So Many Cinemas : The Motion Picture in India 819006021X, 9788190060219

This book is a kaleidoscopic and captivating overview of the history of cinema in India, authored by the eminent documen

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So Many Cinemas : The Motion Picture in India
 819006021X, 9788190060219

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SO MANY CINEMAS THE MOTION PICTURE IN INDIA BDGARGA

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SO MANY CINEMAS THE MOTION PICTURE IN INDIA $.-

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B & y ARGA

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E\IINENCE DESIGNS PVT. Lm.

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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

To ,he memory of Georges Sadoul and Henri Langlois for their friendship and 10 my

wife Donnabelle and daughter Nicole for their support and love

© B D Garga, I 996 ISBN 81- 900 602- 1- X

DESIGN

Dhun Cordo

PlcnJRE RESEARCH & CO-ORDINATION

Anjula Bcd i & Sha,.,.da Owivedi

TYPESETTING & PROCESSING

Parad ise Multimedia Lrd

PRINTING

Tien Wah Press ( Pie) Ltd , Singapc:,re

PUBLISHED BY

Eminence Designs Pv1. Lrd. c/o Sneh Sadan Graphic Services Pvc. Ltd. Cecil Court Lansdowne Road, Colaba Mumbai - 400 005 India

All rights reserved around the world, No pare of rhis publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, e lectronic, mechanical or otherwise, without the

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AUTHOR'S NOTE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

©--

I

MARVEL OF THE CENTURY

"S)

2

LET'S PRAISE THESE MEN

3

AN ERA

4

THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK

5

THE SoUND AND FuRY

6

THE MOVIE MOGHULS

1

THE M OVIE KALEIOOSCOPE

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8

EMERGING NEW VOICES

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9

CINEMA As SPECTACLE



10

MOVIE$ FOR THE MASSES

of1hi,1rul)'marvellous diocow')'.. ," The revie,...,, ol.,,,i,;,,.,,ly mi1tool Lum1e""' a11i>1;1nli for 1hc invcmon, whu inckkntally, new, left France. "lnc vin,. include th.e arTi,·al cl a c""',JeJ tram at a railw;,y,1ation,.·i1hal\1heanima11onandbusdctha1suchanncntprescnu;•ndthc Jcmoli1ionofawa1l -a "x>rlc ;o , cali>ticthatthed,mi,>ttnloaoccndin•·olumn"·hcn 1hcwallfinally1oti,naMfa\ls,Tl,,S,.,1JarJ,isanother,·e,y~>ee"",theda.hill!lof 1hc",1,·esupoo1h.,hattr>CtinR•i:rea1Jealofa11en11ona1horne." The .t.owinl(S at Watt aM cu, k.»ity in 'rnf)itcofbao.lwcathc, .. ."A ,e,·isedbi!loffareincl,..J,,J,Tl,,s,.,p,,,1,

Am\W of W T,am, s,., &Ihm. UIMhs, ParisC:,,cli>uandEqw,.,trian,,H)drPark,S,.,andRorb. Tn:truf"11Mrioo o{Hau,l'raai. Of,~n the cciuipmcnt ,..,. inaJcciu.,tc, ,he film ,mm ou t and the proJec!ion fu::1·, hut th~ o•·~r-

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,..,,,,..11,-·,1Jou1,- , ""~'"'N"'11alkic,AlamAra ,in1931 Amon~ the cnthralleJ audionce at one of the Lumierc ,howings ,.... a ('OrtraU pho,ogr-apher, H~rishchand"' S.khonim Bhutvadcbr, better kn.o"'fl ,. S.,·c: D:ocb. He wasp,obablytheflntlndiantoimponamolionpicturecamcrafromlondonatacoot ,-121guinc... ln!897,h,ephor1)!lfllplw:JaWTI:01"lin~matchhet"'ttnlWO""'ll•k"""·n musclcm,n, !'und.ahk D:ocb and Kri!hna Nahi at llomb.oy's Hangin;: Gankru, foJk,.,.-.,J bv a ,hort on tht antics ri monk.-y,. The !WO films"'f"K'"ldi,cincfionin mathcmatic.o at C.mbrid!."', Years latc,r, Sir Ra~hunath """ to con/\nn, "1 retume.J I India afm complc,in;: m y wudin a1 C.rnbridge. On my artival in Bornhoy • . · ; "supt,rf , r,- turcs from our ...wlJ rcnov.·n...J pla1·s". Th= fihm inclu.:kd A!,bab.,. Hanraj . Dolt Lio. B..ddha. S,wram ar.d Sa,-al.,. Th~ iUCCe» of ,h.,.., film, prompted Sen tofilm,cc...,.from,c ,·cr:,l ocherropula rsta.-., rla1·• which fcea1u,e1I ,,uutanJin~ ani;tes of the time ,uch •• Amar Drnrn , Q.,;,h Oh.»h. Amrnlal ll,.,;c anJ Kusum Kuma, i S.Cnv.·a,alsorrobahl1•1h,fi,,.wmakc,wosma!!.J,·cn,sc,n,,m .t,o,.,fo,CK&n·,Jabalu..sumh.,iroilar.d BanoKesto Paul's

Mo•• film activity ,...,. ,ull ,,,.,fmeJ to Bomba1· and Calcutt,i. Ald,ou~h aud,enc,., in Madms haJ "'"" """'"'~ rkrure, a, earl1· ,,. 19\Xl ,t,.,,u~h an En~li,hman. MaJor Wannck. In tie k'in~ an,unJ >1n.1II ... ... a..J,·1\',,; "' 1he ,.:..uh. 'L ··n~m...ka .,Ji ,t,·,

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,·en,ure. he n~w...J 1,1 ~l,,J,-.,,_ AcrnrJm~ ,,, ST llha,br,m. """"'C r"'!l-CId a ~r•mrh.KW to rr,,.Jucc ,yr.chmrn,._.,J ""'nJ dft.ct,. "V,r,c,·nt h,,IJ th,• fir,, ,ho..· rn 1909 at E.,pl.m,.. k

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~""''Jill· ~b.lr.,;, lle ~111, "~,k ur ~,,.,riq f,,. P,nhf rmJ. the 1mpo,1 ,,( e110 1rm,·nr :,r,d tilm, ""' harha:a1. S,nc, ' lm, ,..,-, h.~1~!., ,,utn~l,t. tl~u cxn. H""-.c,·,·r. the ~'"""th ..,fan 11.Ju,tl)" Jq'lek, anJ e,~mu.,lly pnoduc,n~ f,ln» m h,- ,.-d!-arr,mm-J

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UNIVERSITI OF MICHIGAN

m,dio. By ,he lx-):;nn,n~ of ,he ccmury, Pa,h(< ruod a,.'li~"' of British ar.dWestcmmoresasshov.·ninfilmswooldbccornctkba,i,for thtlr.dian Cincm.atow,1ph O>mmitteo, ...,t K,ntoroliricalfreeJnmo,an1·rema1kmth.:""htidctthat migh t upset the status quo. A tuna Vast>.k,· in hct bcol,;. Libnry and l....i~ de'f"'tCh frorn the Go,•emn1C11t of lr.dia rn the SttMaf'\' ofStatcda1edJurwl,lQl2,"·hichpoim,-Joo1,hai"Theobichiri• n,otmcrd)'torre,·entthec,hibnionofohsccncfolmsbutalsoof/11msthatarc r,>litkallyobjectK""'hle". The e,hihi1i,,n :i,..,l.,n1'.by 18, 1912 at d,c c,,.,~,:u,nn Cinema, whi< 1 ' , ,1..,·, :. L · ""rncnt m Ti,, Timi> of !"""1 ,,f~l.w 25, 19 12. "A lmo,, h.,lfdi., B..,rn!"I' H,nJu r,1,ula1"-"' lu, ,._,•nu l.i,t .,..,..k and v.·,· ,.-.iot the,'l(h,.•, h:ilito,.._,., u hcf,,.c :ichan~oe , -irrtoryfn,m theepic.~1ock and completcconfiJcnc~ in hi>capabi lit ics

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c...J11"""' a, .......,, ho,......,..."'""' vny d,fkttn,. 11..tt ,...,. tt.. 1rop,cal doma1c 1owntmd"1th.umuotahkf..•afllmbl:,,:.ni"'1',andth,o""'i:al>t,gn,aanact..dtofil""apanfrum1t..r,rubkm'1flnanc". l'halkcol>Olormtroo.:,,......11hh1S•·1fcandch11Jrm a.ac1on.prim.J :.,nd....,...,J ii toa flnancict ,.-ho~ h>R'•~h,m • loan "II"'"" >«uti1y.l'halkchaJno1hi"l,lklimr~..,.ln"°""';,.t..,umc,J,.,h;.,.,f.,..+,.,paneJ

•·11ht..r;,,,.,.llnymcnabkhn hu.band rotteah..-hiodn,;,,m. n,....,_,..\"1 mott p,ol,lcmoawa•fi"llhim.A,inSh.ake>J"'•"'""En,;bnd,lema,Lcn>lc.onthelndi•n"ag,, ..,_...., ., ,II rcrfurmN by ....... hu, l'halkc. rorudouo tillcxrnn, i1i,clear1ha1hehaJm1ra;nhi,ac1orsand1cchniciansfromocr:uch.hal,o.i...,..,,him "'l''"'"i,ingthe huilding,isets,dirccting, ph.> reslOl'll{IOfl of the dead boy 10 hfe". The review l(ives afairindica1i,/inte,e>1 inthef,lm. Be,;J,,., .,cxciting .. fo,.,;~.,,films hadsecm«l,auJicnceswc1tfot,no,c1hrill,-d,o...-cafomiliarsto,yr,rf,,.,ncJbylndians. Bt1tl'halkc",,occc,, "o>r>Otwi1hou1;c1h.>ck, When he ttx.l: his film to one,ithe pI at lea,t oixhd ,..• h,,lr,J Mn l'ha\h in thio technical nwa•i..t9tl'that o.u..heb ........

