Spoken Russian: Book Two

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Spoken Russian BOOK TWO




91^1 ■ W t I

1/' a The Armed Forces edition of this book was pub¬ lished by the Linguistic Society of America and the Intensive Language Program of the American Council of Learned Societies.

Copyright, 1945, by Linguistic Society of America 40999-1719

No part of the material covered by this copyright may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher.


CONTENTS PART THREE Page UNIT 301 13. People’s Names 322 14. ILLNESS. Noun forms. Adjective forms. 15. SIGHTSEEING. The second locative. Prepo - 347 sitions.

Vcge UNIT 16. Time. Days of the week. Months. Ordinal 369 numbers. Stand, sit, lie, put. 1 7. SUPPER. Verb forms. 391 18. Review. 416

PART FOUR 19. Buying Clothes. Verb aspects. 20. BELONGINGS. Formation of words. 21. In The Country. CaMbm, caM.

421 445 466

22. Motoring. Cases. 23. WINTER. Verbal adjectives and adverbs. 24. Review.

488 512 534

PART FIVE 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

MENDING. Prefixes. A Trip. Measures. Military. Russia.

539 554 569 584 597


30. Review. Summary of Russian Grammar List of Abbreviations Russian-English Word List English-Russian Index

001667 a

612 616 642 643 681


AUTHOR’S PREFACE We wish to record here our thanks to Mrs. T. G. Terentieva, all,

to Mr. G. A. Staritzky, and, above

to Professor Roman


Any short¬

comings of this book are here in spite of kind help of these friends.

The Authors





Section A—Basic Sentences To the Group Leader: If you have been working only with the phonograph records, without any Guide, you will be on your own from now on. When the group goes through the Basic Sentences and the Listening In sections, choose some¬ one with good pronunciation to do the reading. From now on all the group members will have to be particularly on the watch to detect and correct faulty pronunciation. Beginning with this unit, the Aids to Listening are given only for new words.

Ky3Hen;6B Anna daughter of Nicholas How do you do, Anna Nikolayevna!

Amta 3ApaBCTBynTe, Amta HiiKOJiaeBHa! rpaEflaHita

Dmitriy son of Paul Oh, how d’you do, Dimitriy Pavlovich!

[A Nna] [■tyikaLAyivna]


H ji b h h a


[DAfltjiy] [PAvlayich, PAvlich]

Ax, 3ApaBCTByHTe, AM6Tpnii IlaBJIOBHH !

we have seen We haven’t seen you for ages.

Mfii flaBHd sac He bha&jih.

Where on earth have you been?

Ta6 me Bbi Gbijin?

MbI BHflajIH

[mi viDA\i|



five years

naTb ji6t

I remember [the time] when you went away, five years ago

TOMy Ha3ap; H ndMHio, Korp;a bAi y&xajra, naTb jieT TOMy Ha3aA.

We have often spoken of you.

Mbi uacTO o Bac roBopfijm.


it happened We didn’t know where you [were] or what had happened to you.

abroad I was three years abroad, in America. After that I was in the army, in the war.



Mbi He 3Hajm, r,n;6 bbi, fijin ht6 C BaMH CJiyufijTOCb.

Ky3Heu;6B 3a rpaHupeii ft 6biji tpu ro^a 3a rpanfipeft, b

[za grajyiciy]



A 6biji b apMHH, Ha BofiHA

just now


in the morning


I’ve just arrived, this morning.

\pat m\

[tamu na ZAT]

[TOpka shtd] [Utram]

il t6jibko-ht6 npH^xan, cerdAHH ^TpOM.

George son of Sergius How is your husband George Sergeyevich?


[ 13—A]

redprHii Cepr^eBHu Kan no>KHBaeT Bam mvjk, FedprHii Cepr^eBHu?

[giORgiy] [§irQEyiyich, §irQEyich\

r p a jk £ a h k a Fine, thank you.

H ji b h h a

Xopomo, cnacndo. Ky3Hep6E

And [are] your children well?

H Banin p,eTH 3p;opoBBi? TpajKflaHKa

praise, glory




to God (D.) Yes, thank goodness, [they’re] all well.

IT ji b h h a

[SLAva] [BOX] [.BOghu]

B6ry J\&, cjiaBa Bory, Bee 3,h,op6bbi.

Hope (woman’s name)



daughter of George



married (of a woman)


[ZA muzhim]

Nadezhda Georgiyevna is married now. Did you know [that]?

Hafl6?Kfla TedprHeBHa Tenept aaMyjKCM. B6 3Hajin? Ey 3 h e p 6 b

No, I didn’t.


He 3Haji.

she went out

OHa BbiiHjia

she got married

Bbimjia 3aMV/K

When did she get married?

[and Vlshla] [Vlshla ZA mush]

Korpa ona BtmiJia 3aMyjK? [ 13—A]


TpaacflaHKa H ji b n h a She got married two years ago.

Bbimjia OHa 3a,MyjK ^Ba rojta Tony naaaAKy3Heu,0B

And whom did she marry?

A 3a Koro OHa Bbiiujia? PpajKflaHKa


son of Ivan Lamansky (family name) She is married to Ivan Ivanovich Lamansky.

Ona 3aMy>Ke.M 3a Hb&hom HBaHOBHUeM JIaMaHCKHM.

Did you know him?

Bm er6 3Hajin?


[iVAnayich, iVAnich] [laMANskay, laMANsfyiy]


Yes, of course. son of Peter He’s the son of Ivan Petrovich Lamansky.

JX&, kofi^hho. ITeTpoBim

Oh cmh IlBaHa IleTpdBHHa JIaMaHCKoro.

we sat He and I went to the same school (‘sat in school together’).

Mm c h6m BM^CTe crm&nn b mKdjie.

Sophia And Sophia Georgiyevna?

C6(|)bH A C6(|)bH redpraeBHa?





[mi §ipEli\


also Is she married, too?

TaioKe OHa TaKace 3aMyaceM?

Not yet.

T p a jk p a HeT eipe.

But she’ll soon be married.

H6 CKopo BHiifleT 3aMyjK.

she is engaged She’s engaged now.

oopyueHa Tenepb oGpyuena.

[abruchiNA ]

she got engaged She got engaged [last] summer.

oSpyunjiacr. JI^tom OHa obpyuHJiacb.


two months from now She’s to be married in two months.

uepe3 pBa Mecapa TIepe3 pBa Mecapa OHa BbinpeT 3aMyjK.

[chijiz D VA AfEyica]

To whom?

3a Korb?


k a H ji b

[TAG zhi]

h h


Ky3Hep6B PpaHtpaHKa H a b family name Kumanin (family name) His name is Kumanin.

KyMaHHH Erb ^aMhjiHH KyMaHHH.

Andrew son of Basil To Andrew Vasilyevich?

Ky3Hen;bB AHppbii BacbjibeBHH 3a AHppba BachabeBnaa?


h h

a [fa Af Iliya] [,kuMAqin]

[anDJIE Y] [va$Hyiyich, va§ Ilyich]

[ 13 A] —


TpaxpHKa H jn.HHa son of Thomas No, to Andrew Fomich. patronymic, middle name His patronymic is Fomich. Thomas son of Elija He’s a son of Thomas Ilyich Kumanin, the doctor.


H6t, 3a AH^pda OoMnna.

even, also given name, first name daughter of Thomas I knew his sister, too—what’s her name?—Oh, yes: Olga Fominichna.



Ero OTnecTBO Kp;aHKa JlaMaHCKaa.

Mrs. (or Miss) Lamansky came.

Bbi 3HaeTe rpa>Kp,aiiKy JlaMaHcnyio?

Do you know Mrs. (or Miss) Lamansky?

Bnepa BenepoM mbi 6bijih y JlaMaHcnux.

Yesterday evening we were at Lamansky’c.

(2) Many family names end in [ov] and [in]. These have adjective endings except in the nominative forms, the feminine accusative, and the masculine genitive, dative, and locative: IIpHexajiH rpajK^antiH IlBaHOB h rpaatflaHKa

Mr. and Mrs. Ivanov have arrived.


Bm 3HaeTe ftdKTopa IleTpdBa n rpajKp,aHKy IleTpoBy? Bbi Harmcajm TOBapnipy CTaJinny?

Do you know Dr. Petrov and Mrs. Petrov?

OHa 3aMyn:eM 3a aoktopom Hjibhiibim.

She is married to Dr. Ilyin.

fl MaJio 3Haio

I know little about Lenin.



Have you written to Comrade Stalin?

J(4th TenepB y rpajK^aHKH IleTpdBOH.

The children are now at Mrs. Petrov’s.

IIpiiexa.aii IlBaiiOBBi h Hjibiihbi.

The Ivanov’s and the Ilyin’s have arrived.

Bnepa BeuepoM mbi 6bijih y HjibhhiIix.

Yesterday evening we were at the Ilyins’.

SaBTpa mbi no4p;eM k HBaHdBMM.

Tomorrow we are going to the Ivanovs’.


Did you get acquainted with the Petrov’s?

Mbi roBopii.au

We were talking about the Ilyin’s.





(3) Other family names, including foreign ones, are mostly inflected like nouns for the masculine and are left uninflected in the feminine: Bbi 3HaeTe IdBaHa CauiTa, aMepmcamja? Bbi 3HaeTe Mapbio Cmht, aMepmKaHKy?

Do you know John Smith, the American? Do you know Mary Smith, the American (woman, girl)?

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study (Individual Study) Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English.

3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences. Section


of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.



Covering the English of Basic Sentences (Individual Study)

Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences.

3. What Would You Say? Read aloud the following and pick out the expression you think most suitable: 1. You want to say that you always forget a certain woman’s family name. You say: a. B 3a6tiji ee 6mh. b. f! BceiTta 3a6tiBaio ee 6mh. c. fl Bcerp;a 3a6biBaio ee cjmMHjimo.




You want to know married. You ask: a. Ojitra Cepr^eBHa b. O.jiura Cepri;aBHHa: Kan Tendpt ee cfmnijmH? Ca65rpoBa:

Ee ^aMHJina BdjiKOBa. Ee MyjK — flOKTop. Ero 30ByT Teopraii TedpriieBiia Bojikob.

J^ep'/KaBiiHa : A Bama MJiaflmaa floana? IIsBHHHTe — a sabbuia mmh Bairieii MJiaflmen floaepn.


C6(Jta ^MHTpiieBHa. Ona TO/ice CKopo BbiftfleT saMya:. BbififleT OHa 3a aMcpHKanna. ^epjKaBHHa: Ht6 BM roBopfiTe!? ,Ha 3a aMepHKaHfla! Ca6ypoBa: JKtom Mbi noexajiH c Cdfjtben Jl,MHTpHeBHOH B AjVldpHKy.

TaMB Hbio-H6pKe mm c hhm no3HaKOMHjmcb. ^epacaBHHa: KaK ero 30ByT? CaSypoBa: Ero 30ByT Piiaapfl PodepTOBiia CTaHTOH. OSpyaiijincb ohh b Hbio-IIopKe. Hepe3 ab£ Hep,ejni 6h npaefleT b Pocciiio h flcdmiTca Ha C6(|)be.

3. Gnedich and Lavrov talk about the Repin family. rHefliia: Bm 3HaeTe, hto yMep Penim? JIaBpdB: H6t, He 3Ha,Ji. Ha k6m Hie 6h HceHiijicn? JIaBpdB: Her. Oeflop HBatitia yMep? Ha HafldjKfle HjibhmiaHe XoBaHCKoii? pHeflna: H£t. KaatCTCH, 6h c neii oopyanjicn rofl TOMy He KHTe H3bIK

[pakaZHIji] [yiZIK]

IIoKaiKHTe mh6, nontajiyiicTa, H3BIK.

really You really are ill.

b caMOM


b caMOM

,o,ejie p;ejie 6ojibh6.

[/ SAmam PE(i]



apparent One can see it by your tongue, to lie a while You’ll have to stay in bed.

thermometer I’ve got a thermometer here. I’ll measure temperature I’ll take your temperature, fever Oh, you have a fever! I’ll give a ring I’ll ring up the doctor.


BIIffHO no H3bIKy Bii^HO.


BaM Hajjo 6yp;eT nOCT&JTH.

rpapycHiiK Bot y Mem? rpaAycHHK.




[SAfE/u] [jimpiraTUra]


TeMnepaTypa B1 BaM CMepio TeMnepaTypy.

[lixaRA Tka]


Ax, y Bac jmxopaflKa!


n03B0HK) B n03B0HK) p,OKTOpy.

K they will send beautiful sick-nurse Will they send me a good-looking young nurse?

[paliZHAT] nojrejKaTb b

y 3 h


p 6 b


KpachBbift CH,n;ejiKa He

nomjnoT jih mh6 KpacfiByio

Mo.Jioayio CHA^JIKy?

[paSHlUT] [kra§Ivay] [§ipELka\

No, I don’t think you’ll find a nurse.

Why not?

A p 6 e h h h Her, a ne pyaaio, a to bbi naiipeTe

Ky3Hep6B IIoaeMy HeT? A p 6 6 H H H

newspaper It’s easy to see you haven’t read the papers.



Bff^HO, HTO BBI ra36T He HHTajIH.


No; what’s happened?

H6t; ht6 cayafiaocb?

misfortune, accident There’s been a railway accident.

A p 6 6 H H H HecuacTue HecaacTue c n6e.3,n;oM cayufiaocb.

What kind of accident?

Ky3Hen;6B KaKde HecuacTiie?

[t}iSH CHA §}iya]

A p 6 6 H H H went off (M) rail A train went off the rails.

cornea P&jibc

II6e3A cornea c p&ibcoB.

[saSHOL] [£EIS]

killed seriously wounded lightly, slightly Thirteen [people were] killed, and thirty [were] seriously injured, and a few slightly injured.

they sent hospital And they sent them to the hospital?




[§ijl YOzna]


jiernd TpuHaAqaTb yShrax, h TpfmpaTb cepi>e3Ho paHeHHbix, h h6ckojii>ko JierKo paHeHHLix. Ky3HeqoB nocjiajui 6ojibHhn,a H fix nocjiajiu b dojibiiuity?

Yes, all the injured [persons] are now in the hospital.

Ap 6 e h h h JX&, bc6 paHeHBie Ten^pb b 6ojibHuu,e.

Will the doctor get here soon?

Ky3Heu,6B Cndpo npup;eT flhKTop?

[iL4 7}inay]

[lixKO] '

[paSLAli] [baiyica]

A p 6 e h h h rang (M) When I called him up, he said he would get here in a quarter of an hour.



3BOHHJI Korp,a a eMy 3bohhji, 6h cKa3aji, uto 6h npHfteT uepe3 u^TBepTb uaca.


more Then you needn’t wait any more.

Ky3Hen,6B 66jii>me Tan BaM fiojibine JK^aTB He Hap,o.


until Well, I’ll wait till he comes.

A p 6 6 H H H noKa Hy, A noflOJK/ty, nona 6h npuyeT.


prescription drug store medicine If he gives you a prescription, I’ll walk round to the drug store for the medicine.

pen,enT anT^Ka jieKapcTBO Ecjih 6h BaM p,acT pen;4nT, a cxojKy b anTeay 3a jieKapcTBOM.

for a long time But you can’t sit [around] here all that time.

K y 3 h e u, 6 b afijiro Ho bli jue He MdaceTe ch^tb 3,h;6cb Tan aoaro.

No, just as soon as the doctor comes, I’ll leave.

A p 6 6 HH H H6t, Kan t6jibko «6ktop npn^eT, a yfiAy.

of the teeth physician to fill (a tooth) tooth


Bpaa 3anaoM6HpoBaTb 3y6

[fiCEPT] [apJ'Eka] [liKARstva]


[zubNO Y] [VRACII] [zaplampira VA f] [ZUP] [14—A]


I have to go to the dentist’s to have a tooth filled.

Mini naflo noi'mi k sydiioMy Bpauy 3anjiOMOHpoBaTi> 3y6.

One of my teeth aches,

Y MeHH onfiH 3y6 GojiAt.

appointment Have you an appointment?

Ky 3Hen;6B CBHflaHHe y Bac CBHAairne?

receives (patients) No, but he sees patients from nine o’clock in the morning on.

A p 6 e h h h npiiHiiMaeT HeT, h6 oh npiiHiiMaeT c ^eBHTfi yxpa.

reception (of patients) He has office hours all day.

npneM IIpiieM y Herd Bdci. a^hb.

Go, and don’t worry.

H^iiTe h He decnoKdiiTecb.

I won’t die.

H He yMpy.

I hope painful I hope it won’t be painful for you.

Ha^diocb ddjIBHO Ha^eiocb, hto BaM He 6£n;eT ddjibHo.

[syiDA tj,iya]

[pfi YOM\




[naipEyus] [BOI^na]

A p 6 e h h h onepan,HH

operation And I hope you won’t have to have an operation.


II a Hap;6iocb; hto ueHyjKna Gynex

onepapHH. Ky3Hen;6B

certaimy I surely won’t need an operation.

HaBepHO Onepaipia HaBepHO Henyaaia 6y«eT. coBceM

completely Tomorrow I’ll be entirely well.

[na YERna]

[sa F$EM]

3aBTpa a 6yn,y coBceM baopob.


p 6


h h h

There, someone’s ringing.


That’s surely the doctor.

9tO HaBepHO flOKTOp.


Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences

1. Word Study (Individual Study) A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES. (1) [yd PLOxa §i$A CHUstvuyu] ‘I feel bad,’ literally ‘I feel myself poorly.’ When a person acts on himself, or a thing acts on itself, the object pronoun is R Harneji KHiiry y ce6a b KOMHaTe. Bill ce6a dueHB jiioGnTe.

G, A [§ipA}\ D, L [§ipE\; I [saBO Y, saBOyu]. This is called the reflexive pronoun: I found the book in my room. You love yourself very much. [14—B]


H flaji ce6e cjiobo 66jibme He nfrib b6;o;kh.



I gave myself my word not to drink any more vodka. She always talks about herself. They took the papers with them.

roBopnT o ce66.

Oh A B3jtjiH SyMarn c co66h.

(2) In the same way, the possessive adjective [SVOY] ‘his, her, its, their (own)’ is used when the possessor is the actor of the sentence. In English, when we say “Paul

took his book,” we may mean that Paul took someone else’s book (Russian [yiVO]) or that he took his own book (Russian [SVOY]).

The forms of [SVOY] are like those of [MOY]\ IlaBeji b3hjt er6 Kirary. IlaBeji b3hji cboio KHhry.

AHHa HBaHOBHa 3Bajia ee neT&i. AHHa HBaHOBHa 3Bajia cbohx AeT^ii. Hjibhhli HCKaJiH nx KBapxnpy. Hjibhhbi HCKaJiH cbohx p;py34H.

Paul took his (the other fellow’s) book. Paul took his (own) book. Anna Ivanovna was calling her (the other woman’s) children. Anna Ivanovna was calling her (own) children. The Ilyin’s were looking for their (some other people’s) apartment. The Ilyin’s were looking for their (own) friends.

The adjective [SVOY] is also often used beside [MOY, TVOY, NASH, VA SH] when the possessor is the same person as the actor: H HHty cboio Kiihry.

I’m looking for my book.

H HHiy MOK) KHHiy.

(same meaning)

Mbi Hamjih cbohx p,py36ii.

We found our friends.


(same meaning)

HainjiH HaiiiHx



bctp^thjih CBoerd


bctp^thjih Bamero



6paTa? 6pa,Ta?

You met your brother? (same meaning)

(3) [baltflca] ‘hospital’ is the usual word; [GOspital] is used of a large hospital, especially military. (4) [/££ PEIy] ‘all day,’ [F$E RAyiniya] ‘all the injured (persons),’ [F£0 V^Eipa] ‘all the time’, [5a V$EM] ‘altogether, entirely.’The adjective here means Bo Bcex KOMHaTax xojiogHo. il erge



bc6x H3

h6x 3Haio.

BceM ropoge Hex





fl He Mory BaM CKa3a,TB Bcero. OhH BBimiJIH Bee mojioko.

Mbi ko BceMy totobbi. Bo Bcefi KBapThpe xojiogHo. Ohh Ha bck> 3HMy ocTaJiHCB 3a rpaHiigeH. Ohh Bee TenepB b apMHii.

‘all, whole, entire’; the stem is [z^-] and the endings are those of special adjectives, like those of [MOY]. The masculine nominative has an inserted vowel; the end¬ ings contain [e] instead of [i]:

It’s cold in all the rooms. I don’t as yet know all of them. In the whole town there isn’t a single good hotel. I can’t tell you everything. They drank up all the milk. We are ready for everything. It’s cold in the whole apartment. They stayed abroad all winter. They are all in the army now.

The neuter N and A form [F$0] is used also in the meaning ’all the time, always’: Oh

Bee CHgfiT 3a

He’s always sitting with his books (‘behind his books’).


B. REVIEW OF NOUN FORMS If the accent of a noun is everywhere on the stem, we shall make no special mention of it. If the accent of a noun is anywhere on the endings, we shall place two letters after the noun when we describe it: the first letter indicates the accent of the singular, the second that of the plural:

Singular: A: accent on stem: CTyji, CTyjia; B: accent on endings; if there is no ending, the accent is on the last syllable: ct6ji, CTOJia; otOj;, OTga; C: accent on endings except in the accusative; this occurs only in feminines: Boga, Bogfii, Bogy. [14-B]


Plural: A: accent on stem: CTyjiba, CTyjibeB; B: accent on endings; if there is no ending, the accent is on the last syllable: ctojibi, ctojiob; C: accent on endings except in the nominative (and, if the thing is not living, in the accusative): 3y6bi, 3y66B; flbuepii, flonepen. il riameji IleTpa IlaBjibiHa. H Hameji cboii KapaHjjain.

If the endings are the usual ones, as illustrated below, we shall say nothing about them. Note especially the following points: Masculine nouns that mean a living being have the accusative like the genitive; masculine nouns that do not mean a living being have the accusative like the nominative: I found Peter Pavlovich. I found my pencil.

Feminine nouns ending in a consonant have the accusative like the nominative: Oh


cboio aohb.

He found his daughter.

