Social organization and change in a Czech-American rural community: A sociological study of Snook, Texas

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Social organization and change in a Czech-American rural community: A sociological study of Snook, Texas

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s o c ia l o m m iz m o n m o change in a c m k -a m m x g a i genua OOmmiTTi A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF SHOOK, TEXAS

A D iss e rta tio n Submitted to the Graduate Faculty o f the L ouisiana S ta te U niversity and A g ric u ltu ra l and Mechanical College in p a r t i a l fu lfillm e n t o f the requirem ents fo r the degree of Doctor o f Philosophy In The Department of Sociology

by Hebert Leonard Skrabanek B. S ., Texas A g ricu ltu ral and Mechanical College, 1 9 ^ M. S ., Texas A g ric u ltu ra l and Mechanical College, 19U7 August, 19^9

UMI Number: DP69346

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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M nm am em My tat***** i n tit* f t « ld o f le v e l sociology and 1* the ebudy Of Gseeh people m i f i r s t stim ulated by f r e f e ts e r B aaiel R ussell * f ferns* Agri c u ltu ra l and Mechanical O ellege, to whom 1 grabefmXy ac­ knowledge ay indebtedness* f* Fro fe a so r Hosier &* H | t 4 le a d of the Departments o f Sociology and S ural Sociology o f th e L ouisiana S ta te U n iv e rsity , and ay m ajor pro­ f e s s o r, I m p a r tic u la r ly g r a te f u l.

His e v e r-p a tie n t encouragement and

c o n stru c tiv e e r i t i d e a s aade I t p o ssib le fo r t h i s study to he c a rrie d t h r o e # to l i e completion. f* y ro fesee r Vernon «?, f r o n t o n o f the L ouisiana S tate t& ivere ity Department o f Sociology, whose p a tie n t hut c r i t i c a l counsel has c o n trib u te d much towards any m e rits t h i s study may have, sp e cia l thanks a r e sin c e re ly extended. Indebtedness I s a ls o acknowledged to P ro fesso rs Hudolf H eberle, Marion B. Smith, and % ly a a Smith,* a l l o f idiom were my p ro fesso rs in th e L ouisiana S ta te U n iv e rsity Department o f Sociology, fo r o rie n ta tio n I n th e f i e l d o f Sociology, stim u latin g guidance i n Claes work, and a con­ s ta n t w illin g n e ss to a s s i s t the w r ite r by every means p o ssib le . th e w rite r a ls o wishes to express h is thanks to P ro fesso rs M artin B. Woodin and frank B. B&rlow fo r an o rie n ta tio n in the f i e l d o f A gricul­ tu r a l Economics.

* P ro fe sso r Smith 1« p re s e n tly d ire c to r o f the B ra silia n I n s titu te and chairman e f the Sociology Department a t V anderbilt U n iv ersity .

378- nL

Lf|3o4 n ^ -C j

C.0 ?•

11

F in a lly , th e a u th o r i s f u l l y aware o f h is indebtedness to h is fello w graduate stu d e n ts whose names a re too numerous to l i s t s e p a ra te lj f o r h e lp fu l suggestions throughout the w r ite r ’ s p e rio d of academic train in g and in th e course o f t h i s study a t L ouisiana s ta te U n iv ersity .

ill

m s of m m m pam , ............................................................................. .

. ,

i%

#' •'

vi

** .

iX

. * *

xi

,

1

Bftture ftnd Scope of Study. ........................... Purpose of th e Study Def in i tio n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Place of th e S iuly In the F ie ld of Rural Sociological Bee ear oh . . .................................... . B. Review of S elected L ite ra tu re P e rta in in g to th e Subject F« Methodology* G, Order o f P r e s e n t a t i o n ,.................... . , .

1 3 A

W b t (B TABLSG,- . «

■ • • • , * »■ « . ■ . « » .

■ • * * *’ *■«•

LIST 0? FI GUILES ABSTRACT. . ....................

. ,.

CHAP®®

I.

ISTBOmGflOl Am B. 0. B.

ii.

gbsbhal QHAMAomixsnm o f th e A im , ,

9 11 27 .

29

A* Location of the C o r m ir ity ,................................

29

B*

3s

Topography an d S o l i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

G. C lim ate, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.

.................. .

Occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E. S ervice C enters, . . .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . P.

III.

IV,

T r a n s p o r ta tio n a n d Ooissmnieatioii

HISTORICAL BACOTlGNHB............................. A* Background o ’ Czech M igration to America * ..................... B. Why the Czechs Migrated to America . . . . . . . . . . C, Why the Gsechs Came tr> Ciook . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. A djusting to the Hew aaavirorment . . . . . . . . . . . 35. Growth and Development o f the Snook Community.................

71

THU POPULATION........................................................

79

A. B.

The The 1.

§2

Number and D istrib u tio n of the Population. . . . . SO Composition of th e Population................................. S3 Age Composition...................... S3

2.

Sex C om petition. ,

3.

N a t i v i t y ............. ..............................................................

.................................................

iv

99

9^

CHAPTSE

PAQfl

C*

ffee V ital P rocesses: f e r t i l i t y and M ortality* • * , . . 100 1* f e r t i l i t y . . . . ......................................... .... . . . , 101 . . , . 105 2* M o rta lity .................................* 3* M atural In cre ase # * • • .................. . . . . . . 10® D..... M igration . . * * ........................ log ................. I l l 1* l& gration to Snook: 2* M igration from Snook ............................. 113 3* D e stin atio n of the M ig r a n ts . . , . 115

7.

MSMXVft.A* A WAT Of M W • *

.



A. S.

The A M lity of th e Czech As a farm er . . . . . . . . . . 11® She 0 te c h 's A g ric u ltu ra l Background As a C onditioning f a c to r , .................... . ..................... 121 C. Czech A g ric u ltu re Today. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12h 1 . Land Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 2. f a r s Tenancy . , ...................... ** , * 13j 3* sann-to-ffarw M igration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13® k. Techniques o f A griculture* 13® 1 * farm ing as An Occupation I s .Becoming Less Popular. * . • loO

VI.

V II.

v iii*

ISSTIT0T1CHALIZBD fOBKS Of Q RW IS& fim . « * * * * . . * ♦ .

1®3

A..... S ocial S tr a tif ic a tio n in th e Community ........................ 1®® B. The fam ily in Snook.................... C. R eligion and th e Local Church, . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Iwducation and the Snook Mural High School* . . . . . . . S* Government and Local P o litic s * . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17^ IS® 207 221

HOB-INSTXTOTIONALIJ® FORMS OP QMMI 2&3M *. * * . * .

. . .

220

A. Touth In the Community ■ • # » • * * * • • * #, • B. Informal R ecreation and L eisu re Time A c tiv itie s . . * * * C. O r^ n ie a tio n e and Clubs la Snook . . * . , * . . . . • D. L evels of L iving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

220 23h 2§2 26l

scm A si m v o o m u sio sss..................... . * . * * . .

BIHiIOGHAPHT.......................................* ......................... APP&IDIX

. * . . . * 275 . . . . .

29®

.......................................................................................................... 30^

BIOGRAPHY........................* ................................

V

30®

LI SIP OF TABLES

TABLE I*

BAG Household® Surveyed in th e Study, According to Occupa­ tio n and Generatlon o f le a d , Snook Community, 19*48* . * •

2

II,

Re*ident® o f th e Snook Community C la s s ifie d "by Age* Sex* and G eneration, 19*48.................... . . . . . . . .

