than an animal is allowed to cast votes for another less-than-animal man. We are all creatures of material nature. In the Bhagavad-gétä it is said that the Lord Himself is the seed-giving father and material nature is the mother of all living beings in all shapes. Thus mother material nature has enough foodstuff both for animals and for men, by the grace of the Father Almighty, Çré Kåñëa. The human being is the elder brother of all other living beings. He is endowed with intelligence more powerful than animals for realizing the course of nature and the indications of the Almighty Father. Human civilizations should Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

depend on the production of material nature without artificially attempting economic development to turn the world into a chaos of artificial greed and power only for the purpose of artificial luxuries and sense gratification. This is but the life of dogs and hogs. TEXT 5 NaÛ" SaMaud]a iGarYa" SavNaSPaiTavqåDa" ) f-l/NTYaaezDaYa" SavaR" k-aMaMaNv*Tau TaSYa vE )) 5 )) nadyaù samudrä girayaù savanaspati-vérudhaù phalanty oñadhayaù sarväù kämam anvåtu tasya vai SYNONYMS nadyaù—rivers; samudräù—oceans; girayaù—hills and mountains; savanaspati—vegetables; vérudhaù—creepers; phalanti—active; oñadhayaù—drugs; sarväù—all; kämam—necessities; anvåtu—seasonal; tasya—for the King; vai—certainly. TRANSLATION The rivers, oceans, hills, mountains, forests, creepers and active drugs, in every season, paid their tax quota to the King in profusion. PURPORT Since Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was under the protection of the ajita, the infallible Lord, as above mentioned, the properties of the Lord, namely the rivers, oceans, hills, forests, etc., were all pleased, and they used to supply their respective quota of taxes to the King. The secret to success is to take refuge under the protection of the Supreme Lord. Without His sanction, nothing can be possible. To make economic development by our own endeavors on the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

strength of tools and machinery is not all. The sanction of the Supreme Lord must be there, otherwise despite all instrumental arrangements everything will be unsuccessful. The ultimate cause of success is the daiva, the Supreme. Kings like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira knew perfectly well that the king is the agent of the Supreme Lord to look after the welfare of the mass of people. Actually the state belongs to the Supreme Lord. The rivers, oceans, forests, hills, drugs, etc., are not creations of man. They are all creations of the Supreme Lord, and the living being is allowed to make use of the property of the Lord for the service of the Lord. Today’s slogan is that everything is for the people, and therefore the government is for the people and by the people. But to produce a new species of humanity at the present moment on the basis of God consciousness and perfection of human life, the ideology of godly communism, the world has to again follow in the footsteps of kings like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira or Parékñit. There is enough of everything by the will of the Lord, and we can make proper use of things to live comfortably without enmity between men, or animal and man or nature. The control of the Lord is everywhere, and if the Lord is pleased, every part of nature will be pleased. The river will flow profusely to fertilize the land; the oceans will supply sufficient quantities of minerals, pearls and jewels; the forest will supply sufficient wood, drugs and vegetables, and the seasonal changes will effectively help produce fruits and flowers in profuse quantity. The artificial way of living depending on factories and tools can render so-called happiness only to a limited number at the cost of millions. Since the energy of the mass of people is engaged in factory production, the natural products are being hampered, and for this the mass is unhappy. Without being educated properly, the mass of people are following in the footsteps of the vested interests by exploiting natural reserves, and therefore there is acute competition between individual and individual and nation and nation. There is no control by the trained agent of the Lord. We must look into the defects of modern civilization by comparison here, and should follow in the footsteps of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira to cleanse man and wipe out anachronisms. TEXT 6 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

NaaDaYaae VYaaDaYa" ©e-Xaa dEv>aUTaaTMaheTav" ) AJaaTaXa}aav>avNa( JaNTaUNaa& raij k-ihRicTa( )) 6 )) nädhayo vyädhayaù kleçä daiva-bhütätma-hetavaù ajäta-çaträv abhavan jantünäà räjïi karhicit SYNONYMS na—never; ädhayaù—anxieties; vyädhayaù—diseases; kleçäù—trouble due to excessive heat and cold; daiva-bhüta-ätma—all due to the body, supernatural power and other living beings; hetavaù—due to the cause of; ajäta-çatrau—unto one who has no enemy; abhavan—happened; jantünäm—of the living beings; räjïi—unto the King; karhicit—at any time. TRANSLATION Because of the King’s having no enemy, the living beings were not at any time disturbed by mental agonies, diseases, or excessive heat or cold. PURPORT To be nonviolent to human beings and to be a killer or enemy of the poor animals is Satan’s philosophy. In this age there is enmity toward poor animals, and therefore the poor creatures are always anxious. The reaction of the poor animals is being forced on human society, and therefore there is always the strain of cold or hot war between men, individually, collectively or nationally. At the time of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, there were no different nations, although there were different subordinate states. The whole world was united, and the supreme head, being a trained king like Yudhiñöhira, kept all the inhabitants free from anxiety, diseases and excessive heat and cold. They were not only economically well-to-do, but also physically fit and undisturbed by supernatural power, by enmity from other living beings and by disturbance of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bodily and mental agonies. There is a proverb in Bengali that a bad king spoils the kingdom and a bad housewife spoils the family. This truth is applicable here also. Because the King was pious and obedient to the Lord and sages, because he was no one’s enemy and because he was a recognized agent of the Lord and therefore protected by Him, all the citizens under the King’s protection were, so to speak, directly protected by the Lord and His authorized agents. Unless one is pious and recognized by the Lord, he cannot make others happy who are under his care. There is full cooperation between man and God and man and nature, and this conscious cooperation between man and God and man and nature, as exemplified by King Yudhiñöhira, can bring about happiness, peace and prosperity in the world. The attitude of exploiting one another, the custom of the day, will only bring misery. TEXT 7 oizTva haiSTaNaPaure MaaSaaNa( k-iTaPaYaaNa( hir" ) Sauôda& c ivXaaek-aYa SvSauê iPa[Yak-aMYaYaa )) 7 )) uñitvä hästinapure mäsän katipayän hariù suhådäà ca viçokäya svasuç ca priya-kämyayä SYNONYMS uñitvä—staying; hästinapure—in the city of Hastinäpura; mäsän—months; katipayän—a few; hariù—Lord Çré Kåñëa; suhådäm—relatives; ca—also; viçokäya—for pacifying them; svasuù—the sister; ca—and; priya-kämyayä—for pleasing. TRANSLATION Çré Hari, Lord Çré Kåñëa, resided at Hastinäpura for a few months to pacify His relatives and please His own sister [Subhadrä]. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Kåñëa was to start for Dvärakä, His own kingdom, after the Battle of Kurukñetra and Yudhiñöhira’s being enthroned, but to oblige the request of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira and to show special mercy to Bhéñmadeva, Lord Kåñëa stopped at Hastinäpura, the capital of the Päëòavas. The Lord decided to stay especially to pacify the aggrieved King as well as to please Subhadrä, sister of Lord Çré Kåñëa. Subhadrä was especially to be pacified because she lost her only son, Abhimanyu, who was just married. The boy left his wife, Uttarä, mother of Mahäräja Parékñit. The Lord is always pleased to satisfy His devotees in any capacity. Only His devotees can play the parts of His relatives. The Lord is absolute. TEXT 8 AaMaN}Ya ca>YaNaujaTa" PairZvJYaai>avaÛ TaMa( ) Aaåraeh rQa& kE-iêTPairZv¢-ae_i>avaidTa" )) 8 )) ämantrya cäbhyanujïätaù pariñvajyäbhivädya tam äruroha rathaà kaiçcit pariñvakto ’bhiväditaù SYNONYMS ämantrya—taking permission; ca—and; abhyanujïätaù—being permitted; pariñvajya—embracing; abhivädya—bowing down at the feet; tam—unto Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira; äruroha—ascended; ratham—the chariot; kaiçcit—by someone; pariñvaktaù—being embraced; abhiväditaù—being offered obeisances. TRANSLATION Afterwards, when the Lord asked permission to depart and the King gave it, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Lord offered His respects to Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira by bowing down at his feet, and the King embraced Him. After this the Lord, being embraced by others and receiving their obeisances, got into His chariot. PURPORT Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was the elder cousin of Lord Kåñëa, and therefore while departing from him the Lord bowed down at the King’s feet. The King embraced Him as a younger brother, although the King knew perfectly well that Kåñëa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord takes pleasure when some of His devotees accept Him as less important in terms of love. No one is greater than or equal to the Lord, but He takes pleasure in being treated as younger than His devotees. These are all transcendental pastimes of the Lord. The impersonalist cannot enter into the supernatural roles played by the devotee of the Lord. Thereafter Bhéma and Arjuna embraced the Lord because they were of the same age, but Nakula and Sahadeva bowed down before the Lord because they were younger than He. TEXTS 9–10 Sau>ad]a d]aEPadq ku-NTaq ivra$=TaNaYaa TaQaa ) GaaNDaarq Da*Taraí\ê YauYauTSauGaaŒTaMaae YaMaaE )) 9 )) v*k-aedrê DaaEMYaê iñYaae MaTSYaSauTaadYa" ) Na Saeihre ivMauùNTaae ivrh& Xaa®RDaNvNa" )) 10 )) subhadrä draupadé kunté viräöa-tanayä tathä gändhäré dhåtaräñöraç ca yuyutsur gautamo yamau våkodaraç ca dhaumyaç ca striyo matsya-sutädayaù na sehire vimuhyanto Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

virahaà çärìga-dhanvanaù SYNONYMS subhadrä—the sister of Kåñëa; draupadé—the wife of the Päëòavas; kunté—the mother of the Päëòavas; viräöa-tanayä—the daughter of Viräöa (Uttarä); tathä—also; gändhäré—the mother of Duryodhana; dhåtaräñöraù—the father of Duryodhana; ca—and; yuyutsuù—the son of Dhåtaräñöra by his vaiçya wife; gautamaù—Kåpäcärya; yamau—the twin brothers Nakula and Sahadeva; våkodaraù—Bhéma; ca—and; dhaumyaù—Dhaumya; ca—and; striyaù—also other ladies of the palace; matsya-sutä-ädayaù—the daughter of a fisherman (Satyavaté, Bhéñma’s stepmother); na—could not; sehire—tolerate; vimuhyantaù—almost fainting; viraham—separation; çärìga-dhanvanaù—of Çré Kåñëa, who bears a conch in His hand. TRANSLATION At that time Subhadrä, Draupadé, Kunté, Uttarä, Gändhäré, Dhåtaräñöra, Yuyutsu, Kåpäcärya, Nakula, Sahadeva, Bhémasena, Dhaumya and Satyavaté all nearly fainted because it was impossible for them to bear separation from Lord Kåñëa. PURPORT Lord Çré Kåñëa is so attractive for the living beings, especially for the devotees, that it is impossible for them to tolerate separation. The conditioned soul under the spell of illusory energy forgets the Lord, otherwise he cannot. The feeling of such separation cannot be described, but it can simply be imagined by devotees only. After His separation from Våndävana and the innocent rural cowherd boys, girls, ladies and others, they all felt shock throughout their lives, and the separation of Rädhäräëé, the most beloved cowherd girl, is beyond expression. Once they met at Kurukñetra during a solar eclipse, and the feeling which was expressed by them is heartrending. There is, of course, a difference in the qualities of the transcendental devotees of the Lord, but none of them who have ever contacted the Lord by direct Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

communion or otherwise can leave Him for a moment. That is the attitude of the pure devotee. TEXTS 11–12 SaTSa®aNMau¢-du"Sa®ae haTau& NaaeTSahTae buDa" ) k-ITYaRMaaNa& YaXaae YaSYa Sak*-dak-aaeJaNaE" )) 12 )) sat-saìgän mukta-duùsaìgo hätuà notsahate budhaù kértyamänaà yaço yasya sakåd äkarëya rocanam tasmin nyasta-dhiyaù pärthäù saheran virahaà katham darçana-sparça-saàläpaçayanäsana-bhojanaiù SYNONYMS sat-saìgät—by the association of pure devotees; mukta-duùsaìgaù—freed from bad materialistic association; hätum—to give up; na utsahate—never attempts; budhaù—one who has understood the Lord; kértyamänam—glorifying; yaçaù—fame; yasya—whose; sakåt—once only; äkarëya—hearing only; rocanam—pleasing; tasmin—unto Him; nyasta-dhiyaù—one who has given his mind unto Him; pärthäù—the sons of Påthä; saheran—can tolerate; viraham—separation; katham—how; darçana—seeing face to face; sparça—touching; saàläpa—conversing; çayana—sleeping; äsana—sitting; bhojanaiù—dining together. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The intelligent, who have understood the Supreme Lord in association with pure devotees and have become freed from bad materialistic association, can never avoid hearing the glories of the Lord, even though they have heard them only once. How, then, could the Päëòavas tolerate His separation, for they had been intimately associated with His person, seeing Him face to face, touching Him, conversing with Him, and sleeping, sitting and dining with Him? PURPORT The living being’s constitutional position is one of serving a superior. He is obliged to serve by force the dictates of illusory material energy in different phases of sense gratification. And in serving the senses he is never tired. Even though he may be tired, the illusory energy perpetually forces him to do so without being satisfied. There is no end to such sense gratificatory business, and the conditioned soul becomes entangled in such servitude without hope of release. The release is only effected by association with pure devotees. By such association one is gradually promoted to his transcendental consciousness. Thus he can know that his eternal position is to render service unto the Lord and not to the perverted senses in the capacity of lust, anger, desire to lord it over, etc. Material society, friendship and love are all different phases of lust. Home, country, family, society, wealth and all sorts of corollaries are all causes of bondage in the material world, where the threefold miseries of life are concomitant factors. By associating with pure devotees and by hearing them submissively, attachment for material enjoyment becomes slackened, and attraction for hearing about the transcendental activities of the Lord becomes prominent. Once they are, they will go on progressively without stoppage, like fire in gunpowder. It is said that Hari, the Personality of Godhead, is so transcendentally attractive that even those who are self-satisfied by self-realization and are factually liberated from all material bondage also become devotees of the Lord. Under the circumstances it is easily understood what must have been the position of the Päëòavas, who were constant companions of the Lord. They could not even think of separation from Çré Kåñëa, since the attraction was more intense for them because of continuous personal contact. His remembrance by His form, quality, name, fame, pastimes, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

etc., is also attractive for the pure devotee, so much so that he forgets all forms, quality, name, fame and activities of the mundane world, and due to his mature association with pure devotees he is not out of contact with the Lord for a moment. TEXT 13 SaveR Tae_iNaiMazEr+aESTaMaNaud]uTaceTaSa" ) vq+aNTa" òehSaMbÖa ivcelu/STa}a Ta}a h )) 13 )) sarve te ’nimiñair akñais tam anu druta-cetasaù vékñantaù sneha-sambaddhä vicelus tatra tatra ha SYNONYMS sarve—all; te—they; animiñaiù—without twinkling of the eyes; akñaiù—by the eye; tam anu—after Him; druta-cetasaù—melted heart; vékñantaù—looking upon Him; sneha-sambaddhäù—bound by pure affection; viceluù—began to move; tatra tatra—here and there; ha—so they did. TRANSLATION All their hearts were melting for Him on the pot of attraction. They looked at Him without blinking their eyes, and they moved hither and thither in perplexity. PURPORT Kåñëa is naturally attractive for all living beings because He is the chief eternal amongst all eternals. He alone is the maintainer of the many eternals. This is stated in the Kaöha Upaniñad, and thus one can obtain permanent peace and prosperity by revival of one’s eternal relation with Him, now forgotten under the spell of mäyä, the illusory energy of the Lord. Once this Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

relation is slightly revived, the conditioned soul at once becomes freed from the illusion of material energy and becomes mad after the association of the Lord. This association is made possible not only by personal contact with the Lord, but also by association with His name, fame, form and quality. Çrémad-Bhägavatam trains the conditioned soul to this stage of perfection by submissive hearing from the pure devotee. TEXT 14 NYaåNDaàuÓl/ØaZPaMaaETk-ad]iMaiTa SYaaØaNDaviñYa" )) 14 )) nyarundhann udgalad bäñpam autkaëöhyäd devaké-sute niryäty agärän no ’bhadram iti syäd bändhava-striyaù SYNONYMS nyarundhan—checking with great difficulty; udgalat—overflowing; bäñpam—tears; autkaëöhyät—because of great anxiety; devaké-sute—unto the son of Devaké; niryäti—having come out; agärät—from the palace; naù—not; abhadram—inauspiciousness; iti—thus; syät—may happen; bändhava—relative; striyaù—ladies. TRANSLATION The female relatives, whose eyes were flooded with tears out of anxiety for Kåñëa, came out of the palace. They could stop their tears only with great difficulty. They feared that tears would cause misfortune at the time of departure. PURPORT There were hundreds of ladies in the palace of Hastinäpura. All of them Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

were affectionate to Kåñëa. All of them were relatives also. When they saw that Kåñëa was going away from the palace for His native place, they were very anxious for Him, and as usual tears began to roll down their cheeks. They thought, at the same time, that tears at that moment might be a cause of misfortune for Kåñëa; therefore they wanted to check them. This was very difficult for them because the tears could not be checked. Therefore, they smeared their tears in their eyes, and their hearts throbbed. Therefore ladies who were the wives and daughters-in-law of those who died in the battlefield never came in direct contact with Kåñëa. But all of them heard of Him and His great activities, and thus they thought of Him, talked of Him, His name, fame, etc., and became affectionate also, like those who were in direct contact. Therefore directly or indirectly anyone who thinks of Kåñëa, talks of Kåñëa or worships Kåñëa becomes attached to Him. Because Kåñëa is absolute, there is no difference between His name, form, quality, etc. Our intimate relation with Kåñëa can be confidentially revived by our talking of, hearing of, or remembering Him. It is so done due to spiritual potency. TEXT 15 Ma*d®Xa«>aeYaRê vqaôRid SPa*XaNa( )) 30 )) etäù paraà strétvam apästapeçalaà nirasta-çaucaà bata sädhu kurvate yäsäà gåhät puñkara-locanaù patir na jätv apaity ähåtibhir hådi spåçan SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

etäù—all these women; param—highest; strétvam—womanhood; apästapeçalam—without individuality; nirasta—without; çaucam—purity; bata sädhu—auspiciously glorified; kurvate—do they make; yäsäm—from whose; gåhät—homes; puñkara-locanaù—the lotus-eyed; patiù—husband; na jätu—never at any time; apaiti—goes away; ähåtibhiù—by presentation; hådi—in the heart; spåçan—endeared. TRANSLATION All these women auspiciously glorified their lives despite their being without individuality and without purity. Their husband, the lotus-eyed Personality of Godhead, never left them alone at home. He always pleased their hearts by making valuable presentations. PURPORT The devotees of the Lord are purified souls. As soon as the devotees surrender unto the lotus feet of the Lord sincerely, the Lord accepts them, and thus the devotees at once become free from all material contaminations. Such devotees are above the three modes of material nature. There is no bodily disqualification of a devotee, just as there is no qualitative difference between the Ganges water and the filthy drain water when they are amalgamated. Women, merchants and laborers are not very intelligent, and thus it is very difficult for them to understand the science of God or to be engaged in the devotional service of the Lord. They are more materialistic, and less than them are the Kirätas, Hüëas, Ändhras, Pulindas, Pulkaças, Äbhéras, Kaìkas, Yavanas, Khasas, etc., but all of them can be delivered if they are properly engaged in the devotional service of the Lord. By engagement in the service of the Lord, the designative disqualifications are removed, and as pure souls they become eligible to enter into the kingdom of God. The fallen girls under the clutches of Bhaumäsura sincerely prayed to Lord Çré Kåñëa for their deliverance, and their sincerity of purpose made them at once pure by virtue of devotion. The Lord therefore accepted them as His wives, and thus their lives became glorified. Such auspicious glorification was still more glorified when the Lord played with them as the most devoted Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

husband. The Lord used to live with His 16,108 wives constantly. He expanded Himself into 16,108 plenary portions, and each and every one of them was the Lord Himself without deviation from the Original Personality. The Çruti-mantra affirms that the Lord can expand Himself into many. As husband of so many wives, He pleased them all with presentations, even at a costly endeavor. He brought the pärijäta plant from heaven and implanted it at the palace of Satyabhämä, one of the principal queens. If, therefore, anyone desires the Lord to become one’s husband, the Lord fulfills such desires in full. TEXT 31 Wv&ivDaa GadNTaqNaa& Sa iGar" PaurYaaeizTaaMa( ) iNarq+aaNaNdNa( SaiSMaTaeNa YaYaaE hir" )) 31 )) evaàvidhä gadanténäà sa giraù pura-yoñitäm nirékñaëenäbhinandan sasmitena yayau hariù SYNONYMS evaàvidhäù—in this way; gadanténäm—thus praying and talking about Him; saù—He (the Lord); giraù—of words; pura-yoñitäm—of the ladies of the capital; nirékñaëena—by His grace of glancing over them; abhinandan—and greeting them; sa-smitena—with a smiling face; yayau—departed; hariù—the Personality of Godhead. TRANSLATION While the ladies of the capital of Hastinäpura were greeting Him and talking in this way, the Lord, smiling, accepted their good greetings, and casting the grace of His glance over them, He departed from the city.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 32 AJaaTaXa}au" Pa*TaNaa& GaaePaqQaaYa MaDauiÜz" ) Pare>Ya" XaiªTa" òehaTPa[aYau» cTauri®aqrYaae" ParaNa( ) AaNaTaaRNa( >aaGaRvaePaaGaaC^\aNTavahae MaNaaiGv>au" )) 35 )) kuru-jäìgala-päïcälän çürasenän sayämunän brahmävartaà kurukñetraà matsyän särasvatän atha maru-dhanvam atikramya sauvéräbhérayoù parän änartän bhärgavopägäc chräntaväho manäg vibhuù SYNONYMS kuru-jäìgala—the province of Delhi; päïcälän—part of the province Punjab; çürasenän—part of the province of Uttar Pradesh; sa—with; yämunän—the districts on the bank of the Yamunä; brahmävartam—part of northern Uttar Pradesh; kurukñetram—the place where the battle was fought; matsyän—the province Matsyä; särasvatän—part of Punjab; atha—and so on; maru—Rajasthan, the land of deserts; dhanvam—Madhya Pradesh, where water is very scanty; ati-kramya—after passing; sauvéra—Saurastra; äbhérayoù—part of Gujarat; parän—western side; änartän—the province of Dvärakä; bhärgava—O Çaunaka; upägät—overtaken by; çränta—fatigue; vähaù—the horses; manäk vibhuù—slightly, because of the long journey.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION O Çaunaka, the Lord then proceeded towards Kurujäìgala, Päïcälä, Çürasenä, the land on the bank of the River Yamunä, Brahmävarta, Kurukñetra, Matsyä, Särasvatä, the province of the desert and the land of scanty water. After crossing these provinces He gradually reached the Sauvéra and Äbhéra provinces, then west of these, reached Dvärakä at last. PURPORT The provinces passed over by the Lord in those days were differently named, but the direction given is sufficient to indicate that He traveled through Delhi, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Saurastra and Gujarat and at last reached His home province at Dvärakä. We do not gain any profit simply by researching the analogous provinces of those days up to now, but it appears that the desert of Rajasthan and the provinces of scanty water like Madhya Pradesh were present even five thousand years ago. The theory of soil experts that the desert developed in recent years is not supported by the statements of Bhägavatam. We may leave the matter for expert geologists to research because the changing universe has different phases of geological development. We are satisfied that the Lord has now reached His own province, Dvärakädhäma, from the Kuru provinces. Kurukñetra continues to exist since the Vedic age, and it is sheer foolishness when interpreters ignore or deny the existence of Kurukñetra. TEXT 36 Ta}a Ta}a h Ta}aTYaEhRir" Pa[TYauÛTaahRaRk-a" )) 5 )) tatropanéta-balayo raver dépam ivädåtäù ätmärämaà pürëa-kämaà nija-läbhena nityadä préty-utphulla-mukhäù procur harña-gadgadayä girä pitaraà sarva-suhådam avitäram ivärbhakäù SYNONYMS tatra—thereupon; upanéta—having offered; balayaù—presentations; raveù—up to the sun; dépam—lamp; iva—like; ädåtäù—being evaluated; ätma-ärämam—unto the self-sufficient; pürëa-kämam—fully satisfied; nija-läbhena—by His own potencies; nitya-dä—one who supplies incessantly; préti—affection; utphulla-mukhäù—cheerful faces; procuù—said; harña—gladdened; gadgadayä—ecstatic; girä—speeches; pitaram—unto the father; sarva—all; suhådam—friends; avitäram—the guardian; iva—like; arbhakäù—wards. TRANSLATION The citizens arrived before the Lord with their respective presentations, offering them to the fully satisfied and self-sufficient one, who, by His own potency, incessantly supplies others. These presentations were like the offering of a lamp to the sun. Yet the citizens began to speak in ecstatic language to receive the Lord, just as wards welcome their guardian and father.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The Supreme Lord Kåñëa is described herein as ätmäräma. He is self-sufficient, and there is no need for Him to seek happiness from anything beyond Himself. He is self-sufficient because His very transcendental existence is total bliss. He is eternally existent; He is all-cognizant and all-blissful. Therefore, any presentation, however valuable it may be, is not needed by Him. But still, because He is the well-wisher for one and all, He accepts from everyone everything that is offered to Him in pure devotional service. It is not that He is in want for such things, because the things are themselves generated from His energy. The comparison is made herein that making offerings to the Lord is something like offering a lamp in the worship of the sun-god. Anything fiery and illuminating is but an emanation of the energy of the sun, and yet to worship the sun-god it is necessary to offer him a lamp. In the worship of the sun, there is some sort of demand made by the worshiper, but in the case of devotional service to the Lord, there is no question of demand from either side. It is all a sign of pure love and affection between the Lord and the devotee. The Lord is the Supreme Father of all living beings, and therefore those who are conscious of this vital relation with God can make filial demands from the Father, and the Father is pleased to supply the demands of such obedient sons without bargaining. The Lord is just like the desire tree, and from Him everyone can have everything by the causeless mercy of the Lord. As the Supreme Father, the Lord, however, does not supply to a pure devotee what is considered to be a barrier to the discharge of devotional service. Those who are engaged in the devotional service of the Lord can rise to the position of unalloyed devotional service by His transcendental attraction. TEXT 6 NaTaa" SMa Tae NaaQa Sadax(iga]PaªJa& ivirÄvEirHCYaSaureNd]viNdTaMa( ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ParaYaau" )) 6 )) natäù sma te nätha sadäìghri-paìkajaà viriïca-vairiïcya-surendra-vanditam paräyaëaà kñemam ihecchatäà paraà na yatra kälaù prabhavet paraù prabhuù SYNONYMS natäù—bowed down; sma—we had done so; te—unto You; nätha—O Lord; sadä—always; aìghri-paìkajam—the lotus feet; viriïca—Brahmä, the first living being; vairiïcya—sons of Brahmä like Sanaka and Sanätana; sura-indra—the King of heaven; vanditam—worshiped by; paräyaëam—the supreme; kñemam—welfare; iha—in this life; icchatäm—one who so desires; param—the highest; na—never; yatra—wherein; kälaù—inevitable time; prabhavet—can exert its influence; paraù—transcendental; prabhuù—the Supreme Lord. TRANSLATION The citizens said: O Lord, You are worshiped by all demigods like Brahmä, the four Sanas and even the King of heaven. You are the ultimate rest for those who are really aspiring to achieve the highest benefit of life. You are the supreme transcendental Lord, and inevitable time cannot exert its influence upon You. PURPORT The Supreme Lord is Çré Kåñëa, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gétä, Brahma-saàhitä and other authorized Vedic literatures. No one is equal to or greater than Him, and that is the verdict of all scriptures. The influence of time and space is exerted upon the dependent living entities, who are all parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord. The living entities are predominated Brahman, whereas the Supreme Lord is the predominating Absolute. As soon Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

as we forget this clear fact, we are at once in illusion, and thus we are put into threefold miseries, as one is put into dense darkness. The clear consciousness of the cognizant living being is God consciousness, in which one bows down unto Him in all circumstances. TEXT 7 >avaYa NaSTv& >av ivì>aavNa TvMaev MaaTaaQa SauôTPaiTa" iPaTaa ) Tv& Sad(GauåNaR" ParMa& c dEvTa& YaSYaaNauv*tYaa k*-iTaNaae b>aUivMa )) 7 )) bhaväya nas tvaà bhava viçva-bhävana tvam eva mätätha suhåt-patiù pitä tvaà sad-gurur naù paramaà ca daivataà yasyänuvåttyä kåtino babhüvima SYNONYMS bhaväya—for welfare; naù—for us; tvam—Your Lordship; bhava—just become; viçva-bhävana—the creator of the universe; tvam—Your Lordship; eva—certainly; mätä—mother; atha—as also; suhåt—well-wisher; patiù—husband; pitä—father; tvam—Your Lordship; sat-guruù—spiritual master; naù—our; paramam—the supreme; ca—and; daivatam—worshipable Deity; yasya—whose; anuvåttyä—following in the footsteps; kåtinaù—successful; babhüvima—we have become. TRANSLATION O creator of the universe, You are our mother, well-wisher, Lord, father, spiritual master and worshipable Deity. By following in Your footsteps we have become successful in every respect. We pray, therefore, that You continue to bless us with Your mercy. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The all-good Personality of Godhead, being the creator of the universe, also plans for the good of all good living beings. The good living beings are advised by the Lord to follow His good advice, and by doing so they become successful in all spheres of life. There is no need to worship any deity but the Lord. The Lord is all-powerful, and if He is satisfied by our obedience unto His lotus feet, He is competent to bestow upon us all kinds of blessings for the successful execution of both our material and spiritual lives. For attaining spiritual existence, the human form is a chance for all to understand our eternal relation with God. Our relation with Him is eternal; it can neither be broken nor vanquished. It may be forgotten for the time being, but it can be revived also by the grace of the Lord, if we follow His injunctions, which are revealed in the scriptures of all times and all places. TEXT 8 Ahae SaNaaQaa >avTaa SMa YaÜYa& }aEivíPaaNaaMaiPa dUrdXaRNaMa( ) Pa[eMaiSMaTaiòGDaiNarq+aaGaMa( )) 8 )) aho sanäthä bhavatä sma yad vayaà traiviñöapänäm api düra-darçanam prema-smita-snigdha-nirékñaëänanaà paçyema rüpaà tava sarva-saubhagam SYNONYMS aho—oh, it is our good luck; sa-näthäù—to be under the protection of the master; bhavatä—by Your good self; sma—as we have become; yat vayam—as we are; traiviñöa-pänäm—of the demigods; api—also; düra-darçanam—very rarely seen; prema-smita—smiling with love; snigdha—affectionate; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

nirékñaëa-änanam—face looking in that mode; paçyema—let us look; rüpam—beauty; tava—Your; sarva—all; saubhagam—auspiciousness. TRANSLATION Oh, it is our good luck that we have come again today under Your protection by Your presence, for Your Lordship rarely visits even the denizens of heaven. Now it is possible for us to look into Your smiling face, which is full of affectionate glances. We can now see Your transcendental form, full of all auspiciousness. PURPORT The Lord in His eternal personal form can be seen only by the pure devotees. The Lord is never impersonal, but He is the Supreme Absolute Personality of Godhead, possible to be visited by devotional service face to face, which is impossible to be done even by the denizens of higher planets. When Brahmäjé and other demigods want to consult Lord Viñëu, the plenary portion of Lord Kåñëa, they have to wait on the shore of the ocean of milk where Lord Viñëu is lying on White Land (Çvetadvépa). This ocean of milk and the Çvetadvépa planet are the replica of Vaikuëöhaloka within the universe. Neither Brahmäjé nor the demigods like Indra can enter into this island of Çvetadvépa, but they can stand on the shore of the ocean of milk and transmit their message to Lord Viñëu, known as Kñérodakaçäyé Viñëu. Therefore, the Lord is rarely seen by them, but the inhabitants of Dvärakä, because of their being pure devotees without any tinge of the material contamination of fruitive activities and empiric philosophical speculation, can see Him face to face by the grace of the Lord. This is the original state of the living entities and can be attained by reviving our natural and constitutional state of life, which is discovered by devotional service only. TEXT 9 YaùRMbuJaa+aaPaSaSaar >aae >avaNa( Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ku-æNa( MaDaUNa( vaQa SauôiÕd*+aYaa ) Ta}aaBdk-aei$=Pa[iTaMa" +aaved( riv& ivNaa+aaeJadXaahaRhRku-ku-raNDak-v*iZa" ) AaTMaTauLYablE/GauRáa& NaaGaE>aaeRGavTaqiMav )) 11 )) madhu-bhoja-daçärhärhaCopyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kukurändhaka-våñëibhiù ätma-tulya-balair guptäà nägair bhogavatém iva SYNONYMS madhu—Madhu; bhoja—Bhoja; daçärha—Daçärha; arha—Arha; kukura—Kukura; andhaka—Andhaka; våñëibhiù—by the descendants of Våñëi; ätma-tulya—as good as Himself; balaiù—by strength; guptäm—protected; nägaiù—by the Nägas; bhogavatém—the capital of Nägaloka; iva—like. TRANSLATION As Bhogavaté, the capital of Nägaloka, is protected by the Nägas, so was Dvärakä protected by the descendants of Våñëi—Bhoja, Madhu, Daçärha, Arha, Kukura, Andhaka, etc.—who were as strong as Lord Kåñëa. PURPORT The Nägaloka planet is situated below the earth planet, and it is understood that the sun rays are hampered there. The darkness of the planet is, however, removed by the flashes of the jewels set on the heads of the Nägas (celestial serpents), and it is said that there are beautiful gardens, rivulets, etc., for the enjoyment of the Nägas. It is understood here also that the place is well protected by the inhabitants. So also the city of Dvärakä was well protected by the descendants of Våñëi, who were as powerful as the Lord, insofar as He manifested His strength upon this earth. TEXT 12 SavRTauRSavRiv>avPauaMaTaEivR>au" )) 22 )) prahväbhivädanäçleñakara-sparça-smitekñaëaiù äçväsya cäçvapäkebhyo varaiç cäbhimatair vibhuù SYNONYMS prahvä—by bowing His head; abhivädana—by greeting with words; äçleña—embracing; kara-sparça—shaking hands; smita-ékñaëaiù—by a glancing smile; äçväsya—by encouragement; ca—and; äçvapäkebhyaù—down to the lowest rank of dog-eaters; varaiù—by benedictions; ca—also; abhimataiù—as desired by; vibhuù—the Almighty. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The Almighty Lord greeted everyone present by bowing His head, exchanging greetings, embracing, shaking hands, looking and smiling, giving assurances and awarding benedictions, even to the lowest in rank. PURPORT To receive the Lord Çré Kåñëa there were all grades of population, beginning from Vasudeva, Ugrasena and Gargamuni—the father, grandfather and teacher—down to the prostitutes and caëòälas, who are accustomed to eat dogs. And every one of them was properly greeted by the Lord in terms of rank and position. As pure living entities, all are the separated parts and parcels of the Lord, and thus no one is alien by His eternal relation. Such pure living entities are graded differently in terms of contamination of the modes of material nature, but the Lord is equally affectionate to all His parts and parcels, despite material gradation. He descends only to recall these materialistic living beings back to His kingdom, and intelligent persons take advantage of this facility offered by the Personality of Godhead to all living beings. No one is rejected by the Lord from the kingdom of God, and it remains with the living being to accept this or not. TEXT 23 SvYa& c Gauåi>aivR„Pa[E" SadarE" SQaivrEriPa ) AaXaqi>aRYauRJYaMaaNaae_NYaEvRiNdi>aêaivXaTPaurMa( )) 23 )) svayaà ca gurubhir vipraiù sadäraiù sthavirair api äçérbhir yujyamäno ’nyair vandibhiç cäviçat puram SYNONYMS svayam—Himself; ca—also; gurubhiù—by elderly relatives; vipraiù—by the brähmaëas; sadäraiù—with their wives; sthaviraiù—invalid; api—also; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

äçérbhiù—by the blessing of; yujyamänaù—being praised by; anyaiù—by others; vandibhiù—admirers; ca—and; aviçat—entered; puram—the city. TRANSLATION Then the Lord personally entered the city accompanied by elderly relatives and invalid brähmaëas with their wives, all offering benedictions and singing the glories of the Lord. Others also praised the glories of the Lord. PURPORT The brähmaëas in society were never attentive to banking money for future retired life. When they were old invalids, they used to approach the assembly of the kings, and simply by praising the glorious deeds performed by the kings, along with their wives, they would be provided with all necessities of life. Such brähmaëas were not, so to speak, flatterers of the kings, but the kings were actually glorified by their actions, and they were sincerely still more encouraged in pious acts by such brähmaëas in a dignified way. Lord Çré Kåñëa is worthy of all glories, and the praying brähmaëas and others were glorified themselves by chanting the glories of the Lord. TEXT 24 raJaMaaGa| GaTae k*-ZavNa& SavRk-aMaMaNautaMaMa( ) Pa[aSaada Ya}a PaÒqNaa& SahóaiarNTaraTMaNaa durNTa>aava" Pairrei>are PaiTaMa( ) iNaåÖMaPYaaóvdMbu Nae}aYaae‚ ivRl/ÂTaqNaa& >a*GauvYaR vE©-vaTa( )) 32 )) tam ätmajair dåñöibhir antarätmanä duranta-bhäväù parirebhire patim niruddham apy äsravad ambu netrayor vilajjaténäà bhågu-varya vaiklavät SYNONYMS tam—Him (the Lord); ätma-jaiù—by the sons; dåñöibhiù—by the sight; antara-ätmanä—by the innermost part of the heart; duranta-bhäväù—insuperable ecstasy; parirebhire—embraced; patim—husband; niruddham—choked up; api—in spite of; äsravat—tears; ambu—like drops of water; netrayoù—from the eyes; vilajjaténäm—of those situated in shyness; bhågu-varya—O chief of the Bhågus; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vaiklavät—inadvertently. TRANSLATION The insuperable ecstasy was so strong that the queens, who were shy, first embraced the Lord in the innermost recesses of their hearts. Then they embraced Him visually, and then they sent their sons to embrace Him [which is equal to personal embracing]. But, O chief amongst the Bhågus, though they tried to restrain their feelings, they inadvertently shed tears. PURPORT Although due to feminine shyness there were many hindrances to embracing the dear husband, Lord Çré Kåñëa, the queens performed that act by seeing Him, by putting Him in the cores of their hearts, and by sending their sons to embrace Him. Still, the act remained unfinished, and tears rolled down their cheeks despite all endeavors to check them. One indirectly embraces the husband by sending the son to embrace him because the son is developed as part of the mother’s body. The embrace of the son is not exactly the embrace of husband and wife from the sexual point of view, but the embrace is satisfaction from the affectionate point of view. The embrace of the eyes is more effective in the conjugal relation, and thus according to Çréla Jéva Gosvämé there is nothing wrong in such an exchange of feeling between husband and wife. TEXT 33 YaÛPYaSaaE PaaìRGaTaae rhaeGaTa‚ STaQaaiPa TaSYaax(iga]YauGa& Nav& NavMa( ) Pade Pade k-a ivrMaeTa TaTPada‚ Àl/aiPa YaC^\qNaR JahaiTa k-ihRicTa( )) 33 )) yadyapy asau pärçva-gato raho-gatas tathäpi tasyäìghri-yugaà navaà navam Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

pade pade kä virameta tat-padäc caläpi yac chrér na jahäti karhicit SYNONYMS yadi—although; api—certainly; asau—He (Lord Çré Kåñëa); pärçva-gataù—just by the side; rahaù-gataù—exclusively alone; tathäpi—still; tasya—His; aìghri-yugam—the feet of the Lord; navam navam—newer and newer; pade—step; pade—in every step; kä—who; virameta—can be detached from; tat-padät—from His feet; caläpi—moving; yat—whom; çréù—the goddess of fortune; na—never; jahäti—quits; karhicit—at any time. TRANSLATION Although Lord Sri Kåñëa was constantly by their sides, as well as exclusively alone, His feet appeared to them to be newer and newer. The goddess of fortune, although by nature always restless and moving, could not quit the Lord’s feet. So what woman can be detached from those feet, having once taken shelter of them? PURPORT Conditioned living beings are always after the favor of the goddess of fortune, although by nature she is moving from one place to another. In the material world no one is permanently fortunate, however clever one may be. There have been so many big empires in different parts of the world, there have been so many powerful kings all over the world, and there have been so many fortunate men, but all of them have been liquidated gradually. This is the law of material nature. But spiritually it is different. According to Brahma-saàhitä, the Lord is served very respectfully by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune. They are always in a lonely place also with the Lord. But still the association of the Lord is so inspiringly newer and newer that they cannot quit the Lord for a moment, even though they are by nature very restless and are moving about. The spiritual relation with the Lord is so enlivening and resourceful that no one can leave the company of the Lord, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

once having taken shelter of Him. The living beings are by constitution feminine by nature. The male or enjoyer is the Lord, and all manifestations of His different potencies are feminine by nature. In the Bhagavad-gétä, the living beings are designated as parä-prakåti, or the superior potency. The material elements are aparä-prakåti, or inferior potency. Such potencies are always employed for the satisfaction of the employer, or the enjoyer. The supreme enjoyer is the Lord Himself, as stated in the Bhagavad-gétä (5.29). The potencies, therefore, when engaged directly in the service of the Lord, revive the natural color, and thus there is no disparity in the relation of the potent and potency. Generally people engaged in service are always seeking some post under the government or the supreme enjoyer of the state. Since the Lord is the supreme enjoyer of everything in or outside the universe, it is happiness to be employed by Him. Once engaged in the supreme governmental service of the Lord, no living being wishes to be relieved from the engagement. The highest perfection of human life is to seek some employment under the Lord’s supreme service. That will make one extremely happy. One need not seek the moving goddess of fortune without the relation of the Lord. TEXT 34 Wv& Na*PaaaarJaNMaNaa‚ Ma+aaEiha" Pairv*taTaeJaSaaMa( ) ivDaaYa vEr& ìSaNaae YaQaaNal&/ iMaQaae vDaeNaaeParTaae iNaraYauDa" )) 34 )) evaà nåpäëäà kñiti-bhära-janmanäm akñauhiëébhiù parivåtta-tejasäm vidhäya vairaà çvasano yathänalaà mitho vadhenoparato niräyudhaù SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

evam—thus; nåpäëäm—of the kings or administrators; kñiti-bhära—the burden of the earth; janmanäm—born in that way; akñauhiëébhiù—empowered by a military strength of horses, elephants, chariots and infantry; parivåtta—being puffed up by such surroundings; tejasäm—prowess; vidhäya—having created; vairam—hostility; çvasanaù—interaction of the wind and the pipe plants; yathä—as it is; analam—fire; mithaù—with one another; vadhena—by killing them; uparataù—relieved; niräyudhaù—by Himself without being a party to such fighting. TRANSLATION The Lord was pacified after killing those kings who were burdensome to the earth. They were puffed up with their military strength, their horses, elephants, chariots, infantry, etc. He Himself was not a party in the fight. He simply created hostility between the powerful administrators, and they fought amongst themselves. He was like the wind which causes friction between bamboos and so sparks a fire. PURPORT As stated above, the living beings are not factual enjoyers of things which are manifested as God’s creation. The Lord is the genuine proprietor and enjoyer of everything manifested in His creation. Unfortunately, influenced by the deluding energy, the living being becomes a false enjoyer under the dictation of the modes of nature. Puffed up by such a false sense of becoming God, the deluded living being increases his material strength by so many activities and thus becomes the burden of the earth, so much so that the earth becomes completely uninhabitable by the sane. This state of affairs is called dharmasya gläëi, or misuse of the energy of the human being. When such misuse of human energy is prominent, the saner living beings become perturbed by the awkward situation created by the vicious administrators, who are simply burdens of the earth, and the Lord appears by His internal potency just to save the saner section of humanity and to alleviate the burden due to the earthly administrators in different parts of the world. He does not favor either of the unwanted administrators, but by His potential power He creates Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

hostility between such unwanted administrators, as the air creates fire in the forest by the friction of the bamboos. The fire in the forest takes place automatically by the force of the air, and similarly the hostility between different groups of politicians takes place by the unseen design of the Lord. The unwanted administrators, puffed up by false power and military strength, thus become engaged in fighting amongst themselves over ideological conflicts and so exhaust themselves of all powers. The history of the world reflects this factual will of the Lord, and it will continue to be enacted until the living beings are attached to the service of the Lord. In the Bhagavad-gétä this fact is very vividly described (Bg. 7.14). It is said, “The deluding energy is My potency, and thus it is not possible for the dependent living beings to supersede the strength of the material modes. But those who take shelter in Me [the Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa] can cross over the gigantic ocean of material energy.” This means that no one can establish peace and prosperity in the world by fruitive activities or by speculative philosophy or ideology. The only way is to surrender unto the Supreme Lord and thus become free from the illusion of the deluding energy. Unfortunately persons who are engaged in destructive work are unable to surrender to the Personality of Godhead. They are all fools of the first order; they are the lowest of the human species of life; they are robbed of their knowledge, although apparently they seem to be academically educated. They are all of the demoniac mentality, always challenging the supreme power of the Lord. Those who are very materialistic, always hankering after material power and strength, are undoubtedly fools of the first order because they have no information of the living energy, and being ignorant of that supreme spiritual science, they are absorbed in material science, which ends with the end of the material body. They are the lowest of human beings because the human life is especially meant for reestablishing the lost relation with the Lord, and they miss this opportunity by being engaged in material activities. They are robbed of their knowledge because even after prolonged speculation they cannot reach to the stage of knowing the Personality of Godhead, the summum bonum of everything. And all of them are men of demoniac principle, and they suffer the consequences, as did such materialistic heroes as Rävaëa, Hiraëyakaçipu, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Kaàsa and others. TEXT 35 Sa Wz Narl/aeke-_iSMaàvTaqa]aTarae Mahq ) JaMbUÜqPaaiDaPaTYa& c YaXaê i}aidv& GaTaMa( )) 5 )) sampadaù kratavo lokä mahiñé bhrätaro mahé jambüdvépädhipatyaà ca yaçaç ca tri-divaà gatam SYNONYMS sampadaù—opulence; kratavaù—sacrifices; lokäù—future destination; mahiñé—the queens; bhrätaraù—the brothers; mahé—the earth; jambü-dvépa—the globe or planet of our residence; ädhipatyam—sovereignty; ca—also; yaçaù—fame; ca—and; tri-divam—celestial planets; gatam—spread over. TRANSLATION News even reached the celestial planets about Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira’s worldly possessions, the sacrifices by which he would attain a better destination, his queen, his stalwart brothers, his extensive land, his sovereignty over the planet earth, and his fame, etc.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Only a rich and great man’s name and fame are known all over the world, and the name and fame of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira reached the higher planets because of his good administration, worldly possessions, glorious wife Draupadé, the strength of his brothers Bhéma and Arjuna, and his solid sovereign power over the world, known as Jambüdvépa. Here the word lokäù is significant. There are different lokas or higher planets scattered all over the sky, both material and spiritual. A person can reach them by dint of his work in the present life, as stated in Bhagavad-gétä (9.25). No forceful entrance is allowed there. The tiny material scientists and engineers who have discovered vehicles to travel over a few thousand miles in outer space will not be allowed entrance. That is not the way to reach the better planets. One must qualify himself to enter into such happy planets by sacrifice and service. Those who are sinful in every step of life can expect only to be degraded into animal life to suffer more and more the pangs of material existence, and this is also stated in Bhagavad-gétä (16.19). Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira’s good sacrifices and qualifications were so lofty and virtuous that even the residents of the higher celestial planets were already prepared to receive him as one of them. TEXT 6 ik&- Tae k-aMaa" SaurSPaahaR Mauku-NdMaNaSaae iÜJaa" ) AiDaJahuMauRd& raj" +auiDaTaSYa YaQaeTare )) 6 )) kià te kämäù sura-spärhä mukunda-manaso dvijäù adhijahrur mudaà räjïaù kñudhitasya yathetare SYNONYMS kim—what for; te—all those; kämäù—objects of sense enjoyment; sura—of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the denizens of heaven; spärhäù—aspirations; mukunda-manasaù—of one who is already God conscious; dvijäù—O brähmaëas; adhijahruù—could satisfy; mudam—pleasure; räjïaù—of the king; kñudhitasya—of the hungry; yathä—as it is; itare—in other things. TRANSLATION O brähmaëas, the opulence of the King was so enchanting that the denizens of heaven aspired for it. But because he was absorbed in the service of the Lord, nothing could satisfy him except the Lord’s service. PURPORT There are two things in the world which can satisfy living beings. When one is materially engrossed, he is satisfied only by sense gratification, but when one is liberated from the conditions of the material modes, he is satisfied only by rendering loving service for the satisfaction of the Lord. This means that the living being is constitutionally a servitor, and not one who is served. Being illusioned by the conditions of the external energy, one falsely thinks himself to be the served, but actually he is not served; he is servant of the senses like lust, desire, anger, avarice, pride, madness and intolerance. When one is in his proper senses by attainment of spiritual knowledge, he realizes that he is not the master of the material world, but is only a servant of the senses. At that time he begs for the service of the Lord and thus becomes happy without being illusioned by so-called material happiness. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was one of the liberated souls, and therefore for him there was no pleasure in a vast kingdom, good wife, obedient brothers, happy subjects and prosperous world. These blessings automatically follow for a pure devotee, even though the devotee does not aspire for them. The example set herein is exactly suitable. It is said that one who is hungry is never satisfied by anything other than food. The whole material world is full of hungry living beings. The hunger is not for good food, shelter or sense gratification. The hunger is for the spiritual atmosphere. Due to ignorance only they think that the world is dissatisfied because there is not sufficient food, shelter, defense and objects of sense gratification. This is called illusion. When the living being is hungry for Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

spiritual satisfaction, he is misrepresented by material hunger. But the foolish leaders cannot see that even the people who are most sumptuously materially satisfied are still hungry. And what is their hunger and poverty? This hunger is actually for spiritual food, spiritual shelter, spiritual defense and spiritual sense gratification. These can be obtained in the association of the Supreme Spirit, Lord Çré Kåñëa, and therefore one who has them cannot be attracted by the so-called food, shelter, defense and sense gratification of the material world, even if they are relished by the denizens of the heavenly planets. Therefore, in the Bhagavad-gétä (8.16) it is said by the Lord that even in the topmost planet of the universe, namely the Brahmaloka, where the duration of life is multiplied by millions of years by earth calculation, one cannot satisfy his hunger. Such hunger can be satisfied only when the living being is situated in immortality, which is attained in the spiritual sky, far, far above the Brahmaloka, in the association of Lord Mukunda, the Lord who awards His devotees the transcendental pleasure of liberation. TEXT 7 MaaTauGaR>aRGaTaae vqr" Sa Tada >a*GauNaNdNa ) ddXaR Pauåz& k-iÄÕùMaaNaae_ñTaeJaSaa )) 7 )) mätur garbha-gato véraù sa tadä bhågu-nandana dadarça puruñaà kaïcid dahyamäno ’stra-tejasä SYNONYMS mätuù—mother; garbha—womb; gataù—being situated there; véraù—the great fighter; saù—child Parékñit; tadä—at that time; bhågu-nandana—O son of Bhågu; dadarça—could see; puruñam—the Supreme Lord; kaïcit—as someone else; dahyamänaù—suffering from being burned; astra—the brahmästra; tejasä—temperature. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION O son of Bhågu [Çaunaka], when the child Parékñit, the great fighter, was in the womb of his mother, Uttarä, and was suffering from the burning heat of the brahmästra [thrown by Açvatthämä], he could observe the Supreme Lord coming to him. PURPORT Death generally involves remaining in trance for seven months. A living being, according to his own action, is allowed to enter into the womb of a mother by the vehicle of a father’s semina, and thus he develops his desired body. This is the law of birth in specific bodies according to one’s past actions. When he is awake from trance, he feels the inconvenience of being confined within the womb, and thus he wants to come out of it and sometimes fortunately prays to the Lord for such liberation. Mahäräja Parékñit, while in the womb of his mother, was struck by the brahmästra released by Açvatthämä, and he was feeling the burning heat. But because he was a devotee of the Lord, the Lord at once appeared Himself within the womb by His all-powerful energy, and the child could see that someone else had come to save him. Even in that helpless condition, the child Parékñit endured the unbearable temperature due to his being a great fighter by nature. And for this reason the word véraù has been used. TEXT 8 Ax(GauïMaa}aMaMal&/ Sfu-rTPaur$=MaaEil/NaMa( ) APaqVYadXaRNa& XYaaMa& [email protected]ÜaSaSaMaCYauTaMa( )) 8 )) aìguñöha-mätram amalaà sphurat-puraöa-maulinam apévya-darçanaà çyämaà taòid väsasam acyutam Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS aìguñöha—by the measure of a thumb; mätram—only; amalam—transcendental; sphurat—blazing; puraöa—gold; maulinam—helmet; apévya—very beautiful; darçanam—to look at; çyämam—blackish; taòit—lightning; väsasam—clothing; acyutam—the Infallible (the Lord). TRANSLATION He [the Lord] was only thumb high, but He was all transcendental. He had a very beautiful, blackish, infallible body, and He wore a dress of lightning yellow and a helmet of blazing gold. Thus He was seen by the child. TEXT 9 é[qMaÕqgaRcTaubaRhu& Taák-aÄNaku-aGavaNDaMaRGaub( iv>au" ) iMazTaae dXaMaaSaSYa Ta}aEvaNTadRDae hir" )) 11 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vidhüya tad ameyätmä bhagavän dharma-gub vibhuù miñato daçamäsasya tatraiväntardadhe hariù SYNONYMS vidhüya—having completely washed off; tat—that; ameyätmä—the all-pervading Supersoul; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; dharma-gup—the protector of righteousness; vibhuù—the Supreme; miñataù—while observing; daçamäsasya—of one who is dressed by all directions; tatra eva—then and there; antaù—out of sight; dadhe—became; hariù—the Lord. TRANSLATION While thus being observed by the child, the Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul of everyone and the protector of the righteous, who stretches in all directions and who is unlimited by time and space, disappeared at once. PURPORT Child Parékñit was not observing a living being who is limited by time and space. There is a gulf of difference between the Lord and the individual living being. The Lord is mentioned herein as the supreme living being unlimited by time and space. Every living being is limited by time and space. Even though a living being is qualitatively one with the Lord, quantitatively there is a great difference between the Supreme Soul and the common individual soul. In the Bhagavad-gétä both the living beings and the Supreme Being are said to be all-pervading (yena sarvam idaà tatam), yet there is a difference between these two kinds of all-pervasiveness. A common living being or soul can be all-pervading within his own limited body, but the supreme living being is all-pervading in all space and all time. A common living being cannot extend its influence over another common living being by its all-pervasiveness, but Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Supreme Supersoul, the Personality of Godhead, is unlimitedly able to exert His influence over all places and all times and over all living beings. And because He is all-pervasive, unlimited by time and space, He can appear even within the womb of the mother of child Parékñit. He is mentioned herein as the protector of the righteous. Anyone who is a surrendered soul unto the Supreme is righteous, and he is specifically protected by the Lord in all circumstances. The Lord is the indirect protector of the unrighteous also, for He rectifies their sins through His external potency. The Lord is mentioned herein as one who is dressed in the ten directions. This means dressed with garments on ten sides, up and down. He is present everywhere and can appear and disappear at His will from everywhere and anywhere. His disappearance from the sight of the child Parékñit does not mean that He appeared on the spot from any other place. He was present there, and even after His disappearance He was there, although invisible to the eyes of the child. This material covering of the effulgent firmament is also something like a womb of the mother nature, and we are all put into the womb by the Lord, the father of all living beings. He is present everywhere, even in this material womb of mother Durgä, and those who are deserving can see the Lord. TEXT 12 TaTa" SavRGauaGavaNa( raja YaaJaiYaTva iÜJaENa*RPaMa( ) ovaSa k-iTaicNMaaSaaNa( Sauôda& iPa[Yak-aMYaYaa )) 35 )) ähüto bhagavän räjïä yäjayitvä dvijair nåpam uväsa katicin mäsän suhådäà priya-kämyayä SYNONYMS ähütaù—being called by; bhagavän—Lord Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead; räjïä—by the King; yäjayitvä—causing to be performed; dvijaiù—by the learned brähmaëas; nåpam—on behalf of the King; uväsa—resided; katicit—a Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

few; mäsän—months; suhådäm—for the sake of the relatives; priya-kämyayä—for the pleasure. TRANSLATION Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead, being invited to the sacrifices by Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, saw to it that they were performed by qualified [twice-born] brähmaëas. After that, for the pleasure of the relatives, the Lord remained a few months. PURPORT Lord Çré Kåñëa was invited by Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira to look into the supervision of the performances of yajïa, and the Lord, to abide by the orders of His elderly cousin, caused the performance of yajïas by learned twice-born brähmaëas. Simply taking birth in the family of a brähmaëa does not make one qualified to perform yajïas. One must be twice-born by proper training and initiation from the bona fide äcärya. The once-born scions of brähmaëa families are equal with the once-born çüdras, and such brahma-bandhus, or unqualified once-born scions, must be rejected for any purpose of religious or Vedic function. Lord Çré Kåñëa was entrusted to look after this arrangement, and perfect as He is, He caused the yajïas to be performed by the bona fide twice-born brähmaëas for successful execution. TEXT 36 TaTaae raja>YaNaujaTa" k*-Za" ) YaYaaE ÜarvTaq& b]øNa( SaaJauRNaae Yadui>av*RTa" )) 36 )) tato räjïäbhyanujïätaù kåñëayä saha-bandhubhiù yayau dväravatéà brahman särjuno yadubhir våtaù

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS tataù—thereafter; räjïä—by the King; abhyanujïätaù—being permitted; kåñëayä—as well as by Draupadé; saha—along with; bandhubhiù—other relatives; yayau—went to; dväravatém—Dvärakädhäma; brahman—O brähmaëas; sa-arjunaù—along with Arjuna; yadubhiù—by the members of the Yadu dynasty; våtaù—surrounded. TRANSLATION O Çaunaka, thereafter the Lord, having bade farewell to King Yudhiñöhira, Draupadé and other relatives, started for the city of Dvärakä, accompanied by Arjuna and other members of the Yadu dynasty. Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the First Canto, Twelfth Chapter, of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, entitled “Birth of Emperor Parékñit.”

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Srimad Bhagavatam First Canto Part Two “Creation” e-book This e-book and others are available for download at: www.e-vedas.com

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"Srimad Bhagavatam – First Canto" by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. COPYRIGHT NOTICE: This is an evaluation copy of the printed version of this book, and is NOT FOR RESALE. This evaluation copy is intended for personal non-commercial use only, under the "fair use" guidelines established by international copyright laws. You may use this electronic file to evaluate the printed version of this book, for your own private use, or for short excerpts used in academic works, research, student papers, presentations, and the like. You can distribute this evaluation copy to others over the Internet, so long as you keep this copyright information intact and do not add or subtract anything to this file and its contents. You may not reproduce more than ten percent (10%) of this book in any medium without the express written permission from the copyright holders. Reference any excerpts in the following way: “Excerpted from “Srimad Bhagavatam First Canto” by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, courtesy of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, www.krishna.com.” This book and electronic file is Copyright 1972-2004 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, 3764 Watseka Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90034, USA. All rights reserved. For any questions, comments, correspondence, or to evaluate dozens of other books in this collection, visit the website of the publishers, www.krishna.com.

Srimad Bhagavatam First Canto – Part Three

His Divine Grace AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Founder Acarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness

About the Author His Divine Grace AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the world’s most distinguished teacher of Vedic religion and thought, is the author of Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Srimad-Bhagavatam, The Nector of Devotion and many other English versions of Vedic literature. He is the founderacarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, which has hundreds of centers throughtout the world.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

2

Chapter Twelve Birth of Emperor Parékñit

TEXT 1 é[qXaaENak- ovac AìTQaaManaePaSa*íeNa b]øXaqZaR wRXaeNaaJaqivTa" PauNa" )) 1 )) çaunaka uväca açvatthämnopasåñöena brahma-çérñëoru-tejasä uttaräyä hato garbha éçenäjévitaù punaù SYNONYMS çaunakaù uväca—the sage Çaunaka said; açvatthämna—of Açvatthämä (the son of Droëa); upasåñöena—by release of; brahma-çérñëä—the invincible weapon, brahmästra; uru-tejasä—by high temperature; uttaräyäù—of Uttarä (mother of Parékñit); hataù—being spoiled; garbhaù—womb; éçena—by the Supreme Lord; äjévitaù—brought to life; punaù—again. TRANSLATION The sage Çaunaka said: The womb of Uttarä, mother of Mahäräja Parékñit, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

was spoiled by the dreadful and invincible brahmästra weapon released by Açvatthämä. But Mahäräja Parékñit was saved by the Supreme Lord. PURPORT The sages assembled in the forest of Naimiñäraëya inquired from Süta Gosvämé about the birth of Mahäräja Parékñit, but in the course of the narration other topics like the release of the brahmästra by the son of Droëa, his punishment by Arjuna, Queen Kuntédevé’s prayers, the Päëòavas’ visit to the place where Bhéñmadeva was lying, his prayers and thereafter the Lord’s departure for Dvärakä were discussed. His arrival at Dvärakä and residing with the sixteen thousand queens, etc., were narrated. The sages were absorbed in hearing such descriptions, but now they wanted to turn to the original topic, and thus the inquiry was made by Çaunaka Åñi. So the subject of the release of the brahmästra weapon by Açvatthämä is renewed. TEXT 2 TaSYa JaNMa MahabuÖe" k-MaaRia*GauNaNdNa ) ddXaR Pauåz& k-iÄÕùMaaNaae_ñTaeJaSaa )) 7 )) mätur garbha-gato véraù sa tadä bhågu-nandana dadarça puruñaà kaïcid dahyamäno ’stra-tejasä SYNONYMS mätuù—mother; garbha—womb; gataù—being situated there; véraù—the great fighter; saù—child Parékñit; tadä—at that time; bhågu-nandana—O son of Bhågu; dadarça—could see; puruñam—the Supreme Lord; kaïcit—as someone else; dahyamänaù—suffering from being burned; astra—the brahmästra; tejasä—temperature. TRANSLATION O son of Bhågu [Çaunaka], when the child Parékñit, the great fighter, was in the womb of his mother, Uttarä, and was suffering from the burning heat of the brahmästra [thrown by Açvatthämä], he could observe the Supreme Lord coming to him. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Death generally involves remaining in trance for seven months. A living being, according to his own action, is allowed to enter into the womb of a mother by the vehicle of a father’s semina, and thus he develops his desired body. This is the law of birth in specific bodies according to one’s past actions. When he is awake from trance, he feels the inconvenience of being confined within the womb, and thus he wants to come out of it and sometimes fortunately prays to the Lord for such liberation. Mahäräja Parékñit, while in the womb of his mother, was struck by the brahmästra released by Açvatthämä, and he was feeling the burning heat. But because he was a devotee of the Lord, the Lord at once appeared Himself within the womb by His all-powerful energy, and the child could see that someone else had come to save him. Even in that helpless condition, the child Parékñit endured the unbearable temperature due to his being a great fighter by nature. And for this reason the word véraù has been used. TEXT 8 Ax(GauïMaa}aMaMal&/ Sfu-rTPaur$=MaaEil/NaMa( ) APaqVYadXaRNa& XYaaMa& [email protected]ÜaSaSaMaCYauTaMa( )) 8 )) aìguñöha-mätram amalaà sphurat-puraöa-maulinam apévya-darçanaà çyämaà taòid väsasam acyutam SYNONYMS aìguñöha—by the measure of a thumb; mätram—only; amalam—transcendental; sphurat—blazing; puraöa—gold; maulinam—helmet; apévya—very beautiful; darçanam—to look at; çyämam—blackish; taòit—lightning; väsasam—clothing; acyutam—the Infallible (the Lord). Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION He [the Lord] was only thumb high, but He was all transcendental. He had a very beautiful, blackish, infallible body, and He wore a dress of lightning yellow and a helmet of blazing gold. Thus He was seen by the child. TEXT 9 é[qMaÕqgaRcTaubaRhu& Taák-aÄNaku-aGavaNDaMaRGaub( iv>au" ) iMazTaae dXaMaaSaSYa Ta}aEvaNTadRDae hir" )) 11 )) vidhüya tad ameyätmä bhagavän dharma-gub vibhuù miñato daçamäsasya tatraiväntardadhe hariù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS vidhüya—having completely washed off; tat—that; ameyätmä—the all-pervading Supersoul; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; dharma-gup—the protector of righteousness; vibhuù—the Supreme; miñataù—while observing; daçamäsasya—of one who is dressed by all directions; tatra eva—then and there; antaù—out of sight; dadhe—became; hariù—the Lord. TRANSLATION While thus being observed by the child, the Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul of everyone and the protector of the righteous, who stretches in all directions and who is unlimited by time and space, disappeared at once. PURPORT Child Parékñit was not observing a living being who is limited by time and space. There is a gulf of difference between the Lord and the individual living being. The Lord is mentioned herein as the supreme living being unlimited by time and space. Every living being is limited by time and space. Even though a living being is qualitatively one with the Lord, quantitatively there is a great difference between the Supreme Soul and the common individual soul. In the Bhagavad-gétä both the living beings and the Supreme Being are said to be all-pervading (yena sarvam idaà tatam), yet there is a difference between these two kinds of all-pervasiveness. A common living being or soul can be all-pervading within his own limited body, but the supreme living being is all-pervading in all space and all time. A common living being cannot extend its influence over another common living being by its all-pervasiveness, but the Supreme Supersoul, the Personality of Godhead, is unlimitedly able to exert His influence over all places and all times and over all living beings. And because He is all-pervasive, unlimited by time and space, He can appear even within the womb of the mother of child Parékñit. He is mentioned herein as Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the protector of the righteous. Anyone who is a surrendered soul unto the Supreme is righteous, and he is specifically protected by the Lord in all circumstances. The Lord is the indirect protector of the unrighteous also, for He rectifies their sins through His external potency. The Lord is mentioned herein as one who is dressed in the ten directions. This means dressed with garments on ten sides, up and down. He is present everywhere and can appear and disappear at His will from everywhere and anywhere. His disappearance from the sight of the child Parékñit does not mean that He appeared on the spot from any other place. He was present there, and even after His disappearance He was there, although invisible to the eyes of the child. This material covering of the effulgent firmament is also something like a womb of the mother nature, and we are all put into the womb by the Lord, the father of all living beings. He is present everywhere, even in this material womb of mother Durgä, and those who are deserving can see the Lord. TEXT 12 TaTa" SavRGauaGavaNa( raja YaaJaiYaTva iÜJaENa*RPaMa( ) ovaSa k-iTaicNMaaSaaNa( Sauôda& iPa[Yak-aMYaYaa )) 35 )) ähüto bhagavän räjïä yäjayitvä dvijair nåpam uväsa katicin mäsän suhådäà priya-kämyayä SYNONYMS ähütaù—being called by; bhagavän—Lord Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead; räjïä—by the King; yäjayitvä—causing to be performed; dvijaiù—by the learned brähmaëas; nåpam—on behalf of the King; uväsa—resided; katicit—a Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

few; mäsän—months; suhådäm—for the sake of the relatives; priya-kämyayä—for the pleasure. TRANSLATION Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead, being invited to the sacrifices by Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, saw to it that they were performed by qualified [twice-born] brähmaëas. After that, for the pleasure of the relatives, the Lord remained a few months. PURPORT Lord Çré Kåñëa was invited by Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira to look into the supervision of the performances of yajïa, and the Lord, to abide by the orders of His elderly cousin, caused the performance of yajïas by learned twice-born brähmaëas. Simply taking birth in the family of a brähmaëa does not make one qualified to perform yajïas. One must be twice-born by proper training and initiation from the bona fide äcärya. The once-born scions of brähmaëa families are equal with the once-born çüdras, and such brahma-bandhus, or unqualified once-born scions, must be rejected for any purpose of religious or Vedic function. Lord Çré Kåñëa was entrusted to look after this arrangement, and perfect as He is, He caused the yajïas to be performed by the bona fide twice-born brähmaëas for successful execution. TEXT 36 TaTaae raja>YaNaujaTa" k*-Za" ) YaYaaE ÜarvTaq& b]øNa( SaaJauRNaae Yadui>av*RTa" )) 36 )) tato räjïäbhyanujïätaù kåñëayä saha-bandhubhiù yayau dväravatéà brahman särjuno yadubhir våtaù

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS tataù—thereafter; räjïä—by the King; abhyanujïätaù—being permitted; kåñëayä—as well as by Draupadé; saha—along with; bandhubhiù—other relatives; yayau—went to; dväravatém—Dvärakädhäma; brahman—O brähmaëas; sa-arjunaù—along with Arjuna; yadubhiù—by the members of the Yadu dynasty; våtaù—surrounded. TRANSLATION O Çaunaka, thereafter the Lord, having bade farewell to King Yudhiñöhira, Draupadé and other relatives, started for the city of Dvärakä, accompanied by Arjuna and other members of the Yadu dynasty. Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the First Canto, Twelfth Chapter, of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, entitled “Birth of Emperor Parékñit.”

