Some factors affecting the conditioning of the galvanic skin response

Citation preview

sons vm w m m m «hi Qtmnmrn or thi galvanic um mmm


Job* J. Solllvaa

▲Alooortatloa M lvillid la partial of tho fifslfiiM ili for tbo lagno of Boetor of rblXoaophjr, la tho Pap&rtno&t of Psychology In tho Gradual* Collago of tho Stato flhtrorotty of lowa

iagaot 1999

ProQuest Number: 10598603

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t u p on th e quality o f th e c o p y subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t that th e author did not se n d a c o m p le t e m anuscript a n d th ere are missing p a g e s , th e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e r e m o v e d , a n o te will in d icate th e d eletion .

uest. ProQ uest 10598603 Published by ProQ uest LLC (2017). Copyright o f th e Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p r o te c te d a gain st unauthorized c o p y in g under Title 17, United S tates C o d e Microform Edition © ProQ uest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346


mwQ*hm iMi yg

$hl* study wae eondueted under the jo in t diroot ion of Dr. Kenneth W. Spenee and Dr* Rodion S. Brown.


w riter lo g ratefu l to hath fo r th e ir stim ulating in te re st in the etody, espeeially fo r the eonstruetire and detailed suggestions of Dr. Brown. Many apparatus problems were

P h »I

solved with the help of Mr. fed Heater*


«abls of c o m s m Ch*pt er

Fa** M n o i U d ^ m t ..................


fable of C o n te n ts ...................... M ilo of Table*



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Table of figure* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .




X 6

Tbo Problen * ....................... . . . . . . . . . II III

It W



............................ . . . * * ..................


Aequleltlon aad Extinction of the OSS • • . •


Interrolationshlp* between B**poas* Variable* Within Group*


dpparatns and Procedure fiwaHo

m * e n » iio n ......................................


ftlTh'ffTJ1' • • • * . . Beferenee* A . • • • • • • « • • • . ippendix B • •

5X . • • • • • •





fab le I It III








Sage Hm eoM iU «lt«tt as* a tlm lu a oondltlona o f eoporioantal groupo •


H t H i t «»i order of appearance of H M « i lamps (S3 combinations)


She mmm f i t 000% in U eeki of loo tr ia l* o f conditioned reeponae* between one and foot seessd* to Ortmpe X, I t , and t t t


fo r tout lo blocks of loo t r i a l s of conditioned responses In tfe*$s I ood IX fxoo 1 * 9 seconds latency nod jwy coat to blocks of loo t r i a l s o f conditioned responses to Group I I I from 1 * 1 latency « » • • • • • • • * • « • « * • • • • * She noon o f the storage assplltsdee to blocks of too i r i i l i o f tho eondltloaod responses In Groops X mid II eeearrlitg from 1 * 5 ooooado ...................




th e noon of loo t r i a l s of tho median amplitude jo* t r i a l of tho unconditioned g slraale skin r e s p o n s e .......................... . . . * .................................


the m m of tho average amplitudes, tho eerreetlon co efficien t, and tho corrected moon of tho average msplitedss la blocks of loo txtolo o f tho eesdttloxasd responses in Groups X mid IX . ................................................


Median o f tho median latency la blocks of f ir e tria l* of tho conditioned odv«ni« skin response fo r Group* I, XI, I I I , andX? . . , « ................................... h d l m o f tho median latency la block* of f i t * tr ia lo of tho eondltloaod galvanic skin response fo r dime* 1* XI* 111* *ad I f * ♦ * * * . ♦ «


Aita «Md to Maputo t t i p n ta k U ltiM o f I * 8 tahlM ( to rt Z ) ............................................................ Sato w ad to Maputo ttw p m to b llitiM of * x * to U w (Part I I ) ............................................................


6* £9 TO


TiSLX Of f loom T lfiiv 1 i

fag* ▲i f l i l i drawing of tho otlinaluo panel ihowiag Oho position* of a l l leap*


0 io neon per cent la block* of too tr ia l* of conditioned roeponoeo between oao and four •oooada la Oroop* 1, I I , aid I I I * * * * , * , . .



Tho mean of tho average amplitude* la block* of too tr ia l * of tho eondltloaod roopoaoo* occurring f ton oao to fiv e *oooado la droop* I and I I ......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


fh* aoaa of block* of t*fo tr ia l* of tho aodlaa aaplltado por t r i a l o f tho uaeen* dltlonod g d ia a le sfela ro*poaoo * . .......................


•Corrected1 aoaa of tho arorago amplitude la block* of too tr ia l* of tho conditioned roopoaoo* occurring from on* to f ir* oooondo In droop* I and 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .





Median of tho aodlaa latency la block* of f i r e tr i a l * of tho eondltloaod galvanic akin reopen** in dreup* X, I I , and 1X1 . . . . .


Favlovlaa and lu llla n paradlgno of aaotlonal conditioning . . . . . . . ..........................


Favloviaa condition* fo r cnotional conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . .


Direct current a n p llfio r c irc u it



Saaple reopen** record



56 97

01 Chapter I

twmwmm Accordlag to Landis (20) , there i» some evidence th at v aria­ tio n s la the e le c tric a l resistance of tho human body associated with external stim ulation woro investigated h r fere a t e a r l/ a t 1888.

Since th at time tho phenomenon which Is now known as tho

galvanic akin response (GSB) has hooa tho stibjeet of many experi­ mental investigations.

Landis and Lewicfc (22) la 1929, Landis (21)

la 1932, and recently MeCleary (27) la reviews of tho lite r a tu r e haws lls to d ever 600 published reports on tho 0S2« These experi­ ments have severed a wide range of slta a tlo a s la which attempts hare been made to show tho u t i l i t y of the SSI as a measure of emotionality, g u ilt, reaction time, affeet lea, physiological dis­ orders, and many oth er sim ilar variables. One of the Important properties of the reaetion observed la early investigations was I ts apparent ease of condi tlo n a b llity , The S3& eould be aroused by a wide variety of noxious stim uli, by th rea ts, o r even by thoughts of painful stim uli.

Attempts have

been made to eoadltloa the SS8 of eats, dogs, frogs, and humans* la general, conditioning of the GSAwas usually found to be rapid, only a very few paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus (63) with an unconditioned noxious stimulus (68) being necessary to e l i c i t the conditioned 638*

02 fo r seme time i t has bean wail known th a t the 0S1 can be conditioned in a wide variety o f experimental situation*.


and Heath (9) established a conditioned 631 la college student* by pairing fo r a fee t r i a l s a d istin c tiv e s lic k with a strong shock. Jones (13), working with four infants (ago 3 to 9 nonthe), reports conditioning a 931 to a lig h t of low in te n sity with the use of a very mild shock.

Switser (H2), with college students as

Sc, obtained sim ilar conditioning of the 931 to lig h ts by pairing them with te taa lsln g shook. Zn view of these observations, I t i s surprising to note th at of the more than 600 studies on the 931 very few have been d ire c tly concerned with the problem of conditioning the reaction. Hllgard and Harquls (13) c i te le ss than 10 studies on the 033^ and in none of these c ita tio n s Is any d irec t ra te r once made to the problems of conditioning the 031 gg£ gg.

In th is standard reference work on

conditioning, n eith er o f the terms galvanic skin response nor psychogalvanic rpflpx appear in an otherwise comprehensive subject index of studies of learning and related phenomena.


Woodworth (U6) devotes le ss than two pages of h is extensive volume on experimental psychology to the findings of studies on the con­ ditioned 931. And la Hhderwood'e (HH) recent te x t on experimental psychology the statement is made th at the psychogalvanic response has been widely used in conditioning studies with human 3s, but no data are presented on the problems of the acquisition of the 931. I t seems evident, therefore, th a t although the 931 appears to hold

considerable promise in the investigation of phenomena of condi­ tioning end learning, i t s exploitation has hems f a r from systematic. In marked contrast to the lite r a tu r e on the conditioned eye­ lid , th at on the 931 apparently includes nothing on the nature of th e tssp o ral re la tio n s between stim uli required fo r optimal con­ ditioning, and nothing on comparative rate s of conditioning with d iffe re n t Unde, strengths, or durations or unconditioned stim uli. Stem the re la tiv e ly simple problem as to the nature of the charac­ te r i s t i c curves of acquisition fo r the 938 has received l i t t l e a t­ ten tio n .

This neglect of basic experiments on the conditioning of

931 may be due in part to the technical d if fic u ltie s involved in recording the response, in terp retin g the records, and in collecting data which are suitable fo r s ta t i s t i c a l analyses.

I t would appear,

however, that in view of the larg e number o f studies in the f ie ld the req u isite knowledge and technique* have been available fo r some time to those who wished to study the phenomenon. An examination of the lite r a tu r e reveals a complete absence of data on progressive changes in the 931 during conditioning end only one study in which average data fo r the ,major portion of the ac­ q u isitio n period are given.

Thus Jones (13) reports mean response

amplitudes and frequencies fo r a four-day conditioning period in ­ volving 20 d aily reinforcements (one 8, age four months).


the responses occurring on sim ilar d aily t r i a l s were averaged over the four days of conditioning, i t is impossible to obtain a p icture Of the progressive growth of the conditioned response.

04 Hsdniek (3*4), in a study o f the d iffersn css between delayed and tre e s conditioning with college students, conditioned the 9SI by pairing a lig h t with a strong shock. Although the laten cies of the conditioned responses are reported, no data are given on e ith e r amplitude o r frequency of conditioned responses.

The data were

used in a study of the phenomenon of delay of in h ib itio n and do not re fle c t the growth of asso ciativ e facto rs In a simple condi­ tioning situ atio n . Barrow and Heath ( 5), Hwitser (*42), m ison (3), Humphrey ( l 6), dxant and Schneider (30), and Idttmaa (2*4) have a l l conditioned the 88B but because of the experimental techniques employed, i t was Impossible to present data on the shapes of the acquisition curvesIn these experiments the conditioned stimulus was of short duration (le ss than one second) and was followed immediately o r within a short interval by the unconditioned stimulus. of the

Since the latency

varies from one to three seconds, no recordings could

be made of the conditioned response during the reinforced tria ls * Measurements of conditioned responses were made only a t the be­ ginning of extinction t r i a l s . Apparently the only data which reveal the strength of the conditioned response a t various stages of train in g are those r*» ported by Hovland (iH) • Using a technique of measuring the con­ ditioned 9SH on the f i r s t extinction t r ia l s , he has presented data on the growth of the response as a function of the number of rein ­ forcements.