III,

Percentage o f Population in S p e c ific Age C ategories fo r Snook (19*46) and th e White Rural Population® o f Burleson County, Texas, and th e In i te d S ta te s (19*10) By Sex, . . .

%{

Index 1 umbers Shoeing R e la tiv e Im p o rtan ce o f Age Categor­ i e s f o r Snook (19hS) and th e White Rural Populations o f Burleson County and fern s (19*40). . . . . . . . . . . . .

%

P laee o f B irth o f P resent P opulation, By Sex and Genera­ tio n , Shook Community, 19*iS , . , , , , , , , • , , , . •

lie

Farm Owners C la s s ifie d According to Occupational Group and G eneration, Snook Community, 19hS .................................

126

XT,

V, TI, VII, T ill. IX ,

X.

XI, X II.

X III.

XI?.

Farm Owners C la s s if ie d According to Size of Holding®, Snook Community, 19*48

130

Bead® o f Farm F am ilies C la s s ifie d According to Tenure S ta tu s and G eneration, Snook Community, 19*48, • , , . , ,

133

Head® o f Farm Fam ilies C la s s ifie d According to Length of Occupation of Farms and G eneration, Snook Community, 19*$

IXf

Opinions Expressed by Farm O perators With Respect to the A g ric u ltu ra l Conservation Program, According to Tvp© and G eneration o f O perator, Snook Community, 19*48 . . . . . .

1*$

Head® of Farm Fam ilies C la s s ifie d According to Type o f Power Used on Farm and G eneration, Snook Community* 19*48,

150

Head® of Farm F am ilies C la s sifie d According to Types of T ran sp o rtatio n V ehicles Owned and G eneration, Snook Com­ munity, 19*48. ........................ . . . . . .

153

Heads o f Farm Fam ilies C la s s ifie d According to Coopera­ tiv e Ownership o f Farm Equipment and G eneration, Snook Community, 19*$ , . . * ................................

156

Opinions Expressed by Snook's fa m ilie s With Respect to Negroes T oting in General 3£Lnotions, According to Type and Generation of Family Head, 19*48.........................................

170

vi

TAM

XT*

XVX* XVII.

XVIII.

PA

M arital Statu* o f th e Population lf> Tsar* Old and Over by Sex f o r Snook {I9H8) and the White Rural Population ©f fexa* (X9U0) *

It

Denominational Membership of Snook1* Population 15 Tears Old and Over According to Sex, 19*$,

14

P reference of Language to he Heed In Church S e rrio e i m Expressed by Snook1* Population 10 Tears o f Age and Over, by G eneration, IfbS 2C Language Most Frequently Spoken In Saook1* Hone* Between P a re n ts, Between P arents and C hildren, and Between C hil­ dren, According to Type and Generation o f Family Stead, 19H S

20

Opinion* Expressed a* to Whether Czech Should be T&ught in the Local Hi^h School, According to type m d Generation o f fam ily Head, Snook Community, 19hS. . . . . . . . . .

21

Person* 25 Tear* Old and Over, by Tears of School Com** p le te d , by G eneration, Snook Community, l^hS . . . . . .

21

Czechs 10 Tears Old and Over Who Have Attended Czech School, by Generation and Sen, Saook Community, 19*# * •

211

Language A b ility of Caedh* 10 Tears o f Age and Over, According to Generation and Sex, Snook Community, 1JM .

221

Czech* 21 Tears o f Age and Over Who Voted in L ast Elec­ tio n , According to Generation and Sox, Snook Community, 1 9 ^ . . , . ■................................................................

22S

Type* of Newspapers and Magazine* Received in Snook's Home*, According to Generation of Family Head, 19^0. . .

2b2

Gwnerehip o f Radio* in Snook* s Homes, According to Gener­ a tio n o f Family Head, 19hS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2k]

Hour* Per Bay Snook1* Fam ilies L isten to Radio, Accord­ in g to G eneration of Family Head, 19*# . . . . . . . . .

2h7

Radio Program P reference of Snook* * Fem llies Possessing Radios, According to Gar*©ration o f Family Head, 19*$ . .

2hS

_. . . . .

SIX.

XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII.

XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII, XXVIII,

Motion P ic tu re Attendance Baring th e Tear f o r Snook*s Population 10 Tear* o f Age and Over, According to Gener­ a tio n , 19l$ . . . . ........................ , , , , ......................... v li

25L

TA3L&

XXIX, XXX, XxXX. XXXII, XXXIII, XXXIT, XXI'iV,

PAG®

Types of $ ateriA l Used f o r th e Well* o f Snook1* Homes, According to G eneration o f fam ily Head* 19^6, . * * , ,

263

dumber of Boom* in Snook** Homes« According to Genera­ tio n o f Family Head* l^ H S ........................ . . .................

266

Source o f w ater Supply In Snook1s Home*, According to G eneration o f Family Head* 19*$

266

M a t i n g F a c i l i t i e s Used in Snook1* Home*. According to G eneration o f Family Head* 19*$

269

Laundry F a c i l i t i e s in Snook1 * Homes, According to Gsnera tlo a o f Family Head* 19*$

270

Types o f R e frig e ra tio n Used in Snook* s Homes, According to Generation o f Family Head* 19*$,

271

Types o f Fuel Used in Snook1* Homes f o r Oooklng Pur­ poses, According to Generation o f Family Head, 19^6 . .

272

APPM3IX B. I,

S elected S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Snook Congregation of th e E vangelical Unity of the Czech-Moravian B rethren in , , . . Texas, 1 9 ^ - 19^7...................

riii

30?

LIST 01* Pt CURBS

PIGURB 1,

M Snook* s "Main S treet* - A view of the M&in Business S ectio n , 19hS. ^

*

2*

Hep ©f fe m e Shoving Location o f Burleson County in Which th e Snook Community I s Looated * , , . , , . ^ ^ ,

3.

Hsp of Burleson Q©unty, Texas, Showing Location o f the ..................... . . i . * , , , &o©k G©$ffi»aaity.

U.

Z

fhe Ecology o f Snook Community, Burleson County, Texas, Shoving p a tte rn o f Land Settlem ent, l^hg . . . ........................

;

5*

A W ell-to-do C ottager*a Dwelling in Osechosi 0vaJdLa . . ,

6.

Age-Sex Pyramid f o r the White Rural Population o f the ........................................................................£ U nited S ta te s , 19*40.

7.

Age-Sex pyramid f o r th e White Rural Population ©f fe rn s , IS 1#

8. 9. 10.

11.

*

8

Age-Sex Pyramids f o r the White Rural Population of Burleson County, Texas, 191#

8

Age-Sex pyramids f o r the Czech Population o f Snook Com­ munity, Burleson County, f e rn s , 19*# » . . * « . • • « *

9

Index Humbers Moving the R e la tiv e Importance of Each Age Group f o r Snook (19*18) and th e White Rural Populations of Burleson County and Texas (19*#) • • » * • • • « . .

9

Sex R atios by Age fo r Snook (19^8) and th e White Rural Populations o f Burleson County, fe rn s , and the United S ta te s (19*#)............................................. . . . ............................

9*

12.

