Some social effects of the radio

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SOME SOCIAD EFFECTS OF THE RADIO

A T h e sis P re se n te d to th e F a c u lt y o f th e D ep artm en t o f S o c io lo g y U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia

In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree M a ste r o f A r ts

*y W illia m J . June

Thacker 194S

UMI Number: EP65632

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This thesis, writ ten by

~

9

L

.: ...

under the direction of

F ac u lty C o m m it te e ,

a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been p r es e nt e d to an d a c c e p te d by the Coun cil on Grad ua te S t u d y a n d Resea rch in pa rt ia l fu lfill­ m e n t of th e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e d e g r e e o f

MASTER OF ARTS

Secretary D a te ..........

F aculty C om m ittee

Chairman

I\oJuui.

/y

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

FAGS THE PROBLEM Aim DEFINITION OFTERMS USED . . .

; ...................... •

The importance o f rad io T he p r o b l e m

1

• •

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem

7

..............................

7

D e f i n i t i o n o f term s u se d R a d io

.

.

.

i •

8

. . . . . . .

A b ro a d c a s tin g s ta tio n

.

.....

8

• ; ; • • • • • • ;

8

A re c e iv in g s e t lis te n e r

8

p a rtic ip a tio n

• • • • • • . • • •

8

A l i s t e n e r .........................

9

C o v e r a g e ................................... . i .

..................

The p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e .......................... ..... .

9 .

.

9

The s t a t i o n a u d i e n c e

. . . . . . . . . . .

9

T he p r o g r a m a u d i e n c e

...........................................

9

T he i n g r e d i e n t s o f b r o a d c a s t i n g M e th o d s o f p r o c e d u r e A su ita b le

.

.

*.

. . . . .

10

...............................................

10

..........................

10

b ackground

The B r a w l e y S t u d y II.

1

. . .

. . . . . . .



10

THE ATTITUDE OF THE LISTENER TOWARD BROADCASTING

12

C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s t a t i o n s ................................ The k i n d s o f l i s t e n e r s

. ; . . . .

. .

.....................

12 13

ill CHAPTER

PAGE T he a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r

.

......................... * • .

The c a s u a l l i s t e n e r

.



........................... 19

The c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r

. . . . . . . .

i .

.

L i s t e n i n g a g e s ......................... Age a n d t h e III.

RADIO AND THE CULTURAL LEVEL

R a d io a n d e d u c a t i o n

.....................

w . . . .

.

• « . • • • . • • • . . . . . . . . . . ; * .

R a d io a n d p ro p a g a n d a

58 .

64

* . .

67

e f f e c t on m o re s a n d c u s to m s .

71

.

.

.

....................................

F o r e ig n la n g u a g e b r o a d c a s ts

E n t e r t a i n m e n t dem anded b y c u l t u r a l l e v e l s

.

.

78

.

80

RADIO LISTENING AHD PARTICIPATION

85

p r o g r a m s ...................................................

The q u i z p r o g r a m

.

........................................

M u sic a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s M o rn in g e x e r c i s e s

.

.

85 85 87

.

B rid g e l e s s o n s by r a d i o M a il re s p o n s e

45 52*

.........................................

The r a d i o a n d n e w i d e a s

P a rtic ip a tio n

34

................................54

R a d io a s a n a i d t o l e i s u r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n

The r a d i o a n d i t s

24

...........................................36

R a d io a n d m u s ic

IV .

.

........................... 34

C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s t o e c o n o m ic s t a t u s

R a d io a n d r e a d i n g

23 24

l i s t e n e r ...................................................

R a d i o a n d d ra m a

13

.

.

^ .

.................................. 91

...............................................

..........................

92

* ......................................93

iv PAGE

CHAPTER The u s e o f t h e t e l e p h o n e S u g g e stio n s fo r Sum m ary 7.

.

96

im p ro v e m e n t o f p ro g ra m s

..

..............................

• .

RADIO AHD MASS ACTION

.

98 99

. •....................................................10 0

The p s y c h o l o g y o f f e a r .................................

. ; .

.

100

The b u y i n g i m p u l s e .................................................................... 1 0 4 N a t i o n a l u n i t y a n d t h e r a d i o ...........................................10 7 E m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s Summary V I.

.............................

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

INSTITUTIONAL AND

In flu e n c e o f ra d io

Ill

o n t h e h o m e ............................. I l l

o n t h e c o m m u n ity

. . . .

R a d i o n e w s a n d t h e c o m m u n ity

116 .

117

a f f a i r s ............................................................................ . .

12 0

In flu e n c e

V II.

110

WORLD INFLUENCES OF RADIO .

In flu e n c e o f th e ra d io

109

o f r a d i o on n a t i o n a l a n d w o rld

N a tio n a l p u b lic i n t e r e s t

..................................................

S h o r t w ave b r o a d c a s t i n g

.

; .........................

123 123

CONCLUSION...................................... S p e c ia l fin d in g s o f t h is

stu d y .

C o n c lu s io n . . . • • • . . • • BIBLIOGRAPHY........... * . APPENDIX . ; . . . .

. i .

12 ............................129

..................................

130

........................................................................ 1 3 3 i . . .

................................................ 1 4 1

V

L IS T OF TABI.ES pag -e

table

I* A n n u a l A v e r a g e P e r c e n t a g e s o f U r b a n F a m i l i e s L i s t e n i n g t o R a d io B r o a d c a s t s II.

* .

.

17

.........................................................

81

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw e rs t o t h e { Q u estio n ,

”Boes

t h e R a d i o Make You F e e l You A r e H o t A l o n e When You A re A l o n e ? ” III.

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

ftDo You

L i s t e n t o t h e R a d io W h i l e You W o rk ? ” IV . T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e r s t o t h e

(Q u e stio n ,

. *

.•

BE

ftHow

Much Tim e P e r B ay Bo You S p e n d L i s t e n i n g t o th e R a d io ? ”

......................................................................

V. T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e r s t o You S a y t h e H a b its ? ” V I.

th e Q u e stio n ,

”W ould

R a d i o H as C h a n g e d Any o f Y ou r

................................................................... *

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e rs t o t h e Q u e s t i o n , t h e R a d i o I n c r e a s e d Y our I n t e r e s t i n

.

..

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

87

”H a s S w in g

M u s i c ? ” ..................... .............................. .............................. ..... V II.

26

i

89

”H as

t h e R a d i o I n c r e a s e d Your I n t e r e s t i n H i l l B i l l y M u s i c ? ” ........................................................................... V III.

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e rs t o t h e Q u e s t i o n , t h e R a d i o I n c r e a s e d Your I n t e r e s t

30

”H as

in C la ssi­

c a l M u s i c ? ” ................................................................................

31

vi PAGE

TABLE IX .

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

nA re

You S a t i s f i e d w i t h R a d i o p r o g r a m s a s T h e y A re T o d a y ? ^ .......................... X.

32

. . . . . . . . . . .

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o R e q u e s t t h a t S e l e c t e d S t u d e n t s Name t h e S p e c i f i c p r o g r a m t h a t h a s B e e n H e l p f u l t o Them

X I.

. * . . . .

..........................

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

39

"How

Much Time Bo You S p e n d L i s t e n i n g t o P r o g r a m s t h a t A re a n A i d t o Y o u r S c h o o l A s s i g n m e n t s ? ? 1 X II.

P e r C en t o f A l l R a d io P ro g ra m s D e v o te d t o M u s ic .

X III.

.......................... ..............................

48

P e r C e n t o f M u s ic P r o g r a m s D e v o t e d t o P o p u l a r M u s ic ..........................................

XIV.

41

. . . . . . . . . . .

P e r C e n t o f B r o a d c a s t Time D e v o t e d t o Drama .

XV. T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e r s t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

50 .

55

"H as

t h e R a d i o I n c r e a s e d Y ou r I n t e r e s t i n R e ad in g ?" XVI.

..............................................

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s tio n , C o n s id e r t h e R a d io a N e c e s s i t y ? "

X V I I.

"Do You

..........................

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

65

"Do You .

68

..........................................

70

T u r n o n t h e R a d i o t o D a n ce a t Hom e?"

X V III. T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e rs t o t h e Q u e s t i o n , You E v e r S e n t t o

57

. . . . . * .

.

. .

"H ave

a R a d i o S t a t i o n f o r a M ap,

Book, o r O th e r Such Ite m ? "

v ii TABLE

PAGE

X IX . T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e rs t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

"D o e s

t h e R a d i o K eep You Up L a t e r T h a n U s u a l ? ” XX.

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n , S ta y a t

XXI.

.

.

"Do You

Home B e c a u s e o f t h e R a d i o ? ” .......................

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o th e Q u e s t i o n , You a M o r n i n g E x e r c i s e r b y R a d i o ? ”

XXIV.

77

”Do

You S i n g W i t h t h e R a d i o ? ” . . . . . . . . . . X X III.

75

"D oes

Y o u r F a m i l y L i s t e n To t h e R a d i o As a G r o u p ? ” . XXII*

73

90

”A re ......................

T a b u l a t i o n o f A n sw ers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

93

”H ave

You E v e r T e l e p h o n e d a R e q u e s t t o a B r o a d c a s t ­ i n g S t a t i o n f o r a M u sic a l S e l e c t i o n ? ” . . . . XXV. T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e rs t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

” Do

You Buy R a d i o A d v e r t i s e d P r o d u c t s ? ” . . . . . XX3TI. T a b u l a t i o n o f A n s w e r s t o t h e Q u e s t i o n ,

97

106

"H as

t h e R a d i o C a u s e d Any F a m i l y Q u a r r e l s ? ”

.

• .

113

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED T h e r a d i o h a s b e co m e a n i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e i n A m e ric an l i f e *

A lth o u g h r a d io i s a c o m p a ra tiv e ly r e c e n t

in v e n tio n ,

it

h a s m ade a s t o u n d i n g s t r i d e s

in fo rm in g ,

and e d u c a tin g th e m a sse s.

in e n te rta in in g ,

The s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f

t h i s m a rv e lo u s in s tr u m e n t a r e a lm o st im m e a su re a b le . i n f l u e n c e on s o c i a l l i f e

and i t s

T h is

e f f e c t s a r e p ro b lem s o f

i n c r e a s i n g im p o rta n c e to s o c i o l o g i s t s . The r a d i o a ll

is

an i n s t r u m e n t w h ic h can b e e n jo y e d by

c l a s s e s and a g e s o f p e o p le *

e r e d b y m an y a s a n e c e s s i t y , so c ia l in stitu tio n * its

th is

and i s even r e f e r r e d

B ecause o f i t s

r e a c tio n upon th e fa m ily ,

tio n in

I t h a s come t o b e c o n s i d ­ to as a

w id e sp re a d a p p e a l and

i t m e rits c a r e f u l c o n sid e ra ­

stu d y . THE IMPORTANCE OF RADIO

I t is

tru ly

sta te d

t h a t n o o n e man i s

f o r th e in v e n tio n o f th e ra d io * w ire le ss,

little

d e v e lo p .

H e r tz , M orse,

re sp o n sib le

M a r c o n i , who i n v e n t e d t h e

r e a liz e d th a t a ra d io

s t e p - c h i l d w o u ld so o n

F e ssen d e n , D e F o re st, A le x an d e rso n ,

M a r t i n H* N e u m e y e r , T he R a d i o : A S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n , (u n p u b lis h e d m a n u s c rip t, U n iv e r s ity o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ) ," p* 3 .

2 B a ird ,

a n d A r m s t r o n g , a l o n g w i t h m any w h o s e n a m e s a r e a l ­

read y fo rg o tte n , ra d io u n t i l i t

a l l c o n trib u te d to

th e d e v elo p m e n t o f th e

h a s e m e r g e d a s we s e e i t

to d ay ,

one o f th e

m o st v a l u a b l e m e th o d s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n i n t h e w o r ld .

T he

i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r a d i o m ay b e e s t i m a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e num ber o f r a d i o

se ts

in o p e ra tio n in

th e U n ite d s t a t e s

h a s b een c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s in g y e a r by y e a r . m a te s t h e r e a r e r a d io s in

t h e h o m es o f 2 9 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 o u t o f t h e

3 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 f a m i l i e s i n o u r c o u n tr y t o d a y . 2 e r n u m b e r t h a n t h o s e who h a v e t e l e p h o n e s , tric ity ,

n ew sp ap ers,

o r even p lu m b in g .

in g Y earb o o k e s t i m a t e s 5 0 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0 s e t s in cre ase

fro m 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 s e t s i n 1 9 2 2 .

h o m es w i t h r a d i o s e t s

C a n tril e s t i ­

T h is i s a g r e a t ­ a u to m o b ile s,

e le c ­

T he 1 9 4 1 B r o a d c a s t ­ in 1940.

T h is was a n

T he t o t a l , n u m b e r o f

i n c r e a s e d fro m 6 0 ,0 0 0 t o 2 9 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0

d u r i n g t h e sa m e p e r i o d ,

and t h e num ber o f a u to m o b ile s e t s

i n c r e a s e d from 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 i n 1931 t o 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 i n 1940.

T he

t o ta l s a le s o f b ro ad cast re c e iv e rs ,

and

tu b e s,

b a tte rie s,

p a r t s w as $ 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 i n 1 9 4 0 .3 E v ery d ay m i l l i o n s o f p e o p le tu n e in t h e i r r a d i o s to a l l k in d s o f p rogram s.

Among t h e s e m i l l i o n s a r e

lib e ra ls

a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e s , n a t i v e s t o c k a n d p e o p l e s p r u n g f r o m m any

2 H a d l e y C a n t r i l , T he I n v a s i o n From M a rs ( P r i n c e t o n : U n iv e rs ity P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 ), p . x. 3 M a r t i n H. H e u m e y e r, o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 .

3 fo re ig n races* some r i d e

Some a r e d o c k w o r k e r s ,

in e x p e n siv e a u to m o b ile s,

s e s o r w a lk .

Y et d e s p ite

and in co m es,

and o th e r s u se th e bus­

t h i s g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f o c c u p a tio n s

t h e s e m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e h a v e o n e common i n t e r -

e s t ” th e ra d io . ra d io

som e a r e s e c r e t a r i e s ;

In a re c e n t su rv ey ,

F o rtu n e fo u n d t h a t th e

i s o n e a c t i v i t y w h i c h p e o p l e p r e f e r o v e r m o v in g p i c ­

tu re s,

r e a d in g and s p o r t s . 4

sa fe to

say th a t to

if

th is

is

tru e ,

i t w o u ld b e

t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e t h e r a d i o h a s becom e

a h a b it. G le aso n L . A rc h e r m akes t h e f o l lo w in g s i g n i f i c a n t s t a te m e n t c o n c e r n in g t h e d e v elo p m e n t o f r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g in 1922:

"T n t h e l a s t y e a r t h e n u m b e r o f b r o a d c a s t i n g

s t a t i o n s h a s g ro w n f r o m l e s s t h a n t w e n t y t o re d .”5

I n 1922 r a d i o h ad s c a r c e l y b e g u n .

a lm o st s i x hund­ D a v id S a r n o f f ,

now p r e s i d e n t o f R a d i o C o r p o r a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , s t a t e d

in

1941: F i r s t i t s e e m s t o me t h a t i n a s k i n g a s o l u t i o n t o t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g p r o b l e m s , we m u s t r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e an sw er m ust be a lo n g n a t i o n a l r a t h e r th a n l o c a l l i n e s , f o r th e p ro b lem i s d i s t i n c t l y a n a t i o n a l o n e . Sec­ o n d ly , I t h i n k t h a t th e p r i n c i p l e e le m e n ts o f b ro a d ­ c a s t i n g s e r v i c e s a r e : e n te r ta in m e n t, in f o r m a tio n , and e d u o a t io n , w i t h e m p h a sis on th e f i r s t , e n t e r t a i n m e n t . ” 5

^ F o r tu n e P o l l , U rb an R a d io L i s t e n i n g i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s (New Y o r k : C r o s s l e y , I n o o r p b r a t e & , M a r c h , 1 9 4 1 ) , p .

5* 5 G l e a s o n L . A r c h e r , B i g B u s i n e s s a n d R a d i o (New Y o r k : T he A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l Com pany, 1 9 3 9 ) , p . FTI 6

»

p

* 2°*

4 M r. S a r n o f f c o u l d s e e t h a t r a d i o w i t h a l l i t s w o u ld i n

tim e be an in s t r u m e n t f o r a l l

ra m ific a tio n s

th e p e o p le .

In t h i s

c o n n e c tio n to w a rd s a n a t i o n a l sco p e L a z a r s f e l d p o i n t s o u t th a t ra d io z a tio n ,

c a n f a s c i l i t a t e m any t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d c e n t r a l i ­

sta n d a rd iz a tio n ,

and m ass f o r m a t i o n w h ic h seem p r e ­

v a l e n t now i n o u r s o c i e t y . 7

T h is i s

r e a d i l y show n t o d a y i n

p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l m e e tin g s as w e ll a s h o lid a y g a th e r in g s . A c c o rd in g to F ran k A rn o ld , b r o a d c a s tin g a s an in d u s ­ t r y h a s grow n i n tw e n ty y e a r s t o a p o i n t w h ere i t

is

in c lu d ­

e d am ong t h e s i x l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . R a d io , he s a y s ,

r e p r e s e n ts a c a sh in v e s tm e n t o f $ 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

0 0 0 a n d g i v e s e m p lo y m e n t t o 3 7 5 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . 8 show t h a t r a d i o i n its

own r i g h t .

p r i s e r s th e

S in c e i t

is

is

a b ig b u sin e ss in

in th e hands o f p r iv a te e n te r ­

fu tu re o f ra d io as a b u sin e ss w ill,

gro w m uch m o r e . is

th e U n ite d S t a te s

T hese f i g u r e s

no d o u b t,

T h i s w i l l b e e s p e c i a l l y t r u e w hen t e l e v i s i o n

a s u n iv e r s a l as th e r a d io

is

to d ay .

The i m p o r t a n c e o f r a d i o h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t m an y d i f ­ fe re n c e s o f o p in io n .

Some t h i n k t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f r a d i o

s h o u ld be t o e d u c a te th e p u b l i c , w h ile o t h e r s t h i n k e n t e r ­ t a in m e n t s h o u ld be t h e m ain o b j e c t i v e .

The l a t t e r v i e w s e e m s

7 P a u l F . L a z a r s f e l d , R a d i o a n d t h e *P r i n t e d P a g e Y o r k : B u e l l , S l o a n a n d P e a r c e , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 3 3T l 8 F r a n k A r n o l d , Do You W ant t o G e t • I n t o R a d i o ? Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A . S t o k e s C o . , 194GT7 P*

(New

(New

5 to be h e ld by th e m a jo r ity . th a t i t

is

H ow ever, Je ro m e D a v is s t a t e s

a lm o st u n a n im o u sly co n c e d e d t h a t th e p r e s e n t u s e

o f th e r a d io

in

th e U n ite d S t a t e s i s h ig h ly d e f e c t i v e .

From a s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , h e c o n t i n u e s , u n a n im ity o f o p in io n t h a t th e r a d io Q

e d u c a t e t h e A m e ric an p e o p l e . is s u e re so lv e s i t s e l f A m e ric an p u b l i c i s co m m erc ial r a d i o

th e re

is

sh o u ld be w id e ly u se d to

J a m e s A. M o y e r a d d s ,

"The

in to a q u e s tio n o f w h e th e r o r n o t th e

g o in g t o c o n t i n u e t o b e h o o d w in k e d b y

in te re s ts .

E d u c a tio n by r a d io

sh o u ld be

th e o b je c tiv e o f n a tio n a l p la n n in g ." ^ P a le y t a k e s th e o p p o s ite p o in t o f v ie w .

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t h a t a s m uch h a s b e e n s a i d o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l p r o ­ gram s,

i t m ig h t be w e l l t o p o i n t o u t i t

is

s till

r a d i o 's v e ry

v ita l

f u n c t i o n t o p r o v i d e t h e A m erican p u b l i c w i t h r e c r e a ­

tio n ,

re la x a tio n ,

s ta te d ,

la r g e ly in th e hands o f p r iv a te

As s u c h , m o s t o f t h e i r p r o f i t s

v e rtisin g . in g to

As h a s a l r e a d y b e e n

Mr* S a r n o f f e m p h a s i z e s e n t e r t a i n m e n t .

b ro a d c a s tin g i s eu rs.

and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . ^

As a r e s u l t ,

T oday r a d i o e n te rp re n -

a r e r e a l i z e d fro m ad­

t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g c o m p a n ie s i n c a t e r ­

t h e v a s t A m e ric an p u b l i c have u s e d e n t e r t a i n m e n t a s

^ T he n a t i o n a l C o m m i t te e o n E d u c a t i o n b y R a d i o , R a d io As a C u l t u r a l F o r c e ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 5 . 10

» p*

11 W illia m

34.

s.



P a l e y , R a d io a s a C u l t u r a l F o r c e , p .

6 t h e i r m edium *

Many c o m p a n i e s c o m b in e e d u c a t i o n a n d e n t e r ­

t a i n m e n t i n s u c h a way a s t o a p p e a l t o a l l . The A m e r i c a n p u b l i c h a s w e lc o m e d t h e r a d i o w i t h o p e n a rm s*

I t h a s b e co m e a b e a u t i f u l a n d i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e

fu rn itu re

i n n e a r l y e v e r y h o m e.

A lth o u g h th e num ber o f

s e t s p u rch ased i s n o t th e e x a c t in d ic a tio n a re in o p e ra tio n ,

it

is

a s t o how m an y

a re c o g n iz e d f a c t t h a t th e r e a re

m i l l i o n s o f r a d i o s b e in g tim e d i n e v e r y d a y . its e lf is lik e d .

of

T h is f a c t in

e n o u g h t o show t h a t t h e r a d i o p r o g r a m s a r e w e l l

I s i t n o t r e a s o n a b le to c o n c lu d e t h a t an in v e n tio n

so im p o r ta n t a s th e r a d i o h a s p ro v e d t o be w i l l h ave a p r o ­ fo u n d s o c i a l e f f e c t upon s o c i e t y i n C o u ld i t n o t e x e r t a d e f i n i t e

th e U n ite d S ta te s ?

in f lu e n c e upon c u sto m s, m o res,

and a tt i tu d e s ? T he p o s s i b i l i t i e s c a n p r e d i c t how f a r i t s

o f r a d i o a r e b o u n d le s s an d no one s c o p e m ay s p r e a d *

t h a t no s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t i s new ness o f r a d i o . it,

T he m a i n r e a s o n

i n s i g h t m ay b e b e c a u s e o f t h e

I t h a s n o t had a lo n g h i s t o r y ,

a n d i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e b e i n g m ade d a i l y .

M ost p e o p le c an

n o t com prehend t h e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s o f r a d i o , w i t h awe u p o n t h i s

re m a rk a b le in v e n tio n .

Among t h e s e

fre q u e n c y m o d u la tio n ,

and s t i l l

lo o k

M a r t i n H. H e u m e y e r

p ro p h e s ie s th e fu tu r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f ra d io i n m an y f i e l d s .

a s we know

a re to be seen

f i e l d s w i l l be t e l e v i s i o n ,

e le c tro n ic s ,

g e o p h y sic s,

te m s, h ig h f r e q u e n c y d ia th e r m y , rem o te c o n t r o l ,

c a rrie r sys­ and v a rio u s

7 r a d io te c h n iq u e s in m e d ic in e . c itie s

t e l e v i s i n g program s*

e le s le a d in t h i s

fie ld

ip

Today t h e r e a r e a num ber o f

P r o b a b l y New Y o rk a n d L o s A n g ­

a t p re se n t*

The g o v e r n m e n t i s

li­

c e n s i n g s t a t i o n s now f o r F r e q u e n c y M o d u l a t i o n .

R a d io i s

d e s tin e d to have a c l e a r v o ic e so a l l can h e a r ,

a n d e y e s so

a ll

can s e e . THE PROBLEM S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .

s t u d y t o d r a w som e d e f i n i t e fe c ts o f ra d io .

It

is

th e p u rp o se o f t h i s

c o n c lu s io n s c o n c e rn in g th e e f ­

I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a few o f

t h e p ro b le m s c o v e r e d by t h i s w ork: (1) D oes t h e r a d i o e d u c a te ? (2 ) Has r a d i o a f f e c t e d r e a d i n g ? W r itin g ? M is ic ? (5 ) W hat e f f e c t h a s r a d i o o n m a s s e n j o y m e n t ? ( 4 ) How d o e s t h e r a d i o i n f l u e n c e n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s ? (5 ) D o e s t h e r a d i o ( 6 ) W hat a r e

in c re a se n a tio n a l u n ity ?

th e e f f e c t s o f r a d io pro p ag an d a?

( 7 ) How d o e s r a d i o a f f e c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s ? ( 8 ) W hat i s

t h e e f f e c t o f r a d i o on t h e f a m i l y b u d g e t?

( 9 ) W hat i s

t h e e f f e c t o f r a d i o o n t h e hom e?

(10)

Is ra d io

s h a p in g a t t i t u d e s and c h a n g in g c u sto m s?

1 2 M a r t i n H. N e u m e y e r ,

op* c l t .,

p.

14.

8 T h is s tu d y i s fe c ts o f ra d io .

b u t a b e g in n in g in to

T here i s

a n e e d f o r s u c h a s t u d y i n v iew

o f th e f a c t th a t th e ra d io w a lk s o f l i f e . to d a y i s

th e s o c i a l e f ­

i s u s e d b y s o m an y p e o p l e i n a l l

One o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s i n t h e i n d u s t r y

t h a t o f s e c u r in g " t h e g r e a t e s t good o f r a d i o

fo r

t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r " w h i l e a t t h e sam e t i m e s a t i s f y i n g ta s te

th e

o f m i n o r i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED R a d io .

The te r m r a d i o

tio n u sin g e l e c t r i c i t y

i s u se d to d e n o te th e

in v e n ­

f o r s e n d in g and r e c e i v i n g o f p ro g ram s

t h r o u g h t h e m e d iu m o f t h e a i r w i t h o u t t h e u s e o f w i r e s . M ore s p e c i f i c a l l y ,

a s c om m o nly u s e d , r a d i o

is

an in s tru m e n t

u s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s t o h e a r p ro g ram s b r o a d c a s t o v e r th e a i r . A b ro a d c a s tin g s t a t i o n .

A b ro a d c a s tin g

p l a c e fro m w h ic h a l l p ro g ra m s o r i g i n a t e a i r to

be h e a r d .

T h is r e f e r s

to th e

lo c a l s ta tio n s . A. r e c e i v i n g s e t .

s ta tio n

is

and s p re a d in to

a

th e

a ls o to th e n a tio n a l c h a in s o r

A re c e iv in g

set is

a d e v ic e u se d to

" p ic k - u p " th e program s s e n t o u t by b r o a d c a s tin g s t a t i o n s . L is te n e r p a r tic ip a tio n . program i s p erso n .

A lis te n e r p a rtic ip a tio n

o n e i n w h i c h some o f t h e l i s t e n e r s

A c c o rd in g t o H e t t i n g e r and F e f f ,

ta k e p a r t in

th e f i r s t

p a r t i c i p a t i o n p ro g ra m s w ere s id e w a lk i n t e r v i e w s ,

lis te n e r

fo llo w e d by

9 c o m m u n ity s i n g s ,

sp e llin g bees,

A lis te n e r.

A lis te n e r

a n d a m a t e u r h o u r s ." * '3 is

a p e r s o n who t u n e s i n h i s

r a d i o r e c e i v i n g s e t f o r t h e p u rp o se o f h e a r in g p ro g ram s b ro a d c a st.

T h e r e a r e m any d e g r e e s o f l i s t e n i n g .

L u m le y g i v e s t h e

f o l lo w in g d e f i n i t i o n s w h ich s h o u ld

be in c lu d e d h e r e : ^ C o v erag e.

C overage i s

th e

a r e a i n w h ich a s t a t i o n

l a y s down a s i g n a l s t r e n g t h o f s p e c i f i e d v a l u e i n r e l a t i o n to th e lo c a l n o is e l e v e l. T he p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e .