The conditioned stimulus was a HOO a s . tone of 1600


B insty-five as* a f te r the o ffse t of the tone, the uncon­

ditioned stismius (shook) was presented fo r 7$ as* Borland reports th a t the mean amplitude of the f i r s t two nonreinforoed t r i a l s (In am* deflection o f refleeted lig h t from a galvanometer) fo r groups given e ith e r 8, i f , gH, or Hi reinforcements was a nega­ tiv e ly aocellerated growth function of the number of reinforce­ ments. As with other investigators using sim ilar conditioning t r i a l s , no data could be obtained on the growth of the OB during the acquisition tria ls * In the i i & t of these considerations, i t would appear d e s ir­ able to obtain additional data on facto rs affectin g the conditiona b ility of the 9SB* Although the present study mis directed o rig in a lly toward the problem of the tw o-faetor theory of learning as proposed by Bowrer (29) , i t became ^ p a re n t as the study pro­ gressed th a t there was an urgent need fo r fu rth e r Information con­ cerning the process of conditioning i t s e l f and the effect upon th a t process of variations in experimental procedure*

By the addition

of extra groups of subjects, therefore, i t became possible to broaden the scope of the study to permit the aocumulation of data on the ra te of adaptation of the (XSB to the 68, on the re la tio n of degree of adaptation to level of conditioning, on the re la tiv e efficacy of ce rtain tsmporal relatio n s of the 62 and 69, and on the progressive growth of the 098 during the course of the acquisition series*

06 fho facto rs important 1ft th e conditioning of tho 0SB have, in cid en tally , ochbo hearing Oft recent discussion* o f loom ing theory. Bull (1$) assraes th a t loom ing 1* tho otmngthonlag o f a hypo­ th e tic a l stimulus-response aosoelation which occurs a« a function o f tho nature of a following reinforcement. Mowrer and others (8 f, I ) , 36# 3®) havo hold th a t th io assumption io not useful la tho conditioning of a response to a noxious stimulus la a c la ss !c a l ooadltloniag typo o f experiment,

la th io typo of experiment,

Qnthrlan th e o rists (11) aosnmo th a t a hypothetical stlan ln s- response aoooolatioa i s strengthened ao a fra ctio n of tho temporal conti­ guity of tho C8 and tho response*

Birch sad Bitterman (1) re je c t

the H ulliaa formulation and hold th a t le arni ng io the strsagthen*»* of a hypothetical connection between two stim uli, a sensory Integration, and Is a fra ctio n of tho temporal eoatlgnity of tho Of and easel of tho 93.

th e faste rn which are presumed to he im­

portant i a the conditioning of tho 091 are d iffe re n t in each of those th eo retical positions* Tho rnoblest

This experiment began with tho problem of tooting seme of tho d iffe re n tia l im plications of tho Bullion and tw o-factor theories o f learning*

Tho eo atig alty and reinforcement predictions wore

te sted by conditioning tho OSS, holding eoatlgnity of tho 69 and 191 constant, and varying delay of reinforcement, whore reinforce­ ment was defined as tho s ta te of a f f a ir s in itia te d by tho o ffse t of

the unconditioned stimulus. th e hypothesis tested wee th at a long-continued 99 would lead to poorer conditioning than would a more momentary 98* This hypotheoio follows from 8011*0 assumptions regarding lower asymptote o f growth of 1 (hhbit) with longer in terv als between the reaetion be­ ing eondltloaod and the reinforcement, on the fa rth e r as swept lea th a t the going o ff of the noxious 99 in itia te s (o r co n stitu tes) th e reinforcing event*

Mowrer’s (99) conception of the nature of

emotional conditioning, with i t s eagSkacis upon eoatlgnity of the 69 and 99, would apparently lead to the prediction th a t lev el of conditioning would be unrelated to the time of cessation of the 99.

two groups (Groups I and II) of 3& 9s each were run under

id en tical conditions except f o r a difference in the duration of the unconditioned stimulus. Hhder these conditions, the level of conditioning was found to bo so lew th a t the o rig in al problsm was expanded to include a study o f seme o f th e variables in OSE conditioning.

A th ird and

a fourth group o f 90 9s codh were used fo r whom th e o re tic a lly im­ portant variables in conditioning wore manipulated.

The th ird

group (Group III) was sim ilar to one of the f i r s t two (Group I) with the exception th a t the conditioned stimulus overlapped the uneondltiensd stimulus*

th e fourth group (Group If) was condi­

tioned with time in te rv a ls of the conditioned and unconditioned stim uli sim ilar to those used by Hoviand ( lh ) .

08 Chapter I I

m m s m m> pm w xm

Conditioned stimulus,

th e conditioned stimulus (15) consisted

o f tho l i f t i n g o f too of a group of 10 Xaaps which were arranged irre g u la rly oa a v e rtic a l panel (|6 x 36 la*) approximately a t eye le v el eight foot l a front of tho seated subject.

A diagram of tho

panel showing tho position of oXX tho lamps and of the p a ir th a t served ao tho 08 i* reproduced la f ig . X* fho Xoapo vero convex** tloaaX greenrjeweled plXot Xoapo fated a t $*| v . hat operated oa 3 .X f .

do tho etabjeet (8) oatohod tho poaoXc various pair* of tho

Xoapo would ho lig h ted every 9*$ seconds, oaoh pal? remaining oa fo r tho daxatloa opacified h r tho experimental ooadltloao of tho group la sfeloih tho 8 was placed*

fho order of appoaraaoo and

p alrlag of tho laapo wore determined h r a randomisation procedure with tho exception th a t tho ooadltioaod stimulus p a ir appeared every f if th , six th , ootoath, o r eighth tiao*

th ere wao a to ta l of

83 pairo of Xoapo, tho sequence of which oao repeated a t tho oad o f f o r tr successive preoontationo of tho lamps.

fho nuahering of

tho Xoapo Io ladioatod la 9ig . X; tho eueoesslve pairo are given la Appendix d* fho time between successive appearancee of tho eonditioned-etlmulus p a ir averaged about 6 ) oocoado* X* Thio unconventional ooadltioaod stimulus arrangement wao pat­ terned a f te r a study o f 888 conditioning by Welch and Stable T O ), these experimenters need ao a ooadltioaod stimulus a nonsense sy llab le plaood a t various intervale la a H o t of sim ilar oylldhXoo. d hussar was used as an unconditioned stimulus*


8 • 7



• 4

• 2

F ig . 1. A s c a le drawing o f the stim ulus panel showing the p o sitio n s o f a l l lamps. The lig h tin g o f lamps 3 5 c o n stitu ted the conditioned stimulus*

10 f lit presentation of successive p airs of lamps was control ltd by means of * Guardian stepping switch having t lx c irc u its with I© positio n s each* fro of tho c irc u its wort used to select the p airs o f lamps imd a th ird wet used to control tho appearance of tho unconditioned stimulus (99). Unconditioned atiaq ju s. provided hy


th e V$ was a pure te n t o f 1000 cycles

hewlett-Peckerd Audle-Sigstal Generator, Model 205,

end d tllte r td to the subject through


p e ir of headphones* th e

headphones, which were war-surplus unite manufactured by Dictograph, hod «n impedance o f 500-6QO ohms.

the eensAtion l o r d of the tone

wee 90 dh fo r n il groups* th is one Arrived At by f i r s t determining the average A udibility threshold fo r threshold was token


group o f 10 St*

inch S*s

the average of 10 dot eimiaat inns, fiv e In

an Ascending end fiv e In lim its .



descending order using the method of

Shrougiout these measurements an Attenuating network se t

to provide A IGO-db le s s was interposed between the signal source and th e headphones* She in te n sity of the signal was varied by means o f the si& ial-generator1* gain control, the S 'i thresholds being expressed in terms of the voltage delivered to th e attenuator* Saving determined the voltage level corresponding to the mean a u d ib ility threshold of the 10 Ss, the output o f the generator was se t a t th a t value and the attenuator lo ss e a t reduced from 100 to 10 db* the resu ltin g tone constituted the $5* the Ss who served fo r these threshold measurements were not used In the mala part of the experiment.


*»• t w m t i t t H o f «U t t e stim uli and

the duration of th e Intervale between them were autom atically sen* tr a ile d by e leetian ie decade-type tim ers (1? ) .

fiv e timers were

used, twe f a r the 08, sue to operate the stepping switch, end tee fo r th e 88• At the end of 2$ paired presentations of the 0$ with th e 88, the tin e re th at controlled the onset end duration of the 88 were shut o ff in order to permit th e introduction of extinction tr ia ls *

fo insure a h i # degree of accuracy, m l in terv als gen*

orated by the tim ers were calibrated by a Standard E lectric cloek. «he $8* was recorded from the i t s palms by means of electrodes patterned a f te r those described by Saggard ( 12) * these consisted of In c ite eups holding r is e p lates which were soldered to threaded brass rods leading Is the outsides of the sups*

Shielded leads were soldered to the reds, the electrodes

being tie d to the heads o f the svfejeet by means of tapes* electrocardiographis je lly was seed in the electrodes,


fo insure

good contact with the skin, a small anount o f the je lly was robbed into the S 's palms before the electrodes were attached, th e elec­ trodes were always inspected f o r goodness of contact a t the be­ ginning and end o f the experiment* An smssematie teflhnlfue fo r recording the 031 was used, the 8 being connected in se rie s with a 33, 000-oha re s is to r and twe 1*9 v . telephene-type dry cells*

Under these conditions, the cur*

rent throw # the subject was approximately 100 microamperes a t the

12 mean resistance lev el of the subject* (19*900 ohms)*

the leads

from the sle et sodas were connected to the Input o f a d irect-cu rren t am plifier, whose output was used to drive an Ssterilne-Angus re­ cording m llllam aeter (fu ll-s c a le d eflectio n equalled one n i l l i ampere.) A complete c irc u it diagram of the am plifier i s given in fig* 9, Appendix A* go minimise d r if t due to v ariatio n s in p la te and f ilament voltages, the lin e voltage was regulated .by means o f a Sola constant-voltage transformer*

fhe am plifier was operated

with constant gain and output-shunt settings*

long-term v aria­

tio n s in i n i t i a l resistan ce were balanced out by sh iftin g the cathode bias o f two tubas oonneoted in a push-pull c irc u it in the f i r s t am plification stage* the chart on which the responses were recorded moved a t the ra te of sin inehes per minute*

fhe occurrence of the 83 and 88

was indisated a t th e edges of the chart by means o f two au x iliary ink-w riting signal maskers* records*)

(See fig* 30, Appendix A fo r sample

All of the recording and timing apparatus sue in an

adjoining room to the experimental room*


*©ur experimental groups were run, each

under a d ifferen t set of stimulus conditions, v ariatio n s being introduced in the temporal rela tio n s and durations of the stimuli* fhe stimulus conditions and subject co n stitu tio n of each of tits groups are Indicated in f a d e 1* Croups X and XI were run to de­ termine whether a delay In the o ffse t of the unconditioned stimulus would affect the lev el of QSB conditioning to a sig n ifican t degree*

An Inspection o f fab le 1 indicates th a t the 89 was oa fo r k seconds f o r both Croups I and XI. the onset of tho 88 waa also k seconds a f te r the onset of the 89* fhe difference between tho groups is th a t fo r Group X the 99 was only 0*7$ sec* long, while fo r Group XX i t la ste d fo r k see*

fab le X th e Subject Constitution and Stiamlus Conditions of Experimental Croups Duration CS flme from Onset 81 Duration US

&xam Mslg fiwftlt S iw s* (iscni to, ftiffffJff iifftt) %sm,Am.tX X




























Croups XXX and X? were run to see what e ffe c t tho difference In etisRslus rela tio n s in these groups when compared with Croups X and XX would hare on the anouat of conditioning.

