Some aspects of the California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894

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A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of History University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts

by Sidney Harold Elman January 1950

UMI Number: EP59607

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This thesis, written by

SIdney___H aro 1d _E lman under the guidance of hi.s.... Fac ulty Committee, and approved by a ll its members, has been presented to and accepted by the Council on Graduate Study and Research in p a rtia l f u l f i l l ­ ment of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS




Faculty Committee


The life history of a people is found not in their politics but mainly in their social and industrial affairs. The events of yesterday, today, and tomorrow.

These are the

things which give us gladness or sadness, hope or despair# George H. Tinkham




PACE INTRODUCTION . . ......................... Motivation of expositions........... . •


Utopian p r e m i s e ......... .............


The United States in 1894


THE FORMATIVE PERIOD.....................


Conceived at Chicago ...................


The general c o m m i t t e e .................


The financial c o m m i t t e e ...............


The executive committee

. . . .........


The park commissioners



Congressional approval





Construction activity III.



MIDWINTER CORNUCOPIA.................... .


Mining at the f a i r .............


Agriculture at the f a i r ...............


Other exhibits



The attraction of settlers.............


CULTURE AT THE P A I R .....................


M u s i c ................................


E d u c a t i o n .............................




• • • • • • • • • • • •




70 85



The museum V.





Villages and camps . . . . .............


Mechanical devices Oddities

• .................


............................... Ill

Financial arrangements VI.




CONCLUSION..................................116 Exposition statistics

. ...............


Foreign exhibits .......................





The meaning of the f a i r ................. 119 BIBLIOGRAPHY






Mining displays by counties . . . . . . . . . .



Agriculture displays by counties


. . . . . . .


INTRODUCTION The California Midwinter International Exposition had many predecessors.

Between 1851 and 1894 there were thirteen

world fairs, many of marked brilliance.

Prince Albert , the

consort of Queen Victoria, thought of such an ephemeral over** flowering and the London Crystal Palace of 1851 was the result.

The success of the exposition at Hyde Park Induced

other nations to initiate their own.

Of the thirteen world

fairs before Midwinter, one took place in Ireland, another in Austria, two in England, two in Australia, and three in the United States. Of the many reasons which gave rise to these fairs, economic exploitation led all the rest.

Without the monetary

interest on the part of exhibitors, cities, and of nations, such expositions probably would not have been held.

In the

distant past the precursors of International expositions, rural fairs and the like, have had trade as the motivating force in origin.

This is not to say that cultural motifs

are lacking or are deemed inconsequential.

Indeed, it would

be folly to divorce economic and cultural attainments as in many places the borders between the groups are Intermittent and nebulous.

The Columbian Pair of 1893 is illustrative.

It established a style of architecture that Influenced

subsequent construction*

The fairs certainly had a profound

effect on many diverse fields*

They presented in one place

the cultural achievements of the nations*

People made com­

parisons and took stock of the offerings of these countries* Thus* an international criterion was established* The protagonists of world fairs also injected a Utopian premise.

They believed that a gathering of nations

which cooperatively displayed their industrial, agricultural, literary, and artistic life would be conducive to international good will and somehow would mitigate or eliminate strife. fortunately, such beliefs appear to be wishful dreams.



at war have presented exhibits side by side, situations which were, indeed, highly grotesque.

Whether international affairs

would have worsened without these expositions is a debatable question.

They eertainly did little harm in that direction.

The year 1894 was an eventful one for the United States. The country was in the throes of an economic depression.


lions of the citizenry were unemployed and their suffering was acute.

Some sections.of the nation pointed to the mighty

dollar sustained by gold as the demon responsible.


Cleveland, a strong-money president, did little to alleviate conditions.

He did or was to take a more active part in the

vicious railroad strike, the Venezuelan boundary dispute, and the explosive problem of Hawaii.

His administration was

further characterized by the frenzied selling of gold bonds,


the struggles over the Sherman Sliver Purchase Act, the Wilson Tariff, and the phenomenal rise of the populists. The state of California by .1894 had been making rapid progress.

The Republicans were in power.

In that year the

last Mexican governor of California, Pio Pico, passed away in Los Angeles.

Shortly before his death the state legislature

had created three new counties:

Riverside, Madera, and Kings.

In spite of these signs of change and growth, the economic depression struck the west coast.

When the Riverside Banking

Company failed, the panic then sweeping the nation descended upon California.

Throughout the state many bank failures

followed, spreading unemployment and insecurity in their wake. There were other problems which confronted the state in the early 18901s.

The Southern Pacific Railroad almost

controlled the whole political and economic structure of the state.

On one point, however, this same railroad, headed by

Collis P. Huntington, had suffered defeat.

United States

army engineers agreed with Stephen M. White that San Pedro Harbor instead of Santa Monica Bay should be made into a great port.

Through various vicissitudes Congress subse­

quently upheld this decision. In 1891 the Wallace grand jury began its investiga­ tion, a search that ultimately brought the notorious Ruef


and his machine to justice.^It was in agriculture that lasting progress was being made.

During the eighties and nineties citrus development

gained prominence, with oranges being the outstanding fruit. Mining continued to hold its own.

All in all, by 1894

California clearly had formed a pattern which in many respects continues to this writing.

^ Phil Townsend Hana, California Through Pour Centuries, 154-156. -------------


THE FORMATIVE PERIOD Previous fairs had taken years to plan and to con­ struct.

But the Midwinter Fair is unique in the annals of

expositional enterprises.

Within the space of a month the

idea was not only ^conceived but well on to completion*


exposition rose with the flush of civic pride and visions of prosperity*

It had its cultural and bizarre facets and left

its indelible impression.

However ephemeral, an exposition

is a portion of American Life, where hundreds of thousands played parts either as spectators or participants.


exposition and others of its type should be recorded as an intrinsic part of our history. In 1893 San Francisco startled the nations by pro­ posing to hold an international exposition just after the extravaganza that was Chicago’s.

The project was ridiculed.

Prominent businessmen of San Francisco pointed to the economic depression of the 1890fs as a barometer to the impending failure of the fair.

Despite warnings to the contrary the

California Midwinter Exposition was held, lived its brief existence, and passed on. When the plan for the Midwinter Exposition was first communicated to San Francisco many businessmen advanced reasons for its creation.

Some favored the project because



of its commercial potentialities. Pacific coast would come to see it.

One thought the whole Most of the railroad

officials on Fourth and Townsend street favored the fair hut refused to be quoted.

They felt that anything said by them

would throw cold water on the exposition. railroads were in ill repute.

In this period the

Many Californians believed

that the roads were dominating the state and that the people were the victims of this ”mighty octopus.”

One official,

recognizing this state of affairs, pointed out that anything the railroad said would be ”a repetition of the old story of «1 the red flag and the bull.” Other reasons were put forth, when publicity mills began to grind.

It stated that the fair would bring an in­

flux of badly needed immigrants who would fill the nonpopu­ lated areas of the state.

Not only would the introduction

of new blood result, but capital would flow into the state in abundance*

Even amid the depression the unemployed would

find positions stimulated by the fair.

Many Californians were

not pleased with the exhibit of California at Chicago.


thought it did not adequately depict the unbelievable re­ sources of the state.

Now the glories of inimitable California 2 would be amply displayed before the entire world. The cry

^ San Francisco, Chronicle, June 2, 1893. ^ Guide to the California Midwinter Exposition in Golden Gate tark, IS•

for unity was voiced.

The exposition would cement not only

the northern and southern counties of the state# but the whole Pacific slope.

California’s winter climate would induce many

shivering in the east to make their way westward. g trade thereby would be reinforced*

The tourist

The Midwinter Pair was first envisioned# not in Cali­ fornia, but at Chicago# where a group of Californians began the project# endowed it with enthusiasm and money# and gave it its principal official. During the first month of Chicago’s White City# M. H* deYoung# National Commissioner to the Columbian Exposition and proprietor and editor of the powerful San Francisco Chronicle# conceived the plan for the Midwinter Exposition*


DeYoung is

credited with bringing forth, Athena-like# the California Midwinter Exposition.