B irth Rates fo r Snook (19^8) and the White Rural Popu­ l a t i o n o f Burleson County, Terns, and the U nited S ta te s ( 1 9 ^ » ..............................................................................................................10]

1 3.

f e r t i l i t y R atios f o r Snook (19*#) and the White Rural Populations of Burleson County, Texas, and the U nited S ta te s (19*Z0)..................................................

lb .

Crude Death Bates f o r Snook (19*#) and th e White Rural Populations of Burleson County, Texas, and th e u n ite d S ta te s (19li0)........................................................................................... ix

..,.10*

107

nmm 15*

n In fa n t M o rtality H ates f o r Snook (19U&) and the White Hural Populations of Sorleson County, Texas* and the Uni to d S ta te s (19*K>). , ....................................

1

m p o f Texas Shewing D estin atio n of Pearsons M igrating Pro is Snook.

1

17.

Typical Barm Layout In the Snook Gomimsnlty, 19*$# • * •

1

18.

Haw Sot ton Belonging to Snook’s Banners W aiting to he Ginned a t one o f th e two Gina lo c a te d in the Snook Comou n ity , 19^ . ....................

1

The Czech-Moraviaa Brethren Church In the Snook Gosssun* ity * I 9h8

1

20.

The Snook Bnral H i # School, 19l$

2

21.

The 5PJST Lodge Hall Located in the Snook Community, i 9^ s ............................................

a

An Average Barm Home in th e Snook G m n a l ty f 19*$ . . .

%

16.

19.

22.

x

...................

msm&G f The purpose of t h is study I s to describe and analyse the n a tu re o f s o c ia l o rg a n isa tio n and change in Snook, a Czech ru r& l-fa rs commonI t j in fe rn s . The time in te rv a l covered by th e study i s from 188b to th e presen with sp e cia l emphasis on the year 19^8 , when the b a sic survey data f o r % community were gathered.

The primary sources o f data u t i l i s e d a re perso

in terv iew s and f ir s t- h a n d observation.

Individual schedules were emtmer

te d fo r each fam ily in th e a re a stu d ied , end a lif e - tim e acquaintance wi th e people and the n a tu re of l i f e in the coHBsnnlty i s u t i l i s e d in d e sc ri in g some o f the changes th a t have taken p la c e ,

to r purposes o f analyzin

so c ial change, the M? ic tu r e of eosnmmity l i f e " was "fro zen ," and the re s ponses of g ran d fath er, f a th e r , and grandson a re considered.

On the hast

o f th e data thus obtained, the change c h a ra c te riz in g s p e c ific modes of behavior i s a p p ra ise d ., The c u ltu re of the group which i s given sp ecial co nsideration in t h i s study i s ro o ted in developments which date back sev eral c e n tu rie s, when d if f e r e n t powers ru le d in Czechoslovakia a t v arious tim es.

Especial

under Hapeburg r u le , only small lan d holdings were l e f t to th e peasan ts. Land was a t such a premium th a t i t I s alm ost worshiped by the Czechs eves to the p re se n t day.

P ersecuted fo r th e ir re lig io u s and p o litic a l belief*

th e ir language and c u ltu re suppressed, they wore convinced th a t em igrate was b e t t e r than A ustrian tyranny. The f i r s t Czech fam ily a rriv e d in wh t i s now known as the Snook community in 188b,

Within the b r ie f span of some ten y e a rs, th e a re a wai

s e t t l e d by t h i s n a tio n a lity t^r up, and a Czech c u ltu ra l Isla n d was create 3d

The s e t t l e r s g et up a community o rg an isatio n o f th e ir own go th a t t h e ir na t i r o customs, hafci t s , language, so d a l v alu es, and tr a d itio n s brought w ith them to America could he preserved. The p rin c ip a l f i n d i n g ©f the study a re as follow s: 1.

Farming may be sa id to he n o t only a d is tin c tiv e form o f work

w ith the Osech, h u t i t i s a ls o a d is tin c tiv e mode of l i f e .

A few o f the

tr a d itio n a l farm ing methods have remained unchanged, tout the tr a c to r i s re p la c in g the mule, the t r a i l e r le supplanting the wagon, and th e pick-u tru c k i s tak in g the p lac e o f the autom obile a s the c h ie f means of power and tra n s p o rta tio n .

Although $$ p er cent o f the t&m fam ily members who

a r e p h y sic a lly a b le to work a s s i s t the fam ily head in the f i e l d s , m igraI to ry la b o re rs from Mexico harv est a major p o rtio n of the cotton crop. L i t t l e u se i s being made of farm c r e d it, since over 95 per cent of the la n d h oldings a r e d e b t-fre e ,

A high percentage of la n d ownership e x ists,

lven so, a general change seems to have taken p lace In the way th a t the farm o p e ra to rs view t h e i r occupation, f o r i t appears th a t the younger people do mot view farm ing a s s a t is f a c to r i l y as do t h e i r p aren ts or grant p a re n ts .

T rad itio n s o f farm ing and la n d holding, however, a re so stron g

In th e community th a t a g ric u ltu re dominates the very ex isten ce and even 1 a co n sid erab le ex ten t molds th e a tt i tu d e s of every Snook re s id e n t. 2.

I t i t d i f f i c u l t to discern any d e a r - c u t c la ss s tru c tu re In t*

community.

In f a c t , e s s e n tia lly the same s itu a tio n w ith resp e c t to socle

s t r a t i f i c a t i o n p re v a ils today a s wag found in the e a r l i e s t days of Snook* development. 3.

The Czech fam ily in Snook o p erates as an economic a s well a s a

so c ia l u n i t , and fam ily t i e s a re strong.

x ii

Only seven cases of in te rm a rria

w ith non-CBSchs e x is t in th e community, and the only divorced person was m arried to an Anglo-Saxon.

The average number o f ch ild ren horn© p er wife

d e c lin e a w ith each successive g e n eratio n , and the wives mho a re p a rtn e rs in mixed m arriages h ear the l e a s t number o f c h ild re n . h.

Over four out o f fiv e persons she a re f if te e n years o f age and

over In Snook*a population belong to th e Czech-Moravian B rethren Denomin­ a tio n .

Gradual changes and compromises have re s u lte d in an © ver-increas­

in g use o f the E ^ L isb language In the a c t i v i t i e s o f the church*

Although

th e church uses both the E nglish and Czech languages In i t s a c t i v i t i e s , the former language i s used e x clu siv ely in only one church-sponsorsd organisa­ tio n .

Two o rg an iz atio n s conduct th e i r business m eetings so le ly in Gsech.

Today cue sermon in E nglish i s p resen te d for every fo u r th a t a re i n Cseeh. SagLldh i s slowly re p la c in g Gsech* however* not only in the church b u t a lso in o th e r phases o f community l i f e ,

fhe l a t t e r s t i l l predom inates in Snook*s

homes, but the younger people are making le s s use o f the Czech languagethan a re the o ld s te r s . 5.

fhe community re s id e n ts a re proud o f th e i r modern consolidated

high school* but the Czech school a ls o has been an im portant fa c to r I n the l i v e s o f th e re s id e n ts in the p a s t,

fhe in flu en ce o f the Gsech school has

ra p id ly declined* however, and i t has discontinued operation in recen t y ears. 6.

Ifew changes b*v© taken p lace in the o p eratio n o f government and

p o l i t i e s in Snook* but the younger people a re more a c tiv e a t the p o lls than a r e t h e i r fa th e rs or g ran d fath ers.