Croup XXX was

used to check tits hypothesis th a t conditioning would be greater i f the OS overlapped and terminated with the 99.

fab le X shows th a t

fo r Croup XXX the length of th e 08 waa k sees., the onset of the 98 was 3«2J secs, a f te r the onset of th e leaps and the duration of the tone was 0*75 *ee# hr th is arrangenent, the laaps overlapped

14 and tem lnated with the tone.

Because the lev el of conditioning

was lover than had been expected, the conditions fo r Croup I f were Introduced to simulate the stimulus durations used by Borland (lb ), fhe conditioned stimulus In Croup X? had a duration of 0*5 see. and i t overlapped and terminated with the DC of 0 .1 see. duration. fofrJocts.

fhe Ss were a l l volunteers from the elementary

psycho logy classes a t the S tate University of Xowa. As they ap­ peared fo r the experiment, the f i r s t 60 were assigned altern ate ly to Croups X and IX.

the next CO were assisted to Croup XXX, and

the la s t CO to Croup I?.

Bus to a scarcity of Ss, i t was impos­

s ib le to senate the groups fo r sen.

i s # 8 served i s

only one

group. Procedure.

Shea th e Ss signed up in elass fo r the experi­

ment, they were to ld th a t i t eoneemed visual acuity*

th is was

done in order to conceal the re a l nature o f the experiment. fho following procedures wore carried out when as S reported fo r the experiment: 1. fhe 8 was to ld to stand with h is b e # to th e wall and to read the lower lin e s of a Snellen chart, covering f i r s t the l e f t and then tho r i # t eye. C. Be was then seated across the room from the stimulus panel and given the following instru ctio n s: fh is i s an expertmsnt on the effects of tension on v isu a l aoulty. fhese devices (the electrodes) which X am p u ttin g on your hands are fo r recording purposes, there i s no e le e trle shock in th is experiment. (At th is point the experimenter robbed s le e t rode je lly on the palms of the 8 wad then fastened the electrodes in place with tapes tie d around the baCks of the S9e hands.)

Since these devices are need fo r recording purposes, i t i s essential, that you do net move your hands. Bet them hang ever th e arms of the Chair* Boring the course of the experiment, these l i # t s tr ill fla sh on and o ff * (8 pointed te stimulus panel.) Ton de nothing hut s i t end lode a t them* Occasionally yen s i l l hear a lend tens from these earphenes* (S put earphones on subject.) Ton may adjust than fo r heat f it* lameshsy, yen de nothing hut s i t and leek a t the lig h ts . (S put cut the lig h t and l e f t the room.) J . She 8 was then given an adaptation period of approximately three mis* during which the p a irs of leaps an the screen flashed on mad o ff perio d ically hut the 98 (tone) was net presented* During the la s t to see* of th is period, ju s t preceding the f i r s t paired presentation o f 08 and 98, a record was taken of the number of unesnditloaed responses th a t occurred in response to th e sh iftin g lig h ts and other random stimuli*

fh ls procedure was Introduced in

order t e obtain some estimate of the 8ls general reac tiv ity level* yellowing th is ported, the subject received 8$ paired presenta­ tio n s of th e 68 and the tone with k9 % 6, o r 7 other pairs of lamps Intervening between the successive acquisition t r i a l s (See fab le XI, Appendix A), th is conditioning se rie s was followed by an extinction se rie s o f 10 nonre info rood presentations of the 68 ^sili^s* ^sg^slist ijst^fcrs^wdia^ji ms In the acquisition se rie s. km At the end of the extinction t r i a l s the experimenter re­ entered the room and ran threw # another m s# t e s t of the subjeetfs eyes using the Snollsn chart as before. 5« fin a lly , the 8 was ashed to f i l l out a form (See Appendix A), which consisted of a few items purportedly re la tin g to visual problems

o f the subject, but which wee a c tu ally a check on hie set toward th e experiment. C rite ria adapted fo? racord-readlaa.

la order te reduce the

subjective element in reeding the records, the following c r ite r ia fo r counting end measuring responses were adhered te throughout th e expertmaatt ( 1) A conditioned response was said to haws occurred i f a deviation of the record lin e of 0.1 in* or g reater appeared a t le a s t 1*9 see* a f te r the onset of th e 68 but before the 08* (2) She amplitudes o f both conditioned and unconditioned responses were trod te the nearest 0*08 in .

She amplitudes of

conditioned responses with long la ten c ies were taken as the height of the in fle e tie ii point a t which the 68 merged Into the 81 above th e pre-response le v e l.

She amplitudes of th e unconditioned res­

ponses were recorded as the height of the response peek above the pre-eendltloned-rsspense level* ( 3) Bsspense latencies were measured from the onset of th e 68 In m ilts o f 0*3 see.

Chapter I I I BWftffS

fhe re su lts of the preeeat experiment have been divided into tee separate sections to f a c i lita te presentation.

In the f i r s t ,

an analysis is made of the e ffs e ts o f the d iffe re n t experimental treatm ents upon th e acquisition and extinction of the 038 between the groups.

In the second, consideration i s given to the in te r ­

relatio n s existing among several d ifferen t response measures within each group such as the number of conditioned responses per 3, i n i t i a l reelstauee lev el, and amplitude of the unconditioned response.

1* A cquisition ggg E xtinction &£ Jfehf 338

Percentage g£ conditioned QSSs ftprjag acquisition.

One of

the major technical problems Involved in studies of the conditioned 038 is th at o f determining from the graphic records whether a conditioned response (CE) has, indeed, occurred,

fhe c r ite r ia

eaployed in th is study in tabulating responses have already been lis te d In Chapter 21, page ifi.

In order to determine the per­

centages of CBS exhibited by the experimental groups during ac­ quisitio n , i t was necessary to mark o ff ce rta in tamporal lim its

IS w ithin which the appearance of an o .l - l a . d eflection would he counted ae a OIL

In the o n e of Group X and XX, where the CS

la ste d fo r k sec. and did not overlap the 93, the in terv al w ithin which a conditioned response could lo g ic ally he expected to occur was between 1 and 5 sec. a f te r the onset of the 08.

fo r Group XXI

(C8 lasted fo r k see* and overlapped the 0.79-sec* US) the lo g ical scoring In terv al was between 1 and k sec. a f te r the CS.

Xn the

ease of Group XV, no an ticip ato ry responses could be recorded during acquisition because the in te rv a l between the onset of the conditioned stimulus and th e unconditioned stimulus was only 0.H sec. Xa f ig . 2 the percentages of conditioned responses shown by Groups X, XX, and XU have been p lo tted la blocks of two t r i a l s . Comparable data f o r a l l three groups were obtained by shortening th e scoring In terv als fo r Groups X and XX from k to 3 see. so as to natch th a t o f Group XXX. fhus, only those conditioned responses having laten cies of from 1 to k sec* wars tabulated fo r a l l groups.1 1. Actually the use of a 3-sec. scoring in terv al fo r Group XXX and a t-see* in terv al fo r Groups X and XX produced no moiked changes l a the re s u lts . See Appendix B, fable XV, fo r percentages of conditioned responses computed from these tabulations. from these data computations were made of the percentages o f in ­ dividuals who gave a conditioned response on each o f the 26 t r i a l s (Including the f i r s t extinction t r i a l ) ,

fhe means of successive

p a irs of those percentage values are p lo tted in f ig . 2$ the values

1 9



z o a.

E xtinctio n

Acq uisitio n

co LU cr Q

Trials Group I •---------- • Ho ------ o

T r ia l s


Z 50 O h~ q 40 Z O ° 3 0 o 2 20 UJ

o ct





30 30

m>---------- a 2 0 EZD---------- □ 2 0




1 1. 1... t i l . I„. I I .1.1 1 1 1 _L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 1415 16 17 S u c c essiv e

B locks


Tw o

T rials

F ig . 2 . The mean per cent in blocks o f two t r i a l s o f conditioned responses between one and four seconds in Groups I, II, and I I I .

o f tiio p lo tted points are to Table H I, Appendix B.

(Tables of

ta la e s of tho p lo tted points o f a l l figures eon Bo found to Ap­ pendix 1 .) I t can Bo ioon from fig* £ th a t la a l l three experimental condition* there &o apparently aa Increase to frequency of res­ ponses fo r the f i r s t fov acquisition t r i a l s Bat th a t these i n i t i a l Increases aro followed By rath er maxked doclino* with fa rth e r re­ inforcements.

I t is also apparent th a t tho o te r - a ll lo r el of eon*

d ltlo n lag la q u ite loo fo r a l l groups and th a t there ie l i t t l e resemblance Between these ca rtes and those, fo r example, of toe conditioned eyelid response (31, *9) which ahow a progressive, negatively accelerated increase with successive reinforcement*:. I t aay also Be noted th at too I n itia l pereeatagee fo r droops 1 and 111 are aBout the aane9 while th at fo r droop 11 la somewhat lower than e ith e r of toe eth ers.