His assiduousness at Chicago in trum­

peting the plan# in directing it through various meetings# and in evoking action disclosed his capacity for getting things done.

He had organizational ability# the faculty of

recognizing an opportunity when one presented itself# and the tenacity to push on until the opportunity was apparent to all*

3 J. D. Phelan# 11Is Midwinter Pair a Benefit?” Over* land Monthly# 30CIII (1894), 390# 392. ---^ Th© Official History of the California Midwinter Internatio'nal'^xposliton # ll. Hereafter died as Official History*

DeYoung learned at a Chicago banquet that some exhibitors were going on to Chile or some other American country after the Columbian exposition*

He believed that a San Francisco

exposition would be successful if these foreign exhibitors 5 could be persuaded to come to California. R. Cornely, a German organizer of the Columbian History Company and a master of things expositional, assured him that many exhibitors would be delighted to have that opportunity.


Then at a meeting in Chicago, on May 31, 1893 , of the California Columbia Club, deYoung informed his audience that it would be possible to hold a winter exposition at San Fran­ cisco, drawing from Chicago the

cream of her exhibits.

This exposition would open either on Christmas or New Yearfs 7 Day and continue for two or three months. At this meeting R. Cornely reported that exhibitors from Italy, Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, Australia, and South America were willing to display their products in California.

These exhibitors, he explained, desired to intro­

duce their products more thoroughly in the west. was enthusiastic.

The meeting

One Californian pointed out that many in

the west unable to attend the Columbian Fair would come to 5

San Francisco, Chronicle, June 29, 1893♦

® P. Weaver, Jr., nThe California Midwinter Inter­ national Exposition,11 Overland Monthly, XXII (1893), 452. 7 Official History, 12.

9 the one in California.

Another said, r,It would give California

such an awakening, that it would not go to sleep again in a century.11 A majority believed the proposal to be excellent; it was held that financial arrangements for such an enterprise would not be difficult.


In order to insure action two telegrams were sent at once.

One was to Governor H. H. Markham and the other to

Mayor Levi R. Ellert of San Francisco.

The telegram to the

governor related the purpose of the Ghicago meeting and the belief that a California fair would prove a certain success. The governor was requested to publicize the proposal through­ out the state.

The telegram to Mayor Ellert was more explicit.

The mayor was to 11call a meeting of the people, the Chamber of Commerce, Board of Trade# . • • , and other commercial bodies#11 in order to determine their convictions on the pro­ ject.9 The next day the governor telegraphed that the plans would receive his ttearnest attention.w

Mayor Ellert wired

that he would arrange for the meetings. The plan was endorsed as a good one.


of the California World’s Fair Commission, James Phelan, Q

San Francisco, Chronicle, June 1, 1893. 9 Official History, 13. 10 Ibid., 14.

10 later to help crush the notorious Reuf machine, said the fair would serve not only California, but the whole west*1’*’ Mews-* papermen like J* W* Ferguson, of Fresno Expositor, and C* F* Montgomery of the Antioch Ledger believed that the plan was practicable*

Officials of the state government thought the

scheme an excellent proposal* Although it appeared, at first, that the San Franciscan exposition had the support of everyone in California, this did not prove to be the situation*

In order to stir the falter­

ing supporters at San Francisco, deYoung on June 11 called another meeting in Chicago*

In attendance were Californians

and royal commissioners from Italy, Belgium, and Germany, as well as exhibitors from England, Germany, France, Italy, Austria, and Belgium*


After a number of speeches, many of

those present made contributions to the project*


States Senator (Nevada), Frank G* Mewlands* contribution of §20,000 was the largest*

The senator a few years later helped

to form the famous Burlingame County Club, one of the first 13 clubs of its type in the United States* lotal subscriptions 14 reached the sum of §41,500*


San Francisco, Chronicle, June 2, 1893*

12 Ibid., June 12, 1894. 13 14

Gertrude Atherton, Golden Gate Country, 212, 213* San Francisco, Chronicle, June 12, 1893*

11 Resolutions set forth the wonderful opportunities of Californians benefiting their state by valuable exhibits. Sightseers visiting the state, it was believed, would advertise the products of California. would be attracted.

A "desirable" European population

In order to realize these benefits, steps

should be taken to form an organization to carry out this project as quickly as possible. 15 Many San Franciscans appeared to be enthusiastic about the scheme, but some circumspect men feared it would prove a fiasco. men.

Mayor Ellert on June 5 called a meeting of influential

Included among them were the president of the Produce

Exchange, E. B. Pond, of the Chamber of Commerce, who aided Adolph Sutro in planning and carrying out the system of boule­ vards west from 33d Avenue to the beach, Barry Baldwin of the Traffic Association, and Colonel A* A. Andrews, a merchant. DeYoung sent a telegram promising a $5,000 subscription.16 Andrews suggested that 500,000 coupons, selling for a dollar apiece, should be issued.

Buyers of these coupons would use

them one or two times in place of an admission fee into the fair grounds.

But a majority believed that financing an

exposition was impossible.1^


Official History, 18.

16 I b l d - » 1 6 .


San Francisco, Chronicle, June 6, 1893.

12 Xn the early days of June some cautious businessmen 18 were still straddling the fence* Soon after the mayor’s meeting# the trustees of the Chamber of Commerce stated that because of the ,flimited time in which the effort would have to be made it would be difficult to raise the required amount of money*tf^

Other critics tauntingly called the project tta

warmed-over Chicago fair*11 President Baldwin and manager Leeds of the Traffic Association commented that the ”project 20

cannot be made a success•**

Meanwhile California newspapers were vigorously sup­ porting the project*

Their backing of the scheme stampeded

many who would have held themselves aloof from the undertak­ ing*^

The California State Board of Trade at a meeting on

June 13# 1893 considered the exposition in earnest*



San Francisco# Chronicle# June 8# 1893*

19 Ibid.# June 10# 1893* 20 I W d . , June XI, 1893. 21

A number of these newspapers are the San Jose# Mercury; the San Jose# Hews; the San Jose# Record; the Sacra­ mento# Bee; the Pasadena# siar; the San Diego# Union; the Oak­ land, Tribune; the Fresno# Republican; the Fresno# Exposition; Los Angeles# Express; Redwood# FreeFress; theCourtland# Four Corners; Lake County# Avalanche;South Sain Francisco, Mail; Yuba County# Farmer; Pleasanion# Times; Saratoga, Sentinel; Alameda, Argus; Gilroy# Gazette; Santa Barbara, Press; Escondido# Times; Los Banos# Herald; Yreka, Journal; Tuscan (A* T.)# Star; San Francisco# Journal of Commerce# and the San Francisco# Chronicle* These newspapers are cited from the San Francisco# Chronicle, June 13# 1894.


thrusting away from themselves what San Francisco newspapers christened “Silurium Tendencies,” !,hooted down11 representatives of the Chamber of Commerce when they voiced cautionary pro­ cedures and objections to the fair*

After speeches and dis­

cussions, the members decided that the proposed exposition should be assisted with all the means at the board1s command#


The progress of the fair though at times hectic was henceforth true* Several days later a special committee of this board reported that one of the transportation companies desired to assist the exposition*

Colonel Crocker and Mr. Mills of the

Southern Pacific Railroad stated that their company would sub­ scribe §50,000 and, if needed, §100,000 to the project* In order to advance the groundwork of the exposition, the Board of Trade directed Mayor Ellert to call for “repre­ sentative citizens” of California to serve on a general eom0*2


This committee, at a meeting on June 20, gave the

exposition definite confirmation*

A motion that San Francisco

should have a “winter Columbian Fair . . . was carried with a 04

tremendous chorus of ayes.11


Mayor Ellert was elected as

San Francisco, Chronicle, June 14, 1893*


Ibid., June 16, 1893. 24

Ibid., June 21, 1893.


temporary chairman.^*

He appointed a committee of eleven to

formulate a plan of permanent organization* advance suggestions concerning a board of control, and consider salaries for the members of this board.