Chapter Thirteen Dhåtaräñöra Quits Home

TEXT 1 SaUTa ovac ivdurSTaqQaRYaa}aaYaa& MaE}aeYaadaTMaNaae GaiTaMa( ) jaTvaGaaÖaiSTaNaPaur& TaYaavaáiviviTSaTa" )) 1 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

süta uväca viduras tértha-yäträyäà maitreyäd ätmano gatim jïätvägäd dhästinapuraà tayäväpta-vivitsitaù SYNONYMS sütaù uväca—Çré Süta Gosvämé said; viduraù—Vidura; tértha-yäträyäm—while traveling to different places of pilgrimage; maitreyät—from the great sage Maitreya; ätmanaù—of the self; gatim—destination; jïätvä—by knowing it; ägät—went back; hästinapuram—the city of Hastinäpura; tayä—by that knowledge; aväpta—sufficiently a gainer; vivitsitaù—being well versed in everything knowable. TRANSLATION Çré Süta Gosvämé said: While traveling on a pilgrimage, Vidura received knowledge of the destination of the self from the great sage Maitreya and then returned to Hastinäpura. He became as well versed in the subject as he desired. PURPORT Vidura: One of the prominent figures in the history of the Mahäbhärata. He was conceived by Vyäsadeva in the womb of the maidservant of Ambikä, mother of Mahäräja Päëòu. He is the incarnation of Yamaräja. Being cursed by Maëòüka Muni, he was to become a çüdra. The story is narrated as follows. Once upon a time the state police caught some thieves who had concealed themselves in the hermitage of Maëòüka Muni. The police constables, as usual, arrested all the thieves and Maëòüka Muni along with them. The magistrate specifically punished the muni to death by being pierced with a lance. When he was just to be pierced, the news reached the king, and he at once stopped the act on consideration of his being a great muni. The king personally begged the muni’s pardon for the mistake of his men, and the saint at once went to Yamaräja, who prescribes the destiny of the living beings. Yamaräja, being Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

questioned by the muni, replied that the muni in his childhood pierced an ant with a sharpened straw, and for that reason he was put into difficulty. The muni thought it unwise on the part of Yamaräja that he was punished for his childish innocence, and thus the muni cursed Yamaräja to become a çüdra, and this çüdra incarnation of Yamaräja was known as Vidura, the çüdra brother of Dhåtaräñöra and Mahäräja Päëòu. But this çüdra son of the Kuru dynasty was equally treated by Bhéñmadeva, along with his other nephews, and in due course Vidura was married with a girl who was also born in the womb of a çüdräëé by a brähmaëa. Although Vidura did not inherit the property of his father (the brother of Bhéñmadeva), still he was given sufficient state property by Dhåtaräñöra, the elder brother of Vidura. Vidura was very much attached to his elder brother, and all along he tried to guide him on the right path. During the fratricidal war of Kurukñetra, Vidura repeatedly implored his elder brother to do justice to the sons of Päëòu, but Duryodhana did not like such interference by his uncle, and thus he practically insulted Vidura. This resulted in Vidura’s leaving home for pilgrimage and taking instructions from Maitreya. TEXT 2 YaavTa" k*-TavaNa( Pa[énaNa( +ataa k-aEzarvaGa]Ta" ) JaaTaEk->ai¢-GaaeRivNde Tae>YaêaeParraMa h )) 2 )) yävataù kåtavän praçnän kñattä kauñäravägrataù jätaika-bhaktir govinde tebhyaç copararäma ha SYNONYMS yävataù—all that; kåtavän—did he put; praçnän—questions; kñattä—a name of Vidura; kauñärava—a name of Maitreya; agrataù—in the presence of; jäta—having grown up; eka—one; bhaktiù—transcendental loving service; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

govinde—unto Lord Kåñëa; tebhyaù—regarding further questions; ca—and; upararäma—retired from; ha—in the past. TRANSLATION After asking various questions and becoming established in the transcendental loving service of Lord Kåñëa, Vidura retired from putting questions to Maitreya Muni. PURPORT Vidura retired from putting questions before Maitreya Muni when he was convinced by Maitreya Åñi that the summum bonum of life is to be finally situated in the transcendental loving service of Lord Çré Kåñëa, who is Govinda, or one who satisfies His devotees in all respects. The conditioned soul, the living being in material existence, seeks happiness by employing his senses in the modes of materialism, but that cannot give him satisfaction. He then searches after the Supreme Truth by the empiric philosophic speculative method and intellectual feats. But if he does not find the ultimate goal, he again goes down to material activities and engages himself in various philanthropic and altruistic works, which all fail to give him satisfaction. So neither fruitive activities nor dry philosophical speculation can give one satisfaction because by nature a living being is the eternal servitor of the Supreme Lord Çré Kåñëa, and all the Vedic literatures give him direction towards that ultimate end. The Bhagavad-gétä (15.15) confirms this statement. Like Vidura, an inquisitive conditioned soul must approach a bona fide spiritual master like Maitreya and by intelligent inquiries must try to know everything about karma (fruitive activities), jïäna (philosophical research for the Supreme Truth) and yoga (the linking process of spiritual realization). One who is not seriously inclined to put questions before a spiritual master need not accommodate a show-bottle spiritual master, nor should a person who may be a spiritual master for others pose to be so if he is unable to engage his disciple ultimately in the transcendental loving service of Lord Çré Kåñëa. Vidura was successful in approaching such a spiritual master like Maitreya, and he got the ultimate goal of life: bhakti unto Govinda. Thus there was nothing Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

to be known further about spiritual progress. TEXTS 3–4 Ta& bNDauMaaGaTa& d*îa DaMaRPau}a" SahaNauJa" ) Da*Taraí\ae YauYauTSauê SaUTa" XaarÜTa" Pa*Qaa )) 3 )) GaaNDaarq d]aEPadq b]øNa( Sau>ad]a caetara k*-Paq ) ANYaaê JaaMaYa" Paaaae ) TaqQasku-vRiNTa TaqQaaRiNa SvaNTa"SQaeNa Gada>a*Taa )) 10 )) bhavad-vidhä bhägavatäs Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

tértha-bhütäù svayaà vibho térthé-kurvanti térthäni sväntaù-sthena gadäbhåtä SYNONYMS bhavat—your good self; vidhäù—like; bhägavatäù—devotees; tértha—the holy places of pilgrimage; bhütäù—converted into; svayam—personally; vibho—O powerful one; térthé-kurvanti—make into a holy place of pilgrimage; térthäni—the holy places; sva-antaù-sthena—having been situated in the heart; gadä-bhåtä—the Personality of Godhead. TRANSLATION My Lord, devotees like your good self are verily holy places personified. Because you carry the Personality of Godhead within your heart, you turn all places into places of pilgrimage. PURPORT The Personality of Godhead is omnipresent by His diverse potencies everywhere, just as the power of electricity is distributed everywhere within space. Similarly, the Lord’s omnipresence is perceived and manifested by His unalloyed devotees like Vidura, just as electricity is manifested in an electric bulb. A pure devotee like Vidura always feels the presence of the Lord everywhere. He sees everything in the potency of the Lord and the Lord in everything. The holy places all over the earth are meant for purifying the polluted consciousness of the human being by an atmosphere surcharged with the presence of the Lord’s unalloyed devotees. If anyone visits a holy place, he must search out the pure devotees residing in such holy places, take lessons from them, try to apply such instructions in practical life and thus gradually prepare oneself for the ultimate salvation, going back to Godhead. To go to some holy place of pilgrimage does not mean only to take a bath in the Ganges or Yamunä or to visit the temples situated in those places. One should also find representatives of Vidura who have no desire in life save and except to serve Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Personality of Godhead. The Personality of Godhead is always with such pure devotees because of their unalloyed service, which is without any tinge of fruitive action or utopian speculation. They are in the actual service of the Lord, specifically by the process of hearing and chanting. The pure devotees hear from the authorities and chant, sing and write of the glories of the Lord. Mahämuni Vyäsadeva heard from Närada, and then he chanted in writing; Çukadeva Gosvämé studied from his father, and he described it to Parékñit; that is the way of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. So by their actions the pure devotees of the Lord can render any place into a place of pilgrimage, and the holy places are worth the name only on their account. Such pure devotees are able to rectify the polluted atmosphere of any place, and what to speak of a holy place rendered unholy by the questionable actions of interested persons who try to adopt a professional life at the cost of the reputation of a holy place. TEXT 11 AiPa Na" SauôdSTaaTa baNDava" k*-Za]aTa*i>al/aeRk-Paal/a>aEMauRMaude ParYaa ié[Yaa )) 16 )) yudhiñöhiro labdha-räjyo dåñövä pautraà kulan-dharam bhrätåbhir loka-päläbhair mumude parayä çriyä SYNONYMS yudhiñöhiraù—Yudhiñöhira; labdha-räjyaù—possessing his paternal kingdom; dåñövä—by seeing; pautram—the grandson; kulam-dharam—just suitable for the dynasty; bhrätåbhiù—by the brothers; loka-päläbhaiù—who were all expert administrators; mumude—enjoyed life; parayä—uncommon; çriyä—opulence. TRANSLATION Having won his kingdom and observed the birth of one grandson competent to continue the noble tradition of his family, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira reigned peacefully and enjoyed uncommon opulence in cooperation with his younger brothers, who were all expert administrators to the common people. PURPORT Both Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira and Arjuna were unhappy from the beginning of the Battle of Kurukñetra, but even though they were unwilling to kill their own men in the fight, it had to be done as a matter of duty, for it was planned by the supreme will of Lord Çré Kåñëa. After the battle, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was unhappy over such mass killings. Practically there was none to continue Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Kuru dynasty after them, the Päëòavas. The only remaining hope was the child in the womb of his daughter-in-law, Uttarä, and he was also attacked by Açvatthämä, but by the grace of the Lord the child was saved. So after the settlement of all disturbing conditions and reestablishment of the peaceful order of the state, and after seeing the surviving child, Parékñit, well satisfied, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira felt some relief as a human being, although he had very little attraction for material happiness, which is always illusory and temporary. TEXT 17 Wv& Ga*hezu Sa¢-aNaa& Pa[MataaNaa& TadqhYaa ) ATYa§-aMadivjaTa" k-al/" ParMaduSTar" )) 17 )) evaà gåheñu saktänäà pramattänäà tad-éhayä atyakrämad avijïätaù kälaù parama-dustaraù SYNONYMS evam—thus; gåheñu—in the family affairs; saktänäm—of persons who are too attached; pramattänäm—insanely attached; tat-éhayä—engrossed in such thoughts; atyakrämat—surpassed; avijïätaù—imperceptibly; kälaù—eternal time; parama—supremely; dustaraù—insurmountable. TRANSLATION Insurmountable, eternal time imperceptibly overcomes those who are too much attached to family affairs and are always engrossed in their thought. PURPORT “I am now happy; I have everything in order; my bank balance is quite enough; I can now give my children enough estate; I am now successful; the poor beggar sannyäsés depend on God, but they come to beg from me; therefore Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

I am more than the Supreme God.” These are some of the thoughts which engross the insanely attached householder who is blind to the passing of eternal time. Our duration of life is measured, and no one is able to enhance it even by a second against the scheduled time ordained by the supreme will. Such valuable time, especially for the human being, should be cautiously spent because even a second passed away imperceptibly cannot be replaced, even in exchange for thousands of golden coins amassed by hard labor. Every second of human life is meant for making an ultimate solution to the problems of life, i.e. repetition of birth and death and revolving in the cycle of 8,400,000 different species of life. The material body, which is subject to birth and death, diseases and old age, is the cause of all sufferings of the living being, otherwise the living being is eternal; he is never born, nor does he ever die. Foolish persons forget this problem. They do not know at all how to solve the problems of life, but become engrossed in temporary family affairs not knowing that eternal time is passing away imperceptibly and that their measured duration of life is diminishing every second, without any solution to the big problem, namely repetition of birth and death, disease and old age. This is called illusion. But such illusion cannot work on one who is awake in the devotional service of the Lord. Yudhiñöhira Mahäräja and his brothers the Päëòavas were all engaged in the service of the Lord Çré Kåñëa, and they had very little attraction for the illusory happiness of this material world. As we have discussed previously, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was fixed in the service of the Lord Mukunda (the Lord, who can award salvation), and therefore he had no attraction even for such comforts of life as are available in the kingdom of heaven, because even the happiness obtained on the planet Brahmaloka is also temporary and illusory. Because the living being is eternal, he can be happy only in the eternal abode of the kingdom of God (paravyoma), from which no one returns to this region of repeated birth and death, disease and old age. Therefore, any comfort of life or any material happiness which does not warrant an eternal life is but illusion for the eternal living being. One who understands this factually is learned, and such a learned person can sacrifice any amount of material happiness to achieve the desired goal known as brahma-sukham, or absolute happiness. Real transcendentalists are hungry for Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

this happiness, and as a hungry man cannot be made happy by all comforts of life minus foodstuff, so the man hungry for eternal absolute happiness cannot be satisfied by any amount of material happiness. Therefore, the instruction described in this verse cannot be applied to Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira or his brothers and mother. It was meant for persons like Dhåtaräñöra, for whom Vidura came especially to impart lessons. TEXT 18 ivdurSTadi>aPa[eTYa Da*Taraí\Ma>aazTa ) raJaiàGaRMYaTaa& Xaqga]& PaXYaed& >aYaMaaGaTaMa( )) 18 )) viduras tad abhipretya dhåtaräñöram abhäñata räjan nirgamyatäà çéghraà paçyedaà bhayam ägatam SYNONYMS viduraù—Mahätmä Vidura; tat—that; abhipretya—knowing it well; dhåtaräñöram—unto Dhåtaräñöra; abhäñata—said; räjan—O King; nirgamyatäm—please get out immediately; çéghram—without the least delay; paçya—just see; idam—this; bhayam—fear; ägatam—already arrived. TRANSLATION Mahätmä Vidura knew all this, and therefore he addressed Dhåtaräñöra, saying: My dear King, please get out of here immediately. Do not delay. Just see how fear has overtaken you. PURPORT Cruel death cares for no one, be he Dhåtaräñöra or even Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira; therefore spiritual instruction, as was given to old Dhåtaräñöra, was equally applicable to younger Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. As a matter of fact, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

everyone in the royal palace, including the King and his brothers and mother, was raptly attending the lectures. But it was known to Vidura that his instructions were especially meant for Dhåtaräñöra, who was too materialistic. The word räjan is especially addressed to Dhåtaräñöra significantly. Dhåtaräñöra was the eldest son of his father, and therefore according to law he was to be installed on the throne of Hastinäpura. But because he was blind from birth, he was disqualified from his rightful claim. But he could not forget the bereavement, and his disappointment was somewhat compensated after the death of Päëòu, his younger brother. His younger brother left behind him some minor children, and Dhåtaräñöra became the natural guardian of them, but at heart he wanted to become the factual king and hand the kingdom over to his own sons, headed by Duryodhana. With all these imperial ambitions, Dhåtaräñöra wanted to become a king, and he contrived all sorts of intrigues in consultation with his brother-in-law Çakuni. But everything failed by the will of the Lord, and at the last stage, even after losing everything, men and money, he wanted to remain as king, being the eldest uncle of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, as a matter of duty, maintained Dhåtaräñöra in royal honor, and Dhåtaräñöra was happily passing away his numbered days in the illusion of being a king or the royal uncle of King Yudhiñöhira. Vidura, as a saint and as the duty-bound affectionate youngest brother of Dhåtaräñöra, wanted to awaken Dhåtaräñöra from his slumber of disease and old age. Vidura therefore sarcastically addressed Dhåtaräñöra as the “King,” which he was actually not. Everyone is the servant of eternal time, and therefore no one can be king in this material world. King means the person who can order. The celebrated English king wanted to order time and tide, but the time and tide refused to obey his order. Therefore one is a false king in the material world, and Dhåtaräñöra was particularly reminded of this false position and of the factual fearful happenings which had already approached him at that time. Vidura asked him to get out immediately, if he wanted to be saved from the fearful situation which was approaching him fast. He did not ask Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira in that way because he knew that a king like Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira is aware of all the fearful situations of this flimsy world and would take care of himself, in due course, even though Vidura might not be present Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

at that time. TEXT 19 Pa[iTai§-Yaa Na YaSYaeh ku-TaiêTk-ihRicTPa[>aae ) Sa Wz >aGavaNa( k-al/" SaveRza& Na" SaMaaGaTa" )) 19 )) pratikriyä na yasyeha kutaçcit karhicit prabho sa eña bhagavän kälaù sarveñäà naù samägataù SYNONYMS pratikriyä—remedial measure; na—there is none; yasya—of which; iha—in this material world; kutaçcit—by any means; karhicit—or by anyone; prabho—O my lord; saù—that; eñaù—positively; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; kälaù—eternal time; sarveñäm—of all; naù—of us; samägataù—arrived. TRANSLATION This frightful situation cannot be remedied by any person in this material world. My lord, it is the Supreme Personality of Godhead as eternal time [käla] that has approached us all. PURPORT There is no superior power which can check the cruel hands of death. No one wants to die, however acute the source of bodily sufferings may be. Even in the days of so-called scientific advancement of knowledge, there is no remedial measure either for old age or for death. Old age is the notice of the arrival of death served by cruel time, and no one can refuse to accept either summon calls or the supreme judgment of eternal time. This is explained before Dhåtaräñöra because he might ask Vidura to find out some remedial Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

measure for the imminent fearful situation, as he had ordered many times before. Before ordering, however, Vidura informed Dhåtaräñöra that there was no remedial measure by anyone or from any source in this material world. And because there is no such thing in the material world, death is identical with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as it is said by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gétä (10.34). Death cannot be checked by anyone or from any source within this material world. Hiraëyakaçipu wanted to be immortal and underwent a severe type of penance by which the whole universe trembled, and Brahmä himself approached him to dissuade Hiraëyakaçipu from such a severe type of penance. Hiraëyakaçipu asked Brahmä to award him the blessings of immortality, but Brahmä said that he himself was subject to death, even in the topmost planet, so how could he award him the benediction of immortality? So there is death even in the topmost planet of this universe, and what to speak of other planets, which are far, far inferior in quality to Brahmaloka, the residing planet of Brahmä. Wherever there is the influence of eternal time, there is this set of tribulations, namely birth, disease, old age and death, and all of them are invincible. TEXT 20 YaeNa cEvai>aPaàae_Ya& Pa[aa" )) 20 )) yena caiväbhipanno ’yaà präëaiù priyatamair api janaù sadyo viyujyeta kim utänyair dhanädibhiù SYNONYMS yena—pulled by such time; ca—and; eva—certainly; abhipannaù—overtaken; ayam—this; präëaiù—with life; priya-tamaiù—which is most dear to everyone; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

api—even though; janaù—person; sadyaù—forthwith; viyujyeta—do give up; kim uta anyaiù—what to speak of any other thing; dhana-ädibhiù—such as wealth, honor, children, land and house. TRANSLATION Whoever is under the influence of supreme käla [eternal time] must surrender his most dear life, and what to speak of other things, such as wealth, honor, children, land and home. PURPORT A great Indian scientist, busy in the planmaking business, was suddenly called by invincible eternal time while going to attend a very important meeting of the planning commission, and he had to surrender his life, wife, children, house, land, wealth, etc. During the political upsurge in India and its division into Pakistan and Hindustan, so many rich and influential Indians had to surrender life, property and honor due to the influence of time, and there are hundreds and thousands of examples like that all over the world, all over the universe, which are all effects of the influence of time. Therefore, the conclusion is that there is no powerful living being within the universe who can overcome the influence of time. Many poets have written verses lamenting the influence of time. Many devastations have taken place over the universes due to the influence of time, and no one could check them by any means. Even in our daily life, so many things come and go in which we have no hand, but we have to suffer or tolerate them without remedial measure. That is the result of time. TEXT 21 iPaTa*>a]aTa*SauôTPau}aa hTaaSTae ivGaTa& vYaMa( ) AaTMaa c JarYaa Ga]STa" ParGaehMauPaaSaSae )) 21 )) pitå-bhrätå-suhåt-puträ Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

hatäs te vigataà vayam ätmä ca jarayä grastaù para-geham upäsase SYNONYMS pitå—father; bhrätå—brother; suhåt—well-wishers; puträù—sons; hatäù—all dead; te—yours; vigatam—expended; vayam—age; ätmä—the body; ca—also; jarayä—by invalidity; grastaù—overcome; para-geham—another’s home; upäsase—you do live. TRANSLATION Your father, brother, well-wishers and sons are all dead and passed away. You yourself have expended the major portion of your life, your body is now overtaken by invalidity, and you are living in the home of another. PURPORT The King is reminded of his precarious condition, influenced by cruel time, and by his past experience he should have been more intelligent to see what was going to happen to his own life. His father, Vicitravérya, died long ago, when he and his younger brothers were all little children, and it was due to the care and kindness of Bhéñmadeva that they were properly brought up. Then again his brother Päëòu died also. Then in the Battlefield of Kurukñetra his one hundred sons and his grandsons all died, along with all other well-wishers like Bhéñmadeva, Droëäcärya, Karëa and many other kings and friends. So he had lost all men and money, and now he was living at the mercy of his nephew, whom he had put into troubles of various types. And despite all these reverses, he thought that he would prolong his life more and more. Vidura wanted to point out to Dhåtaräñöra that everyone has to protect himself by his action and the grace of the Lord. One has to execute his duty faithfully, depending for the result on the supreme authority. No friend, no children, no father, no brother, no state and no one else can protect a person who is not protected by the Supreme Lord. One should, therefore, seek the protection of the Supreme Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Lord, for the human form of life is meant for seeking that protection. He was warned of his precarious conditions more and more by the following words. TEXT 22 ANDa" PaurEv viDarae MaNdPa[jaê SaaMPa[TaMa( ) ivXaqa]aTa*SaNdiXaRTaaßa )) 29 )) evaà räjä vidureëänujena prajïä-cakñur bodhita äjaméòhaù chittvä sveñu sneha-päçän draòhimno niçcakräma bhrätå-sandarçitädhvä SYNONYMS evam—thus; räjä—King Dhåtaräñöra; vidureëa anujena—by his younger brother Vidura; prajïä—introspective knowledge; cakñuù—eyes; bodhitaù—being understood; äjaméòhaù—Dhåtaräñöra, scion of the family of Ajaméòha; chittvä—by breaking; sveñu—regarding kinsmen; sneha-päçän—strong network of affection; draòhimnaù—because of steadfastness; niçcakräma—got out; bhrätå—by his brother; sandarçita—direction to; adhvä—the path of liberation. TRANSLATION Thus Mahäräja Dhåtaräñöra, the scion of the family of Ajaméòha, firmly convinced by introspective knowledge [prajïä], broke at once the strong network of familial affection by his resolute determination. Thus he immediately left home to set out on the path of liberation, as directed by his younger brother Vidura. PURPORT Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu, the great preacher of the principles of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, has stressed the importance of association with sädhus, pure devotees of the Lord. He said that even by a moments association with a pure devotee, one can achieve all perfection. We are not ashamed to admit that this fact was experienced in our practical life. Were we not favored by His Divine Grace Çrémad Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Gosvämé Mahäräja, by our first meeting for a few minutes only, it would have been impossible for us to accept this mighty task of describing Çrémad-Bhägavatam in English. Without Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

seeing him at that opportune moment, we could have become a very great business magnate, but never would we have been able to walk the path of liberation and be engaged in the factual service of the Lord under instructions of His Divine Grace. And here is another practical example by the action of Vidura’s association with Dhåtaräñöra. Mahäräja Dhåtaräñöra was tightly bound in a network of material affinities related to politics, economy and family attachment, and he did everything in his power to achieve so-called success in his planned projects, but he was frustrated from the beginning to the end so far as his material activities were concerned. And yet, despite his life of failure, he achieved the greatest of all success in self-realization by the forceful instructions of a pure devotee of the Lord, who is the typical emblem of a sädhu. The scriptures enjoin, therefore, that one should associate with sädhus only, rejecting all other kinds of association, and by doing so one will have ample opportunity to hear the sädhus, who can cut to pieces the bonds of illusory affection in the material world. It is a fact that the material world is a great illusion because everything appears to be a tangible reality but at the next moment evaporates like the dashing foam of the sea or a cloud in the sky. A cloud in the sky undoubtedly appears to be a reality because it rains, and due to rains so many temporary green things appear, but in the ultimate issue, everything disappears, namely the cloud, rain and green vegetation, all in due course. But the sky remains, and the varieties of sky or luminaries also remain forever. Similarly, the Absolute Truth, which is compared to the sky, remains eternally, and the temporary cloudlike illusion comes and goes away. Foolish living beings are attracted by the temporary cloud, but intelligent men are more concerned with the eternal sky with all its variegatedness. TEXT 30 PaiTa& Pa[YaaNTa& Saubl/SYa Pau}aq PaiTav]Taa caNauJaGaaMa Saaßq ) ihMaal/Ya& NYaSTadaGavaNa( Naard" SahTauMbuå" ) Pa[TYauTQaaYaai>avaÛah SaaNauJaae_>YacRYaNMauiNaMa( )) 38 )) athäjagäma bhagavän näradaù saha-tumburuù pratyutthäyäbhivädyäha sänujo ’bhyarcayan munim SYNONYMS atha—thereafter; äjagäma—arrived; bhagavän—the godly personality; näradaù—Närada; saha-tumburuù—along with his tumburu (musical instrument); pratyutthäya—having gotten up from their seats; abhivädya—offering their due obeisances; äha—said; sa-anujaù—along with younger brothers; abhyarcayan—thus while receiving in a proper mood; munim—the sage. TRANSLATION While Saïjaya was thus speaking, Çré Närada, the powerful devotee of the Lord, appeared on the scene carrying his tumburu. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira and Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

his brothers received him properly by getting up from their seats and offering obeisances. PURPORT Devarñi Närada is described herein as bhagavän due to his being the most confidential devotee of the Lord. The Lord and His very confidential devotees are treated on the same level by those who are actually engaged in the loving service of the Lord. Such confidential devotees of the Lord are very much dear to the Lord because they travel everywhere to preach the glories of the Lord in different capacities and try their utmost to convert the nondevotees of the Lord into devotees in order to bring them to the platform of sanity. Actually a living being cannot be a nondevotee of the Lord because of his constitutional position, but when one becomes a nondevotee or nonbeliever, it is to be understood that the person concerned is not in a sound condition of life. The confidential devotees of the Lord treat such illusioned living beings, and therefore they are most pleasing in the eyes of the Lord. The Lord says in the Bhagavad-gétä that no one is dearer to Him than one who actually preaches the glories of the Lord to convert the nonbelievers and nondevotees. Such personalities as Närada must be offered all due respects, like those offered to the Personality of Godhead Himself, and Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, along with his noble brothers, were examples for others in receiving a pure devotee of the Lord like Närada, who had no other business save and except singing the glories of the Lord along with his véëä, a musical stringed instrument. TEXT 39 YauiDaiïr ovac Naah& ved GaiTa& iPa}aae>aRGavNa( Kv GaTaaivTa" ) AMba va hTaPau}aaTaaR Kv GaTaa c TaPaiSvNaq )) 39 )) yudhiñöhira uväca nähaà veda gatià pitror Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bhagavan kva gatäv itaù ambä vä hata-puträrtä kva gatä ca tapasviné SYNONYMS yudhiñöhiraù uväca—Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira said; na—do not; aham—myself; veda—know it; gatim—departure; pitroù—of the uncles; bhagavan—O godly personality; kva—where; gatau—gone; itaù—from this place; ambä—mother aunt; vä—either; hata-puträ—bereft of her sons; ärtä—aggrieved; kva—where; gatä—gone; ca—also; tapasviné—ascetic. TRANSLATION Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira said: O godly personality, I do not know where my two uncles have gone. Nor can I find my ascetic aunt who is grief-stricken by the loss of all her sons. PURPORT Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, as a good soul and devotee of the Lord, was always conscious of the great loss of his aunt and her sufferings as an ascetic. An ascetic is never disturbed by all kinds of sufferings, and that makes him strong and determined on the path of spiritual progress. Queen Gändhäré is a typical example of an ascetic because of her marvelous character in many trying situations. She was an ideal woman as mother, wife and ascetic, and in the history of the world such character in a woman is rarely found. TEXT 40 k-aGavaNa( PaardXaRk-" ) AQaab>aaze >aGavaNa( Naardae MauiNaSataMa" )) 40 )) karëadhära iväpäre bhagavän pära-darçakaù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

athäbabhäñe bhagavän närado muni-sattamaù SYNONYMS karëa-dhäraù—captain of the ship; iva—like; apäre—in the extensive oceans; bhagavän—representative of the Lord; pära-darçakaù—one who can give directions to the other side; atha—thus; äbabhäñe—began to say; bhagavän—the godly personality; näradaù—the great sage Närada; muni-sat-tamaù—the greatest among the devotee philosophers. TRANSLATION You are like a captain of a ship in a great ocean and you can direct us to our destination. Thus addressed, the godly personality, Devarñi Närada, greatest of the philosopher devotees, began to speak. PURPORT There are different types of philosophers, and the greatest of all of them are those who have seen the Personality of Godhead and have surrendered themselves in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. Among all such pure devotees of the Lord, Devarñi Närada is the chief, and therefore he has been described herein as the greatest of all philosopher devotees. Unless one has become a sufficiently learned philosopher by hearing the Vedänta philosophy from a bona fide spiritual master, one cannot be a learned philosopher devotee. One must be very faithful, learned and renounced, otherwise one cannot be a pure devotee. A pure devotee of the Lord can give us direction towards the other end of nescience. Devarñi Närada used to visit the palace of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira because the Päëòavas were all pure devotees of the Lord, and the Devarñi was always ready to give them good counsel whenever needed. TEXT 41 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Naard ovac Maa k-ÄNa éucae raJaNa( YadqìrvXa& JaGaTa( ) l/aek-a" SaPaal/a YaSYaeMae vhiNTa bil/MaqiXaTau" ) Sa Sa&YauNai¢- >aUTaaiNa Sa Wv ivYauNai¢- c )) 41 )) närada uväca mä kaïcana çuco räjan yad éçvara-vaçaà jagat lokäù sapälä yasyeme vahanti balim éçituù sa saàyunakti bhütäni sa eva viyunakti ca SYNONYMS näradaù uväca—Närada said; mä—never; kaïcana—by all means; çucaù—do you lament; räjan—O King; yat—because; éçvara-vaçam—under the control of the Supreme Lord; jagat—world; lokäù—all living beings; sa-päläù—including their leaders; yasya—whose; ime—all these; vahanti—do bear; balim—means of worship; éçituù—for being protected; saù—He; saàyunakti—gets together; bhütäni—all living beings; saù—He; eva—also; viyunakti—disperses; ca—and. TRANSLATION Çré Närada said: O pious King, do not lament for anyone, for everyone is under the control of the Supreme Lord. Therefore all living beings and their leaders carry on worship to be well protected. It is He only who brings them together and disperses them. PURPORT Every living being, either in this material world or in the spiritual world, is under the control of the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead. Beginning from Brahmäjé, the leader of this universe, down to the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

insignificant ant, all are abiding by the order of the Supreme Lord. Thus the constitutional position of the living being is subordination under the control of the Lord. The foolish living being, especially man, artificially rebels against the law of the Supreme and thus becomes chastised as an asura, or lawbreaker. A living being is placed in a particular position by the order of the Supreme Lord, and he is again shifted from that place by the order of the Supreme Lord or His authorized agents. Brahmä, Çiva, Indra, Candra, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira or, in modern history, Napoleon, Akbar, Alexander, Gandhi, Shubhash and Nehru all are servants of the Lord, and they are placed in and removed from their respective positions by the supreme will of the Lord. None of them is independent. Even though such men or leaders rebel so as not to recognize the supremacy of the Lord, they are put under still more rigorous laws of the material world by different miseries. Only the foolish man, therefore, says that there is no God. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was being convinced of this naked truth because he was greatly overwhelmed by the sudden departure of his old uncles and aunt. Mahäräja Dhåtaräñöra was placed in that position according to his past deeds; he had already suffered or enjoyed the benefits accrued to him in the past, but due to his good luck, somehow or other he had a good younger brother, Vidura, and by his instruction he left to achieve salvation by closing all accounts in the material world. Ordinarily one cannot change the course of one’s due happiness and distress by plan. Everyone has to accept them as they come under the subtle arrangement of käla, or invincible time. There is no use trying to counteract them. The best thing is, therefore, that one should endeavor to achieve salvation, and this prerogative is given only to man because of his developed condition of mental activities and intelligence. Only for man are there different Vedic instructions for attainment of salvation during the human form of existence. One who misuses this opportunity of advanced intelligence is verily condemned and put into different types of miseries, either in this present life or in the future. That is the way the Supreme controls everyone. TEXT 42

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

YaQaa Gaavae NaiSa Pa[aeTaaSTaNTYaa& bÖaê daMai>a" ) va¢-NTYaa& NaaMai>abRÖa vhiNTa bil/MaqiXaTau" )) 42 )) yathä gävo nasi protäs tantyäà baddhäç ca dämabhiù väk-tantyäà nämabhir baddhä vahanti balim éçituù SYNONYMS yathä—as much as; gävaù—cow; nasi—by the nose; protäù—strung; tantyäm—by the thread; baddhäù—bound by; ca—also; dämabhiù—by ropes; väk-tantyäm—in the network of Vedic hymns; nämabhiù—by nomenclatures; baddhäù—conditioned; vahanti—carry on; balim—orders; éçituù—for being controlled by the Supreme Lord. TRANSLATION As a cow, bound through the nose by a long rope, is conditioned, so also human beings are bound by different Vedic injunctions and are conditioned to obey the orders of the Supreme. PURPORT Every living being, whether a man or an animal or a bird, thinks that he is free by himself, but actually no one is free from the severe laws of the Lord. The laws of the Lord are severe because they cannot be disobeyed in any circumstance. The man-made laws may be evaded by cunning outlaws, but in the codes of the supreme lawmaker there is not the slightest possibility of neglecting the laws. A slight change in the course of God-made law can bring about a massive danger to be faced by the lawbreaker. Such laws of the Supreme are generally known as the codes of religion, under different conditions, but the principle of religion everywhere is one and the same, namely, obey the orders of the Supreme God, the codes of religion. That is the condition of material existence. All living beings in the material world have Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

taken up the risk of conditioned life by their own selection and are thus entrapped by the laws of material nature. The only way to get out of the entanglement is to agree to obey the Supreme. But instead of becoming free from the clutches of mäyä, or illusion, foolish human beings become bound up by different nomenclatures, being designated as brähmaëas, kñatriyas, vaiçyas, çüdras, Hindus, Mohammedans, Indians, Europeans, Americans, Chinese, and many others, and thus they carry out the orders of the Supreme Lord under the influence of respective scriptural or legislative injunctions. The statutory laws of the state are imperfect imitation replicas of religious codes. The secular state, or the godless state, allows the citizens to break the laws of God, but restricts them from disobeying the laws of the state; the result is that the people in general suffer more by breaking the laws of God than by obeying the imperfect laws made by man. Every man is imperfect by constitution under conditions of material existence, and there is not the least possibility that even the most materially advanced man can enact perfect legislation. On the other hand, there is no such imperfection in the laws of God. If leaders are educated in the laws of God, there is no necessity of a makeshift legislative council of aimless men. There is necessity of change in the makeshift laws of man, but there is no change in the God-made laws because they are made perfect by the all-perfect Personality of Godhead. The codes of religion, scriptural injunctions, are made by liberated representatives of God in consideration of different conditions of living, and by carrying out the orders of the Lord, the conditioned living beings gradually become free from the clutches of material existence. The factual position of the living being is, however, that he is the eternal servitor of the Supreme Lord. In his liberated state he renders service to the Lord in transcendental love and thus enjoys a life of full freedom, even sometimes on an equal level with the Lord or sometimes more than the Lord. But in the conditioned material world, every living being wants to be the Lord of other living beings, and thus by the illusion of mäyä this mentality of lording it over becomes a cause of further extension of conditional life. So in the material world the living being is still more conditioned, until he surrenders unto the Lord by reviving his original state of eternal servitorship. That is the last instruction of the Bhagavad-gétä and all other recognized Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

scriptures of the world. TEXT 43 YaQaa §[email protected]( Yaavidheìr" )) 50 )) niñpäditaà deva-kåtyam avaçeñaà pratékñate tävad yüyam avekñadhvaà bhaved yävad iheçvaraù SYNONYMS niñpäditam—performed; deva-kåtyam—what was to be done on behalf of the demigods; avaçeñam—the rest; pratékñate—being awaited; tävat—up to that time; yüyam—all of you Päëòavas; avekñadhvam—observe and wait; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bhavet—may; yävat—as long as; iha—in this world; éçvaraù—the Supreme Lord. TRANSLATION The Lord has already performed His duties to help the demigods, and He is awaiting the rest. You Päëòavas may wait as long as the Lord is here on earth. PURPORT The Lord descends from His abode (Kåñëaloka), the topmost planet in the spiritual sky, in order to help the demigod administrators of this material world when they are greatly vexed by the asuras, who are envious not only of the Lord but also of His devotees. As referred to above, the conditioned living beings contact material association by their own choice, dictated by a strong desire to lord it over the resources of the material world and become imitation lords of all they survey. Everyone is trying to become an imitation God; there is keen competition amongst such imitation gods, and such competitors are generally known as asuras. When there are too many asuras in the world, then it becomes a hell for those who are devotees of the Lord. Due to the growth of the asuras, the mass of people who are generally devoted to the Lord by nature and the pure devotees of the Lord, including the demigods in higher planets, pray to the Lord for relief, and the Lord either descends personally from His abode or deputes some of His devotees to remodel the fallen condition of human society, or even animal society. Such disruptions take place not only in human society but also among animals, birds or other living beings, including the demigods in the higher planets. Lord Çré Kåñëa descended personally to vanquish asuras like Kaàsa, Jaräsandha and Çiçupäla, and during the reign of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira almost all these asuras were killed by the Lord. Now he was awaiting the annihilation of His own dynasty, called the Yadu-vaàça, who appeared by His will in this world. He wanted to take them away before His own departure to His eternal abode. Närada, like Vidura, did not disclose the imminent annihilation of the Yadu dynasty, but indirectly gave a hint to the King and his brothers to wait till the incident happened and the Lord departed. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 51 Da*Taraí\" Sah >a]a}aa GaaNDaaYaaR c Sv>aaYaRYaa ) di+aaYaaR vE SvDauRNaq SaáDaa VYaDaaTa( ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SaáaNaa& Pa[qTaYae NaaNaa SaáóaeTa" Pa[c+aTae )) 52 )) srotobhiù saptabhir yä vai svardhuné saptadhä vyadhät saptänäà prétaye nänä sapta-srotaù pracakñate SYNONYMS srotobhiù—by currents; saptabhiù—by seven (divisions); yä—the river; vai—certainly; svardhuné—the sacred Ganges; saptadhä—seven branches; vyadhät—created; saptänäm—of the seven; prétaye—for the satisfaction of; nänä—various; sapta-srotaù—seven sources; pracakñate—known by name. TRANSLATION The place is called Saptasrota [“divided by seven”] because there the waters of the sacred Ganges were divided into seven branches. This was done for the satisfaction of the seven great åñis. TEXT 53 òaTvaNauSavNa& TaiSMaNhuTva caGanqNYaQaaiviDa ) AB>a+a oPaXaaNTaaTMaa Sa AaSTae ivGaTaEzaivZYaiTa )) 57 )) sa vä adyatanäd räjan parataù païcame ’hani kalevaraà häsyati svaà tac ca bhasmé-bhaviñyati SYNONYMS saù—he; vä—in all probability; adya—today; tanät—from; räjan—O King; parataù—ahead; païcame—on the fifth; ahani—day; kalevaram—body; häsyati—shall quit; svam—his own; tat—that; ca—also; bhasmé—ashes; bhaviñyati—will turn into. TRANSLATION O King, he will quit his body, most probably on the fifth day from today. And his body will turn to ashes. PURPORT Närada Muni’s prophecy prohibited Yudhiñöhira Mahäräja from going to the place where his uncle was staying because even after quitting the body by his own mystic power, Dhåtaräñöra would not be in need of any funeral ceremony; Närada Muni indicated that his body by itself would burn to ashes. The perfection of the yoga system is attained by such mystic power. The yogé is able to quit his body by his own choice of time and can attain any planet he desires by turning the present body into ashes by self-made fire. TEXT 58 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

dùMaaNae_iGani>adeRhe PaTYau" PaÒq Sahae$=Jae ) bih" iSQaTaa PaiTa& Saaßq TaMaiGanMaNau ve+YaiTa )) 58 )) dahyamäne ’gnibhir dehe patyuù patné sahoöaje bahiù sthitä patià sädhvé tam agnim anu vekñyati SYNONYMS dahyamäne—while it is burning; agnibhiù—by the fire; dehe—the body; patyuù—of the husband; patné—the wife; saha-uöaje—along with the thatched cottage; bahiù—outside; sthitä—situated; patim—unto the husband; sädhvé—the chaste lady; tam—that; agnim—fire; anu vekñyati—looking with great attention will enter the fire. TRANSLATION While outside observing her husband, who will burn in the fire of mystic power along with his thatched cottage, his chaste wife will enter the fire with rapt attention. PURPORT Gändhäré was an ideal chaste lady, a life companion of her husband, and therefore when she saw her husband burning in the fire of mystic yoga along with his cottage of leaves, she despaired. She left home after losing her one hundred sons, and in the forest she saw that her most beloved husband was also burning. Now she actually felt alone, and therefore she entered the fire of her husband and followed her husband to death. This entering of a chaste lady into the fire of her dead husband is called the saté rite, and the action is considered to be most perfect for a woman. In a later age, this saté rite became an obnoxious criminal affair because the ceremony was forced upon even an unwilling woman. In this fallen age it is not possible for any lady to follow the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

saté rite as chastely as it was done by Gändhäré and others in past ages. A chaste wife like Gändhäré would feel the separation of her husband to be more burning than actual fire. Such a lady can observe the saté rite voluntarily, and there is no criminal force by anyone. When the rite became a formality only and force was applied upon a lady to follow the principle, actually it became criminal, and therefore the ceremony was to be stopped by state law. This prophecy of Närada Muni to Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira forbade him to go to his widowed aunt. TEXT 59 ivdurSTau TadaêYa| iNaXaaMYa ku-åNaNdNa ) hzRXaaek-YauTaSTaSMaad( GaNTaa TaqQaRiNazevk-" )) 59 )) viduras tu tad äçcaryaà niçämya kuru-nandana harña-çoka-yutas tasmäd gantä tértha-niñevakaù SYNONYMS viduraù—Vidura also; tu—but; tat—that incident; äçcaryam—wonderful; niçämya—seeing; kuru-nandana—O son of the Kuru dynasty; harña—delight; çoka—grief; yutaù—affected by; tasmät—from that place; gantä—will go away; tértha—place of pilgrimage; niñevakaù—for being enlivened. TRANSLATION Vidura, being affected with delight and grief, will then leave that place of sacred pilgrimage. PURPORT Vidura was astonished to see the marvelous departure of his brother Dhåtaräñöra as a liberated yogé, for in his past life he was much attached to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

materialism. Of course it was only due to Vidura that his brother attained the desirable goal of life. Vidura was therefore glad to learn about it. But he was sorry that he could not make his brother turn into a pure devotee. This was not done by Vidura because of Dhåtaräñöra’s being inimical to the Päëòavas, who were all devotees of the Lord. An offense at the feet of a Vaiñëava is more dangerous than an offense at the lotus feet of the Lord. Vidura was certainly very liberal to bestow mercy upon his brother Dhåtaräñöra, whose past life was very materialistic. But ultimately the result of such mercy certainly depended on the will of the Supreme Lord in the present life; therefore Dhåtaräñöra attained liberation only, and after many such liberated states of life one can attain to the stage of devotional service. Vidura was certainly very mortified by the death of his brother and sister-in-law, and the only remedy to mitigate such lamentation was to go out to pilgrimage. Thus Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira had no chance to call back Vidura, his surviving uncle. TEXT 60 wTYau¤-aQaaåhTa( SvGa| Naard" SahTauMbuå" ) YauiDaiïrae vcSTaSYa ôid k*-TvaJahaC^uc" )) 60 )) ity uktväthäruhat svargaà näradaù saha-tumburuù yudhiñöhiro vacas tasya hådi kåtväjahäc chucaù SYNONYMS iti—thus; uktvä—having addressed; atha—thereafter; äruhat—ascended; svargam—into outer space; näradaù—the great sage Närada; saha—along with; tumburuù—his stringed instrument; yudhiñöhiraù—Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira; vacaù—instructions; tasya—of his; hådi kåtvä—keeping in the heart; ajahät—gave up; çucaù—all lamentations. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Having spoken thus, the great sage Närada, along with his véëä, ascended into outer space. Yudhiñöhira kept his instruction in his heart and so was able to get rid of all lamentations. PURPORT Çré Näradajé is an eternal spaceman, having been endowed with a spiritual body by the grace of the Lord. He can travel in the outer spaces of both the material and spiritual worlds without restriction and can approach any planet in unlimited space within no time. We have already discussed his previous life as the son of a maidservant. Because of his association with pure devotees, he was elevated to the position of an eternal spaceman and thus had freedom of movement. One should therefore try to follow in the footsteps of Närada Muni and not make a futile effort to reach other planets by mechanical means. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was a pious king, and therefore he could see Närada Muni occasionally; anyone who desires to see Närada Muni must first be pious and follow in the footsteps of Närada Muni. Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the First Canto, Thirteenth Chapter, of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, entitled “Dhåtaräñöra Quits Home.”

Chapter Fourteen The Disappearance of Lord Kåñëa

TEXT 1

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SaUTa ovac SaMPa[iSQaTae Üark-aYaa& iJaZaaEMaaNa( SadEihk-aNa( )

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

daåaraETYaNal/aNaNaa ) MaaMa® SaarMaeYaae_YaMai>are>aTYa>aqåvTa( )) 12 )) çivaiñodyantam ädityam abhirauty analänanä mäm aìga särameyo ’yam abhirebhaty abhéruvat SYNONYMS çivä—jackal; eñä—this; udyantam—rising; ädityam—unto the sun; abhi—towards; rauti—crying; anala—fire; änanä—face; mäm—unto me; aìga—O Bhéma; särameyaù—dog; ayam—this; abhirebhati—barks towards; abhéru-vat—without fear. TRANSLATION Just see, O Bhéma, how the she jackal cries at the rising sun and vomits fire, and how the dog barks at me fearlessly. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

These are some bad omens indicating something undesirable in the near future. TEXT 13 XaSTaa" ku-vRiNTa Maa& SaVYa& di+aa& PaXYa Ga]hMad| iMaQaae idiv ) SaSax(ku-lE/>aURTaGaaaeJadXaahaRhRSaaTvTaaNDak-v*ZaraôTaa& bl/aTa( Sa>aa& SauDaMaa| SaurSataMaaeicTaaMa( )) 38 )) yad bähu-daëòäbhyudayänujévino yadu-pravérä hy akutobhayä muhuù adhikramanty aìghribhir ähåtäà balät Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

sabhäà sudharmäà sura-sattamocitäm SYNONYMS yat—whose; bähu-daëòa—arms; abhyudaya—influenced by; anujévinaù—always living; yadu—the members of the Yadu dynasty; pravéräù—great heroes; hi akutobhayäù—fearless in every respect; muhuù—constantly; adhikramanti—traversing; aìghribhiù—by foot; ähåtäm—brought about; balät—by force; sabhäm—assembly house; sudharmäm—Sudharmä; sura-sat-tama—the best among the demigods; ucitäm—deserving. TRANSLATION The great heroes of the Yadu dynasty, being protected by the arms of Lord Çré Kåñëa, always remain fearless in every respect. And therefore their feet trample over the Sudharmä assembly house, which the best demigods deserved but which was taken away from them. PURPORT Those who are directly servitors of the Lord are protected by the Lord from all fearfulness, and they also enjoy the best of things, even if they are forcibly accumulated. The Lord is equal in behavior to all living beings, but He is partial to His pure devotees, being very affectionate toward them. The city of Dvärakä was flourishing, being enriched with the best of things in the material world. The state assembly house is constructed according to the dignity of the particular state. In the heavenly planets, the state assembly house called Sudharmä was deserving of the dignity of the best of the demigods. Such an assembly house is never meant for any state on the globe because the human being on the earth is unable to construct it, however far a particular state may be materially advanced. But during the time of Lord Kåñëa’s presence on the earth, the members of the Yadu family forcibly brought the celestial assembly house to earth and placed it at Dvärakä. They were able to use such force because they were certain of the indulgence and protection of the Supreme Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Lord Kåñëa. In other words, the Lord is provided with the best things in the universe by His pure devotees. Lord Kåñëa was provided with all kinds of comforts and facilities available within the universe by the members of the Yadu dynasty, and in return such servitors of the Lord were protected and fearless. A forgetful, conditioned soul is fearful. But a liberated soul is never fearful, just as a small child completely dependent on the mercy of his father is never fearful of anyone. Fearfulness is a sort of illusion for the living being when he is in slumber and forgetting his eternal relation with the Lord. Since the living being is never to die by his constitution, as stated in Bhagavad-gétä (2.20), then what is the cause of fearfulness? A person may be fearful of a tiger in a dream, but another man who is awake by his side sees no tiger there. The tiger is a myth for both of them, namely the person dreaming and the person awake, because actually there is no tiger; but the man forgetful of his awakened life is fearful, whereas the man who has not forgotten his position is not at all fearful. Thus the members of the Yadu dynasty were fully awake in their service to the Lord, and therefore there was no tiger for them to be afraid of at any time. Even if there were a real tiger, the Lord was there to protect them. TEXT 39 k-iÀtae_NaaMaYa& TaaTa >a]íTaeJaa iv>aaiSa Mae ) Al/BDaMaaNaae_vjaTa" ik&- va TaaTa icraeizTa" )) 39 )) kaccit te ’nämayaà täta bhrañöa-tejä vibhäsi me alabdha-mäno ’vajïätaù kià vä täta ciroñitaù SYNONYMS kaccit—whether; te—your; anämayam—health is all right; täta—my dear brother; bhrañöa—bereft; tejäù—luster; vibhäsi—appear; me—to me; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

alabdha-mänaù—without respect; avajïätaù—neglected; kim—whether; vä—or; täta—my dear brother; ciroñitaù—because of long residence. TRANSLATION My brother Arjuna, please tell me whether your health is all right. You appear to have lost your bodily luster. Is this due to others disrespecting and neglecting you because of your long stay at Dvärakä? PURPORT From all angles of vision, the Mahäräja inquired from Arjuna about the welfare of Dvärakä, but he concluded at last that as long as Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself was there, nothing inauspicious could happen. But at the same time, Arjuna appeared to be bereft of his bodily luster, and thus the King inquired of his personal welfare and asked so many vital questions. TEXT 40 k-iÀàai>ahTaae_>aavE" XaBdaidi>arMa®lE/" ) Na dtaMau¢-MaiQaR>Ya AaXaYaa YaTPa[iTaé[uTaMa( )) 40 )) kaccin näbhihato ’bhävaiù çabdädibhir amaìgalaiù na dattam uktam arthibhya äçayä yat pratiçrutam SYNONYMS kaccit—whether; na—could not; abhihataù—addressed by; abhävaiù—unfriendly; çabda-ädibhiù—by sounds; amaìgalaiù—inauspicious; na—did not; dattam—give in charity; uktam—is said; arthibhyaù—unto one who asked; äçayä—with hope; yat—what; pratiçrutam—promised to be paid. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Has someone addressed you with unfriendly words or threatened you? Could you not give charity to one who asked, or could you not keep your promise to someone? PURPORT A kñatriya or a rich man is sometimes visited by persons who are in need of money. When they are asked for a donation, it is the duty of the possessor of wealth to give in charity in consideration of the person, place and time. If a kñatriya or a rich man fails to comply with this obligation, he must be very sorry for this discrepancy. Similarly, one should not fail to keep his promise to give in charity. These discrepancies are sometimes causes of despondency, and thus failing, a person becomes subjected to criticism, which might also be the cause of Arjuna’s plight. TEXT 41 k-iÀtv& b]aøa" ) iv>au& TaMaevaNauSMaràaXa¥-aeTPa[iTa>aaizTauMa( )) 2 )) çokena çuñyad-vadanahåt-sarojo hata-prabhaù vibhuà tam evänusmaran näçaknot pratibhäñitum SYNONYMS çokena—due to bereavement; çuñyat-vadana—drying up of the mouth; håt-sarojaù—lotuslike heart; hata—lost; prabhaù—bodily luster; vibhum—the Supreme; tam—unto Lord Kåñëa; eva—certainly; anusmaran—thinking within; na—could not; açaknot—be able; pratibhäñitum—properly replying. TRANSLATION Due to grief, Arjuna’s mouth and lotuslike heart had dried up. Therefore his body lost all luster. Now, remembering the Supreme Lord, he could hardly utter Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

a word in reply. TEXT 3 k*-C^\eYa éuc" PaaiahTaê MaTSYa" SaÂqk*-TaeNa DaNauzaiDaGaTaa c k*-ZYaae_hrà*PaTaYaae bil/Maßre Tae )) 8 )) yat-sannidhäv aham u khäëòavam agnaye ’däm indraà ca sämara-gaëaà tarasä vijitya labdhä sabhä maya-kåtädbhuta-çilpa-mäyä digbhyo ’haran nåpatayo balim adhvare te SYNONYMS yat—whose; sannidhau—being nearby; aham—myself; u—note of astonishment; khäëòavam—the protected forest of Indra, King of heaven; agnaye—unto the fire-god; adäm—delivered; indram—Indra; ca—also; sa—along with; amara-gaëam—the demigods; tarasä—with all dexterity; vijitya—having conquered; labdhä—having obtained; sabhä—assembly house; maya-kåtä—built by Maya; adbhuta—very wonderful; çilpa—art and workmanship; mäyä—potency; digbhyaù—from all directions; aharan—collected; nåpatayaù—all princes; balim—presentations; adhvare—brought; te—your. TRANSLATION Because He was near me, it was possible for me to conquer with great dexterity the powerful King of heaven, Indradeva, along with his demigod associates and thus enable the fire-god to devastate the Khäëòava Forest. And Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

only by His grace was the demon named Maya saved from the blazing Khäëòava Forest, and thus we could build our assembly house of wonderful architectural workmanship, where all the princes assembled during the performance of Räjasüya-yajïa and paid you tributes. PURPORT The demon Maya Dänava was an inhabitant of the forest Khäëòava, and when the Khäëòava Forest was set on fire, he asked protection from Arjuna. Arjuna saved his life, and as a result of this the demon felt obliged. He reciprocated by building a wonderful assembly house for the Päëòavas, which attracted the extraordinary attention of all state princes. They felt the supernatural power of the Päëòavas, and thus without grudge all of them submitted and paid tributes to the Emperor. The demons possess wonderful and supernatural powers to create material wonders. But they are always disturbing elements of the society. The modern demons are the harmful material scientists who create some material wonders for disturbance in the society. For example, the creation of nuclear weapons has caused some panic in human society. Maya was also a materialist like that, and he knew the art of creating such wonderful things. And yet Lord Kåñëa wanted to kill him. When he was chased both by the fire and by the wheel of Lord Kåñëa, he took shelter of such a devotee as Arjuna, who saved him from the wrath of the fire of Lord Çré Kåñëa. Devotees are therefore more merciful than the Lord, and in devotional service the mercy of a devotee is more valuable than the mercy of the Lord. Both the fire and the Lord ceased from chasing the demon as soon as both of them saw that the demon was given shelter by such a devotee as Arjuna. This demon, feeling obliged to Arjuna, wanted to do him some service to show his gratefulness, but Arjuna declined to accept anything from him in exchange. Lord Çré Kåñëa, however, being pleased with Maya for his taking shelter of a devotee, asked him to render service unto King Yudhiñöhira by building a wonderful assembly house. The process is that by the grace of the devotee the mercy of the Lord is obtained, and by the mercy of the Lord a chance to serve the Lord’s devotee is obtained. The club of Bhémasena was also a gift of Maya Dänava. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 9 YataeJaSaa Na*PaiXarae_x(iga]MahNMa%aQaRMa( AaYaaeR_NauJaSTav GaJaaYauTaSatvvqYaR" ) TaeNaaôTaa" Pa[MaQaNaaQaMa%aYa >aUPaa YaNMaaeicTaaSTadNaYaNa( bil/Maßre Tae )) 9 )) yat-tejasä nåpa-çiro-’ìghrim ahan makhärtham äryo ’nujas tava gajäyuta-sattva-véryaù tenähåtäù pramatha-nätha-makhäya bhüpä yan-mocitäs tad-anayan balim adhvare te SYNONYMS yat—whose; tejasä—by influence; nåpa-çiraù-aìghrim—one whose feet are adored by the heads of kings; ahan—killed; makha-artham—for the sacrifice; äryaù—respectable; anujaù—younger brother; tava—your; gaja-ayuta—ten thousand elephants; sattva-véryaù—powerful existence; tena—by him; ähåtäù—collected; pramatha-nätha—the lord of the ghosts (Mahäbhairava); makhäya—for sacrifice; bhüpäù—kings; yat-mocitäù—by whom they were released; tat-anayan—all of them brought; balim—taxes; adhvare—presented; te—your. TRANSLATION Your respectable younger brother, who possesses the strength of ten thousand elephants, killed, by His grace, Jaräsandha, whose feet were worshiped by many kings. These kings had been brought for sacrifice in Jaräsandha’s Mahäbhairava-yajïa, but they were thus released. Later they paid tribute to Your Majesty. PURPORT

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Jaräsandha was a very powerful king of Magadha, and the history of his birth and activities is also very interesting. His father, King Båhadratha, was also a very prosperous and powerful king of Magadha, but he had no son, although he married two daughters of the King of Käçé. Being disappointed in not getting a son from either of the two queens, the King, along with his wives, left home to live in the forest for austerities, but in the forest he was blessed by one great åñi to have a son, and he gave him one mango to be eaten by the queens. The queens did so and were very soon pregnant. The King was very happy to see the queens bearing children, but when the ripe time approached, the queens delivered one child in two parts, one from each of the queens’ wombs. The two parts were thrown in the forest, where a great she-demon used to live, and she was glad to have some delicate flesh and blood from the newly born child. Out of curiosity she joined the two parts, and the child became complete and regained life. The she-demon was known as Jarä, and being compassionate on the childless King, she went to the King and presented him with the nice child, The King was very pleased with the she-demon and wanted to reward her according to her desire. The she-demon expressed her desire that the child be named after her, and thus the child was surnamed Jaräsandha, or one who was joined by Jarä, the she-demon. In fact, this Jaräsandha was born as one of the parts and parcels of the demon Vipracitti. The saint by whose benedictions the queens bore the child was called Candra Kauçika, who foretold of the child before his father Båhadratha. Since he possessed demoniac qualities from birth, naturally he became a great devotee of Lord Çiva, who is the lord of all ghostly and demoniac men. Rävaëa was a great devotee of Lord Çiva, and so also King Jaräsandha. He used to sacrifice all arrested kings before Lord Mahäbhairava (Çiva) and by his military power he defeated many small kings and arrested them to butcher before Mahäbhairava. There are many devotees of Lord Mahäbhairava, or Kälabhairava, in the province of Bihar, formerly called Magadha. Jaräsandha was a relative of Kaàsa, the maternal uncle of Kåñëa, and therefore after Kaàsa’s death King Jaräsandha became a great enemy of Kåñëa, and there were many fights between Jaräsandha and Kåñëa. Lord Kåñëa wanted to kill him, but He also wanted that those who served as military men for Jaräsandha Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

might not be killed. Therefore a plan was adopted to kill him. Kåñëa, Bhéma and Arjuna together went to Jaräsandha in the dress of poor brähmaëas and begged charity from King Jaräsandha. Jaräsandha never refused charity to any brähmaëa, and he performed many sacrifices also, yet he was not on a par with devotional service. Lord Kåñëa, Bhéma and Arjuna asked Jaräsandha for the facility of fighting him, and it was settled that Jaräsandha would fight with Bhéma only. So all of them were both guests and combatants of Jaräsandha, and Bhéma and Jaräsandha fought every day for several days. Bhéma became disappointed, but Kåñëa gave him hints about Jaräsandha’s being joined together as an infant, and thus Bhéma dissected him again and so killed him. All the kings who were detained in the concentration camp to be killed before Mahäbhairava were thus released by Bhéma. Feeling thus obliged to the Päëòavas, they paid tribute to King Yudhiñöhira. TEXT 10 PaTNYaaSTavaiDaMa%œáMahai>azek-‚ ëaigaïcaåk-br& ik-TavE" Sa>aaYaaMa( ) SPa*í& ivk-IYaR PadYaae" PaiTaTaaé[uMau:Yaa YaSTaiTñYaae_k*-TahTaeXaivMau¢-ke-Xaa" )) 10 )) patnyäs tavädhimakha-kÿpta-mahäbhiñekaçläghiñöha-cäru-kabaraà kitavaiù sabhäyäm spåñöaà vikérya padayoù patitäçru-mukhyä yas tat-striyo ’kåta-hateça-vimukta-keçäù SYNONYMS patnyäù—of the wife; tava—your; adhimakha—during the great sacrificial ceremony; kÿpta—dressed; mahä-abhiñeka—greatly sanctified; çläghiñöha—thus glorified; cäru—beautiful; kabaram—clustered hair; kitavaiù—by the miscreants; sabhäyäm—in the great assembly; spåñöam—being caught; vikérya—being loosened; padayoù—on the feet; patita-açru-mukhyäù—of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

one who fell down with tears in the eyes; yaù—He; tat—their; striyaù—wives; akåta—became; hata-éça—bereft of husbands; vimukta-keçäù—loosened hair. TRANSLATION It was He only who loosened the hair of all the wives of the miscreants who dared open the cluster of your Queen’s hair, which had been nicely dressed and sanctified for the great Räjasüya sacrificial ceremony. At that time she fell down at the feet of Lord Kåñëa with tears in her eyes. PURPORT Queen Draupadé had a beautiful bunch of hair which was sanctified in the ceremonial function of Räjasüya-yajïa. But when she was lost in a bet, Duùçäsana touched her glorified hair to insult her. Draupadé then fell down at the lotus feet of Lord Kåñëa, and Lord Kåñëa decided that all the wives of Duùçäsana and company should have their hair loosened as a result of the Battle of Kurukñetra. Thus after the Battle of Kurukñetra, after all the sons and grandsons of Dhåtaräñöra died in battle, all the wives of the family were obliged to loosen their hair as widows. In other words, all the wives of the Kuru family became widows because of Duùçäsana’s insulting a great devotee of the Lord. The Lord can tolerate insults upon Himself by any miscreant because the father tolerates even insults from the son. But He never tolerates insults upon His devotees. By insulting a great soul, one has to forego all the results of pious acts and benedictions also. TEXT 11 Yaae Naae JauGaaePa vNa WTYa durNTak*-C^\ad( duvaRSaSaae_irricTaadYauTaaGa]>auGa( Ya" ) Xaak-aàiXaíMauPaYauJYa YaTaiñl/aek-I& Ta*áaMaMa&STa Sail/le/ iviNaMaGanSaº" )) 11 )) yo no jugopa vana etya duranta-kåcchräd Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

durväsaso ’ri-racitäd ayutägra-bhug yaù çäkänna-çiñöam upayujya yatas tri-lokéà tåptäm amaàsta salile vinimagna-saìghaù SYNONYMS yaù—one who; naù—us; jugopa—gave protection; vane—forest; etya—getting in; duranta—dangerously; kåcchrät—trouble; durväsasaù—of Durväsä Muni; ari—enemy; racität—fabricated by; ayuta—ten thousand; agra-bhuk—one who eats before; yaù—that person; çäka-anna-çiñöam—remnants of foodstuff; upayujya—having accepted; yataù—because; tri-lokém—all the three worlds; tåptäm—satisfied; amaàsta—thought within the mind; salile—while in the water; vinimagna-saìghaù—all merged into the water. TRANSLATION During our exile, Durväsä Muni, who eats with his ten thousand disciples, intrigued with our enemies to put us in dangerous trouble. At that time He [Lord Kåñëa], simply by accepting the remnants of food, saved us. By His accepting food thus, the assembly of munis, while bathing in the river, felt sumptuously fed. And all the three worlds were also satisfied. PURPORT Durväsä Muni: A powerful mystic brähmaëa determined to observe the principles of religion with great vows and under strict austerities. His name is associated with many historical events, and it appears that the great mystic could be both easily satisfied and easily annoyed, like Lord Çiva. When he was satisfied, he could do tremendous good to the servitor, but if he was dissatisfied he could bring about the greatest calamity. Kumäré Kunté, at her father’s house, used to minister all kinds of services to all great brähmaëas, and being satisfied with her good reception Durväsä Muni blessed her with a power to call any demigod she desired. It is understood that he was a plenary incarnation of Lord Çiva, and thus he could be either easily satisfied or annoyed. He was a great devotee of Lord Çiva, and by Lord Çiva’s order he Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

accepted the priesthood of King Çvetaketu because of the King’s performance of sacrifice for one hundred years. Sometimes he used to visit the parliamentary assembly of the heavenly kingdom of Indradeva. He could travel in space by his great mystic powers, and it is understood that he traveled a great distance through space, even up to the Vaikuëöha planets beyond material space. He traveled all these long distances within one year, during his quarrel with King Ambaréña, the great devotee and Emperor of the world. He had about ten thousand disciples, and wherever he visited and became a guest of the great kñatriya kings, he used to be accompanied by a number of followers. Once he visited the house of Duryodhana, the enemy cousin of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. Duryodhana was intelligent enough to satisfy the brähmaëa by all means, and the great åñi wanted to give some benediction to Duryodhana. Duryodhana knew his mystic powers, and he knew also that the mystic brähmaëa, if dissatisfied, could cause some havoc, and thus he designed to engage the brähmaëa to show his wrath upon his enemy cousins, the Päëòavas. When the åñi wanted to award some benediction to Duryodhana, the latter wished that he should visit the house of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, who was the eldest and chief among all his cousins. But by his request he would go to him after he had finished his meals with his Queen, Draupadé. Duryodhana knew that after Draupadé’s dinner it would be impossible for Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira to receive such a large number of brähmaëa guests, and thus the åñi would be annoyed and would create some trouble for his cousin Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. That was the plan of Duryodhana. Durväsä Muni agreed to this proposal, and he approached the King in exile, according to the plan of Duryodhana, after the King and Draupadé had finished their meals. On his arrival at the door of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, he was at once well received, and the King requested him to finish his noontime religious rites in the river, for by that time the foodstuff would be prepared. Durväsä Muni, along with his large number of disciples, went to take a bath in the river, and Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira was in great anxiety about the guests. As long as Draupadé had not taken her meals, food could be served to any number of guests, but the åñi, by the plan of Duryodhana, reached there after Draupadé had finished her meals. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