At the end of $6 t r i a l s , how*

ever, a l l th ree groups are f a ir ly well separated, droop I showing the moot conditioning and droop 111 toe least;. I t w ill Be recalled th at one of the o rig in al purposes of toe present stndy was to te a t the Hypothesis th a t a leng*continaed W$ would lead to poorer conditioning than would a more momentary US. The data obtained from droops I and XI (short and long US, respectively) Bear open th is hypothesis. toe median S of droop I gate 7 GBs during acquisition t r i a l s While the median 8 of droop 111 gate only 3. 5.

She application

o f to e Uaaa-Vhiinoy la te s t1 ( I t ) to to t d istrib u tio n s of number 1, Ski* i t a soa-parametrie ta c t of whether ana of two random variables i* sto c h astica lly la rg e r than the o th er and assume* only to a t the two d istrib u tio n s are independent and th at each la con* tiauous* to la te a t wa« need Because the data ra re skewed p o sitiv ely and remained eo a f te r various transformations* o f reapenaaa ( a ll t r i a l s combined} given By droop* I and II re* wealed th a t toe n u ll hypothesis could Be rejected a t elig ib ly B etter than toe $ per cent lev el of confidence*

(s£ 1*JI, p * #05)*

I t appears to Be lik e ly , therefore, to a t a US wheat e ffe c t I* de­ layed leads to peerer conditioning than one th a t ie terminated mere quickly, e th e r facto rs equal*

th is suggestion might Be re­

garded as extremely te n tativ e, hemever, net only Because e f the aet-tee-higk significance le v el But d e e Because o f what appears to Be a rath er la rg e i n i t i a l difference due to sampling fluctua­ tions*

f t ie q u ite possible th a t i f the te e groups had tones an

i n i t i a l l y equal le v e l e f re a c tiv ity , as sig n ifican t difference would have developed as the re su lts of subsequent training* f t has Been held By sens (39* 30) thaC an experimental con­ d itio n in which th e OS overlays the US and terminates simultaneously with i t provides the optimal temporal re la tio n fo r conditioning of the Instrumental variety*

f l a t th is is apparently not toe

ease fo r toe conditioning of toe 0S& Is suggested By the fa st to a t toe carve f o r droop H I, fo r whom the conditioned s t i ­ mulus overlapped the aaeoaditlened stimulus, is lower than th at of e ith e r of the other two curves from about t r i a l s 11-13 onward* Sines toe durations o f the 69 sad toe US were tiro same fo r Croups

I t t i I I I , a comparison was mads of mean reepois o frequencies of 8s during acquisition t r i a l s of the two groups By means of the tV-teet* She median 8 gave 7 GSi &* Croup I, But only 3 GBs in Croup 111* This resulted in a value th a t proved to Be significant a t Between the 5 and k per cent le v e ls.

Thus the supposition th at

sim ultaneity o f the 08 and the 8® a d # t Be a more optimal arrange­ ment than immediate succession fo r 'c la s s ic a l1 conditioning of toe present sort as w ell as fo r tnstnummtal conditioning is not sup­ ported By the experlmaatsi d ata.

I f anything, the ravers' re la ­

tionship i s indicated. d B B llM l.B f


to attempting to use the

amplitudes of conditioned responses as estim ates of level of con­ ditioning, i t Becomes immediately apparent th at during the ac­ q u isitio n t r i a l s the amplitude of any conditioned response having a Iona latency cannot Be measured unequivocally with the technique of experimentation used in th is study Because of the disruptive e ffe c t produced By the occurrence of the unconditioned response* Although, many responses with laten cies of more than 3 see. can Be id e n tified as conditioned responses, there Is no way of te llin g


what th e ir amplitudes would have Been had they not Been followed By an unconditioned response,

fh ls d iffic u lty does not, of course,

a ris e in the case o f nonreinforeed t r i a l s where the US is omitted* Comparisons of the response amplitudes of two o r more groups can Be made, however, i f a l l have had the same Interval Between the onsets of the 08 and the US* to such comparisons i t is assumed

23 th a t the latency of the uncord ltlcmad 031 flu ctu ates randomly sad has tho same ason value fo r Oil groups.

Shoo# conditions are sp*

parently f u lf ille d hy Groups I aad 21* A graifele presentation of tho amplitudes of tho conditioned responses of Groups 1 and 21 i s ftv*n la Fig. 3« (Blotted values are given la Fahle f # Appendix B.)

the oooditloaod responses la

th is fig u re hod a latency of X - 5 too. a f te r tho oaoot of tho m «o distinguished from thooo plo tted la llg . 2.

fhe values shown

la thlo figure were obtained by f i r s t determining tho average eondltloaod response amplitude fo r oooh $ fo r eoeh of tho successive blocks of too t r i a l s ,

fho means of tho resu ltin g d istrib u tio n s of

individual means co n stitu te tho values of tho p lo tted points*


on inspection of thass curves, I t Is evident th a t tho courts of a c fn ls ltle n as measured by amplitude Is roughly tho same as i t oas fo r percentage of oonditlonod responses.

Both group* again shew

a tendency fo r an I n itia l increase during tho f i r s t fo r t r l a l s 9 follosod hy an inconsistent hut marked decline la tho easo of Group 2 and hy olds fluotuatloas In tho ease of Group 22* fo determine whether tho inference th at conditioning had oseurrod was warranted, a t - t e s t of related measures was run between tho noon amplitude of tho CBs of Groups 2 sad 22 on t r i a l s 1 - 2 and 5 - 6 .

fho moan amplitude of the oonditlonod galvanic shin res­

ponse of Group 2 on t r i a l s 1 - 2 was 3*7® (In o«02*) and on t r i a l s 5 - 6 was 8«6l .

fho resulting t-values was 2.78 which was significant

Beyond tho one per sent level fo r 25 degrees of freedom.

2n Group

22 the mean amplitude on t r i a l s 1 - 2 end 3 - 6 was 1*62 and 3«*i8

R esponse

A m plitude


0 .0 2


A cquisition

E x tin ctio n

T r ia ls

T r ia ls

8 Group


♦ 30

-o 30

6 5 4

C onditioned




I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 1213 14 15 16 17 S u c c e s s iv e B locks of

Two T r ia ls

F ig . 3 . The mean o f the average amplitude in blocks o f two t r i a l s of the conditioned responses occurring from one to f iv e seconds in Groups I and I I .





o o r>












I(z o ' o m i 3 a m n d w v 3 S M 0 d S 3 y a 3 N 0 i i i a N 0 0 N n

Fig. H. The mean of blocks of two trials of the median amplitude per trial of the unconditioned galvanic skin response.


f o r each experimental group appears to be a negatively accelerated function of the number of tria ls * fho acquisition curves ehosn In r ig . 3 have been corrected* 1. This correction was carried out as follows: fo r each group the amplitude of the m on the 2nd, 3rd, bth, and 3th , etc. two t r i a l blocks was expressed as a percentage of the amplitude of the f i r s t two blocks. The •correction co e ffic ien ts1 applied to the data of f ig . 3 to obtain f ig . 5 **• the reciprocals of the percentage which each successive block of two t r i a l s in fig . k i s of the f i r s t block. Table VII in Append!* B gives the values of the correction coefficients and the resu ltin g values of the p lo tted points of fig . 3* fo r the presumed decrease in drive inferred from the data given in f ig . h.

The corrected curves Show a resu lt th at is something

lik e the growth curves reported by Bovland ( lb ) .

Whether th is

indicates a corresponding growth of habit strength with a constant drive, however, is d iffic u lt to assess.

The differences between 2 the amplitudes of droops X and XX are s t i l l considerable*

2. Although th is correction procedure i s only an approximate one, i t may be ju s tifie d insofar as the decrease in amplitude of the t?B re fle c ts general drive decrement. Xf there is an appreciable component of receptor adaptation to the tone reflected in the drop in amplitude of the UB, then the correction technique is less ju s tif ie d . I t is well known, however, th a t the receptor adaptation to auditory stim uli of th is so rt is slig h t and recovery is quick, furthermore, the tones used in Groups X, XX, and XXX, but not XV, were o f such a duration th at fu rth er increases of th e ir length would not increase th e ir loudness level ( b l) . fo r th is experiment a fu rth e r correction of the obtained curves would be needed to compensate fo r cm increase in the latency of the Cfi during t r i a l s toward the end of the acquisition series* Latency of the conditioned OBJ,

from measurements of the

latency of each conditioned response, determinations were made of the median latency on each t r i a l .

Medians were then taken for

0 .0 2


T ria ls 25

Group 30 30


C onditioned

R esponse

A m p l it u d e


A c q u isitio n



S u c c e ssiv e










B l o c k s of T wo T r ia l s

3PIg. 5* 'Corrected* mean o f the average amplitude in blocks of two t r i a l s o f the conditioned responses occurring from one to f iv e seconds in Croups 1 and I I .

3! thooo fR lw i 1ft eueaooeivo block* of f iro acquisition tria ls*


values so computed bare been graphed 1ft Tig* 6 * 4 comparison o f the o o v i l fo r Groups I and I I indicates that tho differences between them or# noithor appreciable aor eyetanatie. There i n a » to ho a f lig h t tendency, however, fo r tho eorvo of dronp 111 to ho shore th a t fo r Groups 1 and IX* th is to otrooood because 1ft fig* 6 tho range of latoaoioo f o r Group* I and 11 lo from 1 to 5 oooo* a f t or tho onoot of tho 01 while th a t fo r Group 111 lo fio a 1 to k oooo* This difference la tho ooortag interval rooulto in a curtailm ent o f tho latoaoioo of Groups 1 oad 11 rela t i r o to droop 111* Shoo long latoaoloo9 which did aot oeoor 1ft droop 111, wore taken Into account la arriving a t tho modlaao fo r Groups 1 and IX. However, tho relationships between tho curves aro not ma&sdly ohaagod I f only thooo latoaoioo occurring between 1 aad k oooo* aro ta lllo d la Groups X aad 11.

4 tahlo of tho

values of thooo latoaoioo fo r oaah experimental group ie proooatod la Table 14 of Appendix B* fho goftoral tendency of a l l tho ourvoo ie to rioo during tho aooftloltioa tr ia lo • If tho assumption lo made that dooroaood latency ie tho re su lt o f inoroaeod reinforcement, oao might ooar eludo th a t tho latency measures aro aot sen sitiv e indleatore of otroagth of eoadltioftiag ift aa experimental eituation lik e this* droops I and XI, however, which •condition* tho hoot do show drops la latoaojr between tho f i r s t aad oocoad points of fig* 6, which p a ra lle ls riooo ia frequency aad amplitude of C* pa thooo tr ia lo

R esponce

L atency

in s e c



A c q u isit io n

E x tin ct io n

T r ia l s

Tria ls

3 .0 2 .5


C onditioned


30 30

20 0 .5



2 S u c c e ssiv e

3 B locks


5 of

F iv e



T r ia ls

F ig . 6 . Median o f the median la ten cy in "blocks o f f iv e t r i a l s of the conditioned galvanic skin response in Groups 1, II, and I I I .

