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Some contributions of Thorstein B. Veblen to sociology

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SOME CONTRIBUTIONS OP THORSTEIN B* VEBLEN TO SOCIOLOGY

A T h esis P resented

to the

F a c u l t y of th e D epartm ent o f S o c io lo g y U n iv e rs ity o f S outhern C a lifo rn ia

In P a r tia l F u lfillm en t of th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D egree M aster of A rts

by N ick M assaro A ugust 1950

UMI Number: EP65695

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP65695 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

5 o

' sri

/ ' /' V / v '

Th is thesis, w rit te n by

NICK MASSARO under the gui dance of h..% 3.. F ac u lt y C o m m i t t e e , an d a p p r o v e d by all its m e m b e r s , has been p r es e n te d to and a c c e p t e d by the C ouncil on G ra d u ate S t u d y an d R ese arc h in p a r tia l fu lfill­ me nt o f the requirements f o r the deg ree of

MASTER OP ARTS

Faculty Committee

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

TAGrE

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED . . .

.

The P r o b l e m ................................... The I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e

1

s t u d y ..........................................

D e f i n i t i o n s o f term s used C lass

. . . . . . .

L eisure

.....................................

. . . . .

4

S ocial sta tu s

5

...............................................

C onspicuous consum ption

. . • • •

. . . . . .

7

..........................

8

• • • • • • • . • • • • • • • •

C onspicuous w a ste

. . . . . .

S o cial in s titu tio n s In stin cts

9

..................................... ..............................

11

S o c ia l change

E conom ics

II.

9 10

.......................................................................

C u ltu ral la g

2 4

.........................................

E m ulation . .

1

12 • • • • • • • •

. . .

....................................

. . . . . . . .

13 14

S o c i o l o g y .........................................................

. . . . . .

14

G estalt

. . . . . .

15

• • . . • • . .

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND MATERIALS U S E D ..................... P rim ary so u rces

• • • • • « • • • • • • • • • •

S e l e c t e d w o r k s o f T h o r s t e i n V e to le n Secondary so u rces R eferences in p erio d icals

. . . . . . .

so cio lo g ical

tex ts

. • • • • . .

16 16 15 16

and 18

CHAPTER ill.

,

PAGE

BIOGRAPHICAL M O T E S ........................

19

P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y o f T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n ..........................

19

M a j o r i n t e r e s t s ........................................................................

30

P ro fessio n al h is to ry

..............................................................

34

..........................

39

..........................

48

MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS OF THORSTEIN V E B L E N ....................

56

S o c io lo g ic al in flu en ces

. . . . .

V e b l e n 1s i n f l u e n c e o n S o c i o l o g i s t s IV .

M ethodology:

a s tru c tu ra l, fu n ctio n al

a p p r o a c h ..........................................• • • • .............................. I n s t i t u t i o n a l ap p ro ach to the

s o c ia l scien ces

.

New C o n c e p t s ........................................................

L eisure

69 83

S o c i a l c l a s s ................................... In stin ct

56

83

o f w o r k m a n s h i p .........................

85

c l a s s ..............................

86

Canons o f r e p u t a b i l i t y and e m u l a t i o n

.....................

86

C a n on o f s t a t u s ........................................................................

89

Canon o f c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p ti o n and co n sp icu o u s w aste Canon o f b e l l i c o s i t y T echnology a s a f a c t o r C ritic ism V.

..............................................................

91

.........................................................

92

In s o c i a l change

o f M arxian id e o lo g y

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................

. . . .

94

. . . . • • • • •

Ill

................................126 132

CHAPTER

I

THE PROBIEM AND DEFINITION OF THE TERMS USED I*

THE PROBLEM

T h o r s t e l n Bundle V e b l e n h a s b e e n m a i n l y c l a s s i f i e d a s a n e c o n o m i s t £ h o w e v e r , i n h i s own o p i n i o n , a b s tr a c t science o f the

there

o f e c o n o m ic s . E conom ics i s

to ta l so cial process.

w ith V eblen a t S ta n d f o rd ,

i s no

o n ly one a s p e c t

As R o b e r t L* B u f f u s , who l i v e d

re la te s:

V e b le n was s c e p t i c a l a b o u t th e s c i e n c e o f econom ics as a t h i n g s ta n d in g by i t s e l f above o r b e l o w human n a t u r e . i T h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r e s e n t some o f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s upon w h ic h h i s a n a l y s i s s t r u c t u r e and econom ics r e s t s .

I t has been sa id

s o c i o l o g i s t s c o n s i d e r him a s o c i o l o g i s t .

of so c ia l t h a t many

The c h i e f r e a s o n

f o r t h e n e g l e c t o f V e b l e n among t h e e c o n o m i s t s w a s t h e f a c t t h a t he w as s o much more t h a n a n e co n o m ic t h e o r i s t .

As

G e o r g e H e r b e r t Mead h a s s o a p t l y s a i d : V e b l e n b r o k e down t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l d i v i s i o n b etw een eco n o m ic s, e th n o lo g y , a n th r o p o lo g y , p sy c h o lo g y and the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s : in b o th s u b j e c t m a t t e r an d m e th o d o lo g y , he d i v o r c e d h i m s e l f f r o m h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , f o r he h a d t h e s y n t h e t i c a p p ro a ch of the g en u in e s o c i o l o g i s t . ^ R o b e r t L . B u f f u s , The I n n o c e n t s a t C e d r o , (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C o m pany , 1 9 4 4 ) , p . 1 4 . ^ G e o r g e H e r b e r t M e a d , R e v i e w o f **The N a t u r e o f P e a c e a n d t h e T e r m s o f i t s P e r p e t u a t i o n , 11 J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Economy, 3 5 :7 5 5 , J u l y , 1 918.

I n t h e same v e i n ,

C h a rle s Hunt P a g e , i n h i s

tex t,

C la s s and

A m erican S o c i o l o g y * i n t r o d u c e s h i s m ain p ro b le m of c l a s s , i t s a n a l y s i s and f u n c t i o n by r e f e r r i n g p r i m a r i l y T h o r s te in V eblen and h i s r o l e 3 S ociology* II

i n th e d ev elo p m en t o f A m erican

THE UPORTANCE OP THE STUDY

Why i s V e b l e n b e c o m i n g m o r e i m p o r t a n t i n scien ces? co n cep ts

to

the s o c i a l

Why s h o u l d we t a k e c o g n i s a n c e o f h i s i d e a s a n d today?

B ecau se h i s m ethodology and a n a l y t i c a l

s c h e m a t a p o i n t t o w a r d a m o re r e f i n e d c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h may b e s e e n i n t h e w o r k s o f s u c h m e n a s D u r k h e i m , S o r o k i n , P a r e t o , W eber, P a r s o n s , M erton and o t h e r s • a l s o b e i n g done i n f i e l d s r e l a t e d field s,

P ro m isin g w ork i s

to s o c io lo g y , and i n o th e r

ex am p les o f w hich a r e a f f o r d e d b y W einer i n b i o ­

p h y s i c s , A l e x a n d e r a n d Proram i n a n a l y t i c a l p s y c h o l o g y . C a rp e n te r i n p o e t r y , and R e i s e r i n p h ilo s o p h y *

As L e w i s Mum-

f o r d h a s s u c c i n c t l y summed i t u p : V e b l e n rs t h o u g h t s h o u ld n o t b e c o n f i n e d to econom ic c i r c l e s ; i t s h o u l d be f i l t e r i n g th ro u g h and p e n e t r a t i n g e v e r y p o r e o f o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e *4 By r e v i e w i n g some o f h i s to p resent so cial

so cio lo g ical co n trib u tio n s

th o u g h t a s fo u n d i n th e works o f

^ C h a r l e s H u n t P a g e , C l a s s an d A m erican S o c io lo g y (Hew Y o r k : The D i a l P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p* x i i i * A

L e w i s M u m f o r d , “S t i c k o f D y n a m i t e W r a p p e d L i k e C a n d y 11, S a t u r d a y R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e , 1 1 : 4 1 ? , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 5 *

3 L ew is Mumford, S t u a r t C h a s e , W e s le y M i t c h e l l , K e n n e t h B u r k e , Max L e r n e r , P a t r i c k G e d d e s , S t e p h e n L e a c o c k , J o h n Dos P a s s e s , E r n e s t S u t h e r l a n d B a t e s , J o h n C h a m b e r l a i n - *

a n d many o t h e r s c a n b e a d d e d t o t h e l i s t tia l

“V e b l e n i t e s w? - t h e e x t e n t o f h i s

and a l a t e r

o f com plete or p a r ­

i n f l u e n c e upon h i s

g e n e r a t i o n c a n b e more p r o p e r l y m e a s u r e d *

J o h n Dewey h a s e x p r e s s e d h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s of h is

id eas, e sp e c ia lly 6 process*

5

own Even

t o V e b l e n f o r m an y

those d e a l in g w ith the

P r o f e s s o r D a n i e l Aaron a s k s t h e q u e s t i o n :

so cial

Why h a s

V e b l e n 1s i n f l u e n c e b e e n s o p e r v a s i v e a n d f a r - r e a c h i n g ?

