Spanish Phonology : Descriptive and Historical
 0719007887

Table of contents :
Cover......1
Contents......4
List of Figures and Tables......7

Preface......8
Introduction: Aims and Methods......10
Diacritical Marks and Phonetics Symbols......12

PART I: DESCRIPTIVE PHONOLOGY......18
1 Phonetics and Phonology......19
2 The Organs of Speech......25
3 Classification of the Sounds of Spanish......31
4 Phonetic Transcriptions......39
5 The Syllable......42
6 Spanish Vowels......50
7 Spanish Semivowels......57
8 Plosive, Fricative and Affricate Consonants......69
9 Vibrants, Laterals and Nasals......83
Appendix: Phonetic texts......91
PART II: HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY......96
10 The Historical Context......97
11 Classical Latin and Vulgar Latin......105
12 Stressed Vowels and Voiced Single Consonants......116
13 Stressed Vowels, Voiceless Single Consonants, Geminate Consonants......124
14 Final Vowels, Consonants Final in Romance, Apocope in Old Spanish, Vulgar Latin ts, Vulgar Latin j......132
15 Initial Vowels, Consonant Clusters......138
16 The Palatal Sounds of Old Spanish......144
17 Pretonic, Post-tonic Vowels, Secondary Consonant Clusters......155
18 Sixteenth-century and Seventeenth-century changes......164

Bibliography......170
Index......178
Word list......184

Citation preview

SPANISH PHONOLOGY

DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL | R Macpherson

“eee Salienia

aoc

SPANISH PHONOLOGY:

DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL

I. R. Macpherson

MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PRESS BARNES & NOBLE BOOKS - NEW YORK

© Manchester University Press 1975 Published by MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PRESS Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK ISBN 0 7190 0788 7

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Macpherson, Ian, Richard Spanish phonology.

1. Spanish language — Phonology

L Title 461'.5

PC4726

ISBN 0—7190—0788—7

Text set in 8/10 pt IBM Press Roman, printed and bound in Great Britain at The Pitman Press, Bath

CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

PREFACE

viii

ix

INTRODUCTION: AIMS AND METHODS. Terminology. System of reference. Diacritical marks. Phonetic symbols used for Spanish. Phonetic symbols used for English, Other conventions and abbreviations.

1

PART I: DESCRIPTIVE PHONOLOGY

1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY, Phonetics: speech-sounds. Broad and narrow transcriptions, Phonology: phonemes and allophones. 10

2 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH, Respiratory system. Phonatory system. Articulatory system. Assimilation.

16

3 CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOUNDS OF SPANISH. Vowels, semivowe ls and consonants. Vowels: timbre, pitch, lip position, stress. Classification of vowels. Semivowels. Classification of consonants: action of the vocal cords,

point of articulation, manner of articulation.

22

4 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS. International Phonetic Alphabet. Types of transcription. 30 5 THE SYLLABLE. Rhythm groups. Prominence. Syllable-timed and stresstimed rhythms. The syllabification of Spanish. Syneresis. Combinations of

vowel and semivowel. Stress.

33

6 SPANISH VOWELS IN GREATER DETAIL. Vowel timbre, tension and duration. Detailed descriptions: a, u, i, 0, e. Phonemic distribution. 41

7 SPANISH SEMIVOWELS IN GREATER DETAIL. DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS. SYNALEPHA. THE CONJUNCTIONS ‘y" AND ‘u’, Onglides, offglides and semivowel with consonantal value. Detailed descriptions: w, j. Phonemic distribution. Diphthongs. Triphthongs. Synalepha. The conjunctions yand w. 48

Contents

vi

IN 8 PLOSIVE, FRICATIVE AND AFFRICATE CONSONANTS ¥- Implosion. g k, 8; d, t, 6: b, p, ions: descript GREATER DETAIL. Detailed Detailed descriptions: f; @ and 9; s and §; x; ff; Gj. Phonemic distribution 60 DETAIL. 9 VIBRANTS, LATERAIS AND NASALS IN GREATER ution. distrib mic Phone Detailed descriptions: r, ¥31, A; m3 n, m, 0,1. APPENDIX.

14 82

Phonetic texts. Orthographic versions.

PART II: HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY

THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT. The Romans in Spain. Sermo vulgaris. 10 Linguistic substratum. The Visigothic invasions. The Arabs in Spain. 88 Linguistic borrowing: learned and semi-learned words. CLASSICAL LATIN AND VULGAR LATIN. Vowels. Stress accent. 11 Position of stress. Semivowels. Consonants: prosthesis, fall, gemination, reduction, changes in manner of articulation, changes in point of articulation, STRESSED VOWELS AND VOICED SINGLE CONSONANTS. 12 Stressed vowels: V.L. i, u, ¢ 9; raising. V.L. a; raising. Reduction of aw 107 diphthong. Voiced single consonants: V.L. b, B; x31; mi d, g, 8, ¥. STRESSED VOWELS VOICELESS SINGLE CONSONANTS, 13 GEMINATE CONSONANTS. Stressed vowels: V.L. ¢, 93 diphthongization, dialectal variants, reduction, effect of following nasal, non-diphthongization.

Voiceless single consonants: V.L. p, t, k; s; f. Geminate consonants.

115

FINAL VOWELS, CONSONANTS FINAL IN ROMANCE, APOCOPE 14. {N OLD SPANISH, VULGAR LATIN.48,j. Final vowels: V.L. e, a, 0. Spanish i, u. Consonants final in Romance. Apocope in Old Spanish. Vulgar

Latin ts, j. 15

123

INITIAL VOWELS, CONSONANT CLUSTERS, Initial vowels: V.L.

i, uj es 03 a. Dissimilation, raising, aphaeresis. Consonant clusters: prosthesis,

V.L. consonant + f, l; V.L. intervocalic clusters; V.L. kw; clusters of three consonants.

129

i, dj.

THE PALATAL SOUNDS OF OLD SPANISH. O.Sp. 4, n, f. 3) &, S$ 135

17

PRETONIC, POST-TONIC VOWELS,

16_

SECONDARY

CONSONANT

CLUSTERS, Pretonic, post-tonic vowels: survival of a; loss, raising, retention, Secondary consonant clusters: general; consonant +r, consonant + I, V.L.

-k'L, -g't; V.L. -p'l, -k'F after a consonant; epenthesis, metathesis,

combinations of velar and dental, labial + dental. Groups of three consonants,

146

Contents

18

vii

SIXTEENTH-CENTURY AND SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY CHANGES.

Alfonso X and castellano drecho, Pattern of change. Loss of aspirate h. The

phonemes /b/, /d/, /g/. Devoicing of Old Spanish sibilants. Changes in the

point of articulation of sibilants. [>x. #>0. Ceceo and seseo. Summary. Developments since the seventeenth century.

155

BIBLIOGRAPHY

161

INDEX

169

WORD

LIST

175

UST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Sr aveeye

FIGURES

The organs of speech

The soft palate lowered

The soft palate raised The palate

The tongue The vowels of Spanish

Divisions of the palate

The vowel a

14. The consonant B

44

p, b

18; The consonants t, d 16. The consonant 6 17. The consonants k, g 18. The consonant y 19. The consonant f 20. The consonants 6, 9 21. Castilian tip-alveolar

s, § 22. English blade-alveolar s, z 23. Spanish coronal s, § 24. The consonant x 25. The consonant ff

26. The consonants r, r 2. The consonant I

28. The consonant & 29. The consonant m 30.

The consonant n

32.

The consonant n

27

42

43

9. The vowel u

10. The vowel i ll. The vowel o 12. The vowel e 13. The consonants

17 18 19 19 20

31. The consonant m 33. The consonant p 34, Classical Latin vowels and diphthongs 35. Vulgar Latin vowels and diphthongs

45 46 61 61

61 63 63 65 65

67

67

69 69

70 70 74

4

15 75

78 78 78 78 98 98

TABLES

1.

2

3 4.

Phonetic symbols used for the transcription of Spanish Additional phonetic symbols used for the transcription of Old Spanish consonants The consonants of Proto-Romance

The consonants of Old Spanish

105

153

PREFACE

This book is intended to serve as a general introduction to the phonetics

and phonology, both descriptive and historical, of the Spanish language.