(F lg t 8 and 3) * W i i to t i noted th a t in studies of eyelid con* d ltlonlng, latency measures are rarely used as indicators of con­ ditioning* M A m tim

Jdtt. .OanaiUQRVfl flfil- *fee extinction enures ex­

pressed In terms o f response frequency, amplitude, end latency are presented In Tigs* £, 3# sod 6* respectively.

in these figures,

the extinction curve of Group i f has heen added to the other groups*

Because o f the short time in terv als employed with Group I f ,

only extinction data could be recorded fo r th is group* th ree featu res may he noted In the data on extinction*

( 1)

th e conditioning procedure used with Group I f did not resu lt In a marked Increase in per cent of responses during extinction, (2) spontaneous reeevesy Is not apparent In Group I, and (3) the ap­ parent spontaneous recovery of Group 11 Is masked In both fig s . 2 and 3* Because of the few number of OH end the masked v a ria b ility o f the data, no attempt has been made to analyse thus fu rth er in d etail*


Interrelationships between Bespenae Variables Within Groups

Preliminary experimentation and an inspection of the data of th e experimental groups Indicated th a t there were masked individual differences i s le v el of conditioning. Shis observation led to an attempt to analyse w ithin each group the relationships of certain response variables to the number of GBa given by each $ during acquisition*

34 I n itia l re a c tiv ity ,le v e l and number of GSBs.

Bscordings were

made e f the Ss* unconditioned responses to the fleshing lamps during the le s t ho see. preceding the f i r s t conditioning t r i a l .

I t was

hypothesised th at the reactions exhibited during th is period might be indicative of a su b ject's general level of re a c tiv ity and th a t th is aigbt be related to h is lev el of conditioning.

In order to

determine Whether such a relationship existed, the number of U2s during th is ^0 see. in terv al were plotted against the number of GBs fo r each S* during the acquisition t r i a l s and a te s t of 1. With one exception, a l l the p ro b ab ilitie s in th is section were computed from the scores of the Ss in Groups I and 11. Group I I I Ss wears not used because i t was thought th a t there is some evidence th at conditioning in th is group was not simple, furthermore, cow parisonc of the S 's scores on conditioning with those in Groups 1 and I I could only be done by re s tric tin g the data obtained from these groups. Bo data on Cfis during acquisition tr ia l s were ob­ tained from Group I f . independence of the two variables was made.


2 . th e two scores fo r each S were plotted against each other and the resu ltin g d istrib u tio n was s p lit on both axes a t the median of each v ariab le, the scores In each quadrant of the d istrib u tio n were then ta llie d aad a 2 x 2 tab le was obtained, the te s t of Independence computed from th is table was th at indicated by fis h e r (9) Which gives the exact probability of the d istrib u tio n o f c e ll frequencies. ®o compute the probability of obtaining the observed or la rg e r frequencies in the direction of the apparent trend, the p ro b ab ilitie s of obtaining the observed frequencies and a l l la rg e r frequencies in the observed direction were computed and summed. She sum of these p ro b ab ilities was then doubled to obtain deviations using a double-winged hypothesis. All subsequent p ro b a b ilitie s In th is study were computed in th is manner. fho general tendency in the plotted d istrib u tio n s was fo r Ss who gave a large number of i n i t i a l GBs to the flashing lamps to

35 give large

of CSs duriag tho acquisition tr ia lo .

fhlo p*e~

h a b iilty (f) of obtaining tho observed t o i l frequencies on tho h o l t of ohoaoo oo» .0001^0 fo r Qroup II aad

fo r droop I .

I t to thus

possible to redact with a h i # degree o f confidence tho hypothesis of Independence of tho number of CB» aad tho number of in it ia l Hit fo r drone ! l t hat i t to aot possible to reje ct th is hypothesis fo r Croup I .

da inspection o f ta b le 1 (page 69*70) w ill reveal tho dif*

foroaooo la tho conditioning of o a # $ oa am h lev el of ‘reactivity* la t i t #

I aad II#

to make a general statement about tho dlfforoaeoo

botoooa thooo two groups in terms of low re a c tiv ity levs! (no Udi during tho bO toe* period) i t might bo said th at i f reactiv ity level o f tho So la $roup II woo low, l i t t l o or m conditioning would take place, whlio conditioning ® l# i take place i f reac tiv ity level o f tho So was low la droup I*

(a S^oooro fro® a 9»tcst oa

thio level equals 2 . 26, a dlfforonoo oignifleant a t about tho J pot eoat io v o l*} M



g jg a A a llld i.J fM l*

$be balance se ttin g of tho am plifier wao re-

eofdod fo r each S Just boforo tho f ir o t 9S* I t wao then possible to dotoiwino tho resistance level of each subject at th io point by oubotitutloa of a dooado resistance boa in tho recording c irc u it la place of tho S.

A probability vale* for a toot of independence

of reelotanee lovol and number of ca» fo r each S during acquisition tr ia lo was computed by the method described above# the probability e f obtaining the observed values on a chance basis fo r droup I was

36 *$•9 aad fo r droup I I wm

In th is otn&y, than, fh« hypothoolo

o f tho iadopondonoo of tho » s i« lo ie « lo ro l m i tho wm%or of Cd* m n m t ho rojootod with any h i # dogroo of oonfldoaoo*

I t appoays

th a t with tho e r lto r la mood to idoatiljr o 00 aad o ith tho rooordlag

tochalquo wood* $o with difforonce fooiotaaeo lovolo did not toad lo any oyotOROtlo mannoy to giro wore o r loot Oho. ittg l.ltM o .af.tho H and fho uoaoufo o f tho oarplitn&o of tho Oft lo thio toot of ia&opendonoo wo* ©btaisod by taking tho modian lo blocks of fiwo t r i a l s of tho amplitude of tho UM fo r oooh S* fho soars fo r oaeh $ woo thou tokoa oo tho median of tho mediant of tho block* of fiwo trialo *


woo plo tted against tho number o f GH during tho acquisition tr ia lo . fho probability of tho d istrib u tio n of ooll froquoneio* fo r droop I out .MS aad th at fo r droop 11 woo .**66. la both droop 1 aad 11 a hypothesis of la&opoadoneo of tho aotthor of Ofii and tho amplitude of tho 0» eoold aot ho rejected, fho generality of th io finding, of course, lo rootriotod to tho iseasuretaeni operations aad respoaoe e r lto r la wood la th io otody. While ce rtain alalama amplitude of the U8 may be aoeoooary fo r conditioning, owor tho range of amplitude* of tho m aad condi­ tionin g oooroo la th io otody i t cannot ho hold th a t fm » tho data amplitude of m would ho a ®s»od prediction of conditioning.


lo alroady apparent fro® prewleu* curwes of tho oouroo of tho m and 01 (FIgo* 3 and k ) t fo r i t lo oooa th at tho maxim* amplitude of tho m woo on tho fIro t t r i a l s whilo th a t of tho 0» roaehod

37 tl « rnamtmm ea

m 9 * 6 tr ia l o .

daaoat of Q o t t r f t a i i ,l a J i ,..l .,k m .i i f t .,.,M .l l i i . aaabor a t £& .

t t a s i the aonber of CO* oiofeod £ roa d iffe re n t $o varied

widely and the oharaoter e f 0H of each S o lio ofcoeod mxfcod individual d iffirao sM , a rel*Uon*hip between th«a wao hype* D m iii d to ax lo t.

Biol t i , i f tho aroueal of the l i i t eoefll*

onto toraporally with no laoreaoe li t drive (increment to 2) of o reo n lt o f SA) t then I t nigh* to a*«aatod th a t tlio decrease la the XU (over a short pried o f tioe} taight represent o decrease in general drive*

I f thin If tho case lo tho conditioning o f « single

response, there would to « p o sitiv e relationship between tho eaw nt o f decrease la tho H * end tho sm har of 01s fo r each S. 1. fho aammt o f deoreaoe la tho HI was measured as follow** (1) a lla o oaf disKtt fiw i tho maxima* point o f tho HI p arallelin g tho axo of tho ion, (2) tho lla o woo ssarkod a t tho point ate to tho dlotoaoo of tho descending HI oao ooaal to on* too* trav el of tho chart, ( 3 ) tho oifioaat o f drop la oao too. oao thoa aeaoured a t tho dlotoaoo tmm tho peak of tho Hi to tho faaxked point oa tho llao* fho ostapl* record (Fig* 10) lllootxatoo tho axooodaxo used. 4 oooxo fo r oaoh individual woo tatetn (median of tho median o f block* of fiv e successive tr ia lo ) aad p lo tted again*! tho aoahor o f conditioned responses fo r oaoh S (fab le %)» Am Inspection of tho plo tted d istrib u tio n s ohowod a tendency f o r largo dooroaooo la tho amplitude o f tho HI to ho associated with largo numbers of CIO during tho acquisition tr ia lo .


p ro b ab ility o f tho c e ll d istrib u tio n fo r @*em * *** *1^8 and f o r droop 11 oao . 087* fho some idiot was made fo r tho data la droop 111.

da analyoio of th io p lo t m « d « d th at the

38 p ro b ab ility o f the M l d le trlb a tie a fo r M i group m

found to

be •**•* Dmit tho fcypotheel* of independence could bo rejected with eeno confidence In $reu$» II midi could not be rejectee la 8*00p* I and III*

fie re would appear aeste reason fo r believing,

therefore, th a t more e ffic ie n t conditioning of the OSB w ill be ebeevwed when th e 8ft returnee quickly to noraal them when I t re* turn# wore slowly.

*##»»#».«*.*!» 38 watt «M>nu>a« of th« w . the eaplltude e f th e decrease of the lift Ie dependent upon the asp* Ittn&e e f the email*

p a rtic u la rly when the amplitude o f the 8ft ie

Ib r thio reaeon, e te e t woe r a t fo r eoeh of thee# tee

variable#, I t# probability e f obtaining eeeb o d istrib u tio n Ie group I wee

end sim ilarly

In $roop II#

3&ls finding

releee the question of whether the decrease Ie the amplitude e f the Oft Ie eee second hoe e d ire st relationship with the number o f Cfts.

fhe p o s sib ility assists th a t th is relationship e ! £ tt be dee

to soae co rrela te o f deereeee l o emplitude of the ftft* Amuuhmm of th« m M m of th* OS aad a .

