Spoken Russian: Book One

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2019 with funding from Kahle/Austin Foundation


Spoken Russian


Identical with the edition prepared for


The Armed Forces edition of this book was pub¬ lished by the Linguistic Society of America and the Intensive Language Program of the American Council of Learned Societies.

Copyright, 1945, by Linguistic Society of America


No part of the material covered by this copyright may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher.


INTRODUCTION 1. What We Are Trying to Do. This course in spoken Russian is designed as a general introduction to the Russian language. It contains all the essential gram¬ matical materials for learning to speak everyday Russian, and its vocabulary, though small, is built around a number of the most useful common situations and cur¬ rent topics. It is based on the principle that you must hear a language if you are to understand it when spoken, and that you must practice speaking it in order to master its sounds and its forms. A teacher of Russian will not always be available for those for whom this book is written. So the course has been made as nearly self-teaching as possible. This manual covers the course completely and requires the use of no other reference material. It explains in detail, step by step, how the work is to proceed, and sets the stage for the listening and talking which you are to do.

2. The Russian Language is spoken by about 120 million people in the Soviet Union as their native lan¬ guage. In addition, there are about 40 million speakers of Ukrainian and 10 million speakers of White Russian. These two languages are closely related to Russian; the

people who speak them understand Russian when it is spoken to them, and learn the standard Russian language in school. Furthermore, the remaining 20 million people of the Soviet Union, whose native languages (Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Rumanian, and various Finnish, Caucasian, and Turkic dialects) are very different from Russian, learn Russian as a second language. All together then, about 190 million people use Russian as their only language or as their most useful second language. Russian is also widely used as a commercial language in Mon¬ golia and parts of Afghanistan, Persia, and Sinkiang. Russian is one of the Slavic languages; the others are Ukrainian, White Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, SerboCroatian, Slovene, and Bulgarian. These languages are all very much alike, and a knowledge of Russian makes their acquisition relatively easy. Russian is also distantly related to English and most of the other languages of Europe, and you will find, after you have overcome its first apparent strangeness, that its general structure is not very different from that of English. Variations in language are perfectly natural and are



found in every language in the world. Americans from New England don’t speak exactly like Americans from California, and Englishmen and Australians speak dif¬ ferently from all Americans and from each other. In Russian the differences between different regions are much less than in English and to a foreigner are barely noticeable. All the people you meet in Russia will under¬ stand the kind of Russian presented in this manual, and a great many of them, especially in the larger towns and cities and among the fairly well educated, will speak it exactly as you find it here. The people in the country areas and even some of the people in the cities may, however, speak a slightly different kind of Russian. So do not be surprised if the pronunciation you hear does not quite match what is given to you in this manual or what you hear in this course. Imitate the person with whom you are speaking. He, in turn, will do his best to pronounce so that he can be understood. Likewise, do not be surprised at the use of gestures; they are a normal accompaniment to the language; use the gestures your¬ self, if you can imitate them. 3. How to Use This Manual. To help you in learn¬ ing to speak Russian, this course makes use of two tools: a native speaker of the language, and this book. The two must be used together, as neither one is of any use without the other. This manual has been so organized that it can be used to study by yourself or in a group. The group may or may not have a regular teacher; if you have no regu¬ IV

lar teacher choose one of your own number (called the

Group Leader) to lead the others and to direct their work.

4. A Native Speaker is the only good source of first¬ hand knowledge of the pronunciation and usage of any language. The method used in this manual requires the use of a native speaker of Russian, preferably a person who can be on hand through the course, or next best the voice of a native speaker recorded on phonograph records which are supplied with this manual. But even when a native speaker is present during the course, the records can always be used for additional study. The native speaker of Russian is referred to as the Guide. The Guide’s job is to act as a model for you to imitate, and as a check on your pronunciation; it is not his busi¬ ness to be a teacher or to “explain” the language to you. The Guide should be, if possible, a person who speaks more or less the type of Russian found in this manual, not merely the dialect of a particular region; but he should speak this type of Russian naturally and without affectation. He should be neither overeducated nor too uncultured. 5. The Book is divided into two major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains several sections, usually the following: A. Basic Sentences (with Hints on Pronunciation) B. Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences C. Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

D. Listening In E. Conversation F. Conversation (Cont.) These six sections are followed in each learning unit by a Finder List containing all the new words in the particular unit. At the end of the manual is included a summary of all word study material. All the words in the manual are included in two complete vocabu¬ laries, Russian-English and English-Russian.

6. The Basic Sentences in each unit are arranged so as to give you a number of new words and a number of new ways of saying things; first broken up into words or short phrases, and then combined in complete sen¬ tences. On the printed page, they are presented in parallel columns, which contain on the left the English equivalent, in the center and on the right the Russian material. The Russian material is given both in the Aids to Listening in the second column and in the Con¬ ventional Spelling in the third column. When you have your book open at whatever unit you are going to study, and when the Guide is ready to begin speaking the words for you, or the Group Leader is ready to start the phonograph records, you can start working on the Basic Sentences for that unit. If the Group Leader is working with the Guide, the Leader will read the English out loud, and the Guide will pro¬ nounce the Russian twice, each time allowing enough time for you to repeat the Russian after him. If you

are using the phonograph records, two vioces on the records will act as Leader and Guide for you. While you are listening to the Guide, follow with your eyes the Aids to Listening. When you repeat the words and sentences after the Guide or phonograph records, repeat them loud—good and loud. Never mumble. It is abso¬ lutely essential that you repeat after the Guide or phono¬ graph record each time, and that you imitate as closely as you can, and learn by heart what you have imitated.

7. The Aids to Listening which are given in the first twelve units, present a simplified spelling, which is design¬ ed to help you in remembering the Russian words as they sound. In the Aids to Listening, each Russian sound is represented by one letter or group of letters. Every letter (or group of letters) always stands for the same sound. Concentrate your attention first on the Aids to Listen¬ ing, especially through Part I; in Part II you should pay more attention to the Conventual Russian Spelling. 8. The Hints on Pronunciation are given you to help you improve your speech in Russian. No language has sounds exactly like those of any other; and in Russian you will find some sounds which are quite absent from English, and others which are somewhat but not exactly like English sounds. After you have been through the Basic Sentences of the unit at least once, read through the Hints on Pronunciation carefully, having the Guide repeat or playing on the phonograph the words and sounds which are being discussed. Then go back and


listen again to the Basic Sentences, always repeating them after the Guide or phonograph as you did before. Try to hear and imitate more precisely the sounds to which your attention has been called.

9. Pronouncing to Be Understood. Pronunciation is important for a number of reasons: if you expect to be understood when you speak a foreign language, you will have to pronounce it more or less the way the people tare used to hearing it. If you are too far off from the usual way of talking the language, people won’t be able to understand you at all. Furthermore, the nearer you get to pronouncing the precise sounds, the easier it will be for your ear to catch the sound as spoken by a native, and the more rapidly you will pick up new words and phrases and make progress in learning the language. Learning to pronounce is really not hard, if you go about it in the right way. If you follow the suggestions and instructions given in this manual, and work care¬ fully through all the hints, practices, and drills, you can expect to acquire the kind of pronunciation you need. Many students who are good mimics and who get into the spirit of speaking Russian will learn to talk like na¬ tives. The only way to learn to pronounce like a native is to imitate. You must get a native to pronounce the words, then say them right after him, mimicking everything, even to the tone of his voice. This manual will make it easier for you by pointing out the sounds you need to observe, and by describing their peculiarities.


10. Each Word Study shows you new uses and new combinations of materials studied up to that point; you are taught how to take apart the words and phrases which you hear and how to make new words and phrases on the same model. Read each part of the Word Study carefully, and make sure you understand thoroughly everything which is said in them; then go back over the Basic Sentences with the Guide or phonograph, exactly as you did before. By this time you can start going through the Basic Sentences with your book closed, and you should now be able to understand the sentences without looking at the English equivalent.

11. The Listening In section gives you a number of conversations, anecdotes, or stories, which use the vo¬ cabulary and constructions you have learned in each unit and in all those preceding. Its purpose is to give you practice in listeningtoand understanding the foreign language as you might overhear it in normal conversa¬ tion among Russian-speaking people, and to furnish you with models for your own conversation practice. 12. The Conversation Practice represents the cen¬ tral aim of the course. In order to converse well, you should know well everything that has been introduced in the unit you are working on, and everything that you have learned in previous units as well. When you take part in a conversation, do so as easily and naturally as you can. Don’t try to bring in new words and phrases that you haven’t learned in the material you have

studied in this course; stick to what you have learned and practice it thoroughly.

13. Talking Russian. In speaking Russian you should not first figure out what you want to say in English and then translate it into Russian, word for word. This will get you nowhere. You should apply, instead, the words and expressions you already know to the given situation. If you cannot immediately rattle off a word or expression to fit a particular situation, go on to another, or ask a question, but under no circum¬ stances attempt to compose. As soon as you do, you lapse into English speech habits and stop learning Rus¬ sian and Russian speech habits. When people speak to you, they will frequently use words and expressions you do not know. If you can’t guess their meaning, try to find out by asking questions in Russian, or by asking them to repeat slowly, or to explain in simpler terms. If you (and they!) are good natured, and reasonable about it, you won’t have any trouble. On the contrary you will constantly learn more

and will practice the Russian you already know in the process. Your learning of the language will not stop, therefore, when you have mastered this material. You will, rather, be able to get around among the people, practice what you know, and steadily pick up more and more words and phrases. Try to learn them thoroughly. Carry along a notebook to jot down what you want to remember; you can then review this material from time to time. You should not wait until you have finished this manual before you start using the language. Start prac¬ ticing at once. When you have done the first unit, try out the expressions on as many people as possible. When you try out your Russian at this early stage, make it slide off your tongue as smoothly as possible. Be careful not to slip back into a careless English-like pronuncia¬ tion. Listen closely to what the person says in response, trying to catch as much as you can. The first few times it may be hard to catch even the words you know, but you will improve rapidly if you keep on practicing every chance you get.





4. WHERE Are You From? Accusative case. Verb forms.

1. Getting Around. Greetings and general phrases. Places and directions. Comment on Aids to Listening. Buying things.


2. The Family. Cases. Nominative case. Mas¬ culine, Feminine, Neuter. Singular, Plural.


3. Meeting People. Genitive case.




5. The Weather. Locative case. Verbs.


6. Review.


PART TWO 7. At THE Airport. Higher numbers. Time by the clock. 144

10. Writing A Letter. Regular verbs. Durative and Punctual verbs. 229

8. Laundry and Barber. More numbers.

11. Eating and Drinking. Durative and Punctual verbs. Actual and Iterative verbs. 264

Imperative form. Reflexive form. Compound verbs. Dative case. 172 9. FINDING A Room. Short forms of adjectives. Instrumental case. 201


12. Review.




To the Group Leader: Each Unit of this course is divided into six Sections. It is suggested that the group spend not less than fifty minutes on each Section. Before you get the group together to work on this first unit, read carefully the following material up to the heading Useful Words and Phrases on page 4. When the group meets, read the material aloud to them or have some other member of the group do the reading. The students will follow the reading with their books open. Be sure that your Guide, or the phonograph and records, are ready before the group meets for work on Section A. See that the Guide is supplied with a copy of the manual CnpaBOHHHK PyKOBOftHTeJifl, which tells him just what he is to do and gives him the Russian he is to speak to the group. You should look through all of the sections of the unit, reading the directions carefully, so that you will have in mind the general plan of the work. Always get clearly in mind the directions for a section before you take that section up in group meeting.

This unit gives you the most immediate and necessary expressions that you will need in meeting people, asking your way, buying things, and counting. The amount of learning and memorizing required for the first unit is considerably greater than that for any later unit. You are given such a large dose at the start because this unit is meant to be a kind of “language first aid” which gives you enough useful expressions to enable you to make Section


In the list of Useful Words and Phrases which follows, the English equivalent of these words and phrases is given at the left of the page. Opposite, in the middle column, is a simplified spelling of the Russian which will help you in getting the sounds. In the third column

ordinary wants known and to carry on a simple conversa¬ tion in Russian from the very start. All but a few of these words and phrases are selected from the phonograph records for the Russian Language Guide (introductory Series) (TM 30-344). If you have worked with these records, the present unit will serve as a review.

Words and


is the ordinary or conventional Russian spelling. The Leader of the group will first read the English Equiva¬ lent and pause for the Guide to speak the Russian. Every member of the group then repeats after the Guide. The Guide will then say the Russian a second time and [1-A]


everybody will repeat after him as before. The Leader will then read the next English equivalent and the Guide and group will follow the procedure indicated. If no Guide is available, the phonograph records pro¬ vided for the course should be used. When the group is ready, the Leader will begin playing the appropriate record and the group will repeat right after the Russian speaker during the silences on the record. The phono¬ graph records can be used with profit even in cases where a Guide is available because they can be heard between meetings of the group, whenever it is convenient to you; they furnish additional practice in hearing Russian; you may listen only to those portions which you have found difficult; and the records may be played as often as you wish. In case the speaker on the record has a Russian pronunciation different from that of your Guide, use the records only for listening and understanding and not for imitating. Whether you are working with a Guide or only with the phonograph records, you must repeat each Russian word and phrase in a loud, clear voice, trying at all times to imitate the pronunciation as closely as you can. Keep constantly in mind the meaning of the Russian you are about to hear, glancing at the English equivalent when¬ ever you need to remind yourself. When you are hearing the Russian, keep your eyes on the Aids to Listening. But whenever the written form seems to you to differ from the spoken sound, follow the spoken sound always. Learning to understand and pronounce a language is not really hard. Every one of us learned to do this as a



child, and all over the world children learn to speak all kinds of languages without any trouble. The difficulty that an adult faces in learning a foreign language as you are now learning Russian, is that the adult already has a set of habits for pronouncing his own language and this makes it harder for him to learn new ones than for a child who is starting from scratch. That is why it is so important that you should not be afraid of mimick¬ ing even when what you hear may sound strange to you. Don’t be afraid to let yourself go. You will never learn to speak a language if you don’t plunge right in as soon as you can. Never mind if you do make mistakes at first. The important thing is for you to try to say the words and phrases. Imitate your Guide with the same spirit and enthusiasm that you use in mimicking a person whose speech sounds peculiar to you. You will find that if you do this, your Guide will not think you are making fun of him; instead he will probably smile because what you have said to him sounds like Russian. In the first five units, do not attempt under any cir¬ cumstances to pronounce the Russian before you have heard it. You will only make trouble for yourself if you try to guess the pronunciation by “reading” the Aids

to Listening. If you are working with a Guide who does not under¬ stand English, ask the Leader of your group to demon¬ strate for you and the Guide what hand signals are to be used to let the Guide know when you want him to read more slowly or to repeat. They are as follows:

1. Index finger raised:


2. Hand raised, palm toward the Guide: STOP 3. Palm down, hand moved slowly in semi-circle:


4. Beckoning with index finger:


5. Hand held palm up and moved quickly up and down:

else. You will learn fastest if, when your book is open, you follow these steps' 1. Keep your eyes on the Aids to Listening as you listen to the Russian being spoken. 2. Repeat immediately what you have heard. 3. Keep in mind the meaning of what you are saying.


Remember that each phrase you say has a real mean¬ ing in Russian and hence you should always act as though you were really saying something to someone

Begin the words and phrases as soon as your Guide is ready or when the Leader of your group is ready to play the first phonograph record.

To the Group Leader: Give the members of the group a chance to ask questions about the instructions. Make sure that every¬ one understands just what he is to do. Then have the students go through the list of Useful Words and Phrases once with the books open, repeating in unison after the Guide. Following this first practice, read with the group the Comment on the Aids to Listening on page 7. Make sure that everyone understands it. Now go through the list a second time, much as you did before. And finally, go through it a third time, but let the students take turns repeating individually after the Guide—a sentence to a student. Indicate the order in which the repetitions are to go, who is first, who next, and so on. Continue this individual repetition as long as the fifty-minute period permits. Then, just before dismissing the group, read with them the paragraph headed Check Yourself on page 11. Here are some hints that will make the work of the group more effective. 1. Insist that everyone speak up. Don’t allow any mumbling! Each member of the group must be able to hear what is being said at all times. 2. Indicate to the Guide that he is to repeat whenever the pronunciation is bad and to keep on repeating until he gets a pronunciation that sounds like Russian. 3. Urge everyone to mimic to the limit every sound, every inflection, even the mannerisms of the Guide. 4. Keep the work moving. Don’t let it drag at any time. See that everyone is listening, not only to the Guide, but to himself and to the others as they repeat after the Guide. 5. Go through all the work yourself. Repeat with the others and take your turn at the individual repetitions.



1. Useful Words and Phrases Here is a list of useful words and phrases you will need in Russian. You should learn these by heart.

Greetings and General Phrases NOTE: Words enclosed in brackets [ ] are not expressed in the Russian. Words enclosed in parentheses ( ) help to explain the meaning of the Russian but are not necessary in English. Words enclosed in single quotation marks ‘ ’ are literal or word-for-word equivalents.



Unit 1, Record Side 1, beginning. 178 RPM) Hello! (How do you do?)

ZDRA stvuyjil


(33% RPM) Record Side 1, beginning. 3flpaBCTByiiTe!

How are you?

KAK VI pazhi VAy i}i KAK in pazhi VAyiJ-i?


Fine or all right.






And you?

a VI?


how you (you) are getting along

KaK BBI nojKHBaeTe Bbi nomuBaeTe?


[I’m] fine too, thanks.

TO zhi xaraSHO TO zhi xaraSHO, spa§Iba.

Tonce xopomo, cnacudo.

Not [so] well.

qi xaraSHO.


ta VA/ishch ta VAfishch ivaNOP.

TOBapnin, ToBapmn, IlBaHOB.

also well

comrade or friend Mr. Ivanov. 4


TOJKe xopomo

Mrs. or Miss Ivanov.

ta VA/ishch ivaNOva.

ToBapnm IIisaHOBa.

Mr. Smith.

gaspapiN SApIT.

TocnoAHH Cmht.

Mr. Smith.

grazhdalpIN SAP IT.

rpajKflaHHH Cmht.

Mrs. or Miss Smith.


rpaJK,n;aHKa Cmht.

Do you understand?



Do you understand Russian?

parj,iAIAyiji pa RUsfyi?

IIoHHMaeTe no-pyccKH?




No {or There is no.)






I understand.

YA parj-iMAyu.

H noHHMaio.

I don’t understand.

yd 7}i paqiMAyu.

H He noHHMaio.

[I] don’t understand.


He noHHMaio. H3BHHHTe.

Excuse [me].


what you (you) said What did you say?

SHTO VI skaZAft SHTO m skaZAli?

CKa3ajiH Hto bli cKa3ajiH?

please or you’re welcome (you) speak slowly Please speak slowly.

paZHALsta gavapUji ApEdlina, ApEd\inna paZHALsta, gavajllji ApEd\inna.

noJicajiyftcTa roBopuTe MeAJieHHo noJKajiyncTa, roBopiiTe MejjJieHHo.



(you) repeat Please repeat.

paftajilji paZHALsta, paftapUji.

noBTopiiTe IIojKajiyHCTa, noBTopHTe.

Places and Directions where restaurant Where [is the] restaurant? or Where [is a] restaurant?

GPE fistaRAN GpE j-istaRA N?


pecTopaH r^e pecTopaH?

Unit 1, Record Side 2, beginni here is hotel Here’s [the] hotel or Here’s [a] hotel.

VOT ga§pii}ica VOT ga§pir}ica.

BOT rocTiiHima



To [the] right.

vagZAL uBORnaya na PRAva.

yoopnaa HanpaBo.

To [the] left.

na pEva.








(railroad) station toilet


The restaurant is to the right.

pstaRA N na PRAva.

PecTopaH HanpaBo.

The hotel is to the left.

ga^phjica na PEva.

rocTiiHima HajieBo.

The toilet is here.

uBORnaya %PE§.

ydopHan 3^eci>.



What [is] this?


Hto 3to?

This [is the] station.

Eta vagZAL.


what this

^tq 9to


After you have gone through the Useful Words and Phrases once, read the following:

2. Comment on the Aids to Listening The best way to learn any language is to listen to a native speaker of it, and then copy exactly what he says. That is why we ask you to listen carefully to your Guide (or the speaker on the records) and imitate him as exactly as you can. It would be ideal if you could remember everything he says simply by listening and repeating. However, most of us need to have something on paper to remind us of what we have heard. This is what the Aids to Listening are meant for. They are simply an attempt to put down systematically on paper the sounds that you hear on the records or that your Guide will probably say. (Later on, in Part II, you will learn to read the regular Russian spelling; pay no atten¬ tion to it now.) Remember, however, that they are only aids to listening. The listening itself is still the most important thing; the printed material is just a reminder. In the Aids to Listening capital letters are used to show which syllables in a word or phrase are most strongly accented, that is, spoken the loudest. For exam¬ ple, we would write for English: mister JONES will conDUCT the SERvice; or; his CON duct is VERy BAD.

Notice that words like MISter, WILL, THE, HIS, IS are strongly accented if they stand all alone, but they are usually not accented in a sentence. In the Aids to Listening you will sometimes find an accent mark over a small letter; for instance: a. This means that the sound is a little louder than the sound indicated by other small letters, but less loud than that which is indicated by capital letters. For example, we would write for English hand me the PENcil; or MADison street (but MADison AVenue). Also, in the Aids to Listening you will see that a good many letters have commas under them; for instance: }, f. You have probably noticed that where we place these commas the Russian has a peculiar sound, much as if the sound of y in yes were mixed in. This will be explained later in this Unit; you will do best if you try to get the sound by listening and imitating before you read the explanation. The sounds which we mark with a comma are called palatal consonants. The sounds ch and y, which are much the same as in English church and yes, are also called palatal consonants. The remain[l-A]


ing consonant sounds are called plain consonants; for instance: t, sh. 1. We can begin with the vowels. Russian has five vowels. In the Aids to Listening we use the five letters et, e, i, o, u to indicate the Russian vowels. The sounds of the Russian vowels are plainest when they are loudly stressed; this is when the Aid to Listening writes them with capital letters: A, E, I, 0, U. Notice, first, that the Russian vowels are rather short; they are never drawled the way some vowels are drawled in natural English pronunciation. The Russian vowel sounds are quite different from ours; you will have to listen and imitate carefully. If you have a chance to hear a Russian speak English with an imperfect pronunciatic you may find it helpful to mimic his English; probably his English seems queer in part because he is using Russian vowel sounds instead of English ones. The Russian vowel sound which we write as I or i has two varieties. When the Russian f-sound comes at the beginning of a word, or after a palatal consonant (that is, after ch or y or after a consonant that we mark with a comma under¬ neath), it sounds like the English vowel in eat, cheap, deep, or like English i in machine; only the Russian vowel is much shorter than ours. When the Russian f-sound comes anywhere else (that is, after a plain consonant), it has a sound that sometimes seems very queer to our ears. It is something like our i-vowel in bill, hill, but there is something muffled about



it. This is because in the Russian vowel the tongue is drawn back in the mouth. Pull your tongue back, as if you were gagging. Imitate the Guide or the phonograph record and you will soon get the right effect. The Russian vowel which we write as E or e is much like the English vowel of bet. Before a palatal consonant it is likely to sound more like the vowel of bait, only it is shorter. The Russian vowel which we write as A or a is like the English vowel in father, except that it is much shorter. The Russian vowel which we write as 0 or o resembles the English vowel of four or board (and is never like English o in hot). Only the Russian vowel is shorter and has an odd sound because the Russian slightly rounds and sticks out his lips when forming this vowel. Be sure to imitate this. The Russian vowel which we write as U or u resembles the English vowel of put, good, pull (and never that of but, cut). Only, the Russian u has an odd sound because, as in Russian o, the lips are slightly rounded and pro¬ truded. Be sure to imitate this so as to get the proper Russian effect. When the Russian vowels are loudly stressed we write them with capital letters: A, E, I, 0, U. When they are weakly stressed they still have the same sounds, only less loud; we write them with an accent mark: a, e, i, 6, u. When the Russian vowels are unstressed they are short¬ ened and slurred, very much like unstressed vowels in English; then we write plain, small a, e, i, u.

Now listen to the way your Guide (or the speaker on the records) says the examples, and repeat after him. PRACTICE

Be sure to make all the vowels good and short, and try to get a real Russian sound into your words.


Unit 1, Record Side 2, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) r-AIDS^-NEAREST ENGLISH SOUND-. .

(33J4 RPM) Record Side 1, after 1st spiral.




after palatal consonant, like our i in machine, but shorter.





after plain consonant, like our i in bill, but pull back your tongue.





like our e in bet.





like our a in father, but shorter.





like our o in four, board, but round your lips. (Never like o in hot.)





like our u in put, pull, but round your lips. (Never like u in cut.)

R Usfyiy



2. The Russian consonant sounds are very much like the English ones, except only the Russian r and x and the palatalized consonants, and even these will give you no trouble once you make a good start. The following Russian consonant sounds are very much like English sounds; for each one we give an English word which has roughly the same sound as the Russian: b as in bill c means ts as in hats (never as in cat or in cent)

ch as in church d as in do f as in four g as in go, get (never as in gem) k as in kit l as in well m as in met n as in net p as in pet s as in sell [1-A]


Russian l has a hollow sound; some speakers make it sound almost like an English w. It is much like the English /-sound in well or wool, and differs from the higher pitched English /-sound in less or lean.

sh as in shell t as in ten v as in very y as in yes z as in zero zh like z in azure

Russian b, d, g, v, z, zh have more of a buzz to them than do the similar English sounds. For instance, when a Russian says DA (‘ves’) it seems to our ears almost as if he were saying nDA.

3. Russian r. The first thing to note about this sound is that it is never anything like our American r. If you use our r in Russian, you will make it hard for Russians to understand you. So get rid of your American r right from the start. The Russians use a trilled sound, like the rrr that children say in imitating a telephone bell or a running motor. The tip of the tongue vibrates, making a few rapid taps against the rounded bump in the palate right above and behind the upper gums. You can find the place by pronouncing an English d as in did. In an English d the tip of the tongue makes a real contact but in a Russian r it makes only a vibration at this point.

Russian sh and zh have less of a hiss in them than the English sounds in shell and azure. In the Russian sounds the front of the tongue is lower, and often the lips are a bit rounded.

4. Russian x. The Russian sound which we write with the letter x is a strong, very breathy /j-sound. Many speakers of English have a similar sound at the begin¬ ning of words like hue, huge, human.

Russian p, t, k sound a little different from English p, t, k: the Russian sounds have less of a puff of breath after them. Russian t, d, n sound a little different from English t, d, n because the Russian sounds are made with the tip of the tongue touching the back of the upper front teeth.

Now listen to the Guide (or the speaker on the record) PRACTICE

id repeat right after him.


Unit 1, Record Side 2, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) payiMAyu TO zhi KAK



rioHHMaio Tome KaK

I understand also how

LAdna malaKO vagZAL R Usfyiy xaraSHO


agreed milk railway station Russian good, well



Now go through the Useful Words and Phrases again with your book open, following the same procedure as before. Repeat each word and phrase, immediately after hearing it, in a loud, clear voice. Let yourself go and say the phrases right out. Go through the Useful Words and Phrases once more with your book open, but this time, take turns letting each member of your group repeat individually until everybody has taken part. Keep on the alert. If the

Guide asks you to repeat, do so with enthusiasm and try to mimic him as best as you can until he is satisfied with your pronunciation. When you have satisfied him, you can be sure that you are speaking understandable Russian. Continue this individual repetition as long as time permits. If you are using only the phonograph records, your Leader will see to it that you repeat and that everyone gets the most out of this individual performance.

4. Check Yourself Did you go through the Useful Words and Phrases at least twice in unison and at least once more individually? Did you repeat each word and phrase in a loud, clear voice immediately after hearing it? Did you follow the pronunciation you heard even when it was different from that shown in your book?

Did you keep in mind the meaning of each word and phrase as you heard and spoke the Russian? If you have failed at any point to carry out the instructions, go over the Useful Words and Phrases once again as soon as you can, being careful to follow every step in the procedure outlined.

Section B—Useful Words and Phrases (Cont.) Here are other useful words and phrases which you will want to use immediately if you are in a country in which the people speak Russian. These are being given

to you as a “language first aid.” Learn them by heart. In working with this material, follow the same pro¬ cedure that you used with the Useful Words and Phrases [1-B]


in Section A. After you have gone through the list once, repeating in unison, read the following Hints on Pronunciation. Run through the Pronunciation Practices. Then

go through the list a second and a third time, as in Section A.

1. Useful Words and Phrases (Cont.) Buying Things

Unit 1, Record Side 2, after 3rd spiral. (78 RPM)

(33% RPM) Record Side 1, after 2nd

how (to) say in Russian How [do you say] this in Russian?

KAK skaZA T pa R UsT}i KAK Eta pa RUs^i?

no-pyccKH Kan 3to no-pyccKH?

How [do you] say this in Russian?

KAK skaZA P Eta pa RUsfyi?

Kan CKa3aTb oto no-pyccKH?

(you) want What do you want?

xaj'lji SHTO vi xa TIpi?


[I] want cigarette* I want [a] cigarette.

xaCHU papiROsu yd xachu papiROsu.

xony nanupocy H xony nanupocy.

by me there is cigarettes I have some cigarettes.**

u ypiPpA YE§T papiROsi u rpiipA ye§j papiROsi.

y MeHH ecTb naimpocw y mchh ecTb nannpocbi.

matches I haven’t any matches. (‘ By me there are no matches’)

Spichik u 'tp.irya PpET Spichik.

*Not on the record. 12


**The record, by mistake, has “ I have a cigarette.”

Kan CKa3aTt



cmineK y

MeHH HeT cimneK.

Unit 1, Record Side 3, beginning. (78 RPM) give me [a] match Give me a match.

SpiCHku DA Yji mye SpiCHku.

to eat* I want [something] to eat.

KUshiJ yd xachu K Ushij.

JI xony KymaTb.

some soup* I want some soup.

SUpu yd xachii SUpu.

cyny H xony cyny.

Do you want some soup?

xapji SUpu?

XoTHTe cyny?

Please give me some soup.

DA Yji mye SUpu, paZHALsta.

flaffTe Mne cyny, nomajiyncTa.

some bread some butter some meat some potatoes some coffee some tea some sugar some milk some beer some water Coffee or beer?

DA Y}i MiyE


MAsla If Asa karTOshfyi KOfi CHAyu SAxaru malaKA piva vaDI KOfi %i pIva?

flaftTe MHe cnnuKy

TJa/iTe MHe cnnnKy. KymaTb

xjieda Macjia Mnca KapTomrcn KO([)C

naio caxapy MOJIOKa miBa bo^bi Ko&§fblwnPr§J'

Now listen to the Guide (or the record) and imitate.



EXAMPLES — AIDS-. --CO N VEN TIO NA L-» (33Ys RPM) Record Side lf after 3rd spiral.

Unit 1, Record Side 4, beginning. C78 RPM) p j



five you want nine coffee excuse seven [1—B]



like z and y run together





like m and y run together

AfA sa




like n and y run together





like l and y run together

na l*Eva


to the left


like r and y run together




Some other consonants. The Russian x-sound is something like a strong, breathy ft-sound. Three Russian plain consonants have no correspond¬ ing palatal consonant by their side. These are sh (as in English shell), zh (like z in azure), and c (like ts in hats). The Russian sh and zh have a duller, less hissing sound than the nearest English consonants. The front of the tongue is lower in Russian, and the lips are slightly rounded.

When Russian sh and eh come together in the combi¬ nation shch, the sound is much as in an English combina¬ tion like fresh chips. The whole combination is palatal. Many Russians, however, pronounce this combination more as if it were sh-sh (as in English fresh ships), but they always keep the combination palatal, by raising the middle of the tongue in the usual way. Imitate your Guide or the record.



Unit 1, Record Side 4, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) x

friction sound in the back of the mouth



some bread



some sugar



I want


like English sh in harsh





like English z in azure

TO zhi




like English shell in fresh chips

ta VArishch





4. Check Yourself Did you go through the Useful Words and Phrases at least twice in unison and at least once more in¬ dividually? Did you apply what you learned about the vowel sounds in Hints on Pronunciation? Did you follow the pronunciation you heard even when it was different from that shown in your book? Section

Did you keep in mind the meaning of each word and phrase as you heard and spoke the Russian? If you have failed at any point to carry out the in¬ structions, go over the Useful Words and Phrases once again as soon as you can, being careful to follow every step in the procedure outlined.

C—Review of Useful Words and Phrases

If your group has time for outside assignments, sections marked Individual Study may be done between

meetings of the group. Otherwise use them as independent study during a group meeting.

1. Covering the English (Individual Study) Go back to the Useful Words and Phrases in Sections A and B. Cover up the English. Read the Russian aloud. Keep your voice down if you are working with the rest of the group. Follow your Guide’s pronunciation as nearly as you can remember, and test yourself to see if you can

recall the meaning of each word and phrase. Check the expressions you are not sure about and after you have gone through the whole list, uncover the English and find their meaning. Repeat this procedure at least three times or until you are satisfied that you know every expression.

2. Review of Useful Words and Phrases To the Group Leader: Read again for your information the numbered suggestions just preceding Useful Words and Phrases on page 3. Your Guide has been directed in his manual to pay particular attention to the correct pronunciation of the sounds. He may ask members of the group to repeat words or phrases a good many times in an effort to get a pronunciation that is more nearly correct. See that they listen closely, that they repeat promptly and loud enough so that everyone can hear them, and that they imitate the Guide to the last detail. Go through the Useful Words and Phrases in Sections A and B twice. The first time have the members of the group repeat individually after the Guide with books open. The second time, have them close their books. The Guide will give each Russian expression twice as before. Let the students take turns giving the English equivalent the first time they hear the Guide speak the Russian and repeating the Russian as usual the second time. This will help them to check on the meaning of all Russian expressions in Useful Words and Phrases.



Go back to the Useful Words and Phrases in Sections A and B. The first time you go through the list, take turns repeating the Russian after the Guide. Keep your book open, and get all the help you can from the Aids to Listening. Pay particular attention to what you have learned about the pronunciation of the vowels. Make every effort to satisfy your Guide with your pronunciation. The second time you go through the list, check up on Section

the meaning of the Russian. Keep your books closed and take turns giving the English equivalent the first time you hear the Russian expression and repeating the Russian as usual the second time. If you have any trouble with the English, you should find time for more individual study of the Useful Words and Phrases, cov¬ ering the English and checking up on the meaning when you read the Russian aloud.

D—Listening In

1. Listening In To the Group Leader: The conversations which appear in this section will be read to the group by the Guide or played on the phonograph records. English equivalents are omitted from the Listening In material so that students can get practice in understanding spoken Russian which uses the vocabulary they know. Meaning, therefore, is to be emphasized. The first time you go through the conversations, have the Guide repeat a conversation, if necessary to help clear up the meaning, before you go on to the next conversation. If you have no Guide, lift the needle of the phonograph at the end of each conversation and let the students discuss the meaning of any sentences that are not understood. Go through the conversations a second time without stopping. Pay about equal attention to pronunciation and meaning. Finally, assign parts and have the students read the conversations. Give everyone a chance. Suggest that the actors actually take the parts, stand up and move around, sit at a table in the restaurant, stand behind the counter in the store, etc. Keep it moving. Get everyone to speak up! Take a part yourself.

Keep your book closed while the Guide reads the following conversation and repeat after him. If you have no Guide, you should use the phonograph records, repeating the Russian immediately after you hear it. At the end of each conversation take time out to check 20


up on the meaning of what you have heard and said. Ask someone in the group to give you the English equivalent of any expression you do not understand. Almost all the words and the expressions you have had in Useful Words and Phrases occur in the following conversations.

Unit 1, Record Side 4, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) 1. Smith asks Ivanov the way. Smith: ZDRAstvuypi, taVAyishch ivaNOF! KAK vi pazhiVAyiji? KAK ta VAyishch ivaNOva? Ivanov: xaraSHO, spa§Iba. a VI? Smith:

spa§Iba. u tyiiyya iyET Spichik. yd xaCIIU K Uship GDE yistaRA N?

Ivanov: ye§pyistaRAN na PRAva. Smith:

Ivanov: iyET, na PRAva. vagZAL TAM, ga§PD}ica na pEva, a yistaRAN na PRAva. Smith:

TO zhi xaraSHO. xaTIji papiROsu?

Ivanov: DA, paZIIALsta. SpiCHku? Smith:

(3334 RPM) Record Side 1, after 4th spiral.

yd ryi paqiMAyu. paZHALsta, gavapiji MEdpinna. eta yistaRAN?

Ivanov: DA. TAM vagZAL, a yistaRAN ZPE§. Smith:

vi xaPIp K Uship?

Ivanov: iyET, spaSIba. da syiDAiyya, grazhdaijin SAP IT. Smith:

da syiDAyyya.

izyilplpi. SIITO vi skaZAp? yistaRAN TAM?

Unit 1, Record Side 4, after 3rd spiral. (78 RPM) 2. Mr. Smith enters a restaurant. Smith: ZDRA stvuypi!


Waitress: ZDRAstvuyji! SHTO vi xaPIp KUship?

Waitress: vi xapipi SUpu?

DA Ypi mr}e AfAsa i karTOshpi, XpEba i MAsla. [1-D]



Waitress: xaraSHO.


Waitress: vi xajiji malaKA i\i KOfi?



Waitress: RUBJ DEyiJ.

IfET. yd xachu piva.

SKOJka eta STOyit?

Unit 1, Record Side 4, after 4th spiral. (78 RPM) 3. Mr. Jones and Mr. Ilyin are in a restaurant. Ilyin: paZHALsta, DA Yji mrj.e SUpu, AJAsa, i karTOshfyi.


SIITO vi xajpi, KOfi i\i CIIAyu?

Jones: paftaJUji eta AIEdpna, paZAHLsta.

Ilyin: a yd xachu KOfi i vaDI.

Ilyin: yd xachu SUpu, AJAsa, i karTOshfyi.


Jones: yd xachii CHAyu. xaraSHO.

Jones: MNE TO zhi, paZHALsta.

2. Check Yourself Is there any expression in any of these conversations that you do not understand now? If there is, find the meaning of it or ask other members of your group be¬ fore you proceed. If no one knows, refer to the Useful Words and Phrases. Go through the conversations once more following the same plan as before. Imitate carefully and be sure to keep in mind the English equivalent of everything you are saying in Russian. Section

Finally go through the conversations again but this time take turns. The leader will assign parts and the exercise is to continue at least until everyone has had a chance to speak one of the parts. Keep this going as long as you have time. When your turn comes, speak clearly and with enthusiasm. Put yourself in the situa¬ tion and let yourself go. If the Guide asks you to repeat, do so until he is satisfied with your pronunciation.

E— Conversation

1. Covering the Russian (Individual Study) Go back to the Useful Words and Phrases in Sections A and B. Cover up the Russian. Read the English



silently and test yourself to see if you can speak the Russian for each word and phrase. Check the exprea

sions you are uncertain about and after you have gone through the whole list, uncover the Russian and review them. Go through the list once more and continue for at least three times or until you can give the Russian readily for all the expressions. To make sure of this,

pick out expressions at random and see if you can speak out the Russian quickly. Speak the Russian aloud and try to imitate your Guide’s pronunciation as well as you can remember it.

2. Vocabulary Check-Up To the Group Leader: Go to the Useful Words and Phrases in Sections A and B. Read to the group the English equivalent of the Russian expressions. Call on different students not in any fixed order, asking for the correct Russian for the English. For instance, say to A, “KAK skaZAJ pa RUslp: Where is the hotel?" The students are to respond with their books closed. The Guide will indicate by a negative sign whenever he hears a Russian expression that is wrong, or, if there is no Guide, the other members of the group will indicate that they do not agree. Immedi¬ ately ask someone else to give the expression correctly. Any grdup member who has difficulty in giving the correct Russian should be told to review the Useful Words and Phrases thoroughly before the next meeting of the group. Do not spend any time talking about the why of the Russian; stick to the how. There are two precautions which the Leader must observe in all exercises of this sort and in the conversation practice throughout the course. Be sure that everyone understands them. They are as follows: 1. Every Russian expression must be given smoothly and completely before the student’s performance can be considered satisfactory. If there is an error in the first attempt, ask the student to give the expression over again in complete form. If he fumbles badly, turn to someone else. 2. Everyone must speak loud enough, so that all can hear. Every student should be encouraged to call out “Louder, please!” if he can’t hear. Check on this occasionally by pointing to the student who is listening to someone else’s Russian, and ask “What did he say?” If you do not observe these precautions, much time and effort may be wasted in group meetings.

In this section you are going to have your first chance to engage in conversation in Russian. This, of course, is the most useful part of the entire unit, and the part you should do with the greatest amount of pep and realism. Do it half-heartedly and you lose most of the value of the unit. Do it earnestly and enthusiastically and you will find that you can readily say a great num¬ ber of things in Russian, fluently and correctly. Read

the instructions carefully, get everything you are to do straight in your mind, and then plunge in. In order to fix in your mind the expressions you will need in the conversation, check yourself on your ability to speak the Russian you have learned. By now you should not have to grope for it. The Leader of the group will ask you to supply in turn the Russian expressions for the English equivalents which he reads from the [1-E]


Useful Words and Phrases. If you have done a thorough job of recalling the Russian when you are looking only at the English equivalents, as suggested in Section E, you will have no difficulty in responding promptly and

smoothly when you hear the English. Your Guide will let you know if your Russian expressions are not cor¬ rect. If you have no Guide, the members of the group should be ready to correct faulty expressions.

3. Simple Arithmetic in Russian Here are some sample additions: a. SK Ofka B Udit alflN i DEyiJ.?

1 + 9 = ?

PAT i Tpi, VO§im.

ckojibko 6yp,eT oshh ir ^eBHTb?

aDIN i DEyif DE§if ojqiH ii AeBHTb — p;ecHTi>. b. SKOfka BUfitfATi TJU?

5 + 3 = 8

nHTb H TpH, BOCeMb.

1 + 9 = 10

5 + 3 = ?

CKOJibKO byqeT rorrb ii Tpii?

On a sheet of paper, write out the figures for similar problems which do not add up to more than ten. Write, for example 8 + 2 = 10. The Group leader will then ask one of the members of the group to say his problem in Russian and another to answer it in Russian. The person who answers must give the whole addition, and

c. SKOfka B Ufit SHE§T i chiTI/i? 6 + 4 = ? CKOJibKo fiyjteT inecTb ii ueTbipe? SHEpP i chiTI/i, f)EsiJ. 6 + 4 = 10 inecTb ii neTbipe — flecuTb. not just the answer. For example, if you have written down 8 + 2 = 10, you say: SKOfka BUfit VO§im i DVA? and the one who answers must say: V0§im i DVA, PE§iJ, not just plain P>E§iJ. Continue this exer¬ cise until everyone has had a chance to ask and to answer.

4. Conversation To the Group Leader: Read the following directions with the class. Encourage the students to strike out for themselves, Spend all the time you can on free conversation practice i n an effort to get to the point where students can speak easily and smoothly with a minimum of ums and ers.

The Leader will assign parts and will ask you to take turns in pairs, carrying on the following conversations. The two persons who are talking together should stand up and act out their parts, speaking as smoothly and naturally as possible. Make it real and get some fun 24


out of it. The Guide will help you if your Russian is wrong or if your pronunciation is bad. The Leader will prompt you if you are not sure what comes next in your part.

1. Asking Directions 1. You walk up to a stranger, beg his pardon, and tion over there, to the right, and asks whether ask where the railroad station is. you understand. 2. He answers the.t it’s to the right. 7. You say you understand, and thank him. 3. You ask him what he said. 8. He says you’re welcome. 4. He repeats. Go through this conversation twice more, asking first 5. You beg his pardon, say you don’t understand for the hotel and then the restaurant, and have the him, and ask him please to speak slowly. stranger reply by saying that the hotel is here to the 6. He repeats very slowly that that’s the railroad staright, the restaurant there to the left. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

2. At a Restaurant 10. After you’ve eaten, you ask her how much that You walk into a restaurant, sit down, say hello to the waitress, and ask how she is. costs. 11. She says it’s 3 roubles and 10. She says she’s fine, and asks how you are. You say you’re fine too. You’d like to eat. 12. You pay, saying here it is (paZHALsta). She asks what you’d like. 13. She thanks you, and you both say good-bye. You ask how the meat is. If it is so desired, particularly when the group is too She says it’s good. large to give everybody a chance to participate in the You say good, you’d like meat and potatoes. conversation, the exercise should be continued for a She asks whether you’d like tea or beer. longer time. It is also a good practice to give people who are having difficulties a second trial. You say beer, please.

Section F—Conversation (Cont.) To the Group Leader: You can tell from the work that you did on conversation in Section E, whether or not the group needs to spend more time in preparing for successful conversation. If necessary, spend the first part of this section in individual study, having members of the group say the Russian of the Useful Words and Phrases when they have the English expression covered. Check up on their vocabulary as in Section E. Then continue the work w'th conversation which you started in Section E.



In this section you are to continue taking part in conversation. If the work didn’t go well in Section E, take time to go through the Useful Words and Phrases again with the English covered and to give the Russian of the English expressions as your Leader asks for it. Put everything you can into the conversations. Act your part; don’t hesitate to talk for fear of making a mistake. You’ll make plenty of mistakes at first, but the important thing is to practice talking. You can’t correct an error until you have made it.