L i t t l e i n te r e s t i s displayed in e ith e r

p re c in c t or county e le c tio n s u n less a Czech i s seeking an o f f ic e .

Almost

a l l o f those ^ho ex ercise th e ir v o tin g p riv ile g e s vote the s tra ig h t Demo­ c r a t i c tic k e t in n a tio n a l e le c tio n s . 7.

The d if f e r e n t forms of re c re a tio n and le is u r e time a c t i v i t i e s

have undergone many changes in the p a s t few y ears. V isitin g between fam ilie s x ili

i s becoming le s s fre q u e n t.

At one tim e, gatherings of many types were

a tte n d e d lay every person In the community, b u t to toy only a few a tte n d such fu n c tio n s.

A1 though Caech-language ptxtiLlc&tlons predominate in Snoo

homes, only th e o ld e r people p re fe r th ese to lagXish^l&ngti&ge pub licatio n *he o p p o site Is tru e fo r th e younger members of the popu latio n .

S ot only

do a la r g e r proportion of th© th ir d generation fa m ilie s possess radios* b u t they a lso spend more time lis te n in g to them than do the o ld e r genera­ tio n fa m ilie s ,

She young people a tte n d more movies than do e ith e r th e i r

p a re n ts or grandparents,

Gsech-language p ic tu re s in a nearby town a re no

e s p e c ia lly popular, b u t they a re a tten d ed more fre q u e n tly by the o l t e r people than by the younger r-ersons, •;8 ,

fhe Czechs belong to many d if f e re n t o rg a n isa tio n s,

Among thes

th e benevolent lodges a re th e mast popular and in f lu e n tia l in th e common! b u t th e ir importance i s d e clin in g , 9,

H abits in simple liv in g in Snook a re being m odified, and the

le v e l o f l iv in g appears to be r is in g .

Comparisons rev eal th a t in general

th e p roportions o f fa m ilie s which possess se le c te d household conveniences and lu x u rie s r i s e w ith each succeeding g eneration, the t h ir d owning more conveniences than the second, and th e second more than the f i r s t .

Since

most o f the items considered were unknown to Snook's re s id e n ts ten years ago, the eoaelaaion may be drawn th a t w ithin the p a s t few years th e le v e l o f l iv in g has in creased considerably.

xiv

F igure 1 .

Snook's “Matin S treet" - A View o f th e Main Business Section, 19^8

Bote th e r e la tiv e absence o f new autom obiles. Most o f the gasoline pumps wiiich can he seen a re manually-*©perated even though, e le c t r i c power i s a v a ila b le .

CHAPOT I IHYROMJCflOt

A* mawasal teas. s£ mitt $h# problems which confront a l l phases o f r u r a l so c ie ty a re la rg e ly th e r e s u l t o f so c ia l change.

Indeed, i f one were to tra c e the o rig in s o f

the growth o f sociology, he would he a b le to show t h a t i t aro se p rim a rily a s a response to a c c e le ra te d changes demanding s o c ia l adjustments.^* Many r u r a l Csech communities in th e U nited S ta te s hate undergone c o n sid erab le change i n th e course o f th e p a st 60 y e ars.

Other r u r a l Cseoh

Communities which outw ardly appear sim ila r in n a tu re h*ve changed comparajg t i t e l y slow ly. n e v e rth e le ss, a l l changes - e s p e c ia lly those in th e so c ial sphere - hare had im portant s o c ia l, m oral, and p h y sical consequences fo r th e r u r a l Gsecfc p o p u latio n s. The innovations sometimes c la sh more v io le n tly with the tra d itio n a l folkways and so re s than I s consonant w ith the so c ia l and moral evolution o f

1 f h l s view point I s the c e n tra l th e s is o f Barry l i n e r Barnes* Society in t r a n s it i o n (Hew Yotfc; Brent ic e -H a ll, I n c ., 1939); U. H. ft. Bessard*s Social Change and Social Problems (lew fo rk : Harper and B rothers, 193b),| and' Ifsw ell j . j l m^sT o f Social Change {lew York; fhomas Y. Crowell Company, 1939) * r& e e e o o E e give a 'v iv iT 'p ic tu re o f how so c ial problems a r is e from a changed environment. 2 Although i t I s not w ithin the scope o f t h i s work to o u tlin e any theory o f so c ia l change or to sp e cify a l l the types o f change which can and do take p lace in communities, i t may be noted th a t Carle C. Zimmerman s ta te s th a t the fo rc e s bringing about so c ia l change can be e ith e r (1) c a ta stro p h ic o r (2) g rad u al, (fh e Changing Community. Hew Yorks Harper and B rothers, 1932)# P* 27.

1

2 th e community.

3he c h a r a c te r is tic fe a tu re a o f th e community re s i l e n t s,

th e r u r a l c h a rac ter and tr a d itio n , have in p la c e s been u n n ece ssa rily wiped o u t.

On th e o th e r hand, e f f o r t s a t progress i n o th e r communities

hare been re ta rd e d fey conservatism and backwardness. 3 th a t

such a

I t i s no wonder

so c ia l re a lity # so w idely spread, so many-sided, and so impor­

ta n t

l a i t s so c ia l fu n c tio n has received so much a tte n tio n from so many h d i f f e r e n t so c io lo g ic a l p o in ts o f view. She w rite r lass spent most o f h is l i f e In a Cseeh-Americ&n ru ra l ooamuaity - Snook* Sosas.

Soring the course o f t h i s time he has feecome

in te r e s te d in th e so cio lo g ical re la tio n s h ip s which c h a ra c te rise the com­ m unity.

He has observed the changes which have taken p lac e and has seen

some o f the problems which have a ris e n a s a consequence of t h i s phenomenon, fo one in te r e s te d i n the group l i f e o f human beings, a q u estio n Immediately a r i s e s a s to the n a tu re and sig n ific an c e o f the so c ia l m o to rs involved, n o t only in th e d ir e c t e ff e c t upon the people themselves# b u t a ls o l a the group o rg a n isa tio n which p re v a ils . t h i s study, then, concerns th e n atu re and e x te n t o f the changes in some phases

o f the

s o c ia l o rg a n isa tio n o f a Gsech community in f ix e s .

a ttem p t w ill fee made to In d ic a te the fa c to rs resp o n sib le fo r the changes and to show th e e f f e c t o f these changes on so cial o rg an isatio n , and conse­ q u en tly on the p opulation,

ffce study I s p rim a rily concerned w ith c u ltu r a l

3 foreword fey J o s e f Zadna in l a r e l C a lls, sociology o f .|he Coopera­ tiv e Movement l a the Qgecho Slovak V illag e (Prahaj' gp'oiek Pecs 0 l i r a Venkova, 19 3&)t P*~5> ^ Among th ese who have devoted close a tte n tio n to the study o f so c ial change and i t s e f f e c ts on population from a so c io lo g ica l viewpoint a re fun­ n ie s , Burkfaeim, Cooley, Sumner, Spongier, Ward, S i wood, Ogbum, and many o th e rs .

