Spans of responsibility; an evaluation of the organization of selected institutions of higher education

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Spans of responsibility; an evaluation of the organization of selected institutions of higher education

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swam m im v o m i s m t n

of

O*$oi*i*otioi*

o f SoXoctod In stitu tio n s o f MU&im idoootloa.

W B&s&f John 3shz*o#deer

Thoaia ( ttta ltM to »ha rfeoultjr o f tho Gnutuata 3«ttool. o f tho tfoivovolty of MajpyXjfeod in jNftjPhioi f^L flllnont of tho *oquiro»«nt» fo r tho iegroo o f Oootor o f xxjilosopky

1000

UMI Number: DP71092

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI DP71092 Published by ProQuest LLC (2015). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

uest ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

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Mm Brolontioa o f tii# o f 3ol«et*d In stitu tio n s o f Hlgbor M e n tio n

Chapter Duo

latro&tiotorar

CSiapter Two

B estow &o$ atatoraom io © fP riuoip X en*

Chapter thro#

f$*o 3%«aftjr o f £g*M o f Control

Chapter Four

Sosowupy

162880

O m sltoloai

The m ajor o b je c tiv e o f t h i s study i s t o p re s e n t a p ictu re o f th e o r g a n isa tio n o f in s t it u t io n s o f h ig h e r education i n t b s Xfolted ita t e s * The o rg a n !za tio n a l plan s o f L ost i n s t it u t io n s shoe a g e n e r a lly c o n s i s t e n t p e tto r n b u t v a ry w id ely in th e d e t a i l s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among th e components o f s p e c i f i c c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s it i e s *

An e f f o r t

i s made i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t o d isc o v e r o r g a n is a tio n a l p r in c ip le s and f a c t o r s which a r e cosason to most ©f our s tr o n g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s and t o e v a lu a te th e d e v ia tio n s from t h i s eon&aoa p a tte rn *

ar

a tte m p t i s

a ls o made t o m easure e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f v a rio u s o r g a n isa tio n a l plan® developed a t s p e c i f i c in a titu tic m a o f advanced ed u catio n * t4y v iew -p oin t i s one o f im p a r tia l c u r io s it y r a t h e r th a n c r i t i c a l judgm ent

o r j u d i c i a l e v a lu a tio n #

I b e lie v e # furtberiaora# t h a t such m

s tu d y w i l l g iv e v a lu a b le i n s i g h t in to th e o rg a n isa tio n o f u n i v e r s i t i e s * 1 a c c e p t th e p r o p o s itio n t h a t any complex o rg a n iza tio n a l s t r u c t u r e i s m&® tip o f m m ll groups# each su p erv ised # f o r a tim e a t le a s t# by a s i n ­ g le in d iv id u a l# or o b je c tiv e *

Juch a complex o r g a n iza tio n w i l l have a s p e c i f i c m issio n The groups which a re component* o f t h i s complex organi­

sa tio n in tu rn sm$ have v a ry in g m issio n s and o b je c tiv e s # but a l l m issio n s su p p o rt th e o v e r a ll o b je c tiv e o f th e complex o rg a n iz a tio n *

m a d d itio n #

a s th e s e sm all groups a r e in te g r a te d in to l a r g e r groups# a n e x t h ig h e r l e v e l i s c o n s titu te d * made up o f th e le n d e rs o f th e b a s ic groups*

vhe

r e s p o n s ib le heads o f th e s e groups o f le a d e r s in tu rn form a t h i r d l e v e l o f r e s p o n s i b i li t y #

Thua a p a tt e r n o f sm all groups* each w ith i t s

ii r e s p o n s ib le leader may bo in t e g r a t e d in t o a com plex o r g a n in a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e , b a t t h i s com plex o r g a n is a t io n retain s throughout th© p r i n c i p l e o f s m a ll groups ®&©h w ith c l e a r and non-over la p p in g

m issions, ilany of th e statements and eon© l a s Io n s a r r iv e d a t in t h i s s tu d y w i l l be o b v io u s ly c o lo r e d by a y e x p e r ie n c e w ith e d u c a t io n a l i n s t i ­ t u t i o n s and projects c o n n e c te d w ith the Armed F o rces*

In some

t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s o f experianee w ith v a r io u s © opponents o f th e Armed f o r c e s , about t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f my tints was spent a t e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i ­ t u t io n s *

my experience was a lm o st equally d iv id e d b etw een education­

a l i n s t i t u t i o n s under t h e s u p e r v is io n o f th e Amy or th e combined anna and t h o s e w hich w ere c iv ilia n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s *

A lm ost

a s Much tin e was sp e n t In t e a c h in g a s was s p e n t in some s tu d e n t ca p a c­ i t y , r e s e a r c h , or th e w r it in g o f te x tb o o k s or a r t i c l e s fo r t h e Arxoed F o rces* E e c e n tly 1 s p e n t s i x yeara a t th e Command and G eneral S t a f f C o l­ l e g e a t F o rt Leavenworth $ b oth d u rin g and a f t e r t h e Far y e a r s *

'ill®

w h o le s a le adueatlon o f some f i f t e e n th ou san d Reserve and R eg u la r o f f i ­ c e r s , c a l l e d in f r o at t h e a t e r s from A fr ic a t o th e P h ilip p in e s and from O slo t o Okinawa, o f f e r e d an o p p o r tu n ity t o e v a lu a t e t h e e ff e c t iv e n e s s o f th e e d u c a t io n a l background© o f th o s e s p e c i a l l y s e le c te d s tu d e n ts * ih e y a v era g ed a b o u t t h ir t y y e a r s o ld *

They ranged from h ig h s c h o o l

g r a d u a te s t o Ph* Df a*# w ith t h e Mod® a t two y e a r s o f c o lle g e *

There

w ere many r e a s o n s t o q u e s t io n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f our i n s t i t u t i o n s o f higher ed u cation , in t r a i n i n g t h e s e s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d m i l i t a r y le a d e r s when measured b y t h e i r advancem ent i n c o l l e g i a t e c r e d i t h ou rs

ill or y e a r s of s tu d y a t our u n i v e r s i t i e s .

I t a lm o st see d e d t h a t ,

a m s u r e d by leadership in and d u rin g war o p e r a t io n s , peak e ffe c t iv e * *

m m was r e a c h e d b e fo r e th e s t u d e n t s a c h ie v e d t h e i r d e g r e e s froaa c o lle g e * More r e c e n t l y iay e x p e r ie n c s a s an a s s i s t a n t t o t h e Dean o f t h e

College o f E d ucation a t th e University o f M aryland, a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e fo r th e U n ited N a tio n s In fo r m a tio n C e n te r , and s u b s e q u e n tly a s A ssist** a n t t o th e Dean, o f th e C o lle g e o f % # c i a l and C o n tin u a tio n S t u d i e s , have ohanged m a t e r i a l l y £§r v ie w s on t h e f u n c t io n in g o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n * and C o n tin u a tio n

hy e x p e r ie n c e w ith th e C o lle g e o f .i p e c l a l

s tu d ie s in c lu d e d fr e q u e n t c o n fe r e n c e s and c o o r d in a ­

t i o n w ith m ost o f th e o th e r deans o f th e U n iv e r s it y and t h e i r d e p a r tment h ead s a s w e l l a s th e two hundred i n s t r u c t o r s and p r o f e s s o r s t e a c h in g t h e o ff-ca m p u s c o u r s e s ea ch s w e a t e r *

In c lu d e d in t h i s

t a s k w ere m ost o f th e a d ia in is t r a t iv e f u n c t io n s p e r t a in i n g t o th e Dean1® o f f i c e b u t au&aented by such p r a c t i c a l and b a s ic work a s th e a c t u a l a d v is in g and e n r o l l i n g o f s t u d e n t s a t o ff-ca m p u s c e n te r s # the d e s ig n in g and a d j u s t in g o f program s o f c o u r s e s a t soma f o r t y o f f campus c e n t e r s , and th e c o o r d in a t io n o f t h e s e c o u r s e s w ith th e In­ fo r m a tio n and U d n eation p e r s o n n e l a t c e n t e r s p e r t a in i n g t o th e Armed f o r c e s * Problem s c o n n e c te d w ith t h e s e o ff-ca m p u s programs in c lu d e d t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f m easu res te n d in g t o sa fe g u a r d su ch e s s e n t i a l s a s academ ic s tu d e n t a d v is in g , xsalnten& ncs o f academ ic s t a n d a r d s , th e p r e p a r a tio n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f b u d g e ta r y d a ta t o su p p o r t t h e s e

iv ©xtensiv© program and trie coord in ation o f d e t a i ls o f th e program w ith th e irest& en t and h is p r in c ip a l s t a f f member©* in clu d in g the Dean o f th e Faculty* th e D irector o f Admissions* th e B eg istrsr* the Comptroller* th e P ersonnel and Placcaiejit O fficer* and ©there*

To

th e ir fr ie n d ly ad vice and o f f i c i a l a s s is t a n c e as w e ll a s th e ir imfail4* Newell i s due my g r a t it u d e f o r

hi® d i s c u s s i o n s on s c h o o l ad m in istration * in c lu d in g primary* se c o n d a r y and advanced e d u c a t io n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s * and th e l e g a l str u c tu r e © w hich g o v ern and support su ch i n s t i t u t i o n s *

P r o fe s s o r Jam©© _,* Van T w oll

c o n tr ib u te d v a lu a b le m a ter ia l© on th e f i n a n c i a l str u c tu r e and su p p o r t

o f e d u c a tio n a l in stitu tio n © *

H is d is c u ssio n s on th e p r i n c i p l e s o f

p u b lic r e la t io n © mm a p p lie d t o advanced © d u cation w ere © s p e c ia lly s t im u la t in g *

To P r o fe s s o r G ladys A* W iggla I am in d e b te d f o r h e r

sem in ar and d is c u s s io n © on th e te c h n iq u e s o f r e s e a r c h and h i s t o r i c a l w r it in g s *

P r o f e s s o r .Alvin T* S ch in d ler* © i n s p i r i n g ta lk © on @duee~

tlo n & l le a d e r s h ip * b oth from th e h i s t o r i c and th e c u r r e n t and practi** c a l v i e w p o i n t s * d id much tow ard e x p la in in g imny o f th e v a r i a t i o n s am ongst our le a d in g c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s *

w in& t f i n a l l y , t o iagr w i f e , l a r i a t t e , g o e s $sr h e a r t - f e l t g r a t i -

tud© for h®T understanding ia p r m idling a quiet place to work and study*

Henry J * sehroadar

7B0S C o lo sn r illo Hoad C o lle g e H ark, Maryland

my

I960

CQNTSIITS

B refae©

1

I n tr o d u c tio n

1

1* The 'Problem 2# The T r e a t e m t o f th e I r o b l e s 5* L im it a tio n s 4« Tslu© o r U se s o f t h i s s tu d y H m t m and Staterasnt o f P r in c ip le* 1* C o n tr o l

£* Organ18fttion 3* L e a d e r sh ip 4* 'ihe Span o f C o n tr o l

1 10

12 14 16 16 25

42 §2

The S tu d y o f Spans o f C o n tr o l 1* Uodea in Spans o f C o n tr o l th e o r e tic a l Some A c tu a l Trends 2 * Spans o f C o n tr o l a t S e le c t e d I n s t i t u t i o n s 3* a» A p p lic a t io n t o a T y p ic a l I n s t i t u t i o n

57 57 57 76 82 116

SuEnmry and C o n c lu s io n s 1 * Aug^cry 2 m a ee oaxaande t i one 3« S u g g e s tio n s f o r F u rth er s tu d y

127 127 131 132

B ibliography

133

CHApfsa t

im m m m io w 1.

fHS FB0BL3M.

The p u rp o se o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to stu d y c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s and tr e n d s i n th e o r g a n is a t io n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n * w ith th e o b j e c t i v e o f i n d i c a t i n g some m ethods o f im p lem en tin g su ch o r g a n iz a t io n a l and c o n t r o l p a t t e r n s a s w i l l conform to g e n e r a lly a c c e p te d p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n iz a t io n and c o n tr o l*

The need f o r a stu d y o f t h i s ty p e i s in d ic a t e d

i n th e b r i e f r ev ie w o f some o f th e o r g a n is a t io n a l p ro b lem s w h ich u n iv e r ­ s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s have e n co u n tered d u rin g th e p a s t d e c a d e .

Some o f

t h e s e p rob lem s a r e o u t lin e d i n th e p a ra g ra p h s f o ll o w i n g . I n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n h ave grown r a p id ly i s number and in s i z e d u rin g th e p a s t h a l f c e n tu r y .

The te n y e a r s from 19*40 to 1930

p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r l y d is t u r b in g p a t t e r n . i n s t r u c t o r s w ere l o s t t o th e War e f f o r t .

D uring 19*40-^5 s tu d e n ts and D uring 1 9 ^ 5-50 c l a s s e s were

s w o lle n by s tu d e n ts d e la y e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a b se n c e in th e Armed f o r c e s , b y v e te r a n s program s and b e n e f i t s , and by a g e n e r a l tu r n in g tow ard more e d u c a tio n a s a p an acea f o r n a t io n a l and w o r ld -w id e d is tu r b a n c e s and un­ r e st.

The s i t u a t i o n in 1930 was made w o rse by th e te n d e n c y o f te a c h e r s

o f a l l l e v e l s to be h e ld i n o r a t t r a c t e d to f e d e r a l o r com m ercial em­ p lo y m e n t. O r g a n iz a tio n and le a d e r s h ip i n h ig h e r e d u c a tio n and th e c o rr e sp o n d ­ in g c o n t r o l o f our c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s have f lu c t u a t e d co rr e sp o n d ­ in g ly .

B e fo r e and d u rin g th e war y e a r s , i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced

2 e d u c a tio n trimmed e x p e n d it u r e s , red u ced s t a f f s and f a c u l t y to m eet th e s h r in k in g s tu d e n t b o d ie s , and t r i e d in o th e r ways to a d j u s t to d e c r e a s in g r e tu r n s from in v e s tm e n ts and th e a c c e l e r a t i n g d e v a lu a t io n o f th e d o l l a r . A fte r th e w ar, w ith th e r e tu r n o f th e v e t e r a n s , th e s u s p e n sio n o f th e d r a f t , and th e r i s e o f unem ploym ent, i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r educa­ t i o n w ere ask ed to do an ab ou t f a c e a lm o st o v e r n ig h t and to absorb somehow t h e s e v a s t numbers o f s t u d e n t s ,

f h i s a b s o r p tio n o f th e v e te r a n s

was a c c o m p lish e d in a f a i r l y o r d e r ly f a s h io n , b u t a t an o b v io u s l o s s o f c o n t r o l , and w it h a grow ing c o n fu s io n among u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f and f a c u l t y b e c a u s e o f o v e r lo a d s . fh e c u r r e n t wave o f la r g e c l a s s e s and i n c r e a s in g ly com plex c u r r ic u la was accom panied by l i t t l e o r no ch a n g es in th e o r g a n is a t io n o r c o n t r o l o f th e u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

fo p a d m in is tr a to r s and f a c u l t y d ea n s had l i t t l e

tim e to r e o r g a n is e and d e c e n t r a l i s e so th a t th e y c o u ld p r o v id e f o r th e a d e q u a te s u p e r v is io n o f th e s w e lli n g h o rd es o f s tu d e n ts and i n s t r u c t o r s and pay r e a s o n a b le a t t e n t i o n to many new, p r a c t i c a l p ro b lem s. W hatever may have b een th e c o n t r ib u t in g c a u s e s and f a c t o r s , many p r e s id e n t s , a d m in is t r a t o r s , and f a c u l t y members a t th e u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s have e x te n d e d th e s c o p e o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l s u p e r v is io n and r e ­ s p o n s ib le c o n t r o l beyond good p r a c t ic e and o f t e n beyond human end u ran ce. Some have grown accu stom ed to th e g r a d u a lly in c r e a s in g lo a d s b e c a u se o f n e c e s s i t y when th e s tu d e n t e n r o llm e n t mushroomed f a r f a s t e r than th e r e ­ tu rn o f th e younger f a c u l t y members from t h e i r war a s s ig n m e n ts .

Many

have a c c e p te d and c o n tin u e to r e t a i n sp an s o f c o n t r o l beyond t h e i r own or anyone e l s e * s a b i l i t y ,

f o o many f a i l to d em o n stra te i n p r a c t ic e th e

v i s i o n , th e t o le r a n c e , and th e f l e x i b i l i t y w hich th e y have b een te a c h in g i n t h e i r c la s s r o o m s .

3 J o r t u n a t e ly , n o t a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n a r e s u f ­ f e r i n g in t h i s way o r to t h i s d e g r e e .

Most o r g a n iz a t io n s are s t r e t c h e d

to th e l i m i t o f e l a s t i c i t y , ev en to th e b r e a k in g p o in t; a few show o n ly s lig h t s tr a in .

Many r e t a i n t h e i r o r g a n iz a t io n s , b u t add a s s i s t a n c e on

each l e v e l ; an i n s i g n i f i c a n t number a r e b e in g a n a ly z e d , changed f r e ­ q u e n tly , and made to m eet th e a c t u a l f l u c t u a t i n g lo a d s and m is s io n s . B e fo r e d is c u s s in g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to th e s i t u a t i o n , a s r e o r g a n i­ z a t io n , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and p ro p er sp a n s f o r c o n tr o l p u r p o s e s , i t seem s d e s ir a b le to exam ine th e f u n c t io n s o f c o n tr o l i t s e l f . The problem then i s to stu d y p r a c t i c e s and tr e n d s i n o r g a n iz a ­ t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n , to e v a lu a te t h e s e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s a g a in s t a c c e p te d p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n iz a t io n and c o n t r o l , and to s e e k a p r a c t ic a l p la n f o r im p lem en tin g more e f f e c t ­ i v e o r g a n iz a t io n a l and c o n t r o l p a t t e r n s .

T h is problem in c lu d e s th e

c o n s ta n t e v a lu a tio n o f su ch p la n s fo r r e o r g a n iz a t io n w ith due reg a rd t o th e s tu d e n t v ie w - p o in t , to such p e r s o n n e l problem s a s f a c u lt y m o r a le , and to th e v i t a l n e c e s s i t y f o r m a in ta in in g academ ic sta n d a rd s d u rin g th e orop osed r e o r g a n iz a t io n .

An e s s e n t i a l component o f any a c c e p t a b le

p la n fo r r e o r g a n iz a tio n m ust be i t s a c c e p ta n c e o f th e d em o cra tic meth­ od s o f c o n t r o l and th e e x e r c is e o f a u t h o r i t y .

Any p la n f o r o r g a n iz a t io n

must be founded on th e o b j e c t i v e o f t e a c h in g dem ocracy in a d em o cra tic f a s h io n , w ith due regard to th e in c lu s io n o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s t u d ie s i n th e h u m a n itie s .

T h is s tu d y a c c e p t s w ith o u t fu r t h e r d is c u s s io n th e

b a s ic p r i n c i p l e th a t d e m o c r a tic e d u c a tio n s e e k s th e b e tte r m e n t o f th e in d iv id u a l and th rou gh him th e b e tte r m e n t o f s o c i e t y and s o c i a l c o n d i­ t i o n s w nich in tu rn le a d to im proved p o l i t i c a l c o n d it io n s on th e l o c a l , n a t i o n a l , and e v e n t u a lly th e g l o b a l , l e v e l s .

u

TW n ? lQAL

01

P erhaps th e problem i s more s p e c i f i c a l l y © p r e s s e d by two exam ples

o f u n i v e r s i t i e s , on© o f w h ich has a p la n n ed o r g a n is a t io n , and th e o th e r w h ich has d e v e lo p e d by c a s u a l a d d it io n s a s %i,e need t h e r e f o r a r o s e w ith ­ o u t much p la n n in g f o r th e fu t u r e nor th o u g h t on th e e f f i c i e n c y o f th e o r g a n is a t io n and th e le a d e r s h i p .

L et u s v i s u a l i s e two u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

ea ch w ith about 1 0 ,0 0 0 s t u d e n t s .

One o f t a e s e h as g iv e n c a r e f u l th ou gh t

e a ch ye&r to im provem ents in i t s o r g a n is a t io n .

I t h a s made th e b a s ic

assu m p tion th a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a u t h o r it y i s e s s e n t i a l to good o p er­ a tio n .

A c c o r d in g ly th e p r e s id e n t o f th e u n i v e r s i t y has g a th e r e d around

him f i v e e x p e r ie n c e d e d u c a to r s and. a d m in is t r a t o r s ,

fh es© f i v e h eads

e a ch d i r e c t th e a c t i v i t i e s o f a d i v i s i o n such a s th e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e lo w e r d i v i s i o n c o l l e g e , th e upper d i v i s i o n c o l l e g e , th e p la n n in g and p u b lic r e l a t i o n s d i v i s i o n , th e a d m in is t r a t iv e d i v i s i o n and th e b u s in e s s and fin a n c e d i v i s i o n ,

t o a llo w h im s e lf th e maximum o f freed om , th e © r e si­

d e n t h a s d e s ig n a te d an a s s i s t a n t or v ic e - p r o s id e n t to c o o r d in a te th e a c ­ t i v i t i e s o f th e f i v e d i v i s i o n h ea d s on r o u t in e m a tte r s or on m a tte r s on w h ich p o l i c i e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d .

S h is o r g a n is a t io n p e r m its th e

p r e s id e n t th e maximum o f f r e e tim e to become a c q u a in te d w ith th e p e r ­ so n n e l o f h i s u n i v e r s i t y , b o th f a c u lt y and s tu d e n t, and to b e a b se n t on ex ten d ed v i s i t s , on m is s io n s o f good w i l l and fo r th e p roiaotion o f b e t t e r p u b lic r e l a t i o n s . In c o n t r a s t to t h i s s i m p l i f i e d o r g a n iz a t io n a t th e to p l e v e l , many o f our o l d e s t and s t r o n g e s t u n i v e r s i t i e s s t i l l

show l i t t l e

e v id e n c e o f

a f f e c t i n g ch a n g es in o r g a n iz a t io n to m eet new c o n d it io n s and s i t u a t i o n s , fo o many o f our u n i v e r s i t i e s have t h e ir p r e s id e n t s surrou nded by an im p o s s ib ly la r g e number o f a s s i s t a n t s and le a d e r s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s ib le

5 to th e p r e s i d e n t .

A. t y p i c a l exam ple o f t h i s ty p e o f u n i v e r s i t y o r g a n i­

z a t io n would have some tw e lv e c o l l e g e d ea n s r e p o r t in g d i r e c t l y to th e c o lle g e p r e s id e n t.

In a d d it io n th e p r e s id e n t would have d a i l y o r f r e ­

qu en t c o n fe r e n c e s w ith each o f th e a d m in is t r a t iv e h ead s i n h i s f a c u l t y . T hese m igh t number a s many a s f i f t e e n .