The p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e may

b e d e f i n e d a s t h e n u m b e r o f hom es w i t h i n t h e c l e a r r e c e p t i o n ran g e. The s t a t i o n

a u d ie n c e •

The s t a t i o n

a u d ie n c e i s

th a t

p a r t o f th e

a v a i l a b l e a u d ie n c e w h ic h t u n e s i n t o a p a r t i c u ­

la r sta tio n

a t a p a r t i c u l a r tim e .

The p ro g ram a u d i e n c e .

T he p r o g r a m a u d i e n c e c o n s i s t s

o f t h e num ber o f s e t s tu n e d i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r p ro g ram .

S* H. H e t t i n g e r a n d W. J . H e f f , P r a c t i c a l R a d i o A d v e r t i s i n g (Hew Y o rk : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . I f e l . 14

O h io :

F . H. L u m l e y , M e a s u r e m e n t i n R a d i o ( C o l u m b u s , O h io S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 7 , p . 9 .

10 The i n g r e d i e n t s o f b r o a d c a s t i n g . b ro a d c a s tin g a re m u sic , Sound e f f e c t s ,

spoken w o rd s,

The i n g r e d i e n t s o f

and sound e f f e c t s .

i t m ig h t be a d d e d , a r e t o t h e e a r w hat i l l u s ­

tr a tio n s a re to

th e ey e.

T h e y a s s i s t t h e m in d i n v i s u a l i z ­

in g a s itu a tio n . METHODS OF PROCEDURE 4 s u ita b le b ack g ro u n d .

A su ita b le

b ackground f o r

t h e s t u d y o f " t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f r a d i o " was s e c u r e d th ro u g h s tu d y in g books w r itte n and m e c h a n ic s o f r a d i o , c a ls,

and jo u r n a ls .

v ie w s, v i s i t s o ffic ia ls to

on t h e h i s t o r y , m e a su re m e n t,

and by r e a d in g m a g a z in e s, p e r i o d i ­

T h i s w as u p p l e m e n t e d b y p e r s o n a l i n t e r ­

to b ro a d c a s tin g s ta tio n s ,

o f th e se

sta tio n s,

c o rre sp o n d e n c e w ith

and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u b m itte d

s e le c te d stu d e n ts . A ll th e m a te ria l in

th is

th e s is

i s b a s e d on t h e s e

s t u d i e s and q u o ta tio n s a re u se d th ro u g h o u t t o le n d a u t h o r i t y to

th e fin d in g s .

is

t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s w ork t o

w i t h a n a im t o

C e r ta in p ro b le m s h av e b een s e t up an d i t sift

fin d in g th e s o lu tio n s

th e m a t e r i a l s tu d ie d to t h e s e p ro b lem s.

THE BRAWLEY STUDY In Ja n u a ry , (C a lifo rn ia ) its

1 9 4 2 a s u r v e y w a s m ad e i n t h e B r a w l e y

sc h o o ls,

q u e s tio n s p e r t a i n i n g to r a d io and

e f f e c t s w ere a s k e d o f s t u d e n t s from t h e n i n t h g ra d e

11 th ro u g h ju n io r o o lle g e . to le a r n th e

The q u e s t i o n s w e re a s k e d i n o r d e r

in d iv id u a l re a c tio n to ra d io .

T h e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e m an y s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n m ad e o f a d u l t s a n d o f c h i l d r e n w h i l e h a s b e e n som ew hat o v e r l o o k e d .

t h i s group

I t was f e l t t h a t by s e c u r i n g

th e v ie w p o in t o f t h i s n e a r - a d u l t a g e,

a m ore c o m p le te s t u d y

m ig h t be m ade. T he q u e s t i o n s day l i f e re p lie s

co n ce rn th e e f f e c t o f r a d io on e v e ry ­

and c u sto m s o f w ork a n d p l a y and s t u d y . in d ic a te th a t ra d io

th e s e e v ery day a c t i v i t i e s .

e x e rts a d e fin ite

The

i n f l u e n c e on

F r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e w i l l b e m ade

t o t h i s B ra w le y S tu d y and t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f a p p e a rs i n t h e A p p en d ix .

CHAPTER I I THE ATTITUDE OF THE LISTENER TOWARD BROADCASTING C la s sific a tio n a w id e r a n g e i n t h e tio n s

o f sta tio n s.

T he r a d i o l i s t e n e r h a s

c h o ic e o f s t a t i o n s .

The n u m b e r o f s t a ­

i n o p e r a t i o n a s o f O c t o b e r 1 , 1 9 4 0 w as 8 1 0 ,

and th e

F e d e r a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C o m m is s io n h a d i s s u e d c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r m i t s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f 54 a d d i t i o n a l o n e s ,

som e o f

w h ic h w ere u n d o u b t e d l y on t h e a i r p r i o r t o J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 4 1 .^ At tim e s th e s e s t a t i o n s

c a r r y p rogram s in t h i r t y

la n g u a g e s f o r th e b e n e f i t o f th e a r e a s i n w h ic h t h e s e s t a t i o n s

d iffe re n t

fo re ig n bo rn p o p u la tio n in

are lo c a te d .2

A c c o r d i n g t o t h e F e d e r a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C o m m is s io n ra d io s t a t i o n s a re p la c e d in

th e fo llo w in g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ;

T here a re f o u r g e n e r a l c la s s e s o f s t a t i o n s : C l a s s I . C l a s s I s t a t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o tw o g r o u p s , b o t h o p e r a t i n g on c l e a r c h a n n e ls and d e s i g n e d to re n d e r e x te n s iv e p rim a ry s e r v ic e , and, a t n ig h t, s e c o n d a ry s e r v i c e o v e r an e x te n d e d a r e a and a t r e l a ­ t i v e l y lo n g d is ta n c e s . C la s s I I . C la ss I I s t a t i o n s a r e se c o n d a ry s t a t i o n s an d o p e r a t e on c l e a r c h a n n e l s . They a r e d e s i g n a t e d to re n d e r s e r v ic e o v er a p rim a ry s e r v ic e a re a lim ite d b y a n d s u b j e c t t o s u c h i n t e r f e r e n c e a s may b e r e c e i v e d from C l a s s I s t a t i o n s .

^ P a u l F . P e t e r , The A m e r i c a n L i s t e n e r i n 1 9 4 0 (T h e A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A cadem y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 4* 2 F e d e r a l C o m m u n ic atio n s c o m m issio n , S i x t h A n n u al R e p o rt.

13 C la ss I I I . C la s s I I I s t a t i o n s o p e r a t e on a r e g i o n a l c h a n n e l w ith pow er o f one to f iv e k i lo w a t t s . C l a s s ITT. C la s s IT s t a t i o n s o p e r a t e on a l o c a l c h a n n e l a n d r e n d e r s e r v i c e p r i m a r i l y t o a c i t y o r to w n and i t s t e r r i t o r y . A s ta tio n o f th is c la s s is lim ite d t o 1 0 0 t o 350 w a t t s p o w e r . 3 A ll s t a t i o n s in th e U n ite d S t a te s m ust he c la s s e d in to

one o f th e above g ro u p s.

sta tio n s

T h ere a r e a g r e a t num ber o f

sp re a d th ro u g h o u t th e n t t i o n .

w a tts d e te rm in e s th e

T he n u m b e r o f k i l o ­

s tre n g th o f th e s ta tio n .

THE KINDS OF LISTENERS T he a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r . who l i s t e n s

T he a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r i s

a p a rt o f each day to

s e le c te d p ro g ram s.

one T hese

p rogram s a re chosen b e c a u se o f th e i n t e r e s t o f th e l i s t e n e r . H e t t i n g e r and N e ff d e f i n e th e i c a l fig u re liv in g

"av erag e l i s t e n e r "

a s a m y th ­

i n a s m a l l to w n , m a k in g f2 ,0 Q 0 p e r y e a r .

He i s m a r r i e d a n d h a s tw o c h i l d r e n . d id n o t g ra d u a te b u t h is

The h e a d o f t h e

fa m ily

c h ild r e n a re h ig h s c h o o l g ra d u a te s .

He d r i v e s a lo w p r i c e d c a r a n d g o e s t o t h e " m o v i e s " o n c e a w e e k .4

T h is g iv e s u s a v i v i d p i c t u r e o f o u r " a v e ra g e l i s ­

t e n e r ^ who i s

3 4

e v i d e n t l y a n a v e r a g e m an .

F e d e r a l C o m m u n ic a tio n s C o m m issio n , o p . c i t . ,

p. 48.

H erm an S . H e t t i n g e r a n d W. J . N e f f , P r a c t i c a l R a d i o A d v e r t i s i n g (New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e H a l l , l $ 3 d ) ', p . 1 3 3 .

14 V a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s h a v e b e e n m ade a s t o t h e n u m b e r o f a c tu a l hou rs th e in .

"av erag e l i s t e n e r " keeps h is ra d io

tu n e d

V i o l e t G. S t o n e m ade a s t u d y o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h e

lo w e r g r a d e s and c o n c lu d e d th e l i s t e n i n g s i x and o n e - q u a r te r h o u rs p e r w e e k .5 in one o f h is a r t i c l e s :

t i m e f o r th e m w a s

P a u l F. P e t e r s t a t e s

"T he a n sw e r t o

th e q u e s tio n a s to

how m u ch t h e home r a d i o s e t i s u s e d , w a s f o u n d i n

th e 1937

s u rv e y to be f o u r h o u rs and tw e n ty -tw o m in u te s d a i l y . " R u ral fa m ilie s used t h e i r s e ts u te s d a ily ,

fo u r h o u rs,

f o r t y - s e v e n m in ­

and u rb a n f a m i l i e s had t h e i r s e t s tu n e d in

fo u r a

h o u rs , n in e m in u te s p e r day,

a c c o rd in g to h is

fin d in g s .

W h ile s t u d y i n g a n o l d e r g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s ,

K e ith I .

T y l e r f o u n d t h a t t h e i r a v e r a g e l i s t e n i n g t i m e w a s tw o h o u r s and tw e n ty m in u te s d a i l y . tim e l i s t e n i n g g ro u p . 7

He s t a t e d

th a t g irls

s p e n d m o re

t o t h e r a d i o t h a n d o b o y s o f t h e sam e a g e

A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y b y t h e C o lu m b ia B r o a d c a s t i n g

i n 1 9 4 1 , t h e a m o u n t o f l i s t e n i n g t i m e i s g r e a t e s t i n m e d iu m s i z e d c o m m u n itie s , w i t h s m a ll to w n s t a k i n g a c l o s e

second.

5 V i o l e t G. S t o n e , C h i l d r e n ys P r e f e r e n c e s f o r R a d i o P ro g ram s ( U n i v e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r’ s T h e s is , 1 9 3 7 ). 6 P a u l F. P e te r ,

o£.

c i t . , p.

3.

7 K e i t h I . T a y l o r , " R a d io S t u d i e s i n O a k la n d , C a l i ­ fo rn ia ." E d u c a t i o n On T he A i r ( C o l u m b u s , O h i o : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934V," Voir 5 .

15 But even In c i t i e s

o f o v e r 3 5 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ,

se t-u sin g

f a m ilie s a v e ra g e fo u r h o u rs and t h i r t y - t h r e e m in u te s a day lis te n in g

to

th e r a d i o .8

Why d o e s t h e a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r l i s t e n ? q u e s t io n in v o lv e s a num ber o f e x p l a n a t i o n s .

O b v io u sly th e The a v e r a g e

l i s t e n e r p r e f e r s t o b e e n t e r t a i n e d e v e n w hen r e c e i v i n g u s e 9 f u l in fo rm a tio n . He u s u a l l y f e e l s a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n h i m s e l f an d t h e b r o a d c a s t e r . dem ands v a r i e t y d ram a, m u s ic ,

T he a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r

in h i s e n te r ta in m e n t and f in d s p le a s u r e in

a n d com edy a s w e l l a s i n n e w s,

e d u c a tio n a l p rog ram s.

Some l i s t e n e r s

h isto ry ,

and

tu n e in b ecau se th e y

a r e s h u t- in s and can n o t s h a re th e r e c r e a t io n o f o th e r s .

To

th e m t h e r a d i o m u s t s e r v e a s a d o o r w a y t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y m ay v i e w t h e w o r l d w h i c h h a s b e e n d e n i e d t h e m .

Many l i s t e n ­

e r s who c a n n o t a f f o r d t o go o u t t o t h e a t e r s o r p l a c e s o f am u sem en t,

o r w hose f a m i l i e s a r e so l a r g e

o u t in c o n v e n ie n t,

fin d th e ra d io w ith i t s

e s t i n g p ro g ram s a happy s o l u t i o n to way, th r o u g h l i s t e n i n g in c re a sin g ly

v a r ie d and i n t e r ­

t h e i r p ro b le m .

a s a fa m ily g ro u p ,

In t h i s

t h e home b e c o m e s

im p o rta n t a s a c u lt u r a l c e n te r .

M ost p r o g ra m s a r e c itin g ,

a s t o m ake g o i n g

and b a la n c e d .

chosen because th e y a re tim e ly ,

These th r e e s ta n d a r d s o f s e l e c t i o n

8 C o lu m b ia B r o a d c a s t i n g S t a t i o n s , P ro g ra m Book (Hew Y o r k : S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 1 ) . ^ H e ttin g e r and H e ff,

op. c i t .,

p. 47.

ex­

16 p ro d u ce a d iv e r s e ,

f l e x i b l e p ro g ram s c h e d u le ,

s i g n e d t o w in a n d r e t a i n e r s . 1'0

th e

in te r e s t o f m illio n s o f l i s t e n ­

O b v io u s ly t h e r e a r e m ore l i s t e n e r s

g roup th a n in a l l

th e o th e r s .

g r e a t b u lk o f program s i s

c a r e f u lly de­

It

in th e av erag e

i s to t h i s group t h a t th e

d ire c te d .

th e g r e a t e s t s o c i a l e f f e c t on t h i s

C o n se q u e n tly r a d i o h a s ty p e and p rogram s a re

b u i l t m a i n l y t o s a t i s f y h im . When d o e s t h e a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r l i s t e n ? s o m e th in g on t h e a i r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s a d a y .

T here i s From t h i s

b om bardm ent o f p ro g ra m s t h e a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r s e l e c t s h i s fa v o rite s.

T a b le I ,

on p a g e 1 7 ,

c o m p ile d by t h e C o lu m b ia

B r o a d c a s t in g S y stem , te n se

s h o w s w h en t h e l i s t e n i n g 11 f o r u rb an f a m ilie s . The f i g u r e s

i s m ost in -

i n T a b l e I show t h e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e s

o f a l l U n ite d S ta te s u rb an r a d io

fa m ilie s lis te n in g

in

th e

s i x h a lf - h o u r p e rio d s in

th e m o rn in g , th e tw e lv e h a l f - h o u r

p e rio d s

and th e

in th e a fte rn o o n ,

th e e v e n in g . day,

te n h a lf-h o u r p e rio d s in

T h e f i g u r e s show t h a t f r o m M onday t h r o u g h F r i ­

2 6 .1 p e r c e n t o f u rb a n r a d io

fa m ilie s lis te n

d u rin g

t h e a v e r a g e h a l f - h o u r b e t w e e n 9 : 0 0 A.M. a n d N o o n ; o n S a t u r ­ day,

2 4 .4 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e

fa m ilie s lis te n

in th e a v erag e

10 C o l u m b i a B r o a d c a s t i n g S y s t e m , o £ . c i t . 11

N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r o a d c a s t e r s , U rb a n K ad io L i s t e n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (New Y o r k : M a r c h , 1 9 4 1 ) , p .

17

TABLE I ANNEAL AVERAGE PERCENTAGES OF URBAN FAMILIES LISTENING TO RADIO BROADCASTS

, „ „. A verage h a lf - h o u r a u d ie n c e

P e rc e n ta g e s M onday S a tu rd a y

Sunday

M o rn in g

( 9 :0 0 - I S : 00)

2 6 .1

2 4 .4

21*6

A fte rn o o n

(1 2 :0 0 -

6 :0 0 )

2 2 .5

2 4 .9

2 6 .0

E v en in g

( 6 :0 0 - 1 1 :0 0 )

4 4 .7

4 0 .1

4 5 .9

18

m o rn in g h a l f - h o u r ;

on S u n d a y t h e f i g u r e s b e c o m e 2 1 . 6 p e r

cen t o f a l l u rb an ra d io

fa m ilie s.

O th e r c h a r t s w ere p r e s e n t e d sh o w in g t h e l i s t e n i n g a u d ie n c e by s e a s o n s . in

T he g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f l i s t e n i n g w as

t h e w i n t e r e v e n i n g s , w h i l e t h e l o w e s t f i g u r e p l o t t e d was

2 0 . 1 p e r c e n t S u n d a y m o r n i n g s i n t h e su m m e r, fig u re s,

one soon d i s c o v e r s t h e r e

" sm a ll" r a d io a u d ie n c e .

T ru e,

some p e r i o d s t h a n a t o t h e r s , c e n ta g e s m ust be a p p lie d i s ages tr a n s la te

s tu d y in g th e

i s no s u c h t h i n g a s a

th e a u d ie n c e i s g r e a t e r a t

b u t t h e b a s e t o w h ic h a l l p e r ­ so huge t h a t e v en "lo w " p e r c e n t ­

th e m se lv e s in to

tre m e n d o u s n u m b ers.

2 0 .1 p e r c e n t f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s a lm o s t 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a t l e a s t 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 p e o p le — a c t u a l l y l i s t e n i n g h a l f - h o u r S u n d a y m o r n i n g o f t h e su m m e r.

Thus th e

fa m ilie s —

in th e a v e ra g e

12

G a l l u p p o l l f i g u r e s show w h i l e 1 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 c i n e m a d ­ d ic ts

sit

in t h e i r fa v o rite

d a y , 5 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 r a d i o

c in e m a n s io n s o f an a v e ra g e Sun­

fan s l i s t e n

t o J a c k B e n n y on t h e a i r .

On a n a v e r a g e M onday 5 , 4 2 8 , 0 0 0 g o t o s it

th e m o v ie s; 2 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

a t home t o h e a r t h e L u x R jadio T h e a t e r p r o g r a m .

g ro w o u t o f t h e h a b i t o f g o i n g t o m o v i e s . fo r th is

are;

P e o p le

T he c h i e f r e a s o n s

th e y g e t m a rrie d , have b a b ie s,

a n d s p e n d m ore

tim e a t h o m e .1 ^

3*2 N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r o a d c a s t e r s , ^

M a g a z in e , J u l y 21,

1941, p .

75.

lo c .

o it.

19 The c a s u a l l i s t e n e r . t u r n s on h i s r a d i o

T h e c a s u a l l i s t e n e r i s o n e who

and p a y s l i t t l e

i s b e in g b r o a d c a s t.

o r no a t t e n t i o n

to w hat

T h is t y p e o f l i s t e n e r t u r n s on th e

r a d i o p r o b a b l y m o r e f o r c o m p a n i o n s h i p o f t h e hum an v o i c e th a n f o r e n te rta in m e n t o r m u sic .

H o u s e w i v e s who u s u a l l y

s p e n d t h e d a y a l o n e a t home w o u l d c o m p r i s e t h e l a r g e r p a r t of th is

c la ss ific a tio n .

T he r e a s o n f o r t h i s

is

t e n in g h o u rs a re lo n g e r w ith few er i n t e r v a l s lis te n in g .

S h u t - i n s w o u ld a l s o

fa ll

th a t l i s ­

o f in te n se

in to t h i s g ro u p .

The c a s u a l l i s t e n e r i s u n l i k e t h e a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r w ho, a c c o r d i n g t o L u m ley , t u n e s i n t o l o c a l s t a t i o n s o f lo u d e st s ig n a l s tre n g th ,

t e n d i n g to em p h a size s e l e c t i o n s o f

p ro g ram s r a t h e r th a n c o n tin u o u s l i s t e n i n g to one s t a t i o n . The a v e ra g e l i s t e n e r l i k e s m u s ic , sp o rts,

n ew s r e p o r t s ,

s e m i- c la s s ic a l m u sic . to

in

com edy, d r a m a ti c p ro g ra m s ,

th e o r d e r m e n tio n e d .

H is r a d i o

set is

tu n e d in fro m f o u r

f i v e h o u r s a d a y , m o s t l y i n t h e e v e n in g b e tw e e n se v e n

a n d n i n e , m u ch l e s s i n t h e m o r n i n g , a fte rn o o n *

and l e a s t o f a l l in th e

The a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r h a s l i t t l e

an y p a r t i c u l a r d a y o f t h e w eek an d l i s t e n s th e

He p r e f e r s

sum m er a s o t h e r t i m e s o f t h e y e a r .

o r tw o p e r s o n s i n t h e e v e n i n g s . p rogram l i s t i n g s t o w h ich he i s

a b o u t a s m uch i n

He l i s t e n s w i t h o n e

He l o o k s o v e r t h e n e w s p a p e r

l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e t im e ; knows t h e s t a t i o n

lis te n in g

s e v e n ty p e r c e n t o f th e tim e ;

i d e n t i f i e s th e sp o n so r about t h i r t y - f i v e tim e .

p referen ce fo r

and

p e r cen t o f th e

ao One o f t i l e i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f t h e r a d i o t h a t o f c o m p a n io n sh ip .

It

is

p ro m p ts th e c a s u a l l i s t e n e r to

t h i s g r e g a r i o u s s p i r i t w h ic h tu n e in h i s r a d i o ,

th a n f o r an y p a r t i c u l a r v a lu e he m ig h t r e c e i v e gram .

is

ra th e r

fro m th e p r o ­

In t h e B ra w le y S tu d y t h e q u e s t i o n was a s k e d ,

"D oes

t h e r a d i o m ake y o u f e e l y o u a r e n o t a l o n e w hen y o u a r e a lo n e ? * th is

S ee T a b le I I on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e .

q u e stio n 109,

a t i v e , w h ile 22,

o r 8 2 .2 p e r c e n t,

o r 1 6 .8 p e r c e n t ,

an sw ered in th e a f f ir m ­

gave a n e g a tiv e re p ly .

T h i s w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r th e ra d io *

In answ er to

fo u n d c o m p a n io n s h ip i n

T h is s o c i a l c o n s c io u s n e s s seem s t o b e s a t i s f y i n g

e s p e c ia lly to th e c a su a l l i s t e n e r . T ab le I I I , q u e stio n , th is

on p a g e 2 2 , r e c o r d s t h e a n sw e rs t o t h e

"Do y o u l i s t e n

to t h e r a d i o w h ile you w ork?"

q u e s tio n 50, o r 4 8 .1 p e r c e n t,

lis te d

th a t th e y l i s t e n ­

ed r e g u l a r l y w h i l e t h e y w ork; 6 5 , o r 4 9 . 6 p e r c e n t , o c c a sio n a lly ;

and 1 6 , o r 1 2 .3 p e r c e n t,

w h ile th e y w ork.

To

lis te n

do n o t l i s t e n

at a ll

T h i s m ay b e d u e i n p a r t t o t h e t y p e o f

w ork, b u t ju d g in g from t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e p l i e s , assum ed t h a t l i s t e n i n g ,

i t m ay b e

e s p e c ia lly o f th e c a s u a l ty p e ,

is a

g en eral h a b it. T h ere i s l i s t e n e r tu n e s

a n o th e r ty p e o f " c a s u a l l i s t e n e r . "

T h is

in a t i n t e r v a l s w ith no p a r t i c u l a r p rog ram i n

m i n d , b u t f o r w h a t e v e r e n t e r t a i n m e n t h e m ay c h a n c e t o fill

a n i d l e m o m e n t.

T h e r e m ay o r m ay n o t b e i n t e n s e

fin d to

TABLE I I TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "DOES THE RADIO MAKE YOU FEEL YOU ARE NOT ALONE WHEN YOU ARE ALONE?"

Boys Y es No

G rade

N in th

........................................................................

10

T e n th

............................... .

10

G irls Y es No

4 4

12

3

7

2

E l e v e n t h .........................................

14

1

14

3

T w e lfth

10

3

11

0

J u n i o r C o l l e g e ....................................................

16

1

5

1

T o t a l s ...............................

60

13

49

9

Boys a n d g i r l s ,

t o t a l a n s w e rin g "Y es"

Boys and g i r l s ,

t o t a l a n s w e r in g "N o"

109 22

22

TABLE III TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "DO YOU LISTEN TO THE RADIO WHILE YOU WORK?"

R e g u la rly

G rade

Boys

G irls

O c c a sio n a lly Boys

G irls

Not a t a l l Boys

G irls

N i n t l i .....................

2

6

6

6

5

4

T e n t h .....................

6

6

5

3

3

0

E le v e n th

• .

.

2

12

11

5

3

0

T w e lfth

.

.

4

4

?

8

1

1

4

4

13

1

0

1

18

32

42

23

12

6

.

J u n i o r C o lle g e T o ta ls Boys and g i r l s

50

65

18

23 l i s t e n i n g o n h i s p a r t a c c o r d i n g t o h i s m ood a n d t h e t y p e o f p ro g ram he s e l e c t s . T he c a s u a l l i s t e n e r i s th e

s o c i a l im p a c t o f r a d i o

w ith w h ic h h e l i s t e n s .

p erh ap s th e l e a s t a f f e c te d by

due t o

Even s o ,

t r a c t and h o ld h i s a t t e n t i o n . 8 h a b i t w h ic h i n i t s e l f i s

th e la c k o f a tte n tio n c e rta in

program s w i l l a t ­

The a c t o f t u n i n g i n b e c o m e s

one o f th e

so c ia l e ffe c ts of

ra d io . The c r i t i c a l

lis te n e r.

The c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r i s o n e

who t u r n s o n h i s r a d i o w i t h c a r e .

He s t u d i e s t h e n e w s p a p e r

lis tin g s

o n ly to p rogram s he i s

o r ra d io

lo g ,

s u r e w i l l i n t e r e s t h im .

and l i s t e n s

T he k i n d o f p r o g r a m h e w i l l s e l e c t

w i l l depend upon h is e d u c a tio n a l and c u l t u r a l b ack g ro u n d , e c o n o m ic s t a t u s , lis te n e r.

and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s .

He i s a r a t i o n a l

C r i t i c a l a b i l i t y m ust n o t be c o n fu s e d w ith th e

c ritic a l lis te n e r. p o sse sse d by a l l

C ritic a l a b ility

lis te n e rs ,

in

som e d e g r e e m ay b e

but c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r s a re in

th e m in o rity . L i s t e n e r s m ay c r i t i c i z e a n o th e r such a s:

th e ra d io

c o n stru c tiv e c r itic is m ,

j e c t i o n s a n d c o m m e n ts .

i n o n e way o r fan l e t t e r s ,

ob­

T h e s e m ay b e w r i t t e n o r t e l e p h o n e d

i n t o t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n s o r d i s c u s s e d am ong t h e m s e l v e s . T h is g ro u p o f l i s t e n e r s

i s n o t to be co n fu se d w ith th e

c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r who l i s t e n s t o h i s own s e l e c t i o n o f

24 p ro g ram s and r e f u s e s to l i s t e n reaso n s fo r th is

to any o th e r .

ty p e o f l i s t e n i n g

a re:

The m a i n

la c k o f tim e ,

o f i n t e r e s t in m is c e lla n e o u s ty p e s o f p rogram s,

la c k

e g o tism ,

and c u l t u r a l b a c k g ro u n d . The m a in p u r p o s e o f r a d i o

fo r th is

ty p e o f l i s t e n e r

w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d i n c r e a s e d know ­ le d g e a lo n g th e

lin e s o f h is deepest in te r e s ts .

w o u ld c a u s e l i t t l e

change in h is d a ily r o u tin e ,

The r a d i o a c tin g

m e r e ly a s an a u x i l i a r y t o h i s im m e d ia te i n t e r e s t s .

T he

c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r w i l l p r o b a b l y n e v e r becom e an a v e r a g e lis te n e r. LISTENING AGES Age a n d t h e l i s t e n e r .

Age p l a y s a r e l a t i v e l y

p a rt in lis te n in g a c t iv i t ie s

a c c o rd in g to L o n g s ta ff,

in te llig e n c e

has l i t t l e

sm a ll and

o r no b e a r i n g i n d e t e r m i n i n g who

l i s t e n s o r w hat w i l l b e re m e m b e re d .15

Many c h i l d r e n s p r o ­

gram s a r e l i s t e n e d t o and e n jo y e d by a d u l t s .