At the «n4 o f th#

extinction tr ia l# the 8s were asked t o f i l l e a t a abort question* noire (See appendix A ).

f h e lr answers t o Question tfo. 6 (Hid the

tone seen t o you to be paired always with any p articu lar eet e f ll# te V ) indicated th a t 9® f** eeat o f tie Ss la droop I and 97 p e t cent e f thoee la droop II bellowed th a t th e tone secned to be paired with eaiy eae eel e f lamps* la order to eee i f th ie knowledge e f tbe pairing ef the 88 with tbe 08 affeeted the conditioning e f the 8# within each group,

were computed between tbe am ber o f Cfis e f these who indicated tbe p airin g and these who did net#

Xa group X the

s-value was l,o £ and in Group XI tb e s-value was JUOJ* fhe pro­ b a b ility of eaeb o f these values is about ,87* Although la both groups these who indicated the p airing gave wore OBs, the hyps* th e sis th a t knowledge o f the p airin g did act affect the Ofts can a c t be rejected with any degree e f confidence, A la te s t was run between the am ber of conditioned responses given by the members of each group who indicated th at they were unaware th at the 88 was paired w ith the 88* the s-value of th is difference was 8*18, which is sig n ific an t a t b e tte r than the 3 per cent level*

th a t i s , dtp up 1 Ss who indicated no knowledge of the

p e ltin g tended to give more 88s than the 8s of Group 11 whs indi­ cated no knowledge o f the p airin g ,

A comparison of those in

group X with those in group 11 who indicated knowledge of the pairin g gives a upvalue of 0.8$, which indicates th at a difference between the group as large as th is would occur by chance to per cent of the time,

fhess data suggest th at m en Ss are unaware of

the 88-81 pairing, short delays of reinforcement w ill give b e tte r conditioning than long delays, but th at th is i s not the ease when i t is known th at the 88 is paired with the t!S* furthermore, the differences in conditioning within the groups are not large enou#t to warrant saying with a h i # degree of confidence th a t condition­ ing is b e tte r when the Ss know of the pairing.

40 Chanter IV W W F *W B T W i F W

IPt *

m m w nim

I t w ill be recalled that oas of the aim* of tho p r o m t study woo to secure data on tho c h a ra cte ristic s of tho conditioned GSfi during tho process of acquisition of tho conditioned response, fo r thio reason tho experimental procedures ia Groups I, IX, aad XU were designed oo th at an tieip ato iy ooaditioaod OSfio coaid ho o lio ito d hoforo tho occurrence of tho U®. la recording tho data oa th io an ticip ato ry response, measures were ta llie d of tho fre ­ quency, latency, amplitude, aad number of ooaditioaod responses during extinction tr ia lo .

Only frequency aad amplitude wore

analysed fo r differences hotwooa th e experimental groups. fho i n i t i a l ris e s la hoth frequency aad amplitude of tho OB, as indicated in f ig s . $ and 3, aro consistent with the observation th a t tho SSB conditions rapidly,

d ll throe curses of the an ti­

cipatory CBa show an I n itia l ris e in hoth frequency aad amplitude up to tho six th t r i a l .

Unfortunately, there are no published data

from comparable studies to indicate whether the absolute level of conditioning is h i # or low fo r th is type of response.


with other conditioned responses, however, the frequencies of € * obtained in th is study appear to be low.

Sbr example, in condi­

tio n in g the eyelid response, percentage of Ss responding on t r i a l s is as high as *5 p er cent {**3). whereas on the best conditioning

t r i a l o f Group I In the present study only k$ per cent of the Ss gars conditioned GSBs. ThiS difference may be a ttrib u tab le to the nature of the e ffecto r organs being conditioned (stria te d vs. smooth muscles) and/or to the conditions of experimentation,


thou^i the curves of frequency of responses were low because a large am ber of the Ss in a l l groups fa ile d to give more than one o r tee conditioned responses during the acquisition tr ia l s , some Ss gave SO or more during the acquisition series of trial® .

A finding

sim ilar to th is might have been the basis fo r Bariev1* well known c la ssific a tio n of subjects into inhibitory and excitatory types. ®*e subsequent decrease in both the frequency and amplitude curves of the CM following the in it ia l ris e is in marked contrast to the curves published by Borland (lb ),

fhe amplitude of the CM

appeared to be ris in g up to kS reinforcements in the Hoviand curves, fhe differences between the experimental procedures used in the present study end th a t of Borland might account fo r some of the d isp a rity of the curves.

lo r instance, Borland used an endosomatio

recording technique, tone fo r th e OS, aad shock fo r the US. Aa indicated in Chapter 1, the stimulus intervals in h is study were short compared with those of Group* 1, 11, and IX of the present study.

I t is to be noted, however, that Seward aad Seward (by), using

shook fo r a US, observed an appreciable decrement in the W sim ilar but not so marked as th at observed in th is study. from findings of the Sewards and the present study some decre­ ment might have been expected in Borland's curve* unless the

technique of experimentation was successful la maintaining re la tiv e ly oenatant the general drive level of the subjects. I t ie to be noted th a t unlee* th is d if fic u lt experimental feat were accomplished, Borland's eurvee may be assumed to be response curves in which th ere ie a varying drive level and could not be need ae an Indication of the growth ef learning of the OSS. A fu rth e r p o s s ib ility remains th a t the drive level of the $* in Borland's study may have been a function e f the atsaber of pre­ vious reinforcements end the curves presented may be a function of th is drive v ariatio n as well as a growth in learning. th e stre ss on the problem of controlling the drive level ef the Ss In conditioning the $SB a rise s because the conditioning of responses o f th is type is usually accomplished by periodically arousing the drive level by means of a noxious stimulus.

I t is

apparent th a t th is procedure re su lts in marked drive variations between the conditioning t r i a l s and is presumed to f a c ilita te the adaptation e f the 02 and with moderately noxious stim uli to lower the general drive level over the course of t r i a l s ,

th is variation

in the drive lev el is to be eeatrasted to the s ta b ility of drives as a re s u lt of deprivation of some so rt (hunger, th ir s t) in studies la animal learning. Conditioning experiments In which the drive level Is re la ­ tiv e ly constant and high as a resu lt o f deprivation, fo r instance, might be expected to lead to learning,

th is condition may aot be

s a tis fie d lii t he e a st o f m otional conditioning unless tbe noxious stimulus to su ffic ie n tly strong enough to maintain a general otato of need. fho finding o f lo« conditioning la thio study appears enlg aatleal shea viewed from standard prescription# fo r eondlH oning a response.

I t was observed th at tho OS was s n ffle l-

ontly strong to e l i c i t a d efin ite m and a t the same time to provide fo r a hypothetical drive redaction of setae so rt a t i t s o ffset*

She conditions for fulfillm ent of the principle o f

reinforcement seem to he presents however, la H a ll's system a s ta te o f need Is presaaod to he acting on the organism in the learning situation* to ttia lto As has been indicated in Chapter I, th is experiment vac o rig ia a lly designed to provide Information regarding the te n a h illty of the so-called tw o-factor theory of learning.

According to

th is theory, which has heea elaborated la most d e ta il by hovrer (29), there are two fundamentally different processes involved In learning# One, which Howrer refers to as


i s o f the stimulus substitution type where a normally neutral stimulus comes to acquire the capacity to e l i c i t a response formerly aroused by another stimulus, problem-*^

fhe other i s called the

o r response-substitution situ atio n la which,

thro w # t r i a l aad error, certain responses come to supplant

44 o rig in a lly Inappropriate onee.

According to iiowrer, tho con­

tig u ity o f a conditioned stiaaltte and m unconditioned stimulus I* a su fficie n t condition fo r tho occurrence o f stimulussu b stitu tio n conditioning.

I t i f H alted by Mm, however, to

rooetiono involving the autonomic nervous system.

Brive reduction

ho Isolde to ho unnecessary fo r the association of the neutral stimulus end tho m otional response to take place.

In tho eaoo

of response-substitution learning, however, drive reduction, following tho performance of an a c tt ie an oseontlal condition hut lim ited to react ioao involving tho s tr ia te musculature. f ig s . ? and 8 wore token from an a r tic le by tsovrer (29) and I llu s tr a te In tom e of the physical stim uli what he con­ ceptualise* as tho issue in emotional conditioning between eon* tig a lty (favloviaa) and reinforcement (HullCan) theories* dm the b asis o f Usurer1* d efin itio n e f stim alus-substitution conditioning as involving v isc eral and vascular & , i t Is evident th a t the conditioned OS* should qualify as a member of th is class rad th a t variatio n s in drive reduction sdbsecuont to the response should have as e ffe c t upon le v el of OSB conditioning.


i t follows from h is formulation that I t is the temporal relations o f the onset of the 03 to the onset of the US which becomes im­ p o rtan t.

With long in terv als between the OS and the 03, con­

ditio n in g should be poorer than with short in terv als (29, p- 120).


w F ig , 7* Pavlovian and H ullian paradigns o f emotional co n d itio n in g . For Mowrer what happens at 0 is c ra cia l in emotional conditioning* H ull*s theory as inter* preted by Mowrer would hold the a sso c ia tio n s formed at T most im portant, 0 refers to onset o f US, T to the term ination o f the US,

0 c s





F ig . S. Favlovian con d ition s fo r emotional con ditioning. Conditioning under t h is procedure should he no d iffe r e n t from that in paradigm o f F ig . according to Mowrer. F ig s . 7 and 8 correspond roughly to the rela tio n sh ip between stim u li in the con d ition in g procedures used in Croups III and I, r e sp ectiv ely , o f the present study.


46 da • consequence o f t h is foa m ila tiea I t would appear that Mowrer would predict th at I f th e In terval between the 0$ and US 1* main­ tain ed constant, v a ria tio n s in the tin * o f o ffs e t o f tho 33 would n et ho e ffe c tiv e determ iners o f emotional conditioning. th is b a sis th at Groups I and I I were oat up.

I t woo on

fo r hath groups tho

OS-SS in terv a l was tho same, hut la tho oaoo o f Group II, tho o f f s e t woo delayed .

m ha* been shewn la tho resu lts sectio n ,

Group I ohovod a e ig a lfie a a tly hi^xer le v e l o f conditioning thaa did Group IX.