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cl-.ore".Thiow.. followec ,..• , emhu,ia,uc. The box-Office collcJ up"' R, Jl.OCIOfo,theftrs11enda1·s,anunusuallyla1"1.'1an Film O,mp,m1·- All 11~ht, to hi; prc,·i,~» -..mk. f,,..,, fca tuw film> anJ swecn ,i>urL.'O'ete n1a.:lco,·er!wingw«k."Thc ,crial1 were a ~r.d to ,t,,. movics in tMir awkward age of transition from two-rttlcr> 10 feature>", inform Richard O,iffi1h •nd Anhur Mayer (Th, Moo.it,, 1957). "The old line, companies which feared 1ocmbark on , t.., p oci,cduponthe,c1iala1aperfcctcompromix,aOOtMaud;cncctookto1hcirMamthi• 1h,i!hnshybridfruitofmatocomc.,to,icsfromthetwopopularepics,tM~ar,cl~, Penian and Arabian Nighu talet, tlood,,d ,M .!Crttns. A,, !r-,NVV-·,p,on-aJ hi, Ma,fan TI>eat= Limit,>J, a joint >tock company. ..-hich ,muld brcomc India, largt pmJuction-distriburion•cxhibition ne1w0 (the roorcoo ld ill affonl id, the Pa"i lheatrc d.bu1'NalaanJDamayan,i'1htfi,..,ofa

~offilmswhkha..,shonlytobtplacNbemthepublic,is ofilm"-hichha,alltM fonishofaf,lmprofocedinEurope0earcd in. a la'l,.'e numl>et ofoikmf1!moandmaJe1hc , ,.,,.ch,wcr,0 1alki,-,"·uhCOYpremely confident , Baburao. "'ith initial funds provided by Taniba.i Kal,"OsucceedeJ infubricatinghi,own.ma1n,, it had a tttonlrunr/]6wcek.,.ll>cfiln1,,.,i,hits1t"-"'¥•1001ional"ppcal,ir;fighuandvi, 09H). ,he film ,hat fullc,..-.:d, ornrred the b.autifulSultanaandhcryoungt.'l>ISler,Zuhcida,inamir>0c film, though conccrn,,J with Mlll(hal""""'5'ion,was....,.,tially,ceularincharacm.Both~andKai,,.,,,K/iaiir,o ,..,..,.i,,,..11at l.nndon', Wcmbkybhil,itionandv.·"" Bahuraoamc.Jal. TI,,Uu/,E,:pm., found 1hcfilms, "fuUci01r•n~>clywi.!tful hcau1y, andx10Sro,,1er,n,ached

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the precinct> of the J J Sd...,l of Art in Bombay, clicititljl the admiracK)n of l'Tincil"'l Gladstone Solomon Bid.Jink fatcwdl to m1~hol"l,'Y and hist""I, Bahurao deddeJ, in the face of ,·ehemem OJ"l)O>ltion from friends and colleasues, to produce what mll>t ourdy be the f,,.. lndian,o;ial, rcali,1(,lm. ltd pa;n1ing. He pubhsheJ nro slim ,•olumos of hi, pho!ograph,indifferemgui..,andsatirkalpooc,,v.·hkhhe .. mto/FM.&n,oeeki"ll apoosibkoponing a.,•nactot.Hiomc,o1i"llwithMad..ncamotonaugh1,bu1Ganguly hadconfromatioooback home. Dhl~ Ganguly into,proted the role with wch ~omic in,·enti,-e...,.. that the film'• >UCCn& w.. assure!ly po(l'Jlar with W0$1om oudienc0$. Ono more film ttumeJrama>,he ,.-oolJbuyCOMlyfabsarylo scck fo,eign help either for t«hnical ..,istanctorbwin..,collalxmnin.Hc:wcnedtimrandagainthat the onlyway tlu, filmindu,rrycoolJadvancc...,..,"byser>dingourownyoungmcRabroad".andnotby cmployin~fordgnexp.

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SHARDA fLIM CoMPANY - B HOC:11.AL K M DAVE

"lfthcr,: is one word thatwmsuptheattitud,eofthe ,i lentfilmmakccs,that worJ;, ..,tfm, iasm", "')'' K~..,n Brownlow. In lll\C,gilal K M l}a,-e. cmh1J1iasm was combined with OOY nd 1tthnical knowledgo,. In 1925 he formed the Sha.Ja Film Company in collaboration with Nanabhai l),,..,i, a film maker of ,ome rcr>0wn Withthefinancialbacki"ilulindumialiS!Ma)'ashanlank o' TI,,, ThiOl)Ylarthat thcllombo,ChmnickremarhJthatitwas "almootoneofthepcrmanentfeatme;oftheci1y". Sncralfi!m prodocin,icompanin,.·e1thir l rani', Srnt Films. In !92} he formed• mm unit. bttcan Pictures Corporation in asoociatK)(\ with the famed Mara1hi playwri~h1 Mama Warerkar, 1 for thctent.ho,.·mantoacccptaquan!it-,·ofrkcorwhcatasa.dmis,ionchargc,,.·hichhe """'ldla1e,,.,llinthe,·1llagemarket Since the firSt r.howin~ of the 'Man•d of the C:.,ntut-,•', ..,,·crnl million (.-c1 ci film. bor.hfon,ignanddon1e>tkhadAickered ocmssal10\-·er 1hc rountry.Phalko'smy1~ica l Jem1go,Js!!"'''""'YtuPa1nter, ,.-arriorheroc,,,,.·hoin1umelho,...,Jasicr. fu girl is abductedandfindoherxlfintheroyalha"'m"fa"'h«beautyand proudbeari"Jlatlr.>etlhcattcn1ionolPrinccKhumim(Oum11loy), La1crShahjd"1an,,.·hofallsin k,,,..,,.,;,h her and rnarricslw,, givin~ l>cr a new name, Mumra1 Mahal (EnalthewholcWOofthe JnJ,an Cincm.,tn ... Rch~l heh.-f,. faith. kwc,duty,,h.,d,.,>1rcfo,ra,cndn,Jand:ill1handcrn;,.curr~n,,,ilifuccntrc tc>1or)'t"t·e 'd1om and beucran ·,,- ,•al1> and the Jeli~h" and uf ,he .,,..nd film. That the,,, ,,..., pl1enumenash.,..Wbclinkedmtimewasooaccidcru

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forifdw>OWnd{ilmM;jjm,,d:,,p,.J,_,m.:ikt miuic.,,JfflU.,.,..,..,..t, .,,ltc-""'-""'~"'fo,r..,..,~of:Wan.,!itn«~a,,i,,p,,,J,.,,fiu~~«O,,...;,...almn.,in....wn,i...t aers launched the sour.d era comm=::ial!y when oo A"!1""6,1926theyl'fC'eynrl 887, thci.Jea occunedtomethati1wouldb,possiblemdcvistanlll$trument,.fochsho«lddofor1hc, ..,-.,whattl>ephonogmphdocsfortheea,.•ndbyacoo,bina1ionuftl>etwo,allmotion and sound coolttobc«1uipped"·ithr,rmanent.101Jndappara1us. Shonly thercafter.onfebruar,-21.thc"'mcfilm,..,..prc,,ent.Jattheirfacebior Thcatrein Bombay.&,, the ~nd of 1930. WI ofa mrnl of 370 1hca1re< in India. mote 1han JO h.J lx,cn,.·iTCdforoound. During one of hi, frc,qumt vioitsabioad. J J Ma.Jan haJ """n T~J~:; ~ in New York. Thcpublic',en1hu,ia>1icreopons.,hadconvincNhim1hat1hcfu1urcofcincma lay in » 1nd. He v,.it~.J H{r,:...J. Tht&mb.r,C/wonick(Apnl l, 193!) Y1'1Utc,"To,pcokat....utthcdcfucuafopanicular,indi,·iduollndianfilmi< to,pcak."'°"' oftenthanno1,abou11hedefect>common10tMproJuc1iooofoll... lhes.eJcf«"""' notcntin:lyabicnt fmmthc lndianta!k;.AlomAm ... butit ohow. therangcand,·ariety of sound rq>m.luctioo invol,·cJ in tM production ul acomplc1c 11o.-y... it has ,h,,,.,n that wi1h du, ,estraint and ,hoo~htful di,ection, playus lik~ Vithal and Pti1h,·iraj and Mi,. Zube,dacouklb\"thtir oignificant;,ctingand,rtt'Ch,cv"l,·cdramat,c,·aluctto"·hich ,M,ikn,w:n-cncannotpoo.,ihly'1Spitc,"A,•icwcrY1+>0 oignu'Cl'"'r to .Ira!ion of pc,Jl'OaJ over the wb-contincnt, a well•cquipped modem ,tudio, for.-i)lfl npens to wpcrvi{abli,hc,J 1he,y>tem,bu1i,,._..,meJtoha,..,workN,oe,..,r,,,nc,'1 a,,..ho wctcpoido monthly,alary,thcyga,·ethei,bc,c inthemaking ofo fllm. The J;J no< n«,...rily clip ,he wi"ll' cl• crc~,h·e film maker. Jn fa.c,. cvidcncc"'°""'thatoomcclthebcstworkofO.bakiBo.t,PC&rua,Shantaram. Vina1.,.k, Nitin llooc, Mchboob Khan and oomc others, was dorw: within the ,1.,rcm. It io trueasJohnFord or,ce,aid."lnourpruk"ion•an aniS1icfoilure io no1udio,r>1N cn1cnainmcn1, often ttwlting in ptc,,Jar rcocmbleJ anove,worked facto,y and was~uallychaon> ·• ...,....·..-..,andwfters.Me ,....,oneoftho.erattpro.Jucerswho,havingoncespom,d a 1alcn1, a!lowcdit10de,..,1op unfettered. Hep"' 10 ,he N,w Th, • .,,. 11udios and persuaded him to dir«1 a film ,·,rsion ofhi,dar.ccdrama,NolirP",ic,(1932), apri ntofwhichhas r«entlyhe,,ndioco,·ercd in Santinikctan. The real brtcalrtn>cJ "'foe El.-', nna~onauon . V ~ 0917). • roman,ici..J biot(raphyofthtcm lnJ,a),and,.--.,,,,n;iJ,,,,eJrhe~r,:atcstpo,:tofh,.time,is arguably ll..-.sc'smos10, i, ViJrapau,a fri,ndofthek,ngof~1 ,th,la , no"·h,,counr--'tokttphi, promioetoParb.o1i, htjoumrysallnigh11oge1toht1vil!ai,:e. where he dies &.rua•, ad:tpta!ion of,h.i: no,·d in Dnda.< rcpre>enU a .,,iki"!I newde,...,lopment R.l11her1han sla,•W.ly1raru.la1eonen,.,,Jiumin1o onothet. heuscdthtncwdasrnw material,creatin;ihi,own"ructureandtmrufonning ,.-hatwaspYr,,lyverbal into an ,,_n,iallyvisualfu.m.A.-.:>iding"ereotl'T""•ndmelodram.a,Baruarai,edth.i:le,..,loi hiicth3!1emion i$huihupbrn,hrough1hcmilr, , iren,,hcawroachingambulanpa!l"nd• film . Ni1in knew that the test of soCcfflfol propaganda ,....,. while it sti" the mind, i< m..st a\,u tug at ,he hear! . 11,e ,wry 1c,•olve1 around !WO friends (K L S..i~l and Najmul Hu ... in) in lo,•c with ,he Jame ~frl (Lila Dosai). One of the friend., in a ..,lf-sac rifidn~ opirit, lcavesthe f,eldclcarforthe o1he,. Ahhough1heplo1i, afamiliar onc,i1 i,1hcdcp1h of foclin~ and ,he • um of rich melanchol1· tha, Nit in &:... ponrnys 1ha1 makn hi• film diffcf'Cmfromothcrs

