Some euglenae of Iowa

Citation preview

m m

m m m m

of w

toy Leland Parrish Johnson

A dissertation submitted la partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy* la the Department of Zoology* In the Graduate College of the State University of Iowa July* 1942

ProQ uest Number: 10311083

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t vliH to express my appreei&ti on to Br# *2?. *** «Teha for old and direction daring the eoarae of the present investigation •



m m m m

Iiitrodaotion « • • » « * • « * • « * •




Materials and Methods. « , * • * * « *


A K©y to lo^teaee of Iowa. • • « * • •


^ascriptions of %©olefi- « * . * * # * 16

Dladtt&dioa • • « « • • * » • * * • * * %*B8»atfy, * ......... » • • « « *


+ « • 55

Explanation of ?l&ure* • * , * • » * • 56 Literature 01tod « , , , * • » * • « •


notes, * . * . ................. « «

Introduction fh© genus Buglena iSfcreaberg belonging to the family Buglenidae Stein and order Buglenoidina Bloehman contains organ* lens with the following characteristicst

chloroplasta, varied

in number end shape; stigma* located anteriorly! single bifurcated flagellum of war led length! paramylum bodies f warled In number and shape* free in cytoplasm or attached to ehloroplasts! pellicle* more or less plastic and usually marked with striae! gfclletf open externally at anterior tip of organism and posteriorly into reservoir; contractile vacuole* near reservoir into which it open©! haematoohrome granules free in cytoplasm In red species* $he body may be elongated* spindle-shaped* ridged or spirally twisted and always possesses some metabolic movement* is phototrophle or sapreeoie* but not holosoio*



occurs aeemally by longitudinal division of trophozoite or in temporary cyst, Since Bhreaberg first deseribed the genus $aglena in 1330 It has come to include approximately one hundred species and numerous varieties*

Bagienae have been collected from a variety

of habitats* for exaisple* £* acup, in fresh water (Bhrenberg* 1338)* 1* vermlforole la fcraoklah water (Carter, 1937), 1. alma la maria* water (Wermal, 1924), £, alonaata In oold pools (Schewlakoff, 1893), 1. w t M la warm pools (Hardy, 1911), aad six species in soils (Saadoa, 1927),

**3"* keys have been developed for ike genus %&Lena* % e s e w i H « a by Paseher and kemmerman (19X3) and Gallon (1915) or# the most widely used*

these are inadequate for classroom use since

the structure of chleroplaets is used as the diagnostic character* istie and the distinction often involves epeoial techniques* Baker (1926) found the shape and arrangement of ©hloroplasts and the presence of pyreaoids to vary at different stages in the Xlfe eyoXe of &* agjlia barter*

Preliminary experiments also show

that form* number and arrangement of ehloropiasts may change with varying p& of the culture medium (Baker* 1926) *

^hese facts

cause one to question the advleablXiby of using the ©hXoroplasts as a diagnostic character In the classification of the genus Buglsaa* % e only key generally available to the catenae in Banish is that of Walton (X9X&), which Is modeled after the one in German hy Basohsr and hammerman (1913) • Walton Included nearly all of the euglenae recorded of that date hut observed only about one-half thoae which he listed*

Most of the illustrations included

by Walton mere sketches rather than detailed drawings and were copied from various authors*

%«bados (X92?) * a European worker*

reported on the euglena© of Central Bnrope*

&e presented excellent

drawings of thirty**one species but failed to give detailed descrip-* tlons or present a key to those which he reported* $he purpose of the present investigation Is to present a key to the euglenae of Iowa that may be of general use and to describe adequately and draw each species of Bugleaa reported*

History El«bs (1883) credits heeuweahoek with observing JgBglsgas Dobell (1932) quotes an original passage from leauwanhoek {1874) who describes a Baglena which fit® the description of any of several of the more metabolic forms. (169^)

Cole (1928) quotes from Harris

original description of a ^aglena which closely resembles

ts*®fc at J L g j & i a W Ihrenberg (1830) first described the genus %glena to include organism® with the following characteristics*

body fusiform to elon­

gated fusiform or elongated cylindrical or elongated ttband~sh&pe*w torminating In a more or less tail-like projections body bounded by an elastic euticulum; most organism© very metabolic* ehloropiasts seldom lacking* usually numerous* disc-shaped or band-shaped*

pyrenoids and

haematochrome sometimes present; single flagellum extending from an anterior notch* from the bottom of which a gullet extend© to a rounded vesicle; reproduction by longitudinal division In either trophozoite or in encysted stage. Colorless %glenidae without a sti^sa were first separated from the genus Boglena and placed in the genu© Astasia by ^hreaberg in 1838* color*

Bojar&ia (1841) differentiated these genera only on the basis of Bajardtn separated the rigid forms from the more metabolic

Buglena and placed them In the genus Fhacus.

He transferred the genus

Phacus from the family %glenien® to the family ^heeoaonadien®*


family .Hugleniens of Bujar&in otherwise followed closely the family Aetasiaea of Xhreabeyg*

Stein (1878) retained in the family Suglenldae

only the genus %gle»& from the Family Buglenlena of Dnjardin*

Ihe family

Sfegexkida* was defined by Stein (18?©) to include the genera Saglenaf frachelomomas* Colaeium, Biacus and Aecoglena* 50.eb© (1883) followed botanical nomenclature and applied the family name Buglen&eeae to the colored forme*

Bioehm&n (1888) placed the troupe in the order luglenoi&ina and divided it Into the families Boglenina* Aetasina* and Pearanemina* Calkins (1933) suggested placing the chioro^hyll~b earing forme of the order Aa the plant kingdom and the colorless forms in those groups of the animal kingdom which they most resemble*

fhe mechanics of species

determination would b© facilitated if suggestions by Calkins were followed* but it does not seem advisable to discard a classification based on natural relationships for a more artificial one* Hall and Jahn (19S9) suggested that colorless euglenoi&s with a stigma, bifurcated flagella and flagellar swellings b© placed in the family Baglepidae Stein end those lacking these characteristics, in the family Ast&siid&e Butschll* 3fha*felnfla.

Jahn and McKibben (193?) described

a colorless ®tigma**bearing euglenoid with bifurcated

flagellum, and proposed the new genus Ifcawkinea to include all forms with these characteristics*

Shey suggested that all colorless stigma-*

bearing euglenoids probably should be placed in their new genus* fhls would substantiate Shrankerg* a method of differentia** ting the genera Buglead and Astasia on the presence or absence of a stigma rather than the presence or absence of ehloroplaets alone as suggested by Bnjardin* Several notable studies have been made on Protozoa In the United &t&te»* and of these the studies of Stokes (1888)• Conn (1905)

—5«* and Walton (1915) should be mentioned. of feci©net


and fc. torta.

Conn (1905) listed three of the same species and three

undetermined forms.