Try out your Russian whenever you get a chance. Don’t wait for meetings of the group to practice what you have learned. Pair off between meetings and see what you can do with Russian greetings and conversa¬ tion. When you are alone, run over the list of Russian expressions you know. Review them in your mind. Try saying them. See how much you can improve your pro¬ nunciation and control of the language in whatever time you can find between meetings of the group. Make this a regular practice throughout the course.

FINDER LIST This is a complete alphabetical list of all the words and expressions used in this unit. The conventional spelling is enclosed in parentheses after each entry. This list is for reference only, but you should know all of these before going on to the next unit.

a (a) and, but apiN (otfim) one


B Ufit (fiyjteT) (it) will be CHAyu (naio) (some) tea chiTI/i (neTbipe) four DA (3a) yes da (30) to, up to, until: da syiDAqya good-bye DA Yji (naftTe) give PE§i} (aecJiTb) ten PEyij (jjeBJiTb) nine DVA CuBa) two







gaspapiN (rocnojjHH) gentleman; Mr. ga§pir}ica (rocTiunma) hotel gavafUji (roBopiiTe) speak GpE (rue) where grazhdalfIN (rpancjtaHHH) (male) citizen; Mr. graZHDANka (rpaHCftamca) (female) citizen; Mrs., Miss i (h) and i\i (hjih) or iVAnaf, ivaNOF (UnaHOB) Ivanov (family name) izyilflf i (H3BHHHTe) excuse (me) KAK (icaic) how

kaPEyik (KoneeK) kopeks karTOsliki (napTOinKH) potatoes KOfi (Ko JKeHy h fleTeh.

your children* at the station Are your children at the station?

Ivanov VAshi PEji na vagZAli vashi PEji na vagZA li?

Bairm p;eTH Ha B0K3ajie Baum p;eTH Ha B0K3ajie?

[they] told me that* your son in the army I’ve heard your son is in the army.

mrj,e skaZAli SHTO VASH SIN v ARryiiyi mt}e skaZAli shto vash SIN v ARipiyi.

my daughter small

Smith may a DOCH MAlirfyiy

e«y Ha B0K3ajI BcrpeTHTt

MHe CKa3ajiH HTO Bam cbih B apMHH MHe CKa3ajiii, hto





MOfl flOHb


*Not on the record. [2-A]


boy but my* older My daughter and my little boy are at the station.

MALchik NO MOY STARshiy may a DOCH i moy MA J^iqfyiy MALchik** na vagZAJi.

HO MOft CTapiHHH Mofl JJOHb H MOH MajieHbKHfi MajibHiiK Ha BOK3aJie.

My older son is in the army.

m6y STARshiy SIN v ARrjgiiyi.

Moil CTapiinm

you know You know, my son is in the army too.

vi ZNAyiJi vi ZNAyiJi, MOY SIN TO zhi v ARrjiiyi.

bbi 3HaeTe Bbi 3HaeTe, Mofi

his or to him furlough But he has a furlough.

u 7}iV0 OTpusk nd u i}iVO OTpusk.

y Hero OTnycK Ho y Hero OTnycK.


chh b


Ivanov cbih

TOJKe b apMHH.

Unit 2, Record Side 2, beginning. (78 RPM) Ivanov I’m going to the station too.

yd TO zhi YEdu na vagZAL.

H TOJKe e,n;y Ha BOK3aji.

him I want to meet him.

yiVO yd xaCHU yivo FSTpiEjip

ero H xouy ero BCTpeTHTb.

That’s fine.



Where’s your wife?

GpE vasha zhiNA?

Tue Baraa HteHa?


*Not on the record.



**Not usual. Ordinarily, simply MAT^chik instead of MAJ^ir^iy MA^chik.

she husband my daughter’s in the restaurant She and my daughter’s husband are in the restaurant.

Ivanov aNA MUSH or MUZH mayey DOchifi v fistaRAr^i aNA i MUZH mayey DOchifi v fistaRAqi.

OHa h MyjK Moefi ftouepa b pecTopaHe.

who? your daughter’s Who is your daughter’s husband?

Smith KTO vashiy DOchifi KTO MUSH vashiy DOchifi?

KTO Bamefi aouepii Kto MyjK Barneit jjouepn?

Mr. Ilyin.

Ivanov tavafishch ip YIN.

ToBapnip Hjibhh.

match Please give me a match.

SpiCIIku paZHALsta, DA Yji mye §PICHku.

cmiHKy IIojKajiyHCTa, RaiiTe MHe cmiuKy.

oh Oh, excuse me; I haven’t any matches.

Smith AX AX, izyilplji; u rjiiyd PJET §PIchik.

ax Ax, H3BiiHHTe; y MeHH HeT cmmeK.

nothing Never mind.

tfi chiVO eta 7}i chiVO.

3to HHuero.

What’s this to the right? The hotel?

Smith SHTO eta na PRAva? ga§piij,ica?

Tto bto HanpaBo? TocTHHima?

OHa MyjK Moeu jjouepu b pecTopaHe

Ivanov HHuero



Thanks, Mr. Ivanov.

Ivanov at vagZALa I$ET. ga§J'Ii}ica na pEva at vagZAla. Smith spa§Iba, grazhdaqin ivaNOF.

You’re welcome, Mr. Smith.

Ivanov paZHALsta, grazhdaqin SAPIT.

of the station No, the hotel is to the left of the station.

OT B0K3aJia HeT. TocTHHima HajieBO



Cnacndo, rpanmamiH IlBaHOB. IIoJKajiyiicTa, rpaJKnamm Cmht.

They arrive at the station. we my wife* We’re at the station, but my wife is not here.

Smith MI mayey zhiNI MI na vagZA\i, no mayey zhiNI &e§ IpET.

Moeii HceHti Mh Ha BOK3ajie, 3p,ecb HeT.

my son And my son isn’t either.

Ivanov mayivo SIna i ApET mayivo SIna.

Moero cbiHa H HeT Moero ctiHa.

Would you like some beer?

xaflji piva?




There’s the restaurant.**

Smith fistaRAN TAM.

PecTopaH TaM.


Smith XoTHTe miBa? Ivanov

*Not on the record. 34


**The English on the record is an error.


Moeii menu

Ivanov Fine!



Unit 2, Record Side 3, beginning. (78 RPM) In the restaurant. Miss, give me some beer, please.

1 want some beer too. And give me some matches, please.

Ivanov (to the waitress) graZHDANka, ddyji mqeflva. paZHALsta.

rpa^K,o,aHKa, .gaiiTe MHe imBa, nojKajiyucTa.

Smith yd TO zhi xachu piva.

JI TOJKe xouy rniBa.

Do you want a cigarette?

i DA Yji nvqe, paZHALsta, Spichik. (to Ivanov) xapji papiROsu?



H jtaiiTe MHe, nomajiyhcTa, cimneK.

XoTHTe namipocy?

Ivanov Cnacubo. Smith he knows Tell [me], does your son know you are here in the restaurant? he* me*

ZNAyit skaZHIJi, vash SIN ZNAyit shto vi ZPE§ v fistaRA t}i? ON mi ip A

(he) will meet Yes, he’ll meet me here.

Ivanov FSTpEjit DA. 6n miy}d FSTpEjit %,pE§.

3HaeT CKajKHTe,

Bam cmh





hto bh






*Not on the record. [2-A]


Oh, here’s my son!

AX, VOT moy SIN!


And here’s my wife too!

Smith a VOT i mayd zhiNA!



da syiDAtpya!

fto CBH^aHBH!

bot Moft cbih!

BOT II moh jKeHa!

Before you go through the Basic Sentences a second time, study the following:

2. Hints on Pronunciation To the Group Leader: The explanations preceding each Practice should be read by the group and discussed before the Practice is attempted. The practice for Hints on Pronunciation is in the Guide’s Manual and on the phonograph records. Follow the same procedure in working with the practice material that you have followed with the Basic Sentences. Go through as many times as may be necessary to give each member of the group reasonable control of the item of pronunciation that is being taught. Have the group repeat after the Guide, first in unison, then individually.

The Russian sounds p, t, k. The Russian sounds which we write with p, t, k in the Aids to Listening, are slightly different from English p, t, k as in pin, tin, kin. The Russian sounds have less of a puff of breath after them.

This difference is plainest at the beginning of a word. When English p, t, k have an 5 before them, as in spin, stone, skin, they do not have this puff of breath and are more like the Russian sounds

PRACTICE 1 Unit 2, Record Side 3, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) POD or POT paZHALsta TAM SHTO KAK KUship



noji; nojKajiyftcTa TaM HTO Kan


(33Vs RPM) Record Side 2, after 1st spiral. under please there what how to eat

Russian t, d, n, s, z. Russian t, d, n differ somewhat from English t, d, n, as in too, do, no. The Russian sounds are made with the tip of the tongue farther forward: the tip of the tongue presses against the backs of the upper front teeth.

Russian 5 and z are made with more force than English (as in see) and z (as in zero): the Russian 5 is more hissing and the Russian z more buzzing.


PRACTICE 2 Unit 2, Record Side 3, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) TO zhi Eta DA DVA SUpu SIN zaVUT ZNAyiJi NAS aNA


fla flea cyny CSIH 30ByT SHaeTe

Hac OHa

Palatal gt, 7}, $, ?. The palatal consonants }, $, q, §, ? are made like the plain consonants t, d, n, s, z, with the

also this yes two some soup son they call you know us she addition of the y-like effect caused by raising the middle of the tongue against the high part of the roof of the mouth.

PRACTICE 3 Unit 2, Record Side 3, after 3rd spiral. (78 RPM) TEM }iBA PEti

TeM Te6a AeTH

by that you children





cent cecTpa 3HMa 3ftecr>

HeT y Hero

Contrast of plain and palatal consonants. The plain consonants are not so very different from English sounds, but the palatal consonants sound quite odd to our ears, In the following exercise a word with a plain consonant sponding palatal consonant. Imitate the Guide or the record.

one seven sister winter here no of him, by him because there is a kind of y-sound mixed into them. Remember to get this effect by raising the middle of the tongue. is given first and then, after it, a word with the corre-

PRACTICE 4 Unit 2, Record Side 3, after 4th spiral. (78 RPM) TAM JEM DAYji PEji SIN §iSTRA ZA Ftra ziMA NAS E[ET 38


TaM TeM flaiiTe He™ CLIH

cecTpa 3aBTpa 3HMa Hac HeT

there by that give children son sister tomorrow winter us no


no a

PAT Blla TEZ faj,fl\iya KOfi VI


YE? MAsla If Asa

under five it was without family-name coffee you all butter meat

6bijio 6e3 (ftaMHJIHH KO(J)e

BBI Beet Macjio MHCO

If you are uncertain about any of the points of pro¬ nunciation which have been discussed, ask your Guide to repeat the words and phrases with which you are having trouble, and try to improve your pronunciation. Remember that these notes are only approximate and are at best an imperfect description of the sounds. When you are satisfied that you can pronounce fairly well all the sounds, go through the Basic Sentences once more in unison and with your book open. As you repeat

after your Guide, keep your eye on the Aids to Listen¬ ing, and note in particular the examples of the sounds discussed. Do not hesitate to ask your Guide to repeat if you are uncertain about any sound. Finally go through the Basic Sentences again, this time taking turns. Keep your book closed, listen care¬ fully to your Guide, and make sure that your pronun¬ ciation satisfied him.

3. Check Yourself Did you go through the Basic Sentences at least twice with your book open and then at least once with your book closed? Did you repeat each word and phrase immediately after hearing it in a loud, clear voice? Did you follow the pronunciation you heard even

if it seemed different from that shown in your book? Did you keep in mind the meaning of each word and phrase as you heard and spoke the Russian? If your Guide asked you to repeat, did you do so with enthusiasm and as many times as necessary until he was satisfied with what you were saying?



Section B—Word Study and

Review of



1. Word Study (Individual Study) If your group has time for outside assignments, do the Word Study between meetings of the group. Other¬ wise make it independent study in the group meeting. In this section we take up some of the words and expressions you have just learned and examine them to see how the language is built. First read the words and expressions in each list and make sure that you

understand the meaning of the Russian. Then read the comment which goes with each list. This should make clear to you just how the words function and how they are put together. If there are any points that are not clear to you, make note of them and ask other members of the group about them. Follow the same procedure with each list and each comment.

A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES kuDA vi ipOji? ‘Where are you going?’ The word used MUSH or MUZH‘husband.’ In slow, careful speech, here means going on foot. If Smith were going to the especially when saying the word all by itself for you to station on foot, he would answer yd iDU na vagZAL. hear plainly, many Russians will say MUZH. In ordi¬ But in the conversation here given, Smith is planning nary rapid speech it will mostly be MUSH. We shall to drive or to take a street car; therefore he answers learn more of this later. yd YEdu na vagZAL: the word used here means going u Tjivo OTpusk1 he is having a furlough’, literally ‘With (riding) in a vehicle or on the back of an animal. If Ivanov him [there is a] furlough’. The words for ‘me, him, her’, saw Smith sitting in an automobile or if he met him on and so on are as follows: a street car or in a train, he would ask kuDA vi YEfiji? ‘Where are you driving (or riding) to?’ me us you him her them



ipilfA NAS VAS yiVO yiYO YIX

MeHH Hac


ero ee HX

For example: Do you understand me? Do you understand us? I don’t understand you. Do you know him? Do you know her? Do you know them?

vi ipiyd payiMAyifi? vi nas payiMAyiJi? yd vas yi payiMAyu. vi yivo ZNAyiJi? vi yiyo ZNAyiJi? vi yix ZNAyiJi?

ivreHH noHHMaeTe? Hac noHHMaeTe? A Bac He noHHMaio. Bbi ero 3iiaeTe? Bbi ee 3HaeTe? Bbi Bbi




But after prepositions (with, for, in, and the like) these last three words begin with y instead of y: I have cigarettes. u yiiyd papiROsi. Y mohh naruipocbi. We have cigarettes. u nas papiROsi. Y Hac namipocti. Have you cigarettes? u vas papiROsi? Y Bac namipocbi? He has one rouble. u yivo apiN RUBf,. Y Hero o^hh pybjib. She has two roubles. u yiyo DVA ruBT^A. Y Hee HBa pybjiH. They have a furlough. u yix OTpusk. Y hhx oraycK. mye skaZAJi shto vash SIN v ARyiiyi ‘They have told me that your son is in the army’. The word SHTO will match several different English words. Here we use, in

English, the word ‘that’. We have met SIITO also where in English we say‘what’; for instance, SHTO vi xapiji? (or, simply, SHTO vi?) ‘What do you want?’

B. CASES Here’s my wife, too! I want to meet my wife there. My wife isn’t here.

VOT i maya zhiNA! yd tdm xachu FSTJlEjiJ niayii zhiNU. IfET mayey zhiNI.

Russian nouns (that is, words like station, match, wife, children) have different forms in different sentences; for instance, here we see zhiNA, zhiNU, zhiNI, all meaning

Bot h moh jKena!

H. TaM xony BCTpeTHTb moio nceHy. 3flecb HeT Moefi jKeHbi.

‘wife’. These different forms are called the case forms or cases of the noun. Notice that the difference between the case forms [2-BJ


appears at the end of the word. The parts which differ are called the endings, such as -a, -u, -i in our example. The different case forms of a noun have different endings. The part of the noun which comes before the endings is called the stem of the noun. Thus, in our example, the stem is zhin-. But how do we know which case form to use? The real answer is: we must imitate the Russian speakers. We must learn to talk as they talk. In the beginning we can do this only by memorizing a big stock of useful, com¬ mon sentences. Later on, this difficulty disappears and, for the most part, one instinctively uses the right case form. It may help, however, if we tell something about this

as we go along. The case form of a noun depends on the other words in the sentence. There are six cases. In this and the following Units we shall tell about the case forms of nouns and about the connections in which each one is used. What we tell about this may help you keep things straight. But it would be a mistake to spend time study¬ ing our statements or puzzling over them. Read them through and let it go at that. The important thing is to study the Russian sentences until you know them by heart and can say them without hesitation. Spend your time on the Russian sentences and not on the English explanations.

C. NOMINATIVE CASE Masculine nouns. Where is the station? It is here. Where is your son? He is there. Here’s our older son! My husband speaks Russian. It’s a big house. The Russian language is difficult. I have one rouble. This house is mine.



GpE vagZAL? ON ZPE§. GPE vdsh SIN? ON TAM. VOT nash STARshiy SIN! moy MUZH gavaRIT pa RUsfyi. balSHOY DOM. RUsfyiy yiZIK TRUdnay. u mi Ip A apiN RUBp. Etat DOM MOY.

r^e BOK3aji?

On 3,n,ecb. Bam cbih?

Oh TaM. Bot Ham

CTapmuff cbih !

Moh MyjK roBopiiT no-pyccKH. BoJIBUJOH ROM. PyCCKHII H3LIK Tpy^HBlft.

y MeHH

OflHH pydjTb.

9tOT ROM MOft.

Practice these sentences, covering first the English, and then the Russian. Then go through them and observe the following things. (1) The nouns in these sentences end in a consonant: vagZAL, SIN, MUZH, DOM (‘house’), yiZIK (‘tongue; language’), RUBp. (2) The word ‘it’ or ‘he’ referring to one of these nouns is ON. (3) The adjectives modifying or describing one of these nouns have the following forms: balSHOY (‘big’), TRUdnay (‘difficult’), STARshiy (‘older’), RUsfyiy, MOY, NASH (‘our’), VASH, Etat, apiN.

(4) All these words name or describe a person or thing that is somewhere or is some way or does something. All these words are in a case form which we call the Nominative. (5) The nouns in these sentences belong to a class called Masculine. They denote male persons and cer¬ tain things.

We have seen the following Masculine nouns. We give them here in the Nominative case. tea house gentleman, Mr. citizen little boy husband furlough restaurant rouble sugar son soup comrade

CHAY DOM gaspapiN grazhdalpIN MAPchik MUSH, MUZH OTpusk /istaRAN RUBP SAxar SIN SUP ta VA/ishch

nail AOM rocnoAHH rpaacAaHHH MajIBUHK MyjK OTnycK pecTopaH pyfijib caxap CBIH cyn TOBapmg [2—B]


station bread language



xjie6 H3MK

Feminine nouns. Where is the hotel?

GpE ga§J~h}ica?

F^e rocTHHnn;a?

It is here.


OHa 33,eci>.

Where is your daughter?

GpE vasha DOCHka?

r«e Barna AouKa?

She is there.


OHa Tain.

Here’s our older daughter!

VOT nasha STARshiya DOCHka!

Bot Hama CTapman AOHKa!

My wife speaks Russian.

maya zhiNA gavaJUT pa R Usfyi.

Moh meHa roBopiiT no-pyccKH.

It’s a big hotel.

balSTIAya ga§Jh}ica.

Eojiumaa rocTimiipa.

This work is difficult.

Eta raBOta TRUdnaya.

3tu paSoTa TpyAHaa.

I have one cigarette.

u midp A aDNA papiROsa.

Y Mena OAHa namipoca.

Practice these sentences, covering first the English, and then the Russian. Then go through them and observe the following things. (1) The nouns in these sentences end in -a: ga§pit}ica, DOCHka (‘daughter’),zhiNA,raBOta (‘ work’),papiROsa. (2) The word ‘it’ or ‘she’ referring to one of these nouns is aNA. (3) The adjectives modifying or describing one of these nouns have the following forms: ba\SHAya (‘big’), TRUdnaya (‘difficult’), STARshiya (‘older’), maYA, NAsha (‘our’), VAsha, Eta, aDN A.



(4) All these words name or describe a person or thing that is somewhere or is some way or does something. All these words are in their Nominative case form. (5) The nouns in these sentences belong to a class called Feminine. They denote female persons and cer¬ tain things.

We have seen the following Feminine nouns. We list them here in the Nominative case form: army Alhyiiya apMHH daughter DOCHka flomca hotel ga§J'Ii}ica rocTHHima (female) citizen graZHDANka rpatf^aHKa kopek kaPE Yka Koneima potatoes kar TOshka KapTouiKa cigarette papiROsa nannpoca work raBOta paboTa match SpiCIIka cnii'iKa water vaDA BOfla wife zhiNA jKeHa Neuter nouns. Where is our butter? GpE nasha MAsla? Tn,e Harne Macjio? It is here. aNO ZPE§. Oho 33,eci». Here it is! VOT aNO! Bot oho! This is good butter. Eta, xaROshiya MAsla. 9to — xopomee Macjio. Where is my letter? GpE mayo pi§MO? r^e Moe imcbMo? [Is it a] Russian letter? RUskaya pi§MO? PyccKoe micbMo? One letter is here. ZPE§ aDNO pi§MO. 3«ecL. oflHO hhcbmo. [Is] this letter yours? eta pi§MO VAsha? 9to imcbMo Bame? One word, please! aDNO SLOva, paZHALstal 0,o,ho cjiobo, nojKajiyncTa 1 balSHOya ZDAqiya. [It’s a] big building. Bojibmoe B^amie. Here’s some cold milk! VOT xaLOdnaya malaKOl Bot xojio^Hoe mojioko ! How much does this milk cost? SKOpka STOyit eta malaKO? CKOJIbKO CTOHT 3TO MOJIOKO? [2-B]

Practice these sentences, covering first the English and then the Russian. Then go through them and observe the following things. (1) The nouns in these sentences end in -0 when the ending is stressed: malaKO, pi§MO (‘letter’); when the ending is not stressed, it is -a: MAsla, ZDAqiya (‘build¬ ing’), SLOva (‘word’). (2) The word ‘it’ referring to one of these nouns is aNO. (3) The adjectives modifying or describing one of these nouns have the following forms: ba\SHOya (‘big’),

xaLOdnaya (‘ cold’), xaROshiya (‘good’), R Uskaya, ma YO, NAsha (‘our’), VAsha, Eta, aDNO. (4) All these words name or describe something which is somewhere or is some way or does something. They are in their Nominative case form. (5) The nouns in these sentences belong to a class called Neuter. They denote various things.

We have seen the following Neuter nouns. We give them here in their Nominative case form: milk meat butter letter beer word building

malaKO AfAsa MAsla pi§MO PIva SLOva ZDAqiya


mhco Macao micbMo IIIIBO

CJI0B0 3ji;aHHe

Plural nouns. Where are my cigarettes? Your cigarettes are here. Here they are, here! Our little boys understand Russian. I have the matches.



GpE mayi papiROsi? vdshi papiROsi ZDE§. VOT aiji ZPE§! nashi MAPchiki paqiMAyut pa RUsl}i. SpiCIIJ}i u milpA.

r,ye moii namipocbi? Baum namipocbi 3p;ecb. Bot ohii 3flecb! Hainn MajibHHKH no-pyccKH. CmiHKii y MeHH.


These young people are Russian. Where are our wives? Here are some big buildings! These letters are mine. No, they are not yours, they are ours. Russian words are difficult.

eji malaDlya pUtji, RUsfyiya. GpE nashi ZHOni? VOT balSHIya ZDAqiya! eji pi§ma ma YI. jyET; aqi qi VAshi; ayi NAshi.

3th MOJioAt-ie jnoftH — pyccKHe. Tp;e HaiHH jKeHti? BOT SojIblHHe 3flaHHH !

RUsfyiya slaVA TRUdniya.

PyccKHe cjiOBa Tpy,n;HBie.

3th micBMa moh.



He Baum,

ohh Hanna.

Practise these sentences, covering first the English and then the Russian. Then go through them and observe the following things. (1) The nouns in these sentences are Plural; they ZD A ?}iya—ZD A 7}iya (building—buildings) mean more than one person or thing. A Singular noun Those Plural nouns which match a Neuter Singular means one person or thing. Each Plural noun matches noun have the ending -A in the Nominative Plural. The some one of the Singular nouns which we have been accent is often on different syllables in the Singular and studying: in the Plural. MAPchik—MAPchifyi (little boy—little boys) (2) The word‘they’, referring to a Plural noun, is aiyi. papiROsa—papiROsi (cigarette—cigarettes) (3) The adjectives modifying Plural nouns have the SpiCHka—SpiCIIJp (match—matches) following forms: malaDlya (‘young ones’), bajSHIya zhiNA—ZHOni (wife—wives) (‘big ones’), TRUdniya (‘difficult ones’), RUsfyiya (‘Rus¬ Those Plural nouns which match a Masculine or sian ones, Russians’), maYI, NAshi, VAshi, Eji. Feminine Singular noun have the ending -i in the Nomi¬ (4) All the Plural forms in our sentences name or native case. Before this ending, the sound k is replaced describe persons or things which are somewhere or are by palatal l}. Some accent different syllables in the some way or are doing something. These Plural nouns are Singular and in the Plural. There is no Singular in every¬ all in their Nominative case form. day speech corresponding to £/E§ v yistaRA qi. vi xajiji FSTpEpp yiyo?


da syiDAqya, graZHDANka. Anna:

da syiDAyya.

Unit 2, Record Side 4. after 1st spiral. (78 RPM J 2. Smith and Ivanov have a couple of beers. Smith: ZDRAstvuyji taVAyishch! Ivanov:

ZDRAstvuyji! KAK VI?


xaraSHO, spa§Iba.



Waitress: ZDRA stvuyji! SIITO xapiji?

YA xachu piva. a VI?


YA xachu piva, paZHALsta, i Spichik.


YA TO zhi. YE§P yistaRAN na fEva?

paZHALsta, DAYji mye TO zhi piva. a KAK vasha zhiNA, taV Ayishch?


xaraSHO, spa§Iba. vi ZNAy ip shto MUZH moyey DOchiyi ?PE$?


DA. xapiji papiROsu?



DA. spa§Iba..


izyilflji; u ryiitya IfET Spichik.



tpi chi VO. ZDE§ yistaRAN.

DA. a GpEvdsh-SIN? on TO zhi Zi>E§. [2-D]



ON ?ji v ARryiiyi?

Waitress: chij'lyi piva, apiN RUB'f,.


DA, no u qivo OTpusk.



xaraSHO. graZHDANka! SKOfka eta STOyit?

da syiDA qya. Ivanov and Smith: da syiDAyya.

Unit 2, Record Side 4, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) 3. A stranger asks directions from Green. Stranger: ZDRAstvuyJi taVA/ishch! vi paqiMAyiJi pa RUsfyi? Green:

DA, yd paqiMAyu: no pazhalsta gavaJUji AfEd\inna.

Stranger: vi skaZA\i shto eta gafRIryica? eta t}i ga.fJ'Djica. eta vagZAL. Green:

paZIIALsta, paftaRIji.

Stranger: vi ZNAyiji gfe uBORnaya?

Stranger: eta vagZAL, r}i ga^J'Itj.ica.



DA. v gaff'Iryici ye§j uBORnaya.

vagZAL na fEva, a ga§fD}ica na fEva at vagZAla.

Stranger: GRE gafRDjica?

Stranger: AX, izyiiflji paZHALsta.



gafflyica na fEva at vagZAla.

Is there any word or phrase in these conversations that you do not understand now? If there is, be sure to find out its meaning by asking members of your group or looking it up in the Basic Sentences. Go through the conversations again following the same plan as before. Imitate carefully and keep in mind the meaning of everything you are saying in Russian. Finally go through the conversations a third time. 56


eta i}i chiVO.

Take turns speaking the parts and continue until every¬ body has had a chance to speak at least one of the parts. Keep this exercise going as long as you have time. Get the most out of this individual performance and when your turn comes, speak clearly and with feeling. The Guide will correct any errors he hears by asking you to repeat. Make every effort to satisfy him with your pronunciation.



1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Go back to the Basic Sentences of this unit. Cover up the Russian. Read the English silently and test your¬ self to see how many words and phrases you can say in Russian. Check the words you are uncertain about and after you have gone through the whole list, uncover the Russian and review them. Go through the list once more and continue for at least three times or until you can give the Russian readily for all the expressions. This

test is hard, but if you succeed in saying the Russian for all the sentences by merely looking at the English, you are doing well indeed. To make sure of this, after you are certain you know the material, pick out expres¬ sions at random and see if you can still speak the Rus¬ sian quickly. As you practice, you must always speak the Russian aloud and try to imitate the pronunciation of your Guide as well as you can recall it.

2. Vocabulary Check-Up To the Group Leader: Go to the Basic Sentences. Read to the group the English equivalents of the Russian expressions. Call on different students, not in any fixed order, asking for the correct Russian for the English. This check-up is to be conducted in the same way as the Vocabulary Check-Up of Section E 2 of Unit 1. If you have any question about the proper procedure, review the note To the Group Leader in that section. Remember not to spend any time talking about the why of the Russian; stick to the how.

In this section you are going to have your second chance to engage in conversation in Russian. Remember that this is the most useful part of your study. There¬ fore, you should make the greatest effort to do this part as well as you possibly can. Get perfectly clear what you are to do and then plunge into it with enthusiasm. Before you begin the conversation, check yourself on your ability to speak the Russian you have learned up to this point. As in the Vocabulary Check-Up of Unit 1,

the leader of the Group will ask you to supply in turn the Russian expressions for the English equivalents which he reads from the Basic Sentences. Figure out how to say the Russian for each English phrase or sen¬ tence whether it is your turn to speak or not. Only in this way can you get the most value out of the Check- Up. If there is much of the Russian which you don’t know, review the Basic Sentences at the first opportunity out¬ side of the group meeting.

3. Conversation To the Group Leader: This section represents the real purpose of the entire unit. The course is intended to teach you to speak Russian and to understand it when you hear it spoken. Follow the instructions and give all the time you can to free conversation practice. Any members of the group who have special difficulty recalling the Russian words



and phrases they need to express a meaning should be told to do more work with the Useful Words and Phrases and Basic Sentences. They need, in particular, more practice in covering the Russian and recalling it when they read the English. Practice in getting the meaning of the Listening In records will also help. Arrangements should be made for students to play and listen to the records whenever they can between meetings of the group. Then turn to the outlined conversations which follow. Assign parts and ask the students to act them out. Vary the situations and suggest to the students that they vary the Russian slightly as they gain confidence in their speaking. Remember to keep the speaking loud enough so that everyone can hear. See that everyone is listening and trying to understand the Russian that is being spoken.

The Leader reproduce the Act your part. if you are sure

will assign parts and will ask you to conversational situations which follow. Don’t be afraid to vary the conversation of your Russian and use the Russian you

have learned in Unit 1 as well as that of Unit 2. Con¬ tinue this practice until everyone can speak any part of the conversations even though slight changes in the situations are introduced.

Two friends meet, A asks B if he’d like a beer. B asks where there is a restaurant. A tells him where there is one (to the right or left of the hotel, station, etc.). B says he is driving to the station to meet his daughter’s husband, and asks where A is headed for. A says he is going to the hotel to the right of the station. They go off together. 2. At the station the daughter’s husband is not there. They go into the restaurant and the waitress asks what they want. They order beer and cigarettes. B asks A about his family. A says his wife and little boy are getting on fine; his older son is in the army. B says his daughter’s husband is in the army but he has a furlough. He calls the waitress and asks

‘How much?’ She says two beers and cigarettes are one rouble. They pay, she thanks them and say goodbye. 3. A boy and girl meet. He asks her if she’d like some¬ thing to eat. She accepts. They go to a restaurant and the waitress asks what they want. The girl orders tea and bread and butter; the boy orders milk, meat, and potatoes. The waitress is hard of hearing and asks if she wants meat or butter. The boy says to give him some meat and the girl says she wants butter. The waitress asks him to repeat, and he repeats the whole order. She thanks him and leaves.

Throw yourself into these conversations. Do the best you can with pronunciation and with the Russian, but don’t worry too much about mistakes. Think more of acting your part and speaking smoothly and as though

you must mean what you are saying. The Guide will help you correct your errors. If you can do this wrork well, it means that you are actually conversing in Russian, and that is your chief aim in this course.






Read again the instructions given in Section F of the preceding unit. Then continue the conversations which you started in Section E of this unit (2). Take every opportunity between now and the next meeting of the group to try out your Russian on other



members of the group or on native speakers around you. Carry on conversations with them whenever you get a chance. Ask questions. At this stage of the game, don’t try to use phrases or sentences which are different from those you have learned thus far in this course.

FINDER LIST This is a complete alphabetical list of all the words and expressions used in this unit which are in any way new or unusual. The conventional spelling is enclosed in parentheses after each entry. From now on we shall not repeat words which have been drilled sufficiently in previous units. This list is for reference only, but you should know all these before going on to the next unit.

aNA, aiyi, aNO, see ON ARrpiiya (apMHfl) army; v ARtpiiyi in the army at (ot) from, of; na PRAva at vagZALa to the right of the station AX (ax) oh!

FSTREjiJ (BCTpeTHTb) to meet FSTpEj.it (BCTpeTHT) he will meet ipOji (HAeTe) you are going (on foot) iDU (HAy) I am going (on foot) ipYIN (Hjilhh) Ilyin (family name)

balSHOY (Sojimuoh) big

KTO (kto) who kuDA (icyAa) whereto pUjli (jiioah) people

chiVO (nero) of what: ipi chiVO (HHHero) nothing; it’s nothing; never mind PEji (nera) children; FSTJUEjiJ (jiJX Y (ahtch) to meet the children DOCH (AOHb) daughter; DOCHi/i (Aonepn) daughters; MUSH mayey DOchifi (Aonepn) my daughter’s husband DOCHKA (AOHKa) daughter DOM (aom) house; daMA (AOMa) houses

malaDOY (mojioaoh) young MAl^chik (MajibHHK) boy MAJinfyiy (iviajieHbKHH) small MI (mm) we MOY (mom) my MUSH, MUZH (MyjK) husband; muZHYA (MyjKbfl) husbands [2-F]


NA (Ha) on, at NAS (Hac) us, u NAS we have NASH (Ham) our qiVO, tylX, i}iYO, see yiVO NO (ho) but ON (oh) he, it; aNA (oHa) she, it; aNO (oho) it; oiy/ (ohh) they OTpusk (oTnycK) furlough pi§MO (nncbMo) letter; pi§ma (nncbMa) letters RUsfyiy (pyccKHH) Russian SIN (cmh) son; sanay YA (cbiHOBbu) sons skaZHIJi (cKaJKHTe) tell SLOva (cjiobo) word; sla VA (cjiOBa) words STARshiy (cTapuinii) older TRUdnay





V (b) in; v yistaRArj-i in the restaurant VAS (Bac) you; u VAS you have VASH (Barn) your xaLODnay (xoJioftHbifi) cold xaROshiy (xopouniH) good YEytiji (ejjeTe) you are riding or driving, YEdu (e^jy) I am riding or driving yiVO (ero) him; u qiVO (y Hero) he has YIX (hx) them; u J^IX (y hhx) they have yiYO (ee) her; u qiYO (y Hee) she has yiZIK (H3biK) tongue, language; yizilyl (H3biKH) languages ZDAt}iya (3aainie) building zhiNA (yKena) wife; ZHOni (aceHbi) wives ZNAyit (3HaeT) knows ZNAyiji (3HaeTe) you know

UNIT MEETING PEOPLE Section A—Basic Sentences To the Group Leader: R^ad carefully the note to the Leader in Section A of Unit 2. Then go through the Basic Sentences once, and take up the Hints on Pronunciation. Go through the Basic Sentences at least twice more individually, paying especial attention to pronunciation.

Go through the Basic Sentences, in unison, in the same way you did for Section A of the preceding unit. Be sure to put plenty of life into your repetition of the sentences. After you have gone through the Basic Sen¬ tences once in unison and have done the Hints on Pro¬

nunciation, come back to the Basic Sentences. Pay par¬ ticular attention to the points of pronunciation you have just been working on and go through the sentences at least twice more individually.

1. Basic Sentences Mrs. Smith meets the Ilyins and they talk about their friends.



Unit 3, Record Side 1, beginning. (78 RPM)

CONVENTIONAL SPELLING (33Ys RPM) Record Side 3, beginning.

Mrs. Smith PEvushku grazhdanka if, YIN,* vi ZNAyiji etu PEvushku? Mrs. Ilyin pfi YA filr/ica (female) friend DA; aNA pjiYAplrpica mayivo Yes, she’s one of my son’s friends. SIna. *Not usual. The wife or daughter of Mr. if,YIN is commonly called i\yiNA.


Mrs. Ilyin, do you know that girl?

«e ByuiKy Tpan^aHKa Hjibhh, bbi 3HaeTe 3Ty Ae ByuiKy? npuHTejiBHima

OHa npiiHTejibHima Moero ctma.



you* with her to make acquainted, to introduce** I

want to make you acquainted with her.**

Bac c Hen n03HaK0MHTB

VAS s ApEY paznaKOiyii}

yd xaCHUvds s E}EY paznaKOrpi}.


xony Bac c Hen no3HaKOMHTB.

Mrs. Smith that or this young person Who is the young man with her?

Etat malaDO Y chilafEK KTO etat maladoy chilaYEK s ?yey?

brother It’s her older brother.

BRAT Eta yiyo stdrshiy BRA T.

with what he is occupied or is busy What does he do?

CTIEM zaqiMAyitsa CHE Ad on zarj-iMAyitsa?

doctor He’s a doctor.

DOKtar ON, DOKtar.

3TOT MOJiopoii uejroBeK Kto 3tot MOJiojton uejiOBeK c Hen?

Mrs. Ilyin 3to

6paT ee CTapiinm 6paT.

Mrs. Smith ueM 3amiMaeTCH HeM oh 3aHiiMaeTCH?

Mrs. Ilyin

*Not on the record. 62


**The English on the record is an error.

ROKTOp Oh aoktop.

sister (female) teacher English (of) language His sister is an English teacher.

my boys (she) speaks in English My boys told me chat she speaks English well.

Please introduce me to ner.

$iSTRA uCHItifyica anGI^IYskava yiziKA yivo §iSTRA, uCHIjifyica anGT^I Yskava yiziKA. mayi MAI^chityi gavaJUT pa anGI^IYsfyi mayi MAl^chifyi mye skaZAft shto and xaraSHO gavaJHT pa anGI^I Ys\i. paZHALsta, paznaKOAJJi mi?}d s iyEY.

cecTpa yuiiTenbHim.a

aHrjiHticKoro H3LIKa Ero cecTpa -— yuHTejitHinja aHrjmfiCKoro H3t>iKa. MOII MajIBHHKH

TOBOpiIT no-aurjiHHCKii Moh MajiBuiiKii MHe CKasajiH, hto OHa

xopouio roBopiiT no-aHrjiHHCKH.

IIojKajiyHCTa, no3r.aKOMi.Te MeHH c Hen.

Mrs. Smith wait for my husband I want to wait for my husband.

He doesn’t know that I’m here.

padaZHDA f mayivo MUzha yd xachu padaZHDA T mayivo MUzha. on rj,i ZNAyit shto yd %pE§.


Moero Myjna H xouy noAoncflaTb Moero Mynca.

Oh ne 3HaeT; hto h 3,n;ecB.

Unit 3, Record Side 3, beginning. (78 RPM) Mrs. Smith them Your husband knows them too?

YIX vdsh MUSH yix TO zhi ZNAyit?

HX Bam Mym iix Tonce 3HaeT? [3—A]


Mrs. Ilyin

Yes, they work together in the hospital.

v ApEpi raBOtayut v GOspita\i DA; cityi v ApEpi raBOtayut v GOspita\i.

BMecTe paboTaiOT b rocmiTajie a, ohh BMecTe paboTaioT rocmiTajie.

Here’s my husband, there, on the right!

VOT moy MUSH; TAM, na PRAva!

Bot Mon MyjK, TaM HanpaBO!

together (they) work in the hospital*

hello (familiar)* Boris (man’s name)* Hello, Boris!

ZDRA stvuy baJUS ZDRA stvuy baJUS!



Bopnc 3fi,paBCTByii, Bopnc!

Mr. Ilyin Vera (woman s name;* Hello, Vera!

YEra ZDRA stvuy YEra!

Bepa 3ApaBCTByfi, Bepa!

Mrs. Ilyin you (familiar) (you) know (familiar) Do you know Mrs. Smith? you (familiar)


ZNAyish ti ZNAyish grazhdanku SAJIT? tip A

I want you to meet her (‘ I want to make you acquainted with her’).

yd xaCHU tipa s PJE Y paznaKOifiit.

Mrs. Smith—my husband.

tjiiyis SAP IT; mdy MUSH.

*Not on the record. 64



3Haenib Tbi 3Haemb rpajK^aHKy Cmht? Te6a H xony Te6a c Hefi no3HaKOMHTb. Mhcchc Cmht — moh My?K .

very pleasant* Very pleased to meet you (‘Very pleasant’).

Mr. Ilyin Ochiq priYAtna Ochiq pfiYAtna.

oneHB npiIHTHO OueHb npHHTHO.

Mrs. Smith How do you do, Mr. Ilyin!

ZDRAstvuyji, grazhdaqin


3flpaBCTByiiTe, rpa}Kp;aHHH Hjibhh!

Mrs. Ilyin (he) wants (with the) sister (of) Dr. Ivanov to get acquainted** Mrs. Smith wants to meet Dr. Ivanov’s sister.

XOchit s §iSTROY doktara ivaNOva paznaKOipitsa grazhdanka SAP IT xochit paznaKOrpitsa s §iSTROY DOKtara ivaNOva.

xoueT c cecTpoii AOKTopa IlBaHOBa n03HaK0MHTBCH

rpajKjjaHKa KOMHTbCH

Cmiit xoueT C cecTpoii



Mr. Ilyin they Where are they?


alp I a GpE aqi?


r^e ohh?

Mrs. Ilyin (he) went away to the hospital** She is in the restaurant, but he went off to the hospital. *The English on the record is an error.

uSHOL v GOspital aNA v fistaRAqi, a ON uSHOL v GOspital.

yrneji b rocmiTajib OHa








**Not on the record. [3—A]


to drink Would you like [something] to eat or drink?

Mr. Ilyin PIT vi xajip PIT ip KUshij?

let’s go Good; let’s go into the restaurant.

Mrs. Ilyin mi xaJIM mi xaj-im CHAyu ip KOfi, spa§Iba. Mr. Ilyin paypOMji xaraSHO. paypOMp v fistaRA N.

What do you want?

Waitress SHTO vi xapiji?

(we) want We’d like some tea or coffee, thank you.

miTb Bbi xoTHTe miTb iijih KyinaTb?


Mbi xothm uaio hjiii KO(J)e, cnacnoo.

nokfleMTe Xoporno, noiiAeMTe b pecTopaH. B^TO



Unit 3, Record Side 2, beginning. (78 RPM) to us Bring us some tea, please.

Mrs. Ilyin NAM DA Yji nam CHAyu, paZHALsta.

I want some milk and sugar, please.

Mrs. Smith YA xachu malaKA i SAxaru, paZHALsta.

All right.


we’ll meet We’ll meet Miss Ivanov at the hospital.

Mrs. Ilyin FSTpEjim mi FSTpEpm grazhdanku ivaNOvu v GOspitap.


JfaiiTe HaM uaio, nojKajiyitcTa.

A xony MOJioKa h caxapy, no/KajiyncTa.




Xopomo. BCTpeTHM Mbi BCTpeTHM rpaiKjiaHKy IlBaHOBy b rocmiTajie.

we’ll go* with you (familiar) there (‘to that place’) We’ll go there with you.

mi payPOM s taBO Y tuDA mi payPOM tuDA s UiBOY.

Mli notrpeM Ty^a c to6oh.

Dr. Ivanov is there too.

DOKtar ivaNOF TO zhi TAM.


Here’s our tea.

Mrs. Smith VOT ndsh CHA Y.

Bot Hanx uau.

It’s so nice to meet you here!

kdk p/iYAtna FSTftEji} vas %PE§!

Kan npuHTHO BCTperaTL Bac 3Heci!

with me My husband and children aren’t with me, you know.

They are in the hospital.

sa MNOY vi ZNAyiji, MUSH i PEji qi sa MNOY. Mrs. Ilyin GpE ani? Mrs. Smith ai}i v GOspita\i.

too bad (we) knew Too bad!



No; we didn’t know.

F[ET; mi i}i ZNA\i.

HeT, mli He 3HajiH.

Excuse me;


Where are they?

mli noifijeM c Toboii


CO MHO# Bli 3HaeTe, MyjK h ,n;eTH He co mhoh.

rp,e OHH? Ohh b rocmiTajie.

Mr. Ilyin JKaJIKO 3HajIH

Mr. Ilyin H3BHHHTe;

*Not on the record. [3-A]


I’m going to the hospital,

yd idu v GOspita}.

to go or come* Would you like to come with me?

payTI xa'flji pay'll sa MNOY?


Mrs. Ilyin xaraSHO; mi payPOM v ApE§p.

Xopouio, mbi noiijteM

Good; we’ll go together. *Not on the record.

H H;ny b rocmiTajifc. nOHTH


Before you go through the Basic Sentences a second time study the following:

2. Hints on Pronunciation 1. Palatal, ft, g, y. The palatal sounds 1$, g, y occur only before the vowels e and i, and never in any other position. The plain consonants ft, g, x never occur before e and i. No such rule will hold good for the other consonants. Whether a consonant (other than k, g, x) is plain or palatal does not depend on the sound that comes after it. It depends simply on what word is being spoken. Thus, we have PAP ‘five’, but PAT in vadaPAT ‘waterfall’. vagZAL: vagZAli ‘station: stations’: the i has no effect on the l; MAPchik: MAPchifti ‘boy: boys’: when the i is added the k becomes palatal ft.