It was suggested that the fair com­

mission should consist of four men and one woman.

The fair

should be named The California Columbia Company.

A permanent

building to be known as the California Columbia Museum housing minerals and objects of interest was proposed.

A great prob­

lem confronting the committee was railroad rates. were considered a serious impediment.

High rates

Promises were secured

from the Pacific railroads that they would use their influence to try to lower the rates of the eastern roads. nessmen supported the fair.

Small busi­

A representative of the Grocers

Union of San Francisco promised the assistance of his organi­ zation.

The meeting was closed with the admonition that

harmony between the southern and northern sections of the state should be kept. 26 Further details as to the exposition were worked out at a meeting of the Committee of Eleven.

Many of the members

of this committee became officials of the Midwinter Exposi­ tion.2*7 The committee termed the fair the MCalifornia

^ 26


Q^l° History* 31. San Francisco* Chronicle* June 21* 1893.

These members were Colonel Andrews, Irwin C. Stump* and P. M. Lilienthal; San Francisco* Chronicle* June 24, 1893.

Midwinter Exposition*”

On the advice of R. Gornely, the appel**

lation was changed later to the "California Midwinter Inter­ national Exposition" in order to satisfy the foreign exhibi28 tors* This group declared that, at an estimated cost of half a million dollars, four buildings, three of which were 29 to be the size of the Mechanics Pavilion, would prove to be adequate, and that the fourth building would be a permanent structure.

January 1, 1894, only six months away, was selected

as the opening day of the fair.

An executive committee was to

consist of nine members. Five of these were to be residents 30 of San Francisco* The citizens* general committee in Mayor Ellert*s office approved the general plan of the committee of eleven*A31committee of three was to place in nomination four men from San Francisco for positions on Midwinter Exposi32 tion*s executive committee* The report of these men to the general committee dis­ closed dissension among them.

Wendell Easton and Arthur R*

Briggs recommended that Irwin C* Stump, P* M. Lilienthal,


San Francisco, Chronicle, June 29, 1893*

29 p0P a photograph of this building, see J* H* Wood, Seventy Years, History of the Mechanics Institute of San Francisco, 12. ■5CQ

San Francisco, Chronicle, June 27, 1893* 31 Ibid., June 27, 29, and 30, 1893. 32 Ibid., June 30, 1893.

M. H. deYoung, and Robert B • Mitehell be appointed to the executive committee. report.

William McMann presented a minority

Although he agreed with the selection of his col­

leagues, he insisted that Colonel A. Andrews be placed on the list of nominees.

In addition he believed that an auxiliary

board of women should be appointed to act in conjunction with 33 the executive committee* The general committee adopted both reports and elected those placed in nomination.


of uncertainty in selecting non-San Franciscan members the executive committee was authorized to choose colleagues to represent the other sections of California. Mayor Ellert, being given authorization, appointed a financial committee of twenty-one members which would support the monetary activities of the executive committee. 34 This group unanimously elected General W* H. L. Barnes chairman* 35 Receipt books as well as certificates of authorization were issued to collectors.

After a recommendation by Chairman

Barnes, the committee divided San Francisco into districts*

33 San Francisco, Chronicle, July 1, 1893* 34

A* A. Andrews, it was reported in the newspaper, obtained a position on the executive committee because many insisted that he who had devoted himself unstintingly to the project should be rewarded even though certain understandings made in the back parlors of San Francisco had to be slightly altered. San Francisco, Chronicle, July 1, 1893* 35

San Francisco, Chronicle, July 11, 1893*


Sub-committees canvassed them for subscriptions.

At the end

of each day collectors turned the receipts procured to the chairman of their sub-committee, who in turn gave them to the secretary of the executive committee. subscriptions first.

These men sought large

They wished to create a favorable im­

pression of the popularity of the fair by the vast amounts *a


Because many found no one to take their subscrip­

tions, 120 agencies, usually situated in drug stores, were 37 established throughout the city to collect this money. The 38 subscriptions amounted from §10,000 to §20,000 per day. A mass meeting organized to explain the imperative need for funds proved to be a great success.

A multitude of en­

thusiastic San Franciscans overflowed the meeting hall and 39 wildly cheered all the speeches* By August 4, 1893, the people of San Francisco learned that over §325,000 had been subscribed and §50,000 was then on deposit. 40 The San Francisco newspapers printed subscription blanks which were used by those who desired a more convenient method of subscribing. 36 ^


As today, when a benefit is being

San Francisco, Chronicle, July 13, 1893* Jbid., August 12, 1893• Ibid., July 23, 1893.

39 Ibid., July 16, 24, 1893. 40 Ibid., August 5, 1893.


stressed# the newspaper published the names of those who had sent in contributions.

Although the money did not come in

torrents # it flowed in a steady stream.

It must be remembered

that in 1893 the United States was suffering from a severe economic depression# and San Francisco was no exception.


articles giving the names of the contributors to the fair were paralleled by reports of bank failures from almost every sec­ tion of the state.

It is surprising that as much money was

raised by this voluntary method as actually had occurred. Ogden Mills# proprietor of the Mills building, donated a suite of offices for the use of the executive committee. Eight stores vied with each other to furnish these offices. The executive committee permitted all eight to supply various 41 articles of office equipment* During the first official meeting of the executive committee July 7# permanent officers were chosen.

M. H.

deYoung became president and general manager; Irwin G. Stump# vice-president; P. M. Lilienthal, treasurer# and Alexander 42 Bedlam, secretary. Eugene D. Gregory of Sacramento# Jacob H* Heff of Colfax# Fulton G. Barry of Fresno# and Henry T. Gage 43 of Los Angeles represented other portions of California*


San Francisco, Chronicle# July 4# 1893.

42 Ibid., July 8, 1893. 43 Ibid., July 13, 1893.


Having organized their own affairs they planned that a state commission consisting of three members from every county 44 should meet# which was soon done* The problem of railroad rates was now taken up by the executive committee*


conferred with the railroad magnates# G* P. Crocker# H. E. Huntington# and others*

The officials of the Southern Pacific

not only agreed to construct a road from San Miguel Rancho into the exposition grounds in order to expedite traffic# and to charge exhibitors half freight charges# but would officially 45 subscribe $50#000 to the exposition* They later hauled the freight of some exhibitors without charge* M* H* deYoung dispelled the fears of San Franciscan workingmen that outsiders would be brought In to construct the exposition*

DeYoung told M* McGlynn and J. Sullivan#

representatives of the labor council, that as it was# San Francisco did not have enough laborers to meet the requirements of the fair*

He said 8000 men would be needed in one capacity

or another*

Local workingmen# then# promised to give a day*s 46 wages to the exposition. The designs for the fair buildings were submitted to 47 the executive committee for its consideration on August 3* 44 4.S

46 47

San Francisco, Ohronicle# July 8# 1893* Ibid.# July 14, 1893. Ibid*# July 16, 1893. Ibid.# August 3# 1893.

Instructions to San Francisco architects on July 18 had been advertised in the local newspapers*

Five principal buildings 48 of wood exteriors and ornamented with staff were desired* The designs submitted were displayed on the main floor of the Mills Building where the curious could inspect them for a 49 slight fee* M* A* Page Brown# designer of the Ferry Building# and Oaliforniafs structure at Chicago's White City# and of two 50 accepted buildings# became architect of the exposition* After a selection of building designs# bids from the contractors were requested* 51 Those interested in the San Francisco Exposition selected Golden Gate Park as its site*

At first the officials of the

fair feared that the Park Commissioners would refuse to sane** tion the use of the park for such an enterprise# but this 52 rumor proved to be baseless* The Park Commissioners on July 9 granted 20 to 50 acres of a section known as tfConcert Valley” for the use of the exposition with stipulations that were to give rise to controversy and threaten the existence of the fair*

48 San Francisco# Chronicle# July 18# 1893. 4Q

Ibid., August 3, 1893.