Stoke© (1088) listed six species

*u AKjUaassza# Jk smad&» Jk t o n* &. » *

Walton (1915) compiled the descriptions of thirty-*

ei^ht known species of Buglena* of which seventeen were observed by him in the United States, and of these two were previously unde scribed* ffi*...vlrtaip was the first record of a lagleaa from Iowa# (Shimek, 1898). Fink (1904) reported Jh. spjrogyra in an aquarium at Fayette, Iowa*

JL deaes, and jj^u ^cup were added to the list of ^igleaa

from Iowa by Edmondson (1906).

Spencer (1918) described &... vlrldJ^B.*

Mx rubra* Jg*. ^ctq.,s. lf tlj|SSSd* end an unnamed species whose description

closely resembles that of flattened varieties of Mx &£&££&££&* (1927) described ten species of Jhglena from Iowa# adding Mx



mm X m

Jk aUsiXamLa* M*. smtea* ^

* Mx

to the previous species#


.gananinea. Jb. »to04gg

^©re found by

Mx M Z M

Oerhardt (1940) in a large kettle-hole in northwest Iowa,

thirteen is

the total number of Boglena reported from Iowa prior to this investi­ gation* Materials and Methods Collections were made in pint or quart glass Jars and taken to the laboratory where the contents of the Jars were studied immedi­ ately and cheeked daily for approximately two weeks#

The samples were

left in the Jar® or placed in flat evaporating dishes and compressed air was forced through the cultures.

Sparse bacterial contamination

occurred in the latter cultures and it was possible to keep them in the laboratory indefinitely.

Observations were made on living material sad on specimens fixed and stained with Boland•© (192$) solution*

5&e lens system used

Included 16 mm., 4mm#, and oil immersion apochrom&ttc 1*8 mm. objectives and a 10 x ocular*

All measurements were made with the aid of a cali­

brated ocular micrometer, and a camera lueida was used in making all drawings# Material was collected from the Mississippi &iver and back washes near Muscatine, the Cedar Biver on Highway 0* 8, Bout© #6., the Iowa Biver at Hills, Iowa City, sad Amana colonies, the B©s Koine© Biver and the Baeooon B|ver near Bes Moines* and the little Sioux Elver near Milford, Iowa*

Sample® were also collected fro© lake Maebride,

Clear lake, Spirit Lake, Hotie© Lake, Lake last OkoboJ I, Silver Lake, Lake West Ofcoboji, and connecting Beck Canal*

Other sources of materials

were the Law Quarry, Lagoon, and Bark Bond of Iowa City, V/itmer Lake of Bes Moines, and various springs, water tanks, and temporary pools in farm yard© and along roadsides* In the following key, each species of Baglena is numbered according to its order of appearance in the key*

Ihe ©am© number 1®

used for the complete description which follows the key and for the figures of each species*

-7A kep to %glena* of Iowa Buglena attached to Microcruataeea or Hydracarlnd* (16-33 long by 9-14 p wide)* . * '. ■* * '* * * 1* JU, (fig. 1* A-Q) Bagleaa free swimming* * • 3 (l)

Body possessing definite ridges or

grooves* » • • * * . • • • * • • * Body not possessing definite ridges or grooves. • 10 3 (3)

Body! three or four ridges 5 often spirally twisted* * * » * » * * • . « # * » * * * • * * * « * 4 Body* cylindrical or flattened; pronounced single groove present* • • . » . < » . * * « * « # •

4 (3)


Depressions between ridges difficult to observe, extreme body torsion# chioro­ piests par allel to striatlons of pellicle* 193-150 yn long by 15-33yx wide) * « * * * • • * * * * * * * * * * * * 3* Jji&, _ (fig. 3# A, Depressions between ridges easily evident,, ehlorcplasts not parallel with striatlons of pellicle* • * » » » * » * « « » • • » *

9 (S)

%iral groove extending the length of the body, two large annular pampylum bodies evident, 140-480 p long by 19-38 ML vide) * . . . . . . . . ©-* jk&SD3&& (fig, 6, A-0) Short groove at anterior end of body, two rod-like paramyloid bodies evident, (220-310 p long by 23-30 j* wide) i» « , * * * * * * * * * * 7* M m.atiSsissaa* «p* a* (fig. 7, A, 8)

10 (2)

Haematochr©me granules free In cytoplasm, often obscuring green of nhlercplasts, . . . . . .


Baem&toehrome granules usually not present in cytoplasms if present, in .........« • • • • • 13 reddish-brown clumps* 11 (lo)

Body fusiform, odorless posterior tip pointed, haematochrome seldom obscuring green of chloroplasts, (50-85 p long by 18-30 n vide) * ........ 8* Jk flnva (fig# 8, A, B) Body cylindrical, colorless posterior tip blunt or absent, haeaatochrome usually obscuring chloroplssts* • * • • • # . • • . 1 3

12 (ll)

Anterior end not appreciably narrowed, striatlons not easily evident, posterior colorless tip usually evident, (76-168p

•9«* long toy 36-36 a wide) * * * . 9* JL* rubra. (fig. 9* A, B) Anterior end appreelably narrowed* striatlons evident, posterior tip evanescent* (90-170 fx long by 24-*44/i vide) * * * . . # * * 10. j* m & m X & w (fig, 10* A, B) 13 (10)

Body length six or more times width* or pellicle possessing prominent processes* • Body length leas than five times width* pellicle not possessing prominent processes*

14 (13)

Colorless posterior spine veil developed* always present* body usually slightly metabolic* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colorless posterior opine absent or if present short and usually evanescent* toody usually actively metabolic.

IS (14)

Pellicle with prominent raised processes arranged spirally* Follicle without prominent raised processes*

16 (15)

Pellicular striatlons not close together# * * < Pellicular striatlons nearly touching# . * . , «

17 (16)

Pellicular processes alike in size (80126 ja. long by 10*18 jl wide)* . . . . . . (fig. 11, A) Pellicular processes of two sizes. « • • • • . .

18 (.17)

Processes of alternating large and small rove* (100—110 ii long by 0*8 p. vide)* . . . . . . . . « • • • ; * * * ii# J L ab Jxamatver* (fig. XI, B) Processes alternating one large and two small rove* (140*180 ji long toy 23*35 p. wide)* . . . . . . . . . .

ii. J L m i x m s x p ▼ « % s w c s s a

(fig. n * o)

Processes of the same sis© (86-165 u long by IS—30 ja wide) * . . . . . . . • * . u . |L var, sBacgMgji (fig. U , B) Procc-~©s of alternating large ©ad small rows (130-145 u long by 16-17/x wide)* . 11, M m. apiroinrra var.