Bbl MbI


Now carefully and vigorously imitate the Guide or the record.


Unit 3, Record Side 3, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) VI MI

Compare also: vagZAli ‘stations’, with plain l before i; na vagZAp ‘at the station’, with palatal l before i. 2. The vowel i after plain consonants. Remember that Russian f after a plain consonant has a special sound; to our ears it sounds queer and muffled. This effect is got by drawing the tongue back, almost as though one were gagging. The muffled effect comes out clearest after P, b, v; for instance, the words MI ‘we’ and VI ‘you’ sound almost as they were MWI, VWI.

(3314 RPM) Record Side 3 after 1st spiral. you we

Blla TI vaDI SIN yiZIK zhiNI VAshi Riba

6mjio TbI BOABI CblH H3BIK JKeHhl Baum


3. Russian i. Remember that Russian i at the begin¬ ning of a word or after a palatal consonant sounds like the i in machine, only shorter. We now give some practice on this sound, contrasting


it was you (familiar) some water son language (my) wife's your fish it with the sound of i after plain consonants. Listen to the way your Guide (or the speaker on the record) says these sounds. Repeat each word right after him, imitat¬ ing him as well as you can.


Unit 3, Record Side 3, after 2nd spiral. C78 RPM) a If I vaDI filva VI YIX TI xa T Ifi MI pa anGlflYs^i SIN


they some water beer you them you (familiar) you want we in English son [3-A]


izyiiflji zhiNI paftaRlti yiZIK ga§J'hjici uCHItilnici §iSTRI


noBTopiiTe H3BIK rOCTHHHpbl yHHTejibHHn,bi


4. Russian o and u. The Russian o resembles our vowel in four and the Russian u resembles our vowel in pull. Still there is a big difference. The way a Russian makes these sounds is especially noticeable if he uses them in speaking English imperfectly. The Russian vowels o and u are made with rounded lips; this is the main cause of

excuse {me) {my) wife's repeat language hotels {woman) teachers {my) sister's their peculiar sound. English spoken with Russian vowels is hard to understand; Russian spoken with English vowels may be quite unintelligible. Therefore practise carefully on Russian o and u. Notice that Russian o never occurs unstressed. Now imitate as well as you can.

PRACTICE 3 Unit 3, Record Side 4, beginning. (78 RPM) KTO VOT DOCII ON T VO Y SKOT^ka STOyit RUBf, SUpu MUSH, MUZH




flout oh TBoif ckojibko ctoht

pybjib cyny My>K

who here it is daughter he, it your {familiar) how much it costs rouble some soup husband

pa RUsfyi KUshij

in Russian to eat



Now go through the Basic Sentences once more indi¬ vidually, and with your book open. As you repeat after your Guide, keep your eyes on the Aids to Listening and note in particular the examples of the sounds discussed. Again do not hesitate to ask your Guide to repeat if you are uncertain about any sound.

Finally, go through the Basic Sentences at least once again individually. Keep your book closed, listen care¬ fully to your Guide and make sure that your pronuncia¬ tion satisfies him.

3. Check Yourself Can you make a clear difference between plain and palatal consonants? Can you pronounce the Russian vowels?

Are you sure that you make them good and short and never drawl them?

Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences

1. Word Study (Individual Study) As in Section B1 of Unit 2, read the words and expres¬ sions in each list and make sure that you understand the meaning of the Russian. Then read the comments

which follow each list. When you have finished the Word Study ask other members of the group about points which are not clear to you.

A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES Familiar you. Mr. and Mrs. Ilyin in talking to each other use the intimate word 7Y‘you’ instead of VI. In talking to a near relative or a very intimate friend, Russians use this pronoun TI. They also use it in talk¬ ing to a child or to any non-human being, such as a dog or horse. In talking to two or more such persons or beings,

they always use VI. You will have occasion to use the word TI only if you talk to a child—or if you get very intimate with Russian people, and by the time you do that, you won’t need this book any longer. When one says TI one also uses TVOY‘your’ instead of VASH. The verbs, too, are different: ZDRAstvuy



‘hello’ (literally ‘be well’) instead of ZDRAstvuyji; XOchish ‘you want’ instead of xafllji; ZNAyish ‘you know’ instead of ZNAyiji. The word TVOY takes the same endings as MOY. v AflEfli means ‘together’, but AfEsta means ‘place’: VOT vam MEsta ‘ here is a place (or seat) for you’. Hence v AflEfli literally means ‘in [the or a] place’. Different languages say things in entirely different ways. Reflexive ending. We see in the Basic Sentences that paznaKOipij means ‘ to make (someone) acquainted (with someone); to introduce (someone to someone)’. For inThat is not said (One doesn’t say it that way). We’ll meet him. We’ll meet (each other) at the station. I feel like drinking, (the usual way of saying ‘ I’m thirsty'). Do you feel like eating? (that is: ‘Are you hungry?’)

stance yd xachu paznaKO-ryiij vas s mayim BRAtarn ‘I want to make you acquainted with (introduce you to) my brother’. The longer word paznaKOijiitsa means ‘to get ac¬ quainted (with someone); to be introduced (to someone)’. For instance: yd xachu paznoKOyiitsa s vdshim BRAtam ‘I want to get acquainted with (to be introduced to) your brother’. The syllable -sa or -§a tacked on to the end of a verb is called the reflexive ending. It has many different mean¬ ings. For instance:

Eta qi gavaJUTsa.


mi yivo FSTREjim. mi FSTRRjimsa na vagZAli.

Mhi ero BCTpeTiiM. Mbi BCTpeTHMca na

mrj,e xochitsa fll fl.


vdm xochitsa K Uship?

BaM xoueTca KymaTb?




After a vowel the reflexive ending is shorter: -§ or -5: Get acquainted with Mr. Ivanov. With what are you busying yourself?

paznaKOryifl§ s gaspapiinam ivaNOvam. CHEAP vi zai}iAIAyi}i§?

IIo3HaKOMi>Tecb c rocnojqraoM IlBaHOBBiM. TIeM bbi .samiMaeTecb?

New nouns. Here are the Nominative case forms, Singular and Plural, of the new nouns in the Basic Sentences. 72


Masculine: baJUS (Boris, man’s given name; no Plural) BRAT—BRAjya (brother—brothers) chilayEK (person, man; no Plural) DOktar—daktaRA (doctor—doctors) GOspital—GOspita\i (hospital—hospitals)

Feminine: PEvushka—pEvushfyi (girl—girls) ppi YAjifyica—p/i YAjifyici (friend—friends, female) pSTRA—§Ostri (sister—sisters) uCIIIjilqica—uCHIJilyici (teacher—teachers, female) yEra (Vera, woman’s given name; no Plural)

Notice that the Plural Nominatives BRAjya and Neuter: daktaRA have the irregular ending -a. The word BRAT lyEsta—rpiiSTA (place, seat—places, seats) has a longer stem brajy- in the Plural. B. GENITIVE CASE Masculine and Neuter nouns. She is the sister of my friend. aNA, §iSTRA mayivo taVApishcha. OHa — cecTpa Moero TOBapuma. Give me a glass of milk. DA Yji mi}e staKAN malaKA. /JaiiTe MHe CTanaH MOJioKa. Observe that the words taVApishcha, malaKA are used like English phrases with the word ‘of’: ‘of my friend’, ‘of milk’. Observe that these two Russian words have the ending -a. This case form is called the Genitive. Masculine nouns



Neuter nouns (malaKO) have the ending -a in the Genitive case form.

Feminine nouns. He is the brother of my wife. on BRAT mayey zhiNI. Give me a glass of water. DA Yji rmpe staKAN vaDI. Feminine nouns have the ending -i in the Genitive case form. She is the sister of my friends. She is the teacher of our children.

Plural nouns. and §iSTRA mayix taVApishchiy. and uCUIjelt}ica nashix ^LifEY.

Oh — 6paT Moett JKeHbi. ^aiiTe MHe CTanaH boabi.

OHa — cecTpa moiix TOBapumeii. OHa — yuHTejiBHim,a Haunix AeTeii.

Plural nouns ending in a palatal consonant (except y) have the ending -ey in the Genitive case. Unstressed -ey is weakened to -iy. [3—B]


There are lots of big houses here. There are lots of restaurants there. He is a friend of my brothers.

ZPF§ MNOga balSHIX daMOF. TAM MNOga yistaRAnaf. ON, taVAyishch maylx BRAjyif.

3necB MHoro dojibnnix ^omob. TaM MHoro pecTopaHOB. Oh — TOBapnm; mohx 6paT&eB.

Plurals of Masculine nouns ending in a plain consonant or in y have the ending -of in the Genitive case. The vowel o is weakened to a (and after y to i) when unstressed. I have lots of cigarettes. He knows lots of Russian words. There are lots of big buildings there.

u milfA MNOga papiROS. on ZNAyit MNOga RUsl}ix SLOF. TAM MNOga balSHIX ZD A ijiy.

V MeHH MHoro namipoc. Oh 3HaeT MHoro pyccraix cjiob. TaM MHoro Sojibihiix 3^aHHii.

Plurals of Feminine and Neuter nouns ending in a plain consonant or in y have no ending in the Genitive case. She is the teacher of these girls. I have lots of letters.

and uCHIjifoica ejix PEvushik. u mi If A MNOga pi§im.

OHa — yniiTCJibniipa btiix neByrnen. Y MeHH MHoro rmceM.

When a word has no ending added (as in these Genitive plural forms), a stem ending in two consonants inserts a vowel between them. This holds true of all consonant combinations except a very few, such as st: the Genitive Plural of AfEsta is AfEST. The hotel is to the left of the station. My brother has the letter (‘The letter is with my brother’).

ga§pir}ica na f,Eva at vagZAla.

TocTHHima HajieBO ot BOK3ajia.

pi§MO u mayivo BRAta.

IIhcbmo y Moero 6paTa.

The Genitive case form is used after the prepositions OT (unstressed: at) and U. Give me some (of the) milk.

DA Yji mye malaKA.

JJairre MHe MOJiOKa.

The Genitive form means part of something, as against the whole of it; compare: Give me the milk. DA Yji mr}e malaKO. flaiiTe MHe mojioko. There is no milk. 74


malaKA IfET.

Monona HeT.

My children aren’t here. I have no matches.

mayix ^iJ'EYZQE§ NET'. u quip A NET Spichik.

Monx fleTeh 3Aecb neT. Y mchh HeT crnmeK.

The Genitive denotes something of which there isn't any or something which is not in a place. I don’t drink milk. I don’t know this word. I don’t know these Russian words.

yd rqipYU malaKA. yd qi ZNAyu etava SLOva. yd qi ZNAyu ejix RUsfyix SLOF.

JI He ntio MOJiOKa. H He SHaio aToro cjiOBa. SI He 3Haio stiix pyccKHX cjiob.

The Genitive denotes something to which one does not do something or other. How many children have you? He has lots of cigarettes. I have few cigarettes. There is little water here.

SKOpka u VASpiipEY? u qi VO MNOga papiROS. u ytilpA MAla papiROS. PP>E§ MAla vaDL

Ckojibko y Bac AeTefi? Y Hero MHoro namipoc. Y mciih Majio namipoc. 3accb Majio boabi.

The Genitive is used after words of quantity: SKOpka (how many, how much), MAla (few, little), MNOga (many, much). There is no big hospital here. There is no good doctor there. I don’t understand this Russian word.

PP>Ep> IpET balSHOva GOspita\a. TAM IpET xaROshiva DOKtara. yd qi paqiMAyu etava RUskava SLOva.

3Aeci> HeT CoJibmero rocmiTajia. TaM HeT xopomero AC>KT0PaSi He noHMMaio aToro pyccKoro cjiOBa.

The Genitive of adjectives in the Masculine and Neuter has the ending -6va: the o has the usual weakening when unstressed. She is my brother’s wife. I haven’t even one rouble. There isn’t even one seat here.

aqd zhiNA mayivo BRAta. u tpilpA P/ET qi adnaVO ruBpA. ZP>E§ NET qi adnaVO IpEsta.

OHa — aceHa Moero 6paTa. Y MeHa HeT hii OAHOro pybjia. 3Aecb HeT hii oahoto MecTa.

The special adjectives MOY and aDIN have the ending ~avo in the Masculine and Neuter Genitive. [3-B]


There’s no big hotel here. There’s not even one good hotel here. There’s no toilet there.

ZPE§ IpET balSHOY ga§TInid. ZPE§ IfET t}i aDNOY xaROshiy gaZJ'Iqici. tarn IpET uBORnay.

3jjecb HeT Gojibuioit rocTimnn,t»i. 3p;ecE> HeT hh o^hoh xopomen rOCTIIHIiptl.

TaM HeT ySopHOH.

The Genitive of adjectives in the Feminine has the ending -oy (with the usual weakening when unstressed). Note that uBORnaya is an adjective, not a noun. He is my sister’s husband. on MUSH mayey yiSTRL The special adjective MOY has the ending -ey in the Genitive Feminine.

Oh MyjK Moeii cecTpbi.

There There She is There

3p;ecb HeT 6ojihhihx rocTHHim;. 3p;ecb HeT xopomux pecTopaHOB.

are no big hotels here. are no good restaurants here. a friend of my daughters. are lots of hard words here.

ZPE§ IpET balSHIX ga§J'Iij.ic. ZPER IpET xaROshix fistaRA naf. and pfiYAfifoica mayix dachiRE Y. ZPE§ MNOga TRUdnax SLOF.

OHa npiiHTejibHim,a moiix p,oTiepeii. 3p,ecb MHoro Tpy^Hbix cjiob.

The Genitive Plural form of adjectives has the ending -ix, weakened to -ax when unstressed after a plain consonant (other than c, sh, zh). I don’t understand these words. yd iyi paijiMAyu ejix SLOF. II He nomiMaio ,9tiix cjiob. The Genitive Plural form of the special adjective Etat is Ejix (plural stem ej-). I have two roubles. Here are two letters! He has two sisters. Here are three places! There are four big hotels over there. These two letters are from my brother.

u mi Ip A D VA ruBRA. VOTDVA pi§MA! u r^iVO DyE §iSTRI. VOT TRI ilfEstal TAM chiTIfi bajSHIX gaSJ'Ujici. eji DVA pi§MA at mayivo BRAta.

y MeHH p;Ba pydjiH. Bot ^Ba nucbMa! y Hero ^Be cecTpbi. Bot Tpn MecTa! TaM neTbipe dojibmnx rocTiiHiipbi. 3th p,Ba nucbMa ot Moero 6paTa.

After the Nominative forms of the numbers 2, 3, 4 a noun is in the Genitive Singular case form, and an adjeo tive in the Genitive Plural case form. An adjective before the number is Nominative Plural. 76


The Nominative forms of the number 2 are Masculine and Neuter

DVA, but Feminine DyE.

I haven’t two roubles. There aren’t three big hotels here.


We haven’t got those four roubles.

u NAS IfET efix chitipOX ruBT^E Y.

y MeHa tot ^R.yx pySaeii. 3fleci> tot Tpex Oojtbihhx rocTHHiip.

ga$TI me. y Hac tot sthx acTBipex pyojieii.

The Genitive forms of the numbers 2, 3, 4 are DVUX, TfiOX, chitipOX. With these numbers, adjectives and nouns are in the Genitive Plural. He has five roubles. She has ten kopeks. There are eight big hospitals there. Here are your ten roubles!

u ?}i VO PA P ruBI^E Y. u pi YO P>E§if kaPEyik. TAM VO§irp balSHIX GOspitapLy. VOT vashi P>E§if ruB^EYl

y Hero hhtb pyfijieit. y Hee AecHTB KoneeK. TaM BoceMB Sohbihhx rocmiTaaen. Bot Baum tochtb pyoacii!

After the Nominative forms of 5 and higher numbers, nouns and adjectives are in the Genitive Plural form. An adjective before the number is Nominative Plural. He hasn’t those five roubles. She hasn’t ten kopeks. There aren’t eight big hospitals there.

u piVO IfET 6fix pip I ruBT^EY. u pi YO IfET (fi§ipl kaPEyik. TAM IfET va§MI bafSHIX GOspitafiy.

With the Genitive forms of 5 and higher numbers, nouns and adjectives are in the Genitive Plural form. The Genitive forms of the numbers from 5 to 10 have the ending -i. The second vowel in the Nominative Who has the letter? I have the letter. We have the letter. Have you the letter?

pi§MO pi§MO pi§MO pi§MO

u u u u

kaVO? tpilfA. NAS. VAS?

y Hero tot 9thx naTH pyfijien y Hee tot mecuTH kotock. TaM TOT BOCBMH 60JIBIHHX rocmiTajieH.

VO§ipi is an inserted vowel (and therefore will be absent in the Genitive): pipi, shi§pi, §iME va§]\fl, (JiyiPI, pi§iPE Note the weakening of unstressed vowels. IThcbmo IIlICBMO IIiicbmo IIhcbmo

y y y y

koto? MeHH. nac. Bac? [3-B]


He isn’t there. It isn’t here. She isn’t here. They aren’t here. That’s nothing. They don’t understand me. He doesn’t understand us. I don’t understand you. I don’t understand him. I don’t understand her. I don’t understand them.

yiVO ZPE§ IpET. yiVO ZPE$ IpET. yiYO PPE§ IpET. YIX %PE§ IpET. Eta qi chiVO. aqi qtiqa qi paqiMAyut. on nas qi paqiMAyit. yd vas qi paqiMAyu. yd yivo qi paqiMAyu. yd yiyo qi paqiMAyu. yd yix qi paqiMAyu.

The Genitive forms of the pronouns are as follows: Nominative Genitive YA I qiilfA MI we NAS you VI VAS he (it) ON yiVO it aNO yiVO He has five roubles. She has three roubles. Here’s a letter from them.

u qi VO PA T ruBI^E Y. u qiYO Tpi ruBpA. VOT pi§MO at If IX!

Ero 3Aecb HeT. Ero 3,n,ecB HeT. Ee 3ti;eci> HeT. Hx 3,n;ecb HeT. 9to minero. Olill MeHH He nOHHMaiOT Oh Hac He noHHMaeT. A Bac He nomiMaio. il ero lie nomiMaio.

A ee He nomiMaio. lie nomiMaio.

il hx

she (it) they who what you (familiar)

Nominative aNA alfI KTO SHTO TI

Genitive yiYO YIX kaVO chiVO pRA

y Hero hhtb pyfijieii. y Hee Tpn pyfijiH. Bot ihicbmo ot hiix !

The Genitive forms yiVO, yiYO, YIX have q instead of y after a preposition (at, u)\ an exception to this appears in the next sentences. She is his sister. aNA yivo §iSTRA. OHa ero cecTpa. He is her brother. ON yiyo BRA T. Oh ee 6paT. Herels their house! VOT yix DOM! Bot hx ^om ! 78


Here’s a letter from his brother! Here’s a letter from her brother! Here’s a letter from their son!

VOT pi§MO at yivo BRAta! VOT pi§MO at yiyo BRAta! VOT pi§MO at yix SIna!

There are no adjectives for‘his, her, its, their’ to match the adjectives MOY, NASH, VASH. For ‘his, her, its, their’ one uses the Genitive forms yiVO, yiYO, YIX.

Box raicBMO ox ero 6paxa! Box ihicbmo ox ee 6paxa! Box ihicbmo ox hx ctraa!

In this use these Genitive forms keep their initial y after a preposition,

Irregular Genitive forms. Give me a glass of tea. There’s no sugar here. You don’t eat soup?

DA Y}i rmj.e staKAN CHAyu (CHAya). ?PE§ IfET SAxaru (SAxara). vi KUshiyiji STJpu (SUpa)?

Jfanxe MHe cxanaH uaio (nan). 3pecB Hex caxapy (caxapa). Bbi He Kymaexe cyny (cyna)?

Some Masculine nouns have a second Genitive form with the ending -u and use it more commonly than the regular form with -a. I don’t know these gentlemen. I don’t know her sons. We don’t know their husbands.

yd 7}i ZNAyu ejix gaSPOT. yd rj,i ZNAyu yiyo sanayEY. mi ?}i ZNAyim yix muZHEY.

A He 3Haio axux rocnop. A He 3Haio ee cbihobch. Mbi He 3HaeM hx Myncen.

Some Masculine nouns are irregular in the Genitive Plural, taking no ending. The vowel e in muZHEY, sanayEY is an inserted vowel (the plural stems are muzhy-, sanayy-). I don’t drink coffee yd tji PYU KOfi. A He ntio KO(j)e. Some nouns, mostly of irregular shape, such as KOfi (Masculine), do not change for different case forms. Read aloud several times all the examples given in this section on Word Study. Then cover the English and see if you know the meaning of every item. Repeat this operation until you are sure that you know every expression. As a final test, cover the Russian and see

if you can say the Russian expression simply by looking at the English. Before you go on to the next section, turn back to the Basic Sentences and look for examples of the things that have just been explained to you. [3—B]


2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study (Individual Study) Before you leave the Word Study, cover the English equivalents in each list and make sure that you know the meaning of every Russian expression. Then cover

the Russian and see if you can say each Russian expression when you are looking only at the English,

3. Review of Basic Sentences Review the first half of the Basic Sentences. Repeat individually with books closed. Work always to perfect your pronunciation; keep the meaning in mind; and Section


observe examples of the points in Word Study you have just covered,

of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Review the second half of the Basic Sentences. Follow the procedure suggested above.

2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Go back to the Basic Sentences in Section A, cover the English and test yourself by reading the Russian, just as you did in Section C of the previous unit. If you are not sure about the meaning of any words or phrases,

when you have finished reading the Basic Sentences aloud, uncover the English and look up their meaning, Keep this up until you know all the meanings completely,

What Would You Say? (Individual Study) In the following exercise you have certain situations presented for which you are to choose the correct expression in Russian. Read the situation, repeat aloud all

the solutions for each situation, and then indicate for the next class meeting the answer which you consider the most appropriate.

1. You ask Mr. Ivanov whether he wants to have a glass of beer. You say: a. ti XOchish stakan piva? b. vi xapiji K Uship c. vi xaPIp stakan piva?

2. You want him to go into the restaurant that is right close by. You say: a. paypOM v etu ga§pir}icu. b. paypOM na vagZAL. c. payPOM v etat yistaRAN.



3. You want to know whether M r. Ivanov speaks English. You say: a. vi parpiMAyifi ryiirpa? b. vi gavaJUji pa anGpiYsfyi? c. kdk skaZA f eta pa anGpiYsfyi? 4. You want to say: a. SKOpka u b. SKOIyka u c. SKOpka u

know how many children he has. You vas dachiplE Y? vas ^iJEY? vas sanaYE Y?

5. He has two sons and two daughters. He says: a. u rjtilpA TpU SIna i DyE DOchifi. b. u rpiilpA D VA SIna i Tfi.1 DO chip. c. u rjiilpA D VA SIna i DyE DOchifi. 6. You are going to take a street car to the hotel. You want Mr. Ivanov to go with you. You say: a. vi ipOji sa mnoy? b. vi YEpji sa mnoy? c. kuDA vi YEpJi?

Section D—Listening In

1. What Did You Say? To the Group Leader: Follow the same procedure as for Section D of Unit 2. Call on different students (not in any fixed order) to give their answers in Russian for the exercise What Would You Say? in Section C3 of this unit. Encourage them to give the answers directly and not from the books, if possible. Than check on the students’ knowledge of the meaning in English of the different expressions in Russian.

Go back to the last exercises in the preceding section. The Leader will call for your answers in Russian for the exercises. If you can, give the correct answers without reading from the book. Other members of the group

will criticize the choice made if they disagree. The Leader will then call for the English equivalents of all the expressions in the exercises,

2. Word Study Check-Up To the Group Leader: Follow the same procedure as for this part of Section D of Unit 2. Call on various students for the correct Russian for the English equivalents of the expressions given in the Word Study. Make sure that all the students have learned the material thoroughly.



Go back to the Word Study in Section B. The Leader will ask different members of the group to give the cor¬ rect Russian for the English equivalents of the expres¬ sions you went over in the Word Study. Be sure you are

able to give the correct form without having to read it from the book. If you have any difficulty, review the Word Study thoroughly.

3. Listening In To the Group Leader: Follow the same procedure as for Listening In in Section D3 of Unit 2. Check up on meaning at the end of each conversation on the first time through; then, after the second time through, assign parts and have the students read the conversations.

Keep your book closed while the Guide reads the fol¬ lowing conversations, or while they are played on the phonograph, and repeat the Russian immediately after hearing it. At the end of each conversation, check up on the meaning of any word or phrase about which you are in doubt, either by asking some other member of the group

or by going back to the Basic Sentences if no one knows. Go through the conversations again, with your books open, being sure to imitate carefully and to keep in mind the meaning of everything you are saying. Then take turns speaking the parts. Make the conversations real. Say your part as though you meant it.

1. Basil and Boris see a couple of girls. Unit 3, Record Side 4, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) Basil: Boris:

ZDRAstvuy baft IS! KAK ti?


xaraSHO. mqe skaZAp shto tvoy BRAT ushol v ARqiiyu. GPE on?



mi qi ZNAyim GpE on.


eta Ochiq qi ppiYAtna.


KTO eta pEvushka?


(33% RPM) Record Side 3, after 2nd spiral.


eta qe PEvushka. eta uCHIJilqica. yd xachu. s IfE Y paznaKOqiitsa. ti ZNAyish yiyo?


aNA pfi YA pipqica maYEY pSTRI. yd yiyo qi ZNAyu, i qi xaCHU yiyo ZNA p. vot may a §iSTRA! payPOMl

(repeats:) VOT may a §iSTRA! payPOM! Basil: Boris:

xaraSHO. u Jipa YE§ f papiROsa?


ti XOchish Tfiirpa padaZHDA f?


a ti XOchish piva? na PRAva YE$P fistaRAN.


xaraSHO. da syiDAqya.


2. Basil goes up to the girls. Unit 3, Record Side 4, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) Basil:

izyilplp. u vas YE§P papiROsa?

Teacher : spa§Iba. kuDA vi ipOji?


DA. VOT papiROsa. a u vas YE§P SpiCHka?



DA, spa§Iba. vi xajiji KOJi?

Teacher : YA xachu s NIM paznaKOmitsa. mye skaZAp shto on paqiMAyit pa anGpiYsfyi. yEra, payPOM s i}im.


I/ET, spaplba


v fistaRAN. TAM vash BRAT bapiS.

xaraSHO. payPOM.

3. Anna and Marya gossip. Unit 3, Record Side 4, after 3rd spiral. (78 RPM) Anna:

KTO etat malaDOY chilayEK, MAfya?

Marya: DA. on raBOtayit s NAtpi v ga§pirj,ici.

Marya: eta STARshiy SIN ivaNOva. Anna:

vi yivo ZNAyiji?


CHEM on zaqiMAyitsa? [3-D]


Marya: yd 7}i ZNAyu. on gam JUT pa anGJI Ysfyi, a yivo §iSTRA uCIIIiilnica anGJI Yskava yiziKA. yd YIX ZNAyu. ivaNOF XOchit yix s NAipi paznaKOrpiJ. mi raBOtayim v yivo ga$J'Iqici.

Anna: ZHALka. Marya: DA, ZHALka. AX, VOT BRA T mayey pyi YAJifoicil

Section E—Conversation

1. Covering the Russian of Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Just as you did in Section E of Unit 2, go back to the Basic Sentences of this unit, cover up the Russian and test

yourself to see how many words and phrases you can say in Russian when you are looking only at the English.

2. Vocabulary Check-Up To the Group Leader: As in Unit II, go around the class calling on various students and asking them: “KAK skaZAT pa RUs^i?” for the English equivalents in the Basic Sentences, with their books closed. If any student does not answer in a reasonable time, do not allow hemming and hawing; call on another student. Make sure that every student speaks loud enough so that all can hear. Do not allow any mumbling. Any student who cannot give satisfactory answers needs more review of the Basic Sentences.

As you did in Unit 2, supply the Russian expressions for the English equivalents in the Basic Sentences, when

the Leader calls on you. Give your answers in a clear, loud voice, so that everyone can hear you.

3. Conversation To the Group Leader: Follow the same procedure as for Section E3 of Unit 2. Have the students converse, first following closely the model of the conversations outlined below and then changing the situation slightly.

As you did in the Conversation in Section E3 of Unit 2, first go through the conversations outlined below, taking turns. As soon as you can speak the 84


parts smoothly, pass to acting them out in front of the group; keep this up until you can do it easily and smoothly.

1. Two men meet and greet each other. A asks B if he has a match. B says he has, but that he hasn’t any cigarettes. A offers him one. B tells A he’d like to meet his sister. A says that he was going to the hospital to meet her. B asks in surprise, if she is there? A says she works there. B says he had heard that she was a teacher. A says no, that was his sister Anna. Vera works in the hospital. A says Anna is an English teacher. B says let’s get going. 2. Two girls go into a restaurant and order tea and coffee. Q asks R who the young girl over there is. R says she’s a friend of her brother. She’s the daughter of Mr. Ilyin. Q says she heard his daughter was Doctor Ivanov’s wife. R says yes, her brother met her at the hospital. Q asks where her brother is, and she says that he went away to the army. R says it’s too bad, she wanted to meet him. Q calls the waitress and asks how much the tea is. She says tea is eight kopeks and coffee is seven. They pay and go. 3. Mary a and Alexander are out together. He asks her if she’d like something to drink. She accepts. They order beer. She sees a young man in the restaurant and asks Alexander if he knows him. He says it’s Boris Ivanov. She asks what he does for a living. He says that he works with him. She says she has a

girl friend who knows him and that she’d like to meet him. 4. Alexander introduces Boris and Marya. He says he’s glad to meet her, she says hello and adds that she has heard that he speaks English. He says he does and asks if she does too. She does, but Alex¬ ander puts in that he doesn’t. Boris asks them if they’d like beer. They both would; so he calls the waitress. Alexander says he’d like some bread and soup too. Boris says he’d like some meat and pota¬ toes and asks Marya if she would like something to eat. She says no thanks. Marya asks the boys to give her a cigarette. Alexander offers her one but he hasn’t a match. Boris brings one out and Marya thanks them. 5. Alexander tells Boris that he heard his sister was in the hospital. He says that she is. Marya says that’s very unfortunate. Boris says that Doctor Petrov works at the hospital. Alexander says that’s good, he knows him. Marya asks Boris how his sister is getting along, and he says she’s fine; he is going (riding) to meet her. Alexander and Marya tell Boris that they’d like to wait for him. He says fine and calls the waitress and asks her what the bill is. She says it’s three rubles ten. They pay and go.






Continue the conversations started in Section E. If necessary to make the conversations smoother and more successful, review parts 1 and 2 of Section E.

FINDER LIST This Finder List has all the new words and expressions used in this unit. The conventional spelling is enclosed in parentheses after each entry. These as well as those of the previous two units, are words and expressions which by this time you should know quite well.

anGpiYsfyiy (aHTJUiHCKiiii) English; pa anGpiYspi (no-aHrjmficKH) in English

MNOga (MHoro) many, much MNOY (mhoh) me: sa MNOY (co mhoh) with me

baJUS (Bopnc) Boris (man’s given name) BRAT (6paT) brother; BRAfya (SpaTbfl) brothers

NAM (HaM) to us; 5 NArpi (c hhmh) with us IpE (He) not (stressed form of qi) IpEY, Ip EM, Iplqii, see YEY, YIM, YIrpi Ipl (hh) not even

CHEM (aeM) with what chilayEK (ueJiOBeK) person PEvushka (jjeByiiiKa) girl DOktar (flOKTop) doctor; daktaRA (jjoKTopa) doctors FSTpEpm (BCTpeTHM) we’ll meet (someone); FSTpEjimsa (BCTpeTHMCfl) we’ll meet each other GOspital (rocnirrajib) hospital; v GOspitap in the hospital ga§piqica: v ga§piqici in the hotel graZHDANka: graZHDANku Mrs., Miss MAla (iwajio) few, little ApEsta (MecTo) place, seat; rpiSTA (MecTa) places, seats v ApE§}i in a place; together



Ochiq (oueiib) very padaZIIDA P (nofloacjiaTb) to wait for paqiAIAyit (noHHMaeT) understands payPOM (noii^eM) we’ll go; let’s go; paypOMfi (noHJieMTe) let’s all go pay pi (nofiiTH) to go or come paznaKOrpi} (no3HaKOMHTb) to make acquainted, to introduce; paznaKOrpitsa (no3HaKOMHTbCfl) to get acquainted, to be introduced PIP (rniTb) to drink ppiYAplqica (npiuiTeJibHima) friend (female) ppiYAtna (npHHTHo) pleasant

raBOtayit (paGoTaeT) he (she, it) works; raBOtayim (padoraeivi) we work raBOtayut (paooTaiOT) they work

xaTlM (xothm) we want XOchish (xoaeuib) you want (familiar, to one person) XOchit (xoaex) he (she, it) wants

5, sa (c, co) with §iSTRA (cecTpa) sister; §Ostri (cecTpbi) sisters StaKAN (cTaKaH) glass

YEY (eii) to her; 5 1>]EY (c Hefi) with her YIM (hm) to them; him; 5 tfIM (c hhivi) with him Ylrjfii (hmh) them; 5 (c hhmh) with them

TI (tm) you (familiar, to one person); tip A (Te6a) Genitive; 5 taBO Y (c to6oh) with you tuDA (Typ;a) to that place, there TVOY (tboh) your (familiar)

zaqiMAyitsa (3aHHMaeTca) he (she, it) is occupied, busies himself ZDRAstvuy (sgpaBCTByfi) hello! (familiar) ZHALka (acajiKo) too bad! ZNA\i (3HaJin) they knew, you knew, we knew ZNA T (3HaTb) to know ZNAyu (3Haio) I know ZNAyim (3Haeiw) we know

uCIIIj.ifyica (ywrejibHHija) teacher (female) uSHOL (yrneJi) he went away, he has gone awaj VAM (Bain) to you; 5 VAryii (c BaMH) with you yEra (Bepa) Vera (woman’s given name)



unit WHERE ARE YOU FROM? Section



To the Group Leader: From this point on you will need special instructions only when new sections or procedures are intro¬ duced in the learning units. With other sections, simply follow the procedures which have been recommended in the first three units and the instructions provided for the group at the beginning of the sections.

Go through the Basic Sentences in unison. Then work on the Hints on Pronunciation and after that

go through the Basic Sentences at least twice more individually.

1. Basic Sentences Alexander and Boris talk about people and places.



Unit 4, Record Side 1, beginning. (78 RPM) (they) are traveling to America My sisters are going to America.

Alexander YEdut v aAJE/iku mayi §Ostri YEdut v aA^Epiku.

(they) know Do they know John Smkh?

Boris ZNAyut atpi ZNAyut iVAna SAJIta?

from or out of (of) friends He’s a friend of mine.

IZ drugEY 6n afrin iz mayix dru£EY.





(33Vi RPM) Record Side 4, beginning. e«yT b AMepnny Moh cecTpbi ejtyT






IlBaHa CwniTa?


«py3eft Ov OflHH II3 MOHX


never so (‘that’) (they) said They never said so (‘They never told me that’).

Alexander qi kaGDA Etava gavaJU(i aqi mqS Etava qi kaGDA qi gava]U(i.

Ohh MHe 9Toro HiiKor,n;a He TOBOpHJIH.

(an) American (man) He’s an American.

Boris aqiipKA qic ON aqiifiKAqic.

aMepHKaHeu; Oh aMepHKaHeu,.

not long ago (he) arrived, (he) came He came from America not long ago.

qi DAvna p/i YExal on qi DAvna pfi YExal iz aHfE/iffi.

friend (he) does What does your friend do?

Alexander DRUK, DRUG PElayit shto vash DRUK PElayit?

(we) work We work together in the hotel,

Boris raBOtayim mi raBOtayim v AfEpi v ga§TIqici.

waiter He’s a waiter too.

afiCYANT ON TO zhi afiCYANT.

Oh Tome o^HipiaHT.

Does he speak Russian?

Alexander 6n gavaJUT pa RUsl}i?

Oh roBopHT no-pyccKH?





npiiexaji Oh He^aBHo npnexaji H3 AMepHKH.

npyr AejiaeT Tto Bam p;pyr p;ejiaeT?

padoTaeM Mbi padoTaeM BMecTe b rocTHHHn,e. 0(()HU,IiaHT



a little He speaks (it), but (only) a little.

Boris i}i MNOga. on gavafi.IT, no t}i MNOga.

HeMHoro Oh roBopiiT, ho HeMHoro.

Alexander (she) told now in American schools (they) study (the) Russian language My sister told me that now they study (the) Russian (language) in American schools.

skaZA la fifiEfi v a-ytifiKANsfyix SHKOlax izuCHAyut RUsfyiy yiZIK may a §iSTRA mqe skaZA la shto v atyiyiKA Nskix SHKOlax fipey izuCHAyut RUs^iy yiZIK.

CKa3ajia Tenepn b aMepiiKaHCKiix niKOJiax H3yuaiOT


Moa cecTpa MHe cKa3ajia, hto b aMepincaHCKHx niKOJiax xenepn H3yuaiOT pyCCKHH H3BIK.

Unit 4, Record Side 2, beginning. (78 RPM) of course You know, of course, that I’m learning English too.

Boris kafiEchna, kafiEshna vi karj,echna ZNAyifi shto yd TO zhi izuCHAyu anGfilYsfyiy yiZIK.

John and I (‘we with John’) (we) speak John and I speak English in the hotel.

MI s iVAnam gavafilM Mis iVAnom gavajim pa anGfilYsfyi v gafiflqici.

good John’s a good guy.

xaROshiy iVAN, Ochirj, xaROshiy chilayEK.




Bli KOHenHo 3HaeTe, hto h iwynaio aHrjmftcKHft h3bik.




Mbi c

IlBaiioM roBopiiM no-


xopouillil TdBaH OHeHb XOpOIHHII HejIOBeK.


(it) would be nice It certainly would be nice to know English.

Alexander xaraSHO btla hi AX, kdk xaraSHO btla bi ZNA f anGI^I Yskiy yiZIK.

younger (feminine) (they) speak My younger sister and my brother speak English.

MLA Tslaty a gavafiA T may a MLATshiya §iSTRA i moy BRA T gavaflA T pa anGI^I Ysf}i.

Where are they?

GpE ar}i?

xoporno 6mjio 6m Ax, Kan xopomo 6mjio 6li 3HaTB aurjinhcKHu h3mk.

MjraAmaa TOBOpHT

Moh Mjiap;maH cecTpa n moh 6paT TOBOpHT no-aHrjiHHCKH.

Boris r^e OHH?

Alexander in Moscow* They’re in Moscow.

v maSKyE a Ip I v maSKyE.


Ohh b MocKBe.

Boris (they) do What do they do there? in school My sister is in school; (but) [my] brother is a doctor. (you) are traveling Where are you going? to Moscow I’m going to Moscow. *Not on the record.

PElayut STITO ai],i tam PElayut? Alexander / SHKOp mayd §iSTRA f SHKOp; a BRAT DOktar. Boris YEpiji kuDA vt YEcjtiy? Alexander v maSKVU yd YEdu v maSKVU.

^ejiaioT Tto ohh TaM ^ejiaioT? B HIKOJie

Moh cecTpa b ruKOJie, a 6paT ^oKTop.

efleTe Kyp;a bm e^eTe? b MocKBy H ejty b MocKBy.



Boris in America* were Have you [ever] been to America?

v aATE/ifyi Blli vi BI\i v aA^E/iki?

b AMepuKe 6bijin Bbi obijtii b AMepiiKe?

Alexander No, never.

iyET, y-i kaGDA.

to take a trip there (to that place) after the war I want to go there after the war.

paYExaj tuDA PO§ji vayNI yd xachu tuDA paYExaj PO§li vayNI.

(it) will be Yes, that will be nice.

B Ufjit DA. eta bu. HeflaBHo

Oh Hep;aBHo npnexaji. 6biji

He was in America, he was not He has never been in America.

on bil v aMEriki.

Oh 6biji b AMepmce.

IjE bil on rpi kaGDA PjE bil v alfiEjityi.

He 6biji Oh HiiKor^a He 6biji b AMepnKe.

New prepositions. The prepositions iz ‘from’ and po§ji ‘after’ are followed by the Genitive case. Russians drink tea out of glasses. I want to go there after the war.

R Uskiya fi YUT CHA Y is staKAnaf. yd xachu pa YExaj tuDA po§\i vayNI.

PyccKne nwoT naff 113 CTaKaHOB.

A xony noexaTb Typ;a nocjie bohhbi.

B. ACCUSATIVE CASE Do you know this young girl? I want to meet my wife at the station. Do you know our younger sister? They drink this water. I met one of your (female) friends.

vi ZNAyiji etu malaDUyu PEvushku? yd xachu FSTfiEjij mayu zhiNU na vagZAji.

JKeHy Ha


Bbi 3HaeTe namy Mjia^myio cecTpy?

yd tam FST fiEj.il aDNU vashu priYAjilqicu.

51 TaM BCTpeTnji OAHy Bamy npiiHTejibHHU,y.

The Accusative case denotes someone or something to which someone does something or other (the object of a verb). [4-B]

il xony BCTpeTiiTB moio

vi ZNAyiji nashu MLATshuyu §iSTRU? aqifiYUT etu VOdu.

Observe that the Feminine nouns in these sentences have the ending -u. This case form is called the Accusa¬ tive.


Bbi 3HaeTe 9Ty Mojioayio TTpRymny?

Ohh nbiOT 9Ty bo;i,y.

Observe that the noun vaDA has the accusative VOdu with change of accent. Ordinary adjectives in the Feminine Accusative have the ending -uyu: malaDUyu, MLATshuyu. The special adjectives in the Feminine Accusative have the ending -u: maYU, aDNU. Etu, NAshu, VAshu.

Let’s go into this hotel. I’m traveling to Moscow. I want to go to the post office.

payPOM v Etu ga§pir}icu. yd YEdu v maSKVU. yd xachu iTI na POchtu.

IIoiffieM b 3Ty rocTHHHiiy. 51 e,n;y b MocKBy. 51 xouy htth Ha nowry.

The Accusative case after the prepositions v ‘into, to’ and na ‘onto, to’ tells the place to which someone or some¬ thing goes. We shall meet our daughter there. Do you know my mother?

mi tam FSTJEEjim ndshu DOCH. vi ZNAyipi mayu MA f?

Mbi TaM BCTpeTHM Hamy ,h,ohb. Bbi 3HaeTe moio MaTB?

Feminine nouns whose Nominative ends in a consonant have the Accusative like the Nominative. I want to say one word to you. I drink cold milk.

yd xaCHU vam skaZA f aDNO SLOva. yd P YU xaLOdnaya malaKO.

51 xouy BaM CKa3aTB o^ho cjiobo. 51 nbio xojio^Hoe mojioko.

Neuter nouns and adjectives have the Accusative like the Nominative. I want to drink tea. Give me a big glass of tea. Let’s go into this restaurant. I’m driving to the station. Masculine nouns and adjectives Give me those matches. Give me my letters. The doctors are now driving to the hospitals.

yd xachu CHAY pip. DA Yfi mt}c balSHO Y staKAN CHAyu. paypOM v Etat jisto.RAN. yd YEdu na vagZAL.

51 xouy nan iihtb. flaiiTe MHe dojiBuioii CTanaH uaio. IIoHfleM b 3tot pecTopaH. 51 e^y na BOK3aji.

do not mean living beings have the Accusative like the Nominative. DA Ypi mye Eji SpiCHfyi. DA Yji mayi piipnia. daktaRA jiPEP YEdut v GOspitap.

flaftTe MHe 3th ciihukh. ^ai'iTe MHe moh micBMa.

JJoKTopa Tenepn e^yT b rocnHTajm.

Plural nouns and adjectives that do not mean living beings have the Accusative like the Nominative.



Give him two roubles. DA Yji yimu DVA ruBfA. JfaiiTe eMy flBa pydjifl. Give us two cups of coffee. DA Yji nam DyE CHAshfyi KOfi. ^afiTe HaM Ase naniKii KO$e. Give us three cups of coffee. DA Yji nam TJU CHAshtyi KOfi. J^atiTe HaM Tpn uaunui KOe. Give them four roubles. DA Yji yim chiTIfi ruBfA. J],aHTe hm ucTbipe pyojiH. The numbers 2, 3, 4, when they do not count living beings, have the Accusative like the Nominative. DA Yji nam fAJ" CHAshik KOfi. DA Yji yim DE§ij ruBfE Y. f SIIKOji mi FSTJEEtiji J>A T uCHIjijqic. yd ZNAyu SHE§ X xaROshix daktaROF. The numbers from 5 up have the Accusative like the Nominative.

Give us five cups of coffee. Give them ten roubles. At the school we met five (woman) teachers. I know six good doctors.

J(aifTe HaM naTb nauieK notfie.

What do you want? SHTO vi xaflji? The pronoun SHTO has the Accusative like the Nominative.