T hese two d i v i s i o n s w ith t h e i r

tw e n ty -se v e n group c h i e f s would a c co u n t f o r th e in t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f th e u n iv e r s ity .

In a d d it io n to t h e s e , th e p r e s id e n t would d e a l w ith none

te n community l e a d e r s , b u s in e s s and b an k in g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and many p o l i t i c a l c h i e f s o f v a r y in g im p ortance and s t a t u r e .

I f th e r e w ere te n

o f t h e s e o u t s id e c h i e f s , th e p r e s id e n t would b e d e a lin g f r e q u e n t ly and h a b it u a l ly w ith some t h i r t y - s e v e n p e r s o n s , ea ch f e e l i n g & c e r t a i n r e ­ s p o n s i b i l i t y toward him or h a v in g d e f i n i t e c la im s on h i s tim e , o r lo o k ­ in g to hi® f o r le a d e r s h ip and g u id a n c e .

Such a s i t u a t i o n would keep

th e p r e s id e n t c o n s t a n t ly p r e o c c u p ie d w ith r o u tin e problem s and le a v e him l i t t l e or no tim e and en ergy f o r th e n e c e s s a r y p la n n in g and m ajor d e c i s i o n s on problem s o f fa r - r e a c h in g im p o rta n ce. I t i s n o t u n u su a l w ith t h i s seco n d ty p e o f u n i v e r s i t y o r g a n is a t io n f o r th e p r e s id e n t to d e s ig n a t e i n f a c t s e v e r a l a s s i s t a n t s who in name h a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e x e c u t iv e a c t io n and d e c i s i o n in r o u t in e m a t te r s , b u t a lm o st in v a r ia b ly th ey to o have no f i x e d o r s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f in e d m is s io n s b u t b e a r th e burden e q u a lly w ith th e p r e s id e n t f o r d e a lin g w ith th e e n t i r e t h i r t y - s e v e n le a d e r s and c h i e f s who d e a l w ith th e p r e s id e n t . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e s e a s s i s t a n t s to th e p r e s id e n t In tu rn become e q u a lly h a r a s s e d and c o n fu se d fo r lack: o f d e f i n i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They d e a l w ith so many d i f f e r e n t m a tte r s th a t th ey tend to c o n fu s e ea ch o th e r by i n t e r m i t t e n t l y m aking d e c i s i o n s in m a tte r s p r e v io u s ly p a s s e d on by a n o th e r o f t h e i r g ro u p .

How many o f u s have a tte n d e d a d m in is t r a t iv e

6 b o a rd m e e tin g s o f t h i r t y t o f i f t y members and l i s t e n e d t o th e p r e s id e n t o r a group o f h i s s t a f f members d e b a tin g m inor m a tte r s w ith g ro u p s or f a c t i o n s i n th e a ssem b led d ea n s and d epartm en t h e a d s. The above h y p o t h e t ic a l exam ple o f two d i f f e r e n t l y o r g a n iz e d u n i­ v e r s i t i e s im m ed ia tely r a i s e s th e q u e s tio n a s to how th e th ir d l e v e l s o f th e two o r g a n iz a t io n s w ould b e c o n s t i t u t e d .

I t i s a p p a re n t t h a t in th e

f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y w ith f i v e d i v i s i o n h ea d s lo o k in g to th e p r e s id e n t f o r gu id an ce* th a t th e r e must be many d ea n s o f c o l l e g e s and a d m in is t r a t iv e c h ie f® who would seldom c o n s u lt w ith th© p r e s id e n t .

W hereas in th e s e c ­

ond u n i v e r s i t y , w ith t h i r t y - s e v e n c h ie f® r e p o r t in g d i r e c t l y to th e o r e s i d e n t , each o f th e d ea n s and a d m in is t r a t iv e h e a d s, a s w e ll a s community and p o l i t i c a l le a d e r ® , w ould f e e l f r e e to demand a u d ie n c e w ith th e p r e s i ­ d e n t a t any tim e .

P erh ap s th e answ er i s a lr e a d y a p p a r e n t.

W ith f i v e

d i v i s i o n h ead s r e p o r t in g to th e p r e s id e n t , th e d i v i s i o n h ea d s w i l l h a v e a d j u s te d and c o o r d in a te d a l l o f th e r o u t in e m a t te r s , le a v in g o n ly s p e c i a l and u r g e n t problem® f o r th e p r e s id e n t ’ s p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n .

In t h i s ty p e

o f u n i v e r s i t y o r g a n iz a t io n th e p r e s id e n t w i l l h a b it u a l l y have th e tim e and th© en e rg y to d e a l b r i e f l y and e f f e c t i v e l y w ith such problem®, p a r ­ t i c u l a r l y i f th e c o l l e g e dean o r departm ent head who h a s th e oroblera c o n f e r s w ith th e p r e s id e n t , w ith th e d i v i s i o n head co n cern ed p r e s e n t to b r i e f and a d v is e th e p r e s id e n t on th e background and m e r it s o f th e p ro b ­ lem a t i s s u e . In th e seco n d ty p e o f o r g a n iz a t io n , th e p r e s id e n t w ith h i s t h i r t y s e v e n h ead s r e p o r t in g d i r e c t l y to him w ith a l l o f t h e i r problem®, i s u s u a ll y so c o m p le te ly engaged w ith th e e n t i r e academ ic and a d m in is t r a t iv e lo a d t h a t he h a s l i t t l e or no tim e to d e a l w ith a n y th in g e x c e p t th e r o u t in e p rob lem s and such o n ly b r i e f l y .

7 In w e ll- o r g a n iz e d u n i v e r s i t i e s th e sm a ll span o f a u t h o r it y I s u s u a l l y r e p e a te d on th e v a r io u s l e v e l s fr o n th e -p resid en t and h i s p e r so n a l s t a f f down to th e d i v i s i o n c h i e f s and th e n c e from th e d i v i s i o n c h i e f s down to th e d ean s o f th e c o lle g e © or s c h o o ls .

In th e exam ple c i t e d , th e lo w e r

d i v i s i o n c o l l e g e u s u a ll y w i l l have abou t f i v e s c h o o ls or d e p a r tm en ts, each w ith i t s academ ic f i e l d or m ajor lo w e r l e v e l i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r e a . The upper d i v i s i o n c o l l e g e s i m i l a r l y w ould have f i v e or s i x d ep a rtm en ts ea ch s p e c i a l i s i n g i n a m ajor academ ic s u b j e c t .

The head o f th e a d m in is­

t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n would de&l w ith th e c o n v e n tio n a l head© o r dean© o f su ch a c t i v i t i e s a s th e A d m issio n s o f f i c e , o f f i c e and th e P e r so n n e l o f f i c e .

th e R e g is t r a r * s o f f i c e , th e C ashier* s

In l i k e manner th e p la n n in g and p u b lic

r e l a t i o n s d i v i s i o n w ould b e p r i n c i p a l l y co n cern ed w ith lo n g ran ge p la n s f o r th e f u tu r e and w ith p u b lic r e l a t i o n s c o n t a c t s w h ich would c o o r d in a te and su p p ort su ch p la n s .

F i n a l l y th e b u s in e s s d i v i s i o n m igh t i t s e l f con­

t a i n a f i s c a l p la n n in g s e c t i o n , p la n t m a in ten a n ce s e c t i o n , a c u r r e n t ex­ p e n d itu r e s e c t i o n , and an a u d it s e c t i o n . In th e second ty p e o f u n o r g a n ise d u n i v e r s i t y , th e t h i r t y - s e v e n h ead s r e p o r t in g d i r e c t l y to th e p r e s id e n t m ight by chance o n ly have a v a r y in g number o f departm en t h e a d s , some a s low a© tw o, o th e r s a s h ig h a s tw e n ty , a s i t u a t i o n w h ich i s n o t u n u su a l i n many o f our u n i v e r s i t i e s .

The r e s u l t

o f th e s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t some c a p a b le d ea n s and departm ent head© have too l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r a c t i v i t y to f u l l y engage t h e i r h ig h a b i l i t y w h ile o t h e r s may b e i n a lm o st th e same s i t u a t i o n a s th e u n i v e r s i t y p r e s i ­ d e n t w ith f i f t e e n or tw en ty departm ent h ead s r e p o r t in g d i r e c t l y to t h e i r c o l l e g e dean. The com p arison b etw een th e above two ty p e s o f u n i v e r s i t y o r g a n is a t io n c o u ld b e c a r r ie d on down to th e l e v e l o f th e c la ssr o o m in s t r u c t o r or to

s th e v a r ie d number o f s tu d e n ts in d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s .

In th e w e ll-p la n n e d

u n i v e r s i t y , c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n i s g iv e n to p r e v e n tin g th e o v e r-cr o w d in g o f each c l a s s by l i m i t i n g e n r o llm e n ts or by s e t t i n g up a d d it io n a l s e c ­ t i o n s o f th e more p o p u la r c l a s s e s .

Where su c h c la ssr o o m p la n n in g i s n o t

g iv e n a d eq u a te a t t e n t i o n , th e r e i s a te n d en cy to f in d many in s t r u c t o r s c a r r y in g c l a s s e s w ith e n r o llm e n ts in e r c e s s o f one hundred, p a r t i c u l a r ly i f th ey a r e e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s , and o th e r i n s t r u c t o r s c a r r y in g a l e s s e r number o f c l a s s e s and sm a ll e n r o llm e n ts o f f i v e to te n in th e c l a s s e s th e y do h a v e .

fo sum m arize th e ab ove com parison b etw een th e two u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t w ould seem t h a t o r g a n iz a t io n r e q u ir e s fr e q u e n t rev ie w and c a r e f u l p la n n in g . That w ith o u t su ch c o n s ta n t e v a lu a t io n and a d ju s tm e n ts , u n i v e r s i t i e s d r i f t i n t o o r g a n iz a t io n s which a r e h ig h ly i n e f f i c i e n t from th e vlev-polnt o f m aking m ost e f f e c t i v e u s e o f th e a b i l i t i e s o f th e in d iv id u a l members o f th e f a c u lt y and more im p ortan t In th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s in th e cla ssr o o m in s t r u c t i o n , a d v is in g and counseling of s t u d e n t s . I t i s a d m itte d w ith o u t argument th a t l o c a l c o n d it i o n s , c u sto m s, and h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t have a g r e a t in f lu e n c e on th e o r g a n iz a t io n o f our la r g e r and s tr o n g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s .

However i t i s e q u a lly a p p aren t th a t

th e c u ltu r e d s a i l i n g w hich i s c a r e f u l l y w a tch ed , trim m ed, gu id ed and nour­ is h e d , te n d s to grow in t o a well-rounded, sy m m etrica l and in t e g r a t e d t r e e . On th e o th e r hand, th e s a p lin g w hich i s a t th e mercy o f storm s and drought and th e chance in ju r y from n e ig h b o r in g t r e e s i s l i k e l y to e v e n tu a lly grow in t o an u n b a la n ced and i n e f f i c i e n t member o f th e g r o v e .

The problem seem®

t o be one o f lo n g -r a n g e p la n n in g r a th e r th an s h o r t-tim e e x p e d ie n c y .

In

th e c a s e o f th e two u n i v e r s i t i e s d e s c r ib e d a b o v e , i t w i l l b e shown l a t e r t h a t th e number o f p e r so n a r e q u ir e d to s t a f f each o f th e two u n i v e r s i t i e s

9 w i l l "be a p p r o x im a te ly th e ss&ia®.

However i n one i n s t a n c e , each o f th e

h ig h e r l e v e l h ea d s o r le a d e r s w i l l have a s p e c i f i c m is s io n and w i l l c o n t r o l th e a c t i v i t i e s o f a r e l a t i v e l y sm a ll number o f c h i e f s on th e n e x t lo w e r le v e l.

In th e second ty p e u n i v e r s i t y , th e r e i s an atm osph ere o f overw ork ,

o f i n s u f f i c i e n t tim e , o f lo n g h o u r s, o f o v e r la p p in g o f m is s io n s and r e ­ s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w ith a r e s u l t a n t f e e l i n g o f c o n fu s io n and f u t i l i t y . 4 s in any o r g a n is a t io n d e a lin g w ith s o c i a l p ro b lem s and p r o j e c t s , u n i v e r s i t i e s ten d to b e in f lu e n c e d g r e a t l y by p e r s o n a l i t i e s .

Some s tr o n g

l e a d e r s tend to a t t r a c t to them men o f a b i l i t y and s t a t u r e , o t h e r s w ith le a d e r s h ip a b i l i t y ten d to d is c o u r a g e s u b o r d in a te s and e v e n t u a lly f in d th e m se lv e s surrounded by an e v e r -g r o w in g group o f s u b o r d in a te s in whom th e le a d e r h as l i t t l e

c o n fid e n c e and t r u s t .

In th e f i r s t in s t a n c e , th e

le a d e r has o r g a n is in g a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l m agnetisa».

In th e secon d in ­

s t a n c e . th e r e i s an atm osp h ere o f d r iv e and c la s h in g p e r s o n a l i t i e s .

It

i s n o t u n u su a l to f in d th a t th e seco n d s i t u a t i o n c o u ld have b een a v o id e d by th e c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f a s s i s t a n t s on a l l l e v e l s w ith a v iew to t h e i r lo n g - r a n g e le a d e r s h ip p o t e n t i a l i t y .

2 he n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e a method o f e v a lu a t in g o r g a n is a t io n w ith a v ie w to e s t a b l i s h i n g th e d e s ir a b le c o m p o s itio n and a t t r i b u t e s o f th e o r g a n is a t io n o f a sm a ll grou p .

In tu rn th e sm a ll grou-o* w i l l b e

shown s u s c e p t i b l e o f i n t e g r a t i o n f o llo w i n g th e same o r g a n iz a t io n a l p r in ­ c i p l e s , in t o com plex o r g a n is a t io n s t r u c t u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s th e y a p p ly t o c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .

2.

fH i tim&mmT o f mu f b o i l m .

The arran gem en t o f th e p a r t s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n f o l l o w s g e n e r a ll y i t * p u r p o se , w h ich I s to stu d y c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e * and tr e n d s i n th e o r g a n is a t io n o f u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s w ith a view to i n d i ­ c a t in g m ethods o f im p lem en tin g and a d o p tin g g e n e r a ll y a c c e p te d p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n iz a t io n and c o n tr o l*

C hapter I I r e v ie w * th e more g e n e r a ll y

a c c e p te d p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n iz a t io n , l e a d e r s : i p and c o n t r o l .

C hapter 111

o u t l i n e s th e a c t u a l o r g a n iz a t io n a l p a t t e r n s a t some t y p i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and p r e s e n t s a p rop osed im p le m en ta tio n o f th e p r i n c i p l e s p r e s e n te d in C hapter I I to one o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .

The tr e a tm e n t o f th e problem i s

o u t lin e d in more d e t a i l b e lo w . T h is s tu d y , th e n , r e v ie w s in C hapter I I th e commonly a c c e p te d p r in ­ c i p l e s g o v e r n in g o r g a n is a t io n f o r any la r g e s c a l e a c t i v i t y and th e n e t­ work: o f c o n t r o l a g e n c ie s .

I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , m is s io n * ,

and o b j e c t i v e s w ith in th e o r g a n iz a t io n ,

the stu d y p r e s e n t s a l i s t o f

p r i n c i p l e s o f le a d e r s h ip a s a p p lie d s p e c i f i c a l l y to e d u c a tio n a t i n s t i ­ t u t io n s o f advanced le a r n in g , and d i s c u s s e s th e in f lu e n c e o f l e a d e r s on t h e c o n t r o l o f e d u c a tio n a l o r g a n iz a t io n ,

a s a m easure o f e v a lu a tio n o f

le a d e r s h ip th e stu d y d e v e lo p s th e s u b j e c t o f d e s ir a b le s i z e s i n spans o f c o n t r o l; th a t i s ,

th e number o f p e r so n s whose a c t i v i t i e s can be e f f i c i e n t ­

l y d ir e c t e d by one p e r so n d e s ig n a te d a s th© le a d e r . C hapter I I I develop® th© th e o r y o f sp an s o f c o n t r o l , b o th th e o ­ r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l .

I t p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n m a th em a tica l p r i n c i p l e s and

t a b l e s w hich show tren d * r e s u l t i n g fro© v a r io u s s i z e s o f grou p s c o n t r o lle d

11 fey one lender and extends these p rin cip les to the s ix le v e ls commonly encountered in the oosplex organisations of our larger u n iv e r sitie s. the afeove th eo retica l spans o f oontrol and th eir trends are eompared with eeae national trends and evaluations as applied to co lleg es and u n iv e r sitie s . Chapter 111 continues with a d etailed study o f a group o f selected co lleg e s and u n iv e r sitie s with particular reference to th eir organise*, tion rather than spans o f oontrol u tilis e d and the type o f leadership directin g or con trollin g the in s titu tio n . Finally* Chapter I f g iv es a b r ie f summary of the study with sp e c ific recommendations and suggestions for further research. This study deals with spams o f resp o n sib ility * as the t i t l e In dicates.

However* the team "spans o f control* i s used acre fre­

quently in the d isserta tio n than "spans o f re sp o n sib ility * •

It

should be noted that for the purposes o f th is study* the two terms have been treated as p ra ctica lly synonymous*

Control may be considered a

desirable element of resp on sib ility* or s prerequisite for the proper fu lfillm e n t o f the obligations of resp on sib ility*

Furthermore* St was

hoped that any autocratic connotations which mi^it be found in the word "control% would be d issip ated by the more democratic lioplieations o f the word "responsibility**



w a fja is m

The lim ita tio n s o f a study o f t h i s type are obviously maay#

ilie

p r i n c i p l e s g w s m i a g the organisation aM administration of-#©[email protected]©ss and u n iv e r sitie s hay® haan set f o r t h l a general teams® i n m a r re f e re n c e s ^

t®acta9 a M c r it ic a l w ritin g s *

t& fortusately th© application o f these

p r i n c i p l e s is morm d if f ic u lt to find In the w r itin g s o f e d u c a tio n a l a d m in is tr a to r s *

L ocal s i t u a t i o n s aad problems ap p e a r to bar© g r e a t e r

tn flu m m in the a p p li c a t io n of o rg a n is a tio n ® ! p r i n c i p le s than Ac* th e o b je c tiv e s t i l l e d by the principles*

imnreya o f s p e c i f i c uniTerst*

tied frequently i n d ic a te t h a t w h ile i t would b® d e airab l® t o imp!®* msnt c e r t a i n eeeepted p r i n c i p le s o f o rg a n is a tio n * l o c a l c o n d itio n s in v o lv in g p e rs o n a litie s - and t r a d i t i o n d e la y the Im mediate and d i r e c t

activation o f these principles*^

ITkmr® I s often an atmosphere of

ecnqproialse* expediency* and pati©no® which a p p ea rs t o h in d e r any clear-* o u t © s t& b llita e n i o f x'eeognised and @mmn%y a eeepted p r i n c i p l e of o r garni sett io n and spans o f resp o n sib ility *

x%& el«»er*eut d e c is iv e n e s s

o f busisees and m ilitary reorganisation appears to be lo s s p r s s tio s l

whm applied to educational in stitu tio n s*

^taam plos in c lu d e s

'Kmt* Bayjsoad A.*» e*a*

Louisiana 3tate U niversity*

American Council on ^duoatlon» lSSoT*

(ifcshlxigtGxis

'

Oapea^ Seranel P*# ©*e* P u b lic hj#*®r jd u ee tlo a in Utah*

CWashingtoms American Council on educations

TSZofT™"

Itobury* William L»» ®*a« Higher sduoation l a Maryland. {Washingtons msaoriesa Council oa 3dueatlon» 194?}© Hiusnoxad 9 iiaroXd P# Beacrt on i-'aftgl&eering sd acatioa la the tlniTormity System o f c^Kffgliu T & tla a ta i Georgia. School o f Technology* 1943 5.

mLraraities

might requl:re

1 i

f

8.1 i yeara to oonamaaata*

i

ohaagea at © iY ilien

3 1

U.

TALUI OE USES Of THIS STUDY

From th e f o r e g o in g i t i s a p p a ren t t h a t t h i s stu d y l a d ir e c t e d © ore toward th e im p le m en ta tio n o f p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n is a tio n * le a d e r ­ s h ip and c o n t r o l r a th e r than th e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f any one m ost e f f e c t i v e p a t t e r n o f o r g a n is a t io n and c o n t r o l f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced le a r n in g . The stu d y a tte m p ts to show th e b e n e f i t s o f e f f i c i e n t o r g a n is a t io n and p r o v id e some p r a c t i c a l m ethods o f c o n v e r tin g e x i s t i n g o r g a n is a t io n a l p a t-t e r n s to s im p le r and ©ore e f f e c t i v e o r g a n is a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e s . F i n a l l y , t h i s stu d y sh o u ld p ro v o k e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h in th e many s p e c i a l a r e a s n o t tou ch ed on in t h i s w r i t i n g , su ch a s th e d e t a il e d

to ta l

r e o r g a n is a t io n o f our la r g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s on a f u n c t io n a l p a t t e r n r a th e r th an on th e t r a d i t i o n a l l y academ ic fram e-w ork.

I f t h i s s tu d y d o e s no

more than show some o f th e a d v a n ta g e s o f d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f b o th m is s io n and a u t h o r it y i t w i l l have a c h ie v e d i t s purpose* In t h e s e d a y s o f expand ing power and em pire b u ild i n g , th e r e i s th e p o s s i b i l i t y th a t in many m inds th e p u rp o se and o b j e c t i v e o f our demo­ c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n may be e n t i r e l y f o r g o t t e n , v ie w - p o in t o f th e s tu d e n t i s a f t e r a l l th e p r e d o m in a tin g i n f lu e n c e .

th e Or­

g a n iz a t io n and c o n t r o l a r e b u t th e fram e-w ork o r la d d e r by w hich he c lim b s tow ard a f u l l e r and r ic h e r l i f e .

Where th e stu d e n t a c h ie v e s h i s e d u c a tio n ­

a l g o a l w ith a minimum o f i n t e r f e r e n c e from h i e i n s t r u c t o r s , f a c u l t y mem­ b e r s , and a d m in is tr a to r s and w ith maximum o f grow th to h im s e lf , th e r e th e o r g a n iz a t io n a l p a t te r n and c o n t r o l p r i n c i p l e s w i l l have b een m ost e f f e c t ­ iv e .

O ther meSBiree fo r th e © v a lu a tio n o f o r g a n is a t io n and c o n tr o l in

*5 o u r u n i v e r s i t i e s su ch a s th e r a t e o f grow th o f th e s tu d e n t body and th e b u ild in g o f e x t e n s iv e c la ssr o o m s* la b o r a t o r i e s and a t h l e t i c s t a d ia a r e u s u a ll y t r a n s i e n t and s u p e r f i c i a l u n l e s s su p p o rted by an e a r n e s t , hard­ w orking and s a t i s f i e d s tu d e n t b o d y .