(fig* 11, K) Body flattened, spirally twisted, on© annular p&ramylm body anterior and on© posterior to nucleus, (75-164 p long by ib-16 p wide). . * * is* M m, .apiml&aft (fig. 12, A, B) Body usually cylindrical, not flattened or spirally twisted. * • * • « • • « ■ * . * • * * Posterior colorless en&piece ©harppointed or extremely long, striatlons of pellicle evident, flagellar bifur­ cation often evident in vivo. * « • • • * . * « * Posterior colorless endplece with truncated tip, striatlons of pellicle obscure, ehloroplasts hid® flagellar bifurcation. . . . . . . « « • • • • . » * * • • *




Colorless posterior endplece less than 40 p long, (120-150 p long by 9-11 u wide) * * * * 13. JL aflafciaaAaft (fig. 13, A, B) Colorless posterior endplece over 40 u long, (220-350^u long by 10-13.5p wide) * * * * 13* ML smaMaaiSdJvar* X&am* var* a* (fig* 13,'0-s) Body cylindrical, pellicle hyaline, weakly metabolic, (52-175 p. long by 18-18 u wide). . . . . . . 14* M m. acua (fig* 14, A—0) Body weakly ridged or >ellicl© darkened, body nearly rigid* « - • - • * * * » * * « * * » • • • Fell lei© hyaline, body weakly three or four ridged, (63-175 p long by 0*18 p wide). . 14* Mm. ASM var. m m l&EiS.* var. n. (fig. 14, B)


11* Pellicle amber colored* body cylindrical* (109-126 p> long by 7-9 jti wide) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. JU. &£&& var. xl&Ua Tflg. 14* S) 30 (14)

Paramylum bodies not attached to chloropleats; if present* free in cytoplasm. . . . . . . Paramylum bodies attached to ehloroplasts, additional pnramylu® bodies may be free in cytoplasm.

26 (35)


• • 32

Body slightly metabolic, single ohloroplast present* (60-70 p long by 6*7 p wide). * • * * * ♦ • * * • • ♦ * * • * ♦ ♦ • 16. H&$» (fig. 10) Body metabolic* more than one chloroplast present. . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . • . . . • • 2 7

37 (26)

Body cylindrical with posterior end trun­ cated* or body flattened with posterior end rounded* (170-400 jx long by 13-40 p. wide) . . 16. J L xtoafcsxgli (fig. 16* A—0) Body never flattened* posterior never truncated.

28 (3S>

Ohloroplast shape prolate discoidal. . . . . . . *.29 Ohloroplast shape disco!dal.

29 (38)

Anterior end rounded, flagellmm extends beyond gullet* (86-170jx long by 11-21 /x w i d e ) 18. JU. Mfta ;* 18* A* B) Anterior end truncated* flagellu® not extending beyond gullet * (95-140 p long by 8-11 n wide) • . . . . 18. I*. 3 m m var. te^ula. (fig. 18* C-f)

31 (25)


Actively metabolic, (45-85 p long by 5—8 11 wide) * . * * * . . 17. J|*„ (fig. 17* A~B) Sluggishly metabolic* length over 85 p long. . . .

30 (39)


Bod-llke par&mylum bodies* annular paraiayiu© bodies never present* striatlons not


—X3— readily observed, (#§-130 p. long by 8-12/i ride) * * * • * « * , * * . 19* M*, j|i8Jfcsj3£ttadJL§t (fig, 19, A) Bod-1 ik© end annular bodies present* sbrlabicns easily observed* (85-135 p long by 8—12 p wide) » « * , * , «$, H*. SOEfl^felflLltiSLs ®V*

tfig, 30* A*C) 32


Body posteriorly to mid-body region grad­

ually narrowed* usually with, w 11 color­ less tip* i long by 9-14 p. wide)* *1* Z*- SyftiiEPtoriLft (fig# 1# JWC) Body not metabolic daring locomotion# direction of locomotion often posteriorly, never attached to Micyocrusi&cen or Ky&racarina, (16-34 p. long by M S a wide)* , * • * • * . * 41* rctronata* sp. s. (fig* 41, A-y)

Inscriptions of Species Jt».cyclop!cola Gichalhorn Size*

(Jig* 1# A-C)

16-32 jx long by 9-14 p in diameter*



drical* rounded anteriorly and posteriorly; anterior tip colorless* Pellicle*

apparently smooth; allows active metabolic movement*


spherical* approximately 5 p in diameter* In mid-body

region* JXagellum*

observed only In trophozoite; body length or

slightly longer*


3-4 p long; opens into reservoir

approximately 8 p in diameter. ChloropXastis* Stigma*

discold&l* 4 p. in diameter; 10-12 in number*

concave prolate discoidal; 1.5 p. long; often not observed.

Faramylum bodies; numerous; oval; approximately 3 p long. Thin-walled cysts; attached to Microcrustacea and larval Hydr&o&rina; attached with anterior end; allows slight metabolic movement.


not observed but attached cysts usually in

groups of 2» 4, 6* or 8. Collected;

Settle Hole, Dickinson County; Little Sioux Klver*

frichelborn reports Baphala*

cvclpple.o^a attached to Cyclops and

Oyprle and larval Hydracarina were the only hosts

observed by the present Investigator. Swirenko Size;

(Jig* 2# A# B)

95-150 p long by 15-22 p through transverse axis.

Body; elongate; three-ridged; spirally twisted# often to the point that grooves are hidden; extended posteriorly into promin­ ent colorless tip.


longitudinal striatlons 1*5 p. apart#

-17aligned spirally secondarily; allows slight metabolic movement* Sfoeleus;

spherical to prolet® spheroidal; approximately 15 p

through longest axis; located la mid-body region# Jlagellumj

approximately one-third body length.


short; straight; opens Into reservoir 8-15 p in diameter* Chloroplasts;

numerous; diecoidal; 3 )i i» diameter by 1*5 p

In thickness; aligned parallel with striatlons# perpendicular to pellicle,


conspicuous; extremely concave (bowl-shaped);

6-8 p through greatest diameter of reservoir#

Paramylum bodies;

usually one anterior and one posterior to nucleus; rod-shaped; 18-30 p long. Thin-walled cysts observedCollected;

Ho observation upon division*

Amana Lake; Iowa Biver; Iowa. City, Law Quarry. described here differs from the


original description by Swlrenko only in else# but the largest forms observed are well within the range described by him (131192 p. long by 13-22 p through transverse axis). 3«

E. frpasundala.ta. sp. a.



(Pig. 3)

43-53 p long by 4-7 p through transverse axis.


three-ridged* ^Y1*-shaped in cross section anteriorly* ridges equally spaced posteriorly; may be ©lightly twisted* rounded to truncate anteriorly; posteriorly extended into colorless tip# Characteristic dipping movement of anterior end during locomotion* Pellicles

delicately longitudinally striated; allows slight

metabolic movement# mid-body region*


spherical; 3-4 p in diameter; In


approximately one-fourth body length*


3 p long; opens into globular reservoir# 4 p long by S p Is diameter. Ohloroplasts*

numerousi dlseoldal to ©lightly prolate die-

eoid&Xs 2*8 p diameter; blue-green color*



Concave discoid*!, edges often uneven; 3 pi in diameter; lateral to region where gullet enters reservoir*

Paramylum bodies#


lar, slightly elongated# one anterior and one posterior to nucleus# 3-4 p. long# ■Thin-walled cysts observed#

Division not observed.