Neuter nouns have the accusative like the nominative: H



I found the pen.

Plural nouns that mean living beings have the accusative like the genitive; plural nouns that do not mean living beings have the accusative like the nominative:

id Hameji JI



Hameji moA SotAhkh.

I found my friends. I found my shoes.

Nouns ending in [s/?, zh] or a palatal consonant other than [y] have the ending [-ey] in the genitive plural: il

miiy moAx TOBApHin,eft.

I’m looking for my comrades.

Other masculine nouns have the ending [-of] in the genitive plural:







MHoro CTyjibeB.

There are many tables there. There are many chairs there.

Other feminine and neuter nouns have no ending in the genitive plural: Bbi 3Haexe 6thx peBymeK? 3fleci> MHoro Tpy^HLix cjiob.

Do you know those young women? There are many hard words here.

All these things are regular; when we give a new noun we shall say nothing about them. Here are some examples of regular nouns, with indication of accent: Masculine: S. N. $a,KT (fact)

G. $aKTa D. (JaKTy

h6jk BB (knife) HOJKa HOJKy



L. o $aKTe


P. N.


G. (JaKTOB D. (J)aKTaM

hojkA hojk6h


L. P. N. G. D. I.

o niKdjie ihk6jibi iiik6ji IHKOJiaM niKdjiaMH

L. o uiKdjiax


Feminine in consonants:

I. aKTaMii


L. o (JaKTax


S. N. nocTejit (bed) G. D. L. nocTejm I. nocTejiBio P. N. nocT&mi G. nocT^jieii D. nocTejiHM

Feminine: S. N.

niKdjia (school)

pyK& CC (hand, arm)

A. inKOJiy


G. hik6jili


D. inKdJie




L. o nocT&iax


o pyK^ pyKH pyK pyKaM pyKaMH

o pynax

u&TBepTB AC (quarter) H^TBepTH

H^TBepTBFO U^TBepTH neTBepTeii neTBepTHM HeTBepTHMH o neTBepTHx [14-B]


Neuter: S. N. G. D. I. L. P. N. G. D. I. L.

cji6bo AB (word)

jiiipo BA (face)

Bpau BB



3y6 AC





o CJioBe

o jiiipe

Feminine: fioJibHnpa, ra3) . Ilepea o66a,OM A xoTeji 6bi bbimbitb pyrar.

The street car stops right in front of the hotel. She was sitting in front of me. I’d like to wash my hands before dinner.

(4) Pa3Be is used in questions when one is surprised at a state of affairs or doubts it: Pa3Be ohh



Can it be that they have already left?

Pa,3Be 6h He flOMa?

Can it be that he isn’t at home?


You don’t mean to say you’ve lost the tickets?



noTepajin dHjieTBi?

‘someone’s ringing, someone’s at the door’. One often says ‘they’ where we say ‘someone’ or ‘one’:

HaB^pHO Bac cnpdcaT.

Someone will be sure to ask you.

TaK He roBopdT.

One doesn’t say that; that isn’t the way one says it.

(6) Ilopa means the right time, the proper season, or the time which has come when one (dative) must do some¬ thing. Ilopa od^aTB. It’s time for dinner. Ilopa cnaTB jiojKhTBcn. It’s time to be going to bed. Ilopa htt£. It’s time to be going. Mh6 nopa. It’s time for me (to be leaving). HaM nopa. It’s time for us (to be going). (7) Bcerd jr^ninero ‘of every best thing’ and Bcerd xopdmero ‘of every good thing’ are usual ways of saying good-bye. [20—B]


B. FORMATION OF WORDS Many Russian words resemble each other; this often helps us to remember them. We have already seen how prefixes are used, and how longer verbs (iteratives and

compounding duratives) are made from shorter ones, We shall now look at some suffixes which appear in various words.

Feminines meaning a female match some masculines which mean a male: aMepiiKaHeu,, aMepiiKaHKa ‘American’ rpajK^affim, rpajK^aHKa ‘citizen’ npiiHTeJib, npffiiTejibinma ‘friend’

yufiTejib, ymiTejibHima ‘teacher’ xo3ffiiH, xo3hfiKa ‘landlord, landlady’

Diminutive nouns, meaning a small thing, are made from nouns in various ways. To masculine nouns they often add the syllable -hk: ffijM ‘house’: aomhk ‘little house’ h6jk ‘knife’: h6hchk ‘little knife, pocket knife’

ctoji ‘table’: ctojtiik ‘little table’ rpebeHb ‘comb’: rpedemoK ‘little comb’

Feminine diminutives are made mostly from feminine nouns and occasionally from others, by adding -k-, often with consonant changes and with an inserted vowel: BO,n;a

‘water’: Bop;Ka ‘vodka’ ^dub ‘daughter’: ^duna ‘daughter’

MHHyTa ‘minute’: MimyTKa, MirnyTOUKa ‘just a minute’

jioacKa ‘spoon’: jidaceuKa ‘small spoon, teaspoon’

in,eTKa ‘brush’: njeTOUKa ‘little brush’

Note also neMHoro ‘not much, a little, a few’: iieMiidjKKo, HeMndjKenKo ‘a little bit’ Nouns are made from nouns in various ways: rdcTb ‘guest’: rocTfimipa ‘hotel’ rpddeHb ‘comb’: rpebeuna ‘comb’ RBdp ‘yard, farm’: ^BdpiiHK ‘houseman, porter’ aceHd ‘wife’: jKdHm,HHa ‘woman’



ne,n,6jiH ‘week’: nonefldjibmiK ‘Monday’ hoc ‘nose’: hocok ‘sock’ cji6bo ‘word’: nocji6Bim,a ‘proverb’ aiffid ‘egg’: HfiuHHpa ‘egg dish’

Nouns are made from adjectives: dojiBHoii 'sick’: dojiBHitpa ‘hospital’ BTopoii ‘second’: BTopmiK ‘Tuesday’ MajiLiu, MajieHBKHit ‘small’: MajiBuiiK ‘little boy’ npaBBm ‘right’: npaBp;a ‘truth’

naTBifi ‘fifth’: naTHiipa ‘Friday’ aepHBiii ‘black’: aepmuia ‘ink’ aeTBipe ‘four’: aeTB^pr ‘Thursday’

Adjectives are made from nouns: AMepiiKa ‘America’: aMcpiiKancKiiH ‘American’ Bamaa ‘bathtub, bath’: Bamma ‘bathroom’ roaop; ‘hunger’: roJiop;HBiH ‘hungry’ ropop; ‘city’: ropoflCKon TeaTp ‘municipal theatre’, ropop;cKaa pyevia ‘city council, city hall’ rocTB ‘guest’: rocraHaa ‘living room’ JKeHa ‘wife’: aceHaTBiii ‘having a wife, married (of a man) ’ 3HMa ‘winter’: 3HMHaa norop;a ‘winter weather’, 3HMHne xojiOAa ‘winter cold spells’

3y6 ‘tooth’: 3ydHaa meTKa ‘toothbrush’ KHiira ‘book’: khhjkhbih xnaan ‘bookcase’

Hapop; ‘people’: HapdflHBm p;om ‘people’s house’ hoc ‘nose’: hocoboh naaTOK ‘handkerchief’ napiiKMaxep ‘barber’: napiiKMaxepcKaa ‘barber shop’ npauKa ‘laundress’: npaaeuHaa ‘laundry’ ctoji ‘table’: CTOJidBaa ‘dining room’ xdjiop; ‘cold’: xojiop;hbih ‘cold’ ASjioko ‘apple’: ASjiouhbhi niipdr ‘apple pie’

Nouns and adjectives are made from verbs: 6oji6tb ‘to hurt’: 6ojibh6h ‘sick’

m6ub ‘to be able’: mojkho ‘it is possible’

6pHTB ‘to shave’: 6puTBa ‘razor’ BhpeTB ‘to see’: bhahbih ‘visible’ p;a.TB ‘to give’: cp;aaa ‘change paid back’ HHTepecoBaTB ‘to interest’:HHTepecHBixi ‘interesting’

xmcaTB ‘to write’:miCBM6 ‘letter’, pacnhcna‘receipt’ niiTB ‘to drink’: nBhHBixi ‘drunk’ chp^tb ‘to sit’: cnp&JiKa ‘sick-nurse’ yahTB ‘to teach’: yufiTejiB ‘teacher’ [20—B]


Verbs are made from nouns and adjectives: BTopoii 'second’: noBTopffTB ‘to repeat’ ,o;6jio ‘thing, affair’: fl&naTB ‘to do’ jKeHa ‘wife’: jkghhtbch ‘to take a wife, to get married (of a man)’ 3aBTpaK ‘lunch’: 3aBTpaKaTB ‘to lunch’

Mdpa ‘measure’: m6phtb ‘to measure’ o64p; ‘dinner’: o6ep;aTb ‘to dine’ paSdTa‘work’: padoTaTB ‘to work’ yaaiH ‘supper’: y>KiiHaTB ‘to eat supper’ h6ctbih ‘clean’: hhcthtb ‘to clean’

C. NEW NOUNS Masculine: Regular, with accent on stem: abophhk, KapMaH, Kopuppp, Hapdn;, h6jkiik, npHHTeJib, neK, rtttmk Others: bojioc AC, with irregular G.P. bojioc, means a single hair: Oh Hainan: bojioc b


For all of a person’s hair the plural is used: Y Hee dneHB KpacHBBie b6jiocbi.

He found a hair in the soup. She has beautiful hair.

t6ctb AC ‘guest’:

Mbi cerop;HH JKp,eM tocth. Mbi >Kp;eM rocTdii.

We are expecting a guest today. We are expecting guests.

rpddeHB ‘comb’ has an inserted vowel in the N.S.: y Bac ecTB rpddeHB (rpedeindn, rpedeHKa)? Have you a comb? y Memi h4t rpddmi (rpeSemica, rpebemai). I have no comb. The diminutive rpedemdK and the derived feminine noun rpedeHKa are more commonly used. rpedemoK BB, with inserted vowel in N.S. ^Bdp BB ‘yard, farm; the out-of-doors’ JI^th nrpaioT Ha ,n,Bopd. Ha jtBopd x6jio3ho.



The children are playing in the yard. It’s cold out of doors.



Bac (3CTB KJIlflu K 3TOH ABepH?

Y MeHH HeT Kjnona.

OHa noTepnJia kjiiohh.

Have you a key to this door? I haven’t a key. She has lost her keys.

hoc AB

noji AB; note the second locative and the phrase with stress on the preceding preposition: The books are lying on the floor. Kmim jieJKaT Ha nojiy. The books fell on the floor. Khkiti ynajiH na noji. yHHTejiB AB, with N.P. yuiiTejia: Bbi 3HaeTe Hamero yuiiTejia?

y MeHa 6bijih xopdimie yaiiTejia. B 3Toii niKoae BOceMb yaHTeaeii.

Do you know our teacher? I had good teachers. There are eight teachers in this school.

xo3aHH has the plural stem xo3aeB-; with N.P. in [-a] and no ending in G.P.: Our landlord is a very pleasant man. Ham xo3aaH oaeHB npnaTHtni aeaoB^K. We shall have to ask the landlord for the keys. Hap;o Sy^eT nonpocflTb Kaioan y xo3aHHa. Our landlord and landlady live downstairs. Hamn xo3aeBa jKHByT BHH3y. Did you meet our landlord and landlady? Bbi BCTpeTHJiH Haranx xo3aeB? We were talking with our landlord and landlady. Mbi roBopiian c xosaeBaMH. HEttan (or mKa(|)) has a second locative: Koctiom bhcht b maany.

The suit is hanging in the wardrobe.

Older houses in Europe have no closets; instead, they use big wardrobes. The same word is used for cupboards and bookcases: Put the plates and cups in the cupboard. HoeraBBTe Tap&iiKH h namKii b liman. You’ll find that book in my bookcase. Bbi HaflfleTe 3Ty KHhry b mo§m khhjkhom mnany. [20—B] 457

Note that nopTnoii ‘tailor’ is not a noun, but an adjective in masculine form: B rocTtiHime


There is no tailor in the hotel.


Feminine: Kajioma, KapTima, jiecTHiipa, nacxa The following insert a vowel in the G.P.: rpedeHKa (rpedeHOK), jidaceuKa (jidaceuen), MHHyTKa (Mirnytok), nojiKa (ndjioK), ipeTouKa (ipeToneK), ipeTKa (ipeTOK): Oiia CHfljia bc6 b&ah c ndjiOK.

She took all the things off the shelves.

nopa CC: Oh npimieji He b ndpy.

He came at an inconvenient time.

CTeHa CC: Look at that wall. The walls here are very dirty.

ITocMOTpHTe axy CTeHy. Ctchbi 3a4cb dueHB rpH3Htie.

Neuter: mbijio, noJioTOipe (G.P. nojioT^Heu;) The noun TaKcff is neuter, but not inflected: IiaM Ha^o 6yp;eT b3htb ABa Tatccff. Hac dxajio naTepo b oahom TaKCH. IlepeA BOK3ajiOM BcerAa ctoht HecKOJiBKO TaKcii.

We shall need two taxicabs. Five of us were riding in one taxi. There are always a few taxicabs standing in front of the station.

D. NEW VERBS bhc£tb ‘to be hanging’, present Biimy, bhcAt. octsLbhtb ‘to leave (something or someone)’ is a compound of CTaBHTB, hence punctual. The compound durative is


Oh ocTaBHJi cboh KajiouiH. Oh ajih nac oe/raBHT A^ner.



He has left his overshoes. He will leave money for us.

HHoiTja oh ocTaBJiaeT ajih Hac SnaeTai.

He ocTaBjiaiiTe ee 3«eca OflHy.

Sometimes he leaves tickets for us. Don’t leave her here alone.

These verbs also mean ‘to keep something for oneself’: Jlyumyio-To KOMHaTy oh ocxaBjiaeT ce6e. JI xoay 3to ce66 ocTaBHTa.

The best room he is keeping for himself. I want to keep this for myself.

naaaTB ‘to fall’ has by its side the punctual verb ynacxa; yna«y, ynaHeT; ynaa, ynaaa. This is a compound of the simple punctual verb nacTb ‘to fall’, which is not much used: P Tenepa na^aiOT


OHa ynaaa c aecTHHitai.

Now the leaves are falling. She fell down the stairs (or off a ladder).

cjiyjKHTa ‘to serve’, present cayacy, cayaaiT, makes its punctual with the prefix no-. th7uHHTIL t0

tare doTn •1S a punc,tuaJ comPound of the verb -hhth, which occurs only with prefixes (samkra, mankra) When the prefix ends in a vowel, the present is made as in nofiMy, noitMeT. When the prefix ends in a consonant the present is of the shape cmnviy, CHHMeT (accent C). The past is cuan, CHana, CHaao, cHaan (accent C) The com¬ pound durative is cmma/ra. '

CHHMHTe KHHry c ndaKii.

CmiMiiTe naaaTo. He CHHMafiTe KHiir c ndaoK. TepaTa ‘to lose’, punctual with no-: CMOTpfiTe, He TepafiTe Hnnerd. Bai noTepaan HTO-nnoyaa? Oh noTepaa cb6h bna^T.

Take the book from the shelf. Take off your overcoat. Don’t take books from the shelves. Be careful, don’t lose anything. Have you lost anything? He’s lost his ticket.

yaojKHTb ‘to lay down, to pack (things)’, like noaoHcfixa ‘to lay’, is a compound of -aoacfiTa CA, which occurs only with prefixes (though there is the reflexive aoacfiTaca ‘to lie down’, with accent BA). The compound durative is yKaa,n,HiBaTH, derived from KaacTa ‘to lay’.



Mh6 na^o eiqe yjioacfiTB cboh Bein,u. H KaK pa3 yioiaAMBaio Benin b neMojiaii.

yjiojKiuia no^ojK^ajiH, nona OHa yKJia,n,BiBajia

M&tb Mbi

I still have to pack my things. I’m just packing (the things into) my suitcase. The mother put the children to bed. He waited while she put the children to bed.


The reflexive means ‘to get packed’ and also ‘to do one’s packing’: Bc6 Benpi He yjioncaTCH b HeMojtaH. Mbi CKopo yjiojKHMca.

Oh Ten^pB yroia,a;BiBaeTCH.

All the things won’t go into the suitcase. We’ll soon get our things packed. He’s now packing his things.

yaflTB CA ‘to teach’; reflexive ‘to learn’:

Oh yaHT MeHH pyccKOMy h3bik^. id yaycB pyccKOMy H3BiKy.

He is teaching me Russian. I am learning Russian.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English. This is individual study.

3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences.

Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.) 1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences.



Covering the English of Basic Sentences

Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual study.



3. What Would You Say? Answer the following questions based on the story told in the Basic Sentences. Practice the questions and answers out loud until you know them thoroughly. Example: B/rd flejiaji Octpobckhh, Korfla npnmeji ToKapeB? Oh yKJiaflLiBaji cbo6 Beirpi b neMo^aH.

10. B KaKOM KOCTioMe yexaji Octpobckhh? 11. Tjjd Biicejia KapTHHa? 12. B KapMaHe y OcTpdBCKoro 6biji 6n.neT?

1. Bero He Mor HaftTh Octpobckhh?

13. Bto dbuio

2. r«e oh HCKaji?

14. Tp;e dbijia dpfiTBa?

3. IIop; KpoBaTBK) jih 6bijih 6ot6hkh?

15. Pp;e dbuia 3y6Haa ipeTKa OcTpdBCKoro?

4. Blijih ohh Ha nojiKe b niKany? 5. Tp;e ohii Gbijih Ha caMOM p;ejie? 6. Bto BepHyji nopTHoii?

16. Bid nojiyunji yTpoM Octpobckhh?

7. Bero 6h He BepHyji? 8. Kt6 He BepHyji dpioK? 9. BTd mojkho nocjraTB no nduTe?

17. Tfld



autHKe CTOJia?



18. KaKdii kjhoh Octpobckhh p;djuKeH 6biji b3htb c

codoii? 19. Tfld jieHtajiH kjhoh^? 20. Tp;d BHcdjiH najibTd h injidna?

Translate the following sentences into Russian. Example:

21. 22. 23. 24.

Good day, Mrs. Ilyin.

25. The hat is on the shelf in the wardrobe.

J^odptiH fleHB, rpajKp;aHKa IIjibHHa.

26. The comb and the brush are in the drawer.

Good evening, Michael Michalich. The keys are in my pocket. The ticket is under the papers. In the bathroom are soap and a few towels.

27. It’s time to be going. 28. The little boy fell down the stairs. 29. I’ve lost my ticket. 30. Take off your hat and overcoat. [20—C]


Section D—Listening In

1. What Did You Say? With other members of the group give orally your responses to the previous exercise as the Leader calls for them.

2. Word Study Check-Up Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Word Study as the Leader calls for it.

3. Listening In 1. Andrey Pavlovich comes to visit Vasiliy Ivanovich. Aimpeii:

Jfddpbni neaep, Bachaim IlBanbia!

Bachami: 3p;paBCTByHTe, AHppdii IlaBjibin! Kai< A pap; Bac Btip;eTb! Ahap^h:

IIpocThTe, hto A He npudxaa Bd-BpeMa, ho cayafiaocb HecaacTHe c nde3p;0M, h npHHijidcb ocTaHOBhTB n6e3p p;Ba aaca ot rdpop;a. H 3p,dcb Ha B0K3ajie A nomA aac acpan TaKcti.

BacAjinh: Hy, caaBa Bory, aTO npiidxaan, n hto HHaerd naoxdro c Baivni He cayanaocb. AHppdil:

Ax, h£t, cayahaocb HeMaao naoxoro. il ocTaBna b n6e3pe cboh KaaouiH. H nyaaa, hto noao/Kiia naioah b KapMaH, ho Tendpb A Bhacy, hto y MeHa b KapMaHe hx HeT.



HaBdpHo ohh y MeHa b aeMopAHe. Bed moh bchj,h b aeMojtaHe. A 6e3 Kaioaa A He Mory aeMopan OTKpbiTb. Bachann: Hy, miaero. H 3aBTpa enporny flBdpmiKa. y Herd MHoro Karoadu.

HaBepHo op;h6m 113 hAx mojkho KpbiTb Barn aevopaH. Auppdii:



Ho mhc Bce-Tarai napo dypeT nodpuTbca.

Bacdanii: IIoacaayhcTa, mAhocth npociiM! Oflny MiiHyTKy! H BaM npimecy noaoTdHqe, a Miiiao bm HanpeTe b BaHHoii. b 3tom MaaeubKOM CToaime bbi Haii^eTe dpiiTBy, HOByio 3ydn\ao ipeTKy, rpeoemoK h m,eTKy ^aa Boadc.


rocTeii. Hy, noaeMy BaM He chhtb najibTo H Baai noKajKy Barny KOMHaTy.

Baimi OKHa CMOTpaT bo psop h moh aa yjinny.

8to hiphk pna



h nuiany?



BacHJiHfi: He SecnoKoiiTecB. H cede ocTaBHji KOMHaTy Ha ppyrofi CTopoHd Kopnpopa. HeSojibmaa,









Bbi MeHa npocTHTe, noacaayftcTa, ho a oaeHB xoay cnaTB.

3to Bama KOMHaTa.


Hy, cnacnoo.

BacHanfi: Korpa BaM Hapo BCTaBaTB? AHppeii:




nojiOBHHe cepBMoro.

BacHaHii: Xopomo, a Bac no30By noaoBHHe cepBMoro.




2. Repin has a talk with the janitor. PenHH:

^bophhk, pbophhk!

a c aecTHHpBi Bcerpa napaio.

Tpe xo3h:hh?


Mh6 Hrophwk:


Hapo noroBopHTb


Baepa nopTHdii npiiHec m6h koctiom h ynan


aero BaM xo3hhh?


H xoay nonpocHTB erd noaHHfiTB jidcTHHpy.


Baepa BeaepoM a c Hee ynan. C aecTHHpbi Kaa-cpBiH hbhhbih




He t6jibko a napaio.

