Sports Marketing: A Global Approach to Theory and Practice 3030537390, 9783030537395

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Sports Marketing: A Global Approach to Theory and Practice
 3030537390, 9783030537395

Table of contents :
Acknowledgements
Contents
1: Introduction: The Sports Sector in a Global Context
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Sport in the “New Normal”
1.3 The Global Sports Sector in Context
1.4 Structure of the Book
1.5 Chapter by Chapter
1.5.1 Chapter Summaries
1.5.2 Case Studies
2: Sport and Its Role and Contribution to Society and Economic Development
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Meaning, Purpose and Organisation of Sport in Society
2.2.1 Defining the Concept of Sport
2.2.2 Exercise
2.2.3 The Purpose and Value of Sport in Society
2.2.4 Exercise
2.2.5 Evolution and Organisation of Sport
2.3 Government Attitudes and Policies Across Geographic Regions
2.4 Sport and Culture
2.5 The Role of Funding in Sports Development
2.6 Funding for Sports at the Elite End of the Spectrum
2.7 Sports Tourism and Its Contribution to Economic Development
2.7.1 City-Based Branding
2.8 Bidding for and Staging Major Sports Events
2.8.1 Benefits of Staging Mega Sporting Events
2.8.2 Legacy
2.8.3 Image Change
2.8.4 Cost Overruns
2.8.5 Understating Costs
2.8.6 Overstating Economic Benefits
2.8.7 The White Elephant Effect
2.8.8 No Real Supporting Evidence to Support the Perceived Benefits
2.9 Criteria Used to Assess Bid Submissions for Mega and Major Sports Events
2.9.1 Vital Factors
2.9.2 Supporting Factors
2.9.3 Bidding and Hosting Mega Events: Losing Its Appeal
2.10 Conclusions
Appendix
References
3: Sports Governance
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Governance Defined
3.3 Governance in the Context of the Sports Sector
3.4 Role and Remit of Sports Governance
3.4.1 Exercise
3.5 Characteristics of Sports Organisations
3.6 Key Criteria for Effective Sports Governance
3.6.1 Accountability, Transparency and Independent Monitoring
3.6.2 Exercise
3.6.3 Transparency
3.7 Global Perspectives on the Governance of Sport
3.7.1 The Changing Influence of Anglo/American and European Cultures on Sport Globally
3.7.2 Impact of Different Cultures and Behaviours on Sports Governance
3.7.3 The Legal Response
3.7.4 Exercise
3.8 A Framework for Effective Governance
3.9 Conclusions
Appendix
References
4: Understanding Fans and Their Consumption of Sport
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Concept of Fandom
4.2.1 Fans and Fandom Defined
4.2.2 Fandom Characteristics
4.2.3 Fans as Consumers
4.3 Fan Typologies
4.4 Fan Motivations
4.5 Fans and Affiliation
4.6 Dysfunctional Fan Behaviour
4.7 Fans and Their Consumption of Sport
4.7.1 Change in Direction and Focus
4.7.2 Connectedness
4.7.3 Empowerment
4.7.4 Drive for Enhancements and Data
4.8 Second Screening
4.9 Big Data and How Fans Engage with It
4.10 The Fan Going Forward
4.10.1 Key Drivers and Trends
4.10.1.1 An augmented and enhanced viewing experience
4.10.1.2 The proactive fan
4.10.1.3 The 24/7 fan
4.10.1.4 Goodbye to ordinary: hello to luxury
4.11 Conclusions
Appendix
References
5: Sports Distribution and Media Rights
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Scale and Scope of Sports Media Rights