Collected! -Beck1a Canal# ^©st Lake Qkoboji; Iowa &Iver, Johnson County* JL

differs from I*.

&# ■the closest

described species* In that It is smaller* possesses a relatively shorter fX&gellum; possesses dipping movement of anterior end during' locomotions blue-green ehlorcplaste rather than the typical green chloropl&st© of Boglena* and the ridges are not equidistant apart at anterior end* «•

St. teteSetla



(Elg. 4 , A)

90-120 p long by 12-16 p through transverse axis*

Body# elongate; three-ridged; slightly truncated anteriorly# extended posteriorly into prominent colorless curved tip*


longitudinally atriated# silows only alight metabolic movement, ffticleus* prolate spheroidal; approximately 10 u long; in mid-body region. Jl&gellum:

three-fourths body length#


Into pyriform reservoirs 6 p. through transverse axis.

short# open©



diseoidal; 4 ja in dimeter j numerous*


conspicuous.;- deeply concave diseoidal; 5-7 ji through longitudinal axis; lateral to anterior portion of reservoir*

par&mylum bodies;

rod-shaped; one anterior and one posterior to nucleus; 15-30 p long; numerous scattered small granules* Ifocysrcravnt and division not observed* Widely dis tributed except in temporary ponds* Differs from the accepted description only in slse, being 90-130 p rather than 70-30 p long* **

J k JtgS&toJU. 7©r* JdjftMBU,


(Fig* 4* B* C)

Sis;©* 53-63 p. long by 11-15^ through transverse axis* Jk ir.iubepi%t


body more rigid; less torsion; fl&gellmn often

less than three-fourthe body length; posterior colorless endplacsa shorter and straight to slightly curved* Lemmerjaan (1913) states the

ffiehsXk is decidedly smaller

and during division possesses a isuc us covering* 5* Ik tylsulcata. sp* n* Si sc* Body!

(Fig* 5)

305-320 ^ long by 11-15 p throng£ transverse axis*

elongate; three-ridged* torsion one complete rotation;

©uterioy end hyaline* rounded; narrowed posteriorly and extended into prominent colorless endplece, curved near tip* Pellicle* delicately longitudinally striated; striatlons 1*6 p apart; allows slight metabolic movement*


prolate spheroidal; appro­

ximately 16 jx long; in mid-body region* FlageXXusa*

short* one-tenth body length*


opens into reservoir approximately 7 ji la diameter.


—20— &isooid&l; 1*6 p in diameter; scattered; often


numerous hyaline granules of same sis© at anterior end*


evident; deeply concave (cup-shaped); 4-6 p in diameter; with haematoohrome granules 0*5 p in diameter; lateral to anterior region of reservoir*

Contractile vacuoles

6-7 p in diameter;

lateral to posterior region of reservoir; side opposite stigma* Paraioylum bodies;

numerous elongated annular; 4-12 p long;

scattered* I&eystment and division not observed* Collected;

Beck1© Canal and Emerson1a Bay* West Okoboji* ®P* »♦ can easily be distinguished from Jk


jagin.teftkfr by the small Chlorcplact** short flag©Hum* absence of rod-shaped paremylura bodies* body length deoidely longer and increased body torsion*

®» &.gjgarla s«tas*a» (n* 6. a~o) Sise; Body;

140-450 p long by l§~36 p through transverse axis*

cylindrical or flattened# usually twisted; evident spiral

groove* entire length of body; rounded anteriorly# ali^tly indented at opening of gullet; extended posteriorly into prominent colorless endpleee*


striatlons prominent, due to series

of short oppressed processes I p in diameter? allows varied met­ abolic movement* usually slight*


prolate spheroidal;

31-48 p long; is mid-body region* Flagellum;

one-third, to one-half body length*



p long; slightly curved; opens into spherical reservoir 10-15 p in diameter*

—21— Chloropl&etej Stigma*

discoid©!; 4-6 p is diameter; numerous.

prominent concave discoidal; often appears epostrophic-

shaped when viewed from side; 8-14 p through longitudinal axis; lateral to body of reservoir*

Paramylum bodies*

one large

elongated annular body anterior and one posterior to nucleus; 20-45 p long; numerous smell annular bodies scattered throughout cyto­


Hyaline granules* 0*8-1*0 p. diameter; free in cytoplasm*

Hneaatochrome granule©*

sometimes present in clui»x>s other than t


reddish-brown in color*

Ihoys tmeat and division not observed* Widely distributed except in temporary ponds* 7* Mu

®P- n# Sise*

(Fig* ?» A* B)

220-310 p long by 33-30 p in diameter.

Body? ©Ion-

g&tely cylindrical; rounded anteriorly; extended posteriorly into prominent colorless cndpieee approximately 20 p long# endpleee often enlarged near base; short groove extends posteriorly from anterior tip# disappears within anterior sixth of body; usually straight# may b© twisted*


longitudinal striatlons

unbroken; albws only weak metabolic movements*



spheroidal; 35-50 p long; in mid-body region* F lagellumt

none observed*


approximately 10 p long;

opens into reservoir 12-18 p in diameter, perpendicular to longi­ tudinal axis of reservoir*

Contractile vacuole;

slightly pos­

terior and lateral to stigma. Chloroplasts;

numerous; discoldal; 3-5 p in diameter*

—2 2 —


©rescent-shaped; 7-10 jx in diameter; haem&toehrome

granule© less them 0*3 p in diameters r©&&i©h-brown; lateral to entrance of gullet into reservoir*

Paramylum bodies;


on© anterior and on© posterior to undone; 28-33 p long; numerous scattered elliptical bodies usually present* i&cystmeiib and division not observed* Collected;

Law Quarry, Iowa City* Amana Lake; in early

summer* la. .antefoesa. sp* ». differs from 1, oxyurjs as follows* groove short* not body length; rod-shaped p&ramylum bodies* not annular; strlations continuous, not beaded; less metabolic* la m t e & m m * «P* *u differs from


in that the present speedes is decidedly larger; possesses rodshaped parsmylum bodies instead of annular bodies; is longitudinally, not spirally* -striated* 8*

I*, fflffva L&ngeard Sises

(Fig* 8* A* B)

50-65 jx long by 18-30 p through transverse axis*


fusiform; narrowed anteriorly* bilabiate; extended posteriorly into colorless endplece*


weakly spirally striated; allows

considerable metabolic movement*


spherical; 10 p In

diameter; in mid-body region. FX&gellumt

approximately body length*



mately 5 p long* slightly curved; opens into globular reservoir 5-8 p in diameter* Chloropl&stet