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Nitin'•impe,:cablecrafumanship"·asrombinedwi1hastrun,iroman1ic•hu1nanist streak,whichse1hisfilmsapanandearnedhimo,pccialplaceolhisov.·n.Hcsta1·cJon wi1h New Thratrcs 10 make Ll.gan ( 1941) """i"l! Saigal and Kanan O.:,·i, and Ka.wnadi (194J),odap1cJfromaSara1chandraa.aucrjtt>1tar' di sa,-~., charm. It concel'fluJ'P(>rt1 ac n e»c>. The f1lm ""'' no, "'lthoot .ldid n.ot yield wfficio?n. Ap,il, 1980), -Sh;mtar.>m haJ ""'" in H,tlcr', Cxnnan1· • machinc•l ikc eff,cien,,:;1·, hard work... J...,·c>! (rla1·«1 in Hindi by Chandramohan, and in Mara thihyKe$havr"',l)ate,both fineac1or,,v.·how"·• •i>·etingrerformar.c.. )wi thhi, maniacalbelid:!dom iru11..-.1hefilm,1hrov.·ingotherchar.cten intlhc,bac kgroond Socialrtfoim,•er,u,,cnt1tr.cheJonhodo,yforms1h.c1kn1eof!Jllamwma(l9JS), bascdonthelifcofthe l6'hcentu,ysaint poctof Mahanshtra,Eknath,v.·hoorpo,«l the Jl"miciow cas1e •yO!cm and ,he «·,ncq,1 of 'untouchability'. Shanta ram had dea rly rnkendwh,n1fromGa11dho's cu r«n1crusadca,;ains,1l1< >0eiolc,·ilandorigina!l1·ll!:1,"-,.1e ,or,, a >eholar in > H> I,,. ,oco.1!1>1n~ v.·ith the 'yntouchables', lea.di~ !O hisostracis,n.Ri~h1from1h.c open ,ng> ·,m,.'a>ah·or\j. ·erC mSha- · r-un" Ja1·, ·nG.:r,,,y · , • ·n th,·,.,nte.iofthefilm n.., En~l,,.h t"k ,/ Admi (Mamu m Marath,). "L,fo r; f,,. ,he Li,·in~•. sums up the theme ,/ the film ,,,. wdl :i; Sha nt.rrnm", mm ph,l,,,.,rhy. He s;,.J he ...-as arp.,llcd bi· "1hcpe»urns,nuf&.!"Ud·,o.,,da.,a nJ o, hcr ,ochfilm, ... ,..hichaff,-., ,.-J,hea..J,cnccso >trno~I\""- Mmr ,..., h» an,,.·,•r 1n u. A, m man1· a Shantamm film, the oren•n~ "-'-llk"ncc, a ['< >hce ,_.,J on a ~•H11hlm~ ,kn. "fa,t-r,1n-J. In th< lfl. a "'"""" c,,c.rr>rine,.o propo,ition. Pooosi makes the ca,e 1ha1 a p oficant p,1>0toon for the excellent qu.,lny of then proJuc!S. h """'"'-")ustthdr1«hnica! sup,,nornyb.nthefl,mnx>l,the"fllm,hadtahninlr>r. O.,·,kaRani pla1-stht roltoia Maharani; n lo,-.,,.·iththtprince(H imaruuRailboo.1rinKMate. lnhcr:ealto refomifeuJal ,.,.YJ,J..verynearl1·brin111.J.,,;{ruc1ion Llf(ltl hn lm·cr ar.d hen.:lf. Dinocu,J by an Englishman,) L Frttr Hunt, the film,..,.. mY Rat, pcrwasin f'O'l"CBn,. ,.,.Jio w:1$ &-sii:n ~ look, anrac,cd Rai', attention ,.-hen hede.pcrately nttJeJ a rcpla,cement fu,- Najam•ul•H,.....in, who had left llomb.1·Talkieo suJdcn!1·10joinNc,,,·Thcatrc,. inCrkutta.A,h,ilcKumar'1 Jcbutfilm was • success ~r,J he wcn, on IO become IMian cint, it.,.,.. a pertinent 1hcmc. Gandhi had d,.-.crib,,J colonial rule as•• >1ringofu1UUCce,.sful ftlms, thc,tud10 l;,,x,nccJ back ,..;,h • box.office hit, ~ ( 1939), int">tants. N R Acharya and Najam N;rq,·i •nd became, • nmaw;,y succ.., mo,;t ly for it> mt1$ic, comix-J by S..ra,,.,ui Ix,-; anJ • gihd ntw

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compose,, Ramc:handni Pa\, "ho 1ricJ IO change ,he cu1wrn1ional pauem of Bombay Talkies filmo by imrc before Himaruu Ra; had''" up • .helx."Camc thefintr«ipicnt,f1hc[)ada>aheb l'halkcawarJforher "oomandin,: >CtVice to thef,lminJ"'''Y"

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At.~~AHi:.......R~r..,/..t.,', Roo1-s.,,,.;.~,.;.c;.i1i-.1.8-I, K_,Mo,,.,.Ki..,o..JPa..i,... -b,,>,M,jfwl,,JK.J,,,