When the devotees are put into difficulty, they have an opportunity to recollect the Lord with rapt attention. So Draupadé was thinking of Lord Kåñëa in that dangerous position, and the all-pervading Lord could at once know the dangerous position of His devotees. He therefore came there on the scene and asked Draupadé to give whatever food she might have in her stock. On her being so requested by the Lord, Draupadé was sorrowful because the Supreme Lord asked her for some food and she was unable to supply it at that time. She said to the Lord that the mysterious dish which she had received from the sun-god could supply any amount of food if she herself had not eaten. But on that day she had already taken her meals, and thus they were in danger. By expressing her difficulties she began to cry before the Lord as only a woman would do in such a position. The Lord, however, asked Draupadé to bring up the cooking pots to see if there was any particle of foodstuff left, and on Draupadé’s doing so, the Lord found some particle of vegetable sticking to the pot. The Lord at once picked it up and ate it. After doing so, the Lord asked Draupadé to call for her guests, the company of Durväsä. Bhéma was sent to call them from the river. Bhéma said, “Why are you delaying, sirs? Come on, the food is ready for you.” But the brähmaëas, because of Lord Kåñëa’s accepting a little particle of food, felt sumptuously fed, even while they were in the water. They thought that since Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira must have prepared many valuable dishes for them and since they were not hungry and could not eat, the King would feel very sorry, so it was better not to go there. Thus they decided to go away. This incident proves that the Lord is the greatest mystic, and therefore He is known as Yogeçvara. Another instruction is that every householder must offer food to the Lord, and the result will be that everyone, even a company of guests numbering ten thousand, will be satisfied because of the Lord’s being satisfied. That is the way of devotional service. TEXT 12 YataeJaSaaQa >aGavaNa( YauiDa éUl/PaaiaqZMak-a]‚ raJaNYavYaRrQaMaaaeJaNaaid‚ ZvEKYaaÜYaSYa ‰TavaiNaiTa ivPa[l/BDa" ) Sa:Yau" Sa%ev iPaTa*vtaNaYaSYa Sav| Saehe MahaNMaihTaYaa ku-MaTaerga& Mae )) 19 )) çayyäsanäöana-vikatthana-bhojanädiñv aikyäd vayasya åtavän iti vipralabdhaù sakhyuù sakheva pitåvat tanayasya sarvaà sehe mahän mahitayä kumater aghaà me SYNONYMS çayya—sleeping on one bed; äsana—sitting on one seat; aöana—walking together; vikatthana—self-adoration; bhojana—dining together; ädiñu—and in all such dealings; aikyät—because of oneness; vayasya—O my friend; åtavän—truthful; iti—thus; vipralabdhaù—misbehaved; sakhyuù—unto a friend; sakhä iva—just like a friend; pitåvat—just like the father; tanayasya—of a child; sarvam—all; sehe—tolerated; mahän—great; mahitayä—by glories; kumateù—of one who is of low mentality; agham—offense; me—mine. TRANSLATION Generally both of us used to live together and sleep, sit and loiter together. And at the time of advertising oneself for acts of chivalry, sometimes, if there were any irregularity, I used to reproach Him by saying, “My friend, You are very truthful.” Even in those hours when His value was minimized, He, being the Supreme Soul, used to tolerate all those utterings of mine, excusing me exactly as a true friend excuses his true friend, or a father excuses his son. PURPORT Since the Supreme Lord Çré Kåñëa is all-perfect, His transcendental Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

pastimes with His pure devotees never lack anything in any respect, either as a friend, son or lover. The Lord relishes the reproaches of friends, parents or fiancees more than the Vedic hymns offered to Him by great learned scholars and religionists in an official fashion. TEXT 20 Saae_h& Na*PaeNd] rihTa" PauåzaetaMaeNa Sa:Yaa iPa[YaeaSMaNa( huTa& ku-hk-raÖiMavaeáMaUZYaaMa( )) 21 )) tad vai dhanus ta iñavaù sa ratho hayäs te Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

so ’haà rathé nåpatayo yata änamanti sarvaà kñaëena tad abhüd asad éça-riktaà bhasman hutaà kuhaka-räddham ivoptam üñyäm SYNONYMS tat—the same; vai—certainly; dhanuù te—the same bow; iñavaù—arrows; saù—the very same; rathaù—chariot; hayäù te—the very same horses; saù aham—I am the same Arjuna; rathé—the chariot-fighter; nåpatayaù—all the kings; yataù—whom; änamanti—offered their respects; sarvam—all; kñaëena—at a moment’s notice; tat—all those; abhüt—became; asat—useless; éça—because of the Lord; riktam—being void; bhasman—ashes; hutam—offering butter; kuhaka-räddham—money created by magical feats; iva—like that; uptam—sown; üñyäm—in barren land. TRANSLATION I have the very same Gäëòéva bow, the same arrows, the same chariot drawn by the same horses, and I use them as the same Arjuna to whom all the kings offered their due respects. But in the absence of Lord Kåñëa, all of them, at a moment’s notice, have become null and void. It is exactly like offering clarified butter on ashes, accumulating money with a magic wand or sowing seeds on barren land. PURPORT As we have discussed more than once, one should not be puffed up by borrowed plumes. All energies and powers are derived from the supreme source, Lord Kåñëa, and they act as long as He desires and cease to function as soon as He withdraws. All electrical energies are received from the powerhouse, and as soon as the powerhouse stops supplying energy, the bulbs are of no use. In a moment’s time such energies can be generated or withdrawn by the supreme will of the Lord. Material civilization without the blessing of the Lord is child’s play only. As long as the parents allow the child to play, it is all right. As soon as the parents withdraw, the child has to stop. Human Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

civilization and all activities thereof must be dovetailed with the supreme blessing of the Lord, and without this blessing all advancement of human civilization is like decoration on a dead body. It is said here that a dead civilization and its activities are something like clarified butter on ashes, the accumulation of money by a magic wand and the sowing of seeds in a barren land. TEXTS 22–23 raJa&STvYaaNauPa*íaNaa& Sauôda& Na" SauôTPaure ) ivPa[XaaPaivMaU!aNaa& iNaganTaa& Mauiíi>aiMaRQa" )) 22 )) vaåau" ) YadUNa( Yadui>arNYaaeNYa& >aU>aaraNa( SaÅhar h )) 26 )) jalaukasäà jale yadvan mahänto ’danty aëéyasaù durbalän balino räjan mahänto balino mithaù evaà baliñöhair yadubhir Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

mahadbhir itarän vibhuù yadün yadubhir anyonyaà bhü-bhärän saïjahära ha SYNONYMS jalaukasäm—of the aquatics; jale—in the water; yadvat—as it is; mahäntaù—the larger one; adanti—swallows; aëéyasaù—smaller ones; durbalän—the weak; balinaù—the stronger; räjan—O King; mahäntaù—the strongest; balinaù—less strong; mithaù—in a duel; evam—thus; baliñöhaiù—by the strongest; yadubhiù—by the descendants of Yadu; mahadbhiù—one who has greater strength; itarän—the common ones; vibhuù—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yadün—all the Yadus; yadubhiù—by the Yadus; anyonyam—among one another; bhü-bhärän—the burden of the world; saïjahära—has unloaded; ha—in the past. TRANSLATION O King, as in the ocean the bigger and stronger aquatics swallow up the smaller and weaker ones, so also the Supreme Personality of Godhead, to lighten the burden of the earth, has engaged the stronger Yadu to kill the weaker, and the bigger Yadu to kill the smaller. PURPORT In the material world the struggle for existence and survival of the fittest are laws because in the material world there is disparity between conditioned souls due to everyone’s desire to lord it over the material resources. This very mentality of lording it over the material nature is the root cause of conditioned life. And to give facility to such imitation lords, the illusory energy of the Lord has created a disparity between conditioned living beings by creating the stronger and the weaker in every species of life. The mentality of lording it over the material nature and the creation has naturally created a disparity and therefore the law of struggle for existence. In the spiritual world there is no such disparity, nor is there such a struggle for existence. In the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

spiritual world there is no struggle for existence because everyone there exists eternally. There is no disparity because everyone wants to render service to the Supreme Lord, and no one wants to imitate the Lord in becoming the beneficiary. The Lord, being creator of everything, including the living beings, factually is the proprietor and enjoyer of everything that be, but in the material world, by the spell of mäyä, or illusion, this eternal relation with the Supreme Personality of Godhead is forgotten, and so the living being is conditioned under the law of struggle for existence and survival of the fittest. TEXT 27 deXak-al/aQaRYau¢-aiNa ôtaaPaaePaXaMaaiNa c ) hriNTa SMarTaiêta& GaaeivNdai>aihTaaiNa Mae )) 27 )) deça-kälärtha-yuktäni håt-täpopaçamäni ca haranti smarataç cittaà govindäbhihitäni me SYNONYMS deça—space; käla—time; artha—importance; yuktäni—impregnated with; håt—the heart; täpa—burning; upaçamäni—extinguishing; ca—and; haranti—are attracting; smarataù—by remembering; cittam—mind; govinda—the Supreme Personality of pleasure; abhihitäni—narrated by; me—unto me. TRANSLATION Now I am attracted to those instructions imparted to me by the Personality of Godhead [Govinda] because they are impregnated with instructions for relieving the burning heart in all circumstances of time and space. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Herein Arjuna refers to the instruction of the Bhagavad-gétä, which was imparted to him by the Lord on the Battlefield of Kurukñetra. The Lord left behind Him the instructions of the Bhagavad-gétä not for the benefit of Arjuna alone, but also for all time and in all lands. The Bhagavad-gétä, being spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the essence of all Vedic wisdom. It is nicely presented by the Lord Himself for all who have very little time to go through the vast Vedic literatures like the Upaniñads, Puräëas and Vedänta-sütras. It is put within the study of the great historical epic Mahäbhärata, which was especially prepared for the less intelligent class, namely the women, the laborers and those who are worthless descendants of the brähmaëas, kñatriyas and higher sections of the vaiçyas. The problem which arose in the heart of Arjuna on the Battlefield of Kurukñetra was solved by the teachings of the Bhagavad-gétä. Again, after the departure of the Lord from the vision of earthly people, when Arjuna was face to face with being vanquished in his acquired power and prominence, he wanted again to remember the great teachings of the Bhagavad-gétä just to teach all concerned that the Bhagavad-gétä can be consulted in all critical times, not only for solace from all kinds of mental agonies, but also for the way out of great entanglements which may embarrass one in some critical hour. The merciful Lord left behind Him the great teachings of the Bhagavad-gétä so that one can take the instructions of the Lord even when He is not visible to material eyesight. Material senses cannot have any estimation of the Supreme Lord, but by His inconceivable power the Lord can incarnate Himself to the sense perception of the conditioned souls in a suitable manner through the agency of matter, which is also another form of the Lord’s manifested energy. Thus the Bhagavad-gétä, or any authentic scriptural sound representation of the Lord, is also the incarnation of the Lord. There is no difference between the sound representation of the Lord and the Lord Himself. One can derive the same benefit from the Bhagavad-gétä as Arjuna did in the personal presence of the Lord. The faithful human being who is desirous of being liberated from the clutches of material existence can very easily take advantage of the Bhagavad-gétä, and with this in view, the Lord instructed Arjuna as if Arjuna Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

were in need of it. In the Bhagavad-gétä, five important factors of knowledge have been delineated pertaining to (1) the Supreme Lord, (2) the living being, (3) nature, (4) time and space and (5) the process of activity. Out of these, the Supreme Lord and the living being are qualitatively one. The difference between the two has been analyzed as the difference between the whole and the part and parcel. Nature is inert matter displaying the interaction of three different modes, and eternal time and unlimited space are considered to be beyond the existence of the material nature. Activities of the living being are different varieties of aptitudes which can entrap or liberate the living being within and without material nature. All these subject matters are concisely discussed in the Bhagavad-gétä, and later the subject matters are elaborated in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam for further enlightenment. Out of the five subjects, the Supreme Lord, the living entity, nature, and time and space are eternal, but the living entity, nature and time are under the direction of the Supreme Lord, who is absolute and completely independent of any other control. The Supreme Lord is the supreme controller. The material activity of the living being is beginningless, but it can be rectified by transferral into the spiritual quality. Thus it can cease its material qualitative reactions. Both the Lord and the living entity are cognizant, and both have the sense of identification, of being conscious as a living force. But the living being under the condition of material nature, called mahat-tattva, misidentifies himself as being different from the Lord. The whole scheme of Vedic wisdom is targeted to the aim of eradicating such a misconception and thus liberating the living being from the illusion of material identification. When such an illusion is eradicated by knowledge and renunciation, the living beings are responsible actors and enjoyers also. The sense of enjoyment in the Lord is real, but such a sense in the living being is a sort of wishful desire only. This difference in consciousness is the distinction of the two identities, namely the Lord and the living being. Otherwise there is no difference between the Lord and the living being. The living being is therefore eternally one and different simultaneously. The whole instruction of the Bhagavad-gétä stands on this principle. In the Bhagavad-gétä the Lord and the living beings are both described as sanätana, or eternal, and the Lord’s abode, far beyond the material sky, is also Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

described as sanätana. The living being is invited to live in the sanätana existence of the Lord, and the process which can help a living being to approach the Lord’s abode, where the liberated activity of the soul is exhibited, is called sanätana-dharma. One cannot, however, reach the eternal abode of the Lord without being free from the misconception of material identification, and the Bhagavad-gétä gives us the clue how to achieve this stage of perfection. The process of being liberated from the misconception of material identification is called, in different stages, fruitive activity, empiric philosophy and devotional service, up to transcendental realization. Such transcendental realization is made possible by dovetailing all the above items in relation with the Lord. Prescribed duties of the human being, as directed in the Vedas, can gradually purify the sinful mind of the conditioned soul and raise him to the stage of knowledge. The purified stage of acquiring knowledge becomes the basis of devotional service to the Lord. As long as one is engaged in researching the solution of the problems of life, his knowledge is called jïäna, or purified knowledge, but on realizing the actual solution of life, one becomes situated in the devotional service of the Lord. The Bhagavad-gétä begins with the problems of life by discriminating the soul from the elements of matter and proves by all reason and argument that the soul is indestructible in all circumstances and that the outer covering of matter, the body and the mind, change for another term of material existence which is full of miseries. The Bhagavad-gétä is therefore meant for terminating all different types of miseries, and Arjuna took shelter of this great knowledge, which had been imparted to him during the Kurukñetra battle. TEXT 28 SaUTa ovac Wv& icNTaYaTaae iJaZa¢-ya iNaMaRiQaTaaXaezk-zaYaiDaza*TaaTMaa YauiDaiïr" )) 32 )) niçamya bhagavan-märgaà saàsthäà yadu-kulasya ca svaù-pathäya matià cakre nibhåtätmä yudhiñöhiraù SYNONYMS niçamya—deliberating; bhagavat—regarding the Lord; märgam—the ways of His appearance and disappearance; saàsthäm—end; yadu-kulasya—of the dynasty of King Yadu; ca—also; svaù—the abode of the Lord; pathäya—on the way of; matim—desire; cakre—gave attention; nibhåta-ätmä—lonely and alone; yudhiñöhiraù—King Yudhiñöhira. TRANSLATION Upon hearing of Lord Kåñëa’s returning to His abode, and upon understanding the end of the Yadu dynasty’s earthly manifestation, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira decided to go back home, back to Godhead. PURPORT Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira also turned his attention to the instructions of the Bhagavad-gétä after hearing about the Lord’s departure from the vision of earthly people. He began to deliberate on the Lord’s way of appearance and departure. The mission of the Lord’s appearance and disappearance in the mortal universe is completely dependent on His supreme will. He is not forced to appear or disappear by any superior energy, as the living beings appear and Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

disappear, being forced by the laws of nature. Whenever the Lord likes, He can appear Himself from anywhere and everywhere without disturbing His appearance and disappearance in any other place. He is like the sun. The sun appears and disappears on its own accord at any place without disturbing its presence in other places. The sun appears in the morning in India without disappearing from the Western Hemisphere. The sun is present everywhere and anywhere all over the solar system, but it so appears that in a particular place the sun appears in the morning and also disappears at some fixed time in the evening. The time limitation even of the sun is of no concern, and so what to speak of the Supreme Lord who is the creator and controller of the sun. Therefore, in the Bhagavad-gétä it is stated that anyone who factually understands the transcendental appearance and disappearance of the Lord by His inconceivable energy becomes liberated from the laws of birth and death and is placed in the eternal spiritual sky where the Vaikuëöha planets are. There such liberated persons can eternally live without the pangs of birth, death, old age and disease. In the spiritual sky the Lord and those who are eternally engaged in the transcendental loving service of the Lord are all eternally young because there is no old age and disease and there is no death. Because there is no death there is no birth. It is concluded, therefore, that simply by understanding the Lord’s appearance and disappearance in truth, one can attain the perfectional stage of eternal life. Therefore, Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira also began to consider going back to Godhead. The Lord appears on the earth or any other mortal planet along with His associates who live with Him eternally, and the members of the Yadu family who were engaged in supplementing the pastimes of the Lord are no other than His eternal associates, and so also Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira and his brothers and mother, etc. Since the appearance and disappearance of the Lord and His eternal associates are transcendental, one should not be bewildered by the external features of appearance and disappearance. TEXT 33 Pa*QaaPYaNaué[uTYa DaNaÅYaaeidTa& Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

NaaXa& YadUNaa& >aGavÓiTa& c TaaMa( ) Wk-aNTa>a¢-ya >aGavTYaDaae+aJae iNaveiXaTaaTMaaeParraMa Sa&Sa*Tae" )) 33 )) påthäpy anuçrutya dhanaïjayoditaà näçaà yadünäà bhagavad-gatià ca täm ekänta-bhaktyä bhagavaty adhokñaje niveçitätmopararäma saàsåteù SYNONYMS påthä—Kunté; api—also; anuçrutya—overhearing; dhanaïjaya—Arjuna; uditam—uttered by; näçam—end; yadünäm—of the Yadu dynasty; bhagavat—of the Personality of Godhead; gatim—disappearance; ca—also; täm—all those; eka-anta—unalloyed; bhaktyä—devotion; bhagavati—unto the Supreme Lord, Çré Kåñëa; adhokñaje—transcendence; niveçita-ätmä—with full attention; upararäma—became released from; saàsåteù—material existence. TRANSLATION Kunté, after overhearing Arjuna’s telling of the end of the Yadu dynasty and disappearance of Lord Kåñëa, engaged in the devotional service of the transcendental Personality of Godhead with full attention and thus gained release from the course of material existence. PURPORT The setting of the sun does not mean the end of the sun. It means that the sun is out of our sight. Similarly, the end of the mission of the Lord on a particular planet or universe only means that He is out of our sight. The end of the Yadu dynasty also does not mean that it is annihilated. It disappears, along with the Lord, out of our sight. As Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira decided to prepare to go back to Godhead, so also Kunté decided, and thus she fully engaged herself in the transcendental devotional service of the Lord which guarantees one a passport for going back to Godhead after quitting this present material body. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The beginning of devotional service to the Lord is the beginning of spiritualizing the present body, and thus an unalloyed devotee of the Lord loses all material contact in the present body. The abode of the Lord is not a myth, as is thought by the unbelievers or ignorant people, but one cannot reach there by any material means like a sputnik or space capsule. But one can certainly reach there after leaving this present body, and one must prepare himself to go back to Godhead by practicing devotional service. That guarantees a passport for going back to Godhead, and Kunté adopted it. TEXT 34 YaYaahrd( >auvae >aar& Taa& TaNau& ivJahavJa" ) k-aar" +aiPaTaae YaeNa JahaE TaÀ k-le/vrMa( )) 35 )) yathä matsyädi-rüpäëi dhatte jahyäd yathä naöaù bhü-bhäraù kñapito yena jahau tac ca kalevaram SYNONYMS yathä—as much as; matsya-ädi—incarnation as a fish, etc.; rüpäëi—forms; dhatte—eternally accepts; jahyät—apparently relinquishes; yathä—exactly like; naöaù—magician; bhü-bhäraù—burden of the world; kñapitaù—relieved; yena—by which; jahau—let go; tat—that; ca—also; kalevaram—body. TRANSLATION The Supreme Lord relinquished the body which He manifested to diminish the burden of the earth. Just like a magician, He relinquishes one body to accept different ones, like the fish incarnation and others. PURPORT The Supreme Lord Personality of Godhead is neither impersonal nor formless, but His body is nondifferent from Him, and therefore He is known as the embodiment of eternity, knowledge and bliss. In the Båhad-vaiñëava Tantra it is clearly mentioned that anyone who considers the form of Lord Kåñëa to be made of material energy must be ostracized by all means. And if by chance the face of such an infidel is seen, one must clean himself by jumping in the river with his clothing. The Lord is described as amåta, or deathless, because He has no material body. Under the circumstances, the Lord’s dying or quitting His body is like the jugglery of a magician. The magician shows by his tricks that he is cut to pieces, burnt to ashes or made unconscious by hypnotic influences, but all are false shows only. Factually the magician himself is Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

neither burnt to ashes nor cut to pieces, nor is he dead or unconscious at any stage of his magical demonstration. Similarly, the Lord has His eternal forms of unlimited variety, of which the fish incarnation, as was exhibited within this universe, is also one. Because there are innumerable universes, somewhere or other the fish incarnation must be manifesting His pastimes without cessation. In this verse, the particular word dhatte (“eternally accepted,” and not the word dhitvä, “accepted for the occasion”) is used. The idea is that the Lord does not create the fish incarnation; He eternally has such a form, and the appearance and disappearance of such an incarnation serves particular purposes. In the Bhagavad-gétä (7.24–25) the Lord says, “The impersonalists think that I have no form, that I am formless, but that at present I have accepted a form to serve a purpose, and now I am manifested. But such speculators are factually without sharp intelligence. Though they may be good scholars in the Vedic literatures, they are practically ignorant of My inconceivable energies and My eternal forms of personality. The reason is that I reserve the power of not being exposed to the nondevotees by My mystic curtain. The less intelligent fools are therefore unaware of My eternal form, which is never to be vanquished and is unborn.” In the Padma Puräëa it is said that those who are envious and always angry at the Lord are unfit to know the actual and eternal form of the Lord. In the Bhägavatam also it is said that the Lord appeared like a thunderbolt to those who were wrestlers. Çiçupäla, at the time of being killed by the Lord, could not see Him as Kåñëa, being dazzled by the glare of the brahmajyoti. Therefore, the temporary manifestation of the Lord as a thunderbolt to the wrestlers appointed by Kaàsa, or the glaring appearance of the Lord before Çiçupäla, was relinquished by the Lord, but the Lord as a magician is eternally existent and is never vanquished in any circumstance. Such forms are temporarily shown to the asuras only, and when such exhibitions are withdrawn, the asuras think that the Lord is no more existent, just as the foolish audience thinks the magician to be burnt to ashes or cut to pieces. The conclusion is that the Lord has no material body, and therefore He is never to be killed or changed by His transcendental body. TEXT 36 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Yada Mauku-Ndae >aGavaiNaMaa& Mahq& JahaE SvTaNva é[vauiv )) 45 )) sarve tam anunirjagmur Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bhrätaraù kåta-niçcayäù kalinädharma-mitreëa dåñövä spåñöäù prajä bhuvi SYNONYMS sarve—all his younger brothers; tam—him; anunirjagmuù—left home by following the elder; bhrätaraù—brothers; kåta-niçcayäù—decidedly; kalinä—by the age of Kali; adharma—principle of irreligion; mitreëa—by the friend; dåñövä—observing; spåñöäù—having overtaken; prajäù—all citizens; bhuvi—on the earth. TRANSLATION The younger brothers of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira observed that the age of Kali had already arrived throughout the world and that the citizens of the kingdom were already affected by irreligious practice. Therefore they decided to follow in the footsteps of their elder brother. PURPORT The younger brothers of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira were already obedient followers of the great Emperor, and they had sufficiently been trained to know the ultimate goal of life. They therefore decidedly followed their eldest brother in rendering devotional service to Lord Çré Kåñëa. According to the principles of sanätana-dharma, one must retire from family life after half the duration of life is finished and must engage himself in self-realization. But the question of engaging oneself is not always decided. Sometimes retired men are bewildered about how to engage themselves for the last days of life. Here is a decision by authorities like the Päëòavas. All of them engaged themselves in favorably culturing the devotional service of the Lord Çré Kåñëa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. According to Svämé Çrédhara, dharma, artha, käma and mokña, or fruitive activities, philosophical speculations and salvation, as conceived by several persons, are not the ultimate goal of life. They are more or less practiced by persons who have no information of the ultimate goal of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

life. The ultimate goal of life is already indicated by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gétä (18.64), and the Päëòavas were intelligent enough to follow it without hesitation. TEXT 46 Tae SaaDauk*-TaSavaRQaaR jaTvaTYaiNTak-MaaTMaNa" ) MaNaSaa DaarYaaMaaSauvŒku-aGaviTa ùek-aNTaMaiTaraPa TaMa( )) 50 )) draupadé ca tadäjïäya paténäm anapekñatäm väsudeve bhagavati hy ekänta-matir äpa tam SYNONYMS draupadé—Draupadé (the wife of the Päëòavas); ca—and; tadä—at that time; äjïäya—knowing Lord Kåñëa fully well; paténäm—of the husbands; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

anapekñatäm—who did not care for her; väsudeve—unto Lord Väsudeva (Kåñëa); bhagavati—the personality of Godhead; hi—exactly; eka-anta—absolutely; matiù—concentration; äpa—got; tam—Him (the Lord). TRANSLATION Draupadé also saw that her husbands, without caring for her, were leaving home. She knew well about Lord Väsudeva, Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead. Both she and Subhadrä became absorbed in thoughts of Kåñëa and attained the same results as their husbands. PURPORT When flying an airplane, one cannot take care of other planes. Everyone has to take care of his own plane, and if there is any danger, no other plane can help another in that condition. Similarly, at the end of life, when one has to go back home, back to Godhead, everyone has to take care of himself without help rendered by another. The help is, however, offered on the ground before flying in space. Similarly, the spiritual master, the father, the mother, the relatives, the husband and others can all render help during one’s lifetime, but while crossing the sea one has to take care of himself and utilize the instructions formerly received. Draupadé had five husbands, and no one asked Draupadé to come; Draupadé had to take care of herself without waiting for her great husbands. And because she was already trained, she at once took to concentration upon the lotus feet of Lord Väsudeva, Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead. The wives also got the same result as their husbands, in the same manner; that is to say, without changing their bodies they reached the destination of Godhead. Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura suggests that both Draupadé and Subhadrä, although her name is not mentioned herein, got the same result. None of them had to quit the body. TEXT 51 Ya" é[ÖYaETad( >aGaviTPa[YaaaJaaTak-aeivda" SaMaaidXaNa( ivPa[ Mahd(GauaUirdi+aaaGa Yaid k*-Za" ) Ahae Na*l/aeke- PaqYaeTa hirl/Il/aMa*Ta& vc" )) 8 )) na kaçcin mriyate tävad yävad ästa ihäntakaù etad-arthaà hi bhagavän ähütaù paramarñibhiù aho nå-loke péyeta hari-lélämåtaà vacaù SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

na—not; kaçcit—anyone; mriyate—will die; tävat—so long; yävat—as long as; äste—is present; iha—herein; antakaù—one who causes the end of life; etat—this; artham—reason; hi—certainly; bhagavän—the representative of the Lord; ähütaù—invited; parama-åñibhiù—by the great sages; aho—alas; nå-loke—in human society; péyeta—let them drink; hari-lélä—transcendental pastimes of the Lord; amåtam—nectar for eternal life; vacaù—narrations. TRANSLATION As long as Yamaräja, who causes everyone’s death, is present here, no one shall meet with death. The great sages have invited the controller of death, Yamaräja, who is the representative of the Lord. Living beings who are under his grip should take advantage by hearing the deathless nectar in the form of this narration of the transcendental pastimes of the Lord. PURPORT Every human being dislikes meeting death, but he does not know how to get rid of death. The surest remedy for avoiding death is to accustom oneself to hearing the nectarean pastimes of the Lord as they are systematically narrated in the text of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. It is advised herein, therefore, that any human being who desires freedom from death should take to this course of life as recommended by the åñis headed by Çaunaka. TEXT 9 MaNdSYa MaNdPa[jSYa vYaae MaNdaYauzê vE ) iNad]Yaa ihYaTae Na¢&- idva c VYaQaRk-MaRi>a" )) 9 )) mandasya manda-prajïasya vayo mandäyuñaç ca vai nidrayä hriyate naktaà divä ca vyartha-karmabhiù

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS mandasya—of the lazy; manda—paltry; prajïasya—of intelligence; vayaù—age; manda—short; äyuñaù—of duration of life; ca—and; vai—exactly; nidrayä—by sleeping; hriyate—passes away; naktam—night; divä—daytime; ca—also; vyartha—for nothing; karmabhiù—by activities. TRANSLATION Lazy human beings with paltry intelligence and a short duration of life pass the night sleeping and the day performing activities that are for naught. PURPORT The less intelligent do not know the real value of the human form of life. The human form is a special gift of material nature in the course of her enforcing stringent laws of miseries upon the living being. It is a chance to achieve the highest boon of life, namely to get out of the entanglement of repeated birth and death. The intelligent take care of this important gift by strenuously endeavoring to get out of the entanglement. But the less intelligent are lazy and unable to evaluate the gift of the human body to achieve liberation from the material bondage; they become more interested in so-called economic development and work very hard throughout life simply for the sense enjoyment of the temporary body. Sense enjoyment is also allowed to the lower animals by the law of nature, and thus a human being is also destined to a certain amount of sense enjoyment according to his past or present life. But one should definitely try to understand that sense enjoyment is not the ultimate goal of human life. Herein it is said that during the daytime one works “for nothing” because the aim is nothing but sense enjoyment. We can particularly observe how the human being is engaged for nothing in the great cities and industrial towns. There are so many things manufactured by human energy, but they are all meant for sense enjoyment, and not for getting out of material bondage. And after working hard during the daytime, a tired man either sleeps or engages in sex habits at night. That is the program of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

materialistic civilized life for the less intelligent. Therefore they are designated herein as lazy, unfortunate and short-lived. TEXT 10 SaUTa ovac Yada Parqi+aTa( ku-åJaa®le/_vSaTa( k-il&/ Pa[iví& iNaJac§-viTaRTae ) iNaXaMYa vaTaaRMaNaiTaiPa[Yaa& TaTa" XaraSaNa& Sa&YauGaXaaEiaRvRTaRSae YaeNa PaadEl/aeRk-Sau%avhE" )) 25 )) dharaëy uväca bhavän hi veda tat sarvaà yan mäà dharmänupåcchasi caturbhir vartase yena pädair loka-sukhävahaiù SYNONYMS dharaëé uväca—mother earth replied; bhavän—your good self; hi—certainly; veda—know; tat sarvam—all that you have inquired from me; yat—that; mäm—from me; dharma—O personality of religious principles; anupåcchasi—you have inquired one after another; caturbhiù—by four; vartase—you exist; yena—by which; pädaiù—by the legs; loka—in each and every planet; sukha-ävahaiù—increasing the happiness. TRANSLATION The earthly deity [in the form of a cow] thus replied to the personality of religious principles [in the form of a bull]: O Dharma, whatever you have inquired from me shall be known to you. I shall try to reply to all those questions. Once you too were maintained by your four legs, and you increased happiness all over the universe by the mercy of the Lord. PURPORT The principles of religion are laid down by the Lord Himself, and the executor of such laws is Dharmaräja, or Yamaräja. Such principles work fully in the age of Satya-yuga; in the Tretä-yuga they are reduced by a fraction of one fourth; in the Dväpara-yuga they are reduced to one half, and in the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Kali-yuga they are reduced to one fourth, gradually diminishing to the zero point, and then devastation takes place. Happiness in the world depends proportionately on the maintenance of the religious principles, individually or collectively. The best part of valor is to maintain the principles despite all kinds of odds. Thus one can be happy during the span of life and ultimately return to Godhead. TEXTS 26–30 SaTYa& XaaEc& dYaa +aaiNTaSTYaaGa" SaNTaaez AaJaRvMa( ) XaMaae dMaSTaPa" SaaMYa& iTaiTa+aaePariTa" é[uTaMa( )) 26 )) jaNa& ivri¢-rEìYa| XaaEYa| TaeJaae bl&/ SMa*iTa" ) SvaTaN}Ya& k-aEXal&/ k-aiNTaDaŒYa| MaadRvMaev c )) 27 )) Pa[aGaL>Ya& Pa[é[Ya" Xaql&/ Sah AaeJaae bl&/ >aGa" ) GaaM>aqYa| SQaEYaRMaaiSTaKYa& k-IiTaRMaaRNaae_Nahx(k*-iTa" )) 28 )) WTae caNYae c >aGaviàTYaa Ya}a MahaGauaGavTPa[Paàa" ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Saa é[q" SvvaSaMarivNdvNa& ivhaYa YaTPaadSaaE>aGaMal&/ >aJaTae_Naur¢-a )) 32 )) TaSYaahMaBJaku-il/Xaax(ku-Xake-Tauke-TaE" é[qMaTPadE>aRGavTa" SaMal/x(k*-Taa®q ) }aqNaTYaraec oPal/>Ya TaTaae iv>aUiTa& l/aek-aNa( Sa Maa& VYaSa*JaduTSMaYaTaq& TadNTae )) 33 )) brahmädayo bahu-tithaà yad-apäìga-mokñakämäs tapaù samacaran bhagavat-prapannäù sä çréù sva-väsam aravinda-vanaà vihäya yat-päda-saubhagam alaà bhajate ’nuraktä tasyäham abja-kuliçäìkuça-ketu-ketaiù çrémat-padair bhagavataù samalaìkåtäìgé trén atyaroca upalabhya tato vibhütià lokän sa mäà vyasåjad utsmayatéà tad-ante SYNONYMS brahma-ädayaù—demigods such as Brahmä; bahu-titham—for many days; yat—of Lakñmé, the goddess of fortune; apäìga-mokña—glance of grace; kämäù—being desirous of; tapaù—penances; samacaran—executing; bhagavat—unto the Personality of Godhead; prapannäù—surrendered; sä—she (the goddess of fortune); çréù—Lakñméjé; sva-väsam—her own abode; aravinda-vanam—the forest of lotus flowers; vihäya—leaving aside; yat—whose; päda—feet; saubhagam—all-blissful; alam—without hesitation; bhajate—worships; anuraktä—being attached; tasya—His; aham—myself; abja—lotus flower; kuliça—thunderbolt; aìkuça—rod for driving elephants; ketu—flag; ketaiù—impressions; çrémat—the owner of all opulence; padaiù—by the soles of the feet; bhagavataù—of the Personality of Godhead; samalaìkåta-aìgé—one whose body is so decorated; trén—three; ati—superseding; aroce—beautifully decorated; upalabhya—having obtained; tataù—thereafter; vibhütim—specific powers; lokän—planetary systems; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

saù—He; mäm—me; vyasåjat—gave up; utsmayatém—while feeling proud; tat-ante—at the end. TRANSLATION Lakñméjé, the goddess of fortune, whose glance of grace was sought by demigods like Brahmä and for whom they surrendered many a day unto the Personality of Godhead, gave up her own abode in the forest of lotus flowers and engaged herself in the service of the lotus feet of the Lord. I was endowed with specific powers to supersede the fortune of all the three planetary systems by being decorated with the impressions of the flag, thunderbolt, elephant-driving rod and lotus flower, which are signs of the lotus feet of the Lord. But at the end, when I felt I was so fortunate, the Lord left me. PURPORT The beauty and opulence of the world can be enhanced by the grace of the Lord and not by any man-made planning. When the Lord Çré Kåñëa was present on this earth, the impressions of the special signs of His lotus feet were stamped on the dust, and as a result of this specific grace, the whole earth was made as perfect as possible. In other words, the rivers, the seas, the forests, the hills and the mines, which are the supplying agents for the necessities of men and animals, were fully discharging their respective duties. Therefore the riches of the world surpassed all the riches of all other planets in the three planetary systems of the universe. One should, therefore, ask that the grace of the Lord always be present on earth so that we may be favored with His causeless mercy and be happy, having all necessities of life. One may ask how we can detain the Supreme Lord on this earth after His mission is fulfilled and He has left this earth for His own abode. The answer is that there is no need to detain the Lord. The Lord, being omnipresent, can be present with us if we want Him at all. By His omnipresence, He can always be with us if we are attached to His devotional service by hearing, chanting, remembering, etc. There is nothing in the world with which the Lord is disconnected. The only thing we must learn is to excavate the source of connection and thus be linked with Him by offenseless service. We can be connected with Him by the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

transcendental sound representation of the Lord. The holy name of the Lord and the Lord Himself are identical, and one who chants the holy name of the Lord in an offenseless manner can at once realize that the Lord is present before him. Even by the vibration of radio sound, we can partially realize sound relativity, and by resounding the sound of transcendence we can verily feel the presence of the Lord. In this age, when everything is polluted by the contamination of Kali, it is instructed in the scriptures and preached by Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu that by chanting the holy name of the Lord, we can at once be free from contamination and gradually rise to the status of transcendence and go back to Godhead. The offenseless chanter of the holy name of the Lord is as auspicious as the Lord Himself, and the movement of pure devotees of the Lord all over the world can at once change the troublesome face of the world. Only by the propagation of the chanting of the holy name of the Lord can we be immune from all effects of the age of Kali. TEXT 34 Yaae vE MaMaaiTa>arMaaSaurv&Xaraja‚ Ma+aaEihaqrYaa vaca SaMaaraeiPaTak-aMauRk-" )) 4 )) papraccha ratham ärüòhaù kärtasvara-paricchadam megha-gambhérayä väcä samäropita-kärmukaù SYNONYMS papraccha—inquired; ratham—chariot; ärüòhaù—seated on; kärtasvara—gold; paricchadam—embossed with; megha—cloud; gambhérayä—exonerating; väcä—sound; samäropita—well equipped; kärmukaù—arrows and bow. TRANSLATION Mahäräja Parékñit, well equipped with arrows and bow and seated on a gold-embossed chariot, spoke to him [the çüdra] with a deep voice sounding like thunder. PURPORT An administrative head or king like Mahäräja Parékñit, with full majestic authority, well equipped with weapons to chastise miscreants, can challenge the agents of the age of Kali. Then only will it be possible to counteract the degraded age. And in the absence of such strong executive heads, there is always disruption of tranquillity. The elected show-bottle executive head, as representative of a degraded public, cannot be equal with a strong king like Mahäräja Parékñit. The dress or style of royal order does not count. It is one’s actions which are counted. TEXT 5 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

k-STv& MaC^raeYaa}a éucae VYaeTau Tae v*zl/ad( >aYaMa( ) Maa raedqrMb >ad]& Tae %l/aNaa& MaiYa XaaSTair )) 9 )) mä saurabheyätra çuco vyetu te våñaläd bhayam mä rodér amba bhadraà te khalänäà mayi çästari SYNONYMS mä—do not; saurabheya—O son of Surabhi; atra—in my kingdom; çucaù—lamentation; vyetu—let there be; te—your; våñalät—by the çüdra; bhayam—cause of fear; mä—do not; rodéù—cry; amba—mother cow; bhadram—all good; te—unto you; khalänäm—of the envious; mayi—while I am living; çästari—the ruler or subduer. TRANSLATION O son of Surabhi, you need lament no longer now. There is no need to fear this low-class çüdra. And, O mother cow, as long as I am living as the ruler and subduer of all envious men, there is no cause for you to cry. Everything will be good for you. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Protection of bulls and cows and all other animals can be possible only when there is a state ruled by an executive head like Mahäräja Parékñit. Mahäräja Parékñit addresses the cow as mother, for he is a cultured, twice-born, kñatriya king. Surabhi is the name of the cows which exist in the spiritual planets and are especially reared by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself. As men are made after the form and features of the Supreme Lord, so also the cows are made after the form and features of the surabhi cows in the spiritual kingdom. In the material world the human society gives all protection to the human being, but there is no law to protect the descendants of Surabhi, who can give all protection to men by supplying the miracle food, milk. But Mahäräja Parékñit and the Päëòavas were fully conscious of the importance of the cow and bull, and they were prepared to punish the cow-killer with all chastisement, including death. There has sometimes been agitation for the protection of the cow, but for want of pious executive heads and suitable laws, the cow and the bull are not given protection. The human society should recognize the importance of the cow and the bull and thus give all protection to these important animals, following in the footsteps of Mahäräja Parékñit. For protecting the cows and brahminical culture, the Lord, who is very kind to the cow and the brähmaëas (go-brähmaëa-hitäya), will be pleased with us and will bestow upon us real peace. TEXTS 10–11 YaSYa raí\e Pa[Jaa" SavaRñSYaNTae SaaDVYaSaaDaui>a" ) TaSYa MataSYa NaXYaiNTa k-IiTaRraYau>aRGaae GaiTa" )) 10 )) Wz raja& Parae DaMaaeR ùaTaaRNaaMaaiTaRiNaGa]h" ) ATa WNa& viDaZYaaiMa >aUTad]uhMaSataMaMa( )) 11 )) yasya räñöre prajäù sarväs trasyante sädhvy asädhubhiù tasya mattasya naçyanti kértir äyur bhago gatiù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

eña räjïäà paro dharmo hy ärtänäm ärti-nigrahaù ata enaà vadhiñyämi bhüta-druham asattamam SYNONYMS yasya—one whose; räñöre—in the state; prajäù—living beings; sarväù—one and all; trasyante—are terrified; sädhvi—O chaste one; asädhubhiù—by the miscreants; tasya—his; mattasya—of the illusioned; naçyanti—vanishes; kértiù—fame; äyuù—duration of life; bhagaù—fortune; gatiù—good rebirth; eñaù—these are; räjïäm—of the kings; paraù—superior; dharmaù—occupation; hi—certainly; ärtänäm—of the sufferers; ärti—sufferings; nigrahaù—subduing; ataù—therefore; enam—this man; vadhiñyämi—I shall kill; bhüta-druham—revolter against other living beings; asat-tamam—the most wretched. TRANSLATION O chaste one, the king’s good name, duration of life and good rebirth vanish when all kinds of living beings are terrified by miscreants in his kingdom. It is certainly the prime duty of the king to subdue first the sufferings of those who suffer. Therefore I must kill this most wretched man because he is violent against other living beings. PURPORT When there is some disturbance caused by wild animals in a village or town, the police or others take action to kill them. Similarly, it is the duty of the government to kill at once all bad social elements such as thieves, dacoits and murderers. The same punishment is also due to animal-killers because the animals of the state are also the prajä. Prajä means one who has taken birth in the state, and this includes both men and animals. Any living being who takes birth in a state has the primary right to live under the protection of the king. The jungle animals are also subject to the king, and they also have a right to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

live. So what to speak of domestic animals like the cows and bulls. Any living being, if he terrifies other living beings, is a most wretched subject, and the king should at once kill such a disturbing element. As the wild animal is killed when it creates disturbances, similarly any man who unnecessarily kills or terrifies the jungle animals or other animals must be punished at once. By the law of the Supreme Lord, all living beings, in whatever shape they may be, are the sons of the Lord, and no one has any right to kill another animal, unless it is so ordered by the codes of natural law. The tiger can kill a lower animal for his subsistence, but a man cannot kill an animal for his subsistence. That is the law of God, who has created the law that a living being subsists by eating another living being. Thus the vegetarians are also living by eating other living beings. Therefore, the law is that one should live only by eating specific living beings, as ordained by the law of God. The Éçopaniñad directs that one should live by the direction of the Lord and not at one’s sweet will. A man can subsist on varieties of grains, fruits and milk ordained by God, and there is no need of animal food, save and except in particular cases. The illusioned king or executive head, even though sometimes advertised as a great philosopher and learned scholar, will allow slaughterhouses in the state without knowing that torturing poor animals clears the way to hell for such foolish kings or executive heads. The executive head must always be alert to the safety of the prajäs, both man and animal, and inquire whether a particular living being is harassed at any place by another living being. The harassing living being must at once be caught and put to death, as shown by Mahäräja Parékñit. The people’s government, or government by the people, should not allow killing of innocent animals by the sweet will of foolish government men. They must know the codes of God, as mentioned in the revealed scriptures. Mahäräja Parékñit quotes here that according to the codes of God the irresponsible king or state executive jeopardizes his good name, duration of life, power and strength and ultimately his progressive march towards a better life and salvation after death. Such foolish men do not even believe in the existence of a next life. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

While commenting on this particular verse, we have in our presence the statement of a great modern politician who has recently died and left his will, which discloses his poor fund of knowledge of the codes of God mentioned by Mahäräja Parékñit. The politician was so ignorant of the codes of God that he writes: “I do not believe in any such ceremonies, and to submit to them, even as a matter of form, would be hypocrisy and an attempt to delude ourselves and others... I have no religious sentiment in the matter.” Contrasting these statements of a great politician in the modern age with those of Mahäräja Parékñit, we find a vast difference. Mahäräja Parékñit was pious according to the scriptural codes, whereas the modern politician goes by his personal belief and sentiments. Any great man of the material world is, after all, a conditioned soul. He is bound by his hands and feet by the ropes of material nature, and still the foolish conditioned soul thinks of himself as free to act by his whimsical sentiments. The conclusion is that people in the time of Mahäräja Parékñit were happy, and the animals were given proper protection because the executive head was not whimsical or ignorant of God’s law. Foolish, faithless creatures try to avoid the existence of the Lord and proclaim themselves secular at the cost of valuable human life. The human life is especially meant for knowing the science of God, but foolish creatures, especially in this age of Kali, instead of knowing God scientifically, make propaganda against religious belief as well as the existence of God, even though they are always bound by the laws of God by the symptoms of birth, death, old age and disease. TEXT 12 k-ae_v*êTa( Tav Paada&ñqNa( SaaEr>aeYa cTauZPad ) Maa >aUv&STvad*Xaa raí\e raja& k*-Zad]& v" SaaDaUNaaMak*-TaaGaSaaMa( ) AaTMavEæPYak-TaaRr& PaaQaaRNaa& k-IiTaRdUzauJa& Saa+aadMaTYaRSYaaiPa Saa®dMa( )) 15 )) anägaùsv iha bhüteñu ya ägas-kån niraìkuçaù ähartäsmi bhujaà säkñäd amartyasyäpi säìgadam SYNONYMS anägaùsu iha—to the offenseless; bhüteñu—living beings; yaù—the person; ägaù-kåt—commits offense; niraìkuçaù—upstart; ähartä asmi—I shall bring forth; bhujam—arms; säkñät—directly; amartyasya api—even one who is a demigod; sa-aìgadam—with decorations and armor. TRANSLATION An upstart living being who commits offenses by torturing those who are offenseless shall be directly uprooted by me, even though he be a denizen of heaven with armor and decorations. PURPORT The denizens of the heavenly kingdom are called amara, or deathless, due to their possessing a long span of life, far greater than that of the human beings. For a human being, who has only a maximum one-hundred-year duration of life, a span of life spreading over millions of years is certainly considered to be deathless. For example, from the Bhagavad-gétä we learn that Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

on the Brahmaloka planet the duration of one day is calculated to be 4,300,000 x 1,000 solar years. Similarly, in other heavenly planets one day is calculated to be six months of this planet, and the inhabitants get a life of ten million of their years. Therefore, in all higher planets, since the span of life is far greater than that of the human being, the denizens are called deathless by imagination, although actually no one within the material universe is deathless. Mahäräja Parékñit challenges even such denizens of heaven if they torture the offenseless. This means that the state executive head must be as strong as Mahäräja Parékñit so that he may be determined to punish the strongest offenders. It should be the principle of a state executive head that the offender of the codes of God is always punished. TEXT 16 rajae ih ParMaae DaMaR" SvDaMaRSQaaNauPaal/NaMa( ) XaaSaTaae_NYaaNa( YaQaaXaañMaNaaPaÛuTPaQaaiNah )) 16 )) räjïo hi paramo dharmaù sva-dharma-sthänupälanam çäsato ’nyän yathä-çästram anäpady utpathän iha SYNONYMS räjïaù—of the king or the executive head; hi—certainly; paramaù—supreme; dharmaù—occupational duty; sva-dharma-stha—one who is faithful to his prescribed duty; anupälanam—giving protection always; çäsataù—while ruling; anyän—others; yathä—according to; çästram—rulings of scriptures; anäpadi—without danger; utpathän—persons going astray; iha—as a matter of fact. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The supreme duty of the ruling king is to give all protection to law-abiding persons and to chastise those who stray from the ordinances of the scriptures in ordinary times, when there is no emergency. PURPORT In the scriptures there is mention of äpad-dharma, or occupational duty at times of extraordinary happenings. It is said that sometimes the great sage Viçvämitra had to live on the flesh of dogs in some extraordinary dangerous position. In cases of emergency, one may be allowed to live on the flesh of animals of all description, but that does not mean that there should be regular slaughterhouses to feed the animal-eaters and that this system should he encouraged by the state. No one should try to live on flesh in ordinary times simply for the sake of the palate. If anyone does so, the king or the executive head should punish him for gross enjoyment. There are regular scriptural injunctions for different persons engaged in different occupational duties, and one who follows them is called svadharma-stha, or faithful in one’s prescribed duties. In the Bhagavad-gétä (18.48) it is advised that one should not give up his occupational prescribed duties, even if they are not always flawless. Such sva-dharma might be violated in cases of emergency, if one is forced by circumstances, but they cannot be violated in ordinary times. The state executive head is to see that such sva-dharma is not changed by the follower, whatever it may be, and he should give all protection to the follower of sva-dharma. The violator is subject to punishment in terms of the çästra, and the duty of the king is to see that everyone strictly follows his occupational duty, as prescribed in the scripture. TEXT 17 DaMaR ovac WTad( v" PaaaYa& vc" ) Yaeza& Gaua ) Pauåz& Ta& ivJaaNaqMaae vaKYa>aedivMaaeihTaa" )) 18 )) na vayaà kleça-béjäni yataù syuù puruñarñabha puruñaà taà vijänémo väkya-bheda-vimohitäù SYNONYMS na—not; vayam—we; kleça-béjäni—the root cause of sufferings; yataù—wherefrom; syuù—it so happens; puruña-åñabha—O greatest of all human beings; puruñam—the person; tam—that; vijänémaù—know; väkya-bheda—difference of opinion; vimohitäù—bewildered by. TRANSLATION O greatest among human beings, it is very difficult to ascertain the particular miscreant who has caused our sufferings, because we are bewildered by all the different opinions of theoretical philosophers. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

There are many theoretical philosophers in the world who put forward their own theories of cause and effect especially about the cause of suffering and its effect on different living beings. Generally there are six great philosophers: Kaëäda, the author of Vaiçeñika philosophy; Gautama, the author of logic; Pataïjali, the author of mystic yoga; Kapila, the author of Säìkhya philosophy; Jaimini, the author of Karma-mémäàsä; and Vyäsadeva, the author of Vedänta-darçana. Although the bull, or the personality of religion, and the cow, the personality of the earth, knew perfectly well that the personality of Kali was the direct cause of their sufferings, still, as devotees of the Lord, they knew well also that without the sanction of the Lord no one could inflict trouble upon them. According to the Padma Puräëa, our present trouble is due to the fructifying of seedling sins, but even those seedling sins also gradually fade away by execution of pure devotional service. Thus even if the devotees see the mischief-mongers, they do not accuse them for the sufferings inflicted. They take it for granted that the mischief-monger is made to act by some indirect cause, and therefore they tolerate the sufferings, thinking them to be God-given in small doses, for otherwise the sufferings should have been greater. Mahäräja Parékñit wanted to get a statement of accusation against the direct mischief-monger, but they declined to give it on the abovementioned grounds. Speculative philosophers, however, do not recognize the sanction of the Lord; they try to find out the cause of sufferings in their own way, as will be described in the following verses. According to Çréla Jéva Gosvämé, such speculators are themselves bewildered, and thus they cannot know that the ultimate cause of all causes is the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead. TEXT 19 ke-icd( ivk-LPavSaNaa AahuraTMaaNaMaaTMaNa" ) dEvMaNYae_Pare k-MaR Sv>aavMaPare Pa[>auMa( )) 19 ))

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kecid vikalpa-vasanä ähur ätmänam ätmanaù daivam anye ’pare karma svabhävam apare prabhum SYNONYMS kecit—some of them; vikalpa-vasanäù—those who deny all kinds of duality; ähuù—declare; ätmänam—own self; ätmanaù—of the self; daivam—superhuman; anye—others; apare—someone else; karma—activity; svabhävam—material nature; apare—many other; prabhum—authorities. TRANSLATION Some of the philosophers, who deny all sorts of duality, declare that one’s own self is responsible for his personal happiness and distress. Others say that superhuman powers are responsible, while yet others say that activity is responsible, and the gross materialists maintain that nature is the ultimate cause. PURPORT As referred to above, philosophers like Jaimini and his followers establish that fruitive activity is the root cause of all distress and happiness, and that even if there is a superior authority, some superhuman powerful God or gods, He or they are also under the influence of fruitive activity because they reward result according to one’s action. They say that action is not independent because action is performed by some performer; therefore, the performer himself is the cause of his own happiness or distress. In the Bhagavad-gétä (6.5) also it is confirmed that by one’s mind, freed from material affection, one can deliver himself from the sufferings of material pangs. So one should not entangle oneself in matter by the mind’s material affections. Thus one’s own mind is one’s friend or enemy in one’s material happiness and distress. Atheistic, materialistic Säìkhyaites conclude that material nature is the cause of all causes. According to them, combinations of material elements are Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the causes of material happiness and distress, and disintegration of matter is the cause of freedom from all material pangs. Gautama and Kaëäda find that atomic combination is the cause of everything, and impersonalists like Añöävakra discover that the spiritual effulgence of Brahman is the cause of all causes. But in the Bhagavad-gétä the Lord Himself declares that He is the source of impersonal Brahman, and therefore He, the Personality of Godhead, is the ultimate cause of all causes. It is also confirmed in the Brahma-saàhitä that Lord Kåñëa is the ultimate cause of all causes. TEXT 20 APa[TaKYaaRdiNadeRXYaaidiTa ke-ZviPa iNaêYa" ) A}aaNauæPa& raJazeR ivMa*Xa SvMaNaqzYaa )) 20 )) apratarkyäd anirdeçyäd iti keñv api niçcayaù atränurüpaà räjarñe vimåça sva-manéñayä SYNONYMS apratarkyät—beyond the power of reasoning; anirdeçyät—beyond the power of thinking; iti—thus; keñu—someone; api—also; niçcayaù—definitely concluded; atra—herein; anurüpam—which of them is right; räja-åñe—O sage amongst the kings; vimåça—judge yourself; sva—by your own; manéñayä—power of intelligence. TRANSLATION There are also some thinkers who believe that no one can ascertain the cause of distress by argumentation, nor know it by imagination, nor express it by words. O sage amongst kings, judge for yourself by thinking over all this with your own intelligence.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The Vaiñëavites, the devotees of the Lord, do believe, as above explained, that nothing can take place without the sanction of the Supreme Lord. He is the supreme director, for He confirms in the Bhagavad-gétä (15.15) that He, as all-pervading Paramätmä, stays in everyone’s heart and keeps vigilance over all actions and witnesses all activities. The argument of the atheist that one cannot be punished for one’s misdeeds unless proved before a qualified justice is refuted herein, for we accept the perpetual witness and constant companion of the living being. A living being may forget all that he might have done in his past or present life, but one must know that in the same tree of the material body, the individual soul and the Supreme Soul as Paramätmä are sitting like two birds. One of them, the living being, is enjoying the fruits of the tree, whereas the Supreme Being is there to witness the activities. Therefore the Paramätmä feature, the Supreme Soul, is actually the witness of all activities of the living being, and only by His direction can the living being remember or forget what he might have done in the past. He is, therefore, both the all-pervading impersonal Brahman and the localized Paramätmä in everyone’s heart. He is the knower of all past, present and future, and nothing can be concealed from Him. The devotees know this truth, and therefore they discharge their duties sincerely, without being overly anxious for rewards. Besides that, one cannot estimate the Lord’s reactions, either by speculation or by scholarship. Why does He put some into difficulty and not others? He is the supreme knower of the Vedic knowledge, and thus He is the factual Vedäntist. At the same time He is the compiler of the Vedänta. No one is independent of Him, and everyone is engaged in His service in different ways. In the conditioned state, such services are rendered by the living being under force of the material nature, whereas in the liberated state the living being is helped by the spiritual nature in the voluntary loving service of the Lord. There is no incongruity or inebriety in His actions. All are on the path of Absolute Truth. Bhéñmadeva correctly estimated the inconceivable actions of the Lord. The conclusion is, therefore, that the sufferings of the representative of religion and the representative of the earth, as present before Mahäräja Parékñit, were Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

planned to prove that Mahäräja Parékñit was the ideal executive head because he knew well how to give protection to the cows (the earth) and the brähmaëas (religious principles), the two pillars of spiritual advancement. Everyone is under the full control of the Lord. He is quite correct in His action when He desires something to be done by someone, irrespective of the consideration of the particular case. Mahäräja Parékñit was thus put to test for his greatness. Now let us see how he solves it by his sagacious mind. TEXT 21 SaUTa ovac Wv& DaMaeR Pa[vdiTa Sa SaMa][email protected]( iÜJaSataMaa" ) SaMaaihTaeNa MaNaSaa iv%ed" PaYaRcí TaMa( )) 21 )) süta uväca evaà dharme pravadati sa samräò dvija-sattamäù samähitena manasä vikhedaù paryacañöa tam SYNONYMS sütaù uväca—Süta Gosvämé said; evam—so; dharme—the personality of religion; pravadati—thus having spoken; saù—he; samräö—the Emperor; dvija-sattamäù—O best among the brähmaëas; samähitena—with proper attention; manasä—by the mind; vikhedaù—without any mistake; paryacañöa—counterreplied; tam—unto him. TRANSLATION Süta Gosvämé said: O best among the brähmaëas, the Emperor Parékñit, thus hearing the personality of religion speak, was fully satisfied, and without mistake or regret he gave his reply.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The statement of the bull, the personality of religion, was full of philosophy and knowledge, and the King was satisfied, since he could understand that the suffering bull was not an ordinary one. Unless one is perfectly conversant with the law of the Supreme Lord, one cannot speak such things touching philosophical truths. The Emperor, being also on an equal level of sagacity, replied to the point, without doubts or mistakes. TEXT 22 raJaaevac DaMa| b]vqiz DaMaRj DaMaaeR_iSa v*zæPaDa*k(- ) YadDaMaRk*-Ta" SQaaNa& SaUck-SYaaiPa TaÙveTa( )) 22 )) räjoväca dharmaà bravéñi dharma-jïa dharmo ’si våña-rüpa-dhåk yad adharma-kåtaù sthänaà sücakasyäpi tad bhavet SYNONYMS räjä uväca—the King said; dharmam—religion; bravéñi—as you speak; dharma-jïa—O one who knows the codes of religion; dharmaù—the personality of religion; asi—you are; våña-rüpa-dhåk—in the disguise of a bull; yat—whatever; adharma-kåtaù—one who acts irreligiously; sthänam—place; sücakasya—of the identifier; api—also; tat—that; bhavet—becomes. TRANSLATION The King said: O you, who are in the form of a bull! You know the truth of religion, and you are speaking according to the principle that the destination intended for the perpetrator of irreligious acts is also intended for one who Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

identifies the perpetrator. You are no other than the personality of religion. PURPORT A devotee’s conclusion is that no one is directly responsible for being a benefactor or mischief-monger without the sanction of the Lord; therefore he does not consider anyone to be directly responsible for such action. But in both the cases he takes it for granted that either benefit or loss is God-sent, and thus it is His grace. In case of benefit, no one will deny that it is God-sent, but in case of loss or reverses one becomes doubtful about how the Lord could be so unkind to His devotee as to put him in great difficulty. Jesus Christ was seemingly put into such great difficulty, being crucified by the ignorant, but he was never angry at the mischief-mongers. That is the way of accepting a thing, either favorable or unfavorable. Thus for a devotee the identifier is equally a sinner, like the mischief-monger. By God’s grace, the devotee tolerates all reverses. Mahäräja Parékñit observed this, and therefore he could understand that the bull was no other than the personality of religion himself. In other words, a devotee has no suffering at all because so-called suffering is also God’s grace for a devotee who sees God in everything. The cow and bull never placed any complaint before the King for being tortured by the personality of Kali, although everyone lodges such complaints before the state authorities. The extraordinary behavior of the bull made the King conclude that the bull was certainly the personality of religion, for no one else could understand the finer intricacies of the codes of religion. TEXT 23 AQava devMaaYaaYaa NaUNa& GaiTarGaaecra ) ceTaSaae vcSaêaiPa >aUTaaNaaiMaiTa iNaêYa" )) 23 )) athavä deva-mäyäyä nünaà gatir agocarä cetaso vacasaç cäpi Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bhütänäm iti niçcayaù SYNONYMS athavä—alternatively; deva—the Lord; mäyäyäù—energies; nünam—very little; gatiù—movement; agocarä—inconceivable; cetasaù—either by the mind; vacasaù—by words; ca—or; api—also; bhütänäm—of all living beings; iti—thus; niçcayaù—concluded. TRANSLATION Thus it is concluded that the Lord’s energies are inconceivable. No one can estimate them by mental speculation or by word jugglery. PURPORT A question may be raised as to why a devotee should refrain from identifying an actor, although he knows definitely that the Lord is the ultimate doer of everything. Knowing the ultimate doer, one should not pose himself as ignorant of the actual performer. To answer this doubt, the reply is that the Lord is also not directly responsible, for everything is done by His deputed mäyä-çakti, or material energy. The material energy is always provoking doubts about the supreme authority of the Lord. The personality of religion knew perfectly well that nothing can take place without the sanction of the Supreme Lord, and still he was put into doubts by the deluding energy, and thus he refrained from mentioning the supreme cause. This doubtfulness was due to the contamination of both Kali and the material energy. The whole atmosphere of the age of Kali is magnified by the deluding energy, and the proportion of measurement is inexplicable. TEXT 24 TaPa" XaaEc& dYaa SaTYaiMaiTa Paada" k*-Tae k*-Taa" ) ADaMaa|XaEñYaae >aGana" SMaYaSa®MadESTav )) 24 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

tapaù çaucaà dayä satyam iti pädäù kåte kåtäù adharmäàçais trayo bhagnäù smaya-saìga-madais tava SYNONYMS tapaù—austerity; çaucam—cleanliness; dayä—mercy; satyam—truthfulness; iti—thus; pädäù—legs; kåte—in the age of Satya; kåtäù—established; adharma—irreligiosity; aàçaiù—by the parts; trayaù—three combined; bhagnäù—broken; smaya—pride; saìga—too much association with women; madaiù—intoxication; tava—your. TRANSLATION In the age of Satya [truthfulness] your four legs were established by the four principles of austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness. But it appears that three of your legs are broken due to rampant irreligion in the form of pride, lust for women, and intoxication. PURPORT The deluding energy, or material nature, can act upon the living beings proportionately in terms of the living beings’ falling prey to the deluding attraction of mäyä. Moths are captivated by the glaring brightness of light, and thus they become prey to the fire. Similarly, the deluding energy is always captivating the conditioned souls to become prey to the fire of delusion, and the Vedic scriptures warn the conditioned souls not to become prey to delusion but to get rid of it. The Vedas warn us to go not to the darkness of ignorance but to the progressive path of light. The Lord Himself also warns that the deluding power of material energy is too powerful to overcome, but one who completely surrenders unto the Lord can easily do so. But to surrender unto the lotus feet of the Lord is also not very easy. Such surrender is possible by persons of austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness. These four principles of advanced civilization were remarkable features in the age of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Satya. In that age, every human being was practically a qualified brähmaëa of the highest order, and in the social orders of life they were all paramahaàsas, or the topmost in the renounced order. By cultural standing, the human beings were not at all subjected to the deluding energy. Such strong men of character were competent enough to get away from the clutches of mäyä. But gradually, as the basic principles of brahminical culture, namely austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness, became curtailed by proportionate development of pride, attachment for women and intoxication, the path of salvation or the path of transcendental bliss retreated far, far away from human society. With the progression of the age of Kali, people are becoming very proud, and attached to women and intoxication. By the influence of the age of Kali, even a pauper is proud of his penny, the women are always dressed in an overly attractive fashion to victimize the minds of men, and the man is addicted to drinking wine, smoking, drinking tea and chewing tobacco, etc. All these habits, or so-called advancement of civilization, are the root causes of all irreligiosities, and therefore it is not possible to check corruption, bribery and nepotism. Man cannot check all these evils simply by statutory acts and police vigilance, but he can cure the disease of the mind by the proper medicine, namely advocating the principles of brahminical culture or the principles of austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness. Modern civilization and economic development are creating a new situation of poverty and scarcity with the result of blackmailing the consumer’s commodities. If the leaders and the rich men of the society spend fifty percent of their accumulated wealth mercifully for the misled mass of people and educate them in God consciousness, the knowledge of Bhägavatam, certainly the age of Kali will be defeated in its attempt to entrap the conditioned souls. We must always remember that false pride, or too high an estimation of one’s own values of life, undue attachment to women or association with them, and intoxication will divert human civilization from the path of peace, however much the people clamor for peace in the world. The preaching of the Bhägavatam principles will automatically render all men austere, clean both inside and outside, merciful to the suffering, and truthful in daily behavior. That is the way of correcting the flaws of human society, which are very prominently exhibited at the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

present moment. TEXT 25 wdaNaq& DaMaR PaadSTae SaTYa& iNavRTaRYaeÛTa" ) Ta& iJaga*+aTYaDaMaaeR_YaMaNa*TaeNaEiDaTa" k-il/" )) 25 )) idänéà dharma pädas te satyaà nirvartayed yataù taà jighåkñaty adharmo ’yam anåtenaidhitaù kaliù SYNONYMS idäném—at the present moment; dharma—O personality of religion; pädaù—leg; te—of you; satyam—truthfulness; nirvartayet—hobbling along somehow or other; yataù—whereby; tam—that; jighåkñati—trying to destroy; adharmaù—the personality of irreligion; ayam—this; anåtena—by deceit; edhitaù—flourishing; kaliù—quarrel personified. TRANSLATION You are now standing on one leg only, which is your truthfulness, and you are somehow or other hobbling along. But quarrel personified [Kali], flourishing by deceit, is also trying to destroy that leg. PURPORT The principles of religion do not stand on some dogmas or man-made formulas, but they stand on four primary regulative observances, namely austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness. The mass of people must be taught to practice these principles from childhood. Austerity means to accept voluntarily things which may not be very comfortable for the body but are conducive for spiritual realization, for example, fasting. Fasting twice or four times a month is a sort of austerity which may be voluntarily accepted for Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

spiritual realization only, and not for any other purposes, political or otherwise. Fastings which are meant not for self-realization but for some other purposes are condemned in the Bhagavad-gétä (17.5–6). Similarly, cleanliness is necessary both for the mind and for the body. Simply bodily cleanliness may help to some extent, but cleanliness of the mind is necessary, and it is effected by glorifying the Supreme Lord. No one can cleanse the accumulated mental dust without glorifying the Supreme Lord. A godless civilization cannot cleanse the mind because it has no idea of God, and for this simple reason people under such a civilization cannot have good qualifications, however they may be materially equipped. We have to see things by their resultant action. The resultant action of human civilization in the age of Kali is dissatisfaction, so everyone is anxious to get peace of mind. This peace of mind was complete in the Satya age because of the existence of the above-mentioned attributes of the human beings. Gradually these attributes have diminished in the Tretä-yuga to three fourths, in the Dväpara to half, and in this age of Kali to one fourth, which is also gradually diminishing on account of prevailing untruthfulness. By pride, either artificial or real, the resultant action of austerity is spoiled; by too much affection for female association, cleanliness is spoiled; by too much addiction to intoxication, mercy is spoiled; and by too much lying propaganda, truthfulness is spoiled. The revival of bhägavata-dharma can save human civilization from falling prey to evils of all description. TEXT 26 wYa& c >aUiMa>aRGavTaa NYaaiSaTaaeå>ara SaTaq ) é[qMaiÙSTaTPadNYaaSaE" SavRTa" k*-Tak-aETauk-a )) 26 )) iyaà ca bhümir bhagavatä nyäsitoru-bharä saté çrémadbhis tat-pada-nyäsaiù sarvataù kåta-kautukä Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS iyam—this; ca—and; bhümiù—surface of the earth; bhagavatä—by the Personality of Godhead; nyäsita—being performed personally as well as by others; uru—great; bharä—burden; saté—being so done; çrémadbhiù—by the all-auspicious; tat—that; pada-nyäsaiù—footprints; sarvataù—all around; kåta—done; kautukä—good fortune. TRANSLATION The burden of the earth was certainly diminished by the Personality of Godhead and by others as well. When He was present as an incarnation, all good was performed because of His auspicious footprints. TEXT 27 XaaecTYaé[uk-l/a Saaßq du>aRGaevaeiJ‡TaaSaTaq ) Ab]øaYaivûl/" )) 29 )) taà jighäàsum abhipretya vihäya nåpa-läïchanam tat-päda-mülaà çirasä samagäd bhaya-vihvalaù SYNONYMS tam—him; jighäàsum—willing to kill; abhipretya—knowing it well; vihäya—leaving aside; nåpa-läïchanam—the dress of a king; tat-päda-mülam—at his feet; çirasä—by the head; samagät—fully surrendered; bhaya-vihvalaù—under pressure of fearfulness. TRANSLATION When the personality of Kali understood that the King was willing to kill him, he at once abandoned the dress of a king and, under pressure of fear, completely surrendered to him, bowing his head. PURPORT The royal dress of the personality of Kali is artificial. The royal dress is suitable for a king or kñatriya, but when a lower-class man artificially dresses himself as a king, his real identity is disclosed by the challenge of a bona fide kñatriya like Mahäräja Parékñit. A real kñatriya never surrenders. He accepts the challenge of his rival kñatriya, and he fights either to die or to win. Surrender is unknown to a real kñatriya. In the age of Kali there are so many pretenders dressed and posed like administrators or executive heads, but their real identity is disclosed when they are challenged by a real kñatriya. Therefore when the artificially dressed personality of Kali saw that to fight Mahäräja Parékñit was beyond his ability, he bowed down his head like a subordinate and gave up his royal dress. TEXT 30 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PaiTaTa& PaadYaaevsr" k*-PaYaa dqNavTSal/" ) XarYaiQaRTaSTada TaSMaE SQaaNaaiNa k-l/Yae ddaE ) ÛUTa& PaaNa& iñYa" SaUNaa Ya}aaDaMaRêTauivRDa" )) 38 )) süta uväca abhyarthitas tadä tasmai sthänäni kalaye dadau dyütaà pänaà striyaù sünä yaträdharmaç catur-vidhaù SYNONYMS sütaù uväca—Süta Gosvämé said; abhyarthitaù—thus being petitioned; tadä—at that time; tasmai—unto him; sthänäni—places; kalaye—to the personality of Kali; dadau—gave him permission; dyütam—gambling; pänam—drinking; striyaù—illicit association with women; sünä—animal slaughter; yatra—wherever; adharmaù—sinful activities; catuù-vidhaù—four kinds of. TRANSLATION Süta Gosvämé said: Mahäräja Parékñit, thus being petitioned by the personality of Kali, gave him permission to reside in places where gambling, drinking, prostitution and animal slaughter were performed. PURPORT The basic principles of irreligiosity, such as pride, prostitution, intoxication and falsehood, counteract the four principles of religion, namely austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness. The personality of Kali was given permission to live in four places particularly mentioned by the King, namely the place of gambling, the place of prostitution, the place of drinking and the place of animal slaughter. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé directs that drinking against the principles of scriptures, such as the sauträmaëé-yajïa, association with women outside marriage, and killing animals against the injunctions of scriptures are irreligious. In the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Vedas two different types of injunctions are there for the pravåttas, or those who are engaged in material enjoyment, and for the nivåttas, or those who are liberated from material bondage. The Vedic injunction for the pravåttas is to gradually regulate their activities towards the path of liberation. Therefore, for those who are in the lowest stage of ignorance and who indulge in wine, women and flesh, drinking by performing sauträmaëé-yajïa, association of women by marriage and flesh-eating by sacrifices are sometimes recommended. Such recommendations in the Vedic literature are meant for a particular class of men, and not for all. But because they are injunctions of the Vedas for particular types of persons, such activities by the pravåttas are not considered adharma. One man’s food may be poison for others; similarly, what is recommended for those in the mode of ignorance may be poison for those in the mode of goodness. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé Prabhu, therefore, affirms that recommendations in the scriptures for a certain class of men are never to be considered adharma, or irreligious. But such activities are factually adharma, and they are never to be encouraged. The recommendations in the scriptures are not meant for the encouragement of such adharma, but for regulating the necessary adharma gradually toward the path of dharma. Following in the footsteps of Mahäräja Parékñit, it is the duty of all executive heads of states to see that the principles of religion, namely austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness, are established in the state, and that the principles of irreligion, namely pride, illicit female association or prostitution, intoxication and falsity, are checked by all means. And to make the best use of a bad bargain, the personality of Kali may be transferred to places of gambling, drinking, prostitution and slaughterhouses, if there are any places like that. Those who are addicted to these irreligious habits may be regulated by the injunctions of the scripture. In no circumstances should they be encouraged by any state. In other words, the state should categorically stop all sorts of gambling, drinking, prostitution and falsity. The state which wants to eradicate corruption by majority may introduce the principles of religion in the following manner: 1. Two compulsory fasting days in a month, if not more (austerity). Even from the economic point of view, such two fasting days in a month in the state Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

will save tons of food, and the system will also act very favorably on the general health of the citizens. 2. There must be compulsory marriage of young boys and girls attaining twenty-four years of age and sixteen years of age respectively. There is no harm in coeducation in the schools and colleges, provided the boys and girls are duly married, and in case there is any intimate connection between a male and female student, they should be married properly without illicit relation. The divorce act is encouraging prostitution, and this should be abolished. 3. The citizens of the state must give in charity up to fifty percent of their income for the purpose of creating a spiritual atmosphere in the state or in human society, both individually and collectively. They should preach the principles of Bhägavatam by (a) karma-yoga, or doing everything for the satisfaction of the Lord, (b) regular hearing of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam from authorized persons or realized souls, (c) chanting of the glories of the Lord congregationally at home or at places of worship, (d) rendering all kinds of service to bhägavatas engaged in preaching Çrémad-Bhägavatam and (e) residing in a place where the atmosphere is saturated with God consciousness. If the state is regulated by the above process, naturally there will be God consciousness everywhere. Gambling of all description, even speculative business enterprise, is considered to be degrading, and when gambling is encouraged in the state, there is a complete disappearance of truthfulness. Allowing young boys and girls to remain unmarried more than the above-mentioned ages and licensing animal slaughterhouses of all description should be at once prohibited. The flesh-eaters may be allowed to take flesh as mentioned in the scriptures, and not otherwise. Intoxication of all description—even smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco or the drinking of tea—must be prohibited. TEXT 39 PauNaê YaacMaaNaaYa JaaTaæPaMadaTPa[>au" ) TaTaae_Na*Ta& Mad& k-aMa& rJaae vEr& c PaÄMaMa( )) 39 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

punaç ca yäcamänäya jäta-rüpam adät prabhuù tato ’nåtaà madaà kämaà rajo vairaà ca païcamam SYNONYMS punaù—again; ca—also; yäcamänäya—to the beggar; jäta-rüpam—gold; adät—gave away; prabhuù—the King; tataù—whereby; anåtam—falsehood; madam—intoxication; kämam—lust; rajaù—on account of a passionate mood; vairam—enmity; ca—also; païcamam—the fifth one. TRANSLATION The personality of Kali asked for something more, and because of his begging, the King gave him permission to live where there is gold because wherever there is gold there is also falsity, intoxication, lust, envy and enmity. PURPORT Although Mahäräja Parékñit gave Kali permission to live in four places, it was very difficult for him to find the places because during the reign of Mahäräja Parékñit there were no such places. Therefore Kali asked the King to give him something practical which could be utilized for his nefarious purposes. Mahäräja Parékñit thus gave him permission to live in a place where there is gold, because wherever there is gold there are all the above-mentioned four things, and over and above them there is enmity also. So the personality of Kali became gold-standardized. According to Çrémad-Bhägavatam, gold encourages falsity, intoxication, prostitution, envy and enmity. Even a gold-standard exchange and currency is bad. Gold-standard currency is based on falsehood because the currency is not on a par with the reserved gold. The basic principle is falsity because currency notes are issued in value beyond that of the actual reserved gold. This artificial inflation of currency by the authorities encourages prostitution of the state economy. The price of commodities becomes artificially inflated because of bad money, or artificial Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

currency notes. Bad money drives away good money. Instead of paper currency, actual gold coins should be used for exchange, and this will stop prostitution of gold. Gold ornaments for women may be allowed by control, not by quality, but by quantity. This will discourage lust, envy and enmity. When there is actual gold currency in the form of coins, the influence of gold in producing falsity, prostitution, etc., will automatically cease. There will be no need of an anticorruption ministry for another term of prostitution and falsity of purpose. TEXT 40 AMaUiNa PaÄ SQaaNaaiNa ùDaMaRPa[>av" k-il/" ) AaEtareYaeaaGaê§-vTas b*hC^\va" )) 44 )) sa eña etarhy adhyästa äsanaà pärthivocitam pitämahenopanyastaà räjïäraëyaà vivikñatä äste ’dhunä sa räjarñiù kauravendra-çriyollasan gajähvaye mahä-bhägaç cakravarté båhac-chraväù SYNONYMS saù—he; eñaù—this; etarhi—at the present; adhyäste—is ruling over; äsanam—the throne; pärthiva-ucitam—just befitting a king; pitämahena—by the grandfather; upanyastam—being handed over; räjïä—by the King; araëyam—forest; vivikñatä—desiring; äste—is there; adhunä—at present; saù—that; räja-åñiù—the sage amongst the kings; kaurava-indra—the chief amongst the Kuru kings; çriyä—glories; ullasan—spreading; gajähvaye—in Hastinäpura; mahä-bhägaù—the most fortunate; cakravarté—the Emperor; båhat-çraväù—highly famous. TRANSLATION The most fortunate Emperor Mahäräja Parékñit, who was entrusted with the kingdom of Hastinäpura by Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira when he desired to retire to the forest, is now ruling the world with great success due to his being glorified Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

by the deeds of the kings of the Kuru dynasty. PURPORT The prolonged sacrificial ceremonies undertaken by the sages of Naimiñäraëya were begun shortly after the demise of Mahäräja Parékñit. The sacrifice was to continue for one thousand years, and it is understood that in the beginning some of the contemporaries of Baladeva, the elder brother of Lord Kåñëa, also visited the sacrificial place. According to some authorities, the present tense is also used to indicate the nearest margin of time from the past. In that sense, the present tense is applied to the reign of Mahäräja Parékñit here. For a continuous fact, also, present tense can be used. The principles of Mahäräja Parékñit can be still continued, and human society can still be improved if there is determination by the authorities. We can still purge out from the state all the activities of immorality introduced by the personality of Kali if we are determined to take action like Mahäräja Parékñit. He allotted some place for Kali, but in fact Kali could not find such places in the world at all because Mahäräja Parékñit was strictly vigilant to see that there were no places for gambling, drinking, prostitution and animal slaughter. Modern administrators want to banish corruption from the state, but fools as they are, they do not know how to do it. They want to issue licenses for gambling houses, wine and other intoxicating drug houses, brothels, hotel prostitution and cinema houses, and falsity in every dealing, even in their own, and they want at the same time to drive out corruption from the state. They want the kingdom of God without God consciousness. How can it be possible to adjust two contradictory matters? If we want to drive out corruption from the state, we must first of all organize society to accept the principles of religion, namely austerity, cleanliness, mercy and truthfulness, and to make the condition favorable we must close all places of gambling, drinking, prostitution and falsity. These are some of the practical lessons from the pages of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. TEXT 45 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

wTQaM>aUTaaNau>aavae_YaMai>aMaNYauSauTaae Na*Pa" ) YaSYa Paal/YaTa" +aaEaGavTa" k*-ZauTak-MaRaveTa( Pa[ivíae_Paqh SavRTa" ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