8-16 in number; fusiform; usually curved;

approximately 15 p long*


evident; concave diseoid&X;

4 p in diameter; lateral to mein body of reservoir. P&r&myXum bodies}

double concave discoIda!5 usually two annular bodies

attached to each ohloropl&ai; 5*6 p in diameter* granules}

Haems tochrome

numerous; diffuse or grouped centrally; often grouped

in small clumps; 0.3-0*4 ji in diameter* Shla-walled cysts observed* Collected}

Bivision not observed*

little Sioux Hive?* and permanent pond, Bickinson

County* 1L 3^br,a Hardy


(Fig* 9, A, B)

76*16® p, long by 25-36 p in diameter*



drical} rounded anteriorly; extended posteriorly into short colorless endplece*


delicately spirally striated,

striatioms broken; allows considerable metabolic movement*


spherical, 12-17 p in diameter; posterior to mid-body region* Flagelluxsi

slightly longer than body length*


slightly curved; 10-16 p long; opens into reservoir approxi­ mately 15 p in diameter*

-Contractile vacuole; posterior and

lateral to stigma* Ghloroplast$; numerous; emlndle-shaped; aligned parallel with striatlone*


deeply concavo-convex; approximately

7 p, in diameter; lateral to gullet at Junction vith reservoir* Paraaylum bodies;

numerous; scattered; rounded rectangular*

Kaematochrora© granules;

0*3-0.® p in diameter; diffuse in sunlight;

located centrally in shade or darkness; often obscxxring green of ehloroplasts*

-24— Thin- and thick-walled cysts observed*

Division occurs in

thin-walled cysts* Widely distributed* 3k. rubra Hardy exhibits a peculiar staining reaction when

subjected to ¥0landfe(192® stain for pellicle and flagellnsu


pellicle separates from the protoplast* which shrinks sli^itly, by a distance approxiraating onephalf the diameter of the original organism*

The original body shape* whether cyst or trophosoite*

is retained, end the broken spiral etrlations are easily observed* All organisms in any sample seldom give such © response* &>*





(Fig. 10, A, B)

long by '24-44 p in diameter*



drical; usually narrowed and rounded anteriorly; extended into a narrow tip posteriorly or becoming broadly rounded*


prominently spirally striated, stri? tion not broken; allows considerable metabolic movement*




mately 20 p. in diameter; posterior to mid-body region. Flageilum; Gullet;

approximately on© and one-half body length,

nearly straight, approximately 15 p long; opens into

reservoir approximately 10 p in diameter* Chloropl&sto;

numerous$ usually spindle-shaped; aligned

parallel with striatione*


concave oblate discoidal; .

approximately 10 p. through greatest length; lateral to reservoir at Junction with gullet*

Paramylum bodies*

numerous, rounded rectangular;

free in cytoplasm,

— w attached to chloroplasts*

concave discoid©!, approximately 6 p in diameter*


—25— granules*

0*3-1 p in diameter; diffuse in sunlight obscuring

chloroplastc; located centrally in shade and darkness* Thin-walled cysts observed; most trophozoites form temporary cysts soon after a cover slip is placed on them*

Division not

observed* Collected!

Iowa Biver, Johnson County*

Jb. aaMUasa ®ay *• alstingutished ft>om It jatftfia by the evident and. unbroken stri&tions of pellicle, the more flexible, hut not necessarily more metabolic, body, the evanescent posterior tip, and temporary emeystment when under m> cover slip*


(1939) found the movement of M a,pap&uin^ji.. decidedly diminished when placed under a cover slip* 11* JL m k t & m m 81eat


(Fig. 11, A)

80-126 jx long by 10-36 p in diameter*



drical or flattened; narrowed slightly and'rounded anteriorly; i

extended posteriorly into a prominent endpiecc, often slightly curved*


spirally striated with truncated pyramidal,

pyramidal, truncated conical or conical processes, sometimes alternating prominent with less prominent rows; allows varied metabolic movement*


prolate spheroidal; 15-20 p. long;

located in mid-body region* Flagellum;

short, one-fourth body length or less*


approximately 10 ju long; opens into reservoir 7-12 p. in diameter* Chloroplasts:

discoidal to concavo-convex discoidal; 3-5

p In diameter; numerous*


prominent; deeply concavo-

convex; 4-8 jx through longitudinal axis; lateral to reservoir at

junction with gullet*

Faramylum bodies;

elongated annular; one

anterior and on© posterior to nucleus; X® j& ae 10 p x 4 p to 45 p x IS p x 5 p In ©i©©; additional small annular rectangular bodies may be present* iheystmenb and division not observed* widely distributed* but never in large numbers* Ik aatoffift, var*




11 ,


100-110 p. long by 6-8 p in diameter*

Body; elon­

gately cylindrical; posterior spine narrowly conical; slightly metabolic*


alternating rows of prominent and less

prominent conical processes* &. gBiXtwamai var. roara*. SJnija (Jig. 11. 0) Siset Body*

140-180 p long by 23-35 p through transverse axis*

flattened; usually twisted; metabolic*



prominent row‘alternating with two weaker rows; processes, truncated pyramidal* Mm. aslXMSm W .


HBWgfeiftft I,emmerBSM

(^ig. 11. C)

85-166 p long by 12-30 p. in diameter* Pellicle

possesses truncated pyramidal processes; closely oppressed striations; allows only slight metabolic movement* green# cytoplasmic details obscured*


Posterior ©pine;

very dark conical;

7-10 p. long* 1*. m l s a m a w * Sis©;

atomiar*m«U>BA* Leramermaa {^lg. 11. £)

130-145 p long by 15-17 p in transverse axis*


cylindrical or slightly flattened; only ©lightly metabolic* Striatlens;

closely oppressed alternating row© of prominent and

less prominent pyramidal processes.

Very in color due

in part to prominent pellicular processes* &*


Sizes B©dys

(F ig ,

A, b )

75-164 p long by 12-16 p through transverse axis*

elongated; band-shaped* always twisted; rounded anteriorly;

extended posteriorly into a prominent colorless tip*


longitudinally striated, stria felons evident; allow© slight meta­ bolic movement during locomotion, decidedly more at rest*


prolate discoid®!; 10-12 px long; located in mid-body region* flagellum;

one-fourth to on©-third body length,


8—11 p long? relatively narrow; opens into spherical reservoir 7-9 p In diameter* Ohloaroplastet Stigmas

numerous; discoidal; 3-4 p in diameter*

deeply concavo-convex (bowl—shaped); approximately 5 p.

in diameter; lateral to gullet at junction with reservoir* Paramyium bodies;

slightly elongated annular; one anterior and

one posterior to nucleus* Thin-walled cysts observed*

Division not observed*

Widely distributed eaceep^temporary ponds* The pmrswylvrn bodies of fk .pplroldae. hammerman are small ©mall round bodies*

Since other characteristics are similar In

the two descriptions, it seem© unnecessary to call this a new variety* Mi. acatisalma lonifMB Size;

(yig. 13. A. B)

120-16t p lung by 9-11 p. in diameter.