An

3 o r s o c ia l change*

I f th e n atu re o f s o c ia l change in & ru ra l community i s

to be understood to I t s f u l l e s t , th e o b jec tiv e i s b e s t approached from the stan d p o in t o f so c ia l organisation*

'Sfcerefor©, i t i s e s s e n tia lly a study

in r u r a l s o c ia l o rg a n isa tio n and s o c ia l change in a Osech-Americaa farming community* **

t c r t c s ^ e f th e study

In making t h i s study the in v e s tig a to r has two broad o b je c tiv e s in Z' mind* (She f i r s t o b je c tiv e i s to attem pt to disco v er the n ature o f r u r a l so c ia l o rg a n isa tio n In a Osech r u r a l community in f i m s l

fh© second ob­

je c tiv e i s to in v e s tig a te th e n a tu re o f so c ial change in the community in question* More s p e c if ic a lly , tike purpose o f ‘f ee study i s to fin d answers to th e follow ing q u eati one: (1) What a re th e c h a r a c te r is tic s o f the community and o f fee papula#t i on of fee community?

(2 )

What a re the sp ecial i n s t it u t io n s and agencies

which p lay an im portant p a rt in fee s o c ia l o rg a n isa tio n o f the

go

immunity?

( 3) What place does fee community occupy in the s o c ia l o rg a n isa tio n o f the a rea?

(b) Which nodes o f behavior tr a d itio n a l to Gseoh people have per­

s i s te d in t h i s lo o a le o f the new w orld and which modes o f behavior have changed?

(§) What have been fee causes o f these p e rs iste n c e s and changes?

( 6) What have been fee e f f e c ts of th ese changes on the population in re s­ p ect to group s o lid a rity ?

Some term s have been and w ill be meed which re q u ire d e fin itio n , th e term #so c ia l ©hangs,» f o r purposes o f t h i s study, i s used in the broad sense to Include both * so c ia l change* and *c u ltu ra l change,* Change, in g e n eral, i s defin ed a s any a lt e r a t io n i n th e p o s itio n or the c o n d itio n o f anything from a s ta te prev io u sly e x is te n t.

th e re fo re so c ial

change i s any a l t e r a t i o n o f the previous p o sitio n o f so c ia l o r c u ltu r a l phenomena, Xu form ulating t h i s d e fin itio n , the w rite r recognises the fheb th a t some so c io lo g is ts make a d is tin c tio n between so c ia l change and eUU t u r a l change.

MacIvor, fo r in sta n c e , p o in ts c u t th a t the two terms have i d if f e r e n t meanings, R eferring to t h is p a rtic u la r point* he w rite s a s follow s: Social change i s a d i s t in c t tiling from c u ltu ra l or c iv i l is a t i o n s ! change,.,We must I n s i s t th a t our d ir e c t concern o f so c io lo g is ts i s w ith so c ia l re la tio n s h ip s . I t I s the change i n these which alone we s h a ll regard a s so c ia l change, When we speak of so c ia l evolution* we sh a ll not speak e f human evolution, but only m a sp e c t e f i t , nor s h a ll we mean c u ltu ra l ev o lu tio n , b u t only a concomitant o f i t . MaeXver then d e fin e s so cial change a s: "th e changing ways i n which human b ein g s r e l a te them selves to die another, the p rocesses which i n s t i t u ­ tio n s and o rg a n isa tio n s undergo* the transform ation o f the so c ia l stru c tu re the fo rces th a t b rin g them about,

5 B arle 2. Eubank, She Concepts o f Sociology (Mew Tork* and Company* 1932) j p,

8* 0, Heath

^ Robert H. MaeXver, Socle ffis A Textbook in Sociology (lew Tork: fs.tv&T and R inehart, Inc.* i f f f f j p p . 39^39^* 7 I b i d ., p, 396.

9 O ther s o c io lo g is ts make a di a tin o tio a between so c ia l change and c u ltu r a l change,8 b a t sev eral prominent w rite rs i n th e f i e l d view the two term s &a being synonymous,

Paul K. L andis, f o r In stan ce, s ta te s th a t the

tendency teems to have been to co n sid er so c ia l change and c u ltu ra l change a s term s th a t nay be need interchangeably.

I t a le e s ta te s th a t fo r pur­

poses o f some studies* »a d is tin c tio n m y not be necessary sin ce th e s o c ia l and c u ltu ra l a re v i t a l l y r e la te d .

Ogburp i s an ath er s o c io lo g ist

who b e lie v e * th a t a d is tin c tio n i s n o t necessary.

In fact* he s t a te s that*

Mso c ia l e v o lu tio n include* a la rg e p a rt o f the e v o lu tio n o f c u ltu r e , v ir* tu a lly a l l but m a teria l c u ltu re .

And i f th e o b ject* o f m ateria l c u ltu re

a re th e products o f s o c ia l in flu en ce and behavior th en th e evolution o f th e whole o f c u ltu re 1* a p a rt o f s o c ia l evolution.

Sis*, among many

o t h e r s . ^ a ls o does n o t make a d is tin c tio n between the two term s.

W riting

8 Among those who make a c le a r d is tin c tio n between s o c ia l and c u ltu ra l change a re Charles A* BPLwood* " fh e o rle s in C u ltu ra l Evolution*** f t o American Journal o£ Sociology. 3QEUI (May, 1918) * 780*-^$ f . S tu a rt 0hapi% C ^ t u r a l Change (SewToitV She Century Company, 1928); Ihdght Sanderson* eleg y and Rural .Social, O rganisation (Hew Yorkt John Wiley and Sons* In c ., 19^21$ Hudolf H sberie, SA SooiologicaX In te rp re ta tio n o f Social Change,M Social Forces. XXV (October* X^bG), 9-15? and o th er* . 9 P a d H. L andis, "Social Change and Social In te ra c tio n a* f a c to rs in C u ltu ra l Change,® ^ f f i c a n j ^ n a | . of Sociology, XL (July* 1935), 5«M»* ^ William P. Ogburn, Social Change (Wow to ik i fh© Viking Pro*** Inc. * 1928)? P . GO. Ggbura b elieve* th a C s o c ia l and c u ltu r a l change a re so inex­ tr ic a b ly bound to g e th e r th a t he w rites* "from the p o in t o f view of so c ial ev o lu tio n , i t i s thought th a t the stu d ie s o f Change* in c u l t u r e , . . I s d e sir­ a b le methodology. ® Lee# c l t . ^ o th e r s o c io lo g is ts who show a d o s e a ss o c ia tio n between so c ia l change and c u ltu ra l change ares L e s te r P. Ward* P u ri Sociology (Hew York: fh e Macmillan Company, 1903)* e s p e c ia lly Chapter I f f ; F itirim A. Sorokin, S p e le A C ulture, and F e rso n a lity (Wew Yorki HArper and B rother*, 19**-7)* e s p e c ia lly "teapter'T fl!; ffifert"CV Xelbs, Social iv o lu tio n (Wew Yorie: th e Haemillmn Company, 1931) * 81mer Fendell ( e f f t o f t T "gtoelety (cont*d page 6)

6 cm the n a tu re o f s o c ia l change, he s ta te s :

“P e rso n a lly , change may take

p lac e In any kind o f a s s o c ia tio n , but by the study o f so c ia l change i s sean t a c o n sid e ra tio n o f th a tw h ic h occurs in groups la rg e enough to p re s e n t a l l -

"

/

2h* term “so c ia l organisation* has a v a rie ty o f meanings in the f i e l d o f sociology,

ffcat l i t t l e agreement eadets on the s p e c ific nature

o f the te r n i s evidenced i n the follow ing statements h m alicious c r i t i c o f sociology could h a r d y fin d a b e t t e r m y of arousing Skepticism about I t s s c ie n tif ic s ta tu s than by c o lle c tin g d e fin itio n s given by usociolo­ g is ts * o f * s o c ia l organisation* and comparing the v a ri­ ous says In which re la tio n s h ip s between O rg an isatio n * and “in s titu tio n s * a re conceived. * .I t i s a b so lu te ly im possible to introduce any lo g ic a l o rd e r In to the pre­ se n t term inological chaos.*3 Her t a l e r reviews the d if f e r e n t approaches used by s o c io lo g is ts to th e concept »s o c ia l organisation* from sev eral a n g le s, w ith r e s u lta n t v a ri­ a tio n s in meaning.