Many

n o t a b l e c u l t u r a l and econom ic a n a l y s t s h a v e fo u n d f a u l t w i t h b u sin ess e n te r p r is e , w ith i t s

em p h asis upon th e a m assin g o f

money w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g i t s

re s u lta n t c u ltu ra l ram ifica­

tio n s.

The a n n a l s o f h i s t o r y r e v e a l t h a t

w riters,

the

“M u c k ra k e rs" o f th e T heodore R o o s e v e l t e r a , and

m any s o - c a l l e d itie s

so cio -re lig io u s

p r o g r e s s iv e s have exposed th e

gross in e q u a l­

o f o u r s o c i e t y w i t h g r e a t a n d consum m ate s k i l l and

p assio n .

In th is r e s p e c t,

Aaron w r i t e s ?

V e b le n f s c u r r e n t p o p u l a r i t y m ust be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o t h e r e l e v a n c e o f h i s s o c i a l and econom ic i d e a s , h i s view s on w a r, r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , b u s i ­ n e s s a n d m a n n e r s a r e a s p e r t i n e n t t o d a y a s w h e n he

5 D a n i e l A a r o n , “T h o r s t e i n V e b len ? M o r a l i s t and R h e t ­ o r i c i a n , ” A n tio c h R eview , 7 ?3 8 1 -9 0 , S e p tem b er, 1947.

V eblen,

6 S t a n l e y Mathew D a u g e r t , The P h i l o s o p h y o f T h o r s t e i n (New Y o r k ? K i n g ' s Crown P r e s s , l 9 5 b } , p . v .

4 f i r s t w r o t e them b e g i n n i n g a r o u n d t h e the c e n tu r y . 7

tu rn of

A r t h u r K. D a v i s sums u p t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f V e b l e n ^ th e o rie s by s ta tin g : Few o t h e r A m e r i c a n s h a v e h a d a s m u c h I n f l u e n c e on t h e s o c i a l t h o u g h t o f t h e i r t i m e s . Y et he l e f t no " s c h o o l ” t o e l a b o r a t e h i s p o i n t o f v iew . Ill C lass.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

T his i s

a c o n c e p t t h a t h a s grown i n m e a n in g

s i n c e K a r l Marx u s e d i t

t o show t h a t h i s t o r y w a s on iy^ t h e

m a n ife s ta tio n of c la s s e s in

the s t a t e .

/

in c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e f o r suprem acy

For M arx, h i s t o r y u n fo ld e d

o rd ain ed goal through c la s s

stru g g le

tow ard a f o r e ­

tow ard a c l a s s l e s s

so ciety . In th e m iddle o f th e th is

u to p ia n id eo lo g y i s

tw e n tie th c e n tu ry , the r e s u l t of

seen in the d r i v e

d o m in a tio n by S o v i e t R u s s i a , theory.

tow ard w o rld

p r e d i c a t e d upon t h i s I n s i d i o u s

For V eblen t h e r e w ere no f o r e o r d a i n e d g o a l s :

c e a s e l e s s D arw in ian p ro c e ss

of continuous cu m u lativ e change.

V eblen u sed th e term C l a s s , w ith o u t of c o n flic t.

only a

the im p lic a tio n

He u s e d i t w i t h a d u a l m e a n i n g , o n e o f w h i c h

was a s o c io - e c o n o m ic a g g r e g a t e w here g ro u p s a r e d i s t i n c t fro m 7 D a n ie l A aron,

0£ .

c it.,

p. 383.

Q

A r t h u r K. D a v i s , " S o c i o l o g i c a l E l e m e n t s i n V e b l e n ' s Econom ic T h e o r y ” , P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m ic s , 5 3 : 1 4 0 , J u n e , 1 9 4 5 .

5 each other

on a n e c o n o m ic b a s i s .

so cial-p sy ch o lo g ic al an aly sis v alu es and,

The o t h e r was b a s e d on a

o f t h o s e who s h a r e d i n common

t o some d e g r e e , common a s p i r a t i o n s .

For V eblen, i n c o n tr a s t s o c ie ty of c lo s e d s ta tu s

t o Marx, A m erica i s

not a

or of s h a r p l y draw n c l a s s e s .

The

d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw ee n p e c u n ia r y and i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a tio n s a m o re a c c u r a t e

an aly sis

o f th e A m erican s i t u a t i o n Q p r e d i c a t e d upon c l a s s c o n f l i c t s , C ooley’ s d e f i n i t i o n

of the

term c la s s

is

t h a n o n ec

com bined

e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n M arx a n d V e b l e n : A group s e p a r a te d and s e g r e g a te d in term s of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n and h a v in g a m easu re o f i n t e r n a l u n i t y and c o h e s io n , su ch as a r u l i n g c l a s s , a p r i e s t l y c l a s s , o r a s o c i a l c l a s s . More l o o s e l y u s e d , i t r e f e r s to any p a r t o f a p o p u la tio n h a v i n g common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r s i m i l a r s o c i a l s t a t u s , as f o r exam ple, an e d u c a te d c l a s s , th e m iddle c l a s s , th e w a g e -e a rn in g c l a s s , e t c . A S o c i a l c l a s s may b e d e f i n e d a s a m a j o r g r o u p w i t h i n a n e c o n o m i c s u s t e m w h o s e m em b er s a r e r e c o g ­ n i z a b l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l i k e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o a b a s i c d i v i s i o n o f eco n o m ic power o r f u n c t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a s o c i a l c l a s s i s a n econom ic g r o u p w h o s e m em bers a r e a l i k e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f g e t t i n g a l i v i n g . 10 L e i s u r e . The c e s s a t i o n o f w o r k w a s t h e g r e a t e n d o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f w e a l t h , b u t V e b l e n 1s u s e 9

Max L e r n e r , The P o r t a b l e V e b l e n V iking P r e s s , 1948), pp. 30-36.

of the term has

/ (New Y o r k : The

E d w a r d B. R e u t e r , H a n d b o o k o f S o c i o l o g y The D r y d e n P r e s s , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 9 1 1 .

(New Y o r k :

th e ad d ed m eaning t h a t l e i s u r e a c tiv itie s

are

and th e n o rm al n o n p r o d u c tiv e

th e c o n v e n t io n a l e v id e n c e s o f w e a l t h and th e

c o n v e n t i o n a l m arks o f s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . process of le is u r e

As V e b l e n v i e w s t h e

in h i s Theory of th e L e is u r e

s t e n t i o n from l a b o r i s n o t o n ly an h o n o r i f i c act,

but i t

d e c e n c y ,^

is

p a ra d o x ica lly , lead s a m ore s t r e n u o u s

of w e a lth f o r

the

on l e i s u r e

o b v io u s i n c o n g r u i t y b etw een th e

the husband in th e l e i s u r e

of le is u r e . o f the

problem o f th e

a c tiv itie s

class fam ilie s

en co u rag e s h i s w ife and d a u g h te rs to d r e s s m ere d i s p l a y p u r p o s e s .

p u rsu it of is

the f a c t

som etim es

lu x u rio u sly for

By s u c h c o n s p i c u o u s a n d w a s t e f u l c o n

s u m p tio n o f econom ic g o o d s , th e h u sb a n d and h i s

fam ily are

t h e i r w e a lth and to m a in ta in s t a t u s .

The t e r m l e i s u r e life

12

tim e s p e n t i n t h e

tim e s p e n t f o r l e i s u r e

to a d v e r t i s e

and t o

p u r s u i t of w e a lth as an e x p r e s s io n of the '

One o f t h e common i l l u s t r a t i o n s

ab le

of

purposes o f l e i s u r e ,

to g re a te r in s is te n c e

c a n o n s w h i c h go i n t o m a k i n g u p a l i f e

th at

or m erito rio u s

p r e s e n t l y com ing t o be a r e q u i s i t e

The v a l u e

w e a l t h and th e

C lass, ab­

of in a c tiv ity , but

does n o t connote in d o le n c e

or a

tim e consumed u n p r o d u c t i v e l y , and

i

T h o r s te in V e b len , Theory of th e L e is u re C la s s (New Y o r k ? The M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y , 1 § T 2 ) , p . 47* ^

k°°* c it.

Emory S . B o g a r d u s , F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l ­ o g y (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n C o m p a n y , 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 3 1 b .