Until now, to the best of my knowledge, there has been no introductory

course in English available. For the descriptive phonetics of Spanish, the student has been able since 1918 to consult Tomas Navarro’s Manual de Pronunciacion espaniola and, more recently, Quilis and Fernandez’s Curso de fonética y fonologia espafiolas and J. B. Dalbor’s Spanish Pronunciation;

for a study of the history of the language and of historical phonology he has

had available principally Rafael Lapesa’s Historia de la lengua espafiola, W. J. Entwistle’s The Spanish Language and Ramén Menéndez Pidal’s Gramética historica espafiola, With the exception of Quilis and Fernandez, and Dalbor, these were designed primarily as works of reference, with their information presented in a form suitable for leisurely consultation. In order to fill a gap which in my belief has existed for a long time, I have here combined into one volume an introduction to Spanish phonetics and

phonology approached from a descriptive point of view in the first part and

from a historical point of view in the second. It has not been my aim to present the material in any formalistic way, but arranged in what I believe in

the light of my teaching experience so far to be a manageable ordet — roughly speaking, the straightforward material comes first in each part and the more

complicated follows. The method of presentation of this introductory course

is thus comparable to the method adopted in most courses designed to teach

a foreign language: the basic elements are presented first, the finer detail

later. A course constructed in this way is often less than ideal as a reference

work: I have tried to compensate for this by providing, on pp. 169-81,

comprehensive subject and word indexes to the material contained in the

main body of the text. My justification for the order in which the information is presented — since

it may well be objected that what is ‘easy’ for one may well be found

‘difficult’ by another — is that the order of presentation is not something which has emerged overnight, but has evolved slowly during constant revision

and reworking of a course taught to undergraduates over a period of ten

years, a process aided considerably by the criticisms and suggestions both of those undergraduates and of fellow teachers of the subject. I make no claim

that this introductory textbook covers exhaustively any aspect of the subjects

with which it deals; I should like to think, however, that I have been able to introduce the basic information and terminology without serious omission in a way which is intelligible to elementary students without offending the standards of professional linguists. I trust too that the test, with its suggestions for further reading, its exercises and its bibliography, will be

Preface

us to further sufficient to provide both a basic framework and a stimul reading and study. written on the Spanish My indebtedness to the many scholars who have evident throughout. I have language or on some individual aspect of it will be which depends, not acknowledged in full detail every aspect of the text butions to knowledge either wittingly or unwittingly, upon the massive contri de Diego, of A. Alonso, D. Alonso, M. Alvar, E. Alarcos, V. Garcia dez Pidal, Menén W. J. Entwistle, Y. Malkiel, R. Lapesa, A. Martinet, R. I M. K. Pope and T. Navarro. To do so would not have been practical, but

have tried to draw attention, in the text or in the notes, to any special

indebtedness, and the reading list which follows each chapter should provide s acclear indication of the scholarly works consulted. I should like to expres

my gratitude to Dr G. B. Gybbon-Monypenny, of the University of

Manchester, who converted my poor sketches into illustrations fitfor publication, and to my colleagues and friends in the University of Durham, in

particular Mrs A. Squires of the English Department, who have patiently

allowed me to pick their brains during the writing of this book. 1 am especially

indebted to the late Professor J. W. Rees and to Professor H. Ramsden, of the

University of Manchester, to Professor P. Russell-Gebbett of The Queen’s University, Belfast, and to Professor J. D. L. Michael of the University of

Southampton, all of whom have read sections of the typescript, corrected much

detail and made valuable suggestions for improvements. To my teacher, J. W. Rees, for the example of dedication and scholarly meticulousness which he set me in my early postgraduate years, I shall always owe an incalculable debt.

INTRODUCTION:

AIMS AND METHODS

TERMINOLOGY The terms linguistics and philology are both in general use to describe the

study of language which is ‘scientific’ in approach — that is, which is worthy of scholarly attention and which is guided by the desire for exhaustiveness,

consistency and economy in its methods of description and analysis. Of

these, the term philology has in recent years shown signs of falling steadily

from favour, largely because in British usage it has come increasingly to imply only one particular branch of linguistic study — the study of language in its process of evolution: historical philology. Linguistics, on the other hand, appears to be gaining in favour as a general term, both to describe the study

of languages as systems (descriptive linguistics) and also to describe their historical development (historical linguistics).

Spanish is a Romance language. That is to say, it is one ofa number of

languages that have evolved principally from Latin. The linguist who devotes

himself to the study of the Spanish language may be concerned either with a descriptive study of Spanish as a self-contained system (Spanish linguistics) or with a comparative study of Spanish in relationship with other Romance languages (Romance linguistics). The term Hispanic linguistics is commonly used to describe the narrower comparative study of all the languages and dialects (Castilian, Catalan, Portuguese, Aragonese, Leonese etc.) which evolved from Latin in the Iberian Peninsula, together with their subsequent development in other parts of the world. In this manual we are chiefly

concerned with the narrowest of the three areas of study described, that of

Spanish linguistics.

The principal fields of linguistic study are phonetics (the study of sounds), phonology (the study of the patterns and organization of a language in terms of the sounds which it contains), morphology (the study of word-forms),

syntax (the study of sentence-structure) and semantics (the study of meaning).

‘The present volume is concerned solely with phonetics and phonology.

Within each of the fields indicated the linguist who is concerned with the Spanish language may emphasize either the study of Spanish functioning as a

system at a given moment in time and in a given place (a descriptive or

synchronic study) or the study of Spanish in its process of evolution from Latin (a historical or diachronic study). In the first part of this manual we are concerned with synchronic study — a description of the Spanish sound system as it exists today; in the second part we are concerned with diachronic

study — the process by which the sound system of modern Spanish evolved from Latin.

2

Spanish phonology

The linguist must also form some clear idea of the complexities of his task.

A term like the Spanish language is of course an abstract idea. It is obvious

way to the most casual observer that no two individuals speak in an identical

and that a generalization made about the speech of one man may be quite

untrue of the speech of his neighbour. The most common method of

dealing with the difficulty is the one employed here. The speech of educated

persons from one part of the country or one section of the population is taken as the ‘norm’: thus it is the French of the educated Parisian and the ‘Received Pronunciation’ (RP) of those educated at English public schools

which is generally taught as a foreign language in schools throughout the

world. In Spain it is Castilian, the speech of an educated minority in New

Castile, which has acquired prestige as the ‘standard’ language and which is taught to foreign learners of ‘Spanish’. Accordingly, the linguistic system

described in both parts of this manual is that of Castilian. Attention is drawn

throughout, however, to the principal dialectal variants of pronunciation which are to be found both in the Peninsula and in Spanish America. For the

sake of convenience the term Spanish is used when statements are made about

the language which are true for the majority of speakers; the term Castilian is generally reserved for use on those occasions when it is desired to draw

attention to the fact that a linguistic feature is peculiar to that geographical

area.

SYSTEM

OF REFERENCE

A full bibliography and list of works consulted appears on pp. 161-8.

Works referred to are listed in alphabetical order by author, followed by date and place of publication of first edition or the edition consulted, whichever

is relevant. This bibliography is intended to have two functions: to provide

full references to works which are mentioned in the main text and to provide

suggestions for further study.

Each chapter ends with a brief list of suggestions for further reading. Articles quoted in this list are normally referred to by author, date of

publication, and page reference either to the whole article or part of it. Books are treated in a similar way, with reference to the pages, chapters or paragraphs particularly relevant. References in the text and notes are made

simply by author and date of publication. Because of the great size of the field covered — the bibliography includes items which range from bulky dictionaries and works on General Linguistics to short specialized journal articles which deal with one small detail of

interest to Hispanic scholars — the bibliography has had to be highly selective. Specialists in General Linguistics, phonetics or dialect geography, for

example, will not find it adequate for their special needs, but I trust that

the university students for whom it is designed will find enough in it to encourage them to read further in areas of the subject which attract their

interest. Not all books and articles included in the bibliography are referred to in the text; this in no way represents a judgement on their relevance or value.

Introduction: aims and methods

DIACRITICAL MARKS U1}

advanced variety: cacha kiéfa valle bake

(_]

retracted variety: salvo sfI80 caja kAxa

(.1

open variety: teja téja_rico tjko

cojo kéxo

burro bro

[1]

close variety (vowel): French pré prg V.L. sala téla

[L1

voice: rasgo Tagyo

Co]

breath: verdad berd& ciudad ejuod?

[+]

dental articulation: bastar bastér alto alto antes antes conde kénde

juzgar xuQyar

[+] _ interdental articulation (cons.): alzar [email protected]ér conciencia konOjéndja [‘] _ Palatal articulation (cons.): quepa képa guindo gindo [7]

nasalization: mano mano nifio nino

OTHER CONVENTIONS

=

|

4

syllabification: un ojo t-nd-xo

breath group

major pause

stress: palo palo

long vowel: C.L. CARUM PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND OLD SPANISH

ka:rum

C.L. FLOREM

flo:rem

USED FOR THE TRANSCRIPTION OF SPANISH

See tables 1—2. The following points, which apply to both tables, should be noted:

1. The phonetic symbols which appear in columns I and II are the only symbols used in phonetic transcriptions in this book.

