Shivaji: His Life and Times [1 ed.] 9380875177

The volume will cover Raja Shivaji's life and times along with the strategic and administrative intelligence and ex

368 54 35MB

English Pages 1660 Year 2016

Report DMCA / Copyright


Shivaji: His Life and Times [1 ed.]

Table of contents :
Title Page
Shivaji His Life and Times
About the Author
India in Shivaji’s Times
Prominent Muslim States in India
Other Indian states
The Mughals and other Muslim Rulers in Shivaji's Times
The Administration of the Mughal Empire
The Mansabdars
The Administration of Jagirs
Some Regulations
Candidates for a Mansabdari
Promotions, Honours and Awards
Leave, Dismissal, Retirement
Principal Officers in the Mughal Administration
The Mughal Court and the Emperor’s Daily Routine
The Administration of the Provinces
The Adilshahi Administration
Adilshahi Noblemen
Administration of Parganas (Districts)
The Adilshahi Court
Government Departments
Official Language
The Administration of Villages in Maharashtra
Assessment and Realization of Taxes in the Mughal Empire and the Adilshahi Sultanate
Misery of the Population under Mughal Rule
People’s Uprisings
Persecution of Hindus under Muslim Rule
The Military Organization of Muslim Rulers
The Cavalry
The Artillery
The Infantry
Numerical Strength of the Mughal Army
Discipline, Training and Uniforms
The Army in the Field
Defects in the Mughal Military Administration
European Colonies in India
(1) The Portuguese
(2) The English
(3) The Dutch
(4) The Danes
(5) The French
The Beginning of Shahji’s Career, 1599-1625
Shahji in the Adilshahi Sultanate, 1625-28
Shahji’s Second Tenure in the Nizamshahi (1628-29)
Shahji leaves the Nizamshahi
Shahji joins the Mughals
Shahji’s Rebellion against the Mughals
Siege and Fall of Daulatabad (1633)
Shahji – King Maker (1633)
The Siege of Paranda (1634)
Revolution in Bijapur (1635)
Fall of Nizamshahi (1636)
Adilshahi’s Campaigns in Karnatak (1637-1643)
Early Career of Shivaji
Shivaji's childhood (1630-1642)
Shahji’s Mukasas around Pune
Dadaji Kondadeo
Places of Shivaji's Residence
Shahji at Variance with the Adilshah (1644-45)
Shivaji’s Seals
Rajgad and Torana
Mustafa Khan’s Campaign in the South (1646-47)
Shivaji’s Intervention in Jawali
Shivaji loses Kondhana and recaptures it
Mustafa Khan arrests Shahji (25th July 1648)
Fath Khan’s Campaign against Shivaji (1648-49)
Shivaji's Correspondence with Murad Bakhsh (March – November 1649)
Shahji's Release (16th May 1649)
Afzal Khan plans to invade Jawali (1649)
Khan Muhammad’s Campaigns in the South (1651-1654)
Sambhaji’s Death
Shivaji's intervention in the Utravli Sub-division
Shivaji assumes control of Purandar
Mughal Invasion of the Qutbshahi Sultanate (1656)
Shivaji's Jawali Campaign (1656)
Shivaji takes Supe (24th September 1656)
Struggle for Control of the Qutbshahi Karnataka (1656-1658)
Mughal invasion of the Adilshahi Sultanate (1657)
Correspondence between Aurangzeb and Shivaji (1656 -1657)
Shivaji's Raids into Mughal Territories (1657)
Commencement of the Mughal War of Succession
Internal Feuds in the Adilshahi (1657–58)
Shivaji's Offensive against the Adilshahi Sultanate (1657-1658)
Aurangzeb’s Letter to Shivaji (1658)
Shahji Denies Onus for Shivaji's Actions (1658)
The Beginnings of Shivaji's Navy
Aurangzeb's letter to Shivaji (1659)
Overview of the First Phase of Shivaji’s Career
The Elimination of Afzal Khan
Appointment of Afzal Khan against Shivaji
Afzal Khan’s Ancestry
Afzal in the service of Ranadaula Khan
Military Achievements
Personality of Afzal Khan
Afzal Khan’s arrival at Wai
Preliminary Moves
Incursions into One Another’s Territories
Afzal Khan’s Letters to the Deshmukhs of Mavals
Negotiations (October 1659)
Afzal Khan reaches Jawali