Workil\li within ,htc .,ud,o sys,em '"'" o,her film mak= ,..ho m.>Je no1able c,,ntrobt.uion>, amon~ them bein~ Ah.Ju\ Ra,hid KarJa,. Flom in 190l, m Lahore, Kaniar had bcrn an acu,.- and ''" de.igner before he came 10 di,ect film,. He m:iJ.c •nerd[ .,[en, filmoandaialkit.HttfRan,a/t(l932)inl.ahorc.bcfon,"'°'"inRtoC..kuu"'° joi n1k East lnd,a F,lm Comr,mv. 1l,e >UCC"'6 of films l,h Aum1 Kn Ppr (1931) anJ Clland,"P/)«I ( 19)-4) marl.cJ h;rn uut a.;• talm,cJ f,lm maker. It"""' IJdd,i Slf>l/li ( 19)6). anaJapia1ion oilO.hUmul'/Fox',Ca,-dma/R1dli!..M.amajorbox-o/focchit."·hkhwon horn a ,..;Jc audience follov.·ing. Critic> acc.....J him oi plagiansm hut Kan:lar's in~"'nirarlvo,,..,dccadco. A film mah, of 1ingub, r-alcnT. Vinay:1k (1906-1947) - a teachet in~ boy"1 .1ehool in Kolhapur before he, joir>rd Prabhat as an acto,. He m.>de ,mall but ompreooi•-c >l'('Canmc.. in many oi the Company", talk;.,,. When Pr-abhat ,hiftcJ ii> acri,·iri .. 10 Poon•.Viruay.d.juincJKolhapurCi1>t,pro,·e$thepo(lUlaritycithesuhj«:tandShantaramcouldhesaidt h•vemade a .1plcndid~innin,:,in,pi1eufob,•KJtlllo/f,cialrt,"rictioru."Shantaram, w~nat1onali>1views"'activi1icsandi nduc1edr.ewd1rectorsand technicians1ocor,ewiththe inc,.,.,.,J numbrr al production$. Films like Wn'lt'td Mmace, Soil Eru$ion, Srhool fr,, Fannm and Nttd a( IN Momnu dealt wi1h urgcn1 agricuhural prubkm., in an effun 10 improve productivity. A film of abiding ime, .., ,...., T,e, o( W,alih d irectN I,,,· Bhaskar Rao, which explore$ the pattern of life ,,f the reorle al Kera la, through the variou, u,e, of the roconu1. This...,.. 1he fim Indian documcmary IO win an in1ema1ional award {Edinbur)lh).Th,r,:,..,..alsoafi lm,Tribo/Donces,,.·hkhbroughton1he ocrecn,perhap,, fo, the fir11 time, the dince, ,,f the N - of A...,m, and the Khatak dance, perfonned wi,h tlashing,wonh by ,he Pa,ha,,.of the: Nunh Wni Fron,icr. The !FI ,olso made• film on the: Indian film indumy which became ,..,,. popular. A folm on the press in India, traced ill hidrama,;,,cn11mental romance and musical cxtra,-i:an:as. "-foth•caten him,rical, in gaudy .1 to tht dramatica\11· ch"').""'I a,o;o-;>1nation of tl,, )''"'"lol l,ci1. The murdc, ,alee, rl.cc in 11-.c miJ;c ,/ p.11.c, feS1i,·111cs. Their ,,.ttJ; drawn, ,he l(U:1nl, cha>< tht lcm> c,i,.-. are J,._,,...,,-J in the ar.d hu,tl,· of 11-.e fr,tivillc>. Eschcw1n~ mclo.Jr.,ma.J•~nJar1umsnmwa""'"""nt,/ cxtraonlmal)· ro•l(ll:inc1· T\,...,~I, the f' , ,.-., n1..:k dunn~ the\\'' .hen mm ar.d nnlc ·a'v-·: ..- et. Sl,,,kh Fa1chlal, the an dorecto,. 1n~'t'.nKlY,ly man~..,J !O ~"'e it a ,un,p,uou, look. He dc,i~.,,,-J the costumes and Jc"·cllcr,· ,.-,rh mcuculo«> c~re so rh:" ewn ma ~•nherm~ ,•.eh ,rnnd c1hoo:!hehallmar\:ofl'rabha1films. Shantaram', f, n , film for hi, =v.·11· furm,,J company, Rajhmal Kalamand ir, ,..,.. Shakllfl!ala(l9H),adap1edfrom1Cabdrua',clas.sic.hw., • hugcsocccsoandranforlo-l .,,..,k., al one theatre in Bombay, an unprn:NemeJ m:onl. La,er, he made an imprcsoivc an!i•Japaocse 'war effort' film, Dr Kotni! Ki Amar Kalwmi (19'1(;), ba,.,J on KA Abbas' shon r>t'• uncann1• instinc, w gr, w the heart ul the maucr, he ..,archtances in "'·hich it,..., made, itcoolJn't achie,·e the roundedperi'ectionofanuewurkofan,but1hc,e,.-a$, howc,-er, """" uniformly exultan( in ill prdiS,,. fi/m.indi., .,.-lt>le, "K.olpan:, isa landmatl in 1hchistoryof !ndianfilin.sin1hcsame ""'f... Ci,i:.cn Ka~,..., in Hollywood . (It is a) de~a>tatmg sati"' on tM lnd;an film indumy ,.-hkh refuocstorc-c011ni.scori~inali11· andgeniu,;".

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AN.,..l.\l,,:,si-l,,',i.:..,..., 1...s CJn..>1ep-11-.:>1hcrthath,..reJucNhimto a half.wit. With ~n·c and care. J.., h.,lpo him to become a nonnal anJ intdlil,"comb11>m oi )l':>ubJecl "'a,K1darShanna"s)ogan(l952);n,.·hich an a~nt»1 ,c'sargumen1>collap,,einthcfac•ofa truehehe,·d,fo1th. Acomemporn')'of KiJar Sharma. Mahe auJi,nce ha,·in~ ~ "'"''' 10 E,., Pak1>1an (v.·hao ,. now B.,n~l.-,J,.·,h). &",J.", th~ lar,.,-e ,cal• m,~r·" "-"' of ialem to Bomhay dramed tt of m,,ch ui ,r, cwat1'"< "''""''"'' · Jn coot,.,, . the 5.,.,,h lndoan film ;ndust11· cmer,.,..,J a, a ,-;rnl f.,,ce, l'fim:n,11• doc'" ,he dfon, ,-i one man: SS Va,an. In 1949, V"""' h..J ocquhJ M0.luction mincid,a. In output, the)· fa., oumrippc,J Hind, langua!,'f')·cd. He give,itforsafe-kecpinstoafricnd,whopmblcsita,.,.yand1hcndi"'J'PCa~ TI,,fa1het gocs topri of colonial rule had unleashed """' OOCialfn,·itla!l">, 1hchi~,,.Jon>e>titrime M ini"et Jawa harlalNehru,alle~i"l!tha,thiwitha00 con, idcrcd w be uut o( step with the time, Madhwmari ( 1958). '-'Tittm t,.,, Ru,.·ik Gha,ak wa, 1n an emirely d1ffercm genre, mcul and Style. The ,cir.carnation cu m crime drama,..., """""'I material for Ghatak. an av.,..·c J Man,ist. and for Roy. The film with the hero ..-.r.J...,;n~ through a

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KHWAJ .. AHM .. IJAl!IV.S(l9!4 - 1987) Moch like Fr.mk 0.pra ,.hon, he greatly aJmin.,.J, K A Abbas t..... brrn ,·ariou,ll" Je.c,ib.,dasocornmunisi,opamphle1c.,randa1odalandpolitkalrabblMouse,.Onhi< own aJmi.soion, "Human de.{ iny in it> oocial sertin11 ha, l:ftn my opccial PfC· O (reminiscent of Newo ,lave labour on corton plantations in the Southern statc,i,-iAmoterparc,nts. it is a film of charm, wit and ,i mp!ici1y. R~in~ly frrt of songs, ,he film's nvwcmcnt "'"'JIIO•tlyenhanccdbyAnil Bi,...,..' mU'!ical ,cor,, in v.·hich cachcharactcrhoqhi>ov.Tiin>numcnta!mot if,,im,lartol'mlr.

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RAJ KAPOOR (l9H - 1988) Unlike Abbas.,R.oj Kapoor,.,,, an apoli,ical roman,ic ,..hoscttae!ionto,oc=·~ k in""[uityandinjt1>ticewasemofionalrathe,thanintellcctual. Hewasnolpa"icularly ,...,11.TeaJ, no< d;J he Con$i1mcnder, '" .. ·hich had rc,rh.-·c l(f('"'"IIPltardom. Th1> a»oc1ation l,rin~'> forth the accumulat,-J malice and p,-cjuo.licc of his ,.,;ft,, lcd,'C'$ him, raking away their only d.,ughter. Lorw,J;,,.., d1iw, him1o drinl anJ as hc 1inbinturhikcsh mo,'N with equal .,...from..,riouodrama to b,cc,y comcdy&.mn:111'(1972)sparklcswith"·itand humour.withRaje,h Khanrutahikc>hunder>tandothe miJJle d,... mcniality a< few oc hers do. He pol,:;es i,,en!lc fun at ii$ outworn value,s, ;,. fu1ling,ar>dfoibles,ar,d,omctime,prod,hi1auunjustlyc"'wicu,d,/ am urder,trek,10Delhi10,.,.,k redrcssfn,mthe Ptin1hort b-,·anuntimelydeath, Kmhan Ox,pra re,·ealeJ an ir.cihon ,wry by Prem.hand a00\11 ,he al'"°" human auachmem oia pair(bullo:;ks,to their owner. W11hinthi,fram. To thi1 end, 1-..: maintained a "able of wc!l-known "'ti1crs much in ,t-.: manner of major Holl1·wood "utlioo. V""'"·