Do you know my brother? I met one of your friends there.

J^aiiTe hm AecaTb pydjien.


uiKOJie mli BCTpeTiijni nHTb

ymiTejiBHim. fit


HieCTB xopomnx AOKTOpOB.

vi ZNAyiji mayivo BRAta? Bbi 3HaeTe Moero bpaTa? yd tdm FSTJTEjil adnaVO vdshiva H TaM BCTpeTHji OAHoro DRUga. Apyra. Masculine nouns and adjectives that mean living beings have the Accusative like the Genitive.


Do you know my brothers? vi ZNAyiji mayix BRAjyif? Bbi 3HaeTe mohx 6paTbeB? Did you meet our friends there? vi tdm FSTJiEtiji nashix dru£EY? Bbi TaM BCTpeTHAii Haiinix Apy3eii? I know these girls. yd ZNAyu Ejix pEvushik. H 3Haio bthx AeBymeK. We’ll meet our children at the mi FSTfiEjim nashix fiJK Y na MbI BCTpeTHM HaiHHX AeTeH Ha BOKstation. vagZAji. 3ajie. Plural nouns and adjectives that mean living beings have the Accusative like the Genitive.



I know these two girls. yd ZNAyu ejix DVUX PEvushik. IT 3Haio 3thx ^Byx jjeBymeK. At the school we met three / SHKO[i mi FSTftEfili TftOX B niKOJie mbi BCTperujin Tpex (woman) teachers. uCHIjifyic. ymiTejiBmm. The numbers 2, 3, 4 have the Accusative like the Genitive when they count living beings. Whom are you going to meet there? ka VO vi tam FSTJGEjiji? Will you meet me here? vi rpirpd %DE§ FSTpFjiJi? Will you meet us at the restaurant? vi nds FSTJlEjiJi v yistaRA qi? I’ll meet you there. yd vas tam FSTJlEchu. I know him well. yd yivo xaraSHO ZNAyu. We know her. mi yiyo ZNAyim. He knows them. on yix ZNAyit. vi ipirj,d paqiMAyiJi? Do you understand me? vi nds patfiMAyiji? Do you understand us? I understand you. yd vas paqiMAyu. yd yivd paryiMAyu. I understand him. yd yiyo paiyiMAyu. I understand her. yd yix pat}iMAyu. I understand them. The pronouns (except SHTO) have the Accusative like the Genitive.


Bbi MeHH 3p;ecB BCTeTHTe? Bbi Hac BCTpeTHTe b pecTopaHe? B Bac TaM BCTpeny. H ero xoporno 3Haio. Mbi ee 3HaeM. Oh hx 3HaeT.

Bbi Mena nomiMaeTe? Bbi Hac nomiMaeTe? il Bac nomiMaio. B ero nomiMaio. B ee nomiMaio. B hx nomiMaio.

yd t}i ZNAyu Etay PEvushlp (Etu B He 3Haio 3Tofi p;eByinKH (aTy PEvushku). AeByuiKy). yd f}i ZNAyu Etava yistaRA na I don’t know this restaurant. B He 3Haio 3Toro pecTopaHa (stot (Etat jistaRA N). pecTopaH). In Unit Three we learned that when one does not do is in the Genitive case. The above sentences show that (when the Accusative is different from the Genitive) something to a person or thing, this person or thing is in the Genitive case. That is: the object of a negative verb they sometimes here use the Accusative. I don’t know this girl.



C. VERB FORMS The verb forms in the Present tense differ according to who performs the action. There are two types of Present tense forms. Type 1: pif to drink (miTb) I drink you drink (familiar, to one person) he (she, it) drinks we drink you drink they drink


nbio nbenib nbeT nbeM nbeTe nbioT

Type 2: gavapip to speak (roBopiiTb) I speak you speak (familiar, to one person) he (she, it) speaks we speak you speak they speak

gavaP U gavaJilSII gavaRIT gavapiM gavapiji gavapA T

Consonant changes and other details will be explained in later Units. The Present tense of many verbs means a future action.

roBopio roBopimib rOBOpHT rOBOpiIM roBopiiTe TOBOpHT

When the endings are not accented, there is almost no difference between the two types:

Type 1: ZNA f to know (3HaTb) I know you know (familiar) he (she, it) knows 102


ZNAyu ZNAyish ZNAyit


3Haeuib 3HaeT

we know you know they know

ZNAyim ZNAyiji ZNAyut

3HaeM 3HaeTe 3HaiOT

Type 2: FSTJTEjij to meet (BCTpeTHTb)

I’ll meet you’ll meet (familiar) he (she, it) will meet we’ll meet you’ll meet they’ll meet



The verb forms of the Past tense differ according to the gender (Masculine, Feminine, Neuter) of the person or thing that performs the action; in addition, there is a Plural form, for more than one actor and for1 you’ (not familiar) as actor. The Past forms can be derived from the Infinitive form (‘to do so and so’); hence we need only one example. Infinitive: to know


I knew (man speaking)


3HaTb Past Masculine:

you knew (familiar, to a man or boy) he knew


Past Feminine: I knew (woman speaking) you knew (familiar, to a woman or girl) she knew

yd ZNAla ti ZN Ala

a 3Hajia

and ZN Ala

OHa 3Hajra

Tbi 3Hajia


Past Neuter: it knew (speaking of a Neuter noun)

and ZNAla

we knew

mi ZNA\i vi ZNA\i ani ZNAli


Past Plural: you


they knew

mu 3HajiH bu siiann ohh 3HajiH

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study (Individual Study) Review this Word Study by reading aloud all the Russian words and sentences. Then, in Sections A and B, cover the English and make sure that you know the meaning of every item; then cover the Russian and see

if you can say each Russian sentence when you are looking only at the English. Read Section C carefully; it will help you to understand Russian and to say things in Russian.

3. Review of Basic Sentences With Guide or records, review the first half of the Basic Sentences for better pronunciation, meaning and examples of points in the Word Study. Section


of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Review the second half of the Basic Sentences.

2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Go back to the Basic Sentences in Section A, and read them aloud covering up the English. Note any words or phrases you are not sure about, and, when you have



finished reading the Basic Sentences, uncover the English and look up the meaning of what you did not get. Keep this up until you know all the meanings completely.

3. What Would You Say? (Individual Study) Read aloud each of the following and then pick out the expression you think most suitable: 1. In the lobby of a hotel you see your friend, Mr. Terentyev, and he says he is glad to run across you. He says: a. Ochirp pfiYAtna ZHIR v etay gaRRIrpici. b. 0chirp pfiYAtna vas FSTREjiJ %e3JKaeT [atyiZLID2.ilAyit] ‘he (she, it) leaves’. Another example: the word xojio,n,a [xalaDA] ‘cold spells’ in conventional spelling is written with the letter

o in the first two syllables. Russian conventional spelling writes the o in the first syllable because in related words in which this syllable is stressed, the vowel is really [0\; for instance, xojioaho [XOladna] ‘it is cold’. In the same way, the second syllable is conventionally written with the letter o on account of related forms like xojioahbiu [xaLOdnay] ‘cold’. So even if we know which vowel to stress in a Russian word, the conventional spelling is still likely to mislead us by making us use the wrong vowel sounds in un¬ stressed syllables. We have to get the habit of weakening and slurring all the unstressed vowels. Always listen to the Guide or the record and imitate. The Aids to Listening will help you do this. The con¬ ventional Russian spelling does not show the actual sounds. 3. Variation of consonants. Russian conventional spelling does not show the ordinary variation of sound between voiced and unvoiced mutes. A voiced mute becomes unvoiced usually at the end of a word and always before an unvoiced mute, but the Russian conventional spelling does not show this. Thus, [MUSH, MUZH) ‘husband’ is spelled MyjK because of forms like [MUzha] Myata Genitive Singular: [.DVA MUzha] p,Ba MyjKa ‘two husbands’. And they use the letter 3 not only for forms like [glaZA] raa3a ‘eyes’, but also for [GLAS, GLAZ] rjiaa ‘eye’ and [GLA§ki] ma3KH ‘little eyes’.

An unvoiced mute becomes voiced before a voiced mute (except [»]), but the spelling does not show this. For instance, the word [TAK\ TaK ‘thus, so’ is written with the letter k always, even in a combination like [TAG zhi] xaKjKe ‘also’. 4. Use of the vowel letters. The letters a, 3, li, o, y represent vowels. Apart from the slurring of unstressed vowels, their values are as follows: TaM [TAM] ‘there’ a [4 [Eta] ‘ this’ 3 3TO [«]• BI [MI] ‘we’ MBI ffl: [OiV] ‘ he’ O OH M: ny [iVZT] ‘well now' y [«]." The letters a, e, n, e, 10 represent the same vowels, but usually tell also something about a preceding sound. At the beginning of a word, after a vowel letter, and after the letters b and -b, these letters mean y plus vowel: a [ya\: a [YA] ‘I’, moh aceHa [maya zhiNA] ‘my wife’, Apy3bd [dru£YA\ ‘friends’. e [ye\: day [YEdu] ‘I am riding’, Moeii >kchbi [mayey zhiNI] ‘of my wife’, ox'&exaTB [atYExaj] ‘to depart’. a [yi\: 11M [YIM\ ‘to them’, mom caoBa [mayi slaVA] ‘my words’, tp^tbiim noe3aoM [TJiEjyim POyizdani] ‘by the third train’. e [yo]: eana [YOLka] ‘Christmas tree’, Moe MecTO [mayo LfEsta] ‘my place’, nneT [PYOT] ‘he drinks’. [7—A]


k> \yu]: ior [YUK] ‘the south’, ctoio [staYU] ‘I stand’, mao [PYU] ‘I drink’. However, conventional spelling does not put the two dots on the e; hence in ordinary Russian printing, the letter e has two different values, [ye] and \yo]. The letter 11 is used at the beginning of words for [i] as well as for \yi\. This causes no confusion, because (except for words with slurred vowels) only three Russian words begin with the sounds [yi\: hm, hmh, hx [YIM, YImi, YIX]; all three forms of the pronoun ‘they’. The letter li is not used at the beginning of words. The letters a, e, n, e, io coming after a consonant letter mean that this consonant is palatal: [a]: [PAT]‘five’ H naTb [JpET] ‘no’ HeT e [«]■• H IIHTb [PIT]1 to drink’ [*1* caMOJieT [samapOT] ‘airplane’ e H[gavafi U] ‘ I speak’ K) roBopio [«]•• The letters e, h, e are used also after in, ac, which represent the consonants [s/?, zh] that are never palatal. In this case, the letters e, h, e represent simple [e, i, o\: rnecTL [SHE§P] ‘six’, jkiitl [ZHip] ‘to live’, >KeHbi [ZHOni] ‘wives’. In the same way, e and n are used Unit 7, Record Side 3, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) eleven twelve* *Not on the record. 154


OflffHHajtpaTL flBeHa^itaTL

after u, which is never palatal: peHbi [CEni] ‘prices’, OTn,bi [atCI] ‘fathers’. 5. The letters b and b. The letter b is used after consonant letters; it means that the preceding consonant is palatal: MaTb [MAP] ‘mother’, nbio [PYU] ‘I drink’. In some words the letter b is written also after in and jk, which represent the sounds [sh, zh] that are never palatal; in such words the b means nothing: 3Haenib [ZHAyish] ‘you (familiar) know’, poJKb [ROSII, ROZH] ‘rye’, MyjKba [muZHYA] ‘husbands’. In this last example, the letter b serves to satisfy the rule that a after b means [ya]. The letter b is used after consonant letters to show that the consonant is not palatal even though the sound [y] follows: obbacHiiTb [abyi§lplj] ‘to explain’, OTbexaTb [atYExaj] ‘to depart’, cbecTb [SF££7"] ‘to eat up’. 6.

Numbers. As an exercise in pronunciation and reading, we shall now give some of the higher numbers and some of the ordinal numbers (first, second, and so on). Listen to the Guide or the record and imitate carefully. After you have learned to say the words fluently and correctly, study the conventional spelling. (33ks RPM) Record Side 7, after 2nd spiral. apiNnacij dyiNATcij

thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen* eighteen nineteen twenty* thirty forty* first second third* fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth* tenth eleventh twelfth *Not on the record.

TpiiHa,n;n;aTb ueTbipHaflijaTb naxuaAnaTb mecTHa,n;n;aTb ceMiia^qaTb BoceMHaflqaTb HeBHTHa^qaTb ^Ba^qaTb Tpn^qaTb copoK nepBbiii BTopoii TpeTiiii neTBepTbiH IIHTblH

mecToii ceABMdn BocbMdn HeBHTbiii ^ecHTbiii o^Hinia^naTbiu ^BeHaAnaTbiii

7. Palatal [/]. Russian palatal [j] is quite different from any English sound. Keep the tongue in palatal position: the middle

tyiNATcij chiT IRnacij pilNATcij shisNA Tcij §imNATcij vayimNATcij pliyitNA Tcij, DVATcij ' TJUTcij SOrak PERvay ftaROY TJYEjiy chiTyORtay PAtay shiSTOY §iP>MO Y va$MOY (jiyAtay (J-i^Atay apiNnacitay dyiNATcitay

of the tongue pressed up against the front part of the roof of the mouth. Try to imitate the Guide or the record. [7—A]




Unit 7, Record Side 3, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) na I^Eva HajI^BO RUBl py6jib BI\i 6ijjih TOT^ka t6jii>ko XlEP, XIEB xji66 MATjdrik MaJIbUHK anGTjIYsfyiy aHrJIHHCKHfl GOspital rdcmiTajib PO§li n6cjie Palatal [/]. Russian palatal [/] is like Russian plain [/], a vibrating sound made with the tip of the tongue, but in the palatal sound the middle of the tongue is raised at the same

to the left rouble they were only bread little boy English hospital after



time, so as to add a y-like color to the trilling sound of the [r]. Imitate carefully.


Unit 7, Record Side 3, after 3rd spiral. (78 RPM) MapbH roBopiiJiii Tph npndTHo aMepiiKaneu;

MA/ya gavaR l\i TJU ppiYAtna arpifiKA qic

9. Russian [k, g, x] and \gh\. Russian [k, g, x] are peculiar in being plain or palatal according to a fixed rule: they are always palatal before 156


Mary they were talking three it is pleasant American (man) the vowels [e] and [i] and they are always plain in any other position.

By [gh] we mean a peculiar sound, the voiced mate of [x]. The [gh] is a weak h-like sound, voiced (buzzing) instead of being breathy like [x]. Russian [gh] is always palatal before [e] or [f] and plain everywhere else. Many Russians use this sound instead of [g] in the word for ‘God’ and in a few other words. Some Russians use this sound instead of final [x] when the next word begins with a voiced mute (other than v). It is not necessary to learn

to make this sound, but it will be well to hear it a few times, so that you won’t be thrown off when you run into speakers who use it. We shall now listen to such a speaker. To give you the general background, he gives first some words with plain and with palatal [k, g, x] and then a few with plain and with palatal [gh]. You need not imitate this speaker. If you have a Guide; follow the Guide’s pronunciation.

PRACTICE 3 Unit 7, Record Side 4, beginning. (78 RPM) ffpyra DRUga giORgiy Tedprini karTOshfyi KapTduiKH IgEM k£m KUshij KymaTt XOchit xdueT xiJflkaf XHXHKaTb BOgha, BOga B6ra a BOghi, a BOgi o Bore yd yigh ZNAyu, yd yix ZNAyu JI fix 3HaiO. novagh dru£E Y, novax dru£E Y HdBbix p,py3^fi

of the friend George some potato with whom to eat he wants to snicker of God about God I know them of new friends

Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences 1. Word Study (Individual Study) A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES Ticket office. The word Kacca [iC4Nsa] means the part cashier’s desk of a shop, hotel, or restaurant and the ticket of a room or building where money is handled: the window or ticket office of a theatre, movie, and soon. [7-B]


Preposition. The preposition 6e3 [PEZ] ‘without’ takes the Genitive. You can’t ride without a ticket. Bli He MOJKeTe 6xaTb 6e3 SnjieTO. Special adjective. The word TpeTHii [TftEpiy] ‘third’ is a special adjective. The stem is [t/ejy-] and the Mas¬ culine Nominative has no ending; the [ij is an inserted vowel. The endings are like those of [VASH], as: [vasha yiSTRA] ‘your sister’, [TJZEjya yiSTRA] ‘the third sister’; [vasha ApEsta\ ‘your place’, [TjiEjya AfEsta] ‘the third place’. Over there are those twelve houses. They live in those twelve houses.

B6t OhH

The other ordinal numbers (‘first’, ‘second’, and so on) are regular adjectives. Higher numbers. The numbers from 11 to 30, given in this Unit, have the Accusative like the Nominative. The Genitive and Locative have the ending [-i], stressed in [dvacipi, tjiciJ'I] and unstressed in the others: ['apiNnaciji] and so on. Nouns and adjectives that go with them are treated as after [PA jT]:


VOT TAM Eji dyiNATcidaMOF. aiyi zhiVUT v Ejix dyiNATdpi da MAX.



tom 9th ABeHaflitaTb aomob. JKHByT


vi qi MOzhiji YExaj pez pi^Eta.


Over there are twenty big houses.


tom ABaAAaTb


They live in twenty big houses.

Ohh jKHByT AOMax.


HBa^paTfi oojibmux

at}i zhiVUT v dvacipi balSHIX daMAX.

The number 40 is [SOrak] in the Nominative and Accusative; in the other case forms it is [saraKA]: Here there are forty big houses. 3a6cb copoK Sojibhihx aom6b. PPF§ SOrak balSHIX daMOF. They live in forty big houses. OhA >khbvt b copoica Sojibiiihx arj,i zhiVUT f saraKA balSHIX AOMax. daMAX. Compound numbers. In a compound number (such as ‘twenty-one’) each part takes its own endings. Nouns and adjectives are treated according to the last part of the compound number: Over there are twenty-one houses. They live in twenty-one houses.

B6t tom ABaApaTh oahh a^m. OhA jkhb^t b ABaAAaTH oah6m AOMe.



VOT TAM DVATcij apiN DOM. atji zhiVUT v dvacipi aDNOM DOrjii.

Here there are thirty-two big houses

3peCb TpfippaTb pB& GoJibiunx poMa.

They live in thirty-two big houses.






6oJibinnx poMax. Here are twenty-eight houses.


They live in twenty-eight houses.

Ohh JKHByT b pBappaTH bocbmh


7JIES TJUTciJ D VA balSHIX DOma. aqi zhiVUT f triciTI DVUX balSHIX daMAX. VOT DVATciJ VOsim daMOF.

BbceMB pomob.

aqi zhiVUT v dvacifl va§MI daMAX.

poMax. Compound numbers that end in [apiN] ‘one’ have the Accusative forms like those of [apiN]: They bought twenty-one big houses.

Ohh KynnjiH

kuPI\i DVAciJ apiN balSHOY DOM.

pBappaTb opHH

SojIbHIOH pom.

We met thirty-one girls.



mi FST'JiEjiJi TpiTcij aDNU PEvushku.


mi FSTpEjiJi saraKA adnaVO MAPchika.




We met forty-one little boys.





Compound numbers that do not end in [aDIN] have the Accusative like the Nominative: They bought twenty-two big houses.

ayi kupili D VA Tail DVA balSHIX DOma.

Ohh KynnjiH pBappaTb pBa SojIblHHX poMa.

We met thirty-three girls.





mi FSTPEjiJi TJUTciJ TJU pEvushfyi.


We met forty-two little boys.

mi FSTJiEji(i SOrak DVA MAJ,chika.

Mbi BCTpeTHjiH copoK pBa MajibHHKa.

We met twenty-five little boys.






mi FSTREjUi D VA TciJ PA T MA lydiikaf. [7-B]



airport ticket hour city train airplane

quarter ticket office minute half

N.S. airaDROM JpilET CHAS GOrat POyist sama^OT

N.S. CHEtyirj KASsa ryiiNUla palayina

Masculine: G.S. airaDROma piT^Eta CHAsa, chiSA GOrada POyizda samaJ^Ota

A.S. CHEtyirj KASsu yiiNUtu palayinu

Feminine: G.S. CHEtyirji KASsi yjiiNUti palaVIni

N.P. airaDROmi pil-Eti chiSI garaDA payiZDA samaljOti

N.P. CHElyirji KA Ssi ijiiNUti palayini

G.P. airaDROmaf piLEtaf chiSOF garaDOF payiZDOF samayOtaf

G.P. chityir fEY KASS ryiiNUT palayiN

C. NEW VERBS For each verb we give the Infinitive, the Present tense forms for ‘I’ and ‘he (she, it)’, and the Past tense form for the Masculine. Additional forms are given to show the place of accent. Present Type 1: Infinitive I he, she, it to fly liTAJ' liTAyu \iTAyit to be able MOCH maGU MOzhit other forms: MOzhitn, MOzhiJi, MOgut—maGLA, viaGLO, maGJ^I



Pst Masculine \iTAL MOK

to sell pradaVA P prada YOT prada VAL pradaYU to be on time uSPEP ' uSpEyit uSPEL uSPEyu to depart uyiZHDZHAp uyiZHDZHAL uyiZHDZHA yu uyiZHDZHA yit The compound atpTAP ‘to fly away’ goes like the simple verb \iTAJ'. The compound VIpij ‘to drink up’ goes like the simple verb pip, but with the accent on the syllable vi-: VIpyit ‘he’ll drink it up’. Present Type 2: Infinitive I he, she, it to go away atxaDIJ' atxaZHU atXOpt other forms: atXOpim, atXOdiJi, atXOpit (‘they go away’) to buy to hurry

kupiT kuPpU KUpit other forms: KUpim, KUpip, KUpit (‘they will buy’) spiSHip



D. TIME BY THE CLOCK What time is it? KoTdptiH xeneps uac? (‘Which hour now?’) In telling time by the clock one uses the word [CHAS\ ‘hour’. It is one o’clock now. Ten6pr> uac. For ‘one o’clock’ one says simply [CHAS] ‘hour’.

Past Masculine atxapiL kupiL spiSHIL



It’s ihree o’clock. Tph uaca. Tpi chiSA. After the numbers 2, 3, 4 one uses the Genitive Singular [chiSA], with accent on the ending. It is five o’clock. IIhti> nacoB. PAP chiSOF. After 5 and higher numbers, the Genitive Plural is used, in accordance with the general rule.



The train leaves at 7:48.

I16e3,n, otxoaiit b ceMb cdpoK

Poyist atXO&it f §EAf SOrak VOyiryi.


Railway time is stated by simple numbers.

piPEP PERvay CHAS. [It is] now between 12 and 1 (‘the Tendpu n^pBBifi uac. first hour’). ftaROY CHAS. [It is] between 1 and 2 (‘the Btopoh uac. second hour’). Ce^bMOH riac. yipMO Y CHAS. [It is] between 6 and 7. [It is] between 11 and 12. T^BeHanpaTLiH nac. dyiNATritay CHAS. For time between full hours they say ‘the so-manieth hour’. For instance, the ‘third hour’ is the hour from two o’clock to three o’clock, and so on. [It is] now 2 minutes after 12 (‘2 minutes of the first’). [It is] 10 minutes after 1. [It is] quarter past 2. [It is] 25 minutes past 3.

Tenepi. ab6 MimyTM n^pBoro.

Jipey DyE ryiiNUti PERvava.

/fecaTb MHHyT BToporo. T^TBepTb Tp^Ttero.

P>E§ij rjiiNUT ftaROva. CHEtyirj TpEjyiva. D VA Trip PA P yyiiN UT chi TyOrtava.

^BaflltaTB IIHTb MHHyT


[It is] half past 4. IIojiOBHHa naToro. To tell the exact time they say that so many minutes (or a quarter hour or half an hour) have passed of the so-manieth hour. Thus, at 3:10, for instance, ten min-

palay Ina PA tava. utes of the fourth hour have passed; at 3:30 it is (there has passed) ‘half of the fourth’.

The Genitive forms are regular: [shiSTOva, siylMOva, vayMOva, (JiyAtava, (p§ALava, o.piNnacitava, dyiNATritava].

This way of talking is used up to the half hour. Occasionally they also use it of ‘three quarters’:

It’s quarter to six (‘three fourths of the sixth’).



Tpfi H^TBepTH mecTdro

Tpi CHEyirji shiSTOva.

[It is] now 25 minutes to 1 (‘without Tendpn 6e3 ABaApaTu naTH uac. Jipey piz dvacijl piTI CHAS. 25 an hour’). [It is] 20 minutes to 2. Ee3 ABaAAaTfi abhL. piz dvaci fl D VA. [It is] quarter to six. pis CHEtyirji SIIEpf. Ee3 aeTBepTH ih^ctl. [It is] 12 minutes to seven. Ee3 ABeHaAAaTH ceMb. piz dyiNAT dpi §EAp. It is now 2 minutes to one. pipe? piz DVUX ipiniit CHAS. Tenepb 6e3 psyx MHHyT aac. It is 3 minutes to 2 (o’clock). pis TJWX rpinut DVA (chiSA). Ee3 Tpex MHHyT psa (uaca). pis chitiJiOX rjiinut TJU. It is 4 minutes to 3. Be3 aerapex MHHyT Tpii. After the half hour, they say that it is ‘without so many minutes (or without a quarter-hour) so much o’clock’. For ‘without’ they use [PEZ] with the Genitive case. / kaTOram chiSU vi pfipOji? At what time will you come? B kotopom aacy bbi npHAeTe? I’ll come between 3 and 4. il npHAy b Tp^TbeM aacy. yd pyiDU f TJCEjyim chiSU. Here they eat between 7 and 8. 3Aecs KyuiaioT b bocbmom aacy. ZPE§ KUshiyut v va§MOM chiSU. For ‘at what time?’ they say ‘in what hour?’ The form with the ending \-u\, accented. Similarly, they say, preposition is [w] with the Locative case. The noun for instance, ‘ in the third hour’ for ‘between two and [CHAS] in this expression has an irregular Locative three o’clock’. I’ll come at 1 o’clock. She’ll come at 3 o’clock. He’ll come at 1:15. In telling exactly at what time, they

ft npHAy b uac.

yd priDUf CHAS. and p/ipOT f TJU chiSA. on pfipOT f CIIEtyirj jtaROva.

OHa npimeT b Tph uaca. Oh npHAeT b a^TBepTb BToporo. use the preposition [w] followed by the Accusative case.

pppiji f palayini §ipMOva. on pyiYExal f palayiqi PERvava. However, after the preposition [v] they mostly use the Locative case of [palayina\ ‘half’ for the half-hour.

Come at half past six. He arrived at half past twelve.

IIpHAHTe b noJioBHHe ceABMdro. Oh npnexaji b noAOBHHe nepBoro.



I’ll meet you here at 1:45.

H Bac BCTpeuy 3p6ci> 6e3 ueTBepTH p;Ba. The train leaves at 10 minutes to 3. II6e3p; otxopht 6e3 pecaTii Tpfi. Before the phrases with [pEZ] the preposition [z>] is usually omitted.

yd vas FSTJZEchu %pe§ pis CHEtyirji D VA. POyist atXOdit piz pi§ipi TJII.

I have to buy a watch. Mme Hapo KynnTB nacBi. My watch is fast. Mon nacbi cnema/r. The Plural [chiSI] means also ‘watch’ or ‘clock’.

mqe nada kuPIT chiSI. mayi chiSI spiSHA T.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study (Individual Study) Check yourself on your knowledge of the Word Study by covering first the English, then the Russian, and making sure you know everything thoroughly.

3. Review of Basic Sentences With the Guide or records, review the first half of the Basic Sentences as in previous units. Section


of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Review the second half of the Basic Sentences.


Covering the English of Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Go through the Basic Sentences, covering up the English and reading aloud the Russian. Check up on anything 2

you do not know, until you are sure of everything.

3. What Would You Say? (Individual Study) Read aloud each of the following and then pick out the expressions you think most suitable: 1. You meet your friend Petrov on the street. He seems to be in a hurry. You ask him: a. Pp6 bhi HUiBeTe? GI)E vi zhiyOj-i? b. Kypa bli cnemiiTe? kuDA vi spiSHIji? c. KoTopbiii 'iac xenepb? kaTOray CHAS JipEP?



2. He says he is going to the railway station, h a. 51 fipy b MocKBy. b. Mh6 Haflo cneinhTb. c. 51 npy Ha B0K3aji. 3. He says he is going to Moscow. He says: a. 51 fipy b MocKBy. b. 51 HCHBy b Mockb£. c. 51 npnexaji h.3 Mockbbi. 4. He says the train is leaving at quarter after a. II6e3A otx6,[];ht b neTBepTb nHToro. b. II6e3p; otxoaht b ueTBepxb mecToro.

c. II6e3p; OTxoflHT 6e3 neTBepTH hi^ctb.


yd YEdu v maSKVU. m-qe nada spiSHip. yd iDU na vagZAL. yd YEdu v maSKVU. yd zhiVU v maSKyE. yd p/i YExal iz maSK VI. re. He says: POyist atXOpit f CHEtyirp PAtava. POyist atXOpitf CHEtyirp shiSTOva. POyist atXOpit pis CHEtyirpi SHE§p.

5. He asks you the time. He says: a. KoTopbixi Tenepb nac? b. B kotopom nacy Bbi KymaeTe? c. y Bac MHoro BpeMeHH?

kaTOraypipe/ CHAS? f kaTOram chiSU m KUshiyipi? u vas MNOga VPEr/iiqi?

6. It is twelve minutes to five. You say: a. Be3 op,iiHHap;n;aTH nfiTb. b. ^BeHaApaTb MimyT n/rroro. c. Be3 ,n;BeHap;u;aTH MHHyT nnTb.

piz apiNnacipi PA p. dyiNAT dp ryiinut PAtava. piz dyiNA Tdpi ryiimit PA p.

7. You tell him he has lots of time. You say: a. y b&c Majio BpeMeHH. b. y Bac Miioro BpeMeHH. C. y BaC HeT BpeMeHH.

u vas MAla VpEijiirpi. u vas MNOga VpEtyiiqi. u vas EJET VpiNjiip, [7-C]


8. You tell him he’ll be in time for the train. You say: a. II6e3;n; nofloatjteT. b. n6e3,n; n^eT MeftJieimo. c. Bbi ycn^eTe Ha noe3,n;.

POyist padaZITDOT. POyist ipOT AfEdpna. vi uSppyiJi na POyist.

9. He says a. Mh6 b. Mh6 c. Mme

mye NAda pradaVA P pidyEti. mqe NAda kupif pidyET. mqe NAda DAT vam pidyET.

he has to buy a ticket. He says: Ha^o npo^aBaTb Ohjictbi. Hap,o KymiTb Omier. Happ p;aTB BaM OiiJieT.

10. You want to know how much a ticket costs. You say: a. Ck6jibko Kon6eK b py6ji6? SKOdyka kaPEyik v ruBdyE? b. Ckojibko y Bac py6ji6ii? SKOdyka u vas ruBdyE Y? c. Ckojibko ctoht 6hji6t? SKOdyka STOyit pidyET? 11. He says it costs 20 roubles and 30 kopeks. He says: a. ^BeHaflitaTB pySjien h TpimpaTB Kon^eK. b. T^BajtpaTB pyOjieft h TpH^paTB KoneeK. c. JI^BaApaTB pyOjieii n TpHHap,u,aTB KoneeK.

dyiNA Tci} ruBdyE Y i TftITciJ kaPEyik. D VA Tcip ruBdyE Y i T[UTci] kaPEyik. D VA Tci} ruBdyE Y i tjiNA Tci} kaPEyik.

12. He says tickets are sold both in town and at the ticket window in the station. He says: a. Bhji^tbi npoftaioTca tOjibko b Kacce Ha B0K3ajie. pidyEti pradaYUTsa TOTyka f KA§§i na vagZA\i. b. B ropojte h b Kacce na B0K3ajie npop,aeTCH v GOnuji i f KA.Syi na vagZAp prada YOTsa MHOrO OHJieTOB. MNOga pilyEtaf. c. Ehji^tbi npo^aioTCH b r6po,n,e h b Kacce Ha pidyEti pradaYUTsa v GOrapLi i f KA§§i na vagZA \i. BOK3ajie.



Section D

Listening In

1. What Did You Say?

3. Listening In

Give your answers in Russian for each of the exer¬ cises in the preceding sections, when the Leader calls for them. Then, as the Leader calls for them, give the English equivalents of all the expressions in the exercise.

With your book closed, listen to the following con¬ versations as read by the Guide or phonograph record. Repeat the Russian immediately after hearing it. After the first repetition of each conversation, check up on the meaning of anything you do not understand, by asking someone else or by going back to the Basic Sentences if no one knows. Repeat each conversation if necessary, then take parts and carry on the con¬ versation.

2. Word Study Check-Up As you have done in the previous units, go back to the Word Study and give the correct Russian for each English expression, without having to read it from the book. The Leader or one of the members of the group should read the English. Anna meets Ivan on his way to the airport.

Unit 7, Record Side 4, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM)

kuDA vi spiSHIJi, grazhd.aq.tn ivaNOF?




H eqy


BaM HpaBiiTca MocKBa?

vam NRAyitsa maSKVA?


J\a, oueHb. Moa cecTpa TaM.

DA, Ochirj. mayd §iSTRA TAM.

Attttr :

HeM OHa 3amiMaeTCH?

CHEM ana zarjiMAyitsa?


OHa yntiTeJiBHiiua.

OHa padoTaeT b xopdmen inKdjie.

and uCIIIJilrjica. and raBOtayit f xaROshiy SHKOli.


Bbi ejteTe noe3AOM?

vi YEfjUji POyizdam?


H^t, caMOJieTOM.

I$ET; samal^Otam.

bbi cnemhTe, b

rpaa^aHnn HBaHdB?

(33/5 RPM) Record Side 7, after 2nd spiral.


yd YEdu v maSKVU.




Ax; a Bcerjja xoTejia jieTaTb!

AX, yd f§iGDA xaffiEla \iTA f!


H ceiiaac Hp;y Ha aopoppoM. Bbi xoTHTe noiiTH Typ;a co mhoh?

yd §i CHAS iDU na airaDROM. vi xaj'lji pay J7 tuDA sa MNOY?


CnacnGo. H TaM miKorp,a He 6biaa.

spa§Iba. yd tarn qi kaGDA qi biLA.


HaM Hap;o cneniHTb.

nam ndda spiSHIJ'.




They arrive at the airport. HBaHOB:

H.3BHHHTe, MHe Ha^o noiiTH KyniiTB Ghjict. Tp;e npop;aK)TCH SiineTbi?

izyiffilji; mqe NAda payffil kuffilf piffiET. GffiE pradaYUTsa pipEti?


Bot Kacca. H Bac nOflOJK^y 3fl6cB.

VOTKASsa. yd vas padaZHD U %DE§.




In the ticket office. HBaHOB:

/I xoay SiineT b MocKBy. Ck6jibko oh ctoht?

yd xachu piffiET v maSKVU. SKOJffia on STOyit?


H BaM CKancy b op;Hy MHHyTy. Tpii^paTB p;Ba py6aa h p,BeHap;u;aTb non^eK. Bbi KOHeaHo 3HaeTe, ht6 caMoaeT oTjieTaeT b Tpii COpOK.

yd vam skaZHU v aDNU qiiNUtu. TJHTcij D VA ruBpA i dyiNATcij kaffiEyik. vi kalpEsJma ZNAyiJi shto samaTJPT atJiTAyit f Tffil SOrak.


CnacnSo. Ceiiaac aeTBepTbiii aac.

spa§Iba. §i CIIAS chiTyORtay CHAS.






Tp6 nHTb.

Outside. y MeHH Tpii,n;ii;aTB naTB Norayr. 3,n;ecB x6jioaho. IIoHAeMTe Ha aapoflpdM.

VOT IpilET. u tpi?}d TJUTciJ. PAf ijnN UT. %PE§ XOladna. payPOMji na airaDROM.


Ha aapoppoMe n Ha BOK3ajie Bcerp;a xojio^ho. Tenept k xoay bbiihitb aaro.

na airaDROijii i na vagZA \i J§iGDA XOladna. jiPEJd yd xachu vipij CHAyu.


Xopom6, noimeM.

xaraSHO, payPOM.


Bot SajieT.

Over the tea. AHHa:

noHeivry bbi ye3JKaeTe?

pa chiMU vi uyiZIIDZHA yift?


Mh6 HpaBHTCH MocKBa.

mqe NRAyitsa maSKVA.


H 6bijia TaM b HiKOJie. TaM SojiBHifie pecTopaHBi.

yd bila tam f SIIKOp. fmpe TO zhi NRAyitsa maSKVA. tam ba\SHIya jistaRAni.



kalpEshna, i MNOga malaDIX DEvushik.


Bot noHeMy 6h Typ;a cneuiHT!

VOT pa chimu on tuda spiSHIT!


KoHeHHo, hct!


Cenaac Tpii aeTBepTH aeTBepToro.

kaNEshna iyET! §i CHAS TJil CHEyirJi chiTyORtava.


AX, P[ET! u vas PEyiJ rjiiNUT.


Mh6 Hap;o httA

mye NAda ipI.


J^o cbhAIhbh!

da syiDAyya!


#0 CBH^aHBH !

da syiDAr^yal


Ax, h4t!



Section E—Conversation

1. Cover the Russian in Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Cover the Russian of the Basic Sentences and practice saying the Russian equivalents of the English expressions. 2. Vocabulary Check-Up Give the Russian expressions for the English equivalents in the Basic Sentences as the Leader calls for them.

3. Conversation As you have done in the Conversation in the previous units, begin to converse by following the models outlined below fairly closely; then change the situations somewhat. Invent new combinations of subject matter. 1. You are packing for a trip. A friend comes in and asks you where you are going. You tell him where you are going, and he asks if you like it there. You tell him you do and why, or that you have never been there, but you have heard . . . etc. Tell some¬ thing about the place, the weather, hotels, friends or relatives living there, etc. 2. You ask someone where he is going. He says he is going to the station to buy a ticket. You ask him if he can buy a ticket in town, but he says they are sold only in the ticket-office at the station. You ask him when the train leaves. He tells you, and you say that if he doesn’t hurry, he won't make it on time. He says no; he has twenty-five minutes. 3. You meet a friend, and he asks where you are hurry¬ Section

ing. You say you are not hurrying, that you are going to the airport. He asks if you are going away. You say you are not, but a nice girl works there. You met her yesterday. He asks if he can go to the airport with you. He has always wanted to fly. You tell him whether you have flown often or never. He asks again why you are hurrying. You tell him you wanted to meet her at half past four, but it’s past five now. 4. Two men discuss the advantages of trains and planes—the cost of a ticket between one city and another, the time one leaves and arrives by train and by plane. Use both the conversational and the time-table forms for telling time.

F—Conversation (Cont.)

Continue the conversations started in Section E with a review of parts 1 and 2 of the section if necessary.



FINDER LIST From now on, all words will be listed alphabetically according to their conventional spelling. For Numbers, see above under A2.6 in this Unit. aapoppoM [airaDROM] flying field 6e3 [J3EZ] without Ghjict [pidyET] ticket BTopoft [ftaRO Y] the second BbinHTb [VIpip] to drink up, to take a drink; Bbinbio [ VIpyu] I’ll take a drink ropoft [GOrat] city iUBTpa

[ZAftra] tomorrow


cash desk, ticket window

[kaTOray] which KynHTb [kuPIT] to buy; Kynjno [kuPpU] I’ll buy JieTaTb [liTAp] to fly KOTopbiii

MHHyTa [ijiiNUta] minute MOHb [MOCH] to be able; Mory [maGU] I can; MOJKeT [MOzhit] he (she, it) can Ha^o [NAda] it is necessary, one must Hy [iVt/] well; come on! otJieTaTb \at\iTA 71 to fly away OTXOflHTb [atxapiT] to go away, to depart noe3p; [POyist] train noe3flOM [POyizdam] by train

nojiOBHHa [palayina] half; half an hour noTOM [pa TOM] after that; then noTOMy [pa taMU] on account of that noTOMy hto [pa taMU shto] because noneMy [pa chiMU] on account of what? why? npo^aBaTb [pradaVA T] to sell npo^aioTca [pradaYUTsa] they are sold caMOJieT [samayOT] air plane caMOJieTOM [samapOtam] by plane ceroj^HH [§iVO dna] today ceiiaac [yi CHAS] just now; right away cneuiHTb [spiSIIIT] to hurry (’TaJiHHrpa^ [stapnGRAT] Stalingrad TaK [TAK] in this way, so, thus, as yesacaTb [uyiZHDZHA T] to go away (riding or driving), to depart (by train or car) ynce [uZHE] already ycneTb [uSpEp] to succeed, to get somewhere on time; ycneio [uSpEyu] I’ll get there; I’ll make it aac [CIIAS] hour; aacu [chiSI] watch, clock HeTBepTb [CHEtyirj] a fourth, a quarter; quarter of an hour [7-F]




Go once through the Basic Sentences in unison, con¬ centrating on the Aids to Listening, as you have done before. Then go through the Hints on Pronunciation and Spelling. Go once through the Basic Sentences indi¬


vidually trying to follow the Conventional Spelling as much as possible. The last time through individually, you should be able to follow the Conventional Spelling without any trouble.

1. Basic Sentences Boris needs a shave, a haircut, a pair of shoes, and is down to his last clean shirt. ■-ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS-• CONVENTIONAL SPELLING Unit 8, Record Side 1, beginning. (78 RPM) Boris (I) can Mory to find naiiTH laundry (A.S.) npaneuHyio laundress (A.S.) npanKy Where can I find a laundry or a T,n,6 a Mory HaftTfi np&ueHHyio laundress? fijin npauKy? one (G.F.)* clean (G.F.) 'IHCTOH shirt (G.) pyfiauiKH *F. = Feminine; M. = Masculine; N. = Neuter; L. = Locative. 172


• - AIDS TO LISTENING(33^ RPM) Record Side 8, beginning. maGU nayTI PRA chishnuyu PRACHku ' GPE yd magil nayTI PRA chishnuyu Ui PRACHku? aDNOY CHI stay ruBAshfyi

I haven’t even one clean shirt.








u tjtirjd NET tfi aDNOY CHI stay ruBAshpi.

Mary a (I) will send Pasha (woman’s nickname)** I’ll send you Pasha.

priSHC U PAsha yd vam priSIIC U PAshu.

npiiinjiio llama H BaM npmiijiib Ilamy.

Pasha to wash I’m the laundress. What do you need to have washed?

CTIipaTb H — npauna.

Mib BaM Ha^o CTupaTb?

yJiRA T YA, PRACHka. shto vam NAda §jiRA f?

Boris all dirty (N.) clothes or underwear bed (L.) All the dirty clothes are on the bed.

Bee rpH3Hoe 6ejibe

nocT&m Bee rpa3Hoe dejibe



F§0 GpiAznaya Inl YO ' pa§fEli F§0 GfiAznaya pi^YO na pa^J'Eli.

Pasha I’ll count Good; I’ll count it. eleven handkerchiefs (G.P.) Eleven handkerchiefs.

nocmiTaio Xopornd, a nocuHTaio. OflhHHaflpaTb HOCOBbIX njiaTKdB OAhHHanpaTb HocoBbix njiaTKdB.

pashchiTAyu xaraSHO; yd pashchiTAyu. aQINnacij nasaVIX platKOF aipiNnaci} nasaVIX plaTKOF.

**Not on the record. [8-A]


shirt (G.) Four shirts.

ruBAshpi chiTIfi ruBAshpi.

pybauiKH HeTbipe pyGannon

pairs (G.P.) socks (G.P.) Ten pairs of socks.

,I(ecHTb nap hoc6k.

receipt And here’s the receipt,




raSpiska i VOT raSpiska.

pacnhcKa bot pacnftcKa.

Boris when you will bring back* When will you bring my laundry back?

Korfla BepHeTe


Bbi BepHeTe

Moe Gejibe?

kaGDA yirPpOji kaGDA vi yiripOti mayo pip YO?

Unit 8, Record Side 2, beginning. (78 RPM) Pasha not earlier week (G.S.) Not sooner than a week [from now],

t}i RAtfshi

He paHbuie

Heflejm He panbuie ue^Gjin.

tpipEp 7}i RAtfshi qipEli.

Boris hurry bring back* (a bit) earlier Please hurry and get the laundry back as soon as you can. *The English on the record is an error. 174


nocnemhTe BepHeTe

nopaHbuie nomajiyiiCTa, nocneuifiTe, h BepHeTe Gejibe nopaHbuie.

paspiSIIIJi yiriplji paRA iyshi paZHALsta, paspiSHIji, i yiriplp pip YO paRAipshi.

remained (M.) I haven’t any clean clothes left. I’ll try All right, I’ll try. shoemaker Tell me, please; where’s there a shoemaker?

OCTajICH JI ocTajica 6e3 nncToro 6ejibA. Pasha nocTaparocn Xopoind, nocTapaiocb. Boris candJKHHK CKajKfiTe, nojKajiyncTa, candjKHHK?

aSTAL§a yd aSTAL§a pis CHIstava pil^YA. pastaRAyu§ xaraSHO, pastaRAyu§. saPOzhqik skaZHIpi, paZHALsta; GpE saPOzhtfik?