^bophhk: Hy, dean TaK, to noaHHHTB Hapo. H noroBopio c xo3hhhom h cKaacy eMy, hto

MoaceT ynacTB.

a HHKorpa ire Ha-








Hapo noaHHHTB.

nHBaiocB Section E—Conversation

1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences With the Russian covered, practice until you can speak the Russian for each English sentence without hesitation. This is individual study.



2. Vocabulary Check-Up Give the Russian for all the English sentences in the Basic Sentences as the Leader calls for it.

3. Conversation Suggested Topics: 1. You are leaving on a trip. Discuss your packing, train times, getting a ticket, supply of cash, and so on. 2. You had mislaid your keys and had some trouble finding them. Tell where they ought to have been, where you looked, and where you finally found them.

3. You have rented a very bad room; tell what is wrong.with it: furniture lacking, bad bathroom conditions, noise, state of the stairs, landlady. 4. Your room is very satisfactory; tell all the good things about it, about the building, the landlady, the price.

Section F—Conversation (Cont.) Continue conversation. Additional check-up if necessary.

FINDER LIST BHceTh to be hanging bojioc (single) hair

rocTb guest rpefieHb, rpeoemea, rpeoemoic comb HBop yard, court, farm; out of doors HBopHHK houseman, janitor flofipblH good jjocTaTOHHO enough



KaJioma overshoe KapMaH pocket KapTHHa picture kjiioh



of or for books

KopHjjop hallway ladder, stairs JioaceHKa teaspoon JiecTHHpa

MCJKfly between MHHyTKa little minute MHxaJl Michael MbiJio soap hoc


near ocTaeiiTb P, ocTaBjiHTb D to leave okojio

na^aTb to fall nacTa paste nepejt in front of, before hoji floor; Ha nojiy on the floor nojiKa shelf HOJiOTeHne towel nopa (right) time; it’s time nopTHOK tailor nocJiy>KHTb P to serve, to do a service noTepaTb to lose nycTb let it be, let him


can it be? surely not

CJiyjKHTb D to serve CHHMan> D, CHHTb P to take down or off CTeHa wall TaiccH

taxicab to lose


yKJiaftMBaTb D, yjiojKHTb P to pack; yKJiaftbiBaTbca, yjnmHTbCH to pack one’s things ynacTb P to fall yHHTejib teacher (male) yHHTb to teach; yHHTbca to learn X03HHH


Beic check imcan, imcaij) cupboard, wardrobe meTKa brush, meTOHKa little brush autHK








Today is such a beautiful day.

CerdflHH TaKoii xopdnmft a^hb.

to the country So I’d like to take a drive to the country.

TaK xoTejiocb 6bi mii6 noexaTB b AepeBHio.

b Aep^BHIO


kho b jidc noiiTh.



9to coBceM djih3KO.



lake from there The woods are at the left, and not far from them there is a small lake. Yes, it’s surely very pleasant today in the woods.

machine, car Well, all right, then we’ll park the car here. to carry basket provisions Who will carry the basket with the provisions? (little) Mary

I’ll carry it. (little) Jackie

Girls can’t.



o3epo 0TTy;a;a Jlec HaJieBO, h nejtaaeKO oTTy^a MajieHbKoe 03epo.

[0%ira\ [at TUda\

C em e h o b JJa, b jiecy ceroAHa HaB^pHo dneHb npnflTHO.

TpaffiflaHKa flcfiHCKa a Mamtma [maSHlna] Xopoino, Tor,n;a ocTaHOBHM Marnimy 3,n,ecb. noHecTH K0p3flHa

[pai}i§TI] [kar£Ina\ [prayIziya\


Kt6 noHeceT Kop3tmy c npoBh3Hen? Mama Mama H B noHecy.

[MAsha] c li


c k



BaHH B a h a ilchHCKHH JJ^BonnaM Heab3h.


Mama Why can’t girls do anything and boys everything?

Hone My ytesouKaM i-muero He.nb.3/1, a MajibUHKaM Bee mojkho?


H c

li h




[/ pi ROT]


ahead Well, children, you run ahead.

Hy, a^th, derHTe BnepeA-

But where are we going to eat lunch?


B r^e mbi


a h a BaBTpaKaTb?


II c h h


k a

At the same place as last week.

TaM nce; r^e Ha npomjiOH neA&ie.

Well, run along, children.

Hy, SerHTe, a^th.

It’s really very pretty there.

TaM b caMOM A^Jie dueHb KpacfiBO.

You’ll see for yourselves.

Bbi caMH yBhAHTe.

Here we are.


trees Let’s eat lunch under these trees.

mbi npimuiH.



IIo3aBTpaKaeM noA othmh Aep^BbHMH.

tree Here’s a nice tree.


B6t KpachBoe AepeBO.


C e grass How green the grass is!








TpaBa KaKaa aejieHan! Bormanob

birds they sing And how nicely the birds are singing!

[PTICHl$i] [paYUT]


A mAnKH KaK xopoino noi&T! C e m e ii o b







And the wind is fresh and cool.

H BeTep CBesKHii ii npoxjrap,Hi>ixi. Borj(aHOB

it’s dark Here in the woods it’s cool and dark. sun Let’s eat lunch and go out in the sun. Let’s go to the lake. it’s light, bright By the lake it’s bright and it’s warmer.



TeMHO 3a6cb b jiecy npoxjiap;HO h tcmiio. LpajK^aiiKa £ c li h c k a cojinne IIo3aBTpaKaeM h BbifmeM na




IIoftti,eM k 03epy. CBeTJIO

y dsepa ii CBeTjio n Tenji^e.


Well, it’s time to be eating, wash Children, wash your hands and face,

flower Look, what a pretty red flower I’ve found!

H£, nopa 6ctb. BBIMOHTe

[ VImayji]



B6t KaKOH KpaCHBBIII KpaCHBIH pBeTdK a Hanuia! B a h a

I always feel like eating,

Mh6 Bceppa xoaeTca ecTB. Mama

ice cream Yes, of course, ice cream, piece Here’s a piece of bread for you.



TJa, KOHemio, MopdaceHoe. KyCOK


A b6t Te6d Kycoa xjieda. C e m e h o b

hand over, pass




Please pass me the salt.

[piyiDA Yji\ [SOI]

Ilepe^anxe mii6, noataayflcTa, c6jib.

TpaacftaiiKa HcdHCKa I haven’t forgotten the salt, have I?

Pa3Be A 3a6Biaa c6jib?



Masha, look


the basket.


nocMOTpn b Kop3±He.

The salt is surely there.

Ta,M HaBepHo

And also bring glasses for the tea.

H CTaKaHM ana nan TOJKe npHHecn.

can, tin And bring two cans of beans.

6aHKa H npimecn ^Be 6aHKH 6o6ob.



Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences

1. Word Study A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES (1) Cer6p;HH TaKdn xopdmnn p,eHB 'Today is such a beautiful day’. The adjective Tandn ‘such, that kind of, is used with nouns and with the long forms of adjectives: OHa



She is such


good (person), so good.

The adverb TaK ‘in this manner, like this, so’ is used with verbs and with the short forms of adjectives: Taa



OHa TaK xoporna.




that this


She is so good.

Similarly KaKoii, KaK ‘what kind, how’:


KaKaa KpacnBaa peByniKa! KaKaa nor6p,a!

What a beautiful young girl!

KaK CKa3aTb 9to no-pyccKH?

How does one say that in Russian?


How beautiful she is!




What weather!

(2) IIoefteMTe ‘let’s go’. In talking to a person to whom one says tbi, one uses the we-form of the punctual present in the meaning ‘let’s’: nofifleM ‘let’s go (on foot)’, no&eM ‘let’s go (riding)’. In talking to a person to whom one says bbi, or to more than one person, one adds -Te to this form: non^eMTe, no^eMTe. (3) The words Kyjja ‘whereto?’ Ty^a ‘to that place’, ciOAa ‘to this place’ shift their accent after the preposition ot, and in writing these phrases are run together:

Kyn;a bbi HAere? OTKy^a bbi? H. TOJKe HAy Ty^a.

OTTy^a He b^aho.

IlAHTe cio,T;a. OTCK>Aa Bek) Aep^BHio bhaho.

Where are you going (to)? Where do you come from? I’m going there too. From there one can’t see it. Come here. From here one can see the whole village.

The combination OTCiOAa is usually pronounced [at SUda], with plain [5] rather than with palatal [^]. (4) In the expression npaBHTB aBTOMobhjieM ‘to drive an auto’ we see the object of a verb in the instrumental case. As a rule, a verb that takes one object has this object in the accusative case. Mbi bctp^thjih Bamy cecTpy.

We met your sister.

A verb that takes two objects has one (usually a thing) in the accusative and the other (usually a person) in the dative: Oh a^ji MHe 6hji6t.

He gave me a ticket.

Recall that living masculines and living plurals have the accusative like the genitive: Mbi BCTpeTHjin Bauiero SpaTa. Mbi bctp^thjih BauiHx cecTep.

We met your brother. We met your sisters.



Recall also that the genitive usually replaces the accusative in negative sentences: Oh MHe h6 Aaji fiHjieTa.

He didn’t give me any ticket.

Also, the genitive replaces the accusative when an indefinite amount or part is meant: Oh MHe aaji ^eHer.

He gave me some money.

It is an irregularity that some verbs take objects in other cases. Here are some examples: yufiTb, person accusative, thing dative: R er6 yuy anrjifiiicKOMy rummy.

I am teaching him English.

yHHTbCH, dative object: HeMy bbi yuHTecb?

What are you studying?

noMOHB, noMoraTB, dative object: IIoMorfiTe mh6.

Help me.

HtflaTB, genitive object when the object is not definitely known: Mbi jK^eM xopomeii noroABi. R jKjty nncBMa. R /KAV nilCBMO.

We are waiting for good weather. I’m waiting for a letter. I’m waiting for the letter.

HCKaTB, like jkahtb: R nmy yAofiHoft KBapTiipBi. R Hiuy" KBapTHpy rpamflamiHa HjiBnua. Mfii fiui,eM xopbuieii npauKH. Oh fimeT paSdTBi.

I’m looking for a comfortable flat. I’m looking for Mr. Ilyin’s apartment We’re looking for a good laundress. He’s looking for work.

npaBHTB, instrumental object: OHa He jiiodiiT npaBHTB aBTOModfijieM.



She doesn’t like to drive a car.

(5) Pa3 p,BaffH,aTb ‘about twenty times’. When a number comes after its noun, the number is approximate: Mbi ero BCTpeuaJin pa,3a Tpff.

He’s about forty. We met him three or four times.

TaM 6bijio uejiOBeK BoceMb.

There were, say, eight people there.




(6) Mfi nyTb He nepe^xajm coSaicy ‘We came near running over a dog’. This expression is used when one almost does something: H-

nyTb He 3a6biji.

I almost forgot.

The word nonTii ‘almost’ is used of amounts, sizes, and the like: Mbi TaM ctohjih nonTii uac.

We stood there almost an hour.

(7) IIpoBH3HH ‘provisions’ is singular, a collective noun: OHa noKynaeT npoBH3Hio. JI Kynhji mh6to npoBfi3HH. Mbi e^eM b rdpoji; 3a npoBH3HeH.

She is buying provisions. I’ve bought a lot of victuals. We’re driving to town for groceries.

(8) BaHH (for IlBaH), Mama (for Mapba) are diminutive names. These are used in familiar speech. For every given name there are several diminutives. Some of these are especially affectionate, others unfriendly, and others indifferent. Thus: EKaxepHHa ‘Catherine’, full name

KareHbKa ‘Katie’, affectionate

KaTH ‘Kate’, familiar

KaTbKa, unfriendly, disdainful

KaTioHia, KaTioiHKa sometimes indifferent, sometimes slightly disdainful or patronizing.

The diminutives of men’s given names have the endings of feminine nouns, but are masculine: Bbi Bfiftejin Hamero Bamo?

Did you see our Vanya (our Jackie)? [21—B]



Masculine: B&rep 'wind’ has an inserted vowel in the N.S.; thus, G.S. BeTpa, etc. KycoK BB ‘piece’, with inserted vowel in N.S.: aba KycKa ‘two pieces’. jidc AB ‘woods’ has N.P. Jieca and second locative b Jiecy. moct BB (or AC) ‘bridge’ has second locative Ha MOCTy. ijBeTOK BB ‘flower’ has an inserted vowel in N.S.; thus, G.S. pBeTKa, etc. It is a diminutive of n,BeT AB ‘color; flower’. In the singular they mostly use pbctok, and in the plural pbctbi ‘flowers’. In the meaning ‘colors’ the N.P. form is u,BeTa. BaHH ‘Jack’ is declined like a feminine. Feminine: a;op6ra, EKaTepima, Kop3hHa, KopdBa, Mama, Marnfma, npoBH3HH, nTiipa, codaKa. daHKa ‘can, tin’ inserts o in the G.P. danoK. AdBOUKa ‘little girl’ has an inserted vowel in G.P. atmoueH. Like fleBymKa ‘young woman’, it is a diminu¬ tive of a less used word, ndBa ‘maiden’; other diminu¬ tives are aeBKa ‘young woman, wench, slut’, AeBHpa ‘unmarried woman’, p;eBuypKa, fleBnymna ‘nice little girl’, aeBHOHKa ‘nasty little girl’.



nTHHKa ‘bird’ has G.P. nThueic; this is the usual diminutive of nrapa ‘bird’. Diminutives like this are very much used: Kop3HHKa ‘little basket’, KOMHaTKa ‘little room’, RopoatKa ‘little road’. pena CC (or CA) ‘river’. cbiihbh BC ‘pig’, G.P. cbhh4h, with inserted vowel and no ending. TpaBa BC ‘grass’. nepeBHH AC ‘village, country’ has G.P. ftepeBdHb, with inserted vowel and no ending. Feminine in consonant: cojtb AC ‘salt’. Neuter: cojiHue ‘sun’; the letter ji is written in this word although the word does not contain the sound [/]; the word is [SOiVca]. The letter ji is written here because the sound [/] appears in derived words, such as the adjective cojiHemmin ‘solar’ (cojiHenHun neap ‘the heat of the sun’) or the diminutive c6jihbiihko ‘the dear little sun’. ftdpeBO ‘tree’ has the plural stem \$.ef$$y-\: ftep^Bba, flep^BbeB, flepeBBHM

63epo ‘lake’ accents the second syllable in the plural forms: 03epa, 03ep, 03epaM Notice that MopdateHoe ‘ice cream’ is not a noun but an adjective in neuter form.

C. NEW VERBS The following new verbs occur in this Unit: npaBiiTb 'drive (horses, an automobile)’, regular: npaBjno, npaBHT; npaBbTe; npaBHJi npiiraacHTb 'invite’, regular with accent BA: npnrjiamy, npnrjiacHT; npnrjiachji; this is a punctual compound of a little used verb rjiacuTu; the compound durative is npHrjiamaTb : fl hx npnrjiainy. H. hx uacTO npHrjiamaio. neTB 'sing’, irregular: noio, noeT: noflTe; n&n, with prefix c-: OHa dueHB xopomo noeT. CnoHTe HaM HTO-HHdyAB.

I’ll invite them. I often invite them. n&Jia,

with accent BA. The common punctual compound is made She sings very well. Sing something for us.

The other new verbs in this Unit are compounds of verbs we have already met: noBepHyTb 'make a turn’, compound of BepHyTb (P) 'give back, return (something)’; compare 3aBepHyTb ‘wrap up’. These verbs are regular with accent BA. nepe^aTb ‘hand over, hand, pass’, like AaTb, with compound durative nepeflaBaTb nepeexaTb ‘ride across, run over’, like 6xaTb, with compound durative nepee33KaTb BBiMBiTb, yMbiTb, noMbiTb are punctual compounds of mbitb; m6io, m6ct; MdiiTe, m6ji, Mbijia. The compound duratives BbiMbiBaTb and especially yMbiBaTb are used oftener than MbiTb. The reflexive forms mean ‘to wash oneself’: Mme

HaAO yMbiTbCH.

Bbi b BaHHofl? — JJ,a, a yMbiBaiocb. MaJibUHKii He jiioSht mbitb pyK. Mh4 Ha^o noMbiTb pyun. BbIMOHTe HX MbIJIOM.

I must wash myself clean. Are you in the bathroom?—Yes, I’m getting washed. Little boys don’t like to wash their hands. I must wash my hands. Wash them thoroughly with soap. [21-B]



that crapaTb

‘to wash’ is used only of washing clothes; the punctual of this is BMCTupaTt:

Hama npauua oneHb xopornb crapaeT

Our laundress washes the shirts very well.



BbiCTHpajia Bee name

rpa3Hoe beaue.

She has washed all our soiled things.

noHecTH is the usual punctual compound of HecTh: What are you carrying there? Allow me; I’ll carry your suitcase.

Hto bbi t£m HeceTe? no3BojibTe, a noHec^ Bam ueMO,n;aH.

We have also had npimecTH ‘to bring’. As the compounding durative of Hecrft they use the verb hocAtb (accent CA): H BaM npHHecy Barne imcbMO. B kotopom aacy npuHocaT nowry?

I’ll bring you your letter. And what time to they bring the mail?

The verb hochtb, by itself, means ‘to wear’: OHa Bcer^a h6cht oaeHb KpacliBbie njiaTba.

She always wears very handsome dresses.

D. NEW ADJECTIVES 6jih3KHH ‘near’ is used mostly in the short neuter form bjifi3K0 ‘it is near’. The comparative is babase ‘nearer’, npdmabiii ‘last past’ has no short forms. It is used with nouns like ‘year’ and ‘week’: B npomnoM ro^y oh bbia b AivibpHKe. OhA ybxajra na npomaoH Heflbae.

Last year he was in America. They left last week.

cbOkhh ‘fresh’: short forms cb4?k, CBema, CBeaw, CBeatfi (also cb4jkh); comparative CBem^e CB^THbiii TeMHbixi


CBeTea, CBeTJia, cb4tjio, CBeTabi; ‘dark’: TeMeH, Teivma, Teumb, TeMHbi; TeMHee ‘bright, light’:


CBeTji4e; but




light, the

place is


E. C&MBIH, CaM. The adjective caMBiii has regular endings; the accent is on the stem. With tot, 3tot (often these have see after them), it means 'the same’: T,n;e mbi BCTpeTHMca 3a,BTpa? — Ha t6m ace

caMOM MecTe, r^e 11 ceroAna. Ohii jKHByT Ha Toil ace h BBI.


yjinpe, hto

BbI ROJIJKHBI CHfleTB Ha Tex JKe MecTax, bbi cnp;ejiH Buepa.


Where shall we meet tomorrow?—In the same place as today. They live in the same street as you. You are to sit in the same places where you sat yesterday.

With nouns it means ‘the very’: Oh b caMOM p;ejie 3fltscB. Oh ctohji Ha caMOM Bepxy ji^cthhu,bi. Ohii HCHByT He b ropojtOM.

caMOM ropoji;e,

a 3a

He really (‘in very fact’) is here. He was standing at the very top of the ladder. They don’t live in the city itself, but outside of town.

Before another adjective it means ‘most’: 3to caMaa KpacHBaa yjiupa b HameM ropofle. Oh Bcerjja hchji b caMBix floporhx rocTHHiipax. Oh caMBift jiyuHiim ,n;bKTop B Stom rdpo^e.

This is the handsomest street in our city. He always lived in the most expensive hotels. He is the best doctor in this city.

The special pronominal adjective caM has only short forms in the nominative: caM, caMa, caM6, caMii. The feminine accusative is caMoe [samaYO]; one also hears caMy, caMOio. The plural stem is [sarp,-]. The other endings are like those of oahh; all cf them are accented, except N.P. caMH. This word is used along with nouns or pronouns to emphasize that one means this person or thing, and no other; it is like I myself, you yourself, he himself, the landlord himself: 51 caM



I saw that myself (man speaking).



R caMa 9to B^^ejia. Bbi Bbi Bbi Bbi Bbi

caMH ero B&netm? ero caivioro BH^ejin? ee caMoe BiptejiH? hx caMHx BfptejiH? C CaMHM X03HHH0M TOBOpHJIH?

OTflafiTe neHbrH eMy caMOMy. il C HHMH CaMHMH He rOBOpkjI.

3pyr6x ^hht, a caM




R caM 6peiocb; k napHKMaxepy He xojKy.

(same, woman speaking) Did you see him yourself? Did you see him himself? Did you see her herself? Did you see them themselves? Did you talk with the landlord himself? Hand over the money to him himself. I didn’t talk with them in person. He teaches others, but doesn’t know anything himself. I shave myself; I don’t go to the barber’s.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English. This is individual study. r> • e r> • o


3. Review of Basic Sentences

Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences. Section


of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.


2 Covering the English of Basic Sentences Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual study.




translate into Russian: 1. I’m expecting a guest. 2. They have invited me.



3. What Would You Say? 3. I’d like to take a drive to the country. 4. I know a very pretty place.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

One has to turn to the right. Do you know the way? I’ve driven over this road lots of times. Be careful. They are strolling along the road. He ran over a dog. He came near running over a dog. Do you want to go into the woods? It’s very pleasant in the woods. We’ll park the car here. Who will carry the basket? She is buying provisions. Run on ahead. We’ll have lunch under the trees. We were sitting on the grass. Let’s go out in the sun. Do you like ice cream? Pass me the butter, please. I’m waiting for a letter. We’re looking for a comfortable apartment. She likes to drive an automobile. I’m looking for Mr. Ilyin’s apartment. They didn’t give me any ticket. She is teaching me Russian. Come here.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

I almost forgot to tell you this. We stood there almost an hour. Did you meet Jack on the way? At what time do they bring the newspaper? What is he carrying there? He’s wearing his new suit. Does she wash the linens well? Sing something for us. I have to wash my face and hands. I’m just getting washed. Last year I was in Russia. Last week I was in Moscow. Here it’s dark, but there it’s light. It’s lighter there than here. We met them about three times. She’s about eighteen. From here one can see the whole village. From there one can’t see it. Give him a piece of bread. I’ve bought a can of beans. We met your brothers and sisters. I saw him myself. I saw him himself. I saw her herself. I saw them themselves.