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:n~l~;;,:r:;~~;:~:n:~~ t'.:11~::.: t~t main,a«ond'lffl'wa 0.,·n1rnp. Colourhad ju,t b.-.,n 1ntro..lt1CcJ to Indian cinema and Shanrnram re,·dled m 11. ln the1crs.Pcrhapsthcfilmwas.hcaJ ofitltime;itfailedtoattracf•udicnc"" Modi'1 Mff,:aG/ialib(l954)onthelifeofthcgr,,at!ndian poetwholinJdutingthcrcignof&h..JurSNlhZafar,mea rcfettncepoint in rhek>nR•suffe,ingmod,cr!ltion of prurience OI' lasciv~.• This led to a greatdcolofcon1rovCT1yinParliamcnt,thcprfflandpublicforums.Thc,in1crnationol Uf, maga:irw, did a cov.-r noryon wha, ii 1cnncJ 'India's Ki.,ing Ctisis'. Once again the argumcntthatthekiuwas'un•lndian'JUrfacedand anAlllndiaRadioJUrveyrevealed that 75% of the public wa, against ki .. ing and nudity in film,. The rccornmcndationl of ,he O:,mmitttt came to nough,, and ii would ,akc ,..vc"'l y,,an before any of ,hem wouldbeimplcmcmrd ln1he60s,movNelwc, egeningbigger,thoui:hnotncccsoarilvbener.Budgeuand sm ftt0 had sl:y-rockctcd. Colour had ,h;ft,d the th"'" of in""""tion from thematic to production val.,.,,. With a few exceptions, film •ficr film cra!hcd • t the box off.cc. Dimibumn , who had .Jvanced , i:eable JUms, po.nickrd. In ,hi, grim 111n:et,thtbraoh,1oughandloul-mouthedhcruv.·hoJymboli$ed1hcoimmering di>contcn, o( ,ht disJ,o,ssessed, ,he ,cam evolved a ncw \anguagd o( ,·k>knce and ,·rodena m his exremi,·dy m,,.mttsl. Z,,,,,..,., (1973). H., diJ • >tint wi,h ,he O.»..,mmOng ,.'fi,er. As a Jittt1or, he n..Je hi, J.,but with lla,in,;,. Moon )c panicularly refer> ,o ,htu «lectic ,tyle born OU! of hea,•y bo,,o,.·in;:, from ea,her film mahr,, also their "accum1ble inw net)' ..,enc" ,n which ,he TC)!atJ, Desai .. "Jc·cd,.,howeretolot'1wod:withSippyon$c,·e111lfilm$, includ;Rj1Sllola,.Thcfllm,..,..asagaoim·•ngc inwhichaformt,policeoffic" {Sanjccv Kumar), in onkr 101quare accounts with a dreaded dacoit (Amjad Khan) ,..ho had chopped off his hand.and annihilated his entire family, hicco two mercenaries {Dharmmdra and Amitabh Bachchan) and wagtt a priv:uc ,...,_ Sholayhadall thetrappings oi aWeo1em;ruggrdcountrysitrongestandmoo!popYlarcharactcr in the film isthecold,bloodedkiller,OabbarSinRl,,consummatoly plafN by Amjad Khan (he impttSOetateoiEmclll"ncyonJune26, 1975 wasala>tditcheffon topropupa(IOvemmrnt which had loot all mooal 1,mcrion. Theccnfe !!".""•mmcnt polkie,. Each arti,t ,..., ,c-quireJ to •ign • &.xum p,d up a rwd,oJc >.juad", as,i,mnt. Gani!\[, as a f')»tble candida,e forrhecom•n~ P,.,oiJen1Laldecuon.Su1tahl)'~IOffl." in,rnlkJa,d>cl,fc,long Pr.-s,O ew,.... z..- .... _ _,~,c, ...,_si..-s.......-. 1978 d~•·e,ly conni>•N around a woman in a joint Hindu family who II""' thmugl, innumerable frial, (by jealo..$ he»·enly goddcl-!Cto, comiderablc cloot in the industry, " """ of thtm enjoyin~ immen,c p,:,,.·crando,,n,rol. ln197S,oo,of89filrnspruducodinB.,mboy,1hcmusicscorcfrx44 films was rnwided by 1hrtt 1tigning compo,cn. Laxmihn,,Pya,dal, Kaly-anji,Anandj i and R D Burman. lc-avinit oot in tht cokl talentod veterans l;ke Na....tiad. Khanam. Jaidev, Salil 0.0...·Jhu,y, 0 P Narr,,r and o (An.and Rthhi, lndivar and Majrooh Sulrnnpuri) and pla1bacl oingcri {Ki, hore Kumar, Mohammed Rafi. La!a Mangeshkar and Asha Bhoslc) cornered moM of ,he wo,l, There ,..,1t ,crioo, allci:ations of monopoly le,·cl\ed •l!"in5l 1hcsc music"""• "·ho """'" acc~ofconspiringtokeq,outh.>1hexistingandfreshtalen1 . 0fl.ataMangee-comc cult film>. The Sloty d N.wtt! ..,,.ol,•n orour>d" lottny ticket and tht g,-a,d dfourfricnds,.·hoha,·ehit1hcjackpot.Desaius,es1hcploto.,apegupot\ whichtohanginc""l('Uct1tckmcntstha!idc ;;:,~~::::i~:7":i:u:,{~~::'".1,i~•~~~a:t=::7:r:is~~ot.:::: biry•talc that is visually delightful and throbbing with youthfulcn•fK'I· ~ - "'' inthebleakWtar>)'Slemthat.ahho..t,:hno>1arcanR1"'ranteea film',wcces>, noproJucerdan:Ji,pcn,e with thc,m. Thcdemand farcxceeJs the !Upply. The-re an: few " 'lubk sun onwtladi,r,-ing()OCeanddrama.Thcrestof thcfilm isanimpla..sible.du ll affair. Mukul Anand and] P Duna share in common tMir bravura flourishe,of t«hniquc. forgeningthatt«hniqucisno{.,.0,aplinonccJ>O.llit,"pnolc:waphingthcllrcplace fromd>.,vietdccadeandahal/wi11goOOWn.,.a b.omenpuiod.dcvoid1her', ill,,,.,... Hcat11\'in 1hc,•i ll~-.,ada)'aftcrt..:r,plays1heAutcanJ,.·rite>hi,ncwel.Pulu,afri.-nd,takeshimtohisvill3#for hi< si"u Aparna•, -..·eJdin~. Jn the mid he -..-an.cler$ aimks.ly, and;, evemuall)' pe,suaJcd !O rrwm and claim hi, fi,·c-y,,a,-old boy. HandleJ wi,T'•Stont,l957). "" une,·cn corncJy with A.ihc1 ,-/ brilliance, i, the ,rory of Parc>h !)ma, a bank dc,k (brHliamlyplay,,Jb.,-TulsiO>aha,•ani),"·hoaccidentallyfindsthcphil""-'f'hcr'•stonc androcketsto-..-.,alth.Hisbetterinmnctstdlh1mtothn,....the.roneawaybut~ and hi< cmving for fame pnwc stmnb''"· At • cocktail party, an incbriau,J Dutta ~ cun1rol anddemon11ra1e11hc 1',ccrc,ttohi> sccrternry -..ho ,,...llows it ,.·hen the police knock al the: dcu. ll,c film'• wi! and irony rclya!IOO(l(un:s, chandelier> and cmp1tyof1htwnmr-ing. Madhabi Mnkherjce,asthew;fo,is~ifteJ withnatu.,.lgraccand intellii;:cncc. Herpromisca;an ,11:,rcs.s ,.._.. realised tnu1e fully in Ray·• r>Charu n, the 1he housc,bu, ...,....,,u,mn,alisinRhei.stohlamefo,,,.,RlectinRhi,wife.O,aruhoklsoot hcrhandanJashcg,:,es10wardslwr1hci~..,fftt'.!e> ChanJau,i,alTIC>nJe'fRay'slTIOitperf«tlycraftedfilnu.ThcprrioJisme1kulously detailed: tlw C>tume,, the heavy Viftk virtually unn«.,..,.ry. he,tahli,he,Cl,aru',horalc,mar.dlonelir,e., .. .he ...,.r,dcr,aiml,...ly thwugh ,he various ft.'Ol'M of lw, lal).'C, wdl-appoin«-J house, admirin~ her embroidery or picking up a bcok only 10 pU! i1 bo,ck, When Bhupa1i ctHCl'5 1hc b.cJroom in ...-.1rch of a book, find. it and ..-alks pa>1 her, ,..., become acU!ely """''" ofO.aru's lone Iin..,. Ray', muskalcomp,:1'itionshad .. ,fa,l,c,,,ncomr,etcnt;hi,ocoreforCnarula.ai>hrillian1anJ sccs,hc 1oncandcxqyisiternoodofthcfilm. The 1idc theme and ics,·ariationsan, de,i,·ed from a meloJy by Tagore, anJ ,hrougl>out ,he film Ray usco musical mo{ifs ,o R'""' .««t. Vamaj Bhaua, the -..-ell•k"'"'"" m"'ico k'l(i>l has .,.iJ that "few musicians in India could have ~i,·cn him (Roy) the kinJ ,/ mcnl-musk that he him$Clfhas maMj..'1-,J io con,J'Ol'C .. . Ray is aOO\·c all a ~rcat and ,t.c.ruugh 1tthnician rc,·clling in conm,llcd demi I. u11lik~ O,aplin. ,. ,..1,o al so J,J his " "''" mu,;k, Ray don ooc romem himself with the cn,ati and Jctai\s to the ine~i,aMc 'am>ll, unh"ppincre) ,..1,o interviews him . While she "401te di,intercsleJ ,n him, he finds him,clforcninguptohuanher

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pr.-fcmng no.- to betray hi, confidence,. Ray 11(>1 Uuam Koma,. the ,mmen,clypopular llen~,l i mm·ic, idol, to playAriJham. a fittin,i piece of co1s1ing,1huugh itaruuso.,.J ,nuchJd,a1eat thetim1abli,hmem.Apan(romi1>psyehol"l!k•llyac u1cponrayal ,,f th, film ,tar, N,,,,J:" in!c•c•st;n~ for i" stnlCWr•nJf:mtt1>)'·A,·1lla!1('yohlwithm,nicalp'lor!."'••dttr,,.o""°"iatioo,,mp,,nJinK;"''~;..,chtl'"""nc• (X the mythic in th< onhn,, ry... •. Afrt•r Anmp Dm Ratti, Ra1· focwocd on contemporary city l,fcand if5p,ol>lcm,. l'rarid......nd;, Sttrnabo,JJl,.,and}m.km,urbanlfiloJ;:yfot,hccomn,on1hema1 k1hwad,conup1Klflinall i1>form,,1haruni1e:sthe1hrttfllm, Pmtidu,mdi(Tli,Ad,"""'J,l970)ha,a,it>pmtagonieT·in•law ,.,hos,ocafYbyl\ibhutillhushan Banerjec,theauthor,/Pmhet-Pcznc"'11i. The "'"ing i i a "'"""" village in llcnµl. A Jl,,-Ahmin couple, Gangacharan (Soumitra Chancrjtt) and hi, ,.,;fe Ananga (Babi!a) are""""'""'"'' 10 ,he ,·illa,:e. ,.-1,e,., ,,,,.,., of theinh•bit•narc, Jlowc~>:11u,~. 11e>1 h,. V·,,.. His .k,ccu,·c "'"' , r«'Yke amund Fch,da. a 1·0011~ det,-cti,·e. h i, t1't'n:,~ co.o,on, Top,.,-.h. and a crim< in if>"- refolmha>a,uperbfttlforth,p,.,riod,combiningadarkand11'31,:icmooJwi1h the gr.ocioU$ life,tyle of the ari•tcra,cy, ,cllcc«:J in the rich (al,rics, ornate Victorian fumiturwithhc, Engli.hturn,()enniltr Kapood(er.dal).Sandip =ocro;oasbeini,:a.shademorevillainousfor110,mc,ely .,.,Jucinghi,friend',wiltbutalooinducinghcr toitca!monc,yfromherhU>band'• ..feto funherhi, 'causc'.Bu,iti,Nikhil,,hccultirAtcdarbtocrAt(brilliantlypla~byVictor Bar.erjtt)wlic,,;,,noblebearini,:andnaturaldignnyismISI impr.,ssi,·e.Awatcthathis wife had stra1·ed """Y from him, h, >hoW> uncommon unotiginali1yan.dlack,-iinhibi1ion.Unlih Ray, unlike moo, Indian film makers in fJCI, Gharnk dc"d,,r,J an idiom and >11•lc astoniohin~ly frtt of ,...,.,cm cinematic influences. Eisenstein .,..,.. !he ooly one he ach,ov,·ldge,J, as ·,t,, f.ukr ... the primeval Adam ,-i the dncm.a". Ghatak', f,lms ""' quintts."''""· Sat).OJII Ray,at h;,fi,.. John Playc, Lcc1urc al ,he N:011onal Film Thc:mc in Lond.>n, '-11d th:n he 1houW,t Ghatak,.-,,h.,, fo,1hclllOM>i1;1,ificam ol,MunJ,,.co,·e.,J lridoanJncctor:s.Thisl.J,o the f,n,{ e•·e• rctr.'>f'.-.: twe r-i h0> fihm at th•nthu, ·•..,· '"'"'",!,". a rc-nm. Gharnk', fil111> 1t,·ol\'e afOYnJ '"" cc,ural them,-,: ,i,., cincmatic c• ..-.r bci;an wi,h Nrn,ai Gho,l,",Clunna,nul (TN Up,oo,,d. 1951 ). "film .:1 row ncah,m oo 1h,· pncc pro,:a,:oni" Nita i• ,he l,,.,ad,winncr in a ,ofu~•w fam,lv offi,·e. ll>e11 >1:n1~I• for survl\'al "bleak, and the clima• comes with the l>r-eak•upofthed1splaceJfomily.Nirni,e•pk1iteJbye,·e'l'""'"ndtlw,>trainpnl\·1.,.too much: she soccumb. to 1ubercuk,.i,. Jn an unfo.gcnabk icene, 1he dying Nita cries out •1 ...·am,oli,·c",Th, ,cl>c,,.,,·erbern ,es"'Gharnk'• camcrnpansacmi., thernoumain• accmtu.,till)llhc,ilence,u>,asGha1akhim,elf