H ow ever,

L u m le y a d d s , t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p r o g r a m s w e r e i n t e n d e d f o r a n d e n j o y e d b y a d u l t s . 15 p ro g ram s and d i s l i k e o r " e d u c a tio n a l.”

C h ild re n l i s t e n

to and e n jo y a d u lt

h a v in g p ro g ram s la b e le d ” f o r c h i l d r e n ”

T here a re

1 a r e so c o n f l i c t i n g m ay h e a r w h a t h e w a n t s t o b e l i e v e .

PQ

fig h tin g

Ib id . , p.

28.

30 i b i d . , p .

29.

t h a t th e l i s t e n e r

T he c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r

61 w i l l p r o b a b l y d i s b e l i e v e m any o f t h e

re p o rts

he h e a r s ,

w h ile

t h e c a s u a l a n d a v e r a g e l i s t e n e r s m ay b e c o m e m u c h a f f e c t e d . At any r a t e , p o rts,

th e l i s t e n e r ,

by g e tt i n g

b o th s id e s o f th e r e ­

c a n come t o a m o r e r a t i o n a l b e l i e f a s t o

j u s t w hat i s

h a p p e n in g . It

is

in te re s tin g

t o n o t e w h a t C ly d e R. M i l l e r h a s t o

s a y a b o u t r a d i o and p ro p a g a n d a .

He s t a t e s :

Of a l l th e c h a n n e ls th r o u g h w h ic h p ro p a g a n d a f lo w s , r a d i o i s th e m ost e f f e c t i v e in p r e v e n tin g o r i n a c c e l ­ e ra tin g s o c ia l change. By r a d i o t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t s c a n b r in g h i s v o ic e and a l l th e p e rs u a s iv e pow er o f h i s em o tio n s to m i l l i o n s o f p e o p le , and w ith th e sp e e d o f lig h t. S in c e 1932 r a d i o th u s u t i l i z e d a s a p ro p a g a n d a c h a n n e l, has been a p o w e rfu l in s tru m e n t f o r a c c e l e r ­ a t i n g s o c i a l c h a n g e . 31 S t.

P a u l m ig h t be te rm e d c h i e f p r o p a g a n d i s t o f t h e

e a r l y C h r i s t i a n C h u rch w here he fo u n d e p i s t l e s s p o k e n w ord e f f e c t i v e

b u t slo w .

p ro p a g a n d is t o f th e R e fo rm a tio n .

and th e

M a rtin L u th e r m ig h t be th e He u s e d t h e s p o k e n w o rd

an d t h e n e w ly in v e n t e d p r i n t i n g p r e s s t o add sp e e d t o h i s propag anda.

T hese e a r l y p r o p a g a n d is ts ,

to d a y , w ere u t i l i z i n g

ju s t a s th o se o f

c h a n g in g tim e s and c o n d itio n s to

sp re ad t h e i r propaganda.

I n m o d e r n t i m e s t h e G e rm a n s h a v e

b ro u g h t out th e

f u l l c a p a c ity o f th e r a d io ,

speed o f l i g h t ,

to m illio n s o f lis te n e r s

w h ic h h a s th e

in sp re a d in g t h e i r

31 C l y d e R . M i l l e r , " R a d i o a n d P r o p a g a n d a , " T he A n n a l s o f t h e Am e r i c a n A c ad e m y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c ie n c e , Ja n u a ry , 1941, p . 71.

62 p ro p ag an d a b e fo re

strik in g

R a d i o h a s come i n t o

a t som e h a p l e s s n a t i o n * its

own a s a m ed iu m o f p r o p a ­

ganda d u rin g th e s e re c e n t y e a rs . " R a d io c u t l i t t l e

fig u re

i n th e p ro p ag a n d a o f L e n in and t h e

e a r l y propaganda o f M u s s o lin i, w as a p ro p a g a n d a c h a n n e l o f t h e th e U n ite d S t a te s ,

A c c o rd in g t o A lf r e d L ee ,

th e

F a sc ist,

first

h u t by 1933 i t

i m p o r t a n c e . " 32

In

F a t h e r C o u g h l in , Huey P . L o n g , a n d

F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t won g r e a t m a s s e s o f f o l l o w e r s b e c a u s e t h e y knew how t o

use

th e r a d io . M ille r ad d s,

I f b e fo re t h e b a t t l e o f A u s t e r l i t z , N ap o leo n h ad a d d r e s s e d t h e F r e n c h Army h i s v o i c e , u n d e r t h e m o s t f a v o r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , m i g h t h a v e r e a c h e d a fe w d i v i s i o n s o f m en. When A d o l p h H i t l e r l a u n c h e d h i s a t t a c k o n t h e Low C o u n t r i e s h e d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e R e ic h was a b o u t t o fb a t t l e f o r t h e l i f e o r d e a t h o f t h e G erm an n a t i o n . * H i s v o i c e c o u l d b e h e a r d b y e v e r y s o l d i e r a n d b y 8 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 G erm an c i t i z e n s . 3 3 As s u c h , H i t l e r h a d a c h i e v e d a m o n o p o l y o f p r o p a g a n d a i n G erm any.

In th e U n ite d S t a t e s th e r e

in g p ro p ag an d as, is

b u t F e d e r a l pow er to

a r e s t i l l m any c o m p e t­ c o n tro l b ro a d c a s tin g

s u c h t h a t a g o v e r n m e n ta l m o n o p o ly o f p r o p a g a n d a g ro w s

sin c e

th e e x is te n c e o f our p re s e n t s t a t e P ropaganda i s an a tte m p t

been e s ta b lis h e d th a t rd d io

can

to

o f w ar.

p ersu ad e.

I t has

a lre a d y

be u se d e f f e c t i v e l y a s a

32 A l f r e d M. L e e a n d E l i z a b e t h B. L e e , T h e F i n e A r t o f P r o p a g a n d a (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o . , 1 9 3 9 ) p . 42. 3 3 C l y d e R. M i l l e r , 0£ . c i t . , p . 7 2 .

63 propaganda d e v ic e .

W a l t e r H. W i l k e m a d e a s t u d y c o m p a r i n g

th e d ir e c t sp eech ,

th e ra d io ,

ganda d e v ic e s .

th is

ra d io

ad d ress,

a ttitu d e s

In

and th e p r i n t e d page a s p ro p a ­

stu d y i t

th o u g h s l i g h t l y

was f o u n d t h a t a t e n m in u t e

le s s e ffe o tiv e

th a n a te n m in u te l e c t u r e ,

in

ch an g in g

p ro v ed c o n s id e ra b ly

m ore e f f e c t i v e

t h a n a t e n - m i n u t e r e a d i n g o f t h e sam e m a t e r i a l

in

f o r m .® ^

th e p r in te d

T hat th e ra d io

is

a g re a t fo rce

f o r p ro p ag an d a can

b e s t b e s e e n by t h e way t h e a r r o g a n t w a r p o w e rs o f E u ro p e a r e u sin g i t trie s

to d a y i

L o r d Haw-Haw who b r o a d c a s t s t o

t o b r e a k down t h e m o r a l e o f t h e B r i t i s h

c o m m e n ts . to a f f e c t

th e E n g lis h

by h i s

tim e ly

T h e r e c e n t "Yn f o r V i c t o r y d r i v e b y t h e E n g l i s h t h e m o r a l e o f t h e G e rm a n s w a s u s e d o n t h e r a d i o

as w e ll a s b illb o a r d s

and o t h e r p l a c e s .

H ere i n th e U n ite d

S t a t e s t o d a y m an y o f o u r n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s a r e u s i n g t h e ra d io

sp re a d in g p ro p ag an d a f o r o u r a l l - o u t

p resen t c o n flic t.

A ll o f th e se

e ffo rts

in th e

an d m any m ore t o o n u m e ro u s

to m e n tio n c o n s i s t o f p ro p ag an d a to g e t p e o p le to a c t . r a d io w i l l becom e,

it

s e e m s , t h e g r e a t e s t d e v i c e know n f o r

s p r e a d i n g p ro p a g a n d a t h a t t h e w o r ld h a s e v e r known. f a r - r e a c h in g a ir-w a v e s ra d io

By i t s

t e n a c i e s o f p ro p ag an d a can

r e a c h e v e r y know n l a n d w h e r e t h e r e

34

The

is a re c e iv in g s e t to

B. B. L o u d e r m ilk , " E f f e c t o f t h e R a d io on L i s t e n e r s A t t i t u d e s , " E d u c a tio n on th e A i r , 1939 e d i t i o n , p . 2 3 4 .

64 ta k e

it

in . R a d io a s a n a i d t o

le isu re

and r e c r e a t i o n .

a n d a lw a y s h a s b e e n an in s t r u m e n t f o r l e i s u r e

R a d io i s

and r e c r e a tio n .

T h e t i r e d w o r k e r o n c o m in g home f r o m a h a r d d a y s w o r k w i l l in h is le is u r e

sit

down a n d l i s t e n

.re s p e c t th e ra d io

is

T h is s ta te m e n t i s

c o n firm e d ,

to

th e r a d io .

In th is

c o n s i d e r e d by m any a s a n e c e s s i t y .

b y th e B ra w le y S tu d y .

th o u g h n o t c o n c l u s i v e l y p ro v e d

See T a b le X 7I,

on p a g e 6 5 .

T he f i g u r e s

i n T a b l e XVI show t h a t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s

con­

s id e re d th e ra d io as a n e c e s s ity .

an i n ­

d is p e n s a b le in stru m e n t

it

is

to m illio n s to d a y .

The r a d i o m ay b e c a l l e d fo r le isu re

At any r a t e ,

and r e c r e a t i o n .

th e in s tru m e n t o f th e poor

They c a n n o t a f f o r d

t o go t o

th e

k i n d o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t w h ic h t h e y o f t e n h e a r on t h e r a d i o free

o f ch arg e.

T he r a d i o ,

m ent f o r th e p o o r;

it

is

h o w ever,

I f th e ra d io

and r e c r e a t i o n ,

p r e s e n t ty p e s o f p ro g ram s, m ost p a r t ,

n o t j u s t an i n s t r u ­

e q u a lly e n jo y e d by th e r i c h

a v e r a g e in c o m e g r o u p s a s w e l l . in stru m e n t o f l e i s u r e

is

th a t is ,

it

is

to

and

be an

w o u ld seem t h a t t h e

e n te ra ta in m e n t

fo r th e

sh o u ld c o n tin u e to be in th e m a jo r ity .

In re g a rd to

r a d i o S h erw o o d G a te s co m m en ts,

R e g a r d l e s s o f how we m ay d e f i n e a n d d e l i m i t c u l t u r e , r e c r e a t i o n , a n d e d u c a t i o n t h e r a d i o i s u n d e n i a b l y m ak ­ i n g a tr e m e n d o u s im p a c t on m odern l i f e * I t i s p o ssib le to s a y , h o w ever, t h a t i n p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , no g r e a t e r c u l t u r a l m e d iu m h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o s o c i a l l i f e sin c e th e in v e n tio n o f p r in tin g . I t m ay a l s o b e s a i d

65

TABLE XVI TABULATION OF ANS¥ifERS TO THE QUESTION *DQ YOU CONSIDER THE RADIO A NECESSITY?*

G rad e

Yes

No

N in th

...............................

11

T e n th

................................

6

E le v e n th

.....................

8

T w e lfth

.....................

4

J u n i o r C o lle g e T o ta ls

.

.

a

.

.

31

66 th a t w ith th e p o s s ib le e x c e p tio n o f re a d in g , ra d io i s t h e m o s t w i d e s p r e a d form o f l e i s u r e - t i m e a t t r a c ­ t i o n . 35 R a d i o h a s r e a c h e d a new l e v e l f o r u p h o l d i n g t h e m o r a l e o f m en i n t h e a rm e d f o r c e s d u r i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e re c re a tio n p e rio d s.

Many s p o n s o r s ,

re a liz in g

th is ,

t h e i r r a d i o u n i t s on p e r s o n a l a p p e a ra n c e t r i p s cam ps.

T h is s e r v e s a tw o - f o ld p u rp o s e .

n o t o n ly h e lp in g to fo rces, tio n

fill

in le is u re

and

send

to v a rio u s

T he s p o n s o r i s

h o u r s o f t h e arm ed

but a d v e r tis in g h is p ro d u ct to

th e

c iv ilia n

p o p u la ­

as w e ll. The r a d i o

ra in y days, tie s ,

is

a g r e a t a id to p a r e n ts ,

e s p e c i a l l y on

i n b r i n g i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r home g a m e s ,

m u sic and d r a m a t i c s .

a c tiv i­

O f te n s im p le c r a f t w o rk h a s

b een s u c c e s s f u l l y g u id e d i n th e hom es, a s w e ll a s i n s t r u c ­ tio n

in n a tu re

s tu d y and fo lk w ay s.

R a d io * s v a r i o u s o f f e r i n g s o f d an ce m u sic and co n ­ c e rts,

c h ild re n s

sk its,

le c tu re s,

program s,

s p o r t i n g e v e n t s , n ew s, dram a,

d isc u ssio n s,

c e d e n te d p o s s i b i l i t i e s u a ls ,

fa m ily g ro u p s,

a ls o ,

ra d io

and s t o r i e s

fo r re c re a tio n

o ffe re d un p re­

n o t o n ly to

and o rg a n iz e d l i s t e n i n g

a s a m e c h a n ism a f f o r d s

in d iv id ­

g ro u p s, b u t

c o m m u n ity r e c r e a t i o n d e ­

p a r t m e n t s a n i m p o r t a n t m e d iu m o f p u b l i c

c o n ta c t.

In th e

^ S h e r w o o d G a t e s , HR a d i o i n R e l a t i o n t o R e c r e a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , * T h e A n n a l s o f t h e A cadem y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c ia l S c ie n c e , Ja n u a ry , 1941, p . 9.

67 B r a d l e y S u r v e y t h e q u e s t i o n was a s k e d , ra d io to

d a n c e a t home?**

page 68,

it

From t h e d a t a

c a n b e s e e n t h a t m o re t h a n

s tu d e n ts q u e s tio n e d u sed th e r a d io th e m i t

MDo y o u t u r n o n t h e i n T a b le X F II,

on

50 p e r c e n t o f t h e

a t home t o d a n c e #

s e r v e s a s a m e d iu m o f r e c r e a t i o n

to f i l l

For

le isu re

h o u rs. R a d i o w i l l m ak e i t s

la r g e s t c o n trib u tio n

i n g l y im p o r ta n t p ro b le m o f l e i s u r e r e c r e a tio n a l agency-

is

a fin e

th e grow -

tim e a s a c u l t u r a l and

T he g r e a t a t t e n t i o n w h i c h h a s b e e n

g i v e n t o p ro g ra m s form t h e f i e l d b e g in n in g ,

to

o f m u sic ,

sin c e r a d i o ’s

e x a m p le o f t h e r a d i o a s an i m p o r t a n t

r e c r e a tio n a l a g e n t. The r a d i o a n d new i d e a s # s t o r e - h o u s e o f new i d e a s . te a c h e rs,

d o c to rs ,

in c re a s in g

The r a d i o

H o u se w iv e s,

is v ir tu a lly

a

fa rm e rs , m e rc h a n ts,

and s c o r e s o f o t h e r s a r e g iv e n an e v e r

flo o d o f in fo rm a tio n .

k n o w l e d g e t o l a r g e g r o u p s m ay i n

T h is d is s e m in a tio n o f t i m e h a v e a w h o le s o m e e f ­

f e c t upon th e n a tio n . B ecause m illio n s tim e ,

th e ra d io

new p r o d u c t , know n.

o f p e o p le can be re a c h e d a t one

i s u s e d b y a d v e r t i s e r s w hen i n t r o d u c i n g a

o r in

in c re a s in g s a le s

M any s u c h a d v e r t i s e r s

fo r a p ro d u ct a lre a d y

ask th e l i s t e n e r to send f o r

a b o o k , o r a m a p , o r som e o t h e r s u c h i t e m . S u rv ey t h i s

I n th e B ra w ley

t o p i c w as s t u d i e d a n d t h e q u e s t i o n was a s k e d ;

68

TABLE X V II TABULATION OE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "NO YOU TURN ON THE RADIO TO DANCE AT HOME?*

Yes

No

14

15

T e n t h .....................................

14

9

E le v e n th

...........................

18

14

T w e lfth

..........................

17

7

G rade N in th

. . . . . . . .

J u n i o r C o lle g e T o ta ls

.

.

.

12

11

.

.

.

65

56

"H ave y o u e v e r s e n t t o a r a d i o o t h e r suoh ite m ? " is

See T a b le X F III,

a resp o n se to a d v e r tis e r s

a p p a re n t.

sta tio n

H ow ever,

in th e

to

o n p a g e ?G.

send in

book,

or

T hat th e re

fo r m a te ria l is

d a t a i n T a b l e XVTIX som e o f t h e

s tu d e n ts d id n o t send in r e g u l a r ly o u t down t h e r e s p o n s e ,

f o r a m ap ,

f o r i te m s w h ic h w o u ld

n e v e r th e le s s th e y resp o n d ed to

th e se

new i d e a s . O l d i d e a s w h i c h a r e new t o m an y l i s t e n e r s to

th e a tte n tio n

o f th e p e o p le .

a re b ro u g h t

O ld s o n g s o f a l l k i n d s ,

c u sto m s an d w ays o f d o in g t h i n g s ,

t h e p an o ram a o f t h e p a s t

m ay h e l p t o k n i t t h e n a t i o n m o r e c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r . T h e r a d i o i t s e l f i s m a k i n g g r e a t new s t r i d e s . quency m o d u la tio n i s be n a ti o n - w i d e . a s we r e v i e w c o n tin u e to

a lre a d y in u se .

F re­

T e l e v i s i o n w i l l soon

The f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s

seem l i m i t l e s s ,

t h e a m a zin g s h o r t p a s t o f r a d i o .

Hew i d e a s w i l l

i n t r i g u e m a n k i n d , b u t i d e a s now d o n o t d e p e n d

u p o n w ord o f m o u th f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n .

An i d e a s p o k e n s o f t l y

i n t o a m i c r o p h o n e m ay r e a c h m i l l i o n s o f l i s t e n e r s

a t one

tim e . Hew p r o g r a m s a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g p r e s e n t e d t o h o l d th e i n t e r e s t o f th e l i s t e n e r . ro u n d t a b l e

d isc u ssio n s,

A m e ric a ," s p o t n e w s c a s ts , As t h e

ta s te

Among t h e s e a r e q u i z p r o g r a m s ,

"We t h e P e o p l e , " " C a v a l c a d e o f a m a te u r h o u r s ,

a n d m any o t h e r s .

o f t h e l i s t e n e r c h a n g e s new p r o g r a m s a n d i d e a s

w ill be added.

R a d io m u s t k e e p a l i v e

to th e d e s ir e s o f th e

70

TABLE X V I I I TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "HAVE YOU EVER SENT TO A RADIO STATION FOR A MAP, BOOK, OR OTHER SUCH ITEM ?"

G rade

Y es

No

N in th

9

BO

T e n th E le v e n th T w e lfth

. . . . . . . . . .

J u n i o r C o lle g e T o ta ls

6

17

17

15

8

16

15

8

55

76

?1

v a s t a u d ie n c e w h ic h i t o r a g e n c y m ay t a k e n o t seem l i k e l y th e d a ily sib le

life

reach es d a ily ,

t h e a u d ie n c e aw ay.

o r som e o t h e r a c t i v i t y H o w ev er, t h i s

does

s i n c e r a d i o h a s so e n tr e n c h e d i t s e l f

in to

o f t h e A m e ric an p e o p le a s t o b e a n i n d i s p e n -

in stru m e n t.

Many p e o p l e w o u l d r a t h e r d o w i t h o u t m an y

o f th e ir n e c e ssitie s

in o rd e r to p o ss e s s a r a d io .

T he r a d i o

c a n b e c o u n t e d o n t o p r e s e n t s o m e t h i n g new a n d e x c i t i n g a t a l m o s t a n y m o m e n t. it

T h is q u a l i t y o f th e r a d i o

a lo n e m akes

a w o rth w h ile in s tru m e n t. The r a d i o a n d i t s

c u sto m s.

e f f e c t on f o l k w a y s , m o re s a n d

C u s to m r e g u l a t e s t h e w h o l e o f a m a n f s a c t i o n .

F o lk w ay s a r i s e

th ro u g h th e e x p e rie n c e s , h a b i t s ,

r o u tin e and

o t h e r a c t io n s a cc u m u la te d o v e r a lo n g p e r io d o f tim e . young le a r n

fo lk w a y s by t r a d i t i o n ,

im ita tio n ,

The w ord m o re s i s

a sy n o n y m o f h a b i t ,

tra d itio n

lik e .

a ffe c te d

and th e

The q u e s t i o n i s ,

h is

I f th e prog ram i s

t o be to w a rd s h i s

has th e ra d io

"E v ery pro g ram m u st a p p e a l

in te lle c t,

if

it

is

t o h o l d him ."3(3

se lf-in te re st

ra d io p r e s e n ta tio n s m ust be d ir e c te d to h is

p. 8.

c o n v e n tio n ,

th e em o tio n s o r th e s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f th e h e a r e r ,

and n o t m e re ly to

36

and a u t h o r i t y .

o u r fo lk w a y s , m o res a n d c u sto m s?

P a le y th in k s th a t in r a d io , e it h e r to

usage,

The

th e n th e

c u sto m a ry h a b i t s

W illia m S . P a l e y , R a d io a s a C u l t u r a l F o r c e ,

72 o f e n te rta in m e n t.

I f th is

a n d m ay n o t a f f e c t

c u sto m .

is

tru e

If

it

r a d i o m ay b e c o m e a c u s t o m h a s b e e n a c u sto m o r h a b i t

f o r a fa m ily to l i s t e n

to w e s te rn m u sic ,

a l l p ro b a b ility lis te n

to

ra d io .

H ere a g a in

th e

th is

fa m ily w i l l in

sam e t y p e o f m u s i c o n t h e

i t w o u ld seem t h a t

th e ra d io

is

ta k in g

t h e p l a c e o f t h e o t h e r m eans and s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e e s t a b l i s h e d needs.

As t h e r a d i o b eco m es m o re a n d m o re t h e r e l i a b l e

so u rce fo r th e se n eed s,

it

seem s p r o b a b le t h a t b e f o r e lo n g

t h e r a d i o m ay c h a n g e c u s t o m s a n d e s t a b l i s h new o n e s i f

it

h a s n o t a lr e a d y done so . One q u e s t i o n w h i c h r a d i o

ra ise s

in

t h e m i n d s o f som e

i s w h e th e r o r n o t th e r a d i o k e e p s p e o p le up l a t e r th a n u su a l.

If it

does th e ra d io

t h e i r n i g h t tim e a c t i v i t i e s , q u e s t i o n was a s k e d , u su a l? "

is

b re a k in g in to

in

th e h a b it o f

th e B ra w le y S u rv e y th e

"D oes t h e r a d i o k e e p y o u up l a t e r th a n

T he a n s w e r s t o

th is

q u e stio n a re

T a b l e XIX o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e .

ta b u la te d in

From t h e a n s w e r s i t

can

be s e e n t h a t 91 o f t h e

s t u d e n t s w ere a f f e c t e d by th e r a d i o

and k e p t up l a t e r .

t h e p a s t fe w m o n t h s b e f o r e

in to to

In

th e w ar m i l l i o n s o f p e o p le s ta y e d c lo s e to

c a tc h th e l a t e s t new s,

t h e i r ra d io

and in a l l p r o b a b i l i t y u n t o ld

n um bers s t a y e d up l a t e r t o g e t th e b r o a d c a s t s . has a ffe c te d

our e n try

Thus r a d io

t h e c u s t o m s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l who h a s h a d a

r e g u l a r tim e t o r e t i r e .

H o w ev er,

t h e e f f e c t m ay n o t b e co m e

a p erm an en t one f o r th e m a j o r i t y o f l i s t e n e r s .

73

TABLE XIX TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "DOES THE RADIO KEEP YOU UP LATER THAN USUAL?”

G rad e

R egu­ la rly

O c c a sio n ­ a lly

Not a t a l l

N in th

2

17

10

T en th

4

9

10

E le v e n th

4

IS

10

T w e lfth

1

15

8

J u n i o r C o lle g e

3

18

2

14

77

40

T o ta ls

74 Do m o r e p e o p l e s t a y a t home b e c a u s e o f t h e r a d i o ? The c a s u a l a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n w o u ld seem t o b e yes* T h is i s b o rn e o u t by th e f a c t t h a t m i l l i o n s l i s t e n B enny and o t h e r s u c h c e l e b r i t i e s on t h e a i r

to Jack

a t th e tim e o f

t h e e v e n i n g w hen u n d e r o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y w o u ld b e g o in g o u t*

In answ er t o th e q u e s tio n ,

home b e c a u s e o f t h e r a d i o ? "

"Do y o u s t a y a t

t h e B ra w ley s t u d y fo u n d t h a t

am ong t h e s t u d e n t s s t u d i e d o n l y 9 s t a y a t home r e g u l a r l y b ecau se o f th e r a d io ,

b u t 67 s t a y a t home o c c a s i o n a l l y

a n d 5 5 n e v e r s t a y a t home b e c a u s e o f t h e r a d i o . XX o n p a g e 7 5 .

T he I n f l u e n c e

in t h is

See T a b le

r e s p e c t w o u ld be a

t r e n d t o w a r d k e e p i n g t h e f a m i l y t o g e t h e r m o r e a t h o m e. w o u ld a l s o

in d ic a te

p le a su re o u tsid e W ith t h e

a c h an g e i n t h e c u sto m o f s e e k i n g

t h e home t o a r e d i s c o v e r y o f home l i f e . co m in g o f a u t o m o b i l e s , m o v ie s ,

o u tsid e in flu e n c e s , its

te n d s to r e u n ite

th e

o th e r in te r e s tin g s u l t m an y f a m i l i e s

It

it

ap p eared t h a t

p la c e as a c e n te r o f th e

tie s is

and o th e r

t h e home w a s l o s i n g

fa m ily g ro u p .

R a d io ,

h o w ev er,

fa m ily by b r in g in g e n te rta in m e n t and

fe a tu re s d ir e c tly to lis te n

a s a g ro u p ,

t h e hom e.

As a r e ­

a n d i n m a n y co m m uni­

t h e r e h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d n um erous l i s t e n i n g in te re s tin g

to n o te th e re a c tio n

to

"D oes y o u r f a m i l y l i s t e n

g ro u p s.

th e q u e s tio n

a s k e d i n t h e B ra w le y s t u d y on t h i s v e r y t o p i c . w as,

It

a s a group to

The q u e s t i o n

th e ra d io ? "

75

TABLE XX TABULATION OE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "DO YOU STAY AT HOME BECAUSE OE THE RADIO?"

G rade

R e g u la rly

O c c a sio n a lly

N ot a t a l l

N in th

1

IB

16

T e n th

3

11

9

E le v e n th

Z

16

14

T w e lfth

1

13

10

J u n i o r C o lle g e

Z

15

6

9

67

55

T o ta ls

76 T a b l e XXX, o n p a g e 7 7 ,

show s t h a t 104 o u t o f t h e 131 s t u d ­

e n ts s tu d ie d in d ic a te d th a t t h e i r le a st

so m e tim e s , a s a g ro u p .

has a n a tu r a l fo u n d a tio n . iso la te d

fa m ilie s lis te n e d ,

at

L i s te n i n g a s a fa m ily g ro u p

In e a r l i e r

d a y s w hen h o m e s w e r e

th e fa m ily g roup had to p ro v id e i t s

m e n t*

R a d i o now f o r m s a n o u t l e t

lis h e d

c u sto m .

fo r th is

own e n t e r t a i n ­

fo rm e rly e s ta b ­

The c u s to m s o f o t h e r n a t i o n s a r e b e in g b r o u g h t t o m ore a n d m ore l i s t e n e r s

at

th e p r e s e n t tim e .