CHAFTXB. II SISVIEW him

Of FBIHCIFLES

T h is c h a p te r s e e k s to d e v e lo p a c o n c e p t o f o r g a n is a t io n w ith i t s im p lem en tin g le a d e r s h i p , b o th s e e k in g to e x e r c is e c o n t r o l .

G e n e r a lly

a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n t r o l , o f o r g a n is a t i o n , and o f le a d e r s h ip a r e p r e s e n t e d , w ith s p e c i a l c o n s id e r a t io n to th e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s to u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s .

The fo u r t h s e c t i o n o f t h i s

c h a p te r d e a l s w it h spans o f c o n t r o l, b e c a u s e th e im p le m en ta tio n o f c o n t r o l r e q u ir e s th e d e f i n i t e g r o u p in g o f p e r s o n n e l and th e e s t a b l i s h ­ ment o f a r e a s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and o f a u t h o r it y . CONTROL C on trol h a s a t l e a s t two c o n n o t a t io n s , on e p o s i t i v e , th e o th e r n e g a t iv e .

The p o s i t i v e view o f c o n t r o l v i s u a l i s e s a p a t t e r n or g u id e

f o r & l i n e o f con d u ct o r a c t i v i t y such a s th e c o n t r o l s h e e t o f a budg­ e t or th e w r it t e n c u r r ic u la o f c o l l e g e c o u r s e s s p e c if y in g th e educa­ t i o n a l p a t t e r n to b e f o llo w e d by s tu d e n ts i n t h e ir advan ce toward d egrees.

The n e g a t iv e c o n c e p t o f c o n t r o l im p lie s r e s t r i c t i o n o r th e

p r o h ib itio n o f f r e e a c t i v i t y .

As w i l l b e shown l a t e r , m ost o r g a n is a ­

t i o n s f in d i t n e c e s s a r y to r e c o g n is e b o th d e f i n i t i o n s o f c o n t r o l .

The

p o s i t i v e m eaning o f c o n t r o l im p lie s i n s p i r a t i o n , encouragem ent and g u id a n c e toward an o b j e c t i v e .

The n e g a t iv e m eaning o f c o n t r o l I m p lie s

c o e r c io n and p e n a l t i e s f o r d e v ia t i o n s fro® p r e s c r ib e d lin e ® o f c o n d u c t.

^ Jerome Dowd, C o n tro l i n Human S o c i e t i e s (Bew fo r k s C entury Company, 193^5 pp. 2 - g .

I

D. A o l e t o n —

17 Exam ples o f th e two c o n c e p ts o f c o n t r o l a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e fo r e u s . The p o s i t i v e o r c o n s t r u c t iv e c o n c ep t o f c o n t r o l i s found in th e i n f l u ­ e n c e o f p u b lic o p in io n toward th e a m e lio r a tio n o f u n s a t is f a c t o r y c o n d i­ t i o n s o r u n j u s t la w s .

P u b lic o p in io n im plem ented th rou gh o r g a n is a t io n

th u s le a d s to c o n s t r u c t iv e and p r o g r e s s iv e c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n .

The

p e n & lis in g c o n n o t a tio n o f c o n t r o l i s p r o b a b ly b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d byp o l i c e a c t i o n , c o u r t f i n e s , and im p risonm en t fo r v i o l a t i o n s o f law s and o r d n a n ce s.

A p p ly in g t h e s e two th o u g h ts o f c o n t r o l to i n s t i t u t i o n s

o f h ig h e r ed u ca tio n ., c o n t r o l i s e x e r c is e d p o s i t i v e l y by th e s t a f f and f a c u l t y i n e n c o u r a g in g th e s tu d e n t body i n t h e i r s t u d i e s and academ ic ad van cem en t.

S i m i l a r l y , c o n t r o l i s e x e r c is e d in a n e g a t iv e sens© by

th e same grou p , over th e s tu d e n ts who f a i l to m eet academ ic sta n d a rd s and a re d is m is s e d from th e u n i v e r s i t y . One b a s i c fu n c t io n o f c o n t r o l may b e summarised ab ou t a s f o llo w s ; c o n t r o l i s e s s e n t i a l l y th e e x e r c i s e o f a u t h o r i t y .

As su ch i t may b s

im plem ented by in d iv id u a ls su ch a s th e u n i v e r s i t y p r e s id e n t , th e c o l l e g e d ean or th e c la ssr o o m i n s t r u c t o r .

Such c o n t r o l i s c u s to m a r ily b a se d

on some c o d e , law or s e t o f rule® founded on th e e x p r e s s e d o p in io n s o f th e com m unity, on p a s t e x p e r ie n c e , t r a d i t i o n , or l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . The im o lle d im p erso n a l b a s i s f o r c o n t r o l i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to th e e x e r c i s e o f a u t h o r it y w hich i s p e r s o n a l and r e s u l t s fro® p o s i t i v e a c t i o n by d u ly a u th o r is e d in d i v i d u a l s . a,

second f u n c t io n o f c o n t r o l i s fo r m a lly to s e t f o r t h th e p u r p o se ,

o b j e c t i v e , or g o a l o f a group o f a c t i v i t i e s .

For exam p le, th e u n i v e r s i t y

i s g u id ed a d m in is t r a t iv e ly and a c a d e m ic a lly by d u ly announced m is s io n s o f th e u n i v e r s i t y , by o b j e c t i v e s to b e rea ch ed each s e m e s te r , and by t h e u n d e r ly in g d e m o c r a tic p r i n c i p l e s w h ich su p p o rt e d u c a tio n a l e f f o r t s

18 in our c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .

P u b lic o p in io n e n t e r s in t o t h i s ty n e

o f c o n t r o l in e s t a b l i s h i n g m ethods f o r a c h ie v in g th e e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c ­ tiv e s .

T h is f u n c t io n o f c o n t r o l i s l a r g e l y im p erso n a l and g u id e s th o s e

e x e r c is in g a u t h o r it y a s o u t lin e d in th e p r e c e d in g p a r a g r a p h . a t h ir d f u n c t io n o f c o n t r o l has to do w ith s e t t i n g f o r t h w&ys and means o f a c h ie v in g o b j e c t i v e s ,

T h is f u n c t io n o f c o n t r o l g e n e r a lly

f o ll o w s th e p a t t e r n o f moat o f our la w 3 in th a t I t s e t s f o r t h th e m eth­ o d s and p r o c e d u r e s to he f o llo w e d , r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etw een in d iv i d u a l s and groups and p r e s c r ib e s u s u a l tim e l i m i t s i n a c h ie v in g in te r m e d ia te and u lt im a t e o b j e c t i v e s .

T h is c o n c ep t o f c o n t r o l a lm o st in v a r ia b ly

c a r r i e s w ith i t p e n a lt y c la u s e s i f i t s p r o v is io n s a r e to h e fo llo w e d and h e p r a c t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e . The l a s t ite m in th e above p a ra g ra p h , th a t i s th e p e n a lt y f u n c t io n o f c o n t r o l , i t s e l f may be a m ajor fu n c t io n o f c o n t r o l .

Most u n i v e r s i t y

s tu d e n ts a r e sp u rred on tow ard a c h ie v in g t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s , u s u a ll y le a d in g to a d e g r e e , by t h e i r n a tu r a l d e s i r e to b e n e f i t from th e a d v a n ta g e s o f e d u c a tio n .

In t h i s th ey a r e s u s t a in e d by t h e i r am­

b i t i o n and I n s p ir e d by t h e i r f a c u lt y a d v is o r s and c la ssr o o m p r o f e s s o r s . U n f o r t u n a t e ly , many a r e e q u a lly m o tiv a te d by t h e i r fe a r o f f a i l u r e and d i s ­ m is s a l from th e u n i v e r s i t y . C o n tro l w hich h as a s i t s s o l e o b j e c t i v e th e d e v is in g o f sy ste m s o f d is c ip lin e

i s r a r e in c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .

A d m itte d ly , in a

s e n s e , a l l i n s t r u c t i o n ana e d u c a tio n i s d i s c i p l i n a r y in p a r t , i n th a t it

te a c h e s m en tal c o n t r o l and b o th m en ta l and p h y s ic a l d i s c i p l i n a r y

e ffic ie n c y .

However, e d u c a tio n c o n t r o ls th rou gh i n s p i r a t i o n and en­

couragem ent r a th e r th an th rou gh c o e r c io n and f e a r .

19 Two d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f c o n t r o l a r e im p lie d by th e e x p r e s s io n s , p a t e r n a l c o n t r o l and s o c i a l c o n t r o l , th e f i r s t b e in g t y p i f i e d by th e a t t i t u d e o f th e f a t h e r to th e young c h i l d o r th e d i c t a t o r to th e s l a v e . S o c ia l c o n t r o l im p lie s th e v o lu n ta r y and c o n s id e r e d a ssig n m e n t o f c o n t r o l t o a g i f t e d o r e f f i c i e n t le a d e r .

T h is secon d ty p e o f c o n t r o l

i s t y p i f i e d in our d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y by th e f r e e e l e c t i o n o f ou r p o l i t i c a l le a d e r s and in a s e n s e by th e v o lu n ta r y su b m issio n on th e p a r t o f th e s tu d e n ts o f our u n i v e r s i t i e s to some o f th e a r b it r a r y r u l e s and r e g u la t io n s g o v e rn in g th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s .

In a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t

s e n s e p a t e r n a l c o n t r o l i s t y p i c a l o f th e s tr o n g le a d e r , w h ereas s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s u s u a l l y d e m o c r a tic c o n t r o l a s e x p r e s s e d by p u b lic o p in io n o r th rou gh th e f r e e e l e c t o r a t e . In o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n , p a t e r n a l c o n t r o l prob­ a b ly was t y p i c a l o f th e e a r ly c o l l e g e s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

T h is

d o m in e er in g and i n t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e was th e a c c e p te d p a t t e r n w e l l th rou gh th e c o l o n i a l p e r io d and s t i l l p e r s i s t s in some o f our church i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n .

The s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f ou r c o l l e g e s

g e n e r a lly commenced i t s ascen d a n cy w ith th e e a r ly c o n c e p tio n s o f f r e e ­ dom o f th e tim e s o f th e R e v o lu tio n a r y War.

However, s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f

c o l l e g e s i n g e n e r a l la g g e d f a r b e h in d s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n p o l i t i c a l i n ­ s t i t u t i o n s , i n r e l i g i o n and i n econom ic p r a c t i c e s , p r o b a b ly b e c a u s e o f th e p r e -o c c u p a tio n o f th e u n i v e r s i t i e s w ith h is t o r y and h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t and t r a d i t i o n .

O b v io u sly t h i s tr e n d away from p a t e r n a l con­

t r o l o f our c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s tow ard s o c i a l c o n t r o l would n o t

2 I b id , p p . 1 ^ -1 9 .

20 p r o c e e d everyw h ere a t th e same p a c e .

Some o f our l a r g e s t c o l l e g e s o f

th e e a r ly c o l o n i a l d a y s en cou raged freedom o f s e l f - d e t e r m in a t i o n . However* th e tr e n d toward l i b e r a l i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n th e sm a lle r c o l l e g e s ap p eared to l a g n o t ic e a b ly b e h in d s o c i a l advancem ent i n o th e r a c tiv itie s C o n tro l th en v i s u a l i s e s fo u r ta s k s :

th e e x e r c i s i n g o f a u t h o r it y ,

s e t t i n g up o f an o b j e c t i v e , p r e s c r ib in g s ta n d a r d s , and in f lu e n c in g d is c ip lin e .

The tr e n d from p a t e r n a l i s t i c c o n t r o l tow ard a d e m o c r a tic

or s o c i a l c o n t r o l was f a c i l i t a t e d

i n o u r c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s

l a r g e l y by a m b itio n , by s e e k in g in c r e a s e d in d iv id u a l o p p o r t u n it ie s , by th e in c e n t i v e tow ard s o c i a l advancem ent and by th e d e s i r e to a c h ie v e p e r s o n a l w e a lt h , power and le a d e r s h i p .

S o c ia l c o n t r o l h a s a lw a y s b een

a t t r a c t i v e in th a t i t ap p ears to o f f e r g r e a t e r o p p o r tu n ity f o r i n d i v i d ­ u a l advancem ent and a l e s s e n i n g o f th e r e s t r a i n t o f d i s c i p l i n e .

It is

o n ly in r e c e n t tim e s th a t we f in d th e p r o c e s s e s o f a pseu d o ty p e o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l le a d in g to d i s a s t e r s and c h a o s more d e v a s t a t in g than th o s e w rought by our m ost o p p r e s s iv e t y r a n t s and d i c t a t o r s o f h i s t o r y . The c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c e s o f th e S o v ie t U nion p r o f e s s to b e f o llo w i n g a l l o f th e p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l, y e t have a c h ie v e d t e r r o r and p r i ­ v a t io n w it h in t h e i r own b o u n d a r ie s beyond a n y th in g i n rec o r d e d h i s t o r y . They have u t i l i z e d th e fram e-w ork o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l to e s t a b l i s h & d e s p o t ic b u r e a u c r a c y .

U

S p e c i f i c exam ples o f th e two ty p e s o f c o n t r o l a r e found in th e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een ou r d e m o c r a tic community and s t a t e su p p o rted s c h o o ls

3 i u i a , pp• 136- 1^7. u iM d , pp. 136- 175-

21 a s compared to some o f our church su p p o rted s c h o o ls .

The s t a t e su p p o rted

s c h o o ls a r e presumed to e x p r e s s th e f r e e o p in io n s o f th e c i t i z e n s o f th e community w h ich th ey s e r v e w h ereas th e r e i s a tren d tow ard p r e s ­ c r ib in g f ix e d c u r r ic u l a and c l o s e l y c o n t r o lle d l i n e s o f co n d u ct and even th ou gh t in some o f our church c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

fh e f a c t

t h a t m ost o f th e ch u rch c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e a b e n ig n in f lu e n c e and g e n e r a ll y f o llo w d e m o c r a tic p r i n c i p l e s s t i l l l e a v e s th e d i s t i n c t i o n b u t w ith o u t much p r a c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e . 5 C o n tro l h a s o th e r c o n n o t a tio n s such a s th e c o n t r o l or command e x e r c is e d by th e m i l i t a r y le a d e r w hich i s u s u a ll y t o l e r a t e d b e c a u se o f th e u rg en cy o f th e b u s in e s s a t hand.

C o n tro l how ever, s a y be e q u a lly

e f f e c t i v e i f i t p a r ta k e s o f th e n a tu r e o f s u p e r v is io n w ith s u g g e s t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n and c o o r d in a tio n le a d in g t o s p e c i f i c e le m e n ts o f c o n tr o l A s t i l l m ild e r form o f c o n t r o l i s im p lie d i n th e su b m iss io n to a u t h o r it y o r conform ance to s o c i a l cu stom , w ays, and t r a d i t i o n , such a s i s th e commonly a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e a t m ost o f our c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . W hatever th e v ie w - p o in t , h ow ever, c o n t r o l i n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n has some background o f th e pow er to e x a c t o r r e q u ir e p erform ­ a n c e or c o n f o r m it y .? In a more c o m p lic a te d en d ea v o r, c o n t r o l im p lie s a scheme o f p o s i t i o n s w ith th e d e s ig n a t io n o f le a d e r s and th o s e who f o ll o w .

Such

a v ie w -p o in t o f c o n t r o l i s o b v io u s ly f l e x i b l e and dynamic r a th e r than s t a t i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s o c i a l dem ocracy,

th e th e o r y o f d e s ig n a te d

5 I b id , p p . 1 m 4 1 9 0 .

6 A lv in Brown, O r g a n is a tio n (le w York; p p . 103 - 1 1 1 . 1 Ib id , pp. llU -1 1 5 .

H ib b ert P r in t in g C o ., 19^5)

22 p o s i t i o n s i s u s u a ll y a p p lic a b le to th e s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l a t our c o l ­ l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , b u t p e r s i s t more th rou gh h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n than b e c a u s e o f th e fo r c e o f p u b lic o p in io n a s a p p lie d to our p o l i t i c a l and econom ic c o n t r o l p r o c e s s e s . 8 C on trol can be q u a n t it a t i v e a s w e ll a s q u a l i t a t i v e .

The in t e g r a t i o n

o f many o f our econ om ic, s o c i a l and e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have c r e a te d a demand f o r s o r e c o n t r o l and more e f f e c t i v e o r s k i l l f u l c o n t r o l .

The

c o n t r o l o f sm a ll c o l l e g e s w ith a few hundred s tu d e n ts i s o b v io u s ly a much s im p le r m a tter th an th e c o n t r o l o f some o f our g ia n t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n such a s th e U n iv e r s it y o f C a li f o r n i a w ith i t s f o r t y th ousand s t u d e n t s d i s t r i b u t e d g e o g r a p h ic a lly o v er th o u sa n d s o f sq u are m i l e s .

Complex c o n t r o l or c o n t r o l o f com plex i n s t i t u t i o n s te n d s

t o show l e s s and l e s s th e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l e x c e p t p erh a p s in h ig h ly d e c e n t r a liz e d i n s t i t u t i o n s where th e p r i n c i p l e s o f s c c l a l c o n t r o l may be im p lem en ted in r e l a t i v e l y sm a ll g ro u p s on th e v a r io u s

l e v e l s .

9

One o f th e f u n c t io n s o f our i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advan ced e d u c a tio n i s th e stu d y and d evelop m en t o f e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l m eth od s.

The s t r u c t u r e

o f c o n t r o l , th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f c o n t r o l , c o n t r o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and th e e x e r c i s e o f c o n t r o l and a u t h o r it y become m a tte r s o f grow ing impor­ ta n c e and c o n c er n to our c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a s th e y in c r e a s e in s i z e and acad em ic s t a t u r e .

T hese c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r c o u r s e s

in c o n t r o l , p r i n c i p l e s and te c h n iq u e s to p r o s p e c t iv e le a d e r s i n s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and econom ic f i e l d s , y e t many o f them n e g l e c t to e v a lu a te and im prove t h e i r own in t e r n a l c o n t r o l p r i n c i p l e s and s y s te m s . 10

8 C h ester I . B arn ard , O r g a n iz a tio n and Management (Cam bridge: H arvard U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1 9 ^ 9 )"pp• 39-5 0 * 9 I b id , p p . 8 0 -1 1 0 .

10 ii ii * PP- 19^-206.

23

l

m m so cial control la not necessarily peaceful control*

1% is seldom the lethargic end oowpl¢ subservience to the Majority vote or the current popular opinion*

Control should fee S j w l e and

progressive i f %% in to fee e ffic ie n t and effective*

*2he negative end

repressive features of control ore secondary la a desweriitlo society* and or® p articu larly unsulted to ©dueationd leadership*

vale Is proto*

ably laare true la our collects and u n iv ersities than elsewhere because in effic ie n t control la economic sad p o litic a l a c tiv itie s changes quickly under the ©pur of competition and the d ra stic v a c illa tio n s of the law® of supply and demand*

la our universities* however* progress la control

la frequently the re s u lt of challenge* of competition* or of adversity* ^ulte frequently u n iv ersities improve la th e ir organisational control because of depression* or rad ically as* problems sad in stru ctio n al loads* or attacks tram spool s i groups or subversive in te re s ts «

Mam u&iversi*

tie s improve th e ir control methods because of pressures from assrby in s titu tio n s or a crowding of In stitu tio n s la the ass* field* 11 la a converse sense* sa e ffo rt to control by harsh re s tric tio n s may promt* re se t leas and constructive discussions* and thereby any achieve the elim ination of any causes fey the Imposition of the objection** able control measures»

For eaea;:pl«» increasing pressure* ere being

exerted to require university.and e c lls fa teachers end s ta ffs to sign loyalty oath* and pledges of various binds* . Sam teacher groups feel th at p o litic a l factions acre seeking to impose spec I d controls over the

^Toynbee* .Arnold ?» '& Study of H latorr i‘n»Q*3mmrre lle i&rl&gm nest}* {Mm York* Oxford University lV©«St lb47) ppu 5YO-6F4*

24

th o u g h ts and " b e lie fs o f u niversity f a c u l t y members and a r e th e r e b y t h r e a t e n in g t h e i r academ ic freedom *

'This t h r e a t t o t h e i r academ ic

freed om h a s awakened and str e n g th e n e d a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y am ongst th e te a c h era f o r t h e p roper © cadenic c o n d u ct o f th e members o f t h e i r

p ro fe s s io n *

F a c u lty member® hay® b een a r o u sed to a k e e n e r a p p r e c ia ­

t i o n o f t h e v©lu® o f th e academ ic freed om s w hich th e y now en jo y *

[email protected]

hay© sou g a t t o e v a lu a t e th e r e p o r t e d t h r e a t s o f an in v a s io n o f commnta** tic

i d e o l o g i e s » and a r e e n d e a v o r in g to rem ove s u b v e r s iv e in d iv id u a ls

from t h e i r ran k s *

th u s th e t h r e a t s of n e g a t iv e and r e s t r i c t i v e

c o n tr o l® h ave s tr e n g th e n e d in f a c u l t y groups s p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r t h e i r own p rop er academ ic condu ct? b oth a s in d i v i d ­ ual® and a s groups* and have g iv e n them © k e e n e r a p p r e c ia t io n o f th e v a lu e o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l academ ic freedom s*

In t h e e n s u e ln g d i s ­

c u s s io n s and t h e r e s u l t a n t c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f th e p r i n c i p l e s in v o lv e d * th e member© o f th e t e a c h in g p r o f e s s io n a r e g a in in g i n unity* strength* and s ta tu r e *

’i‘hey a r e a c h ie v in g a p o s itiv e o r g a n iz a t io n and c o n t r o l

c o n c e p t w hich may r e s u l t in th e e lim in a t io n o f d an gerou s in d iv id u a ls * and w ith them* any n e c e s s i t y fo r th e r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o ls *

ip

^-'e Donald § 3alp h .*** "’h i t or* C urrent tren d s in H igh er E d u c a tio n 1949* C h a r le s v , FioKenzie* * I n t e r p r e t in g ^cadsm ie Freedom" 1(W ashingtons n a t io n a l F idueation A s s o c ia t io n — D epartm ent o f h ig h e r M u e a iia n * 1 0 4 9 ) pp® 1 2 0 » l£ 3 »

2•

OEQ'AUISAT ic h

The fo r e g o in g d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t r o l p r e su p p o s e s some r e c o g n it io n o f o r g a n iz a t io n , o f s c o p e s o f s u p e r v is io n , o f a r e a s o f o r g a n is a t io n , o f

A system o f c o n t r o l r e q u ir e s

d i r e c t i o n , and t h e i r Im p lie d r e s t r i c t i o n s .

an o r g a n iz a t io n a l p la n d e f in in g l i m i t s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o f d u t i e s , and o f h ig h e r , c o o r d in a t e , and s u b o r d in a te s t a t u s .