58. It’s really nice here. 59. Give me two pieces of sugar. 60. You know that yourself.

55. Who shaves you?—I shave myself. 56. This is the prettiest place. 57. He lives in the same house as you.

Section D—Listening In

1. What Did You Say? With other members of the group give orally your responses to the previous exercise as the Leader calls for them.

2. Word Study Check-Up Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Word Study as the Leader calls for it.

3. Listening In 1. Semyonov calls Mrs. Yasinsky’s children. TpajK^aHKa HcHHCKaa: Hy, no3a,BTpaKaeM. ,0,6th?


fl BH/Ky Barnero MajibHHKa. Oh y 63epa. Ho ,n;eBOHKH Bameii a He BHJKy.

OHa rynaeT

Tan noiimii ee. Ilocnemn, noTOMy hto mbi bc6 roao^HBi.


Biii Hac noAOJK^eTe 3a6cb?


H6t, a BepHycb k cTapmHM.

A tbi, noJKaayncTa, npuxoflH c cecTpoii nocKop6e, a to cjiaAKoro ne noayanmb.

3,6th, ^eTH! nopd ecTb!


il oaeHb pajt, noTOMy hto a daeHb rdnoaen


r^e TBoa cecTpa?


He 3Haio.



b jiecy.


ilcHHCKaa: no30BHTe, noacaayHCTa, AeT6a. CeMeHOB:



Bot, b6t, b6t OHa! Bot OHa! He h;;h t&k Me;;jienuo! Bern, a t6 c-^aKoro He noa^anrab.

2. Arbenin and Kuznetsov drive to town. ApdeHHH:

Ky3Hen;6B: J\a, KOHenHo 3Haio. Tticany pan 43ana no t6h nee caMon aopore. ApdeHHH:

Koraa bbi npaBo.

Bbi 3HaeTe aopory? Ap6eHHH:







CMOTptiTe, ckohbko Soabinhx n KpachBBix

Hy, Toraa mojkho nonpochTb Bac npaBHTb


ManruHon. Ky3Hen;6B:



aynrne bbi caMH npaBBTe, a a BaM 6yay noKanbiBaTb aopdry. H4t,


Jfo ropoaa aaaeKO OTCioaa?


H4t, He oaeHb aaneno. Koraa bbi yBiiaiiTe MaaeHbKHH 64abiii m6ct no apyry10 CTopoHy 03epa, mbi 6yaeM Heaaaend ot ropoaa.


Mbi nepeeaeM nepe3 moct?


caMaa npaciiBaa aopora.

nee 3aecb He oneHb npnaTHO. Mn6ro CHery Ha aopore, h dneHb TpyaHO npaBHTb ManniHon. Hh-3a CH^ra aoporn He BikaHo. il pan Tpii naca HCKaJi aopory, h 6bijio TaK xojioano, hto pyan 6oji4jih. 3hm6h


Ky3Hen,0B: H4t; moct naeT nepe3 p4ny, a Mbi 4aeM b apyryio CTdpoHy.

h4tom 4to


6aeHb paa,

hto Ten4pb ji4to.

H He 6aeHb aio6aio xdaoa, a aopbni A 11 ji4tom He 3Haio.

Section E—Conversation

1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences With the Russian covered, practice until you can speak the Russian for each English sentence without hesitation. This is individual study. , TT

2. Vocabulary Check-Up

Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Basic Sentences as the Leader calls for it.



3. Conversation

Suggested Topics: 1. Give someone directions about how to drive to a certain place in the country. 2. You and your friends are going on a picnic and you know of a good spot; describe it.

3. Tell about your picnic lunch. 4. One of your friends brought along their little boy and girl. The children made a lot of trouble, got lost, and so on. Tell all about it.

Section F—Conversation (Cont.) Continue conversation. Additional check-up if necessary. 6amca can, tin 6jih3KO it is near BaHH short name for HsaH John BeTep wind Bnepeft on ahead BbiMMBaTb D, BbiMbiTb P to wash (a person) BbiCTHpaTb P to wash (clothes) p;eBoiKa little girl flepeBHH village, country jtepeBo tree; jtepeBbfl trees Ropora road, way EicaTepHHa Catherine Kop3HHa, Kop3HHKa basket KOpOBa cow KycoK piece



Jiec woods Mama short name for MapbH Mary MauiMHa machine, motor car MopoaceHoe ice cream moct bridge 03epo lake OTCipua from here OTTyfta from there nepejtaBaTb D, nepe^aTb P to hand over, to pass nepee3UcaTb D, nepeexaTb to ride or drive across; to run over neTb to sing noBepHyTb to make a turn noMbiTb P to wash noHecTH to carry, P of HecTH

npaBimb to drive; npaBHTb aBTOMo6HJieM to drive a car

cojiHpe sun

iipurjiacHTb P, npurjiauiaTt. D to invite npoBH3HH provisions, groceries

cojib salt cneib P to sing

npouiJibiH last past

TeMHbifi dark; tcmho it’s dark

irrinja, nTHHica bird

TpaBa grass

peica river caM oneself; Bbi caMH you yourself, you yourselves

yMbiBaTb D, yMMTb P to wash (hands, face);

a yMbiBaiocb Pm getting washed

CBeHCHH fresh CBeTJibiii bright, light; CBeTJio it’s light, bright

ijBeTOK flower

CBHHbH pig

ayTb just barely;

coSaica dog

a ayTb He ynaa I came near having

a fall



UNIT MOTORING Section A—Basic Sentences M a t b 6 e b

gasoline, petrol We’ll soon be needing some gas.


6en3hH HaM cKdpo HyjKeH 6yti;eT 6eH3fiH. IlaCKHH

(of) gasoline station kilometer There’s a gasoline station about three kilometers from here. There’s the station. attendant


CTaHipiH KHJIOMeTp Ectb 6eH3HHOBaa crarmna khjio-

MeTpa Tpii OTCiOAa. B6t CTatnpia. cjiyacainiiii CjiyjKamHh

Good day.

,1(6 Spain a^hb.

What can I do for you? (‘With what can I serve?’)

H6m Mor^ cayahiTb? M a t b 4 e b

We need some gas.



[pinZInavay] [,STANciya} [kilaMETR]

HaM h&jjo 6eH3hHa.

[SL Uzhishchiy]

to fill up tank Please fill up the tank,

nanojiHHTb 6an

[naPOLqij] [BAR]

IIoJKajiyiicTa, HandjimiTe 6aK.

C ji f jk: a. in; h h full There, the tank is full,

Tendpn 6a,K ndjioH.

liter to pour in How many liters did you put in?

M a t b 6 e b JIHTp HajlflTb Ckojibko jniTpoB najinjin?

I put in 28 liters.


Do you need any oil?

Macjia beim He na,n,o?

Really, I don’t know.

M a t b 6 e b PlpaBO, He 3naio.

Please look and see.

IIocMOTpiiTe, nojKaJiyiicTa.

radiator I don’t know either whether there’s enough water in the radiator.

pa^na/rop Kpdivie Tord, k ne 3Haio,






C ji y jk a in, h ii Hajinji ABa^aTb BoceMB



b pa^naTope.



[rafiiA tar]

to test tire battery Shan’t I test the tires and the battery?

C jiyacamna npOB^pHTb infiHa 6aTap6a He npoBfipxiTb mh6 rnfiHti n fiaTapfiio? M a t b

Yes, please.


[pra yE/ij] [SHIna] [ibataJlEya\

e b

nojKajiyiiCTa, npoB^pbTe.

C Jiy HtamHH (good) order The tires are all right.

nopfl^oK nifiiiM b nopaAKe.

[pa ft. A dak]

spare air Only there isn’t enough air in the spare tire.

3anacn6fi B03AyX Tojiico b 3anacH6ii inline uej;oCTarrouHO Bd3Ayxa.

[zapaSNOY] [ VOZdux]

to pump up I’ll fill it up right away,

HanauaTb H ee cenuac naicauaio.

[nakaCIIA J'}


to grease Do you want to have the car greased?

XotAtc CM^aaTb aBTOMofifiab?

No, we have to hurry.

H6t, Mfii cnemfiM.


[2 2-A]

M a t b 6 e b


Kiev How many kilometers is it from here to Kiev?




AO KneBa? CjiyjKamnn

About 300 kilometers, straight Drive straight ahead on this same road.

fast For goodness sake don’t drive so fast.

Khjiom^tpob TpkcTa OyAeT. npHMO

[PfcA ma\

IIoe3JKaHTe npaMo no §toh caMoii Aopore.

El a c K H H OticTpo He 63AHTe Tau ObicTpo.

dangerous It’s dangerous.

onacHtiii 3to onacHO.

But we aren’t going fast at all.

M a t b 4 e b J\a mbi cobc6m He Tan OticTpo 6agm.

danger And there isn’t the least danger.

onacHocTb (F) H HHKaKdn on&,CHOCTH h6t.

Ninety kilometers an hour.



f aPAsnay]



to be afraid There’s nothing to be scared of.

BoHTbca Henero.

The road is perfectly straight,

,I(op6ra cobc6m npaMaa.

turn, bend There aren’t any curves, brakes And the brakes are good.



noBopbT IIoBopdTOB h6t.


T0pM03a H TopM03a xopdinne.

naCKHH crossing policeman Near here there’s a crossing where there’s always a policeman (standing).


Hea;ajieK6 oTciojta nepenpecTOK, rae Bcer^a ctoht mhjiiiu,ho-


Be careful.

ByAbTe ocTopojKHbi.

to burst One can always have a blow-out (‘a tire can always burst’).

Bcer^a MdaceT jidniiyTb iniiHa.

There, what’s that?

3to ut6 Taade?

Stop the car.

OcTaHOBhTe MaintiHy


II a c K H H


[2 2-A]

[pifiK ROstak\ [rpiliciaNER]


M a


b e e b

to let down I guess we have a flat tire (‘a tire has iet down’).

cnycTHTb HaBepHo cnycTfina rnnHa.

Let’s take a look.


That’s it.


to change wheel We’ll have to change a wheel.

nepeMeHHTb KOJiecd IIpHAeTCfl nepeMeHtiTb KOJiecd.

Bot ROMKpaT.

to raise up tools Raise up the car, please, while I get the tools.

nOAHHTb HHCTpyM^HTbl noAHHMiiTe Mamimy, nojKajiyncTa, nona a AOCTaHy HHCTpyMenTbi.

to unscrew screw nut Let me help you unscrew the nuts.

[pij'hjiijy IT] [kaliSO]


jack Here’s the jack.


II a C K


[pad VAT] [instruAJENti]


OTBIIHTflTb raiiica J^aBauTe, a b&m noMory OTBHHTflTb raHKH.

[atyinJ'IJ'] [GA Yka]



I have only one wrench for these nuts.

French Then give me the monkey-wrench (‘the French key’).

M a t b 6 e b y MeHH TOJIBKO OflHH KJUOU ftJIH 9thx raeK.

II a c K II H (fipaHuyacKiiii TaK /HuTe mhg fftpaHnyacKHu KJIIOU.

M a screw driver hammer Be so good and please hand me the screw driver and the hammer. to screw on All right, now all we have to do is (‘there is left for us only’) to screw on the nuts. inner tube to tear through Is the inner tube broken? (‘Has it torn the inner tube?)




MOJIOTOK By,n;bTe ftobpti, nepe^aiiTe mh6, noJKajiyucTa, OTBepi’Ky h mojiot6k.

[atyORTka] [malaTOK]

[zayin Tlf]


Xoporno, Tenepb HaM ocTaeTCH TOJIBKO 3aBHHTHTb raHKH.

n a C K li H KaMepa npopBaTb A KaMepy ne npopBajio? Her.

[2 2-A]

t b


M a No.

[franC USskay]

t b

e e


[.KAipira] [prar VA f]

to drive in garage We’ll only have to stop at a garage and have the tire repaired.

3a&xaTb rapaac Tojibko Hap;o 6yp;eT 3a&xaTb b rapaJK h nouHHHTb inimy.

[za YExaf] [gaRASH]

Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences

1. Word Study A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES (1) ‘Station’, in general, including ordinary railroad stations, is railroad terminal station. Ha 3toh CTaHipm n6e3p; He ocTaHdBHTCH. CKopo CTaHipiH.


The word


means only a big

The train won’t stop at that station. There’ll be a stop soon.

(2) A liter is slightly more than a quart. A kilometer is about six tenths of a U. S. mile. The Russians use the metric system of weights and measures. (3) The word


is used of both oil and butter.

The word


means both ‘key’ and ‘wrench’. For ‘monkey-wrench’ they say ‘French key’,




(5) KaMepy npopBajio, literally ‘it has torn the inner tube’, is an impersonal expression: one talks as if a vague ‘it’ performed the act: Ero ybhjio


‘It killed him by (means of) thunder’; that is: ‘He was killed by lightning.’ [22-B]


B. NEW NOUNS Masculine:


6aK, 6eH3HH, Bd3;n;yx, rapaac, ROMKpaT,

Regular: HHCTpyMeHT,




Regular: 6aTapfin, KaMepa, craHipia, nrfma With inserted vowel in G.P.: rafiKa (G.P. raeic), OTBepTKa (G.P. OTBepTOK)


noBopoT, pajpiaTop

With inserted vowel in N.S.: nepenpecTOK (G.S. nepenpecTKa), nopn^OK (G.S. nopaflKa), mojiotok (accent BB; G.S. MOJiOTKa). TdpM03 has accent AB with irregular N.P. T0pM03a; there are also regular plural forms, N.P. TopM03Bi.


Kojieco BA: G.S. KOJieca, N.P. KOJieca, G.P. Koaec, D.P. KOJiecaM, etc.

Note that CJiyJKarpHH is an adjective in M form. C. NEW VERBS Present of type 1: HananaTB P ‘to pump up' is regular; the D is HaKaariBaTB: R HaKauaio mfiHBi. H HaKamiBaio mfiHBi.

I’ll fill the tires. Pm filling the tires.

jidnHyTB P ‘to burst’ is regular; it is a simple P verb; the corresponding D is aonaTBca, regular: 0Ta innna HaBepno CKopo jidnHeT. CTaptie rnfiHBi uacTO jionaioTca.

That tire will surely blow out soon. Old tires often blow out.

3a6xaTb P ‘to drive in (for a while)’ goes like exaTB; the D compound is 3ae3acaTt>: hf

3a6p;y 3a


h mbi BMecTe noe^eM Ha

CTampiio. Oh nacTO k na,M 3ae3>KaeT.



I’ll drive in and call for you, and then we’ll drive to the

station together. He often drives in and stops at our place.

HajiiiTb P ‘to pour in’ is a compound of ji6tb D ‘to pour’. These verbs go like nuTt: jibk), jibex; im¬ perative Jieirre; past jihji, jinjia, jihjio, jihjih; the

compound accents the prefix in the past forms other than F: HaJimi, Hajinjia, Hajinso, HajiHjiH. The com¬ pound D is HajiHBaTb.

noRHHTb P ‘to lift up’ is irregular: no^roiMy, nonHHMeT; past noAHHji, no^HHJia, ndflHHjio, nd;n;HHjiii. The D is noaHHMaTb.

npopBaTt P ‘to tear through’, is a compound of pBaTt D ‘to tear’. These verbs are irregular: pBy, pBeT; past pBaji, pBajia, pBajio, pBajra. The D com¬ pound is npoptiBaTb.

CMa3aTb P ‘to grease’ is a compound of M&aaTb ‘to smear’. These verbs are irregular: Maacy, MajKeT ; the past is regular: Ma3aji. The D compound is CMa3HBaTi>:

Mm CMaJKeM Mammy. Mbi CMa3biBaeM Mamihay.

We’ll grease the car. We’re greasing the car.

Present of Type 2: Regular, with accent on stem: npoBepiiTb P ‘to test, to check’; D npoBephTb: CjiyJKamim npoBepnx oaxapeio. Oh npoBepaeT TopM03a.

The attendant will check the battery. He is checking over the brakes.

HanojiHHTb P ‘to fill up’; D HanoJiHHTb; these verbs are derived from the adjective riojinbifi ‘full’:

Oh HandjiHHT dan. Oh HanojiHHeT 6aK. Ban Tenepb nojioH.

He will fill up the tank. He is filling the tank. The tank is full now.

Regular with endings accented in the present: 3aBiiHTHTb ‘to screw on’, otbuhtiitb ‘to unscrew’ are compounds of BHHTfiTb ‘to screw’, derived from the noun bhht BB ‘screw’. The D compounds are 3aBiimniBaTb, OTBimmiBaTb:



I’ll tighten up this nut. I’m screwing on the nuts. He will unscrew the nuts. He was unscrewing the nuts.

51 aaBHHu^ 3Ty ranny. 51 3aBHhhhbaio raiiKH. Oh otbhhtAt raiiKH. Oh oTBiiHHHBaji raiiKH. Regular, with shifting stress in the present: nepeMeHfiTb P ‘to change’; D nepeMemiTb:

I’ll change the wheel. He’ll change the wheel for you. The weather has changed. They are changing a wheel.

51 nepeMeiiih KOJiecd. Oh nepeM^HHT BaM KOJiecd. IIor6Aa nepeMeHiknacb. OhA nepeMeHHioT KOJiec6. cjiynthTb D ‘to serve’:

He served three years in the army.

Oh Tph r6«a CJiyatha b apMHH.

cnycT&TB P ‘to let out (air), to go flat’ (of a tire); the D is cnycKaTb, regular:

IU±Ha cnycTfljia. OflHa mima cnycKaeT.

A tire has gone flat. One tire is losing air.

These verbs are compounds of nycTiiTb P, nycuaTb D ‘to let go, to permit, to give leave’: IlycTirre MeHa! OTeu; nycTHT ^eTbii b TeaTp. JI6tom nycnaioT ReTbii rynaTb



Let me go! The father will let the children go to the theatre. In summer they let the children walk in the park.

The verb doaxbca D ‘to be afraid, to fear’, has the present of Type 2, with accent on the endings. The object is in the genitive case: OHa 6ohtch cobaKH.



She is afraid of the dog.

He SdHTect. H 6oiocb npocTy^ATbca. OHa 6oHJiaci> bctp^thtbch c h6m. Eoiocb, hto oh npnep;eT.

Eoiocb, hto oh He npiieji;eT. Note the odd turn of speech: Eoiocb, hto6li 6h He npn&xaji.

Don’t be afraid. I’m afraid of catching cold. She was afraid of a meeting with him. I’m afraid he will come. I’m afraid he won’t come. I’m afraid he might come.

D. REVIEW OF CASES Nominative: The subject (actor) of a verb is in the nominative case: Ha nepenpecTKe ctoAt MHjnm,HOHep.

There is a policeman standing at the corner.

The subject of a sentence without a verb is nominative: Moh CTapuniH 6pa,T Ten^pb AOMa.

EMy copoK ji6t.

My elder brother is now at home. He is forty years old. (Here copoK is the nominative.)

Often the subject early in the sentence means a definite thing (‘the’) and a subject later in the sentence an indefinite thing (‘a’): KapaHp;am y Memt. y MeHH KapaHflam. EnjieTbi y Bac? y Bac 6ctb bnjieTLi?

I have the pencil. I have a pencil. Have you got the tickets? Have you got tickets?

The predicate of a sentence without a verb is nominative: Moh MJiaAHiHH 6paT — nopTHdii.

My younger brother is a tailor. [22-B]


The predicate of a sentence with a verb (such as dbiTb, CTaTb) is often nominative: such a sentence means that neither the beginning nor the end of the state is in view (compare the instrumental, below): In the restaurant there was only one person; he was a B pecTopaHe dbiJi tojibko orhh neJioB^K; waiter. 3TO dftf JI 0$HIi;HaHT. I am an American citizen. JI aMepnKaHCKHH rpaucaanlrH. In the school we found only one man; he was not a teacher, B mKdjie mbi HanuiH t6jibko o,n;Hor6 but a janitor. nejioB^Ka; 6h dbiji He yunTejib, a ABOpHHK.

Feminines (and some masculines) with nominative singular ending in [-a] have a special accusative sin¬ gular form: KHfira, AS KHiiry; BaHH, AS Bamo. All other nouns have the accusative either like the nomina-

tive (feminine nouns with nominative singular ending in a consonant, neuter nouns, inanimate masculines and plurals) or like the genitive (animate masculines and plurals).

The object of most verbs when not negative is accusative: He bought a big black dog. Oh Kynfiji dojibmyio uepHyio codaKy. She bought an expensive fountain pen. OHa Kynkjia ji;opor6e BOmoe nepd. I met two Americans there. H TaM BCTpdTHJi Aeyx aMepHKaHpeB. This costs two roubles. 3to ctoht ;n;Ba pydjia. This costs a lot of money. (Here MHoro is the accusative.) 9to ctoht MHoro fldHer. The distance covered is accusative: MbI IHJIH nHTb KHJIOMeTpOB.

We walked five kilometers.

The period of time covered is accusative: JI padoTaji Bdcb «dnb. Mbi TaM ocTaBaJiHCb Tpk p;Hh h Tph hohh. Oh jkhji u,djibifi rda b Pocc6h.



I was working all day. We stayed there three days and three nights. He lived a whole year in Russia.

The number of times is accusative: Oh





k HaM pa,3

Tph paaa





TBicHuy pa3 cjifcimaji sto.

He stops at our place once a month. He has been in Moscow three times. I’ve heard that a thousand times.

Note that He pa3 (also written as one word) means ‘more than once’:

R roBopnji BaM sto He pa3. Some other expressions contain an accusative: MHe HcaJib Barny MaTb. Mh6 SojibHO pyicy. OTCioAa bck) AepeBino BfimHo.

I’ve told you that more than once.

I feel sorry for your mother. I have a pain in my hand. From here one can see the whole village.

A noun or pronoun in the genitive case modifies a noun and means a possessor, or the whole of a part, or that in relation to which the noun holds good (much as in English): ROM rpajK^aHtiHa IljibHHa? OhII JKHByT B Tp^TbeM 3TaJKK,n;H. There wasn’t any rain. TaKHx Bem,6h He SbiBaeT.

y Hero hh buji^Ta hh «dHer.