2. The phonetic symbols in column III are discussed in the main text, but

are not used in phonetic transcriptions.

3. Symbols which appear in the last column appear in the works of other scholars, but are not used or discussed in any detail in the text. The only

exception to this is the symbol z, which does not appear in Part I, but is used in Part II to designate the voiced alveolar sibilant of Old Spanish (see 13.10).

[continued on p. 6

f 2

z L 6 q

&

Al

& &

2B z

Bop

&

sp

£ &

SNVIOLLANOHd

WAHLO Ad dasn STOSWAS AALLVNUALTV

StUIM SE] SviANY sD] ‘ODA ODaNY UT Se AL

BUINgT Duinad ‘eSHEY vs UT se A

f

III

ofpod oyod *oSprut odmu use Sp fod oyod ‘ofeu odvw uyse © egual ey nquary 2)‘ ofew o h, phénoméne ibére ou roman” in Revue de Linguistique Romane, XII, 10-35 PEL, M. (1965), /nvitation to Linguistics, Allen and Unwin, London PIKE, K. L. (1943), Phonetics: a Critical Analysis of Phonetic Theory and a Technic for the Practical Description of Sounds, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor (1946), The Intonation of American English, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor

(19472), ‘On the phonemic status of English diphthongs’ in Language,

XXIII, 151-9 in Word, —— (1947b), ‘Grammatical prerequisites to phonemic analysis’ MM, 155-72 Arbor —— (1947c), Phonemics, University of Michigan Press, Ann University Manchester POPE, M. K. (1934), From Latin to Modern French,

Press

POSNER, R. (1961), Consonantal dissimilation in the Romance Languages, Publications of the Philological Society, XIX, Basil Blackwell, Oxford (1966), The Romance Languages: A Linguistic Introduction, Anchor Books, New York

4 l'étude ion de la philologie hispanique, POTTIER, B. (1956-7), Introduct 2 vols., Bordeaux. 2nd ed., Paris, 1960 (1968), Lingilistica moderna y filologia hispanica, trans. M. Blanco Alvarez, Gredos, Madrid

QUILIS, A. (1963), Fonética y fonologta del espaiiol, C.S.1.C., Madrid

—— (1966), ‘Sobre los aléfonos dentales de /s/’ in RFE, XLIX, 335-43 QUILIS, A., and FERNANDEZ, J. A. (1964), Curso de fonética y fonologia espaholas, C.S.LC., Madrid, 3rd ed., Madrid, 1968

QUILIS, A., and ROZAS, J. M. (1963), ‘Para la cronologia de la fricativa velar, sorda, /x/ en castellano’ in RFE, XLVI, 445-9 ROBINS, R. J. (1964), General Linguistics: an Introductory Survey, Longmans, London

Bibliography

167

SALVADOR, G. (1957), ‘La diptongacién de 6, i latinas y las cartas de un semianalfabeto’ in RFE, XLI, 418-25 SAPIR, E. (1921), Language, an Introduction to the Study of Speech,

Harcourt, Brace and Co., New York SAPORTA, S. (1956), ‘A note on Spanish semi-vowels’ in Language, XXXII, 287-90. Repr. in Joos (1966), 403-4 SAPORTA, S., and CONTRERAS, H. (1962), A Phonological Grammar of Spanish, University of Washington Press, Seattle SAROJHANDY, J. (1902), ‘Remarques sur la phonétique du ¢ et duz en

ancien espagnol’ in BH, IV, 198-214 SAUSSURE, F, de (1916), Cours de linguistique générale, Payot, Paris. Trans. W. Baskin: Course in General Linguistics, Owen, London, 1961, and by Amado Alonso, Curso de lingiiéstica general (with notes), 1945 SCHOCH, A. D. (1907), ‘Uniform writing or simplified alphabet, which?” in Le Maftre phonétique, 80-4 SPAULDING, R. K. (1943), How Spanish Grew, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles SPAULDING, R., and PATT, B. (1948), ‘Data for the chronology of “theta” and “jota”’ in Hispanic Review, XVI, 50-60 STOCKWELL, R. P., and BOWEN, J. D. (1965), The Sounds of English and Spanish, University of Chicago Press STOCKWELL, R. P., BOWEN, J. D., and SILVA-FUENZALIDA, I. (1956), ‘Spanish juncture and intonation’ in Language, XXXII, 641-65. Repr. in Joos (1966), 406-18 STRANG, B. M. H. (1962), Modern English Structure, E. Arnold, London. 2nd, revised, ed., 1968 STURTEVANT, E. H. (1917), Linguistic Change, University of Chicago Press (1947), An Introduction to Linguistic Science, Yale University Press, New Haven SWADESH, M. (1947), ‘On the analysis of English syllabics’ in Language, XXII, 137-50 TRAGER, G. L. (1935), ‘The transcription of English’ in Le Maftre phonétique, 10-13 (1939), ‘The phonemes of Castillian Spanish’ in Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague, VIM, 217-22 (1942), ‘The phonemic treatment of semivowels’ in Language, XVIII, 220-3 TRAGER, G. L., and BLOCH, B. (1941), ‘The syllabic phonemes of English’ in Language, XVII, 223-46 TRAGER, G. L., and SMITH, H. L,, Jr. (1956), An Outline of English Structure, American Council of Learned Societies, Washington TRUBETZKOY,N. S. (1935), Anleitung zu phonologischen Beschreibungen, édition du Cercle Linguistique de Prague, Brno. Trans. L. A. Murray: Introduction to the Principles of Phonological Descriptions, The Hague, 1968 (1939), Grundziige der Phonologie, Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague, VII, Prague. Trans. J. Cantineau: Principes de Phonologie, Paris, 1949 TWADDELL, W. F. (1935), On Defining the Phoneme, Language Monographs, XVI, Baltimore, Repr. in Joos (1966), 55-80

168

Spanish phonology

WILLIAMS, E. B, (1938), From Latin to Portuguese, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2nd ed., 1962 WISE, C, M. (1958), Introduction to Phonetics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. ZAMORA VICENTE, A. (1960), Dialectologta espatiola, Gredos, Madrid. 2nd ed., expanded, Madrid, 1967 Addenda ALONSO, Démaso (1972), ‘B=V en la peninsula ibcrica’, in Obras completas, 1, Madrid. Previously publ. in Enciclopedia lingiitstica hispdnica, L (suplemento), Madrid, 1962, 155-209 BOURCIEZ, E. (1967), Elements de linguistique romane, 5th cd., Paris CANFIELD, D. L., and DAVIS, J.C. (1975). An Introduction to Romance Linguistics, Minois, Southern Dlinois Univ. Press CARDENAS, D. N. (1960), Introduccidn a una comparacidn fonoldgica del espafiol y del ingles, Oxford Univ. Press

DEFERRARY A. E. (1967), The Phonology of Italian, Spanish and French, Washington, D.C. GIFFORD, D. (1973), ‘Spain and the Spanish Language in Spain’, in Spain. A Companion to Spanish Studies, ed. P. E. Russell, London, Methuen, 1-39 LAUSBERG, H. (1965), Linguistica romdnion, Madrid

MACPHERSON, I. R. (1975), ‘Delateralization and Phonetic Change: the Old Spanish palatals [4], [€f], [(d)3]’ in Studies in Honor of Lloyd A. Kasten, Madison, 155-64 MALKILL, Y. (1975), ‘En torno al cultismo medieval: los descendientes hispdnicos de DULCIS’ in NRFH, XXIV, 24-45 PENNY, R. J. (1972), “The re-emergence of /f/ asa phoneme of Castilian’ in Zeitschrift fir Romanische Philologie, LXXXVIII, 463-82 (1976), ‘The Convergence of B, V and -P- in the Peninsula: a reappraisal’ in Medieval Hispanic Studies Presented to Rita Hamilton, ed. A. D. Deyermond, London, Tamesis, 149-59 VON WARTBURG, W. (1952), La fragmentacidn lingitistica de la Romania, trans. M. Muiioz Cortés, Madrid

INDEX

Except where otherwise stated, references are to chapter and paragraph numbers, Phonetic symbols are placed at the end of the appropriate letter section.