50 Ibid., August 15, 1893. Ibid., August 18, 1893. 52 Ibid., June 29, 1893.

21 Roads and walks were to be built under tbe direction of the Park Commissioners, and workingmen were to be paid out of the funds of the exposition*

The contours of the sand

dunes of Concert Valley were not to be altered.


of this type greatly hindered the progress of the fair*

M* H*

deYoung who accepted these conditions had cause later for regret*

R* P* Hammond became the chief engineer of the expo­

sition, while McLaren superintendent of the park became land­ scape engineer*

In this new position McLaren attempted to 53 protect the interests of the park too assiduously* Gertrude Atherton pays him a tremendous tribute for his work in the park# Luring the fifty years that McLaren dwelt within that park, adding to its beauty and novelty, he was perhaps the best loved man in San Francisco* Grafting bosses and dishonest mayors tried to oust him, but retreated to their lairs to think up new infamies when the infuriated public went so far as to threaten lynching* With the retirement of Abe Reuf, the last of the bosses, to San Quentin Prison, the danger passed, and under Mayors Ralph and Rossi, Golden Gate Park might have been McLaren*s private estate— no doubt he had long ceased to regard it as anything else* •


The Park1Commissioners believed that improvements planned by them for the park could now be met by the funds of the exposition*

Superintendent McLaren estimated that the

improvement of the grounds would cost $110,000, a shocking

53 54

San Francisco, Chronicle, July 10, 1893* Gertrude Atherton, My San Francisco, 58, 59*

surprise to director deYoung*

Chairman Stow, of the Park Com­

mission, displayed signs of leniency or pangs of conscience when he stated that the commission would not insist on a permanent building as that would prove to be too expensive* * DeYoung denounced the position taken by the members of the Park Commission*

He said that the exposition was not

intended to improve the park*

By citing statistics, he demon­

strated how unjust the commissioners’ demands were.

He fur­

ther said, ’’If we have to conform to a lot of sand dunes which are to be maintained for the future ideas of Concert Valley, we are compelled to abandon the idea of having an attractive exposition.”

He insisted that the executive committee be

given control of the site and that contractors should be supervised, not by the Park Commissioners, but by his commit­ tee.

Chief Engineer Hammond cleared up the tense situation

by agreeing to deYoung’s demands.

Exclusive control and

freedom of action were given to the executive committee.


On August 11, San Franciscans learned that the Park Commis­ sioners had given ”Concert Valley” to the exposition, without any strings attached* The reason for deYoung’s victory is apparent.

The Park

Commissioners could not afford to place obstacles in the way of a project that had caught the fancy, not only of San


San Francisco, Chronicle, July 17, 1893.


Francisco, but all of California.

Although, it can be said

that deYoung had previously subscribed to the commissioners’ conditions, they had gone beyond good sense in their demands* The executive committee had to overcome another ob­ struction placed before it by Adolph Sutro of the Board of Supervisors of San Francisco.

The executive committee desired

a temporary franchise for laying a spur railroad track in order to expedite traffic to the fair grounds.

Adolph Sutro, who

abhorred the railroads because of personal reasons, issued a Philippic.

He was calmed by his fellow supervisors, and con­

sideration for the city’s benefit prevailed over his preju56 dices* A year later Sutro became mayor of the city and began his fight with the streetcar lines in earnest* A Supervisor*^ demand that the railroads post a j100,000 bond guaranteeing the removal of the temporary spur was argued down by H* B* Mitchell of the executive committee*

The fair

secured its tracks. Women played an interesting, if not an important role, in the evolution of the Midwinter Exposition.

The Women’s

Council at Pythian Hall first voiced its wholehearted approval of the proposed fair*

Some men definitely desired that

women should play a prominent part, even suggesting that a


San Francisco, Chronicle, August 1, 1893#

57 Ibid., July 11, 1893.


woman be given a position on the executive committee*


refused to permit this because difficulties might arise be58 tv/een the sexes* But women had to be represented in some manner to secure united support for the fair and to assuage their ruffled tempers* The Board of Trade’ attempted to resolve the dilemma by asking Mayor Ellert to invite outstanding women to a meeting at the palace Hotel in order nto have women’s work and inter59 ests properly represented.” At this meeting, opened by Prona Eunice 'White, a resolution endorsing the fair was adopted unanimously and a committee was established to con50 fer with the leaders of the exposition. Women’s activities during the exposition were to be of particular importance in connection with the Women’s Congress. 61 R. B. Mitchell, member of the executive committee, had gone to Washington to have the same privileges that were pro­ cured for the Columbian Pair, extended to Midwinter.^


prudently interviewed every Senator at Washington, and on August 8, 1893, Senator White of California, the victor in the CQ

San Francisco, Chronicle, June 30, 1893* 5Q 60

£bid.* June 20, 1893. Ibid., June 22, 1893.

61 Official History, 207. 62

San Francisco, Chronicle, August 4, 1893.


battle of San Pedro# introduced before the Senate Bill 50 entitled l!a bill in aid of the California Midwinter Interm 63 national Exposition." The Committee of Finance reported it without Amendment on August 18.


On August 21, the date the bill passed the

Senate, Senator Voorhees, chairman of the finance committee, ealled to the attention of the Senate this bill, since as he said, time was of utmost "importance.11 Senator Stewart, after acquainting himself with the measure, hoped the bill would pass.

Senator Voorhees assured his colleagues that the

bill carried no appropriation.

Senator White then briefly

explained the bill to the members of the Senate. He stated that before the foreign exhibitors signed final agreements with the Midwinter Exposition, they desired to be assured that Congress would permit them to remove their goods and laborers to California "under the same arrangements made in the law in reference to the World’s Exposition" bian Exposition •


Senator White pointed out that the exposi­

tion would ease the unemployment problem In California; that there were "no impositions on the government," and the whole country indirectly would benefit.

He concluded with the

statement "I conceive that there can be no opposition to the


Congressional Record, XXV (1893), 209*

64 Ibid., 444.


passage of the measure The bill, endorsed by Charles S. Hamlin of the Treasury Department was unanimously passed by the Senate# 65 Action was taken by the House after Representative Land of California said ”we will not ask for one cent of Government appropriation.”

On September 1, 1893, President Cleveland

approved and signed the Act#^

The California Exposition now

ranked as an international exposition like its predecessors# That no difficulty was incurred in the passage of the bill was due to the effective lobbying of Mitchell, the prece­ dent established at Chicago, and, what is most significant, the absence of a request for a federal appropriation# As these activities of preliminary organization were taking place, all California, and even the eastern states, became enthusiastic over the scheme.

Governor Rosswell P.

Flower of New York told deYoung that if California held an exposition he certainly would visit it#


The Chicago Times,

owned by Carter Harrison, editorially lent its support#^® In the west the Wells Fargo Company representatives desired that their company, free of cost, be utilized as a treasury

Congressional Record, XXV (1893), 539# Ibid., 612. 67

San Francisco, Chroniele, June 7, 1893#

68 Ibid., June 18, 1893.


for the funds of the exposition*


Rumors, that had at first

cast a gloom over the expositional plan, were dispelled when J. H. Culver, secretary of the Mechanics Institute, and acting chairman Marsden Manson revealed that their organization 70 favored the fair* When R. Cornely learned that the exposition was a cer­ tainty he said, 11We will do what we can to assist you and to cement the relations which must follow between the new and the old w o r l d * ^ Although a check of f10,000, reported to have been sub­ mitted to the fair by Mrs* Leland Stanford, wife of the former governor of California and railroad king, proved to be a for72 gery, and although several fraudulent collectors had been dup*7** ing the more credulous, mishaps of this nature were to be expected during the formative period of such a vast undertaking* John Phillip Sousa, the renowned band leader, as ex­ pressed through his business agent, figuratively and literally 74 desired to join the bandwagon. Sousafs concerts were to be


San Francisco, Chronicle, June 21, 1893*

70 i S i l "


2 3 » 1893 .