YaavdqXaae MahaNauVYaaRMaai>aMaNYav Wk-ra$( )) 5 )) tävat kalir na prabhavet praviñöo ’péha sarvataù yävad éço mahän urvyäm äbhimanyava eka-räö SYNONYMS tävat—so long; kaliù—the personality of Kali; na—cannot; prabhavet—flourish; praviñöaù—entered in; api—even though; iha—here; sarvataù—everywhere; yävat—as long as; éçaù—the lord; mahän—great; urvyäm—powerful; äbhimanyavaù—the son of Abhimanyu; eka-räö—the one emperor. TRANSLATION As long as the great, powerful son of Abhimanyu remains the Emperor of the world, there is no chance that the personality of Kali will flourish. PURPORT As we have already explained, the personality of Kali had entered the jurisdiction of this earth long ago, and he was looking for an opportunity to spread his influence all over the world. But he could not do so satisfactorily due to the presence of Mahäräja Parékñit. That is the way of good government. The disturbing elements like the personality of Kali will always try to extend their nefarious activities, but it is the duty of the able state to check them by all means. Although Mahäräja Parékñit allotted places for the personality of Kali, at the same time he gave no chance for the citizens to be swayed by the personality of Kali. TEXT 6 YaiSMaàhiNa YaùeRv >aGavaNauTSaSaJaR GaaMa( ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TadEvehaNauv*taae_SaavDaMaRPa[>av" k-il/" )) 6 )) yasminn ahani yarhy eva bhagavän utsasarja gäm tadaivehänuvåtto ’säv adharma-prabhavaù kaliù SYNONYMS yasmin—on that; ahani—very day; yarhi eva—in the very moment; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; utsasarja—left aside; gäm—the earth; tadä—at that time; eva—certainly; iha—in this world; anuvåttaù—followed; asau—he; adharma—irreligion; prabhavaù—accelerating; kaliù—the personality of quarrel. TRANSLATION The very day and moment the Personality of Godhead, Lord Çré Kåñëa, left this earth, the personality of Kali, who promotes all kinds of irreligious activities, came into this world. PURPORT The Personality of Godhead and His holy name, qualities, etc., are all identical. The personality of Kali was not able to enter the jurisdiction of the earth due to the presence of the Personality of Godhead. And similarly, if there is an arrangement for the constant chanting of the holy names, qualities, etc., of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, there is no chance at all for the personality of Kali to enter. That is the technique of driving away the personality of Kali from the world. In modernized human society there are great advancements of material science, and they have invented the radio to distribute sound in the air. So instead of vibrating some nuisance sound for sense enjoyment, if the state arranges to distribute transcendental sound by resounding the holy name, fame and activities of the Lord, as they are authorized in the Bhagavad-gétä or Çrémad-Bhägavatam, then a favorable Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

condition will be created, the principles of religion in the world will be reestablished, and thus the executive heads, who are so anxious to drive away corruption from the world, will be successful. Nothing is bad if properly used for the service of the Lord. TEXT 7 NaaNauÜeií k-il&/ SaMa]a$( Saar® wv Saar>auk(- ) ku-Xal/aNYaaéu iSaÖyiNTa NaeTaraiaUzui>a" )) 10 )) yä yäù kathä bhagavataù kathanéyoru-karmaëaù guëa-karmäçrayäù pumbhiù saàsevyäs tä bubhüñubhiù SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

yäù—whatever; yäù—and whatsoever; kathäù—topics; bhagavataù—about the Personality of Godhead; kathanéya—were to be spoken by me; uru-karmaëaù—of Him who acts wonderfully; guëa—transcendental qualities; karma—uncommon deeds; äçrayäù—involving; pumbhiù—by persons; saàsevyäù—ought to be heard; täù—all of them; bubhüñubhiù—by those who want their own welfare. TRANSLATION Those who are desirous of achieving complete perfection in life must submissively hear all topics that are connected with the transcendental activities and qualities of the Personality of Godhead, who acts wonderfully. PURPORT The systematic hearing of the transcendental activities, qualities and names of Lord Çré Kåñëa pushes one towards eternal life. Systematic hearing means knowing Him gradually in truth and fact, and this knowing Him in truth and fact means attaining eternal life, as stated in the Bhagavad-gétä. Such transcendental, glorified activities of Lord Çré Kåñëa are the prescribed remedy for counteracting the process of birth, death, old age and disease, which are considered to be material awards for the conditioned living being. The culmination of such a perfectional stage of life is the goal of human life and the attainment of transcendental bliss. TEXT 11 ‰zYa Ocu" SaUTa Jaqv SaMaa" SaaEMYa XaaìTaqivRXad& YaXa" ) YaSTv& Xa&SaiSa k*-Za]buiÖ" ) jaNaeNa vEYaaSaik-XaiBdTaeNa Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

>aeJae %GaeNd]ßJaPaadMaUl/Ma( )) 16 )) sa vai mahä-bhägavataù parékñid yenäpavargäkhyam adabhra-buddhiù jïänena vaiyäsaki-çabditena bheje khagendra-dhvaja-päda-mülam SYNONYMS saù—he; vai—certainly; mahä-bhägavataù—first-class devotee; parékñit—the King; yena—by which; apavarga-äkhyam—by the name of liberation; adabhra—fixed; buddhiù—intelligence; jïänena—by knowledge; vaiyäsaki—the son of Vyäsa; çabditena—vibrated by; bheje—taken to; khaga-indra—Garuòa, the king of the birds; dhvaja—flag; päda-mülam—soles of the feet. TRANSLATION O Süta Gosvämé, please describe those topics of the Lord by which Mahäräja Parékñit, whose intelligence was fixed on liberation, attained the lotus feet of the Lord, who is the shelter of Garuòa, the king of birds. Those topics were vibrated by the son of Vyäsa [Çréla Çukadeva]. PURPORT There is some controversy amongst the students on the path of liberation. Such transcendental students are known as impersonalists and devotees of the Lord. The devotee of the Lord worships the transcendental form of the Lord, whereas the impersonalist meditates upon the glaring effulgence, or the bodily rays of the Lord, known as the brahmajyoti. Here in this verse it is said that Mahäräja Parékñit attained the lotus feet of the Lord by instructions in knowledge delivered by the son of Vyäsadeva, Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé. Çukadeva Gosvämé was also an impersonalist in the beginning, as he himself has admitted in the Bhägavatam (2.1.9), but later on he was attracted by the transcendental pastimes of the Lord and thus became a devotee. Such devotees Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

with perfect knowledge are called mahä-bhägavatas, or first-class devotees. There are three classes of devotees, namely the präkåta, madhyama, and mahä-bhägavata. The präkåta, or third-class devotees, are temple worshipers without specific knowledge of the Lord and the Lord’s devotees. The madhyama, or the second-class devotee, knows well the Lord, the Lord’s devotees, the neophytes, and the nondevotees also. But the mahä-bhägavata, or the first-class devotee, sees everything in relation with the Lord and the Lord present in everyone’s relation. The mahä-bhägavata, therefore, does not make any distinction, particularly between a devotee and nondevotee. Mahäräja Parékñit was such a mahä-bhägavata devotee because he was initiated by a mahä-bhägavata devotee, Çukadeva Gosvämé. He was equally kind, even to the personality of Kali, and what to speak of others. So there are many instances in the transcendental histories of the world of an impersonalist who has later become a devotee. But a devotee has never become an impersonalist. This very fact proves that on the transcendental steps, the step occupied by a devotee is higher than the step occupied by an impersonalist. It is also stated in the Bhagavad-gétä (12.5) that persons stuck on the impersonal step undergo more sufferings than achievement of reality. Therefore knowledge imparted by Çukadeva Gosvämé unto Mahäräja Parékñit helped him attain the service of the Lord. And this stage of perfection is called apavarga, or the perfect stage of liberation. Simple knowledge of liberation is material knowledge. Actual freedom from material bondage is called liberation, but attainment of the transcendental service of the Lord is called the perfect stage of liberation. Such a stage is attained by knowledge and renunciation, as we have already explained (Bhäg. 1.2.12), and perfect knowledge, as delivered by Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé, results in the attainment of the transcendental service of the Lord. TEXT 17 Taà" Par& PauauTaYaaeGaiNaïMa( ) Aa:YaaùNaNTaacirTaaePaPaà& Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Paarqi+aTa& >aaGavTaai>araMaMa( )) 17 )) tan naù paraà puëyam asaàvåtärtham äkhyänam atyadbhuta-yoga-niñöham äkhyähy anantäcaritopapannaà pärékñitaà bhägavatäbhirämam SYNONYMS tat—therefore; naù—unto us; param—supreme; puëyam—purifying; asaàvåta-artham—as it is; äkhyänam—narration; ati—very; adbhuta—wonderful; yoga-niñöham—compact in bhakti-yoga; äkhyähi—describe; ananta—the Unlimited; äcarita—activities; upapannam—full of; pärékñitam—spoken to Mahäräja Parékñit; bhägavata—of the pure devotees; abhirämam—particularly very dear. TRANSLATION Thus please narrate to us the narrations of the Unlimited, for they are purifying and supreme. They were spoken to Mahäräja Parékñit, and they are very dear to the pure devotees, being full of bhakti-yoga. PURPORT What was spoken to Mahäräja Parékñit and what is very dear to the pure devotees is Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Çrémad-Bhägavatam is mainly full of the narrations of the activities of the Supreme Unlimited, and therefore it is the science of bhakti-yoga, or the devotional service of the Lord. Thus it is para, or supreme, because although it is enriched with all knowledge and religion, it is specifically enriched with the devotional service of the Lord. TEXT 18 SaUTa ovac Ahae vYa& JaNMa>a*Taae_Û haSMa Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

v*ÖaNauv*tYaaiPa ivl/aeMaJaaTaa" ) daEZku-LYaMaaiDa& ivDauNaaeiTa Xaqga]& MahtaMaaNaaMai>aDaaNaYaaeGa" )) 18 )) süta uväca aho vayaà janma-bhåto ’dya häsma våddhänuvåttyäpi viloma-jätäù dauñkulyam ädhià vidhunoti çéghraà mahattamänäm abhidhäna-yogaù SYNONYMS sütaù uväca—Süta Gosvämé said; aho—how; vayam—we; janma-bhåtaù—promoted in birth; adya—today; ha—clearly; äsma—have become; våddha-anuvåttyä—by serving those who are advanced in knowledge; api—although; viloma-jätäù—born in a mixed caste; dauñkulyam—disqualification of birth; ädhim—sufferings; vidhunoti—purifies; çéghram—very soon; mahat-tamänäm—of those who are great; abhidhäna—conversation; yogaù—connection. TRANSLATION Çré Süta Gosvämé said: O God, although we are born in a mixed caste, we are still promoted in birthright simply by serving and following the great who are advanced in knowledge. Even by conversing with such great souls, one can without delay cleanse oneself of all disqualifications resulting from lower births. PURPORT Süta Gosvämé did not take his birth in a brähmaëa family. He was born in a family of mixed caste, or an uncultured low family. But because of higher association, like Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé and the great åñis of Naimiñäraëya, certainly the disqualification of inferior birth was washed off. Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu followed this principle in pursuance of the Vedic usages, and by His transcendental association He elevated many lowborn, or Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

those disqualified by birth or action, to the status of devotional service and established them in the position of äcäryas, or authorities. He clearly stated that any man, whatever he may be, whether a brähmaëa or çüdra by birth, or a householder or mendicant in the order of society, if he is conversant with the science of Kåñëa, he can be accepted as an äcärya or guru, a spiritual master. Süta Gosvämé learned the science of Kåñëa from great åñis and authorities like Çukadeva and Vyäsadeva and he was so qualified that even the sages of Naimiñäraëya eagerly wanted to hear from him the science of Kåñëa in the form of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. So he had the double association of great souls by hearing and preaching. Transcendental science, or the science of Kåñëa, has to be learned from the authorities, and when one preaches the science, he becomes still more qualified. So Süta Gosvämé had both the advantages, and thus undoubtedly he was completely freed from all disqualifications of low birth and mental agonies. This verse definitely proves that Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé did not refuse to teach Süta Gosvämé about the transcendental science nor did the sages of Naimiñäraëya refuse to hear lessons from him because of his inferior birth. This means that thousands of years ago there was no bar to learning or preaching the transcendental science because of inferior birth. The rigidity of the so-called caste system in Hindu society became prominent within only one hundred years or so when the number of dvija-bandhus, or disqualified men in the families of higher castes, increased. Lord Çré Caitanya revived the original Vedic system, and He elevated Öhäkura Haridäsa to the position of nämäcärya, or the authority in preaching the glories of the holy name of the Lord, although His Holiness Çréla Haridäsa Öhäkura was pleased to appear in a family of Mohammedans. Such is the power of pure devotees of the Lord. The Ganges water is accepted as pure, and one can become purified after taking a bath in the waters of the Ganges. But as far as the great devotees of the Lord are concerned, they can purify a degraded soul even by being seen by the lowborn, and what to speak of association. Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu wanted to purify the whole atmosphere of the polluted world by sending qualified preachers all over the world, and it remains with the Indians to take up this task scientifically and thus do the best kind of humanitarian work. The mental Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

diseases of the present generation are more acute than bodily diseases; it is quite fit and proper to take up the preaching of Çrémad-Bhägavatam all over the world without delay. Mahattamänäm abhidhäna also means dictionary of great devotees, or a book full of the words of great devotees. Such a dictionary of the words of great devotees and those of the Lord are in the Vedas and allied literatures, specifically the Çrémad-Bhägavatam. TEXT 19 ku-Ta" PauNaGa*Ra*XaMa( )) 24 )) Jal/aXaYaMac+aaaUTaPaUvR" SahSaa +auta*@(>YaaMaidRTaaTMaNa" ) b]aøaUd(b]øNa( MaTSarae MaNYaurev c )) 29 )) abhüta-pürvaù sahasä kñut-tåòbhyäm arditätmanaù brähmaëaà praty abhüd brahman matsaro manyur eva ca SYNONYMS abhüta-pürvaù—unprecedented; sahasä—circumstantially; kñut—hunger; tåòbhyäm—as well as by thirst; ardita—being distressed; ätmanaù—of his self; brähmaëam—unto a brähmaëa; prati—against; abhüt—became; brahman—O brähmaëas; matsaraù—envious; manyuù—angry; eva—thus; ca—and. TRANSLATION O brähmaëas, the King’s anger and envy, directed toward the brähmaëa Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

sage, were unprecedented, being that circumstances had made him hungry and thirsty. PURPORT For a king like Mahäräja Parékñit to become angry and envious, especially at a sage and brähmaëa, was undoubtedly unprecedented. The King knew well that brähmaëas, sages, children, women and old men are always beyond the jurisdiction of punishment. Similarly, the king, even though he commits a great mistake, is never to be considered a wrongdoer. But in this case, Mahäräja Parékñit became angry and envious at the sage due to his thirst and hunger, by the will of the Lord. The King was right to punish his subject for coldly receiving him or neglecting him, but because the culprit was a sage and a brähmaëa, it was unprecedented. As the Lord is never envious of anyone, so also the Lord’s devotee is never envious of anyone. The only justification for Mahäräja Parékñit’s behavior is that it was ordained by the Lord. TEXT 30 Sa Tau b]ø‰zer&Sae GaTaaSauMaurGa& åza ) iviNaGaRC^NDaNauZk-ae$ya iNaDaaYa PaurMaaGaTa" )) 30 )) sa tu brahma-åñer aàse gatäsum uragaà ruñä vinirgacchan dhanuñ-koöyä nidhäya puram ägataù SYNONYMS saù—the King; tu—however; brahma-åñeù—of the brähmaëa sage; aàse—on the shoulder; gata-asum—lifeless; uragam—snake; ruñä—in anger; vinirgacchan—while leaving; dhanuù-koöyä—with the front of the bow; nidhäya—by placing it; puram—palace; ägataù—returned. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION While leaving, the King, being so insulted, picked up a lifeless snake with his bow and angrily placed it on the shoulder of the sage. Then he returned to his palace. PURPORT The King thus treated the sage tit for tat, although he was never accustomed to such silly actions. By the will of the Lord, the King, while going away, found a dead snake in front of him, and he thought that the sage, who had coldly received him, thus might be coldly rewarded by being offered a garland of a dead snake. In the ordinary course of dealing, this was not very unnatural, but in the case of Mahäräja Parékñit’s dealing with a brähmaëa sage, this was certainly unprecedented. It so happened by the will of the Lord. TEXT 31 Wz ik&- iNa>a*TaaXaezk-raRkE-" ) rajaga& Pa[aiPaTa& TaaTa& é[uTva Ta}aedMab]vqTa( )) 32 )) tasya putro ’titejasvé viharan bälako ’rbhakaiù räjïäghaà präpitaà tätaà çrutvä tatredam abravét SYNONYMS tasya—his (the sage’s); putraù—son; ati—extremely; tejasvé—powerful; viharan—while playing; bälakaù—with boys; arbhakaiù—who were all childish; räjïä—by the King; agham—distress; präpitam—made to have; tätam—the father; çrutvä—by hearing; tatra—then and there; idam—this; abravét—spoke. TRANSLATION The sage had a son who was very powerful, being a brähmaëa’s son. While he was playing with inexperienced boys, he heard of his father’s distress, which was occasioned by the King. Then and there the boy spoke as follows. PURPORT Due to Mahäräja Parékñit’s good government, even a boy of tender age, who Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

was playing with other inexperienced boys, could become as powerful as a qualified brähmaëa. This boy was known as Çåìgi, and he achieved good training in brahmacarya by his father so that he could be as powerful as a brähmaëa, even at that age. But because the age of Kali was seeking an opportunity to spoil the cultural heritage of the four orders of life, the inexperienced boy gave a chance for the age of Kali to enter into the field of Vedic culture. Hatred of the lower orders of life began from this brähmaëa boy, under the influence of Kali, and thus cultural life began to dwindle day after day. The first victim of brahminical injustice was Mahäräja Parékñit, and thus the protection given by the King against the onslaught of Kali was slackened. TEXT 33 Ahae ADaMaR" Paal/aNaa& Paqvna& bil/>auJaaiMav ) SvaiMaNYaga& Yad( daSaaNaa& ÜarPaaNaa& éuNaaiMav )) 33 )) aho adharmaù pälänäà pévnäà bali-bhujäm iva sväminy aghaà yad däsänäà dvära-pänäà çunäm iva SYNONYMS aho—just look at; adharmaù—irreligion; pälänäm—of the rulers; pévnäm—of one who is brought up; bali-bhujäm—like the crows; iva—like; svämini—unto the master; agham—sin; yat—what is; däsänäm—of the servants; dvära-pänäm—keeping watch at the door; çunäm—of the dogs; iva—like. TRANSLATION [The brähmaëa’s son, Çåìgi, said:] O just look at the sins of the rulers who, like crows and watchdogs at the door, perpetrate sins against their masters, contrary to the principles governing servants.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The brähmaëas are considered to be the head and brains of the social body, and the kñatriyas are considered to be the arms of the social body. The arms are required to protect the body from all harm, but the arms must act according to the directions of the head and brain. That is a natural arrangement made by the supreme order, for it is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä that four social orders or castes, namely the brähmaëas, the kñatriyas, the vaiçyas and the çüdras, are set up according to quality and work done by them. Naturally the son of a brähmaëa has a good chance to become a brähmaëa by the direction of his qualified father, as a son of a medical practitioner has a very good chance to become a qualified medical practitioner. So the caste system is quite scientific. The son must take advantage of the father’s qualification and thus become a brähmaëa or medical practitioner, and not otherwise. Without being qualified, one cannot become a brähmaëa or medical practitioner, and that is the verdict of all scriptures and social orders. Herein Çåìgi, a qualified son of a great brähmaëa, attained the required brahminical power both by birth and by training, but he was lacking in culture because he was an inexperienced boy. By the influence of Kali, the son of a brähmaëa became puffed up with brahminical power and thus wrongly compared Mahäräja Parékñit to crows and watchdogs. The King is certainly the watchdog of the state in the sense that he keeps vigilant eyes over the border of the state for its protection and defense, but to address him as a watchdog is the sign of a less-cultured boy. Thus the downfall of the brahminical powers began as they gave importance to birthright without culture. The downfall of the brähmaëa caste began in the age of Kali. And since brähmaëas are the heads of the social order, all other orders of society also began to deteriorate. This beginning of brahminical deterioration was highly deplored by the father of Çåìgi, as we will find. TEXT 34 b]aøaUTa( PaaPaqYaSaq DaqiÜRJadevGaae>Ya" )) 3 )) adyaiva räjyaà balam åddha-koçaà prakopita-brahma-kulänalo me dahatv abhadrasya punar na me ’bhüt päpéyasé dhér dvija-deva-gobhyaù SYNONYMS adya—this day; eva—on the very; räjyam—kingdom; balam åddha—strength and riches; koçam—treasury; prakopita—ignited by; brahma-kula—by the brähmaëa community; analaù—fire; me dahatu—let it burn me; abhadrasya—inauspiciousness; punaù—again; na—not; me—unto me; abhüt—may occur; päpéyasé—sinful; dhéù—intelligence; dvija—brähmaëas; deva—the Supreme Lord; gobhyaù—and the cows. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION I am uncivilized and sinful due to my neglect of brahminical culture, God consciousness and cow protection. Therefore I wish that my kingdom, strength and riches burn up immediately by the fire of the brähmaëa’s wrath so that in the future I may not be guided by such inauspicious attitudes. PURPORT Progressive human civilization is based on brahminical culture, God consciousness and protection of cows. All economic development of the state by trade, commerce, agriculture and industries must be fully utilized in relation to the above principles, otherwise all so-called economic development becomes a source of degradation. Cow protection means feeding the brahminical culture, which leads towards God consciousness, and thus perfection of human civilization is achieved. The age of Kali aims at killing the higher principles of life, and although Mahäräja Parékñit strongly resisted the domination of the personality of Kali within the world, the influence of the age of Kali came at an opportune moment, and even a strong king like Mahäräja Parékñit was induced to disregard the brahminical culture due to a slight provocation of hunger and thirst. Mahäräja Parékñit lamented the accidental incident, and he desired that all his kingdom, strength and accumulation of wealth would be burned up for not being engaged in brahminical culture, etc. Where wealth and strength are not engaged in the advancement of brahminical culture, God consciousness and cow protection, the state and home are surely doomed by Providence. If we want peace and prosperity in the world, we should take lessons from this verse; every state and every home must endeavor to advance the cause of brahminical culture for self-purification, God consciousness for self-realization and cow protection for getting sufficient milk and the best food to continue a perfect civilization. TEXT 4

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Sa icNTaYaiàTQaMaQaaé*aq+aYaMaaéu Datae )) 14 )) tasyaiva me ’ghasya parävareço vyäsakta-cittasya gåheñv abhékñëam Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

nirveda-mülo dvija-çäpa-rüpo yatra prasakto bhayam äçu dhatte SYNONYMS tasya—his; eva—certainly; me—mine; aghasya—of the sinful; parä—transcendental; avara—mundane; éçaù—controller, the Supreme Lord; vyäsakta—overly attached; cittasya—of the mind; gåheñu—to family affairs; abhékñëam—always; nirveda-mülaù—the source of detachment; dvija-çäpa—cursing by the brähmaëa; rüpaù—form of; yatra—whereupon; prasaktaù—one who is affected; bhayam—fearfulness; äçu—very soon; dhatte—take place. TRANSLATION The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the controller of both the transcendental and mundane worlds, has graciously overtaken me in the form of a brähmaëa’s curse. Due to my being too much attached to family life, the Lord, in order to save me, has appeared before me in such a way that only out of fear I will detach myself from the world. PURPORT Mahäräja Parékñit, although born in a family of great devotees, the Päëòavas, and although securely trained in transcendental attachment for the association of the Lord, still found the allurement of mundane family life so strong that he had to be detached by a plan of the Lord. Such direct action is taken by the Lord in the case of a special devotee. Mahäräja Parékñit could understand this by the presence of the topmost transcendentalists in the universe. The Lord resides with His devotees, and therefore the presence of the great saints indicated the presence of the Lord. The King therefore welcomed the presence of the great åñis as a mark of favor of the Supreme Lord. TEXT 15 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Ta& MaaePaYaaTa& Pa[iTaYaNTau ivPa[a Ga®a c devq Da*TaictaMaqXae ) iÜJaaePaSa*í" ku-hk-STa+ak-ae va dXaTvl&/ GaaYaTa ivZYa" )) 16 )) punaç ca bhüyäd bhagavaty anante ratiù prasaìgaç ca tad-äçrayeñu mahatsu yäà yäm upayämi såñöià maitry astu sarvatra namo dvijebhyaù SYNONYMS punaù—again; ca—and; bhüyät—let it be; bhagavati—unto Lord Çré Kåñëa; anante—who has unlimited potency; ratiù—attracting; prasaìgaù—association; ca—also; tat—His; äçrayeñu—with those who are His devotees; mahatsu—within the material creation; yäm yäm—wherever; upayämi—I may take; såñöim—my birth; maitré—friendly relation; astu—let it be; sarvatra—everywhere; namaù—my obeisances; dvijebhyaù—unto the brähmaëas. TRANSLATION Again, offering obeisances unto all you brähmaëas, I pray that if I should again take my birth in the material world I will have complete attachment to the unlimited Lord Kåñëa, association with His devotees and friendly relations with all living beings. PURPORT

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

That a devotee of the Lord is the only perfect living being is explained herein by Mahäräja Parékñit. A devotee of the Lord is no one’s enemy, although there may be many enemies of a devotee. A devotee of the Lord does not like to associate with nondevotees, although he has no enmity with them. He desires association with the devotees of the Lord. This is perfectly natural because birds of the same feather mix together. And the most important function of a devotee is to have complete attachment for Lord Çré Kåñëa, the father of all living beings. As a good son of the father behaves in a friendly way with all his other brothers, so also the devotee of the Lord, being a good son of the supreme father, Lord Kåñëa, sees all other living beings in relation with the supreme father. He tries to bring back the upstart sons of the father to a saner stage and to get them to accept the supreme fatherhood of God. Mahäräja Parékñit was certainly going back to Godhead, but even if he were not to go back, he prayed for a pattern of life which is the most perfect way in the material world. A pure devotee does not desire the company of a personality as great as Brahmä, but he prefers the association of a petty living being, provided he is a devotee of the Lord. TEXT 17 wiTa SMa raJaaDYavSaaYaYau¢-" Pa[acqNaMaUle/zu ku-Xaezu Daqr" ) odx(Mau%ae di+aavTSau k*-ZaRGavTPaaìRk-aMaa" )) 20 )) na vä idaà räjarñi-varya citraà bhavatsu kåñëaà samanuvrateñu ye ’dhyäsanaà räja-kiréöa-juñöaà sadyo jahur bhagavat-pärçva-kämäù SYNONYMS na—neither; vä—like this; idam—this; räjarñi—saintly king; varya—the chief; citram—astonishing; bhavatsu—unto all of you; kåñëam—Lord Kåñëa; samanuvrateñu—unto those who are strictly in the line of; ye—who; adhyäsanam—seated on the throne; räja-kiréöa—helmets of kings; juñöam—decorated; sadyaù—immediately; jahuù—gave up; bhagavat—the Personality of Godhead; pärçva-kämäù—desiring to achieve association. TRANSLATION [The sages said:] O chief of all the saintly kings of the Päëòu dynasty who Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

are strictly in the line of Lord Çré Kåñëa! It is not at all astonishing that you give up your throne, which is decorated with the helmets of many kings, to achieve eternal association with the Personality of Godhead. PURPORT Foolish politicians who hold political administrative posts think that the temporary posts they occupy are the highest material gain of life, and therefore they stick to those posts even up to the last moment of life, without knowing that achievement of liberation as one of the associates of the Lord in His eternal abode is the highest gain of life. The human life is meant for achieving this end. The Lord has assured us in the Bhagavad-gétä many times that going back to Godhead, His eternal abode, is the highest achievement. Prahläda Mahäräja, while praying to Lord Nåsiàha, said, “O my Lord, I am very much afraid of the materialistic way of life, and I am not the least afraid of Your present ghastly ferocious feature as Nåsiàhadeva. This materialistic way of life is something like a grinding stone, and we are being crushed by it. We have fallen into this horrible whirlpool of the tossing waves of life, and thus, my Lord, I pray at Your lotus feet to call me back to Your eternal abode as one of Your servitors. This is the summit liberation of this materialistic way of life. I have very bitter experience of the materialistic way of life. In whichever species of life I have taken birth, compelled by the force of my own activities, I have very painfully experienced two things, namely separation from my beloved and meeting with what is not wanted. And to counteract them, the remedies which I undertook were more dangerous than the disease itself. So I drift from one point to another birth after birth, and I pray to You therefore to give me a shelter at Your lotus feet.” The Päëòava kings, who are more than many saints of the world, knew the bitter results of the materialistic way of life. They were never captivated by the glare of the imperial throne they occupied, and they sought always the opportunity of being called by the Lord to associate with Him eternally. Mahäräja Parékñit was the worthy grandson of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira. Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira gave up the imperial throne to his grandson, and similarly Mahäräja Parékñit, the grandson of Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira, gave up the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

imperial throne to his son Janamejaya. That is the way of all the kings in the dynasty because they are all strictly in the line of Lord Kåñëa. Thus the devotees of the Lord are never enchanted by the glare of materialistic life, and they live impartially, unattached to the objects of the false, illusory materialistic way of life. TEXT 21 SaveR vYa& TaavidhaSMahe_Qa k-le/vr& YaavdSaaE ivhaYa ) l/aek&- Par& ivrJaSk&- ivXaaek&YaaSYaTYaYa& >aaGavTaPa[DaaNa" )) 21 )) sarve vayaà tävad ihäsmahe ’tha kalevaraà yävad asau vihäya lokaà paraà virajaskaà viçokaà yäsyaty ayaà bhägavata-pradhänaù SYNONYMS sarve—all; vayam—of us; tävat—as long as; iha—at this place; äsmahe—shall stay; atha—hereafter; kalevaram—the body; yävat—so long; asau—the King; vihäya—giving up; lokam—the planet; param—the supreme; virajaskam—completely free from mundane contamination; viçokam—completely freed from all kinds of lamentation; yäsyati—returns; ayam—this; bhägavata—devotee; pradhänaù—the foremost. TRANSLATION We shall all wait here until the foremost devotee of the Lord, Mahäräja Parékñit, returns to the supreme planet, which is completely free from all mundane contamination and all kinds of lamentation. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Beyond the limitation of the material creation, which is compared to the cloud in the sky, there is the paravyoma, or the spiritual sky, full of planets called Vaikuëöhas. Such Vaikuëöha planets are also differently known as the Puruñottamaloka, Acyutaloka, Trivikramaloka, Håñékeçaloka, Keçavaloka, Aniruddhaloka, Mädhavaloka, Pradyumnaloka, Saìkarñaëaloka, Çrédharaloka, Väsudevaloka, Ayodhyäloka, Dvärakäloka and many other millions of spiritual lokas wherein the Personality of Godhead predominates; all the living entities there are liberated souls with spiritual bodies as good as that of the Lord. There is no material contamination; everything there is spiritual, and therefore there is nothing objectively lamentable. They are full of transcendental bliss, and are without birth, death, old age and disease. And amongst all the above-mentioned Vaikuëöhalokas, there is one supreme loka called Goloka Våndävana, which is the abode of the Lord Çré Kåñëa and His specific associates. Mahäräja Parékñit was destined to achieve this particular loka, and the great åñis assembled there could foresee this. All of them consulted among themselves about the great departure of the great King, and they wanted to see him up to the last moment because they would no more be able to see such a great devotee of the Lord. When a great devotee of the Lord passes away, there is nothing to be lamented because the devotee is destined to enter into the kingdom of God. But the sorry plight is that such great devotees leave our sight, and therefore there is every reason to be sorry. As the Lord is rarely to be seen by our present eyes, so also are the great devotees. The great åñis, therefore, correctly decided to remain on the spot till the last moment. TEXT 22 Aaé[uTYa Tad*izGaavÙGavaNa( VYaaSaPau}aae Yad*C^Yaa GaaMa$=MaaNaae_NaPae+a" ) Al/+Yail/®ae iNaJal/a>aTauíae Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

v*Taê balE/rvDaUTavez" )) 25 )) taträbhavad bhagavän vyäsa-putro yadåcchayä gäm aöamäno ’napekñaù alakñya-liìgo nija-läbha-tuñöo våtaç ca bälair avadhüta-veñaù SYNONYMS tatra—there; abhavat—appeared; bhagavän—powerful; vyäsa-putraù—son of Vyäsadeva; yadåcchayä—as one desires; gäm—the earth; aöamänaù—while traveling; anapekñaù—disinterested; alakñya—unmanifested; liìgaù—symptoms; nija-läbha—self-realized; tuñöaù—satisfied; våtaù—surrounded; ca—and; bälaiù—by children; avadhüta—neglected by others; veñaù—dressed. TRANSLATION At that moment there appeared the powerful son of Vyäsadeva, who traveled over the earth disinterested and satisfied with himself. He did not manifest any symptoms of belonging to any social order or status of life. He was surrounded with women and children, and he dressed as if others had neglected him. PURPORT The word bhagavän is sometimes used in relation with some of the great devotees of the Lord, like Çukadeva Gosvämé. Such liberated souls are disinterested in the affairs of this material world because they are self-satisfied by the great achievements of devotional service. As explained before, Çukadeva Gosvämé never accepted any formal spiritual master, nor did he undergo any formal reformatory performances. His father, Vyäsadeva, was his natural spiritual master because Çukadeva Gosvämé heard Çrémad-Bhägavatam from him. After this, he became completely self-satisfied. Thus he was not dependent on any formal process. The formal processes are necessary for those who are expected to reach the stage of complete liberation, but Çré Çukadeva Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Gosvämé was already in that status by the grace of his father. As a young boy he was expected to be properly dressed, but he went about naked and was uninterested in social customs. He was neglected by the general populace, and inquisitive boys and women surrounded him as if he were a madman. He thus appears on the scene while traveling on the earth of his own accord. It appears that upon the inquiry of Mahäräja Parékñit, the great sages were not unanimous in their decision as to what was to be done. For spiritual salvation there were many prescriptions according to the different modes of different persons. But the ultimate aim of life is to attain the highest perfectional stage of devotional service to the Lord. As doctors differ, so also sages differ in their different prescriptions. While such things were going on, the great and powerful son of Vyäsadeva appeared on the scene. TEXT 26 Ta& Üyívz| Sauku-MaarPaad‚ k-raeåbaû&Sak-Paael/Gaa}aMa( ) cavaRYaTaa+aaeàSaTauLYak- vaNaNa& k-MbuSauJaaTak-aRk-a MahaSaNae SaaePaivveXa PaUiJaTa" )) 29 )) sa viñëu-räto ’tithaya ägatäya tasmai saparyäà çirasäjahära tato nivåttä hy abudhäù striyo ’rbhakä mahäsane sopaviveça püjitaù SYNONYMS saù—he; viñëu-rätaù—Mahäräja Parékñit (who is always protected by Lord Viñëu); atithaye—to become a guest; ägatäya—one who arrived there; tasmai—unto him; saparyäm—with the whole body; çirasä—with bowed head; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

äjahära—offered obeisances; tataù—thereafter; nivåttäù—ceased; hi—certainly; abudhäù—less intelligent; striyaù—women; arbhakäù—boys; mahä-äsane—exalted seat; sa—he; upaviveça—sat down; püjitaù—being respected. TRANSLATION Mahäräja Parékñit, who is also known as Viñëuräta [one who is always protected by Viñëu], bowed his head to receive the chief guest, Çukadeva Gosvämé. At that time all the ignorant women and boys ceased following Çréla Çukadeva. Receiving respect from all, Çukadeva Gosvämé took his exalted seat. PURPORT On Çukadeva Gosvämé’s arrival at the meeting, everyone, except Çréla Vyäsadeva, Närada and a few others, stood up, and Mahäräja Parékñit, who was glad to receive a great devotee of the Lord, bowed down before him with all the limbs of his body. Çukadeva Gosvämé also exchanged the greetings and reception by embrace, shaking of hands, nodding and bowing down, especially before his father and Närada Muni. Thus he was offered the presidential seat at the meeting. When he was so received by the king and sages, the street boys and less intelligent women who followed him were struck with wonder and fear. So they retired from their frivolous activities, and everything was full of gravity and calm. TEXT 30 Sa Sa&v*TaSTa}a MahaNa( MahqYaSaa& b]øizRraJaizRdevizRSaºE" ) VYaraecTaal&/ >aGavaNa( YaQaeNdu‚ Ga]Rh+aRTaaraiNak-rE" ParqTa" )) 30 )) sa saàvåtas tatra mahän mahéyasäà brahmarñi-räjarñi-devarñi-saìghaiù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vyarocatälaà bhagavän yathendur graharkña-tärä-nikaraiù parétaù SYNONYMS saù—Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé; saàvåtaù—surrounded by; tatra—there; mahän—great; mahéyasäm—of the greatest; brahmarñi—saint among the brähmaëas; räjarñi—saint among the kings; devarñi—saint among the demigods; saìghaiù—by the assembly of; vyarocata—well deserved; alam—able; bhagavän—powerful; yathä—as; induù—the moon; graha—planets; åkña—heavenly bodies; tärä—stars; nikaraiù—by the assembly of; parétaù—surrounded by. TRANSLATION Çukadeva Gosvämé was then surrounded by saintly sages and demigods just as the moon is surrounded by stars, planets and other heavenly bodies. His presence was gorgeous, and he was respected by all. PURPORT In the great assembly of saintly personalities, there was Vyäsadeva the brahmarñi, Närada the devarñi, Paraçuräma the great ruler of the kñatriya kings, etc. Some of them were powerful incarnations of the Lord. Çukadeva Gosvämé was not known as brahmarñi, räjarñi or devarñi, nor was he an incarnation like Närada, Vyäsa or Paraçuräma. And yet he excelled them in respects paid. This means that the devotee of the Lord is more honored in the world than the Lord Himself. One should therefore never minimize the importance of a devotee like Çukadeva Gosvämé. TEXT 31 Pa[XaaNTaMaaSaqNaMaku-aaGavTaae_>YauPaeTYa ) Pa[aGavaNa( Pa[qTa" k*-Za" Pa[>aae ) SMaTaRVYa& >aJaNaqYa& va b]Uih YaÜa ivPaYaRYaMa( )) 38 )) yac chrotavyam atho japyaà yat kartavyaà nåbhiù prabho smartavyaà bhajanéyaà vä brühi yad vä viparyayam SYNONYMS yat—whatever; çrotavyam—worth hearing; atho—thereof; japyam—chanted; yat—what also; kartavyam—executed; nåbhiù—by the people in general; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

prabho—O master; smartavyam—that which is remembered; bhajanéyam—worshipable; vä—either; brühi—please explain; yad vä—what it may be; viparyayam—against the principle. TRANSLATION Please let me know what a man should hear, chant, remember and worship, and also what he should not do. Please explain all this to me. TEXT 39 NaUNa& >aGavTaae b]øNa( Ga*hezu Ga*hMaeiDaNaaMa( ) Na l/+YaTae ùvSQaaNaMaiPa GaaedaehNa& KvicTa( )) 39 )) nünaà bhagavato brahman gåheñu gåha-medhinäm na lakñyate hy avasthänam api go-dohanaà kvacit SYNONYMS nünam—because; bhagavataù—of you, who are powerful; brahman—O brähmaëa; gåheñu—in the houses; gåha-medhinäm—of the householders; na—not; lakñyate—are seen; hi—exactly; avasthänam—staying in; api—even; go-dohanam—milking the cow; kvacit—rarely. TRANSLATION O powerful brähmaëa, it is said that you hardly stay in the houses of men long enough to milk a cow. PURPORT Saints and sages in the renounced order of life go to the houses of the householders at the time they milk the cows, early in the morning, and ask some quantity of milk for subsistence. A pound of milk fresh from the milk bag Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

of a cow is sufficient to feed an adult with all vitamin values, and therefore saints and sages live only on milk. Even the poorest of the householders keep at least ten cows, each delivering twelve to twenty quarts of milk, and therefore no one hesitates to spare a few pounds of milk for the mendicants. It is the duty of householders to maintain the saints and sages, like the children. So a saint like Çukadeva Gosvämé would hardly stay at the house of a householder for more than five minutes in the morning. In other words, such saints are very rarely seen in the houses of householders, and Mahäräja Parékñit therefore prayed to him to instruct him as soon as possible. The householders also should be intelligent enough to get some transcendental information from visiting sages. The householder should not foolishly ask a saint to deliver what is available in the market. That should be the reciprocal relation between the saints and the householders. TEXT 40 SaUTa ovac WvMaa>aaizTa" Pa*í" Sa raja ë+aazTa DaMaRjae >aGavaNa( badraYaiad]Maq+aTa" yasyäà sandhäryamäëäyäà yogino bhakti-lakñaëaù äçu sampadyate yoga Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

)) 21 ))

äçrayaà bhadram ékñataù SYNONYMS yasyäm—by such systematic remembrance; sandhäryamäëäyäm—and thus being fixed in the habit of; yoginaù—the mystics; bhakti-lakñaëaù—being practiced to the devotional system; äçu—very soon; sampadyate—attains success; yogaù—connection by devotional service; äçrayam—under the shelter of; bhadram—the all-good; ékñataù—which seeing that. TRANSLATION O King, by this system of remembrance and by being fixed in the habit of seeing the all-good personal conception of the Lord, one can very soon attain devotional service to the Lord, under His direct shelter. PURPORT Success of mystic performances is achieved only by the help of the devotional attitude. Pantheism, or the system of feeling the presence of the Almighty everywhere, is a sort of training of the mind to become accustomed to the devotional conception, and it is this devotional attitude of the mystic that makes possible the successful termination of such mystic attempts. One is not, however, elevated to such a successful status without the tinge of mixture in devotional service. The devotional atmosphere created by pantheistic vision develops into devotional service in later days, and that is the only benefit for the impersonalist. It is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä (12.5) that the impersonal way of self-realization is more troublesome because it reaches the goal in an indirect way, although the impersonalist also becomes obsessed with the personal feature of the Lord after a long time. TEXT 22 raJaaevac YaQaa SaNDaaYaRTae b]øNa( DaaraJaeTa NaaNYa}a SaÂed( YaTa AaTMaPaaTa" )) 39 )) sa sarva-dhé-våtty-anubhüta-sarva ätmä yathä svapna-janekñitaikaù taà satyam änanda-nidhià bhajeta nänyatra sajjed yata ätma-pätaù SYNONYMS saù—He (the Supreme Person); sarva-dhé-våtti—the process of realization by all sorts of intelligence; anubhüta—cognizant; sarve—everyone; ätmä—the Supersoul; yathä—as much as; svapna-jana—a person dreaming; ékñita—seen by; ekaù—one and the same; tam—unto Him; satyam—the Supreme Truth; änanda-nidhim—the ocean of bliss; bhajeta—must one worship; na—never; anyatra—anything else; sajjet—be attached; yataù—whereby; ätma-pätaù—degradation of oneself. TRANSLATION One should concentrate his mind upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who alone distributes Himself in so many manifestations just as ordinary persons create thousands of manifestations in dreams. One must concentrate the mind on Him, the only all-blissful Absolute Truth. Otherwise one will be Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

misled and will cause his own degradation. PURPORT In this verse, the process of devotional service is indicated by the great Gosvämé, Çréla Çukadeva. He tries to impress upon us that instead of diverting our attention to several branches of self-realization, we should concentrate upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the supreme object of realization, worship and devotion. Self-realization is, as it were, offering a fight for eternal life against the material struggle for existence, and therefore by the illusory grace of the external energy, the yogé or the devotee is faced with many allurements which can entangle a great fighter again in the bondage of material existence. A yogé can attain miraculous successes in material achievements, such as aëimä and laghimä, by which one can become more minute than the minutest or lighter than the lightest, or in the ordinary sense, one may achieve material benedictions in the shape of wealth and women. But one is warned against such allurements because entanglement again in such illusory pleasure means degradation of the self and further imprisonment in the material world. By this warning, one should follow one’s vigilant intelligence only. The Supreme Lord is one, and His expansions are various. He is therefore the Supersoul of everything. When a man sees anything, he must know that his seeing is secondary and the Lord’s seeing is primary. One cannot see anything without the Lord’s having first seen it. That is the instruction of the Vedas and the Upaniñads. So whatever we see or do, the Supersoul of all acts of seeing or doing is the Lord. This theory of simultaneous oneness and difference between the individual soul and the Supersoul is propounded by Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu as the philosophy of acintya-bhedäbheda-tattva(1). The viräö-rüpa, or the gigantic feature of the Supreme Lord, includes everything materially manifested, and therefore the viräö or gigantic feature of the Lord is the Supersoul of all living and nonliving entities. But the viräö-rüpa is also the manifestation of Näräyaëa or Viñëu, and going further on and on one will eventually see that Lord Kåñëa is the ultimate Supersoul of everything that be. The conclusion is that one should Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

unhesitatingly become a worshiper of Lord Kåñëa, or, for that matter, His plenary expansion Näräyaëa, and none else. In the Vedic hymns, it is clearly said that first of all Näräyaëa cast a glance over matter and thus there was creation. Before creation, there was neither Brahmä nor Çiva, and what to speak of others. Çrépäda Çaìkaräcärya has definitely accepted this, that Näräyaëa is beyond the material creation and that all others are within the material creation. The whole material creation, therefore, is one with and different from Näräyaëa, simultaneously, and this supports the acintya-bhedäbheda-tattva(2) philosophy of Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. Being an emanation from the glancing potency of Näräyaëa, the whole material creation is nondifferent from Him. But because it is the effect of His external energy (bahiraìgä mäyä) and is aloof from the internal potency (ätma-mäyä), the whole material creation is different from Him at the same time. The example given in this verse very nicely is that of the dreaming man. The dreaming man creates many things in his dream, and thus he himself becomes the entangled seer of the dream and is also affected by the consequences. This material creation is also exactly a dreamlike creation of the Lord, but He, being the transcendental Supersoul, is neither entangled nor affected by the reactions of such a dreamlike creation. He is always in His transcendental position, but essentially He is everything, and nothing is apart from Him. As a part of Him, one should therefore concentrate on Him only, without deviation; otherwise one is sure to be overcome by the potencies of the material creation, one after another. It is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä (9.7) as follows: sarva-bhütäni kaunteya prakåtià yänti mämikäm kalpa-kñaye punas täni kalpädau visåjämy aham “O son of Kunté, at the end of the millennium every material manifestation enters into My nature, and at the beginning of another millennium, by My potency, I again create.” The human life, however, is an opportunity to get out of this repetition of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

creation and annihilation. It is a means whereby one may escape the Lord’s external potency and enter into His internal potency. Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Second Canto, First Chapter, of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, entitled “The First Step in God Realization.”

Chapter Two The Lord in the Heart

TEXT 1 é[qéuk- ovac Wv& Paura Daara]Ma&STa}a Na ivNdTae_QaaRNa( MaaYaaMaYae vaSaNaYaa XaYaaNa" )) 2 )) çäbdasya hi brahmaëa eña panthä yan nämabhir dhyäyati dhér apärthaiù paribhramaàs tatra na vindate ’rthän mäyämaye väsanayä çayänaù SYNONYMS çäbdasya—of the Vedic sound; hi—certainly; brahmaëaù—of the Vedas; eñaù—these; panthäù—the way; yat—what is; nämabhiù—by different names; dhyäyati—ponders; dhéù—intelligence; apärthaiù—by meaningless ideas; paribhraman—wandering; tatra—there; na—never; vindate—enjoys; arthän—realities; mäyä-maye—in illusory things; väsanayä—by different desires; çayänaù—as if dreaming in sleep. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION The way of presentation of the Vedic sounds is so bewildering that it directs the intelligence of the people to meaningless things like the heavenly kingdoms. The conditioned souls hover in dreams of such heavenly illusory pleasures, but actually they do not relish any tangible happiness in such places. PURPORT The conditioned soul is always engaged in laying out plans for happiness within the material world, even up to the end of the universal limit. He is not even satisfied with available amenities on this planet earth, where he has exploited the resources of nature to the best of his ability. He wants to go to the moon or the planet Venus to exploit resources there. But the Lord has warned us in the Bhagavad-gétä (8.16) about the worthlessness of all the innumerable planets of this universe, as well as those planets within other systems. There are innumerable universes and also innumerable planets in each of them. But none of them is immune to the chief miseries of material existence, namely the pangs of birth, the pangs of death, the pangs of old age and the pangs of disease. The Lord says that even the topmost planet, known as the Brahmaloka or Satyaloka, (and what to speak of other planets, like the heavenly planets) is not a happy land for residential purposes, due to the presence of material pangs, as above mentioned. Conditioned souls are strictly under the laws of fruitive activities, and as such they sometimes go up to Brahmaloka and again come down to Pätälaloka, as if they were unintelligent children on a merry-go-round. The real happiness is in the kingdom of God, where no one has to undergo the pangs of material existence. Therefore, the Vedic ways of fruitive activities for the living entities are misleading. One thinks of a superior way of life in this country or that, or on this planet or another, but nowhere in the material world can he fulfill his real desire of life, namely eternal life, full intelligence and complete bliss. Indirectly, Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé affirms that Mahäräja Parékñit, in the last stage of life, should not desire to transfer himself to the so-called heavenly planets, but should prepare himself for going back home, back to Godhead. None of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

material planets, nor the amenities available there for living conditions, is everlasting; therefore one must have a factual reluctance to enjoy such temporary happiness as they afford. TEXT 3 ATa" k-ivNaaRMaSau YaavdQaR" SYaadPa[Mataae VYavSaaYabuiÖ" ) iSaÖe_NYaQaaQaeR Na YaTaeTa Ta}a Pairé[Ma& Ta}a SaMaq+aMaaaGavaNaNaNTa" ) Ta& iNav*RTaae iNaYaTaaQaaeR >aJaeTa Sa&SaarheTaUParMaê Ya}a )) 6 )) evaà sva-citte svata eva siddha ätmä priyo ’rtho bhagavän anantaù taà nirvåto niyatärtho bhajeta saàsära-hetüparamaç ca yatra SYNONYMS evam—thus; sva-citte—in one’s own heart; svataù—by His omnipotency; eva—certainly; siddhaù—fully represented; ätmä—the Supersoul; priyaù—very dear; arthaù—substance; bhagavän—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anantaù—the eternal unlimited; tam—unto Him; nirvåtaù—being detached from the world; niyata—permanent; arthaù—the supreme gain; bhajeta—one must worship; saàsära-hetu—the cause of the conditioned state of existence; uparamaù—cessation; ca—certainly; yatra—in which. TRANSLATION Thus being fixed, one must render service unto the Supersoul situated in Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

one’s own heart by His omnipotency. Because He is the Almighty Personality of Godhead, eternal and unlimited, He is the ultimate goal of life, and by worshiping Him one can end the cause of the conditioned state of existence. PURPORT As confirmed in Bhagavad-gétä (18.61), the Supreme Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa is the all-pervading omnipresent Supersoul. Therefore one who is a yogé can worship only Him because He is the substance and not illusion. Every living creature is engaging in the service of something else. A living being’s constitutional position is to render service, but in the atmosphere of mäyä, or illusion, or the conditional state of existence, the conditioned soul seeks the service of illusion. A conditioned soul works in the service of his temporary body, bodily relatives like the wife and children, and the necessary paraphernalia for maintaining the body and bodily relations, such as the house, land, wealth, society and country, but he does not know that all such renderings of service are totally illusory. As we have discussed many times before, this material world is itself an illusion, like a mirage in the desert. In the desert there is an illusion of water, and the foolish animals become entrapped by such an illusion and run after water in the desert, although there is no water at all. But because there is no water in the desert, one does not conclude that there is no water at all. The intelligent person knows well that there is certainly water, water in the seas and oceans, but such vast reservoirs of water are far, far away from the desert. One should therefore search for water in the vicinity of seas and oceans and not in the desert. Every one of us is searching after real happiness in life, namely eternal life, eternal or unlimited knowledge and unending blissful life. But foolish people who have no knowledge of the substance search after the reality of life in the illusion. This material body does not endure eternally, and everything in relation with this temporary body, such as the wife, children, society and country, also changes along with the change of body. This is called saàsära, or repetition of birth, death, old age and disease. We would like to find a solution for all these problems of life, but we do not know the way. Herein it is suggested that anyone who wants to make an end to these miseries of life, namely repetition Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

of birth, death, disease, and old age, must take to this process of worshiping the Supreme Lord and not others, as it is also ultimately suggested in the Bhagavad-gétä (18.65). If we at all want to end the cause of our conditioned life, we must take to the worship of Lord Çré Kåñëa, who is present in everyone’s heart by His natural affection for all living beings, who are actually the parts and parcels of the Lord (Bg. 18.61). The baby in the lap of his mother is naturally attached to the mother, and the mother is attached to the child. But when the child grows up and becomes overwhelmed by circumstances, he gradually becomes detached from the mother, although the mother always expects some sort of service from the grown-up child and is equally affectionate toward her child, even though the child is forgetful. Similarly, because we are all part and parcel of the Lord, the Lord is always affectionate to us, and He always tries to get us back home, back to Godhead. But we, the conditioned souls, do not care for Him and run instead after the illusory bodily connections. We must therefore extricate ourselves from all illusory connections of the world and seek reunion with the Lord, trying to render service unto Him because He is the ultimate truth. Actually we are hankering after Him as the child seeks the mother. And to search out the Supreme Personality of Godhead, we need not go anywhere else, because the Lord is within our hearts. This does not suggest, however, that we should not go to the places of worship, namely the temples, churches and mosques. Such holy places of worship are also occupied by the Lord because the Lord is omnipresent. For the common man these holy places are centers of learning about the science of God. When the temples are devoid of activities, the people in general become uninterested in such places, and consequently the mass of people gradually become godless, and a godless civilization is the result. Such a hellish civilization artificially increases the conditions of life, and existence becomes intolerable for everyone. The foolish leaders of a godless civilization try to devise various plans to bring about peace and prosperity in the godless world under a patent trademark of materialism, and because such attempts are illusory only, the people elect incompetent, blind leaders, one after another, who are incapable of offering solutions. If we want at all to end this anomaly of a godless civilization, we must follow the principles of revealed scriptures like Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Çrémad-Bhägavatam and follow the instruction of a person like Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé who has no attraction for material gain. TEXT 7 k-STaa& TvNaad*TYa ParaNauicNTaa‚ Ma*Tae PaéUNaSaTaq& NaaMa ku-YaaRTa( ) PaXYaÅNa& PaiTaTa& vETara®Sa&SaUicTa>aUYaRNauGa]hMa( ) wR+aeTa icNTaaMaYaMaeNaMaqìr& YaavNMaNaae DaaraavYaeTa( Paadaid YaavÖiSaTa& Gada>a*Ta" ) iJaTa& iJaTa& SQaaNaMaPaaeù DaarYaeTa( Par& Par& éuÖyiTa DaqYaRQaa YaQaa )) 13 )) ekaikaço ’ìgäni dhiyänubhävayet pädädi yävad dhasitaà gadäbhåtaù jitaà jitaà sthänam apohya dhärayet paraà paraà çuddhyati dhér yathä yathä SYNONYMS eka-ekaçaù—one to one, or one after another; aìgäni—limbs; dhiyä—by attention; anubhävayet—meditate upon; päda-ädi—legs, etc.; yävat—until; hasitam—smiling; gadä-bhåtaù—the personality of Godhead; jitam jitam—gradually controlling the mind; sthänam—place; apohya—leaving; dhärayet—meditate upon; param param—higher and higher; çuddhyati—purified; dhéù—intelligence; yathä yathä—as much as. TRANSLATION The process of meditation should begin from the lotus feet of the Lord and progress to His smiling face. The meditation should be concentrated upon the lotus feet, then the calves, then the thighs, and in this way higher and higher. The more the mind becomes fixed upon the different parts of the limbs, one after another, the more the intelligence becomes purified. PURPORT The process of meditation recommended in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam is not Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

to fix one’s attention on something impersonal or void. The meditation should concentrate on the person of the Supreme Godhead, either in His viräö-rüpa, the gigantic universal form, or in His sac-cid-änanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1], as described in the scriptures. There are authorized descriptions of Viñëu forms, and there are authorized representations of Deities in the temples. Thus one can practice meditating upon the Deity, concentrating his mind on the lotus feet of the Lord and gradually rising higher and higher, up to His smiling face. According to the Bhägavata school, the Lord’s räsa dancing is the smiling face of the Lord. Since it is recommended in this verse that one should gradually progress from the lotus feet up to the smiling face, we shall not jump at once to understand the Lord’s pastimes in the räsa dance. It is better to practice concentrating our attention by offering flowers and tulasi to the lotus feet of the Lord. In this way, we gradually become purified by the arcanä process. We dress the Lord, bathe Him, etc., and all these transcendental activities help us purify our existence. When we reach the higher standard of purification, if we see the smiling face of the Lord or hear the räsa dance pastimes of the Lord, then we can relish His activities. In the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, therefore, the räsa dance pastimes are delineated in the Tenth Canto (Chapters 29–34). The more one concentrates on the transcendental form of the Lord, either on the lotus feet, the calves, the thighs or the chest, the more one becomes purified. In this verse it is clearly stated, “the more the intelligence becomes purified,” which means the more one becomes detached from sense gratification. Our intelligence in the present conditioned state of life is impure due to being engaged in sense gratification. The result of meditation on the transcendental form of the Lord will be manifested by one’s detachment from sense gratification. Therefore, the ultimate purpose of meditation is purification of one’s intelligence. Those who are too engrossed in sense gratification cannot be allowed to participate in arcanä or to touch the transcendental form of the Rädhä-Kåñëa or Viñëu Deities. For them it is better to meditate upon the gigantic viräö-rüpa of the Lord, as recommended in the next verse. The impersonalists and the voidists are therefore recommended to meditate upon the universal form of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the Lord, whereas the devotees are recommended to meditate on the Deity worship in the temple. Because the impersonalists and the voidists are not sufficiently purified in their spiritual activities, arcanä is not meant for them. TEXT 14 Yaavà JaaYaeTa Paravre_iSMaNa( ivìeìre d]íir >ai¢-YaaeGa" ) TaavTa( SQavqYa" PauåzSYa æPa& i§-YaavSaaNae Pa[YaTa" SMareTa )) 14 )) yävan na jäyeta parävare ’smin viçveçvare drañöari bhakti-yogaù tävat sthavéyaù puruñasya rüpaà kriyävasäne prayataù smareta SYNONYMS yävat—as long as; na—does not; jäyeta—develop; para—transcendental; avare—mundane; asmin—in this form of; viçva-éçvare—the Lord of all worlds; drañöari—unto the seer; bhakti-yogaù—devotional service; tävat—so long; sthavéyaù—the gross materialist; puruñasya—of the viräö-puruña; rüpam—universal form; kriyä-avasäne—at the end of one’s prescribed duties; prayataù—with proper attention; smareta—one should remember. TRANSLATION Unless the gross materialist develops a sense of loving service unto the Supreme Lord, the seer of both the transcendental and material worlds, he should remember or meditate upon the universal form of the Lord at the end of his prescribed duties. PURPORT