Abbreviations, Intro., p. 8

B, description, 8.5; phonemic status, 1.6—9,

Alfonso X, 18.1

bw, Bw, 7.5

Affricate articulations, 3.18, 8.1; detail, aah 8.33; phonemic status, 8.32, 8.34,

Allophones,

1.6—7, 1.11

Alveolar articulations, 2.6, 8.26—7, 9.1-4

9.9, 16.1 Aphacresis, 15.9

Apical fricative, 3.19, 8.26

Apocope, 14.8, 17.16 Appendix Probi, 10.4 ‘Approximant, 3.13 Arabic, 10.13—14

Archiphoneme, 1.10 Articulators, 2.10

Articulatory system, 2.5

Aspiration, 8.3, 8.7, 8.8, 8.11, 8.26, 8.29, 10.7, 10.20, 13.11, 18.1-3, 18. 10c,d

Assimilation, contextual, 2.11, 9.4;

V.L., 11.15, 11.18; in O.Sp., 12.7, 13.9c, 15.6, 16.3b, 16.4a, 1.3, 16.6b, 17.4, 17.9a, 17.10, 17.19b

Atonic syllables, 5.18

a, description, 6.6; phonemic status, 1.8,

6.11; sources, 12.6, 14.3, 15.1, 15.5, 15,6, 17.1; raising, 12.7

a, 6.6

a, 6.6, 6.11

af, 12.8b

aw, 11.1-4, 12.8, 15.5

Back, vowels, 3,11 Bilabial articulations, 3.17, 8.3—6, 9.7 Blade-alveolar fricative, 8, 26 Blade-dental fricative, 8.26, 18.8 Blocked, syllables, 5.8

Breath groups, 1.7,

5.2

Breathed consonants, 2.3

Broad transcription, 1.5

Buccal sounds, 3.18 b, 8.1—2; description 8.4; phonemic status, 1.6—9, 8,6, 8.20, 8.35; devoicing, 8.19; in V.L., 11.17; in O.Sp., 12.10, 13.9¢, 13.12, 15.1 1a, 17.8a, b, 17.9, 17.13-16 17.20; in 16th and 17th centuries, 18.4

8.6, 8.20, 8.35; implosive, 8.16; in V.L., 11.17a; in O.Sp., 12.10, 13.11b, 17.20

Cacuminal fricative, 3.19, 8.26 Castellano drecho, 18.1 Castile, Intro., p. 2, 10.2, 10.15 Ceceo, 8,25—6, 18.8n

Central vowel, 3.11 Classical Latin, 10.3-4, 10.8, 10.17-20, 111-18 Clear I, 9.6 Close, vowels, 3.10 Coalescent assimilation, 11.18a, 16.3b Complementary distribution, 1.9, 8.6, 8.10, 8.14, 8.25, 8.34, 9.6, 9.13 Conjunctions, y, 7.19, 7.2 ; u, 7.19, 7.23 Consonantal vowel, 7.1 Consonants, description, 3.1—2; classifica tion, 314-19; in V.L., 1112-19; voiced single consonants, 12.9—14; voiceless single consonants, 13.8—11; geminate consonants, 5.14, 13.12, 15.12b, c, 16.2c, 16.3d, 16.5b, 17.8, 17.9a; consonants final in Romance, 14,7; consonant clusters, 15.1014, 17.6 Continuants, 3.18 Conventions, list, pp. 3-8 Coronal fricative, 8.26, 18.8n ¢, 8.31 Dark J, 9.6, 10,20, 12.8b, 16.4b Denial articulations, 2.8, 3.17, 8.7—10,

Descriptive linguistics, Intro., p. 1 Devoicing, 18.5, 18.7

Delateralization, 16.2a, n.1, 16.4c, 16.5b,

nd, 17.10 Diacritical marks, list, Intro., p.3 Diachronic study, Intro., p. 1 Diphthongization, of V.L. stressed vowels, 13.1-13,7; prevention of, 13.6, 13.7,

16.3n, 16.4, n.2, 16,.5b, n.2, 16.6a, n., 17.10, nA, 17.11, 1

Index

170 3, 5.16-17, 7.10-13; in in V.L., 11.3—-5; see also

Reduction Dissimilation, 14.10c, 15.7, 16,2, n.2, 17,18

Distinctive features, 1.8—-9 Drift, 10.1

d, description, 8.8; phonemic status, 1.11, 8.10, 8.20, 8.35; devoicing, 8.19; sources, 12.14, 13.9c, 13.12, 14.7, 15.11a, 17.8b, 17.12, o., 17.13, 17.17, 17.19-20; in 16th and 17th centuries, 18.4

8, description, 8.9, 18.10; phonemic status, 1,11, 8.10, 8.20, 8.35; implosive, 8.18, in V.L., 11.17b, sources, 12.14, 14.7, 15.11b

2, 8.9

G detail, 7.8, 8.33; phonemic status, 7.9, ®

8.34—5; reduction in V.L., 11.17; sources, 14.12b, 16.7 &, sources, 14.7, 14.9-11, 15.3, nl,

te 3b, n, 17.1Bc, 17.18—19; devoicing, 65 &, Ts 8.33, 8.34; sources, 14.12, n.1,

16.5

Glottis, 2.3, 3.17,

g, description; 8,12; phonemic status,

8.14, 8.20, 8.35; devoicing, 8.19; sources, 12.14, 13,9c and n.2, 15.11, 15.13b; in 16th and 17th centuries, 18.4

g, 1L.18b

gi, reduction in V.L., 11.17b

BW, YW, 1.9, 7.5, 7.9, 8.13, 9.11 y, description, 8.11, 8.13; phonemic status, 8,14, 8,20, 8.35; implosive, 8.17; in .L., 11.17b; sources, 12.14, 16.3c. n.2, 18.7n

Hall-close, vowels, 3.10 Hiatus, 5.16, 7.17 Historical linguistics, Intro., p. 1 Homophones, 8.25 h, 8.3, 8.7, 8.8, 8.11, 8.26, 8.29; sources, 10.7, 10,20, 13.11, 18.1-3, 18,10c, d Implosion, 8,15-20

Interdental articulations, 3.17, 8.23—4, 9.4 International Phonetic Alphabet, 4.3-7

Intonation, 3.6

i, 3.2; description, 6.8; phonemic status,

Epenthesis, 17.13-17

Expiratory accent, 11.6-7 prosthetic e, 11.13, 15.19; sources,

e, description, 6.10; phonemic status, 6.11} 12.3, 12.7, 13.5-7, 14.1—2, 15.1, 15.3, 15.7, 16.4a, n.1 and n.4, 16.6a, n.1,

17,5; see Raising

¢, 610-11, 13.1-

Fall, of C.L. m, 11.14; of C.L. h, 11.14

Fall, of prominence, 7.18

Falling diphthongs, 7.10, 7.12, 7.17

Flapped r, 4.8, 9.1

Fortis articulation, 3.15, 8.29

Free variation, 1.9, 7.5, 8.34, 16.2, n.2 Fricative articulations, 3.18, 8.1; detail, 8.5, 8.9, 8.13, 8.15—18, 8.21, 8.23—4, 8.26—7, 8.29, 9.1—2; phonemic status, 8.6, 8.10, 8.14, 8.20, 8.22, 8.25, 8.28, 8.30, 8.35 Frictionless continuant, 3.13 Front, vowels, 3.11 Functional differences, 1.2, 1.6, 1.8 f, description, 8.21; phonemic status, 8.22, 8.30, 8.35; sources, 10.7, 10.20, 12.10n., 13.11, 14,8, 14.12, n.3, 15.11a, 18.3

fl, 16.2, n.2 andn.3, 16,4¢

Geminate consonants, in M.Sp., 5.14; in V,L, and O.Sp., 13.12, 15.12b, ¢, 16.2c, 16.3d, 16.5b, 17,.8c, 17.9a

Glottal stop, 2.3, 3.17, 7.15

472

6.11, 7.9, 8.33—5; pronunciation of conjunction y, 7.22; suffix i, 10.14; sources, 12.2, 12.4, 13.4, 14.5, n.2, 15.1—2, 15.8a, 17.5, 18.1

1.68, 6.11 Jarchas, 10.13 j, in syneresis, 5.16; in onglides, 5.17, 7. 2, 7.6, 7.10—11, 7.17, 7.22; in offglides, 5.17, 7.1-2, 7.7, 7.10, 7.12, 7.17, 7.22; consonantal value, 3.2, 7.1—2, 7.8, 7.22,

14,12; phonemic status, 7.9. 8.3451

triphthongs, 5.17; in V.L., 11.10—11, 11.18; in Romance diphthongs, 13.1-4, 13.7, 16.4, n., 16.5b, 16.7, 17.4; final

5, 14:5, 16.4 72

k, description, 8.11; phonemic status, 8.14, 8.20, 8.35; implosive, 8.17; sources, 13.94 andn. 2, 13.12, 15.11, 15.130 kK’, 8.11, 11.18c, 17.18, 17.19b kj, in V.L., 11,18¢

kl, 16,2, n.2 and n.3, 16.4¢

ks, syllable-final in V.L., 11.16a; vocalic in V.L., L1.17¢ kt, intervocalicin V.L., 11.17¢ kw, 15,13

inter- .