R ie g e l sa y s,

The L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s h a d r a d i a t e d s p o k e n m e s s a g e s in b e h a l f o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a m ity and good w i l l . In a s i n g l e y e a r , c a p i t a l E u ropean b r o a d c a s te r s had ex­ ch an g e d m ore th a n 1500 p ro g ra m s t o a c q u a i n t t h e i r l i s t e n e r s w ith th e a c h ie v e m e n ts and fo lk w a y s o f p e o p le s in n e ig h b o rin g n a tio n s . H ow ever, i n t e r n a t i o n ­ a l b r o a d c a s ts , h a ile d a s h a rb in g e r s o f a m ille n iu m in in te r n a tio n a l u n d e rs ta n d in g has d ism a lly f a ile d to a c h i e v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g am ong n a t i o n s . 37 It

sh o u ld be n o te d ,

p e c te d im m e d ia te ly .

h ow ever, It

th a t r e s u lts

can n o t be ex­

t a k e s tim e f o r one p e o p le t o

'a n d a c q u a i n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e

c u sto m s o f o t h e r n a t i o n s .

W i l l i a m G ra h am S u m n e r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , in l i f e

c o n d itio n s

o rd er.

l u s t w hat ch an g es i n

accept

’’P r o f o u n d c h a n g e s

cause pro fo u n d changes in

th e s o c ia l

th e s o c i a l o rd e r?

T hat depends

upon th e e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f p ro p a g a n d is ts in g a in in g a c c e p t­ a n c e f o r new w a y s o f t h i n k i n g a n d a c t i n g t o m e e t new l i f e

3,7 0 . W. R i e g e l , M o b i l i z i n g f o r G h a o s {New H a v e n : Y a le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ), p . 8 5 .

77

TABLE XXI TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "DOES YOUR FAMILY LISTEN TO THE RADIO AS A GROUP?”

G rade

R e g u la rly

O c c a sio n a lly

N ot a t a l l

N in th

5

13

11

T e n th

3

16

4

E le v e n th

5

22

5

T w e lfth

2

16

6

J u n i o r C o lle g e

4

18

1

19

65

27

T o ta ls

c o n d i t i o n s . " 38 It

It

a p p e a rs t h a t th e r a d io h a s done j u s t t h i s .

has changed l i f e

c o n d i t i o n s a n d w ays o f d o in g t h i n g s ,

j u s t as th e a ir p la n e w arfare. sitio n

and m e c h a n iz e d e q u ip m e n t h a s c h an g ed

Our m o re s a n d c u sto m s h a v e b e e n u n d e rg o in g a t r a n ­

a n d t h e r a d i o h a s d o n e m u ch i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h i s

change. F o re ig n la n g u a g e b r o a d c a s t s . i t was m e n tio n e d t h a t

In a p re v io u s c h a p te r

f o r t h e y e a r s 1939 a n d 1940 t h e r e w e re

a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n s

in th is

w h ic h a t tim e s c a r r y p ro g ram s i n t h i r t y

d iffe re n t

f o r th e b e n e f it o f th e f o r e ig n bo rn p o p u la tio n w h ic h t h o s e s t a t i o n s isio n

a re lo c a te d .

la n g u a g e s

in a re a s in

The I n t e r n a t i o n a l D iv ­

o f t h e n a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Com pany w a s b r o a d c a s t i n g

16 h o u r s a d a y . la n g u a g e s.

F le v e n o f t h e s e h o u r s w ere i n f o r e i g n

M o re t h a n 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m s b r o a d c a s t

are e s p e c ia lly b u ilt

f o r f o r e ig n a u d ie n c e s and a re b ro a d ­

c a s t by sh o rt-w a v e o n ly . are

c o u n try

O n ly s l i g h t l y l e s s

t h a n 20 p e r c e n t

ta k e n fro m t h e n e tw o rk s . T h e n a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Com pany i n e x p l a i n i n g w h a t

la n g u a g e s w ere u s e d gave th e f o llo w in g e x p l a n a t i o n ,

"We

c h o s e t h e l a n g u a g e s t o b e u s e d f o r news b r o a d c a s t s t h e

fiv e

g r e a t la n g u a g e s o f th e w o rld o t h e r th a n E n g lis h - - e a c h sp o k en

3 8 W i l l i a m G ra h a m S u m n e r , C om pany, 1 9 0 6 ) , p . 1 0 .

F o lk w a y s (B o s to n :

G in n a n d

"by w e l l o v e r 4 0 m i l l i o n p e o p l e — I t a l i a n ,

G erm an,

F r e n c h .,

P o rtu g u e se and S p a n ish . T hese f o r e i g n la n g u a g e b r o a d c a s t s o f t h e new s and o t h e r t y p e s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t w i l l d i s s e m i n a t e k n o w le d g e and c u ltu r e ,

and b e t t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld .

C e rta in ly i t

w i l l m ake t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d f e e l a m o r e

.u n iv e rs a l s p i r i t

is

a t hand.

N ever b e fo re h as t h i s u n i f i ­

c a t i o n o f t h e w o r ld seem ed so c l o s e a t h a n d a s i t because o f th e ra d io . p r e s e n t u n w ie ld y ,

is

to d a y

R a d io h a s becom e a w o r ld f o r c e ,

aw kw ard, an d p r i m i t i v e ,

but i t

at

w i l l d e v e lo p

i n t o a sm o o th w o rk in g m a c h in e o f w o rld g o o d w i l l . "The g o o d n e i g h b o r p o l i c y " o f t h e p r e s e n t a d m i n i s ­ tra tio n new s,

has been f a c i l i t a t e d

by t h e r a d i o .

E n te rta in m e n t,

and c o n fe re n c e s a s w e ll a s sp e ec h ed and in te rc h a n g e o f

m u s ic a l p ro gram s have a l l

c o n tr i b u te d to w a rd s a b e t t e r

u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e tw e e n th e m an d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . quakes,

fire s,

fo re ig n

c o u n tr ie s a re to d a y b ro u g h t u n d e r c o n tr o l and s u f ­

fe rin g

is

flo o d s,

E a rth ­

and o th e r n a tio n a l d i s a s t e r s

le s s e n e d by th e u s e o f th e r a d io .

S u p p lie s and

m e d ic a l e q u ip m e n t an d o t h e r h e lp can be c a l l e d p a tc h e d q u ic k ly and e f f e c t i v e l y .

in

f o r and d i s ­

A n o t e w o r t h y e x a m p le o f

t h e p o w e r o f r a d i o was d e m o n s t r a t e d i n 1934 b y t h e R i c h a r d E . B yrd E x p e d i t i o n .

^

A d o c t o r was n e e d e d f o r L i t t l e A m e ric a .

E d u c a tio n on t h e A i r ,

19 40 e d i t i o n ,

p.

10.

80 T h e c o m m a n d in g o f f i c e r B y r d r a d i o e d t o Few Z e a l a n d f o r a d o c t o r a n d h a d o n e s e n t t o h im a t e v e r man t r a v e l s ,

it

th e S o u th P o le !

can he s a f e l y s a i d ,

W h ere

he i s n e v e r a lo n e

i f he h as a r a d io . The u s e o f f o r e i g n s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t on th e tu re ,

l a n g u a g e b r o a d c a s t s m ay h a v e a sc h o o ls.

T here w i l l i n th e

no d o u b t , b e m o re s t r e s s u p o n l e a r n i n g

uages in

t h e A m e ric an s c h o o l s .

It

la n g u a g e s a re b e in g ta u g h t in th e S ta te s,

but th e ir e ffe c tiv e n e ss

P erh ap s th e ra d io w ill

tru e

fo re ig n la n g ­

th a t fo re ig n

s c h o o ls o f th e U n ite d

is

change a l l

is

fu ­

s till th is

som ew hat i n d o u b t .

in tim e .

W hat a r e t h e b e n e f i t s o f f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e b r o a d c a s t s ? T h is q u e s t i o n can be a n sw e red i n a num ber o f w ays. th e re

is

th e s p i r i t o f in te r n a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n ;

th e exchange o f id e a s ;

th ird ly ,

F irst, se c o n d ly ,

th e e d u c a tio n a l a d v a n ta g e s

a n d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g am ong t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . A l l t h e s e m ak e n a t i o n s m o r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d p e r h a p s m o r e p e a c e f u l to w a rd s o th e r n a t i o n s . p la y in a l l t h i s

and t e l e v i s i o n

R a d io h a s a b i g r o l e

h as an even l a r g e r t a s k .

E n te r ta i n m e n t dem anded b y c u l t u r a l l e v e l s . feren t

ta s te s

b ro a d c a ste rs.

The d i f ­

o f r a d i o a u d ie n c e s h a s a lw a y s b e e n a p ro b le m o f He m u s t a t t e m p t t o know w h a t p e o p l e w a n t ,

to th e b e s t o f h is a b i l i t y h ow ever,

to

i s n o t so e a s y .

s u p p ly t h e p ro g ram w a n te d . P a le y s a y s ,

and

T h is ,

" B ro a d c a stin g s e r v ic e

81 m u st b e so b a la n c e d t h a t , g ram s d i r e c t e d

In

its

to th e m a jo rity

th e w o rth y m i n o r i t i e s

a lik e

sc h e d u le ,

in te re s ts ,

it

o ffe rs p ro ­

and t o

th o se o f

i n i n t e l l i g e n t p r o p o r t i o n . " 40

He a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l ,

in fo rm a tiv e and g e n e r a l­

ly

and h e ld o u r m illio n s

c u l t u r a l prog ram s have a t t r a c t e d

of lis te n e rs . A c c o rd in g t o P referen ces

f o r R a d io P ro g ra m s ,

t u r a l le v e l o f th e first,

s u r v e y s m ade b y S t o n e on c h i l d r e n ’s it

w as fo u n d t h a t t h e c u l ­

c h i l d r e n m ade l i t t l e

seco n d and t h i r d

c h o ic e s .

d iffe re n c e

in th e ir

The h i g h e s t l e v e l m e r e ly

had a w id e r c h o ic e . R u t h T a n D em an, i n E d u c a t i o n On T h e A i r , q u e stio n ,

"W h a t do women w a n t t o

i n t e r e s ti n g an sw ers.

ashed th e

h e a r ? " and r e c e i v e d m any

She s a y s ,

We g e t a r e s p o n s e f r o m m e n , women a n d c h i l d r e n w h e n e v e r we t a l k a b o u t v i t a m i n s o r a n y o t h e r p h a s e s odT d i e t a n d hum an n u t r i t i o n o n t h e a i r . A m e ric a i s d ie t c o n sc o iu s. A s a com m ent o n e l i s t e n e r s a i d , "Y our f l u e n c y o f s p e e c h d e n o te s a th o ro u g h u n d e r ­ sta n d in g o f your s u b je c t." T h is i n d i c a t e s t h a t women w a n t t o f e e l t h a t r a d i o s p e a k e r s know t h e i r s u b j e c t , h av e a u t h o r i t y b e h in d th em , b u t can t e l l a b o u t i t i n e v e ry d a y la n g u a g e .41 V an Deman s t r e s s e d t h a t women w a n t b r o a d c a s t s w h i c h w i l l h e l p th em a s h o u s e w iv e s , a n d t h i n g s i n f o r m a t i v e w h ic h w i l l

1»Q C * Qit. R u t h V an D em an, "W h at Do Women W ant t o H e a r ? " E d u c a t i o n On t h e A i r , p . 1 4 8 .

82 m ake l i v i n g h a p p i e r .

H e l e n C. D o u g l a s h a s t h i s

to

say,

W hat d o women w a n t t o h e a r ? A d v e r t i s e r s seem t o a g re e t h a t t h e i r f i r s t c h o ic e i s e n te r ta in m e n t. In ­ fo rm a tio n i s se c o n d a ry . M u sic , d ram a, n o v e l t y and new s p ro g ra m s a r e g e n e r a l l y m ore p o p u l a r t h a n t h e b e s t h o m e-e co n o m ic p r o g r a m . Food i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i n t e r e s t s women i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n e w . 4 2 The b i g g e s t r e s p o n s e t o ar e s u l t

a n y F a rm

a n d Home p r o g r a m cam e a s

o f a c o n v e rs a tio n about

re lish e s.

hom em ade p i c k l e s a n d

T h a t b r o a d c a s t was t i m e l y a n d h u m o ro u s .

T he

s e c o n d r e s p o n s e cam e f r o m a r e c e n t b r o a d c a s t o n n u t r i t i o n fa d s and fra u d s .

N ext to

fo od,

c h il d h e a l t h and g u id a n c e

seem ed t o be t h e m o st p o p u l a r s u b j e c t s , y o u n g e r wom en. te re st

G a rd e n in g i s

e s p e c i a l l y am ong

a n o th e r s u b je c t o f g r e a t in ­

t o h o u s e w i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n s p r i n g a n d su m m e r.

Women a l s o w a n t t o h e a r a b o u t h o u s e h o l d i n s e c t s . c a s t i n g e v e r y w eek fro m a l o c a l s t a t i o n D o u g la s

re c e iv e d h e r la r g e s t resp o n se

on b e d -b u g s .

i n W ash in g to n , from a l i t t l e

chat

Women c o n s t a n t l y a s k f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n b u y ­

i n g home e q u i p m e n t .

A sid e fro m s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,

w ays l i k e new s o f t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . to

B ro ad ­

F o r e x a m p le ,

women a l ­ th e y lik e

h e a r t h e n a m e s o f p e o p l e who f i x e d o v e r t h e i r k i t c h e n s ,

how t h e y d i d i t , to n in e in

a n d how m u c h i t

c o st.

Women r e p o r t s e v e n

th e e v e n in g a s th e m ost c o n v e n ie n t l i s t e n i n g

4 2 H e l e n Of- D o u g l a s , T h e C a s e f o r Women ( E d u c a t i o n on t h e A i r , 1959 e d i t i o n ) , p p . 2 0 9 -2 1 4 .

tim e .

As t o

o t h e r h o u r s o f t h e d a y f o r w o m en ’ s p r o g r a m s ,

n o o n tim e , m id m o rn in g , good.

and e a r l y a f t e r n o o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y

I n a s u r v e y b y t h e N a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g C om pany i n

1 9 5 5 o f l i s t e n i n g h a b i t s o f w om en, i t h o u se w iv es l i s t e n e d w h ile

w a s sh o w n t h a t m o r e

th e y w ere i r o n i n g th a n w h ile e n ­

gaged in any o th e r o c c u p a tio n . m e n d in g o r k n i t t i n g was t h i r d ,

N e x t was e a t i n g m e a l s , and f o u r th w h ile d o in g

th e ir d ish e s. T h e " h i g h " in c o m e l e v e l o f p e o p l e m ake l e s s d e m a n d s on r a d i o

th a n th e o th e r s .

fa c t th a t th e ir v itie s .

tim e i s

T h is i s

p ro b a b ly due to

th e

g e n e r a l l y ta k e n up by o t h e r a c t i ­

H ow ever, t h e y l i s t e n

e d u c a tio n a l program s th a n to

m ore t o

c l a s s i c a l m u sic an d

th e o th e r ty p e s ,

c e p tio n o f th e p ro g ram s o f th e b ig r a d io

w ith th e ex­

sta rs.

The " m id d le " in co m e g ro u p w o u ld p r o b a b l y b e t h e g re a te st lis te n in g

g ro u p .

w o u ld b e l a r g e an d v a r i e d . p re d o m in a te

The r a n g e o f p ro g ram s c h o se n E n t e r t a i n m e n t w o u ld b e t h e i r

fe a tu re .

T he " l o w " in c o m e l e v e l w o u l d n o t i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y b e i n t e r e s t e d m uch i n a s w o u ld be t h e

c l a s s i c a l o r e d u c a tio n a l p ro g ram s,

c a s e p f t h e o t h e r tw o g r o u p s .

The lo w i n ­

com e l e v e l g r o u p w o u l d d e m a n d p r o g r a m s f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t an d m u sio o f t h e t y p e t h a t w o u ld f i t

t h e i r back g ro u n d and

84 e n v iro n m e n t.

T h u s, h i l l - b i l l y m u sie f o r m o u n ta in e e r s ,

w e s te r n m u sie f o r t h e r a n c h e r ,

and so o n .

w o u ld be e n jo y e d by t h e m id d le g r o u p ,

Some o f t h i s

but i t

s n u b b e d b y m o s t o f t h e h i g h incom e g r o u p .

w o u ld b e

CH&PTER I ¥ RADIO LISTENING AND PARTICIPATION T hat m il l io n s o f p e o p le l i s t e n day is

a know n f a c t .

tic ip a te

to

th e ra d io e v e ry

J u s t how m a n y p e o p l e a c t u a l l y p a r ­

in r a d io program s i s n o t so c e r t a i n .

p e o p l e do p a r t i c i p a t e

is a ls o

a kno w n f a c t .

But t h a t T h is can he

r e a d ily seen by th e resp o n se th ro u g h th e m a ils , phone c a l l s , th is

o r by p e rs o n a l in te r v ie w s .

c h a p te r i s

ra d io

The p u r p o s e o f

show som e o f t h e p r o g r a m s t o w h i c h t h e

a u d ie n c e l i s t e n s

p a rtic ip a tio n . fe c ts

to

by t e l e ­

an d i n w h ich t h e r e

is

a d eg ree o f

N a t u r a l l y t h e r e w i l l b e som e s o c i a l e f ­

from su c h l i s t e n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . PARTICIPATION PROGRAMS The q u i z p r o g r a m .

on th e a i r to d a y i s

th e

One o f t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p r o g r a m s q u iz p ro g ram .

n u m b e r o f th e m o n t h e n e t w o r k s . nam ed,

" In fo rm a tio n P le a s e ,"

T here a r e a g r e a t

Among t h e s e c o u l d b e

" D o c to r I .Q . ?

" D o u b le o r N o t h i n g , " "T ak e I t o r L e a v e I t , "

"The Q u iz K i d s , and " B a ttle

of

th e S e x e s ." T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s why t h i s gram h a s b e e n so p o p u l a r . in c e n tiv e tio n s

is

F irst,

ty p e o f p ro ­

i t w o u ld seem t h a t

th e

t o e a r n som e " e a s y m o n e y " b y a n s w e r i n g a f e w q u e s th e p ro p e llin g

fo rc e to g e t p e o p le to p a r t i c i p a t e .

86 Second,

th e

i n f l a t e d ego o f i n d iv id u a ls

se lv e s o r to in c e n tiv e . to

e x p r e s s th e m -,

show t h e o t h e r s how m u ch t h e y k n o w , T h ird ,

b e in g h e a rd ,

F o u rth ,

th e s u p p o s itio n ,

th e y m ig h t s e c u r e a p o s i t i o n

The f i r s t w a lk i n t e r v i e w s , A th ird

lis te n e r p a rtic ip a tio n

a stro n g

t h a t by

in ra d io *

p ro g ra m s w ere s i d e ­

f o l l o w e d b y c o m m u n i ty s i n g s a n d s p e l l i n g

ty p e i s

i n t e r e s t a p p e a l.

is

t h e i d e a o f b e i n g a g o o d s p o r t g e t s m any

e n te r th e c o n te s t.

bees.

to

th e

" A m a t e u r H o u r * w h i c h h o l d s hum an

F ro m t h e s e h a v e g r o w n

p a r t i c i p a t i o n p ro g ra m s o f w h ic h

t h e m any and v a r i e d

t h e q u i z i s now m o s t p o p u ­

la r. A g r e a t d e a l o f t h e n a t u r a l n e s s on th e p a r t o f th e p a rtic ip a n t is in d iv id u a ls

due to

th e w e ll tr a in e d

in c h a rg e .

n a tu ra ln e s s

o f th e

G re a te r

freed o m

has been th e o rd e r

o f th e day.

R a d io h a s t a k e n i n

som e o f

th e a s p e c ts o f th e

v a u d e v ille .

The s t r a i g h t

upon th e s c r i p t , n a tu ra ln e ss

is

ta lk

and th e

dram a s t i l l

b u t on t h e s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n

pro g ram s,

th e k e y n o te .

One o f t h e p o p u l a r q u i z p r o g r a m s o n t h e a i r Q u i z K i d s '" a n d o n e o f t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t s G erard . rise

depend

S id n e y Jam es t e l l s

to p o p u la rity .

an i n t e r e s t i n g

is

"The

is

p hase o f G erard * s

He s a y s ,

On t h e a i r , G e r a r d * s w e e k l y s t i n t i n d i s p e n s a b l e m om ent o f s p a r k l i n g r e caco p h o n y o f d u l l n e s s and m e d io c r ity th e U n ite d S t a t e s n e tw o rk s . Y et h is d e n t, h i s i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y so m e th in g

i s an a lm o st l i e f in th e v a s t b roadcast over fam e i s a n a c c i ­ h is sp o n so rs

87 had t o l e a r n by b i t t e r e x p e r ie n c e . When t h e " Q u i z K id s " p ro g ram s t a r t e d , i t r u l e d t h a t a c h i l d re m a in e d o n t h e p r o g r a m o n l y s o l o n g a s h i s a n s w e r s p l a c e d h im f i r s t , s e c o n d o r t h i r d am o ng a g r o u p o f f i v e . For n i n e w eeks G e r a r d r e m a in e d on t h e p ro g ra m b e f o r e he found a q u e s tio n o u ts id e h i s ra n g e and f a i l e d to p la c e in th e g ro u p . The m o r n in g a f t e r t h e f i r s t p ro g ra m w i t h o u t h im , t h e s t u d i o w as f l o o d e d w i t h l e t t e r s s a y ­ i n g , "We w a n t G e r a r d . ’1' Some o f t h e s e p r o t e s t s w e r e e m o t i o n a l , som e s e v e r e , som e a c c u s i n g , a n d a fe w th re a te n in g . In th e fa c e o f such a c le a r l i s t e n e r m a n d a te t h e t i m i d m o g u ls o f r a d i o c o u ld do n o t h i n g b u t su rren d er. G e ra rd was p u t b a c k on t h e a i r . l T h i s i n c i d e n t w o u l d se e m t o te n e r re sp e c ts

c le a rly

in d ic a te

t a l e n t and e n jo y e d t h i s

In a h ig h s c h o o l s u rv e y ,

th a t th e l i s ­

form o f p ro g ra m .

A. G. K r a u s e a s k e d t h e

c

q u e stio n ,

"W h at t y p e p r o g r a m do y o u e n j o y m o s t ? "

1 0 9 3 who a n s w e r e d ,

th e q u iz prog ram ran k ed f i f t h . 2

B r a w le y S tu d y t h e q u e s t i o n was a s k e d , q u iz pro g ram s?" re g u la rly ;

Of t h e 131 r e s p o n s e s ,

£3 i n d i c a t e d o c c a s i o n a l l y ,

n o t ta k e p a r t a t a l l . to

Among t h e In th e

"Do y o u t a k e p a r t i n 11 s a i d t h e y d i d so a n d 57 s a i d

th e y d id

T h i s s h o w e d t h a t 74 d i d p a r t i c i p a t e

som e e x t e n t . M u sic a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s .

M u s i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s m ak e

up by f a r t h e g r e a t b u lk o f r a d i o

e n te rta in m e n t.

The u s e

o f m u sic I s a lm o s t u n l i m i t e d a s an a i d t o p ro g ra m s o f a l l

1 S id n e y Jam es, S e p te m b e r 2 9 , 1941.

" P r o d ig y ’s P r o g r e s s ," L if e M a g az in e ,

^ A . C. K r a u s e , S t u d e n t R a d i o Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( L o s A n g e l e s : W oodrow W i l s o n H i g h S c h o o l , M a r c h 1 0 , 1 9 4 1 ) u n ­ p u b lis h e d su rv ey .

88 k in d s.

T he g r e a t b r o a d c a s t i n g

from b a c k g ro u n d t o stu d y i s

to

not le ss

th a n

It jra d io

c o m p a n i e s m ak e u s e o f m u s i c

a p ro g ra m f e a t u r i n g a sym phony.

i n c l u d e t h o s e p ro g ra m s w h ic h f e a t u r e m u sic o f

is

f i f t e e n m in u te s in d u r a tio n . i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te th e p r e f e r e n c e s o f th e

a u d ie n c e in

1952 a s

g iv e n i n t h e R a d io A n n u a l: 3

M u s ic

6 6 fo

L ite ra tu re

a n d d ra m a

Kews r e p o r t s ,

. . .

1 7 fo

e v e n ts . . .

5 fo

H o v e n tly b r o a d c a s t s , R e lig ­ io u s , and P h y sic a l T ra in in g .M u s ic a s i s

T h is

sh o w n r a n k e d f i r s t

ra n k s h ig h to d a y , f a c t m ake t h i s

i f not

first,

in p re fe re n c e .

M u s ic s t i l l

in p re fe re n c e .

D oes t h i s

ty p e o f program o f any s o c i a l s i g n i f ic a n c e ?

C e r ta in ly i t m ust i n

som e w a y s .

been th e e x p re s s io n o f th e

M u s ic t h r o u g h t h e a g e s h a s

fe e lin g s ,

h isto ry

o f n a tio n s and t h e i r fo u n d e rs and h e ro e s . c o m p a n ie s a r e

1 2 f>

and g r e a tn e s s

The b r o a d c a s t i n g

s e r v in g a s a m eans to p r e s e r v e th e s e t r a d i ­

t i o n s a s w e ll a s b e in g th e m ost im p o rta n t a g e n ts in i n a t i n g o u r own, r e l a t i v e l y

d isse m ­

new , m u s i c a l c u l t u r e .

T h e r e a r e m a n y w a y s i n w h i c h l i s t e n e r s m ay p a r t i c i ­ p a te in m u s ic a l p ro g ram s. any m u sic a l a c t i v i t y

is

In f a c t,

th e d e s ir e

to

jo in

in

s o u n i v e r s a l t h a t m an y p r o g r a m s a r e

3 P i e r r e K e y , R a d i o A n n u a l (Few Y o r k : P i e r r e K ey P u b l i s h i n g C om pan y, 1 9 3 2 ) , p T T s T

89 b u ilt

aro u n d t h i s v e ry a t t i t u d e .

s a tis fy ra d io

th is

is

d e sire

tu n e d in

is

The m o s t common w ay t o

sim p ly to

jo in

in

to an o ld f a v o r i t e .

S tu d y a sk e d th e q u e s tio n ,

t h e s o n g w h en t h e

When t h e B r a w l e y

"Do y o u s i n g w i t h t h e r a d i o ? "

25 s t u d e n t s a n sw e red t h a t t h e y d id so r e g u l a r l y ,

59 s a i d

th a t th e y d id o c c a s io n a lly ,

a n d 37 i n d i c a t e d t h a t

d id n o t s in g w ith th e ra d io

at a ll.

page 90.

T hese f i g u r e s

te n d to

th e y

S e e T a b l e X3CII, o n

in d ic a te

m a jo r ity e n jo y s in g in g w ith th e r a d io .

th a t a la rg e Add t o

th is

th e

fa c t,

a s m e n tio n e d e a r l i e r r e g a r d i n g t h e B ra w ley S tu d y ,

re p ly

to

th e q u e stio n

"Do y o u t u r n o n t h e r a d i o

th e

to danee a t

h o m e ? " t h e r e w e r e 65 who d i d a n d 56 who d i d n o t . T h e re a r e a g r e a t m any m u s ic p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e a i r t o d a y .

One o f t h e b e s t know n o f t h e s e

p ro g ram s is

"K ay

K y s e r ’ s C o lle g e o f M u s ic a l K n o w le d g e ," i n w h ic h s e l e c t e d m em bers o f t h e s t u d i o so m e tim e s t o

sin g ,

a u d ie n c e a re a sk ed to

id e n tify ,

and

n u m b ers a s t h e y a r e p la y e d by t h e b r o a d ­

c a stin g o rc h e stra . A n o th e r p o p u l a r m u sic p a r t i c i p a t i o n p ro g ra m i s " M a jo r E dw ard B ow es’ A m a te u r H o u r . " p e o p le w ith any m u s ic a l,

d a n c in g ,

In t h i s

ty p e p ro gram ,

o r d ra m a tic t a l e n t

a p p ly

a h e a d o f tim e f o r a p l a c e on t h e b r o a d c a s t and a r e g i v e n a chance to be h e a rd by th e l i s t e n i n g a u d ie n c e . m ay v o t e

fo r th e ir

L is te n e rs

f a v o r i t e p e r f o r m e r s by m a il o r te le p h o n e

an d w in n e rs o f th e g r e a t e s t num ber o f v o t e s a r e re w a rd e d b y

90

TABLE X X II TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "DO YOU SING WITH THE RADIO? »

G rade

R e g u la rly

O c c a sio n a lly

N ot a t a l l

N in th

3

15

11

T en th

4

11

8

E le v e n th

7

15

10

T w e lfth

6

15

5

J u n io r C o lle g e

5

15

3

69

37

T o ta ls

re c e iv in g v a u d e v ille

c o n tra c ts

f o r v a ry in g le n g th s o f tim e .