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The Supreme Lord is the seer of all worlds, both material and transcendental. In other words, the Supreme Lord is the ultimate beneficiary and enjoyer of all worlds, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä (5.29). The spiritual world is the manifestation of His internal potency, and the material world is the manifestation of His external potency. The living entities are also His marginal potency, and by their own choice they can live in either the transcendental or material worlds. The material world is not a fit place for living entities because they are spiritually one with the Lord and in the material world the living entities become conditioned by the laws of the material world. The Lord wants all living entities, who are His parts and parcels, to live with Him in the transcendental world, and for enlightening conditioned souls in the material world, all the Vedas and the revealed scriptures are there—expressly to recall the conditioned souls back home, back to Godhead. Unfortunately, the conditioned living entities, although suffering continually the threefold miseries of conditioned life, are not very serious about going back to Godhead. It is due to their misguided way of living, complicated by sins and virtues. Some of them who are virtuous by deeds begin to reestablish the lost relation with the Lord, but they are unable to understand the personal feature of the Lord. The real purpose of life is to make contact with the Lord and be engaged in His service. That is the natural position of living entities. But those who are impersonalists and are unable to render any loving service to the Lord have been advised to meditate upon His impersonal feature, the viräö-rüpa, or universal form. Some way or other, one must try to reestablish one’s forgotten relation with the Lord if one at all desires to gain real happiness in life, and to reclaim his natural unfettered condition. For the less intelligent beginners, meditation on the impersonal feature, the viräö-rüpa, or universal form of the Lord, will gradually qualify one to rise to personal contact. One is advised herewith to meditate upon the viräö-rüpa specified in the previous chapters in order to understand how the different planets, seas, mountains, rivers, birds, beasts, human beings, demigods and all that we can conceive are but different parts and limbs of the Lord’s viräö form. This sort of thinking is also a type of meditation on the Absolute Truth, and as soon as such meditation begins, one develops one’s godly Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

qualities, and the whole world appears to be a happy and peaceful residence for all the people of the world. Without such meditation on God, either personal or impersonal, all good qualities of the human being become covered with misconceptions regarding his constitutional position, and without such advanced knowledge, the whole world becomes a hell for the human being. TEXT 15 iSQar& Sau%& caSaNaMaaiSQaTaae YaiTa‚ YaRda iJahaSauirMaMa® l/aek-Ma( ) k-ale/ c deXae c MaNaae Na SaÂYaeTa( Pa[aaGaviTa >ai¢-YaaeGaae YaTaae >aveTa( )) 33 )) na hy ato ’nyaù çivaù panthä viçataù saàsåtäv iha väsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yogo yato bhavet SYNONYMS na—never; hi—certainly; ataù—beyond this; anyaù—any other; çivaù—auspicious; panthäù—means; viçataù—wandering; saàsåtau—in the material world; iha—in this life; väsudeve—unto Lord Väsudeva, Kåñëa; bhagavati—the Personality of Godhead; bhakti-yogaù—direct devotional service; yataù—wherein; bhavet—may result in. TRANSLATION For those who are wandering in the material universe, there is no more auspicious means of deliverance than what is aimed at in the direct devotional service of Lord Kåñëa. PURPORT As will be clarified in the next verse, devotional service, or direct bhakti-yoga, is the only absolute and auspicious means of deliverance from the grip of material existence. There are many indirect methods for deliverance from the clutches of material existence, but none of them is as easy and auspicious as bhakti-yoga. The means of jïäna and yoga and other allied disciplines are not independent in delivering a performer. Such activities help Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

one to reach the stage of bhakti-yoga after many, many years. In the Bhagavad-gétä (12.5) it is said that those who are attached to the impersonal feature of the Absolute are liable to many troubles in the pursuit of their desired goal, and the empiricist philosophers, searching after the Absolute Truth, realize the importance of Väsudeva realization as all in all after many, many births (Bg. 7.19). As far as yoga systems are concerned, it is also said in the Bhagavad-gétä (6.47) that amongst the mystics who pursue the Absolute Truth, the one who is always engaged in the service of the Lord is the greatest of all. And the last instruction in the Bhagavad-gétä (18.66) advises fully surrendering unto the Lord, leaving aside all other engagements or different processes for self-realization and liberation from material bondage. And the purport of all Vedic literatures is to induce one to accept the transcendental loving service of the Lord by all means. As already explained in the texts of Çrémad-Bhägavatam (First Canto), either direct bhakti-yoga or the means which ultimately culminate in bhakti-yoga, without any tinge of fruitive activity, constitutes the highest form of religion. Everything else is simply a waste of time for the performer. Çréla Çrédhara Svämé and all other äcäryas, like Jéva Gosvämé, agree that bhakti-yoga is not only easy, simple, natural and free from trouble, but is the only source of happiness for the human being. TEXT 34 >aGavaNa( b]ø k-aTSNYaeRNa i}arNvq+Ya MaNaqzYaa ) TadDYavSYaTa( kU-$=SQaae riTaraTMaNa( YaTaae >aveTa( )) 34 )) bhagavän brahma kärtsnyena trir anvékñya manéñayä tad adhyavasyat küöa-stho ratir ätman yato bhavet SYNONYMS Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bhagavän—the great personality Brahmä; brahma—the Vedas; kärtsnyena—by summarization; triù—three times; anvékñya—scrutinizingly examined; manéñayä—with scholarly attention; tat—that; adhyavasyat—ascertained it; küöa-sthaù—with concentration of the mind; ratiù—attraction; ätman (ätmani)—unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa; yataù—by which; bhavet—it so happens. TRANSLATION The great personality Brahmä, with great attention and concentration of the mind, studied the Vedas three times, and after scrutinizingly examining them, he ascertained that attraction for the Supreme Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa is the highest perfection of religion. PURPORT Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé is referring to the highest Vedic authority, Lord Brahmä, who is the qualitative incarnation of Godhead. The Vedas were taught to Brahmäjé in the beginning of the material creation. Although Brahmäjé was to hear Vedic instructions directly from the personality of Godhead, in order to satisfy the inquisitiveness of all prospective students of the Vedas, Brahmäjé, just like a scholar, studied the Vedas three times, as generally done by all scholars. He studied with great attention, concentrating on the purpose of the Vedas, and after scrutinizingly examining the whole process, he ascertained that becoming a pure, unalloyed devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa is the topmost perfection of all religious principles. Aid this is the last instruction of the Bhagavad-gétä directly presented by the Personality of Godhead. The Vedic conclusion is thus accepted by all äcäryas, and those who are against this conclusion are only veda-väda-ratas, as explained in the Bhagavad-gétä (2.42). TEXT 35 >aGavaNa( SavR>aUTaezu l/i+aTa" SvaTMaNaa hir" ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

d*XYaEbuRÖyaidi>ad]Ría l/+aacrNa( YaJaeTa( ) k-aMak-aMaae YaJaeTa( SaaeMaMak-aMa" Pauåz& ParMa( )) 9 )) räjya-kämo manün devän niråtià tv abhicaran yajet käma-kämo yajet somam akämaù puruñaà param SYNONYMS räjya-kämaù—anyone desiring an empire or kingdom; manün—the Manus, semi-incarnations of God; devän—demigods; niråtim—demons; tu—but; abhicaran—desiring victory over the enemy; yajet—should worship; käma-kämaù—one who desires sense gratification; yajet—should worship; somam—the demigod named Candra; akämaù—one who has no material desires to be fulfilled; puruñam—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; param—the Supreme. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION One who desires domination over a kingdom or an empire should worship the Manus. One who desires victory over an enemy should worship the demons, and one who desires sense gratification should worship the moon. But one who desires nothing of material enjoyment should worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead. PURPORT For a liberated person, all the enjoyments listed above are considered to be absolutely useless. Only those who are conditioned by the material modes of external energy are captivated by different types of material enjoyment. In other words, the transcendentalist has no material desires to be fulfilled, whereas the materialist has all types of desires to be fulfilled. The Lord has proclaimed that the materialists, who desire material enjoyment and thus seek the favor of different demigods, as above mentioned, are not in control of their senses and so give themselves to nonsense. One should therefore not desire any sort of material enjoyment, being sensible enough to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The leaders of nonsensical persons are still more nonsensical because they preach openly and foolishly that one can worship any form of demigod and get the same result. This sort of preaching is not only against the teachings of the Bhagavad-gétä, or those of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, but is also foolish, just as it is foolish to claim that with the purchase of any travel ticket one may reach the same destination. No one can reach Bombay from Delhi by purchasing a ticket for Baroda. It is clearly defined herein that persons impregnated with different desires have different modes of worship, but one who has no desire for material enjoyment should worship the Supreme Lord, Çré Kåñëa, the Personality of Godhead. And this worshiping process is called devotional service. Pure devotional service means service to the Lord without any tinge of material desires, including desire for fruitive activity and empiric speculation. For fulfillment of material desires one may worship the Supreme Lord, but the result of such worship is different, as will be explained in the next verse. Generally the Lord does not fulfill anyone’s material desires Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

for sense enjoyment, but He awards such benedictions to worshipers of the Lord, for they ultimately come to the point of not desiring material enjoyment. The conclusion is that one must minimize the desires for material enjoyment, and for this one should worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is described here as param, or beyond anything material. Çrépäda Çaìkaräcärya has also stated, näräyaëaù paro ’vyaktät: the Supreme Lord is beyond the material encirclement. TEXT 10 Ak-aMa" SavRk-aMaae va Maae+ak-aMa odarDaq" ) Taqv]eai¢-YaaeGaeNa YaJaeTa Pauåz& ParMa( )) 10 )) akämaù sarva-kämo vä mokña-käma udära-dhéù tévreëa bhakti-yogena yajeta puruñaà param SYNONYMS akämaù—one who has transcended all material desires; sarva-kämaù—one who has the sum total of material desires; vä—either; mokña-kämaù—one who desires liberation; udära-dhéù—with broader intelligence; tévreëa—with great force; bhakti-yogena—by devotional service to the Lord; yajeta—should worship; puruñam—the Lord; param—the supreme whole. TRANSLATION A person who has broader intelligence, whether he be full of all material desire, without any material desire, or desiring liberation, must by all means worship the supreme whole, the Personality of Godhead. PURPORT The Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Çré Kåñëa is described in the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Bhagavad-gétä as puruñottama, or the Supreme Personality. It is He only who can award liberation to the impersonalists by absorbing such aspirants in the brahmajyoti, the bodily rays of the Lord. The brahmajyoti is not separate from the Lord, as the glowing sun ray is not independent of the sun disc. Therefore one who desires to merge into the supreme impersonal brahmajyoti must also worship the Lord by bhakti-yoga, as recommended here in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Bhakti-yoga is especially stressed here as the means of all perfection. In the previous chapters it has been stated that bhakti-yoga is the ultimate goal of both karma-yoga and jïäna-yoga, and in the same way in this chapter it is emphatically declared that bhakti-yoga is the ultimate goal of the different varieties of worship of the different demigods. Bhakti-yoga, thus being the supreme means of self-realization, is recommended here. Everyone must therefore seriously take up the methods of bhakti-yoga, even though one aspires for material enjoyment or liberation from material bondage. Akämaù is one who has no material desire. A living being, naturally being the part and parcel of the supreme whole puruñaà pürëam, has as his natural function to serve the Supreme Being, just as the parts and parcels of the body, or the limbs of the body, are naturally meant to serve the complete body. Desireless means, therefore, not to be inert like the stone, but to be conscious of one’s actual position and thus desire satisfaction only from the Supreme Lord. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé has explained this desirelessness as bhajanéya-parama-puruña-sukha-mätra-sva-sukhatvam in his Sandarbha. This means that one should feel happy only by experiencing the happiness of the Supreme Lord. This intuition of the living being is sometimes manifested even during the conditioned stage of a living being in the material world, and such intuition is expressed in the manner of altruism, philanthropy, socialism, communism, etc., by the undeveloped minds of less intelligent persons. In the mundane field such an outlook of doing good to others in the form of society, community, family, country or humanity is a partial manifestation of the same original feeling in which a pure living entity feels happiness by the happiness of the Supreme Lord. Such superb feelings were exhibited by the damsels of Vrajabhümi for the happiness of the Lord. The gopés loved the Lord without any return, and this is the perfect exhibition of the akämaù spirit. Käma spirit, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

or the desire for one’s own satisfaction, is fully exhibited in the material world, whereas the spirit of akämaù is fully exhibited in the spiritual world. Thoughts of becoming one with the Lord, or being merged in the brahmajyoti, can also be exhibitions of käma spirit if they are desires for one’s own satisfaction to be free from the material miseries. A pure devotee does not want liberation so that he may be relieved from the miseries of life. Even without so-called liberation, a pure devotee is aspirant for the satisfaction of the Lord. Influenced by the käma spirit, Arjuna declined to fight in the Kurukñetra battlefield because he wanted to save his relatives for his own satisfaction. But being a pure devotee, he agreed to fight on the instruction of the Lord because he came to his senses and realized that satisfaction of the Lord at the cost of his own satisfaction was his prime duty. Thus he became akäma. That is the perfect stage of a perfect living being. Udära-dhéù means one who has a broader outlook. people with desires for material enjoyment worship small demigods, and such intelligence is condemned in the Bhagavad-gétä (7.20) as håta jïäna, the intelligence of one who has lost his senses. One cannot obtain any result from demigods without getting sanction from the Supreme Lord. Therefore a person with a broader outlook can see that the ultimate authority is the Lord, even for material benefits. Under the circumstances, one with a broader outlook, even with the desire for material enjoyment or for liberation, should take to the worship of the Lord directly. And everyone, whether an akäma or sakäma or mokña-käma, should worship the Lord with great expedience. This implies that bhakti-yoga may be perfectly administered without any mixture of karma and jïäna. As the unmixed sun ray is very forceful and is therefore called tévra, similarly unmixed bhakti-yoga of hearing, chanting, etc., may be performed by one and all regardless of inner motive. TEXT 11 WTaavaNaev YaJaTaaiMah iNa"é[eYaSaaedYa" ) >aGavTYacl/ae >aavae Yad( >aaGavTaSa®Ta" )) 11 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

etävän eva yajatäm iha niùçreyasodayaù bhagavaty acalo bhävo yad bhägavata-saìgataù SYNONYMS etävän—all these different kinds of worshipers; eva—certainly; yajatäm—while worshiping; iha—in this life; niùçreyasa—the highest benediction; udayaù—development; bhagavati—unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; acalaù—unflinching; bhävaù—spontaneous attraction; yat—which; bhägavata—the pure devotee of the Lord; saìgataù—association. TRANSLATION All the different kinds of worshipers of multidemigods can attain the highest perfectional benediction, which is spontaneous attraction unflinchingly fixed upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, only by the association of the pure devotee of the Lord. PURPORT All living entities in different statuses of life within the material creation, beginning from the first demigod, Brahmä, down to the small ant, are conditioned under the law of material nature, or the external energy of the Supreme Lord. The living entity in his pure state is conscious of the fact that he is a part and parcel of the Lord, but when he is thrown into the material world on account of his desire to lord it over material energy, he becomes conditioned by the three modes of material nature and thus struggles for existence for the highest benefit. This struggle for existence is something like following the will-o’-the-wisp under the spell of material enjoyment. All plans for material enjoyment, either by worship of different demigods as described in the previous verses of this chapter or by modernized advancement of scientific knowledge without the help of God or demigod, are illusory only, for despite all such plans for happiness, the conditioned living being within the compass Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

of material creation can never solve the problems of life, namely birth, death, old age and disease. The history of the universe is full of such planmakers, and many kings and emperors come and go, leaving a planmaking story only. But the prime problems of life remain unsolved despite all endeavors by such planmakers. Actually human life is meant for making a solution to the problems of life. One can never solve such problems by satisfying the different demigods, by different modes of worship, or by so-called scientific advancement in knowledge without the help of God or the demigods. Apart from the gross materialists, who care very little either for God or for the demigods, the Vedas recommend worship of different demigods for different benefits, and so the demigods are neither false nor imaginary. The demigods are as factual as we are, but they are much more powerful due to their being engaged in the direct service of the Lord in managing different departments in the universal government. The Bhagavad-gétä affirms this, and the different planets of the demigods are mentioned there, including the one of the supreme demigod, Lord Brahmä. The gross materialists do not believe in the existence of God or the demigods. Nor do they believe that different planets are dominated by different demigods. They are creating a great commotion about reaching the closest celestial body, Candraloka, or the moon, but even after much mechanical research they have only very scanty information of this moon, and in spite of much false advertisement for selling land on the moon, the puffed-up scientists or gross materialists cannot live there, and what to speak of reaching the other planets, which they are unable even to count. However, the followers of the Vedas have a different method of acquiring knowledge. They accept the statements of the Vedic literatures as authority in toto, as we have already discussed in Canto One, and therefore they have full and reasonable knowledge of God and demigods and of their different residential planets situated within the compass of the material world and beyond the limit of the material sky. The most authentic Vedic literature, accepted by the great Indian äcäryas like Çaìkara, Rämänuja, Madhva, Viñëusvämé, Nimbärka and Caitanya and studied by all important personalities of the world, is the Bhagavad-gétä, in which the worship of the demigods and their respective Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

residential planets are mentioned. The Bhagavad-gétä (9.25) affirms: yänti deva-vratä devän pitèn yänti pitå-vratäù bhütäni yänti bhütejyä yänti mad-yäjino ’pi mäm “The worshipers of demigods reach the respective planets of the demigods, and the worshipers of forefathers reach the planets of the forefathers. The gross materialist remains in the different material planets, but the devotees of the Lord reach the kingdom of God.” We also have information from the Bhagavad-gétä that all the planets within the material world, including Brahmaloka, are but temporarily situated, and after a fixed period they are all annihilated. Therefore the demigods and their followers are all annihilated at the period of devastation, but one who reaches the kingdom of God gets a permanent share in eternal life. That is the verdict of Vedic literature. The worshipers of the demigods have one facility more than the unbelievers due to their being convinced of the Vedic version, by which they can get information of the benefit of worshiping the Supreme Lord in the association of the devotees of the Lord. The gross materialist, however, without any faith in the Vedic version, remains eternally in darkness, driven by a false conviction on the basis of imperfect experimental knowledge, or so-called material science, which can never reach into the realm of transcendental knowledge. Therefore unless the gross materialists or the worshipers of the temporary demigods come in contact with a transcendentalist like the pure devotee of the Lord, their attempts are simply a waste of energy. Only by the grace of the divine personalities, the pure devotees of the Lord, can one achieve pure devotion, which is the highest perfection of human life. Only a pure devotee of the Lord can show one the right way of progressive life. Otherwise both the materialistic way of life, without any information of God or the demigods, and the life engaged in the worship of demigods, in pursuit of temporary material enjoyments, are different phases of phantasmagoria. They are nicely explained in the Bhagavad-gétä also, but the Bhagavad-gétä can be understood in the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

association of pure devotees only, and not by the interpretations of politicians or dry philosophical speculators. TEXT 12 jaNa& YadaPa[iTaiNav*taGauaVYaaôTa& raJaa iNaXaMYa >arTazR>a" ) ik-MaNYaTPa*ívaNa( >aUYaae vEYaaSaik-Ma*iz& k-ivMa( )) 13 )) çaunaka uväca ity abhivyähåtaà räjä niçamya bharatarñabhaù kim anyat påñöavän bhüyo vaiyäsakim åñià kavim SYNONYMS çaunakaù uväca—Çaunaka said; iti—thus; abhivyähåtam—all that was spoken; räjä—the King; niçamya—by hearing; bharata-åñabhaù—Mahäräja Parékñit; kim—what; anyat—more; påñöavän—did he inquire from him; bhüyaù—again; vaiyäsakim—unto the son of Vyäsadeva; åñim—one who is well versed; kavim—poetic. TRANSLATION Çaunaka said: The son of Vyäsadeva, Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé, was a highly learned sage and was able to describe things in a poetic manner. What did Mahäräja Parékñit again inquire from him after hearing all that he had said? PURPORT A pure devotee of the Lord automatically develops all godly qualities, and Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

some of the prominent features of those qualities are as follows: he is kind, peaceful, truthful, equable, faultless, magnanimous, mild, clean, nonpossessive, a well-wisher to all, satisfied, surrendered to Kåñëa, without hankering, simple, fixed, self-controlled, a balanced eater, sane, mannerly, prideless, grave, sympathetic, friendly, poetic, expert and silent. Out of these twenty-six prominent features of a devotee, as described by Kåñëadäsa Kaviräja in his Caitanya-caritämåta, the qualification of being poetic is especially mentioned herein in relation to Çukadeva Gosvämé. The presentation of Çrémad-Bhägavatam by his recitation is the highest poetic contribution. He was a self-realized learned sage. In other words, he was a poet amongst the sages. TEXT 14 WTaC^ué[UzTaa& ivÜNa( SaUTa Naae_hRiSa >aaizTauMa( ) k-Qaa hirk-Qaaedk-aR" SaTaa& SYau" SadiSa Da]uvMa( )) 14 )) etac chuçrüñatäà vidvan süta no ’rhasi bhäñitum kathä hari-kathodarkäù satäà syuù sadasi dhruvam SYNONYMS etat—this; çuçrüñatäm—of those eager to hear; vidvan—O learned; süta—Süta Gosvämé; naù—unto us; arhasi—may you do it; bhäñitum—just to explain it; kathäù—topics; hari-kathä-udarkäù—result in the topics of the Lord; satäm—of the devotees; syuù—may be; sadasi—in the assembly of; dhruvam—certainly. TRANSLATION O learned Süta Gosvämé! Please continue to explain such topics to us because we are all eager to hear. Besides that, topics which result in the discussion of the Lord Hari should certainly be discussed in the assembly of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

devotees. PURPORT As we have already quoted above from the Bhakti-rasämåta-sindhu of Rüpa Gosvämé, even mundane things, if dovetailed in the service of the Lord Çré Kåñëa, are accepted as transcendental. For example, the epics or the histories of Rämäyaëa and Mahäbhärata, which are specifically recommended for the less intelligent classes (women, çüdras and unworthy sons of the higher castes), are also accepted as Vedic literature because they are compiled in connection with the activities of the Lord. Mahäbhärata is accepted as the fifth division of the Vedas after its first four divisions, namely Säma, Yajur, Åg and Atharva. The less intelligent do not accept Mahäbhärata as part of the Vedas, but great sages and authorities accept it as the fifth division of the Vedas. Bhagavad-gétä is also part of the Mahäbhärata, and it is full of the Lord’s instruction for the less intelligent class of men. Some less intelligent men say that Bhagavad-gétä is not meant for householders, but such foolish men forget that Bhagavad-gétä was explained to Arjuna, a gåhastha (family man), and spoken by the Lord in His role as a gåhastha. So Bhagavad-gétä, although containing the high philosophy of the Vedic wisdom, is for the beginners in the transcendental science, and Çrémad-Bhägavatam is for graduates and postgraduates in the transcendental science. Therefore literatures like Mahäbhärata, the, puräëas and similar other literatures which are full of the pastimes of the Lord, are all transcendental literatures, and they should be discussed with full confidence in the society of great devotees. The difficulty is that such literatures, when discussed by professional men, appear to be mundane literature like histories or epics because there are so many historical facts and figures. It is said here, therefore, that such literatures should be discussed in the assembly of devotees. Unless they are discussed by devotees, such literatures cannot be relished by the higher class of men. So the conclusion is that the Lord is not impersonal in the ultimate issue. He is the Supreme Person, and He has His different activities. He is the leader of all living entities, and He descends at His will and by His personal energy to reclaim the fallen souls. Thus He plays exactly like the social, political or Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

religious leaders. Because such roles ultimately culminate in the discussion of topics of the Lord, all such preliminary topics are also transcendental. That is the way of spiritualizing the civic activities of human society. Men have inclinations for studying history and many other mundane literatures—stories, fiction, dramas, magazines, newspapers, etc.—so let them be dovetailed with the transcendental service of the Lord, and all of them will turn to the topics relished by all devotees. The propaganda that the Lord is impersonal, that He has no activity and that He is a dumb stone without any name and form has encouraged people to become godless, faithless demons, and the more they deviate from the transcendental activities of the Lord, the more they become accustomed to mundane activities that only clear their path to hell instead of return them home, back to Godhead.*(3) Çrémad-Bhägavatam begins from the history of the Päëòavas (with necessary politics and social activities), and yet Çrémad-Bhägavatam is said to be the Päramahaàsa-saàhitä, or the Vedic literature meant for the topmost transcendentalist, and it describes paraà jïänam, the highest transcendental knowledge. pure devotees of the Lord are all paramahaàsas, and they are like the swans, who know the art of sucking milk out of a mixture of milk and water. TEXT 15 Sa vE >aaGavTaae raJaa PaaaazSae >aaGavTaPa[DaaNa" ) Yadah vEYaaSaik-raTMaivÛa‚ ivXaardae Na*PaiTa& SaaDau Pa*í" )) 25 )) athäbhidhehy aìga mano-’nukülaà prabhäñase bhägavata-pradhänaù yad äha vaiyäsakir ätma-vidyäviçärado nåpatià sädhu påñöaù SYNONYMS atha—therefore; abhidhehi—please explain; aìga—O Süta Gosvämé; manaù—mind; anukülam—favorable to our mentality; prabhäñase—you do speak; bhägavata—the great devotee; pradhänaù—the chief; yat äha—what he spoke; vaiyäsakiù—Çukadeva Gosvämé; ätma-vidyä—transcendental knowledge; viçäradaù—expert; nåpatim—unto the King; sädhu—very good; påñöaù—being asked. TRANSLATION O Süta Gosvämé, your words are pleasing to our minds. Please therefore explain this to us as it was spoken by the great devotee Çukadeva Gosvämé, who is very expert in transcendental knowledge, and who spoke to Mahäräja Parékñit upon being asked. PURPORT Knowledge explained by the previous äcärya like Çukadeva Gosvämé and followed by the next like Süta Gosvämé is always powerful transcendental knowledge, and it is therefore penetrating and useful to all submissive students. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Second Canto, Third Chapter, of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, entitled “Pure Devotional Service: The Change in Heart.”

Chapter Four The Process of Creation

TEXT 1 SaUTa ovac vEYaaSake-iriTa vcSTatviNaêYaMaaTMaNa" ) oPaDaaYaR MaiTa& k*-ZaUirXaSTvek-" ku-vRNa( k-MaaRia" )) 9 )) yathä guëäàs tu prakåter yugapat kramaço ’pi vä bibharti bhüriças tv ekaù kurvan karmäëi janmabhiù SYNONYMS yathä—as they are; guëän—the modes of; tu—but; prakåteù—of the material energy; yugapat—simultaneously; kramaçaù—gradually; api—also; vä—either; bibharti—maintains; bhüriçaù—many forms; tu—but; ekaù—the supreme one; kurvan—acting; karmäëi—activities; janmabhiù—by incarnations. TRANSLATION The Supreme Personality of Godhead is one, whether He alone acts with the modes of material nature, or simultaneously expands in many forms, or expands consecutively to direct the modes of nature. TEXT 10 ivicik-iTSaTaMaeTaNMae b]vqTau >aGavaNa( YaQaa ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

XaaBde b]øiavaYaai%l/SatvMaUTaRYae ) Pau&Saa& PauNa" PaarMah&SYa Aaé[Mae VYaviSQaTaaNaaMaNauMa*GYadaéuze

)) 13 ))

bhüyo namaù sad-våjina-cchide ’satäm asambhaväyäkhila-sattva-mürtaye puàsäà punaù päramahaàsya äçrame vyavasthitänäm anumågya-däçuñe SYNONYMS bhüyaù—again; namaù—my obeisances; sat—of the devotees or the pious; våjina—distresses; chide—the liberator; asatäm—of the atheists, the nondevotee-demons; asambhaväya—cessation of further unhappiness; akhila—complete; sattva—goodness; mürtaye—unto the Personality; puàsäm—of the transcendentalists; punaù—again; päramahaàsye—the highest stage of spiritual perfection; äçrame—in the status; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vyavasthitänäm—particularly situated; anumågya—the destination; däçuñe—one who delivers. TRANSLATION I again offer my respectful obeisances unto the form of complete existence and transcendence, who is the liberator of the pious devotees from all distresses and the destroyer of the further advances in atheistic temperament of the nondevotee-demons. For the transcendentalists who are situated in the topmost spiritual perfection, He grants their specific destinations. PURPORT Lord Çré Kåñëa is the complete form of all existence, both material and spiritual. Akhila means complete, or that which is not khila, inferior. As stated in the Bhagavad-gétä, there are two kinds of nature (prakåti), namely the material nature and the spiritual nature, or the external and internal potencies of the Lord. The material nature is called aparä, or inferior, and the spiritual nature is called superior or transcendental. Therefore the form of the Lord is not of the inferior, material nature. He is complete transcendence. And He is mürti, or having transcendental form. The less intelligent men, who are unaware of His transcendental form, describe Him as impersonal Brahman. But Brahman is simply the rays of His transcendental body (yasya prabhä [Bs. 5.40]). The devotees, who are aware of His transcendental form, render Him service; therefore the Lord also reciprocates by His causeless mercy and thus delivers His devotees from all distresses. The pious men who follow the rulings of the Vedas are also dear to Him, and therefore the pious men of this world are also protected by Him. The impious and the nondevotees are against the principles of the Vedas, and so such persons are always hampered from making advances in their nefarious activities. Some of them, who are specially favored by the Lord, are killed by Him personally, as in the cases of Rävaëa, Hiraëyakaçipu and Kaàsa, and thus such demons get salvation and are thereby checked from further progress in their demoniac activities. Just like a kind father, either in His favor upon the devotees or His punishment of the demons He is ever kind to everyone because He is the complete existence for all Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

individual existence. The paramahaàsa stage of existence is the highest perfectional stage of spiritual values. According to Çrématé Kuntédevé, the Lord is factually understood by the paramahaàsas only. As there is gradual realization of the transcendence from impersonal Brahman to localized Paramätmä to the Personality of Godhead, Puruñottama, Lord Kåñëa, similarly there is gradual promotion of one’s situation in the spiritual life of sannyäsa. Kuöécaka, bahüdaka, parivräjakäcärya and paramahaàsa are gradual progressive stages in the renounced order of life, sannyäsa, and Queen Kuntédevé, the mother of the Päëòavas, has spoken about them in her prayers for Lord Kåñëa (Canto One, Chapter Eight). The paramahaàsas are generally found among both the impersonalists and the devotees, but according to Çrémad-Bhägavatam (as clearly stated by Kuntédevé), pure bhakti-yoga is understood by the paramahaàsas, and Kuntédevé has especially mentioned that the Lord descends (pariträëäya sädhünäm) especially to award bhakti-yoga to the paramahaàsas. So ultimately the paramahaàsas, in the true sense of the term, are unalloyed devotees of the Lord. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé has directly accepted that the highest destination is bhakti-yoga, by which one accepts the transcendental loving service of the Lord. Those who accept the path of bhakti-yoga are the factual paramahaàsas. Since the Lord is very kind to everyone, the impersonalists, who accept bhakti as the means of merging in the existence of the Lord in His impersonal brahmajyoti, are also awarded their desired destination. He has assured everyone in the Bhagavad-gétä (4.11): ye yathä mäà prapadyante. According to Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté, there are two classes of paramahaàsas, namely the brahmänandés (impersonalists) and the premänandés (devotees), and both are awarded their desired destinations, although the premänandés are more fortunate than the brahmänandés. But both the brahmänandés and the premänandés are transcendentalists, and they have nothing to do with the inferior, material nature full of the existential miseries of life. TEXT 14

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

NaMaae NaMaSTae_STv*z>aaYa SaaTvTaa& ivdUrk-aïaYa Mauhu" ku-YaaeiGaNaaMa( ) iNarSTaSaaMYaaiTaXaYaeNa raDaSaa SvDaaMaiNa b]øia‚ ivRTaKYaRil/®ae >aGavaNa( Pa[SaqdTaaMa( )) 19 )) sa eña ätmätmavatäm adhéçvaras trayémayo dharmamayas tapomayaù gata-vyalékair aja-çaìkarädibhir vitarkya-liìgo bhagavän prasédatäm SYNONYMS saù—He; eñaù—it is; ätmä—the Supersoul; ätmavatäm—of the self-realized souls; adhéçvaraù—the Supreme Lord; trayé-mayaù—personified Vedas; dharma-mayaù—personified religious scripture; tapaù-mayaù—personified austerity; gata-vyalékaiù—by those who are above all pretensions; aja—Brahmäjé; çaìkara-ädibhiù—by Lord Çiva and others; vitarkya-liìgaù—one who is observed with awe and veneration; bhagavän—the personality of Godhead; prasédatäm—be kind toward me. TRANSLATION He is the Supersoul and the Supreme Lord of all self-realized souls. He is the personification of the Vedas, religious scriptures and austerities. He is worshiped by Lord Brahmä and Çiva and all those who are transcendental to all pretensions. Being so revered with awe and veneration, may that Supreme Absolute be pleased with me. PURPORT The Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead, although the Lord of all followers of different paths of self-realization, is knowable only by those who are above all pretensions. Everyone is searching for eternal peace or eternal life, and with an aim to this destination everyone is either studying the Vedic scriptures or other religious scriptures or undergoing severe austerity as empiric philosophers, as mystics yogés or as unalloyed devotees, etc. But the Supreme Lord is perfectly realized only by the devotees because they are above Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

all pretensions. Those who are on the path of self-realization are generally classified as karmés, jïänés, yogés, or devotees of the Lord. The karmés, who are much attracted by the fruitive activities of the Vedic rituals, are called bhukti-kämé, or those who desire material enjoyment. The jïänés, who try to become one with the Supreme by mental speculation, are called mukti-kämé, or those who desire liberation from material existence. The mystic yogés, who practice different types of austerities for attainment of eight kinds of material perfection and who ultimately meet the Supersoul (Paramätmä) in trance, are called siddhi-kämé, or those who desire the perfection of becoming finer than the finest, becoming heavier than the heaviest, getting everything desired, having control over everyone, creating everything liked, etc. All these are abilities of a powerful yogé. But the devotees of the Lord do not want anything like that for self-satisfaction. They want only to serve the Lord because the Lord is great and as living entities they are eternally subordinate parts and parcels of the Lord. This perfect realization of the self by the devotee helps him to become desireless, to desire nothing for his personal self, and thus the devotees are called niñkämé, without any desire. A living entity, by his constitutional position, cannot be void of all desires (the bhukti-kämé, mukti-kämé and siddhi-kämé all desire something for personal satisfaction), but the niñkämé devotees of the Lord desire everything for the satisfaction of the Lord. They are completely dependent on the orders of the Lord and are always ready to discharge their duty for the satisfaction of the Lord. In the beginning Arjuna placed himself as one of those who desire self-satisfaction, for he desired not to fight in the Battle of Kurukñetra, but to make him desireless the Lord preached the Bhagavad-gétä, in which the ways of karma-yoga, jïäna-yoga, haöha-yoga and also bhakti-yoga were explained. Because Arjuna was without any pretension, he changed his decision and satisfied the Lord by agreeing to fight (kariñye vacanaà tava) [Bg. 18.73], and thus he became desireless. The examples of Brahmä and Lord Çiva are specifically cited here because Brahmäjé, Lord Çiva, Çrématé Lakñméjé and the four Kumäras (Sanaka, Sanätana, etc.) are leaders of the four desireless Vaiñëava sampradäyas. They are all freed from all pretensions. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé interprets the word Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

gata-vyalékaiù as projjhita-kaitavaiù, or those who are freed from all pretensions (the unalloyed devotees only). In the Caitanya-caritämåta (Madhya 19.149) it is said: kåñëa-bhakta——niñkäma, ata eva ’çänta’ bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kämé, sakali ’açänta’ Those who are after fruitive results for their pious activities, those who desire salvation and identity with the Supreme, and those who desire material perfections of mystic power are all restless because they want something for themselves, but the devotee is completely peaceful because he has no demand for himself and is always ready to serve the desire of the Lord. The conclusion is, therefore, that the Lord is for everyone because no one can achieve the result of his respective desires without His sanction, but as stated by the Lord in Bhagavad-gétä (8.9), all such results are awarded by Him only, for the Lord is adhéçvara (the original controller) of everyone, namely the Vedäntists, the great karma-käëòéyas, the great religious leaders, the great performers of austerity and all who are striving for spiritual advancement. But ultimately He is realized by the pretensionless devotees only. Therefore special stress is given to the devotional service of the Lord by Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé. TEXT 20 ié[Ya" PaiTaYaRjPaiTa" Pa[JaaPaiTa‚ iDaRYaa& PaiTal/aeRk-PaiTaDaRraPaiTa" ) PaiTaGaRiTaêaNDak-v*iZaGavaNa( SaTaa& PaiTa" )) 20 )) çriyaù patir yajïa-patiù prajä-patir dhiyäà patir loka-patir dharä-patiù patir gatiç cändhaka-våñëi-sätvatäà prasédatäà me bhagavän satäà patiù

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS çriyaù—all opulence; patiù—the owner; yajïa—of sacrifice; patiù—the director; prajä-patiù—the leader of all living entities; dhiyäm—of intelligence; patiù—the master; loka-patiù—the proprietor of all planets; dharä—earth; patiù—the supreme; patiù—head; gatiù—destination; ca—also; andhaka—one of the kings of the Yadu dynasty; våñëi—the first king of the Yadu dynasty; sätvatäm—the Yadus; prasédatäm—be merciful; me—upon me; bhagavän—Lord Çré Kåñëa; satäm—of all devotees; patiù—the Lord. TRANSLATION May Lord Çré Kåñëa, who is the worshipable Lord of all devotees, the protector and glory of all the kings like Andhaka and Våñëi of the Yadu dynasty, the husband of all goddesses of fortune, the director of all sacrifices and therefore the leader of all living entities, the controller of all intelligence, the proprietor of all planets, spiritual and material, and the supreme incarnation on the earth (the supreme all in all), be merciful upon me. PURPORT Since Çukadeva Gosvämé is one of the prominent gata-vyalékas, who are freed from all misconceptions, he therefore expresses his own realized perception of Lord Çré Kåñëa as being the sum total of all perfection, the personality of Godhead. Everyone is seeking the favor of the goddess of fortune, but people do not know that Lord Çré Kåñëa is the beloved husband of all goddesses of fortune. In the Brahma-saàhitä it is said that the Lord, in His transcendental abode Goloka Våndävana, is accustomed to herding the surabhi cows and is served there by hundreds of thousands of goddesses of fortune. All these goddesses of fortune are manifestations of His transcendental pleasure potency (hlädiné-çakti) in His internal energy, and when the Lord manifested Himself on this earth He partially displayed the activities of His pleasure potency in His räsa-lélä just to attract the conditioned souls, who are all after the phantasmagoria pleasure potency in degraded sex enjoyment. The pure Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

devotees of the Lord like Çukadeva Gosvämé, who was completely detached from the abominable sex life of the material world, discussed this act of the Lord’s pleasure potency certainly not in relation to sex, but to relish a transcendental taste inconceivable to the mundaners who are after sex life. Sex life in the mundane world is the root-cause of being conditioned by the shackles of illusion, and certainly Çukadeva Gosvämé was never interested in the sex life of the mundane world. Nor does the manifestation of the Lord’s pleasure potency have any connection with such degraded things. Lord Caitanya was a strict sannyäsé, so much so that He did not allow any woman to come near Him, not even to bow down and offer respects. He never even heard the prayers of the deva-däsés offered in the temple of Jagannätha because a sannyäsé is forbidden to hear songs sung by the fair sex. Yet even in the rigid position of a sannyäsé He recommended the mode of worship preferred by the gopés of Våndävana as the topmost loving service possible to be rendered to the Lord. And Çrématé Rädhäräëé is the principal head of all such goddesses of fortune, and therefore She is the pleasure counterpart of the Lord and is nondifferent from Kåñëa. In the Vedic rituals there are recommendations for performing different types of sacrifice in order to achieve the greatest benefit in life. Such benedictions as the results of performing great sacrifices are, after all, favors given by the goddess of fortune, and the Lord, being the husband or lover of the goddess of fortune, is factually the Lord of all sacrifices also. He is the final enjoyer of all kinds of yajïa; therefore Yajïa-pati is another name of Lord Viñëu. It is recommended in the Bhagavad-gétä that everything be done for the Yajïa-pati (yajïärtät karmaëaù), for otherwise one’s acts will be the cause of conditioning by the law of material nature. Those who are not freed from all misconceptions (vyalékam) perform sacrifices to please the minor demigods, but the devotees of the Lord know very well that Lord Çré Kåñëa is the supreme enjoyer of all performances of sacrifice; therefore they perform the saìkértana-yajïa (çravaëaà kértanaà viñëoù [SB 7.5.23]), which is especially recommended in this age of Kali. In Kali-yuga, performance of other types of sacrifice is not feasible due to insufficient arrangements and inexpert priesthood. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

We have information from the Bhagavad-gétä (3.10–11) that Lord Brahmä, after giving rebirth to the conditioned souls within the universe, instructed them to perform sacrifices and to lead a prosperous life. With such sacrificial performances the conditioned souls will never be in difficulty in keeping body and soul together. Ultimately they can purify their existence. They will find natural promotion into spiritual existence, the real identity of the living being. A conditioned soul should never give up the practice of sacrifice, charity and austerity, in any circumstances. The aim of all such sacrifices is to please the Yajïa-pati, the Personality of Godhead; therefore the Lord is also Prajä-pati. According to the Kaöha Upaniñad, the one Lord is the leader of the innumerable living entities. The living entities are maintained by the Lord (eko bahünäà yo vidadhäti kämän). The Lord is therefore called the supreme Bhüta-bhåt, or maintainer of all living beings. Living beings are proportionately endowed with intelligence in terms of their previous activities. All living beings are not equally endowed with the same quality of intelligence because behind such development of intelligence is the control of the Lord, as declared in the Bhagavad-gétä (15.15). As Paramätmä, Supersoul, the Lord is living in everyone’s heart, and from Him only does one’s power of remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness follow (mattaù småtir jïänam apohanaà ca). One person can sharply remember past activities by the grace of the Lord while others cannot. One is highly intelligent by the grace of the Lord, and one is a fool by the same control. Therefore the Lord is Dhiyäm-pati, or the Lord of intelligence. The conditioned souls strive to become lords of the material world. Everyone is trying to lord it over the material nature by applying his highest degree of intelligence. This misuse of intelligence by the conditioned soul is called madness. One’s full intelligence should be applied to get free from the material clutches. But the conditioned soul, due to madness only, engages his full energy and intelligence in sense gratification, and to achieve this end of life he willfully commits all sorts of misdeeds. The result is that instead of attaining an unconditional life of full freedom, the mad conditioned soul is entangled again and again in different types of bondage in material bodies. Everything we see in the material manifestation is but the creation of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Lord. Therefore He is the real proprietor of everything in the universes. The conditioned soul can enjoy a fragment of this material creation under the control of the Lord, but not self-sufficiently. That is the instruction in the Éçopaniñad. One should be satisfied with things awarded by the Lord of the universe. It is out of madness only that one tries to encroach upon another’s share of material possessions. The Lord of the universe, out of His causeless mercy upon the conditioned souls, descends by His own energy (ätma-mäyä) to reestablish the eternal relation of the conditioned souls with Him. He instructs all to surrender unto Him instead of falsely claiming to be enjoyers for a certain limit under His control. When He so descends He proves how much greater is His ability to enjoy, and He exhibits His power of enjoyment by (for instance) marrying sixteen thousand wives at once. The conditioned soul is very proud of becoming the husband of even one wife, but the Lord laughs at this; the intelligent man can know who is the real husband. Factually, the Lord is the husband of all the women in His creation, but a conditioned soul under the control of the Lord feels proud to be the husband of one or two wives. All these qualifications as the different types of pati mentioned in this verse are meant for Lord Çré Kåñëa, and Çukadeva Gosvämé has therefore especially mentioned the pati and gati of the Yadu dynasty. The members of the Yadu dynasty knew that Lord Çré Kåñëa is everything, and all of them intended to return to Lord Kåñëa after He had finished His transcendental pastimes on the earth. The Yadu dynasty was annihilated by the will of the Lord because its members had to return home with the Lord. The annihilation of the Yadu dynasty was a material show created by the Supreme Lord; otherwise the Lord and the members of the Yadu dynasty are all eternal associates. The Lord is therefore the guide of all devotees, and as such, Çukadeva Gosvämé offered Him due respects with love-laden feelings. TEXT 21 Yadx(g]Yai>aDYaaNaSaMaaiDaDaaETaYaa iDaYaaNauPaXYaiNTa ih TatvMaaTMaNa" ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vdiNTa cETaTa( k-vYaae YaQaaåc& Sa Mae Mauku-Ndae >aGavaNa( Pa[SaqdTaaMa( )) 21 )) yad-aìghry-abhidhyäna-samädhi-dhautayä dhiyänupaçyanti hi tattvam ätmanaù vadanti caitat kavayo yathä-rucaà sa me mukundo bhagavän prasédatäm SYNONYMS yat-aìghri—whose lotus feet; abhidhyäna—thinking of, at every second; samädhi—trance; dhautayä—being washed off; dhiyä—by such clean intelligence; anupaçyanti—does see by following authorities; hi—certainly; tattvam—the Absolute Truth; ätmanaù—of the Supreme Lord and of oneself; vadanti—they say; ca—also; etat—this; kavayaù—philosophers or learned scholars; yathä-rucam—as he thinks; saù—He; me—mine; mukundaù—Lord Kåñëa (who gives liberation); bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; prasédatäm—be pleased with me. TRANSLATION It is the Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa who gives liberation. By thinking of His lotus feet at every second, following in the footsteps of authorities, the devotee in trance can see the Absolute Truth. The learned mental speculators, however, think of Him according to their whims. May the Lord be pleased with me. PURPORT The mystic yogés, after a strenuous effort to control the senses, may be situated in a trance of yoga just to have a vision of the Supersoul within everyone, but the pure devotee, simply by remembering the Lord’s lotus feet at every second, at once becomes established in real trance because by such realization his mind and intelligence are completely cleansed of the diseases of material enjoyment. The pure devotee thinks himself fallen into the ocean of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

birth and death and incessantly prays to the Lord to lift him up. He only aspires to become a speck of transcendental dust at the lotus feet of the Lord. The pure devotee, by the grace of the Lord, absolutely loses all attraction for material enjoyment, and to keep free from contamination he always thinks of the lotus feet of the Lord. King Kulaçekhara, a great devotee of the Lord, prayed: kåñëa tvadéya-pada-paìkaja-païjaräntam adyaiva me viçatu mänasa-räja-haàsaù präëa-prayäëa-samaye kapha-väta-pittaiù kaëöhävarodhana-vidhau smaraëaà kutas te “My Lord Kåñëa, I pray that the swan of my mind may immediately sink down to the stems of the lotus feet of Your Lordship and be locked in their network; otherwise at the time of my final breath, when my throat is choked up with cough, how will it be possible to think of You?” There is an intimate relationship between the swan and the lotus stem. So the comparison is very appropriate: without becoming a swan, or paramahaàsa, one cannot enter into the network of the lotus feet of the Lord. As stated in the Brahma-saàhitä, the mental speculators, even by dint of learned scholarship, cannot even dream of the Absolute Truth by speculating over it for eternity. The Lord reserves the right of not being exposed to such mental speculators. And because they cannot enter into network stem of the lotus stem of the Lord, all material speculators differ in conclusions, and at the end they make a useless compromise by saying, “as many conclusions, as many ways,” according to one’s own inclination. (yathä-rucam). But the Lord is not like a shopkeeper trying to please all sorts of customers in the mental speculator exchange. The Lord is what He is, the Absolute Personality of Godhead, and He demands absolute surrender unto Him only. The pure devotee, however, by following the ways of previous äcäryas, or authorities, can see the Supreme Lord through the transparent medium of a bona fide spiritual master (anupaçyanti). The pure devotee never tries to see the Lord by mental speculation, but by following in the footsteps of the äcäryas (mahäjano yena gataù sa panthäù). Therefore there is no difference of conclusions Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

amongst the Vaiñëava äcäryas regarding the Lord and the devotees. Lord Caitanya asserts that the living entity (jéva) is eternally the servitor of the Lord and that he is simultaneously one with and different from the Lord. This tattva of Lord Caitanya’s is shared by all four sampradäyas of the Vaiñëava school (all accepting eternal servitude to the Lord even after salvation), and there is no authorized Vaiñëava äcärya who may think of the Lord and himself as one. This humbleness of the pure devotee, who is one hundred percent engaged in His service, puts the devotee of the Lord in a trance by which to realize everything, because to the sincere devotee of the Lord, the Lord reveals Himself, as stated in the Bhagavad-gétä (10.10). The Lord, being the Lord of intelligence in everyone (even in the nondevotee), favors His devotee with proper intelligence so that automatically the pure devotee is enlightened with the factual truth about the Lord and His different energies. the Lord is revealed not by one’s speculative power or by one’s verbal jugglery over the Absolute Truth. Rather, He reveals Himself to a devotee when He is fully satisfied by the devotee’s service attitude. Çukadeva Gosvämé is not a mental speculator or compromiser of the theory of “as many ways, as many conclusions.” Rather, he prays to the Lord only, invoking His transcendental pleasure. That is the way of knowing the Lord. TEXT 22 Pa[caeidTaa YaeNa Paura SarSvTaq ivTaNvTaaJaSYa SaTaq& SMa*iTa& ôid ) Svl/+aaUTa( ik-l/aSYaTa" Sa Mae ‰zqa" Pa[SaqdTaaMa( )) 22 )) pracoditä yena purä sarasvaté vitanvatäjasya satéà småtià hådi sva-lakñaëä prädurabhüt kiläsyataù sa me åñéëäm åñabhaù prasédatäm Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS pracoditä—inspired; yena—by whom; purä—in the beginning of creation; sarasvaté—the goddess of learning; vitanvatä—amplified; ajasya—of Brahmä, the first created living being; satém småtim—potent memory; hådi—in the heart; sva—in his own; lakñaëä—aiming at; prädurabhüt—was generated; kila—as if; äsyataù—from the mouth; saù—he; me—unto me; åñéëäm—of the teachers; åñabhaù—the chief; prasédatäm—be pleased. TRANSLATION May the Lord, who in the beginning of the creation amplified the potent knowledge of Brahmä from within his heart and inspired him with full knowledge of creation and of His own Self, and who appeared to be generated from the mouth of Brahmä, be pleased with me. PURPORT As we have already discussed hereinbefore, the Lord, as the Supersoul of all living beings from Brahmä to the insignificant ant, endows all with the required knowledge potent in every living being. A living being is sufficiently potent to possess knowledge from the Lord in the proportion of fifty sixty-fourths, or seventy-eight percent of the full knowledge acquirable. Since the living being is constitutionally part and parcel of the Lord, he is unable to assimilate all the knowledge that the Lord possesses Himself. In the conditioned state, the living being is subject to forget everything after a change of body known as death. This potent knowledge is again inspired by the Lord from within the heart of every living being, and it is known as the awakening of knowledge, for it is comparable to awakening from sleep or unconsciousness. This awakening of knowledge is under the full control of the Lord, and therefore we find in the practical world different grades of knowledge in different persons. This awakening of knowledge is neither an automatic nor a material interaction. The supply source is the Lord Himself (dhiyäà patiù), for even Brahmä is also subject to this regulation of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

supreme creator. In the beginning of the creation, Brahmä is born first without any father and mother because before Brahmä there were no other living beings. Brahmä is born from the lotus which grows from the abdomen of the Garbhodakaçäyé Viñëu, and therefore he is known as Aja. This Brahmä, or Aja, is also a living being, part and parcel of the Lord, but being the most pious devotee of the Lord, Brahmä is inspired by the Lord to create, subsequent to the main creation by the Lord, through the agency of material nature. Therefore neither the material nature nor Brahmä is independent of the Lord. The material scientists can merely observe the reactions of the material nature without understanding the direction behind such activities, as a child can see the action of electricity without any knowledge of the powerhouse engineer. This imperfect knowledge of the material scientist is due to a poor fund of knowledge. The Vedic knowledge was therefore first impregnated within Brahmä, and it appears that Brahmä distributed the Vedic knowledge. Brahmä is undoubtedly the speaker of the Vedic knowledge, but actually he was inspired by the Lord to receive such transcendental knowledge, as it directly descends from the Lord. The Vedas are therefore called apauruñeya, or not imparted by any created being. Before the creation the Lord was there (näräyaëaù paro ’vyaktät), and therefore the words spoken by the Lord are vibrations of transcendental sound. There is a gulf of difference between the two qualities of sound, namely präkåta and apräkåta. The physicist can deal only with the präkåta sound, or sound vibrated in the material sky, and therefore we must know that the Vedic sounds recorded in symbolic expressions cannot be understood by anyone within the universe unless and until one is inspired by the vibration of supernatural (apräkåta) sound, which descends in the chain of disciplic succession from the Lord to Brahmä, from Brahmä to Närada, from Närada to Vyäsa and so on. No mundane scholar can translate or reveal the true import of the Vedic mantras (hymns). They cannot be understood unless one is inspired or initiated by the authorized spiritual master. The original spiritual master is the Lord Himself, and the succession comes down through the sources of paramparä, as clearly stated in the Fourth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gétä. So unless one receives the transcendental knowledge from the authorized paramparä, one should be considered useless Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

(viphalä matäù), even though one may be greatly qualified in the mundane advancements of arts or science. Çukadeva Gosvämé is praying from the Lord by dint of being inspired from within by the Lord so that he could rightly explain the facts and figures of creation as inquired by Mahäräja Parékñit. A spiritual master is not a theoretical speculator, like the mundane scholar, but is çrotriyaà brahma-niñöham [MU 1.2.12(8)]. TEXT 23 >aUTaEMaRhiÙYaR wMaa" Paurae iv>au‚ iNaRMaaRYa XaeTae YadMaUzu PaUåz" ) >au»e GauaUTa>aavNa PaUvRJa ) Tad( ivJaaNaqih YaJjaNaMaaTMaTatviNadXaRNaMa( )) 1 )) närada uväca deva-deva namas te ’stu bhüta-bhävana pürvaja tad vijänéhi yaj jïänam ätma-tattva-nidarçanam SYNONYMS näradaù uväca—Çré Närada said; deva—of all demigods; deva—the demigod; namaù—obeisances; te—unto you as; astu—are; bhüta-bhävana—the generator of all living beings; pürva-ja—the firstborn; tat vijänéhi—please explain that knowledge; yat jïänam—which knowledge; ätma-tattva—transcendental; nidarçanam—specifically directs. TRANSLATION Çré Närada Muni asked Brahmäjé: O chief amongst the demigods, O firstborn living entity, I beg to offer my respectful obeisances unto you. Please tell me that transcendental knowledge which specifically directs one to the truth of the individual soul and the Supersoul. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The perfection of the paramparä system, or the path of disciplic succession, is further confirmed. In the previous chapter it has been established that Brahmäjé, the firstborn living entity, received knowledge directly from the Supreme Lord, and the same knowledge was imparted to Närada, the next disciple. Närada asked to receive the knowledge, and Brahmäjé imparted it upon being asked. Therefore, asking for transcendental knowledge from the right person and receiving it properly is the regulation of the disciplic succession. This process is recommended in the Bhagavad-gétä (4.2). The inquisitive student must approach a qualified spiritual master to receive transcendental knowledge by surrender, submissive inquiries and service. Knowledge received by submissive inquiries and service is more effective than knowledge received in exchange for money. A spiritual master in the line of disciplic succession from Brahmä and Närada has no demand for dollars and cents. A bona fide student has to satisfy him by sincere service to obtain knowledge of the relation and nature of the individual soul and the Supersoul. TEXT 2 Yad]UPa& YadiDaïaNa& YaTa" Sa*íiMad& Pa[>aae ) YaTSa&SQa& YaTPar& YaÀ TaTa( Tatv& vd TatvTa" )) 2 )) yad rüpaà yad adhiñöhänaà yataù såñöam idaà prabho yat saàsthaà yat paraà yac ca tat tattvaà vada tattvataù SYNONYMS yat—what; rüpam—the symptoms of manifestation; yat—what; adhiñöhänam—background; yataù—from where; såñöam—created; idam—this world; prabho—O my father; yat—in which; saàstham—conserved; yat—what; param—under control; yat—what are; ca—and; tat—of this; tattvam—the symptoms; vada—please describe; tattvataù—factually. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION My dear father, please describe factually the symptoms of this manifest world. What is its background? How is it created? How is it conserved? And under whose control is all this being done? PURPORT The inquiries by Närada Muni on the basis of factual cause and effect appear very reasonable. The atheists, however, put forward many self-made theories without any touch of cause and effect. The manifested world, as well as the spirit soul, is still unexplained by the godless atheists through the medium of experimental knowledge, although they have put forward many theories manufactured by their fertile brains. Contrary to such mental speculative theories of creation, however, Närada Muni wanted to know all the facts of creation in truth, and not by theories. Transcendental knowledge regarding the soul and the Supersoul includes knowledge of the phenomenal world and the basis of its creation. In the phenomenal world three things are factually observed by any intelligent man: the living beings, the manifest world, and the ultimate control over them. The intelligent man can see that neither the living entity nor the phenomenal world are creations of chance. The symmetry of creation and its regulative actions and reactions suggests the plan of an intelligent brain behind them, and by genuine inquiry one may find out the ultimate cause with the help of one who knows them factually. TEXT 3 Sav| ùeTad( >avaNa( ved >aUTa>aVYa>avTPa[>au" ) k-raMal/k-vd( ivì& ivjaNaaviSaTa& Tav )) 3 )) sarvaà hy etad bhavän veda bhüta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

karämalaka-vad viçvaà vijïänävasitaà tava SYNONYMS sarvam—all and everything; hi—certainly; etat—this; bhavän—your good self; veda—know; bhüta—all that is created or born; bhavya—all that will be created or born; bhavat—all that is being created; prabhuù—you, the master of everything; kara-ämalaka-vat—just like a walnut within your grip; viçvam—the universe; vijïäna-avasitam—within your knowledge scientifically; tava—your. TRANSLATION My dear father, all this is known to you scientifically because whatever was created in the past, whatever will be created in the future, or whatever is being created at present, as well as everything within the universe, is within your grip, just like a walnut. PURPORT Brahmä is the direct creator of the manifested universe and everything within the universe. He therefore knows what happened in the past, what will happen in the future, and what is happening at present. Three principal items, namely the living being, the phenomenal world and the controller, are all in continuous action—past, present and future—and the direct manager is supposed to know everything of such actions and reactions, as one knows about a walnut within the grip of one’s palm. The direct manufacturer of a particular thing is supposed to know how he learned the art of manufacturing, where he got the ingredients, how he set it up and how the products in the manufacturing process are being turned out. Because Brahmä is the firstborn living being, naturally he is supposed to know everything about creative functions. TEXT 4 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

YaiÜjaNaae YadaDaarae YaTParSTv& YadaTMak-" ) Wk-" Sa*JaiSa >aUTaaiNa >aUTaErevaTMaMaaYaYaa )) 4 )) yad-vijïäno yad-ädhäro yat-paras tvaà yad-ätmakaù ekaù såjasi bhütäni bhütair evätma-mäyayä SYNONYMS yat-vijïänaù—the source of knowledge; yat-ädhäraù—under whose protection; yat-paraù—under whose subordination; tvam—you; yat-ätmakaù—in what capacity; ekaù—alone; såjasi—you are creating; bhütäni—the living entities; bhütaiù—with the help of the material elements; eva—certainly; ätma—self; mäyayä—by potency. TRANSLATION My dear father, what is the source of your knowledge? Under whose protection are you standing? And under whom are you working? What is your real position? Do you alone create all entities with material elements by your personal energy? PURPORT It was known to Çré Närada Muni that Lord Brahmä attained creative energy by undergoing severe austerities. As such, he could understand that there was someone else superior to Brahmäjé who invested Brahmä with the power of creation. Therefore he asked all the above questions. Discoveries of progressive scientific achievements are therefore not independent. The scientist has to attain the knowledge of a thing already existing by means of the wonderful brain made by someone else. A scientist can work with the help of such an awarded brain, but it is not possible for the scientist to create his own or a similar brain. Therefore no one is independent in the matter of any Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

creation, nor is such creation automatic. TEXT 5 AaTMaNa( >aavYaSae TaaiNa Na Para>aavYaNa( SvYaMa( ) AaTMaXai¢-Maví>Ya Oairva©-Ma" )) 5 )) ätman bhävayase täni na paräbhävayan svayam ätma-çaktim avañöabhya ürëanäbhir iväklamaù SYNONYMS ätman (ätmani)—by self; bhävayase—manifest; täni—all those; na—not; paräbhävayan—being defeated; svayam—yourself; ätma-çaktim—self-sufficient power; avañöabhya—being employed; ürëa-näbhiù—the spider; iva—like; aklamaù—without help. TRANSLATION As the spider very easily creates the network of its cobweb and manifests its power of creation without being defeated by others, so also you yourself, by employment of your self-sufficient energy, create without any other’s help. PURPORT The best example of self-sufficiency is the sun. The sun does not require to be illuminated by any other body. Rather, it is the sun which helps all other illuminating agents, for in the presence of the sun no other illuminating agent becomes prominent. Närada compared the position of Brahmä to the self-sufficiency of the spider, who creates its own field of activities without any other’s help by employment of its own energetic creation of saliva. TEXT 6 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Naah& ved Par& ùiSMaàaPar& Na SaMa& iv>aae ) NaaMaæPaGauaaRVYa& SadSaTa( ik-iÄdNYaTa" )) 6 )) nähaà veda paraà hy asmin näparaà na samaà vibho näma-rüpa-guëair bhävyaà sad-asat kiïcid anyataù SYNONYMS na—do not; aham—myself; veda—know; param—superior; hi—for; asmin—in this world; na—neither; aparam—inferior; na—nor; samam—equal; vibho—O great one; näma—name; rüpa—characteristics; guëaiù—by qualification; bhävyam—all that is created; sat—eternal; asat—temporary; kiïcit—or anything like that; anyataù—from any other source. TRANSLATION Whatever we can understand by the nomenclature, characteristics and features of a particular thing—superior, inferior or equal, eternal or temporary—is not created from any source other than that of Your Lordship, thou so great. PURPORT The manifested world is full of varieties of created beings in others. In human society the human being is considered to be the superior living being, and amongst the human beings there are also different varieties: good, bad, equal, etc. But Närada Muni took for granted that none of them has any source of generation besides his father, Brahmäjé. Therefore he wanted to know all about them from Lord Brahmä. TEXT 7 Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Sa >avaNacrd( gaaer& YaTa( TaPa" SauSaMaaihTa" ) TaeNa %edYaSae NaSTv& ParaXaªa& c YaC^iSa )) 7 )) sa bhavän acarad ghoraà yat tapaù susamähitaù tena khedayase nas tvaà parä-çaìkäà ca yacchasi SYNONYMS saù—he; bhavän—your good self; acarat—undertook; ghoram—severe; yat tapaù—meditation; su-samähitaù—in perfect discipline; tena—for that reason; khedayase—gives pain; naù—ourselves; tvam—your good self; parä—the ultimate truth; çaìkäm—doubts; ca—and; yacchasi—giving us a chance. TRANSLATION Yet we are moved to wonder about the existence of someone more powerful than you when we think of your great austerities in perfect discipline, although your good self is so powerful in the matter of creation. PURPORT Following in the footsteps of Çré Närada Muni, one should not blindly accept his spiritual master as God Himself. A spiritual master is duly respected on a par with God, but a spiritual master claiming to be God Himself should at once be rejected. Närada Muni accepted Brahmä as the Supreme due to Lord Brahmä’s wonderful acts in creation, but doubts arose in him when he saw that Lord Brahmä also worshiped some superior authority. The Supreme is supreme, and He has no worshipable superior. The ahaìgrahopäsitä, or the one who worships himself with the idea of becoming God Himself, is misleading, but the intelligent disciple can at once detect that the Supreme God does not need to worship anyone, including Himself, in order to become God. Ahaìgrahopäsanä may be one of the processes for transcendental realization, but the ahaìgrahopäsitä can never be God Himself. No one becomes God by Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

undergoing a process of transcendental realization. Närada Muni thought of Brahmäjé as the Supreme Person, but when he saw Brahmäjé engaged in the process of transcendental realization, doubts arose in him. So he wanted to be clearly informed. TEXT 8 WTaNMae Pa*C^Ta" Sav| SavRj Sak-le/ìr ) ivJaaNaqih YaQaEvedMah& buDYae_NauXaaiSaTa" )) 8 )) etan me påcchataù sarvaà sarva-jïa sakaleçvara vijänéhi yathaivedam ahaà budhye ’nuçäsitaù SYNONYMS etat—all those; me—unto me; påcchataù—inquisitive; sarvam—all that is inquired; sarva-jïa—one who knows everything; sakala—over all; éçvara—the controller; vijänéhi—kindly explain; yathä—as; eva—they are; idam—this; aham—myself; budhye—can understand; anuçäsitaù—just learning from you. TRANSLATION My dear father, you know everything, and you are the controller of all. Therefore may all that I have inquired from you be kindly instructed to me so that I may be able to understand it as your student. PURPORT The inquiries made by Närada Muni are very important for everyone concerned, and as such Närada requested Brahmäjé to deem them suitable so that all others who may come in the line of disciplic succession of the Brahma-sampradäya may also know them properly without any difficulty. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 9 b]øaevac SaMYak(- k-aåiaav& c MaaYaeXaae MaaYaYaa SvYaa ) AaTMaNa( Yad*C^Yaa Pa[aá& ivbu>aUzuåPaadde )) 21 ))

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kälaà karma svabhävaà ca mäyeço mäyayä svayä ätman yadåcchayä präptaà vibubhüñur upädade SYNONYMS kälam—eternal time; karma—the fate of the living entity; svabhävam—nature; ca—also; mäyä—potency; éçaù—the controller; mäyayä—by the energy; svayä—of His own; ätman (ätmani)—unto His Self; yadåcchayä—independently; präptam—being merged in; vibubhüñuù—appearing differently; upädade—accepted for being created again. TRANSLATION The Lord, who is the controller of all energies, thus creates, by His own potency, eternal time, the fate of all living entities, and their particular nature, for which they were created, and He again merges them independently. PURPORT The creation of the material world, wherein the conditioned souls are allowed to act subordinately by the Supreme Lord, takes place again and again after being repeatedly annihilated. The material creation is something like a cloud in the unlimited sky. The real sky is the spiritual sky, eternally filled with the rays of the brahmajyoti, and a portion of this unlimited sky is covered by the mahat-tattva cloud of the material creation, in which the conditioned souls, who want to lord it against the will of the Lord, are put into play as they desire under the control of the Lord by the agency of His external energy. As the rainy season appears and disappears regularly, the creation takes place and is again annihilated under the control of the Lord, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä (8.19). So the creation and annihilation of the material worlds is a regular action of the Lord just to allow the conditioned souls to play as they like and thereby create their own fate of being differently created again in Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

terms of their independent desires at the time of annihilation. The creation, therefore, takes place at a historical date (as we are accustomed to think of everything which has a beginning in our tiny experience). The process of creation and annihilation is called anädi, or without reference to date regarding the time the creation first took place, because the duration of even a partial creation is 8,640,000,000 years. The law of creation is, however, as mentioned in the Vedic literatures, that it is created at certain intervals and is again annihilated by the will of the Lord. The whole material or even the spiritual creation is a manifestation of the energy of the Lord, just as the light and heat of a fire are different manifestations of the fire’s energy. The Lord therefore exists in His impersonal form by such expansion of energy, and the complete creation rests on His impersonal feature. Nonetheless He keeps Himself distinct from such creation as the pürëam (or complete), and so no one should wrongly think that His personal feature is not existent due to His impersonal unlimited expansions. The impersonal expansion is a manifestation of His energy, and He is always in His personal feature despite His innumerable unlimited expansions of impersonal energies (Bg. 9.5–7). For human intelligence it is very difficult to conceive how the whole creation rests on His expansion of energy, but the Lord has given a very good example in the Bhagavad-gétä. It is said that although the air and the atoms rest within the huge expansion of the sky, which is like the resting reservoir of everything materially created, still the sky remains separate and unaffected. Similarly although the Supreme Lord maintains everything created by His expansion of energy, He always remains separate. This is accepted even by Çaìkaräcärya, the great advocate of the impersonal form of the Absolute. He says näräyaëaù paro ’vyaktät, or Näräyaëa exists separately, apart from the impersonal creative energy. The whole creation thus merges within the body of transcendental Näräyaëa at the time of annihilation, and the creation emanates from His body again with the same unchanging categories of fate and individual nature. The individual living entities, being parts and parcels of the Lord, are sometimes described as ätmä, qualitatively one in spiritual constitution. But because such living entities are apt to be attracted to the material creation, actively and subjectively, they are therefore different from the Lord. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 22 k-al/ad( GauaavTa" ) k-MaRarDa" Saá Saáaeß| JagaNaaidi>a" )) 36 )) yasyehävayavair lokän kalpayanti manéñiëaù kaöy-ädibhir adhaù sapta saptordhvaà jaghanädibhiù SYNONYMS yasya—whose; iha—in the universe; avayavaiù—by the limbs of the body; lokän—all the planets; kalpayanti—imagine; manéñiëaù—great philosophers; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kaöi-ädibhiù—down from the waist; adhaù—downwards; sapta—seven systems; sapta ürdhvam—and seven systems upwards; jaghana-ädibhiù—front portion. TRANSLATION Great philosophers imagine that the complete planetary systems in the universe are displays of the different upper and lower limbs of the universal body of the Lord. PURPORT The word kalpayanti, or “imagine,” is significant. The viräö universal form of the Absolute is an imagination of the speculative philosophers who are unable to adjust to the eternal two-handed form of Lord Çré Kåñëa. Although the universal form, as imagined by the great philosophers, is one of the features of the Lord, it is more or less imaginary. It is said that the seven upper planetary systems are situated above the waist of the universal form, whereas the lower planetary systems are situated below His waist. The idea impressed herein is that the Supreme Lord is conscious of every part of His body, and nowhere in the creation is there anything beyond His control. TEXT 37 PauåzSYa Mau%& b]ø +a}aMaeTaSYa bahv" ) OvaeRvŒXYaae >aGavTa" PaÙya& éUd]ae VYaJaaYaTa )) 37 )) puruñasya mukhaà brahma kñatram etasya bähavaù ürvor vaiçyo bhagavataù padbhyäà çüdro vyajäyata SYNONYMS puruñasya—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mukham—mouth; brahma—is the brähmaëas; kñatram—the royal order; etasya—of Him; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

bähavaù—the arms; ürvoù—the thighs; vaiçyaù—are the mercantile men; bhagavataù—of the Personality of Godhead; padbhyäm—from His legs; çüdraù—the laborer class; vyajäyata—became manifested. TRANSLATION The brähmaëas represent His mouth, the kñatriyas His arms, the vaiçyas His thighs, and the çüdras are born of His legs. PURPORT All living beings are stated to be the parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, and how they are so is explained in this verse. The four divisions of human society, namely the intelligent class (the brähmaëas), the administrative class (the kñatriyas), the mercantile class (the vaiçyas), and the laborer class (the çüdras), are all in different parts of the body of the Lord. As such, no one is different from the Lord. The mouth of the body and the legs of the body are nondifferent constitutionally, but the mouth or the head of the body is qualitatively more important than the legs. At the same time, the mouth, the legs, the arms and the thighs are all component parts of the body. These limbs of the body of the Lord are meant to serve the complete whole. The mouth is meant for speaking and eating, the arms are meant for the protection of the body, the legs are meant for carrying the body, and the waist of the body is meant for maintaining the body. The intelligent class in society, therefore, must speak on behalf of the body, as well as accept foodstuff to satisfy the hunger of the body. The hunger of the Lord is to accept the fruits of sacrifice. The brähmaëas, or the intelligent class, must be very expert in performing such sacrifices, and the subordinate classes must join in such sacrifices. To speak for the Supreme Lord means to glorify the Lord by means of propagating the knowledge of the Lord as it is, broadcasting the factual nature of the Lord and the factual position of all other parts of the whole body. The brähmaëas, therefore, are required to know the Vedas, or the ultimate source of knowledge. Veda means knowledge, and anta means the end of it. According to Bhagavad-gétä, the Lord is the source of everything (ahaà sarvasya prabhavaù), and thus the end of all knowledge (Vedänta) is to know the Lord, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

to know our relationship with Him and to act according to that relationship only. The parts of the body are related to the body; similarly, the living being must know his relationship with the Lord. The human life is especially meant for this purpose, namely to know the factual relationship of every living being with the Supreme Lord. Without knowing this relationship, the human life is spoiled. The intelligent class of men, the brähmaëas, are therefore especially responsible for broadcasting this knowledge of our relationship with the Lord and leading the general mass of people to the right path. The administrative class is meant for protecting the living beings so that they can serve this purpose; the mercantile class is meant for producing food grains and distributing them to the complete human society so that the whole population is given a chance to live comfortably and discharge the duties of human life. The mercantile class is also required to give protection to the cows in order to get sufficient milk and milk products, which alone can give the proper health and intelligence to maintain a civilization perfectly meant for knowledge of the ultimate truth. And the laborer class, who are neither intelligent nor powerful, can help by physical services to the other higher classes and thus be benefited by their cooperation. Therefore the universe is a complete unit in relationship with the Lord, and without this relationship with the Lord the whole human society is disturbed and is without any peace and prosperity. This is confirmed in the Vedas: brähmaëo ’sya mukham äséd, bähü räjanyaù kåtaù. TEXT 38 >aUl/aeRk-" k-iLPaTa" PaÙya& >auvl/aeRk-ae_SYa Naai>aTa" ) ôda Svl/aeRk- orSaa Mahl/aeRk-ae MahaTMaNa" )) 38 )) bhürlokaù kalpitaù padbhyäà bhuvarloko ’sya näbhitaù hådä svarloka urasä maharloko mahätmanaù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS bhüù—the lower planetary systems up to the stratum of the earth; lokaù—the planets; kalpitaù—it is so imagined or said; padbhyäm—out of the legs; bhuvaù—the upper; lokaù—the planetary system; asya—of Him (the Lord); näbhitaù—from the navel abdomen; hådä—by the heart; svarlokaù—the planetary systems occupied by the demigods; urasä—by the chest; maharlokaù—the planetary system occupied by great sages and saints; mahä-ätmanaù—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. TRANSLATION The lower planetary systems, up to the limit of the earthly stratum, are said to be situated in His legs. The middle planetary systems, beginning from Bhuvarloka, are situated in His navel. And the still higher planetary systems, occupied by the demigods and highly cultured sages and saints, are situated in the chest of the Supreme Lord. PURPORT There are fourteen spheres of planetary systems within this universe. The lower systems are called Bhürloka, the middle systems are called Bhuvarloka, and the higher planetary systems, up to Brahmaloka, the highest planetary system of the universe, are called Svarloka. And all of them are situated on the body of the Lord. In other words, no one within this universe is without a relationship with the Lord. TEXT 39 Ga]qvaYaa& JaNal/aek-ae_SYa TaPaael/aek-" STaNaÜYaaTa( ) MaUDaRi>a" SaTYal/aek-STau b]øl/aek-" SaNaaTaNa" )) 39 )) gréväyäà janaloko ’sya tapolokaù stana-dvayät Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

mürdhabhiù satyalokas tu brahmalokaù sanätanaù SYNONYMS gréväyäm—up to the neck; janalokaù—the Janaloka planetary system; asya—of Him; tapolokaù—the Tapoloka planetary system; stana-dvayät—beginning from the breast; mürdhabhiù—by the head; satyalokaù—the Satyaloka planetary system; tu—but; brahmalokaù—the spiritual planets; sanätanaù—eternal. TRANSLATION From the forefront of the chest up to the neck of the universal form of the Lord are situated the planetary systems named Janaloka and Tapoloka, whereas Satyaloka, the topmost planetary system, is situated on the head of the form. The spiritual planets, however, are eternal. PURPORT Many times in these pages we have discussed the spiritual planets situated beyond the material sky, and the description is corroborated in this verse. The word sanätana is significant. This very idea of eternity is expressed in the Bhagavad-gétä (8.20), where it is said that beyond the material creation is the spiritual sky, where everything is eternal. Sometimes Satyaloka, the planet in which Brahmä resides, is also called Brahmaloka. But the Brahmaloka mentioned here is not the same as the Satyaloka planetary system. This Brahmaloka is eternal, whereas the Satyaloka planetary system is not eternal. And to distinguish between the two, the adjective sanätana has been used in this case. According to Çréla Jéva Gosvämé, this Brahmaloka is the loka or abode of Brahman, or the Supreme Lord. In the spiritual sky all the planets are as good as the Lord Himself. The Lord is all spirit, and His name, fame, glories, qualities, pastimes, etc., are all nondifferent from Him because He is absolute. As such, the planets in the kingdom of God are also nondifferent from Him. In those planets there is no difference between the body and the soul, nor is there Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

any influence of time as we experience it in the material world. And in addition to there being no influence of time, the planets in, Brahmaloka, due to being spiritual, are never annihilated. All variegatedness in the spiritual planets is also one with the Lord, and therefore the Vedic aphorism ekam evädvitéyam is fully realized in that sanätana atmosphere of spiritual variegatedness. This material world is only a shadow phantasmagoria of the spiritual kingdom of the Lord, and because it is a shadow it is never eternal; the variegatedness in the material world of duality (spirit and matter) cannot be compared to that of the spiritual world. Because of a poor fund of knowledge, less intelligent persons sometimes mistake the conditions of the shadow world to be equivalent to those of the spiritual world, and thus they mistake the Lord and His pastimes in the material world to be one with the conditioned souls and their activities. The Lord condemns such less intelligent persons in the Bhagavad-gétä (9.11): avajänanti mäà müòhä mänuñéà tanum äçritam paraà bhävam ajänanto mama bhüta-maheçvaram Whenever the Lord incarnates, He does so in His full internal potency (ätma-mäyä), and less intelligent persons mistake Him to be one of the material creations. Çréla Çrédhara Svämé, therefore, rightly commenting on this verse, says that the Brahmaloka mentioned here is Vaikuëöha, the kingdom of God, which is sanätana, or eternal, and is therefore not exactly like the material creations described above. The viräö universal form of the Lord is an imagination for the material world. It has nothing to do with the spiritual world, or the kingdom of God. TEXTS 40–41 TaTk-$ya& caTal&/ œáMaUå>Yaa& ivTal&/ iv>aae" ) JaaNau>Yaa& SauTal&/ éuÖ& Jaºa>Yaa& Tau Tal/aTal/Ma( )) 40 )) MahaTal&/ Tau GauLf-a>Yaa& Pa[Pada>Yaa& rSaaTal/Ma( ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PaaTaal&/ PaadTal/Ta wiTa l/aek-MaYa" PauMaaNa( )) 41 )) tat-kaöyäà cätalaà kÿptam ürubhyäà vitalaà vibhoù jänubhyäà sutalaà çuddhaà jaìghäbhyäà tu talätalam mahätalaà tu gulphäbhyäà prapadäbhyäà rasätalam pätälaà päda-talata iti lokamayaù pumän

tat—in His; kaöyäm—waist; ca—also; atalam—the first planetary system below the earth; kÿptam—situated; ürubhyäm—on the thighs; vitalam—the second planetary system below; vibhoù—of the Lord; jänubhyäm—on the ankles; sutalam—the third planetary system below; çuddham—purified; jaìghäbhyäm—on the joints; tu—but; talätalam—the fourth planetary system below; mahätalam—the fifth planetary system below; tu—but; gulphäbhyäm—situated on the calves; prapadäbhyäm—on the upper or front portion of the feet; rasätalam—the sixth planetary system below; pätälam—the seventh planetary system below; päda-talataù—on the bottom or soles of the feet; iti—thus; loka-mayaù—full of planetary systems; pumän—the Lord. TRANSLATION My dear son Närada, know from me that there are seven lower planetary systems out of the total fourteen. The first planetary system, known as Atala, is situated on the waist; the second, Vitala, is situated on the thighs; the third, Sutala, on the knees; the fourth, Talätala, on the shanks; the fifth, Mahätala, on the ankles; the sixth, Rasätala, on the upper portion of the feet; and the seventh, Pätäla, on the soles of the feet. Thus the viräö form of the Lord is full of all planetary systems. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Modern enterprisers (the astronauts who travel in space) may take information from Çrémad-Bhägavatam that in space there are fourteen divisions of planetary systems. The situation is calculated from the earthly planetary system, which is called Bhürloka. Above Bhürloka is Bhuvarloka, and the topmost planetary system is called Satyaloka. These are the upper seven lokas, or planetary systems. And similarly, there are seven lower planetary systems, known as Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talätala, Mahätala, Rasätala and Pätäla lokas. All these planetary systems are scattered over the complete universe, which occupies an area of two billion times two billion square miles. The modern astronauts can travel only a few thousand miles away from the earth, and therefore their attempt to travel in the sky is something like child’s play on the shore of an expansive ocean. The moon is situated in the third status of the upper planetary system, and in the Fifth Canto of Çrémad-Bhägavatam we shall be able to know the distant situation of the various planets scattered over the vast material sky. There are innumerable universes beyond the one in which we are put, and all these material universes cover only an insignificant portion of the spiritual sky, which is described above as sanätana Brahmaloka. The Supreme Lord very kindly invites the intelligent human beings to return home, back to Godhead, in the following verse of the Bhagavad-gétä (8.16): ä-brahma-bhuvanäl lokäù punar ävartino ’rjuna mäm upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate Beginning from Satyaloka, the topmost planet of the universe, situated just below the eternal Brahmaloka, as described above, all the planets are material. And one’s situation in any of the many material planets is still subject to the laws of material nature, namely birth, death, old age and disease. But one can get complete liberation from all the above-mentioned material pangs when one enters into the eternal Brahmaloka sanätana atmosphere, the kingdom of God. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Therefore liberation, as contemplated by the speculative philosophers and the mystics, is possible only when one becomes a devotee of the Lord. Anyone who is not a devotee cannot enter into the kingdom of God. Only by attainment of a service attitude in the transcendental position can one enter into the kingdom of Godhead. Therefore the speculative philosophers, as well as the mystics, must first of all be attracted to the devotional cult before they can factually attain liberation. TEXT 42 >aUl/aeRk-" k-iLPaTa" PaÙya& >auvl/aeRk-ae_SYa Naai>aTa" ) Svl/aeRk-" k-iLPaTaae MaUDNaaR wiTa va l/aek-k-LPaNaa )) 42 )) bhürlokaù kalpitaù padbhyäà bhuvarloko ’sya näbhitaù svarlokaù kalpito mürdhnä iti vä loka-kalpanä SYNONYMS bhürlokaù—the entire planetary system from Pätäla to the earthly planetary system; kalpitaù—imagined; padbhyäm—situated on the legs; bhuvarlokaù—the Bhuvarloka planetary system; asya—of the universal form of the Lord; näbhitaù—out of the navel abdomen; svarlokaù—the higher planetary system, beginning with the heavenly planets; kalpitaù—imagined; mürdhnä—from the chest to the head; iti—thus; vä—either; loka—the planetary systems; kalpanä—imagination. TRANSLATION Others may divide the whole planetary system into three divisions, namely the lower planetary systems on the legs [up to the earth], the middle planetary systems on the navel, and the upper planetary systems [Svarloka] from the chest to the head of the Supreme Personality. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The three divisions of the complete planetary systems are here mentioned; fourteen are imagined by others, and that is also explained. Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Second Canto, Fifth Chapter, of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, entitled “The Cause of All Causes.”