^7

as e v id e n c e o f the n e c e s s a r y w e a lth to a f f o r d a l i f e

of

id len ess The c o n c e p t o f c l a s s w i t h t h e a d j e c t i v e is

a phenomena p r e v a l e n t i n m o st c u l t u r e s

w o rld ,

l e i s u r e added

th ro u g h o u t the

V e b len g iv e s an h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f th e g e n e s i s

of the l e i s u r e

c l a s s w hich a r i s e s

out of a d isc rim in a tio n

be tw ee n w o rk w h ic h i s w o r th y and w ork w h ic h becom es u n w o rth y . To c a r r y t h e d i c h o t o m y down t o a c c o rd in g to V ehlen,

o u r p r e s e n t d a y , we f i n d ,

t h a t w o r t h y e n d e a v o r h a s come t o b e t h a t

a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e x p l o i t i v e way o f l i f e ; endeavor is

and th e unw orthy

t h e e v e r y - d a y em ploym ent o r t h e n o n - e x p l o i t i v e

endeavor• ° E m ulation,

As u s e d b y V e b l e n t h r o u g h o u t h i s m a j o r

so c io lo g ica l tr e a tis e s ,

e m u l a t i o n was a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e

w o r k i n g u p o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h made h i m s t r i v e

t o be

t h o u g h t a s e q u a l or* s u p e r i o r t o h i s n e i g h b o r s i n i n d u s t r i a l and econom ic a b i l i t y ,

V e b le n g o e s on to a s s e r t

a ttitu d e s

serve very l i t t l e

a b ility '*

It

is d iffic u lt

purpose as a s ig n of r e s p e c t ­

to judge o n e fs a b i l i t i e s

t h r o u g h o n e 1s p o s s e s s i o n o f m o n e y . appearance o f success p ossession of d o lla r s . stru g g le

i s m o re d e s i r a b l e

th a n the a c t u a l

E m u la tio n c a n a l s o be d e f i n e d a s t h e

T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , 0£ ,

15 I b i d . ,

p. 9 .

o th e r th an

I t m ay b e t h a t t h e

f o r decency in the t o t a l c o n fig u ra tio n

---------------- 1 3 --------------

th a t v irtu o u s

c l t , , p. 43,

of th e

stan d ard

of liv in g *

1 fi

C onspicuous C onsum ption*

As u s e d a n d d e f i n e d b y

V e b le n , c o n sp ic u o u s consum ption d e s c r i b e s m ade, not f o r com fort or u s e , b u t sta te s

t h a t m ost p e o p le do n o t u se

e t y h a s g i v e n them f o r

those e x p e n d itu re s

purely fo r th eir

u sefu l purposes.

p restig e .

He

s u r p l u s w hich s o c i ­ They do n o t

t r y to

l i v e m o re w i s e l y , b r o a d e n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l

phen­

omena, b u t r a t h e r

th at

to im p re ss o t h e r peo p le w i t h the f a c t

t h e y h a v e a s u r p l u s .-*-7 The s o c i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s sy m b o lizes th e

so cial sta tu s

of c o n sp ic u o u s consum ption

in our c o m p e titiv e

so ciety .

R o b e r t K. M e r t o n r e v i e w s c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p t i o n a s d e s c r i b e d by V eblen in as he u se d th e

its

l a t e n t and m a n i f e s t f u n c t i o n s and

term to r e v e a l th e f u n c t i o n s

m ent, of s t a t u s ,

or v a lid a tio n

of s ta tu s ,

of d is p la y o f pecuniary s tre n g th . con tin u an ce tatio n

o f go o d r e p u t e

to

p articip a te

In th e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , V eblen im p u tes lo g ical fac to r

of th is

consum ption i s n o t t h a t g

" " 1 ■

and

These h e l p to e x p l a i n th e

o f t h e p a t t e r n and t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t s

even by th o se l e a s t a b le

V

of ag g ran d ize­

m anifes­

in i t . ^

th at

the

so cio ­

s o c i a l phenomenon o f c o n s p i c u o u s p eople buy goods b e c a u se th e y t h i n k



J o s e p h D orfm an, T h o r s t e i n V e b le n and H is A m erica (Hew Y o r k * The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p p . 8 0 - 8 3 . 17 T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , o £ . c l t . , p . x i l i . 18 R o b e r t K. M e r t o n , S o c i a l T h e o r y a n d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , (Hew Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 / , p . 5 8 .

9 th ey are

su p erio r,

but because c o s tlin e s s

s e r v e s a s a m ark o f h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s . S o cial S ta tu s .

T his

r a t i n g , ra n k , or p r e s t ig e , S tatu s

is

tra its.

one h a n d , i t is

r e s t s in

19

term s i g n i f i e s

the p o s i t i o n ,

g iv en to an in d iv i d u a l by o th e r s .

b a s e d on c a s t e , c l a s s , A person’s sta tu s

of an a r t i c l e

age,

se x , and in d iv id u a l

in a group has a double a s p e c t .

th e m inds o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s ,

t h e way t h e y t r e a t h im and c o n s i d e r h im .

hand,

sta tu s

since

On

it

On t h e o t h e r

i s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e m ind o f t h e

s e l f a s a s o r t o f r e f l e c t i o n o f how h e s t a n d s

i n d i v i d u a l him ­ in the eyes of

o th e rs.^ C onspicuous W a ste .

T his c o n c e p t i s

u se d by V eblen t h r o u g h o u t h i s canon e s p e c i a l l y in th e f i e l d s h ig h er le a rn in g ,

s t u d i e s . He r e f e r s of c o m p etitio n ,

in any p red a to ry c u ltu r e ,

a f f a i r s , and con su m p tion in p a r t i c u l a r . concept w ith re s p e c t

to the le is u r e

to th is

governm ent,

in te rn atio n al

co n sp icu o u s w aste

an d one o f t h e

o f good b r e e d i n g He r e g a r d s

the

t e r m w a s t e a n u n f o r t u n a t e one b e c a u s e

as used in everyday sp eech , m ent.

g en erally

As V e b l e n u s e d t h e

c la ss,

o f t i m e was a n d i s a p e r v a d i n g p r i n c i p l e te sts

q u ite

He d e f i n e d t h e

it

in d icates

a no rm ativ e

term as e x p e n d itu re w hich does n o t

. . . --------------

T h o rste in V eblen, 20 I b i d . , p . pi

Ib id .,

judg­

74.

pp. 97-98.

op, c i t . , p.

99#

10 s e r v e human l i f e th at

the

or w e ll-b e in g , a lth o u g h i t

i n d i v i d u a l who d o e s p a r t i c i p a t e

w a s t e , w h eth er i n the n a t u r e not n e c e ssa rily fe e l e tf a l n a tu re .

sh o u ld be added

i n conspicuous

of t i m e , goods o r money, d o es

th at h is

a c tio n s are of such a s o c i-

22

S o cial I n s t i t u t i o n s . his d e fin itio n

V eblen c l a r i f i e d

of in s titu tio n s

Theory of the L e is u re C la ss

from the

in 1899,

tim e he w ro te

to the

A b s e n te e O w nership and B u s in e s s E n t e r p r i s e was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 2 4 .

In the

in su b stan ce,

and r e f i n e d

tim e h i s boo k , In R ecen t T im es,

fo rm e r, he s t a t e s ?

in stitu tio n s

are,

w ith re s p e c t

to p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s

the

p rev alen t h a b its

"The of thou gh t

and p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s

o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and o f th e com m unity; and th e scheme o f l i f e w h i c h i s m ade u p o f t h e a g g r e g a t e

of i n s t i t u t i o n s

in force

a t a g iv e n tim e or a t a g iv e n p o i n t i n th e dev elo p m en t o f any s o c ie ty ."

Q%

The s o c i o l o g i s t , T a l c o t t P a r s o n s , e v a l u a t e s T h o r s t e i n V eblen as a s o c i o l o g i s t tio n s

in the f i e l d

reasons tio n s

th at

is

the

reason fo r

of so c ia l i n s titu tio n s .

He f u r t h e r

th e t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f econom ic I n s t i t u ­ ta s k of s o c io lo g y , n o t of econom ics.

th is

22 I b i d . , 2^

because of h is c o n tr ib u ­

is

p.

The

t h a t V e b l e n h a d some i m p o r t a n t a n d c l e a r

190.

H a r r y Elm er B a r n e s , C o n te m p o ra ry S o c i a l T h e o r y (Hew Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C o m pany , 1 9 4 5 ) , p p . 6 4 3 - 6 4 5 .