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.. id, an a,pect ol the Great Moiher ima!-"'· Her dea,h ;, hkc ,he !(Oing away ol Du,g;a, 1heimmcrSionoftheidol. at th.en>d olthcau1 umnPuja Gha, ak il>COl'J'Of",,,J iome1hing of hi, ll"TA cxJ"'ricn.cc in his r.,xt film, Kom,;d Gand/iar(EFlai.1961).Heme,,...,.thernoufofthefragrntn,a,ionofarevolutioruiry cuhur.,lmO! interested in m~hanim< Naxalite, in the fo, e$t "·horn N,lkantha rni.,ge; in (Xllitic•I argument. l.a1et, in •n cncoon,et l,n,.-=r, the N•xaliu:s an..J the r-shce, he" she..- oo,.·re.Jily fonhcoming, but the >ad on..J man!:< fac, n:rrutiru 1h•• th,, Bengal i audicRCd for ,.,hon, he made the film, la~I)' s,ay.,J """"\' from them. Pethap, his film, carried too personal a"'"""'~"" - Gha,ak's 11a~..Jy to a grcal ""'""' wa, ,c)f.,n..Jt1ecJ. He lacked, in his an as m hi1 life, the J ,,cipline that might ha,-., enahl.,J him w ,;.., aho.·e hi> pcr,or,al problcmsto crca1camurcunifieJwurk. Hi,filmspruj«1auniquc"'n"b,l11y;1heyare ohenbr,lhan1,bu1allll·i1hthcrolit1calsi1ua1ioninthc count')'- Lou,dy baseJ oo ,t.., 1901 Samh:,I R~•'Uh, On 1hc ftlm • )'OUlll: mbal (11,,, ror relat1OOoodrink.lnthe;equcnc•aftcrthc,.-,fe',Jeath,S.ndepan; s,gnificantlyhumauthcwl'tcmchanJ. The,hrouJmoneyi,not sr,nt >me,1unea "·iJtrd,mcn,iun .,,A.l:ak,S..,idhanr (/nSt=hr,/F""""', 198!). A ftlm crew arrin"> in• ,·ilb~--- m Ben)['II to make a film ahc'-" the ~reat fumir.e of 1943. While , i , - ~·•·nrr,,.,-,-s.,11111111e,ccncim·e,uthecharalend1cl ruinsofa;,,,ninda,-'1ca,mt,y ..,a,cinKnandlim(Tlw,RW,u,l983,liindi).Dipu,ayoung man from ,he ci, y, in,·ites twuuihi,fricnds, Anil. • .,,;,c, and S..bh"'h a rhowgrnphcr, wspenJa,.·cckendwi1hhim0!hi,anccmalrs1a,e.\llhilcphowgraphin.: •henll M .S..bhash diocO>Wi Jam;ni (Shabana A,mi), a rounR """"'" who i,.,.,. akinril-"Nr Shahani'• Ma)leholar.hip Hc ,c"·..JabndpcrioJ,lar,,rcn,kesh ipwithRoh:nlltts«,nonthescts,/ Un,frmm, D011u. Ri,,.•ik Gha,ak. "''ith ,..hom he Siu.lied a, Punc, anJ S.,-....,n , ha,·c b..'MlnO-Haw•

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he too ;o;ns the pmces.ion. The film's ending, th."'llh conttinJ, dot:, not -....,ak,n its main statemem. Miri.i"sdccisiorl to ernigra,e is• desperate ooe brought oo by the collecti,'C wd,:ht of p,-""'1al ,ra~y and the ,.,rroondi~ evil. communal force> - the """" forces that made an abortive attempt to hne the f,lm h:mne ult1matd1• tt:JuceJ !U a rh1-sinJ the city", fi,., film cl.,r,,rAtl\'C, Be~al a,·oids polemic f"'mphletec1udio ambience wirh ..-qllCnce, offilmsoftho40s-thetrendsrangingfromdllCtoon~to,,....t,bucklilll(

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••i1ali1y and ran~"'· An oumanding katurc of the film io iu mu,ical !Cote by VanrajBhatia,.·hohasocorcJthemuoicfoioi, al imrenJin~ 1call.-.;:,ka,ako!ha,(a11f""->f'lc ,•icw 1hr ko!M wnh m,.,c.J f,..,1,ng,. The amiable A~'"""'I (S"c' and finall1· >Ue l"-~lf'Ie n,le had impTintedon Goan li(eand which may«1eriesrlir.cidento,ir.cludingananemp ,ha, Lahany.,'o wife ,.•.,. rnpcJ and murJen..J by k,cal l,i~i).'>. Th, ,hattcn~ dima• is reacheJ,.·hen,heyounguiba!;, ~U,,...,JunJ..,.policerscon roperfonnhi,fother',funernl riteo.Asflamcscoruurne1hcdcadboJy,Lahanya,onanimpulse,sei:e,,a"'JOOCuu._.,',axe anJ kills his oistcr, ,a,·in~ he,- frum the fate that Wdl hii w,fe. Aalrn:,,h h,.. heet, hkcr.ed roG.:s.a Gavra,' Zand ctiticiseJ by the same tul...n for it> thriller fonrun and hi;:h vionrn1cJ from hi; binhp\;ourchildrentos,,...,.h;, abotheoonolfilmyoucan"taffonlr,,:>1toktthem0 and con,munal hoJ"-,., both Hindu and MM l'inw remain, an cn~"'-""'flll film In Mohan ),,.Ju 1/a:ir l!o (Summon, /r,r Mohan )o,h;, 1984), Mir.a str= the imr,>rtance of indh·;,lual ,,,c,~,n and mno.u""· The f,tm r,llfr.1)-S the 11rui:i;le of a 65-1·ear- ct m·,·nly ~"im , the,e are molfllc>el)". S,...,,,,, h,~ ,-i the If vu ln,•rabilit y finds u , ,.·d)' oni., Sat,m !.an,,:d,,.fochfocu,._-,,,n lndla,1.iri."-">' mtr>Ofit)", thc M,,.l ims (:, l"-'P"lauon , -i""arl1· 120 m,11,.,.,). in l""''•raniuon India . Mir:a makrsclcar hi< >1.onJ1~'1 m. "One ho.'f'lrecl> of Bombay, ln·ing ,if uwn~"' and rhd",. If S.l,m rq,n,Sents the CynlCII, ,.,[f.Josinic1h-., element a,n,.:,n;: Musl,m )'-OUl'k,,.·hocanfiOOnojoboo:her,han1ha,cialow-paidproo(n:-ader. Sal,m"•ini1ial n,sroruc tn A,lam is one of iOOilferenc~ t:.., he l(r"adually lq:m, to admire his ,·~ws; he ,.,h-,,ca,.,. .,Ju.cation for Muslim WOfflO'fl f..,. ,.-hkh he ~• beaten up by con,crvati•·~ Muslims. A docun'lsism'• ~ing, Salim" knifed mde:uh hy • n'lahardlool:atr,,liticalmachinatiomandtheprn,,in hi,maidcnf, lm, Nnv /)el/,i Timytoca""'•'"llll"'f'l"I han,,nd,efama1or1comment;bemgffl.'dcabout laW)"Cn. lt>ricx>ecn1 mcwcments in ,.,,·era I pan, of the Somnimcs the weight of 1radi1i1cr.wl>ohas>1uditin1hc)'-OUn;:rouplcand1hcarri,•alolahihy~i,•n 1heaun1 IIOO)Cthini,: !O fu,. on,r. One S(o,my ni~ht the ekler brolher ..-.llu ""' • ne,w to 1t1um Bhaur.>,,.·hoha.,>k,a,·ingbehinda \T>ling. Pir,.~ '""'"" to f\,:,ml:,a1· ,., llnJ !11.>1 Jc-n~\ ha,·,n~ ,.,ffereJ a milicarria~,:. ha,, h.-comc h,l 1cm,' a n J · · ract",·e, anJ P , '.Un)Ce',us wiJo,.· Ai:[1aS1athisfriend\in,n1or.ili1yherte1nonscratcJ,...J nlt"n n1t~••1e '" 1he c11b "' ,..,,.k, le,"·m~ ,hen """'"'n l,ch,nd an,,I w!Llmon~ ,>I'll)" for hn,•f r,,r",J' cwr,· '"'" ,,. thre,;• l"'f>- TI,e arrh,il nf a rnunch1· 1,,un~ m:m (N.i,em,JJ,n Shah) create, c•rc' c,n 1.-n,., film,.,, m th duhbeJ in En;:Hsh; J B H Wadia', Cwn Dime..-, IC A Abba.'• Rd,;, Oietan Anand', Aandlu,m, and V Shantaram', Dr Korn;,. Ho"'"'"'• the,,, remain.ed uncu,wincins "nd ne,·crcaugh, on. A breal,hruugh wasachic,·...J in 1963 bi· Ismail Mm:ham and James lvOf',' wi1h H"""1tol.:ltt. Since ,hen ,hey ha,·e >ho, ..,,-.,ral in lnJia, v.·hich ,ncludc Shakesp,or.,.olial,, Th, Gtm1, Bomba:, Talltb(l986), ,ht Enshsh I ~ i,cemral rn,he,htme. E.-.,, ,inceMacaula1·',minute(1835)thatlnd,an,be1augh1Engh>h 1opnwidede,ksfortlw, llrit,,h Raj, the 'babu' had come mtohe,ng. 11,e film,"'-" in tlw, early JO,, ,., .. ~,-cs around Francis M"""'Y (Ra~m·i, Yadav), an Indian O,,i1..denu i1 a oollnquial mix of Hindi, En~h,h ~nd slan~ which conuibu!e> sr,.>ntaneily and colour to 1he film. O,mmi.,w....,J by Otan1>Cl ~. Kri.,hc,n mad,, E!«fn( Mooot ahout En;:lish 1il India for • bi, of Raj nos.1al~i• A11histimcanumberoffilmmakerslx-g.,n1u""""',ha1d;stinct"""'ber,.ttn'an' andthe'comm.,rdal'arefal,.-,orinanycaocr.,1,..,i;:,,r,-ahJ.Arn,dingthecxc....,. ,/ mainstream cinema, their film,,,/ ncce.,,ity, "'en, low.bud~"'', >impk and cm.lible . S..i Par'anjpy before its tclca handicap, he h fiercely ir.d..•pendcn1 . lnachance encountcr,.·ithKa,·ira (ShabanaA:rni),anot1racti,·c1·""n~ widrn.·, he invnc, hCT 10 wud with 1he children"' 1he schoul. While ,he i, incl'1ock , i1""1ion,. ll>cfi!rn'• •li,COCh >pOl,cn ~ millions, anJ each with their own rich li1crury hetil"l,"', it i, rui tural 1hat linguistic ar,J elhnic idcnmics are >lroflg. Sometimes this has taken a violcn1 and dramatic tum, .. -..·hen• parliament•')' haft of a mi~. 1h, bouom of i, th1n,e1>t•h.,..·theirdem1iontoher.