Erd h4t p;dMa. Ee He 6buio flOMa.

Such things don’t happen. He has no ticket and no money. He isn’t at home. She wasn’t at home.

The object of a negative verb is mostly genitive: Oh MHe He ^aji KHdrn.

il He B^acy jieca. R Sojibme He nbk) boakh. Oh HHnero ho ^djiaeT.

He didn’t give me the book. I don’t see the woods. I don’t drink vodka any more. He doesn’t do anything.

So also other words that take an accusative, take a genitive when they are negative: OTcro^a jjepeBHH He b6aho.

From here one can’t see the village.

Note especially hh pa3y ‘not even once’:

R em;e hh pa3y He BH^aJi erd.

I haven’t ever yet seen him even once.



Entirely definite objects, especially definite persons, are accusative even with a negative verb: Oh He jiio6ht cboio JKeHy.

He doesn’t love his wife.

When a verb has two objects, one of them, usually a person (to whom, for whom) is dative: Oh MHe p;aji KHury. Hto oh BaM CKa3aji?

He gave me a book. What did he say to you?

Sometimes there is a clause, a quotation, or an infinitive instead of an accusative object; Oh CKa3aji HaM, hto cnopo yejteT. Oh HaM CKa3aji: “Bbi Menu He noHHMaeTe”. Oh mh6 CKa3aji npuHTii. '

He told us that he was going to leave soon. He said to us, “You don’t understand me.” He told me to come.

Some verbs have only a dative object: MHe noMOJKeTe? HeM Mory BaM cjiyjKHTB? Bbi

Will you help me? With what can I be of service to you?

Some verbs have the feeling or perceiving person as a dative object: 3to mh6 HpaBHTCH. Hm npimuiocL p;ojiro JKp;aTB.

Mh6 He cmiTCH.

I like that (‘That pleases me’). They had to (‘it arrived to them to’) wait a long time. 1 can’t sleep (‘It doesn’t sleep for me’).

Predicate adjectives in the short neuter form have a feeling or perceiving.person in the dative: Mne xojioaho (Tenjio, CKyuHO, njioxo, xoporno). YroAHO jih BaM? Mne npiiHTHo cjibimaTb. -



I feel cold (warm, bored, bad, well), Does it suit you? I’m pleased to hear it

Other impersonal predicates have a person as a dative object. MHe Mme Mh6 Mh6

mojkho. Hejib3a. HeKortta. oneHb acajib.

I can. I can’t. I haven’t time. I’m very sorry.

Nouns and pronouns appear with the person mainly concerned in dative form: 9to BaM.

HaM nopa exam. Oh mh4 Apyr. Eh ABaApaTb Asa roAa.

This is for you. It’s time for us to be going. He is a friend to me. She is twenty-two years old.

With infinitives the person who is to act is dative: Ht6 HaM A^JiaTb?

What are we to do? What can we do?

The adjective paA has a dative object: Mbi BaM BcerAa paAfci. H paA My3biKe.

We’re always glad to see you. I’m glad there’s music.

The thing by means of which one performs an act is instrumental:

51 ninny


H pafioTaio pynaMH. T 3aHHMaiocb My3biKon no BenepaM.

I’m writing with a pen. I work with my hands. I occupy myself with music in the evenings.

Some verbs have their object in the instrumental case: Oh




He was driving the car himself.

A predicate noun is instrumental when the beginning or end of the state is in view (compare the nominative, above): Oh CTaji aMepiiKancKHM rpajK^aHimoM. He became an American citizen. Oh MHoro ji6t 6biji yHHTeJieM aHrjihiicKoro He was a teacher of the English language for many years. H3E>IKa.

In a few expressions the instrumental tells the time when: yrpoM ‘in the morning’, B^uepoM ‘in the evening’, Ah6m ‘in daytime; in the afternoon’, hohbio ‘at night’, 3hmoh ‘in winter’, BecHOH ‘in spring’, jieTOM ‘in summer’, oceHbio ‘in the autumn’.

Some words, such as KaK ‘as, like’, h6m ‘than’, add a noun or pronoun which is in the same case as a preceding one: Oh mh6 noMoraji KaK Apyr. Oh mh6 noMoraji KaK APyry. Oh CTaprne ueM a. Ohs, jiio6ht 6pa,Ta 66jiee ueM cecTp^.

He helped me as a friend (helps one). He helped me as (one helps) a friend. He is older than I. She loves her brother better than (she loves) her sister.

All cases except the nominative are used after prepositions. The locative case occurs only after prepositions.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expression in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English. This is individual study.

3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences. Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.



2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual study.

3. What Would You Say? Translate the following into Russian:

1. Please fill up the tank. 2. A tire has blown out. 3. A tire has gone down. 4. Are the brakes in (good) order? 5. Have you tested the battery? Drive straight (ahead) on this same road. Don’t drive so fast. Hand me the screwdriver and the hammer. Have you a jack? 10. We have to change a wheel. 11. Please pump up this tire. 12. Won’t you grease the car? 13. The weather has changed. 14. I’m afraid of catching cold. 15. I’m afraid they won’t come. 16. He is thirty years old. 17. I have the book. 18. I have a pen. 19. He is an American citizen. 20. She is an American citizen.

6. 7. 8. 9.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

He became an American citizen. She became an American citizen. I met three Americans there. We met an American woman there. This costs four roubles. This costs five roubles. We worked all day. They lived a whole year in Russia. He has been twice in America. I’m sorry for his wife. I’m looking for my trunk. Give me a glass of water. He is looking for work. He is not at home. She is not at home. They are not at home. You were not at home. He didn’t give me a ticket. They aren’t doing anything. We are waiting for Mrs. Ilyin. [22—C]


41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

We are waiting for a street car. I’m afraid of this woman. He is older than I. We arrived on the twelfth of February. Do you feel cold?

Do you like Moscow? We have no time to read. She can’t sleep. What am I to do? He writes with pencil.

Section D—Listening In 1. What Did You Say? With the other members of the group, give orally your responses to the previous exercise as the Leader calls for them.

2. Word Study Check-Up Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Word Study as the Leader calls for it.

3. Listening In 1. A policeman stops Antonov’s car. Aht6hob :

MminiuioHep: OcT&HOBHTe ManiHHy, rpaJKAane!

IIoueMy bli TaK SbiCTpo epqTe?

R He 3Haji, hto A d^y TaK 6bicTpo.

Pa3Be Bbi He 3HaeTe, hto beLm Hejib3H RejiaTB



IIpocTHTe, noncajiyncTa.

MiijiHqHOHep: Hy, imnero.


Ho b Apyroii pa,3, noncajiyiiCTa, 6yAbTe

M^TpOB b uac? Lfo



ocTopojKHee. onacHO



e3p;HTb. He^aneKd oTcibp;a niKona, h uacTO a^th ryjiaiOT h nepexoAHT Aopdry.

II MdjKeT cjiyuHTbca HecnacTbe.













ocTaHOBhjiH, m6jkho KaK heLm dxaTb Ha



npaMo no otoh Hopdre em,e



Gojilihoh moot.

3aTeM bbi yBiifliiTe nepenpecTOK. no







h deH3HHOBaH CTaH-


JleiiKiiH: HecnacTBH-To, cjiaBa Eory, He cjiynimocb. Ho a nojiTopa naca nepeMeHHJi Ha ^opdre KOJieco. CepreeB: Hto, nriraa jionHyjia? JleHKim: HeT, He JionHyjia, a cnycrAna. CepreeB: IIo'iCMy ate bbi Tan ^ojiro hiihhjth? JlenKHH:

TaM noBepHHTe HanpaBO, n nepe3 nac dyn;eTe b KneBe.



II 3a nojiTopa naca hh orhoh MamimBi, o^Horo nenoBeKa He BCTpeTiui.

CepreeB: Ax, bot h npiiexann!


npHuijiocb Bee caMOMy p,6jiaTB.

Hy, hto c BaMH?

Hiikto mh£ He noMor. YcTaji a nan codaita. JT rojio^en Kaii codaKa.

r^e bbi 6bijih? He cnpamnBanTe!

JJaiiTe MimyTKy oT^oxHyTB. CepreeB: Hto, aojk^b ii^eT?

JX&, yjKacHBiii aojkab.

Pa3Be bbi He bh^htc no MoeMy najiBTO? CepreeB: Ho bbi nee b MamiiHe npHdxajin. JI^hkhh: Ax, He cnpauiiiBaiiTe. noTOM h BaM Bee paccKaaiy. HecnacTBH.


LLIeji AOHi^B.

2. Sergeyev’s guest, Leykin, has had a bad trip.

CepreeB.- Hap,4iocB, hto c








Ejiaroflapie Bac.

JI6hkhh : Ax,





CepreeB: Hy, bot, BBineiiTe HeMHdHCKO bo^kh h beim Tenjide dy,n;eT. IIotom noyntHHaeM, h Bee dy,n,eT b nopH^Ke. JI6hkiih : Cnachdo, ho cnepBa m6>kho mh6 bbimbitb pyKH

h jiim,d? II b6cb b Macjie n deHsfme. CepreeB:

noHiajiyiiCTa, noncajiyiiCTa. Mhjiocth npociiM.





1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences With the Russian covered, practice until you can speak the Russian for each English sentence without hesitation. This is individual study.

2. Vocabulary Check-Up Give the Russian for all English sentences in the Basic Sentences as the Leader calls for it.




^ . .

3. Conversation

Suggested 1 opics: 1. You and your friend took a trip in his auto. You had all kinds of trouble (a blowout, got stopped by a policeman, and so on). Tell all about it. 2. A. is the attendant at a gasoline station; B. drives up, gets gas and oil, has tires and battery checked, and so on. Section

3. A. gets information from B. about distances, state of the road, directions. 4_ A. and B. are changing a flat tire. A. helps B., hands B. tools as B. asks for them and so on.

F—Conversation (Cont.)

Continue conversation. Additional check-up if necessary.

FINDER LIST 6aK tank SaTapea battery 6eH3HH gasoline;

biiht screw; bhhthtb to screw

B03Ayx air

6eH3HHOBaa CTamjaa

6oaTi.cn to fear 6biCTpo quickly, fast



of gasoline; gas station


raiiKa screw nut rapanc garage AOMKpaT jack

3aBHHTHTt P, 3aBHHHHBaTb D to screw on 3ae32Kaxb D, 3aexaxb P to drive in for a while 3anacH0H spare; 3anacHaa mima spare tire HHCTpyMeHT tool, instrument Kaiwepa inner tube KfieB Kiev (name of a city) KHJiOMeTp kilometer KOJieco wheel jiHTp liter jiHTb D to pour jionaxbca D, Jioimyxb P to burst Ma3aTb D to smear MHJiHijHOHep policeman mojiotok hammer HaKanaTb P, HaKaaHBaxb D to pump up, to fill (a tire) HajiHBaTb D, HajiHTb P to pour in HanojiHHTb P, HanojiHHTb D to fill up onacHOCTb F danger onacHbiii dangerous OTBepTKa screw driver oTBHHTiiTb P, OTBHHHHBaTb D to unscrew

nepeKpecTOK crossroads, crossing

nepeMeHHTb P, nepeMeHBTb D to change noBopoT turn, bend noftHHMaTb D, no^HHTb P to raise up nOJIHblH full nopajtOK order, good order; b nopaj^Ke in good shape, in good order npoBepHTb P, npoBepaTb D to test, to check npopBaTb P, npopbiBaTb D to tear through npaMO straight, straight ahead nycKaxb D, nycTiiTb P to let go, allow, give leave pa^HaTop radiator pBaTb D to tear CJiyacamBH attendant CMa,3aTb P, CMa3biBaxb D to grease cnycKaxb D, cnycxnxb P to go flat (of a tire) cxaHijHH station xopM03 brake $paH4y3CKHH French; (|)paHity3CKHH Kjnoa monkey-wrench UiHHa tire



UNIT WINTER Section A—Basic Sentences

Hello, George Alexandrich!

JI a n t e b 3;ipaBCTByuTe, reoprnii AjieKcaHji;pBiu!

to get frozen Why, you’re frozen!



JJa bbi 3aMep3Jiu!

fur coat cap Come in and take off your overcoat and cap.

niyba manna Bxop,iiTe, cmiMfiTe nryfiy n manny.

It’s terribly cold.


[SHUba] [SHAPka]

51 m n 6 JI b c k n n

to freeze (something)


ears nose I’ve nearly frozen my ears and nose,

yum HOC JI nyTb He OTMOpd3HJI yfflH II h6c.

fingers And my fingers are aching from the cold.

najiupbi H y mcii/i 6ojt/it naJiBH,Bi ot x6jio,n,a.



[atmaRO&j] [ Ushi] [NOS]


eyes My eyes hurt from the sun and snow.

rjia3a Tjia3a 6oji6t ot cojmpa h cH^ra.

strong, powerful frost Yes, there’s a mighty frost.

JI a n t e b CHJIBHBIH M0p63 JJa, CflJIbHblH M0P03.

stove hot Sit down by the stove and drink a glass of hot tea.

n^nita ropauHH CaflHTect k n^urce n BbineiiTe CTaK^H ropanero aaio.

[;PECHka] [gaft.A chiy]

on a sleigh Why have you come on a sleigh and not in the auto?

b camfx IIoneMy bm npn^xaan b camtx, a He Ha aBTOMobhae?

If salf AX)

both Both our automobiles are out of order.

flMndabCKHH 06a 06a Haurnx aBTOMo66aa ne b nopa^Ke.

to know how horse John Petrovich doesn’t know how to drive horses.

yM^TB jioinaflb HBaii IleTpoBHH He yM^eT

So I had to go by team.

Tan mh6 npHiujidcb exaTb Ha Jiomap;ax.


[§I^nay] [maROS]


WMET) [LOshij]

npaBHTb aoma^BMH.



Now John Petrovich is repairing the automobiles. next, coming closed Next week I’ll come in a closed car. telephone May I use the telephone?

Tenept HBan IlexpoBHu uhhht aBTOMObuJIH.

6y«yntHH 3aKpbITBIH

[B Udushchiy] [zaKRItay 1

Ha Gyqyrnen neqene A npueqy b 3aKptiTOM aBTOMobxijie.


Tejieto HaM npHroAffTca b

Maybe this will come in handy on our trip.

,n;op6re. Compare Hto b&m yrop;HO? ‘What would you like to have?’ ftepacaTB, flepacy, nepacnT ‘to hold (something)’:

Oh p,epjKa,Ji KHHry b pynC

He was holding a book in his hand.

The reflexive means ‘to hold (onto something)’:

JJepjKHTecB 3a MeHa, hto6bi He ynacTB.

Hold on to me so you don’t fall.

^epacffTecB npaBoff ctopohbi.

Keep going to the right-hand side.

HandMHHTB P ‘to remind’, compound of


the D is HanoMimaTB.

C. PREFIXES Once you know a verb, you will find it occurring with various prefixes. There are eighteen such prefixes; all except

B3-, BBI-, HH3- (which scarcely occurs in ordinary language), nepe-, npefl-, pas- are identical with prepositions, and npea- resembles the preposition nepefl ‘in front of, before’.



The meanings of these prefixes are vague and differ in different combinations. Recall that the addition of a prefix to a simple verb gives a punctual verb and that a corresponding durative is then made from a compounding durative verb:

Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh

miuieT. noAniimeT. noAnfictiBaeT. ha6t. yfiA§T. yxdAHT.


He is writing; he writes.


He will sign.


He is signing; he signs.


He is on the way (on foot).


He will go away.


He is going away; he goes away,

However, each prefix has one simplest meaning, which appears in some compounds. b- (bo-) 'into a place’:

Oh BdencaJi b KOMHaTy. Oh BOineji b KOMHaTy.

He came running into the room. He came (went) into the room.

B3- (b30-, B03-, bc-) 'upward’: IlTHita BBJieTejia Ha AepeBO.

The bird flew up on a tree.

bbi- 'out from the inside of a place’. Notice that this prefix is accented in punctual compounds, but not in duratives:

Oh BLimeji H3 KOMHaTti. Oh HHKorp,a He bbix6aht ff3 AOMy. Oh BBiexaji H3 KBapTHpti.

He went (or came) out of the room. He never goes (or comes) out of the house. He has moved out of the apartment.

AO- 'all the way to a place’: Mill Aoexanii ao ropoAa.

We drove all the way to the town; we reached the town.

3a- 'starting an action’: Oh 3aKypfiji namipdcy.

He lit (‘started to smoke’) a cigarette. [25-B]


also 'closing, covering’: Oh aaKptiji okh6. H3- (1130-, hc-) 'using up’: Oh iicniicaji He Majio oyMam. 51 ii3HocIiji CBoe najibTo. Ha-

‘on something’: HajiojKHTe ji6ct tohkoh 6yMani na KapTy.

Hap- ‘onto the top of something, over something’ 0h6 Ha^CTpoHjiH eme ophh aTam. o- (06-, 060-) ‘around something’: Mbi o6iTxa.rm rdpop. Mbi oSohijih cap;. ot-,

He closed the window.

He used up (in writing) no small amount of paper. I’ve worn out my overcoat.

Lay a sheet of thin paper on the map.

They built on one story more (on top).

We made a detour round (avoiding) the city. We walked all around the garden.

OTO- ‘away from a place’: II6e3p OTomeji ot cTaHpuH b BoceMb uacoB.

The train left the station at eight o’clock.

CaMOJieT OTjieTHT uepe3 naTb MimyT.

The plane will leave in five minutes.

nepe- (npe-) ‘changing to a new place’: rfepeiipeMTe Ha Ty CTdpoHy. Oh nepenHcaji Bee nncbMo.

Let’s cross over to the other side. He copied over the whole letter.

Also ‘moving over something’: Mbi

iiepeexann codaKv.

no- ‘a bit, a little while’: IIopadoTaeMTe em,e HeMiidncKo. 546


We’ve run over a dog.

Let’s work just a little bit longer.

Often it is added in front of another prefix:

Oh no3aHHMajica iicMiioro 11 noineji ;b;om6h:.

He did a little work and went home.

non- (nono-) 'under something’: IIoncTaBbTe noMKpaT n nonuiiMiiTG

Set the jack under and raise the car.

MamiiHy. Oh nonnucaji micbMC.

He signed the letter.

Also 'approaching something’:

Oh nonomeji k ii6h.

He stepped up to her.

npen- (npeno-) 'in front of something, beforehand H npencKaaaji bto naBHo.

I foretold this long ago.

npn- 'up against something, up to something’: Mbi npn^xaJiH yTpoM.

We arrived in the morning.

npo- 'through something; past’: BpeMH npoxoniiT. Mbi npomjiH na njiaT(J)6pMy. Mbi npo6xajin mAmo hx ndiwa.

Time is passing. We walked through to the platform. We drove on past their house.

pa3- (pa30-, pac-) 'separating, breaking to pieces’: Oh pa3opBaji nncbivid. bf pa3opBan cboio pydauiKy. Mbi pa30HiJihcb no3AHO Houbio. c- (co-) 'down from on top of something’: dl chhji hi Jinny. Oh cohicji c ji6cTHHii,bi.

IlTHpa cjieTejia c jjepeBa na seMjno.

He tore up the letter. I’ve torn my shirt. We separated late in the night.

I took off my hat. He came down the stairs. The bird flew down from the tree onto the ground. [25-B]


Also 'coming together, joining together’: K naio mm comjiHCb b ctojioboh.

For tea we met in the dining room.

y- 'away from a place, off’:

Oh yexaji b naTmiuy.

He left on Friday.

Occasionally more than one prefix appears on one word; thus, from aotb we have: bf ceftaac OA&iycb.

I’ll get dressed right away,

if ceftaac nepeoAfeycb.

I’ll change my clothes right away.

All the prefixes appear in various shades of meaning, and often with very vague meaning, so as to do little more than to make the verb punctual. The prefixes appear also in nouns and adjectives that are related to verbs:

BXO,n,HTb 'to go in’: bx6a 'entrance’: fl Bac BCTpeuy y Bxdfla b TeaTp.

I’ll meet you at the entrance of the theatre.

BMxo,n,iiTb 'to go out’: BMxop; ‘exit’:

rp,e bmxoa?

Where is the exit?

npHxo^HTt. ‘to arrive’: npnxoA ‘arrival’: Mbi ^o^xajiH ao CTaHpHH 3a naTb MimyT AO npuxopa noesfla.

We drove up to the station five minutes before the arrival of the train.

OTXOAHTb ‘to depart’: otxoa ‘departure’: Mbi npiiexajiH Ha B0K3a«n 3a aeTBepTb aaca ao OTxoAa noe3Aa.

We arrived at the station fifteen minutes before the depar¬ ture of the train.

bcxoahtb ‘to go upward, to rise’: bocx6a ‘rising’: Comme bcxoaht. CojIHH,e B30IHJI0. Mbi CMOTpfijIH BOCXOA COJIHH,a.

The sun is rising. The sun has risen. We were watching the sunrise




‘to go behind something, to set’:





The sun is setting.



The sun has set.

Cerd^HH 3ax6,n; cojiHpa


Today the sunset was unusually beautiful.

HeoSfclKHOBeHHO KpaciiB. D. REVIEW OF NOUNS Read over carefully Sections 1 to 70 of the Summary of Russian Grammar beginning on page 616.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English. This is individual study.

3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences.

Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.


2 Covering the English of Basic Sentences Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual study.

3. What Would You Say? How would you say the following things in Russian? 1.

One of my buttons has torn off.

2. Pin this with a safety pin.

3. He is a very plain man. 4. The pin didn’t hold long. [25-C]


5. Ask the landlady for a needle.

27. She is looking for her glasses.


28. Remind me to take the washing to the laundry.

Ask her for some thread.

7. I’ll put on my eyeglasses.

29. What are you holding in your hand?


This knife doesn’t cut.

30. Hold on to me.


I’ll ask the woman next door for a pair of scissors.