11 in sig h ts

in to

so cial

ra n k to em phasize

phenomena *

He w a s t h e f i r s t

the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i v i t y

m ores and custom s and g e n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s . t h e y were r e l a t e d

sch o lar of

of in s titu tio n a l He a l s o

saw t h a t

t o a f r a m e w o r k o f f a c t o r s , a ’’s o c i a l s t r u c -

t u r e ,!, t h e m a i n o u t l i n e

o f w h i c h was i n d e p e n d e n t

i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c human a c t i o n s .

of the

I t was i n h i s

o r e tic a l th in k in g about s o c ia l in s t it u t io n s

th at

th e­

the c u l t u r a l

l a g c o n c e p t was f i r s t u s e d . I n s t i t u t i o n s may b e a n a l y z e d b y t h e I n d i v i d u a l f r o m th e s t a n d p o i n t o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een h i m s e l f and th e in stitu tio n ;

th is

co n cep tio n ,- in

t u r n , depends upon h i s

f,t h e o r y o f l i f e ” ( f r a m e o f v a l u e s ) . o f the

In stitu tio n s

p a st p ro c e s s e s , a re adapted to

are

products

p a s t c ir c u m s ta n c e s and

t h e r e f o r e a re n e v e r In f u l l accord w ith the re q u ire m e n ts 24 the p r e s e n t. In stin cts. •

of its but i t s th esis

""

:

m eaning i n d e fin itio n

T his concept i s

of

one w h i c h h a s l o s t m u ch

s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s ^ a s V eblen u sed I t

is

b e c a u s e h e p r e d i c a t e d many o f h i s

of im portance to

th is

c o n c e p ts upon b i o ­

l o g i c a l and s o c i o lo g ic a l b e h a v io r. I t may b e o b s e r v e d I n L e w i s M u m f o r d * s t e x t , T e c h n i c s and C i v i l i z a t i o n

’’t h a t

th e m achine c r y s t a l i z e d

24 T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , or

o jd

.

c i t . , p.

I n new

191.

L ew is M umford, T e c h n ic s and C i v i l i z a t i o n H a r e o u r t - B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . S’5 .

(Hew Y o r k :

12 p a ttern s

th e whole s e t o f i n d e p e n d e n t i n t e r e s t s w h ic h V eb len

grouped lo o b e ly u n der th e i n s t i n c t s p resen t-d ay so c io lo g is t uses

the

V e b le n ’s " i n s t i n c t ” i n r e f e r e n c e In V eblen’s a n a ly s is

of science

of w orkm anship” •

T his

term " i n t e r e s t s ” i n s t e a d o f to p a tte r n s in h is

tex t,

of behavior* The P l a c e o f

S c i e n c e i n Modern C i v i l i z a t i o n a n d O t h e r E s s a y s , t h e of in stin c ts th is

becomes a t h e o r y o f i n t e r e s t s

th eo ry

as rev ealed

in

q u o tatio n : The m a t t e r , a n d i n a g r e a t d e g r e e , t h e m e a s u r e , i n w h ic h th e i n s t i n c t i v e e n d s o f l i f e a r e w orked o u t u n d e r a n y g i v e n c u l t u r a l - s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat c l o s e l y c o n d itio n e d by th e s e elem en ts o f h a b i t s , w h ic h so f a l l i n t o sh a p e a s a n a c c e p t e d scheme o f life * The i n s t i n c t i v e p r o c l i v i t i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s i m p l e a n d l o o k t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f some c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i v e e n d , b u t In d e t a i l th e ends so so u g h t a re m a n y a n d d i v e r s e , a n d t h e ways a n d m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e y may b e s o u g h t a r e s i m i l a r l y d i v e r s e , i n v o l v i n g e n d le s s r e c o u r s e to e x p e d ite a d a p ta tio n s and c o n c e ssiv e a d ju s tm e n t betw een s e v e r a l p r o c l i v i t i e s t h a t a re a l l s u ffic ie n tly u rg en t. V eblen used th e

term " I n s t i n c t s "

in te rc h a n g e a b ly w ith

f e e l i n g , h a b i t s and i n t e r e s t s S o c i a l C h a n g e * Any a l t e r a t i o n e le m e n t o r com plex I s an a l t e r a t i o n a ltera tio n

c alled

s o c i a l change and r e f e r s

of s o c ia l re la tio n s*

of a c u ltu re

trait

of a p re -e x is tin g

C u l tu r a l change

o r com plex.

is

to any

S o cial change,

^ T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , The P l a c e o f S c i e n c e i n M o d e r n C i v i l i z a t i o n a n d O t h e r E s s a y F THew Y o r E T F . w . H u e F s c F , Y § ’1 9 ), pp. 313-314. 97

S t a n l e y Mathew D a u g e r t , The P h i l o s o p h y o f T h o r s t e i n V eb len , p. 28. ---------------

13 sp e cifica lly ,

is

a reo rg an izatio n of so c ia l r e la tio n s .

C la r e n c e E. A y e rs, i n h i s Econom ic P r o g r e s s , r e f e r s f o r c e s w h i c h make f o r

s t u d y , The T h e o r y o f

t o V e b le n a s s a y i n g : “ The m ain

change in

i d e a s and p a t t e r n s

of so c ia l

p r o c e s s e s a r e b r o u g h t a b o u t b y m o d e r n s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o l o g y . 11 He f u r t h e r q u o t e s people a r e

th at:

th em selv es

s o c i a l change is

late r

th is

tran sfo rm ed even w hile

S o c i o lo g i s t s have o n ly r e c e n t l y r e c o g ­

c o n c e p t was f i r s t

featu res

th at

of the c u l t u r e ,

to v ario u s

The c o n c e p t a s u s e d b y

th e m a t e r i a l a s p e c ts and t e c h n o lo g i c a l

in non-m aterial a sp e c ts. rise

propounded by V e b len and

ta k e n up by W illia m P . O gburn.

th e m r e v e a l s

the p a t t e r n of

g o i n g o n . “ 28

C u ltu ral la g . n ized th a t

“S o c i a l c o n f l i c t s w hich s e p a r a t e

r e l a t i v e l y c h a n g e more r a p i d l y t h a n T his r a t e

of s o c i a l change g iv e s

s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l m a la d ju s tm e n ts .

A r t h u r K. D a v i s , i n t h e A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , sta te s:

“V e b l e n w a s t h e u n r e c o g n i z e d

p r o g e n ito r of the

c u l t u r a l l a g s c h o o l i n A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g y . “ 29 V eblen u s e d th e c o n c e p t m a in ly i n r e s p e c t tio n s.

to i n s t i t u ­

He d e s c r i b e d t h e m a s a u t o n o m o u s s u r v i v a l o f a n e a r l i e r

age w h ich n eed ed m o d e rn iz in g to change s o c i a l m a la d ju stm e n t to a d ju stm e n t.

Max L e r n e r s a y s o f V e b l e n : “ . . . h i s

an aly sis

OQ

C l a r e n c e E . A y e r s , The T h e o r y o f E c o n o m i c P r o g r e s s ( C h a p e l H i l l , H. C . : H o r t h C a r o l i n e P r e s s , 1 9 4 4 ) , p . 1 7 4 . 2 9 A r t h u r K. D a v i s , “V e b l e n 1s S t u d y o f M o d e r n G e r m a n y , ” A m erican S o c io lo g y R ev iew , 9 :6 0 3 , 1944.

14 of i n s t i t u t i o n s had d o u b tle s s been the c h i e f in f lu e n c e 30 t h e c u l t u r a l l a g s c h o o l i n A m erican s o c i o l o g y . E conom ics.

V eblen d e f i n e d econom ics a s th e

of concrete

econom ic

m ust be th e

th eo ry of a process

m ined b y t h e

processes.

on

science

ttAn e v o l u t i o n a r y e c o n o m i c s of c u ltu r a l

grow th as d e t e r -

s e q u e n c e o f econom ic i n s t i t u t i o n s

sta te d

in

t e r m s o f t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f . 11 He r e j e c t e d

t h e o r t h o d o x view o f e c o n o m ic s a s an

a n a l y t i c a l sc ie n c e d e a l i n g w ith an a s p e c t o f c o n c re te actio n s.

To h i m , t h e r e w a s n o n e a t l y i s o l a b l e

range

so cial of

c u l t u r a l phenomena t h a t c o u l d be r i g o r o u s l y s e t a p a r t u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f ,fe c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s 1* S o cio lo g y . th e

Emory S . B o g a rd u s d e f i n e s

stu d y of s o c i a l groups in

and m atu rin g p e r s o n a l i t i e s processes.

He a l s o d e f i n e s

m eaning o f s o c i a l f a c t s so c ia l processes. ite d

It

is

so cio lo g y as

th e i r fu n c tio n s of d ev elo p in g

th ro u g h the o p e r a t io n o f s o c i a l th e f u n c tio n o f s o c io lo g y as the

i n t e r m s o f h um an a t t i t u d e s

and o f

t h e s t u d y o f hu m an g r o u p s a s e x h i b ­

in so cial s itu a tio n s,

v alu es,

in p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s and group 30 i n group i n s t i t u t i o n s and p ro b lem s.

---------- VA"

Max L e r n e r , I d e a s a r e W e a p o n s V ik in g P re s s , 1939), p. 145.

(New Y o r k : The

31

A r th u r E. D a v is , S o c i o l o g i c a l E lem en ts i n V eblen*s E c o n o m i c T h e o r y , 11 The J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y . 5 3 : 3 . J u n e , 1945. p . 1327 3 2 E m o r y S . B o g a r d u s , S o c i o l o g y (New Y o r k : The Mac­ m i l l a n Company, 1 9 4 5 ) , p p . 1 - 2 1 .