Body; elongately

cylindrical; anteriorly narrowed, with anterior tip truncated or


blunts region anterior to posterior part of reservoir, hyaline; extended posteriorly Into a prominent sharp-pointed colorless tip* Follicle*

longitudinally striated, striations evident and approxi­

mately 3 p. apart; allow© only slight metabolic movement.


prolate spheroidal; 10 p long; located In mid-body region* Flagellua* vivo*


short; 10-20 p long; bifurcation often observed in narrowly elongate; 12-1$ p long; opens into reser­

voir approximately 10 p long by 8 p wide* C&lavopla&tet Stigma;

numerous, prolate disealdal; 4 p in diameter*

prominent; concavo-convex; 5 p. in diameter; lateral to

reservoir at entrance of gullet*

Faramylu® bodies*


usually rod-like; 15-30 p long; located anterior and posterior to nucleus* Ifcaeystsaant and division not observed* Goileebe&s

little Sioux Biver; Beck’s G-aaal of la k e West

0kabu long by 8-11 m in diameter* Bodyt

cylindrical; actively metabolic • often moving anterior end from side to side* nucleus;

Parswlum bodies short, scattered,

spherical| 7-10 m In diameter; varied in position*


short, usually not observed*


sulphur pools. Silver Lake Bog, in relatively

large numbers* 19*

1* Intermedia $ise;


(Fig. 19, A, B)

85-130 m long by 9-12 u in diameter. Body;

cylindrical; narrowed anteriorly with a blunt tip; extended posteriorly into short endpleee, colorless or hyaline* Pellicle:

delicately spirally striated; allow® active

metabolic movement.


prolate spheroidal; 9-14 m

long; usually In mid-body region* Flagellum;

less than one-fifth body length.


10 » long; opens into reservoir 6-7 ju long* Chloroplasts: in diameter.

numerous; discoi&al; approximately 8 u


evident; concavo-convex; circular or

-34angular in outline; 4-6 m throng longitudinal axis; lateral to reservoir at Junction with gullet* shaped; 3-10 In numbers $-15


Faraayium bodies}


long; may have few smaller

bodies present* lincyetisent and division not observed* Widely distributed except in temporary pools* & im $ £ JflAft* sp. a*


(Fig* 20, A—0)

85-135 ju long by 8-12 jx In diameter*


cylindrical$ narrowed anteriorly* truncated or rounded; extended Into a short colorless tip posteriorly*


prominently longitudinally striated} strl&tions unbroken; allows considerable metabolic movement*



spheroidal; 10-13 m long; slightly posterior to mid-body region* Flagellum;

one^fourth to one-half body length*


narrow; 12 /a long; opens Into reservoir 8-10 ja in diameter* Chloroplasts* Stigma*

numerous; discoldal; 3-5 m in diameter*

concavo-convex; edges often uneven; 4-5 n in diameter;

lateral to reservoir at Junction with gullet* bodies;


elongated annular in shape; usually two, one anterior

and one posterior to nucleus*

additional small rod-like

bodies present (usually few)* Encystment and division not observed* Collected;

Iowa Elver; Amaaa Lake; A&ana Canals.

JL* l&aobllla* sp. n. may b© distinguished from I* intermedia Klebs by the longer flagellum, annular parasyItub bodies, smaller chloroplast and prominent striations.

—35— It may be distinguished from jz. griaole Xteflandre by its larger size, its evident flagellum, sad unbroken longitudinal striations*

Sr JttaStofftft Bsagoard Size; Bodyi

(Fig* 21, A-H)

88-93 a* long by 8-17 m through transverse axis*

shape variable* greatest diameter usually anteriorly;

rounded anteriorly, bilabiate condition usually observable; narrowed posteriorly into a short colorless tip*


delicately spirally striated, striations 1 aiapart; allows active metabolic movement* decidedly less in smaller sized organisms*


prolate spheroidal; approximately 1 M

in length; located in mid-body region* Fl&gellumt

one-third body length*

Gullet; 6-8 p . long;

opens Into spherical reservoir 6-8 n in diameter* Ohloroplasftsi

elongated bands or rods; 30-30/u long;

8-15 in number, usually arranged parallel with longitudinal axis of organism when not actively metabolic*


shallowly concavo-convex, elongated with longitudinal axis; lateral to gullet at Junction with reservoir. bodies f


two annular bodies attached to each chloroplast;

3-7 J& in diameter; oval or rounded rectangular bodies may also appear free In cytoplasm* Temporary cysts observed.

Division not observed*

Widely distributed except in temporary ponds*

—36— ft*

Garter (fig. as, a —h ) 8i»ei

87-130 ai long by 17-37 * In diameter*


cylindrical; rounded anteriorly, bilabiate condition may be observed; usually extended posteriorly into colored tip, or rounded posterior*


delicately spirally striated;

striations 0.8 o apart; allow© considerable metabolic move­ ment*


spherical; approximately 18 u in diameter;

one en&oseme observable in vivo; usually posterior in position. Flagellum;

approximately body length*


5-9 m

long}- usually curved; opens Into spherical reservoir 15-16 m in diameter.


numerous; in froth samples, elongated

lenticular, fusiform in side viev, usually slightly curved, approximately 30 m long; old cultures (after several days in laboratory) ftlscoi&stl, 15-18 % in diameter, euadrangolar in side view.


evident; concave dlseoidal, often lobed;

approximately $ & diameter} lateral to reservoir discoIdal;

two attached to- each cfeloroplast; approximately 6 u in diameter; additional small oval bodies may be present la cytoplasm. Granules*

1 » in diameter; numerous; free in cytoplasm*


shape flask-like; basal attachment thickened,

attached to surface film by moans of narrowed neck-like por­ tion (2-10 m. long); enlarged body portion 34-50 » In diameter, ihin-w&llcd*

Ixoystment involves metabolic movement with

rupture of cyst wall. Collected;

Division not observed.