Tacodentalastleulations: 3.17, 8.21, 9.10

Larynx, 2.3-4, 3.

Lateral articulations 5. 18; detail, 9.4-5;

phonemic status, 9.6

171

Index

Learned words, 10.17, 10.19 Lenis articulation, 3,15 Linguistic substratum, 10.7 Lips, 2.9, 6.1 Liquids, 3.18 Loan words, 10.15-19 Loss, initial vowels, 15.9; unstressed vowels, 11.7, 17,2—3; tinal vowels, 14.2, 14.8, 17.53 semivowels, 14.12, 17.20; initial and syllable-initial consonants, 11.14, 13.11, 15.11a, 16.5a, n.2, 18.3, 18.9: intervocalic consonants, 11.14, 11.17, n.2, 12.10, 12.14, 13.9, n.1, 14.5, 16.7, n.} and n.3, 18.10a; final and syllablefinal consonants, 11.14, 11.16, 12,13, 13.9b, 14,7, 15.14, 17.12, n., 17.22, 18.10c; phonemes, 18.2—9, 18.10b, d. 1, detail, 9.4; phonemic status, 9.6, 9.14; sources, 12.12, 14.7, 14.8, 16.2, n.2 1, 9.4 1, 9.4

4, 1,5, 9.4, 10.20, 12.8b, 16.4b A, detail, 9.5; phonemic status, 9.6, 9.14; in V.L., 11.18a; sources, 16.2, 16.5, 17.98 ij, palatalization in V.L., 11.184 Margin, of syllable, 5.4 Metathesis, 12.7, 12.8cy 12.11, 13.7, 15.11, nl, 16.6a, 0.2, 17.6, 17.9, 17.10, 1.2, 17.11, 0.2, 17.13, 17,16-17 Minimat pairs, 1.8 Moors, 10.13~14 Mozarabes, 10.14 Musical accent, 11.6 m, detail, 4.5, 9.10; phonemic status, 9.13—14 m, detail, 9.7; phonemic status, 9.8, 9.14; sources, 12.13, 13.12, 15.12a Narrow transcription, 1.5 Nasal articulations, 2:5, 3.18, 6.5; detail, 9.7, 9.9-12; phonemic status, 9.8. 9.13—14; effect on preceding O, 13.6 Neutralization, 1.10, 8.20! 9,3, 9.6, 9.13, 14.8, 14.11 Nucleus, of syllable, 3.4, 5.4, 5.9, 6.2, 6.12, 7.9-14, 7.21 n, detail, 9.9; phonemic status, 1.11, 9.13— 14; sources 14,7, 14.8, 16.3c, n.2 1, 4.5, 9.9 24.5, 9.9 1, detail, 4.5, 9.11; phonemic status, 1.11, 9.13—14 nj, palatalization in V.L,, 11.183; sources, 16.36 ns, reduction in V.L., 11.162 ‘J, detail, 9.12; phonemic status, 9.13-14; in V.L., 11.18a; sources, 16.3, 16.5b, 17,12, n.

Occlusive consonants,

Offglides, 5.16; 7.1—2,

3,18

7.17, 8,9

7.10, 7.12,

Onglides, 5,16, 7.1—3, 7.10-11, 7.17

Open, syllables, 5.8

Open, vowels, 3.10 Oral sounds, 3.18

Organs of speech, 2,1—11

Orthographic versions, pp. 84-6

Oxytones, 5.19

, description, 6.9; phonemic status, 1.8,

6.11; sources, 12.3, 12.8, 13.6, 13.7, 14.4, 15.1, 15.4, 16.5b, n.2, 16.6a, n.1, 17.5, 17.10, n.1; see Raising.

96.9, 611, 13.1—3

Palatal articulations, 2.6, 3.17, 8.31, 8.33, 9.4, 9.12, 16.1-7 Palate, hard and soft, 2.5-6 Palatal, vowels, 3.11 Paroxytones, 5.19 Peak, of prominence, 5.4, 7.13, 7.14, 7.18 Perceptibility, 3.3—4; 5.3, 5.9, 7.10, 7.19, 7.21 Pharynx, 2.4—6, 3.1

Philology, Intro., p. 1

Phonatory system, 2.3

Phonetic texts, pp. 82-4 Phonemes, 1.6—12; phonemic transcription, 4.7; of C.L., 11.2, of Spanish, 18.1-10

Phonetics and linguistics, Intro., p. 1 Phonetics and phonology, 1.1—2

Phonetic change, strong and weak, 12.14b Phonetic context, 1.6

Phonetic symbols, list, Intro., pp. 3-7

Phonetic transcriptions, 4.1—9

Phonic groups, 5.2

Phonology, Intro., p. 1 Pitch, 3.6 Plosive articulations, 3,18, 8.1—2;

detail,

8.3—4, 8.7—8, 811-12, 8.15—19;

phonemic status, 8.6, 8.10, 8.14, 8.20, 8.35 Predorsal fricative, 8.26 Prominence, 3.3, 5.4, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 718-19

Proparoxytones, 5.19

Prosthesis, 11.13, 15.10 Proto-Romance, 11.19

P, description, 8.3; phonemic status, 1.6—

9, 8.6, 8.20; 8.35; implosive, 8.16; sources, 13.9a and n.2, 13.12, 15.11, 17.9a pl, 16,2, n.2 and n.3, 16.4c, 17,18

Quality, vowels, 11.1-5 Quantity, vowels, Intro., p. 7, 11.1-5

Index

172

Raising, 12.4, 12.5, 12.7, 15.8, 16.3¢, n.J, 16.4a, n.J and n.4, 16.5b, n.3, 16.6a, nl, 17.4 Received Pronunciation, Intro., p. 2, 7

Reduction, in V.L., 11.16; of diphthongs,

12,8, 13.4, 13.5, 15.5, n, 16.4a, n.2, 16.4 Respiratory system, 2.2 Retroflex fricative, 3.19, 8.26, 13.10, 18.6

Rhythm groups, 3.8, 5.2 Rise, of prominence, 7.18 Rising diphthongs, 7.10—11, 7.17 Romance Languages, Intro., p. 1

r, detail, 9.1; phonemic status, 1.10, 9.3, 9.14; sources, 12,11, 14.7,,17.15

¥, detail, 9.2; phonemic status, 1.10, 9.3,

9.14; sources, 13.12, 17.17, n. #, 8.27, ou, 9.3, 18.10 ¥, 92

Sapir, Edward, 10.1 Secondary clusters, 17.6-22 Segments, 1.2

Teeth, 2.8 Timbre, 2.10, 3.5, 6.1—2, 6,13, 13. 2 Tip-alveolar fricative, 3.19, 8.26,9. 2, 13.10

18.6, 18.8 Triphthongs, 5.3, 7.14, 7.18 arts of, 2.7 Tongue, Transcrip i

4 ‘imens, pp. 4.8; allophoni Trough, of promi ence, 34, 7.13, 719 t, description, 8.7; phonemic status, 8.10,

8.20, 8.35; implosive, 8.18; sources, , 13.9, 13.12, 14.8, 15.11b, 15.12¢, 17.84 gin V.L, 11.18¢

%, in V.L., 11.18c; sources, 14.911, 15.13, nel, 17,8¢, 17.18n, 18.5~6 G, detail, 8.31; phonemic status, 8.32, 8.35; sources, 16.2a, n.1, 16.4, 16.5a, n.3, 16.5b, n.3, 17.12 tt, in V.L, 11.15a 0, description, 8.23; phonemic status, 1.10, 8.25, 8.35; sources, 18.6, 18.8—9 Q, description, 8.24; phonemic status, 8.25, 5

Semi-learned words. 10.18-19

Semiconsonante, 7.11 Semivocal, 7.12 Semivowels, description, 3.1, 3.13; classi-

fication, 3.13; in diphthongs and triph-

thongs, 5.17, 7.1—14; in syneresis, 5. in synalepha, 7.17—21; in C.L., 11.9; in V.L., 11.10-11, 11.16. Seseo, 8.23, 8.25, 18.8n Sibilants, 3.18