Even r e l i g i o u s p ro g ra m s u t i l i z e and i t s

v a lu e in

lis te n e rs

v ic e to

to

c re a tin g a s p i r i t

jo in

M o rn in g e x e r c i s e s .

M any b u s i n e s s e s g i v e a d d e d s e r ­

t h e i r c u sto m e rs.

The r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g c o m p a n ie s

th e ir

lis te n e rs .

o n e o f t h e s e m an y s e r v i c e s .

se lv e s

o f b ro th e rh o o d by a sk in g

i n som e w e l l know n hym n.

g iv e added s e r v ic e s to is

th e a p p e a l o f m u sic

t?a b o d y b e a u t i f u l ” i s

to p a r t i c i p a te

in a ra d io

be th e o n ly re a s o n .

M o rn in g e x e r c i s e

The i d e a o f m a k in g o f th em ­

an in c e n tiv e

f o r m any p e o p l e

e x e r c is e program .

M any p e o p l e

fin d th is

p r o g r a m a n e a s y a n d p l e a s a n t w ay t o

T h i s m ay n o t e a r l y m o rn in g

o b t a i n t h e i r m uch n e e d e d

e x e rc ise . Who a r e It

th e ones to b e n e f i t

from t h e s e p ro g ra m s ?

i s n o t a program f o r th e m a s s e s .

It

Is

fo r a se le c tiv e

f e w , m o s t o f whom a r e p r o b a b l y w om en, a l t h o u g h m a n y m en g e t t h e i r o n ly e x e r c is e

in t h i s

w ay b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o c c u p i e d

w ith o th e r ta s k s d u rin g th e day.

T he t w o m o s t a p p a r e n t

r e a s o n s f o r t h i s e x e r c i s i n g w o u ld seem t o b e

(1 )

to keep

s l i m an d s l e n d e r so a s t o a v o id b e in g t a l k e d a b o u t b y g o s ­ sip s,

o r f o r th e

(2 )

sake o f h e a lth

and k e e p in g f i t .

A d u lts

c o m p o s e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who t a k e m o r n i n g e x e r ­ c is e by r a d io .

Some s c h o o l c h i l d r e n

b ecau se th e e ld e r s

do I t ,

do p a r t i c i p a t e ,

o r because th e y ,

to o ,

e ith e r

are over

92 w e ig h t*

I n t h e B ra w le y S tu d y t h e

q u e s t i o n w as a s k e d ,

y o u a m o r n i n g e x e r c i s e r b y r a d i o ? 11 page 93. stu d e n ts

T he f i g u r e s i n t h i s p a rtic ip a te

See T a b le X X III,

t a b l e w o u ld i n d i c a t e

i n m o rn in g e x e r c i s e s ,

!fj t r e on

t h a t few

a lth o u g h t h i s

is

p ro b a b ly due t o th e f a c t t h a t m o st s t u d e n t s f i n d enough e x e rc ise

in

t h e i r e v ery day a c t i v i t i e s .

B rid g e le s s o n s by r a d i o . th e a i r i s

a n o th e r s p e c ia l

c a s t i n g sy s te m s.

It

is

G iv in g b rid g e

se rv ic e

fe a tu re

do n o t e n j o y t h e a v e r a g e

s a tis fy

over

b ro ad ­

P ro g ram s

l i s t e n e r s who

program , o r c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r s

who h a v e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n ra d io

o f th e

a p ro g ram f o r t h e few .

o f th e s e v a rie d ty p e s a re needed to

le sso n s

th is

su b je c t.

p rogram s a re f o r th e a c t i v i t i e s

c o n sid e r an ev ery day need.

The s p e c i a l

w h ic h d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s

T hey p a r t i c i p a t e

because th e y

th in k th e y a re b e in g advanced s o c i a l l y as w e ll as m e n ta lly , and b e c a u se t h e y e n jo y t h i s fo rm o f e n te r ta in m e n t. T h is ty p e o f p rogram i s it

b rin g s

a g ro u p t o g e t h e r .

s o c ia lly b e n e f ic ia l because

W henever t h i s

g ro u p w i l l u s u a l l y d is c u s s a v a r i e t y

o ccu rs,

of su b je c ts.

th e T h is i s

a little

s o c i e t y b o rn o f i n t e r e s t p e o p le w h ic h w ih l b r i n g

in to

b o d y n ew f a c e s a n d n e w i d e a s .

its

m ay b e b e n e f i t e d i n T h is p ro g ram , " A d u lts .”

A g a in ,

Each in d iv id u a l

some w a y , b y t h e s o c i e t y o f o t h e r s . i t w o u ld se e m , i s

a lso

la b e le d

t h e m a j o r i t y o f b e n e f i c i a r i e s w o u ld be

93

TABLE XXXII TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "ARE YOU A MORNING EXERCISER BY RADIO?"

G rade

R e g u la rly

H in th

. . . . . .

T e n t h ...........................

1

O c c a sio n a lly

Hot a t a l l

3

26

2

20

E le v e n th

.....................

10

22

T w e lfth

.....................

2

22

4

19

B1

109

J u n io r C o lle g e T o ta ls

. . 1

93 w om en, a ll*

T h is w o u ld be n e c e s s a r i l y s o ,

b rid g e

program s a r e

th e h o u se w ife i s

i f not

c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e w h en

a t home a n d t h e h u s b a n d i s a t w o r k .

s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e , v a c a tio n s,

s in c e m o st,

and a g a in ,

it

Some

e s p e c ia lly d u rin g t h e i r

w o u ld be g i r l s

ra th e r

th a n boys

who w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t e d . M a il r e s p o n s e .

H / h i le i t

is

t h e e x a c t am ount o f m a il r e s p o n s e g e n e r a l l y r e c i g n i z e d a s en o rm o u s. in fo rm a tio n c o n f id e n tia l. be c i t e d

d iffic u lt to ra d io

to

e stim a te

p ro g ram s,

it

is

M ost s p o n s o r s k e e p t h i s

H o w e v e r , a f e w c o m p a r i s o n s m ay

an d i n f e r e n c e s draw n.

sta rs

o f m o tio n p i c t u r e s a r e

te rs,

a f t e r a film

It is

lite ra lly

has been re le a s e d .

m a n y m o re p e o p l e t h a n a n y f i l m

a w e ll-k n o w n f a c t t h a t f,s w a m p e d ri w i t h l e t ­ B a d io s t a r s r e a c h

p e rs o n a lity ,

lis te n e rs

o u tn u m b e r m a g a z in e s u b s c r i b e r s y e t i n one i s s u e

far

o f a p o p u la r

m a g a z i n e , a t w o - t h i r d c o lu m n a d v e r t i s e m e n t o n n a i l - p o l i s h o ffered read ers a t r i a l b o ttle e s t i n g to n o te t h a t v e rtise m e n t.

f o r 25 c e n t s ,

it

is

1 1 , 4 0 0 women r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s

in te r­ one a d ­

T h is was a d i r e c t r e t u r n o f $ 1 .8 5 f o r e v e r y

d o lla r in v e s te d in

th e a d v e r tis e m e n t.^

In an a r tic le

by P a u l F. P e te r ,

he re m a rk s,

f,T h e

^ P a u l F . P e t e r , nT h e A m e r i c a n L i s t e n e r i n 1 9 4 0 ” (T h e A n n a l s o f t h e Amer i c a n A c a d e m y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 ), p. 4 .

94 v o lu m e o f m a i l f r o m l i s t e n e r s e stim a te d .

A c o n se rv a tiv e

to b ro a d c a s te rs has never been

g u e s s w o u ld b e 2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 l e t t e r s

a y ear. K a t e S m i t h i s a j u s t l y f a m o u s r a d i o a c t r e s s whom H ild e g a rd e D o lso n d i s c u s s e s i n a r e c e n t a r t i c l e : K a t e S m i t h 1s f a n l e t t e r s a v e r a g e 3 , 0 0 0 a w e e k . H a lf a r e r e q u e s t s f o r m oney, a d v ic e , a u to g r a p h s , and a u d itio n s. A few s u g g e s t d i e t s o r c r i t i c i z e K a te * s h a b i t o f s a y i n g f,I* m g o n n a . ” T he r e s t a r e f r e n z i e d ly fa v o ra b le . B ack ed b y t h i s l o y a l t y , K a te S m ith * s nam e h a s l e d m o s t r a d i o p o l l s f o r t e n y e a r s . D u rin g t h i s t i m e h e r s p o n s o r s h a v e p a i d $ 5 , 0 9 2 , 1 7 6 t o CBS f o r h e r tim e on th e a i r . G u e sts a p p e a r on h e r - p r o ­ gram f o r a n a v e r a g e o f $ 2 ,0 0 0 . K a te p a y s s a l a r i e s t o 55 p e o p l e . T ed C o l l i n s i s h e r m a n a g e r a n d h a n d ­ le s her fin a n c e s .6 H ever h a s th e m a il b e e n so f u l l o f w r i t t e n o p in io n a s s in c e r a d io b ro a d c a s ts have s tim u la te d

it.

B u rlin g a m e

s ta te s , F a n m a i l m ay b e v a c u o u s , b u t i t i s a n e f f o r t t o e x p ress. T he i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f o r a l l y " a n s w e r i n g b a c k " a r a d io sp e a k e r o r e n t e r t a i n e r h a s d r iv e n th o u sa n d s o f m e n , women a n d c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r p e n s a n d t y p e ’w rite rs . H ere i s t h o u g h t n e w ly e x p r e s s e d i n t h e w r i t ­ t e n w o rd b y a n a rm y o f p e o p le who, t w e n t y y e a r s a g o , n e v e r t o o k a p e n i n h a n d f r o m Hew Y e a r * s t o C h r i s t ­ m as . • • t h e f a n m a i l m o v e m e n t m u s t b e t a k e n s e r i o u s ­ ly . I t h a s m ade a c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h ic h t h e p e o p le h a v e l e a r n e d a new v o e a l i t y . W ith th e h a b i t o f p r o ­ t e s t o r a p p la u se e x p re s s e d to th e b r o a d c a s te r s , s i m i l a r c o m m e n ts a d d r e s s e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e ­ s e n ta tiv e s o f th e n a tio n has been e a sy . In i t s e l f ,

5

Loc.

G it.

^ H i l d e g a r d e D o ls o n , "K a te B e h in d t h e M i k e ,” R e a d e rs D i g e s t , J a n u a ry , 1942, p. 137.

95 o f c o u rs e , i t m ust be a c c e p te d a s a m in o r ity o p in io n , a s t h e a r t i c u l a t e l i s t e n e r s fo rm o n ly a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t o f a r a d i o a u d i e n c e a n d i n m any c a s e s , m i n o r i t y o p i n i o n i s w h a t a s s a i l s c o n g r e s s i n t h e f l o o d o f com­ m u n ic a t i o n w h ic h d a i l y p o u r s i n t o t h e c a p i t a l . 7 W hat e l s e le tte rs

does t h i s m a il re sp o n se c o n ta in ?

are w r itte n

to th e

keep c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s th e

s p o n s o r s t o a p p e a l t o th e m t o on th e a i r .

Some d o n o t l i k e

sq u eak o f a door in a m y ste ry o f f e r in g and w ant th e

door o ile d .

Some s u g g e s t w a y s t o g e t t h e h e r o o u t o f t h e

d i f f i c u l t y i n w h ic h he h a s fo u n d h i m s e l f . q u a l i t y o f a p r e s e n t e d p rogram w h ile M any r a d i o to

Some

a rtists

depend upon th e

keep th e m se lv e s on th e

a ir.

Some p r a i s e

th e

o t h e r s condem n i t .

am ount o f m a i l r e s p o n s e

A ll th e se ra d io re sp o n se s >

te n d to in d ic a te

th a t

th e

b r o a d c a s t over th e a i r ,

p u b lic

is

in te re s te d

i n w hat i s

y e t t h i s resp o n se r e p re s e n ts b u t a

s m a ll p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l num ber o f l i s t e n e r s

in th e

U n ite d S ta te s . B oger B u rlin g a m e , p o in t,

i n E n g in e s o f D em ocracy, m akes th e

MF a n m a i l i s n o t a m i n o r i t y o p i n i o n b u t a w e i g h t e d

o p i n i o n s i n c e m ore p e o p le a r e le tte r

l i k e l y to w r ite and m a il a

b ecau se o f v ig o ro u s d isa g re e m e n t th a n b e ea u se o f

a p p ro v a l.”6

B o g e r B u r l i n g a m e , E n g i n e s o f D e m o c r a c y (Hew Y o r k :

Ib id

96 Many o f t h e s e p ro g ram c a n t e s t i f y

le tte rs

a re u n im p o rta n t b u t e v ery

to th e r e c e ip t

o f m an y l e t t e r s

w hose

a u t h o r s a r e w e l l in f o r m e d a n d show t h a t t h e y h av e done h a r d a n d so u n d t h i n k i n g on th e th e b ro a d c a s te r i s The u s e th e u se is

to

say th a t

te le p h o n e i n re sp o n d in g to ra d io

program s

g e n e r a lly lo c a l*

cast is

It

is

safe

I i o c a l s t a t i o n s u s u a l l y h a v e som e p e r ­

d ay d e v o te d t o a m u s ic a l program .

o fte n

be d e d i c a t e d t o

Some s t a t i o n s h a v e p e o p l e

m in e t h e w i n n e r o f a c o n t e s t . p a rt o f th e

p u b lic

is

T h is

te le p h o n e

some p e r ­ in to

p a rtic ip a tio n

an in d ex to th e

p u b l i c w o u ld a c c e p t t h i s

c o n ta in s

s e l e c t i o n s w h ic h p e o p le have

r e q u e s te d and have a s k e d t h a t i t so n nam ed.

T h is b ro a d ­

c a l l e d a " r e q u e s t p ro g ram ” a s i t

a lm o st e n t i r e l y o n ly re c o rd e d

th e

To m a n y o f t h e s e ,

o fte n in d e b te d f o r u s e f u l su g g e s tio n s .

of th e te le p h o n e .

of th e

io d o f th e

su b je c t.

d e te r­

on th e

s t a t i o n a s t o t h e w ay

p erso n a s a ra d io

a rtist.

M any p e o p l e do n o t h a v e t e l e p h o n e s s o t h e r e s p o n s e m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y be s m a ll a s com pared t o m a il r e s p o n s e . Boys a n d g i r l s

in

a s m u ch a s a n y o n e e l s e . w o u ld e n jo y t h e lic ity .

s c h o o l w o u ld r e s p o n d b y t e l e p h o n e T hey a r e a t t h e

p o p u l a r m u sic o f f e r e d ,

Even s o ,

th e re sp o n se i s

a g e when t h e y

and th e

sm a ll.

slig h t

pub­

The q u e s t i o n ,

flH a v e y o u e v e r t e l e p h o n e d a r e q u e s t f o r a m u s i c a l s e l e c t i o n ” was a s k e d i n

th e B ra w le y S tu d y .

S e e T a b l e X X I7 , o n p a g e 9 7 .

97

TABLE XXIV TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION f,HAVE YOU EVER TELEPHONED A REQUEST TO A BROADCASTING STATION FOR A MUSI­ CAL SELECTION?11

G rade

R e g u la rly

O c c a sio n a lly

N ot a t a l l

N in th

4

as

T e n th

3

80

E le v e n th

3

29

T w e lfth

1

23

J u n io r C o lle g e T o ta ls

22

1 1

11

119

98 T he g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f r e p l i e s w e r e i n t h e n e g a t i v e , t h i s m ay h e a c c o u n t e d f o r i n p a r t ,

hy th e

la rg e

a lth o u g h

fo re ig n

p o p u la tio n * I n s m a ll e r c o m m u n itie s w here th e r a t i o te le p h o n e u s e rs th is

is

o f p riv a te

in g r e a te r p ro p o rtio n to th e

ty p e o f p ro g ram i s m ost p o p u la r .

p o p u la tio n ,

The p r o g r a m

G o l d 11 w h i c h g i v e s a w a y su m s o f m o n e y h y t e l e p h o n e g rea t fa v o rite in te re s t in

a

la rg e r c it i e s .

do p e o p l e w a n t t o

t h e im p ro v e m e n t o f p r o g r a m s .

h e a r on th e a i r ?

p e rp le x in g a l l r a d io

d e n ts .

is

i n m id -w e s t to w n s h u t seem s t o a r o u s e l i t t l e

S u g g e stio n s fo r

o f th e

nP o t 0 ‘

sta tio n s.

That i s

th e

What

q u e stio n

The f o l l o w i n g a r e a f e w

s u g g e s tio n s su b m itte d hy a group o f h ig h s c h o o l s t u ­ "C ut o u t a d v e r t i s i n g , " " E lim in a te

"G et new i d e a s , "

sm a ll s t a t i o n s ,"

"M o re b a l a n c e d d a i l y s c h e d u l e s , "

r a d io a n n o u n ce rs f o r

‘s ta n d a r d r a d i o

v o ic e ,"

"T est a l l

"D on*t h av e

o n e n e w s c a s t e r f o l l o w a n o t h e r w i t h i d e n t i c a l n e w s , " "W o u ld lik e

t o h e a r som e o f t h e c l a s s i c s , m a y b e S h a k e s p e a r e ,

s e r i a l fo rm ,"

"M o re f o r e i g n p r o g r a m s a n d l a n g u a g e

" I f t h e r e m ust he s e r i a l s ia ls ,"

"le ss

s w in g ,"

l e t th e m b e f u n n y , "

"M ore m u s i c , "

b e g in n in g and end o f p ro g ram s. "

in

le s s o n s ,"

"Few er s e r ­

" C o m m e rc ia ls o n l y a t

M ost o f t h e s e

id e a s a re

i m p r a c t i c a l a n d n o t w e ll th o u g h t o u t h u t t h e y show t h a t s tu d e n ts a re

in te re s te d

in th e

p ro b le m s o f r a d i o .

T hat

th e

99 ra d io

s ta tio n s a re

d o in g a f in e

th e m a jo rity o f t h e i r

lis te n e rs

p i e c e o f w o rk i n k e e p i n g sa tis fie d

is

p r o v e d "by t h e

a f f i r m a t i v e r e p l y g i v e n h y m o st o f th e m t o t h e "A re you s a t i s f i e d Sum m ary* th e

w ith th e r a d io a s i t

Today t h e r e

lis te n in g m illio n s

ra d io .

T he f u t u r e

is

i s m o re r a d i o

q u e stio n

to d a y ? " p a rtic ip a tio n

th an ever b e fo re in th e h is to r y o f

t r e n d s e e m s t o h e t o w a r d e v e n m o re t h a n

we h a v e a t p r e s e n t .

In p a rtic ip a tio n ,

th e

a n i n t e r e s t w h ie h i s

se lf-sa tisfy in g .

The q u i z p ro g ra m s

are

in d iv id u a l fe e ls

p o p u la r to d a y , h u t o th e r ty p e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n

are in c re a s in g . u l a r w ith th e in se p a ra b le H a d io v isio n is

p ro g ram s

M u s ic a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s h a v e a lw a y s heen pop­

l i s t e n e r and w i l l c o n tin u e

to h e .

M u s ic i s

fro m r a d i o . i s young and i t s

fu tu re

o n t h e w a y a n d w hen i t

lo o k s b r i g h t .

becom es g e n e r a l ,

T e le ­ lis te n in g

a n d s e e i n g w i l l t a k e new t r e n d s a n d a t t r a c t n ew m i l l i o n s th e ra d io

hy

a u d ie n c e .

to

CHAPTER V RADIO A M IA SS ACTIOH R a d io a p p e a ls t o

th e m a sse s.

c o u ld h e a r a s p e e c h now i t th e r e a c tio n s

are

th e

W here b e f o r e

th o u sa n d s

i s h e a rd by m illio n s .

P erhap s

sa m e b u t u p o n a m u c h l a r g e r

W h ere t h o s e who l i v e d i n t h e

c itie s

sc a le .

w ere b e n e f i t t e d m o st

now t h o s e i n re m o te r e g i o n s c a n h e a r a n d e n jo y a l l m u sic ,

speeches,

jo y e d b e fo r e is

and o t h e r t h in g s

th e r a d i o .

so new t h a t i t

or has been,

th e re

no d o u b t.

to

stu d ie d .

th e r a d io That th e r e

d e fin ite re a c tio n s as a r e s u lt,

T he d e g r e e a n d t h e i n t e n s i t y ,

e f f e c ts and u t i l i t y

o f th e

t i n g new r e s e a r c h .

T he p u r p o s e o f t h i s

te m p t t o

c i t y c o u sin s en­

T h is m ass l i s t e n i n g

h as n o t been f u l ly

w ill be, is

th e ir

th e

s h o w som e o f t h e

ra d io

th e

program s a r e a l l i n s t i t u ­

so c ia l e ffe c ts

c h a p te r i s

to

a t­

o f m ass a c tio n a s

c r e a te d by th e r a d io . The p s y c h o lo g y o f f e a r . w h a t t h e f u t u r e m ay h o l d . of in te n s ity ,

o f enem y l i s t e n e r s . se ria ls,

It

R a d io b r o a d c a s t e r s f i l l

w aves w ith w a rn in g s an d f a l s e

used in ra d io

of

I t h a s m an y d e g r e e s a n d s h a d e s

fro m a v i o l e n t t o a m ild n a t u r e .

e f f e c t i v e w eapon o f w ar.

th e h e a r ts

Fear i s b e in g a f r a id

re p o rts

to

is

a m ost

th e a i r

put te r r o r in to

The p s y c h o l o g y o f f e a r i s

d ram as a n d new s r e p o r t s ,

it

seem s

101 to

f a s c in a te a s w e ll a s h o ld th e l i s t e n e r to th e ra d io . The q u e s t i o n i s w h y do p e o p l e h a v e t h i s

w hat a re

its

e ffe c ts?

T he d ra m a i t s e l f

fa n ta s tic

and

H a d ley C a n t r i l e x p la in e d t h i s

w e ll i n h i s hook on a r a d io b r o a d c a s t c a l l e d M ars.

fear

v ery

I n v a s io n fro m

p ro d u c e d b y O rso n W e lle s w as a

s t o r y o f M a r t i a n s who i n v a d e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .

I t was r e l a t e d

a s a s p o t news b r o a d c a s t .

T he s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d b y t h e b r o a d c a s t w a s o n e w h i c h s h o w s u s h o w t h e comman m an r e a c t s i n a t i m e o f s t r e s s and s t r a i n . I t g iv e s an i n s i g h t in to h is in te llig e n c e * h is a n x ie tie s and h is n eed s, w h i c h we c o u l d n e v e r g e t b y t e s t s o r s t r i c t l y e x ­ p e rim e n ta l s tu d ie s . 1 T he r e a s o n t h e b r o a d c a s t c a u s e d p e o p l e a l l t h e i r m oney w i l d l y , to re a c h

lo v e d o n e s;

o r g iv e

it

t o w eep; t o

aw ay;

to

d riv e

l i k e mad

g e n e r a l p a n ic a n d f lo o d s o f te le p h o n e

c a l l s a n d te le g r a m s w as b e c a u se o f th e r e a l i s m dram a.

spend

o f th e

C a n t r i l a d d s t h a t t h o s e who w e r e t h o r o u g h l y f r i g h t ­

ened la c k e d c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y . th e p e rs o n a lity ,

He a l s o

p o in te d

out th a t

e n v iro n m e n t and e d u c a tio n o f th e i n d i v ­

i d u a l w ere t h e t h r e e m a jo r r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e

p e o p le b e h a v ­

in g a s th e y d id . C a n tr il c o n tin u e s W h a t e v e r c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y a p e r s o n m ay n o r m a l l y have, i t i s in e f f e c tiv e i f in any g iv e n s itu a tio n

1 H a d l e y C a n t r i l , The I n v a s i o n f r o m M a rs P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 ) , P* 13$.

(P rin c e to n :

102 h i s e m o t i o n a l i n s e c u r i t i e s a r e so g r e a t t h a t t h e y o v erco m e h i s go o d ju d g m e n t. M any p e o p l e w e r e emo­ t i o n a l l y sound and had good c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y ; th u s t h e y w are n o t b r i g h t e n e d a t a l l , o r n o t f o r l o n g u n t i l t h e i r r e a s o n i n g becam e s o u n d e n o u g h t o l a b e l t h e n e w s a s nh o o e y . 112 Is p a n ic ?

c ritic a l a b ility

The a n sw e r i s

no.

b y o n e s 1 own s u s c e p t i b l e

a lo n e a s u re p r e v e n ta tiv e

I t m ay b e o v e r p o w e r e d e i t h e r p e rs o n a lity ,

e ra te d

i n h im b y a n u n u s u a l l i s t e n i n g

in g to

C a n tril.

He a d d s ,

th a t a situ a tio n n o t o n ly h i s

o r by e m o tio n s gen­ s itu a tio n , acco rd ­

nWhen a n i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s

t h r e a t e n s h im , he m eans t h a t i t

p h y sic a l s e l f b u t a l l

th re a te n s

o f th o se t h in g s and

p e o p l e w h i c h h e so m e h o w r e g a r d s a s a p a r t o f h i m . w o th e r w o rd s,

th e

situ a tio n

m ay o v e r r i d e a l l t h e

i n w h ic h t h e

T hat i s ,

m ay o v e r s o m e t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d b r i n g t h e The f a c t

d eg ree o f th is

is

tio n s to

T he

c ritic a l a b ility in d iv id u a l back to

c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y a n d c h a n g e fro m a c ro w d t o p re s e rv a tio n ,

W ar p r o p a g a n d i s t s know t h i s

h i b it ra d io

p la c e d

t h a t t h e m a s s e s do n o t h a v e a h i g h

a m o b , w i t h mob a c t i o n f o r s e l f p a n ic .

In

in d iv id u a l i s

c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y he can m u s te r.

o t h e r r e s u l t m ay a l s o h a p p e n .

re a lity .

of

lis te n in g

by t h e i r

2 r b ia .., p.

197

a n d som e n a t i o n s p r o ­

p e o p le l e s t n e g a t iv e

t h e i r g o v ern m en t s e t i n .

d em o cracy .

ru n n in g in

reac­

T h is i s n o t t h e w ay o f a

103 War p r o p a g a n d a

i s a f e a r w eapon.

a n a t i o n a t w ar a r e w e ig h te d w ith i t s little

th e

success

The m o r a le a n d t h e a le rt.

o f t h e enem y* fig h tin g

R e c e n tly th e

A ll. new s c a s t s

own s u c c e s s e s a n d b e ­

T h is

is n e c e s s a r ily so.

s p i r i t m u st be k e p t a l i v e

Japanese b ro a d c a st to t h e i r

t h a t S a n F r a n c i s c o was b e i n g bom bed.

and

p e o p le

U n d o u b te d ly t h i s

a g r e a t e f f e c t u p o n th e go v ern m en t c o n t r o l l e d Japan.

in

had

se ts in

S in c e t h e n t h e y h a v e a llo w e d c e r t a i n A m e ric an p r i s ­

o n ers to b ro a d c a s t t e l l i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a r e b e in g w e ll t r e a t e d ,

a t home t h a t

T h o s e who c o o p e r a t e r e c e i v e

p r iv ile g e s n o t g ra n te d to

t h o s e who r e f u s e ,

th e y

c e rta in

a c c o rd in g to

new spaper r e p o r ts . T he A m e r i c a n p e o p l e h a v e m o re c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y o n r a d i o new s c a s t s p o ss ib le

th a n any o th e r n a ti o n a l g ro u p , w ith th e

e x c e p tio n o f th e

p e o p le

o f G reat B r ita in .

w ith our freed o m o f sp eech and l i b e r t i e s ,

As s u c h ,

we w i l l n o t b e s o

e a s i l y h o o d w in k e d b y f o r e i g n enem y b r o a d c a s t s .