Pasha not far barber shop (G.) The shoemaker is not far from the barber shop. to repair two (F.) pair (G.S.) shoes (G.P.) That’s good. I need to have two pairs of shoes fixed. it seems to the barber It seems to me you need to go to the barber, too.


napHKMaxepcKoii Carid/KHiiK ne^ajiBKo ot napuKMaxepcKon. Boris nOUHHfiTb napti Sothhok 9to xopoind. Mh6 Ha^o nonHHfiTb ;o,b6 napti bOTfiHOK. Pasha K?bKeTCH k napnKMaxepy B&m, icameTCH, k napnKMaxepy TO/Ke HaAO.

->]i dapiKO pa/ikMA yirskay saPOzhqik i}i dapiKO at payik MA yirskay. pachilpl T DYE PAri ba T Inak eta xaraSHO. MJSJE nada pachiiplj' DyE PAri baYInak. KAzhitsa k payikMAyiru VAM, KAzhitsa, k pa/ikMAyiru TOzhi NAda.



to get a haircut to (get a) shave Yes, I need to get a haircut and a shave. I’ll bring as possible sooner Goodbye. I’ll bring the clothes as soon as possible Goodbye and thanks.

Boris nOCTpHHbCH no6pHTi>ca MHe Hap;o nocTpnmbCH h no6pHTbCH. Pasha npiiHecy

paS'TJUCHsa paBJUTsa DA, m?je nada paSTJZICHsa i paBpUTsa.





H npiraecy CKopee.

Sejite KaK m6jkho

Boris £o CBHp,aHi>Hj ii cnaciiSo.

pfirjiS U kak MOzhna skaJPEyi da syiDAqya. yd pyitjiSUpiJ^YO kak MOzhna skaRByi. da syiDAqya, i spadplba.

Before you go through the Basic Sentences a second time, read the following:

2. Hints on Pronunciation and Spelling The vowel [e\ The Russian vowel [e] before a palatal consonant it is something between the vowel of met and the vowel of mat. sounds almost like the English vowel of a word like day. This effect is especially striking if there is also a Russian [e] hardly ever occurs unstressed. palatal consonant before the vowel. At the end of a word or before a plain consonant, the Russian [e] sounds Now listen to the speaker on the record or to the more like the English vowel in a word like met; in fact, Guide and try to imitate exactly.



Unit 8, Record Side 3, beginning. (78 RPM) xoTeTb xafET BCTpeTHTB ESl'fcEjij



(33Vs RPM) Record Side 8, after 1st spiral. to want to meet

Tenepb 6cjih 6to



iiPEJZ. YE§li Eta fiSHEvp YEdu

now if this cheaper I am riding

The vowel [a] The Russian vowel [a] when accented is pretty close of a word and after plain consonants other than [c, sh, to the English accented vowel in a word like father. zh\. In the syllable just before the accent or at the end However, between palatal consonants it is almost like of a word it sounds like the a in father. In other syllables the English vowel of fat. (that is, after the accented syllable, or two or more sylla¬ bles before the accent) it has a weak, obscure, and very Unstressed [a] after a palatal consonant or [c, sh, zh\ short sound, something like the a in sofa. occurs only at the end of a word, and it there sounds somewhat like the a of fat. Now listen and imitate. Unstressed [a] occurs very commonly at the beginning

PRACTICE 2 Unit 8, Record Side 3, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) Ky«a KaK TaM riHTb H3yaa,Tb 7Thah MOJTOAaH

xopoinaa xopoino

kuDA KAK TAM PAT izuCHA T PAfa malaDAya xaROshiya xaraSHO

whereto how there five to study uncle a young one (F.) a good one (F.) it is good [8-A]


The vowels [0] and [u] The vowel [0] occurs only in stressed syllables. The vowel [u] occurs in all positions. Remember to round your lips for both these vowels.

PRACTICE 3 Unit 8, Record Side 3, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) raBOtaj padoTaTB ntere PYO}i uSHOL ymeji uyPOji yfifleTe JKIIBVT zhiVUT HIOHB iYUly DRUG, DRUK APyr JIIO^H Wi HOByiO NOvuyu yueHHK uchiiyiK y3Haio uZNAyu

to work you drink he went away you’ll go away they live June friend (male) people a new one (A.S.F.) pupil (male) I’ll find out

More numbers We now give some higher numbers, from 50 on. Imitate and practice saying them. fifty nHTBfleCHT picL (Ji§A T sixty mecTb^ecHT shiz (}i§A T seventy ceMB^ecaT §EM eighty VO§im pi§it BOCeMbfteCHT ninety piiyiNOsta fleBHHOCTO one hundred CTO STO two hundred flBeCTH DYE §}i three hundred TpncTa TJil sta



four hundred five hundred six hundred seven hundred eight hundred nine hundred one thousand million* Here there are fifty big houses.

neTbipecTa naTbcdT mecTbCOT CeMbCOT BOCeMbCOT

BeBnTbcoT Tbicaua MHJIJTIIOH 3flecb naTbRecHT 6ojibmfix

chiTI/i sta pit SOT shist SOT, shis SOT §im SOT va§im SOT $iyit SOT TI§icha mil, YON ZPE$ pid {USA T balSIIIX daMOF.


They live in fifty big houses.

Ohh /IyIibvt b mrnyaecHTii

Without eighty roubles I can’t travel.

Sojibinnx AOMax. Be3 BocbMHAecHTH pySjieil a He Mory exaTb.

The numbers 50, 60, 70, 80 consist of the words 5, 6, 7, 8 and a queer special form of the word 10. Note that in these combinations one of the two words always loses its accent. In the case forms other than the Nominative

aqi zhiVUT f piTI di§iji balSHIX daMAX. piz va§AJI dipji ruBJ^EY yd rji maGU YExaJ.

and Accusative, the words 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 have their ordinary forms. Nouns and adjectives are treated as with [PA J"].

I know a hundred Russian people here.

51 3HaiO 3A^Cb CTO pyCCKIIX jiiOAeii.

yd ZNAyu

STO R IJskix \uPEY.

There aren’t one hundred Russian people here.

3a6cb h6t CTa pyccKnx jiioa^h.


Here there are ninety big houses.

3a6cu agbhhocto 6ojibuifix AOMOB.

ZPE§ sliyiNOsta balSHIX daMOF.

'' Not on the record. [8-A]


They live in ninety big houses.

Ohh JKHByT b flemmoCTa Gojibiiihx flOMax.

The number 100 has the ending [-a] in cases other than the Nominative and Accusative. The number 90 is the same throughout. The conventional spelling writes -0 in the Nominative and Accusative and -a in the other We know two hundred Russian people here. There aren’t two hundred Russian people. They live in two hundred big houses. They live in eight hundred big houses.



case forms, but since the vowel is unstressed, the sound is always just [-a]. Nouns and adjectives are treated as with [PATI

Mbi 3HaeM 3jj;6cb jjb^cth pyccKHX jiioaOi.


mi ZNAyim %de§ DyE §}i RUspix luPEY. %pe§ XET dvux SOT RUsfyix /uPE Y.


Ohh jKHByT b AByxcTax Oojibimix ,n,OMax. Oh6 JKHByT B BOCbMHCTaX

Oojibiiinx AOJviax.

The numbers from 200 to 900 consist of the numbers from 2 to 9 and forms of the word [NTO]. One part is always unstressed. In [DyE §}i\ both parts have an odd shape. In [Tpi 5/0] and [chiTIji s/a] the second part is the Genitive Singular of [NTO]. In 500 to 900 the second part [NOT] is the Genitive Plural of [NTO] treated as a Neuter noun (no ending and an inserted vowel). Here is a thousand roubles. Give me a thousand roubles. Without a thousand roubles he can’t travel.

ani zhiVUT v dimNOsta balSHIX daMAX.

In cases other than the Nominative and Accusative, the numbers 2 to 9 have their usual forms, and 100 is treated as a Plural: Genitive [NOT], Locative [NTTA"]. Nouns and adjectives are treated as with [PAT]•

B6t Tbicaua py6ji4ii. JfaiiTe mii6 Tbicauy pyOjiOi. Be3 tAchhh pySa^H oh He MdjKeT


ani zhiVUT v dvux STAX balSHIX daMAX. at}i zhiVUT v va§rjii STAX balSHIX daMAX.

VOT TI§icha ruBIyE Y. DA Yji mt}e TI§ichu ruBT^E Y. pis TI§ichi ruB^E Y on iji MOzhit YExaJ.

There are two thousand people living there.


Here there are eight thousand big houses.


They live in eight thousand big houses.


They live in one thousand big houses.


One million people live in this city.


jKHByT jpie BOCeMb






ZPE§ VO§iyi TI§ich balSHIX daMOF.



aqi zhiVUT v va§A[I TI§ichix balSHIX daMOF.




TBicmie 6ojibihhx





v Etam GOradi zhiyOT miL YON luPEY.


v qyu YORpi pU&i zhiVUT v mipYOqi daMOF.


In New York the people live in a million houses.

B 11 B IO-II6 p KC

They live in two million houses.




MHJIJIHdHe p,om6b. b 3,Byx


The word [TI§icha] is a Feminine noun and the word [mip YON] is a Masculine noun. Hence [TI§icha\ has the Accusative form [TI§ichu\. With these words the nouns

arp zhiVUTf TI§ichi balSHIX daMOF.


zhiVUT v DVUX mipYOnax daMOF.

and adjectives that tell what is counted are usually in Genitive Plural form. (Some speakers treat them as after PAT).

Hints on spelling. Kor6 bit 3;j;ecb bctp^thtcP -—kaVO vi FSTJlEfiji?—mayivo Whom are you going to meet here?— Moerd MJiaflHiero 6paTa. MLATshiva BRAta. My younger brother. The Genitive Masculine and Neuter ending of adjectives and pronouns [ova, -ava, -iva, -avo, -ivo\ is spelled with the letter r: -oro; -ero. Koyya bbi ye3JKaeTe? kaGDA vi uyiZHDZIIAyip? When are you leaving? HeT ji;ojkji;h. F[ET daZHDZHA. It isn’t raining. There is no letter for the sound [ ZHDZH ]. It is written with two letters, such as 3JK, tkr.



Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences

1. Word Study (Individual Study) A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES u qiind IpET qi aDNOY CHIstay y MeHit HeT HH OAHOH UHCTOII ruBAshki. pydaixiKH. I haven’t ever told anyone anything A HiiKor,n,a HHKOMy irauero He yd qi kaGDA qi kaMU qi chiVO qi cKa3aji 06 9tom. skaZAL ab Etam. about that. If the main part of a sentence, such as the verb, has a negative ([qi, qet]), certain other words also have negatives. I haven’t even one clean shirt.

mqe qada na POchtu. I have to go to the post office. MHe Hajto Ha ndwry. I have to go to the barber’s. MHe Hano k irapincMaxepy. mqe ndda k pajikMAyiru. I have to go there. Mh6 najto Ty.na. mqe ndda tuDA. Where are you going? KyAa bbi? kuDA vi? When a sentence contains an expression that means whereto (‘to the post office’), a verb meaning ‘to go’ is often unnecessary. Walk faster. HaAtc CKopee. ipiji skajdEyi. Bring back my laundry fairly soon. BepiiHTe Moe 6ejir>e nocKopee. yirdplji mayo pil^YO paskaJZEyi. I can’t bring it back earlier than A He Mory BepHyTb ero paHbine yd qi maGU yirNUf yivo RAPpshi in a week. Hcy'teJHi. qiJ)E\i. He’s older than I. Oh CTapme Meiffi. on STARshi qiiqa. The comparative form of adjectives (‘more, faster, older’) has various endings like [-eyi] or [-shi]. With [pa-] prefixed it means ‘a little more’. With a comparative, the Genitive case means ‘than’. I’ll come back as soon as possible. A BepHycr. KaK m6jkho CKopee. With [kak MOzhna] ‘as possible’ they use the comparative.



yd yirNU§ kak MOzhna skaJGEyi.

sock barber kerchief shoemaker

shoe week pair Pasha (nickname) bed laundress receipt shirt

N.S. naSOK pajikMAyir plaTOK saPOzhqik

N.S. bafINka qiDEpi PAra PAsha pa§TEl PRACHka raSpiska ruBAshka

B. NEW NOUNS Masculine: G.S. naSKA pa/ikMAxira plaTKA saPOzhqika Feminine: A.S. ba P INku qipEpi PAru PAshu pa§TEl PRACHku raSpisku ruBAshku

N.P. naSIyl payikMAyiri plaTlyl saPOzhqifyi

G.S. bapiNfyi qipEp PAri PAshi pappEp PRA CHki raSpisfyi ruBAshki

G.P. naSOK, naSKOF payikMA yiraf plaTKOF saPOzhqikaf

N.P. ba P IN pi qipEp PAri

G.P. bapinak qipE\ PAR

pa§PEp PRA CHpi raSpispi ruBAshpi

paPPEpy PRA chik raSpisak ruBAshik

Neuter: N.S. G.S. linens, washing pip YO pi&YA Note that the words [papkMAyirskaya] ‘barber shop’ and [PRAchishnaya] ‘laundry’ are not nouns but adjectives, in Feminine form. C. VERBS Imperative form. pashchiTAY pipYO. Count the laundry (familiar form). IIocuHTaH SeJite. [8-B]


Count the laundry, please (ordinary IIocuHTaHTe 6ejine, nomajiyncTa. paschiTAYfipipYO, paZHALsta. form). The Imperative form of the verb is used in commands. There is a familiar form and an ordinary form. The ordinary form is made by adding the ending [-ji] to the familiar form. If the Present stem of the verb ends in \y] the familiar imperative adds no ending: Present: [pashchiTAyu] familiar Imperative: [pashchiTA Y] Present stem: [pashchitay-] ordinary Imperative: [pashchiTA Y}i] Drink the milk (familiar). lien mojioko. PEY malaKO. Have some tea, please (ordinary IlenTe nail, mmajiyncTa. PEYji CHA Y, paZHALsta. form). If the Present stem ends in [y] with another consonant before it, the vowel [e\ is inserted: Present: [PYU] familiar Imperative: [PEY] Present stem: \py-] ordinary Imperative: [pEYji] Please tell me what time it is. CKamhTe, nomajiyiicTa, KOTdptitt skaZHIji, pazhalsta, kaTOray pipej Tenepn uac? CHAS? Please bring me a cup of coffee. IIpHHecHTe Mfie, iiomajryucTa, pyitpplji m?je, paZHALsta, CHAshku uaniKy k6(}:>c. KOfi. Buy this house. KynuTe 3tot «6m. kupiji etat DOM. If the Present stem does not end in [y], and if it accents any endings, the Imperative has the ending [-,i\: Present: [skaZHU] ‘I’ll say’, [ppirpiSU] ‘I’ll bring’. Present stems: [skazh-, ppir^is-, kup-} [kuPpU, KUpit] ‘ I’ll buy, he’ll buy’ Imperative: [skaZHIji, p/ipiplji, kupiji] Introduce me to your sister. IIoanaKhMUTe mch/i c Bameii paznaKOApi rpir}d s vashiy piSTROY. cecTpdii. Meet me here at half past five. BcTp^TbTe Metra 3«4cb b FSTpEppi yjiirpa ZPE§ f palayiqi xiojiOBHHe mecTdro shiSTOva.



If the Present stem does not end in [3/] and accents no endings, the Imperative is made with that is, it takes no ending, but the last consonant gets palatalized: Present: \paznaKOm\u, paznaKOipit\ ‘I’ll make acquainted, he’ll make Present stems: [paznakom-, fstyet-\ acquainted’, [FSTJLEchu, FSTJIEpit} ‘I’ll meet, he’ll meet’ Imperative: [paznaKOFfpi, FST]LEJ'Ji\ Please clean my shoes.

IIojKajiyftcTa, nouticTUTe mo6 6othhkh.

Instead of the form with no ending and [-,], the ending

paZFIALsta, paCHI§}iji mayi baf.IN pi.

unstressed, is used when the stem ends in two consonants.

Present: [CHIshchu, CHI§jit] ‘I clean, he cleans’ Present stem: [chist-] Imperative: [CHI§}i}i\ Drive to the left. IIoe3JKaHTe najicao. payiZHDZHA Yji na I^Eva. The verb [ YExaj] has no Imperative forms; the command ‘ride, drive, go (not on foot)’ is made from a longer verb. Reflexive forms. IIojKajiyficTa, noflpefiTe MeHa. H Bac ceftaac no6p&o. Mu6 Ha^o noflpflTbca. nocTpiiriiTe Mena, noacajiyflcTa. Mh6 Hap;o nocTpuabca. Oh nocTphrca. IIoSpeHTecB h nocTpHrflTecb. Bbi, KarKCTca, no6pnjiHCb h

Please shave me. I’ll shave you right away. I have to shave (myself). Cut my hair, please. I must get my hair cut. He has had his hair cut. Get a shave and a haircut. You’ve got a shave and a haircut, nocTpnrjiHCb. it seems. H cadpo BepHy Bame 6ejibe. I’ll soon bring back your laundry. H. cadpo BepH^Cb. I’ll soon come back. add [-^c] or [-5a] to the verb form after The reflexive forms, as we have seen, The meanings of Reflexive forms va ry greatly.

paZHALsta, paBJIE Yji ryi-qa. yd vas §i CHAS paBJiEyu. mi}e nada paB]iITsa. pastjiQIji r}iir}d, paZHALsta. rm}e nada paSTRICHsa. on paSTJUKsa. paBRE Y}i§ i pastjiQIjis. VI, KAzhitsa, paBJiI[i§ i paSTpUg[i$. yd SKOra yirNU vdsha pil^ YO. yd SKOra yirNU§. 1 consonant, and [-§] or [-5] after a vowel. [8—B]


It seems to me you aren’t well. Mh6 KanceTca, bh He3,n,op6Bbi. Will you stay here? Bbi 3,n,6cb ocTaHeTecb? Some verbs occur only in the Reflexive form. I drank lots of water. I drank [up] three glasses of water. The little boy is already walking. The train leaves at quarter past two. He’s just now coming into the restaurant.

Compound verbs. A nfiji MHoro boabi.

mqe KAzhitsa, m qi zdaROvi. vi £PE§ aSTAqiji§?

II6e3A otxoaht b ueTBepTb

yd piL MNOga vaDI. yd VIpi\ TRI staKAna vaDI. MAI^chik uzhe XOdit. POyist atXOij.it f CIIEtyirj T REJyiva.

TpeTbero. Oh Kan pas bxoaht b pecTopam

on kak RAS FXOdit v pistaRA N.

A Bbiimji Tph CTaKaHa boam. MajibuiiK yace xoaht.

Verbs are compounded with various prefixes, such as [vi-, at-, z>-]. Most of these have the same shape as prepo¬ sitions. The forms of a compound verb are like those of the simple verb. The meaning is sometimes slightly different and sometimes very different. I have to go now. I have to find a laundress. He has to leave right away.

MHe Hajjo Tenepb iitth. MHe HaAO HaiiTfi npauKy. Eivry na;j,o cefhiac yfiTfi.

mye NAda Jipep ifI. rw}e NAda nayjl PRACHku. yimu NAda §i CHAS uyfl.

After a prefix, the [f] of the verb [ifl] becomes [y]. I have to go to the third floor of this house to look for one of my friends.

MHe naflo noiiTH Ha TpeTiin aranc ?>Toro fldMa, HCKaTb oflHoro Moero TOBapnma.

mqe NAda payjl na TJlEjiy eTASII etava DOma, iSKAJd adnaVO mayivo ta VApishcha.

Come to the third floor; I live on the third floor.

IIoAHTe Ha TpfiTHii 3Tam;

papiji na TREjiy eTASH; yd zhiVU na TREjyem eUiZIIE.

Ha TpeTbeM aTanfib

A miiBy

The compound [paypi] has the irregular Imperative [papiji], with loss of [y],



New verbs. We give the new verbs of this Unit in their shortest form, leaving off prefixes and the Reflexive endings wherever possible. Present of Type 1: Infinitive I he, she, it Past to shave BJUT BJZEyu, BREyit BJUL to read chiTA J chiTAyu chiTAyit chiTAL Compounds: shchiTAJpashchiTA f ‘ to count’ to look for to be going (on foot)




Ishchit ipOT


Compounds: nayfl ‘to find’, payJY‘to go to a place’. to seem


to carry

ni§T I

kaZHU§ KAzhitsa Compound: skaZAf ‘ to tell’. 7}iSU



TJOS, niSLA, niSLO, nispi

Compound: pyiqipT11 to bring’. to send


SIITU SIIIOT Compound: pjiSLAT ‘ to send up, over’.

to try hard to begin

staRATsa ST AT

staRAyu§ staRAyitsa ST Ann ST A nit Compound: aSTATsa ‘to stay, remain, be left’.


staRALsa STAL [8-B]


to wash (clothes) to cut (hair) to bring back


§RRAyu stfiGU yirNU Reflexive: yirNUTsa ‘to come back,

RiRAyit st/iZHOT yirJROT


go back’.

Present of Type 2.

chilliT CIIlRi} xaRIR

chitfU CHIqit, chi JR IT CHIshchu CIII§jit xaZHU XOdit Compound :fxapiR ‘to go in, to come in’.

to repair to clean to walk

chilRIL CHRjil xaDIL

D. DATIVE CASE Give this young man five roubles.

J^aiiTe iihtb py6ji6ii 9T0My

MOJiOflOMy uejiOBeKy.

DA Yji RA R ruBRE Y etamu nidlaDOmu chilayEku.

Masculine and Neuter nouns have the ending [-u\ in the Dative case form. Masculine and Neuter adjectives have the ending [-omu]. The accent is the same as in the Genitive. When a verb has two objects, a person and a thing, the person is in the Dative case, and the thing in the Accusative. I have given the letter to one of H p,aji nnci>MO o^noMy MoeMy yd dal pi§MO adnrnnu mayimu my friends. TOBapuiny. taVA/ishchu. The special adjectives [MOY] and [apiN] have the ending [-amu] in the Dative Masculine and Neuter. Give the laundry to this young girl.

^aiiTe fiejite 3toh mojioj],6h ft^Byimce.

DA Yji piRYO etay malaDOY pEvushki.

I’ve given the letters to your wife. A rracbMa Bameii Htene. yd DAL PI§ma vdshiy zhilRE. Feminine nouns in the Dative case have the ending [-,e], unstressed [-,i]; Feminine adjectives have the ending [-oy]. This is the same as the Locative.



Give the receipt to my sister. JJaiiTe pacrmcKy Moeii cecTpe. DA Yji raSftlsku mayey ftSTftE. The special adjective [MO Y] has the ending [-ey] in the Dative Feminine. This is the same as the Locative. I gave the tickets to your sons. 51 p;aji dujieTBi BarniiM cbihobbhm. They are selling the house to these Ohh npop,aioT hom stiim mojioabim young people. jhoahm. Plural nouns in the Dative case have the ending [-am]; adjectives {-im\.

yd dal piftEti vashim sanayYAM. ai}i pradaYUT DOM ejim malaDIM ftUpim.

DA Yji rntpe raSftlsku. JJaiiTe HaM dnjieTti. DA Yji nam pi ft Ed. yd vam nay DU PRACHku. 51 BaM iiaiDy npauny. JdaiiTe eMy iihcbm6. DA Yji yimu pi§MO. JdaiiTe eh uaio. DA Yji yey CHAyu. JdafiTe hm iihtb py6ji6u. DA Yji yim ft A ft ruBftE Y. KoMy bbi flajiH nficBMa? kaMU vi DA ft ftlftma? IIoHeMy bbi TaK roBopiiTe? pa chiMU vi TAK gavaftlji? The Dative forms of the pronouns are [kaMU, chiMU, MIfE, NAM, VAM, yiMU, YEY, YIM]. The familiar form for ‘you’ in the Dative is [jipSE].

Give me a receipt. Give us the tickets. I’ll find a laundress for you. Give him the letter. Give her some tea. Give them five roubles. To whom did you give the letters? Why do you say that?

J^aiiTe mh£ pacnficny.

0h4 p;ajia Tfiicauy pyfiji&'i p,ByM and daLA TI§ichu ruBftE Y DVUM She gave a thousand roubles to her flouepaM, a TpeM cbihobbhm hiidachiJiAM, a TJIOM sanayYAM two daughters, and nothing to uerd. i].i chiVO. her three sons. Ehji6tbi mbi flajm ueTBipeM pi ft Ed mi daft chitiftOM naslum We gave the tickets to four friends HamiiM p;py3BHM. drug YAM. of ours. The Dative forms of 2, 3, 4 are [DVUM, TftOM, chitiftOM]. Nouns and adjectives that go with them are Dative Plural.



They gave tickets to five people. Ohh najin fiHjieTtx iihth jiioahm. The numbers from 5 on have the Dative like the Genitive and Locative.

at}i da\i piT^Eti piTI JJUJim.

He has already told this to a Oh yncfi CKa3aji sto TtiCHne thousand people. jno^^n. You are talking to a million Bbi Ten^pn roBopnTe mhjijih6hy people now. jhoa&i. The words [TI§icha\ and [mil, YON] are nouns.

on uzhe skaZAL eta TI§ichi luTJ)EY. w Jipef gavaJUji mi]J YOnu \uIJ)E Y.

Don’t talk to me about that. He roBopnTe mh6 06 9tom. tji gavaJUji meje ab Etam. Tell me, please: what time it CKamfiTe mh6, noxKajiyncTa: skaZHIJi mr}e paZHALsta: kaTOray KOTdpBTH TenfipB nac? is now? Jipej CHAS? Tie verbs [gavaJUJ'] and [skaZA f] have an object (the person to whom one talks) in the Dative case. KaK BaM HpaBiiTCH MocKBa? kdk vam NRAyitsa maSKVA? Mh6 KanteTca, ht6 OHa mqe KAzhitsa shto and rji zdaROva. He3flop6Ba. The verbs [NRAyitsa] and [kaZATsa] take an object in the Dative case; this object is the person to whom some¬ thing is pleasing or to whom something seems to be so and so. How do you like Moscow? It seems to me that she is not well.

I’ll like that very much (‘That will be very pleasant for me’). We shall have to go to the post office (‘it will be necessary for us’). I ’nr thirsty (‘ to me there is want to drink’). I feel cold (‘To me it’s cold’). Do you feel warm here?



3to mii6 6yAeT oneHB npiiHTHo.

eta mtfe bujit Ochirj pfiYAtna.

HaM Hajto nouTy.

nam NAda buej.it pay'll na POchtu.

fiyfteT noiiTH Ha

Mh6 xoueTca nfiTb.

mye XOchitsa PIT-

MHe xojioaho.

rntje XOladna. vam % ncapKo.

nvrj,e fipey xaraSHO. §iVO dqa Ochirp ZHARka.

The Neuter of the short form is used to make a full sentence, like a verb (‘it’s good, it’s hot’). He took a more expensive room.

Oh b3hji 6ojiee Aoporyio

on v§al boliyi daraGUyu KOmnatu.


This room is more expensive than mine.

3xa KOMHaTa bojiee floporaa Tid.\i MOH. 3th KOMHaTa ^opojKe Moeii. 9Ta KOMHaTa ^opojKe ueM moh.

Eta KOmnata boliyi daraGAya chem maYA. Eta KOmnata daROzhi ma YE Y. Eta K Omnata daROzhi chem ma YA.

In meanings like ‘more expensive’ (‘more so and so’) they use [BOliyi] ‘more’ with the long forms. For ‘is more expensive’ (‘is more so and so’) they use also the comparative form. The comparative form has only one ending [-i], but the preceding part of the word has various shapes (skafiEyi, BO\iyi, diSHEvli, daROzhi). He is older than I. I have an older brother. She is younger than I. She is my younger sister.

Oh CTaprne MeHa.


MeHH CTapiHHH 6paT.

OHa Mojioace MeHa.

OHa moh Mjianmaa cecTpa.

on STARshi ytiqd. u 'tpirpa STARshiy BRAT, and maLOzhi ijii'qd. anA may a MLATshiya §iSTRA.

Only a few adjectives have a long comparative form, with full adjective endings, beside the usual short comparative. Meals. The Russian breakfast is mostly just tea and rolls or bread. They call it ‘tea’ or ‘morning tea’. We breakfast (‘drink tea’) at half past seven.

Mu meM aau b noaoefine BoebMoro.

mi pyom CHA Yf palayhji va§MOva.

A light meal in the earlier part of the day is called [ZAftrak]. An .American breakfast (say, with ham and eggs or cereal) seems big to the Russians and they call it [ZAftrak], Ordinarily, [ZAftrak] is a meal like our lunch. [9-B]


We lunch at half past twelve.

Mii 3a.BTpaKaeM b nojiOBfine n^pBoro. 3aBTpaK b nac.

Lunch is at one o’clock.

The principal meal of the day is called [aPET]. corresponds to our dinner. Dinner is served. They eat dinner here at half past five.

mi ZAftrakayim f palayiqi PERvava. ZAftrak f CHAS.

It may come anywhere from two to six or seven o’clock. It

066,n; Ha ctoji6. Ode^aioT 3a6cb b iionoBfine

aPET na sta^E. apEdayut %de§ f palayiqi shiSTOva.

mecToro. A lighter meal, later than the main meal, and often quite late in the evening, is called [Uzhin]. The supper at the restaurant was good but expensive. We had supper at half past ten.

Yjkhh b pecTopane 6biji xopom, h6 flopor.

MTi ymnnajiH b nojiOBhHe o,n;fiHHa,i],H,aToro.

Uzhin v fistaRAqi bil xaROSH, n6 DOrak. ni Uzhinap f palayiqi aJ)lNnacitava.

Downstairs. The expression [v qiZU] ‘downstairs’ means literally ‘in the low place’. The ending [-«], always accented, is a second Locative form which some Masculine nouns have after the prepositions [f] and [na]. We have already met [fPERvam chiSU]‘in the first hour’. Like many other expressions, [z> qiZU] is written as one word in conventional Russian orthography; compare HjieBo, nanpaBo, noueivry.

dinner address Alexander Ivan pencil month



N.S. APET Adfis alikSANDR iVAN karanDASH A$E§ic

B. NEW NOUNS G.S. apEda Adj'isa apkSA Ndra iVAna karandaSHA AJE§ica

N.P. apEdi Ad/isi

G.P. apEdaf Ad/isaf

karandaSHI E§ici

karandaSHE Y ApE§icif

low part boarding house row table chair supper breakfast

ijis pan§ YON XA T STOL STUL JJzlfiin ZAjtrak

IJIza pan§ YOna fiAda staLA STUla Uzhina ZAftraka

7}iZI pan§ YOni fiDI staLI ST Ulya Uzhini ZAftrafyi

qiZOF pan§ YOnaf j-iDOF staLOF STUM Uzhinaf ZAftrakaf

Feminine: razor paper room kitchen apartment street

N.S. BJUtva buMAga KOmnata KUxqa kvaRJ'Ira, U\ica

A.S. BJUtvu buMAgu KOmnatu KUxqu kvaR TIru Ulicu

G.S. BJUtvi buMAgi KOmnati KUxqi kvaR TIri Ulici

N.P. BJUtvi buMAgi KOmnati K Uxiji kvaR J1Iri Ulici

G.P. BJUTF buMAK KOmnat KUxai} kvaR XIR Ulic

Neuter: N.S. G.S. N.P. G.P. aKNA window aKNO Okna Okan Observe that [ga§rf Inaya\ ‘living room, parlor’, [staLOvaya] ‘dining room’, 1 VAN nay a\ ‘bathroom’ are not nouns, but adjectives in Feminine form. C. NEW VERBS Infinitive to eat dinner afiEdaJ to write piSA X Compound: patpiSA X ‘ to sign’.

Present of Type 1: I afiEdayu piSHU

he, she, it aJSEdayit XI shit

Past aPEdal pi SAL [9—B]


to eat supper to take

UzhtnaJ. V%AP

Uzhinayu vagMU

Uzhinayit va%AfOT

to breakfast




Uphinal V£AL, vqi. V?Ala, ZAftrakal

to look


Present of Type 2: smaTpU



Compound: pasmaTPEP ‘ to take a look’.


yif.it yizhu to see yifn Note that [vay J'l] ‘ to come in, to go in’ is a compound of [i pi]; hence [vayPOT] ‘ he will go in’, [vaSHOL] ‘ he went in’. He writes with a red pencil. I always write with a fountain pen. Are you going by train, by auto, or by plane?

D. INSTRUMENTAL CASE Oh nnmcT KpaciiLiM KapaH^amoM. dl Bcer,n;a mirny BenHLiM nepdM. Bbi ^eTe noe3AOM, aBTOModiiJieM iijin caMOJieTOM?

on pi shit KRAsnam karandaSHOM. yd f§iGDA piSHU YEchnam piROM. vi YEfiji POyizdam, aftamapipm, Hi samafOtam?

Masculine and Neuter nouns have the ending [-om\ in the Instrumental case. Masculine and Neuter adjectives have the ending [-im\ (unstressed -im, -am). The Instrumental case tells by means of what something is done. I can’t write with this pen. H ne Mory nnca,Tb :jthm nepoM. yd qi maGU piSAp Ejim piROM. (To say it) in one word: I don’t O^hAm cjiobom: A He xoh^. aDIfIM SLOvam: yd qi xaCHU. want to. The adjectives [apiN], stem [adq-\, and [Etat], stem [ej-] take the ending [-,im] in the Masculine and Neuter Instrumental. I shave with a safety razor. A 6p6iocn 6e3onacHoft SpfiTBott. yd BPEyus pizaPAsnay Bpitvay. I always wash with cold water. dl Bcer^a m6k>cb xojidflHoii BOfldii. ydfpGDA MOyus xaLOdnay vaDOY. Feminine nouns and adjectives have the ending [-oy] in the Instrumental case. Sometimes, in slow speech, they use a longer ending [-oyu], as [xaLOdnayu vaDOyuj. 214


You can shave with my razor.

Bbi Mojitexe SpiiTbcn Moeh

vi mozhiti BRITsa maYEY BRlTvay,


The adjective [MOY] has the ending {-ey\ in the Feminine Instrumental. I was talking with your brother. Do you want potatoes with the meat?

He has gone to Moscow with my brother John. The preposition

[5, 5a]

hi roBopuji c BarniiM 6pa,T0M. XoTiiTe KapTouiKy c mhcom? Oh no&xaji b MocKBy c mohm SpaTOM IlBaHOM.

yd gavaJUL s vashim BRAtam. xaRIJi kaRTOshku s RfAsam? on paYExal v maSKVU s mayim BRAtam iVAnam.

with the Instrumental case means ‘in company with, along with, together with’.

I want a clean room with a clean bed. She is living in Moscow with her older daughter.

hi xouy uiicTyio KOMHaTy c hiictoh noerejibio. OHa jkhbSt b Mockb6 co CTapnieii floneptio.

yd xachu CHlstuyu KOmnatu s CHIstay paRRElyu. and zhiyot v maSKyE sa STArshiy DOchi/yu.

Feminine nouns whose Nominative form ends in a consonant, such as [paRRER, DOCH\, have tne ending [-yu] in the Instrumental case. He wants to talk with our friends.

Oh xdneT ronopuTb c HauniMii p,py.3i>HMH.

He is now working in a hotel, together with my brothers.

Oh xenepn paboTaeT b rocTHiiHpe, bmcctc c mohmh opaTwiMii.

on XOchit gavaJUf s nashiipi drugYA-yii. on }ipep raBOtayit v yzey/f s mayirpi BRAjyiryi.


Plural nouns in the Instrumental case have the ending [-arpii]; plural adjectives have the ending [-irjti]. I don’t even want to talk to those people. Mr. Ilyin has gone to America with his wife and children.



He xouy. rpaucyaiTHH Hjibira c iKenofi 11 p;eTbMH no^xaji b AMepuny.

s Ejirjii luyL^I yd i gavaRIR qi xaCHU. grazhdarjdn iR YIN zh zhiNOY i yHjl\pI pa YExal v alipEriku.

The Plural nouns [REji] and [RUpi] have the ending [-yyii\, accented, in the Instrumental case. [9-B]


He lives there with two friends.

Oh TaM jkhbSt c abvmh

on tarn zhiyOT z dvuAfA ta VArishchirpi.


I was dining with three friends. She came with four friends.

A ooepaJi c TpeMH ppyabHMH. Ona npmnjia c ucTbipbMH n p it /i t ejiBii h paMH.

yd afiEdal s tjiAIA drnZ YArpi. and pjiSHLA s chitirApA pji YA pifoicirpi.

The numbers 2, 3, 4 have the Instrumental forms [dvuAfA, tjiAfA, chitirAfA]. They arrived with five children. He went away with the twenty roubles. With thirty roubles a week you can live very well here. The numbers from 5 to 10, as well There goes the teacher with fifteen or sixteen little boys.

OhH npHIHJIH C nHTBK) pGTbMH. Oh ymeji c pBapuaTbio pyfijiHMii.

ai}i priSH^I s pifYU pip Ad I. on uSIIOL z dvacifYU ruBlAmi.

C Tpnp;H,aTBK) pydjiHMH b Hefl&mo bbi MOJKeTe dueHB xopomd jk6tb 3p;ecb.

s tjiciT YU ruBT^Aipi v ijiDILlu vi mozhiti Ochin xaraSBIO ZHIT

20 and 30, have the ending [~yu\, Bot ripex ymiTeabimpa c hhtuappaTbio h.:ih mecTiiapuaTbio

ac¬ cented, in the Instrumental. VOT ipOT uCHIpifoica s pitNATcijyu i\i shisNATcipyu MAT^chikarpi.


The numbers from 11 to 19 have the ending [-yu], unstressed, in the Instrumental case. Off they went with my hundred forty roubles. With ninety nine people out of a hundred you can’t talk that way.

Yihjih oiih c moiimtt CTa copona pyOjIHMH. C p,eBHHdcTa ^eBHTbio jiioflbMfi H3


k ti




uSIipi atjd s ma YImi ST A saraKA ruBpAipi. z piyiNOsta piyiTYU ludAp I is ST A vi iji AfOzhiJi TAK gavapiiy.

TOBOpfiTb. The numbers 40, 90, 100 have the Instrumental like the Genitive, Locative, and Dative.



With five hundred fifty roubles I can’t go to America.

C miTbiocTa\«i nuTbioAecHTbio pydjiHMH a He Mory noexarb b AnepiiKy.


pipyu Sl'A tpi pVfYUpisijyu ruBT^Arpi yd qi maGU paYExaJ v aAJEriku.

The numbers 50, 60, 70, 80, and the hundreds from 200 to 900 take the endings on the .separate parts. Only one part has an accent. [6TO] has the Plural form. I’ve already spoken about that with a thousand people. With three thousand roubles you can go to America. He came back from America with a million roubles.

yat6 roBopfiji 06 btom c TbicauBio Jiro^eri. C TpeMa TbicaaaMH pyojieii bbi MOJKeTe noexaTb b AMepHKy. Oh BepHyacH H3 AMepurai c mhjijihohom pyojieii. JI

yd uzhe gavaJUL ab etam s TIpichyu \uTJE Y. s tyiAfA TIpchiqii ruBT^EY vi mozhiji pa YExap v aApEyiku. on prNULsa iz aApEriJ^i s qiip YOnam ruBJ^E Y.

The words [TI§icha\ and [qiipYON] are nouns. [TIpicha] has usually the ending [-yu\ in the Instrumental case. With whom were you talking?


5 IyEM vi gavaJUft?

What are you studying (working at) now? (‘With what are you occupying yourself?’) Come with me. Come with us. You and I (‘we with you’) will soon talk about that. He and I (‘we with him’) often lunch in this restaurant. I have recently got acquainted with her.

H6m bbi Tenepb 3aHHMaeTecb?

CHEM vi Jipey zaqiMAyi}i§?

IIoAfiTe co mhoh. IIoflfiTe C HaMH. Mbi c bbmh cKopo 6yACM

papiji sa MNOY. papiji s NAqii. mi s VArpii SKOra bufiim gavafllj' ab Etam. mi s ApIM CHAsta ZAftrakayim v Etam yistaRA qi. mi s ipE Y qi DAvna paznaKOryii\i§.

rOBOpHTb 06


Mbi c h6m nacTO 3a,BTpaKaeM b 6tom pecTopane. Mbi c nek HenaBHo n03HaKOMHJIHCb.



I have never talked with them.

II c iHimii HHKor^a He roBopnji.

yd s ftIrpi pi kaGDA pi gavaft.IL.

The Instrumental forms of the pronouns are as above. Beside [MNOY] there is a longer form [MNOyu]. The familiar form for ‘you’ is [taBOY] or [taBOyu], When I was a little boy, we once went to America. Be my friend! Be my wife! She is my wife. He is an American. He became an American citizen.

Korp,a a 6liji MajibuimoM, mli noexajiH pan b AaiepiiKy. Byp;bTe mohm ,n;pyTOM! ByjjbTe Moeii jkchoh ! Ona moh JKeHa Oh aMepHKaHeu;. Oh CTaji aMepHKaHCKHM

kagda yd bit MAI^chikam, mi paYExaft rds v aipEriku. BUftJi mayim DR Ugarni B Uftji mayey zhiNO Y! and may a zhiNA. on arpiyiKApec. on stdl apiiyiKA Nskim grazhdaNInam.


He is a good person. In time he will become a good person.

Oh xoponiHH uejiOBeK.

Co BpeMeHeM 6h craHeT xopdmiiM UejIOB^KOM.

on xaROshiy chilayEK. sa VftErpipim on STApit xaROshim chilayEkam.

A noun which tells what someone is or was or becomes for a time or at a certain time, is in the Instrumental case. What one is permanently is in the Nominative case. It is very hot here in summer, and very cold in winter. In spring we shall go to America. In fall we’ll come back to Russia. We work in daytime. We don’t want to work at night.

jieTOM dueHB jKapKO, a 3HMOH OHeHb xdjIOAHO. BecHoii mbi nod/jeM b AMepmcy. OceHBIO MBI BepHeMCH B Pocchio. ^HeM mli pabdTaeM. Mbi He xotIim pabdTaTb hohbio.

IfEtam Ochip ZIIARka, a giMO I Ochip XOladna. yiSNO Y mi pa YEylim v aMEyiku. Oyipyu mi yirftOMsa v raSIyu. PftOM mi raBOtayim. mi pi xaftlM raBOtaj NOchyu.

A certain few nouns are used in the Instrumental case to tell the time when. Be sure to study all the Russian sentences until you can say them neatly and without hesitation. Don’t spend your time studying the rules and statements; they are only given to help you understand, and there would be verv little use in learning them. 218


2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study (Individual Study) Check yourself on your knowledge of the Word Study by covering, first the English, then the Russian, and making sure you know everything thoroughly.

3. Review of Basic Sentences With the Guide or records, review the first half of the Basic Sentences as in previous units.


Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont

1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Review the second half of the Basic Sentences.

2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Go through the Basic Sentences covering up the English and on anything you do not know, until you are sure of everything.

reading aloud the Russian.

Check up

3. What Would You Say? Read aloud the following and pick out the expression you think most suitable: 1. You want to know whether Mrs. Petrov has any rooms vacant. You say: a. y Bac ecTL> Tenjiaa KOMHaTa? b. y Bac 6ctb CBofioftHBie KOMHaTH? c. y Bac ecTL. xoporno oocTaii.aeimLie KOMiiaxLi?

u v&s ye§J J'Oplaya KOmnata? u vas ye§} svaBOdniya KOmnati? u vas ye§j xaraSHO apSTAv\inaya KOmnati?

2. You say you are looking for a clean and not too expensive room. You say: a. if HiJiy uncTVfo ii He cjihihkom ;goporyio yd iSHCIIU CHIstuyu i qi Ishkam daraGUyu KO&maTy. KOmnatu. b. H may ypoSnyio KOMHaTy c abjmh OKHaMH. yd iSHCHU uDObnuyu KOmnatu s dvuApA Oknarpi. c. H Hrny nncTyio KOMHaTy c OKHaMH na yjinity. yd iSIICHU CHIstuyu KOmnatu s Oknaipi na JJ\icu. [9-C]


3. She has one. She tells you it costs forty roubles a month. She says: a. 3xa KOMHaTa ctoht ueTi'ipiiayuaTB pybjieii b eta KOmnata stoyit chiTIRnaciJ ruBfEY v AfEyic. Mecau;. b. 3rra KOMHaTa ctoht ueTBipecxa pybjien b Mecan;. eta KOmnata stoyit chiTIfi sta ruBfEY v AfE§ic. c. 9Ta KOMHaTa ctoht copoic pybjien b Mecan;. eta KOmnata stoyit SOrak ruBfEY v AfE§ic. 4. She says it’s on the second floor, next to the bathroom. a. OHa Ha TpeTBeM orame, papoM c BaHHoii. b. OHa Ha btopom a Tame, payoM c KyxHen. c. OHa Ha btopom 9TajKe, paflOM c Baimon.

She says: and na TJZEjyim etaZHE, fAdam s VANnay. and na ftaROM etaZHE, JlAdam s KUxiyiy. and na ftaROM etaZHE, fAdam s VANnay.