An o r g a n is a t io n

te n d s to d e f i n e i t s e l f by d e f in in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a r e a s o f c o n t r o l , and by d e s ig n a t in g d e c i s i v e a u t h o r i t i e s among and f o r c o ll e a g u e s i n a p r e s c r ib e d a c t i v i t y o r group o f p r o j e c t s .

O r g a n is a tio n i n i t s f i n a l

a n a l y s i s i s e s t a b lis h e d f o r th e a ch iev em en t o f g o a ls and o b j e c t i v e s , b o th w ith r e l a t i o n t o tim e and w it h r e l a t i o n to e c h e lo n s o f r esp o n ­ s ib ility .

C o n v e n tio n a l o r g a n is a t io n te n d s to d is c u s s e n d l e s s l y th e

r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etw een i t s c o n s t i t u e n t e le m e n ts and th u s becom es vague and im p e r s o n a l.

In o p e r a t io n , I t ta k e s on l i f e and f i r e fro® th e human

b e in g s who man I t s v a r io u s c o n t r o l s t a t i o n s . In a b r o a d e r s e n s e our d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y s t r i v e s to f o s t e r th e

maximum d e g r e e o f freedom f o r th e in d iv id u a l c i t i z e n c o n s i s t e n t w ith th e g e n e r a l w e lf a r e ,

T h is h a s a m eaning f o r e d u c a tio n a l o r g a n iz a t io n .

Ju a t a s th e r e i s no s i n g l e mold in t o w hich c h ild r e n and y o u th sh o u ld b e f i t t e d , *3 go t h e r e i s no f i x e d mold in t o w h ich s c h o o ls , c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n sh o u ld b e f i t t e d .

T h e r e fo r e no s i n g l e

form o f o r g a n iz a t io n i s presum ed t o b e b a s i c f o r a l l e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i ­ tu tio n s .

th e dom inant c h a r a c t e r o f e d u c a tio n a l o r g a n iz a t io n in a

13 H arold B enjam in, The C u lt iv a t io n o f I d io s y n c r a s y (Cambridge; H arvard U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 19^9)

26

dem ocracy In f l e x i b i l i t y , n o t r i g i d i t y .

U n ifo r m ity , th e f e t t i s h o f

t o t a l i t a r i a n ! sib, h as no p la c e i n a dem ocracy, where v a r ia t io n i s th e a c c e p te d p a t t e r n .

lit

FFFSCT OF COKTROL 01 OROAIISAHGI Some 1700 i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n a r e d i s t r i b u t e d o y e r th e le n g t h and th e b r e a d th o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s , a r e v a r io u s ly c o n t r o l l e d , w ere e s t a b l i s h e d a t w id e ly d i f f e r e n t p e r io d s i n th e h i s t o r y o f th e Am erican dem ocracy and s a t i s f y a g r e a t number o f d i f f e r e n t e d u c a tio n a l n eed s.

I t i s o b v io u s th a t t h e i r o r g a n iz a t io n a l p a t t e r n w i l l and sh o u ld

v a r y w id e ly .

th e t o t a l a r e r e c o g n iz e d a s c o lle g e © and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

16f> a r e s e p a r a t e ly m a in ta in e d p r o f e s s io n a l s c h o o ls , lH$ a r e t e a c h e r s 1 c o l l e g e s and normal s c h o o ls and

a r e J u n io r c o l l e g e s .

Ag t o c o n t r o l ,

3 o'*- a r e under th e d i r e c t s u p e r v is io n o f th e S t a t e , 199 o f a c i t y o r d i s ­ t r i c t , Uh.5 o f s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g b o a rd s o f p r iv a t e c o r p o r a t io n s , UgQ o f esore or l e s s P r o t e s t a n t c o n t r o l and 212 a r e c o n t r o lle d by th e Roman C a th o lic Church.

223 i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e m a in ta in e d f o r men o n ly , 275 f o r

women o n ly and 1202 a r e c o e d u c a t io n a l. w h it e , 17 f o r c o lo r e d

52 a r e hand-Ur&nt c o l l e g e s fo r

stu d e n ts.

In g e n e r a l, i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n ten d to be a c a d e m ic a lly autonom ous*

t h e y d e r iv e t h e i r su p p o rt from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s .

may be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s ib le to c i t y , d i s t r i c t ,

They

s t a t e and F e d e r a l c o n t r o l

in l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l q u e s t io n s o r u n u su a l p r o b le m s.

For exam ple,

e x c e p t fo r th e v a r io u s m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s c h o o ls , and i n a v e r y l i m i t e d

,H igh er E d u ca tio n f o r M e r ic an D em ocracy, Volume 1X1, O r g a n iz in g H igh er E d u ca tio n (W ash in gton , D. C.s Government P rin tin g O ffice ,

19^ 7 )» PP-

15 I b i d , p . 2 .

I*

2.

27 s e n s e th e hand-Gr&nt c o l l e g e s , th e r e i s no l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d F e d e r a l system o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

S im ila r ly , excep t

f o r th e p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o ls r e q u ir in g S t a t e l i c e n s e s , su c h a s m e d ic in e , law and t e a c h in g , th e S t a t e s p r e s c r ib e o n ly v e r y g e n e r a l program s o f r e q u ir e m e n ts and a v o id p r e s c r ib in g any f i x e d system o f s u p e r v is io n o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n . W hile th e ab ove d i s c u s s i o n m ight b e c o n s tr u e d a s p o in t in g to a la c k o f o r g a n iz a t io n and o f sy stem i n h ig h e r e d u c a tio n i n th e U n ited S t a t e s , th e r e a r e o th e r a g e n c ie s w h ich c o n s t i t u t e a p o w e r fu l in f lu e n c e tow ard s ta n d a r d iz in g and s y s t e m a t iz in g h ig h e r e d u c a tio n ,

T hese a g e n c ie s

a r e th e v a r io u s e d u c a tio n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and th e a c c r e d i t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , w ith t h e i r v a r io u s p e r i o d i c a l s , c o n fe r e n c e s and p u b lis h e d research p r o je c ts .

The e f f o r t o f t h e s e a g e n c ie s i s toward e s t a b l i s h i n g

minimum s ta n d a r d s , e d u c a tio n a l g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s .

They fa v o r th e

f r e e e x e r c i s e o f i n i t i a t i v e and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n by e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s and i n s t i t u t i o n s under t h e i r own d i r e c t i o n .

F e d e r a l and S t a t e in f lu e n c e

i s a s s e r t e d by su ch le a d e r s h ip o n ly a s i t i s v o l u n t a r i l y r e c o g n iz e d by e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n b e c a u s e o f i t s a c c e p ta n c e o f th e so u n d n ess and p r a c t i ­ c a b i l i t y o f su ch le a d e r s h ip , r a th e r th an by any l e g a l or im p lie d a u t h o r it y T here a r e h ow ever, c e r t a i n b a s ic p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r ly in g th e o r g a n i­ s a t i o n a l p a t t e r n in a l l o f th e s tr o n g e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n . In th e a d m in is t r a t io n o f an A m erican c o l l e g e th e f o llo w in g g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e c o n s id e r e d fu n d a m en ta l i

^

1.

The aim s and o b j e c t i v e s o f ea ch a r e a and a c t i v i t y sh o u ld b e c l e a r l y fo r m u la te d and u n d e r s to o d .

2.

W idespread p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l con cern ed sh o u ld c h a r a c t e r is e p o l i c y m aking.

3.

A u th o r ity and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m ust go hand i n hand.

I b id , p . 3*

28

A d m in is tr a tio n im p lie s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r le a d e r s h ip and c o o r d in a t io n , r a th e r th an th e g i v i n g o f o r d e rs*

5.

T here sh o u ld b e a c o n tin u in g program f o r th e d evelop m en t o f c a p a c it y and u n d e r sta n d in g by f a c u l t y and s tu d e n ts fo r th e a ssu m p tio n o f e v e r in c r e a s in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

6.

P r o g r e s s and change sh o u ld b e e v o lu t io n a r y r a th e r th an r e v o lu t io n a r y .

7.

T ru ly d e m o c r a tic p r i n c i p l e s and p r o c e d u r e s sh o u ld c h a r a c t e r is e a l l p h a se s o f c o l l e g e a d m in is t r a t io n .

I t w i l l b e found th a t th e s e p r i n c i p l e s a p p ly e q u a lly w e ll to a l l a r e a s o f c o l l e g e a d m in is t r a t io n and o r g a n i s a t i o n . I t i s b e lie v e d t h a t t h e i r a p p li c a t io n w i l l r e s u l t in a more e f f e c t ­ i v e pro grain o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n in any in stitu tio n . * I t i s th u s s e e n th a t o r g a n is a t io n may b e more th an an im p erso n a l d e v ic e u t i l i s e d by th e le a d e r or c h i e f t o d e f i n e and p r e s c r ib e th e d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o b j e c t i v e s o f h i s su b o r d in a te m anagers or e x e c u t iv e s o v e r who® he e x e r c i s e s im m ediate and p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l .

Or­

g a n i s a t i o n when e x p r e s s e d In term s o f p r i n c i p l e s and o b j e c tiv e © te n d s to u n i t e a l l l e v e l s in a c h ie v in g a common g o a l and i s q u it e d i f f e r e n t from th e o r g a n is a t io n a l c h a r t w hich set© up th e c h i e f , r e q u ir e s r e s u l t s from h i s s u b o r d in a t e s , and i s i n t o l e r a n t o r i n d i f f e r e n t a s to m ethods em ployed by th o s e s u b o r d in a te s in d e a lin g i n tu r n w ith t h e i r own sub­ o r d in a t e g r o u p s . O r g a n is a tio n can im p ly d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n fro® th e to p down th rou gh v a r io u s l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and d i r e c t i o n u n t i l e v e n t u a lly th e a c t u a l w orker o r d oer stand© on th e sp o t and must d e l i v e r .

The c l a s s i c

T? Enoch C. b y r a e s a , wE d u c a tio n a l O r g a n is a tio n and A d m in istr a tio n * 1. C urrent trend© i n H igh er E d u c a tio n 19 ^ 9 . F a r t £ , B a s ic P r i n c i p l e s , C hapter 23 (W a sh in g to n , D. C .j D epartm ent o f H igh er E d u c a tio n , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n ofth © U. S . , 19^9) » P* lf>2.

m example As heat d escrib ed by th e weXlknown expression® *paaeing th e buek,! •

ih e converse o f t h is concept la d eeen traliaatlO fs o f responai**

b i l l t y w ith th e n ecessary au th ority# but w ith a l l e l assents o f th e prgan iaat i m . imbued w ith a. s e n s e . o f ..duty and a . s p i r i t o f m utual, coopera­ tio n *

Such o rg a n iza tio n req u ire s a minimum o f ch a rts but d ees

© ita te w e ll understood o b je c tiv e s and p r in c ip le s o f operation*

Thus*

e ffe c tiv e GrganiRatibn and adalnlatretion. fo r In stitu tio n s of h i^ ier learning can be achieved .by a«

adopting;a sound arganlsational p lan ' '

b#

e a ta b lis b ia g @sod a&islnia tr a t iv© procedure*



a s s e s a b lin s e b n p e te a t p e r s o n n e l who a r e i n

accord with th e broad o b ject i r e s and p o l i c i e s o f . t h e in s t it u t io n d*

developing: through e f f e c t i v e lea d ersh ip a lo y a l and co o p era tiv e s t a f f th at works fo r th e b e st in t e r e s t s o f the in s t it u t io n



p r o v id in g ib r p e r i o d ic a p p r a is a l o f b o th pdans and p r o c e d u r e s # ^

lu at as in stitu tio n s of higher education have had th eir growing pains > so iso&em business has had d if f ic u lt ie s in adjusting i t s e l f to conditions imposed by modern technological developments# . Business and industry hare expanded in sin e and Into geographical areas to an extent as to require d etailed stu d ies of the p rin cip les o f organisation and reorganisation^

‘Ihcy have sought the application o f those organisational

structures and p rin cip les best suited to sp e c ific adm inistrative func­ tio n s » teSks and geographical dispositions* because o f the highly cos** petitiv© nature of business and the ijasaedlaie and d irect evaluation o f ■ '" ■!■ — » ■ — «».»

*

■ «■ ».«m n.— I

^Herbert C# Xfatthewc# *'Muoaticmal Organisation and hdjainistration*# _ jfeflste Ui H j^ er Jducatioii 1M?* fa r t IX# P ractices and trends# (Waa^ingtoa; datlonal Pduoatfonhaeoc ia t i on o f th e U#3#» 1949)* p* 15B.

30 i t s o r g a n is a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e and. o p e r a tio n b s p o r tr a y e d "by p r o f i t and lo s s sh e ets. f le x ib le *

In th e m ain , b u s in e s s h a s b een a b le to s e l e c t and m a in ta in

e f f i c i e n t , and u p - t o - d a t e sy ste m s o f o r g a n is a t io n fo r th e

o p e r a tio n and c o n t r o l o f i t s i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s ,

th o se e n te r p r is e s

w h ich h ave n o t a v a i l e d th e m s e lv e s o f modern o r g a n is a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s ten d ed to b e d i s i n t e g r a t e d o r l i q u i d a t e d .

I t may b e s a f e l y s a id th a t

th e o r g a n is a t io n a l p r a c t i c e s employed by s u c c e s s f u l b u s in e s s e n t e r p r i s e s have b een d e v e lo p e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . On th e o th e r han d, i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n have n o t f e l t t o th e same d e g r e e th e im m ediate p r e s s u r e o f c o m p e titio n nor th e spur o f p r o f i t and l o s s .

Through i n e r t i a , or p r e o c c u p a tio n w ith t h e i r ex ­

p a n sio n p r o b le m s, th ey have p e r m itte d o b s o l e t e sy ste m s o f o r g a n is a t io n t o endure beyond t h e i r j u s t i f i a b l e and u s e f u l l i f e

sp a n s , even though

th e y ©ay have r e a l i s e d t h a t e f f i c i e n c y o f o p e r a tio n and c l a r i t y o f e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s r e q u ir e ch a n g es i n o r g a n is a t io n to m eet th e c h a n g in g c o n d it io n s .

P erh ap s e x p a n sio n s and ch a n g es to m eet r a p id ly

v a r y in g lo a d s and o b j e c t i v e s have a lw a y s b een a c o n s ta n t so u r c e o f concern.

In t h e i r own c la s s r o o m s , th e u n i v e r s i t i e s have ta u g h t th a t

a s i n s t i t u t i o n s grow , modern p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n is a t io n r e q u ir e ch a n g es in such ite m s a s sp an s o f c o n t r o l , d e l e g a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f e x e c u t iv e a u t h o r i t y , and p la n n in g f o r fu tu r e m is s io n s and s tu d e n t lo a d s . tlS IS T A IC l TO BIOROMXEAfiOf AM) TO CHA1GB However, u n i v e r s i t i e s ten d to a c t s lo w ly and to ch an ge c a u t i o u s l y . T r a d it io n , a g e , e r tia .

s i s e , and v e n e r a tio n f o r p r e c e d e n t, en cou rage t h i s in ­

In s -o ite o f th e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f s e r v i c e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r

e d u c a tio n , any lo n g ran ge p la n n in g a s was u n d e r ta k e n , h a s d em o n stra ted

31 little

im m ed iate or a p p a ren t e f f e c t tow ard r e o r g a n iz a t io n » w hether

a d m in is t r a t iv e ly or e d u c a t io n a lly , to a n t i c i p a t e th e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e s tu d e n t lo a d s , to adap t c u r r ic u l a to p o s t war c o n d it io n s and th e f u tu r e r e q u ir e m e n ts o f in d u s tr y and f in a n c e , n ot to m en tio n th e te a c h in g p r o ­ fe s s io n .

Thus a c o l l e g e o f a g r ic u lt u r e may have changed in f a c t in t o

a u n i v e r s i t y , b u t h e s i t a t e s to change i t s name or t i t l e and o r g a n iz a t io n u n t i l lo n g a f t e r th e change in e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s and c o u r s e s has b een f ir m ly e s t a b l i s h e d .

S im ila r ly , a u n i v e r s i t y may have become a group

o f u n i v e r s i t i e s w ith program s s u i t a b l e to an i n s t i t u t e o f te c h n o lo g y o r to a group o f t h e v a r io u s p r o f e s s i o n s w ith c o u r s e s in g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n in s u p p o r t, y e t c o n tin u e s to f u n c t io n a d m in is t r a t i v e ly and e d u c a t io n a lly a s a sm e ll c o l l e g e . f h i s r e lu c t a n c e to d e c la r e i t s changed m is s io n and e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e , c a u s e s th e u n i v e r s i t y to c o n fu se i t s s tu d e n ts and th o s e s e e k ­ in g in fo r m a tio n abou t th e i n s t i t u t i o n .

I t i s m is le a d in g to th e p u b lic

on whom th e i n s t i t u t i o n depend s fo r i t s e d u c a tio n a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t. A l l to o f r e q u e n t ly i t l e a v e s i t s own f a c u l t y members w ith o u t a tr u e a p p r e c ia t io n o f th e e d u c a tio n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o b j e c t iv e ® , and th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w it h in th e i n s t i t u t i o n . P la n n in g and f o r e c a s t i n g tend to d e v e lo p d e s i r a b le ch a n g es and to f o r e s e e th e i n e v i t a b l e c o n se q u e n c e s o f th e a fte r m a th o f World War IX and th e c o n tin u e d Gold d&r.

When su ch lo n g ra n g e p la n n in g i s u n d ertak en

w e l l in a d v a n ce , n e c e s s a r y ch a n g es can b e im plem ented a t th e tim e when th e y a r e m ost e f f e c t i v e and w i l l do th e m ost g o o d .

Such p la n n in g and

t e s t i n g i n i t i a l l y im plem ented on a em ail s c a l e , f a c i l i t a t e r e o r g a n iz a t io n and th e e x a c t tim in g f o r su ch r e o r g a n iz a t io n ,

fh e y p e r m it th e e x a c t

o r g a n iz a t io n to become e f f e c t i v e a t th e tim e i t w i l l b e m ost u s e f u l and e ffic ie n t.

Ih e y p e r m it su ch p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s a s th e naming o f e d u c a tio n a l

32 d e p a r tm en ts by f i e l d s o f s t u d y and d e g r e e s g r a n te d ,

fh e y f a c i l i t a t e

e a r ly o r i e n t a t i o n o f s tu d e n ts and th e p la n n in g o f t h e i r c o u r s e s ,

fh e y

a s s i s t s tu d e n ts In a d j u s t in g t h e i r p la n s as th e y p r o g r e s s th rou gh th e c o u r s e s and g u id e them to s p e c i f i c employment a f t e r g r a d u a tio n . The r e a l i s t i c d e s ig n a t io n o f e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s w ith app ro­ p r i a t e a d m in is t r a t iv e and f a c u lt y o r g a n iz a t io n prom ote a b e t t e r un der­ s ta n d in g b etw een f a c u l t y d e p a r tm e n ts, a c l e a r e r a p p r e c ia t io n o f g u id a n c e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s , and an a d ju stm en t by th e a d m in is­ t r a t i v e s t a f f to m eet th e s e ch a n g in g e d u c a tio n a l g o a l s .

Above a l l ,

th e s e

p e r io d ic r e o r g a n iz a t io n s , w ith t h e i r a tt e n d a n t p u b l i c i t y , g u id e th e newer s tu d e n ts and th e s t a f f and f a c u l t y in a b e t t e r a p p r e c ia t io n o f t h e i r m is s io n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Modern s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n iz a t io n s w i l l becom e even more c o m p e t it iv e th an th ey a r e now.

fh e y w i l l demand more e x a c t and s p e c i f i c

e d u c a tio n and e x p e r ie n c e from t h e i r le a d e r s and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s .

In­

s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n w i l l be b e t t e r a b le to t r a in th e s e l e a d e r s if

th ey a d j u s t t h e i r c u r r ic u l a and c o u r s e s and m ethods o f e d u c a tio n and

t h e i r announced o b j e c t i v e s to th e fu tu r e n eed s o f s o c i e t y r a th e r th an p r e s e n t or p a s t n e e d s .

T h is c o n s ta n t a d ju stm en t in th e o r g a n iz a t io n o f

our u n i v e r s i t i e s w i l l b e more e f f e c t i v e i t i f p r o c e e d s and le a d s in t h e s e s o c i a l tr e n d s r a th e r than f o l l o w s e v e n t u a lly and r e l u c t a n t l y . The c u r r e n t o v e r lo a d in g o f u n i v e r s i t y f a c i l i t i e s , due la r g e l y to th e e d u c a tio n a l gap opened d u rin g th e r e c e n t War and th e su b seq u en t hump o f v e t e r a n s a f t e r th e War have r e ta r d e d p la n n in g b e c a u s e o f th e a b se n c e o f university p la n n e r s in m i l i t a r y s e r v ic e d u r in g th e War, and b e c a u s e o f th e p r e s e n t o v e r lo a d in g o l th e s t a f f and f a c u l t y o f th e u n iv e r s itie s ,

a t th e aaae tim e , th e p r e s e n t o v e r lo a d in g has f o r c e d ,

33 a t th e demand o f th e more m ature s t u d e n t s , th e in t r o d u c t io n o f more p r a c t i c a l and r e a l i s t i c c o u r s e s .

Many u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , f in d

th e m s e lv e s p rovid in g: la r g e program s o f e d u c a tio n more a p p lic a b le to o th e r ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s such a s i n s t i t u t e s o f te c h n o lo g y o r p ro ­ fe s s io n a l s c h o o ls .

Y et th ey c o n tin u e to f u n c t io n a d m in i s t r a t i v e l y and

o r g a n i s a t i o n a l l y a s sm a ll u n i v e r s i t i e s o r even c o l l e g e s .

They may have

b e e n fo r c e d or p ersu ad ed to e s t a b l i s h a l l o f th e c o u r s e s and f a c i l i t i e s u s u a l l y found in la r g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s o r s p e c i a l i s e d i n s t i t u t i o n s b u t h ave n o t r e o r g a n is e d to m eet th e changed s i t u a t i o n .

Some have n o t ad­

m it t e d to th e m s e lv e s t h e i r changed o b j e c t i v e s , a s shown by t h e ir f a i l u r e to adop t such e a s y c h a n g e s a s more a p p lic a b le c u r r ic u l a , th e more e x a c t d e s c r i p t i o n and naming o f c o u r s e s and a r e - e v a lu a t io n o f th e d e g r e e s g r a n te d . K e o r g a n ir a tio n way be r e l a t i v e l y s im p le .