Has t h e

ra d io

ra d io

th e n h e lp e d to p re p a re

o u r p e o p le f o r t h e

ag an d a an d f o r f e a r p s y c h o lo g y w h ic h i s t h e w a k e o f b o m b s?

C e rta in ly i t

d e a l and w i l l c o n tin u e o f th e l a t e s t

to

su re

to

p ro p ­

fo llo w in

has c o n trib u te d a g re a t

k e ep t h e A m e ric an p e o p le in fo rm e d

d e v e lo p m e n ts.

As s u c h ,

t h e r a d i o may b e o n e

o f th e m a jo r f a c t o r s i n e l i m i n a t i n g f e a r fro m th e h e a r t s th e A m e ric an p u b l i c .

If it

g ree,

i t s e l f as an in stru m e n t o f s o c ia l

u n ity .

ra d io

ju stifie s

does t h i s

in even a sm a ll de­

of

104 A n o t h e r common f e a r th is

i s w id e ly u se d i n

P ropaganda e f f e c t s p o sitio n s .

th e f i e l d

c lo th e s ,

On a l l r a d i o

c a la m ity .

im ita te

th e ir h e ro in e .

o p in io n and

of a d v e rtis in g

to d a y .

c o m p le x io n s, f i g u r e s ,

se ria ls

te m p e re d , n e v e r v i n d i c t i v e , o f d ire

I s th a t o f p u b lic

th e h e ro in e

is

and d i s ­

sw eet

se ld o m d i s c o u r a g e d i n t h e f a c e

Im p re ssio n a b le

l i s t e n e r s a d m ire and

D i s c u s s io n s o f n e w e s t la u n d r y m e th o d s a n d h o u s e h o ld c a r e g i v e t h e hom em aker l i s t e n e r t h e a re w a tc h in g h e r c lo th e s

lin e

fo r

id e a h e r n e ig h b o rs

”t a t t l e - t a l e

g r a y ," and

ju d g in g h e r b y th e n e a t n e s s an d d i s p a t c h w i t h w h ic h sh e c le a n s h e r h o u se. su ch prop ag and a?

W hat h o u s e k e e p e r w o u ld f a i l

to r i s e

E v e ry d a y t a l k s on c o m p le x io n c a r e ,

to

th e

v a lu e o f good p o s tu re and p ro p e r e a t in g h a b i t s w ith g r e a t stre ss

la id

on v ita m in s i s

a p r o p a g a n d a w h ic h i s m ak in g

th e U n ite d S ta te s a h e a l t h i e r n a tio n . T he b u y i n g i m p u l s e . in s titu te d

by a r a d io

a lre a d y been s ta te d , ite ly

know n.

th e ir

own f i l e s .

a c tio n .

program i s

a m ass a c t i o n .

t h e num ber r e s p o n d i n g i s

S p o n so rs p re fe r to T h ere i s

keep t h i s

It

to

b ro a d c a st.

As h a s

not d e fin ­

in fo rm a tio n fo r

no d o u b t t h a t t h e r e

M any o f t h e b i g w e e k l y r a d i o

ands o f d o lla rs fro m ?

T he b u y i n g i m p u l s e w h i c h i s

fe a tu re s

is

a m ass

c o s t th o u s­

W here d o e s t h i s m o n e y come

com es fro m t h e b u y in g p u b l i c .

The w e l l a d v e r t i s e d

io a p ro d u ct I s

o f t e n "bought b y t h e p u r c h a s e r w h e n h e g o e s t o

m a rk e t w h e th e r o r n o t i t

is

o f th e h ig h e s t q u a lity .

I n th e B rsw le y S tu d y th e

q u e s t i o n was a k e d ,

y o u b u y r a d i o a d v e r t i s e d p r o d u c t s ? 1* fo llo w in g page.

H ad t h i s

f?h o

S e e T a b l e XXV o n t h e

q u e s tio n been su b m itte d to

a d u lts th e

a n s w e r s w o u ld d o u b t l e s s h a v e h a d a m uch l a r g e r

p e rc e n ta g e

in th e a f f ir m a tiv e .

S in c e h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n ts

r e p r e s e n t su c h a s m a ll p u r c h a s in g pow er, e s p e c i a l l y o f ra d io

a d v e rtis e d

c o n c lu siv e . stu d e n ts

It

gram s u r g e

th e

s t i l l w o rth y o f n o tic e

b u y in g im p u lse

sta rte d ?

p ro d u c ts to

M any s p o n s o r s g i v e

o r an im p re ss iv e To b e e l i g i b l e

is

(o r a re a so n a b le

The m a ^ o r p r o ­ keep th e b ro a d ­ su m s o f

g i f t such a s an a ir p la n e fo r th e se

or a u to ­

c o n te s ts how ever, th e

fa c sim ile ),

o r a n e m p ty

in th is

s t i m u l a t e d a n d m ore m oney p o u r s i n t o

fers

52 o f t h e s e

aw ay l a r g e

l i s t e n e r m ust se n d i n a box t o p , w ra p p e r, package

th a t

fro m

a d v e rtis e d goods.

p e o p le t o bu y t h e i r

c a s t on th e a i r .

m o b ile .

is

t h e s e a n s w e rs m ust be f a r

c o n s c io u s ly buy ra d io

How i s

m oney,

goods,

w ay b u s i n e s s

th e com pany*s c o f ­

f o r m o re r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g . Who b u y s r a d i o

a d v e rtis e d

b e e n show n t h a t t h e h o u s e w i f e

S in c e i t

has

s p e n d s 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e

f a m i l y in co m e, t h e h o u s e w ife i s s p o n s o r s th e n m ust d i r e c t t h e i r

p ro d u c ts?

t h e o n e who b u y s . fire

th e f a m ily and c o n v in c e h e r f i r s t .

The r a d i o

t o w a r d s t h i s m em b er o f She c o n t r o l s

th e

p u rse

TABDE XXV TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION **D0 YOU BUY RADIO ADVERTISED PRODUCTS?T*

G rade

Y es

No

N in th

. . . . . . . .

17

T e n th

. . . . . . . .

16

E l e v e n t h ...............................

16

T w e lfth

IB

...............................

J u n io r C o lle g e

T o t a ls

.

.

.

.

8

79

107 strin g s.

H ence t h e d a y tim e

"Soap O p e r a s .n

h o u s e w ife e n t e r s th e m a rk e t p la c e w ith th e tis e d it.

p r o d u c t on h e r m in d ,

th e

program i s

th is

sam e

fre s h ly ad v er­

sh e w i l l o f t e n succum h a n d buy

T he m an o f t h e h o u s e i s

a t n i g h t when m o st o f t h e

If

su b je c te d to t h is a d v e r tis in g

" b i g 11 s h o w s a r e o n t h e a i r .

If

l i k e d m any p e o p le w i l l b u y t h e a d v e r t i s e d

p r o d u c t f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t o k e e p t h e a r t i s t s

on

th e a i r . Is th is of i t

is

and f a r

n o t.

im p u ls iv e b u y in g r a t i o n a l ?

T he A m e r i c a n p u b l i c a s a w h o l e i s

from r a t i o n a l I n i t s

b u y in g .

who do n o t b u y w i s e l y r a t h e r te n d to e s t a b l i s h p e o p le a r e

g u llib le

T h is f a c t h e lp s th e

r a d i o a d v e r t i s e r b e c a u s e h e know s h e i s

Does t h i s

C e r t a i n l y m uch

re a c h in g th e m asses

th a n th e h ig h ly r a t i o n a l g ro u p . a bad s o c ia l e f f e c t?

s a tis fie d

Not n e c e s ­

sa rily .

I f th e

p o rt th e

p ro g ra m s i t m u s t s a t i s f y a n e e d f o r th em .

b u y in g w o u ld n o t be j u s t i f i e d

if

and c o n tin u e to

t h e e c o n o m ic s t a t u s

sup­ T h is o f th e

i n d i v i d u a l w e re su c h t h a t h e w o u ld d e p r i v e h i m s e l f o f t h e p rim e n e c e s s i t i e s

of life .

As a w h o l e , h o w e v e r , b r o a d c a s t ­

i n g c o m p a n ie s a c c e p t o n ly p r o d u c t s w h ic h m ee t t h e i r r e g u ­ la te d

sp e c ific a tio n s . n a tio n a l u n ity and th e r a d io .

I n th e

e a rly h isto ry

o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e h i n t e r l a n d was r e m o te fr o m a l l c iv iliz e d speak.

g ro u p s.

The f r o n t i e r s m a n w as " o n h i s

o w n ," s o t o

I n a fe w h u n d r e d y e a r s A m e ric a h a s b e e n d i s c o v e r e d ,

108 e x p lo re d , and s e t t l e d ,

u n t i l now i t

h as a p o p u la tio n o f

o v e r 1 3 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 p e o p le i n hom es fro m one o c e a n t o t h e o th e r.

To g o v e r n s u c h a v a s t c o u n t r y a n d k e e p i t u n i f i e d

is

a n en o rm o u s t a s k .

is

in d is p e n s ih le i

th e n a tio n , lis te n e rs

it

o f n a tio n a lism a s th e

c o u n t l e s s e x a m p le s. is

in th is

e v e n ts,

th e ra d io

ra d io .

T h is

In a re c e n t t a lk

to

s a i d t h a t th e p r e s i d e n t h a d 8 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 c o u n try and a b ro a d .

t h i s w o u ld be i m p o s s i b l e . gam es i n

u n ific a tio n ,

Ho o t h e r i n s t u r m e n t h a s d o n e s o m u ch t o

b rin g about th e s p i r i t c a n b e sh o w n i n

T ow ards t h i s

W ith o u t th e r a d i o

A t th e w o rld fam o u s f o o t b a l l

t h e P a s a d e n a R o s e B o w l, a n d a t o t h e r a t h l e t i c t h o u s a n d s cro w d t h e

b u t th e re a re m illio n s

sta n d s to

of lis te n e rs

a t t e n d th e gam es,

in

t h e i r h o m e s who l i s ­

te n to th e p la y by p la y announcem ent o f th e s e e v e n ts . W o rld S e r i e s

b a s e b a l l gam es a t t r a c t m i l l i o n s

fro m c o a s t t o b rin g ,

c o a st.

even to

The

of lis te n e rs

T hese f a c t s u n m is ta k e a b ly te n d t o

th e re m o te c o rn e r s o f o u r n a t i o n , a u n i t y o f

f e e lin g and o f s p i r i t . U n ity o f s p i r i t fro m t h e r a d i o .

area

O rd ers, in

i n tim e

q u e stio n ,

ex p ressed to th e ra d io

n o t th e o n ly n a t i o n a l b e n e f it

Our s p e e c h t h r o u g h o u t t h e

co m in g s t a n d a r d i z e d . once;

is

c o u n try i s

be­

I d e a s m ay b e t r a n s m i t t e d t o a l l a t o f e m e r g e n c y , m ay b e g i v e n t o

th e

a n d p o l i t i c a l a n d l a b o r u n i t y m ay b e

th e n a t i o n a s a w h o le .

Can a n y o n e d o u b t t h a t

I s one o f th e m a jo r i n s t r u m e n t s f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y ?

109 The r a d i o

Is a fo rce

t h e r i g h t w ay.

Its

o f g o o d t o a n a t i o n who u s e s i t pow er i s u n l i m i t e d ,

its

in

b e n e f its w ith o u t

num ber? jE m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s , o n ly r e a c tio n s

to ra d io *

p a n ic and f e a r a re n o t th e

T hese h a v e b e e n to u c h e d u p o n In

a p re v io u s c h a p te r.

O th e r e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n s a r e :

ism ,

so rro w ,

d u ty ,

sy m p a th y ,

and h a p p in e s s .

p a trio t­

T h e r e a r e m an y

o th e rs. The r e c e n t w a v e o f b o y s a n d m en r u s h i n g i n t o t h e c ru itin g

o ffic e s to e n l i s t

i n t h e A m e r i c a n a rm e d f o r c e s

a n e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n m uch o f w h i c h w a s i n s t i t u t e d b r o a d c a s ts and by c a l l s o tic

songs a re

and p a tr io tic

f o r e n lis tm e n t on th e

a ir.

re­ is

b y new s P a tri­

s u n g t o a m i l l i o n h o m es i n o n e b r o a d c a s t , ta lk s

i n f l u e n c e m any t o r e a c t f a v o r a b l y t o

t h e common c a u s e . The N a t i o n a l T r e a s u r y i n b r a d c a s t i n g o n ce a w eek h a s c r e a t e d a b u y in g su rg e f o r w ar s a v in g s b o n d s.

T he War d e ­

c l a r a t i o n h a s b r o u g h t i n m i l l i o n s m o re f o r m u n i t i o n s a n d su p p lie s.

P e o p l e who f e l t

i t w as a d u ty t o b u y r e s p o n d e d

a s g e n e r o u s l y a s t h o s e who c o n s i d e r e d i t The P r e s i d e n t e x p r e s s e d t h e t i o n to th e w ife and c h i l d Our s y m p a th i e s h a v e

sy m p a th ie s o f th e n a ­

o f t h e f i r s t w ar h e ro a t H a w a ii.

lo n g been w ith th e

n o d o u b t , m uch o f t h i s

a good in v e s tm e n t.

subdued n a ti o n s ,

s y m p a th y was b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e

and

11 0 ra d io . T he r a d i o i s

c a p a b le o f ru n n in g th e

th e e m o tio n s a n d o f to u c h in g e v e r y h e a r t .

g a u n tle t o f a l l As s u c h ,

it

a g r e a t i n f l u e n o e a n d c a n m ake a n a t i o n f e e l s o r r o w , p a in ,

is

R a d io i s

a c re a to r

o f m ass a c t i o n .

a c o n t r o l l e d a c t i o n b e c a u se o f th e

home o r g r o u p r e c e p t i o n . c a n n o t be e s tim a te d ,

th e y a r e so n u m e ro u s.

f o s t e r s e m o tio n s, h a s an i n s t r u c t i v e a g u id e f o r

fu tu re

U n ite d S ta te s f o r keep a l l th e

a c tio n . th e

to n g u e ,

in d iv id u a l

T he r a d i o m ay It

c re a te s and

and s e rv e s as

I t h as h e lp e d to u n ite

p resen t c o n f lic t,

sta te s

T h is

The s o c i a l b e n e f i t s t o t h e m a s s e s

be d e s c r ib e d a s an in s tru m e n t w ith a s o u l.

ue to

an g er,

or h a p p in e ss . Sum m ary.

a c tio n

has

and i t

c lo s e ly re la te d .

th e

w ill c o n tin ­

CHAPTER VI INSTITUTIONAL INFLUENCES OF RADIO R a d io i s ra n k s w ith

a new com er i n

e le c tric ity

e re d a s one o f th e

th e w o rld o f in v e n tio n s *

in u n iv e rsa l usage.

in d is p e n s a b le

a n d u s e d m o re w i d e l y t h a n t h e

b a tte rie s

a s a c o n n e c tin g

w o rld and w o rld e v e n ts .

is

in stru m e n ts in

te le p h o n e

E ven r u r a l hom es w i t h o u t l i g h t s

It

It

c o n sid ­

t h e hom e,

o r a u to m o b ile .

p o s s e s s a r a d io ru n by

lin k w ith th e

e v e r c h a n g in g

The r a d i o e x e r t s

an in flu e n c e

on

e v e r y d a y l i v e s m o re p r o f o u n d t h a n a n y p e r s o n a l i t y s i n c e th e

co m in g o f C h r i s t .

o th e rs in flu e n c e d

C a e s a r , N a p o le o n , ? /a s h in g to n a n d

th o u sa n d s.

T he r a d i o

in flu e n c e s m il­

lio n s .

W h e re t h e c o n q u e r o r s i n f l u e n c e d n a t i o n s ,

is

aro u n d th e w o rld .

fe lt

In flu e n c e ra d io

is

o f th e ra d io

on t h e hom e.

th e ra d io

A lth o u g h th e

p rim a rily an in stru m e n t fo r e n te rta in m e n t i t

no l e s s im p o r ta n t a s a n i n f l u e n c e s o c ia l v a lu e s.

in

sh a p in g a t t i t u d e s

T h e r e a r e m an y i n d i c a t i o n s

o f th is

is and

in th e

hom e. J u s t h o w m u ch t h e r a d i o h a s d o n e t o b r i n g f a m i l i e s to g e th e r i s

n o t c e r ta in but th e re

has c o n trib u te d in re v iv in g th e to be.

is

an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t

nf a m i l y c i r c l e 1* a s i t u s e d

L i s t e n i n g a s a g r o u p i s m o re a p p a r e n t w h e r e t h e r e

i s b u t one r a d i o

in

t h e hom e.

The f a m i l y g a t h e r s t o h e a r

112 a f o o t b a l l game o r t o h e a r t h e P r e s i d e n t i n a f i r e s i d e c h a t.

It

is

no lo n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o

e n te rta in m e n t.

l e a v e t h e hom e t o

The y o u n g e r m e m b e rs m ay i n v i t e

f o r a n e v e n in g o f d a n c in g to o r t h e f a m i l y m ay t a k e

p art

frie n d s

i n a q u iz p rog ram .

d iffe re n t

o f e n te rta in m e n t.

fa m ily q u a rre ls because l e y S tu d y th e

sexes d e sire

As a r e s u l t o f th e se

q u e s t i o n was a s k e d ,

fa m ily q u a rr e ls ? ”

d a ta c o ll e c t e d

o f th o se

stu d ie d in d ic a te d

b e c a u se o f th e r a d i o . b u t one r a d i o i n

m ild n a tu r e .

d iffe re n t

th e re a re

d iffe re n c e s.

o c c a sio n a l in th e

rfH a s t h e r a d i o

B raw -

caused any

S e e T a b l e XXVI o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e .

F ro m t h e

is

sam e p r o ­

T here a r e f r e q u e n t e x c e p tio n s b u t th e v a r io u s a g e s

o f th e fa m ily and th e ty p e s

in

t h e n a t i o n 1s b e s t d a n c e b a n d s ,

A l l m e m b e rs o f a f a m i l y do n o t e n j o y t h e g ram s.

fin d

it

c a n b e s e e n t h a t m ore t h a n h a l f th a t th e ir fa m ilie s

T h is i s

tru e

q u a rre le d

o f c o u rs e w here

th e hom e, a n d t h e s e

th e re

q u a rre ls are

H&iere t h e r e w e r e m o r e t h a n o ne r a d i o

of a

in th e

home t h i s w a s n o t s o t r u e a n d a r g u m e n t s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d . ~$hat i s th e fa m ily ?

th e

p o l it i c a l sig n ific a n c e

T here a re

is

a good t r e n d

I n a d em ocracy su c h a s

sin c e th e

depends upon th e young l i s t e n i n g fa m ily to

in

i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r a d i o h a s m ad e

t h e hom e m o r e p o l i t i c a l l y m i n d e d . o u rs t h i s

o f th e ra d io

fu tu re

o f our c o u n try

in to d a y .

t h e p o l i t i c a l v ie w s on a l l

S u b je c tin g th e

s id e s h a s a te n d e n c y

t o g i v e t h e m e m b e rs m o re c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y

in

se le c tin g

113

TABLE XXVI TABULATION OF ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION "HAS THE RADIO CAUSED ANY FAMILY QUARRELS?"

G rade

O c c a sio n a lly

R e g u la rly

Not a t a l l 16

n in th

13

T e n th

9

4

10

14

2

16

14

1

9

12

1

10

62

8

61

E le v e n th .

• .

• * .

T w e l f t h ..................... * J u n io r C o lle g e T o ta ls

.

.

.

114 c a n d id a te s.

H ere a g a i n tlie

e r f u l in flu e n c e .

v o ic e o f th e

The y o u t h o f t o d a y d o e s n o t c a r e

f o r p o l i t i c a l sp eech es a s fo r th e h u t m a n y o f th e m d o l i s t e n . li/h a t i s M o th e r,

th e

in flu e n c e

o th e r th in g s

a pow ­ s o m u ch

in ra d io

T h is i s e n c o u ra g in g . o f th e r a d io

d ad , son o r d a u g h te r a l l

a d v e rtis in g .

speaker is

se e m t o

on f a m i ly b u y in g ? succum b t o r a d i o

J u n i o r w i l l w a n t h i s m o th e r t o b u y c e r t a i n

b r e a k f a s t fo o d s b e c a u se w ith t h e box to p s a n d a few c e n t s h e c a n g e t a " G " -m a n o u t f i t , b ran d o f c ig a r e tte s w in h im a p r i z e . ty p e.

b ecause th e

p r e m iu m s o r p a c k a g e w i l l

H ow ever, a l l r a d i o b u y in g i s

T housands o f u s e f u l a r t i c l e s

th e a i r .

The r a d i o

im p u lse o f th e

is

A lth o u g h t h e r e

a po w erfu l in flu e n c e

are

som e q u a r r e l s

tio n h as been ask ed ,

a m a tte r

"Is th e re

It

F ra n k lin h.

M e ," p u b l i s h e d i n t h e w as: th e

in

is

o b je c tio n s.

tw o h o u r s

to

th e

The a n s w e r i s

to n o te a q u e s tio n

R o o se v e lt i n h e r a r t i c l e L a d i e s Home J o u r n a l .

" I f You A s k

The q u e s t i o n

" I h a v e r e a d t h a t m any h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ra d io

p ro ­

The q u e s ­

t o o m u ch l i s t e n i n g

in te re s tin g

h a p p i­

th e f a m ily c i r c l e

y o u n g e r m e m b e rs o f t h e f a m i l y ? 11

o f o p in io n .

a s k e d M rs.

on th e b u y in g

th e e n jo y m e n t r e c e i v e d fro m th e

g ra m s a s a w h o le f a r o u tw e ig h s t h e s e

by th e

a re b e in g s o ld over

i n f l u e n c e s t h e home b y a d d i n g t o i t s

b e c a u se o f th e r a d i o

ra d io

not of th is

hom e.

T he r a d i o ness.

o r d a d w i l l sm o ke a c e r t a i n

lis te n

o r m o re a d a y a n d som e a s much a s

to

six

1X5 h o u rs a day. w a ste is

I t h i n k m ost r a d i o

o f tim e h u t d o n ’t

a ra d io

fan ,

p ro g ram s a r e a s h o c k in g

know how t o

k e e p my d a u g h t e r , who

fro m d o in g w hat h e r f r i e n d s

a n s w e r w h ic h M rs.

do. n

The

R o o s e v e lt gave was a s f o l l o w s :

You h a v e m ade a s t a t e m e n t a n d h a v e n o t a s k e d a q u e stio n . H ow ever, I g a t h e r t h a t w h a t y o u w a n t t o kn ow i s w h e t h e r i t i s w i s e f o r y o u n g p e o p l e t o s p e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f tim e l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o . I t depends a lm o s t e n t i r e l y on w hat t h e y l i s t e n t o , and l i k e e v e r y th in g e l s e , i t i s a q u e s tio n o f m o d e ra tio n ,, T h e re a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t m ost o f u s h a v e t o do w h i c h r e q u i r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a n d w h i c h w i l l n o t p e r m i t d i s t r a c t i o n "by t h e r a d i o , a n d i t i s b e t t e r t o s h u t o f f t h e r a d i o w hen w o r k i n g o n th em . T h e r e a r e m any t i m e s when t h e r a d i o w i l l n o t o n ly g iv e you a good p ro g ra m , b u t w i l l f u r n i s h y o u w i t h a f e e l i n g o f c o m p a n i o n s h i p w hich. I s s o m e t i m e s so re ly needed. I s h o u l d p r e a c h m o d e r a t i o n a n d com ­ m on s e n s e i n t h e u s e o f t h e r a d i o , b u t n o t b e t o o d e f i n i t e a b o u t th e num ber o f h o u r s o r m in u te s t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e may s p e n d l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o . 1 If

o n e a n a l y z e s t h e r e m a r k s o f M rs .

ap p aren t th a t th e

T he h e a d s o f t h e

s h o u l d l i s t e n m uch t h e o f th in k in g .

sam e a s t h e y a r e

s e le c t th e b e tte r

y o u n g e r m e m b e rs

d ire c te d

in o th e r

A l l p ro g ra m s c a n n o t be o f th e h i g h e s t

c a l ib e r and e x p e c t la rg e a u d ie n c e s. to

fa m ily sh o u ld t r y

d i r e c t t h e ty p e o f p ro g ram t o w h ic h th e

lin e s

becom es

th in k s th e ra d io an im p o rta n t i n s t r u ­

m ent i n f a m i ly l i f e . to

R o o se v e lt i t

T e a c h in g th e

ty p e o f p ro g ram i s

lis te n e r

a p ro b le m o f t h e

1 M r s . F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t , nl f You A s k M e ," I * a a i e s Home J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 2 , p . 2 5 .

116 hom e.

W h eth er t h e r a d i o i s

o f o p in io n ^

T hat i t

is

a w a ste

n o t a w a ste

o f tim e i s

a q u e s tio n

o f tim e

a tte s te d

is

b y t h e g r e a t n u m b e r o f l i s t e n e r s who r e c e i v e from t h e r a d i o . p ie r p la c e , th e

to

e n jo y m e n t

S u r e l y t h e r a d i o h a s m ade t h e hom e a h a p ­

a n d h a p p y hom es a r e t h e s t r o n g e s t d e f e n s e i n

w o rld when d a n g e r t h r e a t e n s . In flu e n c e

o f t h e r a d i o on t h e c o m m u n ity .

e v e r y c o m m u n ity i n

th e U n ite d S t a te s i s

b ro a d c a s tin g s ta tio n . s ta tio n s.

re p re s e n te d by a

T h e s e a r e u s u a l l y know n a s l o c a l

The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e

s p re a d does have a d e f i n i t e

s t a t i o n s w h ile n o t w id e ­

p la c e i n r a d io

b ro a d c a stin g .

E v e r y c o m m u n i ty h a s a n e e d f o r a s t a t i o n t o a i r gram s an d a c t i v i t i e s s u p p lie d by th e

th e

p ro ­

o f a s m a l l r e g i o n w h ic h c a n n o t be

l a r g e r n e tw o rk s.

P e o p le i n a c o m m u n ity a r e i n t e r e s t e d bo rs and lik e

A lm o st

to

know w h a t t h e y a r e d o i n g .

r a d i o s e t ow ner tu n e s i n s p e c t a c u l a r show s,

th e

to th e

in t h e i r n e ig h ­ Even th o u g h th e

b ig n e tw o rk s f o r t h e i r

lo c a l s ta tio n s has i t s

fo llo w in g ,

e s p e c i a l l y o n h u m an i n t e r e s t t o p i c s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e g i o n w here i t

o p e ra te s.

R e c e n tly th e ra d io h a s been u sed to

w arn p e o p le o f b la c k o u t p ro c e d u re and t o c le a r

is

g iv e n .

T h is i s

who c a n n o t h e a r t h e C e rta in ly th is

is

t r u e m o re s o f o r

know w hen t h e a l l th e

r u f a l g roups

s i r e n s w h ic h g i v e t h e w a r n in g s i n

a need f u l f i l l e d

to w n .

b y t h e r a d i o w h ic h w o u ld

117 o t h e r w i s e be l e s s e f f e c t i v e The f a c t t h a t o v er,

if

t h e r e w ere no r a d i o s .

p e o p le a r e

and good lo c a l m a t e r i a l i s

n o t t h e sa m e t h e

c o u n try

a p t to la c k th e

q u a lity

n e e d e d f o r a n a tio n w id e p ro g ram m akes t h e c h a i n n e tw o rk s ponder as to

th e ty p e

o f p ro g ram t o p r e s e n t .

gram s w h ic h d e p i c t th e a v e ra g e a c tiv itie s

se e m t o a p p e a l .

g ro u p s in t h e i r ev ery d ay

S e ria ls are

lo c a l b ro a d c a s te r keeps th e

lis te n e r

a f f a i r s a s w e ll a s th e lo c a l ones, t h e r a d i o a m eans t o e le c tio n

p e rio d s.

g e t a l l th e

of th is

ty p e .