5. She asks whether you want to take a look at it. She says: a. Bbi xoTHTe b3htb 9Ty KOMHaTy? m xajiji V£A f etu KOmnatu? b. Bbi xothtc jkhtb b btoh KdMHaTe? vi xajiji ZIIKf v Stay KOmnaji? c. Bbi xoTHTe nocMOTpeTB KOMHaTy? vi xajiji pasmaTREf KOmnatu? You do; so she invites you to come in. She says: a. Hy, xoporno; yippaTe nocuopee. b. Hy, xoporno; BoiflyHTe h mbi nocMOTpiiM

NU, xaraSHO; uyTJIji paskaJiEyi. NU, xaraSHO; vaypiji i mi paSMOtjim KOmnatu.


c. Hy, xopornd; BoifljftTe


h Bac nobpbio.

NU, xaraSHO; vaypiji i yd vas paBJiEyu.

7. You ask about meals and she says dinner costs one rouble seventy-five kopeks. She says: a. Yjkhh ctoht pyojiB iuecTByecHT hhtb Koneeii. Uzhin stoyit RUBf shiz fi§A T fA J kafEyik. b. 3aBTpaK ctoht pybjiB BoccMByecHT iihtb ZAftrak stoyit RUBf VO§im cfipt PA f kafEyik. KoneeK. c. Obey, ctoht pyojiB ccMByecax hhtb Konbeu.



afET stoyit RUBf §EM fi§it PA f kafEyik.

8. She tells you dinner is at six thirty. She says: a. OoeA y Hac b nojiOBirae mecToro. b. Obep; y Hac b nojioBHHe ceppMoro. c. Bbi MOJKeTe obepaTb, Korpa xothtc.

aJ3ET u nas f palayiqi shiSTOva. ap>ET u nas f palayiqi §i --AIDS TO LISTENING-» Unit 10, Record Side 1, beginning. 178 RPM) (33Vs RPM) Record Side 10, beginning. Ivan prepares to write home with Alexander's help. IlBaH Please give me some [writing] paper. (to) write home letter Mine is too dirty, and I have to write a letter home. for a long time (back) (I) have written (M.) heard (M.)

JIafiTe Miie, no>Ka.JiyiicTa, 6yMami. HanncaTb 3,om6ii miCBMO

Mod cjifiinKOM rpH3naH, a A xon^HarmcaTb ftOMdii micbMd. ftairnd imcaji


DA Yji mqe pazhdlsta buMAgi. napiSA T daMOY pi§MO ma YA §\ishkam GfiAznaya, a yd xachii napiSA f daMOY pi§MO. daVNO piSAL SLIshil [10-A]


I haven’t written (to) them for a long time, and I (have) heard (that) my brother is sick.

jl ,o;aBH6 hm He niicaji, a a cjiLiniaji, hto moh 6paT 6ojieH.

yd daVNO yim ni piSAL, a yd SLIshil shto moy BRAT BOpin.

(it) worries And I am worried about it.

SecnoKdHT H §to MeHa daeHb GecnoKOHT.

pispaKOyit i eta tjiit}d Ochin pispaKOyit.

it’s a pity (for me) I’m sorry, but I haven’t any (paper).

AjieKca,Hp;p mh6 oaeHH acajib Mh6 oaeHb acajib, h6 y MeHh hGt SyMarn.

mne Ochit} ZIIAp mt}e ochit}. ZIIAI^, no u tpilpA t}et buMAgi.

nduTy eme

post office (A.) still or yet Go to the post office;

HoiffiuTe Ha nouTy;

POchtu yiSHCHO payPIji na POchtu;

you’ll still have time to buy the paper there.

bbi ein,e ycneeTe TaM KynnTb Gyiviary.

vi yishchd uSppyiJi tarn kufip buMAgu.

(it) closes It closes at six.

3aKpbiBaeTca OHa 3aKpbiBaeTca b mecTb.

zakriVAyitsa and zakriVAyitsa f SHE^p.

Hb^h BpGMeHH fldjiJKeH

time (G.) (one who) must (M.) I haven’t time.

y MeHH hGt BpGMeHH.

VPErpipi DOLzhin u ipiqd IpE T V REtpit}i.

I’ve got to hurry.

H flojiaceH cnemhTb.

yd DOLzhin spiSHip.



whose (F.) under book (I.) But whose paper is that under the book on the table?

Hba nop KHHrOH

A ana Fra byuara nop Kiinron Ha CTOJie?

CHYA POT, POD K DJI gay a CHYA eta buMAga pat Kip I gay na sta^E?

Unit 10, Record Side 2, beginning. (78 RPM) What paper? that (F.) Oh, that! That’s my brother’s table, and everything on it is his. (I) think (is) glad (M.) a few (of) sheets (G.) But I think (that) he'll be only [too] glad if you take a few sheets.

take* Please take [a few].

A.neKcaupp Kanaa bynara? Ta

Ax, xa! 3to

ctoji Moero bpaaa, a Bee, ht6 Ha CTOJie — ero. pyiviaio pap

kaKAya buMAga? TA AX TA ! Eta, STOL mayivo BRAta, a F§0 shto na stal^E, yi V0.

Ho a pyMaio, ht6 6h 6ypeT t6jibko pap, bean bbi B03BMeTe IlbCKOJIBKO jihct6b.

DUmayu RAD, RAT IpEskajka liSTOF no yd D Umayu shto on biuJLit TOT^ka RAD, ye§li vi va^AfOji IpEskalka liSTOF.

bephTe noJKaayncTa, beptHe.

piJUji paZHALsta piJUji.


*Not on the record. [10-A]


HBa,H you will give also, too* pen Maybe you’ll give me a pen, too?



nepo Bbi, m6jkct 6biTb, MHe p;a,n;fiTe TaKJKe h nepd?

TAG zhi piRO vi MOzhid Mf mqe daipiji TAG zhi ; piRO?

have given back (M.)** I took (have taken) mine [back] to be fixed.

OT,n,aJi, 6T,n,aji H OT,n;aji Moe noaimfiTb.

adDAL, ODdal ya adDAL maYO pachilpl f.

ready (N.) for When I went to get it, it wasn’t (yet) ready.

tot6bo 3a Kor,n;a a norneji 3a hAm, oho em,e

gaTOva ZA kagda yd paSHOL za qim, aNO yishcho NE bila gaTOva.

Here are two pens. blue (N.) red (N.) The blue one is mine, and the red one belongs to my sister. Thanks a lot!



Aaeitcaiwp B6t p,Ba nepa. CHHee

KpacHoe Cimee Moe, a KpacHoe Mo6ii cecTpbi.

Hb&H Bojibiude cnacfido!

VOT DVA piRA. §D}iya KRAsnaya §h}iya maYO, a KRAsnaya maYEY §iSTRI.

balSHOya spa§Iba!

*Not on the record. **The English on the record is an error. The next word is on the record by mistake. 232


remaining (N.) Have you got everything else?

Ajieiccaimp ocTajrtHde Ectb y Bac Bee ocTajibHde?

asta[NOya YE§T n vas F§0 astaJNOya?


(I) thank Yes, thank you.

djiaro^ap k> djiaroAapk) Bac.

blagada Ji U DA, blagadafi.U vas.

Unit 10, Record Side 3, beginning. (78 RPM) ink envelopes stamps I have ink, envelopes, stamps— everything I need.

uepHHjia KOHB^pTBX MapKH y MeHH ecTb uepHhjia, kohb^ptbi II MapKH — Bee, HTO mh6 HaflO.

chiriyila kanyERti MARfc u ipiqd ye§} chirtflla, kanyERti, i MARfyi F§0 shto mqe NAda. —


to help I’m always glad to help you. you will receive they will receive Maybe you’ll get a letter from them before they get yours.

noMdub H Bcerna pap; BaM noMoub. noji^HHTe

noJiyuHT MdaceT 66t, bbi noji^uHTe ot Hhx nHCbMd, pd,Hbme h6m oh6 noji^HHT Barne.

paMOCH yaf§iGDA RAD vam paMOCH. paL Uchiji paLUchit MOzhid bij vl paLUchifi at ip IX pi§MO, RAipshi chem a ip I paLUchit VAsha.


That [certainly] would be o.k. [with me].

9to 6dijio 6bi dueHb xopornd.

eta bila bi Ochnj xaraSHO. [10-A]


Before you go through the Basic Sentences a second time, read the following:

2. Check Your Pronunciation 1. Voiced and unvoiced mutes. We recall the pairs of mute consonants: voiced: [b d g v z zh gh dzh unvoiced: [p t k f s sh x ch

zhdzh\ shch]

At the end of a word, in rapid speech, a voiced mute is replaced by the corresponding unvoiced mute. The conventional spelling, however, writes the letter for the voiced mute: MyjKbH muZHYA husbands My'/K MUSH, MUZH husband But, also in rapid speech, if the next word is closely joined on and begins with a voiced mute other than [i>], the final mute is voiced: MyjK flonepn MUZH DOchifi the daughter’s husband Also an original (real) unvoiced mute is voiced when such a word follows in rapid speech: MOJKer MOzhit it can, it may MOJKeT 6mtl. MOzhid BIJ it may be Now listen to the way your Guide or the speaker on the record speaks the following sentences, in the Aid to Listening we have given the pronunciation used by the

speaker on the record. If you have a Guide and the Guide pronounces differently, then imitate the Guide: a living model is better than a record.

PRACTICE 1 Unit 10, Record Side 3, after 1st spiral. (78 RPM) Bam MyjK, m6jkct npn£x aji. 234


6Atl, yac6

vdsh MUSH MOzhid bij uZHE pji YExal.

(33Vs RPM) Record Side 10, after 1st spiral. Your husband, perhaps, has already arrived.

Moil Apyr xoneT jkhtb b rocTHmme. H paA, uto bbi npnmjiii. IT6e3A ceii'iac irpnxoAHT.

moy DRUK xochid ZHIJ' v ga$T Ipici. yd RA T shto VI pjiSHJ^I. POyist §i CHAS pjiXO&it.

My friend wants to live in the hotel. I’m glad you’ve come. The train is just now coming in.

2. Russian [/, m, n\. Here is some more practice on Russian \l, m, n\. See how really Russian you can make the words sound.

PRACTICE 2 Unit 10, Record Side 3, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) Mym TaM


AceHa jiyumnn 6liji

6buia BOK3ajI


husband there at home it is necessary son wife better (M.) was (M.) was (F.) railway station

3. Russian palatal [j, pi, p\. Here is some more practice on Russian palatal [/, pi, p\. See how like the real Russian you can make the words sound.

PRACTICE 3 Unit 10, Record Side 3, after 3rd spiral. (78 RPM) Mjtco ceMB

14Asa §EM, §EM

meat seven



VJiEqui %ET

Bpei.ifl ElST



§h}iy PEta I\i RUBl

CHHHH jieTO hjiH


time no day blue (M.) summer or rouble

Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences 1. Word Study (Individual Study) A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES 1. Home, at home. Ky/ta Bill it^ctc? —

Where are you going?— kuDA vi ipOji?— TJomou. daMOY. Home. Now we have to [go] home. Teriepn HaM naAO ppMoii. JifER nam nada daMOY. The word [daMOY] ‘home’ answers the question [kuDA] ‘whereto’. It is formed with an irregular ending from the noun [DOM] ‘house’. Where is your father?— Barn ot£u,? — GpE vash a PEC?— At home. JJdMa. DOma. My brother is ill today; BpaT cero^HH 6ojien; BRAT§iVO dtja BO\in; he has stayed at home. 6h ocTaJica ^OMa. on aSTAlsa DOma. The word [DOma] ‘at home’ answers the question [GpE] ‘where’, It is the Genitive case form, with an irregular meaning, of the noun [DOM] ‘house’. 236


2. [V]Uima\. Time is precious. Do you have time? No; 1 have very little time; I have to hurry. In time you will be speaking Russian very well. The seasons of the year are spring, summer, fall, and winter. At times he goes off traveling, nobody knows whereto.

Bp^Ma Aoporo. y Bac 6ctb BpeMH? H6t, y MeHa Maao BpeMemt; MHe Ha^o cnemHTB.

Co BpeMeHeM bbi 6yn;eTe daeHb xopornd roBopiiTB no-pyccKH. BpeMeHa rd^a — BecHa, aeTo, 6ceHB H 3HMa. BpeMeHaMii oh ye3maeT, hhkto He 3HaeT, Ky^a.

The word [YfEEijia] ‘time’ is one of a small set of irregular Neuter nouns. In the Singular, the stem is [vferpii}-], but the Nominative (and along with it, the Accusative) is [YPALrya], and the Genitive and Dative

VJiEiyia DOraga. u vas YE§T VfiJLryia? WET, u ryiirj,d MAla VEEyiiqi; m-ye nada spiSHIJ'. sa VJTEipiqim vi btqliji Ochitj. xaraSHO gavaJUf pa R Uski. vfiryiiNA GOda, piSNA, YEta, 0§ii i $iMA. vyiryiiNAyyii on uyiZHDZHAyit, iji KTO ?}i ZNAyit kuDA.

are like the Locative: [VfiEyyiit}t\. The Plural has a dif¬ ferent stem: [v/iHfON-]; this takes the regular endings and accents them.

I was in Moscow only once.

R 6liji b MocKBe tojibko pa,3.

yd Ml v maSKYE to\ka RAS.

He was in America three times.

Oh Tpff paaa 6Aji b AMepnae.

on TJU RAza Ml v aAfEyifyi.

I have many times already told him that.

H 9T0 eivry yatb MHdro pa.3 roBopha.

yd Eta yimu uzhe MNOga RAZ gavafUL.

The word [VpEEryia] means any amount or stretch of time. The word [RAS, RAZ] refers only to the number of times something happens. 3. [TOT]. This restaurant is cheaper than that one.

Otot pecTopan aembBJie i-icm t6t. 3tot

pecTopan jjeuibBjie Toro.

Etat yistaRAN diSHEvli chem TOT. Etat fistaRAN tfiSHEvli ta VO. [10-B]


This bed is more comfortable than that one. Give me that book over there on the table.

BTa nocTejit 6oJiee yjtoGna ueM

Ta. TJaiiTe

mh£ Ty KHury, TaM


— pycciaie, a Te — aMepHKaHpm.

These people are Russians, and those are Americans.

Btii jhop;h

With this pen I can write, but with that one I can’t.


nepdM a Mor£ micaTB, a TeM He Mory.

The adjective [TOT] has the stem [/-] and goes like [aJ>IN], only where [aDIN] has an ending with [i], there [TOT] has [e\. The word [TOT] is used for ‘that’ when there is a strong contrast between a nearer thing [Eta] 4. Whose chair is this?

Ten 6to CTyji?

Whose pen is this? Whose book is this? Whose book did he take? Whose papers are these?

Tee 9to nepo? Tbh 9to KHhra? Tny Kiuiry oh b3hji? Tbh 9to SyMarn?

They will also use



Ejim piROM yd magii piSA T, a JEM, maG U.

and a farther one [TO]. It is used also in some special expressions, such as [TO zhi\ ‘also’, [pa TOM] ‘after that, afterwards’, [pa taMU shto] ‘because’.


CHEY eta STUL? CHYO eta piRO? CHYA eta KIpIga? CHYUKiJIgu on VZAL? CHYI eta buMAgi? Notice that ‘this’ and ‘these’ in the above sentences are always just [Eta], the Neuter form. ‘This’ or ‘these’ just pointing at something and not modifying a noun is plain [Eta]\

Eta mayi druj YA.

[Etat] as an adjective:

Whose are these books?



DA Yji mrj,e TU KJJIgu, TAM na staJE. Eti PUpi RUskiya; a TE, aiyiijiKANci.


The adjective [CHEY] ‘whose’ has the stem [chy-] and takes the same endings as [MOY]. Where there is no end¬ ing (Masculine Nominative), the vowel [e] is inserted. The forms other than the Nominative and Accusative are rarely used. These are my friends.


Eta pa§T'EJ BO\iyi uDObna chem TA.

9th khuth ubh?


5. Have to, need. I have to leave (by train or car, on a trip—not on foot).

We must write the letter at once.

Mh6 Hap,o yexaTb.

mtpe nada u YExaj.

MHe HyjKHo yexaTb.

tm}e nuzhna uYExaj.

JI ^oji/KCH yexaTb.

yd dolzhin uYExaj.

HaM nap;o ceibiac JKe nanncaTb IIHCbMO.

ndm nada §i CHAZ zhi napiSA T pi§MO.

HaM HyjKHo ceikiac me HamicaTb m-icbMo.

ndm nuzhna §i CHAZ zhi napiSA T pi§MO.

Mbi p;o,n/KHbi cefinac me HamicaTb micbMo.

mi dalzhni §i CHAZ zhi napiSA T pi§MO.

The words [NAda] and [NUzhna] mean ‘ it is necessary’. The person for whom it is necessary to do something is in the Dative case. The word [NAda] has only this one form (it is uninflected). The word [NJJzhna] is the Neuter short form of an adjective [NUzhnay]1 needed, necessary’.

I need that book. We need envelopes and stamps. Do you need an automobile? She needs a fountain pen.

The words [DOLzhin], Masculine, with inserted vowel; [dalZHNA], Feminine; [dalZHNO] Neuter; [dalZHNI] Plural are the short forms of an adjective [DOLzhnay] ‘indebted’; they mean ‘he, she, it is under obligation, has to; they are under obligation, they have to’. The person who has to do something is Nominative.

Mh6 Ha,n,o 9Ty KHHry. Mh4 HyjKHa Tra rainra. HaM naflo KoiiBepTbi n MapKii. HaM HyjKHLI KOHBepTbl n MapKH. BaM HaAO aBTOModnjib? BaM HymeH aBTOModnjib? Eft Haflo Bennoe nepd. Eh BeuHoe nepo HymHo.

mt}e nada etu KPjlgu. mi}e nuzhnd eta Kl^Iga. ndm nada kanYERti i MARfyi. ndm nuzhni kanYERti i MARfyi. vam nada aftamaBIJy? vam nuzhin aftamapi^? yey nada YEchnaya piRO. yey YEchnaya piRO nuzhna. [10-B]


With [NAda] a thing which one needs is in the Accu¬ sative. The short forms of [NUzhnay] are: Masculine [NUzhin], with inserted vowel; Feminine [nuZHNA],

with accent on the ending; Neuter [NUzhna]; Plural [NUzhni]. These words mean ‘he, she, it is needed; they are needed’; that which is needed is in the Nominative.

on mqe DOLzhin PA T ruBLE Y. Oh mh pybjieii. ^(ecHTH pydjidH OHa iim He ^ajia.


PoccfiH ,n;ajio

on mqe DAL pi PET. on mye NE dal piLEta. and yim daLA PEyij ruBT^E Y. ppiJT ruBI^E Y and yim ??i daLA.

nucbMo-TO BaM p;ajm?

TyEta v ra§Iyi DAla, nam MNOga pyi YA tnava. PEta na YlJgi r}i chi VO pfi YA tnava nam IpE dala. pi§MO to vdm DA li?

BaM h6 Aajni miCBMa?

vdm IpE dali pi§MA?


HaM MHfiro


JI6to Ha lore nmiero npiiHTHoro naM He p;aJK>-

The verb [adDA P] ‘to give back, to hand over’ is a compound of [DAP] and has the same forms. In the Past tense all the forms except the Feminine accent the prefix [OT]: He’ll give you back your ticket. When will you give us back the tickets? You haven’t yet given us back the tickets. Did I give you back the letter? Did she give you back your book?

Oh bo,m 0Tp;acT 6hji6t. Korjja bbi OT^aAfiTe HaM 6hji6tbi?

on vdm adDA ST pipE T. kaGDA vi addapiji nam pipEti?

Bbi naM eipe He OT,n,a,n,H 6hji6tbi.

vi nam yishcho rji ODda\i pipEti.

H. BaM dT^aji iihcbmo?

yd vdm ODdal pi§MO? and vdm addaLA vashu KIpIgu?

OHa BaM oT^ajia Barny


D. DURATIVE AND PUNCTUAL VERBS on PI shit pi§MO. Oh nfiuieT ihicbmo. He is writing a letter. on pi shit KIpIgu a vayipE. Oh nfimeT KHfiry o bohh6. He is writing a book about the war. [10-BJ


He writes her letters twice a week. You write Russian very well.

Oh eii imineT micBMa jmi, pa3a b neAejiio. Bii dneHB xoporno numeTe no-pyccKH.

The Present tense of some verbs tells of an action (or happening or state) in present time. This action may be actual; that is, now going on, like the English -ing form ('is writing’). Or else, the action may be iterative; that is, repeated, habitual, or general, though not necessarily He’s going to write a letter. Tomorrow I’ll write him a letter. Is he going to write a book about the war?

Give me the letter, I’ll sign it. I don’t think he’ll sign.

going on at the very moment while one is speaking; this is like the English plain form of a verb (‘writes’). These Russian verbs, whose Present tense tells of an action in present time, are called Durative verbs.

Oh HamiuieT ihicbmo. 3aBTpa a eMy Hamnrry ihicbmo. Oh namimeT KHfiry o bohh6?

The Present tense of some Russian verbs tells of a single action (or happening) in future time. Such verbs are called Punctual verbs. A Russian verb is either Dura¬ tive or Punctual. A simple verb (that is, a verb that is not compounded with a prefix) is Durative: \piSA7"]. A compound verb which consists of a simple verb and a prefix, is Punctual: [napiSAP].

on yey PI shit PI§ma DVA RAza v qipEpi. v% 0chirp xaraSHO pishiji pa R Uski.

on naPIshit pi§MO. ZAftra yd yimu napiSHU pi§MO. on naPIshit Klflgu a vaylpE?

In many instances, such as this one, the prefix does not add much meaning beyond just making a Punctual verb out of a Durative. A very few simple verbs are Punctual; for instance, [DA P] ‘ to give’. Very many compound verbs are Durative; in these, however, the prefix is added not to a simple verb, but to a longer kind of word. We shall now look at these verbs.

JI,aiiTe mh6 miCBMd; h nojtmimy. H He HyMaio, ht6 6h nojpiiiiiieT.

DA Yji mrpe pi§MO; yd patpiSHU. yd rpi DUmayu shto on patpishit.

In many instances a prefix added to a simple verb makes a big change in the meaning, as well as making a Punctual verb. Thus, [patpishit] ‘he will sign’ is Punctual, from [pishit] ‘he writes’, Durative.



I’m just now signing the letter. It’s she that always writes the letters; he only signs them along with her.

IT KaK pa3 no;piHCMRaio iihcbmo. Ona-To Bceraa nfimeT nncbMa; oh nxe TOJibKo BMecTe c Hen no^nncbiBaeT.

When a compound Punctual verb differs in meaning from the simple Durative, then there is also a compound Durative verb with the same prefix and the same mean¬ ing. This compound Durative verb consists of the prefix and a longer verb, called a Compounding Durative. Thus, to the compound Punctual [patpiSA p] there corresponds the compound Durative [patpisavap. Simple verb [MOCII] ‘ to be able’: He can’t go there now.

yd kak RAS patPIsavayu pi§MO. aNA to f§iGDA pishit pipma; ON zhi TOpka v AfEpi s t}ey patpisavayit.

The Compounding Durative is longer than the simple verb; for instance, [-pisavaj] is the Compounding Dura¬ tive of [piSA P], Compounding Durative verbs end in \-ivaj, -avaj] or [-KajiyHCTa, noopeirre mchh. P. tojibko-hto nodpfijica.

shto vi DElayiji v VAN nay?—yd BREyus. inaGDA on BpEyitsa DVA RAza v Pen. inaGDA yimu nada BpiTsa DVA RAza v PEIp. jipe/ mqe nada paBpiTsa. paZHALsta, paBRE Yji rpii}d. yd TOpka shto paBpiLsa.

chip IT (D.), pachilpip (P.) to repairr Oh oueHb xopomd h6hxit on Ochii} xaraSHO CHDjit bapiNki. 6otj&hkh. Bbl MOJKeTe nOHHHflTb 3TH GotAhkh?

vi mozhiji pachilplT eji ba JTNki?

CHI pi] (D.), paCHIpi] (P.) to clean M6jkho 3a4cb hhcthtb (jothiikh? MOzhna % c^ejiajin? nojKajiyficTa, caejiaiiTe 5to rjih

yi pElayti Etava. yi pElayJi Eta. AX, SHTO vi %(}e§ ZDElap? paZHALsta, ZpElayJi eta d\a yiilpA.

moiih .

paftap.IT (P.), paftapAP (D.) to repeat (simple verb not used) Repeat what I’ve just said to you.

noBTopnTe to, ht6 a b&m ceftnac CKa3a«n.

paftaRIji to shto yd vdm §i CIIAS skaZAL.

That word is bad; don’t repeat it.

9to cjiobo Hexopomoe; ne noBTopafiTe ero.

eta SLOva yi xaROshiya; yi paftaPA Ypi yivo.

The little boys repeat everything their teacher tells them.

MaJTBUHKH IIOBTOpaiOT Bee, ut6 hm roBopiiT ynHTeaBHHpa.

MAphiki paftaPAyut F§0 shto yim gavapiT uCIIIplyica.

zaKRip (P.) zakriVAp (D.) to close (simple verb not much used) Why have you closed the windows? —I felt cold.

HoUCMy Bbl 3aKpBIJIH OKHa? — Mh6 6bijio xojioaho.

pa chiMU vi zaKRIp Okna?—mye bila XOladna.

Please shut the window.

IIomanyhcTa, 3aKpofiTe okho.

paZHALsta, zaKRO Yfi aKNO.

I’ll shut it right away.

Cefiaac 3aKpoio.

§i CHAS zaKROyu.

Why do you always close the windows?

0 noneivry bbi Bcer^a 3aKpbiBaeTe buna?

They close the ticket window at half past nine.

Kaccy 3aKpbiBaiOT b uojiobuhc ttecaToro.

KASsu zakri VAyut f palayiyi &i§A tava.

The post office closes at half past five.

nonTa 3aKpbiBaeTca b nojiOBfiHe

POchta zakri VAyitsa f palayiyi shiSTOva.


pa chiMU vijpGDA zakriVAyiJi Okna?



paluCHip (P.)» paluCHA J' (D.) to receive (simple verb not used) hi pyMaio, hto CKopo nojiyuy ot yd DUmayu, shto SKOra paluCHU at I think I’ll soon get a letter from Hero niicnMO. iyivo pi§MO. him. hi ceroAHH noJiymm micbMo 113 yd §i VO drj,a paluCHIL pi§MO iz qyu I got a letter from New York today. YORka. Hbio-HopKa. Bbi 3aBTpa noji^HHTe ot Hee vi ZAftra paL Uchiji at ijiyo pi§MO. You’ll get a letter from her micuMo. tomorrow. Bbi nacTO nojiynaeTe nhcbMa H3 vi CHAsta paluCHAyiji PI§ma iz Do you often get letters from Pocchh? ra§Iyi? Russia? Ot cbiHa nojiynajin nffcbMa RBa They used to get letters from their at SIna paluCHAp pi§ma DVA raza pa3a b m^chu;. v AJEyic. son twice a month. Do you like this? I know you’ll like this.

NRAyitsa (D.), paNRAyitsa (P.) to please, to seem nice 3to BaM HpaBHTca? Eta vam NRAyitsa? A 3 Ha jo, ht6 oto BaM yd ZNAyu shto Eta vam paNRAyitsa. nOHpaBIITC a.


(D.), Vlpij (P.), vipiVAT (D.) to drink

What are you drinking? I never drink beer. What will you drink, tea or coffee?

Tto b£1i mere?

What did you drink at their [house] yesterday at dinner? I’ll drink another cup of coffee. I’ve already drunk two glasses of tea.

Wrb bbi nffjiH y ntix nnepa 3a



A HHKor^a He nbio niiBa. tIt6 bbi CyfleTe hhtb, nan ffjin Koe. hi yace Bbimui p,Ba CTauana naio.

SHTO vi TYOji? yd tji kaGDA r}ipYU piva. SHTO vi bdfiji pip, CHAYi\i KOfi? SHTO vipi\i u tjix fchiRA za a P Edam? yd VIpyu yiSHCIIO chdshku KOfi. yd vzhe VIpit DVA staKAna CHAyu.

He [always] drinks no more than two glasses of tea.

Oh BtmHBaeT He donee giiyx CTaKaHOB uaio.

The prefix [vi-] is always accented when it combines with a simple verb to make a Punctual. It is not accented when it combines with a Compounding Durative. The Punctual verb [ VIpi}] says that one drinks up all

on vipiVAyit fji BOjiyi DVUX staKAnaf CHAyu.

the liquid in some container, such as a cup or glass. The Compound Durative [vipiVAJ'] means this same action repeated. Many verbs have such special twists of mean¬ ing for the Aspects.

SLIshij (D.), uSLIshij (P.) to he I’ve heard she is married. Have you heard the train?—No, I haven’t heard it. He doesn’t hear (pay attention to) anything. He doesn’t want to hear you (to listen to what you say). It’s hard to hear him. (to listen to him). It’s hard to hear him (to catch what he’s saying).

fit cjiBimaji, hto OHa 3aMy>KCM. Bbi cjiBimajiH noe3g? — HeT, eige He cjikunaji. Oh Himero ne cjibiihht.

yd SLIshil shto and ZA muzhim. vi SLIshili POyist?—PJET, yiSHCHO f}i SLIshil. 6n t}i chi VO tji SLIshit.

Oh cjifciuiaTb Bac He xbneT.

6n SLIshiJ vas i]i XOchit.

TpygHo CJifiiuiaTB er6.

TRUdna SLIshiJ yivo.


TRUdna uSLIshij yivo.



yi(J.ij (D.), uyyiij (P.) to see Can you see all right? Did you see well? I don’t see anything. I don’t see anyone. I see that this is very difficult. What did you see there?

Bbi xopouio Bbi xopouio

BflgHTe? BiigejiH?

vi xaraSHO vi xaraSHO

yitjiji? yifoji?

H HiiKoro He Bfimy.

yd f}i chi VO fji yizlm. yd i}i ka VO fji yizhu.



H HHuerb He BHJKy. Biiaty, ht6 oto dneiib TpygHo.

Hto Bbi t&m Biigejiii?

yizhu shto eta Ochitj TRUdna. SIITO vi tarn yiptiji? [10-B1


You will see him there. We’ll see later. You and I will soon see each other (again). We’ll see each other again. When I went into the living room I saw (caught sight of) her.

Bbi ero TaM yBHjuHTe. Mbi nOTOM yBHtpiM. Mill C BaMII CKdpO yBIIAHMCH.

vi yivo tarn uyijiji. mi pa TOM nyidim. mi s VArjfii SKOra uVIdimsa.

Mbi erne yBi'miiMca. Kor,n;a a Bomeji b rocTUHyio, a ee

mi yishcho uyidimsa. kagda yd vaSHOL v ga^yinuyu, yd yiyo uyTJ.il.


ZAftrakaJ (D.), paZAftrakaJ (P.) to eat lunch We lunch at half past twelve. Mbi 3aBTpaKaeM b noaoBiiHe mi ZAftrakayim f palayirji PERvava. nepBoro. Have you had lunch? Bbi 3aBTpaKaan? vi ZAftrakaJi? At what time are we going to B kot6pom uacy mbi dyAeM f kaTOram chiSU mi bit Jim have lunch? 3aBTpaKaTb? ZAftrakaJ? Shall we have some lunch? IIo3aBTpaKaTb naM? paZAftrakaJ ndm? Let’s go have some lunch here in noiifleM nosaBTpaKaTb b6t b payPOM paZAftrakaJ vot v Etam this restaurant. 3tom pecTopane. fistaRAqi. Come and have lunch at our house. IIpHxofliiTe k h^m nosaBTpaKaTb. p/ixapiji k ndm paZAftrakaJ. What are you waiting for? Whom is he waiting for? I’ve been waiting for you a long time. I’ll be waiting for you here. We were waiting there for three hours.



ZIIDAT (D.), padaZHDAT (P.) to wait Herd Bbi jKft&re? chi VO vi ZHpOji? Kord du kaVO on ZHPOT? il Bac jK,n;y flaBHd. yd vaz ZHD U da VNO. IT dyity Bac 3,n,dcb jK^aTb. Mbi aygaan TaM Tpii uaca.

yd budu vdz ZPEf ZIIDAT■ mi ZHDAli tarn TJII chiSA.

Don’t wait for me. I’ll wait for you. Can you wait a quarter of an hour?

He JKjjHTe Mena. H Bac nofloatfly. Bbl MO/KCTC nOAOJKJtaTB naca?

Wait for me, please.

IIoAOJKAUTe mch/i, noscajiyiiCTa.


ZHDIji yd ms padaZHD U. vi MOzhifi padaZHD A f CITEyir} y chiSA ? padaZHD Ip ipind paZHALsta.

2. Covering English and Russian of Word Study (Individual Study) Check yourself on your knowledge of the Word Study by covering, first the English, then the Russian, and making sure you know everything thoroughly.

3. Review of Basic Sentences With the Guide or records, review the first half of the Basic Sentences as in previous units. Section C—Review of Basic Sentences (Cont.)

1. Review of Basic Sentences {Cont.) Review the second half of the Basic Sentences. 2. Covering the English of Basic Sentences (Individual Study) Go through the Basic Sentences covering up the English and reading aloud the Russian. Check up on anything you do not know, until you are sure of everything.

3. What Would You Say? (Individual Study) Read aloud each of the following and then pick out the expression you think most suitable: 1. You want to know at what time the post office is closed. You ask: a. B KOTdpoM uacy riouTa 3aKpbiBaeTca? / kaTOram chiSU POchta zakriVAyitsa? b. B kotopom uacy Buepa 3aKpbijin nouTy? / kaTOram chiSU fchiRA zaKRIft POchtu? c. B KOTbpoM uacy cero/pia 3aKp6ioT nbuTy? kaTOram chiSU§iVO dqa zaKROyut POchtu? [10-C]


2. You haven’t received any letters from America for a long time. You say: a. H CKopo nojiyuy micbMa 113 AMepiiKM. yd SKOra paluCHU PI §ma iz aMEyiki. b. H uacTo nojiyaaio nncbMa 113 AMepuKH. yd CHAsta paluCIIAyu pi§ma iz aMEyip. c. K naBiio y?Ke He nojiyaaji niiceM H3 Amcphkh. yd daVNO uzhe t}i paluCHAL pipm iz AApEyip. 3. In summer you used to get a letter twice a month. You say: a. JKtom a nojiynhji rnicbMO. pEtam yd paluCHIL pi§MO. b. JleTOM a nojiyay ihicbmo. PEtam yd paluCHU pi§MO. c. JleTOM a nojiyaaji micbMa ^Ba paaa b Mecau;. pEtam yd paluCHAL PI §m a DVA raza v Jl/E§ic. 4. You want your shoes mended. You ask the shoemaker: a. Bbi nomiHHTe moh 6othhkh? vi paCHItpp mayi ba J'INki? vi CHIqiJi mayt ba J'INJfi? b. Bbi HHHIITe moh 6othhkh? C. Bbi nOHHHHJIII moh oothiikii? vi pachilplp mayt baJ'IN^i? 5. You want to know whom your friend is waiting for. You ask: a. Koro bbi jkpAjih? kaVO vi ZHDAp? b. Koro Bbi jKfteTe? kaVO vi ZHpOji? c. Koro Bbi noflOJKfleTe? kaVO vi padaZIIDOp? 6. Your friend is You ask: a. xIto bh hm b. tIt6 bm hm c. tIt6 bm hm

going to write a letter to certain people; you want to know what he is going to write to them. iiaiilimeTC? mimere? nariiicaaii?

SHTO vi yim naP I ship? SHTO vi yim PI ship? SHTO vi yim napiSAp?

7. The hotel cashier tells you that you owe 17 roubles. He says: a. II bhm Aojrnen ceMHajwaTb pybjiefi. yd vam DOLzhin pmNATciJ ruBpEY. b. 3a BaMH ceMiia/purrb pyoaeii. za VAryii pmNATcip ruBpEY. c. BaM Haflo ceMHaApaTb pybaeH. vam NAda pmNATcij ruBpEY.



8. Your friend asks you where you are bound for. You are going home; so you answer; a. 51 Tenepb AOMa. b. JI Tenepb aomoh. c. K Tenepb b AOMe. 9. He a. b. c.

yd Jipej DOma. yd jipep daMOY. yd jipej' v DOrpi.

wants you to go some place with him, but you have no time. You say; y MeHH Tenepb miiofo npeMOHn. u ipipd pipe/ MNOga VpEmipi. BpeMH Tenepb Aoporo. VpErpa pipe/ DOraga. Tenepb y MeHH BpeMeHH ner. piPEJl u rpirj,d VPEpirji NET.

10. You have been in New York many times. In answer to a question, you say: a. fl Bee BpeMH 6bui b Hbio-II6pKe. yd F§0 VJUNpa Ml v pyu- YORki. b. 51 MHoro pa,3 6bijt b Haio-Hopne. yd MNOga RAZ Ml v tj,yu- YORfyic. id HecKojibKo pa3 6biji b Hbio-HopKe. yd tfEskalka RAZ Ml v pyu- YORki. 11. You see an interesting book and want to know whose it is. You ask; a. y Koro Ta KHnra? u kaVO TA KPJIga? b. Kmira y Koro? KdJTga u ka VO? c. Hbh 9Ta KHnra? CHYA eta Klflga? 12. Your a. 51 b. 51 c. 51

friend is carrying a heavy trunk, and you want to help him. You say: BaM noMoraio. yd vdm pamaGAyu. BaM 6y;ty noMoraTb. yd vdm budu pamaGA TBaM noMory. yd vdm pamaGU. Section D—Listening In

1. What Did You Say? Give your answers in Russian for each of the exercises in the preceding section, when the Leader calls for them. Then, as the Leader calls for them, give the English equivalents of all the expressions in the exercise.



2. Word Study Check-Up

3. Listening In

As you have done in the previous units, go back to the Word Study and give the correct Russian for each English expression, without having to read it from the book. The Leader or one of the members of the group should read the English.

With your book closed, listen to the following con¬ versations as read by the Guide or phonograph record. Repeat the Russian immediately after hearing it. After the first repetition of each conversation, check up on the meaning of anything you do not understand, by asking someone else or by going back to the Basic Sentences if no one knows. Repeat again, if necessary, then take parts and carry on the conversation.

Unit 10, Record Side 3, after 4th spiral. (78 RPM) 1. Boris meets Ivan hurrying down the street. Bopfic: 3,n;paBCTByfiTe! KaK nojKHBaeTe? A KaK Bain ot6h; h MaTb? Mme CKa3ajiH, ht6 bbi HaBHo yjK6 ot nojiyuajin iihccm. UBaH:



a, oto mchh oueHb 6ecnoKoiiT. Mbit ot^d; yme He MOJiofldii uejioBbK, a 6paT h cecTpa He33opoBbi.

(33% RPM) Record Side 10, after 2nd spiral. ZDRA stvuypi! kdk pazhi VAyiji? a KAK vdsh aTEC i MA J? nvqe skaZAli shto vi daVNO uzhe at r}ix ni paluCHAli pi§im. DA, eta tju^a Ochiq pispaKOyit. moy aTEC uzhe iji malaDOY chilaYEK, a BRAT i §iSTRA rji zdaROvi.

Eopnc: Ax, KaK acajib! A Kyna Bbi H^eTe? J^OMOH?

AX, kdk ZHAl! a kuDA vi ipOj-i? daMOY?

Unit 10, Record Side 4, beginning. (78 RPM) IlBaH:

H6t, A jtdjiJKeH cneinfiTb Ha nouTy. nowra 3aKpbiBaeTca cejtbMoro.

Bophc: H6




TpET; yd DOLzhin spiSHIT na POchtu. b


no POchta zakriVAyitsa to\ka f

palayirj,i §idMOva.


y Bac Mlioro Bp^MeHII. IIoHp;eMTe b pecTopaH.

u VAS MNOga VJtE'tpiqi. payDOMji v fistaRAN.

Il3BHHHTe, a He Mory. ITocae noaTbi a noiipy 3a H ero OTflaa noanHHTb.

izyiNIJi, yd r}i maGU. po§\i POchti yd payDU za maYIM piROM. yd yivo adDAL pachilpip.



Bopnc: H nofip;y Ty^a c Bam. A noTOM mbi noipteM b pecTopaH. Xopom6?

yd paydu tudd s VAryii. a pa TOM mi payPOM v fistaRAN. xaraSHO?




2. Ivan and Boris arrive at the stationery store. HBaH:

3p;paBCTByiiTe. Totobo Moe nepo?

Storekeeper: Kaaoe HBaH:

Oho He6oabmoe; KpacHoe. Bot oho xaM. Mh6 TaKHte napo SyMary.

Storekeeper: Kattyio HBaH:



EyMary pa miceM.

Storekeeper: B6t 6aeHb xopomaa SyMara. OHa ctoht oflim py6jib copoK CeMb

ZDRA stvuyji. gaTOva mayo piRO? kaKOya aNO? aNO qi balSHOya, KRAsnaya. VOT and TAM. mi}e TAG zhi nada buMAgu. kaKUyu buMAgu? buMAgu p[a pi§im. vdt Ochi?} xaROshiya buMAga. and STOyit apiN RUBTy SOrak §EAp kaPEyik.



,n;opora. Ectb y Bac ,n;emeBjie? OHa cjihhikom

aNA §\ishkam daraGA. YE§P u vas $iSHEvp? [10-D]


Storekeeper: /I,a. 9Ta SyMara Toate xopoma; HO OHa CTOHT TOJIbKO OA^H py6«Hb. IIoCMOTpHTe.


H6t, mh6 HpaBHTca 66jiee Aoporaa 6yMara.

DA. eta buMAga TO zhi xaraSHA, no and STOyit tojka apiN RUB1 pasmaTRIJi. IJET, MIJE NRAyitsa BO\iyi daraGAya buMAga.

Storekeeper: 9to oaenb xopomaa SyMara. Bama jipysb/i h ,'n pnate.nlihiii,li Sy^yT paRbi, Korp;a bbi hm HamimeTe.

eta Ochit]. xaROshiya buMAga. vdshi druZYA i pyiYAplqici budut RAdi, kagda vi yim napishiji.


MOzhid BIT■ YA yiyo vayMU. a piRO gaTOva? SKOlka eta STOyit?

MoaceT 6bitb.

A ee B03bMy. A nepo totobo? Ckojibko 5to ct6ht?

Storekeeper: 0,ei;hh py6jib.

apiN RUBp.



Bot Tpn py6jia.

Storekeeper: A HBaH:

Ao CBHAaima.

a VOT vdshi pid KajiyiicTa, ABa cTanana uaio.

ppirpi^Iji staKAna pfiqiglji ndm, paZHALsta, DVA stakana CHAyu.

vodka (G.) I don’t want any tea.

Bophc b6akh H He xony naio.


I want (some) vodka.

If xony b6akh.

YA xachu VOtfyi.

bring (command) glass (G.) Bring us two glasses of tea, please.

nonpodyiiTe nOHpaBHTbCH

VOU}i xaCHU CHAyu.

IleTp Do the Russians drink much vodka?

MHdro jih borkh itbiot pyccKHe?

MNOga \i VOtpi pyut RUsJ}iya?

[ 11—A]


(they) get drunk Yes, but they don’t get drunk.

Bopuc namiBaioTcn J\&, ho ohii He iianHBaiOTCH.

napiV Ayutsa DA, no arji ni napiVAyutsa.

IleTp KAK? yi kaGDA?

What, never?

Kan? HnKor^a?

Oh, sometimes.

0, HHorjta.

drunks (G.P.) (they) respect But they haven’t much respect for drunkards in Russia.

yBastaioT Ho nLHHHX b Pocchii He dueHb


however (just the same) proverb Nevertheless, there’s a Russian saying: (he) will wake up fool The drunkard will wake up; the fool, never.

0, inaGDA.


yBantaiOT. Bce-TaKii

nocjioBHita 116 Bce-TaKii 6ctb pyccuan nocji6BHH,a: npOCHCTCH

flypau nbHHbiH npocHeTcn; ho ,n,ypaK


P YA nix uvaZHAyut no PYAnix v ra§Iyi rji Ochit} uvaZHAyut. F§0 taki paSLOyica no F§0 taki YE§P RUskaya paSLOyica: pra^FJOTsa duRAK PYAnay pra§I$OTsa; no duRAK, kaGDA.

Unit 11, Record Side 3, beginning. (78 RPM) n&rp I like that one. 268



mh6 HpaBiiTCH.

aNA mi}e N RAyitsa.

(he is) rich (The) Russian language is full of proverbs. hospitality In every Russian home you’ll find vodka, proverbs, and hospitality.

Eopfic 6ora,T PyccKHH H3iiiK 6oraT

baGAT rusfyiy yiZIK baGA T paSLOyicirpi.



B KanytoM pyccKOM ftoMe bbi Hanp;eTe BdRKy, nocji6BHn,bi h rocTenpriHMCTBo.

ga§Jipfi YIMstva f KAzhdam RUskam DOpii m nayyloji VOtku, paSLOyici, i gay pipy i YIMstva.

IleTp (I) remember I never remember proverbs.


51 miKor^a lie noMino iiocji6bhii;.

POmyu yd i}i kaGDA qi POrmju paSLOyic.

We have a few proverbs in America, but I don’t remember them.

y Hac b AMepni-te 6ctb HecKojibKO nocjidBim,, no A fix ne noMino.

u NAS v alfEfifyi YE§T jyEskalka paSLOyic, no YA yix yi POmyu.