71 Ibld»> July 1, 1893. 79

I M d . » July 12, 1893.

73 Ibid., July 30, 1893. 74 Ibid., July 13, 1893.


a great attraction.

Herman Shoiwald, appointed by the execu­

tive committee , became financial manager, to coordinate all 75 divergent financial activities being pursued. Substantial sums were being poured into the coffers of the fair.


Brewers* Protective Association represented by A. M. McLaughlin 76 gave $10,000. California banks also contributed large sums. Ground was broken for the fair on August 24, 1893.


courts, schools, business houses, the factories, and stores closed at noon on that day. 77' A great procession, consisting of regular army units, state militia, naval reserves, and pri­ vate military groups, led by the Grand Marshal of the parade, General John H. Dickinson, marched to Golden Gate Park.


thousand people listened to the stirring speeches of Barnes, chairman of the finance committee; Irving S. Scott, president of the Union Iron Works, and M. H. deYoung. Johnson read a poem.

Esther Malcolm

With a silver shovel, contributed by

L. J. Wheellock, deYoung turned over the first spade of dirt, symbolizing the beginning of construction and the eventual realization of the California Midwinter International Exposi­ tion.^®


San Francisco, Chronicle, July 30, 1893#

76 Ibid♦♦ August 1, 1893. 77 Ibid., August 25, 1893. 7® Official History, 41.


The Midwinter Pair officially opened on January 27* 1894,

Little construction difficulty was encountered with the

exception of the lighting of the fair. herculean task.

This proved to be a

One difficulty was the traditional foggy

weather of San Francisco.

These salt fogs ruined lamps and

corroded sockets. After much experimentation this condition 79 was remedied. Another was to find the electrical machines to generate power.

The manufacturers of this equipment on

the Pacific coast were unable to meet the demands of the Mid­ winter Exposition.

Companies from other sections of the

country were called on for aid.

The Port Wayne Company* the

Western Electric Company* and General Electric furnished Midwinter with these badly needed machines. 80 Financially* the exposition had its ups and downs* but* at the close of the fair* proved solvent.

Between December 1,

1893 and June 26* 1894* termed the pre-exposition period* visitors paid over §19*000 to see the last stages of construc­ tion.

Over 78*000 people paid 25 cents apiece to secure that 81 82 privilege. Cash contributions alone amounted to $357*933.99. Approximately seven months after the Midwinter Pair 7Q

W. P. G. Hasson, "The Lighting of the Pair," Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 385-389. 80 Ibid., 385, 386. 81 Official History, 235. 82 Ibid., 213.


was a germ of an idea it had sprung into being# an exposition of over 120 buildings.

At first it had encountered opposition

by the more wealthy citizens of the bay region. stacle hurdled was the monetary barrier.

The next ob-

DeYoung# at one point#

wanted the state legislature to subscribe a half million dol­ lars to it but was unsuccessful*

The economic depression it­

self made it difficult to raise funds.

The people of San

Francisco had to organize into many diverse committees from which the fair finally took shape.

Park Commissioners had

to be won over and at the same time held in check.


sional action had to be secured to justify the word Inter­ national used in Midwinter*s title.

The problem of such a

prosaic item like a lamp socket had to be resolved.

All in

all, it was an amazing achievement to be made in so short a span of time*


MIDWINTER CORNUCOPIA If a new state seal were needed to replace the one California possesses, the horn of plenty would nicely symbo­ lize the productiveness of the state*

In 1894 as now, the

renown of California^ mineral resources was fabulous, but agriculture, especially the citrus culture was overshadowing that older more advertised and highly picturesque mining industry*

At that point in the history of California demar­

cations of her potentialities were being formed*


recognized the role their state was to play, and used the Midwinter Exposition as a showcase to call attention to her variegated products.

This showcase was not to be an ordinary

one, but one that would enable a visitor to 11see the past, the present, and the future of California*11^ During the formative period the Argonaut, a California magazine of note, urged that the exhibit be made exhaustive* Strangers who wished to settle In the state given the necessary information concerning the soil, the climate, 2 and the many inducements to trade* It was believed, there­ fore, that the exposition would draw newcomers who would take

^ J* J* Peatfield, nThe California Exposition,11 California Illustrated, V (1893), 151* o The San Francisco, Argonaut, July 3, 1893*


up many of the thousands of acres of tillable soil and place 3 into productivity the unclaimed mines* The exhibits that were finally collected were con­ sidered the finest and the most adequate representation of the products of California that had been up to that time dis­ played*

One writer claimed:

11This is the first time in the

history of the State that the counties had had an opportunity 4 of joining hands in sho?/ing their varied production*n Although citrus production was beginning to close the 5 gap, mining at this time was the wealthier industry* The Midwinter Pair, indeed, offered an opportunity for a lavish display of the mineral resources of the state.

Mining com­

panies, the various counties, and the state vied in bringing the multitudinous riches before the eyes of the public* Many of the mining displays were financed by the California Miners* Association with Jacob Heff at the head. Individual mines and mine owners contributed liberally to make that phase of the exposition a success.

The Midwinter

Pair’s mining display suffered for several months as snow made the roads impassable between the mining fields and the 3

Prank Wiggins, *fee Midwinter Pair,11 Land of Sunshine, I (1894), 39; San Francisco, Chronicle, May 5, 18917 4 Wiggins, 0£. clt., 38* 5 Official History, 85. 6 San Francisco, Chronicle, April 21,22, 1894*



But toy the middle of March the raw products of 7 the mines reached the fair* There were twenty-six distinct exhibits under mines, mining, and metallurgy.

Some of the presentations featured

raw materials, others the manufactured products.


ores, native metals, gems, crystals, and geological specimens were some of the unworked displays.

The metallurgy of tin,

tin plate, zinc, nickel, and cobalt was some of the finished products.

Mining equipment of various types was presented,

especially of gold and silver. milling, lixiviation, and fire.

Methods of extraction were Mining tools such as boring

and drilling machinery and apparatus for breaking out ore and coal were also featured.

In addition, pumps and engines of

various types, crushing and pulverizing equipment, the machin­ ery to transport and to deliver the ores were presented. hand also was the important assaying apparatus.


Not neglected

were the history and literature of mining and of metallurgy implemented by both originals and reproductions of early and notable machinery used in the mines* 8 The fair displayed her minerals in a unique and eyearresting manner.

This type of presentation was first devel­

oped at the Mechanics Institute Pair of 1892, which was used

^ Edward H* Benjamin, !,The Mining Exhibit,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 409. ^ Official Catalogue, 67, 68*


as a preview for the exhibit sent to the Columbia Exposition* The exhibit had succeeded both at San Francisco and Chicago and* since a great many of the exhibits had been returned to the Midwinter Fair from the Windy City* similar techniques were employed.

The eastern half of the main floor space of

the Mechanic Arts Building had many of these interesting displays*


The Sites Sandstone Company of Colusa had an immense

sandstone wall which served as the main entrance to the mining exhibit• Huge spheres many feet in circumference were used to depict the enormous output of minerals, and especially of gold.

One such sphere recorded the gold product of California

in bulk.

This ball represented $1*248*272*935 or 2*071 tons

or nearly one-sixth of the entire production of the world for 400 years past.

Hot represented were the unrecorded amounts

shipped out by Chinese and other foreigners*^ One observer impressed by the silver and gold ore heaped upon heap commented*


To see and put one's finger on a great boulder, so full of gold that even the unpracticed eye can make out the dull yellow veinings that make up a large part of its mass, is an experience that few are likely to forget. A host of mining companies participated*


These names

History* 86*

10 Benjamin, op* cit.* 409; Official History* 86* Benjamin* op. cit.* 409*




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Counties Alameda Amador Butte Calaveras Contra Costa Colusa El Dorado Inyo Kern Los Angeles Mariposa Mono Napa Nevada Placer Plumas Santa Barbara San Bernardino San Benito Santa Cruz Santa Clara San Luis Obispo Shasta Sierra Si skiyou Sonoma Trinity Tuolumne


























X x



























































are nostalgic, bringing up the flavor of the bustling 50fs to mind.