Speech-chains, 1.1, 1.3 Speech-sounds, 1.3—4, 2.1

Spirants, 3.18 Stop consonants, 3.18

Stress, 3.8, 5.18—20, 6.3, 7.21; in V.L., 11.7-8, 13.2; stressed vowels, 11.7, 12.1—8, 13.1—7; stress-timed rhythm, 5.6-T

Structure, 1.2

Substance, 1.2

Substratum, 10.7

Syllable, description, 5.1-—3; as rhythm unit, 5.4~7; formation of Spanish syllable, 5.817; accentuation, 5.18-20

Syllable-timed rhythm, 5.5, 6.4 Synalepha, 7.13, 7.15—21 Synchronic study, Intro., p. 1 Syneresis, 5.16 Syntactic phonology, 15.9

s, detail; 8.26; phonemic status, 1.8, 1.10, 8.28, 8.35; sources 13.10, 13.12, 14.7, 15,12b, 18.5—6, 18.9 gr detail, 8.27; phonemic status, 8.28, 8.35

§ 18.6, 18.8

ss, in V.L., 11,15b,¢

J sources, 10.14, 14.8, 16.2a, n.1, 16.6, 185-7

u, conjunction, 7.5, 7.22 Unstressed, syliabies, 5.18; words in rhythm groups, 5.20; vowels in words, 6.3; historical development of unstressed vowels, 141-8, 15.1-9, 17.1-5 Uvula, 2.6 u, 3.2; description, 6.7: phonemic status, 6:11, 7.9; sources, 13.2, 12.5, 14.6, 15.1-2, 15,8b, 16.3¢, nl, 16.4a, 0.4, 16.4b, 16.5b, n.3

Velar articulations, 2.6, 3.11, 3.17, 8.11— 13, 8.29, 9.11 Velarization, 8.2 Velum, 2.6 Vibrant articulations, 3.18; detail, 9.1—2;

phonemic status, 9.3

Visigoths, 10.11—12 Vocal cords, 3.15—16, 8.2 Vocalization. . 10.20, 12.8b, 16.40; of

b, B, 17.20, 18.1 single consonants, 13. single consonants, 12.9-14 Vowels, description, pitch, 3.6; lip pos .7; classificaVoice, 2.3, 3.15—16, 8.2, 8.20;

12; in C.L., 111-2; in V.L., —5; stressed, 11.7, 12. 1-3) 12.6; initial, 11.7, 15.19: final, 11.7, 14,1-

6; unst

d, 11,7, 17.1—S, see Raising

Index Vulgar Latin, 10.3-10, 111-18 v, 10.7,11.17, nl, 18.4

Whisper, 2.3

w, in onglides, 5.17, 7.1—3, 710-11, 7.17; in offglides, 5.17, 7.1—2, 7.4, 7.10, 7.12,

7.17, 8.9; consonantal value, 3.2, 7.1—2,

7.5, 7.23; phonemic status, 7.9; in triph= 11.174; in Romance diphthongs, 13.1—3,

thongs, 5.17; in V.L., 11.11; C.L.w,

13.5—7, result of C.L. #, 12.8b, 16.4b

W, 7.2

173

X, detail, 8.29; phonemic status, 8.30, 8.35;

in V.L., 11,17, 16.4a, 16.6a, 17.10; sources, 14.8, 18.6—7, 18.9, 18.104

y, conjunction, 7,22 Yeismo, 9.5, 18.106

2, sources, 13,10, 15.12d; devoicing, 18.5

3, 7.8, 8.34; sources, 14.12, n.1, 16.5, 17.10-11; devoicing, 18.5

WORD LIST In this list of Spanish words cited in Part II entries are spelled as they appear in the main text: thus fallar, massa, lexos are alphabetized under their Old Spanish spellings.

References are to chapter and paragraph numbers.

a, 12.13 abad, 13,12

abeja, 17.10 abrir, 17.83

abuela, 12.10 acebo, 13.11b

acor, 17.18, n. agua, 15.13¢

dguila, 15.13b, 17.5 ala, 12,12 albo, 15.12

algo, 15.13 alma, 17.13

almuergo, 14,10, n.3 alto, 12.8b ama, 13,9b, 14.3

amabais, 14.5

amdis, 13.9, n.1, 14.5 amarillo, 17.1

amasse, amas, 13,12, 14.8 amigo, 15.5

amistad, 17.7, n.2, 17.18 amizat, 17.18 amos, 15,12a

ampliar, 16.4c ancla, 17,22c ancho, 16.4¢

4ngel, 17.5 Angelus, 14.6 anillo, 13.4a antigua, 15.13c

balanza, 15.6 baiio, 16.3a barba, 12.10 barrer, 12.10 basura, 12,10 baxar, 16.6b baxo, 12.7, n1 bebdo, 17.20 beber, 12.10 benigno, 16.3c, n.2 bermejo, 12.16 berza, 12.4a, n., 12.10, 14.10, n.3 beso, 12.7 bicis, 14.5, n.2 bizma, 15.9 blando, 15,11a bobo, 12.8b boca, 12.10, 13.12 boda, 12.10 bodega, 15.9 bodigo, 12.10 boj, 14.8 bondad, 17.21 borraj, 14.8 brazo, 15.114 bronquitis, 14.5, n.2 bueno, 12.1, 12/10, 13.1 buey, 14.5 buitre, 16.4, n., 17.224

afadir, 13,12 afio, 16.34, 16.Sb

caballo, 12.13, 16.2¢ cabo, 13.9¢ cabra, 15.11b, 17.6

apéstol, 17.5

cada, 12.9, 13.9¢

apendicitis, 14.5, n.2 aprisco, 13.4b

arafia, 16.3a

arbol, 17.5 arce, 17.8¢ arte, art, 14.2, 14.8 arrojar, 17.11 asa, 12.9, 15.12d aspid, 14.5, n.2

Asun(cién), 14.6

ave, 14.2

avispa, 13.4b

ayuno, 16.74

azufre, 12.5, 12.11

balaj, 14.8

cacha, 17.12

cadena, 13.9¢ calandria, 15.14 caldo, 17.21 caliente, 15.12 cdliz, 17.5 calza, 12.8b

calle, cal, 14.8

cambiar, camiar, camear, 15,12a

cambuj, 14.8

campus, 14.6 canal, 15.5

candado, 17,2, 17.6

cansar, 15.14

cantallo, 16,2c, n. cantan, 14.3

176

Word list

caramillo, 17.1

consejo, 16.5b contra, 13,6

cargar, 17,2

cope, 12.8¢

carrera, 12.7

correa, 12.4a, n, 16.74, n.1

casa, 13.10b

corona, 12.3

canté, 12.7, 12.10 ciitdeno, 17.5

caro, 12,1, 12.6, 12.11

carro, 13,12

casi, cuasi, 15,13, n.2 castillo, 13.4a

catar, 15,12¢ catorce, 15,13, n.2 cauce, 14.2

cavar, 12.10

cebolla, 15.3 cebra, 15.9

gegina, 14,10, n.1

20, 14.10, n.1

cena, 14.10a

cerca, 14,3, 14.10a, 18.8

gerraja, 14.10, nJ

gerrar, 14.10, n.J cesped, 17.5 cesta, 15.12

ciego, 13.1

cielo, 14.10a cima, 12.13 cimiento, 15,8a cincho, 17,12 cinxe, 16.6a cifie, 16.3b ciudad, gibdad, 15.2, 17.20 claro, 16.2a, n.2 clase, 16.2a, n.3 clavija, 16.2a, n.2

clavo, 16.2a, n.2

clinico, 16.2a, n.3

cobdicia, 17.20

cobdo, 17.20

codorniz, 15.4 cogollo, 15.4

cohombro, 13.9, n.1, 17.14 cojo, 13.7 colgar, 17.22 colmillo, 17.2 colmo, 17,13, 17.16

color, 12.3, 13.9a

colleja, 15.5, n.