The Slaying of Afzal Khan (10th November 1659)
The Battle of Jawali (10th November 1659)
Exploitation of Victory (November 1659-March 1660)
Shivaji and the English
War on Two Fronts
The Adilshahi Offensive
The Mughal Invasion
Lakham Savant’s Offensive (March 1660)
Shayista Khan’s March to Pune (March - May 1660)
The Siege of Panhala
Capture of Wasota (6th June 1660)
Shivaji’s Escape from Panhala (July 1660)
Siege and Fall of Chakan (June-August 1660)
Shivaji’s Attempts to Make Peace (September - November 1660)
The Mughal Gain of Paranda and its Consequences (November 1660)
Revolt of Siddi Jauhar (1661)
Battle of Umbarkhind
The South Konkan Expedition (February – April 1661)
War of Attrition (September 1661 to March 1663)
Raid on Shayista Khan (April 1663)
Shivaji’s Letter to Aurangzeb’s Officers
The Bijapur-Ikkeri War
The South Konkan Expedition (May – June 1663)
Siege of Kondhana (November-December 1663 to May 1664)
First Sack of Surat (January 1664)
Shahji's Death
Shivaji’s Naval Preparations (1664)
War in South Konkan (May - December 1664)
Shivaji’s Campaign against Khawas Khan
Pillage of Adilshahi Territory
Pillage on the Sea
Estimate of the Plunder
Relations with the Portuguese
The Tula Ceremony (6th January 1665)
The Basrur Expedition (February 1665)
Clash with the Portuguese (March - April 1665)
Jai Singh’s Campaigns against Shivaji and the Adilshah
Appointment of Mirza Raja Jai Singh against Shivaji
Mirza Raja Jai Singh
Jai Singh’s arrival in Pune
Political Preparations for the Campaign
Jai Singh’s March to Purandar
The Fort of Purandar
The Siege of Purandar
Devastation of Shivaji’s Territory
Progress of the Siege
Shivaji’s Efforts for Peace
The Treaty
Jai Singh’s Campaign against the Adilshahi Sultanate
Shivaji’s Attacks on Adilshahi Territory
Shivaji’s Visit to Agra
Rationale for Agreeing to Visit the Imperial Court
Shivaji’s Journey to Agra
Shivaji’s Audience with Aurangzeb
Shivaji’s Predicament
People’s Admiration for Shivaji
Shivaji Starts Making Preparations for His Escape
Shivaji’s Arrival at Rajgad
Adventures of Paramanand
Netoji Palkar’s Conversion to Islam
Jai Singh’s Death and Ram Singh’s Restoration in Imperial Service
An Anecdote
The Interlude
Threat of a Persian Invasion
Revolt in Afghanistan
Renewal of the Mughal - Maratha treaty
Shivaji and the Portuguese
Shivaji and the Siddi
Shivaji’s Civil and Military Administration
General Administration
Language Reform
Financial Administration
Charges of Misadministration
Military System
War Finance
Muslims and Foreigners in Shivaji’s Armed Forces
Nature of Shivaji’s Kingdom
Offensive Against The Mughals
Revolt of the Jats (1669)
Shivaji Recovers Ceded Fortresses (February - June 1670)
Second Sack of Surat (October 1670)
Battle of Vani Dindori (17th October 1670)
Conquest of Baglan and Sack of Karanja
Struggle for Salher
Chhatrasal's Visit to Shivaji
Rustum-i Zaman’s Rebellion and Death (1671)
Shivaji and the Siddis
Shivaji’s First Attempt to Fortify Khanderi (1672)
The Satnami Revolt (1672)
Revolt in Afghanistan (1672-1677)
Death of Abdulla Qutbshah
Shivaji and the English (October 1670 to May 1672)
Conquest of Jawhar and Ramnagar (1672)
Offensive Against The Adilshahi Sultanate
Threat of a Joint Attack on Mumbai (February 1673)
Capture of Panhala and Parali (6th March and 1st April 1673)
Battle of Umrani (March-April 1673)
Sack of Hubli (16th April 1673)
Capture of Satara and Pandavgad (July and October 1673)
Shivaji and the English (December 1672-October 1673)
Siddi’s Depredations (October 1673)
Maratha Incursions into Canara (October 1673-March 1674)
Defeat of Mughal Attempt to Descend into the Konkan (c. January 1674)
Plunder of Bahadur Khan’s Camp (First half of 1674)
Prataprao’s Death and Maratha Incursion into Canara (February-March 1674)