In 1983 anurhef film actot, NT Roma Rau,'""' a sp remarkable fo r it> b,,auty and the fiJcliry wi1h which it dcpict1 an e1hnic way of life. M T Vasudcv•n Nair'• NirmalaJ1,'lfYofav1 ll a~..,oracle"·.,,,.._,e,vicnarenolonJ: life

andgi,'ci ;1rncaning.Thcyplana n,ncle,vousa1,heprison hospi1al ...-hcnhei,suJJcnl1· rdea.s,,;l-af1ccJomhenownolon!("rs,,.,1:,.,Mamo.xy.ootofKerala", promincn1ac1ors • give,asterl ill.l!performar.cc intherole,-/Ba.hecrfor.,·hichheJe.,,,wJly won the Natk,nal A,.-.rJ. As in M..J:/iamukham. AJc10tcreat.. a tantali:ing cni~•rna,clo the"'""""non1hco,hcr , itkofthc-...,.l[af;pnentdBashcrf, ;magina,k,ninduc.-Jbyhisintcnselone\i""'8! Aooot', mm, are Jc..ply human and firmly roou,d in t,,. ooi l. often e,·,Jdn~ ancie nt_ima.get and ritua_Js- Yet hio coocems_ remain contcmrorary sh..,w1ngthe1nd1vidual's st rui.:i;le1nan a1toph1.-J ""'"''Y ';JJI.-Jwl!h social ~ o,political dug,na "Ii G Aravindan (19J5•l99l),.·hone,·craneOabou, • yI< (TIit Cimu T,n,, 1978), abo.., a circu< "'-"'I" anJ the cxci,crnem ,h..,, brina,: m th,• he of a ,mall villa,..~• community. The film 00,,,,.,,.,. the ten"' anJ ~,nely hn of the artistes a, abo their bri, a miracle pl.,y anJ a Ma')' M"ll'-falene•hkc incident, kttri1111 1he "'l'"cr,·,ithemanintact. Like Ku"""""• inRa,.l,,Jffl()l'l,Ar.,vindinremin,b,...o(,he coscn1i.tlrdativityoftruth. />okkw,ryd(Tu;{wu, 1981) iak.. afunhcrrlun,:cinm nun·na1Tm"·cform which "'"' it> theme of~ ..,n,i1i,·c y,;,ung poe! (rla\lN 1-,y tM pocl, &la.chanJran ChulhHad), unahlcto,.·ithstand1hehar-,hrealn1esofli/c,"·ho,i:r..,h.,llyoli['iintoa,.,,rlJc/fon1'1$)' anJhalh,cin;1tio11 . fa-cntually,heisrnnhngutlt\"'rd,andSanbran{Gnpi),thcfore>uuc,u,e. Orid.uhu (So,,,n,lw-rr,1986)i,episoJ1c.""'°"'hkeacanoon,mpw11ha,imila, economy,ieffectand,harpwit.Ara,·1ndanr,:,;n1lsatthethnu~"11,i ,·,ola1i"!lnatutt"01"up,u> toa rcfflOle villa~'< in Kerala where it, inhahi1anua,cexciu,J!yari:uin~•hout thed,,,,ci,ion,ithe Br-ahminlanJlord 1ubrin~dec1rici1y101he,·,lla!(C.Soon.a1ruck rulls intothevilla!,'ntmU«:t ,i the film i, the choce,11.,rarl,y and namiti,·e r,x,tr"i ,i Ka,·al.,m Narapna Panich,. ,...._, had earlier collahtory and mL»ic frlf KMfflmallJ. Shaji. ,.-hose,

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c"merawork ha, comribu,N 3 ~at deal !O ,he .IOCCns ol Ar:w(ndan's films. herJ«U an 1mroosible task. John ~hlf,teth.,ragr,,u p oflikc-minJedr dead boJy i, iJcn,ifiOO by hi> c001r:tde,. v.·ho ,hco ,ra,·d 1og,1h.,, m iel\ hi, mod,e, ol h,s death. The film is built around this journey in a series ol mem,,ry ep...,.,_i,,. ,/ the dead b,:l)' and ,he rernlution that failed. The pictu,e that emerge.'$ frnm ,-..chmemoryisof1enc,,nfaturbing. movin~ and c,c.Jihle film. N;olini in her first major role•• the JoorncJ ""' re,·cal, surpri,ink range and in,dli!1"ncc A cenain hlcakm"" and i-1mi,m mark. A, KR:ov;ndrnn";film,:irea,·mn.Jl1·1",lnom a ~1,,n,.,- romt ,:I,.. T h"n,, ·c·ncma ·• a mcs.ltum f"' ,,.c,.,1.,,;,cal and h1>trical analr1,". 110> fllm. Or, Tlioot-al Pah'u11nm~'.K.in""'1acincrnagrcwundcr1hegian1•h.aJ.,wol1hc n..ighbourillj! Tatnil ar.d Telugu film inJUS< the 'barcfu.x dirtt10cBrifohinthe 1920.,at ,he time of Gandhi's Noo•G:>or,ro,ooo Mo,•emem. He ;, be,ra)'N by his mi,1re,.,whorcahses1oo latcthctra;:,,Jyolh«ac1ion.Us,n~thefolkhallad a,ianarr.11i,·c, 1hefilm ,lf'plllat 1rcnJ, in et,rmncncial cincn,a . The plot in,... h-es a nareis,111k ,,,,in, ,.·horun,fo.$iru11c h,m. Srlition,1i1 ...,h,manJ 1herondnit ha. bn"-'ll"t out the prohlcm ol \\l'Jng w;J,o.,·h,ood with ,uch J'O(g,,an much emotional intcn."t)' and cont~m['