Sfoitea bake, Dickinson County#



Sf esss&Ua. Cisei

S3. A, b ) 35-55 * long by 8-22 M in diameter.


cylindrieally fusiform; rounded enterierlyi usually with blunt tip)poetertorly, may be expanded due to metabolic move­ ment*


delicately spirally striated; allows m e tr n n t

metabolic movement,

spherical, 8-10 Ai in diameters

in mid-body region* FXegelltimt

approximately body length*



long; opens into reservoir 5-5 # in diameter* Chloroplasts;

numerous, less than twenty; lenticular

fusiform; 12-20 ja long*

fttlcmat . prominent; deeply concavo-

convex (cup-shaped); 4

In diameter; lateral to body of


Parsmytoa bodies;

normally two annular dlseoidal

bodies attached on either side of ehlerepl&st; 3 jx in diameters occasionally small m m X m bodies free in cytoplasm* Cysts with thin walls observed In which division occurs* Widely distributed except temporary ponds* 24*

ft, tffiftffftma Dangeard Size;

(Fig. 24, A, B)

65*78 jx long by 19-30 >i wide*



fusiform; rounded anteriorly; equally bilabiate condition observed as rotation occurs; extended posteriorly into pointed colorless tip. mately 1*8 jx apart*



spirally striated; approxi­

spherical; 10-12 p in diameter;

located In mid-body region* FXagellum;

one and one-half times body length.


short, 5-6 jx long; opens into spherical reservoir 7-8 jx in diameter*


numerous; prolate discoiaal in shape;

often arranged parallel to spiral striations, approximately 7 to long*


evident; concave discoidal in shape; 6-7 p .

in diameter $ lateral to anterior portion of reservoir# bodies;


oval, rectangular, annular In shape; numerousj free

In cytoplasm; never attached to chi oroplast; 3-5 j» long*

Thin-walled resting cysts observed, in which division occurs* Collected;

Little Sioux and Iowa Bivev, never numerous* »p* »* (Fig* a&)

Size; Bo&yt

75-104 ju long by 22-30 ja throng transverse axis*

broadly fusiform; bluntly conical anteriorly; opening

of gullet slightly posterior to anterior tip; bluntly narrowed posteriorly#


spirally striated; striations con­

tinuous (unbroken); allows metabolic movement*


relatively slow; rotating; below water surface*


spherical; approximately 20 to in diameter; posterior mid-body region* Flagelltm


two times body length; usually trailing*

6 to long; slightly curved; opens Into reservoir 10-12

to in diameter*


numerous; elongated concave-convex, fusi­

form in side view; approximately 12 ju long; parallel with striatlona*


prominent; deeply concavo-convex (cup—shaped);

6 Jai In diameter; located lateral to anterior portion of reser­ voir* Faramylum bodies; long*

numerous; rounded rectangular; 3—9 ji

-39Division observed in tMn-wcXied eyeis* e& lectcftt

f r m h water ®pring» I m m L«k#*ld« Laboretaryf

below tMPfttt# o f wetter*

orjp aitn c c o lle c t a t bottom of ««**

pi# n M m placed in laboratory* Hfce eiatllcv form®, jg**

•$>* »■*


differ in met Jk J t a i & S ^ a ^ pcceoooc* m longer nageUan* which usually trails behind poeterior tip of crganlett} stria** itone i»a to unbroken minute ridge* of pellicle*

The preeeat

f#W dw ells decidedly below the surface# end iyr-tcally p ec«*#***

imrecqpiuai bodies which hid# the ehXoreplfccte

esseepl near the body margin*

20* 3§^ aplraffciift Baage&rd 81c«i

74—110 ju long by 21-3?

in demeter*


cylindrical to broadly fmlfona* nemoily rounded anteriorly# OfHMiimg of gal let evident! eatleaded posteriorly Into a. bloat fiuttdly-colored) tip*


spirally «tri«t«ds evi­

dent u&de? ftfvorcblo optical conditions or after wgpomxG to Helaad** (19®8) »t*lat otrintiono Cue to irregulorly-cpeccd,

eeoieei prceeeeeet ollowe metabolic ownrottoat* nucleus} e&eily evident with lew power lacgiilficetiOA* difficult to ■flkoorre with high power magnification; epherie©!} apr-roxl*

M te ly 18 «t in diameter* Hegel lam* OftXLefl

mpprcwciiactoiy one and one-fearth body length*

n .m t£ X lr not ebeerredf 4*8 P I m m

§-10 >» i» diameter#

srpene into reservoir

—40 Gfcloroplastaf spindle-shaped! 10-15 m. 1 m m



band-like with narrowed ends or aligned parallel with striations,

Stigma* .evident | orange to dark red in colors concavo-convex (deep «Kuo«r-nh*pea) * 6 m in diameter.

Pawraylum Bodies;

rounded rectangular or oval} 3-11 m long* numerous,


numerous spherical bodice approximately 1 m in diameter, usually free in cytoplasm, Division occur® in thin-walled crabs accompanied with considerable metabolic movement. Widely distributed* 27* , •,

ft, QanaptQ - Buhner ■ (Fig, 37* A* B) Bieet . 90-130 m long by. 37-50 u at largest diameter. Body* - largest diameter:anterior to mid-body regions often flattened obliquely anteriorlys narrowed posteriorly# posterior tip blunt or pointed, colored,



spirally ridged. 3 ;& apart; allows metabolic' movement* pronounced only during process of eaeysimeat} characteristic rotating movement during locomotion,


usually evident}

spherical to prolate spheroidal in shape* 30-37 u t h m # largest axis; a single endocome evident in nuclei released from protoplast, Flagollum*

approximately body length,


relatively short; opens into a spherical reservoir 15-18 j& in diameter, GhloropXaets* numerous} fusiform to band—shaped; approxi­ mately 30 jot long; usually parallel to spiral striations,



evident; concavo-convex; 8-3 *% In diameter by 3-4 ja deep; lateral to roeervotr.

IWiwluia bodies*

usually two axusular

discoldal bodies attached near middle of each ehloropXast; 7-8 n in diameter; few free in cytoplasm* Gysiai

thin-walled observed; ridges of pellicle easily a?,..



occurs in thin-walled cysts $ accom­

panied with metabolic movements usually complete within one

hour* Widely distributed except10frenrporary ponds, 28*

Bohsaits {Hg* 38. A. B) Sisci

53-70 Ju long by 25-40 j& wide.

Body* oval to short

cylindrical 5 usually rounded anteriorly; rounded posteriorly or a short tip evident*


spirally' striated.

apart; allows considerable metabolic movement at rest, slight - luring locomotion.


spherical; approximately 10 u in

diameter; located in mid-body region* HageXlim*

approximately body length* , Gullet*


curved;' 7-8 & long}' opens Into reservoir 7-9 ax In diameter. Ohloroplastsf

numerous $ usually aligned parallel b©

striations; fusiform to band-shaped inside view; with reser­ voir; shallow concavo-convex; 4-8 m. indiameter. bodies*



n in diameter; oval bodies may also be fro© la

cytoplasm* fhin-wallod cysts observed*

Division not observed.

Widely distributed except in temporary pond®.

••*4X— 29.

St* (Fig, 29, A-D)



9D-X40 a long by 18-4$ u in diameter#


usually bulged near middle; narrowed anteriorly to form a ttsnoutw character!stic of species; extended posteriorly into an attenuated colorless process.


spiral striations

evident; 1,2 u apart; allows metabolic movement but usually slight during locomotion,

nucleus; spherical; approximately

15 u in diameter; located in mid-body region* Flagellum;

approximately body length*



gated; 15-20 u long; opens into an elongated (bulb-shaped) reservoir approximately 10 u in diameter* Chloroplastsi

numerous; fusiform; not parallel with

striations of pellicle; 15-25 u long. 7-11



u In diameter, usually lateralto reservoir at entrance

of gullet*

Faramylum bodies:

annular discoldal in shape.