I t may r e q u ir e o n ly th e

r e - a r r a n g in g o f e x i s t i n g p e r s o n n e l and f a c i l i t i e s .

D uring th e p a s t fo u r

y e a r s , u n i v e r s i t i e s have d r i f t e d in t o a h ig h ly f l e x i b l e b u t m a k e -sfc ift o r g a n is a t io n ,

T h e ir a d m in is t r a t iv e a g e n c ie s have a b so rb ed f u n c t io n a f t e r

f u n c t io n a s n e c e s s i t a t e d by r a p id grow th and more p r a c t i c a l c a n a lis e d e d u c a tio n .

The im pact o f t h e s e f a c t o r s o f change have broken th e sis e l l

o f t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n is a t io n and have prom oted a f l e x i b l e b u t im p r o v ise d o r g a n is a t io n and p ro ced u re o u t s id e th e e x p e r ie n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y t r a in e d e d u c a to r s and a d m in is t r a t o r s . In m ost in s t a n c e s fo rm a l r e o r g a n is a t io n , p lan ned and t e s t e d , d u ly announced and e x p la in e d , w ould r e q u ir e l i t t l e

a c t u a l change in th e number

and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f p e r s o n n e l, th e s i te o f th e campus and p l a n t , and in th e r o u t in e o p e r a tin g p r o c e d u r e s .

Such d e l i b e r a t e and form al r e o r ­

g a n iz a t io n w ou ld , how ever, c l a r i f y enorm ously in th e m inds o f th e s tu d e n ts

3* and th o f a c u l t y th e sp h e r e s o f f a c u l t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , th e a c t u a l edu­ c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f th e v a r io u s c o u r s e s and th e p o s i t i o n s to be f i l l e d from th e c o u r s e s by th e s tu d e n ts a f t e r g r a d u a t io n .

On th e lo w e s t l e v e l ,

th e r e q u ir e d c o u r s e s a r e a lm o s t a lw a y s e s t a b l i s h e d and s t a f f e d i n th e p r o p o r tio n s r e q u ir e d by s tu d e n t n eed s a s e v id e n c e d by t h e i r e n r o llm e n ts . The s h i f t i n g and r e -a s s ig n m e n t o f s u b j e c t s , c o u r s e s and d ep a rtm en ts a r e e q u a lly f e a s i b l e . In r e c e n t year® o r g a n iz a t io n h a s r e c e iv e d c a r e f u l stu d y on a l l l e v e l s and f o r a l l ty p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s .

The two f i e l d s where stu d y o f

o r g a n is a t io n h a s had p a r t i c u l a r em ph asis i s in th e a r e a s o f p u b lic ad ­ m i n is t r a t io n and b u s in e s s a d m in is tr a tio n *

As in d ic a t e d p r e v io u s l y , th e

s i z e and g e o g r a p h ic a l e x t e n t o f th e o p e r a tin g a g e n c ie s i n t h e s e two f i e l d s h&g made i t im p e r a tiv e th a t e v e r y e f f o r t b e e x e r te d to f u n c t io n i n a c c o r d a n c e w ith b e s t p r a c t i c e s .

An e f f o r t i s b e in g made to e s t a b l i s h

th e s u b j e c t o f o r g a n iz a t io n on th o l e v e l o f an e x a c t s c i e n c e , w ith a d evelop m en t o f t h e n e c e s s a r y s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n in g o r g a n iz a t io n . The f o ll o w i n g i s a q u o ta tio n fro® th e in t r o d u c t io n to C atheryn S eck ler-H u d son * s ^Papers on O r g a n iz a tio n and Management11 o f H h e fo u r p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n iz a tio n * ; 1.

C o -o r d in a tio n by d i r e c t c o n t a c t o f th e r e s p o n s ib le p e o p le c o n c e r n e d .

2.

C o -o r d in a tio n in th e e a r ly s t a g e s .

3.

C o -o r d in a tio n a s a r e c ip r o c a l r e l a t i n g o f a l l th e f e a t u r e s in a s i t u a t i o n .

h.

C o -o r d in a tio n a s a c o n tin u in g p r o c e s s .

The f o ll o w i n g c o r o l l a r i e s , from th e same r e f e r e n c e , ex ten d t h e s e p r in c ip le s ; 1.

S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n a l l a d m in is t r a t io n i s in c r e a s in g and d e e p e n in g .

2.

C o o r d in a tio n o f a l l s p e c i a l i z e d e f f o r t i s

35 im p e r a tiv e i f a d m in is t r a t io n i s e ffe c tiv e .

to b e

3*

S in c e c o o r d in a t io n i s b u t a m ethod, th e r e m ust e x i s t a c e n t r a l p o l i c y o r o b j e c t i v e tow ard w hich s p e c i a l i s a t i o n and c o o r d in a tio n can b e d i r e c t e d .

h.

A l l a s p e c t s o f a d m in is t r a t io n ta k e p la c e i n , and must resp o n d t o , a dynam ic s o c i a l s e t t i n g . S h is dynam ic g e t t i n g i s one o f th e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d m in is t r a t io n — i n t e n s i f i e d b y (1 ) modern t e c h n o lo g i c a l a d v a n c e s , (2 ) w ar, (3 ) econom ic tu r b u le n c e , (U) p o l i t i c s , ( 9 ) p u b lic o p in io n , and (6 ) human p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Hence a d m in is t r a t io n ca n n o t o p e r a te i n a vacuum. *Xt m ust o p e r a te i n te r m s o f i t s c u l t u r a l s e ttin g l^ -9

L im it a t io n s on th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n is a t io n a r e i n d ic a t e d by th e fo llo w in g s 1.

The p r i n c i p l e s may b e a p p l ic a b le to th© g r e a t m a jo r ity o f c a s e s , b u t n o t t o a l l , and t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s have n o t b een c l e a r l y d e te r m in e d .

2.

T here i s a la c k o f agreem en t on th© m eaning o f th© words u se d in e x p r e s s in g th e p r i n c i p l e s , w hich le a d s to c o n fu s io n i n th o u g h t ab ou t the® and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n .

3-

T here a r e f a c t o r s n o t y e t c o v er e d by g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h ich a r e o f t e n o f more im p o rta n ce th an th o s e a lr e a d y c o v e r e d .

h.

In an in d iv id u a l c a s e v a r io u s p r i n c i p l e s m ust o f t e n b e b a la n c e d a g a i n s t one a n o th e r , and i t may b e th a t t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e w h ich w i l l i n d i c a t e where th e b a la n c e sh ou ld l i e

The f o ll o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n is a t io n a r e u s e f u l when e s t a b ­ l i s h i n g a new a c t i v i t y o r when a n a ly s in g and r e - o r g a n is in g an o ld ones 1.

&oal© or o b j e c t i v e s sh o u ld be c l e a r l y d e f in e d , u n d e r s to o d , a c c e p te d and c o n s id e r e d w o r th w h ile .

^9 C atheryn S e c k le r -tto d to n , M i t o r o f P a p er s on O r g a n is a tio n and Management (W ash in gton , D. C. s The A m erican U n iv e r s it y S c h o o l o f S o c ia l S c ie n c e s and P u b lic A f f a i r s , 1 9 ^ 6 ), p p . 5 And 6 . ^ I b id , Henry ®. H l l e e , “P r i n c i p l e s or F a c to r s in O r g a n is a tio n 1*, p p . $ and 3 .

36 2.

B e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a t t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s sh o u ld b e a l l o c a t e d w ith a minimum o f o v e r la p p in g and c r o s s -r e la tio n s h ip s .

3*

Be spo n a lb i 1 i t y sh o u ld he e x p l i c i t l y d e le g a te d * . c l e a r l y d e fin e d and p o in t s o f d e c i s i o n e a s i l y d e te r m in e d .

k.

D e c is io n s or t h e i r s o l u t i o n s o f problem s sh o u ld h e made a t low l e v e l s c o n s i s t e n t w ith f u l l c o o r d in a t io n , th a t 1®, a® c l o s e to th e p o in t o f a c t io n a s p o s s i b l e .

5.

An o f f i c e r o r s e n io r s u p e r v is o r sh o u ld have a s m a ll number o f p e r s o n n e l r e p o r t in g to him d ir e c t ly * u s u a ll y n o t o v e r f i v e , but som etim es m ore.

6.

An in c r e a s e i n th e sis® o f th© o r g a n is a t io n or in th© c o m p le x ity o f i t s p u r p o se s bring® more th an p r o p o r tio n a te in c r e a se ® in ; (a ) s p e c i a l i s a t i o n and s u b d iv is io n ; (b ) o r g a n is a t io n a l problem® o f human r e la tio n s h ip s ; (c ) th e im p o rta n ce o f c o o r d in a t io n .

7.

G en eral i s t s a r e a t l e a s t a s im p o rta n t a s s p e c ia lis t® .

S.

M orale i s more im p o rta n t th an s t r u c t u r e , o r th e in fo r m a l o r g a n iz a t io n i s more im p o rta n t th an th e form al o r g a n is a t io n .

9.

F a ir m easu res o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s a r e a lm o st su r e t o in c r e a s e e f f e c t i v e n e s s .

10.

Prompt h a n d lin g o f worlc and low c o a t g e n e r a l l y go t o g e t h e r . 21

In th e l a s t tw en ty y e a r s o r g a n iz a t io n h a s g iv e n i n c r e a s in g a t t e n t i o n t o " m u ltip le managem ent*,

t h e eoam only a c c e p t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e

name i s "management by many".

In i t s p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t io n , m u lt ip le

management i s management by s u g g e s t io n , in fo r m a tio n , recom m endation

^

2hi.dl, p p . 10 - 1 9 -

37 and a d v ic e from th© scene© o f a c t i o n .

M u lt ip le management makes

recom m endations from th e f i e l d fo r th e c o n s id e r a t io n o f h ig h e r l e v e l s h u t in i t s e l f d o e s n o t im plem ent i t s recom m endations u n t i l c o n fir m in g i n s t r u c t i o n s o r a p p ro v a l h as h een had from th e upper l e v e l s o f c o n t r o l . M u ltip le management i s h u t one p h a se o f o r g a n is a tio n -, th© in f o r m a tio n a l p h a se from th© f i e l d t o th e c o n t r o l l i n g p la n n e r s and d i r e c t o r s .

op

O r g a n is a tio n from a p r a c t i c a l v ie w - p o in t em bodies a v a r ie t y o f con­ c en ts.

In s m a lle r o r g a n is a t io n s , th© em ph asis i s on th e in d iv id u a l

and in d iv id u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

As th e number o f p e r s o n s in v o lv e d in ­

c r e a s e s , th e r e i s a grow in g ten d en cy to em p h a sise c o o p e r a tio n and th© c o o p e r a t iv e s y s te m s .

W ith s t i l l f u r t h e r in c r e a s e s in th e number o f

p e r s o n s engaged in a s i n g l e a c t i v i t y , form al o r g a n is a t io n s a r e e s t a b ­ l i s h e d , u s u a l l y in e la b o r a t e c h a r t s , w ith f u n c t io n s and job d e s c r i p t i o n s s u p p o r tin g such c h a r t s .

W ith s t i l l f u r t h e r g ro w th , su ch a s la r g e na­

t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t io n a l o r g a n iz a t io n s , a com plex fo r a o f o r g a n iz a t io n may b e e s t a b l i s h e d .

With t h i s l a s t t h e r e i s a te n d en cy to e s t a b l i s h

in fo r m a l o r g a n iz a t io n s a t th e top l e v e l s and f o r th© b a s i c le v e l® s i m i l a r l y t o b r e a k down in t o in fo r m a l o r g a n is a t io n s em p h a sizin g in ­ d iv id u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s The fo r e g o in g i s in th e n a tu r e o f a s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t io n a l c o n c e p t o f o r g a n is a t io n .

I t em p h a sises r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f I n d iv id u a ls

and grou p s in a more o r l e s s s t a t i c s i t u a t i o n ,

i t assu m es th a t th©

v a r io u s g ro u p s a r e p e r fo r m in g a s e t group o f d u t ie s o r f u n c t io n s w ith o u t m a t e r ia l change o r a d ju s tm e n t.

I b id , Thomas £.. B e id , “M u ltip le Management and Democracy in B u s in e s s " , p p . IS to ? 2 . 23 C h e ste r I . B arn ard , O r g a n is a tio n and Management, S e le c t e d P a p er s (C am bridge, M a ssa c h u setts? Harvard U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 19 H9 ) , p . 1 3 2 .

38 & seco n d c o n c e p t o f o r g a n is a t io n c ieu ls w ith c h a n g in g f u n c tio n s o r dynamic o p e r a t io n s ,

T h is c o n c e p t emphasises th© im p ortan ce o f

i n s t i l l i n g th© s p i r i t o f “f r e e w i l l * . m a tte r o f I n d iv id u a l i n i t i a t i v e . i n d iv id u a ls and g r o u p * ,

I t s t r e s s e s c o o p e r a t io n a© a

I t d e a ls w ith com m u nications b etw een

f h e dynamic c o n c e p t en d ea v o rs to r e l e g a t e

a u t h o r it y and th e power o f d e c i s i o n , c o n s i s t e n t w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p la c e d on in d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s .

S h i a c o n c e p t s t r i v e s to v i s u a l i s e

some o f th© s t a t i c p r i n c i p l e s o f th e p r e c e d in g ‘' s t r u c t u r a l 1* c o n c e p ts u n d er th© p h r a se “dynam ic e q u ilib r iu m * 1* and i s p erh a p s b e s t e x p r e s s e d by th© p r i n c i p l e a d a p ta tio n to ch a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s .

I t s e e k s to i n s t i l l

a s e n s e o f p r e p a r e d n e ss tor g ro w th , c h a n g e , and th e a b i l i t y to d e a l w it h th e u n u su a l and u n e x p e c t e d .^ Dynamic e q u ilib r iu m a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n c e p t i s p erh a p s b e t t e r u n d e r sto o d i n p r a c t i c e th an d e s c r ib e d , j u s t a s a w h ir lp o o l i s r e a d i l y v i s u a l i z e d b y th o s e who have s e e n o n e , y e t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e , 2 ^ B oth o f th© above c o n c e p ts o f o r g a n iz a t io n , b o th s t r u c t u r a l and dynam ic, im p ly a b a s ic acknow ledgem ent o f th© f o llo w i n g a s b e in g esseru . t i a l to an y o r g a n iz a t io n : a.

W ill to c o lla b o r a t e

b.

W elfare p la n s in p e r s o n n e l r e l a t i o n s

c.

Economic m o tiv e s in p e r so n n e l r e l a t i o n s

d.

The e le m e n ts o f b a r g a in in g i n a l l c o o p e r a t io n .

~k Ibid,

p.

133.

23 Ib id ,

p.

115.

nC

39 A p p lyin g ed ucation*

th e co n cep t o f org& niz& tion to

In stitu tio n s o f

h igh er

there

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e marked v a r i a t i o n

in p a tte rn s w ith resp ect

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of

the in stitu tio n s* .

The t h i r t y - t h r e e L a c d - O r a n t

colleges* stu d en ts

w ith

en rollm ents

o v e r 5 *0 0 0 ,

o f 2 7 * 6 9 2 f a c u l t y members

ra tio

o f o n e f a c u l t y me m b e r t o

ra tio

is

taken

for other

students.

1 3 .6 6 and 1 5 - 1 ^ ,

is

If

to

T his i s

a

the com parative

in s t it u t io n s w ith enrollm ents over

5 *0 0 0 , t h e 3 5 * 7 2 3 f a c u l t y m e m b e r s i n s t r u c t f a c u l t y m e mb e r t o 1 5 . 1 U s t u d e n t s ,

of facu lty

t o 3 7 7 * 7 ^** s t u d e n t s .

13.66

accredited

show a r a t i o

to

7 *1 , 3 6 1

students,

or one

The w e i g h t e d m e a n o f t h e t w o r a t i o s ,

lH .5 .

D e p a r tu r e s from t h i s mean a r e found a t S ou th ern M e th o d is t, w ith a f a c u l t y - s t u d e n t r a t i o o f 2 8 .2 , in th e C a th o lic I n s t it u t io n © w ith a r a t i o o f 23*3*

The s t a t e and c i t y c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w h ich a r e

n o t under land-gr&nt b e n e f i t s show a r a t i o o f f a c u l t y to s tu d e n ts o f I9 .3.

The s o - c a l l e d p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and th o s e p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s

r e c e iv in g some small sh a re o f s t a t e assista n ce show a f a c u lt y - s t u d e n t r a t i o o f 1 0 .9 *

The a v e r a g e o f t h e s e fo u r r a t i o s i s 2 0 .5 5 bu t th©

w e ig h te d mean o f c o u r se i s 1 5 .*+, Of th e t h ir t y - t h r e © Land-O rant c o l l e g e s w ith e n r o llm e n ts o v e r 5 * 0 0 0 , s e v e n te e n o f them o r a p p r o x im a te ly o n e - h a l f , have e n r o llm e n ts u n d er 9 * 0 0 0 , s i x t e e n o f them have e n r o llm e n ts ab ove 9 * 0 0 0 .

Of t h i s

l a t t e r g ro u p , e le v e n have e n r o llm e n ts b etw een 9*000 and 1 3 *0 0 0 , th© f i v e o t h e r s show e n r o llm e n ts o f 2 2 ,0 0 0 ( u n iv e r s it y o f W is c o n s in ), 23*000 (O hio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) , 2 5 ,0 0 0 ( U n i v e r s it y o f I l l i n o i s ) , 2 9 ,0 0 0 ( U n i v e r s it y o f M in n e s o ta ), and *41,000 ( U n i v e r s it y o f C a l i f o r n i a ) . C f th e f i f t y - s i x u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v in g e n r o llm e n ts o v e r 5*000 and n o t r e c e i v i n g L&nd-Orant b e n e f i t s , tw e n ty -n in e have e n r o llm e n ts under

Uo 8 ,0 0 0 and th© o th e r tw e n ty -s e v e n o v e r 8 ,0 0 0 .

In th e l a t t e r group

s e v e n te e n have e n r o llm e n ts "between 8 ,0 0 0 and 1 3 , 0 0 0 *

t h e o th e r te n

l i e "between lU.OOO and 2 7 ,0 0 0 (C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y ) . Among th e l a r g e s t u n i v e r s i t i e s , th e r e i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e its o r g a n is a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e ,

t h e U n iv e r s it y o f C a lif o r n i a a t B e r k e le y

in c lu d e s a number o f S t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s q u it e w id e ly s e p a r a te d from each o th e r b u t a d m in is te r e d from th e c e n t r a l o f f i c e s a t B e r k e le y ,

Thus th e B e r k e le y campus h a s a b o u t 2 2 ,0 0 0 s t u d e n t s , th e

L os A n g e le s campus l b , 0 0 0 , th© S an ta B arb ara campus 2 ,b 0 0 , San Fernando 1 ,2 0 0 , B & vis, 1 ,6 0 0 , th e M arine S c h o o l a t La J o la 2 b , l i v e r s i d e 6 , and

Mt. Basil 1 to n 1 .

Th© l a r g e s t c o l l e g e i n t h i s group o f u n i v e r s i t y c e n t e r s

i s th e C o lle g e o f L e t t e r s and S c ie n c e a t B e r k e le y w ith an e n r o llm e n t o f 1 2 ,0 0 0 .

The same named c o l l e g e a t L os A n g e le s i s a b o u t o n e - h a lf

th is s iz e . On th e o th e r hand, th e U n iv e r s it y o f M in n eso ta , w ith an e n r o llm e n t o f o v e r 2 0 ,0 0 0 h&g m ost o f i t s s tu d e n ts a t th© campus in M in n e a p o lis, w ith o n ly sm a ll grou p s a t th e v a r io u s e x p e r im e n ta l s t a t i o n s , th e T eachers* C o lle g e , th e Mayo fo u n d a tio n and one o r two o t h e r s . fh e l a r g e s t p r iv a t e I n s t i t u t i o n o f advan ced e d u c a tio n i s Colum bia U n iv e r s it y in le w f o r k C ity w ith an e n r o llm e n t o f o v e r 2 7 ,0 0 0 .

Columbia

U n iv e r s it y shows an u n d erg ra d u a te e n r o llm e n t o f a b o u t 5*000 compared t o a g r a d u a te and p r o f e s s i o n a l e n r o llm e n t o f 1 7 ,0 0 0 * o f c o l l e g e s w it h T eachers*

I t to o i s a group

C o lle g e o f 7 ,5 0 0 * G raduate f a c u l t i e s w ith

H ,000 and Colum bia C o lle g e w ith 2 ,5 0 0 *

G e o g r a p h ic a lly th e y a r e p r a c ­

t i c a l l y a l l f a i r l y c l o s e t o g e t h e r in le w fo r k C ity . C o n s id e r in g b o th g rou p s o f u n i v e r s i t i e s t o g e t h e r , f o r t y - f o u r o f th e e ig h t y - n in e have e n r o llm e n ts b elow 8 ,0 0 0 * w ith t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f

hi

thorn having enrollments under 12,000.

Among the Land-Grant college®,

I f the very large in stitu tio n s he omitted, meet o f the balance w ill f a l l in the bracket between fiv e and tea thousand• Putting th is another way, I f the f iv e large u n iv e r sitie s of C alifornia, I ll in o i s , Minnesota, Ohio State and Wisconsin, a l l above 22,000, be ea ltted , p ra ctic a lly a l l of the rest l i e between fiv e and ten thousand enrollment.

3.

L i^ & a sK ip

T h is s e c t i o n d e a ls w ith le a d e r s h ip b e c a u s e a stu d y ©f o r g a n is a t io n and c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s in u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s would b e In c o m p le te w ith o u t an e v a lu a t io n o f th e le a d e r s h ip w hich i n i t i a t e d , and d ir e c t e d ch a n g es in* t h e i r o r g a n is a t io n a l p a t t e r n s .

T hese o r g a n is a t io n a l

p a t t e r n s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n have a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l e v o lu t io n w h ich s t i l l i n f lu e n c e s c u r r e n t t r e a d s to a marked d e g r e e . S in c e c o l o n i a l tim e s , e d u c a tio n h a s p la y e d an e v e r i n c r e a s in g ly im p o rta n t p a r t in th e d evelop m en t o f our Am erican d em ocracy.

However,

to o o f t e n e d u c a tio n h a s fo llo w e d a lm o st r e l u c t a n t l y th e ch a n g es de­ manded by our s o c i a l n e e d s and a d v a n ce s i n te c h n o lo g y .

Too many o f

our e d u c a tio n a l a d v a n ce s w ere b a s e d on l o c a l e x p e d ie n c y , w ere p o o r ly p la n n e d , in a d e q u a te ly c o o r d in a te d , and la c k e d p o p u la r u n d e r s ta n d in g and s u p p o r t.