They are not only picturesque, but they call attention

to the locale, the anticipations, and jubilant strike of the miners*

The Lone Star, Flour Sack, Sparrow Hawk, Uncle Sam,

Black and Brown Bear, Clipper, Squaw Creek, Rustler, Mocking­ bird, Bay state, Keystone, Rawhide, Muletown, Eureka, Diadem, Shenandoah, Little Butterfly, Granite Basin, Indian Valley, and You Bet are reminiscent of the stirrings that shook the state during her great mining activity*


Twenty-eight counties were represented in the mining displays*^

Their exhibits would make a comprehensive geo­

logic listing of many of the minerals of the world.


mineral range within many a county itself was startling*


chart listing the major items displayed by the counties which participated reveals much about mining at the Midwinter Expo­ sition*

Butte County has more mineral variety than all the


Included among Its 16 items were antimony, asbestos,

building stone, clay, copper, gypsum, iron, lead, manganese, marble, platinum, sandstone, shale, silver, and soapstone* Los Angeles and Mariposa counties were runners-up with eleven items each*

Amador, Napa, San Luis Obispo, and Colusa had

the fewest, each with only one.

The rest of the counties


Official History, 86-90; Benjamin, op. cit *, 409-413*


Official History, 90*


ranged between two and nine.


Of the 45 minerals listed, gold was displayed by more counties (14) than any other mineral.

Tuolumne County ex­

hibited gold in many different forms from over 400 of her mines.

Her golden items included foliated gold, crystallized gold, placer gold, gold gravel, nuggets, and river gold* 15

Many other counties had similar displays of the precious metal.

Amador’s display consisted of five massive pyramids

of gold ore from the Kennedy and other mines. paid $480,000 in dividends in 1893.

The Kennedy

Sierra County had a

huge obelisk representing the $180,000,000 of her total gold production to date****®

Indeed, the Midwinter Pair justified

the use of the state’s sobriquet, California the Golden.” Silver and marble ranked next, with iron and copper closely following.

Six items that were displayed by at least

four counties were asbestos, cinnabar, clay, lead, manganese, and quartz crystals.^ In the main, actual figures for the production of various minerals in the state for the year 1894 do not appear to belie the enthusiastic presentation of mineral Midwinter

***^ See mining chart* 15 16 17

Official History, 90; Benjamin, op* cit., 413. Official History, 88; Benjamin, op. cit», 411* See mining chart*



Petroleum brought over a million dollars to the

state in 1894 although antimony, displayed by three counties, yielded about $6,000. Copper brought $72,486 while gold brought in the enor~ mous sum of $13,863,282.

Iron ore, lead, and manganese sold

for $1,500, $28,500, and $5,512 respectively.


although exhibited by two of the counties, yielded only $517, 75 ounces being mined. $144,834.

Quicksilver bore a respectable amount,

Approximately a quarter of a million dollars of

granite was quarried and lime production reached a total of $318,700.

Marble brought in almost a hundred thousand, while

onyx displayed by three counties yielded $27,000.


paving block, asbestos, and pottery clay brought in $113,592, $66,981, $2,250, and $35,073 respectively.

Gypsum presented

by two counties earned $24,584, while limestone yielded $19,275. ng

Borates displayed only by one county, Inyo, brought in $807,807. It has been estimated that the total mineral production 19 of California In 1894 was well over $20,000,000. All in all, the Midwinter Exposition was a fair representation of the mineral wealth of California, although a few items exhibited


California, Department of Natural Resources Division of Mines, Californla-Mineral Production and Directory ot Mineral Production, Bulletins 111-112, 28-103. 19 263.

Robert Glass Cleland, March of Industry, appendix,


were produced in only negligible quantities#


The scientific and historical aspects were not neglected* The county of Siskiypu had a fine collection of fossils and 21 four rare specimens of picture rock# Prom the You Bet mine at Chalk Bluff there were some wood petrifactions taken out of hydraulic mines at depths of one to two hundred feet below the surface*^

A large number of relics and curios from the

famous Sutter Mill at Colona was displayed by El Dorado County#


Each county had an official day at the Midwinter Expos!-’ tion, which the mining counties used to emphasize further their mineral wealth* 24 The Midwinter Pair also held a general Miners1 Day, at which time many an old codger attended to discuss ”old • 25 times*1 with buddies# A drilling tournament through blocks of solid granite ended that day*s festivities.

In addition

to the mineral exhibit, the Midwinter Exposition had a com­ pletely equipped five stamp quartz mill where the entire pro26 cess was exhibited, from the rock breaker to the gold brick#




Such items as platinum and antimony# Official History, 87# Benjamin, op# cit., 412; Official History, 88*

23 Offtclal History, 89. 24

San Francisco, Chronicle, April 21, 22, 1894*

25 official History, 91; San Francisco, Chronicle, May 22, 23, 1894* 26 Benjamin, op# cit#, 412.


The mining display at the Midwinter Pair was more than adequate.

Visitors were amazed at the superabundance of pre­

cious metals piled haphazardly on racks.

Although the exhibit

was handicapped by inclement weather during the first few months, it ended with twenty-eight counties and many hundreds of mines participating* The Official History of the exposition prophetically pondered:

”It might be that the arable lands will surpass

in richness and in lasting benefits the products of her 27 Californiavs rugged hills and mountains.” The Midwinter Exposition left little doubt about the future of agriculture in California.

By mere preponderance of exhibits, agriculture

had arrived then and there.

The displays of and about agri28 culture made up one half of the fair. Strangers were over­

whelmed and even Californians were amazed.

The reaction to

this superabundant display was depicted in almost poetic prose: 29 Visitors from the East walked beneath old fashioned bell towers built of oranges, through the citrus built portals of a model of California*s capital, and, turn which way they might, there was a gleam of gold on every hand, and the fame of the yellow metal seemed to have been almost eclipsed in the rich yellow of the citrus fruits.

27 Official History, 91. 28 Charles Howard Shinn, 11Agriculture and Horticulture at the Midwinter Pair,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 393* 29 Official History, 93.


The agricultural, like the mining exhibit, suffered from inclement weather.

Through the leaky dome of the agri­

culture building invading rain damaged perishable fruits. 30 But this condition was soon remedied* Although exhibits of the products of the farm and or4

chard made the agricultural display outstanding, California also exhibited rustic instruments of her own make;


orchard tools, harrows, cultivators, fruit wagons, grape shears, fruit dryers, fruit grading machines, digging machines, 31 and levers for use in Irrigation districts* A good portion of the agriculture displays was housed in three structures: the Southern California Building, the main Agricultural and Horticultural Building, and the Northern California Building 32 plus many county buildings* There were twenty-six groupings under agriculture, horticulture, viniculture, and pomology* Some of the groups exhibited such items as cereals, grasses, and forage plants, seeds, seed raising, testing, and distri­ bution. The articles manufactured from agricultural products were not neglected.

Much was made of bread, biscuits, pastes,

starch, and gluten.

Candies were featured as were sugars and

30 Official History, 245. C* H. Shinn, op. cit., 393; Official History, 92* 32 C. H. Shinn, op. cit., 394.



Pood preparations and preserved meats had an extensive


Tea, ooffee, spices, hops, and aromatic and vegetable

substances were very much in evidence as well as fats, oils, soaps, and candles.

Also presented were whiskeys, cider,

liquors, alcohol, and malt liquors.

The machinery for pro­

cessing, fermenting, distilling, bottling, and storing bever­ ages was displayed.

Also featured were an extensive litera­

ture and statistical data on California agriculture.


and dairy machinery, fertilizers, and fertilizing compounds, forestry and forest products had their presentation.