Although th io r e su lt lends m support to Poorer*o

haoie hyp othesis, i t always lo pooolhlo th at ho eould o t i l l m aintain a co n tig u ity p o sltlo a w ith aa explanation o f tho d if­ feren ces by introducing ad d ition al hypotheses.

Quo o f theoo

» i$ x t ho su b sta n tia lly G uthrie1! p o sltlo a (11) that tho mors immediate ooooatloa o f tho OS la tho oaoo o f droop 1 lod to b etter con d ition in g thaa d id tho delays* ooooatloa la Group 11 hooauoo tho immediate ooooatloa prevented tho Oh float becoming unlearned, la tho oaoo o f tho long contiaued IS , I t might ho hold that tho toopoaoo woo being o lle lto d la tho proooneo o f other stim u li thaa the OS and th a t, through aero con tigu ity, I t wao becoming ooaaeotod to theoo other stim u li. da a d d ition al comparison that hears upea Mourer1# theory emorgoo from tho r e la tiv e amounts o f conditioning exhibited by Groups I and I I I .

Since Mowrer s p e c ific a lly sta te s th at a short

in terv a l between tho OS and tho OS should load to b etter con­ d itio n in g than a longer In terva l, It i s in te re stin g to note th at

Oroup 111 fo r who® th is in terv a l vat tho sh ortest and fo r who® the

0$ and US «oro aetnaU y tem porally contigaan* rather thaa enccoaeiTe wae, oa la te r t r ia le a t le a s t, the poorest conditioner o f a ll*

lo t

warih eaa he made o f th le ofceervatton, however, eia ee III *a« in it ia lly h o tte r thaa 11*


Chapter f

m wm

fkm preeent etudy was eoneezued with the nature o f tho conditioned galvanic ekln reeponiee (088) during acq u isitio n t r ia la a t a fu n ction o f the arraaganenta and duratlona o f d if­ feren t etinmlua in tervale*

Tho response mood and tho variant

con d ition in g proceduree a lto perm itted a toot o f eome hype* theeaa about tho fa eto re la emotional conditioning* (hit hundred and ton maubera o f both aexoa o f tho under* graduate peyefaology c la to o t o f tho Stato O nlverelty o f Zona woro eubjeeta in tho experiment.

There were fiv e experimental

group*, fonr o f which woro d iffo ro a tia to d by tho duration and p lacin g o f tho unconditioned etlmnlua (TJS), and a f if t h group which wot uaod to cheeh tho operation o f tho apparatua and eeta h lleh auditory threeholde fo r tho tone uaod fo r an unconditioned atlaulua* Xn each o f Croupe I and I I there wore JO da, and 20 So in each o f Oroupa XXI and XT.

Tho conditioned atlmulua ( 68) in tho

flr a t throe groupa waa a pair o f lampe o f k aoeonda duration which appeared on the average o f once a minute*

Xn Group X tho

uaeondltionod atlm ulua (1000-cy o le tone 90 db above the average a u d ib ility threchold o f 10 eubjecte uaod in tho prelim inary phaee

4.0 o f tho experiment) wont oa fo r *75 woo. at tho o ffo o t o f tho conditioned stim u lu s.

la Group II tho unconditioned stim ulus

sta r te d a t tho o ffo o t o f tho conditioned stim ulus and had a duwrtio a o f ^*0 «oo».

Tho conditioned stim ulus la group III woo

sim ila r la duration to th at o f Group 1, hat sta rted 3*25 se e s , a fte r tho oaoot o f tho conditioned stim ulus and terminated with it,

Tho eoadltloaod stim ulus la Group I? laotod 0 *$ to o . and

term inated w ith th o o ffo o t o f aa waooadltloaod stim ulus o f 0*1 woo* duration.

Tho frequency, am plitude, la ten cy, and percea-

toga o f responses during e x tin ctio n tr la lo woro wood a» measures o f conditioning* A comparison o f Groups X, XI, and XII ladloatod th at con­ d itio n in g toaOod to ho hoot under tho experim ental condition# o f Group X.

Tho dlfforoncoo hotwooa Groups IX and XXI la texms o f

tho anofeer o f eoadltloaod responses during a cq u isitio n tr ia la seemed to ho n e g llg ih le .

la ten cy and responses to o a tla o tlo a

woro not analysed hooaaoo o f tho apparent uarol la b ilit y o f tho data and tho fo o t th a t no system atic d ifferen ces hotwooa tho groups seemed to appear la p lo ttin g theoo measures* Aa analyst* wa» made o f tho xwoponoo O haraotorlotioo o f in d iv id u a l su b jects w ithin tem po X and XX.

Some rwlatioaohlp

was ladloatod hotwooa a measure o f r e a c tiv ity le v e l aad tho aunther o f ooadltioaod roopoaooi during a cq u isitio n tr ia la in gaw p IX, hat not in Group I .

A hypothesis o f th e independence

o f th e resista n ce le v e l end the number o f conditioned responses could not be rejected in e ith e r Group I or XX. A sim ila r hype* th e s is o f Independence o f amplitude o f the unconditioned response (31) and the anchor o f conditioned responses could not he rejected in e ith e r group.

In Group IX there was * U ndone/ fo r the doorcase

In the am plitude o f the unconditioned response in one second to he a sso cia ted w ith the le v e l o f conditioning o f th e subjects* This tendency was le s s marked in Group I , and the hypothesis o f independence o f th e te e v a riab les could not he rejected in Group III.


Of th e So In both Groups I and II who indicated no awareness o f the p a irin g o f th e 63 and th e 08, those in Group I gave s ig ­ n ific a n tly more responses than those in Group IX. 8b d ifferen ce sa c found between the conditioning o f 8s in Group I or IX she in d icated the p a irin g o f the 03 and 03. She fin d in gs o f the study were discussed and interpreted as s e t being c o n sisten t w ith the co n tig u ity notion o f emotional con­ d itio n in g recen tly proposed by Mowrer (39)*

The data are con­

sid ered co n sisten t w ith p red iction s from the H ulllea (IS ) p rin cip le o f reinforcem ent.

m m m m

1 . Birch, H. 0 . and B itteroan, U. & Belafereemeat and learning: th e process o f sensory in teg ra tio n , Psych. J g v ., 191*9, 96, 292—3^8* 2 . Cook, S. S . and H arris, B. X* The verbal conditioning o f the galvanic akin r e fle x . £ . ggg. P sychol. . 1937, £l* 202-210. 3* Coombs, 0 . H. Adaptation o f the galvanic response to auditory stim u li. £ . j s p . tsr C h sl.. 1938, 22, 2b*{-26S . H. Barrow, 6 . »• The sig n ifica n ce o f tho galvanic Chin reflex in the lig h t o f i t s rela tio n to q u an titative measurements o f per* ep ira tio n . gsychd. l u l l . . 193b, 31, 697- 698. 3* Barrow, C. W. and lo a th , Lena A. Beast ion tendencies related to p erso n a lity , in Studies jig jfcg Dynamics Behavior. L ashley, K. S ., ed . Chicagoi U niversity o f Chicago Frees, 1932. 59-261.

6 . B evls, 1 . C. M odification o f the galvanic r e fle x by d a lly r e p e titio n o f a stim ulus. £ . g sg . Psychol. . 193**# 17* 90H-535* 7 . Beany, ti. B. She ro le o f secondary reinforcement in a p a rtia l reinforcem ent situ a tio n . £ . fsr o h o l. . 19*6, 36, 373-3*9S . B U ssn, B. G. Spontaneous recovery o f the galvanic Skin res­ ponse as a fu n ction o f the recovery in te r v a l. £ . jggg. Psychol. . 1939* 25, 58^-foo* 9 . f i t kw, S. A. Slotlottool HSifcfiM * 8£

lM$5m fifg fh ffl-, 19»*9, 39, 35-»»-

U . Ontbrlo, B. B. 1935-

Ptroholoag * £ fra ratM i



12. Haggard, X. A. mporimmtal stu d ies in a ffe c tiv e processes* IX On the q u a n tifica tio n and evaluation o f ’measured* changes in th in r e sista n c e . £ . jsu®. £sx& & *, 19^9, 35* **6- 56. 13* H ilgard, X* IU and Marquis, B. G. C onditioning and Learning. New Toric: Appleton-Century, igb o. lb . Hevland* 6 . X. The g en era lisa tio n o f conditioned responses. XV The e ffe c ts o f varying amounts o f reinforcement upon the degree o f g en era lisa tio n o f conditioned responses. J . era.

J& O W U 1937. 21* 261-276. 15 . l u l l , 0 . A,

an M m te fr

Bow tea*::


Century, 19*3. 1 6. Humphreys, A. G. B stln etion o f conditioned psycho-galvanic responses fo llo w in g two conditions o f reinforcem ent. J . ezn.

£ m b s l-» I9b0, 2?, 71-7®. 17* Hunter, f . A. and Brown, J . 3 . A decade-type electro n ic In tcrv a l-tim er. A$* £* F arshel. . 19b9, 62, 570- 575. 18. Jones, H. JB. The reten tion o f conditioned emotional reactions in in fan cy. £* .genet. tsy c h o i. . 1930, 37* bS5-b 9S. 19* Aacey, 0 . A. jfc, S&* An a n alysis of the un it o f measurement o f the galvanic sk in response. £ • jggg>. J&XS&S&*, 19^9* 39* 122127. 20* Aandis, 0 . Psychology and the psychogalvanic r e fle x . Jes** 1930, 37* 3*1-398.



The e le c tr ic a l phenomena o f tho skin (psychogalvanic Skin resp on se). Fsreh* B a li* , 1932* 29, 693- 752.


and Bewick. M. The e le c tr ic a l phenomena o f the skin (psychogalvanic r e fle x )* faroh* BMXi*, 19*9, *6 , fib-119*

23 .

... and Hunt, f . A. The conscious co rrela tes o f the ga lv a n ic”*skin response. £ . exn* Fsyehel*. 1935, l*» 905-529*

2b. Aittmaa, IU A. Conditioned gen eralisation o f the galvanic skin reactio n to tones* £* qxp. jfeyohel.* 19b9, 39, *6s-882, 25* Meier, H. B. 3*. and SCknelrta, T. 0. Fsveh. Jte., I9ba, b9, Il7 -i3 b .

Mechanisms in conditioning.