5.2.1 The Global Sports Media Rights Market
5.3 Trends and Developments in Sports Media Rights
5.3.1 Emergence of Subscription-Based TV Channels
5.3.2 Exercise
5.3.3 Shifts in the Wind
5.3.4 Further Straws in the Wind
5.4 OTT
5.4.1 Advantages of OTT Operators
5.4.2 Disadvantages with OTT Operators
5.4.3 OTT and Niche Sports
5.4.3.1 Exercise
5.5 The Arrival of the Faangs
5.6 Business Models for Selling Sports Media Rights
5.6.1 Exercise
5.7 Live Streaming: Boom or Bust?
5.8 Protected Events
5.9 Piracy
5.10 Periscope and Meerkat (and Others)
5.11 Protecting Sports Media Rights: Legal Responses and Actions
5.11.1 Geo-Blocking
5.11.2 Exercise
5.12 Conclusions
Appendix
References
6: Formulating and Implementing Sports Marketing Strategy
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Placing Strategy in Context
6.2.1 Strategy Defined
6.2.2 Benefits and Limitations of Strategy Development and Formulation
6.3 The Relationship Between Marketing and the Strategic Planning Process
6.4 The Strategic Market Planning Process
6.4.1 Mission and Values of the Organisation
6.4.2 Mission Statements
6.5 Analysis of the Business Environment
6.6 Pestel Analysis and Appraisal
6.6.1 Political Environment
6.6.2 Exercise
6.6.3 Economic Environment
6.6.4 Social Environment
6.6.5 Technological Environment
6.6.6 Environmental Issues
6.6.7 Legal Environment
6.7 SWOT Analysis
6.8 Competitive Positioning
6.9 Developing the Core Marketing Strategy
6.10 Evaluation and Control
6.10.1 Exercise
6.11 Conclusions
Appendix
References
7: Ticketing Strategies in the Sports Sector
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Pricing in Context
7.3 Pricing in the Services Sector
7.4 Understanding the Concept of Price
7.4.1 Value Defined
7.4.2 Value Drivers and the Value Triad
7.5 Approaches to Pricing Within the Services Sector
7.5.1 Cost-Based Approaches
7.5.2 Competition-Based Pricing
7.5.3 Demand-Based Pricing
7.6 Ticketing in the Context of the Sports Sector
7.6.1 Characteristics of the Sports Sector and Implications for Ticketing Strategy
7.6.2 Sports Economics
7.6.3 Fan Loyalty and Behaviour
7.7 The Evolution to Ticketing Strategies Based on Demand and Value
7.7.1 Location-Based Ticketing
7.7.2 Variable Ticket Pricing
7.7.3 Bundling Strategies
7.7.4 Exercise
7.8 Other Discriminatory Pricing Tools and Techniques
7.8.1 Product Line Pricing
7.8.2 Premium Pricing
7.8.3 Life-Cycle Pricing
7.8.4 Equitable Pricing Strategies
7.9 Dynamic Pricing
7.9.1 Prerequisites for Dynamic Pricing to Work
7.10 Big Data and Technology: The Glue That Helps Dynamic Pricing Strategies Work
7.10.1 Data Analytics
7.11 Dynamic Pricing: An Appraisal
7.11.1 Advantages
7.11.2 Disadvantages
7.12 The Secondary Ticket Market
7.12.1 Implications for the Various Stakeholders
7.12.2 Problems with Secondary Ticketing
7.12.3 Exercise
7.12.4 Managing the Relationships Between Primary and Secondary Ticket Sellers
7.12.5 Exercise
7.12.6 Primary and Secondary Ticket Markets - Future Trends
7.13 Conclusions
Appendix
References
Further Reading
8: The Sports Product and Brand-Building Decisions
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Sports Product
8.2.1 Key Dimensions of the Sports Product
8.3 Innovation and Product Development
8.3.1 Collaboration
8.4 Perspectives on Innovation in the Sports Sector
8.4.1 Exercise
8.5 Branding in the Context of the Sports Sector
8.5.1 Brand Equity
8.5.2 Brand Equity and Keller’s Framework
8.5.3 Brand Equity in the Context of the Sports Sector
8.5.4 Building Brand Loyalty - Sports Team Brand-Equity Index
8.6 The Most Valuable Global Sports Brands
8.6.1 Exercise
8.7 Sports Brands and Brand Extensions
8.8 Co-branding
8.8.1 Pros and Cons of Co-branding
8.9 Conclusions
Appendix
References
9: Globalisation of the Sports Product
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Why Internationalise in the First Place?