combrd, 17.14

comenzar, 17.2

como, cuomo, cuemo, 15.13, n.2

complejo, 16.4¢ compra, 13.6

comprar, 17.22a con, 12.13 concejo, 14.10c conde, 13.6 conduxe, condux, 14.8 conejo, 17.10 conjuntivitis, 14.5, n.2

copa, 13.12

copla, 17.9b

corteza, 14.10b, 15.4 corto, 12.3 correr, 13.12

cosa, 12.8a, 13.10b, 18.5 costar, 15,14

costura, 17.2, 17.7, n.1 coxo, 16,6a and n.d

coy, 14,5, n.2 coyunda, 17.12 coz, 12,8b

cozer, 15.13, n.1

cras, 15.1]a

cree, crez, 14.8, 14.10¢ cree, 12.13

crespo, 15.1]a cresta, 12.3

crudo, 12.2, 12.13 cruz, 14.11 cuadro, 15.11, 15.13¢

cuajar, 17.10

cual, 15.13 cuando, 14.4, 15.13¢ cuarenta, 15,11b, 15.13, n.2 cuatro, 15.13, n.2, 17.8d cubrir, cobrir, 15.8b cuchar(a), 16.5, n.3 cuchillo, 16,4b

cuenta, 13.6

cuero, 13.7

cuevano, 13,11b

cuidar, coidar, 14.12a, 15.8b, 17.4

cuido, 12.5 culebra, culuebra, 13.5, 15.8b cumbre, 12.5 cuna, 13.92 cufiado, 16.3c and n.1

cufio, 16,3a, n. cura, 12,2

curar, 15.2

cuyo, 16,74 chico, 16.4c, n.2 chinche, 16.4¢, n.2

dalde, 17.11, n,2 dandi, 14.5, n.2 dato, 16.34, 17.6 debda, 17.20, 18.1 debia,'12.4b, 12.9, 12.10 decille, 16,2¢, n. decir, 14.11 delgado, 17.21

177

Word List derecho. 16.4, n.4 dezildo, 17.11, n.2 dezir, 14.11, 18.5

dice, 14.2

dicho, 16.4a, n.2 diestro, 15.14

digno, 16.3c, n.2

dijeron, 13.4, n.2

dios, 13.4, n. dixe, dix, dixo, 14.8, 16.6a, 18.7

dize, 14.10b

do(y), 14.5, n.1 doble, 15.11b domar, 12.13

domingo, 17.7

don, 13.6 doze, dodze, 17.19b

dragén, 15.11a

dueno, 13.6 dulce, duce, duz, dulz, 12.5n., 14.8 durazno, 15,2 durmamos, 15.8b duro, 12.13

echar, 16.4a, 16.74, n.2

egual, igual, 15.8a

elle, el, 14.8 encina, 15.9 enchir, 16.4¢ ende, 14,2 enebro, 16.7d, n.2 enero, 16.7d, n.2 engendrar, 17.2, 17.13, 17.17 engenio, 16.3a, n.

enjullo, 17.9a

ensayo, 16,7¢ ensemble, 12.12

ensiemplo, insiemplo, enxiemplo, 15.84, 16.6c entrar, 15.14 entre, 12.9, 12.11 enxalma, ensalma, 16.6c

enxeco, enseco, 16.6c

en\ugar, ensugar, 16.6¢ enzia, 16.3b, n. esbelto, 18,10c escaldar, 15.14 escama, 15.13a

escapar, 15.14

esconder, 15.14 escrito, 12.2, 15,12¢ escuchar, 16.4b escudilla, 15.10 escuela, 15.10

espada, 15.10

espalda, 17.11, n.2

17.5 espectéculo, espejo, 15.10, 17.2, 17.11, md espesso, 13.12

esse, 13,12, 15,12b

estable, 17.9a

estafio, 16.3¢ estar, 15.10 este, est, 14.8

Esteban, 13,11b esto(y), 14.5, 1.1 estrado, 15,10, 15.14 estrecho, 16.4a, n.4

exe, 16.6a, nel extrafio, 16.3a, 16.5b fablar, 18.3

faces, 14.11

facundo, 13.11, n.2, 18.3 falso, 13.J1a falta, 13.11a, 17.7, n.1 fallar, 13.11, n.3, 16.2b famélico, 18.10d fazes, 14.11 fe, 13.11a, 14.7 fecho, 18.1, 18.3 femencia, 12.10, n. fenchir, 13.11, n.3, 16.4¢ fértil, 13.11, n.2, 18.3 fiar, 13.1a fiebre, 13.11a fiel, 12.12, 14.2 fiero, 13.11a fiesta, 13.4b fijo, 18.1, 18.7 fin, 14.2 finchar, 13.11, n. 3, 16.4¢ fingir, 13.11, n.2

finojo, 14.13, n.3 fito, 16.4a, n.2

fize, 12.4a

flaco, 16.2a, n.2 fleco, 13.5

flema, 16.2a, n.3

flexible, 16.2a, n.3

flojo, 16.2a, n.2

flor, 16,2a, n.2 forma, 13.11, 1.2 franzir, 16.3b, n. franir, franer, 16.3b freno, 15,1 1a trente, 13,4, n.3, 13.5 frio, 15.11a

fuego, 13,1, 13.9¢, 13.11, n.1, 18.3 fuelle, 13,11, nt fuente, 13.6, 13.11, n.1 fuero, 13,11, n.1, 18.3

gallo, 12.13 gente, 14,12, n.2 genio, 14:12, n.2 giro, 14,12, n.2 glotén, 13.12, 15.112 golpe, 17,7, n.1 gordo, 15,12

178

gota, 12,13

g0z0, 14,10, n.3

grey, 13.7 guau, 14.6

haba, 13.114 habia, 12.40 hablar, 13.1 1a, 17.9a, 18.3 hablado, 18.10a hay, 14,5, nel hecho, 13.11a, 16.4a, 18.1, 18.3 heder, 15.3 helar, 14.12a hembra, 17.6, 17.15 heno, 13.11a hermano, 14.1 2a hermoso, 15.7 hice, 14.2

hierba, 16.7b higo, 12.2 hijo, 18.1, 18.7 hilo, 13.11a

hiniesta, 13.4, 15.8a hinojo, 14.12, n.3 hogar, 15.8b hoja, 16.5b and n.2 holgorio, 18.10d hollin, 14.12a hombre, 13.6, 14.2, 17,15 hombro, 17.2, 17.13; 17.14 homenage, homenax, 14.8 hora, 12,11 hornada, 18.10d hostal, 17.7, n.J hoy, 13.7 hoya, 13,7, 18.104 huebos, 13.9¢ huérfano, 17.1 huésped, 17.5 hueste, 17.5 humilde, humilt, 14.8 humo, 12.2 huyo, 12.5 impetu, 14.6

inchar, 16.4c

inflar, 16.4¢ ingle, 17.22c inojo, 14.12a

jamelgo, 18.104 jibia, 12.4a jolgorio, 18.104 jornada, 18.10d Joselu, 14.6 joven, 17.5 joya, 18.10d

Word list

judgar, 17.19a judio, 16.5a jucgo, 16.5a jueves, 16.5a jugar, jogar, 15.8b junco, 16.5a justo, 16.5a labio, 12.10 lacio, 16.2a, n.2 langa, 14,10c and n.2 lazo, 15.13, nl landre, 17.22¢ eal, 12.13 lealtad, 17.7, n.2 leccion, licion, 15.83 leche, lech, 14.8, 16.4a and n.1 lecho, 16.4a and n.2 lechuga, 16.4a legumbre, 15.3 lena, 16.3c les, 14.2 letra, 17.84 lexos, 12.7, nel, 16.6b ley, 14.5 librar, 17.6, 17.8b lidiar, 12.13, 17.4 liengo, 14.10c and n.2 limpio, 12.4a, 17.4 Jinaje, linax, 14.8 loar, 15.5, n. lobo, 13.9¢ Jodo, 12.1, 12.3, 12.12 lograr, 15.8b lomo, 15,12a loriga, 15.4 Luci, 14.5, n.2 lucha, 16.4a, n.4 luchar, 16.4a luefte, luen, 14.8, 16.3b lumbre, 17-15 luna, 12.12 luz, 14.2, 14.7, 14.11 Mago, 12.14, 18.7n, Mama, 13,12, 16.2 Mamar, 16.2 Manto, 16.2 Mave, 16.2 Meco, 16.2 Morar, 16.2 Muvia, 12.5, 12.10 macho, 17.12 madera, 13,7 madexa, 16.6a, and n.1 madre, 14,2 maestre, 12,11.

magnffico, 16.3c, n.2

mago, 12.13

Word list

maligno, 16.3c, n.2 mano, 12.1

mar, 12,6, 14.7

margen, 17.5 martillo, 13.4a Maru, 14.6

massa, 13.12

mayo, 16,74 mayor, 15.5, 16.7¢

mecer, 14.10c, 18.8

mejor, mijor, 15.8a, 16.5b

179 no me, non, 14.8

noche, noch, 14.8 nombrar, 15.4 novio, 13.7 nube, nuf, 14.8 nublo, 17.9a nueve, nuef, 12.13, 14.8

nunca, 15.13a

0, 12.9, 13.9b obe, 12.8c¢ oca, 13.9, n.2

mellizo, 15.9 membrar, 17.14 menaza, 14.10b menos, 13.10a

odre, 15,11b oir, 15.5, n.