Sheee d if f e r e n t approaches may he enumerated a s fellow s;

1 . Social o rg a n isa tio n may be locked upon a s a so c ial c o n d itio n i n which the a sso c ia te d in d iv id u a ls a re in a s ta te o f s t a t i c jggllfe tlo a s h ip . 2 . h o st of the in te r p r e ta tio n s , however, view so c ial organisa­ tio n in I t s s tr u c tu r a l and dynamic a sp e c ts a s a su b stan tiv e “going concern. * % fhe s e s t freq u en tly -ap p earin g in te rp r e ta tio n of s o c ia l organisa­ tio n I s th a t which views f t stru c tu ra lly * th a t i s a s a comprehensive ana coapier mosaic or goora&naaea s e t o r rnsom rejiamoni $ mSsr 1dO lfferenttated'M groups. •

(Continued) Under Ana ly s is {Lancaster: fhe Jacques C a tta il P ress, 19^2) ; Godfrey and Monica w ilsca, fhe A nalysis of afoQial Change (Cambridge; Gambridge U n iv ersity P re ss, 19**5) ; and o th e rs. i s SUM. W . o U ., P. 199. 13 A o rta * Z nanieckl, In Georges GurvUeh and w ilb .r t S. Moore, (e d ito rs ) tw e n tie th Century Sociology (Hew Yorks fhe P hilosophical L ib rary , Inc. l j f c s f p . ife '.

K Srom an o th er im portant angle so cial o rg an isatio n m y b$ ▼lew®A p ro e e sa u ally o r o p e ra tio n a lly ** a* th e functio n in g mechanism ©f ©3d stence o f a s s o c ia te d hum© beings* % from s t i l l an o th er an g le , so c ia l organi z a tio n m y be thought ©f a© a v a st c u ltu ra l complex. 6 . O ccasionally on© find© so c ial o rg a n isa tio n thought o f a s so c ia l re o rg a n isa tio n , th a t i s as a d e lib e ra te planned p rocess o f stren g th en in g so c ia l s tr u c tu r e .111, 4 s l e r t s l e r has dem onstrated, so c ia l o rg a n isa tio n may ho examined from a number o f vantage points*

Looking upon the concept a s an a ll *

in c lu s iv e term, he d e fin e s I t a s follows* In g e n e ra l, s o c ia l o rg a n isa tio n simply means th a t some s o r t of continuous and fu n ctio n in g o rd erin g , arrangement, *o rg an isatio n " ©r p a tte rn in g e x is ts in the world o f a s s o c iateA men* S o c ie tie s , n a tio n s, communities, c i t i e s , t i l l a g e s and neighborhoods, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and se rv ice groups, include lag fa m ilie s, governmental u n its , schools, churches and l i b r a r i e s , occupational, c la s s and o th er economic groupings, h e a lth , and re e rd a tio n a l, esp sessio n al and w elfare agencies, a l l c o n s titu te forms o f human a s s o c ia tio n , forme o f o rie n ta ­ tio n and arrangement and re g u la ris e d feme tin n in g o f Inter*#* l a t e d hnman bein g s. Social o rg a n is a tio n , in f a c t, subsumes not on ly the s tru c tu re , but a lso the fu n c tio n , and even the p ro cess o f s o c ie ty .^5 Bareaton, i n viewing so c ial org an izatio n a s an a n a ly tic a l concept, sees the term in t h i s lig h tj ...S o c ia l o rg a n isa tio n i s a system o f coordinated re la tio n # ships and a c t i v i t i e s between two or more in d iv id u a ls . I t i s sometimes c a lle d a web of f u l f i l l e d e x p ectatio n s. Here, emphasis i s p laced upon the r e la tio n s h ip s and a c t i v i t i e s ra th e r than upon the person. Since a person Is a member of a group only in so f a r a s c e r ta in a c t i v i t i e s and r e la tio n ­ ship© a re concerned, so cial o rg an isatio n then r e f e r s to

ib

J . O, H e rts le r, Social I n s t i t u t Iona (Lincoln* Nebraska F rees, 19^6} j pp. i§ ~ i6 .

U n iv ersity o f

6 person*. 1» t h i s reaped), then, the term so c ia l s tru c tu re include* both c u ltu r a l s tru c tu re (which d efin e a th e s l t m t i o a in terms o f genie and i n s titu tio n a lis e d means of a t t a i n ­ in g the so g o a ls ), and so c ia l o rg a n is a tio n .. , th a t i s , the a c t i v i t i e s and re la tio n s h ip s by which th ese goals a re to fee sought. 1® the assum ption th a t the term * stru ctu re* means a se t o f deter* min&te r e la tio n e between p a r t s , ^ th e terms " so c ia l stru c tu re * and " so c ia l o rg a n is a tio n 1* a re need synonymously in t h i s study.

Social o rg a n isa tio n ,

a s need i n t h i s study, then, r e f e r s to the framework o f i n s t it u t io n s , o rg a n is a tio n s , a s s o c ia tio n s , end agencies which c h a ra c te rise * a given so c ie ty o r a re a by means o f which th a t so c ie ty o r a re a fu n ctio n s,

®he in ti#

mate processes o f so c ia l in te ra c tio n a re c a rrie d on in and i h r e u # t h i s framework,*® A "Czech* o r "Czechoslovak" a s used in th l s study I $ d efined a s one whose n a tio n a lity d e riv a tio n i s from Czechoslovakia and who i s . In the minds o f th e lo c a l r e s id e n ts , a Caeeh~Am®r lc a n .

Such an in d iv id u al i s n o t a Czech.

He i s an American and i s c e lle d a Czech only fo r the purpose o f d is tin g u is h ­ in g between the person o f Czech a n c e stry end those o f non-Czeeh a n ce stry .