9.2.1 Exercise
9.3 Motivations and Barriers to International Expansion
9.3.1 Push and Pull Factors
9.3.2 Internal and External “Triggers”
9.3.3 Barriers to Internationalisation
9.4 Within the Context of the Sports Sector
9.4.1 Potential Inhibitors to the Sports Internationalisation Process
9.4.2 Exercise
9.5 Criteria for Evaluating the Attractiveness of International Markets
9.6 Strategies for Internationalisation
9.6.1 Objectives and Rationale
9.7 International Entry Strategies in the Sports Sector
9.7.1 “Inside–Out” and “Outside–In” Approaches to Internationalisation
9.7.2 Co-partnerships
9.7.3 Samplers, Teasers and the “Real Thing”
9.7.4 Staging Regular Season, Competitive Games in International Countries
9.7.5 Establishing Franchises in International Markets
9.7.6 Licensing
9.7.7 International Distribution through Media Rights Sales
9.7.8 International Development through Season Passes
9.7.9 Developing New International Competitions
9.7.10 Outward and Inward Investment Strategies
9.8 Internationalisation Strategies: The Way Forward
9.9 Conclusions
Appendix
References
10: Managing the Sports Sponsorship Process
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Sponsorship Defined
10.3 Sports Sponsorship in Context
10.4 Why Is Sport So Attractive To Sponsors?
10.5 Sponsorship Objectives
10.5.1 Awareness-Related Objectives
10.5.2 Image-Related Objectives
10.5.3 Relationship-Related Objectives
10.5.4 Corporate Social Responsibility-Related Objectives
10.5.5 Sales-Related Objectives
10.6 Identifying Potential Partners
10.6.1 Developing a Proposal
10.6.2 Placing a Value on the Sponsorship Deal
10.6.3 Assessing the Value of the Components of the Sponsorship Proposition
10.6.4 Exercise
10.7 Managing the Relationship Between the Sport Property Owner and Sponsors
10.8 Sponsorship Activation
10.9 Sponsorship in the Digital Age
10.10 Tools for Engagement
10.10.1 Content Marketing
10.10.2 Storytelling
10.10.3 Exercise
10.11 Assessing the Effectiveness of Sponsorship Deals
10.12 Evaluation Methods
10.13 The Threat from Ambush Marketing
10.13.1 Defining Ambush Marketing
10.14 Responses to the Threat of Ambush Marketing
10.14.1 What Makes Ambush Marketing Work?
10.14.2 Response of Consumers/Fans
10.15 Athlete Endorsement and Brand Ambassadors
10.15.1 Exercise
10.15.2 Brand Ambassadors
10.16 Stadium Naming Rights
10.17 Conclusions
Appendix
References
11: Sports Marketing in an Era of Radical Uncertainty
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Key Drivers and Trends Revisited
11.2.1 The Shifting Sands Within Revenue Streams for Sports Organisations
11.2.2 Potential Threats to the Existing Business Models for Managing Media Rights
11.2.3 Shifting Positions in the Area of Governance of Sports
11.2.4 The Changing Nature of the Relationship Between Fans and Stakeholders
11.2.5 The Confluence of Sport, Entertainment and Leisure
11.3 Future Trends and Developments in the Global Sports Sector
11.4 Developments in Medical Science
11.5 Sustainability, the Environment and Sport
11.5.1 Exercise
11.6 Technology and Its Impact on Sport
11.7 Future Developments in the “Wearables” Sports Technology Sector
11.8 General Directions in Sports Technology
11.9 The Fan and Changing Consumption Patterns in the Future
11.10 eSports: One More Time with Feeling
11.11 Conclusions
References
Index

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