G estalt* in te rp retatio n

The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t h a t

o f the c u l t u r e as a p a t t e r n p r o c e s s ,

u r a t i o n o f th e w hole i s T his d i s c i p l i n e are

Is an

G estalted

holds th a t

co n fig ­

or the G e s ta lt sc h o o l.

th e p a t t e r n , w hole s t r u c t u r e ,

etc.

t h e u n i t s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and s t u d y , and t o a n a l y z e them

i n to sim p le r elem en ts i s asp ects

t o d e s t r o y t h e m ost i m p o r t a n t

o f t h e phenomenon*

33

V eblenfs m an ifo ld i n t e r e s t s

As Max. L e r n e r a p t l y summed u p i n l i f e — t h e y c o u ld be c o n v e rg e d

upon th e b ro a d -g a g e d s tu d y o f c u l t u r e V e b le n was one o f t h e

pio n eers

as a w hole— th u s

of the G e s ta lt sch o o l in

A m erica.

33

E d w a r d B* R e u t e r , H a n d b o o k o f S o c i o l o g y (New Y o r k : The D r y d e n P r e s s , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . I 2 l ~ .

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND MATERIALS USED A g r e a t many w r i t e r s r e f e r T h o r s te in V eblen.

N u m e ro u s t e x t s ,

n o v e ls have r e f e r e n c e s

to

the

p r o c e s s e s V eblen s e t f o r t h h is f i r s t

to th e works o f

so c io lo g ica l

p erio d icals

and even

s o c i a l c o n c e p ts and s o c i a l

in a l l h is w orks, e s p e c ia lly in

tre a tise ,

The T h e o r y o f t h e L e i s u r e

C lass. The m e t h o d o f r e s e a r c h f o r t h e use o f p rim a ry and se c o n d a ry m a t e r i a l s Prim ary M a t e r i a l s . w ere:

i n M odern C i v i l i z a t i o n .

T h o r s te in V eblen,

such a s :

Common M an, The I n s t i n c t s the

in

the l i b r a r y .

The m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r i m a r y s o u r c e s

The T h e o r y o f t h e L e i s u r e

S cience

s t u d y was t h r o u g h t h e

C l a s s , a n d The P l a c e o f Many m o r e o f t h e w o r k s o f

The V e s t e d I n t e r e s t s

and th e

o f W orkm anship and th e S t a t e

of

I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , A b s e n te e O w nership and B u s in e s s E n t e r ­

p rise

in R ecent T im es, and o th e r s l i s t e d

co n tain v a ria tio n s the f i r s t

b ib lio g rap h y

o f t h e sa me t h e m e s a n d i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n

two o f t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d t e x t s .

Secondary M a t e r i a l s . m aterials

In the

The r e s e a r c h i n s e c o n d a r y

l e d to e x a m in a tio n o f works i n th e f i e l d s

of

s o c io lo g y and eco n o m ics; how ever, f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l , th e most l u c r a t i v e

s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n was

J o s e p h D orfm an’s T h o r s t e i n V eblen and H is A m erica. the

so c io lo g ica l

te x ts used w ere:

Some o f

U n d e rstan d in g S o c ie ty by

H o w ard W. Odum, S o c i a l D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n b y R o b e r t F a r i s , S o c i a l Change W ith R e s p e c t a n d An O u t l i n e o f t h e R o b ert E, P a rk , references

to C u ltu re by W illiam F .

P rin c ip les

Ogburn,

of S o c io lo g y by

S i m i l a r l y , H a r r y E l m e r B a r n e s h a s m any

to V eblen i n h i s

In tro d u ctio n

to the H is to r y o f

S o c i o l o g y , a n d Howard W. Odum h a s a c o m p l e t e c h a p t e r o n V eblen*s s o c i a l t h e o r i e s

in h is

S cien ce,

q u ite d i f f i c u l t

In f a c t ,

It

is

so cio lo g ical lite ra tu r e

A m erican M a ste rs o f S o c i a l

in the f i e l d

to review

of in d u s tria l r e la tio n s ,

s o c i a l t h o u g h t , e co n o m ic s and o t h e r r e l a t e d f i e l d s so cial

s c i e n c e s w i t h o u t coming a c r o s s

T h o r s t e i n V eblen*s s o c i a l t h e o r i e s . o th er so c io lo g y te x ts works i n c o r r e l a t i v e reference

are l i s t e d , field s

In the

some r e f e r e n c e

to

In the b ib lio g ra p h y ,

to g e th e r w ith r e l a te d

of s o c i a l s c ie n c e w hich have

to V eblen and h i s w o rk s.

The v a l u e o f r e s e a r c h i n r e c o g n i z e d w he n t h e Is

the

acknow ledged.

in flu en ce

secondary sources

o f V e b le n on o t h e r s o c i o l o g i s t s

For exam ple:

C h a r l e s Hunt Page s t a t e s

h i s w ork, C la s s and A m erican S o c i o l o g y , i s so c ia l th eo ries

Is re a d ily

th at

prem ised upon th e.

a s s e t f o r t h by T h o r s t e i n V e b len ,

R o b e r t K. M e r t o n , w h o s e l a t e s t w o r k , S o c i a l The o r y a n d S o c i a l S tru c tu re ,

is

a s o c i o l o g i c a l t e x t w h i c h d e r i v e d many o f i t s

Id e a s and i n s p i r a t i o n s V eblen,

from th e

s o c ia l thought s tr u c tu r e d by

B e c a u se one o f t h e m a in s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w h ic h

V e b l e n a n a l y z e d was c h a n g e ,, t h e r e

I s m u ch i n

18 S t u a r t P. C h a p in ’s book, C u l tu r a l Change, t o V e b l e n 1s t h e o r e t i c a l s y s t e m * stu d y by the

th a t has re fe re n c e

And i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e

s o c i o l o g i s t L o u i s S c h n e i d e r , c a l l e d The F r e u d i a n

P sy ch o lo g y and V e b le n ’ s S o c i a l T h e o ry , r e f e r e n c e V e b l e n 1s w o r k n o t o n l y f r o m t h e b u t a l s o from the

is

made t o

s o c i a l p s y c h o lo g ic a l approach

pure s o c io lo g ic a l th e o ry im p lie d .

P e r i o d i c a l Source M a t e r i a l *

I n th e A m erican J o u r n a l

o f S o c i o l o g y , E* H. S u t h e r l a n d h a s w r i t t e n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f V e b l e n 1s I m p e r i a l G e rm a n y a n d t h e o lu tio n *

T h e r e a r e m an y a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n a b o u t V e b l e n 1a

personal l i f e essay,

I n d u s t r i a l Rev­

and p r o f e s s i o n a l a p t i t u d e

s u c h a s V. B r a d f o r d ’ s

th at

the

th e i n t e r e s t

of his

attain m en t of a c la s s le s s

scien ces

th a t d ep riv a-

class

stru g g le,

p r o l e t a r i a t w ould a c t i n a r a t i o n a l c la ss.

He d i s c o u n t s

the c u l t u r a l pro cess w i l l a t t a i n

o f th in g s found in

He h a d

power and was d i s ­

w i t h th e M arxian t h e o r y of th e

w h ic h assum ed

the r e v o lu ­

t h a t h e was f o r M a r x .

few i l l u s i o n s

C/

so ciety .

the n a tu r a l

eq u ilib riu m

the th e o ry after

In h e re n t in the

s c ie n c e s and the

the

sphere

so cial

is

th e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s u p e r io r and i n f e r i o r 1 15 c la s s e s w ith in any genus. Marx i s

in te reste d

p r im a r ily in the

t h e econom ic s y s t e m - - c a p i t a l i s m . is

b a s e d on t h e

attem p ts

th eo ries

to f i t

w ith th e ir

his

lab o r

o f em ployers.

the

o f R ic a r d o and S m ith ,

t o w h i c h he co n sisten t

th eo ry of v alu e. of c a p ita lis m

is,

ttt h e p r o d u c t i o n

the m arket by h i r e d la b o r under

the d i r e c t i o n

These em ployers a re engaged i n t h i s

t i o n f o r money p r o f i t ” . is

phase o f

T his c o n c e p t o f c a p i t a l i s m

t h e o r y of v a l u e . and have i t

M arx’ s d e f i n i t i o n o f goods f o r

current

im portant f a c to r

The p r i c e in h is

of the

produc­

produced p ro d u ct

t h e o r y o f v a l u e w h i c h wa s

Max Lerner, op. cit., p. 35.

d efin ed

p r e v i o u s l y $s th e b a s i s

on w h i c h M a r x i a n i d e o l o g y

rests. V e b l e n d i d n o t b e l i e v e w i t h Marx t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t s

lie s

in th e ir

to produce fo r p r o f i t . em ployers l i e s on s t a t u s . o m ic l i f e d isc ip lin e

m u n ity ,

the

p o ssessio n of the in stru m en ts

He saw t h a t

th e r e a l c o n tr o l by the

so cial sig n ific an c e

V e b le n view ed t h e d i s c i p l i n e

of em ulation based of s o c i a l and e c o n ­

un d er a re g im e o f s t a t u s , w hich r e i n f o r c e s

the

o f a c c e p t a n c e o f th e u p p e r c l a s s mores an d c u s ­

toms b y t h o s e sta tu s

in

th e power o f

in the

low er c l a s s .