31. The children came running into the room.

10. I’m going downstairs.

32. We went into the room.

11. Can you sew on this button for me?

33. I’d like to give my linens to be washed.

12. I’ve torn my coat.

34. The plane will leave in a quarter of an hour.

13. I tore it on a wire.

35. Let’s cross over to the other side.

14. Can you mend my coat?

36. We made a detour round the town.

15. Please give me a spool of black thread.

37. Set the jack under and raise the car.

16. Put the dirty shirts in the bag. 17. Remind Peter Ivanich to go round to the drug store for the medicine.

38. Give me a package of cigarettes. 39. I have to change my clothes. 40. I’ll get dressed right away.

18. I’ve taken the linens to be washed.

41. I’ll meet you five minutes before the departure of the train.

19. Do you want to go to the movies with me?

42. The sun is rising.

20. He has the room next to me.

43. The sun is setting.

21. Our neighbor is a very good laundress.

44. We all assembled in the dining room.


45. We separated late at night.

Our neighbors have a big black dog.

23. We soon got acquainted with our neighbors.

46. He has run over a dog.

24. Do you often go to the movies?

47. Where is the exit?

25. He will meet us at the entrance of the movie theatre.

48. In what factory does he work?

26. She can’t read without glasses.

50. This isn’t good for anything.



49. This will surely come in handy for us.

Section D—Listening In

1. What Did You Say? With the other members of the groupf give orally your responses to the previous exercise as the Leader calls for them.

2. Word Study Check-Up Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Word Study as the Leader calls for it.

3. Listening In Sergey Alexandrovich wants a button sewed on.

Cepren AjieKcaH,n;poBHu: Hiiiia IleTpoBHa, MoaceTe bbi npHinuTb Mne nyroBimy k pydamKe?

Hiraa IleTpoBHa:

Hnna IleTpoBHa:

A pa3Be caMH bbi He yMeeTe?

Cepr6ii AjieKcaHp;poBHa: Hejib3a jih nonpocfiTb y Bac

Cepr^ii AjieKcaH^poBHu: Ym6io, ho pan bbi TyT, noaeMy 6bi BaM ne npHinhTb ee?

npiiuniTb Miie nyroBimy k pyoamKe?

Hima IleTpoBHa:

H xot&ii 3to cp,6aaTb caM, ho y Mena h4t hii hhtok hh urdaKH.

Hy, hto ate? Tan h 6bitb !

Ectb y



Cepr^ii AjieKcaHnpoBHH: HeT, hiAjikh h6t, h hAtok TOJKe h4t.

Hy, TaK nycTb OHa BaM h npinniiBaeT nyroBiipBi, a a noiipy poMoit ....


Xoporno, a npimiBio. RaBaiiTe nnjpKaK h ny roRiipy.

C KeM 3to bbi roBophan ceii-

IIoHfly, nonponiy y xo3Mkh. HhHa IleTpoBHa:

Ax, y Bac 6ctb xo3aiiKa?

Cepr&i AjieKcaHApoBHH: Ectb, ii daeHb xopomaa.


CeprGi AaeKcan;;poBiia: C




IleTpdBHOH. [25-D]



C Hhhoh IleTpoBHoft? Bot b4m HrojiKa, hhtkh h H6?KHHii,fci; h nycTb Hama IleTpoBHa npHiniiBaeT BaM nyroBHpy.

Bain HHflJKaK nopBaH.

BaM npH^eTca ero nonHHHTb. Cepr6fi AjieKcaHjjpoBHH: Hy, 3Toro a caM caejiaTb He Mory.

HyxHo oynpT 0Tp,aTb nn^ataK nopTHdMy, TaK hto nepHbie HHTKH MH6 He HyJKHbl.

Cepr6n AjieKcaHnpoBHH: HiiHa IIeTp6BHa yjK^ ynuia. Ox, y>K




A pyoaiHKy OTp,aM





6biTb b npaaeaHOH MHe npHuibioT nyroBiipy.


B6t BaM eipe h uepiiue iihtkh.

Section E—Conversation

1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences With the Russian covered, practice until you can speak the Russian for each English sentence without hesitation. This is individual study.

2. Vocabulary Check-Up Give the Russian for all English sentences in the Basic Sentences as the Leader calls for it.

3. Conversation Suggested Topics: 1. Your clothes are torn; ask someone to mend the various garments.

3. Plan for an evening out: restaurant, movie, supply °f cigarettes.

2. Arrange about sending things to the laundry.

4. Borrow sewing materials: scissors, thread, needle, pins, etc.



Section F—Conversation (Cont.) Continue conversation. Additional check-up if necessary.

FINDER LIST SyjiaBKa pin; aHrjiHHCKaa CyjiaBica safety pin BfleBaTt D, BjjeTb P to put in, to thread






D to carry off


D to tear off

otoh eyeglasses

ro^HTbca D to be of use, to be suitable nopBaTb P to tear flepacaTb D to hold; reflexive: to hold fast

3aBOJi works, large factory 3aKajn>maTb D, 3aKOJioTb P to pin (shut, fast) HTJia, uroJiKa needle

npmiiHBaTb D, npmiiHTb P to sew on npoBOJioica wire npocTofi simple, plain nyroBiipa button

KaTymKa spool KHHO moving picture show KopoflKa package

peaaTb D to cut

MernoK bag

CTHpica washing, laundry

HanoMHHaTb D, HanoMiniTb P to remind HHTKa piece of thread; hhtkh thread

TyT here

HOSKHHpbi scissors


cocep; neighbor (male); cocejpca neighbor (female); cocejtH neighbors

D to sew



A TRIP Section the Volga (river) steamboat Last summer a friend and I decided to take a trip by steamboat on the Volga.


of iron


We did not have much baggage,

6ara?K Barantd y Hac obijto ncMiidro.



jierKnh Mbi pemhjin He 6paTb cyHAyndB,

a B3hTb TdjibKO JierKne neMoAanbi.


[GOfi-kay] [zhil^Eznay]

Ot Mockbli ao rdpbKoro nyjKHO 6bijio exaTB no JKejie3Hon aopore.

light of weight We had decided not to take trunks, but to take only light suitcases.

[VOLga] [paraXOT]

IIpdinjiBiM jieTOM Mbi c TOBapnm,eM penman no^xaTb no Bdjire napoxoAOM. rbpLKim




Gorky (city) From Moscow to Gorky we had to go by railway.




[sunD UK] [.WXkay]

heavy bus Since we had no heavy baggage, we rode to the station by bus.

THJKejIBIH aBTddyc TaK KaK y Hac ue 6bijio THjKejioro daraaca, mbi noexajiii Ha BOK3aji aBTddycoM.

There were lots of people in the bus, and we had to stand.

B aBTddyce 6bijio MHdro Hapoay,

departure We arrived at the station half an hour before the departure of the train. everywhere crowd beforehand to go through platform railway car There was a crowd everywhere in the station, but since our tickets had been bought beforehand, we walked straight out to the platform and started to look for our car.

[jiZIIOlay] [afTObusJ



Mbi npudxajiH Ha bok3&ji 3a nojiuaca 30 OTxdfla n6e3,n,a.

Be3j];6 TOJina 3apaHee npoiiTh njiaTi^dpMa


bi?PE\ [tolPA] [za RAi}iya\ [pray TI] [platFORma] [vaGON]

Ha BOK3ajie Be3Ad 6blji& TOJina, ho t&k KaK 6hji4tli y ntic

6bijih KynjieHbi 3apaHee, t6 mbi npuMO npomjid Ha njiaT^dpMy h CTajiH HCKaTB cBdii BardH.

[2 6-A]


conductor compartment When we entered the car, the conductor looked at our tickets and showed us our compartment. to start to smoke We put our things on the shelf, sat down, and started to smoke. to wake (someone) up arrival In the morning the conductor woke us up half an hour before we arrived in Gorky.


Kynb Korp;a mbi boihjih b BaroH, npoboahhk nocMOTpeji SmieTM h noKa3aji HaM Harae Kyne. 3aKypuTB

pa36yp;HTB npiixop; Ytpom npoBO^HfiK pa36y,o;hji Hac 3a nojmaca p;o npHx6,u,a



b rbpBKHH.

M6 op;ejiHCb h yMBijmcb, peinfm, hto 6£,o;eM nfiTb naif na bok3ajie.

wharf, landing pier At the station a bus was waiting for us, on which we rode to the wharf.

npncTaHb y BOK3ajia Hac JK^aji aBTbbyc, Ha kot6pom mbi nobxajiH Ha npftCTaHb.

As we drove up to the wharf, we saw a big white steamboat.

no,o;be3Ji^aH k nphcTami, mbi yBHRejin 6ojibhi6h 6£jibih napoxbfl.

[2 6-A]


Mbi nojioJKHJiii Bem,ii na nojircy, c&jih n 3aKypnjiu.

to get dressed We dressed and washed, having decided to breakfast in the station.


[pravadiyiK] [kuPE]



It was a hot day, and we gladly got out of the bus and walked to the wharf.

X(enn 66ji /Kapiuni, h mh c y^oBdji&CTBHeM bbiihjih H3 aBTobyca h noimiH k npncTaHH.

to get (somewhere)






There already was a big crowd there, and we had to wait some twenty minutes before we got to the deck of the steamboat.

yac6 6mia bojiBinaa mnna, h HaM npunuiocB no^oJK^aTB MHHyT ABafliyiTB, noua mbi He nonajin Ha najiyoy napoxop;a.


with two places

z i, b y x m c c t i n.i ii



We had a big cabin with two places.

y Hac baijia SojiBmaa ycyxMecTHaa KaioTa.

to change one’s clothes




After quickly changing to light¬ weight suits, we went out on deck just as the boat was leaving. onto the shore ringing We stood and looked at the shore until we heard the bell for lunch.

[dvuxPfEST nay] [kaYUta]

[pifiaPETsa] [maMENT]

Bbictpo nepeofleBmucB b jierKHe KOCTIOMBI, MBI BBIIHJIH Ha naJiyoy KaK pa,3 k MOMeHTy otx6^a napoxo^a. Ha 6eper 3boh6k Mbi ctohjih h CMOTpejiH Ha 6eper,


He ycjiBiinajiH 3bohok k


[NA piyik] [zvaNOK]




to fly







[atlan J' Ichiskay] WAN] [pa YEska]



I had been on the ocean a great deal and I had once flown in an airplane (I flew across the Atlantic Ocean), but this was my first trip on a river.

MHdro btiBaji Ha Mope, h oaAh pa3 jieTaji Ha caiuojieTe (jieTeji uepe.3 ATjiaHTHHecKiiii oneaH), ho no pen6 oto 6bijia moA n6pBan no^SAKa.

Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences

1. Word Study A. NEW WORDS It will help you to remember Russian words if you notice how they are built up. In this and the following Units we shall explain the new words by showing how they are formed. napoxdp; 'steamship’ is a compound word. The last part is x6.it ‘motion, movement’, the noun corresponding to the verbs htth, xoflfiTb.

OcTajiocb «6cHTb khjiom6tpob x6fly.

There were ten kilometers more to go.

Ty^a x6«y jjBa nacd.

It’s two hours’ walk to go there.

The first part of the word is nap ‘steam’. A similar word is napoB63 ‘locomotive’. jKeji63Haa .aopora ‘railway’, literally ‘iron road’. The adjective is made from nceji63o ‘iron’. Many adjectives are made from nouns by adding [n\: aftpecHan KHfira ‘directory’, p,6HejKHHtt fiutiiK ‘money box, safe’, Tejie P ‘to rouse someone from sleep’. oa^tbch ‘to dress oneself’, punctual compound of a^tb (Aeny, AeneT) P^ ‘to put (something somewhere) b The durative is OAeBaTBCH, compound of A^eant, D. Compounds of agtb P, AeeaTB D are used of dressing: oAeBaTB D, oa&tb P ‘to dress (someone)’: OHa ceitnac OAeBaeT AeTdn. OHa ceitnac OAeHeT AeTen.

She is just now dressing the children. She will dress the children right away.

The reflexives mean ‘to dress oneself’: KorAa bbi npnnijifi, a nan pan OAeBaaca. OAeBafiTecB nocnopde. H Tenao OA&nca.

I was just getting dressed when you came. Get dressed as fast as you can. I dressed warmly

With the prefix nepe- added, these words mean ‘to change one’s clothes’: OHa nepeoAeBaeT AeTdit. Bbi He nepeoAeHeTecn nepeA odeAOM?

She is changing the children’s clothes. Aren’t you going to change your clothes before dinner?

naA©BaTB D, haa^tb P is ‘to put on (a garment) : npn xoji6ahoh nordAe a HaAeBaio mydy. Bandit koctOm bbi HaAeneTe? OHa cerdAHH HaAena HdBoe naaTBe.

In cold weather I put on my fur coat. Which suit will you put on? She has put on a new dress today. [26-B]


pa3AeBaTB D, pa3AdTb P is ‘to undress (someone)’: Mm pa3«djiH paHeHoro h ynoadbiH er6 b

We undressed the wounded man and laid him on the bed.

KpOBaTB. The reflexive is ‘to undress oneself’:

H BCio h6ub He pa3AeBaJica. Oh pa3A&ncH h jier cnaTb.

I didn’t undress all night. He undressed and went to bed.

npHCTaHB F, with accent AC, ‘boat landing, dock, wharf, pier’ is derived from CTaTb P ‘to take one’s stand’; the prefix is npn-, identical with the preposition npn, with locative, ‘in, close to, at’: EmneTH npoBepaioTCH npn Bxdfle. IIpH MHd TaM 6biji npyroH AnpeKTop. 3to 3Adcb hh npn HeM. IIpH TaKdii nordfle A He xouy Btixo^hTt fi3 AOMy.

Tickets are inspected at the entrance. In my time there was a different principal there. That has nothing to do with this. In weather like this I don’t want to go out of the house.

noA'£e3JKaTb D, noA'bdxaTb P ‘to ride up to a place’; -e3JKa/n> is the compounding durative of dxaTt:

AbtomoShjib noA’Bdxaji k BOK3aJiy. Abtomo6hjib noABesjKaJi k BOK3aJiy.

An automobile drew up to the station. An automobile was drawing up to the station.

Notice that the form in the text is the present gerund in -a ‘while doing so and so’.

nonacTb P ‘to get somewhere, to land somewhere’, compound of nacTB P ‘to fall’. The D of nacTt is naaaTb but the compounding durative is -na^aTb. In ordinary speech ynacTb is used rather than the simple verb. HammaiOT na-AaTb c AepdBbeB. Mbi nonaJiH aomoh k Bduepy. Bbi KaK ate 9to ciOAa nonaan? Mbi nonaJiH b nnoxyio h rpaanyio rOCTHHHUy. JIiiCTbH



The leaves are beginning to fall from the trees. We got home towards evening. How the dickens did you get here? We landed in a very bad and dirty hotel.

51 Bcerp,a nona;i,aio Kyaa oh nonaa?


naoxfie rocTftmmbi.

I always land in Dad hotels. What has become of him?

naaySa 'deck (of a ship)’.

HByxM^CTHBiH ‘with two places’, compound adjective, derived from MecTo ‘place’ and Asa ‘two’. The numbers mostly have their genitive form when they are used as the first part of a compound: TpexsTaacHbiit a^m ‘a threestory house’, ueTBipexcdTBiH HOMep ‘number 400’; naTHjieTmiii naaH ‘a five-year plan’. KaioTa ‘cabin (in a ship)’ MOMeHT ‘moment’, note the accent. 6eper ‘shore, bank’, accent AB, with irregular N.P. 6epera. There is a second genitive in the phrase c 66pery ‘down from the bank’, and a second locative Ha fiepery ‘on the bank’. The preposition has the stress in the phrase Ha 6eper ‘onto the shore’.

JleTOM ohh jkhb^t Ha fiepery Mdpa.

In summer they live on the seashore.

G.S. 3B0HKa, with inserted vowel in N.S., accent BB, ‘bell; ringing of a bell’, noun corresponding to 3BOHHTB ‘to ring’: 3bohok,

3boh6k! IIoflOHflHTe k Teae^oHy. Bbi cjibimajiH 3boh6k?

There’s a ring! Go to the telephone.

JI He cjibimaji 3BOHKa.

I didn’t hear any ring.

Did you hear the bell ring?

Mope, accent AB, ‘sea’; unstressed in some phrases, such as h£ Mope ‘at sea’, 3a Mope ‘overseas’. aeT^Tb (aeay, aeTfiT) D ‘to be flying, to fly’, with iterative aeTaTb D ‘to fly repeatedly, to fly about’: Bot aeTfiT caMoaeT. xIt6 3to 3a fioabuiaa nTHH,a aeTiiT ciosa? Mbi aeTean H3 Mockbm ^o Oa6ccbi. Bo BpeMH BoiiHbi A MHdro aeTaa. Bbi aeTaeTe?

There’s an airplane flying. What kind of a big bird is that flying this way? We flew from Moscow to Odessa. During the war I did a lot of flying. Do you fly?



Bti yM^eTe jieTaib?

Do you know how to fly?

Bbi jnoduTe jieTaTt?

Do you like to fly?

The compounds of jieTeTb are punctual; those of jieTaTb are the corresponding duratives: IlThpa BjieT^Jia k HaM

b KOMHaTy.

IlHorp;a nThu,Bi BJieTaioT



A bird flew into our room. Now and then birds fly into the room.

oueaH ‘ocean’, but notice sound and accent. nofe^Ka ‘trip’, noun corresponding to exatb and its iterative esaiiTb. Another such noun is n6e3.it Train’.

Names of places, rivers, and the like are mostly somewhat alike in English and in Russian: Bonra ‘the Volga (river)’. But there are often differences: Pocchh, ATjiaHTHuecKHff oueaH, EBpona [yiVROpa] ‘Europe’, IlapHJK ‘Paris’, (DpamtHH ‘France’, Ahimikh ‘England’, TepMaHna ‘Germany’, HnoHiia ‘Japan’, IlTaJina ‘Italy’. Note that PopbKHff (name of a city) has the form of a masculine adjective: the city is named after the famous writer Maxim Gorky — family name of adjective form, from ropbunn ‘bitter’. B. REVIEW OF ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS. Read carefully Sections 71 to 113 in the Summary of Russian Grammar on pages 621 to 626.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English. This is individual study.

3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences.

Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.



2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual study.

3. What Would You Say? How would you say the following things in Russian? 1. We took a trip on the Volga by steamer.

20. I should like to take a cabin with two places.

2. As far as Gorky we had to travel by railway.

21. I’ll change to a light-weight suit.

3. We have a lot of baggage.

22. Let’s go out on the deck.

4. We’ll take only light suitcases.

23. Did you hear the bell?

5. Don’t take any heavy trunks.

24. They are ringing the bell for lunch.

6. We went to the station by bus.

25. I flew across the Atlantic Ocean.

7. We had to stand in the street car.

26. To town it’s two hours of walking.

8. We arrived at the station half an hour before the departure of the train.

27. Where is the public telephone?

9. I had bought the tickets beforehand.

29. This suitcase is too heavy.

28. I have only three pieces of baggage.

10. The tickets had been bought beforehand.

30. I looked for you everywhere.

11. Walk straight through to the platform.

31. Policemen are standing everywhere.

12. I’m looking for my car (on a train).

32. I’ll escort you home.

13. The conductor will show us our places.

33. May one smoke here?

14. Wake me half an hour before the arrival at Moscow.

34. I should like to smoke a cigarette.

15. I have decided to take tea at the station.

35. You smoke too much.

16. Which bus goes to the wharf?

36. Wake me at six o’clock.

17. The day was very hot.

37. When he came I was just getting dressed.

18. At the dock there is already a big crowd.

38. You’d better put on your fur coat.

19. You will have to wait twenty minutes or so.

39. I’ve put on a new suit today. [26-C]


40. In such weather I don’t want to go out of the house.

46. We left an hour before sunset.

41. We landed in a very expensive hotel.

47. He has moved out of this apartment.

42. What has become of them?

48. The plane will leave in five minutes.

43. I very much like to fly.

49. Let’s cross over to the other side.

44. I decided to fly to Moscow.

50. I’ve torn my shirt.

45. The sun will soon set.

Section D—Listening In

1. What Did You Say? With the other members of the group give orally your responses to the previous exercise as the Leader calls for them.

2. Word Study Check-Up Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Word Study as the Leader calls for it.

3. Listening In 1. Ha napoxojje. B npomjiOM roAy a e3AHH b EBpdny. H 6xaa c TpeMfi MofiMii ApyabHMH. y Hac 6biJia 6oabuiaa aeTbipexM^CTnaa KaioTa. Mbi ryafian no naay6e ao OTxdAa napoxoAa. IIotom mbi nomad ^aamaTb. Ytpom, KorAa mm Bbimjin Ha naay6y, 6eper6B y®6 h6 6buio bhaho. Bbiji mapKiiii a^hb h Mdpe 6tiao CnOKOHHO. Oa^h H3 mgAx APya^h bctp^thh 3HaKdMyio A^eyniKy

n nosHaKOMna c h6h h Hac.



Mbi BM^CTe o66Aa.au n nocae ofi^Aa nrpaaii b 6piiA»c.

BdaepoM moh APysba pamo aerafi cnaTb, h6boh 3HaK6Moii Adaro CHAeaH Ha naayde.

a Mbi c

KorAa A npnmea b KaioTy ii eraa pa3AeBa,Tbca, oahh H3 Moiix Apy3. one reflexives of HanTfi

P, Haxo«fiTb D ‘to find’, used in the meaning ‘to be in a place’. cofipaTb, co6ep£, cofiepeT, past F. cofipana P ‘to gather, collect, save up’, compound of 6pa,Tb ‘to take’. The compound durative is cofinpaTb, regular. coAepacaTb D ‘to contain’ is a compound of AepacaTb (Aepacy, A^pacriT), but is durative. cocTaBHTb P, cocTaBJi^Tb D ‘to set up, to make up, to make’, regular.

D. REVIEW OF NUMBERS Read § 114 to §133 in the Summary of Russian Grammar on pages 626 to 629.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English. This is individual study.

3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences. [27-B]


Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.

2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual study.