That’s too bad.



I’d like (‘I very much want’) to hear them.

B dneHb xouy fix ycjibiinaTb.

yd Ochiy xaCHU yix uSLIshij.


Before you go through the Basic Sentences a second time, study the following:

2. Check Your Pronunciation Observe carefully and imitate the stress and the pitch or melody of the following Russian questions. Notice that the pitch at the end does not go up high, as it does

in similar English questions. Notice also that an un¬ stressed vowel in the syllable immediately before a stressed vowel is fairly clear and strong.



PRACTICE 1 Unit 11, Record Side 3, after 1st spiral. C78 RPM) Kaicne TaM no^aioT 6jiio,n;a? Kto 3tot MOJio^oii uejiOBeK? Hto bbi xothtc?




(3314 RPM) Record Side 11, after 1st spiral.

kalylya TAM padaYUT BJUda? KTO etat malaDOY chilayEK? SIITO vi xaj'lji? GDE on raBOtayit?

What sort of food do they serve there? Who is that young fellow? What do you want? Where does he work?

In the following sentences, notice that questions which contain the little question word [JI] have pretty much the melody of statements, but questions without any question word sound rather like similar English questions.

PRACTICE 2 Unit 11, Record Side 3, after 2nd spiral. (78 RPM) He xoTfiTe jih xjieba? Bbi xothtc xjieba? noexaji jih neap b MocKBy? neTp noexaji b MocKBy? H He 3Haio7 roBopHT jih ^6th

no-pyccKii. nomiMaeTe jih bbi, Korp;a


roBopio Mbp;jieHHo?

xaj'lji \i XJEba? vi xajlji XJEba? paYExal \i JOTR v maSKVU? JOTR paYExal v maSKVU? yd iji ZNAyu, gavaJAT \i DEji pa RUsfyi. pa?}iMAyiJi \i VI, kagda YA gavayu AJEdpna?

Don’t you want some bread? Do you want some bread? Has Peter gone to Moscow (or not)? Peter has gone to Moscow? I don’t know whether the children speak Russian. Do you understand when I speak slowly?

We now give a couple of Russian exclamations. Listen carefully to the Guide or to the speaker on the record, and try to imitate exactly the tune or melody of the Russian.

PRACTICE 3 Unit 11, Record Side 3, after 3rd spiral. (78 RPM) KaK xopomo MajibuiiK roBopfrr! Ht6 3a noroAa!



kdk xaraSHO MAJchik gavaJIT! SHTO za paGOda!

How well the little boy talks! What weather!

We now give first some simple statements and then some longer and more complex ones. Listen carefully and try to imitate the intonation of the Russian. Remember that our way of intoning a sentence seems natural to us,

but it is likely to seem very queer if we transfer it to a foreign language. Try to stress and intone your Russian in the Russian way.

PRACTICE 4 Unit 11, Record Side 3, after 4th spiral. (78 RPM) H iioiipy c BaMH.

yd pay DU s VAtjii.

I’ll go with you.



All right.

Oh 3naeT, ht6 mbi 3p;fict.

on ZNAyit shto mi %PES.

He knows we are here.

OHa MHe CKa3ajia, norpa bbi

aNA mqe skaZAla kaGDA vt BUqliji DOma.

She told me when you would be at home.

Ecjih npaHKa He npiiAeT, a ocTaHycb 6e3 Senna.

ye§\i PRACHka rj.i pripOT, yd aSTAnus lyiz pip YA.

If the laundress doesn’t come, I’ll be left without clothes.

H ee B03BMy; ecjin 3Ta KOMHaTa Tenjiaa.

yd yiyo va%MU, ye§\i eta KOmnata fOplaya.

I’ll take it, if this room is warm.

y MeHit ecTB Kpacnaa KHiira.

u ryiipA YE§ f KRAsnaya KPIIga.

I have a red book.

y Bac KpacHaa KHiira, no 3Ta KHiira Moa.

u VAS KRAsnaya Klplga; nd Eta KPpIga, maYA.

You have a red book, but this book is mine.

Bot Bam 6paT. — Mbit 6paT? HeT, 3TO MOH MyJK.

VOT vazh BRAT.—moy BRAT? PIET, Eta moy MUSH.

Here’s your brother.—My brother? No, this is my husband.

Bot ram MyjK. — Mon mv>k? H4t, 3to, Myjk Moeii cecTpfii.

VOT vdsh MUSH.—MO Y mush? UET, eta MUSH mayey pSTRI.

Here’s your husband.—My husband? No, that’s my sister’s husband.

SyqeTe flona.



Section B—Word Study and Review of Basic Sentences

1. Word Study (Individual Study) A. COMMENT ON THE BASIC SENTENCES

Do you want a cigarette?

1. The question word [£/]. XoTfiTe naroipocy? Bfii xoThTe nannpocy? BA nannpocy xoTHTe? XoT^Te jih bbi nannpocy?

xa'flji papiROsu? vi xa TIji papiROsu? vi papiROsu xaTIji? xaj'Iji [i vi papiROsu?

If a question calls for the answer yes or no and contains a verb, they sometimes speak the verb at the beginning. If the verb comes at the beginning, they occasionally (but not very often) add to it the little unstressed question word [£,/]. Are there many good restaurants here?

3,n,4cb MHoro xopouinx pecTopaHOB? MHoro 3a4cb xopdinnx

%k ‘husband’,

P. MyjKbfi, MyjKdft, MyjKbfiM; aP#t ‘friend’, P. Apy3&A, Apy3du, Apy3t/iM; clih ‘son’, P. cuHOBtfi, cbihob6h, CBIHOBtfiM. 40. Some drop final [in] in the P. and have N.P. [, e] and no ending in G.P.: KpecTbfimiH ‘peasant’, P. KpeCTBHHe, KpeCTBHH, KpeCTbfiHaM. 41. A few of these have other irregularities: rocnoAfiH ‘gentleman’, P. rocuoAa, rocndA, rocnoAaM; rpajKAaHfra ‘citizen’, P. rpaJKAane, rpaacftaH, rpaacpaHaM; xo3hhh ‘landlord’, P. xo3fieBa, xo3fieB, X03fieBaM. 42. Some whose S. ends in [onk] drop this and add [at] in the P., with N.P. [a] and no ending in G.P.: pedeHOK ‘child’, G.S. pedemca, P. pedfiTa, pedfiT, pedaTaM. 43. coc6a ‘neighbor’ has [$] in the P stem: cocdflH, cocdflefi, coc^ahm. 44. The P. of pedenoK ‘child’ is usually replaced by a6th ‘children’, §69. The P. of n,BeTdK ‘flower’ is usually replaced by upeTLi. The P. of uejiondK ‘human being, man’ is replaced by jiioah ‘people’, §69, except for the G.P. in number expressions: h4tb ueJiOBdK (§36) ‘five persons’; also MHdro, (Majio) HapdAy ‘many (few) people’, with second G.S. (§34) of HapdA ‘people’.

45-56. THIRD DECLENSION the endings are as in the second declension. Stem 45. Third declension: N.S. in [0], unstressed [a], [bind-] ‘dish’: written o, e. The nouns are N, except for a few M. The A.S. is like the N.S. Except for N.S., N.P., G.P., 303






G. -a 6jiioa

Stems ending in [iy] have the L.S. ending [i\: gflamie ‘building', b 3Aainin. Stems ending in [zh, sh] or in a palatal consonant other than [shch, y] have G.P. ending [ey\: nojie ‘field’, noaeii. 46. Some have accent AB: m6cto ‘place’, G.S. M&rra, P. MecTa, m6ct, mcctem. 47. Some have accent BA: okh6 ‘window’, G.S. OKiia, P. dima, 6koh, dKiiaM. 48. A few accent different syllables of the stem in S. and P.: dsepo ‘lake’, G.S. 63epa, P. osepa, 03ep, 03epaM. 49. yTpo ‘morning’, G.S. $rpa, accents the G.S. and D.S. endings in special expressions: c yTpa ‘from morning on’, k yTpy ‘towards morning’. It optionally has accent C in the P.: ;yTpar, yTp (§51), ^TpdM.

D. -y -aM

I. -OM -aMH

L. -e -ax

50. A few have N.P. [•/]: hSjioko ‘apple’, hSjiokh. 51. Some fail to insert a vowel in the G.P.: ropao ‘throat’, G.P. ropji; G.P. yTp, §49. 52. Sopie have G.P. [of]: naaTBe ‘dress’, njiaTteB; ffbJioKO ‘apple’, bSjiokob or hSjiok. 53. Hfln;6 BA ‘egg’ inserts accented [f] in the G.P.: G.S. aiipa, P. aiipa, aiin;, aiipaM. 54. A few add [y] in the P. forms with stress on the preceding syllable and G.P. [of\: ttepeBO ‘tree’/ G.S. «6peBa, P. p;epeBBH, ,n;epeBBeB, ,n;epeBBHM. 55. He6o AB ‘sky’ adds [, es] in the P. forms: G.S. n66a, P. neSeca, He66c, neSecaM. 56. yxo ‘ear’ has P. stem [ush-] with accent C and N.P. [i\: G.S. ;yxa, P. fum, ymeft, yinaM.

57-65. FOURTH DECLENSION 57» Fourth declension: F nouns whose N.S. ends in a consonant {[zh, s/z] or palatal); the M nyTB ‘way’; Endings; stem [krovaj-] ‘bed’: N.


and a few N nouns with N.S. in [a]. The A.S. is like the N.S.











-H -HM


58. Many have accent AC: pBepb ‘door’, G.D.L.S. pBepn, P. pBepn, pBepefi, pBeptbvi. 59. Some accent the L.S. ending [i] after b, Ha, either always or in. special meanings: rpa3b ‘dirt’, G.D.L.S. rpH3H, but b rpH3H ‘in the dirt, all dirty’. 60. cajKeim AC ‘fathom’ has G.P. caacen or regular caJKeHeii. 61. Jioinapb AC ‘horse’ has I.P. JiomapbMff. 62. The stem [cerky-] AC ‘church’ inserts a vowel

in N.S. and I.S. and has plain [v] in D.I.L.P.: pepKOBb, pdpKBH, pepKOBBIO, P. pepKBII, pepKBeff, pepKBaM. 63. The stems [maje/-] ‘mother’, [cloche]--] ‘daugh¬ ter’, accent AC, drop [e/J in the N.S.: MaTb, ponb, ponepir, ponepbio, P. ponepn, pouepefi, poucpnai; pdub has I.P. ponepbMii. 64. The N nouns go as follows: stem [iipoq-] ‘name’: S. hmh, hivieim, HMeHeM; P. miena, invieH, HMeHaM. 65. The only M. noun, nyrb BB ‘way’ has I.S. nyTeM.

66-69. NOUNS WITH PLURAL ONLY 66. Nouns which occur only in P. form have N.P. [i] or [a] and G.P. [of] or [ey] or with no ending: ohkh, ohk6b, OHKaM ‘eyeglasses’; hohchhpbi, h6jkhhp, HdannipaM ‘scissors’; nepnffjia, Hepnhji, HepmijiaM ‘ink’. 67. Some have accent C: caim, candii, cariHM ‘sleigh’.





pener, optionally accents

the other endings: peHLraM.









thus: peTdii, peTHM, peTbMii, pdrax.

70. INDECLINABLE NOUNS 70. Indeclinable nouns remain unchanged in all cases and both numbers: naJibTo N ‘overcoat’, Ko ‘to recognize’, y3HaHHbift ‘(one that has been) recognized’. On the short forms of these participles see §76. 315

144. REFLEXIVE FORMS 144. The reflexive forms add [ca], written -ca, to the infinitive and to the 'he’ form of the present: yMbiBaxbCH 'to wash (oneself)’, yMHBaexca. To forms that end in a consonant and to all participle forms they add {5a], written -ca: oh yMBiBaaca ‘he was washing

(himself)’, yMbiBaioutHHca ‘(one who is) washing (him¬ self)’, F yMbiBaromaaca. To all other forms they add [5], written -cb: a yMbiBaiocb: ‘I am washing (myself)’, OHa yMbiBaaacb ‘she was washing (herself)’,

145. VERB PREFIXES 145. Compounds of prefix and verb regularly inflect like the simple verb: cnejiaxb ‘to do (completely)’ like RejiaTb ‘to do’. Punctual compounds (§173) with bbi- accent this prefix in all forms: Bbinejiaxb ‘to work out’ (but Bbip,ejibiBaTb ‘to be working out’, because not punctual).

Prefixes that end in a consonant add [0] before various combinations of two consonants: nonmxcaxb ‘to sign’, noACTaBHTb ‘to set under’, but noAOHCHaxb ‘to await’, from jK^aTb ‘to wait’. However, c-, as in CAenaxb, adds [0] also in some other forms: coflepataxb ‘to con¬ tain’, from ^epacaxb ‘to hold’.

146-150. REGULAR VERBS 146. Regular verbs are of four classes. In all regular verbs the infinitive stem ends in a vowel. 147. Class 1: all regular verbs except those whose infinitive ends in -OBaxb (-eeaxb), -nyxb, -nxb. The present stem adds [y] to the infinitive stem and is inflected by Type 1 with accent on stem (A). Infinitive stem [$ela-] ‘to do’: p,ejraxb; .n&naji, -a, -o, -xi; n^jianHbixi; present stem [tfelay-]: n;ejiaio, fl&Jiaex; fttjjiaix; [child-] ‘to read’: nxixaxb; uuxaji, -a, -o, -h; HnxaiiHbin; [chilay-] mxxaio, axxxaex; uirraii. 148. Class 2: the infinitive stem ends in [ova]: in the present stem this is replaced by [uy] The present is of Type 1, accent A. Infinitive stem [t/ebova-] ‘to 316

demand’: xpe6oBaxb; xp66oBaji, -a, -0, -h; Tp66oBaHHbiix; present stem [tj-ebuy-]: xpeSyio, xp66yex; TpeSyfi. If the final [a] of the infinitive stem is accented, the present stem accents the [u]: [injej-esova-] ‘to interest’: iiHxepecoBaxb; mxxepecoBaji, -a, -o, -h; HHxepecoBaHHbiii; [inje/esuy-]: iiHxepecyxo, imxepecyex; iiHxepecyii. 149. Class 3: the infinitive stem ends in [nu]; the present stem drops the [u] and inflects in Type 1. The past passive participle takes [t] instead of [nn]. In¬ finitive stem [I}inu-] ‘to fling’: Kimyxb; Kfinyji, -a, -0, -xi; Kiniyxbiu; present stem [}}in-]: iaxiiy, Kiinex; KUHb. If the [u] of the infinitive is accented, the present accents the endings (B), and the past passive participle

draws back the accent: BepHyTB ‘to bring back’; BepH^ji, a, -o, -h; noBepHyTLiii ‘turned’; Bepay, BepneT; BepiiM. 150. Class 4: the infinitive stem ends in [i], pre¬ ceded by [zh,sh\ or by a palatal consonant. The present stem drops the [i] and is of Type 2. The past passive participle replaces the [i] by [o], with the same con¬ sonant changes as in the T form of the present, §137.

Infinitive stem [chi§ji-] ‘to clean’: afiCTHTb; nficmu, -a, -o, -h; nfiin,eiiiiMii; present stem [chi§j-]: afiiny, hActut; hhcth. If the [i] of the infinitive stem is accented, the present accents the endings: TBopfixb; TBop&Ji, -a, -o', -h; TBopeHHbin; TBopio, TBopfrr; TBopli.

151-171. IRREGULAR VERBS 151. Some verbs have shifting accent (accent C) in the past (accent B): m6hb ‘to be able’, wor, MorjiA, the present tense: they accent the endings in the ‘I’ Morjio, Morjifi. form, the imperative, participles, and gerund, but draw 154. Some one-syllable verbs have shifting accent it back one syllable in the five other forms: BapHTB ‘to (accent C) in the past; they stress the F ending: 6bitb boil’: Bapio, BapmnB, BapiiT, BapiiM, BapiiTe, BapaT; ‘to be’, 6biji, 6tijia, 6bijio, 6bijih. Bap A; Bapaupin, BapHMBift, Bapa. Presents of Type 1 155. Some of these stress a prefix in the other three with accent C draw back the accent also in the active forms (accent D): 3an4TB ‘to occupy’, 34hhji, 3aHa.ua, participle: ninny ‘I write’, nfirneT, nfimymiiil ‘(one who 3aHHJI0, SaHHJIH. is) writing’. 152. Verbs which have accent C in the present draw back the accent also in the past passive participle: BapeHHMft ‘boiled’. 153. Some one-syllable verbs stress the endings in

150. Some past forms with accent C or D either always or optionally stress the last syllable in the' reflexive forms: sanaTBca ‘to occupy oneself’, 3aHajicM, 3anaJiacB, saHajiocB, 3aHHJificB.

157-164. IRREGULAR VERBS WITH PRESENT OF TYPE 1 make the present stem: Ha^HTBca ‘to hope’, Ha,n,&ocB, 157. Some with infinitive stem in [a] drop this iiaaeeTca; iia^eiiCH. vowel in the present stem, and take the consonant changes of §137: p6saTB ‘to cut’, pe>ny, p6acex; pean,. Some of these accent the [a] and have accent B in the present: CMefiTBca ‘to laugh’, CMeioCB, CMeeTca; Some of these accent the [a] and have accent C in cm6hch. the present: macaTB ‘to write’, nnrny, nfimeTj nnrnfi. 159. Three verbs with infinitive stem in [avd] have 158. Some with infinitive stem in \ya\ drop [a\ to 317

the present stem in [ay] with accent B, but form the imperative and gerund regularly: flaBaTb ‘to give’, Haro, p;aeT; R&Baii; naioiniin, aaeMbift, flaBaa. The other two are -3HaBaTb, -CTaBaTb, §181. 160. Some verbs of Class 3 drop [nu] in the past: Mep3HyTb ‘to freeze’, Mep3Hy, Mep3HeT; Mep3, Mep3jia, -o, -II.

161. Some verbs with present of Type 1 are entirely irregular; only a few of these have stems of more than one syllable: 4xaTb ‘to ride’ has present £n;y, 4,n;eT The imperative is supplied from a longer verb: noe3Hcan; similarly in compounds: yexaTb ‘to depart’, ye3JKaii; compare §185. kojiotIj ‘to prick’, kojiio, kojict; past passive par¬ ticiple KOJIOTBlft

yMep^Tb ‘to die’ yiapy-, yMpeT; past with accent D: jyrviep, yMepaa, ^Mepao, yMepan 162. Quite a few verbs whose infinitive stem has only one syllable (apart from prefixes) are irregular. We give the infinitive, the present ‘I’ and ‘he’ forms, the imperative, and the past M; we add other past forms and the past passive participle only when these are irregular. 163. The following have one-syllable infinitive stems ending in a vowel: 6fiTb ‘to beat’; 6bio, 6beT; 6; P. Goil) fight, battle Goaee more (before adjectives and adverbs, §89) Goaexb (6ojiht) D to hurt (intr.), to ache, to pain 6ojit, -a bolt GoJib F pain SoJibHHija hospital 6ojii>h6h (Goubho, -bi) sick; AM and GoabHaa AF sick persofi, patient; GoabHO (adverb and impersonal) painfully; it hurts Gojibiue more, any more, bigger; fioJibimiH bigger (com¬ parative of SoJibiuofl, BeaaKHH, aHoro; see also Goaee) GoabimiHCTBO majority Goabuioit (short forms replaced by BejifiK, Beamca, -6, -h; comparative, see Goabiiie) big, large GoaGa bomb; GoaGfiTb D to bomb Eopnc Boris 66pm, beet soup, borshch doTHHKa (S. also in M form, Gothhok, -Hica) shoe Gonna barrel; bochka, 492 liters GoaTbca (Goiocb, Gonrca) D to be afraid, to fear (G.) GpaT (P. -ba, -beB, -baa) brother GpaTb (Gepy, GepeT; Gpaaa, Gpajica) D, B3aTb (B03bay, B03baeT; B3aaa, B3aaca; B3HTbin, B3aTa) P to take Gpnrapa brigade Gpnpac bridge, whist GpiiTBa razor; 6e3onacHaa GpHTBa safety razor

GpaTb (Geeio, GpeeT; GpaTbiii) D to shave (tr.); -ca to shave (intr.) (no-) GpocaTb D, GpociiTb P to throw GpioKH (GpioK, -aa; P. only) trousers GypnTb (Gymy, GypiiT) D to wake (tr.) (pas-) Gypymiiii future, next GyKBa letter (of the alphabet) GyjiaBKa pin; aHraiincKaa GyaaBKa safety pin Gyaara paper; Gyaamna scrap of paper; bill (paper money); GyaamHHK bill-fold Gypa storm Gyuieab M bushel Gbi (added to past tense) would GbiBaTb D (iterative of GbiTb) to be repeatedly, ever to be GbicTpbin (GbiCTp) quick GbiTb (Gbiaa, He Gbia; P present Gypy, GypeT; compare ecTb, h6t) D to be (iterative GbiBaTb) Giopo (indeclinable) N office, bureau B, bo (with A.) into; (with L.) in BaroH railway car Baa, Baaii, see bh sauna (G.P. bsihh) bathtub; BaHHaa AF bathroom BaHa M Johnnie (short name for IIBan) BapnTb (Bapio, BapHT) D to boil (tr.), to cook (c-) 329

BaciljiHH Basil Barn (§94) your BSeraxb D, Bfieadixb (Bfiery, bSchcht, §171) P to run in BfleBETb D, B^eTb (e;;euy, B^enex; B/jerbift) P to put in; BjjeTb HHTKy b HroJiKy to thread a needle Be^po (P. Bejtpa) pail; vedro, 12.2 liters Be3,n,e everywhere BC3TH (Be3y, Be3ex; Be3, Besjia, -6, -m) D to cart, to convey on a vehicle (no-; iterative B03MXb) BeJiHKHH (for comparative see SoJibuie) great (short forms with irregular accent replace those of SoJibiuofi) BeJiHHHHa size Bepa Vera BepeBKa rope, cord, string Bepirrb D to believe (D.) BepnyTb P to bring back; -cfl to come or go back BepnbiM true, faithful; BepHO that’s true Bepcxa (A. BepcTy; P. Bepcxbi, Bepcx, BepcxaM) verst, 1.067 kilometer Bepx (G. -y; Ha Bepxy; P. Bepxn) top, upper surface; BepxoM on horseback BeprnoK, -mica vershok, 4.445 centimeters Bee (G. -y; P. Beca) weight; P. Becbi scales, balance; BeciJTb D to weigh (intr.) BecHa (A. Becny; P. BecHbi) spring; BeCHofi in spring 330

BecTfi (BejjS, BefleT; b&i, Beji&, -6, -fi) D to lead, to conduct (no-; iterative BojpiTb) Been (§101) all; Bee everything; all the time, always; Bcero in all, all together; Bee all (of them), everybody Bexep, -Tpa (na Bexpy) wind

BeTuimaham Bcuep (P. Benepa) evening; BenepoM in the evening BenHbiH permanent BeuiaTb D, noBeciiTb P to hang up; cseciiTb P to weigh (tr.) Beup> (P. BemH, Bemefi) F thing B3Jie3arb D, B3Jie3Tb (-Jie3y, -Jie3ex; -Jie3, -Jie3Jia) to climb up B3JieTaxb D, B3Jiexexb (-Jieny, -jiexHx) P to fly up B30HXH P of BCXOJJHXb B3fixb P of 6paxb BH^axb D (iterative of BH^exb, used only in infinitive and past) to see repeatedly, to be able to see, to have (ever) seen BHjjexb (Bibicy, bhjjhx) D to see (y-; iterative BH^axb) Biijj view; appearance; Biij^HbiS visible; OtepeBHio) bhaho one can see (the village) fork BHHorpa^ (G. -y) grapes (collective) bhhx, -a screw; BimxHXb D to screw BHHXOBKa rifle


BuceTb (BHiny, bhcht) D to hang (intr.) bjItb (bbio, bbct; Biuia, bhjich; bhtbih) to wind, to twist BKJimaTb D, bkjhohhtb P to include BKyc taste; BKyCHbiH tasty, good to eat Bjia^iiBOCTOK Vladivostok (city) BJieTaTb D, BJieTeTb (Bjieny, bjictmt) P to fly in BMecTe together BHanajie in the beginning BHH3 down, downstairs (whereto?); BHH3y down below, downstairs (where?) bo,for B BO-BpeMH on time BOBce altogether BO^a (A. Bopy; P. boam, boa, boa^m) water BOA»Tb (BO/Ky, boabt) D (iterative of eccth) to lead repeatedly BOAKa vodka BoeHHbiii of war, military B03Ayx air B03HTb (Boacy, bo3iit). D (iterative of Becra) to cart repeatedly, to carry about on a vehicle B03Jie beside, next to B03pacTaTb D, po3pacra (-pacTy, -pacTex; -poc, -pocjia, -6, -if) P to grow up, to grow greater Boima (P. BoiiHbi, bohh, BoimaM) war

P of BXOAHTb BOK3aji large railway station BoJira the Volga (river) BOJIOC (P. BOJiocbi, BOJIOC, BOJlocam) single hair; P. hairs, hair Bonpoc question BoceMb (§ 11G) eight; bocbmoh eighth; BocbMepo (§125) set of eight; BOceMHaAAaTb (§117) eighteen; EoceM HaAAaTbiH eighteenth; BoceivibAecaT (§118) eighty; BocbMHAecHTbiii eightieth; Boceiwbcox (§120) eight hundred BocKpeceKbe Sunday boctok (the) east; BocTOHHbiu eastern bocxoa rising, rise BocbMepo etc., see BoceMb bot here (it) is, here (they) are BnaAaTb D, BnacTb (enapy, biibaot; miaji) P to fall in BnepeA forward, ahead Bpar, -a enemy; BpanceciuiH of the enemy BpaTb (npy, BpeT; Bpana) to tell lies (co-) Bpao, -a physician, doctor; 3y5Hofi epau dentist Bpeivm N (§G4) time; bo Bpeivia (bomhiIi) during (the war) Bcerpa always Bee, Bcero see Becb; Bce-TaKH nevertheless BCKope soon BOHTH






to remember

BCTasaTb (BCTaio, BCTaeT; BCTaBan)

P to get up meeting; BCTpeaaTb D,


height BH3aTb (BJiHcy, BJI5KCT) D to tie, to knit (c-)


BCTaTb (BCTany,

BCTaneT) BCTpeMa


P to meet

(-xosKy, -xo^iit) D, b3ohth (-ii^y, -ii^eT; -mea, -uiJia, -6, -n) to go up, to rise BCio^y everywhere BTopHHK Tuesday BTopoii second bxoji; entrance; Bxo^HTb (nxo>Ky, bxojjiit) D, bohth (-iipy, -ii^,eT; -mea, -maa, -6, -h) P to go in BHepit yesterday Bbi (§106) you Bbie3JKaTb D, BbiexaTb (-ejjy, -e^eT) P to move out BbIHTII P Of BLIXOftilTb BbIMbIBaTb D, BbIMbITb (-MOIO, -MOeTJ -MblTblfi) P to wash clean BbimiBaTb D, BbiniiTb (-nbio, -nbeT; -niiTbiii) P to drink up BexojtHTb







§92) high BbicoTa height BbicTupaTb P to wash out, to wash (clothes, linen) BbicTpeji a shot; BbiCTpeaiiTb P to fire a shot, to shoot Bbixojjexit; Bbixo^iiTb (-xoiKy, -xoaht) D, blihtii (-fi^y, ; -uieji, -uuia) P to go out 332

ra3eTa newspaper raifica screw nut raJicTyK necktie r a pa ne garage rB03p;b, -3jja (P. rB03Aii, raos/ten) M nail; rB03«HK small nail, tack rge where reKTap hectare, 2.471 acres renepaa general reopmii George repMamui Germany

raaBa (P. raaBbi) heading, chapter; raaBHLiii principal, chief i\na3 (b rjia3y; P. raa3a, raa3, raa3a>i) eye raySima depth

rJiyooKiiii (rayooiea, rayooieo, rayooieu; ray (me, rayGouaniHim) deep roBopHTb D, CKa3axb (cicaney, cKanceT) P to say, to tell; roBopuTb D to speak (no-) roBHjjiiHa beef rdfl (n ro^y; 3a ro^, Ha rojt; P. ro^bi, roftOB; G.P. mostly replaced, by JieT) year

ropfiTbca D to be good (for something, Ha with A.) (npH-) fojiobIL (A. roaoBy; 3a ronoBy, Ha roaoBy; P. ronoBbi, roaoB, roaoBaM) head ronop hunger; roJiopHbift (ronopeH, ronopna) hungry ropa (A. ropy; Ha ropy, nop, ropy; P. ropu, rop, ropaM) mountain ropttapo much (before comparatives, §90) ropeTb (ropio, ropuT) D to burn (intr.) ropao (G.P. ropa) throat ropop (3a ropop, 3a ropopo.M; P. ropopa) city; ropopoK, -pica small city, town; ropopcKoii of the city, municipal ropox (G. -y) peas (collective) ropbKHH (rop'ie, ropaaHUiHH) bitter; ropiacnn Gorky (city) ropaanM (ropaaa, -6, -il) hot rocmiTaab M large hospital, military hospital rocnopnH (P. rocnopa, rocnop, rocnopaivi) master; gentleman; Mr. rocTb (P. rocTii, rocTeii) M guest; noexaTb b tocth to go stay with people; rocTenpiiiinicTBO hospitality; roCTHHaa AF living room, parlor; rocTUHiipa hotel roTOBbiii ready; roTOBHTb D to make ready; to prepare; to cook (npn-) rpapyc degree; rpapycHHK thermometer

rpaacpaHHH (P. rpaacpaHe, rpancpan, rpancpanaM) citi¬ zen (man); Mr.; rpaacpaHKa citizen (woman); Miss, Mrs. rpaMOTa reading and writing; rp&MOTHbiii literate rpamlpa boundary, border (of a country); 3a rpamtpy to foreign parts, abroad (whereto?); sa rpamipeB in foreign parts, abroad (where?); H3-sa rpamtpbi from abroad rpedemca; rpeSeHb, -6hh M; rpeSemoic, -mica comb rposa (P. rpo3bi) thunderstorm rpoM (P. rpoMbi, rpoivioB) thunder, peal of thunder rpypb (Ha rpypn; P. -pn, -pefi) F chest, breast rpy30BHK, -a truck rpyuia pear rptiab (b rpH3ii) F dirt; rpasHbiii (rpn3Ho, rpn3Hbi) dirty ry6a (P. ryobi, ryo, ryoa>i) lip ryjiHTb D to take a walk, to stroll, to idle (ho-)

pa yes; pa and, but panaTb (paio, paeT; paiiaii) D, paTb (paM, pacT, §171; paaa, pajio, He pan, panca) P to give paBHo long ago, ever since long ago, for a long time already pance also, even paneKHil (paneica, paneico, paneicn; pajibiue, panee) far; paneKo it’s far 333

distant; paJibHefiuiHH further paHHbie AP data paxb P of paBaxb pBa (§115) two; psoe (§125) set of two; pBeHappaxb (§117) twelve; pBCHappaxbiH twelfth; pBappaxb (§116) twenty; pBappaxbiii twentieth; pBecxn (§120) two hundred; pByxcoxbM two hundredth jpepb (P. pBepn, pBepeii) F door pBop, -a yard, farm, court; Ha pBope out of doors; pBopHiiK house porter, janitor najibHBiH

p,ByxMecTHbiii with two places pesaxb D, pexb (peny, peHex; pexbifl) P to put pesoHKa little girl; peByrnna young unmarried woman peejmocxQ (§119) ninety peBHXb (§116) nine; peBiixbiH ninth; peBnxepo (§125) set of nine; peBaxnappaxb (§117) nineteen; peBHXHappaxbm nineteenth; peBHXbcox (§120) nine hundred peicaSpb, -6pn M December pejiaxb D to do, to make (c-) pcjiiixb (pejno, pejiiix) D to divide pejio (P pejia) affair, matter; B caMOM pejie really; Ha caiwoM pejie actually; P. pena affairs, business; no peJiaivi on business pem>, pun M day; xpexbero pHH day before yesterday; pHeM in daytime, in the afternoon


penbra (peHer, peiibraw) P. money pepeBHH (P. pepeBHH, pepesenb, pepeEHim) village; B pepeBHe in the country; b pepeBHK) to the country pepeBO (P. pepeBbn, -BbeB, -Bbasi) tree; wood pepacaxb (pepeacy, pepacnx) D to hold; -ch to hold fast (to, 3a A.) pecnxb (§116) ten; pecaxbm tenth; pecaxepo (§125) set of ten pecaxHHa desyatine, 1.0925 hectare pexii (pexefi, pexjiM, pexbMii, pexnx) P. children (gen¬ erally replaces the P. of peoenoK) pexb P of peuaxb peuieBbiH (perneB, pemeBa; pemeBjie) cheap PHBH3HH division (in army) pjiinia length pjiHHHbiii long pjui for J^MiixpHH Dmitry, Demetrius JJnenp, -a the Dnepr (river) po up to, to; before (the time of) poopuii (poop) good, kind poBOJibiibiii satisfied, content; posojibHo enough; that’s enough poe3H£axb D, poexaxb (-epy, -epex) P to ride or drive all the way poacpb, -acpa M rain

A0hxh P of aoxoahxb flOKTop (P. flOKTopa) doctor AOJiraii (lasting a) long (time); aojixo (AOJibine, AOJiee) for a long time AojivKhmh (aojihcho, -li) owing, proper; short forms: needing to, supposed to: H rojukch nofixn I have to go there AOJUiap dollar floM (Ha p;oMy; H3 ffOMy, Ha aoivi; P. AOMa) house, home; AOMa at home; aomhk little house Aoracpaxjack Aomoh home (whereto?) Aopora road, way; 3KeJie3Han Aopora railway Aoporofi (Adpor, Aopora; Aopoace) dear AOCKa (A. AOCKy; P. aockh, aocok, AOCKaivi) board AocxaBaxb (-cxaio, -cxaex; -cxaBafi) D, Aocxaxb (-cxaHy, -cxanex) P to manage to get, to procure AoexaxoHHO enough AoxoAilxb (-xo/Ky, -xoahx) D, aohxh (-«Ay, -H^ex; -rneji, -uuia, -6, -h) P to go all the way (not in a vehicle) Aoub (§63) F; Aoxica daughter ApoBa (apob, ApoBa.M) P. firewood Apyr (P. Apy3ba, Apysefi, Apy3bH>i) friend Apyroii other, another, different Hyiviaxb D to think

AypaK, -a blockhead, fool AK>kih Russian inch, 2.5 centimeters EBreHHii Eugene EBpona Europe; eBponencKHH European ero, see oh eAHHcxBenHbiii only, sole ee, see oh e3AHXb D (iterative of exaxb) to ride repeatedly eS Eory honest to goodness’ efi, see oh EKaxepima Catherine EjiH3aBexa Elizabeth eMy, see oh ecjin, ecjmGbi, ecjino if ecxb there is, there are; compare Gbixb, Hex ecxb (eM, ecx; euib, §171; eji) D to eat (cb-) exaxb (e^y, cacx; noe3ncaii) to ride, to drive (no-? iterative e3AHXb) eme still, yet jk, see ace JKajiKo; ncajib it’s too bad xcapKHH (ncapne) hot (of weather) xcAaxb (iKAy, ikacx ; JKAaJia) to wait (noAO-) 335

xe (sometimes shortened to x; emphasizes the preced¬ ing word) however; oh xe but he; tot xe the same

one xeJiaxb D to wish, to desire (no-); xeJianne wish,

desire xeJie30 iron; xeaesHbiii (of) iron; xeaesnaa p,opora

railway (xcjito,




xeJiyAOK, -pica stomach xeHa (P. xeHbi) wife; xenaTbiS married (of a man); xemiTbCJi (xeniocb, xeHHTca) D and P to get married, to marry (Ha L.; of a man) xeib (xry, xxct; xer, xrjia, -6, -h) D to burn (tr.) (c-) xhbot, -a belly xiiBOTHoe AN animal XH3Hb F life xiweT vest, waistcoat XHTb (xHBy, xhbct; XHjia, He xhji) D to live

(with A.) behind, (whereto?), for; (with I.) behind (where?), after; hto 3a what kind of 3a6op fence 3a

aaSbisaTb D, sadbiTb (-6yjjy, -GyAeT; -GbiTbifi) P to

forget D, 3aoepHyTb (-BepuyTbiH) P to wrap up aaBHHHHBaTb D, saBHHTHTb P to screw on 3aeepTbiBaTb


3aBojj large factory, works 3aBTpa tomorrow saBTpaK lunch, breakfast; saBTpaKair. D to eat lunch or breakfast (no-) saropaTbca D, 3aropeTbca (-ropiocb, -ropHTca) P to catch fire 3afl (Ha 3apy; P. 3aAbi) rear part, rear sae3xaTb D, 3aexaTb (-e^y, ejteT) P to drive in for a while 3axnraTbD, 3axeab (-xry, -xxeT; -xer, -xrjia, -6, -h) P to set on fire, to light; -ca to start burning, to catch fire 3aHTH P of 3aXOAHTb 3aKa3 order (as, at a restaurant); 3aica3biBaTb D, 3aKa3aTb (-Kaxy, -KaxeT) P to order 3aKa.JibiBaTb D, saKo.ioTb (-kojiio, -kojict; -KoaoTbifi) P to pin fast 3aKiinaTb D, 3aKiineTb (-khhjiio, -khiiht) P to come to a boil 3aK0Ji0Tb P of 3aKaabiBaTb 3aKpbiBaTb D, 3aKpbiTb (-Kpoio, -KpoeT; -KpbiTbiii) P to cover, to close, to shut 3aKypiiBaTb D, 3aKypuTb (-Kypio, -KypiiT) P to start smoking (tobacco), to have a smoke 3ajiUB bay, gulf 3aiaep3aTb D, 3aiviep3HyTb (-Mep3, -Mep3aa) P to freeze* to freeze up (intr.)

3aMyjK: Bbixojplxb, blihth saiviyjK to get married, to marry (3a A.; of a woman); 3aMy2KeM married (sa I.; of a woman) 3aKiiMaTb D, saHHTb (saniny, saiiMex; 3aHHji, 3annjia, saHHJica; 3aHHTbin, saHHxa) P to occupy; -ch to occupy oneself, to study 3ana,n the west; sana^Hbiii western sanac supply, provision; 3anacHoii spare, extra 3anjiaxnxb (-iuiany, -njiaxnx) P to pay (for, 3a A.) 3anjioMSnpoBaTb P to fill (a tooth) 3apa6axbiBaxb D, 3apa56xaxb P to earn 3apanee beforehand saxem after that, then. 3axo (to make up) for that saxop; going down, setting; 3axop;MTb (-xoniy* -xopnx) D, sanxii (-npy, -hact; -men, -iwia, -6, -fi) P to go down, to set (of the sun), to go in for a while 3axoTCTb (-xony, -xoneT, §171) P to want 3aneM what for, why 3aHBJidTb D, 3aaBHTb (-HBJIK), -hbiit) P to announce, to proclaim 3Baxb (soBy, 30B6T; 3Bajia, SBajica) D to call (no-); KaK ero 30Byx? what is his name? 3B63Aa (P. 3Be3p,bi) star 3BOHilTb D to ring; to call (someone, D.) on the tele¬ phone (no-); 3boh6k, -Hica bell; ringing

33,aKiie building 3^ecb here (where?) 3AopoBbifi healthy, in good health, well s^paBCTByn, 3ApaBCTBy2xe how do you do? hello! 3eJieHbm (3ejieH, seJieea) green 3eMJieAejme agriculture; 3eMJieAeJibnecKiiit agricultural 3eMJia (A. 3eMjno; ao 3enuiH, Ha aeMjiio, P. 3€mjih) earth, ground, land; 3eMHOH terrestrial 3epKaJio (P. 3epKajia) mirror, looking glass 3HMa (A. 3HMy; P. 3nm>i, shm, siImbm) winter; 3hm62 in winter; shmhhh of winter 3HaKoivniTb D to make acquainted; -cn to get acquainted (no-); sHaKOMbiH acquainted; AM, snaKOMaa AF acquaintance 3naxb D to know (y-) 3y5 (P. sySbi, 3y6oB) tooth; 3y6Hon of the teeth, dental h and; also, even: h oh even he, he too; H ... 11 both . . , and: 11 on 11 ona both he and she IlBan Ivan, John nrjia (P. ilrjibi, nrji, ilrnaM); nrojnca needle nrpaxb D to play H3, H30 from out of, from (the inside of) H3BiiHnxb D, H3BHHHTB P to excuse; H3BHHHTe pardon me! 113-3a out from behind; on account of 337

H3MepnTb D, H3iwepiiTb P to measure out; H3MepeHiie measuring, measurement H3Hami!BaTb D, H3HociiTb (-Homy, -hocht) P to wear out (tr.) H30, see H3 H3yMaTb D, H3yHiiTb (-yqy, -ynHT) P to study hjiii or; mill . . . hjih either ... or HjibH Elija hmh (§64) N. (given) name HHorjja sometimes HHCTpyMeHT instrument, tool HHTepecHbiii interesting; HHTepecoBaTb D to interest; -ca to be interested (in, I.) HH*i inch HCKaTb (mqy, iiu;eT) D to look for, to seek (no-) llTajina Italy iittii (nay, HACT; ineji, nuia, -6, -n) D to walk, to go, to come (not riding or driving) (no-; iterative

xoaifTb) iiiojib July HioHb June ic, ko (with D.) toward, to, to the home or place of KaeaJiepnfl cavalry KaJKjjbin every, each ICa3aHb F Kazan (city) 338

Ka3aTbcn (Kancycb, KanceTca) D to sect. KaK how; KaK paa just now, just then KaKoii what kind of, which, what KaJiouia overshoe KaMepa inner tube KaHaaa Canada KaHaa canal KamiTaH captain KapaH^aui, -a pencil Kapwan pocket KapTHHa picture KapToiuica potatoes (collective) Kacnniicicoe Mope the Caspian Sea Kacca cash desk; ticket office KaxyuiKa spool KaioTa cabin (on a ship) KBapTa quart KBajtpaT square; KBaqpaTiu.in square KBapTiipa apartment, flat Khcb Kiev (city) khjio (indeclinable) N; KiuiorpaMM kilogram, 2.205 pounds KinioMeTp kilometer, 0.621 mile kiiho (indeclinable) N moving picture show, movies iameTb (kihijiio, KiiniiT) D to boil (intr.)