5-8 u in diameter; two attached to each chloroplast; also rectangular oval Bodies free in cytoplasm* Division occurs in thin-walled Collected:


Little Sioux Riverand little Miller's Bay*

West Lake Okoboji, ftu roatrifera, sp* n* resembleS.JL T^olvmomh^ in body shape and shape of chloroplasts, but differs in that the flagellum is only body length, always possesses a prominent colorless anterior end, gullet definitely longer, lacks granules in cytoplasm, striations of pellicle more prominent, only slightly metabolic during locomotion#

—4 2 —

and usually found below the water surface. 30*

&u U 3 M *



(*ig. 30, A, B)

80-116 ax long by 25-36 u in diameter.



drical to broadly fusiform; rounded anteriorly; extended pos­ teriorly into a short colored process*



spirally striated; allows metabolic movement* lackadaisical during locomotion, considerably at rest*



l?-23 A% in diameter* posterior to mid-body region. Flagellusi*

approximately body length*



mately 10 n long* opens into reservoir 10-12 m in diameter* Ohloroplasts*

parallel with striations of pellicle*

numerous* some lobed, condition difficult to observe but indicated by apparent larger number of ohloroplasts than double-shelled paramylnm bodies; ribbon-like, various lengths and 3-4 ;tx In width.


weakly concavo-convex* edges

often uneven* 5-6 p in diameter* lateral to gullet at func­ tion with reservoir.

Faramylum bodies*

double annular bodies

attached to ehloroplasts; numerous oval to obovate bodies free in cytoplasm.


numerous* hyaline* rod-shaped; per­

pendicular to pellicle* 4-6 ja long* rows parallel with stria­ tions of pellicle* evident near anterior and posterior end during locomotion and over whole surface when in resting stage. Shin-walled cysts observed. Collected* 31.

Iowa Biver, Iowa Gity*

&. ajjlSAgfeJLU,. Bangeerd Slsej

Division not observed.

(K(. 31, A-C)

65-112 m long By 16-30 m In diameter.


—4 3 —

cyli&drica&X? rounded anteriorly and bilabiate; carnally

Up* Follicle*

a c m u c d posteriorly, coo# time* into a

AaXia&feely eplrally striated., difficult to observe; allows eonsiderobX# nct&bolle movement* approximately 15 «»


prbint# cphcrcidalf

u s m l l y posterior to M d - b o d y region;


endoeam© evident wtaa * twined with sgoltmd** ( m a ) ffXagftllmt



c g ^ w x lantoly on# and ®»#-third body 1

s i l l i l y curved| 6-1 ja longs ® p m m into r#«#nrotr

ornately 12 ja in diameter,

€ontractile v*eacX*«


posterior to ottgeasu ObXercpltMtte*

10 to noMfoafti spindle to

% & & / & X#o«£ vsriouelar arranged* usually cpirnlXar*


deeply concave-convex (c«tp-t&&p«d); 4-6 j& in diameter; X«tt#rffiX

to m ic r lc r portion o f reserv o ir,

For ©asylum bodies*


MMiMtfrft discos eifcsMSshnd to each flhlorop-Xasti often lacking in or^nlsiao collected mft&r ##v«?r®l days of eXoudy wenthor or left

in dftrtc* Mvlslon

in tenporery cyst# with slightly

thletecttcd wall, widely distributed#

32* Jsjl nolvMorchft IfcHsgesard (tie* $2* A-C) Situ

67-03 M

long by 15-25 ;» In Atoaotor*


fusiform to cylindrical; suurrowod anteriorly, on# lip ©attending s u b t l y cateriorly; egtended posteriorly into color less

often a double nnrrowiisg posteriorly (Fig* 3&* A)*



s p ir a lly s tr ia te d , s tr ia tio n s approximately 1*£ }* np&ttt

motive metabolic movement daring locomotion* phebetrople*



varied la position, usually la mid-

body regions spherical i 13-30 ji In diameter; obscured by ohloropl&sts and Inclusions* Slagellum*

approximately two times body length*


8-13 jx long; opens Into reservoir 8-10 jk in diameter* GhloroplaetsS

fusiform to rod-shaped; approximately 1® p

long; numerous (more than Id) *


lateral to gullet at

function with reservoir; concavo-convex, si l l i l y elongated; 6-7 p long*

^aramylnm bodies*

annular discoidal body attached

to each side of chloroplast, 4-5 ^a in diameter; oval bodies free in cytoplasm, often numerous*


if present,

scattered* Oysts*

thin-walled infrequent; tMck-wsutXed numerous; .

appressed against one another, may cause a green film, on sur­ face of water, allows life during dry periods a© indicated by temporary pools completely drying and appearance of heavy infestation after rain*


observed only in thick-

walled cysts* Widely distributed, nearly pure culture in temporary pools at Iowa 01ty*



Klets Size!


S3, JWl))

60-95 y long by 18-27 p wide*


fusiform to

cylindrical; rounded anteriorly? extended posteriorly into short colorless process*


spirally striated? striations

approximately 1,5 js apart? allows metabolic movement during loco­ motion* region*


spherical? 10-12 ja in diameter? in mid-body

—4 0 —


Body length or less*



10 f . long| open# Into reserveIr 10 j& in diameter*


nunereos? surface view lenticular? side

vlow fusiform to rod—shaped? 10-12 ja long,



to gullet at Junction with reservoir; eime&wo-eonvex? eleagrated? 6-7 p long*

Fraramylnsa bodies?

two annular diseetdsl

bodies raibnohed to eseh eh.lerapl&et« 6-6 m in diameter? numerous ov.%1 r.eotoagalar bodies fro# In cyiopi&ssa*


numerous, located under pellicle? digued parallel with striaiiome of pellicle? all ss&e else or varied visas (Fig* 33, D}« Oystet

Isolated? thin- and tfcicio-uftixed*

Division not.

observed* widely distributed, including temporary rends* **•

&. iJUutiUKaml* Ki«fce Slsei

r* a. ooggooto a. jjoooibi# ttatarol relotimohip woong the spooloo of %gi#na* &®y ho postulated that Jk

evolved la two divergent liiiooi on©

line' towards eoglo&se like Jk through

1*, Bjpu% iror*



end Jk, itatt ®*d the other var. &* towerdo f

similar to

9h© ouglono© wore dlvidoA by Sfmpir* 8 * 1988 * A ooafbtoeA f l n t l w and ateia for demoaetratiftS flagsU* « A silt* In t* 9 * M tr « m l « * 8 « U m » 67 *638 .

r t V tk lr ,


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