The-m ore th e c an o n s o f \

and cerem ony govern th e s o c i a l a c t i o n s the g r e a te r

groups w i t h i n th e

is

the

fa c ility

o f t h e com­

of s o c ia l c o n tro l of a l l

s o c i a l m il i e u by th e u p p er c la s s *

V eblen s t a t e d

116

t h a t Marx n o t o n l y o f f e r e d n o o b j e c t i v e

proof of h is th is

basic

t h e o r y o f v a l u e , b u t M arx a l s o a s s u m e d t h a t 117 prem ise o f v a lu e i s e q u a l t o la b o r c o s t .

M arx’s d o c t r i n e co n sisten t

o f la b o r v alu e

adherence

c a l econom ics.

is

the

l o g i c a l outcom e o f a

to the p o s itio n of c o n v e n tio n a l c l a s s i ­

V eblen re g a rd e d

th is

reference

s o l e p r o d u c e r o f econom ic v a l u e , a s a b a s i c rig h ts

p h ilo so p h y .

he c r i t i c i z e s

Here a g a i n ,

t h e na t u r a l r i g h t s

Ibid., pp. 246-265.

th e

th eo ry of n a tu r a l

as i n most of h i s w r i t i n g s , p h i l o s o p h y b e c a u s e h e saw i t

1 1 6 T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , The P l a c e C i v i l i z a t i o n , pp* 6 7 - 6 9 * 117

to la b o r,

o f S c i e n c e i n Modern

u s e d by owners i n d e f e n s e

of th e ir v ested

N e i t h e r d i d h e go a l o n g w i t h t h e d o c t r i n e ing m isery of tio n .

t h e w o rk e r w ould l e a d

MThe e x p e r i e n c e

in te rests* th at

the e v e r l a s t ­

to p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o lu ­

o f h i s t o r y 1*, w r i t e s V e b l e n ,

’’ t e a c h e s

th a t a b je c t m isery c a r r i e s w ith i t d e t e r i o r a t i o n and a b je c t su b je c tio n .* ^ ® V eblen o b s e rv e s rea liz in g

t h a t m odern M arxian i d e o l o g i s t s ,

the u n ten ab le

su b stitu ted

surp lus

p o sitio n

products fo r

of t h e i r

lo g ic , have

s u rp lu s v a lu e , w hich

c h a n g e s M arx’ s s t u d y o f econom ic l i f e 119 a p p ro a c h to a D arw in ian approach*

from t h a t

of a M arxian

The C o m m u n i s t M a n i f e s t o a n d Da s K a p i t a l , a c c o r d i n g t o V eblen, are

the

first

a ttitu d e s.

He s t a t e s :

fu ll

e x p r e s s i o n s o f m odern s o c i a l i s t

They com bine o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and o p p o s i t i o n to th e c h i e f i n s t i t u t i o n o f the. a g e , t h a t i s , p r o p e r t y . Adam S m i t h a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r s w anted freed o m in a l l r e s p e c t s b u t o n e , p roperty* They do n o t sa y so b u t lo o k in g a t t h e i r th e o r y , I can say i t f o r them . ^ 0 M arx’ s h e g e l i a n m eth o d o lo g y does n o t f o llo w approach.

It

i s m erely a s u b s t i t u t i o n

o f te rm s and m eanings

t o Hagel’ s m e t a p h y s i c s a n d e p i s t l e m o l o g y . in stan ce

o f M arx’ s a d r o i t u se o f term s f o r

V eblen g iv e s as an propaganda

„ - 'L _ g

Max L e r n e r ,

o£.

c i t *, p. 3 8 .

koQ • c i t .

120

H egel’ s

Thorstein Veblen, ££. cit. , p. 80.

119 purposes in u sin g the t h e rem ark, t h a t , to p r o f i t s , reco g n ize in d u stry .

term c a p i t a l

in a r e s t r i c t e d m eaning,

” . . . goods o r w e a l t h i n v e s t e d w i t h a n aim

n o t m erely p ro d u c tiv e goods” .

the c a p i t a l i s t

as

V eblen b e li e v e d

the

Marx d o e s n o t

c e n tra l fig u re

th at

i n m odern

th e econom ic p r o c e s s from

t h e b u s i n e s s f>oint o f view c o u l d be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i f f u n c tio n and p la c e o f th e c a p i t a l i s t e x p lain ed

in h is

term s of p r o f i t s

M a r x 1s p h i l o s o p h i c

term s o f th e

in

t h e economy w e re

and l o s s r a t h e r

life

th an in

p ro c e s s or in term s o f

l a b o r . 121 H o w a r d Odum, e v a l u a t i n g M arx a n d V e b l e n , b r i n g s approaches

to

in to

th e f o r e g o in g com parison o f

sharp r e l i e f

the stu d y of c u l t u r a l

tren d s.

t h a t a lth o u g h V eblen ”u sed h i s t o r y i n h i s less

th e h i s t o r i a n

than th e b i o l o g i s t

He a l s o w a s u n l i k e Marx i n i n s i s t i n g so cial

process

is

th e ir resp ec tiv e He p o i n t e d

stu d ies,

out

he was

o f h um an i n s t i t u t i o n s . ” t h a t know ledge o f t h e

t o be g a in e d o n l y from a know ledge o f th e

”r u n - o f - f a c t s ” a n d c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d b y l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . Th e g e s t a l t , so cial

s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l approach to l PP p h e n o m e n a c a n o n c e *a g a i n b e s e e n .

Throughout enee i s

the

two s y s t e m s ,

one o f p s y c h o l o g y .

th e m ost o b v io u s d i f f e r - ^

M arxism ,

w a s b a s e d o n w h a t wa s t o V e b l e n , p s y c h o lo g y o f B entham , w h ic h

the

assum es

l i k e c l a s s i c a l econom ics, outm oded a n d i m p o s s i b l e t h a t man a c t s r a t i o n -

I b i d . , pp. 242-243.

122

Howard Odum,

o jd

.

the s tu d y o f

cit. , pp. 244-263.

'-A\

12 0 a lly

to a v o id p a in and a c h ie v e h a p p in e s s .

o th er hand, b eliev ed

t h a t men a c t f r o m i n s t i n c t s

p e n s i t y , and o f t e n c l i n g

to h a b its

of thought

i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h seem s a c r e d e v e n when co u n ter

to t h e i r

in te rests.

V eblen q u e s t i o n s in M arx’s d i a l e t i c s . tific ,

h is

the

so -called

I f h i s econom ic

t h e o r i e s w ould r e q u i r e

im bedded

in

th ey c le a r l y ru n

t h is by s t a t i n g

S c ien tific

a p p r o a c h 11

t h e o r i e s w ere s c i e n ­

an a n a l y s i s

t h e o r y t h a t men b u y a n d s e l l

V eblen r e f u t e s

and p ro ­

123

c a u se and e f f e c t , w hich th e y do n o t . false

V e b l e n , on t h e

in

term s of

Marx p r o c e e d e d

in order

on t h e

to consume.

:

The b u s i n e s s m a n , i n s o f a r a s h e is a b u sin ess m an , d o e s n o t aim t o g e t c o n s u m a b le w e a l t h , b u t o n l y to a c c u m u la te w e a l t h a s e v id e n c e d by th e m odern c o r p o r a t i o n . 124 V eblen f u r t h e r d e c l a r e s istic

in te rp re ta tio n

th at

th e M arxian m a t e r i a l ­

o f h i s t o r y means th e

a c u l t u r e i s b a s e d on t h e

obvious.

v i e w s , must a d j u s t

tos

Itse lf

s u r v iv a l v alu e of

Any c u l t u r e , V e b l e n

. . . t h e e c o n o m ic e x i g e n c i e s on p a i n o f d e s t r u c t i o n . Some l i k e t h e W e s t e r n c u l t u r e , w i t h i t s t e c h n o l o g ­ i c a l e f f i c i e n c y , w h ic h a l l o w s a w ide m a r g in b e tw e e n h i g h e s t a n d m inim um e f f i c i e n c y r e q u i r e d . The e c o n o m y c a n a f f o r d t o w a s t e much i n c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e b e tw e e n t h e members o f t h e d o m in a n t e c o n o m ic c la ss. M ankind i s o l d e r t h a n t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e . 125 12& Max L e r n e r ,

0£. c l t . , p. 36.

124 T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , £ £ .

c l t . , p. 208.