^ Vernon J* Parentoa, "fhe Sural french-speaking People o f Quebec and South L ouisiana: A Comparative Study o f Social s tru c tu re and Organisa­ tio n ," (unpublished Doctor** d is s e r ta tio n . Harvard U n iv ersity , Cambridge, M assachusetts, I9feg) pp. I b is id ea conforms to the p o in t o f view s t r e s s e d in Hebert K. Merton*s "Social S tru c tu re and Anomie,* American Sociological Heview, I I I (O ctober, 1938) 672- 6821, and fa lc o t ’'Parson’s ’»J£ 3 S Iy tIS 3 rT p p ro a e h to th e th e o ry o f Social S tr a tif ic a tio n ," 3&V (May, 19*10) ghl-862. 2,8 S his d e f in itio n o f so c ial org an izatio n I s sim ila r to th a t used by $ , Lynn Smith in "An A nalysis of the She to r s in Social O rganisation o f the American A g ricu ltu ral V illage from 1900 to 1930* * (unpublished Doctor*s d is­ s e r ta tio n , U n iv ersity o f Minnesota, M inneapolis, 1932) p . fe*

th e p la c e o f t o p re se n t study in t o resea rch e&n ties! be i l l u s t r a t e d by t o

f i e l d o f r u ra l so c io lo g ica l

follow ing statem ent made by Bwight

Sanderson on t o importance o f th ia su b je ct: I f a knowledge o f sociology Is to be o f any m in e fo r purpose* o f s o c ia l o rg an isatio n by enabling me to t o w bow to p re d ic t c o lle c tiv e behavior and t o e to b e tt e r c o n tro l i t fo r t o common w elfare, i t must include n e t only a know­ ledge o f t o s tru c tu re and functioning o f human so c iety a s i t I s a t p re se n t, but we must know why and bow changes in t o s e e ia l s tru c tu re occur and bow t o y can be c o n tro lle d .^9 Sanderson a ls o s ta te s th a t the problems o f s o c ia l change have become so in c re a s in g ly acu te t o t t o y form the c h ie f In ce n tiv e fo r so c io lo g ic a l study*

As to the importance o f so c ia l o rg an !satlo n , l a P ie rs i s o f the

opinion t o t # i t i s t o c e n tra l concern o f a l l so c io lo g ica l stu d y ,# 2* A study such a s i s here attem pted should be o f value from t o p o in t o f p o ssib le c o n trib u tio n s to t o

stand­

sum t o ta l o f so c io lo g ica l knowledge

and th eo ry in t o t comparisons w ith r u r a l so c ia l o rg an isatio n in e t o r a re a s a re made p o ssib le .

An e f f o r t was made to a s c e rta in the n ature o f so c ial

change in t o a re a , and o f th e o f f s e ts o f so cial change upon r u r a l so cial o rg a n isa tio n and consequently upon the population* I t i s a fa c t th a t so c ia l phenomena, a re c o n sta n tly Changing and t o t t o c h ie f reason fo r being in te re s te d in so c ia l phenomena I s t o t t o y a re changing,

T et, "no m atter what event o r agency or group b rin g s about a

*9 Sanderson, 0£. o l t . , p, 6bb* In quoting th is statem ent, a tte n tio n should be c a lle d to the f a c t t o t Sanderson gives an added meaning to so c ia l o rg a n is a tio n in th a t he construes i t s general aim to be the improvement of human re la tio n s h ip s and liv in g conditions in the r u ra l environment. 20 m a . . p . 6H5. ff! 81 4 T. t o P ie rs , Sociology (Hw Torki to o ., 19H6) , p. 3314.

KeOraw-Kill Book Company,

change l a a ttitu d e * and in te r e s t* o r person#* the change in a tt i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s , once made, w ill i n tu rn have m e f f e c t m so c ia l o rg an iz atio n op its e lf, " With t h i s c e n tra l theme i n mind, the study should he o f m in e fVom the standpoint o f a p p lie d r u r a l sociology.

Without a th o r o u # under*

stan d in g o f th e n atu re of s o c ia l o rg an isatio n and so c ia l change in a given area* th o se d e alin g w ith problems o f r e l i e f , employment, so c ia l w elfare, h e a lth , ed ucation, r e lig io n , re c re a tio n , a g ric u ltu re , and sim ila r problems cannot i n t e l l i g e n t l y form ulate p o lic ies* She d e s i r a b i li t y of o b tain in g Inform ation on ru ra l so c ia l organiza­ tio n and change i n a diverse c u ltu ra l a re a seems w i t * obvious.

In fact*

Sanderson p o in ts out th a t th ere I s a very r e a l need fo r d e ta ile d sociolo­ g ic a l monographs in th e United S ta te s .2^ He fu rth e r s t a t e s t h a t th e s tru c tu re v a rie s so much in d if f e r e n t p a r ts o f the country and w ith the age and s is e o f the community th a t a general d e sc rip tio n o f so c ia l organi­ z a tio n would he sue im p o s s ib ility .2**’ Where i s p le n ty o f evidence t© support th is theory.

However, t h is

divergence in no way p rev en ts a d e sc rip tio n and a n a ly s is of r u r a l so c ia l o rg a n isa tio n and change In sp e c ific areas*

In f a c t, I t ra th e r serves to

c a l l our a tte n tio n to the d ire need fo r such s tu d ie s , for a s Luadberg p o in ts outs

"As our observations and measurements o f small in flu e n c e s, both of tim e

and o f o th e r fa c to rs , on contemporary c u ltu re in crease in r e lia b ility * we

22 P endell, oj>. e l t . . p. 5S9. 23 B right Sandorson, ffa* Itnra.1 Caaaanlty Ofow Tories 1932). P- SO*.

Sinn and Company,

11 s h a ll be in c re a sin g ly a b le to re c o n stru c t the course o f s o c ie ta l ©volution and form ulate l t e la w s.“25 The question a r i s e s a s to whether the problem o f t h is th e s is has not a lre a d y rec eiv e d c o n sid era tio n by in v e s tig a to rs in the f i e l d o f ru ra l so c io l­ ogy#

f h l f question can he heat approached "by a b r i e f survey o f se le c te d

re se a rc h which ha* been dene in th e f i e l d . &•

t e i t e v saw#* of

to th e

Almost te e decades ago Sanderson wrote th a t p r a c tic a lly no stu d ie s o f r u r a l so c ia l co n d itio n s In the Seutfo had been p ublished which had attem p ted to analyse l o c a li t y groups.

2(S

Since th a t tim e, however, r u ra l

so c io lo g ic a l resea rch in th e South has been Concerned to a considerable degree w ith one phase o r another of r u ra l so c ial o rg an isatio n .

C ertain

a sp e c ts of s o c ia l change have a ls o received some c o n sid eratio n , l a the Southwest,2^ the su b je ct of r u r a l so c ia l o rg a n isa tio n has a tt r a c t e d some a tte n tio n * p a rtic u la r ly in A rkansas,2® lew Mexico,2^ and

25 «•***• *• lo a n * " * . fowtaaHona o f Sociology ( » w Tsrta MaemlllAB. Company), 1939, p . 518.

Sm>

Sanderson, fh» Rural Community, p. b99, fh©re seems to be no g eneral agreement a s to what s ta te s const!#* tu te the Southwestern a re a . As defined In the p resen t d isc u ssio n , the Southwest I s composed of Ternae, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and lew Mexico. T if o stu d ie s by f . G. McCormick a re Rural Social O rganisation In j t o n {feuaty Arkansas (Arkansas A g rio u ltu ral S ^ S lm en t^ S taS fm l u l l s t i n 285* w e l w l $ f e T T 9 3 3 l and Rural Social O rganisation la South-Central Arkansas (Arkansas A g ric u ltu ra l HxperiJBsnt S ta tio n B u lle tin 3X3I iSyette-'"' ‘ v ille s 193^)* 29 Glen Leonard and Charles P. Loomis, C ulture of A Contemporary Kural I& C e rrito . ffew Mexico (Washington, IToT, (Cont’d page~12)

Rural Community;

12 Oklahoma. 3°

M vqm r* not a si agio B3?pe*iroeat S ta tio n B u lle tin i n t h i s

g en eral f i e l d has been published i a fsaao.

Ibrtheitto*** o f th ese stu d ie s,

only the th re e made i a lew Mexlee deal with s o c ia l o rg an isatio n i a a d i ­ v e rse c u ltu r a l a re a , and none o f the® i a r e a l i t y i s a study o f s o c ia l change.