3. What Would You Say? Tell what the following sentences mean. 1. BdjiBmyio h&ctb A^ner 6h AaJi cbo&I aceHd. 2. Tfairre IlaBjiy Ceprdnny nonoBimy A^ner, a noJioBiray ocraBBTe ce6d. 3. Hjibhhbi dT^ajiu HaM noJioBfmy cbo£h KBapTfipti. 4. 9to ct6iit ABa c nojioBfmoii pydjia. 5. H acfra nojird^a b Poccfra. 6. Oh bbiihiji nojiCTaKana xondAHoro nfma. 7. Mbi ac^aJiH er6 a&hbix nojmaca. 8. TpaMBau npoxoAHT TyT KajpABie nojmaca. 9. Hamii 3HaK6MBie jkhb^t nojiBepcTBi OTCiofla. 10. Oh padoTaji nojmea^jin Ha 3aBOAe. 11. Ha 5toh nojinefl^ae 6h 3apa66Taji A&iBie nojiTopacTa pydini. 12. 9tot raJiCTyK ct6ht nojiTopa pydjia. 13. ^ktop JlaMaHCKHii ocTaB&^iCH b Mockb6 nojiTopft

14. 3a 5tii nojiTopd, HeA&mi





y ce6A aomoh. 15. Ct&hhiih HaxdAHTCH b nonyTopa Bepcxax OTCioAa. 16. Oh ydxaji c nojiyTopacTa pydjiHMH b KapMaHe. 17. Ham caA b ab6 ii ab£ tp^tbiix acchtiihbi Bejinnimdii.

18. Tpft H^TBepTH 3thx A^ner h 3apa66Taji b AMepiiKC. 19. J^aiiTe MajiBHintaM n6 Asa jidjioKa. 20. H AaJi a^thm no AaaAAaTii KondeK. 21. Ha KaatAOM nepenpecTKe cto&jio n6 Asoe mhjihAIIOH^pOB. 22.


23. H


HaM BeApd xoji6ahoh boa&.

neTBipe nyna.

24. Ck6jibko BeciiT cyHAyn? 25. Bbi cb6ciijth daram? 26. Ta6 BdmaroT daranc?



CBo6it pa66TBi, a ocTajiBHBie ab6 tp^tii 6h CA&naeT

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Bo a A ym6 khii6t. Boa& KrniiiT npn CTa rpapyoax no IpkiBcmo. Bo^a cndpo 3aKimftT. HaKOH^u; mbi yBiiAean 36mjho. Oh ynaa Ha 3eMjno. B6 H3m^phjth caA? CkGjibko b Hen ajihh6 h nnipuHti? 3tot cap; b nojiTopacTa m6tpob ajihh6k», a inupiiHoio b ABaAAaTB naTB m6tpob. 35. B CocAHHeHHtix UkraTax H3McpaioT TeknepaTypy no OapeHreiiTy, a b EBponc no I^Ojibchio. 36. I^Ojibih t6a mbi coSnpaJin Adubni Ha no&AKy. 37. Buepa B6nepoM y Hac Ha Aowy coGpajiocB Aejian TOJina Apy30ii n 3HaK6Mbix.


y MeHH b KBapTfipe coSpaaocB MHdro HeHyatHBix

Bem&i. 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 40 47 48 49 50

B 3tom BeAp6 h6t boabi, ho b SOnne 6ctb. HanojimiTe BeApd 113 66hkh. Bam neMOAan THSKejiOe Moero. Moil hcmoauh jieme Bainero. Hto 9to 3a TOjicTan KHirra? 3to — caMLiii jiynunnl noe3A3to — caMoe bbicokoc snaHne b HaineM ropoAe. 3Ta OTBepTKa Gemma hjih Tanfix bhhtob. Baum itmomi MajiBi a-hh othx kick. t-It6 c Bajvni? Pa3Be bbi oojibhbi? BaHHa-TO nojiHa, ho BOAa b Heft cjihihkom ropand. Ona MoaoAa H 3Ta paGoTa GyAeT 6ft aerna.

How would you say the following things in Russian? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Where does the street car stop? The train will soon stop. One has to stop one’s car almost at every crossing. Stop the car here. I usually park my car here, at the entrance to the park. 6. Park the car here. 7. In five years he will become an American citizen.

8. The weather is turning fine.

9 Do you collect stamps? 10 I have saved up 150 roubles for the trip. 11 How much a piece arc the apples? 12 The apples cost 20 kopeks each. 13 What are you carrying there? 14 In Russia they wear fur coats in winter. 15 I’ll carry your suitcase to the hotel. 16 Who has paid for me? 17 How much do you pay for these cigarettes? [27-C]


18. 19. zu. 20. 21.

22. 23. 24. 25.

I didn’t know that you smoke. Do you often go to the movies? The i uc train ci ani is going fast. Do you want to go to the movies with me?

I’ll see you home. I don’t like to ride on street cars. Where are you riding to? I have to drive to town.

Section D—Listening In 1. What Did You Say? With the other members of the group give orally your responses to the previous exercise as the Leader calls for them. , TT 2. Word Study Check-Up Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Word Study as the Leader calls for it, 3. Listening In A Russian and an American argue about the temperature. HBaH Hb&hobhh :

Ha yrny b am^ne 6ctb TepMdMeTp.

Kan mapKO! Ckpatmy3 ‘Frenchman’). The spelling accords with the pronunciation, [5] being dropped after [c], in neMeu,KHii ‘German’, with inserted vowel. A longer suffix [esk] appears in BpaacecKiiii ‘hostile’, from spar ‘enemy’.

The suffix [n] is used, with inserted vowel before it, in BoeiiHbm ‘military’, from Boima ‘war’. BamiH ‘of Vanya’, possessive adjective from BaHh. Nouns whose N.S. ends in [a] form possessive adjec¬ tives with the suffix [in\; masculine nouns whose N.S. takes no ending form them with the suffix [oi»]: IleTpbB ‘Peter’s’ from IleTp. These adjectives occur mostly as family names.

C. NEW VERBS (1) In this Unit we meet some new compounds of familiar verbs. Present of type 1: ojKiiflaTB D ‘to expect’, compound durative, from jKflaTb ‘to wait’. flofiTli P ‘to reach, on foot’, compound of HTTfi; the D compound is made in the usual way: ftoxoABTb. OKa3aTt> (oKancy okeukct) P ‘to show’, 0Ka3biBaTb D, used mostly in the reflexive forms: OKa3aTbca P, oira3biBaTbCH D ‘to show oneself, to turn out to be’. We have seen the simple verb Ka3aTbCH ‘to seem’ and the corn-



pounds CKa3aTb P ‘to say’, noKa3a,Tb P, noKa3biBaTb D ‘to show’. The verb Ka3a,Tb has the present stem Ka>K-: OKaJKeTCH ‘it will turn out’, CKaaceT ‘he will say’, and so on. npuKasaTb P, npiiKaabiBaxb D ‘to command’ is another compound of this. The action is npiiKa3 ‘a com¬ mand’. Similarly 3aKa3a,Tb P, 3aKa,3biBaTb D ‘to order’ (something, as from a store or at a restaurant), with the action 3aKa3 ‘an order’

HanacTb P, HanajtaTB D 'to attack’, literally ‘to fall on’, like nacTB, ynacTB, present Hanafly, Hana^eT, past Hanaji; action Hanaj^Hiie ‘attack’. Present of type 2: HayniiTt (Hay ay, HayaiiT) P ‘to teach’,- HayaiiTBCh ‘to learn’ is the commonest P compound of yaiiTB, yuHTtca. The compound D is BayuaTB. ocMOTpeTB (ocmotpk), ocmotpiit) P ‘to inspect, to examine’, compound of CMOTpeTB; the compound D is ocMaTpriBaTB; the action is ocmotp. npojieTeTB (npojieay, npoaeTHT) P ‘to fly through’, compound of jieTeTB, with compound D npojieTaTB. Similarly, yjieTeTB P, yjieTaTB D ‘to fly away’. (2) The following new verbs appear in this Unit. Present of type 1 : 6htb, present 6bio, 6b6t, imperatiye 66ii, past passive participle Shtbib D ‘to beat’. P compounds of this are nobiiTB ‘to give a beating, to beat up’, pasbhTB ‘to break’, yShTB ‘to kill’, with compound D pa36iiBaTB, ybriBaTB. Note the inserted vowel in the present pa3o6bio, pa3o6BeT. ‘To hit, to strike’ is ygapuTB P, y^apHTB D, with noun ygap.

jKejiaTB ‘to wish, to desire’, regular, with P com¬ pound noiKejiaTB and action noun jKejiaHHe. MeTaTB ‘to fling, to cast’, present Meuy, M6aeT. CTpejiaTB ‘to shoot’, regular. TpedoBaTB ‘to demand’, regular (Tp66yio, Tp66yeT), with P noTp46oBaTB. Present of type 2: 6om6btb ‘to bomb’, from 6oM6a. bpociiTB P ‘to throw’; the D is bpocaTB, regular. nobeBHTB P, nobejKBaTB D ‘to conquer’, with action noun nobe^a ‘victory’. poq;iiTB ‘to give birth’, poahtbch ‘to be born’ is both D and P; in the P meanings the past F and the reflexive past stress the endings. CTynfiTB (cTynjiio, CTymiT) P ‘to step’, with D CTynaTB, regular, which serves also as compounding durative: HacTyniiTB P, HacTynaTB D ‘to assail, attack’, OTCTyniiTB P, oTCTynaTB D ‘to withdraw’. Action noun: HacTynjieHiie, ‘attack’. yftapiiTB P, ygapaTB D ‘to hit, to strike’. HBI1TB (hBJIIO, BBIIt) P ‘to show’, with D HBJ7HTB, regular, which serves also as compounding D: 3aaBiiTB P, 3aaBjiHTB D ‘to announce’.

D. REVIEW OF VERBS Read over §134 to §171 in the Summary of Russian Grammar on pages 629 to 636. [28-B1


2. Covering the English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the This is individual study.


3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences.

Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.) 1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.

2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual


3. What Would You Say? Give the meaning of the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Oh >k6ji nojixopa ix5p;a b AHrjinn. nojiKOBHim npiiKa3aji HTTfi b aTany. He 6efiTe AeT&i. Oh Hiiorp;a 6b6t cboio JKeH$\ Hama yufiTejibinma nacTO 6fijia h&c no pyuaM. Oh noSnji coSany.

7. Oh no6iiji pendpA. 8. Octop6>kho! Bbi MomeTe pa36iiTb CTaKairu. 9. OcTopdncHo! Bbi pa3o6beTe Tap&iKy! 10. MajibAiiKH pa36fijiH okii6.



11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Hama xo3fiuKa pasfiiiBaeT MHoro Tap&noK. Bparti yfifijra erx5 OTpa. Hi jno;n;6ii. YuHTeJib yp,apnn oAHoro MajibHiina no tojiob6. IlnorAa ynArejib yAapnji nac no pynaM. 17. Ha APyrdM 6epery men 66u. 18. Bam ot&u; 6b'ui xopomiiM 6ohaom. 19. Ta 113 biiht6bok h nyjxeMeTOB no BpaAiecKiiM caMOAexaM. Ham oroiib 6bia xaK cxijxeix, nxo Bpary npiminocb yAexexb. y Hac oKa3ajiocb Bcero iicckoabko jierxco paHeHBix, h6 noesn p;ajiL.me ixxxix He Mor, TaK KaK jiokomoxhb ii BaroHLi 6biah pa30iixi.i. Mbi xoxnac nocjxajin HecnojibKO nejiOB^K xia SjiHHcanrnyxo cxaixpino, ao Koxopoii ocxaBanocb Bcero abo, KiuioMexpa, ii oxxyAa naM npncnann noesA, Kyna mbi yjioJKiuiii Haxinxx paxieHBix. BcKope mbi npiiexajiii ixa cxaHAino. OcxaBiiB paHexiBix Ha cxaHAiin, mbi noexajin A^Abme H cnoKoiiHO Aoexami k yxpy ao ahhhii $poHxa. TaK

Kaic 3xo m4cxo 6biao b Aecy, t6- mbi MorAfi b6cb a^hb ocxaBaxbCH b BaroHax. BepHyxb noe3A obpaxHO 6biao Ah6m onacuo H3-3a HeMeiutoii aBiianmi. U,eABni Aenb mbi JKAaAii, nona He npnoBinii Apyrne nacxii, KoxopBiM 6biao npnKaaaHo 3aHaxb Mecxa HanpaBo ii Haneoo ox Hac. BenepoM npimina »apxHAAepiiucKaH 6pnraAa ii xaHKii. Hakoh^u,, KorAa HacxyniiAa xeMHan h6hb, bc§ 6biao toxobo, h apxiuijiepiiH npiiHHAacb 6hxl no Bpary. Haca nepe3 ABa nocne nanaAa apxiuiAepnncKoro 6oh, aibi MorAH nepenxii b HacxynAenne n, aohah AO aiihiih Bpara, oxupbinii cxpeAbSy 113 nyneMeTOB, biihtobok ii Mopxnp, a 3axeM SpociiAiicb b axany.

Boh 6bia AOAnin, h6 b kohi;6 kohaob no66A& ocTaAacb 3a HaMH.

Section E—Conversation

1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences With the Russian covered, practice until you can speak the Russian for each English sentence without hesitation. This is individual studv. ~ , TT

2. Vocabulary Check-Up

Give the Russian for all English sentences in the Basic Sentences as the Leader calls for it.

3. Conversation Suggested Topics: 1. Describe a man’s enlisting in the army, medical 3. Describe the bombing of a troop train and your examination; he is accepted; his training. escape. 2. Tell about a skirmish: artillery; attack; planes 4. Tell why the allied armies were able to defeat the help; enemy withdraws. Germans in 1944-45. 594


Section F—Conversation (Cont.) Continue conversation. Additional check-up if necessary.

FINDER LIST aBHaijHH aviation, air force apTHJiJiepiiH artillery; apTHJijiepHHCKHH of artillery aTaKa attack SaTaJitoH battalion 6hti> to beat 6oeR soldier 66h fight, battle 6oivi5a bomb; SomShti. to bomb Cpara^a brigade 6pocaTb D, GpocHTb P to throw BHHTOBKa rifle BoeHHtiH of war, military Bpar enemy; BpaxecKiiii of the enemy BCKope soon BCTpe»ia meeting Hohth P, roxo^htb D to go or come up to a place jKeJiaTb D, noaceJiaTb P to wish; JKeJiaHne wish, desire 3aKa3aTt P, 3aKa.3biBaTb D to order 3aaBHTb P, 3aaBJiHTb D to announce

jiokomothb locomotive

MeflHijHHa study or science of medicine; Me^HitHHCKHH medical MopTHpa mortar (cannon) Hana^aTb D, HanacTb P to attack; HanajjeHHe assault HacTynaTb D, HacTyniiTb P to step on, to approach, to attack; HacTymiemre attack, offensive HayaiiTb P to teach; reflexive: to learn HaaaJio beginning HeMeii German (male); HeMKa German (female); HeiweipcHH German HenpnaTejib enemy oGpaTHO back oroHb fire oacHjiaTb D to expect 0Ka3aTbca P, oica3biBaTbca D to turn out to be ociviaTpuBaTb D, ocMOTpeTb P to inspect, to examine; ocmotp inspection, examination OTCTynaTb



P to withdraw



nexoTa infantry noSe^a victory; noSe^HTbP, noSeac^aTb D to win a victory (over someone) noJiK regiment; iiojikobhhk colonel nocajtHTb P to seat noTpeSoBaTb P to demand npuSbiTb P to arrive npnKa3aTb P, npinca3biBaTb D to command npiiHHTbCfl P to set about npoJieTaTb D, npojieTeTb P to fly past nyjia bullet; iryjieMeT machine gun pa36iiBaTb D, pa36HTb P to break peHKa little river



pojtHTb D and P to give birth; reflexive: to be bom poxa company (military) CKB03b through CJiyacGa service cpaJKemie battle CTpejibSa shooting; cxpeJiaxb D to shoot TaHK tank TOT'iac right away xpeSoBaxb D to demand yjtapiiTb P, y^apHTb D to hit, to strike yjiexaxb D, yjiexexb P to fly away $poHT front (military)

UNIT RUSSIA Section union of soviets socialistic republic USSR eastern northern central The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR occupies a great part of eastern Europe, all of northern Asia, and a part of central Asia. of earth dry land space, place, area square population





pecnydjiHKa CCCP boct6hhhii C^BepHBXH

cpcAiniii C0103 Cob^tckiix CoitirajiiicTlWeckhx PecnybjuiK hjih CCCP 3aHHMaeT Sojibuiyio uacTb bocTouHoii EBpdnti, bcio ceBepHyio Asiiio h uacTb cpeflHeii A3hii. seMHdi!

cyina njiomap;B

YUS\ [.saYETskay] [saciali§ f Ichiskay] \ riSPUblika] [esesesER] [vaSTOCHnay] [§Eyirnay] [SJlEPyiy] [5a





[yim.NO Y] [S Usha] [PLOshchij] [kvaDRA T nay] [nayil^Eqiya]

[2 9^ A]


data census The Soviet Union occupies a sixth part of the land surface of the earth, in area 8,348,094 square miles, with a population of 193,198,000 people, according to the data of the census of the year 1940.

to divide territory The Soviet Union is divided into nineteeti republics and three territories. chief, principal to follow capital city The principal cities, with population according to the census of 1939, are the following: Moscow (the capital), 4,137,018;




ndpemicb F CoB^TCKuii Coio3 3aHHM&eT inecTyio Hac.Tb Bcdft 3eMH6u cyuui, rui6igaabio b BdceMb mhjijih6hob TpiiCTa cdpoK BdceMb Tbicnu ,n,eBHH6cto ueTbipe KBaapaTHbix mAjih, c Haceji^HiieM b ct6 fleBHHbcTO Tp6 MiuijifioHa ct6 ^eBanbcTO Bdceaib Tbicau uejioB^K, no AanubiM ndpermcn Tbicfiua jjeBHTbcdT copoKOBbro rb^a. paaRejifiTb

c6T AaaAAaTb Boci>MiriCTBCHHoe h npoMbimjieHHoe



hhjiocb, n^pBoe Ha ct6 AuaAAaTb oa6ii npoA^HT, h BTopde Ha Tp6AAaTt> npoA^HTOB.

At the beginning of the third Five Year Plan, in 1938, industry increased by 15 per cent.

B nanaJie Tp^Tbeft hhthjigtkh, b TbICHUa






HocTb yBeji^HHjiacb Ha nHTHdAAaTb hpoa6htob.

[§ilskaxa£A Ystyinay]

far, distant development peaceful construction to bring to a halt Further development of peaceful construction was brought to a halt with the beginning of war of 1941.

flaJIBHHH pa3B6Tne

WAI^qiy] [razyijiya] [AfIRnay] [straYIjUstva] [pfiastanayi T]

MfipHilit CTpo^TeJIBCTBO


JfajiBH^nmee pa3BHTHe Mffpnoro CTpotiTejiBCTBa btijio npnocTah6bjicho c HauaJiOM BoiiHbi TLICHHa HeBHTtcdT c6poK ndpBoro ruga.

Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences


(1) cob6tckhh, adjective from cob6t ‘advice; council, soviet’. Thus, ropoACKdft cob6t ‘city council’. (2) couHajinerfinecKH#, adjective corresponding to coupajifi3M ‘socialism’, coipiajiffcT ‘socialist’. (3) CCCP: like USA, a word made up by naming the initial letters of a longer name. The Russians have made up very many such words in recent times, e. g. yCCP [uesesER] YKpaiincicaH CoB&rcKaa CoipiajiucTffnecKaa PecirybjraKa ‘Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Re¬ public’. Words of this kind are stressed on the last syllable. They have the gender of the principal word, but are indeclinable.



(4) BocTdHHbrii ‘eastern’, BanaflHbiii ‘western’, cfeepiibiii ‘northern’, i&JKHbrii ‘southern’, are the adjectives, formed with suffix [n], of boct6k, 3anaA, cfeep, ior.

Similarly KBaupaTHbift ‘square! from the noun p&T ‘square’.


Irregularly formed: seMHdff ‘of the earth, terrestrial’ from seMjiff. (5)

cjma ‘dry land, mainland’ from cyxdff ‘dry’.

(6) Haceji&me ‘population’, action noun of HacejiffTb P, HacejiATb D ‘to settle (on the land)’, from cejid BA (N.P. ceaa) ‘larger village (with a church)’.

(7) ftdHHBie 'data’, literally ‘given things’, special use of the past passive participle of flaTb. (8) n^pemicb ‘list, catalog’, (HapdAHaa) ntipeimcb ‘census’, action noun of nepermcaTb P, nepenncbiBaTb D ‘to write over, to write up in a list’. (9) pa3AejiHTb P, pa3AejiaTb D ‘to divide (into parts)’, compound of flexuiTb (flejno, a&jiht) ‘to divide’. (10) rjiaBHbiii ‘principal, chief’, from rjiaBa BA ‘heading, chapter’. (11) ypajibCKHii ‘of the Ural Mountains’, adjective formed with [s&] from Ypaji ‘the Ural Mountains’. Irregularly formed: eBpon&lcKini from EBpona. (12) xpeSeT BB with inserted vowel [,e], instead of the normal [, o], in N.S. Hence G.S. xpefrra and so on. (13) cocTOHTb ‘to consist (of)’ is D, although it is a compound of CToflTb (ctoio, ctoht). (14) npH6jm36TejibHO ‘approximately’ from ripnOjinP, npnSjuuKaTb D ‘to bring near’; compare OjihsKHH ‘near’. 3htb

(15) HaitnoHaJibHocTb F ‘nationality’ from Hau,noHaJibHbin ‘national’. (16) npon,eHT 'per cent’: in such words Russian often has n, where English has c, as it&iTp ‘center’. (17) Ynpalma ‘the Ukraine (southwestern Russia), ynpanHeu (G.S. ynpannua) ‘an Ukrainian (male)’, yKpanHKa ‘an Ukrainian (female)’, adjective yicpatmckhh ‘Ukrainian’.