125 T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , "Das K a p i t a l , " J o u r n a l o f P o l i t ­ ------------------------------i c a l Economy, 6 : 2 7 9 - 2 8 2 , M a rch , 1 8 9 4 .

121 In a review

o f M a rx ’ s Das K a p l t a l , V e b le n c r i t i c i z e d

the e x p re ss e d

th eo ry of s u r p lu s - v a lu e .

su rp lu s-v alu e

c o n c e p t was a c o m p l e t e m y s t e r y .

th a t by the

tim e he had r e a d t h e

be e x p l a i n e d .

th ird

To V e b l e n ,

th is

He h a d h o p e d

volum e, i t

w ould a l l

How ever, he w r i t e s :

T h i s M a r x i a n dogm a o f s u r p l u s v a l u e h a s s e r v e d the p re s e n t g e n e ra tio n of s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s t s as th e fu n d am e n ta l s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e and th e key ­ n o te of t h e i r c r i t i c i s m of e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , and i t s a c c e p t a n c e ( i n f a i t h ) by t h e b o d y o f s o c i a l i s t s avowed an d u n a v o w e d , h a s c o n ­ tr ib u te d n o t a l i t t l e to co n scio u sn ess of th e ir a t t a c k on t h e e x i s t i n g o r d e r o f t h i n g s . The t h e o r y has none b u t th e m ost rem o te and i n t a n g i b l e r e l a t i o n to any c o n c r e te f a c t s . For a l l u s e f u l p u rp o se s, the e n t i r e s u r p l u s - v a l u e t h e o r y i s v i r t u a l l y avowed t o b e m e a n i n g l e s s l u m b e r . 126 Ho o n e d e n i e s

the

on V e b l e n , a l t h o u g h t h i s sin ce

in flu en ce

o f M arx’ s s o c i a l t h e o r i e s

c a n be s a i d

of m ost s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s

t h e w o r k s o f M arx h a v e b e c o m e a c c e s s i b l e f o r

V e b l e n ’ s econom ic

s t u d i e s w e r e b a s e d on t h e

m odern i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n

stu d y .

power f a c t o r

t h i s r e s p e c t he was c l o s e

in

t o Marx.

H ow ev er, V e b l e n ’ s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s was a passiv e fa c to r

in

the

stru g g le

for

power i n a way q u i t e

a lien

t o M arx.

^

To M a r x , in

in flu en cin g

th e m achine te c h n o lo g y i s the

stru ctu re

t h e s t a g e f o r m odern c l a s s tech n o lo g y is

itse lf

-1-26 Loc. cit.

m ainly s i g n i f i c a n t

o f t h e b u s i n e s s u n i t and s e t t i n g

co n flict.

To V e b l e n ,

th e m achine

t h e m ain s o c i a l f o r c e w h ic h makes f o r

122 s o c i a l change w i t h c o m p e titiv e

so cial

c o n f l i c t am ong

b u s i n e s s men t a k i n g a m i n o r r o l e . V eblen*s re v ie w

concludes th a t

the fu n d am en tal

p re m is e fro m w h ic h K a r l M a rx f s econom ic is

the

th eo ries

arise;

one

law o f a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l o u t o f u n p a i d l a b o r ,

and i t s

co ro llary ,

the d o c tr in e

of the r e s e r v e

unem ployed, and th e s e form th e b a s i s h is reasons fo r c o llap se

the

V eblen*s a n a l y s i s th an

o f M arx’ s sy ste m and o f

s o c i a l c a u s e s w h ic h m ust l e a d

of th e c a p i t a l i s t

i s m o re v a l i d

arm y o f

system .

to the

127

o f t h e econom ic s i d e

of the c u lt u r e

t h a t o f M a r x , a s sh o w n b y Max L e r n e r w h e n

he w r i t e s : V e b le n * s d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw ee n t h e p e c u n i a r y and i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s i s a m ore a c c u r a t e a n a l y s i s o f the c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n th a n th e c l a s s s t r u g g l e is . Marx*s a r g u m e n t i s im plied d o c trin e arm y i s

a p p a r e n t l y most v u l n e r a b l e

of p o p u latio n .

The c o n c e p t

b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t

i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e means o f l i f e .

q

\

in i t s

of the r e s e r v e

p o p u latio n s

in crease

V eblen q u e s t i o n s

th e

a p p e a l t o r e a s o n i n h e r e n t i n th e M a rx ian view o f e x p l o i t a t i o n of la b o r,

and d o u b t s

t h a t m ankind a c t s

o r w i t h in a l o g i c a l fram e of r e f e r e n c e .

i n a l o g i c a l manner He s t a t e s :

C o n t i n u i t y i n th e g iv e n f a c t s i s n o t to be im puted in p e rs o n a l term s b u t o n ly in term s o f c au se and effect. T he e c o n o m i c o r d e r i s n o t t o b e t a k e n f r o m L ocT

*1go

p i t .

Max Lerner, op. cit. , p. 35.

123 a p e r s o n a l p o i n t o f v ie w ; bub i s a scheme o f b l i n d l y a c c u m u l a t i v e c a u s a t i o n , i n w h ic h t h e outcom e i s n o t p r e o r d a i n e d a s g o o d . 12 9 V e b le n shows t h a t

if

im provem ent w ere f o l l o w e d , and unem ploym ent. o u t.

in poverty b u t, r a t h e r ,

c u ltu re*

in

is

th at th at

a risin g

the

t h e f a c t s d o n o t b e a r M arx t h e r e h a s b e e n no i n c r e a s e stan d ard

a sse rts,

in p o v erty ,

the

M.t h e e x p e r i e n c e

i n s t i t u t i o n s , b e c a u s e , V eblen of h is to r y teach es

it

th a t a b ject

c o m e s w i t h d e t e r i o r a t i o n a n d a b j e c t m i s e r y . ft‘*-3 0

V eb len ’s e v a lu a tio n i s n o t the

o f p r e s e n t d ay M arxian s o c i a l i s m

th eo re tic al

s y s t e m a s l a i d down b y

Marx was o p p o s e d t o w a r l i k e n a t i o n s a n d a w a r l i k e

p o licy .

"M arxian s o c i a l i s m

lib e ralism lik e

th e economy r a t h e r

t h e r e w ere an i n c r e a s e

o f the e x i s t i n g

su b jectio n

Marx*

in stitu tio n s

w o u l d n o t f o l l o w M a r x Ts p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e f o r c e f u l

overthrow

th at

the

theme o f e x p l o i t a t i o n o f l a b o r b y b u s i n e s s .

F u rth e rm o re , even i f

is

o f l i v i n g and a

m odern b u s i n e s s

f o r t h e i r m yths by w h i c h t h e y r e g u l a t e d

resu lts

tec h n o lo g ic al ^

s e l f - m a d e man t h r o u g h o u t

V eblen c r i t i c i z e d

t h a n on t h e

about

t h e y w ould c a u s e g r e a t e r p o v e r t y

He w r i t e s

The p r a g m a t i c f a c t

deep ro o te d b e lie f

Marx*s t e n e t s

id eals

t o d a y means m ere i m p e r i a l i s t i c

or i m p e r i a l i s t i c dem ocracy. is

lead in g

to

H ab itu atio n

the s t e r i l i z a t i o n

to w ar­

of re v o lu tio n -

TOQ

T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , "T he L a t e r M a r x i a n , " J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Economy, 9 7 - 9 8 , D ecem ber, 1896. 130 L o c.

e it.

124 ary so cialism .

131

H is c r i t i c i s m

be s e e n b y c o n t r a s t i n g V eblen h o ld s t h a t but

it

to h is

F o r Marx, i t

of m ental c h a ra c te rs ^ of h a b its in h a b its

tr a d itio n a l id eas

is

relig io n ,

p o i n t o f view i s

of m in d s,

the

p o litic s,

and

^

perm eating a l l

stra ta

th at

of

He v i e w s t h e m a c h i n e a s t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y

who w o r k w i t h i t .

are

a c o n flict

p r o d u c e r s .. V eblen a s s e r t s

the

cu ltu re.

a re w orking d a y a f t e r

in stan ce

the c a p i t a l i s t ,

o f t h o u g h t , m a n i f e s t i n g them ­

of p ro p erty ,

s o c ia l force w ith in e ffects

not

s e e n to be u n d e rm in in g a l l

m o r a l i t y i n th e m inds o f t h e

A m erican l i f e .

is

p o stu lates.

of a ctio n .