meollo, 15.8

omne, omre, 17.13

menudo, 15.3 mes, 14.2

mesa, 13.10b, 14.3 meter, 13.12 metrdépoli, 14.5, n.2 mexilla, 16.6a, n. mia, 12.46

miau, 14.6 miga, 13.9c

milagro, 17.10, n.2 mio, 13.4, n.1 miel, 12.12 miga, 12.13 mili, 14.5, n.2 mirar, 15.2 mirlo, 13.4, n.2 mitin, 14.5, n.2

moja, 16.5b, n.2 mojén, 17.11

molde, 17.11, n.2

moyo, 16.7¢

mollir, mullir, 15.8b monte, mont, 13.6, 14.8

moro, 12.82

mover, 14.2 mucho, 16.4b mudar, 15,2 muelle, 16.2¢ mujer, 13.4, n.1, 15.8b, 16.5b muramos, 15.8b muro, 12.1, 12,2 muslo, 17.22b muy, 16.4b, n.

navio, 12.4a

negar, 12.13, 18.7 negro, 15.11b nene, 18.10c nervio, 13.7 ni, 13.9b nido, 12.13 niebla, 13.1, 17.9a nimbla, 17.16 nispero, 13.4d

ocho, 16.4a and n.2 ojo, 17.10 and n.1

once, 12.13, 17.22b

onrrar, ondrar, 12.11, 17.17

onzeja, 16.3b, n. orcuelo, 14.10, n.3 orebze, 15.5, n.

oro, 12.84

080, Osso, 12.9, 13.12, 15.12¢ otofio, 16.34

otro, 12.8b

otrosi, 15.5, n. ovimos, 15.5, n.

padre, 12.6

pagame, pagan, 14.8

pagar, 13.9¢

paloma, 15,12a palpar, 12.8b

pan, 14,7 panoli, 14.5, n.2

papazgo, 17.19a

paramo, 17.1 parir, 15.5 party, 14,5, n.2 passo, 13.12 pa(s)trafia, 17.22a pa(s)triia, 17.32a pavo, 13.9a paz, 14.7 pechos, 13.10a peine, 14.2 peligro, 17.10, n.2 pelo, 12.12, 14.4 pena, 12.3

pefia, 13.9a, 16.3d peor, 16,7d, n.1 pereza, 15,11b

Persona, presona, 15.11a, nJ pesar, 13,10b

pie, 14,2, 14.7

pierna, 12.9

piezgo, 17.19a

pila, 12.1, 12.2 Pili, 14.5, 1.2

Word list

180

pisar, 15.124 plaga, 16.2a, n.2 placer, plazer, 14,10b, 16.2a, n.2, 18.8 planeta, 16,2a, n.2 planir, 16.2a, n.2 playa, 16.7¢ plazo, 17.18 plinto, 16.2a, n.2 plogue, 12.8c, 13.9, n.2 plomo, 16.2, n.2 ; poco, 13.9, n.2, 18.10c

pondré, 17.17 pornd, 17.17 portazgo, 17.19a porrd, 17.17, n.

prado, 12.6, 15.11a

pregén, 15.3

preguntar, perguntar, 15.11a,n.1

prelado, perlado, 15.1 1a, n.1 prefiada, 16.3c primado, 15.1 1a prisa, 13.4 prisco, 15.11, n.1, 17.7, n.1

pro, 14.7

provecho, 13.11b puches, 16.4b

pude, 12,8¢ pueblo, 17.9b puerta, 11.7 puerto, 15.12 puse, 12.8¢ punta, 15.14 puio, 16.3c, nl

que, 15.13a que me, quen, 14.8

quemblo, 17.16 quepa, 12.7, 13.9, n.2 quexar, 16.6b

quexo, 12.7, n.1

quien, 12.13, 15.13a quiero, 13.1, 14.4, 15.13a

quinientos, 16.3b quise, 14.2

ramo, 12.11, 12.13 tana, 12.9 rancio, 17.4 rascar, 17.7, nl raya, 16.7¢ razén, 14.10b real, 12.13 recabdar, 17.20 recobrar, 17.2, 17.6, 17.8a red, 14.7 redondo, 15.7 rogla, 17.10, n.2 reina, 14.12a reinar, 16.3c, n.2

'

reino, 16.3c, n.2 ja, 17.10 reloj, 14.8, 15.9 resollar, 16.2b

rey, 14.5

rezart, 17.18

rindn, 15,84

rio, 12.10 uistra, 13.4b rogar, 15.8b

rostro, 15.14 toto, 15.12¢ Toxo, 16.6b tubio, 12.5 rueda, 12.11, 13.1

ruega, 12.13, 18.7

tuido, roido, 15.8b

sibado, 13.12 sibana, 17.1 sacta, 14.12a sal, 14.7. saltar, 12.8b salud, 14.7 salvaje, 15.6 sefios, 17.12 sepa, 12.7 ser, 12,13 seso, 15.12d sessaenta, 17.1 se(y)a, 13.7, 16.74, n.1 si, 12.4a si me, sin, 14.8 siempre, 12.11 sierra, 11.7, 13.12 sangre, 17.22c santo, 15.14 sartén, 12.7 satico, 12.9, 12.10 seco, 12.1, 12.3, 13.10a seguro, 12.9, 15.3 sembrar, 17.15 sencillo, 16.3b, n. sendos, 17.12 sefior, 16,32 siesta, 13.4b siete, 12.9, 13.10a, 14.2, 15.12¢ siglo, 13.4, n.2, 17.10, n.2 sigo, 15.13b silbar, 15.2, 17,9a sil a, 13.4a, 16,2c siniestro, 15.8a sintoma, 17.5 so(y), 12.13, 14.5, nl soberbia, 13.7, 15.4 sobre, 12.11 sola, 11.7 sope, 12,8¢ soplar, 16.2b

181

Word list sordo, 13.10a status, 14.6 sucio, 17.4

sudar, 12,13 suegra, 15.1 1b suelo, 13,1

suerte, suert, 14.8

surco, sulco, suco, 12.5, n. tan, 12.13

tanxe, 16.6a tafe, 16.3b tardar, 12.9

teja, 17.10

tejo, 16.6a and n.1 tela, 11.7, temblar,

12.1, 12,3, 13.9a 17.16

temprano, 17.22a tencis, 13.9, n.1 tenfa, 12.10 tergero, 14.10c

tendrd, 17.17 ternd, 17.17

terrd, 17.17, n. tesis, 14.5, n.2 tesoro, 13.10b tibio, 12.13 tiempo, 15.12 tiesto, 13.4b tilde, 17,11, n.2 tinxe, 16.6a todo, 12.1 tomado, 18.10a

topo, 12.8b, 13.9, n.2 torcaz, 15.13a torcer, 15.13, nl tordo, 13.9a toro, 12.8a torre, 13.12 tos, 14.2, 14.7

trabajar, 15.6

treze, tredze, 17.19b trillo, 17.9a

troj, 14.8

troncho, 17.12

trucha, 16.4a and n.4 turbio, 12,5, 17.4 unzir, 16.3b, n. ufia, 16.3c, n.1, 17.12, n. uilir, 16.3b, 16.5a, n.2 vaca, 12.10 vacio, 12.10

valle, val, 14,8, 16,2c, 16.5b

ve, 14,7

vecindad, 17.2, 17.7 vecino, 14,10b, 15.7 veinte, 12.4a vendimia, 12.4a, 12.13

vengar, 17.22b

venid, 14.7 venir, 12.2 venis, 13.9, nd veniste, venist, 14.8 verdad, verdat, 14.8 vergiienga, 14.10, n.3 vez, 14.7

vez0, 14,10, n.2 via, 12.4b 3.9¢

vienes, 13.10a viento, 12.1, 13.1 viernes, 17.17 viesso, 15.12b vine, 12.4a, 14.2 viniesse, vinies, 14.8 vino, 12.10, 14.4 vifia, 16.3a virtud, 14,2 virus, 14.6 vispera, 13.4b visque, 16.6a, n.2 viuda, 12.4a volar, 12.10 xabén, 16.6b xeringa, 16,6b ximio, 16.6b xugo, 16.6¢ ya, 12,13, 16.17a yace, 16.170 yantar, 16.17a yazdrd, 17.8¢ yegua, 15.13c, 16.7b yema, 14.12b yente, 14.12b yerba, 16.7b yermo, 16.7b, 17.21 yerno, 14.12b, 17.13, 17.17 yeso, yesso, 14.12, n.2, 15.12b yo, 13.4, nel, 16.76 yogue, 12.8¢, 13.9, n.2 yoquey, 14.5, n.2