The ex­

hibits on arboriculture rounded out MidwinterrFair*s agricultural offerings. 33 What excited the eye at the Midwinter Pair was the marvelous display of fruits.

Their very presentation to the

public was a notable achievement.

As stated elsewhere, the

original method of display had been developed at the Mechanics Institute Pair of 1892; but this did not seem to lessen the novelty of many of the exhibits* Alameda County displayed within her Moorish styled building a statue of the Goddess of Liberty, eight feet high 34 constructed entirely of almonds. This county in 1889 had over a hundred thousand bearing almond t r e e s . C o l u s a County 33

Official Catalogue, 66.

34 Officii History, 100, 101# ^ Report of the Statistics of Agriculture in the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890, 585. Hereafter cited as the Eleventh Census.

43 36

had a grizzly bear made of prunes«

The entire state of

Galifornia, in 1890, produced over a million bushels of prunes* ' •ZQ Presno County exhibited a life-size effigy of a jack rabbit* ° The Eleventh Census reported that Presno had many almond, lemon, 39 madeira nut, olive, and orange bearing trees in 1889* Tall pyramids of jellies, fruits in jars piled one on the other created a striking display for Kern County* 40 She had over a thousand almond, and fig, and many more thousands of apples, peach, and pear bearing trees by 1889 and 1890* 41 Oranges were shown in a unique manner by the county of Los Angeles*

A huge triumphal arch designed in the oriental style

was covered entirely with oranges, 15,000 of them, and as if this were not enough, a gigantic elephant with a tough hide 42 of English walnuts looked down upon the spectators* Los Angeles had over 19,000 almond, 2,000 fig, 45,000 lemon, 19,000 madeira nut, 79,000 olive, and 472,000 orange bearing


Official History, 100*


Census, 499*

38 39

ici&l History, 104*


41 42

Eleventh Census, 585* ioial History, 106* Eleventh Census, 502, 585*

Official History, 76, 95; The ^Monarch11 City and Sunset Scenes, Portfolio No* l,*Los Angeles County Display*11 Hereafter cited as Sunset City*


trees in 1889.

Oranges sold for $1*77 a box and brought in

over $800*000 for the county in that year.^

Riverside County

displayed a ferris wheel of oranges* 3000 of them, constantly rotating. This county never had less than 20,000 oranges on display. 44 The largest agricultural feature was offered by Sacra45 mento County, a model of the State Capital. The county* as reported by the Eleventh Census * had over 7,000 almond and 46 1*000 olive bearing trees. Santa Barbara County featured 47 Cleopatra’s needle, made of oranges. This county in 1889 had over 4,000 almond* 6,000 lemon* 72*000 madeira nut* 8*000 48 olive, and 8,000 orange bearing trees* The county of Santa Clara had as her central figure the nprime horse and rider” which received a great deal of attention.

A knight in armor

with shield and drawn sword, seated on a ”prancing and gaily 49 caparisoned steed,” was only many times a prune after all.


Eleventh Census * 585, 588* 44

Official History, 95; Sunset City, Portfolio Ho. 10* ”A Wheel o f OrangesT” 45 Official History, 93. 46 Eleventh Census, 585. ^


Official History, 102. Eleventh Census * 585.

^ Sunset City, Portfolio Ho. 2, ”Santa Clara County Exhibit”; Official History, 101.


This county for the year 1889 had over 125*000 almond, 6,000 50 fig, 10,000 madeira nut, and 22,000 olive hearing trees. The county of Shasta displayed a large ball of oranges and apples. apricots.

The word f,ShastaM was worked out in prunes and This county had over 14,000 almond bearing trees. 51

The Indian Ghlef Solano, constructed of fruits and of cereal, overlooked that county’s offerings.

Solano County in 1889

had over 36,000 almond as well as many thousands of apples, 52 apricot, cherry, peach, pear, and plum bearing trees. Tulare County had one of the finest displays, the Porterville Wheel.

This machine was kept in constant motion

by an electric motor.

As the wheel rotated, boxes revealing

raisins, oranges, lemons, prunes, figs, walnuts, peanuts, almonds, nectarines, apricots, apples, pears, plums, cherries, blackberries, grapefruit, sugar beets, all types of vegetables, 53 alfalfa, and cereals came Into view. In the year 1889 Tulare had over 2,000 almond, 9,000 fig, 2,000 olive, 16,000 apple, 41,000 apricot, 121,000 peach, 12,000 pear, and 10,000 plum bearing trees* 54 50

Eleventh Census, 585.

^ Official History, 94, 99; Eleventh Census, 585. 52 Eleventh Census, 502, 585; Official History, 100* ^ Sunset City,. Portfolio No. 8, ’’Porterville Wheel’1; Official History, 98. ^

Eleventh Census, 585, 502.


In addition to the fruit representations California had some unusual vegetables to display.

Gigantic pumpkins, weigh­

ing 145 to 205 pounds, startled incredulous visitors. stock beets weighed 85 to 130 pounds.


One sweet potato tipped

the scales at 28 pounds, and a cucumber grew to be 30 inches long and weighed eight pounds.

There were also 24 ounce 55 peaches and 65 pound cabbages* It would appear that these vegetables were not eaten.

One observer reported f,giant

squashes, pumpkins, turnips, cabbages, beets, carrots, and other vegetables that would take all the prizes at fairs out­ side of California, are heaped together in almost unnoticed confusion.11^ If no one ate them, at least one stock beet caused an individual migration to California.

It was reported that the

head of the Southern Agricultural Association left Indiana 57 permanently because of such a "tall" beet# Superintendent Prank Wiggins, who originally came from Indiana, went home on a visit in 1876. One day he casually mentioned that he had often tied his horse to a beet top while riding about the ranch. Immediately after thi s statement a coldness sprang up between Mr. Wiggins and the neighbors. His folks wept and said they knew Prank would come to some bad end if he went to California. They told him so before he left home and now it had come to pass. This and other things so disgusted Mr. Wiggins that he once more said farewell to Indiana and has been a Califor­ nian ever since. San Francisco, Chronicle, April 15, 1894* C. H. Shinn, op. cit., 398. San Francisco, Chronicle, April 15, 1894.




Counties Alameda Butte Calusa Fresno Humboldt Inyo Kern 1 Lake j Ios Angeles Mariposa! Mendocid Merced I Monterey; Napa | Placer : Riversid Sacramen San Bernard San Diegj San Joaq1 San Inis Ob San Mate] Santa Barb! Santa Cl Santa Cr Siskiyou Shasta | Solano Sonoma Tehama Tulare Ventura Yuba


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t ,{ ’1 ■ »320 columns of

expositional material were printed in San Francisco newspapers Before the fair had officially opened its doors> 770 columns of news matter had been printed.

At one time> 2>462 publica­

tions of three continents used Midwinter Fair material. Nations like England, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Roumania India, and Australia found interest in the goings on at the Midwinter Exposition.


The claim that Midwinter would adver­

tise California to the world appears to be justified. There were many foreign companies and countries ex­ hibiting at the Midwinter Fair.

Canada and Russia, repre­

senting two countries, may serve as examples for the materials usually displayed by the other nations.

The Canadian Depart­

ment of the Interior exhibited coal and other materials as well as manufactured goods. The country also presented 7 agricultural products. The Russian Exposition Company

5 Off ic*8-! History, 256* 6 Ibid., 253, 254. 7 Parks, op. cit., 617-627.

118 featured dolls depleting the change of dress of Russian women through the ages,

Russian-made metal utensils, woolen goods,

and silk articles were on view. jewels glittered in a case.

Russian silver, gold, and

Musical instruments and paintings

by the masters of that country were to be seen.

This exposi­

tion had a fine Tolstoy bookcase which contained nine portraits 8 of the count, representing him at different occupations* Hubert Howe Bancroft asserted that the exposition con­ sisted mainly of foreign exhibits and that the history of the state should have been stressed.

He envisioned an exposition

that would be a vehicle which would carry the entire history of the Pacific Coast before the world, a sort of wood and concrete MWorks.n facts.