Naval Battle of Satavli (March 1674)
Shivaji and the English (March – June 1674)
Rationale for the Coronation
English letters regarding the Coronation ceremony
The Coronation Ceremony
Henry Oxenden’s narrative:
Shivaji’s Second Coronation
All-Out Offensive
Shivaji, the Siddi and the English (August-September 1674)
Maratha Incursion into Khandesh (December1674-January 1675)
Austen’s Visit to Shivaji
Reduction of Phonda and Conquest of Canara
Shivaji and the English at Rajapur (October 1674 to 1677)
Shivaji and the Siddi (February 1675 to November 1675)
Civil War in the Adilshahi Sultanate
Maratha Raid towards Aurangabad (c. January 1676)
Maratha Raid towards Bijapur (c. February-March 1676)
Mughal Intervention in the Adilshahi Civil War
Counter-Guerrilla Operations in the Jawhar and Ramnagar Districts
Netoji’s Return to Hinduism
Shivaji, the Siddi and the English (June 1676 to July 1678)
The Mughal-Maratha Treaty
The Karnataka Campaign
Shivaji’s Motives for his Karnataka Expedition
Genesis of the Karnataka Campaign
March to Hyderabad
Shivaji-Qutbshah Treaty
Conquest of the Adilshahi Karnataka
Shivaji’s Administration in the Karnataka
Charges of Injustice and Oppression
The Mughal-Bijapur War
Shivaji’s Return to the West Coast
Raids in Mughal Territory
Fall of Vellore
Results of the campaign
The Khanderi Campaign (August 1679 - January 1680)
Beginning of Shivaji’s second attempt to fortify Khanderi (August 1679)
Decision of the English to Intervene (September 1679)
The Portuguese Policy (September 1679)
The Blockade (4th Sept. to 6th Oct. 1679)
Threat to Mumbai (October 1679)
The Blockade (6 th to 21st October 1679)
Threat to Mumbai (October 1679)
The Blockade (23rd October to 1st November 1679)
Decision of the English to Seek Treaty (October - November 1679)
The Blockade (3rd to 10th November 1679)
The Siddi’s Arrival (November 1679)
The Blockade
Attempt of the English and the Marathas to make Peace (November - December 1679)
The Blockade (December 1679 - January 1680)
Conclusion of the treaty between the English and the Marathas
War between the Siddi and the Marathas and the Dilemma of the English
English Factors at Rajapur and Karwar during and after the War
Last Triumph and Death
Troubles of Bijapur (November-December 1678)
Sambhaji's Defection to the Mughals (13th December 1678)
Capture of Koppal and Doddaballapur (March 1679)
The Bhupalgad Campaign (March-April 1679)
Shivaji and the Portuguese (January–May 1679)
Dilir Khan's Intrigues against the Adilshahi Sultanate (May-August 1678)
Dilir Khan's Advance towards Bijapur (August-October 1679)
Devastation of the Mughal territory by Maratha Forces (November 1679 - February 1680)
Sambhaji’s Escape (December 1679)
Siege of Bijapur (December 1679 – January 1680)
Dilir Khan Humiliated by the Berads (January-March 1680)
Shivaji’s Letter to Ekoji
Shivaji’s Death (3rd April 1680)
Statesmanship and Generalship of Shivaji
Shivaji as a Statesman
Shivaji as a Strategist
Shivaji as a Tactician
The Indirect Approach
Was Shivaji A Guerrilla Leader?
Was Shivaji a mere Plunderer?
As a Leader of Men
Appendix I - Sources on the Life of Shivaji Contemporaneous Public Documents
Appendix II - Sir Jadunath Sarkar's Critique of Marathi Documents of Shivaji’s Times: A review
Appendix III - Shivaji and Saints
Appendix IV - Birth Date of Shivaji
Appendix V - Shivaji’s Family
Appendix VI - Shivaji’s Literacy
Appendix VII - A Spurious Farman
Appendix VIII - Imprisonment of Rajapur Factors
Appendix IX - Who Wrote the Letter of Remonstrance Against the Jizya?
Appendix X - Portraits of Shivaji
Appendix XI - Coinage in Shivaji’s Times
Appendix XII - Weights and Measures
Appendix XIII - Notes on Maps

Polecaj historie