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mllUa>ocat!yapolnical;&la,chandc,,',indic11nentismor-al.Ho,moo:recent work like Punnagc,i Mannan, Pi.du P..du Anho~ and Due, are rather nm,t-/.1hr-mitl. Bhamthimja (b 1944). ,..1,,,.., ambi1 ion '"" to bc.-c,~nc an actor, iruJ.c highly sooc...fulsu,1• l1keNi~(Th,Shadooi•.19&l)andMll A,., film, Kol.:il.,. Me c:m h.• Ul'f"'ft,,J by he, fwncf . .he ,cl; OU! tu build • moJ,., 1-,,.,u.., on a r1ece of land h,,h,~1n~ tn !he fam1l1·- But c,im1rtion J.,,.. her all ,he ""'f from municip.11 re,mi .. ions. and lo,m •r1>licatio.,n, "-' -..·ily contrnctorJ, The film,. ah-en >l"uJy (Jf human b.ch:wiour. A c,,mmcru ~r..Jua!l· of M :.J,.. Uni,·ctsily. ,.-uh an MA ftom lloml,ay, Mani Ra,hnam", 1hirJ film, the Tamil Ma,,na R~m (A Silent Sympl,oo,y, !986), hrllll~ht h,m ..,,·era\ awarJ, an.d e>1ahl1sh,,J h,s ,-.,putacion •• a ,ki!lc,J an.d innu,·at"'C film msku. The film deal, "''ith an arran~.,_.,i mama~1.· b.c,,.·..-en ,wu ,>Jucs!l,J 1u1.mg people

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The wife i, • 1duc1am panr.er and.._..,):.• dl\•o«e wi1hin days of their marriagt,. She canr>lg >phi1ticatcoomere,.,mblance.hisbroodlyba..,JontMhfeofVardarajMudahar, • Tamil , but in Tamilnadu we h"'·• cinematic politics." A ne-..• kind of poli,kal film made irs appear:mcc -..·,th ,he sa,irkal play,.·righ, Cho Ramas,..tmy's Mohommad-bin-T~ (1971). The film lampooned both the DM K with it, anti• Brnhmin, anti•Aryan c,CUUl'P"I 1hea1re, Yahlta1r.ma (di>tin.cr fmm Kamarnh'i), llum1ka1ha - 1«m 10 ha,·t impi~~ firmly on it~ cintma at may 1:-.: K in Telugu d1recteJ by 'out>i to rake a frc:,J, ~,ol,: at the rca!itI"""'r>dthcm B Narasm~a Rao', (b !946) ime~ in dr.ema grew afm hi, collaboration with Gthatheevolwsimoa;:cnuin,anis,.RaoplayeJ1hc lead n,le him>kpace inc"IJ"'l'"•• in~in11,plnldffiWnt>ofblack humour, '"''"'~"''"" comcd1· as -.·ell a, • .. >hc,in~ comment " n 11rban ~rc,:J. n.., cnormoo,!1·popolar filmc;11ncditsrro.luccrR, IO mill~m. fulkt«•i11g a "mila, approach IO d n.cma hut wnh d,lfcncnt 1hc,na1ic nnccm., is KV,.h...,.nath(bl9.l0)... ,ncJ,.. a ooonJ=onli,1bdon,J,recti~films.Hesh.,..~ •Sfgk,nalpnxlurtk,n l\ia1h1>1>r.)lar«cn1phcnt>1ncnon.lnthcpast.1hcMamthipn,Jurcr,,rcr,1teJetther frum a ..,mi·urban '"""n abou, Jll) ,mlcs from Bomba\',"' Kolh;,pur, fonncrly a rrmcel)" , ,ate and a ,tmn~holJ ,/ ~brn1ha t.-...litk,n and culture. After World Wa, II, v,henman y,/thestud11ic1en,1011, On eh,·""" h.md . then, v.·a. the """''"0>11> J,,,.,.e ,., ,mitate the H,ndi ·o,midc,' -..·ho h.J rru.Jc ~~•,J, and on the other,• rnn,ciou, effort to pn-«,n.., their regional ;,lentity. Thc,uua1ionv,-asfunher~:m,,:,1e-Jwnh1hcnon -a\':t1labili1yde•hihi1ionoudc1S of"!l,onalfilms.tkth.,au,,,,,...,.,,;pn,fe,.,nceh,iniiforHind1f11m,v,·hichattmctla')..••:r au,henn'>.Curu..."lucnd1·,firu1n1 "' n.-.•irnli>c Marmhi cotwma v,·hw:h had > thcatricalmo.:l11ioruandthcn,fonni"/""tional i>1m.."·•ment,,/the last Cctl!Uf)'- TI,.,,.. are cl.-.irly ,•i,ibk in !11< films uf &,burao Painter, V Shantaram, Vinara\.:, PK Am· and other,. 1, ;, "~"'ificant that c,·en to.fay much d the nc-..· talent come, from 1h.cam,,and1h.:1·•'·tctheir:,e11"·,- ,;t:.:·..,n>t...; ,J,c..,,_,n Am..'ffl ,/ lln-.:ht', Th« f'l" icianlxMandan«c•-mri< Sruhip tha1 ~i,..:s ,k fil,n a email\ ani!{ic ""'!:ht. F,,.. the"""' filin,)11in~in,:. It t> the ;1 mrle >1"r)"d • tnJ:..I yuu1h. the ,on of a ,·ill"!."' mmiu,.,Jh., munlcr, le"'11ngtotherrarre,tandexccu1ion. n,.,,.-.,on,eoftheearl'e;, ·n 001 ,he ,rrauonahty of such aci, uf ,·IOlencr . H,· """ ~1.11:uh, >la~,· artht'-'> ,.-ho~• •·c crcJ ,hlc pcrformanc.. l\ha,kar O,;,nJanrb,, ,.,he, t;1L1~ht mu,rc fo< """" l""r; •t ,i.., Film Institute in r ,,,na :ind haJ .,,,.,..J ,1,., mu>1< f,,. Akn,,, 11~..k Aiy"'"""'• (T,,-anny, 1982), ha.seJ on 1hernc1N)r r>uch a IIOCiety. Bh:i;la, Chan10shate1holOC>lrcsuhinhisgctting b.,att•••

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CMand.mt,-r (Th, of AA) da1·• as a poli1kal acti~ist. He h..d also uair.c.1ngc,c,1 Debabra1aBi>was.Ultubemadeadocumcnta,yonhi,mcnu>tS ,...,l1.,Th,Miui,·e con,l( soilu,.• ca,,,e B,h · r, ,., --,- · r,uand kill,n1,">. The>c1,,m, In mood and texture, Anlaljal, Yam, (TI,, V°"""' Bt:,ond. 1987) ,..,..d ilfcTCnt from At,,,.~N-Slwl.-1. S,,,.,,,,,,A,.. ., ac-c..,_.•, an1·thin;:Gh,,,.,haddonccarher.h1Sa!,.,pc,ha["hi, mo>taph;hcJ,.vrk. Ba,.,J r,.,,, ,1"""' ...J "'""' ""'""froo, on Kamal Kuma, Ma:umda,', highl)' acdaim...J >IOI')', ,he film is Swa>the perioJ,-ico!li>ionl,,ct,.·c..,ntr..J1ti1X1ttohchollow,lca,·inghc,ncnm ha, a documentary badgroond, made an

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imp,e .. i,·cfirstfitm,EhJJ,,,n(Pamai1o{aged their small holdings to the village landlord. The hopelessness of the situation affects them in different ways. Despair makes one crazy, another turns to theft, and some leave for cities in search of jobs. Haria is one of them, and his sorrow is relieved by a vague hope that things will get better. As Haria is leaving for the city, his son says, "You will see wide roads, tall buildings, coloured lights. Remember to bring me some unbreakable marbles." Klanra Aparanha (Trred Afremoon, 1986) essays the ennui of life in a village. The characters and situations are typical of rural India. It is a reflective film about the corroding ennui of the mind. Majhi Pahacha (Th, Middle Srep, 1987) is arguably Manmohan's best work. The film concerns the moral collapse of an aspiring idealistic writer who, faced with financial problems, succumbs to the dowry system which he had earlier denounced. This leads him to bum his literary work in a symbolic gesture of selfimmolation. In Trisandhya ( 1988), Mohapatra is back to the rural milieu that he relates to best. On the first death anniversary of the patriarch of a large Hindu family, the members of a traditional household come together. In a series of intimate conversations and mild confrontations, Mohapatm provides us an insight into the middle class psyche.

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l1>c,film,.,.,,..with1hed,,athof1h,,1"'1riouch•nd....Jswith1h,,hitthofagrand.on, 1t-fltt1ing un tk Hindu vitwofthccun1inui1yoflifc. While Ninodand Manmohan n,main ,he two l!IOlt impommt mm makers of Oriya dr.erna, tit= an: oo:hc.a ,..1,o hav,: made hooe.tattempUa1gc,:,Jcincrnawi1hvaryingd,,,gn:a,of>UCerui1ivcandtravelleJfmmvillai:c 1ovilla1,. :mtcttaining1he pcoplcwithpopularball.dsandfolk11hand bu,~,ninR >Uen~'fh ,i the Cffitral characrc, (play,.-J marvelk,u;ly by an amateu r actn:s,,

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Mall•)" Go,v..,.mi), provides the film its >tmn~ fomini,t >(atemcnt . A similar concern =rksSaikia", Kulahal(Timnoil.19S8). Ba;eJononec/hisstones.thefilmdepicuthe .P"/'O(ln{l9S6)isamo,ccomplcxandtOf)icalworkin v.·hich the political ioo,-.menl cl 198.J by the All Assam Student• Un""' 1mpifl!.'C'on 1h baS1hem,ryofa,mallh.,,.,·"·h,1,aft"1hi> unrn.mcd mother dies in chilJbinh, io 1,.-ought up by hi> wandfohcr. A .,t,.,.~ 1cachcrfinJs the 00'/'sfad,er who rums ou, rn k marriW by the 00'/. aJopb him. Wha, ,he film lad1herl•n;:,..,a~"-'>-""'hasCujaratianJ l'unjabihash:1,n"'lually Sf'O"..dic. Gujarm has contrih.t«-d many rn\en«sl Siar I 1he H,nJ, c,ncma bu1 i films ha,·c ,cm.,;ncd cheap imimuon.sofHir.di succr:s.ses, ll,e IWt,inasr0....

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