2fi. Mann, H. 2 . and Whitney, B. B. On a t e s t o f whether one o f two random v a riab les i s sto c h a stic a lly larger thaa the other. ASS* math. S t a t is t *. 19b7, 28, 50-60*

5327* BeCleaiy, JL A,

fbe a tta r# o f th e galvanic akin response*

f w a . £ » .. 1990. *7. 97-117. ”


2 2, liewrcr, 0 , I* A nxiety-reduetion and learn in g. £ . e*p« ftgygggA., *9*0 , 27. H97- 516.


—-r______ ?h® 2»X nature o f learn in g.

Harvard Mno. jw > .

W tT n T T ^ ^ 30, - ....... - ..- and laseresa x , B, 8, Avoidance conditioning anA sig n a l duration — a study o f secondary m otivation and reward,

E m k* W W M t;

3^t 5*

31, Byers, J , A* An experimental in v estig a tio n o f the e ffe e t o f varying the tim e between the on sets o f the send!tinned and un* eonditinned stim u li on the eomditloned ey elid response* tfapublighted $h,B . d isse r ta tio n , 1950* State U niversity o f lo s t, 32, Koblc, G. I , Gondltloned gen era lisatio n o f the galvanic skin response to a subvoeal stim ulus. £ . ?xp. Psychol*. 1990, Ho, 15-2533- S orter, J . 11* d r . Adaptation o f the galvanic skin response* i - m - a ^ a l * . *93«. 23. 553-5373*1, Bodniek, B* H. O h araeterlsties o f delayed and tra ss conditioned responses. £ . m b - ZSZSM-» *937, 20, H09-H25 .

35 . S e h iff, Sfcbetf Bewgan, Catherine* and Welsh, A, fhe conditioned BOB and the W& a s in d icators o f an xiety, 19^9. ^ 9 -5 5 2 .

36 . Schlosberg, H. conditioning*


£ see. £gZSMl-»

the relation sh ip between success and the laws o f garnh* 1937. 379-39**-

37 . Seward, J . P. and Seward, Geergene I .

the rela tio n o f galvanic skin reaction s to preceding resistance* £*. ££&• IgXBfiBl** *935* 18, 6H-79.

38 . Skinner, B* I . type*

two types o f conditioned r e fle x and a pseudo £« gen> Faychol*. 1935. 32, 66-77*

to . Bew Torki

Behavior o f Organleasi ^ p is to n O ^tary, *93*-

M PEflfJfllllghfl BSdLkfi&i-

HO* S teck le, A* G. A tra ce conditioning o f the galvanic reflex* £* g$&* £g22SBl*» W 3* 9, H75-H80-

54 *tt. atwrm s, 8. S. nnd Bwrtn, H. Haarlng.

Haw Toik:

Wiley, 1938.

>12. M t i t f , 8. Ju B lila k itltb B of ttao conditioned g tlraale skin resists# * g* M8&* Eoycholy 1933$ 9$ 77-100. U j. Saylor, Janet A« She rela tio n sh ip o f an xiety to tho conditioned e y e lid m p on se* tfapofcliohed Fh.B, dteaoftatlexi, 19h9# S tate U n iversity o f Iowa. tfedenreod, B. J* JBBBtifflBdtiL EftZSkfilS£3> Century-Crofto, 1$®$*

Beir Toik*


Welch, &• and Khbie, J . She offo o t o f anxiety oa tho condition* t»C rate and s t a b ilit y o f tho FOB. £ . gerehe^.. 19®?, 23, «3- 91«

**• *ee*w*th, S. s . B elt, 1938.

tescrtaaB tel gwehcloair. »«r Tortcs Henry

AfpWfiTf m mmMHI#Ml 44K>

H O v­

id oo

OA Q 5


1.5 K

1 ,5 K

0 _L

Jig. 9,

D, C,. A m p l i f i e r






Form 1 -5 0

Experiment No, 13 VISUAL ACUITY Name (p r in t)


F ir s t

I n itia l

Iowa C ity ad d ress: Phone S n e lle n V isio n R ating P r e -te st

L eft eye

R ight eye

P o st-te st

l e f t eye

R ight eve


Do you wear g la s s e s ?

(y e s , no)


Have you p r e v io u s ly worn g la s se s ?


Did the f la s h in g lig h t s bother you?


Did you c lo s e your eyes fo r any period of time during the experim ent, oth er than b lin k in g ?


Did th e earphones f i t com fortably?


Did th e tone seem to you to be paired always w ith any p a r tic u la r s e t o f lig h t s ?


Rate your a t t it u d e toward the to n e , (Mark X on the app rop riate sp o t on the lin e which b e s t ex p r esses your f e e l i n g . ) The tone was (v ery p a in fu l) (p a in fu l) (uncom fortable) ( s l i g h t l y uncom fortable) (m ild )


Did you grow ''tir e d 11 o f the tone?

(a f t e r f i r s t few ) (h a lf-w a y through) (towards l a s t ) (d id not t i r e ) 9 # When the tone stop p ed , did you exp ect i t to come on again? _______ Comments o f the s u b j e c t : ....................... _ ___ ___________ _____________________

Form 1—50

— page 2

E xperim ental group S u b ject number ______ Date ____________ _ Time Age ______________ Sex ^ Experim enter comments:



3 . __ 4. „

5. 6


7. —




U. 12


13. 14.



m w tn x >

feU o XI ff t lr ia f and Ordox o f Appoaranco o f Stimulus l*mg* ( 8J Gosftlnatlons)


Sd*I# Its ffe *

mmm $ t t

cwrot In I M i fedtWMII DAO Olid fO O t

o f tw o l i i a l i o f o o a d H t o n a d m f o n o o o OOdMRAi l» O lW P I , I I dOd l i t * d t o s f t f t f d t 0 « ttt

X-8 I mII 9*10 U *IS 13-lfc if -li

lf - t f

19*20 mmrn nH B ju k

IH ( ***** *M 9 3*#



8 33.5

*S «B




S ., 22 II

«?*5 m 13 w .f


xo 10 9 «


« !.5


ld .5

6i }

M U If P«r ooat In block* of too t r ia l s of conditioned responses la Groups I aaA I I from 1 * 5 second* latency aaA p er ooat la blocks o f too t r i a l s of eonAlttonsA responses la Group 111 fro* I seconds latency* irarac* Pwr Omt tr ia l a

Group I

1 -t i" t



9-IO 11-12 X3-1*

37.5 32*5

19*16 17-18 19-89 81-22



*5-26 27-28

31*3 31-3

29-30 31-32 33-3**




ttmnn 11

W-5 *3*5 20 27 15 18.5 l« .5 22 l*-5 16.9 13 IS 13 23 21.9 22 18

a » w .m 29 30 27.5 20 23 15.5 17.3 7.5 u 10 5 8 0 22.9 7.5 7.5 12.5


ta ll* T the m n of tho t n n f i aaplltudee In fclooko of too tr ia ls of tho conditioned, responses in Oroqps 1 and IX occurring A m 1 - 5 ooo. h r . o f A ir. d ap

M a ift 1-8

3-H 7*2 9-30 11-12 13-19 19*16 17-12 19-20 21-22 23-29 27-82 29-30 31-3? 33-36

. tw .lH a U to , 1

to . n

J .l






g.o 1.1 5.7 3*2 3.2 3.0 9.9 3-5 3.0 3.2 9.0 1.2 3-3 9.1

3.2 1.2 1.2 2.1 3*1 3-* 2.1 1*2 2.1 3-3 3.3 5-2 5.0 2.9

faM# TI

thm a m of too tr ia l* o f tho modiaa amplitudo par t r i a l o f Hi* onoonditioaod galvanic »fcta roapoaaa Avorago o f Modlaa Aaplttado f*o tr ia la

trial* 1-2 tL .f c

9*19 11-1* l> - l9

19*1® IT-M




tty. 1

to . II

to . m

to . If

60.9 39.5 « .5 39.9 22 99 2? 22.9 22.5 19.5 19 15

96.5 62

90 99.5 55 3® 93-5 31*3 26 38-5 31 *5 23 29.5


59-5 2

37*5 99*5 89 97*5 2 1 .f 95-5 22


fafcl# ?II Tho moon of tho ATorogo amplHnAoo, tho eom otion cooffielonto, and tho oorrootod noon of tho arorago a m p litu d e * in block* of too trialo of tho oonditlonod rooponooo in dzoopo I ond XI. Corrootod A t. T rl»l«

1-8 H

5-6 7-8 9-10 11-18 13*14 15-16 17-18 19-80 81-82 83-24 89-86 87-88 89-30 31^3? 33-34

Ar. of A t. Asp *00 Trialo _ 0r. I

Sr. 11

3.8 7-8 8.6 8.0 8.1 5.7 5.8 M 3.0 4.4 5.5 3.0 3.8 4.0 1.8 3.3 4.1

1.6 3.4 3.5 3»8 1.8 1.8 8.1 3.1 3.4 8.1 1.8 8.1 3.3 3.3 5.6 5.0 8.4

Corzoetion dr. X Sr. II 1.0 M

1.6 1.6 8.0 1.9 8.8 3.0 3.3 9.6 4.5 4.1

1.0 1.5 1.5 1.9 8.8 8.8 8.8

8.7 8.7 3-3 P 4.0


Jksp .! » E rts lt___ A t.

Or. t

Sr. II

} .l


11.5 13*8 18.8 16.2 16.2 U .4 17.4

5.X 5.3 6.1 4.0 4.o 4.6 8.4


15.8 84.8 12.3


6.9 3.8 8.4

fablo n n ilodlaa of tho modiaa latoaey la blooko of fir# trialo of tho eoadlttoaod galvanic dkla rotpo&oo for Groopo X* IX, XXX, and If* (Onorpo $*XX CJJi rooordod fzoa 1-5 •**« a fto r oaoot OS, droop XXX Cl* rooordod froa 1-fc soe« oftor oaoot Oh) Ifodloa o f hodlaa hatoncy T rialo

troop I

droop II

troop 111

iv a f




(-1 0













SH 3




2 (-3 0













* atto U liodtaa of tho ma&laa latoney &&Biotic* of fir# trials of tho oonditlonod colvoale ticia rooponoo for Group* 2, 22* 212* aaA IV* (0B« of a l l group* rooordod froa 1 ~ H *•** a fto r onoot CS) Uodiaa of K tdlas latonejr

tria l*

Oram, I

amm M









9 $

Mm 7 U






« -5















to eoapit* tho pit»fe*bUIU«» of I I I U M o