How o f t e n h a v e s o c i o l o g i c a l tr e n d s and ch a n g e s b een

Ig n o r ed or e r r o n e o u s ly a p p r a is e d by our s o h o o ls w ith a r e s u l t a n t la c k o f synchronism o f e d u c a tio n w ith th e s o c i a l and econom ic n eed s o f our dem ocracy. The tempo o f s o c i a l , econom ic and p o l i t i c a l change i s e v e r in ­ c r e a s in g .

M u c a tio n te n d s to p r o c e e d a t i t s m e th o d ic a l p a c e , s u r v e y in g ,

a p p r a is in g , e v a lu a t i n g , t e s t i n g and e v e n t u a ll y a p p ro v in g ch a n g es in i t s c u r r ic u l a and p r o c e d u r e s .

I s e d u c a tio n a c t u a l l y d ro p p in g b eh in d and

becom ing a r c h a ic in com p arison w ith our r a p id l y ch a n g in g s o c i o l o g i c a l t r e n d s , or i s t h i s a n o th e r v e r s io n o f th e t o r t o i s e r a c in g th e h a r e , w ith e d u c a tio n p r o c e e d in g d e l i b e r a t e l y t o i t s g o a l by th e m ost d i r e c t ro u te?

*3 AX1 s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a n g es have had t h e i r i n s t i g a t o r s and l e a d e r s . P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s h ave t h e i r n a t io n a l, s t a t e and l o c a l le a d e r s ; econom ic i n t e r e s t s and la b o r gro u p s a r e o r g a n iz e d n a t i o n a l l y , r e g i o n a l l y , and 'by a c t i v i t y , e a c h w is h a p p r o p r ia te r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s and b o s s e s ; r e l i g i o n h a s i t s p a r i s h e s , d i s t r i c t s , and n a t io n a l h e a d q u a r te r s ; m a n u fa c tu r e r s, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p e tr o le u m , co m m u n ication , d i s t r i b u t o r s , and c h a in © to res a r e a l l o r g a n iz e d w ith d i r e c t o r s a t v a r io u s l e v e l s o f c o n t r o l . p h ilo s o p h y o f te c h n o lo g y i s b a se d on th e a ssem b ly l i n e ,

The

th e p r e c i s i o n

b u i l t p a r t , u n if o r m it y , and a m ec h a n ic a l f u n c t io n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f th e com ponents o f t h e a sse m b led m achin e, b e i t a vacuum tub© o r a tr a n s ­ a tla n tic

s tr a tc -lin e r .

’i h e w orld i s becom ing so c o m p e t it iv e th a t th e

n a t io n s a r e e n d e a v o r in g to o r g a n iz e and e s t a b l i s h a d i r e c t i n g le a d e r ­ sh ip on a g lo b a l s c a l e . o f our y o u th f o r l i f e

I d u c a t io n , w hich i s ch arged w ith th e t r a in i n g

in t h i s h ig h ly o r g a n iz e d s o c i e t y , h a s i t a l o c a l ,

r e g io n a l and n a t io n a l s o c i e t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n , b u t d o e s i t have r e c o g ­ n iz e d and empowered n a t io n a l le a d e r s ?

I f th e r e ar© r e c o g n iz e d n a t io n a l

lea d er© in e d u c a tio n , where a r e th ey found? fu n c tio n ?

On what l e v e l s do th e y

Are th ey a d e q u a te ly t r a in e d , and f u l l y aware o f t h e ir r e ­

s p o n s ib ilitie s ?

What sh o u ld b© th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f r e a l l e a d e r s in

a n a t i o n ' s ed u c a tio n ?

How would th ey e x e r c i s e le a d e r s h ip ?

What w ould

b e t h e i r m is s io n ? Hore th an an y o th e r group o f e d u c a tio n a g e n c i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s o f ad van ced e d u c a tio n ar© s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g in th e s e n s e and to th e d e g r e e t h a t th ey a r e a b le to d e v e lo p le a d e r s h ip in advan ced e d u c a tio n .

I f th e y

a r e to s u b s i s t , u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e fo r c e d to e v a lu a t e th e e f f e c t s o f th e im pact o f modern s o c i o l o g i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c tr e n d s o f our d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y and to e d u c a te and t r a i n , p erh a p s i n s p i r e , th e e d u c a tio n a l

le a d e r s h ip w h ich w i l l f o r e s e e and p la n f o r fu tu r e ch a n g es and r e q u ir e m e n ts . I t i s fu ndam en tal th a t le a d e r s h ip in e d u c a tio n and th e stu d y and e v a lu ­ a t i o n o f s o c i o l o g i c a l tr e n d s a r e m u tu a lly in t e r -d e p e n d e n t; how ever, th e y

ure n ot c o n c u r r e n t h u t sh o u ld h e syn ch ron ised , a f t e r a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n . I>ue to th e tim e lag; b etw een th e e d u c a tio n a l y e a r s o f our y ou th and th e e x e r c i s e o f th e su b seq u en t a c t i v e o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t would ap p ear th a t e d u c a to r s r e q u ir e v i s i o n and f o r e s i g h t to a n t i c i p a t e f u t u r e s o c i o l o g i c a l tr e n d s In e s t a b l i s h i n g c u r r ic u la and e d u c a tio n a l p l a n s . L ead ers o f our u n i v e r s i t i e s sh o u ld be th in k in g o f th e n e e d s and demands o f s o c i e t y a t l e a s t ten to t h i r t y y e a r s i n advan ce and ev en lo n g e r , so t h a t th e p u p il© i n th e p rim ary s c h o o ls w i l l be a d e q u a te ly p rep ared f o r t h e i r e d u c a tio n in seco n d a ry s c h o o ls and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced edu­ c a t i o n , and a f t e r t h e i r r e s u l t a n t g r a d u a tio n from u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s , w i l l b e in c u lc a t e d w ith an a p p r e c ia t io n o f th e prob lem s w h ich th e y a r e t o f a c e some te n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s a f t e r g r a d u a tio n when such g r a d u a te s w i l l have a r r iv e d a t m ature r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and w i l l e x e r c i s e le a d e r s h ip In th e s o l u t i o n o f th e problem s o f t h e i r tim e .

ihflubngxs of

f a i chuech

One o f th e m ajor i n f l u e n c e s i n r e t a r d in g th e prompt r e c o g n it io n o f th e h ig h e r e d u c a tio n a l n eed s o f th e f u t u r e g e n e r a t io n s , s p r in g s from th© in f lu e n c e o f th e church on our c o lle g e ® and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

educa­

t i o n a l le a d e r s h ip in our e a r ly c o l o n i a l time® fo llo w e d th© earn© p a t t e r n s a s th o s e d e v e lo p e d i n th e m other c o u n t r ie s from w hich th© c o lo n is t® cam e. For exam p le, th e E n g lis h c o l o n i c s on th e S o r th A t l a n t i c c o a s t , r e t a in e d e d u c a t io n a l le a d e r s h ip In th e church E ld e r s ; th e P i lg r im s tr a n s p la n te d t h e i r sy stem o f e d u c a tio n by p r iv e t® s c h o o l, ch u rch s c h o o ls and by p r i ­ v a te tu to r s.

The ch u rch assum ed th a t e d u c a tio n was th e r e s p o n s l b i l l t y

of th e p a r e n t o r th e head o f th e f a m ily , w ith th e prim ary o b j e c t i v e o f te a c h in g c h ild r e n to read th© B i b l e .

As sm a ll com m u n ities and towns

d e v e lo p e d , i t became more c o n v e n ie n t and e f f e c t i v e to employ a te a c h e r to a c t f o r a group o f p a r e n t s , and th e c h ild r e n were g a th e r e d a t common s c h o o l b u ild in g s fo r i n s t r u c t i o n .

However, i n i t i a l l y ,

th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

r e s t e d w ith th e p a r e n t s , th e s t a t e and ch u rch d is c ia im e d a l l d u ty tow ard e d u c a tin g c h ild r e n .

She ch u rch c o l l e g e s f o r th e t r a in i n g c f th e c l e r g y

p red o m in a ted u n t i l w e ll a f t e r th e C i v i l War, and t h e i r le a d e r s h ip was g e n e r a l 1 y a e k n c v le c .g e d . As th e burden o f s u p p o r tin g s c h o o ls grew h e a v ie r , p a r e n t s , a c t in g a l so a s v o t in g c i t i z e n s , c a s t a b o u t f o r means o f c o n v e r t in g p a r t o f th e n a t u r a l w e a lth o f t h e i r new co u n try to th e su p p ort o f t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o ls , f h e M a ss a c h u s e tts O rdnances o f 16^2 and lSb-7 e s t a b l is h e d th e p r i n c i p l e o f community s c h o o ls .

The F e d e r a l O rdnances o f 1 7^5 fxTi& 17^7 c o n v e r te d th e

incom e fro® p u b lic la n d s to th e su p p ort o f e d u c a tio n , and e s t a b lis h e d th© p r i n c i p l e t h a t th e f e d e r a l Government was in t e r e s t e d in e n c o u r a g in g e d u c a tio n , but was n ot co n cern ed w ith f e d e r a l le a d e r s h ip o f e d u c a tio n . IJKYLUEHCS OF TBAB& The d evelop m en t o f th e M i s s i s s i p p i B a s in and th e d r iv e toward th e P a c i f i c c o a s t a l a r e a s em phasised th e need f o r p o l i t i c a l g o v e r n o r s , t r a d in g p o s t m anagers and b an k in g r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s who c o u ld w r it e co ­ h e r e n t and i n t e l l i g i b l e r e p o r t s . v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a tio n .

Thus a t h ir d s o c i a l group e v id e n c e d a

T h is group in c lu d e d our p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s ,

our t r a n s p o r t a t io n i n t e r e s t s and our t r a d e , m a n u fa c tu r in g , and b a n k in g a g e n c ie s .

T h is t h ir d group w ith th© p o s s i b l e a d d it io n o f c e r t a in

t e c h n o lo g i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s have ten d ed to dom inate edu­ c a t i o n a l p la n n in g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n I n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n , up

^6 to our own tim es*

Thus a d iv e r s e group o f econom ic and p o l i t i c a l i n -

t c r e s t * e x e r c i s e an i n d i r e c t b u t v ery p r a c t i c a l le a d e r s h ip in advanced e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s by v i r t u e o f th e p o s i t i o n s th e y o f f e r g r a d u a te s and tlif r e l a t i v e s a l a r i e s th e y a r e w i l l i n g t c p a y . One o f th e major f o r c e s to c h a lle n g e r e c e n t l y th e d o m in a tio n o f advan ced e d u c a tio n by b u s in e s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l aid. p o l i t i c a l ir .te r e r -ts h6? h e m th e F e d e r a l Government i t s e l f *

The p e r f e c t i o n o f r a p id mean*

o f t r a n s p o r t a t io n arid com m unication o f t h e 192 C*® and *30* e made a l l iu f io n s of th e world c l o s e n e ig h b o r s and b ro u g h t i n t o sharp r e l i e f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , p o l i t i c a l d i s t r u s t s , raid econom ic j e a l o u s i e s . T h e se d i f f e r e n c e s w ere p erh ap s some o f th e ca n o es f o r Vforld War IX, w hich in tu r n p la ced , on h ig h e r e d u c a tio n burdeno and r e s p o n s i h i l i t i e B o f e n t i r e l y new and p erh ap s u n fo r e s e e n n a t u r e s . World

IX was e s s e n t i a l l y a war o f s c ie n c e and te c h n o lo g y .

Th®

F e d e r a l Government p la c e d w ith our c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s v a s t stuns f o r th e s o l u t i o n o f p rob lem s i n t e c h n ic a l r e s e a r c h and d e v e lo p m e n ts, b e ­ yond th e w i l d e s t dream® o f th e a v era g e c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r o f 1930*

A fte r

th e d e p r e s s io n y e a r s o f 193 ®* th e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w ere p o o r ly s i t u a t e d f i n a n c i a l l y to u n d e rta k e th e s e r e s e a r c h and e d u c a tio n a l lo a d s w ith o u t F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e , and m u n ific e n t a p p r o p r ia t io n s w ere made a v a i l ­ a b le to them f o r th e s e war p r o j e c t s . The s o - c a l l e d **&. I , B i l l *

ten d ed t o c o n tin u e th e f lo w o f f e d e r a l

fu n d s to i n s t i t u t i o n s o f advanced e d u c a tio n and a t a tim e when I n f l a ­ t io n a r y p r i c e s and low i n t e r e s t r a t e s mad® F e d e r a l su p p o rt v ery a t t r a c ­ t i v e to ou r u n i v e r s i t i e s . Thus* to r e v ie w , le a d e r s h ip f o r u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i a found

restin g f i r s t upon a b a s i c fo u n d a tio n o f m e d ie v a l ch u rch p o l i c y f o r the

^7 p e r p e t u a t io n o f church o r d e r s and le a d e r s o f th e c l e r g y .

Then, w ith th e

d is c o v e r y o f t h e new w orld and th© c o n seq u e n t t r a v e l and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f v a s t n a tu r a l r e s o u r c e s , came th© need f o r tr a in e d a g e n t s and a d m in is t r a t o r s f o r th e s e new w orld p r o j e c t s , im p o sin g a seco n d g u id in g o h j e c t i v e on h ig h e r e d u c a tio n .

W ith th e ad v en t o f t e c h n o lo g y , th e le s s o n s o f World

War I c u lm in a te d i n th e s c i e n t i f i c war m a ch in es o f World War I I j th e r e d e v e lo p e d a c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t on th e p a r t o f b u s in e s s and b a n k in g in t h e r e s e a r c h and d evelop m en t la b o r a t o r i e s o f our u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l ­ le g e s .

The f e d e r a l Government d e v e lo p e d a s im i la r i n t e r e s t in i t s e f f o r t

to c o u n t e r a c t , or a t l e a s t keep a b r e a s t o f , th e h ig h ly t e c h n ic a l m i l i t a r y d e v i c e s d e v e lo p e d by th© lu r o p e a n n a t io n s . I t i s o n ly i n r e c e n t y e a r s th a t an u n s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t o r group h a s shown any s tr o n g i n c l i n a t i o n toward n a t io n a l le a d e r s h ip in h ig h e r educa­ tio n .

T h is group i s p r o b a b ly b e s t r e p r e s e n te d by our le a d in g e d u c a to r s

o f th e n a tio n g o in g in t o p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s , b u t in c lu d e s th o s e s t a t e s ­ men and p o l i t i c a l le a d e r s who have b een d r iv e n to d i s t r a c t i o n o r d e s p a ir b e c a u s e o f th e u n s e t t l e d w orld s i t u a t i o n , and b e c a u s e th© p o t e n t i a l l y c a t a s t r o p h ic o r c a ta c ly s m ic d e s t r u c t i v e a g e n c ie s a r e now b e in g d e v e lo p e d i n our u n i v e r s i t y la b o r a t o r i e s and by our own n a t io n a l e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s in th e f i e l d s o f s c ie n c e and te c h n o lo g y . B d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip a s e x e r c is e d by i n d iv id u a ls te n d s to e x p r e s s i t s e l f l e s s s e l f i s h l y th an th e le a d e r s h ip im posed by b u s i n e s s , f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n ic a l i n t e r e s t s .

O fte n in d iv id u a l e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip h as

b e e n e x e r c is e d b e c a u s e o f s tr o n g c o n v ic t io n s on th e p a r t o f s p e c i f i c p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a to r s .

They have become le a d e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r f o r c e

and d e te r m in a tio n to b e t t e r th e e d u c a tio n a l s i t u a t i o n l a t h e i r com m u n ities and b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a b i l i t y

to e x p r e s s th e m s e lv e s f o r c e f u l l y and to g a in

Ug

th© a t t e n t i o n o f "both p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a to r s and th e d i s i n t e r e s t e d le a d e r s on th e com m unity, c o u n ty , s t a t e and n a t io n a l l e v e l s ,

th e ir

le a d e r s h ip h as b e e n e x e r c is e d by p o p u la r c o n s e n t r a th e r th a n by fo r c e o f la w .

T h e ir e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip r e c o g n is e d th e inafce d i g n i t y and

w orth o f th e i n d i v i d u a l .

Such le a d e r s r e l i e d on th e i n t e l l i g e n t

a n a l y s i s o f man’ s e d u c a tio n a l p ro b lem s and w ere g u id e d by th e coop­ e r a t i v e u s e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n th e s o l u t i o n o f th e p ro b lem s common to th e g rou p s o v e r w h ich th ey e x e r c is e d le a d e r s h i p . The v ie w - p o in t s and p r i n c i p l e s announced by some o f t h e s e b e n e f ic e n t e d u c a t io n a l le a d e r s appear i d e a l i s t i c and som etim es im p r a c t ic a l in our modern d e m o c r a tic w o r ld ,

th e y have had to f a c e th e p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c i a n s *

th e h ard -h ead ed b a n k e rs and t r a d e r s , and a m b itio u s s ta te sm e n s e e k in g exp an d in g power and em p ire.

They have b een a b le t o overcom e t h i s

p r a c t i c a l o p p o s it io n o n ly when th ey have a s o l i d su p p o rt i n t h e i r own community and when th e y h ave c o n v in c e d th e o p p o s it io n o f th e d an ger o f th e p r e s e n t c o n fu s io n o f s o c i o l o g i c a l tr e n d s dom inated by econom ic a m b itio n s and power p o l i t i c s .

In m ost in s t a n c e s th e e d u c a tio n a l l e a d e r s

h ave d e p a r te d to o w id e ly from th e p r a c t i c a l v ie w - p c in t . h a s b een tem porary and l o c a l .

? e i r in f l u e n c e

On th e o th e r hand, w here th e y have b een

a b l e to r e c o n c i l e th e u rg en t need f o r a d e q u a te e d u c a tio n a l p o l i c i e s and program s w ith th e p r a c t i c a l r e q u ir em en ts to su p p o rt ouch progress®, t h e i r in f lu e n c e has I n c r e a s e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y from th e community to th e n a t io n a l le v e l. Such b e n ig n e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip i s more th an th e a b i l i t y to i n s p i r e c o n f id e n c e , a p le a s in g v o i c e , a g r a c io u s manner and s im ila r a ttr ib u te s .

True and e f f e c t i v e e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip r e q u ir e s a s tr o n g

and e x p r e s s iv e m o t iv a tio n toward tr u e d e m o c r a tic p r i n c i p l e s su p p o rted

1*9 a number o f c o r o l l a r i e s ,

f h e s e e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s te a c h t h a t th e

w e lf a r e o f th e group can be a s su r e d o n ly th rou gh th e w e lf a r e o f each in d iv id u a l*

fh e y d e m o n str a te f l e x i b i l i t y and c o o p e r a tio n a s b e in g

e s s e n t i a l tow ard any l a s t i n g s o lu t i o n o f e d u c a tio n a l p r o b le m s,

fh e y

q u e s tio n d e c i s i o n s made by p o l i t i c a l le a d e r s u n l e s s founded on edu­ c a t i o n a l e x p e r ie n c e o r a d v ic e from tr a in e d e d u c a to r s* and su p p o rt th e th e o r y t h a t t r u e e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip e n c o u r a g es a f a i r h e a r in g o f a l l id e a s and judgm ent on m e r it ,

f h e y a r e c o n v in c e d t h a t e v e r y p e r so n can

make u n iq u e and Im portant c o n t r ib u t io n s to th e advancem ent o f e d u c a tio n , and th e y en cou rage i n d i v i d u a l i t y r a th e r th an u n ifo r m ity in e x p lo r in g e d u c a tio n a l p r o b le m s,

fh e y ta k e th e p h ilo s o p h y t h a t grow th in edu­

c a t i o n a l m a tte r s i s r o o te d from w ith in th© group r a th e r th a n w ith o u t; t h a t is *

c o s u u n i t i e s must b e a llo w e d to d is c o v e r f o r th e m s e lv e s th e

p r o p e r p a th s i n e d u c a tio n by ta k in g p a r t i n th e d e te r m in a tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s . True e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip r e q u ir e s t h e c o n v ic t io n th a t dem ocracy i s a way o f l i f e

r a th e r th an a f a c t i o n o r p a r t y .

D em o cra tic e d u c a tio n a l

le a d e r s b e l i e v e t h a t dem ocracy in clu d e® th e d ev elo p m en t o f i n i t i a t i v e to t e s t ch a n g es and s u g g e s t im p rovem en ts,

fh e y en co u ra g e d e m o c r a tic m ethods

in d is c u s s io n s * p la n n in g and th e e x e c u t io n o f p la n s ,

f h e ir a ttitu d e i s

n e v e r s t a t i c n or i n d i f f e r e n t b u t i s b a se d on e f f i c i e n t m eth o d s, th© b e s t p la n s o f a c tio n * th e d ev elo p m en t o f in d i v id u a l c r e a t i v e power and th e group u s e o f a l l a v a i l a b l e id e a s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e s o u r c e s in s o lv in g p r o b le m s.

I t h a s b e e n s a id t h a t th© e s s e n t i a l component o f g r e a t p e r s o n a l

le a d e r s h ip in e d u c a tio n in our d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y i s & d e v o u t lo v e f o r a l l

mankind and i t s e s s e n t i a l com ponent, th e i n d i v i d u a l . ^7 e f f i c i e n t e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip i s b a se d on i n i t i a t i v e and c o o p e r a t io n .

I t s e e k s th e improvement o f th e community i n w hich i t

f u n c t io n s and th e t r a in in g and improvement o f e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip its e lf.

P r a c t i c a l l y a l l e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip commences w ith le a d in g

th e group or community tow ard a d e te r m in a tio n o f i t s e d u c a tio n a l w ants and n eed s a s d em o n stra ted in th e community l i f e .

E d u cation ® ! le a d e r s h ip

th e n p r o c e e d s tow ard group e v o lu t io n o f p la n s o f a c t i o n , p r o c e e d s tow ard th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f such group p la n n in g and e v e n t u a lly u n d e r ta k e s an a p p r a is a l and e v a lu a t io n o f th e r e s u l t s o f th e p la n s im p lem en ted . As an in d iv id u a l* th e e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r i d e n t i f i e s h im s e lf w ith th e problem s o f th e p e o p le and o f th e community w ith a view t o i n v i t i n g c o n f id e n c e .

He d e v e lo p s an o r g a n is a t io n f o r c o l l e c t i n g th e c o o p e r a t iv e

e x p r e s s io n s , th e w ants and n e e d s .

He s t im u la t e s group a p p r a is a l o f th e

p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and th© p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e a s o n a b le s o l u t i o n s and o b je c tiv e s .