The m a c h i n e

the s c i e n t i f i c

own b a s i c

th e enemy o f s o c i e t y i s

t h e b u s i n e s s man.

selv es

o f M arxian id e o lo g y can b e s t

T his

In the m ach in e, p o s i t i v e

d a y , y e ar a f t e r y e a r upon th o se

i s w hat V eblen m eant by th e c u l t u r e

of the m ach in e,

11t h a t w h a t men d o ,

shapes what th ey

t o b e c o m e .**132 When t h e p e o p l e

p o l i t i c s w ith

o f the n a tio n tu rn

t h e sam e s p i r i t ,

a b so lu te d eterm in atio n

w hole. —

t h e same v i g o r a n d t h e same

the

to i n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s , g rea test b en efit

T h is r e s u l t w i l l be o f a r e l a t i v e _

_

_

_

_

a tt e n t i o n to

t o a c h ie v e r e s u l t s w i t h w hich th e y

have d ev o ted th em selv es id eas w ill r e s u l t in

th eir

to

the s o c ia l

the c u l t u r a l

n a tu r e and

_

Jo se p h D orfm an,

o jd .

c i t .,

p.

267.

1 3 2 T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , T he P l a c e o f S c i e n c e i n M o d e rn Ci v i l i z a t i o n , p p . 4 0 8 - 4 5 6 . — — — ------------------

125 p rac tic al,

in stead

a n d on a b s o l u t e s *

o f b a s e d on n o r m a t i v e f r a m e s o f r e f e r e n c e

133

S t a n l e y M. D a u g e r t h a s

summed u p V e b l e n * s c r i t i c i s m

o f M a rx b y s t a t i n g : No o n e c a n r e a d V e b l e n ’ s c r i t i c i s m o f Marx w i t h ­ o u t c o n c lu d in g t h a t V eblen had l i t t l e u se f o r M arxian, d i a l e c t i c s a s w o r k a b le t h e o r i e s o f e co n o m ic c h a n g e . 154 F in a lly ,

at

th is

t i m e , when t h e

t i o n makes m o st o f us a w are

th at

the

tech n o lo g y of d e s t r u c ­

p r e s e n t w a r may p r o v e

th e g ra v e o f h u m a n ity , V eblen*s c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d make e v e r y o n e m o re c r i t i c a l

o f M arxian id e o lo g y

of R ussia*s i n te r n a t i o n a l

m oves.

1 5 3 r BqcT

c it*

1 3 4 S t a n l e y M. D a u g e r t ,

o£ .

c i t . , p.

53.

CHAPTER

V

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION T h o r s t e i n V e b le n was one o f a g r o u p o f s o c i a l t h i n k e r s to ach iev e le a d e r s h ip century*

i n A m erica a t

the

tu rn of the

He w a s a d i a g n o s t i c i a n , n o t a h e a l e r ,

n o t an a r c h i t e c t , d ifferen ce rev ealed

a n d he s h a r e d w i t h t h e

to e t h i c a l c o n sid e ra tio n s*

some o f t h e

c u ltu ral

tren d s

tw en tieth

an i c o n o c l a s t ,

c la ssic ists

In h is

an i n ­

stu d ies are

a r i s i n g from th e c u l t u r a l

l a g betw een t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t and c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l in stitu tio n s*

Among t h e s e

so c ial d iso rg a n iz atio n ,

tr e n d s w ere In c lu d e d a s p e c ts o f

g reater

s o c ia l c o n tr o l by th e upper

c la ss,

co n cen tratio n

o f e c o n o m ic power i n t o f e w e r c o r p o r a ­

tio n s,

g r e a t e r s o c i a l c o n f l i c t betw een t h e f i n a n c i a l and

In d u strical in stitu tio n s*

H is a n a l y s i s

and c r i t i c i s m

are

c o m p r e h e n s iv e and p e n e t r a t i n g fro m b o t h econom ic and s o c i o l o ­ g ical

p o i n t s o f view * I t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

o f V eblen t o h o ld h i m s e l f a lo c f

from o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h ic h m ig h t te n d t o upon h i s th is

th in k in g ,

idea

te a c h in g or w r itin g s *

o f ind ep en d en ce

to the

o p p o sitio n to c e rta in

u larly

to lead o th e rs

sitio n s

and c o n c e p ts .

In f a c t ,

he c a r r i e d

p o in t o f j o in i n g groups in

a m in o rity or s u b o rd in a te p o s itio n in to e x p re ss h is

place r e s t r i c t i o n s

o rd e r to rem ain f r e e v ie w s , and t h i s

t o exam ine and a n a l y z e

th eir

p artic­

own p o ­

I t w as no d o u b t p a r t l y o w in g t o h i s

\

own l i f e

o f c o m p a ra tiv e p o v e r ty and d e n i a l o f r e c o g n i t i o n * a s

w e l l a s h i s u n c o m p ro m isin g p r a g m a tic a p p r o a c h t o econom ic in stitu tio n s

and h i s

sk e p tic al a ttitu d e

dogma t h a t h e w a s p l a c e d a ly sis

of the

se n sitiv e

in a p o sitio n for a p en etratin g an­

so c ia l m ilieu

b arom eter to

to w a rd econom ic

i n w h ic h he l i v e d .

He b e c a m e a

th e d y n am ics o f econom ic and s o c i a l

v a lu e s w hich w ere c h a r a c t e r i s t i c In o rd e r to e x p re ss

of h is

tim es.

his re a c tio n s

c e s s e s w h ic h w ere e f f e c t i n g th e

to th e

so cial

pro­

changes w hich so d i r e c t l y

c o n c e r n e d h im , he had t o d e v i s e a m e t h o d o l o g y , w h ic h h a s been d e s c r i b e d as an I n s t i t u t i o n a l a p p ro a c h to so cial

phenomena.

He i n s i s t e d

th at

the stu d y o f

i t was n e c e s s a r y

to con­

s i d e r e v e r y p r o b le m o r p a r t o f a pr.oblem i n t e r m s o f i t s e n tire

c u ltu ra l se ttin g ,

in to account a ll

cu ltu re

w hich w ould be p o s s i b l e by t a k i n g as m an ifested

In s o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s

B r i e f l y , h i s m ethodology s t r e s s e d .rath er

th an the

sep aratio n

of d ata

the u n i ty o f c u l t u r e

i n t o m an y d i s c i p l i n e s .

’i

Thus

s o c io lo g ic a l v alu es as w ell as

o th e r s o c i a l v a lu e s w ere

e s s e n t i a l i n s t u d y i n g econom ic p r o b le m s . H is I n s t i t u t i o n a l

approach to

was one i n w h ic h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n

the s t u d y o f s o c i e t y

p a s s e d on t h e

fo lk w a y s and m ores o f a s o c i e t y and c o n d i t i o n e d beh av io r in view ed th e

its

g o a ls and m ethods

so cial

f o r ex am ple,

the

process

tra d itio n s, in d iv id u al

o f a t t a i n i n g them .

V eblen

In a dich o to m o u s fram e of r e f e r e n c e

in d u stria l

in stitu tio n

and b u s in e s s

In stitu -

tio n s.

T hese w ere in c o n f l i c t b e c a u se o f d i f f e r e n t h a b i t s

thought i m p l i c i t in each . form ed a s p e c i f i c

F urtherm ore, b u sin e ss i n s t i t u t i o n s

s o c i a l c l a s s w h i c h was s y n o n o m o u s w i t h t h e

leisu re

c la ss,

c la ss.

In th e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , h i s

th e view o f

and i n d u s t r i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s

bols

i n s t i t u t i o n a l approach Is

s o c i a l and econom ic c r i t l -

s e v e r a l c o n c e p t s w e r e c r e a t e d b y h i m t o s e r v e a s sym­ o f c o n d it i o n s w h ic h w ere c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

c u ltu re.

Among t h e s e

em u latio n ,

sta tu s,

c la ss,

the canons

in stin c t

of re p u ta b ility ,

co n sp icu ous co n su m p tio n , conspicuous

w a ste and b e l l i c o s i t y . in te rre la te d ,

of t h e A m erican

c o n c e p ts w ere s o c i a l c l a s s ,

o f w orkm anship, l e i s u r e

ogy.

form ed a n o th e r

s o c i e t y a s made u p o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .

In th e developm ent of h i s cism ,

of

These a r e

s e e n t o be more o r l e s s

a s w o u ld be e x p e c t e d i n t e r m s o f h i s m e t h o d o l ­

S p ecial c re d it

is

due V eolen f o r h i s

developm ent o f th e c o n c e p t, in h is-m eth odolo gy. in flu e n c e d by t h i s

d e f i n i t i o n and

s o c i a l c l a s s , w h i c h wa s s o b a s i c

Q u i t e a few w r i t e r s h a v e o e en g r e a t l y a s p e c t o f V e b l e n 1s a n a l y s i s

of s o c ia l

problem s. V e b le n view ed te c h n o lo g y a s m odern s o c i a l

change*

in te reste d

p ro d u c tio n b u t m ainly In th e

in

Because

the m ajo r f a c t o r

c la ssic al

o r f i n a n c e , he s p e n t h i s w hole l i f e econom ic

th eo ries.

did not r e f l e c t

He b e l i e v e d

actu al e x istin g

th at

e c o n o m is ts w ere n o t study of w e alth

c ritic isin g the

in

c la ssic al

c la ssic a l

co n d itio n s

th eo ries

o f m odern s o c i e t y ,