One could a ls o conclude th a t m so c io lo g ica l research concerned

w ith a r u r a l Csech^Americaa coamuaity in fe s ^ s has been published. A tten tio n should be c a lle d to the, fa c t th a t flflC&h, M v m m l a Qfelfr* h a m ^ i s th e only p u b lic a tio n in the e n tir e Southwest th a t d e a ls w ith the r u r a l Czech©.

As such. I t i s n e ith e r a study o f s o c ia l o rg an isatio n nor o f

so c ia l change.

I t i s a comparative study o f the s t a b i l i t y o f a Gs®eh farm

group in L incoln County, Oklahoma.

Comparing the Czechs a s a farm group

w ith th re e o th er non^Czeoh fhna c o n tro l groups, Lynch shows th a t th e Czech farm er has been l e s s m igratory and b a s ic a lly more sta b le than th e co n tro l groups*

He has a ls o been able to show th a t the c u ltu re cond itio n in g o f the

Czech group has caused i t to make a more successful a g ric u ltu r a l adjustm ent to the problems o f a h i l l y c o tto n county than the c o n tro l g r o u p s , a n d to

^9 (Continued) Bureau o f A g ricu ltu ral Boone®!os, Jbural L ife Studies Bomber 1) 1 19UI5 Jhe Bole o f jag, Iiand Grant in -ffae Social O rganisation and S ocial Processes o £ a ^ a n i s h -i ^ f l w T illa g e in. Hfw Kerioc (Ann Arbor; Edwards ir c th e r s , In d . , and S ig u rO o E n a e n , "Hum! Social Organ!«*tio n i n a Span!©humerican Cuitur® A r e a / (unpublished Doctor*s d is s e rta ­ tio n , tfe iv e rs lty o f W isconsin, Had!son, 30 I s m i HraakltB r»ga, BeXatlon o f Bawn mu S a r f ia ld BouaOjr, C&Lahoma (Oklaiona A grloulti t i n X9fc. a tm « a U * t

.Xo-

31 Km m IX *f, Xjnwh, Oz.eh lto m .ro in (m ahona (Qfclahona AgrienX tnral 3 z p .r l a .n t S tatio n BnXXatia W L r 39, l a . 13. S ttliw & tw 19U2) . 32 m a . . p . 9X.

c o n c lu d e am ong th e

th a t

th e ir

netits

e c o n o m ic t i e s

are

c lo s e r an d

s t r o n g e r th a n

is

th e

ease

A m e ric a n g r o u p # .3 3

There 1# a d i s t i n c t s c a r c ity o f lit e r a t u r e d e a lin g d i r e c t l y w ith s o c ia l o r g a n iz a tio n and change among ru ra l C«eeh p o p u la tio n s.

Coira&enting

on th e p a u c ity o f p u b lish e d m a teria l on t h is su b je c t among a l l ru ra l immig r a n ts , Brunner in Immi^pant garners and ffhc.lr C hildren su g g e sts a p o s s ib le ex p la n a tio n fbr t h i s phenomenon.

Be s t a t e s t

#I a a l l th e immense volume

o f l i t e r a t u r e d e a lin g w ith the q u estio n o f im m igration hardly any co n sid er­ a t io n has been p a id to th o se o f the [email protected]&-ber& th a t l i v e in ru ra l America* abou t one qu arter o f the t o t a l number. urban

3^

p r o b l e m . ♦»

Immigration has been view ed a s an

D e sp ite the obviou s s c a r c it y o f m a teria l i s the fie ld * a

co n sid e ra b le body o f l it e r a t u r e I s c lo s e ly r e la t e d f i e l d s e x i s t s . The g o clo lo g y o f j u g s l | i f e 3 5 ^

sm ith p rovid e# h e lp fu l o r ie n ta tio n

fo r t h i s study* e s p e c ia lly p a rt 111 which d eal# w ith ru ral s o c ia l organ iza­ t io n .

T h is 382-page s e c tio n o f th e Sjb-page volume tr e a t# s o c ia l organiza­

tio n and anatom ical a s p e c ts ©f s o c ie t y .

Smith1# a n a ly s is o f ru ra l s o c ia l

o r g a n iz a tio n i s accom plished by a d iv is io n o f th e su b je c t n a tte r in t o th ree main p a r ts .

She f i r s t p a r t i s concerned w ith the r e la t io n e o f th e people

to th e land* th a t i s f the way the p o p u la tio n i s d is tr ib u te d on th e land* the way the la n d 1# d iv id e d fo r purposes o f surveying and recording* th e nature o f p rop erty r ig h t s in land ; and th e way the land I s d is tr ib u te d m ship and c o n t r o l. 3 ^

to owner­

fh e second p a rt i s devoted to an a n a ly s is o f s o c ia l

Tories

Boubleday, Doran and Company, I n c .g^ 9 2 9 )T P* xvi.

Torks

35 s . tjran Sritth, Sh* Sociology o f Btuwl L ife . reTloed e d itio n (Sew Barpor and B rother*, 1947).

d i f f e r e n tia tio n and s o c ia l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n in r u m l society* and the th ir d i s a d isc u ssio n of the functioning o f so c ia l groups throe#* e s ta b lis h e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms. ^

Smith shows how each of these p a r ts f i t s in to the

framework o f so c ia l o rg a n isa tio n in r u r a l areas* w ell documented.

She e n tir e se c tio n i s

She fo o tn o te s and b ibliography of the

volume proved

h e lp fu l in many ways* She Banal h lf e Study s e r i e s ^ was a valuable a id in gaining a g en eral p e rsp ec tiv e of the s o c ia l o rg an isatio n approach to community s tu ­ dies*

Shis s e r ie s d escrib e s the c u ltu re and n atu re of c e rta in phases o f

r u r a l s o c ia l o rg an isatio n in eosmmaities lo ca te d in s in d if fe re n t s ta te s , namely, Hew Mexico, Kansas, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Hew Hampshire, and Georgia, fhe s ix commonI t i e s stu d ie d a re samples o f a continuum from h i # community s t a b i l i t y to g re a t in s ta b ility *

At one end of the continuum i s an Old Order

Amish Community in Pennsylvania, which i s c h a ra c te rise d by a hi#* degree of s ta b ility .

At the o th e r end i s a Bust Howl Community in Kansas, which i s

c h a ra c te rise d by a high degree o f In s ta b ility *

th e oth er four communities

range between these extremes*

^ la a . eU . 3* O l.a L.tjaurd and 0 . F. la o s d ., og. e i t . s Sari. H. B ell, C ulture o f a Contemporary Rural Community^ S u b le tte , Kansas (Washington, B* C , THreaw ^ f A g r ic ^ tu i^ ^ ^ n o m lc s V I b a ra l^ lf e "'stm ies Ho. 2 ), 19*12} Kenneth MacLoish and Kimball Young, C ulture o f a Contemporary Rural Community; h a n d aff. lew Hampshire (Washington, B. C ., Sara'au of l^ ic U ltu p a l Economics, r' B arcf "Ml# Studies ifo. 3 ), 19b2; Walter W. Kollmorgen, C ulture of a Contemporary jtem l Community; th e Old Order Ami ah o f Lancaster^pigSil^ar, to n , B. 0*, K e a n o r A^rlSSSuarad Stennoidee,

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