He i s , o f c o u r s e , f a m il ia r w ith th© te c h n iq u e s o f educa­

t i o n a l s e r v i c e , i n v e n t o r i e s , p u b lic r e l a t i o n s , modern p e r s o n n e l p o l i c i e s , and p r o c e d u r e s f o r d i r e c t i n g d i s c u s s io n and group a c t i o n .

Above a l l , he

m ust work i n harmony w ith b o th th e p o l i t i c a l e d u c a tio n a l g o v e rn in g b o d ie s , w ith l a y a d v is o r y co m m ittees and w it h h i s own e d u c a tio n a l c o lle a g u e s . Th© r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r t r u e d e m o c r a tic le a d e r s h ip in e d u c a tio n , p a r t i c u l a r l y advanced e d u c a tio n a r e p r o b a b ly th e m ost e x a c t in g o f any i n our community and n a t io n a l s o c i e t y .

The e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r r e q u ir e s

a broad and p r a c t i c a l g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n to u c h in g on e v e r y elem en t o f

2 7 W illia m S . ? in c e n t , C la ren ce A. M ewell and John Lund. E d u c a tio n a l L ea d ers— T h eir F u n c tio n and P r e p a r a tio n (Hew Yorks te a c h e r s * C o lle g e , Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 ^ 8 } , p p . S & 9«

51 ou r c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l h e r i t a g e .

He m ust b e w e ll-in fo r m e d on c u r r e n t

e v e n t s and u n d e rsta n d t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l backgroun d, p r e s e n t e f f e c t and f u t u r e I m p lic a t io n * .

He must b e inform ed and have a p r a c t i c a l w orking

k n ow led ge o f th e f a c t s and te c h n iq u e s o f our s o c i a l s c ie n c e s in c lu d in g governm ent* p o l i t i c s *

and e co n o m ic s.

In a d d it i o n , he m ust be v e r s e d i n

th e m ajor p h ilo s o p h ie s o f e d u c a tio n , i n te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s , i n s c h o o l a d m in is t r a t io n , g u id a n c e , p e r s o n n e l management and r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . Sum m arising th e t r u ly e f f e c t i v e le a d e r i n d e m o c r a tic e d u c a tio n , h e m ust b e a p e r so n w ith v i s i o n , f o r c e and a d a p t a b i l i t y .

He must be

s k i l l e d i n th e employment o f d e m o c r a tic te c h n iq u e s o f group a c t i o n i n p r o v id in g o r g a n iz a t io n a l m ach in ery w hich w i l l f a c i l i t a t e th e implemen­ t a t i o n o f e d u c a tio n a l p l a n s .

He must f o s t e r a p s y c h o lo g ic a l atm osp h ere

w h ich w i l l en cou rage th e su p p o rt o f d e m o c r a tic le a d e r s h ip .

He must

d e m o n str a te p r a c t i c a l l y and by exam ple h i s c o n v ic t io n i n d e m o c r a tic e d u c a tio n a l i d e a l s and ob j e c t iv e ® .

B is e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip i s

m easured a lm o s t e n t i r e l y by th e s u c c e s s he a c h ie v e s in in f lu e n c i n g group® to su p p o rt and implement more e f f e c t i v e e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s . He i s a s s i s t e d b y a l l p e r s o n s in th e community who a r e s e e k in g th e e n la rg em en t o f d e m o c r a tic e d u c a tio n a l p r i n c i p l e * and f a c i l i t i e s , b u t s e l e c t s &g h i s s p e c i f i c a s s is t a n t ® th o s e whose i d e a s , s p e c i a l s k i l l s , t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s m ost fa v o r th e a tta in m e n t o f h i s o b j e c t i v e s

?g I b i d , p p . 1 1 -5 1 .

k.

tni s p a s o f co a ra o L

Th© term nspan o f con tro l* may b© a p p lied to a u n iv e r s ity or c o lle g e , but may not be g e n e r a lly accep ted as a u s e fu l concept in th at i t im p lie s a lea d er w ith subordinate fo llo w e r s .

However, the a lte r n a tiv e i s u s u a lly

group d is c u s s io n and d e lib e r a tio n , follow ed by a c tio n by a d e le g a te or agent a c tin g fo r the group to implement or carry out the c o n clu sio n s or d e c is io n s o f th© group,

The p r in c ip a l d iffe r e n c e in the two concepts

appears to be co n tro l by a design ated and r e sp o n sib le lea d er a® compared to an im personal and tr a n sie n t lea d ersh ip ex er cise d by an agent w ith & s p e c if ic but lim ite d m issio n ,

l o t h concepts have th e ir p la c e in the

o r g a n isa tio n a l p r a c tic e s o f u n i v e r s i t ie s .

However, a f t e r p o l i c i e s have

been determ ined, p o s it iv e a c tio n and r e s u lt s are u s u a lly achieved by experienced and accepted lea d er s o f demonstrated a u th o r ity and a b i l i t y . Thus in sp o r ts , the cap tain o f a b a se b a ll team e x e r c is e s a span o f co n tro l o f nine during a game*

The span o f c o n tro l o f the fo o tb a ll

ca p ta in i s e le v e n , w h ile th a t o f the fo o t b a ll coach may be over one hundred i f he i s working fo r an am bitious u n iv e r s it y , although he too u s u a lly d e c e n tr a lis e s to h is a s s is ta n t coaches fo r the l i n e , ends, back-, f i e l d and the l i k e .

The span o f co n tro l o f th e p r e sid e n t o f an autom obile

s a le s agency may be the f i v e e x ec u tiv es or managers o f h is departm ents. The span o f co n tro l o f a s p e c if ic in d iv id u a l may change or vary w ith M s changing spheres o f a c t i v i t y .

The bank p r e sid e n t may e x e r c is e

a span o f co n tro l o f seven over h is vie© p r e sid e n ts, a anan o f nine at board m eetin gs, and a span o f sero when h© g e ts home to hi© fa m ily .

The

s t a t e manager o f a chain sto r e system may e x e r c is e a span o f c o n tro l o f

53 two or thro® in th e p r in c ip a l c i t i e s and o f one or two in the towns and ru ra l areas* h is s t a t e wide span o f co n tro l may a t the same time he twenty or more. The le a d e r o r c h ie f u s u a lly d e te rm in e s h i s span o f c o n tr o l by a p p o in tin g a s p e c i f i c number o f im m ediate s u b o rd in a te s o r a s s i s t a n t s , each w ith d e fin e d d u t ie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,

th e number o f such

s u b o rd in a te s w hich a le a d e r can e f f e c t i v e l y s u p e rv is e i s a m a tte r o f o p in io n and c o n tro v e rs y .

A le a d e r r e a d i ly g u id e s th e a c t i v i t i e s o f

two or th r e e s e c tio n c h i e f s .

A manager e a s i l y c o n tr o ls and g u id e s th e

a c t i v i t i e s o f fo u r d ep artm en t heads; th e f i v e make a c o n v e n ie n tly s is e d group f o r d e l i b e r a t i o n and p la n n in g .

As th e number o f su b o rd in a te s

in c r e a s e s above f o u r , e f f e c t i v e s u p e rv is io n by t h e i r c h ie f becomes in c r e a s in g ly d i f f i c u l t ; th e r e

may be i n s u f f i c i e n t tim e f o r a l l members

to be h e a rd , to d is c u s s t h e i r

problem s, and to re c e iv e i n s t r u c t i o n s

from t h e i r c h i e f . As the number o f subordinates in c r e a se s above s i r or seven in an expanding e n te r p r ise , the train ed lead er u s u a lly p r e fe r s to s p l i t the© in to two or th ree groups and p la c e a subordinate in charge o f each o f th e se groups.

The lea d er then d e a ls w ith th e se two or th ree group

c h ie f s ; they in turn su p erv ise th® a c t i v i t i e s o f th e ir group members. Should the lea d er f a i l to so d e c e n tr a lis e and perm it h is span o f c o n tro l to run up to ten or more, then h is su bordin ates r e c e iv e l e s s and l e s s o f the lea d er* s guidance and personal d ir e c tio n and they tend to take m atters in to t h e ir own hands or become in a c tiv e fo r la ck o f I n s tr u c tio n s . In e ith e r even t, the lea d er lo s e s d ir e c tio n even though h i s span o f c o n tro l i s g r e a te r .

5 *+ P r a c t ic a lly a l l stu d ie s o f o r g a n isa tio n e v e n tu a lly depend on spans o f c o n tr o l, th at i s the q u estio n o f th© proper number o f d e le g a tio n s which each group c h ie f makes to h is su b ord in ates.

Various lea d ers have

expressed them selves d e c is iv e ly on the proper number fo r the id e a l span o f c o n tr o l.

For example, A. P. WavsBL, famous Commander o f the B r it is h

Forces in A fr ic a , in speaking o f m ilita r y o r g a n isa tio n s and op eration s has the fo llo w in g concepts G enerally speaking, the number o f u n it s grouped in & form ation should not be l e s s than th ree nor more than six* In a form ation composed o f two u n it s o n ly , th® in flu e n c e o f the commander o f th e form ation i s sm a ll \ w h ile i t has been found by exp erien ce th at s ix u n it s i s the maximum th a t can co n v en ien tly be commanded and adm inistered by one h e a d q u a r te r s.^ Other m ilita r y le a d e r s have held eq u a lly emphatic o p in io n s, but vary between w ider l im i t s -

For example, C lausew its in h is t r e a t is e

"On War" c i t e s th at w h ile corps and sm aller u n its should be d ivid ed in to sm all components w ith spans o f co n tro l o f two or th r e e , y e t b e lie v e s th a t the f i e l d commander may c o n tro l an army o f e ig h t corps or even nine or ten and should do so in the in t e r e s t s o f f l e x i b i l i t y o f o p e r a tio n .30 Another m ilita r y le a d e r , Ian Hamilton, in h is book "the Soul and Body o f an Army" i s more s p e c i f ic .

He fa v o rs a span o f co n tro l o f s ix

and g iv e s h is reasons as fo llo w s: I f a man d iv id e s th e whole o f h is work in to two branches and d e le g a te s h is r e s p o n s ib ilit y , f r e e ly and p r o p e r ly , to two experien ced heads o f branches he w i l l not have enough to do.

^5 A lvin Brown, O rg a n isa tio n , A Formulation o f P r in c ip le (iew fork: Hibbert P r i n t i n g Company,1 9 % ) . p . 123 • 3° Ib id , p . 12*+.

55 fh e o cca sio n s when they would have to r e fe r to him would he too few to keep hi® f u l l y occupied. I f he d e le g a te s to three heads he w i l l he kept f a i r l y busy w h ils t s ix heads o f branches w ill g iv e most b o sses a ten hours* day. Those data ar© the r e s u lt s o f c e n tu r ie s o f the exp erien ces o f so ld ie r s.3 T The two op in ion s above fro® Wavell and Hamilton, both B r it is h m ilita r y le a d e r s who held wide powers over v a s t and complex organi­ s a tio n s , favor spans o f co n tro l between three and s i x , and p refera b ly nearer s i x .

The same spans o f co n tro l o f about f i v e are e n d le ssly

a p p lie d by le a d e r s o f the armed fo r c e s o f th© United S ta te s .

The Cerman

war fo r c e s and the French f i e l d arm ies e sta b lish e d sim ila r s i t e s o f spans o f c o n tr o l.

B u sin ess and ind ustry recommends and p r a c tic e s spans o f

c o n tro l o f about f i v e in th© o rg a n isa tio n and d ir e c tio n o f th e ir complex o r g a n isa tio n s . Spans o f co n tro l for o r g a n isa tio n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s devoted to ed u cation al a c t i v i t i e s are not so d e f i n i t e l y recogn ised by educational w r ite r s .

Perhaps spans o f co n tro l have not been recogn ised as having

a s ig n if ic a n t in flu e n c e on th© e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f th© o rg a n isa tio n and d ir e c tio n o f the ed u cation al i n s t it u t io n s o f th e n a tio n . Moehlman v is u a lis e s th© board o f education as being concerned w ith four major fu n ctio n s: and fin a n c e .

in s tr u c tio n , p la n t, te x t books and su p p lie s,

Th© superintendent a c ts as the se cr eta r y to the board and

a s i t s e x e c u tiv e agent in carryin g out i t s d e c is io n s . would correspond to a span o f con trol o f fo u r.

T his system

However, in p r a c tic e

many d e v ia tio n s fro® the span o f co n tro l o f four are encountered.

The

span o f c o n tro l i s in creased to f i v e to allow for an a u d ito r, or decreased to th ree by combining p la n t and fin a n c e . ^

31 I b id , p . 125. 32 Arthur B. Moehlman, School A d m in istration (Cambridge: M if f lin Company, 19*40), pp. S fj7 2 9 0 - 2 ^6 .

Houghton

In la rg e r ed u cation al o r g a n isa tio n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , spans o f co n tr o l vary w ith in wide l i m i t s .

P r in c ip a ls and tea ch ers may he grouped

by geograp hical a r ea s, or by types o f In str u c tio n , w ith l i t t l e apparent regard fo r the r e su lta n t spans o f c o n tr o l.

R e sp o n s ib ility and a u th o rity

overlap i s many a c t i v i t i e s because o f the com plexity o f o r g a n isa tio n a l str u c tu r e s .

S p e c if ic a lly , spans o f c o n tro l o f from **5 to 20” are c it e d

a s common in c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t ie s .

Bo mention i s found o f the

p r in c ip le o f the d e s i r a b i li t y o f small spans o f c o n tr o l.

Bo d is c u ssio n

i s presen ted o f the r e s u lta n t s t r e s s on a u n iv e r s ity p r e sid e n t or a c o lle g e dean who attem pts to p e r so n a lly guide and co n tro l the a c t i v i t i e s o f twenty, f o r ty , or more a s s is t a n t s and su b o r d in a te * .^

33 Ib id , pp. 286-323* 391-397. 76?-785-

CHAPTER I I I

THE STUDY OF SPAMS OF CONTROL T his c h a p te r d e a ls w ith th e v a r i a t i o n s i n spans o f control.*

It

p r e s e n t s , f i r s t , c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s id e r a tio n s f o r spans o f c o n tr o l w hich a re u n ifo rm ly a p p lie d on a number o f l e v e l s i n a complex o rg a n is a tio n *

T his t h e o r e t i c a l tre a tm e n t i s developed m a th e m a tic a lly

by th e a u th o r to show tr e n d s i n p e rs o n n e l overhead a s compared t o th© number o f a c t iv e classroom i n s t r u c t o r s and p o s s ib le s tu d e n t t o t a l s * F ollow ing t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i n tr o d u c tio n a re found some tr e n d s i n d i ­ c a te d by sum m arising o r g a n is a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e s and c o n tr o l g ro u p in g s a s p re s e n te d i n s t a t i s t i c a l summaries on i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r le a r n ­ in g .

The c h a p te r c lo s e s w ith s tu d ie s o f s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s o f

h ig h e r e d u c a tio n w ith th e purpose o f e v a lu a tin g p r a c t i c e by th e p r i n ­ c i p l e s and t h e o r e t i c a l tr e n d s p re v io u s ly developed*

The c h a p te r

in c lu d e s a p r a c t i c a l example o f th e a p p li c a t io n o f th e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s id e r a tio n s on spans o f c o n t r o l .

1.

MODES IN SPAMS OF CONTROL,

THEORETICAL TREATMENT The t h e o r e t i c a l im p lic a tio n s o f spans o f c o n t r o l , p r o g r e s s iv e ly in c r e a s e d , b u t u n ifo rm ly a p p lie d t o v a rio u s su b o rd in a te l e v e l s , a re p r o b a b ly

b e s t shown i n ta b u l a r form .

i

T able 1A shows i n th e v e r t i c a l

colum ns, th e g e o m e tric a lly in c r e a s in g f a c u l t y members as th e number o f l e v e l s i s in c r e a s e d .

Each v e r t i c a l column g iv e s th e p e rs o n n e l on each

l e v e l f o r th e span o f c o n tr o l p e r ta in in g t o t h a t colum n. 1

Developed by th e au th o r*

P e rso n n e l

TABLE 1 .•PERCENT OVERHEAD FOE SEVERAL SPANS OF CONTROL UMPGRMLT APPLIED*

a

Level 1

2

3

Span o f C ontrol 6 5

Faculty

7

5

9

P OH

1 1

1 0

1 0

1 0

1 0

i 0

1 0

1 0

1 0

1 0

P resid en t

P OH

2 2

1 So

2

h

20

5 17

6 Du

7 13

8 11

9

33

3 25

10

D ivision Heads

P OH

3 3

l 6?

Ji3

9 32

16 2h

25 19

36 16

k9 lli

6h 12

11

P OH

h u

1

8

125

216

512

729

25

20

31*3

hi

27 33

6h

?5

17

lh

13

11

P OH s t 12.5

$

256 25

625

1,296 17

2 ,t o i

5 5

13

16 81 it9 33 200 1,013

16,200

30,013

p OH s a 12.5

6 6 6

1 32 2ii3 1,021* 83 k 9 33 25 3,036 12,800 liOO 13

7,776 17 97,200

16,807

1 8o

h

3,200

20 7,812

3,125 20

39,063

lh

81

M 96 6,561 11 13

College Deans Department Heads S ection C hiefs I n s tr u c to r s

lh

a P i s number o f f a c u lty members a t le v e l indicated# Oil i s p ercen t overhead a t th a t lev el* S 12.5 i s t o t a l number o f stu d e n ts a t 12.5 stu d e n ts per fa c u lty member a t the le v e l in d ic a te d .

$9

d a ta i s shown f o r spans o f c o n tr o l in c r e a s in g from one t o n in e in c lu s iv e • For exam ple, i f th e sp an o f c o n tr o l i s f i v e , th© p r e s id e n t o f a sm all c o lle g e on l e v e l one m ight have f i v e d ep artm en t heads on l e v e l two o v e r whom he e x e r c is e d su p e rv isio n *

Each o f th e s e

d ep artm en t heads i n tu r n would have f i v e i n s t r u c t o r s on l e v e l th r e e o v e r whom each e x e r c is e d s u p e r v is io n .

Thus f o r a span o f c o n tr o l o f

f i v e u n ifo rm ly a p p lie d , th e r e would be one p e rs o n , th e p r e s i d e n t , on l e v e l o n e, f i v e p e rso n s on l e v e l tw o, and tw e n ty -fiv e p e rso n s on l e v e l t h r e e , — a t o t a l f a c u l t y o f th ir ty - o n e * For p r o g r e s s iv e ly l a r g e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , one hundred tw e n ty -fiv e p e rso n s would be needed on l e v e l f o u r , s i x hundred and tw e n ty -fiv e p e rso n s on l e v e l f i v e , and th r e e th o u san d one hundred and tw e n ty -fiv e p e rso n s on l e v e l six *

The o verhead i s used i n t h i s s tu d y to mean

a l l p e rs o n s above th e lo w e st l e v e l i n th e i n s t i t u t i o n * f o r spans o f c o n tr o l l e s s th a n f i v e , th e number o f p e rso n s on each l e v e l would be o b v io u sly l e s s , and f o r spans o f c o n tr o l o f g r e a t e r th a n f i v e , th e c o rre sp o n d in g numbers o f p e rso n s on each l e v e l would be g re a te r* For th e f i f t h l e v e l , th e t o t a l numbers o f s tu d e n ts a re g iv en f o r each span o f c o n tr o l , b a sed on 12*5 s tu d e n ts f o r each i n s t r u c t o r shown on th e f i f t h le v e l*

For l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s w ith a s i x t h l e v e l , s i m ila r

s tu d e n t t o t a l s a re shown, b a sed on th e same a tu d e n t - i n s t r u c t o r r a t i o *

60 OVERHEAD V arious s lu e s o f spans o f c o n tr o l have a d i r e c t b e a rin g on th© o v e rh e ad , and on th e number o f s tu d e n ts ta u g h t*

The term Mo v erh ead ”

a s u sed i n t h i s s tu d y , d e n o te s th e r a t i o o f th e number o f f a c u l t y mem­ b e rs above th e i n s t r u c t o r s on th e lo w e st l e v e l which th e i n s t i t u t i o n u t i l i z e s , to th e t o t a l number o f f a c u l t y members on a l l l e v e l s . R e fe rrin g a g a in to t a b l e 1 , a s e r i e s o f t o t a l numbers o f f a c u l t y members c o u ld be p re p a re d f o r spans o f c o n tr o l from one to n in e , and f o r l e v e l s from th e p r e s id e n t on th e f i r s t l e v e l down th ro u g h th© v a rio u s l e v e l s to l e v e l s i x .

For exam ple, th e c h a r t shows, f o r a

span o f c o n tr o l o f f i v e , t h a t , i n a sm a ll two l e v e l i n s t i t u t i o n , th e p r e s id e n t would have f i v e i n s t r u c t o r s .

The overhead i n t h a t i n s t i ­

t u t i o n would be o n e - s ix th , o r ab o u t se v e n te e n p e r c e n t.

S im ila r ly f o r

a span o f c o n tr o l o f s i x , and w ith th re e l e v e l s , th e p r e s id e n t m ight have s i x d ep artm en t h e a d s, each w ith s i x i n s t r u c t o r s .

In t h i s i n s t i ­

t u t i o n th e o verhead would be s e v e n - t h i r t y - s i x t h s o r s ix te e n p e r c e n t . F u rth e rm o re , th e l a s t l i n e s f o r l e v e l s f i v e and s i x in d ic a t e th e number o f s tu d e n ts who would be ta u g h t by th e i n s t r u c t o r shown on th e f i f t h and s i x t h le v e ls *

A la r g e u n i v e r s i t y h av in g a uniform span

o f c o n tr o l o f se v en , w ith s i x l e v e l s , would have one p r e s id e n t, sev en heads o f d i v i s i o n s , h 9 deans o f c o lle g e s , 3 h 3 heads o f d e p a rtm e n ts,

2 ,!t 01 c h ie f s o f academ ic s e c tio n s and 16,807 i n s t r u c t o r s .

These

16,807 i n s t r u c t o r s would te a c h 15>0,065> s tu d e n ts a s i n d ic a te d i n th e l a s t f ig u r e i n th e l a s t l i n e o f th e c h a r t .