Chapter Six Puruña-sükta Confirmed

TEXT 1 b]øaevac vaca& vöeMauR%& +ae}a& ^NdSaa& Saá DaaTav" ) hVYak-VYaaMa*TaaàaNaa& iJaûa SavRrSaSYa c )) 1 )) brahmoväca väcäà vahner mukhaà kñetraà chandasäà sapta dhätavaù havya-kavyämåtännänäà jihvä sarva-rasasya ca SYNONYMS brahmä uväca—Lord Brahmä said; väcäm—of the voice; vahneù—of fire; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

mukham—the mouth; kñetram—the generating center; chandasäm—of the Vedic hymns, such as Gäyatré; sapta—seven; dhätavaù—skin and six other layers; havya-kavya—offerings for the demigods and the forefathers; amåta—food for human beings; annänäm—of all sorts of foodstuffs; jihvä—the tongue; sarva—all; rasasya—of all delicacies; ca—also. TRANSLATION Lord Brahmä said: The mouth of the viräö-puruña [the universal form of the Lord] is the generating center of the voice, and the controlling deity is fire. His skin and six other layers are the generating centers of the Vedic hymns, and His tongue is the productive center of different foodstuffs and delicacies for offering to the demigods, the forefathers and the general mass of people. PURPORT The opulences of the universal form of the Lord are described herein. It is said that His mouth is the generating center of all kinds of voices, and its controlling deity is the fire demigod. And His skin and other six layers of bodily construction are the representative generating centers of the seven kinds of Vedic hymns, like the Gäyatré. Gäyatré is the beginning of all Vedic mantras, and it is explained in the first volume of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Since the generating centers are the different parts of the universal form of the Lord, and since the form of the Lord is transcendental to the material creation, it is to be understood that the voice, the tongue, the skin, etc., suggest that the Lord in His transcendental form is not without them. The material voice, or the energy of taking in foodstuff, is generated originally from the Lord; such actions are but perverted reflections of the original reservoirs—the transcendental situation is not without spiritual variegatedness. In the spiritual world, all the perverted forms of material variegatedness are fully represented in their original spiritual identity. The only difference is that material activities are contaminated by the three modes of material nature, whereas the potencies in the spiritual world are all pure because they are engaged in the unalloyed transcendental loving service of the Lord. In the spiritual world, the Lord is the sublime enjoyer of everything, and Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the living entities there are all engaged in His transcendental loving service without any contamination of the modes of material nature. The activities in the spiritual world are without any of the inebrieties of the material world, but there is no question of impersonal voidness on the spiritual platform, as suggested by the impersonalists. Devotional service is defined in the Närada-païcarätra as follows: sarvopädhi-vinirmuktaà tat-paratvena nirmalam håñékeëa håñékeçasevanaà bhaktir ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170] Originally, since all the senses are produced of the Lord’s reservoir of senses, the sensual activities of the material world are to be purified by the process of devotional service, and thus the perfection of life can be attained simply by purifying the present position of our material activities. And the purifying process begins from the stage of being liberated from the conception of different designations. Every living entity is engaged in some sort of service, either for the self, or for the family, or for the society, country, etc., but, unfortunately, all such services are rendered due to material attachment. The attachments of the material affinity may be simply changed to the service of the Lord, and thus the treatment of being freed from material attachment begins automatically. The process of liberation is therefore easier through devotional service than by any other methods, for in the Bhagavad-gétä (12.5) it is said that one is subjected to various kinds of tribulations if one is impersonally attached: kleço ’dhikataras teñäm avyaktäsakta-cetasäm. TEXT 2 SavaRSaUNaa& c vaYaaeê TaàaSae ParMaaYaa]ivÛuTaaMa( )) 5 )) romäëy udbhijja-jäténäà yair vä yajïas tu sambhåtaù keça-çmaçru-nakhäny asya çilä-lohäbhra-vidyutäm SYNONYMS romäëi—hairs on the body; udbhijja—vegetables; jäténäm—of the kingdoms; yaiù—by which; vä—either; yajïaù—sacrifices; tu—but; sambhåtaù—particularly served; keça—hairs on the head; çmaçru—facial hair; nakhäni—nails; asya—of Him; çilä—stones; loha—iron ores; abhra—clouds; vidyutäm—electricity. TRANSLATION The hairs on His body are the cause of all vegetation, particularly of those trees which are required as ingredients for sacrifice. The hairs on His head and face are reservoirs for the clouds, and His nails are the breeding ground of electricity, stones and iron ores. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The polished nails of the Lord generate electricity, and the clouds rest on the hairs of His head. One can therefore collect all sorts of necessities of life from the person of the Lord, and therefore the Vedas affirm that everything that is produced is caused by the Lord. The Lord is the supreme cause of all causes. TEXT 6 bahvae l/aek-Paal/aNaa& Pa[aYaXa" +aeMak-MaRaU>auRv" Svê +aeMaSYa XaraUTaaNaa& iNaDaNaSYa c )

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

odr& ividTa& Pau&Saae ôdYa& MaNaSa" PadMa( )) 11 )) avyakta-rasa-sindhünäà bhütänäà nidhanasya ca udaraà viditaà puàso hådayaà manasaù padam SYNONYMS avyakta—the impersonal feature; rasa-sindhünäm—of the seas and oceans of water; bhütänäm—of those who take birth in the material world; nidhanasya—of the annihilation; ca—also; udaram—His belly; viditam—is known by the intelligent class of men; puàsaù—of the great personality; hådayam—the heart; manasaù—of the subtle body; padam—the place. TRANSLATION The impersonal feature of the Lord is the abode of great oceans, and His belly is the resting place for the materially annihilated living entities. His heart is the abode of the subtle material bodies of living beings. Thus it is known by the intelligent class of men. PURPORT In the Bhagavad-gétä (8.17–18) it is stated that according to human calculations one day of Brahmä is equal to one thousand ages of four millenniums (4,300,000 years) each, and the same period is calculated to be his night also. A Brahmä lives for one hundred such years and then dies. A Brahmä, who is generally a great devotee of the Lord, attains liberation after such a downfall. The universe (called the brahmäëòa, or the round football-like domain controlled by a Brahmä) is thus annihilated, and thus the inhabitants of a particular planet, or of the whole universe, are also annihilated. Avyakta, mentioned here in this verse, means the night of Brahmä, when partial annihilation takes place and the living entities of that particular brahmäëòa, up to the planets of Brahmaloka, along with the big Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

oceans, etc., all repose in the belly of the viräö-puruña. At the end of a Brahmä’s night, the creation again takes place, and the living entities, reserved within the belly of the Lord, are let loose to play their respective parts as if being awakened from a deep slumber. Since the living entities are never destroyed, the annihilation of the material world does not annihilate the existence of the living entities, but until liberation is attained one has to accept one material body after another, again and again. The human life is meant for making a solution to this repeated change of bodies and thereby attaining a place in the spiritual sky, where everything is eternal, blissful and full of knowledge. In other words, the subtle forms of the living entities take place in the heart of the Supreme Being, and such forms take tangible shape at the time of creation. TEXT 12 DaMaRSYa MaMa Tau>Ya& c ku-MaaraavSYa c ) ivjaNaSYa c SatvSYa ParSYaaTMaa ParaYaae ) YadivÛa c ivÛa c PauåzSTaU>aYaaé[Ya" )) 21 )) såté vicakrame viçvam säçanänaçane ubhe yad avidyä ca vidyä ca puruñas tübhayäçrayaù SYNONYMS såté—the destination of the living entities; vicakrame—exists comprehensively; viçvaì—the all-pervading Personality of Godhead; säçana—activities of lording it over; anaçane—activities in devotional service; ubhe—both; yat—what is; avidyä—nescience; ca—as well as; vidyä—factual knowledge; ca—and; puruñaù—the Supreme Person; tu—but; ubhaya—for both of them; äçrayaù—the master. TRANSLATION By His energies, the all-pervading Personality of Godhead is thus comprehensively the master in the activities of controlling and in devotional service. He is the ultimate master of both nescience and factual knowledge of all situations. PURPORT The word viçvaì is significant in this verse. One who travels perfectly in every field of activity is called the puruña or kñetrajïa. These two terms, kñetrajïa and puruña, are equally applicable to both the individual self and the Supreme Self, the Lord. In the Bhagavad-gétä (13.3) the matter is explained as follows: kñetrajïaà cäpi mäà viddhi sarva-kñetreñu bhärata Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kñetra-kñetrajïayor jïänaà yat taj jïänaà mataà mama kñetra means the place, and one who knows the place is called the kñetrajïa. The individual self knows about his limited field of activities, but the Supreme Self, the Lord, knows about the unlimited field of activities. The individual soul knows about his own thinking, feeling and willing activities, but the Supersoul, or the Paramätmä, the supreme controller, being present everywhere, knows everyone’s thinking, feeling and willing activities, and as such the individual living entity is the minute master of his personal affairs whereas the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the master of everyone’s affairs, past, present and future (vedähaà samatétäni, etc.). Only the ignorant person does not know this difference between the Lord and the living entities. The living entities, as distinguished from incognizant matter, may be qualitatively equal to the Lord in cognizance, but the living entity can never be equal to the Lord in full knowledge of past, present and future. And because the living entity is partially cognizant, he is therefore sometimes forgetful of his own identity. This forgetfulness is specifically manifested in the field of the ekapäd-vibhüti of the Lord, or in the material world, but in the tripäd-vibhüti field of actions, or in the spiritual world, there is no forgetfulness by the living entities, who are free from all kinds of contaminations resulting from the forgetful state of existence. The material body is the symbol of the gross and subtle form of forgetfulness; therefore the whole atmosphere of the material world is called avidyä, or nescience, whereas the whole atmosphere of the spiritual world is called vidyä, or full of knowledge. There are different stages of avidyä, and they are called dharma, artha and mokña. The idea of mokña, or liberation, held by the monist in the matter of oneness of the living entity and the Lord by ultimate merging in one, is also the last stage of materialism or forgetfulness. Knowledge of the qualitative oneness of the self and Superself is partial knowledge and ignorance also because there is no knowledge of quantitative difference, as explained above. The individual self can never be equal to the Lord in cognizance; otherwise he could not be placed in the state of forgetfulness. So, because there is a stage of forgetfulness of the individual selves, or the living Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

entities, there is always a gulf of difference between the Lord and the living entity, as between the part and the whole. The part is never equal to the whole. So the conception of one hundred percent equality of the living being with the Lord is also nescience. In the field of nescience, activities are directed toward lording it over the creation. In the material world, therefore, everyone is engaged in acquiring material opulence to lord it over the material world. Therefore there is always clash and frustration, which are the symptoms of nescience. But in the field of knowledge, there is devotional service to the Lord (bhakti). Therefore there is no chance of being contaminated by the influence of nescience or forgetfulness (avidyä) in the liberated stage of devotional activities. The Lord is thus the proprietor of the fields both of nescience and of cognition, and it remains the choice of the living entity to exist in either of the above regions. TEXT 22 YaSMaadaUTaeiNd]YaGauYaaàil/NaadhMaaSa& MahaTMaNa" ) Naaivd& YajSaM>aaraNa( PauåzavYavaNa*Tae )) 23 )) yadäsya näbhyän nalinäd aham äsaà mahätmanaù nävidaà yajïa-sambhärän puruñävayavän åte SYNONYMS yadä—at the time of; asya—His; näbhyät—from the abdomen; nalinät—from the lotus flower; aham—myself; äsam—took my birth; mahä-ätmanaù—of the great person; na avidam—did not know; yajïa—sacrificial; sambhärän—ingredients; puruña—of the Lord; avayavän—personal bodily limbs; åte—except. TRANSLATION When I was born from the abdominal lotus flower of the Lord [Mahä-Viñëu], the great person, I had no ingredients for sacrificial performances except the bodily limbs of the great Personality of Godhead. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT Lord Brahmä, the creator of the cosmic manifestation, is known as Svayambhü, or one who is born without father and mother. The general process is that a living creature is born out of the sex combination of the male father and the female mother. But Brahmä, the firstborn living being, is born out of the abdominal lotus flower of the Mahä-Viñëu plenary expansion of Lord Kåñëa. The abdominal lotus flower is part of the Lord’s bodily limbs, and Brahmä is born out of the lotus flower. Therefore Lord Brahmä is also a part of the Lord’s body. Brahmä, after his appearance in the gigantic hollow of the universe, saw darkness and nothing else. He felt perplexity, and from his heart he was inspired by the Lord to undergo austerity, thereby acquiring the ingredients for sacrificial performances. But there was nothing besides the two of them, namely the Personality of Mahä-Viñëu and Brahmä himself, born of the bodily part of the Lord. For sacrificial performances many ingredients were in need, especially animals. The animal sacrifice is never meant for killing the animal, but for achieving the successful result of the sacrifice. The animal offered in the sacrificial fire is, so to speak, destroyed, but the next moment it is given a new life by dint of the Vedic hymns chanted by the expert priest. When such an expert priest is not available, the animal sacrifice in the fire of the sacrificial altar is forbidden. Thus Brahmä created even the sacrificial ingredients out of the bodily limbs of the Garbhodakaçäyé Viñëu, which means that the cosmic order was created by Brahmä himself. Also, nothing is created out of nothing, but everything is created from the person of the Lord. The Lord says in the Bhagavad-gétä (10.8), ahaà sarvasya prabhavo mattaù sarvaà pravartate. “Everything is made from My bodily limbs, and I am therefore the original source of all creations.” The impersonalists argue that there is no use in worshiping the Lord when everything is nothing but the Lord Himself. The personalist, however, worships the Lord out of a great sense of gratitude, utilizing the ingredients born out of the bodily limbs of the Lord. The fruits and flowers are available from the body of the earth, and yet mother earth is worshiped by the sensible devotee with ingredients born from the earth. Similarly, mother Ganges is Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

worshiped by the water of the Ganges, and yet the worshiper enjoys the result of such worship. Worship of the Lord is also performed by the ingredients born from the bodily limbs of the Lord, and yet the worshiper, who is himself a part of the Lord, achieves the result of devotional service to the Lord. While the impersonalist wrongly concludes that he is the Lord himself, the personalist, out of a great gratitude, worships the Lord in devotional service, knowing perfectly well that nothing is different from the Lord. The devotee therefore endeavors to apply everything in the service of the Lord because he knows that everything is the property of the Lord and that no one can claim anything as one’s own. This perfect conception of oneness helps the worshiper in being engaged in His loving service, whereas the impersonalist, being falsely puffed up, remains a nondevotee forever, without being recognized by the Lord. TEXT 24 Taezu YajSYa PaXav" SavNaSPaTaYa" ku-Xaa" ) wd& c devYaJaNa& k-al/êaeåGaua]aTar wMae Pa[JaaNaa& PaTaYaae Nav ) AYaJaNa( VYa¢-MaVYa¢&- Pauåz& SauSaMaaihTaa" )) 29 )) tatas te bhrätara ime prajänäà patayo nava ayajan vyaktam avyaktaà puruñaà su-samähitäù SYNONYMS tataù—thereafter; te—your; bhrätaraù—brothers; ime—these; prajänäm—of the living creatures; patayaù—masters; nava—nine; ayajan—performed; vyaktam—manifested; avyaktam—nonmanifested; puruñam—personalities; su-samähitäù—with proper rituals. TRANSLATION My dear son, thereafter your nine brothers, who are the masters of living creatures, performed the sacrifice with proper rituals to satisfy both the manifested and nonmanifested personalities. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The manifested personalities are the demigods like the ruler of the heavenly kingdom, Indra, and his associates; and the nonmanifested personality is the Lord Himself. The manifested personalities are mundane controllers of the material affairs, whereas the nonmanifested Personality of Godhead is transcendental, beyond the range of the material atmosphere. In this age of Kali the manifested demigods are also not to be seen, for space travel has completely stopped. So both the powerful demigods and the Supreme Personality of Godhead are nonmanifested to the covered eyes of the modern man. Modern men want to see everything with their eyes, although they are not sufficiently qualified. Consequently, they disbelieve in the existence of the demigods or of the Supreme God. They should see through the pages of authentic scriptures and should not simply believe their unqualified eyes. Even in these days, God can also be seen by qualified eyes tinged with the ointment of love of God. TEXT 30 TaTaê MaNav" k-ale/ wRiJare ‰zYaae_Pare ) iPaTarae ivbuDaa dETYaa MaNauZYaa" §-Taui>aivR>auMa(

)) 30 ))

tataç ca manavaù käle éjire åñayo ’pare pitaro vibudhä daityä manuñyäù kratubhir vibhum SYNONYMS tataù—thereafter; ca—also; manavaù—the Manus, the fathers of mankind; käle—in due course of time; éjire—worshiped; åñayaù—great sages; apare—others; pitaraù—the forefathers; vibudhäù—the learned scholars; daityäù—great devotees of the demigods; manuñyäù—mankind; kratubhiù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vibhum—by performance of sacrifices to please the Supreme Lord. TRANSLATION Thereafter, the Manus, the fathers of mankind, the great sages, the forefathers, the learned scholars, the Daityas and mankind performed sacrifices meant to please the Supreme Lord. PURPORT The daityas are devotees of the demigods because they want to derive the greatest possible material facilities from them. The devotees of the Lord are eka-niñöha, or absolutely attached to the devotional service of the Lord. Therefore they have practically no time to seek the benefits of material facilities. Because of their realization of their spiritual identity, they are more concerned with spiritual emancipation than with material comforts. TEXT 31 NaaraYaaGaviTa Taidd& ivìMaaihTaMa( ) Ga*hqTaMaaYaaeåGauaGavTae NaMa" )) 38 )) yasyävatära-karmäëi gäyanti hy asmad-ädayaù na yaà vidanti tattvena tasmai bhagavate namaù SYNONYMS yasya—whose; avatära—incarnation; karmäëi—activities; gäyanti—chant in glorification; hi—indeed; asmat-ädayaù—persons like us; na—do not; yam—whom; vidanti—know; tattvena—cent percent as He is; tasmai—unto Him; bhagavate—unto the personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa; namaù—respectful obeisances. TRANSLATION Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto that Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose incarnations and activities are chanted by us for glorification, though He can hardly be fully known as He is. PURPORT It is said that the transcendental name, form, quality, pastimes, paraphernalia, personality, etc., cannot possibly be perceived by the gross materialistic senses. But when the senses are purified by the process of hearing, chanting, remembering, and worshiping the lotus feet of the holy Deity, etc., the Lord reveals Himself proportionately to the advancement of the quality of devotional service (ye yathä mäà prapadyante). One should not expect the Lord to be an order-supplying agent who must be present before us as soon as we desire to see Him. We must be ready to undergo the prescribed devotional Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

duties, following the path shown by the predecessors in the disciplic succession from Brahmä, Närada and similar authorities. As the senses are progressively purified by bona fide devotional service, the Lord reveals His identity according to the spiritual advancement of the devotee. But one who is not in the line of devotional service can hardly perceive Him simply by calculations and philosophical speculations. Such a hard worker can present a jugglery of words before an audience, but can never know the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His personal feature. The Lord has clearly stated in the Bhagavad-gétä that one can know Him only by devotional service. No one can know the Lord by any puffed-up material process of challenge, but the humble devotee can please the Lord by his earnest devotional activities. Thus the Lord reveals Himself proportionately before the devotee. Lord Brahmä therefore offers his respectful obeisances as a bona fide spiritual master and advises us to follow the process of çravaëa and kértana. Simply by this process, or simply by hearing and chanting the glories of the activities of the Lord’s incarnation, one can certainly see within himself the identity of the Lord. We have already discussed this subject in volume one of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, in connection with this verse: tac chraddadhänä munayo jïäna-vairägya-yuktayä paçyanty ätmani cätmänaà bhaktyä çruta-gåhétayä (Bhäg. 1.2.12) The conclusion is that one cannot know the Supreme Personality of Godhead fully by any method, but He can be seen and felt partially by the devotional service process of hearing, chanting, etc. TEXT 39 Sa Wz AaÛ" Pauåz" k-LPae k-LPae Sa*JaTYaJa" ) AaTMaaTMaNYaaTMaNaaTMaaNa& Sa Sa&YaC^iTa PaaiTa c )) 39 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

sa eña ädyaù puruñaù kalpe kalpe såjaty ajaù ätmätmany ätmanätmänaà sa saàyacchati päti ca SYNONYMS saù—He; eñaù—the very; ädyaù—the original Personality of Godhead; puruñaù—the Mahä-Viñëu incarnation, a plenary portion of Govinda, Lord Kåñëa; kalpe kalpe—in each and every millennium; såjati—creates; ajaù—the unborn; ätmä—self; ätmani—upon the self; ätmanä—by His own self; ätmänam—own self; saù—He; saàyacchati—absorbs; päti—maintains; ca—also. TRANSLATION That supreme original Personality of Godhead, Lord Çré Kåñëa, expanding His plenary portion as Mahä-Viñëu, the first incarnation, creates this manifested cosmos, but He is unborn. The creation, however, takes place in Him, and the material substance and manifestations are all Himself. He maintains them for some time and absorbs them into Himself again. PURPORT The creation is nondifferent from the Lord, and still He is not in the creation. This is explained in the Bhagavad-gétä (9.4) as follows: mayä tatam idaà sarvaà jagad avyakta-mürtinä mat-sthäni sarva-bhütäni na cähaà teñv avasthitaù The impersonal conception of the Absolute Truth is also a form of the Lord called avyakta-mürti. Mürti means “form,” but because His impersonal feature is inexplicable to our limited senses, He is the avyakta-mürti form, and in that inexplicable form of the Lord the whole creation is resting; or, in other words, Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the whole creation is the Lord Himself, and the creation is also nondifferent from Him, but simultaneously He, as the original Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa, is aloof from the created manifestation. The impersonalist gives stress to the impersonal form or feature of the Lord and does not believe in the original personality of the Lord, but the Vaiñëavas accept the original form of the Lord, of whom the impersonal form is merely one of the features. The impersonal and personal conceptions of the Lord are existing simultaneously, and this fact is clearly described both in the Bhagavad-gétä and in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, and also in other Vedic scriptures. Inconceivable to human intelligence, the idea must simply be accepted on the authority of the scriptures, and it can only be practically realized by the progress of devotional service unto the Lord, and never by mental speculation or inductive logic. The impersonalists depend more or less on inductive logic, and therefore they always remain in darkness about the original Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa. Their conception of Kåñëa is not clear, although everything is clearly mentioned in all the Vedic scriptures. A poor fund of knowledge cannot comprehend the existence of an original personal form of the Lord when He is expanded in everything. This imperfectness is due, more or less, to the material conception that a substance distributed widely in parts can no longer exist in the original form. The original personality of Godhead (ädyaù), Govinda, expands Himself as the Mahä-Viñëu incarnation and rests in the Causal Ocean, which He Himself creates. The Brahma-saàhitä (5.47) confirms this as follows: yaù käraëärëava-jale bhajati sma yoganidräm ananta-jagad-aëòa-saroma-küpaù ädhära-çaktim avalambya paräà sva-mürtià govindam ädi-puruñaà tam ahaà bhajämi Lord Brahmäjé says in his Brahma-saàhitä, “I worship the primeval Lord Govinda, who lies down in the Causal Ocean in His plenary portion as Mahä-Viñëu, with all the universes generating from the pores of hair on His transcendental body, and who accepts the mystic slumber of eternity.” So this Mahä-Viñëu is the first incarnation in the creation, and from Him Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

all the universes are generated and all material manifestations are produced, one after another. The Causal Ocean is created by the Lord as the mahat-tattva, as a cloud in the spiritual sky, and is only a part of His different manifestations. The spiritual sky is an expansion of His personal rays, and He is the mahat-tattva cloud also. He lies down and generates the universes by His breathing, and again, by entering into each universe as Garbhodakaçäyé Viñëu, He creates Brahmä, Çiva and many other demigods for maintenance of the universe and again absorbs the whole thing into His person as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä (9.7): sarva-bhütäni kaunteya prakåtià yänti mämikäm kalpa-kñaye punas täni kalpädau visåjämy aham “O son of Kunté, when the kalpa, or the duration of the life of Brahmä, is ended, then all the created manifestations enter into My prakåti, or energy, and again, when I desire, the same creation takes place by My personal energy.” The conclusion is that these are all but displays of the Lord’s inconceivable personal energies, of which no one can have any full information. This point we have already discussed. TEXTS 40–41 ivéuÖ& ke-vl&/ jaNa& Pa[TYak(- SaMYaGaviSQaTaMa( ) SaTYa& PaUaUTa‚ kU-ZMaaaUMan" ) AaPaqYaTaa& k-araTMaGaiTa& SvMaa}ae ) Oce YaYaaTMaXaMal&/ Gauak-a¿Ta Aah Tauíae dtaae MaYaahiMaiTa Yad( >aGavaNa( Sa dta" ) YaTPaadPaªJaParaGaPaiv}adeha Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

YaaeGaiÖRMaaPauå>aYaq& YaduhEhYaaÛa" )) 4 )) atrer apatyam abhikäìkñata äha tuñöo datto mayäham iti yad bhagavän sa dattaù yat-päda-paìkaja-paräga-pavitra-dehä yogarddhim äpur ubhayéà yadu-haihayädyäù SYNONYMS atreù—of the sage Atri; apatyam—issue; abhikäìkñataù—having prayed for; äha—said it; tuñöaù—being satisfied; dattaù—given over; mayä—by me; aham—myself; iti—thus; yat—because; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; saù—He; dattaù—Dattätreya; yat-päda—one whose feet; paìkaja—lotus; paräga—dust; pavitra—purified; dehäù—body; yoga—mystic; åddhim—opulence; äpuù—got; ubhayém—for both the worlds; yadu—the father of the Yadu dynasty; haihaya-ädyäù—and others, like King Haihaya. TRANSLATION The great sage Atri prayed for offspring, and the Lord, being satisfied with him, promised to incarnate as Atri’s son, Dattätreya [Datta, the son of Atri]. And by the grace of the lotus feet of the Lord, many Yadus, Haihayas, etc., became so purified that they obtained both material and spiritual blessings. PURPORT Transcendental relations between the Personality of Godhead and the living entities are eternally established in five different affectionate humors, which are known as çänta, däsya, sakhya, vätsalya and mädhurya. The sage Atri was related with the Lord in the affectionate vätsalya humor, and therefore, as a result of his devotional perfection, he was inclined to have the Personality of Godhead as his son. The Lord accepted his prayer, and He gave Himself as the son of Atri. Such a relation of sonhood between the Lord and His pure devotees can be cited in many instances. And because the Lord is unlimited, He has an unlimited number of father-devotees. Factually the Lord is the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

father of all living entities, but out of transcendental affection and love between the Lord and His devotees, the Lord takes more pleasure in becoming the son of a devotee than in becoming one’s father. The father actually serves the son, whereas the son only demands all sorts of services from the father; therefore a pure devotee who is always inclined to serve the Lord wants Him as the son, and not as the father. The Lord also accepts such service from the devotee, and thus the devotee becomes more than the Lord. The impersonalists desire to become one with the Supreme, but the devotee becomes more than the Lord, surpassing the desire of the greatest monist. Parents and other relatives of the Lord achieve all mystic opulences automatically because of their intimate relationship with the Lord. Such opulences include all details of material enjoyment, salvation and mystic powers. Therefore, the devotee of the Lord does not seek them separately, wasting his valuable time in life. The valuable time of one’s life must therefore be fully engaged in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. Then other desirable achievements are automatically gained. But even after obtaining such achievements, one should be on guard against the pitfall of offenses at the feet of the devotees. The vivid example is Haihaya, who achieved all such perfection in devotional service but, because of his offense at the feet of a devotee, was killed by Lord Paraçuräma. The Lord became the son of the great sage Atri and became known as Dattätreya. TEXT 5 Taá& TaPaae ivivDal/aek-iSaSa*+aYaa Mae AadaE SaNaaTa( SvTaPaSa" Sa cTau"SaNaae_>aUTa( ) Pa[a¡-LPaSaMâvivNaíiMahaTMaTatv& SaMYaGa( JaGaad MauNaYaae Yadc+aTaaTMaNa( )) 5 )) taptaà tapo vividha-loka-sisåkñayä me ädau sanät sva-tapasaù sa catuù-sano ’bhüt präk-kalpa-samplava-vinañöam ihätma-tattvaà Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

samyag jagäda munayo yad acakñatätman SYNONYMS taptam—having undergone austerities; tapaù—penance; vividha-loka—different planetary systems; sisåkñayä—desiring to create; me—of mine; ädau—at first; sanät—from the Personality of Godhead; sva-tapasaù—by dint of my own penances; saù—He (the Lord); catuù-sanaù—the four bachelors named Sanat-kumära, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanätana; abhüt—appeared; präk—previous; kalpa—creation; samplava—in the inundation; vinañöam—devastated; iha—in this material world; ätma—the spirit; tattvam—truth; samyak—in complete; jagäda—became manifested; munayaù—sages; yat—that which; acakñata—saw clearly; ätman—the spirit. TRANSLATION To create different planetary systems I had to undergo austerities and penance, and the Lord, thus being pleased with me, incarnated in four sanas [Sanaka, Sanat-kumära, Sanandana and Sanätana]. In the previous creation the spiritual truth was devastated, but the four sanas explained it so nicely that the truth at once became clearly perceived by the sages. PURPORT The Viñëu-sahasra-näma prayers mention the Lord’s name as sanät and sanätanatama. The Lord and the living entities are both qualitatively sanätana, or eternal, but the Lord is sanätana-tama or the eternal in the superlative degree. The living entities are positively sanätana, but not superlatively, because the living entities are apt to fall to the atmosphere of noneternity. Therefore, the living entities are quantitatively different from the superlative sanätana, the Lord. The word san is also used in the sense of charity; therefore when everything is given up in charity unto the Lord, the Lord reciprocates by giving Himself unto the devotee. This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä (4.11): ye yathä Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

mäà prapadyante. Brahmäjé wanted to create the whole cosmic situation as it was in the previous millennium, and because, in the last devastation, knowledge of the Absolute Truth was altogether erased from the universe, he desired that the same knowledge again be renovated; otherwise there would be no meaning in the creation. Because transcendental knowledge is a prime necessity, the ever-conditioned souls are given a chance for liberation in every millennium of creation. This mission of Brahmäjé was fulfilled by the grace of the Lord when the four sanas, namely Sanaka, Sanat-kumära, Sanandana and Sanätana, appeared as his four sons. These four sanas were incarnations of the knowledge of the Supreme Lord, and as such they explained transcendental knowledge so explicitly that all the sages could at once assimilate this knowledge without the least difficulty. By following in the footsteps of the four Kumäras, one can at once see the Supreme Personality of Godhead within oneself. TEXT 6 DaMaRSYa d+aduihTaYaRJaiNaí MaUTYaa| NaaraYaaGavTaae iNaYaMaavl/aePa& deVYaSTvNa®Pa*TaNaa gai$=Tau& Na Xaeku-" )) 6 )) dharmasya dakña-duhitary ajaniñöa mürtyäà näräyaëo nara iti sva-tapaù-prabhävaù dåñövätmano bhagavato niyamävalopaà devyas tv anaìga-påtanä ghaöituà na çekuù SYNONYMS dharmasya—of Dharma (the controller of religious principles); dakña—Dakña, one of the Prajäpatis; duhitari—unto the daughter; ajaniñöa—took birth; mürtyäm—of the name Mürti; näräyaëaù—Näräyaëa; naraù—Nara; iti—thus; sva-tapaù—personal penances; prabhävaù—strength; dåñövä—by seeing; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ätmanaù—of His own; bhagavataù—of the Personality of Godhead; niyama-avalopam—breaking the vow; devyaù—celestial beauties; tu—but; anaìga-påtanäù—companion of Cupid; ghaöitum—to happen; na—never; çekuù—made possible. TRANSLATION To exhibit His personal way of austerity and penance, He appeared in twin forms as Näräyaëa and Nara in the womb of Mürti, the wife of Dharma and the daughter of Dakña. Celestial beauties, the companions of Cupid, went to try to break His vows, but they were unsuccessful, for they saw that many beauties like them were emanating from Him, the Personality of Godhead. PURPORT The Lord, being the source of everything that be, is the origin of all austerities and penances also. Great vows of austerity are undertaken by sages to achieve success in self-realization. Human life is meant for such tapasya, with the great vow of celibacy, or brahmacarya. In the rigid life of tapasya, there is no place for the association of women. And because human life is meant for tapasya, for self-realization, factual human civilization, as conceived by the system of sanätana-dharma or the school of four castes and four orders of life, prescribes rigid dissociation from woman in three stages of life. In the order of gradual cultural development, one’s life may be divided into four divisions: celibacy, household life, retirement, and renunciation. During the first stage of life, up to twenty-five years of age, a man may be trained as a brahmacäré under the guidance of a bona fide spiritual master just to understand that woman is the real binding force in material existence. If one wants to get freedom from the material bondage of conditional life, he must get free from the attraction for the form of woman. Woman, or the fair sex, is the enchanting principle for the living entities, and the male form, especially in the human being, is meant for self-realization. The whole world is moving under the spell of womanly attraction, and as soon as a man becomes united with a woman, he at once becomes a victim of material bondage under a tight knot. The desires for lording it over the material world, under the intoxication of a false sense of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

lordship, specifically begin just after the man’s unification with a woman. The desires for acquiring a house, possessing land, having children and becoming prominent in society, the affection for community and the place of birth, and the hankering for wealth, which are all like phantasmagoria or illusory dreams, encumber a human being, and he is thus impeded in his progress toward self-realization, the real aim of life. The brahmacäri, or a boy from the age of five years, especially from the higher castes, namely from the scholarly parents (the brähmaëas), the administrative parents (the kñatriyas), or the mercantile or productive parents (the vaiçyas), is trained until twenty-five years of age under the care of a bona fide guru or teacher, and under strict observance of discipline he comes to understand the values of life along with taking specific training for a livelihood. The brahmacäré is then allowed to go home and enter householder life and get married to a suitable woman. But there are many brahmacärés who do not go home to become householders but continue the life of naiñöhika-brahmacärés, without any connection with women. They accept the order of sannyäsa, or the renounced order of life, knowing well that combination with women is an unnecessary burden that checks self-realization. Since sex desire is very strong at a certain stage of life, the guru may allow the brahmacäré to marry; this license is given to a brahmacäré who is unable to continue the way of naiñöhika-brahmacarya, and such discriminations are possible for the bona fide guru. A program of so-called family planning is needed. The householder who associates with woman under scriptural restrictions, after a thorough training of brahmacarya, cannot be a householder like cats and dogs. Such a householder, after fifty years of age, would retire from the association of woman as a vänaprastha to be trained to live alone without the association of woman. When the practice is complete, the same retired householder becomes a sannyäsé, strictly separate from woman, even from his married wife. Studying the whole scheme of disassociation from women, it appears that a woman is a stumbling block for self-realization, and the Lord appeared as Näräyaëa to teach the principle of womanly disassociation with a vow in life. The demigods, being envious of the austere life of the rigid brahmacärés, would try to cause them to break their vows by dispatching soldiers of Cupid. But in the case of the Lord, it became Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

an unsuccessful attempt when the celestial beauties saw that the Lord can produce innumerable such beauties by His mystic internal potency and that there was consequently no need to be attracted by others externally. There is a common proverb that a confectioner is never attracted by sweetmeats. The confectioner, who is always manufacturing sweetmeats, has very little desire to eat them; similarly, the Lord, by His pleasure potential powers, can produce innumerable spiritual beauties and not be the least attracted by the false beauties of material creation. One who does not know alleges foolishly that Lord Kåñëa enjoyed women in His räsa-lélä in Våndävana, or with His sixteen thousand married wives at Dvärakä. TEXT 7 k-aMa& dhiNTa k*-iTaNaae NaNau raezd*íya raez& dhNTaMauTa Tae Na dhNTYaSaùMa( ) Saae_Ya& YadNTarMal&/ Pa[ivXaNa( ib>aeiTa k-aMa" k-Qa& Nau PauNarSYa MaNa" é[YaeTa )) 7 )) kämaà dahanti kåtino nanu roña-dåñöyä roñaà dahantam uta te na dahanty asahyam so ’yaà yad antaram alaà praviçan bibheti kämaù kathaà nu punar asya manaù çrayeta SYNONYMS kämam—lust; dahanti—chastise; kåtinaù—great stalwarts; nanu—but; roña-dåñöyä—by wrathful glance; roñam—wrath; dahantam—being overwhelmed; uta—although; te—they; na—cannot; dahanti—subjugate; asahyam—intolerable; saù—that; ayam—Him; yat—because; antaram—within; alam—however; praviçan—entering; bibheti—is afraid of; kämaù—lust; katham—how; nu—as a matter of fact; punaù—again; asya—His; manaù—mind; çrayeta—take shelter of. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION Great stalwarts like Lord Çiva can, by their wrathful glances, overcome lust and vanquish him, yet they cannot be free from the overwhelming effects of their own wrath. Such wrath can never enter into the heart of Him [the Lord], who is above all this. So how can lust take shelter in His mind? PURPORT When Lord Çiva was engaged in severely austere meditation, Cupid, the demigod of lust, threw his arrow of sex desire. Lord Çiva, thus being angry at him, glanced at Cupid in great wrath, and at once the body of Cupid was annihilated. Although Lord Çiva was so powerful, he was unable to get free from the effects of such wrath. But in the behavior of Lord Viñëu there is no incident of such wrath at any time. On the contrary, Bhågu Muni tested the tolerance of the Lord by purposely kicking His chest, but instead of being angry at Bhågu Muni the Lord begged his pardon, saying that Bhågu Muni’s leg might have been badly hurt because His chest is too hard. The Lord has the sign of the foot of bhågupäda as the mark of tolerance. The Lord, therefore, is never affected by any kind of wrath, so how can there be any place for lust, which is less strong than wrath? When lust or desire is not fulfilled, there is the appearance of wrath, but in the absence of wrath how can there be any place for lust? The Lord is known as äpta-käma, or one who can fulfill His desires by Himself. He does not require anyone’s help to satisfy His desires. The Lord is unlimited, and therefore His desires are also unlimited. All living entities but the Lord are limited in every respect; how then can the limited satisfy the desires of the unlimited? The conclusion is that the Absolute Personality of Godhead has neither lust nor anger, and even if there is sometimes a show of lust and anger by the Absolute, it should be considered an absolute benediction. TEXT 8

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ivÖ" SaPaTNYauidTaPai}ai>ariNTa rajae bal/ae_iPa SaàuPaGaTaSTaPaSae vNaaiNa ) TaSMaa Adad( Da]uvGaiTa& Ga*aUvuåXaTaq" ìSaTaae_SYa NaSTa" )) 11 )) satre mamäsa bhagavän haya-çérañätho säkñät sa yajïa-puruñas tapanéya-varëaù chandomayo makhamayo ’khila-devatätmä väco babhüvur uçatéù çvasato ’sya nastaù SYNONYMS satre—in the sacrificial ceremony; mama—of mine; äsa—appeared; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; haya-çérañä—with His horselike head; atha—thus; säkñät—directly; saù—He; yajïa-puruñaù—the person who is pleased by performances of sacrifice; tapanéya—golden; varëaù—hue; chandaù-mayaù—personified Vedic hymns; makha-mayaù—personified sacrifices; akhila—all that be; devatä-ätmä—the soul of the demigods; väcaù—sounds; babhüvuù—become audible; uçatéù—very pleasing to hear; çvasataù—while breathing; asya—His; nastaù—through the nostrils. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSLATION The Lord appeared as the Hayagréva incarnation in a sacrifice performed by me [Brahmä]. He is the personified sacrifices, and the hue of His body is golden. He is the personified Vedas as well, and the Supersoul of all demigods. When He breathed, all the sweet sounds of the Vedic hymns came out of His nostrils. PURPORT The Vedic hymns are generally meant for sacrifices performed by fruitive workers who also want to satisfy the demigods to achieve their fruitive result. But the Lord is the personified sacrifices and personified Vedic hymns. Therefore one who is directly a devotee of the Lord is a person who has automatically both served the purposes of sacrifices and pleased the demigods. The devotees of the Lord may not perform any sacrifice or may not please the demigods as per Vedic injunctions, and still the devotees are on a higher level than the fruitive workers or the worshipers of different demigods. TEXT 12 MaTSYaae YauGaaNTaSaMaYae MaNauNaaePal/BDa" +aaeaYaha Sa Na*iSa&hæPa& k*-Tva >a]Mad(>a]uku-i$=d&í\k-ral/v£-Ma( ) dETYaeNd]Maaéu GadYaai>aPaTaNTaMaara‚ dUraE iNaPaaTYa ivddar Na%E" Sfu-rNTaMa( )) 14 )) trai-piñöaporu-bhaya-hä sa nåsiàha-rüpaà kåtvä bhramad-bhrukuöi-daàñöra-karäla-vaktram daityendram äçu gadayäbhipatantam äräd ürau nipätya vidadära nakhaiù sphurantam

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS trai-piñöapa—the demigods; uru-bhaya-hä—one who vanquishes great fears; saù—He (the Personality of Godhead); nåsiàha-rüpam—assuming the incarnation Nåsiàha; kåtvä—doing so; bhramat—by rolling; bhru-kuöi—eyebrows; daàñöra—teeth; karäla—greatly fearful; vaktram—mouth; daitya-indram—the king of the demons; äçu—immediately; gadayä—with club in hand; abhipatantam—while falling down; ärät—nearby; ürau—on the thighs; nipätya—placing on; vidadära—pierced; nakhaiù—by the nails; sphurantam—while challenging. TRANSLATION The Personality of Godhead assumed the incarnation of Nåsiàhadeva in order to vanquish the great fears of the demigods. He killed the king of the demons [Hiraëyakaçipu], who challenged the Lord with a club in his hand, by placing the demon on His thighs and piercing him with His nails, rolling His eyebrows in anger and showing His fearful teeth and mouth. PURPORT The history of Hiraëyakaçipu and his great devotee-son Prahläda Mahäräja is narrated in the Seventh Canto of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Hiraëyakaçipu became very powerful by material achievements and thought himself to be immortal by the grace of Brahmäjé. Brahmäjé declined to award him the benediction of immortality because he himself is not an immortal being. But Hiraëyakaçipu derived Brahmäjé’s benediction in a roundabout way, almost equal to becoming an immortal being. Hiraëyakaçipu was sure that he would not be killed by any man or demigod or by any kind of known weapon, nor would he die in day or night. The Lord, however, assumed the incarnation of half-man and half-lion, which was beyond the imagination of a materialistic demon like Hiraëyakaçipu, and thus, keeping pace with the benediction of Brahmäjé, the Lord killed him. He killed him on His lap, so that he was killed neither on the land nor on the water nor in the sky. The demon was pierced by Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Nåsiàha’s nails, which were beyond the human weapons imaginable by Hiraëyakaçipu. The literal meaning of Hiraëyakaçipu is one who is after gold and soft bedding, the ultimate aim of all materialistic men. Such demonic men, who have no relationship with God, gradually become puffed up by material acquisitions and begin to challenge the authority of the Supreme Lord and torture those who are devotees of the Lord. Prahläda Mahäräja happened to be the son of Hiraëyakaçipu, and because the boy was a great devotee, his father tortured him to the best of his ability. In this extreme situation, the Lord assumed the incarnation of Nåsiàhadeva, and just to finish the enemy of the demigods, the Lord killed Hiraëyakaçipu in a manner beyond the demon’s imagination. Materialistic plans of godless demons are always frustrated by the all-powerful Lord. TEXT 15 ANTa"SarSYauåble/Na Pade Ga*hqTaae Ga]aheaGavaNa( k*-PaYaaeÂhar )) 16 )) çrutvä haris tam araëärthinam aprameyaç cakräyudhaù patagaräja-bhujädhirüòhaù cakreëa nakra-vadanaà vinipäöya tasmäd dhaste pragåhya bhagavän kåpayojjahära SYNONYMS çrutvä—by hearing; hariù—the Personality of Godhead; tam—him; araëa-arthinam—one who is in need of help; aprameyaù—the unlimitedly powerful Lord; cakra—wheel; äyudhaù—equipped with His weapon; pataga-räja—the king of the birds (Garuòa); bhuja-adhirüòhaù—being seated on the wings of; cakreëa—by the wheel; nakra-vadanam—the mouth of the crocodile; vinipäöya—cutting in two; tasmät—from the mouth of the crocodile; haste—in the hands; pragåhya—taking hold of the trunk; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; kåpayä—out of causeless mercy; ujjahära—delivered him. TRANSLATION The Personality of Godhead, after hearing the elephant’s plea, felt that the elephant needed His immediate help, for he was in great distress. Thus at once the Lord appeared there on the wings of the king of birds, Garuòa, fully equipped with His weapon, the wheel [cakra]. With the wheel He cut to pieces the mouth of the crocodile to save the elephant, and He delivered the elephant by lifting him by his trunk. PURPORT The Lord resides in His Vaikuëöha planet. No one can estimate how far away this planet is situated. It is said, however, that anyone trying to reach that planet by airships or by mindships, traveling for millions of years, will find it still unknown. Modern scientists have invented airships which are material, and the yogés make a still finer material attempt to travel by mindships. The Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

yogés can reach any distant place very quickly with the help of mindships. But neither the airship nor the mindship has access to the kingdom of God in the Vaikuëöhaloka, situated far beyond the material sky. Since this is the situation, how was it possible for the prayers of the elephant to be heard from such an unlimitedly distant place, and how could the Lord at once appear on the spot? These things cannot be calculated by human imagination. All this was possible by the unlimited power of the Lord, and therefore the Lord is described here as aprameya, for not even the best human brain can estimate His powers and potencies by mathematical calculation. The Lord can hear from such a distant place, He can eat from there, and He can appear simultaneously in all places at a moment’s notice. Such is the omnipotency of the Lord. TEXT 17 JYaaYaaNa( Gauaui>aNaR caLYa" )) 17 )) jyäyän guëair avarajo ’py aditeù sutänäà lokän vicakrama imän yad athädhiyajïaù kñmäà vämanena jagåhe tripada-cchalena yäcïäm åte pathi caran prabhubhir na cälyaù SYNONYMS jyäyän—the greatest; guëaiù—by qualities; avarajaù—transcendental; api—although He is so; aditeù—of Aditi; sutänäm—of all the sons (known as Ädityas); lokän—all the planets; vicakrame—surpassed; imän—in this universe; yat—one who; atha—therefore; adhiyajïaù—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kñmäm—all the lands; vämanena—in the incarnation of Vämana; jagåhe—accepted; tripada—three steps; chalena—by pretension; yäcïäm—begging; åte—without; pathi caran—passing over the right path; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

prabhubhiù—by authorities; na—never to be; cälyaù—to be bereft of. TRANSLATION The Lord, although transcendental to all material modes, still surpassed all the qualities of the sons of Aditi, known as the Ädityas. The Lord appeared as the youngest son of Aditi. And because He surpassed all the planets of the universe, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. On the pretense of asking for a measurement of three footsteps of land, He took away all the lands of Bali Mahäräja. He asked simply because without begging, no authority can take one’s rightful possession. PURPORT The history of Bali Mahäräja and his charity to Vämanadeva is described in the Eighth Canto of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Bali Mahäräja conquered all the planets of the universe by rightful possession. A king can conquer other kings by strength, and such possession is considered to be rightful. So Bali Mahäräja possessed all the lands of the universe, and he happened to be charitably disposed toward the brähmaëas. The Lord therefore pretended to be a beggar brähmaëa, and He asked Bali Mahäräja for a measurement of three footsteps of land. The Lord, as the proprietor of everything, could take from Bali Mahäräja all the land he possessed, but he did not do so because Bali Mahäräja possessed all those lands by king’s rights. When Bali Mahäräja was asked by Lord Vämana for such small charity, Bali Mahäräja’s spiritual master, namely Çukräcärya, objected to this proposal because he knew that Vämanadeva was Viñëu Himself, pretending to be a beggar. Bali Mahäräja did not agree to abide by the order of his spiritual master when he understood that the beggar was Viñëu Himself, and he at once agreed to give Him in charity the land requested. By this agreement Lord Vämana covered all the lands of the universe with His first two steps and then asked Bali Mahäräja where to place the third step. Bali Mahäräja was very glad to receive the Lord’s remaining step upon his head, and thus Bali Mahäräja, instead of losing everything he possessed, was blessed by the Lord’s becoming his constant companion and doorman. So, by giving everything to the cause of the Lord, one does not lose Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

anything, but he gains everything that he could never otherwise expect. TEXT 18 NaaQaaeR ble/rYaMauå§-MaPaadXaaEc‚ MaaPa" iXa%aDa*TavTaae ivbuDaaiDaPaTYaMa( ) Yaae vE Pa[iTaé[uTaMa*Tae Na ick-IzRdNYa‚ daTMaaNaMa® MaNaSaa hrYae_i>aMaeNae )) 18 )) närtho baler ayam urukrama-päda-çaucam äpaù çikhä-dhåtavato vibudhädhipatyam yo vai pratiçrutam åte na cikérñad anyad ätmänam aìga manasä haraye ’bhimene SYNONYMS na—never; arthaù—of any value in comparison with; baleù—of strength; ayam—this; urukrama-päda-çaucam—the water washed from the feet of the personality of Godhead; äpaù—water; çikhä-dhåtavataù—of one who has kept it on his head; vibudha-adhipatyam—supremacy over the kingdom of the demigods; yaù—one who; vai—certainly; pratiçrutam—what was duly promised; åte na—besides that; cikérñat—tried for; anyat—anything else; ätmänam—even his personal body; aìga—O Närada; manasä—within his mind; haraye—unto the Supreme Lord; abhimene—dedicated. TRANSLATION Bali Mahäräja, who put on his head the water washed from the lotus feet of the Lord, did not think of anything besides his promise, in spite of being forbidden by his spiritual master. The king dedicated his own personal body to fulfill the measurement of the Lord’s third step. For such a personality, even the kingdom of heaven, which he conquered by his strength, was of no value. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Bali Mahäräja, by gaining the transcendental favor of the Lord in exchange for his great material sacrifice, was able to have a place in Vaikuëöhaloka with equal or greater facilities of eternal enjoyment; therefore he was not at all the loser by sacrificing the kingdom of heaven, which he had possessed by his material strength. In other words, when the Lord snatches away one’s hard-earned material possessions and favors one with His personal transcendental service for eternal life, bliss and knowledge, such taking away by the Lord should be considered a special favor upon such a pure devotee. Material possessions, however alluring they may be, cannot be permanent possessions. Therefore one has to voluntarily give up such possessions, or one has to leave such possessions at the time of quitting this material body. The sane man knows that all material possessions are temporary and that the best use of such possessions is to engage them in the service of the Lord so that the Lord may be pleased with him and award him a permanent place in His paraà dhäma. In the Bhagavad-gétä (15.5–6), the paraà dhäma of the Lord is described as follows: nirmäna-mohä jita-saìga-doñä adhyätma-nityä vinivåtta-kämäù dvandvair vimuktäù sukha-duùkha-saàjïair gacchanty amüòhäù padam avyayaà tat na tad bhäsayate süryo na çaçäìko na pävakaù yad gatvä na nivartante tad dhäma paramaà mama One who possesses more in this material world, in the shape of houses, land, children, society, friendship and wealth, possesses these things only for the time being. One cannot possess all this illusory paraphernalia, created by mäyä, permanently. Such a possessor is more illusioned in the matter of his self-realization; therefore one should possess less or nothing, so that one may be free from artificial prestige. We are contaminated in the material world by Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

association with the three modes of material nature. Therefore, the more one spiritually advances by devotional service to the Lord, in exchange for his temporary possessions, the more one is freed from the attachment of material illusion. To achieve this stage of life one must be firmly convinced about spiritual existence and its permanent effects. To know exactly the permanency of spiritual existence, one must voluntarily practice possessing less or only the minimum to maintain one’s material existence without difficulty. One should not create artificial needs. That will help one be satisfied with the minimum. Artificial needs of life are activities of the senses. The modern advancement of civilization is based on these activities of the senses, or, in other words, it is a civilization of sense gratification. Perfect civilization is the civilization of ätmä, or the soul proper. The civilized man of sense gratification is on an equal level with animals because animals cannot go beyond the activities of the senses. Above the senses is the mind. The civilization of mental speculation is also not the perfect stage of life because above the mind is the intelligence, and the Bhagavad-gétä gives us information of the intellectual civilization. The Vedic literatures give different directions for the human civilization, including the civilization of the senses, of the mind, of the intelligence, and of the soul proper. The Bhagavad-gétä primarily deals with the intelligence of man, leading one to the progressive path of civilization of the spirit soul. And Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the complete human civilization dealing with the subject matter of the soul proper. As soon as a man is raised to the status of the civilization of the soul, he is fit to be promoted to the kingdom of God, which is described in the Bhagavad-gétä as per the above verses. The primary information of the kingdom of God informs us that there is no need of sun, moon or electricity, which are all necessary in this material world of darkness. And the secondary information of the kingdom of God explains that anyone able to reach that kingdom by adoption of the civilization of the soul proper, or, in other words, by the method of bhakti-yoga, attains the highest perfection of life. One is then situated in the permanent existence of the soul, with full knowledge of transcendental loving service for the Lord. Bali Mahäräja accepted this civilization of the soul in exchange for his great material possessions and thus became fit for promotion to the kingdom of God. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The kingdom of heaven, which he achieved by dint of his material power, was considered most insignificant in comparison with the kingdom of God. Those who have attained the comforts of a material civilization made for sense gratification should try to attain the kingdom of God by following in the footsteps of Bali Mahäräja, who exchanged his acquired material strength, adopting the process of bhakti-yoga as recommended in the Bhagavad-gétä and further explained in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam. TEXT 19 Tau>Ya& c Naard >a*Xa& >aGavaNa( ivv*Ö‚ >aaveNa SaaDauPairTauí ovac YaaeGaMa( ) jaNa& c >aaGavTaMaaTMaSaTatvdqPa& YaÜaSaudevXaraiTaR ) duíezu raJaSau dMa& VYadDaaTa( Svk-IiTa| SaTYae i}aPa*ï oXaTaq& Pa[QaYa&êir}aE" )) 20 )) cakraà ca dikñv avihataà daçasu sva-tejo manvantareñu manu-vaàça-dharo bibharti duñöeñu räjasu damaà vyadadhät sva-kértià satye tri-påñöha uçatéà prathayaàç caritraiù SYNONYMS cakram—the Sudarçana wheel of the Lord; ca—as well as; dikñu—in all directions; avihatam—without being deterred; daçasu—ten sides; sva-tejaù—personal strength; manvantareñu—in different incarnations of Manu; manu-vaàça-dharaù—as the descendant of the Manu dynasty; bibharti—rules over; duñöeñu—unto the miscreants; räjasu—upon the kings of that type; damam—subjection; vyadadhät—performed; sva-kértim—personal glories; satye—in the Satyaloka planet; tri-påñöhe—the three planetary systems; uçatém—glorious; prathayan—established; caritraiù—characteristics. TRANSLATION As the incarnation of Manu, the Lord became the descendant of the Manu Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

dynasty and ruled over the miscreant kingly order, subduing them by His powerful wheel weapon. Undeterred in all circumstances, His rule was characterized by His glorious fame, which spread over the three lokas, and above them to the planetary system of Satyaloka, the topmost in the universe. PURPORT We have already discussed the incarnations of Manu in the First Canto. In one day of Brahmä there are fourteen Manus, changing one after another. In that way there are 420 Manus in a month of Brahmä and 5,040 Manus in one year of Brahmä. Brahmä lives for one hundred years according to his calculation, and as such there are 504,000 Manus in the jurisdiction of one Brahmä. There are innumerable Brahmäs, and all of them live only during one breathing period of Mahä-Viñëu. So we can just imagine how the incarnations of the Supreme Lord work all over the material worlds, which comprehend only one-fourth of the total energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The manvantara incarnation chastises all the miscreant rulers of different planets with as much power as that of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who punishes the miscreants with His wheel weapon. The manvantara incarnations disseminate the transcendental glories of the Lord. TEXT 21 DaNvNTairê >aGavaNa( SvYaMaev k-IiTaR‚ NaaRMana Na*aaGaMaMa*TaaYaurvavåNDa AaYauZYavedMaNauXaaSTYavTaqYaR l/aeke- )) 21 )) dhanvantariç ca bhagavän svayam eva kértir nämnä nåëäà puru-rujäà ruja äçu hanti yajïe ca bhägam amåtäyur-avävarundha äyuñya-vedam anuçästy avatérya loke Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS dhanvantariù—the incarnation of God named Dhanvantari; ca—and; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; svayam eva—personally Himself; kértiù—fame personified; nämnä—by the name; nåëäm puru-rujäm—of the diseased living entities; rujaù—diseases; äçu—very soon; hanti—cures; yajïe—in the sacrifice; ca—also; bhägam—share; amåta—nectar; äyuù—duration of life; ava—from; avarundhe—obtains; äyuñya—of duration of life; vedam—knowledge; anuçästi—directs; avatérya—incarnating; loke—in the universe. TRANSLATION The Lord in His incarnation of Dhanvantari very quickly cures the diseases of the ever-diseased living entities simply by his fame personified, and only because of him do the demigods achieve long lives. Thus the Personality of Godhead becomes ever glorified. He also exacted a share from the sacrifices, and it is he only who inaugurated the medical science or the knowledge of medicine in the universe. PURPORT As stated in the beginning of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, everything emanates from the ultimate source of the Personality of Godhead; it is therefore understood in this verse that medical science or knowledge in medicine was also inaugurated by the Personality of Godhead in His incarnation Dhanvantari, and thus the knowledge is recorded in the Vedas. The Vedas are the source of all knowledge, and thus knowledge in medical science is also there for the perfect cure of the diseases of the living entity. The embodied living entity is diseased by the very construction of his body. The body is the symbol of diseases. The disease may differ from one variety to another, but disease must be there just as there is birth and death for everyone. So, by the grace of the Personality of Godhead, not only are diseases of the body and mind cured, but also the soul is relieved of the constant repetition of birth and Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

death. The name of the Lord is also called bhavauñadhi, or the source of curing the disease of material existence. TEXT 22 +a}a& +aYaaYa iviDaNaaePa>a*Ta& MahaTMaa b]øDa]uGauiJ‡TaPaQa& Nark-aiTaRil/PSau ) oÖNTYaSaavviNak-aUMae" SaureTarvæQaivMaidRTaaYaa" ©e-XaVYaYaaYa k-l/Yaa iSaTak*-ZavzRiTa PaéUNa( k*-PaYaa irr+au" ) DaTaaeRiC^l/INDa]iMav SaáidNaaiNa Saá‚ Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

vzaeR MahqDa]MaNagaEk-k-re Sal/Il/Ma( )) 32 )) gopair makhe pratihate vraja-viplaväya deve ’bhivarñati paçün kåpayä rirakñuù dhartocchiléndhram iva sapta-dinäni saptavarño mahédhram anaghaika-kare salélam SYNONYMS gopaiù—by the cowherd men; makhe—in offering a sacrifice to the King of heaven; pratihate—being hampered; vraja-viplaväya—for devastating the whole existence of Vrajabhümi, the land of Kåñëa’s pastimes; deve—by the King of heaven; abhivarñati—having poured down heavy rain; paçün—the animals; kåpayä—by causeless mercy upon them; rirakñuù—desired to protect them; dharta—held up; ucchiléndhram—uprooted as an umbrella; iva—exactly like that; sapta-dinäni—continuously for seven days; sapta-varñaù—although He was only seven years old; mahédhram—the Govardhana Hill; anagha—without being tired; eka-kare—in one hand only; salélam—playfully. TRANSLATION When the cowherd men of Våndävana, under instruction of Kåñëa, stopped offering sacrifice to the heavenly King, Indra, the whole tract of land known as Vraja was threatened with being washed away by constant heavy rains for seven days. Lord Kåñëa, out of His causeless mercy upon the inhabitants of Vraja, held up the hill known as Govardhana with one hand only, although He was only seven years old. He did this to protect the animals from the onslaught of water. PURPORT Children play with an umbrella generally known as a frog’s umbrella, and Lord Kåñëa, when He was only seven years old, could snatch the great hill known as the Govardhana Parvata at Våndävana and hold it for seven days continuously with one hand, just to protect the animals and the inhabitants of Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Våndävana from the wrath of Indra, the heavenly King, who had been denied sacrificial offerings by the inhabitants of Vrajabhümi. Factually there is no need of offering sacrifices to the demigods for their services if one is engaged in the service of the Supreme Lord. Sacrifices recommended in the Vedic literature for satisfaction of the demigods are a sort of inducement to the sacrificers to realize the existence of higher authorities. The demigods are engaged by the Lord as controlling deities of material affairs, and according to the Bhagavad-gétä, when a demigod is worshiped the process is accepted as the indirect method for worshiping the Supreme Lord. But when the Supreme Lord is worshiped directly there is no need of worshiping the demigods or offering them sacrifices as recommended in particular circumstances. Lord Kåñëa therefore advised the inhabitants of Vrajabhümi not to offer any sacrifices to the heavenly King Indra. But Indra, not knowing Lord Kåñëa in Vrajabhümi, was angry at the inhabitants of Vrajabhümi and tried to avenge the offense. But, competent as the Lord was, He saved the inhabitants and animals of Vrajabhümi by His personal energy and proved definitely that anyone directly engaged as a devotee of the Supreme Lord need not satisfy any other demigods, however great, even to the level of Brahmä, or Çiva. Thus this incident definitely proved without a doubt that Lord Kåñëa is the Personality of Godhead and that He was so in all circumstances, as a child on the lap of His mother, as a boy 7 years old, and as an old man of 125 years of age. In either case He was never on the level of the ordinary man, and even in His advanced age He appeared a young boy 16 years old. These are the particular features of the transcendental body of the Lord. TEXT 33 §[email protected]( vNae iNaiXa iNaXaak-rriXMaGaaEYaa| raSaaeNMau%" k-l/PadaYaTaMaUiC^RTaeNa ) oÕqiPaTaSMaråJaa& v]Ja>a*ÜDaUNaa& hTauRhRirZYaiTa iXarae DaNadaNauGaSYa