T he

in fo rm e d on n a t i o n a l Local p o litic s

fin d

p e o p le c o n ta c te d d u r in g

The l o c a l B ed C r o s s a n d o t h e r s u c h o r g a n ­

iz a tio n s use th e ra d io a id in g th e ir

H ence, p ro ­

fo r g e ttin g

c o n tr ib u t io n s and in

rld r i v e s . ”

B a d io new s a n d th e, c o m m u n ity . s e r v i c e s g i v e n t h e c o m m u n ity .

T h ere a re m any new s

Some o f t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d

new s s e r v i c e s a r e b r o a d c a s t s d e s ig n e d p a r t i c u l a r l y

fo r

f a r m e r s , s u c h a s p r o c e q u o t a t i o n s a n d w e a th e r su m m a rie s and f o r e c a s t s . c o n d itio n s

Then t h e r e a r e

such a s t r a f f i c

th o se

and ro ad

d e sig n e d f o r c o n d itio n s.

s p e c i a li z e d i n t e r e s t on g e n e ra l new s,

p e c u lia r A lso

such a s f lo o d s ,

h u r r i c a n e s an d e a r th q u a k e s w h ic h m ig h t s t r i k e

a n y c o m m u n ity .

S t r e i b e r t a n d L ew is m e n tio n e d t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f lis te n in g p la c e .

t o n e w s p r o g r a m s w h i c h h a s b e co m e a l m o s t common­

"A s t u d y o f r a d i o

Io w a i n A p r i l ,

l i s t e n i n g h a b i t s i n th e

sta te

1939 show ed t h a t 7 9 .8 p e r c e n t o f a l l

of

Io w a

118 lis te n e rs

p referred

n e w s “b r o a d c a s t s a b o v e a l l

o f p ro g ra m s am ong s i x t e e n c l a s s e s . program t y p e ,

W it h t h e

c o m e d ia n s , l a g g i n g w i t h 6 0 .7

o th e r

k in d s

second p lac e

per c e n t.

They c o n t i n u e w i t h a n o t h e r m e a su re o f t h e e x t e n t t o ra d io b ro a d c a sts in a sin g le 1940 th e

v h ic h

o f new s i s h e a r d c a n be s e c u r e d by t e s t s

area.

D u r i n g t h e m o n t h s o f May a n d J u n e ,

p ro g ram m ost l i s t e n e d t o

in th e g r e a te r

Hew Y o r k

r e g i o n b e t w e e n t h e h o u r s o f 9 : 3 0 A .M . a n d 6 P .M . w a s a n e w s p e r i o d f r o m I E : 3 0 t o I E : 3 5 P iM . o n WOR. th e re w ere, th e se

on th e a v e ra g e ,

3 1 .6 p e r c e n t

At t h i s

tu n e d in .

s e t s , 49 p e r c e n t w e r e t y p i c a l l y t u n e d t o

tim e Of

th is

news

p ro g ram , o r a p r o p o r tio n o f 1 0 .6 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l r a d i o hom es.

The n e x t b e s t - l i s t e n e d - t o

K a te S m ith , a t t h e

p ro g ram ,

th a t of

tim e , had 7 .3 p er c e n t o f th e t o t a l

r a d i o hom es t u n e d i n . C e rta in

l o c a l s t a t i o n s w h ic h a r e n o t a f f i l i a t e d

a n y n e t w o r k m ake g r e a t u s e o f p r e s s a s s o c i a t i o n n e w s . s t a t i o n s m ak e e v e r y e f f o r t t o as p o ss ib le .

te n in g

p u b lic

Some s u c h s t a t i o n s

s c h e d u le new s b r o a d c a s t s

”10 s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r h o l d on t h e lo c a l s ta tio n s ,

T hese

i n c l u d e a s m u ch l o c a l n e w s

e v e r y h o u r on t h e h o u r f o r a t l e a s t f i v e m in u te s . and le w is add:

w ith

S tre ib e r

lo c a l l i s ­

h a v in g th e tim e a v a i l a b l e ,

2 T h e o d o r e C. S t r e i b e r t a n d F u l t o n l e w i s , J r . , l,R a d i o a s a Hews M e d i u m , 11 The Ahnals o f t h e n a t i o n a l A c a d ­ emy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l " S c i e n c e , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 , p i SSI

119 a n d m ak in g e m p h a s is on l o c a l p h a s e s , tra te

fre q u e n tly concen­

on l o c a l new s e v e n t s o f l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e . ”® lis te n in g ra tin g s

on i n d i v i d u a l new s b r o a d c a s t s

have been in c r e a s in g i n r e c e n t y e a rs . m a riz e s t h i s

t r e n d when he

P a u l W. W h i t e su m ­

says:

I n 1939 a s u r v e y o f 8 4 ,0 0 0 c i t i z e n s o f I n d i a n a r e v e a l e d t h a t new s p ro g ra m s w ere r a t e d f i r s t i n l i s t e n e r a c c e p ta n c e w i t h a p r e f e r e n c e o f 6 7 .6 p e r c e n t* K a n s a s show s t h a t 7 ,0 0 0 f a m i l i e s v o t e d r a d i o new s a s th e ty p e o f program th e y l i k e d b e s t , th e p e r c e n t a g e v a r y i n g fro m a lo w o f 6 3 . 5 p e r c e n t am ong u r b a n women t o 8 4 . 9 p e r c e n t am o n g m en o n farm s. The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f t h e q u e s t i o n , ” I n w h at o r d e r w o u ld you r a n k t h e f o l l o w ­ i n g new s s o u r c e s i n t h e i r im p o r ta n c e t o y o u ? ”4 R a d i o a n a l y s t s . .* . . . . . 4 1 . 7 R a d i o b u l l e t i n s ................................2 3 . 3 n e w s p a p e r e d i t o r i a l s ...................... 1 7 . 6 n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t s ...........................1 7 . 4 F ro m t h e a b o v e d a t a 65 p er c e n t o f th e 35 per c e n t fo r ity

th e

it

$ f0 $ fo

c a n be s e e n t h a t r a d i o r e c e i v e d

”f i r s t r a n k ” m e n tio n s, p ress.

o f th e new s a n a l y s t i s

a s com pared w ith

P r o b a b l y m uch o f t h e due t o

p o p u la r­

th e f a c t t h a t th e y a re

a t a l l tim e s c o n fin e d to e x p la in in g and e v a l u a t i n g ru m o rs,

and p ro p ag a n d a a s a r e a v a i l a b l e .

fa c ts,

Ttfhite c o m m e n t s ,

l o new s a n a l y s t o r new s c o m m e n ta to r i s t o b e a llo w e d to sa y a n y th in g i n an e f f o r t to in f lu e n c e a c t i o n o r o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s one w ay o r t h e o t h e r .

3 I b i a . , p.

57.

P a u l W. W h i t e , " C o v e r i n g a War f o r R a d i o , " T he A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n A cadem y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c ie n c e T ^ J a n u a ry ,' 1941, p. 83.

lao N o th in g i n t h i s i s i n t e n d e d t o f o r h i d a n y new s b r o a d c a s t e r fr o m a t t e m p t i n g t o e v a l u a t e t h e new s a s i t d e v e lo p s , p ro v id e d he s u b s t a n t i a t e s h i s e v a lu ­ a t i o n w ith f a c t s and a tte n d a n t c irc u m s ta n c e s . H is b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be im p e r­ s o n a l, s in c e r e and h o n e s t .5 A n o th e r r e a s o n f o r l i s t e n i n g

to

th e r a d i o w o u ld be th e

fa c t th a t ra d io s ta tio n s are not f a c tio n a l, D e m o cratic n o r R e p u b lic a n , s p e c ia l axes to g rin d .

and t h e y do n o t h a v e a n y

T h i s p r o v i d e s a n a u d i e n c e m ade u p

o f p a r t i s a n f o llo w e r s how ever d iv e r s e In flu e n c e N ever b e fo re

o f ra d io

th e ir

p o i n t o f v iew .

on n a t i o n a l a n d w o r ld a f f a i r s .

i n th e h i s t o r y o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s have th e

p e o p le b e e n so in fo rm e d on n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s is

n e ith e r

due to a g r e a t e x t e n t to

th e r a d i o .

by th e f a c t t h a t g o v ern m en t o f f i c i a l s c ie s a re u s in g th e r a d io

a s to d a y .

T h is i s

e v id e n c e d

a n d g o v ern m en t a g e n ­

t o d a y m o re t h a n e v e r b e f o r e .

e f f e c t has been an e v e r-in c re a s in g i n te r e s t on w h a t i s g o in g on a t th e n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l . p e c t P a u l F. P e t e r h a s t h i s

to

T h is

The

o f th e m asses In t h i s r e s ­

say,

The s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f r a d i o h a s g r o w n w i t h t h e d e v elo p m e n t o f t h e i n d u s t r y . T he a d v e n t o f r a d i o h a s b r o u g h t to th e A m e ric a n l i s t e n e r s o c i a l f o r c e s n o t a v a i l a b l e t o h im p r e v i o u s t o t h a t t i m e ; He h a s been b ro u g h t in to a b e t t e r a c q u a in ta n c e w ith th e p ro b le m s og g o v e rn m e n t, th e w o rk in g s o f i t s v a r i o u s b ra n c h e s , and th e is s u e s in v o lv e d in th e e l e c t i o n of i t s re p re se n ta tiv e s. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to n o te t h a t w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n th e num ber o f r a d i o s e t s

5 I b i d . , p.

91

121 i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s t h a t th e r e h a s b e en a 100 p a r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e num ber o f b a l l o t s c a s t i n n a tio n a l e le c tio n s. I t i s n o t c o n te n d e d t h a t r a d i o i s c o m p le te ly r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e in c r e a s e i n th e n u m b e r o f c i t i z e n s who e x e r c i s e t h e i r f r a n c h i s e , b u t c e r ta in ly r a d i o 's in flu e n c e has been g re a t in b rin g in g d i r e c t to th e p u b lic th e c a n d id a te s and t h e i r s u p p o r te r s ' d is c u s s io n o f th e is s u e s in v o lv e d ? ^ The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s e le c tio n s

show t h e

from th e y e a r 1920 t o C a n d id a te s

Y ear

in c re a se

1920

H a r d i n g - Cox

1924

in th e n a tio n a l

1940:

R a d io s i n u s e

B a llo ts

cast

4 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 6 ,7 0 5 ,3 4 6

C o o lid g e - D a v is

3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 9 ,0 2 2 ,2 6 1

1928

H oover -

8 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 6 ,8 7 9 ,4 4 0

1932

R o o se v e lt - H oover

1 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 9 , 8 1 6 ,5 2 2

1936

R o o se v e lt - L andon

3 3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

4 5 ,6 4 6 ,8 1 7

1940

R o o se v e lt - W illk ie

4 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 7

S m ith

R a d io new s e x e r t s a n I n f l u e n c e u p o n n a t i o n a n d i n te rn a tio n a l a ffa irs ; o f new s.

H a p p en in g s to d a y a r e

as th e y o ccu r. by th e

In th e

in sta ta n e o u s in

d isp e rsin g

d e sc rib e d over th e ra d io

U n ite d S t a t e s t h e new s i s

re c e iv e d

l i s t e n e r w i t h o u t a n y c o s t a n d w i t h a m inim um o f

e ffo rt. in to

H a d io i s

T he f u t u r e r a d i o n e w s r e p o r t e r m ay p r o b a b l y c a l l

h i s new s s t a t i o n ,

r e q u e s t t o b e p u t on th e a i r ,

and

^ P a u l F . P e t e r , ''T h e A m e r i c a n L i s t e n e r i n 1 9 4 0 , " -The A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A c a d e m y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d , S o c i a l S c i e n c e , J a n u a r y , l '9 '4 l . 7

* p*

1S2 im m e d ia te ly fro m th e news s t o r y h e i s done a l r e a d y .

s p o t g iv e a f i r s t

c o v e rin g .

hand acco u n t o f th e

T h is ty p e o f "b ro ad cast h a s b e e n

The i n i t i a l

f l i g h t o f th e

B -19 i s

an

e x a m p le . R a d io s t a t i o n s a r e end by i n t e l l i g e n t

re a liz in g

th e

p o p u l a r i t y o f new s

s c h e d u lin g have a rra n g e d

it

so t h a t a

l i s t e n e r m ay t w i s t h i s d i a l a t a n y t i m e b e t w e e n s e v e n i n t h e m o rn in g and m id n ig h t a n d e x p e c t t o

f i n d new s a v a i l a b l e .

The U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s t h e b e s t i n f o r m e d p e o p l e o f t h e n e w s t o d a y a n d we m ay e x p e c t t h i s

c o n d itio n

a s c o m p e titio n b e tw e e n s t a t i o n s T he U n i t e d S t a t e s n a ti o n a l h a p p e n in g s.

is

to re m a in so lo n g

and n e tw o rk s e x i s t s .

a l s o w e l l in fo rm e d on i n t e r ­

T h is i s n o t t r u e

c o u n tr ie s o f th e w o rld to d a y ,

i n m any o f t h e

in th e o c c u p ie d c o u n tr ie s

i n t e r n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s m ay b e d e n i e d t h e ly ,

w h ile in

sta tio n s . lis te n in g

some n a t i o n s

The r e s u l t

is

lis te n in g is th a t

f o r w h ic h t h e r e

is

th e re

to

lo c a l

i s m u ch " s e c r e t i v e ,T

is reg ard ed .

c a u g h t. It

is

t o n o t e w h a t a n a n n o u n c e r o v e r K F I o f I»os A n g e l ­

e s to ld c o n c e rn in g t h i s te c e iv in g

re s tric te d

a d e a th p e n a lty i f

T h i s sh o w s ho w i m p o r t a n t t h e r a d i o in te re s tin g

p e o p le e n t i r e ­

p rin te d

"sm u g g led " l i s t e n i n g .

f o r m s , w h ic h a r e

th e

He t o l d

o n l y m e a n s o f com©

m u n ic a tio n p e rm itte d i n c e r t a i n o c c u p ie d t e r r i t o r i e s , r e a d s i m p l y " I am w e l l . 11

He i n t e r p r e t e d

a s m e a n i n g " I am l i s t e n i n g . ,f

of

th e se

w h ic h

com m uni c a t i o n s

123 N a tio n a l pub11c i n t e r e s t . p o te n t o f a l l in stru m e n ts fo r to

th e m illio n s .

is

p ro je c tio n

th e m ost

o f speech

T h is g r e a t p u b lic i n s t r u m e n t i s ,

A m e ric a , d e d ic a te d to o ur b o u n d a rie s.

th e

The r a d i o

serv e

in

th e m asses o f p e o p le w i t h i n

In an a r t i c l e

re c e n tly w ritte n ,

Jam es L.

F ly s a y s , T he p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c a n n o t b e s a f e g u a r d e d u h l e s s C o m m issio n p o l i c y i s w e l l c o n s i d e r e d , c o n s i s t e n t , and p ro g re s siv e . The p r o b l e m s a r e m an y a n d t h e y a re n o t easy to so lv e . Some o f t h e m o s t p e r p l e x i n g q u e s tio n s re v o lv e aro u n d th e is s u e s o f c o m p e titio n a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o n t r o l a n d o t h e r e c o n o m ic a sp e c ts o f b ro a d c a s tin g . T he n e t w o r k c o n t r a c t e x ­ t e n t o f common c o n t r o l , l o c a l m o n o p o l y , a b s e n t e e o w n e rsh ip , new sp ap er o w n e rsh ip , g e o g r a p h ic a l d i s ­ t r ib u t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s - a l l r a is e is s u e s and s h o u l d be e x a m in e d . Of a t l e a s t e q u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s th e p ro b lem o f r u r a l s e r v i c e . A fte r a l l , good p r o g r a m s m e a n l i t t l e t o p e r s o n s who c a n g e t n o n e a t a l l , and a t p r e s e n t a lm o st o n e - f i f t h o f th e e n t i r e p o p u la tio n to e s n o t have s a t i s f a c t o r y r a d io s e r v ic e a f t e r sundow n. 8 To c o p e w i t h t h i s sta n tly

b e in g o f f e r e d th e

e a c h new m o d e l c a r r i e s

situ a tio n , p u b lic

to

new g a d g e t s a r e

con­

im p ro v e o l d s e t s

im p ro v e m e n ts t o a i d i n

and

p erfect

re c e p tio n . S h o r t w av e b r o a d c a s t i n g . 1934 d e fin e s b r o a d c a s tin g a s , o f ra d io

g

The C o m m u n i c a t i o n s A c t o f

,fT h e m e a n s o f d i s s e m i n a t i o n

c o m m u n ic a tio n s i n t e n d e d t o

be r e c e i v e d b y t h e

Jam es L aw ren ce F l y , " R e g u la ti o n s o f R a d io B ro a d ­ c a s t i n g i n t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t , ” T he A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i ­ c a n A cadem y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , J a n u a r y ^ 1 5 4 1 ,

p. it o :

184 p u b lic ,

d ire c tly

T h is a p p l i e s a l s o ie n c e i s

o r "by t h e to

i n t e r m e d i a r y o f r e l a y s t a t i o n s . "9

s h o r t wave b r o a d c a s t i n g ,

b u t th e aud­

d iffe re n t.

O n ly r e c e n t l y h a s b r o a d c a s t i n g b y s h o r t w ave b e g u n to e n te r th e r e a l f i e l d S ta te s , a re

in te re s te d

o f d isc o v e ry . i n th e u se

We, i n t h e U n i t e d

o f s h o r t w av e r a d i o

in

o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith th e w o rld i n g e n e r a l ,

a n d w i t h !L a tin

A m e ric a i n

B arb o u r g iv e s

p a rtic u la r.

an in te re s tin g

In a re c e n t a r t i c l e

a c c o u n t o f s h o r t w ave b r o a d c a s t i n g .

He

says, T h e e a r l i e s t s o - c a l l e d s h o r t w av e b r o a d c a s t s c o n s i s t e d p e r h a p s m o re i n e x p e r i m e n t s o f a t e c h n i ­ c a l n a t u r e t h a n i n e x p e r i m e n t s i n p ro g ra m m in g . A c o n c e r t fro m A l b e r t H a ll c a r r i e d t o th e U n ite d S t a t e s b y s h o r t w ave f a c i l i t i e s , a t a l k a b o u t a n e a r t h q u a k e f r o m M a r c o n i * s y a c h t , t h e flE l e c t r a , 11 in th e h a rb o r o f C iv ita v e c c h ia to be c a r r ie d by t h i r t y - f o u r s t a t i o n s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , a sp e ec h by B ria n d — th e s e c o n s t i t u t e d th e f i r s t t y p e s o f s h o r t wave b r o a d c a s t i n g . 10 G reat B r ita in g r a d u a lly , S ta tio n s,

th ro u g h th e B r i t i s h B ro a d c a stin g

began to u t i l i z e

new s s e r v i c e .

th e

s h o r t w ave f o r a n E m p i r e

Today i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s th e m a^or p r o ­

g r a m s a r e b r o a d c a s t b y s h o r t w ave t o s o l d i e r s a ro u n d th e w o rld .

9 10

©11 t h e A m e r i c a n

T he m o re r e c e n t r a d i o s come

C o m m u n ic atio n s A c t o f 1 9 3 4 ,

S e c tio n 3.

P h i l i p I». B a r b o u r , ITQ pen Q u e s t i o n s i n I n t e r A m e r i c a n B r o a d c a s t i n g ? T he A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A c ad e m y °*^ P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 , p . 1 1 6 .

125 e q u ip p e d w ith b o th th e

s h o r t w ave a n d t h e

G r e a t B r i t a i n 1s E m p i r e s e r v i c e s ta n d in g s u c c e s s , n o t o n ly i n

l o n g w ave b a n d s .

began to

be a n o u t ­

k e e p in g t h e E m p ire in f o r m e d

a n d e n t e r t a i n e d b u t o w n e r s o f s h o r t w ave r e c e i v e r s c o u n trie s as w e ll. began to g iv e

s h o r t wave b r o a d c a s t s i n o r d e r t o

th e lo y a lty o f t h e i r se n te d

G e rm a n y a n d I t a l y t o o k u p t h e

e x p a tria te s.

in o th e r id e a and

in c re a se

The U n i t e d S t a t e s

s h o r t w ave p r o g r a m s a s a p a r t o f p u b l i c

p re­

se rv ie e .

O n ly r e c e n t l y h a s b r o a d c a s t i n g b y s h o r t w a v e b e g u n to

be r e c o g n iz e d f o r i t s

tru e

im p o rta n c e *

A lo n g w i t h th e

new i n t e r e s t i n L a tin - A m e r ic a n a f f a i r s w h ic h i s is tic

o f th e U n ite d S ta te s to d a y ,

sp e c ia liz e d in te r e s t

c h a ra c te r­

cam e t h e m o r e h i g h l y

in ra d io b ro a d c a sts

to L a t i n A m e ric a.

T h is c o u n t r y i n t u r n b e g a n b u i l d i n g s h o r t wave s t a t i o n s u n t i l s h e now h a s m o re o f t h i s

ty p e

sta tio n

th a n any o th e r s e c t i o n o f th e w o rld . MT h e r e a r e ,

or w ere,

w av e s t a t i o n s

in

in

O c to b e r,

per c a p ita

A c c o rd in g to

B arb o u r,

1940 n e a r l y 300 s h o r t

o p e r a t i o n i n L a t i n A m erica a s o p p o s e d t o

a b a k e r Ts d o z e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .

ancei n

L a t i n A m erica l o o k s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s

fo r a s s is t­

p re s e rv a tio n

S h o r t w ave

o f d e m o c ra tic p r i n c i p l e s .

b ro a d c a s tin g can c o n trib u te o m ic ,

c u ltu ra l,

to w a rd s t r e n g th e n i n g o f e c o n ­

and p o l i t i c a l t i e s

11 I b i d . , p .

122.

b e tw e e n t h e U n ite d

126 S ta te s and th e

c o u n t r i e s o f S o u th A m e ric a ,

fh is stre n g th ­

e n i n g o f e c o n o m ic a d v a n t a g e s a n d c u l t u r a l t i e s h a s a d e f i n ­ ite

s o c i a l e f f e c t on t h e W e ste rn H e m isp h e re .

CHAPTER VPI COHCLUSIQH The u l t i m a t e se rv ic e a t th e th e

c o n t r i b u t i o n o f r a d i o w i l l be i t s

to w a rd s u n i f i c a t i o n sam e t i m e ,

in d iv id u a l.

o f th e

life

o f th e n a tio n and,

th e g r e a t e r d e v elo p m e n t o f th e I t w i l l h e lp

S ta te s as a n a tio n o f fre e

to

life

of

s tr e n g th e n th e U n ite d

p e o p le w ith h ig h i d e a l s .

r a d i o h a s becom e a n i n d i s p e n s i b l e

The

in stru m e n t in m illio n s

o f hom es t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .

It

is

th e one i n ­

v e n t i o n w h i c h c a n c l a i m t o h a v e m o re s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e th a n any o th e r

sin c e

th e

in v e n tio n o f th e

L i s t e n e r s m ay b e c l a s s i f i e d (I)

th e av erag e

c ritic a l scope,

lis te n e r.

s till

one o f th e s e

he l i s t e n s ,

c la ss ific a tio n

ty p e o f l i s t e n e r ,

lis te n e rs

th e

(3 )

th e

i s n arro w in f a l l in to de­

i n t e n s i t y w ith w h ic h

k in d o f p ro g ram s s e l e c t e d .

The a g e o f

d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e m u ch s i g n i f i c a n c e

a s to

B o th a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n

to a l l ty p e s o f b ro a d c a s ts. E v ery l i s t e n e r

ra d io .

th re e g ro u p s:

T he s o c i a l e f f e c t o f t h e r a d i o

th e ty p e o f program s e l e c t e d . lis te n

p ress.

th e c a s u a l l i s t e n e r ;

W h ile t h i s

g ro u p s.

and th e

lis te n e r

(£ )

i t m ay b e s a i d t h a t a l l

pends upon th e

th e

lis te n e r;

in to

p rin tin g

C u ltu ra l id e a s

S ta te s a re

is,

in

some m e a s u r e , a f f e c t e d b y t h e

o f v a rio u s re g io n s

b e tt e r u n d e rsto o d .

o f th e U n ite d

R e g a r d l e s s o f e co n o m ic

128 s ta tu s ,

e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l m ay h a v e t h e

th e w o rld * s b e s t pro g ram s. m a s s e s who w i s h t o

lis te n ,

h e a rd by th e f l i c k

o f th e

p le a su re

E d u c a tio n i s

d isp e rse d to

a n d m u sic o f a l l d ia l.

o f h e a rin g th e

k i n d s m ay h e

The r a d i o h a s a c c e l e r a t e d

t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l m u s i c , a n d m o re p e o p l e a r e f i n d i n g e n jo y m e n t i n t h e a r t s .

As a n i n s t r u m e n t o f l e i s u r e

a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r t h o s e who s e e k r e c r e a t i o n t h e r a d i o i s u n su rp assed .

T h is h a s a g r e a t s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e

in

k e e p i n g t h e m o r a l e o f t h e m a s s e s i n a m ood w h i c h e x e m p l i ­ fie s

a happy n a tio n .

Hew i d e a s a n d new w a y s o f d o i n g

t h i n g s t e n d t o make a p r o g r e s s i v e p e o p l e . he l e s s are

tim e

spent in re a d in g ,

W h i l e t h e r e m ay

m o re m i l l i o n s

o f p e o p le

to d a y k e p t in fo rm e d on e v e r y s o r t o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y

th a n ever in h is to r y .

C u sto m s h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d b y r a d i o .

One r e g i o n kno w s m o re a b o u t a n o t h e r t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , n a t i o n s k n o w m o re a b o u t o t h e r n a t i o n s . is

T he s o c i a l e f f e c t

a t r e n d to w a rd s a b e t t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g an d t o l e r a t i o n

b e tw e e n r e g i o n s ,

n a tio n s, ra c e s ,

B a d io p a r t i c i p a t i o n an o u t le t f o r th e new t h i n g s . and r e le a s e

in i t s

and t h e w o r ld a s a w h o le . v a rio u s fo rm s h a s b e e n

p u b lic to d e m o n s tra te i t s

d e sire

H e r e p e o p l e may d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r t h e i r e m o tio n s.

m ore p a r t i c i p a t i o n . is

and

T he m o d e r n t r e n d

T h is f e a t u r e

l is te n e r to

know

a b ilitie s , is

to w a rd

o f m odern b r o a d c a s t i n g

s t i m u l a t i n g afcd c r e a t e s a d e s i r e

d iv id u a l ra d io

to

jo in th e

on th e p a r t o f th e i n ­ a rm c h a ir p a r t i c i p a n t s .

129 S p e c ia l f in d in g s o f th e

stu d y .

In a d d itio n to

g e n e r a l f in d in g s b a se d on p r i n te d r e p o r t s a s th ro u g h o u t th e t h e s i s , to he n o te d , is

th e

su m m arize d

fo llo w in g s p e c ia l f in d in g s a re

b a s e d l a r g e l y on th e B ra w le y S tu d y .

an a id to e d u c a tio n ,

u n c o n sc io u s o f th e

b u t th e

in flu e n c e .

lis te n e r s are

(1 ) R a d io

fre q u e n tly

T he B r a w l e y c h i l d r e n l i s t e n ­

e d e x t e n s i v e l y t o new s b r o a d c a s t s ,

q u iz p ro g ram s,

b ro a d c a sts,

i n la n g u a g e ,

ta k e

a n d t a k e som e i n t e r e s t

lan g u ag e

as b ro a d c a st.

le s s o n s , b rid g e

in c re a se

le sso n s,

b u t se ld o m

o r m o rn in g e x e r c i s e s

s tim u la te d by b r o a d c a s ts ,

131 B ra w le y c h i l d r e n th e ir

co n fe ssed t h a t r a d io

i n t e r e s t in re a d in g .

s tim u la te d by th e r a d io t o w r ite .

c l a s s i c a l m u sic a r e

se ld o m se n d r e q u e s t s

in te re s t

in h i ll - b i ll y

fo r unusual s e le c tio n s .

am ount o f m u sic o f f e r e d i s e v id e n c e to i t s

in flu e n c e .

d id n o t

( 4 ) M any c h i l d r e n s i n g

s tim u la te d b y th e r a d i o ,

l e y c h i l d r e n show l e s s

yet

(3 ) H ow ever, t h e y w ere

w i t h t h e r a d i o a n d d a n c e a t home t o r a d i o m u s i c .

and a t t e s t s

fo re ig n

( 2 ) T he r a d i o d o e s n o t i m p a i r r e a d i n g .