KJiacTb (loia^y, KJiafleT) D, nojioJKHTb (-Jioacy, -jiojkht) P to lay, to place, to put KJiroH, -a key; wrench; $paHpy3CKHH Kjijoq monkey wrench KHHra book; KHimica little book, handy book; khh>khuh of books, for books ko, see K KOBep, -Bpa rug, carpet Kcrga when Koe- (prefixed to question words) one and another: Koe-Kor^a at one time and another KoiKa skin, hide, leather KOJieco (P. KOJieca) wheel KOJiJieKTilBHBXH collective koJioxb (kojiio, KOJieT; kojiotmh) D to prick, to pin KOJixos collective farm kojibi^o (P. KOJibpa) ring KoMHaTa room; MefijinpoBaHHaa KOMHaTa furnished room KOHBepT envelope KOHjjyKTop conductor KOHep, -upa end; kohchho of course; KonnaTb D, KOHHHTb P to finish, to end (tr.),‘ -cji to come to an end, to end (intr.) KOHTopa office KonefiKa kopek Kop3HHa basket; Kop3miica little basket

KOpHRop corridor, hallway KopH^HeBbifi brown Kopofina package (in which something comes, as ciga¬ rettes), flat container, flat can (as, for sardines) KOpOBa cow KOpOTKIlii (KOpOTQK, KOpOTKa, KOpOTKO, KOpOTKH J KOpOHC)

short suit of clothes KOTjieTa meat ball KOTopbifi which KO(|)e (indeclinable) M coffee KpacilBbiii beautiful, pretty KpacHbiii red koctiom

KpenKiiS (Kpemie)

firm, solid, strong

(P. ItpeCTbHHe, KpeCTbaH, ICpeCTbHHaM) peasant, farmer; KpecTbaHKa peasant woman; KpeCTbbhctbo peasantry, farm population


KpiinaTb (Kpiwy, KpiiaiiT) D, KpiiKHyTb P to cry, to

yell KpoBaTb F bedstead, bed KpoMe

except, bes>’de, in addition to

KpLiTb (Kpoio, KpoeT; KpbiTbiii) Kpuina



KpiOHOK, -MKfl

D to cover



kto (§104) who 339

Kyjja whereto KyiiGwmeB Kuybishev (city) Kyne (indeclinable) N compartment (in a railway carriage) KynfiTb P of noKynaTb KypfiTb (Kypio, KypHT) D to smoke (tobacco) (no-) Kypinja (P. usually Kypbi, Kyp, KypaM) hen, chicken KycoK, -CKa piece KyxHJi kitchen KyrnaTb to eat jiaBKa shop, store jia3HTb D (iterative of jie3Tb) to climb about Jiaiuna lamp jieBbift left-hand jierKiiii (jierno, -li; jienie, JierHaHinnii) light (not heavy; compare CBeTJibiii); easy; Jienaie AP lungs jiejt, Jib^a (G. -y; Ha Jibjty; no Jibjty) ice jicncaTb (jiejKy, JieJKHT) to lie, to recline (no-) jie3Tb (jie3y. Jie3eT; Jie3, Jie3Jia) D to climb (iterative Jia3HTb) JieKapcTBO medicine JlemiHrpa^ Leningrad (city) jiec (b Jiecy; 1I3 Jiecy; P. Jieca) woods, forest JieCTHHija ladder; stairway 340

jieTaTb D (iterative of JieTeTb) to fly jieTeTb (jieny, jictht) D to fly (iterative JieTaTb) jieTO (P. JieTa) summer; jieTOM in summer (for G.P. jieT, see also rofl) JieTHHK flyer JieHb P of JIOJKHTbCfl jin whether: a He 3Haio, npnjjeT jih oh I don’t know whether he will come; also in questions that call for yes or no: floivia Jiir oh? is he at home? JIHHHH line jihct, -a sheet, leaf;(P. jnlcTbfl, -CTbeB, -CTbHM) leaves (of plants), foliage JiHTp liter, 1.057 quarts juiTb (jibio, JibeT; jinjia, Jifijica; jiilTbiii) D to pour (tr.); -cn to pour (intr.) JiiixopajtKa fever junto (P. Jinpa) face JioBHTb (jioBJiio, jiobiit) D, noHMaTb P to catch HOJKGHKa small spoon, teaspoon

jioacHTbcn D, jienb (nary, JiaateT; Jier, Jieraa, -6, -h) P to lie down jioacKa spoon jiokomothb locomotive jionaTbcn D, jionHyTb P to burst, to blow out (of a tire)

Jidmagb (P. jiomajpi, HomaAeii, I JiomaftbMH) F horse'; Ha JlomaAHX in a horse-drawn vehicle nyHa moon Jiyame, Jiyainiifi better (comparative of xopourafi) jiioGhtIj (jiioSjiio, jik>6ht) D to love, to like JIioGoBb F Lubov (woman’s name) jiiorh (jiiOAeii, jiio^hm, jnojtbMH, jnogax) P. people (used as P. of HeJiOBeK, except in number expressions) Mara3ilH (big) store MaaaTb (lviaacy, MaaceT) D to smear, to grease (c-) Mail May Maftop major MajieHbKHii (short forms replaced by MaJi, r*iajia, -6, -bi; comparative, see MCHbrne) little MaJibiH (for comparative see MeHbuie) small; MaJio little, a little, a few (the short forms with irregular accent replace short forms of MajieHbKHii) MaJibHHK little boy MapK Mark Mapica postage stamp MapT March Mapba Mary MacJio oil; butter MaTb (§63) mother

Mania short name for Mapba Mammia machine (as, automobile, typewriter) MeueJib F, furniture; MeomipoBaHimiii with furniture, furnished MefliiitHHa (art or study of) medicine; MejymfiHCKHH medical MefljieHHbifi slow Meacjjy (with I.) between, among MeKcmca Mexico MeJioab F small coins, change money (collective) MeHee less (before adjectives and adverbs, §89) Mepa measure, size Mep3HyTb (wep3, Mep3Jia) D to freeze (intr.) Mepnxb D to measure (c-) MecTo (P. MecTa) place; piece of baggage Mecaq month MCTajui metal; MeTaJiJioBbifi (of) metal MeTaTb (Meay, MeaeT) D to fling MeTp meter, 3.280 feet; MeTpiiaecKiiH metric MernoK, -uiKa bag, sack MHJiiiitHOHep policeman MiuiJiiiMeTp millimeter mhjijiiioh million MHJiocTb F kindness; mhjiocth npocHM please do! (used in inviting or welcoming a guest or in putting some¬ thing at someone’s disposal) 341

MHJifl mile Mhmo (with G.) past MHHyTa minute; MimyTica (just a) minute Milp peace; world; MiipubiH peaceable, peaceful Mnxaji Michael MJiajtHiHH younger (comparative of mojio^oh) MHorafi numerous; MHorne AP. many people; MHoro (comparative replaced by 6oJibuie) much, many, a lot mohcho it is possible, one can, one may mom (§95) my MOJiHHfl lightning mojioaoh (mojioa, MOJio.ua; Monoate, MJiaAuiJiii) young mojioko milk mojxot big hammer; mojiotok, -TKa hammer

moment Mope (Ha Mope, 3a Mope, no Mopio; P. Mopa) sea Mopos frost; Mopo3HTb D to freeze (tr.); MopoaceHoe AN ice cream MOpTilpa mortar (in artillery) momcht

Myac (P. Myacba, Myacefi, MyacbHM) husband MyacHHHa M man (as opposed to woman) My3eS museum My3biKa music Myna flour Myxa fly Mbi (§165) we MbiJio soap MbiTb (mojo, MoeT; MbiTbin) D to wash (bu-, no-, y-) MarKnii (Marne, MarHaiiiiniii) soft Maco meat Ha (with A.) onto; (with L.) on, at HaBepHO surely, doubtless, probably naBepx up, upstairs (whereto?); HaBepxy up above, upstairs (where?) Ha^ (with I.) over, above iiaiteBarb D, Hap,eTb (-^eny, -^ener; -p,eTbiii) P to put on (a garment)

MocKBa Moscow (city); MocKBa-Peicfi the Moscow River moct (c MocTy; Ha Mocry; P. moctbi) bridge

Ha;teacpa hope; Ha^ea^a Nadezhda (woman’s name) HaAeaTbca (naAeiocb, Ha^eeTca) D to hope Ha^o it is necessary; Mae na;;o I have to na3a^ back; (ne^eaio) TOMy na3a,n (a week) ago

Monb (Mory, moekct ; mob, Moraa, -6, -n) D to be able (c-); MoaceT 6biTb maybe, perhaps

Han- (prefixed to long comparative) most: Haiijiynimiii the best


HaftTH P of HaXO^HTt HaKaHHBaTb D, HaKaaaTb P to pump up (a tire) HaicjiajtMBaTb D, HaaoatHTb (-aoacy, -jiojkht) P to lay on HatcoHep finally, at last HaicpbiBaTb D; HaKptiTb (-tcpoio, -Kpoer; -KpbiTbiii) P to cover up; to set (the table) HajiaraTb D, HajioamTb (-jioacy, -aoacuT) P to lay on HajieBO to the left, at the left HajuiBaTb D, HajifiiTb (-Jibio, -JibeT; HaJiHJi, Haaiuia) P to pour on or in Ha.ni, HaMH, see Mbi Hanaji;aTb D, nanacTb (-napy, -napeT; -naji) P to assault, to attack (Ha A.); HanapeHiie assault, attack HamiBaTbCH D, HamiTbca (-maocb, -nbeTca; -muiacb) P to drink one’s fill (of, G.); to get drunk HamicaTb (-rnmiy, -niimex) P to write down, to write HanoJiHHTb D, HanoJiHiiTb P to fill HanoMimaTb D, HanoMHHTb P to remind (D.) HanpaBO to the right; at the right HanpHMep for example, for instance nanpoTHB opposite Hapop (G. -y) nation, people (collective); MHoro Hapo^y lots of people; KapopHbiii of the people, people’s

naceKOMoe AN insect HacejiHTb D, HaceJiHTb P to settle, to populate; HaceJieime population HacTynaTb D, HacTymiTb (-CTynjno, -CTynnT) P to approach, to set on, to attack (pa A.); HacTyiuiemie attack HayHHTb (-yay, -yanT) P to teach (someone A., some¬ thing D.); >ca to learn (D.) Haxo^HTb (-xo>Ky, -xopiiT) D, HaiiTii (-iipy, -ii^eT; -mea, -iHJia, -6, -h) P to find; -ca to be (in a place) HapiiOHajibHbiH national; HapnoHaabHocTb F nationality nauajio beginning; HammaTb D, HauaTb (-HHy, -hhct; Hauaji, Haaajia, Haaaaca) P to begin (tr.),‘ -ca to begin (intr.) Haul (§94) our He not; He- (prefixed to question words) there is no; some He6o (P. HeSeca, Hedec, HeSecaiw) sky HedoJibinoii not large, small Herpe there is no place Hero, see oh HerpaiwoTHbifi illiterate HepaBHO not long ago, recently, since recently Hepaaeico (it is) not far, (it is) near Hepeaa week He3popoBbiH unwholesome; unwell 343

hcm, see oh neKor^a there is no time HeKoro (§104) there is no one HeKpTopbiii some HeKTO (§104) someone HeJib3H it is impossible, one can’t, one may not HeM, see oh Heiweij, -Mita German (man); HeMKa German (woman), HeiweitKHH German HeMHoro a little, a few; hcmhojkko a little bit Heiwy, see oh HeHyacHbift not needed, useless HeoJKH^aHHbifl unexpected HenpaB^a untruth, lie, falsehood HenpaBHJibHbiS incorrect HenpaBbiH not right, (in the) wrong: oh HenpaB he is wrong HenpHHTeJib M enemy HenpHHTHbiH unpleasant Hepa3 more than once, repeatedly Hecepbe3Hbiii not serious HecKOJibKo a few, several HecTH (Hecy, HeceT; Hec, HecJia, -6, -h) D to carry (no-; iterative HocfiTb)

HecnacTHe unhappiness, misfortune, accident 344

no; (negative of ecTb) there is no, there are no: there is no meat HeyaceJiH can it be? you don’t mean to say? He$Tb F crude oil; He$THHOH of oil HexopouiHit not good; Hexopomo not well Henero (§105) there is nothing hh not even, nor; hh . . . hh neither . . . nor; (prefixed to question word) no: Hur^e nowhere -HHSyjjb (suffixed to question words) any: r^e-HiiSy^b anywhere HHr^e nowhere HH3 (P. HH3bi) lower part, bottom HH3KHH (HHJKe, HH3UIHH) low hukhk in no way, not by any means HHKor^a never HiiKOJiafi Nicholas


MHca HeT

hhkto (§104) nobody HHKyjja to no place, nowhere (whereto?) HHM, HHMII, see OH HHCKOJibKO

not in the least

HHTb F; HHTKa thread, piece of thread; P. hhtkh (some) thread hhx, see oh HH'iero (§105) nothing ho but

HOBLiii new Hora (A. Hory; Ha Hory, Ha Horn; P. Horn, Hor, noraM) foot, leg HoroTb, -rra (P. hofth, Hoireii) M nail (on finger or toe) hoh£, -a knife; HoaciiK small knife, pocket knife HOJKHHijbi (ho/KHiiij, HoacmmaM) P. scissors HOJib, -Jia M zero HOiviep (P. HOMepa) number (as a label, as on a hotel room, on a telephone); hotel room, rented room; P. rooming house, hotel hoc (Ha Hocy; P. hocm) nose HOCHJibmiiK baggage porter HOcfiTb (Homy, hocht) D (iterative of HecTii) to carry, to wear hocoboh of or for the nose hocok, -cKa (G.P. hocok or hockob) sock HOHb (P. hohh, HOHeii) night; HoabK) at night Hoafipb, -5pa M November HpaBHTbca D to look good, seem pleasing, please (D.): MHe iipaBHTca MocKBa I like Moscow (no-) Hy well, now, come on HyJKHbiii useful, needed, necessary; (short forms) 3Ta KHfira MHe HyacHa I need this book; HyacHO one must; He HyacHO one mustn't HyJib, HyMep, for hoji, HOMep

6 Oh! o, o5, o5o (with A.) against; (with L.) about 65a both (§115) oSeft dinner; o6e3;aTb D to eat dinner (no-) oSeiipTb D to promise; oSeu^aHiie promise 66jiaKo (P. oSjiaKa, -kob) cloud 66jiacTb (P. 66jiacTii, oSaacTen) F territory, province 060,see o oSoHTH P of ofixOgHTb 66pas manner, way (of doing); tskiIm 65pa30M in this way o5paTHO back (again) oSpyiaTb D, oSpywrb P to affiance; -CH to get en¬ gaged (c I.); oSpyneHHbiH engaged (to be married) o5cTaBjiHTb D, oScTaBHTb P to furnish (a house, a room) oSxojpiTb (-xoacy, -xorht) D, o5ohth (-iijjy, -fi^eT; -iuea, -uuia, -6, -h) P to go around; -ca to deal in such and such a way (xopouio, Hexopouio) with (c I.); to manage without, do without (6e3 G.) oS^esacaTb D, oS'bexaTb (-ejjy, -ej;eT) P to drive around (a place, A.) oSbiKHOBenHbift usual, customary oBoipb F (usually in P., oBomu) vegetable oroHb, -rna M fire orpoMHbifi huge, vast


oijeBaTb D, oj^eTb (o^eHy, o^eHeT; op;eTbiH) P to dress (tr.); -ca to get dressed ojteajio bed cover, blanket ojjhh (§97) one, alone, (all) by oneself; OAHHHajmaTb (§117) eleven; OAHHHaAAaTbiii eleventh oaciiftaTb D to expect G3epo (P. 03epa) lake OKa3biBaTb D, oKa3aTb (oKaary, OKaaceT) P to show forth; -ca to turn out to be, to show up as (I.) OKeaH ocean okho (P. OKHa) window okojio around, near OKTaSpb, -6pa M October Oabra Olga oh (§103) he, she, it, they onacHbiS dangerous; onacnocTb F danger onepaitna operation onaTb again oceHb F autumn; oceHbio in autumn

ocTajibHOH remaining, other ocTaHaBjiHBaTb D, ocfaHOBiiTb (ocTaHOBJilo, ocTaHobht) P to bring to a stop, to stop (tr.); -ca to come to a stop, to stop (intr.) ocTaHOBKa stopping place, stop (of trains, buses, street cars) ocTaTbca P of ocTaBaTbca ocTopoacHbiii careful; ocTopoatHO look out! ot, oto from OTBepTica screw driver OTBeT answer; oTBeaaTb D, OTBeTHTb P to answer (D.; Ha A.) OTBHHHHBaTb D, OTBHHTHTb P tO unscrew OT^aBaTb (-^aio, -AaeT; -AaBaii) D, OTjtaTb (*Aa>i, -AacT, §171; oT^aa, OT^aad) P to hand over, to give back

OCMaTpiIBaTb D, OCMOTpeTb (oCMOTpK), OCMOTpHT) P to inspect, to examine; ocMoxp inspection

OTKpbIBaTb D, OTKpbITb (-KpOIO, -KpdeTJ -ICpblTblfi) P to open OTKyAa from where

ocTaBaxbca (ocTaiocb, ocTaeTca; ocTaBaiica) D, ocniTb-i ca (ocTanycb, ocTaHeTca) P to remain, to stay ocTaBjiaTb D, oeraBHTb P to leave (tr.), to park (an automobile) 346

OTAejiaTb D, oTAeanTb (-Aeaio, -AejuiT; -AeJieHHbiii) P to divide off, to separate OTAbixaTb D, OTAOXHyTb P to rest (intr.); OTeit, OTita father

D, oTaeTeTb to leave (by plane)


OTJMHHbiil excellent

(-jieay, -jictht)


a rest

P to fly away,

OTMOpa.JKHB&Tb D, OTMopo3HTb P to freeze (a part of one’s body) othociitij (-Homy, -hocht) D, OTHecTH (-necy, -necex; -nee, -HecJia, -6, -h) P to carry off, away OTOHTH P Of OXXO^HXb OTOpBaTfc P Of OXpbIBaXb oxnycic leave, furlough; oxnycKaxb D, oxnycxfixb (-nymy, -nycTsix) P to grant leave OTpbiBaTb D, oTopsaTb (-pBy, -pBex; -pBajia) P to tear off (tr.) oxcxynaxb D, oxcxymlxb (-cxyxuno, -cxyirax) P to step away, to withdraw (intr.) OTCiop;a from here ©xxy^a from there OTX03; departure; oxxoTplxb (-xo^cy, -xojjhx) D, otomth (-Hp;y> -HffeT; -meji, -iujia, -6, -h) P to go away, to depart, to leave (intr.) OTBero why othcctbo patronymic, Russian middle name oiJiHi^ep officer 0(J)HitiiaHT waiter; o$HitnaHXKa waitress oneHb very obkh (obkob, obk&m) P. eyeglasses IlaBeji, -BJia Paul na^aTb D, nacxb (na^y, najjex; naa; more usually ynacTb) P to fall

naneT package najiei^, -Jibpa finger, toe najiySa deck (of ship) naJibTo (indeclinable) N overcoat naMHTHHK monument; naMHXb F memory naHcnoH boarding house namipoca cigarette napa pair IlapiiHC Paris napiiKMaxep barber; napnKMaxepcicaa AF barber shop napK park nap steam; napoB03 locomotive; napoxop; steamship nacxa paste; 3yf>HaH nacxa toothpaste nacTb P of najjaxb Hama short name for IIpacKOBba (woman’s name) nepBbiii first nepep; (with I.) in front of nepep;aBaTb (-jtaio, -ftaex; -RaBafi) D, nepejjaxb (-jjaM, -jjacx, §171; nepep,aji, nepeftana) P to give over, hand, pass (something to someone at table) nepee3HcaTb D, nepeexaxb (-ejty, -ejjex) P to ride or drive across, to run over (tr.) liepefixii P of nepexojjilTb nepeicpecTOK, -cxica crossroads, crossing nepeMeHHTb D, nepeMemlTb (-Memo, -Memix) P to change (tr.) 347

nepeoAeBaxb D, nepeo,n,exb (-^eny, -Renex; -gexbm) P to change the clothes of; -ca to change one’s clothes nepeimcbiBaTb D, nepenucaxb (-mirny, -mmiex) P to write over, to copy over, to catalog; nepemicb F copy, list, census nepexoRHTb (-xoncy, -xoahx) D, nepeHTii (-Spy, -iipex; -men, -uuia, -6, -il) P to go across, to cross (intr. and tr.) nepo (P. nepbH, -pbeB, -pbHivi) feather; pen; BenHoe nepo fountain pen nep'iaTKa glove IlexepSypr St. Petersburg (city; old name of Leningrad) Ilexp, -a Peter nexb (noio, noeT; nexbift) D to sing (c-) nexoxa infantry neMb (neKy, neaex; neK, neKjia, -6, -m) D to bake nenb (Ha nenn; P. nean, neneii) F; nemca stove (for heating) Iihbo beer

nwjtJKaK, -£ Coat, jacket miJiS (P. mljibi) saw HHpor, -a pie, pastry nncaxt (nrnny, miinex) D to write (Ha-) riHCLMo (P. nilcbMa) letter (that one sends) mitl (hlio, m>ex; nmia, He nmi) D to drink (b£i-) 348

njiaBaTb D (iterative of n.iiLixb) to swim, to travel by water

nnaicaxb (nnany, nnanex) D to weep, to cry nnaxnxb (nnany, nnaxnx) D to pay (sa-) njiaxoK, -XKa (piece of) cloth; hocoboh njiaxoK



njiaxi6a filling in a tooth; njio>i6npoBaxi» D to fill (a tooth) (3a-) njiocKiifi (naome) flat njioxofi (xyjite, xy^mnii) bad nnomapb (P. -ah, -peil) space, area; open square in a city

njibixb (njibiBy, njibiBex; njibina) D to swim, to travel on water, to sail (iterative njiaeaxb) no (with A.) up to; (with D.) along, over; (with L.) after; (before numbers, §128) so much each; no- (pre¬ fixed to adverb form) in the manner of: no-pyccKH in Russian; (prefixed to short comparative) somewhat, quite: nocKopee somewhat faster, real fast, as fast as you can no6epa victory; nooepiixb P of nooen:paxb

noOeiKaxb (-6ery, -Sendix, §171) P to run

nodeJKjtaTb D, nodejtHTb P to have the victory, to defeat nodnTb (-6bio, -6beT; -dfiTbra) P to give a beating to (A.) noGpiiTb -6peio, -CpeeT) P to shave (tr.); -ca to shave (intr.)

noB63TH (-Be3y, -Be3eT; -Be3, -Be3aa, -6, -ft) P to cart, to convey (on a vehicle) JiOBepTbiBaTb D, noBepHyTb (-BepHyTbm) P to make a turn, to turn (intr. and tr.) noBecra (-Bejty, -BejteT; -Ben, -Bena, -6, -ft) P to lead noB03Ka wagon noBopoT a turning, a turn noBCKJJty everywhere (whereto?) noBTopaTb D, noBTopnTb P to repeat noroBopiiTb P to have a talk norofta weather noryaaTb P to take a walk nojt, no^o (with A.) under (whereto?); (with I.) under (where?) no/taB&Tb (-jtaio, -flaeT; -jtaBan) D, nojtaTb (-^aM, -flacT, §171; nojtan, nojtana; nojtanca) P to present, to serve up noflBaa cellar, basement noAHHMaTb D, nojtHHTb (-Hinny, -HHMeT; ndjtnnn, nojtnaaa; noflHanca; nd^HHTbiH, no^naTa) P to lift, to raise up; -ca to go up

npoflOJKfjaTb (-acay, -; -acjtana) P to wait a bit, to wait for no^oifTH P of noflxoAHTb no^nHCbiBaTb D, no^micaTb (-ninny, -nnineT) P to sign; nd^nncb (P. -cm, -ceil) F signature noRCTaBaflTb D, no^craBiiTb P to set under noAyniKa pillow noA'beaacaTb D, nojybexaTb (-ejty, -ejteT) P to drive up to a place nde3.it (P. noe3jta) railway train noe3flKa trip, journey noe3JKan (imperative form supplied for exaTb, §161) noexaTb (-ejty, -ejteT) P to ride, drive, travel noiKaayncTa please! noaceaaTb P to wish noauiBaTb D to get along; KaK bli noJKHBaeTe? how are you? noaaBTpaKaTb to have lunch or breakfast no3aHHMaTbca P to study a bit no3BaTb (-30By, 30Bex; -3Bana) P to call no3BOHHTb P to give a ring, to call up on the tele¬ phone (D.) no3Aiio (no3jtHee, no3JKe) late; it’s late no3HaKOMiiTb P acquainted






get 349

noncicaTb (-nu$, -umeT) P to make a search for, to look for, to seek noiiMaTb P of jiobhti* iiohth -HjteT; -uieji, -uiJia, -6, -il) P to go noKa for the present, in the meantime; while; noica (He) until noKa3biuaTb D, noKa3aTb (-icancy, -KaaceT) P to show noKynaTb D, KynnTb (Kynjiio, KymiT) P to buy noKypiiTb (-Kypio, -KypiiT) P to have a smoke noji (Ha nojiy; Ha noji, 66 noji; P. nojibi) floor noji- (prefixed to nouns, §127) half: noJiaaca half an hour nojie (P. nojia) field noJieJKaTb (-Jieacy, -jichcht) P to lie (recline) a bit nojiK, -a (b noJiKy) regiment nojiKa shelf noJiKOBHHK colonel noJiHbift full nojioBHHa half nOJIOHCHTb P of KJiaCTb nojioTeHite towel noJiTHHHHK half rouble nojiTopa (§115) one and a half; noJiTopacra (§119) a hundred fifty nojiynaTb D, nojiyHHTb (-jiyay, -jiyHHT) P to receive, to get 350

noMHHTb D to remember (bc-) HoivioraTb D, noMOHb (-Mory, -MonceT; -Mor, -Morjia, -6, -h) P to help (D.) noMbiTb (-MOH), -moct; -MbiTbifl) P to wash noHep,eJibHHK Monday noHecTH (-Hecy, -HeceTjHec, -HecJia, -6, -h) P to carry noHHMaTb D, noHHTb (nofiMy, nomieT; noHHJi, noHHJia; noHHTbm, noHHTa) P to understand noHpaBHTbca P to look good, to please (D.) nomiTb P of nOHIIMaTb noo6ep,aTb P to eat dinner nona^aTb D, nonacTb (-na^y, -na^eT; -nan) P to get (somewhere), to land (in a place) nonpaBJiHTb D, nonpaBiiTb P to correct nonpoGoBaxb P to try out, to take a try nonpocuTb (-npoiiiy, -npociiT) P to ask (someone, y G.) for something (A.) nopa (A. nopy) proper time; it’s time: MHe nopa it’s time for me (to be going) nopaGoTaTb P to work a while nopBaTb (-pBy, -pBeT; -pBajia) P to give a pull, to pluck, to make*a tear inj -ca to get torn nopTHoii AM tailor nopajtoK, -mca order, good order; B nopHjjKe in order, all right; He b nopa^Ke out of order

nocaRHTb (-caacy, -ca^HT) P to seat nociijteTb (-ciDKy, -cii^ht) P to sit a while nocjiaTb P of nocbiJiaTb nocjie after nocJie^HKH last, latter nocjieaaBTpa day after tomorrow nocJiOBHita proverb nocJiyjKHTb (-cjiyacy, -cjiyacnT) P to do a service, to serve nocMOTpeTb (-CMOTpio, -cmotpht) P to take a look, to look nocneuaTb D, nocneTb (-cneio, -cneeT) P to get to a place on time nocneuiHTb P to hurry, to get somewhere or get some¬ thing done in a hurry noeraBHTb P to place (in a standing position), to stand (tr.), to set nocTapaTbCfl P to make an effort, to try nocTejib F bedding, bed nocroHTb (-CToio, -ctoht) P to stand a while nocTpiiraTb D, nocTpHHb (-CTpury, -CTpHHceT; -cTpfir, -CTpnrjia) P to cut the hair (of someone, A.); -ca to get a haircut nocTpoHTb P to build nocaHTaTb P to count nocbiJiaTb D, nocJiaTb (nonuno, nouuieT) P to send

noTepaTb P to lose noTOM later, afterwards noTOMy on account of that; noTOMy mto because noTpeSoeaTb P to demand noTyuniTb (-Tyrny, -TyniHT) P to extinguish, to put out (a fire, a light) noyacHHaTb P to eat supper noaeiwy why noHHHHTb (-hhhio, -hhhht) P to mend, fix, repair noHHCTHTb P to clean noHTa post office; noHTaMT post office (building) noaTfi almost noayBCTBOBaTb P to feel noaTOMy for this reason

npaB.ua truth npacHjibHbin correct npaBHTb D to drive (I.) npaBbiii right; right-hand; oh npaB he is right; npaBO really, truly npaaeaHaa AF laundry npaMKa laundress npejtBH/jeTb (-Bfiacy, -bhrht) D to foresee npH (with L.) in the presence of, at the time of npnfijiHJKaTb D, npH6jiH3HTb P to bring near; -ch to come near, to approach (flo G.); npilfijlH3HTeJibHbiH approximate 351

npnSbiBaTb D, npiiSbiTb (-6y^y, -ffyAex; npaffbui, npn6bijia) P to arrive at the appointed place (train, troops) npHrjiamaTb D, npurjiacilTb P to invite npnroTOBHTb P to prepare, to cook npHe3>KaTb D, npnexaTb (-eAy, -e^eT) P to arrive, to come (riding, driving, traveling) npneM reception, office hours npiiexaTb P of npne3>KaTb nptlHTH, for npiITTH P of npHXOAHTb npinca3 command, order; npinca3aTb P of npmcaabiBaTb npHKa3HHK salesman, store clerk npiiKa3biBaTb D, npiiKa3a.Tb (-Kaacy, -KajueT) P to com¬ mand, to order (D.) npiiMep example, instance npiiMepaTb D, npiiMepiiTb P to try on npHHeCTH P of npHHOCHTb

npncJiaTb P of npHCbiJiaTb' npilcTaHb (P. -hh, -Heft) F landing place, dock npHCbiJiaTb* D, npncJiaTb (npHuuiio, npHinneT) P to send to a place or person npuxoA arrival; npuxoAHTb (-xoncy, -xoaht) D, npiITTH (npiiAy, npiiAeT; npinneji, -nuia, -6, -h) P to arrive (not on a vehicle) npimniBaTb D, npnmHTb (-uibio, -uibeT; -nniTbiii) P to sew on npiiHTeJib M friend (man); npiiHTeJibHima friend (woman) npHHTHbiii pleasant

npHHHMaTb D, npiiHHTb (npiuwy, npiiMeT; npiiHaji, npnHJijia; npiiHaTbiH, npiiHHTa) P to accept, receive, take (a medicine); -cn to start to do something

npoBOHcaTb D, nposoAHTb (-Boacy, -boaht) P to con¬ duct, accompany, escort, guide

npHHOCHTb (-Homy, -hocht) D, npimecTH (-necy, -Hecex; -nee, -Hecjia, -6, -h) P to carry to a place, to bring

npoAaBaTb (-Aaio, -AaeT; -AaBaii) D, npoAaxb (*AaM, -AacT, §171; npoAan, npoAaJia, npoAajicn) P to sell; -cn to be sold


P of npHHHMaTb

npHocTanaBjiHBaTb D, npiiocTaHOBHTb (-cTaHOBJiio, ■CTaHOBKT) P to bring to a stop for a while 352

npo (with A.) about npo5oBaTb D to test, to try (no-) npoBepaTb D, npoBepiiTb P to test, to check, to inspect npoBH3HH provisions (collective) npoBOAHHK, -a guide, conductor

npoBOJiOKa wire

npoe3>KaTb D, npoexaTb (-eAy, -eAeT) P to ride, drive, travel through or past

npOH3BOAHTb (-BOHty, -BORHx) D, npOH3B6CTH (-Befly, Be^ex; -Bea, -Bejia, -6, -h) P to produce; npon3Bo^Ctbo production, product npOHTH P of npOXOJtHTB npoaexaxb D, npojiexexb (-Jieay, -Jiexnx) P to fly through or past npoMbiceJi, -cjia trade, craft, calling; npoMbiuiJieHHMH industrial; npoMbiiujieHHOCTb F industry nponopijHfl proportion; HponopitHOHaJibHbifi propor¬ tional npopbiBaTb D, npopBaTb (-pay, -pBex; -psajia) P to tear through npocHTb (nporny, npocnx) D to ask (someone, y G.) for something (A.) (no-) npocHyTbca P of npocbinaxbca npocTHTt P of npomaTb npocxoii (npocTO, npocxbi; npouje) simple, plain; npocTO simply npoexyaa a cold; npocxywaxb, npocxyacHBaxb D, npoCTy;prrb (-cxyaey, -cxy^Hx) P to expose to a cold; -cji to catch cold; a npocxyanjica I (have) caught a cold; oh npocxyaceH he )ias a cold

npoxjiaAHbin cool npoxogaxb (-xoacy, -xo^nx) D, nponxii (-ifity, -ifaex; -men, -nuia, -6, -h) P to go through or past, to pass npopeHX per cent npomixaxb P to read through, to read nponijibiii last, past: Ha npouiJioH Helene last week npoipaxb D, npocxfixb P to forgive: npocxiixe beg pardon! npoutaiixe good-bye! npHMou (npaMo, npaMbi) straight; npawo straight, straight ahead tipaxaxb (npaay, npaaex) D to hide (tr.); -ca to hide (intr.) (c-) nxiipa, nxHHKa bird nyrouima button nya (P. nyp,bi) pood, 16.38 kilograms nyaeiviex machine gun nyjia bullet nycKaxb D, nycxslxb (nymy, nycxnx) P to let go, allow, admit nyexb let it be; nyexb oh npHflex let him come nyxb (§65) M way, road nyimca cannon

npocxbiHH (P. npocxbiHH, npocxbiHen) bedsheet

nbiiHbiii (nbHHo, HbiiHbi)

npocbinaxbca D, npocnyxbca P to wake up (intr.)

nnxnjiexica five-year period, five-year plan; nHXHJiexHufi of five years

npoxiiB opposite, against



IiHTHHi^a Friday nfrrh (§116) five; imt&ih fifth; naTepo (§125) set of five; narauAitaTb (§117) fifteen; naTHa^qaTbiH fifteenth; naTb^ecHT (§118) fifty; naTHflecaTbiii fiftieth; naTbCOT (§120) five hundred paGoTa work; paGoTSTb D to work (no-) paBHbiii (paBHo, -br) equal, all the same; (MHe) Bee paBHO it’s all the same (to me) pajj (pajja; short forms only) glad; Mbi Baiw pa^bi we’re glad you’ve come pap;HaTop radiator pa^no (indeclinable) N radio pa3 (P. pa3bi, pa3, pa3aivi) (single) time: pa3 once; ;tBa pa3a twice; MHoro pa3 many times; hh pa3y not a single time; He pa3 more than once; Kan pa3 just now, just then pa30HBaTb D, pa36ilTb (paaoGbio, pa3o5beT; pasGiiTbiii) P to break pa35y,HHTb (-Gyacy, -Gy^HT) P to wake (tr.) pasBe it isn’t likely that: pa3Be oh aoiwa he isn’t likely to be at home pa3BHBaTb D, paaBHTb (pa30Bbio, paaoBbeT; pa3BHJia; pa3BHTbiH, paaBHTa) P to develop (tr.); -ca to develop (intr.); pa3BiiTHe development 354

pa3jteBaTb D, pa3jjeTb (-jjeHy, -jjeHeT; -jjeTbm) P to undress (tr.); -ch to undress (intr.) pa3p;ejiHTb D, pa3p;eJiHTb (-.neaio, -jjejiHT; -^eJieHHbifi) to divide pa3ReTb P of pa3j];eBaTb paaMeHHTb D, pa3MeHiiTb (-Memo, -mchht) P to change (money) pa3Hbiii various pa30HTHCb P of paCXOJtHTbCH paaopBaTb P of pa3pbiBaTb pa3pesaTb (-peacy, -peaceT) P to cut pa3pbiBaTb D, pa3opBaTb (-pBy, -pBeT; -pBaJia) P t'o tear up, to tear pana wound; paecHbin AM wounded man; pamitb t) and P to wound f < patio (panbiue) early ^ pacnncKa receipt pacctca3 story; paccratebiBaTb D, paccica3aTb (-tcaacy, -KaateT) P to narrate, to tell (a story) - , pacTH (pacTy, pacTeT; poc, pocJia, -6, -h) D to grow (B03-) paCXOJtHTbCH (-XOJKyCb, -XOAlITCfl) D, pa30HTHCb (-iiAycb, -h^gtch; -rnejica, -iujiacb, -ocb, -ilcb) P to part, to separate (intr.) pnaTb (pBy, peeT; pBaaa) D to puTl out, pluck, tear (no-)

peGeHOK, -Hica (P. peGaTa, peGaT, peGaTaM, usually replaced by Aera) child; peGaTa (as term of address) lads, boys, fellows

peBOJiioijHa revolution pe3aTb (peacy, peaceT) D to cut (pa3-) peica (A. peicy; P. peKH, peK, peKanx) river pejibc rail (on railway track); P. peabCbi railway tracks

pecnyGjiHKa republic pecTopaH restaurant peijenT (doctor’s) prescription peaxa little river pernaTb D, peuiHTb P to decide; -ca to make up one’s mind

poBHbm level, flat, even poRHTb (past, when P, poAHJia, poAHaca) D and P to give birth, to bear; -ca to be born Poccfia Russia poT, pxa (bo pTy) mouth poxa company (in army) pyGamica shirt ' pyGjib, -Gaa M rouble 1 pyacbe (P. pyJKi>«) gun pyKa (A. pyKy; Ha pyKy, oG pyny, noA pyny; P. pyiai, pyK, pyicaM) hand, arm

pyKaBHAa mitten

pyccKHH Russian; AM Russian (man); p^cCKaa AF Russian (woman); no-pyccKH in Russian pbiGa fish paA (b paAy; P. paAbi) row; paAOM alongside of, next to (c I.)

C, co (with A.) approximately, about; (with G.) down from, from; (with I.) with, along with, in company with caA (b caAy, P. caAbi) garden caAHTbca D, cecTb (caAy, caAeT; cea) P to sit down caaceHb (P. caacemi, caaceH or caaceHeii, caaceHaM) F sazhen, fathom, 2.134 meters caM (§98) oneself, by oneself: a caM noiiAy I’ll go there myself cawoJieT airplane caMbiii the same, the very, the most (§89) caHH (caHeii) P. sleigh caHTHMeTp centimeter canor, -a (G.P. canor) boot; canoacHHK shoemakef capaii barn, shed caxap (G. -y) sugar cGHBaTb D, cGfiTb (coGbio, coGbeT; cGhtmh) P to knock off or down; -ca c Aopom (c nyTii) to lose one’s way, to get lost 355

ceJio (P. ceaa) larger village; ceJibCKHH of the village, rural; ceflbCK0X03aHCTBeHHbiH of farming, agricul¬

CBeacn) fresh beets (collective)

CB62KHU (cBeaco, CBeKJia

CBepxy from or at the top, down from above, down from upstairs CBecuTb

P of


light; world; jierKHH) bright



to weigh



reunion; appointment;



flo CBii^aHiia


so long!

goodby! (P. CBHHbH, CBHHeU; CBHHbBM) pork CBoSo^a liberty, freedom; cboSoahmh free CBHHbfl

pig; CBHHHHa

CBoii (§95) one’s own CBH3bIBaTb


CBB3aTb (CBJIJKy, CBaaceT)

P to tie, to


cropaTb D, cropeTb (cropio, cropfiT) P to burn up, to burn down (intr.) C^ana change money (given back to buyer)

tural ceMb (§116) seven; ceiwepo (§125) set of seven; ceMHajtuaTb (§117) seventeen; ceMHajjitaTbHl seventeenth; ceMb^ecflT (§118) seventy; ceMii^ecaTbiii seventieth; ceMbcoT (§120) seven hundred ceMba (P. ceMbH, ceMefi, ceMbaia) family ceHTa6pb, -6pa M September Cepreft Sergius cepaije (P. cepjma) heart cepacaHT sergeant cepbifi gray cepbe3Hbiil serious

cecTpa (P. cecTpbi, cecTep, cecipaM) sister cecTb P of ca^iiTbca caceab (coacry, coacaceT; cacer, coacrna, -6, -fi; coacaceHHbiii) P to burn, to burn up, to burn down (tr.)

ceAbMofi seventh

Cufaipb F Siberia cnrapa cigar CHjteaKa sick-nurse cuaeTb (cnacy, ch^ht) D to sit (no-) cnaa strength; cnabHbiu strong chhiih blue

ceftaac right now, right away; just a moment ago

chk>: chk> MHHyTy in just a minute

cjjejiaTb P to do, to make ce6a

(§106) oneself


the north;






CKaaaTb P of roBopHTb to say, to tell CKB03b (with A.) through CKOJibKO how much, how many CKopbiii rapid, fast; CKopo quickly, soon CKyHHbiH boring, tiresome; MHe CKymo I feel bored cjia6biii weak CJiaBa praise, glory; CJiaBa Bory thank goodness! cjiajjKHH (cjiaute; cJiaj^nafluiHH) sweet; CJia^Koe AN dessert CJiaTb (nuiio, niJieT) D to send (no-) CJiejjoBaTb D to follow (3a I.); cJiejjyiomHH following, next CJieTaTb D, CJieTeTb (cJieny, cjictht) P to fly down, off CJIHUIKOM

too much, too

cjiobo (P. CJioBa) word

CJiyac6a service CJiyacamnn AM attendant CJiyacHTb

(cayacy, cayacnT) D to serve (D.) (no-)

CMa3biBaTb D, CMa3aTb (cMaacy, cMaaceT) P to grease (as, a machine) CMepnTb P to measure CMeaTbca (cMeiocb, CMeeTca) D to laugh CMOTpeTb (cMOTpio, cmotpht) D to look (no-) CMOHb (cMory, cmohcct; cmot, cMorjia, -6, -n) P to be able, to manage to CHanajia in the beginning, at first CHer (G. -y; b CHery; P cHera) snow CHH3y from below, from downstairs CHHMaTb D, CHHTb (cHHMy, cHHMeT; cHHjia) P to take down, off co, see c co6aica dog cofinpaTb D, coopaTb (-6epy, -fiepeT; -6paaa, -opaaca) P to gather, to collect (tr.); -ca to gather, to assemble (intr.), to get ready (for a trip) coBeT advice; council, soviet; ropojjCKon cobct city council; cobctckhh of a soviet, of soviets

cjiynaTbca D, CJiymlTbca P to happen

coBpaTb (-Bpy, -BpeT; -Bpaaa) P to tell a lie, to lie

cjiyxnaTb D to listen; -ca to obey (D.)

cobccm altogether, entirely

(infinitive and past only) D CJibimaTb) to hear


(iterative of

CJibiuiaTb (cjibimy, CJibiuiHT) D to hear (y-; iterative CJibixaTb)

coAepacaTb (-.nepacy, -^epaiHT) D to contain coejjHHHTb D, coesiiHHTb P to unite; Coe^HHeHHbie IIlTaTbi the United States CoBth P of CXOftHTb 357

coJiftaT (G.P. coJi^aT) soldier coJiHi^e sun coJib F salt copoK (§119) forty; copoKOBOH fortieth cocep, (P. cocepH, -pen) neighbor (man); cocepKa neigh¬ bor (woman) cocTaBJiHTb D, cocTaBHTb P to set up, to make up, to amount to cocTOHTb (-ctok), -ctoht) D to consist of (H3, G.) cocwraTb P to count up, to count coTbifi hundredth CoiJtbH Sophie copHajiH3M socialism; copnaJiHCT socialist; copnaJiHCTHMecKHH socialist(ic) cok)3 union cnaJibHH (G.P. cnajieH) bedroom cnacnSo thanks, thank you cnaTb (cnjno, chht; cnana) D to sleep cnepBa at first, first cneTb (enow, cnoeT; cneTbifi) P to sing cneimiTb D to hurry (no-) cnnHa (A. cmmy; Ha cnnHy; P. cnnHbi) back cnnMKa match (for making a flame) cnoKOHHbiii quiet cnpauiHBaTb D, cnpocnTb (cnpouiy, cnpocnT) P to ask (a question) 358

cnpaTaTb (cnpnny, cnpnneT) P to hide (tr.); -ca to hide (intr.) cnycKaTb D, cnycTHTb (cnyniy, cnycTHT) P to let down (tr.); to go flat (of a tire) cpancaTb D, cpa3HTb P to strike down; cpancemie battle cpa3y all at once, right off cpepa (A. cpepy; P. cpepbi, cpep, cpepaM) Wednesday cpepHHH central, middle, average CCCP [esesesER] (indeclinable) M the USSR, the Soviet Union CTaBHTb D to put in a standing position, to stand (tr.), to set (no-) CTaKaH tumbler, glass (for drinking) CTaJiHHrpap Stalingrad (city) CTaHOBHTbCH (CTaHOBJIIOCb, CTaHOBHTCH) D, CTaTb (cTaHy, CTaHeT) P to take standing position; to become, to get (intr.); P to begin, to start: oh ctshct nrpaTb he will (begin to) play CTaHU[HH station CTapaTbcn

D to make an effort, to try


cTapbin (cTapo, CTapfii; CTapuie, CTapuinn) CTaTb

P of




glass; pane

cTeHa(A. CTeHy;o6 CTeHy; CTHpaTb



ctchm, ctch, CTeHaM)


D to wash (clothes, linen), to launder (bh-)

CTHpica (the process of) laundering; OTjjaTb b CTilpicy to send to the laundry cto (§119) hundred, one hundred CToiiTb D to cost, to be worth ctoji, -a table; ctojihk little table CTOJinpa capital city CTOJiOBaH AF dining room CTOJibKO so much, so many CTOpOHa (A. CTOpOHy; P. CTOpOHbl, CTOpOH, CTOpOHaM) side CTOHTb (ctoio, ctoht) D to stand (intr.) (no-) CTpaHa (P. CTpaHbi) country (political or geographical unit; compare ^epeBHa) CTpejibda shooting, firing CTpeJiflTb D, CTpejibHyTb P to shoot CTpnHb (cTpnry, CTpnaceT; cxpnr, CTpnrjia) D to cut the hair (of someone, A.); -ca to get one’s hair cut (no-) CTpoHTb D to build (no-); CTponTeJib M builder; CTpoHTeJibCTBO construction CTyji (P. CTyjibH, -jibeB, -jibflM) chair CTynaTb D, cTynnTb (cTynjno, CTynnT) P to step cyKKo (P. cyKHa) cloth cyddoTa Saturday cyHjjyK, -a big box, chest, trunk

cyn (G. -y) soup cyxon (cyme) dry cynia dry land cxojjHTb (cxoacy, cxo^ht) D, cohth (-ii^y, -njjeT; -ineji, -uiaa, -6, -n) P to come or go down, off; -ca to come together, to assemble, to meet (intr.) caeT (P. caeTa) account, bill canTaTb D to count (no-, co-) CT>e3flHTb P to drive to a place and back, to drive round (intr.) c'becTb (-eM, -ecT; -enib, §171; -ea) P to eat up, to eat cmh (P. cbiHOBba, -Beil, -baiw) son ciojta hither, here (whereto?)

TadaK, -a (G. -y)tobacco TaK this way, so; TaK KaK because, since; TaKace also, too; TaKon this kind of TaKCH (indeclinable) N taxicab TaM there (where?) TaHK tank (military) Tapejnca plate TBepflbiii (TBepjjo, TBepflffi; TBepace) hard (not soft; compare Tpy^HLin) tboh (§95) your (familiar to one person) TeaTp theatre 359

wagon, cart TejierpaMMa telegram; TeJierpa • r—«

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01 03492