61 The overhead o f co u rse d e c re a s e s w ith th e in c r e a s e o f th e span o f c o n t r o l , and in c r e a s e s w ith th e number o f l e v e l s e s t a b l is h e d i n th e i n s t i t u t i o n *

For exam ple, a sm all c o ll e g e , h aving a span o f

c o n tr o l o f f o u r and th r e e l e v e l s , would have a s t a f f o f tw e n ty -o n e , w ith a p r e s i d e n t , fo u r dep artm en t heads and s ix te e n i n s t r u c t o r s * The overhead would b® 5/21 o r ab o u t 2 b%*

The number o f s tu d e n ts a t

12J p e r i n s t r u c t o r would be 200 f o r th e s ix te e n i n s t r u c t o r s * As t h i s c o lle g e grew and added one a d d it i o n a l l e v e l , b u t main­ ta in e d th e same span o f c o n tr o l o f f o u r , i t would have 6)4 i n s t r u c t o r s te a c h in g 800 s tu d e n ts , and an overhead o f 2 $%*

'This i s an overhead

in c r e a s e o f a b o u t 1 $ , b u t a s tu d e n t in c r e a s e o f 300 %*

As a d d itio n a l

l e v e l s a re added, th e p e rc e n t overhead remains ab o u t 2 $% a s in d ic a te d on l e v e l s f iv e and s i x , b u t th e numbers o f s tu d e n ts in c r e a s e t o 3200

and 12,800 re s p e c tiv e ly *

Each o f th e s e numbers o f s tu d e n ts r e p r e s e n t

in c r e a s e s o f 300;?' o v er th© p rec ed in g le v e ls * I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t a s th e span o f c o n tr o l in c r e a s e s from one t o n in e , th e p e rc e n t overhead d e c re a s e s from 50% t o 9% on th e second l e v e l , and from 83$ to Hi? on th e s i x t h le v e l*

I t is

a p p a re n t t h a t a s th e number o f l e v e l s in c r e a s e s and th e span o f con­ t r o l i n c r e a s e s , th e p e rc e n t o f f a c u l t y overhead te n d s t o l e v e l o f f a t ab o u t 10^.

62 PRACTICAL VARIATIONS IN SPANS OP CONTROL With th© p r e s e n t tr e n d tow ard in c r e a sin g th e number o f s p e c ia l­ i s e d c o u rs e s i n o u r l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s , th e r e i s a ten d en cy f o r most o f them to o p e ra te on s i x l e v e l s .

The same c o n s is te n c y i s

n o t found i n any u n ifo rm ly a p p lie d span o f c o n tr o l e i t h e r a s to u n i­ v e r s i t i e s a s a whole n or i n th e same u n i v e r s i t y .

C o n sid erin g th e

l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s a s a group, a wide v a r i a t i o n i n spans o f c o n tr o l i s found i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f them*

I t i s n o t u n u su al to f in d p r e s id e n ts

e x e r c is in g spans o f c o n tr o l o v er t h e i r im m ediate s u b o rd in a te s from anywhere betw een two and f o r t y . Spans o f c o n tr o l o f th e p r e s id e n t's im m ediate s u b o rd in a te s ( u s u a lly h ead s o f d iv is io n s o r deans o f c o lle g e s ) show a wide v a ria tio n .

T his v a r i a t i o n i s u s u a lly b a sed on th e number o f

c o lle g e s w hich compose th e u n i v e r s i t y .

'When t h i s number o f c o lle g e s

re a c h e s about e i g h t , th e r e i s a tendency t o d iv id e them i n t o two o r more d i v is io n s w ith a head o f each d i v i s i o n .

Where t h i s d i v is io n

h as n o t been made, th e span o f c o n tr o l becomes awkwardly la rg e * The spans o f c o n tr o l o f deans o f c o lle g e s i s r e a d i l y d eterm in ed from c u r r e n t l i s t s o f a c c r e d ite d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n * ^ For p r a c t i c a l l y a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o ll e g e s , th© s u b je c t m a tte r and number o f p e rs o n n e l i n each d epartm ent ar© c a r e f u l l y l i s t e d .

9

A, J , Brumbaugh, American U n iv e r s itie s and C o lle g e s , F i f t h E d itio n (W ashington, D, G.j American C ouncil on E ducation, 19hS). « (E x ce p tio n s a re made f o r th e l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s o r u n iv e r­ s i t y sy ste m s, such a s m a in ta in e d i n M innesota and C a lif o r n ia where th e number o f i n s t r u c t o r s i n a sc h o o l and som etim es a c o lle g e i s th e lo w e st breakdow n,)

63

I f th e s e d ep artm en ts a r e c o n s id e re d to have one dep artm en t head w ith a l l o f th e in s tr u c to r s r e p o r tin g t o hi® , th e spans o f c o n tr o l o f most o f th e d ep artm en ts would average v e i l o v e r te n *

I t is

p ro b ab le t h a t th e la r g e r departments w i l l be d iv id e d i n t o s e v e r a l s e c tio n s w ith th e s e n io r i n s t r u c t o r o f each s e c t i o n as s e c tio n c h i e f , b u t p ro b a b ly carryin g a f u l l tim e te a c h in g lo a d i n a d d itio n t o h is f u n c tio n s a s a s s i s t a n t to th e d ep artm en t head* R e fe rrin g b ack to t a b l e 1 , i t i s obvious t h a t few i n s t i t u ­ tio n s w i l l a p p ly any one span o f c o n tr o l u n ifo rm ly on any l e v e l n o r u n ifo rm ly to a l l le v e ls *

'Fro® th e above d is c u s s io n i t i s a p p a re n t t h a t

p r e s id e n ts o f th e l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t i e s have a ten d e n cy toward a v e ry h ig h span o f c o n t r o l , such a s t e n , tw en ty and even h ig h e r .

These h ig h

sp an s o f c o n tr o l u s u a lly a re a r e s u l t o f lo n g custom and t r a d i t i o n , o f ad d in g a n o th e r head rep o rtin g d ir e c t ly to the p r e s id e n t a s each new s t a f f s e c t i o n and e d u c a tio n a l departm ent i s added t o th e u n iv e r­ s ity *

There a p p e a rs t o be a re lu c ta n c e on th e p a r t o f p r e s id e n ts t o

r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r d i r e c t p e rs o n a l su p e rv isio n o v er new p r o j e c ts which i s p erh a p s j u s t i f i e d u n t i l the p r o j e c t i s f ir m ly e s t a b l i s h e d .

A fte r

th e new p r o j e c t h as been f ir m ly e s ta b lis h e d and g e ts to be o ld , th e r e i s a marked ten d e n cy on th e p a r t o f p r e sid e n ts to n e g le c t to a s s ig n th e s e now a c t i v i t i e s to th e s u p e rv is io n o f t h e i r s u b o rd in a te a s s i s t a n t s * For t h i s re a s o n and o t h e r s , spans o f c o n tr o l i n u n i v e r s i t i e s te n d t o in c r e a s e d i r e c t l y w ith th e age o f th e u n i v e r s i t y , u n le s s some p r e s id e n t p e r io d ic a lly a n a ly z e s th e o r g a n iz a tio n and e s t a b l i s h ©& a more r e a l i s t i c and w orkable span o f c o n tro l*

6k SOME APPLICATIONS OF TABLE 1 , A nother i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r o f t a b l e 1 i s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f spans o f c o n tr o l t o overhead i n an i n s t i t u t i o n o f a g iv e n number o f stu d e n ts #

For exam ple, a c o lle g e w ith ab o u t 3#000 s tu d e n ts

co u ld be o rg a n is e d i n a v a r i e t y o f spans o f c o n tr o l and academ ic l e v e l s # With a span o f c o n tr o l o f t h r e e , th e r e would be r e q u ir e d s i x l e v e l s to b u ild up th e n e c e ssa ry 2ii3 i n s t r u c t o r s te a c h in g 3 ,0 3 8 s tu d e n ts *

I n th e same way, w ith a span o f c o n tr o l o f f o u r ,

f i v e l e w i s would p re s e n t 258 i n s t r u c t o r s te a c h in g 3,200 s tu d e n ts * W ith a span o f c o n tr o l o f f i v e , fo u r l e v e l s would g iv e 125 i n s t r u c ­ t o r s te a c h in g seme 1 ,5 6 3 s tu d e n ts , b u t f iv e l e v e l s would g iv e 625 i n s t r u c t o r s and 7,812 s tu d e n ts # To b u ild up th e number o f i n s t r u c t o r s to th e re q u ir e d 21*0 f o r a 3 , 000 s tu d e n t u n i v e r s i t y , a second column o f i n s t r u c t o r and o v er­ head f i g u r e s o f e q u a l s i s e would b u ild th e number o f i n s t r u c t o r s to

250 .

'This s i t u a t i o n i s f r e q u e n tly e n c o u n te re d where th e u n i v e r s i t y

has two m ajor g ro u p in g s o f c o ll e g e s , ouch as e n g in e e rin g and l i b e r a l a r t s o r g e n e ra l s t u d i e s and th e p ro fe s s io n s #

I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n th e

p r e s id e n t o f th© u n i v e r s i t y would p ro b a b ly a p p o in t a v ic e p r e s id e n t f o r th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e and a n o th e r v ic e p r e s id e n t f o r th© pro­ f e s s i o n a l s c h o o ls , th u s g iv in g h im s e lf a c a d e m ic a lly a span o f c o n tr o l o f two*

The two v ic e p r e s id e n ts i n t u r n c o u ld s e t up spans o f c o n tr o l

o f f iv e and on th e f o u r th l e v e l would f in d th em selv es w ith 125 i n ­ s t r u c t o r s each s e rv in g a combined s tu d e n t e n ro llm e n t o f 3,000* The c h a r t could be e la b o r a te d i n s e v e r a l w ays.

Dm v a r i a t i o n

c o u ld show changes i n spans o f c o n tr o l w ith d i f f e r e n t le v e ls #

T h is

s i t u a t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l l y alw ays e n c o u n tere d i n a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s and

65 p r a c t i c a l l y a l l c o lle g e s *

A nother a p p li c a t io n o f th e c h a r t c o a id

be found i n v a ry in g th e r a t i o o f i n s t r u c t o r to s tu d e n t.

The n a tio n a l

a v erag e i s c u r r e n t ly betw een tw elve and t h i r t e e n f o r a l l f a c u l t y members and p ro b a b ly betw een f i f t e e n and tw en ty when o n ly d e p a r t­ m en tal s t a f f s a re c o n sid ere d *

However a p p ly in g th e f a c t o r o f c l a s s

s i s e t o th© c h a r t i t i s obvious t h a t i f th e r a t i o o f i n s t r u c t o r to s tu d e n t were one to tw e n ty -fiv e i n p la c e o f one t o tw elve and oneh a l f as on th e c h a r t , th e e n ro llm e n t o r sis© o f th e u n i v e r s it y co u ld be doubled w ith o u t any change i n th e number o f f a c u l t y mem­ b e rs*

T his s w e llin g o f e n ro llm e n ts w ith o u t in c r e a s in g th e f a c u l t y

h as been a common e x p e rie n c e i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s dur­ in g th e p a s t f iv e y e a rs and h m le a d to some u n fo rtu n a te s i t u a t i o n s b o th m re g a rd s th© o v e rlo a d on th e i n s t r u c t o r and th© q u a l i t y o f in s tru c tio n * A nother i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f ta b l e 1 i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n f i g ­ u re 1 , w hich shows v a r i a t i o n s i n th e g a r c e n t overhead w ith changes i n l e v e l s f o r v a ry in g spans o f c o n tr o l from one to t e n .

By o v erh ead ,

a g a in , i s meant th e number o f th e f a c u l ty above th e i n s t r u c t o r l e v e l a s a p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l fa c u lty *

The

fam ily

o f c u rv e s f o r v a ry in g

sp an s o f c o n tr o l i n d ic a t e t h a t th e r e i s a marked ten d e n cy o f th e p e r c e n t overhead to l e v e l o f f a t th e t h i r d l e v e l f o r spans o f c o n tr o l from th r e e to ten*

I t i s n o ted a ls o t h a t th© p a r c e n t o verhead ten d s

t o re a c h an alm o st c o n s ta n t f ig u r e a t low er l e v e l s a s th e span o f c o n tr o l in c re a s e s *

Thus f o r a span o f c o n tr o l o f f o u r , th e p er c e n t

overhead i s tw e n ty -fo u r on th e t h i r d l e v e l , tw e n ty -fiv e on th e f o u r th l e v e l and rem ain s c lo s e t o tw e n ty -fiv e t h e r e a f t e r .

For a span

o f c o n tr o l o f t e n , th e p e r c e n t overhead i s a p p re c ia b ly lo w e r, ab o u t

Pejr Cont O verhead

^paa o f i Control

13 i i

I* 5

1 * Pm $ont 0r®rh ©«4 tm L e ro l* j 1 to 3 ” ( i F i |©~9*"

6?

ten. a t th e second l e v e l , e le v e n a t th e t h i r d l e v e l and a lm o st con­ s ta n t th e re a fte r#

S im ila r ly f o r th e optimum span o f c o n tr o l o f

f i v e th e p e r c e n t o verhead h as rea ch e d a lm o st i t s maximum a t th e t h i r d l e v e l and rem ain s ab o u t tw e n ty f o r h ig h e r l e v e l s . One o f th e d e d u c tio n s from th e above i s t h a t from a b o u t th e t h i r d o r f o u r th l e v e l s and h ig h e r , th e p er c e n t o f o v erh ead te n d s t o rem ain c o n s ta n t r e g a r d le s s o f how many l e v e l s a r e added t o th e in s titu tio n *

However, a s shown p r e v io u s ly , th e numbers o f s tu d e n ts

in c r e a s e s by s e v e r a l hundred p e r c e n t f o r each l e v e l added*

69

A nother a n a ly s is o f t a b l e 1 i s shown i n f i g u r e 2 w hich p o r tr a y s g r a p h ic a lly th e p a r c e n t overhead i n f a c u l t y f o r spans o f c o n tr o l from two to f i f t e e n .

The two c u rv e s in d ic a t e v a lu e s f o r th e

second l e v e l and th e s i x t h l e v e l .

'Hie c u rv e s f o r th e in te rm e d ia te

l e v e l s , th r e e t o f i v e , l i e betw een th e two c u rv e s shown i n f ig u r e 2 . I t i s a p p a re n t t h a t f o r a span o f c o n tr o l o f f i v e th e overhead on th e second l e v e l i s ab o u t se v e n te e n and on th e s i x t h l e v e l i s tw e n ty w ith th e in te r v e n in g c u rv e s o f th e fa m ily ly in g c lo s e r to th e s i x t h l e v e l cu rv e th a n th e second l e v e l c u rv e . The fa m ily o f c u rv e s a p p e a rs t o approach some minimum v a lu e i n th e neighborhood o f f i v e p e r c e n t a t sp an s o f c o n tr o l above fifte e n .

However, f o r spans o f c o n tr o l betw een f iv e and t e n ,

th e

p e r c e n t overhead d e c re a s e s a t a f a i r l y c o n s ta n t b u t s l i g h t l y

de­

c re a s in g r a t e w ith th e span o f c o n t r o l .

TABUS 2 * RESULTANT SIZE OF CLASSES BASED ON 12.5 STUDENTS PER FACULTY MEMBER.

a

Level

Span o f C ontrol 6

r

1

2

3

ii

1 1

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

TS C

2

25.0 25.0

36.0 18.8

5o.o 16.7

63.O

75.0 15.0

8 8.0

2

T C i.*w c

3 3

33.0 37.5

88.0 21.9

163.0 18.0

263.0

368.0 1S.5

538.0 lit.9

TS C

L ii

5o.o 5o.o

TS C

5 5

63.0 386.0 1,510.0 2It.O 62.5 18.7

TS C

6 6

75.0 75.0

Aw C

a ~

15.8 l6 .it

500.0 18.5

787.0 ii,550.0 2Ji.6 18.8

lit.6

—g -

9

10

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

12.5 12.5

100.0 lii .3

113.0

125.0 13.9

138.0 13.8

35,000.0 l!t.6

92, 200.0 13.9

7

lit.l

1, 950.0 15.6 9, 750.0 15.6

19,10.0.0 15.0

17,050.0 lt8,700.0 15.6 16.7

116,700.0 15.0

It,260.0 16.7

TS i s t o t a l number o f s tu d e n ts . C i s siz e of c la s s e s , based on r a t i o o f IS to in s tr u c to r s in low est le v e l.

Table 2 shows th e s iz e o f c la s s e s f o r spans o f c o n tr o l from one to t e n and l e v e l s one to six *

The s tu d e n t body i s a r r iv e d a t

by ta k in g th e n a ti o n a l a v erag e o f about 121 s tu d e n ts p e r f a c u l t y member*

The s iz e o f c la s s e s i s t h i s p ro d u c t d iv id e d by th e number

o f i n s t r u c t o r s on th e lo w e st le v e l#

For example i n t a b le 2 , w ith a

span o f c o n tr o l o f f iv e and th r e e l e v e l s , th e r e would be th irty -o n ® f a c u l t y members (se e ta b l e l ) j th e s e sh o u ld s u p e rv is e a s tu d e n t body o f 31 tim e s 12 d o r 388 (se e t a b l e 2 )*

However, th e r e would b© o n ly

25 i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h i s group t o te a c h th e 388 s tu d e n ts o r an a v erag e o f 15*5 s tu d e n ts p e r c la s s *

S im ila r ly f o r a span o f c o n tr o l o f s i x

and f i v e l e v e l s , th e r e would r e s u l t 19 ,iilG s tu d e n ts w ith av erag e c la s s e s o f 15.0* I n th e above d is c u s s io n , i t i s assumed f o r p u rp o ses o f s im p li­ c i t y t h a t s tu d e n ts arid i n s t r u c t o r s a l l c a r r y th e same number o f c l a s s h o u rs , th u s making th e same number a p p lic a b le to b o th s i z e s o f c la s s e s and s t u d e n t - i n s t r u c t o r r a t i o s * c o n tin u e d i n su b seq u e n t d is c u s s io n s *

The same a ssu m p tio n i s

I n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , how ever,

i n s t r u c t o r s may c a r r y an average lo a d o f tw e lv e se m e ste r h o u rs, w h ile th e s tu d e n ts c a r r y an e s tim a te d a v erag e o f e ig h te e n *

I b i s d if f e r e n c e

i n lo a d s would in c re a s e th e s i z e s o f th e c la s s e s g iv e n i n th e t a b l e s and c h a r t s by 50$ .

However, th e b a s ic c o n s id e r a tio n s would be p rop o r­

t i o n a t e and a re more r e a d i l y com parable to p u b lis h e d s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta on s tu d e n t—in s t r u c t o r r a t i o s *

s tu d e n ts

per Claes

-If . .......8 .

Span o f C ontrol fig * 3 . j

Siso o f Classes* jar B atio o f |3 tudeixts pezj In s tru c to r, a t ie re ls 2 and 6 * (Based 04 12.5 itudepta per

1- "

73 The d a ta from t a b l e 2 i s shorn* g r a p h ic a lly i n f i g u r e 3 *

R e fe rr­

in g t o f ig u r e 3 , th e s iz e o f th e c l a s s f o r a span o f c o n tr o l o f s i x , and s i x l e v e l s , would be a b o u t 15 *

S im ila r ly f o r a span o f c o n tr o l

o f f o u r , b u t two l e v e l s , th e s i z e o f th e c l a s s w ould be 15*8* Hie fa m ily o f c u rv e s betw een th e second and th e s i x t h l e v e l a re bunched tow ard th e f i f t h and s i x t h l e v e l s , t h e r e being v e ry l i t t l e d if f e r e n c e i n th e s i z e s o f th e c la s s e s a s th e number o f l e v e l s i s in c r e a s e d beyond th re e # from th e shape o f th e cu rv es, i t would a p p e a r t h a t a s th e span o f c o n tr o l in c r e a s e s t h a t th e s iz e o f th e c la s s e s would ap p ro ach some Biiniiauia l im it o f a b o u t 13 s tu d e n ts p e r c l a s s w ith in any r e a s o n ­ a b le span o f c o n tro l#

P ro b a b ly i t co u ld be shown t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h a t

th e lim i t i s 12'| s tu d e n ts p e r c l a s s b u t would be re a c h e d o n ly a f t e r an im p o s sib ly la r g e span o f c o n tro l#

Ik SuBBBarizing th e fo re g o in g d a ta , i t i s a p p a re n t t h a t vfail© th e s u p e r v is io n o f i n s t r u c t i o n ami o f th e i n s t r u c t o r s may be more e f f e c t i v e w ith spans o f c o n tr o l i n th e neighborhood o f f i v e , t h a t th e p e r c e n t overhead i s r e l a t i v e l y h ig h b u t i s d e c re a s in g m arkedly a s th e span o f c o n tr o l approached t e n ( f ig u r e 2 ) ,

On th e o th e r hand,

th e s iz e o f c la s s e s f o r a span o f c o n tr o l o f f i v e h as d e c re a s e d from I 5 i t o 15 and d e c re a s e s o n ly slo w ly a s th e span o f c o n tr o l in c r e a s e s t h e r e a f t e r ( f ig u r e 3 )*

S im ila r ly f o r sp a n s o f c o n tr o l below f i v e ,

th e s iz e o f c l a s s e s in c r e a s e s s h a r p ly , p a r tic u la r ly f o r spans o f c o n tr o l o f two ( f ig u r e 3 )•

The range o f p e r c e n t overhead f o r th e

v a rio u s l e v e l s i s c o m p a ra tiv e ly sm a ll f o r spans o f c o n tr o l above f i v e , b e in g 16*7 f o r two l e v e l s and 20 f o r s i x a t a span o f c o n tr o l o f f i v e and 6*25 p e r c e n t , 6 .7 p e r c e n t a t a span o f c o n tr o l o f 15 •

75 An a n a ly s is o f th e n a tio n a l t o t a l s o f 1,768 c o lle g e s and ur& v e rs i t i e

shows an average r a t i o o f s tu d e n ts p e r s t a f f and

f a c u l t y members o f 12,3* and an av erag e s t a f f and f a c u l t y o f 566 p e r in s titu tio n *

The a d m in is tr a tiv e s t a f f a v e ra g e s a b o u t o n e -e ig h t o f

th e s t a f f and f a c u lty *

T his g iv e s a r a t i o o f ab o u t 16 s tu d e n ts p e r

i n s t r u c t i o n a l f a c u l ty member*

A pplying th e s e a v e ra g e s t o f i g u r e 3,

i t i s a p p a re n t t h a t t h e average c l a s s s i s e o f 16 would f i t alm o st e x a c tly a span o f c o n tr o l o f f i v e , t h a t i s , c la s s e s o f 15 on th e second l e v e l , and 15*6 from th e f o u r th l e v e l s arid h ig h e r . Of c o u rs e , p r a c t i c a l d a ta a p p lic a b le to f i g u r e s 1 and 2 concern­ in g p e r c e n t o v erh ead , a r e n o t d i r e c t l y a p p lic a b le t o th e n a tio n a l a v e ra g e s c i t e d above, b ecause o f th e p r a c t ic e o f departm ent lie ads and deans to c a r r y some o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l lo a d s th em selv es and t o d e le g a te a c e r t a i n p o r tio n o f t h e i r s u p e rv is o r y d u tie s t o t h e i r in s t r u c t o r s *

S t a t i s t i c s o f h ig h e r E d u catio n 1