S t u d i e s show t h a t r e a d i n g i s 72 o f t h e

th e

S w in g a n d

b u t t h e B ra w ­ m u sic .

T hey

T he v a s t

o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n m u sic

( 5 ) T he r a d i o

is used as a

m eans o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t a s e v id e n c e d by th e e x t e n t o f r e ­ c e iv e r s and o f l i s t e n e r s , e rs

and th e

s a t i s f a c t i o n w h ic h l i s t e n ­

c o n f e s s th e y g e t fro m th e r a d i o ,

f r e q u e n t l y m a k i n g th e m

f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e n o t a lo n e w hen t h e y a r e a l o n e . m akes m ass e n jo y m e n t p o s s i b l e .

(6 ) I n te r e s t

R a d io

in n a tio n a l

130 a ffa irs

has in c re a se d

sin c e th e

denced,

fo r in sta n c e ,

by th e in c re a s e d v o te s in our n a tio n ­

a l e le c tio n s.

(7 )

a d v en t o f th e ra d io

The m ass r e s p o n s e

c o n trib u tio n s to

th e

re c ru its

arm ed f o r c e s — i s

fo r

th e

R ed C r o s s ,

a p p e a ls—

p u r c h a s e o f War B o n d s , a n d e v id e n c e

u n ity and in c re a s e d c o o p e ra tio n . to

to ra d io

as e v i­

be a n a g e n c y o f p r o p a g a n d a .

of n a tio n a l

( 8 ) T he r a d i o

is

conceded

H o w e v e r , t h e m an y B r a w l e y

c h i l d r e n c o n f e s s e d t h a t r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g a n n o y ed th em , e ith e r re g u la rly bought th e in g to (9)

or o c c a sio n a lly ,

p ro d u c ts a d v e r tis e d ,

s t a y a t home t o

O c c a s io n a lly th e r a d io

F a m ilie s te n d to

lis te n

to ra d io

in

a l­

O c c a sio n ­

C roup l i s t e n i n g

t h e home a s t h e

and e n te rta in m e n t te n d to

( 1 0 ) M any a r e s a t i s f i e d

own.

p ro ­

e v e n in g s.

p ro g ram s t o g e t h e r ,

and th e in c re a s e d u se o f th e ra d io

hom e l i f e .

to r a d io

k e e p s th em u p l a t e

a l l y th e r a d io adds to fa m ily q u a r r e ls .

o f in te re s t

p riv ile d g e s.

lis te n

t h o u g h some c h i l d r e n h a v e r a d i o s o f t h e i r

te r

t h e y se ld o m

y et th e y p re fe re d a d v e r tis ­

p a y in g a y e a r l y fe e f o r l i s t e n i n g

C h ild re n te n d to

g ra m s *

and t h a t

cen­

p ro d u ce b e t t e r

w ith ra d io

p ro g ram s a s

th e y a re ,

c o n s id e r th e r a d i o a s a n e c e s s i t y , an d a d m it t h a t

th e

in flu e n c e s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and h a b its .

ra d io

C o n c lu s io n .

I t w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t t h e a v e r a g e l i s t ­

e n e r i s m o re p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d b y r a d i o c r i t i c a l o r th e c a s u a l ty p e ,

th a n e it h e r

a lth o u g h th e r e

is

c e rta in

th e to

131 b e som e e f f e c t o n e v e r y o n e who e v e r t u r n s a r a d i o B a d io a f f e c t s e x te n t, u re.

th e b e h a v io r o f c h ild r e n an d , to

th a t o f a d u lts .

The r a d i o

a c e rta in

p ro v id e s a u se o f l e i s ­

T he r a d i o a f f e c t s h a b i t s a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o ­

cesses.

T he r a d i o e x e r t s a s i m i l a r

v a r i o u s hom es t u n e d i n t o v isib ly

s a tis f y in g th e

m ust d ep en d upon t h i s d e sire d r e s u lts

The a v e r a g e

ra d io

g re g a rio u s i n s t i n c t . " in v is ib le

The b r o a d c a s t e r

g re g a rio u sn e ss* 1 to g e t th e The a t t i t u d e

o r he w i l l tu n e

o f th e

o u t th e

o f th e l i s t ­ p ro g ram .

fu tu re w ill have an even g re a te r

on th e A m e ric an p e o p le .

se e m u n l i m i t e d .

a w h o le i n

on

l i s t e n e r h as a fa v o ra b le a t t i t u d e .

The r a d i o in flu e n c e

s o c ia l in flu e n c e

i d e n t i c a l p ro g ram s th e r e b y i n ­

fo r a d v e rtis e rs .

e n e r m u st be f a v o r a b l e

th e

d ia l.

th e

T he p o s s i b i l i t i e s

o f th e

Ho d o u b t t h e n a t i o n a n d t h e w o r l d a s

f u t u r e w i l l b e i n f l u e n c e d m o r e a n d m o re a s

p ro g re ss o f th e ra d io

c o n tin u e s .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY A . BOOKS A rch er,

G le a s o n L. , B ig B u s in e s s a n d th e R a d io T h e A m e r i c a n h i s t o r i c a l C o m p an y , 1 9 3 9 )

_______, T h e H i s t o r y o f R a d i o (Hew Y o rk : H i s t o r i ’c a l C o m p an y , 1 9 2 6 )

(Hew Y o r k :

T he A m e r i c a n

A t k i n s o n , C a r r o l l , D e v elo p m en t o f R a d io E d u c a t i o n P o l i c i e s i n t h e A m e ric a n P u b l i c S c h o o l S y stem (E d in b o ro , P e n n s y lv a n ia : E d in b o ro E d u c a tio n a l P r e s s , 1939) _________ , E d u c a t i o n b y R a d i o i n A m e r i c a n S c h o o l s (E d in b o ro , P e n n s y lv a n ia : E d in b o r o ~ E d u c a t'i'o n a r ir e s s , 1938) A rn o ld ,

F r a n k A. , Do Y ou W an t t o G e t I n t o R a d i o ? F r e d e r i c k A* S t o k e s C om pany] 1 9 4 0 )

(Hew Y o r k :

. , B r o a d c a s t A d v e r t i s i n g — The F o u r t h D i m e n s i o n (Hew Y o r k : J o i n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 3 3 ) B arnouw , E r i k , H andbook o f R a d io W r i t i n g B ro w n a n d C om pany , 1 9 3 9 )

(Hew Y o r k : L i t t l e

B a r t l e t t , K. G . , a n d D o u g l a s s W. M i l l e r , O c c u p a t i o n s i n R a d io (C h ic a g o : S c ie n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , T 940) B e r n a r d , L . L . , T he F i e l d s a n d M e t h o d s o f S o c i o l o g y Y ork: F a r r a r a n d R i n e h a r t , I n c . ,~ T 9 3 4 )

(Hew

B i e k e l , K. A. , Hew E m p i r e s — T he n e w s p a p e r a n d t h e R a d i o ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : L i p p i n e o i t a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 0 ) B i c k f o r d , L e l a n d , Hews W h i l e i t i s Hews ( B o s t o n : M a n t h o r n e a n d C o m p a n y ,”T 9 3 B ) B r i t t o n , K. , C o m m u n i c a t i o n Co m p a n y , 1 9 3 8 )

G. C.

(Hew Y o r k : H a r e o u r t , B r a c e a n d

B u r l in g a m e , R o g e r, E n g in e s o f D em ocracy S c rib n e r* s S o n s,1 9 4 0 7

(Hew Y o r k :

C a n t r i l , H a d le y , The I n v a s i o n fro m M ars ( P r i n c e t o n : P r in c e to n U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1940)

C h a rle s T he

134 C a n t r i l , H a d l e y , a n d G. W. A l l p o r t , T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f R a d i o (Hew Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 5 ) C a r l i l e , J o h n S. , P r o d u c t i o n a n d D i r e c t i o n o f R a d io P r o g r a m s (Hew Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c * , 1 9 3 9 ) C l a r k , K e i t h , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m u n ic atio n C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19311 C o d e l, M a r t i n , R a d io a n d I t s a n d B r o t h e r s , 19301

F u tu re

(Hew Y o r k :

(Hew Y o r k : H a r p e r

C o n n a h , D o u g l a s D . , How t o B u i l d t h e R a d i o A u d i e n c e Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 193IFJ

(Hew

Be S o t o , C. B• , 2 0 0 M e t e r s a n d Down; T he S t o r y o f A m a te u r R a d io ( ¥ / e s t H a r t f o r d , C o n n . : A m e r i c a n RacTio R e l a y L e a g u e , 1936) B in sd a le , A lfre d , F i r s t P r in c ip le s o f T e le v is io n D u ffy ,

B e n , A d v e r t i s i n g M e d ia a n d M a r k e t s t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1939)

D u n can , R u d o lp h L . , F o u n d a t io n o f R a d io a n d H a l l , 193T J D u n la p ,

O r r in E. * T a lk in g on th e P u b lis h e r s , I n c . , 19^6)

_________ , R a d i o i n A d v e r t i s i n g e ri7 ~ W 3 lT

, The S t o r y o f R a d io

(Hew Y o r k : p r e n (L ondon:

C hapm an

R a d io

(Hew Y o r k : B r e e n b e r g

(Hew Y o r k :

H arp er and B ro th ­

, T he O u t l o o k f o r T e l e v i s i o n -------------------B roT O ers7T 932*) -

(1937)

(Hew Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d

(Hew Y o r k :

D a ily P r e s s ,

D y g e r t , W a r r e n B. , R a d i o A s An A d v e r t i s i n g M edium Y o rk : M c G ra w -H ill C om pany, I n c . , 1 9 3 9 )

1935)

(Hew

E i s e n b e r g , A. L . , C h i l d r e n a n d R a d io P ro g ra m s C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 )

(Hew Y o r k :

F o r m a n , H e n r y J a m e s , O ur Mo v i e Made C h i l d r e n M a c M i l l a n C o m p an y , 1 9 3 5 )

(Hew Y o r k :

F e l i x , E d g a r , T e l e v i s i o n , I t ' s M e th o d s a n d U s e s Me G rew h i l l B o o k C o m p in y , 1 9 3 1 )

(Hew Y o r k :

135 F ile n e ,

C a t h e r i n e , C a r e e r s f o r Women M i f f l i n C om pany, 1934)"

F ro s t,

S . E . , J r . , jCs A m e r i c a R a d i o D e m o c r a t i c ? U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1937)

_________ , E d u c a t i o n 1s Own S t a t i o n s C h i c a g o P r e s s , 193 71

(Hew Y o r k :

(C h ica g o :

H o u g h to n (C h ica g o :

U n iv e rs ity o f

G o l d s m i t h , A. H. , a n d A. C. L e s e a r h o u r s , T h i s T h i n g C a l l e d B ro a d c a stin g (Hew Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t ' a n d C o m p an y , 1930) G o o d e , K. M. , W h a t A b o u t R a d i o ? B r o t h e r s r, 1 9 3 9 )

(Hew Y o r k :

H arper and

G i d d i n g s , F r a n k l i n H, , S t u d i e s i n t h e T h e o r y o f Human S o c ie ty (Hew Y o r k : M a c M lT la n C o m p an y , ~T93& ) H ayes,

J , S . , a n d H. J . G a r d n e r , B o t h S i d e s o f t h e M i c r o hone ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . B .r i i p p i h e o t ¥ “ C om pany,

f9ZWJ

H a r r i s o n , M a r g a r e t , R a d i o i n t h e C la s s r o om P re n tic e -H a 11, I n c . , 1937) H a r l o w , A. F . , O ld W i r e s a n d Hew W aves t o n - C e n t u r y C om pany, 1 9 3 6 )

(Hew Y o r k :

(Hew Y o r k : A p p l e ­

H e e r i n g , J . M. , a n d G. C. G r o s s , T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k C o m pany, 1 9 3 6 ) H e t t i n g e r , H. S . , A D e c a d e o f R a d i o A d v e r t i s i n g U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ica g o P r e s s , 1933) . H ill,

(Hew

(C h ic a g o :

a n d W. J . H e f f , P r a c t i c a l R a d i o A d v e r t i s i n g Y ork: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1936)

(Hew

F r a n k E. , l i s t e n a n d l e a r n — F i f t e e n Y e a rs o f A d u l t E d u c a tio n on t h e A ir (Hew Y o r k : A rneric'a'n A s s o c i a - x t i o n f o r AS u i t E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 )

H o rn u n g , J . 1 . , R a d io a s a C a r e e r W a g n a l l s C om pany , 1 9 4 0 1

(Hew Y o r k :

H u s i n g , T e d , T e n Y e a r s B e f o r e t h e M ik e an d R i n e h a r t, 1935)

Funk and

(Hew Y o r k :

F arrar

136 E a l t e n b o r n , H. V. , R a d i o e s P l a c e i n D i s t r i b u t i n g Hews ( C o l u m b u s , O h i o : O h io S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) K e y , P i e r r e , R ad i o A n n u a 1 C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 “]

(Hew Y o r k : P i e r r e

K ep P u b l i s h i n g

K ir k p a tr ic k , C lif f o r d , R ep o rt o f a R e se a rc h in to th e A t t i ­ t u d e s a n d H a b i t s ~ " o f Radio* L i s t e n e r s TSTT P a u l : Webb B o o k P u b l i s h i n g 'C om pany, 1 9 3 3 ) K r a u s e , A. C. , S t u d e n t R a d i o C u e s t i o n n a i r e W oodrow W i l s o n H i g h S c h o o l , 1 9 4 0 )

(L os A n g e l e s :

L a z a r s f e l d , P a u l F . , Radio a n d t h e P r i n t e d p a g e D u e l l , S l o a n a n d P e a r c e , 1 9401 L a i n e , E l i z a b e t h , M o tio n P i c t u r e s a n d R a d io Me O r a w -H i 11 B o o k C om pany, 1938') L aw to n ,

S* P . , R a d i o S p e e c h 1932)

(Hew Y o r k :

(Hew Y o r k :

( B o s t o n : E x p r e s s i o n C o m p an y ,

L e a th e r w o o d , D o w lin g , J o u r n a l i s m on t h e A i r B u r g e s s P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1 9 3 9 )

(M in n e a p o lis :

L e e , A l f r e d M e C lu n g , a n d E l i z a b e t h B r y a n t L e e , T he F i n e A r t o f P rop a ganda (Hew Y o r k : E a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d Com­ pany, 1939) L l o y d , J a m e s A . , T he B r o a d c a s t W ord K e g a n P a u l C o m p an y , 1 9 3 5 ) L o w e ll, M a u ric e , L i s t e n I n C o m p an y , 1937")

(Hew Y o r k :

L u m l e y , F« , M e a su re m e n t i n R a d io U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ) L ynd, R o b e rt S . , M id d leto w n C o m p an y , 1 9 2 9 )

(L ondon:

D odge P u b l i s h i n g

(C o lu m b u s:

O h io S t a t e

(Hew Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d

_________ > M i d d l w t o w n i n T r a n s i t i o n B r a c e a n d Company^ 1 9 3 7 ) M o l e y , R a y m o n d , A r e We M o v ie M a d e? 1938)

(Hew Y o r k :

H a rc o u rt,

(Hew Y o r k : M acy M a s i u s ,

M o s e l e y , S . A. , a n d H. M cK ay, T e l e v i s i o n P r e s s , 1939) ' r' '

(Hew Y o r k :

O xford

127 N eu m ey er, M a r t i n H . , H a d io : A S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n (L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o l & o u t h e r n Ga 1 i f o r n i a ) O gburn, W illia m F . , H e c e n t S o c i a l T re n d s

(1933)

P a l e y , W il l ia m S . , H a d io a s £ C u l t u r a l F o r c e

(1934)

P e a r , T. H . , V o i c e a n d P e r s o n a l i t y a s A p p l i e d t o H a d i o B ro a d c a stin g [New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d T o n s Y 1 9 3 1 ) R a in w a te r, C la re n c e , S ta te s,

T he P l a y M o v em en t i n t h e U n i t e d

R a n d e l l , E« M. , C o n v e y i n g t h e W o r l d 1s M e s s a g e P itm a n P u ^ T T s h in g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 )

(New Y o r k :

R ie g e l,

0 , W. , M o b i l i z i n g f o r C h a o s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934)

(New H a v e n :

R ile y ,

D. W. , H a n d b o o k o f R a d i o Drama T e c h n i q u e s A rb o r: E dw ards B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 8 )

Y a le (A nn

S e y m o u r , K a t h e r i n e , a n d J , T . W. M a r t i n , P r a c t i c a l R a d i o W ritin g (New Y o r k : L o n g m a n s G r e e n , 1 9 2 6 ) S te w a rt, I r v in , L o cal B ro a d c a sts to U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ica g o P r e s s ,

S c h o o ls 1938)

(C h ic a g o :

S t o d d a r d , E . M. , C o m m u n i c a t i o n T h r o u g h t h e A g e s Y o r k : H. C ’ W i l s o n Company"," 1 9 3 8 7 ^ S to n e ,

(New

V i o l e t G . , C h i l d r e n 1s P r e f e r e n c e s f o r R a d i o P r o g r a m s (L os A n g e le s : U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D. T h e s i s , 1 9 3 7 )

S u m m e rs , H. B* , R a d i o C e n s o r s h i p C om pany) S u m n e r , W i l l i a m G ra h a m , pan y , 1906)

F o lk w a y s

T hom as, L o w e ll J . , . M ag ic D i a l s C om pany o f A m e r i c a , 1 9 2 9 )

(New Y o r k : H, W. W i l s o n (B o sto n : (New Y o rk :

G i n n a n d Com­ P o ly g ra p h ic

T y l e r , K e i t h I . , R a d io S t u d i e s i n O a k la n d , C a l i f o r n i a ( O h io U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T 9 3 4 ) W ag n er, P a u l H . , P r o f i t a b l e H arp er and B r o th e r s ,

P u b lic R e la tio n s 1938)

(New Y o r k :

138 W a l d r o p , F . Q* , a n d J o s e p h B o r k i n , t e l e v i s i o n ; A S t r u g g l e F o r Pow er (New Y o rk ; W i l l i a m M o rro w anc[ Uom panyT 1 5 7 8 1 ----------

W o o d b u r y , D. 0 . , C o m m u n i c a t i o n 0 ompa n y , 1 9 3 1 J

(New Y o r k :

W r i g h t , P a u l H. , R a d i o J o u r n a l i s m P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1 9 3 9 ) Y o u n g , F i l s o n , S h a 11 I L i s t e n ? C o m p an y , L t d . , 1 9 2 3 )

Dodd M ead a n d

(M in n e a p o lis:

(L o n d o n :

B u rg ess

C o n sta b le and

B. PERIODICALS A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A c ad e m y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , J a n u a ry , 1941. th e

fo llo w in g a r t i c l e s

a re fo u n d i n th e above:

A r m s t r o n g , E d w in H. , " F r e q u e n c y M o d u l a t i o n a n d I t s F u t u r e U s e s . 11 B a rtle tt,

K e n n e th 0 . , " t r e n d s I n R a d io P r o g r a m s ."

B a r n o u r , P h i l i p L . , "O p e n Q u e s t i o n s i n can B ro a d c a s tin g ." F ly ,

In te r-A m e ri­

Jam es L a w re n c e , " R e g u l a t i o n s o f R a d io B ro a d ­ c a s t i n g i n t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t . 11

O a te s,

S h e rw o o d , "R a d io i n R e l a t i o n t o and C u ltu re ."

M ille r,

R e c re a tio n

C ly d e R . , "R a d io a n d P r o p a g a n d a . "

P a l e y , W i l l i a m ' S. , " B r o a d c a s t i n g a n d A m e r i c a n S o c ie ty ." P e te r,

P a u l F. , " t h e A m e ric a n L i s t e n e r

o f 1 9 4 0 ."

S t r e i b e r t , T h e o d o r e C. , a n d F u l t o n L e w i s , a s a News M e d i u m ." W h ite ,

jr.,

P a u l W. , " C o v e r i n g a War f o r R a d i o . "

"R a d io

139 A t l a n t i c M o n th ly ,

"R d d io I n E u r o p e . "

----------IpFiifitsa.

C. S o e r c h i n g e r ,

B r o a d c a s t i n g Y e a r b o o k :. C o l u m b i a B r o a d c a s t i n g S y s t e m , P r o g r a m Book*

1941.

C o m m u n icatio n s A ct o f 1 9 3 4 , S e c t i o n 3. E d u c a t i o n on t h e A i r , 1940 C o t t o n , H. , "T he P e o p l e f s P l a t f o r m . " D o u g l a s , H e l e n C . , "T h e C a s e f o r W o m en." V an D em an, R u t h ,

"W hat Do Women W ant t o H e a r ? ”

E le c tro n ic s. F e d e r a l C o m m u n ic a tio n s C o m m issio n , B u l l e t i n s . F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f C h u rc h es, P a m p h le ts. F e d e r a l R a d io E d u c a t i o n C o m m itte e , B u l l e t i n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a d io U n io n ,

p a m p h le ts.

J o u r n a I o f E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y , M ay, 1 9 4 1 . H a r s h h e r g e r , C la y ,

" T h e D i a l T ak e t h e H i n d m o s t . "

L a d i e s Home J o u r n a l , O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 1 a n d J a n u a r y , B e n to n , W illia m , R o o s e v e l t , M rs.

"How C an R a d i o E d u c a t e ? " F r a n k l i n D . , " I f You A s k M e?"

L i f e M a g a z in e , S e p tem b er 8 9 , Jam es,

S id n e y ,

1948.

1941

" P ro d ig y ^ P ro g re s s ."

Los A n g e le s E x a m in e r, F e b ru a ry 6 , 1948, T o ld a t H e a rin g . " n a tio n a l A sso c ia tio n o f B ro a d c a ste rs,

"n ew sp a p er G a in s

"T he A B C o f R a d i o . "

n a t i o n a l C o m m itte e on E d u c a t i o n , P a m p h le t s .

APPSHDIX

APPENDIX QUEST IOHHAIRE USED IH THE BRAWIEY STUDY

1* Do y o u t a k e p a r t i n R e g u la rly 2.

q u iz program s?

IE * O c c a s i o n a l l y

Have y o u t a k e n b r i d g e R e g u la rly

1

61

H ot a t a l l

58

le s s o n s by r a d io ?

O c c a sio n a lly

4

Hot a t

a l l 1B6

3 . A re y o u a m o r n i n g e x e r c i s e r b y r a d i o ? R e g u la rly

1

O c c a sio n a lly

4* Do y o u t a k e p a r t i n R e g u l a r l y.

Hot

at a ll

109

l a n g u a g e l e s s o n s a t h o m e? O c c a sio n a lly

Z

31

29

Hot

at a ll

100

5* H a v e y o u e v e r t e l e p h o n e d a r e q u e s t f o r a m u s i c a l se le c tio n ? R e g u la rly

1

O c c a sio n a lly

11

H o ta a t a l l

119

6 . Do y o u s t a y a t home b e c a u s e o f t h e r a d i o ? R e g u la rly

9

O c c a sio n a lly .

7* D o e s y o u r f a m i l y l i s t e n R e g u la rly



19

67

H ot

at a ll

55

H ot

at a ll

87

a s a group?

O c c a sio n a lly

85

F ig u r e s a f t e r q u e s t io n s a r e c o m p o site t o t a l s o f a l l s t u d e n t s a n s w e r in g i n s u c h m an n er. B reakdow n o f f i g u r e s sh o w in g g r a d e i n s c h o o l a p p e a r i n t a b l e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e body o f th e t h e s i s .

142 8.

D o es t h e

ra d io

R e g u la rly 9. Has t h e r a d i o R e g u la rly 10.

keep you up l a t e r 14

O c c a sio n a lly

1 1 . H as th e r a d i o

Not a t

a ll

40

Not a t

a ll

61

Not a t

a ll

17

a ll

122

caused any fa m ily q u a rre ls ? 18

O c c a sio n a lly

50

O c c a sio n a lly

62

O c c a sio n a lly

H ave y o u s e n t t o a r a d i o R e g u la rly

64

a f f e c te d your ch u rch a tte n d a n c e ?

R e g u la rly

13.

77

Do a l l m e m b e rs o f y o u r f a m i l y l i s t e n ? R e g u la rly

12.

th a n u s u a l?

2

sta tio n

O c c a sio n a lly

9

Not a t

f o r a map o r l i k e , i t e m ? 53

Not a t

a ll

76

57

Not a t

a ll

26

69

Not a t

a ll

37

65

Not a t

a ll

16

Not a t

a ll

31

D oes r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g an n o y y o u ? R e g u la rly

47

O c c a sio n a lly

1 4 . Do y o u s i n g w i t h t h e r a d i o ? R e g u la rly 15.

O c c a sio n a lly

Do y o u l i s t e n w h i l e y o u w o r k ? R e g u la rly

16.

25

Do y o u l i s t e n R e g u la rly

1 ? . H as th e r a d i o R e g u la rly

50

O c c a sio n a lly

to f o r e ig n b ro a d c a s ts ? 22

O c c a sio n a lly

78

in c re a se d your in te r e s t in 32

O c c a sio n a lly .

49

p o litic s ? Not a t

a ll

50

143 18. Has t h e r a d i o Yes 19.

59

Has t h e r a d i o Yea

80.

in c re a s e d your i n t e r e s t i n re a d in g ?

76

Has t h e r a d i o

Ho

55

Ho

79 .

Do y o u h a v e a p r i v a t e r a d i o 30

Do y o u h a v e m o re Y es

63

Ho

24*

Do y o u l i s t e n Yes

25.

103

i n y o u r ro o m ?

101

t h a n o n e r a d i o a t hom e? Ho

68

2 3 . A re y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h r a d i o Yes

in w ritin g ?

in c r e a s e d your i n t e r e s t i n la n g u a g e s? 58

Yes 28.

78

in c re a se d your in te r e s t

Yes 81.

Ho

Ho

program s a s th e y a r e

to d a y ?

28

t o new s b r o a d c a s t s ? 113

Ho

18

Do y o u c o n s i d e r t h e r a d i o a n e c e s s i t y ? Yes

100

Ho

. 31

2 6 . Ifo u ld y o u s a y t h e r a d i o h a s c h a n g e d an y o f y o u r h a b i t s ? Y es 27.

74

Ho

57

Has t h e r a d i o i n c r e a s e d y o u r i n t e r e s t Y es

90

Ho

41

in

sw in g m u s ic ?

144 28 . H as th e r a d i o Yes

in c re a se d your i n t e r e s t

39

Ho

29. Has th e r a d i o Y es SO.

31.

71

Ho

51

85

60

Ho to .

80

a w e e k ly r a d i o Ho

52

Ho

fe a tu re ?

45

3 2 . Bo y o u b u y r a d i o a d v e r t i s e d Yes

c l a s s i c a l m u sic ?

re g u la rly to a d a ily s e r ia l?

Bo y o u l i s t e n Yes

92

in c re a s e d your i n t e r e s t in

Bo y o u l i s t e n Yes

i n h i l l - b i l l y m u sic ?

p ro d u c ts?

79

3 3 . W o u ld y o u b e w i l l i n g t o

p a y a $ 2 . 0 0 y e a r l y f e e t o do

aw ay w i t h a d v e r t i s i n g on t h e r a d i o ? Yes 34.

35.

39

Ho

82

B o e s t h e r a d i o m ak e y o u f e e l y o u a r e n o t a l o n e w h e n y o u are

a lo n e ?

Yes

109

Ho

22

Bo y o u t u r n o n t h e r a d i o t o d a n c e a t ho m e? Ye s

65

Ho

56

36. A re y o u i n t e r e s t e d i n a m a te u r r a d i o w ork? Y es 37.

64

Ho

Bo y o u l i s t e n m o s t t o Y es

74

Ho

67 p ro g ram s o v e r y o u r l o c a l s t a t i o n ? 57