(18) BnaCTb P, BnajtaTb D ‘to fall in’, compound of nacTb (natty, natter) P. (19) J^H^np BB ‘the Dnepr’ (river). (20) etthHCTBeHHbin ‘sole, only’: etttin- is a by-form of otttiH, but appears only in derivatives, such as coettHHHTb ‘to unite’. (21) $hhckhh ‘Finnish’, as $hhckhh H3biK ‘the Finnish language’; $fiHH ‘a Finn (male)’, (jaimca ‘a Finn (female)’; also OnHjiflH.n.HH ‘Finland’. (22) 3ajifiB ‘gulf, bay’, noun of 3ajifiTb P, 3ajniBaTb D ‘to pour on’, compound of ji6tb (jibio, Jiber) ‘to pour’. (23) 3eMjiett&JibHecKHn, adjective of 3eMjiett&nne ‘agriculture’, literally ‘working of the earth’, from 3eMJia and tt&narb. (24) KpecTbHHCTBO ‘the farming population’, from KpecTbjiHHH, plural KpecTWme, KpecTbkH, KpecTbflnaM, ‘farmer, peasant (male)’, KpecTbHHKa ‘farmer, peasant (female)’. (25) kojixo3 for KOJiJieKTtiBHoe xoshiictbo; cobx63 for coB^TCKoe X03HHCTBO. Many such abbreviated words have come into use in latter times. (26) npoMbiceji (G.S. npdMHCJia) ‘trade, craft, call¬ ing’, npoMbmuienubiH ‘industrial’, npoMbiniJieHHOCTb F ‘industry’, as HeTb F ‘(crude) oil’. (27) pa3BtiTb (pa30Bbk), pa30BbeT) P, pa3BHBaTb D ‘to develop something’, reflexive ‘to develop, to grow



up’, compound of butu (bmo, bb&t; past Bmia) ‘to

pound of pacTh (paer£, pacTer; past p6c, pocaa, -6, -6)

twist, to wind’. (28) 6ojibuthhctb6 ‘majority', from 66jibiimii ‘big¬ ger’, comparative of Sojibinoii. (29) HerpaMOTHLiii ‘illiterate’, rpaMOTHLiii ‘literate’, rpaMOTa ‘knowledge of how to read and write’. (30) npoH3BOflCTBO ‘production’, noun of npou3BecTfi P, npon3BOAHTB D ‘to produce’, compounds of BecT& (Be^y, nefleT, past Beji, Bejia, Bejid, Bejin) ‘to lead, to conduct’, and its iterative boaIitb (BOJKy, boaht), which serves also as compounding durative. (31) yBejiiiHHTB P, yBeAHUHBaTb D ‘to make bigger’, reflexive ‘to grow bigger’, from BejikKun. (32) B03pacTH P, B03pacTaTb D ‘to increase’, com¬

‘to grow’. (33) cejibCK0X03McTBeHHbih ‘agricultural’, from c&ibCKoe xo3ituCTBO ‘agriculture’ (in the widest sense, including farming, dairying, stock raising, forestry); cejibCKHii ‘of the country’ (as opposed to city), from cejid, compare (6), above. (34) pa3BiiTiie ‘development’, action of pa3BhTb (27). (35) Hupiibiil ‘peaceful’, adjective of Miip ‘peace’. (36) CTpofiTejibCTBo ‘construction’, from CTpouTeJib ‘builder’, from CTponTb ‘to build’. (37) npnocTaHOBiiTb P, npnocTaHaBjiiiBaTb D ‘to stop for a time, to hold back’, with the prefix npiiadded to ocTaHOBiiTb P, ocTaHaBjniBaTb D ‘to stop’.

B. REVIEW OF VERB ASPECTS Read over sections 172 to 192 in the Summary of Russian Grammar, on pages 637 to 641.

2. Covering the English and Russian of Word Study Give the English equivalents of all Russian expressions in the Word Study and the Russian for all the English. This is individual study.

3. Review of Basic Sentences Further oral practice with the first part of the Basic Sentences. Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.) Further oral practice with the second part of the Basic Sentences.



2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences Check your knowledge of the meaning of all words and phrases in the Basic Sentences. This is individual study.

3. What Would You Say? Give the meaning of the following sentences: 1. BaM He HaAO aoxoa6ts ao Moero AOMa, a Bac BCTpday Ha yray. 2. HAHTe rip Amo no 5toh yjiHue, h KorAa AOiiAeTe ao yraa, noBepHiiTe HanpaBO. 3. B Hanajie oKTadpa dbiao em,e Tenad. 4. HayahTe MeHa roBophTB no-p^ccKH. 5. Oh cndpo Hayaftaca rpaMOTe. 6. B TpaMBae mh£ HacTynhan Ha Hory. 7. Hdac OKa3aaca y Mena b KapMaHe. 8. Oh OKa3aaca AypaKdM. 9. Mhoix) aMspHKaHCKHX aeraHKOB nonaAaao b Pocchio BO BpeMH BOHHdl. 10. Kyaa A nonaa? B naic^io CTpan^? 11. J\bA b KBaAP^Te paBHd aeTbipeM. 12. H xot&a 6bi npochTb y Bac coBeTa. 13. ,H4peBO cadpo pacad.

14. Banm a^th cKopo pacTyr. 15. 9Ta yarnta BeAeT k B0K3aay. 16. IleTp IlBaHbia BdAHT Mena k£jkahh a^hb no rdpoAy. 17. Moil cbih Bac noBeAeT Ha daiuKamnyio CTaHAnio. 18. Pa3AeaiiTb copoK BoceMb Ha rnecTb, BbixdAHT BOCeMb. 19. 3Ta KHhra pa3AeaeHa na TpfiAAaTb raaB. 20. HeMAbi Bead Boimy co bccmii cocgahmh. 21. Ham 3aBdA npHH3BdAHT aBTOModhan. 22. B AOMe Bee Thxo. 23. JJaiiTe eMy cyxde nadabe. 24. il — rpajKAaHHH, CoeAHHeHHbix IHt&tob CdBepHoft AMdpHKH. 25. AMdpHKa pa3AeaeHd. Ha Tph aacTH: CpdAHHH AMepima OTAeaaeT CdBepayio AMepHKy ot IO>khoh AMdpiIKH.

Section D— Listening In 1. What Did You Say? With the other members of the group give orally your responses to the previous exercise as the Leader calls for them.



2. Word Study Check-Up Give the Russian for all English equivalents in the Word Study as the Leader calls for it.

3. Listening In 1. Ivanov and Brooks talk about their countries. Epyac:

CaajatiTe, Hana Ceprena, npaapa, hto y Bac B POCCHH OUeHb XOJIOAHO?

IlBanoB: A bbi ht6 3HaeTe 06 CCCP? HanpiiMep, 3HaeTe an bbi, Ha cadaaao pecn£6ana paapeaea CoBeTcann C0103?

IlBaHOB: Hdr, ue Bcerpa n He Be3pd. Bbi 3a6BiBaeTe, hto Pocciia — orpdMHaa CTpaua. Hanpnividp,. Hepnoe Mdpe miaorpa He 3aMep3aeT. CCCP 3aHHMaeT inecTyio aacTB bccii 3eMiidn cyrnn.

IlBaHOB: Tome peBaTHappaTB? Haio-IIdpa, Tdacac, Kaan^dptnia, KaHapa, aopnpa, Ilepy, Mdacnaa n Taa paaee.





doaBine Haceadmia,



eAHHeuHBix IIlTaTax nan b CCCP? HBaHdB: B


CCCP cto peBanocTo Tpfi Mnaanoiia aeaoBda, a cadaBao b CoepHiieHHBix IIlTaTax, k ae 3Haio.

A bbi 6bi B3dan aHfbaay pa nocMOTpean. Bar Hiiaero He 3HaeTe o CoepiiHeHHBix IIlTaTax.



S°bojtbho, poBoaBHo! 51 Biiaiy, hto bbi 3HaeTe He doaBine mchh. Ho a bum Bce-Taan pdaaceH caa3a,TB, hto b Ho a bum Bce-Taan poameH caa3aTB, hto b CoepnaeiiHBix IIlTaTax copoa BoceMB mra/roB.

IlBaHdB: He MoaceT 6bitb. Ecan b Pocchh tohbho peBHTtiappaTB pecnydana, to b AMdpuae He MdmeT 6b'itb SdaBine

2. O pyccanx'ropopax. MocKBa — CToafipa CCCP. £0 pcBoaioniiii CToadpeii Pocchii 6uui neTcpdypr (Jlcinrarpap).



3Haio; Ha peBaTHappaTB.

A 3iiaeTe an bbi, cadaBao niraTOB b cdBepHon Aindpnae?

Tldcjie T&cmia aeBATbcdT ceMHatwaToro r6«a ctoCCCP CTajia MocKBa: Mockb& CTO^T.Ha 6epery He6ojn>m6fi peicft, Mockb£PenA. MocKBa-Pena coetumena KaHanoM c Bdjiron:, caMoii 6oJitm6fi peKoii b EBpon^HCKoft Poccfin. Kucb, CTOJi6n,a YCCP, cto6t Ha bepery J^nenpa. ^H&ip BnanaeT b HepHoe M6pe, eA^HCTBeHHoe He3aMep3aMmee Mbpe b Cob6tckom Coio3e. Section

Ha beperax Bbjirn HaxbnHTca MH6ro 5ojibui6x roPoa6b. B t6m hhcji6 rdptKHH, Ka3d,Ht, Kyft6£nneB, CTaJiHHrpan, AcTpaxaHB h Mtibro npyrhx. B6jira Bna^aeT b KacnMcnoe M6pe. Ha 6eper£ KacnMcitoro M6pa ctoAt rbpon Bany. H^HTp HeC^THHOH npOMblHIJieHHOCTH CCCP.


1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences With the Russian covered, practice until you can speak the Russian for each English sentence without hesitation. This is individual study.

2. Vocabulary Check-Up Give the Russian for all English sentences in the Basic Sentences as the Leader calls for it.

3. Conversation Suggested Topics: 1. Tell a Russian friend a few facts about the geography of the United States: area, population, division into states, and so on. 2. Tell something in the same way about the geography of Russia. Section

3. Tell something about the Volga. 4. Tell something about farming and manufacturing in Russia.

F—Conversation (Cont.)

Continue conversation. Additional check-up if necessary.




HaceJieHne population

BocpacTaTb D, Bospacra P to grow BOCTOHHbiH eastern BnajjaTb D, BnacTb P to fall in

HaitHOHajibHbra national; HaquoHaJibHOCTb F nationality He^Tb F (crude) oil; He^TBHofi of cil

heading, chapter; rjiaBHbiii principal, chief rpaMOTa art of reading and writing; rpaMOTHbifi literate iviaBa

flaJibHHH distant; flajibHefimiiH further RaHHbie data eBponeiicKHH European ejtHHCTBeHHbiH sole, only 3aJIHB gulf 3anajtKbin western aeMJiejteJibHecKHH farming, agricultural 3eMHoii of the earth, terrestrial KaHaji canal KBajtpaT square; KBajtpaTHbiii square KHHJKKa little book, handy book K0JIX03 collective farm KpecTbHHHH farmer, peasant; KpecTbHHCTBO farm population MHpHbili




oGjiacTb F territory orpoMHbiS immense, huge oT^eJifiTb P, oTAejiBTb D to divide off OTjiHHHbifi excellent nepenucb F copy, list, census nocJieAHHH last, latter npH6jni3HTejibHbiff approximate D, npnocTaHOBHTb P to stop (some¬ thing) for a time, to hold back


npoH3BecTil P, npoH3BOAHTb D to produce; npoii3Bo^cTBo production npoMbiinjieHHbiii industrial; npoMbiuiJieHHocTb F industry

nponopitiioHajibHbin proportional npoi^eHT per cent njiTHJieTKa five year period, five year plan pa3BHBaTb D, pa3BHTb P to develop; pa3BHTHe development pa3«ejiHTb P, pa3AeJifiTb D to divide up

pacTH D to grow pecnySjiHKa republic northern cejio big village; ceJibCKHH rural; ceJibCKoxo3nHCTBeHHbiS agricultural cjieflOBaTb D to follow C0BeT advice, council, soviet; C0B6TCKHH soviet COCTOHTb D to consist (of) couiiajiHCTHMecKHM socialist(ic) C0K)3 union cpeflHHH central CCCP [esesesER] USSR CTOJMija capital city CTpana country CTpoHTejibCTBO construction cyina dry land ceBepHMM

thxhS quiet; Thxhh OiceaH the Pacific Ocean yBeJiHHHBaTb D, yBeJiHHHTb P to make big yKpafiHeit Ukrainian; yKpafiiicKHH Ukrainian yHHBepcuTeT university Ypaji the Ural Mountains; ypaJibCKHH of the Ural Mountains ypoJKaii harvest, crop YCCP Ukrainian SSR cftaopmca factory $hhckhh Finnish xpefier mountain range ijeHTp center /cvKHbiB southern





Do You Know



Would You Say It?

Practice saying out loud the Russian for the following sentences.

I 1. Pin up your overcoat with a safety pin. 2. Take the monkey wrench; the plain wrench is no good for these nuts. 3. She sewed on a button for me. 4. Give me a needle and thread. 5. Here’s a spool of thread for you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I don’t like to ride on the railway. How much baggage have you?—Four pieces in all. This trunk is too heavy, I can’t lift it alone. In the street car we had to stand. In the railway station there is an enormous crowd. Walk straight through to the platform.

6. 7. 8. 9.

I’ll put on my glasses and read the letter. When I have to read I put on my glasses. This knife cuts very poorly. I’ve torn my shirt.

10. Give me a package of cigarettes. II 7. Wake us up half an hour before the train gets to Moscow. * 8. I feel like having a smoke. 9. Our baggage wasn’t at the dock. 10. Let’s go out on deck. Ill

1. A verst equals 0.66 of an American mile. 2. A kilometer equals 0.62 of an American mile. 3. Their house stands in a big yard. 612


4. When we got there, they were picking apples. 5. The river is a quarter of a verst wide. 6. He likes to sit all day in the garden.

7. We took with us one trunk, forty kilograms in weight. 8. We need 70 arshins of wire.

9. Pour the water into the pail. 10. By centigrade, water freezes at zero.

1. In what year did the war begin? 2. It will be hard for me to learn all that they will be demanding of me. 3. The artillery has opened fire. 4. The colonel gave the command to withdraw. 5. We shall have to go across the little river. 6. In what year were you born?

7. At first the new work seemed hard. 8. Our regiment was sent to the front in February. 9. In our company there were several killed and many wounded. 10. In the night from the 20th to the 21st of September, at half past two, our regiment went into the attack. V

1. The capital of Russia is now Moscow. 2. Moscow is the largest city in Russia. 3. Up to the war, industrial production in Russia was rapidly increasing. 4. The number of schools was growing rapidly. 5. Up to the revolution, the greater part of the Russian people was illiterate.

6. In the United States there are many factories and manufacturing plants. 7. Russia is a chiefly agricultural country. 8. My father is a farmer. 9. The Volga empties into the Caspian Sea. 10. In Russia there live one hundred twenty different nationalities.

Section B—How Did You Say It? Quiz by the Group Leader on the sentences in Section A, asking various members of the group: “KaK CKa3aTb no-pyccKH . . .?” Section


Would You Say It?

Translate the following sentences into Russian. [30—C]


I 1. 2. 3. 4.

Have you a pair of scissors? May I ask you for a package of cigarettes? We place the dirty linen in this bag. The bag for dirty linen is hanging behind the door in the bathroom. 5. I should like to give some linen to the laundry.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

With this knife here one can’t cut this kind of wire. I’ll meet you at the entrance of the movie. They have moved out of this apartment long ago. Let’s cross over to the other side. We arrived at the station a quarter of an hour before the departure of the train.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Where does this road lead to? You smoke too much. I don’t wake up of my own accord; they wake me. Don’t wake me tomorrow morning. In such weather we don’t want to go out of the house.

II 1. I was freezing, because all the warm things were in the baggage. 2. These suitcases are heavy. 3. We looked everywhere for our companion. 4. I had bought the tickets beforehand. 5. Get up real early.

III 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How many degrees is it out of doors today? Have you measured the size of the yard? Behind the house there is a fruit garden. How many liters does the old Russian bochka hold? In one month they drank up a whole barrel of beer.

6. In the United States we measure temperature by Fahrenheit. 7. I want to write in the newspaper about this accident. 8. How many meters high is this building? 9. We shall stay here a week and a half. 10 He lived two and a half years in America.


IV 1. We have very good aviation, but not enough tanks. 2. This machine gun is out of order.



3. The bombs are falling on the tracks. 4. Send several men to the nearest station.

5. The fighting began towards morning. 6. When we come out in the open, the enemy will surely start shooting at us. 7. Our fire is very powerful.

8. They are shooting from mortars. 9. We shall have to go up hill. 10. Your son served in our regiment.

V 1. The Soviet Union is divided into 19 republics. 2. Forty-eight states together make up the United States of North America. 3. The United States is a vast and wealthy country. 4. The oil industry in the United States developed very fast. 5. In this plant they produce excellent automobiles. 6. Russians make up approximately half of the popu¬ lation of the USSR. Section

7. During the war with the Germans many American flyers used to land in Russia. 8. We are trying to find out what has become of our comrade. 9. I ordered not veal, but fish. 10. In Russia you will no doubt quickly learn the Russian language.

D—How Did You Say It?

Quiz by the Group Leader on the sentences in Section C, asking various members of the group: “Kan CKa3a,Tb no-pyccKH . . .?” Section E—Conversation Review Hold a series of conversations on any of the topics covered to take part. Here are some suggested topics: 1. Making small purchases: apples, cigarettes, a spool of thread, some writing paper, pens, and ink, and so on. 2. Tearing your clothes and how you got them mended, 3. Going to the movies; what you saw there.

so far. All members of the group should have a chance 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Experiences of a new recruit in the army. A skirmish while crossing a small stream. A stay at a house in the country. Geography of your part of the USA. The population of Russia; nationalities, occupa¬ tions, etc. [30—E]


SUMMARY OF RUSSIAN GRAMMAR §§1-7. VOWEL SPELLINGS 1. The letters a, a, bi, o, y represent the simple vowels [a, e, i, o, u] \ jiaivina ‘lamp’. 2. At the beginning of a word, after vowels, and after rb, b, the letters a, e, h, e, to mean [y] plus vowel: A ‘I’. However, n at the beginning of a word means [yi] only in the pronoun forms 6m, hmh, Ax, §103; otherwise it means [fj: nrjia ‘needle’. 3. After a consonant letter, a, e, H, e, io mean that the consonant is palatal: hhhh ‘nurse’. 4. After ac, a, m, in; the vowels are written, a, e, h, e, y:

nac ‘hour’, meHH ‘wives’. But stressed o is in some words written o: boJinmoii ‘big’. 5. After n; the vowels are written a, e, bi, o, y: c otib5m ‘with the father’. But the unstressed form of [o] is written e: c nepneM ‘with pepper’; and in some foreign words [i] is written h: n;6pK ‘circus’. 6. The sounds [g, k, x] are palatalized before [i]) the spelling uses n: Jiannsi ‘lamps’, but pjmn ‘hands’. 7. The letter b means that a preceding consonant is palatal: cojib ‘salt’.

8-11. VOWEL INSERTION 8. When two consonants come to stand at the end of 10. If the last consonant is [c] or a palatal con¬ a word (or before the consonant of a suffix) and the sonant, the inserted vowel is [;e]: otii,bi ‘fathers’, N.S. last consonant is [c, g, k, l, /, n, 7}, r, /, s, §, y], a vowel 0T6n; flpy3Bn ‘friends’, G.P. APy34ft. is inserted before this consonant, as follows: 11. Otherwise the inserted vowel is [,o], written e, 9 If one of the two consonants is [g, k, *], the in¬ o, e: kobpbi ‘rugs’, N.S. KOBep; CMemiidii ‘funny’, short serted vowel is [o], spelled o, e, e: manna ‘cap’, G.P. M CMemdH, indnon; nainaa ‘cup’, G.P. aamen. 12, 13. ACCENT 12. Sets of forms are regularly stressed either on the stem throughout (accent A) or on the endings through-


out (accent B): A y, 6«eT; B ii^eT. But some sets have shifting accent (accent C): Mory, MdmeT.

Accent C in a noun plural means that all forms except 13. In a set of forms with accent B, a form with no the N. accent the ending. Accent C in a present tense ending is stressed on the last vowel: Kapaimamii ‘pen¬ verb means that only the ‘I' form accents the ending. cils’, N.S. KapaHaam. This may be an inserted vowel* Accent C in a set of gender forms means that only the OTitbi ‘fathers’, N.S. OTeip F accents the ending. 14-70. NOUNS 14. The A.P. of nouns is like the N.P. for non-living G.P. co64k: A minty co6aK ‘I see dogs’. But there are things and like the G.P. for living beings: N.P. KHiirn, a fevv special expressions, like no^xaTb b rdcTH ‘to go G.P. KHur: A Bfiacy KHtirii 'I see books’; N.P. codaKii, visiting’. 15-26. FIRST DECLENSION 15. First declension: N.S. in [a]. The nouns are F, cyn,wx ‘judge’; and some which are M or F according except for some M which mean male persons: MyaoiuHa to sex: cnpoTa ‘orphan’. ‘man’; some M which mean persons of either sex: Endings; stem [shkol-] ‘school’: N. A. S. uiKOJi-a -y P. -u The I.S. has also a longer form ihk6jioio.


D. -e -aM



16. Stems ending in [iy] have ending [z] in the D.S. and L.S.: apMHh ‘army’, b dpivuin.

17. Shifting accent occurs almost only in words which accent the ending in the S. forms. 18. Some accent the stem in the A.S.: bo‘water’: Bdfty; rojiOBa ‘head’: rdjioBy. 19. Some have accent A in the plural: BecHd ‘spring’, N.P. BecHbi, G.P. BeceH, D.P. BecxxaM.

I. -oil -aMH

L. -e -ax

20. But a few of these stress the last vowel in the G.P.: cecTpa ‘sister’, N.P. cecTpbi, G.P. cecTep, D.P. cecTpaM.

21. Some have accent C in the plural: rojiOBa ‘head’ P. rdjioBH, rojxdB, rojioBaM; flepeBHa ‘village’ p! flep