This view does not stand up under the

The Midwinter Exposition^ display of the mining and

agriculture of California alone accounts for more than half 9 the floor space of the exposition* Financially, Midwinter Fair had a proud and unusual record for an exposition of its type.

The ledgers of inter­

national fairs usually are written in a blushing red; not so the Midwinter Exposition.

When the liabilities were sub­

tracted the Midwinter Fair had a surplus of $32,464.44.

® Nathan M. Babad, f,Russia at the Fair,11 Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 421-430* 9

Caughey, Hubert Howe Bancroft, 327, 328*



figure speaks well for the economical manner in which the exposition was run*

Nevertheless, the financial condition

of the fair was investigated when rumors of corruption were voiced.

These proved to be baseless in fact. In a paper entitled The Midwinter Steal, the writer

claims exposition officials treated him unjustly.

He had

paid five hundred dollars for sole concessionary privileges which he asserts were later violated.

He objected that he

was threatened to be placed t!near the gentlemen’s toilet where you can’t do any business.w

The Evening Post told him

he could nfind a lawyer who does not fear deYoung, but you „10 can’t find a judge whom Mr. deYoung fears.” After the case was brought to trial it was dismissed although the claimant felt that here too he had been wronged.


This appears to be the only assertion of outright fraud and as such may be dismissed. Statistics are easy to list but the intangibles of the Midwinter Exposition are much more difficult to assess. The Midwinter Pair brought music of high calibre to thousands. The Midwinter Exposition displayed trends and practices in education.

The works of many California artists were presented

in the Arts Building.


Congresses of economics, politics,

Midwinter Steal, May 25, 1894.

11 Ibid., 2-5.

120 religion, literature, and education met, and members to them discussed learnedly a multitude of subjects. An improved architecture which had imagination and harmony stood in a city noted for its exceptional grotesqueness in this respect* Statuary that still stands graced the lawns.

The riches of

the earth, such as copper, silver, and gold pointed to one of Californians basic industries--mining.

Featured were

staples and fruits of almost every kind.


and new varieties of cereals and fruits were to be seen. Amusements of many kinds entertained the people.

The Mid­

winter Fair was a kaleidoscope through whose sights passed a representative portion of California*s industries, farms, thoughts, and people. The exposition did leave a permanent legacy to Golden Gate Park which must have gladdened McLaren*s heart.


winter gave the park the Royal Bavarian Pavilion, statuary, bronzes, and many fine works of art for the museum, the Fine and Decorative Arts Building.

In addition, there were the

Grand Court, including many paved walks, and an item which must have been appreciated by countless lovers--l,100 benches. The total donation to the park was f194,051.19. The Midwinter Fair attained many of its objectives. It had proven to be an attraction drawing attention and people to it from all over the nation and Europe.

One historian

says that 11. . . visitors from abroad declared that in no

121 other section of the country save in the largest cities could 12 such a magnificent exhibition be held.” Some immigrants came, bought land* and so helped to populate the state*


of-state capital flowed into California because of the expo­ sition.

Some unemployed of the area found positions solely

due to the fair.

California was more adequately depicted

here than at Chicago. to the Golden State.

More than half of the fair was devoted The northern and southern sections of

California worked and played in harmony.

One writer in the

California Illustrated claimed that the fair would do more than unite one state The children of tomorrow should go to Sunset City for there they will find the thing for which they pray most— shreds and pictures of the human family knitted together, till it seems out there like the Brotherhood of Man dream realized. The tourist trade certainly was reenforced during the days of Sunset City.

It is apparent that the promises of those who

favored a fair were well founded in the main.

George H.

Tinkham, in California Men and Events, concludes his comment upon the Midwinter Exposition with these words: 14 In San Francisco, everything was on wheels, and the wheels kept moving along until January 1, 1894 when the fair was opened. It Midwinter Exposition was in every sense a splendid success. 1p

George H. Tinkham, California Men and Events, 327*

13 Barbara Ridente, !,Some Citizens of Sunset City,” California Illustrated, V (1894), 408. 14

Tinkham, op. cit., 317. opened January 27, 1894.

The exposition officially




Art Views Midwinter Fair and the Golden State Ho• 2• Francisco,1894•


Atherton, Gertrude, Golden State Country. Hew York, 1945* ______ , Mg San Francisco. New York, 1946. Brice, James, The American Commonwealth* New York, 1881. California Midwinter International Exposition 1894, Official Catalogue, Department of Fine Arts. SanFrancisco, 1894. Caughey, John Walton, California. New York, 1940. ______ , Hubert Howe Bancroft. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1946 Cleland, Robert Glass and Hardy, Osgood, March of Industry. Los Angeles, 1929. Hanna, Phil. Townsend, California Through Four Centuries, A Handbook of Memorial Historical Dates. New York, 1&357 Hunt, Rockwell D., ed*, California and Californians. New York, 1926.


James, George Wharton, Heroes of California. Boston, 1910. The Midwinter Steal.

San Francisco, 1894.

The ^Monarch*1 Souvenir of Sunset City and Sunset Scenes. San Francisco, 1894. The Official Catalogue of the California Midwinter Inter­ national Exposition. San Francisco, 1894. The Official Guide to the California Midwinter Exposition in Golden Gate Park. San Francisco, 1694. The Official History of the California Midwinter International Exposition. San Francisco, 1894. Tinkham, George H., California Men and Events.

Stockton, 1915


Wood, J. H., Seventy-five Years of History of the Mechanics Institute of San Francisco, San Francisco, 1930• B.


California, State Board of Horticulture, Fourth Biennial Report. Sacramento ,~T894. Congressional Record,


Report of the Statistics of Agriculture in the United States at the Eleventh Census, Washington D.C., 1890, Symons, Henry H., California Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines, California MineFal Production and Directory of Mineral Production, Bulletins111-112. Sacramento, 1935• C. San Francisco, Argonaut,


San Francisco, California Midwinter Fair, Daily Official Program and Journal. 1894, , San Francisco, Chronicle.

1893 and 1894,

The Philadelphia, Public Ledger. D.



Babad, Nathan M., ”Russia at the Fair,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 421-430. Bacon, T. R., ”Education at the Midwinter Fair,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 352-355. Bates, E. S., ”Some Breadwinners of the Fair,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 374-384. Benjamin, Edward H., ”The Mineral Exhibit,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 409-413.

deYoung, M. H., ’’Benefits of the Midwinter Exposition,” California Illustrated, V (1894), 393-395. Haimnerton, C. M., ’’Rambles in the Midway,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 356-370. Has son, W. F. , ’’The Lighting of the Fair,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 385-389. Mathews, Arthur F., ”ln the Fine Arts Building,” California Illustrated, V (1894), 409-412. Moses, Bernard, ”The Midwinter Fair Congresses,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 371-373. Parks, Fred Warren, ’’Two Notable Exhibits,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 617-627. Payne, N. E., ’’Wild and Wooly at the Fair,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 356-370. Peatfield, J., ’’The California Exposition,” California Illus­ trated, V (1893), 145-151. Phelan, J. D., ”ls the Midwinter Fair a Benefit,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 390-392. Ridente, Barbara, ’’Some Citizens of Sunset City,” California Illustrated, V (1894), 530-536. Roberts, Edward, ’’Some Architectural Effects,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 341-351. Scientific America, LXXI (1894), 24. Shinn, Charles Howard, ’’Agriculture and Horticulture at the Midwinter Fair,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 393-400. Shinn, M. W., ”San Francisco’s Midwinter Fair,” The Critic, XXIV (1894), 57-58. Stanton, J. A., ’’Impressions of the Art Display,” Overland Monthly, XXIII (1894), 401-409. Weaver Jr. P., ’’The California Midwinter International Expo­ sition,” Overland Monthly, XXII (1893), 449-462. Wiggins, Frank, ’’The Midwinter Fair,” Land of Sunshine, I (1894), 39. U niversity of S o u th e rn California Library