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

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kréòan vane niçi niçäkara-raçmi-gauryäà räsonmukhaù kala-padäyata-mürcchitena uddépita-smara-rujäà vraja-bhåd-vadhünäà hartur hariñyati çiro dhanadänugasya SYNONYMS kréòan—while engaged in His pastimes; vane—in the forest of Våndävana; niçi—nocturnal; niçäkara—the moon; raçmi-gauryäm—white moonshine; räsa-unmukhaù—desiring to dance with; kala-padäyata—accompanied by sweet songs; mürcchitena—and melodious music; uddépita—awakened; smara-rujäm—sexual desires; vraja-bhåt—the inhabitants of Vrajabhümi; vadhünäm—of the wives; hartuù—of the kidnappers; hariñyati—will vanquish; çiraù—the head; dhanada-anugasya—of the follower of the rich Kuvera. TRANSLATION When the Lord was engaged in His pastimes of the räsa dance in the forest of Våndävana, enlivening the sexual desires of the wives of the inhabitants of Våndävana by sweet and melodious songs, a demon of the name Çaìkhacüòa, a rich follower of the treasurer of heaven [Kuvera], kidnapped the damsels, and the Lord severed his head from his trunk. PURPORT We should carefully note that the statements described herein are the statements of Brahmäjé to Närada, and he was speaking to Närada of events that would happen in the future, during the advent of Lord Kåñëa. The pastimes of the Lord are known to the experts who are able to see past, present and future, and Brahmäjé, being one of them, foretold what would happen in the future. The killing of Çaìkhacüòa by the Lord is a more recent incident, after the räsa-lélä, and not exactly a simultaneous affair. In the previous verses we have seen also that the Lord’s engagement in the affairs of the forest fire was described along with His pastimes of punishing the Käliya snake, and similarly the pastimes of the räsa dance and the killing of Çaìkhacüòa are also Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

described herein. The adjustment is that all these incidents would take place in the future, after the time when it was being foretold by Brahmäjé to Närada. The demon Çaìkhacüòa was killed by the Lord during His pastimes at Horikä in the month of Phälguna, and the same ceremony is still observed in India by the burning of the effigy of Çaìkhacüòa one day prior to the Lord’s pastimes at Horikä, generally known as Holi. Generally the future appearance and the activities of the Lord or His incarnations are foretold in the scriptures, and thus the pseudoincarnations are unable to cheat persons who are in knowledge of the events as they are described in the authoritative scriptures. TEXTS 34–35 Yae c Pa[l/Mb%rdduRrke-XYairí‚ Maçe>ak&-SaYavNaa" k-iPaPaaEaqMa‚ VYaaJaaûYaeNa hira& vez& ivDaaYa bhu >aaZYaTa AaEPaDaMYaRMa(

)) 37 ))

deva-dviñäà nigama-vartmani niñöhitänäà pürbhir mayena vihitäbhir adåçya-türbhiù lokän ghnatäà mati-vimoham atipralobhaà veñaà vidhäya bahu bhäñyata aupadharmyam SYNONYMS deva-dviñäm—of those who were envious of the devotees of the Lord; nigama—the Vedas; vartmani—on the path of; niñöhitänäm—of the well situated; pürbhiù—by rockets; mayena—made by the great scientist Maya; vihitäbhiù—made by; adåçya-türbhiù—unseen in the sky; lokän—the different planets; ghnatäm—of the killers; mati-vimoham—bewilderment of the mind; atipralobham—very attractive; veñam—dress; vidhäya—having done so; bahu bhäñyate—will talk very much; aupadharmyam—subreligious principles. TRANSLATION When the atheists, after being well versed in the Vedic scientific knowledge, annihilate inhabitants of different planets, flying unseen in the sky on well-built rockets prepared by the great scientist Maya, the Lord will bewilder Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

their minds by dressing Himself attractively as Buddha and will preach on subreligious principles. PURPORT This incarnation of Lord Buddha is not the same Buddha incarnation we have in the present history of mankind. According to Çréla Jéva Gosvämé, the Buddha incarnation mentioned in this verse appeared in a different Kali age. In the duration of life of one Manu there are more than seventy-two Kali-yugas, and in one of them the particular type of Buddha mentioned here would appear. Lord Buddha incarnates at a time when the people are most materialistic and preaches common-sense religious principles. Such ahiàsä is not a religious principle itself, but it is an important quality for persons who are actually religious. It is a common-sense religion because one is advised to do no harm to any other animal or living being because such harmful actions are equally harmful to he who does the harm. But before learning these principles of nonviolence one has to learn two other principles, namely to be humble and to be prideless. Unless one is humble and prideless, one cannot be harmless and nonviolent. And after being nonviolent one has to learn tolerance and simplicity of living. One must offer respects to the great religious preachers and spiritual leaders and also train the senses for controlled action, learning to be unattached to family and home, and enacting devotional service to the Lord, etc. At the ultimate stage one has to accept the Lord and become His devotee; otherwise there is no religion. In religious principles there must be God in the center; otherwise simple moral instructions are merely subreligious principles, generally known as upadharma, or nearness to religious principles. TEXT 38 YaùaRl/YaeZviPa SaTaa& Na hre" k-Qaa" SYau" PaaziaaJa"

)) 39 ))

sarge tapo ’ham åñayo nava ye prajeçäù sthäne ’tha dharma-makha-manv-amarävanéçäù ante tv adharma-hara-manyu-vaçäsurädyä mäyä-vibhütaya imäù puru-çakti-bhäjaù SYNONYMS sarge—in the beginning of the creation; tapaù—penance; aham—myself; åñayaù—sages; nava—nine; ye prajeçäù—those who would generate; sthäne—in the middle while maintaining the creation; atha—certainly; dharma—religion; makha—Lord Viñëu; manu—the father of mankind; amara—the demigods deputed to control the affairs of maintenance; avanéçäù—and the kings of different planets; ante—at the end; tu—but; adharma—irreligion; hara—Lord Çiva; manyu-vaça—subjected to anger; asura-ädyäù—atheists, the enemies of the devotees; mäyä—energy; vibhütayaù—powerful representatives; imäù—all of them; puru-çakti-bhäjaù—of the supreme powerful Lord. TRANSLATION At the beginning of creation there are penance, myself [Brahmä], and the Prajäpatis, the great sages who generate; then, during the maintenance of the creation, there are Lord Viñëu, the demigods with controlling powers, and the kings of different planets. But at the end there is irreligion, and then Lord Çiva and the atheists full of anger, etc. All of them are different representative Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

manifestations of the energy of the supreme power, the Lord. PURPORT The material world is created by the energy of the Lord, which is manifested in the beginning of the creation by the penance of Brahmäjé, the first living being in the creation, and then there are the nine Prajäpatis, known as great sages. In the stage when the creation is maintained, there are devotional service to Lord Viñëu, or factual religion, the different demigods, and the kings of different planets who maintain the world. At last, when the creation is preparing to wind up, there is first the principle of irreligion, then Lord Çiva along with the atheists, full of anger. But all of them are but different manifestations of the Supreme Lord. Therefore Brahmä, Viñëu and Mahädeva (Çiva) are different incarnations of the different modes of material nature. Viñëu is the Lord of the mode of goodness. Brahmä is the lord of the mode of passion, and Çiva is the lord of the mode of ignorance. Ultimately, the material creation is but a temporary manifestation meant to give the chance of liberation to the conditioned souls, who are entrapped in the material world, and one who develops the mode of goodness under the protection of Lord Viñëu has the greatest chance of being liberated by following the Vaiñëava principles and thus being promoted to the kingdom of God, no more to return to this miserable material world. TEXT 40 ivZaqzaGaviTa Na*ai¢->aRivZYaiTa ) SavaRTMaNYai%l/aDaare wiTa SaªLPYa va*TaaMa( ) SairTSaMaud]ÜqPaaNaa& SaM>avêETadaek-SaaMa( )) 15 )) bhü-pätäla-kakub-vyomagraha-nakñatra-bhübhåtäm sarit-samudra-dvépänäà sambhavaç caitad-okasäm SYNONYMS bhü-pätäla—underneath the land; kakup—the four sides of the heavens; vyoma—the sky; graha—the planets; nakñatra—the stars; bhübhåtäm—of the hills; sarit—the river; samudra—the sea; dvépänäm—of the islands; sambhavaù—appearance; ca—also; etat—their; okasäm—of the inhabitants. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

O best of the brähmaëas, please also describe how the creation of the globes throughout the universe, the four directions of the heavens, the sky, the planets, the stars, the mountains, the rivers, the seas and the islands, as well as their different kinds of inhabitants, takes place. PURPORT The inhabitants of different varieties of land, etc., are differently situated, and not all of them are equal in all respects. The inhabitants of the land are different from the inhabitants of the water or the sky, and similarly the inhabitants of the different planets and stars in the sky are also different from one another. By the laws of the Lord, no place is vacant, but the creatures of one particular place are different from those of other places. Even in human society the inhabitants of the jungles or the deserts are different from those of the cities and villages. They are so made according to different qualities of the modes of nature. Such adjustment by the laws of nature is not blind. There is a great plan behind the arrangement. Mahäräja Parékñit requests the great sage Çukadeva Gosvämé to explain all these authoritatively, in accordance with proper understanding. TEXT 16 Pa[MaaaedTa" ) MahTaa& caNaucirTa& va®STau YaaeiGaNaaMa( ) vedaePavedDaMaaRaGavNa( Pa*C^Taae Mae_NauPaUvRXa" ) TatvTaae_hRSYaudahTau| Pa[PaàaYa MahaMauNae )) 24 )) sarvam etac ca bhagavan påcchato me ’nupürvaçaù tattvato ’rhasy udähartuà prapannäya mahä-mune SYNONYMS sarvam—all these; etat—inquiries; ca—also that I have not been able to ask; bhagavan—O great sage; påcchataù—of the inquisitive; me—myself; anupürvaçaù—from the beginning; tattvataù—just in accordance with the truth; arhasi—may kindly be explained; udähartum—as you will let know; prapannäya—one who is surrounded; mahä-mune—O great sage. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

O great sage, representative of the Lord, kindly satisfy my inquisitiveness in all that I have inquired from you and all that I may not have inquired from you from the very beginning of my questionings. Since I am a soul surrendered unto you, please impart full knowledge in this connection. PURPORT The spiritual master is always prepared to impart knowledge to the disciple and specifically when the disciple is very inquisitive. inquisitiveness on the part of a disciple is greatly necessary for the progressive disciple. Mahäräja Parékñit is a typical disciple because he is perfectly inquisitive. If one is not very inquisitive about self-realization, one need not approach a spiritual master simply to make a show of discipleship. Not only is Mahäräja Parékñit inquisitive concerning all he has inquired about, but he is also anxious to know about what he has not been able to inquire. Factually it is not possible for a man to inquire about everything from the spiritual master, but the bona fide spiritual master is able to enlighten the disciple in every way for the disciple’s benefit. TEXT 25 A}a Pa[MaaavaNa( ParMaeïq YaQaaTMa>aU" ) APare caNauiTaïiNTa PaUveRza& PaUvRJaE" k*-TaMa( )) 25 )) atra pramäëaà hi bhavän parameñöhé yathätma-bhüù apare cänutiñöhanti pürveñäà pürva-jaiù kåtam SYNONYMS atra—in this matter; pramäëam—evidential facts; hi—certainly; bhavän—yourself; parameñöhé—Brahmä, the creator of the universe; yathä—as; ätma-bhüù—born directly from the Lord; apare—others; ca—only; anutiñöhanti—just to follow; pürveñäm—as a matter of custom; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

pürva-jaiù—knowledge suggested by a previous philosopher; kåtam—having been done. TRANSLATION O great sage, you are as good as Brahmä, the original living being. Others follow custom only, as followed by the previous philosophical speculators. PURPORT It may be argued that Çukadeva Gosvämé is not the only authority of perfect knowledge in transcendence because there are many other sages and their followers. Contemporary to Vyäsadeva or even prior to him there were many other great sages, such as Gautama, Kaëäda, Jaimini, Kapila and Añöävakra, and all of them have presented a philosophical path by themselves. Pataïjali is also one of them, and all these six great åñis have their own way of thinking, exactly like the modern philosophers and mental speculators. The difference between the six philosophical paths put forward by the renowned sages above mentioned and that of Çukadeva Gosvämé, as presented in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, is that all the six sages mentioned above speak the facts according to their own thinking, but Çukadeva Gosvämé presents the knowledge which comes down directly from Brahmäjé, who is known as ätma-bhüù, or born of and educated by the Almighty Personality of Godhead. Vedic transcendental knowledge descends directly from the Personality of Godhead. By His mercy, Brahmä, the first living being in the universe, was enlightened, and from Brahmäjé, Närada was enlightened, and from Närada, Vyäsa was enlightened. Çukadeva Gosvämé received such transcendental knowledge directly from his father, Vyäsadeva. Thus the knowledge, being received from the chain of disciplic succession, is perfect. One cannot be a spiritual master in perfection unless and until one has received the same by disciplic succession. That is the secret of receiving transcendental knowledge. The six great sages mentioned above may be great thinkers, but their knowledge by mental speculation is not perfect. However perfect an empiric philosopher may be in presenting a philosophical thesis, such knowledge is never perfect because it is produced by an imperfect mind. Such great sages Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

also have their disciplic successions, but they are not authorized because such knowledge does not come directly from the independent Supreme Personality of Godhead, Näräyaëa. No one can be independent except Näräyaëa; therefore no one’s knowledge can be perfect, for everyone’s knowledge is dependent on the flickering mind. Mind is material and thus knowledge presented by material speculators is never transcendental and can never become perfect. Mundane philosophers, being imperfect in themselves, disagree with other philosophers because a mundane philosopher is not a philosopher at all unless he presents his own theory. Intelligent persons like Mahäräja Parékñit do not recognize such mental speculators, however great they may be, but hear from the authorities like Çukadeva Gosvämé, who is nondifferent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the paramparä system, as is specially stressed in the Bhagavad-gétä. TEXT 26 Na Mae_Sav" ParaYaiNTa b]øàNaXaNaadMaq ) iPabTaae_CYauTaPaqYaUzMa( Tad( vaKYaaiBDaiviNa"Sa*TaMa( )) 26 )) na me ’savaù paräyanti brahmann anaçanäd amé pibato ’cyuta-péyüñam tad väkyäbdhi-viniùsåtam SYNONYMS na—never; me—mine; asavaù—life; paräyanti—becomes exhausted; brahman—O learned brähmaëa; anaçanät amé—because of fasting; pibataù—because of my drinking; acyuta—of the infallible; péyüñam—nectar; tat—your; väkya-abdhi—ocean of speech; viniùsåtam—flowing down from. TRANSLATION O learned brähmaëa, because of my drinking the nectar of the message of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

infallible Personality of Godhead, which is flowing down from the ocean of your speeches, I do not feel any sort of exhaustion due to my fasting. PURPORT The disciplic succession from Brahmä, Närada, Vyäsa and Çukadeva Gosvämé is particularly different from others. The disciplic successions from other sages are simply a waste of time, being devoid of acyuta-kathä, or the message of the infallible Lord. The mental speculators can present their theories very nicely by reason and arguments, but such reasons and arguments are not infallible, for they are defeated by better mental speculators. Mahäräja Parékñit was not interested in the dry speculation of the flickering mind, but he was interested in the topics of the Lord because factually he felt that by hearing such a nectarean message from the mouth of Çukadeva Gosvämé he was not feeling any exhaustion, even though he was fasting because of his imminent death. One can indulge in hearing the mental speculators, but such hearing cannot endure for any length of time. One will be exhausted very soon from hearing such hackneyed ways of thinking, and no one in the world can be satisfied simply by hearing such useless speculations. The message of the Lord, especially from a personality like Çukadeva Gosvämé, can never be tiring, even though one may be exhausted from other causes. In some editions of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, the text of the last line of this verse reads anyatra kupitäd dvijät, which means that the King might be overwhelmed by the thought of his imminent death by snakebite. The snake is also twice-born, and its anger is compared to the cursing brähmaëa boy who was without good intelligence. Mahäräja Parékñit was not at all afraid of death, for he was fully encouraged by the message of the Lord. One who is fully absorbed in acyuta-kathä can never be afraid of anything in this world. TEXT 27 SaUTa ovac Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Sa oPaaMaiN}aTaae raja k-QaaYaaiMaiTa SaTPaTae" ) b]øraTaae >a*Xa& Pa[qTaae ivZa" PaaaaiTa MaaYaYaa bhuæPaYaa ) rMaMaaaíuTaMa( )) 9 )) tasmai sva-lokaà bhagavän sabhäjitaù sandarçayäm äsa paraà na yat-param vyapeta-saìkleça-vimoha-sädhvasaà sva-dåñöavadbhir puruñair abhiñöutam SYNONYMS tasmai—unto him; sva-lokam—His own planet or abode; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; sabhäjitaù—being pleased by the penance of Brahmä; sandarçayäm äsa—manifested; param—the supreme; na—not; yat—of which; param—further supreme; vyapeta—completely given up; saìkleça—five kinds Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

of material afflictions; vimoha—without illusion; sädhvasam—fear of material existence; sva-dåñöa-vadbhiù—by those who have perfectly realized the self; puruñaiù—by persons; abhiñöutam—worshiped by. TRANSLATION The Personality of Godhead, being thus very much satisfied with the penance of Lord Brahmä, was pleased to manifest His personal abode, Vaikuëöha, the supreme planet above all others. This transcendental abode of the Lord is adored by all self-realized persons freed from all kinds of miseries and fear of illusory existence. PURPORT The troubles of penance accepted by Lord Brahmä were certainly in the line of devotional service (bhakti). Otherwise there was no chance that Vaikuëöha or svalokam, the Lord’s personal abodes, would become visible to Brahmäjé. The personal abodes of the Lord, known as Vaikuëöhas, are neither mythical nor material, as conceived by the impersonalists. But realization of the transcendental abodes of the Lord is possible only through devotional service, and thus the devotees enter into such abodes. There is undoubtedly trouble in executing penance. But the trouble accepted in executing bhakti-yoga is transcendental happiness from the very beginning, whereas the trouble of penance in other processes of self-realization (jïäna-yoga, dhyäna-yoga, etc.), without any Vaikuëöha realization, ends in trouble only and nothing more. There is no profit in biting husks without grains. Similarly, there is no profit in executing troublesome penances other than bhakti-yoga for self-realization. Executing bhakti-yoga is exactly like sitting on the lotus sprouted out of the abdomen of the transcendental Personality of Godhead, for Lord Brahmä was seated there. Brahmäjé was able to please the Lord, and the Lord was also pleased to show Brahmäjé His personal abode. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé, in the comments of his Krama-sandarbha annotation of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, cites quotations from the Garga Upaniñad Vedic evidence. It is said that Yäjïavalkya described the transcendental abode of the Lord to Gärgé, and that Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

the abode of the Lord is situated above the highest planet of the universe, namely Brahmaloka. This abode of the Lord, although described in revealed scriptures like the Bhagavad-gétä and the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, remains only a myth for the less intelligent class of men with a poor fund of knowledge. Herein the word sva-dåñöavadbhiù is very significant. One who has actually realized his self realizes the transcendental form of one’s self. Impersonal realization of self and the Supreme is not complete, because it is just an opposite conception of material personalities. The Personality of Godhead and the personalities of devotees of the Lord are all transcendental; they do not have material bodies. The material body is overcast with five kinds of miserable conditions, namely ignorance, material conception, attachment, hatred and absorption. As long as one is overwhelmed by those five kinds of material miseries, there is no question of entering into the Vaikuëöhalokas. The impersonal conception of one’s self is just the negation of material personality and is far from the positive existence of personal form. The personal forms of the transcendental abode will be explained in the following verses. Brahmäjé also described the highest planet of the Vaikuëöhaloka as Goloka Våndävana, where the Lord resides as a cowherd boy keeping transcendental surabhi cows and surrounded by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune. cintämaëi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-våkñalakñävåteñu surabhér abhipälayantam lakñmé-sahasra-çata-sambhrama-sevyamänaà govindam ädi-puruñaà tam ahaà bhajämi (Brahma-saàhitä 5.29) The statement of the Bhagavad-gétä, yad gatvä na nivartante tad dhäma paramaà mama [Bg. 15.6], is also confirmed herewith. param means transcendental Brahman. Therefore, the abode of the Lord is also Brahman, nondifferent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord is known as Vaikuëöha, and His abode is also known as Vaikuëöha. Such Vaikuëöha realization and worship can be made possible by transcendental form and sense. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

TEXT 10 Pa[vTaRTae Ya}a rJaSTaMaSTaYaae" Satv& c iMaé[& Na c k-al/iv§-Ma" ) Na Ya}a MaaYaa ik-MauTaaPare hre‚ rNauv]Taa Ya}a SauraSauraicRTaa" )) 10 )) pravartate yatra rajas tamas tayoù sattvaà ca miçraà na ca käla-vikramaù na yatra mäyä kim utäpare harer anuvratä yatra suräsurärcitäù SYNONYMS pravartate—prevail; yatra—wherein; rajaù tamaù—the modes of passion and ignorance; tayoù—of both of them; sattvam—the mode of goodness; ca—and; miçram—mixture; na—never; ca—and; käla—time; vikramaù—influence; na—neither; yatra—therein; mäyä—illusory, external energy; kim—what; uta—there is; apare—others; hareù—of the Personality of Godhead; anuvratäù—devotees; yatra—wherein; sura—by the demigods; asura—and the demons; arcitäù—worshiped. TRANSLATION In that personal abode of the Lord, the material modes of ignorance and passion do not prevail, nor is there any of their influence in goodness. There is no predominance of the influence of time, so what to speak of the illusory, external energy; it cannot enter that region. Without discrimination, both the demigods and the demons worship the Lord as devotees. PURPORT The kingdom of God, or the atmosphere of the Vaikuëöha nature, which is Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

called the tripäd-vibhüti, is three times bigger than the material universes and is described here, as also in the Bhagavad-gétä, in a nutshell. This universe, containing billions of stars and planets, is one of the billions of such universes clustered together within the compass of the mahat-tattva. And all these millions and billions of universes combined together constitute only one fourth of the magnitude of the whole creation of the Lord. There is the spiritual sky also; beyond this sky are the spiritual planets under the names of Vaikuëöha, and all of them constitute three fourths of the entire creation of the Lord. God’s creations are always innumerable. Even the leaves of a tree cannot be counted by a man, nor can the hairs on his head. However, foolish men are puffed up with the idea of becoming God Himself, though unable to create a hair of their own bodies. Man may discover so many wonderful vehicles of journey, but even if he reaches the moon by his much advertised spacecraft, he cannot remain there. The sane man, therefore, without being puffed up, as if he were the God of the universe, abides by the instructions of the Vedic literature, the easiest way to acquire knowledge in transcendence. So let us know through the authority of Çrémad-Bhägavatam of the nature and constitution of the transcendental world beyond the material sky. In that sky the material qualities, especially the modes of ignorance and passion, are completely absent. The mode of ignorance influences a living entity to the habit of lust and hankering, and this means that in the Vaikuëöhalokas the living entities are free from these two things. As confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä, in the brahma-bhüta stage of life one becomes free from hankering and lamentation. Therefore the conclusion is that the inhabitants of the Vaikuëöha planets are all brahma-bhüta living entities, as distinguished from the mundane creatures who are all compact in hankering and lamentation. When one is not in the modes of ignorance and passion, one is supposed to be situated in the mode of goodness in the material world. Goodness in the material world also at times becomes contaminated by touches of the modes of passion and ignorance. In the Vaikuëöhaloka, it is unalloyed goodness only. The whole situation there is one of freedom from the illusory manifestation of the external energy. Although illusory energy is also part and parcel of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Supreme Lord, illusory energy is differentiated from the Lord. The illusory energy is not, however, false, as claimed by the monist philosophers. The rope accepted as a snake may be an illusion to a particular person, but the rope is a fact, and the snake is also a fact. The illusion of water on the hot desert may be illusion for the ignorant animal searching for water in the desert, but the desert and water are actual facts. Therefore the material creation of the Lord may be an illusion to the nondevotee, but to a devotee even the material creation of the Lord is a fact, as the manifestation of His external energy. But this energy of the Lord is not all. The Lord has His internal energy also, which has another creation known to be the Vaikuëöhalokas, where there is no ignorance, no passion, no illusion and no past and present. With a poor fund of knowledge one may be unable to understand the existence of such things as the Vaikuëöha atmosphere, but that does not nullify its existence. That spacecraft cannot reach these planets does not mean that there are no such planets, for they are described in the revealed scriptures. As quoted by Çréla Jéva Gosvämé, we can know from the Närada-païcarätra that the transcendental world or Vaikuëöha atmosphere is enriched with transcendental qualities. These transcendental qualities, as revealed through the devotional service of the Lord, are distinct from the mundane qualities of ignorance, passion and goodness. Such qualities are not attainable by the nondevotee class of men. In the Padma Puräëa, Uttara-khaëòa, it is stated that beyond the one-fourth part of God’s creation is the three-fourths manifestation. The marginal line between the material manifestation and the spiritual manifestation is the Virajä River, and beyond the Virajä, which is a transcendental current flowing from the perspiration of the body of the Lord, there is the three-fourths manifestation of God’s creation. This part is eternal, everlasting, without deterioration, and unlimited, and it contains the highest perfectional stage of living conditions. In the Säìkhya-kaumudé it is stated that unalloyed goodness or transcendence is just opposite to the material modes. All living entities there are eternally associated without any break, and the Lord is the chief and prime entity. In the Ägama Puräëas also, the transcendental abode is described as follows: The associated members there are free to go everywhere within the creation of the Lord, and there is no limit to Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

such creation, particularly in the region of the three-fourths magnitude. Since the nature of that region is unlimited, there is no history of such association, nor is there end of it. The conclusion may be drawn that because of the complete absence of the mundane qualities of ignorance and passion, there is no question of creation nor of annihilation. In the material world everything is created, and everything is annihilated, and the duration of life between the creation and annihilation is temporary. In the transcendental realm there is no creation and no destruction, and thus the duration of life is eternal unlimitedly. In other words, everything in the transcendental world is everlasting, full of knowledge and bliss without deterioration. Since there is no deterioration, there is no past, present and future in the estimation of time. It is clearly stated in this verse that the influence of time is conspicuous by its absence. The whole material existence is manifested by actions and reactions of elements which make the influence of time prominent in the matter of past, present and future. There are no such actions and reactions of cause and effects there, so the cycle of birth, growth, existence, transformations, deterioration and annihilation—the six material changes—are not existent there. It is the unalloyed manifestation of the energy of the Lord, without illusion as experienced here in the material world. The whole Vaikuëöha existence proclaims that everyone there is a follower of the Lord. The Lord is the chief leader there, without any competition for leadership, and the people in general are all followers of the Lord. It is confirmed in the Vedas, therefore, that the Lord is the chief leader and all other living entities are subordinate to Him, for only the Lord satisfies all the needs of all other living entities. TEXT 11 XYaaMaavdaTaa" XaTaPa}al/aecNaa" iPaXa®vña" Sauåc" SauPaeXaSa" ) SaveR cTaubaRhv oiNMazNMaia"

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SaivÛud>a]avil/i>aYaRQaa Na>a" )) 13 )) bhräjiñëubhir yaù parito viräjate lasad-vimänävalibhir mahätmanäm vidyotamänaù pramadottamädyubhiù savidyud abhrävalibhir yathä nabhaù SYNONYMS bhräjiñëubhiù—by the glowing; yaù—the Vaikuëöhalokas; paritaù—surrounded by; viräjate—thus situated; lasat—brilliant; vimäna—airplanes; avalibhiù—assemblage; mahä-ätmanäm—of the great devotees of the Lord; vidyotamänaù—beautiful like lightning; pramada—ladies; uttama—celestial; adyubhiù—by complexion; sa-vidyut—with electric lightning; abhrävalibhiù—with clouds in the sky; yathä—as it were; nabhaù—the sky. TRANSLATION The Vaikuëöha planets are also surrounded by various airplanes, all glowing and brilliantly situated. These airplanes belong to the great mahätmäs or devotees of the Lord. The ladies are as beautiful as lightning because of their celestial complexions, and all these combined together appear just like the sky decorated with both clouds and lightning. PURPORT It appears that in the Vaikuëöha planets there are also airplanes brilliantly glowing, and they are occupied by the great devotees of the Lord with ladies of celestial beauty as brilliant as lightning. As there are airplanes, so there must be different types of carriages like airplanes, but they may not be driven machines, as we have experience in this world. Because everything is of the same nature of eternity, bliss and knowledge, the airplanes and carriages are of the same quality as Brahman. Although there is nothing except Brahman, one should not mistakenly think that there is only void and no variegatedness. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Thinking like that is due to a poor fund of knowledge; otherwise no one would have such a misconception of voidness in Brahman. As there are airplanes, ladies and gentlemen, so there must be cities and houses and everything else just suitable to the particular planets. One should not carry the ideas of imperfection from this world to the transcendental world and not take into consideration the nature of the atmosphere, as completely free from the influence of time, etc., as described previously. TEXT 14 é[qYaR}a æiPaa*TYaPa[Saadai>aMau%& d*GaaSav& Pa[SaàhaSaaåaavae_Ya& MaMa l/aek-avl/aek-NaMa( ) YaduPaé[uTYa rhiSa ck-QaR ParMa& TaPa"

)) 22 ))

manéñitänubhävo ’yaà mama lokävalokanam yad upaçrutya rahasi cakartha paramaà tapaù SYNONYMS manéñita—ingenuity; anubhävaù—perception; ayam—this; mama—My; loka—abode; avalokanam—seeing by actual experience; yat—because; upaçrutya—hearing; rahasi—in great penance; cakartha—having performed; paramam—highest; tapaù—penance. TRANSLATION The highest perfectional ingenuity is the personal perception of My abodes, and this has been possible because of your submissive attitude in the performance of severe penance according to My order. PURPORT Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The highest perfectional stage of life is to know the Lord by actual perception, by the grace of the Lord. This can be attained by everyone who is willing to discharge the act of devotional service to the Lord as enjoined in the revealed scriptures that are standard and accepted by the bona fide äcäryas, spiritual masters. For example, the Bhagavad-gétä is the approved Vedic literature accepted by all the great äcäryas, such as Çaìkara, Rämänuja, Madhva, Caitanya, Viçvanätha, Baladeva, Siddhänta Sarasvaté and many others. In that Bhagavad-gétä the Personality of Godhead, Çré Kåñëa, asks that one always be mindful of Him, always be His devotee, always worship Him only, and always bow down before the Lord. And by doing so one is sure to go back home, back to Godhead, without any doubt. In other places also the same order is there, that one give up all other engagements and fully surrender unto the Lord without hesitation. And the Lord will give such a devotee all protection. These are the secrets of attaining the highest perfectional stage. Lord Brahmä exactly followed these principles without any superiority complex, and thus he attained the highest perfectional stage of experiencing the abode of the Lord and the Lord Himself with all His paraphernalia. Impersonal realization of the effulgence of the Lord’s body is not the highest perfectional stage, nor is the stage of Paramätmä realization. The word manéñita is significant. Everyone is falsely or factually proud of his so-called learning. But the Lord says that the highest perfectional stage of learning is to know Him and His abode, devoid of all illusion. TEXT 23 Pa[TYaaidí& MaYaa Ta}a TviYa k-MaRivMaaeihTae ) TaPaae Mae ôdYa& Saa+aadaTMaah& TaPaSaae_Naga )) 23 )) pratyädiñöaà mayä tatra tvayi karma-vimohite tapo me hådayaà säkñäd ätmähaà tapaso ’nagha Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS pratyädiñöam—ordered; mayä—by Me; tatra—because of; tvayi—unto you; karma—duty; vimohite—being perplexed; tapaù—penance; me—Me; hådayam—heart; säkñät—directly; ätmä—life and soul; aham—Myself; tapasaù—of one who is engaged in penance; anagha—O sinless one. TRANSLATION O sinless Brahmä, you may know from Me that it was I who first ordered you to undergo penance when you were perplexed in your duty. Such penance is My heart and soul, and therefore penance and I are nondifferent. PURPORT The penance by which one can see the Personality of Godhead face to face is to be understood as devotional service to the Lord and nothing else because only by discharging devotional service in transcendental love can one approach the Lord. Such penance is the internal potency of the Lord and is nondifferent from Him. Such acts of internal potency are exhibited by nonattachment for material enjoyment. The living entities are encaged in the conditions of material bondage because of their propensity for overlordship. But by engagement in the devotional service of the Lord one becomes detached from this enjoying spirit. The devotees automatically become detached from worldly enjoyment, and this detachment is the result of perfect knowledge. Therefore the penance of devotional service includes knowledge and detachment, and that is the manifestation of the transcendental potency. One cannot enjoy material illusory prosperity if he desires to return home, back to Godhead. One who has no information of the transcendental bliss in the association of the Lord foolishly desires to enjoy this temporary material happiness. In the Caitanya-caritämåta it is said that if someone sincerely wants to see the Lord and at the same time wants to enjoy this material world, he is considered to be a fool only. One who wants to remain here in the material world for material enjoyment has no business entering into the eternal Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

kingdom of God. The Lord favors such a foolish devotee by snatching all that he may possess in the material world. If such a foolish devotee of the Lord tries to recoup his position, then the merciful Lord again snatches away all that he may have possessed. By such repeated failures in material prosperity he becomes very unpopular with his family members and friends. In the material world the family members and friends honor persons who are very successful in accumulating wealth by any means. The foolish devotee of the Lord is thus put into forcible penance by the grace of the Lord, and at the end the devotee becomes perfectly happy, being engaged in the service of the Lord. Therefore penance in devotional service of the Lord, either by voluntary submission or by being forced by the Lord, is necessary for attaining perfection, and thus such penance is the internal potency of the Lord. One cannot, however, be engaged in the penance of devotional service without being completely free from all sins. As stated in the Bhagavad-gétä, only a person who is completely free from all reactions of sins can engage himself in the worship of the Lord. Brahmäjé was sinless, and therefore he faithfully discharged the advice of the Lord, “tapa tapa,” and the Lord, being satisfied with him, awarded him the desired result. Therefore only love and penance combined can please the Lord, and thus one is able to attain His complete mercy. He directs the sinless, and the sinless devotee attains the highest perfection of life. TEXT 24 Sa*JaaiMa TaPaSaEved& Ga]SaaiMa TaPaSaa PauNa" ) ib>aiMaR TaPaSaa ivì& vqYa| Mae duêr& TaPa" )) 24 )) såjämi tapasaivedaà grasämi tapasä punaù bibharmi tapasä viçvaà véryaà me duçcaraà tapaù

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

SYNONYMS såjämi—I create; tapasä—by the same energy of penance; eva—certainly; idam—this; grasämi tapasä—I do withdraw also by the same energy; punaù—again; bibharmi—do maintain; tapasä—by penance; viçvam—the cosmos; véryam—potency; me—My; duçcaram—severe; tapaù—penance. TRANSLATION I create this cosmos by such penance, I maintain it by the same energy, and I withdraw it all by the same energy. Therefore the potential power is penance only. PURPORT In executing penance, one must be determined to return home, back to Godhead, and must decide to undergo all types of tribulations for that end. Even for material prosperity, name and fame, one has to undergo severe types of penance, otherwise no one can become an important figure in this material world. Why, then, are there severe types of penance for the perfection of devotional service? An easygoing life and attainment of perfection in transcendental realization cannot go together. The Lord is more clever than any living entity; therefore He wants to see how painstaking the devotee is in devotional service. The order is received from the Lord, either directly or through the bona fide spiritual master, and to execute that order, however painstaking, is the severe type of penance. One who follows the principle rigidly is sure to achieve success in attaining the Lord’s mercy. TEXT 25 b]øaevac >aGavNa( SavR>aUTaaNaaMaDYa+aae_viSQaTaae GauhaMa( ) ved ùPa[iTaåÖeNa Pa[jaNaeNa ick-IizRTaMa( )) 25 )) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

brahmoväca bhagavan sarva-bhütänäm adhyakño ’vasthito guhäm veda hy apratiruddhena prajïänena cikérñitam SYNONYMS brahmä uväca—Lord Brahmä said; bhagavan—O my Lord; sarva bhütänäm—of all living entities; adhyakñaù—director; avasthitaù—situated; guhäm—within the heart; veda—know; hi—certainly; apratiruddhena—without hindrance; prajïänena—by superintelligence; cikérñitam—endeavors. TRANSLATION Lord Brahmä said: O Personality of Godhead, You are situated in every living entity’s heart as the supreme director, and therefore You are aware of all endeavors by Your superior intelligence, without any hindrance whatsoever. PURPORT The Bhagavad-gétä confirms that the Lord is situated in everyone’s heart as the witness, and as such He is the supreme director of sanction. The director is not the enjoyer of the fruits of action, for without the Lord’s sanction no one can enjoy. For example, in a prohibited area a habituated drunkard puts forward his application to the director of drinking, and the director, considering his case, sanctions only a certain amount of liquor for drinking. Similarly, the whole material world is full of many drunkards, in the sense that each and every one of the living entities has something in his mind to enjoy, and everyone desires the fulfillment of his desires very strongly. The almighty Lord, being very kind to the living entity, as the father is kind to the son, fulfills the living entity’s desire for his childish satisfaction. With such desires in mind, the living entity does not actually enjoy, but he serves the bodily whims unnecessarily, without profit. The drunkard does not derive any profit out of drinking, but because he has become a servant of the drinking habit and Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

does not wish to get out of it, the merciful Lord gives him all facilities to fulfill such desires. The impersonalists recommend that one should become desireless, and others recommend banishing desires altogether. That is impossible; no one can banish desires altogether because desiring is the living symptom. Without having desires a living entity would be dead, which he is not. Therefore, living conditions and desire go together. perfection of desires may be achieved when one desires to serve the Lord, and the Lord also desires that every living entity banish all personal desires and cooperate with His desires. That is the last instruction of the Bhagavad-gétä. Brahmäjé agreed to this proposal, and therefore he is given the responsible post of creating generations in the vacant universe. Oneness with the Lord therefore consists of dovetailing one’s desires with the desires of the Supreme Lord. That makes for the perfection of all desires. The Lord, as the Supersoul in the heart of every living being, knows what is in the mind of each living entity, and no one can do anything without the knowledge of the Lord within. By His superior intelligence, the Lord gives everyone the chance to fulfill his desires to the fullest extent, and the resultant reaction is also awarded by the Lord. TEXT 26 TaQaaiPa NaaQaMaaNaSYa NaaQa NaaQaYa NaaiQaTaMa( ) Paravre YaQaa æPae JaaNaqYaa& Tae TvæiPaaJaaiMa >aae JaNaMa( ) Aiv©-vSTae Pairk-MaRiaGavTaa Pa[ah Pa[qTa" Pau}aaYa >aUTak*-Ta( )) 44 )) tasmä idaà bhägavataà puräëaà daça-lakñaëam proktaà bhagavatä präha prétaù puträya bhüta-kåt SYNONYMS tasmai—thereupon; idam—this; bhägavatam—the glories of the Lord or the science of the Lord; puräëam—Vedic supplement; daça-lakñaëam—ten characteristics; proktam—described; bhagavatä—by the Personality of Godhead; präha—said; prétaù—in satisfaction; puträya—unto the son; bhüta-kåt—the creator of the universe. TRANSLATION Thereupon the supplementary Vedic literature, Çrémad-Bhägavatam, which was described by the Personality of Godhead and which contains ten characteristics, was told with satisfaction by the father [Brahmä] to his son Närada. PURPORT Although the Çrémad-Bhägavatam was spoken in four verses, it had ten characteristics, which will be explained in the next chapter. In the four verses it is first said that the Lord existed before the creation, and thus the beginning of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam includes the Vedänta aphorism janmädy asya [SB 1.1.1]. Janmädy asya is the beginning, yet the four verses in which it is said that the Lord is the root of everything that be, beginning from the creation up to the supreme abode of the Lord, naturally explain the ten characteristics. One should not misunderstand by wrong interpretations that the Lord spoke only four verses and that therefore all the rest of the 17,994 verses are useless. The ten characteristics, as will be explained in the next chapter, require so many verses just to explain them properly. Brahmäjé had also advised Närada Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

previously that he should expand the idea he had heard from Brahmäjé. Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu instructed this to Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé in a nutshell, but the disciple Rüpa Gosvämé expanded this very elaborately, and the same subject was further expanded by Jéva Gosvämé and even further by Çré Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura. We are just trying to follow in the footsteps of all these authorities. So Çrémad-Bhägavatam is not like ordinary fiction or mundane literature. It is unlimited in strength, and however one may expand it according to one’s own ability, Bhägavatam still cannot be finished by such expansion. Çrémad-Bhägavatam, being the sound representation of the Lord, is simultaneously explained in four verses and in four billion verses all the same, inasmuch as the Lord is smaller than the atom and bigger than the unlimited sky. Such is the potency of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. TEXT 45 Naard" Pa[ah MauNaYae SarSvTYaaSTa$e= Na*Pa ) DYaaYaTae b]ø ParMa& VYaaSaaYaaiMaTaTaeJaSae )) 45 )) näradaù präha munaye sarasvatyäs taöe nåpa dhyäyate brahma paramaà vyäsäyämita-tejase SYNONYMS näradaù—the great sage Närada; präha—instructed; munaye—unto the great sage; sarasvatyäù—of the River Sarasvaté; taöe—on the bank; nåpa—O King; dhyäyate—unto the meditative; brahma—Absolute Truth; paramam—the Supreme; vyäsäya—unto Çréla Vyäsadeva; amita—unlimited; tejase—unto the powerful. TRANSLATION In succession, O King, the great sage Närada instructed Çrémad-Bhägavatam Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

unto the unlimitedly powerful Vyäsadeva, who meditated in devotional service upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, on the bank of the River Sarasvaté. PURPORT In the Fifth Chapter of the First Canto of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, Närada instructed the great sage Vyäsadeva as follows: atho mahä-bhäga bhavän amogha-dåk çuci-çraväù satya-rato dhåta-vrataù urukramasyäkhila-bandha-muktaye samädhinänusmara tad viceñöitam “O greatly fortunate, pious philosopher, your name and fame are universal, and you are fixed in the Absolute Truth with spotless character and infallible vision. I ask you to meditate upon the activities of the Personality of Godhead, whose activities are unparalleled.” So in the disciplic succession of the Brahma-sampradäya, the practice of yoga meditation is not neglected. But because the devotees are bhakti-yogés, they do not undertake the trouble to meditate upon the impersonal Brahman; as indicated here, they meditate on brahma paramam, or the Supreme Brahman. Brahman realization begins from the impersonal effulgence, but by further progress of such meditation, manifestation of the Supreme Soul, Paramätmä realization, takes place. And progressing further, realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is fixed. Çré Närada Muni, as the spiritual master of Vyäsadeva, knew very well the position of Vyäsadeva, and thus he certified the qualities of Çréla Vyäsadeva as fixed in the Absolute Truth with great vow, etc. Närada advised meditation upon the transcendental activities of the Lord. Impersonal Brahman has no activities, but the Personality of Godhead has many activities, and all such activities are transcendental, without any tinge of material quality. If the activities of the Supreme Brahman were material activities, then Närada would not have advised Vyäsadeva to meditate upon them. And the paraà brahma is Lord Çré Kåñëa, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä. In the Tenth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gétä, when Arjuna Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

realized the factual position of Lord Kåñëa, he addressed Lord Kåñëa in the following words: paraà brahma paraà dhäma pavitraà paramaà bhavän puruñaà çäçvataà divyam ädi-devam ajaà vibhum [Bg. 10.12] ähus tväm åñayaù sarve devarñir näradas tathä asito devalo vyäsaù svayaà caiva bravéñi me Arjuna summarized the purpose of the Bhagavad-gétä by his realization of Lord Çré Kåñëa and thus said, “My dear Personality of Godhead, You are the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Original Person in the eternal form of bliss and knowledge, and this is confirmed by Närada, Asita, Devala and Vyäsadeva, and, above all, Your personal self has also confirmed it.” (Bg. 10.12–13) When Vyäsadeva fixed his mind in meditation, he did it in bhakti-yoga trance and actually saw the Supreme Person with mäyä, the illusory energy, in contraposition. As we have discussed before, the Lord’s mäyä, or illusion, is also a representation because mäyä has no existence without the Lord. Darkness is not independent of light. Without light, no one can experience the contraposition of darkness. However, this mäyä, or illusion, cannot overcome the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but stands apart from Him (apäçrayam). Therefore, perfection of meditation is realization of the Personality of Godhead along with His transcendental activities. Meditation on the impersonal Brahman is a troublesome business for the meditator, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gétä (12.5): kleço ’dhikataras teñäm avyaktäsakta-cetasäm. TEXT 46 YaduTaah& TvYaa Pa*íae vEraJaaTa( PauåzaiddMa( ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

YaQaaSaqtaduPaa:YaaSTae Pa[énaNaNYaa&ê k*-TSNaXa" )) 46 )) yad utähaà tvayä påñöo vairäjät puruñäd idam yathäsét tad upäkhyäste praçnän anyäàç ca kåtsnaçaù SYNONYMS yat—what; uta—is, however; aham—I; tvayä—by you; påñöaù—I am asked; vairäjät—from the universal form; puruñät—from the Personality of Godhead; idam—this world; yathä—as it; äsét—was; tat—that; upäkhyäste—I shall explain; praçnän—all the questions; anyän—others; ca—as well as; kåtsnaçaù—in great detail. TRANSLATION O King, your questions as to how the universe became manifested from the gigantic form of the Personality of Godhead, as well as other questions, I shall answer in detail by explanation of the four verses already mentioned. PURPORT As stated in the beginning of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, this great transcendental literature is the ripened fruit of the tree of Vedic knowledge, and therefore all questions that can be humanly possible regarding the universal affairs, beginning from its creation, are all answered in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam. The answers depend only on the qualification of the person who explains them. The ten divisions of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, as explained by the great speaker Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé, are the limitation of all questions, and intelligent persons will derive all intellectual benefits from them by proper utilization. Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Second Canto, Ninth Chapter, of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, entitled “Answers by Citing the Lord’s Version.” Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter Ten Bhägavatam Is the Answer to All Questions

TEXT 1 é[qéuk- ovac A}a SaGaaeR ivSaGaRê SQaaNa& PaaezaaEiTak-" )) 8 )) yo ’dhyätmiko ’yaà puruñaù so ’säv evädhidaivikaù yas tatrobhaya-vicchedaù puruño hy ädhibhautikaù SYNONYMS yaù—one who; adhyätmikaù—is possessed of the sense organs; ayam—this; puruñaù—personality; saù—he; asau—that; eva—also; adhidaivikaù—controlling deity; yaù—that which; tatra—there; ubhaya—of both; vicchedaù—separation; puruñaù—person; hi—for; ädhibhautikaù—the visible body or the embodied living entity. TRANSLATION The individual person possessing different instruments of senses is called the adhyätmic person, and the individual controlling deity of the senses is called adhidaivic. The embodiment seen on the eyeballs is called the adhibhautic person. PURPORT The supreme controlling summum bonum is the personality of Godhead in Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

His plenary portion of Paramätmä, or the Supersoul manifestation. In the Bhagavad-gétä (10.42) it is said: athavä bahunaitena kià jïätena tavärjuna viñöabhyäham idaà kåtsnam ekäàçena sthito jagat All the controlling deities like Viñëu, Brahmä and Çiva are different manifestations of the Paramätmä feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Çré Kåñëa, who exhibits himself in such manners by entering into each and every universe generated from Him. But still apparently there are divisions of the controller and controlled. For example, in the food-controlling department the controller of food is a person made of the same ingredients as the person who is controlled. Similarly, each and every individual in the material world is controlled by the higher demigods. For example, we have our senses, but the senses are controlled by superior controlling deities. We cannot see without light, and the supreme controller of light is the sun. The sun-god is in the sun planet, and we, the individual human beings or any other being on this earth, are all controlled by the sun-god as far as our eyes are concerned. Similarly, all the senses we have are controlled by the superior demigods, who are also as much living entities as we are, but one is empowered while the other is controlled. The controlled living entity is called the adhyätmic person, and the controller is called the adhidaivic person. All these positions in the material world are due to different fruitive activities. Any individual living being can become the sun-god or even Brahmä or any other god in the upper planetary system by a higher grade of pious work, and similarly one becomes controlled by the higher demigods by lower grades of fruitive activities. So every individual living entity is subject to the supreme control of the Paramätmä, who puts everyone in different positions of the controller and the controlled. That which distinguishes the controller and controlled, i.e. the material body, is called the adhibhautic puruña. The body is sometimes called puruña, as confirmed in the Vedas in the following hymn: sa vä eña puruño Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

’nna-rasamayaù. This body is called the anna-rasa embodiment. This body depends on food. The living entity which is embodied does not eat anything, however, because the owner is spirit in essence. The material body requires replacement of matter for the wearing and tearing of the mechanical body. Therefore the distinction between the individual living entity and controlling planetary deities is in the anna-rasamaya body. The sun may have a gigantic body, and the man may have a smaller body, but all these visible bodies are made of matter; nonetheless, the sun-god and the individual person, who are related as the controller and the controlled, are the same spiritual parts and parcels of the Supreme Being, and it is the Supreme Being who places different parts and parcels in different positions. And thus the conclusion is that the Supreme Person is the shelter of all. TEXT 9 Wk-Maek-Tara>aave Yada NaaePal/>aaMahe ) i}aTaYa& Ta}a Yaae ved Sa AaTMaa Svaé[Yaaé[Ya"

)) 9 ))

ekam ekataräbhäve yadä nopalabhämahe tritayaà tatra yo veda sa ätmä sväçrayäçrayaù SYNONYMS ekam—one; ekatara—another; abhäve—in the absence of; yadä—because; na—does not; upalabhämahe—perceptible; tritayam—in three stages; tatra—there; yaù—the one; veda—who knows; saù—he; ätmä—the Supersoul; sva—own; äçraya—shelter; äçrayaù—of the shelter. TRANSLATION All three of the above-mentioned stages of different living entities are interdependent. In the absence of one, another is not understood. But the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Supreme Being who sees every one of them as the shelter of the shelter is independent of all, and therefore He is the supreme shelter. PURPORT There are innumerable living entities, one dependent on the other in the relationship of the controlled and the controller. But without the medium of perception, no one can know or understand who is the controlled and who is the controller. For example, the sun controls the power of our vision, we can see the sun because the sun has its body, and the sunlight is useful only because we have eyes. Without our having eyes, the sunlight is useless, and without sunlight the eyes are useless. Thus they are interdependent, and none of them is independent. Therefore the natural question arises concerning who made them interdependent. The one who has made such a relationship of interdependence must be ultimately completely independent. As stated in the beginning of the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, the ultimate source of all interdependent objectives is the complete independent subject. This ultimate source of all interdependence is the Supreme Truth or Paramätmä, the Supersoul, who is not dependent on anything else. He is sväçrayäçrayaù. He is only dependent on His self, and thus He is the supreme shelter of everything. Although Paramätmä and Brahman are subordinate to Bhagavän, because Bhagavän is Puruñottama or the Superperson, He is the source of the Supersoul also. In the Bhagavad-gétä (15.18) Lord Kåñëa says that He is the Puruñottama and the source of everything, and thus it is concluded that Çré Kåñëa is the ultimate source and shelter of all entities, including the Supersoul and Supreme Brahman. Even accepting that there is no difference between the Supersoul and the individual soul, the individual soul is dependent on the Supersoul for being liberated from the illusion of material energy. The individual is under the clutches of illusory energy, and therefore although qualitatively one with the Supersoul, he is under the illusion of identifying himself with matter. And to get out of this illusory conception of factual life, the individual soul has to depend on the Supersoul to be recognized as one with Him. In that sense also the Supersoul is the supreme shelter. And there is no doubt about it. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

The individual living entity, the jéva, is always dependent on the Supersoul, Paramätmä, because the individual soul forgets his spiritual identity whereas the Supersoul, Paramätmä, does not forget His transcendental position. In the Bhagavad-gétä these separate positions of the jéva-ätmä and the Paramätmä are specifically mentioned. In the Fourth Chapter, Arjuna, the jéva soul, is represented as forgetful of his many, many previous births, but the Lord, the Supersoul, is not forgetful. The Lord even remembers when He taught the Bhagavad-gétä to the sun-god some billions of years before. The Lord can remember such millions and billions of years, as stated in the Bhagavad-gétä (7.26) as follows: vedähaà samatétäni vartamänäni cärjuna bhaviñyäëi ca bhütäni mäà tu veda na kaçcana The Lord in His eternal blissful body of knowledge is fully aware of all that happened in the past, that which is going on at the present and also what will happen in the future. But in spite of His being the shelter of both the Paramätmä and Brahman, persons with a poor fund of knowledge are unable to understand Him as He is. The propaganda of the identity of cosmic consciousness with the consciousness of the individual living entities is completely misleading because even such a person or individual soul as Arjuna could not remember his past deeds, although he is always with the Lord. And what can the tiny ordinary man, falsely claiming to be one with the cosmic consciousness, know about his past, present and future? TEXT 10 Pauåzae_aRÛ YadaSaaE Sa iviNaGaRTa" ) AaTMaNaae_YaNaMaiNvC^àPaae_óa+aqC^uic" éucq" )) 10 )) puruño ’ëòaà vinirbhidya Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

yadäsau sa vinirgataù ätmano ’yanam anvicchann apo ’sräkñéc chuciù çucéù SYNONYMS puruñaù—the Supreme Person, Paramätmä; aëòam—the universes; vinirbhidya—making them each separately situated; yadä—when; asau—the same; saù—He (the Lord); vinirgataù—came out; ätmanaù—of Himself; ayanam—lying in place; anvicchan—desiring; apaù—water; asräkñét—created; çuciù—the most pure; çucéù—transcendental. TRANSLATION After separating the different universes, the gigantic universal form of the Lord [Mahä-Viñëu], which came out of the causal ocean, the place of appearance for the first puruña-avatära, entered into each of the separate universes, desiring to lie on the created transcendental water [Garbhodaka]. PURPORT After analysis of the living entities and the Supreme Lord, Paramätmä, the independent source of all other living beings, Çréla Çukadeva Gosvämé is now presenting the prime necessity for devotional service to the Lord, which is the only occupational business of all living entities. The Supreme Lord Çré Kåñëa and all His plenary portions and extensions of plenary portions are nondifferent from one another, and thus the supreme independence is in each and every one of them. In order to prove this, Çukadeva Gosvämé (as promised to King Parékñit) describes herein the independence of the puruña-avatära Personality of Godhead, even in the sphere of the material creation. Such activities of the Lord are also transcendental, and therefore they are also lélä, or pastimes, of the absolute Lord. Such pastimes of the Lord are very conducive to the hearers for self-realization in the field of devotional service. Some may argue, why not then relish the transcendental lélä of the Lord as exhibited in the land of Mathurä and Våndävana, which are sweeter than Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

anything in the world? Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura replies that the pastimes of the Lord in Våndävana are meant to be relished by advanced devotees of the Lord. Neophyte devotees will misunderstand such supreme transcendental activities of the Lord, and therefore the Lord’s pastimes in the material sphere related to creation, maintenance and destruction are verily relishable by the präkåta, or mundane devotees of the Lord. As the yoga system mainly based on bodily exercises is meant for the person who is too much attached to the bodily conception of existence, similarly the Lord’s pastimes related to the creation and destruction of the material world are for those who are too materially attached. For such mundane creatures the functions of the body and the functions of the cosmic world through physical laws in relationship with the Lord are also therefore included in understanding of the lawmaker, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The scientists explain the material functions by so many technological terms of material law, but such blind scientists forget the lawmaker. The Çrémad-Bhägavatam points out the lawmaker. One should not be amazed by the mechanical arrangement of the complicated engine or dynamo, but one should praise the engineer who creates such a wonderful working machine. That is the difference between the devotee and the nondevotee. Devotees are always full with praising the Lord, who directs the physical laws. In the Bhagavad-gétä (9.10) the direction of the Lord upon the material nature is described as follows: mayädhyakñeëa prakåtiù süyate sacaräcaram hetunänena kaunteya jagad viparivartate “The material nature full of physical laws is one of My different energies; therefore it is neither independent nor blind. Because I am transcendentally all-powerful, simply by My glancing over material nature, the physical laws of nature work so wonderfully. The actions and reactions of the physical laws work on that account, and thus the material world is created, maintained and annihilated again and again.” Men with a poor fund of knowledge, however, become astonished by Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

studying the physical laws both within the construction of the individual body and within the cosmic manifestation, and foolishly they decry the existence of God, taking it for granted that the physical laws are independent, without any metaphysical control. The Bhagavad-gétä (9.11) replies to this foolishness in the following words: avajänanti mäà müòhä mänuñéà tanum äçritam paraà bhävam ajänanto mama bhüta-maheçvaram “The foolish men [müòhäù] do not know the Personality of Godhead in His eternal form of bliss and knowledge.” The foolish man thinks of the transcendental body of the Lord as something like his own, and therefore he cannot think of the unlimited controlling power of the Lord, who is not visible in the acting of the physical laws. The Lord is, however, visible to the naked eyes of people in general when He descends Himself by His own personal potency. Lord Kåñëa incarnated Himself as He is and played very wonderful parts as the Lord Himself, and the Bhagavad-gétä concerns such wonderful actions and knowledge. Yet foolish men will not accept Lord Kåñëa as the Supreme Lord. Generally they consider the infinitesimal and infinite features of the Lord because they themselves are unable to become either the infinitesimal or the infinite, but one should know that the infinite and infinitesimal sizes of the Lord are not His highest glories. The most wonderful manifestation of the Lord’s power is exhibited when the infinite Lord becomes visible to our eyes as one of us. Yet His activities are different from those of the finite beings. Lifting a mountain at the age of seven years and marrying sixteen thousand wives in the prime of His youth are some of the examples of His infinite energy, but the müòhas, after seeing them or hearing about them, decry them as legendary and take the Lord as one of them. They cannot understand that the Lord Çré Kåñëa, although in the form of a human being by His own potency, is still the Supreme Lord with full potency as the supreme controller. When, however, the müòhas give submissive and aural reception to the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

messages of the Lord as in the Çrémad Bhagavad-gétä or in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam through the channel of disciplic succession, such müòhas also become devotees of the Lord by the grace of His pure devotees. And for this reason only, either in the Bhagavad-gétä or in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, the pastimes of the Lord in the material world are delineated for the benefit of those men with a poor fund of knowledge. TEXT 11 TaaSvvaTSaqTa( SvSa*íaSau Sahó&PairvTSaraNa( ) TaeNa NaaraYaaÛTa TaC^*aÛeTaa& daeDaUYaiTa Na>aSviTa ) Ta}a vaYauGaRNDavhae ga]aaRàe ùi+aa" i§-YaTae Na*i>a" )) 25 )) gatià jigéñataù pädau ruruhäte ’bhikämikäm padbhyäà yajïaù svayaà havyaà karmabhiù kriyate nåbhiù SYNONYMS gatim—movement; jigéñataù—so desiring; pädau—the legs; ruruhäte—being manifested; abhikämikäm—purposeful; padbhyäm—from the legs; yajïaù—Lord Viñëu; svayam—personally Himself; havyam—the duties; karmabhiù—by one’s occupational duty; kriyate—caused to be done; nåbhiù—by different human beings. TRANSLATION Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Thereupon, because of His desiring to control movement, His legs became manifested, and from the legs the controlling deity named Viñëu was generated. By His personal supervision of this act, all varieties of human being are busily engaged in dutiful occupational sacrifice. PURPORT Every human being is engaged in his particular occupational duty, and such activities are visible as men go hither and thither. This is very prominently visible in big cities of the world: people are going all over the cities with great concern, from one place to another. This movement is not limited only to the cities, but is also visible outside the cities from one place to another, or from one city to another, by different means of vehicles. Men are moving by cars and rails on the roads, by subways within the earth and by planes in the sky for the purpose of business success. But in all these movements the real purpose is to earn wealth for comfortable life. For this comfortable life the scientist is engaged, the artist is engaged, the engineer is engaged, the technician is engaged, all in different branches of human activity. But they do not know how to make the activities purposeful to fulfill the mission of human life. Because they do not know this secret, all their activities are targeted towards the goal of sense gratification without control, and therefore by all this business they are unknowingly entering into the deep regions of darkness. Because they have been captivated by the external energy of the Supreme Lord, they have completely forgotten the Supreme Lord Viñëu, and thus they have taken it for granted that this life, as presently manifested under the conditions of material nature, is all in all for enjoying the highest amount of sense gratification. But such a wrong conception of life cannot give anyone the desired peace of mind, and thus in spite of all advancement in knowledge by use of the resources of nature, no one is happy in this material civilization. The secret is that at every step they should try to execute sacrifices toward the path of world peace. The Bhagavad-gétä (18.45–46) also advises the same secret in the following verses. sve sve karmaëy abhirataù Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

saàsiddhià labhate naraù sva-karma-nirataù siddhià yathä vindati tac chåëu yataù pravåttir bhütänäà yena sarvam idaà tatam sva-karmaëä tam abhyarcya siddhià vindati mänavaù The Lord said to Arjuna: “Just hear from Me how one can attain the highest perfection in life simply by discharging his specified occupational duty. Man can attain the highest perfection of life by worshiping the Supreme Lord and by performing sacrifice for the sake of the Supreme Lord Viñëu, who is all-pervading and by whose control every living being acquires his desired facilities, according to his personal propensity.” There is no harm in having different propensities in life because every human being is proportionately independent to chalk out the plan of his life by different occupations, but one should make it a point in his life to know perfectly well that he is not independent absolutely. One is certainly under the control of the Supreme Lord and under different agencies. Knowing this, one should make it a point that by his work and the result of his labor he serves the Supreme Lord as prescribed by the authorities expert in the transcendental loving service of the Supreme Lord Viñëu. For performing such occupational duties of life the leg is the most important instrument of the body because without the help of the legs one cannot move from one place to another, and therefore the Lord has special control over the legs of all human beings, which are meant for performing yajïas. TEXT 26 iNari>aÛTa iXaénae vE Pa[JaaNaNdaMa*TaaiQaRNa" ) oPaSQa AaSaqTa( k-aMaaNaa& iPa[Ya& Tadu>aYaaé[YaMa( )) 26 )) nirabhidyata çiçno vai Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

prajänandämåtärthinaù upastha äsét kämänäà priyaà tad-ubhayäçrayam SYNONYMS nirabhidyata—came out; çiçnaù—the genitals; vai—certainly; prajä-änanda—sex pleasure; amåta-arthinaù—aspiring to taste the nectar; upasthaù—the male or female organ; äsét—came into existence; kämänäm—of the lustful; priyam—very dear; tat—that; ubhaya-äçrayam—shelter for both. TRANSLATION Thereupon, for sexual pleasure, begetting offspring and tasting heavenly nectar, the Lord developed the genitals, and thus there is the genital organ and its controlling deity, the Prajäpati. The object of sexual pleasure and the controlling deity are under the control of the genitals of the Lord. PURPORT The heavenly pleasure for the conditioned soul is sexual pleasure, and this pleasure is tasted by the genitals. The woman is the object of sexual pleasure, and both the sense perception of sexual pleasure and the woman are controlled by the Prajäpati, who is under the control of the Lord’s genitals. The impersonalist must know from this verse that the Lord is not impersonal, for He has His genitals, on which all the pleasurable objects of sex depend. No one would have taken the trouble to maintain children if there were no taste of heavenly nectar by means of sexual intercourse. This material world is created to give the conditioned souls a chance for rejuvenation for going back home, back to Godhead, and therefore generation of the living being is necessary for upkeep of the purpose of creation. Sexual pleasure is an impetus for such action, and as such one can even serve the Lord in the act of such sexual pleasure. The service is counted when the children born of such sexual pleasure are properly trained in God consciousness. The whole idea of material creation is to revive the dormant God consciousness of the living entity. In Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

forms of life other than the human form, sexual pleasure is prominent without any motive of service for the mission of the Lord. But in the human form of life the conditioned soul can render service to the Lord by creating progeny suitable for the attainment of salvation. One can beget hundreds of children and enjoy the celestial pleasure of sexual intercourse, provided he is able to train the children in God consciousness. Otherwise begetting children is on the level of the swine. Rather, the swine is more expert than the human being because the swine can beget a dozen piglets at a time, whereas the human being can give birth to only one at a time. So one should always remember that the genitals, sexual pleasure, the woman and the offspring are all related in the service of the Lord, and one who forgets this relationship in the service of the Supreme Lord becomes subjected to the threefold miseries of material existence by the laws of nature. Perception of sexual pleasure is there even in the body of the dog, but there is no sense of God consciousness. The human form of life is distinct from that of the dog by the perception of God consciousness. TEXT 27 oiTSaSa*+aaeDaaRTauMal&/ iNari>aÛTa vE GaudMa( ) TaTa" PaaYauSTaTaae iMa}a oTSaGaR o>aYaaé[Ya" )) 27 )) utsisåkñor dhätu-malaà nirabhidyata vai gudam tataù päyus tato mitra utsarga ubhayäçrayaù SYNONYMS utsisåkñoù—desiring to evacuate; dhätu-malam—refuse of eatables; nirabhidyata—became open; vai—certainly; gudam—the evacuating hole; tataù—thereafter; päyuù—the evacuating sense organ; tataù—thereafter; mitraù—the controlling demigod; utsargaù—the substance evacuated; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

ubhaya—both; äçrayaù—shelter. TRANSLATION Thereafter, when He desired to evacuate the refuse of eatables, the evacuating hole, anus, and the sensory organ thereof developed along with the controlling deity Mitra. The sensory organ and the evacuating substance are both under the shelter of the controlling deity. PURPORT Even in the matter of evacuating stool, the refuse is controlled, so how can the living entity claim to be independent? TEXT 28 AaiSaSa*PSaae" Paur" PauYaaR Naai>aÜarMaPaaNaTa" ) Ta}aaPaaNaSTaTaae Ma*TYau" Pa*Qa¤-Mau>aYaaé[YaMa( )) 28 )) äsisåpsoù puraù puryä näbhi-dväram apänataù taträpänas tato måtyuù påthaktvam ubhayäçrayam SYNONYMS äsisåpsoù—desiring to go everywhere; puraù—in different bodies; puryäù—from one body; näbhi-dväram—the navel or abdominal hole; apänataù—was manifested; tatra—thereupon; apänaù—stopping of the vital force; tataù—thereafter; måtyuù—death; påthaktvam—separately; ubhaya—both; äçrayam—shelter. TRANSLATION Thereafter, when He desired to move from one body to another, the navel and the air of departure and death were combinedly created. The navel is the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

shelter for both, namely death and the separating force. PURPORT The präëa-väyu continues the life, and the apäna-väyu stops the living force. Both the vibrations are generated from the abdominal hole, the navel. This navel is the joint from one body to the other. Lord Brahmä was born of the abdominal hole of Garbhodakaçäyé Viñëu as a separate body, and the same principle is followed even in the birth of any ordinary body. The body of the child develops from the body of the mother, and when the child is separated from the body of the mother, it is separated by cutting the navel joint. And that is the way the Supreme Lord manifested Himself as separated many. The living entities are therefore separated parts, and thus they have no independence. TEXT 29 AaidTSaaeràPaaNaaNaaMaaSaNa( ku-+YaN}[email protected]" ) NaÛ" SaMaud]aê TaYaaeSTauií" PauiíSTadaé[Yae )) 29 )) äditsor anna-pänänäm äsan kukñy-antra-näòayaù nadyaù samudräç ca tayos tuñöiù puñöis tad-äçraye SYNONYMS äditsoù—desiring to have; anna-pänänäm—of food and drink; äsan—there became; kukñi—the abdomen; antra—the intestines; näòayaù—and the arteries; nadyaù—the rivers; samudräù—seas; ca—also; tayoù—of them; tuñöiù—sustenance; puñöiù—metabolism; tat—of them; äçraye—the source. TRANSLATION When there was a desire to have food and drink, the abdomen and the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

intestines and also the arteries became manifested. The rivers and seas are the source of their sustenance and metabolism. PURPORT The controlling deities of the intestines are the rivers, and those of the arteries, the seas. Fulfillment of the belly with food and drink is the cause of sustenance, and the metabolism of the food and drink replaces the waste of the bodily energies. Therefore, the body’s health is dependent on healthy actions of the intestines and the arteries. The rivers and the seas, being the controlling deities of the two, keep the intestines and the arteries in healthy order. TEXT 30 iNaidDYaaSaaeraTMaMaaYaa& ôdYa& iNari>aÛTa ) TaTaae MaNaêNd] wiTa SaªLPa" k-aMa Wv c

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nididhyäsor ätma-mäyäà hådayaà nirabhidyata tato manaç candra iti saìkalpaù käma eva ca SYNONYMS nididhyäsoù—being desirous to know; ätma-mäyäm—own energy; hådayam—the location of the mind; nirabhidyata—was manifested; tataù—thereafter; manaù—the mind; candraù—the controlling deity of the mind, the moon; iti—thus; saìkalpaù—determination; kämaù—desire; eva—as much as; ca—also. TRANSLATION When there was a desire to think about the activities of His own energy, then the heart (the seat of the mind), the mind, the moon, determination and all desire became manifested. Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The heart of every living entity is the seat of the Supersoul, Paramätmä, a plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Without His presence the living entity cannot get into the working energy according to his past deeds. The living entities who are conditioned in the material world are manifested in the creation in terms of respective inclinations inherent in them, and the requisite material body is offered to each and every one of them by the material energy under the direction of the Supersoul. This is explained in the Bhagavad-gétä (9.10). When, therefore, the Supersoul is situated in the heart of the conditioned soul, the requisite mind is manifested in the conditioned soul, and he becomes conscious of his occupation as one is conscious of his duty after waking up from slumber. Therefore the material mind of the living entity develops when the Supersoul sits on his heart, after which the mind, the controlling deity (moon), and then the activities of the mind (namely thinking, feeling and willing) all take place. The activities of the mind cannot begin without the manifestation of the heart, and the heart becomes manifested when the Lord wants to see the activities of the material creation. TEXT 31 TvKcMaRMaa&SaåiDarMaedaeMaÂaiSQaDaaTav" ) >aUMYaáeJaaeMaYaa" Saá Pa[aa" )) 31 )) tvak-carma-mäàsa-rudhiramedo-majjästhi-dhätavaù bhümy-ap-tejomayäù sapta präëo vyomämbu-väyubhiù SYNONYMS tvak—the thin layer on the skin; carma—skin; mäàsa—flesh; rudhira—blood; Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

medaù—fat; majjä—marrow; asthi—bone; dhätavaù—elements; bhümi—earth; ap—water; tejaù—fire; mayäù—predominating; sapta—seven; präëaù—breathing air; vyoma—sky; ambu—water; väyubhiù—by the air. TRANSLATION The seven elements of the body, namely the thin layer on the skin, the skin itself, the flesh, blood, fat, marrow and bone, are all made of earth, water and fire, whereas the life breath is produced by the sky, water and air. PURPORT The construction of the whole material world is prominently made by three elements, namely earth, water and fire. But the living force is produced by sky, air and water. So water is the common element in both the gross and subtle forms of all material creation, and it should be noted herewith that due to necessity, water, being most prominent in the material creation, is the principal element of all the five. This material body is thus an embodiment of the five elements, and the gross manifestation is perceived because of three, namely earth, water, and fire. Sensations of touch are perceived due to the thin layer on the skin, and bone is as good as hard stone. The breathing air of life is produced of sky, air and water, and therefore open air, regular bath and ample space in which to live are favorable for healthy vitality. Fresh produce from the earth like grains and vegetables, as well as fresh water and heat, is good for the upkeep of the gross body. TEXT 32 Gauava GauaGavd]UPae MaYaa Tae ùNauviae AiPa Na Ga*õiNTa MaaYaaSa*íe ivPaiêTa" )) 35 )) amuné bhagavad-rüpe Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

mayä te hy anuvarëite ubhe api na gåhëanti mäyä-såñöe vipaçcitaù SYNONYMS amuné—all these; bhagavat—unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rüpe—in the forms; mayä—by me; te—unto you; hi—certainly; anuvarëite—described respectively; ubhe—both; api—also; na—never; gåhëanti—accepts; mäyä—external; såñöe—being so manifested; vipaù-citaù—the learned one who knows. TRANSLATION Neither of the above forms of the Lord, as just described unto you from the material angle of vision, is accepted by the pure devotees of the Lord who know Him well. PURPORT The impersonalists think of the Absolute Personality of Godhead in two different ways, as above mentioned. On the one hand they worship the Lord in His viçva-rüpa, or all-pervading universal form, and on the other they think of the Lord’s unmanifested, indescribable, subtle form. The theories of pantheism and monism are respectively applicable to these two conceptions of the Supreme as gross and subtle, but both of them are rejected by the learned pure devotees of the Lord because they are aware of the factual position. This is very clearly mentioned in the Eleventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gétä, which records Arjuna’s experience of the viçva-rüpa of the Supreme Lord Çré Kåñëa. adåñöa-pürvaà håñito ’smi dåñövä bhayena ca pravyathitaà mano me tad eva me darçaya deva rüpaà praséda deveça jagan-niväsa (Bg. 11.45) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

Arjuna, as a pure devotee of the Lord, never previously saw the contemplated universal form of the Lord (viçva-rüpa), but when he did see it, his curiosities were satisfied. But he was not happy to see such a form of the Lord because of his attachment as a pure devotee. He was afraid to see the gigantic form of the Lord. He therefore prayed to the Lord to assume His four-handed Näräyaëa or Kåñëa form, which alone could please Arjuna. Undoubtedly the Lord has the supreme potency to exhibit Himself in multifarious forms, but the pure devotees of the Lord are interested in His forms as eternally exhibited in the abode of the Lord, known as the tripäd-vibhüti or kingdom of God. The Lord in the tripäd-vibhüti abode exhibits Himself in two forms, either with four hands or with two hands. The viçva-rüpa exhibited in the material manifestation has unlimited hands and unlimited dimensions with everything unlimited. The pure devotees of the Lord worship Him in His Vaikuëöha forms as Näräyaëa or Kåñëa. Sometimes the same Vaikuëöha forms of the Lord are in the material world also by His grace as Çré Räma, Çré Kåñëa, Çré Narasiàhadeva, etc., and thus the pure devotees also worship them. Usually the features shown in the material world have no existence in the Vaikuëöha planets, and thus they are not accepted by the pure devotees. What the pure devotees worship from the very beginning are eternal forms of the Lord existing in the Vaikuëöha planets. The nondevotee impersonalists imagine the material forms of the Lord, and ultimately they merge in the impersonal brahmajyoti of the Lord, whereas the pure devotees of the Lord are worshipers of the Lord both in the beginning and also in the perfect stage of salvation, eternally. The worship of the pure devotee never stops, whereas the worship of the impersonalist stops after his attainment of salvation, when he merges in the impersonal form of the Lord known as the brahmajyoti. Therefore the pure devotees of the Lord are described here as vipaçcita, or the learned who are in the knowledge of the Lord perfectly. TEXT 36 Sa vaCYavack-TaYaa >aGavaNa( b]øæPaDa*k(- ) Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

NaaMaæPai§-Yaa Datae Sak-MaaRk-MaRk-" Par" )) 36 )) sa väcya-väcakatayä bhagavän brahma-rüpa-dhåk näma-rüpa-kriyä dhatte sakarmäkarmakaù paraù SYNONYMS saù—He; väcya—by His forms and activities; väcakatayä—by His transcendental qualities and entourage; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; brahma—absolute; rüpa-dhåk—by accepting visible forms; näma—name; rüpa—form; kriyä—pastimes; dhatte—accepts; sa-karma—engaged in work; akarmakaù—without being affected; paraù—transcendence. TRANSLATION He, the Personality of Godhead, manifests Himself in a transcendental form, being the subject of His transcendental name, quality, pastimes, entourage and transcendental variegatedness. Although He is unaffected by all such activities, He appears to be so engaged. PURPORT Whenever there is a need of material creation, the transcendental Personality of Godhead accepts forms in the material world for creation, maintenance and destruction. One should be intelligent enough to know His activities in truth and not be biased to conclude that He descends to the material world by accepting a form created by material nature. Any form accepted from the material nature has its affection for everything done in the material world. A conditioned soul who accepts a material form for undergoing a certain term of material activities is subjected to the laws of matter. But here in this verse it is clearly stated that although the forms and activities of the Lord appear to be the same as those of a conditioned soul, they are Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

supernatural and impossible for the conditioned soul. He, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is always unaffected by such activities. In the Bhagavad-gétä (4.14) the Lord says: na mäà karmäëi limpanti na me karma-phale spåhä iti mäà yo ’bhijänäti karmabhir na sa badhyate The Lord is never affected by the activities which He apparently performs by His different incarnations and personalities, nor does He have any desire to achieve success by fruitive activities. The Lord is full by His different potencies of wealth, strength, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation, and thus He has no reason for physical exertion like the conditioned soul. Therefore an intelligent person who can distinguish between the transcendental activities of the Lord and the activities of the conditioned souls is also not bound by the reactions of activities. The Lord as Viñëu, Brahmä and Çiva conducts the three modes of material nature. From Viñëu is born Brahmä, and from Brahmä is born Çiva. Sometimes Brahmä is a separated part of Viñëu, and sometimes Brahmä is Viñëu Himself. Thus Brahmä creates the different species of life all over the universe, which means that the Lord creates the whole manifestation either by Himself or through the agency of His authorized deputies. TEXTS 37–40 Pa[JaaPaTaqNMaNaUNa( devaNa*zqNa( iPaTa*GaaÛNTae GaTaYaiñDaa ) YadEkE-k-Tarae_NYaa>Yaa& Sv>aav oPahNYaTae )) 41 )) sattvaà rajas tama iti tisraù sura-nå-närakäù taträpy ekaikaço räjan bhidyante gatayas tridhä yadaikaikataro ’nyäbhyäà sva-bhäva upahanyate SYNONYMS sattvam—the mode of goodness; rajaù—the mode of passion; tamaù—the mode of darkness; iti—thus; tisraù—the three; sura—demigod; nå—human being; närakäù—one who is suffering hellish conditions; tatra api—even there; ekaikaçaù—another; räjan—O King; bhidyante—divide into; gatayaù—movements; tridhä—three; yadä—at that time; ekaikataraù—one in relation with another; anyäbhyäm—from the other; sva-bhävaù—habit; upahanyate—develops. TRANSLATION According to the different modes of material nature—the mode of goodness, the mode of passion and the mode of darkness—there are different living creatures, who are known as demigods, human beings and hellish living entities. O King, even a particular mode of nature, being mixed with the other two, is divided into three, and thus each kind of living creature is influenced by the other modes and acquires its habits also.

Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

PURPORT The living entities individually are being conducted by a particular mode of nature, but at the same time there is every chance of their being influenced by the other two. Generally, all conditioned souls in the material encagement are influenced by the mode of passion because every one of them is trying to lord it over the material nature to fulfill his individual desire. But in spite of the individual mode of passion, there is always the chance of being influenced by the other modes of nature by association. If one is in good association he can develop the mode of goodness, and if in bad association he may develop the mode of darkness or ignorance. Nothing is stereotyped. One can change his habit by good or bad association, and one has to become intelligent enough to discriminate between good and bad. The best association is the service of the devotees of the Lord, and by that association one can become the highest qualified man by the grace of the Lord’s pure devotees. As we have already seen in the life of Çréla Närada Muni, he became the topmost devotee of the Lord simply by the association of pure devotees of the Lord. By birth he was the son of a maidservant and had no knowledge of his father and no academic education, even of the lowest status. But simply by associating with the devotees and by eating the remnants of their foodstuff, he gradually developed the transcendental qualities of the devotees. By such association, his taste for chanting and hearing the transcendental glories of the Lord became prominent, and because the glories of the Lord are nondifferent from the Lord, he got direct association with the Lord by means of sound representation. Similarly, there is the life of Ajämila (Sixth Canto), who was the son of a brähmaëa and was educated and trained properly in the discharge of the duties of a brähmaëa, but who in spite of all this, because he contacted the bad association of a prostitute, was put into the path of the lowest quality of caëòäla, or the last position for a human being. Therefore the Bhägavatam always recommends the association of the mahat, or the great soul, for opening the gate of salvation. To associate with persons engaged in lording it over the material world means to enter into the darkest region of hell. One should try to raise himself by the association of the great soul. That is the way of the Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

perfection of life. TEXT 42 Sa Wved& JaGaÖaTaa >aGavaNa( DaMaRæPaDa*k(- ) PauZa" )) 42 )) sa evedaà jagad-dhätä bhagavän dharma-rüpa-dhåk puñëäti sthäpayan viçvaà tiryaì-nara-surädibhiù SYNONYMS saù—He; eva—certainly; idam—this; jagat-dhätä—the maintainer of the entire universe; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; dharma-rüpa-dhåk—assuming the form of religious principles; puñëäti—maintains; sthäpayan—after establishing; viçvam—the universes; tiryak—living entities lower than the human beings; nara—the human beings; sura-ädibhiù—by the demigodly incarnations. TRANSLATION He, the Personality of Godhead, as the maintainer of all in the universe, appears in different incarnations after establishing the creation, and thus He reclaims all kinds of conditioned souls amongst the humans, the nonhumans and the demigods. PURPORT The Supreme Personality of Godhead Viñëu incarnates Himself in different societies of living entities to reclaim them from the clutches of illusion, and such activities of the Lord are not limited only to human society. He incarnates Himself even as a fish, hog, tree and many other forms, but less intelligent persons who have no knowledge of Him deride Him even if He is in Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

human society as a human being. The Lord therefore says in the Bhagavad-gétä (9.11): avajänanti mäà müòhä mänuñéà tanum äçritam paraà bhävam ajänanto mama bhüta-maheçvaram As we have already discussed in the previous verses, it is concluded that the Lord is never a product of the material creation. His transcendental position is always unchanged. He is the eternal form of knowledge and bliss, and He executes His almighty will by His different energies. As such, He is never the subject of reactions for any of His acts. He is transcendental to all such conceptions of actions and reactions. Even if He is visible in the material world, the exhibition is only of His internal energy, for He is above the good and bad conceptions of this material world. In the material world the fish or the hog may be considered lower than the man, but when the Lord appears as a fish or hog, He is neither of them in the material conception. It is His causeless mercy that He appears in every society or species of life, but He is never to be considered one of them. Conceptions of the material world such as good and bad, lower and upper, important and insignificant, are estimations of the material energy, and the Supreme Lord is transcendental to all such conceptions. The words paraà bhävam, or transcendental nature, can never be compared to the material conception. We should not forget that the potencies of the Almighty Lord are always the same and do not decrease because the Lord assumes the form of a lower animal. There is no difference between Lord Çré Räma, Lord Çré Kåñëa and His incarnations as a fish and hog. He is all-pervading and simultaneously localized at any and every place. But the foolish person with a poor fund of knowledge, for want of that paraà bhävam of the Lord, cannot understand how the Supreme Lord can take the form of a man or a fish. One compares everything to one’s own standard of knowledge, as the frog in the well considers the sea to be like the well. The frog in the well cannot even think of the sea, and when such a frog is informed of the greatness of the sea, it takes the conception of the sea as being a little greater Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

than the well. As such, one who is foolish about the transcendental science of the Lord will find it difficult to understand how Lord Viñëu can equally manifest Himself in every society of living entities. TEXT 43 TaTa" k-al/aiGanåd]aTMaa YaTSa*íiMadMaaTMaNa" ) SaiàYaC^iTa TaTa( k-ale/ gaNaaNaqk-iMavaiNal/" )) 43 )) tataù kälägni-rudrätmä yat såñöam idam ätmanaù sanniyacchati tat käle ghanänékam ivänilaù SYNONYMS tataù—thereafter, at the end; käla—destruction; agni—fire; rudra-ätmä—in the form of Rudra; yat—whatever; såñöam—created; idam—all these; ätmanaù—of His own; sam—completely; niyacchati—annihilates; tat käle—at the end of the millennium; ghana-anékam—bunches of clouds; iva—like that of; anilaù—air. TRANSLATION Thereafter, at the end of the millennium, the Lord Himself in the form of Rudra, the destroyer, will annihilate the complete creation as the wind displaces the clouds. PURPORT This creation is very appropriately compared to clouds. Clouds are created or situated in the sky, and when they are displaced they remain in the same sky without manifestation. Similarly, the whole creation is made by the Supreme Personality of God in His form of Brahmä, it is maintained by Him in the form of Viñëu, and it is destroyed by Him in the form of Rudra, or Çiva, all Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

in due course. This creation, maintenance and destruction are nicely explained in the Bhagavad-gétä (8.19–20) as follows: bhüta-grämaù sa eväyaà bhütvä bhütvä praléyate rätry-ägame ’vaçaù pärtha prabhavaty ahar-ägame paras tasmät tu bhävo ’nyo ’vyakto ’vyaktät sanätanaù yaù sa sarveñu bhüteñu naçyatsu na vinaçyati The nature of the material world is that it is first created very nicely, then it develops very nicely and stays for a great number of years (even beyond the calculation of the greatest mathematician), but after that it is again destroyed during the night of Brahmä, without any resistance, and at the end of the night of Brahmä it is again manifested as a creation to follow the same principles of maintenance and destruction. The foolish conditioned soul who has taken this temporary world as a permanent settlement has to learn intelligently why such creation and destruction take place. The fruitive actors in the material world are very enthusiastic in the creation of big enterprises, big houses, big empires, big industries and so many big, big things out of the energy and ingredients supplied by the material agent of the Supreme Lord. With such resources, and at the cost of valuable energy, the conditioned soul creates, satisfies his whims, but unwillingly has to depart from all his creations and enter into another phase of life to create again and again. To give hope to such foolish conditioned souls who waste their energy in this temporary material world, the Lord gives information that there is another nature, which is eternally existent without being occasionally created or destroyed, and that the conditioned soul can understand what he should do and how his valuable energy may be utilized. Instead of wasting his energy in matter, which is sure to be destroyed in due course by the supreme will, the conditioned soul should utilize his energy in the devotional service of the Lord so that he can be transferred to the other, eternal nature, where there is no birth, no death, no Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

creation, no destruction, but permanent life instead, full of knowledge and unlimited bliss. The temporary creation is thus exhibited and destroyed just to give information to the conditioned soul who is attached to temporary things. It is also meant to give him a chance for self-realization, and not for sense gratification, which is the prime aim of all fruitive actors. TEXT 44 wTQaM>aaveNa k-iQaTaae >aGavaNa( >aGavtaMa" ) NaeTQaM>aaveNa ih Par& d]íuMahRiNTa SaUrYa" )) 44 )) ittham-bhävena kathito bhagavän bhagavattamaù nettham-bhävena hi paraà drañöum arhanti sürayaù SYNONYMS ittham—in these features; bhävena—the matter of creation and destruction; kathitaù—described; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; bhagavat-tamaù—by the great transcendentalists; na—not; ittham—in this; bhävena—features; hi—only; param—most glorious; drañöum—to see; arhanti—deserve; sürayaù—great devotees. TRANSLATION The great transcendentalists thus describe the activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but the pure devotees deserve to see more glorious things in transcendence, beyond these features. PURPORT The Lord is not only the creator and destroyer of the material manifestations of His different energies. He is more than a simple creator and destroyer, for there is His feature of änanda, or His pleasure feature. This Copyright © 1998 The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Int'l. All Rights Reserved.

pleasure feature of the Lord is understood by the pure devotees only, and not by others. The impersonalist is satisfied simply by understanding the all-pervasive influence of the Lord. This is called Brahman realization. Greater than the impersonalist is the mystic who sees the Lord situated in his heart as Paramätmä, the partial representation of the Lord. But there are pure devotees who take part in the direct pleasure (änanda) potency of the Lord by factual reciprocation of loving service. The Lord in His abode called the Vaikuëöha planets, which are eternal manifestations, always remains with His associates and enjoys transcendental loving services by His pure devotees in different transcendental humors. The pure devotees of the Lord thus undergo a practice of that devotional service to the Lord during the manifestation of the creation and take full advantage of the manifestation by qualifying themselves to enter into the kingdom of God. The Bhagavad-gétä (18.55) confirms this: bhaktyä mäm abhijänäti yävän yaç cäsmi tattvataù tato mäà tattvato jïätvä viçate tad-anantaram By development of pure devotional service one can factually know the Lord as He is and thus be trained in the bona fide service of the Lord and be allowed to enter into the direct association of the Lord in so many capacities. The highest glorious association with the Lord is made possible in the planet of Goloka Våndävana, where Lord Kåñëa enjoys Himself with the gopés and His favorite animals, the surabhi cows. A description of this transcendental land of Kåñëa is given in the Brahma-saàhitä, which is considered by Lord Çré Caitanya to be the most authentic literature in this connection. TEXT 45 NaaSYa k-MaRia]aTauYaRivïSYa SauTaaNa( ivbNDaUNa( Pa[veXYa l/a+aa>avNae ddah )) 6 )) çré-çuka uväca yadä tu räjä sva-sutän asädhün puñëan na dharmeëa vinañöa-dåñöiù bhrätur yaviñöhasya sutän vibandhün praveçya läkñä-bhavane dadäha SYNONYMS çré-çukaù uväca—Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé said; yadä—when; tu—but; räjä—King Dhåtaräñöra; sva-sutän—his own sons; asädhün—dishonest; puñëan—nourishing; na— never; dharmeëa—on the right path; vinañöa-dåñöiù—one who has lost his insight; bhrätuù—of his brother; yaviñöhasya—younger; sutän—sons; vibandhün—having no guardian (father); praveçya—made to enter; läkñä—lacquer; bhavane—in the house; dadäha—set on fire. TRANSLATION Çré Çukadeva Gosvämé said: King Dhåtaräñöra became blind under the influence of impious desires to nourish his dishonest sons, and thus he set fire to the lacquer house to burn his fatherless nephews, the Päëòavas. PURPORT Dhåtaräñöra was blind from birth, but his blindness in committing impious activities to support his dishonest sons was a greater blindness than his physical lack of eyesight. The physical lack of sight does not bar one from spiritual progress. But when one is blind spiritually, even though physically fit, that blindness is dangerously detrimental to the progressive path of human life. TEXT 7 Yada Sa>aaYaa& ku-ådevdeVYaa" ke-Xaai>aMaXa| SauTak-MaR GaùRMa( ) 6 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

Na varYaaMaaSa Na*Pa" òuzaYaa" SvaóEhRrNTYaa" ku-cku-x(ku-MaaiNa )) 7 )) yadä sabhäyäà kuru-deva-devyäù keçäbhimarçaà suta-karma garhyam na värayäm äsa nåpaù snuñäyäù sväsrair harantyäù kuca-kuìkumäni SYNONYMS yadä—when; sabhäyäm—the assembly; kuru-deva-devyäù—of Draupadé, the wife of godly Yudhiñöhira; keça-abhimarçam—insult by grabbing her hair; suta-karma—action taken by his son; garhyam—which was abominable; na—did not; värayäm äsa—forbid; nåpaù—the King; snuñäyäù—of his nephew's wife; sväsraiù—by her tears; harantyäù—of she who was washing; kuca-kuìkumäni—red dust on her breast. TRANSLATION The King did not forbid his son Duùçäsana's abominable action of grabbing the hair of Draupadé, the wife of the godly King Yudhiñöhira, even though her tears washed the red dust on her breast. TEXT 8 ÛUTae TvDaMaeRYaizÄC^TaPa}aNae}aae Na*PaaSaNaaXaa& PairôTYa dUraTa(

)) 29 ))

kaccit sukhaà sätvata-våñëi-bhojadäçärhakäëäm adhipaù sa äste yam abhyañiïcac chata-patra-netro nåpäsanäçäà parihåtya dürät SYNONYMS 33 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

kaccit—whether; sukham—is all well; sätvata—the Sätvata race; våñëi—the Våñëi dynasty; bhoja—the Bhoja dynasty; däçärhakäëäm—the Däçärha race; adhipaù—King Ugrasena; saù—he; äste—does exist; yam—whom; abhyañiïcat—installed; çata-patranetraù—Lord Çré Kåñëa; nåpa-äsana-äçäm—hope of the royal throne; parihåtya—giving up; dürät—at a distant place. TRANSLATION O my friend, [tell me] whether Ugrasena, the King of the Sätvatas, Våñëis, Bhojas and Däçärhas, is now doing well. He went far away from his kingdom, leaving aside all hopes of his royal throne, but Lord Kåñëa again installed him. TEXT 30 k-iÀÖre" SaaEMYa SauTa" Sad*+a AaSTae_Ga]aGavTPa[Paà" ) Ya" k*-ZaàDaEYaR" )) 32 )) kaccid budhaù svasty anaméva äste çvaphalka-putro bhagavat-prapannaù yaù kåñëa-pädäìkita-märga-päàsuñv aceñöata prema-vibhinna-dhairyaù SYNONYMS kaccit—whether; budhaù—very learned; svasti—well; anamévaù—faultless; äste—does exist; çvaphalka-putraù—the son of Çvaphalka, Akrüra; bhagavat—regarding the Personality of Godhead; prapannaù—surrendered; yaù—one who; kåñëa—the Lord; päda-aìkita—marked with footprints; märga—path; päàsuñu—in the dust; aceñöata— exhibited; prema-vibhinna—lost in transcendental love; dhairyaù—mental equilibrium. TRANSLATION Please tell me whether Akrüra, the son of Çvaphalka, is doing well. He is a faultless soul surrendered unto the Personality of Godhead. He once lost his mental equilibrium due to his ecstasy of transcendental love and fell down on the dust of a road which was marked with the footprints of Lord Kåñëa. PURPORT When Akrüra came to Våndävana in search of Kåñëa, he saw the footprints of the Lord on the dust of Nanda-gräma and at once fell on them in ecstasy of transcendental love. This ecstasy is possible for a devotee who is fully absorbed in incessant thoughts of Kåñëa. Such a pure devotee of the Lord is naturally faultless because he is always associated with the supremely pure Personality of Godhead. Constant thought of the Lord is the antiseptic method for keeping oneself free from the infectious contamination of the material qualities. The pure devotee of the Lord is always in company with the Lord by thinking of Him. Yet, in the particular context of time and

37 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

place, the transcendental emotions take a different turn, and this breaks the mental equilibrium of the devotee. Lord Caitanya displayed the typical example of transcendental ecstasy, as we can understand from the life of this incarnation of God. TEXT 33 k-iÀiC^v& devk->aaeJaPau}Yaa ivZaêTaó" )) 40 )) aho påthäpi dhriyate 'rbhakärthe räjarñi-varyeëa vinäpi tena yas tv eka-véro 'dhiratho vijigye dhanur dvitéyaù kakubhaç catasraù SYNONYMS aho—O my lord; påthä—Kunté; api—also; dhriyate—bears her life; arbhaka-arthe—for the sake of fatherless children; räjarñi—King Päëòu; varyeëa—the best; vinä api— without him; tena—him; yaù—one who; tu—but; eka—alone; véraù—the warrior; adhirathaù—commander; vijigye—could conquer; dhanuù—the bow; dvitéyaù—the second; kakubhaù—directions; catasraù—four. TRANSLATION O my lord, is Påthä still living? She lived only for the sake of her fatherless children; otherwise it was impossible for her to live without King Päëòu, who was the greatest commander and who alone conquered the four directions simply with the help of a second bow. 45 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

PURPORT A faithful wife cannot live without her lord, the husband, and therefore all widows used to voluntarily embrace the burning fire which consumed the dead husband. This system was very common in India because all the wives were chaste and faithful to their husbands. Later on, with the advent of the age of Kali, the wives gradually began to be less adherent to their husbands, and the voluntary embrace of the fire by the widows became a thing of the past. Very recently the system was abolished, since the voluntary system had become a forcible social custom. When Mahäräja Päëòu died, both his wives, namely Kunté and Mädré, were prepared to embrace the fire, but Mädré requested Kunté to live for the sake of the younger children, the five Päëòavas. This was agreed upon by Kunté at the added request of Vyäsadeva. In spite of her great bereavement, Kunté decided to live, not to enjoy life in the absence of her husband, but only to give protection to the children. This incident is referred to here by Vidura because he knew all the facts about his sister-in-law Kuntédevé. It is understood that Mahäräja Päëòu was a great warrior and that he alone, with the help of bow and arrow, could conquer the world's four directions. In the absence of such a husband, it was almost impossible for Kunté to live on even as a widow, but she had to do it for the sake of the five children. TEXT 41 SaaEMYaaNauXaaece TaMaDa"PaTaNTa& >a]a}ae PareTaaYa ivdud]uhe Ya" ) iNaYaaRiPaTaae YaeNa SauôTSvPauYaaR Ah& SvPau}aaNa( SaMaNauv]TaeNa

)) 41 ))

saumyänuçoce tam adhaù-patantaà bhrätre paretäya vidudruhe yaù niryäpito yena suhåt sva-puryä ahaà sva-puträn samanuvratena SYNONYMS saumya—O gentle one; anuçoce—I lament; tam—him; adhaù-patantam—gliding down; bhrätre—on his brother's; paretäya—death; vidudruhe—revolted against; yaù—one who; 46 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

niryäpitaù—driven out; yena—by whom; suhåt—well-wisher; sva-puryäù—from his own house; aham—myself; sva-puträn—with his own sons; samanu-vratena—accepting the same line of action. TRANSLATION O gentle one, I simply lament for he [Dhåtaräñöra] who rebelled against his brother after death. By him I was driven out of my own house, although I am his sincere well-wisher, because he accepted the line of action adopted by his own sons. PURPORT Vidura did not ask about the welfare of his elder brother because there was no chance of his well-being, only news of his gliding down to hell. Vidura was a sincere well-wisher for Dhåtaräñöra, and he had a thought about him in the corner of his heart. He lamented that Dhåtaräñöra could rebel against the sons of his dead brother Päëòu and that he could drive him (Vidura) out of his own house on the dictation of his crooked sons. In spite of these actions, Vidura never became an enemy of Dhåtaräñöra but continued to be his well-wisher, and at the last stage of Dhåtaräñöra's life, it was Vidura only who proved to be his real friend. Such is the behavior of a Vaiñëava like Vidura: he desires all good, even for his enemies. SB 3.1.42

TEXT 42 Saae_h& [email protected] d*Xaae Na*YaÛRMaaNaeZvNauk-iMPaTaaTMaa ) ParavreXaae Mahd&XaYau¢-ae ùJaae_iPa JaaTaae >aGavaNa( YaQaaiGan" )) 15 )) 73 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

sva-çänta-rüpeñv itaraiù sva-rüpair abhyardyamäneñv anukampitätmä parävareço mahad-aàça-yukto hy ajo 'pi jäto bhagavän yathägniù SYNONYMS sva-çänta-rüpeñu—unto the peaceful devotees of the Lord; itaraiù—others, nondevotees; sva-rüpaiù—according to their own modes of nature; abhyardyamäneñu—being harassed by; anukampita-ätmä—the all-compassionate Lord; para-avara—spiritual and material; éçaù—controller; mahat-aàça-yuktaù—accompanied by the plenary portion of mahattattva; hi—certainly; ajaù—the unborn; api—although; jätaù—is born; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; yathä—as if; agniù—the fire. TRANSLATION The Personality of Godhead, the all-compassionate controller of both the spiritual and material creations, is unborn, but when there is friction between His peaceful devotees and persons who are in the material modes of nature, He takes birth just like fire, accompanied by the mahat-tattva. PURPORT The devotees of the Lord are by nature peaceful because they have no material hankering. A liberated soul has no hankering, and therefore he has no lamentation. One who wants to possess also laments when he loses his possession. Devotees have no hankerings for material possessions and no hankerings for spiritual salvation. They are situated in the transcendental loving service of the Lord as a matter of duty, and they do not mind where they are or how they have to act. Karmés, jïänés and yogés all hanker to possess some material or spiritual assets. Karmés want material possessions, jïänés and yogés want spiritual possessions, but devotees do not want any material or spiritual assets. They want only to serve the Lord anywhere in the material or spiritual worlds that the Lord desires, and the Lord is always specifically compassionate towards such devotees. The karmés, jïänés and yogés have their particular mentalities in the modes of nature, and therefore they are called itara or nondevotees. These itaras, including even the yogés, sometimes harass the devotees of the Lord. Durväsä Muni, a great yogé, harassed Mahäräja Ambaréña because the latter was a great devotee of the Lord. And the great 74 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

karmé and jïäné Hiraëyakaçipu even harassed his own Vaiñëava son, Prahläda Mahäräja. There are many instances of such harassment of the peaceful devotees of the Lord by the itaras. When such friction takes place, the Lord, out of His great compassion towards His pure devotees, appears in person, accompanied by His plenary portions controlling the mahat-tattva. The Lord is everywhere, in both the material and spiritual domains, and He appears for the sake of His devotees when there is friction between His devotee and the nondevotee. As electricity is generated by friction of matter anywhere and everywhere, the Lord, being all-pervading, appears because of the friction of devotees and nondevotees. When Lord Kåñëa appears on a mission, all His plenary portions accompany Him. When He appeared as the son of Vasudeva, there were differences of opinion about His incarnation. Some said, "He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead." Some said, "He is an incarnation of Näräyaëa," and others said, "He is the incarnation of Kñérodakaçäyé Viñëu." But actually He is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead— kåñëas tu bhagavän svayam [SB 1.3.28]—and Näräyaëa, the puruñas and all other incarnations accompany Him to function as different parts of His pastimes. Mahadaàça-yuktaù indicates that He is accompanied by the puruñas, who create the mahattanva. It is confirmed in the Vedic hymns, mahäntaà vibhum ätmänam. Lord Kåñëa appeared, just like electricity, when there was friction between Kaàsa and Vasudeva and Ugrasena. Vasudeva and Ugrasena were the Lord's devotees, and Kaàsa, a representative of the karmés and jïänés, was a nondevotee. Kåñëa, as He is, is compared to the sun. He first appeared from the ocean of the womb of Devaké, and gradually He satisfied the inhabitants of the places surrounding Mathurä, just as the sun enlivens the lotus flower in the morning. After gradually rising to the meridian of Dvärakä, the Lord set like the sun, placing everything in darkness, as described by Uddhava. TEXT 16 Maa& %edYaTYaeTadJaSYa JaNMa‚ [email protected]& YaÜSaudevGaehe ) v]Jae c vaSaae_ir>aYaaidv SvYa& Paurad( VYavaTSaqÛdNaNTavqYaR" )) 16 )) mäà khedayaty etad ajasya janmaviòambanaà yad vasudeva-gehe 75 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

vraje ca väso 'ri-bhayäd iva svayaà puräd vyavätséd yad-ananta-véryaù SYNONYMS mäm—to me; khedayati—gives me distress; etat—this; ajasya—of the unborn; janma— birth; viòambanam—bewildering; yat—that; vasudeva-gehe—in the home of Vasudeva; vraje—in Våndävana; ca—also; väsaù—inhabitation; ari—enemy; bhayät—because of fear; iva—as if; svayam—Himself; purät—from Mathurä Puré; vyavätsét—fled; yat—one who is; ananta-véryaù—unlimitedly powerful. TRANSLATION When I think of Lord Kåñëa-how He was born in the prison house of Vasudeva although He is unborn, how He went away from His father's protection to Vraja and lived there incognito out of fear of the enemy, and how, although unlimitedly powerful, He fled from Mathurä in fear—all these bewildering incidents give me distress. PURPORT Because Lord Çré Kåñëa is the original person from whom everything and everyone has emanated—ahaà sarvasya prabhavaù (Bg. 10.8), janmädy asya yataù [SB 1.1.1] (Vedäntasütra 1.1.2)—nothing can be equal to or greater than Him. The Lord is supremely perfect, and whenever He enacts His transcendental pastimes as a son, a rival or an object of enmity, He plays the part so perfectly that even pure devotees like Uddhava are bewildered. For example, Uddhava knew perfectly well that Lord Çré Kåñëa is eternally existent and can neither die nor disappear for good, yet he lamented for Lord Kåñëa. All these events are perfect arrangements to give perfection to His supreme glories. It is for enjoyment's sake. When a father plays with his little son and the father lies down on the floor as if defeated by the son, it is just to give the little son pleasure, and nothing more. Because the Lord is all-powerful, it is possible for Him to adjust opposites such as birth and no birth, power and defeat, fear and fearlessness. A pure devotee knows very well how it is possible for the Lord to adjust opposite things, but he laments for the nondevotees who, not knowing the supreme glories of the Lord, think of Him as imaginary simply because there are so many apparently contradictory statements in the scriptures. Factually there is nothing contradictory; everything is possible when we understand the Lord as the Lord and not as one of us, with all our imperfection. 76 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

TEXT 17 duNaaeiTa ceTa" SMarTaae MaMaETad( Yadah Paadavi>avNÛ iPa}aae" ) TaaTaaMb k&-SaaduåXaiªTaaNaa& Pa[SaqdTa& Naae_k*-TaiNaZk*-TaqNaaMa( )) 17 )) dunoti cetaù smarato mamaitad yad äha pädäv abhivandya pitroù tätämba kaàsäd uru-çaìkitänäà prasédataà no 'kåta-niñkåténäm SYNONYMS dunoti—it gives me pain; cetaù—heart; smarataù—while thinking of; mama—my; etat—this; yat—as much as; äha—said; pädau—feet; abhivandya—worshiping; pitroù— of the parents; täta—My dear father; amba—My dear mother; kaàsät—out of Kaàsa's; uru—great; çaìkitänäm—of those who are afraid; prasédatam—be pleased with; naù— Our; akåta—not executed; niñkåténäm—duties to serve you. TRANSLATION Lord Kåñëa begged pardon from His parents for Their [Kåñëa's and Balaräma's] inability to serve their feet, due to being away from home because of great fear of Kaàsa. He said, "O mother, O father, please excuse Us for this inability." All this behavior of the Lord gives me pain at heart. PURPORT It appears that Lord Kåñëa and Baladeva were both very greatly afraid of Kaàsa, and therefore They had to hide Themselves. But if Lord Kåñëa and Baladeva are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, how was it possible that They were afraid of Kaàsa? Is there any contradiction in such statements? Vasudeva, due to his great appreciation for Kåñëa, wanted to give Him protection. He never thought that Kåñëa was the Supreme Lord and could protect Himself; he thought of Kåñëa as his son. Because Vasudeva was a 77 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

great devotee of the Lord, he did not like to think that Kåñëa might be killed like his other children. Morally, Vasudeva was bound to deliver Kåñëa to the hands of Kaàsa because he had promised to turn over all his children. But out of his great love for Kåñëa he broke his promise, and the Lord was very pleased with Vasudeva for his transcendental mentality. He did not want to disturb the intense affection of Vasudeva, and thus He agreed to be carried by His father to the house of Nanda and Yaçodä. And just to test the intense love of Vasudeva, Lord Kåñëa fell down in the waters of the Yamunä while His father was crossing the river. Vasudeva became mad after his child as he tried to recover Him in the midst of the rising river. These are all glorified pastimes of the Lord, and there is no contradiction in such manifestations. Since Kåñëa is the Supreme Lord, He was never afraid of Kaàsa, but to please His father He agreed to be so. And the most brilliant part of His supreme character was that He begged pardon from His parents for being unable to serve their feet while absent from home because of fear of Kaàsa. The Lord, whose lotus feet are worshiped by demigods like Brahmä and Çiva, wanted to worship the feet of Vasudeva. Such instruction by the Lord to the world is quite appropriate. Even if one is the Supreme Lord, one must serve his parents. A son is indebted to his parents in so many ways, and it is the duty of the son to serve his parents, however great the son may be. Indirectly, Kåñëa wanted to teach the atheists who do not accept the supreme fatherhood of God, and they may learn from this action how much the Supreme Father has to be respected. Uddhava was simply struck with wonder by such glorious behavior of the Lord, and he was very sorry that he was unable to go with Him. TEXT 18 k-ae va AMauZYaax(iga]SaraeJarea]Uiv$=PaeNa >aUMae‚ >aaRr& k*-TaaNTaeNa iTarêk-ar )) 18 )) ko vä amuñyäìghri-saroja-reëuà vismartum éçéta pumän vijighran yo visphurad-bhrü-viöapena bhümer bhäraà kåtäntena tiraçcakära

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SYNONYMS kaù—who else; vä—either; amuñya—the Lord's; aìghri—feet; saroja-reëum—dust of the lotus; vismartum—to forget; éçéta—may be able; pumän—person; vijighran— smelling; yaù—one who; visphurat—expanding; bhrü-viöapena—by the leaves of the eyebrows; bhümeù—of the earth; bhäram—burden; kåta-antena—by death-blows; tiraçcakära—executed. TRANSLATION Who, after smelling the dust of His lotus feet even once, could ever forget it? Simply by expanding the leaves of His eyebrows, Kåñëa has given the deathblow to those who were burdening the earth. PURPORT Lord Kåñëa cannot be accepted as one of the human beings, even though He played the role of an obedient son. His actions were so extraordinary that by the simple raising of His eyebrows He could deliver death-blows to those who were burdening the earth. TEXT 19 d*ía >aviÙNaRNau raJaSaUYae cEÛSYa k*-Za*Taaàae ivGl/aPaYaTYa(r) YaduGa]SaeNaMa( ) iTaïiàzau" ) YaMauNaaePavNae kU-Jad(iÜJaSax(ku-il/Taax(iga]Pae )) 27 )) paréto vatsapair vatsäàç cärayan vyaharad vibhuù yamunopavane küjaddvija-saìkulitäìghripe SYNONYMS parétaù—surrounded by; vatsapaiù—cowherd boys; vatsän—calves; cärayan—herding, tending; vyaharat—enjoyed by traveling; vibhuù—the Almighty; yamunä—the Yamunä River; upavane—gardens on the shore; küjat—vibrated by the voice; dvija—the twiceborn birds; saìkulita—densely situated; aìghripe—in the trees. 90 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

TRANSLATION In His childhood, the Almighty Lord was surrounded by cowherd boys and calves, and thus He traveled on the shore of the Yamunä River, through gardens densely covered with trees and filled with vibrations of chirping birds. PURPORT Nanda Mahäräja was a landholder for King Kaàsa, but because by caste he was a vaiçya, a member of the mercantile and agricultural community, he maintained thousands of cows. It is the duty of the vaiçyas to give protection to the cows, just as the kñatriyas are to give protection to the human beings. Because the Lord was a child, He was put in charge of the calves with His cowherd boy friends. These cowherd boys were great åñis and yogés in their previous births, and after many such pious births, they gained the association of the Lord and could play with Him on equal terms. Such cowherd boys never cared to know who Kåñëa was, but they played with Him as a most intimate and lovable friend. They were so fond of the Lord that at night they would only think of the next morning when they would be able to meet the Lord and go together to the forests for cowherding. The forests on the shore of the Yamunä are all beautiful gardens full of trees of mango, jackfruit, apples, guava, oranges, grapes, berries, palmfruit and so many other plants and fragrant flowers. And because the forest was on the bank of the Yamunä, naturally there were ducks, cranes and peacocks on the branches of the trees. All these trees and birds and beasts were pious living entities born in the transcendental abode of Våndävana just to give pleasure to the Lord and His eternal associates, the cowherd boys. While playing like a small child with His associates, the Lord killed many demons, including Aghäsura, Bakäsura, Pralambäsura and Gardabhäsura. Although He appeared at Våndävana just as a boy, He was actually like the covered flames of a fire. As a small particle of fire can kindle a great fire with fuel, so the Lord killed all these great demons, beginning from His babyhood in the house of Nanda Mahäräja. The land of Våndävana, the Lord's childhood playground, still remains today, and anyone who visits these places enjoys the same transcendental bliss, although the Lord is not physically visible to our imperfect eyes. Lord Caitanya recommended this land of the Lord as identical with the Lord and therefore worshipable by the devotees. This instruction is taken up especially by the followers of Lord Caitanya known as the Gauòéya Vaiñëavas. And because the land is identical with the Lord, devotees like Uddhava and Vidura visited these places five thousand years ago in order to have direct contact with the Lord, visible or not 91 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

visible, Thousands of devotees of the Lord are still wandering in these sacred places of Våndävana, and all of them are preparing themselves to go back home, back to Godhead. TEXT 28 k-aEMaarq& dXaRYa&êeía& Pa[e+aaU" ku-å+ae}a& YaezaMaaPaTaTaa& blE/" )) 12 )) atha te bhrätå-puträëäà pakñayoù patitän nåpän cacäla bhüù kurukñetraà yeñäm äpatatäà balaiù SYNONYMS atha—thereafter; te—your; bhrätå-puträëäm—of the nephews; pakñayoù—of both sides; patitän—killed; nåpän—kings; cacäla—shook; bhüù—the earth; kurukñetram—the Battle of Kurukñetra; yeñäm—of whom; äpatatäm—traversing; balaiù—by strength. TRANSLATION Then, O Vidura, the Lord caused all the kings, both the enemies and those on the side of your fighting nephews, to be killed in the Battle of Kurukñetra. All those kings were so great and strong that the earth seemed to shake as they traversed the warfield. TEXT 13 Sak-aGavaNa( SvraJYae SQaaPYa DaMaRJaMa( ) NaNdYaaMaaSa Sauôd" SaaDaUNaa& vTMaR dXaRYaNa( )) 16 )) evaà saïcintya bhagavän sva-räjye sthäpya dharmajam nandayäm äsa suhådaù sädhünäà vartma darçayan SYNONYMS evam—thus; saïcintya—thinking within Himself; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; sva-räjye—in his own kingdom; sthäpya—installing; dharmajam—Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira; nandayäm äsa—gladdened; suhådaù—the friends; sädhünäm—of the saints; vartma—the path; darçayan—by indicating. TRANSLATION Lord Çré Kåñëa, thus thinking to Himself, established Mahäräja Yudhiñöhira in the position of supreme control of the world in order to show the ideal of administration on the path of piety. TEXT 17

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otaraYaa& Da*Ta" PaUraev|Xa" Saaßi>aMaNYauNaa ) Sa vE d]aEaivR>au" ) Saae_iPa +MaaMaNauJaE r+aNa( reMae k*-ZaSaa ) TaPaRiYaTvaQa ivPa[e>Yaae Gaavae bhuGauaRivRidTa& PaqTak-aEXaaMbreaaGavTaae ÜEPaaYaNaSauôTSa%a ) l/aek-aNaNaucrNa( iSaÖ AaSaSaad Yad*C^Yaa )) 9 )) tasmin mahä-bhägavato dvaipäyana-suhåt-sakhä lokän anucaran siddha äsasäda yadåcchayä SYNONYMS 138 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

tasmin—then; mahä-bhägavataù—a great devotee of the Lord; dvaipäyana—of Kåñëadvaipäyana Vyäsa; suhåt—a well-wisher; sakhä—a friend; lokän—the three worlds; anucaran—traveling; siddhe—in that äçrama; äsasäda—arrived; yadåcchayä—by his own perfect accord. TRANSLATION At that time, after traveling in many parts of the world, Maitreya, a great devotee of the Lord and a friend and well-wisher of the great sage Kåñëa-dvaipäyana Vyäsa, reached that spot out of his own perfect accord. PURPORT Maitreya was one of the disciples of Maharñi Paräçara, the father of Vyäsadeva. Thus Vyäsadeva and Maitreya were friends and mutual well-wishers. By some fortunate accident, Maitreya reached the place where Lord Çré Kåñëa was resting. To meet the Lord is not an ordinary incident. Maitreya was a great sage and a learned scholarphilosopher but not a pure devotee of the Lord, and therefore his meeting with the Lord at that time may have been due to ajïäta-sukåti, or some unknown devotional service. Pure devotees always engage in pure devotional activities, and therefore their meeting with the Lord is natural. But when those who are not up to that standard meet the Lord, it is due to the unforeseen fortune of accidental devotional service. TEXT 10 TaSYaaNaur¢-SYa MauNaeMauRku-Nd" Pa[Maaed>aavaNaTak-NDarSYa ) Aaé*Yae PaÚe iNazaaGavTa& vdiNTa )) 13 )) purä mayä proktam ajäya näbhye padme niñaëëäya mamädi-sarge jïänaà paraà man-mahimävabhäsaà yat sürayo bhägavataà vadanti SYNONYMS purä—in the days of yore; mayä—by Me; proktam—was said; ajäya—unto Brahmä; 143 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

näbhye—out of the navel; padme—on the lotus; niñaëëäya—unto the one situated on; mama—My; ädi-sarge—in the beginning of creation; jïänam—knowledge; param— sublime; mat-mahimä—My transcendental glories; avabhäsam—that which clarifies; yat—which; sürayaù—the great learned sages; bhägavatam—Çrémad-Bhägavatam; vadanti—do say. TRANSLATION O Uddhava, in the lotus millennium in the days of yore, at the beginning of the creation, I spoke unto Brahmä, who is situated on the lotus that grows out of My navel, about My transcendental glories, which the great sages describe as Çrémad-Bhägavatam. PURPORT The explanation of the Supreme Self, as given to Brahmä and already explained in the Second Canto of this great literature, is further clarified herein. The Lord said that the concise form of Çrémad-Bhägavatam as explained to Brahmä was meant to elucidate His personality. The impersonal explanation of those four verses in the Second Canto is nullified herewith. Çrédhara Svämé also explains in this connection that the same concise form of the Bhägavatam concerned the pastimes of Lord Kåñëa and was never meant for impersonal indulgence. SB 3.4.14

TEXT 14 wTYaad*Taae¢-" ParMaSYa Pau&Sa" Pa[iTa+aaaJaNaae_hMa( ) òehaeTQaraeMaa S%il/Taa+arSTa& MauÄH^uc" Pa[aÅil/rab>aaze )) 14 )) ity ädåtoktaù paramasya puàsaù pratikñaëänugraha-bhäjano 'ham snehottha-romä skhalitäkñaras taà muïcaï chucaù präïjalir äbabhäñe SYNONYMS 144 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

iti—thus; ädåta—being favored; uktaù—addressed; paramasya—of the Supreme; puàsaù—Personality of Godhead; pratikñaëa—every moment; anugraha-bhäjanaù— object of favor; aham—myself; sneha—affection; uttha—eruption; romä—hairs on the body; skhalita—slackened; akñaraù—of the eyes; tam—that; muïcan—smearing; çucaù—tears; präïjaliù—with folded hands; äbabhäñe—said. TRANSLATION Uddhava said: O Vidura, when I was thus favored at every moment by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and addressed by Him with great affection, my words failed in tears, and the hairs on my body erupted. After smearing my tears, I, with folded hands, spoke like this. TEXT 15 k-ae NvqXa Tae PaadSaraeJa>aaJaa& SaudulR/>aae_QaeRzu cTauZvRPaqh ) TaQaaiPa Naah& Pa[v*aUMaNa( >avTPadaM>aaeJaiNazevaGavaNa( SaMaGa]Ma( ) AiPa +aMa& Naae Ga]haTaR‚ vRdaÅSaa Yad( v*iJaNa& TareMa )) 18 )) jïänaà paraà svätma-rahaù-prakäçaà 149 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

proväca kasmai bhagavän samagram api kñamaà no grahaëäya bhartar vadäïjasä yad våjinaà tarema SYNONYMS jïänam—knowledge; param—supreme; sva-ätma—own self; rahaù—mystery; prakäçam—enlightening; proväca—said; kasmai—unto Ka (Brahmäjé); bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; samagram—in sum total; api—if so; kñamam—able; naù—unto me; grahaëäya—acceptable; bhartaù—O my Lord; vada—say; aïjasä—in detail; yat— that which; våjinam—miseries; tarema—can cross over. TRANSLATION My Lord, kindly explain to us, if You think us competent to receive it, that transcendental knowledge which gives enlightenment about Yourself and which You explained before to Brahmäjé. PURPORT A pure devotee like Uddhava has no material afflictions because he engages constantly in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. A devotee feels afflicted without the association of the Lord. Constant remembrance of the Lord's activities keeps the devotee alive, and therefore Uddhava requested that the Lord please enlighten him with the knowledge of Çrémad-Bhägavatam, as previously instructed to Brahmäjé. TEXT 19 wTYaaveidTahadaRYa Maù& Sa >aGavaNa( Par" ) AaiddeXaarivNda+a AaTMaNa" ParMaa& iSQaiTaMa( )) 19 )) ity ävedita-härdäya mahyaà sa bhagavän paraù ädideçäravindäkña ätmanaù paramäà sthitim

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SYNONYMS iti ävedita—thus being prayed to by me; härdäya—from the core of my heart; mahyam— unto me; saù—He; bhagavän—the Personality of Godhead; paraù—Supreme; ädideça— instructed; aravinda-akñaù—the lotus-eyed; ätmanaù—of Himself; paramäm— transcendental; sthitim—situation. TRANSLATION When I thus expressed my heartfelt desires unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the lotus-eyed Lord instructed me about His transcendental situation. PURPORT The words paramäà sthitim are significant in this verse. The Lord's transcendental situation was not even spoken of to Brahmä when the four verses of Çrémad-Bhägavatam (2.9.33-36) were explained. This transcendental situation comprises His dealings with devotees engaged in transcendental loving service, as exhibited at Dvärakä and Våndävana. When the Lord explained His specific transcendental situation, it was meant for Uddhava only, and therefore Uddhava particularly said mahyam ("unto me"), although the great sage Maitreya was also sitting there. Such a transcendental situation is hardly understood by those whose devotion is mixed with speculative knowledge or fruitive activities. The Lord's activities in confidential love are very rarely disclosed to the general devotees who are attracted by devotion mixed with knowledge and mysticism. Such activities are the inconceivable pastimes of the Lord. TEXT 20 Sa WvMaaraiDaTaPaadTaqQaaR‚ dDaqTaTatvaTMaivbaeDaMaaGaR" ) Pa[aavNaaE )) 22 )) yatra näräyaëo devo naraç ca bhagavän åñiù mådu tévraà tapo dérghaà tepäte loka-bhävanau SYNONYMS yatra—where; näräyaëaù—the Personality of Godhead; devaù—by incarnation; naraù—human being; ca—also; bhagavän—the Lord; åñiù—great sage; mådu—amiable to everyone; tévram—severe; tapaù—penance; dérgham—very long; tepäte—performing; 154 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

loka-bhävanau—welfare of all living entities. TRANSLATION There in Badarikäçrama the Personality of Godhead, in His incarnation as the sages Nara and Näräyaëa, has been undergoing great penance since time immemorial for the welfare of all amiable living entities. PURPORT Badarikäçrama in the Himalayas, the abode of the Nara-Näräyaëa sages, is a great place of pilgrimage for the Hindus. Even up to the present, hundreds and thousands of pious Hindus go to pay respects to the incarnation of Godhead Nara-Näräyaëa. It appears that even five thousand years ago this holy place was being visited by such a holy being as Uddhava, and even at that time the place was known to be very, very old. This particular pilgrimage site is very difficult to visit for ordinary men because of its difficult situation in the Himalayas in a place which is covered by ice almost all year. A few months during the summer season people can visit this place at great personal inconvenience. There are four dhämas, or kingdoms of God, which represent the planets of the spiritual sky, which consists of the brahmajyoti and the Vaikuëöhas. These are Badarikäçrama, Rameçvara, Jagannätha Puré and Dvärakä. Faithful Hindus still visit all these holy places for perfection of spiritual realization, following in the footsteps of devotees like Uddhava. TEXT 23 é[qéuk- ovac wTYauÖvaduPaak-aaGavTa& v]JaNTa& k-aErvzR>a" ) ivé[M>aad>YaDataed& Mau:Ya& k*-Za*TYaaQaRk*-TaêriNTa )) 25 )) vidura uväca jïänaà paraà svätma-rahaù-prakäçaà yad äha yogeçvara éçvaras te vaktuà bhavän no 'rhati yad dhi viñëor bhåtyäù sva-bhåtyärtha-kåtaç caranti

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SYNONYMS viduraù uväca—Vidura said; jïänam—knowledge; param—transcendental; sva-ätma— regarding the self; rahaù—mystery; prakäçam—enlightening; yat—that which; äha— said; yoga-éçvaraù—the master of all mystics; éçvaraù—the Lord; te—unto you; vaktum— to narrate; bhavän—your good self; naù—unto me; arhati—deserve; yat—for; hi— reason of; viñëoù—of Lord Viñëu; bhåtyäù—servants; sva-bhåtya-artha-kåtaù—for the interest of their servants; caranti—do wander. TRANSLATION Vidura said: O Uddhava, because the servants of Viñëu, the Lord, wander in the interest of serving others, it is quite fit that you kindly describe the self-knowledge with which you have been enlightened by the Lord Himself. PURPORT The servants of the Lord are actually the servants of society. They have no interest in human society other than to enlighten it in transcendental knowledge; they are interested in imparting knowledge of the relationship of the living being with the Supreme Lord, the activities in that transcendental relationship, and the ultimate goal of human life. That is the real knowledge which can help society achieve the real aim of human welfare. Knowledge in the matter of the bodily necessities of eating, sleeping, mating and fearing, transformed into various branches of advancement of knowledge, is all temporary. A living being is not the material body but an eternal part and parcel of the Supreme Being, and thus revival of his self-knowledge is essential. Without this knowledge, the human life is baffled. The servants of the Lord, Viñëu, are entrusted with this responsible work, and so they wander over the earth and to all other planets in the universe. Thus the knowledge which was received by Uddhava directly from the Lord deserves to be distributed in human society, especially to persons like Vidura, who are highly advanced in the devotional service of the Lord. Real transcendental knowledge descends in the disciplic succession from the Lord to Uddhava, from Uddhava to Vidura and so on. Such supreme transcendental knowledge is not possible to achieve by the process of imperfect speculation as performed by the socalled learned mundane wranglers. Vidura was anxious to know from Uddhava that confidential knowledge known as paramäà sthitim, in which the Lord is known by His transcendental pastimes. Although Vidura was older than Uddhava, he was anxious to 158 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

become a servant of Uddhava in the transcendental relationship. This formula of transcendental disciplic succession is taught by Lord Caitanya also. Lord Caitanya advises that one receive transcendental knowledge from anyone—whether a brähmaëa or a çüdra, a householder or a sannyäsé—provided that person is factually conversant with the science of Kåñëa. A person who knows the science of Kåñëa is factually a bona fide spiritual master. TEXT 26 oÖv ovac NaNau Tae TatvSa&raDYa ‰iz" k-aEzarvae_iNTake- ) Saa+aaÙGavTaaidíae MaTYaRl/aek&- iJahaSaTaa )) 26 )) uddhava uväca nanu te tattva-saàrädhya åñiù kauñäravo 'ntike säkñäd bhagavatädiñöo martya-lokaà jihäsatä SYNONYMS uddhavaù uväca—Uddhava said; nanu—however; te—of yourself; tattva-saàrädhyaù— one who is worshipable for reception of transcendental knowledge; åñiù—learned scholar; kauñäravaù—unto the son of Kuñäru (Maitreya); antike—staying nearby; säkñät—directly; bhagavatä—by the Personality of Godhead; ädiñöaù—instructed; martya-lokam—mortal world; jihäsatä—while quitting. TRANSLATION Çré Uddhava said: You may take lessons from the great learned sage Maitreya, who is nearby and who is worshipable for reception of transcendental knowledge. He was directly instructed by the Personality of Godhead while He was about to quit this mortal world. PURPORT 159 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

Although one may be well versed in the transcendental science, one should be careful about the offense of maryädä-vyatikrama, or impertinently surpassing a greater personality. According to scriptural injunction one should be very careful of transgressing the law of maryädä-vyatikrama because by so doing one loses his duration of life, his opulence, fame and piety and the blessings of all the world. To be well versed in the transcendental science necessitates awareness of the techniques of spiritual science. Uddhava, being well aware of all these technicalities of transcendental science, advised Vidura to approach Maitreya Åñi to receive transcendental knowledge. Vidura wanted to accept Uddhava as his spiritual master, but Uddhava did not accept the post because Vidura was as old as Uddhava's father and therefore Uddhava could not accept him as his disciple, especially when Maitreya was present nearby. The rule is that in the presence of a higher personality one should not be very eager to impart instructions, even if one is competent and well versed. So Uddhava decided to send an elderly person like Vidura to Maitreya, another elderly person, but he was well versed also because he was directly instructed by the Lord while He was about to quit this mortal world. Since both Uddhava and Maitreya were directly instructed by the Lord, both had the authority to become the spiritual master of Vidura or anyone else, but Maitreya, being elderly, had the first claim to becoming the spiritual master, especially for Vidura, who was much older than Uddhava. One should not be eager to become a spiritual master cheaply for the sake of profit and fame, but should become a spiritual master only for the service of the Lord. The Lord never tolerates the impertinence of maryädä-vyatikrama. One should never pass over the honor due to an elderly spiritual master in the interests of one's own personal gain and fame. Impertinence on the part of the pseudo spiritual master is very risky to progressive spiritual realization. TEXT 27 é[qéuk- ovac wiTa Sah ivdurea>aRrTazR>a ) Pa[aPaÛTa Sv"SairTa& Ya}a iMa}aaSauTaae MauiNa" )) 36 )) kälindyäù katibhiù siddha ahobhir bharatarñabha präpadyata svaù-saritaà yatra miträ-suto muniù

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SYNONYMS kälindyäù—on the bank of the Yamunä; katibhiù—a few; siddhe—being so passed; ahobhiù—days; bharata-åñabha—O best of the Bharata dynasty; präpadyata—reached; svaù-saritam—the celestial water of the Ganges; yatra—where; miträ-sutaù—the son of Mitra-; muniù—sage. TRANSLATION After passing a few days on the bank of the River Yamunä, Vidura, the self-realized soul, reached the bank of the Ganges, where the great sage Maitreya was situated. Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fourth Chapter, Third Canto, of the ÇrémadBhägavatam, entitled "Vidura Approaches Maitreya."

5. Vidura's Talks with Maitreya

TEXT 1 é[qéuk- ovac Üair ÛuNaÛa ‰z>a" ku-æaaviSaÖ" PaPa[C^ SaaEXaqLYaGauaTa*á" )) 1 )) çré-çuka uväca dväri dyu-nadyä åñabhaù kurüëäà maitreyam äsénam agädha-bodham kñattopasåtyäcyuta-bhäva-siddhaù papraccha sauçélya-guëäbhitåptaù

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SYNONYMS çré-çukaù uväca—Çukadeva Gosvämé said; dväri—at the source of; dyu-nadyäù—the celestial River Ganges; åñabhaù—the best of the Kurus; kurüëäm—of the Kurus; maitreyam—unto Maitreya; äsénam—sitting; agädha-bodham—of unfathomed knowledge; kñattä—Vidura; upasåtya—having approached nearer; acyuta—the infallible Lord; bhäva—character; siddhaù—perfect; papraccha—inquired; sauçélya—gentleness; guëa-abhitåptaù—satisfied in transcendental qualities. TRANSLATION Çukadeva Gosvämé said: Vidura, the best amongst the Kuru dynasty, who was perfect in devotional service to the Lord, thus reached the source of the celestial Ganges River [Hardwar], where Maitreya, the great, fathomless learned sage of the world, was seated. Vidura, who was perfect in gentleness and satisfied in transcendence, inquired from him. PURPORT Vidura was already perfect due to his unalloyed devotion to the infallible Lord. The Lord and the living entities are all qualitatively the same by nature, but the Lord is quantitatively much greater than any individual living entity. He is ever infallible, whereas the living entities are prone to fall under the illusory energy. Vidura had already surpassed the fallible nature of the living entity in conditional life due to his being acyuta-bhäva, or legitimately absorbed in the devotional service of the Lord. This stage of life is called acyuta-bhäva-siddha, or perfection by dint of devotional service. Anyone, therefore, who is absorbed in the devotional service of the Lord is a liberated soul and has all admirable qualities. The learned sage Maitreya was sitting in a solitary place on the bank of the Ganges at Hardwar, and Vidura, who was a perfect devotee of the Lord and possessed all good transcendental qualities, approached him for inquiry. TEXT 2 ivdur ovac Sau%aYa k-MaaRiaGavaNa( vdeà" )) 2 )) vidura uväca sukhäya karmäëi karoti loko na taiù sukhaà vänyad-upäramaà vä vindeta bhüyas tata eva duùkhaà yad atra yuktaà bhagavän vaden naù SYNONYMS viduraù uväca—Vidura said; sukhäya—for attaining happiness; karmäëi—fruitive activities; karoti—everyone does so; lokaù—in this world; na—never; taiù—by those activities; sukham—any happiness; vä—or; anyat—differently; upäramam—satiation; vä—either; vindeta—achieves; bhüyaù—on the contrary; tataù—by such activities; eva—certainly; duùkham—miseries; yat—that which; atra—under the circumstances; yuktam—right course; bhagavän—O great one; vadet—may kindly enlighten; naù—us. TRANSLATION Vidura said: O great sage, everyone in this world engages in fruitive activities to attain happiness, but one finds neither satiation nor the mitigation of distress. On the contrary, one is only aggravated by such activities. Please, therefore, give us directions on how one should live for real happiness. PURPORT Vidura asked Maitreya some common questions, which was not originally his intention. Uddhava asked Vidura to approach Maitreya Muni and inquire into all the truths concerning the Lord, His name, fame, quality, form, pastimes, entourage, etc., and thus when Vidura approached Maitreya, he should have asked only about the Lord. But out of natural humility he did not immediately ask about the Lord, but inquired into a subject which would be of great importance to the common man. A common man cannot understand the Lord. He must first know the real position of his life under the influence of the illusory energy. In illusion one thinks that he can be happy only by fruitive activities, but what actually happens is that one becomes more and more entangled in the network of action and reaction and does not find any solution to the 176 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

problem of life. There is a nice song in this connection: "Because of a great desire to have all happiness in life, I built this house. But unfortunately the whole scheme has turned to ashes because the house was unexpectedly set on fire." The law of nature is like that. Everyone tries to become happy by planning in the material world, but the law of nature is so cruel that it sets fire to one's schemes; the fruitive worker is not happy in his schemes, nor is there any satiation of his continuous hankering for happiness. TEXT 3 JaNaSYa k*-ZaGavaNa( YaeNa Pau&SaaMa( ) ôid iSQaTaae YaC^iTa >ai¢-PaUTae jaNa& SaTatvaiDaGaMa& PauraaedEriDal/aek-NaaQaae

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l/aek-aNal/aek-aNa( Sah l/aek-Paal/aNa( ) AcqœPaÛ}a ih SavRSatv‚ iNak-aYa>aedae_iDak*-Ta" Pa[TaqTa" )) 8 )) yais tattva-bhedair adhiloka-nätho lokän alokän saha lokapälän acékÿpad yatra hi sarva-sattvanikäya-bhedo 'dhikåtaù pratétaù SYNONYMS yaiù—by whom; tattva—truth; bhedaiù—by differentiation; adhiloka-näthaù—the King of the kings; lokän—planets; alokän—planets of the lower region; saha—along with; loka-pälän—respective kings; acékÿpat—planned; yatra—wherein; hi—certainly; sarva—all; sattva—existence; nikäya—living entities; bhedaù—difference; adhikåtaù— occupied; pratétaù—it so appears. TRANSLATION The Supreme King of all kings has created different planets and places of habitation where living entities are situated in terms of the modes of nature and work, and He has created their different kings and rulers. PURPORT Lord Kåñëa is the chief King of all kings, and He has created different planets for all kinds of living entities. Even on this planet there are different places for inhabitation by different types of men. There are places like deserts, ice lands, and valleys in mountainous countries, and in each of them there are different kinds of men born of different modes of nature according to their past deeds. There are people in the Arabian deserts and in the valleys of the Himalayan Mountains, and the inhabitants of these two places differ from one another, just as the inhabitants of the ice lands also differ from them. Similarly, there are also different planets. The planets below the earth down to the Pätäla planet are full of various kinds of living beings; no planet is vacant, as wrongly imagined by the modern so-called scientist. In Bhagavad-gétä we find it said by the Lord that the living entities are sarva-gata, or present in every sphere of life. So 185 copyright ©1998 Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, all rights reserved – www.krishna.com Distributed by www.e-vedas.com with permission of the publishers

there is no doubt that on other planets there are also inhabitants like us, sometimes with greater intelligence and greater opulence. The living conditions for those of greater intelligence are more luxurious than on this earth. There are also planets where no sunlight reaches, and there are living entities who must live there due to their past deeds. All such plans for living conditions are made by the Supreme Lord, and Vidura requested Maitreya to describe this for the sake of further enlightenment. TEXT 9 YaeNa Pa[JaaNaaMauTa AaTMak-MaR‚ æPaai>aDaaNaa& c i>ada& VYaData ) NaaraYaaDaaNaaTa( Sa}aezu v" SaUiri>[email protected]( ) Ya" k-avPa[da& GaehriTa& i^Naita )) 11 )) kas tåpnuyät tértha-pado 'bhidhänät satreñu vaù süribhir éòyamänät yaù karëa-näòéà puruñasya yäto bhava-pradäà geha-ratià chinatti SYNONYMS kaù—who is that man; tåpnuyät—that can be satisfied; tértha-padaù—whose lotus feet are all the places of pilgrimage; abhidhänät—from the talks of; satreñu—in human society; vaù—one who is; süribhiù—by great devotees; éòyamänät—one who is so worshiped; yaù—who; karëa-näòém—in the holes of the ears; puruñasya—of a man; yätaù—entering; bhava-pradäm—that which awards births and deaths; geha-ratim— family affection; chinatti—is cut off. TRANSLATION Who in human society can be satisfied without hearing sufficient talk of the Lord, whose lotus feet are the sum total of all places of pilgrimage and who is worshiped by great sages and devotees? Such topics can cut off one's bondage to family affection simply by entering the holes of one's ears. PURPORT

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Kåñëa-kathä is so powerful that simply by entering into a person's ear it can at once give deliverance from the bondage of family affection. Family affection is an illusory manifestation of the external energy, and it is the only impetus for all mundane activities. As long as there is mundane activity and the mind is absorbed in such engagement, one has to undergo the repetition of birth and death in the current material nescience. People are most influenced by the mode of ignorance, and some are influenced by the passionate mode of material nature, and under the spell of these two modes a living being is actuated by the material conception of life. The mundane qualities do not allow a living entity to understand his real position. The qualities of both ignorance and passion strongly bind one to the illusory bodily conception of the self. The best among the fools who are thus deluded are those who engage in altruistic activities under the spell of the material mode of passion. Bhagavad-gétä, which is direct kåñëa-kathä, gives humanity the elementary lesson that the body is perishable and that the consciousness which is spread throughout the body is imperishable. The conscious being, the imperishable self, is eternally existent and cannot be killed under any circumstances, even after the dissolution of the body. Anyone who misunderstands this perishable body to be the self and who works for it in the name of sociology, politics, philanthropy, altruism, nationalism or internationalism, under the false plea of the bodily conception of life, is certainly a fool and does not know the implications of reality and unreality. Some of them are above the modes of ignorance and passion and are situated in the mode of goodness, but mundane goodness is always contaminated by tinges of ignorance and passion. Mundane goodness can enlighten one that the body and the self are different, and one in goodness is concerned with the self and not the body. But due to being contaminated, those in mundane goodness cannot understand the real nature of the self as a person. Their impersonal conception of the self as distinct from the body keeps them in the mode of goodness within material nature, and unless they are attracted by kåñëa-kathä, they will never be liberated from the bondage of material existence. Kåñëa-kathä is the only remedy for all people of the world because it can situate one in pure consciousness of the self and liberate one from material bondage. To preach kåñëa-kathä all over the world, as recommended by Lord Caitanya, is the greatest missionary activity, and all sensible men and women of the world may join in this great movement started by Lord Caitanya. TEXT 12 MauiNaivRv+au>aRGavd(GauaarTaMaah k*-ZauiJaZYaaYaa& JaaTa" SaTYavTaqSauTaaTa( )) 20 )) mäëòavya-çäpäd bhagavän prajä-saàyamano yamaù bhrätuù kñetre bhujiñyäyäà jätaù satyavaté-sutät SYNONYMS mäëòavya—the great åñi Mäëòavya Muni; ç